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cklqdelvne Stmsotr 




B.A. (University of Toronto) 1925 
M.A. (Syracuse University) 1926 

FRIDAY, DECEMBER 20th, 1935, AT 3.00 p.m. 


Dean G. S. Brett. Chairman 
Professor J. S. Will 
Professor F. C. A. JEANNERET 
Professor J. G. Andison 
Professor H. L. Humphreys 
Professor H. E. Ford 
Professor V. de Beaumont 
Professor A. Lacey 

Professor F. H. Walter 

Professor L. J. Bondy 

Professor M. A. Buchanan 

Professor J. E. Shaw 

Professor E. GOGGIO 

Professor G. C. Patterson 

Professor J. Cano 

Professor H. J. Davis 


1904 — Born, Minden, Ontario. 

1925 — B.A., University of Toronto. 

1926 — M.A., Syracuse University 
1926 — Fellowship, Syracuse University. 
1931-2 —Graduate Student, University of Paris. 
1932-35 — Graduate School, University of Toronto. 

1935 — Professor of French, Western College, Oxford, Ohio. 


Major Subject: 

French Literature, under Professor Will. 

Minor Subjects: 

Romance Philology, under Professor Ford and the late Professor L. Allen. 

Spanish Language and Literature, under Professor G. C. Patterson. 


Symbolism in the Practice and Theory of the French Novel 
OF THE Romanticist Period 


The novel offers one of the most fruitful subjects of study in the field of 
speculative criticism. Such a study discloses not only the development of the 
whole spiritual life of the period under discussion but also throws light upon the 
relationship between that spiritual evolution and the development of aesthetic 
theory, the relationship between that aesthetic theory and its formal expression 
in art. The subject which a speculative criticism poses for itself is, therefore, 
the search for those underlying aesthetic truths exemplified through a series of 
works produced under the same general social and intellectual conditions. 

The field of inquiry of the present thesis limits such a search to the study 
of the novels of seven writers of the romanticist period; Chateaubriand, Mme. 
de Stael, Hugo, Vigny, George Sand, Balzac, and Gautier. It is, moreover, 
especially directed toward the study of the relationship between the personage 
as portrayed in the novel and the general idea which the novel expresses. It 
becomes, therefore, necessary- to discern each author's characteristic method of 
creation; to establish the relationship which exists between that method and 
the philosophic and aesthetic theory which his work reveals; to discover in that 
theory the explanation of the prevailing s\mbolism which, as this thesis will 
seek to demonstrate, is the key to both the form and matter of his art. 

In romanticist practice, the careful analysis of certain well-known figures 
clearly demonstrates the fact that the personage in romanticist literature is 
constructed as a homogeneous unit. Classicism, through its method of character 
creation, dignifies man by the concession of personal responsibility and limits 
man by the affirmation of a collective ideal. For classicism man was animal and 
human at the same time. For the romanticist man is natural; that is, the 
dividing line between nature and humanity ceases to exist. As a result, the 
unrestricted expansion of a natural feeling becomes the criterion of personality 
for the romantic personage. It is a natural corollary that such a personage lives 
only in the mode of feeling. 

The personage is chosen not because of his character interest but because 
he corresponds to a certain desired formula; the secondary personages appear 
only as repetitions of one of the formulas demonstrated by the principals; the 
women, as a general rule, appear only as the incarnation of dream or as the 
embodiment of an ideal love. The choice of a personage in accordance with his 
value as type of formula is reflected in the manner of his presentation. He 
appears only under one aspect and as the extreme of the particular passion or 
feeling he reveals. No question of individual free will or psychological develop- 
ment intervenes. 

A correspondence is established, moreover, between the spiritual element 
which the personage represents and the physical world of nature in which he 
moves. The result is that the inanimate and the animate world form one indis- 
tinguishable unity. 

The conclusion is inevitable. The romantic personage is a "type", not an 
individual. The study of the romanticist use of this word makes it evident that 
to describe a personage as a "type " is to describe him as the symbol of one element 
of life to the exclusion of the rest. The romantic personage can, indeed, only be 
properly understood if he is understood as symbol. 

If the romanticist writer is using the generally accepted experience of reality 
as his starting point, the exact import of his symbol will be immediately and 
universally recognized. If he is not doing so, he must have discovered his symbol 
by virtue of some private faith which he holds. Its acceptance as valid symbol 
depends upon the acceptance of the author's personal point of view. To deter- 
mine the true meaning of the symbols used by the romanticists involves, there- 
fore, the recognition of the philosoph\- which dictated that meaning. 

The romanticist almost always explains the value of his symbol either im- 
plicitly or explicitly. A detailed study of the symbolic presentation of society 

and nature through personage shows society to be contrasted unfavourably at 
every point with the elements of virtue, love, religion, beauty, and art as they 
are found in nature. 

if character presentation is made through symbols and characters may all 
be reduced to types, then the development of the plot necessarily involves a 
constant interpretation of the relationships subsisting between the different 
symbolic elements involved. The action of the romanticist novel becomes, 
accordingly, symbolic. 

The study of definite plots makes obvious the various conventional devices 
by which certain plots are made to indicate certain ideas. It becomes obvious 
also that, stripped to their essential elements, the novels of each of these authors 
may be reduced to one significant theme repeating itself through different case 
histories. Just as the personage may be seen to lack individuality and to live 
only as a "type", so does the romanticist plot lack individuality and appear only 
as a "type". 

The forinal structure of the romanticist novel depends, in fact, on the use 
of three conventions whose value, in turn, depends upon their symbolic inter- 
pretation: contrast, repetition, and the use of the eternal triangle. Echo, con- 
trast, and choice meet and blend and the novel may be analyzed in mathematical 
formulas, drawn in geometrical pattern, or reduced to syllogistic terms. Such 
a statement is only another indication of the fact that romanticist art is more 
responsive to a convention than it is to reality. 

Moreover, the minor incidents, the milieu, the language of author or per- 
sonage, all share the same symbolic quality. 

A study of the theories of the novelists under discussion only serves to 
confirm the evidence of the novels themselves. All of them regard the novel 
as a means of propaganda and themselves as prophets of a new religion. Their 
emphasis is on intuition rather than observation, on creation rather than re- 
production, on the idea rather than on the fiction that clothes it. 

It is evident, however, that, with Gautier, romanticism has entered a new 
phase. In his work romanticism shows itself once more to have become con- 
scious of the existence of distinctions. Unity is once more broken up into variety. 
Man is no longer identical with infinity. With Gautier, the possibility of a 
new type of subjectivism may be foreseen. 

The whole sociological ethics of the nineteenth century is what tends to 
make its literature so inextricably mingled with philosophy, ethics, and religion. 
Faced with the tremendous task of re-preseniing a world according to his ow-n 
vision, the romantic novelist can treat only the great fundamental elements of 
life. Since the source of his work is in his own mystical feeling and its expression 
is through such generic symbols as virtue, evil, beauty, death, the art of the 
romantic novelist may be judged more clearly if it be judged as a form of lyric 
poetry rather than as novel. 

Finally, it is evident that not only must the mode of creation in the romantic 
novel of the early nineteenth century be clearly understood in order that its 
significance and its results may be properly judged, but also a comprehension of 
this mode is necessary in order that the continuity of the aesthetic tradition in 
the French literature of the ninteenth and twentieth centuries may be properly 

vn« « I f 







JANUARY, l$3i> 

<T.'^ r*:r 



The author wiahds to acknowXed^o 
a special debt of gratitude to 
Profeasop J« ^* v.iii who first 
tiimed the auUior's studies in 
the field of French literature 
into the con8ldex»ation of the 
rblatlonalilp between charaoter 
and Idea as ezpz^saed In the 
French novel and idiose tmfalling 
encoiirageueut waa a constant 
inspix>ati(»i to the continuance 
of those studies. 

K. a. s« 




Chapter •• Page* 




rv. 3B«B0T^ OF VJJIAT? 133. 

V. SYMBOLISM iii PLOT ..asa. 







5he distinction betv/cen the hlatory of literature and the 
criticisTi of liternt»rre is too often i£-nored or entirely over- 
looked by those ccnrentators ;.'i o, clainiin£i to give a critician 
of a work of art, all too frequently ilo little else t:^ian throw 
a certain amount of ll£-ht on the external sources of the work or 
tiie circumstances surrounding its nroduction, the life of the 
author who produced it, or the sijpposed models fr<»n which the 
author worked. Any criticism of literature should, before all 
else, establish a distinction between the inner and outer study 
of literature. The outer stxidy of literature concerns itself 
largely with ques^tions of blograpiiy, history, fomal style, and 
linguistics* S\ich critical study docs not apnroach the vfork of 
art directly. Rather it cii'clcs about it — explaining and 
t}irowine into high relief all the accesaoi'y circumstances which 
accompany the work without ever actually getting iiast these 
circuntstances in oi'der to arrive at the work itself, ?hls fonn 
of criticism should be doslenuted as historical rather than 
literary, (1) 

Hor, on the other hand, can the type of criticism which is known 
as impressionistic ' '•• ■nitt'^rl to tJio citeiory of true criticism. 
It is much less concei'ned with the work of art luider discii.sslon 
than it is with the revelation of the personality of the critic. 

Kie truly valuable literary criticism — wlmt I have called the 

(1) Seo Moulton, The Modem 3tudy of Literature. 

inner stiidy of literatiiro — nu... t come tram, a dlract approach 
to the mirk of art itself* Such criticism will seek to establish 
an interpretation of a particular niece of literature from a 
study of its inner logic and its absolut<e value. The validity 
and the beauty of any worlc of art sViould^ by the general adnlssion, 
be absolute. i\ny appreciation and judjonent of such a ?fork of 
art ceases to be aesthetic when it leaves the lapersonal, objective, 
inhuKian world v^hida is the world of art and enters, instead, the 
limnan, iX)38ip-lovin£;, impressionable world which is the world 
of sentiment. Tlie aesthetic study and criticisra of literature 
should, therefore, seek to concern itself only with the piece of 
literature in its unity and intention. 

Suei a critical atudy will BHiko apparent, however, of necessity, 
other rrmtters. It will olJiwst inevitably disclose tJ-ic aesthetic 
theory ?fiiich governs the artist in nis creation. Secondarily, 
It will reveal the relationship which exists between his theory 
and his art. In liis theory there will be latent a philosophy not 
only of art but of lire and, accordir^Tly, from the artist's theory 
will CTwe, in Pll probability, the liatter of his work. The Fom 
will be detcrm!.ned by his art. In any great worl- of art the 
Matter and Botv. will be irreducible to separate coctponents. liach 
will seem the ir^vitablo corollary of the other. Yet nothing 
could be raore instructive for literary criticisn nor for the 
fouiklation of a theory and philosophy of literature tlmn the study 
of the relationship which exists between a writer's philosophy 
of life, his nhllosoi*iy of art, and his expression of those 

In tills field or :jTeciilatiV3 criticism, there is, pertaps, no 
noro fimitTul subject of study tlmn the novel, llicre are various 
reasons for tiiis. On the whole, it is eenwally adaittod that, 
wltii tile inception of the ninettientii centviry, the novel becane 
tkiB most typic^a fonTi of literary art. (1) ifliis is tinio not only 
of one co\mti»y but of all tiiose ccnmtrioB uhioh belong to tlie 
European civilization. Accordingly* i'i' vfould soeii evident timt 
a study of the novels of a ^:iven r>eriod vsouid disclose not only 
the developcient of the vviiolc soiritual life of tlmt poriod but 
would also t'lrovf li^jht upon tlie relationship betvfoen that spir- 
itual evolution and tiie develo;Tient of aesthetic tlieory; tJie 
relationship r;et«een that aestiietic theory and its formal expression 
In art* Such a study, it would seem, should disclose sorae 
enduring,' ratio between the natter and t;he spirit, the material 
of art which rmst, in sorae forw, re-create ioa age, and taiat 

which eowBplifles the varying reactions to one same T3robl«)Bi« 

Tbm subject vtiich a speculative crixiicimi poses for itself, is, 
in reality, tiierefore, the search for those underlying aosthetlc 
trutlia e:ser)ipi.iried tm^ou^h a series of works 'woduced un^ier x.iie 
MBie generiil social and intcllecuial conditions* Such a seai^ch, 
it seesis to iie, could find no group of writers of greater 
Independent interest or of aore liiatoricel Inporxjince tiian that 
girmp lAiose nsunes nade fknous the «irly years of ttie ni a»%o»a lh 
tteaitu3*y in Frencii literary history. I have, therefore, cliosen 
for the field of aiy InqLiiry tiiat jieriod which sees the rise in 
A*ance o£ the movenent gMMvally known as rooaiitiielttni tl»t 

(1) See, for example, the discussion in Moulton, The Modern 
Study of Literature , Bk. III. 

period which seas the faia© of Chateaubriarid, Mrae* de ^taSi, Hugo, 
Vlgny, George Sana, Balzao, axvl Qautier, In the study of their 
laavGlu, on the liaca ali'eady desi^iated, some aigniTicant 
sinllarities cannot fail to be estaoliahed awi sorae conclusioiis 
in recard to the relationship between their aesthetic theory and 
trieir art nust oo r^cogniiiod. In this study and in these 
oonoliMtlona preoonceivcd ideas ;nust, laowever, jo discarded if 
such ideas ai'o found to be in opposition to the autiiOr's oTra 
testimohy a£ evidenced in his art* 

Many and variously successful attQEir>ts imvo fjoen riade to define 
tixe novel rom biit, for* r?Ty purpose, exact and inclusive definition 
la viDaftM0saz*y« It is necessary only to airigMnrledge — as is 
generally aclaiowlod£:od — tliat the novel is valued as a nork of 
art because it is an interpretation of lii'e. Such an inter* pre tat ion 
is Kiado by means of the representation of various per oo nacres, of 
the world in wnich they live, and of the series of relationships 
lAiich are established betireen the personages And in rofermice to 
that world* The pei'£:on..cc3 in the novel ore of supr<jiae Importance 
for it is throu^a the olenonc of humanity thus introduced that 
the ^ap is bridged bctxeea art, vaich is liBuwmi^ «id the beauty 
which it must contain for asmanity* It is obvious that it will 
frequently ije iraijossible, if not illoitical, to »en>arate the 
paacaeoftge frata that world of fiction in which ha jooves and witb 
which he must Imrwonlse* It niay likewise be difficult to 
separate the element of plot — which is developed tj-iroxigh th« 
personages •» froii the eleinent of cliaractei* iBteoNifit embodied In 
those personage fl* »«hat Etersa Bovary does Is an exact reflection 

or whcit a*^ Bovary Is, and U-sla will :. .rii./ "bo the case 

ifiierc tho oereonages rcisala consistent wltii th^usolvsa* But it 
is in the stwdy of tJie ;t rid -rfhlcli the autlior creates for his 
S^rsooai^ofi, of the actions which he pejsilts th©a to, tlmt 
Uio natui'e or the '>eraorKise is no&t fully revealed* "jad it is 
tSie aatairc of the personages which is the cleT.rc:;t revelation of 
the anther's philosopailcal and aesthetic onlnions» I do not 
mean "by tiiis tlmt the -^rsonages will, necessarily, voice, 
directly, tiie author •s idea»» They laay, on the contrary^ voice 
ideas to which lie is ca-iplctely hostile* nevertheless, it is a 
fallacy to believe that the artist is not mirrored in his art 
zio matter hos- objective that art Tnay purport to be. IT, on the 
Otlier liKnd, the art r:iay be shoim to be preponderantly subjective 
and self-conscious, it will not only be poasiulc. It vrill be 
inevitable that the author be revealed by ilie peraonagoc he l»s 


The nineteentli coiiturj author© wlioaa I have nientioned belong to 
period in n^iich art ims highly self<-corffirioas« TbBit it was a 
period of heated controversy in regard to aecthetic theory had 
much to do with tliis txit one Ms only to read any of the long 
apologetic T7>efh(ws which served as the almost inevitable prelude 
to novel or olay 'n order to be convinced of the trutii of this 
statement* But aestliotic theory azui philosophic theory cr/n be 
separated by no hard and ffest line for these writers, o ;untici£Si 
was not only a form of art; it was also essentially an attitude 
towfj^d life"* The ror^Lntlclsts v/ere concerned trith politics and 
BocioloQr as v.ell as with rolicion and art. In tlielr prefaces 

these natters ;:icet and TxLn^le^ In ;iieir novels, the wrii.erB 
Clve e:spresslon througli a sicjto ci^ less conventional forra to their 
vai^'-inc attltiidee. That ther* cnnsclciisly clo so t/ill "bp.jsdPiR 
evident as wc stAjdy pi^eiuac cr-ucr .reJ o^ ..■ creln the &ut>ior 
axmounees his ec^il bcrore he bogins hla T;x:i'k, It Is, therefore, 
n."parentl7 ^- ^^t st'.ljjectlvs anci self-conscioiis f«rs of nrt that 
we arc to tstaidy >\oV.-,(^. cf cSmT^-CteT* 'iv-Ji*t?^ltui^©« It Is toward 
tiie relationsliip bctrccn the per-sonairo as '>ort3-'ayocT in the novel 
and the coccral Idea rhlcli the ncTcl exnres :es that mv- attention 
Is ozpcclBllv directed* 

It is certain that every art has in the Gonrse of its developrient 
CTTOlved certain conventions which are h«aeejDo<i*tb tacitly accerjted 
botJi by the artist and his audience • Cuch conventions bcccriC 
so fr.riiliar that they are no longer distlneuisl?cd as suoiw They 
ii£.^i^c beccac universal Bjmlxjls and, as such, need no lntcrtjretation» 
Gucli a convention — now rarely used — oade it possiijle for tbe 
mriters of the rid r.orality ^lays to dosl^iKite their pc;raonar;es 
as Greed, **3ivy, Eoncsty, and so on» Bie fudlcnoe r©co^ils©d the 
syBbolic ciiBlity of these rjcrscnacos and made no effort to 
idcr.tiTy tJiaa with roality or to disooss th^n as htanan indlvidoals. 
It Is little less unlVBi*aally rccocnised that the imposslhly 
virtuous heroine of melodrama h'lS no nore identity rrith reality 
than ins the ersggorr-tcdly villainous "•ilia in. The heroine's 
final triuraph is liappily identified Kith the iiievitahle trttEnrfti 
of virtAie over vieo anil the symbolic oor.venticn govei^ns tli© 
laterprstatton and the enjoyment of the nelodrana, whether 
corusciously oi- otliercrise. In those cases, it is ti:se obvioiu© 

jjLiw.-i^ruity ti;.-u;i t>i-evalls v .t .uen obaei^ed r-cality and the 
world port-rsiyed in the fictional i-e^^Tsontatios uhlch cialcos 
critics a^fxeo as to its conventiorKLl s^jfEibolis;;!. There nrc, 
hovro'/cr, cases T.-iiei'^ the dlscrc'iancy b©t'T©en tho o -uux/ua reality 
of buraan peraoniility and the cox^.ventioiial iieraion of its 
ropi^csontation is not ^is ii^iedintely evident^ Kor cioos the 
discrepancy sprliig aj.waya fi'cra tiie sane caxiSQ. T^ie diati»ictloii 
"between the art which preserves the iroycho logical t?:^th of the 
pcrsona(^cs sind. the artlfieo vi-hlch distorts It, eruiggcrataa it, 
convcGtionallsGS it, or falsifies it, is not an easy distinction 
to inako» It is, h€»rGVor, highly illuninatin;^ to steidy the 
technique of tho artist's character croatlon in this reg'ard. It 
ia n^ contention that siich a study aa applied to the novelists 
«f the rosantlclst period Trill reveal the tfcole basis of 
chaiT-ctcr creation in thoir work to bo more or lasc conscimaly 
dapcndoEt on sy:aboliaBi; will reveal how freqiwnt, hOT? Inevitable, 
is the necessity of interpreting their personagos by reference 
to the ideas they incarnate rather than in ror.'jcct to thslr 
iaanan personal ity» It is my Intention to try lo .^l^cc.:: c • 
author's characteristic method of creation; to ostabllsh tiie 
relationship which exists battfaen that . . and tijo philosophic 
and aesthetic theory which bis work reveals; to discover in 
thn.t theory the explanation oi the '-!rovallla0 S'^'^'.ljollsa which. It 
is my belief. Is tlie key to both the foi^ and matter of thrir art* 

Let ne recapltoiatc* The study of the relationship between 
character ar»d Idea in a novel is, I believe, the Ircy to Its 
uiaiei'staijdine r.s an artistic rmity. SiMJh a study conducted In 

reftart!. to the raoveliB-;,^ o..' "^vjs ^i^'i^w rialx oi lac nlneioeEiuJi 
cenfexr^, Icnda ni/^iont Irjiefilatcly to tho r>ei*o©ption that tliese 
noTellcts e-'-ircns thoir Idcna thr'^'rh their "»c'-307ia.f-es not nefrely 
bj" the ideas ^h?-cr. ■: "';c -: "'o: .ovr ■ .c)ia. Jut, uy "ihe laoiis ^^hloh 
they f-T ie ; that, moreover, such ^craoxttiges rjivcily I'rav^ Individiml 
life — es""tr.inl7 not tBilTr.r>scl va.Va© — Imt aJjaost al'ri";s a 
syrtbollc vivl^io c nferred on t an by the author* In a(5eo:.'.-ance with 
an iiKliYichml theory of IlTe 1*5 ich lie is seeking to expcrcGB. Sow 
does st-ch syra^ooliam rsp-ke Itscir nor. If est? Is It an Inevitable 
conconitant of roRtanticisn? '.ilsxt aro Its typical foina? Ito'^' 
does the author amke the personage of his norel express ivo, in 
ffect, nartlally o:- ^.olly, of rc:-mntic!.sn and of t}i«i rartlcitlr.r 
sJade of ro^sinticlr. ' Ic'r is >ii£? r»;ni? Thcae are the que"!tla>-23 
with TThldi I nTrrroach the nork of those novelists rhi$a I 'mve 
waited, I czocpt fvnr. ny Et-'J-r of the well-lrnOT'n novelis-".r, cf tli« 
roFT.cjitleiEt r^eriod S^mncotur ancL ntonflhal; S^r»incaar booauso liis 
slTigle no'/ol OboiTuxnan iR tlie roprosoatation of oho gixiwtli of tii© 
clr.ssic rathor tlian the rorrantic snirit 'n l^ot> autlior ?Uid 
fictlr»nRl perscnajTo; r>tenfihr.l bcc-auoo the liouo of his i^T.anticiam 
ehowa c. closer affinity In rsraiy rosT»ccts t^ that of oitiKjr tiie 
late eight^nth ot the late ninotcontli cghUhv tlxjin it do^ to 
that of his cor.tomararies» 

It if?, perhaps, necerocary to udcl thit, nlf-rtrh c^-tisln of the 
critics frho Imve written of the r-o'/exs oi ■v.;ie r v,*xuticis^ poriod, 
bRve reeocnirod Uie ui^e of s^bol in caio or ano-Uior of t}i(Ks, rso 

one of ^'''r5T:" 'ns sf^®ie<?. to feel .-t necncs-'--*'/ — In c-rtto of this — 
either to qu<i>tinn the reason foi^ aicn a rowi of cx:a^:s£i'>n, t^ 

reflate It to the ot>K5r work of the sasic mtthor, to obocrvc Um 
oJirTious aralO£:lo© shich exist oot??Qen fltturoe In one novel 
roco{^nf ?f*cl to be s^mlx*?. ai3d fl£i2res in arK>lih©r dlscriEeecl tjs 
- — ^rin CitHi ictcre. Hor '^•lave niich critics l>ecn cioncemod vrith tlie 
r^lr. ■;* -ship between Trbatevei* liar -"T-gj de rccogaire to be 

pfrescnt and the aesUictlc theories sponsored "by its Rxithcr. 
Critics, for example, vho adrait the fi-'cqu^nt c7!gboli,K:i ci Irr.;"-*." 
peltry either ©"^rlcotl: entirely the question o.f cbar^^etRr creation 
in his novels cr di.nlss tbe quciitlon "uy a critxclsr: of his 
pcrrers in that ul:"'. ction or possibly "b:/" a ue-crlrtion of tiie 
"caet" of the ao?ela r iUa brief, explanatory captions, \ uiodcrn 
critic of lane, de Stacl «- ravlcT Clasa Larg ~ sialoos s'-.-;h r. 
at'iteraent as the folloisrlEg in regard to Delphlne ; "II so t -; 
qrie la i>.nto.lGie n'est point fantaisifite. :: i^et}i&t^-icA:e» 

I«s evener^rts c'eclwr^es de toutc rosponsrblllte'^, Rcoueont 
letjr iixis-llx^G cic sv.iboles." (1) Of Oorinne ho irrltes: "On n*airr<ilt 
rl«a conpris a ce iviaon si I'on n'adiiettait pas, e.vec I&ie# flecker 
dc r^axinsiirc , cv.c see oont tout d*a"bor5 des s^tiIxjIcs..., 

Gcs pci:.- a sont forccr.icnt cic."i s;;,-'ibolr'3, nRrco qii*ilf: 

c*nrrlveant pas a etre dec perscnim^^." (2) rmt lils aatjswiuent 
conccTTi ir not trlth the ranner nn:'. rothod of th's s-Tibo?LlsE nor 
Its esi.eiitial cigniflcaxicc Ixit rr.thcr Trithtiic jin.-cr in ^Ich. 
iase» de Stiicl's life and the persons whcr.i she ret '.Iht be proved 
tc h*"c f*',^'nishc:' -•.c's-lc for lr-*.tation. rCz'iCnC L'etevi^ 
cl-^r-isccc tuc ciiiCiiLiJii of Vlgny'c s;^boliaBi in his novels ^Ith 
alT^oat equal li^iatneoc although it becojncs necessn-y for him 

(1) Larg, David Glasa, liae. de Gtfiol . il., 45. 

(2) Ibl£., II., 283. — — — — 

repeatedly to refer his poetry to a syr^ibolie internretatlm. It 
Ifi trwe that Ilstevc reco£;nlj'es , as any render of Vigny mist, the 
8^.bollc nature of his prose as well as of his ooetov* Sut he 
docii not '.Tite of Vl^ci^ frora the nolnt of view '/hich, taking 
account of Vi^ny's aestlietic tiieory and hlo -Philosophical views, 
rinds in tills prcvtillinc sTmbollsm a si^-nificant corollary* llost 
critics of Gnntier and histories of literature in general dismiss 
gadeaaoiselJe et c llaupin as a rathei*^ darli^ account of the d':;l?igs 
of a yotme wonan trho 5md actually a historical existence and In 
lihosc life for some imaccountaljle reason Gauticr liad become 
interested. The lone discussions in rorard to the nature of 
beauty which, according to such r- view, arc Tnc-^e excess baggars, 
do not, aonarentl^-, sugcest finother noint of view nor yet do they 
seen to rind it sur-nrising that an author who^adnittodl^f, nlaces 
such hich valixe on beauty of form, should have Tiritton the story 
of Hlle* de Kaupin's adventures in such a haphazard fashion. 
Partner ex£inT>les wicht be adduced in order to indicate the paucity 
of literai'y criticism at all ner-tinent to the subject in liand 
but the index of the most highly rconi'ded critical works treating 
of this ocrlod will n ovc sufficiently ^^vealine* The question 
of ch-ar'^cter creation Is either disrecai^ed or t>^ ated entirely 
from the hurtnn and irtpressionistic ooint of view. The strlltlng 
ftiilure in ccc.prchension of a supremely interesting nhenonenon 
is only equalled by the fttiltiro to appreclato its intxjrtancc , 
a failure so rnanlmously evidenced in those few critics vrho 
rccocnlEO thiit the natxire of the rnT'axntlcist liternry creation 
Is alraost excli/'sivGly syxabolic. 

Tlic v/liolc tiviost-on of liter-' r:/ s.,'^tiijuj.iti.j iuis, in fact, boen 
coiisistently neglected. Aside fron a -massing refer^erKse here, a 
careless remark there, one nay scr.n the histot^ios of Uteri ture 
and the treatises on literary questions in vain eitl>er aa to the 
extent or nature of its use, or as to what Imollcatiot^ inay be 
made fr<»i its use. Tlils is true to such an extent that the 
oiKjyclopedias will refer syraS^ol isni eitlier entirely to relieious 
art, to a nodern school of painting, or, S'^ecifically, to the 
syratoollst sch-ol of poetry in i?'rancc. 'ihc very existence of tills 
syrabolist poetry usually finds u 0';rlier> anccsto s l 
Baudelaire, G«'ai'd de Herval, a2:id "ragner, no later descendants 
t'lan Maeterlinck and Cla\idel. Books Iiave, howevei', I'ecently 
api^eared in Prance and clsev.- iie e which reoe^paize the faet that 
rofnantlcisn as a apirltiial an i . ental attitude did not disappear 
lAien the r rmntlclst school gave way to f.e realist. It is now 
eocnonly admitted that rcsnantlcisn ic the d^ant note in all the 
art or the nineteenth centni'y and of this early nsirt of the 
twentieth conttn»y. Ronantlcism is a mood, mt a school. It Is 
a laood which has had :^iany nodes. liether the no e be called 
roBanticlaBi, realism, natui'alism, or sTribllsn, it remains the 
exporcssicxn f an attitude which afreets the vrhole •"ihllosophy of 
life. Once we imve reoogniaed on "underlyintj e^mtlnulty, the 
«»acntial resenblance which bincla all the various forras of art 
slnee tlie Ramntic Revival, it ■ ©cones easier, doubtless, to 
acknowledce that the imnrier in w?^ich syribollsn nakes its aooeawince 
in the early novels of tlie century roay sex*ve to cast li;;ht on 
the later literary developi:Msnts in tliat century and to suggest 
a method for Uieir study* 

Cliamcter "^^^sentctlon — l^ieory and Practice In Glassiclsn, 

In orde " the Tnoro c.le-u--ly to catr.blish Um; distii:!g\ilshing qualities 
of tiic literature of ror-antlciiii:, it is advlc bl« to recall tl-iosG 
ciiarac tor lii tics of the iitcrattii^e of clctsslclssi oortlncnt to the 
question of chai'ncti^r prcs€ntat3.on. For, undoubtedly, the easiest 
appr(Xxc>i to ai^ disciiseion of v^c technique? of ci^eation as it may 
he observod In the novels of tJie «iiT»ly ninetoenth C'pntur'y Is tl^t 
*liich utiC3 the oynllnanr procovltire of claasioiyrri ns a basis for 

In any iscuosion oi" the teclmirue of creation, \ie 'nay distinguii3h 
a variety of si^jnificcnt oit;mx>sts, any or ell of sblch oboiild 
serve to thro-/ cons Iclerabio llfht uncm tho ocsthetio tenets of the 
creator. Of these sitnr.osto tlif most Imn-^rtant iii tliat vrfiich 
deterriint>s the choice of the ?5Csrsonageu who to act out the 
dras»» Vsucii a choice ic, in nuuiy inatanccs, tlie sole clue iiecoo- 
£t;.ry in CKPaer that wo nay nroohoay, thcrcaftGr, the uanncr of the 
charact(^r presentation, the structuro^ plot, railieu, anO Itu^iruane 
which Jiui^.t correspond to such a choice. To f.hat conclusiotis la 
regard to Uio claoolciet's conception of chiu^ictor shall • <j <; 
able t") come rae^^ly fropi a atxi^y of his choice of txif-sonafres? 

3\ich a sUidy, i;lnco it li, undertaken, prlTia^lly, for the grounda 
of cowi^arltion rmlch it iiay off- ;•, aorivcii its >oint of -/le-c*, 
necest-arily, tr-jm re-; untie is'.i, ^e classic "•oreoiiafre will be 
discuased only Ui so far aii the rescnbianceo t'^, or the disci^o nancies 

from, tbB rorr.iintlc pcrsor.aii'e r-:ay serve to clarify art! define the 
nntvu^ Of the "charactnr** in the novol o!* .ticlGM* 

I'lOrGOv^r, since the d:^ar.a :loniriax.ej. iho iit:;r^itu2\; of seventeenth 
century classic isra, ns ^tm novel dominated th-it of nlixcieentli 
oontui*:/ rc^nr-ntisici?*, -he tnsis of can.Dt.-'-'lcorx nay, isJvIy enaagii^ 
be derivt'-; chiefly frnn aevcntcoiith cout^.-'^' 01*2x11 rather than 
novel ■ *jlic no\^l wns not eons Idee I, the seventeenth cent«ry, 
to be cr.r; c** the genre's rrhlch :x:lcr!?^eU tX> serioijs lit"" rntnre. 
It developed, ther- rorc, sonevriui!; outolde the : iiin literary c\m»ei:t 
and is IcfcE rcTTesontativc of the classic l-leal, llev-rthelesB, 
it, ic v'^DS^ntiMl to TVYiicrihrr that the. irrrm nf>kns ^iso, neceSiiarlly, 
of its oun pce^illar conventions, c^nvcnii'ms v.'};lch nro ilffei^ent 
froT'; those of the novel* It v.'iil, tivcrcrorc, he ^niflent to ■''of©r 
a crmpai'Sitiv' study not cnly to covr nt^ontV: centiiiy tragedy and 
conody hut nluo to ouch a chaructcriiitlc production as L? ?!"'iricesac 
de cic .•■■:• i, . ilor inuct it b for{:ol en mt clasElelsTfr I3 not 
entirely confined to any '^ro centi'"" '^^ ••^•''••■, In certain or the 
eonten^orary Fr-ench novels, for exca^lr, r.ome imix^r-tant canocts 
of the clr.ssicEl tradition rcanpear. To oint Out the Ideal to 
which thcs'-^ nnvrla confo-^^'- in, ■^t *■ n najnc tijio, to indicate the 
manner in which they dlv rijo fs-r' the lieal of roMantlclsra and, 
from a nega-ci/e point of vi*>w, to define that ideal* 

The :"irinci',;'le wiilch, in seventeenth centAiry clasolenl literatiire, 
(juideii tt-vc c'ijolce of 'X'rsonaees may be afnriled In _2]£dve. Here 
there ire four vntiin pereonagoa, o.ll of vnyal birth, "'.ch of the 
other throe finds tr^.£r-iXY bee nine of iliodro *o unlmpny msaion for 

Ilippolytc. Tni-tT-o^nrKi, n Ithniiih tboy live "r '<^ Tf'n ;<>'-My -^r ^©dro, 
t"'C7 enter Ujo i>i.ay^ Tn:'ii-ariiy,i becaiise or i*i*^ oici,e •eiai.ionshlp 
which ":. ;lnd£>'. tbOBi to T'heclPG and so binds their- fate to har- decision. 
In tlili: 'saj, I''a lifo Is reprcse.niC'i tlir-out-h itii vario«is 
relictions in uociciy a*athc2' tiian absoiiit'jiy# Yet uono Oi tbe other 
per£iori£it;cs acti-/cly influences Piiedre'a :li:cision« Tholi* p^^esence 
oorvci. , ho^revcr, to rr^ike noro ur^ftit' interest in tV.o nioi'ci 
choice which r^i^GdVG ^ill vivJkc*. The choice or •r^'^T'sona^-es appears, 
therefor^., to ^e d.c:t"?TOinf;:l by Utc Caot Lhut the fhnjr'aotoi of rhsdro, 
as it vlc^jolops in tha cotirs<" c ' i-hc ^la:/, 1g at-Eoi'bed in an inner 
8tini^,-I,lc, A I'iijht. no^-^l choice ^.-ill leave Uje worla in v.ltlch £>he 
lives lUJ.Ll&ttirVfJci anct triimiTiil as it has brcn Tor yeartj» Yieldir4< 
to bcr T>?.s&lon ?.'ill ciiuse ti-^it V/orld to be '/destroyed. Phcdro'a 
world ii^ r epreLcntccL airecLly .oy nor iai*L"And, hur s Le{>»sonj her- 
rivcl, liach of UiCSG characters la directly inioi- sued in tlio 
result cf the inner stinigole througJj which Hie : re iti v.^air^m 'i^o 
whole interect of the drQif.ia is attached, thorofore, to thia coa- 
flict Tfitliin }^icdre*3 ncit-ars, ^Ciie mmbcv of the r>ei'Soria/j:os is soen 
to bo iimltci uy tiie necoseity of c wicentratinfr arid intensifying: 
tho ccntrjil intc?"03t» Tliis centra i Interest is easeatitiliy an 
interest in htimanlty, in indlvldvtii character, in the iiti-ucolo 
"botv.'oen rraaonablo condwct .md thnt dictated \*j a selfiah nussicn* 
The intoroat in, accordlnj;:1y, paych-ilogicf-l. In oi^der that tho 
psycholOtricnl ctudy should be hc^th valtiablf and interesting, tho 
r«0rsonaj,'cc R'-g re""ronnnted ns hijjhly civilized bc-ir\rs, :.iving 
lntclllgontiy» As suc'n, they are tinily h^sr^an. 

But can Hie die be said to be tyj>ical of clr.iiGical practice in 

t^cnovul? It io evl-^-- "t - .. f .nu •,■>?>■,, *;f->t r^edre c-'.nnot serve uo 
-ur ux^ivi'uc W-.;clii»wono» ."uiLiJi^ inuv/ae, aaotiier or "seine's best 

" ■iirr -j I 1 "I ■! 1 "■■■i tfi r 

kno«n tragedies, v. ill l\irnis>\ t}\c stiBie gene^'al picture. The 
nuEibcr o" t^-i^* 'io7--iio«i*»isea la row* Tliolr _'\jitnre lestlnies aorjend 
upon •/ari.nis sioi-al dticleioiiij .^.ilcli tliey nua-t iialce, ^leso 
dijcialons ikivolve JJi oadi or tivjm a cmaclous cholao bet;<&en 
moi'ai rT'.Qiicm and isoi^ii slavery, ulawr'y uo thel:^ passionate naturo 
Oi' ocintroJ. or this imtm-fe by tho liusuin intelli^rcnce T;;hiGh ccmsti- 
tutoa iu then theli" siUptrloi'ity to tho sialisai •aorld* Tho tragedy, 
there fo3^0, i^f^s^ilts i>«a the »md unreason iihich io the fi-uit of 
paaaionate love r*utliop tiiau of iiiorul i-oiisonal:)ioiies&« slavery to 
natTi:'o, in thon, JTera]© the ionLnl of froo nlll, that la, tlis 
ultiiAte uonim o" fill i^io -allty» 

2lic tiniti'jdy Itere lios not la ono oharactor aXonQ. :.n innei' con- 
flict mke» iho r>sycholo{ iiitorcst centro in ttn-n U;X>n 
-u^Ii^cciaque , I'yi ".Oiua^ OiH/iite, ajiu H'Ji^'.iionc» 'tTijc bonds of fiuty or 
love uxiich bind tbcte ch.aractei'S zo -me another and ^rhich cloeely 
Uiiita t>ielr dostlnies r.:'il:e the clioice of oeriicnagos inevitable 
artcr tl'ie choloo of the central pi obltjm has been mado. In ITiedre 
tiic conriict Inyoxvtiu aor husban.. ana tihildion as sot against hor 
love, l2i An 1roi!ia . y Ae the c 'nfl'.ct "iakes the sr.nD opixisition, 
AndroKiaquc ust ^lake a etwlco bet\-cen her loyal \^y t,o husband and 
child and hor 7>'=trsonnl feeling* Pyti'liue mist -oke u choice bo- 
tf/oen hio ivitj aa kinfc: and his ■ asslon for Androniaque. Oro:>to 
Kiuat cnoose jii^Lwoen i)ia duty as ambass^idor of the Grcoics and his 
passion for Eoiniione* Her'iioiie vaiut choos3 between the ileal of 
conduct to .jhicii a Greek p- Incesa should confom and her passion 

for P^'^Phxis* The conflict in each cise 5-3 a poraonal one* /.nd 
In no inuti'nce does the pcruoiiago glorify the lovn wtilch is a 
form -^'f p©r:i aftl satief action ut the ejcpenco of tho lovo whJxh is 
a fcm of social expreas:lon» 

^"ho As tree of Honor c'' ci 'Urfe suijgr'jts a similar concl-usion* Ceiadon 
does not exi>ect to find Morsfmcil Batisfaction in his lovy oxeopt 
as that love confoj^ts to tho s:K*i£>.l code nnd corresponds to a 
social idool. IIo — and all the rest of the shenhei-ni cc?f»iwnity— 
re£nilat,o tiicir lives accordinj^ to a list oi rules vmich set forth 
tho conduct boccrilns in a lover, 

neither in the .\stiKQ nor in Andronarue arc tho i-Tatn^^ial '-©ans to 
satisfy -Tfission witlihold. They aro, in fact, reaJy to hand. Tlie 
consiBar'iition of '^elndon's lo7c, t>ie tragedy in Andronaquc > 'aoiild, 
therefore, be inevitable if the .ictlon -ffer^ to aeixind only on 
Inatinct (man's anirnal nature) and matter (external nature )♦ Yet 
ncitiior conclTisian is inevitable aince dramatic susixjnse is rmin- 
tained to the ve?."*y end. Since vre ar*c no/cr in doubt as to tho 
raatei'ial ?x>ssibility of Uic actual ooncluoion, Uic r.'h-alo Interost 
Hiust be and is ccntJ^d upon its norol T'>o8£;ibility« It iii in this 
vaj that '^.he concession of unlinitod natoria"'. power lli-iilta the 
interer^t entirely to the roa?jn of the spiritual. 

A compariaon be^v.con tho personareo of Andrcraaquo and of As tree 
is valuable in thir. regard* It nakco ipparxjnt tlie coraMai=atively 
sliioht isinortance tiiat niuat be attacbcd to the exteriial attributes 
of I'ank, wealth, or nouor. The sheplierds or the novel are as far 

renovrd from tlie cora'AxlsloriG of material ncccsaity as o.rc tha 
klncrs, princos, and noiblos of the tragedy. I'oreovrr, thoy are, 
in spite of their htaable callinfc, quite as highly civil ir.od as 
arc the I'oyal jxsi^sonages of tlic tragedy. The external social 
condition is, in fact, unimportcint in the classicnl i-^pr-esentation 
1)ecause its material connotations -uniriportr.nt. That 3hake- 
QryQavc placcs kiiigs and nooles on the stare does not r>ake his 
tre.gedy classical. That d^TJtrfc v,'rltes of so-Cilled ohe7">herds does 
not make his novel g prototype of the rcxr.antic novels of p6R.sant 
life. 13ie pi' Irviry interest — in I^^dr c , ■■ndrons.qu e, or the 
As tree -- is not the stri.igrrlc for sxirvival nor Uie aonlnation of 
natoj^G nor tiie a cquisition of power. Rather it is the struggle 
for sftlf-oontrol — the Tim'ely hurian stinii^tJlo toward a moral 
Ideal «•- Uxfit takes the conti''e of the cta^o. For this reason 
the ,>er8onage8 nust ^e Ipuk di-itt ly i^ecocjnized to be livii^ In a 
sphere ?/horc rRxro necessity iocs not govern, v;here the moi^al 
consclousnoas is hi^^hly dcvciO'X^d^ and, acco2'dint:ly, where 
intelligence seeks to doniinate and dij^ect feeling. 

This is true likewise of the concdy of the period. Ixi Moiiero's 
most sviccessful cormdies the comedy is bised on character just as 
the essential tragedy of aacine or Corneille is a tragedy Implicit 
In the inner life of the personage. That Koliore -laces the 
wnphasls at all times on the moral attribute r'.thor than the 
■later ial jDerquisitoG is oviient, for cxamplG, in L*Avare, Le 
Kisontln^o >^e . Le Taruiffe , Le Dottrseoia (jontilhorno a Le tialada 
imaginairc . Ilie nlser ciocs not need to struG^ilo for .vealtiu He 
is already wealthy. Aiceate is not forced to lose his lawsuit. 

•SSiG Inrcr-once is tlifit. If ho so desired, lie oouli '.Tin It witliout 
dirtlcultjm 'ZJie difficuitlec ^unto rhicli Crgon falls in l£ 
Tar tuff Q -.iopond entirely upcai hla KeukKoscea. E« Jourcialn Ikis 
apparently unlimited niatc^ricil noans nt his carwuiiil. In Lo Mn.iade 
ii:inLiT^aire tho Infeix^nco is that tlie aick nma's iiealtli dci^J&nds on 
hio mental rathnr than on his physical na\Aire. 

It is a factor in the oraetico of claiisician, in their clioico of 
choi'actor, which is of gi-Oit signlf icr^ice — this disrei^nrd of 
necenoity. Tl-i© ariatocr t of the trajrcjdlor, is axiporior to it« 
The bour^ceois of the corfjcdies c=in conriand his material cimfort at 
will. Ilie eherherd of the nastoral novels can foi^sct his flocks 
without fear of evil conoequcnco3» Tlie char^^ctei" in claasicisn is 
never at close i^rlps with extei'nal necessity and it ia only when 
be pciTiita hinwelf to succitah to ttie dcff-ilnion of an iinpc:'lous 
iniitinot ihcit he Iogos control of hla fate at the simic ttoe tlir.t 
he loses control of tho uiatcrial forces oi>eratin(^ arotind hSjii* 

In P.acine the loss of self-control is the tragedy* T\ie tragedy of 
Phhvlrc ©rv:»->aslsoc loss the death of Hippolytc than tho fact tlmt 
It is Hicdre's failtrre in woral airenfeth ?rhich brings it about* 
fhe ti'agedy ijccurs in tho course of the ylay. In lioliore, when 
the pci^onfiKes appear at tlie bCLimiint; of the -lay, the tra^'ody 
]»s ali^iidy occ\ir:'od. Ilaey are no longer n6i>le indi'/iduals 
atrivin£: to live un to an i leal v/hich a nassion undeiTnlnes. Thoy 
are, from the very beginning, oersoriapes in T?han sone pai^ticiilar 
vlco, some ins^iactive rsiscion, has boon carried to an oxtrente 
which vltltites t}io v/hole citii^actor, and has aire dy undotTtined in 

t.:' -i tn- ; / -itloniil iuc-:i by v,r.i'w;i li^v other -pa: i-OiY-i^cs. cont-lriue 
to j'-idge them* The oy^pathy which the pt^o* agonist of the tra^^ocly 
co^TTXin.'s is n sympathy, thc'©roro, tinged ^ith tho I'cenect of 
wl. t tlicj rete and with the so:'ro:7 for wliat the;/ i:avG Vcocno, '£he 
RyniT^thy which the nrota -nist of the ciTrsictly c- a is not of 

the sane call^'»e» He nc^/er npiwaf^ T>efore ns, as the t-j^fic 
per so.iti;,e docs, at tlic noricnt v;hcn he is beyond iHjpj'c^cri, at tlie 
KOBJient v7hen lie is still in harmony with the universal ileal, 
cofrnanuln" t'lc Viniver-sal love, res nee t, and jkIri! ration of the other 
pci'VOtiv-i^C3, i^ric c X: :y ,iersona£:o has faller ucxcn; that ideal oy 
a lack of ^leaEure in his conchict* 

B\it, uher€«ijB paasionc.tfr love — the nost universal and Irresistible 
of all the instincts — is the force i.'hich, in the tragedies, 
attaclro the ileal of moral frcedon nost i'requently, the coss^y 
character uai. yiolde<.l tc- ii nt; :.:„ssion which is c leas universal 
fa5.1in£j and is, Uiereforo, xnoj-e open to ridicule an J less susceptible 
to nation, IH^c 'leruonage, oithoT' in ^rneille or- Rja.clno, loes 
ncL. r-i«ays Mike a choice hetTs^cen duty and rmssioi^ Tn Comeillo's 
drJHiaa the choice rmy l?e between tv?o 'utles. ""olyeucte, for oxonple, 
nruEt choose loetvTeen his duty to his rollKlon and his duty to his 
wife, Tlius the Qifflculty, for Comoille's protagonists, is tho 
difficulty of I'ijht reasoning^, Cnco tho final decision -{as to 
which duty is tho hlghor) hns 'ocen nado, there Is iievcr any doubt 
as to the concliision# Cornoillo's nersona^os recognize the 
necessity of a difficult choice but thoy do not coiicoiv* the 
possibility of -y.king rh-t choice accordinrt to a Twrsonal riither 
tlian a cocial ideal. In Hacinc, on tlio contrary, the choice nay 
be bett/een two passions, llius Anch'oiwaQue ymict choose ix^tv/eon her 

love for her at: -d n-izh-.^-' and ;ter love Tor he"^ C'lild. Tltiis 
wast choos*3 botseen his nassioi^te love fen' Berenice and his 
passionate Icvg for his ca^ntry* It is the 'personal triianrj^i of 
rlrbt choice that £l-rc:i to the Old a luiooy concl-asion Juat an it 
Is t ;© tragedy of her s^trronder to a mrely ;ier*£»nal passion that 
laaliee the* of Huidre* Lovo, honou-^^, l?at2»iotisn, religion, 
tbesc are the vuiivsraal pasniono v/hoso cr>nrii::t nay work th© 
tragic ravages on hunan seif-dctonairiati'rjn tlint are tKjrtrayed In 
niedrc, AnlroraquG, and Bertfnice. But in La !lis?nthr'or>G B L *A-7ia*e , 
Le Tartuffe , on the crjntrai"/, it is "'srLnthroinr, avrvrice, and 
hy'tXKJrisy, nhicli, at tlieir most cxtr-eno Tnanifestatlon in the 
protaponistB of the conody^ lay these protagonists o;x:n to ridioil© 
and so furnish laatter for concdy. 

La Prinoei^se do Cleves makes r^inifcst in novel :ons t\v3 srun© point 
of \'iew aji th.<it revealed by tlie clisslcnl tragedy a«£l conedy. 
The TH^i^'sonarres arc fe" in nuriber and a 71 thos« who ent':'r the action 
of tiie novel, even in the most aiborciinate capacity, do so "because 
of tiicir uscxol rclationshiT3S with liadaoe do Clevos* r>irK5e her 
aost lja{X)rtant relations in society are th-!sc v/ith lK5r notixer, 
her 'wsband, and her r<G\ild-bc lovcv, those are the other imln 
pe^-'sonagcc of ; ho ixscalc* /^a is t,ho cr ae in B^.cdi''o » it io the 
decision of the ;^rotan*^nia t which ^rill procervo or destroy hor social 
world* Uo riatf;rlal factor connels or nrr-vents har choice'# Hence 
tiie whole intoi'cst of th.c novel is attachrd to tlic conflict \7ithln 
Itedamo de Glevcs's nature. The subject of the novel is, therefore, 
the SEUBio as the suhjcct of the cl".ssicn.l drama: the ?}Sycholv^ical 
study of iTunan charactcx»» ' n *3 the o.^se in ihe drana, ouch a 
subject determines the soiritual cliarect^r of the action and the 

problesi t*hlch the novjl resolveii In not acTendent on plot 
oonp] Ic^^tlins but Is entiiv ly concerned i.itli tlie hxanan ©ffort to 
retmJ-n i-jnie to a given sccial idetil, rlth the ^-jersoTial ofrort to» 
TOAPJ cori;T,)?i.cte self-control, -ith the 3tr;ii:gle '■■'' ■-'-ie Intc^l.lrenco 
to dominate feeling anci direct It, 

The '^ycbolo.,:ical interest -^hlcb 1^ the bus la of Froncli olasaical 
litsiature makes or'i£:inaiioy of* plot uatsiportant. Hence Uia sasno 
atib^oct fron clr^rjaical antiquity Tsl^ht rufnish move tlian oao oi'i^riia 
to the Fr^.nch stngo una the ranillarlty of 'cha loi^and hvoOi^it no 
dijiiinutioa of interest* Tho sltuution ni^jht bo xiuaillai^ but th© 
hunian motivation which iicul ci»entotl the altiKitlon siuat be revoalocl 
and. In tho st^idy of Incnttn cbfii'ftctor, the extornol action vrm of 
little :ioi^tent# ']!h.Q coni:rast isliich tlic French clcasical literature 
offers in tills i^ospect to tiie C^hakospoaroan Ortma, for exr.inple, 
is c riL it'll ion ias» Tho desii-e for* oi*ljijialily sras o.a urfeno.fa to 
Staakospeare as to t\ie Jir-ench writ<'>i»a of tbo time. Have; theloss, 
th© ijitereat of bis playa dei^encls L-irgoly on plot and tho connict 
is exter^nai ?rf!-^reQ.s, in ?r»cnch cl-nssicis^i, tho erryaasis is on 
ch£iraetf;r and the conflict io internal* The riechciiicaJL iViaiiti ^ilch 
ShalcoBpoare utilises so constantly — disguises, oavosdi^oppinoa* 
and other such convxjntiomil for.'Ti; ol" Uie deus ex aacliina — ai^tj 
entirely a"i--ucnt from the Eponch ii=«^na. In Gimkospcare tii© drartai of 
action riiokea fen? eraotiojial ompiiasls; in Fixinch claasicisri, tJie 
drama of analysis nakcs for •.>3ychological (npliaslii. (1) 

(1) Read Gtoll's Ar< ■" '•'"ti f i c? i r' "iioi-^^r ,v^,^,^ for an excellent 
expocioion of r.. 0*^2 tec' act^r creation* 

Cf Anto;]y^nd Uluo,>ut-^a , for cxati'^lo, :»« ivrites; ". ..there is 
a contract bctvfeen cha actcn* and cond^iot aj^ain, ''jut \;ithout any 

raeclianlsn to support it. In all the tragedies of ^lialcespoare 

the e is imich stoiy; in oil, the conflict is lai^cly extcinmi — 
against Pate, periicus, or circimstanccs; and here it is 
alnost entirely so," 

I^hc ciiotiv; !•! i..ur- -ir.ii-H - 'j-'.l. Vu'oeri such apparontly 

diostillar works aj) L *A v >^o ,'ontigiio , and La P i'ln cesso do 
Clevrej " cKiomes enRi?v exrlA'^aVjl Vic aboTc rcnarks. 

i;5:tcrnal '/-.t^i-i .l ..- pic. r^j .r-^-.-.--^ :^^ ^,-1, :;. :,lu- i-etmins tlio some 
an-1 the lamnn a:>plration ir> similarly directed totmrd a slr»ilap 
ldO-'.l» SUkiy IiolieT'»*s work, fov Instfinco. Bot!i Harparon and his 
c'lUtiPGii recocnise a -^ - :>n iacil of cnnduct ovon -;h.lle they "both 
re -1 against If* Earixigoji tricG to iTrosor^'*5 the appearance of 
conroi'nlty v/ith the usual otartiards. Slrill^-rly, his children 
siirionnce t"-.eir rospect Cov the sociiil cuiiv. ij^.^ ons in rogaixl to 
marriage even thoii^h t}iv"y rebel a^ainat them in their own particular 
oaao* I.52ceT7ise in I^e To.rt\itf e the nersonngr^s ar*^ those of one 
ho-asehoiu ,,,.o •OiivilaV! t'loir coiyhiot 'iccordiiig to a coiinori co<.ie* 
Or^rn'a rospoct for Tartuffo de'r>cnds on Tartuffo's apparent con- 
fonalty ?fith thin code* Tno scorn that ♦Ilfe.rttiff-^ l?Tsr>lre3 in the 
other cluiracterii u.'i-li^i^ r:-->:( - iO i>:^:h; ... iii-iio — V z-lr- rcnT^ect 
for the lecoi^nlzcd standardB of cond-tict* Since the chai»actcrs are 
those of an ordinjiry bom^ireols ho-uso>iold, these stanciards rray be 
supposed to uc i|enor::il» Moi'oO'/cr the clmractors lay Ijo supposed to 
be soon in their oixlina^.-y daily scttlog and the C:»iterion of 
Jndi^ncnt trhioh tlioy ap-ly appeal's, therefoar'e, appllcfihle to daily 
life in every detail. In liC i:is..nt}iro-:)c the p<;rsonatrer. no lon^rer 
ocmstitute a bourgeois household but represent Parisian arictocratlc 
society in miniature. The caric rem'iiics rvay be of these 
charact :rs, however, ri:. ;.ave "'leen ..uit of the bourgeois characters. 
The ]tX>rtraits which C^llrlbne '-lakos of various ':crabers of arts to- 
ci'atic society are portraits cre':tted fr^r' the reca'ni-od nclnt of 
vIctt: that idiosyncmuy of conduct lu.jujxiing on .personal feeling 

Is a vice O]-' v/eakness which ne?'7:ilts of ridlotilo or scorn. Exagger- 
ation away rvom tho eoldon mean exists In every one of the charac- 
ters who is ridiculed. On tlie otiior imnd, l]lio.nte poaaessos 
noltlicr an exaggoratod virtue such as is Alceste*s nor an exagger- 
ated conplaloance ci.ich -r, fc; r»i>rT tntc *o. And Slianto la recognized 
by all the oUier f^hnractoi s to oorr^ancl reanect, love, and Tr.>ole- 
hearted adnirntion# T^ie anno standajxi, therefoi'e, r-ovorns tliose 
who confoiTft to It as th oe v;hc do not. Tho criterion o.C Judgment 
is universal ond, in tho case of Lo I.!iG o ntl-TO'->o , this universal 
Ideal is represented as exictcnt in the aristocracy as. In other 
e€»wlles, it appears to he reco£:niEed -y the houroeoisle and as, 
in the tragedies arKi in ii\ich a novel r.s La PrincecsG '.c Gleves , 
it appears as the touchstone for tho princes and mlers. 

Strictly spoaklni-, classicl l?ternture offers the re dev a^ither 
heroes nor villains • IlieBo are teiTW which, properly, l)elong to 
the phraoeolOjjy of ronanticiarr. It Is, hov/evcT', of interest to 
ik>to that, in classic-l literature, the "villain" of th.e piece Is 
not a ixjrsonajTc. 'Die "villain" Is represented ns a vice or defect 
of character vjhlch brings suffer int; or ridicule to '^. '^^ -"sonage 
who, in spite of s»,7ch vice or defect, still anpoars an worthy of 
pity or intereot. Thus Alcoste rrmains a supremely symmtlietic 
pcrsona{fe even nhlle he is ridiculed. 'Jvon Harpagon is no villain 
for, in hin, the fund of h\imanlty 1ms not yet been quite sucked 
dry. Tlio aario reraai^ks may be nade in regard to other personages. 
Tiic element of evil Is not, therofor'e, incarnnted In n-nr. noroonace, 
the elencnt of £;oo<l in anot^acr. On tiie contrary, tlie ele^^nt of 
evil attacks alnost all o# tho ixjrsonaees indiscriiiinately. It 
is inlierent in iiurian natuie and raises Its hydra head in different 

foma within dirferont ciia; .:ct: ■ .-• Gone o_ ^;xGse peraciia^oG can 
feel confident of perfection nor is any of them x>lacQcl bex'orici 
hvsaarjxty by UiO fact that r. ccrtiin, lrrrjttib?.r -^rrrscti-Tn is 
ixttributcd to tl^m* DooLt, aii- l^ideciai.T. lin--. -ric i.ti-Uti^ie ti^;xi.i: :.. t 
the cHiKsy which Is within thCTi c}ir.i^ctc*'5.^e3 the ^ersonaros of 
cl ■.3::?-C ti^gedy* TSio trholc natt^rial of olnsaic comedy snrliigs tixa 
t c '.lu^vival in evory chitractcr, no nattei' hov/ vjeddod to vico, of 
another standard of conduct iihich occnsionclly prevails agaijiet 
his vice* 1310 balance is nicer in zone casos than otJiers — th& 
doKtinatlcHi of o :ia3sion jaova Spci'adic in eoiiio "> a in 

other i., thd appearance of virtne less infraqucnt. But Lhe oxtresna 
whlc'i confutes reality by elteinating ontiroly one elowent of 
nan '3 dual nat^tre Ices not aT>pear In classical character^* (kx>d 
az^ evil is tise olmre of every nan and ori^tinal sin lo tSio villain 
of tho piece ao it 1^ also uie clonn» 

fonen appear in the gallery of cJ-Kir-acU'rs quite ?.s fi»eqaently as 
laon. 'fhey unuer(:0 tlic s j^. norul atru^it^ea; thoy succxaab to the 
same .cxasaions or difi:)2x:y lIxo ii:\ne horoio': ao tho neru Tims Hci^lonft 
l3 r. iwoy to the sane .lealorislcs ;ind Lidecisions c 3 ie Pyn'lrus, 
Thus Colli:i\no*Ji coqueti'y i^ ridiculed at the aaote tJne as is 
Alccctc*ii mlsanthroiiy. On the oth«r hand, .'ndrogMque^a loyalty 
to Hector is only eqiu.llod by Bajaret's loyaty to Atalide* Tliora 
Is no oasontlal d iff - rent la t ion of ^"^lo. nor of chaitict'^,ri5tlcs» 
2he i. 3 c:->, liho the r'cn, crt; ^xirroEontod, nrl?r»arlly, ac nenbers 
of '2ie hvrap.p ruce and, thoi'efore, ns a'-mring in its tiniveroal 
attributes, it lo ~nly Docondarlly or incllontully that ti^ 
feminine role is di3tin£uished fi»om the nicsculine; foi* the classical 

.. io^j-- i-oi;ar'dcd nv :-., 1-.-^ wan, li; -:.;. il,,i-.:. -J t ^ :iain Tactat 
thi'.t ^nankind tas burdened by ori£;iniil sin as it T?no "blessed "by 

TliO incidO-it%L eharactors In clai>r>ical ATOsga. n^re fsw arkl lii '^jbiboaat 
dc Cl^-^rea will serve to ill\i3trnte the mim toncloncy trOirard 
the Goucontration o£' tiie latereat on a i. aill nmibo: o.? r>c3*sonci£:o3 
"bcniad by social ties. Tlio c^nvsntionul personage of the 1: irm — 
the cojifidaiit — makes clearly ovldoiit, hoTfjver, tli-^t f-io s'sno 
prinoiplea or choice apply to t:-c tiocondary -^a to :ho 
pvot:'roal^l* T^iri confidant sei'voa \o give tin expos Itlcji of ovezits 
or n des<n»lptlon of chamctor vrhich the c.uthor emll nat othoinjlBo 
give so quickly, £.iGh porsonoiiu, lowevt-.r. In equally favoured In 
this y^ai^xjct and the conrid:int is an echo T^itiior Uinn a c/iaracter 
in ills, OTAi I'ijht. He oha:'ci: t>ie qitality or tho rscrsoi^iago -fnnta lie 
acrvas -m^ als rsTnaiks tcnu., uieroforo, to throu ft:rrther illTsalmitlon 
on thf^.t pc-raoniige. /.Ithoti;;!! not an iuicTjendont oha^.»actijr^ ha Is 
not a VBTpe &pectr.tor f c:^ hia fate dopontis upon tho fate of his 
Kiat.ter« He is not, tncrerorcj, disintereatod and "he doea not rufleet 
tlK3 a-uthor ".JUt i*ut-u r lie reflectf* one of Uio chamcters inTOlvod 
in tho action. He arco tiir-^u-M ills rtaster'a eyaa and ia sa^igmbd 
with iciSii v.Itido . I.. ..Hi ini lauyjr -;itin ir.Ji-e. Ho c:m In no SK^nse "bo 
aald lo inter lire t the events or pc;r5iona£es. He Is ot'/loualy not the 
author 'a ncaxthpieee since eacli confidant is, on the contrary, his 
raastoi^'ii roouthplcoo. "Ilho preccnco of 'Jxo confidant — ecrio of 
his tiaatfcJi' — conpletos tlic ocale o£ life nhich tlio di'aiia i^e\>re6©nta • 
It udua ijio eei'^/ant to •?-.h'' ■faster p.nri shcifs the aano cor/cntlou 
niling bctli dike* Hen^u. Ja; pic-i..'ncG o.^ u^.o conTic-.-at in clacsio 

a — .:-L _u ;iot Oiily ti u.c.^\:l c:.nvc nt-iosj ^li;, licrvou t..: c: i,;ii2.SiUic tl:i« 
general licaa sv.i,i.*eotod Ijy ■ti;:c nci;.!! pcrcoriaGcs* 

UovQOvr.T, cratsiuc of uio ; .aiii ttctors In "tl?- d- - a, tiioi^a c -.'xclants 
ar? t.v: .-^nly acceasoi*^ x'l^es. Slnca t x?Ty a.'< no/er investod 

with any nrophctic role, tJicre r rtalnu nc poaolbility that tl*e 
GUtliop hlsfiiiQlS will Intorv iiG tirro-.\?:h Uie •■•ccliiaa or p-..v-o xuo. 
It iij even nor illti. dj;a.tia^: to riotc that tlk; author does not apjjear 
in tlxe novel \?hci*c such -mi -r-r^avcnoc wotild 'o Iccc op':jos<?d to 
conV':jntion, In La ?i-..::cl^-.c d^ .Jle/ce tUc 'vii^.c^wv:- u i,-cceiTe u 
parei7 objective preaentation. aiicy serve cs tliolr o/na interpreters, 
Tiielr words, their s^ctlrns, the rcp^rciisoi^ns ^fhlch tViCSO occasion 
In tlie otiier oerooi.a^. s, thc^-i ^re ch, ^o_e ;,na iiuiricient intei^ 
pretcrs of occh cliaract :•♦ Sae:x; Is tuo apparent desire to intro- 
duce c:;ain^ctri:s xsho arc r.zx. Ir.v^.Uvcd in t:^c action c.n.1 t,hoae only 
ranctl-'i., L.xjerororo, ..'oula i>:. ^-^ u-.. u^ c_: : -ii-w^woi' u ."'cai it in 
05r-:er- Uv .1 tiic roithor't; -ing TJii^^bt b^jocic ovldent. ffiiere 

is no hlri^ion .. ^nintj in the claii-Jlcul U)xt« Vho tiuUior's interect 
u^i . ui<. :. or Lilt- ;jpt;ct~uOi''s Int' . s l. « -~r-c xraoesa^rlly 

iuentlcil slarc both by-c sutching the tyafoldljjf; of chai'actcr in 
action ana rx:id Ir. tlK tr-a^.-ic or c-ralc rriic or tiieso porsonagea 
an li^ipliclc .' :0 ui l_ 1:1 ..h-ci: liucdo U'^ .itar/* 

^v c:::iCG of ^-^cvcr^narcG InV/lvee n cer'taln;-;ti n or character, 
notal?ly, that cii.-.i'iic oOi- _w lna^;^-■^i-ou. an. uox'olopi- tiii . . .nifold 

social !'eiatlon£ihir'S, ~ Lhor ■. nage is of nrlmary or 

secondary Inportarwe - tb.c c3no_'*act'^r reprc.::entou ir. never conl'inod 
tC' Q singlo facet* Let us .^etui'n to Hiedre. I^edi'c iicrsclf inforrafl 

tliC5 au.lienCG or tht- long years In ^faich, n.s Thecoma *s wife, libe 
lys ^l'/f\cl In ooiifomlty "Ith ci.vty v.lth no thou;jiit o? doing otlicr- 
"rlse» But she has SMltevod and hn.s succeed in livl^": ut? to her 
o\:n i'e.l o'" '^-^iKltiot v,nl;/ "by having Hippolytc — vfliorvi „:>* lc^73^— 
exiled from her ncl ':l»1:oo1« TTot;, in 15ies«us's absence, isith 

Hlppolyte cr^-o nore nenr, Phbdr^'s :>aaalon tnreatcns io doRinate 
bci' and sjlie 1b -losper^^tely 'iShiir>*Kl o? tlila fact# She lias dectdcti 
that hc-r leith alone can expiate lior -^ral faitlilG3sn«s«* Thus 
''hcdro shows nn n charDCt-"?* whos*? ?«'5'?^.l lienl la in '?'"*« ^oi:^nlty srith 
t'lat of all I.U-. other- r>erscnagoe — -in idiil Jeter- .';«: . by fixity. 
an.- ronsoir., ^ c vsisiler-s death tho ^nly ?^3\»lt of tli« 

violation o;? nuc>i tin iieal'. !!f»7' cstl <rm conduct If? 

not Ji_ly •■ " -j ■ ;jl<;h RAeitw ^tiv^jb her hURianl'.y. ^c att»»ll«ites 

q^icilitios to hor "by weans o'' ll»e te ".t'-rony, conoclmir. O"'^ itnconn clous, 
of tlte ot>i<%i» ^er'^^orti\(f*iH\ Ho dioi^s us hei" nui'so and confidant bo 
devotcv tc }V3T- tbbii she iti u auxiwcd wltli grief at tho tha^ht of 
hor aorTTcachii^ doath and uses any rieana to turn hor oaiae txKm 
her pTojcct. Tie allows thir, I'ln': mrr'se (Oenono) ari rtnal)!: to 
aux^vivo Phr^dre'a conlcnnstlon of hor c -nduct* Tlila c">ixio^:»nation 
Hiodro rogards as l-vjvi table cmn "a tb^- nurso tjaa aetiiiij' In 

her Intcrc^ct. InllvGctly, '^acino . akos Pri^dre's vl-Uious e':'ru:>act 
ev'.^n ino.-. -vide:!'- ^.^ the facts iciich he elucldatca fvar-: the 
mR.»8o and Ilip.Kilytes t>iat th^ nr<»3.'»no "^s 15.v^d ""'he'lro for* 

yearrj a .e ■•(Tjta^.r'^d ig '">f "aer 'vission, Uiut Hippolyto 

believes hinoeir ■' <^jjcct o.^ her Lirlaca'olo Imtvod* Thteaeus's 
unquestioning 5u ho:, n .-n hla ii» attosta also to 

JTiedre'B '•'T'c'?!-'*'''?? no'^f.l " c^a-r\ct'^:--, ' :•. ^ i- '-'tv:':* attrrc»uiod 

qualities as nel". c-S Ui'.:^e i:ji._it;iL in ntr ■.".;u .. ;.)yeai .aicc and 

aGtions, Fhed -G is ix-TK^csontc'^^ ■ go riistresG, a falt^^f*?! wife, 

a rond rtotijer. She has, twreov r^ co-.-r and oi: Uie kingdom in 
TIjeseus's abricnc© (xnd haa apparently inilod well slzice Athens, at 
the news of TLieserna *s cLecitb, declni^s itself in favonoi" of her rule 
rather" tlian for the excellent HlfT-olyte. It is not fra-i any 
single aspect, thcrefoi'-e, that Racine ^jreacnts her but fi^jw evo3?y 
BOrt of eiticle and every typo of human relatlnsmiilo. 

Siat ll-ja char-nctcre }mwf :>ill anU intlepeiident llX'e oven i.hon thej 
are cf secondary j:i oj^tancc ie apparent, for exain:>le, in the case 
of TheucMi'. li-la ;iclayed apptjai>a.n(je in tnc play doe^* not nrevcnt 
tije dparK^-tiat fvom presentlnt hirv; also laidox' a railtlT^licity of 
aspects^ He Is not only the Iwavo klnt", Jiir. tt^j. of ^^allant exploits, 
he is also the tnaiiderer- und piiilaixlerer. Eg a:^?ears '~^s. 1ms ty 
and irascible with Hippolyto, 'i« ctoi n i^ith Aricic, as ccsjaplctcly 
crodtiloxib and t^^l• tint' with ^iedre» He apr^nrs n<-i only as 
Phedre's iaisband but a a Ei-polyto's f^ithor, as M^iclo'G oncs:iy, as 
his people's king. He is a r>iin In hlo own rifht, recctmlEed In 
h5Ls ■wirioiis qualities a« r^n and as king by ■"'heurG, Hlppolyto, 
Arlcie, Oennne, by all who speak of him. 

Since •"'>' cl >asicul perisonajje npix; alvrays tixr^JUgh sianifold 
asixjctG of hia life, he it: nevoi'* represented ae coci letcly good 
or cora>lGtcl" evil. CojisidOi- Hai'pa(jon« IIo is u niser ~ concerned 
vlth his c^^iitiren only In co fr,r as tlu-y are exti'iivagnnt or in 
re£cai»d to the qiieation of ;?iK>fl table ntt>j:»riages foi' tVicxi. He starves 
his horses and siispoots his seinrants of cheating hie and lends 
aoncy at un exorbitiint rute or inoe.^>-tst# Yet, althoti^rh ho is tl:ie 
cample oC nisor, he iiJ, nevci'tbeleiis, Ijuman. Ho Is : iacrly in 

cvopythin^ ho ::oo3 but his life coni'o-r'.a, to cior-ic Csxtent, to the 
oi^clnary bourgeois standard of comfort* V.o keoT>8 ^ip a cei't&ln 
catn"bli£i3ncnt, >>as five Bervar.t^;, Roo^® .'! r.oacb and IiorsssV He 
ti\llG In love tiud iiitewls to nan:^ -or love in snite of the yoimg 
glrl^o -xjverty. Ho is efrald th^.t his nppoaj-incc nr^y oeti^ict fr«a 
hc" rcn^ircl fc?r hir. cinrl Ir '^atl'Kittc 1II7 delighted xilth I-Voslne'a 
flcttoz'y. He i:5t-Uw3 z-o give ti dinner, ?:lthoagh an eccnanler-l one* 
Altogether, he is a miser -ho tries to conform to the conventi'ns.1 
end tmivcraal ider.l cf tlic ''aniicr in v?hic}i an "honiKjto" bowr'goois 
shoui'i livct. He la v. riisor yet, t.han ho Inarac that Cloante haa 
provided fruite and confitures en tiio occaalon of liariane's call, 
he dees no more tlian cc!n.;laln Mndor his brer-Uu He is c-. lisor 
yot, vhen 01en.ntc forces hin lo preticat Jiariano wltl-i hia aianond 
ring as a gift, he secretly ragos but does not rrttfidmn V^e s^trt^ 
He beprudpcs all that be civcs or -^ayn p.r,c1 ho is ee^onortionl even 
In the T ratter of e-ndlcs biit he is a viser Duse^ntible to lovo, 
to flattery, and to convention* •Fne very fact tliat lila iwrvi^xnto 
o»jt?7lt hl^ an^i triat his child^-'fin lefy hlia nakos lilsi a allghtly 
pathetic figure In our cyc2 — :xitli(tlc and ^Idleuicms, Ijut Inuian, 

T^iere is, in other *.ords, constant attention to T>r>ycholo;*lcal 
pTObabl.1 ■'.ty and coustant allotranoo for tho lncorK5lst«^ncios of 
hawKin nature* It,;Tht, ornaos, be raoro locrlcal onl consistont 
t3mt Alo^rte In Le liisantiiyo'iJ p should love Sliante* But the fact 
that, in despite of lo^ ic, lie lovou Uie ciiai^ting coquettish 
CeT^J^ene, at once rt>inovos Alceste frcm the sphere of vionermnia 
cuod chorfs hliR to he exerciclnc anoUicr criterion of jnd<ment In 
her case iii&n that r/hich corjstitutcs his weakness* It rciwveu hin. 

there: fo)'e, fixs:- the ijpltere of abotrtic-t loEic and nslceo hix. part 
or Ui.a iitsian rrorlci where sxzch ^n incorir.t8tcncy r.n«a euch a dviilisaa 
ia l\i(^y ni^obfa^le* r>3jnlls.rly, \n ArKlror?cir\to ^ it is pcycihol epical 
pi-obubllity t:-ttit detfn'wirtee the^ntatioc of Horwlono'a 
liiconclsteiiclcc-. r;he deman'^B thnt Orest© sbooilcl avenge Pyrrla?.s*s 
li^tJlv;. to her by accot^ipllsliiiis l\lv. death. But trhen ^jfoote retui'na 
to umjounce thia death, she tiu-ns upon h-r: Kith hon^or and demands 
why he lias cosaralttecl sxich an i^jnoblo decxi. ^t^iing could he 
paychclogiicalf-y truer end nothing is leas In coiiToi^^ilty nith lonie» 
nctTilout re -u ins :'c«ponGive to the tiio different aapccts of life, 
tJie liiatcrlr,! and Iho &pli'lt»i£il« "TiilG eontiTidlction pr^evonts loii'lc 
Uit confoiTss v,ltli pix»bahllity. 

Tlici-e m-c certain other ;iclf •evident factors tl^it cannot fail to 
ho conaldci-^d in any ntwly of tJie crharecter m^cjcntf.ti -n in 
cli.i:^i.ic .-actico. Ilic 30 factora concern the dig?Xig".rd of ube 
material cincl ohycictil — a disi^of: -pd «/hlCii haa'rr.dy lieen montion- 
efl In ■refnrenco to the oontro of Intr-'ct 5.n the clrmsKi. This 
dlsro^ircl extondc to the dctj.ila of presentation. There are few 
if any alius ions to physicol. appciirancc, no diffp'>-*entiation of 
material bfcckfpi'cnind, no concern for local detail* This lack of 
conccii; .itl: oxtci'ior i»<.iality is^ of course, a corollary of the 
flact tlmt the Inte'^ost is in chc inner rouiity, tiuit reality ?.hich 
Ic trii'y bu'ian Mtl ±l not subo ted to the animl piiase of 

nan*3 existence nor dett^rminei Dy lt» ifnon Phbdi'e hittcj'ly denounces 
htrr jsn giiilt, Che is .lonoiincing her of self-conti'ol. She 
docij not nlaTiC circM£ii:tarxos or sov-iie-cy oa=' her faulty ei:iucation» 
Sho hlaKtes hersclfw She does cry out t}iat she :. oloiigs to an ill- 

fs-tc-l fanil;:, sv.bjcct t-c unnatural n-issionfi, Uit she Iocs not. 
deny li<3r ^^^* iruei'ty of chclc8» Tiie frecdara of the tvili Is iripliclt 
in the vcri'- conriict v/hicb iu the uutgcct of t>ie -n&y* Hence 
CJiterlor- nat.ur-e — sj.nce 1. U. .oc, in aii^ T?a7, eon§icl«r-ecl t-o "bo 
d^tTmlning of the iiaier nature or sr>iritt>&l ^nr — Is nngleoted 
irtth impfunity. 

Shis noc-lect or tbc detailed liidividual cl iirac tor-la tica directs 
attention to the ^mivcrsr.l and eternal rathor tlma to the particular 
and superf leal in ran# !5iin*3 tmivor-sal "nd atmiol dti-niggle 
towrird tiic freed ".ni of self-control r^rtalria the vital int;5r«st In 
the cl'\S3icil litoratiiro* It Is tills sti'u.-rgls and thio trlrmph 
tint o":-^i;ititutos cha\^actGr» TliQ ideal cilmrnctci , as Ariatotl© 
had afri>^ed, w-.s tluit \riiich isopt in all tliingf* to txio t^'idon aiean. 
This ^oldon rieaa rnust, in ev^ry caoc, lo dete."Hl»ad tsy reivaon; 
that ia, Irj comnoii sonss. liiu idcril night ooTtr U> attaint biit, 
ia S9V3ntoonth century Pr'nnco, t.iiu ideal una unlVGraally acocptod 
arid the vrritera' intere:;t ley In x.he rtaprosontntlon or cl-«vnctors 
ohsf-rvod Li :■. .tirticulnr sJtnation wliere tlio effoi't :it the I'ocon- 
cilli^-tloa of the \?ar-'lni; olononta ?fithln nan's 3o«.il vxo "being, 
auccoasrully or imsuccosafiilly, nade. 

In cithtcGnt^n rent^iry Prcnco uhere evicted all the arenas of the 
roiifcintlciur! which was .o u<>r>dnato the ninotoeritli, am to oaot ita 
strttnslo b-ol(l ovei"' tiie Oiirly t\.eatleth contury» Yet tho I?ronch 
'••In ?*3 icttl tradition pcjrsists and >iay ho studied Iji eerie of Its 
raorc isodoi'n r.rpects in the work of cuch Oathoiic tjn.dittontiilst« 
as Eauriac, Claudel, and I:eoa Blcy. It .lay jo iroadiod wiUi oven 

more rrpoflt^ porlians. In the ;rork of s».io'h n ??riter as Jultss 
Rojralns — a vn'iter 7;bo is n:<>t ostensibly eit^icr nco-^lascicist 
€>■/•• traditional iat in riXt:lti"'o» 

It 1- ciiarriCtcrictic of o.l"? tJv-o© witfir»o that the lntor«>st ta 
concontratcd itpon o. -i'.'^^"' c". -Ico -.Mc'-. 'Tint l-r>» Tho ext<r:'lor 
drfiu.ia •^.tay T3C slight or- oav^jationr.l (as in Lo ^ Btul-.:: ;-^- au. iGtyrou K ) 
ov^ it nay aeeri fa-ntuiitic and tiTireal (ac in ]>■ ?cra''o 'auvrc )* 

aaccntua^t-^s i-K iTi:K^r c"?n*^int vith'n o-ic or the psi'Sionagoij. Whether 
It Iz the stni^rglo twrord err lete abno^atlon of tho self (L£ 
Jsmu- Fil o ) or the - ! -■^^^ -r»io tf^w: '»'l pletc 'idant^.tion 
to the social creed of the tiine (;7D.J-0!TffiO3 Iri Loi:, Ha^i'ies lo ypT^^o 
v'^lorxto }, the interost is uniforjaly concontrated on the nemonai 
clioicc an"' -^a the '■}-rr>.7 (■'.-^^r-'Vi-ffiop':. -'" m ;:, Tlio in;iivlif.ual 1g 
reyroscnted nc a tmlt in '.i ooclety to which he is i-eatiotislhle for 
the rvxrt lie playo, 'Kie dUv^l5J?^ of nan's nn.t\\re »a<:i:cG of ovry 
aspect of 'v'.n le'/clf^rroe'v'- -^ rt5T'T»5v- •'•>''"ia, 

•^•^ I*^ PvOhc i'>re.tnxt 3 the •:n-'ota^;oniGt is a youth whose sti'tu^rle tor/ard 
nanhood 1# the spivitxial Ht'i^xiijclc to:Tnrcl c^rjfOT-nity trlth the 
Cleric ticLn idet.^1* 'Hio ideal "^hi«h itovenifod the seventeenth contoi^y 
nilcr, ^Ki'.n^i'eois, ov s'^T»VT:nt nliho was rmlvorsnl* The idool "nliich 
conatwiini? Jto-coueo to r -riilinf:' ^'m»ni discipline hno, if not a 
vuiiveranl, at least an absolute, atmction in that, for Jacques, 
thD ide?xl is suauisGion U> tlio cy :andnonts of God* Lll:c "liodrc 
or 1I2.G !'-"'•* no du Cle.'r, •T^.C';'"©' i-^ 3\irrN>uiidcd by n society nhlch 
rocOt^iils^^ a c:>r.i;7ion code or coiidnct» The duty tlmt Phedro or 

Uo.l:'iG Ic Clovca xlrth. -.n Uie social veln.tXons..L : of r^arriage, 

Jacques finds in hli; social rcafitionahio tc hio fiuntly* The innor 

sti'Uij't^le, the 'rTuran cffoi't to^M'xl the rcaconahlc, li: the Y?bDle 

story of JaccTUcu 'vj ^;}. 'ov; !;.'a iuiu titat Jacc;ues is aonGclcnit of life 

6S Of a series of moral choices nppears clearly in s\ich a passage 

as the following: 

Gontre le pechc, .'.'icu r.-*a/ '\nio u';i'';c-"d :o .,i;!iclite,de 
de£:out, do sciiiptilcs rell, ioux et familiaux* A I'lnatant 
de la c?nute, to^is les dof;nea, toiis les coET.^andGricnts de 
Dieu etaicnt Gnudain pronul^rues au fond do rion §tre par 
iiiic 7oix intiffiein-'e* Un ex is oil de farillle, conrjrenant 
les norts et les vivtmts de ria race, autonaticiuenent se 
reunissait pour ne j'i£:er. 


H HO "na rcstait nOine r»a3 la consolation do la t'ovolte 
Cctte loi qiil pocait sxir nol, jo la sen"* - " ' cenent 
rr-lsonnable* ULIo oti^.lt axiot^rc, non .".. , Tien 

loin de tn'interdire la voluptc, eile savait iui donner 
miQ discipline, des llptitos. (1) 

The interest in tho other x^rconages is of a alnilar nature* Of 

Jacquos *£ [^;7^andniother hs nritea : 

Ainsi £,:rand •tsorc e'offorcait do rondre ,j"".atice a cet 
horr!0 qu'elle & dca raicons dc ne c^a^re aimer, A 
iaes^'^cvu< exerccs de petit cntholiqiic, ce trava^.l^do rofoi'Tne 
int^-ieure, de disciolino, chcz la vieillc diuic etait 
pereeptihle et rm divei^-tlt, (2) 

Such a ehai^cteristic obsei-vp-tion shOTTS the rr^nner in ??hich the 

emphfisis is constantly thi'ovm on the psycholo^jical conflict. 

Bie essential dualism which sets ren's htnanity warring a^jainst 
his anl^ial instinct ic the whole avblcct of Le Balscr au lepreux. 
Even as Titus dlucovcia the necoiialty of renunciation In order 
that he T^uiy conform to an ideal that he caanot deny, so does nbcrii 

(1) Llauriac, La ?obo nvot-crXo ^ 27f', 

(2) rcid». 56Z 

diacovcr that, for :ie: , ;i higher 1^.^; ass ion 

cxlets reqiiiroj^ of her a cleliberute rerpinciatlon aiH a moral 


S:af.£. d^^ ^ci^. .■;• — ;-, I'lnctinct do V.oe-l :ic Ic;^ e^at-ll 
balay«fs, si no I'avalt ms Jugulee xuio autre loi plus 
haute rno son J.nstlrxt? Petite, ollf= ctalt cond.-annee a 
la jn^ndenr; esdayo, 11 fallalt qa'elle regnSt, Cette 
lxx'.T£p.oisr; rm pea: c^-aisso rie pc«.?vnit pas r^c go -t-.s 
depasoer clle^si^nc : toute route lul etalt fc7T^©, hors 
lo rcnonccraont* (1) 

•'I'iic splrlt.unl '^n'^hasis Is evou nore R??rked nrrl the hunan choice 
Ljccones c: Dice heU-Gen the flesh ?.nd Vnc u i: it in In Konno 

naiTvi^e* Here thp dualisw is resolved by a ccranleto re. nunc is. t ion 
of the material acceGGoriss of life and Glo tilde, in or5er to 
attain to the highest ideal posoiblo to hvirmnlty, nal':es every 
sacrifice. In the end, she gives asxay all she owns aiKi tolls 

her interlocutor: " II n*y a qu*UT^ triotesse , c*ont da 

"'*ETR..- i^.vs^ i^^o .->i.I"'-" " (8) 

The eTif^haals on -lan's dunlisri Is c'^""'?.ctcd "by the orr'-^'fiiDln on 

nan's -toi-^J. lihorty* Like iticlre, Qi:i>ile, in Lo Pleuvo :o f.i.n . 

Judges herself hy an ideal to T,-')ich she lias fr.ilod to conforr?!* 

Like ITiedi^e, she her hinan responoihility: 

Tel ctalt son dciiowt que s'abaisccrniit Ics coins C,q sa 
houcho, Mais, ^ 1 '^cole de Luclle, cllc avalt acquis 
ce rerrrd terrible qui blcn peu osent rotcurner contro 
ettx-n^es ~ ce regard perforant, ce regard cathollque» 
. LUlc ne oarlait ris de scs drolts^a I'arioTir, ni ne oe 
t'lorlfiait ae chercher I'nnour ideal d'hoRnne en hainme« 
ITou: clle :o sura It d*\m oeil lucide sa doch^ance 
Inflnle. (3) 

(1) Mavii'iuc, Le Balser au lepreux. 173. 

(2) moy. La j^^-.j: pHiv-c, ^;'^?. ~ 

(3) Mauriac, Le Flouve .lo feu , 165. 

It Is in Jules ixcxmina's work that the preoccu;x'.ticn v.ltli man in 
ail tii€ -manifold a.'ipects oi' his life *iy noat oticily be stiKiiGd* 
iiach personate appears not tfom one point of viev? but frcst rmny; 
not in ono type of social relationship but in jKuiy; not v/ith one 
single interest, im&sion, or idea, '.Ait v«ith viany* Ttoa, Mario da 
GiiaiaiJcenai© is rapi^'oscnted tia^ough her r^espoct roar*, anti her 
aut&goiiiwi to, aer nualxind, her pityinti tendemesa for tlieir 
unackiKKviediied ciiild, her passionete friemlGhip and love for 
:.>ar-aaeca\id, her shr'inkinL c3uriosity in regaled to the poor peoplo 
of i^iris. She appears aa an aristocrat, a Catholic, a >notlier, a 
trift, ard. a riistrci>3, SiMiloiay, .azcrtttjs appearj; in tho varying 
attitu'itii. revealca by hlti social rclationchipe in the i'anily, in 
btisiatius, anu in love. Louia Basiide ai^pcars tin^otj^jh his I'elation- 
i*iiips to school, to fnrtily, to church, to tlio social oystt^sn which 
opprtoues ala fatiier, aivi co tiio buiiintua woi'la unere he scoks 
iodopendonce. Other cxanpies ni^:ht bo adduced iJiit tho technique 
of HoBiuins's lon£ novel series ( Les Homes do bcmne volonte ) is 
sxifficient proof of his intention in rojTard to cljaraetor ci eation* 
It la because he wants to rjake pocr.iVile tho repi'eaentation of the 
multi.)le aspects of i;an*s life that he adopts a nct-hod of i-ocix^~l 
"by :iK3ans of which ho may avoid the limitfitions of "un nonde 
labor ieusemont rotrcci aux dinonsions d*un hc^ciio'\ (1) By sub- 
iiuiUitliit, a xiAk,i le action for a aln^-le action, by pror.enting a 
world of individuals rather t>mn an individual's world, Ronains Is 
atteinptli^ to represont each of his personages in his totality 
rathfir t>ian f^i-^jm. u oin£:le asyxjct. To proccnt r^n In his totality 

(1) Remains, Lea Ilcrriea ^ de bo nne vo l onto . Preface, xviii. 

is necess",rily to p!^r-3«^zit, as c?-:"'.ngici3rt does, the liwian stnig^gle 
towai-u UK- i^-oui equilibrivi-i o, o:tu u .irilctiutj forct^sy '.< i.onin 
every nan* 

Since the ide^u. '>i the sevenieenUi cuauui-i' ^^eiiJieated evcx'y elaau 

of life and iras a social code as woll as a reliclous ethic, it is 

not to be exixjctcd that the eontenvjorary novelist, living in a 

society tfhich no ionfter recogni:.ou ^ny such uiiivurs,al code oi' ethic, 

should (^phciiiise exactly the arijae uapocts of the xanivei sal object 

of man's aspirtition. whereas in Claudol and Bloy, for exuraplo, 

the eiii:>imsls io on the T/iyi>tio .1 aspecu of life, in Hauriac tlie tone 

tends to bocone Jrociseniiitlc ^/liile Ros^iains most fi^eqnontly pi">osonts 

the point of vicn of -..he avcru^je nan v4ioso Cathoilclsn is only 

one of several elcrients that deteiTOino his practic: 1 iuocil of 

conduct* Yet the attitude revctiled in such a passage s the 

follov.'lne, miij'ht iiave been rTanifestcd equally v?ell In the classicion 

of the seventeenth contui^ as in the neo-olnssicisTrj of to-day, 

L'abbc Jennne priait done blcn since T*er;iont -oui' que le 
tcraps dos epreuvos ce tmin^'. sans retom-*. n le 
demaraiait pour I'llglise eile-n^ae, ei p^ar-ce <^ue, lor-squ*ll 
s*agit d'un Int^vf^t q">il nwis depaci>e, la raison, la 
justice doiv at 1 'exporter en nous sm^ les sxiggetitions 
dc noti'e natu>'e. (1) 

For the factor that makc£> it possible to c^out In a cotrtrKm st^^temont 

such dissimilar ?;rlters as Gorneille, Ronr.iTis, and Ma\irlac le this: 

tliat each of Vncm, throuj-h his ?-^etho<l of enaractor crontion, 

dignifico .m by the concession of personal reG'>onsibility and 

limits ruvn by the affirriation of a collective ideal. 

(i) Ronalns, Lea Horarica de b o nrxe volontc , VI^ 173, 


ClK<.ptcr !!♦ 
Chai'actcr Presentation — T^octice In the H'-XKLTiticist ?tovel» 

ThQ dirfcrenccs botv eon cl .solcisra and roimnticiaan are differences 
vhlch are reflected very exactly ia tlie ti*e~itn©nt of clmi^ctcr ard. 
In tiiG quality of the ir^tcrect attaclicd to tlie cliamcteru "fho 
«^a?ry the Ifui'den of Uxe ac'-ion. In this remyBax, «i^u ^iujw-^iua of 
choice will once again provide aurpi'isizifc enli£:htenraent» Tvjo 
typical e:-2in"leG of the ior.anticist novel will serve to illustrate 
tlie inpllcatlonti whicix tlie choice of nej'sonages :iecessai--ily carries 
with it* In liu^^nlo Grandet. uxid Ifotre-Dame -le ?ai'is -ao Imve tso 
of the Rost fonlliar novels of the rcrianticiat period, tuo novels, 
Eioreovor, uliich are superficially -o ;i3sinilar in coneeptl.n and 
exocutlan that whatever slmilaritloc in method aptxsar raay, porlmps, 
be <K)nceded to be uimllaritieD ccfunon to ronnnticisn and, therefore, 
ooCTnon to rrriters as widely seixirated as are Ba^o and Balzac, 'Those 
two novels offer, noreovor, a further advantage for purposes of 
illtistratiou inaanmch s it io in >osiilble tliat the central personage 
should fail to he recognised aii uuch. The novels are, obviously, 
huilt around liigenio and Esraoralda. v;o nuat xnquii^e, therefore, 
into the ai£;nificance of such a chciice* V/e rmiat co-^sidor also the 
factors vrhicli apnarently detcrnincd the entrance into their respec- 
tive stories or the remaining personajjos. 

Let us turn firct to IXigcnic 3randct » It nill ho i»8call€)d tlrnt, in 
the case of Haedrc, the Interest oi liacine and his audience centred 
on a highly civilised an.:! ccrTictoly solf-coasclous v?a.-an, fully 
awai'e of tiic nature of uae riorui oclsion sue raust r^ake« Eugenie 
Is of quite a dirrercnt calihi e. Yoxm^ , iinrcflectino. Inarticulate, 


in i:\igGnle presents tlic ideal of innocence and instinctive 
purlty# tSiis iunocoiice lives entli-^iy Uu-^ouf^ sentlaent and is 
ignoraiit of the ratorlal reality of ltfy« jsalzac T?rltos: 

existence, en f^lsaient des exceptions curlmisos clans cette 

:-'elai.l • " ;;• i^evJi dont la vie etait p-aroiuont ■, ,etcri-3llG» (1) 

The iia:^ortance of Uie :.bove quota t5jon rmast be strecsod for' it seta 
the uliole Rioaiilng of Dif-on'e aa a narsor^ge aal tjirown 1 l^^ht on 
tJie focr.l 'Oint of Br.lj:ac*c Intcrrr^t* It in sijjnlfic ... ^ .;nat, out 
of oil the aBrx)cts of reality v/iilch naUn^e offcru, Balgac siiotild 
choocc to centre his and the rearler a attention on t^iat one which 
haa leasit coiricem nlth rratcriAl reality and is noot concontratod in 
the ideal. ^Tiiat ?>alE£ic'G pictiD'o of a "Jeuno fillo aien elevee" 
has a substantial V'sis in the reality of Pl'ench life is indisputable 
aiivl io it; Uiio basis of obi,orvatlon in his c.oil: v/hicli tri.-cs it 
the aui.iion£.icity Umt not nil of Uic ror-^anticlsta poscosa* But it 
ii; ear.ential to reiaeciber tlKtt tho ch~ico of su>Joct ^r^t-^tn to the 
cc.-.citicion tiiat 3alEac*t. ;.„i,>, -^ .>.. -lo intej^r. i. I- uu'^u-^ i3 directed 
tovrard its ideal, as distingMiohccI frai its :-Xiterial, asi^ect. 

The rcforcncerj 1; iXifionlc cuv ■ ■> ■ :;<• '- '■■ -anc vein, 'ho is 
instinctive ixirity, instinctive ocntL*^iont« 3ho is not reiTreoentod 
GJi & corj^clotie latclliijent being xiYtO thinks and reaoono'. Balsac 
w*rites t 

Lc peintre (lui cherclio ici-br.s Tin tyixj a la celeste pureto 

(1) Balsac, :gu{;enlo Grc.ixlo t, ZiJ7 , 308. 

de KarlG, cc .^e^tre, snt trmivc t-^ut a couo 

dans Ic visace C^I^cnlc la ric'blcseo lnn<5e c^\x± s'ignoro. (1) 

Her actloaa arc ini:tinctlve« "tlajC^n ct vraie, die sc lalcsait 

allcr a sa naturo aagcllqvc sans sc deTior ni -Ic ses Snprocsions, 

ni de ses scntlrtcnts." (2) 

Reality enters Duc^nie's liTc anly tln»cti£:h centii'icnt* BcilzvAt refers 
to her as he wrlteo : 

Quand les cnfunts cotr'oncent a voir, lis oourlisnt; quand 

wac iille entrovolt ie serXimont dans la ;ia.t-iir-o, olle 

:t conriQ elle soixrlait enTant* SI la limierc est le 
„er Cii.v-rr .lo la "^1-, i'^x-^icur n'or,t-il r^x la liini^re 

dti cogrir? Le cmcnt do voir clalr atix cliosos d*ici-ba.s 

^tait arrive pour Da^eniem (5) 

Aooordlneiy, it ii feeling 5?hlch directs her attitude to^fard r«ility« 

It is LXigenle's focling for Clsaa^les thnt tleterminas lier Toeling 

toward Gi'anuct,, i:a f^ct, -..iikcs lier conaci -islj aii^j^o of Grande t 

as a detoraiaint; el'-'ncnt in Iigt existence^ Talruc vrites: 

I'our la T^reI^lere Tele, jllc Mt dans lo coQ-jr dc la tcrr0>ir 
a l*aapect de son pe:o, vit en lul le naftro de son sort 
tt "c ni^t c.TUTxxtiLG .l*unc fautn en lul tai^iant ruelquoo 
pensdcB. (2) 

It is her synuxithy for Charles * f-ricf that causes her antipathy 

to her father •s attitude; "Dec ce nc^ont, olle conr»enqa a juger 

sen per*e#" (4) 

IXigcnic appears, in fact, as an Individual entirely unaffected by 

eonteoi'Torary society; an indivlAial, therefore, v/liose 'osition 

in tiiat society is as yet ixncioUrtiinod* "Pr-ohc autant qu'une flour 

i?) i-i- .. ;^r. 

(4) iror>, 5OT. 

aoc au fond d*une Torct o-v a^ilcr.te, elle rx- cor., ais salt ni les 
Eiaxiiies d\2 monde, nl sea x^aS-soix-entsits captl«u:r, nl ses 
sophii2ios,»«»" (1) 'BtB only acpocta of thiit aocicty irhlch she 
cceies to !a;K>i/ asswio reality for V.or . ..iolrrjont: slie Ijaows 
society thix^agh Cliarles alio, to licr, rtjprosGnts lovo anl throuejh 
her fatlier irl?o, t^ hor, ap^x^ara as rrsatcrial pouev vjod go as the 
Soiii*cc of ..', : ■• ralzac .n^ltnc : ^Tojy la rranlM"^ 

JXij Uvvllij 


■ ) ."^ 


ses cen^rciix pctMshnntc codoiTiis, cor»prl''ios, vmis ta-iLita: t.iit evellleay 
©taicntli toxit noiJKjnt ft»olcsen-»" (2) 

It car.riot l>e too froqxiently cr.n ii-sise'l that IXj^enlQ, as the 
quotations T^ialce evident, only as the oxprcssion of instLictlve 
fe-elirii., only iS txie vlctiia cf u pasaiori* Balr^c -.rrite^ : 

?eat-ctrc la pi*ofc:viO ;v-S3ion d'^o^onie, doTiViit-<3Ho etare 
^~ -— - -ea flcrillea "'-- Itis dcllc ^ ; cr elle 

ar— ^ 

u.^ ^ d ;. q.^clquo::. r: :'c, uno -'i et 

influenca tr/iite Bcm existence — ~ Ici done, Ic nncse 

d^-^ ^.Ic sci'Vlr:., ■• - •,■■'.:. S la ^ - ■ '' ■ ; ,^ 

1: ^ .xion frt n If- s >v., j crfuci '^ o, 

Plar. sa vie (jtc trr.n.-x^illo, plus vi. la pitle'' 

f^lnin«,^le plus insenle/ax. dcs senttaenta uc deploya 
dfuio go:: c:-:ic« (3) 

iio vii.iJi.e->u3.i- uoiii^.i'i . toii i.L^ -.i, LLe l-^eiimatlon or ".aviOCiriCOJ 

''LMniiocence ooc coulc do tellcs imrdleasos," {t) Ho c: lains hor 

only I" i'*erciXjnco to her tyne and to her focllr.rr: ".'.ixn Jminea 

fiXiv/i. i-^li^l&\:. . :■ i ni, clovcca, l^n02'*^ui -^ji: Jt ;tu:';-:^, -crat ost amour 

d©6 qu'olles mottent le -led danc les rcgionc onchantces do 

l»a:iicui%" (C) 

(1) BaliJuc, ntGOnie G:'ande t, 358, 

' O \ T"^ T '"" ':• ■'"■^'^ " "" " ■ -IN I ■ I I ■ ■ 

[5) JhSS*' ^'^■'» ^^^* 
(5) TBTcT ,, 504, 

Dug^iiio's life is, tlici*cf oi'c , a life ciotorrairxjd by nat\32-«e; t>mt 
ic, Ijy her Inctinctivc riattrpc. Since tills Icstinctivo life forma 
t2ie cutsject or the ncvol. It 1g oT?Trl'^^c that the centre of Interest 
he~.s shifted, in reality if not in appearance, from xihat rr&j, ra^operly, 
bo chilled character Ir.tcrect* The entiro action of tho noTol, since 
it dopcndc on foellnc, not en jucl^pnent, can L>e meroly the v^ocrM of 
the ins tine tlvG reaction of a given cubjoct urkler vai'ylnc co.jditions. 
Where tho choice of riiodro as tl:c central flp:ure of a draraa nacle 
it inr-cdtntcly r.nnai^nt v.hat the Interest r,9Q concentrated on & 
qtiocticn ol" Imnian norclit-T, t^ic choice of Liigonlc ns a central 
fi^nire sucgocts tlitit the novel to rrhich she clvon her nano cnn b« 
nothing else than r. esse history or a cert-nln vni'lety of fintoal life. 

At tills point it is noGossary to recall xrhnt other fl£jureo take a 
prominent place in the hoo!:'» '^n ^Jnocliately saggcat tho??iscl"7G3 — 
Grandct and Charles, T!to conliraat, t^lth _';giodro is again strllrlng. 
In the tragedy the othor .^rl;mv ch^iT'^ictora w!io appeared wei*e tl;x>so 
ii1» were hound to T=hedre * -^ isocL'^l tio^ and trhooc lives v/.yuld 
necessarily be affected cy l:ier decision, ^o interest, therefore, 
reisKiins one closely com:iectcI T.itli anl his place in aocisty. 
But Eugenic Is an unlriT>ortant factor In the 11^ of either Charlos 
or Graiiict, ^I'hoy are not r.>aterially affected ^y her exir,tcnce^ 
!Hiere niust, therefore, jo eoiae other explanation for thoir prcBiiaenoo 
In the novcl# The explanation l3 81'',v>1g, Grandct and GlKirlea 
Inlk lar^'o in liugenle's llfy. TiiQ^ ^t^» succcasively, tiie deter- 
mining factors of liar esletencc* Tlioy foiin, that is, auccoasivo 
conditions of her envli'oiiaent and are, for a long ^xjriod, the only 
naterial x»oallties of lier existonco. They are, in her life, the 

two repixiscntatlvos of v ,g outer r/orld, of cons titiited society. 

riliGir IntrocLuctlon Into the novel, tiiercfove, seers to "ba dependent 
on tills fact: that, for Eueenle, all society Is resumed in thera» 
Their introduction depends, therefore, on thel?'' representative 
quality, not on the social relationshlpG which bind tiicsn to Diigenie. 

As Esay be easily gatlierod n^on the quotations in the pi^ecetiing 

paragrapl^. Char-leu and Grcalct represent to Uagenie absoltitely 

opposite aspects of society. Tlic ideal love she flniis in Cltarles 

■akes her fear and ccndorai Grandet. 7,liat she findc in Charles, 

Balat-c describes as "taus les liens dc bori -eur qui unlssent les 

fla«s^'. (1) As for Crcaidct, his nroTriiience in the novel his already 

been ex^^laiiied by Dalcac. He Ic t.'ic -undisputed ro prose ntiitive of 

tji© conten(X>rary society and Balrac places hln in the novol in the 

duaj-nating :>ositlon irrhlch, in this representative oa -aclty, he 

cannot fail to liavc. Balzac cxprecsly dcsl;;nates Gi'andet's Place 

in iJugenio's v/orld: 

K*esl-cc ms d'allloiirs une scene de tous les terms et de 
tous les ileux, rials ranonee ^ sa nlus single expression? 
La fifc-uic df; Orandct ex-^loito.nt le fa\ut attcc' ^t dcs 

deux famlllc^, en tlrant ■^ 'cnoTT'.GS nrofits, d co 

draiao et l*oclalrt:it. K'etait-ce pcxs le setil llcii modern© 
aurncl on alt foi, 1*" ... toute so \\i -, 

expi'icio par une sexilc - —1 le? L«s doux c... i^ents de 

la vie n'occtirmiont la qu*\inc place secondairc; lis 
anlmaiont tiKiic coeurc piirs, ccux de Iftxnon, d*::ugonie et 
de sa mere . {2) 

Thus, in a fe^ sentences, Balzac nakes ^loin tlie whole ]:>rincl!^le of 
hla choice or r^ors orates. IXigonie, ?7hose life is yet to be lived, 

(1) BttlLuc, i^^eale Groadet, S/^2, 

(2) Ibid .. 5W, m\. 

is repff'es': ntatl/c --i xiu. , riature untouched oj wycit;t,y» Gr^ndet 
rcpiHjaents the dominant influence in timt iioclGty, "l*Areent"» 'TiM) 
secondary fl^rures belong to one oi-* the otlier aspec:: of life and 
enter the novel only to qIvq deptii to l:;_ iuvoii;. It iG, perhaps, 
nccossary to add that tlie advent of Cimrlos Is oquivalwiit to the 
advent of sontiirtcnt in Eugenie*a l?.fe» As ire have seen, IXigonle 
Is cofisciouc; of Grande t u.u a Kiiw^iial ^Oi^oo j:i_y after ahe perceives 
him in Ujc liirht of this sentiirient* Since l>2genle apiXKirs only 
iii her inotlnctivc aspect, Balzac cai, in fact, "leonlo c v;orld for 
her only b:/ ncanc of repi'Gi.jni»int. diffci^nt 3anti..:vjai,a oi* ptitjoiono; 
for it is only thr xigh aich sentLnonts or passions that reality 
can ever inpinge upon the im:tinctivc ego, "The choice of ncroonar^os 
in 'Jn£]r^r;i,^ ' - '- 1, doi' outiiely, ti'icx'^_ vjxo, en the fu-jia of 
jCugonie *s l^ristlnctive cojificiotisiicos* This field incliiueo love, 
and thei^eforo Cliailes; fear, aiiil tlicrefore Gr:indct; religious 
sentiruent, aiiu -iiuix_uiu ..Uijonic't^ i.iOthor« ^u-ie contract between 
tlie oversiiadowi^jt;; (a»andct and the cffacencnt of I^eixle'a rx)ther 
is the contract t?hich exists in i:usenie*c cnvli'oraacnt (rm envlron- 
nent :.ii.i^^ar to ui-;.- ui liny oontenporuiy i^ouicty) bctv.'ecn an all- 
powciful I2arj.ic.n and an ineffectual Catliollc rellt-ion. "That Eugenie's 
Eiotlier dies r.s a result of Grande t's t:-Tr'anny is to rcpri3sont the 
death of ^'ei^^.i-^n undci' «:ic pui'd.*" i;ia"ic-'iudi-.ti>:; ^iilo* I"Hit, since 

the Church Is essentially an institution, it cc.;itinues to exist, 
t<3T Bugonle, thoujrh the individual vrho represents it dies. On 
txio otiicr litiuv-, since the oontei:i:>orai'y society is ossentlally 
individualistic, cont«n; horary society filways appears to I'Juuonlo 
thi'ouijh I'xjrsonal sentir.ient not as an Impersonal force. 

I^ we refe?' to j^atyire rtcre In order to eval\iatc oixp results. 
Be arc better able to per-cetve t'le ab^ss which lies between the 
pvocQrluPG Of classlcisn rr*i tlmt of rocnaiiticlatt. n:iedi e appears as 
a peraonatio who is to rsoke a Jecielon. Tho oth©? personages do 
xjot affect hor aecision but her decision affects them oiiKJc their 
fates arc bound "jy a ccr^ion aoclal utmictiU'c. On the otlioj-- baM, 
Uugenio io the ezpi-essicn of instinctive feeliiig* Ghe does not act 
on "Uie otlior personages introdticod into the novel. She is, on iinB 
oon'oT'-ivy, ^iibj[£ct to successit^e influences and the direction of her 
life depends on the nature of these influences* Tlio whole interest 
in r^hodre lies in the force Uiat is j£ Pheclre l:icraelf • Tlio lE^hole 
interest in S ugenio Grai^ot lies in forces workloj: on I)ug^3ie« The 
central interest, therefore, is, essentially, an interest, not in 
huiTKinity but in the forcos exterior to htaianlty; that is, in the 
forces oxtorior to Dugenie. The interest is in the Pieclionlatic 
•©tirces of hei' cliaro-ctt^r; in exterior environment not in inner 
conflict* Ptoedre's decision t/111 alter her i7orld lj*u.t It ia rXigenio's 
world vrhich will alter her» ?he centre of c^ttontion shifts inevi- 
tably, thoi^eforo, rro?i the psycho lo{jy of huimn cha.Taoter to tiie 
analysis of the cbai^act(;r of tlie dorilnant forces in the vjorld* The 
result is, as wo have seen above, that diffe^^ent elencnts or aspects 
In Uiat v;orld oi'c cliaractcrized by neans of oor-sonageo. It scarcely 
■atte2>8, tmder these cii^imistancos, wliether such elorients work 
blindly or- consciously. The interest is not in the intelligence 
which produces tiie action but in its result. In oi-der to sliow what 
■ay bo considered clmractoristic result, the subject is, in the 
beglnnine, neutral; is, tlicreforo, :>ut^lde of society; is, in 
fact, t7hr>t Salzac describes Uugenie as being,— pure natJirc* *?• 

ht Guiffisarii^ Balzac's iHtolCQ, thei'Gfore, as th© choice of a 
cont7"*al f.lctn'e reprcssntlnfi.- -pxrc ir^tiiictlve feeling in its Meal 
aST>ect aiiil of tiio forces, Gliaraetcrictlc " ontenporary society, 
which SGcl: to donlnato this feeling* Such a choice of persoijago 
con tin:.-:" lets an^ IntGrcat In Hassan persotialitT and adsiczios aa 
interest in the abctract study of nat'orc -xia society* 

Let Its ctvxly lIotro «>Dcg ie ao Paris fron the snwe ^>oiiit of '.rlcnr. Blaat 
ap. tii-'ciii. iixvi^iHoltiant CiUi "bo aaid .<u ..c-.^u i>ii4i;;t;i^ jl-u I^'o'l, u-ioioc 
hci^c? ?;liat ii:, for l5\startcc, tJio ciioraoter of the coatral fisuro? 
£.3Gier;ilda appoara firat as the centre of 'attraction to VhQ Paris 
C3?owd« In tho r.Lidst of a cliDi'i.;uu oii-ulu, -...:c ^u ^^i^ oanaiiTie* 
Hor IxKvuty la ao dafsnlii^ that fo3' Uu> casual spectator It ?.a bard 
to decide i/hetSicr Gho is ixunan 'bcint;, fairy, ot rjn|jcl« Hugo gooe 
or: to describe hoi' pliyoical boau-by lii dei.ail and to suggoat tlxxt^ 
whllo slito la dancln{;, aho appoai»G to the (srowd «i3 sc«net}iiixs laoo?© 
t^.an Ir-r'i^n* Hor 'roicc too h:is vie atiric cM'^.ctor ?.3 hor drxnolcis 
..-.-: ac-' 'joaut^,— an -iiacJ-najLi;; c:;iu.iV.i, v. Qv.i^JiiJil i;_X!.cc» .;.iio 
slrjgs^as she dancsea ,fi'c»i ;iaro llchl^iGss of hoart and hcoaxiao it 
is her natural foiT;i of oxorousion* (1) 

Essaeralda's first appcarcjico la follotTod briofly by ot^.iera btst, in 
O'/ory Instance, tho rif. trirc of Hugo's yroacntatlon la tho sarac. He 
roiifrcsonts iaci- -ij-^- c:i^viii^ii ulio effect alio oiiOi'oi^o^ upon otiioro — 
arid thtxt effect is dotomliied by her phyaicil tiapGCt aal her natural 

ciEir.u -jlw anpc.irr- tsn^yai; tine tinxatida, they re<»gnlse the 
s^jay of YiiiX' {xi'aco :iuu Oiftiu^y a.iiu, on hor pacaa^iO, theii" bi'Utality 

(1) Hugo, l lotro-r-ajne do Paris ^ Oiapter Dim 

coconcc a uui.ion'tar^" 4-\;:io„'^ii\;w>u» i^_) Upon tljc r'eu™u^v> -o. ~au 
•^oui^-r.ollond arxl n^xm. I^ollo die cserciaoe a fuBcination ?7hich Is 

c^ -^11 -^woinnaeat _r ^..iu ..-;.:_ " TutccLt f5?0Ei (ajs?istian -jociety, (2 

jn I?iOc"bni2 int^^oducec bcr into on rji^lctOirtitiG d; -i^oaeri, 'ibe 

radla:ncc or her beauty dcssles the conpany* But tiio\!gl> t^^ey cannot 

^iicy ceck to rind arKiccr-ient by tortm--ir^ tijs dencing glri aal they 
recognise licr proccnco only ua txie r-reiJonce of coTrotjilr^'^ ?hich — 
in c:-itc cf itij accidentiil boauty — I'craains out-c£.u\, l^u^ ^u:iu:.jiui. (3) 
TIzac it iG tbc corio ^ality in mr -^ Ikj:- physicel beauty — ich 
i'!?rrcc trie iTca!:lo to del^-t:ht ^laid. rovei'ence, tho priest v.r^l tlio 
rc-i,^;--ii-; -cuj.iuio to iiati'od, tlie a.rla1x>crats to exijj o..^.. ijrnj^ty* 

It i3 --^nLy indlrcctl^r tln'^ v., "'i her tie t ions v.iid t'lcai ^J'ery "H'lofly 
tiii^t i^.ig'o c.^.- cjuu-i^ri.- ,vi^-'----' -iiio piettis'G* ZsiaQi'alda in 

charity jjivos to tho toi»ttc?od (juasl^rKyio the drinik Tor v/liich ho begs 
the "!:KsartlosG crotfd In v^-in« 3ie {ji' of tho frcst^i^rc rcr.soes the 
c-'u^'u 'wO a.pple.uao aiid iiu^ deriiiec the iwDi^essi^.ni t>^hj ..^^^& oa 
this ocoasion as tliat of frcolmcos, yurity, aritl clmiti» (-i) "lie 
Intorvcnoa, -riUi sinllar i^r.t'r^-^l criarit?,-, in orclcr to cnvo Gi^lngo ire's 
life onu Uiii: acuioa uurvc;- ^jll;;:; jj i-c/u-l tuic _a_ ui^jt-i-i/j find 
supers titiofus quality of hei' virtue • (5) In tlio subooquont scries 
TTlth nioelTvir., in the trial ticeiics, ami at tlte gallosra, ::3i:iei:»aiida 

■1) II^VjO, Hoti^-r-ctnc ic .!^r>.l Sy Clnptcr XII^ 
'5) lSrir>, Chflpter XIIX. 

la represcatod as beijog so a'aaorbeu iu hor oxm emotioua aa to b© 
ocGTcaly cciisclous or tlie cutur world* Her virtue ai^pdars^ there* 
foro, a3 i«roly precarious aril auoject to the c^iprioe of ner 
fG©lint,« liUiCO i^jpa^eaents xior- as ouro iiatm^ei that is, lie i^eiypoaonts 
h.QT as i-ijnocoiit of -lorai or PGiitji">U3 ideas iuid ao eutli'fjly iritiiout 
eduoaiJ-xOii, r^copt i.i tlie fow inabaacoo cj-iiod, sao roKiaina iimctive 
vhile^ Qi'oiind hev, the prieat^ tlic gallons, anrl trw trriaatla ae«k 
to claim her and Qoaai^aodo veolka to keop her aanotwai^ inviolate* 

Altiiouc'a til© vtnlty of tlie iK>vel is obtained throufrh awei^alda and 
tlic interest ii: cojitred cai ho;-- fate, it io not an interest aa to 
tiie fate of iicx- cmiraeter (foi-, as we bave eoen, aho oosi^oasea no 
i^iarQcter) but only as to her Physical Tate? fm' I2araercilda*s life 
la r^^japeaonted in ryhyalcal tei-ias and her tragedy ia aii exterlai» 
»iront not ac iniior failure* Her fate la, iiideed, iiot dependent en 
ber&elf but or\ tlio attitude tairen towai^ lior "arj^ the outer world* 
dia outcp »orld la repirescnted not only in genei^al toiioa but alao 
through three main pei'aciiasoa: Pl^ollo, s^uixsiiriOdo , and Tiioebua* 
ilisit happeno to liasiioi^alda depandc on tlio reauit of the conflict 
betxTcen theae pcri>oua£j-^ and en the lorcea they can coEwiand* Hioobus 
onJoyL the r"i'i?"ll©rGa of tlie iirlatocracy, Prollo the po;?er of tlM 
Chui'ch, but ("oasliaodo lias no force but tliat of binzte atrone:tli* 
©^t tJie c'.latircuiiihine r.iark of each nay bo atatod in such teiTiffi 
aa L'le above is vvniy possible bcoauae, once noro, liugo ia dealing 
in purely ja&terial tciros* 

So stMdy, horrovoi', in detail, one of theae three peracnagec la to 
discover even moi-e clearly tlie isanner in trhich each of thera airis 


up a particular a3?:«ct of r.edloval so^jiety, ' o intx^xjduaes 
QunslnsDclo, Tor exaraplo, \rj ' "'<"-c<^-^lntion oP hiG dofoi'^iitT ■ '? ^.rxl 
concliKles Iiy this soiitencs : "Tel otait 1© rxi^ qxio loa foua 
voaaient de se donnGr." (1) CuanisiOvlo appears, tlioj?ef c3re , initially, 
xs>t in Ills oljseoi^o iiidi^/ldxial llfo irat as tho ropircsontativs chosen 
"by tjao "fouij", t-nt is, "by ':iiG peo^^lo or Paris. IIo is cliosea 
becatise of his very linitationa, 'HhasQ llnitatioas Ixvr Mjn frxya 
pfhS^ioal 'bGaxitr/* Kc is doscribod in tlicse tci^s : ^— II >>v»att, 
c'cot voi boaau. II T^viKiho, c'cat uii banctil* II vtoz reganlej c'est 
voa boi'gne, Youa lui paries; s'cct un somxl^" (2) tSiis doacription 
is ccKiplctod ";>y a fiirtSier obsorvritlon: "n est certain crue l*csprit 
s'ati'opbie dans nn corps nanquo.— — Lc ivrcnicr offet dc cett© 
fa tale organisation c'cti-it do troubler lc regard qu'il ;Jetait svtr 
lea clioocs* n n*on 2-occvriit preaquc aucune pcreepti'^n icriodiate." (3] 
Physically vix-ly, raonL-illy luidovGlo-'ed, Q.\ia.c irnodo io acclalnied by 
ttoe people as their representative and is ccolalr.iod pi'ocisoly 
beomise cf tho very extent of Mo riisfortunoG. 

J«st am BMWEpalda is rcproscnted oiily tiii'oufth iiistiiictive action, 
oo it ifl a purely instinctive life -issribod to tliose peraonaecc who 
«ntor the no\»cl In tholr capacity as representative of sotie portion 
of the world which i^ir rounds tSie central figi;r-o» Ber« too Qaao3*odo 
may serve r.o an exi^nnio^ Hii£;o notes the instinctive qu:.lity cf 
his life on. tnany occasiosis. He nritos: "H ctait trop loin do 
l*etat de societc ot ti'op pi^es de I'etat le ^lature poui* savoir ce 

(1) ISogo, Kotr o-Dcjiie de Paris. I, D6, 

h) xbid;, I, ns. ^ 

Z) TuTu., I, 17L.» 

quo c'eot quo In. hotito," (1) An-. in lGacrx_x;;t> nxii v'j : "sorte 

de deral-haane Instliictif at 3atiVEi£;e.»»" (2) He ima Quasisnodo say: 
"— j4on rmlbeui^, c'cst quo Je rcasoviblo oncore tJ£^^n a I'liaratae. Je 
vou-drais 'ctre to-;t a fait ^jnc "b^ic ccrmo cotte Glibvro.'' (o) 
VJhatOv-er intor-est is attached to f.^uaulnodo, tiioi'e-Tor'o , ic not tlie 
interest attaclicd to a i^asonirig li\:Enan hclo^^ It ia not an interest 
in hta^in d^^raoter, Quuiiinoclo liveo. In fact, in tlx) scasie mode 
as Saaetralda. LUro l^er ho Is "pres de I'otat de ncturo'^. 

It vtust bo noted, noroovor, that WiG attitude s?hicli acicli of the 

tiireo r.ialn perssonacos asourics is i:ilioront in his; ejctcmmi attributes 

i»i\t^K>r Uban in inner jud^yients* R?ollo, as a p!:»let;t, dli; trusts 

physical bomity and oo cories to liato it» Hugo chowo Pi^ollo as he 

beconos e.^raro of this result: 

11 rerwa an fond do son coour touto sa bainc. tcnte sa 
Biocimncetd, ot il i^econiriL — .— que cette lialne, que c6tte 

BK^cJiancote n'ctaiont quo :: I'annu- "icio, iiic I'Luaour, 
cetto source d© toutc vortu clics I'hor'xio, toumait en 
chosco horribles dans -jn coour de pr^tre, ce fcicalt 
d<3bion« (4) 

Ilioebos^ as an nristocrf t, enjoys physical beauty coj^oledsly and 

lndifrercntly# Quiiuirwxlo, the man of the peo-^le, reveres it» 

aigo vn'ites of Qjiasiiaodo 'a attitule to Csrieralda: "On cut dit 

qu'll sentait c^o c'otait uno chose delicate, cxquiso et pi^ecicuse, 

faitc pour d *autrec riaina quo les sien.'ies*" (5) 

It is apparent that the entire intcroot of the novel is concentrated 

(1) Bi^o, Ilot^'O-rnno do Ptu'in, I, CCkl, 

(2) Ibid., -i, itic; — ■^'~' — " 
(4) ^r: «, II, ivio. 

upon the vai'lety of attitudes inspired tij Saneralda» But, sinoc 
LSEim^alda appears only in hor pi3yalcj.1l aapoct^ in tbo aspect, that 
iG, or ntituT^il beautj, the- attlt^fele ">" '"-^ -^Icst, >^K)do, 01? 
Ftioolxis naj be coon as iiisji^lrocl not by Iii3i£itji\ilda au a mrilcular 
person "but 'aj SsxieiTvlda as tin alxstract idea present in their 
iBB^inations* Ho one of these Rien i3«r;/s SsRcar-lda as a person* 
^Efcey 13MW7 her only as nlvit she B^bolisee to th«»s» It is to be 
jwted too that t}io coEtj-aon tstandard oC Judgraent v/hich prevailed in 
such a classical cork as Androigac^ue and detcnnlncd the attitude 
of every one of the charactoinj in desoitc or his rartieular paeslMi 
has, in Botre^Damc le Paris , been ci^nplctely Torgotten* The 
universal standard is replaced hy t?ic separate standards applied 
by Prollo, ^uasinodo, and T'iK>oau3« Ginco ai£:o jiakos Esaeralda a 
synpathetic ri^tirc and since her ruin is aocoiapliohed Ijy Phoebus 
and Prollo, tlie re mil t «ill bo to discroiit tho ctandoi^ of 
Jtidgnient ijhicli actuated theci and, at 'Joe saac tinie, to exalt t^hat 
Instinct ^ilch m'gcsi v::ua3 iLtodo to save Irier. 

But these t^ersonagcs do not, as we mve seen, judge as liviividualsW 
5Biey act innt.lnctivoly as Reraberc of a given clasa. ihcy accept 
tho conventions Tihic'n dotomlne tlieii^ lives, Kiis is tr^io even 
of Q^aslKodo sinco Inctinct nay be to bo the coir/cution vrtiich 
usually detcmlneel the people to action. \I!hc ix;3iilt is Uunt the 
Judgment Jhich tlie reader nakes In reg^i'd to any one of tho tliree, 
in regard to Frollo, for exariTile, is, actually, a jud^aent of the 
abstract sentlnent ho i^epreaents — the sentirient of tlie priest, 
not the sentiment or the Kan> It beco ics plain, therefore, tlmt 
Bkigo*a cboico oi personages is, in realty, a choico of ideas. His 

personages are Interesting, not is hurmn beings, but becaiiso of 
theli* repine wfcjai/utiVe cjitalitlt^b* 

Jxx c-'itc of the irxRiexIlate cliffei^^nces©n Eijg^e nie G r£ >ndet and 
TiOtrO'pQv.Q -le I \xrlG, It seoriz ovident u...o two ftnctcrs of choice 
arc cca:Bnon to botI^ Bolsae and IKi(jo» Iji the fipot place, the 
cliarc-ctei' interest has ceasod to repa'KJGent an saitSwntlc interest 
in human cl-iarr,ctcr oiii(x. 'S^.^ ;^r•oU\iJoniiJt existe "'■ ' •" -lvt?ie of 
in::;tinct. In tiie accoixl lace, the !>, being denied 
pGyc^iolo^'icrd lntc?'OGt, are 'cltbcrcitoly endov;cd. Instead, with 
i-w^yi>^-i^^^u^.v.. •• .:.v<u» ..l;>.-y .)econe, in f-f"- , -'0-=^- a^trib^ites of a 
slnc'lc individviai'c v;orlcI, tJiat t^oi'ld whioa lnipi:^e: n the 
consciausnoca of t1^ ccntr^il fii:»ire» They are no lonsoi' In^lependent 
ar^l to "be Juui^cu o Guch, !I!lic;, placed in i-oL/.tion^ "a 

cin^e centi^al fltnu-e aija it is Ijy these relations that they are 
jxxdged, I'^.ist as it la itt their rolatl'Jns ulth '^ijronl'^ tJTat Charles 
or Gruii-c i* is characterised, oo 't io in ^tiu-..: :v ■-".-■ -'-'-ris that 
all the porGonases arc judged \y^ l>heii' i^lationa fitli Ilaaieralda— 
by tholr relatiokio, that is, rlt!i a flGui^e ^ho is almost a plmnton.d 
It i'- to be. ©n\^iasiacd, noroo 7 v, tliat suo-i i, . oas^uri. .^ od la 
not tjr?t ccjnrmon to society; for Engenio, in Bolsae *s i.'>rosentatlon, 
ii» specifically set "mtslde the cocloty which :3tirro>.inds her (2) 
p.nd rsnior-.l:''-;". f.r> an nitcast (au ^r.s TTonan In riedioi-il Clu-istlan 
tiicory)» llie Hicaoxirinc i^od — r>.ie;onle or nssierolda— has, in 
citlior case, all the tcmaousnccs of idea and little real hunan 

<1) £f ':":.■! a it referred to, by HtifiO as well as by the other 

ag y, Igsj: often ':& c .■.■'■'''l ymn as f'\lr7, ' -f. "1, vision, 

s&iaamnder, apms'ition, goddeiis, sylph, and in otlier analagous 

(2) See above, p. 29, quotation cited frc^n liXigCTiie grandot , dro. 

Can Dxigcnlo Grind; t mid H otro-r/rirte go Paris be said to be typical 
or v>oiTtanticist practlao in goaoral? It>uld "bo easy to answor 
tills qjiostio;i ii' \70 iiavs resard to t.ia in eta vmica Imve been 
suites ted i"raa a study of theae two nov«ltt» tn the first place, 
is it tmio "Uiat lamnticisn dGala aX'noat ©ntij^oly i.'ith ncr^sonagos 
who live on the iiuitlnctive piano? A gonernl cmrvay of x-cio no-vcls 
•uiilGi' discussion t.III roquii'o us to jiako an afflniKiti'/o reply* 
Seme of tho most mcnorable fijnrt^cs in tho rwiantlciiit no"«/els include 
the eavage Chactas, tiie Ixiptilsive Dolphino, the contlmontal ^xaSJUum.^ 
the SGrai-sava^:e Gilliatt, the paiisicwiatc i^iortunio; Stollo, who 
is pui^G intuition, end Vautrin, v/ho is dcfiarice and hatred, liore- 
over, where claiisicissn placoo ito pixstagonis^ in relations trith 
society, rorianticisri usutlly preiientG its protagonist as artificially 
8epai>ated rrom society', "Kiis, as we have seen, is true of Dug^nio 
as it is true of lUaneralOa. It is trrio, likeirlse, of Vicny's poets 
and coldiors, of Reno and Chactas, of Corinna and Joan Valjoan, 
of Gautior's egocentric artlots i^od Balsac's nonoiiimiacs. It is 
true of Gar^'a Lelia, Lucrozia, aiicL Jacques, it io, appai^ntly, the 
typical oit^iQtlon uhetiicr or not apparent exceptions nay ariso'. 
It uciina tliat the intcrcat In -:.hc novel of vo-iantlclsn. neither 
centres around raan./in his individual no:- In his social deteminatlon. 

The conflict wiiich inak&G the drrana in classicism is sinclo or 
Railtiple but is always tiio saaae conflict: that bott?eon the dual 
aspects of each E»n*s chaiv.cter. The coni*lict vhich makes the draiaa 
in roimnticisia 1g externalized nu ocoui'S betv?eon t..o t^ nore 
pas*scnagos« Bie trfigG>.>y or eofriody in classic oractice in thnt of 
clmracterj the sad or rmppy ending in lorianticiara appears as 

oxteimal event and rxjt as any dcvelorsacnt of character. ThQ 
ujiiversal staaiai^ o- .tuclgiaant ^nich oach perr^onage in tba classic is t 
liter*•Jlt^Jj:^3 ap-^lied to Ills oirn iprobleri ia re Uacod in :^omaatlolst 
litcrattn^e by aa any dlTiCrent ah-.nd'ir^s aa tJiorc ai-e p^ii?«onage3« 
Gmnacit jvtc%cs as a raltior-, i^olio as a priest, ^uaairuado as instinc- 
tive r.ian of the i^ople* It la evident, the/'ofore, tliat wlieroaa, 
111 claasicisri, the choice o£ pe.v&onaije i-, in no "lay, detxjndout on 
the exterior ci?'cn«nat£mCG8 of station, cluas, or ctillini^, since 
tlao standard o.t* hunan jiid(jrient is not dependent tiiereon, in roiaanti- 
cism, the variation in the atiindrird of juJgiTient is an Qxcopticsoally 
liaportant factor. Titii auch variation tiie autlior*s choice of 
pSPamOL^e ^ist inevitably suggoot one criterion to bo superior to 
another; it t.'III bo apt, indeed, as in Heti-'e-Doae de Pax" is ^ to 
set the etr.ndards of one clues againct tiiose of anotlierj thus it 
w5.11 cavtSG tlie choice of personage to be dependent on type rather 
than ciu,racter, Grande t, for exniaple, is a type deliberately chosen 
as such, as roay be seen frosa the quotation cited above* (1) 

Borocver, the lack of any universal ci Iter ion is not confined to 
tiie author's cdaoficn iTsrooaftfles "tjiit is true of tiie author &s hoU* 
BftXzac reprenenta Gi^ndet as imi>ort£int In IXigenio'a life bocatiae 
he is typical of **le eeul die*; Modeviie". TtrnQ he is using 
contonporary aocicty as his |>oint of refe^'once^ 3u^o lias Trollo 
oeadwm his oun attitude because it la tint of the prlci.^, not tliat 
of the ctTKiQon man* Baso intoads, api>areirlly, t^a \ise tlic cccffiion 
»an as his point of reference* ,.liat la true in tv;o cases Trill be 
true in i>mtjmorable Ciuies* Reread ttio quotations v/lilch refer to 

(1) See abovo, p, 51, Kefoi^jnco is to quotation fron IXirenle Grande t . 
507, 303* 

nugenio or to QiiaBiraodo, for Instrrcoi^ and oufcoinr© hc^ aonetantly 
tiie auUjOi' intcivcno45 In omcr "Lo QXplein }>iB personage* uh^a. 
I;5iii:uc rcJLaicc one oi lX2i;ciii€ 't.^ c-ctiftu*, lic 4.'eoli», at Vhb s^^fae tliie, 
tii^ necessity oX Jj.torpretlrifc it and £a<i&; "L *iu:iocoiieo ose seule 
«.4.6 telies i:e.rcliesses»" (1) l&igo describes 'xi:r;a3EK>do*& p3iyeical 
cleroi^itlea acu at once pi^occodn zo In. Uiv i't^ \. theto verorsiities 
in tb& llt:ht of his own bcllcX"; '11 ect certain v:tiq i 'esprit 
B*atrcpbiG dans un corps iMuaqa^*'' {£) Thus the author actimlly 
beccsacs a .>c3.'ocEe.t;C In tlio .irai.iu» It rnay be st^gostoU that the 
difrcronce betucen cluaaicisa and rojaintitsitsjf in this r^spaot is 
€»xplain^ by the diTroi oiice in tiie conventions jHilutin*- to dvama. 
(xsofl novel* Cortainiy, tlic diTferoxice la even rur»tjier accoutiiatod 
ahGii tiie coniXirison is inadc botwtion classic di'ama and ra tan tic novel 
but tlK'-t diiTeroncu still eoiiattj, nevortbol^so, v.-^jen tho ccy-iparison 
la . '-idu uotAVcen tlitf clacaic jjiid i^oi^in tic novel* do La layette 
relates iiaiJartially the Koriente of .ioakixjso und atreneth as tSiey 
auooood OV& unotlior in tlxQ comioiousnfitSct of l&^jC^eme do Cloves* I&igo 
or Balsac, as tiie quotations ahov:, explajjq the genoaia of a certain 
riia^ ^tttitaJe in each or tlieir noreonagcs c-.n-l^ In tiiiit oxplRnation, 

; auUiOi-*& t-.a.s la revcalod "y tho very ncijoctlv^s 'k- nsos or 
Uio an£t.lo^:ics he asaploys* By choosing for himself ono o«t of all 

stanuai'ds poseiblo the anciior is choosing; not inly a reforczwse 
foi' hiaiselT iii hiii life but also c: rcfci'once for tho popoonaces 
..lio iippear in his ca-t* 'oSao iinportanco of tlio uisappcv.i^ncG of 
.Iversal standard of jud^pont cannot, tixos^oforv^ be ovoi*- 

(1) Biilsrc, E-.i-^criio Gi-.Mxlct . 30» 

(£) mco, I^ ['/._ o ,c a;rit> , I, 175, 

As lidS beon siifrg^sted, one of ..;evitab.le i»esults of S'leh an 

vxio'MQ:f^^l , unre^'ulaio^i >mlvo7'oo is tlrtt iTMch Introcbtces the atitlwr 
Iilrtsel? as the interp:^eter of h fictlcnial citation. E^t there 
Is a socorsS fona of intoriTJ'ot^iclon anr.l It Is lihig j^ict \;hlch 
esplntns the lntr<Dtt«cv.ior8 iii-Lo ^nny of tlic ro:jantlcist noirGlG of 
peiraona^s wlio do iiot» in any way, affect tlio action. Cluitoaioriand, 
fca? ©»:(niple» .lntz»oduceo Into Atala a v^rieat ^ho, altiiough his I'ole 
Is given considerable iiaportancc, appears, novortliclous, osily cus 
a Sis in tor Gi:; tort si">octntor of 'ilnu actlcew Thic ic also true of 
pere Souol's a:^i)e£u?ance In Keno* Tlieir s^el^tion to the otiior -ior^ 
sonages le neither social rov sentiirental» Tnoj ar5E>e£c= only In 
order to jUiiGe» Siey hear the otor-/» welch the ovldenco, cxsl give 
Vae verdict. Yno^ act soneu-hat In the nannor of the old Greek 
olK>i^^» ISielr function beoceos even nore obviotis in Dolphino ^rhere 
Stee* de StaSl Introdueos a is^ole series of ^/oiaen peruoxmgos who ore 
entirely Dutside of tlie rm.hi s^ctl(.>n and in no rray effect Uio 
develo^xient of tlie '"lot. "Trioi ' inti*oditctlm trould accm, therefore^ 
to be TTuroly gratuitous". Further study, however, reveals the 
fact thit each of theoc rrcncn is offerin; the naric inter pre t^r-t ion 
of tiio ooi'Tont nttitU'.le tOHr.rd life and is siJi:C'^«t'i-'^ dlffci'ont 
solutions of the problem 7/hlch this attitiiao in^rolves. Mile* 
d*Alb»aar, line* de Belmont, Ifeio* do Lebcnscl, I5-:o. do Cci'l^bes, 
present to Del^hine hi tuim Uieir piiiio-io -i^ca 'f life :::xl t":cir 
succosaive interj^retatdorio accordinL- to tlieir varying standards of 
^Jderaent serve v.s interludes in the '^jaiti act 1cm;. liore obviously 
timn any otJier of the romanticists, Vicny introducos into his Hork 
the per3<vnti£:o rfhose r^c is \>lalJily llsaited to that of comentator. 
3^ Cinc;~Kars Comelilo and Mil ton fulfil tliio rolej in Ctollo 


ar*a Zy C. vSin; 3a ^telio and Boctem'-Iloir; ami in "_ ^ ; f iliore aiwer^rs, 

a£ ncU, tlio Jew wlio^s letters fori fir matrt r.ov? i. 1 '^--i of tbe ^x><^ 
Eic FtG'elj accidental relatlcn^-ilp ,."'iiji: ;x;iiicna^oij sxich :.s tlicse 
■bc7J* to the action la not loss evident "in the aoTcls into Tihicli 
Sand lntfod-ic">G V\W!m 'nan^ thonr -^orsonagos wlioso only rgason for 
esistenc'j i<h..;' ix? © -;^ xi^. iip..n their funotion o ciionic and 

tbeli^ T'illinfnoas to offer apjiarently iaintDPesls*.! testin^ny uxid 
liatsrprctatlon, hq v^ay montlnn the ^ t.5.B»ice of Ilatiix-'at , Jean Japi)e- 
loup of Le l^alae Co l.:« ; " o, the "iiive" of liivoiior ot ^ ). 

/jQGcl of Spi: ,^ Jacques and Gli"" Kalpli of Le Z-laalo aux c.'m^ ^ ^a . 

the nasT:»r.tor of Hora.",e , ojlvla of Jacguea , dan Aleo Leone Leoni » 
On tiic other i^iand, or.ception ?nade of tiic Aro^-rt oi: Go1j.c-c1 ot 
cello*!:. , Iluijo, Balzac, ami Gautisr offer no exr^ipls of tlio 
lntrod.iiotlr?n of o norgona^io i-»er-ely In oi^de-' t'lat he itay sei^-^re as 
jud^:© and Interpreter* 

Yet the '^rcGcnce of s'^'.eh ix^ri^-oniiires In tliG r-nortory of rariantlcisaa 
is a significant uugiiry. The ncrt tliey play is qiilte distinct rroo 
that o^* the "confidant" '«ho a ncu\-'& In classical ai^iria* Bio 
"confidant' was Involved in the r.ction ttt'OLtgli his loya3,ty to his 
TCfiSte?*. 15k; rvs^antlc "intcroi-etev" has a llfn entirely apart froai 
tJiat of v/hlch he is spectator* Moreovor, each of the ixj^incipal 
eirxraGiXi'"S JUi cliicsiictet dixirna ni^ht liave a "" wlisj^oao the 
"Interpi'cter" la a -xirtlSHii T.'liose voice recoivos autl^ority frora 
tbe mere fact that ho is represented as a di;iint>Grest©d speetc.tor» 
211© iw^ser^cje of tJie '* confident" wns <i\ o, in fact, to the erisencles 
of tlie dt^na oiiil the claesiclot novel uoco av/oy with even this 
BiiOjeotion of c^sanentary. The nero existcnco of llie "interpreter" 

In the fOTTontiolat novel ln<3.1&'^t©5, •^, plainly onon^, the 
dlTfitnilty sliicli the T^riter r?.cod "hen he attempted to lnteriH»©t 
tl2ro\i^ lltGixitnre a world 'jhicli Imd lost its fixed bisls for 
inter pro tatlon£» 

So close Is the x^lntionship that necessarily oxints betr;eon tlio 
choice or r^vsoiiaiios anti the rmnner of tt:oii' "^egonVition tha.t to 
dlscutiG one Is Incvitahly to fliaGtit;s the othe3-» o aiiv^, for instance 
already o"bS€T*ved tlKj fact thr\t, in the ronantic novf;l, the natur« 
of the fate in V7}iich the personr^oc is involve<l dononds upon oxtornal 
causes. ISio Iocs of a vmivarcril Idor^l io directly petioonsiolo for 
tills* ^-"o trc^edY in clasEtcla^ is tlie loss of :aclf-control, tlio 
failuro to rioasure xip to tlio ideal. In rcHaantioisri each individual 
Is folloifinij his oi7n ideal nnd 1" ho does not att-ain to it, it is 
only hecaiise or the lr3;>ossi"bility of eillo'.ilar free :^lay to the Ofro 
and the ecolstic irapiilsefl*. This is tlic nature of the tragedy in 
poimntlclsii:. Tliis in tsKJ iH>ason Cov ita oxteinmlijiation* "Pot, if 
the obstacle can never lie in the individual ec;o. Intent on its 
individual ideal, it miot lie bcycHaJ the oso, in tlio material world 

Consider, for ox'tn-^lc, the -manner in ^hich T^enc is ->rc3ontod. Rono 
ascrlbeo directly to God the !iat?ire which he is rcpr-jucutod to 
posscsG: **— G*33t toi, .Utr-ft supr^no, snirce d*ancrar et vie beaute, 
c*G3t toi scul cpoi me orcas tel quo je ouio, at tol sooil me pettx 
coaprontli^ r* (1) Ko fcclc the ©nl of riio lifs appo.-'oachinc aai 

(1) Cliateaubriand, Les Hatches;, Z'.'-?., 

"uoo Joluta in tiiose tciTisi 

— Ja a*Ga.;t^G do la vloj l*Giiiiul n*a tCRijouvo devor^: 

ce qui Ij" :ie Ic ' ly^?rr?es no nio^ '.Int. 

— — :^i ... _-... ^ ..ii A '' _ , l:i c:ooi.&l6 ot la ri'ont 

las^^» Je sulG vertuGiix sans plalsir; 3:1 j^otals crl.Tilnel, 
jc ic acraia l. uxia*— '-- Qmo ^^ ' ^ "-^^ 

adlGU, oil rjue „v „ ^ v >'a3, 2?ovolr . , ,, ... , . alqv»e 
ciiose no dit que :m destiiioc a*acc<xipii% (1) 

Sals ic --nc cf Eeno'c noDt cli:\i*actGrlctlc opeocl-tosv TTctXr.o tliat 
tiio oirTipathy ;;hich he hopec co iaspii*^ In Celuta^ toid, at the same 
tfcie, i3?iicli Chatoaubrland expects to Inaplre In tlie reader. Is a 
s^aipatiiy occo2\Iod liim bocauso of the adverse c ircutititancos wlil<^ 
he iias GiiCount.<5rocl» It io quiU; otiici-^ilse in classicist practice 
where '^liatevcr QjP'ii'iatlr^ the prota^joiiist ecuiraands Is due to 
adjiilratlon of his CiKirc.ctnr» At VAa ac^rao tlr^e, '^ene*3 tragedy may 
socragi £"UiX)rf iciaily, to Ix. a U^agudy or Cijaractfei'^* Iflils ia not 
true, hoffovor, in the classicist oons^* ?hedi^e*s tragedy is due 
to tlie ravi.£-cs uorkcd on her cliarc.cter hy riaGsion. Eeise I« destined 
to oniiui, dositincd liOt to la'ioy iovo» is Vila ta'agedy. Biit^ 
since it is evident tint r>.eno aclaiotiled^es hliviGoir to be the jaippet 
of cii^ctoustarices and iiicapablo c" ciodlfjrinc hlo .-im ^t^-, *he 
tra^oo^" ic pui'cly ■•x-ciianliitic lii liatui^e* In a siiillar . iiniier, 
Q'uai;i!:uDdo'£; tragtxly isi cviden-iiy due to physical rat3ier tlKan spiri- 
tual cii'rnr^rr:v-;nccs# In hie cas*;, the "^hycicnl eaune llec in i.tie 
appeai-auow ;..;_ic, in IlcKie's dso, tlic pliyslcal caiise is revealed 
tlirouf^ hia ixiiisions, and, in IXigonic Grande t . It is revealed tlirough 
tlie natcrifilisEi of Gi^ndct and Clmrlos. 

On tiic otlicr \^nl, it «111 Ik; I'oaemhcred t}K\t, in clans icist 
(1) ChrtGaubrland, Lcc i: , • 

pi'jxctice, the conody nho^a the extronjc of any passion as subject 
to T'ldidilr* But i*o"iuntlclGin shorrs tiic cxti^oic n.a nonriarsding 
adnlratloxi, reaiioct, or fear, nrj:'pr.£Ton Is mocked Ijut Gi^r.Met Is 
respected l7y his follow torrnsricn and feai'od Ijy Eugonie* It is the 
perfection or ■.y*aBixio6o*:^ ii^liiiesa tlia^ c-rrtmda the acfcriration of 
tliC people of Purls, /.leeatc ta rldieuiod out JJacquos, v/b.o Is 
likatT3.SG tho c'3n'^l0t.o nisantl^i'Oi-'iBt, Is prcoentod as a nodal of 
perfection. Siis Is the obvloue corollai';?/ of the lock of any sot 
standaixl of values* Jr.ccucs is c nvinced of tho justice of his 
own convlctl ins and follous U xm to tx logical conclijolnn, that is, 
to the cxtr'OTTO dlct-ated ]yj sentiment anil tmcorvected 'jy any 
x^cusoimhlo J"v'd^,riont« Tlie presentation of clioi^acter roduced to tli© 
x»^e3cnti;tion of tlie extroiaes of different points of view appears, 
tiieiHJf'X'^e, as I'lo coixrrn j^i'cctice in jvTnanciclsn, In such a novel 
as Sand's r 2^ Q trhere Lucie Is surroimdod by 

boi' fatlior, iier ijrandf ither, her flnncc, an'A hor cpiritiial adviser, 
it can LCr;!Xjely seer: onti-'^ely fortnlto^is tlint <^.ch. of thOi-j© per- 
sonages iirosents different -and hi "•ily conti»a3ting rcllGi' <is idoals 
carried to tiicir absolute e:xtroRie« In tliese ctrciBastancos tlie 
fact th't csach T>e"i*rsonasc presents a dlf fe^^ent ide^il of conduct 
b€>Cv:i:;oa sisnlfioant and, indeed, stAt^iiests t"mt tlxo Introdiietion of 
a poi^oonaro corresponds to the inti»odiiction of one of the \mriou6 
abstract examples of idetils tiriono K}iich a choleo rtay be nade. 
Such a choice of pei^conti^e is die tn ted Ijy t}ie desire to nvoseat 
an ideal of r^llj-ion anul la dotoTTn'ned by tlic fact tliat riich an 
ideal 1:;; no loiicor aeoepted unquesti minijly as mo and indisputable. 
In I5alj;;ac'G L'lntcrdl'.tlon tho nsaj^cuis d'rspard and his %-lfe live 

soparate.1 fron one cnothor because,, tyhllc l^ie marquis Uvea by 
ideal of a vanlchcxl cacicty o,"" fixed, standards, tho maansalQe Uvea 
by tlie Idoal of tiic contompoi^arj-* riaterlalistlc society. Here once 
more tiie prosGntation of iJerson;ige becofios act\ially tlio presentation 
of an ideal and the fact t^iat there Iv, no longer £'.ny ainfjlo 
accented convention as to tlio perfect social systcmi is at the root 
of the presentation of tlie&o Balzexsian fifxuxssW 

Bie question Imcdiatcly£ : if one roemntic peraoimoe laresont* 
the extrerae of a glvoii ideal, rnotijer personage the extreme of 
anotiuo* ideal, and so with each of tl\o personages of a novel, is 
this virt^ially to ory that tJse i crmntic ijersonage ia iJi^eoeutt^d 
only tlirot^h one ^in^jle aspect of l>ein£:? It is o£ inooiaparablo 
importance for the nax'^KHios of our utady to doterm^.ne to what extent 
SQCh an assunption is true since tJie key to tlie uhole problee? of 
efasraeter creation in ronantlciisra lies in the conclusiona Ijaplicit 
Sb meSi a question* 

An ansvcr can only be raode oy refc!>onee to definite rcT^ttonages'* 
And, because Balzac •s Grande t fonaa jriJch an interesti:ig contrast to 
lloliero's Et.rpayon, he way mill servo as one of lur references j 
while. In order to shov; Yxnvt c^iaracteristic Balzac's procodurt, Is^, 
It will bc: nccGnar.-i-^j to trace cai efully sc»ne otlier typical Tnethod 
such as tlmt of i|nc* do Htacl In her 'presentation of one of her 
princiiml pci^conacoB :* 

It lioa been shojm tliot Qranc?.et anpeara in 2uGei"Jie'o ^/orll as the 

doalnant force, avjniiiiie up in hljnaoir the whole spli'lt of t2ie 
contcniX)ra2*i oo^ioty. (1) It i:. -ily iiatur-al, tiierefoi'o, tlmt, in 
tlie COGS tr-v'-ct Ion of the uorld in wiiich lM£<^nlQ mist rkjv©, Balsac's 
..ttcntioQ £lioiild, as ap-jeoi-a to b© tlio c&8e« be alriosi entirely 
concentrated an the riij-ui'© or Grandet* The eai'ly pagoo of tho lx>ok 
do little iao:^9 tlian Tnentlcai 2ut;cnie*s naaae* On the ot.ii©i' haai^ 
tliose pCiQes ure concerned -..itli a sttitenient of Gi^andet's financial 
stcitus ar^ a dOQcription oJ tlie nothods by Tihich Grandot sucaoeded 
In inpr ovine that stat-us and in incrocalng L-iie value of his 
possess lci:3* One such ricthod is trie acquliiitioa q^ u uiffi for Vm 
sake of her acsTY a»i tiiC procpectlvo Iniiei Itances* Of caothey 
motJjod Balzac vn-ltesi "H avj:,lt fait fJiire dans I'intorot de la 
ville d'excellonts choiain£i qui nenalont a aes pi^pritTtea*" (2) 

Sixiilarly, Grandet'a imputation asione the inliahitantii of oaiaav 

le in direct i-elation tc the value of liia poaseosions* It is a 

reputation rhich Icsoo sittht of tlie rmn ©ntii'ely and pays heod only 

to the :aonci' which he ropreeents: "tlonsioui^ Grandet obtlnt alors 

le nouveau titrc dc ncbleose q.\ie noti'e imr.le d'^gollto n*effaco3?a 

Jainals, il devjnt Ic r>lMS l-^'Ose dc l^arrondisseracnt,'^ (2) 

n n*y avalt dans Sa'^psur poi^oonno (;ui ne fut persuade ciue 
r - ■ ' -rur' Grandot n'cut \m tr^sor- pia-biciallor', xmo c te 

-de loxiia et ne se dori;iat nuiu:jnniont les iiiei. . -.^ 
jc6,iiC3n.nCG3 rue procure la vue /. 'ima ^jrande liiaooo d*oa*» 

Lc3 avr.rlcteux en avalcnt unc oo " ' . voyant 

lo:: youx du ':jon"-^^;.r o, :a:xj.uc1o 1^ ''^ __ ., . _._ ;it 

avoir cor.r ainiqu(^ sec teiates* — »— Zionsleui^ Graiidet 
inspirait ": I'caiimc I'ec.^oc' o h laq^ c"" it 

droit vin c,-ui n^ da /alt rien a .. ••.•(^^) 

(1) Gee abov^, p« 31« reference is to quotation fr<sa I^ugenio Graiidot- 

307, 300. -^^^'* 

(£) Balf:ac, DiK-'nio Crandot- 2^1. 

It .t.:. nly fron the rir-Qnclcl point of vicvT wiax iiis actions ar« 

cnviiiagecl and It Is the financial ">:int of vtev* that inaplj'eo 

v.'hatovcr rc'^^ti^'f'^'*- ^"'•^ nr'^imos In others: 

Flnr- "^ :-!nont •^ar'-xi-.l-j tpo " ■" " " '6 

et u_ .-,_: il oavait cc c . ..-, „ -— , - -- .,-,'--" 

longtcnr^j aa pi^io, sautcr cicssus; rjoia il o'uv_'*ait la 
giiciilG ■ ' ' " unc ' J d*ecus, 

et CG - ^-- - „ - „ -^ .- -> . le &.. . -. qxii 

dioe^^o, inposslolc^^froM, ; i^-Uaodique. Personno no Ic 
^onrtiit ^oaDGor sans c zontlr.\Q- •• ■ • - : .v^ 

aela^GO tlo roapoct . . _ ^_ ii*"* Cbav .„ _.^ n' 

n'ai'-ait-ll pas scat! lo dechir.srioat :x>li do aea ^'riffes 
d»aci0r? (1) 

Accorcllncly, from the point of view of tho srtoll ?;o:>ld of Sa-oamrp, 

:;also.c show© Gmndet to s'crR'"^SGnt no nr-rQ t^ion a ncasc, a r&jm& not 

alcnif5.caat, 5ji any way, of rriicnivy juz oqiiivalcnt vmly to tlie 

sitrn of gold: "XJne si fortime couvrait d*xm r.m.ntca\x d*or 

totitee Ics QCtioriB cic cot bc«B?c«" (2) 

To indiccte Gmncct's relations to ihc craaller i'orld of :i8 own 
haae, Bolsac r.- la toe the Tntinrer* n " >i*r: rl-.^rntic oconoray rod details 
the chcrrctpr and extent of his only Inrjo-v/n cxnenses* In those 
paragraplio, ho rmy 1>o snid, f.ndecd, not to bo -iOEcribing a nan Imt 
an econoriic s^-stcm. 

Finally, Balcac treats the qiiestion of the relation betvreon tho 
outer rianner end the inner r.nn* He ^Tritos; "Los aanici-ec de cot 
hoamc dtaiont fort aiiaples»" (o) Once Taoro rJ.1 trace of liLrsanlty 
Is noelectod and tJiore erTcrGos only o cyst^OT of economy althorugh, 

(1) Bale no, ii3pon?.o G'*anJet- 28o« 

(s) Tl^r,, ea.. 

In this case, Omndet orxs'-'clsc^ t*'"^ ec'nony not in thn mttei» of 

ana social intercoiiroc* 

H jKirlait pcu. r'r.illcnH'S, quatix 3os c:2ictos 

aut&nt que des fo aUsC^brlquoc lui Qoy^^/ric'v.: 

1. ■'c- t:o\i^o3 lea 

d: ^ . (1) 

n n'cLllait j ana Is cbec pcrronno, n« -vron la it nl I'ecevoip 
n? a d^ S 11 nc ' * :'• • ° ' " .it- qx> 

L. " r tc-at, ^ . . . ) 

Tip to tills point, Qrandct, rernalni;, tlKjrcforc, TJhat iio was wlicn 1^ 

t o.T-TCtircd: a r-ici^ nnnc r.ttaclicd zrbltrririly to o. T/oodon 

. aiiT-tjc* .dic iiaiic licio cjne to rcprc^aat^ firstly, the gold for 

wiilch tl:ic vll3figei'£ inspect jind fear hliri; secciKliy, the eeoncm^ 

rrlilch -TTcccrnrco t'ruit cold and liven ::nly In rclntlcainlilp to lt» 

iiici'^c I'cmiiiii, :.ov;c"'J'Gi', die piyr^ieai '-Ciicriptioa o-' Uio ixr.-Gon of 

Cr-cntiGt» Sils pliyslCT-l dcGcrlptlon It. Given at l.:'iigt:i« TIio reader 

iicJ:cc -Jic t''nn' of Gmnact Jt2i;t r.o he n!"ht noire tlic toxir of sane 

iiipo. :..-g - : : lent crti, uhui i:e ptiujct. .o aal: the- r.ioaniiig cf tills 

ulk rind Ox theco ■tn'-onaod Sov.turcij, Df*lLac licictens to givo his 

£;uidn.ncG. lie c:'pi::in5: tiic ptiycic.l sl^-nifl'-^-^nce of Grandot's "bwlk 

in -w^iTiic of L-.v'^r-ice: 

Ccttc fiijUTQ arnoDi^jiit ttiie finocsc daacci'CAioo , xino jTroTjitQ 
sanr ' " , I'tfeolome d * "^mo ^^ ' * p "^ ^ 2' 

ooc _ , . :%Q danc J.U j. . .. .ice dc „' _ ie 

scul, etre qui l"ui fut rebllo v nt do cjielqtie ehoae^ sa flllo 
Dufjenie, mi. Boule udi'itiei'o. (3) 

Even tlTc luioaii scntlrxint v.-hich rolatoc a rsxn to hlo dauti'liter Is 

tTfinalatotl try I3ai^.ao into tijc mterlal scntSrient r:!~:lc1-! relates 

(1) Bairac, ISinenic Graiidct- 235, 
(5) "TTId^, np;. 

calth >o It i?iitm^ de.posttcoY* Evon uie ciothii^' v/hich Gi'andet 
veaps ia a tr.V£wit.e to h?.s syster. of ©conony: "Tcaijoin^s v^iu d© 
lu iicijc nn.'.ore^ cnl j.r vr-nnit "».' 1'^iv.rl»"'tnl ir t^l ru'il otalt 
dopAla 1701." (1) aoGi'^j. iii'o, -^c^iJGJtic iix'o, persoijoi lire, ia 
GraiidGt, all havo ■bocu s-ai'ToyGd : "fiattius' ne sftvt^.it i»ien de plus 
„ ._ CO "»G3:*ao''snp.'-c'«" (2) 

A s-usmar-y of t^io knoi?ledge whieh oatzEtus* o.nd tiiQ i'Ott<2)9P nou 

nill o'lorr t^-ic IcnoRledfe to -pcnvo.zcnt one Hiri'jle jiassloji, !?o naiw 
Granacw .'c lc nnnc a ilviiiij- f^t^Iou ror ti'^i^l* Aside ri^am "tills 
pai5slon, n- thing else le known or rovoalocl of hij3» !?hat Grar*let 
hnr: n"T.^r^ tf5 r-r?T"ir.ont a slnglo roasslon unci a oi»! -Ifli '^haao of being 
to j.irfin\n^, in gcnci^al, is urxleniable* His nasi© la not tli© synbol 
of : feut the oyffiool of ens of tho .laisy ppasions tii&t exiot in 

Yet, 3r t^-ls c: tlTJucB to b*^ true for S-^wapjr, dceo it contlotte to 
"h" tr^-T^ f^cr P.'">.lr-'"?^*G r-"""' ■'<*""^ Does the Aut'i'^-p^ if^rhaps, exerciee 
hiG crTiiacicrvCo in cur iavour ?. nd rr-lato Gi^n-iei to nonie otliex* arorld 
aiid so to so!ae litcEaR complertlty of life? Bal;^rtc goes on to descrlbo 
ti'jo STsall £OCictr- nblc>i n-jn^rcmKla OrandGt* But, t>}ls sooioty Is 
att3?a«tGd to hiLi crxly rj t^ic f^ct of lils wealth *iaa jy Uic ?~y.3pQ of 
Itn acquicltion* Di^jenie Giij-nirioB to the s of thle -joeiei^ 

what cliG cl nicies to Tr-'findot jilr-telf. Ghc is tho h#irG8ii and toe 
acans or approaci) to ai'uc^ot's «^.aiu)# Hence Uic 'ivali^ in toe 
society rliicli suri^cniade tvi-j^nrJ.ot is a rivalry for i:?ugcnio*3 rionul aal 

(2) Ibi^., £.-/. 

'' _^ 2S6. 

the Eixj<r.ilatlO!is as , "vlt are GT^eculatloms in s»o^rrd to 

tiic t!l£5T>ot3itlon of Gimiidct^s woalth ami not In rogard to I3iii;^enie*s 

coiicluocc :7j tiic ractoi^iCui c■uec^ions 'v^g nc dii^ai-u-on r^-ii ci'tme 
lici'ltierc dent oa imrlalt a virig-t lieues a la ixsnSe ot Jiasqii© dans 
les vijltv^pcc- pu'>llcitor:>, ii'*nn©T'<3 ri Blolr. inn'^T-'nlvT-^nnt?" (1) In 
tills '^ray, UiO society of iiaTjnrur, c:-nccntratGd iii ois: porrons. Is 
Boen to revolve 2??ct5nd G!.''ani©t*o wealth. Just so dpcs the life 
rithln <?i-^.*"^ict*c hri^cc revolve nbctit tlie snjn-'o p'?r.""»r nnr-"^t of "fils 
I5.fe» Gi^rsict is ncitiicr iiusboxa nor fe.tiicr; Lc it; :i(;Vv.;./ anything 
hut rais<^r, Balsac '.T^itea: "Dop-'-ls icnctonpa l^airare dlsiri'bv.alt 
Id. ch'^.nclGl'.e a cr. flllc ot a la Grtindc ?Jr.!icn, dn rr^o qri'il 
dl2U"iAmf.t s le -m tin Ic pain ct Ics c.cnrcec ::ecoGauii'oa a la 
C'ri omma " ->n Jo»y»naller'e»" iP) It is not SRnon, tho s~r-7nnt, tlmt 
Q-^-arrlf't r -^ rcolater. It Is only the rrialit— *rt ITancn rhlo'i eoii*e- 
aponcit. te Grandct'a vinit^e oliaracteriijtic: i^ neccGDlto T^nSLlt 
cottc pauvi»o flllc si avare qtto Grai-jdct avalt flni par I'airscp 
ccmj-.e tm a5xx, vtn chion," (5) S-rrn the -^Itv t?hlch n?TLnc':ot fcRln for 
Honon la not an oi'dlnnry Ironan Licntzrici ' . ~ ":.: ^'cotwG atrocG 
pltic d»avar-e«" {•!) 

Already Balsac lias rdoi^ted. that sariie -attltuclc •Uj'.mr'ci Gran-lot if'alch 
he has previously ascrlhei to the people of Saimir* Ho Ins failed 
to dlccovor in Grandot aright hut tho nioor, Hv^i^r Gr.oar'jit^ elcsnont 
of his prclliiiinapy Ooacrlptlon cojifltr.^^ Uic alii^,lo asixict of tliia 
so-callod personage and confines the rrlatlonohlp which he hoars to 

(1) Balsao, ii 289* 

V2) Ibi: ,x 2^— — 

(3) TdIxT ,. 29'i. 

(4) TOT,, 29C, 

tliG rest of tijc ^orld to t,hat. aspect:, TJalgr-ac, lixltjed, r-ealinea 
that Iio ima ppcaentod Grande t laot fron Uio sIkinclpoiBt o" Vaziuxn 
claai'actGr Irut from ths standpoint of al^ti'act Ideti, of Siapertional 
force, 152e actlan of the r.ovol bG."ins i/ith the entrance of ClMxrles'. 
Juat pr-eviouc uo tiiia cnti^anco all Iho otltcv actOi'a in tb® dF«aa 
aro ciGseiEbled at the Graadct hoiisc» Bali%ac drawo hi& I'eader's 
attention to the taolosii .vhlch they nposent and, in ao doing, h© 
Qiiona (^'audet's preaciice in tiil£i u.raiia to ue tiio acioinatii^ presonoe 
of tlse idea v?hleh he iiiciirnatcs. Grandet is n-Dt an actual person) 
he is the T^sPsonificcticn of a cienlficant fcjrco: "K*otait-o« pas 
Ic sGui diiiu rruadcrnc auquel ca ait foi, l';*rgont dans tou'to sa 
i>uiscanc©, expi'irie par unc aeule physionornio?'' (1) 

ThoauGi02''iaa'd, Ci'a.iidGt appears as a necessary oleriGnt in tha action 
of the £t02^» His role does not cimhuO^ howevoi*. To Eugenie, ho 
oovox' bcccncs the fatlicr, Ca the contrary, g!x. lieccmea ariai^ of 
Grandot only aa one niiij'lit bcconc iiwai^o oi the stiiltiTying tyranny 
jf the material conditions which rule in hor ^rofrld. I^ilsac wi^itca: 
"Poiir la rireralerc fois, cllc cut dans lo cooui" de la tori»©up a 
l*ai3p3UL. de -ion i^re, vit oii lui le :xixti-c do sen sort,.,." (2) 
G2?andct*G judgnient of Clmrlos lo the Jail^jcnt of the ralaor and 
Eugenie's fSclin^ tovraitl Grandot ds'>cnda m an avcrsxcn to tJio 
materialiatic aiuitudu llius diapiayod* Gpandot iT^oakss "— !.;ais 
CO Jeune hoisiie n'cst hon a plcn, 11 3*oocuno pliio dos riKsr-ts qtie d© 
1 •argent,* (o) .'IXat^'cnle aad Iicr rratlior "bofJh find this c.ttiti'.t'.o 

(1) BalJ3ac, EiKjenie Grandet, 307, 

opprcGGlvo aincc it cons-ur-.iiic tiic riO. tural ccatitaGnt In tncsa. "II 
■JortiW s^2aiia Grandot eut, tire ia pOK'tc, Eugenic 3t ca n^e 
rcspii^roat a leur aiso»" (1) 

Bhat lAigeiile and lior notlior iK-ails© Ixit, do not esjI^q c::?piicit in 

statcr-iGiit, Dolsiic hiixieir augtjcata^ His rurtiior rcforcaces to 

Grande ii are alaost witbDut exception GS:-?lalncd by refcreiKJc to the 

abstract typo i?lii{5li iK> oeuodlos^ TH^on Qraiidet gmicibles against 

religion, Dalcac writcaj "Ia^s avarcs nc croicnt iToiiit ^ taie vio a 

vonli^..., (-";) hen Bra^jac i^clatos Grandct*o nocturnal actlvitloa, 

1^ avMiS: "2ou'ir ixmvoii- iatmialn eat un scrattxjso i-o pationco et de 

teia->a» L^s gens ixiisoants vcilcnt ot veillontf* La vIg do I'aTare 

eat tin eonctant eacrclcc vie la ^ iGsancc iRTriaine nii^u ^•-■. o rvice de 

la pQr-&omia.lltc»* (C) !K> explain the Importance of Grandet's x*^« 

ajid the Intcpest vjhloli tljiG rclc connands, i3al2ao iTrltocs "Ou ©st 

l^lKXsviG oaiiG desir, ot quel d^ii* aoclal oo i-dactid.i-'a conr. GJgont?" (3) 

To givG a i:ioro oapliclt picture of tho absti^ct idoa ^liich Grandet's 

I'Jlo ooutaina^ Bal£;au ^ch^ ous 

n se reacontrait on lui^ corr^e cliss tcau _ " ^^o, un 
pnrr-aistant be :^oI:i lo jovior u: e p^i'^^tio uvcc _ -jq 

: .. , de l^ur - _. ecaii# ir-ipoacr 

^^ ..... y., n Got-ce •..- ^^j„ .^^.^. ^.v. . ...TDir, so doinGi-* 

por-po tiiollGriont ie Jro^t le nmri^iaoi-' cc^i:? qui, ti^oii fai't)les, 

so ' lol»*. ^ I .5»a3:«»is 

at ctioi^r;}© lo tcutoG Igg -Tic^ti-'CG tciT otr-os, colui 
uii', .; ia LfO \cc ot la F: 

£; — -.-J'.^. Cot .-^,-..-u, !•-. .. s. lu laiaSG w'..^ . .-^^sor, 
11 Ic pai-CTuC, Ic tU3, Id cult, io wari^-o et lo ne'rriso* La 
pStiire des av-rec so corai^-iso d*argent ct do d6fLain» (S) 

[1} Bal.-a", ilo Gi^cuidct ^ oSO, 

i«- } £ -XCl* • V * 

^Is is a metaphorical pictitre of the smnner in v;hich money takes 
the life from rollcion, of the tnanner in vrhich Grande t's miserliness 
•lowly undenalnes his wife's vitality* 

de alx)ve quotation a^ipplles, moreover, the koy to eve.^y furtiier 

act of Gi^undet's, He thicks the I^'arlslane; ho tricks Charles j he 

locks up Dugenle In her room aixl causes his wife's sickness and 

dentil. iSvery one of these acts Is dlctixtcd l>y one single passion, 

tlie i^ission for ntoney. It Is no internal sontlivient timt causes hia 

to free rxjgenie at last, only iiic necessity of preserving his 

possessions intact at hla wife's death* Balzac urltes: 

Suivant une ohscrvatlon falte sur lea a-wares-^sur leo ^ 
ambltle\i>i, siu^ tous los gens dont la vie a ete consa^ec 
a une Id^e dominante, son sentiment avait affectlonne plus 
partictiliGrer.ont mi o-.,t^1.o1c g sa nassion. La vuo de I'or, 
la poscession de I'or etalt ievonuc sa mcaioKianle. Son 
esprit do dcGpotianc avait ,;randi en pro or t ion de son 
avarice, ot at: ndonner la direction le la raoindre mrtle de 
ses "bienc a la inort de sa fra-ime lui paralcsait une ci^se 
jgontre natiye * -— Enfln 11 prlt son parti, revint a . 
Satcma? a I'^eiu-'c du dihor, rcsolu le plier devant Dugenle, 
de la cajolor, de l*ariado\ier afin de i>ouvolr raotn-'lr 
royalcnent en tenant Jusc]u*au dernier oouplr Ics r^nea de 
ses nilllons. (l) 

Even the firuxl act of Grandet's life is irihuraan in character. On 

his deatiihod, liugenie asks for liis bleasine and Gx*andet replies: 

"— Aie Men aoin de tout. Tu me rcixlras corapte de ca la-Tms, dlt- 

11 en n^o\ivant ixir cotte derniere iiarole que le cla^istianisrie dolt 

etre la rellijion des avai'^s*^' (2) 

It is obvious enouch that Balzac pi'osents Gi^andot in a light tJiat 
is, literally, Inlujruin, His death offers xjie autiior an occasion to 
show the doath of the nlscr, not of the ;;ian3 siiailarly, his Trhole 

(1) Balzac, IXigenie Grande t, ^lAl , 

(2) roid., 4^7? — 

lifG is only a scries of illustrations of Uie typical I'oc-ults of 
a typical passion. Not of the results of such a passion on Grandet 
or In Gmndet, but of its results on the -jorld. There can be no 
result of Grande t*s nassion sepa3?able tPcsa Grandet hinself for 
Ch'aiKlet la his single passion, his passion Is Gi'tindeW Tiie point 
most he insisted on for it is iiic essential difference trhlch 
sejKirates tiie cxjaracter properly so-called and tlie character, such 
as Grandet, who does not, actually, correSiX)nd to eliaracter at all 
but lives only as a ualklnt; syllc^'laa. That he is designated 
conventionally as a "cliaractor" is and lias been e^cti^eiiely nisleading 
to tiic trae compr^heasioa of the rmni^r in w^hich roorjanticisfl creates 
such "chai'actors"* Ilor is Gi^andet the notable exception tlmt 
proves tiie it^iiLe* A careful study of almost any familiar xK^ri.oii^.i'o 
of romanticist fiction will yield a picture surpi'lsing in Its 
siniilarlty. liow^ for instance, dooa Itee* do Gtael pireaent such a 
I>ersonage as Ijrfcuil in Corinne? 

ISne* d© Stael introduces hei' reader to Erfeuil by a brief resuae 

of his liistory. He has eixlured the loss of his fortune with 

equanitiity, cared far an aged uncle with coui^ge and resorurcefulness, 

shoved breve I'y in warfare* 

n avalt des nani^res c'' - tcs, iine iXJlitocsc faaile et^ 
de bon o^^t, et des I'c 11 sc lonti^ait parfnitenent a 

aoa. alse* — -^ H suppoi'tait son sort avoc un courage qui 
allaitj Jisqxi^'a I', ct 11 avait daa3 sa " tion 

unc leGorote' vral!:icat adrilrablo, quand il pa , . ses 

^^roixres ix)versj rnais noins adniimble quarsl elle s'otendait 
a d'autres sujcts* (1) 

Ali^ady Iliac* de Stael has indicated the nanner in r/hich she nill 

direct tlie emphasis in regard to the yotine PreiMshsnan's character* 

(1) I5ae* dc Stael, Corinne* 6G&* 

SbB has desci'lbed hin in no aopcct other tlian the social'. Sh» 

places IJrfGull in a suporficial social relatioticiiip with Osuald 

and Oswald •s observations, too, ttHI, therefore, refer to Drfexiil 

solely fron a social point of view. Erf cull hiEtself explains his 

cbBa»actor* as thae result of social training: "— Ce ne sent pas lea 

llvres ni la nodlUitlon <^i ra'ont acquis la phllosopiiie qtie J'ai, 

mais 1 •habitude du nonde et dos nalheuro." (1) The author continues 

the portrait in the sane vein: 

n joimit avcc les mots, avec les i^n^ases, d*ime faqon 
ti'^S' in^j^nieusej nais ni los objets r- lea 

c-"'" '-- ^iG intlncs n '^talent I'objet dc -vw ,...^... ;. ^, r>a 
c -ion ne venal t, pour nJjisi dii^^, ni du doliors, ni 

du dedans; elle ixxssalt ontre la re5T.esion et I'lrrEiginatlon, 
et los se^ils rapports do la soci^t^ en ^taltait le aujet. (2) 

Up to this point Epfouil has been pr^@ited entiiK^ly as the product 
of French society^ The author, Oswald, Hrfcull himself, all 
present hSm froii exactly the snxio point of view and usinc ^® Ma© 
terns. His com^age, Erfctiil says, is nere social philosophy and 
his co n y gi «ga tion, the author adds, touches of nothing 'Jut social 
r«latioiK5^ Moreover, 2rfouil goes on to admit tlKit he does not 
expect to enjoy ht isolf in Italy sine© he has heard that it lacks 
any social life: "— TJn de raes amis —- n'a dlt qu'il n'y avait 
pas do iwovinco de Prance ou 11 n'y cut un neilleur thec.ti'e et vaam 
socle te plus agreablo qu'a Pome." (5) Hevortholess, he feels that 

he Ay rcnedy this defect: *— I'-iis jo tpouverai uurcsjiont 

^Bislques I^mn^als avoc qui catiser, ot c'est tout ce que je desire," (4] 

de Staol, Corinnc, 656, 

[1) liBe, d 

2) Ibiu., 6r>7, 

! rT"„«> GC'G, 057, 
) 1^I^». 657, 

Oav;ald*c opinion of lirfewil's character ic an opinion not of Erfeuil 

as a limn "but of Drfcuil as a type, that is, as a PrcnchpHin: 

— -Un Anclals, se cllsalt Oswald, S'rnit accable do tristesse 
daixB do Gcnblablcc cii^c on stances, i;*ou vicnt la force de 
CO Prancala? — • Scai exietence Icg^r© s*acco3?do-t-elle 
nieax que la KiLenne c.vqo la rapidltc de la vio? el faul>-H 
esquivor 1^ Ptfflcxlon eonrnc imc ennerale, tm. lieti d'y livrer 
toutc oju ome? (1) 

2rfeull txiys no attention irl^tever to Italy as they travel tlxroijgh 
it "but continues to discourse to OstTald, Oswald, hCKiervov^ -tries to 
find solace in the v; ice of imturo r^itlicr tlian in Errouil's con- 
ve2*satlon, x^iis conversation is def inod Ijy laste* do Stael as "los 
propos dc ^- -ocioto". (1) '7ac ■/'cferGncGC to i:rfeuil becrin, indeed, 
to assurae tlie foira of abstraot quality ra titer tlian of llvlng^, 
complex personality, Une* de Stael writes: "••••nals In frivolite, 
sous quelqae for^ne qu*cllo so prescnte, ^te a 1 'attention sa force, 
a la penseo son ori£in£ilitc, tu sentir.iont sa prof ondeiir, " (1) A 
few lines belo;; this l>foull beeches: "la legerete spii'ltuello" • (1) 
Tlie description of li.-'fouil eontlrrn^s -itkI l&ie, de Gtael notes Umt 
lie is '-sei^ieux seiiltnent dans 1 'auoui^-propre''^ (1) Slie peniits 
liin to expound his orm pnilosorfiiy, a pliilosophy which is cntiroiy 
social in character: ''— "Oh h T2te sense doit chasGor le son ami 
tout ce c^ii nc ixjut sorvir nl aux autres ni a lul-KiGsne« Ho sccrawi- 
notis ims ici-bas pour ©tre utiles d'abord, ot ;7ul3 heuroux casuitc?"(l) 
The autlTor a^its that this is i "ralsonnalilG, dans le sens 
ordinaii^o de co mot'" (1) Imt it is obviouii tliat she liorself does 

(1) Itoe, de Stael, Gorinno. G57, 

not cliai^e tiffl g«»5'til opinion, for slie contlmics to dispcrcigo 
lirfeiiil aii the typo of "lea caj?acteiHJS ledgers "• (1) She 
hOT" iJrel5rjinai^ poi'trait of liljsi — a portrait whicli, it sust "be 
adnitted, OErihasisec so flogi-nntly only one aspect of boiiig as to 
seem a CiTi*icr>.ture rather than u .oi- trait -• sH© ccncliiuwa toy 
perBiittlDg lirfcuil to indulge in soeic nc^vc s-elf-qucstioning tho 
\iU2Xlon of v/hlch is: "—He suis-je pas aimable en socio to?" (1) 

The progress of Oswald and a^fcuil throiiuh Italy givos gtee« de Sta£L 
an opportunity to show D^feuil in action, The incident at Ancona 
serves chiefly to ciiai^acterlse Oswald but it serves also further to 
wipl'iosise i3rfcuil*s frivolity; for IMe* de Stael urites; "Lo d'Srfeuil cxpocait sa vie avec insoucianco, eoui'age et gaiete." 
(2) Hext tiio autlior' developa tlae su'ajoot of the diffcr-eat ricmncro 
In which Oswald and Erfeuil pci'ceive Italy, Erfeull continues to 
"be identified as the Rrenclinan and the creatm^e of society: "n 
avalt a la To is Ic uon'ole plaiolr de oeixlre son tcnps a tout irolr, 
et d'asB\u?er qu'il n 'avalt rien vu qi i put ^trc adiiiro, quaad on 
connaisoait la Prance." (3) "'Lord Nclvil jugea I'ltalie en 
addinistratoui-" eclairc; Ic conto d'Si'-fouil ea horaine du EK>ndc; ainsi, 
l*\m v«ir raiiion, et l*autre par It/g^rotcff, n'eprouvaient point 
I'effet que la caranagr^ de Roeie produit sxn^ l*liaagination,#,." (3) 
rrevloucly lise* de Stael has lientlfled Prance uitli a li.L"o tiiat is 
purely social, Glie mites of Osw^ild'a sojourn in Prance: "H 
n'aviilt v6cu qu'en Pi-'ance, ou la societo est tout,..," (S) G31ius 

(1) Ifee* de Stael, Coriniie. 65G, 

(2) lb id .. GiSO. 

(3) TC^», 6G1, 

Ooes t!ie autlKXP explicitly Identify Prance an 1 i^ocioty Just as 
nlie sviggosts in-^licltly that every opinion s/hlch Ilrfoiiil emits is 
tiie opinion of a PiHsnclTnan, not the opinion of a lan considered In 
the lloht of hicnan, sentimental, oi' artistic relationships • "Ehis 
is true, for c:ciPiplo, of Brfeuil's expressed In press Ion when he 
first sees the doEie of St» Peter's: " — On cT*oirait voir le d^kw 
des InvalideD," (1) 

Vhen Srfouil next appears In the story, he Is presented in relation 

to the attitude which he displays toward CJorinne» His conversation 

with Oswald concerning her is wo-undlng to Ostmld's delicate 

Benslbilitlcs. toe. de Gtael writes: 

n ne dlsalt rien qui fut preclsenent Inconnreimblo, '■'^.is 
11 totiloui's les sentiments a^^llccts d'C. :. 

en J it trop f oi^t on trop 1 t sin^ ce qui 

l*lii-J^- ..^jait» n y a dcs ne>i.-^ ., ._^ que 1 'esprit v^snte 

ot 1 'usage uu nondo n'apprennent pas; et, sans rionquer 

k la plus parfalte pollteose, on i3lesse souvcnt le coeur. (2) 

She flakes the some critic isn of his Intercotirse Trlth Corinne: 

ISals le ooi-?tc d*Iirfe\ip., qui credit qii'on poiivait tait 
dire, yyarvu. quo ce fut avcc g^ace, et qui s'inaginalt 
que I'inpolitcsse consistalt dans la foi^ie, et non 
dans le roM.,,.(3) 

Oswald reflects tlie auUior's point of view whpn he cociplalns to 

Ei-'fciiil: "— Liicore de la legerete." (4) Ktto» ie Stadl coaftios to the 

support of her hero and definitely conclitdes the dismission: 

Lord llelvil souffrait a chaque mot du ccTrnte d'Erfeuil, ma 
que lui dire? n ne disputalt Ja-als; U. n'ecoutait 
jamais asses atLcntlV€3?ient poui" changer d'avis; ses 
paroles isne fols Innc^s, 11 ne s'y interessait plTis; ot 

(1) ilmo* de Gtaol, Corinnc , 661, 

(2) IbM >. G7C. 
(S) TrT ., 071, 
(4) TniT,. 672. 


le laleuat etait encore »le les cwiblier, si on le pouvait, 
aiiGsl vltc que lul-moae. (1) 

Of Srfeuil 'a adril "atlon for Corirme she in-'itcs : 

Lg comto d'Erfciiil etait^ ans un - "^ ' ~ " ^t 

~ ot c*€talt la ri^eraierc fois ^ ^ - . 'otait 

pas franqaise, avait agi sui'' 1«1« Hals ^l—— ti tie 

pei^lt pas, en I'atinlrant, la bonno Imbitu-.Ie d© se laisser 

guidor p::r 1* opinion d03 autr-es. (2) 

"^.it Errcull's adrilration of Cor lime t7ill never Icau uim to consider 

iri'ylnG hoT» He assui^es Ostrald, " — poiir le mariago, 11 ne Taut 
jariais consul tcr que les convenances" (o) and rcpi^-oaclies Oswald 

iii. ^■^l.iQ nopc fi-ivoloui; uiiii.i he« IMe, do Stael ex; Plains Oaimld's 

En effet, p^vait-il^ !i?^e nu corite d*I3rfcull ru'll y a 
scTivopt bcavcoun d'c' " JLano la frivol ltc,et que 

cet :^- ■" -le^ne ncut ^ --.•-.- - . ^^^ 

BenL , a ces fav. > ^acrifie 

presque tcujours aux autres? (5 J 

15xaQ ynie» ue wjuacl au- ui^./ c uiines Ilrfexiil as a pti^ci^nage to 
a single, consistent role ;,'liich never varies ixit sh© robs 1i3b! of 
ViThatevcr particularity he nay seen to have r.s a Tx^rsormge "bj lier 
constant iK:fei*once to hiia as a tyi>e« Ho it; uc b rjorely fri'/olous 
but his qxjallties arc tliose uhlch sIkj ascribes to "les hoijne© 
fl'lvoles". He is not merely lAacd by opinion and con-/cntion but 
he is usod as an exenplar of the nan wlioae aribiticns are conTined 
to "une vie sociale". His actions are not the actions of the 
cosnto d*Ei-feuil as siich "but are rr!.tlK>r the actions cha^'-ct'~ristlc 
of egoism, of vanity, cr s'abr;oi»vience to opinion* His artistic 
appiKJCiations ai^e iK)t those of the comte d*2rfeuil but are those 

(1) limcm dc St? el, Gorimie, G73, 

(2) tbid >. 675, 

(3) THT.. 676. 

of a Ivi^iiclirjan and such as arc dictated ly;,- onventioiml ITpencli 

It iG unneccssaiy to insist. TnQ conte d*%fe\tll*s appearances 
In the novel are cciiparativcly few tpom this nc-int on ami at no 
tlsoe does he belie the abstract tyne in irlilch Had* de r.taol bas 
catecorically placed hlR^» ISie author constantly explains his 
action or speech In teiina of which the fcllowinft r^ssages are 
typical: 1«.«iie oavalt-ellc pas cjae 1 'amour-propre est ce qu*il 
y a au monde de pl\io inflexible?" (1); "•.. dea hoisics assez 
habitnee a la soclete et a 1 •araoiir-projM'o qu*olle oxcltc, pour 
s*occuper de I'effot quails prodniscnt*,»? (2)j "•., lo corate 
d'Erfouil, on conversation, airtait beaneoup nieux montrer de 
1 "esprit que de la bonte* Sa bienvoillancc naturclle inflitalt 
sur ses actiomj, nalc son amour-propi-c stir sea ra roles •,•'.' (5); 
"••• 1 'amour-propre , si oncccptible 'x>ur lui-raeme, ne devine pi'^sque 
jamais la suoceptibillte uos autres,,,!' (4); "-,., corxie 11 avait 
bcaucoup do delicatcuso dans iotit ce qui tenait a l*honncur, il 
n'imaginalt pas rn'll put en rmneiier dans co qui a-rait rapport 
a la sensToilite*.,;' (5); "••• 1 'ai.iour-proprc du conte d*Erfouil 
otalt un peu bleoae do I'lnutilite de ses C!:-nsoils»»,? (C) 

Erfeuil's final appearance in Gorinnc occurs \7hcn, by coincidence, 
he is travvollint: in Dngland alon^j tiio oame road whei^ Corinno 11^ 

(1) im©, do Stael, Gorinne, 600, 
2) rjU .. G99, 

4) TEH:^,, 719, 

5) ''"''", "^^ 

ral:iting* He rescues her and cares for :ier but *h^ autlior's 
corrr^cnt on his action follows t "Alnsi o»ct:ilt l*h<i^s9S frlvolo 
q\il la soitinalt." (1) "XL ctriit bon, mals il no oouvtxit ^tre 
;;©nslblG*" (2) Hence, of his r'C'^«?olations to Corini:», iaae» de 
Staal writes: 

H est sciTiS doute tres noble do mettre peu de tirix a sejB 

borcies actions; Mtiic il p:air'i^ai\, ar-rivcr que 1' Indifference 
qu'on tobolgnpralt potii' ce qu *<Ma aurr'.i^ falt^de bien, 
cettc indifference, si belle en elle-?^iGEie, fut n^aimolns. 
dans de certains caractercs, I'effet do la frlvolit^. (2) 

She recalls once rtore tliat Li^guII ts tyyiical of "les ancs 

logeros% (2) And sl^ xTritoc his valcxllctoi^- tiais: 

Les sentiraents logers ont souYeno vaie lon^oie diiroej rien 
mi lea brice, ^;Xxi"co cfixo rien me lea roBscri^j lis suivcnt 
les circonstaiicea, dispariiissemt et revie^inent avec elles, 
tandis tiUe ioG afrec-:-io^is pixjfondes so dechlrcnt sans 
retoijr, et ne laissesit a lour place qu'^mc douleiirexiso 
blessing. (2) 

It is necessary at this point to toucli ti:X)n whr-it is, pei^mps, the 

most easily dlstirv^lsliable dlffe-r-enoe betv/oon the classicist 

and ros-santicist node of cliaracter pj»ooentation. It Is a difference, 

moreover, replete with ai^tniricauce. As mo noted in our study 

of classicist usa(:e, the classic pei^onage in its develo^jnent 

in action cocr.ianded alternate rx>ods in the reader or spectator 

accordlnc as one facet or another of his cliaracter ap|)earcd« 

That this is not ustially the case in the no^/ol of ronanticlsra 

has been '^ evliont in the two examples just cited* Siese .re 

personages who, frcsa their initial appearance until the end of 

the novel, appear only ureler oiya asp>oct# Hot only Is tills time 

(1) l!n©» do Stael, Corlnne, K'^S'* 
<2) roi^U . 8^34. 

but it is also ap:xii*ent that the arithor, in rGOtrlcMr^j the 
personage to a single asi>oot, io :naklng of h2in an Hhsolutc;, 
capable of produolnc only one unvarylrj^ reS;X>nsG In t2ie I'oader. 

hat thia i^Gsponsc Is, doixjixis u-on tho aiithor'o riannor of pre- 
sentfition* Shen Mae. de Stael denovmcGS d'llrrsuil's "l^gGrete"V 
his "Qjnoirr-pix>pr€"'j and his "fr'lvcllte'^^ she Iz definitely 
placlty: herself on Lord ITelvil's side and sharing his antipathy 
for d'Brfeuilw Shen BslIzoc porcsents Grande t*3 3:yT!ipatiiy for Hanon 
as "cette atroce pitie d'avore"^ bo is presenting CJrandet under 

- distinctl7 nnfavoui^able li£:ht» As he continues constantly to 
fexplain GrarKlet's actions as tliose cannon to all the race of nissr-s, 
be continues tlius to ©raphasise the point of view T;hich detonninos 
his Trtiole presentation of Grandot* To the critical reader it is 
plain that the author liaa used whatever technical skill and 
eloquence ho has at his disrxDsal in order to nalso us eriotioraally at 
one with one persoiia£ro at the exiJense of another. In suoh novels 
as Corlnne and Sugonio Grand . et tlKsre is, in other uoixls, a heix) 

{err heroine) and a villain* 

Our choice as to one or the otliei* is predeteiT?lned for us» I7e 
do not choose in the raeasure t^mt the personages show various 
fttcets of bcinc in actiorfi Tie choose at once and Jji accordance 
iri^ tJie author's very ap:7a2X)nt prcjiidicev That is tlie distin- 
^ishinc critci'ion between hero and villain? de distinction In 
every caec lies in the ideal .Jhich the r)crsona(7C advocates'; He 
is represented in confonnity rrith the ideal rrhich is, consciously 
or unconsciously, his, ar^d the syiapathetic persona^je ^^111, of 
course, ro present tliat idcxil to iThich the author lends his adiierenco 

.;1ici"'eas the- unsyspatJictic personaeje will live according to a 

contrasting I'IgcI i/hich in rcrrrcscntGd, r^cccc^nrllT, a;j a '-^f.ntaken 
one. If 13\igenio *s ins tiuc vivo ixn^iirc Imo^rc no acnti:.icnt ou. ' t 
of x»clit;lon, if, before alio eaaes into contact with the society of 
her tlnKJ, she roilo«?3 n^.t^n'ally the IderJL of coclr.l duty ^txl 
accopt*u .Jar piuco iix tat; luriij-i" tiiu. nor daily uut^ios i/iuliout quostion, 
fi'Lsa tijs mcsaent tiiat ^le accept Du^jcais as a synixitiietic ficiiro, 
from tlK^t rao::^nt hor i;leal obviously l^cc rsncc tlirtt to -Thlcli Balrtac 
lejods iilii wcUicrcnce* 2ie reverse o.. u::q yicvca'c ^/ili sIiot? Gmndet 
occupied exclusively ;;ith tiie ideal of personal agg/^aadizesiGnW 
iiii.iiiarly, Quasliiickio ii; a hero to the x*c:\dor boca\ia<5 he tdGallr:cs 
Ilanei'alda aixi ti^ie^ "i^o pi-oijarvo ac-- ■...aaiaty to tiao v;orld.» !r-ollo 
is the villuiu ir'ociBcly bociULie liis ideal cons la ts of a world 
i'roB'.'i -idilcli thiwt uGcuty l^.c "been h'tnlchcd, llio j.5.ct of cxr-nlos is 
cntilosG .JUt enc.^gh has he on iirid uo r.Kkc it clear tliat the pcrfoction 
of tho £>,vTivxxtiietic r-orscna^e resides in ths pGi'fection of the 
ideal he ciicri3ho3'# It ijaiat also have 1:ecc-ic clorir fSiat the 
duaJLi.jfci Ci 'UM. cliiw-iciow ,-^. ^^^iiaj^c ..:-- ..Gsn e;ftc:Tialir:od and 
appcarQ iii ra-iantlcism tiii'^:«asii tvjo povsonagor.^ each of xtham repre- 
sciitc one facet of Uie di-allstic strujj^le, The hero rop2X)0or,ts 
«. vil'TAic Oi ^:iG ciiiuxic <jzr anu the vi3JLai:i a vice or defect of th© 
chai-acter whai'eas in cLaasisist pz^ctice oaoh }.X)i"«jona^e displayed 
hoth stronstiia ai^ «oel:nos£^o3 of chaise ter'^ 

It is, of course^ hotli <«!prr.ct.ical and Imposni-jle to i^evlc^ In 
detail tliG lonr Hot of -DcrDonanes who appear in ror:anticlat fictlott* 
2tor is It ueoes3ary-» i: uy he soon at a £~laneo tlmt tlie signifi- 
cance of ccrtpin of tl^ moot T?ell-kno»m names In this literaturo 

depsnds ixpon a cjethod aiialacoiis to tlint en-^lcrrcd 1.n tne oase of 
Grfindet and Erfeull* Sic olosost afrinition, of noxij-ae, nay be 
foTuja^ between Granclet and his follov? noiKKaaniaeo in the Balzacian 

or Id, l>Gt«?oen Srfotxil an.) Mn fell5T?3 in tho v/orld of social ard. 
tiRtioDai distiDctionn created by Wsm» do Stael* In ot^aei* wosixls, the 
raost iraaediate cociparicodi to siiggest itself in that fthitfh plao^ 
in jiixt£ir>o si uion Erf null, Ij(^once, Oswald^ and Hastel-rVirt^, just 
as it ;)laceG in juxtaix)3iti:>n Grenaec, Go?'io-u, 7a\ttrin, ccnmimj 

'ci i>e, btvron Hiilot, Gejabnifi, Gobsock, /oronlqi'G, cousin Pons, Lo\iia 
:;y'.7ux;rt, and Baltiiasar ClaosV -To tlie&e latter txr. \ to otl->or 
familiar narica ox "ciic Iia3.sacian './orlci the reader nay apply equally 

oil tliG words >fith whicii IJalssac descriiaes Glaes: "H nvait deja 
ctnq\iante»neur anaV A cet age, l*idoe qiii lo l"n*niiit contracta. 
l*r.pre fixite piU* laquollo conrioncont les nonarjonics*" (1) Sie 
rnlationahip to life in siich individuals is not rniltiple ;md rich 
as tr the case for tiie claasic cimractor. It is a relationship 
restricted to one single ioint> Itorfriieritc conplains tiiut Glaes 
is no longf^r "ni i^erc ni hcraMr% (2) Balsac does not Ix^sitate 
to ewpliftaise the irilntrmnlty v;hich io the charr^ctcrlstic quality of 
such TTiononanias', Referring to cousin Pons h© writes: "A Paris 
les nonoraanos vlvcnt avec loiir fantaisio dans \m heuroux 
owjcubiimge d •esprit*" (S) ^^le idealisation of tiio only essential 
meciitlz^ ^icli these so-cr,llotI pei^aonai_:ea can poasoos ap )C£irs 
thro»-»£h the rerioctions of an observer* In ijS^^BSS^ Andr<^ studies 
the resisoctivo rmnias v/iiich constitute all the life in Gconbara 

(1) Balzac, La Hecherche ue I'absolu, 249-, 

(2) Ibid ,. 2Tmi ■ 

(3) i^isac, Lo ccxrsin Pons , 146 • 

and Glai^ainl: 

''lacG cntvo cos dou:: Tolioa^ ;.on\, I'uno 6- -it 3i 
noble et^l 'autre si vul^i^ii-o, — — ii y <rit tai 
moemit ou le conto ae vit tmllott<f cntro le auiuim© 
et la parodie, ccc desux faces de touto creation 
l:pirmlnc» -— ]p. ae crut le jotiet cle qnolque 
hfillticina-wion etrt^cG, ot nc r*cgaiKla plus Gfistbara 
et Giardini quo corano deux abstractions* (1) 

ISaia ©Tfeet upon Andrea is tJie of feet upon the reader* "Sie raEi© of 

the r^ersonage slcrnifies an abati-action i-ather than an Individual 

cbaract«»w "Uae laanie, c*est le pialair passo' a I'etat d'ld^J" (2) 

Balzac vrritcsw It is only, therefore ^ in the fom of idea tlmt 

such p<?i*3<5naG;cs exist and c-'m be cociprcliended* 

On tlie other hand, not all tiie ^crsonuijes in ixymnticism are 
Inr.icdiat^ly clt:ssiflauie as noraaaaniacs. llie toi'n, for instance, 
scarcely aQoaa to ap ly to rrfeull altbou^ii, as ims been deanonatratod, 
Hrfeuil Is re presented tinn^sugli only one aspect o£ bcin^:, tixrough 
only one ixjlationshijj to life-* Ha is ret>i»Oiienoed as tlio ^Troduct 
of French society and his actions aiitl sneoc]! ai»e alv/ays strictly 
in accoi^ 'Titii ttie author's concopcdon of that i^i^oduct^ The 
©csential dlfforcnca botwcn Srfouil and Grandot lies not in tho 
fact thut eitiier is a wiiit closei' zo actual irtoaanity but in tiie 
fact that. In the presentation of li'feuil, Uie attontioa is 
concentrated entlix^ly on the attitude he cxpit;S3es wliereas, in the 
pa*esontation of Grandet, Ixio attention is concoutruted on an 
attitu-lc aiiich is ujadc r-anifest aa an intense of fort of will, 
liConec is obviously anotiier Erfeuil and, sltailai^ly, Cfeirald and 
Castcl-Borte api-ear as desire but not as v/ill* But in Richelieu, 

(1} - ->.o, G, ,57. 

(2) _ — uc, Lo ^ I^ns, lo. 

riobespienx; , Cinq-Kars, ana JUlion, vi^jiiir r list's t:ij.l at xne 
Gopvico of a single dcxnlnant desli^ qrilto £.s deriuatciy aa Ba^xac 
dcof :*-^ - -'" ^^ '-'"- ■'-■«^-.o>Ti-'^'5« An eru-:'-lly faoiaticii light sMnes 
•J.n the eye of Lofuis Lasa^ort, T^okiiftplorre, or J\ilieat» On the otlior 
handy the personage whoue llfo coTisists only in a paaslvo attitude 
tamxrd tho w<rrld roappcai^ t:i tho Gomimridr-nt, for esan?>le» All 
timt Vlf;ny r^^senta as the distin^iishlja^T quality v/HLcli correspox^s 
to tlio Cofi!!iarKiant 's name iii the bolief in nillta*'^ obcdl'3n©o as 
the mi"-'*'^-'.-'^ v^.r-rne^. Slrailnrly, nH ^'i^'- Sand pi^enenta In Hauprat 
is the relief in etcrTnl fldality in iovo» All tlint Hiigo prccents 
In Jiavort Is the belief in the supraae jiistlco of hurmn ln.Wm All 
that Balzac pt»©sent£i in IMQ0 do Mort^anf is ^"^i-' hollo r in the 
supsfesn© virtuo of ripiri1:;ual lo"/o« All Liiat Gautiar pa:>e8©nts in 
Ellas ii/iltljiansto-dJAiQ is the belief in tlin 3tiprcTne virtue of raedicval 

a-^t» Tn ^:'5no, or - -- contra2»y, dosiiv re synonyraous 

terms as tiiey aro llkonioe in Lolia, Leone L^onl, Han d'Xalande, 
Fi*ollo, Porfemio, or Ifcie* de VcmoiW 

Uie ©SKential fact ifsiiRini; tills; that the pcr^ona^e in r-cnanticlst 
literJxtMrc is constanictcd as a honogonoonic unit. Hot only is this 
tnie of the ''Potngonlste nn^'' ^'^-^ p-'-'--->T" -^orsonagea, Ij^it it is 
also t:rue of the secondary pcrsoriaiies* ilien Baisac .."PitoL. of 
I'lerquin and EBffiffiin\el in La Kccherchc do ?.*ahcolu i ""Itout eta it 
horaogene dans ces deux hcrjnes'^ (1), ho ctuks " -^^ genei'al irapiresalon 
in regard to the ftuailiar ncnes in roi^xLntleiiit literc-tupo» Sioso 
nojaes, except in 3?aro cases, creato a coiapletoly honogcnoous, a 

(1) B«ls«ic, La Re cher<aie de I'al^golti , 243» 

;;lc Impress lorr» Cliattorton, for exonplc, creates In the 
reader's nlm only the Impi'ession of the roriantic ^'oct; Onuptorlus 
only that of the artliit of "bas-romantlsme". Neither oae aDpoars 
v-clated to any social tradition or to any irjnedlate society. I^oy 

J no past, no future. To recall tlic nultinlo relationships 
la which iPticdro exists is to recall the t^xlf 'betv/oon observed 
lunanlty and ci»oatcd ahstractioii. Tiie hcnogencity in each personage 

ch nalrcs it oossihlo and. Indeed, necessai-y, to classify hlra 

as sympathetic or 'j.ns^/npathetic, hero or villain, is a hOEiogenoity 
obtained by the ignoring of total reality in order to present 
through personage a certain snccific single facet of tliat reality* 

The strilring difference nliich exists, for instance, between Grandet 
. Kirpagon is typical of the aifforonce w^iich must distinguish 
the reader's attitude toward thont» Harpagon is, by turns, a 
ridiculous, pathetic, sordid, or tottching figure. Grandet can 
never aualron more than one tyi^o of response because he plays always 
upon a single chord. The love of gold is his sole cliaractcrlstic, 
lietlier in his own conversation, \7hether in the attitude of his 
neighboui's tovrard hir., or In the attltu e of his ulfe, daughter,' 
and servant, no otl^cr attribute is ever indicated. lie has raarried 
his wife for her dowry, he gives money to Eugenie only in order 
that Dhc nay save it and shoT7 it to bin again, he has a certain 
respect for his servant only because she ponnits hlri to save more 
money. IIo taxing affects hin outside of this ixission'. His brotlicr 
cannits suicide, his -n-ifc :!icr;, his dan-htnr ro-inlns in solitary 
confinement for nontlis, but Grandet rc-ialiis unchanged*. He is a 
force to be r*eckoned uith In the i/orlJ, a force which cornanda 

rear and respect, the sane sort of fear and respect that the 
fore© of tlic eleiients car.iands in Gllliatt, a force to Txj turned 
aside fi'ori Its ccwrse only by the intervention of God* 

Goriot Is just as absolute an exti^emo of another type of f piling 
and, T/henevcr he appears, that feeling is eviJeneed in him and 
-..Ivtcvor foi'ce he oxcrts is steadily in one dlrocti">n, a force 
that no huEian poser can diverts Prestimahly Goriot eats aa-l ft-y^fnTgy 
aiMl 8lee|» Ixit oven theso activities arc regulated hy his daughters' 
dei.ianils upon hiu. It is imixisaiulc to imacinc iiis ^^oins out into 
society, inpossiblc to irmginc his reading a book or chatting 
with an old fi^icnd# He is cut off from H»ny-siJed human relation- 
snips Cjuite as coiiiiJletcly as Grandef* 

Soinotinios, hovever, a pcz^onage, suc^x as Claude Frollo, ?iiay secM 
to acciuxpo a second contact with life. I?i»ollo, fron being a ppiost, 
appoirs suddenly as an aichcnist* He is about to acquii^ a 
certain inodiciua of liuEianity in that ho seoas about to develop a 
new attitude^# ^c puppet face he turns towaixl the sixsctators is, 
perhaps, after all, not his whole life* But the iraprcoslon is only 
monentary* All Prollo's Interest in science is important only 
as it affects hiia as a jTriest and it la the i")ricst*s attitude alone 
iriiich influences liim in his vari^rus relationahliMJ in the novel'* 
It is the sir^rlcnosfl of the aspect which the roriantlc personage 
presents to tlic rcaler tliat nakes it easy to draw the sliarp dividing 
line between the sysipatlietlc and una^npathotic figures* If those 
personages v/ei"^ not always the same in no natter what cituationV 

U«) readcr*s rcxxction aoiild not rcricct Uic saiac nonotono»?-sly 
consistent attltiilo* 

3iat the ror^ntic peraoimoe «— sacTn as Grandot or Erfewll — is not 
parjsented In his teinan totality bat only frcn a single ar^l.<&^ fl»om 

' "iigle v/iilch rcveoli) his dordnant passion or characteristic 
desire, is a ftict which is emphasised and clarified for the readoy 
by Ihc extrcnc deviation from t' c no in trhlch is visible in tJmt 
passion or desiix?. rolphine conparcs Lconce to herself: "— II 

.otuaet Ics actions los plus inportantos dc sa vie a I'oplnionj noi, 
jo >ouimls a peine consentir a ce qu'ellc inflttat our na decision 
dans los plus petltcs circonstances," (1) In both Loonce and 

elpliine it is evident that it is the cxtrOTio of an attitude -nrhich 

jxrevalls, v;hich is, in fact, tho distinguishing mark of tho 

perBona£;c» istonio addresses Tremior and Kagnus adnirlncly: 

— Horanes fortsi homes herolqiicsi vasos d'cloctionl 
saints q\il 6tes Dortis d'un i.xildi-'len ot .I'un pretrej 
votis, forqat, qal avcs assune sur votre t^te tOus 
los c'latlricnts de la vie soclalej vous, noino'g qui 
aves r-cG'anid' dans quelqiiec annees do votre vie tnterlouix) 
toutcs les tortures de I'arie,.,, (2) 

Once novo it is tlio extreme nhich cliaractcrizcs anu. distinguishes'. 

It is, even, in Uiis pai-^ticular inctanco, the extrene carried to 

Its paradoxical limit ♦ The crlTiinal, because ho lias loior/n tho 

greatest ixinlsiaacnt, the monk, because he haa iaioun the greatest 

tenptatlon, ai^ fortiiwith granted the superiority of virtue which 

lies in the extreme-* ^lien Hu<;:o describes Javert, it is by the 

same method, by the same recourse to tiie paradoxical exorer:!©: 

La probito, la sinceritc, la candexu^, la convictisn, 

(1) Itoe» de Stacl, Dcljaliine , 3C2\ 

(2) Sand, L^lia, li, 334. 

l*i,Lcc iTi J.evoirj^ aont des choses fliii- en so trcr.ipant, 
jx^uvGnt devcnlr hldetiscG, nais citil, none lildmisos. 
res tent giHuidosj leur rtajesto, propi'e tt la COTiscience 
liurialnc, ixjrsistc Jans l*hori-^ur'» Go Gont dea vertws 
qui ont xin vice, I'orreair. — — . Kler" nMt.-it :x>lgnant 
et terrible corric cctte flGuro on so nontralt ce 
Qu'cKi po^lln•»^;^lt aK>clor tcxit le rssuvais du bor^ (1) 

It is liliBtrlse in the languD^e of exti'eme tliat Qautier pa?osents 

Onupihrlus: "II ^t etc capable — — d'^tixs le plus gr&nd des 

poctesj 11 no rat que lo pliiB s5ji£,nilie3? des fous." (2) Of Cimoor- 

daln B^o writes: "H avait en lui l^absolu." (5) It is often 

tlic intensity in SCTitincnt which is the clm!?actcrlGtic oxtrcBS^ 

SalVcitor leacribos Karol to Lucre Eia in tliose tei^iG: "«— Je to 

dirai cu'il pa:^nd tout avec exces, 1 •affection ct l*olol|psflEiait, le 

boiiieur et la peine*" (4) Of I-Iodestve Mignon Ealzac Tn?ltes: "Corocie 

toutes Ics fillos a caractcre oxtjrx)».»»" (5) Hone of tlicse 

roasiantics lives on tiic ordinary level. Tney are extraordinary and 

unusual; oltlier extraordinarily Good, beautiful, and talented, 

unusually innocent^ or abaoiutoly r.Tall^;nant, env?.ouii, or aeibltious'. 

There is noiiB ^ho does not touch one pole of an absolute* Kcaio, 

foa'' example, presents an extreme state of nlrxL that no tiling; can 

alleviate or cui^c; Delphine is a superior woTion and Coriiuie a 

genius; rjuaGimodo is extraordinarily ucly an.l s^jiik in tise vei^y 

extresiie of Inconprohension* Leono liOoni is the msult of a fondness 

for sensation cax»ried to its extreiao* Cinq-IJai^ is the oxtrcee of 

youtiifiil enthusiasm; Kichelieu is tiie vci"y cnboJlJ^nt of evil 

ambition* Docteui'-Hoir is the extreme realist; Stcllo is tl:« 

idealist. L 'Albert lives in an ataos})liere of cxcean ~ excessive 

(1) Ilugo, Lep lesp I^ 296, 

(£) CJcuticrT^' r..- "■- r o , Onuphr jus , 69, 

(5) Hugo, iKi"' - - ■/ If l^o* 

(-1) San-:, "^ ' ...ii, G5* 

(D) DalsacV ...^..^n , 171 • 

doQbtf cxccrsl-/ie Jntrospcctlon, excessive Indlvirhmllsd* 

That the ror^antlc personDge slioiild be :>rosont«%c! ft«oin tho UTSgle 
•hlch emplmsleos the mctrcrio cceno to "be the corollary of ti\o 
rcK^intlc rejection of a camon idoal* Par these personages the 
deviation fron the coiwentional ncm io not at all dlstx'cosing^* 
Rene voices a ecntlr-ent peculiar to the rormntics tfnen he says : 
"— On jottlt de cc qui n*cst ix^s conrnm, m^e qtiasid cette chose 
cGt vm rtD-lhcnu^." (1) Here l£5 a conplGtc reversal of the attlted© 
of classicism, the attitade tjhich Hieclre cxempliflec in her horror 
and shaTse that she ^lOfalrl devlcitc fron the conventional path laid 
:^0Tm for her, the attlta:'c exemplified In the concdios v;hcro it is 
the deviation from the roasonahle norm v;hlch ccnctitutes a vice 
aiKl canse for rldlcixlc. Calsac cxprersec the attitn.^.c cncnnon to 
classicist ttion he Trrltesj "Les rcntlncnts nobles poasses a 
l^ahGolti produlsent dos resnltats sesnblablec a ccnix dcs plus grande 
vices'*'* (2) Ho refers hero to tho absolute resignation and fidelity 
that Id tJie sole aspect of Adelliw as a 'XjrsoTKage'. Elsciihcrc ho 
indlccxtes tliat, to the i^nantlc, on the contrary, it is in the 
extr<n!ic that virtue becomes rccognizabl3 : "•••• En so refUL'i«-iit 
dans I'obocui'lto, cctto illiistix) e£;olste son^irca qi'O le sontlnent 
matemcl ponsse a I'extrenc ^our sa vie mscco tmo 
abaoliition -nr--^ los r;cna scnsiblos«««»" (S) It is thaa 
that Rone rejoices in the TiniqnerKJSs of the destiny reserved for 
hfe« Delphinc is consciotisly pleased at the superiority rrhich puts 

(1) Cijateauljriand, Heae > 9cy» 

{2) ~ ' c. La coiininc Bctte ", 9o« 

(3) . :c, Kg a :^ cere is .ie la prl 

ittc", 9o« 

:e la prlncesse de Gadignan, 30(y» 

her 'bcycna. the corrron lair. Qtmslnodo Is lol'-bted tliat ho shonld 
bo eloctcci pope for a day altiioufh bis elect ian depends on his 
xmparallollod ucllncaa. Leone ccl^nly iia-ila^s the f?ill oxtont of 
bis porridy boforo Jttliotte's horrified eyes «tn<l, far frora 
rc,rrrcttir^ bis nvrn nature, wrald lllce to influeneo Jiillettc to 
share itc attributes, Cesar Birotterm flntls his joy in his aim 
G::tcGptlonal honoaty Jast as Gorlot finds his In his excessiire 
patornal lncial';ence and Claes }ii3 In the intensity of hia scientific 
passion* ntchelieu rejoices in his own nntennare.l v^ill. fitello 
is iTroua of hia f&llnro to comprojRise with reality* D'Albort 
indulges his Idioayncrcislea and, qtrite in Rene's rranner, drrclls 
Kither foodly upon the unique nature of his sufferings • In ftict, 
it is almost without exception t3mt the peroonages who appecir in 
ronantlcist fiction present a picUu"V3 of the exa^eration or 
distortion of the nornal passions and plensurcsw kThat, in the 
claasical r^vacrvx^o, Gould iiavo been considered rx lack of personality, 
in that no sclf-caitrol is apyiarent In such exa^rgcititlonn , becorios, 
in rariantlcis!/., the tost of -lersonality and the whole svan of tlie 
pe5'aonago« Obviously the o:-'li':inal neoning of the term personality 
has been cojipletcly reversed^ 

Sts now moaning whioh a roiaantic r:li3ht attach to the r;ord personality 
becoBies evilent when wg ci^ serve tliat one of these so-called 
characte 's is clistinoviislmble frcn another by the dlfferonoe in 
the degi'H^e or a.iality of his feeling* l^e classic nercofnage was 
distinguishable, on the contx'ai'y, by the degree in which his reason 
had triunphed over any possiblo type of feeling which might work 

to underRilne tliat reason'. He approached tiie extrorao of perfection 

wbcn his reason had succeeded in reducing any type of feeling 

to tiie rioderation which rendered it ajs^»hle to reason* A ronantic 

pcr^csaajje so&;.s to appriacfii perfection cioot closely wiien the 

natui^al feeling in hin has been the least checked* llie education 

which Benedict and Atlicnals receive, on education which seeks to 

mould tlieir natures to a certain noiTa, is rcprcsentod by r>and as 

evil, Bfhoreas whatever element of virtue rccmijis in them is 

pareciacly tiiat elecient which is the natui^l* 

Cette education avait assoc "blen fructific poui^ Ic 
nLilLioui'' do I'vin et de 1 'autre, .'.tbcuals, cor:ri€ une 
cire T;K)lle et flexible, avult is^is, dans \m pensionnat 
d'Orldana, toun Ics defauts ucs jcunes i^ ' ;iales: 
la vanit<^, l*a3;ibition, I'onvle, la isetit. „_„• Copen- 
dant la bontcT du cocur eta it en olle comr.Q un hdrita^je 
I '' ■ ' -^ par- ua "jbrc, et los Influences ihi 

..nt pu I'et^Tiirfor. — - Lc nal etait 
plus gi^nd Chez Benedict..., (1) 

Benedict shares the ar^thor'c point of view: "— IlelasJ I'^ucation 

a corrocipu mon espx^Xu; los vairoc dc;sirs, lea revcs crigantesques 

oat faussc im nature et detruit non avenir." (2) Benedict, in 

fact, refuses to reco^nl2e any chock upon his nature as reasonable. 

ile tells Louise: " — Plus J*ai appriu, plus je x; suis deijcwte de 

la vie; je vcux rctoumer rmin tenant, autant que possijle, a mon 

etat d© natm^e, a na cr-oasiercte do jJaysan, a la slKpliclte dee 

idees, a In frugalite de la vie." (5) And in answer to lier protest 

he denies any villdity to the Jtidgrients of society: "—La soclete 

n*a pas bcsoin dc ceux qui n'ont pas besoin d*ollo." (4) Tlic 

nature in Benedict Imvc been toriporarily corrupted by society. 

(1) Can^., Valentine , 19. 

(2) Ibid ., 1L6. 

(3) THTT .. 140. 

(4) TdT! ., 141. 

iiallarly, tlM3 nature In "Talentluo Is tes!n:x>rarily restricted liy 
-ociety since Valentine's natural feeling for Bea^ict is at first 
dieolGdcI by her luisband, her ittother and her gra;i<feothei*» ait the 
natural fueling is never checked frcra s^ithinj for this wculd be 
to deny tlie virtue of nature* To dony the virtue of imture ia to 
deny the fundaniental baslo of roriantlciGR, Its effect uix>n 
charr.ctGi*, as evi lenccd, for instance. In Benedict, is to dony the 
dualism of ran'a nature and to i^reuent hin as ho-TOGcncoua Uirou^i- 
out, in conflict only t/ith the external i/oril but iK)t in conflict 

ith any dis turbine elor.oent within his nature* 

For clasaiclsra tian tias animal a».l hwnan at the aaiao time* 5'or the 
-'oijanticist ::sm is natural; timt is, the dividing line between 
nature and liusianity ceases to exist* The effect of this upon the 
ronantic i>crsona(,o ^^ iiaportant* It r^ans thax. the unrestricted 
expansion of a natural feeling LeecKies the criterion of personality* 
HGirce the practical necessity under which the ronanticist lay 
of iiidicatinc iho ix)rDor^ge by ineunt. o_ ohe oxtrerae itanifestation 
«f a given feeling* Hence the truth, which lias becone increasiiicly 
ftppai'»ont in tiie course of this study, that the raaantlc lives 
only in oiie node, the no^e of feeling* Rene/ is nothinc but tJie 
extreine of ennui* Delphine la nothing but an indiscriniinating love* 
Tiic passion of avai^icc is Grandotj the jxission of ^Tatomal love 
is Coi^iot* It ic the xiSGionatc desiix) for truth tiiat constitutes 
all JVilien'c life and the unrestrained passion for beauty which 
gives all the laeanlno to the nane of d 'Albert* 

But If it is Benedict's nature to love Valentine and if Benedict's 

^rcorsGllty Is sxasood up in the Tinchecked :ianifestation or Ills 

—tare, nothing can chance li2m« The fact that such a lovo raay be 

tinreuiionable constitutes no "biir to Ita extro^ie dGvclOiJiont since, 

Txilng a nffli if estatlon of iiatui^. It Is lUiowiso, necossarily; a 

manifestation of virtue • Scmd vrrltos: 

ol i'ar.iaur etait un Dcntincnt qui so ~ """Ig ct se 
raiaonnc coi.rie I'Dnitiif ou la haino, : " ' .^ct e'O.t Ite 
ftc Jeter aux ]^ieds de^ Louloej ceiis co qui fait 
I'ltrionsc supdrloritc Ic celui-la sur touo los autr-co, 
CO cjix prouve son essence ilvlnc, c'ect qu'll no nait 
point de I'hcfmrio m^ae; c'oct que I'hoime n*cn pout 
disi^oser*; c'ost qu*ll ne I'acMrde paa plus qu'il no 
l*ote par un acto de sa volontoj c*est quo lo coeur 
humain le^recoit d*cn haut sans doute rxyvtr' le reporter 
sur la creature clioisie cntre toutes dans Ics ^essoins 
dxx del J et, quand une fihe dherglquc l*a requ, c*est 
cn^vTxln quo tcutos loo cons Id^i^it ions hunalnes 
^Icvoro-ient la voix potn^ le dotrulre; 11 subslste 
scul et i»r sa propre puissance. (1) 

To deny nan'ii u.iiul natui'o xg evidently, therefore, to deny hlra fz^e 

vill and to rid hira of the i^csponalhility for his own acts. Benedict 

does not liold hlnsoir responsible for onythlnf; that luipi^ns to 

bin nor for anytiiinc he does. On tlio contrtiry, ho "rrlll explain 

each new circianstance by the cry that, since he experiences tills 

instinctive desiix) or love, God must have willed it so, since Ood'^ 

as the ci'cator of our being, is the source of qvcitt natural desiro 

or Instinctive feeling. Of his love for Valentino Benedict cries: 

"— Caament done le del, qui I'inspli^, pourralt-11 s'en 

Eioquer?" (2) The passion v/hich ho feels is a "v<^rltc celeste qui 

desclllc Ics yetix et desabusc l^esp-rit do toutos les choses 

huEialncsi'* (2) ^c death of Valentine's husband la an effect of 

destiny. Bene'tiict tells Valentine: "— TT'est-ce oaa Dieu qui 

regie nos destino'os? n*est-ce pas lui qjiii te delivre de la chal^ne 

(1) Sand, Vale:itiric- ISC, loV'. 

(2) roid. ."i^r?; 

hontcuse de ce tiDTtv^o'i n'ect-co p&s lui qui jca^ge la terre do 
cet hcrsno fscx et stupid©?" (1) 

sftiat is tjme of Benedict is tnic or rcnstntlc pQ^-sonai^es In general. 

Sole iiow fJi^qaently the r:ora destlrij occurs in Ujo novelxi -jnlor 

-''^rTiisslon. listen to cr^rtiin cTriT^.ctsrlr.tlc sixs^jcbes anul o'b302»ve 

hoT/ imliCsitatinGiy tlic^se .-^orcicnagcs interpjxit GoJ.'s l^itonticfti to 

confoi^ to their cytm theories* lf» de Lc-ocjiael iJi'ltes: '^— <>uoi'| 

la DiTinltc qui a voulu arte tout. .?ut facllo ot t^'^dixble paiir le 

mftlntlon do I'oxlatcnce pdiyslquc, aurait nlG noU'c naturo r.iC2:"ale en 

opposition avoc l*x vcrtiii" (C) "—La nature — - coiilait 1*1icbot» 

VQv^ tout CO v^v.t crt bion, txir I'attixilt ct le pBiicliaut Ic plus 

dOLix'**' (5) SGod*a -tXjrcoixLt^oii especially arc oxti^.-3aoly fond of 

indicating their entire submission to t!ie forcos of dostiiay. Jacques 

writes Sylvia in re^^-r:" to the absurdity of coiiforiiiing to reat^ned 

pa'inciples: *'— II est cbaiirde de so prescrlre xuic i^glo dc 

condtilte, qnand le hcoard ocul se charge tie vous cclai3»cr sur lo 

im^tllmvp ]xvrtl a prendre^" (4) Jallotto will doclAre; "— Jo lad 

stiio q\i*iino rmlhcm^usc que la fa tali tc cnti^wti:ie ot qui mo peiit 

s*aiTPctcr^»" (D) But the fciluixj to ixjctify the dosirc^ tlw; inliic^ui 

miallty in mict fi^nires Is host exarapllfle:! in Leone L^ni» Bq 

is ihc exti>cnG exaitiple of a pcrcceiage reduced to U>© pRii»ely aaliaal 

plane of living'* Jtillotto reports: 

— n sc c-cpotiilla dc tout artifice et i>ei;t-Gtre 
dcvrals-Je dire dc toute pudetu-*, et rjo confecsa toutoa 

iGS t ' ■ ' : dc sa vic'» I'alii au nillc;u .^o cot 
abme _._ - _it voir et conprcndre ce qix'il y avalt 

(1) Sand^ Valentino, 3£4. 

i2) 1Sb0'» de i3vtiC^L, t^el^^ilno- 55S". 
2) Ibid« , 531. '' 
4 ) l&rid', jto^ccmoG^ 245> 
(5^ Revue'des deux mondes , 1834, II., Sand, Leone L^onl , 298, 

— Ka conckilte est vile, me dlt-il, mals rion coour ost 
tou jours noble } il aalgne toujoxirs de ees torts; 11 

a conserve' aussl cii * ', "izal ]i ' sa 

pi'cnicrc jcunossc, - --. ..i dti ^ __ j I'iiijuote, 

l*liorre\ii' du iial qu*il corarict, l^Gnthouslaj^ae du beau 
qu'il conteciplo. px ixitiGnca, tcs — ^ ta oont^ 
anoGllque- ta r.ilGcricoi^c incpuisa'^_ . . cello do Dlou, 

n© peuvono s'excrcor on favour d'-un §trc qui loa 
ociaprenne mleitx et qui les adnlre da vantage. (1) 

Loonc*G speecli inalfles plain all tho imlications of such pcrsoiMiges'* 

Pollowlno the rextural impulses trill produce a conplGte Inal^illty 

to discriminate. 3ie establislied hegemony in the noral trorld is 

no longer valid'. CJood and evil, the ugly and the beautiful, are 

confoQsdcd* Accortlingly, the devil ceases to exist and the con»oction 

of the will is unnecessary. To folloT? the voice of instinct is 

to follov; the voice of God. God is nado directly re3}x>nEiblo for 

the individual's actions. Delphlnc, in tho ciiuroh with Leoncc, 

d^fl xiot oppose her or/n Independent judgaent to Leonce's irapassioned 

pleadings'. On tlie contrary, she invokes God silently and decides 

that. If God Gonds no sign to Leonce's coafjision, it will be 

because Ho approves of Leonce's desire, '.lien she falls ui^conscious, 

therefore, siio recognizes tlie incldont as an intervention froa 

God. Gilllatt, stiniggling against tiic elcnents, will "be in o«actly 

the sarae case. It is not Gilllatt's sti'^ength o;.' co-oragc which 

frill give hirn tlic vlctoi'y but he invokes God and, when the stem 

abates, Gilllatt accepts It as a sign fi'orn God tliat the verdict la 

in his favoim. Shus destiny inilcs undis^Tuted and oven the illusion 

of free will is frequently exploded. 'Sils Is to riake rtan a rierc 

puppet in C-od's liands*. As such, he is not a free agent and he ] 

(1) Revue des deux mondes , 1834, II,, Sajid, Llone Leonl , 274, 

cont-iiiiie to lll-asiii^iie ^:iiat ■ end of tdic dooI^ Eecall 

t'le r»oc -gijitic i' - - we Mvc i-icsiiiicsiied? Doee . ._> Tory 

Clkr.ttcJT^-^^n ei?':!^'' 'GPiliI«5& Ma .:•■ fii'«t £._ . uce'i Sio:'.-»e is, 1:-. fact, 

^.TKJni oimroic '^'•Tr^n". a^e t?orui. ^. . .^-italn 

\iaGa to cLcscrilxj Kouiiserx: aPi.dy oquuij^ wgH, Si^ to 

Ldono Loonl aiK? serve to set Tcrth T'ei'y p3^1iily Uie IXmitatious of 

Slid ^^^ -• Haritaln tr^?/-- •: 

i'J.l, af> a r:. , ^j;. 111:, 

^ realize a t.^v^^^>^ v-j. iuvsj^..i, ;^w '.y^ ^. '- "^•■«"'^ a 

h2£r« — — As to the noral Jadgment Itself, it is often 

gccxl, -- •■ r.:.'- ^' ■ ■ In ra:i» 

It v.o 'Ail.-f '7.!;..t Iri J;.ar.-~ -.ic 

jreGv,-.„^oat?-" '^^^ ^he t.-ill» Henc„ .;^. . .:.. ..^u^ons and 
hln moral • (1) 

'^^'>rm, :?:- -vv. - .-..-. ^ ^*?...- — 'i,>r ?f desired 

Llan does iiot coiiti-ol liiia u/ttatiny Ixio destiny oonti-oia imn; tlaat is, 

the acciclQuts cf tlic outer v,'orld detcrdnc absolutely ilui rate of 

n sulxiltte'-:'. .^ ........ ~"iix-. ■-.-■•< -■ "''-'-'■olopRents occm^, thci'<:?f*oi'c, 

iii Uio novels of roraiiticiiin, luivc tiioii"* soiirce els. tlmii 

in claaractva** 

In s|ich clrciiEistoncos, tlieix) is no room foa' psychological de-^elop- 
(1) Karltain, Throe He fo^Tie^^s, 101, 102^. 

nont» Dol]iliine*3 idealisra, for instance, rorialns unarfcctod by 
tl3e »©ries or lalsforttmes tlirough nhicii she passes^* Sieao riis- 
roi'tunes a oiiiilar soupco unu i-'osult from sinllar indiscretions 
on her part* Yet Delphiae vataBd.xi&, up to Uxe very ccaclusion of 
tlie booky aa truii-' ar&i ci^dtilouc as slio mxa at licr Initial 

"■)arance« i.^:uauiriiodo, i.hon iie is on tiie pllloi'y, caa only oppose 
a diffib surprlQO to each new evidence of tlae i3ali£jnancy of the ciob* 
lis response to oacii new catactropbe may be asstailated to Delphine'a 
response In a similar situaticar* ThB inability or rofxjsal to 
loam by experience is the direct r-esult of the rcchictlon of life 
to the hojaogenelty of tiie pm^ely irjstinctivG, a reduction whiclrj" 
nrinia fticla f. ps^cludcs free uillV Instinctive life Lecczaes, in 
fact, animal life and such anii:ial life v/111 siiou siiailar rcspooses 
tc clmllar sticiull but nc psychological Jlevolormcnt* llie personage 
atOPCfua the rcsijoniiiblllty for his own nature up(m Godv ."e, thciKS- 
foi'c, in tuna, tli3:x)w the entire responsibility for the nature of 
taw personage upon the autiior. If the-ae pci^onagcs learn no tiling 
frcci reality lAit i^^ciain ti\ic uj an instinct iirplantod in tlioia at 
bii^tii, Ere can only decide tiiat the c^rtist has arbitrarily eiidoT7cd 
his porsonat^oe with those particular inctincts since no correspon- 
dence l«3tween tlie instinct aiid reality is over aasunied. It is the 
author of their natures who alone iX)sscsscs fr^e v/111, uhotlicr, in 
real life, this author is God or v/lietiiei», in fiction, tliis autlior 
is the novelist* It is this author who alone i5i»odetGiTaines tlio 
nature of his ixarsonaj^ec* It is siGr*lf leant, for Instance, ai*i 
ahotrs the roraintio love for ^nrndox that Sand ;>roGcnts ^Riliett© as 
Incapable of Infidelity to he;- x^j/o for the vile L^onc* On the 

otiior hancl, she rei»»cr.enuS FenrnndG as incapable of nore tlmn an 
axti^cmely tricf love o. clie adnlratile Jacquos. Such dotoiTiiriation 
.-scordlis^- to a fixed coiiceptlon o£ peulity siay, liidood, bo 
spcciflccaiy aclaioHlol£.. v:.* Ticny, fox* oaciriple, will aascirt: "Co 
qu'll y a ue plus Ixjcu apcpoD l*iiasplratx03i, c'est le d^vc-u^..„irw; 
apres le Po^tc, c*cat le Soldacit." (1) Slicn he goos en to asasrt 
that his stoi^ios i^rill pixjsont tlie Soldier, it is alxxiady evidaat 
that tlie G.six)Ct imclor v;hich the Sddlor i7ill appear lias "been 
dotenained am hiis boon dctcrciinod in accordtmce sitii Vigny's 
.ttltuie toimixl the r-iatei»lal fron v/hich he creates* Tiiat rtatorial 
nust, pa'irasjdly, of courre, Imve lycen fiii'niEl'iod "by exterior ideality 
: iKl have reached the author by tJie way of observation and experience 
but the rmterial fron which, he directly creates is not obsenied 
reality but i^ality as it appears after its assimilation by ttm 

5he only chtCGC Lliat ever uIjco i lace in a ^iven nature is not 
tiie result of a slotr dcvclopeent but of a sudden coirTcrslon* Jevort 
acts in a given nanncr thrraighout Lea Bis crab les » Suddenly he 
changes and act£ in exactly the opposite nanncr« Jean Valjean 
Is moved by hate and acts like a criminal • £>addenly he clmngos. 
^€ alnost savage Jean undergoce an iixiedlato trancforniation and^ 
inmctically overnight, becccieB endovrod witii a great variety of 
icnoirledcc and different sorts of Bld.ll. He Is sliotrn riaimclng 
factories, adnlnlsterinc charities, and ruling a city-» "Htm rmrquis 

(1) Vigny, Servitude et grtandeur militaire s, 25* 

de I*:;ntcnac rmder-goeB the aarae tT?e of co^i-iloto tT^nsfor'nitiorr. 
His Ci\ii,j.b^ lu urtiiti^a'tcd ttntli -uu .uiauii^ uuun^ sudcou-y, iie 
chocs hlnceir capable of the greatest pcsailjlc sclf-so.crifice for 
. c salrc of others. He has nade good his escape frao the stronr*- 
iioiu. u.iluii iilw o.i*jiiieo liuvij Uikeif* But the siicou^.- ox '.iLu nsucanij&Q 
was to "bo U\e cigruil for tlic deatli of tixroe innocent children be 
has holxl as Itostaces'. The fuso which will uet fire to tQie rocn 
In which they arc looted has act«ally been sot off. But La.ntoaE.c, 
tlie implacable, is suadenly converted to htaaanity by the mother's 
despairing cries'* Ho rescues the children althwrh it ontalls 
his captui^ auu conderamticm to death* But tiic vo^^^-face by i^iich 
Lontonac passes frori one absolute to the opposite does not appoar 
as a rosu2,t of lunain exporlcnce and reasor^d judgnent. It is, 
ratiicr, a result of the divine Intervention and it. i^u interpreted 
by Oauvaln* He Ijas seen: 

1/6 corabat du blcn coiitro le nal* 

TJh CO cur effi*ayant vena it d'etre vainctU 

Etant donne l*licraae avoc tcwt ce qui est nauvais 
en lui, la viol-- - , l*errcur, l*©iaGnt, 

l*opiniatrct*^ .Uie, I'orgueil, I'ogoisno, Gouvain 

▼enait de voir un mlz*aclo» 

La vie to ire de I'hiananito sur l*honi->e'# 

L'hursfinito -avalt valncti I'inhusialn* (1) 

Bri»queBiGnt, l^Itjcoraiu, 1 •avcrticseiir layaterlfifux dee 
r- •, •"■^.ait -.e fali c * i- r..^ au-dossiis des 
i. t dos nolrcetx: _ ^, la £n^ande lueur 

otoi nolle. — — JSEisBaiSy dans axictui coiibat, Satan 
n%vait ^te' plus visible, ni EieuW (2) 

ISse obaiis^B in Lantcnac is a ::iiraclc wrcoi^ht by God and is, there- 

fcre, iK>t necessarily in accord with psychological r<jality, 

(1) liufo, cnmtre-Viiict-Treise, 13^, 20a* 

(2) Ibid., IX^ 20'1, 26S. 

Sor does Sand aeea to find It iiaprobable to represent Fadette* 
vhose characteristic quality at tiie bet:,iniilng of tlie book Is 
aalice, as transformed eonpletely and imrnediately so tliat 
thereafter she appears as the perfect model of virtue and« indeed, 
initiates Landry into the true religion — • a religion of love 
fftiich excludes tiio very idea of evil* 

8cMh iansdiate conversions are frequent and < .ay be lllast::^ated 
froia alaost any novel of roinanticisn although raore apparent, 
perhaps « in Hugo and Sand t^ian in the other novelists* Chactas 
undergoes such a conversion of attitude at Atala*8 deatli* !>?• de 
Valorbe, vdio has never be«i anything but petty and etean^ becomes 
suddenly generous just ljefoz>e he dies. Skse. dc Vemcm too 
under^^es the same type of death»bed conversion. It is such 
conversicHis that effect tJie advancet'ient of the plot in Les 
Miserablcs . tiarius undergoes one coriplete chan, e and latox" 
anotjier entire z^voluticoi of attitude, ills grandfather likewise 
mtitkea a right«about-face. So does Bponine. And, of course, 
Jean Valjean*s conversion is the starting- !)oint of the ' ook 
proper. Such a transfoxraation appears also in Bernard Siteuprat 
eho, a&'VB.i^ and violent at the beginning of tlie book of v^hlch 
he is tlie prota< onlst, becones iamediately, upon acquaintance* 
aihlp vith Ednee, a dianged person. It appears in Flavie, in 
Francis ( Valvedre ). in Rathalie ( Mont^Reve ohe ) . in IsiJora. It 
weerin especicULly 1 iprobable in rk»nt«»Reveche udiere Uatluilie^s 
violently envious, ciniel, ami assertive disposition becoues 
MMidenly a husible, subiiissive, and k'nd one. Sudi conversions 
in the natui^ of nodolphe, Tiburce, or d» Albert nalre the «diole 

Interest of the olot and It Is jiiet such a conversion which 
aaJeaa Daniel Jovard '.30 from the cme abrolute catroae to the 
otlior. RMtnud (SegvltMde et ffTKodmxr nllitalrea ) undergoes 
successive and Icraediate trans forrmtions* So does Juli^i* 
Julien* for Instanee^ is at one m<x?ient a fervent and eloqitent 
Cturiatiany st the xuuct he denies Cliristianity entirely* 

Since 8u<^ an absolute reversal is less improbable in tiie realm 
of idmis than it is in the realm of instinct^ Jixlien*s suddoa 
flanges 8e«a less i. >probal>le t^an does, for instance » Jean 
Valjean*a transfomation. Jean VaXJean is converted to the 
religion of love but Julien, i^en be first accepts Qxrist, is 
acceptinc the idea of the religion rather than its sentlnent* 

Such iaeiediate cc»iversion does not occur in Balzeu; and^ in this 
reepctcty he shows a certain divergence frota the coiaplote 
roaanticim of the otlier novelists discussed here. '^i» iaataediate 
and ccxnplete tranafommticm in character vdiich tliese novelists 
so unaniHOusly ascribe to tlieir porsona^^es is obviously en 
arbitrary device #iioh can only be accepted as probable if ive 
accept the idea of a conversion ijidiidi is In the natuire of a 
religious conversion; tliat is, it is not a disciplined process 
of spiritual advancoaent imt an ionediate salvation* This 
ianediate salvation restilts, aceox>ding to Protestant doc trine » 
frota the arbitr'ary disp^isation of grace frora heaven* Sudti 
grace is the direct token of Ood*8 love azKl deso«ids upon tSaoae 
vho acknowledge a love for Ood* 

In tito novels we are studying^ the conversion is» llkevise^ 
alvays the result of love* not. Indeed, the love of God but the 
love of God's representatives on earth. JVili^i's orii:lnal 
Qirtstianity was the resixlt of his love of Christ — God's son* 
Jean Val.^ean'a tiransforraatlcm Is the result of his love of the 
blsihop — God's priest. P«iette's love for Landry — God's 
creature ~ clian^es her ccsapletely, More f3?oquently, hov/ever, 
it is the love of wonan ~ the isost perfect manifestation of 
God's croaticai ~ ttmt effects the change. This is true of 
Tilxirce 1^0 loves Gretchen* of Hocioli^ie 1^10 loves u^riette* of 
d'Albert x^.o loves Mile, de MflBioin, of Chactas «ho loves Atnla* 
of tSaw. de Vemcm ^o loves Delphine. 

Tiyo grace n^lch God ^^rants to man, the author bestows on his 
perscmages. Hence the author is visii ly, once again » assuoin^ 
ttie prero^tivea of the creator. Just as he rnade the original 
natural eEndonagsent of his creatures arbiti:»arily, that is, according 
to his plan anA not according to his experience of reality, .lust 
so does the author render himself resp<msible for their final 
salvation or dazaiation accordinn- to w?iethor he nernita of their 
conversion by love or vd^ether tiiey resaain unconverted. The 
creation rep3?eaents tlie creator's plan. It represents not the 
probability whi<^ arnonls with God's cx»eation but t^sc unnredict- 
ability n^ich re/julatos tlie universe of an author lidiofie plan 
we rmxat divine fron his trorlc In order to interpret him correctly 
and in order to suggest the lai^ that rule the -iinivorse of his 

In I^alzac's work» certain of his personai^es reveal the sixme 
Incapacity for develoxxaent c^ppaz'ent in tli© figiires w© have Just 
been discussing. If any tSione^e does occur, 'moreover, it occurs 
by means of a sixailar abrupt passage froia one absolute to 
another* In such a fashicm^ Vautrin pas&es abzniptly from ttie 
state of a criitdnal defyinr; society to ttiat of a j)Olice inspector 
protecting society. But it is necessary to observe tiiat, 
dss^^tially* Vautrin rcoains the sane and tlie fact that he decides 
to use an accepted social function as the nieans to his end does 
not change the character of tliat end. 

On the other liand, igien E^zac presents malleable youth, be 
rep]?es^it8 it as passing throu^ii a scries of ea^riences is^iich 
Bimild it slotjly toward its final set aspect, neither tiie motive 
nor ntovecient is parallel to that apparent in Jean ValiMOi. In 
this latter the transfoi*3ation Is ij:i3ediate and his further 
•aperlexices are In tlie naturo of tests i^ich nalce clear the 
coopleteness of tliat transforr;ation« In Balsac's \8ork, the 
transfomation appears as a final result not as an ii.rsediate 
cause. The youth in his novels is the embryo upon \5jlilch the 
staiB5> has not yet been set. For scsae of tAls youth the 
Ksaanticisa «ftiicli is concerned cmly with its o\5in nature is 
replaced by a recOi^nition of the exterior reality. Tlwjs© 
personages tdio recoijniae reality for «rhat it Is, oudii as 
^agenie «p Hasti^7xac, recognise also that, by tlieir choice of 
society, tliey are detenoining the developraont in thenselves of 
one side of their nature to the exclusion of tlie otlier. 

astlcnac, vHxen we fli»st neet hisi^ Is yoxjng eaa& Ms direction 
undeterciined. His final z^^stare in Le pei^c Goriot shovs idiat 
his future directior. nlll be« This final fjesture is th'^ result 
of & Ion subniealcm to a giv^i Infivience ~ p^re Goriot* s — 
end his sulacsission to this influence has cradually elir.inated 
ther type of natural feeling «hlch originally existed in hla» 

V thing is true of Eurraxie Orandet* She is young and 
her way imdetaTmlaed but her «ay is not the reeult of a sadden 
conversion but of a long gestation* Her final c©*^*^ of 
aocept«aiee follows a lon^ subraission to tlio influences of 
rellf^lon and tradition, an influi^ice tranaiiitted throu^rh her 
mother* Her acceptance of this influonce involves the final 
renuncifl.ti(»» of another aspect of her natural feeling, her love 
for Charles* The religious influence predonlnates in .ler life 
tttmi the priest succeeds in naklng Eugenie realise that her 
love for Charles is egoistic in quality in that it has raade her 
forget her obligations toward society* (1) 

Balsuc^s personages are seen, therefoz^), to be livin^'r entirely 
in the mode of feeling but, ot tho saae tl se, he recognisos and 
■skes evident in them as natural two distinct types of ^eellrx^: 
the social s^^mpathles fostered in nan Ty one sort of en^TronaiMit, 
the aelf-love fostex>ed in n^oi by anotrier sort of envlr<»amcit« 
6ftlsae*8 nature, therefore, is dual imt the dualism is not that 
of reason versus instinct; it is tli© .rincipl© of life in nature 
versus the oz*lnclple of death* The two aspects of nature do not 

(1) See Balzac, Eufcenie Grande t* 475, 476. 

'm 1.^ In his pez>80Stt^GS Init the deteirilnation of th© aspect 
jhich «dll pirevall in any still aalleable forci of life dcpcaids 
upon tl&e a taBoayiie re in wiiicli it devcloi>3« Like a plant viileh 
T>e»ponds to sun or shadow tlie ycnjxiQ hsoctas giecmth responds to 
ihc tPcrovaftd»l» or tu favourable conditions of its 11 fo, i^alaac's 
-roimg pz'otaf^Hiists are not, therefox-e, subject to ii^iMdiate 
conversions but to slow development, '^lie developnont is not 
one of disciplined 6tru(i^:lo, howtver* but of natural ^ro. . "le 
pefsonatse is not indepsBftleiit of cirtMsmteaMMi maj store tlias. are 
the other personalises of roosantlcisn, since lie lep-oids not on 
bis o«n f^?ee vrill but on tiw elianee ii^ilch b^i^s Mm in one or 
maotSmr direction* 

But if Bal2ftc*s personaj^es are detezoined from without « rather 
tiian fron within, Balsao malces t^ils detemination seem, at least, 
to rest upon a coLT^r Icte reco^niticm of the presoico of e /ll in 
nature. That, at t3ac aaae tine, he fri'llcatos the persistence 
of evil to be due only " ' 'he permit* s.uoe of a certain type of 
society, the existing mode of society, indicates in hia the 
preo^ic© of the belief that ovll tendeaicies in tlie young plant 
or l-oioaan growth can be cosapletely eradicated given a favourable 

L*Taifant rmudit offers an interesting oacaniiJl© of Bal!5ac*s 
conceptlfm of the favourable rillieu* Etiennc d'HerouvHl© ^-^^^oxt^ 
up in an isolation viiich offers hln as society only three 
eleinents: his nother, his books, and nature. The society liiich 
his zBother represents is reflected in liin: ^'GooBie sa mere, 11 

otait tout acKkur pur et tout ecie^" (l) Tliroutjli tlie knmvlodt;© 

^ained trcEi his bcx^cs lie dlseoiraa!^ hla joy in nature and 

di soothers Uie union idaich it offers of tihe ins tii^e live mid th« 

Ideal: "Incroyabl© fiiel«age d© dmuc cieationsl.tettit^t il c'olevait 

ju3qiu*a Dloa par la prie::^, taiit^t il redesc«»dal t^ Iniable et 

reai^oe Juaniu'au boniiour palsiblo do la brute." (2) Tno young 

abrielle liksslse grows up in complete isolation fron the 

'.Qtj of hor tisie* "Ainsl, diose etvailgfM la vie que 1& 

.^.'..Ijie d'un pere avait corsiaade a Etienne d*Iierouville» I'antour 

patemel avait dit a Boaavoulolr de I'iiinoser a Gabrlelle." (S) 

Daonifoeabalr es^lains to Etientie the reasocis ^lich liave dictated 

Oabrielle*s iaolation: 

-~ L'i^orance» nionseig^eur^ est use chose ausai 
sainte que la science; la sci«ice et 1* ignorance 
aont pour les cr^tures deux ^lani^res d'etre; 
l*iine et 1* autre ccmservent I'mne caeme dans \m 
suaire; la science voua a faib vivi^« l*i;^ora&e« 
sauvera taa fille* (4) 

The ideal to ^lich Stienne attains throui^ nature camp2?ehflcded 

scientifically, Gabrielle reaches throiii;^! natuire conprehended 

instinctively, Balzac writes: "Elle avait la noblesse 

particuliere aux anes diez lesquelles les : ianieres du vaxmde 

n'ont rien altere, en qui tout est beau p€u*ce que tout est 

naturel." (5) The pi^servatlon frota a materialistic society 

has preserved her spirt tual instinct. Balzac writes: "A quo! 

comparer un etre a qui les lois sociales, les faux sentirionts 

du nonde etaient inconnus« et qui conservait une ravissante 

(1) Bal2ac« L^aafant standi t > 40G« 

(2) ibij./sTJsn: 

(3) "^"^., 410. 

(4) _•, 423. 

(5) 22S** 425. 

innocenco, en n'o'.dasiint qvJa I'lnatlnct do son cocar.'^ (1) 
Hut the beauty which, sodti innooenca poejsessea is i^eli^lous in 
feeling. Of Gabrielle I5al3e.e asso3?t3J "C'etait la 3ei»?«ihl<iB» 
et profonde beaute de I'Eli^lise catholiqucy a 1& foic soupXe et 
rislCo, cevei^s et tendre." (2) /md ttie religloiiE fealin^ isiiich 
appoara eqiioUy In Etierane end in Gabzdelle finds its natural 
society only •shBre a Idndz^ed f^linG exists. Honce: '*La 
nature avait destine cea dmix l>eauK ^tr>o6 I'un & l*aatre^ Dieu 
les avait rapprod^oa i^r i2ne Incroyablo dlsv^sition iTr' i imniaiitn "("i) 

IXit fihetiier oi* not Balzac SiKJllec a favoiirable cnvironDent for 
hla youthTul protaca*Klsts ia c|ulte as artltrary a aatter as is 
the conversion of the aore ordinary typo of romantic personage* 
Balsac puts huBMn nature on a pax* with inanimate or anioal 
nature by ntaklng it follov the law of necessity in its develop- 
iMBt* Hucoy vhose personages are su7. ject to such sudden 
eenveirslonst juts huian nature on a par vith inmrtiiaate or 
anlaail nature by malting it subject to ir^tinct» ^ut in his 
peraatukQea^ though the divinity of nature in thai may 0e 
taq^ovarily sulaareed by the evil influcsHM of socioty^ the 
possibility of its resorgenee is never rorcotten, licnco 'di® 
Bilmculoua conversion ndiich^ in Balzae» would be to deny natural 
nee«Mity and« therefoz*e» to d«iy nature* beeoiaea, in Vbi^, the 
reassertlon of nature and of tiuit is natural, i'ho necessity 
idiich rules Balzac's personages dci^oids xipcm the necessary 
stability of relation^iips in nature and, tlierefor©, in iian and 

(1) Balzac, L« Enfant raautiit . S90, 
^2) Ibid>. ^XSl 
(5) ISId .. 412. 

tn man's society. Vsol^lli** ^onveirelon, CflireAxlly staddladj 1» 
seen to represent only an external ^uuaiv^e of state} the idea 
ropr^eated by that state is still the 8e»«* But in Huar., ot» 
In the other i^Dsnanticlsts, tlm basis of Ji^ture is Ir fha iadiT- 
idaal not In tlie relationahlpe between the individo&lii* In 
r«lsac ex'cry caen Is e lanlt in a society. In the o<3-ter- ^?^r!s»aticiats, 
every is en ind6f>es3dent cosnos. The result is that, in 
Balzac's work, it is not ^;he individual vhieh Is £oo<? or bad» It 
is tJie society, i^iich forBis him and in «3iich he is a cogij which 
is, by nature, <Tood or bad. But in Hufjo, Oi» in the ^ther 
roTjanticists, it is t!ie indl^dd'oal who is f^ood 03? '>€*?• ^op© 
Sand, for exasa^le, dotorrlnes by hei* cdioice of the attri^mt-es 
of tjie s^spat^ictic pearsona^e those qualities w'x'ch ere 
crtterlon of virtue in her universe, Balzac detewiines by his 
choice of tiie attrlL^utes of the STX^^tai^tic society those 
qualities t^iieh arc the criterion of virtue in Ms imlverse. 
The decision nust >ro made before the i:>ersonafve3 appea? for, 
aftej* their initial appenrfmco, free Tfill is only an Illusion 
and even a airaculous conversion laaat reriain in haisiiony with the 
natrore of the unlvorao those persona -^jes ha re reppesent.e*« 

Bat if thoso r>er3ona,:e3 are prtssive, living only in the mode of 
feollns and throuc^i but a single ai^pect of that mode — mi 
aspect, noreovor, so extreme as to be an axajgei-ation or dis- 
tortion of a no2*nal feel?-n.3 -- if tl^sse r»ersona;5es acknowled-e 
iffislr subciisalvenoes to ffite and involHD nr»' in a situation «hare 
t2ie classic cliaracter would feel tSie necessity of mft" " ds 
own noral choice, tihat elerte?it of conflict is possil le or in 

fiiat vilX t^e artist nake the eleraont of suspense consist? If 
the developaent Is not ttie developnaat of character in action, 
has the plot developa^ent all the irrelevancy of the picaresque 
novel or t2ie epic of heroic adventures? Helther is this th« 
case. IShat Is apparent, however, is that the Lnner conflict 
i^iioh man's orl :lnal sin rsade inevitable in the classie 
(diaraeter becoraes, with the advent of mitural virtue, external- 
ized* The oood and evil «liich ^Eisted in one nan "beeome, in 
tSie I'omantlcist conception^ tlie eleiient of ^ood in one f*rvR and 
^e element of evil in another. 3!he inner conflict is z>cplaced 
b7 an externalised cla^* The hero and the villain, with tlwir 
cohorts of |:;ood and evil personaf^s, replace the husmn intelliijence 
and the aninal instincts «hich riade tlie hisnan conflict in ttm 
classicist literature* 

The developaent of the novel is, accordingly, externalized. 
Since tlie romantic personage — ^^ne, for example — is apt to 
r^sain the same frora the first to the last pa^-e, the source of 
tite action is, actually, outside hin and consists in ^le 
variation of his sunroundings. The outer world whi(^ co?iies to 
Hene tfirou^ his sensations consists of people, places, things. 
As far as Rene, 1^0 tells the story, is concerned, the aniiiate 
and the inanimate are on an equal plane. T}ia distinctto; lies 
not in any objective reality T!ri.thout but in the subjective 
manner in '•ftiich tliey affect R&ne» Thus the anl. ^ate and the 
Inaninate are netted in t!ie experience of the orota-onlst jtist 
as tJiey are xser^&l in the roaanticist's treatment 01 xniero. Tho 
elaaent in the universe ishich affects Rene may be a lar^e. 

i>\r « 

force sudi as the force of constituted society, or may be the 
force ndiiic^ lies In an aspect of hunan nature* such as AQel5.e, 
or, finally. It riay be ^^■■'^ force xshldi lies in an aspect of 
external nature, such as M\e African wilderness* It is In 
this roam^r that the personals appear as the passive recipients 
of varying sensations tlie sources of ^lich are in the world 
beyond the ei^^ 

The nain persona^ ~ or personaces — - of a novel, su<^ as 
Corinne, Jean Valjean, Hasti^^iac, J^ilien, react to situations, 
people, and clwjunstancos imt do not develop. Ihey regain 
stationary, the mere recipients of a mecesslon of s^isetione 
froo tJie outside world. No moral life is possible for t3iem. 
Accordingly, tlie other persona^^s are araong the devices ii^ilch 
taie author supplies in order to illustrate the nature of tlie 
recipient, that is, of the protagonist* Thus Rastlj^nac, for 
exanple, finds in the diffei^ent elements of tlio external ijnl verse 
those elenents ^Ich are obstacles and oppose the satisfaction 
of his e{^, those el«:ient8 viiich ills ego can use and feed upon, 
and, finally, those eleraents to obtain vshlc^ Is to obtain his 
ideal, t}ie happiness wliich ctxaes frora an urlinlted expansion 
of the ego* So, too, to Jean Valjean, Javert is an eleraent in 
his social ^ivironoent* t>o, to Deljiilne, llatilde Is only one 
of n\flaerous forces Tshich oppose her love for Le(moe* In this 
universal extemalisation it is customary to make the quality 
of the beauty tahidh a inan desires tlie touchstone ^s^ch dietezisiines 
the quality of the nan since, because tliere Is no moral clioice, 
that quality cannot dcpwjd on it* It is not a moi^l choice 

t3n.&t Raphael sakes iftien he deserts Foedox*a fop P«nliiiti>» B« 
I^fta nerely <^08en« of tlie t«o means of satisfyln^^ hie nature « 
tSutt on© iihi<ih he f!Lnds to fce aore peraianwntly satisfying. Tae 
goal of all Rene's «anderinr^» of Delpliine*s hesitations^ of 
C^aaeltnodo* s instinct , and Ursula's pati^ice, is that ideal 
satisfaction of tlieir feolinijs «6xlch araciQ element of the 
external world auat supply. 

Because it Is in the external vorld tliat t}ie7 nust find the 
satisfaction «hieh their e^xo seekSf tliese personages are seen 
to gravitate naturally toward a world in confonalty witli their 
desires^ hence a world in confom' ty vAth. thonselvcs* raxidot 
surrounds himself with ;7old and possessions and the world in 
t^ie*t he lives — a w^rld built by him to satisfy his desire — 
Is merely on extension of himself* an extonsicm of liis e^^^o* 
For Frollo the c!-nu*^ is another solf« a reflection of his being, 
Indieena and Ralph build a world to satisfy their dream* So too 
Portunio builds his, Ai^ the confomfity wliich exists betwscn 
the man and his ideal 8atisftiction« a conformity vftiioh makes 
it r>ossible to judce hin» for initainee» by tlie woman he desires , 
isakes It also possible to judif^e him by tlie wox'ld in isiicii oe 
deliberately dhooses to live. Thus d'Arthez may be Judi'ed by 
the humble obscurity he prefers as Qwynplaine may be judged by 
his final renuiiciati<»i of the world of iroalth. In evory case 
the milieu becomes a fom of extension of tlie ego and is* 
therefore^ indicative of the ago vbich inhabits it. 

It is not surprising, of course, that tJie details of exterior 

nature have an lnte??ral part In the preisentfition of porscmag© 
In tbB romanticist fictiOTn for, aa we have seen^ the natui^e of 
tlie aiiverse — extei»nal — and the nature of man — internal ~ 
are inticately related In the thouj^t of the romanticists. The 
relationship appeajra not onl^ in the oorrespotidence «diioh exists 
betwean man's nilieu and his nature but also in t±ie eor?esp<»^enee 
tatiich exists between man* a physical and spiritual self* 

BwtLzmCf of course* is fasiaus for the nrmner in fftilch he riles 
up pSisrsical details in the description of his personages* 'Qm 
aodem reader of Balsac is apt to di^iiss all this nmse of 
infOTBiaticm as extraneous to the roain interest of the noxrel* lie 
msj dismiss it as laez^ely one type of local colour* Bat local 
eolour^aside from the authenticity its use oay lrapaT>t9 has 
another purpose* It sets the spiritual tone and determines the 
iftu>le moirau atmoi^ere in irtiitih a bo<^ isoves* ^lie **local 
colour" in i^egard to a persona^* tl^erefore, nust also Tielp to 
set the spiritual tone and detezmine the ooral ataaosxi^iere in 
vhieh the personage laoves* Balzac insures tliat the pSiyaical 
details he supplies will be correctly interpreted by means of 
the introductic^ of the systea of coirrespOiQaenees #iich lAvater 
had establiflhed between the physical nan sind Ills T«>ral 

^ B^txdx the correspondence lAiich Balzac establishes between 
tSie nhysical espreseion of an idea in nature and in nan is 
very explicitly developed* He virltes: 

Aupres de l*e^~lise de Quex'ande se voit une nelson 

qui est dans la viUe ce que \t^ ville est dars !• 
pays» una inuiga oxacte du passe^ la s^bole d*ime 
grande tbo&m d6tmlta* una poasie* Cette wnlaon 
appartient ^ la plus noble famille du pays, aux 
du Ooaralc.*,. (1) 

The house finds its idea best expressed in certain roons lAiXctb. 

^Iffwg describes. He eontiroies: 

Depsiis cinquante nns, lea du Quaisnic n^cat^^mse^ 
ve<^ pez^osme ailleuz>s que dans les doux r ioces ou 
respiraicot — — ■ l*esprit« la graoe* la xiaivet^ da 
la vieille et noble Bx»eta tig. Sans la topo.^rarjliie 
et la deseription de la villa, aseaa la peinture 
laiiaitieuse de cet hdtel, los surppenantes fl^ipes 
de oette famille eussent 6t4 peiit-^tre moins 
ooBQ^pises. (2) 

Hence, vtiea the representative of tliis fandly appears, he is 

eoqolained by tbo tradition which produced hixi: "Eh lui, le 

e^ranit broton s'etait fait hoaM." (5) 

So, in Hu{^, the natural beauty in ^siaeralda corresponds to a 
natursLL virtue, ^junsiniodo's inperfect pliyslque corresponds to 
the inoonplete development of his soul. Jean Val.1ean*s fear- 
inspiring; countenance and ferocious air disapr^ar «h«i Jean 
Valjeeoi beeossies M« Badeleine and his face wears tliereafter the 
loc^ of benignity and saintliness. Tlie spiritual attitude 
deteraines the physical appearance. Thus, to PSntine's {3rat- 

itude, "M* Itedeleine etait desorraais transfigure^ II lui 

paralssait enveloppe de luaiere." (4) 

Bote too how carefully Rene describes the correspondence between 

(1) Balzao, Beatrix . 10. 

(2) Ibid .. 1*7: 

(5) IbSd .^ 20. ^ 

(4) iluv^o, Les niserables . I., 209. 

the outer W9t^ miA hAm iaomse wwd ao tlxat j in lii« taZ«t * 
itfiolo eountrya ldc or cl'/ilizatlon s«eri8 to \meaem no laore 
than a amre gazoont 'vhidLi he wears for & tine and d5.8ca.?da 
wJioa he finds ttuit it does not corroopond to Ms iraio? ratox^e* 

\m for Qentier^s d*Alberty hie p aa^ ^r l ca of j^t^fBteal bea^uty, 
of etzteznaX grace ttod proportion^ of beaut:^ revoaled niieeesarily 
throii^ t^ ean^MB* are ao nansr aoknoiAad^aenta of the tsanner 
in fihich for him the exterior r.aintr tiao "Interior, Hot only 
this but, when d'Albert describes hlaself , it is easy to pezw 
ceivc thi<2t Qautier has presermad in hia Hm saae corre^pondenoe 
for ills iiuysical beaixty is of the rosaantic quality esiA he is 
sl;l .tly effOBiiinate and of a becoriing pallor* 

In Vlj^zy, tbare is less attention to the i:i^8ical« ^et 
Chatterton's material poverty corresponds to his tinconcem «11^ 
tlw TBatorial vharaaa Mr« Bedford's face vmscra the ascw seal of 
office that his ponpooa robes and equlpa^ indicate* His very 
rihysi^il bull? lAunn la hira the ezoMis of tsattcr ahere Chatter- 
ton's thin frarae shows the predonin&nee of st^lrlt* 

The interpretation of the inner personage by the outer j^tysical 
peraona/^e is, t^ierefore, no isolated pftumomenon but tiie usual 
practice of the roraffitticist writer. There is, accordin^y, a 
unity existing between the physic«d. mnd sxxiritual el®nenta of 
the personage tuot as there is unity between the world he lives 
in and the jpex^ionago* 'i'he dualiaa iri^oh "*g'-' -- ^ tlie physical 
and spiritual in ccMiflict has disappeared, '^he physical Is 

In-fonaed tritii Its meaning by {±m 3pli*it^:al end the api^rit^ial 
ia detem'ned by tlio f^iysloal* This &i«ibi8 tiiat not only does 
tiio poeaantlo peraonas© indulge tlia "patliotic fallacy'* that 
external nature is at one with lila ji<>ods, it a^is aloo that 
t:'-!^ V. v^nxntlciat writer rmkes the acone assffistntion and rep-^^eents 
tlie pd7eonai;;e^ Ills oau'lx*onniant« and Ms iA^alcaX appearaB^ 
as tmified by one mood said as uiiified Into one forsa* %e 
physleelj in this Tiay^ beeones laportaia^ not for itself bat for 
the spirit aliinirij]; ''ii3?aivjh it» 

^Somm. Personages* 

The protaconlats of tlie novels of ChateaUbriaiKl» Hugo^ Vi^^ay, 
md are alvmys inau "Ilie mam ^i^o &pp^a3P therein are 
distinctly in tne badcground ana are, in general* rattier 
shadowy figures* Tliis, perfxaps, is due to tlio fact that tJiey 
are presented, aliaost ej5cl-ac5.vcly, froia tiie masculine ,x>liit of 
v.Tou. This is siado possible usimlly by tlie faot that the r^jale 
protogonlst I'elatos the stoxy# Thus aiactae describes Atala 
as £^ie appears to hisi as^ likcmlGe, Rene descidbes AnelTo. In 
Vigi^ts stories it is Docteur-Hoir eho aost freciciently xiresents 
the various vcaien persoue^^es and it is he idio lia5,ta their 
role In the story according to !i:*s coint of view. Siriilnrly, 
it is the Comnaadant eho descxicoa t^xc xx^iic in vr.iich Laurette 
appeared to hla and it is only tJiroOf h tiie Adjudant*s eves 
that ve see his yoxm^ ssee aieart. 

In Gautier*s work, the woman oft«i lives only in the fancy of 


the xiarrator, l&isa sSie r?oen actually have a isount«n?art in 
tioe Esaterlol worlds tdba lizeoiod of prvoaDtstlos:! rcEisilns tlie same* 
It is tiiroucJi Re -J* a eyes, for er^tiw le, that t^ie reader 

aeea Iftne* de !«*«* and Marlette and It Is thixs^-if^i Rodrtlrhe's 
t2io-a.Jit that tiMy aequlre any significance* Hoaetta end Hlla* 
de IfeEttpin aasiMe iinpoi»tanc0 to d'Alboj^ mvl, acoo? , aaaone 

importance as per3ona=:os In the norrol ^rtiidh c^smtTe^ amund him* 
*Sh0f are presented, in ^ke beginning, only throu^ hia reflections* 
They ^^ipear, therefore, mly as eleneBte of d»Albert*» H"©* 

Xn Sugo's eoz^, the introduction of the ironen persQoa;;:t»s is, in 
the flflne imy# d^pendmit upon tlieir significance to .^n* The 
story is usually narrated by the author tnit by the author in 
his capacity as <Msaaentator« Ilu^o dooe not leavo his personaL:;e8 
to apeak for t^xeraaeli/os. Hathor, hn explains them to ua* He 
shows us \-:!bat he sees i^ien he looks at Paatine or Cosett€* He 
tirrites, for exaBM>le: ^^TTous a^ons dit que Fantine etait la 
joie; i^antine etait cnissi la pudeur* «-~.> L'aaour 9st xme fsute; 
soit* Fantine etait l»lnnocence sumageant aur la fa'ate*" (1) 
And later: "....on pourralt dlro que — — Jean Valjean etait 
Ic Vouf COTJne Cosette etait I'Orphellne*" (2) IRien Hurp aihows 
^aneralda as ahc crosses the r^ath of his nasculine personaces, 
he is never oloser to her than they are. She is etleays "nhat 
the man sees her to ho not iiSiat tfhe is esaentially 5-n 'let'self* 
This is equally time of Hu^^'s otiior vonen pei^onatjea* 

(1) Hugo, i;.es Miserahles. I«, 132, 135* 
'2) Ibid *. It*. 14^, 


It Is notfi lo ilittt ti.oam \mxma wiK>, ttpp-a , In the 

u/A' oxaiz^^lc^ ^iiat we know of Atalw ^ .. .^^wl?,e, the Gnstror uust 
bo reatz'ictetl to cIio iijoat j>v-nc»rvi.l Leitati. V.'o I-ri'Dw of ta-ifeir Xove 

aiG suTrei'ing but tiiat ie a qi&llty uxxivoz'Siil to lifo and in 
:io i«ay tinlqae In tliem* Outiiide of UrlSy ^m laaom Uiat both 

itola and ^k^slio aro devoutly i^oli^oua. ilie little r.01:^ we 
know refers to plot and settln;^ i^tlies? than cbaii'acbei'* '%ore 
gewalns the fact that th^y are, act^ually, not at ell dllToren- 

Ilie amte is true of the mxntm in Ha^^s novola. Tliei« is 
notliinii in Saneralda to distiut^uish lij&r £rt/n tlie lay fl.iix'es 
wu> appear in iIu(i;o'a oarller novels — ^^ _^ and ICaji 

d*Ialaade « '?ho oiily distinctions a2*o tlioso extc«rnal to <^ia2?acter~ 
settlag* iXjriod, worldly poaitic^a. It £iay<l)d -.soirtli yftvllo also 
to coiisidez* that Hugo intj'oducca a woinan's Clfjixva into Claiu'.e 
a««cacj into Le de::ttier Jour d*tin o^xideusiO m and Into J ^juatre- 
Vlng:t»«grai38^ ^at so tifoll liaa he ciergad till vqehbh in his 
iuagiuatxon il^to one XKmeax that tiK3S« laoikaGn noiaain narielcss 
and iiave no life eoccept aa Hugo* a id^ of ^<»ieric voaaii in her 
function A8 lovoi', wire, and lauther* 

Ilia few woaen wio entei» Vlgny's stories siak© very rare appearances, 
They are, izuieed, quite as indeterminate as are Hugo's* SSost 
critics, indeed, point to Kitty Boll as proof of Vicjay's ability 

to create character. The truth of such a statement der>®rifls, 
of course, <m our conception of diaracter. llotlalno of liitty 
Cell's cSiaracter supervenes in the narrative. All that does 
actually appear thei»c is t'-ie relation t" Docteiir^noi r of the 
Impression she, an unI<no«n vpooan, creates <»i niia* i*e re: c is 
Ills tiioti(;^ts about her tihll© she continues to remain Inactive, 
an object of si>eculation for Docteur-Noir, but, otherwise, 
a»ti3?ely outside of the reader's ken« Sie is described as a 
beautiful statue al^^t be described end the brooding pity 
expressed in her count^ian^ is the C':a3plete suan^ry of the 
impression mxlcii she nakes. Docteur-Nolr describes her ; >a ; 
ttie point of view of the unknown observer; that is, he describes 
her appearance and her few vords to hleu He sees in her only 
one quality which seesas to hliii of importance — the capacity 
for corapaesion and pityin(; love. A second )x>int of view ini£^t 
have been introduced by laeans of Chatter ton's letter and tiliis 
might have helped to ^vq Kitty a life independent of tlie 
ttioui^ts of eltJior Docteur-Holr or Chatterton, But Chattert<m*s 
letter speaks only of his debt to her because she has shorn 
hla that coeipassion still exists in the world* The letter is 
the final detemlnant of Docteur>-Roir' s jud^^ient of her and 
his impression is, therefore, ccoapletely coincident with 
Chatter t<»i' 8* Kitty appears, accordingly, in one aspect only 
and is, otiierwise, a vague fi^nire, perched on a stool beliind a 
coimter, no more tiian a pcde, isiliito taask «iK>se characteristics 
reraaln imcertain* 

Chnxtier'a woraen ^rsonagies are, on the nhole, even aore shadowy* 


•Hie men who describe theci see only their beaiity and roco^^lze 
that particular beauty as desirable* Many of the women vnho 
are tlius loved az*e already dead or exist only as works of art* 
Tliey can, therefore, possess no qviallties of human clmracter 
end all ttieir sl^jnlflcono© lies in their artistic beauty. This 
quality of beauty is all that is reco^^zed in Arria Maroella, 
in Tolioser, in Omchale, In king Candoiile's wife, in tiie Mary 
llaiSdalene of F^bens* Moreover, since they exist only as 
pieture, statue, Tmsrciy, tapestry, spirit, or dreaa, they cnn 
scarcely be endowed witli any but artificial onotion. Their life, 
that is, is entirely dependent cm the prota^cmint vftio breatli«8 
into thsQ the eraoticm tidiioh tliey inspire in hiia* 

The factitious character of tJriis life, so obvious in these 
oases, cannot but be a valuable indication for purposes of 
ooaq^ariscm and, indeed, furnishes Uie clue to the true signif- 
icance and the exact r^le of all the n/oBxen of nhoaa we have been 
speaking. It becoiiios, then, retrospectively clear that the 
voiaan is represodted (mly aocordin(^ to the quality of tdie 
itaagination of the nan lAxo portx'ays her* That man possesses 
within himself a genexdc idea of woman, an idea ithioh corresponds 
only to her aspect aa vonan not to her independent aspect as 
a human being* The wc»ium who Incor^porates that idea, v^tio 
corresponds to that single aspect, is imaginatively re-presmited 
by the rian as the personification of his idea* In other 
words, «dmt the tnen loves — > if the w(%ian appears, as iStm often 
does, as the object of love — is not the living woman but the 

Inoannatlon of his ide«« His love ie »n egoistic Xove^ a form 
of ftezHsiBsiOBiy and iiilMit the xeax seeks in wcxaen and idiat he 
repx*e8ents in woman is a mirror in «hi<di he may discover an 
extensi<m of himself* Tho wmsm^a role bee<aie89 therefore^ 
purely dependent. She appears not as ehG is but as the nan 
dreanw her* Uer life corresponds to tiie aspect in «&iich he 
sees her and her emotions are those with «Aii<^ he endows her* 
ffiM is the material extension of the rten's spiritual life* llui 
eorr«8pondence between her creator — the nan in lAiose iisai^ination 
•he is represonted — » and hernelf cannot fail to be exact since 
she lives not in hersielf tout in her relation to hia* Such a 
conclusion mitails still another corollary* If tlie wotnan 
appears as an extension of the e/^ v^iich represents hes*, the 
<pmlities ascribed to her will beeorae the toutitistone by which 
her creator may be judged* 

Certain provisosy however, loust be established* In the work 
of SiBie* de Steely Sand, and Balsae, there do appear womoi who 
are not neoeasnrily prese^ited throu^^i the eyes of an inter- 
vening perBona£;e* In Mne* de Stael's novels « indeed, both the 
px»otRt«;onists are woraeni in Sand's the najority of the pro- 
tag^olsts ere wonm; in lals:QC*s there is an occasional woinen 
protag<mi8t« vhere the protag<»iiBt is a woman , she is, of 
eourse, presented directly or from her ovm point of view (^tite 
as niuoh as frora the man's point of view* Itelpliine writes lcm(];, 
autobiographical letters and Corinne frequently explains her 
owi point of view* Anaande and Ren^ ( ^IcaBioirea des doout jeunes 
aariees ) explain themselves by letter as does llodeate Ki^on* 

Gonstorio* Vorrier explains her life in her o«n words. HoiUM 
tells lior story in the first person j so, partially, does 
Isidora« iliore is, accordingly, fair cauoe to believe tJiat 
these woaan live not only as the objects of a r.;an*8 tliouc^t but 
as persons in their own ri^t* There is natter for reflection, 
certainly, in the fact that it is tiie wocien novelists who 
present wocum as independent personages and f^ose Qost favoured 
prota^(mists l^iey are vhereas exactly the cont3:*ary is true for 
the men vtiom we Iiave discussed above* BaJUsac is exceptional 
in this respect, iiowever, and gives proof of a f^reuter capaei^ 
for i£^ers(mality in that he writes of nea enJ wmea laore or 
lees indisorir:iinately« 

When it is t3ie woman ^o is tJie principal personage In any of 
these novels, the oheu:>acteristic procedure studied in Chateauo 
briond, Hu,'^, Vi^pniy, and Dautier, may be seen to be exactly 
revex^ed* Lecsice, for exaa^le, does not even appear on tJie 
scttie until he has been seen as reflected in tlie thouc^it of 
Delphine, Bise* de Vernon, and Ua tilde* The definitive ii^pression 
which lie leaves is an L'spx'ession created tlirou^^i his relation- 
tiiips to tliese tiu>ee wonen* Except for these relationships 
there is no reason for Ills existence* In him Mne* de StaBl 
repi;>e8ents Ifeie* de Vernon* s choice of a son-in-law, l(atilde*8 
€&oice of a husband, Delphine*a choice of a love* In otlier 
words, Loonoe corresponds to a given idea cherislied by each of 
these vomenm l^lhat that idea is, imaginatively reflected tlirou^^ 
thwi, is the sum total of Leonce*s role in the book* To cos^are 
Leonoe «nd Esiseralda as personages is to perceive tliat Leonce's 

role In Delphine differs no yiihlt froo Eameralda's in Wotre-Daaic 
d« Parig » 

m Hugo's woric tlie woman Is i8ai*8 accessory j In Wem* de Stall's, 
tb» nan is wcxnan*B necessaxy conpletion* Sond*s mBtiioA, in tills 
respect. Is a repetition of line* de sta©l»s, Lfelia offers a 
good exanple of the tr^itlK of nunh a stctenent. tieXia roes through 
the world seekin?? the material manifestation of the ideal of 
love that she chexdahes* Stenlo appears in the novel because 
he appears in Leila's entouratje and bscmxae nor idea of hln 
corresponds » fleetlnglj* to this ideal* Leila adav»9«M hin In 
tiie following texust "— Vous personnifiea potir jriol la nature, 
dont vous otes l*aifant encore vierge." (1) TOien Leila ceases 
to find such a correspondence she cries: **— St«iio n'a jamais 
existvt G*etalt imo creation de ma pensee." (2) Such speeches 
indicate clearly enou^ that Stwiio's significance as a -Dersonage 
cannot go beyond his sl^^floanoe In Leila's sdnd* 

In the same way all Sand's heroines becwne the dcteTralnents of 
the quality of t^e male persom^Mi* Constance VeiyJcr offemi 
a iolnt of coiaparison with Delphine and Wotre^^Dazne de Parts * In 
it the sole ?tmle porscmar'e appears cmiy in the final r>ar^o. Yet 
he is actually present throur^hout taie i*iolc extent of the book 
since he is present to each of the xKsmsin in imagination and 
corresponds to a definite Inap-e in her n5.nd. The thr«e entirely 
different nwsital conceptions ~ timt of Consttmco, of la !ik>82ellif 

(1) Sand, LJlia^ U, 132. 

(8) ibid^,nr7r26»« 

of tbt duoliesso -» are e^^ual, as Sand vevmala in tiMl iMR- 
elusion^ to c^e and U\a smae material manifestaticm <»- the sun, 
Abel« Ko teoiinlque could moro clearly reveal the fact tiiat 

iiat eocli wcMBsn sees n&ien she sees Abel is a reflection of her 
o«n nature* As long as the roan isj as a personage « only the 

>bj©ct of til© wocian*o tlioii -ht, he Is dep^tident on her to:^ life 
.and for thfe nature wltii wtii<di aiJi© endows hlra# H© is, in other 
!;?ordSy an Itmginatlve personification corresponding to an idea* 

:ix>st easily ^o cited as evideaoe 
of his use of a similar te<^inlque is that one «ititXed Menoiree 
de« dafux Jwmes ; :arieog « This novel Is c»w in wMoh the vomen 
::>ers«smges appear directlj throix^ tlielr letters and Baleac* the 
author, does not intervene* The woman, tiien, is, as far as she 
ioy be, indepaaatd^nt of the mind that creates her* On th& other 
hand, each of the w(»»«n presents tlirou^i her letters the mm 
^no is Bl£nificant in her life, ^lAio Is sl:^ifloant because he 
reaXises her oonoeptlon of lan as the ob.^ect of love* It »ust 
be not4»d Uiat, even despite the method of aajcapation, the effect 
would not, necessarily, be clx»ca:isorlba:l to the re,:.ioa of tlac 
woBtan's thouiiht* That the effect is so citHrariiecriued i:<«^>i>ults 
from the fact Uxat the woman presents Uio man In teztas of oom 
relationsliip only, his relationship to her* Ronee do scribes 
tlte man only in teiTUi of tho husband coid faUior, Avrwxn&» cmly in 
tenos of the lovor* This correspoaids to the fact tlmt Renee 
preconts hot'self tmly as wife and motlier, Az^nande only as the 
wonan «ho loves* It is tznio Uiat, whex'e Dalsao hac a riiale pro- 
tagcmlst, the wosian resuuies her depraidsnce and becoeies once 

l,7ilf leant only throiii^Ji his Iden of her. But wossien hav« 
.'Uiai. function as well as rocm .t-^ i^^^^^ixy in ^alssac's 

k In a ptipely social role as well as in a p0i»sonGl role. It 
Is when tlielr social role involves their function as the object 
of a man's love that they appear only as characteristic l^acldents 
in a lium's life* 

The proof. In fact* of the , tirely cerebrrC diaracter of the 
existence of tlx© woftian as personage (or, in reversal of the 
aaja© procedure, of the man) nay be adcJiaceci very simply froBn a 
fact ?tilch can scarcely bo dlanlsseci as ciere coinoldisnoo oinc© 
it is true of all the litex'atuiHJ of rocmntlciaa* This is tim 
fact that tJie appearance and clisnppearence of auch per«onas©B 
coincides witai the duration of their life in the nlnd of the 
pereoiia^ee v^io cveates th«a« Ghactae'o life continues but 
Atala^s life bsf-lns only ^#ien (tiie entoxB cr-irictrx'o world and 
is completed before diactas paaoefi on to ugv: v/ox-b^R. Vilhen 
CJwynplftino loaves Joaiane, she does not reappear In the atory. 
She no longer exists in Qw^plalno^ b thouf^t; therefore, sSna 
is noa«exi8tent hesioefor^ for the reader. Tims H^^Sl's 
desertion of Foedora neans that ah© disRppoorG from the atorym 
So witli Lacioa*s desertion of £&ie« de Bargetciu ^ Lady 
Dudley i&iose appeax^uice In I<e Lje dans Xa vallee coiiicicec 
witli Felix* s love for b.or; vnhoso disappearance coinoidfto with 
tlieir final parting. There is no such tec^viicfil oo iventlon lb 
tlie literatuz>e of class! clam* The fat© of each poi-Boaag© is 
bovaid up with inultiple relationships to society and the death 
of a sincl© relationship could not, therefore, invalidate hie 
tiAiole exlst<mce. The contrast «^i(^ romanticist literature 

offers ia too Btrl'c'nfp to he overlookoc! and the explanation 
of such a convention leads us far Into an 'Andeii^tandSnfp of 
the new creative metliod* 

But elt^ouf^ the wnaati Is thus introt^ucerl as nn 'incident In 

the life of a male protai^<»iist, '^er presence Is usually 

indispensable to the comoosltlon of the novel. Why th^s la so 

may best te eeen, oorhaps, bv conci*©te tlluetr«tlon« Rene and 

d* Albert, equally self-conacioua, are equally aware of ttie 

essential truth of the sit\iation. Rene tells in a fanous 

passage of Ms flight thron?»h woods and solitiidest 

-• H rae manquoit quelque chose nour rempllr I'abtoe 
de nK«j existence: je descendais dans la vall^, 
je m'elevals eur la nonts-^iio, appolfuit de toute la 
foroe do raes denlrs 1» ideal objot d*\me flaitEn© futvu^j 
je l*eral>ra^als dans loo venlsf j© CT«o:^nl8 1* entendre 
dano les ;~erils3a!iffl:its du fleu,vet tout ©tait ce 

le prlnclpo 

fantosie imagi^aire* et les astres dans les cleux, et 
Ipo Bwane de vio dans I'u'-.lvers, (1) 

iione has abandoned society rcid n; . :. lo rc>ne«f iiiniself in 

nature* But idiat he sees in nature — • in the material 

manifestation of tho w^rld » -sdilch he seeks contact — Is 

only ono thing, woman. The escape into the exterior world by 

laeonB of wcraan Is never effected by Rene since he never finds 

love* Near the conclusicai of his life he cries: 

— J'e chercliala co qui me fuit; j© ; nnis le 
tz^e dee '^.es; nes bras avalent ^. i de serrer 
queiquo chose, .T'a5 cru, dans non rlelis«e, cenllr 
unc ecorce arlde palolter contra non ooeur:^ xm 
degre de ohaleur de tjlus, ot t/«nlrial9 des etre.T 
insens^bles, Le seln nu et dochlre, les choveus*: 
troB5>©« de la vapour de la nult, je croyais voir 

(1) Oiateaubrland, Rene > 82 • 

tina temae qui se jetalt dans mes bx*as.«** (I) 
'n:;e world must be tal<en oo^^izance of by the senses and nan 
discovers his senses throui]^ tyoman* Tlierefore Rene followB the 
phantcan %forum that flees before him In the wind and the mist* 
The love to wliloh he aspires is to him the ivhole aeanlng of 
nature — of physical nattire, of the exterior world — and that 
love is personified In woman* The spiritual nature in man can 
rejoin the naterial nature only tiirou,'^ love, t^iat i8« throu^ 

18hat the charaoteriotic quality of that nature is, is not 

pertinent to the general ar£5Ument tmd varies, indeed, with the 

various protagonists. Rene dies as he has lived, alone In a 

world of his own making. But d*Albez>t is aore successful in 

his effort to escape* iie cries; "— .T»ai bien pour de ne 

pouvoir jamais eiabrasser mon ideal*" (2) He searches for his 

Ideal by searching for the wr»nan hut he realises that vjhat he is 

looklnts for in wowian is an abstract quality* He asks: 

— Quelle est done cette boaute aVstraite que nous 
sffijtons, et que ncraa iic pouvoiis C^6cij\xz^'i — — Vofcre 
ideal est»il ran an .e, -me sylphlde ou une f«nme? (3) 

He realises that he is seeklnc; "-- • a <Mibz*asser je ne sals quelle 

fantastlque idealite r>aree de nuar.euses perfections". (4) He 

explains t^e troman's role in explicit textast 


•>* Jo n'al jaitto^is demando aux feiffi»s qu 
chose,— c*e3t la beaufce; — — J'adore 

(1) Chateaubriand, IjOS Hatoheg * 450* 

(2) Oautlcr, Mademoiselle de Maupln * 59* 

in!d .. 35. 

*une seule 

SUP toutes 


otiosefi la beaute dc la fomnej— la boaute pour :aoi, 
c'est la Divlnlte visible, c'est lo bonheur palpable » 
c*est le del drscendiT pv.t* In terrc, (1) 

ISfhen beauty is discovered throvi.^i iu v^, (^iu\,, Uiarou^ tai© wosaamif 

thmiy at the sane time^ a11 nature in its visible divinity is 

discovered. D* Albert nakes tlie possession of love sind tlie 

realisation of natu3?e synonysnous: 

— L*effr«^ant silence qiii rognait autour de mol 
est rotripu a la fin. — «— . Je ooB^i»endo un^ multitude 
de chosM que le ne conprenaie pfxs, je decouvre des 
affinites et dee STEipathioa ciervoillousoB, j*entends 
la ian,;:uo des rones ct des ror'' ^ Is, et ,1® ^^^ 
couraETinent le livre que je ne . • ia oas stem© epeler* 
— — C'est I'amour, c*cnt I'acKjur qui m'a dessille 
les yeiti: et donii^ le mot de I'^ii^e* (2) 

To realise exterior nature is to e8cai>e from the egos 

— J*ot|ais le spectoteiir de looi-aiene, lo parterre do 
la ccssedle que je 1o\iai^, —— Pden du rrtonde ©Tt.crieur 
n'arrlvalt jusqu'a aio|i ame* L» existence de aui que 

ce solt ne ra*etait necessaii^e; je doutais meaae dc 

que fiaaoos, ii.ia^';e^ii , vaines illusioi^s, apparcnces 
fu^-^^ivee destineee ^ peupler ce ncant. »- Quelle 
difference! (5} 

To sum up the role vihich the mxnBXi assumes^ tlierefoz*e, is nerely 
to sioii up the etatenents of the more self-conscious of tlie 
romantic personotviee* Tlie picture in its totality, as made 
apparent by contx*ast, comparison, and quotation, shows wwnan as 
the object of man*8 idea and ewotion; t3:iat is, as the object 
of his love, She represents to him the reality of ratiire i^tiich 

(1) Gautler, Hadenolselle de Maup in, 14ij. 

(2) Ibid ., S2*?, SS5. 

(3) Ibid. . 228. 

Is, in fRct, ccHnprchendod and revealed In her person* To say 
that the wcwnan iH R p i T g only as tho imaginative rGpi»e8eait;ation of 
an Idoa i» to say that aha apr>ears cmXy as ayrnbol* 

3«cc3idary Personages* 

The secondary oarsonages in these novels ar© very few* ?h.e 
interest is, in general, concentrated upon s. protfi£;caiiEt arui 
those personagos #10 become an ira>x>rtant port of his cHiyirojanent 
are usually tit© only onor. to enter tho virarld in TShich tlic 
ttoveliet olaces hln. Certain aecondai^ uei'sonacios do appenr, 
bovevor* '^o decide upon their r^mction in tho novel Is to 
detemtine tho reae^^ for thoir Introduction and the ci'itez»lcm 
of tho author's choice* 

Tho function of the secondary T>er8onages in EOf'imie Oretidet and 
^Otmh-ltaaM de faris will prove a usefiil guide* The Cr«ac?^ot and 
des (Jnisslns feaaillofe in Ru^enie Qrandet enter the novel tmly 
as iruXividxiala of Sauzmir society* Their belief in Orandet's 
superiority reflects t^e geno r^a : eliof. To tJioa (*s»anrtet 
represents the otosolut© to which they are relatives* They 
become, in a way, therefore, attributes of Orandct* Tliey reflect 
his point of view and defer fcJ-ielr lives to his will. 

In Hotre»I^a?ae , d( > , ^ax*i3 there ax*© th3?ee typ©8 of secondary 
personc^es* TknB laost intert^sting of tlien may be said to be the 
Parisian people* They move as a nassive unit and are character* 
ised as one vast force rather than as separate IndividTials* It 

is the people istto. In t*ie opwiitifi mem», create their ovai 
omiserient and absuidon the morality f^lay In oxvJer to elect their 
repr<.?8entative« ^^asit;»x}o« It Is the people ttocmg vfeora 
Esoeralda lives and fliids orotectlon. In this respect th« 
people's attitude Is "^aasltiodo's for E»!a©ralda*s life artong the 
truands la i^plaoed by her life In the church under ^i««tiaodo*s 
protectlcai. The va^ua, indletlnct Bias 3 of the oeople is 
replaced toy i^uasiinodo^ the people's typical p«3?sonase« 1!b^xa 
the secondary pereona^je — the people — lo like a panoraialo 
inlrjror In vifiilch tjjxaslraodo' s life is endlessi:^ reflected. There 
is, too, the recluse of tha Toui* Roland, Ker voice is like (m 
edio of 12i© p3?lest's thou^jht and she appears only as a 
demmclatory voice ejqjressln-:; the eaaie religicjua fanatlclaoi 
idiieh is Ms, The aristocratic society in ^shich Flioebus ^noves 
is only lightly sketched. It is rather as sn explanaticm of 
Tlioetua than as seimrate personages tliat these young nobl^raBten 
assume ®iy relief, Phocsbus is the c«:iti'e of ti!oir world and 
they arc so many explanatt<ais of the character of tliat world 
and, accordingly, of tlie characteristic quality in Flioelaxs, 

l^hat conclusion nwy be dravai from \:hB two novelo in qxiestlon 
is clear* The lives of tlie secondary personages are concentrated 
into a sin/j;le phase, a phase vjhich is a reflccoicn or pro- 
locigaticm of timt visible In one of tlie main peroonasee. 

It is, of course, liecessary to confira this conclusion by 

referaace to oe^er novels but the confinaation thus obtained 

is striking, The subsidiary pers<Maagefi in Ciorinzie and Delj^iine > 

for example, are, very obvloxisly, eclioes of the nrlnclpal?^* 
Lord Ed.3erTOond Is another Oswald — olde*:* and surer of Mniaelf 
but oqually suscoptltle to Cortnne aiid equally boimd to a 
social ideal Inconpatible with this atti^ctlon. Jhet so ttae« 
de R« and Therooe aj?e duplicate verBlona of Dolj±dne« They 
reco^^ilzo thie therisolvcE and point out to Delphlne the 
striilaritles which exist between then and iiiht© hor to «vcld 
^lelr fate. Their pi»€sence reduces 2>elphine, even in tlio novel 
which centres around her, froia an individual to a type. 

In Hugo, Sand, Vi|5^y, the same characteristic procedure app^irs. 
Thu« Eponlne is another Pantlne and OaTroche and his young 
brothers can be asslrailatod to the children in ^aatreH»V Ing: t -» 
Tgglsoj Snjolr^s Is a second Gajivlti, Fauchvelev^axt Is a sectmd 
JTean Valjerm, ^Sarlua's grandfather is a second raaarquls de 
Lantanac, Landry's rsarcnts in La petite ?adette exactly re- 
semble Oei^aaln's parents In La l!are &a diable * j^ic hrmurj of 
Le Cooipajg^on du tour do France is n less proutinenl Horace ejid 
his flirtatious Joseplxlne is c«ily another ^/crslon of Horace's 
aristocratic conquest. In DapSaie. Paul de Larisce, r^asll, and 
Jean ttppea.r. Paul appeare as tI\o voice tahich persuades Juli^?. 
and iroconds hin in his way of life, Bjasil anc! Jean appear 
cmly as disciples t^\o accent their solidarity with Llbrjilus un- 
(piestioninsiy. They are like echoes of the two voices, the 
voice of Julicn and the vole© of Llbrmiua, Tlacy arc disciples, 
not indopeadeat apirita. 'Ihcy ai*e, tlieroi'oi'c, not so niudfci 
separate persona^^es as they are sounding boaixls for tJie volceo 
of tlie p3?otaGonistB» 

Of &als&c*a per80iia{;;e8 t^iio nay be said^ that* in one 8«a8e» 
none are incidental since all of tiieia fora part of the social 
life of their time and since Balzac is interested in every 
separ^ite variety to be found In tlils \mity* In another sense* 
it laay be said that his secondary persona^jes are always in iim 
nature of a chorus. On a dirr.iniahed scale tliey repeat the 
qualitiest attributes* or social functions of the store lijpox^ant 
personages* They can always be referred* in the scientific 
aanner* to a eert€d.n class and to a certain species in that 
class* Every one of th&a, no matter how rarely he appears* may 
be 8al(^* therefore* to add another exasiple to a number of 
ftsaBq;>lefi already offez>ed. If Ms qualities oonfixn the genez'al 
pictuz*e alx^eady presented* he has helped* no natter how 
inoidoital his place in the action* to confina the classified 
picture of social life nd-iioh Balzac le building up* 

ISxat is true of the other ranantlcists becomes* perhaps* eT«a 
oore noticeable in Balzac* Tixe pz*esence of the secondary 
personages serves to lessoi even the apparent individuality 
of the oajor personages* It shows Paris or the provinces to ^ 
populate by ot^ier Iuci«is and ot^lier Vautrins* leas Ignominioua 
Goriots and less bx'llliant de Marsays* It serves to oc^hasise 
the picture of a world composed* not of numberless indivlditals 
of incalculable variety* not of raen sharing equally the bu3?dens 
and joys of lufenanity* but of a calculable nuciber of types of 
hUEianity* The type lias a rococnlaable Individuality is^iioh 
separates hlza froia the rest of humanity but vAthln that type 
tlie individual is riorged and lost* 

The criterion of choice depends, apparently, on the qualilty of 
the prlnclpaJL pereona/^ee, persc^a^es vAio arc, a« we have ae«i, 
ohosen not because of tlielr diaracter value but because of 
their syllogistic value as types* The effect of the introduction 
of a seoondary personage has be«n seen to be that of placing 
hie principal in a z^oo^^sable catef^^ory of the exterior vorld* 
But in Chateaubriand's work, in Gautier*s, and in Vij|ny*s to 
a large ext^it, no seeoiuiary personaces appear* The reason can 
only be souer^it in sone eharacteidatic quality of the protagtmiot. 

The chaz^oteristio quality of the protagonist i^idi thus 
diieiniahes the world around hin to a world in vvhich he is alone, 
seeking to overcome a ^jlven obstacle or reach a certain goal, 
is a ^ality eeiphasised by the authoz>s in question* Rsne tells 
Celuta: "— J'etais toujoura setil," (1) Vi^^jiy, lAiose protagonist 
in Stello is the Poet, passes ix^^suant tinrouf^i Dooteur-Hoir. 
Poets are "lea 5.1otos etemels des societes". (2) Vigny writes 
too: "lies Foetes et les Artistes ont seuls, panni tous les 
horaaea, le bonheur do pouvoir accojnplir leur aisflion dans la 
solitude*" (3) The Soldier is lilcewise condesmed '*a \m etat 
d'ilote"* (4) He is an "aut*^ Paria nodeme". (5) !>• Albert, in 
Madewo lselle de Maupin * is another Involuntary pariah chained to 
his own nature* He wzdtesi "-«Quoi que je fasse, les aiitres 
hOMEMB ne sont guere pour noi que des fantomes, ot .je ne sens pas 

(1) Chateaubriand, I«es Watcheg * 450* 
(8) Vi{-ny, Stello * ISST, 

(3) Ibid., 2?ti 

(4) llg.rr, Servitude et fi:i»nndeur ailitaires . 25* 

^5) i^_-„.» 34I; 

Xeur flxlstttico...," (1) He cannot realise any existence but 
hla own. lie oideat "»-^e dlable de moi me Siilt obstlnnnienti 
11 n»y a paa pK>y«i de a* en defalre." (2) Aa Icoigf t!iei:«fox»e, 
as d*Albort relat ea tlie story ^ It la apparent that none but Ma 
cm^ natux^ c^m be presented* nils is the Involuntary aoBadlara 
tvcaa which the ronantlo personare cannot escape* It limita hla 
world and eonflnea Ms existence to a solitude peopled by 
phant<»i8. The forces vftiloh onter this world free without are 
the elementco^y i^iaterial forcea of nature «hleh cannot affect 
the apirltnial "moi"* The ncm-existence of secondary personages 
is ocmtin;;enty apparently^ upon the restriction of the pro- 
tag(aii8t*s world in ocoifoz^nity with his oharacteristio nature* 

In general, the author's spliej^e oY Interest seems to lie 
•xeliuiively within the bounds indicated by the main personalia* 
If nucierous subsidiary tmama appear^ they prove to be only 
repetitions of the stuae main persona{^es on a less extended scale* 
The world in which the prota^^cmist tooves is* therefore, a very 
United one* It includes himself, the obstacles in his patli* 
an ideal to be desired, and, occasionally, a spectator to coraoend 
him* The spectator does not, necessarily, however, enter the 
protasonlat's world. He remains on its li:^.lts in the positicm 
of a god «ftio views this world froa a stifficiently r^aote stand- 
point to penal t of a true perspective and a final jud^Mnt* 
Within the protagonist's \?orld, the individuals are reduced to 

(1) Oautler, Madeiaoiselle do flaupin . 96. 

(2) Ibid * . idn 

typical elomenta, favourable or xmfavourabXe to hia Ilre« cund^ 
therefore f sympathetic or tmsTiopathetio persoiuiges to the reader* 
The number of eleinmits i^ioh enter the created world depends 
upon the scope of the prota^^mist's activity* When this activity 
eentreo upon himself « few outside eleaents appear. fEhen tiiis 
activity inoltides his zNslationship to society, a great many 
elements necessarily enter into play* It is eai^ to discern^ 
therefore^ the appropriat^iess of the fact that Balzac's ivorXd 
rtioald be a vast one coopared with the world itii<di» in Ciautier 
or Vigny, Is eooeenti^ted around tlxe life of the artist idiOy 
WiOfmoernBA witii soeietyt audces his own world* 

Chapter III* 
diapoetor Prosentaticm throoi^ Symbol, 

Every s&^Eilinoant faot in the x*ole of l^e rosnantio per«<mft^ 

Dolnte toward a sizigle oeoeluei^m* Let us review these facts 

as they have be«i dflafinstrated in the pz<eoeodn£; pa^'ss. It has 

been shown that the perecmage Is chosen not beoauso of lila 

eftiavaeter Interest but booause he conmeponds to a certain 

desired foxmxlQ.i that tlie secondary percotm^es appear onXv- as 

repetitioiM of one of the fonnulas dooonstrnted by ttie principals; 

that the «orMBi» as a general rule, appecu? only as ttte ia^umation 

of dx*eem or as the embodlaent of an idecd love. The ^oiee of 

a personage in accordance with his value as type or formula is 

reflected^ moz»eover, in the aanner of the presttitation. lie 

i^pears tunder a sin^;le aspect and the more obviously so in tliat 

he is represent<»d only on the instinctive plane and in an 

9xtv^em0 develetmsnt of the particular aspect of passion or 

feeling which he reveals* Tlie relationsliip which is eetabliiOied 

between the persona^ and the rest of tlae v.t>rld is a e<»istant; 

timt is, no qxxeetion of individual fipee will or of psyGholor;ical 

develoi^aent intervenes* Of course » if tlic personage were the 

active arbitrator rather tJian the passive exeiaplar of his oisi 

nature and his owi fate, tlie single quality or idea ooi^relunded 

in that personage would disappear in the oomt loxity of dianging 

human relationsliips and in the variaticm of tlie changing doiainant 

passion* But this is not the case* The hontogeneity of eacdi 

personage is caz*e fully pz»esejrved* The correspondence v&iich 

is establifllhed between tliat spiritual element w!iich he x^presents 

lund the jdtjfeioal world of natuaws in «dilch he movoa makes him 
entlrelTT oa© witai that world. But, althouih the ror»ntio 
personage discovers nature as a unity, the rcaaanticiet writer 
3?eprQsent3 eacSli personage as wily one ©leeiwit of variec^ in 
that unity •>*• an agZHMable or disagreeable element, an el^aent 
of baxmony cr of discord^ as tbe case nay ):«• 

Su<^ a mxBfaary mokes the conclusion unavoidable* Tliese so* 
called personages do not actually beooaie perscma^^eo. That thoy 
are puppets playing a predeteznlned role is evident snd, in so 
far as th«y are pajq^ete, they cannot represent the total rrsm* 
^ey px*esent <mly a facade to the audience* Tlie complaisant 
spectator overlooks the fact that he can see the wires whi(^ 
direct the puppets* actions and overlooks* aooordis^ly^ the fact 
that he is watc^hing a aaohanical creation* He lexKis hlnself 
to the atmosphere of illusi<m and consciously T>emits his own 
3j:iaglnation to build a body of fle^ and blood there where there 
is only a painted cardboard or a lifeless ra;;* Tlie ro^^smtio 
personage xmist likewise dep«vi upon the reader's imaginaticsa 
for life* Ihe rananticist writes a nane and attsushes to it one 
feeling or passion out of the many «diich ^50 to make up life* 
He does no more than this; that is* he does not create a 
simulacrum of humanity « he cz^eates only the fraraeworic and the 
clothes which it wears* But the reader, not cont«it with the 
lUsstract quality whidti la all that is offered him, relates that 
quality to the hixtnan life with v^ich his experience is familiar 
and hi.'aself plays the role of the croatlve artist by infusing 
into the lifeless puppet a hUB»n complexity and a living 

That th« rortantlo p«rsoo&;:e is 5,nCK]t:ipXeta aa en indl^ldtxal smtaoM 
to be a raatter of little concern to his creator. The atitSior, 

itideed« plaoea Ms creation leso ottcm in t^l^: cats -osy o? 

pa2*tlcular IndivliMal tiian la tiiat or aiisipaow t^v©, Belsac 

and others «>cplloitly desoj?ibe their creatures as t;ypee» Be^sac 

e:3q>lalns vti&t ha undo rat jids by the tein In re^jan?. to thfi duchesse 

do Iimi£;eala, lie wjrltese 

lorsque, dans \m tflBopa queleon^ue, 11 se trouve a\i - 
Billeu d*i2ne natloti un peupla a part ainal c(»iBtltuef 
I'Mstoj'len y rej^contre pi^esque toijours vpo flnire 
principal^ qvil resume lee vertus et les defauts de 
la maase a laquelle elle appartientt Coli^-^iy 6hes 
lea Bu^jMnota, le Coadjuteur su oeln de la Fronde^ 
Xe oareohal de Hlcilielleu sous Lopls XIXX9 Danton 
dana la Terreur« C«;tte Id^ ' " ' de jf^slonocile 
eatre ua hoccie et son cort!' ,_ ".storique est dana 
la n^tu^^des ohoses* -->«<* Au aomnea^Q&aaat dr- la 
vie epheraara que taena le faubourg SaintaGermaln 
pttidant la Resteuratitm* et "i. laquelle » si les eon- 
sidarationa prfSc^entas sent woJLes, 11 ne sut psf 
dosmer de oonaistanoe^ une jeune fecme fut paaaagere- 
mmt, le type le plus complet do la nature a la fois 
superieure et faible^ ^ande et petite* de sa caste* (1) 

The «ord ''t3rpe'* recurs so frequently , In fact, in rc»Mnticl8t 
fiction as to demaxid eagE>l«naticnQ.« The author hldself may use 
the terra* Balaac, for exninple, writes In another instance: 
"Maanmains* 11 se trouve encore assess de madaiaa Manaeffe a Paris 9 
pour que Valerie doive flgurer coamne xxn type dans oette Mstoire 
dea nseurs*" (2) Goutier describes Fortiinloj "II ^tait le 
dernier type de la boauto virile, disparuo du sKXide depuls I'ere 

lil g*P«*°» i^ ^^^ot^g^ftft,^, tany^eais, 189, 190. 
(2) Balzaoy Ls eouaina Bette. 171* 

no-avolle*" (1) Often, Yvonrnver, the value of ttio rfdswmagst i# 
indieittod Indix'ectly aa ji^efleeted throu^ti tim e^oa of andtS}^:^* 
L^ia cri«s to Puldiarles •*— Ja a^hwrdllo et n'afflijo a*^tPO 
un tjp9 si t2»l^rial et si ocffintui ds la souffr'a^ico de triutcs uiid 
fco^^tlon Ofaladivo et falblo,.,," (2) 3tek-iu, coj, «;ilr,3 
Ii^lia as a type and adds an explanation of his vm&nlxiQt 

— Coaai>len do fola vous a'otoa appai^ coetne xm typ© 
de l*indlcil)le souf franco cm 1* esprit de reoher^e 

a Jet^l'hoaneJ He porsoimlfiess-voas ;>fi8, airoc voire 
beaute et votre trietesse, avee votre ennui e^ votre 
scopticia:ne, I'oxc'^o de douleur produit par I'^abua 
de la peneeel (5) 

On another occasi<»i, Leila deecxdbes her desire to be buriedt 

— «ntro la feasae z^licieuse et forte qui a eupporte 
cent ans lo poids d© la vie, ©t la faaio devote ©t 
timide qui a succoeibe au molndre aouffXe.du vent de 
la wortf entrj^ oes deux types tant aiaee de noi, la 
ft>ree et la grace, <»itrc xme soeur de Trwiaor ©t 
warn aoottr de Stenio* (4) 

Karol refex'ii to his ooneepticm of Duel© vlien ho tells ScdLvators 

"- Je n*ai pas besoin d*adiai^er co qui eodste en 
(Idhors. 3n type que 1e porte etemelleB-a^it parfait, 
m%atm»llmsm.t vivant dans oa peiiatfe* (8) 

To Athenaia, Valentine is: "un type de c^pace et de pei'faetlon" , (6) 

Magnaal, in Le Piccinino , explains his attraction to Agatha t 

XI ee dlt qu'il y avait a cela mic ralson e' " '^-o* 
C*est qa*elle otait lo vrai type de beaute 
avait toujours rove sans pouvolr lo aaisir et 1© 
produire* (7) 

The narrator of one of fJautier's tales vritest * — C'etplt de la 

reunion de oes deux types de beaute que los deux somirs resumaient 

autier.^ Nouvclles> yprtunio . ISA^ 

(8) sand, lilimT lT. ifel 

(3) md.,ncrri3i. 

(4) Tgg., II., 59. 

(5) fSHH, Lucr<ai# F3,oriLani, 27. 

(6) Standg Valentine. 310. 

(7) Sand, Le Piocinino. I., 102. 

si pRrfaltement que j*etals ^rls," (1) The nai*x*ator of Ilorac e 
descries Paul Arises "— Ce jeime hcwime, qui etait pour mol 
le typ© d© l*lnt©lllgenc©, du coxira^;© ©^ do la bonte',,." (S) 

Fvoin til© quotations cited above It Is evident that the type 
corresponds to an abstract formula rather than to a particular 
personality* That his croat'irea are types rather than individuals 
may, therefore, be indicated by the author in sll, htly varyins 
language. Balzac writes most frequently in such terms ns the 
following!;! "Vous y voycs scnxvent venir a vous d©8 Pons, des 
Elie Ma^^us...*" (3) Compare this with tdie citation fros La 
cousine I3©tte and it becones apparent that the u»« of the plural 
is cKi^ivalent to 13alE:ac of the identification of a personage as 
a type. Or h© may write: "Ell© etait xm vrai don Juan fenielle" 
(4) and so identify his personage with a definite species* 

Hugo's languag:© gives a certain arlded clarity to the connotations 

that aay be lncl\idod \mder the reneral word type. i^9 writes, 

for instance: 

Cea noms ont d«e fifcures* lis n^exprlnent pas 
seulenent des ^res, maia des esp^ces. Qiaciin d© 
o©8 nous repond a \me vari^te do ces dif formes 
ehaiaplf^ons du dessous de la civilisation. (&) 

Hugo's personages sum xvp a certain species; accordingly, he 

can write in the smae scmset 

(1) Gautier, L es Jmme8«-France . Laguelle des deux . 265. 
(8) Sand, Korabe . ^J 

(3) Balcac. Le cousin Ptms . 146, 

(4) Balzac, Lea Secrets de la nrtncesse de Cadi;7ian . 341. 

(5) Ihxiio, Les Mistfrablea . 11. . 439. 

II v«nalt^d« volx' sous d« nouvoaux Aspects la . ^ 
ra^ianceto des h<»tK'.ies et In mis^re de la aoclete 
>«•><-<- le sort de 1& t«ma& r^cuind^dans Fantlnoy 
I'autox'lt^ puLllqu© persormifl^ dans Javert# (1) 

The type of a certain species is a personification of an abstract 

Idoa. IhxQO 8U(SS08^<> still another toz^u 

Toute la personn© de Javert exprimalt I'hcsane qui 
^pie et q\&i ae d^robc, L'^ole tin-atiqae do J'osepili 
de Malstre, — m— n*ofit pas nanque d©»© que 
Javert etalt un sr-^ibole. (2) 

Vlgny, on the contrary, uses the language of capltallKatlon and, 
in tills manner, miciiieeds in deslgnatlnji; the species and not 
the Individual. I\>cteru>-Nolr addresses Stello: "— - Etes-vous 
Poeto?" (3) Gliatterton describes Mmself as a x>epreaentatlv8 
of his ai>tt "«•» Le Poete cJierdie aox etoiles quelle route 
nous raontro le doigt du S«lgn«f«r." (4) Stello sees Mr, Beckford 
as a type: "-— Ot2i, je vols chaqiie jour des h<»aneB sMiblahles 
a CO Beckford, qui est niiraculcnisemant incame d*fi,^e eti af^c 
sous la poRU blafarde dee Plaideurs D'JS AITAIRES PUPLItiUKS," (6) 

Camteaubriand too writes in the sane renerlc lanrniage. He wukes 
E«ie, fcr example, in t3i© following sentence, the ewbodlm^it 
of suoccBsive and contrasting?, ideas: "Le frere d'Aiaell© 
s*etait endojYai l*hoia(no de In societe'^ 11 se revclllait l»hoJwn© 
de la nature." (6) Or again: "^l^is Kene etait le genie du 
malheur egare'^dans ces rotraites enchantees," (7) 

(1) Hu^o, Lea riiaerablena II,, 143. 

(2) Ibid!, u, iW. 

(5) Wmj» stello, 18, 

(5) Ibid ., as. 

(6) Chateaubriand, Lee Nat<aieZ j 808, 

(7) Ibid , . 2in, 

'ilie lan;:ua;^e lyhlch tJie rcMnantlclsfc uses cftnnot be disregtirded 
as Irrelevant. Hor can tho ccMnmon use of such terfia a« type# 
personification, incaxnation, be considex*ed as purely aocldoital. 
Such a usage has its source in somo coemon quality of the 
Imagination* in some coraaon aesthetic standard, coraclotvely or 
subconsciously adopted* The romantic pers(Mia{;e is, as his 
creators prefer to describe him, a "type". And the fact that 
ttie 2»(»Tia3itic personage is reduced to a "type", a "type" ^o 
is only rarely an individual as wi^ll and is only rarely possessed 
of any universal humanity, is, certainly one most important key 
to the characteristic method of ix»r;anticiBt creation, 

¥i/hat does l^e r(»»antioist mean v^cn he calls one of his 
porsona^tes a "type"? He can scarcely racan that he is typical 
of his class for the extreme cannot be typical and these 
pereonareo, as we have seen, are always out of the ordinary, 
are always absolute in their feellnc^s and passions, v^iatever 
their obsession is, it is an obsessicm never to be forgotten 
for an instant. Such personages cannot, therefore, be t^jpical 
in the ordinary meaning of the woM. The explanation may be 
sought, i*a trier, in the modem Fxsmch ijhrase: "C'est un type". 
Viat does the PrencJsnan mean when ho enploys this expx'ession? 
Far from meaning; that the individual is characteristic of any 
class of humanity, tie is {^ivin,:; you to understand, on the 
contrni-y, that he is an eccentric fellow, a "queer bird". vVlien 
he uses the word "type", he is think'ntj of the eccentricity 
which sets tho observed individual apart from humanity rather 
than of tliose characteristics \(iftiicli he iiay posoibly share with 

lankind in rraneraX* In t^s« the modem Psrenclitrian ogress wit^ 
the rmantloist and explaine Hlsi* XT a persona^ la a "type*** 
lis ci^ator has ewphaalsed In hln tShat «lhloh makes hln partlcolnr 
and sepaz^tes hlrt tvnm huraanlty In ^tneval rather than enphasls- 
Ing «hat ai^t oake hln a nomal person sharln^-^ the universal 
qualities of manldlnd* The elen^it In Mm v^lch Is exaggerated 
shuts hln off from the camraonplace world, ^liat la ttio element, 
however, on ^iloh the author cone^itrates his attention* This 
Is apparent by reference to any of the quotations cited above* 
'•Shat are "les Kile Magnus"? TTot rien with feelings camaon to 
mankind but antiquarians with obsessions peculiar to t}>elr species. 
Vhat are these women adbalred by L^lla? Not woemen but tiie 
abstract qualities of grace and force, slni;le qualities whose 
perfection in thcsn excludes taie observatlcm of any other qualities 
less perfect or coenplete* The saae conclusions nay be drawn 
frcxa a reference to az>andet or Erfeull, personages who are, it 
is dear, eiai^jtodlments of one t^pae of eccentricity* They are 
made to x^pressnt that type, to synibolise tliat type, by an 
liaprobable exaggeration of their eccentricity and by the 
elimination of any other elenents which niight conceivably «iter 
into their cosnpositlon* In practice, therefore, to describe 
a personage as a "type^ is to describe hln as the symbol of one 
element of life to tlie exclusion of the rest* The ranantle 
perscsiaf^e is. In fact, only properly imderstood if he Is tinder- 
stood as syrabol* 

For, as we have seen, rociantic personages are, in every case. 

extr«me vazdations troa the nox«t« 'Xlieir sole individuality 
se«*na to eaas faram the very exaggerations of oe2?tain passicma 
or instincts, iloreover they are not only differentiated by 
means of the exa{|gez*at;ians of soiae cmG element of their nature 
but tliey would oeaae to exist In any aenee if they were to be 
Ixmginatively deprived of that element* Make tl\9 experiinont^ 
for inatanoe, «lt^ Orondet* Deprive him of his lust for f^ld 
and vftiat remains? ESxaotly nothing* He has shotm no other 
affecticm, no otSier interests, no other weaknesses* Hie extesnal 
surroundin,~G express that lust as does his appearanoe* ills 
every act expresses it and he ocmsnits no act that does not have 
avarice as its niotive. It is \:y^ili];ely that a Grandet exists 
or will exist* !e is not a fully observed per8ona,';e« Ue is 
rather a created persmia^, the creation of the logical ext]«ene 
of the rxanifestation of his passion* He touclies life at only 
one point* Ho is not only Inluuaan, therefore, la tliat he 
possesses no ]?atlonal will, lie is also less tlian humsn in tOiat 
observed humanity possesses more tttan one passicm even when 
<me lias been greatly itidulged at the expense of tlio rest* In 
him only one element of life exists and that elecient sums up 
his existence* He is avarice incarnated* His mode of life 
is avarice expressed throuf^ the raatexdal* His actions are 
avarice er:presssd in novement* His speech is avarice expirassed 
tdirou(^ the eoonooQr of words* In other wox-ds, Grandet is 
si, jiif leant in the novel where he app<»ars for only one reason t 
that he incarnates a f^ven passion, one of Mhe nony passions 
which {50 to foxttt the coBplete universe. He is a symbolic 
creation, nothing more. 

A« we havo seen^ then, the ror.antici8t aesthetic makes o^ 
the artist a creator — ti striking oontraat to the olasalolst 
practice iiSiloh shows mb the artist as an observer* our study^ 
Moreover « shows tlr&t the nanner of this creation In romanticist 
art Is s^boUc and that the artist uses his personals In order 
to Indicate how large a place certain eX«aents assuDM in the 
universe and In ordez* to represeoit ej/tabolically tiie action and 
reactlcm of these elements upon one anotaier. 

To say this Is merely to say that, if ftrandet is a syrsk^X and 
not a roeCL personage , he beooiaea so by virtue of the type of 
Iruijjlnatlcai ^Ich creates hlra* In actual life wo may frequently 
see Individuals nfiio Imve very obvious Idiosyncrasies. In oitr 
speech we loay describe such Individuals by the ellHlnatl<»i of 
all but that onG obvious quality. W» say of one man **lie la a 
waUclnf; dictionary", of another "He Is an old money-ba/;;'' , of 
a tlilrd ^e Is the personification of cliorra". In these 
Instances ou^ language Is s:?cibollc not as all lai\;;uaGe is 
STiabollc but In a very special and abstract swuse* Our lang* 
uage Is sy»boiic, tliat is. In the sense that our Intelligence 
has Judged tlie world of etnotlon end has reopresentod tiriat 
world as an abstraction stripped of its partlctilar connotations. 
In actual life «e are well aware that there Is a discrepancy 
between the state«a«Qt and the fact — that is, the person-'- 
It represents. Such distoirtion, exa,;i^ratlon, or slnr>llfleatlon 
Is charaoterlstie, however, of tiie STiabolic method. 

The synbolic mettiod is recognlzatily, then, only a substitute 

f'oT a truth, & method where! t Ideal, ron-exlstent truth riay b« 
i*0pr©sent©d to the senses. The use of s^r lx)l necessitates 
einpllflcFitlon, 'V© descrlbf> the charm In a nan nfiien we sayi 

He la the personification of chann'* tout v/e have ora5.ttc^ all else. 

e are using bJ?oad strokes and neglectin.'^ tiie su]>tl© nuances of 
reality, Ws gmso a certain tmth by means of tJie srntibol fcut to 
do so we liavG omitted what is also part of the tr«ith» V.ho is to 
say «giXoh part of the twitli ahoiad be pepi^sented and which 
omitted? If we fail to represent tin© wiv>lc of reality, we do so 
because we have already > .orle a judr^'ient and we spes^c from file 
oolnt of •.'lew of that .ludj^^ent, 

FtH)m tijne Innanorlal wan ^ms used symbol ns a short cut to 
knowled^^e but It cannot be us©(^ as such a ohoi*t cut If Uie 
prenlses differ. To certain oeople the swastika may be a syraibol 
of death, to others it jnay represent , ood luck ami to still 
others it nay betoken anti-Seraitiem. The initial oolnt of view 
detemJnes the value of the symbol. Accordingly, Uiore nay b© 
validity In the sy^abolic Method, a »r>ethotl for ^hlcJi »um has a 
natural predilection, but, in order to liave validity, there uiust 
b© a eomraon princiole to v^lch to refer tiie syiibol. One writer 
may Jud/^e a -nan to be charm Incarnate; another may ,1tid :e lilni 
to bo til© lersonification of lnsinc©»'ity. The rcxnanticiot writer 
abstracts the wiiole of tli© humanity of snch a oersonace and 
retjreoents only cJionn or insincerity, ns the case liay bo. In 
accordance with his Initial 5udg«»ent. Thifj ^akos any rerorenc© 
to observed fact — and so to any universal standard of reference— 
i >po8aible. The result is that tlie synl^ol can Indicate no iwre 

than an a prio ri jud^nent. Such a judf^nent Is one vSiose basis 
lies indii^actly in observation but «#\ich Is necessarily biased 
Ijy the point of view froni wlnich it was made* a point of view 
detennined by sentiment* In using synbol to represent the 
reality time jud/^ed, part of reality ia oEiittod In order better 
to emphasise the s«ntli?ient or prejiodice. 

Symboliam shows » necessarily, a very close relationship to logic* 
The sylloi^ian in logic starts frora a major prc^iiae, adds an 
tindoniable minor pr<»a*s© token from obsox^-ed reality, and, by 
oanoellin/3 the term c<»«non to botli, arrives, by irrefutable 
loe;ic, at the dosired conclusion* idut the pi*oof is only valid 
if we accept the major preraise as valid* The ctxmnon exai^le of 
a syllogisn runs thus: 

All men are anirtials* 

Soeratea waa a zaan* 

Therefore Socrates waa an animal* 
Actually, we ,hnve only proved in the final statement vtuit we 
have pre^rfLously talcon for ,<^rantccl in the first stateiTient* Yet 
thia, as we have ae^i, is t$ie symbolic method* The ooiie«llati<m 
of the Interraediate tenyss »jotv/een the original reality and the 
syaibol assuriea a .jndfjnent previous to the introduction of the 
particular bit of observed ireality* The cancellation of the 
middle terms •>• and so, tlie cancellation of a certain oart of 
reality — leaves tlie final sliplifietl statement, Tlxis 
aiciplification Is but a conventional raetliod adopted in oxxier that 

the truth nay th« iaor« ©JAslly bC5 arrlvcjd at, This la & •%ftt««> 
mont applicable alike to 3:<7nbol and to syllorlsra. It Is fchlo 
slrallarlty of mothod which raakea It se«m only probable that the 
cyiaibol vd.ll. In many caaea, be little but the repe titlOTi of a 
convention t that la, th«t its e:a»resBlcm will assume the foxfti of 
tlie exoreaslon of a Mathematical fomula and that. In or<3er to 
be s7llOj;lstlcall?r lo IopI, nany of fAxe tt^rme of the syllonlsm 
will enter tJie realm of Ideal truth, after the nanner of laatJi- 
eattitlcal quantities, i^ther than renalnlnf; in t^Tie realm of 
solid actuality* 

In dlBcuealnr; tho poraona?'en fiho anp^nr in ronemtlciot fiction. 
It is Iriposslble to avoid nentlonin/; the typicnl milieu in 
wliich they are olacod since, f\B ie ^Inofit alwayo the crb©, the 
milieu beocariea a matorial extension or the ef^o. *^e mlliei; In 
that case becociee fcyolonl of the nersonafe nnd, if the peroona/j;© 
is a type, tl\e milieu cannot fail to run to type also. Here lo, 
pei4iapa, the second key to the nature of the romanticist 
IraagJLnation. It shows a desire to establirfi <\ relationship 
betwoMi the laaterial and the spiritual «orl<ia. It shows a 
t«nd«ncy to explain one by the other and vice versa. The spir- 
itual is explained by reference to the body that represents it 
and tile body owes its significance to the spirit that lr.fon3S it. 
Eugo ^howe UB the eleaents htananlsed by the spirit wJitch rules 
th«a and the Duranda is loved equally with Deruohette. Gllllatt 
reco^^sses the spiritual aspect thron h the pbysica.1 JrTienslty: 
"Terraes^jjar I'lrartensit/, 11 la prie." (1) The correspondence 

(1) IIuijO, Les Travailleurs de la ner . II., 173. 

botv0«i th« girl and t^i« boat is inflected throuf^ tfeaa I^thioiTy. 
For l^bsi **«••• la Airande etait vuie pepsoime", (I) Th« fata 
of t}^e t^so is inextricably llnkad in Iiis raind* "Le marl qu*il 
liaaginait pour Dexniohette ^tait aussi un peu Tin marl poar 
Djirende. II mit voulu pourvolr d»\in ctnip see doux fillos.'* (2) 
The relaticmahip betwiMn the tvo is established in s^bolio 
fashion t "La poup^ de la Dorande ^tait lo 15. en cntre lo bateau 
et la fille." (3) 

Of course^ the tendency to confuse matter and ntoodf body and 
8oul« has already been noted by the critics of roriantloism. Tlie 
"pathetic fallacy" is its nost evident demonstration* It la 
aurprlBingf liuowever^ that so little heed seeana to have been paid 
to its significance in re^^aiPd to the char ucteristlc quality of 
romanticist literatuz^. To ostabliah coznrespondencesy to iialre 
one thins serve to i?epreoent another, viSiat is this but symbolisia? 
And if the ^':looa of nature is ^lown to correspond to the f^loon 
of the human soul or if the raelaneholy of tlie individual finds 
its reflection in nature^ this is t<ut one manifestation, and a 
eharacte.'istic one, of the quality of the romanticist imagination. 

The imagination i*iicli egresses itself throu^ symbol is t^ie 
Limginatlon \idiicli perceives "cors^espondences", Baudelaire's 
po«a Correspondances is on© typical example of this facf-. From 
ttiB personages we ore studyinij it can be observed thnf- Wie 
correspondence 1 etween exterior nature and trie Inner nata3?e of 

(1) Kur^o, T-ee Travailleurs de la mer « I., 136« 

(2) Ibi..i ., I.. 148. 
^3) Ibid .. I., 146. 

tho personase lo hot*! definitely expressed anci frequently 
insisted upon* Tliere can be no doubt» imder these cireumstanoos, 
that the milieu in <^ilch the rcMnantlc personage is placed^ and 
by milieu iw nust underctanl nil leases of the exterior world* 
will be aliooet invariably synS^olic. 

This is to oonfirro the STmbollc dharaoter of the nttraonafKe <moe 
again for, even if the attention of the romantlcistB Is dlyeoted, 
apparently, tovmrd ^e relationship «hicli exists between the 
elements ndiich go to forf^ the exterior reality and the inner 
reality of t^ft erdidt-ual elements, the personares cannot fall to 
be, themselves, reco/^iized as part of that exterior world. If 
they are not excliJded fr«»fl it, they riust be represented aa 
correspcKidlng to certain of its olements* llaere is a relation- 
ship l>et«e«n 13\e two worlds, the romanticist declares. It is 
not enouri^i, therefore, tliat he shows a certain physical &p{>eartmce 
or a ohoson «»ivlr<WHa€Hit as corresponding to definite individual 
•leeients. He rnust, lof;ioAlly, spixdtuallze the material world. 
H^noe tho suirltual elements vd\ich appear 5,n his per8ona/3:es must 
reappear in the exterior reality. They aire likewise OBiong tlM 
munber of the elep>entB w'llch must make up a complete nnlverse. 

Not only is the milieu typical bub the role of certain perscmages 
Is f»ufiifirtcntaliy always the same and la also typlcp.l. The 
question T^ich it has been necessary to raise in regard to the 
si^lflcance of tlie "type" oersonage of r<»iiantlrls!n will, 
therefore, \i&v% to be repeated in retard to the action 3ji which 
he paxi^lolpates. It will, in fact, have to be repeated as often 

a« w« discover that any of the ingredients of a novel may b« 
descxdbed as "typioftl" «St11o it rf^nains liaposalbio to d©scpib« 
th«ra aa milvereal. In other words, if we dlaooveo* that tli© 
hero of a novel by Hugo responds to a oertain definite convention, 
fN» i^all to forced to inquire 5_nto the si^snificanoe of the 
e<mvMitl(m and the convention will "bo of more importance than 
will any on© of ttie vaxdous individual fij^ures — Quaalao-lo, Jean 
Valjean, Gilllatt, — wlio represent It, The individual 
creatures are, indeed, nothing more than symbols and az«, in 
thegeoselves, uniiaportant, _If, correspondingly, we should find 
that the plot of the novel may be reduced to a certain, dt^flnlte 
oonventicffi, the sli^^it varlationa of each Individual plot will 
eease to have for us that importance that the "type" plot must 
have* The individual plot ral^it be the result of observation 
and imagination but Ui© "type" plot, thoui:iIi based, coi^-icps, on 
observation and ejq)erience, could not thus repeat itself a(^in 
and again except as the i^esxilt of conscious creation, a conscious 
croation li^iose significance is apparent in the repetition. ^ 
with the nllleu, the fomial 8t2?uctur0, the minor Incidents, 
t^e language itself. Everywhere tloat a convention is fo>md to 
x^place the infinite variation \*ilch, in reality, ttxe convention 
nust represent, it is evident that tlie sicnificanoe of ^*iat the 
convention does represent nniat "he discerned. The co^ivention 
replaces all the numberless n.iar.ces of reality. In Itself it 
beccnnes as colourless as the mathematical fomtula, as ctM tern in 
a syllogism. It is only the meaning which It v^.nvtis&nts ^shlch 
has actuality and life* ^l!hatever terias we choose to use, t][ie 

direction of our atudy raifit rasain oet tovmrd tlie llvir'.g JiidgsMnt 
hidden iinder the typical personac© or theno or i^rd, ■ T:>,'\t Is 
tJie Blsniflcanco of th* recurrent figure of R^ie? or Chatterton? 
of tlio r0cu:i*rfsit fllt^iit to monauiteiy or convent? of t!i© 
iaprobably froquent suicides? of tiie repeated conversions 
•ffected by love? 

The clue to the moaning of a novel lies, first of all, of course, 
in the roeaning of the pevmma^ea «flio are px»e3onted In it, Ilenoo, 
before proeeefilng to the conaidspatlon of the personages ae they 
are revealed in relationships and in action, it \7ill ba ^ oe^ssary 
to unify and set forth those llvlnr judijaonts ifriich ar« implicit 
in the (^laracteriBtic types of rcaaantlclam. Behind tho type 
lies th© idea; tlirou^ the type tho romanticist ropr©s«its hia 
ideas In regard to society, religion, art, love, and beauty, 
The personage informs us of the idea not necessarily in his speecli 
but, necessarily, in his perscai. Beoause he is tlie incamatioa 
of an eleoumt of the writer's thoui^it, tlie "type" Ijecaj^es a 

Cluapter IV. 
ryribolB of -natv 

We have soon tlmt porcona a cs prGContad in tlio novel of* 
romantiolBQ can be reaucQu t;o a tirpa* i8# in f&ot* type ratarier 
tlian indlvlduia. v/e imvo also obaerved that the tendency to 
repreB&nt fl^roros rho aro olt^-or OKtrecie In their virtuoB or In 
tlioir vioes js'evanta tae t^po iron referriiitv to ujilvorssal 
hujaanity* The uniformity of ton© ^ilch timm maJcee t^io t^^.e 
lOfc^lCGl In It© absolute teria rnolsos the type loos reprosontative 
of humanity' than of ono olenont in htesianity. T'ne typo is, 
actually, therefore, a syaijol. Its symbolic validity depends 
upon «fl^etlier the oynbol is in Gi^reoment with obsorvod reality 
or t^ietxier it is aorol^' u £X>8tiilatGd ideal* If the synbol Is 
of the lattex' type, it resoiabloB tlie urilmovm quantity in a laathe- 
oatioal problesa. V/e call it x, we reoogniee that It is a symbol, 
but we find it difflctat to determine what ooimtorpai^t, if any, 
it has in reality. If, however, observed reality is the iirnodiGte 
origin of tli© sgnabol. Its syxabollo counterpart is self-evident 
and iraaedlately valid for everyone faniliar witi: thiis reality, 
Such is the case, for instance, vAxen we speak of tloe cross to 
a OTiTiatian* iiis knowlecije of the experience which it reproaento 
is a isrerequisite of his recognition of Uie symbol. Uiis 
particular oj^abol has tmiveraal validity,' in Uliristondora but no 
validity elsewhere* To toll a non-Giirietiun tiiat tlie croas S.u 
a syrabol, and to explain its sltnificance, is quite posoible 
but, in tills case, the validity of the Clirietion point of view 
must precede tlie acceptance of the cross ae a valid sycibol. 

If the roraantlcist writer is uslnt, the t>enorall;^' accepted ex- 

o of reality as lils stortiii^, ijoint, tli© exact Inpox't of 
his 82?inbol will be laEJodlately and unlveraally roeoenlaod. If 
he Is ?K>t dolnc so, be raust iixivo dlsoovored liis synibol by virtue 
of eota© private faith Miicli he holds, if this is true, his 
symbol will certainly ronnlrs esDlanntlon. Itn ncnontrnic© as 
▼alld symbol will ciopona U:>oa viie acceptance oi' tno aiiuior's 
personal ijoint of viow. To determine the true noaning of the 
syrnbols used by tho roraantiolGtc will involvo, t?->or -jforo, tho 
reco^nXtxoa of tiio pailoaopiiy wiiich aiotai;oa • )C!.niiij_. 

The raaantlclBt alrsost always explains tlio valtto of hia symbol 

eltuer Implicitly or explicitly, Jt-u, lor oasaEiplo, tii© 

character iotio linos tliat, on tl o occasion of tlie arrival of 

the duo d»l orouvillo, Dalsac intorpolatoa into tho nain body of 

his novel iuoC . o n t o . i^ non ; 

iiii effot, quand les i^randes choees huoaines s*on 
vont, elles laissent des miettee •»««•- ot la Koblesue 
fran^ioo noxis nontro en ce oiocle boaticoup trop 
de rested* Certes^ dan^ cette lon^ue histolre 
de raoeurs, ni le Glori_e ni Ic " aoe n'ont a se 
plaindre* ues deux grandee c ifiquos n^o5s- 

slt^s soclaloe y son* bien re '' tdbaj nals ne 
serait'oe pas renonoer eu beau tztre d'iilstorien 
ou© do n»0tr<^ pas in5Xirtial, quo de ne pas aontror 
Icl la de£«aerescence de la race, oonne vous 
trouvoroE ailleure la fi^ui'O do 1' xrl lo 

coato de !:lort&auf (voyee le r.ys clana 2 ^) , 

et toutOD lea noblooooe de la liobioss© IToifo'Uc 
marquifi d'^spcird. (1) 

Or consider a oliaractoriatlo oonvoreation froci one of ?.and»s 

novols, Piorre adtlresaos /-jnaiu^yt 

— ^ujourd'hul 40 n'ai plus d'arabltion, et o'est toi 

qui on as, liouo avons clumge 0© role. 

Aumury repliosj 

— Et lequol de nous est dans lo vral? 
(1) Balzac, I404»e»» Mignon . 17U, 

— KotxB J SQBBtes peut-eii'o t^nx Seux, )s 

I'heeaeie de la society prcfuonto, „^^ u-.._^. ^.ovit- 
§tre C6lui de la eocidt^ futtsret (1) 

In trn» Hixlt de Cl,^patr)ft Gautier expotinds tho sgrobolic value of 

Buci: an individual as CleopfUlrat 

On 8»etonnQ que lee htxxms ne ee soiont pac 
rovolt<fs oonta?0 cog oorSlr • ^ toutes ioa 

riehesees et de toutes loi^ antes eu 

profit de quelques rare* privil . i^4^-.~-C'ost 
que oee existencee prodlgieusea et4i^it la 
r^ialleetlon eu soleil du r^7o que ohacun faieait 
la nuit,— dee porsonnifications de la pensee 
ooi25E!une, et que lo; ;. so r^t^'i'^ial'Q^t^ 

vlvre 83ntaboll-8^fl s^ j ces nosna n^t^riquoe 

qui flar oieat tlrii^uiDiegsMmt dans la milt 

d^a %es« ii. ^ '"*/*>""'"" ^* nsan&o «»«Hiuie 
eperdjaaent ot ^ . " ''.entf l*h«WEM8 n'eet ^ua 
represent^ dazui sa fantaiaie impsrlDle* (S) 

^.e feciu^ity of such statenents, scattered ^mierouely tlirouiji- 
out the roananticist literature, aliould be evident. If tlxe 
a-gribol is tmxa esplicitly defined, its significance oast 
become an indeap««iaabla prellninary to tlie coi^iprohension of 
the autlior*a Idoa. For instance, tlio qiialitiee ascx*iled to 
Uie due dMJ^rouville will inform tho reader ae to tho 
qualities Miicli liulsao considers oliaraotoriatio of the degen- 
eration of the nobility* In this way, tho midorstj-ndint. of 
the s^/nbol is indisaolubly linked to tho undorstandini;: of the 
aut^ior'a point of viov7 in rOt,ard to the elenente of the extorior 
world if^iich he syiaboliaea* 

Hot eve1r^^ one of the roaanticiats, of course, will direct his 
interest toward the saBie eletaents* Uevez^theless, it will be 
found tliat, on tho wliolo, the roinuntioiat co^po£»@s his awrld 

(li Sand, Le Ootta^ugnon du toig d e l-'ranoe . II*. 179. 
(2) Gautier, I^ouveiieB , "Une : u it de Glgpgatra . 354. 

^' V* ■^he acL^e clc tial units. Thf se units ere the co.i-- 
I'onents wich go to • ke up a coiiipltte picture of society 
eni of nature. Thus t' e world of ro^uanticiat fiction is 
dufllistic: the •:le(i.enta in society ore ishiarply diffr.renti- 
'-ted frci. the Tatural elciiaente in the universe uni, v.i.ile 
the letter are tilv-ays shown to be in harmony with the ideal 
„r. ich the author post :.l'~tt;6, the ol^eys 
rrpreeent n diacord. in discussing the c^.o^en ejiubola in 
detail, therefore, the division reprciie-ited by the eyui. a- 
tretic anJ unsyui esthetic ersonegea .ilA be e valuable 
guide and a convenient line of de^ercrtion between the con- 
flicting ele-^cnts of the novelist's dualietic world. 

Society, 'a repreaented by unsyupathetio personages, ia 
the conatitutod aoc-cty of the ti-^e. The picture, thus 
syjiibolicsliy roveaied, .-ust , of course, h*ve its b na ii3 , 
at lerst, ii observation. The aociol world is, u»oreover, 
self-sufficient. It includes hierarchies and institutions 
and IkJ uiOtivated in action by its accepted religion, its 
O'.n peculiar aasiono, and its ideals of beauty , nrt , 
virtue, and love. The unanimity or the lack of it in the 
representation of society by the various ro.^anticists 
appears throu.^h the sLuilaritica in thtir respective 
oeraonages an1 the qualities wsich they find aiObt aalient 
in this society i-ay be deduced fro^ these personages. 


Social jj'Grce 
The hierarchical arro'^.geitient of aocxety ia i^iOat cipparent 
in Hugo, Vigny, and oand, althcujjh Bflzac mijjht eaaily 
be Gdded to this list. The ruling clrss--re,ireaonted by 
Tjn syu. ;.ath et ic ■-lereonngee-- ia the clasa vit ich ia uiOst 
ol03Cly idfTitified v.ith the aociPl systeiu it hel .s to 
peroetunte. It ia, therefore, that eletnent which laoat 
clearly rcvoala the characteristics v.h^dx these authors 
ascribe to society. 

The r ling class as represented by Hugo appears in ?hoebus 
and Lord r-evid Clanricrrd, arintocrata; in Laitenac, ^^ili- 
tant royalist, r^^nd CiaiOurdain, political re!.resent«tive. 
Vigny presents the ruling class through historical figures 
reprcaeiting variou:i forms of govemu.e7St and through 
Oiilitfiry leaders representing two dOiiinant nations; that 
is, throi3^. louis IV, Mr* Beckford, ivobca;ierre, and, 
finally, i.ord Colling.ocd. :iugo and Vigny, therefore, 
write of the ruling classes frori. a iiiore or less political 
point of view. Balzac and Sand judge society by a more 
sociological standard. In their . ork, the railing class 
is usually represented not by king or general but by a 
new aristccracy corresponding to the contemporary situation; 
the of itoney and bourgeois industrial rule. 
iSevertheless, cand frequently ^skes the aristocrat the 
syii^bol of jiiRterial power just as Balzac frequently iiiakes 
the aristocrat the 8yix.bol of Uiaterinl doiLinance. In 3alz«c 

the *" hOxjqee forts'' of society uiay \)e "arrivistes' , 
(iiastignao) , liberals fdu Bousquier), financial oov/ors 
fNucingeti), opportunists fdes Lupeaulx), or advocatea 
of pure force-- thr^t ia, in a aenae, ikilitsriata-- 
fde ii-araay, u^e^ber of the secret orgoaization of the 
'Treize'). bnnd'a ruiiig force usually resides in the 
bourgeois, ayi^^bol of the rsov-er of uiOney and industrialiaui, 
such aa M. Le Cardonnet fLe p^che de a. Ajitoine) or 
. Bricoiin (.>e ^eunier d' .ni^i^u :;uit ) . Occfisionally 
the repr- ae-ntative is a-i aristocret of bourgeois sy^^pa- 
t} iea or condition aa, for exeraple, K. de u'ougerea in 
y i^y.on or the C0u.te de Villepreux in Le Coiii, c-gn on du tour 
de J ranee . 

There is a cOL.u.on attitude evident in the qufilitiea aaoribei 

to these varying ayi^-bols of social t^hat is itost 

evident in the aristocratic regi...e (Thoebua and Lord David) 

is its indiifere "loe to the suffering of the lever classes 

and the treati^ent of the classes aa iiiCre instruu^ents 

of pleasure. Hugo writes; 

Les lords sont rfiirs, o'est-a-dire egaux. 

De qui? du rol. Les lords ont la 

puisaftnce, pourquoi? -urce qu'ils ont 
ia richesi>e. il) 

Gwynplcine cou^-Lents: 

C'est de I'e^fer des omivrea qu'est fait 
le paredia des riches, fii) 

(1) Hugo, L'Eoauj.c qui rit . II., 14i. 
fii) Ibid. . 11. , 147. 

• hen he attacks the flonae of Lords, he Indicts the rulers 

of aociety by iiddcting the aristocrat: 

J'ai fsit iiiOn eatree do is cette ohecurite 
que voue appelez la aociete. La reiai'fere 
chose que j'ai vue , c'eat Iti loi, sous lo 
forj,.e d'un gibet; In deuxie.e, c'est Ic richease, 
c'est votre xicheaae, aous la i'orii-e d'une 
fciuflie uiorte de froid et de fnli, fli 

Sand likewise coidc-ns the weclth of the r\;lit-ig class 
beoeuse it ^ekee theo* the o, -resacrs of the poor. 
Bourgeois industry is condeu^ned because it refuses 
freedoiii, as .. . -^e Cardo^net ref- sea it to Jean Jn eloup; 
because it refuses equality, as :l» Le Cardonnet condeii.n8 
i^. Antcine for his egaliterianisu.; because, v^ere it 
claims to be constructive ' -"3 develoo wealth for the 
people, it is actually destructive and iaj-overishes the 
peo le by sr-ecioue :i,eana, just ea a. Le rardonnet is shown 
to be a ecioutjly expl itin^ ^'^e countryside he claims to 
be enridiing. To deny the people -frcedo.^, equality, and 
property is to deny thoa life. 

But Sand's oondei-nation is esrecially concentrated on a 
further as. ect of the destructive quality in society. The 
existence of eoci'il cl- yaes denies the eo.le the freedom. 
to love; it denies, that is, the right to a love that 
does not correspond to cl sa convention, y-verj one of 
Said's eraontiges u.entiOTed above becoj-es unsyjtpathetic 
to the- reader, initiall-', becanse he rtveita a marriage 
(li ~ Ib i d . , III., 169. 

which would link the rich to the poor, the aristocrat 
to the esaant, the ruling claaa to the snhject clrjae. 
The restriction of love in sccordsnce with claas con- 
vention is to deny the a lOntaneotia quality of love and 
30 is to deny nature. 

Ahere Hugo indicta the strong beoeuse they deny even 
aaterial life to others, where Sand indicta theii* because 
thoy deny the eenti^eotel aspect of nature, Yigny'a in- 
dictiuemt is directed against the ruler es ecially 
because he denies the intelligent aapoct of nature. 
One fouL of goverouicnt ia not dif ferontiated froi- another. 
Just as l-ouis IV, kT, Beckford, and Bobeapierre, all 
share the aa,.ie charncteriatica, ao do the different 
forays of governiuent all show the asuhO qualities. They 
are autocratic and rigid. They are capricioua and 
tyraanical. tJo (.Atter which the foziu of ^svernu.ait, 
it plaoea its e^i^phraia on outward sho.. and aeeka to 
create en attitude of fear and respect in its subjects 
by intiii.idat ion rather than ayxunathy. The constitu- 
tional CiOnorohy /aakca o show of u.ore benevolence but 
its benevolence is only superficial find a aieana of expresaing 
more euiohatically its power aid osition of u^aatery. 
And all these i'oru.3 oJ governuient fear any opposition 
to themselves. They ore Uiaterial pov-er and tney, there- 
fore, seek to deatroy s iritual pov.'er, apiritual jtani- 
featationa, spiritual truth. Louis aV speaks: •« — Ce aont 


no8 ncturala que vca beaux-eaprits."* fl) i^.r. Beck- 

ford cfrir.^8 his tmliinited socxn of the iiuaginfttion. 

I'.obesTierre declrirea: 

--.uilc^roce n ' eat piTia iongereuoC pour ia 
liberte, plus de I'eg&lite, que oclla 
des aristccxjitea de 1* i'lt elligefnce, dont lea 
reptitationa ibol<^a exercent une iaflufcice 
port ie lie d?:rx ^^ereuao, et contra ire & 1' unite' 
qui dtoit tout regir. f^) 

The death of the Feet, " eristocrote de 1 'intelligence'' , 

is, in ever;,- cose, the result cf the enuiity of t> c ae 

ayiiibolrt of uiaterial pofler. 

To B&lcao the ruling power in constituted aocicty is olso 

destructive. Hla aioet direct definition of his syiiibclic 

peraonRgo ie that of du Bousquier. He defines du Bousquier 

as "Ic Liberal' and aa the "peraocnif icction vivante d^une 

syatetue politique". He is "la i\©nubliquc ersonif iee. " 

The Oiorel of the tale, in . hich du Bouequier's su. bit ion 

a.8]coe hiui th^e do u. in a "it force i^ the tov.r, of Alencj^cn, io 

stated in unequivocal teri;.a: 

Lea ijiythes tiOdernea sont cnccre iiiOins coa. ris 
que lea mythea cncicns, quoique nous aoyone 
devcrcfs rr lea ;-iythcs. Los ^ythee nous 
prt'SServt de touti^a arts, ils servc-.t ^ tout. 
£'ila tiont , ac Ion I'Kcole Eiatr nit tire, lee 
floui beaux de I'hiatoire, ila sauveront les 
ccpirea de toute re''vclution , '.our reu Que 
lea profeaaeiira d'hiutcire fpsacnt p^netrer 
lea expllcationa qu'ils en .dement, jusque 
dona lea ;^R3>;ea de larte^.cntaleal Si 
u.adei^oisellc Cordon e^t et^ lettr^e, a' il 
eut exiate dan a Ic doj- ■ rtOh.ent de I'Crne un 
profesaeu d'a i-lhrc ologie , cnfin si elle avait 
lu I'Aricate, lea effroyablee u-alheura de aa 
vie conjagalu euaae-.t-ila jaii^ois eu lieu? 

(1) Vigny, ^tello , "3. 

(z) Ibid. , Teel 

le poete 

che vnllsr 
jumenti e'« 
S€ mettre 
pne la fl 
le roya;;; 
iee r^ol 
laapu li s'iD 
rlon pre J 

IL peut-'I^ recherchti pour^uol 

lA^or, iiul etalt un baOnd 
ae V^lols, ^ Koianl iont la 
alt aiorta st iul ne asvait .^ue 

en fureur. Lecior ne eeralt-ll 
gure aiy Unique Jet courtisnns ae 
^ fislnlne, et Itolnnl le ti-ythe 
aliont a!t*s:«»rdonn36 8, fur leases, 
t&e ^ul d^traieent tout eoas 
aire .... (1) 

'hnt do©6 Balzao sliO'*! thle desCraotive force lo be 

dlrect-.i a<^''in£t? ."11 cf hie ''horrrtiea forte" are 

BbfcOluUei^ rd«hitL-6. i?ot,&ipinc 'ind Nuclngen (leetroy 

i'hole famlilee by mesne of their financial operations; 

Souequler' t nretence in the ho.T.6 ^herp rellpioae pe'^ce 

h'^e ruled caueee the ae-Jth of th?>t peace (I'f^bbe la 

5ponJe). 1)68 Lupeoulx dleflriQe the nature of the 

constituted society: 

--Le c.if+'re ett d'si^leurc it rsljson 
probnnte <3es s ol/t^t bcs/et cur 1' Intsrst 
pereonnel et tur I'arfent, et telle est 
Is f^oci^tl 4UI nouf a falte la Chortel tZ) 

3al2ao'e eymbollc orltlclttE Rf-lnst ihf ruilnf f^rcee 

in Ecclfty is «ccordlnply, directed '"r'inet ft^rces 

•Jhlch flctuftily, dltilntegrri te coclety. In the f?^ct thr^t 

they ire based on pereonnl rsthfr than toclil Intereet. 

It It tno p6rton''il Interc. ...v... ..\ .'-i^ -^-'.nlly and 

aIII B re: lj?lon. But "--La Fnnallie, c'e^i la ..ocls te, " (^5) 

2rne3t ae la Brit-re i-rltfs. 'nd other epeechee tnrouph- 

out the Coraeaie Hamalne confirm th^ Ir.rortnnee of '-he 

fDl^-lzno, La Vl eille Flile. 409. -tlQ. 

(^).i'l2sc, let ':^-'loyee. l74. 

(3)3^1s8C, L'ode^ ce J.-^iFnon, ol. 

foaily to l>h« trul^ aoolil itooi&i.^. Thus ilaiQ , <ie 
' orte-riduere' b eon sjjrteees hsr: "--li n'^' n pl^c Je 

r>iajille aujourd'hal, ai« a?lr6 11 n'y a plue .^u© 

d«ts Indlvldus." (1) But Hsstipnsc, !7uclnpen, iu 
BoubjUler, "m ' Lh© oiiher r.i«rs of oontQmoor<»r^ aoclet^, 
are sll ualnp eocifety's lava in order ic nohleve personal 
ende. Balzao'b Injlctfx^ent ^gsinet then is the indiot- 
ment which 31oniet directs ag^lnat Hoetlfn^ic and Tjucingeii 
epeolfically in La jaqji^on ae Nacinpen; 

--Ls legalite tU6 Is 3ociet6 moierrie, {<-) 

Thsr* ie essential agreevent, therefore, in th« picture 
presented by taet^e romantlciet writers. Jhey chow the 
etroop, the po.verful, the rich, "nd the priviieped 
all to be e^uslly cruel, ef^^oistic, ^luuitious for in- 
dividual po.vfrr anJ potiBsssion; 6>iupll> Indifferent to tn« 
eufferinge o-^ the poor and to the preservation of t lie 
rights o-^ the ^esk. Society ia ruled tij aieteri^l force, 
whether it be bj '--ealth or Oiilltsr^- po^'er cr trsaitlonal 
privlJepe. BlonJet't picture ie ietcriptlv©: 

--Les IoIb k-ont det- tolles d'araifn/ee 
e tr»3vert? ie^^iueliee pf^stent i?8 froeeee 
ffiouchets Qt ou rett<:nt leg petitea. { t.) 

There is no Jl-Tfcreiatlo t ion oetwern i^alzac't Hnstipnno 

<3na Viguy'^: Louie XV in thib reepect. Jhey ubs tne pc --/er 

re&a> to their hand that society an oonetituted olfere them 

end p-rsue their ovn ends ttfepJily, Inalfferent to all 

else. fchit le tri*e in the eauie v^ay for ^hoebue st it Ib for 

U, Brioolin. The Jlfferenoe in theee pereonngee lies 

(1) Balzac, Urcule lirouet , 144. 

^"^" 36 huoiripen. 419. 

14 1' . 
not In '-he cheirQcuerleL let aBcriui-a ->. i-iit... oii.o iii uhe 
rcfults hlch the auLhore repreeent ae typical of those 
chnr'^iCterlet/lCB, The reeulL le deetructl v*^ . ^ioclety 
is liieniifieJ I uh che principle of death and ;he deathe 
for Which It in responsible are typical in the ulfferent 
authore, :^ool6ty ^.1118 nature Qj kllllnp hiuu^niiy (Hupo), 
by tillinr love (.•-^nnd), by ..iiiinp Intt^llpcnce (Vif-ny), 
by kllilne the family "md relipion snd the true aocisl 
spirit (Palzac) . 

The "^crcc ;'hloh ie orute fctrenpth la open to the soae 
indictruent. Clmourdain nnd Lantenao, '.nethfer t^air rule 
repreeenoB arleLocrRtlc or deK-ocrntlo prlnclplee, are, 
Cuiually, fidvocatee of terrorism nna cruelty, 2hej con- 
Jemn ih9t It natural in life. L^nten'?c, for exotiiple, 
condemns nnturnl innocence — the Innocent onlidren, held 
as hostages -"to death. Cimourdain vill punish any 
raanlfeetstlon of the nat.iral fauilly feelinf by condemning 
C'^avoln to denth. ^lapolton, "le plus brijlant lea 
Dou.inatears" (1) condemns "E.^rope to ye-sre of wnr and eo 
to de^th nnj deutractlon. Lord;ocd devotee aiin- 
8elf to principle retn^r than to pcrfeioml QinblLlon but 
hie pxlnclplt it one of national rpprandizexent, htnce, 
of ^n iraperl'^llefri hose root ilet; in an eTionaeiB on the 
material f>nd vhObe o^^. luix ^Apreeeluu iw .ar. ^'hen "en'^ud 
dl80^«rd6 the perbonil epotbm (Napoleon) ana rives hlB 
( 1) Vipny, S ervitude et pr«<nJeur aillltnires. k,6b. 


admiration lo the r^trlotlo epolerE n^ori Colilnp vood), he 

mskfets It evident that ihb tool of ;i.llit"rlei» la rb dee- 

truoilve "e le the air.eter: 

Ce-pend9ot o<e fut plutot l' laee plpnntestiUe de 
Is g-uerre liul oeeoraisie d'epoorut, que celie ae 
1* honaxe ^ul l» rspreeentglt d'uce al reaoutable 
f«iccn et Je esntie ■? cette pranae vue an 
©nivreriiert Ineense reooublfer en oioi po^r Is 
flolre dee coi.batb, m' ^t our d its ant Eur le 
aiBttre ^ui lee ordonnalt, et re^ardnnt av«o 
or^uell le travail perpetual ddb h0:.»i6& qui 
ne rae pararent toas ^ue eee hUiiOles ouvriers.fl) 

Lord ColllnpA ood' e flnr. -ura li^ s buaruuar^' of hlc life 

ae Vlpny repree^ntB It: 

— Je n'cl (iU'une^ chose a voug recuajT.acder, 
c'e^t de vous devouer ^ un ^rlnolpe plut'ot 
^u''a un HojiiSie. i' '^.TiOur de votre Pntrle en 
ael um aeaez prana poar re:^' llr tout un coear 
et occuper toute une lnteillg:ence. (^-1 

But love of country lu a form of eeif-love. Patriotic duty 
(Lord Colilnf 'Ooa) le a forKi of extended epolem snd Its 
frulte are an d6t;tructlve 3B »re tnoee of pergonal efroleoi. 
Both are elemects In mllltarle-x and both depend on a 
love of mnterl'^L reality. 

Bnli:ao' t; d© i.areajr eeeri.e fit flrtit plonoe far from n aymbol 

of oilll tirle.r, . He 1 6 euch onl.. In the eenee th*^ t the 

po ver of vhlch he Jlepoeee co.tB from hie Due berBhlp In 

an orp&nltaulon vnoae liik>tru:iienC ly force. Balzac de- 

soribey tne :r.eraberfc of thits or|Rf?nizatlon In terruB of symbol; 

roue alent r/illee' lee oltts blzirres l<dieee 

que sufp"lr€ ^ 1' I .:a;.-lno tlon Ij} f'sntnetlque 
Pi-lge'ino6 fiufsex'snt nttrlDuee aux r/^nfrcd, 
aux F'iuet, cax Melmoth (3) 

(1) Ibid. , cui^ 

in) Vlgny, l:eryl lude et pr^nde.^r n:.llit«?lr6B. 304. 

(3) Beizac, L'Hlsiolre dee'Trelze. 3. 



OiOffiber of Ihiu organlJ-allon: 

trouva l'noa>.':.e plus frrnnd q.ue l«e h<Kiiiii€&. 
II pre'tuaiQ 4U6 la uoclet^ Jevalt apparienir 
bout en&lere a aee pens (lietinguee qui, ^ 
leur eeprlu n9u..rel, "^ leure lu.-til^reB 
soviulE68, n leur fortune jolndralent vm 
f'^natleaie steez chaud pour fori re en uc 
seal jet oee differentes -^crcee. "^a Icrs, 
IriiKienee d' act ion et d' intend te, leur 
pulesonce occulte, coitre loquelle 1' ordre 
eociol eerolt estuB defence, y rpnve-reertUt 
lea obstacles, foudroierait ies volor.tes, et 
donnferqlt a chacun d'€ux le pouvolr discoll^ae 
de tou8. Ce moride a pert d^na ie monde, 
hostile Qu r;:onde, n'sd.iettnnt i^ucune des 
IdeeS du morisie, n'en reconnalt s«nc fucune loi, 
ne Be ecu-riett«nt v^u'a 1^ con&ol6rtc€< de sa 
ne'ceeelte'', n'obAesent q_a*\ un j^voueraent, 

cette religion de pl«lelr et d'e*Koleaie 

fan<!tli^?3 trelae faocuuee ^ui reco.i.iiienc'^rent 
In Societe'' de Jesw^e au profit du dlable. (11 

The devotion » .loh Lord Colling''OOd recoaiaends ie> not alien 
to i.hle rruup but itg aevotion is to the Napoleonic 
principle in Its caoet obviout; jnilB&. The man vho 
ruiee in bccUly it the mfni -vho is the enemy of society. 
2he men wiioee strersfth per'alts him to pl'sce himself 
above nnd beyond the . is? the man '^ho aiay snninll^te 
and destroy vhf't he will. The epoism ie tne lov since 
mtn is superior ic toclety, Material aggrandizement 
<ind ;2'5teriol ple'^ture deny any but individual life. 

Social Cr<ioe 

Society hss its ralere nnd its conciiierors. It «il60 has 
its sooi'^l lesdere. hdL6 . de Vernon plays the chief role 

(1) Balzac, L'Elstoire des trelze . 7,8. 

In Pel rxilnc r'B B.ich 3 repreaentstlve pereonrge. Her life 
Its repu]9ted by socl'?! convention nnd eoclnl ambition. 
She h^e no principles bul tnone of convenience. Her 
point, of vle"M/ Is completely potlUvp. Delphlns deBorlbee 
h6r as subo^ltwlnf: her life to the \M:)rlcily cocle alone: 

— Ce n'eet nl 1^ morrillt.^ dee actlcttiB. nl 

leur Influence ear le blen-^irs de I'^rue 
qa'elle a profond^ent etudl^ee, aisle, lee 
cons^quencee »t xetj effete de ees actions; 

1' on dlraL- q-^'elle cooipte p0u.r tout le Buccei 

et pour tret pea le prlnclne de is ocniulte 
des hooi'^ieB. (1) 

tone, de Vernon expiring heree.f on every occasion In the 

8?n6 termt; ^e, for example-, hen Jelphlne reports: 

— Quol^u'tlle p^t etre tr'fes dlstlnpule dnns 

1q oonvereaLlon, elle I'evlte; en dlrsli qu'elle 

n' aln:i6 ''^ d^v^lopper nl ce iiu'slle ecnt, nl ce 

qu'-rlle pente. — La critique ou 1r lou^np-e, 

me re'ponalt-elle, 80nt un gimeeaient- de I'etprlt; 
malB me'naper lee hOir.nee eet n^eEB<)lre pour 
vlvre *v*o eux. 

--;-t-lier ou meprlter, reprle-je avec chmeur, 
est un b«L0ln de I'slne; o'eei une Iccon, c'est 
un ex*riple utile e ionner. 

— Voat 'Hvez r'^ii.on, « dlt-elle eoue le 

rtipport d^ 1<3 -oiOr^ le ; ce (^ue Sf- voue dieole ne 
fols^lt a.Llasl<^n ^iA* aux Int^rSle du monde. (Z) 

]?hae dcefe !ume. as ^tae'l contreEb icor^^llty ^Ith the intereeti 

of eoclety. Society, accordlig- to her verElon of i'me. de 

Vernon, Judpes only aoooriln^r to convention. Not only this 

but i'jue. de Vernon vlii soy: 

J'etaltt eonvfilncue, et Je ie eule encore, que 
le» fem..«ts ^tunt victlues de toutes les In- 
stitutions de 19 eoole't^, ellee: eont de'vou^es 
au RiH^heu^, il eliee 8' ebandonnen t le aolns 
du cacnde -i leurfc eentimenta, el ellee^perdent 
de queL^u© mnnl^re 1' em Ire d' eliee-merQes. (3) 

Society, In her oereon, tnerefore, lb teen to hnse Its 

actions anon the inferior statue of vocaen and to deny the 

(1) IZ.T.e. de rtsel, Delphlne , 342. 
i'd) L'nie. de i'tael, lelphine , 345. 
(3) lolo., 446. 

right to pertonni feeling. The oiotlve of society Is 
eelf-lnttrest, ItB paBclon aubltlon, nnd Ite ponl 
n^uerl'il CO fort nn.l u^Drlolly succeee. I'rae . de Vernon 
has tne cou.plete approval of ?&rl£lrjn eoolely. £rni la, 
in f«?Gt, Its leader and the hlphest expreeslon of Ite 
life. .She never reJ'Cts anything th*; t Par It' Ian eoclety 
accepts. i;h€ l£ thue. In h<s:r pertion, PsrlBl^n ecolety. 
I'me. de Vernon eymtjollzes a society In -vhich egoletn 
tri umphe becute It, tlons, pcrailta the -oman to pro-ect 
hert-elf sg-alrjet her Inferior Btatue. Ker -iucllilee are 
tiioee of the frlvolouB oaaan, elnce society denies eerloas 
value to Mtoman. The eocial prices nre attractive enough, 
oat, ae Lime, de ^rtael points out, they have tnelr rocbe 
In eelf-lntereet. 

The ^otunn In hoc. men flnaa the npo-heoslt o-^ the soclfll 

life of hit; t Irtie ie symbolized, InJeed, In Balzac, S'Jnd. 

Vlpny, Hurc, '^nd C'utier under •^Imobt Identlo^l featarep. 

Tne men no eeeKt? to con^iUer cuclety see^e to conquer 

the supremely jeelrnbLe croon of th'' t society. Saoh le 

?oedora. P.nphnel te ^-.c ^c hat euch ^ csnin symbolixes: 

— Gon»ment expli.uer li fasclnition d' an noai? . 
Foeaore me poareulvlt coaiiie une m«)aV9lee peneee 
aveo l?i. utile on oherche "?? tr^ntlger. Une vols 

me dienlt: Tu Iree cnet Fceviora. i:9le oe 

nom, cctte f^f!v.;-6 n' ^tsien t-lls pae le eymbole 
de toufc nues J^tlrt et le th^ue ae is: vie? Le 
nom re'velllBlt lee poe'f^lee artiflcltlleB du 
monae, f'*lefilt brliler iee f^tes au h^ut ?arl8 
et iee clln^unntB de If^ v^nit^. La 
m' appnrplesst t nvtc loufc lee probi\iiiee de pneslon 
dont je m'et'ils affcld'. Ce n'etolt peu t-^tre 
nl 1'^ feiiiO.e nl le no;ii, .oinlt tout .Met? vices jUl 
Ee dreyfcilent dedoat d^nB men ^r.-.o pour ae 
te-'tcr ae nouve«u. La co.teebe Poeacra 

n*^t|dt»C0 paa 1 ' inoamatian d 

The man whose llf© la conowitrated entii^ely in society 

cannot live tinleas h© succeeds In poeseBslnr f^^^' ♦••*.ian 

vlio Is Its material espreseion. Blondot x^eallssea that 

tihlu Knxat be true for Raphael;"— Je t^entoada, repcmdlt 

le poote, Foedoi*a ou Ijg, ^o^, * Poedora Is "lo type 

odiiplefc'* of "la Fnute cociet©'*,^ Balzae tells us: 

Ob.1 Poedora, vous la rencontrerez. Elle 
etalt lilcr aux l^ouffuns, olle i.v& oe soIt 
a 1' Opera, ©it© ©at pnrtout, c'est, si 
vous voulez, la Liociot^. ^^' 

]tIu^o repeats BaXsaa's pictus^a of the social ideal as 
exactly as possible. Tbe social ldeal«~nToolane->-is 
purely materialistic and Its idea of love is aer>e een- 
Bual desire* mere ph;y«ioal pleasure and material sat* 
iafaotion. TiM aocial ideal is wealth and high r&hk 
cmd physical beauty. x>ut it is also an. inner emptiness 
axid a oc«^lote abseiice of ^oul for "Josiane* c^^'tai!; 
la olzair.--->— Josiane se sontalt majeot^et mati^re,"^*^' 
The social ideal is the !na.jeBty of matter but it itiuet 
nut be confounded wlt^ tlie nauux-e wliioh is representttf 
by the voBian: "Etre la chair et ^tre la feBcaey o'eat 

(1) Balzac, La Poau 6m clxa;'.r in. 112. 

(2) J. Lid ., IJl. 
(3),xbld., SGO. 

(4) Ibid , M Zihb, 

(5) rtugo, L^IlQgmae qui adt . 11^ 25. 

deux. Coi la £&sam est vulnerable, au cot© pitle, paa? 
ex^aplc, qui deviont si aia^ent amour, .Tosi4n© ne 
I'^tait pfiui,''^"^^ The clilef q:aallty of sudi a social 
'oriliiaiice is its ei^oiaEi: "Avant tout,E©tti^ I'espec© 
tmranlne a dl stance « voile, ca qui Impoxie*"^^' A 

socio ty n^iicb. puts Its faitLi in tho smtesriaX can posmess 
d^sse,*- »-e3t idole."^*^ 

only zoaterial gods. L^ace Joslsae "oa pouvant otre 

This is the sentence that Vlgaj too p-rc«iounces on tlie 
vooum tBftu>6o life is susBoed up in society. lie px^escsitSy 

like I'liiio. de ^taely Ilalzacy aod Hugo, one type i/£'^> 
altl^ouj^i she appears in differcsit phases of society 
always represents the same eloaent in life. The frivo- 
loi:u> oourtemn i&xo olmxma Liouis XV, the coquettes «&io 
love Andre Ch^ler, the fickle t^arie of Cinq -Mars , the 
cliildiaih tiaurette to ^iom tlie Ooos^andant devotes his 
life, the Adjvidaat's sweetheart and islfe, all those 
wor:ien belon_ to Uie world of political dc^ination, the 
world of the aristocrQcy, the world of military life. 
They I'epresent Uxe ideal of tlieir- societies and, as the 
ideal of society, they are unifo3n3ily witlxout intelli- 
gence, they lack the laaturity of reason and live by the 
lie^t of iiupul&e and instinct. They az*e devoted to 
on© tioal— plcas^a2»o, Tliia, ■^i£Skiy seens, therefore, to 

(1) riu^o, L'noBEae qui rit , II«, 26. 
(S) Ibid,, 'i'l:; g§. 
v3) IBS., li^ 30 

am^$ la tine final aool of the rmtorialistic ide&l. 

Pleasure, lllrewiae, i& t^he goal of Saaid'a unSTmpathetic 
wxa/etn pexMsonageo* Theao wc«afin»»t]aG ducheas* in Cctig~ 
atctti co Vei*irler and th© duchesse In L© Qi ateau des ^-. 
aarteO i Joaephlne Glicot (^ Goui^a/yion du toag do 
France ) and "aae, d'Arglade (Ig i!arqula de VillqcK>r ), 
Alida ( Valvedi?e ) » Manuela ( 14^ oocR:ir Jeanne ), l8i4o2«» 
Puldi^rie-- are arlstocx^ta or oourteaana but tlioir 
eas^itial characteristic la alwaya tlie aome. 

Balaac too preaents i2ie typical aristocrat and tiie 
typical courtesfin under exactly the aame ligiit. The 
arlstocrate represent tb© bx^lliance of prS.vilc:~e "but 
tJie courteeans differ froa thera only in exterior aifcua- 
tlcm arid ayiahollxe the brilliance of anotiier, aisdlar 
type of Parlaian aociety, the aoclety of financial 
prlvilejre. To tM.B world belong the series of courte- 
sans* BO completely indlstinguisable frora one another, 
deaignated by Balzac aa the Florinea, the Tullias, 
the Jwiny Cadlnoet Tlielr life la p\irely phyaical* 
BolKac defines their social role aa "ce r^le inf^sp© et 
odlotix jouo par 1© coi^s",^^' Theirs ia the t£*o%^ of 
purely oensTJial love. 

(1) BaXsac, Spleiidqfurs et miaerea dee courtiaanes . ilL, 372, 


SeayS. presents tli« court«fiMUi In the seae tmy* PulolidPle 
t«IX8 Lellat **— La oousrtisane Ziixzolixm, au nilieu 
dee horrours de la dc£iradatioii eociale, aura canAfesa© 
sa fol en restant f idel© a la volupixr, . . . " The r^» 

of tk\c courteaaji Is essentially the i<&lo that society 
li!^>oaes for tlie worjian ^feoao LSlijelcal bsauty is iiot ao- 
coKiponiod by Material poi»>er» ^he must then conquer 
saterlal power tliroxi^i tiie eolo tieane accorded to her* 
Sand writes relatln^j tiie judgaunt of tlie pliiloaopilier 
Jacques in regard to laidora: 

-- Sa poaition a ete faiisse, ir.ipossiblei 
elle tz^mvait dans aa vie le oontraate 
sionstrueux qui reagissait siir son ooour 
et ea pens^e: icl le f^stc et ies haBBaagefl 
de la royaut^j, la le raeprle est la honte 
de I'esolava^se; au dedans lea dons et lea 
caresses d'lrn laaitre asnervi, au deliors. 

!• outrage et I'a'oandon deo courtcaane ^ ^ 
fiirieux. r ♦ ou j '^al conclu que la soclete 
n'avnit^pas donne d' autre issue aaxx 
facultes de la fe?ime belle et intellir^nte, 
r«d.s n4« dans la nlo^re, qjaie la oorrapi^lon 
et le d^sespoir. ^"^ 

The nature of wosnan is natwr^lly cs>od but the spirit 
of society is the spirit of corruption: 

II ue f aut pas oublier qu'il y avait mui 
bonne et une mauvaise puissance, a^lssant. 

(1) Sand, Lelia, I, 172. 
(S) Sand, Isidora . 86. 



a forces egalesi, sur I'teae natiirellefftient 
gruaiGUi.mais fa^tiXesaeaat co2*x>onpue dc cette 

But tiie love of the «uplsfcoo3?at is 113«j that of tJic court©- 
oauy pliysicel and egoistic, 'xhe duclicsse in uonst;ance 
Verrie2>« for •xasipl«t 

•>-ne dttoandait ^int aux hoesaee oe quails 

n*ont PGS# I'ldtjoli-— Ell© paesait— - 

v4a\maait touts Be. doctrine caa im seul r:K}t 

qui, bien coapidG, ost peut-^i^ I'alplm 

et l'c3Ci^a de I'atiour: oo not, o*est 
volugtjf. ^2) 

She hftS abjured lov© "par cclcul «t de parti pris". ' 

She has abjured love bccauee jlHc desires oowcz* arid power 

jBUSt be obtained by ealculation and laanoeuvro. Tiiis is 

the oonoluBlon of ''jTse. de Vsmon, Tim woaan in society 

taxcit be the ccriplcte egoist. The doslre to donirmto 

precludes ail natural feeling; and concentrates the life 

into one single point. Of rfeie* d'Arglade Sand writeo: 

Parvenir panv brillcr ct brlller pour par- 
venlr, c'etalt la eeulp pens^e, le acul 
r^ve, la ecule rs.cult©. lo seiil prinoipe 
de oette petite fersnfi.^^) 

All the siiperricial f^racua of the vsoiaen presented by Bals^e* 

Ilu0>, Sand, and Vigoy are like the superficial graces of 

1JSa»0 d© Vornon— the purely p^sical n^^ces of a naterlal- 

Istic 8oeiet^<, the sole steppliis-atane to pomr \siil<ai soeioty 

(l93and» iBJdoz^a , 112. 

(2) SanoLa donstance Verrier j 111, 

(s) rbid.^TT^r: 

(4) ^5jS, Le _.;at^quis ae Villcaaer ^ -.-,.», b02. 

offers to voman* 

The wouan vhoa society idolises lives in absolutely tlie 
seme aspect for all tliese writers. Her TOle is presented, 
however, iinder a sli^tly different light from one writer 
to another. Hxigo condecme Joslane because ^le is incapable 
of the sentiiaent of pity. Tie is cond*nnins her, therefore, 
for her lae^ of natural felling, especially, however, for 
her lack of huoanitarianism* VJhat I!me* de f'tael shows 
Delphine as especially conderoning in -fcie, de Vernon is 
this same lack of natural feeling* Josiane*s rejection 
of Gwynplaine symbolises her incapacity for any but per- 
verse feeling just as r*ie« de Vemon»8 action in px^vent- 
ing Delphine *s raarriatje and furtherinc ?4atlldo's ayml>olizes 
her rejection of natural feeling in love in favour of the 
conventional. V^hat 3and particvilarly eriphasizes as vicious 
in the social ideal is its false conception of love as 
satisfaction alone, vi£5ny's condemnation appears in the 
x^e that Laurette plays in the Commandant's life. She, 
1*10 has beoosne the InoaxTiation of \jnintellic;ence, accom- 
panies the Consiandant in evex»y phase of his life. Doeteur- 
Noir's dictum is the final conderiination of the woman in 
society: "— Ilelasi laadano,'— — lane fenne est toujours un 
enfant." ' Finally, Balzac's conderaiation stresses still 
another phase of life that the material idol denies and 
destroys. The priest tella Julie d'Aiglononts 
(1) vigny, stello . 13e. 


«M4iadQine« vos dlsooux^ xob pFouvent que nl 
1* esprit de fanllle nl l*eBpFJLt rellcleux 
IM voua touchent* Auesl n'hMilterea-vous 
pas entre I'^goXsme social qxii vous blesse 
et I'^golone de la creature qui vous fere 
souhaltsr des joiiissanoes. •••('>' 

The waamn i*m> appear in Gautler's work as uns:yT?jpat5ietlc 
pex>8otiages are those whose beauty and nanner of being 
corresponds to a eez*tain social and aestJoetle fashion 
ra tiler than to spontaneous beauty as found in a natural 
setting* It is the type of art vhioh their beauty rep- 
resents tliat he condemns and, in this respect « he differs 
froa his fellow roEfianticlsts. Their condermation of the 
voBMUi iho is the idol of society is a oonderanation based 
<^ the life she symbolisess a life devoid of love (T%ne. 
de Vernon, Isldora, Josiane), a life devoid of intelli- 
gence (l4uxrette), a life devoid of religious or family 
feeling (Julie d'Alsleacoit). But C-autlor's cesidesBnatlon 
is based on the art fiiioh Tfne. de '^-vor .:osette or Tiary 
Magdalene or Oraphale symbolises. This tinith appears 
aore clearly «hen it is recalled tJ^at the ^!ary Magdalene 
of the picture and the Onqjhale of the tapestry can have 
no significance except throu^ art. 

But, like th«a, ?»nie, dett««and Rosette are presented only 
frtwi the point of view of their ph slcal appeai*ance and 
of the physical satisfaction which their love affords. 

(1) BalMio, La Feamae de trente ans . 101. 

Llko tiie lovo «diic5h ^Iburce feels for th« pictured Mary 
Uaedalene, tlie love of these nooen is ccoidermed to steril- 
ity and canjiot sive any but ixaa^narj SEtisfaotion. It 
is the wqpression of a sooial fashion that restilts in ^'jne. 
delWe false beauty end in hosette's 8tez*60typed oliazra. 
BUb it is a social fasliion wiilch is destructive of art. 
Gautier presents P-oeette as one i^ose instinct it is to 
"deswichanter des poetes". She can offer the poot no 

physical satisfaction, D' Albert writes t •*— J*al du 

plaislr, parce que je suis jeime et ardenti mais oe 


plaisir me viait de ajol et non dL'uii autr^,"'' 

Because nelttier %ie, de]V ?^or "osette can satisfy the 
artist coaapletely^ Oautler condemns society and tiie so* 
clal conv«itlon8 as unable to provide tlie artist vlth 
cosjplGt^ly satisfactory laaterlal for beauty, A society 
produces a certain art and the artistic beauty It de- 
lists in is the beauty xrhlcJi will feed tlie youn^ artist. 
But art alone (the picture of Mary Magdalene) can never 
satisfy the individxial* The conventional beauty which 
is suoeessful In society ( La 'orte anoureuae ) is, in 
reality, a \nBapl3pe and a destroyer of life not a giver 
of it. All the women i^ose beauty belon. s to art and 
not to life, to dreaia and not to reality, (Talioser, 
Spirlte, Arria iTarcella), are tSxe syrabolic representatives 

(I) Sautier, Madecioiaelle de liaupin , 74. 
(S) Ibid. . §8. 


of the sole Boclet./ «hioh tho protagonist seeks but they 
are 9 at the same tlme« coXd« haxcL, false « superficial » 
incapable of love a2%l« ther«fope» incapable of awakening 
true love* 

It is ttils iriiioh. In fact, depraves irtiatever of true beauty 
Rosette possesses. ^s^ie« wiose beauty mi^t have been liv- 
ing and fecund^ has sueouabed to tlie conventional social 
ideal of neo-classieian* But there is^ in her beauty, 
other possibilities nsvev truly tinderstood. ohe descrdbes 
her degrsdation: 

<— J*etai8 nee avec les plvis hautes inolina* 
tionai mals rlen ne d^rave, oosarae de ne pes 
'etsra aim^e* Beaucoup ne roeprisent qui ne 
SAvent pes oe qu»il ia»a fallu souffrtr pour 
axTiver o^ j*en sxils,--— 3i voua saviex,-- — 
o(»abien il est prof<Midorjcnt douleureux de 
sentlr qu'oii a manque' sa vle^ que I'on a 
paase'^d cdte de son boriheur, de voir que tout 
le monds se in^rend sur votre ooeiote et qu'il 
est Inpossible de fair© changer 1» opinion ^ 
qu^cn a de vcus* que vos plus belles quail tea 
sent toumees en defaut, vos plus puree 
essences en noirs j^oisons, qu'll n'a trans- 
plnTde voue qu« ce ^ue vous avies do laou- 
vais] d' avoir trouvc les p»rtes tou jours 
ouvertes pour vos vices et toujours ferm^e* 
pour vos vertusy et de n* avoir pu ampler fl 
bioix, paiTii t&i\t de cities etvd*aconite, ur, 
seul lis ou une seulo rosei^ ' 

(1) Gautler, TUadcwioieelle de •:aupin < 169, 

Social Eellii^lon. 
TTneympatlietlc persona^®* who ejTabolls© religion In society 
appear in itmm d© ntael*s Matllde, in Hugo*s Frolic, in 
Sazid's Kagnaa, M, Korifali, pere Onorio, Jean rranprat, in 
Fal8ac*s abb^ Tro\lbert, In Vl^y»s Llbanius. ' 

Til© ociphaais is on slightly different aspects of the re- 
llj^oue csliaracfcer so tliat tJi« symbol has slightly differ- 
ent oonnotationa but thara is a striking: sliiillarlty in 
thase personageo so that the qualities ascribed to one are 
more or less applicable to all* liibanius, who is laora 
philosophical than rellsiouB in quality does* liowever, 
prove an exception, 

Matilde llvaa absolutely accordlnc to the Catiiollc creed, 
This o»»ed 1b sooial cmd prefers tlio false hypocrisy 
•ahlcli retaalns social to the candour f*iloh falls to con- 

aider aooiety* 'latildo writes: 

— Je nc fais zden pour I'oplnlon, vous 1© 
aavezs j'ai de boame fol les santimoats 
r©li:-ieux que Je profess©- si ncn caracterc 
a qu©lquefol|i d« la roldeur, 11 a tou jours 
de la v^ritej oals si j'iftals capable de 
oonoevoir I'hypocrlsie, je orois tenement 
••sentlel pour une foncio de m€ha,~er en/bout 
point 1* opinion, que je lul conseillj^rals 
d© ne xden braver on auoun sonx*©.c«H' 

(X) Llbanius is not an imsympathetio personage In the eamo 
zenso as are the others, vi^-pny recognizes the necessity 
of Ills e:sistenoe but deplores tl^iat necessity* 
(8) /line* de 3ta%l, Delphlne * 359. 


'rills ccaaoeption of virtue rosldes In the idea of duty, 
relphlno Imports; "— r.llo c:corce toujours lai devoir dans 
las actlone les plus indlffcrentos de ea \-le."^^' Ho.- 
tlldo appears, accordingly as the absolute ri^jldity of 
a ntoral system entlx^ly lacking in oodoration and gov- 
erned completely It tho ideal ^ieh tho Cati«3llo religion— 
tho religion of exterior authority-^-preaeats* ttnie» de 
Vernon has d©libo3?atoly chosen Oaliiolicifin for .''atlldo 
as ttie oleraont in socloty most apt to produce a v1.rtue 
In conf02«lty with tho social Idaal* '■atildc a r.icars 
chiefly In hor moral rather than her religious life and 
•o repre««nts the aoral aspect of Cathollclan. Tlils 
aspect, ao seen in !!atilde, is entirely lac3: n^^ In any 
Cham, Tho ideal of social virtue iihidh llatilde reveals 
In hor person consists in a fsmattcal devotion to rollgion, 
a devotion whicii excliides pei'30i:al affoetlona. ?;atlld© is, 
accordingly, doscribod as spci^dlnr; so nuoli tine at churcJi 
seznrloes tlxat she is quite unconscious of the prolonood 
abssnces of ttie husband itdiom she is supposed to love. 
Ri,^dlty of jud^ent, intolera-ice, a lack of generosity 
in tlae oixUnary relations of life, even a diF.f.nctly un- 
filial attitude, or© all i^eprcs^ited by ;! de i:tael 
not only as oompatible with social virtue but as essential 
ingr>odienta of this virtue* These qualities aay all be 
ascribed to the fact that social virtu© consists in tlio 

(1) 'viae, do Stael, Polphlne , 345. 


absance of any independent Judgnent wnd In the abaolnt© 
•utnisslon to authority, llil© la true of r<iatilde's llf© 
ani this la ttie sole aspect in which ah© Is preaented. 

It la llkewlae the aol© aspect In which th© abbe' Troubei»t 
appoara. Llk© ?4atlld©, lie profers th© voice of opinion 
to the vole© of natuwil feellnr. It is by the force of 
aooial opinion tliat Ixls cruelty, envy, and the absolute 
rlfrldlty of egoloa boooaRie apparent* Both Balsac and ^!»« 
de Stael x*epr©8ent the fanatlciem of aitthorltaz>lfinlflra 
and repreewit tlale fanaticlom to attain its goal lirr tli© 
help of a soelety represented as alanderoue^ isallcioois, 
snd med'iftcre in every respect (:T.le, aasnairl, n, de rier~ 
vilXe, '-fee. de :arset). 

It is the cruel aiiperstltlon of Catholicism that is 
Stressed in the persox-is of i rollo, Ma£-n-.;s, M» Mor^all, 
and p^re Onorlo. Frollo, the priest, representative of 
the medieval Catholic church, is tortured by the supei^ 
stltlous fear of all natural bonnty and all phyc'.cjil de- 
ligjit* Prollo reappears in onnd»s peraonascs. Like 
ProUo, Magnus is th© dormntlc Cafc'-ioll.r; -Inubtinr tlie tru^ 
of his religion himself but refizslne to tolerate any new 
tiMth. He is a tortured ascetic fiho denounces love in 
any form, denouneinj; it with hate tmd in a venrefiil 
spirit beoaiise his reXXi^on d^iies hirx its possession. 



Y©t he Ifi shown to b© full of »ensvtal dealz*e8 to w!ilcih. 
he da2»©a not yield* Pall of hatred exiA aalloe, he lives 
shut up In his axm o^o* Xa all of these prteets, indeed, 
t3iei»e is the refusal to accept natrire, an imde3Pl:flng 
douht and soeptieiara^ oruoltj nnd Jesuitical xmacrapalous- 
neee end above all, on attecAiineat to th9 doctrine of 
Catholicism — i^iloh ie the doctrine of death and deetrue* 

Balsaoand ]@m« de Stael symbolise the sioral aspect of 

Catliollclsa!, the laanner In i»*^.lch it manl feats itself in 

social life. Sand, and Huso S7»bollae, wither, the dogmatie 

and theological aspect of Gatholielsnu The z»efusal to 

accept nature «»- vhich is the refusal to aeoept life »» is 

the dOBdnant cfharaoterlstlo in their priests as it it 

the doalmmt characteristic in the j?<»aantlcist conception 

of the Catholic <ihurch# Hugo contrasts Prollo with his 

brother and ixrites of J'ehani 

II ne Eavalt pas, lul qui mettait Bon coeur 
en pXein air, lui qui n*observait ou acmde 
oae la bonne lol d© nature, •«•• ave© quelle 
rurie eetlui mer dee paeaioiui humain— 
femente et bouillonne loraqu'on lui infuse 
toute issue* (X) 

But Frollo docs not consider "la bonrze loi de nature" as 

ft sooa law* -The love for Eemeralda vhich is the voiee 

of nature with hln beoooies for l-'roUo ''lo piitge de denon". (2) 

(1) Ilufjo, lifttre«>I>scie de Paris* II*, 50* 

(2) iMd*,^i,, leg; 



f\'¥ ? 


..■*?i^ feoos • 


!»!a^ua too rocogilaoe the i;alt tsfiiloh exists between th© 

natural acceptence of beauty and the ppleat's rejection 

of beauty as evil. Ho adfireyres r.t^lo: 

—Eooute. Zeolite* dlt le prStre, il y avatt 
dear L^lxa: tu n'as paa su cela, jeunc hcKiia©, 
pare© q>ie tu n*£tal« pas pr^tre, Tu vlvals 
naturelleuent, et d'lme i^rosse vie faolle ot 
eoa&amet mol J'^tals piH&tre, j© connaissalB 
lea dioses du del et^de la torrc, ^e ^/oyalc 
O^lia double et complete » foozne et idee^ 
ospoir et reality, corps ct "^.e, don et 
promessei j« voy&ia L^ia tell^ qu'elle est 
eortle du sein ci© ildou: beattte, c • es b-a-d^re 
tentation; — me oonprenes-voua?^!) 

MagnuB* like Frollo, and like the Cathollclam t^loirx they 

symbolise sees the woman as the syiabol of to-iptatlcn and 

evil* Kagn s cries: 

mm DleuJ que J'al souffex»t4 foraae, 
r^o, dcslr, que tu ri'as fait de laall 
Que de formes tu as prises pour entrer ehcz 
Eioii ^4ue de nonsonc'oa tU/Wtas faltsi ;ac 
dff pieges tu m'as tendusJ^ ' 

Catholicism looks back to tradltlcm and forward to tho 
x^lease of death but cannot exist In the presmit au^Mit. 
Just so, rrollo lives In tli« iiiddle Arjee, :'a£7ius pooeessee 
a medieval oplrlt and ?^. Mox»^all has to restore Ms f alth 
throuf^ pere Onoid.o, the Catliollclma of raedleval tradition. 
Just so tho whole doctrine of tliat medlevallsn (pere onorio) 
1b a doctrine of death, Pere Onorlo Is the t3?6dltlonal 
Catholic of the true church. "II etait I'anti these clu 

(1) Sand, Leila . I-, 90, 

(2) Ibld,7T7"^4. 


j^suitlBEjo, 11 €talt l^ttnaohoi^ta dec anolens jour^j il 
©n ftvalt la fol, la vlguaur et la eoionce th^olo^lquo,"^^' 
It Is an this ti'adlWonal Catholicism that !!or<?all lerjis. 
It is to pore Ctoorto he looks in ord^r to dlsflipate iiis 

doubts. Wli&t he se^B are "les doctrines de r^vt du p^« 


Onorio, sen domier aalle". ;Siat Catholiclas pn^aohes 

is "le r©nonc«rxent absolu".^ ' Um Leaaantler addrdst>e8 

to ?iOr«0Ll tlie same condamiation. In hlra there is "luse 

plaie profonde, et oette plaic, je l*&ppellerai suicide 


aoral, violation des loia de la nature". He continues: 

—Votr^rrenr, Je vous l»al dites vous 
oroyoz a un Dleu prosoi»ipte\ir de In vie et 
r)^f03»aateur de la nattu*«« c*ect«a>-dix^ en 
guerre aveo acai oouYr©,.et defendant a 

I'horEne d'etre h«»Ea©,,,.^^^ 

That Catholiclan uhlch coincides wltJi social convention 
is tmanirrously oondesTnel iiv "jtie, do StaSl, Sand, Hugo, 
ai*a Balsac* I-fcie, do Stael shows the practice of Cati'^ol- 
iciffin i2k be incoGipatlble with life for it is T?atilde'» 
Insistcsnce <m fasting wJ^iich causes the death of her clJld, 
Sand shows Catholicism in_,coripatible with truth, because 
it fosters lazinese, dissoluteness, and self-indxilsonc«# 
The abbots and rjonlcs in Spiridion persecute the eaj;erneBS 
wMch Is seeking truth (An/^el) arvd. symbolise the laieses^ 
faire polic^r of Cat^iolicicT::. ^.^i Lixo ^^oneral la wulntinl© 
Sand fXays the i£jiox'ance, superstitutlon and e£;olsci of 

(1) ■ evu© des dmix aondea , 1365^ III., Sand, Madaaiol aello 

la .u5 .ntlnie> 15, 

(5) Ibid *. IIL, 539. 
(4) ISai . . IIU 340. 


tlie Catholic church as Balsnc flays the l/pnoiwioe, aupop- 
Etltiition and egoltm of tli© purely conventional Cathollelao 
In the abb^ Troubert. The /^onorjil's ogolora would Baorlflce 
hlB dati(^tftr to isaprleonment and peraecsutlcmi the abb^»9 
egolera would trample tmderfoot any hindrance to hi a own 
comfortable existence, Balzac conderms the Cathollt^lam 
which Borves as a disguise to "arrlvlane" just as T^M.!* 
Lemon tier in Scmd'e novel conderans the Catholicism of his 
day In his denunciation to Moreall: 

•— L*^tat rellgieux est devenu g^fi^raleESMOit 

lul<i^me wa. netler pour vlvre, et 1* esprit 
de corps n*est qu^tai esprit d'^golaae un peu 
tiol^s Stroll;, rmlB l>oc.ucoup plus apve quo 

^hat Vl{]5ny ctaidenns in Llbanlus is >il8 opportunlon aztd^ 
in this, he Is at one with his fellow roraantlcists. He 
represents Llbanlus as one «ho Is willing to assume lils 
religion like a cloak to suit tlie fasMon of the day. 
This wlllln^ess to confoi« to an external fashitm, a 
social authority, is the essentitil mark of Catholiclam. 
The laissez-faire policy aiKi the lndlffer«ice to f^e* la- 
mediate revelation of truth wliich Sand eonderaned throu^ 
the tmsyn^patlietio personages of S plridi an Vi^py condemns 
throu^ t/ibanius, Por Llbanlus is essentially tlie eon- 
servative iniio confoniis outwardly j\ist as ntueli as is nec- 
essary in order to preserve v^iat he z*eally oonsidera isi- 

(1) Revue des deux nyandes . IQGZ, Illiy Sand* l.^adSBQieelle 
la .juintinl e^ 881, 


portont. The instinot of aeir-pr^servatloa is strongly 
devQlop^d in Libanius and is oliax>acterlstic of tlxe e^piam 
of religion aa x^epresentad in tlie CatlK>licifim of L!a tilde » 
abba Troubert, ox> p&x^ i/riorio. Libaniua s^mtboli^oa the 
philosophical attltaide of religion in ecaistitiuted society. 
That religious philosopL^ iMjcogniaes th» jreality of eo- 
oiety for vlmt it is. It possesses all the realistio 
spirit chai'acfcerlstic of Catiiolic religion, sees society 
as cruel and arro^>ant and as a bliM heedless force tlmt 
destroys intelligence and suboiits to the slavery of des- 
tiny. It affizmsy l^erefoire, as Catholioiflci does, ths 
dootrtne of oidglnal sin. Yet because he recoi^ilaes tiie 
truth, the realist in religion cannot, like the idealist, 
dismiss this ovei-poirerlng naterial force nor can he be- 
lieve in the possibility of its conversion to Intellljjent 
life. Between the blind instinct and the intellii^eiit 
spirit a great gulf is fixed* As a realist, the piiiloso- 
pher accepts tiie truth and coiapx^otnises with a f03?ce he 
cannot deny. His caapixttiise is a witlidrawal frora action. 
Only in tiie life oi' contemplation can the material forces 
be igciored. 

Libaniua identifies lilmself with the ci:nple credixlous 
Barbarians, They have feolins but tixey lack knowledge. 
Libaniua becomes tlie advocate of blind instinct as he in- 
quires : 


—Pas* quel oracle, par quel raessejei'' le 
olel nous avait-il projtds qu'im ^oar tous 
lea liOBSJMJS arrlveralont a Eiarohor souls 
et sans etre soutmius per dea poup^s 
divines* Le Vorbe dst la Raiaon venue du 
ciel) si un faible raycai est descendu 
pajml nous, notre de^'olr oat dNwx per-. . 
petuer ^ tout prix la lueur precleuse^^*' 

Vigny identifies Libanius, thei'sfore^ with the existent 

and with the authority of duty and« in this sense^ ha 

discredits hljfl. On the otlxor hand, he shows LibenluB 

to Identify feelln^^ as ea^ressed by tlie Earbariens, 

vlt^i external reality and tliis seems to eontx^adiat Umt 

aspect of roKmnticiSEi idiich, tlirou^?. tl«J mediun of 

personage, shows feeling and the ©xten?al reality of 

nature under none but an attractive guise. Dut -lne> 

dtsmere^taent is only superficial. Hie feeling*, with 

n^iioh Libaiilue Ideiitlfios hi;da©lf (tlie Barbarians) is 

tlie blind unliitelli^,;cQice of matter— the reality of eia- 

terlal force. 

But all that tliese rosnanti cists s^nbolize in v&x>iou8 
personaijea and undei» various ^^uises is svaraned up in 
the negation and livjpotence wliioli is Chateaubriand ^s 
ay:s&}ol of religion in society— Hene, riene may. In 
fact, be said toropresent in himself, Cliateaubriand's 
^Sttxeral conception of society. Tills appears in tiic 
fact tliat ho lias absorbed Into himself all that society 

{^) Hevu e clo Paris , 1912, IV., Vigny, Lapline . 569. 

oan teacih iilia— th3?oug|i boolas, tliroufjji travel, tliaroug^i 
social life, th:i'<ou^ the history of past oivllissaticais. 

He doBcribes tlxe ocs^lete ne^^etion of his lifet '.oui; 
a'ecliappait ^s^ foie, I'^aiti/, 1© maade, la retralto. 
J* avals oaeaye do tout, ©t tout m'avait et^ fatal. "^^'» 
Rene Is the man wiiooe wiiolo Hie iias qgojz deteririined 
by saciet-y* Tlxls vicaxdous social experience has made 
Ilia the spabol of tlia stute of lalnd vtiich this produce a 
la society, liens 'o Oiia.i*actes'iatic tiualltios, i^hOi'Sioi-e, 
a:?© ClTLat©fiftil:>rland ' 3 eo::5>letG atuteraent In regard to 
nlneteen-Ui ceiatui'y aociaty. 

Tliesa oliaraoterlstlo qualities may all bo summed up into 
one»<-Iacl: of azvy vital fa.ltii. In hiL'.i oveivsopliistioa- 
tlon lias desti'oyed the vex-y spririija of life and has pvo- 
duoed a general paralysis of tlie eaotlons. ae^ie Icnowa 
no aaotion but tliat of ennui. Rene writes: — ,Te in'ennule 
de la vie I 1' ennui rii'a tou jours devore': ce qui interesse 
les autros lioiaiaee n© me touche point," He would like 

to love tJ\e tAnkaown idoal but tlio face of that ideal 
r«Baains veiled and iiid_©n x"rora iiiiii. It is .xji tiiis sense 
that Rene syttibolii^es Chateaubriand's conception of re- 
li(_iion in society. Tiu-ous'^h Rone Chateaubriand shows 
tiiat society to bo cori'upt becauso ol u.e very excess 

(1) Chateftubi*land, .^ae« 34. 

(2) Cl^ateaubriend, Les Ilatt^iea . 452. 

173 # 
•f its knowledge • Thla exoetslire !mewled(:e has eo-n^oded 
its natujcal virtue. It has corroded its Inner nntiire 
i^ii6h imowd no capacity for a love of the Ideal send fails 
to recognize the Ideal rhlch is in exterior nat^'T'» he- 
cauae of this incapacity. Love ia the aspiretlon and 
Ideal of society. Love is, therefore, its forra of re- 
ligion, T"^-?*" "anc 1 ."^ Inro'^nMc of love is t;'*> «o~^ t*iat 
soclet'j is too sopliisticatca to Irnowr roll.r5.ous foelln^u 
This iwpeligion is a d^stmctive force and is represented 
ao In Ren/»3 deaire ftor death and irt tdie nesatlesn of his 
life— a ne^^tion akin to deatfe, 

Chateaubriand does not a/rz^e trlth the roctantiolats isho 
designate the religion in society as an 
Gatholici3Bi« For hin (and, in thin, he doos af-ree with 
Hu(j;o, Hand, and Balsac) it ia a Catholiciara whi^ has 
lost it* faith. Prollo and -^arTivis doubt the tr^ith of 
tUQ rell^on ttior represent. C?his la true of LiharTlus 
likewise. In Balsac's rspresentatlon it la not the true 
Cauiollclsn "wiiose e^oian daatroya T>ut a Catholicism uhltfti 
is only a sooial convention, Matilde is not of this 
staap, however, Her belief is fervent but the very fer- 
vor of her Catholicism la ttie 80»irce of its deatruotivQ> 
neaa. Sand symbol iaes the same idea in p^re onovi.o» 
In this sense Hme, de stael's crltieiaa of Catholieism 
Ifi equally as dajimlnr as 3and*8, 


: a—'C 

174 a 

Soelal Hlerardiles. 

Socio ty. In ;-6noral, Talzac represents chi^ou;^! the 
▼arious profeoslons and clasaea ^fiich et>npog« itij 
EvL^o, throufli ttiG TTarlo'uS sta;;8S of huusci life fron 
tjhe vnirta brut© to tlie idceJlis-;. ^-and and !'%;e. de 
Staei T^prcDont aociot^r nsuallj throu^ r^en or wonen 
miiose class, profess- ->^\, or ns.tlonallt-- ' -^ '.ncldentr?. 
to fixe 3»ole tSioy play In re^f^ard to Icve and marrlare, 
Vlgny taassos 30cl»t7 Into one Indlstln^^sliable, 
eleraimtary forco. Put that the liaportsnce of tSie 
social sanction is secondary to the quality of the 
paSBlon tiftiloh that aspect of society Introduces Into 
^e action la time of all the romanticists alllte. 

Nevortheloss , certain ccmclitfllons n»7 be djcawn fiwm th« 
fact that a -Iven social fui.ctlon la four^S to t>e fre- 
quently r>r alwa:,-s associated with tmsyapathetlc per- 
sona^ses. This la tnic. In Balzac's wort:, of all thoae 
personatiOB wlio support the clilcanery of the law (r'ralflder 
i» Le tousln Po ns), the spying of the police syst^n 
(Corentin), the extortions of the usurer (Cerlset In 
lies Petlts BouTi^eofce ) « ^e venlallty of the el^/11 ser» 
vice (Baudoyer In " ea li^-oloyes ) . the paarasltlc exist«no« 
of the new loi cured aria to era cy (narqnlae d'Eapard), 
the contcai^pt for tradition of the ne«f liberaliffia (Malln 
la l?he tenebreuse Affaire ), the materialism of t^ie 


l:t iiv: nl 

courtesan clftss (Florlnc), t'le cpportrmlsn of the 
,1otimall8tic worlfl (Loustcm:), the «wtndllnc methods 
of iinance (du TUlet), the anhltlon of the social 
cltnfcer (Mra©. de Dargeton). 'Cany of Balzac's person- 
ftses appear prl!aarll7 as a moabar of a certain group, . 
as a pepresentatiTTB of a certain aapect of society's 
life, of a certain world with dlstliiijulshablo charact«t^» 
IstlCB of Its cwn. Ofteti, therefore, his personages 
nay appear only ae one anon;; a long Hat of naaes. Th#y 
appear as part of fee Parleian— of tixe provincial — 
i^rld.and the part tliey play depends largely upon tlieir 
social position. If thC7 conforui to the worldly con- 
vention, they are In haraony Tfit2a tsho genoral charao- 
teristlcs of their social ininction and^ althoufdi 
scarcely differentiated as individuals, thoy liave an 
laasynpatlictic r^le as peraono^orj. In this way, \ro 
sieot large nuMbers of so-callei personai^es— Louatea^i, 
a Joumalistj Toillorer, a bonliei'i tlia coutesse de 
S^rlsy ai:;d Ax>abdlla i-'udJLoy, arlst^oorataj Jae. Caniisot, 
a aocial climber j ~"ullla and v^'aauiy Cadine, courtesans} 
do TraiUes, a uodem condotticre) de idax'say and the 
contc do la -alferine, daudieaj U« Denxard, Judgej Lea 
Lupoaulx, ^ovornnont lainlstor. ?any or theae nazaes 
appoar and reappear in difror«nt uovols witiiout ever 
plnyint; a loadlni?; r^lo. 'xhay are part of on egoistic 
sooiotyj tlioy liavo their apodal i\iiiction in that 

>'X fl •tfl 



-i\.'X-''*' V>J.-.' 4* 


aocloty Imt they have no epeclal Individual pai»t to 
play. Thay are only p«rtt iri a Iftr^jer jTiaclilne— a :;ia- 
c'fxln« ^ioh ©ra«h«3 tl\e >»«*k: «nJ peitai tc ^-. istr'^n ^^ 

1!he 2^>le of such p^raeimges is the rolo of tlielr s.-cial 
flmctiOD. In this vay, ^ouste€.^l, for sjcastpldj ia <intiroly 
confotuirt^ri «rttti joumallaa. Ualsac r.iakt^s tho transposi- 
tion fpOK function to t>€z»Bonai,e or vice ve ca wj ti: no 
difficulty »lno« tho one la tho exact qqiilva3.ent of the 
otlier. n© vrrl fecit 

Tl f^Aicien] no Be navait pas place citrr; Isxix 
volea distlnctea, eixtre d©ux aysf^es 2^pr«- 
aent^o \''ar 1© "^nacle et per le rournaIlsa«, 
c'or.i^ I'u etait lon^, honorabl©, siirj 1' autre 

e :■ >6 I'ecuclls ?»+: r;;'T'lllc;X, clein ~: - ii.iy- 
aeaux fungeux ou dcvait »e C3?otter aa con- 
science, -on C2.ract^re le poi'tdi: ?. prcadre 
le chcrdn le plue court, en apparence, le 
plufl p.'-T>0B'ble, a paiclr Ics :?.o:/cns dcclsirs 
©t r«j)fd«s» II ne vlt ©n ce moment aucim© 
Giff^er)C€ entre la noble a:--lti^ de d'Arthea 
«t la facile oojnaraderie de lo'isteau. ^^^ 

Lousteau becowes in these few sentences tiie eymbc^i and 

reppeaentative of the 'doctrine •allltanto" that he 

preaches. The n^etliod of judslixi Ijy function i»atUer 

than by personal valiie ia likewise adopted by tlie oei?- 

sonaj^^es tiieuselves, -clleville apaaks: — ; • Habourdin 

n'a eu cju'ion tort" And Poirtit aslcst '— Lequol," Golle- 

ville replies: "'Jelui d'etre un hcxasae d'Htat au lieu 

( aj^ l£]^; ' ityrjlr^ F^Nu^g , II-. 115. 
(3) Baiaac, £.08 Employ d^,. gee. 


,^I , 

Huco proceeds In a soraMrifcuit dlffertnt faahi<»i. Yot he 

too 0(m8lstentl7 •^oiboliBes society thpou^^ oertftin 

y (1) 

roles. Javert, for exanple, la "1' auto rite publlque" ', 

"la police elle-ci&ne" • ' H« plays a datastable x^e 
but Hugo loses no occasion to identify l^ie nnn ivith \&\» 
law and t!^ lav wlt^ the police systsra of which Javert 
is a part. Moreover h0 plays exactly the same role as 
the police play in I>e dernier Jour d*un ooodatans and ex- 
actly the role of Claudo clueux'a torm«itor in the story 
of that nasis* Ihxgo consistently represents social lav 
as implacable* z>elentless, and czniol^ seeking rsToage ra- 
ther than abstract justice* oppressing the waAk, dinand- 
ing the blood sacrifice. Similarly, he associates t2M 
social function of the spy to the presence of envy in 

Qu*^talt<-ce que Barkilph9dxK>,...lTn envistux... 
I<*envie est ime bonne ^toffe "^ faire un 

XI y a une profonde analogic rnitre oett« 
passion naturellOf I'cnvie, et patte 
fonctlon sociale, I'espionnage.^^' 

Bat nii^o*s society consists of a life that is alraost 
animal, slavery, the lowest type of Parisian life, the 
ordinary, respected type of EO'iiall town life, the aris- 
tocratic life« the religious life, the life of bucian law 

(I) Hxxgo, Lee Miserables. II^ 143^ 

(8) Ihigo, ^As rus#»able> , IL, 17^, 

(5) Hugo, .l.'jn . aus3ie cj'ui £^it « 21., 59, v>0. 

maO. ^xiatloe, the pati*iotic life^ finally* the life 
of demooratic IdealiflBt* And the electents which theae 
eecticois of aocioty cc^itribute to the oorapleto pic- 
ture may be diaoovored insiediately fron a rcfex'ence 
to ea^ ByaSaollo flgiuce* Thoi*o la vi2*tue in society. 
It springs firam demo cx*a tie idoaliam and tJax^us repre- 
eents i^iia virtue, ^t tlie q^ialities found in Tiaz*ius 
are thoae qualities to be toxxnd in social virtue; 
that i8« the qualities of intoloronee and bif^try. 
There are different forms of vice In societys the 
brutal violence of the aniaal (Han); the i/piorance 
and cupidity of the Parisian lower clasaes (Thffiiar>- 
dler)| the cunning troacftiery of the slave (llabibrah)i 
the hypocrisy of the rospooted woi'ker (Clubln)j the 
spying unaorupulousneaa of the aristocratic tool 
(Derkilphedro)} tho voigefta cruelty of tlie law (Jav« 
ert)j and tho superstitious asoetlcisra of the chax»ch 
(Prollo), TIu^ adda with every new personage another 
touch to tlie totality of Ms picture. T^i.en he in- 
troducoB Clubln lie v/rlteat "L^hsrpocrlslo avalt peee 
trente ons sur oet hocaae. Il etait le iml et e'etait 
accouple a la probito. II halssait la vertu d*une 
haine de aol marie. "^•^' It Is in his guise as hypoo- 
rlj^ that Clubin aildressea Hantalxie and desii^Jiates 
the latter* s place in the aooial structures "-- -C'ost 
voo© qui vouB appeles Vol."^ ' "Jhe Thenardior hus- 

(1) Hugo, Les Tr'avallleu rs de la taer » I-, 271. 
(8) Tbia.,Tr^r, ^ — 


band and wife reoelvo ajiabollc sl^lflcajioe vdiesi Hugo writes! 

Cotto !>Tonta^e de bmilt et d© clialr se 
saouvait sous lo petit dol^t de qe deepote 
frdlo* C'^tait, vu par son c^te naln ot 
grotesque, cette ^rande i^iose lini verselle : 
l»adoratijn dm la raatlBr© pour l»oaprlt| 
ear do oertalnes Xaldours otit^leur ralson 
d*^tr© dans les pycfonderare rMMnea de la 
b«ftut4r ^temelle. ^ •*■ ' 

In Sand the unsy ipatlietlc persoaagee uSio symbolize dlffei*- 
•nt pixaaea of society aay be Catliollos (Je«i Uauprat), or 
bourgaola Indus trlaliata (%• Le Cardcmnet), artists (An<-> 
soleto}* solentlats (Albert^as, Isidore I<orebours)« peasaibts 
(Paul Arsene'a two sisters), arlstocr&ts {'Me. de '-cnitelus), 
tiie oodte de lougeres). But It is necessary to note tloat 
it Is rarely that her imsympathetic personage is a peasant, 
and only lu her early work that he appears as a scientist* 
Nor is tlie artist In society unsympathetic hy virtue of 
hia artistry but by virtue of lils subservlenc© to the desire 
for weal til and applause. Art in society is a foiwi of pros- 
titution and opporturiis!!. Lozzb. crleoj **-- Qulconqpae aim© 

l*art al^ie la glolre««««quiconqua aime la £;1o1p<> eat pret a 

lui tout sacrlfler."* Sandys valedictory stfttwient In 

his reQOPCL is his eondsranation; "Le Vjozza a lalase de beauK 

ouvrageSf mais 11 ne put jaraais vainer© ses d^fauta, paroe 

qua aon one etait Incomplete." 

(1) Hugo, Lee ais XT^fi^TrR. ii^ as. 

(2) Rctrue ^s dc "3, 1357, III., Sand, I^s najLtres- 



But Sand*B society is ooraposod accord'a^ to a sentlsMintal 
hioroTca^s^ rather than acoording to soeiel function (ral- 
sac) OP h\i»nn p«i»f«ctlblllty (Ilugo), Tlie olersent In 
•oclety vhioh opposes the apotheoslo of love appears in 
huaband (colonel Delmare, M« de r^uoac), in egoistic lover 
or woi\ld-be lovor (Raymon, Saleoto, ioraoe, Maraillat, 
AnssoletOy 'Hoal), In a relationship to vftilch society aeoox^s 
validity (Flarama's father, Andre's father » Efcaile'a fattier, 
E08e*s fatlier^ Valentine's BK>tlier and grandmother* YaeuXt'a 
fatiier, Laure*8 nother-ln-law, Lucie's father). 

Vh» husband represents tiie po-vter of the social institution 

of jnanpla£:e. His life has no reality outside of society, 

sine* it la social opinion wiiicii dictates hio every decision. 

Of colonel Delriiai>e, for oxaniple. Sand writes: 

..••tout pour lul conslstait dans la foxme, 
L» opinion le gouvemalt li tel point, que le 
bon sens ot la ralson n'ontraienu pour rien 
dans ses decisions, et quand 11 avalt dlt: 
"Cela se fait", 11 croyait avoir poae'uai 
argument sans r^TJllqiie . ^ •"' ^ 

The lover possesses the social graces required Xrr society 
for his role and hence, lie appears as a personage super- 
ficially mora agreeable. L^at the social convention and 
tdie social aiabition in hiin appear as superior to love. 
His goal is the approbation of eocievy axKi ue xe, tliepefvre, 

(1) Sand, Xnaiana, 100, 110, 


moved tx> act only in acoordance wi.ti.i its conventions. 

These conventlone a?:»© entoli that materialiaBn pupersedes 

any Ideallaa in him and pasHion la the only fona of love 

possible for liiia to know. Indiana vrriLtee to ilaymeai, for 

©::a}Tiple : 

— %.,.toute votre saoi'ale, tous voa ^prinoipea , 
ce soiit lea intei^a de vot3?e society quo 
vous ayez ^rl!'4s en loie et que vous pret«idea 
faii<0 onaener de Dieu ra^^« cmsae voa pretrea 
ont tnatituo los suites 6.\x culte powp etabllr 
leur pulssonce et leur sdcliesse sxirl^o, nations. 
!«al8 tout cela est mensonge et Implete. ^^' 

And Sand writes: "Raytaon fut en tout occasion le champion 

dc la societe axistante,..?^ ' 

The father (the usual synbol of social dominance^ accord- 
ing to Sstfid*B hlerartthy in which the sontlmental relation- 
ships replace, to a largo extent, all other aoolal rela- 
tionships) appears xmder an especially odious lipht, Thus 
M, Le Cardonnet sets a spy to natch his oisn son; "• rrlcolln 
drives hla daughter to Insanity and thereafter siiowi him- 
self dlshcmost and unscrupulous in buaineas matters} Fisnena's 
father is x»epresented as so vile ae to have sold his wife's 
honour. The doninatln,, influence in tlxe family life in 
society is, tlierefoi'e, repi*es^iited as etjjoifitic and intoler- 
ant. >io. de MMitelua Sand describes as "..••une peraonne 
dont toute 1' action zoorale se boinalt a la acionce dee ej:,ards.,". 

(1) Sand, IxvJtiaiia, 23o, 

(8) Ibid. . 144." " 

(5) Band, /klriauJ, . x63. 

132 • 
But the coadeiuijiiion of the faunily is at bottoi- e eon- 
doonatlon of the sg-ofeati isSiiali rofiises ' "free- 
dom (tJie frgedcaa to love) and judges lo/« by -ja© a^and- 
ords of claas diatlnotion and welath ('oTie standaKls of 
cr)r\t<srr;oT^.rvr sooloty) not trf foelin^j (the standard of 

The passions T/hio:'i. co'«r>'?59 aoaiet'' ar^ i* en re a e" ted by- 
Sand under three esser.tial aspects j the passion of lore 
(tlie e/3oiettc l-^vcrOj tliat of worldly aribltion (th© fa- 
tlio^)| that of a prldft "based on o-tnlor. (t!ie haia* 
bsjnd), Tvach of these passions is ©ssentiaxxy e^joistlc. 

Ifrie, tie ??ta^'o world 5.s coirrnosed accoxv:lliig to the 
various psssioiis wiiich aocioty revoalo. Taoaa oasBions 
correspond to tliose «! Sand aacriboa to society, 
"iT'.© reprcaontatlv© of Parisian aoc^oty In ffenflral~«'%a©, 
da V"ei*ricii— ayiiboiiso.i tiro paealon of altbltion, -soace 
and If, de Valoi^o synbcl!.."!** a socloty In whftoh ©trolara 
tpltinpha bfloa\ia« It alonn nomj ts rjm to nrotoct ^tIs 
prldo, or ijl3 voni'viy, bj j/cfxllng hla coiise of super- 
lord ty, Delphine writes : 

—Tous les deux susoeptlbles, rjais Vxoi ^ 
par aiaousv-pi'opre , et I'a-itrQ par fiertei 
tou3 les deux sonalblea au t qu© 

I'ou j^ut portsr bvx aiix, _ — . par 

bosoln de la louaii.:©, ot l*aiitr« pAt' la 
cralnte du bl&aej I'xm i>our satlafalr© sa 
vttnit^t 1' autre pour preserver son honneur 
d6 la aoindre ^atteintej wous loa deuj: 
pasaloim^ai Leonoe pour aes affectiona, M« 

d« Valorbe pcmr sea halner?,'^' 
Villain, Delphlno mdtes to r.*r,r.oes 

««■ Vot;r« moralG n'c; t; ro!i;ler; -ve sxii* l*„oiineurj 
vous auries ^te'' 'clen plus lieui-eux ei vaua 
ax^iex aclopt^ lea prlrioipes slr-pl^js et vi^siis 
qui, en aoimatt. . "^ ■ t-« ooa- 

BCicncg, noi:e ^a --ntre 

• do Valorb«'s fordnlae coimi;orpa-j?t Is ■-■nci, de Ternan 

aiid Qnc, lilccwla©, is depend oac "upon society to feod 
her vanity. 

.'■10 elenant of vanity v^!.Cia ©litora la to socle L/ la dls- 
tincbiy unsj^spatlietic a/icl t:iat, tiioae pepeouaives wiio 
ai^ inea.!'"'. ':tlons of va!fl«ty do not poss«S8 ©v©n supap- 
i'loial cliaaw ia irx acc^rxlance with tii<i fact timt they 
are mere s/mbolfi of abstract (iualitiea aM cannot, tb«w»- 
fo2'e, 1>«»11g t>x0 iinploaolrit^ natui*© of tliAt quality. On 
tiio other haiad^ that pride la&ilcu takes its souroe In 
public opinion and In a deponclence upon the apprt^vai 
of outer authority t»athe"i^ tlion on the Inward api^roval 
of the conscience, iias, at first siglit, a aupfcrticial 
fettractivenesa, Gooiety itself, tuougii "oasod on womaa^a 
Inferiority, „,. ,,- he-y ''a-a ^ov/,••^ to OLiuae and cnarm, 
had thla sajscj aupei^floiai a^irtsoacienesB. Ti' Ik&i 
into M:ue, de stall's torn;a, this Is to a&'j that Leonce 

xi) .:iO. Uc ta'dl, :' 'Ol;;;">u . uc j 501. 
(2) i;ie!lj>iiin«, 476. 


184. ::ie, de Vemon are both represented as far froaa dis- 
i^reeablo in tii«lr auperflclal appearsiice, 3-j.cli super- 
ficial attraotica is accox^sd by oaixd passlcr. 
I'^ilch wGai'3 the scirblanco of love (navr-ion, for sxs."plc) 
i .. g Lautior ftcooiMS it to tho beaut ' " r,h in purely 
ortrificial (Tiosette). Fiiac^ de Stael accoras it like- 
wise to Oswald, Leoricef« ICivrlieh. count<i;rpCirt. In Cs- 
wrald, :j.o, dt» K-uael is ayiuiioiiair^. Uie oaae type of 
honour which, appears In l/oonca, ti:e hoijour corrospoad- 
ins to an ou.tcr convoiybion, not to rji inner cotjir^rtion* 
Similarly, wit> i'roacitiiaan, . rie-a.ll, sy^VJoliae^ tha*: van- 
ity whicb tiiroU:_ih If* d® Valorbe has already been indi- 
cated as esr-ential element in pociety. 

In Caotel-Forte, tUe ?:taiian, a diffsrft'.^t acpect of 
society appear.?: '« is, the e o^.s*"! vr»-'. r.'h '-i r/TTfiv-; 
rataor ti^aii active, llie pa/saiv^tioisTii «iiiaii consista 
in a etroji^ closire but an iindeveloped will is hi2^-ly 
agreeablo, ?4ac. de Ctael prcaente Castle-Porte as | <* 
poiiaii^d, attractive, and entertair*!:.. In Lai sac, 
society appears 'ind©!^ the guis© of passion as v.ell as 
under the hierainjliy of f-jmctlon siUiC*? tb/^ pa9c5.on8 
aotivating society detorrolne tliosw furictionh. Ho 
asre«s witii ?.1ta©t de ttaol in the fact tnat he pt^fents 
the o^roiatlc deaire as butwarily nti.r ictivc, Qoriot 
a««Liaa to Hastl/^nac to be pitied rather than to be de- 
tested (as he, on the contrary, detests Vautrir.), 
UicioTt, t.r, t.c; '^.v.'-'bort, and Raphael, all pasaess aG2*ce- 
able feuturea, >iut passive egolsis is as destructive 

sa boi 


a force as la the aotlve •111. Caetle-Forte's inictlca \e\ 
[vt^eri lie \Tlthholds Oswald's letter to Corinne, :. .n'* ox- 
aiaplo) l3 the cause of c.onxir:izeic'i suffer-irgc Xi'.ien's 
;ea>mssr.5 bidn^^s succssslv© alsastera to liis lasiil:;- and 
to those witliin the ap&iei'e of liia influence. 

The destrttotive quality of aeairo ia s^Tabolized in teiwe 
of •pGT3one.^9 by ttoe fact that both P.atiliaal end Lucian 
contraraplate oMlcide laihilc wO'ais Lasibart's t»en3mr33 dl<»- 
stTT'.-j^. hlns. It ie aytaboliaed too in te-rria of the ass's 
sMn which Tneaaurea the len^rth of life In invex^e prtj- 
portion to tha f\esire« ^3oriot, llkev.lse. Is ahov.ii as 
a de?»t7r?ct?.vr! .f'»rc8 both in hin action upon his dauriitera 
and upon Raatir?tne» Ir Sane! the sans aapcst of society 
R-n-if»f^?»s, f->>« cramp:'.©. In the ;rea3; Mos v;ho finds support 
for '-Ab 6;.olstlc drea^is in a j^llf-rion of liatred and, 
tlicroforc, of death and destruction. 

The dosii^ \ihlch is an intofrml of aoclctj- corror;- 
pondG to the sentimental aide of roT3onticlaH:; its 
pleacinsr asoect. Thr; \7ill to daadnato nopearc in its 
ahBolnto form «5 2-»uthlrao, 'Chis ia tiia reverse face 
of i»onantlcian and, fn itn ahaoluto aaneot, appoara 
as Btren^^th rather Uian -race, Balaac's a^aboliani 
8t-«-easQ3 Hcatoratlon Sooistj ar Ciiraposed of theae two 
facfjs of ronantlclan. The larill is a hIII to power, a 
v^lT \jhlr>^ n'fr^a at an infinite expansion of the e^o. 
This ©xpanalon appears tiirough the various passions 
i*iiii;h app#«r in society aiid, in the sense that Bai^ac's 

'/f^i'; df 


world la coHipo»©d of oro»aid«d peimofiagoa whoso lives 

correspojid to the abeti^ct: passion \*dcih devottrs thcnij^ 

"""noc's Tiforld is cosnpoaocl In exactly tho manrer of 5|ae« 

d© StaeX*8. Tho passions ^shlch she represents are esr^eeleli^ 

taiose of vanity* erabitlon, end the parldc ^*i3ch 1p base-a 

on a fal0« Idea of honotir* It Is Bal{sa«*9 Intention to 

represent a cosiplete picture of the passions r/hlch anlinato 

society. There Is avarice {(hnaaAnt) $ knowledge (Class), 

art (Geaibara), epistle love (the duotaesM d* SeafrlgmmM)^! 

defittftt erlme (Vautrln)^ undleeovered crlne (74ronlque), 

WBg^aiMHB (oousln© Betto)^ anbition (P.ns*;l.'mRc), and, finally, 

hypocrf,sy (Theodoce de la Poyr*dfli)» The strength nhich 

makes these passlcms so taenorable Is the strenp;th of will 

manifested tlirou^^i th«a« In reference to oouslne "P^stte, for 

instfince^ Balzac writes; 

Lorsq^© les ^jens chastes ont besoln d^ leur 
^Mi« (ju'iXs reooiirGsit a l>aotion ou ii la 
pesas^e^ lis trmtvent alers de l*acler dans 
leur intelllcenoOf une force dlabolique 
ou la na^e nolro de la Volonte^ (1) 

The passion ^diloh Arlrwi this vrlU Is alvmys sln.<^e «3n4 

oonstitutea the vho3« life ayrabollzed Jyy theee naines, Bftlsiw 

writes of Claest 

La solenoe d^vora si ecsopletoinont Bolthasarj 
qiae nl les z^vers ^px^ouves par la France* zil 
la presal^re chute de napoleon^ nl le z>etou? 
dee Bourbcms ne le tlrerent de ses pre"- 
occupations; 11 n*#tait nl rwirl, nl pere, 
nl citoyeii* II fat ehliaiste* (2) 

The g^ilus in Ciaes is aa destructive as a leas intellectuftl 

passi<m» Balsac writes t 

•.p.. Trop touvent le vice et le 

(1) Balsao. lift cousins Bette. 127. 




-, r^tf? 


g«Qle px^oduiaent ;.:03 ofrcta jseeblcblos, 
auxquols 00 t?onpont 1© ■'n^l<^n.lw>. i"^ 
^■' > ri'ftfli^'l paa -wUi or^.-ts-'-anr. cxc^s ^i-J. 

qui mene ti J'^io'plftal pl^jts ra-^ " ^t. 

The eroletlc '^ -^lltj of pc.33lf>fi In lt;3^?lf btjacaaes noxHi 
«v?-d6rit T»hc" ■ -.■e.-!'5 t'—" 'n its absolu.t« abstraotlon. 

Self-lovo malcca li'sposnlMe any lorrs of ©thcy«« and self- 
pi»ftserv?.t.lon and ^f7vr».ne«^cT'*-. nn^ces rocesrsarr tJao dfts- 
t«si6t;10j\ of all tbfti, sxlste th-al cftrinot b<» ebaoPbsA In- 
to t'hf) self. Fcrte« f.^? Bals^clnr aneisty ts one «^,icsh 
d©?.?..^ -n"?!; sorrvvTp (5«Rt.h;. nnc* (^.iep-st^r of er*»3?y sort. 
Th« e-io iB lllte a oli^.rz* Ijn Its iyeb» The ^^b Is ito 
«pj;3i»ft of 5,nftweni5« find, »»a fr\r as that exterda, so far 
Iff t^ver^ ftt?*'""' •^'•""'.mg' ^l^.n^nntf"*, *^« dff** '^TV.n^.ftf-. ftojn- 
Ina-^c hl« hon?- n.n'' ♦ih*- d\:chesse do ' .atirri.meMse. Ylc- 
tuTTildri's llfft, J?o (JoJ^s V^ror;5.nti'^ -mrdptr «r.d coualne 
Bettc tr-re^!c '.r-. the ■r^xJ.ster.CD of a 'R^.r/lf? '''awiiv. 

It ?.f thft fs??7ne stT«fln,-t>» suRrt vrllnoas thnt "ftiid yepr«5sent8 
In the ifnp?7»laliRtip. Itj ^ath, for «r.«»nn1«, T*•■f^ 1.n- 
stnur-.ent o-f lE.p,3;'.1.allst ztx ncclcty she ropresenta as 
i^itdlnn 5.n v5olen5« «nfl forne isnd hlci p«flslon to ^€> 

r-"erior, , .avalt -tia^tre i'anulatl.on nrojpil 
ceux do eon ^e®« "^ath n'avait pas partac© 
CO sartlrient parce qu'll ne I'avalt paB gom- 

(X) Balzfto, .tLa_j:echero he de I' absolu. 22. 






pjda. PoTte & l*lndlvlduallarie. 11 n*avalt 
^prouv* que de la jalouale.***^^) 

It ia as a result of Sath*8 aotlon ttiat "fut Impose' ct 

accepfce' le faux droit bas^ «ur la force" •^^' Svenor 

Jud^s hlra to be ttoxHi dan^pBiroua tbaaa Vkun 

• •Sath, qcoi «*Mit fait* par la violence 
divers ses serablablos et le nepris dee 
choaes celestes, Ic p2^t3?e de I'lndlff^r- .„ 
•nee, sera peut-^p© plus fatal a sa race.^ ' 

The egoistic society conpoaed of ^e vreak and the stwmg, 
tbe iapoteiit and the ruthles:::, the desire end the will* 
oorresponds in l^e« de Stael to :!ne, d*Albaaar and Lucie, 
in Balsac to Vautrin «a3d lAioien, in Sand to 3ath asid Ifos. 
The eaoe c<Hitrest appeairs in V^isny as the contrast be- 
twMR the Imperialistic power, Ivapoleon, and the blind 
tool (Lox^i Collingvood). It appears in Hugo as the cm- 
treat between the evil that ooosaazuls ( CimouTdain ) and 
the evil that obeys (Clubln), The eleeient of egoistic 
will does not enter the universe of Chateaubriand and 
enter* Gautier's only thx»ough one figure—the syabollo 

The eleBMnt In soeiety vhioh ^igny stresses more partieu- 
larly is not that aspect which la cociposod of distinct 
and separate pasalons but Is the element i^iieh resides 

(1) Sand, "?«ior et Leuclppe . 238, 

(8) lbid.,""S44. 

^SJ IS3-. 372. 




in th« people^ tb« el^nant of bXijnd de«lx^* Thejr appear 
^ Clng-Hara aiid In D^jAma not as distinct peroonags 
but only as a fom of material force. In Clnq-«?i£;,rs . the 
2*Qbble rejoice at Rlohelleu*8 triixaph. They are pleased 
at the downfall of the aristocrats. In Daphne the neo~ 
pie surge on and an throu^ the stx^oets of Paris, a dark 
tido of life «tK>aQ laovenent Is Irresistible and Inevit- 
able* They majrch by instinct and without a goal. They 
are sytabolio of the great masses idio fozra the solid iMise 
of society* Frc^ the aurrofint of ttie oonr.on thought no 
nan oen escape* no inSlvldual stand out, A.11 Individuality 
is swalloved in the inevitable, instineti'Te stareh of the 
people toward a new ago* They are searcliln£; for a happi- 
ness «friose character they do not know. They are ignorant, 
yet they have all the force of brute matter. They scorn 
the aecunailated wisdom of the past yet they refuse any 
form of Individual 3uidance In the present. Their nove- 
raent is uncalculatino and blind. Doctour-nolr describee 
Uie Poet's fate: 

— .Ilotes ou Dleux Xa :?ultltude, tout en 
▼ous portent dans see bras, vous regarde 
de travers oocme tous aes onfantSj, et de 
teraps en temps vous jette ^k terre et voue . » 
foule mix pleds. C*est ime mauvalse mere.^^ ' 

The DoGteur goes on: 

—0 *niitltudel ?^iltitude sans now J vous 
6tes n^e ennemie dec nomsl.., • Votire /„\ 
unique passion est I'egalit^ d 'lultitude.^ ' 

(1) Visny, Stello. 222. 

(B) Ibid.. SSS. 


■me destiny tsiiieh resides in blind force is syaboliawi 
by ilueo alao t2u?ou(^ the ignorant maeoes of the people 
Incorporated Into society, Ae with Vi^y, llugo de- 
plores this el«taent of society because of its unin- 
tellisence* H« vz4tes: 

—II y^a sous la aoolete'^.Met. lusqu»au 
Jour ou I'lgaoranee eere dieaipeeii il y 

aura la gs^nde caveme du nal. 

Cette cave est au-dessous de toutes et 
est I'ennooii de toutes* 0*eat la halne 
sens exception, ••tCette cave a pour Ixit 
I'effondrentent de tout*,,, 

D^puisea la vase Ignorenee, vous d^crulsea 

la taupe Crlae.^ 

•••.L'unique peril social, c'est I'Owbr^. 

HuoABlte'f e*e8t Identito*, Teas lee luHaaes 
soot la m^ae ari^jile. Muile dif "eraice, 
ioi'bas du moins, da^ l^a preAestination,,,, 

Hals l'i;:noranco :mLoc a la p^o liui.min© la 
noireit* Cette incurable nolreeur 5*cm« /,v 

le dedans de l^horarac et y deviont le '"al,^"*"' 

That the aali clous force In society is the pure naterial- 
liB of brute matter appears in llu^^o throu^i the fact 
that the envy and aalice of the Parisian underworld in 
t>0S ^Tiserables is replaced in Les Travailleurs de la aer 
by tiie nalice and violence of the elements, Hus© is re- 
lating ailliatt's difficulties, He does so in these 

1} sublsaait 1' oppression d»un ensemble 
epuisant, L*obstaele, trnnquille, vaste. 
ayant I'irresponsiibllit^T apparent© du fait 
fatal, mais plein d*on ne salt quelle na- 
anlnlt^ farouclie, oonvor,-eait de toutes 
parts ^ur ailliatt, ailliatt le sentalt 
appuye inosor^bleiaent sur lui, Nul iiwyeai 
de s*y^sou8traire« C#etait presque quel- 

(1) Hugo, !,#■ aisarables . II., 434, 435. 

(2) Hugo, Les Travailleurs de la aer, II., 72. 

..;i l.viij. 


The 2?eflult of this r.Blefio«Rt presence Is "I'sanolndrtase- 
Eient (5e l*hocB3« physique sous 1* action refoulente d« 
cette sauva^ic nature. •••* (1) 

Vlcpojr ea^jhaflisea t&e unlntelUc^RC© In the people — sc 
unlntelUgence ^JLch untfdttlngly destroys the Intelll^ 
OTIC© natural to mgm» Hu^:© caa^pihasises the unlntolli- 
©ncc tftil<A appeers ae gratuitous hatred. Balsac con- 
stantly au^eeats the power that lies In the material 
force of the people* He introducoe theaa Into hie «ort: 
br infex*ence and adds the coKnaentary iftilch judces their 
ri^nlficance as idcn. His crltlclssa of the people itoo 
noke up the vast hulk of society la a orltldsia of the 
easie order as Vlgny'e or Hueo's for It suijgeets that 
It la a defeet of Intelligence that makes the poo ?le rail 
to comprehend the superior beauty of claselclsa. H© writes t 

Za foul© pr^fere s^^raleraent la^ovoe 
«noz«iale qui ddbo3?de ^ la force ©sale 
qui perslste. La foule n*a nl le teops 
ni la patience de eonatater I'laaaanee 

pouvolr cache sous Tjoie apparence u-rlfonae. 
Xu8Sl« pour frapper cette grand fmJe.U pusion — 
n»a-t-elle d'autre ressource que d'ailer 
au«del^ du but^-> — 

tiCB granda oaleuleiteurs aeula pensent qu'il 
n© faut Jamais depesser 1© hut# et n'ont 
de respect que pour la virtuallte' sraprelnte 
dans un parfalt accompli as wcaent q:ui met en 
toute oeuvr© ce calm© prof ond dont 1© chaiae 
eaialt lea hoaaea aup^rieurs. (8) 


-*-'» Iisg yraTailljWg^ ^?.^ rzev » II., 76. 
BalgacT La HeeteiBie d© I'ebaoiu. 5* 


♦ jTifLrr -rttun' ^noB-n 

->afT ©rf# "io ejjTr^ 



Art In Society* 

ContraTT" to the other ronantlolets, Oautler, aafuJ In tlila 
he pes«nble9 Chateaubriand, does not represent society 
as a composite «hlch, throu-jh personage, may be classi- 
fied Into hlerarchlea and paaaions. Nor does Gautler 
reveal exactly the sane attitude as Chateaubriand for. 
In the latter It Is the negative aspect of society ^nlcAi 
appears rather than the positive) that Is, what Is posi- 
tive In Rene, irtiat Is distinctive. Is a lack, the Ina- 
bility to enjoy nature. Rene has fed upon all society. 
He I5 all society. But he Is a single ego, one Individual, 
and the world he Imowa. 7autler*a society contains no 
Qleraent extjraneous to the e^o, not even the va jo ele onts 
iftile*! enter Renews history. No social world ever appears 
In hlc i*oz4c« "very story is the story of an indivldiial 
not as lie moves in society rior as he faces Itc varied 
aspects but hie story as an individual, as he moves about 
in his own ^rivnto ^orlcl. 

Society as a corporate body, therefore, is non-existent 
in Gautler. It has no coclal exl.:;tcnce, but only an 
individual existence in IndividToal figures whoso lives 
are the expression of eGOift»t Suoh a personage as 
Fortunio naksa it plainly evld^int that for hlra no society 
exists but toe self* The self is society. This la true 


3X' ^Ofl 

of Gautier's other pexNaonagee and It makes plsiln ths 
noat inoortant factor of th« wovl6 he rcpreacntc. It 
is a world of Indlvldiial egos aiid aautler*a indictarient 
of any given persona^© Is an indlctsncnt of an individual 
ideal not a social eyst©in» But tMa individual ideal la 
detenninod either by a eociol fasl^ilon or a natural la- 
puxac. -There Gautlei' cond«Emfl, therefore, he la condeaon- 
in£. the vooMBit the Individual's Ideal, ratliar than tine 
aan who seeks it. He le condewning not the individual 
nember or ole««it of society but a certain kind of beauty 
that responds to a fashion not to natur-e. The morlds 
h© represents are those in wiiloh the ax»tlet riov€S looking 
for beauty. He finds the aatter of i>©auty either in the 
eaq^reaslon of society or in Uie expression of natux>e. 
If the youn<'5 man of tliat world is productive, lie ic an 
artiat. If he la not, he la only a dllettant© in beauty. 

'/hat is open to conderanation Gautler suggests, therefore, 
is an xmproductive art— the result of an ideal ooiiti^ry 
to nature. The art that is nourished sololy in u)e fac- 
titious products of society can never baoorae fecund. 
This Is the meaning of Onuphrlus as explained by Gaatler: 

Cette belle inaglnation, surexcitoa par 
dos riojons fnctice^, s*etalt us^e en ' 
valnes d^bauehes] a forea d'^re apec . 
tour do son existence, Onuphrtus avait 
oubiie celle des autros, et les^liens 
qui le rattachalmit au sionde s^etaient^ 
briaea un i^ un» Sort! de I'arche du reel, 
11 s'etait lanc4 dans lea profondoura 

It .^Xl 



n^uleuses de la fantaisio ct de la aeta» 
pljgrsiqpx^l mala IX a*avait pu revanlr aveo ^ 
le rameau d*ollx«S il n'avalt pas rencontre 
Xa tarre a^cha ou poaar Xa plad^at n'ayait 
pas PU retirouvor le chcnln par ou 11 etalt 
Tanuf IX na pat «->•;; ranouap avaa Xa 
aondo positlf, H eut e*:e^capablc, sana 
eatta tandanoa funaataf d*atre la pXua 
srand des poetesi 11 ne fut que Ic plua 
ainguXiar daa foua* (X) 

'ShA aana coralennatlon la asqpiwaaad In tha flgtire of Tlburca 

befox« tiJLa aaz'Fla^a to Qratahan baa brou^t about hi a 

retoxn to z>aallt7* Oautlar intdtaat 

• «•• Tiburca nm coraprenait paa la nature « at 
ne pouvalt la li2»e que dnns lea traductions 

• ».*L*art a*^tait aopar^ ^ lul tr^ jeuna at 
l^avalt corroaspu at fausaoj co3 capactdi:»os- 
Xa 8<nit pl)^ anwnimfl qua X'cm^na p«iaa dana 
notrc extx^e civilisation, ou \^<x\ est 

plua fKmvant «i contact avao Xaa oauwaa 
das horanea qu'aves colles dc la natui*e, (9) 

And he adds I 

Ouli^^Tlburca- — - Gretchan vou« est t3^ 
auparl0U3<a ••— « voua avas* tant Xa po#aia 

Toua occupalt, sMpr>2>lne'^la naturo, lo 
aoK^ta at Xa vla«.«» (3) 

'Ria attitude tirinlch i>autlar axpx*e8aa8 la that ahared by 
thoaa of the romantldsta who rapzwaont art aa an eXaraent 
In 80clat7« BaXaao STiabollzaa art In society throu|^ 
auah a paraonaga aa Canalls^ Send thz*oii^ Xa CorllXa* 
Vlgpy throu^ Salnt-Juat* BaXaae vrltea of CanaXla In 
dapreaatlng faahicm and Modaata baooB»s aware of tiia 

(1) Oautler, ^s J e u nea»?ranc e, Onu':)hrlu3« 69» 

(2) Gautler. iJ'OuveXlea . La '^oTson d^or , 170« 

(3) Ibid . . vs^i;^m: — 

;•..!,.: s,fi>- 





m«dioorlty of th« art vSaieh he v^pT^amxta wIiqu a,^ is 
thrown into contAot with the tme, disintereatocl r.eaius 
itoo has turned Ms baok on tlie ai-'tificial life of 
aoc^et^, Ijft Copilia is condcstanoa irj oonauelo and 

b;r 3axid, as the author^ for tlie soae raaoonai l)eoau6e 
her ait conforaa to t}ie aixproa.Tod opinkm of society 
ojaa, b<iC-iL^i>o lu uiauaina eiiOini. -t is, ^±iei*efo?e, a 
form of ciilettantiata» Viii^iy repoata tho Indiotaeat in 
tho poraon of Saint~Ju3t, Ic tiohesplQwe — tae social 
pow«x>«»-^aint~Ju3t ropr«.aQuts ax'^, ^^e oasorta; ^.-Voila 
X'licsaaa quo j ' appollerai.^ un ^^octe.,*,!! seat 4~i..e nulla 
jpttoe a' eat plus dangereuse poMr la liborte, plu£ enneeile 
dm l*e^iftlite, qui^cGlXe dea aristocx^atwa do I'lnteiligence^ 
dont lea xH^putationa ioolees exaroont une influence 
partielle^ dangoreuao, et cont^raixv a I'u nitj ^ qu^ tioit 
tout rcglr. ^ ' uux, ix>cte\u*-Koir preaexita ^aint-.ust^ 
poetry in society— in another licht. He shows this so- 
called Poet as taking refuse in a futile drean of an 
iaposaiblo Utopia. ^^ z>eaaina unconscious of the abyss 
ihldx axiata between the innoconco of this ideal world 
tafi. the cruelty of tlic '^rld of acti<m in whioli he exists. 
Ua r«aaina i^orant;^ t^uex'ofoi'o, or the truth of reality « 
reiaaina at tiie service of zaaterial power, azid contributes 
to that aervice not his poetry but his virtue as a phy- 
sical forcot hxa unhesitating cruelty as material power, 

(1) oee Balsac, Mo des te Hl^eacm. 208, 

(2) Vigny, Stello /l^^i. 




* T'^rl-JOtT 




dfivf iJ'U- 

,%c5f,^. a; 

Th» diletitaatiaa iCiich Cautler eondoan.?— the i^fusal 
of the effort to know riatui'-o as It 1 s — 1- ^e xtclle 
aoceptaac© of society's i'aialileu voinsion of nature— 
appe&r« in uaubiai- aa tii« acceptance of society' s 
voraicaa cf art: naaioly^ tlafiaiclcii; In Bdsac aa the 
aoa<©ta:ic« rt aodefcy'a y.111 to poisert nanely, iiaperlal- 
l4a| in Sand «s tLe accsptance ox society's attitude 
tc love I e-jaistic passion; in VicfKf aa the aoceptanc© 
of society's C08r4>lfite. risterialiacij vmiiiteliis^nc©. 
CftiTJi^hri-us ,;ces ei'.tir*el;^- r.:ad; for, --autier declar«i.(! euoh 
art, cut cf harraony with nacui'©, destroyo the ertist. 
Til® affect &.0 represriiibcd hj Talzac, 3f',nd, or ii^aiy, 
is net Oiily self-deet-iiictive but dea-ructive of the 
natural elewieiit in the world. It Is thua, for cxar,iplo, 
that Saiiit-Jiist la tlie aa;iealat© oT Roteepierre In the 
OQmmsul that dett'-i^inos Chtj^iler's deatli. 

Crl2ie In rioelety. 

C/'ici& appeara. In the work of the roiaantioiata, under 
two ijroupa of symbola* '.7c are concewied. here with that 
aspect of oriiiie «i;ich appeara fto evil. Emqo a^ajholisos 
erisie aa evil in £h.^asTi5±»Tf x~or instance. Lalzuc like- 
viae reeognigea orL^no as evil as ici^^, «i xu exists in 
the oonatitued society. He ayKbolizea the criminal 
liBdiacovered an<i> therefore, still a aeaiber of society. 


in V«i?0:aiqi4e and Vwutrin, 

Qmpe mast b« taJ^en to omplia»i«© the feet that Thcnarfllor, 
Veronlque, artd Vautrin, live an a part of society »siAf 
indoe , 3««^f tf> nroflt I"' the tools of societ-^ p^'nc© 
therv) ar'o, Ik, thr, second <;:roUT7 of S'jTibolB e nt!ab«r of 
•^imjathetlc figures vdicso llvc« do not correB-ponA to 
th<5Sft prenls'^i?, '~'ncnardlGr-~and hla a??ccclntcs~-repr'e" 
nnt» «m element \;finich oortpX-^tolT accepts the prtsrtiilln/; 
aocJ.&l mile. The malrdcslon to Boclel a^jithortty le 
couibined wltli ifinoi^nncc arid romiltB In ovll, vdironlQUO, 
iU.thou{^ a crlnlnal, lllerAee confcTtac to the provall- 
Inr; social faBhione. ■>?• cmfomitr trlth Hest^retlOR 
society api.^cnre It: all hur Bunerfloial ■?*f*'- end In hc3? 
loHj? resletexic© to the coclal 11 "c traced on rellr-!on. 
BalSRC vn*ltes of her*? "Kile fnt a»«me«i. ...vcre le cnltc 
de l»l<?;^al» cfitte fatale rcllrlon hitPiftlnc 1 " ^ ^ ^ This 
deacplptlon pliices ^'rronloue »t once ae e !nftmb©f 6f the 
prevailing roJAantlc society, ^rst as aro Louli? L«jrib«rt 
or RaphalBl. Vhcro <jrlme in '-iliwiftrfller 1? ^■"'''^ reralt, 
T^oco lri??.lcatss, of the Irrioriince f/hlch srcifity pen.lte, 
crlae In ''^ronlqtie, ^-?»lBae en- eet?!, le the result of 
th© er!;olHtlc pasttonfl that eociety sponscrt. Of Th^ardler 
ilUijo lerpltes: "Cet hoii-ne ^talt de la nult, Ae la nult 

(1) Falxac, ■ C iv'j de vi llaro. 20. 



f'^t *i*f t " *• i'^ra- rt 




• f T'^ 

vlvante ©t t©3?rlblo." The night that Hixgo deprecates 

in Th^ardier is the nlr:ht of Irpiornncc; the Icl'^-'^llsjsi 
that i.iilsac deprecatee ii; ■ ej.*ori.ique i& tl^i, vi.v.«l,c r 
"ibu Inposoltle and tho will that crushes evei^tMnr In 
its path in ore-';? to attain to that iripcssihl©, "Izls 
tTpe of idealisE ie the a'rroluto ui-tlthosls of that 
T^ich Salsac i*eprpaer.te In ?\v:euic. 

In contr&ui i:'j Vfel't-ui'iufc , Va- '•^1'^. oporAv c^e-flea tho 
pro vailing- soclfi.1 rule, '/et defiance or jmtjsalscjion are 
both orldenc© t'r:st the-r ?»fieo;T-lze theriselves ae a part 
of the ccciety they hr'.ve slnnec aijclnst, thct they 
5tid^ their conduct by th© criterion of that socletj, 
that they accept socletj^a r^tn-ndarda of nnMtlor ^jth^. 
desire, Axid, in VGutrin, .Falz&c's conception of t!i© 
crlixlnal in society "becomes most plainly evident for 
Vautrln appears In soclctv an-! tc seen to share those 
standards iff-iich Ra3ti;.;aac It la-or t,-. accept, which golrem 
Sucln^en, du fillet, or •^alllefsr. ^:s trinsactions 
t!-!ftt "al!:ac shc-yc Nuc'-'i^en end r-stl-?^''':^ to have con- 
d-ictcd wct:ld hsv^ been cri-.'mal on e lc33 .-na-jnl flclont 
financial scale and renaJn morally crlr'nal t>ut socially 
acceptable ( T.a Hsisor: TTucln'-:er ) . T*,*ll©f'»r IS a mtrdoror 
^, L * Aut c :" ; s r oii ^^e ) i^ut rc.mlns eocialiy acceptable as a 
a. klghly successrul ba ker. 2u "'lllut Is ulac a crinln>X 

(1) Huijo, Leg •isorablea . IV» 243, 




n .■ - t ) 

W (1) 

x&to will never be bpourfht fco book (Cosar Plrotteau). 

y«t these ra«n nil© Parlalen Roole^, Veutrlt! (differs 
fpoo th«m not In his atandf;.rrta of siicooss but in tlio 
n«ftna ho maploye^ ^e imd©t«ct:er? crlr/nol (Veronlqne, 
Talllofer) enjoys society's ccmplct^ eoteori. Vautrfn 
enjoys the sn:mo fearful respect as Hrandot cooEaiids 
laitil his effort to dqanS-nnte society bi' hin i/Jto a 
clash with an equally rut;!\lej33 will— l^uein^cjn's. ?he 
crladnnl ie afct<»iptinp: by <*.i*lr\9 only «hat ''?ucln'^:«n is 
att(«ap*tlng tJy t'ru.lle, Orandot by bueiroer. trickeries and 
eocnosaiet, and de. Fareiy by hidden force 'Hify toire jlea 
Tjg^LBo;. 'Ihc criminal io, tiierefore, an lnto;;re.l p?.rt 
of the sod ill structure. He cjm "becopie, soclr-lly rrpeak- 
In^ the veiy^ antithesis of the crJjnlnal. V:.r.. 31^.1- 
Uxpin, tiie chief of the Ftrls ^^olioe, is a former Tjririnal. 
'^'hjif Vftutrln becorice a mseil^or of the police without es- 
pRr5.encln,-^ an?/- change of heort, lie has ohoson only to 
cliMiG© the retbod ■wlierebr he will Aor-inate. ^ence 
aoclal crtr.e end Boclel. law becosie r.ctually s^monyncries . 
It is evident that RalEac re^jreeente the criralaal as 
one of the nost logical of constitute;! «ccicty 
and ae apt to reproeert its Ideal (Veronijue)* 

Essentially, therefore, Hii^;;o an<S lalsac a,jree in the 
:e presentation of the cr'l;-lnal« Griate wMdh Balaac 

presents p.s the 'possible Ideal and as a logical coMponont 
of th^ Reetoratian ooclety, 'U30 also sees aa a lexical 
conponent of a society whi.oh permits Ifpnoranc©. lixoept 
In these ttro authors, the foiwial el-sment of crime la 
not present in tbe novels iir© arc atudying. 

The general cor.clueior from the picture of society a« 
sjraabollBed ^7 the roManti^latR is never doubtful. ■' ociety 
Is the villein of the piece and the cause of the corrup- 
tion of nature or of its ccraplote annihilation. Con- 
stituted eonlety Is based txpcn the ego and -'-'»' "rtnclple 
at its j?oot in destructive. It is the inntruitent of 
d»ath and futility. The Indictnent of aocloty tyirouch 
symbolic i3eraona,c:e is unaniiaouo in the wrltere of ro- 
niantlcls^n. The basis of the Indlctnent shifts cli^jhtly 
fron autiior to author but in Balsac, 3nnd, Hugo, and 
Vl0iy, existing- aocioty clearly appears as compact of 
ecoistic a-rlll end o.?xoi3tic desire (or fcclin.rj, ChatoQu- 
briand represents only tJie ecoietic feeling (Rene) v'rille 
the aleoont cf \Till appears only exooptioxially in ae, 
de StaHl (:!ne. d'Arl>r|-ny ) . autier too pjresents, ordin- 
arily only the desire, not the will; in -ortunio, how- 
ever, he repreaents both elements ccnfcined in equal force 

just as thry ftre in Raphael, But r^ether desirt* la 

. \ -v r^ f> -i'^-." ivff^ ty 

t-r.', r A rrr\ 

91 q 


201 . 

aided or not Irj will, ooclety Is laad© up of tiis elenonta 
of lostnctlon t»ho appear as ^,.<. a^onta oi dcsirTCtioa. 
C'^aateaubrland condeinns fJtxe Irrceliglon of society | '.11^0 
its life of envj* and hetipedj Vi,-^y Ite ■anlnt«lli:i;enoof 
j£ the '^•"^" '^ u,:. vicmut^. For 

t^iO-T. 5O0'.et7 'oidr: it-i bo I'eli^lon, x> hMrmnltarlan- 

iisn, to IntolllrT)" CO, to th.& f.lnest beauty. Par i^^e. 
de '^taSl and iai"ul r^ocloty -.. v.c;c-bructlvo of the inalvldiml 
lovs and the Indlvldi^al Iiapplnesa. For I'kHzao the cxiot- 
Ing society Is destractlvs of tni© aocial love and a 
ooclal Iicppiness istLloh. r:aizi be baser on tr.e feriily and 
on i«cll^,lous cbsoi'-varioes, Tioe point of view differs, 
tJ^KjrefoiHj, "but the ani'serient lies in the fact that society 
ri'f'ASSS nature, and, therefore, i-ofasoa i'i'c ejr>..d produo«9 

?oclet7, '" ■^^s -^^^rk of the roisaLitlclals, ia rcpreaentad 
as a false oonventlon only prodactiv© of evil. It ia 
tr!Jia that 3al;iac wfusoa to find the root of all «v-H 

it fjoiitradiaca what io beat In nature aiid Is, in fact, 
Indlvlduallatic rathar tlian aocial. 

Tho view of tho '«rorld that Groiiplaine ©icpx'eaiiea at tho 
fionolualon c'' I'H c^ux ri t :5.y be said to ba tlxo vl«ir 



of ttie world thnt the roncuitl cists in ; general oxprc^js. 

Co nondo qu'il venal t d'entrevolr, il 
iG considers! t, avoc ce regard frold qui 
est le regard d^flnitif. Lft uarla^je, 
mala pas d*a:"iov,r; la fa-.-'illc, naic pas 
de fratemlt^j la riehesae, naie pas de 
conscience J la boatite^ male pas de 
pxideurj la jxstice, mala pas d'^quitcj 
• ♦..!''t nu fond de son ^.ig, 11 s'^cria: 
ha socl6t^ est la raai^tre. ..a nature est 
la n?ro. '.a aocl^td', c'est lo raoncle du 
corps;, la nature, c'est le uonde de 

ill - 1 'r . "^ I 

l:^- .:_.-'^:.^ 



M«ture appears to tho rooianticiat as eoiaposed of oez*tcdn 
definite pririary q^.ialitie8 in hisnan nature* Nature^ in nan^ 
is feeling — raona, religious, aesthetic, artistic, passion- 
ate* The STinbolio aspeots of nature vihich appear throu^ 
personage nay* therefore, be classified under certain genex*al 
heelings t virtue, 3?ellGion, beauty, art, and love* Morsovex*, 
the oriine i^hioii, in society, appsMPed as evil, is present in 
nature but does not assurie the guise of evlX* Nature, it 
apps^jtrs, holds naught but good and criae is trannouted to 
vl3*tue and even to the apotheosis of the ideal* 

The syiapat^ietic personage, par exoell@Eioe, io ixsually the 
protagonist of the novel in idiieh he appears* This is not to 
say, of course, that he will be necessarily the sole s/Brpathetio 
pex*sonage in the novel* Hor is it Inevitable that the pro- 
tagonist of a story saust be a synq^tiietio figure, v.liere an 
author such as Balzac is attofaptin^; to reproduce a complete 
picture of Parisian society, it is neltlier politic nor possible 
to base c»ie*s Jud(pnents on a single phase of that wox^ and 
neglect the rest, no t!K>z*o then it is politic or possible to 
Jtidge the quality of on© personage in a novel without any 
attwitlon to the relationship iihi<^ he bears to the other pers- 
onages* The same general vamlng t»lght be issued in regard to 
Chateaubriand whose two novels, Atala and Rene * were conceived of 
as eompanion pieces belonging to a single work. Oautier's 
nox^ also pres^its a special case for. In nany instances, his 

204. present one single personage. To Jiuige of the final 
value of this personage it is advis&ble to offset one etory 
by anotdier and to jtidge the single s^bol in the li^t of a 
siora general picture* It oust be ret«teiabered also that the 
per8<mage who has the role of interpreter la given tlie final 
vovd and so la nada j^aA>olio of the supr«o» virtue* 


A general survey of the aj^i^athetio protagonists of rcmiantlcisa 
reveals <moe more the fact that it ia aa an abstract quality 
that iStim^ myaS^llze virtue, caiaotas is the pzdsiitive neni ha 
has knom eivilization and has fled tvaa it back to the world 
of nature with iidil<^ he finds himself in hanaony. Delphlne'a 
happiness as veil aa her virtue is love. 'IQiia is anong t^ 
first atatest^nts tliat she nalcea in regard to herself t "-• -Ja 
n*al qu'im but« Je n*ai qu^un deair^ c*est d'etre aimee dea 
parsonnes avec qui Je via." (1) And aho repeats this idea 
latert *'— L*flffiiour saul m* inspire le bien ccnxiie le mal." (2) 
This is all that we ever Imow about Delphine. Corinne is a 
Delphine ifidio has dedicated herself to the fine arts and c^pears* 
tharefore^ to oombine art and virtue in the abstract quality 
of enthualasBo* 

ftigp's nrotag<mi8ts azN» all chanpiona of the oppressed or 

of tlie oppressed classes of society. For the moat part» 

de Staelf Delphine . 540. 
Ibid. . 477, 


theee champions of the weak and poor end downtzNxlden ax*e 
tbamselves subject to the yoke of oppre8ai<xa« But in apite of 
the JLapIaoabls fa«« soelaty turns to thea^ these protagonists 
feel tofwuxi the world only love and pity — love for thoir 
fellows, pity for suffering, 'iliia l07e and pity is evldenotd 
idkMrever they find contact with the world* They are all willing 
to sacrifice tlieir lives for their love* They love but tliey 
suffer and tlieir suffering is because of those material circum* 
stances lAiich separate thesi frcm love — u^iness, lack of 
social graces^ forced exile from social life* !Qie love whiob 
is Delphine*8 sole expression in life reappears, thez^fore* in 
AagiB as tbs sols node of his protagonists* 

XAV» £higo*s and Chateaubriand's, Vigny*s s^napathetic protagonists 
are yoimg men* Aiaong them Bmiaud serves to illxistrate 'Vi0iy*s 
typical protagonist for, since he is a non«historical figure, 
it is easier to disengage the essential traits with vkMch Vi^y 
actuAlly endows htm* In the case of tho historical fie^res, 
on the contrary, the reader is apt to read into the nazae his 
om preeoncaptions regardless of the xoanner in viiiich ixis picture 
coincides with the one tlie author actually p]?esents* Reziaud*s 
(^lalitiea may be suianarized into on^ 8tat€»aent* He is a saan 
disillusioned with exteznal reality* Renaud has come to place 
all his faith on a spiritual ideal of honour vhich he discovers 
by looldjng wi tibln his own s«uX* He is, therefore, living by 
the li£^t of a truth he has found within himself* Indeed, of 
all of Vi^y's syaqpathetio personages it may be caid that they 
i^pear as such because they prefer to be true to the faith 


In theaasolvee and to the txniths revealed to theeu frcoa vithdn 

rather than accept the motives for action provided by che 

external world* Hence the poet and the soldier ax*e reduced 

•aeentially to the aaao personage for tae mainspring of their 

beliefs and actions liea in the sane conviction t that the 

trut^ z*eside8 in en inner revelation not in outer i^ality* 

Vigoy es^lalne Bmunid's ocRiolusionat 

Uhe fcnaete Invincible le soutient contr© toxis et 
oontre Ivii-o^^oe ^ oette pens^ de veiller sur ^ 
tabernacle pur« qui est dazui aa poi trine oobba un 
second coe.rr (^ siegerait un d^eu* De la lui 
viwanent des coneolaticms interieuros d*autant plus 
h^lkX^a q^*tl ea i,^u>re la source et la raiuci 
veri tables; de la aussi des z*ev^atiana soudalnes 
du Vraiy du Beau« du Jtistet de lia luie luraidre 
qui va devant Itii, (l) 

Vi0^*s syapatl^etio figures are^ aotuaHy^ therefore^ the 

eluaqpions of intellectual superiority and* because of their 

individual superiority* they aiM» non-confozciists* 

But all^iou^ tliey are aristocrats of the intelligmoe, thi^ 
are siioilar to the protagonists mentioned above in this 
respect: the voice they obey is the voice of nature and in 
th* Midst of society they remain isolated by that very fact* 

8and*s protaccniists are usually wammn and in this she shorn 
hsr affinity with Itoe* de Stael* Orheir superiority consists 
in their capacity for feeling (Indiaaa and Juliette) and in 
this respoct tliey tdnom at once a €arslly resenblance to Delphlne 
and to Jean Valjean* Their virtue consists in this natural 

(1) Vigtiy, Sei'vittide et fxrandeur militairea , o5l« 


natuxsl feeXlng and does not corresptmd to tmy aoclal ccoi- 

v«ntion« They are individualists and qo tlxeir cboci way 

depending for guidance only upon the instinctive voice of 

^eip hearts. Ylhat Quintilia says is true of all of thenit 

•-> Je no sais pas oe (jue o*est que la vertui j<y 
erols cofstae on eroit "^ la Providence^ sons la 
d^finir, sans la cotspv&adi^* Je ne e%4>e pas ee 
que e*est que de ooaibattre aveo 8oi««i«ae| je &*en 

suls jamais 
il Ismais^aenti le 
jrcdtnrfe ou Je ne 
voulais pas alleri |e me suis livxHBO ^ toutes ims 
fantaisies sans jamais ^tre en danger* (1) 

This is merely another manner of stating that these instruments 

of feelijis are naturally rjood, or bolleve that they are, and 

find their i^iole law of life in instinctive desire* And far 

removed as Stello or JUlien rnay appear to be frosa svioh 

personages as Lelia^ Ccmsuelo^ and Ijacr^zia« It is evident 

froa <4ttlntilia»8 speech that tJae poet's virtue which la to 

seek the truth vithin his o\m nature corresponds to the iponsa's 

virtue, ii*i5ch seeks its truth within her ovm natxire. 

TVhat the reader of Balsac remembers clearly Ic noz so jxxc^ a 
series of distinct individual personages but i^ther groups of 
personages* He has had a vision of a world in which people 
•ppeaTt dieapp^u*, and reappear* This world is conpoacd 
chiefly of doctors, lawyers, jud^joc, joumalista, financiers, 
prtesta, U8ure:t»s, lelsux«ed arietocmlss, GOvemmeBt elQi^m, 
writers^ stnd artists, •There i\ro also scientlsta, ooldlox^, 
concierges, and oriiiinals, --^ in fact, all tjie roles that man 

(1) Sand, lie Secret aire Intiiae* II., 183. 


can play In society, Th© wonen \(dio appear are either d&aijutmvs, 
td.ve8» courtesans, or racssibors of the aristocratic leisure 
class* Balzac's world Is literally, therefore, a repreoeantation 
or aoclet^ and of a given civilization. In tale repreeetitation 
every calling or class is oX-vea Its due place. This i^^ans 
that BaXaac nust deliberately have cocQjosed his wOi»ld wltii 
this ptirpos© in mlad* IQien we tiilnk of Poplnot, for exan^le, 
we tiiink of liim firat as a judge, o:ay secondarily as on 
upri^t judge. Balzac 3ms preswated him to ua under ti^ 
•^MBies apparently, first in respect to his eocial functl<m, 
then in respect to tlie emmer in nfriich lie fulfils that function. 

The social function of a given personage may be inherently 
8ysq;>athetic or antipathetic. We raay, that is, retMUbering that 
Poplnot is a judge, be predisposed to regard him favourably 
•ven before ve look closely to inquire Into his individual 
qualities. This disposition to judge aoeording to social 
functlooa laay be rmterlally influenced by the author's ?olnt 
of view even if that point of view runs counter to our ori£;inal 
prajudlco. It is quite possible to fiiid an auttjor who writes, 
fop exBi^le, of all journalises with sympathy or of all 
politicians with contumely, or vice versa. 

What le Belaac'a practice in tlxis respect? Are there any 
soclni, fNinotions «feiioh ai*© jxlitOBt invariably coniioctod with 
the presentation of i^mpatl\etlo perscmaGOS? To answer tliis 
questicai requires a consideratlcm of some of Balsac's most 
favoured persmxages. 1!ho, of ills more i8^ox*tant personages. 


are those i*M>ffl we can without hesitation call syu^athetlo? 
Wo way naia© iKxaedlately d'Artihez, Sugea-ilc, Pierrette, David 
8«ohazti, time* &e Itorteauf, ?!• Bcnassis, the "cure' de Tour's", 
Poplnotf til© marciuie d*E«pard, Joseph Drldim, Esther, Cenille 
Heaipin, Wm&m de la C3:)anterle« Haboui^din, Ceaar Birott^nt, 
Up8ul« Ulxvmet* Wo have naned, tiiat is, a writer, a doctor, 
a priest, a Judge, an aristocrat of tlie old school, a painter, 
a govemn^t ecQ^loyee, an invontor. We liave ncssedytootwcosn^a 
who lncl\jdo in their nxaaber a courtesan and a raeriber of Paidalan 
oooiety altiiow^ the otliere are mxmn oonoex'Jiod only \»ith 
foBiily or charltablo duties* This aigniflos a fairly catliollc 
taste* But the Bal2sacian society does ^low certain professions 
eaad oertiiin social fwrictions to isear a sytapathetlo inter- 
pretation with than much /aore fre<iuontly ttum ot!ier». Moreover 
cei'tain social functions are always interpreted throui;^ vm- 
s^fi^^thstic figures* Balsao^s syi^athstlo personages are drawn 
moat largely frora tlie prlosts, the doctors, and ths wooen ^os© 
lives are passed witiiin tlielr fajRiily circle, absorbed In 
domestic duties and bound by family ties* It is evident, 
however, from the varied list wo liave just presented that the 
syiapatlietic figure does not i*ocessarlly belong to any one 
aacaig these classos* The criterion does not depend on the 
social fimcticm alone for :lf , as we have seen, a courtesan nay- 
appear amonc the sy3:Q>athetlo persona^jes, ne"rert!i©lesQj tluo 
general rale oi" the courteaan is oroaented tmder an unfavour- 
able liiilit* 

Thex« is, however, one coracion quality ascribed to every one 


Of the 8;yTnpathetlc flrarea nentloned above. They all possess 

a sense of their social diity and they all reconjilse a certain 

responsibility to society. This means that their e^oisni Is 

liialted by their social instincts and thnt they ar© capable 

of disinterested lovo, disinterested ^^^id/^ment, and disinterested 

charity, Reneo writes to Louis«: 

-- ••..l*Ainour est un vol fait par l*etat social 
a l*^tat naturel; 11 est si pas soger jdans la 
nature^ que les ressoiirces de la society ne 
pouvent chani^er an condition nrinitive .... La 
socle td'f ma chore, a voulu etro f^ondo. En 
substltuant des aentlnents durables a la fugitive 
folie de la nature, ©lie a CiV^€ la plus c:!!:*ande 
cliosG hunainet la Panille, etcmclle base des 
Soci(?t<$s« Elle a sncrifld' I'horaKO aussi blran que 
la f atnne a son oeuvre .... ( 1 ) 

Cesar's virtu© is categorically explained by Balzac: 

lies institutions dependent entl^resient des 
eentiisents que lea horanes y attachont et des ^ 
grandeurs dont elles sont revenues par la pensee, 
— • Sourri d'ld^s reli.'.leuses, Birotteau 
acceptait la Jlistice pour ce qu'elle dovrait &tre 
aux yeux doe hotames, une representation dc la 
Society meme, ime avi^iiuste expression do la loi 
eonsentie, ind^pendante de la fonao sous laquelle 
elle se produit, (2) 

But Balzac's syr^jathetic peraonafres are not \mrelatod to tliose 

of the other rornantlolsts. They too live according to nature 

as this nature is expressed in them. Chaperon explains tliis 

truth to Minox^t in tliese terras: 

— Nous avons tm nous uii, sentinent du Juste, chez 
I'htxane le plus civilise coirmo ches le plus 
sauvage, qui ne nous penaet pas de jouir en paix 
du bien mal acquis aclon les lois de la^oci^t^ 
dans laquelle nous vivons, car les Sociot^s bien 

(1) Balzao, l^aBoiree dea detix .^eunes nari^es , 366, 367, 

(2) Balzac, f^/sar Biro:fct^u . 332o 


oORstita^B sont modoloes aur yordre rrifexe linpoee 
par Dieu aux nondes. Les Sociot^s sont en ceci 
d^or.l-tlnG divine. L*hoB8nie ne troxive pas d'id^eSy 
11 n*invente pas de foraos, 11 1ml te ies rapporta 
Gtcmcla qtul l»©nvoloppont de toutes p&vtB^ Xl) 

It is explicit In tails stat^ient that society Is natural to 

xaan; that .It is, in fact, tlirou.;;^ feeling that man suTmlts 

to the social order and thus approaches the d5.vino, Balzac 

writes t 

Mais la raison est toujours nosquine aupres du 
sentiment; I'une est naturellenent bom^e, corame 
tout ce qui^est positif, et 1* autre est inflni, 
Raisonner la ou 11 faut sentir est le propre dea 
ffines sans poz*t^« (2) 

Thm instinctive nature is virtuous and, theiroforo, the fi^ui?© 

xtio expresres that instinctive nature is virtue incarnated* 

^ois is to repeat what Q^intilia says or to agx»ee wit±i Stello 

and Renaud. 

Oautier presents the synmathetic persona e under a sli^^tly 
different li^ht. In fact, it is difficult to find among Oautier* a 
protagonists any vflio are linnedlately sympathetic. Of all 
these fi^roa i*ho appear in story after story only a few aeam 
to liiia worthy of sorioua attention. Tho otliers are the object 
of his ridicule, often gentle and scnetlraes far fron obvious 
but nevertheless, sufficient to deter tho tinwary reader frora 
any exorbitant adral ration, ITven those protaconiots tftiora wo 
may consider as sympathetic beoorao ao only aa the result of a 
certain convornion in their oriclnal attitude. Such a conversion 

(1) Balzac, iJrsule HJrouet , 242, 

(2) Balzac, t^ Famne de tx*ente ans < 118, 


is coranon to Rodolphe ( Celle-ci e t celle-la ), Tlburc© ( La 
Tolacai d*or ), and d* Albert ( gad<»!iolselle de Maupln )# They 
beccsne truo artists rather than impotent dilettantes because 
they accept ordinary reality without oi^jhing after Inpi^obablo 
fantasies. Exactly the same facts apply to each. They are 
alike romanticists v*io follow a fashion and do not find 
satisfaction in it. They are romanticists irf:io aj?e, thereupon, 
converted to tiie chaiwis v-snt exist In reality unspoilt by 
an artificial convention, cliaiins more difficult of access 
but grounded deeper in truth. They accept what nature offers 
and, in so doln^j, find themselves discardln.^ the superficial 
interpretations of beauty at the sane tine t^iat they feel the 
necessity for expression of anotSier type of beauty throu^ art. 

The sympathetic porsona^'^e is neceaaarily the vii»tuous personac©* 
Therefore, to discover the distinctive characteristics of 
the authors' favoured "types" is to discover the characteristics 
of virtue accoixilng to the conception of the particular 
author in question. 

Briefly, then, virtue for Chateaubriand resides in nature 
(Chacta«)j for ttae, de Stael in the woman \^io lives by the 
dictates of nature, that is, by love (Delphlne)j for Hugo in 
the laan of the people who has remained so close to nature as 
to seem almost in Tonconscious hannony with it (Quaslinodo), 
For Vlfjjiy virtue resides In the intellii^ence, an intelllGonc© 
rooted in instinct and so in nature (Chatterton), Notice tlmt 
Stello admires C!hatterton»s Drlraltlvlsm: " — Avoir alnsl 


d^poullle l»hoime riodcmel" (l) For Saiul virtu© resides In 
pure feellns (Indiana, laxcrezla, Jeanne). Marie describes 
Jeanne in these terms x "— ComblGn do fois, par des ifilsons 
de pur sentiment et avec la lumiere naturelle de son §n©, elle 
ra'a revelc des v^rltos sublines que mes lectures m'avalent 
fait sexilenent nreasentirl" (2) Of Ixicre'zla 3and writes: 
",,., aals helasl I'luaour etait sa vict en cessant d* aimer, 
elle dovnit cesser de vlvre," (3) 

For Balzac virtue consists in the Innate soc5al feeling 
(Ursule, M, Benassis)* It consists especially In certain 
social functions, V/hen he describes the connotations of tlaree 
of these functions he represents M, Benassis as qIvItiq his 
reascms for his choice of profession. M. Benassis ro^rds 
the cur^ the doctor, and the Justice of the peace as the 
tliree principal elements necessary to the existence of society- 
conscience, health, and property. He cpea on to shov the 
union of the natural with the social to be the true necessity 
of virtue and to point out that. If civilization is to spread, 
the people oust be made to understand the way in i*iich the 
interests of the individual harmonize with national interests. 
As these three professions deal vrith these issues of human 
life, he considers them to be the most powerful clvlllzln{5 
agents of the time* (4) 

(1) Vlf^y, Stello . 62, 

(2) Sand, Jeanne < 177. 

(3) Sand, Lucr^zia I'^loriani , 269, 
DalBac^ "XjO WdecJn d!e oanpa^yie , 60,61, 



For Gautler virtue Is roprosented T 7 the artist and since 

tlie artist's goal is beauty, virtue for Oautier is beauty. 

It is recognised by tiie sonsea and eo la dependent on foeling. 

Now Balzao likewise makes virtue dependent on art Just as 

Gautler does alttiou^ for Balzac, the art vftilch supplementB 

or corroctfl nature is a certain type of society vshereas, for 

Gautler, the art which supplements or corrects nature Is one 

of the fine arto, Ursulc, for oxejaplo, la typical of 

balzaclan virtue. She is a vfouan and j-pvomed, therefore, by 

Instinctive feeling. So far, good. But there are oosslbilltles 

of evil in natxirc as Balsac presents it and It is tiie part 

of a virtuous social tradition to eliriinate or prevent the 

evil fi?om developing. He writes of Ursule Mirouet: 

Ureule apprcnait on se Jouant, La relit?lon contenalt 
la r^flexion,^ Abandonnife a la divine ctilture d'un 
naturol araene dana des r(5^1onn puree par ces trois 
prudents Instltuteurs, Ursule alia plun vora le 
sontli-ient quo vorn le devoir, ct prlt pour regie de 
conduit© la volx de la conscience plutot que la 
lol soolale, Choz clle, le beau dans les sentiments 
et dans les actions devalt ©t3?e spontane: le . 
jiAgeraent ^onflrmeralt l*<^lan du coeur, Elle etalt 
destlnee a falre le blen conirae un plaislr avant de 
Xe fail*© coimae mio obligation, Cetto nuance est 
le propre de 1» education clir^tlonne, (1) 

Of the baron de Guonic Balzac writes t 

II avait^es rellr^ions, des continents pour alnsl 
dire Innes qui le dloponsaltext de m^dlter, Ses 
devoirs, 11 loc avait apprls avec la vie. Les 
tosti tut ions, la Keligion pensalent pour lul, (0) 

Just so does Gflutlep recor-nlzo the possibility of ugliness 
(evil) in natxire. But d»Albort, tlie artist, possesses virtue 

(1) Balzac, Ursule Mirouet , 59, 

(2) Balzac, Beatrix . "^ 


find represents it becaiise hie artistic intelligence is able 
to see th© true beauty that natiire does offer, a beauty that 
to him appears incomparably superior to the artificial bewity 
of the salons, D* Albert Is woary of being shut up in hijiaelf. 
He v«»lte8s " — J'ai beau falre, jo n'ni pu oortlr de nol un© 
minute," (1) But one evening In a garden ho discovers that 
natuz>e can give hla the satisfaction society fails to jjive. 
He writes; "— Je ne pensais pas, je ne rivals pas, j'etals 
confondu avec la nature qui m'envlronnait— — J'etais tout oela, 
et Je ne crois pas qu'll solt possible d'etre plus absent de 
•oi-nt^e que Je I'etais a oet instont-la," (2) Neither art 
alone nor nature alone possesses complete virtue, Ai^ muat 
work in conjunction with nature and d*Albert, the artist, imist 
find his satisfaction through nature and express nature ttirouGh 
th© Intelll^^ic© in ordor to inco.mnto time virtue, Gautler 
sees virtu© only in th© artist who reveal3_ the beauty of tlie 
external universe through his art — not in the artist v*io 
Is content to feel that beauty without expressing it, 

Balzac and Gautler are, tJierofore, in acreement and tlxey botii 
differ soraeisdiat from the other ronanti cists in the presentation 
of virtue. It le obvlouu that, for these latter, virtue 
resides not in correct judr-cient nor pMlosophlcal reasoning 
but in th© develoiaoent of th© rudely instinctive part of sian's 
nature. Virtue is nature. To put it into another fom. 

(1) Oautier, M adenoisellc de Maupln , 97, 

(2) Ibid ,. 12?. 


Chactas* for example, la completely virtuous as long as h© 

l8 cor. letely iiatural. In Hut;o it la only tiie people ^s^io 

possess virtue, who are virtue, for tiiey do not recognize the 

social laws, do not even know or understand them. Their only 

Iftw lies in tiio necessities of tlielr natures. l*'or Vi^ny 

virtue x^sides in the poet who lias rwaained true to nature 

(to his nature) and hence has eschewed action. In this Vigny 

ehom himself to be in direct opposition to Oautler for the 

artist, to Gautier, is not virtuous if he roaalns in tae 

realm of pure foellng since art, after all, is action, Mnie, 

de Stael and Sand see the wonan as closer to instinctive nature, 

as more purely feeling than man. Hence their virtue is 

usually symbolized through woaaan i>athcr t!aan man, i%aoul tells 

Constance : 

— .'araour, nous ebions l-len d'accoi'd la-deosus, 
c'est I'ldo^al cle l»tf -vll' ' \lsque c'eat le 

supr^ie effoi.'t vers l*ast:. .^'cion des ^uos*,^.-. 

Vplla ce qui est aiTivrf; Je ne suls plus ton 
egal, (1) 

They agree, however, witli Vijiy and make the artist also 
representative of virtue, thus reoognisini^ Ms kinship with 
wonan and his equal corsmmion with nature, Sand also agrees 
witli Hugo and finds virtue to be, after :ai, incarnated in the 
peasant iid;iosG life is so close to nature as to be indistinguish- 
able from it. The peasant ploughing his field is as xaatOi a 
part of the unified picture of iiatui'al life as are his horses 
or tho earth itself, (2) 

(1) Sand, Constance Vcrrier , 242, 

(2) See tlie introduction to La Marf> au diable« 



Yet Balzac and Goutlei* do not entirely dleagree with their 
"cllow r^5iaaiitlcl3tc. For thean too the source of virtue mist 
rirst of all be In nat'ai*©. The society w'llch sustains It, the 
art tidilch recosnlsea It, .uv»- no criterion of jud{pEnent ^*Llch 
goes beyond nature to supersede Miat ?.d natural by ?ihRt is 
intolll^ent, SuggiiIg never ceaaes to live by feeling nor 
d* Albert to Joiow beauty throui^i his senses* D" Albert, however, 
finds a foza In this natural becuty and moiilds it throu^Ja the 

On the contrary, Vl^ny's Stello sees only the Ideal In nature 
and Injects the physical. The tnatter ^-ahich reives body to the 
spirit is for luiin alien and undesirable. In fact, i#ille Mne* 
de Stael and Sand represent absolute virtue throu^ wonen, the 
rfXiianticlsts in general represent nan not so rmioh as absolute 
virtue ae rotentially absolute virtue. Jl\i,fj* a heroes 
represent -virtue only vsfiien this virtue is enbolllshed by their 
contact vvitli tiiose otlier elements whitdi wore needed to complete 
it* This element for Jean Valjean, for example, is love* The 
l>otential absolute of virtue In Chactan wotild be reached were 
he to aabrace the Catholicism he Intends eventually to accept* 
K«ioe nature and whi\t Is natural In virtue but, for Balzac, 
for Oautior too, a certain foira nuot be given to the natural 
in or«der that It attain to tlio absolute of virtuef for liuso, 
Vl^iy, aid Cliatoaubriajid, a corta5.n element must be especially 
developed in nature in order that it reach this same absolute; 
for Gand imd I'too* de Stael, tlie virtue is absolute in woman 
for she contains in herself the two bluest forms of feeling;. 


Tx^onnior, for instance, rrrltcn tJmc to Iiella: 

l^nor^s do I'hoiane, n*avez;-vous pas ''*' — - (j a 
aon naux? lie -^r-averi-viun donnep aux n 
peu do la science que Dlou vous a dosm^ei (1) 

llxus Delplxlno, Corlnno, r<ella, Lucresla, and Therese ~ symbols 

of the dlvlno In nature — are incapable of falling belov 


The question as to \diether the virtue thus repreoentoci is in 
accordance with observation nay be raised and the probability 
of tiio symbols thus chosen nust be questioned* That the 
savage is endoiwd with the kindliness, refinonent of emotion, 
and wisdoa of a Qiactas is certainly problenatio. That the 
people contain the germ of virtue in lii^her degree than the 
other classes, tlxls too seems unlikely. Tlrxat woraan is nec- 
essarily virtu© does not agree with ordinary observation. Nor 
does it seem inevitable that the peasant should incarnate all 
virtue and refinement as in Jeanne, for Instance, while in 
another of Sand's tales the same cannisciencc and inhunan 
per'^ection bocomos the scientist's share. Yet the virtue is 
not ascribed to the Individual, Jeanne's superiority, for 
example, does not depend so much on her existence as an indiv- 
idual as it does on her relationsliip to nature, a relationsMp 
due to lier peasant life and her peasant simplicity. That this 
relationship is less observed tlxnn it is postulated is tlie 
necessary conclusion from the ccaaparison of some of the different 
conooptions of virtue mentioned above. If superlative viirtue, 

(1) Sand, Lelia . I,, 62. 


aa Vlgny sayt* reaideii in th« poet and only In the poet^ 
th«n his observe tiona differ profotmdly firata Rugous ito 
places superlative virtue in the people* B^oth differ from 
BAlaae iho places miperlative virtue In txvdltlon or froM 
CatutteaubrlaiMi itno places It in natural rellgloa. Ttm 
difference xoust lie in the subject not the object^ for virtue 
in the xuiiverse aust be objectively the mtmm even thou^ it 
be Isaaglned differently* 9he K&thov apparently postulates 
his idea of viz*tue and creates tiie individual pex*8onage to 
correspond to it« Hence* if the peasant has a peculiar claim 
to virtue in Sand*s eyes, Jeanne laust be unusually virtuous 
because she is a peasant v^iereas Stello is unusually virtuous 
In Vigny*e eyes because he is a poet* The virtue all these 
sytoboXs x^presenty therefore » is not the result of iaaiedlate 
observation. Thaj are ideal symbols created to correspond to 
an idea of reality originally obtained from observation « 
pex4iaps« but later subjected to the author's individual feeling* 


Hie element of crime in the universe cannot of couinse be over- 
looked no matter how optimistic the roriantioist* If crime is 
lnevitable« then the faitli in nature as the infallible pz*odueer 
of good nfiist falter* Evil as symbolised in the criminal » 
therefox>e« is one of the most illuminating of the roraantlolst 
ocmceptions. Even more so is virtue as symbolised in the 


Tlie figure of Um> orimlnal appfare onXj in BaXzao^ Hu^o, and 
Sand, Tills is a oortacntary on tlie fact that Qiatoaubriand, 
ne. de Stael« Vigny, and Gautier are losa concerned with the 
crime «^i(di spxdn^a frcsa evil than tii^ are with tl^ie actual 
sources of tliat evil. As a large el«aent in society, however, 
it is, of course, impossible for Balzac to neglect it, Hugo 
appears to be ohlefly concerned vritli those cleraents in life 
^ihich suffer nost frcm a mcuunade social orcanization since his 
principal porsonaces represent the results of evil. 

The criiainal is a coramon figure in Uuqo* a v7orIc but he is, 
ordinarily, a sytapatlietio percona^je. This is true of Sand 
liko?ri8e but the criminal ia tiie exception in her wox^ rather 
than the rule, Trenr^or in L^lia is, poi^haps, the most 
interesting example. He, too, is a ayiqpathetic figure. In 
Balzac's work the criminal appears In the figure of Farirabesclio 
In Le Cure de vlllar.e . But the difference in attitude betv/een 
Hugo and Balzac in regard to society is icsaediately apparent 
hex>e. To Balzac Farrabesche is the reformed criminal. As 
such he is a sympatlietio figure. Out Jean Valjean, vftio made 
himself a criioinal for lutnanity's sake, was never a c^^irainal 
in Hugo's eyes, Yet vdiether tliey have been or are Ci^irninals, 
Claude Gueixx, Jean Valjean, Ti>enraor, and Farrabesche are alike 
represented as saints. In what tlien does their crime consist 
and in vAiat tlxoir virtue? 

Jean Valjean and Claude fluexix are ti»eatGd similarly, liave 
coraaitted the sniae criine, and are of the sane patient, non- 


comprehending teraperoaent. There is not necessarily, therefore, 
injustice and hate in crixne since neitlier exists in the 
instinctive nan Claude Guexix nor Jean Valjean, Vfliat does exist 
is natural necessity. Crime in thoin In tlie result of poverty 
and hunger not of natural viciousness. Crime is, in fact, 
tlie result of natural beneficence for it is to satisfy the 
needs of the ooor and wee^ that Claude Gueux and Jean Valjean 
become criminals. Hence their first crime is the result of 
love rather than hatred. If crime is a violation of the social 
convention, tlien Jean Valjean woxild be criminal. Bjut, to 
Hugo, crime is, ratiaer, an outrage attains t natural love. Hence 
society is represented as the criminal and Jean Val.lean as 
the saint. Thus Jean Valjean* s suffering; becomes a paradox 
and Hugo represents, throu^ his sentimental symbolism, the 
fact that society itself must, tlicrefore, be a paradox. 

Social crime is. In Hugo, equal to natural virtue and t*ius 
his symbol mokes, in sentijuental fashion, an indictnent of 
society. In Sand, tiae emphasis varies ijut the paradox remains. 
fSiereas Jean's crime was the result of need, Trennor's 
crimes weie the result of passions connon to all human nature 
but carried in liim to the extx»ecie of self-indulgence. 
H«ace it is possible to say that Tronmor, too, is punished 
by constituted society because lie haa confonned to nature 
rather than to society. The Sandlan syabol cai^ries to the 
extreme of logic the premise Uvlqo rrmy have nought to restrain 
within the limits of the probable. The paradox in Sand's vwrk 
appears in tlie fact that she represents Tienrior's subsequent 


virtue as duo to the same passions vdiich load made of hlrt a 
crinlnal* Troniaor has known all paaalon and his suffering 
has made his pasalon result In love and understandlnf^ of his 
fellow man, Stenlo th«i describes hlia as "la vertu 
parsonnifie©'* (1) and his friend Edmeo desicnates Ti?©ninor*s 
hunanltarlaniaa and the project Inspired by it as "co vm.9 
subline". (2) St^lo addrosoes Irenmor In the presence of 
Uag^us In those exalted texws: " — .... vases d*^lectloni 
saints qui etes aortis d'un calerien et d'tai protrel " (3) 

Crlno In Trennor results In humanltarianlsm just as it did 
in Joan Valjean. Treranor seeks to 'jive nan political freedoaa 
uhereas Jean Valjeon seeks to give man material freedom* 
Both actvially are trying, therefore, to give man the freedora 
\iflilch will result fi»oni doralnatlnc society rather than being 
dominated by it. Crlrae in Sand as in Hugo is natural and 
shows a nature capable of tlio love of hunanity. The arsument 
is tliat, if this is so, society must be unnatural. The evil 
is in vAiat Is unnatural — In society — and ci^ime is the 
atti?ibute of society not of nature. 

"aei'e IIu^p and Sand oppose society to nature, Balsac opposes 
one society to anotlior. Hence Balzac recognises t3iG criminal 
as such tsdiereas Hugo and Sand, in denying the responsibility 
of nature^ deny crime In nature. But, though PaxTMabes die's 

(1) Sand, Leila, I., 47. 
^2) Ibid . .T.\. 100. 
(3) ICTd .. II,, 334. 


crimes are Uie result only of his nattiral passions, hla Dr>etiim 
td society le a return to family life and to a life iniled by 
tradition not by Individual ambition. He is Ixencoforth iniled 
by faiaily love and not by egoistic passions. Crime, In Balzac, 
results, accordlncly* from the eco and is i*edeemod by its 
exile from tiie society based on ecoism and its return to a 
different society, a society baaed on true social love» '^ib 
hunanitarlanlffia of tiie criminal in Hug© and Sand becoaes, in 
Balsftc, tlie love of family, of rel5.,;ion, and of social tradition, 
Hevertlieless, the symbol is surprisingly alike In all tliree 
auttiors sine© evil has its source in ttio constituted socletyj 
virtue its source in an exile vghldi forces nan to find his life 
in nature, or "n a society vAvlch repr^esents the social lo^re 
in nature* 

The vlclousnoss of the criminal for Huco is that vlciousnoss 
which battens upon society. Ills picture of Thenardier, for 
example, roay be exaggerated but is not improbable. The criminal 
exists emd it is possible to represent the criminal as obseirved 
in society. But the saintliness of the criminsJ. \s^o rejects 
the social criterion and substitutes as his standard of 
Judgaent the feeling; of solidarity with lumlcind is, to the 
ordinary reader, leas self-evident. Tlie metamorphosis which 
<rfian^ea Jean Valjoan ovemit^it so that bxMtcJ. ignorance becomes, 
straightway, wise humility is extremely improbable. Apparently 
this clieiv;e is destined to conform to an idea since It scarcely 
conforms to pr^bioility. Tlie some thin^^ is true of Tronmor. 
That the idle and dissolute criminal should forthwith become 

yy4 . 

the voice of wiodom and the dlainterested lovor of mankind 
Indicates to ttie reader a theoretical situation offeiNsd by 
Sand aa probable in spite of any natural dotibts susgesteti by 
experience, llor is it much loss liupi»obabls that Farrabesche, 
the wild and reckless, should liave beoomo the dependable and 
devout nan he is shown to be. The autlior who presents the 
orininal as a saint T/ho is more saintly than the oonmon nan 
must inevitably seem to shai^ a coimaon prejudice ^Ich requires 
the postulation of an idealised version of the criminal 


Love, in Sand's work, is in bitter opposition to society, an 

opposition more articulate and raore violently expressed than 

in the work of her fellow romanticists. The flcures wiiich 

are symbolic of the ideal love oxprenn a nonaistont eaulty 

toward every phase of society, Leila's scepticism is less a 

condemnation of love than it is an indiotrient of society. 

Society has made the existence of love impossible, Lelia 

complains bitterly to Pulcherlct 

— Hals telle que je suis, Je voudrals d'une vertu 
quo j© puBS© conprendre; et, iioa f^.io aepijcait 
a la vertu par 1' amour, je ne coinp rends plus I'un 
sans I'autre, Je ne puis pas aliaer lUmuumlteT* oar 
ell© est peinrerse, cuplde et lache, II faudralt 
croiro a son pi^ogres ©t Je n© 1© pexxx. pas, — >-• • 
C'eat ainsl que tout easal do cette vie ideale a 
mlserableiient ^clioue^entre des etz*e8 qui eussent pu 
s* identifier l*un ^ 1* autre, sotxs I'oell d© Dleu, 
dan© un monde neillcur. (1) 

(1) Sand, r ^ia. I., 1B9, 


Pulcherlo replies » 

— La fauGC on eat v.Oiic a la soclet^i^ (1) 

But Sand haa not waited for tiie bitter disillusionment of a 

Leila to serve as tb.e Judge of society. In Indiana ah& begins 

her attack. If Ralph, vfi\o exeinpllflec true i'oason, condemns 

ooclety, Indiana, v.-lio Is the perfection of love, agrees with 


Indiana r — '" :: lntorotr> dc In. civilisation 
friges Cii . i, 1g3 ide'ea droltos^et lea 

lola eiraplGB du bon oens do I'liunanlto. (2) 

The visitor to the carthl - paradise r/here Indiana and Ralph 

have round tlielr Ixappineaa in seclusion Is the Interlocutor 

i4io occasions Sand's reply through the words of her favoured 

creation, llalph, T!i© visitor says: 

— ^uelquen 'wralistes f^r'. votre oolitude; 
lis pr^t^ident que tout i appartient a la 
aocl^td', qui le reclame. On ajoute que^vous 
donnez aux honties un exemple dangereux a sulvre, 

Ralph replies: 

— La socle te no dolt rlen exlge^ de oelul qui 

n* attend rien d'elle,— — 4"u,ant a la contagion de 
1* exemple, Je n*y crols pas, nonsleurj 11 faut 
trop d'cner^^le de rp'npvo avec J,g r:onde, trop de 
douleurs pour acqueidi* cotte energle. — -- Ne 
rompe:: i^'Oti^t Iog c'l'aVi.oQ qui -Kf^^is l.ient a la ^ 
Bocl^te'', rospectez see lois si dies vpus pi70te£;ent, 
prises ses ju^einents s'lls vous sont equltablec; 
nmls si, qiielque jour elle vous calomnle et vous 
z*epousse, ayes nssez: d'ori;;;uoll pour savoir vous 
passer d*elle. (3) 

y i^entln e likewise is oorientod by the same anti-social spirit. 

Sand writes: "Pauvres feruieal pauvre socle to ou le coeur 

n'a do verltables jouissances que dans I'oubll de tout devoir 

CD Sand, LQliu, I., 139. 
(2) Sand, Indiana , 152, 
(S) Ibid,, 333. 


©t de touto ralaoni" (1) Sie inspires -Benedict, the idsal 

lovor or the novel, with, trie liatred of society, a vaguo 

prlml tlvtsia, and tho Intention to retreat to a rustic aolitudo. 

Jacques, the apostle of love, sutia up Sand's oai'ly attitude i 

-~ Je n^ai^x^s chttii^e J'^vla, Jo ne rie suis pas 
reconcllle' avec la socle te^ et le marl age est 
toujour a, solon riol,^uri© d8,8 plus barbarofi insti- 
tutions qu'elle alt ebsuohees* (2) 

Love la represented as the goal of human life and an existence 
without love Is the (greatest calamity possible to the rcsnantlc 
personage. This is Bone's tjmgedy as it Is Mile, d*Albemar*8. 
fha l&tter wx*ltes: "->« Lea f^ssnes n*<mt d* existence que par 
1* amour: I'hlstolre de leur vie cc«anejice et finlt avec 
1* amour*" (3) M, de Lebenaei might be a second Rene as h« 
writes t "-- . L'iMposoibillt^de s* aimer depouillo la vie du 
pi*emler bonheur que lul avalt destine la natax>e«" (4) Silvia 
writes her credo to Jacques: "~ Je sals quo I'araour seul 
est quolque chose, je sals <|u»H n'y a rlen d* outre sur In 
terre.** (5) And Jacques replies: •*— II n*est qu'un bcmheur 
au aonde, c'est I'aiaourj tout le rests n'est rien, et 11 
faut 1* accepter par vertu," (6) 

To attain love is to attain God since God Is love* It is the 


Sandf Valentine . 117* 
. . Sand, Jl'aoqueB r~5G* 
(5) !&»* de Sta^, Eelplxlne * 346, 
'4) Ibid *. 532* 
\6) Sand, Jac(|iiea . 59* 
,6) Ibid 

, Ja c q T Li< 

love Chactaa experiences for Atala that will X*& trap ^mul-ed 
into thfc love of Uod. The prieet tells his flock to love cm© 
another find so thoy will manifest their love for God* It is 
tlae love in laajn v*ii<ai Is the indication of Ills cneiieas witJi 
God* It ia thin oneness iftiich iflll result in t!).a apotheosis 
of typea of love vliich aro not d©fiii"'tely religious. 

The religion I^liphlne, for cxnn^lo, s^nbolises is the alemfflit 
of love* Her life represents the principle of love and ths 
search for the satiBfactlon of love* This Doaroh encoiinters 
in its path ttiQ different types of nattiral love p'llch cucoe^ 
in glvlns satisfaction* Of these different types of natural 
love all belOH'^ to nature; all are, tJierefoire, represented 
by sympathetic figures* Thore ia I>I11g* d»Alb^mar, tfcxe* de 
Belinont, I4ce* de X^sbensei^ and Haie* de Cerlebe, fAlld* d'AXbemar 
represents religious love but the Sfttlsfactions whlcli religious 
love may find In nature aro, s>ie acknovrledges, only sscond- 
Dost* Religious love Is a result in hei» of her incapacity to 
inspire earthly love* The aspiration of religious love (of 
MUe* d*Albec3ar) laust be directed towa3»l heaven before having 
enjoyed the satlBfactions w!ilch belong?: to earth* But the 
element of loi'e sums up the nature repreaented in all ^'ansm* 
IIllc, d»Albffmrir*B statenents corrobo^'ato I>olphlne*s as to the 
slgnificfmce of herself on<1 ot the other wonai anperirln^t In 
the novel. The religion w*iloh Delphino synibolizos is not l^iat 
of do(5Eia but of love* The virtu© she symboliaes is not that 
cf frinciplea but a virtue determined by love* Hor beauty is 
the beauty of love* Tlils fact malces clear the reason for the 


uiiiai of th© sysabol of religion, virtue, and beauty in cno 
person. Tlie roliGlon that 1« utilltarianlam, tiie virtue that 
is Inpulslvc, tiie bonuty that is nu.t\ira3., all arc Lolphiue 
for I^IphlnG is love and tlxese or-c ita qualities, 

oand follGWB im&» de Steel ir. using wcaaen as the eyiabols of 
pcriect love, l^h© perfection in thera they In tuwi seek to 
discover in exterior naturo. The pex^fection ao ccaiKitai in 
Y/oman — so universal. In fact, in the ironan uncorrupted by 
society — ie, however, more i?arely present in laan. 'Shlu 
represents Sand's view, as it does l-ixaio* de Stael'a, tlmb tiM 
perfection of neture is love and that txio perx^ection of ruituro 
la 53orc generally present In wonsji than in man* llanlcincl*s 
angollc tor^encica are reprenonted ty vooan. She is feeling 
in its hlcihest form, feelinc dlviniaed as lore. L^lla, for 
escaenplo, knows herself to b© tl^e perfection of love. B»it sli© 
desires the reasaurarice tZait will be here if, sisido froa loer 
subjective experience) of the divine in natuire, sh* mi^^t aleo 
be able to find an objective o<:>rollary to tills exporienoe. 
Her conception of love as the source of happiness is a 
repetition of Delphine's attitude. Bat Delphiiie, representative 
of love outside aarrla^e, aeeks to convert her love into the 
perfection of marrlod love. But lAlia is the neophyte 1*10 
doubts the existence of her Ood an^l doubts thfit h«y search for 
this CJod Tfill be rewarded. ICet, even in her tor1ra-r^ <^* 
indeolalon, even in her scepticlsia, she is true to the Ood of 
l«>ve whose cxlctenco she doubts. There is, believes, 
in the very an^^i^ of her doubt, an afflnaaticwi. Such an 


arflxnation in Its positive fona jraappears in Juliette 
wftiose ^ahoXe life is dominated by, imd subbhkI up in, love. 

The love nhioh is Indiana, Valentine^ IiM.ia, Juliette ^ 
Quintllia, Eoid. Sand's mmerous other perfect women, is re- 
presented as passionate love* At the same tlme^ love, vhioh 
la perfection, is, therefore, divinity* ^eae woiaen represent 
a love nhiiSi confounds passion with religion* (I) Already in 
Chateaubriand Am^lie and Atala appear to repx^esent tSie two 
•lesMmts — passion and religion — > fused and unified in their 
perscms* Xn VkoBm de Stael's vorfc too passionate love l!3ielphine) 
ymm always at <me with religion. 

Bat Sand does not always ascribe to perfect love the same 
ohar«,oteriatios« At times a love is syxottolized <-- in Indiana, 
for exQB^le — > #iose spizdtual quality seeans to be equivalent 
to the evanescent passion which aocca^panies it and seeaas, in 
fact, to be its most important Ingredient. At times it is a 
love -*• lucr^aiA, for instance -« which is assimilated to 
Christian cdiarity* On still other occasions, ideal love -- 
I^Mrese-o is represented as a maternal, cherishing* protective 
love* That she seeana, actually, to the reader, to be passionate 
love does not prevent Ssund fz^xa describing her passion as 
oluixdty* Sometimes the perfection of love is symbolized in 
such woraen as Ecbniie, Consuelo, and Leucipi^* It is thsn 
eternal in its quality and lasts even beyond life* Sometimes, 

(1) See Seilliere, Seor^e Sand * ftrstjque de la passion* de la 

politique* et de X'art * 



on the contvaxYt t±uB perfection of love is spaiaolised in 
auch a msoan aa Femande* iSne appears aa love but as a love 
fihlch is Involuntary In her. Love, Indeed, depends on God 
tacuig therefore, in Its direction and i&uc^tion, is indeptt^ent 
of men's will* Therefore, infidelity in love — Infidelity 
in FemasKle •»• cannot Im blasied since sudi infidelity is in 
the nature of man sncL resides, therefore, in tiie divine end 
not in the hiasaxi;* But infidelity in love is inccHisistcnt «ith 
eternity in love* Fexnaade as a eynbol is inconsistent , that 
is, with Lfloeippe. Bat, thou^ Sand is not consistent in the 
iiualities liiich ei» ascribes to perfect love, she is$$t«it 
in her attitude toward woman as its representative. Wanaa.f 
because i^e is love, is divine, angel rather than fle(^ and blood* 

ISie divine origin of love is consciously symbolized in the 
Xegmid of Evador and Leucippe. ISie woisian receives t2is know* 
ledge of divixxity and love from tiie "dive", the last repvssent- 
ative on earth of a race partaking of the godlike nature* The 
wemack th«n interprets tdiese universal truths to man* It is 
Vt» voaan iribo is the bond betvesn nan and the source of know- 
ledge, the "dive"* Voawn is the intezviediary, therefore p 
between isan and God* Leucippe* a knowled.^e is a knowledge of 
God and, therefore, of love* Ihen she initiates Evenor to 
truth, she initiates him to love &rA he too will syaiboliae 
perfect love* Both ISvenor and Leucippe, tlierefore, are the 
perfection of love and beoaeie the carriers of a new gospel to 
mankind, the gospel of love* All nature is the msaifestation 

of God* 8 love and it is throu^ love, tliroiich Leuelppe, that 
Bvenor coc^s to know Ood« (1) 

TiM raystioiaoi of lovo is, in fact, ao oXearly stated In Sand 
that It is the most Imnedlate diaracterlstic of her wor^c to 
strike the att«itlon. Thla is quite plainly the case also 
with Chateaubzdand and I'^ne. de Stael. It la no leaa obvioma 
In EuGO» The sgnibol of natural religion, Biidiop Magloire, is 
the ayabol of religious love* The ideal of love is <xcm of 
instlnetive love of humasilty and inatlnctive ootspaaaicm* 
Eaaaralda i&ows these qualitiea itktn ahe saves the imlmo«a 
Grlngoire from death and utien ^e ministers to Quasimodo sufferins 
cm the pillory* In her tdie instinctive love is tlie love of 
jfliysical beauty (i^oebus). In Fantine the instinctive love la 
passionate love* In Cosette it is the love of t^e natural 
virtue (Jean Valjean) mincled with the love of the social virtue 
(Marius)* In Derujdiette love is a spiritual love (love for 
the youni* sinister, the Rererend Joe Caudray). And, finally, 
in Dea the love is the love of the people (Gvynplaine)* The 
quality of their love is detenained by its object for this love 
la the sole determinant in thera of any distinguislhing character-* 
istio* Wamx tro say that Dea la love and that her love is for 
the people, ve are, at the same time, identifying; Dea vitii the 

(1) The some allegorical statement appears in the earlier Lea 
sept Conies de la lyre * There Sand expresses tlie same pre" 
idorainanoe of' sentiment over reaaon aa a guide to religloua 
truth* The spirit of the lyre slnsa to Il^l^net "La creation 
eat le oorpa ou le vdtammt de Dieu| elle eat infinie eoBRie 
1» esprit de DlefU* La er^ation est divine; I'esprlt est Dleu* 
-— « Pille des hasmea, ton «tre est divln, ton amoor eat Dleu*" 
( Sand, Lea sept Cordes de la lyre * 7S). 


people as Ggv^ploine do««t "••«• xaais Dea, c'etait le peuplel 

Doa, c*etalt I'orpheline, c*etalt l*aveugXe« c'etait l^^humsaltet" (l! 

Thus Emsralda «lio loves beauty l£ beauty. Cosette iho loves 

the social outoast ie^ tSie social outcast* Hhen she eoraes to 

love the representative of society flh© becomes a loeanbep of 

society. Deru^ette nfoa loves the spirit is the spiritual 

aspect of nature* And the daaract eristics of all thete lov«« 

(Kf the saans* They are instinctive and cozT^assionate^ hcsEa«m« 

itazdsn and spiritual* knA once nor* it is in woraan that love 

exists in its ideal fons* 

fhe love Vigny represents as ideal is lilravise a ocnpassionatft 

love* ©lis is a spiritual love aMn to religious charity* It 

appears syaibolised in !CLtty Bell but it also appears in its 

ideal form in the poet, in Stello^ for example* Stello, in 

defining himself as EK>et, also defines himself as love* It la 

the principle of love in him which is the ?&ole principle of 

his art* It will be recalled that he es^resses himself 

categorically in this regard: 

— Je sens s'^teindre lea <^lairs de 1* inspiration 
et las clartM de la p9nB49 lorsque la foroe 
Ind^lnissable qui soutient ma vie* I'Amour, cess* 
dtt ae rempllr de sa tfialeureuse puisaaiieei et* 
loxv^'i|> circule en raoi, toiat© mon ^aim en est 
llXunin^f^ Je erois comprtmdre tout it la toXB 
I'Etemlte, yEspace, la Cr^tion, lea cr^turee 
•t la Destineei e*«8t alors que l*Illuaien» i^imlx 
mx pluaags dore, vient se poser snr mes l^vres, 
et cliante* 

Mais je crois que« lorsque le don de fortifier lea 
faibles ccomencera de tairir dans le Poite* alors 

(1) Htif^o, L^HoBPe qui rit* III*, 208, 


susbI tarira aa vlei car» s*il n*est bcm a tous« 
11 n*«at plus bon au monde* 

J« erola au oosr^at otameX do notre vie int^i^eure« 
qui f^onde at appelle^ oontx% la vie ext«rij9(uz>e« 
qixi tarlt et rapousaa. at j'lnvoque la pani^ d*«n 
hauty la plus propre a ooncentrer jet rallumer lee 
forces poetlquea da ma vie: la Devouonent at 1& 
Pitla* (1) 

This la Stello*3 distinctive quality as a poett the Inspiring 

love Is that t^iioh ha daflnes as "devoumnent at pitl^"* In 

this Vi^!^«8 conception of love resembles Hugo's* It la this 

type of love liiilch Is dlvlnisted and STabollead In Hloa as it 

is in Kitty I3ell, It la apparent, therefore, that Vi^jty has, 

also, through th«s, made woman l^e symbol of Inspiration «n& 

of the beauty he finds in life. Bat the woman thaxB s^^bolisiid 

is not the woman as natur« has created her <» man's naGi»*al 

«Mtay -- the Delilc^ iSio breaks man's force and betx^ys hira« 

astie is vKBOAn considered under her spiritual aspect, a vamsn 

iAK>se value lies in her power of devotion and pity not in the 

raagnetiszu of her sensuous chazias* 

But the divine eletrtmit of love appears more frequ^itly In VhB 
poet than in the woman* Stello'a ccxipasrsion and his desire 
to sez^e manlcind is <Knphasised on every occasion* It is 
JHxlien's love of humanity idiioh inspires his life* The poet 
becomes the intermediary between man and God and assuaes th# 
role ascribed by Chateaubriand, ilns* de Stael, Sand, and Hugo 
almost exclusively to woman* 

(1) Visny, Steilo, 19* 


In BftlsaCf too, the Idoal love appears in wa2ian« In BeXs&e 
it vears alimys t^ie 8sm» aspect, ^i^nie^ TTrsule, %»« de 
llort8«uf« I%Be« de la CSianterie^ all sTniboXise a love which is 
a devotion, a apirit^ial love* It is a love of religion (Ifiae* 
de la Chanterie)| a love of fenllj and of religion (VSxab* de 
Mortsauf)| a love of the traditicwial aristocracy (nr«ule)j a 
love of the traditional devotions (Plerrwtte)j a love of 
rellsion and of family {Eii^ente). T^icae loves are not exclusive 
of esie aziotiur* TIm presence of one is ^sosistent tpltb ttiother* 
Tioxa tJrsule irill also repzsisent the love of religion f ltes« 
de la Chanterle the love of family* The love whlcdi they 
repx>esent may be suxaaied up in one love, the love of sooisLl 
lai^dition, a love v^hioh sic^iifies devotion to social ideeOLs* 
TtiM social ideal appears in them, in their lovo, as a society 
built on the tradition of family, aristocracy, oad Cathollcinw 
The ideal vastan -«• Pauline^ for example — is humble and 
devotedj "tout espz^t, tout ^K>ur"* Tkie courtesan siay also 
be the vanan and, in her capacity as wonan, she too nay z*e« 
present the hi^est feeling* Um divine love. Esther, for 
eaifM^le, in her wotnen's role, beoaeaiee the "an^ de I'oeiour". (1) 
Tiie mmuod who is love is, for Balstac* as for the otiher mdtem 
of rosmiticisBt, the angel too« 

Love in Oiateaoibriand is rell^-ious, in Vigny and Huso hwrnan- 
Itaxdan, in Balxac social and traditicwial. In Itete. de Stael 
and Sand love is passionate and s^itizoeoital. In Gautier love 

(1) Balsac, Spleaideiirs et mis^res des oourtiaanes. II., n72. 


ifl, above all^ beaatlfal* Tlila le lllle. dd !Iaupin*s clistinotlir« 
quality* She I0 tho ideal love becauae She lo the ideal 
b«auty« Z<Ofve in CSuteaubriend leads diz^ctly to God as* 
direotly or indirectly « it does also in the \vox4c of the other 
pamaaaticist&« In their ^ork, ho-arovor, love raorc frcq^-iently 
l«ads to 9od throii^i a certain specific nodiucu In ltee« de 
StMil and Sand tlie love of OcA is preceded l^y the lovo of c^fni 
in Hugo it is preceded by tho lore of the crlxiinal, of the 
oppressed* of the people 1 in Balzac by the lovo of social 
tradition^ in Vigiy by the love of poetry and* accordingly* by 
the love of tlio life of intelligence 5 In Gaiitier bj-^ tho love 
of art* 

Ihat pr€»eedes God as tho object of love becomes* in bvqij ease* 

tlie intermediary between the natiu*al ideal and the divine ideal. 

The divine in nature is x*epreo«ited by Gautier* tlierefore* as 

art and* iaoz« particularly* as tlie art ^ich is a naturiz^ 

roraantioiaau Mlle« de Msupin is t^ie love which typifies the 

(AwxxQb from th& esEaggeratlc^i of 1850 to tlie laaturity liiich 

invokes intelligence as well as feeling;. Tho fact that 

IntoUigsntM has a share in the ideal beauty sexnres to roleaso 

tho individual from the isolation insepaz-able from the ^/orld 

of particulars which feeling; alone knows* Love* tliereforo* in 

the caoo of Mile* de Maupin* leads to the external world* 

iSae world outside the self* the tTorld in which art is found* 

D'Albert writes: 

«.« L'effirayant silence qui regnsit autour de sol 
est r<xssf\i % la fin* — '• » » Je oois^rends ime nultltude 


de oiiones qiM jo no comprtaMlm. pas, Je decouvro 
des affinit^ et des syR^>athie8 tnerveilleusde« 
j'entensls la lan£,Ti© doa roaes et dea 3;»os3l3noia, 
et Je lis oouram^nt le llvx« que je ne pouvals 
pas aine ^eler« -• — G'est l*ezioiu*. c*est X*ac>Krar 
qui, a* a dessiUe les yeox et donna le mot de 
I'eoigee* J'^tais le spectateur de nol<«i^e» Xe 
paz*terre de la ooo^dle que je jouals. •«-« Rlen 
du va/mA/o ext^rleur m^arrlvait jusqu'a :3on ^^. 
L*ex£at«iee de qui que oe solt ne n*etait neeessairei 
je doutals tamska dc toute autre esdLstor.oo auc do 
la ntienne^ dont Mi^ore Je n'etais gu'^re sul'* H 
lie SMkbXait que j'otais soul au lailleu de X*iiiilvers, 
et que tout le reete n*^ait que f!»e$8« imagM, 
^aiaee llluslozm, ax^pai'saices fusltlves destines 
a peppier ce nefant* •— ^eXXe difftff'enceS (X) 

Love of tiie true deity (or of his repres«itatlve on earth) 
is t}ie fonmiXa for saXvation with aXX the romanticists* As 
«e have seen, the deity may vary but Xove is aXvays th» way. 
The resuXt of this in the psychoXoglcftX treatm«it of tae 
pex^onages is the reduction of psyclioXogy to sudden conversiOTis 
lAtltih z^seabXe reXicious conversions. The resuXt in regard 
to the pXot structure y th«ae and deveXoranent, is of interest 
in l^iat the sinilarity of the treatnent of pers(»iage and the 
oQOBxm syiobolic treatment of Xove nakes certain simiXarities 
of pXot and structure inovitabXe* 


ReXicion as such does not enter Gautier's wox^ at ail. His 
interest is confined entirely to the artist and, therefore, to 
the art of Xife and not to its eonventlonaX reXiclon, Bjit 

(1) Ottutier, KadggwiseXle de Mtfupin. 227, SS3, 


ttws question of religion occupies c lai^© place In the 
work of the other ronanticieto vm ^re dlseusslng. It is of 
laajor lng)Ojrtanc© to Chateaubriand and every on© of hie 
p%V9<msiZOB, Indeed, symbolises a given aspect of rellf^lcm or 
the virtue vfiiloh Ic Ita noral nanifestation. In Balzao and 
3«nd tl?ere are a msoafber of perscsiagea laho, appearing as 
priests, represent j^ellgloii ^si Ito purest aspect* In Hu^o 
tivis la tlie ease for one of his best ftmnm personals, Blafhop 
Kaelolre, In Vlgiiy end Jfcie. de St^l, on the contj?ary, 
natxxral religion spears in JUllen and Corinne, intimately 
unit^ to certain ottier abstract quail ties, Religi<»i, it is 
apparent, is t^ie alaost unlqiie elatsMnt in Qiateaubriand's 
universe vhereas for SanAf Balsae, and Hugo, it Is one elesMnt 
aaaeng suany ar»3l for Hbe. de Stael and Vi^piy its Importaaee 
llos eapeolally in its manifcatntlcax through other, equally 
ijr^>ortant, elenents of which it makes part« 

An ovidont relationship exists between Balzac and Chateaubriand 
in their sysbolisation of rellcion* ^Qtiis appears dniefly in 
the fact ttiat the personace irtK>, in t heir wox4c, represonta 
velision in its absolute aspect is the Catholic priest* It is 
true that Sand and Hugo lileewlsc p^.'caent Catholic priests as 
•Srnvathetic personages and as the synbol of natural roli:^on* 
But Sand reproaents pere Ale:d.s, for example, as completely 
hostile to his mirroundings. Isolated as much as possible fron 

the Catlioliciata of the monastery In i^ilch ha lives* He tells 
An^fol his opinion of 12ie monks eho live there: *— .... voili 
blen 06 q^*ils n*ont fait souffMrl viotimei viotime de 


1* Ignorance et do l*liapo3turei" (1) And laalcea the xaonlcB 
syobolic of Catliolloian \3lieai lie relates of Splx^idlon: "— H 
ne put bl^itot plus separer •••• Ic catliollciKie do6 catl^» 
llqLuea," (2) Uxj^o tells us of El shop Ila^ol3?e that, v&n^i lti& 
^oea to an asaorabl^ of clmrdi digoitariea, he finds hlmaelS 
at abaolute croae purposes with theia on ovary point, Ihe 
Bishop, therefore, la obvlou£3^ in disegroeacait t.lth tho 
Catlioliciam of hla day* 

Do T^lnao and Qmtaaubriand indicate the aana point of viev 
or are t^ir priests precentod aa bcma fide Catliolics? It 
is certain t^iat noithor of these authors disavows CatlvoliciSBi 
in the «M>Atio manner of Hu^o and Sand. Yet it is eqiiaUy 
certain timt, like Hu^^o and Sand, 23alsac has a^rnbolisad tho 
false religion of Ilestoration oociety under tlia giiiae of 
Catdxolic pzdesthood (the abbe Troubert)* Moreover, Cliatoauo* 
bciand has prosontod society as essentially irrelisious (Bene)* 
Yet society eontinixea to rMke ttio {gestures, uoe the language, 
and aasusie Uie natne of Catholicioa (Just as Heno* continues to 
be, nomi n ally, a Catholic). ?here la apparently sane essential 
distinction between t^e Catholloiasa idiioh, as on element in 
society, in i*cpz«eaentcd aa xU.&c ^m1 egoistic | and tlxe 
Catlioliciaa i^ch la represented by ST^qpathetic Catholic priests. 

Tho dietincticm is, indeed, not far to eeek* Both Balsao ar^ 
Chatoaubriand place their syripatlietic priests in a sotting 


(Ij I^yue dca deux Mondes . 1033, IV,, Sand, S^irldlon, 200. 
Ibid .. 503. 


TBlth niiioh they are in hanoony* In Za2.z&c*s vK>:r''k tlie abbe 
BixH>tteaa and tiy& abbe^de Sponda fozvi excoptlons tx) tliia 
gMMvaX rule* The "ciire dd Tcmra" is« perhaps^ tlio nost 
finlanatil or his portraits* ^^^t tae isecioi'able thiti^ abouu uiia 
priest is the fact that he is destroyed by the egoisn of 
•flcisting society end that ishat ic destxKjycd in hln is the 
love and chasrlty of i^ieXi^an C Catholicism}* And i^iat is 
lasDorable in the abbe'de Sponde is his attacliment to trixditicn 
and to the old nobility « united to his aversion for the new 
liberallffQir and his death wlien he is foz>ced to live in ccmtaot 
vitli it* BalsBe nrites; "L*abbe laoiirut quand o:^plx^ l*art2io« 
doxie dans le diocese." (1) The CatholioisBx lidxich is the sole 
thing to Budse these priests si^^iiflcant is aeeoa* therefoi'e* to 
be a Catholioisa out of eytqpathy with the existing society 
a»i the new liberciliam« attadbedf on the oontraryg to tradition 
and the old nobility* 

Bat« away frosi the egoian of society^ CaUiollcism {hi H, B^met 
and in M* Janvier) lives In humility and simplicity^ doing 
good works and iN5laabllitatin(j tlie fallen* It finds in man a 
natural goodness Vtukt needs direction but suboits to autliority 
not because of reason but; becuu«iu of a developed social 
sympathy* AH the docti*ine of Catholiciaa in Le C\ire de vJI^ j j^se 
!• suaEatfd up in an ir^iseriminate love* ibae* de la Clianterie* 
siio is Catholic Charity, adiaits Godefroid to her ooKauiilon 
because of his love and adairatlcm not because he has reasonaM^ 

(I) atlMC, lA vlQllle Fille , 597. 


accepted *^i» doctriaeo of Caiiiollc5.Bm. Wian Alain is 

admonlslJLno Ooclofx»old, he ple.<M9S the eeupiiaals on feella^;? 

— Tant que '/oub n'aurez pas X^- fol, taaat que vous 
n'aures pas absox^^e dans votre cosm' et dans votm 
Intellijemce 1© scaa^ divln de l^opTti?© de sa?-nt 
^Bil sur la Charlt^ voiis ne pouvea pas partldper 
a nos oouvres. (1) 

It Is rlth sxirpi*loe tliat, at the concl;ielon of ttae novel, 

Q^t&j&treAA seoa^clsea that the C^-uxrlty «(lbl<di lu^ Iltib loved 

(line, de la. Chanterle) is also in loaxiooiiy with reason* He 

-eaees hers **-• Voue ^oa done auesl la ralson?" *— H 

_aut eti^ tout dnns notre etat,* Itae* de la Chanterle replies 

"avec la gaiete douoe par-tlcullere aux vraiea aalntea", (2) 

The pr>le6t8» as genez^OHy presented In Ealsac, are Mnomt 
ifidu>e€ Influcnoo r'amalna aruprorie over the sooiety In iidu.<3i 
tlioy move, ^xiii lo true of the priest *n L e L:/g d^iiis la vi-illee . 
In !«e Hroein de mwrpWEnff . in 1.0 Cgrfi'^cle village * In L^Enverg 

^'^ ^*^iii{lBl||rt^iflBBrtHlff*?^^ynt~ ^^^^ latter priest offej^s a good 
exastiple of the truth of the above stataient. He lives in a 
houatfiold «iii<^ observes a uonaatic convention cf life end 
where tiie sodftty otm tains a Bobility, a Juctlco, a (Siarity, 
aiod a2i Industry in liax^ony with lils ideala* (3) All of those 
priesta are alilce, moreover, l^i that tliey rajeot ttie fowi of 
society liUoh the revolution has introdueed* M. Eosmet, for 
instance J deolares; "~ II dlt que les e'colos inventus par 
lo genie revolutioimalre fabrlqiient des Incipaciteai nol, 
•0 lc3 appelle des fabriques d'incr^dulcs,,.." (4) 

(1) '^-''--'.c, rj*Bnvera de l*hlatoire cqntenporaine B I,» J545. 

(3) ^ie~Ibid., I«, 346, 344. 

(4) Balzac, Le Oure'^de villa/^e . 238. 


Siioilarly^ Camteaubzdand vrltes of tho priest uSiose iala8i<m 
lives according to his rule ( At&la ) and of psz*s Souel i0io 
makes many converts. But theiM priests, like Balsao'Sy eonfine 
thoir livos to a sphere outside that of oontessporery society* 
camteaubzdand*s priests live In tlie midst of a savage nature; 
Balzac* 8 in the midst of a special society lAiich still possesses 
its faith in l&marohy^ Mobility ^ and Catholioissu Both pere 
Souel and M. Bainet are far removed frora the society of 
ccmteDqperary France* It is with a similar disregard for tSie 
world around him that Bishop Magloire walks his garden paths 
and p^re Alexis studies the heavens throur^ a telescope. 

It is apparent that, at bottom^ there is a eertain aodioum of 
agreesient in the pxresentation of religion. Balsec^ Chateau* 
bviandf Hugo, end Sand all show reli(^ion to be inexi stent in 
the society of their ticiet flourishing, on the o<mtraryy in 
an \mwDVldly setting. Chateaubriand represents Catholicism to 
be a living force, not in nineteenth oentuiry France but eherever 
it is out of contact with society and^ hence, in the American 
wilderness* Bal g a c sliovm i^eligion as living only in remote 
villages, convents, and isolated oonnunities. Hugo, in like 
n»nner, mi^es religion have recourse to nature and find its 
wisdom there; accordingly, the bii^op finds his inspiration 
while in his garden* There, Hugo wx*itest "II n*etudiait pas 
les plantesi il aisttdt lee fleurs*" (1) Hugo asks in the 

(1) Hugo, Les insurables * I., 29* 


bishop* 8 name: "••••n^est-ce paa la tout« en effet^ et que 
d^olrer au dela? Un petit jardin pour se prosionor, ot 
l*isssan8ite pour x^^rar*" (1) So too Sand repx^esents p9v% 
Alexis as an a8tron<»»ep and scientist. In tlie study of luiture 
he is noixrishing religion at the fountain of all trut^: th& 
natural imi verse » God's handivork* Re tells Aagelt "«- Cette 
peasee e^leste^ ou Dieu appelle I*hora»» ^ une xa^fsterieuse 
•omaiinicm« se retrouve partout^ et o'est pourquoi les yeux du 
imrps ne suffisent pas pour admirer Xa nature. ** (8) 

fhe rocwnticist relli^<m appears^ aceordingly, as one iihieh 
finds itself in haznony with external natuz« and* indeed* 
i^Lnds in this rjEiture a feeund source of inspiration* It is 
•l^^fioant* indeed* that Catholicieen does not even atiMi^t 
to exist in sn unfavoux^bXe atBK>flilMBve« It depimds entirely 
for its life up(m its association with %/hat is natural in 
asn «nd natural in the tmi verse. Religion has takmi refuge 
in nature and* althou;^ still deaozdbed as Catholioisn* it Is 
no longer endowed with the splxdt of resistsnce to evil but* 
when confronted vlUi evil* either sucemibs at once or else 
denies the evil by turning its back on it. All these Catholics 
are models of x*esi Ration and charitablmess but they lack 
entirely tlie spirit of the cdxux*ch militant. Spiridion* for 
eKBttple* reproaches Alexia for the isolated exlstenoe tiftiioh 
permits t2ie triumi^ of ^le hypocrite Catholioioat 

— C*est ainsi* o Alexisl que l*aznour de la 

(1) Hugo* Les Mlserablee . I.* 61. 

(2) Revue des d>ax aoniSeS a 18S9* I.* Sand* Spii'idion . n38. 


verit^ a mx preserver tcai aam dejs viles passicms 
du vtilsair»$ main o'est alnal. ^ molnel que 
X*8Biour du bien-i^re et Xe d^air de la liberta 
t*«&t rendu conipllce da trior^phe des lumoorltes 
av«o lesqaeXa tu ea oondaxsn^ a vlvra. (1) 

The typ« o^ CatlioliolaBi viUch la ayaibollzBdp tberofoxNi^ in 

tlwaa prieata* is a typa ahieh confozros to tha roaanticiat 

faitlsi in iia^uH» azud ita danlal of aocie^ but has cmly tha 

■99MunnG0 of ocHiTonolty with thla aapaot* at leaat* of 

aotual Catholic do^m* 

Sot only is this trua bat ita oorollazT- ia^ in Hugo and StmA, 
evan iaox>e strildnc* Their priests discover the acniroe of 
religion to ba within nature not cmly aa laanifeatad In tlit 
exterior world but aa oanifeated in 8ian*a heart* Bi(tiaop 
Kagloire is to Hugo religion in person. Ha vzdtea of him: 
"C*^tait vxi px^tre^ un sagOc et \m homad»^ (2) The viadOBi 
of thia religion ot^iaiata in no precise dogiaa or doctrine 
except that of love. "Ce qui ^elairait oet hosane^ o'etait le 
eoeur* sa aa^Mse etait faite da la luidL^re qui viaot de 
la*** (3) And S«nd too ^owa the aaooaibility as the prliae 
force in religion. Alexis tella Angel: "—La grande oeuvre 
du diristianiaraa eat done le developperaent de la foree 
intellactuelle par celui de la senaibilite morale.. •«* (4) 

But* althou^ Chateaubxdand ahows the priest liiniting the 
requir«mant8 of religion to «diat is husian* he is* in ttiie. 

(1) Revue dea dawxuKnades. 1333* IV.* Sand* Spiridion . 474. 

(S) nvigo. Lea Miaertfalea a I.. 53. 

jS) Ibi^.* I.* 62. 

(4) Revue des daaix mcmdeB . 1838* IV.* Sand, Spiridion . 444» 



only x<epz*esenting Catholloisra in its praotical aapoot. 

Catiioliclam cooqpx'omises with i»eality and finds its roeaaure 

in man's nature* Chateaubpiand^ therefore, is not denying 

Catholioim «h«n ho has hia priest say: "•>• La religion 

n'oscigo point de sacrifice plus qu'hunain. See sentiments 

vraiSf ses vertus tm^p^r^s, sont bien aii-dessus des sentiraeaits 

exaltes et des vertus foroiies d*un pretendu horolsas*** (1) 

Moreover this Catholiciss oondeosis more harslily that type of 

error tidiitih springs from a perverted heart than it does that 

vhich springs frora an i^orant mind. It is iaan*8 reason 

vhicli needs to be i^tucated ari^t for sin and vice are not 

due to man's pez^ersity but to his mistaken Judgmmit* The 

priest shows hixiselfy therefore , to be z^preaoitative of 

Cfttholiciffi!i« but of a Catholioisn iii^ch stresses the natural 

feeling, vhen he addz^essea Atala in these terms; 

<— Cet exo^s de passion auquel vous vous livrwB 
est z^u>ement j.iste, il n'est pas nSae dans la 
nature! et esa. cela il est mo ins coupable aux 
yeux de Dleu, pax*oe que o*est plutot quelq^e ehose 
de faux dans 1* esprit que de vicieux dans le 
coeur* (1) 

This is the attitude of the Christian stoic of the sevmteenth 

century but it is noticeably t«apered by the sensibility 

diaracteristie of the nineteenth osntury* 

Tho aaaa faith in sian's inner nature transmutes tha Cathol- 
ioina vftiioh Balzac syiaboliaes from Hie strict rigidity of 
olassieiat reason and discipline to a more hybrid type idiieh 
exalts the s«isibility and the natux*al man. Whan M. Bonnet 

(1) Chateaubzdandf AtaJL a. 55. 


pz>eaoh«8 a suTDlimo 99vmafn, Balsas writes} 

tie anlbliaie vlant du coaur^ l*a8pFlt na le tx^mve 
paa» et la rallglc»i eat vane aooraa Intariaai^Xe 
d© oa auljllme sans faux 'brUlanta; car le 
eatholleiaraa« qpl p^etra et change lea eoaura^ 
eat tout ooe\ir* (1) 

It Is trudf hofnever, that Balzac aaaimilates the natural ^id 
the truly social roanifestatlons of life imd. In this z^eapoot* 
seeks to j:>^iabilitate the Idea of society iihichy as becasia 
apparent In t^e study of chosen a^pribolMg had heeodoe cyiat^^ia 
to the romanticists* Balzac* s condSHoaticm of soeiety mta 
aemt, however, to be directed against one type of society and 
not against society as suoh* Kow the evil iriilch the roeoantioist 
sav In society forced him to se^ elseidiere for the good. 
Thus til© dtfferaice betwMOi Balsac and dateaubriand, for 
exffi^lSy appears in thist that Balzac finds that Qpod. in 
man* a moro recent past, Chateaubriand (i^io is here represent- 
ative of the oilier romanticists) in a niore reioote one, one 
that is a retrogression to ootnplete prindtlvlsra, IJhat Balsae 
seeks to show and vftiat constitutes his 8ux>erior force •» 
since sueh a statenMmt as the following agrees substantially 
with man's experience — is the fact that man's nature is 
essentially (jregarious, hence is essentially social; that, 
accordingly, the faith in nature need not be ayrumymenxB with 
imbridled individualism* Throu£^ B* Bonnet, Catholicism 
Bt]res8e0 this distinction t 

— II n*y a de solide et 6& durable que ce qui 

(1) Balsae, Le Cur^ de villai^ * 203. 


08t nattirel, ot la chose natiirelle en polltlqa© 
est ^ famllle. La famllle doit ^re le point 
do depart d^ toutes lea inetitiitions. tJh ©ffet 
tmivexvel demon tre im^ cause univereellej et e« 
que VOU8 aveis simale de toutes paz>ts vimt du 
principe social n^.e, qui est sans force pajroe 
qu*il a pris le libre ax^tre poup base, et que 
le libre arbitre est le p^re de I'izuiividualiaae. (1) 

Bal8ae*8 Cat^olloiaa is* essentially^ tliez>efore« a social 
institution ev^i vhen its exeaqplars seen sniioated alsiost 
ffntirely by feelino* itee* de la Ghanterie is "la Raia(^^ as 
iroll as *'la cauucdte** (2) and U« Bonnet repudiates an indis- 
criminate ^lilanthropy shen he declares t 

o- L^ p|\ilanthropie modeme est le toalheur des 
aoeieteSf les prtiicipes de la religion cataiolique 
peuv^it seuls guerlr les maladies qui travaillcmt 
la sovp* social* (5) 

Similarly, hot^ the priest and the doctor of Le Medeein de 

canpafme concur In x»©pi«s«mtlnG religion as a social systsra 

t^iich operates to correct the Individualistic tendencies of 

mankind, (4) 

But 3ishep KaglGire has "point de syttWs". (5) "Cette ^ 
humble ai^ity volla tout." (6) Love is, in fact, the sole 
and aufflelOTxt quality in the blahop and equally, therefore, 
in the religion he syralwllaes. Hug© writes: "Ce que nous 
croyons devoir noter, c'est que, en dehors, pour ainsi dirs^ 
et Gu dola de sa fol, I'evoque avait un exces d'eoswur," (7) 

(1) Balsac, Le Cure de village « 260, 

(2) See BalSftCa L'Envera de I'hiatoire oontonaporaine* II., 484« 

(3) Balsao, Le (Xire de villar.e , 125, 

(4) Balsac, Le Medeoin de oaa^>afi nea 50, 149, 161, 

(5) Hugo, Les m-stfrables . I,. 65« 

(6) ibid^.-gs: — 

(7) TOH, . 58. 


SimlXa2'l7« t2ie faith STmbollsod In Sand hj su<ih personages 

as p«re Alexlss, Albart, Ifcill© Laa?iontl©r ami hla father, th© 

prtest Tiho oonsorts wltaiL Patlenca in Kavg>ynt» Trerau>p — this 

faith la, in its positive aapadt^ vague as to dogna and 

otrongl^ affirmatlv© only aa to queatlona of sentiment. It 

is a faith tshich stresses the evangelistic doctrino of love 

and the brot3ierfiood of r.ian to the exolusicm of ell else* As 

in the sirapld BiiAiop Magloira, religlan in ^cid'a personagea 

aasisnes the foxsn of demoeraoy, poverty, and eoirq>assion for 

the poor* These are all nanifestationa of their loving* 

kindness toward their fellows snd love of O^od, llheai Rn5.1e 

Laacmtier desiiros to tuiite into a religious syatsra tl*\e varioas 

beliefs he holds, he eriost 

— •••• ce lien, c'est I'asionr, I'araour que je 
no, eonnals que par un instinct violent, une 
I'cVdlatlon aubite ai'^/slopp^e de xraaces, Jc 
sens poujrtant bleu que I'smour est tout, et que 
asBis lul toute doctrine reste vide* (1) 

TiaxM Sand and nugo repudiate the system and authority of 
Catlioliclaa liieiroas, in Balzao «pA Chateaubriand, the new 
sensibility does not deny its x^latlonitfilp to x^ellgioiis 
principles cmd to a social oysteci* 

A further variation in tlie repres^itatlon of true religion 
lyppeara in Htae* de Staol*8 work. The religion which is 
syr^athetic is here s^^nS^ollsed in woiasn and Delphlne and 
Corinne represent essentially the Mune point of view* 

(X) Hevua des deux amadwi. XB63, IZ*, Sand, Maderaoiselle la 

Qulntinie * gl5. 


In Corlnne j Cor.lnne and Oswald becojse, on oeoA,eion> noc 

Italian c'^nlus and ai£;llfih nobility but Itallcji Cntb.ollolffli 

and Ehglii^ Protestontlsnu Corlnee observes fasts, ms^^s 

pilgrlBttgeSf and lAyyms devontne»«« She tsnltes oriaiod<»c 

practices to a pagan doll^iilit In nattirnl beawt^. In tills afiio 

is «ifcl5?ely representative of all good CatJiollc doetidne. 

Her art Is the Catholic art whloh finds Its source In ft 

confusion of tJ^e aesthetic, the passionate, simS rellglotts 

as^BiboVLnm, But Catl^oliciaa does not deny the evil to nature 

nor accept tlie individual as the criterion of all things. 

Corlnne, hovrever, 'Wtil^Le rem&lnir*^ th© Roman Catholic artist, 

sesms, in the i^ealia of morality, to reject the possibility of 

Q'/il and to deny any aii£&«Pity but the individual sestiMKit. 

Co^in2^c do scribes her religion and this description described 

Corlnns #io is Its synfi^ol and lives in Its faith. 

— Z^mamxPf l'esp^ran<» et la foi sent los x'ort'AS 
principales de oette religion i et toutes ces 
vertus annoncent et donnont le boriheur, 

Si 1ft reli£'ion concilstnit scilenent dans la 
stricte observation de la morale, qu* aural t-elle 
de plus que la phllosoi^e et la vnlsrnf T5t 
quels aentinxents de piet^ se d^e;Lopperai«it 
en nouo, si notre principal bui etait d'etouffer 
ies sentlsumts du ooeur? •-<-<-•> 

Kais si nous soBnes sur cette terre en taardbB 
vers 1© del, qu'y a»t-ll de inieirt ^ fair* q^e 
d*elever assez notre "dbe poru* qu*elle sente 
I'lnfini, I'lnvlsiblo et I'etotmel, au rdlleu 
de toutes les homes qui I'entourwit? — — 
Cher f)s\mld, lais»ep*noue done tout confondre, 
amour, religion, s^io» <5t le 8o3.eil et les 
parfuws, et la ?wsique et la poesle^^ 11 n*y a 
d'ath^isciG que dans la froideur, l*egolsDie, la 
b^ssosse. (1) 

(1) JSOAm de Stacl, Ciorinne . 745, 746. 


Hero Is tiao doveloraawit of a religion nhioh le a sort of 
aantinentcl delen and not Cst^ioLiclsia, It 1b a s>elifrlo»i 
tahlcii rescBftjles PolTd^JLnc'e Protestant lean so closely In it» 
esfMRtlal features that It Is enrldsnt that the nisaa smttem 
llttlo btit the essence of tSie rellnl<»» rawch, Gorlnne's 
Irrational ts^etticitm, CathoHo In naia© only, corresponds to 
the eentlcjent e^g^ressed in ^^ftFJVf"* ^'^ ^^^ ramm of Protest- 
antism alt!im\(^. In reality, neither Is ttio expression of a 
do^na but the revelation of the new romantic faith of natujrtl«B« 

Rellglcm In Vlj^iy's wort? 3 s Babelized rtlreetly in Daphne, 
petfsaps taie rK>ot Img^ortant of Vlgpy's pros« works slnoe It 
turmn up tha^ attltiide t»h.ich has inspired all his work and 
vihicii. Dauaigi^ woat plainly reveals. The rellpl<»n Is sytnlbollssed 
here through the nan vAvo was first a poett Juliesu That 
the poet nhoiild b«MHB «ie STtrthol of rellfflwn Is Incidental 
to the fact thr.t religion hns becon» completely at one with 
art. Just so the fRct ttiat wxaan bocffl?»es the s^eibol of 
rellclon In Stae, de StaiRL's ^»ork is Incidental to «a» eoln- 
old«nce of lo-'C snd religion. Moreover, Corinne has already 
s^Bibollsed In her person t^tie point of view that unites art 
sffid rellnl«xri» In her capacity as artist, tih» Is the priest 
vAio cmiduots Osi?Tald towards the mysteries of the infinite. 

T^aphne proswits Jullai, the poet, viho has been a pagan, has 
thai becone a Christian, and has, finally, beoonie a devotee 
of the Ronan sods* But siorally. Intelligently, Jullen doei 
not change* 'Sam essence of his being Is the do sire for truth. 


the Word tiiat will explain the iinivers©. Sine© tli© tiMtli 
vdilcli will e^tplaln tiie universe slioiild be ttie ©scene© of 
rell^icoi, Julien i»©pr©senta tho Intellectual tnitJi soaiKshinc 
for the religion in hamsony with it. 

lit the artist who lives by tJie intellid^enoe seosus dioriotrio. 
ally oppi^wd to the ai>fcl8t wlio lives by tli© sentlrient of 
enthasiasci (Corinne) trnd, «3l9o« to t^ie priests who exalted 
love as a r©li£;lous system. Tli© religious feeling In J\ilien 
rejects what exists matexdally and seeks to establish the 
txnith wl^lch exists only sr^lrltufilly, intellii^ently. It 
rejects the authority of nass sentiment and, in this, noos 
a^^ainst the rt:>mQntici8t belief in nature. The intGlll(;enoe of 
the universe — Julion-- i»ejects the false natter and Cho 
sentlinental aspect of txnith Whi<di religion is. Christianity 
is the com pr o ml ge with the truth ifliicli any 3?clij;lon r^aist be 
in order to exist in the tv/-o t^ealms of aentliental faith and 
intellectual truth. The non-confonaity in Julien is a result 
of his absolute character as symljol and in confonalty 
his existence ns ideal intelliconce. He lives only in the 
ideal, in ttie world as it ahrjuld l >e, not In tlie world as it is. 
He denies the material truth and tries to force the ideal 
truth Into material existence. The universe he knows is 
intollinenc© and iftiat he v/orsliips Is intellic<moe and v&i&t he 
is is Intellirjence. Julien symboliaos the divinity of the 
intelligence. Julien tltus defines the sifTiificnnc© he attadies 
to his Crod: " — Lo Verbel le Vorbe divln, la RalscMi ^aaxi^ 
dcs deux, 1* esprit, la Pa3?ole, le Jjoijob adore' d© Socratr) ot 


de Platon, I'Ane du i!Kmde» le Dloxi createiir, ,,," (1) 

Yet Vigny is not In coo^lete opposition to the other raaant- 

Iclsts. Hla sympathetic personage is, it is true, tiic 

'>or8onlfioation of the intolll^encG and discredits all 

mterlol reality. But Jullen*s IntelliGeoice is that of the 

instinct, not tliat acquired hj laborious discipline. Ills 

wlsdon is the poet's v^isdora, tiie result of a direct rcvelatlcm 

frcsa God. Libanius assiires us of tliis truths 

— Si lamais une penseo eut des ailcs, e'ost 
assiAT^ont In slenno, Atiosi tout Ivii est-11 
facile dans les clioses de la torre* II pourralt 
presque contnmpler face k face ot sans cesse 
l^Essenco, 1* Essence veritable, autour de 
laquelle ent la vraie science j 11 y chercSie 
sans cesse la sagesse, la Justice et l*aiaour, (2) 

Hence Julien, as the i»opreocntatlve of a relli^lous faith, liaa 

tills klnslilp with the roliijion of the nore aontiiaental of tlie 

ronanticlsts : iiis truth is an Indivldiial tiMtli not accepted. 

from any outside autliority and it is such because It springs 

frcaa tlie Inner being ratiier tlian the outer world* 

Tlie truth that originally becoaes apparent in Chateaubriand 
is corrolx)rated in varying fasliion, tliarefore, by every one 
of the syrapatlictlc personages in iKxianticlst literature ^iho 
may be said to approaoli life as religion. Ilor is this, even 
in Balzao, the type of religion wliich oonfonas to tlie ordinary 
autlioritarian and doctrinaire Catholiclsuu In rwst of the 
rowanticists, it is a religicm i^eduoed to tlie feeling of love 

(1) Revue de Paris, 1912, IV,, Vigny, Daialaie l 12, 

(2) Ibid ., 52; 

O R O 

and rid of tlie discipline of authority* It Is not Catholicism 
as observed In EuroT>een practice j it Is Catholiclsaa trans- 
planted to a naturjil setting. It Is a Catholiclam wiilch 
accept B What Is fmand In nature as co<>^f *i»is rejecting the 
doctrine of original sin, evean vihlle It seeras to be stagGestlnc 
the necessity of tlue regulation of nature by x^eason, ITote 
that CIiateftubzdand*a priest says: "— Cat exces de nasslon 

est rnren^it juBte, 11 n*est paa m^aa» dans la nature ," (1) 

IVhat la natural lias become a Ci*lterlon for n^iat Is reasonable. 
The Cathollclsra Chateaubriand represents In th's pxdeet is, 
therefore, n Catholiclam closely aldln to the rmre passionate 
enthusiasm of untrained rellnlous feeling (Atala) and in 
sympathy with it. It flees an li*rellf;ious society but flnd.s 
a refUf^G in nature and iTuildo up a nev; society founded on 
individual love rather than collective discipline. The 
Catholiciffln that Chateau!.: rland represents in his dream of a 
natural paradise is a reli^^lori \sfiilch retains the langiuo^e of 
authority and substitutes for its real.ity the indlvidiial 
foolin;;^ developln{^ naturally in a Itunanlt^/- vmcorruptcd by tlie 
evils of society, l^alzac's too Is a Catholiciaa idiicli depends 
more on feeling tJian on reason althoix,^ Its sontii-^ntal 
nature is represented as rosultlnf^ in a social discipline. 

The Ideal quality in these symbols is best made evident Ijy 
a detailed study of any one of thean. In Albert, Sand 
•ymboliaes the evolution of tlie spirit in such a fashion tlmt 

(1) Clmteaubrland, A tala. 53. The italics are mine. 


tiie new reli(^;lon of the spirit shows a cerfcain rooeinbl«»c« 
to tt^ Il©<3ellan theory of evolution in history. Albert 
regards hiraself as the reincarnation of tJi© Bohemian heretic, 
Jeen Zyska» lie ;ls often rien tally transported to a past \sSiicii 
is not his omt and he x*^:Mniber8 the toments of a !iiaz*tyrdani 
wiiidi is not his* The religion ho sTi^ibollses has be«i 
persecuted once and killed .ut, in a new age, lie haa a new 
freedom of action and speech. He is nl sunder stood but he is 
loved. Albert's apparent deatli and resurx»ectlon are made by 
Sand the occasion for a tlieatrical effect, are ^'^Ivcn a shas 
probability, and are, doubtless, intended to stiHsngthen tlie 
syrabolic picture of a new life rising from apparent death* 
But it is this very tlaeatrioalisn wiiltdi makes of Albert the 
inpi»obable sym1x)l of an improbable faitli and shows him to 
be reap<Hisive to Sand's beliefs and to lack nny solid ro«:>tln£; 
in the v?orld* 

Btei»eovcr, the unanl;nity i»3iich prevails thjxiu^jhout tlie work 
of the rcsnanticists In the presentation of the ortliodox 
Catholicism as despicable or conplotely devoid of any hi:^an 
grace, v^ieroas the switlnentallst in rolln;ion (wheiiior he is 
called CatlTiollc, Protestant, or Rouaseaulst) appears clothed 
in beauty and oxnanented with all conceivable virtues, is 
evidently based on a sirallarlty of religious attitude wMch 
goes deeper than, at first sl^t, seems probable. The rebellicm 
a,@ainat the existent and against authozdty appears, too 
consistently to be the result of riere chance. In the represent- 
ation of the religion of authority tairouch the nedlura of 


villains, roi.^es, or prl^e. On th© other liand, the new rellcion 
tsftintever it rmv be, api)©ai's throxi^^h tlio nedliua of candid 
Innocence, superior intelllcence, xmtcas^ted virtue, salrftly 
reslGnatlOTi, In loiiatever -julse it appears, throng ^mtever 
personages. It is always a spontaneous rell;^'ion natua^al to 
raan since ttie personace Is always spontaneous and in harmony 
with his ovn nature and external nature. 


Beauty is coraaonly the quality ascribed to the woiaan personage. 
It is oa^^Kanly, therefore, Brnnbollzod t^irou^ her* In r»at 
cases beauty mnd virtue coincide in the a^Tripathotlc fl^^irea 
and they possess both ideal virtue and ideal beavity. True 
beauty is associated with varying qualities in the dlffei'^it 
autliors WW st\idy. Of then all Gautier fjives the ftaiest 
and inost llluialnatln{3 exposition of the ideal beauty. His 
symbols, therefore, coiu' land our special attention. That Ills 
work ends t!^e first pJiase of ronantician is sufficient reason, 
liowevor, to allow Gautier to conclude our discussion rather 
than to Initiate It, 

Beauty In Chateaubriand is symbolised t}-irou:jh Anelie and 
Atala, r.eauty In then co-exists wltti virtue, religion, end 
instinctive love, Tlie quality of the beauty which triey 
typify, therefore, is that of iHsllrjious feellnc. 

True beauty in ^fae. de Stael is symbolized in Delpliine and 

Corlnne. It co-exlata with virtue and religion but ita 
ciilef quality is that of natui*al spontaneity* It la a beauty 
of imm Impulse and natural sontliaent. It Is a beauty Twiil(^ 
mingles rollgion, nature, aesthetic delight, and Instinctive 
sentlnumts (1) into one equal ontliusloam. It is, accordingly, 
a beauty T<^iose superloi*ity consists in its spontaneous and 
Instinctive quality* 

True beauty in Hugo exists in Hsmeralda, Cosette, Bepuchette, 
and Dea« lb is a beauty vahich sprliiigs out of human suffering 
and liiilch is gvcti acre boa-atirol in contan^t with the aqualour 
frosa )^iloh it si^rlncs. It is instinctive, nabural beauty and 
owes notlilng to art or artifice. It co-exlsta with virtue 
and with instinctive love. 

Txnie beauty colncldoa, therefore, in Camteaubrland, Hixgo, and 
VbOB* do Stael, even thou^ Chateaubriand oni^iasiscs tl.o 
mitural quality in Atala, the religious faith in Araelie; even 
thou^ %»• do Staol «anphaslac3 tiie love in Delpliino ojoA 
tlie aestiietlc feeling in Corlnnoj even thou^ I^igo (»aphaslses 
tlie natural quality in Em^ralda, the instinctive love In Dea, 

Nor does any sigjiiflcent difference appear in the beauty that 
Is Kitty Bell (Vi^^ny) or Uicresia (Sand) or Eu-;^ile (Balzac). 
The quality of that beauty differs, of course, to show the 
special ^u^vhasls \dildh we Imve octoe to connect 7/lth the autlior 

(1) ;5tae, de 3tael, Corlnne, 745, 740, 


In quootloai. Tlie Instinctive love nfriich forms Kitty B©11*8 
beauty is that of pitying compassion vjiiere-.s iri lAicrezla^s 
beauty the aesthetic feelin;: is balanced by a love based on 
paaoion aa veil as pity* Of Luerozla Cand wi'itea that aihe is 
"oprise do la nature, ascociant a son ivresse le ciel of; la 
torro, la Ixine et lo lac, les fleura ot la briso, oes enfants 
sux*tout, et souvent aussl le souvenir d© ees douleurs 
paooeosa...". (l) Lucr-eaia explains her attitude to lovo in 
her o^*n tenia: "-- L'a^our, le grand, le veritable anonr', 
n'est-il pas la charite chretienn© appliquoe ot ooi;s,io con- 
centi^ aur uii aeul ^tre?" (2) The nature in Jeanne ( Teann e ) 
\idiich ^ives her natural beauty la the rustic nature nf <-,h« 
peasant life tsiiereas in EUirenio it is that of a society based 
on natural social ajmpathios. 

i^iat becoraea apparent is that beauty and superiority resides 
for all the ixananticlsts alike in the instinctive and that 
the instinctive feeling sho^s certain definite fonas of 
expression — love, religious and aesthetic feeling. These 
feelings unite to express virtue and, in expressing virtue, 
they express beauty. True beauty is, then, the p3?oduct of 
the instinctive in nature* True beauty is, accordingly, a 
form of nat-uriffla* 

V.'ho are tliese wo^ien isfiio symbolize boauty? They arc ideal 
creations, ideals created, oi-dinarlly, by man* Balzac describes 

(1) Sand, liuorezia Florlrjil * 133* 

(2) n)id . rw. 


Pauline In La ?eau de c!m;:rin as ''la r-eine doa illuQiona« 
la feasae increo^^ fcout ©sprit, tout anotir". (1) Chattorton 
writes tn Kitty Boll nob as to a vioruiM Irat as to iiie con- 
cop tion of tlia beauty ajsd i^ood in tho \7or»ld. He wi^tos: 
"— A voua, boautc paiolble ©t ailenclouae qiil souls txvez 
fait doseondre cur noi le roca-ic^ ineffablG dc la pi tie...." (2) 
rta^rcion spoulca iji thQ usual oanner of otmd*s personai^ea vdum 
ho tells Indiana: 

pour ne dire J '!arche oncoro dfms cette vie de 
lilserG et Xe ciel t'en^'eri^a un de los ur^cs 
pour t ' acconpai^ner. (3) 

Pantine la described by Hugo: "Nous avons dit que Fantine 

etait la joioj Pantine ^ait aussi In pudour, — — L» amour 

est une faute; soit, Pantlno otalt 1' innocence stimageant 

air la faute," (4) Obviously tliesc wmeaa. whose beauty is tlie 

beauty of nature do not respond to nature as it exists but 

to the illusion of tiie beauty in nature ^licla man chejidshes 

and \*ilch, os we have seen, tliese authors cherish. The 

worian Id '*l»'eti»e inci'ee" and tlie ronanticist creates her as 

an ideal of beauty. Their expression of beauty is an ideel- 

isation of nature, a j-eprosentatltm of natviro hwt also an 

erabcllislinont, an ideal form niiich does not correspond to 

reality but to an idea of the nature of reality cherished in 

coranon by the roaanticlst writers, 

(1) Balzac, Ita Peau de cliaririn ^ 201, 

(2) Vicny, Stello . 53. 

(3) Sand, Ii^iana . G7, 

(4) Hu^;:©, Iksc niae.-'ables . I,, 152, i;35. 

i"autler*a Ideal tomxty la represented especially in Madoiuolselle 
da> Haugj ju D' Albert wi^ltos; "— La f<H:no est de^'*inuo le 
synbole de ia boaute raoro.lo ct pivui^l^-^©*" (1) ^^o w^dx-cy to 
Ictllo. de Maupln: " — Vouo repreaentcz di^enent la proasi^re 
dlvinlte du :rionde, la plus pure ayribolisatlon de I'eesonce 
etorwelle, — la beaute," (2) A better (xmceptlon of Ms 
mesuiins is obtained., however, if we rciaeaaljer tliat Maidette, 
Cretclien, and Musldora ove lik€\vlse roprecentatlve of the 
Ideal. Tlie olmpltclty end naturalnesa \^-iicli app€ in 
Marletto and G3?etC-iQn reappears in Musldora and in Itlle, de 
Blaupln bwt In I^isldor^ it la eoibcllla'iod by all r»s*nner of 
artistic devices and In i'lle. de Ilaupln it is :nodifl©d by tti© 
artifice of her disguise. I31 fact, Mariette appears as ideal 
beauty onlj r&isn. all© lias clothed her sL-.iple enotlon in a 
superficial airt fulness and Gretclien only when siie ims clothed 
lier natuTfil beauty in tlie attire «U£s©sto<3. by art (tliat is, 
in tl^o costume worn by Rubens* Mary Magdalene in his foiaotis 
picture The Descent froa the Cross ). 

It is this addition of a modicuia of artifice or of tlie 
conventional 'j^ch neparates the ideal beauty Oeutier jortrays 
from that of his fellow rfffitantlclsts. Beuu.ty is still single, 
spontaneous, and instinctive. It is still nature but It Is 
no longer nature entirely unnodlfled. It Is natixre OTibollished 
by art, 

(1) Gautier, Madeaoiaelle de 'launln . 223. 

(2) Ibid. . 35^1 


Yi'tf ?.s w© have seen, the "beauty repiposnntec"! tj tfcc other 
roiaariilcints althou^^h. It fcvppearfl as aimpl© nature :ls, actually, 
a nature vfi^loh Is a crcrddon :?ftthor thitn a re-pinssentatilon* 
It clsi-joc to Tje pui»cly nnture.1 "but ?.s, in fact, a natiirr 
cnbolllslxed by tixe artist. Hence, t^io beauty represented by 
Cimteau'brland ar.d hia successors sacnc to bo Ideal aM to bear 
no x^elationshlp to r.bfter^/atlon or probability. On the contrary, 
tlio beauty i^eprcsented by Gacutler is obvloiiely a blend of the 
natural eoid ;:!ie ai'tifioir.l, ^3hat is nafciral somna lii£^-J.y 
probable and Eiriotte as the pretty servarst, Gratcheii (is tlie 
rustic iL-ald, ?'iualu05.v. a^ .Iv .. ..^^atlent lover, Kile, do Tfeupin 
as the curious youn^ woroan., they ar« all hl^lily probable 
porsonaijes, Tlie art which acloms then so ^3iat they becosno 
ideal l:)eauty rerciains obvltnisly art and caseation but It is a 
creation added td obaervatlon not a creation mibntituted foi' 

Gautier is, therefore, realiatlc in "his ronumticisci w^ijore hla 
predecessors fall to be so. He takes Ixia reader into lils 
confidence a:id allows liira to perceive \?Jiat art uaa added to 
nat\u»c. Tie freely permits the reader to vlow 'llisldora as sli© 
embellialioa her pi^tty person by every Imovci artistic device 
jtist as lie freely adriLlts us to the secret of l-njLo. de Jlaupln*s 
double r^lG, That the art idealiaes the porsonaise he imkes 
evident by jroprePontln£; tlie ideal beauty aa £t appears to tlid 
eyja of the artist — d'Albert, ^iburce, Rodolplie — or of the 
dilettante — - Fortunio, Thus Gautier shows his ideal beauty 
to be one in ^nlJilch the art la self-conscious and studied. 

ffusldora spends lonz hours in adomln,';^ herself Q*»d 
Mile, do '^aupin builds up for herself a conplete 
artificial personality. On the contrar:;, the other 
romanticists represent their ideal beauty as entirely 
unconscious of art and, as a consequence, they represent 
tills beauty as if it bolon ed to nature althougli they 
theriselvos arc conscious that It belongs, quite as 
mich as does >autler's ideal, to the realr.-'. of art and 
not exclusively to nature. The question of the art 
that corresponds to Id^al i eauty Involves the discus- 
sion of another of the clenonts of the romanticist's 


The discussion of art by moans of personage docs not 
enter into Chateaubriand's work nor into Hugo's. It 
appears in C qrinno throujjli the prota[;.onlst, appears 
fairly often in i"^al:iac, nuc'i norc frequently in Sand, 
and is the ciilef interest in both Vltjiy and Jautier 
nftiere tlie fnvourei persona,:o Is, undoubtedly, the 
poet, thou:;h W8 nust imderstond r:oet in its less re- 
sti*lcted. sense us neanln,';, the creator in any fom of 

The first and nost obvious characteristic of the art 



according to nature la its rejection of the art irtiich 
is In aocordenoe witii fasliion and convention. It is 
audi a rejection nAiieh dictates Oorinne'a doflnitive 
departure frosa I^glish faoily life .lust aa it dewer- 
xainee d'Arthes'a witMrawal frota Parisian society. 
?ut ia tiie dotenalnlnr factor in uonsuolo's dosiro to 
leave Vienna and, later, Berlin, It ia the cause of 
Stello's solitude and of d' Albert's retreat to a lonely 
oastle . 

The poet, indeea, may, according to Balsac's indications 
possess the natural renins ^Ich roiaianticiom exalts yet, 
if ho does not reject society, his natural ;-onius, 
prostituted in its expression, nay reriain admirable in 
its esaenoe but open to severe criticlsffii ?.n its surface 
fonmla. It is in this respect that Balsnc shows nost 
clearly inhere the cleavat_:e between hia and the otJier 
romanticists lies. Balzac hao given us as finis*»e»l a 
stiidy of the ro^xantic nonius in fouls Lambert as has 
any otlier of the romanticist writers. Lor can tsre fail 
to include in oxir study of art seen tiirouf^ the raediujn 
of type the younc poet iJMoien de :\ubenpre. It is en- 
li/^htenlnj; also to note that ivaphad'l ia a stra i;:linG 
yotmg writer at r c beginning!, of the story in whicli he 
appears. iJut those are not l.alsac's favoured personages. ' 

(1) Tills stQtenont nay be disputed and is, in fact, 
disputed by ocilllere in his book ralaac ot la nQi»alo 
ronnn-tp^que . The chief ar£;;uiiionfc in favour of ny statement 


t *tirr. 

;rrf.,'Tf n,^ 


To say tiii8 is at once to make ralzac unique In hio 
rOTitlrl Tmii At the oppo^to pole of thoucJit, Snnd 
Ilp96ax'8» bmdiiiadnr:- at the tip of her prolific oen, 
m tAkole host of per3onat';es whose threat virtue is d©« 
tMKtlAVd ttsly by their possession of an instinctive 
genius — instinctive, and taerefore, divine, and a dir- 
ect manifestation of God in man. 

Sand's artists are Generally, for exanplc, talented 
peasants with little or no education, iheir success 
is usually iidaediatc and tlicir wisdom apparently in- 
stinctive. The Teverino wiio was a i<eapolitan street 
>saciin and who leads an undieoiplined, nomadic existence 
allows Ills art in life to SToj^pass that of L^nce, the 
cultured artist* La Daniolla, the youn^ Italian of lai- 
bridled passions and i^iorant superstitions is suddenly 
endowed with a wonderful sin,f;inc voice. 

In tlio theatre, too, the art oust be spontaneous aaad 
correspond to tlie (jenius of tlie aotor« llonoe the por- 
sona^ea of Le Chateau des D^ortes find the tmith of 

is the fact tiiat .^alsac's indnsputebly syiri.pnt.:etic per- 
8onar;es are never reprcsontod as sterllo—as ?"jouis 
Lanbert is in hie art— nor as voluntar-lly seekin^r deatli- 
aa do Lucien and liaphai^l* t>uoh a d^ouenent to life as 

representev' in Ills fictiorx signifies tl^at it la based 
on an \in tenable principle. 


"•_-?l'-. .'l.e .:-(fS. 



■^•'tlbsm^-^'^ t. 

. ., . r 4 ^, ,.T •■ A 

■:> T'n 


^eir expression to depend upon the spontaneity of their 

feelin^^. The Intorpi^etction of art Is, in then, suV- 

Joctive. ITie exact words of a play become ra&ve eyiabols 

of a feelinr «hich sl-iould have 4n individual expression. 

Tho narrator \n»ites: 

♦ •••,1e n'aux»ais pas cru possible de a'aban- 
donnor aux haserds de I'lnprovisatlon sane 
nanquer a la proportion dec scenes, a ^ 
I'ordro dos entr^s ot des sorties, et a 
la neinolre des d<?'tftlls convenus — r.aio Poc- 
caferrl ct sa fille ayant perslr.te", et 
leurs theories aur la nature de 1' inspira- 
tion dans I'art et sur la raefciodo d'en 
tircr parti ayant cclaircT ce myst^'rieiax 
travail, la luEil^re s'^tait falte dans ce 
p r en 1 e r cliao s , , , i 1 ) 

This individual expression nay differ fron the stereo- 
typed conventional synbol iriiich the oricinal words 
have becorie, Hence Cello and Adomo are true artists 
to 3and wiien, as actors, tiiey are moat themselves and 
least bour d by the conventional, ^jeneral interpreta- 
tion of the vrords and part tJiey are actfn(i;. Tho extiHsrie 
individualism Tfiilcli does not even permit the convention 
of art to rule art is expoxmded here not in one fi;,ure 
only but in all except t'.iat of the worldly aristocrat 
wiio represents tho conventional, the expedient, and the 
stei'eotyped, and who is, therefore, abandoned. 

The spontaneity, the dependence upon individual inspira- 

(1) Sand, Le Chsite au de s p/sertes, 114. 

t ^ ^ r 




tion, the belief In untutored {genius, expressed thus 

throu;:ii poi-sonafre. Is not unique in Sand, It appears 

as the main tenet of '^orinne's art, as the chief virtue 

of Stello'B, Coi^nne praiaea Italy toecuaso the .enlus 

may live there at ease: 

—Ici, lea sensations se confondent avec 
les ide'os, la vie se pulse tovit entlei'c 
"^ la ri^e source, et I'^e, come I'air, 
occiipe lea confins de la terre et du ciol, 
Ici, le .".enie se sent et I'alse, parce que 
la reverie y est douce.. ..^l) 

Tlie source of art is in the poetic nature: in enthusiasia: 

—La poeslG, I'aiour, la reli;^ior-, tout ce 
qui tient a I'enthousiasne onfln eat en 
hamonie avec la nature. ^^' 

But if, in Balzac's wor?^, the poetic genius whose charac- 
teristics correspond apparently to Corinne's and whose 
art, therefore, corresponds to the art she syjibolizes, 
if this poetic genius appears as an unsynpathetic per- 
sona^^e, .^ '• '•" not to be deduced tliercfron that r^ 
deviates, in reality, far fron the coiJEson ronanticist 
aesthetic. ^-)n closer inspection, it beconos apparent 
tlaat sacii a fii;^rc is criticised not because of the 
poetic genius wiilch is his but because of the v/eaJmcss 
i6iich invalidates it, Lucien's art is not open to 
critlcisn u:itil it is prostitutecl to society. His ,^eniuG 
is acclairied bj d'Arthes and the Oracle, Ills art is 

(1) *t:ie. de Stael, £orlnne, 667, 

(2) Ibi d., 716. 

lj.:-.i>»- -.j-c*- 



Still individual and, as such, it is adiairable* It is 

still spontemeous and, therefore, be^*o^d cidtlciam, 

I'is art is ^at tlie artist ia—natural, spontaneous, 

orl filial, ^"<"hen the artist be cones the neaaber of society 

he ceasea to be Individual in his art since he and his 

art alike become the o.'q>resoion of ooclety. 'vhav iievolops 

in L^cien is e^joisni and at^bitlon. ''"hat develops in his 

art is the expr-oasion of this side of Lucien's nature. 

Balsac writes: 

Alnsi, par la b^ned5.ction du hasard, 
aucun enoei/Tierient ne inanquait ^ liuclon 
aur la pcnte du pre^cipice du il dovait 
tcanber. D'^rthoz avait mis 1« po"^to 
dans le noble voie du trava.' 1 en roveillanfc 
le sentiment sous leqxiel d^usparaisaent 
1g8 obstacles... J ■'■' 

The art coasee to be adiHrable when Luelen ceases to be 

admirable, that io, ifaen Lucien leaves the society based 

on natural social sympathy ( tlie Cenacle) to join tiie 

society based on natural self-love (the society of the 

Parisian journalists and the Parisian aristocrats). 

The one side of Mb nature (self-love) kills the other 

(love of hunanlty). 

This Is tiie negative side of tlie picture, it may be 
completed by a second fom of negation, that of Louis 
Lambert, Lucien's negation denies pai-t of his nature, 

(1) Balsac, Illusions pordues , II., 187. 




the ideal, Louis Lambei't denies part of hi a i\o-':r.jre. , 
th0 bodily pcttlity. All tlaat arewalna alivo in ?ilia le 
1^16 ideal part; of iiie nature. All tliat remal-ns of his 
art ai'^e theae ideas* They haye no body, aiMi,, for the 
most- part, therefore, reraein in the region of the Ideal, 
imexpi'ossod. This art, too, spr^Ini^js froti nature and 
iB Individual but itJ does not spring froE a i»hole na- 
ture and a complete individual. Just as in Lucloi one 
part of nature i@ denied ao, in i^ouis, the one part of 
his nature is d0nied, Lucien's life io aterilo and 
can, lOj^ically^ find no outccaie but death* This Ib the 
logical s'oault,, theiHsfore, for the art he represents. 
The Boxxe ia true of rx)uia Laiabcrti. :iia life coraes vol- 
untarily, in its refusal of actuality, to /Irtual deatli. 
This virtual dea til is tiie inevitable corollary for hla 
art. /'is 8t;jer?llty is the sterility of an art which 
ia not completely natural, Tjucion has accepted reality 
and donleci the ideal, the better part of his nature. 
Louis Lambert has turned 3'iis back on reality and lives 
only the i4eali8tlc side of his nature. Either per- 
sonage appears, in Balaac's repreoontation, as essentially 

The silence to which Louis Lambert's art ia reduced as 
soon aa it ianbraoes the ideal only, to the exclusion 
of the real, is the saiie sterility to which ^'-nutier 


, wKfc-tr^ij-.: \.i^ 



shows ftrt to be cond«:>]ned «ih«n as In OnuphriuSf for 
«caa9le« It has severed all relation to reality. In 
this respect, f^rtutler end Bal8«,e are In entire arrreo* 
ment and eh«w thARselves, on th© contrary, to be In 
e<»!q>lete oprosltlon to the attitude aysifcollsod in Jullen. 

Vlgny states hi a artistic credo very fully aa<i emphatic- 
ally. J^lM» poet Stello fflves way to the poets Gllbort, 
Chatterton, and Chenler, but reappears In his tyaa. per- 
aoR dvirln/; tVie recital o-p th*9lr hlPl-^r5«s In orc^or to 
presMii the poet' 3 point of vl<5Ty, ;'o def*-j':ca the genius 
of the Toc-t ft a Corl.nne wl^^ht have dcme: 

--Je ci-»ois en v\oi, -irce qne ,1« scnc au. 
fond de mon ooeur une puissance secrete. 
Invisible ?»t ^nC tr^vA.saP^Ae f touto 
parellle ^ un pros sentiment de I'avenlr 
et k 'xnr rw.r^latfoi:. de.^ rtauees myst^e'iaes 
du temps present, ^-^^ 

And he announces his entire and absolute devotion to 

the Ideal to the exclusion of the real: 

— Jft crols au conbat otemel de noti^ "ie 
int^ieure, qui f^ondo ot appelle, centre 
1ft vi.e <»xler5-eure, qvl, t^arj'-t et rft-^ousce 
• • • • ' 

It la the entire ooncocratlon to the ideal wlileh liad 

reduced Loxiis fjaaabert to the solitude of hio own thought 

and left hlr. In She obscurity or an otewial inner oon'- 

lo^d# Stello too appcara onl:,' -tiirou^^^ his Idaaa. lie 

(1) Vl^ny, itellf, 19. 
<8) Ibid.. W. 

»4 oS Jhri? 8«rcr'e 




■v"./ 'fiy\J vr.-.Ai iV 

doos not act nor does he wrtte* He aerely conteraplatea. 
no Is a poet, therefore, net because of the e."jpro8cion 
ho ^.Ivca to his idoae hut because of his ICeass; he i« 
a poet not l>e cense of fftiiit ha rtoos but fcftcauee of vlmt 
he scoa, 'Is Is the ocor— -no^ the winter nor the orator 
nor the swayer of the r>eoplrt's eriotione. "^ly the seer. 
^Ihsrever Stello appears. In 3tello or In i^aplme l he ia 
looklnr; on at the spectacle of life arsd, divesting; it 
of its matex^aX exprcsoion, he sees tlie ideal truth. 
Th5.3 is whet; In hl-i constiir.itae the poot*D cvt, TMs 
is the Ideal of ai't tshich Chattc-rtor. srcpx-^cGseB; **— Lo 
i'oote cherchc aax <5toile3 quelle route noaa cicatre le 
doitjt du Sei^iciu'."^^' 

Stello '3 attitxKic is cnccura^ecl b;; tho Doctour, In this 
encourF.t^ament, ve must recognize Virrny'g avnfcollc appr-oval 
of an art rrf'^ioh f.fjially, becorAS ^^t^.r^e nelf-coranunlon; 
for the aj:reeri«nt of ::tello aiK! '-'OcteMr-Tfolr mcaiifl tliat 
the conclualon is cpproved of by the totality of e^^cr- 
lence In nan, by the Instinct which hae ite aource in 
Ilia nature and b/ taie reason ishloh has its eouroe in 
the sxienial world, Viijay jiakea this plain. He writes: 
">4uel est oe Stel.lo? (iuel est ce Docteur-ITotr? Je no 
le aaia i^aere, 3tellc no r-eflec-ible~t-ll paa a quclque 

(1) vieny, i-tgilo . 74. 

ixJt t 


chose c<M«tno le aentiment? l.e Docteup-liolr a quelque 

ohose comtae 1© raiaomioncat ? Anci furtlicr? '''C© qui jo 
orois, c'est qua si aon coeur et n£ t^te avalent, entre 

eux, a^^ito la m^ao -^ostlon, lis ne ae e oral en t autr©- 

/ (1) 
Bent pRrle.^ iVG-ither Stelic nor Ivocteur-T'joir* are 

the coc^lete loan. Their dlalo^^ue lo the exterioriza- 
tion of an iitmej:* c<-^uat« between the heart and the heg^ji. 
Everj'tiiliig either of the two aays of the cthor conflrraa 
ttie riiU-ty of Ic^.preealon which the symbolic fii::urc -nust 
lESJce. '-vTien the vocfceur* and i^tello a^i'^eo, t' ' -"^rrij? 
points out: "••Voue etss svrpria de n© voir Icl de vo^re 
avis, c'est ;ue 1*7 suls arrive par le ralsonncment 
luilde, co33sac vons per le sentinent aveugle,'' In 
Stello resides >hie postry of life, in the ^ctexir ^hws 
pMlosoph;/ «i>.lch rnrJces life possible wltliout 3uccirabing 
eonpletely to despair. 

It ia tlie qucctlon of the poetic fimctlorx thpt prsoecupiee 
Stello and it is tlie final answoi- to this queatlor; that 
appeai'8 In j>aj^ir.c » -i.a fable r^i^recicnte a Foot w^io 
eeaaes to oxiireas liimsslf In poetic yfritinrt in ordor 
to exprooe liluaeif in poetic rxtlvn. The qiiiestion thcari 
beooracst "le it poss'fclc to elevate the com".on naas to 
the level of pure poetry?" The ':>ootenr*3 point of view 

(1) Vl/Tiy, .^: telle, 349. 

^a) Ibid , , wr^'" 

i^i'fT" f «?> -^-r; ■ -7 

?■! f>.r"i:?Tr5."^ n?!rt?Tn 

.>A ^M" 



<2 IKJ, 

^^iiioh is tii&t cT tiic lxitell«Gtual onalyslfi of reality 
is the point of view iiluotrated by the reality of 
the iiiotox^ oi' Laplin^, The pre»cxiptioB wliicli tliO iiu* 
ussx intallitjeiice oil ere to the po«t, en thit occfesioa. 
Is hidden imder tiie I'ona of Ljeabol bat ronains, nev6i?~ 
tiidleas, suiTlolentl/ pliiiii, 

Tiiat Uae poe; cur-nct e;drt without the iphllosopb*^ be* 
eai&e evident in j%zlJLo Viiiore iJocteiu^Noi.T- Ic Gtcllo(s 
oonatoiit co*Ji;anio:^» Tliie is a syj3i>c.lic indication of 
'/Igny'a teiief in the necea-'jarily doe© vuxion between 
poetry and phiioaopiij^ :ionco tiioxx^ is i)iiilo30pr*y in 
tli« poet Jiillen. Hence Li^aniue tiie tliilcaopaer rccog- 
c.lsoa tlie necessity foi^ coapx^oiaiee, '.rhe friction be- 
Inveen matter and apirit^ betvrecn iaoa:.'t and head, ba* 
tween action and ccmtemplationy betweex: syaboX and 
truths can n^vz^ be aolved by iiic cliidnctloa of ©ithor* 
Coctaur-^itoir condoumed ibolard, tiic tidnkor, beccuse 
at tlie end of his lif« :ie livoi only as intellect. 
Libaniuu condoianc Jullcn tbfc enpcror because "he iiaa 
jsoUfcjLit to £0t by tOiat li^ht of pure truth wialch is 
vouchaafod to the poet alone and cannot be shared trititi 
the mascofl, 

A.S emperor Jullen has been acting 111:© the urvvlso poet 
wlho proclaiaa aloud th© truths which he al£;ht better 





ohexdsh in ail«iice« Tmitli lo the noet'E r'oward not 
fcilory taul Julleii wxXi. rxnaixy xuai^iX t-iui, -or iiio poet, 
•ilonc© olc^ie la pooGlblo, ijHsoniive ui'^ea tiio necessity 
of makin'! caneoaslone to nan 'a ivoninnity. intolii -crico 
alono iii Jivino ^xxi. it lu aoii;-xi..oiit v;*iicu prcaex'vca *« 
and audi a sontiment niwet have tiio .miv«i'sal appeal of 
a s«elii_;lon, lielinlon te tiie noetrr of trath. It ic 
tho bofiy Wiiicia Ui© ia> weai'u lu i^eax-uy, xt uccnes 
evident tiiat, for vijay, not only is the philoeopiilc 
point of vlet; clocel"^ allied to the ooettc— or the 
ae3thetic~»c>uu axao x^ua^ x,xm iHJXifiioua puxnc oi view 
la ooaafovu^ded wltii botii. 

iioro tlie attituJo vtucii *-orinne exprcsoea reappears. 
Corinn© ie eqvially the synbol of her art, her religion, 

f^y-fl >inv Tjntr.T'Al fnr:11.r, , .T'lU'rir in Gq-f-ill-r -hllnncrher, 
priuaU, ouiii poGt* .>ci.i,.io,- ror- .'i{-piy la caiioritiaiiy a 
uortc of art, I-trlsr th6 - Id-jol 

tiruth. riit t'lflt -oetrj don.T n;^*-,, o-rial 

expreaelon in art out car be rathor a roxvi of couuOiapla- 
tlon Is the Integral Id^a of i^aj^nff! Tullen' a life aa 
a ooet dspondn u on Ma abste^^^.^v"»" f-nr^ t'lo world, of 
action. He ohoulJ, since he .^ic expression 

of the ideal, renain In the jj, :. of the ideal. 

This la tiie essential aigniricance of the divioi.yn .'i;:^y 


raakee between the iroet ''tello «n& the realist i-^octeur- 
'ioir, between the poot Julien oiid tii© idealist jjlbanius. 
The poet rnxst live in oant&ot with e::teiiial reality, 
that is, he xnuet I've In contact with Locteur^Uoir or 
T.lbCLnlus. :5ut this very contact viiil naice evident to 
the poet the futility of e:proeeion tiii^U(:;A the meolxin 
of reality. 5\ich exprosslon is no longer pure trutli* 
It iB truth concealed by reality, 'Ihe concluBlJ>n of 
Vlpny'a asethetic theory, thoraforo, will be to apot'ooo- 
3l«e the ai*tlst and to ylve art the absolute oxtves:,iQ 
of subjectivity and Individuality by nalcln.3 It Inaccess- 
ible to any but the artlot himself, 

iior^ e.T'e diptlnct af5itit?es between the conclvioi-on 
at «i.;_ui , fc;.i?river ' , *-'''C \i-:.vj.i.-^'^--..^ ..^--. 

the conclusion at ishloh ^pnd arrivcfs by v/ay of tlie 
Instinct ( -elene)* '^e art i^-J-Ch (^leno STmbolizoa in 

■ Ljva >-e ,.i. ■ X .-_rc, is the u- contxxj_xt- ciaotioneJ. 

oxjjroaoion of a coapletoly inotinctive nciture. - v art 
is inr^ppvicatiOT-;. It Is, in f'».ct, not fxp^'csalon of 
iiez' C0iiBc:^^uuiac3^' i.'j/ooiLij.(. " ■' ' sui:.— 

conscious in her, >.en ."eloae touches the lyre and 
olars, ohe in reoresentot'; as bein." in direct con- imica- 
i.- Jii ;vj. - ... - : . -i.-'-j crc . iCir-u.^, ^/^r'O 

of God, converse wltli her mid rovcal to her the aocrcta 
of the ursi verso, -. ,n ..olai-.o. Hire a nodlvjr. controlled 


by forc«8 Ts^ilch belon.'j to the spiritual world, -ir'-os 
rrnislc and pooti*' wiiicli la deatined lio cot- luriiciv^ •'^o 
the rest of humanity the secrete of the Infinite w;iich 
Jod has revealed to har, the choaen one. The music and 
tho poetry whicli H^lone creates while she la in a sort 
of trance, contains a ■afisdoa of which she is, oonBciously, 
totelly ijnaworc. The lyre toudaed by the t:ru.c poet's 
fln.-orc veanondn, GO Ilolene, tao .;oet, is, syr'joiio- 
ally, a lyre touched Ttjy uod't finders, aod who ia the 
poet, tiie creator of the world, expresees hie poetry 
th3X>U;5h tlae numan lyre, leleno. The conception of art 
expressed thai thronnh ' clone ia what H* de Sellllero 
calls the "nycticlsae aoethetique" of ronantlciar-. 
The poet :*.8 .od'o -ns truraent, the art exjjroaaos a wlsdon 
of wlxich he is not consclouoly aware, --^o muet bo araen- 
ablG to tiae au r,estlons of instinct ao that '^^ m£,y not 
distort the teachinr, w^.'.ch ia entrusted t- hiu. 

The idealiite: which r>and ©.\pr»©a8ea here ie as absolute 

IS \'LcT-'r*n, In Vij^ny that Ideallsn la so extrene as 

to refuse reality even the concesciori xiliich It would 

bs to clothe the ideal truth in tlie niaterial art, I or, 

to Vlmy, If roli^ion ie tt2\.-aye eyiibolic of an idea, 

ao poetry In Its naterlnl expreaaion riuat alwaya be a 

for"" o ' synbo^, ..c/. ^oet can co "lunloate ydth 

the divine essence diveecly"*' tlie s^^Tabol c^\n be little 

(1) Docteur-Holr, for in. tonce, quotea an Imai^inary apeech 
of Homer' a in w'lich he malcca liin aay: 1.,.et qui enseli-ne 




nor© than a pis-ailor, tho natorlal exprGSolon a n;/n"bol 
to be envisaged only as Ideal truth. 

"in otmd tho absolute character of tlio Id-^alisL; ^,. appar- 
ent In the lack of probability vfilch hor choson sp:'. ol 
wear.". /\aa fllscax^2©i all concern for reality. 
She has creatt. ^ iiyth in order ;.v 3d a:i Ideal 
fcxnit^i. That "clene io yotmrr, inexpcrloncocl, iynorant 
(Jf the world, entirely unversed In tho technique of the 
arts, doee ^^ hinder -ond fron reproncntin; '---^ 
capable of conposlnc* poetr;,' and nualc of incomparable 
beauty and wiadow, Foi* .'elcno is only* tho a"b!9tr«<?t 
Bpiri* '^^ the lyre and v--.^--'- nlae* .io> "...aa n. •- 
lation to anything; or anyono else. .1 actually 
doofl, thro- ^lV;e^ *s to aeparntc tho poet finally 
and absolutely froia his art, .^i- ' ,.^^ ., „ only a 
ii^AL'un, an instrjwent, but not an intell5 ont, con.-^cious, 
w^llln:: inst-» , '.s deif3rln,: the sub-conn clous, 

bscur.';, ..-• -jlore:. roi^ions of the personality. 
In this she micht well be a aodem disciple of Freud 
6r ' . r who s^.ares Ponri'e attitude 

Is equipped wltl. a :5cientlflc phraseology the nore 
efficiently to " "net but the orl-ln of 

I'ax't, si ce n'c 

pas de T"^' ^■' ;, o^ : 
hors la iO.*' -« 

;' le oel:e n'a 
..os sont apprises. 




iiis polafc ol viow ie to be found la tlae ©iiriy rotianti cists, 

:iai«ac an4 ^jSutier, a« iiaa been au<:^;os..«><l, d«vlr.te v.idely 
frata 9UGh aa atcitud* as 'Jl^nj and :^.aAd, In tholi- varirlng 
faa^iiona, express. In both tlio lafc-iicr, i!:;2io reaul-"- -" 
their ideaiiatic point of view is, bbviv^ualy, a conr.tit- 
atnt to creation by ay.boi. xt the only reality Is the 
ideal, ae Vi.'jny believ* a, ihe ; oet cam eaepress notl^iin-; 
©lae In ids ort. if ttia nodium la leas t^rum huisan and 
a Ewre somdints board for tiae idral truth, aa ^anid .- - 
^eeta^ the nedlum will have no Intrinsic I'aportance 
but only ayobolio value. I-Jalzac's attitude can boat be 
atoadiod t.irou^i peraonotsO, if there* la one artist nope 
tl)an anothex* for wi«>n I^alaac has a strong predlleotion, 
it le i^'Artnoa, tiie inoorruptible. Liiie '-'orlniie, he 
i'inda society atuitli'yln,^ to his art and has refoeo'. 
>uio llfo It offers, lut the society Corinne re,^ect8 
la the eooiety of discipline and duty whereas the 
aoclety d'Arthea re.jects ia the society of ep;oiEtlo 
IndividualiE:.!. Hevortheleac, there ia a comtion cance 
in their refiiaai c»i society' a cloino. In either ease, 
society '?111 in^oso a pattern wlilch deiiiea oart of th© 
natural bein^,. .-lence, both Oorinne and d'Arthez arc 
rejoctin/i aoclety in ord ;r to bo ablo to retftan m^ in- 
dividualian >&-tiich does not coincide with the social 
ideal actually pi'evalent, i-^iiez's art will not. 



^i%»if9S!opQ f corr-oapond to th« social idoaX of e.r>'t but 
rather bo iiis pcz'sonal idcuj.. ^iie provailii*. ^■..-y^-fil 
ideal w^Ueh is matox'ialistlc and xaalies I^uclen's art 
the result oi^ ©.cpealancy ratlier than the product of 
his jiCiiluo is superseded 3.n d'Artluia :/ the idealiatlc. 

But d'Arthez doea not. Ilk© r>oui3 Lanbert, turn his back 
OR the roality of what exists, -o accepts real' ty by 
lain love for a ducheas of the az'iatoc: atic Parisian 
society, but ho tronsinuteB it to the realxa of the ideal, 
for the picture of her idilch he cheirtslies in his aind 
is transfoHaed and corrected to ault his nature, or 
D^Artlieis "la prinoesse, cette belle c "Mature, \ine dea 
plus reaarquablea croation;* -.<-^ k,^ .i.^,iatrueux .. aris oii 
tout est poacible erfbieii coane on mal, devlnv,, quclquo 
vuli-^aire ffao le nolheur des tenps ait rendu ce aot, 
I'onge r^e," ' The art which j;''\rthea thus ap.iioa 
in life is tiie art which Balzac represents as a^Lniirable, 
D'Arthea is the creator wi\oso G©niua is natural, tmd 
untraEBriolecl by the prevailing; social conventions, xet 
d'Al^thez belon,i8 to a society: the C^aole, If he throws 
off the outward convention— which, in art, la to throw 
off the haiaporin,:, outer formulae—he will replace it 
by a conformity with an inner ideal wixich is a social 

(1) r.alcac, .cs_."e o rot 3 do la frinceooe de Oa , 334. 


Ideal, '\3 art irr' n ije in<l''T7-' 'mal . T-.^mral h-ith ' •;•, 
will Inpose an iaeaiiatic c/iaraot«r u^on t,ho inat,erlal 
TKilch reality offers It.^-*-' Thia 1» a romantlois'i w?ilch 
is crti^'^. ctm-.hT*-'- R'-n'tlTC t-^ ♦•"'■<'•» ^>r>(')7*Tr of* ^''1■" ■^f>fv.v'^l 
expTeasGd oy iorlrjie, . t ia, however, a rcsti'lGted 
ronantlclsn, a roj?'(«tntic4sCT 'w?-»l(53i, w'lllft r^ 
sonal anfl (^-^ r-inatinfr In t^i^ -nnlniral talftn*-^ «'■>< eh ig 
divine, recoyaizos tho dual ciieraoter of natiira and Eeeks 
to i*eco?iclle the e^-intaneoua Ideal! an with tho lladta- 

nfelch nar3?3 ^alsac'a aesthetic doctrine j w" .Icii giv«« 
It an eseentlal af Inlty to lautier*s aTn.ibolloal*,?' ex- 

xmreatrainod Idealisn o"')Vos&oa toy vi ny and Sand. 

T^et •d-'-Arfhes Is not devolc^' n^ •yp.r^'.M-- ir.n Mi'= "7'r,v.i--ai^ ^^• - 
senao oi the -word, ilis life Is a- -li-fe of enfchuslasn 
and religious fervoui'. If hi -^3ion in life is to 

correct nature "and to reve'^T V-i.-i. ■•_-''p>ni ■.r.r • n^^ p -^-.^-nosi^onds 
to observed real" ' , ' ' ' ■' • "cult 

of accoraplishiTient "sjid demands of ^■^ 

.f^enius of visior _ . „ clone 

(1) - or C- :in SCO t-xe plot of Les . ..crets de la 

As in the case of Mcie. de Stael so with Balzac the 
OTtnbol attains to a judicious prob«t>llity. The i;,teli~ 
igenoe which Corlnne seems to -ossess nances the superior- 
ity of her art not improbable, D'Arthez's superiority, 
based as it la on his apparent kTiowled£-e of reality, 
is llkewlBe comparatively acceptable. H^lene or Stello 
are, on the contrary, presented directly as allegorical 
firairca tilth no corre^poncience to hunan character. 

With the years however, an occasional variation appears 
in the character of the art vhich Sand repi*eBents through 
personarje, 'A*he ;;'.ost notable variation occurs *" 'lal- 
^t^flrp* The artlat Francis finds his art sterile be- 
cause he has turned his back on reality In orcler not 
to confine the spor.taneHy of lils art within the limit- 
ation of the real. The artist Adelaide feeds her art 
on natural !3cience and finds in the lr->owled,r'e of real- 
ity thus gained the true source of ! living; art, 
(1) Rcr brother speaks of her thus: 

—Si Adelaide a requ de raon p^ro 1^ edu- 
cation la plus brillante et de na mSre 
I'exenple de toutes les vertus, c'ert a 
Valv0'.'re qu'ellc dolt Is fou sacrc", ,.» 
le .-^irain de g*^nle (Jul lul fait idffal'ser 
et po^ ' nainteaeat les ^udes las 

plv.S r, . (0 

Her art Is still spontaneous auu xree as she Is still 
innocent and iapulalve. But her knowledge of nature 
has a double source, tlie real a.n ' the Ideal, ant3 the 
observation of the real Is iransnitod to material for 


(1) Hc'rao dcs deux .ao.^:'-^uo, 1361, III,, oaii.:, /alv^dre, 540, 

r.nrtrjT": '-,:■: 

n' n I 


< -m i - imi mmtm*^^ 


the ideal, "xhls ie a otatonont \v5)Lich tallica v/itii Bal- 
aac's attltucie as roprosoiitod t. rough d' irtnca. S«uid 
adopba tiiis attitude tovmrd reality only at a co-ripara- 
tively lato date, however; ot a date vrhon tiie realisn 
and naturalise provalont in tlio second phase f roman- 
ticlam raay iiave influenced hor eai-iier point of vlev/, 
'Ja2 ,v&dr'Q f /or er.a^ple, appeare in 1861 Tci^oreas the 
stories into which Balssac introduces d'Arthez appear 
between 1337 and 1339, 

In all of these writers, the c^^cataat otre;;K ia laid 
on the fact tliat the poet is God 'a propliet on earth. 
This attitude ia an innovation which in- 
troduced into aesthetic theory. 'Hie ciuotationo that 
liave already appeared will have nade apparent Uie 
S'-.xirce of this doctrine and its intlnate minion with 
the faith In nature, and .sith the idea that the voice 
of instinct io the voice of God. The union of relig- 
ion and art becomes inevitable, .'Vrt, z'oll^icmf and 
nature appear in Corinne unified and inseparable. If 
rellj^loua feeling la spontaneous in her, just so ie 
her expression of the auo *oi.i.c I'eelin spontaneous. 
Thus art in Corinne is not only indivi<Jual but la a 
natter of inprovisatlon rather than dl-^clpline. It 
is natural expre^L'slon just as lier rell.,ljus practices 
are, Art becoiaee, therefore, oscontially, the express- 
ion of nature. The artist does not discipline his 
nature but merely expi-c ^ en it, ;is art is a iivlne 
gift outside of human jUT'lsdlctlon, It has its source 

:■•'» T9r^ 

in nature, that ia, in Cod. Art is nccear^erily lyric 
and personal since it Is the expressiori of an im:er 
onthuaiann. All of these facts enerf^e d^rectlr froia 
Corinno's person aa well as fron her conversation and 
her wusioal and poetic iiiprovisations. It i* bccnuse 
she Is an artist that she olaias cxn':v)tioji froia the 
corcion law. It Is on 'ler art ttiat she bases her clai:n 
to superiority* 

In Stello , the conviction of man's ..liaslon is di.-ectly 

stated, Chatterton states it S7i:ibolically, In answer 

to 'lr. ' ocrford's questions "— .'4ue :ia"fclc peut ^-"vq 

le f'oote dans la manoeuvre?", ;:i\attcrton replloc; 

"— Ue PoGte cherclie aux etoiles quelle route nous 

raontre 1© dolrt du Sel;:?ieur," (1) Docteur-T'o'r r^hes 

lloiacr say: 

••Vous me daaondea i^uellos Instltutionc, 
quelles lois» quolleo doct ..res j'a' donnces 
aux villea ? Aucjino a^xs nations raalc M\e 
^tcmolle au nondc, — Je r^c sals d^auoone 
ville, nais de l*tin.lvers«— /os doctrines, 
vos lois. vos institutions ont ^t^ bonnes 
pour un me et un pe\iplc, et sont norteo 
avpc euxj taiadia que leo oouvres de 1* ,rt 
coles te rostcnt dobout pour toujour:. Ti 
laesiire qu'ollea e'^l^vont, et toutes por- 
tent los nalheu or tela 1^. la^o' inip^r- 
iasable de l»Ai ./.. . de la P3TIK, (3) 

The Dootenr goes on to connent upon the speech w»>ich 

he has int into tlie mouth of Homer, syribol of the Poet. 

— Et cette dignltG calno de 1 'antique ^ 
IIoKi^re, de cet honne syribole de la deatinee 

(2) Tfeid .. ^01. 


d«s Poete^j, cette dlgnite n'cst autre 
chose que le scnt?..iont eont!.nuel c!e sa 
mission que doit avoir toujouro en lui 
l'"-.ori*ii6 ciM*- 3G sor:t vnc '^uco nu fond du 
coeur,— Oe a' oat pas pour rien que cette 
!Tuso 7 est venue: elle rait ce q\i*clle 
dolt fairc, at le Po'^te ne le salt pas 
d'ava/icc. C.c n'cat qv;'au'cnt Oc 1'- 
Inopiration qu'll I'apprend,— Sa r.r.seion 
est dc pi'ot.iu' dec ne'ivvac., et re^ilw-'^ont 
lorsqu'il entcnd la voix secrete, 11 
doit I'attcndre, >iie nulle influence 
^tz*angere ne 1 ' 'cte ocqjbaroies: ''■'- 
scraient :-^1. . s.— iu'll ne cri. 

pas I'inutilite de son oeuvrej si elie 
est belle, elle sera utile par ".cla seul, 
pulsqu'olle aura unl les .oLunco da:iD un 
sentlnent caaviun d'adorati -"n, et de conteir.p- 
' "' r eXle et la pcnaee qu'ello 

. (1) 

Such a speecia not only o;:piains in cato^^^orical toms 

the roraanticist view of the artist aa projphet but It 

also jivcs explicit statement of the nechanlcal role 

n^tiich is the poet's. This is the statcnent wMch Sand 

likewise Eiade clcarl:' through the modlura of Ilelene, 

the poet i5!io wns no norc than the instrument In the 

hands of the divi e inspiration. 

The essential elements of Vliiy's thought in reg^rii 
to art nay all be found 'n ^tollo . It Is apr.arcnt 
that Vif^ay— since he regards the Poet as the pur- 
veyor of the hi/thect truth and as God's chosen niessen- 
ger>— is, like the other, rotaantics, toitaented by the 
search for a reli;;'.onj for vhat Is the poet's aescaje 
to bo if not the revelatlor. of tlie divine? Tiit, to 
"igny, and here he is unique anon^^ the ronumticists. 

(1) V.jT»^, Stdlo . aai. 

X«* . ajt»ia .^^giV 


tlie explanation of the universe carmot be dlscoVwJ^:.d 
by the sentir.ent. Only the lntelll,<'*ence r^hlch see'rs 
for cause and e'Tect, «^lch woiics br analysis car; dis- 
cover the intelll:',ence of the imivcrse^-t'ie n Iveraal 
Cause which Is Ood, Between ^06 and nan, however, there 
rects the veil which He has dravm. -^-he htaaen intelJ.- 
i,-;cnce which is Ood lies hidden In nature. Hature nay* 
be ItitTjrro.'-ated only ♦o a certain |>olnt with profit. 
Thereafter the question renainrs unanswered ant^ nature 
is silent. But the poet Is the 5nt«?rpretGr "'f God 
to nan. The v.'ord rrhleh he speftks is the splr* t^.xal 
natorialieatlon of/\::ona which exists 'netv.'cen rami cur^d 
Qod— between the hurian lntelll^';:enco and the suprerae 
intellif:cnce--bftt-i«;en the h^cnan reason and the in- 
rxunan nature. That r.'ord can only be fovmd in so:.ttude 
far fi'oi:'! the wil^-ar crorrd, fron the pos'tlve preoccupa- 
tions of 1! '"e, and frorn the false eonventlona of 
society. The poet oocone;;, '.herefore, t'.:.c interpreter 
of the intellii;^encc. As such he vrill be separated 
fror;i those vho o not laidorstand by the intclli 'Cnce. 
:;e V7ill write not for the present but for the etoiniity 
and it will be an inpersonal spectator oi life that he 
will interpret l^fe. The Idcn r;ill bo everything to 
liin, the particular will be nothing but an illustra- 
tion or syjabol of the Idee. In tlila nannor Vl^^iy 
boconcE the poet of the ronanticiestn nost dlfficalt 
of acceso»an.i moot reiaovcd from the exter-ior and '•later- 
ial world. 







The syal>ollc elonants which, in Jautier'e work, repre- 
sent the nitural art ai'e of supreme Interest as a con- 
clusion arcl a coraxaentary to the romanticist aesthetic, 
bis most familiar :;ersonage« are all those vrho live 
entirely in the realii of art, *ho alle );orical figures 
in Cftllfi-t^i r.r r-.n TiA^ifl will help to explain the s^n- 
bolic oleaents in iiis la tor vy'^r'r. Iri this stovy the 
si.^nificance of all the figuroc in t^e tale depends 
upon the aesthetic theory wjiioh they represent. It 
becoraes evident, for exataple, tliat the ^vonan repre- 
sents not only love but poetry* Jautier describes 
Nteriette thus: 

" rirlctte, c'est la vralo po^cji^ la 

•.eGlc s-^.ns corcet et cars farl, la in-iae 
bonne fille, qui oonvient a !• artiste, 
qui a des larrnes ct des rlreo, qui ciiante 
et qui parlc, qui romue ot pelpite, qui vlt 
de la vie hunair.e, de rotre vie a r.ouc, 
q\ai se laisse faire ef toutes les ffuit;ilslec 
ct 'a tons les capr'cos, et ne fait la 
petite bouciie pour ai'cun not, s'il est 
subline, (1) 

The above description sho^uld be borne in n'nd in turn- 
ing to ?!ade':ioi8elle de 'laujjn . '^■\e analo^^r between 
the novel and the short story Is too obvious to vfi 
overlooked, and servos as a practical "enonstration 
of tho validity ^-^nd, in- ced, t';e nece •="!-" of a sym- 
bolic interpi^ts-tion of the woiaen in Madoirjleelle ds 

MlXe« de T'aupln represents ronantic boavity and rocuuitic- 
isn In poetry, i!^t the equivocal nat\ire of her beauty 

(1) Gautier, Cello-ci ct colle-la^ Le& Jeoties- ! ra:ice . 109, 

•jLLs;:iA_la:i — :■• ^■•■•- 

Introduce 3 an ele:aent foroij^i to^ Celle-cl et CGlle~la . 
It is tills equivocal nat\xre \^iicii a-ust furnish the key 
to ilautier's final c inception in regard to poetry. 
For MllG, do Uaupir:, israo was conplettAy feniixine at 
the be^jinnin;- of the histoid, aQsiiaies, with the pass- 
a.^e of tine, not only the masculine garb Taut also cer- 
tain qualities of the nasciline spirit. or beauty 
escapes limitations because it escapee ordinary class- 
iflcation. It becoaea the beauty wh:'.cli is perfection, 
the beauty of the hermaHpiirodite. Ihus at first, 
MlXe« d© -aupin. In her pure fetslnlnitj, is syab^ic 
of the ninetosnth century ideal of beauty, that is, 
of raTiantiols^a. ihc .Idealisation of the fcijLi.-ae 
aspect of the xmivo-se is c.hai»actoriatic of roraantic- 
Xma^ which, tiirouj^i the medieval mariolarty and the 
adoption of neo-Platonlc tueor-es, i:aa placed womaxi on 
A peaectal ancjiiad made of her a iivlnity, Tut, in her 
apparent nasoulinity, Mile. Jo Naupln . conf oKnc to the 
idealization of the nalo l.eanou whicn coaructerizes 
eighteenth ccntui'y neo-pclassiclan. But the Greek ideal 
of beauty wna neither ^nasrullnc nor re:iin''ne tut » 
hartaonization of both. Helen and Par-is ;f;rc nearly 
alike in their ejrprecsion of ideal physical beauty. 
Hence, a3 '!XI«« c llaupin assumes nore and iiore of 
the characteristics of the hemaphrod' te, the ideal 
i^rroek beauty, she ceasec to represent pure roaartic- 

la«U neither does she represent a spurious class- 
icisia but she syrabollzes the conplete beauty of tioie 
claBSlcism. Tlie ^:radual ; .^ution through which she. 



rorianticisn, pasadfl reoroseiita the dvolution of *)(*";• 
art of po8t3?7, ^^oro and. more tilsaatlsfied vrlth. tiie 
puroli^ f^ilnlne world (with pure roijanticisia), the 
ideal of beauty in aer oontact with reality finds 
•at.-l8f action, finally, only in a min^-lino of two Modes— 
a nlnislinr which, aautior points out, r-aprcs«::t8 the 
ideal of uz^ek art, 

•«ilo« d« Maupln rep-i^eaenty the ideal in art. D'Albdi't 

hljflseir repre.Mexits the art wliich aspires conata^ntiy 

toward ideal beauty, H« reprsaenta ranantlcisni in its 

aoeb feyjjieal o ;ase anU hie utterances, therefore, are 

all repreaentativo of tlie «5haracteri sties of a rojuantl- 

elois whioii appeara under an attractive ^xiia© even though 

Its search f )r bhe ideal beauty ia, for so long, »'n~ 

aucoeflHful* This search, it is to b» xioted, ia the 

distinguishing characteristic of romanticism, Ihe 

aole and sufficient object of d'Altert's life le tiie 

searcli for ideal beauty* lie writes: 

«**J< adore aur toutce choses la beaute 
de la fome;—la beaut^ r>our noi, c'est 
la I>ivinit^ visible, c'est le bonliour 

prvlpGble, c'ent le ciel doncendu s\ir la 
tfcrr©#— — Nlais qui pourrait xm pas 
s'a~onou.1.11er devant tol , pure personn- 
ificatlon de la pena^ de DieuV (1) 

According to his theory, thia beauty must make its 
appeal U^rougli the senses. He defines Lis Ideal 

(1) Gautier, Hademoi_3elle ^e Maupin , 146. 



beauty o^: different occoslonEt "—11 j a ".xeie har^ionle 
entrc la "beauto et la rlchesne," d) " — L*air, le 
gest®, la d^arche, le Gouf le, la coulcur. Is son, 
le parfTiin, tout ce qui est la vie, entpe pour nol clans 
la conposltlon de la beautej tout cc qui ombarane, 
chante ou rayonno y r^vient c3.e droit*" (2) "«Tu 
aalfl avcc quelle ardour j'ai rech.ereJ'io la beaute 
physique, quelle inportance J^'^^t^^cJi© ^ 1^ forrtc ex- 
t/rieiire, et de quel a:nour je suii prls pour le sonde 
visible." (3) "— Je trouve la teri^o aiioal belle que 
Ic ciel, et jo pence que la correction de la fornc 
est la vertu," (4) 

The SEAphaslE of ronar.tlclsm (d ♦Albert) on beauty 
Icada to the confusi.jXi of bear.^.y vyit;. virtue or 
with the good. Actually beauty of forr.i i ecoraes the 
sole criterion since it ic this that divinity oxpross- 
QQ itself: " — Ce qui est beau phyoiq ;craent est ";*©);, 
tout ce qui est laid est mal," (5) : eauty la the 
divinity ttJid its expression is nature. TIence uautier 
is a^abolialnj a ronanticisn v.hlcli raay be aeen to de- 
light in laattor and to revel in the physical, since 
matter is ncccssni^r in ordei* that fom ^nay laaAif'^st 
itself. The natxirisu of Gautier's roraanticisn is 
thus apparent in his very definition of beauty even 

(I gbid ., 54. 
(2 ybld.^ 147. 
(g jlrid. , 196, 197, 
(S kbid. . 211. 

' 1 r<s i-f^i 

*;j-j -^ 


. .ULJUv'i 


if h© did not underline it; everywhere throu, hout th« 

toook, 'liiua d' Albert, Uautler's sTmbol of roraonticlsm, 


^•Jo lie conprends paa Qotte nortif -■ eacion 
de la niatl^ro iul fait I'es once du :firist- 
ianiarae, je trouve que c'est \ine action 
sacril^;:;e que de frapper sur l*oeuvre de 
Dieu, et je ,ne nuis croire qv.e la chair est 
mauvaiae, puisqu'il I'a petrle lui-a^ne de 
t-os doi ,ls et a aon intar e , , , , j., veux—- — 
que la inatlbre ne so cadie point d'etre, 
puisque avpai M«|^ que 1' esprit, olle ©st 
\m hyiane = ternel a la louani^e de Dleu, (1) 

It Is the some cry as above wliere d* Albert iiac v;rittenj 

"— Je trouve la terre au! 
del, Qt jo peua© que la 
for/ne est la vertu," (S) 

"— Je trouve la terre aussi belle que le 
del, Qt jo peua© que la correction de la 

13ut it ?-S not forrtleas natter which Is ndn'ralle. There 
must be form. i;ut the fortu, wiiich is Imposed h;: a spirit, 
or intelligence, canjiot disperse with the i^intter which 
is its subject. lence it nay be observed that Gautler 
scorns the Intolloctualisa wiiich caused thinkers fron 
Plato's time onward to place boauty at the service of 
pure intollif:;enc© so tiiat Its value v;ae actually 
utilitariar i^ther thaxi abEolutc, but for aautler 
lntellii:;©nce has becorie a aecosBaJt' Angredlont of beauty, 
:ie is far roiioved from those who regard all physical 
nature as good nince it ia all indistint-^uishably an 
expression of the Divinity. It is form imposed on inattey, 
the spirit allied to nature, w?ilch, for Jauiiei', is the 
true divinity. Thus he writes, through d' Albert,: " — Ce 
qui eot beau physiqucraent est bien, t*ut ce qui est laid 

(1) Ibid,, 148. 

(2) iHd ., 311. 


^ -m 

e«t rial." (1), and defines a position wlilch at once 
eeparfttes hira fixsn ;ii8 redecessore, T^tier© -autler 
writee "beau" , one mi^^iit expect Rousaea^ and hla 
followers to writ© "in confor^nA ty to prJjaltive nature", 
"natural" , 

Vi-f^T points out the necessity of e^nbol in the work 
'; •f art by moane of identifying art and reli?:lon and 
Bhowin*;: religion 'co b© the sjinbolic cloak of a hlf^den 
reality. Gautler indicates the e.eBtnetic theories 
characteristic of romanticlBm through the words of 
d* Albert, its representative. As the representative 
of a romanticisi:! syiapathetic to Gautler, d' Albert 
may be said to raake Gaxitler'e ooeitlon in regard t.> 
art very clear, ' Mberfc vrrite'' -<" hla auml^'atlon 
for the fujnclful type of draia sucxi as Ab /ou Like It . 
He wjrltesj 

— Ce p^le-m^le et ce d^eordre apparente se 

trvDuvcnt, '.-^u bout du conpte, rcndre plus 
exa^tenent la vie rdelle sous aes alluros 
fantaequep que la .-Irair^e de noeurp. Is plus 
minutieiisencnt ctudl^.— Tout ho-^wie renfcr-io 
en 8ol l»hiu/ianlt^ -ntl^re, et en ecrlvant 
ce qui lui vlent a la t6i;e, il r«5u';8it 
■•■deux qu'en copiant ^. la loupe les ob.lets 
plac^ en dehors de lui. {2) 

The first part of this statenent riay se vo zo ca?'+ 

lii^lit upoii vj^utier's careloBsnoss in re^.ar. 'x.aor 

Inconeistencios "n hie work. Such inconsietencies In 

a world of fancy or day-dro«m ax*e qui.te probaLie. 

(1) Gautier » .Mad emoi selle de Maupin , 221. 

(2) iHci. /m: — -^~ 


289. ■ 

To the ran ahut up In a world of hi 3 own creation— 
as, to Qautlor, all men necessarily are— such incone la- 
tencies are more real, perhn s, than would be the "lore 
conno.ily accepted realisri. 

It Is nan wiio ie the aeaaure of all Viin s and each 
man naives his own world, lherefoi»c ..autler consciously 
advocates a method of creation ¥foich takes Its source 
ir, thi-; individual rather tiian in the exterior v/orld. 
This laethod of creation leads tovrard sytibolisia. ifv.r 
d 'Albert, it is obvious that the poet's creations re- 
spond to 'lis caprice rather trnr-. to observation, He 

—to 13 ces types chanaants, si faux et si 
vrais, qui. Bar les alios bl crr^s de la 
folie, s'el^vcnt au«des iis^de la ronsiere 
r^Talit^^ et dans (^ui le poete personnifle 
a« joie, aa n^aneelie, son ainour ot son 
rdv« Ic pl.i3 ir^.'r.ic Houn Igs a. ;are cos les 
plus fri voles et les plui9'ie'*,a. ees, (1) 

Ordinarily the poet's dpean is roell;:^ed t'rou~h th« 

wcman* Therefore* 

"—la fejttc est icvenue 1© synibol* d« 
la beaute* ndrale et physique". (2) 

To the poet the dreara of beauty is realised In poetry. 
Therefore it is only natural that d» Albert should do- 
scribe wonan as poetry— Just as aautler Interprets 
them In Cello-ci et cclloi;»la , D' Albert writes: 

— II est vrai lac lea fcnries ne s'on- 
tendent pas pins an r>o^ic que les choux 
et lee roros, ce qii est troc naturel ct 
tres altiple, ^t«mt elles-ri^es la poesle 

(1) Ibid., 266. 

(2) ISid. , 22o. 


*; O 


ou touj; au molne lea meilleurs Inatrixtients 
de poeslG, (1). 

Thus in a different and norc subtle r.nnner, fiautler 

too Buo lies the ';c7 to '■'In v?orlc, '.Tien he be cones 

more explicit, the reader is al-i?eady prepared for the 

extension of meanlr. eh raust be attar'^ed to his 

pe-pir.-nnr-es, T 1- ^1 no '-rire rhetorical r;hrase vrl\eT) 

d 'Albert writba to -lie, d^'^aupln: "— Vous represcntes 

dignenent la prcrrilcre^ du mondc, la plus uro 

synbolisatl;!! de I'esrencc ^temellc,— la beautf?," (2) 

At the tlie d' Albert v/rites this, he has not yet •*^ill7 

recoi?ilsed r^lle, de l!aupin'8 dubious nature. But he 

has already ^iven his interpretation of true beauty: 

—II n* y a presuue pas de differece 
entre Paris et Mclejie. Aussi I'liemac- 
phrodite est-il vine des chim^res Icj^lus 
rii^iennaont carer sees de I'mitiquit^ Idol- 

Cost en effot une dee pi is s^;avefl ora- 
tions -iu [renie pa? on que ce flls d' emnea 
et d'.Aphrodltl:. 11 ne se peut rien imag- 
iner de plus i^avisaant au raonde que ccs 
deux corps toua deux p'rfalts, harmon- 
leuseiaent fondua cnst.^nble, qje ces cleox 
boautee si ^j^-ales et si dlff ^rentes qui 
n*en foment plus qu'urje super leure ^ 
toutes Icux, parce qu'elles se tenperert 
et se font valoir r^ciproquencnt: pour 
un adoratcur cxoluslf de la fomo, 77 
a-t-il une incertitude plus aiiaable que 
celle o'u vous Jette la vuo ie co da, de 
cos reins douteux,..? (3) 

Thus even while d' Albert aci'nowled^'jes his love for 

Mile* de liaupin as wonan OTily, ho has already passed 

beyond that love to t^^c conccntion of unity and har- 

(1) (J^utier, nademai selle de lga^V>Sn '> HV, 

(2) Ibid., 35G. 
(5) iH^ .. 224. 

JIU V £3 



mony which will superaedo it. 

So It becones apparent that Uautler's art, in its 
quest for the artistic ideal, has cone to rest iri an 
aoothetic theory v/Jrlca, having its source in rortan tic- 
ism, liafci, r.cvert Tlcrjo, developed out of the exa^i^^ej*- 
ated ronanticisia of the early .'ears into a nore aatls- 
factoiy -orm since it 1; a foiri based on a wl.ifir '- :ow- 
le-i^e of r*ealit7, just as "lie. ie aucin's later lifr 
is baaed on fuller knowledge of the \arorld« 


Syrajoilon in ?lot« 

nay all be r-xluceu to tTiXiS, tSioii tho devaioirient of t.h<5 ploi'i/ill 
noaosarui'ily i-ivol/o t- c-..M:^l:.nt i-i. . .1 or ihe relutlouaVtips 

livbiiij bet^veen tko 'lli?rai:»Qrit s^ibolie olo:isnt3 I;. /olvel* 2ho 
act lone '^f the pcroonages a^a'tot ^^.11 to eo>^i»os::'0>Kl bo f-iat pfr^I^iary 
.: iV.i^ ^;hich tlio poi'&o:- JCJ li'-^asos^a. Tiiu ac-iiion itsair beootios 
">lic, t?ie'"Gf oj^e, Imt it boeor.ies so, initiall^?^, "beccuse of tliG 
-;"'riT*inV-r»lr!tic SjjabolJc '.fi'-iOLity atiaelKxi to oaoli fti^XTQ Viovii^ 
la Uio UCC.XOV1. It is 'i^asy to pe]?ceive tlio 'Thinner in hicb tlie 

Ltj is de~/eloi)€>d if we 3t\*i3r co:*taln definite plots in which 
tlio 9^,TiTx>li3n Ig 30 o"jvicru2 as to ^£ikc':>d explanation 
j-i j: ri;o-iii. -^x)n{T the njyclc tlr^t ws '—^e stUv^Tlr^ the dlfficilty 
lies not i-: disco voj'ii^- ir.icli riots out i*atJior in tnakiiig any clioico 
Iiero so Tjjch of tlie .-mt'-^'ia.! iji.ediatcly auggo.vta itsoli" r.3 
iltt-ble .?Oi' illn5tx*uti .:• '.ly such choice caii..ot fG-il to bo 
arblti:»vvry • To.- choose ing Ljie* do ^'it lol's £orinno, "i^i^ai-'a '^tollo^ 
and il'.ijo'.'j liCS Uis<5r'ablcG, oortiiin r»e^-cosu3 ;.iay bo addiicod. TlioBe 
a.i'o tiiiOc worko ?Thich SJ'.SL'ost even to tiie caa-ual ■■•eador a symbolic 
•;iiality lii tneir plot dev3lo;Tieiit« "^tello my even be alMiotod 
to bo "ittlo ©I'jc "-".t c7J:ibo7- T7!iilo Lea liiser-ibloi^ ia conat-ntly 
in%ci\ji'Q'aC'^ j'j ixLigo tax'ai^ii aiid by '^innbolm Yet noltlior ..•tcHo 
AOP Los jlisox^ablos sboiTs a '-iioi'e steady attention to a ^Aiidiiig idee. 
tlian Joes Co rim e. S»icb an Ideolocical bo.siu is the vciry Icoynoto 
or i^iv^'X'llsn aixi hx uha j-ae -." Corini^e oren itc e^u^liest readers 
.ad .306'nn.dBn'tHtoi*s YtvfQ mtod the necessity for a syabolic inter- 
. . v^ition if one is rightly to \mderstand its construction and 

slgnlfic-.nce, (1) 

filueh of the action of Gorlnr^ is not, indeod, directly necessary 

to the developraent of the plot but is rather a means tovrard the 

ei^xwition of the chamctoristic qiialitios and cimractcristic 

reputations attached to each s^bolic rolo» Hbe incident in which 

(tewald appears as the saviour of Ancona is of such a rature. So 

too is tlio Hhole incident of Corinne's creaming at the Capitol* 

Two significant events, however, initiate the naln action and 

indicate riucii of its STEibolic significance. The first of these 

events is Oswald's sudden love for Corinne; the second, CtH'inne's 

equally swift love for Oswald'* Tlie ideal expression of the Italian 

genius and love of beauty is throvai face to face with the ideal of 

young lilnglish canhood ar»l a loutual love ixssults. The ccusequene^ 

of this love r/re twofold* In the first place, Corinne bGCCcios 

Oswald •s guide to die historic and oi^tistic beauties of Rorae; hence, 

she initiates him to the Italian point of view in regaird to art, 

literature, society, and religion* Previous to his love for Corinne, 

Oswald had travelled through beautiful Italy in a sta-e of canplete 


Oswald parcou|nit la Uarche d'Anconc et l*::tat ecclesia- 
stique jusqu'a Rome, sans rion obs' rver, sans s'intofesser 
a rien; la disix>sitioa ii<^ancolique de son ^rie en etait 
la cause, et duId \ine ccrtalnc indolence natm^llo, a 
laquel^e il n^<fUiit arrachcf'quo ';Xir les passions fortes* 
Son gout pota- les arte ne s^ltait >oint developpe"; il^ 
n*av*'.it V($;cu qu'en Prance, ou la aoclotcf est to\it; et a 
Londi^os, ou les int^r^'ts politiquos a"jsorbont presciuc tous 
les auti^es; son imagination, concentre'e dans sos peines, 
ne se caiplaisait ooint onco3^o aux ; lof /oilles de la 
natui^e, ni aux chefs-d'oeuvre des arts* (2) 

(1) Larg, liada me de Stael, II» , < 

(2) lana* del^'tacl. goi-lnne^ GGO. 



'Qam Oswald's Eiiglisli ju^gnotat i^riciined as blind to tlio beauties 

around hte as did tho Prencliraan * s worldly wlEdom, "Lord Nelvll 

j¥^«ait 1* Italic en adjiilnistrateur eclaird; le cerate d'lJrfeuil en 

taOBBe du mooiej ainai, I'lrn par z^ison, et 1 'autre i»r logerete'^ 

n'^a?ouvaient point l^effet que la canpeigne d© Rome prodult sua? 

I'dtaftginatioru" (1) Oswald's Inagination can only "be stirred lay 

^elinSy ill tiiis case "by tbe highest fonn of feeling, love. His 

lovo for Gorinne is indicative of his susceptibility to feeling 

aiid desire mid it is, accordingly, throtigh feeling and desire that 

he entea?s a nsn world'* Oswald is airare of this as he tolls Corinnex 

".. vous TTie r6v6lez les pens^s et Iss caK>tions que les objets 

sxt^ieurs i^euvent fairo naitre* Jo ne vivals c^e dans non eoeur, 

vous avcz reveille non inagination." (2) The v7o>mn — object of 

feeling antl desire — r©i»?eiients the approacli to an ideal by laoans 

of the senBes ratl^r than the intelligence* Accordingly, Oswald's 

love for the ideal of Italian ijcnius (Gorinne) nakcs it ■>ossihle 

for him to learn to knoir azxd appreciate the nra-terial expression of 

t2his same Italian genius as it appears in Italian art and Italian 

society* Coa'inne underlines the si£;nifie£!.nce of lier tutelage as 

abe admonishes Oswald: 

— Ke portez ix>int — — la ri;^ -- -• • ^ 

morale ct -.Ic jVatice dans jla i. ..lents 

d'ltaliej — - c'est le L-cnie rormln, vninqucur du nonde, 

que IcG arts out rcv^tvi d'tuio fo:^ - ^ ' lu-c* II y a 

quelque chooo de s\irnatui^el dans ^.iflcence, et 
sa splendeur poctique fait aiblier et son orlglne et 
eon but* (5) 

Such a speech Ims a double signif iccoice * So does Oswald's mental 

(1) I^e* de Stael, Gorinne . GGl* 

(2) Ibid *. GOG. 
(5) TUIcI *. G3G* 


response: '*L 'eloquence de Corinno excitait 1 •aAairatlon d 'Oswald, 
sons Ic convaincxHj; 11 chercliait partout im sentinent ncar'al, et 
toute la :)agie des arts no i^wvait Jaeials liil aaifflre**.*" (1) 
Ax8t &8 Coriione urges Osaald to forogo that cold jodenent of Italian 
art whicli he, an Sngllslrmn, nay bo expected to nako, so she dsslrtts 
his love for Iicr to forego the crlticlsns and decKinds «fiiich EngllA 
society nay be ^q)eet^ to raake* 

&it Osmxld's role in the plot is tliat of the connecting link 
betr/oen Corinno and society. In order that Corinno aay suffer 
tinxsugh society — aiid the whole thcne of Corlnne lies in the thesis 
that the superior vajan can norer escape ItG oondecumtion — 
Corlnne rtust suffer tlu'ough love, since the Italian genius is 
responsive only to feelir^» %ere che to remiln self-sufficient, 
no society coiad oause her suffering • Corinne idolizes tliis, for 
she says: "-- Do toutes mes facultes la pl\is oiissante, c'cst 2& 
fticulte do souTfrlr* Jo suls n^ pour le 'boniieur— - laais 11 y a 
dans ntctti ^ue des ah^os de tristeoso dont je ne pouvais me dof^idre 
qa*on rie preservant do l^anour." (2) Her love for Os?.'ald is 
•qulvalent to a love for all that is finest In English society, 
fhe author underlines this fact, Indood, by ennhaslslag the oonpleto 
reversal of Corinne 's unfavourable opinions In re^jai^ to English 
society on the occasion of her second visit to England, a visit 
subsequent to her love for Oswald. (3) The probleri Initiated by 
the lore relating betireen Oswald ai:sd Corinno, tLiorefore, is the 
proliLen of the hamonizatlon of love and duty. But vih&re the 

pro atoin or T>ne naiwoniaa^ion ui j 

(1) Uiae. 0.0 Staol, Corlnne , 637. 

(2) Ibid .. G90. 

(3) 1151(1., 8X2>' 


rcpresontatlve of love is tzXso tlie representative of the superior- 
ity of genius, then the qtrestion is at ted by OsTmld directly: 
"— Les lois, les regies coRimmes pouvaient-elles s'appliquer a 
une porsoiine qui r^missait on clle tant de qualitos divorses^dont 
le genie ct la sonsibilite' otaient lo .''.ien?" (1) Corinno statos 
tkie question diffeixjntly* la her opinicai if duty cannot hamonize 
witli love, duty niust be contrary t: nature; for "— la poesie, 
1 •amour, la religion, tout co qui ticnt a I'enthousiaane enfin «st 
en imrs-ionie avoc la nature" • (2) 

'33B problOTi of the novel appears clc:irly, therefore, through the 

initial olericnt <ff the action — the nutual lovo of Oswald and 

Corinno* This imusual love is a tcm of a problen but to say this 

is equivalent to saying thc.t It is a s^ribolj for vrhen s-ymbolic 

event yields to huRian incident, the novel problem, as such, 

disappears. It is in this imrbaal love that tlie individual is 

represented as seeking ImpplnessV The \7ciaan seeks it in narrlage. 

'7:nQ Effljx finds it in a world which he can enter only tlirough tbo 

odiuii of nature; tiiat is, tlirough the medium of his instinctive 

love for Corinne. The resolution of tlio problen, however, requires 

the intervention of society. As an individual Oswald finds his 

happiness in Italy aixi, therefore, in Corinno but as a nember of 

society Oswald condcKins Gozlnne: 

n fallalt jiigor Corinno en yohto, en artiste- pour lui 
pardonnor^le sacrifice de son rang^, de sa familie, de 
son non, a I'enthousiasme du talent et des beaux-arts. 
Lord Ilelvil avait sans douto tout 1 "esprit neoessalre 
pour adroirer I'iiicgination et le genie j mais il croyalt 
que les relations de la vie sociale doviiient I'cEiporter 

(1) Una* de Staol, Corimie . 706, 

(2) Ibid.. 716. 


sur tout, et qiie la^rcniere dectlnation des ferxies, et 

Ei&ne dca licyr.irico , n'otalt pcxti I'oxercice dos facMlt^B 
Intellec-Uiellea, riaic l'accom'illss©r.iont des devoirs 
partlctilicrs a clmcuii. (1) 

..u a Biewbor of society Osuald fiiKls tliat Ms duty roquircs hiia to 

return to Ers^'^land and, therefore, to its ideal of domestic viitue ~ 

Lucie. Ilhe passage froa Italy to England is the passage froR Ouo 

attitude of riind to another. IThon Oswald is once nore in Qt^land, 

"los tableaux s^duisants, les inpressions ix)etiques faissiicnt 

place dans son cocur au pi-^fond sentlnent do la liber te'^et de la 

Borale"'. (2) The triumph of society and the defeat of individual 

genius is not, iiowevcr, I4no» de Stael*o final .-'ord* The Itaelish- 

Vftn fibo has once known and been initiated into the world of 

beauty (Italy and Corinne) can no longer be contented with the 

ideal (social virtue and Luclo) which EncHsii society apotheosisesw 

Oswald, therefore, does not find liapplness in his marriage. He is 

forced to acknfflt/ledge the final predonlnance in hln of liis lovo 

for Corinne. L^oreover, though Corinne dies as a result of her 

assoclntion r/ith Oswald, yet her actual triumph is assured for it 

Is to her that tiie child of Lucie and Osuald is cozMtlgnod for 

teaching and it is tiirough this fruit o_ o.ic social ideal tiiat 

tlie Ideal of beauty will be restored. Osv7ald*s final conclusion, 

therefore, agrees with Corinne 's. For Corinne "on a tort — — de 

craindre la superior i te de 1 'esprit et de I'Smo: elle est ti^s 

morale, cetto superiority; car tout cociprendre rend tres Imlulgent, 

et sentir profondorient inspire ime grande bonte^ -— La poesie, 

le devDuenent, 1 •amour, la religlto, ont la ra^e orlgine." (3) 

(1) laae. do Stael, Corinne . 772, 

(2) Ibid., 811. 

(5) TTl ,, 858, 839'. 


2h0 d^aoueeu^nt of Corlnne . which consists in Osira.ld's cholco 
between the T!«in*la£re of duty and the niarrlage of love and his 
ffLnal raai^iape to Lucie, is the Perfecting of the s^nbollssi of 
Oswald as duty* Osuold's PGlationshlp to society is, in fact, 
based on filial sentinent, a centinent wliich is "Poal enotigh 
Tmt which is due, originclly, tc duty and only S0oondtu?ily to 
feelinj?* Lucie represents the ideal which Oswald's father heui 
titamtsn for hlrr. Oswald's rr!arrla£:e to Lucie indicates the final 
liri>*CMl u 1 1 ice of tlio ideal of duty, tliat is, of the ideal of Sngliah 
society, in iiis life* His love for Lucie (social virtue) and 
his aarrlage to her is represented lialf as tlio result of social 
ppsMmre and half of inclinatinj^. This is tiie sywholic ccnflnaaticm 
of the fact that the Influence of English society is exerted not 
only th»u(rh ciity "but also throtjch love» 

Obviously, the story of Corinne is an exannlo of the fact that 
love cfiBoot exist even in the mcmt sympathetic society and that It 
miffei a aixl dies because of its contact with sud^i a society* Yot, 
to society, w!-lch er«\tes tlie necessity for its death, the death 
remains, nevertheleBS, an irremediable catastropJie and is, actually^ 
tbe occasion for the recogn.ltlon of the suprenaoy of love, of 
oratoral virtue, and the highest form of its exp^essioti* The plot 
obtalxe its whole sgnbolic effect by its representation of 
taappSness as the goal of life and of rjirriage as the asaos Ti^h«iroby 
it is to be obtained. ^The rewar^i of true virtue in a w^man sliould 
bo isarriage* Is the true virtiio a natural gonlae or an educated 
HJorality? ©lis is the question w:ii<di lies behind the opposition 
which ISae. de Sta^ craxtes between the widely divergent paths 

rollOBOd by tiio two worien of Imr atory and the novel coniiot \m 
\vnlQV3tood exja&pt tiircwifjh an appj^cciatlon of the s:yii;bolisn Ix/ 
".or vfhtch tJie question la preoentod* 

Ihe varoJblQ of Iios UlsorcTjles riay, at first glanco, soeni of a vory 
diffcront order* Yet, ca-c*Q^lly coiisidered, its action may be 

to duplicate csrtain ptoses of the action of Qorinne ^ Tho 
01: ^Gvcloiiaent of Les Mi8<^blea depends, ij :>s?e"'/Gr, upon the 

ffect that Hugo l^icdlately establlsbes a distinction between iita 
crtiliial aM his ci'imo'. 2b0 criminal, Joan 7aljean, is, in the 
. .rly paarb of his history^ not tho actor but the malloaole material 
upon Bhleh society perfoiras its acticai. The crl£ie, therefoi:^, which 
Jean Valjaan coisirnita, the actions that he pei»ltaMa during aiKi 
after his InijjrisozxrHmt, are only incidents by virtue of which 
society Is cliaractcrized as vicious* Accordingly, the first part 
of Joan Valjcjin'a story is a fable Ulustrtitive of the origin of 
evil in lasin* 

At this point cones tSis redevptlo!^ Here the story proper bogins* 
Here b^ins the essential antithesis betxreen the hutoan and divine 
law. Society identifies crime wlto nature (Jean Valjean) anl 
thoroforc -yiliflGS nature* Divine law, represented by Bisliop 
ISB£loire, recognizes the sliai^ of divinity in nature (Jean Valjean) 
axid tl^refore recognizes a fraternity betsreen thera* TbQ social 
loM had fi^ed the crii.iinal but social reJ^idlcQ continues to 
outlaw hin'» ^Bub divine law Is the low of ixirdon and redaaptlon* 
Oils lav is latein)reted by Uic bisliop, God's repreGentative on 
eai»th, and oiio, therefore, whose sole lat/ is that of love* He 


-; "— Jean Valjcnn, vton fi^re, vmus n *apr artene25 plus aa 
iial, . . . oil bler^» C'est voti'e ^boe qxie jo vous a<ds^tei J© la 
r-ctlrc aux peases oalaros ct a l*esp3?it de peitiltloziy ct je la 
doniia a Dleu'*" (1) 

!I3ais, rlien Jean Vcjljoan caracs utxin uhe - uij„o as an acuov, iic 
fl^poar^s OS Uw SjfmTaol of good, as tiio s'pibol of i»eli£:louc lovoa 
ISiis Glenent of rell^oiss love, of divino lair, v/lilch row Is 
GTVidcait in Jfeon Valjefin's e^rery action OBLVsaea hist to be i>cica£T.ii'/:od 
^ a saJnt by tJh,e ealntllost as W€5ll as by tlie ot^jresaod to fOHM 
be gliTDs aid:* Sse raoanlni? cf Joan Vaijoan*s life ho meneaplnem 
for himself as: "ecliai;H>«c* aux l^csraics, et revenlr a Dle«"» (2) 
Sut the }ssffln law, ^hloh talces no account of arty othei' juatlo®, 
contlMM^i \,o regard liW ll&<^0.elD3, the bcmefUctor of a «hGa.e eity, 
as Jflan "yTaljoan, a dangorcus crlriinal, liable to Snpriodnnsait 
far llf^« Javcirt, tlie inja.acal3le, personifies tlie awtlioplty of 
the law, recfifraising no absolute out that of haaEm jiirlsdictlcm. 
lic£>e tlie divine lim finda the wor^an »ho &ins throu^:i love ii&iCKsent, 
and so consoles and helps her and givos licr life, the huaon law 
fJtwwiiPMi her and OT:>pEt*es«^ hor and ccoxses lier i^in and at last 
ber death* (3) 

After the Crisiinal, ;xftcr the T7oEtan, Gomoa t^ie Chil^« !EhQ Child, 

(1) Ifego, I^es Mlserablos, I., 113, 

(2) Ibid>. T.. L^^<J« 

3) ^go asks I "(n,i'cot-ce c^uo c'cc-* "■ - cotio histc^— ^.o Fantine? 
c'est la ^cietcT aclK. iajit ■uic c.^ .♦ — — La : . ^ offro, 
la oocicte aocopto.... ( Lea Kiaerables . I., 197«) He sImws, by 
means of Jean Val jean's tiio'ii^a tc , '- ^""^ - • - ^ - q£- the v/liole 
episode as: "le aort do la fermie . . Fantine, I'autorit 

piiblicxue poroonnlfi<$e dans Javert". ( Los Kiam^aljlcs . IX», 143«) 
Socio ty is to tlie strong** The weak anct the poor find ik> 
sticcoxir in it* 


too. Is o;>">ro£:s©tl toy tiie social ayatem, of the Iny, Therefore 

the antitiaesia continues with the re pre sentat ion of Cosette*3 

life. Ill order to coafona to the n-'ojiMicea of soclcvy, .antine 

has confided Cosette to the 'Rienardier fanlly. Hero tlien, due 

to social piejudlce, Coectte lives a life of fear. She lias 

become as nearly non-«jcistent as nossible» But Cosette *s life 

with Jean Vteljean, s^Bbol of a life according to the divine law, 

is a life which brings to its flillest develo:)raent aj.1 beauty azid 

all love, of iiiiiGli Cosette is the incarnation* Jean Valjean*s 

love for her is his love for natural virtue and beauty, "c'etait 

la deuxicme apnarition blandie qu'il rencontriit* L'evefiue avait 

flait levci u i^wLi horizon l*aube de la vertu; Cosette y faisait 

lever 1* ic I'amoccp." (1) ;\s long, tJiKjrefore, as Je\n Yaljean 

has only to conto^ with toBBUi law and autliority, he rejaains 

secure in snii'it ror, botween it and the love vrtiich is his sole 

interest in life, thoi''e is no relation. 'Sob universal love 

wliich rules Jean Valjean finally dcninatea even the iinolacable 

law, liowever, when Javert acknowledges Jean Val jean's rl^^it to 

freedoo* 'Big signiricance of Ja vert's surrender is underlined 

in aatti passages as these: 

n se faisait en l\ii une revelation n — ^•- -tale 
enti^rer^ont distincte de I'affiniati '^ . o, son 

imlque meaii^^ jusqu 'alors • — -- Tout un monde nouveau 
apparaissait n son one: — — on ne aait quelle 
Justice selcm Eieu allant en sens inverse do la 
justice scion les hotnnes.*** (2) 

Etait-ce croyable? y avnit-il done dos cas cm la 
loi devait se retirer dev nt le crime transficure'^ 
en balbutiant dea excuses J (o) 

(1) Hugo, Los llis<<rable3 » II,, 141, 
(S) roid,, W., 15ft, 159; 
(5) TTxT!,, I/., IGI, 162, 


^t social prejudice Is More difflciilt to persuade esoeclally 

since It owes its origin to Its high social Ideal isis. "Thero is 

a natxiral and intuitive aottxgonleEi between the two ide-ls, cac 

divine Idei^l, which Jean Valjean expresses, and the social ideal, 

«hich Marlus reproDents. Hugo vrrites: 

IterluB, svT Ics questions ^penales, en atait encore, 
quoique ddiiocrate, au systene inexorable, ot il avait, 
sur eeuz que la loi fraptjc, toutes les idees de la 

loi. ^11 n'avalt p^ encore aaccs^^i )li tJiia les 

pETOgres, II n*en otait pas encore a uiatiniiUer entre 
ce qtii est 6crlt -mr l'hon!i:e et ce qui est ecrit par 
Juieu, entre la loi et lo droit. — «- ll acccptait, 
ca-.ine pj^oc^e^dc civilisation, la drinnation socialo. 
II en etalt encore Ift^satif ii avanccr infailliblement 
plus tard, sa iiatui^c ctant tjoniie, et au fond toute 
flaite de prcgros latent* (1) 

It is tlie conti^ast of the evil which exists in Gocloty with the 

good which is hennod by It that makes Ikurius finally bow to the 

divine law &s a force superior to his ovm» In other t?ords, 

5hOT&rdier, in the effort to avenge hinsclf on Joan Valjean, 

Involunti'rily revctils his own evil natui^: "Get borne otait de 

la nult, de la nuit vivante et terrible", (2) and Joan Val jean's 

exceedingly great virtue: "Le ftoiH^t se transfigurait en 

Qirlst", (5) i&irius, at this revelation, no longer liesitatee 

between tlio social duty trhich binds Vdn to Th^nardier and that 

boxvlI duty t^hich ruvkcs him reoognlze Jean Valjean's true superior- 

lty» Ho aiOcs for Jean Val jean's beaedlc L-ion and thus tho highest 

social virtue kneels before a virtue which has its origin in the 

divine* The representative of natural law is perfection itself* 

The natural and divine law are one* Marius cries: "— To^is 

(1) EufO. T,,>s li serab les. IV*, 242, 

(2) r^in;, !£v., ^4^, 

(3) TOT*, 17* , 282. 


les cota^aiies, t:;utes lea vertus, toua les Iie'r^o'Ssnca, toutM Xmi 
. OS, il les a! Cosette, cot haoEie-la, c*est l*&sgol " (1) 

It Is love which iCfiTas tlie bo«i beuwoen the social and the divlxM 
ideals. In other words^ tiic mutual love «hich Jein 7aljean and 
Kariiis bear Cosette is a bozid of union bet?/een Uiea even beTor© 
that love roas succ3eJ.od in overcariing their mutual distr^lst aad 
ant&gonlsE. It is through love (Cosette) tliat l&rius hopes to 
attain to the divine* He tells Cosette: •*— Dieu est derri^r* 
tout, xa&ia tout c&che Lieu* Les choses sent noires, les cr^tures 
sont opaques, Aiiaer un etic, c'ost le rendre transparent." (2) 
Ihen, eventually, after his nEirriasc to Cosette, he does reeognize 
divinity, tha.t recognition is liis acknowled^saent of Jaaa Valjean*s 

But Jean Valjcan's voluntary separation froia Cosette is equivalent 
to his isolation frora all huzaan love, tliat is, fz>an Isaaan society* 
Such an isolation is iap<»sible for :iankind« Jean 7aljcaa indicates 
this when he states; "~ II n*y a guere autre chose quo cela 
d&zis le :onde: s*atiaer»" (3) Hence Jean Valjean di^, a sacrifice 
to society (in the person of llariiis) but a voltmtai-^ sacrifice* 
He dies in order tlmt love nay an el^iont of tlmt society 
( through Cosette •s marriage to liar ins) aad that Uiis love rm.f 
"bear fmiit and pi'opa(:atc its divine raesaage* 

(1) Huro, Lea lliserfilles, r/,, 235. 

;2) ruid., in., ni, — 



nu£-o, like Kae. dc Stael^ represents mppiness as the oa.1 of 
life "but foi- l\im liapplness is oyr:ibolizKL "by beauty r^tnex' than 
"by utility* Bisliop Kaeloli'e's statanents a-^e indicative of Huco's 
conception of tlie divine law. That this is go Bago nalcec ".^Txirent 
'•■•icn he says: "II scmblalt qu'll cut x>ur arie le liv^.^e u.c ia lot 
naturelle." (1) Of tlie "bishop's stn.tenentE none is sK>re noteworthy 
than tills; "— Le "beau est aussi utile que l*utlle» « II ajmita 
apres iin silence: Plus peut-etr-e." (2) Hence t3ie aspli-ation 
tovard riarriage which la the "raiaon d'etre" of Mae* de StaSl's 
plots is truxisformeu in Hu^jO's work into an aspiration thi'ou^i 
love to^mixl beauty, -Whereas in Corinne both nature ant.1 society 
sought their fuirHii^nt thixjui^h marriage, Hugo shows natm^e (Jean 
Vol jean) and society (Marlus) seeking tlieir fulfilment in a love 
of simple, r:atu3:'al beauty, But ueeanuse Jetin Valj*>an la not, 
actJMilly, Cosotte's father, Uarius feels hlaself justified in 
aeparatine theo* This aeans tliat the relatioa&hlp betiroen nature 
and love, a love which is b^iuty and innocence, is denied "by society. 
Hence all that is naUiral in society accepts a viluntar;^- death. 
The thesis that nature, denied its rigiits by society,— aoik 
happiness, to the rcsnanticist, was a ri^rht — languishes and dies. 
Is the thesis of Bugo and l^ie, de 3ta€l alilce. Hence lx>th tlie 
plot of Corinne and that of Los Miscrahles conclude with tb& death 
of the exponent of natui^c, Ihe uu'v>eriority or :iatui*e apoear®, 
n©vcrti*eleGs, in the apotheosis which precedes this death. In 
Wa»* de Stuol's work the conclusion is an apotiieosis of the 
iaaglnation, of beauty, of love, of nature and roraantlc genius. (3) 

(1) IIu^o, Les Kiserables , I,, 177, 

(2) roia, , I.. C9. 

(3) See Cox-^inne , 861. 

In Oigo the ccncliislon la an a-otheosls of nature in vatn^ that 

nature whJLcii, thr'otjgh love, approachea the ideal and so apprnMichea 

God. (1) Huco indicates the significance of his worl: very clearly 

on ::iany occasions. He is entirely conacinis of the idea wlilch 

each event in his di^ssa is intended to illustrate noi- does he 

desire his reader to . ccjain \*nawai c ^.. .„^.c ^^-sic, i.o ..'i.v. c-; 

Cc livi-e est un drane dont le presaic2 ixjrsonnano est 

L'hortne est le second* (2) 

Itous ne ^cannrenons nl 1 *}ic»a?Te x>lnt de depart, nl 
Ic "" :s >ut, cans ces deux forces qui sont lee 

deux ..x^wOvaw. croiiH; et aimer* 

Le progres est le but; I'idelll ^st le type. \«- 

(^•est-»ce que 1* ideal? C'cst Lieu. 

Ideal, absolu, perfection, Inrini; riots idcntlqiies, (3) 
Similarly, nrogrcss and -^rfectibility are tli© twin ^mtchwords 
which dcsnlnate Corinne's speeches just as, tiirough Huco's statements, 
they are seen to dcsainate Jean Val jean's thought. (4) 

Hei^ then is the icTiodiate key to Les Mlacrablea . Han, made brute 
by society, is [jiven faith by a bisliop, Gtod's repi^esentative on 
earth, given love by a child, representative of innocence and 
beauty in its iiatui^al state. vitlKJut laaaau love there i^^ialiiB 
only divine love. Hence Jeun Valjeuii's death is translated by 
Hugo to these tertis: "H riourut quand il n'eut plus son ange." (5) 

(1) :B-' Les liisex'ahles , IV,, IDS 285, 293. 

(2) Hugo, Lee MisfeBIes , II*, 217. 
( 3 ) lb iu * , XX. , 2*TrJi 

(4) oee i^es Mis^rables , I., 229, 

(5) Ilu^o, Les lliserebles. 17., 29o. 


^'Ogress is froRi the nateri«l to the ideal, from man's law to 

the dlYine law, Kago rrrltes: 

Le li'/re que Ic lectevtr «?. r. — " - - - - ■ ^ 

c'rst, d'un bout a 1 •autre, 

sea dct'-ils, qiielicB qvie,soiont les intorTiittences, 

les exceptioiis o" ''-z J eftiil lances, 1" ' '. rml 

au bian, de !*!;._ . au Juste, du fu , de 

la railt au^jour, de I'appotit a la consciencG, de la 
pourrituro *& la 7tc- de la bestlil* ^ - " . 3 

L'liyire au 

Because Butjo so envisages Joan '/aljean's life as a series of 
events illuatratlng the idea of ppogreas, he finds it >>ossi".:le, 
from the idoolOt:ieal If not frori the artistic point of view, to 
Insert varioiuj actions whose connection t-'ifch the imin -^lot would, 
otherr/ise, ar)^)ear vci'y ncclis^^le* '^Q ficht at the Txirricade^ 
the whole dramatic naiTatlve of t:ie revolutionaries, is not, to 
Haco, a siocesslty for the devolopnent of his plot. It is rath«p 
a symbolic panoram of one step in rmn's progress. 


Cgttc naladic clu --— '•- —-^ la ••--- ^3 civile, nous avons 
du la roncontrci\i:. -re -^a .. _ ,, C'esi 1^ une d€S 

phases fatales, a la fois aote ejt- entr'acte, de ce 
dr nc Ijnt Ic pivot cut \in daame social, et dont le 
titro v<fritable est: le Progres ,,.. (2) 

Hugo, it is evident, is too inuch awai^e of his own syitjbolic 
intentions to leave hia readers any doubt on the subject. Yet 
the vei^r Tastness of Lhe stage, the piling up of evont on event, 
may seen at times ti supply a real and riosiiiy body to the 
skeleton idea. In Vigny, however, syinbDl ap]-)eai's in its pure 
essence. Eie action of stelio is initiated and developed so 

(1) IIiiLO, Les Mlscrablcs , IV., 70. 

(2) 1:1^;, r/ ,, ' 77. 


cleTly In eonPom'ty Tfith ic 8i:;nlflcv>nc*/ thst each 

cvf»nt«li>"lts<>l.f seorts rcts.TrilTy de^roid of Into-^r?'-* *r', ^■»-><% ■«<»■^f^n'»» 

iiiiic© it Is so olr/iously !;cTO?.d of intc:*est ^o the author. Tiie 

eymbol corinlctelj orershadoirs the plot Inte-^est. Tins action of 

ntcllo is, Infle-ci, of thn s'*jnc chfimct^t* as ?.s '^hr r'?'l'5-»n of 

Coi- inv:e o:--' i. a l.:iG~rablos » It is initiated by the v Ition 

ii}iich, in til© •7'ery natTire of things, »er?ar-.t?.3 Stello, STc.kir^ 

fo?» the he'irt, frojn Doctctrr-TToir, 3r>ec:klng for" f^.n hoad. (1) 

This is tile sans typical opposition i»hlch r^^o Uic "lotlvntirsg eauss 

of the action in Gorinne and Les Hiseyables . !Mt the resulting 

evBnts in t^^ose latter boolss vrcncv^n at least the scEiblance of 

onxae and effect. In Stollo, x,nc opposition which Initiates the 

action also clet'?.mlncs it. The c'>ncl\iston iwecodes the thr^o 

storion th:-.t ill^istrnte it since the concliision Urn nT^r^r.-iy 

ftoxasd in the cha3?actsr c ■;^e narrator. Tiiat "cii:^s la so i:'OC'tear- 

Bolr nakcs eTi'cnt as he says; 

— Je veus voiis conter — — trols r>etites anecdotes 
qui voiis seront d'excellents r anodes contre la 
tefttation "blr * ' t de deVouer "TOS Merits 

atuc fantdisic ' ... 

There is. Indeed, voi^ little act :al plot in the tliree stories 
which Doctetir-Uoir nanT.tns, Tnirttcver events do esnerge depend 
here as elsewhere upon tiio opposition of two forces; in this 
case, tlie opposition hett^een Poetry and Society. Society, in 
every case, is materially stronger and lience the conclusion is 

,tx) Vlsny, Stello . 249. 
iW Ibid .. aT 

incYlt blG tlmt Pootrjr In Society vfill dl©» \Ttian Louis X7 
spc\:Jcs arxl derines ^lis onpositlon to Poetry^ lio la renovinc his 
own astic«i, hla rci^isfil to aid the T>oet in distress, frcrti the 
roato of tiie particvaar to Vm rea3j?i of the typical. He states: 
"— Ce sont iws enncmis nn tiirels r:«© vo3 beau»-esir-'lts«" (1) 
Louis's speech :>ecaao.: octeiir-Tfolr" "?a -^ggisce l"tlT?!c 

ison£a»chiQuo tcwclaint raesslours los Poetes, et udiis coirarenona blen 
d*ont€ndre par Boetes tous Irs hogr^ies de la Muse oa des Arts, 
cocme voi;s le -otjudrcz*. (53) Such Insistent coiiei>^li2''<^ion at 
one© rcanoves Tr^m tlic soliere of the ;->artlcTilaT what, to the roadaap, 
ml^t othenr.lso >Rve roTialiisd the Individual story of the doath 
of Ol t»oet be<».nse of his Tiacr*s callous indlfferenco* Doetrmrw 
Koir's general Ira t ion shors how stihservlent, in his lalai, is tlit 
Individual to the Poetry ^rhich he s^, how subseririent 
the ruler to the Itonarchy ilhich he repi»©8ents» And since Docteur- 
Koir, as Vi«3tty*s representative, reltites the tale, the <sn-^iasl3, 
jdiich depends on his attitiido, will, oSr/louaiy, he upon tho 
STRbolle interpretation i»atiier than on individual action. 

This is true not only of one tale tnat of all. 7igny«s caimentary, 
throTigh D<KSteur-Hoir, as well as tlu'wigJi the other elaient of lils 
personality, C telle, is constf-nt« ^cckford's scorn of the 
ismslnation is not ?ieroly his private failing, "telle soes Beck- 
ford at once as a laan "qui cat nlrac\ileiAscjaent Inofime' d'age on 

(1) Visny, G telle, 33. 

(2) IV id ., "^r. — 

s'TJs la tjetu blafaTde rics PLAIDSORS DES A- ," (l) 

le judges the cnase betw©(?n Beckford and Chatterton as ho did 

the eattse between Louis X7 and Gilbert: 

— Sn YGTlt^, je le dis: I'hoBrr'e a raT^cmcrtt 
tort, et l*oixire social tcmjom's, ~ ,\iico •■>" 7 eat 
tralte corrie Gilbert et Cbattertoti, qix*li. , 

cju'il frapp© partouti (2) 

^tko Pocteur also coraisents upon the first tao anecdotes in tbe 

sense of their sicnificoiice: 

a ;rv^Gent — - le coiii^ de I'ide'e cml i: rua 

a c; . 

its jvjsqu'ou nous Borsnms nrrlvas. — — IJouc 
louve* sur les bords une monarcJiie et im 
^mectent reorosmitatlf, clmonin avec lofur Po^-te^ 
jriqueraent Taaltt^-lt^ et dedaigneusosnent llvre a 

mis'^pe et a nort, et il ne la'a r>oint echarj-Te' me vous 
eep^rie£, en vous voyont trans p ^^ la r 3 

forrae du Pouvoir, 7 trouver les . .,.3 d.v. ..J: rslus 
Intolligents et connrenant jiipux les Grands de 
I'avenir. Votre esrolr a ete deq^?, ?nais pas essez 
coinpl"fetc?r:ent ix>ui' v dg c • --rj^hov, en ce rrnent r-^e, 
de conoevoir une v :piQ ^ nee qu*un fome de 

Pouvoir plus populaire eacoi^ scralt tout natu3:*©lle- 
aent, ner ses exemrjles, le corrrectlf dies deux atitpos. (3) 

It is evident tlmt the I^octeur'e version of Robesnlerre 9.nd 

Saint-Just is restricted also to one ^hase of their aeing and to 

one pxmae of tiieir action* Kis Docteur foroatalls any criticiari 

of this nethod of presentation by acknowledging the sinrleness 

of the therte which interests hte: 

-*► L'cnserable de lour via «♦. les " ' n 

portc no a-ntj,)as d'aiilTiii'E cc iA"._ . '^^„ .,,„, 

tow jours I'ldee nT»0Pii^ro de notre conve"»^sntion leurs 
disTx^sitions envcrs les TY»1»toG et tous los artistes 
de leur temps* (4) 

(1) Vigny, Stollo . B4. 

(2) Ibid,. ■^. 


Hefr.ce too plot of the story concerning Chealer is merely a 
rerjetltlon of tbrt of cnch of th« others r?.n!i sliows He '.crre 

.10 tyrant who decrees the '\)et's denth. ^?hftt he decrees 
C^.ienler's death on the girlllotine rmkcs }iljn no -./lilt ?Tiore gull'-y 
thftn T>-'>«ls Vf who. In all owing the "^ot to starve, virt\mlly 
decreed his death? nor la he irwre fmllty than K. Beclcford rtho 

' -' tho Poet's an'*Ttlaslon to the naterlal vrorll, a - V^siaa 
whicli would, in effect, involve the Poet's death as '^et. T[vs 
conclusion, as Stcllo phrases it. Is inevltft'!'ls: 

pre.- -.- -- — --, — - -- _ ^-c Goriea© 

imitilos, la trols'ene noixs halt ct nous nivcllc conne 
sup''^ * ^' "^ " 3ratlqucs» Soramea-nous done les 
lie. - - - - srcietes? (1) 

Reason, the Boctenir, foi'ccs x\q to an afflrnativc i»eply'» 

"ic Doctour's attitiide, defined by hl»iself, shows hln to he 
con9cloi.isly rodwcln^ the story he tells to the lesst cleveloyment 
of c^Mtr-xcter and ?.etlon cons lo tent "'ith th^ illustrntion of an 
Idea* ^e technlcue Trhtch siich f.n attltaide provx>kes is clearly 
illustrated in ? telle » The vnl^^e of the oarticular historical 
event an^., of coio'se, of th^e laartlctxlar historical character, is 
analysed by the reason so th:\t its nature is red-'.ced Vram "«.ny 
pttaasas to the one ptaaae easontlal for the poet's i ■•nt. "Hie 

event, oorsona te, or sitamtion is denatitrl«od, therefore* It is 
resO'Ved fr on tho real trorld, tho rorld from iftiich the '-'oet la 
barreA by reason, and is rlacod in the ideal ^/orld* Ae Idea it 
serv^ea the poet and as Idea it occupies his inaoination to the 
c:cclr.2icn or the dosnnir nnd nosslmisra felt l>y tlio "KJCt in the 

(1) Vigny, Otollo, 221, 


-^ or exterior reality. i\>r r^llty to anU^v fiction only 
I', '^a i^^ of c^urae, nearly to SK17 tli^it reality eaters fiction 
cnly IS syrfcol, 

(Hie reduction of the t!areo v-n^r to symbol Is not noro ol^vloas 

tlam is th<? r.-{^.Tn*ion -•>** t'-r -v - ork to stis'^oI-, Stello Is 

slclc* Ho desires to piit uic rjoetlc talent at -^e service of 

Kwiety^ roctetu^Hoir Isolates Stollo from Soctoty ajicl scto hSm 

In oj^position to it by Mr, CTor-r s->cnc!i» He prescrilsos for hlffi 

es folloirs: 

— ;.^votre place, 3*aliaerais xine cr«it'.T2-'3 du P.G:".f:nmir 
^ " ' " ' , quclqiic he&v *"" ~''^" , — «• 

^. , _ n^cossair© v _,. - voiis 

dcvouor? Car nauB avouona qu'ii on faut Tin pcuxr qu'il 
7 nit -one Soolet<f (1) 

!nbe action of Ctcllo is seen to becan« essentially an act..' 
expressed by de'^eloT'iaent of com'icti-n pr> ^v,-.!--^-.* ^p^*-.,,^,., yTg^n by 
^rterlor event. The du(xL t:.:y^i; la 00 1:1 uic ;=*i.iKi not in i-' 
TSiblic square. Docte\ir-Ilolr ennhasisee tho purely ideal iititiira 
of the atoiy, He says; **— .Te -^rle dc -/oc -^^eicrff.P. r.f. ^o -ma 
travatuc par lesquela aonlencn-v -^cxxa cs>:ister u ijlz:, •-^' :c 

font vos actions?'' (2) /oni again: "— L*ap'-»llcation les ideos 
atm (Gnoses n'est quHiae pertc ^e tcp^-on -no^iv len crcatcnirs de 
paBBfli6ift ." (3) This S8 to clecxii c vi*it ovtr ic slight veil of 
fiction irtiloli has eervod to embody and sz-nbollze the nure idea 
is, in itself, vrIiioIoss, Facts in t'^en3r''.vcn, events in thera- 
aelves, plot in itself, it:iy :c rie<' ■ ais to a goal lout 

in tiiacselvea Uioy are less timn nothing, e "perte do toraps*. 

(1) Vlgny^ Stollo, 235. 

(2) ibicL., rrrr^ 

(3) Tuin:,. L'-ii, 

I "iiixa, of c , alT; on t,;-'' 

IrrolPT can liS-VC no nmit ^luc» oholco «hl^ 

f''ctcrr.iln©r ff^.^'r>. T.-r'-'ciilaz' event shanirig tio^r-"-'' '>-^''' -.rtictilar 
end. shall "^c Eiadc t~ ':y tiie nystcT^y of noi's c rit 

' tioiialilpa Is a c?io1cg Tf*ilch cannot swccoscfolly in the 

real ai:a ■.-^'■.t.- -'-lal a2*c r.orc or Ices de;?' . "^vcallty .-js as 

owy and c!/ircctcrlcss as the :atlc'-" ;,r sole 

ir'V'jrt'^nc'^ -'*'?. til t>o rr?"'.^, tf -srrj t^~ ldealof-:lc£vl 

tmtlis Thlcii v2:c7 £^re ugc<I to convey, Allc^^-ory, 111-q the 
imth«5iatlcr,l foTt^n.aae, is '-.olc to go Taeyond the :ntcriRl ll^ilts 
s?t for* >'^_Jr^^*^'r nTii-T to pr^lnrr thr -crrilnF r.f* the infln^-.,, Thftt 
tlilr •?-'■- of creation sho-jld, therefore, liGin a distinct anpec.l 
for tlie rarnanticlst, with Ms highly developed nosts.lgia for the 

r "orks as _ 2./ l££-i.. J» ^^^^ r.tgllo confom 

t^ t'l^ -^-^'-•"•r. ■^■"-rl r-o-^-^r-itlon ^.'* allegor:: ^ ... jrihtful • They 
arc, it la eviv^cni-, co-isciously s^iiiboltc In character. Iheir 
antJioi'n, noreovr r, quite ojvlowBly intend the finite S',-r."!)ol to 
scrVG r.s n. ntn.*:r«nmt of trn't'ir; to ■r>cel^?'^'^f' h-hTt' Tt-> ♦."'^/^ 

Infinite. Gorin-c's rinal g i:^* Jg --r ox.-;lt'.tion of I.: 10 'nfinlto 
and a decln-*^ tiori t^iat this Infinite Is rt; fleeted throu.ft'h the 
finite, especlalT-^ t^rmj(?h the Imagination of wliieh she Is the 
expon;jnt and the ^j.^iiua of which Bhe is the reirroaentati-re. Let 
XX& recall tjiie statement* Cox*lnae sings: 

— .T'anrrciss Trvmi,'. na dnntlriee, j 'aura is ete di^rne des 


blenfaits d\i ciel^ s^l j •avals consacr^rm lyr© 
retentlssante "& celebror la aonte*^ divine, nanlfeatee 
par l*unlver8, — — ll n'j a rien d'^troit, rlen 
d'asservi, rien de linlte du^o la religion. 211e 
es.t 1*1 >, I'inflni, l^eternol; ot lola quo le 

genlo pL_,__- d^taarnov d'ellQ, I'lria^^iimtion, do son 
premier elan, depasso lea "bornos do la vie, ct le 
sublime en tout ^enre cat uii roflet de la Llvlnite'* (1) 

liu^'O announces: "Ce llvre est tin dmne uont le rxrenier- personnage 
est l^infinl." (2) r>tcllo, the Poet, cries: "— Je crois 
conproncire tout a la fois 1 •Eternite'', l*iispacc, la Creation, l»s 
creattu-'ea et la I-estlnoe." (3) Docteur-llolr agrees witii him in 
exalting tiie Poet and hia art because this art is an expression 
not of the iusnan but of the divine • He cries: *'— Et qui 
enseicne I'art, si cc n'est Dieu lui-raeme?" (4) The ti'uc exist- 
ence is ideal, locteiir-!Ioir tells 3tello: "— Jo parle de vos 
pensees et de vos t^^vaux, ^.>ar Icsqucls seulcnent vous existes 
a mes yeux»" (5) We liave seen previously tiiat Hu^o identifies 
the ideal tilth the ;"T:ifinite: "yu'ost-cc trao 1 'ideal? C'est 
Ideal, abeolu, perfection, infini; nots idcntiqucs*" (G) 

tVitliout attemptinc to detcmlne the exact Unit vr:iicu divides 
the syribolic frofn the allecorlc, •.oTrever, It Is, nevertheless, 
quite evident that a certain proportion of the ro'-iantlcist norks 
definitely set aside the linitatlons of reality in order the better 
to illustrate certain trutlis in synbolic faslilon. Such works 

(X> Ifcie. de 3tacl,^ Corinne, ^Gl. 

(2) nuco, r - '" ' '':!i2,» '^•' ^^'^* 
(o) vign:.-, ; . . 

(4) ivdc., -■ \ - 

(5) l!3la » , LwU. 

(G) !!uco, Les Misdrabloa . II,, 2S8. 


we nay feol jiistified in defining as xxire allegory* Cf the 
v/rlters we are studying I naj cite such novels as Eui;o*s L*HORrae 
qui rit ; Vl£niy*s Dar^ine ; Balzac's a Peaxi de clxagrin and certain 
of his shorter stories su<Sh as iielinotli ro'coacilie^ Jestis-CIoriat 
en glandrea . unci L 'Elixir de lorifflte vie ; Sand's Spiridion , Lea 
sept Gordee de la lyre , and Eve nor et LeucipiJe ; Qautlcr's Celle-ci 
et celle»la » It v/ould be possible to add to this list Inxt any 
but the laoat obvious instances o" the use to which the raianticists 
put tlie allegorical metiiod Imv© been delibGriitel-/ • 'ttod, (1) 

That allGcory Is intended is a suggestion which, in most instances, 

the aitthor hinself supplies. IIu^o nakes the nan of the neoplo 

eloquent in ortiei^ tliat he may explain his life. Gwynplaine speaks 

to the Hoiiso of Loi'ds : 

— Je suis celul qui vient des profondours, lallords^ 
vous etes les grands et les riches* C'est pcrill«ttx« 
V01U3 irofitez de la miit. — — L'aube ne peut etr© 
vaincue. Bile airivera* -— Le soleil, c'est le droit. 
Vous, vous etes le r)rlvile£i'e« Ayez i^iu', — — Koi, je 
ne suis rien. qu'une /olx« L© genre liuraaln est une 
bouche, et j*en suis le cri» --— Une nuit, une nuit de 
teiapete, totit netit, abandomie"^ orohelip, seiil dans la 
creation dwiesurde, J*ai fait snon optree dans ce^te 
obscurity que vous appelez la sooi^^ La proriiero ciiose 
que J'al^vue, c'eat la lol, sous la forme d*un gibet; 
la douxienie, c'est lu c, c'est votro richesse, 

sous la fomie d'une I _ _ .'to de froid et do falri; la 
troislene, c'est I'av^nir, sous la foxTiio d*uii enfant 
agonisant; la quatrlecie, c'ect le bon, le vrai, et le 
Juste, sous la figure d'un vat^abond n*ayant )X)ur caapagnon 
et pour ani qu'un loup. (2) 

»— Je suis un nionstre, dites-vous, Hon, Je svils le 

(1) lu-tthey, Eesai aur le ceryeilleux dans la litter«^^-ure 
frani^aSse d epuis 1800 , fails to mention any of the 
aooveexcep't S»"irEorles by Balzac^ oven omitting; 

tbe abc»vo-«!«ntioned wozics of Sand, works uiiich are 
»trikln{; examples of the use of the supernatural* 

(2) Hugo^ Lmontae qui rit. III., 168, 109, 



poiiple. Je ouis xme exce'tlon? Hon, je snls tout le 
norxie. L'exceiJtion, c 'eat voiis. Vous ctcs la chimfere, 
et je suis la r^alite* Je siiia I'Harane. Je sula 
I'effrayont l*lIocBBe qiil Bit, ^li rlt de quoi? De vous, 
de lul. De tout. (>u'est-co <:uo son rire? Vot3?e crime, 
et son stipplico* Ce crime, 11 vous le Jotte tl la face; 
CO s^ pplice, 11 vaas le crache au visage, Je rls, cela 
veut dire: Jg pi care. — — Oc riix; qui cuo sur :ion 
fijpnt, c*e3t un roi qui i'y a nis. Ce rlre exprlme la 
desolation universellc* Co rire veut dire lialne, silence 
contra Int, rage, de«««potr» Ce rlro est un nrodult des 
tortures. — — /dil ^vtms me prenez no^^r une exceot^onl 
^ Jte suis un ss«bole» — — J'inctime tout* Je rcnrcsente 
m I'Boiaanlte telle que l. I'ont faite. L'liorase 

•St un iautll9^ Ce cyi^o.^ *.. _ . t, on I'a fait au {?enre 
husjaln. On lul a dofonnc le droit, la justice, la verite^ 
la raison, I'lntr"""' -nee, conno^^ rxol lee yeiox, les 
narlnes et les o: .o^ co:i^e a r.:oi, on lui a r.ils au 

eoeur xm oloaque de colore et^de doulcur, et sur la face 
un masque de contenter:cnt» Ou s' pose le doigt de 
Diett, 8*e3t appuyee la griffe du po^, — - Le p«uple, 
c'est le soiiffrant proroncJ. qui rlt a la surface* Milords 
— — le peuple, c'est sioil (1) 

Gautler ; aires his or/n explanation of both Ills c^mracters and the 

plot in whidi they are involved. He Trritos: 

Vpus potJOTieE ^«ndro cecl pour une h' ■ ~ ' 3 libortii-», 
ecrite :> ur I'edifictition des r»otitc;s 3. II n'en 

est rien, estiraabl© locteiir. II y a un mythe tj-^es 

profond iicf\:,si cotLc en" • ^ -9 x''j'i'/ole; n.u c ous 

ne vous en soyes t»s t. , je vuls vous 1' er 

tout au long. (2) 

Gautler 's explanation is not altogether imnccessary sinco it 

might be ^)os ible, as he indicates, to reu... :iia story merely as 

story. Hugo's plot is, however^ so imtjrohshle, its significance 

so plain, timt even nitliout G«yz^>lalne 's revelatory speeches the 

staae inferences cjuld not fail to appear. 

Balzac Hmkes his allegorical intention plain in a dlffc:''ent raannwr'* 
He introduces tise eevlce of w^o .ji^ic asa's akin. T:ie possession 

(1) IIUGO, L'Socane qui rlt . III., 176, 177. ^ 

(2) QautierT lDes Jeunes^^^anoe , Celle-ci et cexle»la, 193. 


of this sl^in insures the satisfaction of every desire* But «ach 
desire granted leasers the size of the skin and shortens by so 
much the apan of its possessor* a llf9# 15ie alX/a^Brteeil intention 
bec<X;ies evident even as tlio sl:in entecrs Rapliael's TX>sse3sion aM 
the story begins. The old merelMui'; Indicates the iranner in T*hlch 
the Interpretation rruat be r^de as he says: "— Ceci — »- oot, 
le pouvoir ct le vouloir r^mls," (1) as»re is a certain slallarit^ 
In the conception of HetootJi reconcilie rtiich is, hove-ter, treated 
in jauch shcarter coapaas titan is La Peau de chagrin * It Is a tale 
deoldedly remlnlacent of Paust since here the -or ice of absolute 
power Is timt the pcMnHMttor of such poirer should soil lils soul 
to the devil, Hei*^, however, as in Balzac's novel, the satis- 
factions whidi sxuski powjr pemits are Incoraiiatrole ^ith the ptfice 
of power. In such tales as Jegas-Ciiris t en Plandros and L*Slixlr 
de loagyaie vie » t^ attentioaa to t^robability is loss and the 
supernatural elaients receive greater stress* In these stories, 
therefore, tiiere is no character interest vfriich is not strictly 
subordinate to the allecorical rneanlne developed by the plot. Their 
importance for us lies rutlier in tiie fact timt tliey lielp to shon 
tiie symbolic qiiality of Balzac •& iraaL: inatlon* The iBBaediate 
indication of ti:iis is, as has been stated, his use of the supw^- 

It Is in a sljiillar xxsq of the a».iix)r natural that Sand's Spiridlon 

reveals its alloGorictxl intention* Tlie suoematxiral, in tJiis 

case, takes tiie fonn of an angelic visitant* SHiis ant-ellc visitant, 

(1) Balzac, Ui. ?eau de cluij rin . 39* 


Spiridion, appoazv in a lutiinous halo of llfdit, walks upon the 
•ater, and succours the oppr-^sod^ He is endowed, f at -s, with 
tlao qualities cf Christ and pere Alexis, the 5ro::a jonlst of tlie 
story, becomes hlB proohot urxsn etirth. In a similar way, in 
Svenor et I^eucippe , tiio "dive", who reveals all the Infm-^atlon 
which determinea the action, is iialf divine, the last survivor of 
a godly r-ace that had direct oo«:riiuiication with tlie infinite and 
universal. In Les sept Cordos de la l3r^e . the :mastcry of tlie lyre 
■■'.ay oe oi^iu to ;e the equivalent or? trie ossciioion or tiio asa'a 

::ln in Balzac's story. S:>i2-its speiik tlirough the lyre aiad reveal 
tiie meaning of the infinite* 

Finally, in Vi£?iy*s work, tliere is no sin^e obvlorusly naglcal 

device J tiiera is no categorical eX:-«lanatlon5 no eloquent apolofjy. 

Hevertiialess, and msfr^ especially Lli the introductory and. concluding 

chapters, every detail is olrvioi^sly chosen for its allcGorical 

value and the whole tone is al::30Gt Bihlicnl In its prophetic iaanner« 

Two incidents will serve to indicate '-lie ooliqae rnaniier in whidi 

Vigny revecas himself and so reveals his allegorical intention* 

first incident appears in the introduction* locteur-Koir and 

Stello arc watching the Paris crowd* Stello sees the ctx>wd pressing 

on to a goal i^ose natan^e they do not know. He would like to 

guide then and he pities tlneir ignorance* But even as he eocnressea 

his desire as a Boot to enligliten the peonle, Vigny gives syntoollc 

answer : 

2n ce Rorient xm double accident attirait son attention 
et so ijassalt sous les ye(ux dos <:l©ux ins^ les 

enn^-iis* Un hojrnr'.e riarclmit cicvent vme c .;.>...« de la 
multitude, le pied lul r*^»nqua, ello passa sur lui et 


10 ronlft sous so 3 t lions; un autro hopsne voulut 
^VMBter le ton^ent, 11 aiTlva, en r"--" nt la presse, 
JttBqu'au nilleu da la rv-e, ijais le .ui lanqua, 

11 tOKlae: la fo«le jjassa eur lui ct rait see talons 

sui' sa tete. Tous deux avalent disparu en daux mlrnitGS, (1] 

DoctGiir-Hoir empbaelses the reply tltit ideality Ins thus exanpllfled: 

— • 7ojes ces aveiiglefi, — dlt-11, — lis ont bien 
1 'instinct vague de lean' c- Grain, nais lis ecrasent 
sans pltirf' 1 'hc^tHi^ qui les uevnco et l^hcraiae qui 
raaonte letir coiirtjit. (1) 

This is tit© decisi'\re incid^it of Uie introductory scone* The 

final detail of tLie closing ciiapter shows Doototir-Kolr and Stello 

in 2rivulce*a apartrtsnt* It is only then, looking at the statue 

of Julien for tiie last tlrie» tiiat they observe tliat, at Ills feet, 

Luther and Voltali^e are iaii^iing* 

Obviously allegorical in intent! n, the dots of ,.hesG novels 

show certain very cloa resemblances altiiough the variations of 

meanizjig are wide due to the clmnglng nature of tlae roles involved* 

fHae !!»in taction of L'Hocgae qui rjt , of La Pe.^u do cliririn , and 

of Gelle»ci et cello^la revolves aromid a ruui's cJioice between 

two woiaen who love ;ilia« GT7yn;:)laino houitates between the social 

duty and tlie divine love and Hugo asks: 

2t quand un hoe&ie c ntient ime idee, ^ : 

1* incarnation d'un fait, quand il est , , ^_ ole 
en ridlM temps ^qu •hoiniie on chair et en oa, la 
responsai ilite n*est-elle pas plus troublante 
encore? (2) 

Qw^nplaine decides timt the hi£^er duty is tlmt which natuz^ 


C^ ce n*est pas la ch^'^^ 'rul est ic reel, c*os^ 
l*^ie» la clialr est c , I'&ie est riasme. A 

ce groupe lie a lui par la parente'de la pau^/rete'^et 

(1) Revue uc Priris . 1912, III,, Vignj, ^aohne , 691, 

(2) Hu£jo, Llteaae qui rit . III., 198, 'i'ne italics ar-o nine. 


^.. .^ y 

du ^travail, et qui etait an veritable faaille soclale^ 

* " ' '*■ " ' ^ " " , famille dn 

itricidc •bauebe'^ (1] 

il se troiivait ; oe avee tin fratricide ^wniebe'^ (1) 

Ho resaiaea tliat the object of his loTe — symbolised in Dea — 

is the suffering -^ople: 

~ Ahi rxRirquol s* laliise' spparer do Dea? 
Bit-co r" 1 pre-"' 37oir n'et^ s enters ~ea? 

Servlr c ^ ^smirp -iple? nais _ ., c'fcit le 

T>euple>l Dea, c'et it l*orrxneline, c^et It l^ava-'ra©, 
c'^it l»lx«nanit^l (2) ^ * 

Through Chrynnlalne Hugo nitilcssl— condernna society and draws the 

conclusion of the lx>ok: 

Ce -loadc ' '.l vonait d'eni ' , ' idorait, 

avee ce ^. a fr»oid e - 1, ^r' ulf- Le 

Bttrlace, tt^Is pas d'anour; la faalllc, aais ?ms de 
fiTterjiite; la richssso, ^' vis de coasc* ; la 

beojite, nulls paa de piideurj la justice, r2c<.__ .3 
d'equit<^; — — Ct au fond de son S^ie, 11 s'ecrla; La 
societe,eat la naratre. Ija, iiature est la ncie* La 
•ocl^t«» c'est^lo raonde du cor^s; la natiir-e, c'est 
le rK>n&« de l*ame* (5) 

Rai&ael's choice in La Peau gc cuagrin llkowico lies - c.woen 
the natural and the factitious, between tlie ideal of his natu2»e 
aad the ideal of Society. He dies because hn finally corir:its 
himself to the ideal irhich ccnrresoonds to hia -wn iaUn'o — 
PatJlLne — althoiigli be knows tiiat the noscosslon of the ideal is 
Incocipatlble with life. Pr.taino Cfrios, tlierefoi^e, to the faltJiful 
servant b*io eoRes to daira xiii* L^aster — .c c ajrvcnt aiiosc 
contact wltii reality lias alone made wssible iiis nastor^s retreat 
teward the ideal — "~ Q,\ie donandee-vousJ -- ^_ .a noi, je 
l*ai t\^, ne l*evais-je .as orediti" (4) 

(1) }?*.vo, L*HOEir.te (lui rit ^ III., 204. 

(2) ., nt., 23a. — 

(5) ., III., 206. 

(4) . c. La Peau de clmgrin , 291. 

In Celle^ci et eelle-la , Albert helps to bring Rodolphe to the 

recllzatlon of the ttue nature of his love; tliat his lo^'-e is, 

actually, for the sinple, natural Marlette, not for the 

artificial J&je. de M^^a-sj-, Gautier explains: 

Rodolphe, incertain, flottant, pie in d^ va^.iies^desirs, 
cherchant le beau et la passion, repr<^ente I'ame 
hunaine dans sa jeunesse^t son inexperience; Madsew 
de M»«-» represente la poesie classique, belle et 
froide, brillante et fausse, semblable en tout ^ux 
statues antiques, deesse sans coeur huniain, et a qui 
rien ne palpite sous ses chairs de raarbre; ^du reste, 
ouverfce a tous, et facile a toucher, inalgre ses 
;~randes pretentions et tous ses airs de hauteur; 
IJariette, c'eat la vraie poesie, la ,;o^ie sans ^orset 
et sans fard, la nuse bonne fills, qui convlent a 
1' artiste, qui a des lames et des rires, qui cliante 
et qui parle, qxxi reinu§ et palpite, qxil vit de la vie 
luuaaine, de notre vie a n^us, qui se laisse faire a 
toutos les fantaisles et a tous lea caprices, et ne 
fait la petite bouche poxir aucun mot, s'il est sublime, 

M, de M->M-», c*est le .:^ros sens conraun, la prose b^te, 
la ralson butorde de i*epicler; il est ciari^^ la 
fausse po^ie, 'S la ooesie classique s cela devait 
^tre, II est inf^rieur si sa feiime; ceci est un sous- 
nythe excessivement in^^^^ieux, qui veut dire quo £!• 
Cas^viir est infe'rieur a Racine, qui est la 
poesie classique incamee, II est cocu, H, de M*-:h:-, 
cela ^oneraljse le type; d'allleurs, la fausse 
po^ie est accessible a tous, et ce cocua e est tout 

Albert, qxii rainene Rodol ohe dans le droit clievin, 
est la v^itablc liaison, anle iitime de la vraie 
poesie, la prose fine ot d^icate qui retlent par le 
bout du doir;t la o^sie qui veut s'envoler, de la 
terre solide du r^el, dans Ics espaces nua^oxix des 
r'^es^ot des diirieres: c'est don Juan qui donne la 
raain'a Child-Harold, (l) 

The interpi»etation, as is evident by reference to the quotations, 
varies yet the denouenent is sinilar in nature. Raphael chooses 
Pauline and dies; Gwynplaine chooses Dca and dies, Rodolphe *s 

(1) Gautier, Les Jeunes-I- ranee , Celle-ci et celle-la , 198, 199, 200, 


choice does not necessitate his death l^ut, in every case, it 
is clear that the px»ota^onist has chosen accordintj; to his 
au tier's synpatlaies. That Gwynplaine's love is for the people, 
Raphael's for the natural ideal, Rodolphe's for the natural 
poetry of roinantician, ia due to tlie fact that Hugo writ-«s as 
a humanitarian, Balzac as a member of society, Gautier as an 
artist. But the sympathetic choice is also, in every case, a 
choice of tiie natural as opposed to the product of society. It 
Is impossible not to draw the obvious comparison tetwe«i the 
action of tiiese allogorical tales and the action of such a novel 
as Corinne where the plot likewise revolves aroimd the sas» 
choice between the nattiral and the social product. 

On the other hand, Spiridion and Dapline offer certain points 
of resemblance in plot structure. Both have a double develop- 
Toeaxt and, in botli, the action is rather a history of mental 
and spiritual adventure than it is of exterior events. The 
double developrient is made possible in Da,.hne by the device 
\diich places the tiirje and scttin j of the Introduction and con- 
clusion in contemporary Paris while the ti:ne and setting of the 
main body of the narrative is that of the early Christian &ta 
in Antioch, The fi/^w^res of Docteur-Noir and S telle are duplicat- 
ed in those of Libanlus and Julien wlaile the nental conflict 
which makes tlie sole drama between Docteur-Noir and Stello is 
repeated in the drama between Llbanius and Julien, In the 
fonner case-, the inner drana is c.ointed and directed "by the 
contemporary happenings in Paris, in the latter by similar 
happenings in the past of imperial Rone, The liistory repeats 


Itself. The crucial problem of the introduction :1s introduced 
by Stello»s S3rmpatliy and pity for th« Ij^^iorant multitude and 
hi a desire to enli; hten th«m. The crucial problen of the story 
of 'Da.nfm.p is introduced by Juli«n*B love for Ms subjects and 
his desire to enlirhten th«»n. 

As the editor of Daphn/ sug-reats in his preface, the question 
to i*iich Daolm^ is the answer might be said to ■ e: "-- <^7.e 
faut-il enseifjner aux hommes poiir les rendre heureux?" (1) 
The exterior action which ser^/es to answer this question does 
so only incidentally by way of precept and STEibol, The pre- 
sentation of the death of the Raman theocratic relirrion is 
paralleled by the presentation of the death of its successor. 
The destruction of learning by the Barbarians of old is 
paralleled by the vandalism of the nineteenth century for, as 
Virjny relates, Docteur-Noir and Stello reco;7ilze one of tiie 
manuscripts floating in the river to be a complaint in regard 
to the burning of tlie library of Alexandria by the Barbarians, 
Their reading is Intermpted due to the fact th_at the Barbarians 
of Paris have desti*oyed the following three hundred pages. In 
the fourth century, the death of one reli ion coincided with 
the rise of another. In the nineteenth century, will stiose 
Tsftio see the death of Christianity see also the birth of a now 
religion? Stello and Docteur-Uoir watch the parnde of some 
Saint-Sir lonians uSio are Jeered at and stoned by the crowd. But 
so were the Christians in the early days of the faith. They 

(1) Revue de Paris . 1912, HI., GrecJi, pT»fiface to Davyne, 673, 


see too a priest ^o follows them and promises to write for 
them a new gospel, an "apocalypse saint-sinonienne", (l) In 
this manner, Vigny indicates his belief that scepticism and 
soploistry have destroyed the earlier utility of Cliriatianity, 
The concluding words of his parable are both tragic and con- 
clusive, Stello and Docteur-Noir re-enter Trivulce's apartsaimt. 
Stello looks sadly at the statue of Christ, Doeteur-Noir 
declares: "— TOOT EST CONSOMI!E," (1) Julien, in an earlier 
flay, convinced of this same truth, peraits himself to be killed 
in an encounter with the Barbarians, Paul, his disciple, defies 
the Christians until, at last, they stone hltn to death. So do 
the Barbarians cause the death of the representatives of the 
ideal, Julien and Paul. This is a restatecient of the incident 
in the introduction already quoted, (2) Of this incident it 
vrlll bo reoaobez^ed that Docteur-Hoir says: "— Voyez cea 

avexx^c^es ils ont bien 1' instinct Ivagoe de Icur chtaain, 

mais ils ^rasent sans pitie' I'honme qui les devance et I'hc^aae 
qui remonte lour eoiirant," (5) 

The Jew,«ftio has related tlie events v^ich terminate in the 
destruction of the taaple at Daphn^, recognizes this to be 
symbolic of the final destruction of the old Greek symbols, H« 
writes: "— J*ai vu ainsi xrne idoletrie en detruire tme autre, 
itiais il se passera, je crois, bien des ^^es avant que la seconde 
serve de voile, cosbdM) disait le >aaiti*e Libanius, a d*aus3i 

(1) r.e^me de Paris . 1912, IV,, Vi-rny, Dapbn^ 572, 

(2) See page 317. 

(3) Revue de Paris . 1912, III., V.lgny, Daphne^ 691, 


belles p^isees que la preralei»e," (1) But tlie Jew preser^/os 
■ozij of the statues froan the tenple. He preserves the statue 
of Venus-Ui'anlo, & statue idiich unites all the beauties of the 
hurian fona. Tiiese things, he writes, will serve to rebuild 
Bolcaaon's temple. Thus STmbolically once taore does Vigny in- 
dicate how the beauties «hich ser^/e one religion may equally 
well serve another. The religion changes but Ideal beauty 
x*6cmins the same* 

The parallelisa vftiich. ra&rks Vl^^y's technique in the allegorical 
Daftoie is presCTit in an equally striking uiaiuier in Sand's 
Spiridion . In order to give to the conclusions of her main 
nan»ative some exterior authority. Sand supplies her protagonist, 
pere Alexis, with a spiritual predecessor, Spiridion. At a 
distance of two .:^ene rations, Spiridion' s history is an exact 
replica of that of Alexis, The new i»eli;3ion tdilch he has dis- 
covered at the end of his speculation duplicates and confirawi 
at every point the final religion of pere Alexis. 'Qxas th« 
final result is made to seeia historically inevitable, a necessary 
phase in the progress of nan. The same laethod, iised by Vigny, 
also emphasises the liistorical inevitability of the tiniUi >adiich 
his allegory serves to prove. Sand, however, gives woii^ht to 
her allegory by the introduction of supernatural autiiority, 
Vigny only by the careful juxtaposition of two historical periods. 

The manner in which the repetitive method is used by Vigny and 
(1) Revue de Paris . 1912, IV., Vinny, Daphn/ , 369. 


i>and in these two instances Is sicnlficant. Repetition lias 
always, in one form or another, been a very characteristic 
procedure of the allegorical narrative* The leader has aspely 
to recall, for instance, the tale of the Good Sainaritan or the 
series of similar situations in Zadig to observe tiso applications 
of the saiBS principle. It is not lacking in interest to 
observe also that Stello^ t^ose syabolisn we :'iave already 
studied, is a oerfect exanple of the sane laetliod. Its tairee 
stories develop the same nlot and assume symbolic sionificance 
less as individual incidents than as historical events ^ose 
repetition jaaJces them seem hnt the changing foms of one 
la»vi table cycle. 

In plot Spiridion and Paphne show other sisiilaritles. The 
action of Daphne shows the death of two successive religions. 
The dcst3?uetion of an outmoded jreligion includes the death of 
its recoj-piized representatives. This deatJi is voluntary «hen 
such a representative recognizes tiie true nature of reli^icm 
and the necessity of n&m ways. Vl^jny represents Julien as the 
exponent of pure religlcm uncloaked by lying syiabol. Sand 
repr*s«ats pere Alexis as the exponent of a new rell;rion «faosc 
tenets exalt progress, liberty, and the power of faith. Vigny 
nskes Jtilisn ostensibly support the Rocian traditional religion 
as opposed to the enc2X>achments of Christianity, the religion 
adopted by the Barbarians. Sand shows pere Alexis ostensibly 
a monk of the Ronan Catliolic ch\irch and, as such, in opposition 
to the French revolutionary forces with their belief ia progress 
and perfectibility. Jullen»s voltu-tary death in order that 


Christianity may triuapli is parallolod in Sandys story udien 

Alexia oh©epfully dies In order that the new religion «a^ bo 

inaugtu^ated, Vhmi the soldiers of ttio French Revolution sw^sep 

dovn on the monastery to put it to the sacic, they Jcill Alexis 

on t2ie atcaae itiich bears the words "Hie est Veritas", T5ie 

destruction, of Dat^ine is 3?epeated here by tlie destruction of 

the Christian altar, Alexis indicates the syrabolic character 

of this destruction as lie addresses Christ: 

~ Tu sals que c'est I'etendard de Rone, I'insi^ne 
de I'inposture, et de la cucidit^ que l*on^envers« 
et que l^on decdilre au non de cette liherte que tu 
eusses ^roclamee aujourd'hul le prenier, si la 
volonte celeste t'eut rappele sur la terre. (1) 

He justifies his o«n deat^ in the same way by recalling lib&t he. 

as a Konk, symbolizes: 

-- Hous iioniaa 

brise, parce 

qui faisaient leur force et leur saintete. (1) 

— HouSi'ionoo nous ne sosmcs ^e des Inages qu»on 
brise, parce qu^elles ne representent plus les id^s 

The narrative n&Jch is the suianjary of & nan*s life is tlie plot 
of Spiridion and of Daphne ' alike. It is not a difference in 
aethod bat a difference in manner that distinguishes Les 
Miserable s frora eitJier of these narratives. Th&t the truth 
to tftiich Jean Val.jean, J^xHen, and Spiridion attain is not the 
same truth does not affect ovir recognition of the fact that an 
escentlal stEillarlty distinguishes this type of plot and that 
Les niserables , in spite of its less obvious unreality, uses 
e^'ents in exactly the same way and for the same purpose as do 
the allegorical Daphne and Spiridion , Jean Val.jean^s progress 

(1) Revue des deux ciondes , 133S, I., Sand, Spiridion , 240, 


tiii"»ouc3i life is r^iarfsed "by Incidents -whose sole importance to 
liin is spiritual, Tiie affair of tho candlesticks, the trial 
scene at TJhich he divests liinself of his hardlj won respect- 
ability, his adoption of Cosette, the superhuman effort to save 
Uarius, the final renijinciation of Cosette, these are only tiie 
steps of Jean Valjean's difficult ascent and Jean Valjean stakes 
a new Pilj^rim's i-'rogr^ss, 'Hie incidents in his life ^lich are 
so translated to spiritual tenas correspond to the incidents 
ifcich raark the progress of Julien or Spirldion along the way 
to truth. In every case, to conquer is to die. 

As we have se«i, Gau tier's tale, i^elle-ci et celle-la , is an 
alle^^orical repi^sentation of an aesthetic ideal. One of Sand* 8 
comparatively early worses, Lcs sept Cordes de la lyre ^ writt«j 
in draciatic forii but not intended for stage presentation., 
shows a different treatment of the sane tliKne, Gautier sliows 
aan groping toward ^le true beauty, i#ilch is, in his asurrative, 
x*epres«it«i by the Ideal woinan. Sand reverses the procedure. 
The source of Truth needs not to be souf^t for both Albertus 
and Kelene know that it lies within the lyre. But only the 
artistes hand can draw that truth Uorth \fiiereas the philosopher 
and scientist, Albertus, can do no more than destroy -shat he 
cannot onderstand, When the Sjirits of tho lyre sing to Ilelene, 
Hans explains to Ms naster, Albertus, tlie superiority of the 
truth thus acquired: 

~ El^e est absorbee dans une poesie si elevee, 
inysterieuse, qu'elio s«^i-'Tc &tre en coraricrce av< 

Dieu in&ne, et n* avoir auctin besoin de sanction dans 
lea arrets de la raison himainG, (1) 

(1) Sand, Lea sept Cordes de la lyre , 23, 


Alberfcus seeks God trut cannot find hln v^ioreas Helene is in 

close ccxniaunlon with, the infinite. Hans explains: 

— ]|fli^tre« ce ne fut pas le^ jixgeiaent des seas qui 
revela l*e::l3tence de Dleu a I'homme, ce fut i»lnstinct 
du coeur, — — Cette revelation, cette intuition 
preEilere, c'est la poesle, nere de toute religion, 
de toute hainonie, de toute sa^i,esse« Je deTinis done 
— «- la iTj^tap' "•" ue, l*idee de Dleu; et la po^ie, 
lo sentl^ont ' ou, ^1) 

Aroer-tus corresponds in this work to ttie ''idee de Clou", H^l^e 
to the "senttiaent cle I>ieu", It becc»aes evident here tiiat Vlgny 
and Sand natat be at t^^e opposite poles of thou^t in laany 
respects for it will be recalled that, to Vlgny, tiie Poot, 

r he be Stello or Jullen, represents the ;;>ure idea, the 
divine essence, urtiich can dispense with the human necessity of 
material expression. It is Docteur-Bolr or Llbanius, on the 
other liand, tAic taices account of the 'uman feelings and raakea 
reason syabollc with symbolic expression. In 3and*s allegory, 
the conclusion shows the artist ravished into heaven and 
Albertus is converted to the principle of love as the Eieans of 
rejoining the infinite. His love for Helene — the personific- 
ation of poetry — saves him froa the clutches of Mephistopheles. 
Love is represented as the saviour and it is the artist who 
reveals the power and beauty of love to mankind. Vlgny too 
r ©presents Stello as inspired by the love of huoanity but the 
truth that Stello is anxious to reveal does not concern the 
feelings but concerns the intelligence. Stello and Jullen aire 
interested in the enlightenraent of tlie world by knowledge; 
Hei^e enli^'^htens the world by love. 

(1) Sand, Les sept Cordes de la lyre . 29. 


Cautier and Sand, by the very structure of their plots^ reveal 
an equally wide difference in attitude, Gautier shows nan 
seekins a beauty i^ich It is possible to overlook and. if^nore* 
Sudi beauty is relative and depends on the conception of beauty, 
that is, on the conception of tlie true reality, ^ tian 
entertains. Sand, on the othsr hand, shows homanity, m its 
search for truth, under two opposing aspects. Art reaches truth 
at a bound, effortlessly. Science reaches truth only by mesns 
of a love of art. The truth, the ideal beauty, renains, however, 
inrmitable and imchangin^ J'-iat as the spirits rgio sinp; t'lrou^-h 
the lyre are eternal in essence, G^autier shows beauty oiroii- 
present, dependent only on the ri^t perception of reality. 
Sand ahowf? beauty as a voice froaa ttie infinite, a gift from tb« 
divine, Tie difference in the alle^^orical statement of Celle-ci 
et celle«la and Les sept Cordes de la lyre is reflected in the 
fact that Oautier^s story av>proaches its neaninri thro-a^4i the 
r edium of ordinary evont and prosaic reality. Sand thi»ough the 
TTiftdi-.m cf spirit voices, su-ematural p h e nqaen a, and the intro- 
duction of MepMstopheles in uerson, 

i?venor et Leucippe offers still another variation of the 
allegorical type coia-ion to the ronanticist work. Its plot is a 
rriytli intended to illustrate the relationship betwe«i love and 
rslirion. Sand introduces the Ic^endmo^ c^iaracter itame,1iately 
as aiie writes: "L* enfant dont notre le'ende fait le type, non 
du preoier honne sur la terre, raals du premier qui «itra dans 
une destin^G particuliere, n'avaii ;>as vu le Jour dans le paradis 


terrestre." (1) "II ctait ne au couraenceinent do I'S'ijG d*op, 
et, poj? ^3 d*or, il rarest impossible de ne pas <5ntendr© un 
etat de nature di2:ne de I'liomae, fils de Dieu." (2) "f>6nor 
and Leucippa arc a now Adfxm. and 2ve vAio leave tlieir Men only 
In order to inculcate into society the doctrine of iiie religion 
of loye revealed to them by the "dive". She apeakfi thus: 

— La luati^re •■<.£pir-e, desire ou vout, II n*7 a ^uo 
I'esprit qui behisse et qui aine, Ce raot, qui ne 
r^pond q.u*a des besoins supt^ieurs de l^eti'e, edt 
done la clef de la vie superieure. 

— . Dieu ni*a envoye'en vous deux des interm^iaires 
qui , •out l^ide'e ^ue j'ai ^ leur transaiettre, 

et lua -.„^3ion n'est pas de changer nais de modifier 
voire nature, — — (3) 

But society is, for the nost part, corrupted and daainated toy 

the religion of hatred and ven^^eance (Mos) and the religion of 

iaiperlalisn (3ath). Evenor characterizes tLi&s. tliua? 

— Je vols bien que J'os est xm. esprit trouble et 
qu»il 8* est fait le pr&tre de la folic, Mais Sath, 
qui £*ent fail, par la violence en vers ses semLlables 
et le mepz*is des choses celestes, le pr^tr^ de 
I'indiffe'renoe, sera, peiit-^re plus fatal a sa 
race. (4) 

•ftie opposition thus established between the man of prinitive 

nature (Evenor) and the nan of society (TIos or Sath) is the 

basis of the conflict «6iich comes to its inevitable d^ou«a©nt. 

Evenor perceives ttiat "1* influence de la pure v^it/ ne pouvait 

s*etendre sur tous les honrnes a la fols et qu'il fallait aux 

uns des idees, aux autres des figures, a d'autres enfin des 

faita", (5) 

(1) Sand, Evenor et IieucippC a 49, 

(2) Ibid . ^"^ 

(3) TbI]T., 127, 123, 

(4) Ibid .. 272. 
(6) Ibid .. 298. 

■The conclusion thus stated boars a certain reseablence to that 

of tdbanitia in X>aTh ne: 

— lies do -jcn reli^leivs, avGc leurc celestes illtis?-ons, 
sent parr*^" " "^ cidatal, lis conservent ^e peu d© 
nr. es pr " ^ Ips irices se cent et se 
passant I'xane a 1» autre. (1) 

The conclusion is not, however, valid for Sand whereas, to Vigny, 

the ifliole problem of the relationship between religion ai^ 

moral5-ty is summed up in Libanius*s words* Evenor and Leuclppe 

are forced to abandon society and their proselytising efforts 

since society threatens to kill and destroy theau In other 

..ords. Sand represents society as not yet ready for the religion 

of love and shows this relif-ion, the true reli^.ion, as able to 

obtain peace and security only by withdrawal to Eden, the prlnitive 

nature of the Golden A^^e. It is notable that Sand represents 

the religion of love to be th.e only religion ever Imown to that 

representative of hvcaanlty who seeks a rcfUij;e in nature before 

the corruption of the natural state in society has be^^un. 

In the novels viSiich are clearly allegorical, no effort is made 
to keep within the bounds of probability. The spirits of th« 
lyre sin;; to Helene and Mephistopheles appears and converses 
with Albertus, Spiridion, long since dead, walks upon the waters, 
speaks to Angel, and niakes raldnl/ht visitations, Evenor et 
Leucippe is puro legend, a fictional version of the Golden Age, 
of the ori-in of three different types of religion, and of the 
■jannor of life in the garden of Eden, Daphne blandly disregards 

(1) Re vue de Par is, 1S12, IV., Vigay, Dntfrne' l 558. 


th© lliiitatlons of the Mstorical tioith as i^QnoTollj accepted 
In favour of the Ideal truth as Vl^ptiy conceives It, Balzac 
frankly Initiates ua into tlie x^aloi of nacic and lluzo into the 
realia of slieer ixiprobability. 

It is of interest to note the difference in this respect 
between Hugo and Balzac, Balzac goes beyond oup experleaa«« 
of reality but does so in the manner of the authors of certain 
fairy stories tsJiere, aside frora Qie gift of sosae magic power^ 
all the hcsaely, natural values are painstalcingly pj^eserved. 
The initial prenise — the power inher«it in the ass's rtcin— 
concedad, the rest of the plot is the lo^^ical outccaae of the 
premise, Hugo, on the other hand, writes a fairy tale idiich 
is not so labeled but ^ich, as the story progresses, becones 
increasingly daring in the introduction of surorising coincid- 
ence and unbelievable happening, A bottle cast into the sea, 
years before, falls into the hands of the one perscm In tlie 
world T!*ao tjould concern hirrself with Its contents, Gwynplaine 
loses all t3?ace of TJ_rsus and Dea but, at the appropriate 
aomcnt, he finds Uie wolf at his elbow ready to j^ide him to 
their retreat. Such incidents as these show a complete dis- 
regard for any progi^ssicoi from cause to effect, Hugo is 
obviously interested in dramatic confrontation rather than in 
any develojanent of plot i^ich, confoming to experience, ml^t 
se^a apt to interpret nei^e human experience, Tlie happy 
improbability, on the contrary, ^^lich mii^t seem to reflect 
the interx^ention of Providence can only be useful in interpret- 


-Ing the voice and character of the infinite* Hugo does not 

hesitate to admit this# He remarks, for instance, that the 

divine will is expressed through tlie ocean's power: 

L* ocean se faisant p^re et n^re d»un orphelin, 
envoyant la toumente a ses bourreffixx, brisant la 
baiKjue qui a repouss^ 1* enfant, en,i;loutissant les 
aalns Jointes des naufragrfs, i^efusant toutes leurs 
supplications et n'acceptarjt d'eux que leur repentir 
— - le crime du roi cas::e, la pr^^itatlon divine 
obeie, le petit, le faible, I'abandonne'^ ayant 
I'lnflni pour tutcur,.,. (1) 

The syiabolic action of Les I^is^rables is of the s^ae character, 

Hu^-o vTrltes, for instance: "L*entr^ de cet hocsne dans la 

dostin^ de cet enfant avait ^te' I'arrivee de Dieu*" (2) 

In caie sense, tlierefore, though certainly not in the sense in 
iriiich Vigpy T90uld exemplify his can words in liis art, Hv^o 
may be seen to illustrate cane facet of Vlgny's neanln^ wiien he 
uro6S the Poet to disregard as completely as poseiblo all but 
the ideal» True, the ideal must be expressed tlirough the real 
wjoich serves as its synbol but it nust not appear to liavc any 
value in itself • (3) 

Balzac, however, does not entirely confora to tliis principle^ 
The personages of La Peau de chaf^yin are those t^o appear in 
Balzac's other novels. The background is that sanie Paris 
setting comnon to so much of his work. The appearance of 
probability is carefully preserved in every respect except In 

(1) Hu^o, L'llorarie qui rit . III,, 20, 

(2) Hu^o, Les niserables , II., 14 2. 

(3) See above, p, 271, i72. 


d«velopni«it of the rialn idea, Moareover there Is no providential 
intervention to chanrre the foreordained course of events. The 
lo.r;ic of the develoi^nent corresponds to hanan experience though 
the aagic properties of the skin do not, 

Accordincly* it nay be said tJiat Balzac reduces the Infinite 
to tlie finite and writes froas the point of vie\7 of hicaan 
experience whereas Huso writes fron the standpoint of the 
superhuman. Yet^ In eitlier case, though Balzac is apparently 
tryin'5 to find a tena for the infinite iftich will reduce it to 
a social relationship^ tSiou^ Hugo is trsrin^ to find a term 
for the finite n^^ich will exalt it to a forts of the Infinite, 
yet, in either case, tlieir preoccupation lies in ttie expression 
of the jrelationsliip, not in the presentation of the purely 
human. The result ~ consciously and definitely applied — 
is alle-^ory; less consciously and nore va£aiely applied, is, in 
any case, symbol. 

It is notable tlvat of all the rorianticistc the one ^o raost 
closely resembles Balzac in his attitude to reality is that one, 
perhaps, i*iose philosoj^iic viets ni.^t seem laost disparate— 
Gautier, For Sautier does not, in such a story as Celle«>ci et 
cellO'-la , depend on surprising; coincidence. The whole story is 
locically constructed to correspond to expei?ience but not, 
however, to ^diat we may call ordinary, hunan experience? on the 
contrary, to the experience of the artist. For the desire for 
beauty and love is cormon to humanity but the desire for the 
violences of r^iantic fervour could only be that of a nan v^o 


OOD . 

lives in confoKnlty with the ideals posed by romanticist art. 
The desij^ for extrava£^saace, drazaa, and violence is the premise 
«diich, in Gelle»ci et celle-la , nakes probable the incident 
in Tsfliich the prota^^onist sends his mistrees*s husband an 
anonymous note accusing himself. If we concede the initial 
prezoise^ however, the premise that pcMnanticisin is the ideal in 
art and that life should conform to art, then the progress of 
the drana is consistent and the only difference between La ?eau 
de cha.::Tln and Celle-cj et celle-la lies in the fact tiiat 
Gautier's prot.,;onist shapes his actions in conformity with 
the ideal of a certain aesthetic fashioii, Balzac's protagonist 
shapes hJ.s actions in conformity witti the ideal of a certain 
fom of society. 

The variations in sisTiificance attached to sucli similar plots 
as tliose of Balzac » Hu^;;o, axid Gautier cited above, may easily 
b© seal, tiierefore, to be irJiercnt in the .-oint of view 
deterwining the iftiole work of art. This point of view, as we 
have seen, detenrdnos, necessarily, also, the degree of 
conforaity to hiiraan e3q>erlence. The ordinary hurian ejQjerience 
includes the c'iocKi and bad both in character and e/ent. Balsac, 
in presenting his action as shaped Vy one forci of society 
idiich is bad, iiaplies another foiro ^feich is good. So wltk 
Gautier in pz*e3enting the action as dctennined by one aesthetic 
doctrine. But idiere the action, as in Hugo, works at times 
directly througjb. the infinite, it can scarcely fail to lie 
beyond any criterion of human reality, ^loreover, as we have 


noted abo7e (1), lafocro Gautler recognises relativity by the 
very natiii*e of his plot, Sand, by the character of hers, affinas 
the ideal to be absolute and one* Vlj^ny too represent* Venus- 
Uranie as absolute and unchanging, Relip;lon changes but the 
absolute truth it aynbolizes lives on. Tiie reli^^ious do^raa 
becomes completely tmirapoirtant as Ion 3 as the treasure of trutii 
is preserved. Idbanius spealcs: 

— Les pures Exaxines, les institutions vcrtueuses, 
les lois -prudrjites ne sc conservent pas si elles ne 
sont ^ I'abri d'un do^^e reli .iaux. (2) 

— Or, il va jp^ir, ce tresor, si nous ne le passons 
bien conserve a des nains plus suites que celles des 
peuples sophistes qui ne^savcnt pl^s 1© jarder 3t 
n'o«it plus de prestige ou I'envelopper. — - II faut 
bien — — la passer aux Barbaros. ^3) 

Hu^o expresses tJie sarae sonteapt for the real: "Car ce n*©st 

pas la chair, qal est le r^el, c*est l*anc. La chair est c«tidre, 

I'ffioo est la flfflmae." (4) The ideal is one but it is inhuBoan 

since It d«iiea the reality of the jaaterial ?^iich symbolises it. 

The coI:^3lete disregard for human reality in the allegorical work 

of HUf^xs, Sand, and Vi,7iy is an outcone of such an attitude. The 

v^ole plot of Daghne is, in fact^ the pi»oof of the necessity of 

Byeflwl in order t» interpret truth to the people. Libanius, 

the realist, reco^piizes his ^'j^dess, Venus-Uranic, to be a 

ajjrmbollc eispp^&alon of a truth. He says: 

j^ "Le nonde dans son ensemble n'est autre chose qu*un 
Etre anl:i^ fona^ d'^e et d'intelli^-encej nais, entre 

(1) See above, p. 32.S- 

(2) Re^/ue de Paris , 1912, IV., Vi^ny, Daphne . 350. 

(3) Ibid .. 357. 

(4) Hugo, I t'Eomne qui rit . III., 204. 


Lieu et Inl* un auti^ Etre intem^iaire preside a 
nos destines, c*est le Soleil->^l que .j'&^o^^^ <3«9 
jne^ pi»einiers aris et dont ries yeux ne pouvaient se 
detacher. — - Cette viie certaine — — a»a conduit 
a c<HmaTtr© et ensei~ner la vrale nature des Dieux 
secondalres qui adoptent les nations et dirigent 
leiiTS fortunes dlverses. — Ces Ancles solaii^es qui 
vivent a pi*^eiit avec lo bienlieureux Platon ne cessent 
de mont^r et descendre du Boleil a nous, et sjuvant 
sa liunlere, p6xetrent I'aiae a travers les corps pax^ elle. Q»*on les nomie *-'erec»I>eo ou ^ 
Mliivirve-i'ronoee, lis viennent du Soleil-Roi, ©nblciae 
visible du Deriiurgos, du Lo.-os, du Verbe incret^ et 
tres pur. (1) 

But Julien at first Relieves that truth and svnbol nust be one. 

He hails Jesus as tl^ie divine osf^ence itself: 

— Le Verbel le Verbe di'vrin, la Raison ^ — ^ des 
cieux, l^Espilt, la Parole, le Lofy>3 adc "' , Socrate 
et do Platon, I'Smo du noiide, le iSleu createur, a 
'^te'' fait cliair on J€susl (2) 

Hence lie rejects Christianity when he discovers that tiie Christiana 

recognize tiiat: 

• .. .1* incarnation du Verbe n'est qu*unc siriple 
in3piz*atlan de la sagesse divine, - — - que le Plla 
ne fut qu'uno imafje visible do la periection 
Invisible, et que» doi^^de toutes les perfections 
inh^rentes que la phllosophle suppose a la Dlvinite, 
11 n»a brille^ cependant que d'une lumiere r^fl^ile. (S) 

Iilbanius^s belief in the necessity of tlae intermediary symbol, 
Julien' s rejection of all but the divine Essence itself, 
initiates the centi'al arf^unent of Daphn^ It is Libanius's 
triimpli Uiat laakes Jiillen realifje that he, isftio is the advocate 
of x>ure ideal trutlx, i^ust die in order tjiat Cliristianity, the 
symbol containing; the ideal tamth, riay live. In fact, tlie idea 

(1) Revue de P aris, 1912, IV.- Vl;7iy, Daphne^. 352, 355. 

(2) Tbid., iv„ 16. -^ 

(5) THa., IV., 25. 


«3iicli is at the crux of Daplmjf is tUe idea icSilch is at the 
basis of any i)ossible civilization ~ since tl\e develo;rr.ent 
of inac*s .moral life is the true expression of r,ian*s hyiaanity, 
Thxx3 the story of Daphne becones the epitozae of the history of 
all piiilosophy and all reli^^lon since tlae world began, '^e 
epoch is uniriportant, the historical details do not natter,- 
tlie nan himcclf does not natter because of his hiomanity but 
because of his representative experience, because of Hie 
aynbolical adventure v^iich is his but mi^^t as easily be that 
of !aany another. Tie fact that tlae syobolisan illustrates the 
idea of the necessity of symboliam in order to convey truth 
indicates Vi^.y«s attitude toward reality and his predominating 
desire to convey this attitude. It is an attitude tdiicdi, dis» 
countlns the real In favour of the ideal, perverts, distorts, 
or exaggerates exterior reality for the salce of an inner reality 
which, as Vi^y points out, only the Poet can directly realize. 
The Poet and, therefore, Vi^y, can becocie aware of tiie ideal 
directly and can entirely discard the exterior ideality except 
in so far as he crust use it for purposes of conBnanlon «?ith hla 

As has been shown, Vigny's attitude is 'die expression througji 
idea of tlie saiic attitude uriaich San^i exprosoos tiircm^ih sentiment. 
She aihows an Albertus 1^0 seeks Ood but cannot find hint tdxereas 
Helcnc Is in close corrmmion wJLtli the infinite, Hanz explains: 
"— TTaitre, ce ne fut paa le ju,';fflaent des sens qui revela 
1» existence de Bleu a I'horaie, ce fut 1' instinct du coeur," (1) 

(1) Sand, Les sept Cordes de la lyre , 29, 



It is the sasw attitude -oliich Hu^© expresses as ho writea, for 
•xauple: "Ia cliaip est cendre, I'aae est fltonac." (1) For 
Mm the artist "vrljl be the advocate o" the oppressed and licsnc© 
Cwynplaine rill cry: "— Tie peuple est -an silence. Je serai 
1'iEa.iense avocat de ce silence. — .- Je serai le Verbe du 
Poaple," (2) Hugo, as an. artist, assumes, therefore, tl-ie role 
of "le Verbe dn Peuple". For him as for Vi,_jiay z:io infi.r;lte 
can only be consEU-iicated to the people by neons of the *"^e2?be". 

On the other haad,^ Ealsac and Gautier relate the infinite to 

finite reality tlirou^ an attempt to express the in.flnite tern 

irtiicli, in its finite fom, reality siiggests. This is an eisact 

definiticn of the ,->urpose of symbol. The will and the power 

wjiich ar« xxnited in Uao ass's skin are tlxe absolute tei'ms ^dilch 

cmlc© Kaphael naater of a society igiiere trill and powsr in their 

varying degrees are the :;ieaswire of success. Gautier, tliroui^ 

Albert's Torda indicates to the poet that the infinite of 

p«rfection, beauty, and truth lies within the finite. Albert 

eadiorte Uxe poet: 

— ir^on amil il faut etrc bien fou pour sprtir de 
Chez sol dans I'espoir de rencontrer la poesle. La 
poesie n'ect pas pluc ici que 1^, elle est en r^.ous. 
— .- Je te le dis, o nion arai, la po^le, toute fille 
dv. ciel qu^ellG est, n'est pas dc'-' use des choses 
les plus hunibles; — ■- elle est cc le Clirist, elle 

aiaie les pauvres ctres simples, et leur dit de venir 
"k elle. La Poesie est partout.... (3) 

Balzac's measure is society, Gautier' s is the individual, yot 

tlie method is the same. Balsac places the infinite in society 

(1) Eugo, L'EoEgae qui rit . III., 204, 

(2) Il>id ., III., 199. ~ ^ 

(3) Gautier, Les Je;ine3~^'rance, Cc lle»ci et celle-la, 194. 


and in relation to It, C-autler places the ?-nfln3.te In men 
and In relation to hira. In order to exrjvess such a relation- 
ship, they are, like the more obvious idealists, driven like- 
wise to the only available method — the use of allegory; or, 
if not allecory, the -ase, at least, of veiled myth and recaxrrent 
syHfl5ol in cha2*actor and action. 

Prom the above state.>'5ents, it Is, of course, evident why the 
average reader finds the symbolic in Hugo, Sand, or Vl>Tiy so 
iy»parent t^iereas the 8a:^ie expression applied to Geutier or 
Balsac seeaas to hiia merely fantastic. Tlio fact is that the 
insipidity end. unreality "which makes the average reader find 
Sand, for exaTsple, insupportable is ner© evidence of t}ie fact 
that Sand's vttI tings do not represent human experience. Her 
plots synbolisc the iDfinite in :;ood or bad to ^ich hunanity 
cannot attain, T>?.e lack of s^orprise, the entire absence of 
suspense, ijJiich characterize s^ich plots, is not identical with 
the air of 5-nevit ability ttoich truth to experience lends but 
depends rather on the fact that it is only in ideal reality 
^ere no mixture of values can occur that the future inay be 
forecast in the present. The reeder ^ho discovors that tJie 
conclusion of one of Sand's plots laay be readily decided once 
•Uie pi*«Jiises are -^ivei? and the author's sympathies made clear 
does not, perhaps, recognize this as a characteristic quality of 
symbolic plot. But a bidef comparison wltti the most obvious 
illustrations of tills genre of plot shows him, for example, the 
innunerabl© Horatio Algor heroes never falling- to trluniph over 
all villains and over all raaterlal obstacles. The ^sSiole Alger 


series Is a lone repetition in fable form of the proverb that 
honesty ia the best policy. 

In pure allecory such a lack of suspense Is not particularly 
distasteful since, by a tacit convention, both reader nnd author 
recogilze that a certain r^oal is in sl^ht and nnist be attained* 
PllCPiia raaist clinb the Delectable Mountain or the initial purpose 
of the book tsould be belied. But \7ith the characteris cl<i 
allegories o€ various romanticist writers before us, ^th their 
characteristic Ideas in vec:&Td. to the relationship of the real 
and the ideal riade plain, it cannot fail to become evident that 
the obvious allecory, Evenor et Leucippe , for instance, has a 
very close affinity to many novels that cannot be so categorically 
classified. In studyin.<3 these affinities, there is no surer 
£^de and no easier criterion in regard to the nanner of literary 
creation than the ^uide ^gftiich has already been suggested: the 
question of cause and effect in tlie developnent of th© plot. 
If th© goal is so pre-determlned that the whole progress of the 
narrative inay be foreseen after the readin^^ of the introductoiy 
paftes, then, obviously, the novel is a representation of the 
ideal and does not confona to the appearance of reality. The 
real is only a symbol nftiereby the ideal nay be presented. The 
relation of the ideal — closer or more distant — to reality as 
«• know it, is the proportionate neasure of its interest to 
us. Thus, tshen Sand pictures over and over again the world veil 
lost for love, hunan ej?:perience rejects the picture as less 
authentic tlian when Balzac gives a ^ole series of illustrations 


in miidi iiafcui'»al*ctoi«B Is swallc^yed up in f^e fire- 
breathing, Inaati&ble roaw of tl^© dragon of egoisro. 

It is by refei'wxce to this crlterton that the syiibollain of the 
plot of Delphlne becomes evid^-nt. The action progresses td.t3i an 
entii'e dlsi-^e^rd for probability. Granted that tlie personage* 
are mere symbols and the action synbolic, the inconsistencies 
and improbabilities ai*e less -lai'lng. Otherwise, although there 
prevails, througj-xout , a consistency of tone in the events 
connected witii eacli pe2-sona;;e, there rerrialns no standard by ndiich 
to judge the necesslLy of the events which are attached to tbe 
story. The arbitrary arr£Jige;;ient and succession of haopenings 
8e«a8 quite as cnicsii the effect of disnce and tlie intervention of 
a deus ex machina as could ever be the caee in the mytholcclcal 
stories of wliich Ifias. de Stael has elsendiere ex:pT&Ene^. her 
di aa| i y3W>T wJ.« (1) llxls is due to the fact that, wlt2i different 
passicms pushed to their extrerae but incarnated in separate 
persona^^es, tlier© cart be no progression fron cause to effect but 
only a chaos pissduced by the Jostlinc to^tiier of the eventa 
vhich serve to expirees the separate passions, that is, the separate 
personaces. Each one renains in his own sphere following his 
ovvn ahread to the labyrinth, The x*equirea event i/my alwnys be 
produced at atiy iKMaent in the story and .aay be argued to be 
probable since it meirely i-equir-ws the fortuitous reappearance of 
tiiat pNirddiUige ndiose ruling passion will necessarily produce the 
given type of event. Thus, Valorbe first appears in the story 

(1) Jftae. de Stael, Sur les Fictions. 63. 


at a Konen.; w:n.en cxistonce bccoiac fairly celn for DelpMne 
end it is necessary to interrupt the even flow of pla tonic 
love by a new cetastro;:he, Ke rcappeai*a n.min only when th» 
ztQ-rzr Is once sore iteaiaced 'rj a .eriod of cilm, SiiQilerly, 
Leoiice's aLccnces fron Paris are arran-red isrith ca3?e.riil art so 
tiiat he vasLj never b© r,rcc9nt at the neceseary crises of Delphine's 
e3d.8t«ice, "atildo's«n,c is entirely i^^nored durin^j the 
period of platonic Icve but lo conveniently remembered at last 
in ti:::ac to brin^j about the ncccstary dcnoufflaent» 

The events of Del;phli;e are, 'Ji other words, iiipcscd from without. 
Ho Intrinsic necessity in the relationship of the personages 
nor In their devclo.:::icat raalres it posail'le to foresee tlie 
reimlting action. On t!^e other hand, it is possible to foresee 
tirie chai-acter of even the aoot un.rodictable events by an under- 
standing, o( tlje author's aoral intention. This intention ^ives 
the distinctive chaructsr to everj incident of the action and, 
vrithaut explicitly addin^_ the r.oipl, rakes it so ob^tots that 
the nox-el bscoi.'.cs. In sane nort, a !3Mccossor to the phllosopliical 
novels cf the ci hteenth century ^ich I&ie, de ^tael rlescribes 
and crlticisca in her discussion of the art of fiction, (l) 
Thus every generous action of Lelphine's is v^receded 1-; her fear 
as to ita v^iscloxa: and la acconpcnied by a chain of cir cutis t an ces 
^^Ich, in fact, causa evil results and conrirr:. her conviction 
that soc'ety ntinishes "Bliataucr actions are tindertaken froa 
t,©fterosity or kindness of heart. But these ev5.1 results seem 

(1) r^&ae, de i>tacl, Sur les Fictions, G8. 

O'ift . 

foz^tultous rather tlian necessfiry and the repetltim of the 
fortuitouB raakec tlio conclusion lose in effectiveness at tiie 
same tirje that It nsust inevitably seem the result of a r>ir°ejudlce 
In the autJfcor*8 rdnd rather than the result of cha2»act©r 
developcient. That the plot is created accordln.i to dream x»ati\er 
than according to experience iieans, neGcssarily^ tiiat every 
progressicm of the plot holds s^bolic laeanings. 

!niere are other distinct similarities between tiie allegories of 
roQsntlcism and the roraantlclst novel in ^^^enerol, A close 
affinity in plot or therae to eai alle^porical model ^phasises^ in 
aK>8t cases « the fact that ttie fiction is symbolic in intention 
and supplies thm Icey to the Intention. That a key is necessary 
Is obvious enou,^ If we recall the grwat dlsslrailarity In tSM 
Interpretation «iat Balsae* Sugo^ and Clautier i^ive of tiiclr 
allegorical novels, novels v/hose plot situations are, however, 
essentially the saoie* Tim rather arbitrary quality of tSie 
Interpretation is evident bat so too is the fact tiiat tlie clue to 
characteristic syabollam Is clearly provided. Comparison of 
a lar,:e nvfflfcer of rocmntic novels reveals their affinity to the 
allegorical novels in the fact tliat their i>lots depend alnost 
entirely on sinfjl© or multiple choice, f o quote frora these novels 
Is to exerapXify the manner in tshich each autlior applies tiie 
saae synboXic me&iod and indicates the key to Ms particular 

Tttm ^et situation In Gautler*s Celle»cl et celle^la is alraost 


identical with that in ?4arlMia1g«lXo de M«upln » Idke the 

Rodolpha of the earlier otory, d'Albert aichs after beauty. 

ii« aenrchBa for that beauty at first thro\i3h Hosette* D> Albert's 

frl«id describes her functicai: 

•— Elle t'aura blentot coinpige de t<m vapoureuz 
Id^alijsae: c'est van. iZ^Bi^ service qu*elle te 
rendra. Elle le fera du reste avec le pltxs grsrd 
plfiisir* car son instinct est de desencliantor des 
poetee. (1) 

On the other hand» when d» Albert's choice finally falls upcHi 

&!lle« do Maupin, he stoves at once fron the srHere of reality 

to Hae sphere of ideal beauty, i^e writes to her: 

— Vmis represent© z di{'3Dt«c^Bt la premiere dl^lnite' 
du mcHwie, la plus itutc 3?/raboll8ation do l*es3«ice 
•temelle»-<- la beaute'^ (2} 

t?¥Llx. in Le Isra dans la vallee is equally aware of the fact 
fSiat his (^oice is not zsex>ely a choice betmen tno wmau It is 
syaft)ollc of two principles, o±' the two eli^enta of beins« He 

— L^horaao est conpoae de natl^re et d'espxdtj 
^•aniiaallte' virait aboutir en lui, et l*an«;e caetience 
a lui, De la cette lutte que nous dtrouvons ious 
eiitre une destin^ future que nous pre ssen tons et 
les souv«3irs de nos instincts ant^ieurs dont nous 
no »xm&» pas oitierecient diS'tach^: vaa. ammr charnel 
et un aeaoxir divin. - — EJil bien, lady Arabella 
contoafce les instincts, les organos, les appetits, 
les vices et les vertus de la natl^i^p subt:*.lo dont 
nous Qosanms faits; elle ^ait la maixtresse du corps* 
Madmie de ^rtsauf etait 1* Spouse de I'^^ine* (3) 

Hei^'a arrival in Louisiana and Ms request to enter tlie tfatehez 

(1) Gaatier, Madg^aiselle de Maupin , 74, 

(2) Ibid., S^T" ~" 
(5) Balsae, Le Lya dans la vall^ ^ 234» 


tribe has anottier si^i;nlfleance« Chateaubriand vxdtes: 

Le fi^re d^Aaelie s'^ait endorrai l^bflasw dc la 
socle te^ 11 se r^elltait I'horaae de la nature. (1) 

Rene is aaen here to iiave nade tii© definitive choice of nature 

as opposed to society. 

In Bervitude et gi^mdeur nilitairea » captain ^naud passes 

throxi^ a series of situatlcais and ca^ situation T%a€^es its 

cul2ainati(»i In a choice. At the conclusion of the se^ie beti^e«i 

Hapoleon s^d Pius VII njhich he describes, he has g%ven up his 

fonaer iddatiy for Bfapoleon. iie interprets his decision for 

ttiB reader: 

— J*^ais ac^abld^clo ce que j» avals vu; et 
sachira-t a present a quels calculs issuvais I'asblticm 
toute perstwmelle pouvalt faire descendre le cjml®f 
Je haJCsaais cette passlcm qiii vexmit de fletrir, 
sous ues yeux, le jIus brillant des Doralnatours, 
oalui qui danMra p«ut«^r« son bob ou si^cle poizr 
1» avoir artfete dix ar^s dans sa sjarche. (2) 

Vantrin xaakes his final choice, a choice that ti^nsfOOTai 
Ma froaa criminal to police inspector, he Interprets his 
choice and he ir^akes a raraaric chai*actorlr.tic of every one of 
the instances quoted. H^ 8a3rs: ** — Au lieu d'etre le dab du 
ba^^ie, je serai le Fif^aro de la justice...? Thai he ^.^oes oni 



— > Les etats qu*on fait dims lo nonde ne sont que des api:»3«sices| 
la r^it#^ e*est l»id^l'' (3) This is the actual attitude 
of protagonist or author viierever choice or decision is involved. 
3Jhe clioice doss not apply to particulars, particular e^ent or 

(l) C3iat^mbi*iand, Les Jatchez . 202. 

(2; Vi^;;iy, Servitude et r^randfflir allitaires ^ 2GG. 

(3) Bfclwie. Iiiliiltaai et miaeres des courtisanes. IV,, 269. 


particular perscai, but applies to the idea s:pstoollzed iby th© 
particular in question. In tills siannor the symbolic Interpre- 
tatiosi is alvays of i:3ore inportance tlian the partlctilar choic«* 
Such ciioic© boccxaes, in large measure, less valuable as event 
Uwaa. as a characteristic attribute of tlie protagonist, or 
other persona; e, t*io ^lakes the dioice* 

Frequmitly also the plot of tlieso novels prOt:resse3 by means 

of Ketai^oorlcal duels bettieen individuals, duels v-ftiose o\itc<«se 

vlll deterain© the d^ou.caent of i^iio book. But su<^ a duel 

does not Indicate a private anta,^ron.lan. It is usually t^ie 

inevitable cla^h. of t-«o opposing eleraents in the .jriivorse, The 

spaboliS2 imre is also interpreted usually by the author. The 

opposition between Cirajurdain and iJauvain is, for exaraple, not 

only an indivldxml difference of tenpttPSBgaMat. Uo^ insists on 

tlie ^<nabolic value: 

i^aps le tx'i^aiJie (^ui s*ebauchait, deux foxaes de la 
republlqu© etaieit eaa. pr^ence, la republique de la 
terreur et la r^ubliqtie de la cl^mice, I'uoe 
voulant 'valncre par la rl.nieur ©t 1* autre par la 
doueeiu:>* lAquclle provaudrait? Ces deux fomes, la 
foirae concilionte et la forrae implacable, etaA«it 
repr^^it^es par deux iwaemB ayant chacun schi 
influence et son autorlte'i l^xm ccxnrtandant nilitaire, 
1* autre ddlegue^ civil; lequ<?l de ces deux hocmes 
I'eraporteralt? i%) 

Vaeutrin's fltht for freedora is the occasion for Balsac to 

underline the symbolic character of each el<»ient in the struggle! 

Ainsi les divers intoreta noue's ensea:able, en has 
et eti haut de la 3oci<5'tcf^ devaient se i*encoiitrGr 
too© dans le cabinet du Procureur-'G^^ral, amci^i 

(1) Hu£?>, v4^tre-Vinf^t-Trei ze » II«, 61, 


tous par la necea-lte"^ represent'-"^ par tix)ia he 
la justice par nonsleur de Gi'anvllle, la faialll© 
par Cox*entinf devant ce terrible adversaire, Jacques 
Collin, (|ul configoz^t le nal social daae aa 
s«iavar3e energie* 

Qa«l duel que celui de la justice et de l»arbltralr«» 
rmanls centre le bajrie ct la rvisel Le basae# ce 
my^ibole de I'smdace qui supprirje 1© calcxil et la 
re flexion y ^ qui tous les ooyens sont bons, q.,il n'a 
paa I'hypocrlsle de^l'arbltraire, qui symbolise 
hldeuascieait l*intez^t da ventre affeme'^ la s»nglantey 
la rapide protestation de la faiial TI'et«lt»ce pas 
I'attaque et la defense? y» vol et la ,.r>i3 rlete? 
La question ^terrible de I'etat social et de I'^tat 
naturel vldee dans le pluc etroit espace feasible? 
Eafin, c'etait tme teriTlble, une vivante Iraa c de 
ces ccxapronAs antisoclaux qite font les trop^ falblea 
repr^scntants du [^ouvoir av«e de sauva;'3:es oeioutiers* (1) 

Sfiffid too reduces the Individual opposition to tl^ oppoaitioQ 
of ideas • In Le Ccea^SLfjion du tour de France » she writes: 
"Pierre resta enf enae'^ deuac heures avec Yseult. lis debatftirent 
pied a pied leur different* man i^re de c<»ipreTjdre et de prati(^ep 
le boau ideal* " (2) Vtlienj, in the aen& book, PlexT?e is present 
at a discussion between his peasr^nt friends and Achille's fellow 
theoricianSj, he classifies then instinctively* "Piezve regardalt 
les tpois proletaires debout en face de ces revolutionnaiz*e8 
au petit pied**,." (3) 31>nllarl:r» Ccmatanco v'errier sasaaarizes 
the az'guiaesit betwefln the duohesse and la Mozzelli in abstract 
teroa: "— Je ccaaprends aieux 1» artiste qui aspire a un reve 
de feliclte' et dc fid^it^ subliinesy que la rai3<»meu8e qui 
mm oontenUi d^uae in tliait^ positive et paseag^re." (4) 

(1) Balzacy Splaideurs ot nlsercs des caurti3».nes « IV., 233. 

(2) Sand, Le coraj^/jnon du Jour de ^I'anoe , II>, 15^. 

(5) Ibid.,Tr7---- 

(4) Sood^ Ckaistaace terrier* 113, 


Wieaa Vlgny d^>icts the interview betveasn the p»pm Plus VII 

and BapoleoB^ tiie latter* a trliarnpli is ixtdicated by the ^pettr«nce 

of a tear on the pope's <die«ik* Captein Renaad vpites: "EXle 

sie pamt Xe demicp adl^i du Ghrlstiajalsas i^mnrnt qui abandonnait 

la tcrre a I'egoisaa et au basard«*' (1) 

The x>evolt in the Vend^ ia liicevise the incarnation of mx idea— 
a duel between two abstract forces: '*Pay8» patrie, ce» deux 
!nots F^nisent toute la gxiezTe de Vendee; qtwrelle de I'ld^ 
locale contre l*idee uiiiver'Sdlle* Pajsana centre pata^otes*^ (2) 
Lantenac's defeat by a mother's despairing appeal beecBMs: 
"Le combat dn bian ccoitre le stal, -»». La victoire de l*hjamlte 
sur l^htjmm* L'huwmiltc avait vaincu l*inl:iUQain...." (3) 

ThB optjasiticffi betsean Sae* de la danterie and M, B^jniiard 

booomafl the opposition of t«o aiitaoonistio ideals* Alain tells 


— > Sous sonaes les desaerrants fld^es d*une Id^ 
chr^lenne* et nous appartenona corps et ^Ibe ^ 
cette Oeuvre, dont le renie, dont la fondatriee 
est la baronne de la Chanterle, . . • (4) 

lU Bernard^ on Uxe other "^ :.I, reoog^li^s his ova abstract 

value. He cries: 

•» ^^ (fxXf depuis cinq ans, ai sotiffert la passitm 
&e Jesis-Christy tous les quinze joursl l4ol qui. 
psndant tronto«-sljc an^« ai repr^sent^ la Soclet^ 
le (^ouvemoaent. qui etais alors la Vengeance 
publicise. ••• (5) 

iX) ^iS^» ^wrvltudie et firandeur ailitaires ^ 264* 
2) Hia:o, '^tiatre~vinf^»T3peize . II* > 22« 
3) iMd* , 11. . saeT 

(4) Dalsac* Tw.*Enver8 de I'hlEtoli^ c<mtenporalne ^ ;544. 

(5) Ibid. . 395. 


It Is itrmecessai-y, lio.7ever, to continue* Sufficient qpiotaticsis 
have hetm glveu to make It clear t'lat the struiXirle bct-sfeen the 
tvo personages or th* tvo parties of any one of these novels^ 
a strugf^le i*ilcd:i provides one of the ty leal plot sitiiaticais 
of rwsantieian, is conceived of both by the autlior and by hl» 
personages as a stru.^gle betveen the abstract forces STmbolised 
by tlie individual personae,es« 

Occasionally the necessity of ayiabolic interpretation is 

ir^icated i^ the author in his description of his tbseae* !l^b&t 

his i*iole novel belongs. In fact, to the reals of arable Is 

«hat h« EK>re or less ea^lldtly states* That such explicit 

statemcait can be so blandly disrej:ardad in &bj critical discussion 

of the novel in q.u«istioa seer^ impossible* atMitoattbrlaQd, for 

exaraple, wi^tes isi the epllot^^o of Atala t 

Je vis dans ce recit le tableau du peuple ohawnttr 
ct,du peuple laboureiir, la religion, pi*eniiere 
leglsla trice dos haH«Ma, les dangers de l»lgnoranf» 
et de I'entiiOTislaaae rellr:ie^ix op>os^ aux Itsiti^res, 
"a la charity et au v^Tri table esprit de I'Bvangile, 
les coasts des passions et des vertus dans va 
coeur slT^nle, enfln le trloaiphe du ciiristianisno sup 
le sentiaent le plus ftmgaeox et la crainte la 
plus terrible, I'eaour et la ^ort* (1) 

Balstte, itien he writes of Cesar Birotteau,does not hesitate to 
declare his secret t^ioui^t* He is aTixious for his read*;!:* to 
realise that Char's history is not the ; istory >f an InfUvidual 
but the repres«3itation of an abstract truth by neans of the 
STisbolic C^ar« He writes: 

(I) Oiateaubrland, Atala, 6&« 


Pul88« cettc hlsfcolr© otre le oo^ie des vic^ssltmles 
bourgeoises axuciuellcs null' '^ n*a aongc, torst 
«Ile8 8«Hiblent d<^ue"&a de : tp, tandla qu'elles 

sont au mesie tltr*© Icsmcnses: 11 ne s'c^jit pas d»tjn 
s«fiil hooRie icl» mals de tout un p««iple de douleurs. (1) 

>«nd defines hep novel aa philotso rhiaaid fiction ^icfn she wrltess 

C'est laolns as roctan qu'un exnooe'de situations 
aztalTsc^s avec natience et retraces avec acrupule* 
C© n'est nl po^iqac ni inte'ros!:?ant au point de 
vn%e litt<ipalp©« Cela n© s'addrcs; c done qu'au 
sens nopal ©t philoso hiquo du iGctcur, (2) 

■xnxa is a descrlptioB that could apply equally well to the 

"contes pMlOBOphiquos" of the ei^Jiteentli c€Bitury witii tlieir 

alle,';^opical value and SeoKi is definitely warning the i^adep 

tliat the sjnatoolic interest doninates over tlie , urely artistic 


Gautiop likevise is r»ot avopse to underlinlni- the idea of his 

fables, lie writes about a chevalier whoso double p©i»sonallty 

is syaboliaed Ijy two stars, on© rod, on© r^reen, and be isams; 

Vwis, jeunos flllen, ne vous fies c|]Li»a I'et -*:''- 
verte; et vous qui aves le uaLiicur d'etre e, 

oonlMittes bravesient, qaand rd^ae vous dsvriea 
frapper sup vous et vous irlosser de votive propp© 
4fpw, l*«wlvepsair© int^rieur, Ic ticfc-iant chevalier, (3) 

The conclualcai interprets syabolically aace nore: 

Z^oalbre d'Edwlc^e est toute .^oyaxise, car 1' enfant 

:.., --.vjie seifpiour Lodbrog a enfln valncu l»influenc« 

^ 1© d© I'ooil orange, du corbeau noir, ©t de 
I'etoilc rouge: I'horase a ten^ssc'' l*lncube, (4) 

(1) ralssac, C^ar Birotteauj 57, 

(2) ii evue dcs cLeux mondeS a i^66» rv». Sand, ^ ■'■ -■ ■ mier Ataour , 8. 

(3) Oaait^ier, Ivornana et tfointeSj Le Chevalier _^, 30(5^ 

(4) Ibid., '60K, 

35 2. 

Of all ©» itTtaanticistfl Vlg;ny Is, perhaps, th.e one #io nost 
«Kj*»sls03 the exact 3y«l)oll8n of his thesies* He spealcs in 
iiis own perscai in S earyJtude et /yandeur lailltaiTOS and describes 
in very diaractaristic mszmer the oetliod In which his novel 
naist be interpreted, Ita symbolic scope and Intention: 

Aussi le sentiaont qui dmalnera ce livj?o sera-t^il 

celui qui ne l*a x?^^ coasiRsencer, le desii* de 
defcofumei? do la 1::pte - " " " t cette nal^iction 

qxxB Ic cito^en eat oq .- . . -cH- ^ lu^i doruiop, &t 

d»app«ler sur l*AmM$e le oardon de la nation. 
Ce quHl y a de plx^s beau aoi^s 1'' " - , c*eat 

le devouejient; apices le Poete, c*c- ., _, —; 
ce n'est pas sa faute s'il est condaEoa^a xm. etat 
d'llote. <1) 

T'op the flirat two stories in the book he farther develops Ms 

thought ir< this iianneps 

J« ^hoisiral dans roes souvenirs coux qui se^ 
pres^mtent ^ moi otwrie mi v^«^.©nt asses decent 
et d'une fopiae d'envelopper \me pensce 
choieie, ct de aoptrer caabien de situations 
conti«aires aux develOfqjflrTMsnts du capact^i"© et d© 
1» Intelligence d«frlyent de la Servitude gross t^t^ 
©t des n»>0ar8 airri^rees dec Atbh^ perrsanentesB, (2) 

The laa^oaga is characteristic* It i^ovs the author deciding 

first uposi an idea and th«» and then only crentin^ the figures 

and situations wiiich will best s/iiiboiiae, and so best reveal^ 

ttie idea. Yet, tliou^^ Vlipny writes the raost phllosoplilcal 

Bt&tetient of his intentions* rsferenee to i^ie other quotations 

will show hira to be tjrplcal i«thor tJum uniqtie in Ms cihoico 

of thOTie and in the nanner of the claboiratitm of his t'l^^e tqr 


There are, of course, certain cases in ishich the symbolic 
(1) Vigny, Servitude et f-randeur nilitaires ^ 25» 

(2) Ibid . . m; 


sigalflcance of a. ^^lot is Biade oore apparent because of Uie 

close aTflnlty v^iich its thesae bears to another more obviously 

allegorical fiction* iiach is tlva case witii Baleac*3 IjjtVtsiona 

PTdiies azid Splendours et miserea dee courtJsan es, ^T^ese two 

long novels fom one iitiole and tiiat i^3ole is a surprisin:;!^ 

mcact reflection of ti^ie plot and thcoe of La P^ni de charrin » 

Superficially diff extent as it i.isj appear, moreover, uautier's 

Fortuoio repeats the seme fable varied only by a slirjitly 

dlffer^it application. In its essence t>ils thcjs© is based on 

the ronanticist belief in iAie infinite expaiisivcness of the 

•^« "All tilings arc possible for oe", the c^op of roiaantic 

Hapolecms cried ozkI tltey vere sincerely conviticed, indeed, that 

all things vere possible, providc^l the desiz*e and will «ex*e 

pennitted full expz^oaslon* It is this attitude iftiich is 

edqxnsnded by Stee* de Bar ;eton in Illusicais perduea : 

A, 1» entendre - — - Ic j^nie ne relevait que de lui- 
EMBoe; il etait seul .li:r;G de ses stoyesis, car litl 
seul ccmnaiseait la Tin; ^1 dovait don^ se 
au«dessu6 des lois, appele qu'il ^tait a les ^^j.^lre; 
d*aill«ur6, qui s'ei^are de son siccle peut tout 
preDd2*e, tout risquer, car tout est a lui« (1) 

Characteristically, she cites Kapoleon as the suprecie proof of 

her stateraents. 

It is tMs point of view that is to prevail on Lueien, for 
whoa RapSiael of La Peaa de chaj^grfLn has served as prototype. 
IllusionB perduee corrcsp<aids to the introductory portions of 
Ltt Peau de c^iapyin and here Lacien appears as caapact of desire 

(1) Balzac, Illusions perdues a I., 234,256, 


and jpeellng. H© a|>{>eaz*s on ever^ occasion at tJi© mercy of Ms 
desires* Balzftc vritess "Luci^i se portait avee ardeur vers 
la glolre lltt^ralro," (1) And again: "II ii'etalt encore aax 
prises qu'avec ses d^lxna...," (2) He states: "Chez 4e po^te 
— — tout etalt sentiiaent*.,." (5) But In lucien desire is 
without the necessary force to accomplish. He lacks ^U. 
Ere, his sister, renders the final verdict: "-~- II n»y a pas 
de superioritc sans fozKse et Luci^i est faible*** (4) 

I«cien is, then, the Raphael of La Peau de cIiaArin . His progress 
follo;7a anbstantially the saisie linos* Like Ha:.haJ»l, his dreceas 
of glory are fostered by society as long as he flatters its 
vanity, scorned «hoa he ceases to do so« Like Haphael, he is 
sesn in the v^^rld udiers "arrivisiae" is the supreme doctrine. 
Fall of desires Tiftilch he is impotent to satisfy, he realizes, like 
Haphalsl, tliat there is only one solutiim, a withdrawal fro^i 
this world by oeans of suicide* It is at this point that 
Raphael is deterred frtsa death hy the unexi>ected gift »*" the 
zoagic skin ~ "le pouvoir et le voulpir r^unis"— and it is at 
this point tliat lAici^i is deterred frooi death by the une:[^peeted 
alliance vdiich Vautrin offers. Vautrin incarnates the will 
which lAicien lacks and the pact between the two laeans that the 
extreme of desii>e and the extreme of will are unit^« Such a 
unicai places Lacien in the seme ix>wor^\il ctosltlon ^^hidi Rapliael 
occupied* %e equal of society, he is able to defy it with 

(I> Balzac, IllusicMis perdues * I*, 194* 
^2) Ibid*, t., 199. 
<5) I!l^** IJT., 4«U. 
(4) Ibi.T * . Ill,, 400* 


ii^ipiinity* Vautrin repents the Hapoloonlc rasssttses 

— Les i^r^^^s ccKTsnettent preaqu© autant de iSclietes 
qtM l©s nis/i^bles; laals 11 lea cocnottent dans 
l*ocabre et font parade de leurs vertus: lis 
restant gi^ands* — — Tout est dans la forsic. 
Salslssez bicn cc que j^appcllo la PorB», -i~«— 
Ainsi* la Socl^t^, -.on fils, cnt forced de di5t:lnguer, 
pour son c<xajite, ce q/^e je vous f als^ dlstint^er pour 
le v6ti»e, I« -rand^ olnt est 5e s's^aler a tout© 
e__*/T_/ «-_.,/„ «*_,„,,_. ,-r Hedicls 

la iiociete, ^Uapoleon^ Richelieu, les 
s'^nalerent a leur slocle, (1) 

It Is at this point that Smitler's Poptunlo nay be seesi to 
offer a third exanple of the son© tiaterlal Independene© of 
society. His story corresponds only to the s©c<xid it^ias© of the 
life of Raphael or Luclen, to the see<n^ part of La Pemi de 
charprin mid to Splaideurs et m^s^res des eourtlsanes ^ In Ma 
Gentler presents a protas'-cmlst ^^o represents the coincidence 
of a desire and its fulfilment* In India, «lier© he spends his 
early yout£i, his every ^in has bean ^.ndiilo©d sand in Earop© 
his fabuloo-s wealth pemlts h5i5 the sane ready satisfaction of 
his desires. That his life is measured by desire Gentler 
indicates quite as plainly as if he had x»epestcd Balzas*^ Eiaglcal 
device. H© writes of Fortiinlo: "Ses passions le !n«nal«it cm 
elles votilalent sans qu*ll essay^t Jffioals de re'slster." (2) 
Like Hai^iacl and luclen, Fortunlo lives in connlete isolation 
frosa ordinary society. He sayst "— Je suls le .'jarcon le plus 
iml du &K>nde« Je ne fals quo ce qui ae plait, et je vis 
ab8oluB»nt poor oon conpte." (3) Thle speecii nlclit quit© as 
•ell be ttmt of either tS-j© Raphael or Luclen tJho deliberately 

(1) Ralaac, Illusi o ns perdues . III«« 545. 

(2) Gaptler:! Igouvellcs a I'^i'tunio , 131. 

(3) Ibid.. 98. 


put theosttXves outside of society wad avoid all ordinary 
liuDiazi intex>eoux^e« 

^niere is* hovorer* a certain variation in tlie fate of the 
tKnild<-be supeman. It is Raphael's final decision to Md)i«e« 
t^iA ideal that causes tlie dis^^E^^aranee of the :::a.:Tic skin &o& 
his deatli* For lucien also death is the onlj solution and is, 
liko Ra^^bael*s« a voluntary tdioice onee ho finds hlnself 
separated froot tloat which oeasures and expresses his life <» 
the td.ll incarnated in Vautrin. Both Lucien and Haplia«l perceive 
the imiate destxnictivexisss of the elonmt to idii^ they have 
attcfliMd tkummeXvem and aceept death as their inevitable fate. 

But Portunio, although lie does se^ possession of the ^ropeen 
idcttl of boas^ >>• Ifasidora->«>,reeo@riiii«ts U\&t physical poas«s«ion 
is all that he con hope for. H« is aware that mere desire and 
vlll — nftiich is all ai&t constitutes his life — cannot attain 
to tiae spiritual. But Gautier represents the European ideal 
beauty — l^isidora — as a beauty spiritualized by love. There- 
fore Fortunio abandons Europe for the Orient. He abandoiui 
Moeidora for Soodja-Sari. Ue retires to his Eldorado of pliysical 
coLifort and material pleasures* This is the sole Eldorado 
CRdtable for the coincidence of desire and its satisfacti<»i| 
that iB, for WofrtxmlOm It is only a physical and !:Aterial ideal 
of beauty that those nirto, in this vorld^ attain t^ieir id^il 
desire may ever «Bibrace. VShat is spiritual^ however^ ni^t die 
if its love is a love for the incarnation of de»ii?e. "aierefore 
Kusidora dies beeanae of her love for such an incarnation » its 


living aryBbol, Fortualo, 

Gffatl6r*8 story, fSbmrefoipe, not only repeacs ^olsac's t «> ^e 
but is even more e3^3llclt« Tli« deetx^ictivenoss Inhorent In 
the j?uro dostre and will not only cono mes Itnelf, as Balsac 
indleates, but destroys all that Is 3:-ij?ltual in ci/lliaatlsii. 
''^iriliael dies bocauso th© Incarnation of his desire is inecrapatiblo 
wit2i life» ^t It is possible fop desire and will to survive 
if the s.;iritY^l. is ponaittcd to die* Portunio may livo on 
' ut it Eiust te in a restricted s-^iet*e« The dre«a of ijo^r tliat 
Portunio ropres^its — the attainnont of the infinite by wMom 
of an infinite ^cpansian of the ego — ends Tilth the aere 
sntisf actions of ttie animal nee^^s of nan. 

no close is ticu i-eise iblanco in th© novels cited above that tiie 
sy?rft>oliasa cannot be nlsconstrued. A siixllar clue is provided 
for %ae»?toiselle de gaupin and for Sand's l ie Qmtean dea Pesertee 
by their exact reflection of the allOi:;orical Celle»ci et cclle-la . 
The siriple r>lot of the latter is repeated in every detail. In 
each case t3ie protagonist — a representative of Inexperienced 
you^ and, since he la also aa artist, a representative of art — 
sets out in search of his ideal and expects to realize this 
ideal t^ro;:^^ love. In ea(^ case, the first love, the conventional 
love, the love on w .Ic ^ aociety would set the seal of its 
approval, is one \sihlch is factitious in quality and disappointing 
in e3q>eri^iee. In oa6h case, thei*efoi^, idealistic youtii 
finds Itaelf dlss^itin^ frtan the model of beauty \*\idh society 
offers; idagdUlstic art finds Itself in disagreeisMnt with the 


aesthetic fashion uSilch society approves. 

A second love sapervenes. In this secor.d lo-re t?>o az^tlst finds 
tnxe and endtirin«-^ s&ti8faetiari» lie finds this ideal satisfaction 
not in society but in a retreat frora society, Rodolphe flnda 

•iriette in the secluslrm of hla owi household, not In tJie 
fashionable salons. D« Albert finds Mile, de iiaupin cmly after 
he has withdt^wn to a secluded medieval castle in the midst of 
a large natural park. Cello realises his love for Cecil© only 
after he too hM^ wlthdram to her secluded retireat — the chateau 
des Desertes. 

The true love la, therefore, one flftiich finds Its setting in 

nature aiKi is in conformity with nature. The ideal beauty and 

the ideal art are represwited by an Ideal lo-f/c. In Celle-ci et 

celle-la it will be x^called that (3autier identifies Harlette 

with the natural sriontnnelty of roriantlcisn. In Le Chatoau des 

DiMierte a Send likewise Irlentifies the ideal a©st!ietic tjlt^i 

igiiat is natural. Cello, in relating; the dreaia ^ich determines 

his abandorapent of the conventional social ideal, concludes in 

thsse terns: 

— , . . . le persomuige principal delalsse'^ — — 
re ardait en souriant une fleur qtii personnlflalt 
pour lui la nature. Cette aller*orie n'avalt pas 
le s^is coomun, rsais elle avait une 3ii£,niflcati«m 
pour nol seul. (1) 

at the S£B3e tia© Sand indicates the direction of C61io*« retreat 

in another speech in ^i*ti^ Cello identifies the alle{^rical dream 

(1) Seaod, Le Cb^teau des Deaert ea, 48. 


. . his owi doalr©: 

-«- Savea-voos un r^ve ci^ie jo faisais oes joups-cl, 
—«— . c*ost d'aller oasser quelquon seaaines, qiielquea 
mala p«ut-^trc, coin tranqr"~7 t ' '^ 

avee ie vieux re ... Terrd et sa "^,„ r^ „o 

flllo. ^ ewac dcwx ila possodant le secrst d© I'artr 
cdiactai en r '' onte one face.^ I« p^re cot porti-cu- 

li<§renent .;_ - It et spor.-tnnc'^ la ^"llln .-r -*-,H^.- fv-,f-, 

consclencleuse et savante. (1) 

Still later Sand explicitly Identifies the two I'^iases nf art 

v^il^ C^llo had at first believed to be distinct. »-ecllia Is 

truly her father's dau^^ter, Conscl«itlous art is, in faet« a 

product of spontatfieity and natiiral inspiration. Doccaferri 

explains: **-- I<e sentlm^it du vral et du beau sex>t a cozsprt^idre 

toutes les faces d© l*art. L*art est tm« n'est-ce pas?" (2) 

?Iadeeiolselle de »-laug>in repreacaits an advance on the pur© 
rotsantlcisn of either Celle^ci et cello-la or Le Chateau dea 
Desertes* It Is Qie definite recosnltlcm of the composite 
character of beauty. D* Albert la forced to real* as Unit he 
cannot aairry SOJLe* do Mmipln. Kla lofve for lier too xsould only 
stale with tlae. 'Bven as oaaticr writes, romanticlsn, in its 
early phases, is dyia;_; out. r'JLle. do i'-aupin's clcpa:::.irG 
representa Its death. Ilie rocmticlst, d* Albert, reco^izes 
that Mile, do Maupln Is not exclusively fonJinine; Rosette, tAo 
neo«classlclst, realizes that t^o siaseullnity of kOJ^o. de 
laupln Is incorq^leto. The recosnltlon of the trutli r0O<melle« 
bot^ to the impossibility of n -m^^ianent txrJ.on with one fora 
of beauty. The n«>-classicisL lovo for the male lieascai, the 

(1) Sajid, TJe, Cha tefig dea Desertes^ 56. 

(2) r:ic,r^Si(^ " — 


romanticist love for the f«Bale Bature, that is, for tat 
s«ntiaimt8 and passions, must both be detJ^voned and united 
in th© true classlclsni of the hormaphrodite ifco unites In one 
person Spirit and Body, Pom and *atter, nale azid fcKsiale* 

It ia, pex^mpa, larmeoessary to stress tho fact tiiat taie novels 
«e Iiave been considering, sysibolic in thecae emd plot develop-* 
aent, ^ow quit© as distinct a dfiviation frcan probability as 
do their allc.:topical r>rototy\;es, Balsac's novels, Illnaions 
perdaes and Spiendwira et nis'^hpes dea courtisanes reveal tbat 
iaprobability ^lich coanes frora exact repetitiem. "Hiey are, in 
fact, roE'niscent in this of the repetitive quality we discovered 
in Daidme and Spiridioo< i '-^li© course of the first novel is 
exactly dunlioated in the eecoaid* lueieai £;oe3 frosi the r)rovince 
to Paris, receives the disinterested love of a eourto8«ft!, 
causes her dea^, is U!iable to doninate society, and cosseniits 
soieide* At th*» end of Illusions perdues the suicide is only 
an «}x>rtive attempt! at the eaoA of Spiendeux^ et rti seres deg 
couaftisane s it actually takes place, "ftjer© is in this exaet 
Dai»alloXiffi3 a sur^erb disre^^rd fop veredlcity. 

The plot of Le GhatOistu des D^aertes s cm th© other hand, depends 
on a series of t»nthor ^xnbellevabl© colncd^ifmcfta. Added to 
tJals, it rioves aoriittedly, in the second phase of Uie aoti<m, 
entirely into tti© real?! of art. The life at the sedud^i 
castle is an arbitraiiy netHad of existence constructed to 
correspond to a c^erisliea di^eaa. 


The fast that Mile* de Hbcapin ease to shax^ certain ciale 
attributes la an Indication that Oautler*s ideal of art la one 
vhich effects a relaaste into aciualitj b^ .neans of tho jt»:telligence. 
Be-vertlielessy tJie .)XH>babil5.ty aSilch sives Had«»oiselle de Haupin 
its superioritsr as a citation of roct&nbielssi is leas actual 
than potential* Graaitier nay be said to h&ve used reality for 
tbe basis of his c3*oation iTUt he lias translated It into an 
ideal isorld* ffotitiin^^ in Hadcaoiaelle do Maupin seenia i!i .>robaMe 
beoaose t2ie sorld ix.i idilch Um peroofmj^^ siove poaseseee an 
enchanted irreality* Tho ataosj^ere i« one of fantasy rather 
tiuoi of fact «id Vba events end characters correax}Qndy therefore* 
to nhat the ftentasy rather ttian actual proibabilxt^ dem&nds* 

Ihe eoBB tiilnf* is true of i^optonio «*iere the legendary quality 
ia BKU^ Cxore exaggerated* In Uiis latii^i^ story* thero <^dsts 
not even a real and proTmMe past such as that ti^.^* in 
iiadeB»ieeJLle de tta»r>1n , fozuui tb» l^ackc^round for the fat^UcKis 
preeent* ^The atao^pbere is one of faizy tale ar dream and hence 
all things are not only ix»esible but pr€>bable be^tnse no cxmnecticm 
with reality is evrnt poet^ilated* l^eh a neglect of actuality 
in favour of a drean ideal la 'n confonalty* we have noted, ^th 
lAie practice of allctjory* It becoixes evi.Ient, by the cos3i>arison8 
instituted above, tl-sat, in roiMuiticist practice, the differasce 
)«t«een the allegorical and the syribolic novel is a difference 
of do^pr^^ but not of kind* 

It is ojctraordinary, atoreover, how steadily every one of these 
ZK>velist3 pursues the saoe taene throu4:h novel after novel, Ho 


faiilllar with tJielr work wotild Tail to realise that t3ae 
si^ature of eacii of tlioci lies in tlic th^ae he has chos«n azad 
that« no jaatter hoir vfirlaus the disguises, hie novels, stripped 
to their easential eleraentSy «ay be reduced to one si^lfleant 
tliflBie repeating itself tlxroxt^jh different case Iiistories, 

QiatGaubrisnd points out tb»t society neoda to go bade to nature 
and cherish religion. Itoe* d© StaeX proves that society kills 
natxxral superiority, niether this superioidty consists In love, 
genius, or beauty. Hugo represents the pro^^ress of aaos, \sRiier 
the etiamilus of hunan and material obstSLClcs, toward the ideal 
of spiritual love* It is the hunan love itoioh sustains his 
in his proj^reas imt, for the love of the divine^ he will 
sacrifice the hiaaan* Thus Hugo has represented in every ease 
a sort of Fllgrira*3 Progress whose ideal goal results In the 
renunciation of life in order to gain a fuller life. Sand's 
plots fona an adr^iirable exposition of rcaiantic aiysticism, that 
type of mysticlffla uiiich rex:'laces discipline by divirie ;"race 

this t^race synonyaous with lovej in Sand's cnse with 
passionate love, maternal love, quarried love, love of liuTtanity, 
wltTi any type of love tliat worientarl ly seecas to her best because 
oat natiiral. 

The recurz^ent thctne in Vij^y's work reqxiires, perhaps, fuller 
suata:xent. It is, however, like the theses of his fellow 
onanticista in tliis: that it laalces plain the fundariental 

attitude that pervades all his writing:. Vlgny esiQMManda Ms 
ptiilosopiiicai belief aou uis acauictic ;,'Ciief sicailtmieously. 


Hm fioilosOivalcal belitti? apoth ao al — the Pure ^ntellli<^Qnco, 
thjB "Saprit pur''« Th« »ot»ld in its enseiable is a llTlng 
inc$i?nation of this divine intelli^^^icc. '^lie intersuediary 
bet\isre«i the divine smd t^c hiiiaan iiitelli^^cince is the Lmstya, the 
Word. The 'iJoiKi is tlie a^n'ool of the pure essence mtd r,von<^.T'7P;s 
it for the ages. 'The sentiment nuist inspire tiie . oixi wtiicii 
trasisXates the Intellect* in other words, the it'oet laust clothe 
the trutlis of liiiXosophy in the aytti^oXs mlcii appeal to hssewa. 
esnoticm. Thws and thus only these tm^ui may be p3?eser"/ed» 
The Soldier, too, laast discard the outer world for t«he ISord. 
In his case, the ^rd is the woixi of honotir. '^o Poet's Hoi-d 
is divine, the Soldier's hUEum* Both c<»ae froca t,£ie inner self, 
frora a divine Intuition, Sotia disp^ose with the reason that 
analyses reality and never coEspletely answers iaan*s questiouixig. 

To say that Vigny cacalta tlio intuition is to ms^ that he too 
exalts a non-aooial i[W>rld, Balzac, ho<s3©vcr, c<Kitradlcts Uv& 
syatew ahich t^ne other roownti cists set up, a 'sjstem «£&erein 
the individual Is right and society always wrong. *^e, on tiie 
contx^ry, imniiaoii every individual to be the mer>e representative 
of his social function* His plots concern, therefore, the 
fate of society and regularly repeat the wnrning aijainst tib.e 
•goiSEi that destroys and the i>j?aiac of the social tradition 
which pi"oservcs* 

Whei^as Balzac cond^sims r^al'.ty throurj;! society and cociGionds 

an ideal tiiro.iga suGiei,^, ^autier condoans pure idealisn or 

pux^ naturiOTi in the lndivi(i\ial and cosRiends their ideal blending 


throo^^i the individual. Gautler, unlike his fellmr ponaanti cists, 
does not lavolro society In his tjb^eots bat writes only of th« 
indlTidoal aii.l foi* tlio iixli viciual, ^e is, in this respect, 
the cc«5>lete aiitithosia of r^aac. He is Wolo antltlieslt tx3.30 
of bhe otliep roaanti cists Ir that the blaae t-ieT" -ortsnina-ftsly 
attach to the i.'suer-.'jomil mid .^ >r ■.•-:' .:' n-x^tety, a i'ois, of hlasR9 
ihioh, in practice, rcliev s t)ie ii^ividual of sjsy ti»oii' ^lesoeie 
ro8p<»i3li2illt7, is, hy Gautier, placed again aqruareiy nncn tlie 
ribouldei^ of Uie indivldiial. Tlie zwH^neaibllity lAili^., con 
in B^ilsao, liad di8e4>peax>ecl, aakas a tentative reappearance in 
^autior* It is tJiis idilbh sStovs Gasxtler to have r^i^:wd a 
freMi stoj^e i:i his i^xsazitioiaa and _t _c t.aio urifoisi e^irasion 
of iiKiividual responsibility w4il«ii caustts^ certain aialo^les of 
thOBie to exist even in the disparate work of Sand, Vi^^y, Hu{^, 

The repetition of th<? sras© favorite th«»ie Uiroujthout ea<^ 
author's woi^ a iiualiy throvi^ tl» repetiticKi of 

the mam favorite i>lot« Anyone faedliar with the novelists we 
arc st-jdyin^ needs only to pass in laental review a series, of 
Uieae plots in order to confiiia the truth of tliia observation. 
Often enou^ t^ie similarity will not be iiariedlateiy recognised 
If, as in Atala and Rene ^ for exiUJ^le, the same situation is 
presented tlipou^ opposite facets. OtJier devices may serve to 
dlSi^ulae the repetition. The sli^iit devtslopeaoat in complexity 
^ Yi'- a e nay conceal the fact tSiat it is caily a aeetxaSL 

Indiana, '^ho episexiic Claiide Gucn;^ i& ovcr^.r '- • -^^^ liy the very 
aass of I^ea UXsc u. La Recherche de I'absoiu , Eur^c^ie 


Greutde-j/ j I>e Cure ds villu -.e « offer Inms-iei'aVjle supei'^iclal 
dirfer^:i.c©s la &plte of tiie obvious Identity in their plot 

The consistency in the yoitit of view beconiEs, tJiercfore, botli 
tiie strength savd tl^u Ac-uteeas of the roEianticlst* " r-^n^tnRBjj 
uectrose that point of view la, as we he."5e seen, related to ttie 
ideal and expressed tI'iix>Ui;^ the ideal. It requires, therefore, 
in order tiiat the chosen eyoibol acquire any Ruthenticic?, the 
willing suspension of our disbelief. A stj*cngth, once the 
a2?bitraiy sjraLol'fari is Ei^tlefactopily established fmd accepted 
lay the leader iii -.ii^ ^.v. «j,, * ocmise it bocc^ies au toast icaily 
c«aprehffiisible tiu'ou^^out a ^lole series of no'/els aiK2 its 
arbitrary quail i;y ceases to constitute any difflcxilty of 
^. vterpretaticau 


Cliaptcr 7? • 
Symbolic Pattern. 

Certain cimractei'istics ty^^ical of the "omiai structure of the 
novel of rormnticisn cannot "be overlooked. Hovel after novel ?aay 
be observed to fall into a definite ?Jattern, its i/hole structure 
lijuilt up from certain conventional foiindations* These conventi<aoal 
foundations nay be reduced to tbree iEg^rtant varieties. There 
is, first of all, tli© convention xTliich builds tip an entire novel 
by means of contrast. ^iSiere is, secondly, tiiat which nalsBS use 
of repetition. There is, finally, the convention tlarough ^:K>se 
use tlie novel may be said to assirae tiie geometric foi'^i of a 
triangle. Tbe use of any one of these doe:3 not oxcliide tlie oHkeBP 
and, in fact, in. the najorlty of the novels, the use of all three 
of these conventions is quite apparent. It is this fact that 
causes t]ie extraordinary rcscnblsmce in fom which exists l^tneen 
the novels of even the laost disslnilar of the romanticists. Tb» 
personages or stories often vary superficially but the ?«.ttem 
remains unciiai^jed. Ho otlier aspect o£ the art of rcaaanticisa 
could offer greater interest than this. A recognition of the 
conventions upon wliich the novel is based will tjbIzq it possible 
to forego indivi(&ial prejudice and to determine with greater 
easactitude to Just what degree the wliole novel is the illustration 
of a convention, ami, to that extent, syribolic, and to juat 
what degree tlie convention is neglected or viried in order to 
confoiTa more closely to observation and experience. 

•^bV . 

The raost sto'iking of u.^ i .^nanticict c nventioiio is that vrhicli 
tises absolute conti'ast tlie raoi-e tiiorouc^^^ly to (^nliasise the abyss 
Hiilcii lies betvieen tv/o points of view wlilcli are at the opposite 
poles of value, Sbarp contrast, as lias been noted, nakeo it easy 
to draw tdie line between tiie autlior's synpawietic and nns^patlietic 
personat:es» Ho imlfiray tones api:)ear in tiie types who appear in 
tiiese novels nor In Uie sltuatl.ns in v/hich tliey a':>p^ir» Kius the 
fatality of Urn opposition v.hich makes the plot interest is 
Umadl&telj disengaged^ The life of feeling is, moreover, the 
life of exti'CBies, It is the distingi ishing aark of rtxmnticiaB 
timt it ^iould exalt the extraeie to the detrlraent of the !Kjan« It 
is for this reason tliat the use of contrast is such an iiKlispeosablfl 
eXezoout of tiie ronanticist^s technique. 

To cite exj:iplos which v/cjuld illusU^ate this technique woiild be 
X)8sible if one wore r.^rely to choose at randcaa any novel <h» any 
pei^aoaago ffOKi the novels of iMaaanticiot literature* '2o era^Aiasise 
ii)» ijmaense lEiportance of this teclinlcal device, hoi^evor, cei^tain 
typical instances of its use will be £jiven» Those instances will 
illustr^to contrast in individual personages, in differing milieus, 
in oholo worlds, in plot situations, and, fiimlly, contrast carried 
30 far as to oppose one whole novel to another. It Jimst be 
reciQEiberod, too, tliat, as was d©;ionstrated in tiie i:a»eviou3 ciiapter, 
absolute antiti^sis in language is the favorite luode of roaaantic 

Clmteaubrinnd's two stories Attila and Rene' form an admirable 

o:::ar.iplG of contrast uaed to eaaplmaise the dliitii^^p.ilsliiag quality 
or a wliolc noTGl. Atala pixjsonts the savage whose ta:*ageay is th« 
result Ox lack of kna&ledijQ, : one proa eata Liie civilised nan vlioso 
tragedy is UiG recult of exceas of ]mawlo<%o. CHmctas is the nan 
of nature who, after a bi'lef experience of civilization, rejects 
it and retxims to the wilds. Rene is the Man of society aiio 
discovei^ liiriisolf to "bo unahle to reiaaln al<Kie with aatiji^e. Hwjce 
Cbactas volimtarily turns a«ay fron society, Ren^ fi»am nature, 
de story of I^&dg is tiic stoi^ oi a r;nanticisn which defines 
Itself eiien Rene saj^i "— On Jouit de ce qui n'est pas camaaa^ 
ofibs q\mnd cette chose est un nalheur." (1) The story of Chactas 
is the story of tlie natux^al existence which opposes the ramnticist 
delight in «3e unoatural and extraordimry. Chactaa defines tbB 
contrast as he says: "— H n*y a de bonheur que dans les voies 
ccianiunes •" (2 ) 

In the sasie taanner tlEit Cliatoauhriaiii *c ttra ctorios contrast at 
every pointy Vigny's nc'AJl ;-^erYltua e e^ ,, j - >, ^ nilitairca T?ill 
show absolute contrast betHeen the first two and tlie last of its 
stories* ThQ Cor^Tjandant's liistory is thnt of a ran whose life is 
detei«iined by obedience to military autirrxty. Renatid's iiistory 
is tliat of a :-ian vfliose life is detomined by liis own instinct of 
baxmr and not at all by lailitary obedience. Balsac like-srise 
offers exaapleo or stories whose -iili riOiUi-... ay oe eatliorod best 
by refei'once to the stoiy which is its perfect contrast. Le p^re 
Goriot and Bgg^ie Qrandet are stories which so complete one 

(1) Chateaubriand, Rene^ , 9 5» 

(2) Ibid.. 9b. 

anotlier as are also Lo Chir^ tie village ancl L'Envera de I'Mstolre 
c on tan po ;^^ i^io » The cogntraot In the first two novels is, primarily, 
one or nillea. T^i-.. .ti^^nao accepts tlmt of Paris society, laig^d* 
tJiat of Hsaasiur ti'adttlon, The contrast is also t!^1t "betw^n rmn 
- il wonan. Qse wcctan ia closer to pei^fectloa ;J7 iiatiire tlmn is tlie 
r.ian« ^Ehe wonan is the Id^il wliereas the man belongs to observed 
reality. Hence Eugcaiie's histoiy sharply contrasts at evv?.ry point 
with timt of R€M5tl£,Txic. Ceair Bia^ot.: ::'.\i :,.; ..,10 liistory of a iYsca, 
who is exti'aordinarlly scrupiiloiis in busir^w affklrsv In direct 
contrast is the history of La Kaison Ifucingen notable for its s^:*le] 
of sharp swindling successes* Balzac is, in fact, exceptioimlly 
fertile in contrasts of this sort* One novel is ttoe pendant of 
anot!ier c,rs5- -^resents tl-^; reverse fcce of a given sltuaticm* Qautiei 
-.roi'i; i-cii^aolc: T'r-. isac'c in tills rcL;-a:_-'d* Tne conti^'ast in personage 
becomes a conts*a3t in story. The story of Tlburce who isarries 
r<^ility {C^*etchen) contrasts v.'ith the story of (hxj de Kallvert 
TJlio laarrles the ideal (Spirite). livery une of &iuticr'i storieSii' 
indeed, represents either one sLcIe or tJie otlier of tliis contrast; 
Celle-ci et ceXle'-la a La Toison d*or« and Madeiaoiselle do llaupin 
arc in absolute contrast to Spirite , Le Ronan do la ria!-.iio , gortuiiio 
La Korte anairguse , aikl riany otliors, 

'SnQ contr^ast does not, necesaarily, involve two novels out it is 
alTJa^s p:*eMKit in the inn<»? structure of any novel of romanticistt* 
Baas Delphine conta'asto tiro iKjrlds* T}iQre is tlie society ccmposed 
of Deljftitae'a friends* This is a society of individualists, a 
society Rhesre love is tlie rule and happiness Uie gc^il* Tbere is^ 
likgwiae, the Parisian society cc^,?osed of €^oists, a society irher« 


33q?©diency is the nilo and sueceaa the goal, in Gorirgio 
contawist is dovelopod fUrtiier# Once tvovq two worlds oppome oaeh 
othex*« Qmt world Is that of Corimio's genius, a v/orld wlilch is 
individtsn-listlc* Love ^ind beatity Is its mile, ]mr)i>lnes3 and art 
IfaB goal. The other world Is that of society althou^i her^ soeiety 
appears mider tlix^e distinct varieties cu3d the eoixtaraest Bjamamam^ 
acoordlncly, an appearance of gr^tw conplexity, Ba^*B novel, 
L*7ft«nne qui rlt, offers a repetition of liae. de 3ta'el»s i^tiiod. 
Qjo flgtanes aho coQp(»e one sorld are in exact parallel to tlx>se 
who compoae the contrasting world* The easentiol contrast betseen 
the two woi'lds is tliat iftiich Is lisinodiately estahlislied between 
the natural law and tJie social law — nature and society. Hatur»e 
contains the tan and the beast* Th& Bian la called I^pstis, the wolf 
is called Boao} for, of the two, it is Ursas rAto rerjudiates 
society and so descends voltaaterily to the society of the beasts 
ifiiile it is Hobo who is repudiated by society and so rescsiblos the 
proscribed masses^ liviz^ by instinct and uncertain of tlM reason 
that lies behind their destiny* To group is added Dea eaad 
QvjnplAiim* Tlie four fonn a Biiniature Bootety but a society wliose 
bonds are those naturally foiiaed by love and by a ^xsmcm worlc« 
not those of social law or custoci^ They sim up tlic life of l a t tu r e 
ma& they are separated from ordinary society by the fact tl»t they 
live in a house on wlieels and have no stable social ties* The 
vwy nasfl» of the four are s^aabolic* Hogo writes s 

Tlpsus — — I'avait b^ Doa* 33. avait un jieu conmlW 

son loupj il lui ayuxu ._o: ~Tu roprc*'; :' a I'boianie, 
3e represente la betej nous soEinies le d'en basj 

cetto iJetite repr^sentera le nondo d'en Iiaut* Tant de 

ftLibLesae^ d'est la toute-gul- — "e* De cette xsuxm 
I'univers coti let, lucianitG, olitc, divinite 8« 



dans notre caJnitc» (1) 
The »apld of nature contaiiis, Uierefore, tiiree sts^Gs of bolng, 
a hier^T^chy miich rar^os from "brute to an^-ol. In t'lis world the 
people — Gijynplalne— live content. This tlien Is one side of the 
picture* It is nftoessary to add tiiat this miniature coaiaos liolds 
other 33Blx>lic facts* Tliree of those who ccEipose it represent 
ii^ various pdmses of darknw* and oppression xjliich result from 
Btajxiade laws* tXr^sus vho hates laiEsinity l^ias had recourse to nature* 
In him. there is represented, therefore, natural goodness and 

risdaci* F/bat society rejeots he, following the law of imture^ 
receives* The beast, pa?os«ribed "oy raan, 1)0001203 liis fi'iend* Idle 
boy ^o lamcks at every door in all the town finds society deaf aad 
inhospitable* But Ursus receives hlta, (Die girl has been left 
to die in the snow "ixit Ursus rescues her* A darkness lies on all 
tljree of ursus 's proteces* Hocio is iianei^sed in the abyss of 
unintelliocnce, Dea in the £jloaa of ni^ht, Gwynplalne In tlic depths 
of the horrible* Hie other side of the picture is a T>erfect 
replica of tliis natural coaaos except tliat, since it is a social 
coaoos, it Soras an absolute antithesis* 2he beast is banisbad 
entirely fraa society hence Homo has no counterpart in the social 

Olid* 2ie nan of the people is replaced by the aristocrat. Lord 
David* Tiio i^irl of the people is replaced by the laoblewaEttai, 
Josiane* The kindly aspect of rmUiro, 'Q^sus, is replaced by Uxd 
savage iodividualisn of s<x;lety, Barktlphedro* In tliis social 
vorld the ideal is a inaterial onei therefore, Josiane rules it 
am Josiane represents David *s only possible love* Josiane Is 
pajrc natter as Dea is pure spirit* Where Gi/ynplalne and Dea ]m-«« 

(1) Hugo, L^HcKsne qui rit . II*, 101* 


been deprived of every Timtsrial ^ossossionj Josiano and Tie.'rid 
are endowod with all tlie naterial gifts,— beauty, ati^eiigth, ci^ace, 
wealth, and hich TB.rik.m THtiere the nattnnl coisirtos la rich in lov^ 
they are rich in possesclons* And a part of tloelr taiivoT^s-:: a:nd 
a necessary tmrt is IkirkilE^ied2X>, tlie sp^r* lie is Ifcm d'j^iaisaG 
tancd from the rsorstsr into the 3<^blancG of nan in order tlsat t&» 
limits of the probable uay rot be too heRrVLy stminc<t. He is 
"xaje foiKie de d^oBtatlmi, uiie ciniEUMilt^ voi'ace, xm s- u 

borihein^ d*autrul — — im neoanlffiae d •boat ill to a bi^oyor 1© iaride".( 
Se is "la haine G"^taitc"« (2) vn:iapc TJi'sus roptiips, eanscles',' 
eaves, c^^^tcn.tea, prepares tlio liaiTpinese of otJiers, Ba_^iipii^iro 
destroys, vmdciTilnes, annlMlates the Imppiness of otliers* 

2]© contrast establl^iasd so definitely iii L*Kar.r.i^ i-^j.-^ -xx, :i-s. in 
actiml ffect, pa?osent In all at£.:o*e norels as it is iTresent in all 
the no-TOls of roraanticisn. But it is not alwa^ a conti'ast which 
GO e^cactly peoples t»o oppoGlng irarldfi with cle^i^its which 
correspond to each other and are yet placed in absolute antitlicsis. 
It is dhar^.ctcrlstlc of Balzac to oppose one trorld to another: 
the society characteristic of Baris to the ^yv^ioty cdu'^-aoiici^istic 
of the province; that is, tlie egoistic society to Urn socio ty 
ifeltdi rospects social ta^ditlon and social '^^^t 1/^ tions • !l!he Cemel 
which rciiHssentQ true idealism and true, ^niiia^iu iih© ontltiiosls 
of the world of jowmalisni which represents dobaslne rotility aai 
the opportainisra of sere talent. (5) }^^ de la Chanter le is 

(1) Bago^ L'licg iiie qui rit, II* , 7G# 

(2) roidt, Tr>, gr. 

(3) 'Salsac, Illusions perd.ues . II,, 115. 


MBnraoaded by a representative ooelcty — a noble, a judge, a 
raoiber of the r^etty bourgeoisie, a nrlest, and, f ixmlly, by a 
Tie tin of the ftilse ideal of progi^ese, Godefvoid, E1I3 lainlataro 
society contains rer^^resontatives of the ciiief »>cial fimctioos 
and so mi^llols the Jto»lsiaji society vAiicli surrofiinds it* At tiia 
3S0&G tiiie, its attitaide is, iii eveiY inspect, a can letc contx^aAt 
to that of BEirislan society* (1) In Spjjrj-te , (Sutler imk©B a 
scsMn^bat sJjiilar contrtst of tso \.orlds« Kie one tfhlcii exists ia 
Gi:Qr de Mftlivert's liouse iii t>«j world peopled by his faDcy» The 
nea^ld idildi exists in iti^ d*aabercourt's houise is that of living 
indi .Ls» 'JScis confcr«.st is cfirried into thn atoMi^teere arid the 

surrciiiiillngs and is centred in a conti«.st between Spirite lMrB«lf 
azid Vne* d*JMb9Poavaptm The {ssveediire beeoraea so ceiisxm, in fact, 
in th^ie novels that it crises to excite reoark* Tet such a 
|9?ocedure is certainly an innovation of roraanticiani and mist be 
studied as clmracteristlc of an aestJ^tie so far reiaovod fraes, tJ» 
lipactlce of class IciaQ* 

B?s»lly prolific are the txmti'asts eat:..ijllsl3ed in the raHieos 
which coT»resnond to r-iartlciilar ^>ersonages« Kusldor^ lives in thB 
midst of the hig^iest European civilization whereas Sonirija-Sarl 
lives in a house construe tod to reproduce the civilissation of 
India* Rene frequents tJio sites of Burone rrtioae liistory anB& up 
the histarjr of Buzxipean civilization. Clmctn.3 ranges tj^ forest 
wlldemess* Jean Val.Jean lives tT?.thin a walled solitude. In the 
hOBiaiQg life of Bsris outsidOy !Bienardier, Javort, ana l^arius novie 
Chatt^rton lives in sii attic cxmraber; Hm Lord Eayor of London Is 

(1) Balaac, L'Bnvero do l*hlstoirc contcBaiX)raine, " . ■ "^^^^ "-6. 

C f ^, 

suT'Tounded by luxury and obsecuiousiiess. Jeanno'a rustic cottage 
is conti^sted to tlw worldly atiaosphero of tii© ciiateau, ( Jeanne ) 
'OraxLLe*B iitsable rooms or© contrasted to the liixury in which the 
usxirping Klnoret lives* ( Ursule llirouet ) Bio isarquls d'Sagrignon' 
drawlDg-rocsi is contrasted to Hue. du GrouBier's. (Le Cabinet 
des antiques ) 

Contrast of individual personages becoraes^ in the final analysis, 
the source of every other development of tliis teciinical device* 
Bae Cocji.iOndant's cocqpanion Laurette wiio, in spite of iier nature 
y^irs, is uxireason inci-imate Is contrasted to Reiiaud's final 
companion, tho lad wlio, in spite of iiis youth, recognises the 
value of reason* Lucien's companions, d'Arthoz and Louateau, are 
sharply contrasted* One ia tiie uncorrupted gonius, the otiier,tl» 
genius 'jrostituted to egolatic s ciety* (1) Lucien's sentiraental 
weakness Is sharply conti^actod to Vautrin*s if^tliless strength* 
Gilliatt's piiysical prowess is coiitraatod to the Kevoreiad Joe 
Caudray's spiritual erace. Dea io spirit, Josiane flesh* Hariett< 
is tiie exact oi>posite of I2Qe* de !•**«; nodolpiie a complete ccmtrai 
to li* do Li*««; Ma tilde is the reverse of Delriiine's clairacter 
and Castel- Porte, Srfeuil, and Oswald are realired only through 
ecmtrast* Joan Jappeioup 13 perfection, M* Le Cardonnet tlie 
antitliesis of perfection* Lelia finds the contrast wliich ccnplotei 
the picture of actuality in Pulclxerie* 

She i^tionalization of pi^actlcally any type presented in the riovel 

(1) Balsac, Illusions pci^3ues , -T.* l-'^» 


of ror;ianticiam yields a formula of an ideal of life allies}! is set 
over agalj»t its contrcij'y, personified in another type. The 
inevitable contrast whl<^ Includes all its species is the contrast 
between tlie >rodiict of society's egoiaa and the nroduct of 
tmcorrupted nature. The wiiole drama in any novel of roTmntlclg* 
lies in the clash of opposites* If this is so, it is becatme the 
personage who is representative of any one element of the \miv«rse 
Is shevm to be cccmletely at one i.ith that elecient. He is 
dC3Bintttcd oj itj ho is swallowed un in it. He is represented, 
that is, thjough only one aspect of being. "Hie unantecws delight 
in absolute contarast is, inevitably, evidence of the fact that 
]MS«<»mge, In roraantlcist fiction, is an incarnation of a 
rather than a folly observed personage. It is the nse of 
cont3?ast whioli sets off th© iramense distance which is syrabolized 
in tha oontrastli^ typea^ "^That is true of t^erAonage Is true of 
every elenent of tiie novel — milieu, incident, theme. ?0^rever 
absolute contr^ist appears, sjBibol cwst i->q iindcrstood; for reality 
has oeen abandcoi^ for a definite pur;x>se. 


The use of contrast is not the only gtiidenost to STiabolisn. There 
Is also the very effective device of repetition. Repetition Ttay 
ap^^ear In personage, in lot, or in incident. That it appears 
In personsige is dbvioua from a brief review of those who have 
already been stiadied. To say that several nersonages may be redact 
to a single type Is laerely to say that one of then i?epeats the 
others. Of Gautier's ronmnticists, Omiphrius, Daniel Jovard, aai 


Ellas r:ildaianstfi.dius, tiio three young r^n niijlii quito as well 1^ 
the same youne nan at a dlffe: ent moment of his career* In 
jPact, all of Gautler's i^rotagoalsts are repetitions ox tlxla on© 
type. Til© final significance attached to certain of tiiea contr^sti 
sharply with that attaclied to the others Ijut w© always l«gin our 
tale with the same youn^c man. Tliia, of course, is not peculiar 
to Gkiutier* Gilliatt mimmn to repeat c^imsinodo or Jean Valjeen 
and Giirynolaine repeats tiiem all. Corinne ia a repetition of 
Deli^iino. Jeanne, P&dette, Marie, and Hanoa, ai»e mere repetition* 
one of the other* So are TJrs\ile, Eugenie, and Pi^*ret-te» So are 
Gilbert, Chatterton, and Ch^nier. Julicn and Llbanius repeat 
Stello and Docteur-Noir* So obviofiis is the use of repetition that 
it does not surprise us to discover GlaiKie Prollo reapi>earing as 
Ibk^uis in Lelia * ^r to find Raphael and F<(»ftunio exact duplicate! 
in type. It beeones laost obviously a technical convention 9lx>se 
only significance can be symbolic in such a case as that where 
]fe»« de R- appears in Lelphine . She does not dii^ctly affect 
tlie plot. Sie sole reason for iier introduction is to offer a 
repetition of Delphine's typical aspect and to use tiiis repetition 
as a siijnificant example. Similarly, Balzac, in Illusions perdues . 
introduces tiie figure of Coral ie. At her death another figui^, 
Ssther, is inti'oduced* But Listiier, except for her narae, varies 
not one jot fi'*ora Coralie* Slie is lier exact duplicate. The 
exi£jencies of the plot denand Coralie's death but, siniilarly, the 
exigencies of the plot cannot dispense with the social £\inction 
which Coralie s^bolizes. Hence the T:>er9onage nxuat reappear mVI 
does so in Esther's person. 

The use of repetition is not confined to the individual figure 


but is extended to sltiiationc, evonts, -n'ilieuB, L. o; in 

©very spiiere, in ffe.ct, of tiie iiorel, tiia ccsiventioii ap^onrc* 
Repetition in tlie cas« of langtjaco -- vocabulary and •>hpa8eology— 
Willi however, be "sriofly discussed in the foUowino chapter and 
necMi not be treated here* Similarly, repetition in t^he its© of 
lalltea lias been easzally sientdoned and the sugoe^^ion has been 
■iftde that the milieu in the novel of roroanticiam is apt to run 
to tytse* Til© fligiit frcm Paris to lonely eRtatc=!^, convents, or 
savage wilds beociisB su<^ a ccap ion lace as merely to ans»ei' tlie 
raider ♦& €a£pectation»« 

Sis repetition of incident bcccsnea sor^tiBies very obvious* IJhis 
is tlie ease in I ne wi»ro the incident of Mne* de H- *s 

aooJE&l oatracisim at a social fiinetion is rencmted or^ctly in 
D«iL9iid]ie*s ostracism, under similar circtnetancos, at a similar 
function* It is lil^wise the case in Illiisiong p- _ and 

S pleadgors et raisei'es des courtisanes where not only does Esther 
in "Oie later novel repeat Coi*alie as personage but she also fiads 
herself in the sarae circunstances, falls in lovo with the ^ans 
person, repeats tJie Qmm experiences, conies to the some fate* Th« 
aaoond novel sliows repetition of the first not only in this 
particnilar personage and her liistory but also in the iThole series 
of experiences v/hich Ijucien undergoes^ exDcricncGs trlileli lead hia 
through two successive cycles laarked "by tiie sane stages, leading, 
in each case, from the Tsrovince ix> the city and from its trixmiphs 
to defeat and suicide* The artificiality of a coirvention w^iich 
sacrifices probability to syllogistic necessities is even nore 
striking when the repetition rriakes the whole pattern of the novel 


and tlie plot Is rmcle up of a succession of sl'^llai^ incicTenta and 
8lr-ilai» interludes, This is t'^n c:r r.o in ^QlnhinQ *ier*5 tlire* 
BAlXL inttHtmts ml:e ^i.p the oor.-^lo-u; novel. 7!Ii^je tJiree incidents 
serve to iioint tiK saiite ^.tallty of nisanderst ending which is 
■uses, on aacli ocoAsicai in order to i!«ilntain Delphlno's in^iocencs© 
ancl, at Uio t-anc tl^ie, i^ive jtxstifi cation for slander. The 
monologues wliich serve as interim ides in the J?min action also gl^w 
tho effect of repetition. True, they differ In sn>)stanco "but 
they are intawflaaed in the sane nanner, concern the same 3uT5ject, 
and are, obvio nsly, successive aimlyses of the rmture of true 

Repetition of thsme or plot frm one novel to anot^ier Is .Trequent. 
Soeh a repetition r»k©s Gorinne a second Delphine ; raaltes the 
throe fltorieB of r>tell o s^sn ICe one and the srjsie storjj mnlrBn 
Bade lie de liaiinir. an exact reT>etition of Geiie-ci et celle-la 

and Ara*i& Itaroella a re3>9tition of Onnhale as well ns of its 
iiMrniiii oti^r prototgrPSB* It iv^ea Htigo's fotcr ^^rinclpal novels 
follow exiictly the sane plan ani coKe to exactly the saiae denooene 
It -nakes Vigny repeat in every novel the introduction of the Tx>et 
who limits and defines the theme ^ist as Gliateftti'briaiaS repeats 
ihQ introduction of the j^iest •rt?i.o Units and defines his. It 
lEtaind*s novsl Jacques reappear, years later, as Yalv^re 

mad resppaar as Le dgg*nler .'iiaoiqT .d) Leila too ro;>'-> >e;irs as 

(1) li: L^ as saving 

♦»— ."X. ^- ■ \^ ^ ^ _ _. . ire d»un 

roEian intitiilo __ ^^•.-♦C'ctait un© oefuvi'Hs dc ^rar sentiment 
que !• ' ^ * fois sous * ' ^ titres, et 

avec -J ., - ^. aire des c. -ns nouvell 

qui ont d^oute Ics critiques inattentifs," (' _ o deus 

laoBdes, 1866,17,, Sand, Lc dernioi; ijiour , 7377; " 



Los ijaployea serves to repoi^t u.« j-istor;. v.. 

-• C-— i' — — — . i^ ^ . 

ami Leni^ert rerxja i:^ La P^iu de c' _. as does also niusloj 

pei'^aaes am Sp„. . et iiii&tres des court:' , , In cases Qtudi 

as the alxjYe wlier^ one oo<x- le an iMcident, va7^ioiisly i-iiiJQuXred in 
oth^* bocrfiis, iu is surpirising to note iiow the deU^lis in each 
incident beui' oiit tiie iHjpetitian of ti^ whole, ^pstn. ITal.lean paasfl 
by various phases of vice or virtue or social evil 1.^ Juat the 
&&tm nay timt Gilliatt posses tliroix^ the phases of hmagssr, thirst 
iroariness, wini, rain^ and titona. In on© book, yisiblo nature 
ftpinare ae i^ie symbol of the aiyBterious life of tl:iB infinite; in 
th€ otiier, tiie issmk taEid worien with whcsn Jean Valjciin coviies into 
contact appcfco* as EM»*tal sjmbols of the eternal loroblenis* In 
DelPhini^ and Corlme, Corinae*s love for Oswald duplicates Delphii; 
love for Leonoe. 'The objections raised bj- L«30nGe*£ nother are 
repeated by Oori'JxL^s fatl^er. Dalplilne and Katilde ai"© cousiiisj 
Corimie and Lucie hair-.;.iBtoa^s« Ito^i. -.^ '''ernon brin^c al^nit 
Ifetilde's jaarrlafiei Lady iSdcenaond briii^s about Lucie's. Loonce' 
suffcrii:^ thro«jeh Ma tilde is parallelled by Oswald's suffering 
in hist rmrriaije. Piimlly, Delpiiine's ostraciaa frora PJirisian 
society ie duplioated by Corinrie's ostracism frcsn EnglS-sGi society. 
2he exactitude of tiie ro xjtitlon belongs to tho sarae convention 
«hich suggests to Vigny t3r.t he frame his final novel, rap^me ^ 
within tl^ stme sort of drasaatic dialogue between Doeteur-Hoir 
and Stello as that which sorted as fiujaeaork for Stcllo . Tlie 
artifice is do»j.bly rei^etitlve w}ien, Tfithin this freiiiework, there 
occurs; a aeconfl dramatic dialo^nj© l>etv7een figixrea (Libanius and 

Julien) t;ho inlrilc the sciae ^ostwrcG and i^p^iat the crjae contras1» 

Special note rxast be taken of tlie convientional device where ; 
the T-nnetition muaam^ to some degree th© stir ctural claract©?.' 
evideE.-& ^n Daplme ; whoi^e, that is, a certain f?Tc:ov.ork s<sr'rGS aa 
I»c3:erc«2i3d foi' anotlicr plot irliitai repeats the oriciticl one. This 
is the cort'irenticn rrhlch S>ia22e»pwi*e Introdnccf^ in Hosilct where 
the play resented before the ktog rcpcsats the fticts of the plsy 
presented before his oitrn audlcsnce. In L'Rgggiio qui rlt , Hogo uses 

a similar device* Gwjnplaino 's £3»owth and the ^ of the noYel 

r.r3 s^jffibolized in tlie lay vAiich Tfirsus writes and they all pcrfoiiRi* 
Tiis play. Chaos v _^, is an interpretation of wan*s Ii£te, an 
int'^rpretation of Osj^a^^laine *s escpcrience* Hugo deseri'>es the 
play tlBTS; 

Ip laup etait le lai:p, Ufsus etalt I'oars, Grynplaiiie 

ctcxit l*hes5Bae« Lc :* ' t, I'c '^ ■ " 

forces feroe«i de la r>e, i. , 

i'obeciu'ite'^ stoivaso, et toixs deux se rualent sur 

Grjfnnlalne, et c'^tait ' "z coinhnttant 1 'hoenne. 

— « Le chaos allait r i'luxnc. — — .l-r/uiteKient 

— — ime^hLancheMT surgis. ..t« Cctte blancheir 6tait 
xaxQ Ixv ■ , "^'3 luii. c::-c otait una fcxm.ic- cctte 
feniae ^ » orit. (1) 

Ti\c -^arian t/uo plays this part is^ of cor^rse, lea. Eic i^iole eiKla 

in the "victoire dc 1 'esprit sra* la r.atlcre, ab'^tissant a la jole 

fie l»hcBiEK", (S) 

In Madanoisclle de MimplTT , CSautier resorts to a somei^bftt similar 
artifice* He, too, ooaseG his personage to aastme actoni' parts 

(1) Itir.o, L*T:Iorjne ci.ii ri t, IT», 129 • 

(2) Ibid,, II* > 135* *" 


ftnq to present a play* lie does not liavc to cr-eatc a nlB.j to 
aiatcii t^e plo- -^ --v. ..-.-_ _teeir -„.. . :.lrcs^ iiat. ^ yl^.^ 
cumciently slr.iiiur Lu atsio:. ^ hcie aiid cliaracLers to sei'Ye his 
pui=pose» Mils* <ic Mcupla bMOiies the Rosalijad of As You LJLe It 
and d*/.rcert its Orlaodo* 2he sposchae which Hosalind aM Crlaoaa 
er.clianso In As You Lil:Q It^ these cpeeches full of clouhle r-^cnings 
and a2ibi|;ucus plipasiaija, do duty for the speeches ^Iiich d^iLlbsrt 
wxjold lilce to esciiar^e ifi'ith Mlle» de Maupiiu T-^>'' "'ot.;*on of tlie 
plair, itL sio-j'e:;iciit cuad iU; atiosuiiex^, reveal to 'ij^., cl^^rlj tl:o 
sliinixieance or the action in which he is involved* -'-c 'Say. LiLj 
It becaenes to hlsi s:;!abcllc cf his oen history just as Ghaos valoctt 
is alearlj symhollc o£ Gwyaplaine's history. !rhe vorj :;iai;ic of 
the world in Hhich As You LiliQ It no^s for the groater part o£ 
its action is like the eaK&smted atoosphorc that clli]€:s to Eosette* 
castle* •I'he rorcsst of ;-rden is lil-:© tho irreality of d •Albert's 
EiilieTi. stiKsa ftcaELllnd revexils hcv tr-ie identity to CrlaDcso, the 
play is alnoct over and the naglc forest lamt be loft boJilnd and 
the realities oi' ootirt life rosunod. So Gautier too shows Mlle» 
ds Kffnpir in her true nature only as a prologue to the return to 
reality aiKi the conclusion of his novel* 

In ^aitier*s oos-g, tiio xise of As You Lilce It in order to reveal 
the truth to d*/ilbert is equivalent to a statement tlmt art laost 
be used in order to lesirn to interpret life* And the value of 
tha repetition is ocijiiasised by d*Albert*B hi^;;!! -praise of the ai't 
itoi<^ created As You Lilfo It , ar. art ahich pern .r.ifl.^r; the autiior*! 
BBOds and reveals reality "Jy nca:i^ Jf pure fSaataay or s^OTbol* 
D'Al bert writes: 


Ge i^e-ri^le et ce •- '^ a so xt, au 

boiit dn c- , (<ello 

sovis ses :- ^ . .. _ ... .. ,,-jar^ le 

pIUB miimtlsiissxiont etadl^ 

^!i?out hoirEio renfeme en soi l^lnirjanite en' •'^-: , <:>•': en 
eci'iy^nt ce >^i^ Itii vlent ^ la t^te, il t "" 'c 

qr ♦ Lane, a la loupe les oojets places 6u ueiiors 

d-, - — **•• 

C - * : aissez i " 

Ir- .. .-^jntOf, jc „ -. ....... ....^. .. . .^us 

et saui' tous: -— reiniita, r.osalinde, Golie, I x, 

Parolles^ Gilvi , '" " ' les , types 

cliarsaajQts^ ci I .is, q..., ._.^^ 

'bigai^j.'e^s de la Tolio, s'olc-^iint au- 3 la grossl^re 

J^llt^ et dar * le po , sa 

melanoolie, so.. r et , C".^ _„ , 90^19 

lee apfiarences lea plus frivoles et les p ^ ^ 1, (1) 

Rugo, tco, undm-HEfeea tiie -value ir^ich he itt'^oj-es to tti© rei^latiett 

of life thTov.4|h «2»tp tfce.t ie, tla^oiigh tb© Bjatjollmri of Le Chaos 

valncu , for, although Gvynplalne docs tsot pa?aise Ita aestiietlc 

c^ualitleB, iie 3?ecogiii!^ its real significance in hie ^" life 

ftna^ upon his final retiira to I>«i, places hlinself a»d h&i' once 

Kore iri-tliln the frameirork of ti--e play Ijy his use of its final 

tT-lt^pbant linc^ and bj M.'^ ovocatior ofT'tr^*!^ ■"-' <^^^on3e'« 

Tbe pattej/n of romanticist litei^.ture is ruide up, then, of ccntraat 
and rer-etition and even the final stractianil device, that of the 
eternal trlaiigle, iii evolved fpon these two olesnents* 


Any discuLsai^a of tlie relationships anoi%- the perc;: in ooe 

of the rio-'fcla wc are stndying will dls-lcnr? a tendency toward 
spar^G ut. Of tiiesc ajXEiotrlcal aryo.i\:or.:onts, the 

(1) Gautier, iMCaioisellG do £-:LUpin , 2GS, 2G6. 


most characteristic, perl-aps. Is thnt based on the nresonce in 
the novel of three people. Of these, two will be'ply 
contraated and the third v^ill be vuider the necessity of making a 
choice between then. Such an arrnn^jenient is basod on the necessity 
which, in his renl existence, confi^onts every -an, t^K* necessity 
of naking definite choices. Ilic choice hotween alternatives and 
the human being vdio makes that choice givob the essential foundatl< 
for the eternal triangle. But the choice is, in act«iality, very 
x»arcly a cVioice between individtuils. It is always and essentially 
a choice made between onnoslng orincinies, Tlie choice may be. 
In real life ris in ficti- n, tesnporarily sjmbolir-od in individuala 
but. In that case, tiie significance of the choice lies beyond the 
Individual and concerns the idea. In classicist literature, 
Riedre's choice is a choice between the tv?o olanients of her owb 
being lather tiian between Hippolyte and Tliese'e, Phedre realises 
this in all iier sneeches and emor^jes triiiraphant in her final defoai 
in snite of }ier loss lx>th of Imsband and lover, Tor, at last, she 
has saved her own moral boinfi. In i-^nanticist litoruturc, Jiowever, 
the weifi'-ht of the choice is no longer a natter of conscience or 
morr^lity. It is always an exterior ev^ent, Tlie exteriorissatlodi 
is realis'.od throri^ch personages and t-iie choice can only be 
necessitated by the fact tiiat a love for one type personage must 
ccHiipletoly .preclude a love for* the other, Tnis is effected oy 
the use of absolute contJ^ast in the creation of the types and 
the nlot of a romanticist novel piracticolly always reveals itself « 
tiierefore, undm- the form of a love story and the denouej.ient 
shows the final cix^ice of one love wO Liie exclusion of trie otlier, 
Millie ritiht choice is oei'sonified in the ideal personage and tho 
result Is happlnesii. Meanwhile, reality, which is usu£illy a 

OOiJ • 

fto* more complex aff-^ir, is relegated to the toackgroi.ind In order 
that the loraonare chosen, simplified to n single aspect of life, 
nay be cone the touchatone v< hereby the protagonist is judged. 

In practice this conveiitlon makes, as has been surges ted, for the 
synmetricnl groxipitig of personages. T}ie triangle naj become a 
double triangle; the choice may bo rociprocril; the pattern 
may be indefinitely repeated. Biit its s:;rnl50lic sienificance do^ 
not vary. Loonce may choose bet?/een Delphine and Ma tilde; 
reciprocally, Delphine may choose between Le'onco and Valorbe. In 
Corinne . Oswald , Lucie, and Corinne represent the triangle. Fran 
the wor.ian's ooint of view, the triangle ia repeated in Castel-Port€ 
Erfeuil, and Oswald B.nA CorlaMe's choice will precede Oswald's. 
Indiana's choice appears also ns a triolo one but Raymon'a is a 
choice between Indiana and his wife. Constance Verrier shows tlirec 
women and one raan and the man tests what each Ysas to offer before 
BWtking ills final ehoics. The triangle appears in these cases 
tinder a more complex foim but the orii^inal convention is in no 
wise discarded twt has only been extended. In its greatest 
simplicity, the convention appears in Hugo, whore Gwynplaine chjposes 
"between D«a and Jos lane; in Balsac, wliere Raphael chooses between 
FE>edora arid T^uline; in Oautier, where d 'Albert c'loosos betw^wi 
Rosette and Mlle^ de lanupln; in Sand, where GeiTitain chooses 
between kari© and the coquettish widOR. In CrBatcaubi^iand, the 
choice appears not as a choice between individuals "TUt as a choice 
between milieus. Religion is a necessity to man in any nllieu 
but one riiiieu will destroy it, the other may be taught to preserve 
it. In Vigny, the choice is aonetimes a choice between individuals 


as, for exrunnle, in Cjng-hars . where Louis miat docide betv/een 
Richelieu and Cinq-Mars. It is aonetijies a choice between an 
ijnpersonal fofrce aa.i an iiiaivx^^ual, as ./iiere the Gorii;mndant 
chooses the nilit'^ry m»incir5le and kills tl>e man. In Daphne^ 
JUlien choosGS between two advisers, Libanius and Paul. The 
choice, in every instance, is the derioue:;ent of the book and the 
determinant of tlie liappy or tragic eiiding. 

SyiiBTietry of arran^eiaent is necessitated by the bsisie fi(^nre of 
the trian^^le which detoimiaes the relationships of the personages. 
Such synKietry often appeal's in the contrasting of tliree personages, 
in the repetition of tliree Incidents, in the grouping of throe 
stories* It is unnecessary to stress tlxe iwint but it Is, perhapsj 
of a certain interest to observe the !>re valence of convention 
through tlrie whole structui^e of r«;ianticist fiction. Oorinne 
contrasts tliree societies. I-elphirie resolves itself into three 
incidents repeating the same pattern. Vigny's stories in Stello 
and Servitude ot grandeur militaii^es are three in number. Renaud's 
progress is punctuated by three incidents and connected with 
three individ\ials — Hapoleon, the Russian boy. Lord Cc^llingwood. 
Leila's life is framed by three syrabolic fia-ures — Stcnio, I'reimoi 
Monsi£;nor Annibal. Jouime is Jesired by three men. Goxistance 
Verr ier shows Abel as the object of three women's love. Eaaeralda 
is loved b • tliree men. Notro-L'aine de Paris , Lcs Travailleurs de 
la mer . Les Miserable s^ complement one another. Otlier instances 
will occur to the reader, instances too frequent to be disraissed 
as entirel:; accidental. 


The uGe of a oattern of contrast, reoetltlon, and triangle, is 
ccr?binotl very froqixently. In such n novel as Yalv^drc, for 
©xanule, Francis is opposed to Valv^dre, /.llda to Adela'lde. 
JjiVancis and Allda are repetitions of one anotiier as are Adelaide 
and 7olvedre» Francis riust choose l^etween Alida and Adelaide; 
OB Vsilvedre does, Glnilarly, Alidc. imist choose between Valv^dre 
&nd Francis, Tiie tyne whicli annears in the structure of '/alvedre 
is a type which raay anpenr tmdor as varied a €orr\ as, for instance, 
that of Daphne , There Libanius contJ"asts vfith Jalien, Hia 
disciples, Basil and Jean, are echoes of their naster, as PiitJ. 
is Julion'e echo. Basil and Jean must ciaoose between the views 
expressed by Libanius and those expressed by Jtaicn. Paul too 
mast make his choice, Eciio, contrast, and c»ioice meet and blend 
in the structure and the romanticist novel may be analyzed In 
BtatbtKatical for^iulas, dravm in goonetricjil r»i-t.tcrn, redticed to 
syllogistic terris. 

Such a statement as the preceding can only be made vjith safety 
vhen an art has shown itself to bo nore responsive to convention 
than to reality. This, It has become obvious, is the truth In 
regard to the rcsnanticlst literature under discussion. To 
acknowledge this, moi'eover, is to acknowledge the necessity of 
a discussion in regard to the synbolic values attached to the 
particular conventions adopted. The unanirnTUs acceptance by 
the novelists of ronmnticlsm of a certain formal structure has 
given that structure a synbolic vnlldity which, however, cannot 
bo said to attach itsolf equally to the viirlod sicnificances 
with which tiiey have chosen to burden the oersonages who move 
within their synbolic framework. 


Cliaptor VII. 


TbB all-peryadl^ character or Uie s;^ibolis;i in the novel of 
roaaatlcisK is» even to the Initiated reader,, eatti^aordlnary ixi its 
•cnplet«ai«si^ Ota minor incidents, the casnal detaias^ the 
2*elations aaaa»g tSia poraona^es, the rallioii In which l^e action 
iDisBC pOace, the laasmgo of mithor or personage, all si»i»e Use 
ai^e significant quality and all confii^ tlie initial attlt«do 
idd.<^ th© n^tftxre of the charectei^ presentatlcaa and plot have 

Incidents ciay he dtiosen at randora and^ as incident after incident 
is adduced, tJie technique^ of the roraantlcist milter is dearly 
tmvelled* She slaplicity of Chateaubriand's stories precludes the 
introduction of ouch detail but certain nlnor facta rmj illustrate 
Hmt signifioanco which la attaclxjd to every Incidental qualif i- 
OSitlon of the rmln situation* Chactjis is r>3n3sented, for exaaaple, 
as havir^- visited Europe after A tola's death. "Hiere lie iias koovn 
the highest ^diaae of Buropcan civlliffixtlon for he has been 
presented at Ixjuls XIV' s court and has met and nlncled with the 
mtmt celebrated raen of tlie period* 51he i«.vatie natare is assij:ii- 
lating ifeat is heat in civilization* At Atala's death, Chactas 
haxi mromiaed iier to arahrace, at some later date, the trnie Christian 
relicion* Pure entimsiaaKi is daixd Imt, in tlie iTPiost, rerjresent- 
atlve of tiio civilized world, Chactas will flM consolation* 
Therefore, logically, he seeks consolation in the priest's world* 


But in >-tis -Pld age, he io still rincf rt^lr^ of his txay, Ifi sayv 
to Rene: — Helasi T:)ur ?:■.>„, i>aui we i,i'cju;jj.o ex. zn'onoiM^ael" (1) 
The nat\i2*!.l Lnipulses still guide his life and ho is as yot hllnd 
to tho truth. He is, therefore, shown as physically blind and 
it is a aynbollc picture T*hich forms the cor»lvision of Rene: 
"Lea trois amis reprir'ent la route .le leurs cateuMs; r^ene'iaarchail 
en silence enta-e le -iiisaionnalre qui priait i)ieu, ,?t 1g Sacriara 
aveu^e, qui cheinsiiait sa route." (2) Bliiidnesa iu, ^^ fact, a 
favorite s^bolic device. JJae. de i3-&..ei, when alio wisljes to show 
tiiat tiiose wlTO do not .yorship tiie nhyaical world, tlie laaterial 
wo^'ld, are excl\idod from aooiety, sjiows M. de Belnont's blindness 
to be Uie cause of his social exile, ifugo, vlien he v^lslied to show 
the dai^tnoas of piiysical and laterlnl oppression — a darkness 
which includes icnorance and r^orarty, a darkness wliicli weighs upon 
Dea's life — shows her to be blinded as a result of society's 
prejudic33. The physical interprets tiie spiritual meaning in th« 
mm9 way whe:) Hago represents Quaslaiodo, the ringer of the bella 
of Notre-Daiae, as deafened by the soiuad of the bells so tiiat he 
can iiear no otixer voice '.mt tlieirs. Ho is, in this riana-sr, 
repfreaentin^ the fact that tiia People, by dint of lone service to 
the Gittirch, liave becoae oblivious to any other voice, any otlier 
rule but iiers. 

The relationships among tiie different rjersonages a2»e consistently 
sysibolio. Atala is, for instance, i^presented as the daughter of 
tiie Spaniard, Lopes, who acted as Chactaa's fauior for» the years 
whioh ho consented to spend in tlio civilised r-'orld of St. "lUtnistinf 
Betv;cen I.tala. and Cljactas there exists, in consequence, a natural 

(1) Chateaubriand, Ren/ , 95, 

(2) Ibid ., C6. 


booad* !?:ieir c">lrlttial fatiicr is the ssr.e '-nd csists in tiic 
civilize^- . u^lu. la actual truth, tiie culoi oi an xadian tribe 
has served as Atala's f thcr and he and Chactiis's Indian father 
are iiattiral cnccties. Thus it is tiiat, in the T?orld of priinitiv© 
nature, where Chactas and Atala live, tliey are riiitiiral enej.:ies, and 
in such a world reliijiotis entimsiasja and the natirral appetites liT« 
in a stcte of couTlict* But, tairoui^h civilisation, this is no 
lonijer true. On tiie contrai'y, a fratGircil bond xniiUic then and a 
necessary hareiony will replace the sav^e cntaity, /.ccordingly. In 
Rene, where the setting is that of the civilized u'orld, Rene^and 
^melie will be presentod --a 'c(rother ar^ siater, both physically 
aiid spiritually, itee* de Stael rill moke tise of the saiae iiTGenioais 
system of relationships. She ?Jill represent Telphlnc, for instance 
as Une. de Vernon •s friend whereas Ka tilde is l!zse. de Ven-ion's 
daughter. Tlius the author Indicates that the ohly relationship 
possible iK^tween society and love is a relationship of love; titm 
orJLy relatiorf^'^l.p possible between society and duty is one of duty. 
In Corinne , laae. de r>ta*el represents Corinne and Lucie as sisters 
in order to indicate her belief In the comon ori^^in end the ix>asib 
hanuony betvieen the natural and the social ide.l. In Jacrues , 
Sand enipliasises her conclusion b" suddenly revealinfj Sylvia and 
Peamande to be sisters. She makes it apparent in tliis tmy that th« 
love unoorrupted by society (Sylvia) and the lore reflects 
society's influence (Pcmande) are, nevortholess, of slillar 
origin. The same tyi">8 of sTiubollsn causes Gaixl to represent Leila 
and Pulchei'io as sisters, sxifficiently alike ao tliat, wearing a 
r.iaak, tlio one Etay teEipomrily be nistcJcen for the other. In tliis 
vfay, th3 affinity betc;eeu terrestrial ploastii^ and spiritual love 


is a^/mbollcaliy reprt-sented. In I?otre-:^a:..c .,c .ar.u; . -or^crttlda 

la i^p^coented as tl-KJ natur?iX daughter of the religio-iis recluse 

who for so loug has anatheaatisod bar, jui LI1I3 incident, 1614^0 la 

representing; toe fact tlmt tiio beauty railod at aiia. coiiucioiieu by 

religion t/oiild, if reoot-uized foi raliat it truly is, be loved ci3^. 

ckxerisiied as the na^^ural product of relit, ioa» Of the rclationsliip 

between Jean Valjean txau Cosett© IJugo writes: 

En prenant lea nots dans Icui- sens io plixs ca-iprelieioaif 
et lo pl-u" ^' oln, on ^itrrait cllre qtie, : "^ ^g de 
toat par v Wii d^toabe. Joan Valjean ^ ie 

Veuf corjne ^tto etait I'Or'Dhellne. Cotte situation 
£^t que Jeuxi wwiljean dcvlu-o d'uiie facoii c^^leute ic 
pcre cle Gosette* (1) *" 

The children of a union represent tlie product iver^ss or sterility 
of the ideal that tlie union renrcsenta* Reference 1ms already 
been rr.ado to the allegorical ^neanlng of OrlarK2o Pm^ioso which, 
accord.lnt; to Balzao's interpretation, raalros Crlaixlo*s iripotence 
evidence of tlie sterility of the revolutionary doctrine* The 
Brining Which Balasac reads into Orlando Porioso is the rieaning 
which must be read into Balzac *s insistence upon du Bousquler*s 
I'npotence. Allied to du Bousquier, Mile* Cormon Is unhappy because 
8>ie must i^riiain childless. In this manner, "^alssac is illustrating 
his belief that Alencou's acceptance of Liberalism will prove 
disappointing, since Llbcrslism v^ill prove to be a sterile policy 
impotent to r>roduce any lasting'; fruit for the future* In Delphlne , 
Bate* de Stael uses the same device to aiggest the f> conclusions. 
Ite tilde's death is j^epresented as the result of the fasts wliich 
to the detrii'ont of Irer healtJi, she has undertaken in the interests 

(1) Hugo, Los Miiiorables , II., 142. 


of her reliiji<xis devotion. OSius, Indli^ctly, she propapes tiis 

death of her xmborn child. Kiis death is the sign of the sterility 

of CathollciBr.i, tSie /'elision which caiises the elect t* u^ u^ie family 

oven v/hilo 2t to protect it; the peligion which, suppz'essi^ 

JMiturc, suppresses life smd iience iM^OKiotes a virtue which resutt^ 

in its own conplote death. Sinilar ijicidents appear in Sanci'a 

w>rk. Bo -Si the . children of Jacques and Pcrnande die. This 

represents tlie fact thfit, once norc, the religion of love 1ms 

failed to na'ke a :->lace for itself In society or within the fraa«» 

work of the institutions of society, -ifhatever fruit it niay liave 

produced soon dies and so its relationsliip to society is broken* 

!I3ie death of Jacqu^*s children is the si£:n of lils freedom frc5Bi 

any social ohligation. In Han d'lslonde , Hugo's rsain therie, the 

sterility and the necesstxry self-destruction of hatred, recppoara 

In the death of Fr^^ric, only son of the cmel "lilefelds. Hugo 


Oui, une imlson profondc so cievolle sai:iyent dans ce 
i^tie "■. ". ^ n y a d-^nrj los 

ev(5he — :— -^ — ^^^.terieuse qui lem' :narque 

la voio et Ic but. Ainsl c'cst en v»x3-ant 

en' ^ ' o fille ' t abliorro'e dans 

Ic^ -- — , .^..'lls ont , ../-„.._. flic ccfiipablo et 

clicri dans le tonbeau. (1) 

In the same ^ray, when Dalzae wishes to shm? that egotsn kills Uio 

family, he ixjpresents the t^inorets in Ih^ale M i rouet as tiie cause 

of the death of their only son. In L * nnvcrs de 1 *h is t o ire 

conteiaooi»aino , Contcnson In sh-^-Tn to notmy Mrae. de la Chanterle's 

daughter to the law ai^u; ii. bcmard, rep ^esentativo of hi85iau justice. 

(1) Hu^:o, Hcui d*lsli;na e. 224, 225, 


hor to -ieath* In this vay Balsac reTresenta the no"bl0 
fruits or time rolls loos f^^^itJi to bo imc.rificed to ti^o worst 
plmses of social ^oian and condemned according to r.oeigty's law» 

Aaother ecfmaon feature of the ,'lot incidents of ?'onanticist 
liters ttii^ is one especially revolator^r of the au-Uior's interest 
in 3;Ti'iol ratlvjr tiian in liiiman character. TJils foaturo Xn tlie 
disapi>0ar'xnce of ?i fl^n"© from a novel as soon as the ^Icrtiont 
Khidh he represents is :io lonc-'or Ijaoortant to tho protagonist. In 
Loa mserabJ-os , for osan >le, Tthavo Javc t is no tiling "but tim 
iacarnatlon of the law, 'v''^ disappear mca fron the talo Tiust 
coincide with Una convoi»3lon of Xaw to a higher law. -Tavort, there- 
fo3^, ccrtm'ts suicide; in other vrords, he •yolnntarlly JdLlls tJiat 
I«!»lnciple vThich was his entire life* Javort^s -dot tli corrosi>onda , 
In this way, to tlio cessation of the nenace of the law* Sinilarly, 
in I>e nero Cor lot,, tiwj ixso polos of roEianticisr-i, tlio aentiiiientaliat 
and th© Nlotzsciiean, seek to infltience Rastignac. '.Tlien Rasti^rnac 
rejects Xiio latter frcffi his life, Vautrin disappears from tSio 
!X>vel jiKJt aa he has diacppnarod fror.; Ractiijimo's consclcrasness. 
In the some way, Cliarlcs will not ^.-> ^ entloned attain in I?t ^/n5.j^' 
G^ • onco Dixgcnie lias recognized OtA')lstic 3entlnenteiJ.is3^-i for 

whr.t it is and i3ut it out of her life. Co, in IladgaoisellG la 
:nintinie , t;-»e novel ends wltli tho ccmversion of each type of 
religioiia helief to the nem faith, oxcept for the ?iedieval Gathol- 
icion whose end and aim is fim conscious acceptance of deatlu 
Therefore, pere Onorlo — nho, in Sand's opin5.0ai, is the extren.r 
and locloal rxnm^-slo or Uic coaclnsion to which t}ie i2ii]'lications of 
Catholician lead — disappears when his \7ork has been acccsnplished.; 


that is, 'ic diaappos. r-tj -^oi Lucie finally and a"bsol-utely 
2'cuci^ lO-.o wat^iollcia;. .^cc- a^o ;3liQ has recogniscxi Iiira oo be its 

Th© death ol a ijorsoivxQQ, no laattsr how obscure, is otKiinarlly 
aasottl-ited with a sjwbollc intention. Instaikces n*^ht ta nultt- 
pliod. Ofltutior represents -ilias .Vlidiaan:;tadi-as*s loath. His 

•orlxl is Vnal of iiiedis ; . and his dei-wi coincxdca rrith I'Jao 

destructiou or toe catiiedral, sJiaracicrlatic pr^oduct of laedle/al 
art. , Soinbolie totich ovideat io tMs ia oal^- an e^Etoroal 

-j^iifeatation of t*« aa-x,- ^ecod of Qautiei'^s creative technique* 

I*i r^ ires to indisatft that society ia, in reality, 

fatal both to derotod love and to narriage. She, therefore, 

^. ■•:-t.3 liapion acx, -iixj ^.s _i:i cause of Indiana's brsal:ing he? 

jLi^rlage vovjs, in theory If not in l^ct, but alao as the cause of 
trie B-aici'l^ ox Iiiiiona's rmid, Itoun, unliappily ajid devotedly in 
love lU tn iij-i-'z-^ru In La Vioille Fille . Balsac ..ill lentlon tiio 
fact tiiat the ieath of t]b» aljbe'de opoikie, i*ei3resent£itivo of the 
true 1- alii, ion, coincides \ilUi the oxr; tm 'cion of oi't:iolos:y in tlie 
diocese J and ulie uciitii o_ w^o u:e/uiic^- de Ji'^oxii ^caur- just 
at the isoincnt wiien Charles X aets foot on for-cign soil and Louis 
Philippe, the persionif ica bion of Uie new spirit, bcrtinG his reign 
in ftranc«. In Le Cabinet des lur^iguea . Balzac -opo-ia ri^iaelf 
to the extent tbat he rialocs Uie death of tiic raarquia d* -jiion 

(liise. tiie che'^/raier, the reprosentative and sTfrx>l of the old 
^cQlme) coincide vritii Jae exile of Clmrlos X .j .or^U^n soil, 
Con^jare this witii Uh& fact already related, thsit Balzac placoi; 
tlie death of the ciicvalicr ia the aane year at tiie same tirtij* Guch 


iinderlies i«w ooiis'ii'uc^ioii or i:alzac 's A;iia!jie£iti tale. Oa ar*otbey 
oocaoion, vrhsn Balaac itisiics to ir^icate that Ai^aamlo's d^itli, 
in Ee^aoires des detis: jgunos Tnaiiess , Is the Inovltatlo Teat' ''"' a 
love not fosterod "by fnnily scntl-ncnt, he r.i&ke3 hei-" deatli coii*i-»icent 
on har lovei'*c display of Triaiiy feeling In aiding 'is brotli^r^B 
TJlfe and cJiildroru Riigo, too, f/ill xmler-line t'no 3-Tnbolic 
.;j.^ ij.lfl3: ace of death and will» foi iiistance, not oulj a&l^Q Gilllatt's 
...oath tiie resiilt of l^erushette's dcfxirture rrom his lifo Ijut stIII 
..:-:. v: hie dectli occui at the oxnct ::ri-.ont iR^ien the Ijoat Ijearing 
^ci'- -v^ouo u-i^j -/ „ -^ »» ever' uiie ^ionzcn* 

!rhe Planner in r/hich tiic r)ci-::onaf;e ic .iiado s-'/ntcllc o:m6 of 

uis proxcasion or oy sciic aucii cevice 2*a,,^ ca aojr. also aa part cf 
til© incidents s^bolism of these noviels# It is evident in £otre- 
■uane de i'^ofis ;7hcrc the nriGct*^ c'llliii;:- -;al:DS htn "enrcnertalltr* 
of tlie Gtairch ^l. .. -j. .r.^'a cra^iiocxaci- :.ja4.:ca iii^ ropioaoii^tlvs of 
the nobility* In order that uuaai»aodo miiy not only he of tlie 
people tRit -.ay c.ctaally rcorcccnt the 'XSo^Ig, Eujro tntrcd-LtcGG the 

whole xiicxaem^ t.hci'u^u -jn-'-- - ^ ur-c-.-uea by whe -:uwpx(i. ^ii. iiaeir 

inilei* for a day. m L*Honr-:o qui rit, lilceifiBe, Eu^o will pr^aent 
Barkilph^dro ac the incarnation of en"vy» Ho tlisn gives liiri the 
profession ox i^i,rjm itugo writes: "II y a uiis ^rofoMe caxaloiiie 
entr-e cette passion iiatttr"clle, I'cnvie, et cetto fonction social©, 
l*espiomia£,e»" (1) C-wynplaine isrill be the ■^jLrvGjofr of pxra^c'ient 
to tho ca:*otd» .^*aj. uutii Lord David ^^a JO;;.:. . i'^^ ,AiUt;w_"' -;: 'O 

(!) IM/_:o, L*II(^nme giii rit, II. , 59, 



t!ic noor snlarrl) of Loiidon "^lierG he T'^t^-^ot"^ in ovdm^ to flndt 
frrascncnt* In thtc ^^^■'- "'^v- t^-i r^. ♦-f^n ^-.n* n..-«-.?^-«-,-t,, 
crnd porrcr Itrs contaat witia tlie peOT)lQ cnzlj ia a© fai' e>s the 
I«jople Tsay aorve ns InstTniriGnts of i^leagnrc. \cfX)Mlngi.7, (^wm- 
plain© 's r-'^i'^tnc becccios of ST^i^ollc 5.npos»tanco« Bn* ^* ^- not 
IIU£:o alone '.."-la J.nststn on the association hotrr^mi ?? '.la^ofess ifln 
and Its Jjlcnlficanco', Gantler T»oTTresentn Lo-»d ]^ra^5dale as ar? 

iii::^viv:ii:'-l'3 closii-'a to oscapc "rcn reality \->j a flight .Into the 

pactU 'fhsrc IJiico shm? . ir^odo pop^ for a day, tUm^, rte Rtacl 

— > 

spirit or It:JL.lan uq:Uus, BsJIsao, tyxtoally, repj:^e3entn tlie It* 
Boiiiassls of Le M^dccln do c _! -"> ^-^ «3octor, since It is tho 

rloctor rho .v^nalrs V\r>. r*rTr'.™ot5 t7*i1c^ of.Hf>T»s iiarrn wron£;ht« He is 
tiic S7r::boli:; ImildGr and it is uct 'iy accident 'that the Hapolo-onic 
lofrciia 13 liicor-jor'atod Into this ^dk in order to nalto concr-eto 
tho contr»nn+ir>it dcG*r!"iGtlTn ^o^nri n*" +^« -f«Tt'^fr-,->Ti, (7) 

■Rational ity, lH'owlse, nay "^o jjivon tho r.tmo si{^lf*lcar?<?e as 
rr,ri!: or ;7r3f3n"i'5n., T?al:Tn.c, **or 'nGt-.n-''^, ■^"iTT'osontn '-■^^'hn'^irL 
i:udle7 ao ria-i-c^riai ^mssioii ■because to iii^ iln^^jland Is tho voiv 
syi;fool of jmterlallam* SaM, on tfie othor hand, ronrosenta 

natural :-;oral sn^erlcxrity -■3 :^"rllsh vatyinv thsn T^-^nnh *ri Duch 
hcoiis, for e::a::role, as Indiana aiil J_ , In the 3ano vny, It^ilj 

i3 s^.Ttiholic to San-i fxnd to JMe. de 3tael of fi'o«, tmtrarr>elo^v 

(1) Balzac, Le Medecln de campagne , 58, 


art and hence Corlnne will reprosont Itfxly ,iust as fhe .rrreater 
part of Sand's nimrvithotle nrtlsts -fill be Ttallac 

The longer novols offer detailed Incidents which can 1>g T?roT>erly 
•andorsjood only If ^-iven fbolr s-mhollc roferoncc, Such an 
Tn^tr?f>nt is t^t^ fact of '^n-'^nne*o siclcness ''■"•'' lug hc^ -•'■-.■.r 4^ 
Enclando This sickness is iHustr^Atlvc of the wealrness of nftturaX 
fooling In a settlnrr of social rir^tn^* Xv. Ii^s HaAt^s-JI<^f!n*lste3, 
f?,>^-T »„tT^,>.,j,„^ +.,p. T^iaTicht'ii ■^■>^f-."»->'>T'>T n«5 artists whoso inatjlration 
ecriGs LTori tiio love of r.oncy nnd -^ower* This "bona ?.s s-7rat?olls9d 
hy the hond of under- stand^-np ^vhich exists between tb&rri and thso 
"^^^l"* if ttrf? r^'l PT»r5 of '^/r«rir»r; vfhn ■•In »-<'>+. f>n'^r>r.r>lt'- f.,- +.i-,r- •r--i.><i.^ '-'^^'Uiril 
Of art. In tiie sajno noval^ Francesco "oeooEies dangoi^nsly ill aol 
the work of art which he rjro'iiices duriiig his convalescence Is 
«».d li'd f-^fl iiifrrinr to Tilerio's, Francesco in the artist -^ro 
rejects the arf cations for the sake of his art* In rejecting tdie 

ffeetions, he is denying life and going against hunan nature* It 
is hlr effcrt to dorr' nature T?hich occasions his sickness and 
vitiates the perfection of his art* Tluis does Sard rsake evident 
the f^ct that natitre is a necessRr^ elernont in the ccmplete ^ork 
of ?rt* 

Hanr of Srr.d*s incidents, indeed, ttIH gytnholise tl?e fact that 
love, t>'e ^i'-h'^st form of nature, lo necoBsarj to art. "'anrl showa 
the TTtcrtiUis ae '/illerner^s litero.r^r -rori: i,c i:c -lepciKiont fcr its 
success on Caroline's fid| p.rt t Is, to h'. de'^enc'ont on love. 

In T ^ dei'nicre Aldini , shr? ehorrs Lelio to hn r:n^-%cr-'' to '^irrcn's 
Iiouse hy the somK?. of her heri). Tills is to shorr tlio love of ciuoic 


(art) to lead airectiy to love (Blrxnca), Likewise it is his art 
which leads Lelio to bi£ sec^^nd lovo, iaugliter of tiie first, to 
Aiezia, dat^hter of Blanc i. It is his first lev© tliat imltea hSra 
an artist; for It is Blanca tlmt caiises nusic lessons to t)© givon 
tlio yoiuig (j'oridolier. It is the loire of art (the inspiration that 
ecnds frcm Blaoca) UmX> oauses liiii to refuse a love i&iich is 
indUfferent to art (AXesia); for Alezia is coraplotely indifferent 
to Lclio's singing. This is the true iieaninG of tlie fact Umt 
it is Bianca who laaleas Impossible Lolio's marriage to Alezia, 

Study too tlie loi%' aoene in Les liiscrahles where Marius watches 
jGsin Valjean's tortm»© hy Th^tardler and his helpers and f^Hs to 
Intci'vone. I^ desires to save Jean Valjcan because of his love 
for Coaette* That lovo partakes of the divine « He desires to 
spare Tiiwoardier hecauso of his rcc->GCt for the ^-lemory of his 
fti tiler whc^e life he believes was once saved ay Thenttrdier. This 
filial love belongs to the social order# Marius hesitates l.^etween 
hiB two loves* Higt imctioa is equivalent to an adhi«e>eiiee to 
social law, as opposed to natural law, even when uhat social lav 
finds its expression in evil* !I!hi8 scene prepares us for the fact 
tliat l&ariuSy after Jean Valjoan's vohmtaTj'^ confession, fails to 
cociprehend the virtue of this confession and once nore repiuilatee 
the virtue which does iaot find its sanction in society* 

Arother most charactori«tlc incident may 1^ cited fropt L'Heygne , 
qui rit » Gwynplaine, while he is in society, Icraoa lea, ^ih&n he 
seeks her again, he docs not know where to turn first in his 
search* He cosjies by chance u^on, the wolf, and Hocio leads 
hlGi directly back to Dea* In this way It becocios obvious that 

ow , 

spirit«al lovo raay be rouno. tlircd^gh bliiici instinct. Hugo 
it clear that God imy be .tound loider any natural £arm as lie writes: 
"On ne salt jas tcrates ies figures que p&it prendre Diou* Cfaolle 
oftt eettc lAte? la prcTSOmi&e*'' (1) 

Oatxtior does not Trxil to f.pnly tlie same ^eclulique• D'Albert^a 
accoi^nt or his love affair Kfith Rosette t/111 supply an incident 
■hlcli tlrrows li^lit uiwn their relationsliip, jrie I'eiates tbe 
histoid ol* a ride dta'ing wiuch he, for once, x'ouad .perfect satis- 
faction tiircxifiii Rosette. The rtjytiM of their ride and of tiieir 
IdLss belong to a zmtural aeti-ing. So d'iilbert realises oiid so 
Oauticr Indicates iiitit Rosette beoon^s peopfectiOTj oiily T7hen she 
Incomes identified xtiUi uapox^e* 

A final lncld«it froci Vigny's work will serve to eomriete these 
exceedingly typical eaiaaoles. Blaireau, m the last story of 
btellO j api^eiirs in an Incidental i^ie. But he, ooo, serves to 
illustrate an Idea* lie STobollzes in hijaself the iinconsciais 
force of destiny. Uti his bands lies the material power. lestiny— 
blind, unthiiiikine » tireless of cause or effect — works Uirougii 
Its tools. Blaireau is such a tool r-Aid Is otxio^rad with all its 
qcBilltles. Uo 3leei», wakes, wdnos love, uoves tiis cannon, obeys 
orders. All tiiG plans dravra up wltii so much skill and thcufjht 
depend for theii' success on the nei'e chance of Blalrsau'e action. 
If he x'ij^ea iu-s oaixion, uiie lai^e cf i^ris c.x&', wio vnioic or i<raiice 

(1) :li:jo, L^i.c:r:o -^li rx-., X_: 



will l>c cp&r^ed. Bv.t Dlaircavt, "because o^. _■-, oecause 

he docs not lll:e the tono of the officer 'u c ; , .aes to 

fire. Q-^-vS can o.>mnce encc^mge or defeat gan's inatorlr.l destiny. 

Hiau Vlgrr^ Illustrates lils conte-utlon that the iKt^ev that dspanA* 

on de&tliiy Is the rmt^i-ial povfei*. Its £;r^atness^ taorcToro, is a 

mere illnslon pnr- fnP; r-'^n -s^n -pnr.t. i'-f-i-.' Taith tipon it '..i^ loaning 

on £>. iJtr-!i;f, The rxiet reriaiias untouciied 'oy outer thi;^ ._, ^.'lie 

poetic poFcr 5^ altp^iys his, irr.opcndent of poverty axjl TJ^J^wcuticHi. 

-^f, fHr> •"octerar le^reic the r-r-t men o^ VTstory to the iovel of 

uutlLin::m£' force as he csldvcz^e.B Eln.lrG..ra, syrabol of dc^itiny: 

—0 Blair-e?-ui ton noK ne tiendra pas 1& :.ioindr»e plaoo 
I'tiist ■ , et tu t'en soiicies ncu, que tu 

-- ,3 Ic ^ . ,;t In. nuit, et ^-.e cc :.ic .--~ .j loin 
de Rose* Tu es trop steiple et nodes te, Elairr: :u, car 

•3 ic toi.3 Ice " '^ "::! par les 

'. - -^--^ -^ — ntolrc, 11 y c: - ... -. -, ... TTTt des 

chosos ausEl ^ cellos que tu viens ia^faire, 

Tu as rotf!' '' ^ ^ " " ' ^.ocratique; 

^u as frit ^ - - -- V --* J y^ -^ blesso'' 

a nort la R©publlciic» Yolla qtie tu cs fait, ^ nrand 
-:i; ? -™ ;:i:.Ml Mc „cii x;s •• ' t*ait pas 

reii' -'-ee; c*cst toi, 'a Dlaii^c i ,_ voritablo- 

nent l^hora-^e dfc la icstinde. (1) 

In this last exr. .olc thc:^€ if- oviCenced -arice laor-e vei-y clearly a 
tnitii vhich is of basic tr.poT'tcnc© to t-iis sUidy; tl l i, is, that 
it is, .^1/. "rll", the corception of --rrrr.arc r'-i.. letcrmines 

plot, iriOiceat., jr- any oihci' faxtsirc or ti.c iia-vul« wi^lr'eau is 
less 'tan to Vi^ny tlian he Is idea, jzc the incident in vhlch 

I^laircau ft^vircr, is intended not to reveal chtinictcr Ixat to 
emphasise an ideii» -lift else cii.n be said, ;.. ,iOVCi'» o* jucii 
incicieato as ^vert's snrLclde or of 7autrin'c c ;i^ nee from 

(1) ViGTT/, Ctollo . 213 < 

the stoi"' - • ^-^G precise raonent T/hon the consciousness of the 
oi^tagonlst ri-oes itself of their influence? llie fate of the 
chnractor in the claeaicist liter;-tai»e doeg not thus deiiend upon 
tl\o fate of one element or of n-v^ ic^-^n Tn tiie iwii-vcrse nor doos 
it depesid essentially upon tne uecisioa of another per^ionage for 
each ^oersonage stands on his own. feet* He does not scr-/© merely 
as a vwt of the ■backE'^o".nc'. f^^'^nfient on the vision '^ " -.voo-s-v-^r.. 
His fc.te do lends uoon his otji nortil decision rather tlmn upon the 
determination of the Pi*oper constitution of society. The interest 
in tJio personage la classicist literature rmj be said always to 
be an ossent-Jally laaaan int<2rest. The interest in the ronantielst 
tyne is, obviously, an interest in I^sl, sirice the author can 
regard, as we have sf^en tiv.t he docs, the fata of the porsonage 
as coincident with the- fate cf an idea'* 


Brief :nention hes alread;^'- been n»de of the corres -(ondGnae i^ich 
thi.^ roi'^anticist "believed to exist between the role of n r>or>3oimj3® 
«uid its piiysieal c liter s»r't (which may be vr-i ^1 xx^} so. the in ^^hich this persona^ moves). Siueh a correspondence is 
finnstnntl" si.v'^p^^ssted to the reader by the eonslntont zmholiats. in 
the writer's use of r.iilieu. The Torld In iftilch he daces his 
perscnaf-e is a world representative of a cortain idea or ideal. 
It ir f?l30 a rrorld vrherc cortnln typical chamctcristics nay b« 
expocTx^a to uevclop one. ccrt:.iin T^yvical evonto riaj bo expected to 
occur. Sccic interesting; illustrations of the raanner in which, 
in rc-.-rantlclst l:lter;itarc, i?n.terial nt^osruhrare correaronds to 

Obactns, fop exnnnic, tells of his flirht jh:»an t he clTlltsotl<ai 

cf ^OT*l-n ly^cl: *:f! the traolrlosa foi*est.n where ♦.Vn Tn^^if ns hunt 
Li^jti r;ir. 'JSila H ight, iii Cl:roe'in?3?*ljaia»o sV^n^, caws ^x) represent 
ClHictafj's jrii^ht fPOTi tho life which 5;,?BiloiiEes man rs a thinking 
bcl^L,, r^ irhen Delphlne ve treats frm-. ?»iri'. tc Crit^f -^lanc, }ioi» 
riii^ht is rrKjn society tc iuvuVa-o. ?ilicx* ^ho cTicra a. oor^ent, it 
Is & tlir^t her flight ^^'ora ccclsty lias finally conducted h©r 
to the refUi^e of rellfjloi^* Valontine end Eonelict s'-eltv-r tlielr 
love rfithin a isclita2-<y pavilion on Valca-liic '3 ci^tcto, a pavilion 
whoiic r^-VY sKistenco t?!-j world. In general, J-.oes not realise. 1?hoa 
Vclertiae *s Imsband sells her estate aviT thoy are fcrc^ to leav© 
tb.ic rcfiise ochlJTHi, it 5.3 tLc action o^ s^^cicty liiich ir depriving 
tSset? of their scllt\idc, tSieir cxilo from thic solf.ttade s^pnbolizes 
the Ifect t"-t' t. lo'/e hns ~nm \- ih ' • auojsct to rll the hasarda 

of fjociai life. ( Valentine ) 31-allaT'ly, ^e'ronLque's ^IvKiTaRal 
frm tto t0T7n to har coixntry ni'opci^ty 8>;nnljolis6s her ab rjdoninent 
of one tTTsc of aocicty for nn^tfujr, tlie a'>xndomont of u society 
whose ijclc ixjati-airat is l^h (the ri'OCttt'eur-Cre'iaiJ^ ai ) for r. society 
Tst^ooc rostraint is not natcrlal anci exterior, 'oat Gyjiritual and 
the r^esiilt of a conacioixE conccnl, (the cure)» ( Lfc CiafiTde village ) 
■^ ^-^s llR^trc cellos r.lp te s ^ Scsaa ric.r>ses fz*<»!i the studio o ' tlie 
Zuccato br-othore to that of the Bi*mchini'a« Tiie ff.cility with 
which he f-c,_ r-'cs:-: t^in one s-^-"?_n ■t'- *hr o*l^r-r In ^VTct^ncs that 
ilia i.ttit.iiac "tCrtajx; art (an a'^'^j-XAidc t/i.iuii rc^r.j^s t^.^^t ac a moans 
tc flory) lo one ^hlch cnn easily he dcbaiiud into r.ere self-seeking 
arwi Trill c>.-.f?ily pans .■:*ron tlie dlzi\itc::e-^tcf^ tc t'ln iDtes^sted, 

hia r>oor osl^in to the lixxuiy ol u fp^erit, rumuion con^ospasnia to his 
paaiia^jt; iror. a life auUjcat only Uo natxirai law to a iii-e fiubject 
oiily to tK>clal la\;« iiiien JvJ.icn^ after his lo^ n - frcri 

DapluiG, roai>p€&rB tbere, lila reappijiu'anco ayalsolia;;-, a 'ucxuii to 
ile >^;'lu. o^ , : it diaappoaf-anae -^rrcm the 

sCi'ld of acoion* cai©a vi*Alj ..i i.oaoite JU5jav« ttte wtilons 

btiliiiicl aiKl ,_jo i,o is Lay ia^ . . ;.'ld oststie v/itli laoat and ci^u^bridge, 
park-j aiid roi»QiJta, iiaali' j-Airne/ uo tiie oautle s,,i;iDOliiioa &n 
6.0iiiidoeLi7ici'it oT aociei.y ^nl & retui'n U) iiawuro ajad to me. ' ievalism. 


'Znj / "a^' uaGi:;gi'0ia2«l o.r <x novt;! "oe«x\ - , l^i aaay ca&ett^ th© key 
to its entire action. Hiic is Uic cii&o in goi'lnae . 2iio setti}^ 
at -ti-.e l^o^iJinlnSi of the novul :s Italy aid at -th© ie-ijlir ing of 
tliC novsl Oca'iane is tlic trlaiBiriiant ^jeiiltui of tiie "booibf* When the 
feceaw slilfts to Soglaiid an*! P-r,otlai^, Cariri-ie suffers a dfcsBilng 
of bar liiEtrs and laicie^ tJie Eiii^lisliMC«m«m of (X>nventlonal innocence 
sa^d dcsiestic j^a^a^ doiiiimtes tbe stut^. Once iiiore Itiilj furtis 
tiio Eottlns tuid Corinau tocccc-es ouc^ r. -j*© uas prssidl-^' gronius of 
the n:v3l*s concli-:sicn, Thq ohaii^ - ^ .-.^v .wo^, '-he 

ci:iia^3 in tii€ role of tii€t iiei-s>onafe,sa ts-iu Uma Corlmie caTas to be 
Uio ssrproaElon of tbe Italian ;iualitles as Italjf cones to be a 
sort of* '•-"'-> Jecti-T^ttnrs o" i^n-lnri3,. oimllarly^ Lu epitorao 

of "utLut »;onstltait^5 iiai^Xal* virtiiG and cbfaTa and sm^ eiciji'esaes 
Eoflana i'^-^-* r^s j&aj^land expresses her, Tb<i influence of the 
bacl:;^^"^^''- — > '^nn^.atill" nnnipronont !;■ !.» " --^ Oswald 

and (Jorinnc ^o an Lioor-d az* Lm^liaia sMp^ varinL.3 acaojieu uiiiiiportant 
exaept OS an adjunct to Ca'sald, Just so do b^iuty, STontaneity, 

feeULiig beedno mere adjtuicts to Ervrlish society* Similarly, 
iftfceaa Oanold la in Italy, iae is a mere adjunct to Oorlxr.\e and 
otlierwise without laport* Socifil virtue in Ital7 is iiKircly of 
siijnirica nee in so Tar as It accoc:-:tinics iiatuTDl. oathusiasa^* 

The doKtiimtlng characteristic of the railleru may also sei^yc as k«y 

to tiKs trholo Intention of a book* Eii£-o*s ?.'ork i\ir-n:Ishe3 esxccllGQt 

ez'xrnples in. this resnoct* In IIot"'Xi--I aiao ^ u ..tiris > lc;.e accne is 

dominated by tJio cathedral, the stronghold of religion; in Leg 

Eiseraples ^ the al^idoi? of tlic ;3^11eys, the TTfrotection of society. 

Is CBanip8?esent; in Les Trav^-illours dc la ncr, it is the force of 

the s^i pitting i-'ts ponrer against manldjid ?7hicli ir^kes t-lte wliole 

baclqp:"ound of the pictou'*©'* Eiesc three baclq;raiiads r.T-"Ollz0 

the TG&OQC'J.-^'- loninaticn in society of the forces ^j. ;-wj.igicsi, 

law, and isateriallsiii* ^e contrast between tho one milieu frcas 

idilch It is 9C Imrd to escape (Vae ^jalleys) and the other i^ich 

it is so Iva'-— . -^o rind aii.. ^...-uv.- ( uiie coii.j.u) h^ oiii;.^ - •.>ut by 


Chose f'^aopantc —^ I'cscAlaie, Ics clotures franc}iie», 
1»- -'0 RCce^TtGe j-^Equ•^i la ::ior't, l*ascoriOion 

dii.. -vxiG ct dtLre, tCT3.s ces r.i^ics cff- ' - •■l avait 
fcits poT.r sortlr de 1 'autre lieu d'c-. * 21. les 

avait faits poiir cntrcr dans celi:i-ci» ::tait-ce im 
s-yRibole de sa ('GStinoet (1) 

de jsyrabolic intention is rcco.nizotl ijy Bi^o and it is evident,- 

ther*efore, to us, that Hugo is in^iiCi-^tine how difficult it is 

for nan to escape frora tli© material ri isoa of aocioty and enter 

the spiritual refuge of Ctod* Hugo, lu fact, tdccs care always to 

underline hia oan intentions* Jean Taljcon'a escape fi ora tlie 

(1) aiso, Les Miac^ ,-. .3. II., 230* 

social to the divine lai? Ic syribolLr^d In the ve3»y fact that he 
tAlc0« r-ofuge in tvio houads of G<^» Hugo repotrto Joan Yaljean's 

latci'prctatioa or iiis otm life; 

i3t imlc il sonceait q\ie c 'eta It dons Tsaisoina de Dlott 
qui l* £v it ixjcucllli aiis den;jc instants 

c '''--'— -- .,, a... >-—•—- "i---^. -,3 3_Qa 

ot f ;^ " le 

, ia a "^ ^Cr <fe 3^ coci^t^ htmalne 

^e 11 . ' . le 

craae et &ans la seconde dans ie supplice* (1) 

In e"^rj caso, ISxx^o irlll isol^. .j protagoolst "• ..coiety axxi 
the solitude in which h© plaoec each of thesa is a cijjniricant 
element in their lives'* Qtsislriodo li-^os in a lonely coll, Jean 
"Taljaan liislCv the convent walls, -^- i»omG carejJully oiiosen retreat, 
GiUiatt zloiio with tlie sea, GFTynnlalno in Ills rolllnB house. ^Ehe 
ioilicu is ohTlously sijiatjolic, in every case, of the typs persoimge. 
It shof73 liim cut off fro:.: society, T»elatec -lu ^-ly tiirough 

religion ( -- r-i'/in ^ Lc3 ::' '^ ), and tliroiieh nature 

( Leo IVT-vnilleitrs de Ic. icr ^ L*II(Xir.o qui rit ), 

nu^o is not unique in this respect, of coui''ae* The typ^ tliat 
Balsac nix: 5cnts as a^ . d'her- nfttrimlly 

iso^.iu. . , , :■. Itli and 

ar-istoci'-acy aixi iiiiiuitlon (aiiich is, uaiially, tite world of Paris) 
irhero the society of tlie day finds its fullest . aiunj or they 

have Lxliticr, ^.^^ isolated •' --^-v- -'on L\.^ temptations • Dagenie, 
aho scarcely jaoTes out of hoi' o a except to pcrforia her 
relii,icHi3 duties; "Ui*aulc, T7hoco society is llaitod to a smaU 

(1) Hugo, Les V.-. -;, II* , 201* 

circle of D'X5cl'^ll-;■ c'-.-c^n ndvlscrc : Plcr'i'et.t-C' ^-w.^-rT^ ■"■o in a 
c...- . lo lj:i-cuur: iiu-ic; ^vt ... . c' .r'u in xicr quiot ..r-oviaoial uOv^ij and 
.,.iO» do McKrtaavif in tbo loaclincsa or lier ccimtrg- estatei all 
tiiesc ocrsonagcs are respoi^ivc ix) tr.eii' enviroir-Gnt aucl coirresycsad 

conteEipoi^a'y social iuTlueace is a miliesu synibolic oT ta.'nc social 
vii'tuc* .2:xis, in toe iucart or Piar'is, d*/a*tha2 cractcs. r-rir* liljoaelf 
c. delibcrxitc obscurity. Uoq* do iu Clianuwi-ic aii<-c ^jp r.. .Ima 
find for ti.,czascivea a rcticat •Qlilah denies the presence of the 
Pr:risian society cround tiicci'. Finally, ;:. Banassiii, v;lieii ije ciiooaoa 
the spiiero in ohloh he ahail exeiroisc uie talontc and laatei^laiize 
his tLieoriea, cLoosos a rasnote aountaln village wliicii Ims vbitj 
littlo ti-affic vjitii tlio outsidG war'ld* Thxi& Uio :uiiicai is roilucod 
to contrastirig typos and tlic typical Dix)cedai'0 .>.ii^ci.i wc .lavo found 
to bo aij liciiblo to -ci -oiiago fuid plot b> coaea typical also ot 
tiio milieus lu KSiiali tlie personages are jiLacad* 

le have seen above Uiat tiiis is true of "lx>tb Balzac and Hago» It 
is quite obvious Uiat it is tinie of Yieny. All his poots are 
placed in a niilieu of ?x)verty and obacurity; all hLn ^oj-ux^j ^-s 
surrounded by wealth and the attributca of power* Tho riilieu tlma 
boccsaca indicatHDre of the oan and the uoal-Ui and oovror la s^bolic 
of tlio Liatorialiaa of a perscsaabe whereas poverty and obs«a:*lty ia 
8>iabclio of upiritual value* VHicn a peraonage aucli aa Jalien 
deacrts hia poverty and obacurity to enter- a world of luxury '.md 
adulation aa ewperor, Um dutnged world ia aytabolic of a chtu*ao«A 
attitude* A© in Hui^o, Ealsac, and Vigny, ao, in tlie other 
rcu&nticiatay tlie milieu of obacurity, solitude, or ,30verty is 

Sjpabolic o-f vLvixbc niieiJaas tJie nillGxi of Ivaaxry and wo-altli 
s-jBibollzes social comiptlon and rjaterlalisn^* 

Bila Is tintc or all osccept Gautici'. In C , ulie ■^Gi\lc2? saay 

±CE:iodi&-£.clj o.etoct a different attitude* !Elie :.Llli'-u j.a -^ioii ha 
places Itu ' , for o-^ , ia .- ^t osao of . obscuriuy* 

On tlic conti'ai'y, G wittier ^ 7s f. t in , _ o-ger 

dress and f'traisb.ings sjsd ploaisrire in tlic c..,.-.i'ati.on of precicfos 
stonoG uitl fine tcxtrn'os* Tha I'ic of t<3as imteriaL is tiie 

Betting; of o-imuty fo?;' IL.. c^Ii a point of vieis is in striking 
contrast to the aettlisg invariably c^.^w .^ "by those rasanticists 
wjiose soarc-: for the ideel ^©cliidea any ; .^nt in what dose 

acuiallj Gxiot. For these latter, '.'le ^j is one 

of otsciu^ity and oven, at tir-k-s^ of s<r»^:'.l<xr', Tlie milieu is^ 
evidently^ in Gautiez^*e sork, cjmbolla onca i.^ain of an attitude, 
an attitude dire^^tly opposed tc tl^.t lehioh, in the earlier 
rofaanticicts, acainst the truth of rctual experience, .-~^^e 1:?eaaty 
conl - '-■ on TRatex-'ial pov^^rty. G^ritior's attitude- ija2-:os Eiaterial 

nature a nocessar^y set Ling to hcriity and ., -iaes his Tjeliftf 
that -Plrltijal 'beauty cannot "bo exv/orienoed imtil its material 
aspect has first l>3en appi chcnded hy the senses. Gau tier's 
«sai^Mifiis on the rmtorial nilieu is tlie absolate antithesis of 
ViGny*s cITort to disr-::^arrl the hody entirely and to "Ijuild a w(Hrld 
which, htjii^ tlie pur© essence of the univer-s©_^ v. ill i>e iToi's idea, 
ami T-ill faJJ. 'jiitirely U- Icckxlise the inatorial settii^^. In tJa© 
fornior case, the world C^aitier builds is oyibolic of his Villli.^-' 
n&aa to accopt Uie r^^terial as a /locessary i^trt of life ana, 
t-xrefore, of uctaity and ai^t. Tno ^fforld of ixire abstraction which 

Vifiny attocipts to roaliz© Is imicativc of his dosir© to escape 
frcta reality* 

Yot Gautier also siiuts liia iJorsonaecs up in the iioi^al solitude 
of xAilch tlio exterior solitude, la tiio vsork of t±^.e otlier rORtantl- 
cists, is orten synroollo. Often, ljw.t not always* Balzac, for 
instance, i^ooples Uie obscurity of any so] Itudo witli a siiniataire 
Bocicty just as he peoples tdme* de la Clianterie's liouse wltii 
ropi'osontativos of Uio diief social iXinctlons and u'ArtiTe-«*3 
Cffltaaele with representatives of the chief social pa?ofessione ani 
arts* Jn whatever milieu Balzac places a personage, tl^refore, 
it is a milieu dhich represents one type of society* But Ga»i, 
on the contrary, places Indiana and Ralph in a ti'opicai wilderness; 
Jacques and Pernande alone in Jacques's country bouse | Juliette 
and h^ne in a Sviss Arcadia* Mne* de Stael sends Delpliine to 
tbe solitudes of ^itserland and then to a convent* It is true 
she places Corinne in Italy "but she takes caic to rjolnt owt timt 
Italy is a society in iMiBie only, since every individual In Italy 
lives to himself alone* Vi^ny's figures rjiove in a world ifeieh 
se€DS to hoM no one \mt tiiesiselves and Hugo consistently isolates 
his protagonists* ^e riilieu wiiich, in these novels, i^presents 
social isolation represents, oliviaiisly, a world of coEiplete 
individual isBt, a wcrld where Rian it, c. i^nad and lives as one* 

In Ckiutler, the significance of the iiilieu s^lxJlic of pure 
egoiaa is equivalent to its siimificanee in Balzac or Chateau- 
Ijrland* It coirresponds, tiiat is, to the undesiraljle* Rene's 
spii'itual isolation pi-oduced his jAiysical isoltxtion and so the 

inaterial ?rlllcn copr^cj-^onds tv^ tho spiritual rteanlng, SL'nilarly, 

Grandet's mate 'lal mania i>roduces his spirittial isolation. In 

Gautier, the railieu \*iich syribolizes the anti-social f!?«quentl7 

symboliBes also complete lrx»«ilit7» Qie quality of irreality will 

\t& attached to tiiat niliGU which corrcsix'nds only to dreaE. "Hie 

essential attribute of the drean world is a certain nostalgia for 

tiie Imposeihle. TSala nostalgia will carry Gautier^s personages 

into tiie far past, into the saost exotic countries. Into the «orld 

beyond death* The niliou wliich is purely ideal shows the itiersonage 

correoTJonding to it to he a otu^e idealist, rinablo to exist in 

reality. Gautier, tiicreforc, shoss this persooMiee to be actually 

croixting the world in which ho lives, a world which he ci^eates in 

accordance with hie droarr, Bse wish fulfilraent quality beeonw 

apparent, Top exanple, if we oonnare d •Albert's statement as to hie 

ideul of ha!-»plnoas irith the stoi^ Portiinio in wlilch Fortunio Is 

represented aa actually leadinc the life tJiat d 'Albert deeii^s. 

D*Albert writes: 

— TOicl eoBBttc Je "le ropr^aente le lx)riheur supr^ae:- 
c*eGt \m >;; and bStinont ciirr^ sans fei:i3^re au dehors: 
tme g::*?'jade cour cntoure'e d'tinc colonna le de a»rbre blnne, 
au riilieu uno fontaine de crlstal avec un jet de vif- 
argent a la rmniere srabe, des caisses d*eatt.qB«z*e ot de 
grenadiers x^scbs altcriiativemcnt; loar ijL^dessus un 
ciel t2»os bleu et un ooleil tr'cS' Janne; — de grands 
l^vriers t . ntiseau de brochet d oi iraient <^ et ih; de 
temps en tonps des r^gres pieds mis aveo des eercles d*or 
aux janbes, de belles servantes blanches ot svcltcs, 
liabill^s do vetvoents riches et capricieux, passex^ient 
entro Iog arcades eVidoes, quelque corbcillo au bras, 
ou quelque am Jhore sur la tete» Koi, jo scraia ik, ^ 
iruioblle, sllerwieux, sous vn daiii 1-' toure 

de piles de carreaux, un gmnd lion Z' ri co«^e, 

la gorge nue d*une joune es clave sous non pied en nmniere 
d*e8cabeau, et fcaaant de l*opiisB dai^ une grande pipe 
de jade* (1) 

(1) Gautier, Msdecioisolle de Maunin, 222, 

D 'Albert conea later, however, to desire the rillieu in which ho 
actually rinds hlEisolT, tlie nilieu 7?hich contains Mile, de llaupin, 
the milieu which corresponds to natnre and recility* Tliis Is the 
nilimi which corrcs5>ond£i to an adrairatjlo art and, tlierexore, to 
an admirable lire# But ths milieu which corresponds t-o death ana 
sterility is that in *ilsli Eiost of Oau tier's fi^oires nove oad, slnee 
atost of than are representative of exaggci^ted ruEsmtlciai, the 
milieu repi^scnts Qautior's cozidesanatlon of ixire romanticism as a 
sterile theory* 

13aB use of railieu in Porturxlo is typiasil of Gauiior's method* a» 
prota£:onlst is repa'cscnted as coming from tiie Cast* The EuBt 
ci-EbollEes to txs a macic irorld, a world of wealth and vfondcrs» It 
SijEiboliEos, tlierQfoz»e, that Porttiaio comes frcra a world -ahere wiihea 
come true* It Is also representative of the world of pure nature; 
that is, of unrestricted passion and uneducated instinct* In such 
a world, man is canpletely alone* Hence, tfhen Portnnio creates 
for hiiaself in the tJestern vrorld a r-llieu ?'epre3cntative of ths 
^st,a mlllea correspoocarig to the description g3.ven by d'Albert 
above, Gautfer symbolizes its nature by representing it as an 
Eldorado into which no one but l\3rtanio can enter* It is a retreat 
•Jilch corresponds to Pcrrturxio*£ private dream and when he enters It 
he mstefPS a world where he is nastcr, ;7here everything con»ecpooda 
to his wish and where he alone possesses v;ill* Everything witiiln 
this Eldorado Is his cimttel and a material ninistcr to his pleasure* 
Tlhat a reality slKyuld ozlst recalcitrant to his will is inconceivable 
to Portunio; that is, the existence of IJusidora as an individual 
rather tiaxn as a chattel is InconcuiVtible to hlja* What his will 
does not determine, Portunlo cannot accept* 71ieiH?fore he leaves 

tJ-je i?estei^ woi'ld and i^ctiims to tho Eaat. ?h.i3 a-omidomont Is 
•^.n abaudonaent of an:r reality erttortor to Uli^iseir, an alxiiidoi^rnent 
of reality i'or dr©?ja, of society for laonadisri, of art coribined 
iritii nature for imtiire alone. He is abnndonin^ the art5_flc.1aJl gas 
for riature^s sun and inqtdres scornfull;'-: "--Quel gas pout 
renplccer lo solcil?'" (1) Ho falls to realize the lack of logic 
in his quc-'J^tioni nmTely, that t>K5 gns does not ser-vo as t». stJ>> 
stitiite rai-' the stm l-nit as s.n embelllsliment for the darkness* The 
v'estGPn TTorld is not attempting to deny nature "but to add art to 
whcit aatm^e offers. Fx)rtimio*s retre&t to the East is si^TxDlic 
of Tousaea-u's retreat to tiio Golden Ago and of his i^fusa? ' '"^ 
aobiit til© virtuos of a civilisation and. an art (Kusidora) which 
requii^s rmtience and tine to iinderstand and possess, of an art 
which is not a mere meoJissiical servant (Gmidja-Sari). The ailiau 
in which I'\)rtunio is xflLacod, a nilieu typical not only of Taaogr 
other of Gautier's personages imt also of the majority of the 
"xcuinticiGt nei*sona£ros, is, in fact, nn artistic re-ctatccient of 
tlie lAillosopiliical belief s^jasorlzod in Schopenliauer's definition 
of the iiorld as his idoa« 

In -the fevj Mstorlool novels, the tteie, likcTftse, hecoEics symbolic 
ftZKl certain cliaract eristic details ray bo noted. The period of 
aotre»I>ane do Paris is representative of the dawn of the RetKilsaance. 
!Eha year in which the action of Cua tre-Viii^; t-Trc ise takes plaot 
assuaes synbclic ^mluc t^Qh Ciiaourdain tells "---Cette 
anrKJe oti nous seesaw incarne la :;'^cl-ution." (2) Visny likewise 
cliooscs liis period for the idea tijat it represents. Gomeille, 

(1) Gautier, Ifou voiles, Fortunio , 157, Paraphrased, 

(2) Hu^-o, Quati^»7£nc^a^eige » II., 65, 

^^ ^i^v-Kars , conrtents tiot -nlj \ip<>o tlie slgnirioancn of Cln«i- 
Mars* dGferit Twt alno on the sicni^lctxric© of that mrtlcnlar 

historical period# I nla«>5S two historical rJOrlodc *.r. tixta- 

position and seeks to in^licat^ th^ essential analog whiu.; 

one epoch ty^^idl of the othei*, -m Rnnlof^- uhlch resides in tbslr 

s'^iritual airjnifico-nco, hence In their S3T^hollc q^mlitV, 

Frcn the quotations whi<di havo h-en used -ur; -'': ^ +"^-'- ^oiat, it rmist 
laa.^re bocxno -anlfest that that ri\r.lity of the 2»onajiticlst imaf^inatlon 
which is Qvlc?enced in every clement of their liteiriry work doas 
not fail to air>«5ap also In the language in 'v?hicli that frork is 
clothed. It is, of course, -aasy to observe tlmt^ ulth certain of 
tho roTsejaticists, the is^r'jholic rimiity of their "rorl: is less a 
surface t3-»ine and lesf^ -^ ntter of langimge than of tlacmght* never- 
theless, tlM author's especially vivid cor^ciousnoss of t!^ 
slQnlflQeni&Q of certain poT-»sonarres , of cn-?t-ain events, of certain 
lailioua, ic froquentl-^ -^-""^aled by the language Itself, by the 
floral of exTession, even by an occnslo^nl forBml doclarRtlon, 

Chateaubriand sind Har:o both alU-te betray their attitude In the 
ftice of nature as symbolic; Chateaubriand, indirectly, throu^ the 
laaglnative syrnbolioK he ascribes alike to Ghactac and Tcnoj 
IIuiP, J.lrectly, by bis o^m. long apostT^oH»T"n v.n ■ --.n -.r?.r'^*.+^^'''' foroeo 
he invariehly recoc*nlrcs behind the sffittn^il elementa* 7 '' 
all r».tui*e la a wonan's forrt, Chactoa noonles the solitetde rith 
spirits. Tic feels God ii^-'-^-^r-.i^^-, v^-. tir^r. 7-Ki suggests his own 

panthcii. tic airl aniniatlc luxlsit of -i.'nd Ir tlie whole siood of Mjs 

xiorrativc. He personifies tha _3iCQii oi^ ir-turc ooniitantly in such 

claaractcriBtic Taslilon as tiilc: "— On ^ dit que l*^e de la 

solitude soupirjilt dans toxitc I'ctcnduc ca> ^(<^^rt*" (1) Fn^:© 

iBilxiCG every fana of t<hc limnlsiate Yiith -a xr-s u j.-^:.ioui:; lire* He 

n'ltes: "Toixtcs lee scribroo aains do la imlt a^m5.ent foiiille* oe 

aiort." (2 ) Or, in a .Taiioaee t-^l^aro he hecosaeB intoxlcatr>tt "h-r "•--Is 

om eloquence: 

Lc ru4,ii. I cle I'ab^^o, rlon n'cst coni;ara'blc ^ cela. 

uppolons 1:. ^ , ^ ^ cot 

anal£:a2-ie d 'energies incoE^nensiir^iJles Six. parfois on 

fait fT'lssonjier, ce c le ct nO' ^ oe ftai 

in'ooi: » a iin cri — — .^ao cri, c'os'c. i •oiu:-:ir,'an« 

-— Lv.o ..ut,±v ^""l--- —-•',-- '.-t i»9rte ^Q l'iml'7Gi»s; 
cclle-ci Gu c. w. (r) 

Moreover, tiiG a;,n"bollc Ir.ia^irsation is constantly r. l.n the 

xiark. or the r ; icjatlcic ta 'ay the tondency they rjjjinlEJOualy erihlhit 
to personify the inanJuato, a tendency rasdo laanifest in Vlgny, 
ili^o,^ and Balzac, especially, and noticeable in thoir trork because 
of the froqu^ait uae of capital letters ? it cntailn. CJaaitior 
is apt, on tlie contrary, to affoct tao use of t^ie ureek la:3g:^jge 
of symbol, This is consistent with the fact that his settings 
of ton make use of the 1. .ry past and of vaiiished. civil izatioas* 

131© unreality of the setting con?espondf^ ^' the lansua(^:e >vhloh 
introduces Itoriiheus^ Poccidoin, Karcissvts, mvl other srich personagoa 
«}30se life is poroly synbolic* Perliaps, of all th© roraantlcists, 
I3BIO* do Sta'Sl's lani?ua£e niay be said to bcj loist revalat-^ „ 
the aniiaifitic iiablt of laind* "Xet siie, too, inY:lri^^bly personifies 


1) ChateaulTTiand, Atala , 7, 

2) Hu^o, L'lloCTne qui rit , I,, 111» 


rr'.t-.r"^ und t.t'.:::jlr:t-Co c :'c: vli:> .i^zzzs of Certain abctcuct 

rstJCb as It ^ , religion, art, "JjKjauty^ 

". S'>clctg'« Snr<!. -^Uo^s }'9i^^ de ^-ta?il In thlc rospcct and r. 
ccmrarlson "" ■'■': oy •'-se will s' u^ uu^-v . .rxi^actorlstic 


Eepotitlon is. Indeed, rorj cdiaracterlr.t,*'^ -^^ •" ui^^iiv-iju of t;iie 
ronanticlsta arid the tr»v?.ta>»le corollary of tliDlv ccsinion s-saabollc 
aJr;« Over pjad. over acaln irc liotsr tiic aonc for^niilas frcEi tlio S€8M 
writers and the voca"bular7 of the ronantlclsts Is Ixaundcd alsjays 
"t?j" certain crrtWrB.1 deities siich as Ha tare, ^oclotgr, God, Lo-ra, 
Airt^ Bea-'.it , ■ ?m.tlY, In (»Tincctlon 'rttli eacJi Of th©s© "'-'.ttes 
r. c^ertaln sr»eclal vooftTmlary asse'»''tc Itself and the v. i y necessity 
of v.slr>£ the aass descriptive words over and o?TOr in regcrd to 
.* of this rnnantlclst llterp.t^r'c la a nine to the repetitive 
URttrro of vbo orlgiiial express ion, 

!3» use of ahsoliite antlthenls is, ho^e'^^r, the of osrnresslon 

TOSBt affected '-" '^-ae rormnticlsts. It Is throxigh the contrast of 
woras and phr-'Ses tMt the ronantlclst micceeds Ir. evolrl-^n ^nd 
naMnj^ us as consclmis as he him elf is, of the ahj/BS which separates 
tiro ■worlds as widelj as the antithesis of his languai^e sepamtea 
tvo neanlngs. The lanox-eirro of these novels constantly serves, 
therefore, to cleave tho shairo dividing line "between ttro contrasting 
ideas. It aovos from ccntras-'- ^ — "-^-".trast, expaciadir?^- ''^^'^. develop- 
ing stnd esn'-'^nslslnj: its -^jolnt and -^11 the nower of eiEtn-^a^lr*-^ In 
ronantlclsn depends na the ease Trith which the writer avalli hlaaself 
of ■""-■* ^ tech-R-'" "* .-r.-rir.-,^ Tf < -. 'eveloned to its absolv.te, perhaps. 

in Hugo and to read the follow Ir^ pasaa :e la to r»edlscovof» all 
the posaibilltles latent in its nac: 

— Oul, Je te ilains, Tu as nienti a ton capitaine. Toi, 

chi'eticn, tti es^ano Tclj ,^toi, hvcton, ttt es sans 
honneiir; J*al et^ccnTle^a ta loyautc et accept^ par 
ta tralilson; tu donnes ma mort ^ ceux ^ qui tu as proiiiis 
na vie. Sais-tu qui tu perds icl? C'eot tol. Tu 
proiids ma vie au r:.)i et Ui dnmco t.:u etoi'nite' au dor.ion« 
Va, corarteta ton crinc, c'cst bien. Tu fais laon siarch^ 
de ta ^rt d© paradis, Grr " - toi, le dlablo valncra, 
grace a tol, les eglises t. at, gi^ee \ ioi, los 

Ellens continueront a foiidre lea alocbes et d'en faire 
des c-nons; on iiitr'aillera les hf^rimes avec oe cral 
sauvait les iiiaes* En ce rnomont, aX Je parle, la clo^ie 
qui a Sonne ton bapt^asie tue rxjut-ctro ta n"^re« — - 
Contirme, tei^raine, ach^ve. Je auis vlo^ et tu es 
joune, jo siiis sans ames et tu es aim©; tiie-?iioi, (1) 

It is unnecessary to la"bour the ix>int by quotii^ at lengtJi* But 

in ord«r that it nay not be supposed that Hugo is unique in this 

respect, a sentence or two fraa Oauticr w&j bo qtK>ted« Spirite 

addi^osses Guy in the following balanced ndii'ases: "—Nous serons 

1 •unite' dans la duaiJLte, le raoi dans le non-^rwi, le I'louvesnent dalMl 

le repos; le desir dans I'accofa lissenient, la fra'icheup dans la 

flaane*" (2) An analysis of the language employed In connection 

with any series of syrr>athetlc and unsyiapatlietic personages within 

the work of a ix»»anticlst va^lter would reveal the use cf two 

ecntplete vocabularies — one vocabulai^y appllcaoiv.: oo one series 

of personage©, the other coatrasting vocabulary applicable to toe 

contrasting i:«r3onages» 

Oid.y a series of quotations, however, can enpi^aise a fact that 
can easily be corroborated by casual readir^: tlmt the langfuage 
of the novelists of roEianticicn Is essentially symbolic in tr^.m of 
itoHxse and dLioice of vocabulary. Let GhatoaubBiaod speak for 

(1) Euro, ^mtre-Vin£t-TrciEe, I., 65, 66. 

(2) Qeutler TSp lt'iie : '^1^* 

t^cUial D^nlx>i 111 UiO ^'./i.-xi or dccion or s;;lrlt, later- Gljaetas's 

description of the stoT=m ??ill the s«Tie ty^^lcal laujiinge witlxcait 

the aefciuil l'nfr'r>r'"r'-Aon of ■''■"^ r.-*-'ft, ' 

Mc ' " It cot:/,: c Ics r' '^ '* Isses 

t^:iu;ic-.; _u i.:_j.ioa do ce vaate ch^^^ ^'iiZ.\, an 
rn^'lGsecicnt cciifUc fonae r^r le fracas des ""nts, ir^ 
ge " " " arbrea, le hiiplenent ties t^toa r "^ ;3. 

Ic ^ r.'c I«-ucci>v-,o, - In r-^^z rS-.^ .Ti 

tonncrre, qiil slffle &n s*©tel{jnant dans eaux* (1) 

ElseTBliere ho nakcs the abstract concrete: "~ J 'en partis oaana 

de la borne d*ou je voulais E'elanccr dans la ca::r*iere do la 

Vortu." (2) 

♦ de Stnol*o language aay be illustrated by Cast«l»iTorte*s -napy 

typical speech describli^ Corinne: 

— Corinne est le lien de ses amis entre eux; e-Tin est 
le nou-vcnen;^, l*int5r^ de notiT; -^/le; iiyiyi ns 

sr " "^ 'S de son genie j iious 

ci" ' _ ^ r.»liij c*e£:t I'lna^c de 

notre belle Italie; elle est ce que nous serions 
sons 1*' '.-^ I'envie, la " ' :,t l^inlDlcnce 

auasqueixL;^ . .i-e sort nous a c .__^ .xjL,'* Hous nous 
plaiaona r- la conttr^pler me adrtil-'Svblo iTrx^clnction 

de notre^clltnat, de *^ ix-arts. corane un rejet<m 

cui :,xicro, o-.-no , '^ j <\c l^avonlr; ot "_-'ir.nd 

les 6tra5gers insulten^ ^ co pays, d*a^ sont sorties 
1 " ' qnfl Oi}"- cclritvcf 1*" '~ nont 

St- ,. ... .^xrar nos torts, qui . j. . _ ^.iheurs, 

ncnxB lettt' disona: ''rosin^dcn Oorin:ie«** (3) 

ilugo fi^cquently allov/s fcinselT to ''jc ca-^-'rlod aloi3£ in a very 
torrent of words* Ho nrltos of iuaslmodo: 

l*Sgyptc: I'eut •^rlo ^-"om' Ic tlle^i do c-; t^^ple; le 

(1) Clmteaubriond, A tola. . 

M Ibid., 54, 

(3) ScieT ae Stael, Corinne, 665« 

rwyen 'etgo l*©n cr'oyait le <iem:>n; 11 en ^tait l*^e* 

A tel nolut quo, pour ceux qtil aavent que (^luaslsiodo a 
exist($, Hotre-Lame ost aujaurd*hul 4eserto, Inaninee, 
oorto. C" ■ rnt qu'il 7 a cuelque cr - Ge 

corps Im ^ ost vide; c'est, un Sv . 'it 

l*a quitted on ea voit la place, et voiltt tout* (1) 

Shis is the lani:,ixQ£e ox' s^bol but it ims little siguiricince 

since, to liUtiO, viuaiiimodo doos not, in I'oality, r©pa?esent the 

clacrcli but, r-atber, wi© 3pli\lt of tu© people* Joan Valj^xn, aa 

M» i^deloine, l>ecoiiiG3 tlie living cxonple o£ the natural law iAmb 

Iftigo vriteas "H aemblait qu*ll out pour^o le llvre do la loi 

naturello." (2) Javert is dosci^ibod on various occasions aj^ 

alimys on the amne note* Evi^ writes: "c'dtait le devoir 

Icg^cable." (0) And elsewhere: "La police elle^t^e, incamee 

dans Jfeyert, ixjuvait s*y troaper, et s'y trorapa*" (4) Of the Eiore 

casuBl personages Hugo likewise sisiffiiarizes t}ie significance: "A 

cote d'EaJolras qui ropresentait la logique do la x'evolutioii, 

CcJBbcferre en roprosentait la philosoiahie.'' (5) Of the figures 

of the imdeTBorld he tiritca; "Ces quatre liOBEoes n*^taient point 

quatre hosKies; c*etait une sorte de raystt^'ioox voleur a quatro 

tctea travalllant en gi^aad sur Paris; c*(^tait le polype irionstruwtx 

du nal liabitaat le crypte de la societo*" (6) 'ihe historical 

fact too is s^bolic irhen Hu^ speaks thus; "Ces dmxx. harri<»d68 

s^holes toutos les deux*..." (7) It is in tto words of Enjol3?as, 

the hsro of the barricade of 13o2, that Hogo nsy be said to stmt 

up his o«n liovel and tiiose other novels of Ills which aliare its 

(IJ Hugo, rtotre«Daiae dc Paris , I#, 177» 

(2) Hugo, Le s feisera]iL os^"T»T i'«i. 

(3) Ibid* , I,, im. 

(4) ^^., II», 179. 

(5) iror ,. II,, 3G5, 
(G) Tm., II., 438. 

(7) Tus;?.. r/., r. 

pat1;.ern» Zlnjolras speaks to hie ccrirades: 

""" -^ ^ . . . - i a la i. ..wc; 

^ ;!-^' " ^. .... o v.u vleu:- - la 

" ' "^ Or, 1:. io. ^;^a, 

Co / ^ ovant les anges, 

ei. -^ - -. ^..v.^_vw w.*w.-..-^ — ,....j.» i£i ri-atex^nitoTi 

— — ;:£iottr, tw as I'aveiilp* (1) 

Hkxi autiior xilmsoir Intorvenos lr:.ter in order to Tindenine liis owa 


Le llvr© c^e lo l^cteuz* a sfjus 1«b t^ux en co iiimiiit^ 
"* , "*un l30«it a !•. " , ' ns 

: — „.''-. lis, cii-alics :-, :. ._.„ _ ,^. .,, lea 

exceptions au les d^r.iilanceii, la :::ai»ciio l r;.-:i 

' ■ , - I'liij ' / ^ ^ ^ mit 

^-- o — » ''■'■® "^ --t-^-w — - _...-,■_.._ w _>^ — N-^j ..J J.W _ ^..•. _ _ J. iiXH'o 
a la^'ie, de la bcstialite ait d&voir, de l^eiifor au clol^ 
•^ " '^ . loiAt do ^ -.ti"^.-c, poixit 

d* . _'-...;. L*liyahs3i u., . . . ...„„^.ijnt, I'anse X la 

fin^ (2) 

BsKW Lea Eia^^'aLas tonsinatea witl;: Marl-as*a recosr-ition: "Lo 

forcat s« transfigurait en Clsriat," (3) and liis isroao-uncaaont : 

"-•Cosctte, cet iiorEaG-la, c'est l*ar!,3a! '^ (1) vJic sa;^5 i ^e 

serves to roi«>ve Gill la tt i^' nt tha sjiie^'e of Iiidi7l3iu-.l llfs and 

to i^aiia& appecront Uic £ii^i:.U<ki2iOQ tJmt Hu^ attaches to iiiis* Q» 

irritos : 

Gllliatt ctjilt 'mo ospfeeo de Jo"b de 1'ocoo.n.. 

■Bis uii Jol; i--:ttuua, .::^i Jo'c coa'^ui: " 'v froat 

ears floa-ux, un Job conr-aorant, et, ^_ . ..ts 

n'otfiiont pas Jirop , i lioiu'' \m pauvre ^ot peclieur 

de crabes et de laogoiictos, un Job ProactiK^e. (5) 

Of tlio minor perscn^ageSy Clubin becomes: "le nal — — accouple 

a la probite", (6) Rantaine la: "la force servant d'eir7cloi)pe.k 

;i) ifciijo, Le-: Hlaei-tUjlea , III., 202, 

2) r^id^ r/.; ? ^ 

;4) TTt^,, 17., 2-1^. 

) Le^ J clo 1p. nor , II«, 75» 

^6) ^— ^->»^ 1« , i-'.i.» 

la I'uae". (1) q^g-ti^e^viQct- " " 2 i^ f equally isrollflc in the 
laaguogo of symbol • A diolocue t>et\?eon two man l^ocaaos a: 
"uiaOx^ud dG I'doco ot do la hcche". (2) Bi9 elgnificanc© of the 
i Gvoliitioii artu o_ oiie ixjoic's uiionie is u-ircctly aiscusijed: "La 
Involution, c*©st I'avonoEient du peuple; et, au ffend, le Peuple, 
c*e3t 1*Bq^bjo«" (3) 

Yet, in spite of certain fundcnental diff«rencea between Bogo axiA 

Bal£«:^c, tae lanpumpe of Balzac shares fretjucntly v/ith that of 

iiugo tiie syntnotlc nitdier tiian Xbo analytic tone and, at mich 

tijiies, strikes 'iie ajrabolic note quite as clo£irly» In mJkGh a 

passage as Uie Sollomijag^ Balzac displaya the ssnfbolie qimlity of 

aaa to ta gina tioQ which will, conscicmsly or iineonscloiiiigry sake of 

tdos uJciole book a symbolic tiieaae: 

iiiie buvait a long^s traits a la coupe de I'lnoonnut, de 
I'llaposslbl^, du ^^eve'. Elle adr.irait l*oiscau blou du 
) a*.idia des jeunes filles, qui diantc ^ r* , et aatn? 

; ; liel la rxiln no rieut ;1*ir.mi3 so ^x>2ei'^ ., lisse 

entsNsvoir, c^ vjio io plccib d'aucun rusil n'attoiat, dont 
^es couleui*s nar:lqiioy, f'.ont les :)ic"" ' lllent, 

oblou^sent loa youx, ot qu'on ne X"'. ... qxts 

la Kealite^ c©tte "r'.deiiso Harp to accor ^3 de t^oins 

et de Taon--. '-—■"■' - ^ •■-*.-"', _--^--,-a^^ Ayo±v ao '* - .-z* 
toijtes 1 ^ t! qiiGllG 

debauciiei quelle ciiii<^r*Q \ tous crinsl "5 coutcs ailesl <4) 

It be<Mttss obvi.aiie that Modesto 'a correspcrslence irltli Cazsalls 

is a corresyixidence with "I'lnconnu", r^ith the "R^ro"* Again, if 

UQ explain the aeeooiation of lAicien and Vautrin eltbeir in their 

osn ooo^ie or in Dalaac's, we are irresistibly <»rrled forward into 

the worKL o± s;pilK>li»i iftiere Iiucien's death is caused ijy the 

(s) ibidi,--T!:;;SiFr~-~-— ' *' 

(4) EEXSuc, Loueato Liignon, 5Z^ 

desU-uctivt! force inliercnt, in ¥autrln» Lueien, before his death, 

writes to Vautrin: 

— 11 y a la post^rlt^ ac Gain et ccllc d^Abel, caraae 
voiTS c'isieB qiw»'»f «fois. Ca?Cn, djins 1© Krand d:-'»affae 

de J 


^vie da 

aouffler lo feu doni la m*c-m^i^ (Ttinccllc avait 6te 
jet'/o 31^^ j,l7r« — — Oes f'cns-l''* lans 

la Societe' corxvie des lions le l „.._ ^., ::u3 

Ho?:Tiandlc: il Ictir faut nne T>atnre^ lis devoivnt des 
lioraaes ' ire^ et br ■ ". ies -^ j leu3?s 

5©U3C s . .. ie:'illGiix ^ '--_-r> fir .r. I'lurable 

cl'iien dont ils se sont fait un co )-q,^ une idol©, (1) 

FurtbQP on he .jrltos: "-- C'est la }x>osic Jv mal.*' (2) Balaac 

writes that Vatitrln is *'tui dffikon 'oss^aut un vcdqc attlr<^dan3 

son enfer pcfvar- lo ral*raichli^ dhme rosee d<5robe?e an rmradis" and 

tbat "pom' lui, Lucien ctait son '&ig vialblo". (3) Aa laiclen bos 

es^lained Vauti'in'c a^xM^e in iiis oxiat.cnce, so dooa Vautrin 

explain w^t Lacien lias "oeen to hinu Crime arsl Justice eonfrtmt 

each otisBT as he faces &• <ifi ^ranyille arui ns he cries: "—On 

Miterro en ce loncnt rm vie, !?k l>cautQ, ria vcrui, im conscience, 

toute raa for tie* " (4) Iaxc ion's death docidcs nlm as to the 

InrKs&sHiilit^" of the defiance v.hich he had uad«rt€ikea» Bd will 

xiot renounce hin idea^ tut h© will r'eacvnco his nvlteMlU Bb 

Meditates: "—Los etats qu*on fnit dans le ^orKLe ne sont que dee 

iillim imndin; la reallte, c*?ct l^ldeel" (5) A belief such as 

thlB is at tljfc very heart of s-^mbolic creation and might easily 

be tbe cords of Vigny's i>octeur-Nolr so closely do they parallel 

his statements. It Is qiilte according to Viguy's £Q£iml& that 

Balzac shoiild eaatirely dis^onue xrith any effort to eoa^i^Ll lils 


1) ^ ^ ■" ^ -s et 

2) j^ -■.» J ... sj • 

3) Tg!5: ,, III., 146, 
[4) TOT,, IV., 25iJ. 
;5) T?^n ,> 17., 239. 

n c-'ui" anea . III., 117. 


Intiaition and sliould at liist aum up iiia novo! tcfe' the reader : 

Ainsi les divci'S latere ts tlcrao^ ensoablo, an "baa «t 

(ians^le ca — .-^^^ .^ - „ S^ „ ._ par 

iR necessity, "^prrcccntcs par trois : la jiiotlc© 

par * , la f " . , 

dc-vr;_ _ __ .ii-o, ■ . , ._ _ _.., .,„ 

coarii^u^ait le aal social dana sa saimge enersio. (X) 

But by vii^tuG or 'ciKJ eouaistcnt s;,a;aaoiiaE of his In. e, Palsao's 

pei'soriaees Rr« rjcver-, for lon^, able to mofvc in a restricted 
a«ttiijg detciroirttjd bj reality* I:33tead thnj a]:»s stiddonly ti-ans- 
foianGd into alastr-act qualities or types. Ti:c7 tower beTore lis 
with a r»ew i^aroatic;© and, gigantic in their siTilxilie role, tliey are 
divested of airy ;->ossiblc IricliTidual idiosyncrasies wiilch had, indeed, 
seiryed oiily to aoa ^o —ic ceiicrrd effect v/iiich Bolr^c irislied to 
obisain, to licl^itsn the central core of tlieir boinc, tlie central 
^Kz^ Bhich lis noii cioarly deflnea* Sometiacs it is cue of the 
poi--aoriaties wijo cxpreose* hla conselotisness of Uie a .^.gnj-fioiui « iv^l« 
of aaotlier. K^noe Tirites to iirciand©: "— Le nous doux, Je Bula 
iin peu la liaisaa co-tjae ta mi I'Iraasinatlon; je suls l9 |p?«i^ 
Bavoir c:.nimo va «a le f^l /mouri" {'^) Or Gamille, whose reXlglooa 
lovo is occasioned "by 'n eai-'iler eartiily l07e fca* Oalysto, booortea 
a^aro of Calycto 'a rolo in her life: "Jillle jotix Ics -^reux sttr 
les detours quu Oaiysx.e lui '.xvuio rait .■.'aire, ot ieu c.ouiJarait 
a-oz ca-fisrains tortuoux de coa roclier»a» Calyste /tait tau jours <a sea 
fWix le beau nseasaaer dta ciel, v.n vlivln no-'.-cteiir." (3) Or 
■Be* ■ G biir^eton iDuks r.t Lucien and oo::.L;!J? "X^ poetc etait 
deja la poeiiie." (4) Or when J'xLes beoniarcts goes to visit 

(1) Bal:5GC, £^ 3 ct " : ^o^tr . 3, 17,, 238, 

'(2) Ealzaa, Lemolrcs d es d'eujc . ie'iineo marxgT;^■^ , "JtTB, 

(3) Balzac, Bc^atrix ,~215, 

(4) Balzac, Illiis 5.ons rierdues , I., 224. 

Atieuste de Maullncrnir, -/Ictl^n of ':\'.s fatal curiosity, Balzac 

vrrltes: "J\iles crut voir at:?-kless-vis de co -vlnago 7.a terr^lble l^tc 

dc FeTTR.r^7Jz , et cetto complete Vengeance ^cai^aa^^ .:.-;. Ilaine.^' (1) 

^ Les -^ipIcTyes , des Ltipeaulx tolla Ralxyirdin t!ie cwass of his 

failxirej "— Voixs aves contrc vc-ns 4es usuriei*s et Is clesr^e', 

1 •argent et l*Sglise»" (2) Societ?-mes it is Balsac lil^rself who 

Interveaec iii oiHier to expreas 230^-e clearly tise idea irliich eonta^l* 

tliD appear axico* In TIrsiilc . „> ^ describes Mi in 

s^Eibolic fas^iioa: 
_ / 


5 la ' 

La CGI Ir^ J, -le be -axU* Le, 

r.."" . ' ' -uj cet o- 

s. .^ W..W .-.^..- .-v.- 6v. lo . .: r.sjoit 

fi'. ': t^'jrce d'f^r.c -^-ws la -ia.-tL /:ioa 

qutt pi'O-iuii, ijia "briital d^clo it 'e la eijair-* (3) 

It is oiTtly iiecessai'y to recall tlvo opeechss already qLiot€K3 whioli 
Vigny i-uita into t^e ixyutlis of stcllo, Docteiir-lToir, Ciiattortoa, 
or otiicra of i.Li ,^ei*3orjai;es to i>e convinood tliat he, ll:e laigo 
Cijjd Balzac, sees lifo so stead l}.y in coitis or s^nbol tlmt "liis 
language rarely escapes syibolic I'nplicAtio'is. !:3ac story of 
Chatt-rton rcacbea its climax in tno xii'anatic 3i>30Cli wlilc^ tli© 
jX>et viakec * - --.:"n^' to his f\ci.otioii in th? -rorld, a speech wliich 
is entirely ajriUolic in Torn, r^i^ er:jrefl3i-*ri, a long metaphor 
InteauLod to ccnvoy idoal truth by noans of concv^ote 3;!ia^ery. In 
Dapilmdl lUiowisa, t!ie cllrmx 1e contained In the loi^ speech in 
ittilch Libaniuo uses tiic c-^':r.;;olic figure of the mxLV^ encased in 
its crystal in order to convey to Jul ion a trath previously only 

CI J r-olsac, 7oTTfa-n^^ Ip.f., 
(£^ B".1=?.C, ^' ., 204. 

(5) Balsac, t- ^-..-- . -. "let, C,, 

in Tact, th3W\3gh symbolic speeches. Caoitruiiie '.enaua concl-ades 

ilia aceouai, ox the iiitei^view betwecu Pliis VIx am ii*i.poiaon with 

Budb. a spoeclj.* DoctGUi--»Ifoij:' Goaxilu^ ^ dIe first lotjg ;i^^nvci*satloin 

witii btello by ayabolie i^elciences tc Hewer, tljc a:yrabol of the 

r«ei, &IKI. to riatOy Uio ^yi^ibol oi' Iha Pliilo&K>plxur'« He expresses 

tlxe truth b:/ which Libaiiius lives in tlie language ot pore symbol; 

!Xl*jiu.u3 drinics his tc»LJi»tj 

-^ A V^mis-Ui^ejaio — — qui etv la auijesaae cl^iniellG, la 
Venus create, lie c&i clel que le ciel cncenara 

u&xi, • * '> - — .." cu ao Kiere, '-."v . i:,-. •; ^j^ ppeniera 
dcs . ^rlnces imr l*f „ o Oans tout 

l*xn; iiOii c- 1*1 , ,le 

qu'i...^.;.^>y;.-o les anea v— _^.v.^ ^v. .^■. -^ioyances, 

et cu'av:ait toute ^>r'iGf e aus i.fieuit ^ "^ :^, vienaent 

e et les Ch: "^ j4 de ^t 

Utmnle, li la lioautd^ S&iperiasable et create. (1) 
13« lan{ji.iage of 8''fl?ibol Is ccmon alike to both raaster and slave 
and it is ?avCL de Larisse v/ho patB into Fords the s?7mbclic con- 
clusion of I^phn e as he cries : 

-« Y,-rir>-5: n'^tres f».Tturs de la t.ov.r.o, rnT 1- ■■• ATEjportez 
les ^ "^ , 1/t iiuit et la tr- . etes 

vr ^ etendard 

^rrals r ts, qui ne Joutez ce qui vmis est 

e "^ , vous qui 

nc -. ,- - .^-.- .-^w ^v.,- v.- ^..~ --.^ ..,:.„^.^ ,. jiiii un 

£;. ,_ — - Lc del te dOEUior uao ..lace, ^ I-aa'Darel 
-^— Orois-le, ti^ " .' ^ / '^^^ 

qvii asrail, " ' ■ llx ., ../ - ^- ^rir 

i'iilc^ale '',1*1 ^ vcrtu, i'id^ai ano^n^J (2) 


It is only the Barbarian wiio does not seek for the tiiou^tht under 
the syrabol and it is fair to say, tiiei'^sforo, tlrnt Vigny, of all 
the rosTianticists, is the laost conscioxis of tiiat fona of expression 

(1) rjsivixo do I'aris, 1012, r/., "/iccny, Dapl^ie . 12. 

Sand's<-uase r.ovGS f tlj Ixiolr i^vl Torth "be the 

splteres of tlie concroto arid ; ; . "bears 

a definite "f^seiri-olanr --^ *''• ^"'^^ '^- r-f rr.u o or I^lsac althoit^ more 
frcqucntay It ladiis ia.^co'i, on lia.'iis aiid Balzac *3 derinitenesa. 
Yot she will rrrito : "CciTKiin, qui s'ot^it dcTotio'' tout Ciitler a 
l^oowTTQ cor/nuna, ©t, par conaoqucnt, a celui qiii In pei^aonnifialt, 
au ?x>rc de la ?njnllle,»««" (1) Slie doJiiio^-^ the tlji'oo women of 
Conji-.ncG Vcrrlor in abatroxi terns r "Cea trois rejaKieo s-vaient 
"beaucoj^p d*inV:llig€nce: la c.-mtntPice r»our I'art, la t^ucliesse 
pour iG aci-^e, jjb. Txjtargooise p-Jiu* le rnonde et rxmT l'art.»" (2) 
The tern which comnreiiondt. eacli of tho oUiopd, the ucetaia "Rrho fOZ9» 
the mean bet -ecn art aiKl socloty, apowks also not of the wceaen 
as indivldiials tait of the w-men as types: '''— Je aonpreiids mioox 
1 •artiste qui asnlre a \m i^v© de folicito'^et de fidollto sii"J>li:ie«» 
que la Tfii.sormouae iji^i or tcntento tT*ur.o inttoite positivs; ©t 
pas::;aoorc.«'' (S) lii the sasae tsr.y, Ooi' '. nc\? Decs //eel as *la 
heaut« moG^le on r^ei'oonno"* (4) Adnlalde's s whaA 

7tilv^<^-^ rmonn to her: "—II est, ini, aa roli^ion^ isaei r^^v^lo. tic«, 
l*lntcBa*iialrG cntre el?.G ot Dl«i'»" (5) Leoxi© tells Juliet be s 
"—Dans notre v^llee, ent<«r^s d*atr !)ur, dc parfuEis et de Fi^l<>il0« 
natin'ols, noiis pcatvlons ct nous dcvlons ^re tout mnoor, tout 
pOQGlc, tnxt onthoiistasFi©,'' (6) ftit. In Sand'a trork, ordinarily, 
tho laagn-K'-Se is less provocatiTe of thcueht tlmn of sontinont 
and, iD.lth'^ir.'ri its l"n:^cl3r; cr oloqtience cor-stantly laoTos into -Uio 

(1) Sand, Ti ^'n-T' --•( cH'-"'-lr>- 59» 
r? ) Sr nft, .' . 

Is) - 

,5) Hevue des deux mondes , 1861, ill., 3and, ValvMre, 540. 
(6) Poicl., 1854, II., Sand, Leone Looni , 175. 

•piliero of symbol, its ruj^uenGSS Tr Gqucntly pi^a-zonts us Cwan 
attaching U*^ »Aiiih r&lidit to the liierc "Irreisoolog^ of sonteruie or 

Gauticr's language is, >ii, jiiofit aofiniteiy a^Eilxjlio in tiia 

long exnxanatory -aasaice^ of i;ellt>»ci et oell»«lix or in ihe l<Hig 

?T-jr-oi.o^\io3 of I*-.. anoi;>c.L^c go ]• , Its flavoiiriiiay laie savr^urtd.^ 

iio^ever, in stieja a pasou^^ as the f ollowliig v^Iior-e feiutiaa? l3 
explaiiilii^ th£ attitude *?hlch Titmrce axfijaplif las i 

- ^ o au 

^ , -- - . ^ une 

etoilQ brillajite et f/*; iuo q.x\l noTiis jc ttiit sorA z»02oj?<i 

iT^oTii^ " "^ ^ le 1*' 



son :via. ., I'i;.-. _ ^ .. (1) 

'She sv^eeciiss are very of tea ii'^ayght ffith aoi'Jole ni- ;» Gloriiaozide 
a speech to ilaaaald that flight bs inercly a pretty lover's 
Jii: "— Mu. Tie (J3t oaaft la tieeiia^ ot ti^.it sg qui est rtoi 
vionx, de uii**' (2) ClarljBonae is a vampiic; nei" life ueixfuds 
liter«jLly as woli as sytr^jolicali^r on KoETuaid*s and tiae otjecch Is 
siiaracterir-tic of ti>e laxtgaa^ In which Gautiei^'s syinboli^r-. is 
usually cicui.ieat -iS w:'.Tiu ui« oc.iei* oi^iuicicists^ (jftiitier*s 
jrersci^Ges too will ofton volec tieir oan s;?ral>olic interTa»et?-tion 
of G^-^nti or- 2^t■'v^tiv5l1S. S-)5.rItc trl !.s Gviy: "— Cc sic/ ■ncn 
oocv-ps, lui r:*i30i„'-it/ aci: .a-nircs c^avix"8s, ne poro-i^saiu \7Ji sysibole 
do non soi't; 11 m'annoncait I'attonte vaine ct la oolituc^e au 
nflieu de la f-^xao*^ (;>) A s'^mthctic lifo a tiro in th© iimnlBiat* 
wXirro'UJQain.^a v.iiiu:i i*i*c' civ^.uci.ux'iauxc of Ino ;jeraona£?o« At 
Gr*etchen*s deptirtiii'o to r?.i'l3; "La petite viepge de sa petite 

2) --^ ■,, ■ -''-■^ '-'-tt^^t: 

^) - . - ^ 

cbanlirc la r' it eti"::.^. - avsc scr> jquz. d'i^iail, &% la 

tcnii^^Uc, appiijant ^ n 4.011 u i>u2- 1^ vici^-t^o da if. reii^U-e, faisait 
2CJair ct cx^aqxie- ^w-. _, -.i._^». .^c plosala*" (1) rLo ajraiju-uiC 
ixu^^xr^tlcai 1-^ Apt, i-i -■:;.u-lxar-*3 caae, to ae^ peoples as pootrj 
or pcr-oi»6 in&£c?££ato uot^ o^ loi^^ foi'' iuiatauud^ siij^t, a^ Oppressed 
or OpiMXjssor. la Le Hcl Carif&ulo » 1:113^: ttIH reaark to Gj^ges 
in regard to rJ^ aiTc^ Kyi^ia.; '— u'oiit uoq statue que ja t*ai 
JCait voir et noEL uaa TcsiEie* Jq t'ai pei^lls d« lii'o (juaLquea 
stroplies d'lin l>oau >c«aa dont je'bdo s«jui le Kiaauscpii,.'' (2) 
IIlsotfiiai'*G Gautis.'"' .;:itai>; "Jocolra^ . -ter, qui jCRie aa .^ette 

histolro le rain do la iai^aliTJO cuiti.iii©— - *iii un ^ot, c'^ftait 
1^1 i>rose incrji'nce, ia. pro;; 3 daiis toutc Jion etroit-csiic, ia prosd 
dc Barefae at de Lhu:;oiid«" (o) la. ucsapciiafe, Uie iautjUage used here 
with tDat nliiCii, ia Oo-lo-oi ot collo-la« or la Madet^iaiaelle de 

^upi>-i ^ QXylicitiy trcjialatcs tao 5;/i.i"!Ma, iiic snna phr-aaooloo' 
will be roSod* dautior srito;* oi: pooa^ fuki jjxoau liAica*a&td wiiere 
thQ ofhic^ ■31'itoi'a oT rJSKuatieiaa tali; la tonas oT Society, 
Intelligence, l;Ical, or Lo-rc* 

[„j _„^tJer, l<c«- ^" - , " "■■•: ;. on d*c:? > r,QG, 205. 

^VeL I . 

Chapter VIXI« 
Theory In iic»?jantlcl3iiu 

Certain facts In regard to the practice of rcKnanttcict art 
hftv© becosae clearly evtd«it in the oouro© of tJie present stiidj. 
These facts, briefly stated, are tdieae: Umt reality 1© 
frequently distorted or exaggerated and pro^^Hlty nocleoted| 
that rcjwantloist flctl<K» has a pi»edileotl -;n for Uie ronr«^»ontatlon 
of extsi^^ies and the use of sharp con t rant; that this procecSure 
loses sli;Jit of the partlculnr and tends to emphasise the abstract 
Idea; tliat. If romanticist flctlcai, accordingly, cannot T^e said 
to represent characters or events of xinlvcrsal Import, neltiier 
does It represent cdiaracte 's or events with reference to a 
particular reality; that rc^aantlclst flctl'm will be formd, on 
the cwmtr^ry, to be a form of ci^eatlon by types. Character^ 
theme, plot. Incident, milieu, foi^al structu3?e, the lan.^^iaije 
Itself, may be defined by reference to r.orta-ln t^ries. The tyr>e. 
In «(hatever one of these elements, rcpresoniia on idcn ■'^'id 
oorreaponds to that idea ratlier than to observed reality, 
Ci«oatlon by type, therefore, bcc<xncn aynonynous w^.th citation 
by symJ^ol and tlie novels of r*Oi.ia:iticl8ia are all alike RKHUuaents 
raised to ooincieKiorato certain theories, vast symbolic structures 
irtiose exact ineaning aay not always be clear. But each novel 
posaaaaea its o\m loclo and all its parts corroborate one 
another and form a 8yml>ol?.c v^ole* Thus certain fixed assoo- 
iati<Hia have been seen to gro>«r un between certain r>ersona^es 
and certain events, and, in the saiae vray, there becoraos evident 
a certain i^elatlonaliip betv/eran the personni^es and tJielr 

clisuracterlstlc milieus. In fact, a whole syat&a of correspond- 
encBS hRB been iir.conscloiislj developed* 

Yet, Is this ronantlciet art 'inconsclous? Th© answer riust be 
3ou^^t in th© various stateaentB of their aesthetic canons flftiich 
the rcnanticista offer us In the form of prefaces or essays. 
The ore-valence of t!ie lon^ explanatory preface Is, In foct, a 
^ju&rantee of the self-consclousnesa of tiiese artists in regard 
to their art. To wliat extent does their theory coincide with, 
corroborate, or deny their practice? This is a quef-tlor ^yhloh 
no student of the aesthetic of romantlclffia can afford to over- 
look. The books have so far been allo?;ed to speak for tti«a- 
selves. How let us oermlt the authors to speak for their books. 

Of all tho authors ^ose work we are studying none Is pertiaps 
laore eager to present a complete apologetic for her art than 
Is Q«Mrge Sand. Sooe of her novels are px*ecede<3 by as "^mny as 
three different prefaces, each chax^cterlstlc of the period 
froTii wftilch It sprang, yet each suj-geBtlve, in spite of occasional 
doubts and dlsclalsiers, of the same, essentially uncbanclns, 
point of view. The very frequency of the repetition In these 
prefaces must impress the render t*io would find It possible 
blandly to l^^ore tiie one direct, vuivartiished statement nade 
by Vlgny or B.,^zac{ Vlgny in his preface to Cinq-?Tars , the 
essay written in 1B27 and entitled RelTlexions sur la verite^ 
d ans I'art s Balzac in his Introduction to his Coiaedie h^iraalne . 
Op It rnlf-ht be possible to nlsurderstand IIu-^'s grandiloquence. 
A study of Sand's pjrefacea will serve, therefo3*e, to direct 

our attent5,on to the eallent points of the ronanticist aesthetic* 

To Sazid the novel Is an rtw-i'i. itxrc. lor ^jToaeiywiainij, 3L\e writes 
with a definite goal in view and displays all lier pcrsiiasive 
powers to tMs effoct. That this ia so she is quite willing to 
state. Le Ct3ig>a,;;aon du :.puv >^fci Fararioe arxe describes ii% her 
preliminary notice as " \m livre dont I'lde© evanceiiquo i^tait 
lo but bi«i declare"* (1) In tiie preface m'ltten for Constance 
Verrior * she doolax>es: "U'ufcilite espereo de cet ouvi^^© consiste 
a itianti*er I'aiaour vz*ai trioaiphant des sophis^'ieB des sens et 
des p&j'&doxdG d& I'inatsinatlon*" (2) In the introduction to 
Prancpla le Cha-ipi , slie contiiiuoa to atiow cieax-iy uuo - c pro- 
occug}ution vitli the laoral utility of art and the saiae desire 
that her art should act as a deiaoiistratlon in a pro<jf. Sand 
replies ho ail objection thus: "Je n*y vols rien a rtJpoadre, en 
effet, sin<m que I'art est une domonntratlon dcaat la nature est 
la preuve*" (S) 

It is no less true of course that Sand finds^ on occasion^ the 
weight of her responsibility as an evaneellat too biirdc^isorao 
and attempts to shift the burden to the sliouiuora oj. uti' i»eader. 
In later years* too, she frequently dwiies* in equivocal %7ords« 
«n intention whlcli. In the 11 'Jit of her own sor>ie#iat changed 
sentiments* slie ia atteriiptin^; ^u palliate* The three prefaces 
of Indiana dated 1332, 1842, and 1053, show the growUi of a 

(1) Saeid, J^ GojBpaijion du tour de France . Ho tic© de I'SGl* 

(3) Sand, Constance Verrior , Preface de 1869* 

(3) Sand, Frangpis le Cliainpi « Avsnt-Propos, 10,11,12* 

certain illatruat of reap'msiblllty In connection with her work. 

Sand ceases to be as candid ao she was at on© sta; e of her 

apostloi^ilp. 'Che first of these prefaces Is, Indeed, fairly 

hesitant but already in 1843 Sand has hecone bol<ior an*! states 

that Indjan i a as well as the ^shole series of novels which follow 

vsre based <m the s?uiie px»anise: on the xxiijust and inejpHl 

relationship established between the sexes by society. Bi»t in 

1062 we find her disclaiming any such definite intentions. Site 

writes I "On voulut y voir un plaidoyer bien prdn^lte contre 

le marlaTe, Je n*cn ohsr<^ai8 pas si long*,**" (1) In t3ie same 

year she writes in a aindlar ciood of deprecation her preface to 

Vftl o nti ne i 

La fable soulova des critiques manez vlves sur la 
pr^tendue doctrine antliMitrii^oniale que j* avals deja 
proolariee, disaitoon^ dans Ind iana , Dana l*un et 
1* autre roi^ion, j* avals riontr^len dangers et les 
dO'.ileurs dee unions mal aaeortles, 11 oara'^fc que, 
croyant faire dt la proso, 1* avals fait du aainb- 
slwOTiiaae sans le savolr. Je n'on <itais pas alors 
a refleclair sur les rais^res soclales* (2) 

Yet the «^iole foreword written for the Seci^taire intlae in XBS4, 

while denying tliat Indiana and Valentine are pamphlets ayalnst 

marriage^ does, noveirtheless, ijlve an explicit and detailed 

statwnent of the purt>08es and neanln^; of each peraon&f^ of these 

two books* 

I'iiB fact that Sand decides to deny an explicit doctidne does 
not. In any case, invalidate her general attitude toward t^e 
novel* This attitude leads her to regax^d her iidtole work as a 

(1) Saml, Indiana, PrelTapo do iar>2* 

(2) Sand, Valentine , Preface de IBS 

doj.ionB ♦.ration* Th© fftl»le — the plot — of a no-vel is to be 
thQ cloak \#xlch cove pa hev ndvocacy of aojae ^^vesn sexitinent or 
ifloa. At the vexy beginniivs of her career Sand defines her 
laothod in a preface to her first Inpoi^tant work: '*tte roirumcler 
est le v^rltRblo avocat dee ^res Rbstralte q'.xi ropres«n\.ent 
nos passions ©t aoe souffrances devuit le tribunal de ia force 
et le jtiry d© I'Opinioa." (1) 

Sa»d« ficcordin:^ly, rejjjirde th© novel as an artistic parable. 
She believes the goal of her art to be utilitarian* In this 
respecty ai-jz is in complete agreebient wit^ her fellow novellata* 
Chateaubx*land makes it porfectlj plain to his readers that he 
Is dominated by his moral iiitentioii rand not only domlnatod by it 
hat inspired by it* "Lea iaoralitui> ^iu© j'ai voulu fair* dan© 
Atala »<»it faciles a decouvriri et coinne elles aont resunt^es 
dams I'epilor-uc, je n*on parlerai point ici*" (2) Tima he writes 
^^ f . tj&ltS -* Ajad elsewiwre he dadares: "Sncore une fois, l*auteur 
a du eorsbattre des poemes et des roiuans Iripies avec des poemes 
et des rarusaia pieux*-- — II a oherclie^a donnor I'exemple a^eo 
le precept©*" (3) And lie concludes t "Au reste* le disoours 
du i>er© Souel ne lolaae aucun doute our le t-ufc et les ixiT'alttea 
reli^euses de l^Iiistoire de Hene^ ," (4) Chateaubriand not <aily 
aolaiowledges his laoral intentions but at tlie same ti&ia he 
ijodicatea that these Intentions Are Uiiderlined in th© story 
itself. They forta pai*t of the artistic plan* They are the 

(1) Sand, aidiww a Preface de 1843, ^ ^ 

(3) Clia'-.v:. ^, ^rcffaco cl^ la prenlire r ' n, ^ 

(3) Chflte ii-t V - 1 , i^u.ila. iv-ene"^ Pro'^ace d* Atala ©o w^. ^»ene, I3ditlon 

de 1805, Hxtiwiit de la I^^fenae du G^ie du 
Christianigae , 

(4) Ibid * . Kxtiwit du (r^nie du Qiristlaniane . 


reason for tlio existence of his work. As svsch, they have 
deteiulned l^e vAiole mood of lile creation. 

fitee* do iJtael'o theory of the novel and of character oresentation 
may be fotmd In a syntheala of ber stateinents In rep;ar:i to the 
Batter in her Eaeal gur Ics Pletlona , In her discussion De 
i ' I nfluence d ee passions aur le bcm^ieiir dos Indlv ldus et dee 
j ntatlCTig ji In the lOTiff preface to Delpihlne j and In c ^elques 
Reflealons sur le tout moral de Delplilne » A study of these 
writings funiishes irarnedlately several Iniportant clues to Has. 
de Stael*s aesthetic prlncloles and Liokes it clear that ^e too 
Is entirely utilitarian In her attltoide towarti her art. The 
«ord utility Is, in fact, the keynote of Ifeie. de Stael*s work. 
The novel tnay offer acniseraent taut It has, to her, failed of Its 
purpose If It does not also direct Itself toward raoral utility. 

Hvigo too la pleading a cause when he writes. He desires to use 

the literacy art fop an end beyond tiiat art. He Is anxious tliat 

his readers should not fall to reco(7il?.e the Intent whJeh 

dictated his books. He desiz>es his novels to be z*ead not merely 

for plot, description, or cliaracter Interest, but rather as 

pieces of special pleading;. To fall to roco.nlze the rjurt^ose 

of til© aut!ior Is to fail entirely to understand his art. Thus 

Hu^o writes bluntly in cme preface j 

L*suteur aujourd'hul peut d^asqtior I'ld^ polltiq^e, 
l*ld^e soclale, qu'll avalt voulu populariser sous 
cette Innocente et candide for.ic lltteraire, II ^ 
declare done — — que Le domi cr Jour d*im oondaeiiie 
n'est autre chose qu*un rer, direct ou Indire'ct, 

bj J. 

— — ooup I'abolltlon d© la peine d© mori;, (1) 
li»*lT|ni«|H , » gill yJt ceases to be a novel and becomes a caoe steudy 
of n political nnd social {i^cmcffiiencm hs Uu^^o vndtas: 

Cost en An^?let©,j:n?© qua ce ^anoribne, la Beigiieurie^ 

veut QtvG 6tud5.e, de meme quo c'oot an Frm^ce 
qu*il faut ^tudier c© phenotiifen©, la Royaute^ (2) 

Lo vrai titr© d© e© llvr© serait l*.Ariafcoc£*atie. (2) 

VOT none of hla works does Hxirgo plvad that it be read aa a work 
of art* Til© reader is asked, instead, to read a i^iilosoi^dcal 
treatiae, a rellcious docianent, n uolitical brtef, a social 
9VOg9Ha, an aestlwtic argument, or n histoxdoal theory* i^ad 
nlien the r«ader turns to tlie novels, he realises that it is from 
this point of view that Mu^o feels hlrsself justified la *fcla© 
iajMrti^n of hundreds of pages of isaterial vihidli in no \t.r'j 
affoot th© d©v©lopci«nt of t^i© novel* These pat;®^ repz^sent 
Hugo's pnrijosG directly* 'ilney make no claim to impersonality 
bat ar© the inraediate and obvious expresaicaj of th© sutitor*© 
8C»itlment8 and interests* For II\i^o, art beqaoiee a moans of 
propaganda and is mersly a more subtl© mean© of persuasitxn than 
are these pages of dir©ct argument. 

Vi^gtiy, at th© very beginning of his artistic career, states 

his point of view in a few trenchant words t "L'lDEE est tout* 

Le nom nropre n*©8t rion que l*©zeaiple et la preuve de l*ido©*" (3) 

(1) Uu,':;o, Le dernier Jour d*\in condaEgi^ Px^ace, 217. 

(2) Hu^o, L'Homaw qui rit ^ Preface* 

(3) Vi wf." T?ipq«MarB . R^l^lexions sur la vcTrite dans l*art » XII. 


Balzac too Intends to lay bar© the sfmno hlcMen imdes* ^h» 
reality of tlie contemporary sc«ti©, uo uclaiowled,;©8, however, 
that he hiiaself has already x*ecoenised v;hat that sense is and 
that his work Is to be written in tiie light of that reooi^tion. 
He states s "Jfecris a la lueur de d^ix Verites etemellest 
la Reli^ilon, la Monarch!©, deux nooessltes qtie les even®i©nts 
oontemporains proclament," (1) Balsac tima unequivocally 
reveals his intention to vyx>ite a docwient v/hidli will be a 
OGotplete history of his ovm time* But liere he shows hisuNilf, 
not content to he the mere 6hx*onicler, determined, like his 
fellow rc^anticista, to demonstrate certain truths fay laeans of 
his clironlclo. 

Since Gautier Introduces a second plmse of romanticist}, it is 
unnecessary, at tliis point, to seek to compare his aeailietic 
views ^itli those of his predecessors* our purpose is served 
sufficiraitly if we accept the fact so abundantly demons t»ited 
by Wm rcHaanticists themselves, that the raoanticist was ft 
utilitarian who regarded art only as the vehicle of trutli and 
so looked upon tiie novel as a sort of matlietQatlcal dor.ionst ration 
of definite Eioral axlons, prinoiplos, sentiisents, or ideas* 

That the novelist is a composer of fables is, therefore, <me 
of the first tenets of the rcananticist art* It is a tenet of 
ttie (23^*^^®8^ importance to its ooraprehension* It means that 
tiiB idea is all*iBiportant and ttiat tli© particular reality usfl«S 

(1) Balsao, Oeuvree canpletes ^ I., !•, ^vant-.-'ropoS j 30* 


to evoke the idea is negligible. 

Sand z^aLizea clearly tlie iinplicatione of sucii an {attitude: 

that the novel beccsnee a oymbolic vehicle of trath and fh&t 

truth to reality siust suffer in th» process. That she is ccni*> 

scioua that her vhole work is a vast s^nobolic stxnicture ^ose 

meaning imist be disoigaged lay tii/e reader rasy ^ deduced from 

suoh a sentence as tiiisi 

Si l*idee qui a inspire un livz% n*et3t pas asses 
Claire par elleHaebe ou n*est pas asses netteiient 
a3q;>llquoe dans le podkoe ou le rorum qpii liii 3ez*t 
d'enveloppe ou de sycjbolo, les caiiientaires et les 
i^oses ne servent do rien« (1) 

Even clearer is the follovring passage: 

Sous croyons q;xe la mission de l*art est une aission 
de sentl cnt et d'araour, que le roraan d*auJourdMiui 
devralt reraplacer la parabola et 1* apologue des 
t(»sp8 nalfs, et que 1* artiste a ime ti^che plus large 
et plus po^tique que cello do proposer quelques 
mesures de prudonce et de conciliation pour att^uor 
l«effrol^qu»inspirent ses peintures. Son but 
devralt etre do faire idner les objets de sa 
sollicitudOf et au bcsoin, je ne lui fcrais pas un 
reprocshe de les enbellir un neu. (2) 

The «rltor is the advocate «ho must appeal to certain soitlT^mitSi 
The implication vhioh arises here that the personages becorae 
mere abstract entities illustz>ating certain sentinonts is en 
in^lication which will be discussed later. Heant^iile ''oorge 
Sand once more clarifies for us her mission as artist by 
sug^estlnn the procedure w*\ioh will malce parables of her novels— 

(I) Ssndf Le S»cretaire in time . ForewoiTd, 1854. 
(S) Sand, La ^are au diablCj Introduction. 


a proeedure lAiich will serve as ti\e tovnala. for t^e large 
xaaijority of then •■ well ne for those of her oontonporaxdee* 
This prooeduz^ requires^ as she perceives » the aaorifice of 
reality and its adaptation to s\ilt l^ie preconceived ideal* 
Ck>d, the original artist, made an ideal Trork of art. B,^t raon 
has anmnged It badly, 133«x>eforey the hiraan artist must, in 
hie art, ZH9*oreate after th© original model. ThUa oidginal 
aodel he realizes throu^ an instinctive perception isdil^ 
reveals to the artist truths tiiat rtay be hidden froa. the rest 
of mankind* Art ciust act as a coiveetive of t^ie reality iftileh 
man has debased f rci3 its first naUir&l perfecticoi* The subject 
of the ai»tist»s parable is the presentation of tlie ideal— not 
of vliat is Imt of Kdmt di^iht be and of nAmt o\x-:^t to be* 
•L'art n'est pas un© etude de la r^allte'^ positive; c'est una 
ree^rtihe de la verite ideale*** (1) 

The utility of a book is made to consist in its ability to 

present the ideal in a manner s^napatlietlc to its leaders* Sand 

Bemem to agree with B^ftXtaui «i«n ^xe iTrites that, for theaa both: 

• ••• oe Initf lo but du raian, c*est de peindre I'lioaame; 
et qu*<m le prenne dans un milieu ou dans I'sutre, 
aaox prises avec ses ideas ou avec ses passions y mi 
lutte oontre \tn monde int«*leur qui I'agite, ou contre 
^ monde est^ieur, c'est toujoxirs I'hocme en prole 
a toutes les ^notions et k toutes los ohanoes de 
la vie* (2) 

Yet she realizes that, in fact, a great difference exists 

between BcUitsao's inspiration and her own* She s^Uliresses to 

B^alsac the following apostro;^^: 

(1) Sand, La Hare au diablej Introduction* 

(2) Sand, Jeanne T'Wilee de 1853* 


1^ i^smoB, VOU& voulez et savoz peindx*o l^hxjstnam tel 
qu'll, eat soxxa noa yeux, eoitl Uol, je ne sens 
porte a le (5©tzK3r© tel que Je souhalte qu*il aoit, 
tel que je crola quHl dolt etx»e, (1) 

Her aearch for the ideal, she adiaita, laust turn her away from 


De noa^ Jours, — -> !,• artiste, qui n'est quelle reflet 
et Iteoho d*xaie ceneration assea ^aeeiiblable a 3.ul, 
^prouve le besoin iinp«5rleux de dotoumer la vue et 
de dletralr© !• imagination, en ae reportant vers 
un ideal de oaliie, d'lnnocwice et de r^Verie, (2) 

i?9hat Sazid la in aearch of, «hat she intends to z>epresent through 

her art is, therefore, the '*beau ideal'*. 

Vigny is quite a» explicit in Ms denial of observed reality. 
Ilia atatanent is the intellectual defence of an attitude ^hieh 
Sand adsdta to be vi-th her a saatter of instinct and s^itlstmit* 
Vi|3By*s x>eferenceB are, of course, references to lilstory ainoe 
Vl(53y*8 conception of art la inextricably bound up with hig 
attitude toward history. Of hi a novels, Cii>q.»MarB . £tel3-o « 
Servltudo et /rrandeur railitairea j and Daphne , the first and 
last raay be olasaei dofinitely aa hl.storloal novels and the 
other two make hiatorlcal fact the baais of fioti(»i« Bat 
history is wily a record of a past real.lty. Vigpy recognizes 
it as tlie necessazy baaia of Ma art for, aa he aaya, tl^ 
reality tiMoh ia observed by man louat always be the fundamental 
Itasia of any art for it is not given to man to know anything 
but hlfjiself and the nature wMeh surrounds him. txA reality 
in itself is too inconclusive and not sufficiently informed with 
intelligeneo. The exact representation of reality would be 

(1) Sand 

(S) Sand 

• I«e Corapar^ian du tour de Finance « Notice de 18&1« 
, La petite Fadette « notice de 1851« 


fut'ilo anal unn»0988&ry« viiat tlie widter naiat do Is to select 

and grou]^ according to a oJ^iosim centr© — an Invented centra. 

WiAt will determine tills centt»o? Vl^piy does not sujT,frest the 

obvious answer to tlxis quostlonj that is, that this ceritx^ 

will InevitMibly reflect the pox»sonal philosophy mid the 

aesthetic doctidne of tho vnrltep* Reality as seen in Matory 

is not f^iat is of ''.npoi'tanco. Rather It Is the Idea^ i*il<^ 

th5.s reality is jtidged hy the vn?itej» to represent v^ilcn As of 

iiamense l-nportaaoe. JUst as tii© peoples of antiquity felt no 

responsibility as to the truth of faots in feioir historical 

and njythologicsal le;^«iid8 ^mt created thest in the apl^t of 

Interpretation x^athor than the spirit of statistical truth, so 

jaust tiie writer Isavo tJi© real «fitloh is iiiiporfeot, Incomploto, 

ineemsist^nt, nnd inconcltislve and j^epresent the Ideed i#il<di 

the real suggostn to tho artist. ?!an2dlnd desires that a 

oertain nsral significance be dlsencacod froa reality. This 

nost be tho artist* s taslu It la for hlra to see ideal "boauty 

and to rer>XH»8«it it — to see hlstorlofa figures as idi^s 

reprostmtatlve of their times and of all tlzne *« not as srare 

turn Qsvi mmon incosaplete either in good or evil* Thus Vigny 


Le fait adopte est tou jours nieux ooiapos^ que lo 
vral, et n*e8t aaao adopts que nai»ce qu'/Ll est 
plus beau que lulj c'est que l«ramANlTE T7:n'iiraE 
a besoin que ses destines aoient Dour elle«c:^^ne 
une suite de l^Qonsj^ plus lndlff^eotcqu»on ne 
pense sur la KKal^iTK drs FAITS, elle cherclie "E 
perfeotl(»moi' I'ev^anoit pomr lui donner une a?*a"de 
slsniflcatiQn iaorale«.-<— - repeo^mt las vidos, 
voilant lea^dlsparp.tea do sa vie et lui rmulent 
^ette unite oarfa-lte d© conduit© quo nous aimons 
a voir represented irtSra© dans le rial, si ell© 
conserve d'allleurs la cliose essentiolle "^ 


l♦instn:cti^an du »ond©, le j-enle d© I'epoque, jo 
ne saia pourquol I* on sei>«i.t plua dlffloiXo avec 
elle qa* aV8C oofcto "/ois dcs peuples qui fait 
aubix* ohcuiue lour a ohaque fait do si grandes 
imitatia:is« ( 1 ) 

History, its ovents and its heroes, as^s for Vl^y, obviously, 

no raoiye Umn a^Aabols of the "beau idi^"* 

Th© intenticm to i»epre3ait the ideal ratiier than the real is 
an intent! tm necessitated by tii© utilitarian arKi ifioralistlo 
point of view. Tli© desire to edify is Inconsistent with 
delist in Tsdiat exists and acceptance of it. The x»0fora»r*e 
instinct carries with it a reconstruction of reality according 
to dreao, 

Bjtt Vliat Ssdsd realises sentimentally and Vigny Intellootually, 

nhftt 9&ch states unequivocnlly and with a lof;ical consistency 

«hlOh disregards tii© practical aspect of life and sort, is 

reeognized by the loss extrewdst Mno« do Stael to be a sturabling- 

blo<^ to the effectiveness of her art* In lier eesay Sur les 

Fictions lifeie* d© stael conderans aUc^^ory most explicitly. Her 

condenmation is not directed against its Intention but r«th©p 

against the unsatisfactory nature of the result* The artifice 

is too evident and the moral goal is only half attained because 

it receives caily half the attention* She wrltess 

La parfa|.te finess© de 1' ©sprit ecliappe a toutes 
les allei^ories} les nuances des tableaux ne sont 
jKiaals a\issi doiicatea que les aper<ju.s raetaphysiques* 
— — II Cl'artlsteJ ^a un double but, celui de falre 
resBortir une vcritc isioral©, et d'attacher oar le 

(1) Vigny, Cinq-Mars, Reflexions sur la veritc^dans l*art . X,XI, 


rcclt de la faMe qui en^est; I'canbleiaef preoque 
ton jours I'un e^t numque par le besoln d'attelndr© ^ 
l*autpoj l*idee abetralte eat VR/;:?iement repri^eentee, 
«t le tableau n*a point d* of ret drssiaatique. (1) 

The idillosopMc novel also founders on the rock of IrappobabHityj 

On a fait une clasae a part de ce qu*on appelle les 
FOBaans pMloeoi^ilques; tous dolvent l*#tre, car 
totxs dolvent avoir un but moral: nals oeut-^re 

7 aBi&ijM»t«-on sioins surcxient, lorsque dlrlgeant 
les TGcitB vers urio Idee princlpale, l*on 8e di 

_ ^ _ dispense 

SMBfi de la vrttirenblancc clans l*«iclia£n.6Bi^nt des 
situations; ciiaque chapljj;re alora est une sort© 
d* allegoric, dont les ovenenents no sont jeaiale que 
I'ltaage de la maxliM qui va suivra. {2) 

The oonoluflion can be deduced that* since all novels « according 

to tee. de Staelf sliould be r>hilosoi:^iic novels, all novels 

vill be a sort of allegory but t^e allegory should be conecmled 

by a less obvious method and by a greater air of probability. 

VShat attention to reality does Sftae* de staSl advocate v <.. 

synthesis of lier statements on this point would show her as 

desirous of obtaining the effect of reality and as assured that 

this effect cannot be obtained imless great care is tak^i to 

make tiie fiction conform to experience and observatiOTi* SSie 

confers her praise on those novels "qui prendx»alent la vie tcllo 

qu'elle est**. (3) But !JaMi, de Sttiel by no neans appi<<»< our 

usual idea of zN»aliffia for she sayse 

Les x^sTiians ont aussi les convenances draraatiqucs; 11 
n*y a de^n^oescalr© dans 1* invention que ce qui peut 
a^puter a I'effet de ce qu*on inventei — ««• aiais le 
detail scrupuleu^: d'un ^vt^ieraont or^iinairc, loin 

(1) Itae, de Stael, Sur les fictions > S5, 

Ibid.- 68, 
(3) TSm /, 65. 


di*aco3?oitx»o la vraisomblanoe, la dlnJ-nuo, (1) 

Keno©, sh© scse!ca pi»ol\«ib5.11t7 bat -jhe x}"-.!! not aooim the usual 

conventions vjhlch- help to r-ilvc drj5nat5-c effect. Thin ef:feet 

le usually obtained "bj a c©3*tain artAil exaij^-eration of t^^ 

z^al^ an ©xa^s^ratlon ishlch will teryl to idoallz© tho I'eal but 

not to .falsify It, Thla 1», of course, tho cnix of tiie 

aesthetic problem. And '%t6# do Stnel staters it cloarlyj 

L» iria^lnntfwon qtil a fait 1© siico^f5 de^tous ces 
^i©f a-d' o«uvre tlent par dos llena tres fopts a la 
palson; ©He Inspire 1©, bocoin dp s' Clever ra;.'-d©lrv 
des bornos do In ir^alite, laais clle ne poxiiet cle 
rlen dire qui Bolt or. contmete avec cott© i^nllt© 
ii»l^* Noua avone toua ou for^i de no tire ^ne mm 
Ide© confiis© de co est n5.«ux, d© ce qiii est 
iaoillour, de co qui eofc plus ^^rond que 2ious; c*©st 
c« q:a»on appello, «wx tout £;«s\re, 1© beau Ideal, 
c*©3t l*obj©t auquol asplrent txwteB les wioa dou©o« 
d« quelque^dlgnlt© natusreXley mala co qui est 
ott^tralz^ a nos connaisaancoBf a nos Idoea^positivoa, 
d©p3Lait ^ I'l-nanlnatlon pT'ecquo autant qiA*a Ic. 
raiaon sieiao* {2} 

n®ic© it beoocoea clcwarly onougli evident that Jlrae, do Sta'-fel^, leaa 
eublii ely unaware of the dlfflcultloa Involved, intends, never- 
tlieleao, to represent "1© beau id^al**, tlie nature ooz*reeted by- 
art. That eh© Intonda to ta!:© aufficiont account of reality so 
that her reader* a a^iae of actuality nay not bo off ©adijd la 
aerely a geatur© of expediency; it doea not altor the aalient 
trtitli timt, in fact, tfci©, do Stael Intends to i:^progent in h&p 
art not reality but only so nuch of it as muat aceompa'ay **le 
beau ideal" in order to make the latter acceptable* 

It la, llkewiae, an ideal world that Hugo intenda to repr©8«it» 

(1) itee* de Stael, v^ur lea Flctiona ^ 70, 
(S) tSem* de Stael, Preface to DelphJne . 337, 


Ills coniMJmtlve lndepp>ndence of Gr-ctnr'loT' natii-^e Hu/^o acknowled.-^os* 
li© writes: "I* reel n*eKt eff.lcai-v^ient; point qu»a 3.a clarte' 
de 1» Ideal." (1) It ie not direct observation ii*ilch will 
dictate tJaa fnm of his cr«fiatlon but ratlier hla eonceptJon 
«hioh will dictate tiie Manner in \*ilch the li^ts slcvH shadows 
falling upon reality will be made to distort it. 

That Eialzao intends to paint "la vie telle qu'elle est*, la 
accordance vdth Sand's ,]iidem®cit in his r^nrdf mif^t also be 
adduced froia such a well»knoiai statemmit as t3ie follotilnc: 
"La Sooi^te^fren^aiao allait ^tre 1 'his tori en, j© nc de'yais ^tr© 
que le sacx'^taijre* " (2) Yet it is necessary- to bear in nind 
that in ttie next mojaent BaXsac cim adds "Enfln, a.pvhB rvolr 
Chaz>ohe — m.- co notour soclel, re fallal t-11 pas medltor suz' 
lea prinoipea naturels et voir en quol lea Soci^tes s'ecartent 
ou s« i^pprochent de la rer?le etemelle^ du vrai, dn beau?" (2) 
Mo suggestion as to tlic source of iialzac's Imowlodce of tho 
"vral", Uxe "beau" (synonyasous terras for the utilitar!^an 
»»aanticiat) is offered. If he intends to coiapnT'e fJic nnectacle 
that reality offers hia with some "beau ideal" in suppr/sod 
c(»ifox»ulty with natural law, Balzac seesas to su^jgest tl^nt his 
observation and, accordin/rly^ his re«>presentation, cxlll be anda 
in the light oi' soiaa preconceived ideal vdiich reality does not 

Chateaubriand does not explicitly deal vith tliis question; Itos. 

(1) Hugo* Preface nliilosophiQue . 399. 

(2) Balgac. '^ ffivreia Completes * I. » !•, Avon t» Propos e S9. 


d« Stael is hsaitantt Bugo's g«iez>allzftti<ma ntay 8«aei rath«r 
▼aguai BttIsao*8 anncnmced intentions oontradictory* It is^ 
BfvertheleaSf appax^nt t^mt tlia romanticist theory is, cioro or 
lass eonsaiofuslyy directed totraM tbm roprasMxtation of an 
ideal beauty and trutOif an ideal not visible in reality but^ 
in spite of this faet« vividly pres^at to tti© imaginaticii of 
the artist* 

nuenee does the artist raoaive this isipressicm of the ideal« 

an impression n^oh determines the nature of his vftiola creation? 

Hugo ia EK>8t «cplicit in this regax^* He, like Vi^psy, ilka 

all of tlie roBianticiatSf aeknovledges tlie neoessity isider vliioh 

Ban labours, of receiving his first liopressions fross an out«p 

reality. But the vision of the real is not the true viaicm* 

Zt aa&at be extended* Hugo esqplains the prooasai 

XI n*eat paa aur la terre un ^tre pmaaat en qui le 
apeotaole da l*u>iiver8 ne fasjse une lente o(»i8truotion 
da Dieu* — »— Pour I'hunanite^, le natiumliisne ae ^ 
raaout ea. relii',ion« La nature, cr^^ par Die^i, cree 
Di«tt dans I'haeBna* — »-• Ia vision du reel ae dilate 
forc6rient ju8qu*a l*id^l« T^tes le pouls acux ehoses. 
voua sen tea aous I'effet lUi palpitation da la omxae* (1) 

Zt will be noted that knowledge of the ideal ia nafdte ayncmyneus 

with the knowledge of Ood. Sudi coiammication «il^ the ideal 

ia poaaible only by means of the intuition* Ifuge writes: 

Httia I'obaiasanca aux lueurs intiiaes, la confianca 
8ux irx^diations infinies, la foi U la ecai^oionoe, 
la foi IT I'intuiticm, c*est la chose sacr^ ....m. 
o*est la eoiarauiiioaticai avec Dieu sans intenaadiaire* 
e'aat la religion* Ca qua la conscience dit, ella la 
aaiti 06 que 1* intuition declare, elle le voit; la 
consci^icc salt en dehors de nous; 1* intuition voit 

(1) Hugo* 


en dehors de nousf or savolr et voir* o*68t la base 
d*«ri8el^er et prouveri done la consolenoe rniaelgrve, 
dtme !• Intuition, prouve. Qul5K»ique ocmsiiltera 
I'intultloo sera bien Infonadu - Je le s^aa par<Hij 5© le porc^ls par Intultlcmj • cela est 
•ap4»*l«ur eaxx, sylloolsnies* SI par hasard 11 arrl^mlt 
que* done im caa dormrf^ IMUitultlem contredlt le 
dlai•ctiq^e« c*est du c^e'de l*lntultlon que Je 

Obeerre how dear the rolatlonahlp beeoraee hexHi betwe^i tSm 
art that desires to teaesh and prove and the Intuition vfiiltih 
supplies the vision Mtolch the artist will seek to prove. She 
Intuition Is In Itself sufficient proof to the man v&io e?!perlene«s 
it* In ox^er to teach and prove, the artist nust first have 
a knowled^^e based on such on Intuition* The artist Is* tliere* 
fore, necessarily In direct conmunlon with <0>d, the Ideal, 
by means of his intuition* Zt la to be noted that truth, ideal, 
or religion becosoe In this manner subjective experiences 
unrelated to any possible oonnur-lty of e^^erlence of reality* 
Bsterior nature may be explained by such an Intultlcm but cannot, 
by observation, yield a vislcai as true as tliat which the instinct 
reveals* Hotiee BEugo accepts the voice of instinct In haaaanity 
as the voice of God* Hiysioal nature Is only a S3?iabol *rtilch 
also must reveal «ie voice of Ood, So Hugo writes: "La loi 
■orale ne d^ent jamais la loi physique, qui n*est que son 
«2Nbole«'' (2) 

B^igo escploins the iMthod by lAilch he proves, he makes it 

(1) rtu^. Preface rfiilosoidilQue . 371* 

(2) Ibid *. 350. 


that ttiia l8 a method of analo;^ and oomparlseai: "le 
siQnd« visible eat Xa nanifestatlon s^mbolique du manAe imoAt^rtel^ 
U nous eeXairo peu^ analosle*" (1) Analo,^^ bovever^ la a 
system of proof nfiiich depends for Its efflcaolty on the tvattt 
of an orir^lzial hypothesis* Analogy is. In fact* not proof bat 
illustration* Hsnoe the actual conteiqplatlon of and aasooiation 
fdth physical nature will make man more pz*ofoundly aware of 
His truth of his own Imiop vision. It will remiforce i3od*8 
Upoies and so will serve to reveal that voice to nan* Haturs 
bseoiaes holy* Hugo writes: ^Ia fait rellgieuxj o*est la saints 
nature etemells.*' (2) 

A coordination of Hw^*8 statam«it8 leads us therefore to a 
definite aes^etic systera «hldi Is^ at the ssoe tiiaOf a religious 
fl»d i^^iilosophic systSBi* This systera asserts man and nature 
to be, equally, nere instruments idiich reveal Ood* Ood is revealed 
la asm by the instinct, in nature by Its natural manifestaticms* 
The analogy between the vast s^bollc structure of physical 
naturs and th« sqiually symbolic hanfln nature will be recognised 
by the intuition. The vision of the ideal Is granted by 
the intuition end its proof xmist be nade by a dsnonstration 
of the syrabollo sl^jiificance of nan and natuz*e. 

8aeh an absolute affinoation of the presEainonce of the intuition 
is not made by the other rociantlelsts In their prefaces or 
essays* Zt is, as we have seen, not cmly liapllcit in their 

(1) HugOf Preface philosophigue * 369* 
(e) Ibid*, 


woi?k but also frequently becoraes explicit as^ for ^xetmol^f ^ere 

Vlgny defines tlie poet*8 art and life In Stello, The oozH^Uary 

of oudh. an affirmation raust of necessity be that the vjrk of 

art has its genesis in the author's j^stinctive nature and 

uses exterior reality only in order to corroborate tiftiat his 

sentiment has already accepted as true* If the poet expresses 

his ovtn instinctive feeling he has becoiae Grod's prophet and 

the message revealed by his words is the Evangel of the new 

religion* Hugo writes: 

Le raisoonet&ent vul, aire raaxpe s^ir Ics surf&eos} 
I'lntoition explore et scrute le Aeseous* — «« 
L* intuition* cocsne la conscience^ ,.^m»» est faite 
d6 olart^directef elle^vient de plus loin q^e 
I'hOBsnei elle va au-dela de I'hoamej elle f)st 
dans l^hoome et dans le layst^x**! ce qu*elle a 
d'ind<$rini finit tou^oura par arrlverj le 
prolongement de I'intuitiony c'est Id^i* (1) 

^Qius the asntiiaent beeoaes the orlQinf the inspiratlony and 

the criterion of trut^ of the tiK)xic of art* 

Sflsid too fs^eely eonfesses that her novels are conceived and 
her personages created in order to satisfy and to express the 
s«iticB0nt that prcKlocilnates in her at the particular moment of 
creation* If we oone to this conclusion frcra a study of her 
woiic, we are cuKrely oonfixming viiat her prefaces indicate in 
quite unequivocal faalilon* The fact that the sentiment idiich 
dictates the ^nhole xoood snd direction of a novel is a sentimflnt 
prior to reascd Is clearly acknowledged by 3and on ocoasioB* 
Thus she writes: 

(1) Hu^oy Prefaoe philoeoiahique * 570* 


C6fux qjil iQ*ont lu oan© preventlcm oomprennwit qafr. 

i*al eorlt Indiana avoc le sentlnent non ralsonne, 
1 eat vrcdf nals profond et legl,tlme, da X'injxistico 
et de la bartoarie des lois qui re^t^lasent encoi?e 
X*«adlsten<»« da la fcnsae dans le siaria^e^ dans la 
fanllle et la aocl^te'^ (1) 

9ueh a santlnent Is Inculcated In her by Ood himself. In this 
8«BM praf^toa aihe writes: "Alnal^ ,)e le repete^ j*al ecrlt 
Indiana et 3*ai du I'ecrlz^i 5*al oede'k \m Instinct puissant 
de plainte et de x>eproche que Dleu avalt mis en tool, Dieii qui 
ne fait rim d*lnutlle...." (2) Even isore explicitly does dhe 
state her attitude In the foreword to anotlier early works "Kais 
l*anteur 8*est depuls lnri,^>enp8 resolu ^ ne jonaia pelndr^ que 
les speotacles qui ont evellle^ses 8;^vqpatdiies •><->- car 11 
&• plaldera jamais au profit d*un systeme*'* (3) It Is not any 
logical system determined by e:Q>erlencey observation and reason 
that she p:irasents« It Is* rather^ she says, a picture 
corresponding to hor natural predilections and to her instinct- 
ive syapaUiiea* In the latest preface to Indiana * tS?je writes: 
"J'etais deoia l*'^ge ou l*on eorlt avec ses Instincts et ou la 
reflexion ne nous sez*t qu*a nous confinaer dans nos tendances 
naturellss*** (4) At this date ehe seens to deny that the 
inspiraticai of her later work will continue to have the saae 
8ouroe« Itet ethe does not hesitate to note on a later oeoasion 
that a work was composed under the domination of a certain 
sentiiaant^ a sentiment which cannot fail to seem to us arbltx*ary 
since no observaticoi of fact is adduced In Its support^ 8lnce« 

(1) Sand* Indiana . Prefaee de 1842« 

(2) Ibid. 

(3) Steai^g Le S»cretai3^ intlne . Preface de ld34« 

(4) Sand, Indiana . Preface de 1852. 


too, thm stiidy of a suocessioatx of works may shew continual 
InoQiislsteQciea tdiioh Ssod makes no effort to haxioonise* In 
wsaqf eaae, it is possible to ccmclude that ^en. Sand began to 
write* she did so in order to exfivesu truths of vdiioh sfbe felt 
that ^e had an instinctive cognisance and to express the saood 
itfilcih these truths indueed* The resulting sentitsent took fozm 
as a novel and the i^napsthetic personages of the novel echo 
the smxtiraent #iicli inspired the book* 

&it #i&t Sand sad Hu^ freely concede is true likewise of their 
fellows. CSiateaubriand* s obser-zaticms are directed 1^ his 
Catholic s^iti^ents and these aentirients determine i^iat he sees 
and represents just as i3alsao*s faith in a traditional society 
determines igmt he sees and represents* %Bxat observaticm and 
ea9erlenoe raeqr o^ginally have offered to the artist as naterial 
for his intelligence^ sentinent has laid hold on and transforaed 
to its purposes* It tlien continues to doasiinate the Intellisenee 
and direct the eharactor of the observations* 

The roinanticists are especially aware of the results of their 
aethc^ of cz>eati<m as it affects i>ersonage* In this respect* 
once again* Sand is not only very explicit but she is also 
•uffioiently self<»conseious to understand her own procedure 
vexy accurately* The iiaagin«tion ixMch moves from idea to 
persona^ (the type of Ima^^^ination confesaed by Hugo) is a type 
whidi tecfcds to produee pure abstractions since the per8<mage is 
not based on lAmt exists in fact but rather on what the author 
feels Should exist in t±teory* The ideal personage is apt* 


thmvfov9p to fail to oaptiire oax* s^nepatliy imleas a regard for 

positive x*eality px%v«ite too great a deviation from it* Sand^ 

for exasaple* muirkSf on occaaionf the dieadvantagea that atie 

incurs by her too exclusive idealizati<»i and her failtire to 

regard the probabilities sufficieatly* 3o she writes of Leliat 

Cette, predilection pqur le persomiage fier et souffrant 
de LbViaL ra*a conduit a ure crreur grave au point de 
vue de I'artt c*est de lui dotmer une ezistenoG tout 
a fait inpossible* et qui« a cause de la demi-realit^ 
^ee autreii pM>8onna^^« ssnible ehoquante de r^alit^ 
a force do vouloir ^re abstraite et synibollque* (1) 

s most ©5cact statement r)f hor conception of •ocr?!ona(*e foUovsi 

I*©a s«is qui ne font pas d'ouvragcs a ' imagination 
oroleat que eela tm ae fait qpi'avec des wmvenirs. et 
vous deaandent toujourdt "Qui done avea-vous voulu 
peindre?" lis se troo^snt bescicoup s'ils cx<olent 
cpi'll solt possible de fai2»e d'un personnage reel im 
type de rorian^ netae dans un rcsaan oussi peu ronanesque 
que celui de Luor^gia Floriani * II faudrait tou Jours 
tenement aider & la realite de eet etre» pour le 
^ rendx^ logique et soutenu, dans tm fait fictiff ne 
f^t«ce que pendant vJUigt pages* q^*il la vingt et 
tuii^se vous^ series deja sort! de la ressectblanoe* et 
"4 la trentieme^ le t^e que vous auriee px^tendu 
Ibftz^cer aural t entier^aent dispara* Ce qui efit 
possible^ faire* e'est^l' analyse d*un sentiirt^it* 
Pour qu'il ait un oena^a l^lntallisonoe, on passant 
a travers le prlnw des imaginatioiuiy il faut done 
cr^r los personnages poiir lo sentiment qu'on veut 
d^rire* et mm le sentiiaent pmir los personna^^es* 

Ski aoins o'est la oon procede* et Je n'en ai ^annis 
pu trouver d* autre. (2) 

iBcediatoly the isovd "type" uaed so frmjuently in t^iese prefaces 
by Sand i^ecelves its explanatic»:i» Its usage in su^ a passage 
as this is diaracteristio : 

Je n*al fait poser personne pour esquiseer c© 

(1) Sandp L^lia, Preface* 

(2) Sand, Liici^ezia Floriani ^ 

Notice de 1855. 


X>ortndt; J« l*al prls nulle part, co^« !• typ« 
do d^vouoBient SiyeucX^ ^o j*al oppose a e« type 
^ peraonnallte sazuB frein* Ces daux types sont 

What is eternal is not the personage as Sand presents him but 
tut iSie saatlnont* The sentiment of devotion or the indivlduolisa 
itfiioh is sag^ressed in egoistic ambitltm xAll alirays exist and 
will slways constitute part of cian's humanity but in neither of 
thsse siNitiiiisnts can msn^s liiole humanity be said to consist* 
It is appar^it that Ssnd's personages are rasant to represent 
the ideal of cme form of sentiment* Of that sentirient they 
present the ideal type <— the Platonic idea* Whereas in man all 
is incomplete and finite^ in these types the absolute is 

Zt is the eternal idea that Vi^iy too hopes to represent rather 
tiian tdie particular perscm* He states dearly idbat the histoxdeal 
figures lAio will be selected to move throu(^ the ideal world 
of a ficti<m which is truer tlian truth will be <^osen only 
*pour representer des idlies phil080];diiques ou morales'*^* (S) Xt 
is possible that he will rejpresent a purely fictional personage* 
Zn this case he will be so chosen and oQBqposed that, '*rasscB3ibl«at 
les traits d*tui CAliACTERB ^^ars dans miUe individus oonplets* 
elle en oofq;>ose un TZPE dont le nom seul est iiaaginslre"* (2) 

Wan ma a type assumes a definite hierarchic rank and plaoe In 

the universe* BoIsas zaakes a clear statement of the meaning whidh 

(1) Sand, Horace* Hoticf^da 1353* ^ ^ 

(2) VljTXvr > Cinq*ifeuro * Reflections sur la verite dans I'axi;. XII* 


he asslfTis to the word* Km believes that mankind is divided 

into types « according to genus and species » in the ssane nuunnep 

as t£te aniaals* He deelares unequlvoeellyt 

n n^j a qvL^vai anlraal* Le ereateur ne 8*est servi 
qpxa d'lm^sflul et iaeb» patrcm pour totis les vtres 
organises* L* animal est xm prinoipe qixi prsnd sa 
foxtae ext|iriefurep ou^ pour parler plus esanotement^ 
les diffemmees de sa forrae* dans les siilieux c^ il 
est app^ld it se d^elopper, «~— Sous oe rapport « la 
floeiet* ress«jd>lait ^ la Mature* La Soelete ne fait- 
•lie pas de^*hoaane, suivant les milieux ou son 
action sa deplole^ autant d*hc»BMi8 dilT^«its qa*il 
7 a varl6tea en soologie? -«— « II ajLcxxc existe^ 11 
ttdstera done de tout tec^s dee Espeoes Sooiales oobbmi 
11 7 a des Ei^ees Zodlo^ques* (1) 

It is apparent from th« tibove statetnsnt that the perscnages that 

Balsao intsnds to present will be figures vhese distinctive fona 

will be topreesed on them by the allieu they iidiablt* This 

raillea will be cQn^>osed of various elei?ients and one of the raost 

important of these elements will be man himself* 

Balsfte*s interest in personage is an Interest In soolecy as a 
Tiiible* Re writes t 

En dreaoont l*inventaire des vices et des vertus« en 
rassantblant les prlncipaox faits des passions^ en 
pei^Tumt les caracteres. en c^oisissant les ^veneraemts 
j^cdn^ipaux de la Soci^tey en ccnposant des types par 
la reunion des traits de plusieurs earacteres hanM^«nes« 
peixt^tre pouvais»|e arriver~a ^erire l*hlstoire 
oubUtfi par tant ^.'historiens* celle des xooeurs* *— - 
Ve devals«5e pas etudier les raisons ou la ralson de 
oes effets sodaux* surprendz^e le sens oAChe dans cet 
iammse asseoiblege de fl^^ures^ de passicms et 
d*^«ieaients* {sT 

In this passage it is evident that Balsao is not c(»ioexned with 

in his individual manifestation* Rather* he is oonoemed 

(1) Balsacf Oeuvres Completes * I», !•« Avant«Propos« 
(fi) Ibid «. ^ 


witti the iQOV«Bi«nt of society as a idiole and with tiie diseovery 
of the hidden of its aoticoi* It is not isan as 
observed in his inner being that attracts Bftlsae's attention^ it 
!• asn in so far as his action is social^ in so far as nis being 
is esqpressed t^irou^ society* Accordingly* Balsao promises 
that his observation of individiial figures will be used in 
order to detendae the types of activity in society and 5ja order 
^ compose types by bmmhus of imiting traits observed in hooe* 
gcncKms oliaracters* 

Ibat then does the word "type" meaxt to 8.^X8*0? It is c^p^arent 
that the personage con9>osed in this manner is coo^KMied in view 
of the li^t he will throw upcm the movenent of society* The 
basic spring of society is passion* Balstac writes s ''La passion 
est touts l*hisaanite* Sans elle« la reli£;ion« I'histoire, le 
roiasny l*art serai^it inu tiles." (1) Sfaus the personages must 
be 9aap099d so that t^ey any represent the typical passions 
idiioh aot»ate society and l^ey aaust be presented so as to 
dSBx^strate the eventiialities insulting from these passions* 
Balsac*s personages will live in and throui^ their social Amotion 
and their action will be action representative of their social 
function* So at least RalMie seems to promise in this clear 
statement of his preooeopation with society* 

S«nd*s pexmonages* as she tells us* are types of sentinMoitsf 
Vigny's repressnt the ideas which deteznine the course of history* 

(1) BcCLsae* Oeuvres Ccmoletes* I*, 1*, Av6ait«»Propos. S4. 


Rkiao adadts tluit in hla «ox4e It is "l*idee engendx^nt le 

pareonnace"* (X) The point of view from iiliic& ho creates nay 

bo judgod by the foIlo«dn^ typical passftgot 

1m torre n*08t blmx vue que du haut du oiel« la via 
n*08t bien ]«oga:p&^ quo du aouil do la ^o^tm* H 
faait qu*imo ^tudo de la mloire^ pour x»eiaplix> son 
dovoir* aaatfatlmm lapHeitonoat a deux eihoaoas una 
aaaEaation aux baanoe^ une application allant plus 
haut* Pour blen ¥blaix%r la plaie que vous ^Yyad3?les 
gu^rir^ ouvres sur elle toiite grondo l*id^o divine* 
L6' souffle religieuxy pwiotnmt la pltio' aooiale^ 
en augsonte le fsdaaon* Le xf^l n*est officaceiaent 
p(4nt <ia*a la olaj?to de l*i^»al« (2) 

fhis sjrstiB tenda to degrade on the one hand and to exalt oa 

the otiier* It foUomi* therefox^^ that the ao<-oallod "r^eal" 

will actually n^reaent only one arbitnudly ftitiosen aapeet of 

the real azMt iriJl tiierefore ooinoide Just as little with t^ 

gtneral obaewaticm as will tdie ideal represented* 

Aa Bjigo aolaiowledges of tlie flgorea in Han d»l8lande « his 

perscmagea are oMde all of one piece* Re reollaee that his 

ereaturea raust not be too hi<^y individualised if the validity 

of hia arcuoMit ia to be aoknowledged* "Za particularity ne 

r^t ptM la generality*** (3) In iStm aoaroely veiled ari^aamit 

•f Le daanii^ Jour d» "»* '^^Yll F"*^* Boge plainly indieates hia 

desire to attain to universality; 

Et pour que le plaldoyer soit aussi vaate q\ae la 
Muaoy il a du -"- — ^la£;uer de toutes parts dana son 
mj,et le conting«it« l*aocid«nt» le pai^iealier» le 
speoialf le relatif|» le xaodifiable« I'lfpisode* I'snecdotOy 
I'evelfianMnty le nora propre^ et se bomer •>«— "S plaider 

il) EugOf Lea Kia«^blea . I*» Quoted from a letter of H\2go*s, 311* 
8) lbxsp$ Preface phlloaoidjiique * 399. y y 
5) Hago# Le dernier Jfour d'lin oondaana* Prefaooy 253* 


la cau8« d*un cumdanne quelconque* execute'vixi jour 
({luiIooKMjiMf pour %m crim* (jpiaXoonque. (1) 

IftiiveraaXity cannot^ however^ be obtained vhan the general case 

presented appc&ra aa the oppositlan of two esctroeiea* n?he 

universal oe^sot be the extraoi^din^oy. Hence Hu(^ falls between 

the two axid his personages* as he hisiself intended* reveal 

thflSMralves as syxaax>lic of his sentixsenta but are not neoesearl]^* 

as he InixaxUxid, universally valid symbols* 

»• de Stael does not approve of the auunner in which the sarly 
novelists introduced various G<x^a ^^ order to brixxg the events 
of their ficti(»is to a proper conclxxsion* These gods of the old 
taytbolosi ^^io interfered in the aetion and represented the 
personification of fate tfiould be replaced* for the sake of 
probability and truth* by aoral causes which mxat, naturally* be 
personified in order to represent effective interference* llhis 
result of the discarding of the old a:;abol8* althou;;^ not stated 
by Use* de Stael* seems to be the logleal corollary of her 
arsumsnt* The aioral oauees* than* are reduced to sentiments or 
passions. They control the development of the action and the 
action becomes quite secondary in importance* a raere oat\mrd 
indication of the utility of eeartain passions in attaining 
happiness* It is thus Ubm* de Stael writes: "Lea ^v^easnts ne 
doivent "dtre dans lee roiaans q\xe 1* occasion de developper les 
l^utisicms du eoeur huoaln*** (8) Hence the evoits become aere 
pegs to #iich to attadh differ«it s^itinents* different passions. 

(1) Eugo* i;^ dernier Joiir d'un condsgne* Preface* 213* 

(2) ^as* de Stael* Preface to Vggjgjggj^, 3^6* 


"La Borallte deo i^oracna tlent plus au develc-m^iiaait dea 
swuvflmenta Interleiirs ds X*'ane qu'aux ev^.tarionxis qu'an y 
raoonte*" (X) 

The p«raonag«s In Sine* de StGbeI*0 novels serve^ tlierefc>r'o« for 
an analjBla of Uia pasaioiis* The usual paaalan analyved In 
no'»»la la love but Mm* de Stael wz>ltes eny^ualasticalXyt 
"()ael8 dlTveloppeniesits pSiiloaophiquea^ si l*on a*attac(b&it a 


WffpTOt^xidlr, a analyse^' toutee lea passionet eoiame l^aoiour l*a 

4t9 6MnB lea rotaanat" (2) It la but natural tiiat tlie reader 

eotpeots the flgurea In Itoe* de Stael* a novels to beeome living 

•Tnbols of the differmit c&iaptera of Iier eaaay De I'Influaacjy 

dea paaalona * iBut« t^iou^ f3M ideal beauty is to be represented* 

it is Aae* de Stael* s avoiwed intention not to repreaent it in 

any cue figure for she lays do«n the z^ile: 

Et lea roeaans qui poignent la vie no doivent pas 
presenter des earactwpes p«rfaits> mais des eiuraiet^res 
qui laontrent ee ^*il y a de bon et de blaiaable^ dans 
les actions husiaines* et quelXes sent les oonaaquenoes 
naturolles de ces aotions* (3) 

To cQ9i^>are Mae* de Stael* s stateK&ents with Bui^*s« Vigny*s« 
Sand* 8 or Balzao'a is to seo tliat slie likewise intwkda to 
oocnpose her personages » that her analysis of iaox*al causes and 
passions will be peznsonified throui^ **typea**« but that the 
artist herself reoainsy to a lar^^e extent « imoonseious of the 
Saplioations of her otsi statements and believes it to be possible 


MRie« de Staelf Sup les Fjctioaae . 69« 

- I^lid«# 'fO* 
S) !S5oT de stael, auelguee R^flfexione eur le bat morml de Delphine. 


to do thla and to r»pr©«enb obsicrved reality at lii© emm tlxM* 
■er dooa Chateaubidand moko any definite avomaXs as to him 
aetfaod of dhoz'acter oi^eatlon* It Is the later x<cisanticl8t« 
«ho 8ho» thfloeeXves nore conscious of the methods of romsntlclaa« 
Even they, it la to bo noted* do not make a»y lar^ ua© of 
the DOZHi ssvibolm They pi^ofer to discuss tlielr pe2*son&^:fNs as 
^tYP—^9 Yet SaaoA has been seen to e^mowlcidge that one of 
her figures beeasss too abstract due to her desire to be STSolbelio* 
Vi^iy has iMtBi obe«»?ved to cciqmre his metliod of cx'eation of 
character to that of the ancients sho r^;>resent aioraX truth by 
BMas of STUibolic presentation* Bu^o^ althou^ avsldlng the 
word syBA)ol in rega:pd to his personages, adaits unreservedly 
that> in his vie«» the shole vnlverse is a vast s^Tmbolic structure* 

In speeifie eas^# Ssnd is even ellling to explain tiie nature 

of the synfeollan inTolvod in her (fliaracterlBtlc creation by type. 

Chateaubriand rnvSL Mas, de Stael likewise snalyse a specific 

persensge at sotae length end, in this analysis, Shov dearly the 

likeness between their attitude and that of their contenporaries* 

Chateaubriand writes thus of Renei 

U reste a parler d*un etat do l*sbae q:ui, ce nous 
secable^ ^'a pas encore 4t4 blen observ^^f o'eet oeluii 
qui precede le d^veloppeoient des grandee pasisions, 
loxnsque toutM les facult^s jeuno^, actives, entilres. 

^ __ _'on 

n*a plus d*illviBion8« — — 11 est ^tonnant q^xe les 
eorivains nodemes n'aient pas <moove scHigiT ii£ pelndre 
cette singuJULere position de l*^e« (I) 

Xt is tlie soul, the spiritual state, with n^ch Chateaubriand is 

(1) Chateaubriand, A^la« _Rsne> Preface de 1805, Eztrait du 

Qwiie du Chi*istianlsne> 


concerned — nan under hla religious aspect. It is tills aspect 
fftiidtiy to hira, determines the xoan* Rene ls« there fore 9 Inocmplete 
US ft hunan being because the very texms of his creation re<;^r« 
that he exMtolt only one facet of belns. His lne«nplet©ness 
as man does, however, make him the perfect IncExiiation of a 
fliood end gives him the permanent qiiality of the syaibol, Jienm 

la Chateaubriand's charactertstlc persona£:,e and In the stiidy 
of the construction of Atal a and Rene the fact that the authoj 
has thus defined his aesthetic attitude Is very Ultaalnatlng* 

U de Steel has much to say of Delphlne and of the pez*sona^8 
aho surround har* Delphlne Is, according to l^ae* de Stael, a 
true "child of natoxv" ond la intended to rep3?esent the perscxna^ 
eapable of the C3?eatest possible suffering. Matllde, the wlfe« 
Is the figure ndiose "/Irtue Is Intended to "fair© ressortlr lea 
torts de Delphlne". (1) Aa Ifcie. de Stael escplalnsj "Si Je 
l*avml8 suppose des vioea ^ Matllde, j*aurals avlll ses droltai 
si Je lul avals donne beatieoup de eharmes, Je pr^als a la 
vax'tu une force etrangere a elle*** {%) Thus Matilda Is to 
aynfbollze social virtue but social virtue Is to be reparesented 
aa lacking In charm. Iianedlately Ibie* de Stael* s technique la 
exposed aa contrary to her own theory. Her theory of morality 
adsilta no personc^];e to be perfect j In this respect, Matllde'a 
lack of charm constitutes an l»?>erfectlon. But neither should 
t^e personage appear deprived of the fine m;ance8 of life n^JLeh 
fop probability. If Matllde Is to appear -— In order ta 

(1) Mtae. de Sta<^l, g^elgues Kcflexions sjir Ic but noral da Pelsahlne . 

45 9. 

serve Etee de Stael*a thesis — laokinf; in <diann but absolutely 
irll^out vice 5 tlte extvoae has taken the place of the hxsnan and 
Matilda haa taken Ivnf place as a symbol lAio fails to give the 
illusicm of life end vhoy beeause of thla failure, serves to 
underline the gene3?al aymbolic purpose. It is evldeait, too, 
from thm above oitaticny tliat ttaa* de Stael x^alises that her 
fl^j?e« €UPe created prlaauplly in order to coincide with her own 
sentiment ax^ only asecaidarily with reality. 

Sand defines the symbolic nature or the figures in Adrlagii and, 
indeed, in the majority of her novels i&iiw she writes; **X1 y a 
autent de i?mnieree de comprendre et do aentir l*ex:K?ur qa*il y a 
de types hisaains sur la terre." (1) The "type" is detenain^, is 
lisdted, and is defined by his nanner of understanding eand 
feelii^ love* Occasionally tiie personage instead of voicing 
an attitude toward love repsrasents rather an attitude tonmrd 
art. Such is tJxe ease, for instance, in Le qi&tega dee D^sertea. 
of titiioh Sand writes > "Le Cti&te a a . des Deseartes est une analyse 
de quelqpies idees d*art plut^ qu*une analyse de sentir^ienta. " (S) 
These two sentlsaents placed in juxtaposition ^ive us, indeed, 
limtever clue is necessary to Sand's ndiole artistic erection. 

other more specif ie statements nay, however, be adduced, t'^ie 
such stata:Mnt may serve furtlier to emphasise the self-oonsclouS'-' 
ness of Sand's art. She writes » 

Leila a ete^ et reste dans ma pensee un essal poetique. 

(1) Sand, Adriani * Prifaoe^. ^ 

(2) Sajul, tie Chateau des Deaertesm Preface. 



un rojaam fanta6,quo on lea persoimages ne aont rJ. 
oosoapletflsnent I'oelBy c<x!ime l*ant voulu ]^s anateux>B 

aXX9QorlqpMB, ootsci* l*ont jug^^^elques esp2*lta 
«yiitli^tlqa»a^ mala <nl lis r^z^etitent oluunm ima 
fraction de l^l^telll.^enoe phlloso.^hlqpie du XIXe 
•IsoXes ThUchovie, l*oplcu7eisDie he'rdtior des 
80phl8m©« du sleble demler; Bt^ilo, I'sntlicfusiaarae 
eti^la falblesa© d*3jn toc^s ou l*intelli(;enoe monte 
tres hsEut ontrainee par I'lsiAgination, et tosibe tr^s 
bae^ ^r-as^ jpar une v^edXt^ sans poeaie et snns 
grandeur} Ueiffaxa, le debris d*\xn clers^oo grom^u 
ou abratif ot ainsi den autrea* Quant a Lelia^ je 
dole avouer qua eette figure la'est appaini© en. t:ravai»a 
d'\m© fiction plvie aalaiasonte que oelle.e qui ^ 
l*esitoarent« Ja me aouTlena de is*m;re eoeqpXu a eo. 
falz^s la peraonniflcatlcm encore plus qii© i*avocat 
du 8piritualisz*ie de cea tectma*^!} splrituallssne qui 
a'aat plus tSamn I'hoaBie ^ l^atat de vertu« puisqu'll 
a cease de crolre au dOi^e^qiii le lul pre sc rival t, 
mia qixi rcr teet reatere~a Jatuaism chaa lea Jtatioaos 
delair^s» "^ I'atat da beaoln et d* aspiration Bubliaa» 
]^^2iaqa*lX est l*essaaea laoiBa des inteHlgencea 
alavMa* (1) 

Vlgny too descrlbea hia paracxnagaa exactly in prefaces or in 
his journal but he doea not deaoribe tlion && people tut as 
particular ideas or sentimanta* He writes of ClnqJEars; ".T'a:'wd.a 
daaaaln da paindz^ lea troia aorlias d'aabitlon qui nous peuvant 
raaoar at^ a c^e d*allas» la beaute du sacrifice de 8oi«ai£me 
^ una g^n^nRuie poia^a*" (S) IBien «a naka the aaqoalntanee of 
Riaheliaun Loula^ Cinq-TJarSf and de Thou, it is avidant that, 
to Vi£^y, tliey are not znen but syabols of three types of aioibition 
ttid of <m© tjpe of diainterestedneas. In Vigny'a journal there 
are to ba fouzvl nuraarous references to Daphne although not all 
of than are equally applicable to the ooiapleted voric* The znoat 
illUBiinating of the atateraanta found therein la the brief 

(1) Sand^ Lelia« Profaee^, 

(2) Vi;7isr/ pinq>'l lar n , Reflexion 

a ^^ir , la^ verito d&ns l^art , VI, 


«lggi8tlon!: ^Dlvln.lflQr la conaolonco'*. (1) It Is this eStovt 

ajad Vtiia ralluro ii£)ldi is a^ysibolisod in the person of J^lan* 

That Virpny identifiea in spirit Julien, StelXo^ &nd himself 

is svidsnt not only in his 1)ook Stello but in his r^ferenoss 

to Jtilion in his journal, A« early as 1833 ws find Vljjuy 


J© no puis valncj?© la sympathie qu© j'ai toujoiirs 
eus poup Jull«Ki I'Apofltat, 

Si la xoetoipsycose existe J*ai 9te est horame. 

C*s8t l^hOBBUi dont le x^la^ la vie, le earaotere 
a*«ass«rit Is mleux conv&xm dans I'histoire* (2} 

lis idsntifiea ^hxllen and Stelln in such an apostro^jhs as tas 


Julian dflsuialtt faisoit doainar st recsvait la xoort 
avec la sourix*e sur les liv3*os« 

Soui^iro da pitie^ 

Sourij?© de paisibla dosaspolr, 

Le v^tre, 'S Stellol (3) 
In so identifying Julian and Stello Vl£;ny is, in rsality, 
definlns there as synbols of the divine side of human nature. It 
is lnte2»Q8tlng to observe tliat, in his cicw^arlson of Jiilien 
with hiraaelf f he shows his j^ealiaatlcm of the fact tatiat his 
original choiee in the natter of persono^je is a xnattor of sent- 
iment and not of reasofi* 

The eyldenoe so far nakes it plain that all tlio roniantlciats 
ware agreed as to tihe moral n;oal of their art and as to their 

5iJ ^?^» .J^iSiaLja!iSl.J2^IS* 116. 

(2) Xbld«, 36. 

(3) SI2*» 92. 


deeiro to picture "1« b««u id^al*** The vision of the Ideal 
is to be obtained directly froa Ood tlirou^ the intuition* In 
its repveeentaticm not all of then are as willing to neglect 
probability entirely but it is the gwieral ccmseniRis of qE^Lnion 
that the work of art is wigendered in the artist's mind according 
to his idea or sentiment and then, the artist consults reality 
only in order to adduce the necessary proof for id«Ei or sentiment* 
ftuoh a method results in fi^^res #io eaq^ress and represent a 
single aood (Qiateaubrisnd)* who represMit passions or noral 
ofluses (Mae* de Stael)» ytao represent ideas or sentiiaents 
(Hugo) 9 ifto are" types" (Balsao, Vi£;ny, Sand). In their further 
analysis Vigny and Sand iinplicitly reeognize that a "type" is 
a symbol axui they interpret particular fi('];ures for us* 

Of tlxe events in irtiidi these personages parti cipatSy of the 

Kllieu in which they taov; little is said* On the shole^ Idie 

rtmantlcists seeai to have been unaware that they were exteniing 

their method of creation to the #iole structure of tiie novel 

as well as to the single field of tfuuraoter presentation* 

BalMM is the (sily one of these authors sho states directly t 

*Han seuleBHnt les hommes, mais encore les ^enerasnts principaux 

de la vie, se fonaealont par des types* ** (1) Vi£;ny aokaswledgea 

that events too must be reoomposed in order to represent Idea 

when he writes x 

Aussiy lox«que la UUSE •»— - vient raconter, dans sea 
fovaes passionne^Sy les aventores d*un persmmage 
que je sals avoir v^cu, et qu*elle recceqpose ses 

(1) BalsaOf Oeuvres Ccmpletes * I*, 1*» Avmit-Propos . 56* 


•VMMMBitSy soXon Xa plus grande idee de vice ou 
de vertu que X*on puisse ooncevoir de Ixil* •••(!) 

»• de Stael iraye: "Lea ^^esaents ne dolvcoit etre dana lea 

romana que l*oooaalon de developper los passions du ooeur 

faaanaln** (8) But she doea not carry out her statmnmit to Ita 

logieal ooncluslcm* She aeena to realise neither that ahe 

Boat peraonlfy differmt pasaiona if she ia to anaXyae them 

tlirou^^ peraonagea nor that the eventa muat, if used aa mere 

attidbutea of certain paasiona^ be reduced to typea oorreapeod* 

ing to the personagea and ao, like thrnxk^ beoccie 8ymtx>l* 

B«l»ae givea aoat attention to Hva qtieation of milieu. He 

realisea that a definite aaaociation la aet up between man aad 

hie environment* He writeas 

Alnai I*eeuvre a faire devait avoir una triple forme i 
Xea henaeSf lea feenef et lea eScumm^^ e'aat-a^ire lea 
peraonnee et la repx^sentation materielle qu'ila 
donnent de leur pwieees enfin I'hoame et la vie^ 
ear la vie eat notre v'^ement* (3) 

Here flulaac ia making the atatement that Hugo haa already madet 

that the irihole universe inolviding man ia a vast s^rmbolic 

atruoture in v^fiich t^ie raaterial aa well aa t^ie human is nothing 

but a a^sibol of the divine* But Q^alaao ia more conseioua of 

tSie i&^licaticma of such a atateramt* He perceives that the 

Baterial atmoaphere nhidli invests man ia part of man* a life and 

an extmiaion of hia being* Similarly^ man himaelf fonas part 

of the flutterial atmoaphere and is oo-extensive vith it* It Is 

in this vay that Bala a e eaqpreaQes the mystioiam of the romenticiats 

1) Vigny, Cing-Mara * Reflexions aur la yerit^ dana I'art * X, XI* 

S) Itae* de stael* Preface to I?elphine* SSBl 

5) Balsae^ Oenvres CoppX^tee * I«. 1** Avant-Propoa * 27, 


for vhora the aTopathy* the luumony, and tlie xinlty of the 
sentient and the non«>8antient manifeatationa of God* a thou^^t 
was Ml eaaantiaX t^iet* It la for this reason that we find 
onm Ijurge class of Balsao*s personages itioae aole fimeticm it 
is to provide the baek^pround and to determine the niXieu* flisy 
are apeeial mmifestations of the life of the tlmef they have 
groan out of that life and they fona In their pez^sons tiie soil 
iriiidh will be fH^ourable or trnfavourabXe to tlie new growth of 
a later QeoiBvatlon* It is for this reaa<m that peTB(m&e9 and 
vilistt aoy and do beoome aynon^aDus terras* But that millsu 
^piwsrs aceording to its "type" sad that definite cozrespondsnees 
exist between milieu^ events end personagiey no other of the 
romantioiats suggeats exoept perhaps very vaguely* 

Ihat the romanticists regard their work aa a religious docnasnt 
Riay be perceived by reference to the reoaxteSf easual or otdier* 
wisSf of every one of thmu Chateaubriand* a i^Aiole thau<^t is 
suioasd up in the sentence i "Encore \xne fois» l*auteur a d^ 
eontoattre dea poeraea et des romans isipies avec des po^taaes st 
des roraans pieux*** (1) Ites* de Stael intends to repx^sent the 
true basis of virtue* The philosophical basis of the novel 
tfiouldf 3!» deslareSf represent iaan*s virtue to reside in certain 
s«ttl2nents* "•«**et la vertu, telle que je la eoni^la^ appar~ 
tlent b^oicoup au ooexir} je 1*b1 noBsnee blenfaiaancey ncn 
dana l*acceptlon trea bomes qu'«i dcMine a ce mot« male en 
deaignant alnsl toutes los actions de la bonte*** (2) Send 

(1) Chateaubriand^ Atala. Ren^ « Preface de 1805« Extralt d« la 

Defense du Osnie du Ghriatlania^ * 
(8) Stee* de Sts«l« De I'Influenos des passions , ife 


dMKivib«s ^rft ^^^TTBiiiili "^^ ^Q^^ ^^ Fpaiaee aa " tin Xivre dont 
I'ld^ evazif^lique ^talt le but biexi declaro"* (X) Belsoe 

lie ohri.stlaniaiB«« «t surtout le caldioliciaBHi, ^tant 
"^rr" vn systoms oompXet de z>e^3?es edon des, tendances 
di^prav^^B de VYiamnm^ est le plus grand el^ra^t 
d*Ordx« Social* — -— La pensTO^i prlnoipe dejs maux 
et des blensy ne peut '^re pz^parM, dosi^tM* 
dlrlgi(e ^pie pap la relisl<m«*»« (3) 

SlnoA BalsaOf as «e have tmen^ Intends to represent espeoialXy 

"l*Oz>dre Social" 9 and since religion is to him its most isi^portant 

elencHit* it is evident ttiat Balzao too considers his vork to 

have a distinct religioixa foundation* Hugo states of feee 

HlwtrableB ; "Le livre qu*on va lire est un livre religieux." (3) 

Bjat it is ViQny»e statement that makes itiost apparoit the 

relationa^iip between philosophy* reli(j;lon, tmd aesthetic theory 

in roiiianticiaBa and raakes most appairant also hov close a 

relationship exists betise«i rollGion and s^robol* The philosoi^hie 

point of view is in Vigny always closely allied to the poetic •» 

or t^ie aeatSietie* He writes: 

XI y a« dans les oeuvres d*art^ deux points de vuet 
l*un philosophique* l*autr>e poetiqiie« Le point de 
vue phiXosophique doit soutenlr X'oouvre, drsme ou 
Xlvre* d*wi p^le^a X*autre« pr^cisiSment ecBsoe X*ax8 
d*un gXobe} liiais le globe* dons sa foxne arrondie 
et eoopXete^ avec 3^9 oouXeurs varices et briXlantes* 
est tme iaage de X'art qui dolt "^re tou jours en vue« 
oa toumont autour de la pens^ philosophique et 
X'emportant dans son atmosplHire**** (4) 

It is noticeable* even as lie writes this «xplanation of the 

z>elaticmiaiip of the philosophic and the aesthetic that the 

X) Sand* Le Corapapyion du tour de f^panc e* Notice de 1851« 
2) BaXsac* Oeuvres Comple]tee* I»» l**" Xyant-»Propoa « 50« 

5) Hugo* Prt^f'ace phllosoTAiiquej 317* 
4) Vi/ggr.' Taamal d'un po^te * 154* 


WQilanfttion is clothed in the liaagQy tlh» symbol* In this 

respeott relir^lon ls» to Vigny* essentially a woxlc of art* He 

asslnilates religion to poetry in aeny pasMigee* Ue writes « for 

Instanoe, on two different oooaslonat "Les T>elislone eont dee 

oeuvree de poeale*" (1) He asoribee to poetry the virtues 

tAiioh he has ascribed to religions t 

(^il« Xa po^ie esjb vaam volupte« rmis vaam volupW 
eouvrant la pensee et la r^idejit liui'neuse par 
1* eclat de son oristal pr^servateuTy qui lui 
peznettra de vivre etemellement et d*eolalrer 
sans fin* <2) 

that poetry does not neeessarlly find fonaal eaqpresslcxa in art 
but can he, x>athsr« a foxn of contemplation is also an integral 
part of Vi^iy's point of view and ls« pesrhaps* a natural 
eorollasy of his Idsntlfleatlon of poetry with religion. He 
writes t " Ii'gtude pour 1' etude ■ o*est la ce qu»il faut dire, 
et non I'art pour l*art # L*^tude nene au perieoticnuMnant de 
sill I Alia et des autres* Ii*art conduit a un petit trlcBBpha de 
vanlte »** (3) It Is evident tdiat all these oonolusions are 
o<mtained in Daphne for, sinoa l)aphn<^ o<meems reli^imi, it alae 
directly concexna the work of poetry* If religion is alwaya 
syBa>olie of an idoa» so to Vlgny Is poetry alwc^ra a fo»i of 
m^tAiol^ 'SiM recurring syabolism in Vi^pny's work Is only, there- 
fore, a reearrln^3 proof of the idea ocmtained in Daitow< 

To apply the sum fomula to Vl^piayis art is inevitable* Tkim 
preface to his earliest prose work nada plain his int«^ti(»i 

(1) Vlgny, Journal d'un po^te * 90, 154* 

(2 Ibid.; ws: — — — 

(5) ISP* ^ 244. 


tihat ttie historlc«il Incident flhouXd be subservient to the ZdMU 
Bat, just aa pjoatme stakes plain* tlie Pure Xd««i needs a medlijira 
of interpretation for insaanity* This medium «^ the xK>et*0 
Hot^a — is, of neceastty, ssw.bol. If it is religion wMcJi 
preserves the essence of laoralltyi, it is art ^nisose fable pro* 
partes the essence of truth, concealing the Pure Idea under 
t3ie sjHBTibolic cloak of hletorlcal personage and hlstortoal 

After the study of a generation of wrltears "Shose aestSietle 
theories, in spite of evidsoit differ<»ices. Show, nevert'ieless, 
a r;:flneral slioilarity of outlook, it is instructive to excrmine 
the «oz4c of ^Hieophile Oautler «nd to observe the manner in 
which his theories serve as a ooesaentary on ronanticlam and, at 
the sasw tiim, fox^ a logical oontinuation of the romantic 

The adoption of the novel in the eif^tiMnth century as a gsnrtt 
iNNPllAjf of serious ccmsideration had been acoonpaaie'i hj eat 
effort to ennoble it« Ihis tdie ei^teentSi o<mtury writers had 
thought to accomplish by deiaonstiraitlnc; titie fitness of the novel 
ae a vehicle for aorsd. or philosophic teaching* As «e have 
•een, the novelists of the early nineteenth centuxy accepted 
this theory with enthusiavn, the more so because the wrltezv 
of the rocoantioist pez4od had come to regard truth and l:>eauty 
as aynanynous texvui and Iiad aeeepted the metier of tihie r>o«t 
with the conviction that t^e poet was necessarily invested with 
ttie mission of the px<<n3het« As t&e afjjHMiBmtatives of Ood on 


•artb their voices cried out t^e abonizmtions and sine of this 
vorldf calling upon man to i^opont and to build a nev Eden after 
the fomulft iHiioh they pi^eecribed* tThe novel becasae the 
revelation of the poet's divinely Inepired dressui and^ la the 
early nineteentii c«itux7« theee dreams Showed a predomina&t 
intereffi %n eoolal bettexvent* If the individual were naturally 
good and yet life tsos not a dz>cem of liappineas* t^ie culprit zaust 
be eoeiety* Besuse a nawev, more perfect form of society must 
be devised* From Cihateaubrland and Khrn* de Stael to Htxgo, Vlgny, 
Balzae, and Sand» U» search for t^e fonoola for happiness 
was continued in successive novels » novels idiich sou^t to 
peraisaAs and dsoonstrate by swans of a spurious logie deteznined 
in advanoe by j. griort eonvicti(»is« 

In Oeutier a double reaction i^^linst the premises of these 
writers appears* Xet* ri^^tly understood^ his reaetidi against 
ronanticiam asy be seen^ nevertheless, to leave him in the 
romanticist oarip* It is for tMa reason tSiat, as ne have seen, 
his asthod of (diaraoter presentaticm Shows less variaticm frcst 
the aetheds of Ms fellow roonnticists than mi|^t seen at a 
eeimal glance to be the case* 

In a study of 6autisr*s prefaces to his prose works very little 
can be fouz^ which bears directly upon hia conception of 
dsairaeter cx^aticm* On the other hand, Qautier takes care to 
define certain aspects of his aesthetic theory with an eaphasis, 
a violenosji evon — i^iich makes it obvious that, for hiai, the 
pendulum has swung to the opposite extrene to that which called 


foz*th his px^test and coca^gex^ted his attitude* 

Th» vead/BT of Gautier^s preface to hi a first volvaoB of pros© 
voslcs will find not only a key to the ideas *hi<3\ reaprxsau? ?Ji 
the preface to Wftfltnoleelle de Maaoin but also a def initiotn of 
certsdn of the (duumoteristics v^tiioh are those of the earlier 
novelists of romantlcloiu Zn a brief par«gra|ih (l) Gmitier 
ridiooles the predileetion of the conteiaporary novelists for 
r^ardlng themselves as prophets of a new falth| the nateiral 
ttayQmiCfj of this attitude to result in the lan^xage of n^ftfe and 
allagorjs the neoessaarily ulterior goal iftiidbi midb. prefaces 
iftMW* 2^ denying the artist his divine mission Qautier at the 
•me tiJM denies Mat the ri^^t to BBTtaonlze tlirou^ the sodium of 
his art* He writes t '*Quant a Tacm opinion sur l^art« je pense 
^IM e*est ime Jcmslerie pare — — En f?iit d'aartistes, je n»estlB» 
que lea aerobates." (2) Th» artist is a ticJitrope walker rather 
than a proisi^t. The spectator admires the ease and grace of 
t3ie perfonasnoe but he does not search for a raoral» His sole 
©oncern is wiiii the art vfhlcSn pexrilts of a tcn^>orary tr1.ta^h 
over aatter and its laws* Such an art has no and beyond itself* 
It is its o«n cp»l and has no other* The theory of art for 
art's sake plaees Gsutier In direct opposition to the series 
of novelists we have studied i*io, thou£?^ difforing from each 
other in many respects « possess a fundasisntal tx*ait In eonison in 

(1) Oeutior^ Les Jeunee^Freaiee * Preface* 

(2) Ibid* 


th© fact; tSiRt «a<Ai writes wltai a novel or pMloeopMc rmrponeg 
E purpos© uhlcih domljiateo his art and l8* lnd««d» its detezodnlng 

Yet, rettdins OflMtler attwitlvely, the contrast between Mb 
attitude ftnd that of hie nortfwrNorRrip.B cefwwi to ditnljilsh, "^je 
pirefaoe to Fii'tmiio iiftii(di begins as a lao^Eery of t^e lnt«rmin- 
ahly lane and bju*^ tioo frequent prefacea Characteristic of 
the novels of the day, goea on, hoiwver, to the stateniantl 
" gbrt<inio eat un hysmo a la beRute, a la riehcase^ au b<Nlhmp» 
lee trois seules dlvinltee qtie nous reconnainaione.,«.«" (1) 
f?«oitler»8 art «- like tJiat of the novelists ttoow he mocks •— 
seams likewise to re««nEble ft f*>*w of rellgioua feeling* Buft 
in his ease the eexnon beecnes a hgsm and Hm h^an apotheoaiaes 
a new divinity -• beauty. Bemitv la tJie keynote to Gaaxtler^a 
aeethetlea and it is evident that Oetutier — - at least in FortuniON '« 
la setting; up beauty as an ideal nnd aa tiie sole valuable 
l<?oal# The ffliolce of Ideal — the fact thnt It Is an aesthetic 
rather than a noral <me — mav-es no eaaentlal differeno© In 
rejrard to tho basic method of his art. Thm very f«ujt that 
GsPitier too is xinder the necessity of flndinc a faith and of 
deciding upon his personal criterion of the ideal — this f/ory 
fact est^j.bllrtics a bond between htn nrwi the rooiantieists. ^Phe 
personal faith has replaced objective authority. The sui^gestlcaa 
la -- . a »\v3geetion only to be confitroed by a study of Oauti«>*8 
s ui i i •>- that, like the other romanticistay his r^resantatica 
of the world is bassd less on observation than on en Ideal 

(l)(ie3itiery Nouvelles . Fortunjo . Preface. 

*SttaB "art fox* art's sake" wust be riodlflod to "art for b««uty*s 
i^'J-c"« fhe dlfferonce betevaen this foxnolA ami such a one a« 
no «di^t aacrlba to Hugo — "art for tlie sake of humanltarianlsai'' , 
for inatancw — • resides In the fact -ttiat a cortalji harsKwiy 
betwacn art tmd beauty has always be«n £^«nerally r<aoo^ii2:ed* "let. 
If a work t*iich Is uniertalcen for tlie sake of beauty sets out 
to prove the suprene value of beauty, a certain SBioraalfmrntess 
results. B«u2ty nay be miz-arded as tine ^oal of the fine arts 
wl12i0ut necflttsarlly belns regained as t2io Qoal of life in 
general or as the laethod by i*iloih happiness Is attained. If, 
for Qaiatler, beauty is to esrve as the soigle fomula #ii(^ trill 
provide the open sesffioe to happiness and if, in Gautier's v?oz^, 
ttie IdMJL world la to revolve around the possoasifai of beauty, 
ti^exL Gautlcr's art cnn l^e seen t* be reduced to tltA charaoter*- 
Icttie notSiod of roaanticisQw 

Bor can one neglect the significant confession in the preface 
to Lea Jmmes-»rranco nftxere Gautier writes: "Par sulto &Q !aa 
concentration dans laon e£o, cette Id^ la'eat venue, naintes 
fois, que j'etais seul eu ■ilieu de la creation*" (1) This la 
tite pineictlcal result of the acceptance of the Idcalisra so 
Buccesn fully propounded by German jdiiloaophcrs. The world of 
sensaticm and feeling is, necessarily, a subjective world in 
nftiioh all standards are relative aiKi no unlversals are possible* 
The norld of feeling is a world of particulars and the contlncjent. 
It is a world of isolation. The social world is replaced by 

(1) Oautior, L ea Jeunes-France . Preface. 


tlio ©go and tii© a3pix»atlon of tiiat ego is toward the iopossible 
since. In a world #ilch is a subjective croaticm* all things 
may h appen no matter how inpoasible. The author 1*10 lives 
admittedly in a world dominated i^y his own ego can create and 
repreeait no other type of woi*ld. Objective reality is 
thoorotically denied. Practically, c^any of the rosuanticiats 
found It convenletit to deny their own pr^saises, ^et tii© baaio 
foundation of Gautier*s artistic world sMy b© largely dedueed 
from this single atatetnent ©veti th^mgh such a stateiu^it, unless 
its exact implications are furtlier developed, laay prove more 
misleadlns tiian enllght©aln<2. 

tSoreovor any conclusicm to be dra«n ftroaa Oauti©r*3 prefaces 
cannot be valid if it does not take into account the preface 
in vliidhi Gantler*s tSioucJit appears most clearly, the famous 
preface to Mademoiselle de Maupin , This preface will lead us 
to modify the iiapresaion created by Uie above citations and 
will eoQ^iasi^ Gautier's rejection of the extremes of ronanticisn* 
It contains a violent attack on tlie prevalent taate for laorali^ 
and utility in litem ture -~ a taste «daicli tranaforoie tlie 
BtandaM of critioisn and maizes of those virtues the goal of 
art. The natural concocoltaBii of the rejection of the utilit- 
arian point of view is tho rejection of the idea of progress 
and perfectibility* In other words, Oautier declares that t2ie 
art triiose goal is liicral and idiose utility la supposed to 
consist in tlie influence tdiidh it exercises toward tho progress 
of Rumkind, tha^: this art is, after all, tuseless, since these 
ideas are futile and false* On the other hand, nothing Interuied 


for utility has beauty* 

Ri«n de ce qui est b«au n*ent indispensable k 
Xa vie, — .— 

II n'y a do vrainent beau que ce qui ne peut 
servlr a rienf tout ce qui est utile est laidf 
ear e^est 1* expression de quelque b<9s;;^in, et 
efmx de I'hoene sont i gobies et denoutantSf 
MMM sa paulve et infirme nature* Tl) 

Tliere is here the definite statemmit of the gratuitous quality 

of beauty. This is eq^xivalent to a statoaient of the grattdtous 

quality of Qaatier*s books as also of tlie ideal «iorld idiidi 

he reps^sents and of the ideal personoc^s "fi^ live therein* 

It is in harciony witli suoh a statement that Gaatier*8 
per8<magea ^ould* as. have obseznred to be true^ app€»ar under 
•a entirely unsocial aspect | for such an attitude preclxtdes 
any desire to present tlie irorld* It results rather in the 
representaticm of individuals v^io i^ore society since they 
lack axxj interest in social eldiic and the s/exiBveJL bettem^it 
of mankind* Tba reaction a^^nst the general interest in 
sociology ist in fact* the peculiar quality of Gautier*s 
artistic ideal idiich sets him apart frora his fellov romantioista* 
Sand's ideal^ for exas^le^ appears as a Utopia constructed 
aa an answer to the social pz^blems of poverty and class 
distincti<»i and its z^presantatlim will be that of a Utopia 
for the individual ego* Cteutier's conoenif on tiie contrary^ 
is for tiie individual attainment of beauty, a beauty lediicli 
mat be eacpexlenced throxig^ the soisea* 7et both attitudes 

(1) Qautier« KadeiBDiselle de Maupin* Preface, 23* 

-Z I ~£ • 

are indications of a raateriallstio point of vi«« for Sand* 8 
attention to aatiafaetion in social life shova the predotainanoe 
of her interest in tlie pl^sieal ooinforts of this world ifhile 
aautier's eoneexn is «i^ a world nMoh nay be known prSmarlly 
only throu^ tlie senses* 

Bat« in spite of Gtaoitier's apparent relationship to rcmGnticisrat 
in spite of t^e subjective basis of his art« and in spite of 
bis conscious exaltation of beauty as the centre of his 
universe^ Omitier does« nevertheless^ part ocaapany with the 
voBianticists. The subjective basis of his art talces Gautier 
beycmd pure subjectivism into the z*ealn of the fortuitous and 
the relative* Subjectivism in Sajiid» on the ecmtrary^ reroained 
in the realm of l^e passionate « the voluntary » and the absolute* 
Hence Sand, as we have seen, conceives of the social religion 
wjilch is her subjective interpretati<m of the world as a 
religion valid for all* Her effort to esqiMUod tiie individual 
to the \iniversal« the relative to the absolute , the ego to 
society^ is eiqpJSHMiseA in art by utilitarianism* Gautier, on the 
contrary 9 realises the presence of other worlds besides the 
subjective one he has created* He may at tinies Imagine hi-nself 
to be alone in the universe but even as he oherislies the 
Illusion Iw knows it to be illusion* Hence his ''relici<^'* of 
beauty is not social in its aims emd lacks all moral (hence 
all "useful** ) relations* Every man oust seek and find his 
owa individual beauty* 

Thus, thou,c^ Qautier does not substitute an objective absolute 


for tiie rmtantiolat ccmTusionSf It Is evid^at that vitli him 
vogoaantioiam has entered a n«w phase* The desilal of dualism 
had meant to the roraantloiets the necessary Identity of rioz^ 
truth and artistic beauty* It had nteant too the absolute faith 
in the ego since each man*8 nature was^ by definition^ C^od* 
In Qautler's vrltingt rcnaantlclsm tiiows Itself onee more to 
have becooie ocmscious of the existence of distinctions* Iftiity 
is once more broken up into variety* Man is no longer Identical 
vith infinity* On the ccmtrary^ his is a '*pauvre et Infinne 
nature"* (1) The direeticm of tho development of r(»nantlol8ia 
is hex^ distinctly foreshadowed azid the i>osalblllty of a new 
type of subjectivisa any be foreseen* But l^e dualism of 
olas8ioiffa« the authority of the objective^ the noral respons- 
ibility of the individuelf tliese are principles «)hlch continue 
to rsBiain in abeyance* 

Thm analysis of the deolarations of the rc^nantlcists has ahova 

us a very definite consciousness In z*e^unl to their adssion 

and their intentions* It reveals also a certain oon^r^ensicm 

of the implications of such an attitiide and in certain writers^ 

as* for instansef in Sand and Vigny» analysis shows that they 

have definitely labelled their work as symbolic and have* on 

e<wa8i<my bewi sufficiently complaisant to translate tlie 8;^zabol 

for the reader* IVhat literary Inportanoe can be attached to 

ttiese facts? Ihat is the importance of the teidmlque in art 

whioh found its Innovation with the romanticists? Th» answtr 
can oTxly te terttatlve.. 

(1) Sand, Madartiolselle de Haupin * Prof ace, 22* 


Th* trtM understanding of th* f«ets «hl<Ai t^ils thAcla h&s 
dMBoaattratod depends ttpon an iindexm tending of the doctrine 
of elassioisBi and sn appreciation of the fundamental inoonsK* 
patibility between this doctrine and that of roaantioiam* The 
ovi^in of the classio doctrine and of the eonoeption of ehar* 
eeter which is its concomitant BBist« in fact^ be sought in tJhe 
Reneissanee period* H«aoe the Importance of the aesthetic 
tenets of romantleiaa can be properly evaluated only through a 
eaiHpiret»e]isi<»i of the tradition from vdiieh it rebelled and the 
laq»ortanee of their influence only throu^ a stiidy of tlM 
tradition it has engendered* 

The splMt of the Renaiasanoe had manifested itself in six* 
teenth eentuxT' Pranoe throu^ two aaia ■oreawatst the Ismmn* 
istio movement and the Reform taovcanent, Vith the asoension of 
Henri IV to the thrcme^ thm Refom movement no Icmger had any 
doadnant influence on a Franco iidiieh was destined to remain 
Catholic* But the religious passions ehieh had been roused 
during the long muE*s had had the off est of wakening in mankind 
a personal conscience, a religious sentiment idiioh made him 
freshly aivare of the dualima of hie om nature and of the 
reality of original ain* Contrary to the Proteatantimn ehieh 
made divine grace the sole neeessity for salvation, Catholicism, 
throon^ saint Francois de Sales, shoved that the human will 
was of efficacy in opening the way to this graee and that it 



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dt;X/oiruJ xX«o 9t 





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arid" . 

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vas possible for man to rork toward his o«n rsgsasratloa. (1) 
Thus Cattiollclsm prepared the way for the surprising allianee 
ehidh was to fona the main current of seventeenth eenturj 
thou^t — > the alliances that is^ with the philosophy of stoic- 
leoBx whidh had been Introduced into France by Montaigne and 
nod^nised by him and his sueeessors« The whole idea of Fremeh 
classicism rested on this double basis of Christian end stoic 
tradition* The (Suristlan tradition affirmed titie dualism of 
Bsn^s natures the stoic tradition emphasised the possibility — 
throu^ right judenent — of developing each separate faeulty 
to Its highcat exeellence* Vice was considered to be an error 
of Jud@nent for the vrill was always in hanaony wlt^ nftuit tiie 
jud^aent decided was good* 

The ereatitm of character in French dassloisn was, neeessarily^ 
conditioned by the ideals of the tine and by the literary 
aesldietlc which these ideals had pi*oduced* The ideal of unity 
dexoinated the political^ religioas« and artistic worlds* In 
actual 11 fe^ classicisn had set up the type of the ideal char- 
acter »> the "honnete hoerae* <•- who was the model of itiat man 
lAxould be • In literature, accordingly, there was set up for 
the artist on imaginary type who would represent mankind's 
tmiversal ideal* Xn the measure that the created character 
eseteewed extreaies and approached the ideal norm, in midh. a 
measure did he possess excellence* The ideal nona, it rmist be 

(1) Saint Francois de Sales. Tmft— iuction a la vie d^9fm* 
nature of saint Francois *s teachings is clearly evitlwn 



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t :.»-«'« *i* ^.'V. 

StU ft; 

11'. -ist =ivy 




[g ho««v«r» waa the Ideftl of perfoctlon intvoduaed 
thx>ouf^ the doctrine of the etoloa. tbm, la developlag every 
T>at*t of his natux*e to its most perfect form« would beecne the 
■ttpeman of olaeeical literature and true happiness vould b« 
the result of a discipline determined by reason* This is 
Comeille's Cldf the typical heroic tihaz^eter of Pren<^ clas* 
sioisBu This too is tiie ideal to vhich Racine *s heroes viU 
e<mfom although* in Raoine» the hez^io is tecqsered by tbe 
•leasnt of sensibility lidiich he introduces* It* thereforo* 
becoaes true that the conventional corx^sponds to the good and 
the individual is subjeeted to the convention of a Txnivers&l 
good* The writer of the classic period negleotedf therefore^ 
with impunity ->- negleetedf in fact* on principle* any des- 
cription of details i^ii^ would be applicable only to iti» 
individual* He ecmoentrated his attention exelusively on 
lihat was gmerally oharaeteristic not only in the inner but 
also in the outer life of the personage* The charaeteristic 
struggle which provides the action of the class! oal novel or 
play is the struggle of the opposing forees witiiin raan*s own 
nature* The drana depends less on the exterior events irtiieh 
preeipltate the sjtruggle than on its progress within the 
ehaipaeter and on title noral ohoies wliic^ he is forced to i&ake* 
fhe diolce is made according to the generally reoo^ized 
standard which set up the "honnete hoane" as the universal 
eiini4>lar* Hmma reascm has chosen the true good — as in Le 
Cid — we have the typical hero of dassieisa and* at the sane 
tlBSf a character who is of universal interest nad iBq;>ort* 


'r-?^ ^<» X«©M erf^ 9it^ .fftr'wwrf , »s*n«'f?«»*w^ 





-o ®a>i 

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tfL ^r 

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■-n orf::- rso h-nK 

^£bi 4ii 

47 9 . 

P«xtiaps the aoat fundaiaontaX aesthetic principle of ctne* 
sielflBt had Its origin in the tri»>le«^arted ei^ general 
aooeptonce of a oosataon oonveation* The eonmon convention 
irtiich accepted CathoXieiaa as its faiths monarohj ax its gov- 
eraxumtp the "hcmn^te home* as its social ideal « placed the 
enphasis on constituted authority* tUm knew a practical 
approximaticm to the ideal in every i^iase of his life end he 
was free to struggle tomu^ an ideal which he ndght observe 
in practice. He founds in faot« the approxJUoate incamaticm 
of the universal ideal in the finite world around him* His 
aspirations were confined to the reasonable, therefore, to the 
finite« He accepted a faith, a ruler, and a conventlcm and 
•oui^t hie happiness within these liiaits and knew his happlnees 
to depend upon the manner in lAiich he conforoed to the establish- 
ed ideal. The seventeenth century was not, thez*efore, concerned 
with the infinite* Its attention was directed toward constit- 
uted society as it then existed. The sevmteenth ccmtury 
artist, thez*efoz^, recognised that his artistic activity was 
eoneemed with the iiaitation of nature, that is, of huatfui 
nature as it appeared in existing society. The exact meaning 
of tdiese words laif^t be a matter of dispute but, in gcmeral, 
it was reoognized that such imitation requix>ed an attmition 
to probability and truth and necessitated superior powers of 
observation. We have already noted the manner in which the 
eharaeteristio persozwges of classicism reveal an attention to 
observed reality rather than to syllogistic logio. They are 
eharacters who approach the ideal but do not spring frcsa it* 
TlMy have their basis in actual esperlenoe just as man's 

itO h 


«^w S?,' 

JTCt *: 



IntelXeotual llf« dep«mds upon his eox*por«l eadatonoe* 

But the clasaiolsa tdHoh had been founded on a heroic ideal 
oame» little by little^ to asaurae the fox%i of a do^^Enatio 
ocsiventicm and the figure of the "honne^e hoarae"^ tnily huaan- 
Istlc in Its oxdginai concepticai, beearae vith the advent of 
neo-olaasieiam^ oa artificial sodel to be Imitatwi not sol 
Imaginary ideal to be created* For neo-olassieifsm hsA oocie 
to re«t Ite theory upon outer authority rather than on ixmer 
pera«ption and* in this* it had lost the spirit of trae eXas* 
sieiSBU The resixlt was that classioisst m^dh, according to 
Irving Babbitt, is an "laaslnative perceptlOTi of the TmlT©r8al*» 
had developed instead Into a set of rules and principles 
founded on tx*adltion and intended to preserve the ideed of 
deoorun* The doctrine of imitation had Regenerated into an 
laitation of accepted forms and laodeXs and the neeessity for 
probability excluded all elffiient of surprise* Reason^ tiMoh 
had been understood by the classicists to roean reasonableness, 
was nov limited in its meaning to the reason lAxic^ is ratiooin* 
ation. &ocordl2igly, z<«a8oa had been set in absolute oppoalticm 
to the Izaaginatlon* Slrxilorly, nature, uSiioh, to the classicist, 
aMois noznal tesaan nature, had cooe to be a term practically 
synonyiaoua with reason* Convontional dogjaa had replaced the 
reality of classiciffliu At the saste time, en^irioion and 
ilUl:osi«niaBi had apparently suooawfted in lockings hunwiity 
within title bounds of a raath^suitieal fonouXa* The limitations 
wlilGh neooclassioiaa ioposed were seconded by the restrictive 


tt»oB of th«sa dootrinos* 

With til© devttiopraent of the aaotlonal ronemtlclsn of the late 
eifTihteanth century^ th«re was a br««k xrith both the Christian 
and the olasaio tr»adltion« 5h« degioa«ration of olaas^sisBi 
into a dogna ^ilfiJh fapreaaed all spoitanelty of perception and 
d«Qlad may nu^boidty lAiloh was abo^TO reason was Obib sufflelMit 
cause for the Immediate popularity and the inramiae influeance 
of the new attitude. Romantlcisn aoeepted the absolute divorce 
set up between reason and ioaelnation by the ncK}*oXas8icist8 
but did so in order to rejeet reason in favta^ir of ttie imagln- 
atioiu The free play of the imagination was only possible If 
feeling — or, in other words « instinct — reiplJiecd reastm as 
the guide to truth* Deooruis flffid rules and slatriih imitation 
of set models were to be replaced by- on eranhasla on 'shat was 
original and 8urpi*ising« The esMsiew of Housseauisn is con- 
tained in the new Interpretation o£ the word "nature", A» 
Babbitt says* 

A iftiole revolution is implied in this reinte*;** 
pretation of tlie word nature. To follow nature 
in the classical sense is to i^aitate «hat is 
noxvial and representative in man and so to be* 
ocsae deeorous* To be natural in the now sense 
one saxst begin by getting rid of imitati<m and 
deoonaa, *«« >• Tkui priiaitiwist <-«•>» means hf 
natux^ the spontaneous play of Inpulse and 
temperament f and inaszauch as this liberty is 
hizidex'Sd rathar than helped by reason^ he in* 
ellnes to look on reas<m« not as the equivalent 
but as the opposite of nature* (1) 

Thus prijsitiviara came to be a virtue in itself and^ vhen tiie 
(I) Babbitt, Bousseau and Reman ticis^S a 38. 


:*?'.- f'^ . fat -i ff,^. 



'/ Aus;^. 


-?v; ■i<;'.e<ni«.»solE , 


break vith Ghzdstlan tradition^ throuj^ the medium of deleft 
and the solentiflo theory of endless progress, siade it possible 
for the Rousseauist to proclaim the natural virtue of aati, 
prindtive nan was coneeived of as natarally good* uncorrapted 
by the hmssn law irtilch, in replacing natural law, had sreated 
erll. Thus the exaltation of the expansive instincts, of the 
unconscious, of primitive nature aand prlaltiT© tnan, aialtes it 
inevitable that, to the romantic, virtue itself should beeoaw 
an instinct since virtue ie considered instinctive in man, 

Sueh a develoynent as sadism — an aspeet of roasntioisa lAiich 
ori,3irjat©d with the atar^iais de Sade — is sn evidence of the 
possiMlitles contained in the romantic doctrine* For rostan* 
ticiam rejects discipline, religious or otherwisoj indivldmal- 
Ism is its creed and the exti»ome, bordering on secentriclty or 
laadness, beoosies its ideal, in striking contrast to the nom 
which classiclsa had established* Ronmnticlsat develops than 
very naturally its ttieories of the i»omantic genius, of the 
"beau id^J.*, of f3^e inevitable clash betwe«i ideal ana real, 
of rorMmtio love and rornantic melancholy. 

The rejection of diseipline and thio ccMoplete acoeptanoe of 
Impulse, intuition, instinct, as positive goods bewame, xutt* 
urally, a part of the aesthetic theoi^- of rofnantieisa* The 
olassieist had pleoed his tBophasis on foxsa and structure and 
had sou^t to congress axd restrain within a given form the 
infinitely expansive matorlal le^lch nature offered him. Bwt 
the romantic was averse to any idea of restraint* To lialt 


■:ir itreff 




.Vi..^-.t. -. 

hnr. eTtrrtnr 


iiiza. e£o<sq;i3QO cj 

tX« mt 


hla loaterlal to siiit the requiroBawits of the form iigii:^ hm 
«a« using waa aa contrtuy to his theory aa it vould have been 
to oheok his eaqpanalve ixapulsea to auit the reijuiretaenta of 
nomal human nature* The eaisihasia fonae::'ly placectjon fona 
glvea way to an exiQ>ha8ia txi natter* Hugo* for inataoi^, is 
notorioue for his neip.6et of fom and hia inaertlon of grwit 
zaiuisea of extroneous aatter into the texture of his work* The 
inability to rejeot material tihich offers itself is conecniitant 
vith the inability tc differentiate* Where all ia e<2:aally 
good end no reatroining atandard iiaposea itself, the relative 
values are loat* The severs of Paris becosie aa ixapoz^ant as 
the battle of Waterloo or 1ib» arohlteetore of Faria and all 
are equally important as the main thesMi of the novel. Thia 
anomalcnia poaitlon leads later to the atreas on the teohniqpxe 
of literature and of literary art and to the theory of art 
for art's s&Ice — both syaptoms of the unnatural aeparatlon 
effected between fom and matter due to the laelc of discridi* 
inaticm of which the roroantic artiat oade a virtue* 

The "hoon^te hOBaae" of tlie elasslc period had retreated before 
the advent of the roauntic senius* Tlic change is reflected 
in the literature and the iaQ>ox^ance of the peraonage ia no 
longer in dix»eot ratio to his universality but depends rather 
on the manner in «&iich he reflects the extreoec of individualo 
laa« For reason n^ be univcz>sal but foelizig, of necessity^ 
ia individual* The personage becomes « therefore « the reflection 
of the author's individual ideal •>« an ideal determined by 


.iA . 


foellng. The pathological literature of the preaent day with 
Its onpb&sls on the sab«noznal «ind t^ ateormal individual 
was forecast In the early nineteenth century by a aeries of 
literary creations tiho displayed great morbidity and oscillated 
between the extreoes of the most ^rlolwit idealism and ttie noet 
bratal realicEu 

It la to be noted, raoreov&r, that the classical emphasis on 
structure ^^vea tray to the roBianticlst str»eB8lng of details. 
This is in eon^uncticai with the deslz^ for the elenent of 
novelty end sui^rise nflilch makes reBjanticlsn tend tOfRird the 
picturesque, the concrete, and the historically correct detaila 
«*iieh serve to provide local colotir# The personage is now 
aaAe the subjeet of a detailed description. His concrete 
setting is hli^y partlcularisjed and once a^ttln the universal 
is saerlficed to the local and individual, 

Sudi a personage, then, extrene even to eccentricity or madn^Bt, 
since he represents the author's philosophical attitude, is 
shown as naturally sood. It is to be observed that %laae 
expressly denies the Rousseoaistio theory of man's natural 
virtue. But, althou^ he denies that all the evil In man's 
nature cotMs fspom society, nevertheless, he too places the 
responsibility for the suppression or development of mui's evil 
tendenelea not on the individual man but on the society i*il^ 
surrounds hia« Actually, the roraantic personage laeks character 
since he ajakes no itusral choice. The creators of these pex*aon* 
ages have denied the essential dualiara of laan's nature and 


plaoed thd moral respo3itlblllt7 on eooioty ftt th^ 
tliae that thmy bave ftPMd man from its yok** Passive oreatux^s 
of feeling «- passive inasoMb as they are reinpesented as 
respcaxsive to ov&jyy sosgestlon froa tbe outer irorld «-• l^bese 
iK>aantic tlnirBB nurt'rn all their vitality from tl»l? will 
ttoieh i8» indeed, their sols torn of expression — for* the 
feeling isdiiah begets desire finds Its outlet In rlll» llie 
•trusgle «hioh classic art represents as between the dual 
forces In man's natui?e, ronantic art represents as the straggle 
between natural nan and oorruptlns society. rSan, in order 1-^ 
allow free play to Ms crpanslve natiire, may, i^en he oonsa 
into conflict with luoaon law, as represented by society, either 
bend soeiety to his will, suecuafl} to it, or withdraw fvoa it« 
The 8ti*tBgth of a pevsoaase seHea to be synompMHUi with tbm 
•tvettgth of his ds sires and of tlie ^11 uniieh eiq^resses them* 
Will at the service of desire Is the ke^iiote of the romantic 

The exaltation of the life of feelins brings with it a trans- 
fonsation of the idea of love* Wcnsn eho is conceive:! to be 
all feeling and passion is exalted to ^e sphere of tfce angels 
for the foeling vihich ohe Inspires w5.tli ita itluslon of 
infinity awst necessarily bring lum closer to Ood — since, to 
the roiimatic, the feeling of infinity is God* Leve beeoass a 
necessity for existence and the ri^ts of man are extended to 
include an eqEual right to happiness* Happiness is no leseer 
thouj^t of as the result of a reasoned discipline of life 




l3Ut rather afl tl^e rewdLt of sm oatpoctsicm of feeling* Aceord* 
Ingly, happiness Is most fj'equontly anrtQ&QGd as tbe ?»eaTAlt 
of love, *Je veux etre alroe* Is tbe cry of the iHsaantic and 
he -v^ic is incapable of arousing or experiencing love eirike 
into rcxaantlc Toelancholjr, Literary ohajpaoterlzafeion reflects 
thl3 phase of rooantlolara in the aanner in stolch troraten are 

Sudh la, "briefly, the spirit of ronumtlclisnu Sutdi are, 
briefly, eomo of the effects most noticeable in the prea^snt- 
atlon of perB<»iase« It is, hotiever, the all-pervasive syabol- 
its ^shi ch dete7i!iineo the special nature of such pz>esezitatiosi 
of personage. In conclusion, therefore, the general question 
of the relationaliip iCilch exists betveesi syjaboliam and the 
roaontic aestaietlo imist be studied, Ricarda Huch, in her 
diaeaeslon of eynbolic airt, yields ns some very illussinatlng 
riMarlcs in Te^BLvd to this relationship, She cites the con- 
clusions of Tieck and Solsert 

Der Punkt, wo Phllosopaile, Rali.jion utjI Pocsle si^ 
ber^ihren, iat die %8tik, ?3ystik — .— ist das 
unraittelbare OefftEhl d«8 Blnsseins ndt def Welt und 
Gott, Kunst ist anjtewandte Mystik, Auf bemisst 
ongewandter i^ystlk t5eruht die Allegorio, auf tin- 
bewuBSt angtwendter die Syrobelik, "Bcide h&bTT. 
ihre Grens©*, so heisst ss 5.n Sol,^er*8 eisn©!:^. V/ort,en, 
"wo die Aiio^oi>le In blesses Vew^tandesspiel und 
die Synbollic in Nachohaaine; der Hatttr ^ber;p:eht, 
Zvisohen diesen beiden 'Ansscrsten Punkten .^ht denn 
in dor Tat die Well0nboTi'O£?jnn der KJanate auf und 
nleder," (1) 

As a distlnsulshlnis criterion betwe«n allegory and ayaiboliaa 
<1) Ihioh, Blutegeit der Romantll^ , 337, 

4«Y . 

tills la pepitaps ac uaoful as any such cQneral statecaent eould 
b»« It la to be noted, of cout^se, that In ^ils essay ^^^carda 
Huch 13 apdakini^ of the a2*t of painting, Hor findlnga aay 
apply •dually vell» howovei", to thjt art of 11 ter^.tiirc, '?he 
deflndtlon of :4;,'3tic^3ii, •'■^•30'.t ,•', cu ...3 ..a at once to recall 
the ciiai^cteidstlo ronantlc corfiiaion of nature with 5jigtlnet 
a&& of l:i3tiiict with God, Tlw baiwony itoich tlie ropi8c?*tic 
artist — or Ulie rn^nantlc genius — la supposed to perceive 
between htmffelf and t3ie world, betr/een h-inself and Ood, Hust 
be T'evealod In ols art. He can. Indeed, be en artist In ^« 
romantic aenae only If he perceives this unity and sets hla» 
•elf to reveal It* lie Is a«rjc*e of the infinite and he laast 
wxgSfBs it throuh the finite. This le, payohDlogl<Mll7, 
tlie ver^ ea««noe of aytibolian. 

aoreovor, the exaltation of th« p09t to the i*ole of prooiiet, 
the Mewiianic role -iven to the artist, has Its origin In, 
this conoeptl(>n of the artist as nystle. The roansoitie artist 
••ea tha world in tlie ll.^t of Its taeanlng and luhen he expresae* 
the world throu^^ his art he cannot do so without giving 
©xpreaclon to the neanlng that he percftiven, To quote Bioarda 
Smdi once nore: 

-.i. ' •■ , '" "\> :-■ :'--::.■ o'V^'Tor - ■;■■ r, :- - . -f^', 

ur_:. -ii-. -:-;i-.::-, ... -'Ti aiv ^vo-^-a^tiLo.:/, ; -ic:-. :io,:or 
liTklorun^ des Begrlffos, flJrilich bel-anptan, P'or 
d«a aatr 'Matasi 1st die ^It, fiir den Spiritual- 

Isten b. .t sle emao, flera I^omantlker — oJer 

sase na "' TFler Oder Idealisten ■— ist und 
ba^Rite ' ' — *el, wla wenig er sich dieser 

inneren ., >ewus9t seln rfd^e, Iia riclt** 

alt6r dor Koi-iantlk froilioli rjusste auch don 



naivr' " " ' ". -'^-oii " ' >r olu 

Denk---j— . - ^,--, - lo laoi- .... '1 - .xqv ver- 

atanden sicli ©o«nso gut oder bosser &iif d<m Slim 
Ihrar SeDj^pfungdn ils oaf daa AflSsaff«i« (1) 

lilt ai'tlst, aocoTHilJiij to the rceaantic conception, bocowK, 

necQsaapily, the .t-rnboli at iisln':: the natarlal to exenpaas tSaa 


But 9uch a oorxceptlcwn of jnyBtlclsm aa that quoted abcrre la, of 
ocfva^eg ptOMii^ vaataitio, Tlxere is no cf.ie3tiozi of discipline 
in this myatioiara. ^e artist feels h!jn3elf caio ^th tlic 
woi^'ld and God. Reli,_ion lir.a "bccos^ i^ligious feeling nnd to 
Sllilli;ioiia aiaclpliaa there has auoceeded the cult of naturisau 

.8 l3 a*^:)m0r.ticiflw bound to pirliaitivlaa and time does it 
beeosne may*o than evei* appax^ent tiiat the natural forta of its 
expressictti ouat be syipJ.'olic* For prizoittmi «|sm iMiTe alvagrt 
expresaed thomselrea tlirou^h the nedlxun of symbol and the 
complete nRturl?3Ki of the G5:«eeks obtained ejq^resaion ir. a ccoi" 
plete HQTtliology and in a hiei»archy of oO<i» *^ ^^o ^^ ^^^ 
aejrae tijne tlie synibolio expreaalon of abatract qualitios. Aa 
Santoysna sayat 

Etaotlone -.v. jentirJLly capable of c' " " ""caticxa, 

as woll a:. - .,._osslons of sense; an:. _ _ „■ 
-.Tcll bellove tha^, a rrljnitive and Inarporienced 
consclousnes': " ' lo the '.^orlcL with 

^oata of Itc -■- _ _ - . ._ ^vaBBlcme than witli 
projections of those lusiinous and ra?.tlies2atical 
cc ■- ■"'■'■ ■ '■ -' • -*-'havo forwod. 

T:__ ^ ., - - of thon^t 

atiil holds l.tD oxm at the confines of Imotrlodge, 
istoers necliiinlcal explanatlona are not found, (2) 

The roiaantlc haa dies carded analysis and logic and mechanical 

(1) Hucii, Blutogcxt dor Honanti*: ^ 358. 
(2; Santayana, Hie Sense of Bettuty . 47« 



QQnooptioas* Plfieiiig his f«itli lAwXXy In hla «iiotlona« it 
is ia«vi table that hs will shar* the anlaistio and aorthoXoaioal 
habit of Eilnd* The Xeat this habit of mind la restricted by 
ialtation of natiire the »sre oibvioas will the synribolisn be- 
•ene* The obviousness of Halo's symbolism is due to the 
synthetio <|ualit7 of hie mind* The observation i^iioh laenpePB 
BaXaao*s remsntieisa sad pmaAtB a closer ixaitation of nature 
Muses his symbolism to lie maoh nearer tftiat limit of nhieih 
Rioavda Hueih speaks* 

To oonolude thent the rcaaantieist receives his interpretation 
of the world throu^ his intuition* His trutli is an ^ prtori 
revelation rather than a reasoned oc^iolusion dexdved from 
observed data* But in order that his revelation may reoeive 
the sanotion of validity the artist aniat regard the eorld enly 
in the li(^t of this Intuitively felt knowledge* The artist 
oreates his world — a world whlflfti will satisfy his feeling; 
he does not observe a world ihish will determine his feeling* 
the roioantio writer does not present observed personages* He 
oreates or reecmatltutes pereonages who are so many vlsal 
tuqpressions of his pexvonal Intuition* These personages are 
destined to translate this intuition to tis* In their role 
as finite interpretations of the Infinite harmony intuitively 
pereeived by the artist » they are espressicms of his feeling 
Sttdf aeeerdingly* ineamations of his feeling rather than 
individuals In their own rig^ti iftio eacist^ that is» beosase 
of their humanity not because of thoir slgnifieanoe* Ho; 



-•yr- n " if ? 

i^-' *"*:K*^'/;"'-""^:'V, ' : s. ^ r' T't^-^ t•■'^'^^- .\ ' .'?!-■ 

'!,?■: n'wrr, .,r.?> 


-« .-«';■ - -^i. 

r,-, . 

'V * ■ •••^ 



0.1 «■ 

* "^ <f .. 

.V (^ At ?■; 

.03 %hrt'^ 


for the roaiiaatiOf the world not 011I7 j|£ but it Must have 
Mtanlngj Tha parttmaft in romantio XitexHutura is not a 
bMoan baiag la ^Aum raaaon and amotion »aat and elatii •»* 
iili»aa end Ilea in hia auffioiant appvoaoh to a univeraaX 
Idaal of imiaanity* He ia» inataad» a pex^sonaga ahoaa oi^»aoity 
for feeling oonatitutea hia raaacm for existanoe and v^io 
baedMaa ajpbolia of the feeling nAiiah ia hia snode of life* 
It ia tiiua thatf to the roaantie« Sapelaen auat alvaya beeom 
a tymbol and hia hiatery a legend* 

Litwrature« in genevalf haa long aade uae of the e«iv«ntiaA 
#ilob B^cea voaan tbta syabol of beauty* The doctrine iSiiaih 
r^ >p»aa ata woman aa tlie angel « halfnagr be tw aa n (Murth «^ 
haaven, halfvaj i>etv<een man and Ck>d» «aa incorporated into 
the roatantle theory ainoe «oiaa& » aa being more purely feeling 
taA intuition -« waaf eorr«8p<mdingly« reeognlaed to be eloaer 
to the revelation of the divine* In rtmaatic lit^ftteUM^ 
thereforoi^ tlia wmmt aerve to portxniy the aeathetic doetrinea 
ef Maantioiaau Their aynbolio repreaaatation of beauty ia 
lOsa aore eaaily obacrvod in that they are often alaoat laj 
figurea^ their function being xsarely to oall forth the typical 
vaapenae to beauty froa the oilier pere<ma£^a* 

The lAiole aooioloi^ieal ethioa of the nineteenth eentury la 
liMit tenda to make its literature ao inesctriaably mingled 
with philoaoi^» ethlesf and religion* Xhe roaaantie noveliet|» 
deairing to expX&Xn the souroea of good and evil in the world* 



;?><•( J.WC- 

m>.^... .... '•'^ "'^ •*^-> = > -'^- -•■• -"'*''- ■*--^'-' = '''^*in»iJ»3 ''' 

^V* 4 . -*. 


^ tm^ili»:' . •-■..v.■..v,.•'- 
'uf-i f ".u "t .;■£ . , •/ 

^- . , ,v . .•**■?'•* 

■.aTO«""r - 


d»Xv68 into tha abja* of th^ Infinlt** Trcm that tCtyjan h« 
returns again to the world of artlatio creation in order ^xat 
he nay translate his vision, 3at the transXatiatt of that 
visicm involves the creation of a new wertLd •- the world of 
the novel. Faced with the tranendeus tasl: of T^^r^BrnitinQ 
a wex^ld according; to his visian^ the romantic novelist, as 
we have seen^ can treat only the great fundmeaital elenesits 
of life* His w(w^ oen present only the essential enotloxisy 
the prljaitive passions « «hloSi are the necessary cqa ^ p c Be n ta of 
«he world of nature* 3inee the source of his woxte is in 
hie own laystical feeling and its esqpression is throu^ sutih 
giRttrie S3Nt>ols as virtue « evil* beauty* death* the avt of 
iaa» reoantic novelist may ho Jx:tdged isere olearly if it he 
|uAe^ <^ A fom of lyric poetry rather than as novel* 

That the rooantlo novel aharec all the eharactflrieties of 
lyvlo poetry has bocan clearly denoastrated in the course of 
this study. One of the rsost important corollaries of such a 
statfitaent is thist lyric poetry suggests an eootion and 
ewates a nood. It is suoeessftil only in so far as that stood 
is re*creat«l in the r««dev so that his imagination responds 
to the suggestion of l^e poetry and gives life and sobstanee 
to the abstraot esntian. It is this effort that the rociantie 
novelist re<{airde of his reader* Uhless the abstract syasibols 
are re^oreated by the reader in tlie foxw of living personages* 
th«i ttie sfflTOtlon which dictated the novel is lost and ttie 
ideas iemtained in these syabols (ideas presented sentiaentally 


ir^a^'t?"' ciiairf'"? 

^f^Kltl.-sr^m^^.Ct-f-'- '^" '■"'■■"* »iMlA«Wiaei^'^^ acf-j 

. 1«'»0' 



1?» «•••; 



.."-? '=»j"l^ 

i>fp»<«(«l f 

J i'i i^ 

maua. .. 

•!ffy.TR ?^.r: 



ratSier than rationally) have no validity, 

Th« tttddeney of literature to suggest rather than to state* 
to r8q:ttire that the reaufter auppl«aent« Imaginatively, -^mt 
the itriter only vaguely indicates — - this is a tondency «hlQh 
received direct tSieoretloal ejqpresslon with the advent of the 
S5?mbolist noverjent in i)oetry« But it la not a tendency 
confined tc poetry. In the novels of the late nineteenth and 
early trrentieth coiturles, ths tendeney nay be eeen quite as 
clearly as in the novels of the raoontlcist period* The 
novela of "auTealiane" or of "dadaiaiue" ai>e the extresoe aan* 
ifestations of a fora of art iihose root lies in the particular 
type of symbolism initiated by the romantic novollsts we have 
been discussing. 

Hot only* therefore, must the saode of creation in the romantic 
novel of the early nineteentli century be clearly understood 
in order that Its sigilficance and Its results laay be properly 
judged, but also a cooq^rehension of tliis mode is neoessary in 
order that the continuity of the aesthetic tradition in tta* 
French literature of the nineteenth end t^erentieth ceut'j«dea 
may be properly evaluated. 


■ ■in 

is.f ' I --rr^ ■' 




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, r.y.^ 


,.• .A ■ 


o,*:j £ 

:<i- ■ V 

•JT «?5 JV^r 

;?t3* V. 

; ; . ■.» iilsi •■; i. - 

'#«t flJ 


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