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BY i )/ 









The nature and nse of this work are meant to be rather practical 
than scientific. 

The Author has accordingly not propoonded any theory of 
yerbal analogy on the one hand, or verbal opposition on the 
other, as the basis of his Synonyms and Antcmyms; thongh he 
believes that the time has arrived when both onght to be sn])- 
plied, and the co-ordination and opposition of words reduced to 
strict exactness and scientific role, beyond what has hitherto 
been indirectly recognized by Logic. 

Words which agree in expressing one or more characteristic 
ideas in common he has r^arded as Synonyms, those which 
negative one or more such ideas he has called Antonyms. 

Principles or D^rees of Similarity, and Principles or D^rees 
of Opposition, have not been laid down, though they have been 
recognized in his own mind. He has rather endeavoured to 
place himself in the position, alternately, of two opposed thinkers, 
or debaters, so famidiing each with a short catena of Synonyms 
to express or aid the current of lus thoughts, tendering at the 
same time to each such negatives as might be employed in the 
opposite argument The etymology of the words has been pre- 
fixed, as aiding ordinary readers in the apprehension and use of 
them, and prominent points of usage have been also noticed. 
One word of apology he feels to be duo for the employment 
of a word which he has ventured, not to coin but to re-issue. 

The word Antonym, unlike some others which have been 
admitted into English on the plea of a practical want, is at least 
conectly formed from the Greek, and is, indeed, a Greek word. 

vi "Preface, 

If it should be said that, as a word of grammar, it would have 
the meaning of pronoun, the answer might be that it is not here 
used as a grammatical term. The names of the grammatical 
parts of speech have been already made current in English 
under Latin stamps ; and it would be a waste of the resources 
of our language to employ a word of Greek formation to express 
over again what is already expressed by the Latin derivative 
" pronoun." Yet the word Antonym seems to be wanted. 

The Etymology of the word dvTa>vvfiia merely expresses the idea 
of one word used in sithstitutibnfor, which, in matters of verbal 
debate, is equivalent practically to opposition to another ; a double 
force which, in addition to its analogy to Synonym, seemed to 
render Antonym a preferable word to Counterterm. The word 
Counterterm, however, is here suggested to those who may 
prefer it. 

It is of course true that 6vofia, in its strictly grammatical 
sense means not a word, but a noun ; but for this modification 
those are responsible who have accepted the earlier word Synonym 
in this loose acceptation, and have agreed to call not only volume 
and book, but also swift and rapid. Synonyms. 

The cross-references sometimes connect different parts of speech. 
This has been done in order to abridge the work, on the assump- 
tion that inflexional derivatives needed not in all cases to be 
repeated. For instance, a reference to the verbs "build" and 
"construct" would be sufficient, without any mental effort, to 
suggest the nouns " building " aad " construction." 

In conclusion, phrases have been avoided, as they are easily 
framed: but a harder task has been proposed — that of noting 
suitable and expressive words; while the form of a Dictionary 
has been adopted, from finding that the abstract classifications of 
words, under certain broad ideas, according to the plan of 
Dr. Eoget, seems invalidated by the necessity, in his well-known 
Thesaurus, of numberless cross-divisions, and is practically dis- 
regarded in favour of the Alphabetical Index. 


Aback. Sax. a, for on or in, 
and bcpc, back. Toward the back. 
An adverb, but used as a pre- 
position when followed by of, 

Syn. Backwards Rearwards. Aft. Abaft 
Astern. Behind. 

Ant. Onwardei. Forwards. Ahead. A- 
tnmi. Before. Beyond. Afore. 

Abaft. See Aback. Der. Ab, 
for Sax. a before a vowel, and 
cp/t, cpfter, after t i. e., later in time 
or order. 

Abalienatb,v.<. See Alienate. 

Abandon, v. t Lat a, from, 
and bannum, or bandum, a pro- 
clamation , especially of outlatvry, 
Gomp. Ban, Banns, and Banish. 
Its primary meaning is to place 
beyond the bounds of civil pro- 
tection and privileges, thence of 
favour or protection generally; 
thence again, it has descended 
to the simple sense of leaving, 
the act surviving, and the mo- 
tive being lost sight of. 

Stn. Leave. Forsake. Desert Re- 
nounce. Relinquish. Resign. Quit. Forego. 
Vacate. Surrender. Al:tJare. Repudiate. 

Akt. Pursue. Prosecute. Undertake. 
Seek. Court. Cherish. Favour. Protect 
Claim. Maintain. Defend. Advocate. 
Support Uphold. Occupy. Haunt Re- 
tain. Hold. Assert Vindicate. Keep. 

Abandoned, adj. See Aban- 
don, is used in the peculiar sense 
of self-*bandoned to wrong or 

SrK. Profligate. Wicked. Vicioua. Un- 
principled. SinfuL Graceletii. Demoralised. 
Diisolote. Depraved. Idoentions. Bad. 


Amt. Virtuous. Conscientlona. Up- 
right Worthy. Righteous. Correct High- 
principled. Self-controlled. Steady. Good. 

Abase, v, t, A^ to, and Gr. 
pdcis, that on which anything 
Palv€t goes. To bring to the 
pedestal or floor. To bring down, 
as worthy of disgrace. 

Sr». Dti;rade. IMsgrace. Humiliate. 
Depress. Lower. Dishonour. Sinic 

Amt. Promote. Kxalt Honour. Ele- 
vate. Dignify. Aggrandise. Raise. 

Abasement, n. See Abase. 

Stn. Degradation. Depression. Disfpmce. 
Humiliation. Dtfihonour. Shame. 

Ant Promotion. Elevation. Exalta- 
tion. Honour. Dignity. Aggrandisement 

Abash, v. t, Etymologically 
the same word as Abase, imply- 
ing the effect of abasement on 
the feelings, countenance, or de- 
meanour, and therefore of a less 
serious cast. Persons may be 
abashed with or without guilt; 
as by the exposure of an offence 
in the one case, or excessive mo- 
desty in the other. 

Syn. Confound. Confuse. Daunt Cow. 
Disconcert Dishearten. Shame. Humiliate. 

Ant. Countenance. Cheer. Encourage. 
Rally. Uphold. Inspirit Animate. £m> 
bolden. Abet Buoy. Indte. 

Abashed, part. See Abash. 

Abate, v. t, Fr. Abattre, to 
beat down, — in Old English, with 
violence; in Modem English, 
without violence. It is used 
more commonly as an intransi- 
tive verb, and as transitive only 
in a few expressions of a legal 
character, as to abate a nuisance, 


Synonyms and Antonyms 

or a writ. It is common, how- 
ever, to say, to abate a demand, 
or an expectation. 

Srw. Terminate. Remove. Suppress. 
Lower. Reduce. Miiigate. Moderate. 
Lessen. Subside. Decrease. Diminish. 

Ant. Prolong. Continue. Revive. De- 
vt'lope. Increase. Aggravate. Brew. 
Fennent. Rage. Magnify. Extend. En- 
large. Amplify. Raise. Enhance. 

Abbrbviatb, V. t Lat. Ad, 
and brevis, short. 

Stk. Shorten. Abridge, Rednce. C!oi>> 
tracU Curtail. Epitomise. Condense. Com- 

AnT. Lengthen. Prolong. Extend. Pro- 
duce. Elongate. AxapUfy, Enlarge. Di- 
late. Expand. 

Abbebviation. See Abbre- 

Stn. Abridgment. Reduction. Con- 
traction. Curtailment. Epitome. Sum- 
mary. Abstract. Condensation. Compres- 

Ant. Elongation. Prolongation. Ex- 
tension. Production. Aniplification. En- 
lai^ement Expansion. iMlatation. Ex- 
patiation. Explication. Dilution. 

ABD^RiTE,wowTOandflk^y. From 
Abd^ra, a city of Thrace, the 
birthplace of the laughing philo- 
sopher, Democritns. The word 
expresses a levity of regM-d to- 
ward human life and troubles. 

Stn. to ad^. Cynic. Sardonic. Derisive. 
Sarcastic. Jocular. Flippant. Sportive. 
Spri^tful. Nonchalant Buoyant 

Ant. Lachrymose. Querimunioas. Plain- 
tive. Maundering. Dolesome. Lacka- 
daisicaL Grumbling. Croakii^. Lugubrious. 

Abdicate, v. t. Lat. abdicare. 
To declare a thing resigned by 
one's self, implying voluntary 
surrender or resignation of high 
office before the natural term of 
its expiration. 

Stn. Abandon. Relinquish. Resign. 
Surrender. Vacate. 

Ant. Retain. Maintain. Claim. Occupy. 
Assert Grasp. Seize. Usurp. 

Abduction, n. Lat. ah, from, 
and ducfre, to draw, or take, A 
taking or drawing away, and 
specifically an unlawful taking. 

Stn. Abstraction. Subtraction. Deiri- 
vation. Ablation. Seizure. Rape. Ap- 

Ant. Addition. Adduction. Restitu- 
tion. Restoration. Surrender. Replace- 
ment. Reinstatement 

Aberrant, adj. Lat. ahrrrare. 
Wandering from some line of 
natural, mechanical, or proposed 
law or movement. Metaphori- 
cally, from continuity of thought ; 
hence, where this is constitu- 
tional, insane. 

Stn. Erratic. Devious. Divergent. In- 
continuous. Desultory. Disconnected. 
Wandering. Idiotic. Inconsistent. Incon- 
secutive. Abnormal Exceptional. 

Ant. Continuous. Rectilineal. Con- 
sistent Uniform. Consecutive. Normal. 
Natural. Faithful. True. Regular. 

Aberration, n. Spa Aberrant. 

Stn. VTandering. Deviation. Divergence. 

Desultoriness. DisconnectPdneps. Incon- 

secutlvenesa. Rambling. Idiocy. Hallu- 
cination. Abnormity. Exception. 

Ant. Uniformity. Coniinuity. Conse- 

cutiveness. Connectedness. Law. Order. 

Type. Norm. Principle. Project Line. 

Tenor. ProgresMon. Regularity. Recti- 

Abet, v. t. Der. uncert. Either 
connected with better, to make 
better or stronger by aid and 
countenance, or with bait to lure 
on into wrong. The former is 
the more probable, because of 
old the won! was employed in a 
favourable sense. It is now 
used of persons and practices. 

Stn. Aid. Support. Cotmtenance. Up- 
hold. Assist Instiflcate. Encourage. Ad- 
vocate. Sanction. Subsidize. Embolden. 

Ant. Thwart Contradict Oppose. 
Obstruc-t BafBe. Contoimd. Disootirage. 
Disapprove. Disconcert Counteract. Deter. 
Dissuade. Frustrate. Impede. Denounce. 

Abettor, w. Sef^ Abet. 

Syn. Supporter. Instigator. Advocate. 
Promoter. Assistant Accomplice. Ally. 
Adviser. Confederate. 

Ant. Opponerit. Counteracter. Foe. 
Adversary. Detector. BafiQer. Disconcerter. 
Dissuader. RivaL Antagonist. 

Abeyance, n. Fr. hayer, to gape. 
Compare to bay as a dog, or a 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


wild beast at bay. Abeyance is 
a state of gaping expectation; 
but the term has been trans- 
ferred reflexively from the per- 
son waiting to the thing waited 
for. Abeyance, according to 
usage, is suspension, with the 
expectation or possibility of re- 

Stn. Suspension. Beservation. Dor- 
mancy. Intermission. Exp«>cUtion. 

Ant. Revival. Renewal. Resuscitation. 
Action. Enjoyment, Possession. Opera- 
tion. Ezerdse. Force. 

Abhor, v, tr, Lat. a&,/»'07w, and 
horrere, to stand stiff with dread 
or horror. Abhorrence is that 
kind of hatred which flows from 
intense uncongeniality with one's 
own nature, ^te, principles, or 

Six. Hate. Loathe. Abominate. De- 
test. NaQi«eate. Eschew. 

Ant. Love. Admire. Enjoy. Affect 
Desire, Approve. Relish. Covet. Crave. 

Abide, v, int, Saxon, hidan, 
implies the continuous or more 
than momentary staying in a 
place, as a temj)orary or per- 
manent home. It is also used 
transitively in reference to what 
is endured or expected. 

SrN. Dwell Stay. Rest. Tarry. Lodge. 
Reside Live. Wait Sojourn. Expect 
Endure. Tolerate. Anticipate. Contront. 
Await. Bear. Face. Watch. 

Ant. Depart Migrate. Move. Journey. 
Proceed. Resist Mislike. Avoid. Shun. 
Forfeud. Rc^ject. Abandon. Forfeit 

Ability, n, Lat. luihto, hahilis. 
A natural possessivoness of 
power, faculties, or resources in 
one's own nature. Used also in 
the simple sense of power, or the 
being in a position to do a thing. 

Syk. Power. Cleverness. SkiU. Cap»- 
dty. Talent Expertness. 

Ant. Weakness. Incapacity. Inability. 
Imbecility. Unreadiness. Maladroitness. 

Abject, adj\ Lat. abjmre, 
abjectus. To cast oflf or away. 
Socially, cast off, degraded, or 

worthy of being so cast off; vile, 
or with no sense of independ- 
ence, servile, mean in state. 

Syn. Degraded. Outcast Miserable. 
Vile. Pitiable. Worthless. Despicable. 
Contemptible. Beggarly. Servile. Cring- 
ing. Wretched. Sordid. Squalid. Low. 

Ant. Honourable. Dignified. Ezaltfd. 
Eminent Esteemed. Honoured. Worthy. 
Venerable. Noble. Princely. Illustrious. 
Independent Self-assertive. Self-reliant 
Vain. Arrogant. Insolent Haughty. 

Abjure, v. tr, Lat abjurare. 
To put away, or deny with an 
oath, or with all the earnestness 
or solemnity of an oath. 

Syn. Rf-nouuce. Discard. Disclaim. 
Disown. Disavow. Repudiate. 

Ant. Profess. Assert Demand. Claim. 
Vindicate. Cherish. Advocate. Acknow- 
ledge. Approprhite. Retain. Hug. 

Ablation. Lat. au/erre, alia- 
tuSf to take atvay, JSee Abduc- 

Able, adj. See Ability. Used 
of persons possessing, or things 
indScating, ability, as an able 
man, an able speech. 

Syn. Strong. Powerful. Skilful. Clever. 
Talented. Capable. Effective. Telling. 
Marterly. Nervous. Vigorous. 

Ant. Weak. Inefficient Unskilful 
Silly. Stupid. Incapable. IneCTective. 

Ablution, n, Lat. ahluere, to 

umnh o^. 

SvN. Washhig. Purification. Cleansing. 
Abtstersion. Defecation. 

Ant. Pollution. Soilure. Defilement 
Dirt. Contamination. Taint Stain. 

Abnegation, n, Lat. abnegare, 
to deiiy strongly. It is applied 
rather to rights and objects of 
desire thaii to statements, as the 
abnegation of self or evil desires. 

Syn. DeniaL Renunciation. Abjuration. 
AlK^tinence. Stint Disallowance. 

Ant. Assertion. Vindication. Claim. 
Indulgence. Concession. Licence. 

Abnormal, adj, Ab and nnrma, 
a type, law, or rule, 

Syn. Irregular. Unusual. Exceptional. 
Monstrous. Aberrant Devious. Di- 
vergent. Eccentric Erratic. 

Ant. Typical. NomaaL Regular. Usual. 
Ordhiary. Natural. Customary, illustrative. 
B 2 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 

Aboabd, adv. Nautical — on 
board ship. 

Syn. Afloat. 
Akt. Ashore. 

Abode, n. See Abide. 

SvN. Home. Stay. Residence. Domicile. 
Habitation. Berth. With the idea of per- 

Akt. With the idea of transience. Halt. 
Perch. Tent. Bivouac. Caravansary. 

Abolish, v. t. Der. either Gr. 
oKKvyii, 1 destroy, or Lat.a6oZescere, 
to y^row outy or die out ; the verb 
in English having taken the 
transitive sense of destroy. 

Syk. Destroy. Eradicate. Obliterate. 
Extirpate. Abrogate. AnnaL Repeal. 
Revoke. Cancel. Annihilate. Expunge. 

Ant, Support. Sustain. Cherish. Pro- 
mote. Continue. Confirm. Restore. Re- 
pair. Revive. Reinstate. Enact Re-enact, 

Abominable, adj. Ah and 
omen. To be rejected as a foul 
thing of evil omen. 

Syk. Foul. Detestable. HatefuL Hor- 
rible. Ijoathaome. Execrable. Nauseous. 

Ant. Delectable. Desirable. Admirable. 
Ei^Joyablo. Loveable. Chanuing. De- 
lightful. Grateful. Pure. 

Abominate, v. tr. See Abo- 
minable and Abhor. 

Abomination, n. See Abomin- 
able. Is used both for the feel- 
ing and the object of abomina- 

Syx. Hatred. Loathing. Detestation. 
Abhorrence. Nuisance. Evil. Annoy- 
ance. Curse. Infliction. Plague. 

Ast. Ijove. Afifection. Desire. Long- 
ing. Enjoyment. Acquisitiun. Benefit. 
Gratification. Treat Blessing. Delight 

Aboriginal, ah origine, from 
the first J or oiHyut, 

Syk. Primteval. Primordial. Indigen- 
ous. Autochthonic. Native, immemorial. 

Ant. Subsequent Adventitious. Im- 
ported. Exotic, immigrant Recent Mo- 
dem. Late. Upstart NoveL Fredi. 

Abortion, n. Lat. ahoriri, 
abortus. That which from the 
beginning misses the purpose or 
law of its nature or birth. 

Syk. Miscarriage. Failure. Misadven- 

ture. Downfall. Mishap. Defeat Frus- 
tration. Misproduction. Blunder. Mess, 

Ant. Success. Consummation. Comple- 
tion. Achievement Realization. Perfec- 
tion. Exploit Feat Development. 

Abound, v. int. Lat. abundare, 
unda^ a wave. 

Syn. Stream. Flow. Swell. Increase. 
Overflow. Superabouud. Teem. Swarm. 
Luxuriate. Flourish. Wanton. ReveL 

Ant. Fail. Waste. Dry. Lack. Eva- 
rate. Wane. Drain. Die. Decay. Vanish. 
«sen. Decrease. 

About, prep, and adv., the 
latter more correctly Abouts. On 
or near the outside or limits of 
a thing; and so approximating 
rather than exact. 

Syn. Near. Nearly. Touching. Con- 
cerning. Surrounding. Approximately. 
Roughly. Generally. 

Ant. Afar. Away. Away or afar f^om. 
Precisely, iilxactly. 

Above, prep, and adv. On the 
over or upper side. Metaphori- 
cally, in excess of, or superior 

Syn. Over. Beyond. Exceeding. 
Ant. Below. Within. Beneath. 

Abreast, adv. At the breast. 
Used with the prep, of, nautical. 

Syn. Beside. Alongside. 
Ant. Ahead. Astern. 

Abridge, v. tr. See Abbre- 
viate. It is the same word as 
Abbreviate ; but, instead of com- 
ing directly from the Latin, has 
come to us through the French 

Abridgement, w. See Abridge. 
In addition to the sense of abbre- 
viation generally, it has the tech- 
nical meaning of a literary ab- 
breviation in particular. 

Syn. Abstract Synopsis. Epitoma 
Compendium. Analysis. 

Ant. The oppoHite process, or its result. 
Amplification. Expatiation. Disquitiition. 
iilxpanslon. Dilution. Comment Annota- 
tion, imposition. Poraplirase. 

Abroach, adv. A for at, or, 
relatively, to, and hroccus, a peg 

Synonyms and Antonyms, 

or spigot Used metaphorically 
of that which has escaped where 
it ought to have been confined. 

Stn. Allow. Afloat. Abroad. Revealed. 
Ant. Close. Fast. Tight. Secret. Re- 

Abroad, adv. On the broad. 
Used sometimes metaphorically 
of state of mind. 

Syn. Far. Away. Apart Aloof. Adrift. 
About. }>isper8ed. Distracted. Confused. 

Airr. Near. Close. At home. Fast. 

Abrogate, v. tr. As rogare 
was to ask the sanction of the 
citizens of ancient Home to the 
passing of a law, so the contrary 
process was expressed by ai- 

Stn. Cancel Abolish. Annul. Repeal. 

Ant. Enact Re-enact Confirm. £ki- 
foroe. Continae. Revive. 

Abrogation, n. See Abrogate. 

SrN. Abolition. Repeal Discontinuance. 

Ant. Institution. Establishment En- 
actment Confirmation. Continuance. Sanc- 

Abrupt, adj, lAt ahrumpere, 
ahruptm. To break oflf, either 
physically, as an abrupt preci- 
pice, or metaphorically, as an 
abrupt departure. 

Stn. Suddea Steep. Precipitous. Curt 
Blunt Unceremonious. Rugged. Rough. 

Ant. Undulating. Easy. Smooth. Glid- 
ing. Blading. Courteous. Polished. 

Abscond, v, int, Lat. abs and 
condere, to hide. The term is 
borrowed from the habits of 
some animals, and is cx)mmonly 
nsed to imply shame or fear of 

Stn. Decamp. Disappear. Bolt Hide. 
Withdraw. Retrent 

Ant. Show. Emerge. Appear. 

Absence, v, Lat. absent to. 
Physically, the being at a dis- 
tance from a particular spot, or, 
mentally, inattention to a pro- 
posed subject or transaction. 

Also, in the most abstract sense, 
the non-presence of something, 
as the absence of a quality in a 

Syn. Want Departure. Non-existence. 
Failure. Separation. Lack. Non-appear- 
ance. Inattention. Distraction. 

Ant. Presence. Supply. Existence. 
Appearance. Manifestation. Evidence. Im- 
manence. Inherenqr. Attention. Con- 

Absolute, adj, Lat. ahsdutus, 
part. pass, of absdvere, to loosen. 
The root idea of the word is that 
of freedom from some bond or 
control ; and the meaning of the 
word varies according to the na- 
ture of the bond implied, as free- 
dom from defect, physical con- 
ditions, stipulations, ideal asso- 
ciations, political restraint, un- 
certainty, or doubt. 

Stn. Perfect Complete. Unconditional 
Unconditioned. Lrelative. Irrespective. 
Supreme. Despotic Autocratic. Irrespon- 
sible. Certain. 

Ant. Imperfect Incomplete. Condi- 
tional. Conditioned. Contingent Relative. 
Dependent Constitutional. Accountable. 
Responsible. Dubious. 

Absolve, v. tr. Lat. dbsolvere. 
To loose or acquit from the im- 
putation or penalty of wrong, or 
from obligation implied or in- 

Stn. Acquit Release. Liberate. Ex- 
empt Discharge. Pardon. Forgive. Free. 

AMT. Charge. Accuse. Bind. Compel. 
Oblige. Convict Condemn. Inculpate. 

Absonant, adj\ Ab,fromy and 
sonare, to sound. When the in- 
tention is physically discordant, 
the form adopted should be ab- 
sonous, absonant being reserved 
for that which is morally con- 

Syn. Dissonant Discordant Contrari- 
ant Repugnant. Inconsonant Inhar- 
monious. Incompatible. Inappropriate. 

Ant. Consonant. Agreeable. Consistent 
Harmonious. Compatible. Congruous. 
Suitable. Appropriate. Pertinent Proper 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


Absorb, v. tr. Lat. ahsorbere, 
to suck up. Used physically and 
metaphorically, as, to absorb the 
time or attention. 

Stx. Swallow up. Imbibe. Engross. 
Engulf. Consume. Alonopolize. Exhaust. 

Ant. lyect Emit. Exude. Disgorge. 
Dissipate. Distract. DisiiL Disperse. 

Abstain, v, int Ahs and 
tenere. To hold off from. 

Syn. Refrain. Forbear. Refuse. Demur. 
Scruple. Withhold. 

Ant. Indulge. Exceed. Revel. Wanton. 

Abstemious, adj, Ahs and 
trmetumy strong mixed drink. 
Temperate in diet generally. 

SrN. Abstinent. Temperate. Sparing. 

Ant. Sensual Self-indulgent Glutton- 
ous. Greedy. Intemperate. 

Absterge, v. tr. Lat. ahs and 
tergere, to wipe, 

Stn. Wipe. Cleanse. Purify. Spunge. 
Scour. Scrub. Purify. 

Ant. Foul. Bespatter. Contaminate. 
BedAub. Soil. Pollute. Begrime. 

Abstersive, adj. Having the 
property of absterging. 

Syn. Scouring. Detergent. Cathartic. 

Ant. Contaminative. Corruptive. Of- 

Abstinent, aflj. See Abstain. 

Stn. Continent. Temperate. Abetemi- 
ous. Sober. SeU-denying. Austere. 

Ant. Self-indulgent. Sensual. Intem- 
perate. Eplcureas. Dissipated. Debauched, 

Abstract, v. tr. Abstrahere, to 
drav) or take off. Often with the 
idea of fartiveness. 

SvN. Separate. Remove. Part, Ap- 
propriate. Purloin. Thieve. Steal. 

Ant. Add. Unite. Conjoin. Adduce. 
Impose. Restore. Surrender. Return. 

Abstraction, n. See Abstract. 
Has, in addition to the above 
senses of Abstract, the logical 
sense of separating those points 
on which individuals differ, and 
contemplating those on which 
they agree, for the purpose of 
forming a common noun or class ; 

also that of mental abstraction 
from surrounding objects. 

Syn. Separation. Removal. Appropria- 
tion, Purloining;. Generalization. Cla.-s.i- 
fication. Reverie. Abtsorpiion. Absence. 

Ant. Addition. Union. Conjunction. 
Adduction. Importation. Restoration. Re- 
stltutiou. Individualization. Enumeration. 
Analysis. Specification. Observation. At- 

Abstracted. See Abstract 
and Abstraction. 

Abstruse, ac?;. Ahstrudere, To 
thrust away, as it were, into the 
dark, away from common light 
and understanding. 

Stn. Hidden. Recondite. Curions. Ob- 
scure. Mystical Occult. Hard. l>ark. 

Ant. Patent. Popular. Superficial. 
Simple. Obvious. Trit«. Intelligible. 
Plain. Easy. Manifest. Lucid. Clear. 

Absurd, adj. Ah and surdus, 
deaf or dissonant. Taken meta- 
phorically, it expresses that 
which is out of tune with truth, 
or discordant from the proprie- 
ties of things. It is applied to 
persons and character. 

Syn. Irrational. Ridiculous. Monstrous. 
Preposterous. Silly. Nonsensical. Foolish. 

Ant. Sensible. Rational. Reasoniible. 
Consistent. Sound. Substantial. Wise. Sa- 
gacious. Reflective. PhilosophicaL Logical. 

Abundance, n, Ahundantia. 
Unda, a wave. A copious sup- 

Stn. Plenty. Copiousness. Largeness. 
Ampleness. Profusion. Luxuriance. Wealth. 

Ant. Rarity. Scarcity. Paucity, Scan- 
tiness. Dearth. Deficiency. Failure. Poverty. 

Abundant, adj. See Abund- 

Syn. Plentiful Plenteous. Copious. 
Large. Ample. Overflowing. Teeming. 
Proniite. Liberal. Bountiful Rich. 

Ant. Rare. Scarce. Scant. Short. De- 
ficient. Insufficient. Niggardly. Sparing. 
Dry. Drained. Exhausted. Impoverished. 

Abuse, v. tr. To use a person 
or thing in any maimer away 
from the rule or line of right. It 
has the restricted sense of verbal 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 

Stn. Injniv. Damage. Spoil. Maltreat. 
Misuse. Misemploy. Vilify. Vituperate. 

Akt. Tend. Protect. Conserve. Re- 
spect. Begard. Consider. Shield. Cherish. 
Laud. Praise. Panegyrize. Vindicate. 

Abut, v. int, Saxon hout, md 
or confine. To project in a solid 
mass upon another object, or a 
ceortain point without actual con- 

Stn. Extend. Project Impinge. Ap- 

Ant. Recurve. Retreat Return. Re- 
cede. Diverge. 

Abibs, n, Gr. a, not, and ^va-tros, 
depth, A bottomless pit. 

Stk. Gulfc Profound. Deep. Pit. 
Chasm. Depth. 

Ant. SnriiBice. Depression. Cavity. In- 

Academical, adj. The grove 
of Academus, the resort of Plato, 
whence Academy, as applied to 
seats of learning. 

Stn. Collegiate. Learned. Classical. 
Ant. Illiterate. Uncollegiate. 

Accede, v. int. Jccedere, to 
come to. The word is by usage 
restricted to the coining over to 
a view or a proposal. It is fol- 
lowed by the r^rep. to. 

Syn. Assent Comply. Acquiesce. Ac- 

Ant. Dissent Decline. Withdraw. Re- 
fbae. Protest Demur. 

Accession, has the ordinary 
sense of arrival or addition, with 
the peculiar sense of arrival at 
power or office. 

Stn. Arrival Addition. Increase. In- 
flux. Autnnentation. 

Ant. Departure. Abandonment Re- 
signation. Retirement Diminution. De- 
cxeaae. EISux. Ebb. Drain. Subsidence. 

Accelerate, v, tr. Ad and 
cehr, quick. To quicken the 
speed or process of events, ob- 
jects, or transactions. 

Stn. Quicken. Hasten. Urge. Speed. 
Fbcpedite. Promote. Uespatcb. Facilitate. 

Ant. Delay. Obstruct Impede. Re- 
tard. Clog. Hinder. Drag. Shackle. 

Accent, n. Accentus, from ad 
and canere, to sing. A peculiar 
emphasis or beat upon a syllable. 
Also a peculiar mode of pronun- 
ciation, as a^ provincial accent. 
Accents in the plural is a some- 
what poetical expression for 
speech or language. 

Stn. Stress. Beat Rhythm. Emphasis. 

Ant. Smoothness. Inaocentuation. Mono- 
tony. Equableness. Babble. Flow. 

Accept, V. <r. Acceptare, from 
accipere, to take. The word ex- 
presses more than receive, im- 
plying a reception with a will 
to receive. 

SrN. Welcome. Hall. Admit Recog- 
nise. Avow. Acknowledge. 

Ant. Refuse.* Decline. R^ect. Disown. 
Disavow. Ignore. Repudiate. 

Acceptable, adj. See A ccept. 

Syn. Grateful. Welcome. Pleasant. 

Ant. UngratefuL Unwelcome. Un- 
pleasant Disagreeable. 

Access, v.w. See Accede. Ap- 
proach, or way of approach. 

Syn. Approach. Adit Entrance. Ave- 
nue. Admittance. 

Ant. Exit Egress. Departure. Ex- 
clusion. Repulse. 

Accessible, adj. See Accede. 
Used of demeanour. 

SvN. Affable. Easy. Approachable. 

Ant. Distant Cold. Difficult Unap- 

Accessory or Accessary, adj. 
See Accede. 

Stn. Additive. AdditionaL Auxiliary. 
Supplementary. Conducive. Assistant 

Ant. EiisentlaL Inherent Immanent 
Incorporate. Superfluous. Irrelevant Mal- 
apropos. Obstructive. Cumbersome. 

Accident, n. Accidtre, to/all 
or befal. Used in the technical 
sense of that which is attached 
to a thing without being essen- 
tial to it, in which sense it is 
nearly synonymous with con- 
dition or concomitant. 

Sin. Chance. Fortuity. Casualty. And. 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

if of evil, Disaster. Calamity. Mishap. 

Akt. Law. Purpose. Appointment 
Onlainment Provision. Prepajratioa 

Acclamation, w. Ad and 
damare, to call out, A calling 
out in fevour. Vivid and nnani- 
mons approval of persons or 

Syn. Applause. Homafj^. Gratulation. 
Salutation. Plaudit Hosannah. Cheer. 

Ant. Obloquy. Censure. Execration. 
Contumely. Outcry. SibUaUon. Denun- 

AccLiviTT, n. Acdivis, steep. 
The acclivity and the declivify 
are the same things looked at 
from different points of view. 

Stn. Ascent 

Ant. Declivity. Descent 

Accommodate, v. tr. Con, to- 
gether, and modus, a limit. To 
accommodate is to make the 
limits of a man^s circumstances 
commensurate with his require- 
ments; and so to oblige in any 
way, as by money, shelter, suffi- 
cient space, &C. It is also used 
in the rude sense of adapting one 
thing to anotiier. 

Stn. Convenience. Oblige. Adapt 
Supply. Reconcile. Harmonize. Fit 

Ant. Inconvenience. Disoblige. Misfit 
Incommode. Disturb. Deprive. Aggravate. 

Accommodating, adj. See Ac- 

Syn. Kind. Obliging. Unselfish. Polite. 
Considerate. Yielding. Conciliatory. 

Ant. Disobliging. Selfish. Churlish. 
Rude. Imperious. Dictatorial Incon- 
siderate. Exacting. Unaccommodating. 

Accompany, v. tr, Der. un- 
cert. Either con and pants, hrexid ; 
so that a companion would be, in 
the first instance, a mess-mate ; 
or compago-aginis, a fastening, 
one fastened with a tie of friend- 
ship or association. 

Stn. Follow. Consort Attend. Join. 
Co-exist Escort Convoy. 

Ant. Desert Abandon. Leave. Avoid. 
Eschew. Quit Discard. 

Accomplice, n. Ad, con^ plica, 
a fold. One who is folded up 
with another in the circumstances 
and responsibilities of his con- 
duct. See Abettor. 

Accomplish, v, tr. Ad and 
complere, to fill up. To bring to 
an issue of full success. To fill 
up an act to the measure of its 

Syn. Execute. Perform. Fulfil. Con- 
summate. Achieve. Finish. Complete. 

AsT. Fail of. Frustrate. Defeat Dis- 
concert Destroy. BafiSe. Mar. SpolL 

Accord, v, tr. and int. Ad 
and cor, cordis, the heart. Has the 
double sense of agreeing and 
granting as it were witii the 
whole heart. 

Syn. Agree. Consent Harmonize. Tally. 
Answer. Comport Consist. Conform. 
Grant Concede. Allow. Surrender. 

Ant. Disagree. Differ. Misfit Miscom- 
port Misconform. Withhold. Refuse. Deny. 

Accost, v. tr. Ad costam 
venire, to come to the side, for the 
presumed purpose of addressing 
another. Hence, to address in a 
friendly way, or otherwise. 

Syn. Address. Salute. HalL Greet 
Stop. Apostrophize. 

Ant. Shun. Avoid. Elude. Pass. Ignore. 

Accountable, adj, Lai com- 
putare, to reckon. Liable to be 
called to a reckoning. 

Syn. Responsible. Amenable. Liable. 
Answerable. Accredited. Delegated. Sub- 

Ant. Autocratic. Independent Abso- 
lute. Supreme. Irresponsible. Despotic. 

Accredit, v. tr. Ad and ere- 
ditare, from credere. Has the 
twofold meaning of, 1, to place 
trust in, and, 2, to confer trust 
upon another, as, to accredit a 
s^tement, and an ambassador. 

Syn. Believe. Trust Entrust. Dele- 
gate. Depute. Commission. Authorize. 

Ant. Disbelieve. Distrust Suspect 
RecalL Supersede. Discard. Dismiss. 

Accumulate, v, tr, and int. 
Lat. ad and cumulus, a Jieap, 

Synonyms and Antonyms, 

Str. Collect Grow. Mass. Heap. 
Store. Garner. Gather. Hoard. Husband. 
Aogmeni. Increase. Amass. 

Ant. Dissipate. Disperse. Diminish. 
Scatter. Expend. Waste. 

Accuracy, n. The synonyms 
may be formed as nouns from 
the preceding word. 

Accurate, cm//. Ad and cura, 
care. Is said of a disposition or 
a production which shows an 
exact conformity to some stand- 
ard of requirement, the result of 
care and pains. 

Stk. Careful. Exact FaithfuL Pre- 
cise. Correct Close. Truthful. Strict 

Ant. Careless. Inexact Faulty. In- 
correct Inaccurate. Loose. Defective. 

AccuBSE. See Curse. 

Accuse, v. tr. Ad and causa. 
To bring to a legal trial. To 
charge; and, thence, to bring an 
imputation generally against an- 

Syn. Charge. Incriminate. Impeach. 
Arraign. Tax. Taunt Cite. Summon. 

Akt. Defefnd. Vindicate. Discharge. 
Acquit Absolve. Condone. Pardon. Re- 
lease. Exonerate. 

Accustom, v. tr. Ad and con- 
suetudo, way of lioing, 

Stn. Habituate. Inure. Familiarize. 
Train. Reconcile. 

Ant. Disaccustom. Dishabituate. Wean. 
Estrange. Alienate. 

Ace, w. Lat. as assis^ a pound, 
^ standard of unity. 

Syn. Unit Atom. Point TltUe. Jot 

Ant. Numbers. Quantity. Bulk. Mass. 
Collection. Aggregate. Total. Sum. 

Acerbity, n. Acerhfs, liarsh, 
as the flavour of unripe fruit. 
Used also metaphorically of the 

Syn. Harshness. Acridity. Tartness. 
Sourness. Roughness. Acidity. Bitter- 
ness. Acrimony. 

Ant. Sweetness. Mildness. Mellowness. 
Softness. Gentleness. Amiiibleness. 

AcHlEVBMEMT, ft, Fr. ctchever, 
chef; Lat. caput, a head, A deed 

brought to a head or illustrious 
termination. See Abortion. 

AciouLAB, adf, AcuSy aciculus, 
a needle. Needle-pointed. . 

Stk. Spinous. Prickly. Thorny. Sharp- 
pointed. Bristly. Sagittate. Hastate. 
Ant. Obtuse. Blunt. Abrupu Bluff. 

Acid, adj, Acidua, 

Syn. Sharp. Acidulous. Acetose. Vine* 

Ant. Mellow. Luscious. Mealy. Bleb. 

Acknowledge, v, tr, Agnot* 
cere. To make matter of public 
knowledge in relation to one's 
self, or openly to identify one's 
self with it. 

Syn. Avow. Admit Recognize. Own. 
Accept Confess. Profess. Endorse. 

Aji'T. Disavow. DLiclaim. Disown. Re- 
pudiate. Ignore. Deny. 

Acme, n, Gr. axfi^, a point, or 

Syn. Summit Apex. Zenith. Pitch. 
Culmination. Meridian. Climax. 

Ant. Base. Floor. Gn-und. Nadir. 
Depth. Depression. Foundation. Foot 

Acquaint, v, tr, Fr. accointer, 
from the Lat. accognitare, from 
cognitus, to make hnovm, 

Syn. Advertise. Inform. Tell. Teach. 
Noiify. Apprize. Advise. 

Ant. Misinform. Deceive. Delude. 
Mislead. Misguide. Hoodwink. 

Acquaintance, n. See Ac- 

Syn. Knowledge. Familiarity. Experi- 

Ant. Ignorance. Unfamtliarity. Inex- 
perience. It has also the colloquial meaning 
of a person with whom one is acquainted. 

Acquiesce, v. int. Ad. and 
quies, rest. To rest quiet, if not 
contented, with arrangements, 
statements, and the like. 

Syn. Assent. Repose. Concur. 
Ant. Disseiit Demur. Object 

Acquire, v, tr, Acguirere, To 
procure generally, with an im- 
plied effort in some degree. 

Syn. Gain. Earn. Piwure. Obtain. 
Ant. Lose. Forfeit Surrender. Fore- 
go. Miss. 


Synonyms and Antonyms, 

AOQUIBEMBNT, ti. See Acquire. 

Stn. Knowledge. Attainment Accom- 
plishment. Learning. Erudition. 

Ant. Intuiiion. Inspiration. Genius. 

Acquisition, n. See Acquire. 
Beside the meaning of the act 
and process of acquiring, it has 
also that of the thing acquired, 
with an implied value in it 

Sra. Gain. Boon. Accession. Beneflt. 
Blessing. Advantage. Frotic 

Ant. Biirdt'n. Infliction. Loch. Draw- 
back. Disadvantage. Incubusi. Blemish. 

Acquit, v. tr. Ad and quies, 
Comp. Quit, to leave a place 
quiet, and Quittance, a legal re- 
lease, for the quiet of the debtor's 
mind. (The word is used in a 
reflexive way, to acquit one*s 
self, to behave.) 

Srx. Absolve. Discharge. Exonerate. 
Exculpate. Release. Dismiss. Liberate. 

Amt. Charge. Accuse. Impeach. Con- 
strain. Implicate. Bind. CompeL Oblige. 
Condemn. Sentence. 

Acquittance, w. See Acquit. 

Syn. Release. Discharge. Receipt. 
Ant. Bond. Claim. Charge. Obligation. 

Acrid, adj, Lat. acer. Harsh. 

Stn. Harsh. Sour. 

Ant. Mellow. Sweet Lusdons. 

Acrimony, w. See Acrid. 
Spoken of manners and dispo- 

SvN. Sharpness. Bitterness. Sourness. 
Ill-feeling. Asperity. Animosity. Hostility. 

Ant. Smoothness. Courte^. Mildness. 
Blanduess. Pleasantness. Friendship. 

Across, adv, and jprep. Cross- 

Si'N. Transversely. Athwart Against 
Transverseness to a line of movement be- 
comes opposition. 

Ant. Lengthwise. Along. Concurrently. 

AcT,w. Agerey actum, A thing 

Syn. Deed. Performance. Action. 

In Act, the thing done is re- 
garded in its separation and 
finality, action, to speak gene- 
rally, being the process of which 

act is the completion. Its mul- 
tiplicity of bearings flows from 
the simplicity of its meaning, a 
' thing done,' which is variously 
applicable. A thing done physi- 
cally is the simplest act; the 
continuance or repetition of 
physical acts makes physical ac- 
tion, as, the ' action of a horse.' 
Acts of the state, as such, are 
laws ; hence, acts of parliament. 
The word Act has certain tech- 
nical or local meanings, which 
need only to be mentioned, such 
as, a literary exercise, of univer- 
sities, a term of study. A divi- 
sion of a play. Action, in addi- 
tion to the above, has the sense 
of a moral act, which is made up 
of minor acts (act and operation, 
not action, are used of the mind) ; 
and is, like mechanical action, 
made up of minor movements or 
actjs; thus, reconcile differences 
between two friends is a good 
action. It is plain, however, that 
it involves many minor acts sub- 
ordinate to the general intention. 
The word action has acquired 
more than one technical applica- 
tion. Thus, with the mechani- 
cian, action is complex mechani- 
cal movement ; with the lawyer, 
legal proceeding; with the sol- 
dier, mih'taiy engagement on a 
field of battle; while, with the 
player, act, action, and actor, are 
theatrical terms. 

Syn. to Action. Movement Proceeding. 
Exercise. Operation. Performance. Play. 

Ant. Inaction. Rest Repose. Ces^a- 
Won. Suspension. Quiet Immobility. In- 
ertia. Quiescence. 

Activity, v , Is the faculty of, 
and tendency to, action. When 
purely physical it is termed 

Syn. Agility. Qoickness. Energj'. 

Synonyms and Anhnyna. 


Ant. Inactivity. Slowness. Awkward- 
ness. Sloth. Clumi^iness. Indolence. 
Heaviness. Sluggishness. Lassitude. 

AonvB, adj. See above. 

AcrruAL, adj, Fr. actuel, aduah's.' 
Stn. Developed, Positive. Demon- 
strable. Certain. BeaL > 
Art. Potential. Undeveloped. Hyix)- 
theticaL Suppositious. Possible. Virtual. 
TlieoreticaL Fabulous. Iilctitious. Unreal. 

Actual implies the being 
brought into form, shape, or 
jealify, as distinguished from 
being only mentally conceived, 
or falsely imagined. 

Actually, adv. See above. 

Actuate, v. ^r. Same root. To 
induce to act. 

Stk. Urge. Instigate. Induce. Incline. 
Dispose. Impel. Incite. Prompt. Drive. 

AST. Deter. Discourage. Retard. Hin- 
-der. Prevent. Inhibit. Impede. Dis- 

Acuity, n. Acus, a needle. 

Stn. Pointedness. Aculeation. Acu- 

Ant. Bluntness. Hebetude. Obtuseness. 

AcuLBATED, adj. Aculeus, a 

Syk. Armed. Spinous. Acuminated. 

Ant. Unarmed. Blunt Obtuse. Point- 
less. Stingless. 

Acumen, n. Latin word. 

Stn. Point. Penetrativeness. Sharpness. 
Discernment. Talent. Sagacity. 

Ant. Biuntness. Obtuseness. Stupidity. 
Hebetude. Dulness. Indiscemment. 

Acute, a^/. Acuttts. Same root. 
Used literally and metaphorically 
both of persons and of sensations. 

SrN. Sharp. Pointed. Penetrating. Sa- 
gacious. Severe. Distressing. 

Ant. Dull. Blimt Obtuse. Stupid. 
Stolid. Undisceming. Heavy. Chronic. 

Acutely, adv. See above. 

Adage, n. Adigere^ ago^ to 
bring to a head or a point. A sen- 
tence or saying which brings a 
matter to a point, and condenses 
it in a telling form. 

Syn. Maxim. Proverb. Dictum. 
Amt. Discourse. Harangue. Disqulsi' 
tiou. Yam. 

Adapt, Adaptation, Adapted. 
Adajitare, to fit^ aptvs^ fit. To 
make one thing or idea fit to an- 

SvN. V. Fit Ac^ust Accommodate 
Suit Conform. Admeasure. Harmonize. 

n. Accommodation. Adjustment Ad- 
mea<nirement Conformity. Coincidence. 

adj. Suited. Fitted. Adjusted. Accom- 
modated. Competent Convenient 

Ant. to Adaptation. Inconfomilty. In- 
congruity. Incompattbiliiy. Di^sbairraony. 
Misfit. Malformation. Mismeasuremcnt 

To Adapt Mistit Misconform. Mis- 

ToAdi4>ted. Unsuited. Unfitted. Un- 
qualified. Unadapted. Inconvenient 

Add, v. tr, AddOy ad and dare, 
to give. 

Syn. Adduce. Adjoin. Annex. 

Ant. Deduct Subtract. Dissever. Ab- 

Addendum, n. From addere. 
Something to be added, as ne- 
cessary or advantageous. 

Syn. Acquisition. Improvement Snp-. 
plement. Complement Desideratum. Con- 
comitant Annexation. Appendage. 

Ant. Surplusage. Detriment Deterio- 
ration. Detraction. Drawback. 

Addicted, adj. Addicere, to 
enrol as a follower. 

Syn. Given. Accustomed. Prone. In- 
clined. Disposed. Habituated. 

Ant. Unaddicted. Unaccustomed. Dis- 
inclined. Indisposed. Averse. Free. 

Additament, w. a formal ad- 
dition. From the same root as 

SvN. Adjunct. Annexation. Supple- 
ment Addition. Acquisition. Increase. 
Augmentation. Accession. Supplemeut 

Ant. Deduction. Detracticm. Draw- 
back. Decrement Deterioratiun. 

Addition, n. See above. 

Addbess, v. It. addrizzare, ad 
and dirigere. To move in the 
straight hne towards another. 
To direct one's self, or a state- 
ment, or salutation; or request, 
towards him. 

Address, n. The faculty of 
employing means to secure at- 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

tenijon, or to gain a purpose. 
Skill. It has also the meaning 
of the locality or mode of com- 
munication connected with one ; 
so, synonymous with Residence 
or liirection. Addresses in the 
plural means courtship. 

Stk. to n. '['act. Manners. 
Ant. Awkwardness. Unnumnerlinesa. 
Syn. to V. Accost. Greet. Salute. Ap- 
proach. Apostrophize. AppeaL 
Ant. See Accost 

Adduce, v, tr. Ad ducere^ to 
bring. To bring a thing to an- 
other as pertinent, corroborative, 
or supplementary to it. 

Stk. Allege. Apply. Introduce. Pro- 
duce. Add. Import. 

Airr. Retract Except Withdraw. De- 
duct Deduce. Suppress. 

Adept, n. and acfj. From 
adipisci, to Jind, part, adeptus. 
One who, by sagacity or experi- 
ence, or both, has found the 
right way of doing a thing, and 
act» upon it 

Stk. Expert Adroit Handy. Master. 
Performer. Professor. Artist 

Akt. Awlcward. Clumsy. Inexpert 
Tyro. Novice. Lubber. Blunderer. 

Adequate, a^/y. Ad cequatus, 
ceguus, equal. Equal to any re- 
quired measure, object, or pur- 

Stk. Equal Sufficient Fit Satisfac- 
tory. FulL Competent. Abie. 

Amt. Unequal. Insufficient Incom- 
petent Inadequate. 

Adhere, v. int. Ad haereOy J 
stick. To remain united with 
little external contrivance; but 
rather by some peculiarity of the 
substances adhering. Used meter 
phorically of union of cause or 

Syk. Stick. Cohere. Unite. Cling. 

Adhere is better used of one 
substance. Cohere of more than 
one. So, A adheres to B, but A 
and B, or A, B, and C cohere. 

Akt. Disunite. Part Separate. Divide. 

Adherent, n. See Adhere. 

Srs, Fullower. Supporter. Ally. Ad- 
mirer. R4clc«'r. Aid. Partizan. 

A XT. Opponent Deserter. Adversary. 
Rme^iMl& Antagonist 

Adhesive, adj. See Adhere. 

D)T\. Sticky. Viscous. Qlutinous. 
AXT. Inadhesive. 

Adiku, interj, A commending 
to God'a care on taking leave. 

Stkh Gswid-bye, which Is 'God be with 
ye, Fbthw elL Valediction. 

Airr. Greeting. Welcome. Recogni- 
tloD. SdlulAtion. 

AdipoiSe, adj. Adeps, fat. 

SrTi. Obese. Corpulent Oleaginous. 
Sebac^nufl. Pinguetudinou9. 

Akt. leathery. Skinny. Bony. Thin. 
AsAtomtcHL Mummified. 

Adit, n. Aditus, adire. An 


Byv. Entrance. Ingress. Approach. 
Avenue. Access. 

A^TH Exit Egress. Mouth. Debouchure. 

A-djaoent, adj\ Ad andjaceo, 
I ^(>. 

S^N. liear. Neighbouring. Contiguous. 
Akt. liemote. Distant Separate. 

Adjoik, V. tr, and intr. Ad- 
jtintftre. Rarely used in the 
tran-Hitive sense, this being re- 
served for the uncompounded 
verb, join. In the intransitive 
senm it Keems to be used both of 
cloEG proximity and actual con- 

Srtt. Annex. Add. Connect Append. 
Supplpint^t Attach. Unite. Int. Border. 
Ki'^Bhbitiir. Touch. Abut Approximate. 
Vei^e. Trench. Touch. 

AST, Dlayoin. Dismember. Disconnect 
Detttcb. Disintegrate. Disunite. Int. Part 
S&pamie. Recede. Return. Diverge. Be 
rlLtit^ni, ruimoved. Remote. Incontiguous. 

AwniniN, V. tr. Ad, and dies, 
a day. Whence diurnus, daily. 
So, It. (Homo, a day, and in Eng- 
lisla, journal, a diary, a daily 
newspaper. To defer to a parti- 
cular aay, or indefinitely from 
day to day. 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


Stn. Postpone. Suspend. Defer. Pro- 
rogue. Delay. Protract 

Ant. Expedite. Despatch. Urge. Hasten. 
Conclude. Complete. SeaL Consummate. 

Adjudge, Adjudicate, v, tr. 
Adjudicate, Judex, a judge. 
Though they are the same word, 
under a French and a more dis- 
tinctly Latin form, they are used 
diflferently. To adjudge is to 
award by arbitration. To adju- 
dicate is to exercise the oflSce of 
judge in a case. To adjudge is 
active, adjudicate neuter, except 
in cases of cognate signification, 
as, to adjudicate a matter (of ad- 

Stn, Award. Confer. Assign. Present 
Arbitrate. Decide. 

Akt. Withhold. Beserve. Betain. Be- 
fuse. Dismiss. Belegate. 

Adjunct, n. Ad jungere, ad 
junctm, 1. A thing added to be 
of use. 2. A thing emphatically 
added, as distinguished &om in- 

Stk. Addition. Additament Attach- 
ment Appendage. Appurtenance. Aux- 
iliary. Aid. Acquisition. Advantage. 

Amt. Essence. Substance. Body. Oog. 
Detriment impediment Hindrance. Ob* 
struction. Detraction. Drawback. 

Adjure, v. tr, Adjurare, to 
swear. To appeal to one, as if 
putting him upon his oath — that 
is, in the most solemn or impres- 
sive manner ; hence it has 
adopted, in addition, the senses 
of entreaty and command. 

Stn. Culture. Entreat Ei^oin. Urge. 
Supplicate. Move. Beseech. Command. 

Ant. Deprecate. Bemonstrate. Expos- 
tulate. Warn. Dissuade. Inhibit Pro- 
hibit Defy. Dare. 

Adjust, v. tr. Ad and Justus, 
With the sense of the French 
juste, right in place or arrange- 

Stn. Harmonize. Collocate. Arrange. 
Localize. Adapt Affix. Bight Accom- 
modate. Beconclle. Compose. 

The word is used both of ar- 
rangement of things or parts, 
inter se, and also of the fitting of 
one thing to another. 

Ant. Dislocate. Disarrange. Disturb. 
Confound. Dismember. Disorder. Con- 
fuse. Discompose. Derange. 

Adjuvant, adj. Ad juvare, to 

Stn. Accessary. Auxiliary. Promotive. 
Productive. Assistant Miniatrative. An- 
cillary. Useful Conducive. 

Ant. Obstructive. Detractive. Betard- 
ative. Preventative. Counteractive. Irrt- 
levant Useless. 

Admeasubement, V. Ad and 
mensura, measure. Is used in 
the sense, 1, of measurement; 
and, 2, of relative measurement 
or adaptation. 

Stn. Size. Dimensions. Adaptaticm. 

Ant. Mlsshapement MisconfoiTnity. 
Misfit Mismatch. Mismeasurement 

Administeb, V. tr. Ad minis- 
trare, from manus, the hand. 
Comp. Manage. To distribute 
generally, or to give out; or to 
act out the responsibilities of 
office or government. 

Stn. Distribute. Award. Accord. Dole. 
Give. Impart Afford. Discharge. Dis- 
pense. Execute. Perform. Conduct 

Ant. Withdraw. Withhold. Befuse. 
Bctain. Assume. Besume. Besign. Deny. 
Divert Appropriate. Misadminlster. Be- 
tray. Misconduct Mismanage. 

Administbation, n. /See Admi- 

Admibe, v. tr. Ad and mirari^ 
to wonder. Had of old the sense 
of mere wonder ; but is now re- 
stricted to that of wonder on ac- 
count of beauty or excellence. It 
may be of physical or moral 
beauty, as, of a beautiful person, 
or noble conduct and character. 

Stn. Wonder. Gaze. Approve. Ap- 
preciate. ExtoU Affect Adore. Bevere. 

Ant. Abhor. Bidicule. Disesteem. Ex- 
ecrate. Abominate. Contemn. Mislike. 
Despise. Slight 


Synonyms and Antonyms, 

Admiration, n. See Admire. 

Syn. Wonder. Approval Appredation. 
Adoration. Reverence. 

Ant. Disapproval Disesteem. Con- 
tumely. Opprobrium. Ridicule. Contempt 

Admissible, adj. See Admit. 
Used of things and persons. 

Stn. Allowable. Permissible. Probable. 
Reasonable. Proper. Just. Fair. Right 

Ajit. Unallowable. Inadmissible. Im- 
proper. Unreasonable. Absurd. Prepos- 
terous. Monstrous. Unfair. Wrong. Un- 
qualified. Excluded. 

Admission, w. See Admit. 
Used of the admitting or conced- 
ing of truths as just, fisdr, true, 
reasonable, or right. See Ad- 

Syn. Concession. Allowance. Acknow- 
ledgment Acceptance. 

Akt. Denial Protestation. Negation. 
Contradiction. R^ection. 

Admit. Ad and mittere, to 
send or receive. The root idea 
is that of granting a place to 
some person or thing. So, first, 
locally, as, to admit to a theatre ; 
then, slightly in advance of mere 
locality, to admit to one's pre- 
sence or counsels ; then, to grant 
place to things on some moral 
ground, as of necessity, or justice, 
or reasonableness. 

Syn. Receive. Pass. Permit Accept 
Grant Concede. Allow. Acknowledge. 

Akt. Exclude. Debar. Disallow. Re- 
ject Deny. Discharge. Dismiss. £;}ect 
Extrude. Repudiate. Disavow. Disown. 

Admittanob, n. See Admit. 
Used of local or material cases. 
Bo, strictly, we should say, the 
admission of an allegation as 
true, but, the admittance of a 
stranger to an assembly. 

Stn. Introduction. Entrance. Pass. 
PPrmit Passfiort Privilege. Acceptance. 
Welcome. Reception. 

Ant. Excl'hiion. Denial. E;jection. Pro- 
hibition. Bar. Hindrance. Rejection. Re* 

Admonish, v. tr. Admtmn^e. 
In Old English this word had 
the sense of simply teaching, in- 
forming, or instructing; after- 
wards of reteaching or remind- 
ing. Its modem usage is warn- 
ing, because the reminding of 
principles is warning. Hence, 
like admonition, it has generally 
a prospective sense, not referring 
to physical dangers, but rather 
to moral or penal consequences. 
Sometimes, however, it refers to 
the deed, and is a premonitory 
penalty, equivalent to censure. 

Syn. Remind. Warn. Advise. Fore- 
warn. Dissuade. Censure. Hebuke. 

Akt. Encourage. Instigate. Abet. In- 
cite. Urge. Applaud. Countenance. 

Ado, w. From verb, to do. 

Syn. Hubbub. Commotion. Fuss. Ex- 

Ant. Calm. Composure. Quiet Order 
lineas. Staidness. Tranquillity. 

Adopt, v, tr. Ad optare, to 
wish or choose. To take to one's 
self by choice or approval. It is 
applied to persons, principles, or 
opinions, courses of conduct and 

Syn. Assume; Select Affiliate. Choose. 
Endorse. Avow. Appropriate. 

Ant. Reject Decline. Repudiate. Dis- 
avow. Discard. Renounce. Abandon^ 
Disown. Disclaim. 

Adore. Ad and os oris, Vm 
rrumth. To kiss the hand in 
token of worship. Applied of 
necessity only to pers(His, except 
in the sense of idolatry. 

Syn. Admire. Venerate Reverence. 
Worship. Idolize. 

Ant. Abhor. Despise. Disesteem. Abo- 
minate. Execrate. Kaspheme. 

Adoration. See Adore. 

Adorn. Ad ornurt, to beau- 

Syn. Beautify. Decorate. Embellish. 
Deck. Garnish. Gild, Enrich. 

Ant. Mar. Spoil. Deform. Deface, 
IMsfigure. Impoverish. Denude. Despoil. 
Strip. Bare. Disembellisk 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 

Admpt, odtK Drift, part, of 
Drive. Drifting loose. Used 
metaphorically, as, 'his senses 
are gone adrift/ 

SrN. Loose. Afloat Agog. Abroad. 
Abroach. Distracted. Disordered. 

Ant. Fust. Tight. Right. T^shed. 
Moored. Secure. Collected. Composed. 

Adeoit, adj. Fr. droit, Lat. 
dexter, the right hand. 

Stn. Handy. Skilful Dexterous. Ex- 

Amt. Awkward. Clumsy. UnskOfuL 
inexpert Lubberly. 

Adscititious, or Ascrrrnous, 
adj. Ad sciscei^e, to seek to know. 
To go out of one's way to find 
out and import. Applies to 
matter added, with the sugges- 
tion of its falsity or superfluify. 

Stn. Adventitious. Superfluous. Re- 
dundant. Alien. ArtifidaL Spurious. 

Ant. Essential Necessary. Veritable. 
Regular. Ingeiierate. Ingrained. Con- 
genital Fundamental Genuine. Inherent 

Adulation, n. Adtdari, to 
flaltt-r. Praise, excessive in 
quantity, and interested in ex- 

Syn. Flattery. Compliment Sycophancy. 
Courtship. Cringing. Fawning. Blandish- 
ment Incense. 

Ant. Detraction. Obloquy. Defamatioa 
Calumny. Traducement Sarcaum. Ridi- 
cule. Satire. Bespatterment 

Adult, n. and adj. Addescere, 
to grow ur), aduUiLS. A grown- 
up person. 

Syn. Man. Woman. To adj. Mature. 
Ripe. Full 

Ant. Youth. Stripling. • Boy. Child. 
Infant To aiij. Juvenile. Immature. 

Adulterated, part. Ad and 
aUm, or alter. Adultery is the 
unlawful love of some other 
than the wife or husband. Me- 
taphorically, mixed impurely. 

Stn. Impure. UnRenuine. Spuriou& 
Oonoocted. Mixed. Falsified. Deteriorated. 

Ant. Pure. Original. Genuine. Un- 
mixed. Unadulterated. Undeteriorated. 


Adumbration, n. Ad and 
umbra, a sfiadom. Also the put- 
ting forth in shadow, a shadow- 
ing forth. 

Syn. Shadow. Foreshadowing. Presage. 
Prognostic. Sketch. Delineation. Sngges* 
tion. Hint Premonition. Prototype 

Ant. Body. Substance. Fulfllment 
Realization. Substantiaiion. Antitype. 

Advance, v. tr. and int. Fr. 
avancer, avant, ah ante. To move 
one's self, or an object, or other 
person toward the van, or for- 
wards. Applied to moveable ob- 
jects, persons, interests, opinions, 

Stn. Propel Elevate. Promote. Further. 
Lend. Propagate. Progress. Increase. 
Prosper. Rise. 

Ant. Retard. Hinder. Withhold. With- 
draw. Recall Depress. Degrade. Sup- 
press. Oppose. Retreat Decrease. 

Advancement, w. 5ec Advance. 

Advantage, n. Same root. 

An advantage is anything, the 
possession of which secures, pro- 
motes, or indicates success. It 
is used in the plural in no spe- 
cific reference, but broadly, as, 
the advantages of education. 

Syn. Gain. Success. Superiority. Help. 
Assistance. Profit Acquisition. 

Ant. Loss. Disappointment. Defeat 
Frustration. Inferiority. Obstacle. Ob- 
struction. Difficulty. Dilemma. Disad- 
vantage. Drawback. 

Advent, n. Advenio, adventiLS, 
I come or arrive, 

Syn. Approach. Arrival. Accession. 

Ant. Departure. Exit Exodus. Re- 
tirement Relinquishmenu Quittance. 

Adventitious, adj. See Ad- 
vent. That which is imposed 
without sti'ict propriety, or ne- 
cessity, or rule. 

Syn. Extrinsic. Redundant Super- 
fluou:^. Ads(.ititious. Irregular. (>«ual 

Ant. Regular. Proper. Pertinent I^^ssen- 
tial Appropriate. Necessary. Intrinsic. 

Adventure, n. I^.ee Advent. 
The occurrence of an incident of 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

an tumsnally stirring character. 
The adyentare is sometimes un- 
foreseen, sometimes sought pur- 

Stv. loddent Crisis. Gmialty. Un- 
deitaldDg. Experiment. Yentare. TriaL 

An. Katter-oMiKt. Matter-of^xrane. 

Adtbntcbous, culj. See aboYe. 
GiYen to seek adYentnres. 

Stv. BokL Bra^e. Daring. Enter- 
priifnc. OoarageoiaL Gallant Fearleo^ 

Am. Timid. Unenterprising. Inad- 
▼cntnroiu. Cowardly. NervonSb Hesatat- 
Ing. Caotiotiflb 

Adysrsaby, r/. See AdYerse. 

Sni. Opponent Antagonist Foe. 
Enemj. Rival 

Akt. Accessory. Abettor. Aider. 
FHend. Helper. Assistant Ally. Ac- 

Advsbse, adj. Ad vertere, 
versus, turried to or against, in op- 
fxmtion, adversus, 

AdYerse is spoken of physical 
influences or forces, feelings, and 

Snr. Opposed. Unlacky. Hard. Hostile. 
Antagonistic; Unpropitiou:!. UnfavonraUe. 

Ajtt. Favourable. Friendly. Amicable. 
Pnpitioos. Fortonate. Luclgr. 

Adybbsitt, n. f^te AdYerse. 

Snr. Ill-luck. Misfortune. Misery. 
Oalamlty. Disaster. Unsuccess. Failnre. 
Rain. Trouble. AfBiction. Sorrow. 

AST. Good-luck. Prosperity. Bappl- 
DCfs. Success. Advancement. 

Advbkt, V, ird. Advertere, 
netU., to turn (one's attention) 
to. It is followed by the prep, 

Stv. Refer. Allude. Notice. Remark. 
A ITT. Ignore. Pass. Drop. Omit 

Advertent, adj\ See Advert. 
Loosely used of acts as well as 

8yv. Attentive. RegardfiiL MindfuL 
Watchful. TboughtfuL Observant Con- 

Akt. Inattentive. Inadvertent Casual 
ThoQghtlesB. Heedless. Inobservant In- 

j Adyebtiss, r. tr. See AdYert, 

: To draw the mind to a piece of 

-informatkm, either the public 

I mind or the mind of an indivi- 

I dual, and so make it known. 

We say, to advertise a thing, 

and to advertise a person of a 


Stx. PabUsh. Advise. Inlbrm. Pro- 
daim. PnNnolge. 

AST. Suppreaa. Hash. Conceal Ig- 
nore. Hoodwink. Mi«gnide. Mislead. 

Advice, n. See Advise. 

Advise, v. tr. Ad videre, to see. 
To cause to see, for the sake of 
information or guidance practi- 
cally, and prompting to action. 

Snr. Persoade. Urge. Prompt In- 
stigate. Incite. Instruct Acquaint In* 

A>'T. Dissuade. Deter. Expostulate. 
Remonstrate Prohibit inhibit Hestraia 
Curb. Mislead. Ml^adviiie. Hoodwink. 
Deceive. Delude: Misinform. 

Advisable, adj. That which 
might form a subject of whole- 
some advice or recommendation. 

Stk. politic. Judidous. Expedient 
Desirable. Wise. Prudent Beneficial 

Ant. Unadvisable. Impolitic. Injudi- 
cious. Inexpedient Undesirable. Unpro- 

Adyocate, n. Advocatifs, A 
person csJled to one's side as an 
assistant at law. Gomp. Gr. 

irapCLKkryros, It is USed of the 

support of a cause or opinions, 
as well as of personal support. 

Stk. Pleader. Counsellor. Upholder. 
Propagator. Ptomoter. Supporter. Counte- 
nancer. Defender. Malntaiuer. 

Akt. Opponent Adversary. Discount- 
enanoer. Accuser. Impugner. Gainsayer. 

Adyocate, v, tr. See noun. 

Afar, adv. Far, another form 
of /or, which is from the Greek 
TToppo) and the Latin vro, 

Stn. Abroad. Away. Aloof. 
Ant. Near. At home. Close. 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


Affable, adj, Affahilis, affari, 
to address. Giving opportunities 
of conversation, where they im- 
ply kindness or condescension. 

Stk. Courteous. Condescending. Ac- 
cessible. Conversible. Gracious. Easy. 

Akt. Ebcclusive. Discourteous. Distant. 
Inaccessible. Unapproachable. Jnconver- 
sible. Haughty. Coutemptuons. Super- 

Affair, w. Fr. affaire, afficere, 
to affect. A thing taken "with its 
surroundings, and viewed, as it 
were, in the gross; as, a love 
affair, a trivial afiGoir, a serious 

Syn. Matter. Business. Concern. Trans- 

Akt. DetaiL Item. Point Feature. 

Affect, v. tr, Afficere, To 

make or produce an effect upon. 

Also to eiiibit a tendency toward 

an object ; hence to seek naturally 

or desire. The impulse may he 

physical or moral, as, water is 

affected by cold; fluids affect a 

round figure; I do not affect 

that man. It is this last aspect 

of the word which is represented 

in common parlance by affection, 

though it is also used physically, 

as, a febrile affection. 

Stn. Like. Desire. Favour. Seek. 

Akt. Dislike. Eschew. Shun. Bepel. 

Affectation, n. Is the false 
or idle form of the affection ; the 
assuming a state which is not 
one's own, or not natural; the 
affecting of the untrue ; the im- 
pulse on the one side, and the 
object or nature on the other, 
being out of harmony. 

Syn. Pretence. Artifice. Hypocrisy. 
Assumption. Simulatlun. Mannerism. Eu- 
phuism. Airs. 

Ant. Genuineness. Naturalness. Sim- 
plicity. Artlessness. UnafiFeutedness. 

Affbotebilitt, n, 8ie Affect. 

Stw. Sensibility. SenslUveness. Sus- 
ceptibility. Impressibility. Kxdtability. 
Irritability. Nervousness. 

Akt. Insensibility. Insensateness. Hebe- 
tude. Unimpressibieness. Callousness. 

Affection, n, Se^ Affect 

Syn. Influence. Condition. State. In- 
clination. Bent Mood. Humour. Feel- 
ing. Love. Desire. Propt-nsiiy. 

Akt. Insensibility, indifference. Re- 
pugnance. DisafTection. Bepuision. 

Affiance, n. Fr. affiance, ad 
and fidentia, from Jides, Faith, 
expressed toward a superior is 
homage, toward an equal is 
friendship, toward a superior 
power, confidence, and, in a pe- 
culiar sense toward the other 
sex, betrothal. 

Syk. Homage. Trust. Confidence. Be- 
liaiice. Betrothal. Fealty. Faith. Flight- 

Ant. Unfealty. Disloyalty. Distrust. 
Treason. Suspicion. Infidelity. Falseness. 

Affiliate, v. tr. Ad and JiUuk, 
a son. To impute paternity. Also 
to connect, as with a parent 
stock or society. 

Sy». Annex. Graft Incorporate. Unite. 
Adopt Inoculate. 

Ant Dismember. Disannex. DisafiSliate. 
Sever. Transplant Separate. Dl^in. 

Affiliation, n. See AflBlliate. 

Affinity, n, Affinis means 
literally contiguity, closeness of 
location ; hence closeness of social 
location, that is, relationship be- 
tween persons not of the same 
blood, so differing from con- 
sanguinity. Hence, again, ana- 
logy of nature or character, as 
in colour, sound, sentiment, or 
mental character ; hence, again, 
likeness in anything which should 
form ground of classification, as 
groups of langiiages or natural 
history, a physical community, 
as chemical affinities. 

Syn. Relationship. Similarity. Analogy. 
Homogeneity. Harmony. Correlativeness. 
Sympathy. Interdependence. Interconnec- 
tion. Intercommunity. 


AnK 2B. r. tr. A4 mod. forum, 
7i»sr-Y^''_ T? ^' y ' y w ' ^ Maitet, or 
A?b±2ri:r«jcdii2«3ait- Hence, 
g^peyyaTly- %> pc^^dace aeoafding 
Iw:^ ^ T:£3a£mMA BUml pio- 
darsi^XL a$^ ih& sea aSxds fish, AfiriifT, <asR>9anf. ^it &M« «6E]| : a ^nell-^Knt life 
Sit^ ^S^'^SLJ^ •«^«* '^^ftce St dae last. Se- 

WT«. alJj4^.4rfr«far-,-«rfoi» p-fMrnm to (UTS meuB and 

Jjm(R Ksinds afflict and tbe 
oOkt derNmtiT«B to tim^ of tiie 

flDBd and prokn^ed pains of the 

Ixidj. Wben rise casoal aiwl Aprmi^KHiSE, r.«r. Momtlfte 

ialentioiia!w<9>[3KliBgofriiebodj oldGciiii.-Frcndj^.i^'smc. Gamp. 

HRK^EEiio^ifaeodiercampoiiifed, ftank^fiecL Tonakefiree. Ap- 

inffiet, K used, as, to inflict a i^JedtomiiTidMigaDd boroo^g. 

WQNBid ; but we speak of an in- ^,f^ "^ '^~ 

flictioii, meanin? an aniKijan ee, axz. 

taA of the inflsctkHi, of pain of t^ ' *^^ * '^**' i*^[Mt^- 

nmid. Man infiictB, Xnt God ArrEAX, *. Fr. e^roi^fear^ A 

afflicte. conflict tl^ pats othes in fear. 


. Aflksan. TvnHcl TrUL GricC 
IMiL UwMK^ MiKij. HM* A i|> . Sonw. 
Am. Ca— litiiiM. EdMC ABrrMix& 

riiei\^Qie public. 

SnL BreC TohIl fitevL Mdfe. 

Am CMer. T ijiriiij. IWiirtlwi. 

Afiotjce,!*. ^-/and/ufrr, affbight, r. fr. GtAK To 
fo^^'^Iniisaep e^;^ *^ ' pat in sadden f^ by sane ex- 
aggwigtte rather ttenriiei»oc«8*^ 
Of an mflr/mng abondance. In ^^^ sunkL *««— ^ Ta 
oidi»' En^^h it applied to the - asi.1 
jgsjiafal in&ffw of water, as of^ Affrost, n. J</ and/roiw, 
tti^tid^^ and the amral of any-i ^^^^ fortt^d or fac^. An <q)en 
mx^ m laige nombers, as, an , jnsoit, as distingoished from a 
afflnen^ o(t strangers. It is now [ g^^^j^t ^^ insidioas attack by 
eommonly n«ed for an aband-- ^<^ ^ ^eed. 

aoee of re^Onreea. Snr. Oatnc^ PioTocmtion. Insalt. 

m%. AhmAmet, TIeatf, Wealth, i IndigDitj. . 
tkhuh OgtOme^ I Axt: Eoouige. Sslutadon. Gooriesj. 

Asn. WmM, fkanitf, Tanrj, InM- ' Apology. Amends. GanpliBeot. 

MHi Udt ^^ Afire, icZir. On fire. 

8ynonym» and Antonyms. 


Stk. AbUze. Alight Barning. Ignited. 
Ant. Out Extinguished. Quenched. 

Afloat, adv. Sax., but seems 
akin to fluo, flvctus, a wave, 
Gomp. Fluctuate. It is used also 
in a metaphorical sense, as below. 

Stn. Adrift. Abroad. At sea. Abroach. 
Loose. Distracted. Dased. 

Ant. On shore. Snug. Tight Cloae. 
Fast. Collected. Gunceutrated. 

Afoot, adv. On foot Liter- 
ally, on the feet, and with the 
metaphorical meaning of, set 

Stk. Working. Launched. Afloat. 
Agoing. Luiugurated. Started. Insti- 
tuted. Established. 

Akt. Unconimenced. Incomplete. Pro- 
jected. Proposed. Contemplated. Designed. 

Afobe, adv. and a^fj. Fore, 
same as for Gr. ir6pp(o,Ij8itia pro. 
Precedent in time or space. 

Stk Precedent. Antecedent Fore- 

King. Ahead. Infh>nL Before. Beyond, 

Akt. Behind. Following. Subsequently. 
After. Asiern. Aback. Rearwards. 

AFOEESAiD,^r^. See Afore. 

8tn. Above-mentioned. Stated. 
Ant. Following. Sutdoined. After- 
cited. Forthcoming. 

Afbaid, adj. See Affray. Ex- 
presses all degrees of fear be- 
tween the most trifling appre- 
hension and the highest conster- 

Srw. Fearfui Apprehensive. TimkL 
Cautions. Careful. Frightened. Alarmed. 
JTerrlfied. Suspicious. Distrustful. Anxious. 

Ant. Fearless. Inapprehensive. Un- 
solicitous. Easy. Indifferent Secure. 
Confident. Bold. Hopeful. Eager. Reck- 
less. Audacious. Venturesome. 

Afresh, adv. Fr. fraiche, 

Syn. Anew. Again. Frequently. Re- 
peatedly. Intermittently. 

Ant. Continuously. Uniformly. Unin- 
terruptedly. Uuint«rmittently. Connectedly. 

Aft, adv, See Abaft. 

After, prep. See Abaft. Ap- 
plied to jxDsteriority both of 
time and order. 

Stn. Behhid. Following. Succeedhig. 

Ant. Afore. Before. Introducing. Pre- 

Again, adv, Grerman geJien, to 
go. With the twofold idea of 
going anew, and going at or to- 
wards ; hence, again and against ; 
for the latter vide infra. The 
idea of frequent repetition is ex- 
pressed by the phrase, "again 
and again." 

Syn. Anew. Afresh. Repeatedly. Fre- 

Ant. Continuously. Uniformly. Unin- 
terruptedly. Unintermittently. Once. 

AoAiKBT, prep. See Again. 
Implies motion or position in 
opposition; and this both phy- 
sical and moral opposition. 

Stk. Over. Opposite. Abutting. Op- 
posing. Resisting. Despite. Across. A- 
thwart Counter to. 

Ant. With. For. Along with. Aiding. 
Suiting. Promoting. 

Agapb, adv. Gape, of Grothic 
derivation. Comp. Gap. 

Syn. Astare. Agog. Astonished Cu- 
rious. Inquisitive. Entertained. Amused. 

Ant. Incurious. LtotlesB. Lukewarm. 

Age, n, Lat. oevitm, amtoA, 

This word expresses both a 
point and also a period of time ; 
and these as applied both to his- 
tory at large and the history of 
human lifetime. Sometimes used 
emphatically of old age, as, 
*' from youth to age." 

Syn. Period, Generation. Date. Cen- 
tury. Antiquity. Senility. Eklership. 

Ant. Youth. Infuncy. Boyhood. Child- 
hood. Moment Instant 

Aged, adj. See Age. 

Syk. Old. Ancient Antiquated. Pa- 
triarchal. Primaeval. Time-honoured. 

Ant. Juvenile. YouthfuL Young. Up- 
start Recent Fresh. 

Agency, n. Agentia. See Agent. 
Agent, w. See Act. Applies 


Synonyrm and Antonyms. 

both to acts and actions, also to 
physical influences. It has the 
technical sense of, a man of busi- 

Stn. Doer. Performer. Actor. Force. 
Means. lustrument. Inflnenoe. Cause. 
Promoter. Operator. 

A»T. Counteragent. Counteractor. Comi- 
teraction. Opponent Neutralizer. 

Agglomebate, V. tr, Agglo- 
merare, glomtis, a ball of cotton, a 
twist or yam. 

To agglcmierate is to collect 
into a mass of such a kind as 
shall convey the idea of a multi- 
plicity of parts, or intricacy with- 
out organisation or structural 

Syn. Accumulate. Conglomerate. Lump. 
Agglutinate. Entangle. Heap. Confuse. 

Ant. Scatter. Dissipate. Sift. Separate. 
Disentangle. Disject. Divide. Disunite. 
Part Unravel. Detach. Difference. Dif- 

Agglutinatb, V, tr. Gluten, 

This idea differs from the pre- 
ceding, inasmuch as the totality 
of the things agglutinated re- 
mains distinguishable, as in 
some languages compound ideas 
are expressed by concatenating 
monosyllables, or words expres- 
sive of elementary ideas, such as 
the Chinese; they are called ag- 
glutinate languages. 

Syn. A(yoin. Splice. Weld. Solder. 
Gum. AflBx. Attach. Paste. Post SUdc. 

Ant. Detach. Abrade. Absterge. Dis- 
integrate. Resolve. Disglutinate. 

Aggbakdize, V, tr, Grandis, 
great or large. To make great or 
greater. Applied to individuals 
and families, or their condition. 

Syn. Promote. Dignify. Exalt En- 
noble. Enrich. Advance. Elevate. S^- 

Ant. Depress. Degrade. Enfeeble. Im- 
porerieb. Debase. Humillaie. Lower. 
Almae. Disgrace. DisboDoxw. 

Aggbavate, v. tr. Orm^h^ 
heavy. To make heavy or heavier. 
It is not used of the augmenta- 
tion of that which is physically 
weighty, but metaphorically, as of 
the burden of trouble, or any- 
thing naturally oppressive. So 
the idea is by usage restricted to 
matters of feeling and moral re- 
sponsibility. We aggravate a 
mental, not a material burden. 
Circumstances also aggravate 
offences. It is less usually em- 
ployed directly of persons than 
of their feelings or sentiments. 

Syn. Exasperate. Wound. Provoke. In- 
crease. Eahance. Embitter. Magnify. 

Ant. Soothe. Conciliate, Assuage. Di- 
minish. Palliate. Neutralize. Soften. 
Lessen. Alleviate. Attenuate. Mitigate. 

Aggbegate, Aggbegation, r. 
Ad and grex, a flock, 

Syn. Sum. Result TotaL Mass. 
Whole. TotaUty. CoUecUon. Collation. 

Ant. Dissipation. Dispersion. Separa- 
tion. Division. Segregation. Disunion. 
Individual. Unit Element Ingredient 

Aggbession, n. Aggrediom. 
Grodu^, a step. Commonly im- 
plying the first to begin an en- 

Syn. Invasion. Attack. Onslaught. 
Assault Encroachment Provocation. In- 

Ant. Resistance. Retaliation. Repul- 
sion. Withdrawal. Retreat Evacuation. 
Accession. Acceptance. Qualification. 

Aggrieve, v. tr. See Aggra- 
vate. To lay a burden of sorrow 
or injury upon another. 

Syn. Wound. Trouble. Annoy. Hurt. 
Vex. Disappoint Molest Injure. Wrong. 

Ant. Soothe. Conciliate. Assuage. Con- 
sole. Satisfy. Compensate. 

Aghast, adv. From gaze, as 
it were agazed, or standSng in a 
state of gaping or staring won- 

Syn. Afirighted. Astonished. Astare. 
Dumbfounded. BevAVd'oed. HATtor-^truck. 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


Ayr. CooL Calm. Fearless. Unaffected. 
Unmoved. Indifferent Unexdied. Un- 

AoiLE, adj. Ago, agilis, active. 
Restricted by usage to bodily 

Sth. Nimble. Actiye. Fleet Brisk. 
Alert Featly. Lithe. 

Airr. Slow. H<>av7. Awkward. Clnmsy. 
Inert Bollgr. Pooderona. £lqpbantine. 

Agitate, v. tr, Agere, agilare, 
to toss about. 

Stw. Distarb. Trouble. Excite. RnfBe. 
Stir. Fluster. 

Akt. Oalm. Compofle. AUay. Padf j. 

It is sometimes used of argn- 
mentatiye consideration, as, to 
agitate a question. 

Stm. start Moot Ventilate. Pro- 

AST. Solve. Settle. Determine. 

Ago, adv. For agone. 

SrN. Past. Gone. Since. 
Akt. Coming. Future. Hence. Here- 

Agog, adv. For agoing. 

Sth. Abroad. Abroach. AsUr. Adrift 

The idea seems to be that of 
excited interest, with a tendency 
to distraction ; the faculties not 
only actively astir, but going, as 
it were, different ways at once, 
under the influence of curiosity, 
delight, surprise, or desire. 

Akt. Asleep. Indifferent, incurious. 
Somnolent. Heedless. Collected. CooL 

Agony, n. Torture. 'Aywwa, 
the struggle of the wrestler in 
the public contests of Greece. 
Agony is therefore, primarily, 
pain so severe as to produce con- 
tortion of the muscles; thence 
generally great pain of mind or 

Stn. Pain. Torture. Racking. Excru- 

Akt. Soothing. Allaying. Assuage- 
ment Comfort Composure. Peace. Ease. 
Relief. Gratification. £i\j07ment Rapture. 

Agbes, V. int. Fr. Agreer. Ad 
and gratus, grateful, pleasant. 

Agreement indicates physical, 
moral, or mental accordance. 
From its etymology it would 
appear that its tninsition has 
been, not from the physical to 
the moral, but the other way. 
Agreement may be with or with- 
out volition. 

Stn. Suit Tally. Accord. Fit Har- 
monize. Combine. Assent Consent Con- 
form. Consort Comport 

Akt. Differ. Disagree. Revolt Pro- 
test Decline. Refuse. Dissent Demur. 

Agbeeablb, adj. See Agree. 
Has the above forces, and also 
as applied to things or persons. 

Sm. Obliging. Pleasant Accommodat- 
ing. Grateful. Acceptible. Welcome. 

Akt. Disobliging. Unpleasant Unac- 
commodating. DLaagreeable. Obnoxious. 
Ungrateful. Unwelcome. Unacceptable. 

Agreeably, adv. See above. 

St». Suitably. Conformably. Consist- 
ently. Accordingly. Pleasantly. Accept- 
ably. Gratcrolly. 

Ant. Unsuitably. Inconsistently. Im- 
pertin(*ntly. Inappropriately. Inharmoni- 
ously. Unbefiitingly. Unpleasantly. 

Agbeement, n. Has the tech- 
nical sense of a permanent or 
attested agreement. 

Stv. Contract. Compact Bond. Obli- 
gation. Undertaking. Treaty. 

Ant. (Ah without legal force or bond). 
Understanding. Promise. Parole. 

AGBiouLruBE, 7^. Ager,afield, 
zolere, cultara, cvJtiwUion, 

Stk. Cultivation. Hi^bandry. Farming. 

Ant. Sterility. UnproductivenesR Waste. 
Fallowness. Inculture. 

Agbound, adv. On ground. 

Stk. Stranded. Ashore. 
Ant. Off. Afloat 

Ahead, adv. Toward the 

Stn. Forward. Afore. Afront On- 

Akt. Aft Abaft AitetVL B«bbMSu 


Synonyms and Antonyms, 

Aid, v. tr, Fr. aider, to hdj). 

Syx. Help. Assist. Succour. Support. 
Abet. Kncourage. Instigate. Subsidize. 

Ant. Opprise. Resist. Counteract 
Thwart. Withstand. Confront. Discourage. 
Deter. Baffle. 

Ailment, w. Ail, of northern 
derivation ; to be weak. 

Stn. Complaint. Illness. Sickness. Dis- 

Ant. Recovery. Convalescence. Health. 
Sanity. Robustness. Yigoor. Salubrious- 

Am, n. and v. int., as such it 
is followed by at. From cesti- 
tuare, to estimate or calculate, as 
distance, elevation, angles, force. 

Syn. Object Scope. Goal. Purpose. 
Mark. End. Design. Intention. 

SrN. to «. Seek. Level Propose. De- 
sign. Affect Intend. Mean. Purpose. 

Akt. Shun. Disregard. Disaffect Ig- 
nore. Overlook. Avoid. 

AiBY, adh A metaphorical 
expression for light as air, over 
and above its plainer meaning of 
ventilated or breezy. 

Syn. Light -Ethereal. Spiritual. Joyous. 
Sprightly. Lively. Animated. Frolicsome, 

AsT. DuiL Inert Stony. Ponderous. 
Slow. Heavy. Cheerless. Sullen. Dole- 
some. Lugubrious. Leaden. Wooden. 

Akin, adj. Prefix a and kin ; 
whence kind and kindred. Like 
in nature or character. 

Syn. Related. Agnate. Cerate. Homo- 
geneous. Similar. Consanguineous. Con- 
genial. Allied. Sympathetic. 

Ant. Unrelated. Unconnected. Alien. 
Heterogeneous. Foreign. Uncongenial. 
Hostile. UnalUed. Antagonistic. Unb-ym- 
pathetic. Dissimilar. 

Alacrity, n, Alacer, quick, 

Syn. Quickness. Readiness. Cheerful 
ness. Compliance. Willingness. Prompti- 

Ant. Slowness. Reluctance. Repug- 

The idea of alacrity is com- 
pound, implying both physical 
and mental or moral activity, 
luidis by usage almost entirely 
virioted to tiie ready perform- 

ance of the wishes or commands 
of another. 

Alarm, n. and v. It. all \i7Tne. 
A cry " to arms ;*' hence the verb 
alarm means to frighten, and the 
noun not only fear but a sum- 
mons to self-defence, as, to give 
the alarm. 

Syn. Apprehension. Fear. Fright. 
Timidity. Consternation. Tocsin. War-cry. 
War-note. Reveille. 

Ant. Confidence. Security. Quiet 

Syn. to V. Warn. Wake. Terrify. 
Frighten. Intimidate. 

Ant. Compose. Embolden. Reassure. 

Alarming, adj. See Alarm. 

Syn. Terrible. Fearful. Frightful. For- 
tent«»u». Ominous. Threatening. 

Ant. Soothing. Assuring. Encouraging. 
Inviting. Propitious. Hopeful. Alluring. 
Enticing. Attractive. 

Alert, adj\ Sp. al' erta. On 
the mound or post of the sentinel 
on the fortifications or rampart. 

Syn. Activf?. Vigilant Ready. Wake- 
ful Watdiful. Prepared. 

Although the word is used for 
briskness or activity, in general, 
it still is most appropriately used 
of cases in which, according to 
the etymology, the mind and 
body answer to some external 
call upon them, to be on the 
alert, or to be on the look-out, 
ready to act on short notice, 
being found prepared. 

Ant. Slow. Sleepy. Lazy. Absent 
Oblivious. Unreudy. Sluggish. Inactive. 
Unwaichful. Dilatory. Drowsy. 

Alien, adj\ Alius, alienus. 
Belonging to another country; 
hence, metaphor., foreign to the 

Syn. Foreign. Strange. Undomesticated. 
Inappropriate. Irrelevant Impertinent 

Ant. Pertinent Essential. Proper. 
Appropriate. Relevant Germane. Akin. 
Apropos. Naturalized. 

AuKKAm, v. <r. See Alien. 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


Applied to property, and the 
good-will or affections of others. 

Syk. Estrange. Abalienate. Transfer. 
Ant. Conciliate. Retain. Endear. Bind. 
£ntail. Secure, 

AiiiBNATiON, w. See above. 
Has, besides, the peculiar sense 
of constitutional estrangement of 

Stn. Insanity. Aberration. Hallucina- 
tion. Derangement. Imbecility. 

Akt. Sanity. Soundness. Sobriety. Bap 

Alight, v. int. Light conn, 
with leins. To descend lightly. 

Syn. Perch. Drop. Descend. Dismount. 
Ant. Mount Ascend. Spring. Soar. 

Alikb, adj. and adv, A and 
like. Like in character or nature 
or community of circumstances. 

Stw. Resembling. Similar. Homogene- 
ous. Akin. Togefiier. Equally. 

Ant. Unlike. Heterogeneous. Dis- 
similar. Apart Variously. Differently. 

Aliment, n, Aleve, alimentum, 
to nourish. Is used of whatever 
tends to promote growth in 
plants or animals. 

Stn. Food. Sustentation. Nutriment 
Akt. Poison. Bane. Venom. Starva- 
tion. Exhaustion. 

AiiiVB, adj. A and life. Germ. 
leben. Possessing life, or full of 

Stn. Quick. Living. Breathing. Warm. 
Lively. Vivacious. Alert Brisk. Ani- 

Ant. Dead. Departed. Cold. Lifeless. 
Defunct. Inanimate. Dispirited. DuU. 

All, adj. Saxon. Expresses 
completeness of number, extent, 
quantity, or duration. It pre- 
cedes the definite article, while 
the synonyms follow it. 

Stn. Whole. Entire. Complete. TotaL 
Ant. (preceding). Some. Part 

Allay, v. tr. G^rm. legen, to 
lay down. To diminish or abate ; 
but by use to diminish in force 
especially. It is used of bodily 

pain and mental excitement, and 
of forces and feelings generally, 
so far as they are amenable to 
man's control. It may be total 
or partial. When used of metals 
it is a confusion with alloy, which 
has a totally distinct derivation. 

Stn. Soothe. Alleviate. Repress. Mid- 
gate. Quiet Moderate. Aiq;>ea8e. Com- 
pose. Soften. Pacify. 

Ant. Excite. Rouse. Aggravate; Stir. 
Kindle. Fan. Impassion. jProvoke. In- 

Allege, v, tr. Ad legare, to 
send or depute. To send or put 
forth as an authoritative state- 
ment ; hence, as adding strength, 
to adduce the authority of an- 

Stn. Declare. AfiBrm. Assert As- 
severate. Depose. Plead. Cite. Quote. 
Assign. Advance. 

Ant. Contradict Gainsay. Refute. 
Deny. Disprove. Neutralize. Qua>«b. 

Allegiance, n. AUigantia, 
ad and ligare, to hind. That 
which binds a subject to his 
king or superior in the state; 
used also for the personal feeling 
or recognition of it. 

Stn. Subjection. Obedience. Loyalty. 
Fealty. Homage. 

Ant. Disloyalty. R^)ellion. Resistance. 
Disaffection. Malcontentment Treason. 

Allegory, n. Gr. aXXos, and 

dyopevcoj I speak. 

Stn! Parable. Metaphor. Fable. Illus- 
tration. Image. For the differences, tee 
the words in locis. 

The allegory is a form of di- 
dactic speech, in which the pro- 
perties of one subject are, for the 
sake of illustration, transferred 
to another. 

Akt. History. Fact Narrative. 

Alleviate, V. <r. Ad and levis, 
light. To make light, or lighter. 
It is not used literally, or of 
things physical, but metaphori- 
cally of things which weigh upon 


Synonyms and Antonyms, 

the mind, as caxe, sorrow, grief, 
&c. We speak, however, of al- 
leviating pain, penalty, and pun- 

Stv. Lighten. Lessen. Mitigate. Soothe, 
Assuage. Moderate. Relieve. Remit. 

Akt. Aggravate. Enhance. Embitter. 
Augment Increase. 

Alliance, n, AUigantia, ad 
ligare, to bind. 

An alliance is a voluntary 
compact, binding persons or 
communities. The alliance of 
states is either offensive, defen- 
sive, or both; with individuals 
it means friendship or marriage- 

Stw. (Compact. Treaty. Union. Co- 
operation. Coalition. Confederation. Friend- 
Rhip. Relationship. 

Amt. Disunion. Enmity. Divorce. Dis- 
card. Disruption. Antagonism. Estrange- 
ment Hostility. Separation. 

Allot, v. tr. Fr. lot, a lot or 
share. To assign a lot or to dis- 
tribute lots. 

St!V. ARsign. Grant. Award. Give. 
Distribute. Apportion. Deal. Dispense. 

Ant. Withliold. Reftise. Retain. Ap- 
propriate. Resume. Misapportion. Misdeal. 

Allotment, w. See Allot. 

Stn. Piece. Parcel. Award. Assign- 
ment Apportionment 

Ant. Malappropriation. Seizure. En- 

Allow, v, tr, Fr. aUouer, from 
allocare, or allaudare. First, to 
make a deduction, as upon an ac- 
count ; hence, to grant or give in 
a stated manner or periodically ; 
hence, again, to grant the claim 
of a thing on the ground of 
truth, justice, reason, or equity ; 
and, finally, to concede for rea- 
sons best known to one's self 

Stn. Apposition. Allot Assign. Afford. 
Concede. Grant Remit Recognize. Ac- 
knowlet^e. Avow. Confess. Admit 
Permit. Suffer. 

Ant. Withhold. Withdraw. Resume. 
Refuse. Deny. Disallow. Repudiate. Pro- 
test Withstand. Resist Disapprove. 

Allowance, n. See Allow. 

Alloy, n, A and Fr. hi, the 

Alloy is the debasement of 
metal to that standard which the 
law allows. The word is not to 
be confounded either with allow 
or allay, inasmuch as all come 
from (Afferent roots. In time, 
the notion of legal debasement of 
value was lost sight of, and the 
word is now taken metaphori- 
cally for the abatement of things 
pleasurable or good. 

Syn. Admixture. Deterioration. Adul- 
teration. Drawback. Diminution. Decre- 
ment Impairment Debasement Depre- 
ciation. Disparagement 

Akt. Purity. Genuineness. Enhance^ 
ment Integrity. 

Alloyed. See Alloy. 

Stx. Mixed. Deteriorated. Impaired. 
Diminished. Adulterated. 

Ant. Pure. Absolute. Perfect Com* 

Blete. Genuine. Unmixed. Undeteriorated. 
Fnimpuired. Undiminished. Unadulterated. 

Allude, w. int. Ad and ludere, 
to sport. To allude is to make 
such a reference to a subject as 
does not straightly refer to, but, 
as it were, plays about it, and is 
not specific but suggestive. It 
is followed by the prep, to, 

Syx. Refer. Point Indicate. Suggest 
Hint Signify. Insinuate. 

Ant, Specify. Demonstrate. Declare. 
Mention. Stale. 

Allure, v. tr. Lure with the 
sense of bait. To lead on by 
the enticement of a bait. 

Stn. Entice. Tempt Seduce. Attract 

Ant. Alarm. Deter. Terrify. Scare. 

Allurement, n. See Allure. 
Allusion, n. See Allude. 

Syn. Reference. Insinuation. 
Ant. Specification. Demonstration. Men^ 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 

Ally, n. See Alhance. 

Syn. Friend. Compunioo. Supporter. 
Aider. Abettor. Accomplioe. Acoeasory. 
Colleague. Coadjutor. 

Ant. Foe. Enemy. Opponent Adver- 
sary. BafQer. Counteracter. Antagonist. 

Aloof, adv. Either all off, or, 
for aloft, from Germ. luft, the air. 
It is applied not to altitude but 
to distaiice more commonly. 

Syn. Apart Away. Separately. 
Akt. Close. Itear. Together. 

Aloud, adv. A and loud. 

Stn. Audibly. Loudly. Sonorously. 
Vociferously. Clamorously. Obetreper- 


T. Softly. Silently. Inaudibly. Sup- 

Alteb, V. tr. AUerare, to sub- 
stittUe. Also to change, that is, 
to take another, or to make other- 

Syk. Substitute. Change. Modify. Ex- 
change. Vary. Diversify. 

Ant. Retain. Perpetuate. Conserve. 
Stereotype. Arrest Solidify. Stabilitate. 

Alterable, a4J. See above. 

Stn. Variable. Mutable. Changeable. 
Moveable. Revocable. 

Ant. Invariable. Immutable. UnchanKe- 
able. Permanent. Fixed. Perpetual. Un- 
alterable. Immovable. 

Alteration, n. See Alter. 

Syn, Variation. Difference. Diversiflcap- 
tion. Modification. Change. Permutation. 

Ant. Retention. Perpetuation. Conser- 
vation. Changelessness. Stabilitation. Iden- 
tity. Fixity. Permanence. 

Altercation, n. Same root as 
Alter. Mutual expressions of as- 
perity, or argument so conducted. 

Syn. Dispute. Wrangle. Contentious. 

Ant. Unanimity. Concord. Agreement. 
Compromise. Reconciliation. Consonance. 
Conversation. Harmony. 

Alternative, n. Same root. 

Syn. Choice. Resource. Option. 
Axt. Compulbion. Fix. Quandary. 

Altiloquence, n. Altus, high, 
loqui, to speak. 

Syn. Bom bast Turgid ity. Inflatedness. 
Euphuism. Magniloquence. 

Ant. Plain -spoki-nness. Vernacular. 


Altitude, n. Same root. Mea- 
sured height. 

SvN. Height Tallneas. Verticality. 
Ascent. Loftiness. 

Ant. Luwness. Depression. Descent. 
Declination. Depth. 

Altogether, adv. All to 

Syn. Collectively. Combined. In one. 

Ant. Separately. Individually. Partially. 

Amalgamate, v. tr. MaXay/xa. 
Any moist, ductile or viscous 
compound, as an emollient plas- 
ter. Amalgam is the compound 
of quicksilver with other metals. 

Syn. Fuse. Mix. Commix. Com- 
pound. Unite. Incorporate. Consolidate. 

Ant. Separate. Disintegrate. Disunite. 
Decompose. Dissipate. Detach. Disperse. 

Amalgamation. See Amalga- 

Amass, v. tr. Massa, lump es- 
pecially of molten metal. 

Syn. Collect Accumulate. Heap. Ag- 

Ant. Divide. Diuipate. Waste. Scatter. 
Disperse. Parcel Portion. Spend. 

Amazement, n. Maze or laby- 
rinth. Expresses the combiner 
tion of surprise and difficulty, 
usually accompanied with fear 
in a greater or less degree. 

Syn. Astonishment. Bewilderment Sur- 
prise. Stupefaction. Marvel. 

Ant. Expectation. Preparation. Anti- 
cipation. Faniiliarity. Calmness. Comjio- 
sure. Coolness. Self-possession. 

Amazing, adj\ See above. 

Syn. Astounding. Astonishing. Be- 
wildering. Marvellous. Prodigious. Por- 
tentous. Ominous. Striking. 

Ant. Common. Ordinary. Familiar. 
Trivial Commonplace. Customary. Fre- 
quent. Usual 

Ambagious, aJJ. Ambages, amh 
for ambi, and agere, to treat or 
drive. To twist about 

Syn. Tortuous. Indirect. Anfractuous. 
Circumlocutory. Periphrastic. Circuitous. 
AmbiRUOUS. Uix\rle\V\8,VtoVft. "PoVxiWssa. \iV«r 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

Ant. Simple. Straightforward. Direct. 
Obvious. Intelligible. Lucid. Plain. Pointed. 
Terse. Pungent. Condensed. Telling. 

Ambiguous, adj, Amho, both. 
That quality of an expression 
which leaves ns in doubt which 
of two ways to take it in, and, by 
an extension of meaning, which 
leaves us in doubt generally. 

Stn. Equivocal. Doubtful. Enigmatical. 
Unintelligible. Perplexing. Dubious. In- 

Ant. Univocal. Obvious. Plain. Un- 
ambiguous. Indisputable. Unmlstakeable. 
Necessary. Clear. UnequivocaL Lucid. 

Ambition, n, Amhire, to go 
ahout. Canvassing for office in 
ancient Kome. Hence a ten- 
dency to self-raising, which may 
be moderate or immoderate. 

Stk. Aspiration. Emulation. Appetition. 
Ant. Indiflerence. Inappetency. Mode- 
ration. Contentment. 

Ameliorate, v, ir. Melius, 

This word seems in present 
usage to be confined to such ma- 
terial improvement of men's con- 
dition as are closely dependent 
on a corresponding moral or 
mental state. Thus we do not 
speak of ameliorating an indi- 
vidual by knowledge, but of 
ameliorating the condition of the 
people by education. 

SifN. Improve. Raise. Better. Advan- 
tage. Advance. Promote. Amend. 

Ant. Debase. Depress. Deteriorate. 
Ii^ure. Impair. Vitiate. Spoil. Mar. 

AMENABLE, adj. Supposed to 
be from minari, to threaten^ as the 
root of the french amentr, to 
lead or bring. So Amenable 
would at first imply that pre- 
carious condition of dependence 
'which led a man to take great 
account of the threats of a su- 
perior; hence this servile idea 
being lost, the force survived of 
a state of subjection or depend- 

ence generally. (Another deri- 
vation is from the mesne or 
demesne lord or feudal superior.) 
And, by a further extension, a 
voluntariness of subjection to 
such an influence as in the phrase 
' amenable to reason.' 

Syn. Liable. Dependent Responsible. 
Answerable. Accountable. Subject Pliant 
lmpres>lble. Ductile. Dodle. 

Ant. Independent Autocratic Un- 
amenable. Irresponsible. Refiractory. Ob- 

Amend, v. active and neuter, 
Menda, a fault or defect. 

When used as neuter it has a 
general, when as active, a par- 
ticular or detailed force: Thus, 
'his character or condition has 
amended in general.' ' He takes 
pains to amend his ways,' implies 
specific attention to the counter- 
acting of certain faults. 

Syn. Improve. Mend. Correct Repair. 
Better. Ameliorate. Reform. 

Ant. Deteriorate. Degenerate.- N^lect 
Aggravate. Tarnish. Blemish. SpoiL 
Corrupt Vitiate. Impair. Mar. 

Amends, n. The filling up of 
defect in obligation towards an- 

Syn. Compensation. Satisfaction. Ac- 
knowledgment. Atonement Expiation. 
Apology. Restitution. Reparation. 

Ant. Insult Fault. Offence. Injury. 

Amenity, TO. Amaynys, pleasant. 
Applied to physical influences, 
as climate, and to demeanour. 

Syn. Pleasantness. Mildness. Blandness. 
Graciousness. Geniality. Compliableness. 
Obligingness. Courtesy. 

Ant. Unpleasantness. Harshness. Aus- 
terity. Roughness. Moroseness. Ungra- 
ciousness. Bearishness. Rigour. Asperity. 
Angularity. Discourtesy. 

Amerce, v. tr, Merces, penalty. 
Syn. Fine. Bind. Mulct Condemn. 
Ant. Remit Acquit Absolve. In- 
demnify. Release. 

Amiable, ctdj. Amare, to love, 
worthy to be loved, Ofold applied 
to things and places, now only 
to persons. 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


Stk. Tjoveable. Good. BeneTolent. 
Charitable. Kind. Delectable. 

Ant. Churlish. Uisagreeabie. Hateful 
Abominable. Ill-natured. Unamiable. lU- 

Amicable, adj. Amtctts, a 
friemL Exhibiting the character 
of a friend, a friendliness on a 
specific occasion. 

Syn. Friendly. Propitious. Favourable. 
Kind. Cordial. Neighbourly. 

AsT. Unfriendly. Unpropitioua. Un- 
fieivourable. XXtjIdnd. Cold. Distant An- 
tagonistic. Hostile. Adverse. 

Amidst, prep, Medius, middle, 

Syn. Between. Among. Betwixt. 
Akt. Outside. Without. Beyond. 

Amiss, adj, Amitteref amissiis. 
That which is lost, or has been 
made to swerve from its right 
scope or purpose, and so wrong. 
. It is seldom used of physical, 
more often of moral things : and 
expresses wrong under the as- 
pect of swerving, deviation, or 
failure^ and to ta-ansactions, as 
missing the mark of time and 

Sfn. Wrong. Untrue. Wide, Bad. 
False. Defective. Short Inappfopriate. 
Inopportune. Injudicious. Untimely. Abor- 

Ant. Right True. Good. Complete. 
SiiccessfuL Satisfactory. Consummate. 
Effective, Expedient. Appropriate. Op- 

Amity, w. See Amiable. 

Expresses an ordinary amount 
of goodwill without intimacy or 
strong feeling. 

Stn. Friendliness. Peace. GoodwilL So- 

Ant. Coolness. Distance. Indifference. 
Hostility. Opposition. Antagonism. Acri- 
mony. Asperity. Hatred. Dislike. Re- 
pugnance. Unfriendliness. 

Amnesty, n, d not, and fivdofuUf 
ljL€fivr}LLai, I remember. A consign- 
ing of offences (particularly poUti- 
caH to oblivion. 

8tn. Pardon. Acquittal. Remission. 
Condonation. Oblivion. Dispensation. Ab- 

Ant. Penalty. Retaliation. Punishment. 
Retribution. Requital Visitation. Inflic- 
tion. Exaction. Trial Account 

Among, j>rep. A mingled. See 

Amorphous, adj. d not, and 
fjLop(f)ri, a shape or form. 

The word is technically used 
of the elements of crystals which 
have not developed into shape 
and angularity ; but it is gaining 
a more and more extensive cur- 
rency, in the sense of floating, 
or not yet compacted into a set- 
tled shape. 

Syn. Shapeless. Unformed. Incompact 
Inchoate. Incomplete. Unordered. Unar- 
ranged. Floating. Unmoulded. Natant 

Ant. Systematized. Arranged. Com- 
TOct. Finished. Shapely. Crystallized. 
Developed. Stereotyped. Moulded. FT.Amonter,ad 
moiitem. To reach the apex or 
culminating point, or a certain 
point or degree. 

Syn. Reach. Rise. Come. Attain. 

Ant. Fail Recede. Relapse. Fall. 

Amount, n. 

Syn. Total Sam. Aggregate. Whole. 
Quantity. Totality. Equality. 

Ant. Failure. Decrease. Deficiency. 
Portion. Instalment Deficit Insufllciency. 

Ample, adj. Amplu8,/ull. 

The word primarily expresses 
fulness of superficial, though 
not necessarily plane extent, as 
ample space ; the ample folds of 
a robe. In usage it expresses 
such a fulness as satisfies re- 
quirement or need. 

Syn. Large. Bountiful Liberal Suf. 
flcient Plentiful Abundant 

Ant. Narrow. Niggardly. Stingy. In- 
sufficient Scanty. Mean. Stint Bare. 

Amplification, n. See Am- 

Amplify, v. tr. See Ample. 
To make aaipVe, 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


The word is commonly applied 
to the augmentation of resources 
and the enlargement of some 
literary subject or argument. 

Syn. Enrich. Enlarge, iixisud. In- 
crease. Augment. Multiply. Dilate. Expa- 
tiate. Expand. DUcus!). Unfold. 

Ant. Betrencb. Amputate. Curtail. 
Condense. Abbreviate. Epitomize. Gather. 
Collect. Sum. 

Amplitude, n. See Ample. 

Amputate, v, tr. Am for arrJ), 
and putare, to prune. 

Stn. Prune. Lom. CurtaiL Clip. Re- 

Akt. Extend. Enlarge. Augment 
Elongate. Amplify. Train. Trail. Deve- 
lop. Produce. 

Analogy, n, ova, to, and \6yoi, 
a relation. 

Analogy is of three kinds, 
according to the number of re- 
lated terms. Thus, 1, there is an 
analogy between A and B— this 
commonly means resemblance, a 
community of character or cir- 
cumstance. 2, As A is to B so 
is C — in this case analogy is 
equality of relationship. 8, As 
A is to B, so is C to D. In this 
case it is equality of proportion. 

SrK. Relation. Resemblance. Propor- 
tion. Similarity. Coincidence. Afl^iiy. 

Ant. Disproportion. Dissimilarity. Dis- 
harmony. Irrelativeness. Heterogeneous- 
nefls. Incongruity. Inaffinity. 

Analysis, w. ava and Xvo), to 
loose. The resolution into parts 
of anything which is regarded 
as a whole — that is, a physical or 
metaphysical whole. 

Sin. Dissection. Separation. Segrega- 
tion. Anatomy. Decomposition. Resolu- 
tion. Paitition. 

Akt. Composition. Synthesis. Aggre- 
gation. Combination. CoaUtion. Coherence. 

Anarchy, n. a not, dpxri the 
principle of government. The 
failure of political power or au- 
thority, and its consequence, ciyil 

Syv. Disorder. Tumult Rebellion, 
Riot Mlsgovernment Insubordination. 

Ant. Order. Subjection. Goveriunent 
Organization. ControL Law. 

Anatomy, n. avti to, or up, and 
rc/xvo), 1 cut. The resolution 
of an organized substance into 
its structural constituents; em- 
ployed also metaphorically as the 
anatomy of a discourse. 

Syn. Dissection. Division. Segregation. 
Antdysis. Dismemberment Resolution. 

Ant. Synthesis. Collocation. Organiza- 
tion. Union. Construction. Structure. 
Form. Body. 

Ancient, adj. Fr. ancien. Low 
Latin, auteanus, onu who is before, 
of old. (Not to be confounded 
with ancient, meaning ensign, of 
which the derivation is imigne.) 
Tn common parlance ancient is 
used of that of which the cha- 
racter impresses us with anti- 
quity. As an ancient family; 
the ancient world. 

Sin. Old. Aged. Primeval Primor- 
dial. InunemoriaL Time-honoured. 

Ant. New. Young. Modem. Juve- 
nile. Upstart. Fresh. Parvenu. 

Ancillary, adj. AnciUa, a 

Syn. Assistant Subservient Promo- 
tive. Auxiliary Accessory. Conducive. 
Available. Useful Applicable. 

Ant. Insubservlent Redundant. Inap- 
propriate. Irrelevant Alien. Inoperative. 
Qncotiducive. Adverse. Obstructive. Im- 
pertinent Counteractive. Preventative. 

Anew, adv. A and new. 

Syn. Afresh. Again. Repeatedly. 
Ant. Of old. Continuously. Uninter- 

Anfractuosity, n. An for 
amhij and frangere, fractas, to 
break. The quality of being 
broken off short, or about, so as 
to produce the effect of needless 
coignes or angles. It is used me- 
I taphorically of style of speech. 

\ Syn. Ambagiousness. Angularity. Tor- 
1 tuousness. Ambiguity. Circumlocution. 
] Dit^ointednesB. 

Synonyms and Antonyrm. 


PUinness. Simplicity. Unmistaicableness. 
Pointednesa. Fluency. Lucidity. Smooth- 

Angelic, adj, &yy€\os, an 
Iteavenly messenger. Suggestive 
of the character of angels, or 
their state. 

Snr. Pare. EthereaL SpiritoaL Lovely. 
Heavenly. Seraphic. Rapturoos. Divine. 

Akt. FouL Hideous. DemoniacaL Dia- 
boUcaL Hellish. Fienditih. 

Akgeb, n, Lat. angor. Is a 
tight compression, especially of 
the throat. So the phrase, 
" choking with rage." Gr. ayx^w, 
to squeeze, 

Snr. Wrath. Ire. Resentment Indig- 
nation. Rage. Animosity. Fury. Choler. 
Ajit. Peace. Peaoefnluess. Peaoeuble- 
neaSb Appeasement. Forgiveness. Patience. 
^ Forbearance. GoodwilL Reconciliation. 
' Conciliatoriness. Mildness. 

Angry, ddj. See Anger. 

Stk. WrathfuL Irate. Resentltil. In- 
dignant. Passionate. 

Aht. Peaceful Forgiving. Forbearing. 
Calm. Good-tempered. UnresentftiL 

Anguish, n. See Anger. Ex- 
treme pain of body or mind. 

Stv. Torture. Excruciation. Agony. 

Airr. Ease. Pleasure. Enjoyment Ec- 
staqr. Rapture. Reliet Assuagement 
bolaoe. Comfort 

Animadversion, n. Animum 
(idvtrtei'e, to turn the mind or at- 
fentton ; but by usage the doing 
so for purposes of censure. 

Stn. Censure. Blame. Disapproval. Re- 

Akt. Praifle. Approval. Encourage- 
ment Eulogy. 

Animatb, V, tr. Animus, the 
mind or soul ; anima, the principle 
of life. Animation is the having 
fife, or the having it emphatically 
and demonstratively. 

Stn. Enliven. Intipirit Instigate. 
Prompt Incite. Stimulate. Stir. 

Ant. Dishearten. Deter. Depress. Cow. 
Stifle. Damp. Deaden. Discourage. 

Animated, adj. See Animate. 
Refers to a state which may be 
occasion^] or habitual. 

Stn. Roused. Excited. Enlivened. 
Stirred. Vivacious. Lively. Brink. 

Akt. Sluggish. Indolent. Indifferent 
Dull. Languid. Flat Tame. 

Animation, n. See Animate. 

Stn. Life. Liveliness. Vivacity. Cbfer- 
ftilness. BriPlmess. Alacrity. Activity. 

Aht. Expiration. Spiritlessness. Dul- 
ness. Dolefulness. Deadness. Stolidity. 

Animostft, n. Animosus in 
Latin meant full of vigour or 
courage; but in English ani- 
mosity is energetic dislike of 
persons. It is not so transient 
and violent as rage or anger, but 
of a more enduring character, 
and is, therefore, pertinent not 
only to individuals, as objects of 
dislike, but to cases in which 
energetic causes of disaffection 
exist, with littie probability of 
removal, such as religion, race, 
or proti*acted hostilities. 

Stn. Hatred. Antipathy. Dissension. 
Aversion. Acrimony. Feud. Strife. Acer- 
bity. Bitterness. Hostility. 

Akt. Cungenlality. Companionship. 
Friendship. Sympathy. Fellow-feeling. 
Unanimity. Harmony. Concord. AUiiiri. 
Regard. Kindliness. 

Annals, n, Libri annates, 
annus. Yearly records. Used 
also for consecutive or philo- 
sophical history, to which steictiy 
annals are precedent. It is a 
rhetorical expression to speak of 
history as annals. 

Stn. Chronicles. Records. Memorials. 
History. Archives. 

Akt. Tradition. Legend. Lays. Ro- 

Annex, v, tr. Ad and nectere, 
to knit, 

Stn. Add. Attach. Append. Unite. 
Fasten. Affix. 

Ant. Withdraw. Detach. Disconnect 
Separate. Disengage. Disunite. Remove. 

Annihilate, v. tr. Ad and 
nihil, nothing. To make a thing 
be as if it had nevet \ieeii ^ ^ 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

as this may be possible), to bring 
utterly to an end. 

Stn. Abolish. Destroy. Extinguish. 
Obliterate. ££face. 

Ant. Keep. Conserve. Preserve. Foster. 
Tend. Protest. Cherish. Develop. Culti- 
vato. Augment. Stabilitate. Perpetuate. 

Annotation, n, Annotare, 
nota, a mark. To set a mark 
against, for the purpose of ob- 
servation and critical explana- 

Stn. Explanation. Criticism. Elucida- 
tion. Observation. Comment 

Ant. Statement. Assertion. Proposi- 
tion. Narrative. Text 

Announce, v. tr. Annuntiare, 
nuntius, a messenger. To pro- 
claim a thing publicly; if to an 
individual, a character of im- 
portance if not publicity, still 
attaches to the tidings. 

Stn. Declare. Propound. BeveaL Herald. 
Proclaim. Promulge. Intimate. 

Ant. Conceal. Suppress. Withhold. 
Hush. Burke. Stifle. Shroud. Bury. 

Annot, V. tr. Ad and nocere, 
to hurt. Comp. Fr. ennui. To 
hurt by continuous offensiveness, 
as distinguished from violent or 
momentary infliction of pain. 

Syn. Tease. Vex. Irritate. AlTront 
Disturb. Molest. Pain. Disquiet Harass. 
Trouble. Inconvenience. 

Ant. Soothe. Conciliate. Appease. 

?aiet. Accommodate. Study. Regard, 
end. Foster. Cherish. Smooth. Gratify. 

Annoyance, n. See Annoy. 

Annul. Ad and nullus. To 
make so that none shall be af- 
fected. Said peculiarly of laws, 
edicts, rights, and customs. 

Stn. Cancel. Obliterate. Abrogate. 
Abolish. Extinguish. 

Ant. Foster. Protect Conserve. Main- 
tain. Confirm. Enact Be-enact Insti- 
tute. Establish. 

Anomalous, adj. See Anomaly. 

Anomaly, n. o, not, and ofuAos, 

Stn. Irregularity. Exception. Abnor- 
mity. Informality. Peculiarity. Eccm- 

Ant. Illustration. Exemplification. 

Anon, adv, Saxon. In one. 
In one moment. 

Stn. Soon. Shortly. Presently. 
Akt. Hereafter. By and by. 

Anonymous, adj. a not, and 
6vo^ , a name, 

Stv. Nameless. Authorless. Unattested. 
Unauthenticated. Unidentified. 

Akt. Authenticated. Attested. Signed. 
Authorized. Verified. Identified. 

Answer, n. Germ, antwort. 
A word set against another. It 
would depend upon circum- 
stances whether it was so set 
merely in reply, or in argumen- 
tative or hostile contradiction, or 
an account before the law or a 

Stn. Reply. Response. Connter-argn- 
ment. Confutation. Acceptance (as of a 
challenge). Tally. Solution. Counterpart. 
Vindication. Apology. Defence. ExcnN 

Ant. Challenge. Question. Defiance. 
Summons. Interrogation. Query. 

Answerable, adj. Liable to 
give answer in the sense of ac- 
count, and also having suitable- 
ness or correspondence. 

Stn. Liable. Amenable. Accountable. 
Responsible. Agreeing. Correspondent 

Ant. Independent Unanswerable. Ir- 
responsible. Different Unsuitable. Dis- 
agreeing. Dissimilar. 

Antagonism, n. See Antago- 

Stn. Hostility. Opposition. Enmity. 
Ant. Amity. Alliance. Association. 

Antagonist, n. dvrl and 
ayo>v, the contest of the Greek 
games, especially wrestling. 

The antagonist is, primarily, 
one pitted against another for 
the purpose of testing their re- 
spective skill and strength. It 
has passed, this peculiarity iDeing 
dropped, into the general sense 
of opposition. 

Stn. Adversary. Opponent Foe. 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


AsT. Aider. Abettor. Acoomplioe. Ac- 
cessory. Ally. 

Antecedence, «, Ante, he/ore, 
and oedere, to go. 

In usage, antecedence is any 
going before, in order of time, 
place, thought, or grammatical 
expression; but not of worth, 
dignity, or honour, which is ex- 
pressed by precedence. 

Sra. Anteriority. Priority. Precursor- 
ship. Premonition. Preparation. Pre-ez- 
iatenoe. Introduction. 

AST. Posteriority. Sabseqnence. Snc- 
ceasion. Sequel. Saperrention. Conae- 

Antecedent, adj. See Ante- 

Antebiob, adj. Same root 
Ante, anterior. Like antecedent, 
applies to prioriiy in time, place, 
and idea. 

, Sth Prior. Antecedent Precnrsive. 
Precedent Earlier. Introductory. Pre- 
liminary. Former. 

Ant. Posterior. Later. Subsequent 
Cansequent Succeeding. 

Anticipate, v. tr. Ante, 
he/ore* and capere, to take. To 
taJce in the mind before the right 
time, which is to treat prema- 
turely; to take it in reference to 
its appointed time of coming, 
which is to expect ; also to take 
thought beforehand, for the pur- 
pose of prevention. 

Stn. ForestaL E.xi)ect Apffrdiend. 
Prepare. Prearrange. Meet Prevent Ob- 
viate. Intercept 

Ant. Remember. Becollect Becall. 
Remedy. Undo. Cure. Misapprehend.' 

Anticipation. See Antici- 

Stk. Forestalment Prevention. Expect- 
ation. Awaiting. Foresight. Forecast 

Akt. Surprise. UnpreparednesB. Unex- 

Antipathy, n. dvrl, agaivft, 
and iradoi, feeling. A natural, 
often unexplainable^ feeling of 
dislike to another. 

Srx. Repugnance. IMslike. Unoon- 
geniality. Abhorrence. 

AST. Sympathy. Kindliness. Goo- 
geniaUty. Fellow-feeling. AiBnlty. Har- ' 

Antiquated, adj. See An- 

Snr. Old-iashloned. Bygone. Obsolete. 

Ant. Fashionable. Modish. Stylish. 

Antique, adj, Antiquus, an^ 

As ancient is that which gives 
the impression, as well as pos- 
sesses the nature, of antiquity 
(as, the ancient world, an ancient 
family), so antique is that which 
is artistically old, as antiquated 
is socially old or out of date. 

Svii. Archaic. Ancient. AncestraL 
Axt. Modem. New-fiangled. 

Anxibtt, n. See Anger. A 
wearisome fmticipation of things 
to come, or the issues of present 

Stk. Care. Trouble. Eagerness. Ap- 
prehension. Diffidence. Solicitude. Caiv- 
fulness. Misgiving. 

Ant. Carekssnees. Ease. Contentment 
Acquiescence. Confidence. Contentedness. 
Apathy. Ught-heartedness. NcBchalanoe. 

Anxious, adj. Sec Anxiety. 

Apace, adv. Pace. Pamn's. 
A step or interval between the 
raising and planting of the same 
foot in walking. 

Stn. Rapidly. Fast E^«erly. Astride. 
Ahead. Expeditiously. Speedily. 

Ant. Slowly. Imperceptibly. Leisurely. 
Creepingly. CrawUngly. Sluggishly. 

Apart, adv. A and partiri, 
pars, to separate. 

Syn. AJoof. Away. Separate. Asunder. 
Ant. Close. Together. United. 

Apathy, n. a, not, and.Tra^or, 
feeling. Used not of physical 
things, which is express^ by 

S\». Indiffeteiice. Ax«wfflfW<\Vcj. Vwwji- 
ceptlbUklj. Heb<*aAft. «^w«fiA>s»r«i. 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

Amt. Anxiety. Care. Eagerness. In- 
terestedness. Sensibility. SusceptlbiUty. 
SensitiveDess. Irritability. Curiosity. 

Aphorism, n. dnb and oplCeiv, 
to bound. Comp. Horizon. A 
sharply-defining sentence or pro- 
verb of law or morals, not of 
physics or mathematics. 

Stn. Adage. Proverb. Maxim. Apo- 
thegm. Saying. 

AsT. Lecture. Exhortation. Disserta- 
tion. Disquisition. 

Apiece, adv, A and piece. 

Stn. Disiributively. Individually. Sever- 
ally. Separately. Analytically. 

Ant. Collectively. Together. Indis- 
criminately. Confusedly. Accumulatively. 

Apocalypse, n. anS and kot 
XvTTTciVf to take away that which 

Syn. Revelation. Disclosure. Unveiling. 
Exposure. Manifestation. Exhibition. Di- 

Ant. Concealment. Suppression. Veil- 
ing. I^rouding. Obscuration. Eclipse. 

Apocryphal, adj\ airoKp'imTtiv, 
to conceal. That of which the 
origin, authorship, anthoriiy, or 
authenticity, is unknown. 

. Syn. Obscure. Doubtful. Unauthorized. 
Unauthentic. Spurious. Unauthenticated. 

Ant. Palpable. Accepted. Authorized. 
Authentic. Genuine. Current Undisputed. 
Verified. Attested. 

Apologue, n, dno, from or 
forth, and Xoyo?, a speech. Is the 
Greek word for the Latin fable, 
tiiough in its formation it corre- 
sponds more exactly with pro- 

Syn. Fable. Fiction. Parable. 

Ant. Precept History. Narrative. 

Apology, n. Same derivation, 
but differently applied. 

An apology is a speech put 
forth : this is the essence of the 
word. But for what purpose? 
This is contingent. It may be, 
Ij generaUy in defence ; or, 2, in 

particular defence of one's own 
conduct or opinions; or, 3, in 
acknowledging inadvertency or 
wrong shown by one's self to 
some other. 

Syn. Defence. Justification. Vindica- 
tion. Acknowledgment Confession. 

Akt. Charge. Imputation. Offence. 
Incrimination. Impeachment Accusation. 
Wrong. Insult Injury. 

Apothegm, n. So now spelt. 
Strictly apophthegm, dnb, forth, 
and (l>6€yfia, a saying. The Greek 
of the Latin proverbium. A con- 
densed expression of wisdom or 

Syn. Proverb. Dictum. Maxim. Saw. 
Sayinjr. Adage. 

Ant. (as not so condensed). Exhortation. 
Sermon. Discourse. Disquisition. Exhort- 

Appal, v. tr. AppdUescere, to 
grow pale (with fear). Comp. 
Eng. pale. 

Syn. Affright Alarm. Terrify. Scare. 
Horrify. Dismay. Astound. 

Ant. Encourage. Bally. Assure. Re- 

Apparel, n. Suitable cover- 
ing or clothes fitting to the per- 
son. From par, equal, dim. pari- 
cuius, or apparare, to prepare. 

Syn. Clothes. Robes, vesture. Vest- 
ments. Raiment Gamiturai Trappings. 
Housings. Caparison. 

Ant. Nudity. Disinvestiture. Deshabille. 
Tatters. Rags. 

Apparent, nd;f. Appnreo, 1 
appear. Appearing plainly or 
appearing probably. In usage 
it is equally divided between i£e 
palpable and the questionable. 
The adverb apparently admits 
the sense of questionableness yet 
more strongly. 

Syn. Obvious. Plain. Con^icuous. Un- 
mistakable, Clear. Probable. Seeming. 
Presumable. Likely. 

Ant. Uncertain. Dubious. Inapparent 
Inconspicuous. Minute. Unobeervable. Im- 
probable. Insupposable. 

Appeal, v. tn<, A'^eUare. 1. To 

Synonyms and Antonym». 


speak m request or entreaty to 
another. Used with the prep, to, 
as^ invoking aid or interference. 

^TN. Accost. Addres^i. Apostrophize. 
Invite. Cite. Invoke. Urge. Entreat. 
Request Resort. 

Ant. Deprecate. Repudiate. Protest 
Disavow. Disclaim. Defy. Abjure. 

Appearance, w. «See Apparent. 
The presentation of an object to 
the eye; the object so repre- 
sented; its general character, 
and the ideas or indications 
which it may suggest, as in the 
phrases : * he made his appear- 
ance ;' ' his personal appearance ;* 
' an ugly appearance ;' * to all ap- 

Sni. Advent Apparition. Manlfesta- 
tl<.n. ProbabiUty. Aspect Likelihood. 

Akt. Departure. Disappearance. Kon- 
appcarance. Concealment Unlikelihood. 

Appease, v. tr, Appaiser, Fr. 
patx, Lat. pax, peace. 

It is applied to the abatement 
of the wants or passions of men. 

SrN. Pacity. Assuage. Mitigate. Mo- 
derate. Satisfy. Stay. Allay. Soften. 

Ant. Excite. Provoke. Aggravate. In- 
flame. Exasperate. Embitter, incense. 
Intensify. Stimulate. Kindle. 

Appellation, n. See Appeal. 
The name by which a person or 
object is addressed or called. 

Syn. Name. Patronymic. Designation. 
Title. Denomination. Term. 

Avr. NamelessuesB. Non-description, 

Append, Appendage, Appen- 
dix. Appendere. To hang one 
thing on to another. To fasten, 
as by a string ; hence, to add as 
an appendage. Appendix, for 
the sake of distinction, is used 
for the appendage, supplement, 
or index of a book. 

Syk. to verb. Affix. Supplement Sub- 
Join. Attach. 

Akt. Separate. Disengage. Detach. 
lAaeoDvect. i 

Sts. to noun. Addition. Annexation. 
Adiiinit. Supplement 

Ant. Subtraction. Disconnection. D&> 
l^cljijieiLt Separation. Disjunction. Divi- 
Eloii, incorporation. Amalgamation. 

Appetite, n. Ad and petere, 
to sfr/,1. Propensity of nature. 

Syn, Passion. Desire. Propensity. Pro- 
rliviij. Inclination. Propension. Want 
Cn'tviiig. DispoaitioD. Tendency. Prone- 

Akt. Repugnance. Aveilion. Antl- 
I>a,tby. Loathing. Indiffejrence. Apathy. 

AprLAUD, V. tr. Ad and plan- 
fkre^ to clap the hands. To praise, 
but on the pure ground of ap- 
proval. So we applaud acte, 
words, sentiments, performances, 
motives — in short, things good; 
not the aristocratic, the power- 
ful, or the beautiful. 

a^Tf. Laud. Praise. Approve. En- 
ttrjtirane. Cheer. 

Ant. IMsapprove. Denounce. Censure. 
riftcry. Execrate. 

Applause, n. See Applaud. 

f^TTf. Praise. Laudation. Acclamation. 
Etjlopy, Approval. 

A^T. Obloquy. Condemnation. Denun- 
ciatloiL Dissatisfaction. Censure. Con- 
unnpt. Blame. Vituperation. Sibllatioiu 

Appliance, n. See Apply. 

SvK. Contrivance. Arrangement Means. 
]W '.'i h & I sm. Agency. 

Am-. Spontaneity. Growth. Productloa 
Evtilntjyn. Development 

Applicable, adf. See Apply. 

iiYs, Available. Useful. Convenient. 
ATvp^l^p^iate. Pertinent Conducive. An- 

A>T. Useless. Unavailable. Incondu- 
dvtv inapplicable. Irrelevant 

A 1*1 LIGATION, n. See Apply 
and Diligence. 

Apply, v. To fold upon. Ad 
pUcure. Comp. Ply and Display, 
which is to unfold. Employ to 
enfold upon one's own purpose. 
To adduce, in the most broad 
and generic sense, with a purely 
physical or moral object, as, to 
apply a blister, or a sum of 
money to a c\iati\»XAft ^"vxr^wsfc. 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

or evidence to a case, or one's 
self to study. It is used also in- 
transitively, as in the sense of 
making application, or showing 
it in the sense of diligence. Ap- 
pliance is used for contovance 
or mechanical application; and 
applicable, in the sense of suit- 

Syn. To Apply. Adduce. Use. Employ. 
Devote. Exercise. Apportion. Direct. 

Ant. Disuse. Divorce. Discard. Super- 
sede. Alienate. Remove. Misapply. Mis- 
direct. Divert Misappropriate. Misem- 

Appoint, v. tr. Ad punctum 
ducere, to bring to a point. A 
point of order, so to establish ; of 
office, so to instal ; of agreement, 
so to fix ; of use or preparation, 
so to furnish. 

Syn. Fix. Determine. Instal. Instftute. 
Apportion. Apply. Employ. Designate. 
Assign. Intrust. Invest Ordain. Ar- 

Amt. Reverse. Cancel. Recall. Re- 
serve. WitJidraw. Withhold. Retain. 
Suspend. Undo. Disarrange. Disappoint. 

Apportion, v. tr, Portio, por- 
tionare. To distribute according 
to proportion to one or more. 

Syn. Assign. Deal ()rant Dispense. 
Administer. Distribute. Appoint 

Ant. Reserve. Retain. Refuse. With- 
hold. Assume. Resume. Cancel Suspend. 
Divert Reapporti6u. Reappoint 

Apportionment, w. See Ap- 

Apposite, a(^'. Ad and ponere, 
positus, placed. Well suited or 

Syn. Suitable. Appropriate. Timely. 
Congruous. Consistent Pertinent Fit. 

Ant. Untimely. Irrelevant Imperti- 
nent Unfitting. Mistimed. Misplaced. 
Mis-spoken. Inappropriate. Ml^udged. 

Appraise, v. tr, Appretiare, 
pretium. To set a value upon. 
Sometimes written apprize, which 
tends to confusion with another 
word of different derivation and 
meaning, to apprise, Fr. ap-i 
pre?idre, to in/hrm. 

Syn. Value. Survey. Estimate. Price* 
Ant. Undervalue. Discard. Condemn. 
Brand. Misapprcclate. Misestimate. 

Appreciate, v. tr. Same de- 
rivation as appraise ; but mean- 
ing to set not a value simply, 
but such a value as one is bound 
in reason to recognize. 

Syn. Esteem. Recognize. Acknowledge. 
Respect Value. 

Ant. Undervalue. Misconceive. Mis- 
judge. Ignore. Misappredate. 

Apprehend, v, tr. Ad and 
prehendo, I grasp in the hands. 

In this sense it is now con- 
fined to the legal arrest of per- 
sons. To grasp with the mind, 
as a matter of understanding, 
behef, or anticipation, and es- 
pecially of coming danger. 

Syn. Comprehend. Understand. Expert 
Fear. Conceive. Anticipate. Presume. 

Ant. ignore. Miss. Lose. Misconceive. 
Misapprehend. Misconjecture. Misantici- 

Apprehension, n. See Ap- 

Apprize, v, tr. Fr. apprendre. 
See Apprehend. To grasp. Ee- 
flexively, to cause anotiier to 
graiSp or know a thing. 

Syn. Inform. Advise. Advertise. Ac- 
quaint Enlighten. 

Ant. Hoodwink. Mystify. Deceive. 

Approach, n. Fr. proche, Lat. 
prope, near. Used for the state, 
the act, and the way, of ap- 

Syn. Access. Adit Avenue. Entrance. 
Vestibule. Arrival. Advent Approxima- 
tion. Nearlng. AppropinquaUon. Simi- 

Ant. Exit Egress. Debouchure. Out- 
let Departure. RecessioiL Distance. Di- 
versity. Disparity. 

Approbation, n, Apprcbare, 

to prove, or approve. 

Bt^i-s. ApprovaV. Praise. Satisfaction. 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


Ant. Disapproval. Gensare. Blame. 
Diaaatisfaction. Discouragement. Repa- 
diation. Protest Denial. Refnwi. Dis- 
claimer. Disavowal Disparity. DlssimiUrlty. 

Appboximate, V. int Prox- 
imua, very near. To come close, 
in fact, appearance, character, 

Stn. Approach. Border. Abut. Re- 
semble. Near. Trench. 

Ant. Separate. Dlfier. Vaiy. Diverge. 
Recede. Deviate. 

AppuBTKNAirr, adj. Ad and 
pertinere, to hflont/, 

Stx. Belonging. Connected. Appro- 
priate. Appended. Attached. Oo-ordinate. 
Concomitant. Horoogeneon?. 

Aht. Unconnected. Disconnected. In- 
appropriate. Detached. Isolated. Incon- 
uous. Unallied. Unrelated. Independent 

Apt, adj. Aptus, fit. By na- 
ture or contrivance. 

Stw. Fit Apposite. Clever. liable, 

Ant. Unfitted. Ill.timed. Awkward. 
Unlikely. Inapt 

Aptitudb, n. See Apt. 

Stn. Fitness. Saitableness. Liability. 
Readiness. Quickness. Cleverness. Sus- 
ceptibility. Tendency. Proneness. 

Am*. Unfitness. Unsultablene««. Insus- 
ceptibility. Slowness. Stupidity. Awk- 
wardness. Unreadiness. 

Arbiter, n. Same word in Lat. 

Arbiter is much the same as 
moderator or director. Arbitra- 
tor is one called in to settle spe- 
cific disputes or differences. 

Stn. Arbitrator. Judge. Umpire. Mo- 
derator. Director. Referee. 

Ant. Appellant Claimant Disputant 

Arbitrary, CK?;. /Sec Arbiter. 

Used of a tendency to abuse 
the i)ossession of power. So 
harsh and unforbearing. 

Stn. Tyrannical. Despotic Harsh. Dic- 
tatorial. Imperious. Unforbearing. Over- 
bearing. Selfish. Irresponsible. 

Ant. Mild. Modest. Lenient Consi- 
derate. Obliging. Limited. Constitutional. 

Arbitrate, v, int. and tr. See 

Ant. Ci»ol. Cold. Indifferent Apa- 
thetic. Dispassioned. Passionless. Unan- 

Syn. Settle. A^vui. Decide. Compose 
Dettrmine. Accommodate. AcUudicate. 

Ant. Dispute. Claim. Appeal. Liti- 
gate. Contend. Mi^udge. Mlsdetermine. 

Archaic, dpxaiK6s, ancient. See 
Ardent, adf. Ardere, to hum, 

Stn. Longing. Passionate. Warm. Eager. 
Fervent Exdted. Fiery. 
- »ol. Cold. Indi 
ipassioned. Pas8i< 
passiimed. Phlegmatic. Platonic 

Ardour, n. See Ardent. 

Arduous, adf. Arduus, steep^ 
lofty f or difficult of access. Used 
metaphorically of difficult under- 

Stn.» Di£Bcult Hard. Onerous. La- 
borious. Steep. Precipitous, Lofty. 

Ant. Eany. Practicable. Unlaborions. 
Light TriviaL 

Argue, v. int. Argnere, to 
treat by reason. It is sometimes 
used in the active sense of to 
prove ; as, ' such conduct argues 

Syn. Discuss. Debate. Question. Prove. 
Evidence. Establish. Imply. Sift. Dis- 
pute. Persuade. 

Ant, Dictate. Assert. Propound. Command. 

Argument. See Argue. 
Arid, adj. Aridm. 

Stn. Dry. Parched. Sterile. Unpro- 

Ant. Moist Dewy. Watered. Fertile. 
Luxuriant Exuberant Yerdant Bloom- 
ing. Productive. 

Aright, adv. According to 
the right way. Bectus, straight. 
Applied physically and morally. 

Stn. Right Well. Rightly. Truly. 
Correctly. Properly. Uprightly. Unex- 

Ant. Wrongly. Awry. Incorrectly. Im- 
properly. Defectively. Erroneously. 

Arm, v. tr. Lat. Arma, arms, 

SrN. Equip. Gird. Accoutre. Array. 
Ant. Disarm. Ungird. Disarray. Divest 

Around, adv. and prep. A and 
round. From Lat. rotundus, rota, 
a v)heel. Comp. Rotund. 

Syn. A\x)ul. Vavv\tow\t\%. ^\is3a<3iK«fc. 

Ant. WilVi\n. Am\^. Xxivow^. 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

Arouse, v, tr. Sax. Eonse. 
CJonnected with raise. 

Stn. Stir. Excite. ' Disturb. Awaken. 

Ant. Allay. Assuage. Mitigate. Pa- 
cify. C!ompuse. Moderate. StilL Quiet. 

Arraign, v, tr. Ad and ra- 
tumare, ratio, or reason. To call 
to account before some authority 
or tribunal. 

Syn. Summon. Accuse. Indict. Im- 

Ant. Acquit. Oondone. Release. Dis- 

Arrange, v, tr. Supposed to 
he from ad and arena, whence 
ring, rank, range. To order on 
a given ground or space, as 
troops on afield. Afterwards to 
set in order generally. 

SvN. Order. Range. Locate. Dispose. 
Assort. Deal. Sort. Parcel. Classify. 

Ant. Derange. Disarrange. C!onfound. 
Confuse. Disturb. Disperse. Jumble. Dis- 

Arrangement, n. See Ai>- 

Arrant, adj, Fr. Errant, 
meaning vagabond. As an ad- 
verb, intensifying reproach. 

Syn. Veritable. Unqualified. Utter. In- 
famous. Emphatic. 

Ant. Suspicious. Slight. Mitigated. 

Array, n. Is said to be from 
the same root as Arrange, which 
see. It has the additional sense 
of clothe. The root is doubtful. 

Syn. Vest. Equip. Accoutre. Deco- 
rate. Invest. Attire. 
Ant. Disarray. Divest. Denude. Strip. 

Arrest, v. tr. Low Lat. arrcs- 
tare. To cause suddenly to stop, 
especially by force of law. 

Syn. St'lze. Hold. Detain. Apprehend. 
Ant. Release. Dismiss. Liberate. Free. 
Discharge. Expedite. 

Arrival, n. See Arrive. 

Arrive, v. int. Ad and ripa, 
a bank. To touch the bank, to 
arrive physically or mentally at 

Stn. Reach. Attain. Land. 
Airr. Embark. Depart. Start. 

Arrogance, n, Arrogare, to 
claim to one^sself. Such a habit 
of mind and maimer as £eems to 
abuse tiie deference of others by 
claiming more than one's due. 

Syk. Haughtiness. Contemptuousness. 
Overbearingness. Brow-beating. Assump- 
tion. Hauteur. Insolence. Discourtesy. 

Ant. BashfulnesB. Sprvillty. Considerate- 
ness. Deference. Courtesy. Shyness. Mo- 
desty. Diffidence. PoUteuew. 

Arrogate, v. tr. See Arro- 

Syn. Claim. Assume. Vhidicate. Assert 

Ant. Forego. Waive. Resign. Surren- 
der. Abandon. Disclaim. 

Artful, adj. Ars, from, apa, 
to Jit. Art is the adaptation of 
nature by science to practical 
purposes, or the faculty 6f doing 
so, namely, skill. In a lower 
sense, cunning is expressed by 

Syn. Cunning. Designing. Sharp. M>i- 
noBuvring. Knowing. Crafty. Wily. Sly. 

Ant. Simple. Undesigning. Open. 

Artifice, n. See Artful. 

Syn. Manoeuvre. Contrivance. Trick. 

Ant. Fairness. Candour. Openness 

Artificial, adj. As opposed 
to natural, produced by art; 
also false or assumed, as the 
effect of artifice. 

Syn. Invented. Fictitious. Fabricated. 
Concocted. Com rived. Deceptive. ArtiuL 
Affected. Unnatural. Constrained. As- 

Ant. Natural Inartificial. Genuine. 
Spontaneous. Transparent. Artless. Un- 

Ascend, v. int. Ascendare. 

SvN. Rise. Mount Soar. 
Ant. FalL Descend. Sink. 

Ascendancy, n. From ascend. 
Elevation or superiority of po- 

Syn, Superiority. Advantage. Mastery. 
Control. Influence. Supremacy. 

Synonyms and AntonytM. 


Abt. InferiorHy. r^sadvantage. Sub- 
jection. Depression. HnmiliAtion. Senri- 
tude. Sabordinatlun. 

ASOEBTAIN, V, tr, Cemere, to 
discern, Certtis, To bring to 
clearness or certainty, as t^ re- 
sult of investigation. 

Stn. Prone. Vefwy. Discover. Con- 

Ant. Gnesa Coqjectore. Sormise. Sup- 
pose. Presume. 

Asornnous, adj\ See Adsci- 

AscRiBB, V. f r. Adajidscribere, 
to write. To account for one 
thing by another, as its cause or 
the subject in which it recedes, 
or to which it appertains. 

Stn. Assign. Attribute. Befer. Im- 
pute. Render. 

Ant. Deny, Eefuse. Exclude. Disso- 
datei IMsconnect DisseTer. 

Askant, adv. Butch. Conn, 
with Squint. 

Stn. Awry. Askew. Obliquely. As- 
quint. Aslant. 

Ant. Straightforwards. Bectilineally. 
Ahead. Forwards. Straight 

ASPBOT, n. Aspicere, to look. 
The exposed or presented side of 
things, persons, or ideas. 

Stn. Front. Face. Phase. Side. Ap- 
pearance. Presentation. Exhibition. Ex- 

Ant. Back. Obverse. Bear. 

AsPEBiTT, n. Asper, rough. 
Hence by analogy roughness of 
sound or taste, and metaphori- 
cally harshness and disagreeable- 
ness of feeling, character, or 

Syn. Acerbity. Harshness. Acrimony. 
Bitterness. Sharpness. Sourness. Bough- 

Ant. Mildness. Softness. Sweetness. 
Gentleness. Pleasantness. Smoothness. 

AsPBBSE, V. tr. Asp€rgere,a8pe- 
rens, to sprinkle. By usage, to be- 
sprinkle with ill words or be- 
spatter with slander. 

Stn. Slander. Caiumoiata Besnatter. 
Be/bal Defy. Attack. IhUmt. TiVOf, 

Ant. Clear. Defend. Eulogixe. Till- 
dicate. Uphold. Shelter. SUcOd. Fralae. 
Laud. ExtoL 

AspiBATiON, n. Ad and «pi- 
rwre^ to breathe or sigh. A long- 
ing desire after a higher object. 

Stn. LouKing. Desire. Aim. Hope. 
Ambition. Appetition. Effort. Endeavour. 

Ant. Apathy. Indifference. Aimleaa- 
neas. Diilness. Inertia. Callousness. 
Carelessness. Aversion. Avoidance. Be- 
Jection. Bepudiation. 

Assail, v. tr. See Assault. 
Fr. Assaillir. Lat. Salire, to 

AssAXTLT, n. Assault is an 
active and violent attack by 
words or deeds; a recourse to 

Stn. Attack. Onset Aggression. On- 

Ant. Defence. Besistance. Bepulsion. 
Betaliation. Undermining. Sapping. Stra- 

Assay, v. tr, and tnt. From 
exagium, a balance. Ex and 
agere, to bring out the weight of a 
thing. Com. Examen for exag^ 
men, whence examination. 

Stn. Try. Endeavour. Prove. Test. 
Ant. Survey. Conjecture. Guess. Scan. 

Assemble, v, tr. and int. See 

Assembly, n. Ad and simu- 
lare, from simid, to bring toge- 
ther. Fr. AssemblCf enserrAle. 

Stn. Meeting. Assemblage. Concourse. 
Gathering. Convention. Union. Aggre- 

Ant. Dispersion. Dissipation. Disrup- 
tion. Disunion. 

Assent, n. Assentire. Sentio, 
I fed, or think. 

Stn. Agreement Coincidence. Concert 
Acknowledgment Acquiescence. Approval 

Ant. Dissent. Dit<agreement Differ- 
ence. Disavowal. Kepudiaiion. Declen- 
sion. Disclaimer. Protest 

Assent, v. int. See Assent, n. 

ASSBBT, V. tr. Ad wad seTere, 

to wcaiJe or l)iirud. 'lo \saA ^ 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

statement on to a thing, to declare 
plainly or strongly, as to assert a 

Sin. Asseverate. Declare. Pronounce. 
Depose. Maintain. State. Aver. Avow. 

Ant. Deny. Contradict Contravene. 
Waive. Abandon. 

Asseverate, v. tr. To assert 
strongly. Possibly from severus, 
as it were a rigid statement, but 
more probably a corruption of 
separare, a distinct and specific 

^- j^ee Assert 

AssrouiTT, n. Ad and seder e, 
to sit The long and close sitting 
to a task. 

Stn. Attention. Perseverance. Pains. 
Patience. Exertion. Labour. Application. 
Effort Intentneta. Constanqr. Sedulous- 
ness. Diligence. 

Ant. Indolence. Remissness. Desultorl- 
ness. Inattention. Inconstancy. 

Assiduous, ac?;'. iSee Assiduity. 

Assign, v. tr. Ad signum, a 
mark. To mark out, specify, or 
intnist, as to assign a cause, or 
to assign the custody of a thing 
to a person. 

Syn. Attribute. Apportion. Refer. Spe- 
cify. Consign. Intrust. Commit 

Ant. Withhold. Withdraw. Retain. 
Resume. Refuse. Disconnect Dissociate. 

Assimilate, v, tr. Ad and 
similUy like. To liken ; that is, 
either in the mind by comparison, 
or physically by incorporation. 

Syn. Compare. Liken. Match. Engross. 
Identify. Incorporate. Absorb. Appro- 

Ant. Separate. Segregate. Part Con- 
trast Reject 

Assistance, n. Ad by, and 
sisteref to stand, 

Syn. Help. Aid. Countenance. Sup- 
port Abettance. Protection. Mainte- 
nance. CoacUutorshlp. 

Ant. Resistance. Obstruction. Counter- 
action. Opposition. Antagonism. Draw- 
back. Clog. Preventive. 

AsBOCiATE, V. tr. JSocius. A 

companion habitually and on 
equal terms. 

Stn. Companion. Ally. Coa^hitor. 
Friend. Consort Comrade. i*brtner. Help- 
Ant. Rival. Alien. Foe. Antagonist 

Association, n. See Asso- 
ciate. Has the meaning of the 
process, and also the result, of 
bringing together into alliance a 
companionship. It is used of 
mental as well as material things, 
and of two or more. 

Syn. Union. Connection. Conjunction. 
Conaortmcnt Companionship. Alliance. 
Familiarity. Friendship. Community. Mem- 
bership. Society. Company. 

Ant. Disunion. Disconnection. Eettrange- 
roent. Separation. Severance. Avoidance. 
Independence. Disruption. Dismember- 
ment Solitude. Individuality. 

Assuage, v. tr. Ad and suavis, 
sweet. To soften, as grief or 

SiN. Mitigate. Soothe. Soften. Con- 
sole. Modtrat««. Pacify. Lenify. 

Ant. Exasperate. Excite. Increase. 
Stimulate. incite. Provoke. Inflame. 
Embitter. Aggravate. 

Assuagement, n. See As- 

Assume, v. tr, Adsaidsumere, 
to take. To take to one*s-self, 
either simply so, or for the sake 
of appearance ; or mentally as a 
thing proved, though as yet it be 

Syn. Takp. Appropriate. Wear. Ex- 
hibit Postulate. Suppose. Presume. 

Ant. Render. Surrender. Concede, 
Grant Allow. Waive. Doff. Abandon. 
Aiinie. Demonstrate. Prove. 

Assumption, r?. See Assume, 
with the additional sense of 
pride, arrogance, conceit ; or 
taking to one's self more than 
due to one's character or place. 

Assurance, n. Follows the 
above meanings with the addi- 
tional one of such a manner as 
indicates the extreme of this 
Bens© of afe\£-ae(svxi\xi^. 

Synonyms and Antonyme. 


Stk. Arrogance. Boldness. Impndence. 
Self-confidence. Self-reliarice. Self-assertion. 

Ant. Distrust. Timidity. BashfUlness. 
Misgiving. Self^dislrust. Consternation. 
Dismay. Alarm. 

AssuBE, V, tr. Ad and securus, 
secure, sure. Free from care or 
doubt. To seek to confirm in 
another the certainty of a fsrct, 
or the inducement to dismiss 
anxiety about himself. 

Snr. Advise. Advertise. Promise. In- 
form. Rallv. Console. Eooonrage. Conn- 
tenance. Aid. Support. Upliold. Con- 
vince. Certify. 

Ant. Misinform. Misadvise. Mislead. 
Deceive. Discomfit Disconceit UiMon- 
rage. Deter. Warn. Dissuade. Unsettle. 

Astonish, v. tr. Astound. 

Ad and tonitus, thunder. Comp. 
Stun. To strike as if with thim- 
der; to make thunder; "struck 
with surprise. 

Syx. Startle. Snrprise. Confound. Alarm. 
Terrify. Scare. Dumb-fotmder. Electrify. 

Akt. Bally. lUncourage. Assure. Em- 

Astonishment, n. See Asto- 

AsTBAY, adj. A and stray. 
Fr. Estrayer, from extra, with- 
out, anfl vagari, to vender. 
Comrp. Extravagant. 

Stn. Loose, ^broad. About. Missing. 
At large. Wrong. Erring. Wandering. 
Ant. Right. Close. At home. Safe. 

Astute, adj. Astus, craft. 

Syn. Crafty. Shrewd. Knowing. Sharp. 
Discrimihating. Sagacious. Acute. Feue- 

Ant. Dull Unobservlng. Undiscriminat- 
ing. Stolid. Asinine, Anserine. Blind. 

AsuNDEB, adv. Germ, Son- 
dem, to divide, 

Syn. Apart. Separate. Divided. Dis- 
united. Ill twain. 

Ant. In one. Closa Together. United. 

Atonement, n. At-one-ment. 
The reconciliation of two parties ; 
the making two to be as it were 
one; eitiber the process or the 
instrnment of this* 

Stv. Beoondliation. EzpUtion. Satis- 

Ant. Alienation. Separation. Estranfe* 
ment. Enmity. Division. Offence. Trans- 

Atbocious, adj. Lat. atror. 
Applied both to the disposition 
and the deeds to which it gives 

Syk. Monstrous. Nefarious. Enormous. 
ShamefUL Heinous. Flagrant. Facinoroos. 
Flagitious. Cruel 

Ant. Laudable. Noble. Generous. 
Honourable. Humane. Admirable. Chival- 

Attach, v. tr. Fr. attacher, 
Celt, tac, Eng. tack, a nail or 
fEustening. To attach the person 
is the phrase in civil, which cor- 
resix)nds with arrest in criminal, 
cases. It is in this sense a legal 
attack, which is the same word. 
It is used of the bonds of love 
and friendship. Sincerely at- 

Syn. Fasten. Apply. Append. Unite. 
Tie. Connect. Copjohi. Conciliate. At- 
tract Win. Bind. 

Ant. Unfasten. T»oee. Disunite. Un- 
tie. Diriconnect Detach. Alienate. Bepel. 

Attachment, n. See Attach. 

Attack, v. tr. Same word as 
attach; but as the former be- 
came in Fr. attacker, so the latter 
attaquer, from the Celtic tac, or 
nail, which, as it is regarded as 
an object of striking or a means 
of fastening, would suggest the 
ideas of attach or attack. 

We may attack persons with 
weapons or words, or opinions, 
with the weapons of controversy ; 
or an army may attack a country 
or a city. 

Syn. Assail. Assault. Invade. Besiege. 
Contravene. Impugn. 

Akt. Defend. Besist EepeL With- 
stand, on one's own part, or fbr another. 
Protest. Support. Aid. Shield. Uphold. 
Vindicate. Shelter. 

Attaoir, n. See y^^\s 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

Syn. Aasanlt Invasion. Aggreadon. 
Onslaught. Onset. 

Ant. Defence. Resistance. Repnlse. 
Protection. Aid. Vindication. Support 
Maintenance. Shelter. 

Attain, v. int. Attinere. To 
reach, so as to get hold. It im- 
plies sustained effort, or at least 
movement, in an uniform direc- 
tion, and is sometimes used as 
int., being followed by the prep. 

Syn. Roach. Extend. Master. Ohtaln. 
Acquire. Secure. Grasp. Gain. 

Ant. Lose. Fail. Forfeit Miss. Abandon. 

Attainment, n. See Attain. 
Add also the peculiar sense of 
mental attainments. 

Stn. Acquirementa. Accomplishments. 

Ant. Intuition. Inspiration. Genius. 

Attemper, v. tr. Ad and tem- 
perare. To bring a thing to a 
state of internal or external har- 
mony or consistency. 

Syn. Moderate. Subdue. Compound. 
Commingle. Adapt Acljust Harmonize. 
Modify. Blend. Attune. Mould. Work. 
Mix. Medicate. Amalgamate. Accommo- 

Ant. Discompose. Confuse. SpoiL Mar. 

Attempt, v. tr. Attentare, 
freq. of tervdo^ to reach or stretch. 
To try generally or specifically, 
as a trial against another's safety 
or life. In the former case, it is 
followed by the infinitive, in the 
latter, by the accusative. 

Syn. Try. Endeavour. Strive. Seek. 
Essay. Attack. Force. Violate. 

Ant. Abandon. Disregard. Pretermit 
Dismiss. Nfglect Shun. Drop. 

Attempt, n. See verb. 
Attend, V. Attendere,animum. 
To stretch the mind in a specific 
direction. To be attentive. 
Hence, actively, to make another 
the object of attention, which is 
called attendance ; hence, again, 
22? a wider sense, to accompany, 

as said of anything naturally co- 
incident or concurrent with an- 
other, as pain commonly attends 

Syn. Listen. Heed. Notice. Observe. 

Watch. Accompany. Consort Foliuw. 
Imply. Involve. 

Ant. Wander. Disrq^rd. Leave. 

Abandon. Forsake. Des^ Exclude. 

Attention, n. See Attend. 

Syn. Observation. Notice. Regard. Con- 
sideration, study. Vigilance. Care. 

Ant. Disregard. Inadvertence. Remiss- 
ness. Indifference. Carelessness. Abstrac- 
tion. Distraction. Absence. 

Attentive, adj. Se^ Attention. 

Attenuate, v. tr. Ad and 
tenuis, fine y also thin. Hence the 
word has the two meanings of 
elongating and fining down or 
wearing away ; hence it runs out 
into apparency opposite mean- 
ings, namely, 1, to prolong, and, 
2, to contract. 

Syn. Educe. Elongate. Fine-draw. 
Narrow. Contract Reduce. Diminisb. 

Ant. Broaden. Increase. Expand. Swell. 
Dilate. Enlarge. Develope. Amplify. 

Attest, v. tr. Testis, a witness. 
To evidence by, or so strongly as 
if by, a witness. • 

To attest a statement may 
mean either to bring another, or 
the authority of another, as a 
witness of its truth, or to vouch 
for it one's self, in the capacity of 
a witness. It is used also of the 
inherent evidence which belongs 
to things mutually related, as, 
majestic ruins attest former mag- 

Syn. Vouch. Aver. Assert Affirm. 
Evidence. Support. Testify. Confinn. 
Prove. Involve. Suggest. Demonstrate. 
Imply. Establish. Bespeak. 

Akr. Deny. Controvert Contradict. 
Contravene. Disprove. Disestablish. Ex- 
clude. Neutralize. Upset Reftite. Op- 

Attirh, u. Old Tr. attiVer, 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


Saxon, tier, still in use. Comp, i 
the tiers, rows, or ranks of a I 
theatre. Comp. also tiara. TIicj 
word originally applied to the 
ornamentation of tiie head by 
tiers or bands ; thence extenduil 
to the dress generally, not, how- 
ever, to cheap or common clotlt- 
ing. So, 'gorgeously attirt.^1/ 
but, ' meanly clad.* 

Stx. Robes. Garments. Vestmerta. 
Gothing. Apparel. Accoatrement. Liv&ry. 
Uniform. Costume. 

Ant. Nudity. Divestment. Denudation. 
Exposure. Bareness. Disarray. DisbablUo. 
Tatters. Rags. Patches. Shreds. 

Attitude, n, Aptitudo, apt us. 
A state of internal harmony or 
external corresix)ndence. 

If the former, it is that com- 
position of the limbs which fitly 
expresses the corresjwndent pw- 
ture of the mind or feelings, ex- 
cept where it is taken in tlnj 
alitract, as simply equivalent to 
posture. If the latter, it is such 
a placement of them as shall 
suit some external purpose, as, 
an attitude of attention, defiance, 
or defence. It is a condition of 
rest, as opposed to movement. 

Syn. Posture. Ponition. Oomposidgm. 
Collocation. Aspect Pose. Lie. 

Ant. Evolution. Exercise. Deportmunt, 
Bearing. (Movement. Manoeuvre. Obmtl' 
eolation. Gesture. 

Attract, v, tr. Ad and im- 
Tiere, To draw by physical in- 
fluence. When taken metaphon- 
cally, it is used both for the pi-o- 
cess of drawing by love or adrai- 
ration, and also for the qualities 
which produce the attraction. 
Thus we might say of beaiily, 
that it influences by attraction, 
and also that it is itself an attrsic- 

Syn. Draw. Influence. Induce. In^liiJiP. 
■Dispose. Tempt. Prompt. Allure. 

Amt. Repel. Deter. Indispose. Dl^io^ 
JSetrange. Alienate, 

Attraction, n. See attract. 

Syn. Inducement. Influence. Adduo 
tion. Incliuution. Di^posiiiun. Charm. 
Beauty. Allurement 

Ant. Repulsion. Dit^inclination. Indis- 
position. Aversion. Deformity. Repug- 

Attractive, adf. See Attract. 

Syn. Winning. Alluring. Tenipiin}r. 
Enticing. Interesting. Charming. Pit-asuni. 
Beautiful. Agreeable. 

Ant. Unattractive. Uninteresting. Re- 
pugnant. Repulsive. Unpleasant. Dl«- 
agreeable. Deformed. Ugly. Loathsome. 
Forbidding. Deterrent. 

Attribute, v. tr. Ad and 
trihuo, I bestow. To refer one 
thing to another, as its cause. 

Syn. Assign. Refer. Apply. Connect. 

Ant. Divorce. Disconnect. Di88ociat«. 

Attribute, n. See Attribute, 
V. Either a quality, simply, or 
as illustrative of the subject in 
which it resides. 

Syn. Property. Quality. Characteristic. 
Sign. Mark. Indication. Manifestation. 

Ant. Its correlative, viz. Essence. Na- 
ture. Subtstance, &c Or, spuriously, Affec- 
tation. Misnomer. Semblance. Mask. 
Veil. Assumption. 

Attribution, n. See Attri- 
bute, V. 

Attrition, n. Atterere, part, 
attritus. Lit. a wearing. Met. 
a wearing sense of guilt. 

Syn. Sorrow. Repentance. AQlictlon. 
Penitence. Compunction. Remorse. Self- 

Ant. Impenitences Callousness. Ob- 
duracy. Reprobation. Relentlessness. 

Attune, v. tr. To make to be 
in tune or tone. Either abso- 
lutely or in accordance with an- 
other. So, we may attune either 
the note or the instrument. Me^ 
taphorically used of sentiment, 
as, a mind well-attuned; man's 
will attuned to the Divine. 

Sy^. Temper. Attemper. Harmonize. 
Adjust. Accommodate. 

Ant. Unstring. Disharmonize. Disar- 
range. Dlacompoafc. T^SaVacaXa. I^AX^asV^ 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

AuDAOious, adj, Audax, au- 
derCf to dare, 

Sts. Adventnroas. Venturesome. Rasb. 
Bold. DarinR. Reckless. EnterpriBing. 

Ant. Timid. Cowardly. Cautious. In- 
adventurous. Unventuresome. Unenter- 

AuDAoiTT, n. See Audacious. 

SrN. Boldness. Rashness. Temerity. 
KecklessDr^ss. Hardihood. 

Ant. Caution. Self*preservation. Ti- 
midity. Calculation. Forethought. Fore- 
sight Diffidence. Inadventurousness. 

Augment, v, tr. See Augment- 

Augmentation, n, Augere, to 
increase. The process of increase. 
The state of increase, and the 
thing itself added. 

Syn. Increase. Entailment. Ampllfi* 
cation. Supply. Enrichment. Enhance- 
ment. Addition. Acquisition. Improve- 

Akt. Deduction. Detraction. Diminu- 
tion. Contraction. Withdrawal. Reserva- 
tion. Expenditure. Loss. Waste. Detri- 
ment Deterioration. Impoverishment. 
Reduction. Curtailment 

Augmentative, adj\ See Aug- 

AuauBY, n. Avis, a bird. The 
augur was the Eoman public 
officer who predicted, according 
to the flights of birds or other 
celestial phenomena, as the ha- 
ruspex or auspex, from the ex- 
amination of victims of sacrifice, 
when auspicious, and inauspi- 
cious.' Hence to augur, in the 
sense of predict. It is a super- 
human and conjectural, as op- 
posed to ordinary and scientific, 

Stn. Propbecy. Prediction. Prognosti- 
cation. Conjecture. Omen, Divination. 
Ant. Experience. Science. Observation. 

August, a^fj, Augustus, augere, 
to increase, or heap. In a pecu- 
liar sense, to honour, especially 
by offerings, as, heaping gifts on 
the altar ; hence, sacred, divine, 
and hnprnng; said of great per- 

sons, and their appearance and 

Stn. M^estlc. Dignified. T"r«^"g- 
Grand. Solenm. Exalted. 

Ant. Mean. Undignified. Unlropoeing. 
Oommon. Vulgar. Despicable. Unnottoe* 
able. Commonplace. Beggarly. FUtry. 

Auspicious, adj. See Augury. 

Syn. Propitious. Favourable, ^icou- 
raging. Satisfiictory. SuocessfuL Hopefiil. 

Ant. Unpropitious. UniiEivonrable. Dis- 
couraging. Unsatisfactory. Unpromisfaigi 
Inauspicious. Hopeless. Abortive. 

Austere, adf. Austerus, Bigid 
disposition or life. 

Stn. Hard. Rigid. Stern. Severe. 
Morose. Unrelenting. Unyielding. Strict 

Ant. Mild. Affable. Kindly. Tender. 
Feeling. Bland. Indulgent. GeniaL 

Authentic, adJ, Supposed to 
be from dvros and Bclvciv, to kill. 
So that authentic would be 
brought home to the perpetrator ; 
hence brought home (the notion 
of wrong-doing being omitted) 
to the doer generally ; and hence, 
having authority or verification. 

SrN. Genuine. Veritable. Reliable. 
lYue. Legitimate. Certain. Accepted. 
Current. Received. 

Ant. Spurious. Unreliable. Apocry- 
phal. False. Disputed. Exploded. Re« 
Jected. Counterfeit. Unfounded. Unau- 
thorized. Baseless. Fabulous. Fictitious. 

Authenticate, v, tr. See Au- 

Syn. Confirm. Establish. Verify. Settle. 
Substantiate. 'Identify. 

Ant. Contravene. Disprove. Disestablish. 
Refute. Upset. 

Author, n» Audor, augere, to 
increase. One who brings forth 
from his resources, favourably 
and unfavourably. 

Syn. Creator. Producer. Originator. 
Parent Cause. Agent. Maker. Com- 
poser. Fabricator. Inventor. Constructor. 
Committer. Perpetrator. Doer. 

Ant. Annihllator. Destroyer. DemoUsher. 
Spoiler. Undoer. Reverser. 

Authoritative, adJ, See Au- 
thor. Having authority, or ex- 
ercising it, perbaps, too strongly. 

Stn, Sure. Decisive. Conclusive. An- 
^tXieaUc. PoYi^rtaV, PotKul, Firm. Die- 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 

tatorial. Imperioun. Arbitrary. Arrogant 
Akt. Weak. Inoonclusiye. Vague, in- 
determinate. Indefinite. Vacillating. Un- 
decisive. Bland. Conciliatory. Aibble. 
Lenient. Persuasive. 

Authority, n. The principle 
of authorship. See Author. 
Eightfalness or truthfulness of 
origination in matters of state- 
ment^ or matters of government 
or control. 

Stk. Ground. Justification. Authen- 
ticity. Genuineness. Decisiveness. Con- 
clusiveness. Control. Jurisdiction. Go- 
vernment. Direction. Regulation. Power. 

Ant. Groundlessnesa Spuriousness. In- 
decision. Inconcluslveness. Inoperative- 
ness. Incompetency. WeokneM. Usurpa- 
tion. Wrong. 

AuTOCBAOY, n. See Auto- 

AUTOORATIO, adj, dvr6st fp«- 
T€iv. Kuling of one's own will 
and pleasure. 

Stn. Independent. Arbitrary. Despotic. 
Irresponsible. Absolute. 

Akt. Dependent. Subordinate. Re- 
sponsible. Constitutional. Limiu-d. 

Auxiliary^ ocZy. Helpful. Aux^ 
tluim, htlp. 

The word has technical mean- 
ings not here considered ; as, in 
military matters, a force which 
aids the line of battle, or the 
auxiliary verb in grammar. 

Srx. Helpful. Aiding. Aljetting. Ac- 
ccraary. Promotive. Conducive. Assistunt. 

Ant. Unassisting. Unconducive. Un- 
proniotive. Rfdundant. Superfluous. Ob- 
structive. Retardative. Irrelevant. Cum- 

Avail, v. int, VcUeo, I am 
strong. There is a peculiar 
phrase, to avail one's self of a 
thing, as an implement or an 
opportunity, the idea being that 
of adding by it to one's strength 
or resources. 

Snr. Suffice. Hold. Stand. Endure. 
Answer. TelL Profit. 

AxT. Fail Fall Diasppolnt. Betray. 


AvAiLABLB, adf. See Avail. 
Convertible into a resource. 

Stn. Useful Appropriable. Convertible. 
Attainable. Conducive. Applicable. Ilro* 
curable. Handy. 

Ant. Useless. Inappropriate. Inappli- 
cable. Unprocurable, inoondudve. Irre- 
levant. Inoperative. Unavailable. 

Avarice, n. Avarus, greedy, 

Stn. Greed. Cupidity. PennriousneMi 
Niggardliness. Miserliness. Stinginess. 
Covetousness. Acquisitiveness. Rapaqity. 

Ant. Large-beartedness. Unselfisbness. 
Liberality. Buuntirulness. Profuseness. 
Squander. Prodigality. Extravagance. 
Waste. . 

Avaricious, adj\ See Avarice. 

AvBNGB, V. f/r. Vindicare. To 
vindicate one's self or one's rights, 
or the person or rights of an- 
other. Grammatically, we avenge 
ourselves, avenge others, and 
avenge ourselves upon, others. 
So, too, men revenge insults and 
avenge themselves on account of 

Srx. Vlrdicate. Right. Retaliate. Visit. 
Ant. Waive. Pnrdun. Forego. Con- 
done. Remit. Forgive. Overlook. 

AvBNUB, n, Fr. avenir, Lat. 
ad venire, to approach. 

Stn. Approach. Adit. Entrance. Ac- 

Ant. Exit. Egress. 

Aver, v. int. Verus, true. To 
declare a thing as truth. It is 
better followed by the word that 
than directly by an accusative. 

Syn. Assert. Astieverate. Affirm. De- 
pose. Avouch. Protest. 0bll>«c. Declare. 

Ant. Deny. Contradict. Contravene. 
Disavow. Disclaim. Repudiate. Oppugn. 

Averse, adj. Avertere, aversus. 
Turned away from an object in 
taste or feeling. 

Stn. Hostile. Disinclined. Indisposed. 
Ant. Ready. Disposed. Eager. Prone. 
Inclined. Desirous. 

Aversion, n. See Averse. 

Stn. Hatred. Dislike. Repugnance. 


Ant. Love. Desire. Affection. Liking. 
Congeniality. Sympathy. Ardour. Eager- 
ness. Avidity. 

Avidity, n. Avidus, greedy. 
Greediness of disposition, or the 
same thing manifested in de- 

SrN. Cupidity. Avarice. Greed. Long- 
ing. Desire. I^MCity. Eagerness. 

Ant. Coldness. Indifference. Apathy. 
Insensibility. Antipathy. Nausea. Aver- 
tion. Repugnance. Loathing. 

Avocation, n. A, prefix, and 
vocare, to call. A calling which 
takes a man away from other 
pursuits, and dedicates him to 
one in particular, or, generally, 
an occupation for the time call- 
ing for his whole attention. It 
is for advocation. 

Syn. Profession. Calling. Lot. Busi- 
ness. Emplojonent Pursuit. Line. 

Ant. Holiday. Leisure. Idleness. Self- 
abandonment Misemployment. 

Avon), V. tr. Prefix a, and 
void, empty. 

In Old English it meant, to 
empty ; that is, to cause a void ; 
but in medem usage, to cause a 
void space, so far as we are con- 
cerned, in reference to something 
else, that is, to leave it. It would 
have various synonyms, accord- 
ing to the feeling or principle of' 
an avoidance. 

Syn. Quit. Shun. Abandon. Desert. 
Forsake. Relinquish. Fly. Eschew. 

Ant. Seek. Court. Approach. Accost 
Address. Affect 

Avouch, v. tr. Fr. voucher, 
Lat. advocare. To call or sum- 
mon a witness. Practically, to 
make a statement, with the posi- 
tiveness of one who, if he had 
the opportunity, would call wit- 
nesses to it. 

Syn. Aver. Protest Propound. As- 
severate. Declare. Profess. 

Ant. Deny. Contradict Oppose. Con- 
travene. Controvert Oppugn. Gainsay 

Avow, V. tr, and int, Vover^y 

Synonyms and Antonyms, 

votum, to vow. To declare "wilii 
an almost religious solemnity^ as 
that which might well-nigh be 
made the subject of it. 

Syw. and Ant. See Avouch. 

Award, v. tr. A and guarder, 
to look. Comp. Guard and Ward. 
To apportion, after careful re- 
gard to the nature of the case, or 
tiie relative merits of individuals. 

Syn. Assign. Apportion. Attribute. 

Accord. Grant Distribute. Divide. AUot 

Ant. Refuse. Withhold. Withdraw. 

Retain. Misappropriate. Misappinrtion. 

Aware, adj\ Of northern 
origin. Comp. Wary, Beware. 
Possessing knowledge of facts. 

Syn. Conscious. Sensible. Informed. 
Certified. Assured. 

Ant. Unconscious. Insensible. Unaware. 
Ignorant Uninformed. 

Away, adv. Saxon weg, conn, 
with via, Lat. A way, tending, 
or being out from, one's self. 

Syn. Far. Afar. Separate. Detached. 
Loose. Abroad. 

Ant. Close. Near. At hand. At hcmi. 

Awe, n. Word of northern 

Syn. Fear. Dread. Veneration. Re- 

Ant. Fearlessness. Contempt Fami- 
liarity. Disrespect Irreverence. 

Awful, adj. See Awe. In 
Old English meant feeling, but 
now only inspiring awe. 

Syn. Fearful. Terrible. Alarming. 
DreadftiL Solemn. Portentous. Horrible 

Ant. Innocuous. Informidable. Unim- 
posing. Unastonishing. Commonplace 
Unnoticeabie. Unalarming. Alluring. 

AwHTLB, adv. Sax. For a 

Syn. a little. Briefly. 
Ant. Ever. Always. For ever. Ever- 

Awkward, adj. Sax. aweg. 
Away, and the termination ward, 
indicative of movement or direc- 
tion. Swerving or swaying &om 
lines of Tegv3ia.t\N^ Tao^^TOftot, It 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


ft sometiines tsed oolloqnially of 
things as well as persons, as^ ' an 
awkward affair/ 

Sth. Ungainly, downlsh. Clumsy. 
Maladroit. Unhandy. Gawky. 

AST. Neat Clever. Dexterous. Adroit. 
SkilfUL Handy. 

AwBY, adv, A and wry, con- 
nected with wreath and writhe, 
wring, wrung, wrong. 

Stn. Askew. Aslant. Atwist. Wrong. 
Ant. Bight. Straight. Trae. Direct. 


Babble, v. int and tr. Germ. 
hdbbtln. It. habbolare. To utter 
words confusedly, or in a drib- 
bling monotony. For another 
sense see Babbler. Poetically 
applied to the monotonous mur- 
mur of pebbly streams. 'Bab- 
bling brooks.* 

Syn. Prate. Prattle. Dribble. Twaddle. 
Blab. Cackle. 

Ant. Bawl. Emmdate. Vociferate. 
Hush. Soppreas. 

Babbleb, n. See Babble. The 
want of regulative power lead- 
ing to promiscuous babble, a 
babbler tells what he ought to 
reserve; hence, a babbler is a 
teller of secrets. 

Syn. Blab. Chatterbox. Tattler. Tell- 
tale. Gossip. 

Ant. Confidant. ConfeBSor. 

Babbling, n, 

Stn. Blubbing. Tattling. Cackling. 
Prating. Talkatireness. Gossip. Loqoaciiy. 

Amt. Beticenoe. Reserve. Secretiveness. 
Closeness. Refrain. Inoommunicativeness. 

Babel, n. From habal, the 
Hebrew for to confound, or a con- 
traction of Beth Baal, the house 
or temple of Baal or Bel. It is 
used from the Bible account of 
the Tower of Babel, to stand for 
confusion of tongues or talk 

Stn. Confusion. Hubbub. Clamour. 
Jargon. Din. Discord. Clang. 

Ant. Elocution. Articulatiun. Diotinct- 
ness. Consecutlveness. Intonation. Enun- 
ciation. Monotony. Unisoiiousnfss. 

Backbiter, n. A slanderer of 
persons behind their backs. 

Syn. Traducer. Calumniator. Slanderer. 
Detractor. Cjmic. Defaroer. Maligner. 

Ant. Vindicator. Upholder. Advocate. 
Pslliator. Mttigator. Befriender. 

Backslider, «. One who 
shdes or shuffles back, especially 
from religious principle or pro- 

Syn. Apostate. Renegade. Recreant 

Ant. Professor. Confessor. Adherent 
Zealot Bigot 

Backsliding, n. See Back- 

Backwardness, n. Tendency 
to hold back ; specific or habitual. 

Syn. Slowness. Shyness. Reluctance. 
Hesitation. Unwillingness. Repugnance. 

Ant. Forwardness. Readiness. Willing- 
ness. Promptitude. Alacrity. 

Backward, adj. See Back- 

Bad, adj\ See Good. 

Baffle, v. tr. Old Fr. heffer. 
It. beffare, to disgrace or frus- 
trate. Applied to persons and 
designs In Eng. to frustrate. 

It has a frequentative force, 
that, namely, of r€})eatt.d skilful 
counteraction. This follows, from 
the nature of skill, to be versa- 
tile, which demands versatility 
of counterfoil. It is applied both 
to persons and their eftorts or 

Syn. Frustrate. Counteract Defeat 
Perplex. Estop. Restrain. Mur. Upset. 
Counterfoil Foil. Balk. Neutralize. 

Ant. Aid. Abet Point Enforce. 
Assibt Promote. Advance. Encourage. 

Bait, n. Connected with Bite. 
An alluring morsel, often imply- 
ing deceptioiv isilo (\sm%'^\. 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

Sth. Morsel Snare. Decoy. Allure- 
menu Enticement. Inducement Decoy. 

Ant. Warning. Scarecrow. Dissuasive. 
Deterrent. Prohibition. IntimidaUon. 

Balance, v. From Lat. hilanx, 
bis, twice, or double, and lanx, a 
plate. To weigh a thing abso- 
lutely or relatively, that is, to 
ascertain its intrinsic weight or 
value, or comparatively with 
something else. 

SrN. Weigh. Poise. Counterpoise. Es- 
timate. Pit Set RedresH. Ac(just. 

Ant. Tilt Cant Upset Subvert 
Overbalance. Mispoise. 

Balderdash, n, Etymd. un- 
certain. Frothy talk. 

SrN. Gasconade. Rhodomontade. Bom- 
bast Fustian. Flummery. Froth. 

Ant. Sen!>e. Wisdom. Logic. Reason. 
Sobriety. Truihfuiness. 

Bale, v, tr. An old word sig- 
nifying a beam or barrier. Ap- 
plied to persons and their efforts 
or designs. 

SrN. Bar. Thwart Estop. Frustrate. 
Foil. Stop. Prevent Hinder. Neutralize. 
Nullify. Mar. Counteract Disappoint 
Defeat Baffle. 

Ant. Aid. Abet Promote. Advance. 
Encourage. Instigate. 

Bandy, v. and adj\ Bande was 
the French name for a bent stick 
or mace for playing at ball; 
hence the adjective, bandy, bent, 
and the verb, bandy, to inter- 
change, applied to the keeping 
up of (especially frivolous) argu- 

Stn. to verb. Interchange. Exchange. 
Reciprocate. Cross. Pa^s. 

Ant. Quash. Silence. Drop. Burlce. 
dose. StlQe. Extinguish. 

Banish, v. tr. Ban, a procla- 
mation of outlawry or excommu- 
nication. To put out of civil 
protection. The root of the word 
Abandon; so, generally, to put 
decisively away from one's pre- 
jsenoe or conmder&Uon, 

Stn. Abandon. Expel. DispeL Eject 
Extrude. Exclude. Rel^ate. Expatriate. 
Repudiate. Disclaim. ^ 

AsT. Cherish. Foster. Protect En- 
courage. Locate. Retain. Domidliate. 
Domesticate. Consider. Entertain. Har* 

Banquet, n. Fr. banquette, a 
seat, A sitting meal, supposed 
to be of an elegant, choice, or 
luxurious character. 

Stn. Feast Regalement C3ieer. 

Akt. Fast Abstinence. Starvation. 

Bantkb, n. Supposed to be 
another form of the Fr. badinage. 
A keeping up of playful talk, as 
distinguished from earnest speech 
or argument, and often savour- 
ing of personality. 

Snr. Badinage. Chaff. Bandy. 

Akt. Argument Discussion. Discourse. 

Barbarous, adj. The Greek 
syllables bar bar were employed 
to express strangeness of talk in 
foreigners; hence, at first, bar- 
barous among the Greeks meant 
simply foreign; but in Greek, 
Latin, and English it came, by a 
national tendency to regard our 
own country as the centre of 
civilization, to mean rude, un- 
civilized, till, afterwards, it was 
employed not only of country, 
language, and manners, but also, 
morally, of character and actions, 
so that it came to mean almost 
the same as savage; so, 'bar- 
barous cruelty.' 

Syn. Rude. Strange. Uncivilized. Out- 
landish. Uncouth. Savage. Atrocious. 
Flagitious. Nefarious. Unlettered. Gross. 

Akt. Polite, avilized. Refined. Hu- 
mane. Urbane. 

Bargain, n, Der., perhaps, 
barca, a trading vessel. CJomp. 
Bark. To effect a transfer or 
sale of goods. By usage, the 
noun Bargain has come to be 
taken for such transactions as 
are favoucable to those who 

SynonyuM and Antonyms. 


effect them ; otherwise the term 
is qualified, as, ' a had bargain/ 

Snr. Transaction. Negotiation. Busi- 
nen. Profit, peculation. Gain. Hawk- 
ing. Chaffer. Higgling. Haggling. 

An. Loea. MiiproftL 

Basb, adj. Gr. /3d<rif. The 
ground on which something 
stands or moves. The floor. As 
an adjectiye it expresses lowness, 
and, metaphoricidly, of birth, of 
intrinsic value, of character, of 
social estimation, of artistic ex- 
cellence, or musical sounds. It 
is seldom employed to signify 
what is physically low in situa- 
tion, but is sometimes so used, 
as, the base story of a house. 

Stw. Vile. Dtohonourable. Low. Sordid. 
Jgnobie. Diaeeteemed. Cheap. Corrupt 
Deep. ^ 

AKT. Lofty. Exalted. Befined. Noble. 
Esteemed. Honoured. Valued. Pure. 
Correct. ShiilL 

Baseless, ac(;'. See Base and 

Bask, v. int. Akin to Bake. 
To enjoy the sunshine of pros- 
perity or comfort 

Sth. Luxuriate. Repose. Lounge. 

Abt. Stir. Work. Toil Slave. Drudge. 

Baste, v, tr. Origin uncertain. 

Stm. Beat BufTet Cudgel Pound. 
Aira. Soothe. Tickle. Careiis. Stroke. 

Battle, n, Fr. hattre, Eng. 
leai. An open conflict 

Stv. Fight Conflict Engagement 

Ant. Peace. Truce. Pacification. Ar- 
bitrament Council. Mediatiun. 

Bauble, n, BalidU. A baby's 
plaything. The fool's bauble 
was a stick with some oddity at 
the end, as a bladder of beads, or 
a head with an ass's ears. 

Stk. Toy. Trifle. Plaything. Knick- 
knack. Ot^wgaw. Gimcrack. Kicksbaw. 

Ant. Valuable. Pottspsblon. Acquiai- 
tica. Gem. OmameaL Decoratlou. 

Bawl, v. int. Prom Lat 
balfire, to hleat, 

Stk. Shout Vociferate. Halloo. Roar. 

Ant. Whisper. Mutter. Blumble. 

Bays, n. Crown of bay-leaves, 
the symbol of achievement, used 
for the achievement itself. 

Stk. Lanrelit. Truphy. Prize. Pre- 
mium. Achievement Sucoeaa. Triumph. 

Ant. Failure. Defeat. Disgrace. Stigma. 

Beaming, adj. Sax. Verb, to 
beam, or send forth light. 

Syn. Shining. Bright. Gleaming. 
Kadiant BeautilnL Transparent Tran»- 

Ant. Dull Opaque. Dingy. Wan. 
Matt Beamicas. 

Bear, v. tr. Saxon. To carry, 
first, physically, as a burden, 
then, metaphorically, to carry, as 
oflficially to bear a rank, title, or 
office, to carry in the mind or 
the feelings; to exhibit what is 
so carried, as, to bear malice, or 
testimony, to sustain, as a cha- 
racter or part, to be able to 
carry, so, to tolerate, to carry or 
bring forth, as fruit or children. 

Syk. Carry. Lift. Transport Convey. 
Sustain. Hold. Harbour. Entertain. FilL 
Enact Endure. Admit Produce. Gene- 

Ant. Drop. Refuse. Decline. Bedgn. 
ExpeL Eject. Resist RepeL Protest 
Resent Reject 

Bearing, n. See Bear. The 
mode of carrying one's self, that 
is, behaving or seeming ; or, re- 
flexively, the relative position of 
an external object, as land to a 

Syk. Behaviour. Manner. Aspect 
Appearance. Inclination. Position. Dureo- 
tion. Course. 

Ant. Misbehaviour. Misdirection. Mis- 

Beat, v. tr. Sax. verl act. and 
neuter, as, f6 beat the ground, 
to beat tme, «b '\QeAi^% \L<yBNk\ 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

hence, to beat successfully in 
battle, and, generally, to over- 

Syn. Strike. Pound. Batter. Thrash. 
Cudgel. Overcome. Defeat Surpass. 
Conquer. Worst. 

Akt. D«'f«ud. Protect Shield, Shelter. 
FalL Surrender. Pat. Stroke. Caress. 

Beatitude, n. Beatus, blessed. 

SxN. Blessedness. Bliss. Beatification. 

Beautiful, adj. i^.ee Beauty. 
Beautify, v. tr. See Beauty. 

Syn. Decorate. Adorn. Embellish. Or- 
nament Deck. 

From the rareness of the 
quality of beauty comes the 
cheapness of the term beautify ; 
for, inasmuch as beauty must be 
seldom imparted by art, the 
word beautify, unable to sustain 
its character, is more often used 
disparagingly or satirically. 

Akt. Deform. SpolL Mar. Stain. De- 
face. Disfigure. BefouL. SoiL Denude. 
Bare. Strip. 

Beauty, n, Lat. hellmy pretty, 
neat. The word has risen to ex- 
press in the higher sense the 
character of what is naturally, 
personally, or artistically exqui- 
site or fair. 

Syn. Loveliness. Grace. Seemlinet«. 
Comeliness. Fairness. Picturesqueness. 
Exquisiteness. Embellishment Adorn- 

Ant. Foulness. Ugliness. Dcf<»rmity. 
Hideousness. Bareness. Unuttractiveiie&>. 

Because, adv. By cause of, 
physically, mentally, and mo- 

Syn. Owing. Consequently. Accord- 

Ant. Irrespectively. Independently. 
tJnoonncctedly. Inconsequently. 

Beck, h. A nod. Sax. Conn, 
with Beckon and Beacon. A nod 
of intimation or of command, 
.taken for the ix)wer or commancl 

Stk. Nod. Sign. Signal. Symbol 
TokoL Indication. Authority. U.dertt. 

Instructions. Subserviency. Influence 
Command. Call Control. Mandate. 
Aht. Independence. Insubservience. 

Become, v. tr. is coining well 
to a person. But as propriety is, 
where it can be attained, a matter 
of obligation, it has a force of 
moral necessity as well as fitness. 

Stn. Befit. Grace. Beseem. Behove. 
Ant. Misbeseem. Misfit Misbecome. 

Becoming, adj. See Become. 

Syn. Beseeming. Comely. Seemly. B*- 
fittin^. GraceiuL Decent Suitable. Im- 

Ant. Unbeseeming. Unseemly. Un- 
comely. Unbecoming. Unbefitting. Un- 
graceful. Indei«nt Unsuitable. Unim- 
proving. Derogatory. 

Bedaub, v. tr. Daub, conn, 
with dab, to dab dirt upon. 

Syn. Bespatter. BffouL Mar. Dis- 
colour. Disfigure. Deface. Spoil. Soil 
Stain. Besmear. 

Ant. Cleanse. Absterge. Purify. 

Whiten. Decorate. Beautify. Embellish. 

Bedeck, v. tr. See Deck. 

Bedizen, v. tr., Bedizened, 
part. Origin uncertain. To 
dress tawdrily. 

Syn. to part. Tawdry. Betinselled. 
Gaudy. Flashy. Bespangled. 

Ant. Adorned. Robed. Decorated. 

Befall, v. int. To fall out'to 
one. The prefix be gives the 
verb an active force. 

Syn. Happen. Occur. Fall. Super- 
vene. Beti.le. Bechance. 

Ant. Mis*. Pass. Spare. Pretermit 

Befitting, adj. Fitting, as a 
matter of suitableness generally, 
or pecuhar fitness to specific po- 
sition, or circumstances, or in- 

Syn. Fitting. Decent Becoming. Sutf- 
able. Appropriate. Consistent. Expe- 
dient. Desirable. Proper. 

Ant. Obligatory. Compulsory. Unbe- 
I fitting. Indecent Unbecoming. Unsuif- 
I able. Inappropriate. Incompatible. In- 
[ expedient. Improper. 

! Befool, v. tr. To make a fool 

8ynonym» and Antonyms. 


Stjt. DecelTe. niode. Cheat Mystify. 
Bamboozle. Mislead. Ensnare. Hood> 

Akt. Oukle. Enlighten. Lead. Adviw. 

Befobe^ prep, and adv. For 
or Fore. lit. pro. Gr. v6pp<o. 
Applicable to time and place. 

Stv. Preoedently. Anteriorly. Ante- 

AST. After. Afterwards. Sahseqnently. 
Posteriorly. Later. Behind. 

Befriend, v. tr. To keep or 
support in any way as a friend. 

Stk. Assist Goontenance. Support 
Advocate. Promote. 'Protect Deffiid. 

Akt. Oppotie. LHsconntenance. Thwart 
Withstand. Deciy. Defame Oppress. 

Beg, V. tr. Supposed to be 
from Bag. To ask as a mendi- 
cant for his wallet 

Snr. Ask. Bequest Entreat. Suppli- 
cate. Beseech. 

Abt. Insist Exact Extort Require. 

Bbogar, n. See "Beg, 
Sth. Mendicant Suitor. Petitioner. 
Suppliant Applicant 

Airr. Exactor. Extortioner. 

Begoarly, adj. See Beggar. 

Stv. Mi^rable. Poor. Wretched. 
Stinted. Nig^&rdly. Stingy. Scant .H- 

Akt. Noble. Princely. Stately. Suinp- 
tnous. Liberal. Proftise. Prodie^. Mag- 
nificent Gorgeous. 

Begin, v. tr. Sax. ginnan, to 
cut. To make the first cut into 
a thing; also, neutrally, to com- 

Snr. Initiate. Gommenoe. Start Fte- 
pare. Arise. Inaugurate. 

Aht. Achieve. Complete. Terminate. 
Omclade. Gcmsummate. Finish. Close. 

Beginner, n. See B^in. 

Stk. Tjm, Novice. Learner. PupIL 

Amt. Adept Expert Master. Au- 

Beginning, n. See Begin. 

Snr. Commencement Start Origin. 

Rise. Initiatifm. Preparation. Preface. 
Prelude. Inauguration. Inception. 

Amt. End. dose. Termination. Con- 
clusion. CcAsummation. Completion. 

Bbgeimb, V. tr. A Northern 
word conn, with Bime, hoar- 
frost, but now applied, not to 
white particles, but foul. See 

Begxjili, v. tr. Guile, conn, 
with wile, craft. See Befool. 

Behalf, n. Contiguity to 
one's own half or side, as against 
other persons or other interests. 

Stk. side. Interest Advantage. Aid. 

Abt. /SSee Bestead. 

Behaviour, n., Behave. The 
way in which a man has, pos- 
sesses, or demeans himself gene- 
rally, or on a specific occasion. 

Stk. Conduct Bearing. Demeanour. 
Proceeding. Action. Comportment De- 

AntI Misdemeanour. Misbehaviour. 

Behest, n. Sax. Literally, 
that which is vowed or desired. 
Now, by usage, commanded or 

Stk. Injunction. Command. Instruc- 
tion. Mandate. Commission. Trust P^e- 

Akt. Option. Liberty. Discretion. 

Behind. See Before. Hind; 
whence Hinder. 

Behold, v. tr. Hold, to fes+en 
the eyes on to an object contiii,u- 

Stk. Look. Gaze. Observe. Contem- 
plate. See. Scan. Survey. 

Akt. Overlook. Disregard. Ignore. 
Miss. BUnk. Wink. Connive. 

Beholden, adj. Fastened by 
ties of obligation, and sometimes, 
correspondently, of feeling. 

Stk. Bound. Obliged. - Indebted. 
Thankful GratefiiL 

Akt. Unindebted. Unoblisid. TJxsXstoXffiA. 
UnthaakfuL \3n8;c«i\e\u\. 


Synonyms and Antonyms* 

BxHOLDXB, n. See Behold. 

Stv. Spectator. Obwrrer. Qyvtander. 
Witneis. Looker-on. 
Am. See Behold. 

Belief, n. Same root as 
Leave, in the sense of permission. 
The mind believes a thing or 
person, that is, leaves it, gives it 
leave, or allows it to occupy the 
ground taken up. Another sup- 

C'tion derives it from li^>en, to 
or desire, as if it were 
natural in some measure to credit 
what we desire to be true. 

Stn. Aasenu Faith. Tnist Credence. 
Avowal. AMiirance. AdmlMion. GoDce»- 
slou. Cionfldeiice. 

Am. Diasent. Unbelief. Distnut Mis- 
DeuiaL PiMVOwaL Rejection. 



Bellicose, adf, BeUum, war. 

Stv. Qnanrelflome. Pugnacious. Belli- 
gerent. Iraadble. Contentions. 

Amt. Peaceful Peaceable. Unquarrel- 
some. Pacific Unwarlike. Unexdtable. 
Good-tempered. Genial. 

BELLTOEBEirr, adj. BeUum, 
and gerere, to tuage. Of warlike 
or quarrelsome nature, or actu- 
allv engaged in war. 

Snr. See BeUiooM. Add. Contending. 
Engaging. Fighting. Opposed. Adverse. 
Huetlle. Conflicting. EivaL Antagonist. 

Amt. Neutral Pacific Peaceful Be- 
conciled. Appeased. Non-belligerent 

Bellow, v. int. Sax. Conn, 
with Bawl. See BawL 

Belonging, adj., Belong. 
Long. Lying parallel to, or 
alongside; and so in any way 
related or appertaining. 

Stn. Related. Connected. Appertain- 
ing. Cognate. Congenial Oblli^ry. Ac- 

Ant. Unrelated. Unconnected. Im- 
pertinent Irrelevant Alien. Uncon- 
genial Discretional Optional Unin- 
volved. Unimplied. Independent. 

Beloved, adj. See Love. 

Below, prep, and adv. Low. 
Northern word, allied to Eng. 

Stk. Under. Beneath. Adown. 
An. Above. Over. Aloft 

Bend, v. tr. and int. Sax. 
Used physically and metai^Kizi- 


Snr. Curve. Deviate. Incline. Tend. 
Swerve. Diverge. Mould. Persnade. Iiw 
fluence. Bias. Dispose. Direct Stooa 
Condescend. Yield. Submit 

Ant. Proceed. Continue. Extend. Ad- 
vance. Stand. Stiffen. Resist Ansk. 

Beneath, adv, and prep, 
Neath. Germ, nieder, nether. 

Stk. Below. Under. UndemeaUi. A- 

Ant. Above. Over. Overhead. Aloft. 

Benediction, n. Bene ddcere, 
to bless. Is official, or the result 
of kind feeling or approval, or in 
consequence of gratitude. 

Snr. Blessing. Approval Comraendik 
tion. Benison. GraUtude. TfaankfolneML 

Ant. Curse. Malediction. Diai^nNrovaL 
Censure. Obloquy. Execration, ingrati- 

Benefaction, n. Bene and 
facere, to do wtU. C!ommonly by 
some permanent gift, as distin- 
guished from benefit. 

Stn. Grant Endowment Beqneit 
Presentation. Favour. 

Anx. Deprivation. Reservation. IMa* 
favour. Disendowment Confiscation. Pre- 

Benefactor, n. See Benefiio- 

Stn. Friend. Supporter. Contrflmtor. 
Upholder. WeU-wisher. Well-doer. Fa- 
vourer. Patron. 

Ant. Foe. Opponent Dte&voforer. 
Rival. Antagonist Backfriend. Oppreteor. 

Beneficial, adj. See Bene- 

Stn. Advantageous. Profitable. Wbolt- 
some. Salutary. Salubrious. 

Ant. Prejudicial Noziooa. Unpioflt- 
able. Hurtful Detrimental. 

Beneficent, adj. See Ben^ 

Stn. Bountiful Benevolent Benignant 
Ant. Hard. Uncommiserating, lUiberaL 

Unbeneficent Griping. Cruel Opfsrca- 


Synonyms and AnUmyms. 


BsNSiTT, n. 8ee Bene^Eictian. 

Snr. Boon. Advantage. Profit. Favour. 

An: Evfl. Loas. I>iaadvaiiti«e. Detri- 
ment Duiuige. GUamity. Iqjiiiy. Be> 
navcfiMnL Pxivatioo. 

BESKYOJJSscm, n. Bene and 
voio, I wish vodEL. 

Stv. KTmanwt OoodwilL KhMHiiww. 
Benignity. UberaUty. Benefioenoe. 

AxT. Unkindneaw Hardmeaa. Nlggud- 
lineaBw Bartiarity. Maleficence. Maligni^. 
lUibeEality. lUwiU. ChnrlUmeaB. 

Sometimes the expression of 
goodwill— a gift 

Benxtolknt, cbdj. See Bene- 

BENicoTAirr, adj, Benignus, 
bene and ffenus^ <f good iirih. 
Gentle by birth and disposition ; 
thenoe kmd. See Benevolent 

Benisok, n. See Benediction. 

Bknt. /See Bend. Physical or 
moral inclination. 

Snr. Angle. Tnrihiation. Direction. 
Blaa. Detenninatlon. Oispofiition. Inten- 

An. Indisposition. ATenrfon. 

Bequeath, v. tr., Bequest, n. 
Be and an Old English word, 
meaning, to say, of which the 
past tense only snrviyes in the 
word quoth. First, to adjudge 
l^ worn of mouth ; then, to de- 
mise property orally; and, lastly, 
to demise generally, or leave as a 
gift at parting. 

Si^. Give. Grant Beatow. Impart 
Leaive. Demise. To fioun. Legaqr* In- 

Aht. Withhold. Alienate. To fwun. 
Transference. AhaUenation. Disinheritanoe. 

Bebeate, V. tr. Sax. Mean- 
ing rob. Applied to persons. 

. Snr. Bob. Dimrive. Dispossess. Divest 
Impoverish. Beaaoe. SpoiL 

Am*. Beplenish. Compensate. Be!n- 
sUte. SatisfSr. Enrich. Benefit 

BEBEAYEMENT,n. iSee Bereave. 

Snr. Deprivation. Loss. AfBiction. 

Ajtt. Gift 

Action. Compensation. Beparation. Re- 
storation. Reinstatement Bestiftatkn. 
Sobstitadon. Consolation. 

Aht. See Beaefmakm and Benefit 

Bereft, j»r<. 

Snr. Bobbed. Deprived. Denied. SpoilBd. 

AxT. Bodowed. FnridiM. Ocmpensated. 
Consoled. Possessed. 

Beseech, v. tr. Seech, the 
same as seek. To seek another 
in entreaty. Used of the thing 
and the person. 

Snr. Ask. Entreat Praj. BecpMat 
Sopplicate. Petition. Beg. 

Akt. Insist Demand. Exact Com- 
mand. Intimidate. Coerce. 

Beseem, v. tr. To seem or 
look well upon. Said of moral 
fitness or propriety. 

Sni. Befit Suit Belong. Appertain. 
AxT. Unbeseem. Disgrace. 

Beseemiko, adj. See Beseem. 

Snr. BefitUng. SoitabtoL Belonging. 
Appertahiing. Consistent Compatible. Re- 
quisite. Decent GracefiiL 

AST. Unbefitting. Unseemly. Unsuit- 
able. Improper. Indecent UngraoeftiL 

Beset, v.^n Set, «ec2eo. Gomp. 

Snr. Hem. Surround. Environ. B^ 

Aht. Liberate. Abandcm. 

Beside, prep,. Besides, adv. 
By the side; the primary notion 
b^ng proximity, and the second 
extraneousness or addition. 

Snr. Close. Near. Alongside. Addi- 
tionally. Over and above. Together. More- 

AST. Separate. Apart Inclusively. 

Besiege, v, tr, Fr. siege, Lat. 
sedere. To sit down before a 
fortified place. 

Snr. Beset Beleaguer. Invest Sit 
AST. Abandon. (Phrase, * raise the 

Bbsmeab, V. ^r. Sax. >See Be- 

Besotted, ac?;. Sax. Steeped 
in drink or prejudice. 

Stn. stupefied. Intoxicated. Dmnk» 
Steeped. DrensSi«d. ^Vkc&sL \y!k\&id^ 
Gross. Prc^ikdio^ 


Synonyim and Antonyms. 

Akt. Sober. Temperate. Clear. Un- 
biassed. Unpn^udiced. Enlightened. Be- 

Bbspattbe, V. tr. CJonn. with 
spit and sputter. Metaphor., to 

Syv. Besprinkle. BefonL Bedaub. Be- 
vile. VUify. Asperse. 

Ant. Absterge. Sponge. Cleanse. 
Purify. Vindicate. Defend, aear. 

Bespeak, v. tr. Has the double 
sense of ordering beforehand, 
and of giving evidence. 

Syn. Betoken. Foreorder. Forestall. 
Provide. Prearrange, indicate. Evidence. 
Akt. Belie. Bcsign. Countermand. 

Bestead, v. tr. Be and stead, 
a place. Comp. Instead. In the 
place of; to arrange for conveni- 
ence or benefit, and so to serve. 

Stn. Convenience. Uphold. Assist. 
Serve. Accommodate. Benefit 

Ant. Thwart. Damage. Incommode. 
Oppose. lujure. 

Bestead, n, 

SxK. Interest. Behalfl Fbrt Side. Ad- 
vantage. Benefit 

Ant. Injury. Disadvantage. Opposition. 
Detriment Damage. 

Bestib, V. tr. Commonly used 
reflexively for, to stir one's self. 
/Sec Stir. 

Bestow, v, tr. Sax.. 8^ov, a 
place for deposit. First, to place 
in its own appointed repository ; 
thence, and now exclusively, to 
make another the receptacle, iiiat 
is, to give. 

Syn. Confer. Give. Present Award. 

Akt. Withhold. Withdraw. Beserve. 
Alienate. Transfer. Claim. Appropriate. 
Usurp. Seize. 

Betide, v. tr. Sax. Tide, 
meaning time, as, Whitsuntide. 
To befall in season; thence, to 
befall generally. 

Stn. Befall. Occur. Happen. 
. Akt. A'ecBefalL 

Betimes, adv. By good time. 

Syn. Early. Beforehand. Beadily. Pre- 

Ant. T>ate. Behiudhand. Slowly. Slug- 
£/sIi/jr. Belatedly. 

Betoken, v. tr. To give evi- 
dence by token, which was any 
kind of indication or mark. The 
word is connected with teach. 

Stn. Teach. Indicate. Proclaim. Evi- 
dence. Manifest Imply. Involve. De- 

Ant. Mlslndicate. Mislead. Misteacfa. 
Misdeclare. Belie. Mask. Hide. 

Bbtbay, V. tr. Trahere^ to 
draw. To bring to light either 
persons or interests, which it- 
was a duty to serve confidentially 
or honourably; or, by an exten- 
sion of its usage, to indicate; 
though even here there is com- 
monly an implied exposure of 
something unfavourable. 

Syn. Deceive. Delude. Circumvent 
Dupe. Ensnare. Diishonour. Indicata. 
Manifest BeveaL 

Ant. Protect Preserve. Ouard. Con- 
serve. Foster. Cherish. Fence. Cover. 
Conceal Suppress. 

Between, Betwixt, adv. and 
prep. See Amidst. 

Bevy, n. Origin uncertain; 
but applied only to ladies, ex- 
cept, as by sportsmen, to larks 
and quails. A fetir assemblage. 

Stn. Assembly. Parterre. Gala:^. 
Constellation. Hock. 

Ant. Gang. Crew. Herd. Mob. 

Bewail, v. tr. Wail, a word 
of Northern origin, probably 
formed in imitation of a cry of 

Stn. Lament Deplore. Bemoan. Bne. 
Ant. Exult HaiL B^oice. Greet. 

Bewabe, V. Ware, conn, with 
wary. Used only in the impera- 
tive and infinitive moods. 

Stn. Care. Ref^iiln. Consider. Heed. 
Look. Fear. Avoid. 

Ant. Overlook. Ignore. Neglect Brave. 
Dare. Incur. 

Bbwildeb, V. tr. Wild. To 
place, as it were, on wild ground, 
where one looks in all diiHdctions 

Stfnonyms and Antonynu. 


Syv. Daze. Dazzle. Oonfonnd. Mystify. 
Confuse. Mislead. AstoDish. 

AST. Onide. Inform. Lead. Enlighten. 
Ediiy. Instruct 

Bbwildssed. See Bemlder. 

Bbwitch, v. tr. Witch. Sax. 
vng, hdy. Low Latin, vegius, a 
sorcerer. Of old used of male as 
well as female sorcerers. To in- 
fluence by magic, and especially 
with loye or adnuration. 

Snr. Enchant. Fascinate. Charm. 
Aki. Exordse. Disillasionize. Disen- 

Betond, prep, and adv. Sax. 
Gomp. Yon and Yonder. 

Stn. Over. Farther. Past More. 
Airr. Here. Close. At hand. LesiL 

Bias, n. Old Fr. hiaU, a dope. 
See Bent. 

Bicker, v. int Scotch. For- 
merly nsed of literal, now only of 
metaphorical, skirmishes. 

Stn. Wrangle. Quarrel. Dispute. Jar. 

Akt. Chat Goesip. Converse. 

Bid, v. tr. Of Northern origin, 
from one word, meaning to re- 
qn^, and another resembling it, 
to offer; hence the doable sense 
of bid. 

Stk. TelL Request Instruct Order. 
Onnmand. Offer. Propose. 

Ant. Forbid. Deter. Prohibit Re- 

Bide, v. int. Sax. Act. and 
neuter, that is, haying the sense 
of wait and await. 

Stn. Wait Remain. Tarry. Stay. 
Await Expect Anticipate. Bear. En- 

Ant. Quit Depart Migrate Move. 
Bedst Resent KepeL Allure. RebeL 

Big, adj. An old Fr. word, 
Ixiich, meaning burden. Meta- 
phorically nsed of bigness of de- 

Syn. Large. Great Wide. Hage. 
Balkjr. Ptvnd. Arrogant i\nnpoas. Fat 

Ant. Little. SmalL Narrow. Minute. 
Slight Lean. Affable. Easy. Unaffected. 

Bigotry, n. Der. imcertain; 
either from a Norman oath, attri- 
buted to Eollo when refusing 
homage to the French king, or 
from the Saxon higan^ conn, with 
beg, to pray or worship ; whence 
the Flemish heguine and hegutn- 
agu, good women engaged in 
charity, and living together with- 
out vows. 

Stn. Predudioe. Pharisaism. Obstinacy. 
Credulity. Fanaticism. SuperstiUon. in- 

Akt. Liberally. Enlightenment Charity. 
Toleration. Eclecticism. Latitudinarianism. 

Bind, v. tr. Sax. To tie. 
Metaphorically, to tie down to 
obligations or conditions. 

Syn. Tie. Fasten. Secure. Lace. 
Twine. Oblige. CompeL Restrict Re- 
strain. Secure. 

Ant. Untie. Loose. Un&sten. Free. 
Liberate. Acquit 

Birth, n. Conn, with Bear 
and Bom. First, the coming 
into life, and then the circum 
stances or position of the person 
so bom. So birth used by itself 
often means nobility. 

Stn. Origin. Source. Rise. Lineage. 

Ant. Death. Extinction. Plebeianism. 

Bit, n. Is really the part, of 
Bite. A small piece bitten, or 
to bite; thus precisely corre- 
sponding with morsel, from Lat. 
mordere, to bite. 

Stn. Morsel. Piece. Fragment Pait. 

Ant. Mass. Whole. 

Biting, adj. See Bit. Used 

Stn." Pungent Piercing. Gnawing. 

Saraistic. Sardonic. Censorious. Trenchant 

Ant. Pleasant Genial Flattering. 
Soothing. Complacent 

Bitter, adj. Conn, with Bile. 
Producing a pungent biting sen- 
sation. Applied, when used me- 
taphoiioaW^, \so\)a. \» HJaa ^s^^ 


Synonyms and Anionyms. 

and the feeling consequent upon 
it, as, ' a bitter calamity/ ' bitter 

Stm. Harsh. Sour. Sharp. Tart Ao- 
rhnoniona. Sarcastic Severe. Sad. AfBio 
tive. Intense. 

Aht. Sweet Mellow. Pleasant Affa- 
ble. Kindly. GeniaL Light Trivial 

BiTTEBNESS. See Bitter and 

Blab, v, int. Germ. Uappeln, 
Eng. blabber. To talk idly. See 
remarks on Babbler. 

Blaoeen, v. tr. Black. Meta- 
phorically, to spoil the character 
or reputation. 

Stv. Bespatter. BefonL Bedaub. De- 
fame. Decry. Calumniate. Dishonour. 
Airr. Vindicate. Clear. Eulogiie. 

Blackouabd, n. Originally 
the company of scullions, who, 
in the . progresses of great men 
had the charge of the kitchen 
utensils. A low sooty tribe; 
hence the present use of the 
term is including eyerything 
most vile. 

Stn. SoonndreL BascaL Bapscallion. 
Blackleff. Villain. 
Ant. Gentleman. 

Blame, v, tr. Is a contracted 
form of blaspheme, the Greek for 
evilHspeaking; but is by usage 
restricted to censure of x)ersons 
or their conduct. 

Stn. Censure. Chide. Rebuke. Be- 
proach. Vituperate. Dispraise. 

Ant. Acquit Exculpate. Exonerate. 
Encourage. Praise. Approve. 

Blamable, adj. See Blame. 
Blameless. See Blame. 

Stn. Pure. Innocent. Irresponsible 
Ant. Criminated. Implicated. Blame- 
worthy. Answerable. Faulty. Guilty. 

Blanch, v. tr. Blancus, white. 
Gomp. Bleak, Bleach. 

Stn. Bleach. Whiten. 

To hlmch Ib to promote in- 

herent whiteness. To bleach is 
to whiten by external influence. 

Ant. Darken. Colour. Obfuscate; 

Bland, adj. Blandus. Befers 
to maimer. 

Stn. Soft Mild. Gentle. 
Ant. Haith. Abrupt Bough. 


and loqui, to talk. 

Stn. Blarney. Humbug. FlaUoy. 
SpecfousnesB. Gloasbiefls. Adulation. 

Ant. Bluntness. Boug^mesei Abrupt- 

Blandishment, n. Is in deeds 
what blandiloquence is in words. 

Stn. Flattery. Coaxing. WheedUng. 
Fawning. Cay>\ery, 

Ant. Bouf^mMb Bluntness. Unman- 

Blank, adj. Blancus. A 
colourless and unmitigated bar^ 

Stn. Bleak. Bare. Utter. Broad. Udp 

Ant. Modified. Qualified. Mitigated. 

Blasphemt, n. Gr. ImpiouB 

Stn. Swearing. Impiety. Profkneness. 
Ant. Beverence. Veneration. Godli- 

Blast, n. and v. Sax. Ucesan, 
to Uow. Like flare, flame, from 
the Lat. ^flare, to blow. Gomp. 
Blaze. The verb to blast is us^ 
of destructive or noxious in- 

The noun blast has different 
analogous senses, aa, blast oi 
wind, a blast, or, as it were, 
noxious breath of evil, the blast 
or explosion of a grin; but the 
notion of atmospheric influence 
or excitement runs through them 

Stn. Volume. PuiT. Afflation. Eflla- 
tion. Breese. Breath. Blight Kxpkwkm. 
Burst Fmstration. Destruction. Blate. 

Ant. Extinction. Neutraliaatloa. 

Blaze, n. See Blast 
Blazon, v. tr. From the same 
root. To offix. «K3!m!d maxk of 

Synonyma and Antonyms. 


conspicuonsness. To light up a 
person, his character or history, 
lineage or reputation. 

Snr. Notify. Signalize. Pablicate. Ad- 
▼entnre. Circoiate. l*iopagate. DiBsemi- 

Amt. Oover. GonceaL Hide. SappreiS. 
Hash. F&Uiate. Shroud. Bury. 

Bleach, v, tr. Blancas, white, 

Snr. Whiten. Blanch. 

Axrr. Darlcen. Blacken. SolL Ste Blanch. 

Bleak, adj. Same der. 

Snr. Blank. Bare. Open. ErpoMd. 
Cold. Stormy. Nipping. 

Abt. Sheltered. Warm. Verdant Lnzn- 
riant. Zephyroos. Balmy. Halcyonic. 

Blemish, v. Fr. hhmir, to 
make blue or pale. To take the 
colour out; thence, to spoil or 
tarnish a substance ; and thence 
again, metaphorically, the cha- 
racter. The noun blemish fol- 
lows the same meanings. 

Snr. to noun. Spot 6lur. Blot Stain. 
Daub. Tarnish. Defacement Discoloura- 
tion. Disflgurement. Disgrace. Dishonour. 
Defect. Blemidh. imperfection. 

Akt. Purity. Unsulliedness. Intact- 
ness. Honour. 

Blench, v. int. Conn, with 
Blanch. To shrink through fear. 

Snr. start Shy. Shudder. Shrink. Be- 

Ant. Encounter. Dare. Venture. Stand. 

Blend, v. int. and tr. Sax. 
To mix easily or naturally. 

Snr. Mix. Harmonize. Unite. Coalesce. 
Ant. Rua Separate. Divide. Dis- 
loclate. Confound. 

Bless, v. tr. Sax. Conn, 
with Blithe. To make blithe- 
some or joyous with gifts, and, 
reflexively, to express gratitude 

Snr. Felicitate. Endow. Enrich. 
Gladden. Rejoice. Cheer. Thank. 

Ant. Sadden. Deprive, impoverish. 
Ignore. Curse. Anathematize. 

Blessing, n. See Bless. 

Snr. Felicitation. Benediction. Endow- 
ment Donation. Gift Thankluiness. 
Oratitnde, 'lltankx BmefiL 

Ant. Impoverishment Deprivation. Be- 
reavement Malediction. Thankflilness. 
Obliviousness. Catastrophe. Calamity. 
Disaster. Detriment Damage. Curse. 

Blight, n. and v. Origin un- 
certain. See Blast. 

Bund, adj. Sax. Conn, with 
Blend, seeing objects confusedly. 
It is used of physical sightless- 
ness, moral blindness, mental 
blindness, or absolute ignorance, 
and casual blindness or casual 
ignorance. Sometimes used as a 
transitive verb. 

Snr. Sightless. Unseeing. Depraverl. 
Prejudiced, ignorant Uninformed. Un- 
conscious. Unaware. 

Ant. Far-sighted. Penetrating. Keen. 
Sensitive. Discriminating. Pure-minded. 
Clear-sighted. Conscious. Aware. 

Blink, v. tr. and int. Sax. 
To shine, to twinkle, quickly to 
close and open the eyelids, to 
close the eyes against a passing 
circumstance so as not to notice 

Snr. Wink. Ignore. Connive. Overlook. 
Ant. Notice. Visit Note. Mark. 

Bliss, n. See Bless. 

Snr. Blessedness. Joy. Ecstasy. Rap- 

Ant. Accursedness. Condemnation. Suf- 
fering. Misery. Woe. 

Blithe, adj. Sax. 

Stn. Light. Merry. Joyous. Happy. 
Bright. Elastic. Gladsome. Bonny. 
Ant. Heavy. DulL Dejected. Sullen. 

Block, v. tr. From block; 
Northern word for a mass. 

Snr. stop. Arrest. FllL Obstruct 
Ant. Free. Liberate. Open. Pave. 

Blockhead, w. See Above. 

Stn. Dolt Dtinderhead. Jolterhead. 
Dunce. Ninny. NumskulL Dullard, ig- 

Ant. Sage. Adept Luminary. Pbilo- 
sopher. Schoolman. Savant 

Bloom, n. and v. int. Gothic. 
Comp. Blossom. 

Snr. Blossom. Bud. Flower. Beauty. 
Freshness. Delicacy. 

Ant. Decav. Decadence. Blight. Blast 
Coarseness. aa.Tf;bneft». ^ " "" ' 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

ness. Scperaimiiation. Ghastliness. .Ca- 

Bloom is applied to flowers 
l)urely ornamental, blossom* to 

Blooming, adj. See Bloom. 

Stn. Flourishing. Flowering. Blossom- 
ing. Young. BcaudfuL Fair. 

Ant. Fading. Waning. Blighted. 
BlaRt-Hl. Paralyzed. Old. Superannuated. 
Unsightly. Deformed. 

Blot, n, and v, A Northern 
word, meaning a blur or stain. 
A dab, daub, or spot of tamish 
upon a fair surface or a fair re- 
putation. Comp. the phrase, 'a 
blot on the escutcheon? 

Stn. Comp. Blemish. 

Blot, v. 

Stn. Obscure. Tarnish. SpoiL Sully. 
Obliterate. Erase. 

Ant. Elucidate. Clear. Abstei^ge. 
Cleanse. Manifest. Conserve. Perpetuate. 

Blotch. Conn. Blot and 

Blow, w. Seems to be formed 
from many kindred words of 
Saxon or Gothic origin, having 
the various senses of breathing 
and blooming and striking. 

Stn. Puff. Blast. Breath. Infliction. 
Stroke. Wound. Disappointment Afflic- 

Ant. Assuagement Consolation. Com- 
fort. Kelief. Blessing. Sparing. 

Bluff, a/ff. Old Eng. noun 
and adj. bluffs, or bluff rocks. 

Stn. Bare. Open. Bold. Abrupt 
Frank. Plain-Rpoken. Blunt 

Ant. Undulating. Inclined. Inabrupt 
Courteous. Polished. Reserved. 

Blunder, n. Old Eng. Conn, 
with Blind and Blend. A mis- 
take through confusion of thought 
or purpose. 

Stn. Error. Mistake. Misunderetand- 
ins. Fault. Oversight Inaccuracy. 

Ant. Accuracy. Truthfulness. Exact- 
ness. Correctness*. Faultlessness. Correc- 
tion. Rectification. Atonement Foresight 
Prevention. Hit Success. Achievement 

Blunt, adj. Gothic n, Phy- 
sical and metaphorical. 

Stn. Obtuse. DulL Pointless. Edge- 
leas. Insensitive. Bluff. Plain-mannered. 

Ant. Sharp. Keen. Pointed. Acute. 
Acnleated. Sensitive. Polished. Conrteoott. 
Reserved. Blandiloquent 

Blunt, v. See adj. 

Stn. To subdue. Repress. Tranquillize. 
Discourage. Harden. Ossify. Numb. 

Ant. Quicken. Sharpen. Instigate. Sos* 
citate. Stimulate. Ammate. Excite. Vi- 

Blub. See Blemish. 

Blush, n. Conn, with Blaze, 
to grow red with warmth or a 
sense of shame. 

Stk. to former. Bloom. Colour. Com- 
plexion. Aspect Carnation. To latter. 
Shame. Confusion. Guiltiness. Self-re- 

Ant. to latter. Innocence. Purity. Guilt' 
lessness. Unconsciousness. Boldness. Ef- 

Bluster, v. and n. Allied to 

Stn. to V. Storm. Rage. Puff. Blow. 
Swagger. Fume. Brag. Insult 
Ant. See Brag. 

Boast. Old Eng. 

Stn. Vaunt Brag. Swagger. Swell. 
Bluster. Vapour. 
Ant. ^ee Brag. 

Bode, v. tr. Sax. Conn, with 
Bid, to tell or foretell. 

Stn. Foretell. Predict Prophesy. Pro 
mise. Forebode. Herald. Announce. Prog- 
nosticate. Portend. Augur. 

Ant. Relate. Record. Narrate. Re- 

Bodily. From Body. Sax. 
Adv. and adj. 

Stn. Wholly. Collectivelv. Summarily. 
Unitedly. Compactedly. logether. Cor- 
poreal Fleshly. 

Ant. Piecemeal. Partially. I^gmentr 
arily. GraduaUy. SpirituaL GhosUy. 

Body, n. Sax. 

Stn. Substance. Mass. Whole. Sub- 
stuitiality. CoUectiveness. Assemblage. 
Collection Matter. Association. Organisar* 

Ant. Spirit Fragment Member. Piece. 

Boggle, v. int. Same as Bogle. 
Corrupted into bogey, an appa- 
rition. To hesitate, as if af- 
frighted; hence, to hesitate gene- 

Synanyma and Antonyms. 


rally, and to work awkwardly or 

Stw. Halt Hesitate. DaUtate. Falter. 
Blander. Blotch. Botch. Mar. SpoiL 

AxT. Encounter. Face. Advance. Clear. 
Work. Beflne. Perfect Complete. Beau- 

Boil, v, inf, Lat. huUire. 
Comp. Ebullition. 

Stv. Bubble. Effervesce. Explode. 
Rage. Fume. 

AxT. Calm. Sabside. Recover. CooL 

Boisterous, adj\ Old Eng. 
Conn, with Boast. Applied to 
the violence of the elements and 
to manner or demeanour. 

Stk. Loud. Violent. Tempestnons. 
Stormy. Unrestrained. Uncontrolled. In- 
'. PeacefoL Calm. Serene. Self- 


Bold, adj. Sax. 

Snr. Courageous. Fearless. Adventnr- 
ous. Brave. Self-confident. Forward. 

Airr. Timid. Fearful. Inad venturous. 
Shy. Bashful Retiring. 

Bolster, v. tr. From the 
noun, which is Grotliic. Conn, 
with Ball. A round or cylindri- 
cal support for the head ; hence, 
to supi)ort, especially adventi- 
tiously ; applied to the weakness 
and the weak. 

Stn. Support. Prop. Sustain. Aid. 
"flbuidlze. Patch. Tlnlcer. 
Depress. Dispirit. Relax. 

Help. Subsidize. Patch. Tinlcer. Buoy. 
Amt. ■ ^. . .. ,. . 

Bombast, n. Bomhyx, the stlk- 
irorm. Btmibasiuw, cotton. An 
inflated talk or matter, or the 
quality of such talk. 

Stv. Rhodomontade. Qasconade. Brag- 
(9sdodo. Bluster. Pomposity. Inflated- 
ness. Exaggerativeness. Fustian. 

Abt. Truthftilness. Moderation. Vera- 
city. Modesty. Temperateuess. Humility. 

Bond, n. Sax. Comp. Bind 
and Band. 

Stn. Tie. Fastening. Chain. Manacle. 
Fetter. Association. Compact. ObliKation. 

Ant. Freedom. Option. Discretion. 
Honour. Paroie. 

Bondage, n. See Bond. 

Stk. Servitude. Confinement. Impri- 
sonment Incarceratiun. Subjection. Slavery. 

Ant. ]*YeHiom. Liberty. Independence. 
Liberation. Manumistdon. 

Bondsman, n. See above. 

Stn. Slave. Sert Prisoner. Ctotive 

Ant. Freeman. Teoman. Gentleman. 
Lord. Master. 

Bonny, adj. Der. uncertain, 
and used in several senses; all, 
however, having brightness of 

Stn. Fair. Pretty. Pleasant CheerfuL 
Lively. Shapely. Buxom. 

Ant. DiuL Unseemly. Ill-fiavoured. 

Bonus, n. Lat. Good. Conn. 

Stn. Premium. Douceur. Boon. Benefit 
Ant. Fine. Penaitv. Mulct Amerce- 
ment Discount 

BooBY, n. The name of a sea- 

Syn. Idiot Dunce. Nnmslcull. 
Ant. Wiseacre. Solon. Oracle. 

Bookish, arlj. From Book. 
Conn, with Beech, because the 
ancient Saxons and Germans 
wrote on beechen bark and 

Stn. studious. Erudite. Learned. Pe- 

Ant. Unbookish. Unstudious. Ineru- 
dite. Unlearned. Ignorant Uneducated. 

Bootless, adj. Boot. Sax. 
Advantage. Conn, with Better. 

Stn. Useless. Profitless. Unavailing. 

Ant. Useful. Profitable. Availing. Ef- 
fective. EffectuaL 

Booty, n. Same root. Profit 
by plunder. 

Stn. Plunder. Loot Prey. Pillage. 
Ant. Restitution. Fine. Confiscaticn. 
Forfeiture. Amercement Penalty. 

Border, n. Fr. hord. So sea- 
board or coast. 

Syn. Limit Boundaiy. Edge. Edging. 
Hem. Band. Enclosure. Confine. 

Ant. Land. Tract interior. Substance. 
Space. Centre. 

BoBOtt, n. ^ax. T^^ft^ \si 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

analogy of a natural hollow, as, 
'the bosom of the ocean/ and, 
metaphorically, of the seat of 

Stk. Hollow. Deep. Bed. Valley. 
Centre. Heart Mind. SooL WUl. 

Akt. Surface. Exterior. Manner. De- 
portment Demeanour. 

BoTOH, V. tr. Conn, with Boss 
and Patch. Something between 
marring and mending. 

Stk. Patch. Cobble. Clamp. Blunder. 
Disconcert Spoil. Jumble. Mess. Bungle. 

AST. Fine-draw. Trim. Harmonize. 
Mend. Beautify. Embroider. Handle. 
Manage. Manipulate. 

Both, adv. Sax. 

Stk. Twain. 
Ant. Neither. 

BoTHEB, V. tr. Another form 
of Pother, which is supposed to 
be the Fr. pondre, dust, Eng. 
powder, the making a dust — 
about something or nothing. 

SiK. Fuss. Woriy. Excitement Stir. 
Confusioa Vexaiiou. Flurry. Trouble. 

Ant. Calm. Composure. Orderliness. 
Peace. Quiet 

Bottom, w. Sax. Said to be 
allied to the Gr. irvBfirjv, as that 
to pdBos. Comp. Bathos in 

Syn. Deep. Profound. Floor. Depth. 
Ground. Foot 

Ant. Top. Summit Apex. Grown. 
Brow. Surface. 

Bound, n. That which binds, 
bonds, or bounds, as an external 

Stn. Limit Boundary. Confine. Border. 

Ant. See Border. 

Bound, v. Fr. hondir. 

Sin. To Leap. Jump. Frisk. Spring. 

Ant. Hobble. Limp. Crawl. Creep. 

BouNDABT. See Bound. 

Bottndless, adj. See n. Bound. 
8nt. Infinite; Unlimited. nUmitable. 

Ant. Narrow. Bettiicted. 
Confined. Circumscribed. 

Bountiful. See Bounty. 

Bounty, n. Fr. honte, Lat 
bonitas, goodness. Conn. Boon, 
Bonus. Liberality, or its expres- 
sion ; a liberal gift. 

Stn. Liberality. Bounteonsness. Bene- 
volence. Munificence. Donation. Gilt 

Ant. IlUberality. Closeness. Hardness. 
Niggardliness. Stinginess. Churlishness. 

Brace, v. tr. From hrachium, 
an ai^m. Comp. Embrace. 

Stn. Tie. Fasten. Strap. Bind. Bandage 

Ant. Unfasten. Untie. Loose. Unstrap. 
Unbind. Relax. 

Bracing, ndj. See Brace. 

Stn. Strengthening. Invigorating. Tonic 
Ant. Enervating, fkifeebling. Weaken- 
ing. Relaxing. 

Brag, v. int. Old Eng., mean- 
ing brisk, or full of spirits. To 
vaunt personal strengtti or prow- 
ess is natural to childish cha- 
racters in high spirits. 

Stn. Boast Vaunt Swagger. Bully. 
Ant. Cringe. Whine. Whimper. 

Braggart. See Brag. 
Braid, v. tr. Sax. hredan. 

Stn. Bhid. Tie. Weave. Plait 
Ant. Unbind. DisheveL 

Branch, n. Conn, with hror 
chium, an arm of a tree. Involves 
the ideas of separation from the 
line of growth, and connection 
with the parent stem. 

Stn. Member. Bifurcation. Bamiflca- 
tion. Of&hoot Sdoa Relative. 

Ant. Trunk. Stock. Stem. Baoe. 
Family. House. 

Brand, adj. From Saxon 
brinnan. Comp. Eng. Bum. 
A torch, stick ; hence, by analogy, 
a flashing sword; thence, tiie 
mark of burning, especially for 

Stn. Stigma. Disgrace. Mark. Infamy. 
Ant. Decoration. Badge. Diatinctioii. 

B^Lii:Ki>i«iL, v^ tr. See Brand. 

Synonyma and Antonyms. 


To move about rapidly, as a 

Stn. Flourish. Fence. Wield. Wave. 
Whisk. Shake. Agitate. 

Akt. Stay. Arrest. So^wnd. 

Brawl, v. and n. Old Eng. 
Conn, witti Broil. 

Stn. Wrangle. BroiL Soold. Roar. 
Sboat. Vociferate. 

Ant. to noun. Whisper. Softness. Mel- 
VmusM. Metodioosness. Intonation. 

Brawwy, ody. Old Fr. braan, 
the flesh or mvscles. 

Stn. Muscular. PowerftiL Strong. 
AthleUc. Sinewy. Herculean. Stout. Ro- 

Ant. Lean. Weak. Fragile. Delicate. 
EflEeminate. Feeble. 

Bray, v. tr. Old Fr. hrayer, to 
pound. Of different origin from 
Dray as an ass. 

Stn. Pound. Bruise. Beat Pulverize. 
Ant. Oompact Compound. Amalga- 
mate. Conglomerate. 

Breach, n. Same as Break. 
A physical or social rupture or 
division. Used peculiarly of 
breaking the vow or promise. 

Stn. Rupture. Gap. Divulsion. Quarrel. 
Violation. Non*performanoe. 

Ant. Iniegri^. Couiiervation. Healing. 
Reconciliation, inviolateness. Fulfilment 

Brbak, V, Sax. hrecan. Used 
of the forcible divulsion of hard 
material substances, and meta- 
phorically expresses the ideas of 
mastery and infringement. 

Stn. Fracture. Rupture. Shatter. Shiver. 
Destroy. Tame. Curb. Subdue. Violate. 

Ant. Heal. Piece. Coi\Join. Protect 
Conserve. Encourage. Rally. Observe. 

Breast, n. Sax. For meta- 
phorical use, see Bosom. 

Breath, n. Germ, hroden, 
rieam, vapour, Comp. Broth. 

Stn. Respiration. Inspiration. Expira- 
tion. Inhalation. Exhalation. Met, UfeL 

Ant. to latter. Cessation. Passing. De- 
parture. Perishing. Dying. Death. 

Bbbaths, V. See Breath, 

Breathless, adj\ Deprived 
of breath by rapid exertion, in- 
terest, astonishment, or surprise. 

Stk. Exhausted. Eager. Absorbed. Fas- 
cinated. Attentive. Astounded. Bewil- 

Ant. Cool. Catan. Collected. Fresh. 
Unexcited. IndifTerent Inattentive. Un- 

Breed, v. tr. Sax. 

Stn. Generate. Procreate. Engender. 
Propagate. Met Produce. Evolve. Cause. 

Ant. Destroy. Eradicate. Extinguish. 
Extirpate. Stifle. 

Brevity, n, Lat. brevis, short. 
Not used commonly of physical 

Stn. Shortness. Closenesj*. Conciseness. 
Compendiousness. Pointedness. Abbrevi*> 
tion. Abridgment 

Ant. Length. Protraction. Elongation. 
Extension. Prolixity. Diffusiveness. In- 
termiuableness. Tedlousness. 

Brew, v. tr, and int. Sax. 
breovan. To expose to the action 
of heat. Used metaphorically. 

Stn. Concoct Compound. Hatch. Mix. 
Prepare. Season. Impend. Threaten. In- 
crease. Collect Form. Grow. Gather. 

Ant. Para. Disperse. Break. Mar. 
SpoiL Miscompound. 

Bridle, v, tr. To hold as with 
a bridle. Sax. bridil. 

Stn. Curb. Restrain. Govern. ControL 
Master. Moderate. Compress. 

Akt. Loosen. Liberate. Relax. Dis- 
charge. Vent 

Brief. See Brevity. 

Bright, adj. Sax. Applied 
to nature, art, mind, and temper. 

Stn. Shining. Luminous. Lucid. Bril- 
liant. Bumiwed. Radiant Sparlcling. 
Limpid. Met., Clever. Happy. Witty. 
Joyous. Cheerful. 

Ant. Opaque. Dull. Dead. Muddy. 
Stupid. Slow. Sullen. D^ected. Cheerless. 
Joyless. Imbecile. 

Brilliaitt, adj. From the 
precious stone called the ber^l. 
BrilUance is more powerful 
brightness. A thing is bright, as 
reflecting light ; brilliant, as seem- 
ing to give {ox^\i|3^V 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

Stv. SpATkltns. Flashing. Radiant 
Shining. Lnstroua. Glorious. Lominous. 
Effulgent Beaming. 

Am. /Ste Bright 

Bbiko, V. tr Sax. hringan. 
Implies conveyance in the direc- 
tion of one's self or one's own 
mind as the point. 

Snr. Fetch. Procure. Adduce. Import 
Cause. Produce. Induce. 

Akt. Export Remove. Abstract Sub- 
tract Prevent Exclude. Debar. Trans- 

Brisk, o<?/. Celtic. Used only 
of visible effects, as, ' brisk move- 
ments,' ' a brisk fire.' 

Stn. Ouick. Uvely. Vivacious. Active. 
Alert Nimble. Sprightly. Effervescent 

Airr. Slovr. Heavy. Dull. Inactive. 
Sluggish. Indolent UnenergeUc. Stagnant 

Bristling, adj. From bristle. 
Sax. Conspicuously full. 

Snr. Stoclced. FuIL Multitudinous. 
Multifarious. Swarming. Crowded. 

Akt. Bare. Nude. Scant Devoid. 

Broach, v. tr. See Abroach. 

Stn. Start. Moot LaundL Originate. 
Suggest Exhibit Propound. 

Ant. SeaL Secrete. ' Reserve. Repress. 
Cortc Bottle. 

Broad, adj. Sax. (Met, com- 
prehensive and indelicate.) 

Stk. Wide. Extensive. Expansive. 
Ample. Liberal. Comprehensive. Unre- 
served. Indelicate. Course. Generic. 

Ant. Narrow. Restricted. Limited. 
Confined. Bigoted. Prejudiced. Illiberal. 
Narrow-minded. Reserved. Veiled. SOironded. 
Shaded. SIcetchy. Enigmatical. Refined. 
Delicate. Specific. Pointed. 

Broadcast, adj. Thrown a- 

Stn. Scattered. Dispersed. Profusely. 
Unsparingly. Indiscriminately. Ii^udi- 
dously. Abroad. Extensively. 

Ant. Collectedly. Conoentratively. 
Sparingly. Reservedly. Locally. Partially. 
Discreetly. Charily. 

Brook, v, tr. Sax. hnican, to 
eat, enjoy f or digest, 

Stn. Bear. Tolerate. Endure. Permit 
Ant. Resist Resent Reject 

Browbeat, v. tr. Sax. Irao, 
the brow. To beat down by the 
expression of the countenance. 

Snr. Intimidate. Bully. Oveibear. 
Cow. Overawe. 

Ant. Encourage. Rally. Support 

Bruise, v, tr. Old Fr. hniser, 
to hreaJc, See Break and Bray. 

Brunt, w. Sax. hront, ConiL 
with Bum. A hot raging vio- 

Stn. Impulse. Attack. Onslaofl^ Ag- 

Ant. Resistance. Endurance. Repul- 

Brush, v, ad, and neuter. Old 
Fribrosse, Conn, with Bristle. 1. 
The rapid motion of cleansmg. 
2. Eapid motion in close proxir 
mity. 3. Bapid motion in the 

Stn. Wipe. Cleanse. Sweqi. Dust 
Scrub. Scrape. Graze. Touch. Jostle. 
Scud. SUr. Scamper. Hasten. Bolt 

Ant. BefouL Begrime. Soil. Avoid. 
Clear. Recede. Dawdle. Lag. 

Brutal, oeZy. Brutum. Having 
any of the qualities or the char 
racter of a brute or brutes. 

Stn. Savage. Inhuman. Rude. Stolid. 
Ignorant Dense. Cruel Violent Vin- 
dictive. Bloodthirsty. Intemperate. 

Ant. Humane. Civilized. Generous. 
Intelligent Polished. Chivalrous. Con- 
scientious. Self-controlled. 

Bubble, n, Germ, poppeln, to 
bubble. Used metaphorically for 
almost anything wanting solidity. 

Stn. Trifle. Toy. Conceit VaioiBy. 
Vision. Dream. Froth. Trash. 

Ant. Acquisition. Prize. Treasure^ 
Reality. Substance. Verity. Jewel. Good. 

Buffoon, n. It. bu fa, joke. 

Stn. Wag. Clown. Jester. 

The characteristic quality of 
the buffoon is, that he makes 
himself a fool for the amusement 
of others ; that his jokes depend 
not so much on wit as on tncbs, 
pranks, postures, and external 

Ant. Wit Genius. Philosopher. Pto. 
dant Visionary Dissembler. Hypocritie. 
ILutYiU'&Vtt&X. '^%. 

Synonyms and Antonyms, 


Building, n. Build. Old 
Eng. holda, building, 

Stk. Ediflce. Archttectnre. Ck)ii8tnio 
tion. Structure. Erection. Fabric. 

Akt. RuId. Dilapidation. Diflmantle* 
meat. Demolition. 

BuiLDEB. See Building. 

Bulk, w. Northern word, 
meaning swelling. Taken to ex- 
press the quantity of space occu- 
pied by a substance, or its quality 
of entireness. Sometimes, how- 
ever, used like mass, as equi- 
valent to the greater part. 

Syk. Maaa. Whole. Entirety. Integrity. 
ViOority. Size. Magnitude. Body. Ex- 

AxT. Tenuity. Minority. Dismember- 
ment. Ditdntegration. Diminution. Por- 
tion. Contraction. Section. Particle. Atom. 

Bulky, aflj. See Bulk. 

Stk. Uugf>. Unwieldy. Heavy. Large. 
Ample. Ponderous. Gigantic. Burly. 
Brawny. Cumbrous. Mastilve. 

Ant. Small. Light. Blight. Airy. De- 
licate. Nimble, 'lliin. Attenuated. Sylph- 
Uke. Slender, l^my. Tiny. 

Bully, w. Der. uncertain. 
Variously derived from Burly, 
Boil, and the assumed arrogance 
of popes' bulls. See Blusterer." 

BuNGLBB, w. From Bungle. 
Der. quite unknown. 

Stk. Botdier. Clown. Fnmbler. Lubber. 

Ant. Adept Adroit Master. Artist 
Workman. Proficient Proiessor. 

Buoy, v. tr. Low Lat. Icja, A 
log or clog of wood bound witii 
metal. Used metaphorically. 

Stk. Float Support Sustain. Elevate. 

Elate. Asiture. Animate. Cheer. Inspire. 

Akt. Sink. Drown. Depress. Swamp. 

Overcome. D^ect Crnsb. Fail. Betn^. 

. Buoyant, adj. See Buoy. 

Stk. Light Iiluating. Hopeftil. Gheer- 
Afl. Elastic. Joyous. 

Akt. Heavy. Depressed. Cheerless. 
Joyless. Dejected. Moody. Desponding. 

Burden, n. Northern word, 
with the root Bear. Anything 
borne, being weighty. Physically 
or metaphorically^ or the effect 

of it, as, labour, difficulty, or 

Stk. Load. Weight Incubus. Obstruc- 
tion. Oppression. Difficulty. Griet Afflic- 

Akt. Ease. Lightness. Airiness. Fa- 
cility. Expedition. Acceleration. Attjnga- 
tion. Liberation. Light-heartedness. Con- 
solation. Alleviation. Assuagement Miti- 
gation. Disburdenment 

BuBKB, V. From an Irish 
murderer, who suffocated his 
victims with pitch plaster ; hence, 
to remove with as little noise 
and violence as possible. 

Stk. stifle. Shelve! Strangle, Smother. 

Akt. Enucleate. Propound. Promulge. 
Publicate. Promote. Foster. Eliminate. 
Ventilate. Reanimate. Susdtate. Bruit. 

BuBLESQUE, n, and adj. It. 
and Sp. hurla, mockery. The 
word IS restricted by usage to 
the ludicrous exhibition of matter 
which is in itself not of that cha- 
racter. It is synonymous with 
Satire, only so far as that it is in 
itself satirical; not that it has 
the object of satire— to ridicule 
persons or vices. IJ; is generally 

Stk. Parody. Satire. Travesty. Cari- 
cature. Grote8(}ue. 

Akt. to adA. Classic. Pure. Severe. 

Tragic. Histoiic. Grave. Iruthful. 

BuBLY, adj. Der. uncertain. 
Barla, a tassel, in Span. Thick. 
/Sec Bulky. 

BuBN, V. Sax. hrennan, to hum. 
Act. and neut. Used in the neut. 
metaph., to be under the influ- 
ence of desire. 

Syk. Ignite. Kindle. Brand. Cauterize. 
Consume. Bage. Glow. Blaze. Fl&ah. 

Akt. Extinguish. Stifle. Subside. Cool. 
Glimmer. Lower. Wane. Pale. 

Burnish, v. tr. Fr. hntmr. 
Sax. hrun, brown. It seems hard 
to connect the ideas of brownness 
and brightness. Probably, how- 
ever, the metate att\\<& ^x^\svi3Hi* 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

ished were the less precious. So 
a bar of iron would be burnished ; 
but the more attractiye idea of 
burnishing gold has given to the 
term a lighter lustre than what 
originally belonged to it. 

Stk. Polish. Brighten. Glaxe. Olosse. 
Akt. ScratdL DolL Abrade. Bedim, 
aoad. Frost Matt. 

BuEST. V. int. Sax. hentan. 
Act. and neut, 

Stk. Displode. Eztmvasate. Discharge. 
Shiver. Shatter. Explode. 

Amt. Hold. Cohere. Stand. 

BuBST, n. See v, 

BuEY, V. tr. Sax. Conn, with 
Burrow. Used often in a meta- 
phorical sense. 

Stn. Inter. Inhume. GoneeaL Repress. 
Suppress. Obliterate. Cancel Compose. 

Amt. Disinter. Exhume. Bruit. Ex- 
pose. Resustdtate. Publicate. Aggravate, 

Business, n, Germ, hesigf busy, 
1. That about which one is busy. 
2 That which has been brought 
about by any means. 

Stk. OocupiUbioa Profession. Trade. 
Galling. OfBloe. Employment. Interest. 
Duty. Aflfoir. Matter. Concern. 

Akt. Stagnation. Leisure. Inactivity. 

Bustle, n, Der. uncertain; 
but probably same as Busy, of 
which it expresses the weak side. 
It expresses the condition of per- 
sons and places, that is, persons 

Stk. Bnshiess. Stir. Activity. Com- 
motion. Energy. Excitement Haste. 
Hurry. Eagerness. Flurrv. 

Akt. Idleness. YacaOon. Inactivity. 
Ladolence. Indifference. Unooncemedness. 
Coolness. Calm. Stagnation. Quiet De- 

But, adv, and prep. Sax. hutan, 
to he without. So, about, on the 
outer side; hence, the force of 
But is limitation or exception. 
'None but he' would mean none 
put him out or except him. 

Stk. Save. Except Barring. Beafab. 
Tet Excluding. 

Akt. With. Indudlng. Inclmtve. Ko(> 
withstanding. Neverttaelesa. However. 

Buxom, adj. Germ, hiegtam, 
compliant. The other ideas a^ 
tached to the word, hence, aie 
accretive, such as — 

Stk. Bonny. Blithe. Shapely, ftc, fiit 
which tee Bonny. 

But, v. tr. Sax. To procure 
anything for money, not only 
materials but indirect advan- 

Stk. Purchase. Bribe. Subsidiza Suborn. 

The three latter are applied to 
persons, notpossessions. 

Akt. Sell Vend. Hawk. BetalL 

BuTEB, w. See Bur. 


Cabal, n, Fr. cabale. Heb. 
gahbala, mystic tradition. 

A cabal, as the word is com* 
monly used, is a company united 
in a close design. The Hebrew 
element of handing down ^b& 
traditions of the association being 
lost sight of. By a quaint co- 
incidence, in 1671, the initial 
letters of the British calnnet 
ministers formed the word cabal. 

Stk. Confederacy. Conspiracy. OomU- 
nation. Coterie. Gang^ Faction. League. 
Conclave. Clique, 

Akt. Parliament L^^Iation. Qovon- 
ment Empire. CoundL Qynod. 

Cabalistio, adj. See Cabal. 
In this word there is no political 
tinge, but only that of mystiG 

Stk. Mystic. SymboUcaL FandfU. 

Akt. Patent PracticaL Instructive. 
Lucid. Simple. 

Cabbage, v. tr. Old Fr. choris, 
cabus. Headed cole, from caput. 
Comp. the heraldic term^ Cap 
boshed, beheaded. 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 

To cabbage is to filch, as 
taQors are said to snip cloth to 
their own adyantage. The idea 
seems to be that of snipping off 
your neighbour's vegetables. 

Snr. Boh. Steal Filch. Fbcket. Shirk. 
cab. Pillage. Abstract. Fllftr. Parloin. 
AST. Ste Purloin. 

Caohinnation, w. Cachinnare, 
A monkey's grin ; the lowest as- 
pect of laughter. 

Sth. Grin. Chuckle. Giggle. Snigger. 
Titter. Cackle. 

AflT. Long-flusedncaa. Whine. Whimper. 

Gaoklb, n. A term formed 
in imitation of the noise of a hen^ 
and bearing the twofold sense 
of laughter and tale-bearing— 
pointii]^ the moral that slander 
commonly comes of silliness. 
8ee Cachmnation, and Blab, Bab- 
bler, Babble. 

Gadaybbous, adj\ Cadaver, a 
corpse, from cado, IfaU, Like a 

Snr. Pale. Ezsangoineoua. Bloodless. 
Hnelees. Pallid. Ashy. Ghastly. 

Airr. Bosy. Incarnadine. Sangnine. 
Ghnbby. Brawny. 

Caducity, w. Cadueus, given 
to falling. Cado, IfaU, 

Snr. Decline. Infirmity. Decrepitude. 
Seoili^. Decadence. Transience. Delicagr. 

Aht. Tonth. Freshness. Vigour. VI- 
UU^. Benoration. Permanence. 

Gage, v. tr. Norm, cage, 

Snr. Imprison. Immure, liicaroerate. 
Oooflne. Otibin. Crib. 

Airr. Liberate. Free. Dismiss. Unbar. 

Caitiff, n. Captivus, It. ad- 
two, had. As if servitude and op- 
pression tended, as they certainly 
do, to the moral deterioration of 

Snr. Bfiscal. Miscreant Bogue. ChurL 
ViUaln. Bufflan. 

Amt. Worthy. Gentleman. Philanthro- 
pist Patriot. 

Cajoie, V. tr, Fr. cajder. To 
flatter, from Norman cage. Either 
to allure into a cage, and so to 


entrap; or to keep up a chatter- 
ing, wheedling talk, like a bird 
in a cage. 

Snr. Tempt Lure. Wheedle. Coax. 
Flatter. Inveigle. Dupe. 

AxT. Chide. Bate. Scold. Warn. 

Calamitous, Calamitt. Cala- 
mu8, a gtdUc, A blasting or blight- 
ing influence on the grain. An 
influence of ill persoi^y or col- 
lectively. Adj, and n. 

Sm. IMsaster. Misfortune. Misadven- 
tnre. Trouble. Visitotion. AfBiction. Be^ 
verse. Blight 

Art. Blessing. Boon. God-send. 

Snr. to Calamitous, adQ. Disastrous. Un- 
fortunate. Troublous. lilHstarred. ^us- 
I^ous. Ill-omened. 

AST. Felicitous. Forimiate. Auspicioui. 
Favourable. Propitious. Advantageous. 

Calculate, v. tr, Calc, caJ- 
cuius, A pebble used in primi- 
tive apparatus for counting. 

Snr. Consider. Estimate. Weigh. Ap* 
portion. Proportion. Investigate. Beckoa 

Amt. Conjecture. Guess. Hit Chance. 
Bisk. Stake. Miscalculate. 

Calculated, adj. See Calcu- 

Snr. Fitted. Adapted. OongeniaL Con- 

Aht. Unfitted. Unadapted. Uncon- 
genial. Unoonducive. Adverse. Unquali- 
fied. Unsuited. Miscalculated. Ill-adapted. 

Caloulatino, adj. See Calcu- 

Sym. Wary. Cautious. Circumspect Sa- 
gacious. Farsighted. Carefiil. Guarded. 

Ant. Shortsighted. Dull Obtuse. Im- 
provident Incautious. Bash. Cardess. 

Calculation. See Calculate^ 
The fiEict and the quality. 

Snr. Consideration. Estimation. Balance. 
Apportionment Lavestigation. Beckoning. 
Computation. Anticipation. Oautton. Care. 

Ant. Inoonsiderateness. Inconsid^iation. 
Incaution. Indiscretion. Miscalculatioii. 
Misconception. Exclusicm. Omission. Se- 
position. Exception. Carelessness. 

CALiBBE,n. Saidtobe^'tea libra. 
With what weight of ball; or, 
possibly, a corruption of equi- 
librium, that is, proportion of 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

boretobalL The extent or force 
of mind. 

Stk. Gauge. Diameter. Capacity. 
Ability. Force. Strength. Power. 

Ant. Its correlative, as, character, mind, 

Calm, v. ir. It. and Span. 
ccUma. Possibly connected with 
Gr. Kavfia, heat. The heat of the 
day ; a dead calm. 

Stv. Smooth. Paciiy. Allay. Com- 
pose. Still. 

Ant. Stir. Agitate. Excite. Lash. 
Ruffle. Heat Discompose. Disconcert 

Calumnlitob, n. Lat. calum- 

Stn. See Backbiter. 

Calumny, n. See above. 

Stn. Siander. De&mation. Detraction. 
LibeL Tradncement 

Ant. Vindication. Clearance. Ealogy. 

Cancel, v. tr, CanceUi, bars 
or grating. Comp. Chancel, a 
railed portion of a chnrch ; Chan 
cellor, the judge within the rails. 
To obliterate a docnmentbybnes 
crossing and recrossing, like a 
grating. The annulling of a 
deed, obligation, or drcnmstance. 

Stn. Obliterate. Erase. Abolish. Coun- 
tervail Discbarge. 

Ant. Enforce. Enact Re-enact Con- 
firm. Perpetuate. Contract 

Candid, adf. Candidas. Of a 
shining, b& distinct from a dead 
whiteness. Of transparent dis- 
position, from candere, to burn. 
Comp. Candle. Used metaphori- 
cally of transparency of disposi- 

Sin. Fair. Honest Open. Transparent 
Unreserved. Ingenious. Sincere. 

Ant. Unfair. Close. Mysterious. Re- 
served. Shuffling. Disingenuous. Insin- 
cere. Jesuitical. 

Candidate, n. Candidata toga, 
the robe of a more shining white, 
worn by those who sought offices 
in ancient Home. 

Snr. Aspirant Canvasser. Applicant. 
I^tioner. Solicitor. Claimant 

I Ant. Waiver. DecUner. Abandoner. 
Resigner. Abjurer. Noncompetitor. 

Candour, n. See Candid. 

Canon, n. Gr. A hollo^v 
cane, used as a rule or measure. 
The qualities of length and hol- 
lowness survived in the word 
cannon, which is the same word. 
(Technically, in the Church, a 

Stn. Rule. Measure. Test Law. Re- 

Ant. Misguidance. Antinomy. Iiregiif 
larity. Misrule. 

Canvass, v. tr. Cannahis, 

This, made into coarse cloth, 
would be the material of ships' 
sails or the painter's canvas. Tne 
same kind of cloth might be 
used as a strainer ; hence, to can- 
vass would literally be to strain 
off minute particles of sediment ; 
or, metaphorically, to inspect de- 
tails, afi, of a statement. After- 
wards, a careful application to 
every individual of a constitu- 
ency for his votes, in order to be 
returned to office. 

Stn. Question. Investigate. Challenge. 
Test Dispute. SoUcit 

Ant. Pretermit Allow. Ignore. Dis- 
regard. Admit Pass. Misexamiue. Mis- 

Capability, n. Capio, I take 
or hdd. 

Capability is, strictly speaking, 
undeveloped capacity, and bears 
reference to matters of action, as 
capacity to matters of mind and 

Stn. aevemess. Aptitude. Talent Ca> 
pacity. Power. FaciUty. Faculty. 

Ajtt. Dulness. Inaptitude. Awkward* 
ness. Difficulty. 

Capacity, n, Capax, capere. 
The power of holding, grasping, 
or comprehending. See Cs,psr 
bility. It is technically used for 
character or part 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 

Rtx. Snaop. Size. Vohime. Ti 
Cilibre. Gomprebeiisiveiieflai A( 

Airr. Narrownt*. Kestriction. Incapa- 
dtj. Ooarctation. OontractednesB. 

Capacious, a^lj. See Capacity. 

Snr. Opacioiu. Yulaniinoas. Oompre- 
bemive. Ample. Aocommodathre. Exten- 
tivt. WMe. 

An. Narrow. Bestricted. Limited. 
Gonfined. Shallow. Oontracted. Petty. 

Capital, adj\ Caput, the head, 
Snr. Chief. Excellent Important Gar- 

^linaL PrincipaL Consmnmate. High. 
Airr. Inferior. Unimportant Sabordi* 

nate. Minor. Defective. Mean. 

Capitulatb, V. ini. Caput, ca^ 
pitulare. A heading, chapter, or 
dause, especially the conditions 
of a treaty of surrender. 

Snr. Sttpnlate. Surrender. Yield. Sub- 

Avr. Beaist Struggle. Contend. 

Capbiob, n. See Capricious. 

Capbicious, a*fj\ Caper, a gocft. 
lake the friskiness or wantonness 
of a goat 

Snr. Wayward. Uncertain. Changeful. 
Ifbimaical. Humonsome. Crotchety. 
Fidde. Inconstant 

Amt. Firm. Unchanging. Inflexible. 
Decided. Unswerving. Constant 

Captious, adj, Captare, capere, 
to catch. Given to catching at 
defects or objections. 

Snr. Girping. Cavilling. Censorious. 

Aht. Appreciative. Commendatory. En- 
oouraging. Complimentary. Approving. 
Laudatory. Flattering. 

Captivated, pirt. See above. 

Snr. Taken. Charmed. Smitten. Fas- 
cinated. Enslaved. Captured. Enthralled. 

Ayr. Free. Unaffected. Uninfluenced. 
Unscathed. Insensible. Insensitive. 

Caphvatino. adj. See above. 

Snr. Charming. Fascinating. Bewitch- 
ing. Alluring. Seductive. Attractive. 

Airr. Hideous. Loathsome. Bepulsive. 
Uncaptlvatlng. Uninteresting. 

Cabdikal, adj. Cardo, a hinge. 
Important enough to be that on 
which a thing turns or hinges. 
As important as the hinge to the 


door by which it stands and 
moves; hence, chief, important 
See Capital. 

Cabb, n. Cum, care. Is used 
of attentive anxiety of mind, and 
also the exhibition of it, as, cau- 
tion or custody. 

Snr. Attention. Pains. Anxiety. Soli- 
citude. Caution. Prevenliun. Custody. 
Preservation. Thrift Foresight Wariness. 
Prudence. Economy. Heed. 

Airr. Inattention. Neglect IndifTerence. 
Carelessness. Disregard. Temerity. Re- 
missness. Improvidence. Unguardedness. 

Cabxeb, n, CarruB, a waggwi 
or cart. Comp. Cart, Carry, Car- 
riage, Charge. Cargo, &c. A 
road. A way of progress or suc- 
cess in life. 

Snr. Course. Success. Walk. Line. 

AiTT. Mi^rooeeding. Unsuccess. Mis- 
deportment Miscarriage. 

Cabeful, adj. See Care. 

Cabeless, adj. See Care. 

Cabess, n, Caritia, endear^ 
meiit, from cams, dear. 

Snr. Endearment Blandishment Strok- 
ing. Wheedling. Fondling. 

Aht. Vexation. IrriUtlon. Annoyance. 
Teasing. Persecution. Provocation. 

Cabgo. See Career. 

Syn. Freight. Burden. Load. Con- 
Ant. Convqrance. Bearer. Carrier. 

Cabigatubb, n, Carrus. See 
Career. Caricare, to carry about. 
Either, therefore, absurd charac- 
ters going about in carts, as at 
fairs, or an overcharged, over- 
loaded description or delineation. 
It is used broadly of all exag- 
gerated or ludicrous descriptions. 

Stn. Mimicry. Travesty. Parody. Bur- 
lesque. Extravagance. Exaggeration. Hy- 
perbole. Monstrosity. 

A»T. Portraiture. Bepresentation. Re- 
semblance. Justice. Fideli^. Truth- 

Cabnage, n. See Carnal. A 
mass of massacred temm&. 


Synonyms and Ant<myms, 

Snr. Massacre. Slangbter. Bloodshed. 

Airr. Ransom. Dellveranoe. Qnarter. 

Cabnal, adj, Caro, carnis, 

Snr. Fleshly. SensaaL Licentlons. 
.Self-indalgent Animal. Base. Coarse. 

Aht. dplritoaL Ethereal Pure. Self- 
controlled. Temperate. Exalted. Beflned. 

Cabntval, n, Carne vale, fore- 
well to the flesh. The last days 
of festivity before Lent: Tised of 
rollicking festivities in general. 

Syv. BeveL Boate. Masquerade. Fes- 

Amt. Fast Mortlflcatlon. Betlrement. 

Cabol, V. int. Low Lat., 
Carala. Fpnned, perhaps, from 
qhoros; originally a combination 
of song and dance; afterwards, 
song of more than one withont 
the dancing ; lastly, the cheerful 
notes of a solitary singer. 

Stv. Sing. Warble. Chirp. Whistle. 
Chirrup. Chant. Hum. 

Ant. Whine. Croak. Cry. Dbrge. 

Cabousb, n. Old Fr. Carousse, 

Stk. FestlTlty. Feast Banquet BeveL 

Aht. Fast Starvation. Maceration. 

Cabp, V, int, Carpere, to plttck 
or pick. To pick holes, more 
especially in statements of others, 
and for the sake of fEinlt-finding. 
As a transitive verb it is followed 
by the preposition at. 

Stv. Cavil. Censure. Challenge. Over- 
haul. Canvass. Hypercritlcise. Catch. 

Amt. Allow. Concede. Admit Com- 

Etiment Encourage. Approve. Applaud. 
Indorse. Acquiesce. Assent 

Cabpet, n. Said to be from 
tapis and caire or cairo, as we say 
a Turkey carpet. Of old, the 
word was nsed for a covering of 
the table as well as the floor; 
hence to be on the tapis, or car- 
pot, was to he not on the floor, 

but the table, as matter of con- 

Snr. Board. Tableu Gonsideratiao. 

Ant. Shell Bejection. Disposal. Ob- 

Cabbiage, n. Carrus, See 
Caricature. Has not only the 
direct active physical sense of 
transportation, as well as the 
neuter sense of movement or 
beiuring, but the moral and re- 
flexive sense of demeanour or 
conduct. It is also used of the 
thing on which we carry. 

Stn. Tranqwrtation. Conveyance. Bear- 
ing. Manner. Conduct Demeanour. 

Ant. Misconv^ance. Miscarriage. Mis- 
conduct Misconsfgument 

Case, w. The multiplicity of 
meanings belonging to this word 
springs partly from its broad 
and generic character, but partly 
also from the fact that it is in* 
deed two words in one, being 
derived in one sense from casus, 
a befalling, from cadere, to /aU, 
and in others from capsa, a chest 
or box. For instance, the medical 
man uses one word when he 
speaks of a case of fever, the 
other, when he speaks of his 
case of instruments. Both words 
have suggested metaphorical 
meanings. Such are the fol- 

Stn. Occurrence. Circumstance. Fact 
Suttject Condition. Instance. 

Ant. Hypothesis. Supposition. Theory. 
Fancy. Conjecture. 

Cast, v. Of Northern origin. 
The root idea is, to throw. The 
kind or direction of throwing 
determines the character of the 

Stn. So, to throw down, as the wrestler; 
aside, to reject; into condemnation, as a 
lawsuit ; before the mhid's eye, so to prefect 
or forecast; abroad, and so spread; into 
shape, and so moald, tftamp, or characterize. 

Ant. Raise. Elevate. Beoover. Erect 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


Accept Appwre. BeUin. OMty. Imwre. 
MiscMlcnUte. MisproTkle. Break. Diasi- 
p^e. Dtameniber. Dislocate. 

Cast, n. 

Stv. MoakL Stampi Kind. Cbaracinr. 
AxT. MalfonnaUon. Defoiinity. Ab- 

Caste, n. C€uttm,pure. Pure 
or unmixed lineage, as the here- 
ditary castes of India. As the 
Indian term is colour, the sense 
of colour has imperceptibly at- 
tached itself to the word caste. 
It is taken to si^nfy the class of 
the reputable and honoured. 

Stk. Class. Order. Bank. Lineage. 
Bace. Blood. Dignity. B^spect 

Akt. Degradation. Taboo. Disrepate. 
Abasement Reproach. (Ph. lose caste.) 

Gastigatb, V. tr, Castus, pure. 
To purify or correct by personal 
discipline or punishment. 

Stk. Whip. Flagellate. Cane. 
Aht. Beward. Encourage. Decorate. 

Casual, adj. Casus, a hefaU- 
ing, CadAre, to fall. 

Stn. Accidental. OccasionaL InddentaL 
Fortnitous. Contingent 

AxT. Beicalar. Ordinaiy. Systematic. 
Periodic. Certain. Fixed. See Casualty. 

Casualty, n. See 
Chance or liability, with a leaning 
to tiie unfavourable. 

Stk. Accident Cuntingenqy. Chance. 
Mischance. See Accident 

Amt. Appointment Assignment Pro- 
vision. Ordinance. Enactment 

Casuibtby, n. See Casual. 
The science of treating cases of 

As this is popularly considered 
to result in unnecessary and un- 
edifying refinements, the term 
has acquired the popiilar acceptor 
tion of straw-splitting. 

Sth. Sophistry. Jesuitry. Fallacy. 
Befinement Quibble. Siraw-splitting. 
Amt. Beason. Conscience. Common- 

Catastbophb, n. icori, and 
frrflo4>b> ^ ^^^' -^ Budden down- 

ward or un&yourable turn of 

Stm. Bevolution. Disaster. Calamity. 
Misfortune. Misadventure. Beverse. Blow. 

Aht. Blessing. Victoiy. Triumph. 
Achievement FellciUtioo. Ovation, foe- 
cess. Godsend. 

Catch, v, tr. See Captious. 
Physical and mental. 

Sth. Take. Siege. Arrest Oomprs 
hend. Hit Overtake. Apprehend. 

Amt. Lose. Miss. Misapprehend. 

CatBCHISM, n. Kara, and flx^s, 
sound. Oral instruction or ex- 
amination by question and an- 
swer. Hence a collection of 
items of belief or persuasion. 

Sth. Erotetica. Socratics. Interrogation. 
Creed. System. Compendium. 

Aht. Beading. Excogitation. Ela- 

Catechumen, n. See Cate- 
chism. One under process of 
preparatory instruction. 

Sth. Tyro. Learner. PuplL Novice. 

Amt. Master. Doctor. Professor. 
Teacher. Savant 

CATsgoiacAL, adj. kotci, and 
wyo/>€tt), / state. Appertaining to 
directness of statement. 

Sth. Plain. Positive. Declaratory. 
Demonstrative. Affirmative. Distinct 

Amt. Obscure. Uncertain. Dubious. 
Contingent HypotheUcal. Ambiguous. 
OracuUir. Enigmatical. Mystical. Hasy. 

Categobt, n. See Categorical. 
Used in its Aristotelian sense of 
abstract classification, and thence 
of classification generally. 

Sth. State. Kind. Condition. Nature. 
Order. Sort Class. Predicament Mode. 
Aht. Essence. Truth. Being. 

Causalitt, n. Causa, a causf. 
The property of producing effects, 
sometimes used of the focully of 
tracing them. 

Sth. Eventuality. Potentiality. Effec- 
tuality. Productiveness. Operativenesa. 

Amt. PrevenlWcttwa, 0\»\x\jiR.\.\N«c*m. 
BetaidaUveneaa. OixmX«x«cxi^\Vs. X^xs^^t^ 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 

dnctivencfls. IneffeetiTeneMb BuremiaB. 

Causatiok, n. See Causality. 

Causation is the process, as 
cansability is the property, of 
producing effects. 

Cause, n. Cawa, That by 
force or reason of which some- 
thing else is brought about. 
Aristotle's causes were efficient, 
iinal, material, and formal, nearly 
answering to the agent, or origin, 
the purpose, the logical definition, 
and the creation. Of these, only 
the first was a cause, in the mo- 
dem sense; the rest were scien- 
tific views and philosophical ac- 
counts and modes of conception. 
It is popularly used in the sense 
of a common purpose which men 
have at heart. 

Stk. Sonrce. Origin. Agent Producer. 
Ccvatnr. Purpose. Indaccment. Reason. 
Aoouunt. Principle. Motive. 

Airr. Effect. Resnlt. Aocomplisbment. 
End. Prodaction. lasoe. Ireventive. 

1 burn. Used physic^y and 
metaphorically of style, of re- 
mark, or expression. 

Snr. Barning. M(»nlant. Pungent. 
Irritating. Biting. Pointed. Sarcastic 
Trenchant. Severe. 

Airr. Pointless. Mild. Soothing Con- 
dliaUng. Vapid, flat. Tame. 

Caution, n. Cavere, to beware. 
Prudential foresight. 

Stv. See Care and Calculation. 

Cavil, v. int. Cavum, a hollow ; 
cavellum, a little hole. The pick- 
ing holes needlessly— the mining 
empty and hollow criticism. See 

Cavilleb. See CaviL 

Cblbbbation, n. CeUbsr^fre- 

guent. The frequent or periodic 

'''% up of the public or do- 

jremambrance of events 

or i)ersons, by ceremonies, after- 
wards admitting of this without 
the idea of repetition. 

Snr. GbmmeDMMralioo. Solemnixation. 

Amt. OUivion. Inobservance. Desa^nde. 

Celebbated, adj. See Cele- 

Stn. Famed. Renowned. IHnstrions. 
Famous. Noted. Distinguished. NoUble. 

Airr. Unrenowned. Obscure. Undis- 
tinguished. Unlmown. Mean. Diagraoed. 

Celebbitt, n. See above. 
The quality of being celebrated. 
Also sometimes signifying an 
illustrious person. 

Stv. Fame. Honour. Glory. Repntap 
tion. Distinction. Renown. Star. Nota- 

Ajkt. Obscurity. Meanness. Inglorions- 
nesB. Ignominy. Di^roce. Contonpt 
Cipher. Nobody. 

Cblebitt, n. Celer, quick. 

Stn. Rapidity. Velocity. Speed. De- 
spatch. Haste. 

Akt. Slowness. Inertness. Sluggish- 
ness. Tardiness. Cunilnrousness. 

Celestial, adj. Caelum. Be- 
longing to the heavens, or heaven; 
that is, either the visible or spi- 
ritual heaven. 

Snr. Heavenly. Atmospheric. Ethereal. 

Supernal. AngeUc Radiant. Eternal. 

Ant. Earthly. Terrestrial Terrene. 

Sublunary. Human. Mortal. Hellish. 

Cement, n. and v. Fr. Cement, 
Ccediinentum, Ccedere, to cut or. 
chip, because made of chips of 
stone or marble bruised. Meta- 
phorically used for unitive or 
consolidating power. 

Stn. To v. Bind. Bond. Unite. Per- 
petuate. Consolidate. 

Ant. Detach. Dissolve. Dissociate. Dis- 
integrate. Divorce. 

Censorious, adj. Censeo, I 
estimate. Censor, the ancient 
Roman state-officer of morals. 
Its present acceptation implies 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 69 

being Bomewliat unduly given Gxbtain, adj. Certus, arig. 

to ciitiGism, and especially ex- part,, from Cemo, I discern. 

pression of blame towards indi- The original idea, therefore, 

TidaaLs. See Gayil and Carp. is that snreness which is assnr- 

^_„ o ri anoe- Truth, not in the abstract, 

Censum, «. See Censonons ^^^ ^ ascertained or verified, 

Theerpresfflon^^opimon about ^^^ ^^^ ^ ^^^^ ^^j^State 

others part^ from their foult certainty, irrespective, that is, of 

'l^i^L^Z''ZZT'''l^^'!^ ^"^^ ItiTnot^nfinedto 

^^,"^1^^^^'-!^^^!^ Pre^nt or past facte, but relates 

BemoKstnmoe. Bebake. Beprimaiid. tO tue lUture ,wnen regardeci 

^"*^Tw. X. , A i^*« as being as sure as if it were 

ED^^JSg^SS* o^iS.tiol'''""'*"^"- present. Thus, 'the rising of 

_, J' r^ / to-morrow's sun is certam. It 

CiENTBAL, adj. Gr. jctprpw, has also an apparently and sepa- 

aprtck, thorn, a sharp point. The j^te force, as in the phrase 'a 

point round which the circle is certain man.' The meaning hero 

drawn. Used of localities near seems to be an assurance on the 

the centre of a district, and so, part of the narrator, that such a 

generally accessible. i^an is or was implying that this, 

Snr. Near. Accessible. GonTcnlent ..„*i.u«„i. ^«4.«,'i r^ ««^r» «« A^ 

A»T.B€niote.Iiiacce8wble. Inconvenient. Without detail Of name Or Q©- 

r*_ « r^ scription, is sufficient for the 

Ckntbalizb, v. tr. See Cen- purposes of the story. 

tral. To draw to a point or Srv. Tme. Fixed. EsUbUsbed. Bem- 

Centre ^*'* incontrovertible. UndoubtfoL Un- 

sx,.b«c«.t«.^ v^^ Fu. CI. *^!oi:ss5i J^rr-Kxtssi.. 

'inS^^^V°*il^^SSt Cketad^t. <«i.. &. Certam 

ing TO ceremony. AISO nsea as Sth. Surely. PoslUvely. Unquestlon- 

a noun for a ceremony regarded aWy. 

more in detail. A public and ^ ^' !J^%L i^^^^i^ ^^^ 

prolonged ceremony. Ckmtlngently. Occ«!on«lly. DonbtfuUy. 

Sth. Official. MlnirteriaL Fan<^onaI. CbBTAINTY, n. See Certain. 

PompooB. Impqidng. Sumptuous. Scenic. ^ f^LT' L- i ''^^ ^^*^^' 

AXT. Ordinary. Private. Unimpodng. IS USecl Objectively and SUDjeO- 

UnoatentatioQa. Undramatlc. tively, that is, of fixity of fjEkCte, 

Cbbmootoub, adj. Undtdy and of confidence in the obBerver 

men to fomi and ceremony. '*'S^5SSL.. D.,^„„we„«.. F«i. 

Ine noun is denvea &0m C^ore, tlvenen. UnquesUonablenesi. Confidence. 

a ciiy of ancient Etruria, from ^^r!ji*®Vv. Precarionsnefis. 

which country Rome derived ite casualty. VldiuS. Uncertainty, ir- 

ancient religious ceremonies, regularity. Hesitation. Doubt. Misgiving. 

offices, forms of Stete, and the Conjecture, indecision. 

like. Ckbtify, v. tr. See above. 

AS.'S^Sr ^Sr- 8.p«cm.u.. To declare or prove oertoin, is 

Blnft UacmaoaUnui, lised Ot tiinXXg;^ «m Q& ^^KSt^iKS^ >^ 


Synonyms and Antonyms, 

the sense of conyince or make 

Snr. Acknowledge. Aver. Avow. 
Avouch. Testify. Protest Declare. De- 
monstrate. Prove. Evidence. Inform. 

Airr. Disprove. Disavow. Misinform. 

Gebsatiok, n. Ceware, from 
cedere, to cease, 

Snr. Stopping. Halt. Discontinuance. 
QniAscence. Suspension. Intermission. 
Abeyance. Pause. Best 

AvT. Continuance. Unintermptednesa. 
tTnlntermission. Inoessanc^. 

Cession, n. Cedere, to grant. 

Stv. Concession. Yielding. Surrmder. 
Abandonment Relinquishment. Grant 

An. Retention. Clairoance. Mainte- 
nance. Am>ropriation. Usurpation. Vin- 
dication. Assumption. 

Chafe, v. tr, and int. Cale/a^ 
cere, to make hot, 

Syv. OalL Vex. Irritate. Chagrin. 
Tease. Harass. Disappoint Gnove. 
Axuaoy. Worry, n. Calcitrate. Resent 
Resist Fret Fidget Writhe. 

Art. Soothe. Smooth. Coax. Calm. 
Humour. Console, ti. Submit Endure. 
CconclL Truckle. Succumb. 

Chaff, n. and v. Saxon ceaf, 
a pod or hu^k, 

Stn. Banter. Badinage. Nonsense. Fri- 
volity. Trash. Chaffer. 

Amt. Emphasis. Seriousness. Sense. 
Substance. Reason. Argument Pith. 
Marrow. Gist 

Chaffer, v. int. Conn, with 
Cheap, an old word for market. 

Sth. Haggle. Bargain. Stickle. Higgle. 

Aut. Close. Conclude. Agree. Nego- 

Chagrin, r?. and v. A galling 
vexation. Chagrin or Chagreen, 
a hard granulated leather (used 
also of a certain tough fish-skin, 
which might be supposed to 
chafe the bmbs). See Chafe. 

Challenge, v. tr, Calumniari. 
To impeach, and so force a man 
to clear himself. To summon to 
Mocount for himself, ob the chal- 

lenge of a sentinel. As applied 
to statements, to dispute, or, at 
least, call in question. 

Snr. Defy. Dare. Summon. Qnestton. 
Investigate. Canvass. 

Amt. Pub. Allow. Grant Concede. 

Champion, n, Campio, campus, 
A man of the field or lists. A 
man of battle, especially on be- 
half of some person or cause. 
Also an acknowledged chief in 
some department of competition. 

Sth. Hero. Combatant Warrior. Vin- 
dicator. Challenger. Protector. Deltoder. 

Ant. Renegade. Deserter. Poltroon. 
Miscreant Traitor. Coward. Adversary. 

Chance, n. Cadentia, eculere, 
to full. A befahnent. It has 
been said that chance flows, 1, 
from absence of assignable cause ; 
2, absence of aim or design. 
There is no essential difference 
between these, as the design 
would be the cause. 

Snr. Accident Fortuity. Hazard. Ran- 
dom. Casualty. 

Ant. Law. Rule. Sequence. Conse- 
quence. Causation. Effectuation. Inten- 
tion. Purpose. Design. 

Change, n, and v. Camhire* 
whence cambist, one learned in 
the theory of exchange. Has the 
threefold meaning of, 1, altera* 
tion; 2, substitution; 3, vicissi- 

Snr. Alt^-r. Vary. Modlty. Diversify. 
Qualify. Transmute. Substitute. Fluc- 
tuate. Shift Veer. Exchange. 

Ant. Conserve. Retain. Stabilitate. Fix. 
Clinch. Stand. Endure.' Last Hold. 

Changeable, a<(;., Changbttjl, 
adj\ See Change. 

It were well to keep up the 
distinction between these words, 
so as to use the former for such 
vicissitude as comes of human 
will or caprice, and the latter of 
the variableness of incidents and 
natural in&a&TLoe^^. ^, c^Viaxuj^ 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 

folness of weather or life ; ehaoge- 
ableness of disposition. 

Stv. Regular. Settled. Stea4y. Ffrm. 
Stationary. Consistent. Resolute. Reliable. 
Undeviatinf. UnifcHrm. immutable. Im- 

Aht. Irregular. Unsettled. Unsteady. 
Wavering. Fluctuating. Capricious. Irre- 
Mtnte. V'adllating. Variable. Hutable. 

Character, n» Gr. x^pdaram, 
1 groove or engrave, A sctdp- 
tared symbol, as an alphabetic^] 
character. Taken for the aggre- 
gate of the mental and moral 
qualities. The social personality 
of the man ; hence, also, the esti- 
mation in which he is held by 
society, which is repnte ; or his 
fixed place in it, sometimes 
called capacity; of things with- 
out life, tne slamp or order. 

Snr. Symbol. Type. Letter. Nature. 
JMspoaition. Genius. Temperamcat. Cast. 
Estimation. Repute. Reputation. Office. 
Part Capacity. Class. Order. Sort. 
Stamp. Kind. . 

AJrr. Vagueness. Anonymousness. Non- 
description. Disrepute. 

Charaoteristio, »?. and adj\ 
See Character. Stamping with 
a distinctive^ character, or pecu- 
liarly appertaining. 

Sn. to adj. Disancave. Spedflo. F^ 
collar. IMagnostic Idiosyncratio. 

Am. Common. Generic Indistinctive. 
General. Unspedal. Impersonal. 

Sth. to nmm. Distinction Peculiarity. 
Diagnosis. Idiosyncrasy. Specialtv. Indi- 
viduality. Personality. SinguUrity. 

Amt. Abstractedness. Nondescriptlon. 
Generality. Miscellany. 

Characterize, v, tr. See 

Syh. Mark. Distinguish. Describe. In- 
dividualize. Specify. Identify. 

Amt. Hint Insinuate. Suggest. Sketch. 

Charge, v. tr. See Career. 

The rudimental notion is that 
of purposely placing something 
upon another person, or place, or 
thimg^ as the aepoatoiy of it, or 

that to which it is consigned. 
Hence such various meaning as 
the following, involving, iigunc- 
tion, trust, accusation, assault, 
valuation, liability. 

Stk. Direct. Enjoin. Advise. Admonish. 
Entrust Commit. Load. Accutte. im- 
peach. Attack. Assault Impute. Garry. 

*Airr. dear. Free. Discharge. Acquit. 

The noun follows these signifi- 

Charitable, adj. Charity. 
Caritas. The Christian grace of 
love to God and man. 

Stv. Kind. Benign. Benevolent Bene- 
ficent LiberaL Considerate. Forgiving. 
Compassionate. Placable, inexacting. In- 

Ant. UnchariUble Unkind. Harsh. 
Selfish. Churlish, nilberal. Censorious. 
Unforgiving. Unoompasslonate. Implaca- 
ble. Extreme. ExaoUug. RetaliaUve. Re- 

Charm, v. and n. Carmen, a 
song or niagical incantation. 

To charm is to affect, as if 
magically, like bewitch. Charms 
are those objects or personal at- 
tractions, which have such an 
effect, either in enslaving the 
affections or subduing the fierce- 
ness or hostility of persons or 

Stv. Bewitdi. Enchant. Fascinate. 
Lay. Soothe. Mesmerise. Delight En- 
trance. Captivate. Subdue. 

Ant. Disenchant Disillusionize. Excite. 
RouK. Disturb. Annoy. Irritate. Alarm. 
Terrify. RepeL Disgust 

Chart, adj. From Care. 
Taking care of a thing, so as to 
be^unwilling to part with it; 
hence, also, slow to enter on a 
given line of action. 

Stv. Careful. Cautious. Calculating. 
Sparing. Saving. Reluctant Slow. 

Amt. Liberal. Lavish. Profliae. Eager. 

Chase, v. tr. Fr. (^lasse, Cap" 
tiare, from capto, to catch after. 
To follow eagerly an object of 
or aim. 


Synonyms and AnbnymB. 

Snc. Parsae. Hunt Follow. Drive. 

Amt. Abandon. Relinnubh. Discard. 
Diamiss. Avoid. £lade. Lvade. 

Chaste, adj. Castas. Pare, 
as a matter of nature or taste. 
Purity in nature, and simplicity 
in art, being analogous. 

Stk. Pure. Mudest. Uncontaminated. 
Incumipt. Simple. Unaffected. Nice. 

AitT. Impure. Meretricious. Corrupt. 
Gaudy. Flashy. Over-decorated. . 

Chasten^v. Chastibx, V. Both 
from the same root as Chaste ; but 
chasten bears the sense of suffer- 
ing administered with the pur- 
pose of purification, and in some 
degree effecting its purpose; 
Chastise, of personal discipline, 
for the sake of correction of past 
offences, and implying nothing 
necessarily of any moral improve- 

Stm. Purify. Discipline. Spiritualise. 
Improve. Retine. Afflicu 

Akt. Indulge. Sensualize. Brutalize. 
Degrade. Currupt. Pamper. Carnalize. 
Spoil. Demoralize. 

Chattels, v. Chattel is the 
same word aa cattle, primitiye 
properly consisting in heads of 
cattle. Hence the word capital 
(commercially), from caput, the 
head, expressing no longer live 
stock, but stock in trade. Com- 
pare the word Pecuniary, from 
pecunia, money, which comes 
from pecus, cattle, being at first 
stamped with the heads or forms 
of cattle, as the transition to a 
more refined system of currency. 
Chattels are strictly all goods 
which are not the freehold; but, 
in common parlance, the word is 
used in a wider sense. 

Syn. .Goods. Effects. Movables. 
Amt. Freehold. 

Chatteb, n. and v, Fr. co- 
^ue/er. Comp. Chat and Cackle. 

A b'ght rattling talk about one% 
owji aflBsiirs or one's neighbours'. 

Stv. to fimin. Battle. Jabber. Cackle. 
Prattle. Twaddle. 

Amt. Cro tallc well or not at alL) Bea- 
son. Sense. Angument Pbiloeophy. Con- 
versation. Beticenoe. 

Cheap, adj. From an Old 
Eng. word, meaning market. So 
cheap would at &st mean be- 
longing to market, and then, 
easily, marketable or common. 
It sometimes descends lower. 

Stm. Conunon. Inexpensive. Uucoetly. 
Mean. Vile. Worthless. 

Amt. Rare. Costly. Expensive. Worthy. 
Honourable. Noble. High. 

Cheat, v. and n. 

Cheat is probably the same 
word as escheat, which again 
was from scutum, a shield, indi- 
cative of feudal tenure of rights 
or property. To escheat, l£en, 
was to lapse to a superior, imder 
certain conditions of forfeiture. 
In days of lawlessness the lords 
would make and seize oppor- 
tunities of escheat; hence, to 
cheat is to do a person out of a 
thing, and generally to deceive 

Stw. Beguile. Dei>eive. Dupe." Deprive. 
Hoodwink. Prevaricate. . Shuffle. Dia- 
semble. Jus^le. Inveigle. 

Amt. Enlighten. Guide. Bemunerate. 
Compensate. Undeceive. Disabuse. 

Stm. to tioun. Deception. Fraud. Im- 
poeiUun. Trick. Artifice. lUusioo. Lie. 

Amt. Truth. Beality. Verify. Cer- 
tainty. Fact. Genuineness, ymficatioii. 
Honesty. Authenticity. 

Cheat, w. Of the person. 

Stm. Deceiver. Impostor. Trickster. 
Juggler. Dissembler. Hypocrite. Liar. 
Bogue. I>coy. 

Amt. Guardian. Undeceiver. Dupe. 
GulL Victim. 

Check, v. tr. Fr. tcliec; in 
plural, echecs, chess. The etymo- 
logy of this word is difficult 
Comp. Chess, Cheek, Check- 
mate, It i& «OTnj&ts£Qfi& eaidthat 

ShfnonytM and AtUonyms. 


Checkmate is Persian. Shah mat, 

Iilie Iring is dead, meaning the 
conclusion of the game. How- 
ever this may be, from the 
French certainly come Chess and 
(Check and Exchequer. The 
latter would be a checkered or 
parti-coloured board. Hence 
check gained a two-sided mean- 
. ing ; one branched off into such 
' words as Chequered; the other 
retaining the idea of restraining 
ix stopping, derived, not from 
the board, but the game; then 
these two streams converge and 
meet in the banker's cheque, 
which is at once a bill of ex- 
chequer and a stop or check 
upon the account. 

Snr. Carb. Bestraiiu Stop. Stay. Im- 
pede. Inhibit Cuhibit. 

An. Loom. Liberate. Instigate. Ao- 
oehrrate. Lioenae. Indulge. Allow. Abet. 

Chebb, n. Old Fr. chere, the 
face or countenance. So 'Be of 
good cheer.' Afterwards it was 
restricted to the more &vourable 
or pleasing expressions of it, and 
transferrea to those things which 
peculiarly make men of * cheer- 
ful countenance/ namely, food or 

Sth. Hope. Happiness. Gomfort. Hos- 
pitality. Plenty. ConvivlaUty. 

A2rr. Dejection, SuUenness. Gloom. 
Starvatiun. Nimrdlinen. Dearth. In- 
bospitafaleness. Qiiirliahnesa. Unsociable- 

OksEBTUL, adj. See Cheer. Ap- 
plied to persons and things. 

Sni. Lively. Gay. Bright. Happy. 

Bonny. Keny. JoyfuL Pleasant. £n- 

Aht. Lifeless. DulL Gloomy. Un- 
happy. Dejected. Depressed. Sullen. 
Joyless. Melancholy. Depressing. Dis- 

Ghxebless. See Cheerful. 
Chbbish, V, tr, CaruSf dear, 
Comp. Cai&Bs, To bold aa dear. 

To hold close or warm, and so 
foster the ]i& and growth. Used 
metaphorically, also, for the re- 
tention of any kind of belief or 

Stv. Foster. Nnrse. Promote. Enter- 
tain. Valae. Encourage. 

Amt. Stifle. Abandon. Discard. Dis- 
courage. Check, 

Chioakebt, n. Old Fr. Chic, 
a small piece <ff anything. Espe- 
cially to play tricks witii; hence 
minuteness of dealing or speak- 
ing running into subterfuge and 

Snr. Artifice. Subttety. Sophistry. Sub- 
terfuge. Prevarication. Shitt. Trickery. 
Dudge. Quibble. Mystification. PetUfug- 
glng. Underhandeduess. 

Ant. OpeiiDess. Candour. Fairness. Co* 
genqr. Demonstrativeness. Soundness. 

Chide, v, tr. Sax. To re- 
prove angrily. 

Stv. Rate. Sould. Trounce. 

AST. Applaud. Flatter. Compliment. 

Chief, adj. Same as Capital. 
Fr. chef, the head. Lat. caput, 
Sth. Sec Gardhial and Capital. 

Chieftain. See Chief. Comp. 
Captain from the Lat. capvt, as 
Chieftain is from the Fr. chef, . 

Sirx. Captain. GeneraL Commander. 

Ant. Follower. Attendant Retainer. 
Subaltern. VasMd. Satellite. Minion. 

Childish, adj. Child. Goth. 
Besembling the weakness as 
childlike is used for resembling 
the virtues of childhood. Said 
of character and action. 

Stn. Weak. SiUy. Puerile. Infantine. 
Imbecile. Foolish. TriflUig. Ptiltiy. Tri- 

Ant. Strong. Resolute. Manly. Wise. 
Judicious. Sagacious. Chivalrous. Pro- 
found. PoUUc. 

Chtvalbous, adj. Clieval, a 
hone. ChevcLldeT, oti<& ^\tfi ^^ 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

sufficiently noble to serve in the 
wars on horseback. 

The term is therefore formed 
to express that combination of 
qualities such as bravery and 
generosity, which befitted the 
knight or gentleman; chivalry 
being that system of knightly 
state and manners which was re- 
presented in the character and 
conduct of the chevaUer. 

Stv. CotirageouB. Geoeroos. Knightly. 
Gallant. Heroic. Adventurous. Valiant. 
Sfflrfted. Handsome. Highminded. 

Ant. Unhandsome. IMrty. Sneaking. 
Pettifo^ng. Scrubby. Dastardly. Be- 
preant. Ungenerous. Ungentlemanly. 

Choice, n. Old Eng. choose. 
Also chese. Hence the phrase 
* quite the cheese.' A prererence 
made from two or more things. 
Also the thing chosen or pre- 

Stn. Option. Adoption. Electloa Se- 
lection. Preference. Alternative. 

Akt. Compulsion. Necessity. Rejec- 
tion. RefusaL Unimportance. Indiffer- 
ence. Refiue. 

Choice, adj. See CJhoice, w. 

Syn. Select. Exquisite. Dainty. Pre- 
cious. Cherished, valuable. 

Ant. Common. Ordinary. Inferior. 
Cheap. Valueless. Despicable. Trum- 

* C&OKE, V. tr. Used metaphori- 
cally of stifling statements or 

Stn. Throttle. Burke. Suffocate. Gag. 

Ant. Eliminate. Educe. Promote. De- 
monstrate. Discuss. Disseminate. Moot. 
Bruit Ventilate. 

Choleb. See Anger. 
Choleric, adj\ See Choler. 

Stn. Hasty. Testy. Impetuous. Iras- 

Ant. Cool. Phlegmatic. Serene. Pla- 
cid. Dispassionate. Stoical. 

Choose, v. tr. See Choice. 

Stn. Select. Elect Prefer. Adopt 

Ant. Leave. Dismiss. Reject Reftise. 
IMcUnfi, JDiadaim. Repudiate. Ignore. 

I Chuckle, v. irvt. Comp. Cackle. 

To laugh witii satis&ction half- 

I concealed. To harbour such 

I feeling. 

I Stn. Grin. 

Crow. Cackle. 
WaiL Grumble. 


Ant. Cry. 

Churlish, adj. From eeorl, 
the loivest doM of Saxon freeman. 
The word in the character which 
has attached to it seems to indi- 
cate how naturally such qualities 
are induced in times when nominal 
liberty was not free from oppres- 
sion, and the defects were im- 
puted to the lower, as fhe TirfcoeB 
of human character to the ans- 
tocratic orders. 

Stv. Illiberal. Niggardly. Inhoipitelilfc 
Unsociable. Unneighbourly. 
Amt. Liberal BountifiiL 

Neighbourly. Sociable. 


CiPHEB, n. The system of 
numerals being Arabic, meant 

, the symbol of the absence of enu- 
meration ; which, however, being 
placed after the number, inoreafles 
its value tenfold. 

Hence it has tiie- various mean- 
ings of a nonentity-- a symbol, 

, and a peculiar system of writiog, 

I either as a monogram or of secret 

i correspondence. 

Stn. Nonentity. Dot Nothing. Trtlle. 
\ Button. Fig. Straw. Pin. Buafi. Mole* 
, hill. 

I Amt. Somebody. Big-wig. Something; 
NoUbiUty. Celebrity. Triton. OeioMiM. 
I S-ar. 

Circle, n. Lat. circtdus. The 
mathematical circle is a plana 
figure bounded by a curved line 
at all points equidistant frcm the 
centre. But as centre is used 
inexactly (see Centre), so circle is 
used of a region or assembly d 
persons sociidly united. 

Stn. Region. Neighbourhood, 
bty. Intercourse. Family. Aoqn 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


Estrangement Distance. Non- 
tlcatlve. Ejicliuion. 

OUIT, V, Circuitus, Cir- 
and ire^ to go. Distin- 
)d from circumference as 
not mathematical, but a 
r irregular circumference. 

Tour. Circomferenoe. 

Line. StraiglitneaB. DirectneM. 

omrouB, ndj. See Circuit. 

Indirect Tortuous. Deviooa. 
. Direct Linear. Straight 

OULAB, adj\ See Circle. 

Round. SpbericaL 
. Lineai. Dirtet 

OULATE. See Circle, act, n, 
r to send or move through 

Disseminate. Publlah. Natify. 
, Suppresa. Avert Stagnate. 

OUMFEBEKOE, 71, Ctrcitm 

ferre, to bear. The line 
bounds the mathematical 
is one which might be 

I round a globe ; or, vaguely, 

ter enclosure or irrq^ular 


Periphery. Endosore. Cbmit 

. Diameter. Crossing. Bi^eection. 
tioD. Transversitni. 

Tqui, The voluntary or in- 
tary use of roundabout 
ssions; that is, either as 
latory or from want of 
Q speech. 

Periphrasis. Verbosity. Licondse- 
nauocinctness. Ambiguoosneas. An- 

Terseness. Fdint C(<nc1senefls. 
tneas. Condensation. Directness, 
n. Simplicity. Coherence. 

.OUHSCBIBX, V, tr, Circum t 
d, and scribere, to write. 
Define. Designate. Delineate. Li- 
Qclose. Confine. Restrict Fence. 
. £xi>and. Dilate. Dissipate. Dis- 

CiROTTMSORiBXD, odj. See Cir- 

SvK. Limited. Narrow. Restricted. 
AXT. Limitless. Ample. Unconflned. 

ClBOUMSPEOT, tf</y. Circum^ 

Kpicere, to look round, as if on the 

look out for danger. 

Snr. Cautious. Wary. CarefU. Watch- 
ful. Scmnulous. Viffilant 

Akt. Heedless. Incautious. Osrelesa. 
Reclcltfss. Ill vigilant Incircomspect 

CntouMSTANCE, w. Circum" 
stare, to stand around, i, e,, the 
surroundings of a case; thence, 
an event or attendant condition. 

Stv. Detail Feature Puint Topic 
Gondltipn. Particular. Spf^ialty. 

AxT. Deed. Case. Occurrence. Tra»» 

CiBOUifSTANTiAL, «(/;. See CJi" 
cumstance. 1. Proving not 
directly but by attendant condi- 
tions or facts; also, 2, entering 
into circumstances or details. 

Snr. Inferential. Constructive. Minute. 
Detailed. Elaborate. Specific. 

AxT. 1. Jocular. Positive. 3. Loose. 
GeneraL Inaccurate. 

ClBOUMVENT, V. tr. Circum- 
venire. To come round or fetch 
or compass, so as to take by sur- 

Stx. Ensnare. Entrap. Outwtt. Di- 

Akt. Force. Snl]|jugate Reduce. Compel. 

CntOUMVENTiON. See Circum- 

CiTB, V. tr. Ciere, to call, 
Freq. citare, to call up. To cite 
I persons authoritatively or quote 
as from authority. 

Stn. Summon. CalL Quote. Adduce. 

Amr. Discard, Dismiss. Canvass. Dis- 
pute. Reject Contradict Disprove. Chal- 
lenge. Discredit 

Citizen, n. Civitas. One 
who resides in a city, or one who 
has the rights of a free political 

I, Stn. Townsman. Inhabitant Burgesd 

Subjeci. Denizen. 
j Arr. Alien. Fwe\fg[k«t. ^\i&.\0t. 'Cai!^ 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

Civio, adi. See Citizen. Be- 
longing to the administration, s& 
civil to the manners of the city, 

Stk. Municipal. Corporate. UrbaDiv 

Ant. Suburban. ProvIndaL EnraL 

Civil, adj\ See Civic. 

Syn. Urbane. Pullte. Obligtne. Ac- 
oommodating. Respectful. 

Ant. Disobliging. Unaooommodatlng. 
DisreppectfiiL Boorish. Clownish. Chucl- 
ibb. UnciTiL 

CrviL, n. See Civil. 
Civilization, n. See Civil. 

8tn. Ameliuration. HumanizatiaD. Ee> 

Akt. Demoralization. Savagery. Bar> 
barism. BrutallQr. Bndeness. 

Claim, v, tr. Clamare, to toll 
o»it. The public assertion of a 
right. The word seems to carry 
back the mind to times when 
writing was rare, and matters of 
right were determined oraUy be* 
fore witnesses. 

Stn. Demand. Ask. Beqnhie. Insist. 

Ant. Forego. Waive. Disclaim. Ab- 
jure. Disavow. Abandon. Conoede, Sur- 
render. Repudiate. 

Claim, w. See verb. 

Stk. Assertion. Vindication. Arrofa- 
tion. Demand. 

Ant. Waiving. Al^uration. Disdoiincr. 

Claimant, w. See Claim. 

Stn. Aasertor. Vindicator. AppelianU 

Ant. Relinquisher. Rexigner. Waiver. 
Conceder. Repuunoer. Attl^rer. 

Clamour, n. See Claim. A 
lond contentious cry; a noisy 
claiming or asking. It has nJao 
by usage a repudiative force, aa 
in the phrase, ' a clamour againBt 
a person.' 

Stn. Contention. Contentiousnesa. Squab- 
ble. Uproar. Outcry. Obloquy. 

Ant. Silence, Acquiescence. Reticence:. 

Clandestine, adj. Clam, te- 

Stn. Furtive. Secret. Sly. Stealtfay.' 

Ant. Open. Unr c a c n rc d. UdoodomML 
Announced. Advertised. Public. 

Clabibt, V. tr. Clarua, dear, 
and/ocerc, to make. 

Stn. Purify. Strain. Defecatoi PKd^ 
pitate. Infiltrate. 

Ant. Trouble. Font Tblckea. Oootih 
minate. Pollute. Muddle. 

Clash, n. and v. Oerm. To 
meet in many collisions. Metn- 
phorically, to be signaUy dis- 

Stn. Differ. Disagree. Interfere. Jar. 
Ant. Agr%e. Harmonixe. Aoooid. 
Comport. Chime. 

C^ASP,nandv. Oerm, To8iu> 
round so as to embrace tightly. 

Stn. Grasp. Connect Unite. Bnd 
Concatenate. Embrace. 

Ant. Relax. Sever. UncUufk Diiooa* 
nect. Detach. Exclude. 

Classical, adj. The word le* 
fers to the original divisioxi of 
the Eoman citizens or sntjects 
into political classes or ranks; 
thence, the admission of books as 
belonging to the purer ages and 
styles of Greek and Boman lite- 
rature. Hence, again used of 
the purity of any sample or stage 
of literature or ari 

Stn. Pure. Refined. Elegant Pollahed. 
Chaste. Augustan. 

Ant. Corrupt Debased. Inetegnt 
Harsh. Barbarous. Uncouth. UneUMMkaL 

Classification, Class. Ori- 
ginally the calling (leXacrtr, firom 
KoKtiv, to caU) together of the 
primitive Boman subjects; the 
grouping of a number of tiiingB 
or persons imder some principle 
of classification. 

Stn. Order. Genua, (^[leclea. Katun. < 
Character. Cast Stamp. Group. . Kinl 
. Section. Sect Category. AaaortBient. 
I Designation. Description. 

Ant. Individuality. Specialty. Isolft> 
tion. Alienation. Division. DtsUncOon. 
Singularity. Exclusion. Heterogmeitj. 

Classify. See Class. 

Stn. Arrange, Systematise. Tabulatei 
Dispose. CoUucate. Assort 

Ant. Derange. Confoond. Dltonler. 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 

UBK, n. Claudere, ClaU" 
shut A paragraph or 
latical sentence complete in 
ind shut off. 

Portion. Paragn^h. Chapter. 


Docament. Instroment. Muni- 

iK, adj, Celtic. Pure 
efilement or entanglement, 

Pure. Neat. Qeanly. Clear. Uii- 

Impure. Untidy. Dirty. £d- 
Hanipered. Unclean. 

AB, V. tr. Clarua, dear c^ 
fht To free physically; 
orally, as from imputation ; 
3ntally, from ideas which 
B to be dissociated. 

Clarify. Disencumber. Disentangle, 
xrasa. Vindicate. Liberate. Ex- 
Befoul. Contaminate. Pollute. 
Encumber. Js^mbarrass. Involve. 

AB, adj\ Physically and 
horically. See above. 

Open. Pure. Bright. Transpa- 
^ee. Disencumbered. Disentangled. 
fed. Absolved. Acquitted. Plain. 
. Intelligible. Lucid. 

Thick. Muddy. Foul. Opaque, 
ered. Entangled. Condemned. 
fd. Turbid. Dubious. Indistinct, 

lAVB, V. Two Saxon words 
, meaning, the one actively 
ider, the other neutrally to 


Sunder. Split, Divide. Rend. 
*. Adhere. Stick. 

Conserve. Unite. Splice. Bond. 

Agglutinate. Consolidate. D<'- 

•epart. Separate. Apostatize. Be> 

HTBE, adj. Saxon. Able to 
means to a proposed end. 
ed also to the work or re- 
K) contrived; said of the 
and the hand. 

Able. Beady. Talented. Quick. 
(ML Dexterous. Adroit. Well'con- 


AxT. Weak. DulL Stupid. Slow. 
Doltish. Uninvcniive. Awkward. Clnmqr 
IllHronirived. Bungling. Botched. 

Climate, n. KXiWtv, to itf 
dine. The supposed incUnation 
of the earth from the equator to 
the poles, which was imagined 
to account for the variation of 
temperature in different localities. 
The word is used of variation in 
these two respects. 

Syh. Air. Atmosphere. Temperature. 
Weather. Clime. Sky. Begion. Sphere. 

Ant. Earth. Globe. World. Inhere. 

Climax, n. Gr. A ladder. 
The highest point. As a figure 
of rhetoric, the culminating or 
most forcible expression. 

Stn. Summit Height. ConsnipmatioiL 
Acme. Piiint. Head. Meridian. Culmina- 
tion. Zenith. 

AXT. Base. Floor. Bathoa. Anticlimax. 
Depth. Gulf. Nadir. 

Climb, v. int. Sometimes used 
actively. Sax. dimban, 

I Stv. Ascend. Mount. Clamber. Swann. 

Surmount Scale. Kscalade. 
I AxT. Descend. Drop. Fall. Slip. Tumble. 


CuKG, V, int. Sax. dingan. 
Used actively with the prep, to. 
Used metaphorically, as, to cling 
to principles or determination. 

Stn. Fasten. Hold. Adhere. Stick. 
Cleave. Hang. Twine. Hug Embrace. 

Ant. Drop. Beocde. Secede. Aposutize. 
Abandon. Relax. Forego. Surrender. 

Clip, v, tr. Sax. 

Syv. Curtail. Prune. Contract. Abridge. 
Ant. Elongate. Cherish. Grow. Noivish. 

Cloak, v, tr. Old Fr. doche. 
To throw a cloak over. Comp. 
Palliate, from pallium, a doak. 
To hide wholly or in part. 

Stn. Conceal. Disguise. Palliate. Screen. 
Mitigate. Extenuate. 

Ant. Exhibit i*ropound. Promulge. 
' Portray. Aggravate. Expose. Demoa- 
Btrate. Beveal. 

' Close, adj, Claudere^ to shut. 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

Part. clauKus, Used physically 
and metaphorically. 

Sirx. Narrow. Limited. Restricted. 
OmJensed. Packed. Secret. Keaerved. 
Klggaidiy. Shut. Faat 

A»T. Wide. Open. Ample. Spacioas. 
Airy Unconflned. Diiqjersed. Rarefied. 
Subtle. Vaporous. Patent. Public. Ad- 
yertiaed. 0^-handed. Liberal Frank. 

Globe, v. tr. See a/fj, 

Stx. Shut Conclude. Cumplete. Stop. 
Ant. Open. Initiate. Conduct. Pro- 

Clothe. Sax. Used meta- 
phorically of ideas and associa- 

Snr. Inyest Robe. Drape. 
Ant. Denude. Strip. Diyest 

Clownish, adj\ From Clown. 
Colonus, a hufhandman, 

Stn. Rustic. Boorish. Bucolic. BoBotian. 
Awkward. Clumsy. Cloddish. Untutored. 

Ant. Polite. CivlL Urbane. Affable. 
Graceful. Polished. Refined. Courtly. 
High-bred. Intelligent Educated. 

Clumsy, adj\ Clump, an old 
verb. To benumb. Using the 
hands as if they were benumbed 
with cold. Used of persons and 
contrivances or productions. 

Stn. Awkward. Inexpert Maladroit 
Botching. Bungling. Unskilful. 

Ant. Neat Workmanlike. Artistic 
Handy. Skilful. Cleyer. Expert Adcoit 

Cluster, w. and v. tnt, 

Stn. tiroup. Bunch. Gathering. Muster. 

Ant. Scattering. Sprinkling Disper- 

Clutch, v. tr. and int. with 
the prep. at. 

Stn. Grasp. Grab. Seize. Snatch. 

Ant. Liberate. Release. Emancipate. 

Coadjutor, n. Con and adjU" 
vare, to assist. 

Stn. Assistant Co-operator. Accessory. 

Ant. Aooomplice. Accessory. Opponent. 
Connteractor. Baffler, Adversary. Anta- 

Coagulate, v. int. Coagulum, 
curd. Con and agere, to vjork. 

Stn. Mix. Blend. Fuse. OoaleMe. 
Amalgamate. Condense. 

Ant. Rarefy. Expand. Dissipate. Bab* 
tllize. Disoombine. 

Coalesce, v. int. Cen and 
alescerf, to grov^, from aUrf, to 
nourish. Expresses hannony of 

Stn. Harmonize. 'Blend. Mix. Anal* 
gamate. Cohere. 

Ant. Disagree Discomport 

Coalition, n. See Coalesce. 

Stn. Combination. Cansentaneity. Com* 
promise. Consociation. Amalgamation. 

Ant. Dissociation. Disraption. Dis> 
agreement Dissentience. 

CoABSE,a(£y. Anciently written 
Course— as tf in the common 
course; and so, metaphorically, 
exhibiting characteristics of the 
natural or common, not the po- 
lished or refined. 

Stn. Common. Ordinaiy. Rovgfa. Bade. 
Unpolished. Immodest 

Ant. Fine. Refined. Gentle. Fk>UslMd. 
DeUcate. Choice. 

Coax, v. tr. Coquus, a cook 
To hash up a little savory dish 
of wheedling. It implies also 
persuasion against inclination, 
and sometimes to the detriment 
of the person coaxed. , 

Stn. Wheedle. Fawn. Flatter. Oe\)oIe. 
Overcome. Seduce. Allure. Qrcamvent 

Ant. intimidate. Coerce. ImpeL In- 
stigate. Drive. 

Cobble, v. tr. Germ, koppeln, 
from Lat. copulare, to couple. To 
join work clumsily. 

Stn. Patch. Botch. Clout Bungle. 
Ant. Repair. Manipulate. Fine-draw. 

Cobweb, n. Used metaphori- 
cally for that which wants imr 
portance or solidity; also for 
that which still hangs together, 
as — a prejudice, though it is high 
time to sweep it away. 

Stn. Trifle. Cipher. MoontUne. Pre* 
Judice. Bugbear. 

Ant. Substance. Verity. Axi<nn. Jaw. 
Reality. Perpetuity. Institution. 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


CaCKSKY, n. asid adj. An in- 
habitant of Gocagne, a French 
word, meaning a oonntry of ima- 
ginary InxnrieB and delicacies, 
in wnidi the houses are tiled 
with sweetmeats, from Old Fr. 
cougue, It. cucca, a cake or dainty. 
Applied to the citizens of London 
by their simple or jealous fellow- 

Snr. Londoner. Citisen. Swell 
Ajrr. Clodhopper. BumpUo. Loat 

CoDDLS, V. tr. From coquere, 
eoctus. To parboil, as it were, 
with kindness; to make a little 
too much of; to keep warm. 

Sm. Spoil. Humour. Pamper. Nurse. 

Am. Try. Expose. Inure. Harden. 

C!oi>OER, n. Thought to be 
eoiier. Gomp. Cot, Cotter, Cot- 
tage, Cottager. An outlsmdish 
old fellow. Associating also, like 
Oiurl, the notion of niggardli- 

Snr. Oaflfer. ChnrL Curmudgeon. 
AVT. SweU. Fop. Spendthrift. Scape- 
grace. Puppy. 

CODITT, V. tr. Codex and 
f'icere. To reduce a multiplicity 
of laws, or, more genendly, a 
number of opinions or statements, 
to a more compendious form. 

Stx. Summarise. Digest, incorporate. 
Embody. Coftdense. 

Aht. Expunge. Abrogate. Disembody. 
AnnuL Disincorporate. Rescind. 

CoEBCE, V. tr. Coercere. To 
use force upon another, especially 
metaphori(»lly, as distinguished 
from persuasion ; and is used of 
compidsion, prohibition, and con- 

Stv. Restrain. Inhibit ImpeL Com 
pel. Drive. Counteract. Confine. Intimi' 

AST. Permit Persuade. Urge. Insti- 
gate. Encourage. Liberate. Induce. Se- 
anoe. Tempt 

CoETANEOUS, adj. Con and cetas 
(cevum, oevitas). 

Snr. Coeval. Contempoiwy. Syndironoas 
AxT. liicolncident Xnoontemporaneuua. ' 
AnachroDiatlc Aayncronoua. 

CoEYAL. See Coetaneous. 

Coexist, v. int. Con and eor- 
istere (ex and sidere, to stand 
out). To be, or continue to be, 

Stv. Concur. Comport CoaleMe. Ac- 
company. Coincide. 

AST. Disooncur. Discomport 

CoEZiSTEKT, adj. See Co- 

Snr. Concurrent Coetaneous. Con- 
temporary. Ciiicident Compatible. «k>r 
reqpuodent Correlative. 

Art. Discurrent Inoontemporaneons. 
Incompatible. Adverse. Repugnant An- 

CoEXTENSiON, n. Con and 
extenders, to reach. Equal in 
length or space, physically or 

Snr. Commensurateness. Equality. Pa- 
ralleium. Conterminousness. 

Airr. IiK»mmenauratfne88. Inadequacy. 
Inoonterminousiiesa. Divergency. in- 
equality. Disparity. 

Coextensive. See Coexten- 

Cogent, a/Jj. Cogere, to compel. 
Used, not of physical, but moral 
or logical force. 

Stn. Forcible. Powerful Potent Strong. 
Persuasive. Influential. 

Aht. Wealt Inelfectual. Powerless. 

Cogitate, v. int. Cogitare, 
coagit'ire. To turn over and over 
with one's self. a neuter 
sense, and in no specific reference 
to any one line of thought or 

Stn. ThiniL Ruminate. Meditate. Re- 
flect. Brood. Cuntemplate. Speculate. 
Ponder. Muse. . 

Ant. Idle. Maunder. Dream. 

Cogitation, v. See Cogitate. 

Stn. Reflection. Thought Meditation. 
Ant. Incogitancy. Vacuity. Dreami- 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

CoONlZAKOB, n. CognoKcere, to 
note. Recognition or knowledge. 
Also used, technically, of that 
which is a distinctive emblem or 
hadge, by which the bearer may 

Srir. Nutice. Observation. Recognition. 
Knowledge. Kxperience. 

Ant. Inadvertence. Neglect Ignorance. 
Inexperience. Oversight. Connivance. 

Cognizant, adj. See Cogni- 

Snr, Aware. Informed. 

Akt. Unaware. Uninformed. Ignorant 

CoHEBB, V, int. Con and 
hoerere, to stick. To stick to- 
gether. Used physically and 

Stn. Stick. Adhere. Gunform. Unite. 

Ant. Sever. Separate. Disunite. Dis- 

Coherent, adj. See Cohere. 
Used especially of logical or rhe- 
torical coherence. 

Stn. Consecutive. Consistent Com- 
plete. Cumpact Sensible. Logical. Close. 

Ant. Inconsecutive. Rambling. Dis- 
united. Inconsist'-nt Discursive. Loose. 
Silly. IllugicaL Aberrant 

CoHiBiT, V. tr. Cohihere, to 
hd'l hi, Kestrain. 

SvN. Prevent Hinder. Restrain. Curb. 

Ant. Indulge. Permit Incite. Instl- 
gate. Encourage. Urge. 

Coin, v, tr, Cuneus, a wedg*^ 
or rite for btamping, transferred 
to the thing stamped. Used me- 
taphorically for the invention of 
new forms, as of words, and of 
false allegations. 

Syn. Fabricate. Counterfeit Invent 
Ant. Misrorm. Miscontrlve. 

Coincidence, n. Con and iv- 
cidere, to fail upon or out. Used 
of the fortuitous meeting of two 
things bearing relation or pro- 
priefy; also in its etymological 
sense of agreement in time, place, 
or opinion. 

Stn. Chance. Fortuity. Camuitf, Cbn- 
temporaneousness. CommensumteiiMi. Ea» 
muoy. Consent Agreement 

Ant. Design. Purpose. Adaptation. 
Asynchronism. Anachronism. Disharmunjr. 
IncommensuratenesB. Discordance. Vam> 
tion. Difference. 

Collapse, n. Con and lapm, 
A fiedb'ng in, or general emng 
way of tiie parts, either of that 
which is materially coherent (miy, 
or of the vital factdlies am 

Stn. Subsidence. Coma. Faint Ez- 
hau^ition. Shriveling. Settlement Down- 

Ant. Stability. Integrity. Vifality. 

Vigour. Retiovaiion. Re<Untegration. Re* 

oovery. Re^rection. Resusdlatlon. Re* 

Collate, v, tr. Con and /erre, 
part, latus. To bring together, in 
a mental sense, ideas or passages 
of writing, generally with a view 
of comparison or classification; 
and not unfrequently as t^idii^ 
to establish a view or particular 

Syn. Adduce. Collect Compare. Gather 
Induct Kxtnut Cite. 

Ant. Verify. Identify. Reoognixe. An* 

Collateral, adJ, Ixjtus, tJie 
side. Applied to relationship 
and evidence or argument. 

Stn. Indirect Related. Connected. 

ant. Direct Linear. EssentiaL In- 

Collation, n. See Collate. 
Used technically of repasts and 
of episcopal patronage. 

Colleague, n. Con and legere, 
to choose. One chosen or ap- 
pointed to the same office with 

Stn. Coac^utor. Partner. Assistant 
Adjutant Assessor. 

Ant. Cu-opponent Co-rivaL Counter- 
agent. Co-antagonist Competitor. Gulp 

Collect, v, tr, CoUigere^ j>art. 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


eoHedus. Used physically and 

Sth. Collate. Gather. Glean. Sum. 
Infer. Learn. 

Aht. Classify. Arrange. Distribate. 
Dispose. Dispense. Divide. Sort. DeaL 

Collected, adj. See Collect. 
Said of the Realties. 

Stn. Calm. Composed. CooL Atten- 
tive. Self-po8ses»ed. 

Aht. Kxcited. Distracted. Wandering. 
Dazed. Scared. Bewildered. 

Collection, n. See above. 
Said of persons and things. 

Sm. Assembly. Assemblage. Store. 
Gathering. ColUtion. 

Aht. Dispersion. Distribution. Dis- 
pensation. Division. Arrangement Classi- 
fication. Disposal. 

CoLLiQUATB, V. act. and neut. 
Con and liquare. To melt away 
by instalments. 

Stw. Melt. Dissolve. Dribble. Drain. 
Akt. Replenish. FUL Overflow. A- 

Collision, n. Cdlidere, to 
strike together. The violent meet- 
ing of hard substances. Meta- 
phorically used of hostile en- 
counters in conflict. 

Stn. Encounter. Crash. Conflict Op- 
position. Impact 

Akt. Interswervlng. Interdivergence. 

Collocate, v. tr. Con and 
loctis, a place. To place one or 
more things in proper or close 

Stk. Place. Locate. Arrange. Classify. 
Tabulate. Allocate. 

Aht. Move. Dislocate. Distribute. Dis- 
pense. Disturb. IHsperse. Confound. Con- 
fuse. Displace. Misplace. 

Collocation. See Collocate. 

CoLLOQUT, n. Con and loqui, 
to speak. A formal meeting in 

Syh. Conference. Consultation. Conver- 
Mtion. Couucil. Confabulation. 

Aht. Clamour. Outcry. Tumult BabeL 

CoLLUCTATiON, n. A struggle. 
From con and luc^us, striviny. 

Snr. Wrestling. Ooatentkm. Gonpeti 

Aht. Coa^Untorship. A«tetance. Sui^ 
port BMddng. 

Collusion, n. (7o7» and luderej 
to sport or play. A conspiracy 
for purposes of trickery. 

Sth. Connivance. AocompUceship. Con- 

Akt. Baffling. Frustration. Counter- 
action. Defeat Discomfiture. Disconcert- 
ment Betrayal Exposure. Informership. 

CoLOUB, n. Lat. color. Used 
metaphorically for tinging state- 
ments or cases. 

Stn. Hue. Tint ComplezioD. Spe- 
ciousness. Garbling. Falsification. Distor- 
tion. Perversion. Vamisb. 

Aht. Achromatism. Paleness. Naked- 
ness. Openness. Genuineness. - Trans- 
parency. Truthfulness. 

Colourable, adj. See Colour. 
A word not formed with strict 

Sth. Spedous. Ostensible. Deceptive. 
Warped. Dressed. Tinged. 

Ant. Genuine. Candid. Open. Naked. 

Combat, n, Comhattre, to heai 

Syk. Encounter. Conflict Engagement 
Arms. Battle. 

Ayr. Surrender. Submission. Media- 
tion. llecoDciliation. Truce. Arbitration. 

I Combination, n. Con and 
linus, two each, or two. Extended 
to more than two. 

Stn. Union. Association. Consortment 
Concert. Confederacy. S>-nthesis. Co- 

Ant. Division. Disunion. Disruption. 
Dissolution. Dispersiun. Analysis. Oppo* 
sition. Resistance. Inter-repellence. 

Comely, adj'. That which 
comes well or becomes. 

Syn. Seemly. Graceful. Shapely. Ele- 

I Ant. Unseemly. Ungraceful. Unshapely. 
; Inelegant 

I CoMFOBT, Comfortable. Con 
and foHia, strung. 
I The first notion of comfort 
I must have been \ke «^^^i <A 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

such things as fortified a man's 
position, making him self-suffi- 
cient, so as to bear up against 
trouble, want, and the like. It 
has assumed a meaning, in re- 
ference to every-day circum- 
stances, which it is a £a.miliar 
boast of Englishmen that no 
other language has a word to 
express. It applies to mind, 
body, and circumstances. 

Stn. Snug. Satisfied. Consoled. 
Ant. Uncomlortable. Dissatisfied. 

Comity, n. Oomitas, comis, 
Hand J pleasant 

Stn. Urbanity. Pleasantness. Affar 
bility. Blandness. 

AsT. Rudeness. Distaniness. Rough- 
ncss. Churlishness. 

Command, v, tr. Con and 
mandare, to order, 

Stn. Order. Direct. Instruct. Enjoin. 

Ant. Supplicate. Entreat. Persuade. 
Beg. Petition. Suggest. Represent. 

Commemorate, v. tr. Con and 
memor, mindful. To keep up, 
either for once or periodically, 
the remembrance of past events 
or persons by more or less public 

Stn. Perpetuate. Celebrate. Solemnize. 

Ignore. Drop. Abolish. Forget. 

Commence, v. act, and neut. 
Corrupted from con and initiare, 
to begin, 

Stn. Begin. Start. Initiate. Open. In- 

Ant. Finish. Terminate. Conclude. 
Consummate. Complete. 

Commend, v, tr, 

Stn. Praise. Laud. Approve. En- 
courage. Applaud, kulogize. 

Ant. Blame. Censure. Disapprove. 
Discourage. Denounce. Condemn. Dis- 

Commendation. See Com- 
Commensurate, adj. Con and 

men87ira, a measure. Strictly ap- 
plicable only to cases in which 
two or more things have either 
physically or metaphorically the 
same outlines, and so are co- 
extensive. Usage, however, ivp- 
plies it, as it does the term ade- 
quate, to number as well as size. 

Stn. EquaL Adequate. Sufficient. Go 
extensive. Cttnterminous. 

Ant. Unequal Short. Scant load** 
quate. insufficient. Incommensurate. 

Comment, w. and v, Commen- 
tari, a form of comminisci ; root, 
mens, the mind. The gathering 
of a meaning into such a shape 
as may expound it ; followed by 
the prey), upon. 

Stn. Note. Observe. Interpret IUub- 
tratc. Expound. Explain. Dilate Ex- 
patiate. Cri icise. 

Ant. Cuniound. Conftise. Obscure. 
Mystify. Misinterpret Misapprehend. 
Misconceive. Miarepresent 

Comment, n. Follows the 
same meanings. 

Commentator, n. See Comr 

Stn. Interpreter. Explainer. Note> 
maker. Expositor. Scholiast Glossuist 

Anf. Mystifier. Misinterpreter. Pozxler. 
Enigmuiist. GSdipus. 

Commerce, n. Con and merx. 

Stn. Trade. Traffic. Barter. Mer- 
clmndize. Exchange. Bosincss. Deeding. 

Ant. Stagnation. Exclusion. Dolneas. 
Inactivity. Interdict. Embargo. 

Commiserate, v, tr, Ccn and 
mist^f miserable. This word has 
the two meanings of despise and 
pity. For it is plain that the 
miserable condition of another, 
according to the disposition of 
the beholder and the circum- 
stances of the case, may raise on 
one occasion pity, on another 

Stn. Despise. Contemn. Pity. Com- 
passionate. Sympathize. Condole. 

8ynonym» and Antonynu. 


An. Admire. Enrj, Dtoregird. Mai- 
UmX. Molest Igoore. CoodeinD. 

Commiseration, n. Follows 
iho JM^TTifl meaniDgs. 

Commit, v. tr. Con and mittere, 
to put or finee. Said of deeds 
generally, and of the specific 
oonsigmnent also, both of things 
and persons, as, to commit to 
paper or to prison. 

Snr. Perpetrate. Execute. Relegate. 
Intmat. AMigu. Allocate. Consign. 

Ajtt. Omit. Mlsoummit. Misoonsign. 

Commodious, adj. See Accom- 

Stm. Omvenient ^ladoaB. Ample. 

Abt. Inconvenient Incommodlons. Nar- 
row. Ill-c(mtrived. Inoommensorate. Dis- 

CoMMODiTT, n. A convenient 
article of commerce having a 
market valno. 

Snc. Article. Stock. Ware. Staple. 
AST. Reftibe. Garbage. OflkL Drug. 

Common, adj. Communis. 
Either that which belongs to 
many, or that which belongs to 
all, or which all have in com- 

Stv. Ordlnaiy. Familiar. Frequent 
Ooane. Vulgar. UniventaL 

Akt. Unnstial. Exceptional. Rare. 
Scsrce. Uncommon. Rettned. PartiaL 
Sporadic. Infrequent Excellent l!«re- 

Commotion, n. Con and mo- 
vere. An agitation of, first, the 
inherent particles of a body; and, 
secondly, any agitation, however 
wide, which produces a single 
and nniform impression. 

Snr. Agitation. Disturbance. Tumult 
Excitement. Perturbation. Turmoil. 

Akt. Quiescence. Calm. SulMidence. 
Fadflcation. Tranquillity. Appeas('rof>nt. 
Mitigation. Soothing. Allaying. Mode- 

Communicate, v. Communis. 
Is used actively and neutrally. 

Sn. Adljoin. Touch. Join. Attach. 

Co-operate. Unite. Impart TelL An- 
nounce. Declare. 

Ant. Separate. Dii>]oin. Reced«. RUtjt. 
SoppreMi. CunceaL Secrete. Reser^-e. 

CoMMUN ION, n. See Communi- 
cate. Used for the process of 
participation and the aggregate 
of the participants. 

Stn. Share. Jhirticipation. FartnerBbip. 
Compurtionment Fellowship. Aasociatiiai. 

Ant. KxcloRinn. Deprivation. Non- 
participation. Disqualification. AUenation. 
i DibCounecUon. Disruption. 

Community, n. Se.e Commu- 
nion. Natural likeness; or, ob- 
jectively, an association of per^ 
I sons, political or voluntary, as 
I based upon the feelings or ideas 
which bind them together. 

St.v. Aggrefcation. Atvociation. Co- 
ordination. Society. Syiriputhy. Order. 
Class. Brotherhood. Fraternity. Polity. 
Nationality. Unity. Similarity. Homo- 

Ant. S^regation. Secession. Inde- 
pendence. DiHSociation. Disconnection. 
Rivalry. Hostility. Animosity. Estrange- 
ment Dissimilarity. Contrariance. Hete- 

Commute, v. tr. CommiUare. 
Has this difference from trans- 
mute, that whereas the latter is 
to change, in the sense of, to alter 
into another shape abstractedly. 
Commute is to alter into some 
equivalent or correspondent form. 

Syn. SubeiUtote. Excliange. Compen- 
sate. I::qualize. Barter. Balance. Modify. 

Ant. Misappropriation. Misconvert 
Misappropriate. Di^ailow. Stabilitate. Per- 
petuate. Stereotype. 

Compact, adj. Con and pan- 
gertf jHxctus, to strike. Beaten 
close. Used physically and metar 

Syn. IXiDse. Close. Hard. Condensed. 
Contracted. Compendious. Convenient 
Concentratf-d. Conxulidated. Concrete. 

Ant. Ductile. Brittle. Friable. Diffuse. 
Dubliapely. Straggling. Broadcast Sparse. 

Cc»MPANiON, n. Der. either 
from con and pants, hn 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

80, primarily, a messmate; or 
from compag(HiginiSf a bolt or 
fastening. One fastened to an- 
other on terms of habitual eqnal 

Syn. Associate. Mate. Comrade. 
Ant. BivaL Foe. Antagonist Adver- 

Companionable, adj. See 
CJompanion. Having the quali- 
ties for constituting a good com- 

Stn. Pleasant Affable. Sociable. Con- 
Tcrsible. Eaay. Frioidly. Agreeable. 

Akt. DifiM^preeable. Chnrlish. Unso- 
ciable. Distant Reserved. UngeniaL 
Cold. Inaccestiible. Unneighbourly. Soli- 

Companionship, n. See above. 

Stn. Acquaintance. Converse. Fami- 
liarity. Jntimncy. Friendliness. Associa- 

Ant. Ignorance. Distance. Avoidance. 
Kstrangrment. Alienation. Unfamiliarlty. 
Solitude. Isolation. 

Company, v. See above. 

Stn. ARgregation. Association. Union. 
Sodality. Order. Fraternity. Guild. 

The characteristic of an order 
seems to l>e that it is constituted 
by external authority, or, at least, 
dei)ends upon it for its existence. 
So of orders of knighthood and 
religious orders, which could not 
be without the sovereign and the 
pope, when regarded irrespec- 
tively of such essential authority, 
they may be spoken of as purely 
voluntary or independent associa- 
tions, sodalities, fraternities, or 

Ant. Rivalry. Opposition. Disqualifi- 
cation. AntuRonism. Cumpciition. Counter- 
agency. Counter-association. 

Compare, v. tr, Comparare. 
To place together for the sake of 
observing likeness. 

Stn. Assimilate. Gillate. Parallel. 
Akt. Contrast. Oppose. Diasociate. 
Disconnect Fit Distingoiah. 

Comparable, adj\ See Cbm- 

Snr. BesembUng. Approximata^ Si- 

Ant. Dissimilar. Unlike. Remote. la- 


TIVELT. See above. Said of 
I)ersons and things which, wiikh 
out equalling others, or some 
abstract standard, absolutely, do 
so with reference to due propor* 
tion of circumstances, and in their 

Syn. Relatively. Proportionately. 
Ant. Absolutely. Actoally. FbiMhrelj. 


partirt, to divide; from pars, part, 
or lot. 

Syn. Division. Partition. AUotment 
Sphere. Space. 

Ant. Its correlative: viz., anything of 
which it is a compartment. 

Compass, n. Con and pastus, 
a pace. A space enclosea by a 
walker ; a region ; generally, the 
circuit or circumference of it. 

Syn. Area. Enclosure. Circuit Clr^ 
cumfcrence. Horizon. 

Ant. Space. Common. Tract Ex- 
panse. Boundlessnesa. Limitleasneaa. In- 


Compass, v. tr. See above. 
Has, in addition to the literal 
sense of encircling, tiie metapho- 
rical meanings of embracing and 
completing a design. ' He oomr 
passed the other's ruin. 

Syn. Surround. Encompass. lg"<'J««*, 
Environ. Circumscribe. Embrace. Achieve. 
Effect Effectuate. Consummate. Ooai> 
plete. Circumvent 

Ant. I<:xpand. Dispand. Unfold. Am- 
plify. Display. Dismiss. Liberate. Dla- 
card. Fail. Bungle. Botcb. MlaoonoelTe. 
Mismanage. Miboontrive. 

Compassion, n. Con asidpaii, 

passio, to suffer, or be in a 
of feeling. 

Syn. Pity. Qympailiy. 

Ant. Hard-heartedneflB. UnfoiiBiT 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


Grnd^. Antipathy. Denunciation. Oon- 
VindictiveneeB. Betaliation. 

GoMPATiBLS, atlj. See above. 
Said of that which may coexist 
in the same state of circum- 
stances^ or those things of which 
a person or a thing may be col- 
lectively, at one time, the reci- 
pient. Also coincident with ex- 
ternal circumstances that are pos- 
sible or consistent 

Snr. Oonsistent Consentaneous. Har- 
GoezUtent. Correspondent 


Amt. Incompatible. Impossible. Insnp- 
pmable. Inconsistent. Discordant Hostile. 
Advene. Antagonistic. Incongruous. De- 
stmctive. Interrepugnant Contradictoiy. 

Compeer, n. Compar, eguuL 
Equal, in the first instance, poli- 
tically or in social rank; hence, 
generally, on terms of equahty or 

Stn. Equal. Co-ordinate. Peer. Fel- 
low. Hate. Compatriot Comrade. 
Akt. Superior. Inferior. Solitary. 

Compel, v, tr. Con and pel- 
lere, to drive. Used of promotive 
not restrictive force. 

Snr. Force. Oblige. Drive. Coerce. 

Amr. Persuade. Convince. Coax. Al- 
lure. "Egg. Induce. Tempt. Seduce. 
Ooien. Liberate. Acquit Eelease. 

Compendious, adj. Of the 
nature of compendium, from con 
and pendere, to weigh, A collec- 
tion of chief elements, such that 
tile subject or work may be 
"weighed in a convenient form. 

Snc. Condensed. Concentrated. Abridged. 
Gommodious. Convenient UsefuL Handy. 
GomprdMnsive. Compact 

Amt. Diffuse. Vague. Prolix. Shape- 
less. Cumbrous. Undigested. 

Compendium, n. See Compen- 
dious and Abridgment. 

Compensate, v. Con and pen- 
sare, to pay. Used actively and 
intransitively, the latter with the 
pr^. for. 

Stx. Satisfy. Atone. Bemunerate. In- 
demnify. Reimburse. 

AxT. Defraud. Deprive. Cheat Dis- 
satisfy. Injure. Damage. 

Compensation, n. See Com- 
pensate. Is given to individuals 
and to the state. 

Syk. Remuneration. Equivalent Wages. 
Pay. Allowance. Restoration. Restitution. 
Satisfaction. Atonement Expiation. In- 
demnification. Amercement Damages. 

Akt. I)eprlvati(»i. Injury. Non-pay- 
ment Gratuity. Donation. Fraudulenee. 

Compete, v, int. Con and pe- 
tere, to seek. To aim at the same 
object with another. 

SrK. Contend. RivaL Emulate. 
Ant. Share. Participate 

Competence, n. See Compete. 
Competentia, from competere, in 
the sense of to be suitable or 
sufficient. The convergence of 
many requisites in one person; 
hence, such as the following : 

SrN. Power. Inadequacy. Sufficiency. 
Wealth. Ability. 

Ant. Weakness. Incompetence. Lia- 
bility. Insufficiency. Want Poverty. 
Impecuniosity. Indigence. 

Competition, n. See Compete. 
Competitor, n. See Compete. 

Stn. Rival. Emulator. Opponent Ad- 
versary. Antagonist 

Ant. Participator. Partner. Auxiliary. 

Compilation, t?. Compilare, 
in Lat. to pillage, afterwards used 
for to stow or pack together. 

Syn. Collation. Composition. Patch- 

Ant. Effusion. Creation. 

Complacent, adj. Con and 
placere, to please. Applied to that 
state of pleasure which leads to 
acquiescence, and which may be 
natural or habitual. 

Syn. Pleased. Satisfied. Content Plea- 
sant Affable. Kiud. Mannerly. Ao* 
quiescent Amiable. 

Ant. Dissatisfied. Irritated. Churlish. 
Unmannerly. Morose. Austere. GrudgiDg 

Complaint, n. Con and j>ton- 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

gere, to weep. Used for the feel- 
ing, the subject, and the expres- 
sion of pain, annoyance, or dis- 
content ; also, technically, in the 
sense of the physical cause of 
such expression, namely, disease. 

Stn. Murmur. Discontent Kepining. 
Grievance. Annoyance. Remonstrance. 
Expostulation. Lamentation. Sickness. 

Ant. Congratulation. R^oldng. Com- 
placency. Boon. Benefit. Approbation. 
Applause. Jubilee. Health, ^nity. 

Complement, n, Complere, to 
fill. Is used both of quantity 
and number; 1, as filling up 
of the whole to its proper mea- 
sure ; and, 2, the supply of what 
is wanted to the completion or 
perfection of it. In the first 
sense, so many men are the com- 
plement of a ship's crew ; in the 
second, the wife is the comple- 
ment of the husband, or vice 

Syn. Completion. Fulfilment. Totality. 
Supply. Counterpart. Correlative. 

Ant. Deficiency. Deficit. Insufficiency. 
Abatement. Detraction. Defalcation. Dimi- 
nution. Drawback. 

Complete, adj. See Comple- 

SvN. Full. Perfect. Finished. Ade- 
quate. Entire. Consummate. 

AsT. Incomplete. PartiaL Imperfect 
Unfinished. Inadequate. 

Completely, adv. See Com- 

Completion, n. See Complete. 

Complex, adj. Con and plicare, 
to fold. Folded thickly or intri- 
cately. Said of intricacy of move- 
ment, plan, proceeding, or argu- 

Srw. Intricate. MulUfarious. Multifold. 
Involved. Deep. Many-sided. Abstruse. 
Close. Tangled. Obscure. 

Act. Obvious. Plain. Simple. Direct 
Inobscurc. Superficial Unravelled. Vague. 

Complexion, n. Same root. 

The latter is used metaphorically 
or analogously for — 

Syn. Face. Aspect Colour. Appear- 
ance. Character. Hue. InterpretatioiL 

Ant. Unindicatlvenefls. Conoealment 
Reticence. Inexpression. Heart Gc»ne. 

Complexity, n. See Complex. 

Compliance, n. Either from 
complere, to fill up the measure 
of another's requirements, or com" 
pliaire, to enfold one's self with 
them and his designs. Comp. 

Stn. Yielding. Submission. Obedienoe. 
Acquiescence. Consent Dnctility. Dodlitr. 

Akt. Resistance. Repulsion. Disobeu- 
ence. Refusal Non-compliance. 

Compliant, adj. See Com- 

Complicated, adj. Same de- 
rivation as Complex. 

Stk. Confused. Intricate. Involved. 
Perplexed. Entangled. 

Ant. Clear. Simple. Uninvolved. Ladd 

Compliment, n. Same word 
as Complement; but with the 
French form, compliment, from 
compiler. A compliment is there- 
fore the expression of the sum 
total of regard and duty. As 
this is likely to become merely 
ceremonious, the word hcus at- 
tached to it very often the notion 
of insincerity. 

Syn. Homage. Courtesy. Flattery. 
Ant. Iniiult Discourtesy. Contempt 

Complimentary, adj. See 

Comply, v. int. See Compli- 

Component, n. ConBJidponere, 
to put. Those things which, put 
together, make a compound 

Stn. Ingredient Element Constituent. 
Content Rudiment 

Ant. to n. Aggregate. Sum. Entirety. 
Compound. To a^. Non-constituent 
FoTeigci. A.dN«iiU,tioTU. HeteroQeneoot. 

Synonyms and Antonyms, 


OoKPORT^ V, tr, and ini. Con 
and portare, to carry. To carry 
one's self —in the phrase, comport 
one's self. Also used in the sense 
of agreeing with something else. 

Sth. Demean. Conduct Cany. Behave. 
Tally. Consist. Harmonize. Match. Agree. 
Suit. Coincide. 

Ant. Misdemoan. Miscondnct. Forget 
Vary. Differ. Disugreo. Contrast Mili- 

Compose, «. <r. Componere. To 
put together in the way of collo- 
cation merely ; or also for the 
farther purpose of pacification. 

Snr. Construct Compile. Write. Form. 
FiBciry. Mitigate. Settle. AOJust 

Aht. Analyze. Dissect Criticise. Irri- 
Ute. Excite. Awaken. Stir. 

Composed, cuij\ See Compose, 
and Collected. 

Composition, n. /See Compose. 
Used of matters mental and ma- 

Stk. Componnd. Conformation. Struc- 
tnre. Mixture. Combination. Compromise. 
Adjustment Settiument Commutation. 

Akt. Analysis. Segregation. Criticism. 
Examination. Discussion. Disturbance. Ag- 
grayaUon. Perpetuation. 

CoMPOsuBE, n. See Compose, 
and Collected. 

Compound, v, tr. See Com- 
pose. Its application is commonly 
physical, yet also verbal and ideal. 

Stn. Concert Mix. Amalgamate. Fuse. 
Ant. Analyze. Resolve. 

CoMPBEHEND, V. tr. Con and 
prehendtTi. To grasp materially, 
or with the mind ; also, meta- 
physically, to contain. 

Sor. Comprise. Grasp. Understand. 
Enclose. Include. Involve. Embrace. 
Ant. Exclude. Except Misunderstand. 

Comprehension, n. See Com- 

Stn. Understanding. Conception. 
Ant. MibUiiderstanding. Misconception. 

Comprehensive, adj. See Com- 
prehend. Wide enough to in- 
clude many things or ideas. 

Stn. Wide. Ample. GeneraL Qeneric. 
Significant Gapaddua. Inclnaive. Com- 
pendious. Pregnant 

Ant. Narrow. Restricted. Shallow. 
Exclusive. Adversative. Exceptive. 

Compress, v. tr. Con and 

premf<re, to press. To make to 
occupy less space by making the 
parts of elements closer. 

Stk. Condense. Compact Contract. 
Abridjre. Epitomize. Summarize. 

Ant. Expand. Dilate. Diffuse. ColU- 

Compression, n. See Com- 

CoMPRiSE, V. tr. Same as 
comprehend, through the Fr. 
compriSfpart. of comjyrendre. 

Stn. Embrace. Include. Involve. Con- 
tain. Comprehend. Imply. 

Ant. Exclude. Except Discard. Bar. 
Omit Reject 

CoMPROBATiON, 71. Con and 

probare, to prove. Proof, but 
especially joint proof. 

Si-N. Induction. Co-evidence. Co-testi- 

Akt. Disproof. Counter-evidence. Re- 
futation. Rejoinder. Intercontrariauce. 

Compromise, v. tr. Con pror 
mittere. A joint promise, im- 
plying its fulfilment to settle 
matters of dispute by arbitration. 
Used also to signify the drawing 
of another into risk, by involving 
him in the responsibilities of 
your own position. 

Stk. Arbitrate. Compose. Af^Jnst Set- 
tle. Endanger. Implicate. Involve. 

Akt. Aggravate. Excite. Foster. Per- 
petuate. I'^empt Enfranchise. Disen- 
gage. Extricate. Exonerate. 

Compulsion, n. See Compel. 

Compunction, n. Con and 
punuere, punctus, to prick. The 
pricking of the conscience. 

Stn. Misgiving. Remorse. Regret 

Ant. Satis&ction. Self - complaooicy. 


Compute, v, tr, Computare, 
To reckon. 


Sf/nonyms and Antonyms. 

Stk. Oalcnlate. Beckon. Count. Bate. 

A»T. Oui^ectore. Guess. Surmise. 

COMBADE, w. Camera, a cham- 
ber, A chamber fellow, after- 
wards a companion generally. 
See Compeer. 

Concatenate, v, tr. See 

Concatenation, n. Con and 
catena, a chain. Linking toge- 
ther either. 

Sth. Linking. Stringing. Connection. 

Ant. Discatenation. Unlinking. Un- 
changing. Severance. Intermission. Dis- 

Concave, adj, Concavus, Hol- 

Stn. Hollow. Scooped. Pitted. Ex- 
cavated. Betreatins^ Alveolar. 

Ant. Convex. Tumular. Protuberant. 
Believant. Embossed. Intumescent. 

Conceal, v. tr. Con celare, to 

Stn. Hide. Secrete. Disguise. Dissem- 
ble. Screen. Suppress. 

Ant. Beveal. Manifest Exhibit. Avow. 
Confess. Expose. Promulgate. Publish. 

Concede, v. tr. Con and ce- 
dere, to yield. 

Stn. Grant Yield. Allow. Admit 

Ant. Befuse. Withhold. D^ny. Con- 
tradict. Contest Contend. Claim. 

Conceit, n. Concipere, to con- 
ceive. The invention or enter- 
tainment of an idea or project ; 
thence the entertainment of un- 
due ideas respecting self; hence 
vanity and the like. 

Stn. Idea. Notion. Thought AjEfecta- 
tioQ. Vanity. Abstraction. Imagination. 

Ant. Substance. Beality. Verity. Body. 
Concretion. Fact Naturalness. Unaffecl- 
edness. Simplicity. Humility. 

Conceive, v. tr. See Conceit. 

Stn. Imagine. Apprehend. Believe. 
Suppose. Design. 

Ant. Produce. Express. Propound. De- 
clare. Execute. Misconceive. 

Conception, n. See Conceive, 
whose meanings it follows. 

Concentbate,v. tr. Can and 
centrum, a centre. To bring to 
an actual centre, or geneSrally to 
gather into a closer combination. 

Act. and neut. 

Stn. Assemble. Converge. Muitff. 
Congregate. Convene. Draw. Conglo- 
merate. Condense. Localize. CentraUae. 

Ant. Disperse. Scatter. Diamias. De- 

CoNCENTBATiON, «. See Con- 
centrate, whose meanings it fol- 

CoNCEBNjW. ConBiidcemere,to 
look. With fixed look upon an ob- 
ject of interest. So where an un- 
dertaking, too, is a matter of in- 
terest on which the eyes of part- 
ners and subordinates may be 
supposed to look with a common 
interest, it is called, commerci- 
ally, a concern. It is used also of 
cases where the feeling of in- 
terest has suffered disappoint- 
ment ; hence sympathy and sor- 

Stn. Interest Begard. Anxiety. Re- 
gret Sympathy. Sorrow. 

Ant. Indlfferenw*. Disregard. CareleiiS- 
ness. Congratulation. Chuclcling. 

Concerning, prep. 

Stn. About Of. Belating. Regarding. 

Ant. Omitting. Disregarding. 

Concert, n. See Concern. Is 
the practical aspect of concern, 
an acting in common. 

Stn. Union. Combination. Aseodatton. 

Ant. Dissociation. Counteraction. Op- 

Concession, n. See Concede. 

Conciliate, v. tr. Lat. conci' 
Hum, a council. To combine in- 
to a party with a common in- 
terest or purpose; thence ap- 
plied to such treatment from 
mdividuals. Used in a special 
force of bringing back those who 
have taken offence. 

Synonyms and Antonynu. 


Snr. Wia Gain. EniiBt. Faciiy. Fro- 

Akt. Lose. Estrange. Excommunicate. 
meek Alienate. Irritate. Displease. 

CoNonranrr, n. Concinitas. 
Chmns, a mixed drink of spelt- 
grain and wine. Used of style. 

Sxv. Harmony. Nicety. Neatness. Ba- 
lanoe. Admixture. Temper. Taste. Qrace. 

Airr. Hansbness. Abruptness. Bugged* 
nesBL Angularity. Disharmony. 

Ck>NOiSE, adj. Con and cedere, 
to cut. Cut short. Used of style 
in a &yoiirable sense. 

Snr. Oondensed. Terse. Pregnant. Ex- 
pWBul ve. Pointed. Neat Compendious. 

AST. Diffuse. Prolix. Verbose. Cir- 
cmnlocntory. Bambliug. Discursive. 

CONOLAYE, n. Con and davis, 
a key, A eonncil held with 
dosed doors. 

Snr. GoundL Assembly. Bureau. Synod. 
Cabinet. Caucus. 

Aar. Crowd. Multitude. Assemblage. 
Popiilation. Throng. Populace. Mob. 

GoNOLTJDB, V. tr. and int. Con 
and datidere, to shut. As a pro- 
ceeding or a process of reasoning 

Snr. aose.* Terminate. Complete. Fi- 
nisli. Infer. Deduce. Determine. Argue. 

AVT. Begin. Initiate. Start. Open. Pro- 
long. Protract. Perpetuate. Doubt Dispute. 

CONCLUSION, n. See CJonclude. 
CoNCLUSiVB, adj. See Above. 

Rnr. Definitive. Indisputable. Positive. 

AXT. Uncertain. Dubious. Question- 
able. HypoiheticaL Supposititious. Pro- 
blematicaL Theoretical Vague. Indeter- 
minate. Inconclusive. 

Concoct, v. tr. Con and co- 
quere, to cook. 

Snr. Compound. Prepare. Mix. Hatch. 

Airr. Spoil. Upset Disconcoct Dis- 
oonuert Mar. Misprepare. 

Concoction, n. See Concoct. 

Sth. Brew. Mixture. Compound. 
Ant. Crudity. Rawness. Ingredient 

Concomitant, adj. Con and 
comes f a companion. 

Snr. Accompanying. Attending. Ai> 
tendant Synchronous. 

Amt. Preicedent Subsequent Diverse. 
Unooonected. Independent JireUtive 

Concomitant, n. See adj. 

SxK. Accompaniment Accessary. Ad- 

Airr. Intrusion. Di8crepan<gr. Incon- 

CoNOOBD, n. Con and cor, the 
heart. See Accord. 

SYir. Harmony. Accordance. Unani- 
mity. Amity. 

Ant. Discord. Disagreement Variance. 

CoNCOBDANCE, w. See Con- 

CoNCOUBSB, 91. Con cursus, 
cuJiere, to run. 

Stn. Assembly. Assemblage. Crowd. 
Mob. Throng. Convergence. 

Amr. Cabinet Conclave. CabaL Dis- 
persion. DesertiuiL Solitude. 

Concbete, adj. Con and crescert, 
cretus, to grow. From Compact. 
Used technically of binding ma- 
terials for foundations, and 
walks, or floors; and in logic for 
the union of the idea witii the 
subject in which it resides. 

Syn. Firm. Compact. Consolidated. 
Indurated. Embodied. Particularized. 

AuT. Loose. Sloppy. Luteous. Shift- 
ing. Boggy. Swamny. Yielding. Unre- 
sisting. Abstract Generalized. 

CoNCUB, V. int. See Con- 
course. To meet in one point. 
Used analogously. 

Syn. Meet Converge. Concentrate. 

Ant. Diverge. Radicate. Disagree. Dis- 
sent Part Differ. 

Concussion, n, Concutere, to 
sJiake together. A violent meeting 
of two physical objects. See Col- 
lision and Commotion. 

Condemn, v. tr. Con and 
damnum. Loss or penalty. 

Stn. Convict Cast Censure. Denounce. 
Doom. Sentence. 

Ant. Absolve. Acquit Exonerate. 
Pardon. Justify. Approve. 

Condense, v. tr. Con and 
densus, dense. To make compact 
by a compiession ol i^<d2c^i<;^\i^. 


Synonyms and Antonyms, 

Used metaphorically. See Com- 

CJONDBSCEND, V. int. Conde- 
Bcendere. To come down from 
one's own level to that of an- 

Stn. Stoop. Descend. Deign. Vouch- 

Akt. Disdain. Scorn. Spurn. 

Condescension, n. See Con- 

Syn*. AfiFability. Graclousiiess. Favour. 

AxT. Haughtiness. Arrogance. Super- 
ciliousness. Pride. Disdain. Scorn. 

Condign, (k/j. Con and digmts, 
worthy. Used commonly of ill- 

SrN. Deserved. Merited. Meet. Just 
Akt. Undeeerved. Unmerited. Scant. 

Condiment, w. Condire, to 
preserve. A choice, sweet, or 
savoury compound. 

Syn. Sauce. Pickle. Preserve. Season- 

Ant. GalL Wormwood. Aslies. Aloes. 

Condition, n. Coudere, to 
"build. The aggregate of circum- 
stances which make up a state 
of mind or matter. Any one of 
them being regarded as neces- 
sary, the word is used of that 
which must enter into another 
thing, in order rightly to consti- 
tute it, naturally or convention- 

Si-N. state. Case. Mood. Term. Mode. 
QualiQcation. Ilequisite. Stipulation. 

Ant. Relation. Depoiidcuce. Situation. 
Circumstance. Concession. Fulfilment. 

Conditionally, adv. See Con- 

Syn. Relatively. Provisionally. Pro- 
vided. Hypothetically. Coniingently. 

Ant. Absolutely. Unconditionally. Cate- 
gorically. Positively. 

Condole, v. int. Con and 
dofere, dolor, to grieve. It is fol- 
lowed by the prep. with. 

Syn. Sympatbize. Console. Gommiaerale. 

Amt. CoDgratnlate. Exhilarate. EaII]r> 
Disregard. Disoompassionate. DliooiB- 

Condolence, n. See Condole. 

Condonation, n. Condonare^ 
donnm, a grant. A grantmg of ' 

Stn. Pardon. Forgiveness. Annteity. 
Excuse. Indulgence. 

Ant. Rftaliatioo. Punishment. Atone- 
ment. Satis&ction. £xpiati(»i. 

Conduce, v. int. Con and 
ducere, to lead.. 

Stit. Concur. Contribute. AralL Aid. 
Tend. Coincide. Converge. Oon^re. 
Subserve. Lead. 

Ant. Indispose. Counteract. Defieat 

CoNDUOiVB, adj. See Conduce. 

Syn. Contributive. Subsidiary. Promo* 
tive. Causative. Effective. Productive. 

Ant. Preventative. Counteractive. Goo- 
trariant. Repugnant Destructive. 

Conduct, v. tr. See Conduce. 

Stn. Lead. Bring. Transfer. Cany. 
Guide. CoiitroL Manage. Administa. 

Ant. MLslcnd. Miscarry. Mismanage. 
Misconduct. Miaadminister. 

Confabulation, n. Con and 
fahula, from fari, to speak. A 
consultation on a not very im- 
portant matter. See Colloquy. 

Confection, n. Conficere, to 
compound. See Concoction, Con- 
diment, and Compound. Used 
of sweet compounos. 

Syn. Sweetmeat Sugarplum. Gike. 

Ant. <Se« Condiment 

Confederacy, w., Contedeba- 
TION. Con and fadus eris, a 
treaty. By usage, spoken not 
only of national but also personal 
alliances; and used of me rela- 
tionship and of the states re- 

Syn. Alliance. Treaty. League. Unioa 
Ant. Disruption. Secession. Disunion. 

Confederate, adj. See Con- 

Syn. Leagued. Allied. 
Axrc. Dlaoniied. Dissolved. 

Synonyms and Antonyms, 


GoKTEDXBATB, n. See Com- 

CONFEB, V. tr. Con BJidferre, 
to bring. Used of bringing things 
together for consideration or 
comparison ; and also for carry- 
ing to another for presentation. 
Also nsed^ intransitively, for de- 

Stv. Compare. Collate. Deliberate. 
Consult. Give. Present. 

Ant. l>i88ociate. Contrast Hazard. 
Copjecture. Withhold. Withdraw. 

Confess, v. tr. ConfUeor, Is 
used of the avowal of faults or 
offences; or, sometimes, of that 
which the speaker does not feel 
to be such, but treats as such 

8tn. Aver. Avow. Reveal. Disclose. 

AsfT. Dl^ver. Disavow. Suppress. 
SQentiate. Deny. 

COKTESSION, w. See CJonfess. 
It has also the technical sense of 
a creed, or the declaration of it. 

6tk. Creed. Catechism. Articles. Doc- 
trines. Tenets. Profession. Declaration. 

AST. Heresy. Apostacy. Protest. Con- 
demnati<xi. Refutation. Index. Renun- 
ciation. Al|)unitlon. 

CoNPIDANT, n. Con B.nd fides, 
faith. One to whom we confide 
our secrets. 

Stk. Confessor. Adviser. Confederate. 
Ant. Traitor. Betrayer. Rival. 

Confide, v. M. See Confidant. 

Stn. Trust. Lean. Hope. Believe. 
Depend. Rely. 

Akt. Doubt. Distrust. Disbelieve. 

Confidence, n. See above. 

Stk. Trust. Faith. Belief. Assurance. 
Dependence. Reliance. 

Ant. Distrust. Mistrust Doubt Mis- 

Confidential, adj. See above. 
Trusted and trustworthy, or re- 
garded as such. Used also of 
matters requiring secrecy or con- 

Stw. Private. Secret Troatworthy. In- 

AST. Public. Open. Patent Official. 
Treacherous. Insidious. 

Configuration, n. Con and 
figura. Figure. 

Syn. Shape. Outline. Delineation. 
Form. Figure. Conformation. Contour. 

Ant. Shapelessness. Amorpbousneas. 
Formlessness. Indelineation. Contortion. 
Distortion. Deformity. 

Confine, v, tr. Con smd finis, 
a boundary. 

Stn. Circumscribe. Restrict Narrow. 
Enclose. Imprison. Incarcerate. Bind. 

Ant. Dilate. Expand. Extend. Widen. 
Unfasten. Liberate. Loosen. Dlsenclose. 

Confined, ad,f. See Confine 
and Circumscribe. 

Confirm, v. tr, Confirmare, 
To make firm or firmer. Not 
used of things material, but 
moral and mental. 

Stn. Strengthen. Subilitate. Establish. 
Prove. Perpetuate. ISanction. Corroborate. 

Ant. Weaken. Shake. Upset Cancel. 
Abrogate. Repeal Annul. Confute. Re* 

Confirmation, n. See Con- 

Confiscate, v, tr. Can and 
fiscus, the treasury. To seize 
goods on the part of the State. 
In parlance used of common 
transactions, not gravely politi- 

Stn. Seize. Escheat Dispossess. Se- 
questrate. Distrain. 

Ant. Restore. Release. Refund. 

Conflagration, n. Con and 
flagrare, to burn. Com p. a fla- 
grant or burning shame or deed. 

Stn. Ignition. Combustion. Fire. Arson. 

Ant. Extinction. Quenching. Smoulder. 

Conflict, n. Confiigere, ictus, 
to strike. 

Stn. Encounter. Engagement Contest 

Ant. Reconciliation. Pacification. Ami^. 


Bynonyins and Antonyms. 

CoNPLiCTiNa, adj. See Con- 
flict. Said of interests, opinions, 
and statements. 

Syn. Adverse. Opposed. Irrreconcil- 
able. Contradictory. 

Ant. Harmonizing. Ck>nBl8tent Con- 
BentaoeouB. Congruous. 

Confluence, n. Con and 
fiuere, to flow. The meeting of 
waters, as of a tributaiy with its 
river. Used metaphorically. 

Stn. Conflux. Meeting. Concourse. 
Convergence. Concurrence. 

Airr. Beflux. liefluenoe. Dispersion. 
Overflow. DiflQuence. 

Conform, v. int. and tr. Con 
and forma, a form. To agree, or 
cause to agree, in forms of cus- 
tom, belief, or procedure. 

Stw. Agree. Consent Unite. Har- 
monize. Adapt. Fit Tally. Suit 

Akt. Disagree. Dissent Vary. Disso- 
ciate. Secede. Misfit. Dissimilate. Mis- 

Conformation, w. See Con- 
form and Configuration. 

Conformity, n. See Conform. 

Confound, v, tr. Con and 
fundere, part./usus, to pour. To 
pour into a mixed and troubled 
mass. To mix one thing with 
another in ignorance. To throw 
the senses of another into con- 

Stk. Oonftise. Disorder. Trouble. Dis- 
arrange. Intermix. Astound. Abash. 
Mystify. Obscure. 

Amt. Arrange. Classify. Order. Allo- 
cate. Distribute. Dispenjie. UnraveL Enu- 
cleate. Eliminate. Elucidate. Enlighten. 

Confraternity, n. Con and 
fraJter, a brother. See Company. 

Confront, v. tr. Con and 
from, the face. 

Stn. Oppose. Face. Resist InUmi- 
date. Menace. 

Ant. Bally. Encourage. Abet Coun- 

Confuse, v. tr. See Confound. 
It is the same word, but not so 
wmghij m its application. 

Confusion, n. See (kmSose. 

Confutation, n. Cof^fuiare, 
to co7ifute. Comp. Futile. Fth 
tare is from fundere, to pour. 
Confutation is the complete 
drowning or quenching of the 
statement. See ConfirmatiQn. 

Congeal, v. tr. Con and gelu^ 

Stx. Freeze. Benumb. Oongelate. 

Akt. Thaw. Relax Melt DioBolve. 

Congenial, adj. Con and 
genim, the spirit or riature. Suited 
by nature. 

Stk. Natural. Concordant. OMMonaat 
Grateful. Sympathetic Kindred. 

Ant. UnnaturaL Abhorrent DtaoordanL 
Dissonant Disagreeable. UngratefoL An- 
tagonistic Alien. Dissimilar. UncooffeolaL 

Congenital, adj. Con and 
gignere, gtnitus, to beget. 1b used 
of equality of age in persons, and 
also of things inherent from 
birth, especially as naturally in- 
herent in the individual. 

Syn. CueviiL Coetaneous (see Coeval). 
Natural. Inlicrent Innate. Immanent 
Ingrained, incarnate. Connate. Ingene- 

Ant. UnnaturaL Uncongenial. HabitoaL 
Acquin>d. Extraneous. Ascititlons. Ad- 
veniitiouB. Artitidal. Assumed. 

Congestion, w. Ccwiand^wer*, 
to carry. An undue anH ob- 
structive collection of matter. 

Syk. Congeries. Accumulation. Glome* 
ration. Kednndancy. Plethora. 

Ant. Dissipation. Diffusion, dearance. 
Evacuation. CuUiquation. 

Conglomerate, v. tr. See 

Conglutinatb, v. tr. See Ag- 

Congratulate, V. ^r. CWand 
gratulor, from gratus, pleaaant. 
To say or wish pleasant things. 

Syn. Felicitote. 
Akt. See Condole. 

Congregate, v. tr. See Ag- 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


CoNOBXOATiov, n. See Ag- 

CoNQBXSS, n. Congredior, from 
gradiis, to step into one. An open 
and lawful assembly. 

Stk. ParlUnient. Council. Conclave. 
Anembly. Synod. L^sislature. Conven- 

Akt. CubaL Conclave. Mob. 

GONGBUOUS, cutj. Congruere. 
Said to be from grus, a crane ; in 
which case the original meaning 
of Congruons must have been 
gr^arious or collectiye. Such a 
meaning it has entirely lost. 

Stk. Agreeing. Harmonious. Consonant. 
Accordant Coherent. Homogenoous. 

Ant. Discordant Diasunaut Incon- 
gnuMu. Heterogeneous. 

GoKJEOTUBE^ n. Conjicere, to 
east together. 

Snr. Guess. Divination. Surmise. Sup- 

Ant. Computation. Calculation. Rccicon- 
ing. Inference. Proofl Deduction. 

CoNJBCTUBE, n. See verb. 

CoNJOI^7, V. tr. See Concate- 
nate. Lat. conjungere. 

CoNJTJNCTUBB, n, ConJungere, 
to join together. An important 
joining or meeting of circum- 

Snr. Crisis. Turning-point Contin- 
gency. Occasion, fisdgency. Emergency. 

Ant. Arrangement Provision. Pre- 
paration. Ordaiument Course. 

CoNJUKB, V. tr. Conjurare. 
To caXL upon by force of oath. 

Stn. Implore. Importune. Crave. En- 

Ant. Deprecate. Protest Remonstrate. 

Connate, adj. Con and nasci, 
to he bom, natus. See Congenital. 

CoNNATUBAL. Con, With, and 
natura, nature. See Connate. 

Connect, v. tr. Con and 
fteetere, to weave. See Concate- 

Connection, n. See Connect. 

Srtf. Coi^unction. Junction. Unton. 
Association. Concatenation. Relation. 
Affinity. Relevance. 

Ant. Disconnection. DiKJunction. Dis- 
union. Disitudation. Independence. Irre- 

Connive, v. int. Con and n*- 
vere, conn, with nicare and nic- 
tare, to wink. To wink at a 
thing, and so avoid observing it. 
Followed by the prep. at. 

Stn. Wink. Pietermit Pass. Oyec^ 

Ant. Notice. Visit Censure. Inves- 

Connubial, adj. Con and 

nuhre, to nuirry. 

Stn. Conjugal Matrimonial. Nuptial 
Ant. Single. CeUbate. illicit Adul- 

Conquer, v. tr. and int. Con 
and quatrere, to seek. To gain for 
one's self by force. To exert su- 
perior force over another. Ap- 
plied to the persons and the ter- 
ritory of the enemy. 

Stn. Subdue. Vanquish. Overcome. 
Overpower. Overthrow. Defeat Crush. 
Master. Subjugate. 

Ant. FaiL FuU. Retreat Succumb. 
Fly. Submit. Surrender. Lose. Forfeit 
Sacrifice. Resign. Cede. 

Conquest, n. See Conquer. 

Syn. Victory. Triumph. Overthrow. 
Discomfiture. Subjugation. 

Ant. Failure. Defeat Retreat Sur- 
render. Forfeiture. Submission. Discom- 
fiture. Resigiiatiun. Cession. 

Consanguinity, n. Con and 
sanguis, blood. Blood relation* 

Stn. Kindred. Blood. Lineage. 
Ant. Disconnection. Dissociation. 

Conscience, n. Con and scire, 
to know. The innate knowledge 
of right and wrong ; and some- 
times used for its right exercise. 

Syh. Sense. Intuition, integrity. Frin* 

Ant. Irresponsibility. license. 

Conscientious, adj, 6>e Con- 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

Stk. iScrupalous. Strict. Upright. 

Akt. Unscmpiilons. Lax. Unprinci- 
pled. Reprobate. Unconscientious. 

Consciousness, n. See Con- 

SxN. Sense. Sensation. Intelligence. 

Ant. Insensibility. Unconsciousness. 

Conscription, n. Con and 
acrihere. The forcible levying of 

Syv. Impressment. 

Akt. Enlistment Volunteering. 

Consecrate, v. tr. Con and 
aacer, sacred, 

Stv. Dedicate. Devote. Enshrine. Hal- 
low. Sanctify. 

AsT. Desecrate. Secularize. Profane. 

Consecration, n. See Conse- 

CoNSEOUTivB, adj. Con and 
8fqui, secutus, to folloiu. Said 
of speech and style, following in 
dxle order. 

Stn. Orderly. Arranged. Coherent. 

Ant. Disordered. Undigested. Inco- 
herent. Rambling. Inconsequent. Incon- 
secutive. Discursive. 

Consent, v. int. Consentire. 
To think or feel together with 
a proposal or proposition, fol- 
lowed grammatically by the 
prep. to. 

Stn. Submit. Agree. Acquiesce. 
Ant. Resist Disagree. Dissent De- 
dine. Refuse. 

Consentaneous, ad. Consen- 
tient. See Consent. 

Consequence, «. Consequentia. 
Con and sequi, to follow. The 
process of following from a cause 
or reason, and the result so en- 
suing. Used also for the import- 
ance which is implied in such an 

Srv. Effect Issue. Result Inference. 
Coherence. Deduction. Conclusion. Im- 
portance. Note. Moment Dignity. 

Ant. Cause. Causation. Antecedence. 
Premiss. Origin. Datum. Postulate. Axiom. 

Unimportance. Insignificance. IncoDse- 
qnence. Inconsecutiveness. Irrelevance. 
Meanness. Paltriness. 

Consequent, adj. See Conse- 

Syk. Inferred. Deduced. Remltant 
Accruing. Attendant 

Ant. Assumed. Conjectured. Antece- 
dent Conducive. Productive. Inoooee- 

Consequential, adj. See 
above. Has both senses of Con- 

Syn. Coherent Connected. Cogent 
Logical. Pompous. Arrogant 

Ant. Incoherent Disconnected. InvaUd. 
IllogicaL InconsequentiaL Affable. Con- 
versible. Accessible. Ea^. Humble- 

Consequently, adv. See 

Syn. Accordingly. Therefore. See Ae- 

Ant. Irrelevantly. Inconsequently. 

Conservation, n. Con servare, 

to keep, 

Syn. Preservation. Keeping. Protection. 
Guardianship. Maintenance. Stabilitatloo. 

Ant. Neglect Exposure. Abrogatian. 
Destruction. Abolition. 

Conservative, adj,, Con- 
serve, V. tr. See Conservation. 

Consider, v. tr. and int. 
Considerate, Der. uncertain. 
Either con and seder e, to sit; to 
sit close to a subject ; or sidus, a 
star. To form, as it were, astro- 
logical observations and infer- 
ences. Nevt. and act. 

Syn. Attend. Revolve. Meditate. Think. 
Reflect Investigate Regard. Observe. 
Judge. Opine, infer. Deduce. Deem. 

Ant. Disregard. Ignore. Pretennit 
Despise. Guess. Coi^ecture.. Hazard. 

Considerable, adj. See above. 

Syn. Important. Large. Extensive. 
Ant. Unimportant Trifling. Incon- 

Considerate, adj. See above. 
Given to consider the position or 
requirements of others, or one'i 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 


Snr. ThonghtfftaL Attentive. Forbear- 
ing. Unielflah. Judicious. GarefuL Cau- 

Ayr. Thoughtless. Inconsiderate. In- 
attentive. Bude. Overbearing. Selfish. 
Ii^udidous. Bash. CarelesSb 

GoNSiDEBATioN, n. See Con- 
sider. Add. 

Snr. Importance. Bespect. Oonsequence. 
Motive, inducement. Gumpensation. Sub* 
■idy. Bemuneration. 

Amt. Meanness. Insignificance. Unim- 

CoNsiDEBiNa. See above. Used 

SxN. Because. Begarding. 

Abt. Irrespectively. Independently. 

Consign, v. tr. Con and 
siffnum, the sign or signature of 
a document of trust. See As- 

The difference between Assign 
and Consign is that the former 
locatcMS, without implying cus- 
todj^ or moral responsibility, 
which are implied by the latter. 

Consignment, n. See Consign. 

Stn. Custody. Commission. Delegation. 
Akt. Mlscommitment. Misconsignment. 

Consist, v. w. Con and sistere, 
to stand. Is the neuter form of 
Constitute, and is equivalent ' to 
be constituted,* and is followed 
^y of, except where it is equi- 
valent to Cohere. See Constitute. 

Consistency, n. See Consist. 
Physical, moral, and mental co- 
hwence or constitution of parts, 
with the additional idea, in the 
latter cases, of propriety in such 

Snr. Consistence. Composition. Sub- 
MateriaL Amalgamation. Corn- 
Mass. Density. Solidity. Close- 
Comi)actncsi}. Ctjhcrence. Uni- 
famity. Harmony. Analogy. Proportion. 

Akt. Volatility. Vaporousness. Sub- 
tOlty. Tenuit}'. Sublimation. Incoherence, 
boonsistency. Incongruity. Disproportion. 
CbDinuiety. Contradiction. 

Consistent, adj. See Consisi- 

Consociation, n. See Asso- 
ciation and Company. 

Console, v. tr. Con and sdtui. 
Is to relieve a person of the feel- 
ing of solitude under trouble. 
Sometimes applied directly to 
the feeling consoled. 

Stn. Believe. Soothe. Solace. Comfort. 

Ant. Congratulate. Felicitate. Aggra- 
vate. 0pprp>8. Disturb. Trouble. Annoy. 
Irritate. Disreconcile. Disaatisty. 

Consolidate, v. tr. Con and 
sdiduR, sdld. To make firm or 
firmer by increased closeness of 
parts, or to unite firmly two 
things in one. 

Syn. Condense. Incorporate. Conglnti- 
nate. Cement. Solder. Bond. Weld. 
Thicken. Strengthen. Fuse. 

Ant. Weaken. Dissipate. Disunite. 
Dismember. Disintegrate. Colliquate. Dis- 
solve. Melt. Vaporize. Sublimate. At- 
tenuate. Triturate. Pulverize. 

Consonant, adj. Con and 
sonare, to sound. Harmonious. 
See Congruous and Consistent. 

CoNSOBT, V. n. Con and sors, 
a part or lot. Followed by the 
prep. with. 

Stn. Associate. Herd. Company. Fra- 

Ant. Avoid. Abandon. Excommuni- 
cate. Black-ball. Banish. Exclude. 

Conspicuous, adj. Conspicere, 
to hthold. Easily seen. 

Stn. Visible. Manifest. Prominent 
Salient. Observable. Noticeable. Magnified. 

Ant. Invisible. Inconspicuous. Inob- 
servable. Uunoticeablc. Microscopic. 

Conspibaoy, n. Con and 
spirare, to breathe. A union for 
a common purpose — by usage, 
applied unfavourably — so close 
that the members mingle their 
aspirations in secret. 

Si-N. Intrigue. CabaL Plot Treason. 

Ant. Legislation. Parliament Congress. 
Synod. Comp. Conclave and CaboL 


Synonyms and Antonyms, 

CoNSFiBK, V. int. See Con- 

Constant, adj\ Con and stare, 
to stand, Stcuidmg firm, regular, 
or true. 

Stn. Uniform. Regular. Invariable. 

Perpetual. Continuous, firm. Faithful. 
True. TruBtworthy. 

Amt. Irregular. Exceptional. Variable. 
Casual. AccidentaL incidental. Broken. 
Interrupted. Inconstant Fickle. Untrust- 
worthy. Faithless. Treacherous. False. 

Consternation. Con and 
gternere, to strew or throw down, 
A knock-down blow of astonish- 

Syn. Amazeraoit. Bewilderment As- 
tonishment Astounding. Horror. Terror. 

Abt. Encouragement Boldness. Fear- 
lessness. Assurance. Anticipation. Wel- 
come. Expectation. Greeting. Congratu- 

CoNSTiTTJBNT, n, Con and 
stituOf from sisto, to place or 
stand. Used of persons politi- 
cally, and of things as parts of a 
compound whole. 

Stx. Voter. Returner. Sender. De- 
puter. Appointer. Patron. Ingredient 
Element Component 

Ant. Representative. Nominee. Com- 
mittee. Constitution. System. Whole. 

Constitute, v. tr. See Con- 

Syn. Form. Make. Compose. Organize. 

Akt. Dissolve. Destroy. Discompose. 
Decompose. Disorganize. Abrogate. AnnuL 

Constitution, n. See above. 
Applied to the human tempera- 
ment of body, forms of govern- 
ment, and to compound condi- 
tion generally ; sometimes to such 
laws or regulations as conserve 
social organizations. 

Syk. Temperament Habit Nature. 
Government Polity. State. Consistence. 
Composition. Substance. Organization. 
Structure. R^n^hition. Law. 

Ant. Accident. Habituation. Modifica- 
tion. Interference. Anarchy. Despotism. 
TynoDy. BebelhoiL Revolution. DibbL- 

pation. Disorgsnixationl. DBinolWcn. 
stmction. ' 

Constrain, v.^r; 
See Coerce. 


Construct, v. tr. Con and 

struere, to lay, 

Syn. Compose. Build. Fabricate. Fiofm. 

Akt. Derange. Destroy. Overthrow. 

CoNsfeuoTiON, n. See Con- 
struct. Used also for the specific 
formation of statements, or the 
shape which facts may take in 
the mind. 

Syk. Composition. Fabrication. Erection. 
Fabric. Edifice. Reading. Understanding. 
Interpretation. View. 

Ant. Dislocation. Dismemberment De- 
molition. Displacement Misplacement 
Misconstruction. Misunderstanding. Mis- 
conception. Misinterpretation. 

Construe, v, tr. Same word 
as Construct; but, for the sake 
of marking a difference, it re- 
tains its present form : Constmct 
being used of the process of put- 
ting together things physic^ or 
analogous; Construe, of the re- 
solution of sentences or state- 
ments into their grammatical 
force and meaning. 

Syn. Parse. Resolve. Analyze. Intei^ 
pret Understand. Render. 

Ant. Nullify. Neutralize. Mysttff. 
Distort. Falsify. Misconstrue. Mklnter^ 
pret Misconceive. Mistranslate. 

Consult, v, tr. and int, Con- 
stdere, part, consultus. Act, and 
neut. To consult together, or to 
consult another. AJso used in 
the sense of promote, the end 
being taken for the process. 

Syn. Interrogate. Canvass. Qaestko. 
Deliberate. Confer. Promote. 

Ant. Resolve. Explain. Ezponnd. 
Direct Instruct Dictate. Oounteract 

Consume, v, tr, and int. Coti' 
sumere. To take up and alto- 
gether, so as to leave nothing 
behind. This may be done with 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


economical purpose, or from 
wantomiess or purpose of de- 
struction. It has the int. sense 
of, to waste away. 

Stx. Use. Appropriate. AiBBimilate. 

Occupy. Abeorfo. £iDpl«»y. Utilize. Waste. 

Debtroy. Spoil. Barage. Expand. Pine. 

Wither. Decay. 

AxT. Reject. Supersede. Disuse. Dis- 

Consummate, v. tr. Con and 
nimjnus, topmost ; summa, a sum. 
To bring to a point or head. 

Stk. Complete. Perfect Execute. Con- 
clude. Seal. Eud. 

Ant. NeKiect. Drop. Interrupt. Nullify. 
Undo. Baffle. Frustrate. Mar. Spoil. 

Consummate, adj. See verb, 

Stk. Perfect Egregious. Excellent 
Complete. Finished. 

Ant. Imperfect Rude. Common. Me- 
diocre. Faulty. Defective. Ordinary. 

Consummation, n. See Con- 
Bmnmate, v. 

Consumption, n. See Con- 

Contact, n, Contingere, con- 
tactus. To come close enough to 

Stn. Touch. Contiguity. Continuity. 
Appo6iti<H]. Adjunction. 

Ant. Proximity. A^jacenoe. Interval. 
Interruption. DLsconntction. Separation. 
Distance. Isolation. Non-contact 

Contagious, adj. See Contact. 
Produced by, or as if by, the in- 
fluence of contact. 

SrN. Catching. Communicated. Trans- 
ferred. Transmitted. 

Akt. Infectious. Sporadic. Endemic. 
Antipathetic. Preventative 

Contain, v, tr, Continere, To 
hold together or inside. 

Stn. Hold. Include. Comprise. Inclose. 
Akt. Drop. Exclude. Extrude. Emit 
Discbarge. Afford. Yield. Produce. 

Contaminate, v. tr, Contamv- 
nare, taminare, probably con- 
nected with tangere. Implying 
a defiling touch. Used physi- 
cally and morally. 

Stn. Defile. Taint Corrupt Sully 
BefouL SoiU 

Akt. Purify. Cleanse. Lave. Clarify. 
Sanctify. Chasten. 

Contemn, v, tr, Lat. contem- 

8ns. Despise. Disdain. Deride. Scora 
Slight. Disrfgard. 

Ant. Respect Revere. Venerate. Re- 

Contemplate, v, tr. From 
templum, a space of the heavens 
marked out for augury. Comp. 
one of the derivations given for 
Consider. It is used both as act. 
and neut. 

Stn. MediUte. Behold. Observe. Pon- 
der. Study. Purpose. Design. Intend. 

Ant. Ignore. Overlook. Waive. Aban- 

Contemporary, (Kfy. Con and 
tempus, time. See Coetaneous 
and Coeval. 

Contempt, n. See Contemn. 

Contemptible, adj. See Con- 

Stk. Despicable. Mean. Disreputable. 
Paltry. Trifling. Trivial. 

Ant. Important Grave. Weighty. 
Honourable. Respectable. Venerable. 

Contend, v. int. Con and 
tendere. To stretch or strive for 
an object, with one's self or 
against another. 

Stk. Strive. Compete. Cope. Contest 
struggle. Grapple. Argue. Maintain. Dis* 
agree. Wrangle. 

Akt. Resign. Concede. Allow. Re* 
linquish. Forego. Surrender. Waive. 

Content, adj. See Contain. 
In the state of containing enough, 
or being full. 

Stn. FuU. Satisfied. Willing. Re. 

Akt. Unsatisfied. Dlssatisfled. Un« 

wiilhig. Reluctant Discontented. 

Contented, adj. See Content. 

Contention, n. See Contend. 

Contentious, a^f. See Con- 
tend. Given to contention. 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 

Stk. Litigious. Perveree. Wayward. 
Splcoietic. Cantankerous. Fjcoeptioua. 
- AST. Pacific Obliging. Considerate. 
Obsequious. Accommodating. Eai^. 

Conterminous, adj\ Con and 
terminus, a boundary. Having 
the same or equal limits; also 
has the boundaries contiguous. 

Stk. Commensurate. A4)oinin£^ Con- 
tiguous. Abutting. 

Ant. UnequaL Inconformable. Ad- 
jacent Proximate. Remote. Inconter- 

Contest, w. and v. Contestari. 
A struggle before witnesses. JSce 

Context, n. Con and texere, 
to weave. That into which a par- 
ticular passage is, as it were, 

Stn. Tenor. Treatment Texture. Com- 
position. Matter. 

Akt. Text Quotation, atation. Pas- 
sage. Extract 

Contexture, n. See Texture. 

Contiguous, adj. See Con- 
tagious, Adjacent, and Conter- 

Continence, n. See Contain. 

Sra. Abstinence. Self-controL Befirain. 
n. Chastity. Sobriety. Temperance. 

Amt. Licentiousness. Self-indulgence. 
Incontinence. Dissoluteness. intemper- 

Contingent, adj. Contingere, 
to touch. Touching upon another 
thing, so as to move with and 
depend upon it. Used abstract- 
edly, in me sense of hypotheti- 

Stk. Dependent Incidental Resultant 
Coefficient Hypothetical. Uncertain. Con- 

Akt. Positive. Absolute. Independent 
Unmodified. Unaffected. Uncontrolled. 

Contingent, n. See adj. 

Syn. Contribution. Subsidy. Supply. 
Succour. Reinforcement Auxiliaries. Do- 
nation. Subscription. 

Ant. Anny. Sum. Host Campaign. 
JTuod. Capita]. 

Continually, adv. Coniinti* 
are^ from continere. To hold to- 
gether over successive periods of 

Stk. Constantly. Persistently. Re- 
peatedly. Frequently. Continuously. 

Akt. Casually. Occasionally. Con- 
tingently. Somethnes. Rarely. FItftallj. 

Continuat:ion, n. See Con- 
tinually. It is applied to moral 
or mental continuity. Where 
applied to external action, it in- 
volves also sustained action of 
the will, as, 'the continuation 
of a walk.' Physical sequence of 
matter is called continuity; the 
unbroken operation of physical 
influences, continuance, as, 'a 
continuance of fine weather.' 
Continuance is also sometimes 
used for continuation. Succes- 
sion implies series, not uni- 
formity ; so, ' a succession of fine 
days,' or, ' a continuance of fine 

Stk. Sequence. Continuance. Sucoes- 
sion. Connection. Extension. Prolongs* 
tion. Perpetuation. Concatenation. 

Akt. Interruption. Cessation. Disocm- 
tinuance. Break. Gap. 

Continue, v. int. See above. 

Syk. Labt Persist Endure. Persevare. 

Ant.' Cease. Fail Stop. Fftuse. Break. 


CoNTiNxnTT, n. See Continua- 

Contortion, n. Con and 
torquere, part, tortus, to tvAft. 

Syk. Twisting. Writhing. Wresting. 
Distortion, Deformity. Convolution. 

Akt. Symmetry. Uniformity. Shapdi* 
ness. Configuration. Contour. 

Contour, n. Con and Lat 
tornus, a lathe, in reference to its 
power of producing a rounded 
smoothness of surface. See Con- 

Contrabanix, adf: Cmiira^ 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


againsi, and hamnum, or handumy 
a proclamation. See Abandon. 

Syk. Illicit Interdicted. Smuggled. 

AnT. Lidt. Uninterdtcted. Free. 

Contract, v. tr, Contrahere, 
To draw togetiier. First, into 
narrower limits than formerly; 
hence applied, analogonsly, to 
the gathering into a document 
of the conditions of an agree- 
ment; and, lastly, the informal 
act, or the feeling, of agreement, 
as, to contract a friendship, ac- 
quaintance, or a feeling of friend- 

Stn. Abridge. Abbreviate. Betrench. 
GortaiL Fonn. Agree. 

Ant. Expand. Aniplifj. Dilate. 
Elongate. Beverae. Cancel Abandon. 

Contract, n. See va^b. 

Sin. Covenant. Agreement Bond. 
Ant. Promise. Ai»arance. Parole. 

Contradict, v. tr. Contra, 
against, and dicere, to speak. To 
8i)eak or argue in opposition or 
confutation. Applicable to per- 
sons, statements, and eyidence. 

Syk. Oppose. Dissent Negative. Deny. 
Disprove. Cunfiite. Refute. Gainsay. Con- 

Ant. State. Propound. Maintain. 
Argue. Confirm. Affirm. Endorse. 

Contradiction, n. See Con- 
tradict Used of mutual repug- 
nance of terms or statements. 

Stn. Repugnance. Contrariety. Incon- 
sistciicy. Incumpatibility. 

Akt. Harmony. Coincidence. Con- 
sentaneity. Concurrence. Convergence. 
Statement. AfQrmation. Proof. 

Contradistinotion, n, A 
distinction amounting to opposi- 
tion ; or distinction of a marked 

Contraposition, n. Contra, 
and positio, from ponere, to place. 
Opposite location. Placing. 

Syk. Oppoaiteness. Confruntment 

A>iT. Side. Flan!& Collatenliieee, [ 

CoNTRARious, odj. Said of 
disposition. See Contentious. 

Contrary, adj\ Contrarius, 
contra, against, 

Stn. Opposed. Opposite. Repugnant 
Adverse. Incompatible, inconsistent 

Ant. Agreeing. Consentaneous. Com- 
patible. Kindred. Coincident Consistent. 

Contrast, n. Contra and 
sistere, to place, 

Stn. Opposition. Contrariety. Dissimi- 

Ant. Harmony. Similarity. Comparison. 

CoNTRAVBOTB, V, tr. Contra 
and venire, to come. To come in 
opposition to the statements or 
judgments of another. See Con- 

Contribute, v, Contrihuere, 
To give or tend to a common 
fund, or for a common purpose. 
Act, and neut, ; as the latter, it 
has the force of conduce. 

Stn. Conduce., Add. Subscribe. Give. 
Tend. Snpply. 

Akt. Refuse. Withhold. Misconduce. 
Misapply. Contravene. 

Contribution, n. See Contri- 

Stn. Donation. Oblation. Offering. Sub- 
scription. Subsidy. Aid. Assistance. 

Ant. Withholding. Betention. Disal- 
lowance. Misappropriation. Misapplica- 
tion. Contravention. 

CONTBITION, n, Conterere, 
tritus. See Attrition. 

CoNTBiVANCB, «. See Con- 

CoNTBiVB, V, tr. Fr. trouver, 
to find. Conn. Treasure-trove. 
To find out ways in general, and 
the right way in particular, as 
the result of research and skill. 

Stn. Plan. Design. Arrange. Fabri- 
cate. Adapt. Manage. Scheme. Devise. 

Akt. Hit Hazard. Run. Chance. 
Venture. Bungle. Over- vault Over- do. 

CoNTBiviNG, adj\ See Con- 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

ArtfuL Designing, 
igenioos. Clever. In- 

Stn. Scheming^ 
Deep. Cunning. ln| 

Amt. Stolid. Inapt. Resonrceleaa. Un- 
ready. Artless. Uninventlve. 

Control, v. tr. Fr. contre 
roUe. The roll was rotulm, a 
parchment wound on a cylinder 
of wood, and used as a register 
of deeds and accounts. 

Syn. Check. Curb. Moderate. Regulate. 
Restrain. Coerce. Manage. Administer. 

Ant. Neglect Abandon. Licence. Libe* 
rate. Free. Mismanage. Misconduct 

Control, n. See verb. 
Controversy, n. Contra, 
against, and vertere, to turn. The 
turning of one against another 
in debate. 

Syn. Dispute. Disagreement Disputa- 
tion. Wrangle. Bickering. Question. 

Ant. Agreement Unanimity. Coinci- 

Controvbrtiblb, adj. See 
Controversy. That may be made 
matter of controversy. 

Syn. Questionable. Dubious. 

Akt. Unquestionable. Incontrovertible. 

Contumacy, n. Contumacia, 
from temnere, to despise authority, 
or tumere, to swell against it. 

Syn. Rebelliousness. Stubbornness. Res- 
tiveness. Waywardness. Self-will. Uu- 

Akt. Sabmissiveness. Docility. Tract- 
ableness. Servility. Cringing. Fawning. 

Contumely, n. See Contu- 

Syn. Contemptuonsness. Scomftilness. 
Arrogance. Disrespect Obloquy. 

Ant. Respect R^^rd. ObligiMuess. 
Accommodation. Considerateness. Fawn- 
ing. Flattery. Adulation. Obsequiousness. 

Contusion, n. Con and tun^ 
dere, tusus, to beat or knock, 

Syn. Bruise. Knock. Blow. 

Ant. Soothing. Smoothing. Stroking. 
Caress. Pat 

Convalescence, n, Convales- 
cere, from valere, to be strong. The 
state of health, especially in re- 
ference topreviouB sickness. 

Stk. Health. Sanity. Vigour. Robust 
nesB. Hardiness. Haleness. Recoveiy. 

Amt. Infirmity. Weakness. Unhealtbi- 
ness. Sickliness. Complaint IH^ease. 
Malady. Ailment Prostration. Sinking. 

Convene, act, and int. Con 
and venire, to come. Used only 
of persons. 

Syn. Assemble. Collect Qather. Sank' 
mon. Muster. Levy. Convoke. 
Ant. Disperse. Dismiss. Disband. 

Convenient, adj. See Con- 
vene. Coming opi)ortunely or 
conducively. The older sense 
was, fitting, decent, becoming. 

Syn. Handy. Apt Helpful Commo. 
dious. Useful. Timely. Seasonable. Op- 

Ant. Inconvenient Awkward. Ob* 
structive. Useless. -Superfluous. Unsea- 
sonable. Untimely. Inopportune. 

Convention, n. See Convene. 
Has the sense of an assembly for 
a common purpose, and the re- 
sult of deliberation, in the i^pe 
of compact. It differs from 
compact as being to nations or 
societies what compacts are to 

Syn. Assemblage. Meeting. Gathering. 
Conference. Cabinet Convocation. Con- 
gress. Session. Synod. Treaty. Compact 

Ant. Recess. Non-convention. Disso- 
lution. Prorogation. Promise. Under- 
standing. Word, Parole. 

Conventional, adj. See Con- 
vene. Based upon social cus- 

Syn. Customary. UsuaL Prevalent. 

Ant. Unusual Unsocial. Illegal Com- 
pulsory. Statutable. Immutable. Natural 

Conventual, adj. See Con- 
vene. Belonging to the convent. 

Syn. Monastic. Regular. Coeuobitual 
Ant. Laic. Secular. Social 

Converge, v, int. Con and 
vergere, to tend or slope. Used of 
things among themselves, or one 
to another, or a common point 

Synont/ms and Antonyms. 

Snr. Tend. Bear. Incline. Lead. Co- 
incide. Conduce. Contribute. Meet Con- 
centrate. Corradiate. 

A21T. Diverge. Deviate. Radiate. Mix. 
Foul. Entangle. 

CoNYBBSANT, adj. Con and 
vermrif to be versed, HayiDg the 
iDiowled^ of experience. 

Snr. Familiar. Acquainted. Experi- 
enced. Versed. Learned. 

Aht. Unfamiliar. Unacquainted. Ig< 
norant. Unversed. Unlearned. Strange. 

CoNVBBSATiON, w. See Con- 
versant. Applied by usage to 
commnniiy of speech, thongh, in 
old times, the word was equi- 
valent to mode of life. 

Snr. Converse. Dlalogae. Colloquy. 
Oonfatralation. Cbat 

Abt. Speech. Oration. Harangue. 
BabeL Jabber. Babble. Prattle. Dribble. 
Mutter. Soliloquy. Apostrophe. Mono- 
logue. Interpellation. lutermption. Silence. 

C0NVBB8E, V. See Conveissr 

CoNVEBSB, adj. See above. 
Denotes dualiiy of opposition. 

Snr. 0i^)06ite. Reverse. Contrary. Op- 
nosed. ContradictoTy. Counter. Correlative. 

Akt. Identical Same. One. Insepa- 
rable. Indistinguishable. Connate. Uni- 
fomL Direct Primary. Unlnverted. 

C0NVEB8IBLB, adj\ See above. 
Comp. Affable. 

Conversion, w. Con and 
vertere, to turn. Implies the 
changed state of the whole per- 
son or thmg; also the relative 
change of two things. 

Snr. Change. Alteration. Transmuta- 
tion. Transformation. Intercfaange. 

AxT. Persistence. Permanence. Con- 
servation. Retention. Identity. 

Convert, v. int. See Con- 
version. With the additional 
eense of apply. 

Snr. Change. Alter. Transmute. Trana- 
Ibnn. Apply. Appropriate. 

AxT. CooBerve. Perpetuate. StabfUtote. 
stereotype. Clinch. Alienate. Divert 
UiaapproprUte. Mbapply. 


Convertible, adj. See above. 
In strict logic, said of terms 
which may interchangeably form 
the subject or predicate of a pro- 
position; as, the aggregate of 
the English letters is the Eng- 
lish alphabet; or, the English 
alphabet is the aggregate of the 
English letters; so, the terms 
are convertible. All trees are 
vegetables; here the terms are 
not convertible, for there are 
vegetables which are not trees. 
But, in nsage, the word has ex- 
tended to mean words or terms 
which, generally speaking, may 
be used interchimgeably. 

Snr. Identical. Commensorate. Con- 
terminous. Equivalent. Equipollent 

Akt. Variant Incommensurate. Un- 
equivalent Contrary. Contradictory. Con- 

Convey, v. tr. Con and vehere, 
to carry. To carry bodily; im- 
plying, however, some ddSnite 
direction and end. Used also 
metaphorically, as, to convey an 

Sn, Take. Carry. TrBuCer. Trans- 
port Remove. 

AvT. Bring. Addooe. Fetch. Drop. 
House. Slow. Deposit 

Conveyance, n. See Convey. 
Used loosely for carriage, as a 
means of personal conveyance. 

Convict, v. tr. See Convince. 
Used of 1^^ convincement of 
crime or misdemeanour. 

Snr. Sentence. Condemn. 
Airr. Acquit Discharge. 

Conviction, n. See Convict. 
Used also for assurance. 

Snr. Aaxurance. Persuasion; Belief. 
Akt. Doubt Misgiving. Disbelief. 

Convince, v. tr. Con and 
vincere, to overccnrw. To over- 
come objections of the intellect, 
as to persuade is to overcome 
objectioiiBoi ^Jaft^i^ "^i^nvswi,^ 


Synonyms and Antonyms, 

it does not necessarily imply pre- 
Tious resistance, but only igno- 
rance of mind. It is followed by 
the fyrep. of. 

Stk. Persuade. Enlighten. Inoculate. 

Amt. Misgnide. Mislead. Misadvise. 
Mystify. Pozaae. Perplex. Mispersuade. 

CoNVIVTAL, adj, Convivium, 
a repast Said of meetings and 
persons ; the idea of feasting, as 
m the term Festive, being not 
rigidly present. 

Stk. Huspitable. Social. Festive. 
Jovial. Jolly. 

Ant. Inhospitable. Unsociable. Un- 
neighboarly. Churlish. Abstemious. Aus- 
tere. Ascetic. 

Convoke, Convooatb, Con- 
vocation. Con and vocare, to 
call. See Convene and Conven- 

Convolution, w. Con and 
voluere, to roll, vdutus, A coiling 

Stn. CoiL Involution. Implication. 
Spiral. Twist Contortion. 

AifT. Unravelling. Explication. Evolu- 
tion. £Inucleation. 

Convoy, n, and v. Con and 
via, a way (yia^ium, whence 
voyage). Is to the sea what 
Escort is on land. 

Stn. Escort Guard. Protection. Con- 

Ant. Loss. BetrayaL Capture. Inter- 

Convulse, v. it. Cm and 
vellere, to tear or puU, part, vuhtis. 
To produce internal agitation. 

Stn. Agitate. Shake. Perturb. 
Ant. Soothe. Collocate. Compose. As- 

Convulsion, n. See Convulse. 

Stk. Agitation. Commotion. Perturba- 
tion. Tumult Turmoil. 

Ant. Quiescence. Subsidence. Soothing. 
Pacification. Arrangement Composure. 

Cool, v. tr. Germ. Used 
physically and analogously. 

Snr. Ventilate. Befrigerate. Allay. 
l^wjji Temper. Mod&rate, 

Ant. Warm. Heat Cbafe. Irritetfc 
Exciie. Inflame. 

Cool, adj. See Cool, v, 

Syk. Cold. Catan. Indifferent Setf- 

Akt. Warm. Hot Ardent Eager. 

Coolness, n. See above. 

Syk. Coldness. Calmness. Indifference. 
Sel^po^8e88ion. Distance. 

A>*T. Heat Ardour. Eagerness. F^iS' 
sion. Excitement Warmth. Heartiness. 

Coop, v. tr. Of Northern 
origin. Conn, with Cup. See 

Co-OPEBATB, V, int. Con and 
opus, a work. Followed by the 
prep, with. 

Stk. Assist Abet Conspire. 

Ant. Thwart. Oppose. Countecact 

Co-OPBEATION, n. See Co- 

Co-OEDiNATB, odj, Con and 
ordo, a rank. Either belonging 
to the same order or class ; or, 
more correctly, belonging to tie 
same rank or degree. 

Stk. Consoclate. Coincident Equal. 
Coequal Equivalent Tantamount Equi- 
pollent Interequivajent 

Akt. Extraneous. Diverse. Alien. Un- 
equal. Unequivalent Incoordinate. Dis» 

Copartner, n. See Partner. 

CopB, V, int. Fr. couper, to 
cut. Coup, a bhuf. Conn. Copse 
or Coppice, where the wood is 
frequently cut for fuel. It is 
followed by the prep, with. 

Stk. Contend. Vie. Struggle. Strive. 

Akt. Negotiate. Arbitrate. Ccnnpro- 
mise. Surrender. 

Copious, adJ, Copia. Plenty. 
See Abundant. 

Copy, n. See Copious. A con- 
trivance for multiplying an ori- 

Stk. Imitation. Portraiture. Likeness. 

Ant. Origbial. Prototype. Modd. Ex- 
ample. PalvexQ. 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


OOBDIAL, adj. Cor, the heart, 
Stk. Warm. Earnest. Affectionate. 


Akt. Cold. Distant. FormaL Gere- 


Ck>BE, w. See Cordial. 

Stn. Heart Kernel. Nucleus. Centre. 

Ant. Face. Exterior. Aspect Ap- 
pearance. Complexion. Ostenslbility. Pre- 

CoBNEB, n, Ccmttf a horn. 
The angle made by the horns, 
the head being the point of meet- 
ing. By nsage, any localiiy of a 
hollow or secluded kind. 

Stx. Carlty. Hole. Nook. Recess, 

Ant. Coin. Abutment Prominence. 
Salience. Angle. Protrusion. Elbow. Pro- 
jection. Convexity. 

GoBNiOE, n, Fr. Comp. with 
Crown. A moulded projection. 

Stn. Beading. Moulding. Projection. 
Atrr. Entablature. Fluting. Corrugation. 
Cavity. Groove. 

CoBOLLABT, n. CoToUa, a 
chapltit, from corona, cordlarium, 
A gift of elegance, as, a chaplet 
or bouquet of flowers, crownmg, 
or superadded to the due wages. 
Hence, an additament of an in- 
ferential nature. 

Stk. Inferrace. Deduction. Additament 

AnT. Problem. Proposition. 

Corjms oru, the body, 

Sts. Bodily. Fleshly. Physical. 
Ant. Mental. Moral Spiritual 

CoBPS, n. Corpus, a hody. Or- 
ganized more especially for mili- 
tary purposes. 

Stn. Body. Regiment. Band. Squadron. 
Troop. Company. 

Ant. Army. Host Force. Mass. Or- 
ganization. Aggregate. 

CoBPSE, 71, See Corps. By 
usage restricted to dead bodies. 

Stn. Carcase. Remains. Bust Clay. 
Ant. Soul Person. Individual 

Corpulent, adj. See Corps. 

Stn. 8tt»ut Portly. Burly. Fat. 
Ant. Lean. 'Jliin. Attenuated. Slight 

CoBPUSCLE, n. See above. 

Stn. Atom. Particle. Monad. Jot. 

Ant. Mass. Body. Aggregate. Or- 
ganization. Matter. 

CoBPUSCULAB, adj. See Cor- 


TION, n. See Converge. 

CoBBECT, adj. Con and regere, 
to rule. Whence Eegular or 
Eule. True to a given standard 
of morals, mathematics, logic, 
art, &c. See Accurate. 

Stn. True. Exact. Faultless. Right 
Akt. False. Untrue. Incorrect Faulty. 

COBBEOT, V. See adj, 

Stn. Chasten. Punish. Rectify. Amend. 

Ant. Spare. Falsify. Corrupt 

Corrective, adj', and n, 

8th. Regulative. Alterative, preventa- 
tive. Restorative. 

Ant. Confirmative. Conducive. Provo- 
cative. Stimulative. Intensitive. 

Correlation, n. Con and 
referre, relatus, to refer, 

Stn. Correspondence. Interrelation. 
Interdependence. Mutuality. Apposition. 

Ant. Contradiction. Independence. In- 

Correlative, adj\ See Cor- 

CORRESPOND/ V, int, Con and 
respondere, to respond, 

Stn. Match. Tally. Fit Answer. 
Agree. Suit. Harmonize. 

Ant. Vary. DifTer. Disagree. Jar. 

Correspondence, n. See 
Correspond. It has also the tech- 
nical sense of correspondence by 

Stn. Fitness. Agreement Answerable- 
ness. Match. Congeniality. Communica- 
tion. Letter. Writing. Despatches. 

Ant. Conversation. Colloquy. Con- 
fabulation. Reservation. Withdrawal. 
Withholding. Non-intercourse. Difference. 

Corrigible, adj. See Correct 

Stk. Amenable. Docile. Tractable. 
Akt. Intractable. Stubborn. Incorrigi- 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

CoREOBORATE, V. tr. Con and 
robur, strength. Whence Hobust. 
To strengthen evidence, state- 
ment, or opinion. 

Syn. strengthen. Confirm. Fortify. 

ANT. Weaken. Invalidate. Shake. Con- 
fute. Rebut Enfeeble. 

Corroboration, n. See Cor- 

SvN. Confirmation. Fortificatioiu 

Ant. Counterevidenoe. Contradiction. 
Invalidation. Shaking. Refutation. 

Corrode, v. tr. Con and ro- 
dere, to gnaw. Used physically 
and metaphorically, as, corroding 

SvN. Eat Rust Gnaw. Canker. Wear. 

Ant. Repair. Renew. Furbish. Con- 

Corrosion, n. See Corrode. 

Corrosive, adj. See Corrode. 

Corrugate, v. tr, Buga, a 

Stn. Furrow. Groove. Rumple. Crumple. 
Wrinkle. Ruffle. Crease. 

Ant. Plane. Flatten. RoU. 

Corrugation, w. See Corru- 

Corrupt, v, tr. Con and 
rumpere. To break np the ele- 
ments of an organized body; 
hence, morally, to taint, and also 
to spoil mental matter, as, the 
views of truth, or the text of a 
book, by false rendering. 

Syn. SpoiL Deteriorate. Impair. De- 
base. Defile. Contaminate. Pollute. De- 

Ant. Mend. Repair. Purify. Cleanse. 
Correct Ameliorate. Better. 

Corrupt, adj. See vfrh. 

SvN. Defiled. Polluted. Vitiated. Con- 

Ant. Pure. Uncorrupt Undefiled. 

Corruption, n. See Corrupt. 
Physical and moral. 

SrN. Decomposition. Decay. Defile- 
ment Deterioration. Taint Contaminap 
tiozi. Pntretfitctiun. 

Ant. vitality. OrganlzaUon. Purity. 
Purification. Amelioration. 

Coruscate, v, int. Coruacare, 
To shine with a flashing light, as 
distinguished from a steady 

Stit. Blaze. I*lame. Flash. SGintiIlat& 

Ant. Pale. Smoulder. Darkra. Loom. 
Lower. Glimmer. Gleam. Glare. Beam 

Coruscation, n. See Corus- 

COSMIOAL, adj. Gr. KOarflOS^ 

the vm'ld. 

Syn. Universal. General. 

Ant. Local. Topical. National. Per- 

Cost, n. Germ, hosten. Lat. 
comtare. To stand at a price. 
The price at which a thing 

Syn. to i). Require. Consume. Absort). 

Ant. Bring. Produce. Yield. Afford. 
Fetch. Return. 

Syn. to 71. Expenditure. Outlay. Dis- 
bursement Payment Compensation. Out* 

Ant. to ti. Receipt. Income. Emolu- 
ment Return. Profit Perquisite. Re- 

Costly, adj. See Cost. 

Syn. Valuable. Expensive. High-priced. 
Rich. Precious. Sumptuous. 

Ant. Valueless. Cheap. Low-prioed. 

Mean. Worthless Beggarly. Paltry. 

Costume, n. Same word as 
Custom, from the Lat. consuetudo. 
Custom or way of living; but by 
usage restricted to distinctive 

Syn. Uniform. Livery. Robes. 
Ant. Disguise. Transformation. Incog* 

Cosy, adj. Fr. causer, to chat,, 

Syn. Snug. Comfortable. Chatty. 
Ant. Bare. Comfortless. Cross. 

CoTEMPORARY, adj. See Coe* 
taneous and Coeval. 
Couch, v. Fr. coucher', to lie, 

Syn. Lie. Bend. Stoop. Squat 
Ant. Rise. Stand. Spring. Dart 

Synonyms and Antonyms, 


CouoHANT, adj\ See Conch. 
Used heraldically. 

Council, n, Lat. concilium. 
A lawful or standing combina- 
tion for purposes of consultation. 

Syk. Oabinet. Bureau. Chamber. Con- 
Bultation. Conclave. Parliament. Congress. 

Ant. League. Conspiracy. CabaL In- 
trigue. Mob. Multitude. Crowd. 

Counsel, w. The French form 
of Council. 

Syn. Advice. Instruction. Monition. 
.^NT. Misguidance. Misinstruction. Be- 

Counsel, v. See noun, 
CouNSELLOE, n. 5ec Counscl, n. 
Count, v, tr. Lat. computare, 

to compute ; of which Count is a 

shorter form. 

Stn. Compute. Beckon. Enumerate. 
Estimate. Number. Sum. 

Akt. Hazard. Conjecture. Guess. Lump. 

Countenance, v, Continentia 
mdtus. The general pcwe, aspect, 
or expression of the features ; or 
the comi)onent parts of the face 
itself, irrespective of such ex- 
pression. Used metaphorically 
for aid, being the result of a 
favourable expression of counte- 

Syn. Help. Aid. Abet Encourage. 
Ant. Oppose. Confront. Discourage. 
Discountenance. Browbeat 

Countenance, n. See verb, 

Syn. AJd. Abet Encourage. Support 
Ant. Discountenance. 

CotFNTEB. Lat. contra, against. 
It is used as an adverb, j/re^osi- 
tion, and prefix. 

Sym. Opposed. Contrary. Against 

Ant. Accordii^. Coincident 

Countbbaot, V, tr. Contra, 
against, and agere, to do or act, so 
as strongly to oppose, or effec- 
tually to neutralize. 

Syn. Coimterlnfiuence. Counterfoil. Foil 
Baffle. Neutralize. Oppose. Rival. Thwart 

Ant. Aid. Help. Abet Promote. 
Conserve. Co-operate. Subserve. 

Countebevidenoe, n. Contra, 
fvidentia, evidere, to look out, or 
manifest itself. Evidence in an 
opposite direction. 

Syn. Contradiction. Confiiction. 
Ant. Corroboration. Confirmation. 

Counteepeit, V, Contra and 
facere, foetus, to do or make, A 
thing done falsely, that is, against 
truth or justice or actual fact. 

Syn. Simulate. Misrepresent. Imper- 

Ant. Expose. Unmask. Detect 

Counterfeit, n. See verb, 

Syn. Cheat Trick. Juggle. Fraud. 
Artifice. Fabrication. Pretence. Ruse. 

Ant. Exposure. Detection. Unmasking. 
Unveiling. Reality. Verity. Fact Truth. 

Counterfoil, v, tr. Contra, 
against, and folium, a leaf, or 
thin plate of metal (as tin-foil), 
placed at the end of fencing- 
swords for purposes of safely. 
Hence, to foil means to baffle or 
blunt the edge of an attack. See 

Countermand, v, tr. See 

Counterpart, n. Contra and 
pars, a part, lot, or place. That 
which IS placed opposite to a 
thing to match it, as each gate- 
post is the counterpart of the 
other. From the usual similarity 
of counterparts, the word has 
come strongly to express the 
idea of resemblance, which is not 
its primary force. Physical 
counterparts may be opposite in 
situation, but cannot be opposed. 

Syn. Match. Fellow. TaUy. Brother. 
Twin. Copy. 

Ant. Correlative. Complement Sup- 
plement Opponent Counteragent Re- 
verse. Obverse. Opposite. Antithettia. 
Contrast CouiradlGl\QiQ. 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

Counterpoise, v, tr, Fr. contre 
pois, pondus, weight. 
Syk. Balance. Equalize. 
Akt. Overbalance. Aggravate. 

Counterpoise, n. See verb, 

8ts. Makeweight. Equilibrium. 
Ant. Preponderance. 

Cou^TERPRESSURB, w. Contra 
and jn^emere, pressus, to press, 

Stn. Resistance. Stubbornness. Reni- 

Ant. Yielding. Giving. Resilience. 

Countervail, v. int. Contra 
and vcdere, to be of force. Counter- 
vail is to the notion of influence 
what Counterpoise is to that of 

Syn. Counteract Oppose. Withstand. 
A2XT. Aggravate. Intensify. Subserve. 

Countless, adj. See Cotint. 

Stn. Innumerable. Numberless. 
Ant. Few. Scant Sparse. 

Countryman, n. One of the 
country. Also one of a country, 
and one of the same country. 
Country is from It. contradd, 
from the Lat. contra, a tract 
lying opposite to the spectator. 

Syn. Rustic Clown. Boor. Agricul- 
turist. Latwurer. Peasant. Fellow-coun- 
tryman, tellow-snbject. Fellow-dtizen. 
Subject, atizen. Inhabitant. Native, 

Ant. Oppidan. Townsman. Cockney. 
Foreigner. Alien. Stranger. 

Couple, v. tr. Copidare, 
copulus, a link. Used of fasten- 
ing two things to each other. 

Stn. Bracket Link. Copjoln. Unite. 
Splice. Buckle. Button. Clasp. Tie. 

Ant. Loose. Part Isolate. Separate. 
Detach. Divorce. Uncouple. Unda^. 

Courage, n. Fr. cour, the 

Syn. Bravery. Boldness. Valour. Gal- 
lantry. Fearlessness, intrepidity. 

Ant. Timidity. Cowardice. Pusillani- 
mity. Poltroonery. Luistardliness. 

Course, n, Cursus, from cur- 
rere, to run. 

Stn. Order. Sequence. Continuity. 
Direction. Progress. Line. Way. Mode. 
PJaa, Conduct 

Ant. Disorder. Discursion. Solution. 
Interruption. Deviation. Hindrance. Error. 
Conjecture. Hazard. Speculation. Caprice. 

Court, v. Fr. cour, A court 
To seek to gain, as it were, by 
courtly address. 

Stn. Woo. Seek. Affect Flatter. Pur- 

Ant. Repel Abjure. Disaffect Insult 
Avoid. Shun. Repudiate. 

Courtesy, n. See Court. 

Syn. Politeness. Urbanity, avility 
Affability. Gracionsness. 

Ant. Churlishness. BudenesB. Arro- 
gance. Ungraciousness. Incivility. 

Courtly, adj. See Court 
Having the manners of the 

Svx. Dignified. Polished. Refined. 
Aristocratic High-bred. Mannerly. 

Ant. Undignified. Rough. Unpolished. 
Coarse. Unrefined. Plebeian. Awkwud. 
Boorish. Rustic Unmannerly. 

Courtship, n. See Court 

Covenant, n, Fr. convenance, 
from convenire^ to come together. 
It is used of formal and ratified 

Stn. Agreement Bond. Stipolation. 
Compact Contract 

Akt. Promise. Intimation. Assurance. 
Parole. Understandkig. 

Cover,!;. ^r. Fr. ccmvrir. Lat 
cooperire, to cover. To be SO 
placed over a thing as to conceal 
it, protect it, or be coexpansive 
with it. 

Stn. Hide. ConceaL Cloke. Bcnea. 
Secrete. Protect. Meet. Secure. 

Ant. Expose. Reveal. Betray. Ex- 
hibit Produce. Mis-su£Bce. 

Covert, adj, Coopertus, See 
Coverture, n. See Cover. 

Stn. Marriage. Matrimony. WedlodL 
Akt. Celibacy. Virginity. 

Covet, v. tr. Con and cupidus, 
from cupere, to desire. Covetous- 
ness and Concupiscence are the 
same word, with difference of 
usage. Eagerly to desire, espe- 
cially the possessions of others. 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


Stv. Detlre. Ijottg for. Team for. 
Haoker after. 

Akt. Detpiie. Dislike. Mislike. Un- 

Covetous, adj. See Covet. 

8rx. Acquisitive. Avaricious. Qreedy. 
Qrasping. Rapacious. 

Akt. Unselfish. LfberaL Self-eocri- 
fldng. Pronise. BountiAil. Charitable. 

CovETOUBNESs, n. See Covet- 

Cow, V. tr, Der. uncertain; 
conn, either with Cover or 

Snr. Frighten. Abash. Intimidate. 

Oppress. Browbeat. 

Avt. Countenance. Ballj. Encourage, 

CowABD, n, Der. uncertain. 
Low Lat. codardus. Said to be 
from caufla, a tail. One who 
turns tail. 

Syx. Craven. Dastard. Recreant. PoU 
troon. Uoiegade. 

Akt. Champion. Hero. Daredevil. 

CowEB, v,int. Germ, kauem. 
To stoop ftom fear. 

Sth. Shrink. Stoop. Crouch. 
Akt. Rise. Staiid. Dare. Face. Con- 

Coxcomb, n. From a strip of 
red cloth notched like a cock's 
oomb, which the old jesters wore 
on their heads. The coxcomb is 
a man of folly, forwardness, and 

Snr. Fop. Dandy. Puppy. Prig. 

Ant. Oenins Savant. Authority. 
Celebrity. Piiilusupher. Sage. 

Coxcombical, adj. See Cox- 

Snr. Vain. AfTocted. Conceited. Dan- 
dified. Pedantic. Primish. 

Akt. UnafTected. Unconceitcd. Sensible. 

Coy, adf, Lat. guiettut. Quiet 
or loving retirement. 

Syn. Shy. Reserved. BashM. Shrink- 
ing. Retreating. Modest. 

Akt. Bold. Forward. Rompisb. Hoy- 

CozEN^ V, tr. To cheat, Der. 


uncertain. Germ, liehkosen, to 
wheedle; or to deceive under 
pretence of cousinship or con- 

Stk. Circumvent. Wheedle. Coax. Se- 
duce. Deceive. 

Akt. Enlighten. Undeceive. Disabuse. 

Cbabbed, orjj;. From crab, 
sour. Of Noriiiem origin, akin 
to the Latin acerbus. 

Srx. Sour. Morose. Churlish. Crusty. 

Akt. Pleasant. Open. Easy. Genial. 
Conversible. Warm. Cordial. Hearty. 

Cback, V, tr, and int. Germ. 

Snr. Spilt. Break. Splinter. Chip. 

Mend. Repair. Unite. Piece. 

Cbeakt, Cracked. See Crack. 
Used metaphorically of the 

Stk. Crazy. Flighty. Queer. Deranged. 
Touched. Cranky. Cbinky. 

Akt. Sound. Sensible. Clear-headed. 
Shrewd. Strong«mind«d. Sane. 

Crapt, n, Saxon. Originally 
meant no more than skill, espe- 
cially in handiwork; so handi- 
craft. It has dropped into an 
unfavourable meaning — natu- 
rally, for man tends ever to the 
misuse of knowledge, and of all 
his gifts. 

Syk. Art. Artifice. Cunning. Guile. 
Stratagem. Manoeuvre. Wiliness. Trickery. 
Duplicity. Chicanery. Intrigue. Under- 
handedness. Dodge. 

Akt. Opcnnew. Fairness. Candour. 
Honestv. l^ranknexs. Sincerity. Artless- 
nesB. Ingenuoubness. Straightforwardness. 

Crafty, adj. See Craft. 
Cram, v. tr. Saxon. 

Snr. Stuff. Choke. Squeeze. Ram. 
Pack. Gorge. 

Akt. Ditigorge. Vent. Discharge. Un- 
load. Unpack. Eviscerate. Empty. Klimi- 

Cramp, v, tr. Germ, krampf, 
Fr. cmmpe, A clamp. 

Stk. Bind. Narrow. Restrict GonfioA 
Clog. Hamper. Fetter. Qdvv^A* 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

AiTP. Free. Liberate. Loose. Relieve. 
Extricate. Enlarge. Widen. Expand. Ease. 

Gbankt, adj. Germ, krank. 
Said of sailing-vessels liable to 
upset. Metaphorically, in the 
sense of Creaky, which see. 

Crapulence, r?. Lat. crapvla. 
The sickness which follows a 

Stn. Surfeit Headache. Dissipation. 
Debauchery. Excess. Muddiness. 

Ant. Temperance. Sobriely. Clearness. 

Crash, n. Gothic. Comp. 
Crush. The sound of collision 
as well as the collision itself. 
Sharp and short, as distinguished 
from prolonged sound, however 

Stk. Jar. Clang. CIaf>h. Resonance. 
Ant. Murmur. Whisper. Babble. 
Rumbling. Reverberation. Din. 

Crassitude, w. Crassus, 
Thickness of habit, suggestive of 
thickness or density of mind. 

Syn. Density. Thickness. Corpulence. 
Obesity. Burliness. Brawniness. Ani- 
ttialism. Pinguitude. Lumplshness. Be- 

Ant. Tenuity. Spareness. Slightness. 
Agility. Activity. Spirituality. Intellec- 

Crave, v. tr. Sax. To intreat. 

Stk. Intreat Lnplure. Beg. Beseech. 
Supplicate. Cry. 

Ant. Demand. Insist Require. Seize. 

Craven, n. Probably one 
who craves or cries off battle. 
See Coward. 

Crazt, adj. Ft. Scrasser, to 
crush or crash. Hence, broken, 
impaired in mind; peculiarly 
applicable to those crazed by 
age, misery, or disappointment. 

Stn. Idiotic. Broken-down. Lunatic 
Demented. Daft Insane. Aberrant 

Ant. Sound. Robust Vigorous. Un- 

Cream, n, Pr. creme, Lat. 
eremar, thick juke. Used^ meta- 

phorically, for the choice part of 
a thing, or the upper stratum of 
a society. 

Stn. Marrow. Pith. Gist AcBie. 
Ant. Reftise. Offiea. Dregs. Dns 

Crease, v, and n. Germ. 
hrausen, to cHsp, See Corrugate. 

Create, v. tr, Creare, to 

Stn. Form. Produce. Make. FMiion. 
Originate. Educe. Invent ImagJno. 

Ant. Annihilate. Destroy. Demolish. 

Creator, n. See Create. 

Creature, n. See Create. Ori- 
ginally anything created. Now 
restricted to living beings. 

Stn. Being. Animal. Jfonte. 
Akt. Chhnera. ' Ghost Bugbear. 

Credence, n. Credere, to be- 
lieve or intrust, 

Stn. Belief. Faith. Confidence. 
Ant. Disbelief. Distrust DeniaL 

Credential, n. See Credence. 
A document empowering one to 
hold an office of trusty or any 
particular office. 

Stn. Missive. Diploma. TiUe. Testa- 
ment Seat Warrant Letter. 

Ant. Self-Ucense. Self-oonstttation. 
Self-appointment Auttxracy. 

Credible, adj. See Credence. 
Worthy of credit Said botii of 
persons and things. 

Stn. Probable. Likely. Trustworthy. 
Ant. Improbable. Incredible. UnUkely. 


Credit, n. See Credence. Is 
trust or confidence shown to an- 
other, on grounds of trustwortiii- 
ness ; hence reputation. 

Stn. Belief. Trustworthinesa. Reputa- 
tion. Security. Honour. Praise. 

Ant. Disbelief. Distrust Untmst- 
worthiness. Shame. Insecurity. Oooaure. 

Creditor, w. See above. He 
who has advanced money or 
goods on the credit of another. 

Stn. Claimant Lender. Mortgagee. 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


Cbkdulitt, n. See above. A 
tendency to give credence too 

Stn. Gnllibility. Simplicity. Accepta- 
tivenees. Open-moathednesB. 

AST. Iscredality. Sceptidam. Saq>i- 
dousness. Shrewdness. 

Creed, n. See above. A sys- 
tem of articles of belief for a re- 
ligions or political party. 

Stk. Belief. Catecbism. Articles. Coo- 
fession. Subscription. 

Ant. Protest At^faratlon. Recantation. 
Retractation. Disbelief. Non-sabscription. 

Crest, n. Lat crista, 

Stk. Top. Summit Apex. Head. 

Anr. Base. Foot Bottom. Sole. 

Crestfallen, adj. See Crest. 

Syv. Cast-down. Humiliated. Abashed. 
Ant. Inspirited. Elated. Confident 

Crew, n. From an old word, 
crtie, from Lat. crescere, to grow, 
which appears in the word Ac- 
crue. The fall complement of a 
ship's company. Used also in a 
depreciatory way. 

Stn. Complement Company. Gang. 
Herd. Set Miscellany. Horde. Swarm. 

Ant. Supercargo. Bevy. Galaxy. Con- 
stellation. Picking. Cream. Elite. 

Crime, w. Lat. crimen. A 
charge of offence. 

Stn. Offence. Misdeed. Misdemeanour. 
Felony. Enormity . 

Ant. Good deed. Well-doing. Duty. 
Obligation. Exploit Achievement 

Criminal, adj. See Crime. 

Stn. IllegaL Felonious. Vicious. Ini- 
quitous. SinfuL Immoral Guilty. Ne- 
farious. Flagitious. 

Ant. Lawful. Virtuous. Right Just 
Innocent Moral. Meritorious. Creditable. 
Honourable. Praiseworthy. Laudable. 

Criminalitt, n. See Criminal. 
Criminate, v. tr. See above. 

Stn. Charge, implicate. Accuse. 
Ant. Acquit Extricate. Absolve. 

Crimp, v. tr. Connected with 
Crumple. See Corrugate. 
Crimp, adj. 

Stn. Brittle. Friable. Crisp. 
Ant. Tough. Stubborn. Viscoos. Pasty. 

Crimple, V. tr. See Crumple. 

Cringe, v. neut. Conn, with 
Crank and Crinkle, to draw to- 
gether. To draw one's self to- 
gether into an attitude of sub- 
missiveness. Used metaphori- 

Stn. Crouch. Bend. Bow. Fawn. 
Grabble. (*rub. 

Ant. Face. Confh>nt Defy. Dare. 

Crinkle, v. tr. See Crimple. 

Cripple, v. and n. Originally 
a cripple was a creeple—onewho 
crawled on hands and knees, not 
having the use of his limbs. 
Hence, metaphorically, to cripple 
is to weaken or deprive of 
strength or amplitude. 

Stn. Weaken. Impair. Curtail. Cramp. 

Ant. Strengthen. Renovate. Augment 

Liberate. Free. Ease. Enlarge. Expedite. 

Crisis, n. Gr. Kpia-is, from 
Kpiva>, I determine. The point at 
which a course of affairs seems 
to halt, before decision one way 
or the other. See Conjuncture. 

Crisp. Lat. crispus. Formed 
into curls or ringlets. Said of 
friable and corrugated sub- 
stances. See Crimp, adj. 

Criterion, n. See Crisis. 
That, the use of which enables 
one to form a judgment. 

Syn. Test Touchstone. Proof. 
Ant. Eye. Glance. Intention. Con- 
jecture. Scan. 

Critio, n. See Crisis. A 
judge, or presumed to be so, in 
a department of literature or art. 

Stn. Judge. Censor. Arbiter. Savant 
Ant. Author. Writer. Performer. 

Critical, ofJJ. See Crisis. 
Has the sense of exercising the 
functions of a critic; and also 
betokening a crisis. 

Stv. Nice. Exact Fastidious. Dubious. 
Precarious. Ticklish. Crucial. Important 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

A»T. Inexact Pbpolar. Loose. Easy. 
(TndiscriminatiDg. Safe. Determined. Be- 
dded. Settled. Retrieved. RedresBed. 

Critioise, V. tr. See above. 
To examine as a critic. 

Sth. Examine. Scan. Perpend. Analyze. 
Macnss. Anatomize. 

Akt. Slur. Survey. Overlook. SUm. 

Criticjism, n. See Criticise. 

Croak, v. int. A word funned 
in imitation of the note of a 
raven. Used metaphorically for 

Srk. Complain. Mnrmor. Grumble. 
Airr. Crow. WhisUe. Sing. Chirp. 
Chuckle. Cackle. R^oice. 

Crone, n. Sax. for an old 
ewe. Used metaphorically and 

Stn. Hag. Witch. Reldame. 

Am*. Lass. Damsel. Maiden. Belle. 

Crony, n. The same word as 
the former; but, in nsage, the 
elements of sex (though Crone 
was sometimes mascnJine) and 
age have been forgotten, and 
that of intimacy alone remem- 

8th. Ally. Chum. Mate. 
Amt. Foe. Rival. Back-Mend. 

Crooked, adj. Crook, croche. 
Conn. Crochet, Crocket. Used 
metaphorically of plans or policy. 

Sth. Bent. Incurved. Angular. Aju- 
fractuous. i'ortuous. Underhanded. 

Ant. straight. Linear. Dhrect. Honest 

Crop, v. tr. Sax. Crop was 
the neck or upper part of any- 
thing, as the crop or craw, the 
throat or first stomach of a fowL 
Hence, to crop was to cut off the 
head, or to cut short. 

Sth. Mow. Reap. Reduce. Shave. 
Shorten. CurtaiL 

Ant. Elongate. Grow. Foster. Raise. 
TraiL Train. 

Crop, n. See verb, 
Sth. Reaping. Harvest. In-gathering. 
Aht. Produce. Yield. Abundance. 
Growth. Fruit. 

Cross, o^y. From cron, eruo;, , 
crucis. Exhibiting a feelii^ of 
being thwarted, or fiEuicy of ii 

Sth. lU-tempered. FretfiiL Ill-hu- 
moured. Crusty. Peevish. Pettish, func- 

Aht. Amiable. Good-tempered. Good- 
humoured. Blithesome. Genial. 

Cross-grained, adf. As if 
the disposition found adversiiy 
and opposition in every circmnr 
stance and person. 

Sth. Perverse. Waywanl Ffeeviah. 
Morose. Cantankerous. Ill-conditioned. 

Ant. GeniaL Pleasant AgreeaU& 
Jolly. Obliging. Acoommodasting. 

Crouch, v, int. See Crooked. 
To bend or couch fix^m servility 
or fear. See Cringe and Cower. 

Crow, v. To make a noise like 
a cock. Used metaphorically. 

Sth. Exult. R^oice. Cackle. Gbnckle. 

Aht. Whine. HowL Grumbte. GraaL 
Cry. Whimper. 

Crowd, n. Saxon. 

Sth. Throng. Mob. Swann. PKk. 

Ant. Cream. Elite. Bevy. Galaxy. 
ConsteUatiun. Cabinet 

Crown, n. Corona, Used 
literally said metaphorically. 

Sth. Top. Crest Summit Head. 
Arow. Apex. 

Ant. Basement Base. Bottom. Ftoor. 
Pavement PedestaL Foundation. Foot 

Crown, v. See noun, 
Stn. Complete. Consummate. Seal 

Ant. Mar. SpoiL Frustratei 

Crucial, adj. Crux, crucis. 
Searching, as if bringing to the 
test of the Cross. 

Stn. Searching. Probing. Severe. Wa- 
criminating. Sharp. CriticaL Piercing. 

Ant. Superficial. Indifferent Mild. 
UncritlcaL Lenient Lax. 

Crude, adj. Lat. crudus, tm- 
ripe. Said oif ideas and style of 




Synonyms and Antonyms. 


Sm. Baw. Undigested. Unconsidered. 
Half-studied. Harsh. Unshaped. Un- 
thastened. Unfinished. Unrefined. Ill- 

Amt. Well-prepared. Well-digested. 
Well-considered. WeU-studied. Ripe. 
Well-adapted. Well-proportioned. Well- 
expressed. Clas^caL ]«Mnisbed. Refined. 
Artistic Elaborate. Highly-wronght. 

Cruel, adf, Lat. crvdelis. 
It were well to abandon cm un- 
reflecting use of this word, as 
simply equivalent to severe, as, 
'a cruel disappointment,' and 
adhere to the notion of violation 
of principles of mercy and hu- 

Snr. Savage. Barbarous. Inhuman. 
Maleficent Malignant. 

Amt. Humane. Forbearing. Generous. 
MerdfuL Foi^glving. Benevolent. Bene- 

Crumble, v. act. cuid neut. To 
bruise or fEill into crumbs or 
particles. Sax. crumb, written 
also Crum. 

Stw. Disintegrate. Pulverise. Triturate. 
Ajtt. Oonsolidate. Conglntinate. Bond. 

Crumple, v. tr. See Crumple, 
Crinkle, and Corrugate. 

Crush, v. tr. In etymology 
connected with Crash and Craze. 

SxK. Pulverize. Tiitiuate. Pound. 
ftt^. Crumble. Overpower. Demolish. 

Ant. Consolidate. Compact Cake. 
Solidify. Compress. Amalgamate. Up- 
raise. Stabilitate. Aggrandize. 

Crusty, adf. Lat. crvMa, a 
enmb or paste. Having a some- 
what rough and impracticable 
exterior, without badness at 
heaji^ See Cross. 

CuDOEL, V. tr. Comp. Scotch 
cud, a short thick stick. To beat. 
Used metaphorically. 

Snr. Pound. Bruise. Buffet Batter. 
Aot. Stroke. Pat Clap. Tickle. 

Cue, n. Fr. qtieue, a tail. The 
knot of a periwig. Used of old 
for the last word of an actor's 

si)eech, which was the signal for 
the next speaker ; hence, to take 
the cue from a person. 

Stn. Sign. Hint Wink. Catch-word. 
Signal. Prompting. Suggestion. Insinua- 
tion. Implication. 

AitT. Jiesponae. Recognition. Repeti* 
tion. Part i£cho. 

Cupp, V. tr. Of Northern 
origin. To strike with the palm 
of the hand, as distinguished 
from the use of any implement 
beside the hand. 

Stn. Slap. Box. Smack. Punch. 
Pommel. Hustle. BnfTet 

Ant. CudgeL Flagellate. Thrash. Cane. 
Strap. Lash. Whip. 

Cull, v. tr. CoUigere. To 
collect. Comp. Fr. cuiller, a 

Stn. Bunch. Gather. Pick. Collect. 

Ant. Scatter. Drop. Throw. Disseml^ 

Culmination, n. The grow- 
ing to a head. Culm&n, inis, a 
top. The reaching of the final 
point of perfection. 

Stn. Consummation. Zenith. Acme. 
Meridian. Apex. Success. Completion. 

Ant. Fall. Descent Decline. Failure. 
Downfall Degradation. Defeat Abortion. 

Culpability, n. See Cul- 

Culpable, adj. Cvlpa, a 

Syn. Blameable. Blameworthy. Guilty. 

Ant. Blameless. Innocent. Excusable. 
Laudable. Praiseworthy. 

Culprit, n. See Culpable. 

Syn. Offender. Criminal. Delinquent 

Ant. Example. Pattern. ModeL Hero 

Cultivate, v. tr. Cdere, cuUus, 
to cultivate. Applied physically, 
8uid also metaphorically, to the 
fostering of the growth of quali- 

Stn. Promote. Foster. Study. Im- 
prove. Fertilize. Nourish. Cherish. 

Ant. Neglect Desert Abandon. Stifle. 
Prevent. Discourage. Abolish. Blight 
Blast Paralyze. Eradicate. Extirpate 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

CtTMBEB, V. tr, Lat. cumulus. 
To oppress, as with the weight 
of a heavy heap. 

Stk. Clog. Impede. Opprees. Load. 
Incommode. Obstruct. 

Ant. Liberate. Expedite. Alleviate. 
Kxtricate. Lighten. Kelieve. Support. 
Free. Rid. 

CuNKiNG, n. Sax. Originally 
meaning no more than know- 
ledge. Comp. Ken. For its 
usage see Graft. 

CuPiDiTT, n, Cupidtcs, from 
cupere, to desire. 

Syn. Avarice. Acqulsitivenefls. Stingi- 

Akt. Prodigality. Extravagance. Libe- 

CuBB, V. tr. Curvus. Incurved. 
Said of reining horses. Comp. 

SxK. Restrain. Cohibit Hold. Check. 

Ant. Indulge. Liberate. Release. 
Emancipate. Loose. Urge. Free. Incite. 
Instigate. ImpeL 

Curdle, v. tr, and int. Curd. 

Stn. Coagulate. Condense. Thicken. 
Ant. CoUiquiiy. Diffuse. Circulate. 

Cure, n. Cura, care. The 
successful issue of careful treat- 
ment, with some degree of suc- 
cess, or with complete success. 

Stn. Remedy. Alleviation. Ameliora- 
tion. Reinstatement. Restoration. Reno- 
vation. Convalescence. 

Ant. Aggravation. Confirmation. Com- 
plaint Di^ase. AUment. Inoculation. 
Contagion. Corruption. 

Curb, v. See noun. 

Curiosity, n. Curiosus. See 
Cure. Having a care, often an 
undue care, to make inquiries. 
Also used for a thing of a curi- 
ous or rare kind. 

Stn. Inqulsitiveness. Interest Inter- 
rogativeness. Rarity. I^enomenon. Cele- 
brity. Oddity. Lion. 

Ant. Indifference. Heedlessness. Dis- 
r^iard. Abstraction. Absence. Weed. 
Drug. Dirt Cipher. Bagatelle. Song. 

Curious, adj. See Curiosity. 
Used in the sense of possessing 
curiosity, and also rare, or 
worthy of curiosity. 

Stn. Inquiring. Inqulrtitive. Seardiing. 
Interrogative. Ptylng. Peeping. Peering. 
Rare. Odd. Recondite. 

Ant. Indifferent. Uninquiring. In- 
curious. Uninterested. Trite. Common. 

Curmudgeon, w. Coeur, mer- 
chant. A bad heart. Ill-con- 
ditioned fellow. 

Stn. Miscreant AVretch. Rascal. 
Ant. Trump. Gk>od fellow. Brick. 

Currency, n. See Current, 
Used technically for money, 
and generally for the prevalence 
of a matter of estimation or 

Stn. Qrculation. Yogoe. Publicity. 

Ant. Suppression. Repression. BecaU. 
Stagnation. R^ection. Disbelief: With- 

Current, adj. Currere, to run. 
See Currency. 

Stn. Running. Prevalent Ordinary. 
Present Popular. GeneraL Floating. 
Exoteric. Vulgar. 

Ant. Rejected. Obsolete. Exploded. 
Confined. Private. Secret Esoteric. 

Curse, n. Conn, with Cross. 
That which, being evil, comes 
imder the ban of the Cross. Used 
for malediction, literally and me- 
taphorically, for that which is 
bad enough to have been the 
result of curse. 

Stn. Malediction. Extrication. Ana- 
thema. Bane. Blight 

Ant. Blessing. B^edlction. Joy. 
Crown. Glory. 

Curse, v. tr. See noun, 

Stn. Execrate. Anathematize. 
Ant. Bless. Felicitate. Welcome. 

Cursory, adj'. Currere, cursus, 
to run. Bunning or Rlnrn Tnipg 
over the surface, rather than 
stopping to investigate. Used 
also of works or proceedings in 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


which this quality has heen 

Snr. Summary. Rapid. SuperflciaL 
Amr. Searching. Minute. Elaborate. 

Curtail, v. tr. Fr. court, short, 
and taillfir, to cut. To shorten, 
by lopping one or other of the 
extremities. See Abbreyiate. 

Curve, v. tr. Curvus, In- 

Stn. Incnrve. Bend. Inflex. Faleate. 

AiJT. Straighten. Unbend. Rectillneate. 

Curve, n\ See verb, 
Stv. Incurvation. Flexion. Deflexion. 
Ant. Rigidity. Inelasticity. Inflexi- 
bility. Rectilinearity. 

Custody, n, Lat. cwitodin. 

Stk. Keeping. Guardianship. CJonser- 
▼ation. Care. 

AwT. Neglect. Betrayal. Exposure. 
Abandonment Desertion. Jeopardy. Libe- 
ration. Discharge. 

Custom, n, Lat. consuetude. 
Way of living. 

Stn. Manner. Habit Use. Prescrip- 

Ant. La^f. Regulation. Dictate. Com- 
mand. Rule. Disuse. Non-olwervance. 

Cut, V, tr. Old Eng. Ht, To 
divide with a sharp instrument. 
Used also of cutting, that is, 
avoiding, an acquaintance. 

Stk. Sever. Slice. Sunder. Avoid. 

Ant. Unite. Splice. Aaost Approach. 
Court. Address. Salute. 

Cutting, adj. See Cut. Used 
also metaphorically. 

Stn. Sharp. Bitfaig. Mordant Trenchant. 
Piercing. Bitter. Sanrastic. Provolcing. 
Stinging. Sardonic. Exasperating. Dis- 
appointing. CrucL 

Ant. Mild. Conciliatory. Compli- 
mentary. Soothing. Flattering. Indulgent. 
Consoling. Gratifying. 

Cynical. From the sect of 
Qynical philosophers, who de- 
rided human follies and vices. 

Stn. Sarcastic. Suarling. Sneering. 

Ant. Genial Lenient Complaisant 

Dabble. Dab. Conn, with 

Syn. Meddle. Mix. Trifle. Skim. 
Ant. Study. Elaborate. Investigate. 
Delve. Dig. Fathom. Gauge. 

Daft. Norwegian. 

Stn. Silly. Innocent Idiotic. Lunatic. 
Light-headed. Craclced. 

Ant. Sane. Sound. Sensible. Practical. 
Rational Shrewd. Deft. 

Dainty. Old Fr. dain. Pro- 
bably from dignus, worthy, choice. 
Used also of the quality which 
seeks for such tlungs. Fasti- 

Stn. Choice. Rare. Reflnod. Tasty. 
Exquisite. Luxurious. Epicurean. Fas- 

Ant. Common. Coarse. Unrelif>hin(r. 
Nasty. Dirty. Omnivorous. Greedy. 

Dally, v. int. Germ. dahUn. 

Stn. Trifle. Play. Wanton. Sport 
Fondle. Delay. Dawdle. 

Aht. ToiL I-rfibonr. Work. Study 
Fag. Stir. Bustle. Hasten. 

Damage, n. Fr. domage, Lat. 
damnum. Any injury to person, 
property, or reputation. 

Stn. Injury. Hurt Loss. Detriment 

Ant. Compensation. Recovery. Rein- 
statement Advantage. Bencflt Repara- 
tion. Blessing. 

Damp, v. Germ, darnjf, steam. 
Used metaphorically. 

Stn. CooL Blunt Discourage. Dis- 
coimtenance. Repress. 

Ant. Urge. Inflame. Incite. Fan. 

Danger, n, Fr. danger. Pro- 
bably from damnum. The near 
probability of personal detri- 

Stn. Peril. Hazard. Risk. Jeopardy. 
Ant. Security. Custody. Defence. 
Safety. Prcmimitiun. Precaution. 

Dapper, adj. Germ, tapfcr, 
valiant. The word has deterio- 
rated in meaning, like some 
others. For instance, one sense 
of the woid \)iM^ ia ^^Ssbso^V, 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

another into which at one time 
it settled largely was, showy. 

Syn. Spruce. Neat Natty. Smart. 
Akt. Slovenly. Awkward. Unwieldy. 

Dabe, V, tr. and int. Sax. 
Allied to Gr. Qappflvy to he strong. 

Sm. Venture. Face. Brave. Hazard. 
Bisk. Defy. 

Aht. Shrink. Shun. Dread. Ciower. 

Dabing. See Dare. 

Stk. Adventurous. Dashing. Bold. 
Airr. Cautious. Timid. Inadventurous. 

Dabk, adj, Saxon. Applies 
to physical substances or condi- 
tions^ matters of statement, hu- 
man character, and human con- 

Stk. Black. Dusky. Sable. Swarthy. 
Opaque. Obscure. Enigmatical. Becondite. 
Abstruse. Unintelligible. Blind. Ignorant 
Besotted. Benighted. Dim. Shadowy. 
Sombre. Joyless. MoumftU. SorrowfuL 

Amt. White. Fair. Light Badiant 
Bright Lucid. Crystalline. Transparent. 
Brilliant Plain. Intelligible. EnUghtened. 
Glaring. Dazzling. Illumined. Festive. 

Dablino, n. Dearling. Little 
dear one. 

Stn. Pet Love. Sweet Pretty. Dear. 
Favourite. Delight 

Ant. Antipathy. Abomination. Honor. 

Dabt, V. tr. Low Lat dardus. 
In Swed. dart means dagger. To 
hurl or shoot forward with vio- 
lence or velocity. 

Stn. HurL PropeL Throw. Fling. 

Ant. Fix. Place. Insert Hand. Pre- 

Dash, v. tr, and int. Northern 
word. To strike into pieces. To 
throw off. It differs from Dart, 
not only in implying injury to 
the component parts of the thing 
dashed, but also in an implied 
tendency more or less down- 
wards, as if the object were that 
gravitation and concussion should 
aid the process. So we naturally 
dash downwards and horizon- 

tally, but never upwards. It is 
used in common parlance for 
rapid movement. 

Stn. Hurl. Cast Throw. Subvert 
Detrude. Drive. Bush. Send. Fly. S^eed. 

Ant. Baise. Beinstate. Erect Creep. 
GrawL Lag. Hobble. 

Dashino, adj. See Dash. 

Stn. Adventurous. Showy. Bnvt. 
Ant. Shrinking. Dowdy. TtanSd. 

Dastabd, n. Sax. dastrigan, 
to frighten. See Coward. 

Data, n. pi. Dare, to give; 
datum, a thing given. Certain 
granted points, the ground of 

Stn. Facts. Grounds. Basis. Axioms. 

Ant. Conjecture. Assumption. Problem. 
Proposition, inference. Deduction. 

Daub. See Bedaub. 

Daunt, v. tr. Old Pr. damter, 
Ijat. domitare, to tame. Subdue 
with fear. 

Stn. Terrify. Scare. Intimidate. Cob- 

Ant. Countenance. Ikioounge. BaUy. 

Dauntless, adj. See Daunt. 

Stn. Valiant Gallant Feaiteaa. In- 

Ant. Cautious. Cowardly. Timid. 

Dawdle, v, int. Allied to 
Daddle and Dandle. 

Stn. Lag. Dally. Idle. 
Ant. Haste. Speed. Dash. Bush. 
Work. Fag. 

Dawn, v, int. Germ, tag, Eng. 
day, Lat. dies. To become day. 
To grow light. Used metaphori- 
cally of an accession of under- 
standing or perception. 

Stn. Gleam. B^in. Bise. Open. 

Ant. Wane. Set Sink. Close. De- 

Dazzlb, V, tr. Conn. Scotch 
daze. To bewilder with excess 
of light. 

Stn. Daze. Bewilder. 
Ant. Enlighten. Ulu 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


Dbad. a form of the part, 
died. Used not only of animals 
or plants defonct, bnt also meta- 
phorically of anything that may 
be supposed to have the attribute 
of lifelessness. 

Stn. Defunct Deceased. Departed. 
Gone. Inanimate. Lifeless. Insensible. 
Heavy. Unoonscioos. Dull SpirtUess. 
Oieerless. Deserted. 

Amt. VitaL Living. Animate. Vlva^ 
dons. Susceptible. Alive. Joyous. Stirring. 
Thronged. Bustling. 

Deaden, v, tr. See Dead. 

Sth. Benumb. Paralyze. Blunt Damp. 

Airr. Sharpen. Quicken. Enliven. 

Deadly, a(fy. ^SeeDead. Said 
of qualities as well as substances. 

Stx. Mortal. FataL Malignant Baleftil. 
Pernicious. Noxious. Venomous. 

AnT. Vital. Life-giving. HealthfuL 
Wholesome. Nutritions. 

Dbadness, n. See Bead. 

Snr. Torpor. flatness. Inertness. 

Aht. Quicknesa. VitaUty. Life. Viva- 

Deaf, adj. Sax. Physically 
wanting the sense of hearing, or 
having it impaired. Metaphori- 
cally, averse, that is, not inclined, 
to hear. Sometimes, also, ap- 
plied to express a certain cha- 
racter of sound. 

Syk. Surd. Hard of (hearing). Dis- 
inclined. Averse. Inexorable. Insensible. 
Rumbling. Inaudible. Heedless. Dead. 

Akt. Acute. Listening. Disposed, in- 
terested. Attentive. Willing. Susceptible. 
Sensible. AUve. 

Deal, v. tr, and int. Sax. 

SvK. Bargain. ChafTer. Trade, Dis- 
pense. Market Communicate. Negotiate. 

Akt. Hold. Close. Stop. Fail 

Dealing. See Deal. 

Stk. Intercourse. Communication. 
Trade. Traffic Negotiation. 

Ant. Lack. Failure. Closing. Bank- 
ruptcy. Stagnation. WithdrawaL Non- 

Deab. Saxon. 

Syn. Costly. Expensive. Beloved. Pre- 

Akt. Cheap. Inexpensive. MisUked. 

Deabth, V. Same origin as 
Dear. See Abundance. 

Death, n. Sax. From Die. 
Used metaphorically. 

Stk. Departure. Demise. Decease. Dis- 
solution. Mortality. Fall. Failure. Ter- 
mination. Cessation. Expiration. 

Akt. Birth. Rise. Life. Orowtii. 
Vigour. Animation. Spirit Activity. 
Operation. Action. Commencement Vi- 
tality. Auq[>ices. Inauguration. 

Deathless, adj. See Death. 

Stk. Undying. Immortal UnlSMling. 

Akt. MortaL Ephemeral Fragile. 
Fugitive. Momentary. Transient Fleet- 

Debab, V. tr, Welsh bar, a 
stake or branch of a tree, 

Stk. Exclude. Stop. Thwart. Obstruct. 
Hinder. Prevent Deprive. Disqualify. 
Deny. Prohibit 

Akt. Inclose. Embrace. Admit Per- 
mit Aid. Allow. Indulge. Quality. 

Debase, v, tr. See Abase. To 
lower the intrinsic goodness or 
value of a thing or person. 

Stk. Degrade. Lower. Depress. De- 
prave. Deteriorate. Cormm. Alloy. 

Akt. Raise. Enhance. Exalt Honour. 
Promote. Ameliorate. Purity. Improve. 

Debased, adj. See Debase. 
I Debate, v, Fr. hattre. Conn. 
Beat and Abate. To combat; 
j but by usage restricted to de- 
I liberation, and used transitively, 
I as, to debate a point ; or intran- 
I sitively. 

Stk. Contend. Dispute. Argue. Dis- 
cuss. Deliberate. Question. Ventilate. 

Akt. Yield. Concede. Surrender. Ad- 
mit Allow. 

Debateablb, adj. See Debate. 

Snr. Dubious. Doubtftil. Inestimable. 
Uncertain. Problematical. Floating. Uu- 

Akt. Certain. Sure. Unquestionable. 
Indisputable. Self-evident Incontestible. 

Debauch, Debauchebt, n. 
Old Fr. bauche, a workshop. To 
debauch was, therefore, origi- 
. I 2 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

nallyto seduce from work into 
idleness. An idle, dissolute en- 

Stk. Riot. ReveL Excess. Orgies. 

Ant. Meal. Moderation. Fmt^Iity. 
Asceticism. Abstinence. Fast Maoerap 

Dbbauoh, V. tr. See noun. To 
lead another into debauchery. 

Syn. Seduce. CJorrupt 
Ant. Purify. Enlighten. Ameliorate. 

Debility, n. Lat debilis, 

Stn. Weakness. Feebleness. Enerva- 
tion. Lassitude. Languor. 

Ant. Strength. Vigour. Robustness. 
Energy. Tone. Nerve. Musularity. 

Debt, n. Debere, to owe ; de- 
bitum, a thing owed. 

Stn. Debit LiabiUty. Deiifmlt Obli- 

Ant. Uquidation. Assets. Credit 
Trust Grace. Favour. Obligation. Ac- 
commodation. Gift. Gratuity. 

Debtor, n. See Creditor and 

Decadenoe, n. See Decay. 

Decamp, v, int. Camp, From 
campus, a field. To break up a 
camp. Hence said also of indi- 
viduals. To make a hasty re- 
treat, especially for the purpose 
of getting out of sight. 

Syn. Start Fly. Bolt Abscond. 
Ant. Appear. Answer. Show. 

Decay, v, int, De and cadere, 

Syn. Decline. Wane. Sink. Dwindle. 
Waste. Ebb. Decrease. 

Ant. Rise. Grow. Increase. Flourish. 
Luxuriate. Vegetate. Expand. Enlarge. 

Decay, n. See verb, 

Syn. Declension. Waning. Sinking. 
Wasting. Decrease. Corruption. 

Akt. Rise. Growth. Birth. Increase. 
Fertility. Exuberance. Luxuriance. Pros- 

Decayed, adj. See Decay. 
Fallen as to physical or social 

Syn. Rotten. Corrupt Unsound. De- 
composed. Declined. leaded. Sunk. Un- 
prosperous, lippoverished. 

Ant. Sound. Wholesome. Healthful 
Fresh. Proq)erou& Flourishing. Wealthy. 

Decease, n, Lat. decessus, de^ 
cedere, to depart. See Death. 

Deceit, n. Lat. decipei-e, de- 
ceptm. Used of the character, 
the process, and the result of 

Syn. Cheat Imposition. Trick. De- 
lusion. Circumvention. Guile. B^uile- 
ment IVeachery. Sham. Insidiousness. 

Ant. Enlightenment Instruction. Guid- 
ance. Reality. Verity. Fair dealing. 
Honesty. Openness. 

Deceive, v. tr. See Deceit. 

Syn. Trick. Cheat Beguile. Delude. 
Mislead. Betray. Ensnare. Entrap. Cir- 

Ant. Enlighten. Advise. Illnmine. 
Guide. Disabuse. Undeceive. Deliver. 

Deceiver, n. See Deceive. 

Decent, adj, Decere, to Je- 
come. See Becoming. 

Deception, n. See Deceit 

Decide, v, tr, and int, Deci- 
dere, Ccedere, to cut. To cut off. 
Separate the issue of a case. 

Syn. Determine. Settle. Abjudicate. 
Terminate. Resolva 

Ant. Waver. Raise. Moot Drop. 
Doubt Waive. Suspend. Mi^udge. Mis- 

Decided, adj. See Decide. 

Syn. Determined. Ruled. Rendate. 
Firm. Unwavering. 

Ant. Undecided. Unsettled. Irrewliite. 

Deciduous. Pecidere, to faU, 
Properly said of trees which shed 
their leaves simidtaneously and 
renew them immediately; but 
by usage sometimes meaning 
EphemOTal, which see. 

Decipher, v, tr. See Cipher. 
Said of letters or symbols of any 

Syn. Read. Spell. Interpret Solve. 
Ant. Cipher. Symbolize. Impuxzle. 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


Decision, n. See Decide. 

Stk. DetenulnatioiL OondusioD. Be- 
soludoD. FlrmneaB. 

Akt. IrresolateneflS. YagaoieaBi In- 
deci8i<nL Unoertaintj, nnaettlement. 

Deck, v, tr, Lat. tegere, to 
cover. With oinament to em- 
bellish. See Adorn. 

Declaim, v, DecHaTnare. To 
hold forth. 

Stk. Harangue. Becite. Apostrophize. 
Speak. Debate. 

Akt. Read. Study. Oompote. Elabo- 

Declamation, w. See Decla- 

Stk. Oratory. ElocntioD. Harangue. 
Effusion. Debate. 

Ant. Stammering. Titubancy. Hesi- 
tation. Tardiloquence. 

Deolamatoby, adj\ Having 
the faults incidental to declamar 

Stk. t4Ht4. l^cAvj. Inootierent^ Dls- 
Gorsive. Lcfmt. JncuDsecutLrt!. 

Akt. CIn^k. Connected. Looted. Studied. 
Emeu Qukt. Ct»iifietui3ve. 

Dbolabation, n. Dedarare, 
dartia, dtftir. A clear statement 
OT atmouncement. 

Sts. Avovijkl. Exhibition. Manifesta- 
tion. Stat€iDei]U Profession. 

Ain; DcniflL Concealment. Suppres- 

Deolabe, V. tr. See Declarar 

Dbcxensiok fi. Dediruyre. 
Gr. Kkiv€iv, to dope. 

Stk. Decay. Decadence. Degeneration. 
DeterioraUon. Fall. 

Ant. Rise. Improvement. Advance- 
ment. Culmination. 

Decline, v. act. and neut. See 
Declension and Aceept, 

DEOLtviTY, «. De Bsul devus, 
a slope ; dtdivis^ steep. 

Srtr. DisoenL Fall. Slope. Incline. 

Ant. Ascent. Bise. Verticality. 

Decoction, n. De and coguere, 
to cook. Foodnsually of a liquid 
kind prepared bj heat 

Stk. Concoction. Dish. Compound. 
I'ldte. I'Litter. Mei&. Extract. 

Airr. Crudity. Inftision. Bawneaa, 

Decompose, v. tr. De and 
corfqjon^^re, Tcj resolve into its 
elements organized or com- 
poimded matter. 

Stk. Anjt^STVif, Segregate Individualize. 
Besolve. Dissolve. 

Akt. 0omi>ound. Concoct. Mix. Or^ 
ganise. Compose. 

DEOoaiPOSiTiONj n. See De- 

Decorate, v. tr. Deem, an 
ormi mt n U See Adom. 
Decobum, n. Lat. 

Syk. Seemliness. Propriety. Dignity. 

Akt. Unseemliness. Impropriety. Dis- 
turbance. Disorder. 

Decoy, v. tr. See CJoy. Quietly 
to entice into a snare. 

Stk. Allure- KHlire. Ezi^njirei. Entrap. 
Sedan*. Mklead. luvdffle. 

A!<T. tjuldft. ItHftnict, Witfii. Conduct. 
Blsabiuie^ tlxtrloUe 

Deciiea&e, V. ad. and neut. 
De and crcAc^rf, to grovK Said 
of &ize^ niimbers> and degree. 

Sriif. I>iniiDifih, Lesfieiu W'mie. De- 
cliDe. UetrineJli, CurUiL RkIi]c<\ 

A at. likvifu^. Grow. Amplify. Ex- 
pand. Augment Extend. Enlarge. 

DecbeASE, n. See verb. 

Decree, n, Lat. dccretum, 
decernere, to decide. 

Stk, D^silon. Determination. Man. 
date. Law. Edict Manifesto. Rule. 

Ajif. Gu4?. Hint Suggestion. InUma^ 
tion. ReqijLcstH 

Decrement, a. Decrescere» 
See Augmentation, 

DeoeepiTi adj. De and erepare^ 
tomfik'^. a nois^. HaTtng dropped 
into the infirm noif^ckiisfiiiess of 
age, or a kind of creaking infir- 

Stk. Infirm. Weak. Crippled. Totter, 
ing. Aged. 

Akt. Strong. Robust Agile. Youthful. 


Synonyms and Anhnyms. 

DiOBSFinTDS, n. See De- 
DsoBT, V. tr. To cry down. 

Sth. Depredate. Tradnoe. Vitapente. 
Disparage. Defame. Vilify. Geosare. 
Abase. Denounce. 

Akt. ExtoL Land. Praise. Ealogise. 

Dedicate, v. tr. Dedicare, 
To place a thing or person under 
the anspices or service of an- 
other; also to apply to a pnr- 

Snr. Devote. OoDaecrate. Offer. Set 
Apportion. AasigD. Apply. Separate. 

Amt. AlienateL Ml8^>ply. Desecrate. 
Misappropriate. Miaoonvert Mlaoae. 

Deduob, V. tr. Deducere, To 
di-aw from another thing, espe- 
cially in the way of inference. 

Sth. Draw. Infer. Conclude. Gather. 

Ant. State. Premise. Hazard. Gon- 
jectaro. Guess. Induce. Anticipate. Fore- 
see. Predict Induct 

Deduoible, (idj\ See Deduce. 

Deduct, v, tr. De and ducere, 
to take or draw. To remove a 
portion from a whole. 

Stn. Subtract Bate. Bemoye. 
Amt. Add. Annex. Sul^oin. 

Deed, n. From Do. A thing 
done, or a record of it. See Act 

Stv. Act Action. Commission. 
Achievement Perpetration. Instrument 
Document Muniment 

AST. Omission. Failure. Abortion. False- 
witness. Innocence. Cancelling. Diraroof. 
Invalidation. Betractation. ImpossibUity. 
Non-performance. BecalL Beversion. Un- 

Deem, v. tr. Saxon deman, to 
estimate. To pass an act of judg- 
ment. Ck)Dn. with doom, sen- 
tence, or judgment. 

Sth. Judge. Estimate. Consider. Tliink. 
Suppose. Conceive. 

AST. Mi^udge. Misestimate. Miscon- 

Deep, adj. Saxon and Gothic. 

Connected with Dip, a hollow, 

and the verb to immerse. Used 

pbydcaily and metaphorically of 

character, design, or mode of 

Sth. PcofiMind. Subterranean. Sub- 
merged. Designing. Abstruse. BecondLte. 

AST. Shallow. SuperfldaL Artless. 
Undeslgning. Familiar. Commonplaoe;. 

Deeply, adv. See Deep. 

Deface, v. tr. Pace, ybcics. 
To spoil the face or exteiiial ap- 

Sth. Mar. Spofl. Injure DMlgore. 
AST. Decorate. Adorn. Rnbelllah. 

Defalcation, n. De and falx, 
a sickle, A pruning or deduc- 
tion. By present usage confined 
to non-payment of dues. 

Sth. Failure. Non-payment Arrean. 

AST. Pstyment AcquittaL Balance. 
Satisftction. Assets. 

Defame, v. tr. De/amare, 
fama, reputation. See Decry. 

Defameb, n. See Defieune. 

Default, n. Fault FaHere, 

Sth. Lapse. Forfeit Omission. Absence. 
Want Failure. 

Aht. Maintenance. Appearance. Pisa. 
Sati8&cti<n. Forthcoming. Supfdy. Prs- 

Defaulteb, n. See De&ult 

Sth. Debtor. Insolvent Bankrupt 
Aht. Defrayer. Liquidator. 

Defeat, n. Deficere, defectus, 
to fail. Used actively for fidlure, 
in competition with a superior 
in strength or skill. 

Sth. Frustration. Overthrow. Dlsoom- 

Aht. Victory. Triumph. Success. 

Defeat, v. tr. See noun. Used 
of persons and plans. 

Sth. Conquer. Overooma Worst Frus- 

Ant. Baffle. Disconcert Beat Foil. 
Aid. Secure. Promote. Insure. Speed. 
Advance. Establish. 

Defect, n. See Defeat 

Sth. Shortcoming. Omiasion. Fault 
Aht. Supply. Suffldancy. Emeodatioii. 
Compensation. Virtue. Ornament Oon^ 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


DxFBOTioN. See Defect. A 
moral faUisg or falling off, the 
result of estrangement of wUl. 

Srif. Failure. DerelicUon. AtModon- 
ment Relinquishment. Desertion. 

AsT. SubstitutioD. Supply. Super- 
abundance. Adherence. 

DsFEonvE^ adj\ See Defect. 

Syh. Faalty. Imperfect Insufficient. 
Deficient Wanting. Short. 

Ant. Correct Complete. Sufficient 
FnlL Ample. Abundant Satisfactory. 

Defsncb, n, De/endere, de- 

Stk. Besbtance. Protection. Shelter. 

Akt. Abandonment Surrender. Be- 
trayal. Exposure. 

Defenceless, n. /See Defence. 

Stn. Unsheltered. Exposed. Unguarded. 
Unprotected. Unarmed. 

AST. Sheltered. Guarded. Fortified. 
Defended. Protected. Armed. 

Defendant, n. See Defend. 
One who in a court of law has a 
case of his own to defend. 

Stn. Accused. Prisoner. 

Ant. Prosecutor. Accuser. Plaintiff 

De^nsible, adj. See Defence. 
That may be defended in argu- 
ment as true or right. 

Syk. VindicaWe. Justifiable. Tenable. 
Ant. UoJustifiable. Untenable. Un- 
warrantable. Indefensible. 

, Defeb, V, tr. Deferre, delatus, 
whence Delay. To put off; also 
to waive, in deference to another. 

Syn. Delay. Postpone. Waive. Ad- 
journ. Prorogue. 

Ant. Expedite. Hasten. Quicken. 
Press. Urge. Hurry. Overdrive. Despatch. 

Defebenge, n. See Defer. 

Syn. Bespect Consideration. Beverence. 
Obedience. Homage. Allegiance^ 

Ant. Disrespect Contumely. Contu- 
macy. Dicor^ard. Slight Impudence. 
Disobedience. Non-allegiance. Defiance. 

Defiance, w. Be and fides. 
Literally, the breach of faith; 
more particularly, of the relation 
between a vassal and his su- 
perior ; hence, setting at nought. 

Syn. See Deferenoe. 

Deficient, adj. Deficere, to 
fail. See Defective. It differs 
from Defective, in that Deficient 
is wanting as regards a duty or 
a requirement, Defective as re* 
gards a state or standard. 

Defile, v. tr. An old English 
"word, file, to pollute. Conn, with 
Foul. See Contaminate. 

Define, v. tr. Definire, finis, 
a boundary. To set limits to 
space, signification, rights, &c., 
for the sake of clearness. 

Syn. Mark out Limit Designate. 
Specify. Eliminate. Elucidate. Explain. 

Ant. Confound. Confiise. Obscure. 
Mystify. Misstate. Misconceive. Miscon- 
strue. Misdefine. 

Definite, adj. See verb. 

Syn. Clear. Spedfied. Determined. De 
finitive. Bestricted. Specific Certahi. 

The difference between De- 
finite said Definitive is that the 
former refers to the condition of 
things objectively, the latter sub- 
jectively, as, matters of men's 
action. Thus, a definite idea, 
and, a definitive arrangement 

Ant. Vague. Unspecified. Undeter- 
mined. Indefinite. Obscure. Confused. 

Definition, n. See above. 

Syn. Determination. Limitation. Speci- 
fication. Bestrlction. 

Ant. Confusion. Vagueness. Accepta- 
tion. Description. Explanation. Miscon- 
cepticm. Misstatement 

Deflect, v. tr. and int. De 
and fiectere, to turn or bend. To 
turn off from a given line. 

Syk. Turn. Deviate. Diverge. Swerve. 
Divert Becurve. 

Ant. Continue. Proceed. Straighten. 
Unbend. Prolong. Produce. 

Deflection, n. See Deflect. 

Syn. Deviation. Divergence. Alienation. 
Swerving. Incurvation. Curvity. Falca- 

Ant. Stralghtness. Directness. Becti- 
linearity. inflexibility. Prolongation. Pro* 
seculion. \3udev\a.\.\nc^es&. 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

Dkfobm, v. tr. Forma, To 
mar the shape or appearance. 
tSee Adorn. 

Defoemitt, n. See Deform. 
The quality of ugliness; and 
also that which exemplifies it. 

Syh. Uglinem. Disfigurement. Hideoos- 
ness. Abnormity. Monstrosity. 

Amt. Grace, fieaoty. Decoration. Or- 

Defbaud, V tr. De aDd/raus, 
fraud. See Cheat. 

Defeat, v. tr. GPhrongh the 
French defrayer, frais. Lat 
fredum, a penalty for breach of the 
peace. Payment of expenses, but 
in reference to a specific object. 

Snr. Meet. Liquidate. Pay. Discbarge. 

Akt. Dishonour. Repudiate. Dissatisfy. 
Misappropriate. Embezzle. Repudiate. 

Dbfeayment, n. See Defray. 

Stn. Payment. Quittance. Liquidation. 
Compensation. Discharge. 

Ant. Non-payment. Failure. Insolvenqr. 
Appropriation. Misappropriation. &a- 
bezzlement. RepudiatiMi. 

Deft, adj. Saxon. See Clever. 

Defunct, adj. De cuid funtji, 
to dischanie. One who has dis- 
charged his allotted part in life. 
See Dead. 

Defy, v. tr. See Defiance and 

Degenerate, adj. See verb. 

Syn. Worse. Fallen. Debased. Im- 
paired. Vitiate<l. Decayed. 

Ant. Improved. Ameliorated. Ad- 
vanced. Regenerated. 

Degenerate, v. int. De and 
genu 8 J a kind or dock. To ex- 
emplify in one's self a deteriora- 
tion of stock; also said of the 
stock itself. 

8tk. Deteriorate. Decline. Retrograde. 
Akt. .Recover. Improve. Mend. Ad- 

Deglutition, n. Deglutire, to 
naaiiow dotun. 

Sth. SwaUowing. GorgiDg. Glnttooj. 

Akt. Disgorgement. Vomit. 

Degradation, n. De and 
gradus, a ste/: To lower from 
the step or rank of society or 
office. See Debase. 

Degrade, v. tr. See D^rada- 
tion and Debase. 

Degree, n. See Degradation. 
Degree is the indication of rela- 
tiye quantity, as distinct from 
absolute or unmeasured quan- 

Stv. Grade. Extent. Measure. Mark. 
Rangs. Quantity. Amount Limit. 

Ant. Spoca. Mass. Magnitude. Sixe. 

Dkhortation, n. De and 
hortare, to exhort. To exhort 
from, or dissuade. See Dissuade. 

Deign, v. tr. Dtgnus. To 
condescend to think one's self 
worthy. See Condescend. 

Dejected, adj. De andjftcere, 
to cast, dejectus. Cast down. 
Used only metaphorically. 

Stx. Dispirited. Gloomy. Melancholy. 

Ant. Elated. Inspirited. Blithe. Gay. 

Delay, n. and v. From di- 
latus, past part, of differre. See 

Delectable, adj. Delectare^ 
to looe or like. 

Syn. Pleasant Amiable. Agreeable. 

Ant. Unpleasant Unamiable. Dis- 
agreeable. Uner^oyable. 

Delegate, v. tr. Delegare. 
To appoint to an office or mis- 

SrN. Appoint. Depute. Commission. 
Ant. Read. Superseda Relegate. Dis- 

Deleterious, ocfy. lAt delere, 

to wipe out or dest .;,. 

Stn. Destructive. NuVlous. Ii^iiiioiii. 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


AnT. Whokwnje. Nntrittouc. Ekmlent. 
Oooaervative. Beneflctol. 

DwT.TBicHATE, V. int Be and 
librare, to weigh ; libra, a balance. 
To weigh a subject carefully, for 
a practical purpose. Both as- 
semblies and incuyiduals are said 
to deliberate. 

Stv. Ccnsider. Meditate. Consult Pon- 
der. Debate. Perpend. 

Amt. Shelve. Burke. Dlacard. Haiard. 
Ghanoe. Rii>k. 

Dblibsbatb, adj. See verb. 
Exhibiting the quality of delibe- 
ration. Applied to persons said 
their acts. 

Stk. Grave. Purposed. Intentional. 
Designed. Determined. Resolute. Eametit. 
Unbiassed. Unprejudiced. 

Akt. PlayfuL Jocose. Facetious. Ir- 
resolute. Unresolved. Undetermined. 
Dubiow. Compulsory. Sngi^ested. Dictated. 
Instigated. Biassed. Pr^udioed. 

Dbubesation, n. See De- 
liberate, V. 

Deubebatelt, cuiv. See De- 
liberate, adj\ 

DelioAOT, w. Delicice, delight. 
That quahty which pleases the 
senses of the refined. Applied 
also to such objects of tsiste as 
have this quality. In an ex- 
aggerated sense, used of organic 
delicacy or weakness. It is also 
used of mind and feeling. 

Stn. Nicety. Dainty. Morspl. Re- 
fiiiemoit Tact Softness. Luxury. Modesty. 
Scruple. Sensitiveness. Fragility. 

Akt. Coarseness. Rudeness. Rainess. 
Rougbnoss. Indelicaqr. Commons. Neces- 
saries. Fare. Physic. Vigour, Robustness. 

Delicate, adJ, See Delicacy. 
Delicious, adj. See Delicacy. 

Stn. Exquisite. Luxurious. DelighttuL 
Dainty. Choice. 

Akt. Coaree. Common. Unsavouiy. 
UnpalatJsble. Nauseous. LtMtthsome. 

Delight, «. Delertare. Comp. 
Delectable. A high-wrought 
state of pleasurable feeling. 

Stn. E^joyment Pleasure. Happiness. 
Transport. Ecstasy. Gladness. Rapture. 

Ant. Pain. SuITerlng. Sorrow. Trouble. 
Misery. Displeasure. Dissatisfaction. Dis- 
appointment Discomfort. Dejection. De- 
pression. Distress. Melancholy. Discon- 

Delightful, adj. See Delight. 

Delineate, v. tr. De and 
linea, a line. To draw a line, or 
lines, so as to mark out. 

Stn. Describe. Figure. Sketch. Por- 

Ant. Miwrepresent. Caricature. Ex- 
aggerate. Misportray. 

Delinquenoy, n. De and 
linguere, to leave. The leaying, 
omission, or failure of duty, and, 
more positively, the actual com- 
mission of crime, to which it is 
now, by usage, restricted. 

Stn. Crime. OlTence. Guilt. Culp»> 
bilitv. Criminality. 

Ant. Innocence. Blamelessness. 

Delinquent, n. See Delin- 

Stn. Criminal Culprit 

Ant. Worthy. Paragon. Pattern. 

Delitescence, n. Delitescere, 
lateo. To be hid. 

Stn. Concealment Hiding. SkuUdng. 

Ant. Appearance. Publicity. Forward^ 
ness. Self-presentation. Openness. 

Deliyeb, V. tr. Dtliberare, 
liber, free. To set free from pre- 
vious confinement; also, from 
the confinement of one's own 
mind, so as to utter; also, to 
hand over. 

Stn. Liberate. Free. Rescue. Pro. 
nounce. Hand. Give. Intrust Consign. 

Ant. Confine. Capture. Suppress. Re- 
tain. Betray. Withdraw. Assume. Ap- 
propriate. Misdeliver. 

Delude, v. tr. Ddudere, Indus, 
sport. To cheat a man into 
something disappointing or in- 
jurious to him. See Deceive. 

Deluge, n. Diluvium. A 
great wash of water. 

SvN. Inundation. Rush. ]<lood. Re- 

Akt. Mist MotelMre. Y>«^m\Xi. \Jt^T)a^ 
Aridity &uba!k^tt\io&. 'Eau&»ca.\.\QXL« 


Synonyms and Anionyms. 

DxLUBiON, w. See Deodt 

Delyb, V, int. and tr. Sax. 
fMfar,, To dig. Used metar 
phorically also. 

Snr. Dif. Pfenetnte. Dive. Investi- 
gate. SeercL 

AxT. Scratch. Bake. Slor. Dabble. 
DaUy. Skim. 

Demand, v. tr, Demandare. 
Demsmd is the forcible injunction 
of a right as towards one's self, 
as command of an action in an- 

Stv. Qaim. Require. Insist. 
Aht. Disclaim. Waive. Forego. Peti- 
tion. Request Sapplicabe. 

Demaboation, n. De and 
marcij Fr. demarquer. Is to terri- 
torial, what definition is to ideal, 
limits. Conn, with Mark and 
Marches on border - countries, 
said Marquis, the holder of such 

Stn. Definition. Limitation. Gonfign- 
ration. OuUine. Sketch. Delineation. 
Bounding. Indosure. Plan. 

Akt. Indefiniteness. Openness. Space, 
AVaste. Plain. Void. 

Demean, v, tr, De and minari, 
to threaten, as a driver of cattle ; 
hence. It. menare, to conduct ; so, 
demeanour, conduct. In later 
times the word became con- 
founded with the adj. mean, 
which had acquired the sense of 
low. So, demean one's self has 
the double sense of behave and 
condescend. See Behave and 

Demerit, n. See Merit and 

Demesne, n. See Domain. 

Demise, v. tr. Fr. demettre, 
Lat. demittere. To lay down, 
first, the life, and then the will, 
as to the disposal of the pro- 

Sth. Bequeath. Leave. Will. 
Ajtt. Alienate. Divert, 

I DxMi8S,n. SeeDGA^ 

Demoobaho, adj. ^/Mtn, ihe 
people, and Kparw, to rule. Be- ^ 
longing to a state of things in ' 
which the people, as such, bear 
role. Belonging to, or akin to, 
democracy. Extended to tlie 
extreme issues of demociacy, 
from which it were better to 
keep it distinct 

Snr. Popular. Levelling. BadicaL Sab- 
verslve. Unlicensed. AnarchicaL Dcstrao- 
tive. Bepublioan. 

Aht. Begal. ImperiaL Aristocratle. 
OUgarchicaL OonsUtutiooaL Oonaervative. 
Tyrannical Despotic Autocratic. 

Demolish, V. tr. De and moles, 
a mass or structure. To destroy 
utterly a compound or con- 
structed mass. See Destroy. 

Demoniacal, adj. Gr. doemon, 

^ Stn. Fiendish. Hellish. DiaboUcaL 
Ant. Angelic. Seraphic. Heavenly. 

Demonstbatb, v. tr. Demon' 
strare. To show by external 
proof, and, secondly, to prove as 
conclusively, as if by external 

Sth. Prove. Show. Exhibit, nins- 

Ant. Disprove. OonceaL MIsdcniaB- 
strate. MisezencpliQr, 

Demobauze^ V, tr, De and 
mores, manners or morals. See 
Ameliorate. For a technical 
sense in military matters, see 

Dbmulgbnt, adj, Demuleere, 
to soothe. 

Stn. Soothing. Softening. Allaying. 

Ant. Irritating. Chafing. Blistering. 

Demub, V. int. Through the 
French, from the Lat. mora, cfc- 
lay. To demur to a thing is to 
delay, from reasons of your own, 
in giving assent or consent to it. 

Stn. Dubitate. HesiUte. Halt. Ol^ect. 
Ant. Approve. Acquiesce. Agrees 
^Aaiieut. 0>\)seux. 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


Demube, adj. Old Pr. murs, 
Lat. mores, morals or manners, 
Ezhibitmg refrain of manners 
and expression, sometimes to an 
nnnecessary extent 

Snr. Sedate. Staid. Grave. Sober. 
Dtepaflsioiiate. Prudish. Discreet. 

▲kt. Lively. Vivadons. Faoetioiis. 
Wanton. WikL Noisy. Boisterous. 
SomplalL Hoydenlsh. Indiscreet 

Denial, n. See Deny. 

Denizen, n. One who had 
the priTHeges of a subject by the 
king's ' donatio/ or grant. 

Snr. Citizen. Sul:))ect. Inhabitant 
Freed-man. Sojourner. Dweller. 

Airr. Foreigner. Alien. Stranger. Exile. 

Denominate, v, tr. Be and 
nomen, a name. To give a name. 

Snr. Name. GalL Designate. Specify. 

Airr. Iflsnaxne. MiscaU. Describe. 
Suggest. Delineate. 

Denomination^ n. See De- 
nominate. A class or order 
having a common name. 

Snr. Name. Designation. Description. 
Kind. Class. Order. Appellation. 
Amt. Non-description. Misnomer. 

Denote, v. tr, De notare, nota, 
a mark ; nottis, known. To point 
out, so as to set a note upon, or 
make known specifically. See 

Denounce, v. tr, Denuntiare, 
To declare publicly as worthy of 
reprobation. Distinguished from 
renounce, which is, to make the 
same declaration, but in connec- 
tion with one's own resolve to 
forego or abandon it. 

Syk. Reprobate. Decry. Proscribe. 
Brand. Stigmatize. Vituperate. Defame. 

Airr. Applaud. Eulogize. Vindicate. 
Ffenegyrize. Uphold. 

Dense, adj, Densiis, thick. 
With particles closely consoli- 
dated. Used metaphorically for 

Snr. Slow. Thick. Stupid. Stolid. 
Solid. Stout Compai^t Consolidated. 

Ant. Quick. Clever. Intelligent Rare. 
Rarefied. Unoompacted. Sparse. 

Dent, n. Dens, a tooth. Conn, 
with Dint. 

Snr. Indentation. Notch. Cavity. 
Abt. Tumour. Protuberance. Button. 
Knob. Tooth. 

Denticulated, adj. See Dent. 

Stn. Notched. Crenellated. Indented. 
AiTT. Toothed. Serrated. 

Denticulation, n. See adj. 

Denude, v, tr, De and nt4dtt8, 


Snr. strip. Divest Bare. SpolL 
Ant. Invest Drape. Decorate. Enrich. 


Denunciation^ n. See De- 

Deny. Denegare, To with- 
hold consent to a proposal, assent 
to a proposition or request, and 
assent to a statement of fact 

Stn. Refise. Reject Withhold. Nega- 
tive. Contradict 

Akt. Grant Accept Concede. Admit 
Affirm. Confirm. Afford. Yield. Indulge^ 

Depart, v. int, Fr. partir, Lat 
pars. To quit a certain part or 
locality, in any one of many 
ways. Also, to leave a given 
place, or deviate from a given 

Snr. Leave. Quit Go. Decamp. Start 
SaUy. Retire. Withdraw. Remove. 

Ant. Stay. Cling. Remain. Come. 
Arrive. Alight Used also for Die. 

Departed, adj. See Depart 
and Defunct. 

Department, n, De pars, a 
part or division, Fr. department. 
A branch or part of an official or 
scientific institution, or a country 
so arranged. 

Stn. Section. Division. Office. Branch. 

Ant. Institution, fistabllshment Art 
Science. Literature. Service. Stale. Whole. 
OrganizflAlon. CommnxAX'^. ^o^^Vs*'^^* 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

Depbndenoii, w. See Depen- 

Dependent, adf, Dependere. 
To hang, both merely physically 
and also consciously ; hanging on 
another thing. 

Stn. Hanging. Resting. Gonilngent. 
Trusting. Reljrini?. Subject. Relative. 

Ant. Independent. Irrelative. Irre^>eo- 
tive. Abeolute. Free. 

Depict, v. tr, Depingere, To 

Stn. Portray. Colour. Paint. Draw, 

Ant. Misrepresent. Ezai^ferate. Deform. 

Deplorable, adf, De and 
plorare, to lament, 

Stn. Lamentable. Miserable. Pitiable. 
Sad. Calamitous. Disastrous. 

Ant. Welcome. Olad. Acoeptable. 
Felicitous. Beneficial Jojous. 

Deplore, v, tr. See Deplor- 

Stn. Regret. Lament. Mourn. 
Ant. Welcome. HaiL 

Depopulate, v, tr, De and 
populus. To deprive a country 
of its population. 

Stn. Waste. Dispeople. Unpeople. !)©• 
sert. Abandon. 

Ant. Occupy. Tenant. Colonize. In- 
habit Settle. Replenish. Stock. Fill. 

Deportation, n, Deportare, 
To carry home or to its place. - 

Stn. Arrival. Importation. Placement. 

Ant. Exportation. Emigration. Dis- 

Deportment, t?. Same root 
as Deportation. Used of bodily 
and moral carriage. 

Stn. Bf'havlour. Carriage. Movement. 
Ant. Misbehaviour. Mlsdeportment. 

Depose, v, tr, Deponere, To 
lay down on evidence, or as 
skongly. See Avouch. Used in 
the peculiar sense of dethrone- 
ment. See Enthrone. 

Deposition, n. See Depose. 

Deprave, v, tr, De and pravus^ 
had. To corrupt the moral na- 
ture. See Debase. 

Depraved, adj. See Deprave. 

Deprecate, v, tr. Depreeis, 
art, De sJidprex, a prayer. To 
beg off a thing. Also used, in a 
more positive sense, for disavow, 
as, to deprecate all knowledge of 
a thing, which really is to depre- 
cate another*s supposition that 
one has such a knowledge. 

Stn. Disavow. Disclaim. Expoatalate. 

Ant. Beg. Supplicate. Ask. Entreat 
Request. Imprecate. Invoke. 

Depreciate, v, tr. De and 
pretium, price. To cry down 
the value of an article or a cha- 

Stn. Disparage. Undervalue. Decry. 
Ant Appreciate. ExUA. Knhancft. 
Value. Over-value. 

Depredation, n. De and 
proida, a prey, A coining down 
upon a place, and carrying off 
something by force. Usage has 
softened the word into meaning 
an unauthorized encroachment 

Stn. Havoc. Robbery. Spoliation. 
Plunder. Trespass. Invasion. Kncmach- 

Ant. PUfering. Perquisite. Abstraction. 
Pocketing. Restitution. Compensatlcm. 

Depredator, n. See Depre- 

Depression, w. Deprimere, 
depresaus. Used both physically, 
mentally, and analogously. 

Stn. Lowering. D^radation. Debase- 
ment Dejection. Discouragement. Hollow. 
Valley. Dip. 

Ant. Raising. Elevation. Exaltation. 
Promotion. Preferment. Amelioration. 
Encouragement. Rallying. Rising. Mound. 
Prominence. Eminence. 

Deprive, v, tr. Deprivare, 
from privus, one's cnvn. GoniL 
with Private. To take away a 
man's own. 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


Snr. Strip. Bereave. Despoil. Rob. 

Akt. Invest. Endow. Compensate. 
Enrich. Supply. Present Reinstate. In- 

Depth, n. See Deep. 

Stn. Profundity. Gtiasm. Abyss. 

Ant. Surface. Shallowness. Super- 

Depttb, V, tr, Deputare. To 

appoint a person to a specific 


Si-N'. Appoint. Conimissdon. Charge. 
Entrust. Delegate. Authorize. Accredit. 

Ant. RecaL Discard. Dismiss. DiS' 
commission. Supercede. 

Deputy, n. See Depute. 

Syk. Vicegerent. Lieutenant. Repre- 
sentiitive. Agent Commissioner. Legate. 
Proxy. Substitute. • 

Stk. Principal. Master. Chief. Go- 
\emor. Sovereign. Ruler. Head. 

Derange, v, tr, Fr. deravger. 
From Kange. Conn, with Eing 
and Bank, from arena. See Ar- 

Derangement, n. See Derange 
and Aberration. 

Debeuotion, n. Be and re- 
linqitere^ rdictus, to leave, A 
leaving off, or failure in, a 
point or course of duty. 

Stx. Abandonment Failure. Short> 

eoDodng. Desertion. Relinquislunent. Neg< 

Airr. Performance. Observance. Ad- 
herence. Attention. 

Deride, v, tr. See Derision, 
Derision, n, De and ridere, to 
laugh ; risus^ laughter. Contemp- 
tuous laughter. 

Stn. Scorn. Contempt. Contumely. 

Am. Respect Regard. Admiration. 

Derisive, adj. See Deride. 

Derivation, w. De and rivus, 
a htream. The flow of a thing 
from its source. 

Sm. Origin. Source. Beginning. Cause. 
EtymoI(^. Root Spring. Analysis. 

Asrr. ReRuIt Issue. Formation. Ap- 
plication. Use. 

Derive, v, tr. See Denvation. 

Stn. Deduce. Trace. Follow. Track. 
Draw. Resolve. 

Akt. Misdeduce. Misattribute. Mil- 

Derogate, v, int. TJerogare, 
To ask the votes of the Boman 
people concerning the modifica- 
tion of a law. Hence, to detract 
from a thing, and, specifically, 
from the value of it. Followed 
by the prep, from. 

SrN. Detract. Disparage. Depreciate. 
Decry. Deteriorate. 

Ant. Etiteem. Value. Laud. Enhance. 
ExtoU Exaggerate. Over-esthnate. Over- 

Derogation, w. iSee Derogate. 

Descant, v, int, Dis and 
cant us, a song, A variation from 
or in a given melody. Diffusely 
to talk. 

Stn. Dissert. Discuss. Expatiate. En« 
large. Talk. DwelL Amplify. 

Akt. Condense. AbridRe. Abbreviate. 
Curtail. Confine. Clip. Delineate. 

Descend, v, int, Descendere, 
scandere, to dimb. See Ascend. 
Descendant, n. See Descend. 

SvN. Offspring. Progeny. Stock. Scion. 
Seed. Branch. Issue. Mouse. Family. 

Ant. Author. Founder. Parent An- 
cestor. Progenitor. Stock. Root. Source. 

Descent, n. See Descend and 

Describe, v, tr, De and Bcri" 
here, to write or draw. To draw 
a lie round a space, or, men- 
tally, round an idea, for sake of 

Stn. Draw. Delineate. Portray. Ex- 
plain. Illustrate. Define. Picture. 

Akt. Confound. Confuse. Mystify. 
Misrepresent Caricature. Distort. 

Description, n. See Describe 
and Denomination. 

Descrt, V, tr, Discemere, di»- 
cretus. To discern. Comp. Dis- 
• cretion. To see an object or 
I subject not distinctly manifest. 


Synonyms and Anianyma. 

Snr. DIaoern. Reoognis*. Diaoover. 
DMngotoh. Espy. JCtetect OtMerve. 

AST. Mifls. Overlook. Mtoobierve. 

Desecrate, v, tr, De and 
Mcer, sacred. To Tiolate the 
sanctity of a thing or place, or to 
put it to an nnworthy use. 

Snr. Proftne. Secalariie. Mknse. 
Abase. Prostitate. Pollute. 

Ant. Use. Employ. Devote. Dedicate. 
Consecrate. Solemnize. Sanctify. Pnriiy. 

Desert, n, Deserere, To dis- 
connect, t. e. ahandon ; hence the 
nouTiy aplace abandoned. 

Sth. wild. Waste. Wildemeaa. Soli^ 
tode. Void. 

Amt. Inclosore. Field. Flutnre. Gar- 
den. Oasia. 

Desert, v. tr. See noun and 

Deserter, n. /See Desert. One 
who forsakes a person or a canse, 
dereliction of duty being im- 

Stv. Renegade. Runaway. Recanter. 
Al^arer. Apostate. Traitor. Forsaker. 

AST. Adherent. Snpporter. Ally. Be- 
friender. Disciple. Bigot SUve. 

Deserts, v, tr. Be and servire, 
to serve. To earn by service, or, 
generally, to merit. 

Sts. Merit. Earn. Justify. Win. 
AST. Forfeit Misdeserve. Lose. 

Desiderate, v. tr. Desiderium, 
Desire of the lost or absent 
Sometimes nsed vaguely for de- 
sire, as a matter, not of passion, 
bnt reonirement. 

Stk. Desire. Want Need. Require. 
AST. Disr^iaid. Forget Supersede. 

Desideratum, n. See De- 

Sts. Requisite. Oomplement Essen- 
tlaL Want. 

AsT. Surplusage. Superfluity. Incum- 
brance. Drawback. 

Design, v, tr. De and signare, 
to mark out. To mark ont a 
plan of mental or physical con- 
stmcidon orpToceeomg, 

Snr. OoDtemvdate. Porpoie. intend. 
Plan. Prepare. Prq|ect 

AST. Hit Risk. Gneas. Oonleetare. 
Chance. Fluke. Miaooooeive. Miaoon- 

Design, n. See verb. Is used 
in the senses of the verb, and 
also in the degenerate sense of 
artifice and cunning; that is, 
design imworthily employed. 

Stv. Contemplation. PurpoM. Inten- 
tion. Plan. Preoaration. Draft DeUne> 
ation. Sketch. Drawing. Artiflkse. Gnn- 
nlng. Artfnlnees. Guile. Contrivance. 

AST. Execution. Performance. Result 
lasne. Oonstmction. Structure. Candour. 
Faimees. Openness. Artlessneaa. Sincerity. 
Simplicity. Chance. Accident 

Designate. De and signumj 
a mark or sign ; signare^ to draw 
a line. To attribute a descriptive 
name. iSee Denominate. 

Designation, n. See Desig- 

Designed, part. See Design. 

Stk. Intended. Prepared. Purposed. 
Adapted. CalcuUted. Planned. Contrived 

AST. Fortuitous. Casual. AoddentaL 
Miscalculated. Misoontrived. Unintenkd. 

Designing, adj. See Design 
and Artfol. 

Desinence, n. Desinere. To 
leave off. 

Stv. Termination. Conclusi<». CeHa- 
Uon. Diacontinuancei Cadence. Period. 

AST. Origination. Initiation. Inaugu- 
ration. Continuance. Progression. Com- 
mencement Inception. 

Desirable, adj. See Deside- 
rate. To be defflred, either for 
itself or for some end beyond it 

Stv. Expedient Advisable. ValnableL 
Acceptable. Proper. Judkdoua. BenefldaL 
Profitable. Good. 

AST. Undesirable. Unadvisable. Inex- 
pedient OtOectionable. Improper. Inju- 
dicious. Unprofitable. EviL 

Desire, n. See Desiderate. 

Stv. Longing. AfTection. Propenalon. 
Craving. Concupiscence. Appeiaicj. 

AST. Loathing. Hate. BepugMDce. 
Diflgust Aversion. Abomination. &mr 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 

Dseobt: De and nstere, to 
9kmd, To stand off from con- 
titmiTig a process. Followed bj 
jprcp. from. 

nH. Cease. Stop. DiBOonthrae. Drop. 
Abstain. Forbear. 

Akt. Oontliiiie. Proceed. Ferslft Per- 

Desolate, adj. Be and tdus, 
alone. Lonely. Said of condi- 
tion and localities. 

Sm. Bereaved. Forloni. Forsaken. 
Deserted. WUd. Waste. Bve. Bleak. 

Airr. Cheered. CheerfiU. Consoled. 
Attended. Cultivated. Sheltered. Fertile. 
Lozorlant. Animated. Lively. Gay. 

Desolate, v. See adjective. 

Sth. Waste? SpoiL Sack. Plunder. 
Pillage. Bavage. Devastate. 

AST. People. Colonize. Plant De- 
velope. Fertilise^ Cultivate. Enrich. En- 

Desolation, n. See Desolate, 

Dbspaib, n. Despera/re, aperare, 
to hope ; ipes, hope. 

Snr. Hopelessness. Despondency. Des- 

Airr. Hopeftdness. Elation. Confidence. 
Sangoineness. Enectation. Anticipation. 

Despaib, V. See noun. Fol- 
lowed by prep. of. 

Stn. Despond. Fatnt. 
Akt. Hope. Trust Confide. Bety. 
Presume. Bally. 

Despebate, adj. See Despair. 
Showing in action the condition 
of despair, or, analogously, wild, 
as if desperate. Also used of the 
aspects of afifoirs. 

SXH. Wild. Daring. Audacious. De- 
termined. Beckless. Abandoned. Hope- 
IsM. Inextricable. Irremediable. 

Avr. Cool. Cahn. Cautions. Timid. 
Shy. Irresolute. Bemediable. Hopeltil. 
Promising. Propitions. 

Despicable, adj. Despkari. 
A form of detpicere, to look down 

Sxv iSee C(»tteiB]»tIbl& 


See Despicable 

Despise, v. tr. 
and Contemn. 

DB8PiTE/prejt>. Formed from 
de and vpite, which is from de- 
apicere. Spite is spise or con- 
tempt, but not inactive, but ma- 
licious despisement or contempt. 
In spite of. 

Stn. Notwithstandtog. Opposing. Re- 

Airr. Concurrently. Consentaneously. 
Aiding. Abetting. 

Despite, n. See prep, and 

Despoil, v. tr. Despdiare, 
spolia, spoils taken in war or 
combat. Used generally of di- 
vesting, and so spoiling. 

Stk. Strip. Denude. Ravage. De- 
vastate. Rob. Havoc Spoliate. 

A»T. Decorate. Adorn. Embellish. En- 
rich. Reinstate. Rehabilitate. 

Despond, v. in^., Despondency, 
n. Despotidere, to promise away, 
especiaUv in marriage. Hence, 
to abandon and give up as lost. 
See Despair. 

Despot, n. Gr. d€<nr6Trjs. An 
irresponsible head of a state, not 
necessarily cruel in character. 
Yet irresponsible pywei in hu- 
man hands so naturally leads to 
it, that cruelty has become asso- 
ciated with desx)ot and tyrant. 

Sth. Tyrant Autocrat 
Ant. Slave. Sul^ect 

Despotic, adj. See Despot. 

Sth. Autocratic. Irresponsible. Abso- 
lute. Cruel. Tyrannical. 

Aht. Limited. Constitutional Hu- 
mane. Merciful. 

Destine, v. tr. Destinare. An 
old and obsolete verb, stino, con- 
nected with sto, to place down 
firmly, as intended for a certain 
use or purpose. 

Sth. Purpose. Intend. Design. De- 

Aht. Alienate. Divorce. Misapply. 


Synonffwu and Antonyms. 

DssTiKATiosr, n. See Bertme. 

8tx. Parpose. Intention. Dnign. Gon- 
VfiimeuL iJtfrcL EJxL F«^. Doom. 
ArriTaL Applkatioa. U«l Scope. GoaL 

Ajct. Opention.* Tend-ncx- Exxvdae. 
Aetioo. llorcmniL Deaisn. Initiatinn 
yn^KL Effurt. Pupose. 

Dkstixt, fi. See Destine. The 
fixed decree of &te in general, or 
(Hie's own {iaite in particnlar. 

Six. Fate. Decr«. Predestuation. 
Keoesaity. iKiom. End. 

AxT. WilL YoUtion. CiMioe. Delibe- 
mian. Freedom. Freewill. 

Destitutb, adj. Destitutus, 
See DepriTe. 

Dbbtrot, r. tr. D.'struere. 
Comp. Eng. Strew, to throw 

8TX. Demolish. Annlhilatf. Sabrni. 
AXT. Restore. Beinatate. Repair. Faliri- 
eate. Make. Create. Goostmct. 

Destbuctivb, adj. See De- 

Stv. DetrhnentaL HnrtfoL Noxioaa. 
lojorioiu. DekterioiML BalefoL BonefliL 

Arr. Wholeaome. CouerratiTe. Pre- 
■ervative. BenfcfidaL Beparatory. Sub- 
sidiaiy. Restoratire. 

Dbbuetude, n, Desuettido, de 
and sueic^re, to be accustomed, 

Stv. Dteme: OlMoleteneflL Kon-ob- 

AxT. Use. Yogne. Custom. . Practke. 
Observaocif. Exercise. Operation. Perma- 
nence. Rrpetiiatian. 

Desultory, adj. De and 
s^fUre, to l<ap. literally, jumping 
aly^ut Not steady to a liaB of 
thought or conduct. 

Sts. RambliDi;. DfacnrnTe. Loose. 
Unni'-thodic^il. SaperfidaL Unsettled. 
Erratic Inexact. Spasmodic FitfoL 
FreakL^. Aberrant. 

AST. Settled. Oonsecotive. Earnest. 
Serfons. Persevering. Oontinoons. Me- 
tliodical. Exact. Diligent. Uotiiing. Re- 
cturent. PeriodicaL Systematic 

Detach, v. tr. See Attach. 

Detail, v. tr, De and Fr. 
tui/ler, to cft., It. tagliare. Conn, 
with Intaglio. Literally, acutting. 

1 Metaphorically, a minute poHzbn 
!<rf a suhject or work. To giTe 
i the comxx>nent parts in enumera- 
i tire statement 

Sra. PuticalaTiae. ikmrnerate. Indi- 
JTidoaliae. SifL Anahrie. SpeciiV. 

Ajrr. GenenUxe. Oood<>nse. Oooglome- 
i rate. GatlMr. SketdL Suggest. AbstrKt 
CLusifjr. Amalgnmatf 

Detail, «. See verb. 

Stx. Element Oomponent FiartlGiilsr. 
Specialty. Point, 

AxT. Aooonnt StatemenL BedtaL 
Tctality. Representatiaa 

Detain, v. tr, Detinere, To 
hold back. 

Stx. Suy. Keep. Stop. Airest Em- 

AxT. liberate. Expedite. Aoodentfc 
DisaiisB. Loose. Diaembaigo. 

Detect, v. tr, De and tegere, 
to cover. To uncover that which 
has been concealed. 

Six. Discover. Descry. Unmask. Ex- 

AST. IGsB. Lose. MIsobserve. ligpore. 

Detention, n. See Detain. 

Deter, r. tr. De and terreo, I 
frighten. To warn by the decla- 
ration or the suspicion of ill con- 

Stx. Warn. Stop. Dissoade. Dfsin- 
dine. Indispofe. Dispirit. Dlsoonnse. 
Disbeaiten. Terrify. Scare. 

Axt. fixoarage. Incite. Provoke. 
Move. Allnre. Pronqtt Tempt Sednoe. 

Deterge, Detergent. See 

Deteriorate, v. tr. Deterior, 
worse. To make or grow worse. 
See Ameliorate. 

Determinate, adj. De and 
terminus, a limit. Haying the 
limits well defined. See Definite. 

Determination, n. See De- 
termine, Definition, and DecisioiL 
It expresses that quality of mind 
and character which, having first 
delineated a course of cooduct 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


and aim, resolutely striyes to 
realize it. 

DsTBBMiNE, V. tr. and int. See 
Determinate, Define, Decide. 

Dbtbbsion. See Deterge. 
» DsTBST, V. tr, De and testis, 
a witness. To call, as it were, 
witnesses, before whom to make 
an expression of abjuration. 
Generally, to hate. See Abomi- 

Dbtestable, adj. See Detest 
and Abominable. 

Dethbone, V, tr. Be and 
thronus (dp6vos), a throne, 

Sth. Depose. Uncrown. 

Airr. Grown. Anoint. Enthrone. 

Dethbonement, n. See Be- 

Detonate, v. int. Be and 
Umitus, thunder. To go off with 
a sharp report. 

Sth. Explode. Pm>. 

Akt. Smoulder. Hang. Poff. 

Detobtion, n. De and tor- 
quere, tortus, to twist back or 
doum. To turn from the original 
meaning. To twist out of right 
shape generally, as Distortion is 
with a specific object. 

Sth. Wresting. Violation. Twisting. 
Distortion. Ferversiim. Decurvity. De- 
vexity. Recurvation. 

Amt. Direction. Aim. Bectilinearity. 

Detbaot, V. tr. Betrahere, 
tractus. To take or draw away. 
In usage, applied to yalue and 
reputation. Used with the prep, 

Snr. Lessen. Deteriorate. Depredate. 

Aht: Augment Enhance. Raise. In- 

Dbtbaotion, n. See Detract 
I and Detriment. Used peculiarly 
of der(^tion from we social 
' . YsJue of character. 

Stv. DimlDutlon. Deterioration. De- 
predation. Slander. Backbiting. Deroga- 

Amt. Augmentation. Improvement. 
Enhancement Eulogy. (Compliment 

Detbactob, n. See Detrac- 

Stn. Slanderer. Cynic. Backbiter. 
Amt. Flatterer. Sycophant Eulogist. 

Detbiment, n. Detrimentum, 
terere, to rub or wear. The wear- 
ing off or away of a substance, so 
as to diminish its yalue or use- 

Stv. Loss. Harm. Hurt Injury. De- 
terioration. Impairment 

Amt. Enhancement Improvement. 
Remedy. Reinstatement Repair. Aug- 

Detrimental, adj. See De- 

Stm. Injurious. Hurtful. Pernicious. 
Amt. BenefidaL Profitable. Augmen- 

Detbude, V. tr. De and tnt- 
dere, to thrust. To throw down. 
See Dash. 

Detbunoation, n. De and 
truncus, the trunk or body. The 
separation, from the main body 
of the limbs or branches. 

Stm. Lopping. Disramification. Pollard- 
ing. Dismemberment Discorporation. 
Amputation. Stripping. 

Amt. Training. Trailing. Grafting. 
Inoculation. Luxuriance. 

Devastate, v, tr. De and 
vastuH, vast. Conn, with Eng. 
Waste. To lay a place waste. 
See Despoil 

Developb, v. tr. De and vo- 
luptas (doubtful). To envelope 
being to make comfortable by 
wrapping. Used of unfolding a 
thing, and also of unfolding one 
thing out of another, envelope 
representing the coniiary pro- 

Stm. Educe. ISxmcYnAA. 'E\\\fi\tA.\.«. 
Enundaie. Ami^\ty. !£&v«3u3l YaW^. 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

Am*. Envelope. Wrap. Obscure. Mys- 
tify. Conceal. Narrow. Eestrict. Con- 
tract. Condense. Compress. Involve. 

Development, w. See De- 

Devbxitt, n. Be and vehere, 
vextis, to carry. See Detortion. 

Deviate, v. irU, Be and via, 
a road. To strike off from a 
road or line of thought or 

Stn. Digress. Wander. Depart. Divari- 
cate. Diverge. 

Akt. Continue. Advance. 

Device, n, Lat. divistts, from 
dividere, to divide. First, a di- 
vided, separate, peculiar, or per- 
sonal badge or cognizance; 
thence, a private scheme or 
mode of action, implying pri- 
vacy to the extent of secretive- 
ness, and so, unfavourable. 

Stk. Artifice. Expedient. Contrivance. 

Ant. Fair-dealing. Openness. Miscon- 
trivance. Abortion. Fortune. Luck. 
Hazard. Hit Incognito. 

Devilish, adj, AidfioXos, the 
devil or accuser. See Angelic. 

Devious, adj. De and via, a 
road. Wanting in the directness 
and plainness of a road. 

Stn. Tortuous. Circuitous. Untracked. 
Trackless. Pathless. Ambagious. Kound- 
abont. Distorted. 

Ant. Direct Plain. Trodden. Fre- 
quented. Straightforward. 

Devise, v. tr. See Device. 

Stn. Contrive. Flan. Manage. Ma- 
noeuvre. Concoct 

Ant. Miscontrive. Mismanage. 

Devoid, adj. A stronger form 
of Void, which is connected with 
viduum, empty or deserted. Hence, 

Stn. Void. Wanting. Destitute. Un. 
endowed. Unprovided. 

Ant. Furnished. Supplied. Seplete. 
Provided. Gifted. 

Devolve, v, act. and Tieut, De 
and volvere, to roH, To accrue 

or come to another in the way of 
office or duty, usually in the ab- 
sence or failure of another. Fol- 
lowed by the prep. upon. 

Stn. Impose. Place. Charge. Com- 
mission. Depute. Accrue. Attach. Be- 
fall. Fall 

Ant. Deprive. Withhold. BecaL Can- 
cel Alienate. Miss. Pretermit. Pass. 
Lapse. Skip. 

Devote, v. tr. Be and votmn, 
a vow. To dedicate by vow. 
More generally, in a weaker 
sense, to assign. See Dedicate. 

Devoted, adj. See Devote. 
Used in the sense of self-devoted. 

Stn. Attached. Fond. Absorbed. De- 
dicated. Given. Abandoned. 

Ant. Alienated. Estranged. Averse. 

Devotion, n. See Devote. It 
has the sense of strong attach- 
ment generally, and religious 
attachment in particular. 

Stn. Piety. Devoutnesa. Religiousness. 
Dedication. Self-abandonment Seif-«ar> 
render. Self-sacrifice. Love. Attachment. 

Ant. impiety. Profanity. Selflahness. 
Aversion. Alienation. Antipathy. Indil^ 
ferenoei. Apathy. 

Devour, v. tr. Bevorare, 
Stn. Eat Consume. Swallow. GKnge. 
Gobble. Bolt Absorb. 
Ant. Dij^gorge. Vomit. 

Devout, adj\ See Devotion, 

Devoutless, adj\ See Ant. to 

Dexterous, adj. Dexter, the 
right hand. Skilful in manual 
things. See Awkward. 

Diabolical, adj. See Devilish. 

Diadem, n, Aiadi/fux. An 
ornament 'bound round* the 
head as a symbol of imperial, 
princely, or noble rank, or as an 
ornament of beauty. 

Stn. Crown. Coronet. CoronaL Clumlet 
Wreath. Fillet Tiara. Circlet 

Ant. Liberty-cap. FooI'b-ci^. Daisy- 

Diagnostic. Ai^ and yivJuaKeiv, 
to fenoio. Something whereby 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 


we know or distmgnish a case^ 
especially in cases of disease. 

r mnr. gyiaaptoiiL Indicfttion. Feature. 

SigQ. Cae. 

AST. Development Crisis. FOTmation. 
Oonsninnuttion. Head. Deception. Illusion 

DiAIiEOT. Liokiydv, to speak 
or converse. It is better to nse 
Dialect in the sense of distinctiye 
and local speech. 

Snr. Provincialism. Accent. Idiom. 
Amt. Tongae. Language. Speech. 

Dialectic, adj. See Dialect. 
Belonging to the dialectical 
science or rhetoric. 

Snr. BhetorlcaL Logical Aigmnentap 

Airr. CanversationaL CoUoqniaL Com- 

Dialogue, n. See Dialect. 
Gonyersation confined to two 
persons, or also general. 

Snr. Tdte-&-Tete. Conversation. Dis- 
ooune. Colloquy. Confabulation. 

Am. Monoloc(ue. Oration. Soliloquy, 

DLiPHAKOUS, ocfy. Aia, through, 

and <bdiv€iv, to sho^v. Said of that 

whicn the light shines through. 

Snr. Transparent. Translucent Crys- 
tolUne. PeUndd. Limpid. 

Akt. Muddy. Opaque. Turbid. 

Diatribe, v, Aiarpiptiv, to 
wear, waste, or spend time, es- 
pecially in pointless or abosiye 
talk. The moral to be drawn 
from the word seems to be that 
men are far more eloquent in 
abuse than in praise. 

Snr. Tirade. 'Effusion. Yam. In- 
vective. Abuse. 

Airr. Pitfi, Epigram. Point Condnnity. 
Eulogy. Panegyric Discussion. Dlsqui- 
tition. Treatise. Essay. 

Dictate, v. tr, Dictare, to 
pronounce for repetition, also for 
purposes of instruction or com- 

Snr. Prompt Suggest Enjoin. Com- 

Am. Follow. Repeat Obey. Echo. 

Dictation, n. See Dictate. 

Snr. Imperative. Imperious. Domi- 
neering. Arbitrary. 

Ant. Condescending. Affable. Indul- 
gent Modest Unassuming. Suppliant. 
Supplicatory. Precaiory. Persuasive. In- 

Dictatorial, a/ij. See Dictate. 

Diction, n. Dictio, Dicere, 
to say or speak. Correct style in 
writing and speaking. 

Snr. Style. Expression. Rhetoric. Oram- 

Ant. Solecism. Provincialism. Mis- 

Didactic. AMo-kciv, to teach. 

Sin. Instructive. Directive. Moral. 
Amt. Unsound. Mlsinstructive. Er- 
roneous. Pernicious. Misleading. 

Die. Scandin, Used physi- 
cally and analogously of the pro- 
cess of tending to extinction. 

Sim. Expire. Depart Perish. Decline. 
Languish. Wane. Sinl^ Fade Decay. 

Ant. Begin. Originate. Rise. Live. 
Develope. Grow. Strengthen. Flourish. 
Luxuriate. Vegetate. 

Diet, n. Aiaira. A way of living, 
especially with reference to food. 
Hence food itself, involving, how- 
ever, the notion of choice or pre- 
scribed food. It has the tech- 
nical sense of parliamentary 

Snr. Food. Victuals. Nourishment. 
Nutriment Sustenauce. Fare. Cheer. 

Ant. Starvation. Fasting. Abstinence. 
Gluttony. Omnivorousness. 

Difference, n. Differentia, 
Dis and ferre, to hear, to hear off 
in contrariant directions. The 
word is used to express partial 
and total unlikeness or separa- 
tion in kind and character. 

Snr. Separation. Destruction. Dissi- 
milarity. Unlikeness. Disagreement Dis- 
sonance. Discord. Contrariety. Dissent 
Estrangement Variety. 

Ant. Community. Consociation. Con- 
donation. Similarity. Likeness. Agree- 
ment Sympathy. Consonance. Harmony. 
Consentaneousness. Reconciliatloo. Uui- 
formlty. Identity. 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 


DifFereiice. To enmnerate the 
differentisB or properties where- 
by one thing is differenced from 
another of the same class. 

SrN. Particularize. Individualize. Dis- 
tinguish. Identify. Verify. Specify. Se- 
gregate. Disseminate. Fuse. Lump. Mass. 

Ant. Generalize, Classify. Confound. 
Amalgamate. Confuse. 

DiFFBBENTiATiON, w. See Dif- 

DiFPicuLT, adj\ DifficUis, Dis 
and faeere, to do or make. Un- 
manageable, or hard to put to- 
gether in the structure of thought, 
language, or operation. 

Syn. Hard. Intricate. Involved. Per- 
plexing. Eoi^maticaL Obscure. Un- 
manageable. Unamenable. Reserved. Op- 

Ant. Easy. Plain. Straight Simple. 
Lucid. CateguricaL Tractable. Amenable. 
Unreserved. Favourable. 

Difficulty, n. See Difficult. 

Diffident, adj. Dis and 
fides, distrustfvl of one's own 
merits or powers. See Modest. 

Diffuse, oc?;. Biff under e. Dif- 
fusus, to your abroad. Said of 
style of speech. Copious to a 
fault, and without energy. 

Stn. Discursive. Prolix. Diluted. 

A>T. Laconic. Epigrammatic. Terse. 

Dig, V, tr. and int. Sax, See 

Digest, v. tr. Dis and gerere, 
to hear or carry. To separate 
carefully into portions, for pur- 
poses of nutrition, thought, or 

Stn. Sort Arrange. Dispose. Order. 
Prepare. Assimilate. Incorporate. Con- 
vert. Methodise. Tabulate. 

Ant. Displace. Confoimd. Complicate. 
Derange. Disorder. Discompose. I^Iect. 
Refuse. Reject. Disturb. 

Dignify, v. tr. Ih'fjnus, wmihy. 

To treat as worthy of honour or 

Stn. Aggrandize. Elevate. Invest 
Exalt. Advance. Promote. Honour. 

Ant. Degrade. Disinvest. Humiliate 

Digress, v. int. Dis and gre^ 
dior, gressuSf I walk. To de- 
viate from the line of treatment. 
See Deviate. 

DiLACBRATiON. A tearing 
asunder. See Laceration. 

Dilapidation, n. Dis and 
lapis, a stone. The crumbling 
or falling of a tenement or edifice, 
even though it be not constructed 
of stone. 

Stn. Ruin. Decay. Disintegration. 
Crumbling. Demolition. Dismantlement. 

Ant. Solidity. Reparation. Integrity. 
Soundness. Construction. Fabric. Structure. 

Dilate, v. tr. and int. Dis 
and latus, broad. To stretch into 
broader dimensions ; also to en- 
large, rhetorically, upon a point 
or subject. 

Stn. stretch. Widen. Expand. Swell. 
Distend. Enlarge. Descant Expatiate. 

Ant. Narrow. Contract Restrict Con- 
strict. Particularize. Dissect Anatcnnize. 
Concentrate. Epitomize. Condense. 

Dilatory, adj. Differrey di- 
latus. To put off. 

Stn. Tardy. Procrastinating. Behind- 
hand. Lagging. Dawdling. 

Ant. Quick. Prompt. Beforehand. 
Vigilant Eager. Alert Ardent Hasty. 
Precipitate. Rash. 

Dilemma, n. Ais and \vt^fia, 
a lemma or thing taken. An 
argument equally conclusive 
against the opponent on either 
of two suppositions. Popularly 
used for difficulty. 

Stn. ¥lx. Hobble. Quandary. Doubt 
Difficulty. Scrape. 

Ant. Extrication. Rebutment Freedom. 
Advantage. Superiority. Escape. Solution. 

Diligence, n. DUigentia, 
dillgere, to love. That activity or 

Synonyms and Antonyms, 


asddmty which spiings from 
the love of work or a particular 
task, hence industry generally. 

Stv. Oure. Assidiiitj. Attention. Ueed. 

AsT. Indifference. Gareleasness. Neglect. 
Inattention. Heedlesaness. I>esultorine88. 
inertnesB. Idtenete. 

Dim, adj\ Word of Northern 
origin. See Obscure. 

Dimension, w. Dis and 
metiri, to measure. Commonly 
used in the plural. 

Snr. Measorement. Size. Gonfigora- 
tton. Delineation. 

Amr. Minneasarement Segment. 

DnaDiATB, V, tr, Dimidivm, 

J Halve. Bisect. 
ArtI Unite. Integrate. 

Diminish, v. tr, Diminuere, 
minus. To lessen in size or 

Syn. Lessen. Beduce. Oontract. Cor- 
tafl. Retrench. 

Ain. Increase. Enlarge. Expand. Ex- 
tend. Amplify. Magnify. 

Diminutive, ac?y. 5cc Diminish 
and Small. 

Dimness, n. See Dim and 

Din, n. Iceland, dyn, thunder. 
Noise, harsh, confused, and con- 

Stn. Racket Clamour. Rattle. Re- 
sonance. Clangour. Reverberation. 

AST. Crash. Report. Burst. Explosion. 
Pop. Bang. 

Dingy, adj. Allied to Dim 
and Dun. 

Syn. DulL Dusky. Rusty. Dim. 
Oolourless. Obscure. L^ad. Sombre. 

Akt. Bright. Burnished. Glossy. High- 
coloured. Radiant. Luminous. Gleaming. 

Dint, n, Saxon, dynt, a stroke, 

Stk, Agency. Instrumentality. Force. 
Power. Efficacy. 

Ant. Weakness. Inoperativeness. In- 
efflcacy. Uselessness. Helplessness. Op- 
position. Counterforce. 

Dip, V, tr, Gothic. SeelmmerBe, 

Dip, n. The angle of declina- 
tion below the horizon or any 
given level. 

Stn. Declination. Depression. Devezi^. 

Airr. Elevation. Ascent Acclivity. 

Diplomaot, n. Diploma^ cre- 
dentials, diTrXovff, double or folded 
letters of trust, as distinct from 
letters patent. The science of 
international communication. It 
has degenerated into a lower 
meaning, representing the arts 
of diplomacy as merely pruden- 

Stk. Embassage. Mhiistry. Ambassa- 
dorship. Representation. Tact Contri- 
vance. Management Negotiation. Out- 
fitting. Circumvention. 

Ant. Cancel. RecaL Conge. Miscon- 
trivanoe. Mismanagement Mal-admini- 
stration. Over-vaulting. Self-entanglement 
Self-defeat. Self-stultificaUon. 

Diplomatic, adj. See Diplo- 

Sxir. Judicious. Knowing. Wise. Pru- 
dent. Well-managed. Well -contrived. 
Well-planned. Well-conceived. Sagacious. 

Akt. Injudicious. Bungling. Stultify- 
ing. Hi-managed. Undiplomatic. 

Dire, adj. Dints, See Dread- 

Direct, v, Dirigere, directus. 
To rule so as to keep or send on 
a given Line of conduct or duty. 
See Guide, Command, Instruct. 

Direct, adj. See verb and 

Direction, n. See Direct, v. 

Stn. Course. Tendency. Inclination 
Line. Control Command. Bearing. 

Ast. Misdirection. Deviation. Miscon- 
troL Misinstruction. Aberration. 

Directly, adv,, of motion 
and time. 

Stn. Straightly. Straightway. Imme- 
diately. Undeviatingly. 

Ant. Indirectly. By-and-by. Inter- 

Director, Ti. SceTiYt^^'v^.'Vi^^ 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

• in the technical sense of a com- 
mercial director. 

Snf. Ruler. Controller. Manager. 

Master. Leader. Guide. 

Ant. Body. CJompany. Institation. 

Concern, Subordinate. Follower. 

Dirge, w. A funereal hymn. 
Said to be from the first word of 
a Latin psalm, *Dirige gressus 
meos/ ' Direct my steps.* It may 
have been some forgotten hymn. 

Stn. Requiem. Lament. Threnody. 
Elegy. Walce. Coronach. 

Ant. Anthem. Te Deum. Jubilate. 

Dirt. Iceland, drit. Used 
also metaphorically. 

Stn. Foulness. Dung. Filth. Undean- 
ness. Meanness. Sordidness. 

Ant. Cit^unness. Purity. Ablution. In- 


Dirty, adj. See Dirt. 

Disability, n. The depriva- 
tion of abili^ (which see), as 
inability is simply the want of it. 

Syn. Disqualification. Impotency. Un- 
fitness. Incapacity. Forfeiture. 

Ant. Quulificalion. Recommendation. 
Fitness. Deserving. Merit. 

Disabled, adj. See Disability. 

Disabuse, v. tr, Dis and 
abutiy to abuse. To rescue a 
man's mind from that false use 
of things which comes from false 
views of them. 

Syn. Undeceive. Inform. Correct. En- 
Ughten. Rectify. 

Ant. Deceive. Mislead. Prejudice. Pre- 
possess. Hoodwink. Inveigle. Stultify. 

Disadvantage, w. See Ad- 

Disaffection, n. See Affec- 

Disagreeable, adj. See Agree- 

Disagreement, w. See Quar- 

Disallow, v. tr. See Allow. 

DiSANiniL, V, tr, A stronger 
form ofAmmL. 

Disappear, v. int. See Vanish. 

Disappoint, 'v. tr. See Ap- 
point. To cause one to fidl of 
reaching the point at issue, or 
the point of expectation. This 
may be done purposely or indi- 
rectly. Expectations themselves 
and plans are said to be disap- 

Sys. Betray. Deceive. Frustrate. Baffle. | 
Delude. Vex. Mortify. 

Ant. ReaUze. Jubtify. Verify. Fulfil 
Encourage. Satisfy. Gratify. 

Disapprobation, n. See Ap- 

Disarm, v. tr. See Arm. 

Disarrange, v. tr. See Ar- 

Disarray, v. tr. See Array. 

Disaster, n. Dis and astrum, 
a star. A misfortune, as of the 
baleful influence of an evil star. 
See Calamity, from which it 
differs, as being more imme- 
diately connected with man's 

Disavow, v. tr. See Avow and 

Disband, v. tr. See Muster, 

Disbelief, n. See Beliefl 

Disburden, v. tr. See Bur- 
den and Load. 

Disburse, v. tr, Dis and 

bursa, a purse. See Expend. 

Discard, v. tr. Dis and carta, 
a playing card. To throw out of 
the hand as useless. See Aban- 

Discern, v. tr. Discemere, to 
discern. To see, generally, and, 
particularly, to see distinctions. 

Syn. Descry. Observe. Recognize. See. 
Discriminate. Differentiate. Separate. Per- 
\ cfeWe. 
V Asn. OvetVwJs.. CooSwasA. 'tt:^£^sns:^ 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


DisOEBNiBLB, odj, Sse Dis- 

Stv. Visible. Conspicaons. Manifest 

Akt. Invisible. Inoonspicaons. Obscure. 
Indiso^nible. Impalpable. Microscopic. 

Discernment, n. See Discern. 
Is nsed of the moral, not of the 
physical facility. 

Stk. Discrimination. Farsightedness. 
Clearsigbtedness. Penetration. Obserra- 
tion. Sagacity. 

Airr. Heedlessness. Blindness. Inob- 
servance. SliortslghtedneBs. Dulness. 
Density. Hebetude. 

Discharge, v. tr. See Charge. 

Stn. Liberate. Empty. Dismiss. 
Akt. G(mfine. Charge. Detain. 

Disciple. Discere, to learn. 

. SxH. Follower. Student Believer. 

Aht. Master. Teacher. Leader. Pro- 

Disciplinarian, n. See Dis- 
ciple and Discipline. 

Snr. Martinet. Tight band. 
Am*. Sloven. Kingdog. 

Discipline, n. See Disciple. 
The steict state of a disciple, and 
the personal coercion to which 
he is subject. 

Stk. Order. Strictness. Training. Co- 
ercion. Punishment. Organization. 

Akt. Disorder. Confusion. Rebellion. 
Mutiny. Encouragement. Reward. Dis- 

Disclaim, v. tr. See Claim. 

Disclose, v, tr, Discludere, 
disclubus, daudere, to shut. 

Stk. Discover. EeveaL Confess. De- 

Akt. Cover. Conceal Lock. Suppress. 

Discolour, v. tr. Color, colour, 

Stk. Daub. Stain. Taint Disfigure. 
Akt. Paint Colour. Embellish. Tint 
Decorate. Illuminate. 

Discomfit, v, tr, Disconficere, 
To upset or disconcert a plan, or 
those who had made it or put it 
together. See Disconcert. 

Discomfiture, n. See Dis- 

Discomfort, n. See Comfort. 

Stk. Disquiet. Vexation. Annoyance. 
Trouble. Unpleasantness. Disagreeable- 

Akt. Comfort Ease. Pleasantness. 

Discommendation, n. See 

Discompose, v, tr, Dis and 
componere, to put together. See 

Disconcert. Fr. concert, 
agreement, or harmony of parts 
or faculties. So, to disconcert 
is to throw into confusion a per- 
son's faculties, or the details of 
his plan. 

Stk. Abash. Confuse. Confound. Upset 
Baffle. Derange. Discompose. Frustrate. 

Akt. Encourage. Rally. Countenance. 
Aid. Concert Concoct Arrange. Order. 
Prepare. Scheme. Contrive. Hatch. De- 

Disconcerted, adj. See Dis- 

DiscoNFORMiTY, w. See Con- 

DiscoNGRUiTY, n. See Con- 

Disconnect, Disconnected, 
Disconnection. See Connection. 

Disconsolate, adj. See Con- 
sole and Forlorn. 

SjK. Sad. Forlorn. Melancholy. Un- 
happy. Desolate. Woful. 

Akt. Joyous. Cheerful. Merry. Happy. 
Gay. Jovial. Glad^me. Blithe. 

Discontent, n. See Content. 

Discontented, adj. See Con- 

Discontinuance, w. /See Con- 

Discontinuity, w. See Con- 
Discord, n. See Concord. 

Di800eda:koi&, Tfi, See K^yast^* 


Synonyms and Antonyms, 


DiSENTHBONB, v. tr. See En- 

DisoouBAOB, V, tr. See En- 

DiscouBAGEMENT; n. See En- 

Discourse, n, Discursus, 
currere, to i^n. The running 
from point to point of conversa- 
tion or argument, either ad libi- 
tum or under rule. Conversa- 
tion or reasoning. iSIee Conver- 

DisoouBTESY. See Courtesy. 

DiSOOVEB, V, tr, De couvrir, 
dis cooperire. To open so as to 
reveal. It is used actively both 
of persons and things. 

Syn. Find. Invent. Descry. Detect 
Betray. Indicate. Manifest. 

Ant. Conceal. Suppress. Repress. Miss. 
liOee. Overlook. Made. Cover. Screen. 

Discredit, n. See Credit. 

Discreditable, adj. See Dis- 

Discreet, adj. See Discern. 
One who by tact discerns the 
right from the wrong and the 
prudent from the imprudent. 

Syn. Discerning. Wise. Prudent. Re- 
gulative. Sensible. Judicious. 

Ant. Undlscemlng. Blind. Foolish. 
Imprudent Indiscreet Unrestrained. 
Recldess. Injudicious. Silly. 

DiscBEPANOT, n, Dis and 

crepare, to sound. To sound out 
of tune with something else. 

Stn. Dissonance. Disharmony. Discord. 
Contrariety. Disagreement 

• Ant. Consonance. Harmony. Accord- 
ance. Agreement. Correspondence. 

DisoBETiON, w. See Discreet. 
DiscBETiONAL, adj. See Dis- 

Stn. Optional. 
AifT. Compulsory. Obligatoiy. 

DisOBiMiNATiON, n. DiscHmen, 
a difference. The feculty of dis- 
tinguishing difference, with a 
view to practical knowledge, as 
Discretion turns upon such 
matters as involve questions of 
personal interest and conduct. 

Stn. Penetration. Sagacity. Acuteuess. 
Nicety. Shrewdness. Discernment 

Ant. Dulnesfl. Confusedness. Indis- 
criminateness. Shortsightedness. Hebetude. 

DisouBSiVB, adj. See Dis- 
course. Having a tendency to 
run away from the line of argu- 
ment. See Consecutive. 

Discuss, V. tr. Discutere, dis* 
cussus. To shake apart the ele- 
ments of a thing, so as to sift 
and investigate them. 

Stn. Debate. Argue. Sift 

Ant. Mystify. Confound. Obscure. 

Disdain, n. Dis and dignm, 
w&i'thy. A feeling of anotiier's 
unworthiness in comparison with 
one's self. 

Stn. Contempt Scorn. Supercilious- 

Ant. Respect. Reverence. Admiratioo. 
Respectfulness. Cousiderateness. Humility. 

Disdain, v. tr. See noun. 

Disdainful, adj. See Disdain. 

Disease, n. Dis and aise, glad, 

Stn. Complaint Ailment Malady. 

Ant. Health. Convalescence. Sanity. 

Disembody, v. tr. See Em- 

Disenable, v. tr. See Enable. 

Disenchant, v. tr. See En- 

Disencumber, v. tr. See En- 

Disengage, v. tr. See Engage. 

Disbntanqlb, v. tn See En- 
\ tangle. 

DiSMNTrriiBD, adj, 

D18E8TEEM, n. See Esteem. 

DiSFAVouB, n. See Favour. 

DiSFiGUBE, V. tr, Dis and 
figura, shape or figure. See 

DiSFBANomsB, V, tr. See En- 

DiSGOBOE, V, tr. See Gorge. 

DiSGBAOB, V, tr. See Dishonour. 

DlSOBACE^ n. See verb. 

DisoxTiSE, n. See Guise. 

Disguised, adj. See Guise. 

Disgust, n. Dis and gustare, 
to taste. A consciousness of con- 
trariety to one's taste. It is used 
of moral things rather than phy- 

Loathing. Abomination, 
fondness. Longing. 

Synonyms and Antonyms, 
ee En- 

Stk. Nausea. 

Amt. Desire. Liking. Partiality. Pre- 
dilection. Relt&h. FOD 

Disheabtek, V. tr. The Eng- 
lish form of the French deriva- 
tive discourage. See Encourage. 

Dishevel, v. tr. Fr. cheveux, 
hair, Lat. capillus. To entangle 
the hair. 

Stk. Disorder. Entangle. Disarrange. 
Aot. Tire. Dress. Plaiu Bind. Weave. 

Dishonest, adj. iSfee- Honest. 

DiSHONOUB, n. See Honour. 

DiSHONOUB, V. See noun. 


clined, adj. 

Disinfect, v. tr., Disinfect- 
ant, n. See Infect. 

Disingenuous, adj\ See In- 

V. tr., Dism- 
See Incline. 


tr. See In- 
'. tr. See In- 


herit and Disown. 


DisiNTEB, V. tr. See Inter. 

DisiNTEBESTED, adf. See In- 
terested and Selfish. 

DiSENTHBAL, V. tr. See En- 

Disjoin, v., Disjointed, adj. 
See Join and Desultory. 

Dislike, v. tr. See Like. 

Dislocate, v. tr. See Locate. 

Dislodge, v. tr. See Lodge. 

Disloyal, adj'. See Loyal. 

Dismal, adj'. Originally a 
noun. 'The dismal,' from the 
Lat. dies malus, evil day. Uncert. 

Stn. Dreary. Ominous. Foreboding. 
Lonesome. Cheerless. Gloomy. Sad. De- 
pressed. Lugubrious. FunereaL Tragic. 

Am*. Gay. Propitious. Promising. 
Cheerful. Lively. Elated. Joyous. 
Laughable. Ridiculous. Comic. 

Dismantle, v. tr. To deprive 
of the cloak. Thence, generally, 
of customary furniture, orna- 
ments, or accompaniments. The 
name mantle is derived from 
Mantua, as millinery from Milan, 
and perpetuates the memory of 
the towns of North Italy, as at 
one time famous for their fabrics. 

SxN. Disrobe. Divest. Denude. De- 
spoil. Disarm. Strip. 

Amt. Rube. Invest. Drape. Adorn. 
Arrange. Equip. Endue. 

Dismay, v. tr. Goth, magan, 
to be strong. Comp. Might and 
Mighty. To disable by fear. 

Stn. Affright. Astonish. AppaL Terrify. 
Dishearten. Daunt. 

Akt. Encourage. Bally. Inspirit. A»< 
sure. Allure. 

DiSMAT, n. See verb. 
Dismember, Memlyrum^ 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

a limb. To separate one or more 
limbs or portions from the trunk 
or body. The body may be a 
physical or social body. 

Stv. Disint^rate. Disinoorporate. D9- 

Airr. Integrate. Incorporate. Organize. 
Beorganize. Engraft 

Dismiss, V. tr, Dis and mittere, 
missus, to send. 

Stn. Banish. Discard. Abandon. 

Airr. Retain. Detain. Keep. Main- 

Dismount, v. int, Fr. monter, 
to rise. From mom, mountain, 
Stn. Alight. Descend. 
Ant. Mount Start 

Disobey, v. tr. See Obey. 

Disoblige, Disobliged, Dis- 
obliging. See Oblige. 

Disorder, n. See Order. 

Disorderly, adj. See Or- 

Disorganize, v, tr. See Or- 

Disown, v. tr. See Own. 

Disparage, v, tr. Bis and 
par, equal. Comp. Eng. Peer. 
To dishonour by comparison 
with an inferior; hence, to de- 

Stn. Depreciate. Decry. Underesti- 
mate. ' 

Airr. ExtoL Laud. Panegyrize. Over- 
estimate. Exaggerate. 

Disparate, adj. See Dis- 

Stk. UnequaL Different Ill-assorted, 

A»T. Equal. CkM)rdinate. Well-assorted. 

DisPAssiON, n. See Paesion. 
Dispatch, v. Dispingere. 

Syn. Expedite. Send. Accelerate. 
Hasten. Execute. Conclude. (Used also 
in the sense of KiU.) 

Ant. Retard. Detain. Obstmct Im- 

Dispel, v. tr, Dis saidpeUere, 
to drive. 

Snf. Disperse. Scatter. Drive away. 

Akt. Collect Recal. Summon. Om- 
vene. Congregate. Conglomerate. Mass. 

Dispensation, n. See Dis- 
pense. A paying out or distri- 
bution. Applied to the ways 
and dealings of Providence with 
the world. It is used of signal 
stages of the world's religious 
history, and of the history of in- 
dividuals. It is also used of 
granting licence of exemption, 
and of foregoing, when followed 
by unth, 

Stx. Economy. Dealing. Bevelation. 
Distribution. Arrangement Visitation. 
Exemption. Immunity. Privilege. Aban- 
donment Dismissal. Disuse. Indulgence. 

Ant. Reservation. Injunction. Prohi- 
bition. Enforcement Retention. Restriction. 

Dispeople, v, tr. See People. 

Disperse, v. act, and neut, 
Disperyere, spargere, sparsus. To 

Stn. Dispel Scatter. Disseminate. Se- 
parate. Break up. ' Spread abroad. 

Ajtt. Collect SuQuuon. Recal. Gather. 
Concentrate. Meet 

Dispirit, v, tr, Dis and spi- 
ritus, the spirit, from spirare, to 
breathe. See Encourage. 

Displace, v, tr. See Place. 

DiSPLANT, V, tr. See Plant 

Display, v, tr, Displicare, To 

Syn. Show. Exhibit Unfold. Evi- 
dence. Evince. Flaunt Vaunt Expose. 

Ant. Hide. Conceal. Dissemble. Emu- 
late. SupprebS. Wrap. Cloke. 

Displease, Displeased, Dis- 
pleasure. See Please and Plea- 

Disport, v. See Sport. 

Dispose, v, tr. Disponere, po- 
situs. To plafce about in order. 
See Arrange and Incline. 

Disposition, n. See Dispose^ 
Arrange, and Character. 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


Dispossess, v, tr. See Possess. 

DisPBAiSE, n. See Praise. 

DiBPBEAD, adf. See Spread. 

DiSPRiZE, V. tr. See Prize. 

DispBOVB, v., DisPBOOP, n. 
See Prove and Proof. 

DiSPBOPOBTiOK, n. See Pro- 

Disputant, n. Disputare, to 

Stk. Litigant. Competitor. Claimant 
Akt. Partner. Auxiliary. Advocate. 

Disputatious, adj. See Dis- 

Snr. lidgidia. Argumentative. Can* 
taakerooB. Quarrelsome. Qaerulons. 

Aht. Conciliatory. Unquarrelaome. In- 

Dispute, v. tr. and int. See 

Stn. Argue. Question. Canvass. Con- 
test Contend. Qiallenge. 

AST. Waive. Concede. Allow. Forego. 

Disqualify, v. tr. See Qualify. 
Disquiet, n. See Quiet. 
Disquietude, n. See Quiet. 

Stv. Anxiety. Solicitude. Uneasiness. 
Embarrassment Apprehensioa Agitation. 
Disturbance. Commotion. Dissatisfaction. 

Akt. Peace. Pacification. Assurance. 
Calmness. Confidence. Contentment Ac- 

Disquisition, n. Disquirere. 
A sifting examination of a sub- 
ject in words. 

Stk. Essay. Treatise. Discussion. Dis- 

Akt. Effusion. Tirade. Diatribe. Rho- 
domontade. Blarney. 

DiSBEGABD, n. See Begard. 
DiSBELiSH, n. See Belish. 


PUTE, n. See Eeputable. 

DiSBESPEOT, n. See Eespect. 

DiSBOBE, V. tr. See Dis- 

DiSBUPnoN, n. Disrumpere, 
ruptus. A breaking up. 

Stk. Disintegration. Discord. Separa- 
tion. AUenation. HostiUty. 

Akt. Union. Amalgamatioa Recon- 

Dissatisfaction, n. See Satis- 

Dissect, v. tr. Dissecare, part, 
sectm. Comp. Section. To cut 
up into pieces, with the implied 
object of investigation. 

Stk. Anatomize. Scrutinize. Investi- 

Akt. Grasp. Comprehend. Slur. Skim. 
Unite. Integrate. Organize. Compound. 
Collocate. Coi^oin. Confound. 

Dissemble, v, tr, Dissimulare. 
To conceal, as Simulate is to as- 
sume a character or feelings. 

Stk. Disguise. Conceal. Repress. 
Smother. Restrain. Cloke. 

Akt. Exhibit Manifest Protrude. 
Vaunt Pretend. Simulate. Feign. As- 
sume. Expose. Profess. Proclaim. 

Dissembler, n. See Dis- 

Stk. Feigner. Hypocrite. Disguiser. 
Suppressor. Concealer. 

Akt. Exhibitor. Vaunter. Pretender. 

Disseminate, v. tr. Dis and 
semen, seed. To throw about 
like seed, in order that it may 
take root. 

Stk. Spread. Propagate. Preach. Pro- 
claim. Publish. Promulgate. 

Akt. Repress. Suppress. Stifle. Dis- 
countenance. Extirpate. Eradicate. 

Dissent, v. int. See Assent 
and Consent. 

Dissent, n. See verb. 

Dissertation, n. Dis and 
severe, to weave, sertum, a wreath. 
A woven, that is, carefully pre- 
pared discourse on a given sub- 
ject. See Disquisition. 

Dissebvice, n. See Service. 
Dissever, v. tr. See Sever. 

DisslDENCE, w. Dusidcre. To 
sit apart or differ. See Agree. 


Synonyms and Anianyms. 

DissiLiKNCB, n. Dis and 
saHre, to leap. A tendency to 
JTunp apart, from physicsi or 
moral repugnance. 

Stn. Avoidance. Bepnlsion. Aversion. 
Dislike. Interrepagnance. Antipathy. 

Ant, Approach. Attraction. Appetency. 
Desire. Aflfection. Sympathy. Interest. 

D188IMILAB, adj. See Similar. 

Dissimilitude, n. See Simili- 

DissmuLATB, V, tr. See Dia- 

Dissipate, v. tr, Dissipare, 
from an obsolete verb, sipare, or 
supare, to throw. To throw 

Stn. Scatter. Squander. 
Amt. Collect. Hoard. 

Dissocial, adj. See Social. 

Dissociate, v. tr., Dissocia- 
tion, n. See Associate and Sever. 

Dissolute, adj. Sdutus. 
Loosed from restraint. 

Stk. Abandoned. Profligate. Loose. 

Amt. Upright Ganscientions. Strict 
Self-controlled. Correct 

Dissoluteness, n. See Disso- 

Dissolution, n. See Dissolute. 
The natural decay and decom- 
position of bodies. See Decom- 

Dissolve, v. tr. Dissdvere. 
To melt. See Melt and Consoli- 

Dissonance, n. Dis and sonm, 
a sound. See Consonance. 

Dissuade, v. tr. See Persuade. 

Distance, n. Distantia, dis- 
tare, to stand apart. 

Stk. Interval. RemovaL Separation. 
Intonspace. Remoteness. Absence. 

AnT. Proximity. Nearness. Adjacency. 
Cfxat^ity. Neighbourhood. Propinquity. 
Cdntact. Presence. 

Distant^ ac(f. See Distaaoe. 

Stk. Far. Remote. AIool Ayirt 

Amt. Close. Near. A^jKent Oob- 

Distaste, n. See Taste. 
Distasteful, adj. See Taste. 

Distemper, n. Dis and tern- 
perare, to moderate. An irre- 
gular or disordered state of body. 
It bias also the peculiar meaning 
of fresco colouring. 

Sth. Disorder. Disease. Ailment 
Amt. Health. Sanity. Yigoor. Ooan- 

Distend, v. tr. Distendere. 
To slretch. See Dilate. 

Distil, v. tr. and int. Dia- 
tiUare, stilla, a drop. 

Sym. Drop. Emanate. IMp. ^Percolate. 

Akt. Absorb. Condense. Retain. Sock. 

Distinct, adj. See Distin- 

Stm. Separate. Independent Uncon- 
nected. Detached. DiEjjoined. Cleer. Con- 
spicuous. Plain. Perspicuous. 

Amt. United. Consolidated. CoAjdned. 
One. Obscure. Dim. Conftiaed. Indistinct 

Distinction, n. See Distin- 

Stm. Difference. Separation. Dignity. 

Amt. Unity. Identity. DebftBcment 
Insignificance. Degradation. 

Distinctness, n. See Distin- 

Sym. Clearness. Plainness. Conq^cnons- 
ness. Perspicuity. 

Amt. Concision. Indistinctness. Haii- 

Distinguish, v. tr. Distin- 

guere, stinctus, to distinguish. 

Sym. Discern. Descry. Dteoover. Sepap 
rate. Divide. Dissimilate. DUTerentiate. 

Amt. Miss. Overlook. Confound. CoO' 

Distinguishable, adj'. dee 

Distortion, n. Distorguere, 
distorts. To twist out of slaape. 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


DiSTBAOT, V, tr. Distrahere, 
tractus. To draw in different 
directions. Commonly used 
metaphorically of the senses or 

Stv. Divide. Dissipate. Dissever. Dis- 
ooDoert. Discompose. Perplex. Bewilder. 

Akt. Unite. Fix. Ooncentrate. Collect 

DiSTBACTiow, ». /Sec Distract. 

Stk. Inattention. Madness. Absence. 
Ant. Attention. Gompoenre. 

DlSTBESS^ V. tr. Distringere. 
To pnll or pluck different ways. 

Syn. Harass. Embarrass. Trouble. 
Grieve. Annoy. Vex. Mortify. Afflict. 

Aht. Soothe. Compose. Please. GratiQr. 
Gladden. Console. Elate. Comfort. 

DiSTBESS^ n. See verb. 

DiSTBlBUTB, V. tr, Distribuere, 
tributus, to distribute. See Dis- 

BiSTBUST, n. See Trust. 

DiSTUBB, V, tr, Disturhare, 
turba, a crowd, Gomp. Turbu- 

Stv. Derange. Discompose. Disorder. 
Confuse. Bouse. Agitate. Annoy. Trouble. 
Interrupt. Incommode. Worry. Vex. 
Molest. Disquiet. 

Akt. Order. Collocate. Arrange. Pacify. 
Soothe. Quiet. Compose. Leave. 

Disunion, n. See Union. 

Disuse, n. See Use and De- 

DiVABiOATioN, n, JXs and 
varus, bow-legged, 

Stk. Deviation. Divei^noe. Digres- 
sion. Diversion. 

A»T. Continuity. RectUinearity. Di- 
rectness. Prolongation. 

DrvBBSiON, w. Bis and vertere, 
A turning away from a given 
line of movement or occupation, 
especially for amusement's sake. 

Stn. Detour. Divergence. Deviation. 
Recreation. Amusement. Pastime. 

Akt. Contlimi^ Directness. Pro- 
cedure. Business. Task. Work. Study. 
Labour. Avocation. ' 

DrvEBsnT, v. tr, Diversus, 
different, and fucere, to make, 

Stn. Vary. Alter. Change. Modify. 

Akt. Conserve. Prosecute. Stabilitate. 
Settle. Fix. Stereotype. Crystallize. Arrest. 

Diversity, n. See Diversify. 

Stk. Difference. Dissimilarity. Varia- 
tion. Multiformity. j^terogeneousness. 

AST. Similarity. Identity. Uniformity. 
Homogeneousness. Co-ordination. Coinci- 
dence. Consonance. 

Divert, v. tr. See Diversion. 

Stn. Alter. Change. Deflect. Alienate. 
Aht. Continue. Prosecute. Prolong. 
Produce. Restrict. Confine. 

Divest, v. tr, Dis and vestire, 
vestis, to clothe. Comp. Vest, 
Vestment, and Vesture. Used 
hterally and metaphorically. 

Stn. Dismantle. Denude. Strip. Dis- 
robe. Unclothe. Disencumber. Deprive. 

Ant. Clothe. Robe. Invest. Shroud. 
Envelope. Encumber. Indue. 

Divide, v. tr. Dividere, To 
separate into two or more equal 
or unequal parts. 

Stn. Separate. Dissect. Bisect. Por- 
tion. Part. Divorce. Segregate. Multiply. 

Akt. Unite. Collocate. Classify. Con- 
vene. Congregate. Conglomerate. Con- 
glutinate. Commingle. Join. Consodate. 

Divination, v. Divinus, di- 
vine. To foretell the future by 
the aid of things considered di- 
vine, such as auguries, &c., or to 
arrive at knowledge by such 

Stn. Prediction. Sorcery. Magic. Witch- 
craft Augury. Omens. 

Ant. Instruction. Information. Study. 
Investigation. Learning. 

Division, n. See Divide. 

Divorce, v, tr. Divortium, 
from divertere. To tear away or 
alienate from a certain connec- 
tion or use. 

Stk. Separate. Disconnect. Dissever. 
Divert. Alienate. 

Akt. Coi^oln. Unite. Connect AM>ly. 
Reconcile. Reunite. 

Divorce, u. See -oerb^ 


SymmymM and AmUmywu, 

BnruLGX, r. #r. IHt and vu^ms, 
the pe(^. To make matter of 
public knowledge. By usage 
emplojed, not as praimlge, bat 
of scHDething wfanrh bad been 
bitherto kept secret See Gon- 

Bo, r. tr. and int. Saxon. In 
the sense of £sire. 

Sn. Work. AcL EnacL FsfaB. 
FrodaccL Complete. 

An. Undoi Har. Scglect. Oadt. 

BocELS, a</;. DoeQu, docere, to 
teach. Easalj tan^ or per- 

Stv. Oonpliaiit AfiaWf. TnddAeL 
TeKliable. Tame. 

AST. InftracubtCL Stnbiiani. Obttiaatt. 
Sdf-vilkd. Doesed. 

Dock. Der. Tmcertain. 

Stu. CortuL Lop. Abbrertate. Vrmit. 
Ajrr. tiroir. Ekogirte. Sankh. Fto- 
loog. Train. Omlz. 

Docked, adj\ See Dock. 

DoCTEDi AL, adj. See Doctline. 
Snr. Didactic. fiktffhfUcal. Tlieo. 

An. PracdcaL Openttre. 

DoCTBlHS, n. Doctrina, docere, 
to teacJi. Something systemati- 
cally held or taught as trae. 

Snr. Tenet. Article. Bdie£ Oeed. 
DognuL Teaddng. 

An. PracUce. Operation. Duly. Ooo- 
dnct Action. 

Dodge, v. Possibly a form of 
to dog, as, to dog the steps. See 

Dodge, n. See verb and Arti- 

DoEB, n. See Do. 

Sn. Agent. Actor. Perfonner. Origi- 
nator. Perpetiator. Maker. 

An. Ucdoer. Preventer. Hindoer. 
Baffler. NeutnUizer. Marrer. 

Dog, V. tr. From the habit of 
a dog to follow. 

Snf. Follow. Trace. Track. ParBoe. 

An. Elude. BafBe. Avoid. Escape. 

Dogged, adj. See above. 

Stx. OhctinBie. JforaaeL SbDo. Ib- 

DOGKA. AoKfiw, to weem fit. 
That which has seemed fit to 
anthoiities to propound astrath. 
See Doctrine. 

DOOMATIO, adj. See Dogma. 
Used to caress not only the 
promnlgaticHi of doctrine or 
dogma, but the imperioos way 
of doing it 

Stx. DoctrinaL TbeologieaL Ii^Mriooa. 
DietatoriaL S^-opinkoed. RiaitiTe. 
AST. PtacticaL Actii«. 

Dole, r. tr. CcHm. with Deal 
Used scHoetimes of scanty di^ 
tribaticm in particular. 

Sn. DeaL Distnbate. Dfapenae. Eke. 
An. WltUuid. BcteeL Rrar forth. 

Dole, n. See verb. 

Sn. Pittance. AtaniL Cbarilj. 

An. PniaOtaa. Bomdj. Benrteithwi. 

Doleful, adj. Dole, from 
dolere, to grieve. 

Sn. Doiorona. BoeAd. Woebegone. 

An. Meny. JoyfoL Qwj. B&tiie. 

DoLOBOUs, adj. See DolefoL 
Dolt, fi. Sax. 

Snr. Nomakna 

DollanL Aaa. 

An: Savant. Genim. lUkaopber. 

Scbtriar. Lomlnaiy'. 

Doltish, adj. See DoH. 

Sn. Stolid. Jottefbeaded. Thick- 

An. Qak±. Shaipi Acnte. Lot^- 

DoxAiN, n. Lat dominio, 
dominus. Gomp. Dominion. An 
estate of a lord of the soiL 

Sn. Estate. Lordah^ Tcnttoiy. Ih- 


An. Waste. WiUeniesB. Wnd. 

DoMESTio, adj. Ikimu9^ a 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


hmtse. Attached to home or a 

Stw. Domiciliary. Private. 
AUT. Foreign. Pablic. 

Domesticate, v. tr. See Do- 

DoMESTiOATiON, n. See Do- 
mestic. The settlement in a 
home; or, actively, the placing 
in a home. 

Stn. Settlement Colonization. Locali- 
xatioii. Taming. 

Anr. Dissettlement Displacement Dls- 
lodgment H^ection. Deportation. Exile. 

Domicile, n, Domus, a house, 
domicUium. A place of settle- 
ment or residence. 

Snr. Residence. Abode. Settlement 

AsT. Estrangement Migration. Home- 
lesBoess. Houselesimess. Wilderness. Wild. 

DoMTOiLiABY, odj. See Domi- 
cile and Domestic. 
Dominance, n. See Domain. 

Stn. Lordship. Mastery. Superiority. 
Preponderance. Prevalence. 

Amt. Inferiority. Subjection. Servi- 
tude. Weakness. Inprevalenoe. Minority. 

Dominant, adf. See Domi- 

Domination, n. See Domi- 
nance. The manifestation of 

DoMiNEEB, V, tnt See Domi- 
nance. Followed by over, and 
referring to persons. 

Stn. Lord. iTrannixe. Assume. Usurp. 
Ant. Submit Succumb. Defer. Yield. 
Bow. Patronize. 

Dominion, w. See Domain. 
Used for the power, exercise, and 
possession of lordship. 

Stn. Power. Authority. Rule. Tyranny. 
Despotism. Oovemment ControL Empire. 
Territory. Jurisdiction. 

Ant. Weakness. Submission. Sul^Juga- 
tion. Inferiority. Servitude. 

Don, V, tr. Do on. 

Stn. Assume. Wear. 
Ant. Doff. Cast 

Donation, n, Donare, to give. 
See Presentation and Gift. 

Doom, n. From deem, to 
judge. The passing of judgment. 
The judgment or fate that awaits 
one, witti an implied imfiavour- 
able or condemnatory issue. 

Stn. Judgment Fate. Sentence. Ver- 
dict Condemnation. 

Ant. Liberation. Respite. Escape, 
Pardon. AcquittaL Approval. 

Dormant, adj\ Dormire, to 

Srs. Sleeping. Slumbering. Latent. 
Undeveloped. Quiescent Inert 

Ant. Vigilant Wakeful. Active. Opera- 
tive. Developed. Energetic. 

Dotage, n. Dote, written also 
Doat. Dutch, dutten, 

Stn. ImbecUity. Senility. Fatuity. 

Ant. Intelligence. Acuteness. Judg- 
ment Penetration. "Vigour. 

Doubt, n. Duhietas, dubius, 
duo, two. Uncertainty of judg- 
ment ; that is, as to the negative 
or affirmative proposition. It 
applies both to the feeling of 
doubt and the matter of doubt. 

Stn. Dubiousness. Dubitation. Uncer- 
tainty. Ambiguity. Difficulty. Indecision. 

Ant. Certainty. Clearness. Precision. 
Determination. Decision. Conviction. 

Doubt, v. See noun, 

Stn. Duhitate. Hesitate. Vacillate. 
Waver. Demur. 

Ant. Decide. Determine. Resolva 

Doubtful, adj. See Doubt. 
Doubtless, adv. See Doubt. 

Stn. Certainly. Clearly. Precisely. In- 
Ant. Perhaps. Probably. Possibly. 

Doughty, adj. Sax. dohtig. 
Brave or useful. Seldom now 
used but in burlesque. 

Stn. Redoubted. Redoubtable. 
Ant. Craven. Puny. 

Dowdy, odj. Prov. Eng. dowd, 
flat. Conn, probably with Dead. 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

Stn. DulL Shabby. Common. Plain. 
Homely. Dingy. Scrubby. 

AsT. Stylish. Dressy. Gay. Modish. 
Qorgeous. Dandified. Tawdry. 

Downfall, n. See Fall. 

DowNBiGHT, adj. See Abso- 

'DowKWAKDB, adv, Down. Sax. 
dune, Comp. English Downs, 
undulating declivities. 

Snr. Bclovv. Beneath. Adown. 
Ant. Upwards. Aloft. 

DEA.FT, n. From trahere, 
to draw, A thing drawn. 

Syn. Copy. Transfer. Transcript 
Sketch. Abstract. Order. Check. 

Amt. OriginaL Deed. Cash. 

Draft, v. See noun, 

Stn. Draw. Drain. Exhaust 
Ant. Supply. Replenish. Import 

Drag. See Draft. 

Sr». Draw. PulL HauL 
Ant. Carry. Convey. Push. Propel. 
Raise. Heave. 

Drain, act. and neut. Saxon. 
To draw off or drop away by 
slow degrees. 

Syn. Draw. Strata. Drip. Percolate. 
Drop. Exhaust. Empty. Dry. 

Ant. Replenish. Fill Supply. Pour. 
Moisten. Drown. Inundate. Drench. 

Draught, n, Trahere, to draw, 
whence draw. See Drag. A 
word of many applications. 

Stn. Drink, fraction. Breeze. Check. 
Ant. Drought Burden. Non-ventila- 
tion. Deposit. 

Draw, v. tr. See Drag. 

Stn. Drag. Pull. Attract Induce. 
Ant. Push. Carry. Propel. Throw. 
Repel. Drive. Compel. Impel Thrust. 

Drawback, «. See Detriment. 

Drawl, v. int. Dutch, drolen, 
to linger. To speak with a 
tedious mode of utterance from 
want of interest or from affecta- 

Stn. Drag. Lag. Drone. 
Ant. Gabble. RatUe. Prattle. 

Dread, n. Sax. drcedan, to 
fear greatly. 

Stn. Fear. Shuddering. Terror. Uorroc 
Alarm. ] nti midation. 

Ant. Courage. Confidence. Welcome 

Dreadful, adj. See Dread. 

Stn. Fearftil. Terrific. Horrible. 
Alarming. Awful. 

Ant. Encouraging. Inspiriting. As- 
suring. Promising. Hopeful.- 

Dream, n. Probably conn, 
with dor mire, to deep. Used 
analogously in the wider sense 
of the following— 

Stn. Tratice. Vision. Fancy. Reverie. 
Hallucination. Romance. 

Ant. Fact. Reality. Substance. Verity. 

Dreamy, adj. See Dream. 

Stn. Fanciful Visionary. Speculative. 
Abstracted. Absent Foggy. 

Ant. Collected. Earnest Attentive. 
Awake. Active. Energetic. Practical 

Dreary, adj. Germ, traurig^ 
sad. See Dismal. 

Dregs, n. Germ, dreck, dirt. 

Stn. Refuse. Sediment OffaL Lees. 
OJGTscouring. Dross. Trash. 

Ant. Cream. Flower. Ptok. Pickings. 
Bouquet Sample. 

Drench, v. tr. Conn, with 

Stn. Wash. Inundate. Soak. Shower. 

Ant. Drain. Strain. Sponge. Mop. 
Dry. Exsiccate. 

Drenched, adf. See Drench. 

Dress, n. Fr. dresser. It 
drizzare, to make straight, Comp. 
Direct and Address. 

Stn. Garniture. Preparation. Arrange- 
ment. Clothing. Habiliments. Accoutre- 
ments. Vestments. Uniform. Livery. 
Costume. Garb. Investiture. 

Ant. Nudity. Disorder. Disarrange- 
ment. Undress. Deshabille. 

Driblet, n. Dribble. Conn. 
with Drip and Drop. A scanty 
instalment of a forthcoming por- 

Stn. Drop. Dole. Instalment Scrap. 
Morsel. Bit Particle. 

Ant. TotaL Whole. Aggregate. Mass. 
Body. Bulk. Entirety. Suhl 

Drift, v, int. Sax. drif. Ex- 

Synonyms and Antonyrm. 

presses the prooess of tuiiform 
motion, but not the effect of 

Stk. Drive. Bear. Wander. Edge. 

Akt. Steer. I^Med. Oourae. Make. 

Dbift, w. See verb. Used 

Stv. Tendency. Direction. Motion. 
Tenoor. Meaning. Purport. Object In- 
teotion. Purpose. Scope. Aim. Result 
Issue. Inference. Conclusion. End. 

Akt. Aimlessness. Pointlessness. Vague- 
ness. Unmeaningness. Indefinlteness. Con- 
fbsedness. Aberrancy. 

Dbill, V, tr. Sax. Conn, 
with Through and Thrill. To 
pierce a hole or run a grooye; 
m>m the latter, to arrange in 
lines for' exercise. 

Stn. Teach. Exerdae. Train. Ordi- 
nate. Discipline. 

Ant. Confuse. Disarrange. Disorder. 
Misinstmct Miseducate. IHsliabituate. 

Dbink, V. tr. Sax. drincan, 
Stk. Imbibe. Swallow. Absorb. Drain. 


Aot. Disgorge. Replenish. Pour. 

Exude. Water. '^' • - 

Drip. Sax. dripan, 

Stk. Drop. Ooze. Percolate. 
Akt. Imbibe. Swallow. Absorb. Suck. 
Diy. Retain. Hold. 

Drive. Sax. dri/an, 

Snr. See Draw. 

Drivel, n. Form of Dribble. 
Saliva flowing from the mouth, 
as in dotage or idiotcy. Applied 
to fatnitous speech. 

Stk. Fatuity. Nonsense. Trifling. 
Snivel. Babble. 

Ant. Soundness. Coherence. Substance. 

Driveller, n. See Drivel. 

Stk. Idiot Babbler. Dotard. 
Akt. Speaker. Debater. Logician. 

Droll, adj, Pr. drole, a sh&rt 
fat man, ' One whimsically 

Stk. WhimsicaL Comical. Funny. 
Comic. Fantastia FardcaL 

Akt. Sad. Lamentable. Tragic. Ln- 
gnhrloua Funereal. 


Drollery, n. See Droll. 

Stk. Fun. Whimsicality. Comicality. 
Trickery. Buffooneij. 

Akt. Gravity. Dismality. Ruefhlness. 
Priggiahness. Starch. Lugubriousness. 

Drone, v. int. See Drawl. 
Droop, v, tr, and int, Scand. 

Stk. Sink. Flag. Decline. Pine. Lan- 
guish. Drq>. Bend. Incurve. 

Akt. Revive. Flourish. Luxuriate. 
Prosper. Rally. Raise. 

Drop, v, int. Conn, with Drip 
and Droop. 

Stk. Ooze. Emanate. Dlst^L Percolate. 
Fall. Decline. Descend. Faint Droop. 

Akt. Evaporate. Rally. Rise. Soar. 
Ascend. Recover. 

Dross. A. Sax. dreos, to faU, 
That which falls away, as the 
refuse. Comp. Trash. 

Stk. See Cream. 

Drought, n. Spelt also 
Drouth. ConiL with Dry. 

Stk. Dryness. Aridity. Parching. 

Akt. Moisture. Refteshment. Dew. 
Deluge. Slaking. Quenching. Watering. 

Drown. Sax. Conn, with 
Drink and Drench. 

Stk. Sink. Immerse. Swamp. Sub- 

Akt. Dry. Drain. Expose. Air. Venti- 

Drowsy. Sax. drusian, tofaU, 

Syk. Heavy. Drooping. Sleq^y. Som- 

Ant. Light Vigilant Alert Awake. 

Drudge. Conn, with Drag. 
To drag through low or menial 
work, or any work with diffi- 

Stk. Slave. Labour. Plod. 
Akt. Bask. Luxuriate. Hit off. Play. 

Drug. Conn, with Dry. A 
dried substance for medicine. 
Metaphorically, a valueless thing, 
like a dead leaf. See Cipher. 

Dry, V, Sax. drygan, 
Stk. Drain. Parch. 
Akt. Drench. Moisten. Wet 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

Det, cutj. See verb. Used 
also metaphorically, as, wanting 
life or interest. 

8ts. Arid. Parched. Moistareless. 
Jniceleas. Lifeless. Dull. Tedious. Un- 
Interesting. Monotonous. 

Amt. Moist. Fresh. Juicy. lively, 

It has also the x)ecnliar sense 
of humorous. See Humour. 

Dubious, adj\, Dubitation, n. 
See Doubt. 

Ductile, adj\ DuctUis, from 
duco, to lead or draw. Physically, 
that may be easily drawn out; 
morally, one who may be easily 

Stk. jMalleable. Extensible. TractUe. 
Tractable. Docile. Irresolute. Ductile. 

AnT. Inelastic. Inflexible. Toue^ 
Obdurate. Resolute. Firm. ObstinAte. 

Dudgeon, n. Welsh, dygen, 

Stn. Indignation. Spleen. Resentment. 

Amt. Complacency. Contentment. 
Serenity. Satisfaction. 

Due, adj, Debitus, dehere, to 

Stn. OvTing. Attributable. Just Fair. 
Proper. Obligatory. 

Airr. Irrelative. Unattrlbutable. Inde- 
pendents Undue. Unfoir. Improper. £x- 
travagant Deficient. 

Dulcet, adj. Dvlcis, sweet. 
Especially used of sound. 

Stn. Sweet Soothing. Melodious. 
Soft. Warbling. Euphonious. 

Ant. Harsh. Grating. Discordant 
Noisy. Clamorous. Dissonant Rancour. 

Dulcify, v., Dulcorate, v. 
See Sweeten. 

Dull, adj. Sax. dd, fodtsh. 
Comp. Dolt. Used first of the 
mind, and thence transferred to 
sensible objects. 

Stn. stupid. Stolid. Doltish. Insen- 
sible. Callous. Heavy. Gloomy. DisnuO. 
Cloudy. Turbid. Opaque. Dowdy. Com- 
monplace. Dead. Matt 

Ant. Sharp. Clever. Lively. Ani- 
mated. Sensible. Cheerful. Exhilaratini 
Bright. lYansparent Brilliant Bi 

Dullard, n. See Dull and 

DuMBFOUNDER, V. tr Sax. 
dumb, and founder, to sink, fix)m 
fundus, the deep, Comp. Pro- 
found. To sink into speechless 
astonishment. See Astonish. 

Dunce, n. From Duns Scotus, 
a learned schoolman, whose 
name became a byword when 
scholastic learning fell into dis- 

Stn. See Blockhead. 

Dupe, n. Fr. dupe, a foolish 
bird. Comp. Gull and Booby. 
To cheat. See Cheat. 

Duplicity, n. Duplex, double. 
Double-dealing. See Artful. 

Durable, adj. Durare, to last ; 
durus, hard. 

Syn. Lasting. Permanent Stable. Per- 

Ant. Evanescent Transient Inq>er- 
manent Unstable. 

Durance, n. See Endure. 

Syn. Confinement Incarceration. Im- 

Ant. liberty. Largeness. 

Duration, n. See Durable. 
Applied to time, to express a 
portion of it, in reference to an 
event or series of events. 

Stn. Period. Continuance. Term. 
Space. Protraction. Prolongation. 

Ant. Momentuiness. instantaneous- 
ness. Infinity. Eternity. 

During. Used as a ^)rep. See 

Stn. Pending. Throughout 
Ant. Barring. Excluding. Omitting. 

Dutiful, adj. Ready to per- 
form acts, as duteous is ready to 
feel the sentiments, due to 

Syn. Obedient Sabmiaslvi& Docile. 
Deferential Duteous. 

Ant. Disobedient Intractable. Re- 
bellious. UndatiAiL 

Syfumyrm and Antonyms. 


DUTT, ti. Dehftas, dehere, to 
owe. That which is owed on 
gronnds of moral obligation. 

Stk. Obligation. Fart Business. Re- 
nponsibility. Allegiance. Function. Office, 
novinoe. Calling. Trust. Commission. 

Ant. Freedom. Exemption. Immunity. 
Licence. Dispensation. Desertion. Dere- 

The word is iised in the tech- 
nical senses of tax, or what is 
due to the Crown, and ritnal, as 
due from the clergy or the mili- 
tary, &c. 

DwABF, V. tr. Low Germ. 

Stk. Lower. Stunt. Depress. 
AvT. Heighten. Elevate. AaJae. 

DwAEF, n. See verb, 

Stn. Pigmy. Imp. Abortion. Pock. 

AST. Giant Monster. Hercules. 

Dwell, v, int, Scand. Conn, 
witli Dull. Implying to be slow 
or linger; thence, to tarry as in 
a fixed abode. 

Stk. Stop. Stay. Best Linger. Tarry. 
Live. Reside. Abide. 

A^'T. Move. TraveL Hasten. Speed. 
Migrate. Wander. Depart Flit Boam. 

DwKLLBB, n. See Dwell and 

Dwelling, n„ See Dwell and 

Dwiin)LB, V, int. Sax, dvinan, 
to pine. 

Stk. Pine. Waste. DiminlBh. Decrease. 
DecUne. Melt 

Akt. Expand. Enlarge. Increase. 
Grow. Flourish. Augment Develope. 


Eaoeb. From Lat acer, but 
unlike acer, applied only to dis- 
position and feelings, not phy- 
sical qualities. 

Stk. Ardent Earnest Active. In- 
twested. Anxious. 4-- 

Akt. Ouol. Indifferent. Inactive. Slug- 
gish. Listlees. Unsolicitous. 

Eablt, adj\ and adv, Comp. 
Ere or Ever. In advance of 

Stk. Soon. Betimes. Forward. Ma- 
tutinal. Beforehand. 

Akt. Lare. Tardily. Backward. Ves- 
pertinal. Belated. 

Eabn, V, tr. Sax. aran, to 
ploiigh, Comp. ear of wheat, and 
earth or landploughed. 

Stk. Merit Wm. Gain. Deserve. Rea- 

Akt. Forfeit Forego. Waste. Lose. 
Spend. Squander. 

Eabnbst, adj\ Earn. Conn, 
with yearn. 

Stk. Eager. Serious. Intent Deter- 
mined. Strenuous. Intent. 

Akt. Indifferent PlayfuL Idle. De- 
sultory. Irresolute. Uneamest Sportive. 
Jesting. Flippant 

Ease, n. Fr. aise. Is used of 
condition or circumstances and 

Stk. Comfort Enjoyment Rest. Re- 
freshment Quiet Contentment. Satis- 
faction. Facility. Readiness. 

Akt. Trouble. Annoyance. Vexation. 
Disquiet Difficulty. Awkwardness. 

Easy, GK^y. See Ease. In ad- 
dition to tiie foregoing has also 
the sense of indulgent. 

Stk. Quiet Comfortable. Manageable. 
Indulgent. Facile. Lenient Unconcerned. 

Akt. Uneasy. Disturbed. Uncomfort- 
able. DiflBcult Unmanageable. Hard. 
Exacting. Anxious. Awkward. Embar- 

Ebb, v. Sax. ehbian, to ebb. 
Stk. Retire. Recede. Decrease. Sink. 
Decline. Decay. Wane. 

Amt. Flow. Increase. Abound. Swell. 

Ebbibty, n, Lat. Mrietas, 
ebrius, sdbtr, 

Stk. Soberness. Freshness. Temper- 

Ant. Inebriety. Intoxication. Cra- 

Ebullition, n. Ebvllire, to 
boil out. Used of feeling. 

Stk. Boiling. Effervescence. Outburst. 
Paroxysm. Eruption. 

Akt. Cooling. Refrigeration, Subsi- 
dence. Composure. 



EcCBNTBic, adj. Ex and cen- 
tt^m. Gr. Kevrpov, The centre 
point of a circle or circulation. 
Deviating from a fixed and cus- 
tomary Ime of conduct, character, 
or appearance. 

Stn. Peculiar. Singular. Idiosyncratic 
Flighty. Aberrant. Abnormal. Odd. 
Wliimsical. Erratic. 

Ant. Regular. Ordinary. Customary. 
Normal. Common. Usual. CTnnotlceable. 

Echo, n. Gr. rjxo^, the nymph 
of sound ; ijxost sound. Of rever- 
beration. Used metaphorically 
with the force of mechanical or 
servile repetition of the senti- 
ments of others. 

Stn. Reverberation. Resonance. Re- 
petition. Imitation. Answer. 

Airr. Sound. Voice. Original Ques- 
tion. Proposition. Statement Opinion. 

ECLBOTIO. 'EicXcyeii/, to choose. 
Given to choosing rather than fol- 
lowing, and that from all sources, 
with a simple view to the true 
and right, irrespectively of 

Stn. Exceptive. Selective. Broad. 

Ant. Narrow. Preijudioed. Petty. Par- 
tial Intolerant Biassed. Waiped. Dog- 

Eclipse, 71. *EKK€tTrciv, a failure. 
As in the sun or moon, of a por- 
tion of their obscurated aspect. 
Used metaphorically to express 
the overshadowing of superior 

Stn. Failure. Obscuration. Over- 
shadowing. Shading. Diminutioa Out- 
shining. Outdofaig. Outrlvalling. 

Ant. Illumination. Effulgence. Bright- 
ness. Reappearance. Lustre. Renown. 
Reillumination. Re-effulgenoe. Foil 

EOLIPBE, V, See noun, 

Stn. Obscure. Overshadow. Outdo. 

Outshine. Outvie. Outrival 

Ant. Recommend. Brighten. Enhance. 

Illustrate. Heighten. 

Economy, n. olKopofiia, oXkos, 
a house, and vofws, distribtdton, 
management. Domestic manage- 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 

ment, thence management or dis- 
pensation generally. 

Stn. Administration. Managonent 
Dispensattod. Rule. Arrangement. Dig- 
toibution. Husbanding. 

Ant. Maladmhiistratloa Mismanage- 
ment Waste. Misrule. Disorder. Pro- 

Economize, v. tr, /See Economy. 

Stn. Husband. Develope. Utilize. 
Ant. Waste. Misuse. Sacrifice. 

Ecstasy, w. Ek, out, and arcuns, 
a standing, A standing out or 
departure from the ordinary state 
of the mind imder conditions of 
peculiar excitement. 

Stn. Rapture. Inspiration. Fervour. 
Hirenzy. Transport 

Ant. Coolness. Indifference. Dolness. 
Weariness. Tedium. Bore. Fidget. Misery. 

Ecumenical, adj, OiKovfUvri 
(yrj, understood). The whole in- 
habited earth. 

Stn. Catholi& Universal 
Ant. Partial National. Private. Do- 
mestic. Local 

Edible, adJ, Edibilis, ecfere, 
to eat. 

Stn. Esculent "Wholesome. Gulinaiy. 

Ant. Noxious. Poisonous. Deleterious 

Edifice, n. Mdifidum, asdv- 
ficare, to build, 

Stn. Structure. Building. Tenement 

Ant. Ruin. Heap. Demolition. Dis- 

Edify, v. tr. See Edifice. To 
build up in an opinion or know- 
ledge, and so instruct and im- 

Stn. Enlighten. Instruct. Improve. 
Ant. Misguide. Mislead. Misinform. 

Educate, v, tr, Educare, to 
bring up, 

Stn. Instruct Nurture. Train. Ground. 
School Initiate. 

Ant. Miseducate. Misinfitruct Mis- 

Educe, v, tr, Educere, to bring 

Stn. Draw. Eliminate. Produce. Elicit 
Ant. Adduce. Apply. Insert De- 
posit Bestow. 

Bynonyms and Antonyms. 

Effaob, v. tr. Ex and /ocies, 
afajce or appearance. To do away 
with a representation, colouring, 
or delineation upon a surface. 

Sth. Erase. Obliterate. Expunge. 
Airr. Restore. Bevive. Delineate. Im- 
print. Portray. 

Epfbct, V. tr. Efflcere, to effect. 
To work out an end propos^ 

Sni. Caoae. Frodaoe. Achieve. Com- 

Amt. Prevent Obviate. Frustrate. 

Effect, n. See verb. Used 
also in the sense of the striking 
or efficient in appearance. 

Effective, adj., Effectual, 
adj., Efficient, adj. See Effect. 
Tending to produce an effect. 
The three words are somewhat 
differently applied. 

Effective refers to effect in the 
sense of impression upon the 
senses, as an effective picture. 
Effectual is practically conducive 
to bringing about a specific end, 
as an effectual remedy. Efficient, 
having the quality of effective- 
ness, ready to be exerted when- 
ever occasion may arise, as, an 
efficient man. 

Stk. PowerfoL Conducive. Operative. 
Oogent Telling. Able. Talented. 

Avr. Weak. Ineffective. Inoondudve. 
Inc^ratlve. Futile. Nugatory. 

Effectuate, v. tr. See Effect. 

Stk. Produce. Ensure. Secure. Sta- 
bOitate. Compass. Complete. Establish. 

AST. Prevent Hinder. Nullify. De- 
feat Nip. Blight Strangle. Stifle. 

Effeminate, adj\ Femina, a 
woman. Having acquired ihe 
character or maimer of a woman. 

SrK. Feminine. Delicate. Womanly. 
Womanish. Unmanly. Weak. Enervated. 

The epithet is commonly, 
thou^ not always, used re- 
proachfully. In that case it 
were better to use Effeminate 


and Womanish of men, and ap- 
ply to women, as epithets of pro- 
priety, Feminine and Womanly. 

Amt. Manly. Robust Vigorous. Hardy. 

Effervesce, v. int. Fervescere, 
freq. of fervere, to boil. Strictiy 
with heat, but also used of cold 
liquids, as the words boil and 
seethe are used of the foaming 
sea or the bubbling torrent. It 
is also used metaphorically of 
excitement of feeling. 

Stn. Boil. Bubble. Foam. Mantle. 
Froth. Ferment Sparkle. Bluster. Ex- 

Ant. Subside. Bear. Brook. Dlg'st 
Acquiesce. Refrain. Flatten. 

Effete, adj'. Ex and foetm, 
the young. No longer capable of 
bearing, hence generally worn 

Sto. Worn. Exhausted. Barren. De- 

Amt. Productive. Vigorous. Fertile. 
Prolific. Exuberant 

Efficacy, n. Efficax, effica- 
cious, efficere, to produce. Better 
used of things, as efficiency of 

Stk. Efficiency. Useftikiess. Produc- 
tiveness. Effectiveness. 

Amt. Inefficiency. Inutility. Ineffec- 

Efficiency, n. See Efficacy. 

Effigy, n. Effigies, a statvs. 
Properly a true likeness. 

Stm. statue. Figure. Representation. 

Amt. Caricature. Misrepresentation. 
Distortion. Daub. 

Efflorescence, n. Ex and 
fl,os, oris, a flower. 

Stk. Budding. Luxuriance. Outburst 
Crystallization. Granulation. 

Amt. Nudity. Bareness. Denudation. 
Deflorescence. Absorption. Desiccation. 

Effluence, n. Ex and fluere, 
to flow. 

BytK. Outpouring. Emission. Discharge. 
Abundance. Overflow. 

Amt. Refiuence. Infusion. Absorption 
Retoation. Exhaustion. 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

Effluvium, n. See Effluence. 
Exhalation by usage, restricted 
to such as are of noxious or un- 
pleasant character. 

Stn. Exhalation. Emanation. Malaria. 
Miasma. Stink. 

Ant. Ventilation. Scent. Disinfectant 
Zephyr. Balm. 

Effort, n. Ex and forfis. A 
putting forth of the strength for 
a specific purpose. 

Stn. TriaL Attempt. Endeavour. Ex- 

Ant. Failure. Misadventure. Unsuc- 
cess. Frustration. Futility. Inactivity. 
Ease. Facility. Spontaneity. 

Effronteet, n. Ex, out, and 
frons, the forehead or face, 

Stn. Barefacedness. Impudence. Brass. 

Ant. Modesty. Timidity. Bashfulness. 

Effulgence, n. Ex and/wZ- 
gerp, to shine. 

Stn. Splendour. Lustre. Brilliancy. Lu- 

Ant. Darkness. Obscuration. Tenebroslty. 

Effuse, adj\ Eff under e,fusus, 
to pour out. 

Stn. Copious. EflSuent. Abundant 
Ant. Dit^. Scanty. Sparing. Jejune. 

Effusion, n. ^ce Effuse. Used 
literally of the pouring out of 
liquid, and metaphoricaUy of the 
pouring out of speech. 

Stn. Pouring. Discbarge. Emission. 
EfBnence. Oration. Speech. Address. 

Ant. Infusion. Befluence. Absorption. 
Essay. Document Instrument. Beading. 

Egotism, n, Lat. ego, 1, A 
tendency to undue thought and 
speech about one's self. 

Stn. Conceit Vanity. Self-assertion. 
Ant. Considerateness. Deference. Self- 

Egregious, adj\ E, out, and 
grex, the flock or common herd. 
Applied to persons or personal 
qualities. Often used ironically. 

Stn. Remarkable. Peculiar. Excellent 

Ant. Ordinary. Commonplace. Every- 
day. Mediocre. 

Egress, n, Egrediri, egrcssus. 

to step out. Used of the act and 
the passage of coining out. 

Stn. Exit Departure. Sally. Outtet. 
Akt. Adit Inlet Approach. Avatua, 

Eithub, adj. Sax. ceg, ever, 
(Gterm. ewig), heva, whether of 
two. Whichever of the two you 

Ant. Neither (ne being the negative 


Ejaculate, v, tr. See !E4Jacu- 

Ejaculation, n, Ejaculari, 
jaculum, a javelin. Used for- 
merly of throwing, in its ordinary 
sense. Now only used of the 
casting forth of words in a sud- 
den way. 

Stn. Exclamation. Utterance. Crj. 

Ant. Obmutesoence. Silence, ^jeech- 

lessness. DumM^oundedness. Orati<Hi. 
Speech. Drawl. 

Eject, v, tr, Ejicere, jacttts, to 
cast out. 

Stn. Cast. Throw. Discharge. Ezpd. 
Extrude. Evert 

Ant. Accept Receive. Retain.. House. 
Store. Lodge. Accommodate. Admit 
Welcome. Introduce. Inject, 

Ejection, n. See Eject. 

Eke, v. tr. Sax. Conn, with 
augere, and commonly used with 
the prep. out. To eke out, to 
add to what is scanty, often by 
only a scanty and barely sufficient 

Stn. Help. Increase. Augment Raise. 
Ant. Stop. Diminish. Stint With* 
hold. Drain. Exhaust. 

Elaborate, v, tr, E and 
labor. To work out a conception 
or design. 

Syk. Execute. Forge. Prepare. Con- 
coct. Mature. 

Akt. Misconceive. Mismanage. Mis* 
contrive. Hit CoAjecture. Guess. CSianoe. 

Elapse, v. int. E and laH, 
lapsus, to slip. 

Stn. Pass. Slip. Intervene. 

Ant. Wait Abide. Hold. Continue. 
Halt Endure. 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


Elabtio, adj. Lat. Elasticm, 
fix)m Gr. iXdvvQ), to drive or 
draw. Having a tendency to 
spring back, when stretched, to 
its original dimensions. The 
ideas suggested by the word are 
therefore of two kinds ; the one 
the capability of stretching, the 
other the tendency to recurrence. 
In metaphorical language the for- 
mer is the more prevalent idea. 

Stn. Ductile. Extensile. Alterable. 
ResiUent. Modifiable. Flexible. Buoyant 

Ant. Tough. Unchangeable. Rigid. 
Inflexible. Inelastic. CrystalUzed. DulL 

ELA.TED, adj. Ex and ferre. 
To carry out, of himself, with 
joy or pride. 

Stn. Cheered. Joyed. Inspirited. Over- 
Joyed. Proud. Inflated. 

Ant. Depressed. Dispirited. Disap- 
pointed. Abashed. C!onfounded. Humi- 
liated. Disconcerted. Dqjected. 

Elder, n. Sax. dd, 
old. Comparative, elder. 

Stn. Senior. Father. 
Ant. Junior. Son. 

Elect, adj. Eligere, lectm, to 

Syn. Elite. Choice. Accepted. Chosen. 
Ant. Rejected. Reprobate. 

Elect, v. See Elect, adj. 
Elected, part. See Election. 
Election, n. See Elect. 

Stn. Choice. Acceptance. Selection. 

Ant. Postponement. Ration. Repro- 

ELBOTRnr, V, tr. From Elec- 
tricity, which is from the Gr. 
T[\€KTpovj Lat. electrum, amber. 
As being produced by the friction 
of amber. 

Stn. Astonish. Astound. Tlirill. Amaze. 
Dnmbfouuder. AppaL 

Ant. Soothe. Compose. Calm, Mes- 

Elegance, n. Flegantia, ell- 
gere, to choose. Primarily that 

kind of beauty in art or compo- 
sition which is the result of 
choice selection, and the omis- 
sion of everything offensive to 
rule or taste. The word has 
acquired a wider meaning in 

Stn. Beauty. Grace. Refinement Sym- 
metry. Gracefulness. Taste. 

Ant. Deformity. Awkwardness. In- 
elegance. Disproportion. Ungracefulness. 
Coarseness. Rudeness. 

Elegy, n. A poem consisting 
of hexameters and pentameters 
alternately. A metre employed 
in grave and mournful subjects. 
From € € Xcycti', to cry ; ? ? , in 

Stn. Dirge. Threnody. Lament Jere* 

Ant. Paean. Jubilee. 

Element, n. Der. imcertain. 
Possibly from eleo for oleo (/ 
grow), because out of the ele- 
ments all things grow. Used 
also for the primaxy or consti- 
tuent parts of compound things. 

Syn. Component 

Elementary, adj. Belonging 
to the elements, physically, but 
more frequently employed in re- 
ference to elements as component 
parts, elemental being reserved 
for the former. 

Syn. Physical. Material. NaturaL Ele- 
mentary. Primary. Rudimental. Inchoate. 
Component Constituent Ultimate. 

Ant. Immaterial. Incorporeal. Impal- 

Bable. Compound. Collective. Aggregate, 
developed. Organized. 

Elevate. See Elevation. 

Syn. Raise. Dignify. Ennoble. 
Ant. Lower. Degrade. Debase. 

Elevation, n. Elevare, to 
raise ; leuis, light. 

Stn. Height Rise. Raising. Altitude. 
Loftiness. Tallness. Improvement. Ame- 
lioration. Refinement Superiority. Emi- 

Ant. Depth. Fall. Declhie. Depres- 
sion. Shortness. Stuntedness. Deteriora- 
tion. Debasement Degradation. Inferi- 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

Elicit, v. tr. Lat. EUcere, to 
entice out. 

Stn. Draw. Evoke. Ednce. Eliminate. 
Enucleate. Express. Extract. Worm. Evolve. 

Ant. Insert. Implant. Litroduoe. Ino- 
culate. Insinuate. Infuse. InstiL In- 
corporate. Suggest. Extort. 

Eligible, adj. See Elect. 
Worthy of being chosen. 

Stn. Desirable. Preferable. Ghoica 

Ant. Undesirable. Worthless. Unpro- 
fitable. Ordinary. Indifferent. Ineligible. 

Eliminate, v. tr. E and 
limen, a threshold. To bring out 
from the recesses of private con- 
cealment into the public light of 
day. Hence, 1, to explain; 2, 
to extract; and 3, to extract 
what is superfluous or objection- 

Syn. Elucidate. Explain. Enucleate. 

Amt. Mystify. Obscure. Involve, Smug- 
gle. Foist Import. Confound. 

Elisiok, w. Elidere, to strike 
out. In grammar, the omission 
of a syllable, and the consequent 
shortening of the word. 

Stn. Omission. E^tion. Excerption. 
Abridgment. Ellipse. 

Ant. Insertion. Introduction. Implanta- 
tion. Augmentation. Elongation. Inocu- 

Ellipse, n. iv, and \eiTrciv, 
to leave or /ail. An omission of 
something which may be under- 
stood without being expressed, 
as, ' the man I saw,' for * whom 
I saw.' The adf. Elliptical is 
sometimes used of style which 
leaves much to be understood 
which is not expressed. In this 
sense it would have such syno- 
nyms and antonyms as the fol- 
lowing : — 

Stn. Suggestive. Latent Pregnant 
Significant Allusive. Suban^itive. 

Ant. Categorical. Full Expository. 
Explanatory. Declaratoiy. Enunclative. 

Elocution, w. Ex and loqui, 

to speak. The act and the pro- 
cess of public speaking. 

Stn. Oratory. Declamation. Eloquence. 
Ant. Reading. Lection. Balbutiatioo. 

Elongation, n. E and longus^ 
long. The addition of length. 

Stn. Production. Extension. 
Ant. Apocope. Curtailment 

Eloquence, n. See Elocution. 

Else. Sax. d, other. Like 
alius, in Latin. 

Stn. Besides. Otherwise. 
Ant. So. Also. J^kewise. 

Elsewhere, adv. See Else. 
Add Sax. hivar. 

Stn. Otherwise. Away. 
Ant. So. Here. 

Elucidatb, V. tr. Ex and 
lucidus^ lux, light, lucid. 
Stn. Explain. Clear. Illustrate. 
Ant. Mystify. Obscure. Conftise. 

Elude, v. tr. E and ludere, 
ludiLs, to mock, 

Stn. Escape. Avoid. Baffle. Evade. 
Parry. Fence. Mock. Frustrate. 

Ant. Encounter. Meet Oonfiront 
Court Dare. Defy. 

Elusory, adj. See Elude. 

Syn. Slippery. Intangible. Indetain- 
ablc. Fugitive. Shadowy. Unsubstantial. 
Ant. Persistent Stable. Solid. 

Emaciation, n. E and modes, 


Stn. Leaimess. Attenuation. Wasting. 
Ant. Fatness. Obesity. Corpuloioe. 

Emanate, v. tr. E and 
manare, to drop. 

Stn. Originate. Flow. Spring. Rise. 

Ant. Terminate. Culminate. End. 
Evene. Issue. Arrive. Eventuate. 

Emanation, n. See Emanate. 

Emancipate, v, tr. E and 
niancipium, a laying of the hand 
on a thing, as on the head of a 
slave, to betoken a formal pur- 
chase. Used in various meta- 
phorical applications. 

Stn. Liberate. Enfranchise. Reecne. 
ANT. Enthrall Sobjugate. Enslave. 
Bind. Disqualify. 

Synonyms and Antonyms, 

Embalm, v. tr, Bcdaamum, 
halsam or balm. To preserve in 
spices. To lay up carefully. 

Sth. GonMrve. Rwaerve. I'reasure. 
Store. Enshrine. Oonsecrate. 

AST. Expose. Desecrate. Abandon. 

Embaboo, n. Spanish, harra, 
a bar. A restraint laid upon 
vessels in port. Used metapho- 

Snr. Restraint Detention. Prublbition. 

Ant. Permit. Permission. Discharge. 
Ldberation. Dismissal. Conge. 

Embabk, V. int. Barca, d ship. 
Gomp. Eng. Bark. Used meta- 
phorically of embarking in a 

Stn. Lannch. Enter. Start. 
Aht. Arrive. Anchor. Land. 

Embarbass^ V. tr. Same der. 
as Embargo. 

Stk. Entangle. Disconcert Tronble. 
Perplex. C!onfase. Hamper. Clog. En- 

Ant. Extricate. liberate. Expedite. 
FacUitate. Accelerate. Assist Dlsen- 

Embellish, v. tr. Bellus, neat, 
pretty. See Adorn. 

Embezzle, v. tr. Old Fr. besiler. 
Celt, bee, without, and loi, law. 
To come unlawfully by. Ap- 
plied to money and accounts. 

Stk. Appropriate. Confuse. Falsity. 
Peculate. Misappropriate. 

Ant. Square. Balance. Clear. 

Embitter, v. tr. To make 
bitter. Sax. biter. From bite. 
Mordant. Acrid. 

Stn. Aggravate. Molest 

Ant. Alleviate. Soothe. Sweeten. 

Emblazon, v. tr. See Blazon. 

Emblem, n. ifipdWciv, to cast 
or throw in, as, a device into 
tapestry or mosaic work. A 
pattern; and, thence, a device 
taken as a distinctive mark. 

Stn. Device. Cognizance. Sign. (Sym- 
bol. Reprosentation. 'l^>e. Badge. Mark. 

Ant. Disguise. Decoy. Incognito. 
Domino. Blind. Rose. 


Embody, v. tr. Body. Sax. 
bodig. To put into tangible 
shape, or to attach or insert into 
another body. 

Stn. Express. Methodize. Systematize. 
Codify. Incorporate. Aggregate. Integrate. 
Compact Introduce. Lnllst Combine. 

Ant. Eliminate. Segregate. Analyze. 
Dissipate. Disintegrate. Dismember. Col- 
liquate. Disband. Disembody. 

Embolden, v. tr. Bold. Siax. 
See Encourage. 
Embosomed, GM^y. Bosom. Sax. 

Stn. Concealed. Enfolded. Wrapt 
Enveloped. Surrounded. Begirt. En- 

Ant. Exposed. Unfolded. Open. Un- 

Embrace, v. tr. In and 
brachium, the arm. 

Stn. Clasp. Comprehend. Include. 
Ant. Exclude. Reject Except 

Embroidbr, V. tr. Fr. broder. 
To cover with ornamental needle- 
work. Comp. Braid. 

Stn. Emboss. Enrich. Emblazon. Em- 

Ant. Botch. Patch. Cobble. Dam. 

Embroil, v. tr. See Brawl. 
Has the double sense of to make 
confused, and to implicate in 

Syn. Implicate. Commingle. Entangle 

(in quarrel). Disturb. Distract Trouble. 

Ant. Extricate. Separate. Remove. 
Arrange. Compose. Pacify. 

Embryo, n. eV, and 0pv€ip, 
to conceive. 

Stn. Germ. Nucleus. Rudiment 

Ant. Development Shape. Completion. 

Emendation, n. E, out, and 
menda, a fault. 

Stn. Correction. Amendment Recti- 
fication. Reformation. 

Ant. Error. Defect Incorrectness. 
FanlL Corruption. 

Emerge, v. int. E, out, and 
mergere, to dip or plunge. To 
rise out of a fluid. Metaphori- 
cally, to escape out of a diffi- 


Synonyms and Antonyms, 

Stn. Escape. Issue. Evene. A] 
Ant. Enter. Incur. Retreat. 

Emergency, n. See Emerge. 
A crisis, like that of rescue from 
drowning, or else the sudden 
appearing of a crisis, as if it had 
risen out of the course of events. 

Stn. Crisis. Conjuncture. Pinch. Em- 
barrassment Strait Necessity. DiflQculty. 

Ant. Rescue. Deliverance. Solution. 
Subsidence. Provision. Anticipation. Ar- 

Emersion, n. See Immersion. 

Emigration, n. Emigrare, to 

SrN. Exodus. Colonization. Flit. 

Ant. Abode. Sojourn. Settlement 
Stay. Domiciliation. Immigration. 

Eminence, n, Eminere, to 
stand out or rise. Used of phy- 
sical height and moral or social 

SrN. See Height 

Eminent, adj. See High. 
Eminently, adv. See Highly. 

Emission, n. Emittere, to send 
forth. See Discharge. 

Emollient, adj. E and mollis, 

Syn. Softening. Laxative. Balsamic. 
Ant. Astringent. Irritant Galling. 

Emolument, n. Emoliri, to 
work out or move out, from moles, 
a heavy mass. The result of 
labour. See Profit. 

Emotion, n. E and movere, to 

Stn. Passion. Feeling. Excitement 

Ant. Lidifiference. Insensibility. Im- 
passiveness. Imperturbability. Stoicism. 

Emphatic, adj. Gr. emphasis, 
axxent or stress. Laying stress, 
or deserving to have stress laid 
upon it. 

Sin. Earnest Positive. Important 
Special. Egregious. Consummate. 

Ant. Mild. Unemphatic Cool. Un- 
impassloned. Unimportant Ordinary. 
Unnoticeable. Commonplace. 

Empierce, v. tr. See Pierce. 

Empire, n. Imperium, irnr 
per are, to command. 

Syn. Dominion. Sovereignty. Btile. 

Ant. Independence. Insurrection. An- 

Empirical, adj. ifiireipia. 
Expnerience or experiment, as i 
distinguished from science. | 

Stn. Experimental. Tentative. Quacklsh. 
Ant. Scientific. Regular. Inductive. 
Uniform. Constant. 

Empiricism, n. See Empirical 

Employ, v. tr. Implicare, to 
enfold into one* s plan. 

Stn. Use. Apply. Economize. 

Ant. Discard. Dismiss. Misuse. Ifis- 

Empower, v. tr. Fr. pouvoir. 
Lat. pottstas, from posse, to he 

Stn. Enable. Commission. Encourage. 

Ant. Hinder. Prevent. Disoourage 
Disable. Disqualify. 

Empty, adj. Sax. emtig. Con- 
taining nothing. 

Stn. Vacant. Void. Clear. Unen- 
cumbered. Unobstructed. Unoccupied. 
Waste. Uninhabited. Unfrequented. De- 
ficient Weak, Silly. Idle. Senseless. 

Ant. Full. Occupied. Encumbered. 
Obstructed. Cultivated. Colonized. In- 
habited. Informed. Well-instructed. Sen- 
sible. Experienced. Significant. Forcibl»'. 
Important SubstantiaL 

Emulate, v. tr. JEmtdari, to 
strive to excel. 

Stn. Rival. Vie. Compete. Aspire. 

Ant. DisafiFect Shun. Forego. Abandon. 
Despise. Contemn. Waive. 

Enable, v. tr. See Able. 

Stn. Empower. Qualify. Strengthen. 
Ant. Disqualify. Hinder. Disable. 

Enact, v. tr. See Act and 

Enamour, v. tr. In and amor, 

Stn. Captivate. Fascinate. Ehislave. 
Charm. Endear. Bewitch. Enchain. 

Ant. Repel. Disgust B^trange. Di»> 
enchant Horrify. 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


Ekoamp, V, int. In and campjts, 
afield ; whence camp. 

Stn. SetUe. Pitch. Quarter. Bivouac. 
Akt. March. Decamp. Retire. Retreat 

EnohaiMj V. tr. In and chain, 
from catena, a chain. 

Stk. Bind. Fetter. Manacle. Enslave. 

Akt. Loose. Liberate. Extricate. Mann- 
mit. Disenthnll. 

Enchant, v. tr. In and can^ 
tare, to sing; cantus, a song or 
incantation. See Enamour. 

ENontOLE, V. tr. See Circle. 

Sth. Surround. Environ. Incloee. 
Hem. Circumscribe. Encompass. 

Amt. Didnclose. Disendrde. Dlsen- 

Stw. Meet Confront Face. With- 

Enclose, V, tr. In and 
cUmdere, daustis, to shiU. 

Snr. Shut Encircle. Environ. Include. 
(Srcamacribe. Envelope. Wrap. Afforest 

AST. Open. IMsckMe. Exclude. Dis- 
enclose. Disendrde. Bare. Expose. De- 
velope. Disafforest 

j Enclosttbe, n. See Enclose. 

I Applied both to that which in- 
closes, and that which is in- 

Stk. Fence. Ring. Limit Boundary. 
Purk. Close. Circle. Field. Precinct 
I Akt. Space. Common. Waste. Wild. 

I Desert Wilderness. Void. 

Encomium, n. K&fios, a revel. 
A song in honour of Bacchus, 
sung at the Bacchic festival. 
Thence, a speech in public 

Stk. Ptoegyric Laudation. Compli- 
ment Commendation. Eulogy. 

Akt. Vituperation. Vilification. Taunt 
Obloquy. Invective. 

Encompass, v. tr. In, con, 
and passus, a step. Comp. Pace. 
To encircle by walking round, 
or in any other way. See En- 

Encounter, v. tr. In and 
contra, against. To come against 
something, or some other, sud- 
denly, or in opposition. 

Ant. Elude. Avoid. Escape. Miss 

Encouraoe, V. tr. Fr. cceur, 

the heart. 

Stk. Embolden. Rally. Reassure. Ani- 
mate. Inspirit Prompt Abet 

Ant. Deter. Discourage. Dissuade. 

Encroach, v. tr. Fr. croc, 
crochet, a hook. To hook up 
what does not belong to you. To 
approach the property or rights 
of another for such a purpose. 
Followed by the prep. upon. 

Stk. invade. Trespass. Transgress. 

Akt. Respect Recognize. Observe. 

Encrust, v. tr. See Crusty. 

Stk. Coat Line. Plaster. Face. 
Akt. Scrape. Abrade. Expose. 

Encrustation, n. See En- 

Stk. Plaster. Coating. Lining. In- 

Ant. Abrasion. Exfoliation. Peeling. 

Encumber, v. tr. Lat. incumu^ 
lare, cuinvlm, a heap. 

Stk. Oppress. Obstruct Clog. Impede. 
Akt. Disencumber. Free. Disburden. 

End, n. Sax. ende. See Ter- 
mination, Object, and Aim, ac- 
cording as the word is used in 
the sense of natural termination, 
purpose, or result. 

Endanger, v. tr. Dangerium, 
a Low Latin word of uncertain 

Syk. ImperiL Expose. Jeopardize. 
Akt. Cover. Defend. Protect Shield. 

Endear, v. tr. See Dear. 

Stk. Attach. Conciliate. Gain. 
Akt. Estrange. Alienate. Embitter. 

Endearment, n. See Endear 
and Blandishment. 

Endeavour, n. and v. En 
and Fr. devoir, duty. To make 
an effort on behaJf of duty; 
thence, an effort generally. See 
Attempt and Effort. 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

Endless, adj. See End. 
Having no end in time and space. 

Stv. Interminable. Illimitable. Per- 
petual. Eternal Infinite. 

Amt. Terminable. Limited. Temporary. 
Brief. Transient. Periodic. Ephemeral 
Fugitive. Finite. 

Endow, v. tr. In and dotare, 
from d(>s, a dowry, 

Stn. Present Enri'ch. Furnish. QoaUiy. 
Adorn. Invest. Supply. 

Amt. Denude, ^liate. Strip. Disen- 
dow. Deprive. Divest 

Endowment, n. See Endow. 
Applies to the gifts of nature, 
art, and social provision. 

Syn. Gift Provision. Benefit Bene- 
faction. Talent Capacity. Attainment 

Airr. Impoverishment Spoliation. Dis- 
endowment Incapacity. Poverty. Lade 

Endue, v. tr, Tnduere, to 
clothe. See Clothe and Endow. 

Endtjbe, V, int. In and durare, 
durus, hard. To last. See Last 
and Tolerate. 

Enemy, n, Inimicus, in, not, 
and amicus, friend. See Friend. 

Energy, n, cVc/jycux, tpyov, a 
«wA;. Active power. /Siec Activity. 

Enervate, v, tr, E and 
nervus, the nerve, 

Stn. Wealcen. Enfeeble. Unnerve. 
DebUitate. Relax. Unstring. Unhinge. 

Amt. Strengthen. Brace. Invigorate. 
Harden. Nerve. 

Enfeeble,!;, tr. Feeble. lAtjle' 
hUis, flere, to be lamented, wretched, 
sad. Hence weak. See ikiervate. 

Enfold, v, tr. Sax. fealdan, 
to fold. 

Stm. Wrap. Envelope. Enclose. Em- 
brace. Comprise. 

Ant. Unwrap. Develope. Disclose. 

Enforce, v, tr. In and Fr. 
force, from IjdX, fortis, strong. 

Stm. Urge. Compel. Bequire. ' Exact. 
Exert Strain. 

Amt. Relax. Waive. Forego. Remit 

Enfranchise, v, tr. See Fran- 

I Stm. Liberate. Qualify. 

Amt. Disfranchise. DLsqualify. 

Engage, v. tr. In and gage, a 
pledge. To give a pledge. To 
pledge one's self to do a thii^; 
also, to pledge another to do it, 
or employ hini in doing it. 

Stm. Promise. Undertake. Vouch. Em- 
Idoy. Occupy. Hire. Adopt Involve. 

Ant. Decline. Refuse. Withdraw. Dis- 
miss. Discard. Extricate. Disengage. 

Engagement, n. See Engaga 
(For military sense, see Battle.) 

Engaging, adj. See Engage. 
With the metaphorical sense of 
occupying or enlisting regard or 

Stm. Attractive. Interesting. Wlxming. 
Amt. Unattractive. Uninterewting^ Re. 

Engender, v, tr, Ingenerare, 
to generate. Used metaphori- 
cally, aa, ' to engender strife.' 

Stm. Generate. Produce. Create. Breed. 

Amt. Stifle. Destroy. Extimndsh. 
NeutraUae. BUght Prevent 

Engird, v. tr. See Gird. 

Engorge, v, tr,, Enoobge- 
ment, n. See Gorge. 

Engrave, v. tr. Sax. grafan. 
Conn, with ypd<^€iv, 

Stm. Print Imprint Scnlpture. Stereo* 

Amt. Obliterate. Erase. Levigate. 

Engross, v, tr. In and Fr. 
gros, conn, with Lat. crassus, the 
main hulk or body. To absorb, 
as it were, in the gross, or bodily. 

Stm. See Absorb. 

Engulph, V, tr, Gulph. Gr. 
KdXiTos, the bosom of the sea. See 

Enhance, v. tr, Enhausser, 
haut, high. To heighten the 
value of a thing. See Bepte- 

Enigmatical, adj. Enigma. 

Gr. alviyfjLoriKds, 

Stn. Puzzling. Peiplexliig. ObKnn. 

iiynonyms and Antonyms. 


Aht. Lucid. Explanatory. Plain Self- 

Enjoin^ v. tr. In and jungere, 
to Join. To fasten strongly and 
permanently upon a person. 
Said both of the thing and the 

Sth. Impress. Command. Coomiission. 
Oblige. Prescribe. 

Aar. BecaL Dispense. Remit. Ab* 
aolve. Belease. Exonerate. Dissuade. 

Ekjoy, v. tr. Fr. Joie, Eng. 
joy. To derive pleasure from 
the use or possession of a thing. 

Snr. Like. Relish. Possess. 
Ant. Dislike. Disrelish. Suffer. Loathe. 
Forfeit. Lose. Tolerate. Endure. 

Enkindle, v. tr. See Kindle. 
Enlarge, v. ^r. Large, larger. 

Stv. Amplify. Expand. Extend. 
Stretch. Dilate. Increase. 

Ant. Narrow. Lessen. Contract Re- 
stzkt. Diminish. CurtalL Reduce. 

Enliohten, V. tr. Light. Sax. 
leoght — not to be confounded 
with liht, light, not heavy — ^the 
former being connected with 
lucidus, the latter with i^vis, 

Sth. Illumine. Edify. Instruct In- 
form. Teach. 

Ant. Mislead. Darken. Confound. Ob- 
•care. Mystify. Perplex. 

Enliohtened, adj. See En- 
lighten and Wise. 

Enlist, v. tr. In and Sax. 
list, a strip of cloth. A roll of 
names. Act. and neut. 

Stn. Enter. Register. EnrolL Incor- 
porate. Embody. 

Ant. Withdraw. Erase. Expunge. Dis- 
miss. Disband. Disembody. 

Enliven, v. tr. In and life. 
Sax. lif, (Jerm. leben. 

Stv. Wake. Rouse. Inspirit Amuse. 
Excite. Animate. 

Ant. Oppress. Depress. Stupefy. 
Weary. Tire. Paralyze. Deaden. 

Enmitt, n. See Enemy. 

Stv. Discord. Hate. Animosity. Op- 
position. Bitterness. Acrimony. A^sperity. 

AVT. Friendship. Love. Affection. 
Esteem. Friendliness. Cordiality. 

Ennoble, v. tr. In and nobtlis. 

To raise to noble rank, and to 
raise morally. 

Stv. Exalt Dignify. Elevate. Ame- 
liorate. Aggrandize. 

Amt. Debase. Degradeti Deprave. De- 
teriorate. Depress. 

Enormity, n. E and norma, 
a rule. By nsage restricted to 
flagrant deyiations firom law or 

Stv. Atrocity. Crime. Perpetration. 
Abomination. Sin. 

AvT. Achievement Exploit Charity. 

Enormous, (M?;'. jSVe Enormity. 
Of extraordinary size or extent. 

Stv. Huge. Immense. Gross. Mon- 
strous. Prodigious. 

Ant. Diminutive. Insignificant Trivial. 
VenlaL Average. Ordinary. Regular. 

Enough, adj. and adv. Sax. 

Stv. Sufficient Ample. 

AvT. Bare. Scant InsufBdent In- 
adequate. Short 

Enrage, v. tr. Fr. rage, Lat 

Stv. Provoke. Indte. Madden. In- 
flame. Embitter. Infuriate. Exasperate. 

Ant. Soothe. Conciliate. Padfy. Tame. 
MoUify. Allay. Quiet 

Enrapture, v. tr. Haptura, a 
snatching; rapere, to snatch. To 
be snatched out of one*s self by 

Stv. Beatify. Entrance. Ravish. 
AvT. Disgust Nauseate. Torture. 
Horrify. Torment 

Enrich, v. tr. Fr. riche. Said 
of wealth and decoration; and, 
metaphorically, of endowments 
of nature or character. 

Stv. Aggrandize. Endow. Store. Aug- 
ment. Fertilize. Decorate. Enhance. 

Ant. Impoverish. Reduce. Kob. Beggar. 
Fleece. Denude. Disfigure. 

Enrobe, v. tr. See Bobe. 

Stv. Drape. Invest 
Avt. Disrobe. Diveet 

Enroll, v. tr. In and rotulus, 
a wooden cylinder, round which 
was wound the parchment list 
or register. See Enlist 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

Enbolmbnt, n. See EnrolL 

Ensoonoe, v. tr. Gtenn. scJianz, 
a fortification. Used as neut., 
and also followed by me or him- 
self. To hide behind a place of 
defence. See Hide. 

Enshbinb, v. tr. Shrine. Lat. 
scrinium, a desk, box, or sacred 

Syn. Consecrate. Treasure. Embalm. 

Akt. Expose. Desecrate. Forget 

Enslave, v. tr. In and slave. 
Slave originally meant a Sclar 
vonian, of whom the Germans 
made slaves. It is now, happily, 
only a metaphorical term, as re- 
lates to the English tongue. 

Syn. Captivate. Charm. Subjugate. 

Ant. Repel. Disgust Alienate. 
Estrange. Liberate. Manumit Disenthrall. 

Ensue, v. int. In and sequi, 
seciitus, to follow. 

Syn. Follow. Accrue. Supervene. Be- 

Ant. Precede. Threaten. Premonish. 

Ensubb, v. tr. Snre. Lat. 

Syn. Fix. Determine. Secure. Seal. 
Ant. Imperil. Hazard. Jeopardize. 


Entail, v. tr. In taiUer, to 
cut, curtail, or limit. To limit a 
line of succession to property. 
Used generally for bequeath; or 
draw, as an ef^Bct after a cause, 
as, ' learning entails industry.' 

Syn. Bequeath. Leave. Devolve. De- 
mise. Involve. Necessitate. Induce. 

Ant. Alienate. Supersede. NulliQr. 
Prevent Obviate. 

Entangle, v. tr. For Tangle. 
Probably from Gk)th. tagl, hair, 
conn, with tail. 

Syn. Knot Mat BaveL Implicate. 
Ant. Disentangle. UnraveL Extricate. 

Enter, v. int. Intra, within. 
Stn. Invade. Penetrate. 
Ant. Issue. Depart Leave. Quit 

Entebprise, n. JEntrepriser, 
to take in hand. See Adventure. 

Enterprising, adj. See En- 

Syn. Active. Bold. Daring. Adveo. 
turous. I^>eculative. 

Ant. Inactive. Timid. Inadventaroos. 

Entertain, v. tr. Entretener, 
from tenere, to hdd. To hold, as 
an idea or project ; or, in a pe- 
culiar sense, in one's house, as 
guests ; or keep persons going in 
Qie way of amusement 

Syn. Harbour. Maintain. Conceive. 
Foster. Receive. Recreate. Amuse. 

Ant. 'Eiect. Exclude. Deny. Debar. 
Annoy. Weary. Bore. Tire. 

Enthball, V. tr. ThralL Sax. 
Slave or Bondman. See En- 

Enthrone, v. tr. In and 
Bp6pos, thronus, a throne. 

Syn. Crown. Instal. 

Ant. Depose. Dethnme. Debase. De- 

Enthusiasm, n. iv 6€6s, a di- 
vinity. The feeling of in^irar 
tion imparted by a deiiy. Gene- 
rally, strong excitement of feel- 
ing on behalf of an object. 

Syn. Excitement Fren«y. SouaUon. 
Inspiration. Transport Rapture. Ardour. 
Vehemence. Passion. Devotion. , 

Ant. Coldness. Callousness. ' Indiffer- 
ence. Disaffection. Repugnance. Alioia- 
tion. ContempL 

Enthusiastic, adj. See En- 

Entice, v. tr. Prefix en and 
Sax. stecan, to stick, prick, or 
goad. Conn, with Gr. ariyiia. 
Its more violent has given way 
to a milder force. 

Syn. Allure. Seduce; Attract Decoy. 
Ant. Deter. Warn. Hinder. B«peL 

Enticing, adj. See Entice. 

Entire, adj. Integer. 

Syn. Whole. Complete. Unimpaired. 

Ant. Partial Broken. Impaired. In- 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


Entibbly^ adv. See Entire. 
Entitlk, v. tr. In and titulus, 
a title, 

Stk. Qualify. Empower. Fit Enable. 
Akt. Disqualify. Dlaentiae. Disable. 

Entity, w. Ens, being, from 
esse, to be. 

Stn. Existence. Being. 
Ant. Nonentity. Chimera. 

Entomb, v. tr, Tumba, a 

Stv. Bury. Inter. Inhume 
Akt. Disbiter. Exhume. 

Entbammbl, V, tr, Tremaclum, 
a net, tres mactdce, three spots or 
marks, to show its position, and 
serye as bait. 

Snr. Entangle. Impede. ObBtruct 
Hamper. Decoy. Entrap. 

Akt. Disentangle. Liberate. Extricate. 
Expedite. Disentrammel. Disenthrall. 

Entbanoe, ?i. iSce Enter. The 
act and way of entering. 

Stn. Introduction. Penetration. Avenue. 
PorUI. Ingress. Adit. 

Ant. ^t. Egress. Departure. De- 

Entbanob, V. tr, Transitus, a 
going off. See Enrapture. 

Entbap, V, tr. In and trap. 
See Entrammel. 

. Entbbat, V, tr, EntraHer, to 
handle. To clasp the hands upon 
another in entreaty. 

Stn. Implore. Obeecrate. Beg. Petition. 
Ant. Command. Insist Bid. Enjoin. 

Entby, n. See Enter. Has 
the sense of a formal or ofOlcial 
introduction or insertion. 

Stn. Entiance. Initiation. Beginning. 
Becord. Note. Miiiute. Begister. Me- 

Ant. Oonclnslon. Quittance. Disposal. 
Blank. Omission. Falsificatlan. Misentry. 

Entwine, v. tr, and int. En 
and twine. Conn, with Two. 

Stn. Lace. Convolve. Interlace. 

Ant. Disentwine. Dissever. 

Entjmbbatb, V. ^r. Enumera/re, 

to count ; numerus, number. 

Stn. Specify. Name. Number. Re- 
count Detail Reckon. 

Ant. Confound. Miscount Misreckon. 

Enunciate, v, tr, E and 
nuntias, a messenger. To pro- 
claim; thence, to state dis- 

Syn. state. Propound. Pronounce. 

Ant. Mutter. Babble. Balbutiate. 

Envelope, v, tr. In and vo- 
luptas, pleasure. To wrap up, as 
if warmly and comfortably ; but 
the derivation is very obscure. 

Syn. Wrap. Enfold. Encase. Cover. 
Ant. Unwrap. Develope. Revcud. 
Expose. Unfold. Extract 

Envelope, n. See verb. 
Envenom, v, tr. In and ve7ie- 
num, poison. See Poison. 
Environ, v, tr, Fr. 

Stn. Surround. Hem. Inclose. En- 
circle. Enfold. 

Ant. Disinclose. Disenfold. 

Ephbmebal, adj. ini, and 
^^ji^pa, a day. Lasting but for 
a day, or, generally, for a short 

Stn. Transient Evanescent Fleeting. 
Fugacious. Fugitive. Momentary. 

Ant. Abiding. Persistent. Permanent. 
Perpetual. Eternal. Perennial. Immortal. 

EpiobammatiO, adj. iirlypaynia, 
an epigram. Applied to style. 

Syn. Pointed. Terse. Graphic. Con- 
cise. Laconic 

Ant. Diffuse. Circumlocutoiy. Point- 

Epitome, n. iiii T€p.v€iv. To 
cut or prune upon the surface, 
so as to leave only the salient 
points, doing away with inter- 
venient matter. See Abbrevia- 

Equable, adf. See Equal. Of 
uniform movement, tiiat is, 
equal to itself at all times. 

Syn. Unifonn. Regular. Proportionate. 
Even. Smooth. Easy. 

Ant. Irregular. Desultory. Variable. 
FitfuL Di^ointed. Uneasy. 


SynoMfms and Anionynu. 

Equal, adj, Lat cfqualu. Be- Equiyalkscs, m. See Eqm- 
fere to every tkiug that can be valtut 

tegtedby ^^^-i -i .r.^ EQUiTALKyr, orf/. .^£^, 

eqti^^ and viitere, to avaU crhtof 

AXT, Unequl, CneqiiMeBt. 
EQUITOCAIi,a<(^ ^7wuj,e7«fll, 

and iwj^, a iwrni PiDdiijciiig atnr 
btgoity, froan the drcniost^aDGe 
<rf the same word bein^ eqaallj 
applicable to di&rejit things. 

Six. DnliiDiii^ Anil%iuii& IwolAe' 

St%. Unifonn. r^. Ca- 

oidnuUe. Adeqoate. SouHth, 

Aju. UneqoaL ju*.'<iiJiin^«»- ij»i*. Ifr 
QO-gc^tnMc^ liudeqaAle. i/i^MTHtf. Y juiable. 

Equalttt, n. Sfi<; Equal 

EQUAJmOTT, n, Mqui&^ «P^h 

and i, , M^^*, ;A' -r.^v-j Steadi- 
ness of mind under flnctnating 

Sirv« CMiMiiif^ Ccmponre. TraHpia* 
Uty. CbtkctedBSL ETqi-mindfdiif*a. 
AxT. BciiCtfwwn DuqnleL Pertnr- 

Equip, ». tr. To fit oat Conn, 
not with equus, bat with skiff 
and ship. To lig or famish, as 
* ship. ,, 

Stts. AAKmtrt. GamidL Inrert. Prt- *^^*e"^- 
pore. Famish. Ansnge. 

An. Divest. Diamande. Denude. De- 
^K^ DenuDge. 

Equipage, n, SseEqaip. Used, 
pnnjarily, fox the apparatos of 
horses and cairiage; and also, 
generally and looeej j, for almost 
anj appAratog. Aot connected 

with t^pAUS. 

^nt. AcxvntRiDeDlL Tnfifitn^ Fsral- 
ijDiiF. HjibJIirneaia. Ajipaiains. Curing 
AttcodAttce^ li^TiDue, 

Axx. CTadYoaL FUn. Direct. Ckar. 
Ebadzgats, V. tr. Eradicart 

ra^iXy a rooi^ To root ont. 

Sts. Extirpite. 
ExtanmuEc llxa 


EQnPMKKT, B, iSec Eqoip. 

Equipoise, «. ^quu^^ espial, 
and pftndus. Yr. poids, a icetght. 
See Balance. 

EQUiPOixx3iT, adj. MquuB, 
&jufd, and poUirej to he of fortt. 
Of equal force. Set Eqnhralenl 

EQUlPOirDSBAKT, adj. See 
Equipoise and EqoiTalent 

Equitable, adj. JEquitas, 
cequus. Equity. 

Sni. Fair. JosL Fropartkoatc^ Im- 

AxT. Unfidr. UdJuL Dieproportionate 

Equity, n. See Eqaitabla 


Ebahz, v. tr. 
To scrape out 

^TV. ObUiiieEatft. 
SIdl Cancvi 

Aft. Mark. Write. 

n. See Eradi- 
Eradere, rattu. 

Eeasubx^d, iSee Erase. 

ThtiECTj, «r, tr. Erigere, erectus, 
to ertfi. 

Six. El«Tkle'. Baiae. EktablUi. Phot 
Uplift CuHtmcL BdikL 

hxi. Lover. Supplant. Subvert. Da- 
pfeeo. KeQK?«. Uesuoj. DwnnHah, 

Eksgtioii, n. See Erect. 

EnoDB, V. ?r. iSec Gonode. 

Eee, If. int. Errare. To 
wander firom the n^t line of 
phmcal or mental moTement 

Smc. Drv^lt Wasd«r. Hi^ake. BLwi- 

AxT. Saooeed. fstmpet. 


Eerajtd, «, Sax. 

Ebeatio, flftfjfl Errare. Given 
to wanderings or having vvan- 
dered from form or rule. 

Cotreci. Bh> 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


Snr. Desoltoiy. Aberrant. Abnormal. 
Flighty. CaiangefoL Caprlcioos. 

Ant. Regular. Normal Methodical. 
Oalcolabte. Unalterable. Steady. Unde- 

Ebbob, n. See Err. 

Sm. Fault Mistake, filunder. Falsity. 
Deception. Fallacy. Untruth. 

Ant. Oorrection. Correctness. Truth. 
Accuracy. Soundness. Rectification. 

Ebitdition, n, E, out of, and 
rudis, rude or urdettert-d, 

Sxs. Learning. Lora Letters. Scholar- 

Aril IlliterateneaBL Duncedom. Sciolism. 

Ebuption, n, E and rumpere, 
ruptus, to break or hurd, 

Srs. Outburst. Explosion. Discharge. 
Ernctatiou. EzsuiBation. 

AsT. Absorption. Engulfing. Engross- 
ment. Swallowing. Irruption. Inburst. 

EsoAPB, V, tr, and ird. Fr. echap- 
per, perhaps from Germ, kampf, 
haitUi. Comp. Camp, Decamp. 

Stk. Elude. Decamp. Abscond. Fly. 
Flee. Evade. 

Ant. Incur. Confront. Encounter. 
Meet iiiiffer. 

Escheat, v. int. Set Cheat. 

Eschew, v, tr. Old Genn. 
achcu, Eng. shy. See Avoid. 

Escort, v. tr, Fr. . It. scorta, 
a guard or guide. See Convoy. 

Esoitlekt, adj, Eaca, a morsel. 
See Edible. 

EsotebiC, adj, tea, iaintpos, 
in, inner. Belonging to the 
learning more privately. Com- 
municated to more privileged 
pupils or members. , 

Snr. Private. SpedaL Exacter. Ad- 

Aht. Public. Popular. Rudimentary. 

Especial, adj. See Special. 
Espousal, n, Sponsus, spon- 
dere, to betroth. See Marriage. 
Espy, v, tr. See Spy. 
Essay, v, int, and tr. See 

Essay, n. See Assay and Dis- 

Essence, n. Essentia, efse, to 
be. That which makes a thing to 
be what it is. 

SrK. Being. Life. Entity. Natnre. 

AxT. Aoddent. Property. Additameiit. 
Garb. Clothing. Surroundings. 

EssEiniAL, adj. That without 
which a thing cannot be or be 
conceived. It is taken out of 
the sphere of thought and im- 
ported into that of action, and 
then becomes a synonym of Ee- 

Stn. Innate. Inherent Requisite. 
Necessary. Vital. Immanent 

Akt. Accidental Qualitative. Quanti- 
tative. Promotive. Regulative. In- 
duced. Imported. Adventitious. Asci- 
titious. Redundant Superfluous. 

Establish, v. tr, Fr. etablir. 
Lat. stabilire, stabUis. Comp. 
Stable, from Stare, to stand. Ap- 
plied to things social and logical. 

Stn. Plant Fix. Settle. Found. De- 
monstrate. Prove. Substantiate. 

Akt. Supplant Unsettle. Break-up. 
Ditiestablish. Misstate. Confute. Refute. 
Upset Subvert Presume. Suppose. Guess. 
Conjecture. Surmise. 

Established, adj. See Es- 

Estate, n. Status, a standing. 
Used for a fixed condition and 

Srx. Order. Rank. Condition. Free- 
hold. Domain. 

Ant. state. Community. Country. 
Waste. Chattels. Goods. Effects. 

Esteem, v, tr, Estimare, from 
CES, brass or money. To value or 
price with an implied meaning 
that the person or object is more 
or less worthy of favourable re- 

Syk. Price. Value. Consider. Deem. 
Judfce. Believe. Estimate. Think. Re- 
gard. Affect Love. Like. 

AxT. Disregard. Disconsider. Disaffect. 
Dislike. Undervalue. Underrate. Decry 


Syncnyms and Anlonyms, 

E8TIMABLX, odj. In addition 
to the sense of capable of Talna- 
tion, has acquired the oommooer 
meaning of worthy of regani. 

St9. Amiable. DekcXAble. Wortby. 

ATT. Ummiable. IndekctobleL Un- 
worthy. Bikd. 

EsTDfATB, V. tr. See Esteem. 
Has the same sense as esteem, 
with a more distinct reference to 
the social or commercial than to 
the essential or intrinsic Talue. 

EsTDfATioir, n. See Esteem. 

Estrange, v, tr. To make 
strange, from extra, extraneons. 
See Alienate. 

EsUBlKirT, adj. Esurire, to 
desire to eat. From edert^ to eat. 
See Starred. 

Etxbnal, adj. Etemus, cevum, 
cevitoi, cetas, an age. From age 
to age. 

Sty. Infinite. EndkM. PterpetoaL Un- 
dying. Unceasing. 

AST. ^>hemenL Tnmsient. Tern- 
pond. Fleeting. EraneaoenL SoUanary. 

Etiqubtte, n. Fr. for ticket 
or label. A passport into good 
society, thence the form of such 

Snr. Manners. Breeding. Fashion. Con- 
Ten tionality. 

A5T. Boorisfaneas. Radeneas. Mi^b- 
servance. Singolari^. Nonconformance. 

Eulogy, n. cv, well, and 
Xeytiv, to speak. A set speech 
in one's praise. See Praise. 

Euphuism, n. From Lyly's 
Euphues, a work which gave rise 
to an affected style of tiJk at one 
time fashionable in the Gonrt of 

Snr. Affectation. Pedantry. Pnrism. 
Hig^flyiiM^ Finlcali^. FactiUonsneaa. 

Ant. Simplicity. Rusticity. Blontness. 
Mataralnesft. Motber-tODgae. Vemacolar. 

EuPHUiSTio, adj. See Eu- 

Etacuatm, 9. tr. E uA 
vacuus, to discharge so as to leave 
empty. Espedally nsed as a 
mflitary term. 

Sts. Void. AbawlBn. fHoert. 
An. Occapy. Seise. FQL HUM. 

Etads, r. tr. E and vadm, 
logo. To get oat of Hie mj. 
See Elnde. 

ETANXSCXinr, adj. E and 
vanescere, vanus, to become vaiis or 
void. ^NMEphemeraL 

Eyaporatb, r. int. E and 
vapor, vapiMtr, or steam. To go 
off in steam, to disappear as if 
in Taponr. 

Sn. MelL 


liqaeff. Ys- 
DlaBolTe. Edale. 



AxT. OowoUdate. 
Indnrate. Orystallise. 

EYAPORATioBr, fi. See Eva- 

Eyasiok, n. See Evada Has 
a sense peculiar to it, that of 
elndingthe statement, qnefltion, 
or charge of another. 

Stx. Prerarication. SholBe. 
Ayr. Answer. Ooonter-argnment. Gnp- 

Eyen, adf. Sax. Used phy- 
sically and metaphorically. 

Snc. LereL Smootb. Uniform. Equable. 
Ant. Inclined. AbmpL Rugged. Ya- 
riable. Uneven. 

Eybnt, n. Evenire, ventits, to 
come forth or happen. 

Stk. Oocnrrenoe. Orcnmstanoe. Issue. 
Result Fact. Incident. 

A5T. Caose. AntecedoiL Operation. 
Jndncement. Oontribation. Oonveig^nce. 
Predisposition. Tendency. 

Eventful, adj. See EYent. 
Full of remarkable eYents. 

Sth. Remarkable. Memorable. Signal. 
Important Marked. Noted. CriticaL Stir- 
ring. Jiotable. 

Asn. Ordinary. Unmarked. Unim- 
portant Eventless. Uninteresting. Gbap 
racterless. Trivial. 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


EVEB, adv. Sax. 

Stn. Always. Continaally. 
Aht. Never. 

EvKESioN, «. E cut, and 
vertere, to turn. A turning inside 

Syv. Evolutiun. Ezpltcation. 
Akt. Inversion. Involution. Implica- 

EvBBT, adj\ Ever, each. An 
expression for regarding all in- 
dividual parts or persons in the 
aggregate to which they belong. 
See Ever. Each is ilk. 

Sm. AU. 

Amt. None. 

Evict, v, tr, Evincere, to dis- 
possess hy force, 

Snr. Dispossess, i^ect 

Akt. Reinstate. Admit Settle. Lo- 
arte. Lodge. 

Eviction, n, See Evict 

Evidbnce, n, Evidentia, evi- 
dere. The manifestation of that 
"wliich goes to establish a charge 
or question. 

Snr. Manifestation. Appearance. Sign. 
Token. Proof. Indication. Exemplifica- 
tion. Illustration. 

A»T. Surmise. Coi^tare. Counter- 
evidence. Disproof. Refutation. Conceal- 
ment. Suppression. Misindication. Fal- 

Evident, adj. See Evidence. 

Snr. Plain. Visible. Conspicuous. Mani- 
fest. Indisputable. Incontrovertible. 

Ant. DoubtfuL Obscure. Questionable. 
Uncertain. Dubious. 

Evil, adj. Sax. Efd, having 
what is physically deleterious. 
Morally wrong, circumstantially 

Sin. 111. Noxious. Deleterious. Wrong. 
Bad. Mlscbievous. Hurtful. Sinful. Un- 
happy. Adverse. Unpropltious. Miser- 
able. SorrowfuL 

Akt. Wholesome. Beneficial. Right. 
Virtuous. Holy. Pare. Happy. Fortu- 
nate. Felicitous. Joyous. Welcome. Orate- 
fuL Good. 

Evince, v, tr. See Evict To 
show in a forcible way. 

Sin. Exhibit Evidence. Show. Prove. 
Ant. Suppress. Disprove. Negative. 

Eviscerate, v. tr, E and 
viscera, the bowels. To take out 
the inside. 

Sin. Disembowel. Draw. 
Ant. StufT. Cram. Phd. 

Evoke, v. tr, Evocare, to call 

Sin. Excite. Educe. Provoke. Elicit 
Produce. Eliminate. Extract. 

Ant. Allay. Stifle. Stop. Silence. 
Prevent Seal. 

Evolution, n, E and volvere, 

to turn or roll. Applied to 

studied exercises of the body. 
See Altitude. 

Exacerbate, v. tr. Ex and 
acerhus, sour. See Exasperate. 

Exact, adj. Exigere, to exact, 
exactus. See Accurate. 
Exactly, adv. See Exact. 

Sin. Precisely. Accurately. Corre- 

Ant. Loosely. Inadequately. Incor- 
rectly. DifTerently. Otherwise. 

Exaggerate, v, tr. Ex and 
agger, a heap or mound of earth 
thrown up hy digging. To am- 
plify beyond the strict bounds of 
truth and justice. 

Sin. Magnify. Overstate. Overdraw. 
Strain. Overpaint Overestimate. 

Ant. Disparage. Attenuate. Palliate. 
Understate. Underestimate. Lenify. Mi- 
tigate. Soften. Qualify. Modiiy. 

Exalt, v, tr. Ex and alius, 
high. See Elevate. 

Exalted, adj. See Exalt 

Examine, v, tr. Examinare, 
examen, a balance. Properly the 
tongue of the balance. 

Sin. Weigh. Ponder. Investigate. Per- 
pend. Test. Scrutinize. Criticise. Prove. 
Study. Discuss. Inquire. Search. 

Ant. Discard. Conjecture. Ouess. Slur. 
Misconsider. Misinvestigate. 

Example, n, Exemplum, exi- 
mere, to take out from a larger 
M 2 


Synonyms and Antonyms, 

guantity as a sample, Comp. 
Sample. Its meaning has been 
widened so as to express the ap- 
plication of that idea in such 
ways as the followiDg. 

Stn. Sample. Specimen. Pattern. Model. 
Illustration. Instance. Issue. Develop- 

Am*, stock. Material Substance. Law. 
Rule. Ghaneicter. Principle. System. 
Quality. Case. 

With any other correlatives, 
that is, thmgs of which examples 
are given. 

Exanimate, adj. See Inani- 
mate and Dead. 

Exasperate, v. tr. Ex and 
asper, to draw out the rough qtta- 
lities. See Aggravate. 

Excavate, v, tr. Ex and 
cavus, hollow. To dig out. 

Stn. Dig. Hollow. Trench. DisooTer. 

Akt. Bury. Fill. LeveL Conceal. 
Inter. Inhume. 

Exceed, v. tr. Ex and cedere, 
to go. To surpass generally. To 
surpass in what is good, being 
expressed by excel. Sometimes 
used intransitively for, to be ex- 
cessive. See Surpass. 

Exceeding, adj. See Exceed. 

Exceedingly, adv. See Ex- 

Excel, v. tr. and int. Excel- 
lere. Has the same sense as 
Exceed, but confined to cases of 
merit and superiority. See Sur- 

Excellence, n., Excellent, 
adj. See Excel. 

Except, prep, Excipere, To 
take out of a common statement, 
class, or rule. 

SrN. Exclude. Save. Bar. Segregate. 

ANT. Count. Include. Beckon. State. 
Classiry. PropuuLd. Affirm. Admit. 

Exception, n. See Except 

Stn. Qualification. Separation. £xda- 

Akt. Statement Bule. Class. Plropo* 

Exceptionable, adf, Piom 
Exception in the sense of objec- 
tion, as to take exception to a 
thing, that is, to place it out of 
the category of things one ap- 

Stk. Objectionahle. Undesirable. 
Akt. Unobjectionable. Dedrable. Un* 
exceptionable. Exemplary. 

Exceptional. See Exception. 

Stk. Rare. Peculiar. Uncommon. Irre* 
gular. Unusual. AlmormaL 

Akt. Conunou. Regular. Noimal. 
Usual Ordinary. 

Exceptious, ac(f. See Con- 

Excess, n. See Exceed. Used 
for a mere physical or numerical 
balance, or, morally, for the ab- 
sence of self-control. 

Stn. Advance. Increase. Abundance. 
Redundancy. Superfluity. Extravagance. 
Debauchery. Intemperance. 

Akt. Deficiency. Failure. Shortcom- 
ing. Insufficiency. Temperance. Sobriety. 

Excessive, adj. See Excess. 

Stk. Enormous. Undue. Exorbitant. 

Akt. Insufficient Scant Inadequate. 

Exchange, v, tr. See Change. 

Excision, n. Excidere, to cut 
out. See Eradication. 

Excitability, n. Ex and 
citare, intense form of ciere, to 

Stn. Sensibility. Sensitiveness. Irasci- 
bility. IrritabiUty. 

Akt. Immobility. Imperturbability. 
Insensitivenesi*. Composure. Hebetude. 

Excitation, n. See Bouse. 
Excite, v, tr. See Excitability. 

Syn. See Allay. 

Exclaim, v, int. Ex and dar 
mare, to call. See Ejaculate. 

Exclude, v, tr. Ex and 
claudere, to shut, Sp^ Admit. 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 



AST. Admit 

ExOLUSiVB, adf. See Exclude 
and Comprehensive. 

Excogitation, n, A complete 
o^tation, which see. 

Stv. Elaboration. Deduction. 

Akt. Gaess. Surmiae. 

and communis, common. To put 
out of the society and privileges 
of the common body. 

Stk. Exdude. Banisli. Bar. i;]ect 
Readmit Inaagorate. 

ExoBBSOENOB, n. Ex and 
cre^cere, to grow. 

Sth. Saperflaity. Bedondancy. Im- 
posthome. Tumour. 

Ant. Eradication. Extirpation. Ex- 
cision. Levigation. Exsection. 

EXOBUOIATB, V. tr. Ex, out, 
and crucicMre, crux, to take out the 
life by crucifixion. Used meta- 
phorically and exaggeratively. 

Stk. Agonize. Torture. Torment Rack. 
AxT. Sootlie. Please. Tranquillize. 

ExOBUGiATiNG, odj. See Ex- 

ExouLPATB, V. tr. Ex and 
eiUpd, a fault. To free from a 
charge, or endeavour to do so. 

Stm. Defend. Vindicate. Exonerate. 
Acquit Release. 

Akt. Charge. Inculpate. Implicate. 

ExcuBSiVB^ adj. See Discur- 

Excuse, v. tr, Excmare, 
causa, a cause. To rid of accu- 

Sth. Exculpate. Absolve. Pardon. For- 
give. Overloulc. Condone. Remit In- 
dulge. Justify. Vindicate. Defend. Ex- 

AST. Charge. Inculpate. Condemn. 
Sentence. Exact Strain. Accuse. 

ExBOBABLB, adf, Exsecrari, 
sacer. To condemn or protest 
against, as unholy. 

SvK. Detestable. Loathsome. Hateftil. 
Abominable. Damnable. 

Ant. Desirable. Eligible. Respectable. 

Execrate, v, tr. See Exe- 
crable and Abominate. 

Execute, ?'. tr. Ex sequi, 
sequer, to fdlow out to the end. 
See Consummate. 

Exemplary, adj, Exemplum, 
a mrtdel. Said of character and 

Stn. Laudable. Praiseworthy. Conspi- 
cuous. Honourable. 

Ant. Detestable. Ot|}ectionable. Ex- 

ExEMPLiPY, V, tr. See Ex- 

Syn. Dlustrate. Manifest Embody. 
Exhibit Represent 

Ant. Betray. FaLiify. Misrepresent. 

Exempt, adj. Exim^e, emere, 
to buy. Bought off. Grenerally 
applied to immunity. 

Stn. Free. Irresponsible. Unamenable. 
Ant. Sut^ject Responsible. Liable. 

Exemption, n, 

Stn. Freedom. Immunity. Dispensa- 
tion. Privilege. License. 

Akt. Liability. Amenableness. Sub. 
Jection. Responsibility. 

Exercise, v, tr, Exercere, to 
practise. Originally a military 
phrase; whence exercitus, an 
army. Afterwards applied to 
the systematic use of bodily and 
mental fiEiculties, or training. 

Sra. Practise. Train. CulUvate. De- 

Ant. Rest Ease. Disuse. Respite. 
Relax. Recreate. 

Exercise, n. See verb. 

Exertion, n. Ex and sererc, 
to join or bind together. To put 
forth strenuously. 

Stn. Effort. Labour. Toil. 

Ant. Relaxation. Recreation. Rest 

Exhalation, n. Ex and 

halare, to bi'eathe, 

SrN. Mist Damp. Effluvium. 

Ant. Absorption. Exsiccation. luhala- 

Exhaust, v, tr. Ex 



Synonyms and Antonyms, 

liaurire, to draw. To draw ; to 
drain off liquid ; or, metaphori- 
cally, strength, resources, &c. 

Stn. Empty. Void Drain. Weaken. 

Ant. 1*111. Replenish. Augment. In- 
vigorate. Refresh. 

Exhaustion, n. See Exhaust. 

Exhibit, v. tr. Exhibere, To 
hold forth or show. 

Stn. Show. Manifest Evidenoe. Evince. 
Betray. Demonstrate. Illustrate. 

Ant. Suppress. ConoeaL Secrete. Maek. 

Exhilarate, v. tr. HilarU, 
j(/y(m!<. To make joyous. 

Syn. Gladden. Rejoice. Inspirit Elate. 
Ant. Depress. Dispirit Unnerve. Un- 

Exhort, v. tr. Ex and Tiortari. 
To advise. 

Syn. Urge. Advise CowiseL Enjoin. 
Ant. D^recate. Dissuade. Warn. Re- 

Exhume, v. tr. Ex and kumtis^ 
the ground. See Inter. 

Exigency, n. Exigere, to exact. 
An urgent or exacting case of 
want ; or a state of things press- 
ing hard upon a person. 

Syn. Urgency. Pressure. Emei^ncy. 
Coi^uncture. Crisis. 

Akt. Provision. Preparation. Supply. 
Rule. Course. 

Exile, v. Exilium, exile, 

Syn. Banish. Relegate. 
Ant. Welcome. Reinstate. Domesti- 
cate. Domiciliate. 

Existence, n, Existentia, 
existercj to exist. 

Syn. Being. Entity. Creature. 

Ant. Nonentity. Non-existence. 


Exit, w. Exit us, exire, to go 
out. JSee Approach and Egress. 

Exonerate, v. tr. To relieve 
of the burden. Onm, eris, a 
burden of a charge or accusation. 
See Exculpate. 

Exorbitant, adj. Ex and 

orhita, an orbit. Out of the usual 
way. See Excessive. 

Exoteric, adj. c^cd, i^w-€pos. 
Outer. See Esoteric. 
Exotic, adj. See Foreign. 

Expand, v, tr. and int. Ex 
and pandere, to open. 

Syn. SwelL Dilate. Spread. Extend. 

Ant. Contract Curtail. Attenuate. 
Restrict. Condense. 

Expanse, n, 

Syn. Vast Void. Space. Breadth. 
Ant. Limit Enclosure. Confine. Bound. 

Expatiate, v, int. Ex and 
spatiarif to walk. To traverse 
the length and breadth of a sub- 
ject Followed by the prep, 

Syn. AmpUfy. Enlarge. Dilate. 
Ant. Contract Condense. E^tooUie. 

Expatriate, v, tr. Ex, out, 
tod patriUj one's native country. 
See Banish. 

Expect, v. tr. Expectare, e 
and spicere. To look out for. 

Syn. Anticipate. Await FOTecast 

Ant. Welcome. HaiL Recognise. 
Greet Realize. 

Expediency, n. Expedire, to 
expedite, or be expedient. 

Syn. Utility. Advantage. Interest 
.A.NT. inexpediency. Disadvantage. In- 
utility. Detriment 

Expedient, adj. See Expedi- 

Expedite, v. tr. See Expedi- 
ency and Accelerate. 

Expedition, n. See Expedi- 
ency. Technically used of a 
military laovement, or an ex- 
ploring movement. 

Syn. Haste. Speed- Despatch. 
Ant. Delay. Tardiness. Procrastina- 

Expel, v. tr. Ex and pellere, 
to drive. See Eject. 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


Expend, v, tr. En and pen- 
dere, to pay. 

Stn. ^nd. Li^ out Waste. Con- 
smiie. Use. 

Amt. Save. Husband. Economize. 

Expense, n. See Expend. 

Sts. Price. Cost Payment Exp^dl- 
tore. Outlay. 

Amt. Income. Profit Receipt 

I Expensive, adf, See Expend. 

' Syn. Costly. Valuable. Rich. Extra- 


Akt. Cheap. Worthless. Poor. Eco- 

Expebienoe, V, Experientia, 
experiri, to try. 

Stw. Try. FeeL Undergo. Encounter. 
. Endure. 

Akt. Evade. Escape. Miss. Lose. 

Experience, n. See verb. 
Experienced, adj. See Ex- 

Sym. Skilled. Practised. Familiar. Ac- 
customed. Conversant 

Airr. Inexperienced. Strange. Unprac- 

Experiment, n. See above. 

Stn. TriaL lUustration. Test. Exem- 

Ant. Conjecture. Assumption. Hypo- 

Expert, adj\ See above. One 
■who has experienced or tried, till 
he has become ready at the 
art. See Clever. 

Expiate, v. tr. Ex and piare, 
to appease. See Atonement. 

Expire, v. int. Ex, out, and 
spirare, to breathe. See Die and 
Terminate. Used also as a syno- 
nym for exhale^ as opposed to 

Explain, v. tr. Ex and planus, 
plain or smooth. To make 

Stn. Expound. Teach. Illustrate. 
Ant. Mystify. Obscure. Misinterpret 

Explanation, n. See Ex- 

Explanatory, adj. See Ex- 

Explication, n. Ex and 
plicare, to fold. See Explana- 

Explicit, adj. See Explica- 

Syn. Plain. Detailed. Inobscure. De- 
claratory. CategoricaL Stated. 

Ant. Implicit Implied. Hinted. Sug- 
gestive. Obscure. 

Explode, v. int. Explodere, 
from plaudere, to clap. Conn. 
Appland. See Burst. 

Exploit, n. Explicare, to un- 
fold. See Achievement 

Explore, v. tr. Explorare, 
See Examine. 

Explosion, n. See Explode. 

Exponent, n. Exponere, to 
put forth or expound. 

Stn. Interpreter. Propounded Advo- 
cate. Representative. 

Ant. System. Opinion. Creed. Prin- 

Export, v. tr. Exportare. To 
carry out. 

Stn. Ship. Produce 
Ant. Import. Consume. 

Expose, v. tr. See Exponent. 
To lay bare of covering; and, 
metaphorically, so to treat cha- 
racter or motives. See Conceal. 

Exposition, n. See Exponent 
and Explanation. 

Expositor, n. See Exponent. 

Expository, adj'. See Ex- 

Expostulate, v. int. Ex, 
out, and postulare, to ask. To 
ask or require a person to leave 
or forego a certain course of 

Stn. Object. Remonstrate. 
Ant. Coincide. Abet 

Expound, v. tr. Same word 
as Expose, having come to us 
through the French espondre. 
See Explain. 



hrv *ifiv3Ui. ffrnrn^^. Ifma, 

«Bfi tBK; lue or trjuc^aexm ci 

*CT, Ob 

and I^ncdSe. 


ExPTXCS, r. /r. Zr md 

pfmytre, to prirk. To pfrick or 
rnh omt with tooKihiDg pointed, 

»nr. CCmku OUBtcnM^ Er«K, GwdHL 

YXPTIMATIOV, «. Expurgare, 
(o cUfinjK, A clfunwng. jS«e 

EzQUIsm, <»(;' Ezquirere, 
to ne^k oat ; ezquisituM, That 
which M fKmght or chosen out 
of a number for its gnperiority. 

8nr. CbMcv. Bare, Brfioed. 
AST, CoauBOD. Coanc OnBooy. 

EXQUI0ITXLT, adv. See Ex- 

£x«C7FFLATi09, n. JSx and 

miffUtre^ to blow uptvards. Comp. 
Fr. mnflle. 

Snr. fSbalUtion. ErapUoo. Ernetetloii. 

Ajit, AtMoriHioo. Inhalation. Goffv^' 
nwnt. IVglotUkA. 

Ex«U8CiTATi, V. tr. See Sn»- 

ExTAMT, adj. Ex and «tore, to 
ttait/l or exint. 

8m. Exiirtetit Sanrtriiig. Carrent. 
Fortboominft. Preient. 

AVT. Defonct Lott OlMOlete. Past. 

ExTD^aos, a. 

ExnxsETK, o^ Sk 
and SpacknuL 

ExTKST. at. See afaoi«. 

ExixxuATK, r. fr. £b and 
t^uis, ffvAlL Used only of the 
mitigaticm of nn^tTomafafe i 
mentB or appearanoeB. 

Stx. Jfiti^teL Voalify. F 
An: A«grj[v«ie. ffc^hlf. 

Exterior, n. Lai 

Sra. Ontiide. Saribee. Fan 

j An: Interior. Heart. Oan. 

I ExTKRMDr ATI, r. tr. See Ex- 

ExTKRJoxATiOH, M. Ex and 
terminus, tfte boundary of a omin- 
trt/. To ntteriy desboy, and so 
take away from the place ci oo- 
cnpatkm. Etymologically, tike 
word might mean expulsion, 
but, as a tact, is nerer so used. 

Stv. Kradkatioii. Extirpatioo. Aboli- 
tion. Di stmction. 

An. Settlement. BcpleQialiiiient Ang- 
mentation. Otdooixatkn. PopalatkNi. 
Propagatiuo. Increaae. 

External, adj\ Exterruts, 
extra. Outside. 

Synonyms and Antonyms, 


Stn. Oater. Apparent Maniitet Saper^ 
fldaL Viaible. Ptdpable. 

AvT. Inner. InteniaL Inappaient 
Hkkien. Inmost Intestine. 

EXTINOTION, n. Exsttnguere, 
to put out To destroy the life 
of a i)erson or body. Applied 
also metaphorically, as, for in- 
stance, to customs. 

Snr. Destractton. Stifling. SnfTocatlon. 
Death. OesBatkm. Annihilation. Obiso- 

AST. Origination. Inception. Planting. 
Birth. Life. Gonrse. Operation. Action. 
Exercise. Prosperity. Continuance. Sor- 

ExTiNOUiSH, V. tr. See Ex- 

Snr. Abolish. Destroy. Extirpate. 
^TMiicate. iaiL Qnench. Annihilate. 

AsT. Implant Replenish. Cherish. 
Promote. Invigorate. Propagate. Establish. 
GonfimL Secure. 

EXTIRPATK, V. tr. Ex, out, 
and stirps, a stem. To pidl np 
by the stem. See Eradicate. 

Extol, v. tr. Ex and toUere, 
to rauie. To raise in laudation. 
To exalt in praise. See Praise. 

ExTOBT, V. tr. Ex and tor- 
guere, to twist or wring, tortus. 
Gomp. Torture. 

Stk. Wring. Express. Squeeze out 
Wrench. Wrest Extract 

Akt. Coax. Wheedle. Ci^ole. Cheat 

Extortionate, adj. Given 
to extorting. See Extort Also 
applied to the thing which is the 
subject of extortion. 

Stv. Hard, aose-fisted. Severe. Rign. 
rons. Exacting. Exorbitant Preposterous. 

Aht. liberal. Indulgent Bountiful. 
Reasonable. Fair. Moderate. 

Extract, v. tr. Ex and tra- 
here, tractus, to dratu. 

Snr. Draw. Educe. Take out Gather. 
Quote. Collect Extort 

Airr. Replace. Insert. Restore. Im- 
poae. Incorporate. Reinsert 

ExTRANSOXJB, adj. Lat. ex- 

tranetis, extra, without Comp. 


Sth. Extrinsia ExtemaL F<nvign. 
Ontside. Alien. Unconnected. Unrelated. 
Ascititious. Adventitious. 

Aht. intrinsic. IniemaL YitaL Con- 
nected. EasenUal. 

Extraordinary, adj. Extra 
ordtnem. Beyond or beside the 
common rank or run of things. 

Stv. Unwonted. Uncommon. Pecu- 
liar. UnusuaL Unprecedent<>d. Wonderful. 
Marvellous. Prodi^ous. Monstrous. Pre- 

A«T. Wonted. Common. UsuaL Or- 
dinary. Frequent Unremarkable. Unim- 

Extravagant, adj. Extra 
and va^ari, to wander, vagus. 
Conn. Vague. Which wanders 
from or exceeds the boundaries 
of propriety or moderation in 
thought or management. 

Sth. Wild. Moustrous. Preposterous. 
Absurd. ProdigaL WastefuL Reckleas. 

Aht. Sound. Sober. Consistent Ra- 
tional. Fair. KconemicaL Frugal. Care- 
ful Regular. UsuaL 

Extreme, adj. Extremus. Is 
used of that which is physically 
or mentally the boundary of a 
place or subject, and also of that 
which is morally indicative of 
excess in thought or opinion. 

Sth. Terminal. Final Remote. 
Farthest Last. Extravagant Immode- 

Aht. InitiaL Primal Moderate. Ju- 

Extremity, n. See Extreme. 

Sth. End. Termination. Close. Con- 

Aht. Beginning. Commencement Open- 
ing. Origin. Body. Centre. Bulk. 

Extricate, v. tr. Ex and 
tricoR, minute impedimenta, us, 
the' meshes of a net, or the small 
feathers on the legs of birds, 
which catch their feet. See In- 

Extrinsic, adj. Extrinsecus. 
See Extraneous. 

ExTRUDn, V. tr. Ex and 
1 truderCf to thrust. 

iEk. J^tsHLamk. 

lJcni'j:aMF.,T.. ^ mil wwoirv 

FlfXClHIS. 'P^/I J^IRSdSKy < 


Alkgi'H7. Pir/rexb, fcc the dilS^- Ymti, ». T9€m,f.Ktm^ to do. 
€»%s lietYei^ them. Atfain^dfliieL 

Fabkic, ». Far/neart, U/abn- vvsaso. rm— n 
tai^J^Mh^, a fj^hfT in hard ma- Factios, m. Faeiia^faarr, to 
UrvjU, a trnUh, a carpaU^ It ^^ „ ^^i, ^ p^^^T fonned te 
hw orwie to be employed «!8o of wofking oat its oin inteicstB 
l^SbtCT w<^ aod mamifikrtuie, ^ ^ «ctiMi of the conmmiiitT. 
M falk and rnmbn. ; .^^ rwiM] 

»r», W<*t. OMMtnctioii, Edifice^ WA "^ v^««. 

jn^tioo. Vm^n^sA, Wpwc Tafcew. QT oppositlOIL 

Bain, fU^ »tn6^ ^ry. Oppotitiama. tsapOam^ UO^am. 

I Crastj. MaknotnL Adm^rtTCL 
FaBKICATE, V. ifn r&^? FabnC. Ajtt. Agreeable. GeniaL O u wp MMP t. 

AUiO twed for the woiit of ^l^l^rJ^S!^!!'^'^?:^'^ STT 
titiaatf compoKitKnL ipametic 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


PAcnnoxTS, flMfy. -S^e^? Factions. ! Fair, adj. Six./wfr. 
Fonned by art, and referred to ' . sn < v«- cwr si«t«. Unb 
an artificial standard. : ijf gJIS.,'^^''- ''•* *~"- 

Stk. ArUftdaL AflFecU^ Enphiiluic. t ^. IjowtrioK, IfmO. FooL life. 
Oonventjonal. Cramped. Finical. A«ci:i- fcon^L Vg,j. Vtdaii. LblKOiwnbku 
tioas. Spniions. Fnuute^iu. 

A2«T. Natural. Unaffected. GeniaL Tnitb- 

fnl. Genuine. Pure. 

Faculty, w. FacvUas, facers, 
to do, A natural power which 
enables ns to do a thing. «bW 
Capability. Used technically of | 
a branch of science or art 

FAOUin)iTT, n. Facundus, do- 
qtient. See Eloquence. 

Fade, v. int. Old Eng. Vade, 
from Lat. Vadere, to go. 

Snr. FalL Fail. Decline. Sink. Drooo. 
Dwindle. Vaniah. Change. Pale. Bleacli. 
Set Etiolate. 

Ant. Rise. Increase. Grow. Bloom. 
FUrarlsh. Abide. Stand. Last. Endure. 

Fading, Fadxd, jMrt. See 

Fag, v. Sax. faye, weak. 

Syk. Work. ToiL Slave. Dradge. 
Akt. Bask. Idle. Lounge. Dawdle. 

Fail, fallere, io decline orfaU. 
Used actively with of or in. 

Syv. Fall. Miss. Trlpi Loee. 
AsT. Succeed. Exceed. Surpass. Excel. 
Adiieve. Abound. Yield. 

Fain, ew[;'. and orfv. Sax-Zogrew, 
glad. See Glad and Gladly. 

Faint. Old Fr., from Lat. 
fingfire, to feign. Feigning so as 
to escape work, thence weary 
eyen after work i)erformed. Fr. 
jv ftindre. Also used of the ob- 
jects which have been fiuntly 
treated, as &int writing, or which 
have become faint by time or 
other causes. 

Snr. Weak. Tjmgnid. Fatignn). Un- 
energetic Timid. Irresolute. Obscure. 
Dim. Pale. Faded. Inconspicuous. 

Akt. Strong. VJgiirona. Yjoerv^c 
Fresh. Daring. Resolute. Prominent. 
Marked. Conspieoons. Glaring. 

Faiblt, adv. Se^ Fair. 

Faibxbss, n. See Fair. 

Faith, n. JjiL fides. Set Be- 

Fatthfcl, adj. S^ Fahh. 

Snr. Tnip. Fim. AitadMd. LoyaL 
Accurate. Close Ccnsisient. CDrropoO' 

Extct. Eqairakut. 
Fjlae. FIckk. Ca 


Tcring. Inaeennue. 


Falcation, n., TAUCIFCmM, 
adj. FaU, a reaping-tuuok. Set 

Fall, v. int. Bsj^faHm. 

Snr. Drup. Dneeod. Deciine. OrsH- 
tate. Sink, Lapse. 

AxT. Rise. Ascend. Soar. Mowt 
CUmh. Beeorer. ' 

Fallacy, n. Fallacia,fall(re, 
to deceive. A logical error. Used 
also for error of reanomng or 
conception generally. 

Snr. Sophistry. Error. BlumW. Mfe- 
cooception. Bugbear. Fictivu. IXrlusMi, 

Akt. Truth. Verity. Fact. Ixigk. 
Argument. Soundness. ProoC Postulate. 

Fallible, adj'. See Fallacy. 

Sth. Errlrig. Uncertain. Weak. If- 

Ajrr. Infallible. Certain. Onmisckot. 

Fallow, adj. Sax. , Conn, 
with the Lat. flavui. Bnppohod 
to represent the yellow-brownish 
colour of some lands when tnmed 
up by the plough. Ploughed, 
but not sown. Used metaphori- 

Sth. Quiescent. Idls. Uncultivated. 
Unproductive. Untillfd. 

Am-. CulUvated. Worked. Tilled. Sown. 
Productive. OperaUve. Prolific Fruitful. 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

False, adj. FaUere,/cd8U8, to 

Stk. Untrne. Erroneoiu. Falladons. 
Sophistical. Spnriotig. Deceptive. Di^ 
hoDuurable. Faithlees. 

Ant. Trae. Correct Sound. Coocln- 
sive. Authentic. Real Genuine. Candid. 
Honourable. Faiihl'uL 

Falsehood, n. See False. 

Stn. Untruth. Error. Fallacy. So- 
phistry. Deception. Forgery. Lie. Cheat 

AsT. Truth. Correctness. Verity. Fact 
Authenticity. Genuineness. Honesty. 
Honour. Reality. 

Falsept, V. tr. See False. 

Stn. Mistake. Misinterpret Misre- 
present. Belie. Betray. Garble. Cook. 

Ant. Verify. Correct Rectify. Certify. 
Check. Justify. Exhibit Publicate. Ex- 
pose. Declare. 

Falter, v. int. Spelt also 
Faulter. See False. 

Syn. Halt Hesitate. Hobble. Slip. 
Dubitate. Stammer. Demur. Flinch. 

Ant. Proceed. Run. Speed. Flow. 
Discourse. Determine. Persevere. Resolve. 

Fame, n. Fama. Eeport, 
both good and ill, but now used 
of honourable renown, except 
when qualified by some addi- 
tional expression. It is also used 
of Eeport, irrespective of per- 

Stn. Report Rumour. Bruit News. 
Tidings. Renown. Glory. Honour. Lau- 
rels. Celebrity. 

Ant. Silence. Suppression. Hush. Dis- 
grace. Dishonour. Disrepute. 

FAMILLA.R, adj. FamUia, the 
household, including the famuli, or 
seroajits. Said of things and 

Stn. Household. Common. Every-day. 
Accustomed. Conversant Intimate. 

Ant. Uncommon. Rare. Strange. Ex- 
traordinary. Unaccustomed. Unacquainted. 
New. Inconversant Unfamiliar. 

Family, n. See Familiar. 
Used scientifically as a metaphor 
for class and order. 

Famous, adj. See Fame. 

Stn. Renowned. Gloriooa. Cdflbntel 

Ant. Inglorious. Unknown. Otacure. 
Unrenowned. Unsung. 

Fan, V. tr. Lat. vannus, tm- 
nowing fan. Used metaphoii* 
cally for excito, from fanning a 
flame. See Allay. 

Fanatic, n. See Fanaticism. 

Stn. Enthusiast Bigot 

Ant. Sceptic. Unbeliever. Qyuic. 

Fanatical, adj. See Fanati* 

Fanaticism, n. Farvaticm, 
fanum, a temple. Excitement, as 
by some deity into a state of 

Stn. Frenzy. Enthnsiasm. Stqierstl- 
tion. Bigotry. 

Ant. Indifference. Latitndinaiianism. 
Disbelief. Profanity. Disregard. Soeptir 
cism. Coldness. CynicisnL 

Fanciful, adj. <payra<rta, 
phantasy. Fancy. 

Stn. Grotesque. Chimerical. UnreaL 
Imaginary. Qtudnt Eccentria Freakish. 
Humoursome. Erroneous. Capricious. 
Whimsical. Erratic. Absurd. FitfU. 

Ant. Natural. LiteraL Regular. BeaL 
Sober. Ordinary. Truthful Aocanie. 
Correct Orderly. Calculable. 

Fancy, n. See Fanciful. A 
lighter form of the imagination, 
or the object of it. Used also of 
cases in which the imagination 
determines or stimulates a pre- 

Stn. Thought Belief. Idea. Supposi- 
tion. Imagination.' Caprice. Predilection. 

Ant. Object Subject Fact ReaUty. 
Order. Iaw. Truth. Systenu Veri^. 
Aversion. Horror. 

Fantastic, adj. See Fandfdl. 

Fantasy, n. See Fancy. 

Far. Sax. See Distant. 

Farcical. Farcire, to stuff. 
A play stuffed full of nonsense 
or ludicrous incident is a Farce. 

Stn. Ludicrous. Comic Funny. Non- 
sensical. DrolL Pantomimic. 

Ant. Grave. Sorions. Solemn. DioEoal. 
Tragical. ^ Funereal. Ghastly. 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


Fabb, v. Faire, to do, 
Sth. Do. Liva Feed, SubslBt Speed. 
Amt. Toil. Fast Fail Droop. Sink. 
Drop. Faint. Halt Falter. 

Fabe, n. See Fare, v. Means 
for i)erformiiig the journey of 
life generally, or any journey in 

Sth. Provision. Passage-monev. 
Amt. Starvation. Fan^e. Abstinence. 
Fanperism. Mendicity. 

Fascinate, v. tr. Lat. fasci- 
nare, Gr. ficurKaiveiv, to influence 
by magical arts. See Bewitch. 

Fascination, n. See Fasci- 

Fashion, n, Fr. /agon, Lat. 
facere, to rnake, 

Snr. Fcnrm. Shape. Gnise. Style. Ap- 
peawmoe. Uiaracter. Figore. Monld. 
Mode. Cnstom. 

Airr. Peison. Work. Dress. Speech. 
Formlessness. Shapelessness. Denuii;(e- 
Ecoentricity. Strangeness. Out- 

Fast, adj. Sax. 

It is hard to see how this word 
could have acq uired the meaning 
of rapid, in addition to fixed or 
tture. The root idea seems to 
hftve been permanence or power 
shown both in rest and motion. 
Gomp. Bestiye, which means, 
first, given to resting, and se- 
condly, to restlessness. 

Snr. Firm. Secure. Rapid. Accele- 

Ant. Loose. Insecare. Slow. Tardy. 

Fasten, v. tr. See Fast. 

Stk. Secture. Hold. Compact Grapple. 
Attach. Fix. 

Akt. Undo. Loose. Sever. Relax. 
Detach. Remove. Unfasten. 

Fastidious, adj, Fastidium, 
a mitigated disgttst or distaste, 
Squeamishness ; hence difSculty 
to please on the ground of ovor- 

SrK. Critical Over-nioe. Over-reflned. 
OmaoriouB. PonctlUoos. Squeamish. 

Avr. Easy. Indulgent Uncritioal. 
Coarse. Omnivorous. 

Fat, adj\ Sax. Applied to 
the quality of the constitution of 
animals and of the soil. 

Srw. Corpulent. Fleshy. Brawny. 
Pursy. Rich. Luxuriant Fertile. Unctuous. 
Obese. Oleaginous. 

Amt. Lean. Slender. Attenuated. Ema- 
ciated. Barren. Poor. Scant Marrow- 
less. Exsanguineous. AnatomicaL 

Fatal, adj\ Fatum, fate or 
death. Ending in, or tending to 

Stn. Deadly. Destructive. Mortal. Lethal. 

Ant. Beneficial. Wholesome. Nutri- 
tious. Vitalizing. Salubrious. Restora- 
tive. SUght Superficial. Harmless. 

Fate, n. See Fatal. 

Snr. Necessity. Destiny. Lot End. 

Amt. Will. Choice. Decision. Free- 
dom, independence. 

Fathom, v. tr. Sax. fddaem, 
embrace. As much as a man can 
measure with his arms extended 
at right angles to his body, about 
six feet. Hence to measure. 

Stk. Gauge. Pierce. Measure. Sound. 

Airr. Survey. Glance. Scan. Overlook. 
Miss. Graze. Skim. 

Fathomless, adj. See Fa- 

Stk. Bottomless. Profound. Aby«>mal. 
Akt. Superficial Shallow. Skin-deep. 

Fatigue, w. Lat. fatigare, 
from fidiscor, to be weary, 

Stk. Weariness. Exhaustion. Lassi- 

Akt. Freshness. Vigour. Activity 

Fatigue, v. See noun, 

Stk. Harui«s. Weary. Tire. Jade. 
Akt. Insphrit Refresh. Animate. 

Fatuity, n, Fatuus, vaiuy 

Stk. Folly. Imbecility. Idiotcy. In- 

Ant. Wisdom. Sense. Soundness. Dis- 
cernment. Sobriety. 

Fatuous, adj. See Fatuity. 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

Fault, n. FaUere, to deceive, 
stumble, or dip. Used of what is 
wrong or deficient in matters of 
constmction, arrangement, cha- 
racter, condnc^ statement, rea- 
soning, and heliefl 

Snr. Defect Error. OmiKioD. Blem- 
Ul Want Drawback. 

AxT. Saffidency. GorrectneflB. Com- 
pleteoesa. Perfection. 

Faultless, adj. See Fanlt. 

Sm. Complete. Perfect Conect. Ao- 

AxT. Incomplete. Imperfect. Incosrect 
Inaccurate. Defective. Campt ErroDeoa& 

Faulty, adj. See Fault 

Favoub, n. Favor, favere, to 

Stk. PermlMiou. Grace. Ckmceaslon. 
Predilection. Gift. Condescension. Pre- 
ference. Boon. Comitenance. Patronage. 

AST. Relusal. DeniaL Prohibition. 
Disfavour. WithdrawaL Withholding. | 
Fawn. DisapprovaL Injury. Disoountoianoe. . 

Favoubable, adj. See Favour. 

SrH. Permi=8ive. Indulgent Propi- 
tious. Concessive. PartiaL Fond- Libe- 

Akt. Reluctant Unpropltioas. Un- 
favourable. JmpartiaL 

Favouritism, n. See Favour- 

Stk. Partiality. Invidiousnefls. 
Ant. Odium. Prejudice. Antipathy. 

Fawn, v, int. Sax. Conn, 
with Fain. Pretend, followed 
by the prep. Upon. 

Stn. Flatter. Wheedle, d^ole. Cringe. 
Glaver. Slaver. 

Airr. Insnlt Deride. Satirize. Cen- 
sure. Rebuke. Reprimand. Defy. Dare. 

Fealty, n. See Fidelity. 
Fear, n. Sax. f dr. 

Stv. Apprehension. Solicitude. Alarm. 
Fright. Dread. Terror. Misgiving. 
Horror. Timidity, Awe. 

Ant. Assurance. Confidence. Courage. 
Fearlessness. Trust. Boldness. 

Fearful, adj. See Fear. In- 
fluenced by fear, and inspiring 
fear : the former is becoming ob- 

Stm. Timid. Cntioas. Sbitaldng. 
Hesitating. Terribkw AwftiL HorrSUe. 

Ajrr. Bold. Venturesome. Coofident 
Andacions. ConsoUtory. lrj:pixiting. As- 
suring. Alluring. AttnMrtive. HopefhL 

Fearless, adj. See Fear and 
Feasible, adj. Faecre, to do. 

Sn. INMBible. Manageahle, Omtriv- 
•ble. Permissible. 

AxT. Impossible. Unallowable. 

Feat, n. Facere, factum. Em- 
phatically a thing done. See 

Featly, adv. See Feat 
Sn. Neatly. Cleveriy. Dexterously. 

Airr^ Clumsily. Hardly. Boo^lngly. 

Feature, n. Factura, facere, 
a making or formation. Some- 
thing which belongs to a whole 
as a part and indication, and goes 
to make it up. . 

Sth. Component Element Character- 
istic. Indication. Portion. Marls. Unea- 
ment Sign. 

AxT. Whole. System. Countenance. 
Case. Arrangement (Here the Antonym 
is the Correlative.) Misindlcation. Falsifi- 
cation. Excrescence. Blind. Mask. Dis- 

Federation, n. See CJon- 

Feeble, a/fj". Old Eng. Conn, 
with Jlebilis, jiere, to weep. Piti- 
able on account of wretched- 
ness, and thence wretched or 
weak. Applied to persons, 
efforts, and the results of efforts. 

Sth. Wretched. Weak. Poor. Faint 
Infirm. Incomplete. Vain. Fruitless. 
Scanty. Pitiiible. 

Ant. Strong. Robust Active. Effec- 
tive. Successful. Abundant. 

Feeling, n. Feel. Sax./eto«, 
to touch. tFsed both of physical 
sensation and emotion of mind. 

Stk. Touch. Sensation. Contact Emo- 
tion. Sentiment Passion. Seiidtiveness. 

Ant. Insensibility. CallouBness. Im- 
perturbabiUty. inexdtabiUty. Coldness. 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


Fbion^ V, tr. Yt.feindre, Lat. ' 
fingere. See Pretend. 

Feint, n. See Feign and Pre- 

Felicitate, v, tr, Felix, 
fortunate. To sympathize on 
the score of good fortune. See 

Felicitous, adj\ See Felici- 

Stv. Happy. Timely. SaccessfnI. Op- 
pOTtone. Joyous. 

Art. Unfortunate. Unhappy. Un- 
timely. Unsuccessful. Disastrous. Inop- 
portone. Sad. 

Fblicitt, n. See Felicitous. 
Fell, adj, Celtic, /aZ. 

Stk. CmeL Barbarous. luhuman. 
Savage. Bloody. Direful. Truculent. 

i^rr. Generous. Chivalrous. Humane. 
Lenient. Propitious. 

Fell, v, tr, Sax.fellan. Conn, 
witb FaU. To cut down, as a 
tree, or a forest. 

Sto. Cut Level. Prostrate. Demolish. 
Subvert. Waste. Bare. 

Amt. Plant Erect Support Propa- 
gate, stock. Upraise. Bear. 

Fellow, n, Saxon. Conn, 
with Follow. One who follows 

Snr. Companion. Adherent Member. 
Match. Tally. Correlative. Partner. 
Friend. Associate. 

Amt. Foe. Opponent Stranger. Mis- 
match. Opposite. AntagonisL 

Fellowship, n. See Fellow. 

Stv. As80ciati<m. Membership. Com- 
pany. Partnership. Sociality. 

Akt. Severance. Disconnection. Dis- 

Felonious, adj. Of the nature 
of felony. Felo, Law Lat. for 
felon. Felony is, in law, distin- 
guished specifically from misde- 
meanour, but has a broader 
sense popularly. See Criminal. 

Feminine, adj, Femina, a 
woman. Womanly. 

Stn. DeUcate. Womanly. Tender 
Modest Soft. 

Ant. Robust Manly. Indelicate. Rude. 
Rough. Unteminine. 

Fence, v. tr, Femdere^ to fend, 
Comp. Defence. Has the double 
sense of fencing in and fencing 

Stn. Circumscribe. Enclose. Protect 
Elude. Parry. Stave. 

Akt. Open. Disenclose. Catch. Receive. 

Ferine, adj,, Ferity, n, Fera, 
a wild beast. See T 

Ferment, v, int. Fervimentum, 
ferrrtentum, from, fervere, to he hot, 
or seethe, tJsed metaphorically 
of feelings and designs. 

Stn. Seethe. Concoct Brevr. Warm. 
Chafe. Effervesce. Fester. Rankle. 

Ant. Damp. CooL Dissipate. Subside. 
Disperse. Evaporate. Heal. 

Ferocity, n, Ferox, ferocious. 
See Fierceness. 

Fertile, adj, Fertilis, from 
fei're, to bear or produce. Used 
of natural productiveness and 
moral causatiyeness, also of the 
power of imagination and inven- 

S™. Rich. Luxuriant Productive. 
Exuberant Causative. Conducive. Preg- 
nant Fraught Prolific Ingenious. In- 

Ant. Poor. Sterile. Barren. Unpro- 
ductive. Ineffective. Inconductve. Fruit- 
less. Inoperative. Uninventive. Unima- 

Fervour, w. See Ferment 
and Ardour. 
Fester, v, int. See Ferment. 

Festive, adj, Festivus,festum, 
a feast or holiday. 

Syn. Convivicd. Jovial. Gay. Merry. 

Ant. Solitafj. Deserted. Ascetic. 

Festivity, n. See Festive. 

Fetch, v. tr, Fetian, To 
bring. See Bring. 

Fetid, adj, Fatidus. Stink- 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

Sth. Stinking. Corrnpt. FouL 
AvT. Inodoroofli Fresh. Fbrftuned. 
Soented. Balmy. 

Fbtteb, V. tr. Conn, with 
Feet, as manacle with manus, the 

Stk. Manacle. Restrain. Hinder. CXog. 
Impede. Shackle. 

AicT. Free. Liberate. Expedite. Ac- 

Fbud, n. Sax. CJonn. with 
Foe and Fiend. An enmity, bnt 
especially of a domestic or social 
character, and perpetuated. 

Stv. £kimity. Antipathy. Animosity. 
QnarreL Strife. Bitterness. Dissension. 

Airr. Friendliness. Sympathy. Con- 
geniality. Clanship. Pacification. Recon- 
dliation. Sodality. Neighbourliness. 

Fevbb, 7?. Febris. Used me- 

Snr. Heat Ardour. Fervour. BrotL 
Flush. Ferment Passion. 

AnT. Coolness. Composure. Frigidity. 
Iciness. Lulifference. 

Few. Sax./ea. Scand. word, 
conn, with Lat. paucns. 

Snr. Scant. Rare. Lackinfi(. 

Aht. Many. Abundant. Numerous. 

Fibre, n. 'Pi, fibre, Lat. fibra. 
Used metaphorically for strength. 

Stk. Strength. Sinews. Thews. Tough- 

Aht. Laxity. Debility. Flabbiness. 

Fickle, adj. Sax. fi^d. Light 
of tonch; crafty. The mobiliiy 
of the word survives the crafti- 
ness which produced it; the 
lighthandedness having died out 
of the expression. 

Stx. Fanciful. Fitful. Capridous. 
irresolute. Changeable. Vadllating. Mu- 
table. Unreliable. Veering. Shifting. 

Ainp. Sober. Orderly. Reliable. WcU- 
regoUted. Calculable. Trustworthy. Steady. 

Fiction, n. Fingere, fiMus^ to 

Sy». Invention. Fabrication. Creation. 
Figment Fable. 

Ajrr. Fact Truth. Verity. Reality. 

Fictitious, adj. See Fiction. 

Stx. UnreaL SopposititioaB. 

Akt. Real. Troe. HiatoricaL Gcmiiiie. 
Authentic Veritable. 

Fedeutt, n, Fiddis,faUlM, 
fides, faith. Expresses r^ard to 
an object of all^iance, which is 
fealty ; and of imitation or re- 
production, which is accuracy. 

Stx. Fealty. Attadmient TmthfiiliiM. 
Allegiaooe. Accuracy. Gtaeeneas. Exact- 

Aii-T. Treadiery. Disloyalty. Dtsaffec- 
tion. Untruthfulneas. Inaocumc^. liiex> 
acmess. Infidelity. 

Field, n. Sax./eW. Groimd 
that has been felled or cleared 
of timber for cultivatian. The 
word is used metaphorically, as 
a space or basis of delineation, 
or a ground of thou^t or action. 

Snr. Ground. Scope. FroTiDoe. Ara». 
Scene. Opportunity. Boom. 

AST. Circumscription. Gonstraiiii. Es> 
dusion. Debarment InterdictloD. . 

FiENDiBH, adj. Fiend. Sax. 
fian, to hate. See Angelic. 
FnsBCE, adj. lAi. ferus, 

Snr. Wild. Savage. Violent. Baging. 

Akt. MUd. Tame. Dodle. HamleaB. 
Calm. Gentle. 

Fierceness, n. See Fierce. 

FiEBT, adj. Fire. Sax. fyr. 
Conn, with Gr. irvp fire. 

Stk. Hot Vehement Ardent. Fer* 
vent Fierce. Passionate. Inscible. 
Choleric. Exdted. Enkindled. 

Aht. Cold. Icy. Indifferent. Phleg- 
matic. Passionless. UnimpassioDed. Mild. 
Quenched. Extinguished. Tame. 

Fight, n. Sax. /cc/i*. 

Stn. Battle. Contention. Straggle. 
Ant. Pacification. Becondliation. 

Figurative, adj. Figura, a 
figure. In the sense of a figure 
of speech, a metaphorical form 
of words. 

Stn. Metaphorical. TropicaL PbeticaL 

Akt. Literal Prosaic UnpoetlcaL Un- 

Figure, n. See Figaratiye. 


Synonyms and Antonyms, 177 

Technically, the delineation of Snc. Fringed. Tgseikd Piiame .tous^ 

.J.V •'/: 1 t 1 « ^„ Ant. Bound. Hemmed. Unfijiged. 

an arithmetical symbol or nn- geivedged. 

Illustration Developed. Ultimate. 

rwnguremenk ^^pj^^^^ Inaugural. Inchoate. Rudi- 

FlLCH, V, tr, Celt. JUhan, to mental. Nascent. 

hide or bury. To take furtively. Finality, n. See Final. 
AVe Cabbage. Find, v. fr. Sax. yi^idaii. 

FiLB, V. Sax. To use the Stk. Meet Conftt)nt. Perceive. Dls. 

file or rasp for the purpose of "^^.\™J?- ^^^ Ov.r.0.1. Uee 

smoothing; hence, to improve withhold, withdraw. lUscomrive. 
^impiirting a polish Mid finish. pnnt^arfy. A Northern word; 

To file, in the sense of foul, as in ^^t conn, with the Lat. finis. 

V X T^** .' ii_ , ^*^^' Having the fineness of finish; 

but of different etymology To ^ut applied from that point 

file, as soldiers do, is the Latin ., ^^^j go as to e^m» 

filum, a thread. To move off m artistic, moral, social, and intel- 

^^"l^^Hi. (Wrfh lectual refinement The term is 

Stk. Rasp. Politih. Smooth. Finish. , j j* • i • xi. 

Pferfect. Improve. Refine. also used disparagmgly, m the 

Aht. Roughen. Jag. Denticulate, sense of over-fine, or affecting 

Acuminate. Barb. Cusp. Notch. undue fineness. 

Filiation, n. See Affiliation. stn. Thin. Minnt«. Smooth. Fiimy. 

_ ^ , _ Gauzy. Keen. Artistic. Choice. Finished. 

Fill. Sax. /yuan, act, and High. Grand. Noble. Sensitive. Refined. 

flgfj.* Generous. Honourable. Pretentious. Os- 

K-rlr »««i««i«K a„»«>i« flotjofw tentatious. Presumptuous. Nice. Casuis- 

Stk. Replenish. Supply. Satisfy, ^icai. Subtle. 

S^ r^w V^SJ' Tn£S±*' ^^' ^' Coarae. Large. Rough. Blunt. 

Swda. Grow J^pand. Increase. R^de. Unfinished. Mean. Petty.. 11- 

«i£l^* ^^ V-\rS?^i^^nf ^ "*^»'- Unlmposing. Paltiy. Modest. 

SSf^khSnk fIS V^SS^iSmW^ UnaiTected. Alfable.'' Categorical Plain- 

Bide. Shrinlc Ebb. Evaporate. Dimfaush. gpoken. UnanalyticaL UMeflecUve, In- 

Filter, v, tr, and int, Lat *"^^^*^^ 
JUtrum, or feltrumjdt, a wwllen Finery, n. See Fine. Used 

doth used as a straiiier, disparagingly of over-omamenta> 

Stw. strain. Percolate. Refine. Diatfl. tion in Oress or fumiture. 
Ooxe. Exude. Leak. Depurate. Defecate. Sm Over-ornament. Tawdriness. Tinsel. 

*^*1^* « « . .1, .., r^. ^ ^ m. ^ Gcwgaw. Trfukets. Trash. Dressiness. 

Ant. Befoul Muddle. Disturb. Thicken. Bedizenment 

liWTmT* *, c«« n^«« ««*4.i, '^^^- Ornament. Dress. Decoration. 

JJILTH, n. feax. Oonn. Wltn Adornment. CJhasUty. SimpUcity. So- 

Foul and File, as in Defile, tnety. 

Filthy, adj. See Filth. Finical, adj. See Fine. Af- 

sra. JHrty. Nasty. Foul fecting refinement on a small 

AST. Pure. Sweet. Clean. SCale Ond UnSUCCeSSfuUy. 

Filtration, n. /fifec Fflter. EuphSkic^^^'^ ^^"*' Factitious. 

Fimbriated, adj. Fimbria, a ^, ^^\ Unaigcted. Eifective. Practical 

* M^M*M»M.a.^at*j, J, M „uyv, i-v^, ^M, jinergetic. Real. Genuine. Natural. 

jnnge. Outspoken. Blunt. Coai-se. Rude. 



Synonyms and Anionym$. 

FiNiBH, V. ^r. and int. Finis. 
To bring to an end. 

Stk. Complete. Conclude. Achieve. 
End. Shape. Terminate. 

Amt. Begin. Commence. Start Un- 
dertake. Fail. MiBOontrive. Mismanage. 
Botch. Mar. 

Finished, adj. See Finish. 

St.h. Artistic Perfect High. Refined. 
Amt. Inartistic. Incomplete. Bade. 
Poor. Coarse. Unfinished. 

FiNiTB, adj. See Finish. 

Stv. Limited. Bounded. Restricted. 
Ant. Unlimited. Unbounded. Infinite. 

FiBE, n. See Fiery. Used 

Firm, adj. Firmus. Used 
physically and morally. 

Stk. Fast Secure. Strong. Established. 
Rooted. Immovable. Resolute. Deter- 
mined. Fixed Attached. 

" Ant. Loose. Insecure. Weak. Hi- 
rooted. Tottering. Vacillating. Irresolute. 
Ductile. Exorable. Indulgent Wavering. 
Disaffected. Unreliable. 

First, ordinal adj. Sax. Conn, 
with For, Forward, and pro, as 
in the word Promote. It indi- 
cates primacy of position, rank, 
and importance. 

Stk. Leading. Foremost Principal. 
Highest Chief. Earliest Onmost 

Ant. Subsequent Secondary. Subor- 
dinate. Subservient Lowest Unim- 
portant Last Hindmost. 

- Fit, adj. Comp. Featly. Made 
with adaptation, but as an od^ 
jective, rather used of moral than 
material adaptation, except when 
followed hjfor. 

Stn. Right Decent Fitting. Adapted. 
Seemly. Appropriate. Suitable. Prepared. 
Adequate. Calculated. Contrived. Ex- 
pedient Proper. Ripe. 

Ant. Awkward. Ungainly. Misfitting, 
ni-suited. Unseemly. Inappropriate. Un- 
suitable. Unprepared. Inadequate. Mis- 
calculated. Miscontrived. Inexpedient. 
Improper. Unfit 

Fitful, adj. Not to be con- 
founded with Fit, as above. Fit, 
the noun, is connected with 

Fight, Struggle, Convulsion. 
So, Fitful is showing itself in de« 
sultory effort ' 

Stn. Capricious. Desultory. FancifU. 
Unequal. Irregular. 

Ant. Regular. Equable. Systematic 
Orderly. Calculable. 

Fitness, n. See Fit. 

FlTTTNG, adj. See Fit 

Fix, v. tr. Figere,fixta. Used 
physically and metaphysically, 
as, to fix in the memory. 

Stn. Place. Settle. Locate. Plant 
Root Establish. Secure. Determine. De- 

Ant. Displace. Unsettle. Diaarrange. 
Remove. Uproot Transfer. Transplant 
DisestabUsh. Weaken. Shake. Beverae. 
Disturb. Change. Unfix. 

Flaccid, adj. Lat Jlaccidus, 
another form of flaccus, drooping. 

Stn. Flabby. Limber. Lax. Tabid. 

Ant. Firm. Muscular. Braced. Flumpi 
Chubl^. Brawny. 

Flag, v. int. See Flaccid. To 
grow weary; become flaccid in 
the muscles, and genendly to 

Stn. Droop. Pine. Weaiy. Tire. Give 
in. Faint Succumb. 

Ant. Hold. Freshen. Flourish. Per- 
severe. Battle. Struggle. Persist Recruit 

Flagitious, adj. Flagitium, 
a disffrace/ul act, 

Stn. Facinorous. Atrocious. Enormous. 
Monstrous. Disgraceful. Ne&rioua. Scan- 
dalous. Fl^ptint Heinous. Aggravated. 

Ant. Noble. Creditable. H^ourable. 
Meritorloua Distinguished. Pardonable. 
Justifiable. Excusable. Extenuated. 

Flagrant, adj. Flagrare, to 
hum. Comp. Conflagration. Said 
of acts done in the heat of exces- 
sive passion, which is also the 
derivation of flagitious. See Fla- 

Flamb, n. Flamma. Used 
metaphorically. See Fire. 

Flaming, adj. See Flame. 

Flaring, adj. Flare, from 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


flare, to Uow into a flame ; or to 
blow as a flame or fanmce. 
Comp. Blast. Used metaphori- 
cally of undue conspicuousness. 

Sth. Flaming. Glaring. Coospicaoas. 
Oaody. Bright Over«coloared. Flaunting. 

Avr. Toned. Sabdaed. Hannonlied. 
IHiIL Dim. Dowdy. Dingy. KeutraL 

Flashy, adj\ From Flash, 
which was from Fr. fleclie a feu, 
a lighted arrow, shot from the 
widls, to light up the doings of 
the besieging party- /See Flaring. 

Flat, adj, Comp. Germ, plat, 
and Gr. vXarvs. Used meta- 

Snr. DoO. Tame. Indpid. Vapid. 

Ajrr. Exciting. Animated. Intercating. 
Thrilling. Sensational. 

Flatter, v. tr. Conn, with 
Flat. To make flat Tosmoothe 

Snr. Sm Fawn. 

Flattebeb, n. See Flatter. 
Flaunt, v. tr, and int, Celtic. 

Snr. Boast Vannt Flatter. Flonnoe. 
Display. Fkrarish. Parade. Figure. 

Avr. Snppresa. Gonoeal. Retire. Re- 
cede. Skulk. Hide. Sbriyel. Collapse. 

Flavour, n. Der. uncertain. 
Fragare, for flagrare, to emit a 
smell or fragrance. Applied 
sometimes to objects of smell, 
but commonly to those of taste. 

Snr. Taste. Savour. Smack. Odour. 
Airr. Insipidity. Tastelessnes^. Mawk. 
iahneaa. Inodourousneas. Soentlessness. 

FLAW>n. Sax. floh, fragment 
or chip. See Blemish. 

Flee, v. int. Sax. fleon. See 
Escape. Act, and neut, 

Fleeoe, V, tr. Sax. flys. Used 
analogously for strip. 

Stx. strip. Desptiil. Shear. 
Akt. Invest Endow. Endue. 

Fleet, adj. See Fleet and 

Fleeting, adj. See Fleet and 

Fleshy, adj. Sax. fldsc, lard. 
Fat. See Fat. 

Flexible, adj, Flectere, to 
bend, flextjs. Easily bent Used 
metaphorically of character. 

Snr. Pliant Lithe. Supple. Elastic 
Easy. Indulgent Ductile. 

Amt. Tough. Rigid. Inelastic. In* 
flexible. Hard. Inexorable. 

Flexion, n. See Flexible and 
Flexure, n. See Flexion. 

Fliceee, V, int. Sax. Conn, 
with Fly, Flutter, and Fledge. 

Snr. Flutter. Quiver. Bicker. Falter. 

Waver. Qlimmer. Shimmer. Scintillate. 

Ant. Streom. Blaze. Gleam. Shine. 

Flight, n. See Flee. 

Snr. Volltatlon. Departure. Escape. 
Evasion. Disappearance. 

Avr. Recurrence. Return. Reappear- 
ance. Perching. Alighting. Repose. 

Flightt, adj. See Flight and 

Flimst, adj. Supposed to be 
conn, with Limp. So being ori- 
ginally limpsy. Used meta- 
phorically for that kind of pre- 
text which is so thin that it may 
be seen through. 

Snr. Gauzy. Poor. Thin. Transparent 
Trifllnfi^ Trivial. Puerile. Inane. 

Ant. Solid. Sound. Irrefragable. Sub- 
stantial. Cogent 

Flinch, v. int. Probably cpr- 
rupt from Blench. 

SrN. Blench. Swerve. Wince. ReooH 
Akt. Dare. Face. Bear. Meet En- 

Fling, v, tr. Allied to fligere. 
To strike or cast. 

SrN. Cast Throw. Emit HurL 

Akt. Snatch. Qntp. Hold. 
Retain. Arrest 

N 2 


Sifrumyms and Anionyms. 

FLtppANT, adj. From flip, as 
to flip abont a whip. Dealing 
with words easfly, playfoUy, and 
thoughtlessly, commonly with 
satire or disrespect intermixed. 

Stv. Pert. Skocj. Malapert. 

Airr. FUttetinc, Senrile. OtMeqnkNia. 
Accurate. Oonaderato. DefierenliaL Gom- 
pttmeotaiy. ReqwctfU. 

Flit, v. ini, CJonn. with Flee, 
Flutter, and Fleet See Flutter. 

Flitting, adj. See Flutter. 

Float, v. int. Sax. fleoktn. 
Used metaphorically. 

Snr. Swim. Spread. Prevafl. 
Aft. Sink. Drown. Di& Vanish. 

Flock, V. Sex. flax, a flock of 
sfieej) ; floceus, wool. Gomp. Flake, 
a piece of knotted wooL 

Sth. Herd. GoogregAte. AflBemble. 

Akt. Disperse. Scatter. Separate^ Se- 

Flook, n. See Flock, verb. 
Flood, n. Sax. fldd. Ck)niL 
with Float 

Snr. Deluge. Inundatioo. Abtmdanoe. 
Airr. Drooglit Drain. El>bi Scarcity. 

Flobid, adj. Floridus, flm, 
oris, a flower. HaTing the bright 
colour of a flower, or over-orna- 

Sth. BnUcnnd. Sangoioe. Ornate. 
Overwrouf^t Meretrldons. • 

Aj«t. Pftllid. Ezsangnineoiu. Bare. 
Unadomod. Node. Sober. Oiaste. 

Flounce, v.m^. Northern word. 
Conn, with Plunge. See Flaunt 

Floundeb, v. int. Allied to 

Stv. Boll. Blander. Bungle. Boggle. 
Wallow. Tumble. 

Ant. Emerge. Flow. Course. Career. 
Speed. Bise. Flourish. Skim. 

Floijbish, V. tr. and int. Flo- 
rescere, flos, a flower. 

Snr. Prosper. Thrive. Speed. Triumph. 

Ant. Fail. Fade. Decline. Miscarry. 
F'ounder. Arrest Sheath. Ground. 

Flout, ». tfi/. SeeFIaimt 
Flow, v. int. Lat fluert. 

Stk. Soeaa. lasoe. IVogreHL OUde. 
Coone. Oueer. Ron. 

An. Halt Stick. Sddde. Stopi Hesi- 
tate. FaO. Stint Beat Beooa Begor- 
gitate. Ebb. 

Flowbr, II. Flo$,Jlori$, Used 

Snr. Perftctioa. Aone. PHde. Orna- 
ment Gem. Cream. 

AST. Dieappuiutment Deformity. BloL 
Abortian. Scorn. DregiL BUgfat 

Flowing, adj. See Flow. 
Used literally and metaphori- 

Snr. Gaploiis. AbondanL Fluent Ex- 
uberant Easy. Eloqiaent 

Ajrt. Dribbling. D17. Strained. Meagre 
Laboured. Unrea4y. DiAcolt 

Fluctuate, v. int. Fluctus,a 
wave. To moTe hackwards and 

Stk. Waver. Oscniate. Vary. Veer. 

Ant. Persist Abide. Stay. Stkk. 

Fluent, adj. See flowing. 

Flummeey, fi. A Welsh com* 
pound of sour oatmeal and milk. 
Poor stuff, and frothy. 

Snr. Nonsense. Trash. Emptiness. 

Abt. Sense. Nourishment Satisfaction. 
Solidity. Beasoo. 

Flubbt, V. tr. Prov. Eng. 
To blow as with a sudden breeze. 
Flare, to Mow. 

Sth. Agitate. Ezdte. Worry. Buffle. 


Ant. Sootlie. Compose. Quiet Calm. 

Flubbt, n. See verb. 

Flusteb. Flustrwm, a BwdS, 
of the sea. See Flurry, noun and 


Fluted, adj. Flute, from 
flare, to blow'. Sb&ped like a 
flute, having a long groove. See 

Synonyms and Antonyms, 


FiiUTTKB, V. int. Low Germ. 
fluttern, to move the wings ret- 

Stn. Vibrate. Quiver Palpitate. 
Flicker. FUt 

Akt. Perch. Boost Nestte. SetUe. 
Sabside. OolUpee. Best LnlL Pause. 
Bepose. Sink. 

Flux, w. Fluere, to flow. Es- 
pecially the departuie of existent 
particles to be renewed by fresh 

Snr. Flow. Moticnu Progreseion. 
Ohaoge. Siibetitntion. Tranranutatlon. 

AiiT. Stagnation. Stillness. Invariable- 
ness. Identity. Immutability. Crystalli- 
Eation. Arrestation. 

Fly, V. int. Sax. fleogan. See 

Focus, n. Lat focus, a hearth. 
In optics the point of meeting for 
reflected or refracted rays of 
light. Used metaphorically. 

Syk. Centre. Stand-point. Bendez- 
▼OQS. Oonvergence. Nucleus. 

Amt. Circle. Dispersion. Dissipation. 

Fob, n. Sax. fton, to hate. 
Conn, with Friend. See Friend. 

FoGOT, adj. Dan. fog, a 
thick fall as of snow. Used 
metaphorically of the senses and 

Srx. Confused. Dased. Absent Stupid. 
Hazy. Obscure. Misty. 

Akt. Clear. Alive. Alert Awake. 
Luminous. Ludd. Bright Shrewd. Sharp. 

Foible, w. Sef Feeble. 

Snr. Peccadillo. Weakness. Infirmity. 
Ant. Crime. Atrodty. Enormity. Sin. 

Foil, v, Fr. fouler, to tram- 
jle with the feet, beat down and 
disarm, or render nugatory. See 
Baflfle and Counterfoil, which 
partakes of the two senses of 
fouler snd folium. 

Foil, n, From/oZiwm, a leaf. 
As tinfoil plated by jewellers be- 
hind precious stones to enhance 
their colour. 

Stn. Set-off. Background. Contrast 
Enhancement Setting. Elucidation. 

Ant. Eclipse. Outshining. Extinction. 

Foist, v, tr, Fr. fausser, to 
falsify. To pass off surrepti- 
tiously or unfairly upon another. 

Sth. Falsify. Counterfeii. Palm. Pass. 
Amt. Expose. Detect Verify. Authenti- 

Fold, v, tr, ^QJi,fmldan, 
Stm. Double. Enfold. Embrace. In- 
close. Wrap. 

Amt. Unfold. Disengage. Expose. 

Follow, v, tr, and int. Sax. 
fdgian. Act. and ne^it, 

ipTM. Pursue. Chase. Accompany. Obey. 
Imitate. Succeed. Besult Ensue. At- 

Amt. Avoid. Elude. Quit Disobey. 
Precede. Cause. Produce. Abandon, ^un.' 

FoLLOWEB, n. See FoUow. 

Stm. Partisan. Adherent. Disdple. 
Amt. Leader. Teacher. Antagonist 
Opponent BivaL 

Folly, n . Fr. fou, a fuoL 

Stn. Madness. Nonsense. Misconduct. 
Imprudence. Silliness. 

Amt. Sense. Wisdom. Sanity. Judg- 
ment Prudence. Sobriety. 

Foment, v, tr. Fovimeiitum, 
fomentu7n,fovere, to cherinh. 

Stk. Excite. Fan. Cherish. Propagate. 

Am-t. Allay. Extinguish. Discourage. 
Extirpate. Quench. 

Fond. Part, formed of an old 
Eng. verbffonne, to be foolish. To 
be foolishly loving. It still re- 
tains in one of its uses this force. 

Sym. Loving. Attached. Affectionate. 
FooUsh. Silly. Weak. Doting, liinpty. 

Amt. Unloving. Unaffectionare. Averw*. 
Strong-minded. Austere. Rational. Well- 
grounded. Sensible. Undemonstrative. 

Fondle, v. tr. See Fond. 

Sim. Dandle. Pet. Caress. 
Amt. Teatie. Worry. Annoy. Cliafe. 
Irritate. Ruffle. 

Fondness, n. See Fond. 
Foolish, adj. See Folly. 

Sym. Senseless. Idiotic. Crazed. Shal- 
low. Weaic. Silly. Injudicious. Irra- 
tional Absurd. Contemptible. Ot^Jection- 

182 Symamytms amd Amiamywu, 

FoBSKCxxiK, m. Fore, afoR, 
Q^ and nm. Goth, rimatfnii, io i — 

Sol Piu i Lu 

Foonxe, «. Smr-fSL jui r 

An. nil I itii ■ I II rriiiiii Fokxskb. v. fr. FateytK;be- 

foyp^, to /srr. A fe up a cn iops fm 
ocxxeomb. ■ J^*«^ 

Dvr^. sk/v«if. OovkA. ! a itoM/ or fl^!ifii0M. Toptaeelie- 

Fo»AT. ft. Fr. /«cm^. Low ?*5 Mwdier; tobe l^»^a>^ 
laSL fodmm, fodder. A b«der ™^^ "^*™«- »«Airf»- 
inTagioD fe the ake of jdmida'. • P*™**- 

Stx. RjkL Sallj. iara«L ft ■girwnifr FoSSBEAIJaarT, K. £be FOTO- 

Aw. ni»*l BeCraiA. BcoJL Be-' "*•***- 
cwpwoL ScopedeL j FoRKTOX, V. tr. Fore, fcr 

FoEBBAR, V. tn/. For, implj- • before, and leflsn. Sax. Id faff, 
ing negatkni, and Bear, which '^,^5°f.SS' '*""*" 

**^- Am BcdKL Sanale. 

Snc Alistola. BefiaoL Wi^boU. j _ ,._ 

An: Seek. IndnleeL FOBEWABS, V. fr. iSee WaHL 

FOBBID, tf. f r. &«Kd. FOBFBIT,!!. FoHx, fiut^on, a 

FoBBiDDnrG, adj. Set Forfaid. thing dcme beyond the houtmds cf 

?2i *1?Si^^^^1S;2L^^^ "^^^ « trantgrestwn. Now the 
AST. Attraetare. Enoovnaac. A]liir> _ir .>x r i. j r 

tng. ScdoctiTe IVramiTe. CffleCt Of SUCh tiaill^PefiBlCHL 

•n ^^ -DL. ^ -r A. X t- Stx. Fine. Fenflxy. Maid. Avnce* 

FOBCB, n. Yi. force, LAi.forttt, j nmt. Hmt^^ Jm 

strong. \ An: Freninm. Bribe. Dowcv. Be- 

8t». Power. SCfength. Aceacy. In- 1 "BHwrmtioo. Oanpenntiaa. BevanL 

stromenUlity. ComiNilaoD. Coeency. : Gntonj. 

^*^ FeebUne-L Weakm-. County. ! , FOBKFKHD, V. Jr. Fore ^ 
actiML NentfalizatioiL IneffideDcy. In- feruUre, to guard, Gomp. De- 
eoodiuiTeneaiw I>ebait]r. Pnntle«DeaiL ; fend. 

FOBEGO, V. tr. Go. Germ. Stx- S«aT«^ ObrtatcL Prevent 

^eA^w. Fore, for expressive of bJ^.^****^- ^''^ ^'^ ^'^^^ 

St». WaiTeu Dropi Abudoii. Al^Jnre. I FOBGE, V. «r. FabTi4Xt, the 
^''"^'^'"aaim A^nme. Vindieate. Smia \^'^^^^P ^f ^^ f*'^^ ^r smith. To 

Gi»^' Betoin. ^"""^ ^^* make by a foige. Used in the 

FoBEiON, (K^y. Foranewjorif, pnma^r SCTse of &bricate and 

out of doon^. Used metephori- ^e febncate m the sense also of 

caUyinthesenseofimcongenial ^^|^^^™^^^^ p,^ ^.. 

or anconnectea. borate. Fabricate. Ooimterfeit. Feign. 

Sty. Strange. Exotic Outlandish. FaUify. 

Alien. Irrelevant. An. Shatter. Batter. Shiver. Blast. 

An. DonMStic Kaiive. Congenial. Fuse. Detect Expoae. Verffjr. Mia- 

Pertinent. Oermane. ooDstme. MisCsbrlcate. ' 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


FoBGERY, w. Used in the 
secondary sense of Forge. See 

Stv. FalsificaUoD. Connterfeit 
AsT. Signature. Verification. Attesta- 

FoEGBT, V, tr. For, with the 
sense of negation, and Get ; Sax. 
getan. To let go from the 
memory or the attention, some- 
times inYolimtarily, and some- 
times volimtarily. 

8ns. Lose. Pretermit. Unlearn. Ob- 
liviate. Overlook. 

Abt. Acqiure. Learn. Remember. Be- 
collect Mind. Retain. Treasare. 

FoBGiYB, v. tr, i^or, negative, 
and Sax. gifyn, to give. To give 
up. Specifically, a claim for 
compensation, or a feeling of 
wrong. See Pardon. 

FoBGOTTKN, odj. See Forget. 

Stk. Unremembered. Bygone. Sliglited. 
Overlooked. Obsolete. 

Aht. Remembered. Present Treasured. 
Guarded. Regarded. Gberisbed. 

FoBLOBN. Sax, forloren, part. 
of forleoran, to for-loose. Cast 
away, or apparently ahandoned. 

Sw. Abandoned. Deserted. Forsaken. 
Soliiarj. Destitnte. Desolate. Hapless. 
Luckless. Helpless. Disconsolate. 

Akt. Supported. Attended. Cberished. 
Protected. Befriended. Cheered. 

FoBM, V, tr, Fonnare, forma. 

To shape. 

Stk. Shape. Mould. Fashion. Oonsti* 
tute. Arrange. Frame. Construct Con- 
trive. Conceive. 

Akt. Deform. Dislocate. Distort ^Dissi- 
pate. Derange. Distmember. Disintegrate. 
Analyze. Disorganize. 

FoBMAL, adj. See Form. Ap- 
plied to hoth persons and things, 
and in each case meaning either, 
according to form, or with a 
strong or an imdue attention to 

Stk. Remtlar. Complete. Shapely. 

Sufficient Correct Stately. Dignified. 
Ceremonious. Pompous. Stiff. 

Ant. Irregular. Incomplete. Informal. 

Inadequate. Incorrect i^uej. Unassum- 
ing. Unoeremonloos. 

FoBMAiJSM, n. See Form. 

Stk. Rigidity. Ceremoniouoness. Pom* 
posity. Extemalism. Parade. Punctilio. 

Akt. Simplicity. Unostentationsness. 
Unaffectedness. Unceremoniousness. 

Formality, w. See Form. 

Stk. Ceremony. Parade. Affectation. 
Stateliness. Punctiliousness. Etiquette. 
Akt. See Formalism. 

FoBMATiON, n. See Form. 

Stk. Shape. Structure. Construction. 
Akt. Deformity. Malformation. Dis- 
location. Distortion. 

FoBMBB, adj. Sax. forma. 
Meaning the same thing. 

Stk. Preceding. Antecedent Previous. 
Prior. Karlier. Ancient Bygone. 

A>t. Succeeding. Subsequent Posterior. 
Latter. Modem. Coming. Future. 

FoBMiDABLir, adj. FormidOy 
terror. Calculated to inspire 
terror, especially by a display of 
superior strength. 

Stk. Awful. Terrible. Alarming. Ter- 
rifying. Discouraging. Serious. 

Ant. Despicable. Weak. Contemptible. 
Light Trivial. 

FoBMLESS, adj. See Form. 

FoBSAKE, V. tr. For and Seek. 
To give up. See Abandon. 

FoBSWBAB, V. tr. For and 
Swear. Sax. swerran, to swear. 
See Abjure. 

FoBTHWiTH, adv. Forth and 
With. Attendantly upon some- 
thing done or produced as its 
immediate consequence. 

Stk. Immediately. Direct iy. 
Akt. By-and-by. Hereafter. Soon. 

FoBTiFY, V. tr. Fortis, strong, 
and facere, to make. 

Stk. Strengthen. Confirm. Corroborate 

Akt. Weaken. Invalidate. Dismantle. 

FoBTiTUDB, n. See Fortify. 

Stk. Courage. Endurance. Braveness. • 
Calmness. Resignation. Hardihood. Com- 

Ant. Timidity. Flinching. Impatience. 
Irritation. Faintness. Delicacy. Effemi- 
nacy. Womanishuess. Chiiditthness. 


Sj^namfwu amd Ambmfau^ 

wxiMJ^t^, from/on, duuicf, 
Sn, LMfcj, ftipiffiw Bjf|»f. F*- 

Xjtt. ralKigr. Us 

Snc'l^dkakL Fad. MMe. Wok. 

FoftlLSKy A. 

and Chanoe. 

&e Foftnnste . stx. PSeee. tt. 

FKAcanxT, ■. Set Ksgile. 

FoBWimD, ''^O'. Fore, in &aiit, 
andtbetenninalioQyWaid. Conn. 
wUh. gwjrd^r, to Uiok, indjcadre 
of diieetioiL In addition to the 
meaning of adrancement, it 
beats iSie moral signification of 
bdng too nnich giren to ad- 
Tandng one's sdf as a matter of 

Srv, AdvvneedL B«aif. Embt. 
AaxioM. ObtHMive Bilf«iillu. Ib- 

TRAOMAsr, ad/. See 

Act. Tardj, Btekvaid. Brfortf . 
mttftercot. Skrv. Retiring, Jfodert. 

FosTKB, r. ^r. Sox. /o«^ir, a 
nurse^ from /edan, to feed. See 

FoTL, flwf;. /oZ. Conn, with 
the File in Defile. See Corropt 

FoUKD, V. tr. Fundare, to 
/otind,/undtig, a bottom. 

Snr. EsUbliib. Institute. Groond. 
Plant. Boot. 

Axr. l>isestabli«h. Snbrert Soppbmt. 

FouHDATiON. See Found. 

Snr. Institution. EstabUsfamf^t. Foot- 
ing. Base. 

AwT. f>iae»tabli»liment. Saperatnictare. 

FouNDEB, n, See Found. 

Snr. Aathor. Institnter. Establisher. 
Originator. Planter. 

Ami. Hubrerter. Destrojtfr. 

FouiTDEB, V, int. See Found 
and Sink. 

FbAOTIOUS, adj, Frangere, 
fractus. Said of those the tenour 

A3P«. J 

, Feail, adj. Ser Fn^il^ ai 
, which it is a oontnctian. Ithas 
! a more direct applieaHan to 
. things mond than has TngBe^ 
i which is used radier of tilings 
i material. 

J Stx. See Fngpe. 
Erring. MntaMe. 
Axx. Rwoinie. Yin 

F&AMK, V. tr. Smi. fremtmam, 
8k Form. 

Frahohibk, n. TT./rume, free. 
Gomp. Frank. 

Srs. Freedom. libeny. Ii—iiilj. 
ExemptMi. Right. 

AxT. Obtigatioa. DfaabOitj. Jniadio. 
tion. UabOity. Disqaalifinitinn. 

Fbakgiblb, adj. See Fragile. 
Frank, adj. See Franchise. 

STsr. IpgennoQS. Oudid. 0|Ma. Un- 

Ajrr. DiBingenaoca. Oose. Bcaerved. 

Frahtic, adj. For Frantic, 
which from Phrenetic, which 
from ^f>^y, the mind. 

8T?r. Mad. Raving. Forioos. Dis. 
tracted. WUd. Freuied. ManlacaL 

AST. Sane. Sober. Oalm. GbUeded. 
CooL Unmffled. Oompesed. 

Fratkrnitt, n. Frater, a 
hrUher. See Brotherhood. 

Fratebkizs, V. tilt. See Fra- 
ternity, followed by prep, witti. 

Stx. Svmpaihiie. Consort. Go-operate. 
Akt. Renonnoe. Altfo'e. Fonwear. 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


Fraud, «. Fratts, fratidis, 
Deceptioii generally, with a yiew 
to one's own advantage and the 
disadyantage of another. See 

Fraught, adf, (Joth. Allied 
to Freight. More frequently 
used of nnfEiYOurable things, as 
' fraught with perils.' 

Sth. Loaded. Full Pregnant. Teem- 
ing. Abounding. Charged. 

Amt. Devoid. Divested. Exempt 
Empty. Wanting. Poor. Scant 

Freakish, adj. Freak. Goth. 

Sth. SportfuL Frlricy. WliimsicaL 
FaociftiL Capridons. Erratic. 

Akt. Steady. Suber. Demure. Un- 
wbimalcal. UnfancifuL Reliable. Con- 
sistent Uniform. Equable. 

Free, adf. Saxon. 

Sm. Detached. Playing. Operating. 
Open. Unoccupied. Unubstructed. Un- 
imp^led. Permitted. Unhindered. Ex- 
empt Grattdtous. Unconditional. 

Airr. Subservient Bound. Shaclded. 
Restricted. Clogged. Occupied. Obstructed. 
Impeded. Compulsory. Unlawflil. Biassed. 
Subject Liable. Amenable. ConditionaL 

Freight, w. A later form of 
Fraught. See Cargo. 

Frenzy, n. See Frantic. 

Stk. Fanaticism. Madness. Raving. 
Fuiy. Fire. 

Ant. Calm. Composure. Collectedness. 
Coohiess. Sanity. Sobriety. Equanimity. 

Frequent, adj. Freguens. 

Stk. Many. Riepeated. Numerous. 

Aht. Few. Solitary. Rare. Scanty. 

Fresh, adj. 'Fr.fraiche. 

Stm. New. Young. Vigorous. Cool. 
Recent Renewed. Unimpaired. Un- 
tarnished. Unfoded. Blooming. Ruddy. 

Ant. Old- Stale. Jaded. Weary. For- 
mer. Stagnant Ordinary. OriginaL Im- 
paired. 'I'amished. Faded. Decayed. 
»kUid. Sickly. Putrid. Mouldy. Musty. 

Fret, v. int, and tr. Fricare, 
/rictus, to rvh, Comp. Friction. 
See Chafe. 

Fretful, adj. See Frei 

Stk. Irritable. Fractious. Peevish. 

Ant. Patient Forbearing. Meek. Con- 
tented. Resig^ied. Unmurmuring. 

Friable, adj. Lat. friare, to 
crumble. See Fragile. 

Fribble, v. int. Conn, with 
Frivolous. See Trifle. 

Friction, n, Fricare, frictm, 
to rub. 

Stn. Rubbing. Grating. Attrition. 
Abrasion. Contact 

Ant. Lubrication. Detachment Isola- 
tion. Non-contact 

Friend, n. Sax. freogan, to 
love. It expresses every degree 
of acquaintance short of enmity. 

Stn. Associate. Companion. Acquaint- 
ance. Familiar. Ally. Coadjutor. Confi- 
dant Adherent 

Ant. Opponent Foe. Adversary. An- 
tagonist Jikiemy. 

Friendless, adj. See Friend 
and Forlorn. 
Friendly, adj. ' See Friend. 

Stn. Well-inclined. Well-disposed. 
Amicable. Kindly. 

Ant. Ill-incUned. lU-disposed. Hostile. 
Inimical. Adverse. Antagonistic. 

Friendship, n. See Friend. 

Fright, n. Baji.fryhtu. Fear. 
See Alarm. 
Frightful, adj. See Fright. 

Stn. Terrible. Horrible. Alarmhig. 
Ugly. Hideous. Monstrous. Dreadful. 

Ant. Pleasing. Attractive. Fair. Beauti- 
ful. Encouraging. Lovely. 

Frigid, adj. Frigidus, frigus, 

Syn. Cold. Inanimate. Lifeless. Pas- 

Ant. Warm. Ardent Impassioned. 

Fringe, v. tr. Lat jlmbria. 
See Fimbriated. 

Frippery, n. Fr. /riper, to 
rumplt or wofite. Frippery, there- 
fore, is primarily cast-off finery, 
and thence finery in general. 

Stn. Trumpery, tinery. Tawdriness. 
AST. Apparel. Costume. Uniform. 
Dress. Decoration. Ornament 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

Fbise, v. int. Old Fr. /risque, 
fresh, Comp. Fresh. 

Syn. Sport. Leap. Jump. Play. Dance. 

Amt. Lie. Ruminate. Rest. Repose. 
Rooet. Mope. Sulk. 

Frisky, adj. See Frisk. 

Srw. Sportive. Playful. Wanton. 
Akt. Demure. Sedate. Meditative. 

Fritter, V. ^r. Frigere,frutum, 
to fry. To fritter or to break 
into small pieces as if for frying. 
Metaphorically, to trifle, or waste. 

Stn. Dribble. Waste. Idle. Dissipate. 
Ant. Economize. Husband. Cultivate. 

Frivolous, adj. FrivdvA, 
Applied to character and pur- 
suits, or objects. 

Syn. Trifling. Silly. Trivial. Petty. 
Akt. Serious. Earnest. Important. 

Frolic, w. Old Sax. fruh, 

Stk. Play. Ggime. Sport Festivity. 
Entertainment. 6amlK>L 

Ant. Study. Undertaking. Purpose. 
Engagement. Occupation. 

Frolicsome, adj. See Frolic. 

Sin. PlayfuL Gamesome. Sportive. 
Wanton. Fes-tive. 

Ant. SeriDUs. Grave. Studious. La- 
borious. Earnest. 

Front, n, Frons, frontis^ 
face orforeliead. See Face. 

Froth, «. Sax. freodhan, to 
ruh or lather. Used metaphori- 
cally. See Balderdash. 

Froward, adj. A contraction 
of Fromward, that is, pulling in 
a contrary direction. 

Syn. Contrary. Perverse. Untoward. 
Wayward. Refractory. 

Ant. Favourable. Docile. Amenable. 
Ductile. Agreeable. Obedient 

Frown, v. int. Fr. se refrogner. 
Used metaphorically for Disap- 
prove, with the prep. upon. See 

Fructify, v. int. Fructus, 
fruit, and/acerc, to make 

Stn. Produce. Teem. Bear. Abound. 

Amt. Wither. Waste. Pine. Droop. 

Frugal, adj. Fniges, fruity 
frvgi, fit for food. Firat, simple 
in diet, and thence economical 

Stk. Sparing. Economical. Parsi- 
monious. AbsUnent Abstemious. Tem- 

Aut. Profuse. Luxurious. Extrava- 
gant Prodigal Self-indulgent lu tem- 

Fruit, n. Frudus, Used 

Stk. Production. Outcome. Outgrowth. 
Result. Consequence. Produce. Reward. 

Akt. Seed. Origin. Qiuae. Growth. 

Fruitful, adj. See Fruit. 

Stk. Productive. Prolific PreRnant. 
Fraught Causative. Effectual. Us^til. 

Akt. Unproductive. Sterile. Barren. 
Fruitless. Ineffectual. Useless. Abortive. 

Fruition, n. Frui, to enjoy, 
whence Fruit. 

Stk. Reaping. Attainment Enjoy- 
ment Use. Possession. 

Akt. Disappointment Loss. Non- 

Fruitless, adj. See Fruitful. 

Frustrate, v. tr. Frustia, 
in vain.- To cause to be in vain. 
See Baffle. 

Frustration, n. See Frus- 
trate and Disappointment. 

Fugacious, adj. Fwjax, from 
fugere, to fly. 

Syk. Ephemeral. Fugitive. 


Akt. Persistent Perennial. 


Fugitive, adj. See Fugacious. 

Fulfil, v. tr. A tautological 
or repetitive compound of full 
and fill. To fill to the full. 

Stk. Fill Complete. Discharge. Verify. 
Ant. Neglect. Ignore. Disappoint 

Full, adj. Part. adj. from 
Fill. BsiS,.fyllan,. 

&fnontfms and Antonyms. 


Snr. Replete. Stocked. Furnished. 
Satisfied. Complete. 

Akt. Wanting. Unprovided. Devoid. 
Destitute. Unfurnished. Unsatisfied. 
Empty. Incomplete. 

FuiiMiNATB. Fulmeriy thunder- 
Idt. To cast as it were the 
thunder of dentmciation, fol- 
lowed by prep, against. 

Stn. Thunder. Clamour. Roar. Voci- 
ferate. Denounce. 

Amt. Laud. Panegyrize. Eulogize. 

Fulsome, cw?y. Sax./ttZ. Foul, 
and the termination of quality, 

Stk. Excessive. Gross. Loathsome. 

Amr. Chaste. Sober. Nice. Delicate. 

Fumble, v. int. Prov. Eng. 
Fumble, to do imperfectly. See 

FuMBLEB, n. See Fumble. 

Fume, v, int. Lat. fumm, 

Snr. Vapour. Chafe. Fr«wn. 

Am*. Acquiesce. Smile. 

Fumigate. See Fume and 

Function, n, Ftmgi, to dis- 

Stk. Office. Part. Character. Capacity. 
Business. Administration. Discharge. 
Operation. Exercise. 

Amt. Usurpation. Maladministration. 
Misconduct Misdemeanour. 

Functionary, n. See Func- 

Stn. OiBciaL Officer. Servant Per- 

Ant. 5«e Function. 

Fund, n. "LdX, fundus, hntfom 

or foundatiori, A stock which 

shall be the basis of operations. 

Stn. Stock. Capital Investment 
Ant. Expenditure. Outlay. Disburse- 

Fundamental, adj, Funda- 
mentum, a foundation. Apper- 
taining to the foimdation, and 
hence important. 

Stn. Primary. Important Indispen- 
sable. Essential. 

Ant. Secondary. Unimportant Ad- 
ventitious. Ascititious. Non^essentiaL 

Funereal, adj. Funus, eris^ 

Stn. Lugubrious. Dismal. WoeftiL 
Sombre. MonrnfuL Plaintive. Deathlike. 

Ant. Joyous. Festive. Ridiculous. 
Funny. Stirring. Lively. Farcical 

Funny, adj. Sax. Fean, joys. 
Applied to objects and persons. 

Stn. Sportive. Droll Comical. laugh- 
able. Humorous. Jocose. Ridiculous. 

Ant. Dull. Tedious. Mournful Lugu- 
brious. Dismal Grave. Serious. Sad. 

Furbish, V. #r. Ti.fourhir, 

Stn. Brighten. Polish. Burnish. 
Ant Dull. Cloud. Tarnish. 

Furious, adj. Furor, mad- 
ness. See Frantic. 
Furnish, v. tr. Fr.fournir. 

Stn. Supply. Provide. Equip. Afford. 
Aht. Withhold. Withdraw. Dismantle. 

Further, V. Bslx. fordh, forth. 
To move forth. See Advance. 

Furtive, adj, Furtivus,fur, 
a thief, 

Stn. Stealthy. Clandestine. Secretive. 
Secret Sly. 

Ant. Open. Public. Undisguised. Un- 
reserved. Unconcealed. 

Fury, n. See Furious. 
Fuse, v, tr, Fundere, fusus^ 
to pour. Liquefy by heat. 

Stn. Liquefy. Melt Smelt Amal- 
gamate. Commingle. Consolidate. 

Ant. Disunite. Disincorporate. Diffuse. 

Fusion, n. See Fuse. 

Fuss, n. Sax. /ars, ready, 

Stn. Stir. Excitement Tumult Worry. 
Ado. Bustle. Flurry. Fidget 

Ant. Quiet Peace. Sedateness. Tran- 
quillity. Composure. Calm. 

Fustian, n, A coarse twilled 
cotton stufe So called from 
Fostat, or Fossat, Cairo, where it 
was made. Used metaphori- 
cally for inflated, empty talk. 
See Bombast. 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

Fusty, adj. Old Fr. fust, a 
cask. Smelling of the cafik. See 

Futile, adj, Futilis, easUy 
poured out From funtlere, to 
powr; hence wea^, as wanting 

Stk. Weak. Ineffective. Uaeleffl. Na- 
gatory. Unavailing. 

Ant. Powerful. Effective. Cogent 
Useful. Solid. Subetantial. 

FuTUBB, adj, Futurus, part, 
of eiwCf to he, Abont to be. 

Stv. Forthcoming. Coming. Advenient. 
Akt. Gone. Bygone. Paak 


Gabble, w. Sax. gahban, to 
8coi^. Originally, therefore, de- 
risive talk. Now idle and rapid 
talk with little sense or meaning. 

8tw. Prate. Jabber. Jargon. Stuff. 
Babble. KAttle. Twaddle. Gibber. Chatter. 

Ant. Conversation. Speech. Eloauetice. 
Reticence. I'aciturnity. Mincing. Moulhi- 
new. Grandiloquence. Euphuism. 

Gabble, v. int. See noun. 

Gappee, w. Contraction of 
good&ther, as Gammer of good- 
mother. Com p. Goody. After- 
wards used disrespectfully. JSee 

Gag, v. Sax. cdg, a key. To 
lock up a person's talk. Applied 
to the person himself 

SrN. Silence. Stifle. Burke. Muzzle. 

Akt. Evoke. Provoke. Inspire, Ani- 

Gage, v. tr. Low. Lat. gadfum, 
vadium, Gothic, vadi, a pledge, 
from vidan, to bind. 

Syn. Engage. Bhid. Pledge. Secure. 
Pawn. Deposit. 

Axt. Intimate. Promiae. Acquit. Re- 
lewe. Redeem. 

Gaiety, n. See Gay. 

Gain, v. /r. and int. Fr. 

Stn. Acquire. Get Win. Proenre. 
Obtain. Profit. Benelit. 

Ant. Lose. Forfeit. Suffer. 

Gain, n. See verb. 
Gainful, adj. See Gain. 

Stn. Profitable. Beneficial. Advan- 
tageous. Winning. 

Ant. Unprofitable. DetrimentaL In- 
Jurious. Disadvantageous. Gainleai. Loting. 

Gainless, adj. See Gainful. 

Gainsay, v. tr. Sax. . gean, 
against, and »riy. It is applied 
to persons and their statements, 
/^ee Affirm. 

Galaxy, n. ydka, milk. The 
assemblage of stars called the 
Milky Way. Used metaphori- 
cally for an illustrious or &ir 
assembly. See Bevy. 

Gallant, adf. Fr. gala, ^how. 
Like the word Brave, courage- 
ous and showy in dress. Also 
courteous to the fair sex, in 
which case, for distinction sake, 
the accent is thrown on the lattOT 
syllable. The noun keeps up 
the old combination of ^ughtiy 
qualities, not excluding the 
vicious excess of gallantry. 

Syn. Brave. Chivalrous. Courteous. 
Ant. Cowardly. Churlish. Diacourteona. 

Gambol, v. int. Old English. 

Stn. Frolic. Sport. Frisk. Play. Caper. 
Ant. Tire. Weary. Droq). Flag. 

Gambol, n. See verb. 

Game, n. Sax. gamen, sport. 

Syn. Sport. Recreation. Paatime. 
Amusement. Frolic. 

Ant. Study. Toil. Labour. Bnaineai. 
Duty. Wearineaa. Flagging. 

Gamesome, adj. See Qsme 
and Merry. 

Gang, v. Sax. Meaning a 
going. A number going to- 
gether. Never used in an ho- 
nourable sense. See Crew. 

Synonyma and AnUmyms. 





Gap, n. Conn, with (Jab and 
Gkipe. An opening or break. See 

Gabb, n. Norm. Fr. garls. 
Clothes or dress; more espe- 
cially an official, national, or in 
some way peculiar dress. 

Stn. Dress. Unifonn. Clothing. Cos- 
tame. Vestments. AppareL 

Akt. Undress. Taiiers. Rags. Shreds. 

Gabbaob, n. Old Fr. garher, 
to make dean. That which is 
thrown away, especially in pre- 
paring animals for food. Used 
metaphorically for offscourings 
and refuse of anything. See 

Gabblx. Lat. garheUare, for 
cr^Uare, from crihellum, dim. 
of cnbrum, a sieve, or the Low 
Lai garhellare, to sift com. The 
term was originally used of 
despising impurities from valu- 
able spices. Hence, to select 
such passages from writings or 
statements as may suit one's own 

Sni. Misrepresent Misquote. Mutilate. 
Cook. Dress. Gulonr. 

Art. Quote. Ote. Extract Recite. 

Gabbled, adj. See Garble. 

Gabnish, v. tr, Fr. gamir, to 
protect. Conn, with Warn. Ori- 
ginally, to bind or secure with 
ornamental work. 

Snr. Deck. Furnish. Adorn. Dress. 
Forbisb. Beautify. Embellisb. 
Akt. Denude. Strip. Dismantle. 

Gabnitube, n. See Garnish. 

Gabbulity, n, Oarrtdus, talk- 

Srw. Verbosity. Loquacity. Talkattve- 
new. Chatter. 

AST. Reticence. Taciturnity. Laoonlsm. 

Garbulous, adj. See Grar- 

Gathbb, V, tr. Sax. gadrian, 
to gather. See Collect, whose 
meanings it follows. 

Gaud, n, Gaudlum, joy, A 
paltry piece of ornament. 

Syn. Trinket. Trumpery. Finery. 
Qpwgaw. Bauble. Kickshaw. Qimerack. 

Ant. Decoration. Ornament Qem. 
Jewel. Valuable. 

Gaudy, adj\ See Gaud. 

Syn. Tawdry. Fine. Meretridous. 
Aut. Rich. Simple. Handsome. Chaste. 

Gauge, v. Old Fr. gauge, a 
liquid measure, 

SrN. Measure. Fathom. Probe. 

Ant. Survey. Conjecture. View. Scan 
Guess. Observe. Mismeasure. 

Gaunt, adj. Der. uncertain. 

Sth. Grim. Savage. Lean. Hungry. 
Ant. Docile. Tractable. Tame. Sleek. 

Gawky, adj. Sax. geac, a 
cuckoo, some silly ungainly bird, 

Stn. Awkward. Ungainly. 

Ant. Neat Handy. GracefbL Hand- 

Gay, adj. Fr. gai. Used as 
an epithet of character or disjpch 
sition, and of scenes or objects. 

Syn. Merry. Blithe. Lively. Sprightly. 
Sportive, &nart Festive. Gladsome. 

Ant, Heavy. Melancholy. Grave. 
Sombre. Dull. Dowdy. Sad. 

Gaze, v. int. Sax. gasan, to 
smite. To stare, being smitten 
with interest or wonder. 

Syn. Stare. Contemplate. Scan. Behold. 
Regard. View. 

Akt. Wink. Ignore. Overlook. Ogle. 
Disregard. Glance. 

Geab,w. Sax., geara, provision, 

Syh. Harness. Furniture. Accoutre- 
ments. Trappings. Tackle. Appurtenance. 
Rigging. Farapbemalia. 

Ant. Dismantlement Unrig. Untrim. 
Unharness. Undress. Divestment Strip- 
ping. Disarray. 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

Gelatinous, ody. Ft, gelatine, 
from, gelare, to congeal, which 
from gehi, cdd. CJonn. with Jelly. 

Rtk. Visooufl. AlbomiiMnu. ModUi- 
sinoiu. Gummy, Gudry. Glotinona. 
Semiflnid. Lenuras. 

AxT. Limpid. Sparkling. Crystalline. 

Geud, adj. See Gelatmous. 

Stm. Frigid. Cold. Icy. 
Arr. Warm. Genial 

Gem, n. Gemma, a hud or 
signet, A yalnable of small size. 
A precious stone. See Grand. 

Gbnebality, n, Oenun, kind 
or doss. That which inclndes 
many species and individuals. 

Stk. Mass. Bollc Body. Mi^rity. 
Aut. Section. Minority. Exception. 

Genebalization, n. The r^ 
ducing of individxial objects or 
terms to genera or classes. See 

Generate, v. tr. Genus, a 
race ; generare, to propagate, 

Stw. Engender. Produce. Propagate. 

Amt. Stifle. Extinguish. Terminate. 

Generation, n. See Grenerate. 
Used also in the sense of so 
many individuals of a race as 
may be at a given time coex- 

Stn. Age. Period. Era. Epoch. Life- 

AuT. Perpetuity. Eternity. Immor- 

Genbeio, adj. See Generate. 
Belonging to the class, as dis- 
tinguished from the peculiarities 
of individuals. 

Stn. General. Conunon. Collective. 
Akt. Particular. Personal Specific. 

Genebous, adj. Generous 
meant of good genus or birth; 
and when the virtues were attri- 
buted to such, as it was once the 
tendency to do, the word Gene- 
rous was formed to express one 
of their imputed characteristics. 

Snr. Noble. Chiyalroaa. LiberaL Bis- 

Akt. MeuL Ignoble: IlUberaL SeUkb. 

Genial, adj. Grenius was, 
properly, the tutelar deity of 
each person ; hence, the life. So 
Grenial, that which tended to 
promote or preserve life. 

Stv. Warm. CordiaL Bahny. Berivi- 
tying. Restorative. 

Abt. CokL Cutting. Harsh. Deleteri- 
ous. Noxious. Deadly. Blighting. De> 
stmctiTe. UngeniaL LethaL 

Genius, n. See Grenial. Used 
also forthaCt peculiar gift which 
shows itself in inventive or crea- 
tive power, or the discovery of 
new combinations. Talent, on 
the other hand, is the adapting, 
measuring, and weighing mcully . 
Talent shows itself in operation 
or action; Grenius, in discovery 
and creation. It is laxly used 
in the sense of the following. 

Snr. Talent. Cleverness. Inventiveness. 
Creativeness. Intellect StdU. Qifkedness. 

Akt. StoUdity. Stupidity. Inanity 

Genteel, adj, GentUis, be- 
longing to a gens, or family, espe- 
ciidly to high family. The word 
is fast growing into disfavour. 

Sra. Polite. WeU-bred. Refined. Cour- 
teous. Fashionable. El^ant Aristo- 

Amt. Rude. Boorish. Ill-lHied. Qownish. 
Uii Fashionable. Unpolished. Inelegant. 

Gentilitt, n. See Grenteel. 

Gentle, adj. See Genteel 
for derivation, and remarks on 

Stn. Courteous. PoUte. High-bred. 
Mild. BUnd. Tame. Docile. 

Akt. Rough. Rude. Coarse. Fierce. 

Gentlemanlike, adj. See 
Gentle and GenteeL 

Gently, udv. See Grentle. 


I t 

Sifnanyina and Antonyms. 




GSNTTINX, adj, Oeriuinus, 
genus. Belonging to the true 
source or stock. 

Snr. Aothentia True. Sound. Un- 
adulterated. Yeritable. 

AST. Spurious. Fictitious. Adulterated. 

GxBM, n. Lat. germen, from 
gerere, to bear, . 

Snr. Seed. Nucleus. Embryo. Origin. 
Amt. Fruit Development Result 

Gsrhanb, adj\ German, a 
Celtic word, meamng Tieighbour, 
tiiat is, to the Gaul. 

Snr. Allied. Kindred. Belated. Homo- 
geneous. Appropriate. 

Ami. Unconnected. Foreign. Alien. 

GxBMiNATB, V. tfit See Germ. 

Snr. Sprout Shoot Bud. 
}. Bot Decay. 





HON, n. Gestictdari, from gerere, 
to bear (one*8 edf). See Attitude. 

GSSTUBB, n, Gestura, gerere, 
to bear (one's self), A significant, 
or in some way appropriate or 
iUnstratiye movement. See At- 

Get, v. tr. Sax. getan, 

Snr. Qaln. Procure. Acquire. Earn. 
Anr. Lose. Fcnlbit Surrender. Forego. 

GiWGAW, n. Fr, 
Eng. gaud. See Gand. 

Ghastly, adj. Sax. gdst, ghost 
or spirit, 

Snr. Deathlike. Spectral. PaUid. 
Hideous. Shocking. 

Aht. Blooming. Fresh. Comely. Seemly. 
Buxom. Buddy. 

Ghost, n. See Ghastly. 

Snr. Spectre. Apparition. Spirit 
Amt. Body. Animal. Organism. 

Giant, n. Fr. gSant, Lat. 
gigas, Gr. yrfytvfjs, earthtwrn, or 
sprung from the earth, 

Snr. Monster. Qydops. Colossus. 

Akt. Dwarf. Pigmy. Elf. Sylph. 

GtBBEB, V, int. Allied to 
Jabber and Gabble. See Gabble. 

See Glibber 


and Gabble. 

Gibbous, adj, Gihbosus, from 
gibbus, a hump, 

Stn. Convex. Protuberant Hunch- 

AST. Plane. Flat Linear. Concave. 

GiBB, t;. int, Fr. giber. To 

Stn. Sneer. ScolT. Ridicule. Taimt 
Ant. Salute. Compliment. 

Giddy, adj\ Sax. gidtg. Hav- 
ing the feeling of giddiness, or 
the character of giddiness, or 
tendency to produce giddiness, 
as, a giddy height. 

Stn. Whirling. Vertiginous. Thought- 
less. InouQbtant Unsteady. Lofty. 

Ant. Stationary. Slow. Ponderous. 
Tboughtftil. Earnest Steady. Low. Un- 
elevated. Wary. Circumspect 

Gift, n. Sax. gifan, to give. 
Something given. 

Stn. Donation. Present Grant Boon. 
Gratuity. Benefaction. Endowment Talent 

Ant. Reservation. Refusal Wages. 
Purchase. Earnings. Compensation. Re- 
muneration. Inanity. Stupidity. Forfeit 
Penalty. Fine. Surrender. 

Gigantic, adj. See Giant 
Like the apparance or the 
strength of a giant. 

Stn. Colossal Huge. Enormous. Her* 

Ant. Puny. Dwarfish. Feeble. 

GiOOLB, n, Lai cachinruire. 
Silly laughter. 

Syn. Cachinnation. Grin. Titter. 
Ant. Sob. Whhnper. Whine. Blubber. 

GiGOLB, V, int. See noun. 

Gild, v, tr. Sax. gdd. To 
overlay with gold. Used meta- 
phorically for to embellish. See 

Gilding, n. See Gild. 

GiMCRAOK, n. An Old Eng. 
word, apparently employed at 


Bytumyms and AnianytM. 

first of weak and pert chaiacters. 
Transferred to objects of cheap 
pretentiousness, ike Grewgaw. 

GiBD, V. tr. Sax. gyrdan. 

Sts. Sorroaod. Endrcle. Hem. Ed- 
vfnML Belt. EndoM. Enclnne. 

An. fMiiclose. Open. ExpuuL Dfaen- 
drcle. DLieDginlle: Ungird. 

GiBDLS, V, tr. See Gird. 

GiBTH, n. See Gird. The 
measure of the girding in band 
or outline. 

Gist, n. Fr. giste, a lying. 
That in which the force of a 
thing emphatically lies. 

8th. E«eDce. Pltli. Marrow. Sab- 
■tanoe. Kernel. Forre. 

Arr. SorploMfK. Bednndancj. Addi- 
tament EaTiroament. Aoooaories. G«rl». 

Gits, v. tr. See Gift 

Stv. Bestow. Grant Confer. Impart 
Yield. Prodooe. Sorrender. Oonoede. 
Present Afford. Communicate. 

Akt. Withhold. WiLbdraw. Befaae. 
Retain. Grasp. Fail Bestrain. Deny. 

Glabrous, adj. Lat glaber. 
Having a surface free of hairs 
or such like small excrescences. 

Stv. Smooth. Polished. Bald. Shtay. 
Sleek. GlaciaL Glassjr. 

Akt. Rough. Hairy. BrisUy. Wrinkkd. 
Hank. Shaggy. Hirsute. 

Glad, adj. Sar. gidfl. Used 
both of persons possessing, and 
objects or occurrences producing, 

Stv. Happy. Joyous. Pleased. Grati- 
fied. BlitheMmie. GleefU. 

Akt. Unhappy. SorrowftiL Disastroos. 
Sorry. Disappointed. Dtsmal. 

Gladden, v, tr. See Glad. 

Stk. Rejoice. Cheer. Gratity. Ezhi. 

Akt. Grieve. Disphit Disappoint 
Depress. AMict Trouble. Wonnd. 

Gladness, n. See Glad. 

Gladsome, adj. See Glad. 
Conduciye to gladness, or of a 
glad nature. 

Glairt, adj. Ft. glaire, the 
white of an egg. See Gelatinous. 

GiAMOUs, «. Perhaps jKmf 
Mfta, a white Betretion o^ ike 
eyet, accompanied by indistiiiet- 
ness of vision. Metaphorically, a 
distorted or deoeptire TisJon. 

Stv. HallndnatloQ. V la i onariwm Ob* 
tortkm. Btindneas 



Glance, v. int. CSerm. gtaw^ 
JUuh. Followed by prtp. si 
^See Graze. 

Glare, v. int. Allied to Lai 
darus. To shine with a strong 
and steady brightness, to which 
has been added the idea of ex- 
cessive or unsubdued bri^tnefis. 

Stv. Beam. Shine. Gleam. Bay. 

AvT. Shfamner. Sdntfltate. Glitter. 
Smonlder. Gtimmer. Glisten. Otliter. 
^wrkle. Flash. Flicker. 

Glare, n. See verb. 
Glaringlt, adv. See Glare. 

Stv. BrtMdly. Obrioiidy. ManUesOy. 

AvT. Covertly. Doabtftally. Obecorely. 
Soggestively. Su^iciunsly. 

Glassy, adj. Having any one 
or more of the properties of 
glass. Sax. glas. 

Stv. VitreoQs. Smooth. PblishMl. 
Glacial. Glabrons. BriUle. Transparent 
Crystalline. Pelludd. Limpid. Gloa^. 

Akt. Rough. Uneren. Rofcged. Pliant 
Tough. Opaque. Loteons. UvMy. Tu^ 
bU. Scabrous. 

Glavbr, V. tr. and int. To 
flatter. See Glabrous and Flatter. 
To smoothe down with wc»rds. 

Glaze, v. tr. See Glassy. -To 
make glassy. 

Stv. vltiefy. Gloss. FoUah. Burnish. 

AvT. Rongheo. Oorrogate. Rmnpl& 

Gleam, v. int. Sax. gldwan, 
to shine. See Glare. 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


Glean, v, tr, Fr. glaner. The 
word is probably connected with 
dean. To collect, so as to leave 
clean ; to clear off. See CJollect, 
whose meanings it largely fol- 
lows, meaning, like it, to gather 
together, to sum up, and to learn 
or infer. 

Glee, 71. Old English. Cknnp. 

Glib, adj, Dutch glippen, to 
dide. Allowing a body to slip 
easily over its surface. Metaphori- 
cally applied to ease of speech. 

Stk. Sl^peiy. Voluble. Smooth. 

AST. Rough. Abrupt Hesitating. 

Glimheb, v. int. Germ, glim- 
mertij to glimmer. See Glare. 

Glimpse, n. See Glimmer. 

Stk. Sight. InkllDg. Glance. Glim- 
mering. Survey. 

Akt. Obw'rvation. Scrutiny. Investi^ 
gation. Inspection. Analysis. Examina- 
tion. Exposure. 

Glisten, v, int. Sax. glesian. 
See Glare. 

Glisteb, v. tn^. QeTm.gli8tem. 
iSee Glare. 

Gmtteb, V, int. Gterm. glittern, 
fito Glare. 

Gloat, v. int. Gterm. glotzen, 
to look. Used in an unfavour- 
able sense, and followed by the 
pre^. over. 

STK, Revel. Glut Feast 
An. Avoid. Shun. Loathe. Abomi- 

Glomebation, n. See Con- 

Gloom, n. Old Eng. Comp. 
Glum and Gloam. 

Stn. Gloaming. IVllight. Obscurity. 
Shadow. Obscuration. 

Aht. Li^t. Radiance. Qeamess. 
Brightness. Daylight 

Gloript, V, tr. OloriOf glory, 
and facere, to make. To make 
subject of praise, or illustaious. 

Stn. Exalt Honour. Elevate. Laud. 
Praise. Signalize. Magnify. Aggran^ze. 

Ant. Depress. Debase. Abuse. Cen- 
sure. Degrade. Decry. Abase. Defame. 

Glory, n. See Glorify. 

Stn. Brightness. Radiance. Effhigence. 
Honour. Fame. Oelebri^. 

Ant. Obscurity. Ignominy. Gond. 
Dishonour. Degradation. 

Gloss, n. The meanings of 
this word seem to flow from two 
sources. Germ, gleissen, to glisten, 
gives it that of brightness or 
polish ; the Gr. yX&a-a-a (whence 
Glossary), that of interpretation, 
but with a bias to a particular 
meaning. yXoeij;, to polish, has 
been suggested as an obsolete 
root of yX&crcra, the tongue. 

Stn. Polish. Lustre. Misinterpreta- 
tion. Distortion. Perversion. Twist. 
Plea. Pretence. Speciousness. 

Ant. Nebiilousncfis. Haze. Literal- 
ness. Truth. ReprcKpntation. Interpreta- 
tion. Reality. Verily. 

Gloss, v. tr. See Gloss, n. 

Glow, v. int. Sax. gldwan. 
See Glare. 

Gloze, v. tr. See Gloss. 

Glut, v. tr. Lai glutire. 
Gomp. Deglutition. 

Stn. Gorge. FilL StulT. Cram. 
Ant. Disgorge. Empty. Void. 

Glut, n. See verb. Add. 

Stn. Surplus. Redundancy. Super- 
fluity. OversUMk. 

Ant. Scarcity. Scantiness. Dndna«re. 
Exhaustion. Dearth. Failure. 

Glutinous, oc?;. Gluten, glue. 
See Gelatinous. 

Gluttony, n. Glutton. See 

Stn. Greed. Gormandizement Voracity. 

Ant. Abstinence. FruMlity. Abste- 
miousness. Temperance. Vegetarianism. 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

Gnaw, v. tr. Sax. gnagan, to 
hite. Used metaphorically. 

Stk. Bite. Corrode. Canker. Vex. 

Axn. Soothe. Gladden. Soften. Ease. 
Comfort. Refresh. 

Go, V. int. Sax. gangan, Germ. 
gehen. Comp. Gang, a num- 
ber going together. 

Stn. Move. Depart. Pass. Travel. 
Vanish. Reach. *£xtend. 

Abt. Stand. Stay. Come. Remain. 
Abide. Rest Persist. Endnre. Lack. 

Goal, n. Fr. gentle, a pde or 

Stw. End. Scope. Afan. Termination. 
Close. Attainment. ConsimuDation. Ar- 

Ant. Commencement Starthig-point 
Course. Effort Appetition. 

Gobble, v. tr. Old Fr. goh, 
a morsel, 

Stk. Swallow. Gorge. Bolt 
AsT. Disgorge. Vomit 

Godless, adj\ Without Grod. 
See Wicked. 

Godliness, n. See Piety. 

Good, adj\ Sar. god, good. 

Stn. Right Complete. Sound. Vir- 
tuous. Pious. Benevolent Propitious. 
Serviceable. Suitable. Efficient Sufficient. 
Competent Valid. Real. Actual Con- 
siderable. Honourable. Repntable. 

Ant. Wrong. Imperfect Unsound. 
Vicious. Profane. Nie^ardly. Unpropi- 
tlous. Unserviceable. Unsuitable, in- 
efficient Inadequate. Lioompetent In- 
valid. Fictitious. Supposititious. Incon- 
siderable. Mean. Disgraceftd. Disreput- 
able. Bad. EviL 

Good, n. See adj, 

Syn. Boon. Benefit Advantage. Gain. 
Blessing. Mercy. 

Ant. Hurt Ii^Jury. Loss. Detriment. 
Evil. Disadvantage. III. Calamity. In- 
flicUon. Curse. 

Goodly, adj. See above. 

Stn. Pleasant Desirable. Fair. Comely. 

Ant. Unpleasant Undesirable. Un- 
comely. Inconsiderable. 

Gorge, v. tr. To swallow 
greedily, and in large quantities. 

Ft. gorge, the throat. See Swal- 

Gorgeous, adj\ Old Pr. gor- 
gias, a ruff or neckerchief. Comp. 
(Jorge and G^nrget, neck armour, 
thence applied to highly omar 
mental array in general, and also 
to decorations. 

Stn. Magnificent Splendid. Costly 
Rich. Superb 

Ant. Poor. Naked. Bare. Cbesp. 
Threadbare. Dowdy. Dingy. 

Gormandize, v, tr. and int. Fr. 
gourmand, a glutton. See Grob- 

Gk>ssiF, n. and v. int. Sax. 
Qod 8ib) relation in Ood. Grod- 
father or godmother. The re- 
lationship giving an opportunity 
of discussing domestic matters, 
the word Gc^p came to mean a 
babbler about the priyate affairs 
of others. See Babble and Bab- 

Govern, v. tr. Ovbemare, 
to rule or steer. 

Stn. Rule. Direct ControL Moderate. 
Guide. Sway. 

Ant. Mimile. Misdirect MisoontroL 

Governor, n. See Gk)vem. 

Grab, v, tr. Conn, with Grab- 
ble, Grapple, and Gripe. See 

Grabble, V. tw^. Frequent; of 
Grab. See Grovel. 

Grace, n. Oratia. Physical 
and moral gracefulness, the latter 
being shown in condescension 
and benevolence. Grace has 
sometimes the sense of endow- 
ment as the result of kindness or 
love, as in theology. 

Stn. Favour. Beauty. Condeaoensioo. 
Kindness. Elegance. 

Ant. Disfavour. Deformity. Prlda 
Unkindness. Inelegance. AwkwaxdnoHL 

Synonyim and Antonyms. 


GBA0XLB88, adj\ See Grace. 
Commonly used to mean want- 
ing grace in its moral or reli- 
gions sense. 

Stk. UngraceAiL Yidoog. Scampish. 
Reprobate. Abandoned. WorthleflB. 

Ant. Graceful Ylitoons. Oonsdentioas. 
Upright Worthy. 

Gbacious, adj. See Grace. 

Stn. Affable. Ooorteoas. Benignant. 

Airr. Hanghty. Dlsoourteons. Ill-dls- 
poaed. Ungracious. GburUah. 

Gradation, n, Oradus, a 
step. Used for the point and 
the process of it. 

Snr. Stage. 'Her. Degree. Rank. 
Graduation. Ordination. Arrangement. 

AsT. Equality. Unlfonnity. Fraternity. 
Ahruptoesa. Saltation. 

Grade, n. Degree. See Gra- 

Gradual, adj. See Gradation. 
Step by step. 

Stk. Slow. Continuous. Unintermit- 
tent. GradationaL 

Am*. Sudden. Momentary. Instan- 
taneoua. Periodic Recurrent. Intermit- 
tent. Discontinuous. Broken. Discon- 

Graduate, v. tr. See Grar 
dation. To arrange in rank. See 

Graft, v, tr. Old Eng. graff. 

Snr. Bud. Insert Incorporate. Inocu- 

A]«T. See Integrate. 

Grain, n. Granum, a seed. 
Conn, with com and kernel. 
Used metaphorically in the sense 

Snr. Essence. Nature. Will. Texture. 
Disposition. AflTectlon. Inducement 

Akt. Influence. Grcumstance. 

Grand, adf. Grandis. 

Snr Large. Dignified. Imposing. Im- 
portant Eventful. Magnificent 

Akt. Little. Undignified. Unlmposing. 
Srcondary. Inferior. Unimportant Petty. 
Paltry. Beggarly. Mean. Common. In- 

Grandeur, n. See Grand. 

Snr. Dignity. Magnificence. 
AxT. Meanness. Paltriness. 

Grandiloquenoe. n. Grandis, 
grand, and logui, to speak. 

Snr. Verbosity. Pomposity. Monthi- 
ncss. Grandiosity. Altiloquence. Stilted- 
ness. Euphuism. Turgidtty. Fustian. 

Airr. Simplicity. Plain-spokenness. 
NaXvetd Unaffectedness. Vernacular. 

Grandiose, adj. See Grand. 
Used in an nnfavonrable sense of 
the affectation of impressiveness 
in style of speech and manners. 

Snr. <S(0e Grandiloquence. 

Grant, v. tr. Old Eng. graunt. 
Supposed to be from credentare, 
which from credere, to believe or 

Snr. Give. Allot Bestow. Confer 
Transfer. Admit Allow. Concede. 

Akt. Withhold. Withdraw. Reserve. 
Resume. Deny. 

Graphic, adj. ypd<f>€iv, to 
vrrite or describe. 

Snr. Picturesque. Illustrative. De- 
scriptive. Pictorial 

Akt. Unpicturesque. Unillustrutive. 

Grapple, v. iM. Conn, with 
Grab. See Contend. 

Grasp, v. tr. Old Germ, grab- 
ben. Used physically and in- 
tellectually. See Grab. 

Snr. Seize. Hold. Clasp. ReUin. 

Akt. Loose. Lose. Abandon. Re- 
linquish. Stirrender. Release. Miss. Mis- 

Grate, v. tr. and int. Fr. 


Stk. Rab. Scrape. Jar. Scratch. 

Akt. Glide. SUp. SUde. Lubricate. 

Grateful, adj. Gratus, pleor 
santf grateful. 

Snr. Pleasant Acceptable. Agreeable'. 
Thankful Oblig(>d. Welcome. 

Akt. Unpleasant Unacceptable. Dis- 
agreeable. Ungi-ateful Disobliged. 

Gratification, n. Gratus„ 
plea^nt, facer e, to make. 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

Stv. Pleasure. Eqjoyniait. QaXuSac- 
tion. Xodalgence. 

AnT. Pain. Dislike. Diaappofntment. 
Abatinence. AbosgatioD. Stinting. Disci- 
pline. Inurement. 

Gbatift, V, tr. See Gratifies- 

Stk. Please. Satisfy. Indnlge. Hn- 

Akt. Displease. DIssatisty. Disappoint. 
Stint. Discipline. Inure. Harden. De- 
prive. Deny. 

Gratitudb, n. See Gratifica- 

Snr. Thankfulness. 

AsT. UnLbankfulnesB. Ingratitude. 
Thanklessness. Oblivion. BesenunenL 

GEATUiTOCrs, adj. Lat. gratis. 
Has the twofold meaning of 
without equivalent and wittiout 
propriety; that is, uncalled for 
by circumstances. 

Stn. Free. Uncompensated. Voluntary. 
Unwarrantedl Groundless. Wanton. 

Akt. Compulsory. Involuntary. Obli- 
gatory. Necessitated. Warranted. Well- 

Geatuitt, n. See Gratuitous. 

Stn. See Bonos. 

Gbatdlation, n. See Con- 

Geavb, adj. Orava, heavy. 
The word is not used of physical 
things, but evente, considera- 
tions, circumstances, character, 
and demeanour. 

Stn. Sad. Serious. Demure. Solemn. 
Important. Aggravated. Heavy. Cogent 

Ant. Joyous. Merry. Facetious. Ridi- 
culous. Unimportant. Trivial. Light. 
Frivolous. Futile. 

Geavely, w. See Grave. 

Geaze, v. tr. Sax. grds, grass. 
To shave or pass lightly over. 

Stn. Shave. Scrape. Skim. Abrade. 

Ant. Strike. Impinge. Collide. En- 

Gbbat, adf. Sax. great. 

Stn. Big. Wide. Huge. Numerous. 
Protracted. Excellent. Magnanimous. 
Noble. Powerful. Exalted. Noticeable. 

AvT. Little. Narrow. Puny. Few. 
Scanty. ShorL Mean. Ignoble. Weak. 

Gbkkdt, adj. Greed. Goth. 
gredus, hunger. 

Snr. Gluttooous. Yoracioaa. Hungry. 
Desirous. ATarlcioasu 

AST. Abstemious. Abstinent Indif- 
ferent C<Mitented. 

Gbeet, V. ir. Sax. gretan. To 
address. See Address. 

GeegaeiouS, adj. OreXj gregis, 
a flock. Formed of society, or 
living in communities. 

STN.SodaL Sodable. Oonsodative. 
Ant. UnsociaL Unsociable. Solitary. 

Geief, n. Lat. gravis, heavy. 
That which weighs heavily upon 
the mind. 

Stn. Trouble. Tribulation. AfQiction. 
Sorrow. Sadness. 

Ant. Joy. ExulUtion. Delight Ela- 
tion. Hilarity. 

Geieyanob, n. Qravamen, a 
burden. See Grief. 

Stn. Burden. Injury. Complaint 

Ant. Cragratulation. Rejoicing. Boon. 
Benefit Alleviati(»i. Disburdenment Rid- 
dance. Privil^e. 

Geieve, v. tr. and int. See 
Grief, act. and neut. 

Stn. Trouble. Burden. Annoy. Afflict. 
Mourn. Lament Complain. De^ore. 

Ant. Ease. Console. Soothe. Please. 
Rejoice. Exult Gratify. AllevUte. 

Grievous. See Grief. 

Stn. Sad. Heavy. Afflictive. Lamen- 
table. Deplorable. Sorrowful. 

Ant. Joyous. Delightful Pleasant 
Glad. Consolatory. GratefuL Welcome. 
Acceptable. Trifihig. Light Trivial. 

Geievously, adv. See Griev- 

Geim, adj. Sax. grimman, to 

Stn. Fierce. Ferocious. Terrible 

Ant. Mild. Docile. Attractiye. Placid. 

Geimacb, n. Sax. grima, a 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


8th. Contortion. Taunt. Sneer. Scoff. 
Amt. Countenance. Admiration. Ob- 
servance. Respect Regard. Gaze. 

Gbimb, V, tr. Sax. hrum, soot, 
hrim, CJomp. Eime, Hoar-frost. 
To sully wiili particles of dirt. 

Sth. Smear. Sully. Dirt. Smudge. 
Aht. Cleanse. Purify. Lave. Wash. 
Abslerge. Beauiify. 

Gbin, n. and v. Sax. See 

Grind, v. Sax. grindar, to 
grind. Used metaphorically. 
See Oppress. 

Grips. Sax. gripan. CJomp. 
Grab and Grip. To seize tightly ; 
to prodnce pain as if so seized. 

Stn. Grasp. Seize. Clutch. Gnaw. 
Pain. Squeeze. Screw. 

AST. Abandon. Relax. Sootbe. Ease. 

Griping, adj. See Gripe. 
Used metaphorically; also in 
the sense of Avaricious, which 

Groan, v. int. Old Eng. 

Stn. Moan. Wbine. Growl. Grumble. 
Akt. Giggle. Cackle. Chuckle. Titter. 

Grope, v, int. Sax. grapian. 
Allied to Gripe, and used in the 
sense of feeling after an object, 
and in the dark. 

Sm. FeeL Search. Grabble. Fumble. 
Akt. Gratsp. Seize. Hold. Expose. 
Discover. Attain. Manipulate. 

Gross, adj. Fr. gros, great. 
Implies, 1, size, and 2, a coarse 
degree of it. 

Stm. Entire. Vulgar. Vicious. Im- 
pare. Coarse. Bloated. Sensual. Animal 
A»T. PartiaL Nett. Pure. Refined. 

Grotesque, oc/y. Grotto. Gr. 
Kpxnrros, hidden. Comp. Crypt. 
Like the whimsical figures found 
in grottoes. 

Stk. Whimsical Odd. Quaint. Bur- 
lesque. Archaic. Caricatured. Distorted. 

Akt. Classic Chaste. Fine. Fashion- 
able. GraoeAil. Severe. 

Ground, n. Sax. grund, 

ground, earth, gravel. Comp. 
Grind. Used metaphorically. 

8ys. Basis. Foundation. Premiss. Rea- 
son. Cause. Account. Plea. 

Ant. Superstructure. Statement. Argu- 
ment Inference. Deduction. 

Grounded, adj. See Ground. 
Applied to persons and ideas, or 

Stk. Rooted. Established. Initiated. 
Inaugurated. Prepared. Indoctrinated. 

Akt, Ungrounded. Untangled. Unpre- 
pared. Uninitiated. Unfounded. Baseless. 
Unauthorized. Groundless. . 

Groundless, adj. See Ground. 

Syk. Vain. Supposititious. Unfounded. 
Baseless. Fanciftil. Gratuitous. Chime- 

Akt. Well-founded. Substantial Au- 
thoritative. Actual. Authentic 

Group, n. Fr. groupe. A 
collection, with an implied idea 
of purposed arrangement, or at 
least orderb'ness. 

Stk. Cluster. Bunch. Knot. Assem- 
blage. Collocation. ClatiS. Collection. 

Ant. isolation. Individual Crowd. 
Confusion. Medley. 

Grovel, v. int. Germ. Aroi- 
heln, to crawl. Used always un- 
favourably, in. the sense of ac- 
tions of a base or sensual de- 

Syn. Crawl Cringe. Wallow. Gral>bie. 

Ant. Soar. Aspire, lyfount. Rise. 

Grow, v. int. Sax. growan. 
Conn, with crescere. Comp. Ac- 

Stk. Increase. Advance. Extend. Ac> 
crue. Become. Develop. Amplify. 

Akt. Diminish. Recede. Contract 
Fail Stop. Die. Wane. 

Growl, v. int. Old Germ. 
gruUen, to be angry. 

Stk. Snarl Grumble. Complain. Re- 
monstrate. Murmur. Grunt 

Akt. Chuckle. Cackle. Grin. Purr. 

Growth, n. See Grow. 
Grub, v. int. See Grovel. 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

Gbudob, V, tr. Old English. 
To look upon, with desire to 
appropriate or retain. Followed 
grammatically by the object, or 
tiie object and person, but not 
by the person alone. 

Snr. Spare. Bctaio. Coret Eiivy. 

Akt. b^nd. Impsrt Welcome. Satisfy. 

Grudge, n. See verb, 

Stn. Spite.' Grievance. DissatisfactioiL 
Discontent ReftisaL 

Ant. Weio(nne. Satisfaction. Approval. 
Gontentment Gomi&cenqr. BestowaL 

Gbuff, adj\ Dan. grof. 

Stk. Bough. Surly. Harsh. Bearish. 
AST. Smooth. Mild. Af&ble. Oonr- 

Gbumblx, V, int Low. Grerm. 
grummeln. See GrowL 

Gbumpy, adj. See Grumble 
and iSurly. 

Grunt, v. int, Lat. grunnire. 
See GrowL 

GuABD, V, tr, Fr, guarder. 
Compare Guard and Ward, 
Guardian and Warden. See Pro- 

Guarded, adf. See Guard. 
Said of disposition and demean- 
our. See Calculating. 

Guardian, n. See Guard. 

Srw. Keeper. Protector. Conservator. 

AuT. Traitor. Betrayer. PupiL Ward, 

Guess, v, tr. Old Eng. Allied 
to Sax. gitan, to get. 

Stn. Conjecture. Surmise. Divine. 
Suppose. Suspect 

Ant. Examine. Prove. Investigate. 
Establish. Demonstrate. Elaborate. De- 

Guest, n, Lat. hostis, first, a 
stranger f afterwards, an enemy ; 
as in Gr. $€vos, first, a strangei^, 
afterwards a friend, 

SvN. Visitor. 

AnT. Entertahier. Host 

Guidance, n. See Guide. 
Guide, v. t7\ Fr. guider, 

Snr. Lead, Direct Conduct Pilot 
Regulate. Superintend. Influence. Train. 

Art. Mislead. Misdirect Misconduct 
Mismanage. Misregulate. Misguide. Mis- 
educate. Betray. Deceive. 

Guile, n. Sax. and Modem 
Eng. u^7e. 

Stk. Craft TreadieTy. Deceit Can- 
ning. Insidiousness. Artifice. 

Amt. Honesty. Simplicity. fVanknesa. 
Generosity. Oandonr. ^oerity. 

Guilsless, adj. See Guile 
and Graft. 

Guilt, n. See Guile and 

Guiltlbss, adf. See Guile 
and Innocent. 

Guise, w. Fr.^rwise.- Greneral 

Stk. Aspect Gartx Semblance. Plea. 

Akt. Character. Person. Individnal. 
Sentiment Disposition. Opinion. Life: 
Mhid. SouL Self. 

Gull, v. From the bird— said 
to be foolish. Comp. the use of 
the following names of birds — 
Dupe, Booby, Groose. 

Stn. See Cheat 

Gulp, v, tr, Dan. gdlpe, a 
whirlpool or gtdf. See SwaDow. 

Gush, v, int. Low Grerm. 

Stk. Burst Stream. Flow. Gilsb. 

Akt. Drip. Drop. Dribble. Trickle. 
Strain. Drain. Oose. FUter. Percolate. 

Gust, w., Gustablb, adj.; 
Gustation, n,; Gustpul, adj,; 
Gustless, adj, Lat. gusttiSf 
taste. See Taste. 

Gust, n, Iceland, gustr. Used 

Stk. SquaU. Blast Puff. Fit Out- 

Akt. Calm. Tranquillity. Subeidence. 
Bestraint Composure. Zephyr. 

Guzzle, v, int, A modifica- 
tion of Guttle. See Gorge. 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


Habiliment, n. Fr. hahiUe- 
ment, Lat. habere, hahituSf Eng. 
Juibit, in the sense of dress. Used 
also, in the plural, of official or 
state dress. 

Stn. DresB. YestmeDts. Robes. Uni- 

Amt. Deahabille. Undress. 

Habilitatb, V, tr. See noun, 

Habilitation, n, Lai habilis, 
habere, from which is derived 
ability. An old word extensively 

Stk. Qnallfication. Entlttement. Em- 

AST. Dlsqnaliflcation. Depression. De- 
bsaement Dishabilitation. 

Habit, n. See Habiliment. 
That which is constantly asso- 
ciated with the individual, in 
dress or demeanour. The word 
illustrates the double sense of 
custom and costume, from cmin 

Stn. Habitoation. Costom. Famillaritj. 
Association. Inurement. 

Ant. Dishabltuation. Inexperience. In- 
oonversance. Desuetude. iS^ee Habiliment. 

Habitation, n. Eabitare, 
habere. Where one has one's 
self, or abides continually. See 

Habitual, adj. See Habit. 

Stn. Kegular. Ordinary. PerpetuaL 
Customary. Usual. 

Ant. Irrq^lar. Extraordinaiy. Occa- 
sional. Unusual. Exceptional. Bare. 

Habituatb, V. tr. See Habit 
and AccustonL 

Habitude, n. See Habii An 
habitual state. 

Stn. State. Fixity. Ooudition. AUi- 

Ant. Action. Exereise. Operation. 

Hack, v. tr. Sax. haeean. 

Stn. Chop. Notch. Curtail. Indent 
Ant. Smootbe. Plane. Polish. Glaze. 
7amish. Gloss. Repair. Turn. Carve. 

Hackneyed, adj. Old Fr. 
haque, whence hackney, a horse 
for hire. Used of ideas and ex- 

Stn. Trite. Worn. Stale. Threadbare. 
Ant. Novel. Bright. Original. Recent 

Hagoabd, adj. Conn, with 
Hawk. The original meaning 
of this term was wild, and in- 
clined to behave like a refractory 
hawk ; hence, wild in appear- 
ance, especially with a wild, 
worn, anxious expression of the 

Stn. Wild. Wasted. Worn. Attenu- 
ated. Wrinkled. 

Ant. Sleek. Smug. Chubby. Plump. 

Haggle, v. int, Scoteh, hay, 
for hack, to cut into small pieces. 
To be hard at bargaining. 

Stn. Higgle. Chaffer. Bargain. StlcMe. 
Ant. Yield. Deduct. Abate. Reduce. 

Hail, v. tr. Der. uncertain. 
Perhaps, heil, health, answering 
to the Latin saluto, from solus, 
meaning the same thing. 

Stn. Accost Address. Salute. CaU. 
Welcome. Greet 

Ant. Ignore. Pass. Cut Avoid. 

Halcyon, Halcyonio, adj. 
The bird halcyon was said to lay 
her eggs close to the sea, during 
the calm of the winter solstice. 
This was taken to prognosticate 
the absence of stormy weather. 

Stn. Calm. Serene. Balmy. Unruffled. 
Ant. Stormy. Troublous. Tempestu* 
ous. Blustering. Boisterous. 

Half, n. Sax. heaJf. 

Stn. Moiety. Bisection. Dimldlation. 
Ant. Integrity. Entirety. TotaUty. 

Hallow, v. tr. Sax. halig, 

Stn. Consecrate. Venerate. Reverence. 
Ant. Desecrate. Profane. Blaspheme. 
Abominate. Execrate. 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

Hallucjination, w. Lat. hal- 
Ittcinarif to see disoi'dered visions. 

Stk. Delirium. Delusion. Phantasm. 

Ant. Perception. Observation. Sight. 

Hallucination is the result of 
a disordered constitution, as 
phantasm of a disordered mind. 

Halt, v. int. Sax, healtian, to 

Stn. Stop. Rest. Limp. Falter. Heai- 
tate. Hammer. Stammer. Demur. Dubi- 

Am. Advance. Decide. Determine. 
Speed. Flow. Career. 

Handle, v. tr. Hand. 

Stn. FeeL Treat Use. Manage. 

Ant. Drop. Mismanage. Bangle. 

Handmaid, n. A maid at 
hand or in service. The word is 
used, metaphorically, of that 
which is ancillary to another 
thing, from ancilla, a handmaid : 
as, * music, the handmaid of re- 

Syn. Servant Auxiliary. Supporter. 
Ant. Antagonist Opponent 

Handsome, adj. Hand. The 
old meaning of the word was 
handy, adroit, dexterous. Thence 
applied, as still in Scotland, to 
the figure and limbs in which 
appear that moulded and well- 
turned character which accom- 
pany agility; and thence trans- 
ferred again, as in England, to 
the contour and moulding of the 
features. It is used, metaphori- 
cally, of graceful deeds and cha- 

Syn. Comely. Good-looking. Generous. 

Ant. Uncomely. Ill-looking. Ungene- 
rous. Illiberal. Unhandsome. 

Handy, adj. See Handsome. 
Coming well to hand. 

Stn. Near. Convenient Useful. Help- 
toL Manageable. 

Ant. Remote. Inconvenient Awkward. 
Useless. Cumbrous. Unwieldy. Unhandy. 

Hang, v. int. and tr. Sax. 
hangan. Used metaphorically. 

Syn. Rest Lean. Depend. Suspend. 
Ant. Stand. 

Hankeb. Allied either to 
Hang or Hunger. To hang about 
a thing in desire, and so to feel 
appetite. Used with the prep. 

Syn. Long. Yearn. Crave. Hunger. 
Ant. Dtelike. Shun. Loathe. Abomi- 
nate. Detest Abhor. Avoid. 

Hap, w. Welsh. Luck or 
chance. See Luck. 

Hapless, adj. See Luckless. 

Haply, adv. See Perhaps. 

Happen, v. int. See Hap and 

Happy, adj. See Hap. Ac- 
cording to hap or luck. 

Syn. Lucky. Fortunate. Felicitous. 
Successful. Delighted. Joyous. Merry. 

Ant. Unlucky. Unfortunate. Infelici- 
tous. Unsiiocessful. SorrowfUL Sony. 
Disappointed. Dull. Lugubrious. De- 
sponding. Unhappy. 

Harangue, n. Arena. Comp. 
Ring. A speech made to a num- 
ber of persons. As speech is 
generic, so oration is an elaborate 
and prepared speech. Harangue, 
a speech, appeals not to the 
taste, but the passions. 

Syn. Speech. Oraiion. ESusion. De- 
clamation. Rant 

Ant. Stammer. Stutter. Mutter. 
Mumble. Drawl. Insinuation. Suggestion. 
Reasoning. Bland iloquence. 

Harass, v. tr. Old Ft. harasse, 
a large heavy shield j which isr 
tigued and galled the wearer. 

Syn. Weary. Annoy. Fatigue. Jade. 
Tease. Irritate. Chafe. Molest Worry 
Vex Harrow. 

Ant. Refresh. Comfort Solace. Re- 
lieve. Soothe. Animate. Inspirit 

Harbinger, n. Germ, her- 
berger. Conn, with Harbour. 
One who finds rest or lodging. 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


Secondly, one who, to find lodg- 
ing, goes before a great personage 
to announce his coming; hence, 
thirdly, one who announces a 
person or event. 

Sth. Announcer. Herald. Precursor. 

Amt. Reporter. Narrator. Relater. 

Historian. Follower. Attendant. 

Habbotjb, w. See Harbinger. 

Sns. Haven. Rest. Refuge. Shelter. 
Anchorage. Home. 

Aht. Labour. Toil. Peril. Exposure. 
Voyage. Roving. Roaming. Wandering. 
Pilgrimage. TossiDg. 

Harbour, v. tr. See Harbour, 
w. Used in the senses of giving 
acconunodation, and finding a 
place in the mind for certain 
thoughts or sentiments. 

Stn. Accommodate. Cherish. Enter- 
tain. Encourage. 

Amt. inject. ExpeL Discard. Dlscou- 
.rage. Stifle. Exclude. Banish. Dismiss. 

Hard, adj. Sax. heard, Gr. 
Kparos, strength, 

Stn. Firm. Dense. Solid. Compact. 
Unyielding, impenetrable. Arduous. Diffi- 
cult. Qrievous. Distressii^. Rigorous. 
Oppressive. Exacting. Unfeeling. Stub- 
bom. Harsh. Forced. Constrained. In- 

Aht. Soft. Fluid, Liqnid. Elastic 
Brittle. Penetrable. Easy. Mild. Lenient. 
Toider. Ductile. Uninvolved. Simple 
Intelligible. Perspicuous. 

Harden, v. tr. See Hard. 

Stk. Inure. Train. Habituate. Con- 
firm. Indurate. Consolidate. Compact 

Amt. Disinure. Relax. Enervate. De- 
bilitate. Dishabituate. Soften. Melt. 
MolUfy. ColUquate. Vaporize. 

Hardihood, n. See Hardy 
and Audacity. 

Hardly, adv. See Hard. 

Snr. Bardy. Just Scarcely. Kar- 

Amt. Fully. Amply. Easily. Largely. 

Hardship, n. See Hard. 

Stn. Trouble. Burden. Annoyance. 
Grievance. Calamity. Infliction. Endur- 

Ant. Pleasure. Amusement. Allevia- 
tion. Recreation. Gratification. Relief. 
Assuagement. Facilitation. Boon. Treat. 

Hardy, adj. See Hard. 

Stn. Inured. Robust. Strong. Reao* 

Ant. Weak. Uninured. Delicate. Ir- 
resolute. Enervated. Debilitated. Fragile. 
Tender. . 

Harm, n. Sax. 

Stn. Hurt. Mischief. Ii\jury. Detri- 
ment Damage. 

Ant. Benefit Boon. Amelioration. 
Improvement Reparation. Compensation. 
Healing. Remedy. 

Harmless, cuij. See Harm. 

Stn. Innocuous. Innoxious. Inoffen- 
sive. Innocent. Gentle. 

Ant. Nocuous. Noxious. HurtftiL 
Savage. Cruel. Deadly. Violent De- 
structive. Mischievous. Pernicious. 

Harmonious. Harmony. Gr. 
dp^ovia, a joint joining or com- 
pacting ; apoif I join. 

Stn. Congruous. Accordant Propor- 
tioned. Uniform. Melodious. Musical. 
Dulcet Tuneful. Peaceful. Agreeable. 
Amicable. Friendly. 

Akt. Incongruous. Discordant. Dfs- 
proportioned. tlnshapely. Hnrsh. Grating. 
Unmelodlous. Unfriendly. Riotous. Un- 
peaceful. QuarreLsome. 

As at present used, harmony, 
in music, is the relation of single 
notes to chords, melody, Qie 
ascent, dwelling, or descent of 
single notes. 

Harmony, n. See Harmo- 

Harness, n. Old Fr. Used 
formerly of the accoutrements of 
man, horse, and equipage. See 

Harp, v. Sax. hearpe, a harp. 
Used metaphorically. 

Stn. Peg. Strum. Hammer. Drum. 
Ant. Touch. Handle. Treat Manage. 

Harrow, v, tr, Lat. hirpex, 
Low Lat. hercia, a harrow. Used 
metaphorically. See Harass. 

Harsh, adj. Germ, harsch. 
Expresses what is uncongenial, 
more especially, in the firat in- 
stance, to the hearing and the 


Synonyms and Antonyms, 

toucli, and is used^ analogously, 
of disposition, language, and de- 

Syv. Bongh. Orating. Severe. Sharp. 
Akt. Smoothe. Melodious. Lenient. 
Suave. Bland. GenUe. Genial Kindly. 

Habshlt, adv. See Harsh. 

Habvbst, w. Sax. As it 
were, herb-feast, or time of car- 
rying the grain. It is used, me- 
taphorically, of abundance of 
things profitable. 

Stit. Growth. Produce. Abundance. 
Profit. Gahi. Influx. Accession. Aug- 
mentation. Crop. 

AnT. Diminution. Failure. Scarcity. 
Loss. Famine. Waste. Damage. Calamity. 
Euination. Beverse. Blight 

Haste, w. Old Fr. haste. 

Stk. Speed. Celerity. Expedition. 
Hurry. Despatch. Excitement. Heedless- 

Ant. Slowness. Tardiness. Delay. 
Coolness. BefiecUon. Moderation. Steadi- 

Hasten, v. tr, and M, See 

Stn. Accelerate. Urge. Expedite. 
Speed. Press. Hurry. 

Akt. Betard. Impede. Obstruct. De- 
mur. Hesitate. Halt. 

Hasty, adj\ See Haste. 

Syn. Speedy. Bapid. SuperfldaL 
Hurried. Irascible. Impetuous. Beckless. 
Headlong. Crude. Incomplete. Unde- 
veloped. Immature. 

Akt. Slow. Leisurely. Careful. Close. 
Beflective. Developed. Matured Complete. 
Elaborate. Thoughtful Deliberate. 

Hatch, v. tr. Germ, hecken. 
Used metaphorically. 

Stn. Prepare. Concoct. Devise. Scheme. 
Brew. Plot. Contrive. Incubate. 

Ant. Disconcert. Upset Expose. Dis- 
sipate. Counteract. Baffle. Mar. Spoil. 
Frustrate. Neutralize. 

Hate, v. tr. Sax. hatran, to 
hate. See Abhor. 

Hateful, adj. See Hate. 

Stn. Abominable. Detestable. Vile. 
Odious. Heinous. Execrable. 

Ant. Loveable. Lovely. Desirable. 
DelightfuL Attractive. EnUcing. Tempt- 
ing. Pleasant ElUoyable. 

Haughty, adj. Fr. haut, 
high. See Affable. 

Haul, v. tr. Dan. halen. Same 
as hale, to drag. See Drag. 

Haunt, v. tr. Sax. hentan, to 
pursue, go after. In English, to 
frequent. See Abandon. 

Have, v. tr. Lat. habere, to 

Stn. Own. Possess. FeeL Entertain. 

Accept. Bear. Eiv)oy. Keep. 

Ant. Want Need. Lose. Forego. 

Discard. Bciject Miss. Desiderate. Covet. 

Haven, n. Sax. ha/en. See 

Havoc, n, Welsh, hafog. 

Stn. Desolation. Buin. Waste. Wreck. 
Bavage. Demolition. Destruction. De- 

Ant. Conservation. Enhancement Ed- 
richmeut. Augmentation. Development 
Productiveness. Luxuriance. Prc^perity. 

Hawk, v. tr. Germ, hoken, to 
higgle. To sell by outcry, or in 
different places, as a pedler. 

Stn. SelL Peddle. Betail. 
Ant. Beserve. Store. Suitress. With- 
hold. House. Bond. Store. 

Hawkeb, n. See Hawk. 

Hazabd, v. tr. Fr. An un- 
foreseen disaster, or hidden 

Stn. Peril Bisk. Jeopardy. Danger. 

Ant. Safety. Security. Protectioa 
Warrant Certainty. CalculaUon. Law. 

Hazy, adj. Haze. Armoric, 
a^z, warm vapour. 

Stn. Voggy. Nebulous. Misty. Filmy. 
Qauzy. Cloudy. Caliginous. Murky. 

Ant. Diaphanous. Clear. Crystalline. 

Head, n. Gterm. haupt. Allied 
to Lat caput. Used metaphori- 
cally or aiialogously. 

Stn. Top. Crown. Chiet Leader. 
Buler. Mind. Source. Section. Division. 
Topic Gathering. Culmination. Cri^ 

Synontfms and Antonyms. 


Am. Tail. Bottom. Foot. Follower.! 
Servant. Retainer. SuT)ordinate. Subordi- 
nation. Inferiority. Body. Bulk. Sub- 
ject GontinuatlAn. 

Heading^ n. See Head and 

Headlong, adj\ See Haaty. 

Hbadstbong, adj. See Head 
and Obstmate. 

Heal, v. tr. Sax. Mian, From 
hdH, hale or sound. To make 
flOTiiid after injury. Applied 
both to wounds and the wounded. 

Stk. Cure. Repair. Restore. Remedy. 
.Assuage. Cicatrize. 

Amp. Harm. Hurt Wound. Pierce. 

Healthy, adj. Health. See 
Heal. Having or imparting 

Stn. Vigorous. Sound. Robust Strong. 
Hale. Salubrious. AVliolesome. 

Amt. Unhealthy. Unsound. Weak. 
Delicate. Fragile. Noxious. Pernicious. 

Health, n. See Healthy. 

Heap, v, tr. Sax. See Accu- 

Heart, n. Sax. heorte, Germ. 
Tierz, Gr. Krjp, Lat. cor. Re- 
garded as the centre of life and 
the seat of courage and beneyo- 

Stn. Core. Nucleus. Kernel. Interior. 
Centre. Character. Disposition. Courage. 
Hardihood. Nature. Life. Feeling. Be- 

Akt. Exterior. Hand. Action. Aspect 
Manifestation. Conduct Deed. Timidity. 

Heartiness. See Hearty. 

Hearty, ar//. See Heart. Ex- 
hibiting heart in the two senses, 
01 the centre of yitality and the 
centre of feeling. 

Stk. Healthy. Robust. Sound. Cor- 
dial. Warm. Honest 

Ajrr. Unhealthy. Delicate. Infirm. 
Cold. Insincere. 

Heat. Sax. hate. Comp. Hot. 
Used metaphorically of excite- 
ment of passion or feeling. 

Syv. Warmth. Ardour. Passion. Ex- 
citement Fever. Ebullition. Intensity. 

Ant. Coolness. Indifference. Subsi- 
dence. Calmness. Composure. Reflection. 

Heathen, Heathenish, adj. 
Either from edvrj, nations, mean- 
ing the unconverted world, or 
heide, Germ, heath, or open 
country, as distinguished from 
the towns, in which the first con- 
versions took place. So Pagans 
were rustics, inhabitants of pagi 
or villages. 

Stn. Unconverted. Unchristian. Pagan. 
Uncivilized. Unbelieving. 

Ant. Christian. Believing. Refined. 
avUized. Polished. 

Heave, v. tr. Sax. he/an. Al- 
lied to capere, Lat. to take. To 
raise, as a weight, upwards. 

Stn. Lift Raise. Uplift Upraise. 
Sublevate. Hoist 

Ant. Dash. Sink. Lower. Detrude. 

Heavenly, cwi/. Belonging to 
heaven, which is of the same de- 
rivation as Heave, meaning the 
elevated or uplifted place ; after 
the analogy of Loft from Lift. 
See Celestial and Angelic. 

Heaviness, n. See Heavy. 

Heavy, adj. See Heave. Hard 
to heave. Used also metapho- 
rically of feelings and circum- 

Syn. Weighty. Ponderous. Inert Slow, 
stupid. Dull. Impenetrable. Stolid. Cum- 
brous. Grievous. Aflftictive. Oppressive. 

Ant. Light Trifling. Trivial. Agile. 
Active. Quick. Brisk. Joyous. Alle- 
viative. Consolatory. Inspiriting. Ani- 
mating. Buoyant. 

BtBBETUDE, n. Lat. hebes, etis. 
Hunt. . Moral or intellectual 

Stn. Dulness. Heaviness. Insensibility, 
stupidity. Numbness. Insensateness. 

Ant. Brightness. Animation. SensibiUty. 
Cleverness. Acuteness. 


Sfmomfwm and AmiomfMUL 

Bwcnm^ r, imi, Fron Hector, 
mm of PriuB, wfacne name las 
met widi mmieiited diepan^e^ 
ment, and stands is a |av^c i b 

^n, r. Cr. Sax. Set BorieL 

Hjauij>, a. Oid Fi: An 
offieer wbose boBiaeas il mto 

9nr. WuUj^, Sun^ga, 

AST. G»»«^ SfeME. HMc^ acaft. 

B«HL ptodaiiii 

Hkkald, r. 

mr, peaces Ael 8» 

HscTOft, «. &e wr6, 

Hked, V, tr. Sax. A«e2aii, 

Snr. Miod. Be^nL Sociee. 

Hked, n. Set verb. 
HjmyruL, a«fy. «Se« Heed. 

8nr, M hMlfnL GntefM. C— 

WaiT*' OTCimdif|wct. 
AST, UfmiDdftf. " ' 

Hkbccixas, orf^l 

Si5L Sec G^gMtic 

Hmbd, r. t»/. Sax. See OoD- 



; a» ikei r. 
! Sul laherrtHL 

AST. ConiesicdL 

BiKUfLEM, adj. See HeedfnL 
Height, n. Sax. 

Sty. Altitnie. Ekemtiaa. 

EacalutioB. Cohiriiwrinn 
Ayr. l>^>ch. 

I HXBBST, «. alpcw, e&oiioe. 
wrong choke in leligioii. 

Stik. *Ti liiw UBonkodoxy. 
A5T. Ortkodozy. Ckthniiritj. 

Schism, or properij a hteach 
of discipline ty seoessian or dis- 
j union, as Heresy is erzar in doo- 
j trine. 

BnoHTES, V. tr. See Hei^it I Hkritagb, n. See Heieditazy. 

Stk. Exalt. iDcmMe. fiifanoe. In- . Sn. InheriunoeL Entaflmoit. Legacy. 
Uagtfj. Gokmr. VirWy. Aspavate. , BeqwaC 

A>T. Lower. IVpmL Dimmbh. De- I Axr. AoqaJsitwD. Mofc WasoL 

terfonue. Abate. Tconper. Tone. Ex- . CcMopniaUkA. 
temute. Modify. Qoaliij. 

Heikous, adj. Tr. 

Stv. Hateful. Flagrmt Fbgitioiu. 
AtrockriM. Odiona. Abomiiiable. £xe- 
cnMe. Detectable. 

Akt. Excellent LaodaUe. Meritorious. 
Praiaewonby. iJiatingoisbed. Justifiable. 
Ezcuaable. PalliaUe. 

Hellish, adj. Sax. Belong- 
ing to hell. See Angelic. 

I Hebketically, adv. Hennes 

hatr, to < Tnsmegistns, the &bled inyen- 

;tor of alchemy or chemistiy. 

Help, v. tr. 


Snr. Aid. Succour. 

Akt. Oppoae; Obttmct 

See verb. 

Sax. helpan, to 

Eeinedy. Prevent 

Help, ^. 

Helpless, adj. 

See Help and 

HermeticaUy s^ed, is sealed as 
tightly as chemistry conld seal it 

Stk. Air-tii^t. Qoaely. 
AST. Locaely. MisfittiDgly. 

Hebo, n. Gr. "Hpias. Cham- 
pion of the present or the heroic 
age. A character of daring, or 
one of romantic superiority. See 

Eeboio, adj. See Hero. 

Syn. Brave. Undannted. Oiivalroas. 
Daring. Komantic 

AST. Dastardly. Cowardly. Craveuly. 

Hesitate, v, int. EassUare, 
prep, of hctrere, to stick. 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 




Sxv. Dobitate. Waver. Scruple. De- 
an; Falter. Stammer. 

Ant. Decide. Determine. Bmi. Flow. 

Hbtbbodox, adj. erepos, an- 
other, and do^a, opinion. Hold- 
ing a wrong belief. 

Snv. Unsound. HereticaL 
Akt. Sound. Orthodox. 

Heteboosneous, adj. 
other or strange, and 
genus or kind. The word is used 
of strong dissimilarity, either in 
one object to another, or in the 
parts of the same among them- 

Stn. Strange. Alien. Dissimilar. Dis- 

Ant. Accordant. Congruous. Homo- 
geneous. Similar. 

Hew, V. tr. Sax. heawan. To 
cut broadly or roughly. 

Sto. Cut Hack. Chop. FalL 
Ant. Mould. Model. Fonn. Carve. 
Sculpture. Engrave. Levigate. Turn. 

Hibernal, adj. Eiems, htber- 
nm. Belonging to winter. 

Syn. Wintry. Arctic. BrumaL GlaciaL 
Ant. Summerly. Zephyrous. Balmy. 

Hide. Ad. and neut. Sax. 

Btn. ConceaL Secrete. Mask. Dis- 
semble. Store. Protect Disguise. Ensconce. 

Ant. Expose. Discover. Exhibit Mani- 
fest Betray. Strip. 

HxDEOUS, adj. Old Fr. hide, 

Syn. FrightfuL Unshapely. Monstrous. 

Ant. GracefuL BeautifuL Captivating. 

Hie, V. tr. Sax. higan. To 
make haste. 

Byn. Fly. Haste. . 

Ant. Falter. Stop. Stay. Lag. Stick. 

Higgle, v. int. See Haggle 
and Hawk. 

High, adj. Sax. heah,Qerm. 

Stn. Elevated. Lofty. Tall. Eminent 
Excellent Nobie. Haughty. 

Akt. Depressed. Low. Stunted. Ig- 
noble. Mean. Base. Affable. 

Highly, adv. See High. 

HiLABiTT, n. Eila/ritas, hilaris, 
merry, in high spirits. See De- 

HiNDEB, V. tr. Sax. hind, hack. 
As Prevent is to stop by going 
before, so Hinder is to stop by 
pulling from behind. 

Stn. Prevent. Interrupt Obstruct 
Betard. Debar. Embarrass. 

Ant. Accelerate. Expedite. Ikiable. 
Promote. Facilitate. 

HiNDBANOE, w. /Sec Hinder. 
Hinge,^. OldEng. Conn, 
with Hang. 

Syn. Move. Turn. Hang. Depend. 
Work. Botate. Circulate. 

Ant. Halt Crepitate. Jar. Grate 

Hint, n. Eentan, to pursue 
or seize, with the implied pur- 
pose of warning or suggesting. 
See Cue. 

Hint, v. See n. and Suggest. 

HiBE, V. Sax. hyrian. To 
procure by compensation for 
temporary use. 

Syn. Engage. Commission. Employ. 

Ant. Buy. Purchase. 

HiBSUTE, adj. Hirsutus, hirtus, 

Syn. Hairy. Shaggy. Hispid. Downy. 

Ant. Smooth. Glabrous. Bald. 

Hispid, adj. Eispidus. See 

HiSTOBio, adj, Eistoria, his- 
tory, Gr. i(rrop4(o, I inquire. 

Syn. Genuine. Authentic. A*uthenti* 

Ant. Prehistoric Fabulous. Legen- 
dary. XJnhistoric 

HisTOBT, n. See Historic and 

HiSTBiONio, adj. Eistrio, an 


Sin. Dramatic. Pantomimic Theatri- 

Ant. Undramatic. UnthftatrioaL 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

Hit, v. tr. Sax. hettan^ to jwr- 
9ue or drive, 

Stk. strike. Snooeed. Chanoe. Beach. 
Hazard. Mistake. 

Akt. FaiL Miacfaance. Err. MIsBw 

HiTOH, V, int. Scotch. Means 
to jerk or to move by jerks. 

Snr. Stick. Stickle. Bar. Jam. Catch. 

AxT. Ron. Glide. SUde. Rotate. Flow. 

Hoard, v. tr. Sax- hordan. 
To lay np in store. 

Stn. Treasure. Accomxilate. Husband. 
Ajrr. Waste. Squander. Diasipate. 

Hoarse, adj. See Harsh. 

Stk. Harsb. Grating. Raucon& Husky. 
Akt. Meiliflaoos. Mellow. Rich. Sweet 

HoART, ddj. Sax. hdr, gray. 

Stw. Whits. Gray. Silvery. Frosty. 
Akt. Dark. Raven. Jet 

Hoax, v. tr. Sax. htics, 
mockery, or ix)ssibly a form of 
hocus in hocus pocus — * Hoc est 
corpus,* in derision of transnb- 
stantiation, but not probably. 

Stk. BefooL Gammon. Bamboozle. 
Dupe. Trick. Trepan. 

Akt. Guide. Enlighten. Undeceive. 
Inform. Direct CJorrect Regulate. 

Hobble, v. int. Eop. To 
walk with a hitch or hop. To 

Syk. Limp^ Falter. 

Akt. Run. Course. Speed. Leap. 

Hobby, n. Dan. hoppe, a mare. 
A strong cob; a child's toy in 
the figure of a horse; hence a 
fftvoTirite pursuit. 

Stk. Pursuit YSHiim. Amusement. 
Speciality. Idiosyncrasy. 

Akt. Nuisance. Horror. Aversion. 
Bugbear. Scarecrow. Incubus. 

Hoyden, n. Heide, a heath. A 
bouncing rustic. 

Stk. Romp. Tomboy. 
Akt. Prude. 

Hold, v. tr, and int. Sax. 

Stk. Keep. Grasp. Retain. Support 
Restrain. Defend. Maintain. Occupy. 
Possess. Sastain. Regard. Consider. Co- 
here. Conttnue. 

Art. Drop. Abandoii. Surrender. Fail. 
Release. Desert Forega Vacate. Con* 
oed& Break. Cteae. 

Hollow, adj. Used meta- 
^orically. Sax. hoi. Gomp. 

Stk. Empty. Concave. Foolbh. Weak. 
Faithless, insincere. ArtiflciaL XJosob* 
stantiaL Flim^. Transparent Senselesai 

Akt. Full Solid. Well-stored. Strong. 
Firm. Sincere. True. Genuine. Sob* 
staotlal. Somid. 

Holy, adj. Sax. haJig. 

Stk. Sacred. Reverend. Pore. CodM' 
crated. Religious. 

Akt. Profane. EviL Impure. Ud- 

Homage, n. Bamagium, homo^ 
a man. An acknowledgment 
made to the hege l(xd by the 
man or vassal. 

Stk. Fealty. Allegiance. SubmiaaioD. 
Worship. Deference. Affiance. 

Akt. Treason. Rebellion. Disaffection. 
Insubordination. Defiance. 

Home, n. Sax. ham. Germ. 
heim. A settled abode. See 

Homogeneous, adj, 6fjt6s, th 
like, BJidyevos, kind. /See Hetero- 

Honesty. Honestus was in 
Latin high-bom, and the word 
has come to mean Probity, by 
the general tendency of language 
in past times to make all good 
qualities aristocratic, and mean 
qualities plebeian. The classic 
sense oi honestus was not honest, 
but honourable. 

Stk. Int^^ty. Frobity. Uprightness. 
Straightforwardness. Fairness. Sincerity. 

Ant. Dishonesty. Chicanery. Trickery. 
Insinceri^. Deception. Fraud. Un&lr- 
ness. Guile. 

Honour, n. Lat. honor. Ob- 
jectively the deference jyaid by 
others. Subjectively the sense 
of the honourable. 

Stk. Respect Revearenoe. NoUlity. 
Dignity. Eminence. Reputation. Fame. 
High-mindedneas. ^irit Self-respect 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


Akt. Disrespect Contempt Irre- 
iweDce. Slight Obscurity. Degradation. 
DIagrace. Abasement Demoralization. 
Oowardice. Disbonour. Infkmy. 

HoNOBABT, adj. Honorarium, 
a fee. An office held unofficially, 
as distinct from such as have 
attached to them a specific au- 
thority and specific claims. 

Stk. Gratuitous. Unofficial. Unre> 
manerative. Nominal. Titular. 

Ant. Official. Remunerative. Profes- 
sional; JurisdictionaL 

HooT, V. int. To cry as an 
owl, witii a cry of contempt, fol- 
lowed by the prep, at. 

Stk. Hiss. Execrate. Denounce. Sibi- 
late. Decry. 

Akt Cheer. Honour. Acclaim. Eulo- 
gize. Salute. Welcome. 

Hope, n. Sax. hopa, hope. 
Desire and expectation com- 

Stk. Anticipation. Prospect Vision. 
Longing. Confidence. Desire. 

Akt. Despair. Despondency. Distrust 
Disbelief. Abandonment Abjuration. 

Hopeful, adj. See Hope. 
Said subjectively of the disposi- 
tion or mind, and objectively of 
the event or circumstance. 

Stk. Eager. Ardent Longing. Confi- 
dent Promising. Propitious. Auspicious. 

Akt. Indifferent Distrustful. Unpro- 
mising. Unpropitious. Improbable. Hope- 
less. De^rate. Irreparable. Ill-omened. 
Discouraging. Inauspicious. 

Hopeless, adj. See Hopeful. 

HoBizoN. 6pi(ci>v, part, bound- 
ing, kvkKos, a circle, being un- 
derstood. Used metaphori- 

Stk, Limit Periphery. Circle. Boun- 

Akt. Space. Boundlessness. Infinitude. 

HOBBIBLB, adj. Eorribilis, 
horrere, to shudder. 

Stk. Abominable. Detestable. Dread- 
M. FearfuL Hideous. Ghastly. Terrific. 

Akt. Lovely. Desirable. Epjoyable. 
JlUractive. Beautiful. Fair. Pleasant 

HoBEiD, adj, Eorridus. See 

HoBBOB, n. Eorrere, to grow 
stiff with dread. It has come to 
be used of strong dislike. 

Stk. Fear. Dread. Shriuldng. Loath- 
ing. Detestation. 

Akt. Love. Attraction. Allurement. 

Hospitable, adj. Hospes, a 

Stk. Sociable. Neighbourly. Chari- 

Akt. Unsociable. Exclusive. Retired. 
Unneighbourly. Churlish. Recluse. 

Host, n. Hostis, an enemy. As 

it were, an army of the enemy. 

A multitude. 

Stk. Multitude. Number. Assemblage. 

Akt. HandAiL Sprinkling. Knot. 
Group. Corps. Section. 

Hostage, n. Said to be, not 
hostagium, from hostis, as given 
to the enemy in pledge, but 
from obses, idis, Lat. a hostage. 

Stk. Sponsor. Bail Surety. 

Akt. Dictator. Conqueror. 

Hostility, n. Hostis, an 
enemy. See Animosity. 

Hound, v. tr. Sax. and Qerm. 
hurtd, Gr. Kva>v, Lat. canis. Used 

Stk. Pursue. Hunt. Prosecute. 
Akt. Liberate. Discard. Abandon. 

House, n. and v. (Jerm. haus. 
See Abode and Store. 

Hubbub, n. Comp. Whoop. 
A confused sound of voices. See 

HuiH)LE, act. and neut. Germ. 
huddn. To do a thing hurriedly, 
and so bunglingly; expresses 
also the idea of joint movement 
in confusion. 

Syk. Mix. Confiise. Derange. Heap. 
Akt. Assort Arrange-. Adjust Clas- 

Huge, adj. Conn, with High> 
through the Germ. hecK 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

8tm. Enormous. Monstrons. ColossaL 
Airr. Petty. Undersized. Puny. Pigmy. 

Human, adj. Homo, humanns. 
Belonging to man in nature and 

Stn. Etbnical. Gogmical. Anthropo- 
logical RatlonaL Civilized. 

Akt. Inhuman. Beastly. Irrational. 

Humane, adj\ See Human. 
More distinctly expressive of 
what ought to be regarded as 
human in sentiment and cha- 

Syk. Benign. Kind. Tender. Merci- 

Ant. Unkind. CrueL Unmerciful. In- 

Humanity, n. Like Human, 
expresses the existence of the 
human race, and what ought to 
be its moral characteristic. 

Stn. Man. Mankind. Kindness. Ten- 
derness. Compassion. 

Ant. Unkindness. Cruelty. Inhumanity. 
BestiaUty. IrrationaUty. Barbarity. 

Humanize, v. ir. See Hu- 

Stn. avilize. Ameliorate. Enlighten. 
Christianize. Refine. 

Ant. Barbarize. D^prade. Debase. De- 
press. Brutalize. 

Humble, adj, Lat. humilis. 
Low in station; or, morally, in 

Syn. Low. Lowly. Obscure. Meek. 
Modest. Unassuming. Unpretending. 

Ant. High. Lofty. Eminent Proud. 
Boastful. Arrogant. Assuming. Preten- 

Humid, adj. Lat. humidus. 

Stn. Moist. Wet. Vaporous. Spongy. 

Ant. Dry. Arid. Moistureless. Parched. 

Humiliate, v. tr. See Humble 
and Elevate. 

Humility, n. See Humble. 

Humour, n. Lat. humor, from 
humere, to be moist. Of old, the 
proportion of humours which 
entered into the constitution 
were believed to make the dis- 
position. It now stands for the 

disposition of the moment, and 
for that which is especially mo- 
mentary—the exhibition of the 
ludicrous or jocose. 

Stn. Disposition. Temper. Mood. 
Caprice. Jocuseness. Pleasantnr. 

Ant. Nature. PersonaUty. Mind. Will. 
Purpose. Seriousness. 

Humoursome, adj. See Hu- 
mour and Fanciful. 

Hunt, v. tr. Sax. hentan, pur- 
sue. See Hound. 

Hurl, v. tr. Old Eng. See 

Hurry, ad. and neut. Germ. 
hurren, to haste. See Speed and 

Hurt, v. Sax. hyrt, hurt or 

Stn. Wound. Bruise. Harm. Injure. 

Ant. Heal. Soothe. Console. Repair. 
Reinstate. Compensate. Benefit 

Husband, v. tr. Formed from 
the noun, and used in the sense 
of economize. See Economize. 

Hush, v. tr. Formed fixan 
the sound. See Silence. 

Husky, adj. Husk. Gtenn. 
hulsche, Sax. helan, to cover, A 
husk. Used of the voice, as if 
the throat were dry as a husk. 
See Hoarse. 

Hustle, v. tr. Dan. htdsen, 
to shake. See Jostle. 

Hybrid, n. Lat. hyhrida, 

Stn. Mixed. Impure. Mongrel. Mule. 
Ant. Pure. Unmixed. Thoroughbred. 

Hypocrisy, n. See Hypocrite. 

Hypocrite, n. viroKpirrjs, 
the Greek masked actor. Used 
for one who masks his real na- 
ture or motive under a contrary 

Stn. Feigner. Pretender. Diflsembler. 

Synonyms and Antonyms, 


The hypocrite feigns to be 
-what he is not, the dissembler to 
be not what he is. 

Ant. Saint Believer. CShrlstijui. Sim- 
pleton. Dupe. Bigot Fanatic. 

Hypocbitioal, adj. See Hy- 

Syk. Pharisaical. Sanctimonioos. Smug. 
Smooth. Mealy. Unctuous. Mincing 

Art. Plain-spolcen. Candid. Truthful. 
Sincere. Genuine. Transparent 

..j>BA, «. Gr. Was of old a 
term of the Platonic philosophy. 
In modem parlance we mean by 
an idea, a mental image of an 
object of the senses, as a notion 
is the impression of a quality. 
So the * Idea of a Man/ the ' No- 
tion of Hnmanity.' This is not 
strictly adherecl to. 

Snr. Image. Notion. Conception. Be- 
liet Doctrine. Supposition. Understand- 
ing. Fiction. Fan^. 

Aht. OltJect Fomk SutiJect Thing. 

Ideal, adf. See Idea. Used 
also as a nonn with the definite 
article prefixed — 'the ideal' — 
and in the two senses of creation 
and fiction of the mind. 

Stk. MentaL Notional ConceptionaL 
Intellectual. Creative. Sphitual. Poetical. 
Suppositious. Fictitious. Unreal. Ima- 
ginary. ChimericaL 

AST. Physical. Visible. Material. Tan- 

gible. HistoricaL AeaL Actual Palpa- 
te. Substantial 

Ideality, n. See Ideal. The 
faculty of forming ideal concep- 
tion, eg)ecially of the beautiful. 

Sth. Fancy. Creativeness. Genius. 
AST. Imitation. Uninventiveness. Un- 
Imaginativeness. Copyism. 

Identify, v. tr. Idem, the 
same, and facer e, to make. Means 
both to make into one and the 
same, and tdso to recognize as 
being one and the same. 

Stv. Unite. Integrate. Recognize. Ve- 
rily. Incorporatei 

Ant. Divide. Disunite. Confound. Con 
fuse. Overlook. Mistake. 

Identity, n. See Identify. 

Stk. Oneness. Unity. Sameness. Per- 
sonality. Individuality. Convertibility. 

Ant. Difference. Distinctness. Scpa- 
rateness. Plurality. Contrariety. 

Idiocy, n, Gr. Idiamjs, a per- 
son in private Itfe uneducated to 
hear office in the state or academy. 
Hence mental deficiency. 

Stn. Imbecility. Aberration. Insanity. 

Ant. Sanity. Sagacity. Intelligence. 
Sense. Judgment 

Idiom, tdios, private or pecu- 
liar; lbia>fm, a pecrdiarity, A 
term of expression peculiar to a 

Stn. Specialty. Peculiarity. Charac- 
teristic. Ptirase. Turn. 

Ant. Solecism. Barbarism. 

IdiOSYNOEAOY, n. Ibios crvv 
Kpatris, The peculiar commix- 
ture or composition which makes 
up the taste and temper of a per- 
son, or anything peculiarly illus- 
trative of it. 

Stn. Peculiarity. Constitution. Tempe- 
rament. Specialty. Characteristic. Indi- 
viduality. Singularity. Eccentricity. 

Ant. Community. Universality. Gene- 

Idiot, n. See Idiocy. 

Stn. Imbecile. Fool 

Ant. Luminary. Sage. Authority. 

Idle, adj. Sax. idel, vain, 

Stn. Void. Unoccupied. Waste. Vain. 
Empty. Unemployed. 

Ant. TUled. Occupied. Populated. Filled. 
Employed. Assiduous. Industrious. 

Idolize, v. tr, ctdcoiKov, an 
idol or image made to be tuor- 

Stn. Worship. Venerate. Adore. 

Ant. Loathe. Execrate. Abominate. 

Ignite, V. ^r. Ignis, fire. See 

Ignoble, ac?y. In, not, and no- 
hilis, noble. Used of social and 
moral character or condition. 


Synonyms and Antonyms, 

Syn. Mean. Base. Dishonourable. Hum- 
ble. Plebeian. Lowly. 

Ant. Honourable. Noble. Eminent Ex- 
alted. Lordly. Grand. Notable. Illustrious. 

Ignomint, n. In, not, and no- 
men, a name, A deprivation of a 
good name. 

Stn. Disgrace. Reprobation. Shame. 
Reproach. Contempt. Di8honour. Infamy. 

Ant. Credit. Reputation. Honour. 
Glory. Distinction. Lustre. Renown. 

Ignoramus, n, Lat, we are ig- 

Stn. Dunce. Dullard. 
Ant. Savant Luminary. 

Ignorance, n. In, not, and 
noscere, to know. See Knowledge. 

Ignore, v. tr. See Ignorance. 

Stn. Disown. Repudiate. Overlook. 
Ant. Own. Notice. Mark. Visit Re- 

Illegal, adj. See Legal. 
Illegible, adf. See Legible. 
Illegitimate, adf. See Legal. 
Illiberal, adj. See Liberal, 
Illicit, adf. See Licit. 

Illiterate, adj. See Lite- 

Illogical, adj\ See Logical. 

Illuminatb, V, tr. In and ?t*- 
men, a light. Used physically and 

Stn. Lighten. Enlighten. Emblazon. 

Ant. Darken. Obscure. Bedim. 

Illusion, n, lUudere, to wjocJc, 
A mocking or unreal vision. 

Syn. Dream. Mockery. Deception. De- 
lusion. Hallucination. Vision. Phan- 

Illnsion is used of the senses. 
Delusion of the mind. 

Ant. Form. Reality. Body. Sub- 

Illusive, adj. See Illusion. 

Stn. Deceptive. Visionary. UnreaL 
Disappointing. Fugitive. Erroneous. False. 

Aut. SubstantiaL Satis&ctory. ReaL 
T-iia Solid. Permanent 

Illustrate, v, tr, I^Hiiris, 


Stn. Elucidate. Interpret. ExempUiy. 
Demonstrate. Explain. Embody. Repre- 
sent Paint. Image. 

Ant. Obscure. Misinterpret. Mystify. 
Confuse. Misrepresent. Darken. 

Illustrative. See Illustrate. 
Illustrious, adf. See HIbs- 

Stn. Renowned. Glorious. BrlUiant 

Ant. Ignominious. DisgraoefiiL Disre- 
putable. Inglorious. Infamoua. 

Image, n. Imago, an image or 

representation, A similitude of 

any kind, as in language of an 

illustrative character, 

Stn. Statue. Likeness. Representation. 
Efflgy. Copy. Metaphor. Idea. Conoep* 
tion. Fiction. Shadow. 

Ant. Person. Original. Substaiioe. Sub- 
ject. Object Reality. Truth. Verity. 

Imagery, n. See Image. 

Stn. Poetry. Fancy. lUastratkn. Me- 
taphor. Similitude. 

Ant. Prose. Statement Fact 

Imaginary, adj. See Image 
and Illusive. 

Imaginative, ac?y. SeeTmB^. 
Having the power of exciting Sie 
imagination, or having a quick 

Stn. Creative. Conceptive. Ideal. Poeti- 
cal. Romantic. OriginaL Inventive. 

Ant. Unimaginative. UnpoeticaL Ul- 
romantic. Prosaic. Matter-of-fiict. Lite> 
laL Unlnventive. 

Imagine, v. tr. See Image. 

Stn. Conceive. Suppose. Surmiaei. Un- 
derstand. Fancy. Fabricate. 

Ant. Represent Exhibit Demonstrate. 
Prove. Substantiate. Verify. Depict 

Imbecile, adj, Lat. imhecUis, 
Weak, /w, 071, and 6acwZt£«, a stafiT. 

Stn. Foolish. Fatuous. Idiotic 
Ant. Shrewd. Sagacious. Clever. 

Imbibe, v, tr. As to imbibe 
opinions. In and hibere, to drink. 
Used metaphorically. 

Stn. Acquire. Learn. Aartmn^f^, Ab- 

Art. Discard. R^ect Benoiiiie& Dis- 
avow Abjure. Repudiate. 

tSynonyms and Antonyms. 


Imbbdb, V, tr. In and Old 
Eng. brue, allied to brew. 

8yk. Wet. Moisten. Soak. Drench. 
Akt. Wring. Dry. Wipe. Drain. 

Imbue, v. tr. Imbuere. Conn, 
with bibftr, fo drink, to stum. 
Used metaphor Jcal 1 y for to affuct, 

Svw. Tinge Dyt Stmitt. Impre^Mtfc. 
ItmcuI&tG. Ingrain. A f!f:cu l!Qf«:L 

AST. Di^Jmbue. rUslno^iilAtft, DiBabuec. 
CL^^Rse. Clear, Disiiifeit. PiiTigp. 

Imitate, v, tr, Lat. imitari, 
to imitate. 

Syn. Represent Copy, Follow. Re- 
semble. Portray. Depict Repeat 

Amt. Misrepresent Caricature. Alter. 
Vary. Dissimilate. Differentiate. Modify. 
ReniodeL Distort 

Imitation, n. See Imitate. 
iMrTATiVE, aflj\ Sfe Imltatb. 

Sirar, MiDiicklngh Ciricadiring, Copj- 
AXT* QnpiML Creative. iDVealEve. 

Tmmaoulatb, adj\ In, not, and 
ftiaculUj a spU or dain. Used of 

Si'K. PoTHi SinlcfiH. Spotl««. aulm- 
leu. Vlrghi. Ouptilluted. eTniteaicd. 

Akt. Impure, Corrupt. SiiifuL 0(«i- 
tMH[p*(*(L liefilHl. TMiited. Pollal«l, 

Immanekt, adj\ Immanere, to 

Sts, Jiihtrent, rnraat(>. Sul^Jwt|ve» In- 
dAT^Llbs;. In k'rtiAl. Jiilrlniiii^ LWgeDltaE. 
Ingralnecl. Implldu NaEitraL. 

A*t. Knuinpnt Try,nBit(vc. Prtjecttve. 
l>pvcluped. i!xsiUeut. PLii^iitUitiUiLL Kjl* 
plidl AccidunUL AsciOtiou^. 

Immanttt, n. Immanis, sa- 

8th. Cruelty. Atrocity. Savagery. Fe- 
tocity. Triicalf'ticcf. 

Airr. MUdiiest GenUoies^ DocUity. 
UauAUftudt, TvniJienKMUL 

iMMATEniAL, o^/. In and 
nutter ii:ji, inaitf.}'. Has the two- 
fold sense of non-material and 

tiTTf. SpIrUuttl Incorporeal. Unlmpor- 
EflDt hidLpnfkjirjt. IVlviaL Trifling. 

Ant^ IkiuieriaL PbygicaL CorporeaL 

Immature, adj. In, not, and 
maturus, ripe. 

Stn. Unripe. Green. Crude. Unfi- 
nished. Undeveloped. 

Aht. Ripe. Complete. Finished. Ma- 
ture. Developed. 

Immeasurable, odj. In, not, 
and measurfi, a vi'^j^urt\ 

Snf. Vaiiu BuuudUraj. JlUmU-nTjit. Im- 
mense, Uiitktbunioltle. InflnJteL 

Akt. Flnitfl. Baundt'd UmUed, Clr- 
cuiuj^ribed. Shallow, l;eEtilcled. 

Immediate, adj. In, not, and 
mtdiuSj mfAldle. Not BeporatetL 
hy anything else between. 

SiKh PrujJmftte. CunUgUDtid. Present. 

Ant. Distant. iCemote. Future. Me- 

Immemoria l, {idj\ In , not, and 
mtiitori^tj vkt:mory^ That which 
is BO ancient as to pass beyond 
htUBttn momory or traditioji. 

t^TTi, I^lmitlve. Ancient, Arubdc. Pre- 
mordial. Tiim^hfjnoured. Remote. 

Ant. Il4!£ctit ^uJem. Late. Upstart 

Immense, adj. Immensus, In, 
and metiri, to measure. See Im- 

Immerse, v. In, and mergere, 

j^TN. l>lp. PluitE*' Sink. Soak. Steep. 
Mftremte. [>»ck. iiubiin;rBt Drown. In- 

Ant. Dry. Drain. Parch. Air. Ven- 

Immersion, n. See Immerse. 

l3IMETH0DI€ALj odj. See Me- 

iMiiiGitATtoN', n. In, and mi- 
grarij tu liJ-;.- .' 

Syv. Migration. Colonlzntltm. Settle- 

Ant. Emigration. Exodus. 

Imminent, adj. Imminere, to 
hang over. Hanging over one's 
head as if ready to fall. 

Syn. Impending. ThreaUiiilng. Hover- 

Ant. Warded. Staved. Rscaped. 

Immiscibilitt, n. See Miscible. 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

Immission, w» /n, and mittere, 
to send. 

Stn. Introductioii. lAJection. Inser- 

Ant. Ejection. Emission. Discharge. 

iMMiTiaABLB, odj. See Miti- 

Immobility, n. See Mobile. 

Immoderate, adj\ See Mode- 

Immodest, orf/. See Modesty. 

Immolate, v, tr, Mda, a salt 
cake or grains placed on the vic- 
tim. Hence to offer in sacrifice. 
Used metaphorically. 

Stk. Sacrifice. Victimize. 
Ant. Spoil. Hmnour. Indulge. Feed. 

Immobal, adj. See Moral. 

Immobtal, adJ, See Mortal. 

Immoveable, adj\ See Move- 

Immundicity, n. See Mundi- 

Immunity, w. Immunis, In, 
notf and munus, a public service. 
Exemption from service. Hence, 
exemption from liability gene- 

Stn. Exemption. Dispensation. Free- 

Ant. Liability. Obligation. Jurisdic- 
tion. Impost. Burden. Amenability. 

Immure, v. tr. In, and murus, 
a wall. See Incarcerate. 

Immutable, adj. See Mu- 

Imp, n, Swed. Ymp, a hvd or 
graft. Hence progeny, then mis- 
chievous child. 

Stn. Brat. Scamp. Devil. Demon. 
Ant. Cherub. Angel. 

Impact, n. Impingere, pac- 
tum, to strike against, 

Stn. Contact Application. Impres- 
sion. Collision. 

Ant. Isolation. Separation. Removal. 
Avoidance. Non-contact. Interval Shave. 

Impair, v, tr. Said to be from 
impejorare. Pejus, worse. To 
make worse. 

Stn. Deteriorate. Ipjure. Damage. Re- 
duce. Enfeeble. 

Ant. Enhance. Improve. Augment. 

Impalpable, adj. See Pal- 

Imparity, n. In, not, and par, 
equal. See Parity. 

Impart, v, tr. In, ejidpartiri, 
to allot, pars, a lot See Give. 

Impartial, adj. See Partial 

Impassable, adj. See Pass- 

Impassible, adj. See Impas- 

Stn. Immaterial ImmortaL 
Ant. Passible. Mortal. 

Impassioned, adj. In, and 
patiri, passus, to suffer or he 

Stn. Excited. Fervid. 

Ant. Unimpaasioned. GooL Impas- 

Impassive, adj. 

Impatient, adj. See Patient 
Impawn, v, tr. See PawiL 

Impeach, v. tr. Impingere, to 
thrust or drive against. So to 
stop or pull up for a charge or 

Stn. Accuse. Arraign. Criminate. In- 

See Impas- 





iMPEOCABiLiTy, n. See Pecca- 

Impede, v. tr. In, and pes, pe- 
dis, afoot. To throw something 
in the way of the feet of the 
walker, bee Accelerate. 

Impel, v, tr. ImpeUere^ to 

drive forward. See Urge, 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


Impend, v, int. In, on, or over, 
and pendere, to hang, 
Snr. Hover. Threaten. 
AxT. Paaa. Spare. 

Impenetbablb, adj\ See Pe- 

Impenitent, adj. Impeni- 
TENOE, n. See Penitent. 

Impebatiye, adj, Imperate, to 

Syh. Urgent IrreslsUble. DictatoriaL 
Inexorable. Peremptorily. Compulsory. 

A»T. Indulgent Lenient Mild. En- 
treative. Supplicatory. Optional. Discre- 

Impebceptible, adj. See Per- 

Impeboipient, adj. See Per- 

Impebpect, adj. See Perfect. 

Impebfobate, adj. See Per- 

Impebial, adj, Imperium, em- 

Stn. Majestic. BoyaL Supreme. Mag- 
nificent Sujierb. 

Akt. Ignoble. Servile. I^avish. Mean. 
Paltry. Beggarly. 

Impebil, V. tr. In, and peri- 
cidem, danger. See Endanger. 
Impebious, adj. Se^ Imperial. 

Stn. Arrogant. Exacting. Dictatorial. 

Ant. Yielding. Submissive. Compliant 
Docile. Ductile. Lenient. Ctentle. Mild. 

Impebishable, adj. See Pe- 

Impebmanence, n. See Per- 

Impebmeable, adj. See Per- 

Impebsonal, adj. See Per- 

Impebsonate, v. tr. In, and 
persona, a mark (from per and so- 
nare, to sound, through which the 
Toice sonnded) or sustained cha- 
racter. Used for the legitimate 

snstainment of character, as on 
the stage, and also for the frau- 
dulent passing of one's self off 
for another person. 

Stn. Act. Enact. Represent 
Ant. Detect Unmask. Expose. 

Impebtinent, adj. See Perti- 

Impebttjbbablb, cK^y. /See Per- 
turb and Stoical. 

Impebvious, adj. See Per- 

Impetbate, v. tr. Impetrari, 
to entreat. 

Stn. Entreat Implore. Absecrate. Pray. 

Ant. Demand. Command. Claim.. In- 
sist Deprecate. Dehort Dissuade. Ex- 
postulate. Remonstrate. 

Impetuous, adj. Impetus, haste, 
speed. See Hasty. 

Impiety, n. See Piety. 

Impionobate, v. tr. See Pawn. 

Impinge, v, int. Impingere, to 
strike upon. See Impact. 

Implacable, adj. See Placa- 

Implant, v. tr. In, and pla/nr 
tare, Planta, the sole. Hence to 
plant one's steps. The plant was 
the slip footed or planted in the 
soil. See Plant. 

Implement, n, Implementum^ 
a filling up^ implere, tofiU, Comp. 

Stn. Instrument Utensil. Tool. Ap- 

Ant. Labour. Work. Science. Art 
Manufacture. Agriculture. 

Impletion, n. See Lnplement 
A filling. 

Stn. Filling. Satisfaction. Supply. 
Ant. Failure. Exhaustion. Deprivap 
tion. Disappointment 

Implicate, v. tr. In, and oZ^ 
care, to fold. To fold into a diffi- 
culty or charge by argument or 


Synonyms aria Antonyms. 

Syn. Connect Associate. Charge. Cri- 

Akt. Disconnect. Dissociate. Acquit. 

Implication, w. See Impli- 

Implicit, adj. Iriy and pUcare, 
to fold. Folded up insiae but 
not brought to light. Also used 
in the sense of intimate, close, as 
* implicit trust.* 

Syn. Implied. Involved. Indicated. 
Ant. Expressed. Explicit. Developed. 

Implied, part. See Implicit. 

Imploeb, v. tr. In, and plo- 
rare, to weep. To beseech ear- 
nestly, and, as it were, with tears. 
See Entreat. 

Imply, v. tr. In, and plicare, 
to fold. To signify in a sugges- 
tive way, not expressly. 

SrN. Involve. Mean. Indicate. Sug- 
gest. Hint 

AxT. Express. Declare. State. Pro- 

Impolite, adj. See Polite. 

Impolitic, adj. See Politic. 

Impondebablb, adj. See Pon- 

Impondbeous, adj. See Pon- 
derous, t, 

Impoeous, adj. See Porous. 

Impoet, v. tr. Importare, to 
carry into. 

Stx. Introduce. Bring. 

Ant. Export Banish. 

Impoet, n. See Import, v. 
That which is brought to bear 
upon a point. 

Syn. Purport Meaning. Drift Tenor. 

Ant. Statement Proceeding. 

Impobtakt, adj. See Import 
V. Said of that which brings in 
something materially affecting a 
state or question. Applied also 
to persons and objects of im- 

Syn. Significant Expressive. Relevant. 
Main. Leading. Considerable. Great Dig- 
nified. Influential 

Ant. Insignificant Trivial. Inexpres- 
sive. Irrelevant Inconsiderable. Petty 
Mean. UninfluentiaL Secondary. Unim- 
portant Minor. 

Impoetation, n. See Im- 
port, V. 

Impoetunate, adj. Impcrtu- 
nare. In, not, and portare, to 
bear, or he relevant. To come in 
obtrusively, to ask with great if 
not excessive eagerness. 

Syn. Over-urgent Over-entreative. Ftess- 

Ant. Modest Diffident 

Impoetunb, V, tr. See Impor- 

Syn. Pester. Solicit. Press. 

Ant. Surrender. Abandon. Sacrifice. 

Impose, v. tr^ Imponere, posi^ 
tus, to place upon, 
Syn. Lay. Inflict. 
Ant. Remove. Disburden. 

The word has also the x>eculiar 
sense of Cheat. 
Imposing, adj. See Impose. 

Syn. Strilcing. Effective. Dignified. 

Ant. Ineffective. Undignified. Petty. 

Impossiblb, adv. See Pos- 
Impo8T,*w. See Impose. 

Syn. ImiMisition. Tax. Burden. 
Ant. Exemption. Immunity. Proceeds. 

Impostor, n. See Impose. 
One who imposes in the sense of 

Syn. Cheat Deceiver. Dissembler. Char- 

Ant. Detector. Undeceiver. Ekilight- 
ener. Guide. 

Imposture, n. See Impostor. 

Impotence, n. In, not, and 
potis, capable. 

Syn. Incapacity. Weakness. Disquali- 
fication. Disability. 

Ant. Capacity. Vigour. Ability. Quao 

Impound, v. tr. See Pound. 

^Synonyms and ArUonyms. 


Ibipovbbish, v. tr. In, and 
pauper, poor. To make poor. 
See Enrich. 

Impbactioable, adj. See 

Ihpbboatb, V, tr. In, and 
precari, to pray. See Impetrate. 

Impbopeb, adj. See Proper. 

Impbbonable, adj. See Preg- 

Impube, adj. In, not, and 
purus, pure. See Pure. 

Impute, v, tr, Lat. Impu- 

Smt. ARcribe. Refer. Charge. 
AST. Withdraw. Betract 

Inability, n,- See Ability. 

Inaccessible, adj. See Ac- 

Inaccubate, adj'. See Accu- 

Inaction, n. See Action. 

Inactivity, n. See Activity. 

Inadequate, adj. See Ade- 

Inadmissible, adj\ See Ad- 

Inadvebtbncbb, n. See Ad- 

Stn. Oversight 

Akt. CorrectiozL Attention. 

Inadvebtent, adj. See In- 

Stk. Inobservant. Careless. Heedless. 
Akt. Careful Observant. Accurate. 

Inalienable, adj\ 

8tk. Alien. Intransferable. Entailed. 
AnT. Unentailed. Transferable. 

Inane, adj', Lat. Inanis, empty. 

Stn. Empty. Pointless. Characterless. 
Vapid. Feeble. 

Akt. Significant Pointed. PowerftiL 
Sensible. Forcible. 

Inanimate, adj\ 

See Ani- 

Inanition, n. See Inane. 

Stn. Emptiness. Exhaustion. Starva- 

Akt. Fullness. Plethora. Bepletion. 

Inanity, n. See Inanition. 

Stn. See Inane. 

Inappbtency, n. See Appe- 

Inapplicable, adj\ See Ap- 

Inapposite, adj'. See Appo- 

Inappbeciablb, adj. See Ap- 

Stn. InflnitesimaL Minute. Impercep- 

Ant. Perceptible. Ponderable. Appre- 
ciable. Calculable. 

Inappbopbiate, adj. See Pro- 
Inapt, adj. See Apt. 

Inabticulate, adj. In, not, 
and articdm, a Joint or division. 

Stn. Dumb. Mute. Conftised. Inor- 

Ant. Articulated. Enuntiated. Organic 

Inabtificial, adj. See Arti- 

Inattention, n. See Atten- 

Inaudible, adj. In, not, and 
ire, to hear, 

Stn. Low. Inarticulate. Suppressed. 
Muttering. Mumbling. Stifled. Muffled. 

Ant. Audible. Outspoken. Sonorous. 
Articulate. Clear. Bingmg. Loud. 

Inaugubate, V. tr. In, and 
augur, tlie Eoman officer whose 
duty it rvas to ivatch and consult 
omens on the appointment of state 
officers and the undertaking of 
military expeditions. Hence to 
go through a ceremony at the 
commencement or introduction 
of something. 

Stn. Initiate. Commence. Install 
Ant. Deprive. Divert Conclude. Ter- 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

Inaugubation, «. See Inan- 

Inauspicious, adj. See Aus- 

Inbobn, adj. In, and home or 
lorn. See Congenital. 

Inbred, adj. In and hred. 
See Inborn. 

Incalculable, adj. See Cal- 

Incandescence, n. In, and 
candescere, to be of a white heat. 

Stn. Incaleaoence. Glow. White heat. 

Ant. IcinoB. Congelation. Befrigera- 
Uon. CiystalUzation. 

Incantation, n. meant are, 
to recite or chant a Tnagical form 
of words. 

Syn. Bedtation. SpelL Charm. Invo- 

Ant. Exorcism. Evocation. 

Incapable, adj. See Capabi- 

Stn. Qualified. Able. Fitted. Strong. 

Ant. Unqnalified. Unable. Incapable. 
Unfitted. Weak. Incompetent. Feeble. 

Incapacious, adj. See Capa- 

Incapacity, n. See Capa- 

Incabcbbate, v. tr. In, and 
career, eris, a prison. 
Stn. Immure. Imprison. 
Ant. Liberate. Belease. 

Incaboebation, n. See Incar- 

Inoabnadinb, v. tr. Caro, car- 
nis, flesh. To dye carnation 

Stn. Bpdden. Bubricate. Crimson. 
Ant. Whiten. Pale. Etiolate. 

Incabnation, n. See Incar- 
nadine. The condition of a being 
clothed in human flesh ; applied 
also to the manifestation of ideas 
or sentiments in living persons. 

as 'the incarnation of selM- 

Stn. Embodiment. Impersonatfon. 
Ant. Disembodiment, ^iritoaliiatido. 

Incase, v. tr. See Case. 

Stn. Inclose. Enshrine. ImpaimeL 
Board. Batten. 

Ant. Unpack. Extract. Expose. Di^ 

Incautious, adj. See Cau- 

Incendiabism, n. Incendere, 
to bum. Used of malicious de- 
struction of property by fire. 

Stn. Arson. Conflagration. 
Ant. Extinction. Annihilation. Quench- 

Incendiaby, n. See Incen- 

Incense, v. See Incendiarism. 
Used metaphorically. 

Stn. Inflame. Irritate Provoke. Sting. 
Nettle. Exasperate. GalL Chafe. 

Ant. Allay. Soothe. PacifV. Appeaie. 
MolUfy. Conciliate. 

Inception, n. Inctpere, to he- 
gin. See Beginning. 

Incentive, n. Incinere, to 
strike up a tune. A stirring up 
by note or sound. 

Stn. Inducement. ExdtatiozL Bom* 
ing. Motive. Stimulus. 

Ant. Discouragement Warning. Dto- 
suaslve. Prohibition. Deterrent. 

Inceptob, w. See Inception. 
Incebtitudb, «. See Cer- 

Incessant, adj. In, not^ and 
cessare, to cease. 

Stn. ConUnnaL Unintermpted. Un- 
intermitted. Perpetual. 

Ant. Periodic OccasionaL Intor- 
rupted. Intermittent 

Inchoation. n. Incnoare^ to 
begin. See Inception. 

Incidence, n. Incidere^ to 
fall. The felling or strildngat 
a given point or angle. 

Stn. Impingement Impact Stroke. 
Ant. BefiecUon. BesUience. RebooBd. 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 
See Incidence 



)BNTAL, adj. See Inci- 
Used of that which regu- 
md that which casually, 
a thing, without being 
ely essential to it. 

::!asxiaL Occasional Appertlnent. 
utt Ck>ncurrent. Accidental. 
Systematic. ReRular. Indepen- 
Bconnected. IrrelHtive. EssentlaL 
t. Inherent. Uniform. Inva- 

PIENCE, w. See Inception. 

PIKNT, adj. See Inception 


acuMSPBOT, adj. See Cir- 


rB, V. tr, Incitare. See 

VILITY, n. See Civil. 

lEMBNT, adj\ In^ not, and 

r, clement. 

Harsh. TyrannicaL Cruel Un- 

Hild. Benign. Clement. Genial. 

iiNB, V. tr. and int. In^ 

Slope. Bear. Lean. Point Tend. 

Induce. Dip. Bias. Prompt. 

Trend. Diverge. Ascend. Deter, 
idispose. Disincline. 

See verb. 

jINB, n. 


iiUSiVB, adj\ 

See Incline. 
Indudere, to 

Comprehensive. Additive. 

Exclusive. Excepted. Benontia- 

)Q1XJZABLE, adj. See Cog- 


)HEBENOE, n. See Co- 

Dlnmion. Disruption. Inconsecu- 

Solution. Disconnection. 
Coherence. Continuity. CloseiieaB. 

Incombustible, adj\ In, not, 
and coraburo, ustus, to bum, 
Syn. Uninflammable. Aphlogistla 
Akt. Inflammable. Combustible. 

Incombustibility, n. See 
Income, n. In and come. 

Stn. Proceeds. Pay. Allowance. 
Amt. Disbursement Expenditure. 

Incommensubable, adj\ See 

Incommode, v. tr. /See Accom- 

Incommunicable, adj'. See 

Stn. Intransferable. Inalienable. 
Ant. Transferable. Alienable. Com- 

Incompab ABLE, adj\ See Com- 

Stn. Matchless. Unique. Oonsimimate. 

Ant. Commoa Ordinary. Average. 

Incompassionate, adj'. See 

Stn. Hardhearted. Unmerdfnl 
Akt. Clement Benignant Compas- 
sionate. Merciful 

Incompatible, adj'. See Com- 

Incompetence, n. See Com- 

Incomplete, cm/;. iSee Complete. 

Incompbehbnsiblb, adj\ See 

Stn. Mysterious. Unfathomable. Enig- 

Ant. Comprehensible. Cognizable. Plain* 

Incompeehension, n. See 

Incompressible, a(^'. /SSee Com- 

Inconceivable, adj'. See Con- 

Inconcinnitt, w. See Con- 

Inoonolusiye, adj. See Con- 


Inoongbuoub, adj, 

Inconsidebablb, ac?;*. iSfee Con- 

Tnconsidbbatb, adj. See Con- 

Inconsistent, adj. See Con- 

Inconsolable, aJj. See Con- 

Inconsonaih', adj. See Con- 

Incontestable, adj\ See Con- 

Stn. Indisputable. Unquestionable. Un- 
assailable. Impregnable. 

Ant. Dubious. Questionable. Problem- 
atical. Supposititious. Arbitrary. Assump- 
tive. HypotboUcal. 

Incontiguous, adj\ See Con- 

Incontinent, adj. See Conti- 

Incontinently, adv. See In- 
continent. Used also in the 
sense of immediately, i, e., with- 
out holding in for a moment. 

Incontbovektible, adj. See 

Incontbovebtibiltty, n. See 

Inconvenient, adj\ See Con- 

Inconvebsible, adj. In, not, 
and conversari, to hold conversa- 
tion. See Affable. 

Inconvebtiblb, adj\ See Con- 

Incobpobeal, adj. See Cor- 

Incobpobate, v. tr. See Cor- 
poreal and Disintegrate. 

Inoobbect, adj. See Correct. 

Synonyms and Antonyms, 
See Con- 

Incobbigible, adj. See Cor- 

Incobbuptible, adj. /Sec Cor- 

Incobbuption, n. See Cor- 

Incbassate, V, tr. In and 
crasstis, thick. See Thicken. 

Incbease, v. tr, and int, Jn 
and crescere, to grow. See De- 

Incbediblb, adj. See Cre- 

Incbedulitt, n. See Credu- 

Incbement, n. See Decre- 

Incbust, v. tr. Crttsta, a crust. 
To cover with a coat or crust 

Stn. Coat Overlay. Plaster. 
Ant. Scrape. Abrade. Levigate. Exft>> 

Inculcate, v. tr. In and calx, 
the heel. To impress, and, as it 
were, stamp in. 

Stn. Impress. Urge, ikiforoe. Pnm. 

Ant. Insinuate. Suggest Disavow. 

Abjure. Denounce. 

Inculpate, v, tr. In and 

culpa, ajault. See Implicate. 

Incumbent, adj, Incumhere, 
to ii.e tipf/n, 

Stn. Pressing. Urgent. Devolvent Ob- 

Ant. optional. Discretional 

Incub, V. tr, Incurrere, to nm 

Stn. Meet. Run. 

Ant. Avoid. Shun. Elude. Escape. 

Incubablb, adj. See Cure. 

i?TN. Irremediable. Irredeemable. 
Akt. Tractable. Bemovable. BemedSi 

Inoubiositt, n. See Cujoo* 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 


tsiON, w. See Incur. 

ivasion. Encroachment Baid. 

e. SaUy. 

ncampment SetUement. Abode. 

ivATiON, n. In and cur- 
rvus, to bend. See Bend. 
NATION, n. Indagari, to 
trace. See Examine. 
BTBD, adj. In and debere, 

Debitium, a debt, 
•bliged. Beholden. 
Msobliged. Unbeholden. 

DENT, adj. See Decent. 
oisiON, n. See Decision. 
oisiVB, arfy. >Sfee Decision. 
OORUM, n. In, not, and 
race or propriety. 
jnpropriety. Coarseness. Incor- 

*ropriety. Decorum. Correctness. 

FATIOABLE, odj. In, not, 

ire, to wear out by fatigue. 

rnwearied. Incessant. Persistent. 


indolent. Indifferent. Idle. 

FEASIBLE, adj. See Fea- 
Not to be undone. 

jrreversible. Unalterable. Immu- 
Reversible. Alterable. Mutable. 

FBNSIBLB, adj. See De- 

FINITE, adj\ See Definite. 
LIBLE, adj\ In, no8, de- 
wipe out. 

Indestructible. Indefeasible. In- 
. Persistent. Irreversible. 
Itfutable. Evanescent. Transient. 


ILICATE, adj. In, not, and 

tr, nice. 

yMTse. Broad. Indecent. 

Nice. Keflned. Modest. Delicate. 

IMNIFY, V. tr. In, not, and 

m, loss or damage. To 

or secure from loss or 


Jompensate. Secure. Satisfy. Be* 

Fine. Mulct Amerce. 

Iin)EPEin>ENCB, n. See De- 

Indesoeibablb, adj. See J)e- 

Stn. Unaccountable. Inexpressible. In- 
effable. Unutterable. 

Airr. Familiar. Ordinary. 

Indestructible, adf. See De- 

Stn. Imperishable. Indiscerptible. 
Amt. Perishable. Destructible. Dis- 

Indeterminate, adj'. See De- 

Indicate, v. tr, Indicare, to 
jmnt out. 

Syn. Show. Evidence. Betray. Evince. 
Manifest. Declare. Specify. 

Akt. Conceal. Contradict. N^^tive. 
Misindicate. Misdirect. Falsify. 

Indication, n. See Indicate. 

Stn. Mark. Sign. Token. Manifesto* 
tion. Evidence. Demonstration. Pnx^ 

Ant. Silence. Undemonstrativeness. Sur- 
mise. Misdirection. Misindication. Mis- 

Indict, v. tr. Indictare, from 
duere, to charge. See Charge. 

Indifference, n. In, not, 
and differentia, a difference. The 
want of sufficient importance to 
constitute a difference, and con- 
sequently, in a secondary sense, 
the careless feeling about such 

Stn. Triviality. Unimportance. Insig- 
nificance. Coolness. Carelessness. Com- 

Am:. Importance. Significance. "Weight. 
Gravity. Ji^gemess. Citerest. Affection. 

Indigent, adf. In and egere, 

to want. 

Syn. Poor. Straitened. Impecnnlotu. 
Akt. Wealthy. Rich. Monied. 

Indigestible, adf. See Digest. 

Stn. Crude. Raw. Heavy. 

Ant. Digestible. Nutritive. Light. 

Indignation, n. In, not, and 
diynus. Comp. Dignity. Worthy 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

the feeling roused by an un- 
worthy act. 

Stn. Resentment Denunciation. Pro- 

Amt. Gratification. Admiration. Ap- 
plause. Approval. Complacency. 

Indignity, n. See Indigna- 
tion. An oflfence against per- 
sonal dignity. 

Syn. Insult Outrage. Affront Dis- 

Airr. Deference. Compliment. Homage. 

Indiligbnce, w. See Dili- 

Indirkot, adj. See Direct. 

Indiscernible, adj. See Dis- 

Indiscbrptible, adj. Lat. 
dis and carpere, to joluck or puU. 
iSfee Indestructible. 

Indisooyerable, oe^y. 5e6 Dis- 

Stn. Untraceable. Incognizable. 
Airr. Cognizable. Traceable. Disco- 

Indiscreet, adj\ See Dis- 

Indiscretion, n. See Discre- 

Indiscriminatb, arf/. iSee Dis- 
criminate. Used both of objects 
and actively of character. 

Stv. Mixed. Conftised Medley. Pro- 
miscuous. Ill-assorted. Undisceming. 

AisT. CarefuL Sorted. Select Discern- 

iNDiscRnnNATiON, w. See In- 

Indispensable, adj. See Dis- 

Indisposed, adj'. See Dis- 

Stn. Disinclined. Unwilling. Reluc- 
tant. Sick. Ailing. 

Ant. Inclined. Prompt Ready. Will- 
tDg. Eager. Desirous. Sound. Healthful. 

Indisputable, adj. See Dis- 
putant and Incontestable. 

Indissoluble, adj. Bee Dis- t 

Stn. Inviolable. Inseparable. ladlh 
cerptible. Indestructible. 

Ant. Separable. Terminableu Dlmxtj^ i 
tible. Dissoluble. 

Indistinct, adj. See Distinct 

Indistinguishable, adj. 8m 

Stn. Indiscernible. Inappreciable. ]ll> 
nute. CunfUsed. 

Ant. Distinguishable. Conspicaoua. 

Indite, v. tr. Same word as 
Indict, but differently employed. 

Stn. Prompt Suggest. Dictate. Woid. 
Ant. Write. Transcribe. Pen. . 

Individual, adj. In, not, and 
dividum, divided or divisible, 

Stn. Personal Specific. Ftecoliar. In- 
divisible. IdenticaL Shignlar. Idiosyn- 

Ant. GteneraL GonmuKi. OoUBctiye. 

Indivisible, adj. See Divida 

Stn. Minute. Atomic. Ultimate. 
Ant. Divisible. Dlsoerptible. Sepa- 

Indocilitt, n. See Docile. 

Indoctrinate, v. tr. In and 
doctrina, doctrine. Docere, to 
teach. See Instruct. 

Indolence, n. In, not, and 
dolere, to feel pain. A state of 
pamless inactivity ; the tendency 
on the part of persons to desire 
such a state. 

Stn. See Activity. 

Indomitable, adj. Domitare, 
to tame. 

Stn. Invincible. Untameable. Irre- 
pressible. Indefatigable. 

Ant. Effortless. Feeble. Languid. 

Indorse, v. tr. In and dor- 
sum, a back. To write a signa- 
ture of approval or confirmation 
at the back of a document Used 

Stn. Sanction. Ajpprove, Sdbacfibe. 

Ant. Protest Repudiate^ Gancd. Ab* 
Jure. Renounce. 

Bynonyms and Antonyms. 


IlfDUBlTABLB, adj\ See Donbt 
and Incontestable. 

Indubious, adj\ See Dubious 
wad Doubt. 

Induce, v, tr. In and ducere, 
to brivg or draw on. Used of 
natural agency, a power, influ- 
ence, and also of the exercise of 

Sra. Produce. Cause. Prompt Per- 
suade. Instigate. 

AST. Slave. Prevent Disincline. Dis- 

Induction, n. See Induce. 
Used in the sense of bringing a 
number of individuals or in- 
stances together ; to make a class 
or principle. 

Stx. Collectioa Collation. Gathering. 
Application, as currelative to it 

Akt. Statement. Generalization. Pro- 
poaUion. Class. Principle. Law. Deduc- 
tioD. Inference. ArgmnentaUoo. Dis- 

Indus, v. tr, Induere, to put 
on. See Divert 

Indulge, V. ^r. Indulgere, from 
indoles, the nature or temperament. 
Act, and neut. To grant what is 
pleasing to another and also to 
one's self. Used grammatically 
as governing both persons and 

Stk. Spoil. Pamper. Humour. Gra- 
tify. Cherish. Bask. ReveL GroveL 

AST. Thwart Deny. Contradict Dis- 
uypoint Discard. Abjure. Counteract 
Uenonnce. Mortify. Discipline. 

Indulgence, n. See Indulge. 

Indukation, n. In and durm, 
hard. See Harden. 

Industry, n. Industry. 

8tv. Activity. ToiL Assiduity. Dlll- 
genoe. Perseverance. 

AST. InacUvity. Ease. Indulgence. 

Inebriety, n. See Ebriety. 
Ineffable, In, not, and effa^ 
hilts, Effari, to speak, 

^^» loezpresalble. Inoonoeivable. In- 

rarpassable. Indeclarable. Indescribable. 
Exquisite. Perfect 

Ant. Common. Trivial. SuperfldaL 
Vulgar. Conver^ationaL CoUoquiaL Ob- 
vious. Commonplace. 

Ineffably, adv. See Inef- 

Ineffectual, adv. See Effec- 

Inelastic, adj. See Elastic. 

Inelegant, adj. See Ele- 

Ineligible, adj. See Eligible. 

Inept, adj. See Apt. 

Inequality, n. See Equaliiy. 

Inequitable, adj. See Equi- 

Inert, adj. Lai iners, Gomp. 
of in, not, and ars, art. Inca- 
pable of skilful employment; 
hence disinclined to employment 

Stn. Indolent SlothfuL Lazy. Shig- 
gish. Heavy. 

Akt. Acdve. Energetic. Alert Brisk. 

Inertness, n. Inertia, See 

Inestimable, adj. See Esti- 
mable. It has also the sense of 
priceless; that is, 1, not to be 
esteemed; 2, not to be sufficiently 

Inevitable, adj. In, not, evi' 
tare, to escape. 

Syk. Unavoidable. Infallible. 

Airr. Avoidable. Uncertain. Indeter- 

Inezact, adj. See Exact 
Inexcitable, adj. See Ex- 

Inexcusable, adj. See Ex- 

Stk. Unmitigated. Unpardonable. In* 

Akt. Mitigable. Palllable. Justifiable. 
Vindicabla iWcnsible. Pardonable. 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

Inexhaustible, qdj. See Ez- 

Stk. Incessant. Unwearied. Indefit- 
tigable. PerenniaL lUimlUble. 
AST. Limited. Scant. Poor. 

Inbxistencje, n. See Exist- 

Inexorable, adj. In, not, 
exorare. to entreat. 

Syn. Merciless. Unrelenting. 

Ant. Lenient. Exorable. Indulgent. 
Benignant Clement. 

Inexpedient, adj\ See Expe- 

Sry. Undesirable. Inadvisable. Dis- 

Airr. Advisable. Profitable. E:!q)edient. 

Inexpensive, adj. See Expen- 

Inexperience, adj. See Ex- 

Syn. Ignorance. Inconversance. Un- 
fiuniliarity. Strangeness. 

Ant. Experience. Familiarity 

Inexpert, adj. See Expert. 
Inexpiable, adj. See Expiate. 

Syn. Uoatoneable. Unpardonable. 
Ant. Expiable. Redeemable. Pardon- 
able. Atoneable. 

Inexplicable, adj. See Ex- 

Syn. Mysterious. EnigmatlcaL 
Ant. Obvious. Plain. Easy. 

Inexpressible, adj. See Ex- 
press and Indescribable. 
Inexpressive, adj. See Ex- 

Stn. Characterless. Blank. 

Ant. Expressive. Telling. Speaking. 

Inextensivb, adj. See Ex- 

Inextension, n. See Exten- 

Inextingitishable, adj. See 

Inextricable, adj. See Ex- 

Syn. Overwhelming. Irredeemable. Fa- 

Ant. Remediable. Redeemable. 

Infallible, cdj. See Falli- 
Infamy, n. In, not, aml/ama, 


Syn. Despair. Degradation. Diaboiioiir. 

Ant. Honour. Repntatum. Oelebrity. 
Glory. Renown. 

Infantile, adj. In/am, an 
infant ; in, not, and fari, to tjpeak. 
Like an infant or child. 

Stn. Puerile. Childish. Imbecile. | 

Ant. Manly. Mature. Yigoroua. Ro> 

Infatuation, n. In and far 
tuus, silly. Fatuons. 

Syn. Fatuity. Hallucination. MadnesB. 

Ant. Clear-sightedness. Sagacity. Wis* 
dom. Sanity. Soundness. 

Infeasible, adj. See Feasi- 

Infect, v. tr. See noun. 

Infection, n. Inficere, to tw- 
fect. Jn feet us. 

Syn. Taint Poison. Gontaminatian. 
Corruption. Contagion. 

Ant. Purification. Disinfection. Anti* 

Infectious, adj. See Infec- 

Infelicity, n. See Felicity. 

Infer, v. tr. Inferre, to bring 
to. Used in the restricted sense 
of logical inference. 

Stn. Gather. Collect Deduce. Argue. 

Ant. State. Enunciate. Propound. An- 
ticipate. Prognosticate. Coi^ecture. Assume. 

Inference, n. See Infer. 

Inferiority, n. Inferior, 
lower. The state of being lower 
than some other thing or person, 
station, degree, or amount. 

Stn. Subordination. Minority. PoTerty. 
Mediocrity. Sutjeciion. Servitude. De- 

Ant. Superiority. Minority. EzceUenoe. 
Eminence. .Independence. Masteiy. Ex- 
altation. Elevation. 

Infernal, adJ, In/emus, 
lower. Belonging to the realms 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 

below or the character of their 
inhabitants. See Fiendish. 
iNPEBTHJTy, w. See Fertile. 

Stn. BarrenDess. Poverty. Sterility. 
Unproductiveness. Waste. 

A»T. Richness. Exuberance. Fruitful- 
Dess. ProductivenesB. 

Intest, V. tr. Lat. in/estua, 

St». Trouble. Harass. Teaze. Annoy. 

AST. Comfort. Gratify. Regale. Re- 

Infidelity. See Fidelity. 

Infiltrate,!;. ^r. and i«^. fee 
Filter. To pour or sink into the 
pores of a substance. Used me- 

Stn. lostiL Inoculate. Permeate. Sa- 
turate. Soak. 

AuT. Strain. Draw off. Deflltrate. 

Infinite, adj. In, not, and 
Jinis, an end or limit, 
Stn. See Immeasurable. 

Infinitesimal, adj\ See Infi- 
nite. Used of infinite minute- 

Stv. Inappreciable. Inconspicuous. Mi- 
nute. Microscopic. Indiscernible. Ato- 

Airr. Enormous. Immeasurable. Vast. 

Infirm, adj\ In, not, and fr- 
mu8, strong. Used of tiie bodily 
constitution, and occasionally of 
weakness in argument or state- 

Stn. Weak. Decrepit, Lame. Inforci- 
ble. Unsound. Falling. 

Art. Firm. Strong. Sure. Cogent. 
Forcible. Sound. 

Infirmity, n. See Infirm. 

Infix, v. tr. See Fix. 

Inflame, v, tr, Inflammare, 
flammay a pirn e, 

Stn. Fire. Kindle. Excite. Rouse. Fan. 
Incense. Maddeiu Infuriate. Exaspe- 

Ant. Qaench. Extinguish. Allay. Cool. 
Pftdfy. Quiet. 

Inflate, v. tr. In and flare, 

See Inflect. 
In and fligere. 


Stn. Disteod. Expand. 
Ant. Exhaust. Empty. Flatten. Squeeze. 

Inflated, adj. See Inflate. 
Used metaphorically of style of 

Stn. Pompous. Turgid. Bombastic. 
Ant. Plain. Unaffected. Simple. 

Inflect, v. tr, Inflectere, See 

Inflexible, adJ, See Flexi- 

Inflexion, n. 

Inflict, v. tr, 
to strike or cast. 

Stn. Impose. Put 

Ant. Remove. Alleviate. 

Infliction, n. See Inflict. 
Used also in the sense of 

Syn. Grievance. Trouble. Nuisance. 

Ant. Gratification. Pleasure. Accom- 
modation. Sparing. Remission. Condona- 

Influence, n. In, on, and 
fluere,toflow. That which takes 
effect upon another less palpably 
than by mechanical action. Used 
of moral and the subtler physical 

Stn. Effect Control Causation. Affec- 
tion. Impulse. 

Ant. IneflBciency. Ineffectiveness. In- 
operativeness. Nullity. Neutrality. Incf- 

Influential, adj. See In- 
fluence. Used of things and per- 

Stn. Potent Powerful Efficacious. 
Forcible. Persuasive. Controlling. Guidp 
log. Considerable. 

Ant. Weak. Ineffective. Inoperative. 
Unpersuasive. Inconsiderable. 

Influx, n. From Influere, to 
flou) in. See Accession. 
Infold, v. tr. See Enfold. 

Inform, v. tr. Informa/re^ 
forma, a sJiape, To give life or 
shape to, as * the informing 
soul;' hence its common accep- 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

tation of impartmg knowledge as 
the life of the spirit, and finally 
imparting specific knowledge. 
Forma, the eecTnce of a thing, 

Stn. EDli^hten. Instruct. Edify. Edu- 
cate. AcQuaint. Apprise. 

Akt. MiE^udge. Misinstruct Mislead. 
Deceive. Hoodwink. MysUfy. Misinform. 

Inpobmal, adj\ See Formal. 

Inpoemation, n. See Inform. 

Inpeaction, w. Infringere, to 
break. Used of laws, rules, and 

Syn. Violation. Infringement. Break- 
ing. Disturbance. 

Ant. Observance. Maintoiance. Con- 
aervatiozL Respect Integrity. 

Inpeanqiblb, adj\ See Fran- 

Inpebquenot, w. See Fre- 

Stn. Rarity. Fewness. Paucity. Dearth. 

Ant. Multitude. Abundance. Fre- 
quency. Recurrence. 

Inprigidation, n. In and/ri- 
giduSf frig 118, cold. The placing 
or being placed in a condition 
of cold. >bee Incandescence. 

Inpeingb, v. tr. See Infrac- 

Inpueiatb, v. tr. In and 
furor, rage. See Inflame. 

Infuse, v. tr. Infundere, fa- 
stis, to pour in. Used metapho- 
rically, as to infuse a spirit into 
a meeting. 

Stn. Steep. Soak. Water. InsUI. In- 
filtrate. Insinuate. 

Ant. Strain. Dry. Drain. Unteach. 
Retract. Divert. 

Ingenious, adj. Ingenium, 
the genius or natural capacity. 
Used of cleverness in finding 
forms of expression or contriv- 

Sth. Skilful. Adept Clever. Inven- 

tive. Ready. 

Ant. Unskilful, 

Slow. Uninventive. 

Ingenuous, adj, Lai Iw^ 
nuus, genus. Having the quality 
of honour and candour which 
befits and was at one time^ like 
many other virtues, assumed to 
belong peculiarly to high birth. 
Comp. Generosity. 

Stn. Noble. Candid. (Jaientma Frank. 

Art. Mean. Reserved. Sly. Diain- 
genuous. Insincere. 

Inglorious, adf. See Glorify. 

Stn. Shameful. Disgraceful. Unre- 
Ant. Illustrious. Glorioua Renowned. 

Ingraft, v, tr, 

See Graft, 

Ingeained, adj. In and gra- 
num, a seed or grain. Also the 
internal texture of a substance 
which might be conceived as 
minutely granulated, ^e Con- 

Ingeatiatb, V, tr. In and 
gratia. In the sense of &your; 
to place in a state of favour, 

Stn. Recommend. Insinuate. 

Ant. Discommend. Alienate. Estraiige. 

Ingratitude, n. See Gratitude. 

Ingredient, n, Ingredirif 

gradus, a step. Stepping or en- 
tering into a composition. 

Stn. Element. Ingredient Component 

Ant. Non-ingredient Reftise. Resi- 
duum. Counter-agent Incongruity. 

Ingress, n. See Ingredient 
and Egress. 

Ingulf, v. tr. See Gulp. 

Ingurgitate, v. tr. Ingurgl- 
tare, gurges, a whirlpool. To 
swallow greedily like a whirl- 
pool. See Swallow. 

Inhabilb, adj\ See Ability 
and Awkward. 

Inhabit, v. tr, and int. In^ 
Jiabitare, habitus, a fixed state 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 225 

To occupy perma- Inhume, v, fr. See Exhxune. 

In, not, and 
See Hostility 

or habit, 

Stk. Occupy. Tenant. Colonize. Settle. 
Amr. Abandon.' Forsake. Migrate. 

Inhabitant, n. See Inhabit. 

Stn. Occupant Tenant. Resident. Hor 
five. Jnmate. 

- Akt. Stranger. Traveller. Foreigner. 
Visitor. Intruder. 

Inhale, v, tr. and int. See 

Stn. Inspire. SnuflF. Absorb. 
Ant. Exhale. 

Inhaemonious, adj. See Har- 

Inhbbent, Gk^y. Inandhcerere, 
to stick, 

Stk. Innate. OongenitaL Immanent 

Ant. Foreign. AsdUtioas. Separable. 
Temporary. Extraneous. 

iNHSfiiT, V, tr. In and hoeres, 
edis, an heir. To come in for, 
as tiie heir, or analogously. 

Stn. Occupy. Possess. Enjoy. 

Ant. Acquire. Earn. Gain. Squander. 
Alienate. Dissipate. Bequeath. Leave. 
Demise. Devise. 

Inhbritancb, n. See Inherit. 

Stn. Bequest. Leisaqr. Heritage. Here- 

Ant. Purchase. Donation. Acquisi- 
tion. Dissipation. Alienation. Forfeiture. 
Lapse. Escheatment 

Inhebitob, n. See Inherit. 

Stn. Heir. Successor. Legatee. De- 

Ant. Deviser. Testator. 

Inhesion, n. See Inhere. 

Sin. IntroBusoeption. Innateness. In- 
herence. Indwelling. Ingridnedness. Im- 

Ant. Emanenoe. Emission. £J]ection. 
Extrusion. Extraction. 

Inhibit, v. tr. Inhihere. To 
hold in, and so restrain. 

Stn. i'revent Hinder. Prohibit Re- 
strain. Debar. 

Ant. Ui^. Incite. Permit Encourage. 

Inhospitable, adj. See Hos- 
Inhuman, adj. See Human, 

Inhume, v. tr. 

Inimical, adj, 
amicus, a friend. 
and Friendly. 

iNmiTABLE, wff. See Imi- 

Stn. Transcendent Matchless. Incom- 

Ant. Ordhiary. Mediocre. 

Iniquity, n. In, r,ot, and 
cequitns, from cequtis, just, 

Stn. Injustice. Wrong. Evil-doing. 

Ant. Justice. Integrity. Virtue. Holi- 

Initiate, v, tr, Initium, inire, 
an entrance or beginning. Applied, 
in the sense of commence, to xm- 
dertaMngs, and inaugurate, to 
persons. See Commence and 
Inaugurate. Used in the tech- 
nical sense of initiate or intro^ 
duce to mysteries or ceremonies. 

Initiated, adj. See Initiate. 

Initiative, w. See Initiate. 
Used for the first step in a course 
of action. 

Stn. Start Leadership. Gommenoe* 
ment Example. 

Ant. Wake. Rear. Prosecution. Ter- 

Inject, v, tr. See Eject. 

Injudicious, adj. See Judi- 
Injunction, n. See Enjoin. 

Injure, v, tr. Injuria, In, 
not, and Jus, right. A wrong or 
hurt. When things without life 
are said to be injured, they are 
regarded as valuables or posses- 
sions. The term is offcen used 
loosely of persons, as, 'he injured* 
(meaning he hurt) * his hand.' 

Syn. Damage. Wound. Hurt Wrong. 
Impair. Maltreat 

Ant. Beneflt Profit Repair. Ad- 
vance. Advantage. 

Injury, n. See Injure. 


Synonyms and Antonyms, 


Airr. Outlet 

Injustice, n. See Justice. 

Inlet. In and let Used 
sometimes in the sense of open- 
ing or commencement. 

Openiug. Ingress. Commence- 
Egress. Debouchure. 

Inmate. In and Icel. matt, 
equal or companion. See Inha- 

Innate. In and natus, horn. 
Born in a person, or so habitual 
as to seem so. See Congenital. 

Innee, Inmost. In, prep,; 
comparative and superlative. 

Syn, Interior. Vital. Secret. Close. 
Ant. Exterior. Outer. Oatermost. 

Innocence, n, Innocentia. 
In, not J and nocere, to hurt, Spe* 
cific, or generally of character 
and disposition. 

Srx. Innocuousneas. Inoffensiveness. 
Guilelessness. Guildessness. Simplicity. 
Purity. Sinlessneas. 

Ant. Hurtfulness. Offensiveness. Guile. 
Guilt. Contamination. Corruption. Im- 
purity. Sinfulness. 

Innocent, adj. See Inno- 

Innocuous, adf. See Inno- 
cent. Used rather of physical, 
as innocent of moral properties, 

Syn. - - ■ — 


Ant. Obnoxious. 

Innovation, n. In and novus, 
new. An introduction, commonly 
implying a want of reason or 
authority, of something new into 
a previously existing system. 

SrN. Alteration. Reversal. Novelty. 

Ant. Conservation. Maintenance. Ar- 
chaism. Oid-lashlon. Obsoleteness. 

See Noxious. 

See Num- 

Inoffensive. Harmless. Whole- 
Hurtful. Deleterious. 

Innoxious, adj. 
Innumerable, adj. 

Innutritious, adj\ See Nu- 

Inobservance, n. See Observ- 

Inoculate, v. tr. In and oai- 
lus, an eye. Used here for the 
eye or slit into which the graft 
is inserted. It is applied both to 
persons inoculated and the sub- 
jects of the inoculation. 

Syn. Impregnate. Indoctrinate. Thige. 
Insert. Imbue. InstlL Ingrain. Ingraft. 

Ant. Disabuse. Unteach. Prone. Di- 

Inodorous, adj. See Odorous. 

Inoffensive, adj. See Offen- 

Inofficious, adj, 

Inoperative, adj, 

Inopportune, adj 

Inordinate, adj. 
ordo, order. , 

Stn. Extravagant. Disproportionate. Un- 
r^ulated. Exorbitant 

Ant. Regular. Just. Moderate. 

Inorganic, adj. See Organic. 

Inosculate, v. int. In and 
osculum. Used in a neut. and 
act. sense. 

Stn. Blend. Unite. Intertwine. So- 
lidify. Anastomose. Intersect. Interpene- 

Ant. Separate. Divei^. Biftircate. Dis- 
unite. Divorce. 

Inquietude, n. See Quiet. 

Inquinatb, v. tr. Lat. tnqui- 
nare. See Contaminate. 

Inquiry, n. In and qucererc, 

to seek. 

Syn. Intern^tion. Question. Aaking. 
Investigation. Search. Examination. 

Ant. Conjecture. Guess. Intuititm. Hy- 
pothesis. Assumption. Supposition. 

Inquisitorial, adj. See In- 

See Offi- 

See Opera- 

See Op- 

In, not J and 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


ctniry. Having the character of 
arrogant inqnisitiveness. 

Stn. Minute. Arbitrary. Over-curious. 

Ant. Superficial. Perfunctory. Unin- 
quisitive. Incurious. Inobservant. Un- 

Inboad, n. In and 7vad. 

Syn. Invasion. Raid. Incursion. Dra- 
gonnade. Irruption. Trespass. Infringe- 

AiTT. Occupation. Settlement Evacua- 
tion. Retreat. Sally. Outbreak. Excur- 
sion. Egress. 

Insalxjbritt, n. See Salu- 

Insane, adj. In, not, and 
sanus, fiouufL See Mad. 

Insanity, n. See Madness. 

Insatiable, adj. See Satisfy. 

Stn. Voracious. Unappeasable. Omni- 
vorous. Ravenous. 

Ant. Moderate. Delicate. Fastidious. 
Dainty. Squeamish. 

Inscribe, v, tr. In and scri- 
here, to write. To write upon. 

SrN. Letter. Write. LabeL Designate. 
Delineate. Mark. Imprint 

Amt. Erase. Efface. CanceL Oblite- 
rate. Expunge. 

Insoboll, V. tr. In and scroll. 
To write the name or thing on a 
scroll, or to ornament with scroll- 
work. Scroll, from Fr. eicrder, 
which from corrotula/re, rotidtis, 
a roll. 

Stn. Enlist Register. EnrolL Patp 
tern. Flourish. Record. Calendar. 

Ant. Erase. DisenrolU Cashier. Ex- 
punge. Obliterate. Efface. Deface. 

Inscrutable, adj. In, not, 
and scrutari, to investigate. The 
positive has dropped out of use. 

Syn. Unintelligible. Untraceable. Mys- 
terious. Unfathomable. Profound. Insolv- 

Ant. Obvious. Seir-«vident Familiar. 
Intelligible. Explainable. 

Insecure, adj. See Secure. 

Insensate, adj. In, not, and 
sensus, feeling or perception. 
Snr. Brute. Insensitive. Insensible. 

Unfeeling. Stolid. Insusceptible. Unfan- 

Ant. Sensitive. Feeling. Quick. Saga- 
cious. Discriminating. Observing. Acute. 
Susceptible. Impressible. 

Insensibility, n. See Sensi- 

Insensible, adj. See Sensi- 

Insbpabablb, adj. See Sepa- 

Insert, v. tr. In and serere, 
to plant. See Introduce. 

Inside, prep, and adv. In and 

Stn. Within. Internally. 

Ant. Without Outside. Extraneously. 

Insidious, adj. Insidiosus, in- 
sidiari, to sit or lie in wait. 

Stn. Wily. Treacherous. Designfaig. 

Ant. Straightforward. Sincere. Un- 
desiguing. Innocuous. 

Insignificant, adj. See Sig- 

Insincere, adj. See Sincere. 

Insinuate, v. tr. In and 
sinus, the fold or hosom of a robe. 
To insert, as it were, into the 
bosom. Used both of persons 
and subjects. 

Stn. introduce. Insert Worm. Ingra- 
tiate. * 

Ant, Withdraw. Retract Alienate. 

Insipid, adj. See Sapid. 

Syn. Tasteless. Vapid. Uninteresting. 
Characterless. Flavourless. Flat Insulse. 

Ant. Tasty. Sapid. Relishing. Racy. 
Interesting. Engaging. 

Insist, v. int. In, on, and 
sistere, to stand. To stand on a 
thing as necessary or right. 
Followed by pi-ep. on 

Stn. Stand. Demand. Maintain. Con- 

Ant. Abandon. Waive. Concede. Yield. 
Surrender. For^o. 

Insnarb, V. tr. In and snare, 
Q 2 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

Sra. Intrap. Cajole. Deoay. AUnre. 
Catch. Inveigle. 

Aut. Enlii^ten. Warn. Deter. Dto- 
soade. Rescue. Liberate. Belease. Extri- 

Iksobbiet7> w. See Sobriety. 

Insolbnoe, n. 7n, not, and 
sciere, to he accustomed, solita, 
ctMtoms of society. The arrogance 
which overrides the customary 
restraints of society. 

Stn. Arrogance. AanunptiiHi. Impu- 

Ant. Deference. Consideration. Polite- 
ness. Modesty. Bashfulness. 

Iksoluble, adj. See Soluble. 

Insolvable, adj. See Solve 
and Inscrutable. 

Insolvent, adj. In, not, and 
solvere, to pay. Having not the 
means of paying his debts. 

Snr. Bankrupt. Rained. Penniless, 

Airr. Flosn. flourishing. Honied. 

Inspect, v, tr, Inspicere, to 
look into, 

Stn. Scmtinize. Examine. Investigate. 
Search. OverfaanL 

Ant. Overlook. Connive. Dismiss. Glance. 
Hiaobserve. Mlsinvestigate. Pretermit. 

Inspector, n. See Inspect. 

Inspiration, n. In and spi- 
rare, to breathe. That which is 
breathed into the soul or mind, 
as it were, by Divine influence. 

Stn. Poesy. Frenzy. Impulse. Reve- 
lation. Intuidon. AflSatus. 

Ant. Study. Elaboration. Learning. 
Acquirement. Observation. Education. 

Inspire, v. tr. See Inspira- 

Stn. Animate. Inspirit Inflame. Im- 
bue. Impel Eucourage. 

Ant. Depress. Db^irit Discourage. 

Inspirit, v, tr. See Inspire. 

Inspissation, n. In and spis- 
SU8, thick, A thickening of the 
particles, especially of liquids. 

Stn. Thickening. Turbidity. Incrassa- 
**— Densiflcation. 

Ant. Refining. Straining. Perookttka. 
PrecipitaUon. Clarification. Tenuity. 

Instabiuty, n. See Stability. 

Instal, v. tr. In and stdbur' 
lum, a fixed standing pla,ce ; from 
stare, to stand, C!omp. Stall and 

Stn. Establish. Institute. Induct In* 

Ant. Deprive. DisinstaL Strip. De» 

grade. Disinvest Eject. 

Instalment, n. See InstaL 
A security by periodical repay- 
ment. Used in the wider sense 
of a portion of a larger quantity. 

Stn. Firbt-fruits. Part-payment Drib* 

Ant. Payment. Reimbnrstement Ac- 
quittal. Liquidation. Concelment 

Instance, n, InMantia, In 
and sta/re. Has the twofold sense 
of insistence, but in a milder 
form, and case or circumstance 
illustrative of a rule or state- 

Stn. Entreaty. Request Prompting. 
Persuasion. Example. Solicitation. Case; 
Illustration. Exemplification. 

Ant. Dissuasion. Deprecation. Warn- 
ing. Rule. Statement Principle. Mis- 

Instant, n. See Instance. 
The vioment of time present 
now or at a given period. 

Stn. Moment Second. Minute. Twink- 
ling. Trice. 

Ant. Period. Duration. Cyde. Time. 
Permanence. Perpetuity. Eternity, 

Instaitration, n. In and 
obsolete staurare, to establish, 
Comp. Store and Kestore. See 

Instigate, v. tr. Instigate, to 
urge on with a goad or spur; 
from Gr. arliciv, arlyfjuu Gomp. 
Stigma. See Urge. 

Instil, v. tr, Instillare, sttUa, 
a drop. To pour or soak drop 
by drop. 

Stn. Pour. Inftise. Tntroduoei Im- 
port Implant Insinuate. 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


Aht. Drain. Strain. iSiact 7Eradi- 
cate. Extirpate. EUminaCgr Bjemo^pr 

iNSTmcT, n, Instinguere, to 
prick iw, or impuncture, A sense 
of practical expediente, as it were, 
impimctured in the nature. 

Snr. Prompting. Impulse. Intuition. 

Akt. Reason. Beasoning. Abstraction. 
Deliberation. Experience. Experiment 
Elaboration. Judgment. 

Institute, v. tr. h^stituere, 
to institute. Applied to the in- 
stitution and the person insti- 

Stn. Found. Establish. Erect In- 
vest Instal. Appoint Induct 

Amt. Disestablish. Subvert. Disinvest. 
Degrade. Deprive. 

Institutoe, w. See Institute. 

Instruct, v. tr, Jnstritere, 
structus, to lay a foundation (of 

Stn. Enlighten. Educate. Inform. In- 
doctrinate. Acquaint. Teach. Kdify. 

Airr. Misinform. Mlseducate. Misln- 
struct Misguide. Mislead. Misacquaint 
Deceive. Neglect Barbarize. Brutalize. 

Instruction, n. See Instruct. 

Instructor, n. See Instruct. 

Instrument, n. See Instruct. 
That which is employed as the 
floor, basis, pivot, or hinge of 
action or proceeding.- Applied 
to things mechanical and legal. 

Stk. Implement. Utensil. Tool. Docu- 
ment Deed. Record Muniment Means. 

Ant. Misapplication. Counteraction. 
Counteragent Neutralizer. Opponent 
Bar. Obstruction. Preventive. Stop. 

Instrumentality, n. See In- 

SxN. Agency. Intervention. Medium. 
Use. Employment Means. * 

Ant. Non-intervention. Spontaneity. 
El&cacy. Virtue. Property. Quality. 
Force. Coonteragency. Neutralization. 

Insuavitt, n. See Suavity. 

Insubordinate, adj. See Sub- 

Stk. Reslstent Recalcitrant Rebel* 
lions. Undutiful. Refractory. 

Ant. Submissive. DutiAiL Docile. Obe- 

Insubstantial, adj\ See Sub- 

Insubstantialitt, n. /S^ec Sub- 

Insufferable, adj\ See Suffer. 

Stn. Intolerable. Unpermissible. Un- 

Ant. Tolerable. Allowable. Endnnible. 

Insufficient, adJ, See Suffi- 

Insulsb, adj. In, not, and 
sahus, salt — in flavour or in wit. 
See ifeipid. 

Insult, v. tr, InsUire, sultus, 
to leap upon in assault. Meta- 
phorically, to trample on a per- 
son's self-respect. 

Stn. Affront Outrage. Dishonour. 
Provoke. Mock. Ridicule. 

Ant. Respect Salute. Honour, ftalse. 
Flatter. Compliment Gratify. 

Insult, n. See Insult, verb. 

Insuperable, adj. See Supe- 

Insupportable, adf. See Sup* 
portable. ' 

Insuppbbssiblb, (uiy. >8fec Sup- 

Insure, v, tr. In and sure, 
from securus, secure. 

Stn. Provide. Stabilitate. Guarantee. 
Secure. Warrant 

Ant. Imperil. Jeopardize. Shalce. 

Insurgent, n. In, on or 
against, and surgere, to rise. One 
who rises up in rebellion. 

Stn. Malcontent Rebel Traitor. Mu- 
tineer. Rioter. 

Ant. Patriot Adherent Supporter, 
Constabulary. Executive. Ruler. Magis- 

Insxtrmountablb, adj\ See 
I Surmountable. 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

Insurrection, w. See Insur- 

Syn. Rebellion. Rising. Riot Anarchy. 
Tumult. Mutiny. Emeute. Pronounce- 

Ant. Law. Peace. Order. Obedience. 
Government. Submission. Subjection. 
Servitude. Bondage. Subsidence. Pacifi- 
cation. Acquiescence. 

Insusceptible, adj. See Sus- 

Intact, adj. In, not, and 
t'jctus, from tangere, t/mched. 

Syv. Pure. Undefileil. Uncontamlnated. 
Uncorrupted. Safe. Uninjured. Unhurt 
Scatheless. Inviolate. Sacred. 

Ant. Foul. Defiled. Contaminated. 
Corrupt Hurt. Injured. Affected. 

Intangible, adj. See Tangi- 

Integrate, v. tr. Integer, 
whole, Comp. Entire. To make 
whole, or into a whole. 

Stn. Sum. Complete. Solidify. Conso- 

Ant. Disintegrate. Discompound. Ana- 
lyze. Dismember. Amputate. Disunite. 
Detach. Remove. 

Integration, n. See Inte- 

Integrity, n. See Integrate. 
That entireness of character 
which tends to preserve man's 
relations to his fellows. 

Syn. Uprightness. Honour. Honesty. 
Probity. Truthfulness. Candour. Single- 
mindedness. Conscientiou>ness. 

Ant. Unfairness. Sleight Under- 
handedness. Meanness. Chicanery. Fraud. 
Duplicity. Roguery. Rascality. 

Integument, n. In and te- 
gere, to cover. Used of such 
coverings as are afforded not by 
art, but nature. 

Stn. Covering. Protection. Envelope. 

Ant. Nudity. Bareness. Callowness. 
Abrasion. Exposure. 

Intellect, n. Intellectm, in- 
telUgere, to understand, 

Syn. Understandhig. Mind. Reason. 
Instinct Consciousness. 

Akt. Matter. Mechanism. Organiza- 
tion. Force. Growth. Propension. Pas* 

Intelligence, n. See Intel- 
lect. Used in the twofold sense 
of the faculty of understanding, 
and that which is submitted to it 
in the way of tidings. 

Stv. Understanding. Apprehension. 
Comprehension. Conception. Annonnoe- 
ment. Report Rumonr. Tidings. News. 
Information. Publication. 

Ant. Misunderstanding. Misinformation. 
Misapprehension. Misomception. Stupidity. 
Dulness. Suppression. Ignorance. Dark- 
ness. Concealment Silence. Non-pnbll- 
cation. Misguidance. Misintelligence. 

Intelligible, adj. See Intel- 
lect. That may be easily under- 
stood. See Inscrutable. 

Intemperate, adj. See Tem- 

Intend, v, tr. Intendere. To 
streteh towards an object men- 
tally, with the purpose of action. 
See Purpose. 

Intensity, n. See Intend. 

Stn. Teusion. Force. Strain. Atten- 
tion. Eagerness. Ardour. Energy. Con- 

Ant. Laxity. Debility. Relaxation. 
Languor. Indifference. Coolness. Hebe- 
tude. Diminution. 

Intent, adj. Used in the 
sense of intending. See Intend. 

Stn. Eager. Fixed. Bent 

Ant. indifferent Distracted. Diverted. 

Intention, n. See Intend and 

Intentional, adj. See In- 

Stn. Pnrposed. Designed. Deliberate. 
Ant. Undesigned. CasuaL Uninten- 
tional. Accidental Fortuitous. 

Inter. In and terra, the earth. 

Stn. Bury. Inhume. 
Ant. Exhume. Dishiter. 

Intercede, v. tr. Intercedere. 
To go between, for the imphed 
purpose of making some petition 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


on behalf of anotiier. To go be- 
tween the stronger and the 
weaker party. Followed by the 
prep. for. 

SrN. Mediate. Inteipoae. Interfere. 
Advocate. Plead. 

' Ant. Abandon. Incriminate. Charge. 
Inculpate. Accuiie. 

Intkecbpt, V, tr. Inter and 
capere, to take or catch. To catch 
a thing or person on a oertaiu 

Syn. Arrest Stop. Catch. Seize. Neu- 

Amt. Send. Despatch. Forward. De- 

Ente. Commission. Delicate. Excbiange. 
utercbange. intercommnnicate. 

Intbbcbssion, n, JSee Inter- 

Intbbchangb, n. See Change. 
A giving and taking between two 

SxN. Barter. Reciprocation. Recipro- 
city. Intercommnnlcaticxi. Correspondence. 
Intercourse. Mutuality. 

Ant. See Intercept. 

Interghakob, V. See noun, 



Intbrcoursb, n. Inter, be- 
tween, and cursus, a course (of 
dealing). Used of two parties. 

Syn. Correspondence. Dealing. Inter- 

Akt. Reticence. Suspension. Cessation. 
Disconnection. Interception. Interpella- 

Intbrcurbbnob, n. See Inter- 

Stt. Intervention. Intrusion. Inter- 
venience. Interception. 

Ant Non-intervention. Unobstructed- 
ness. Non-interoeption. 

Intbrdigt, V, tr. Inter jdicere, 
dictus. To come anthoritiatively 
with prohibition between a party 
and the thing prohibited. Used 
actively of things and persons. 

Stv. Prohibit Restrain. Estop. Dis- 
. AVT. Concede. Indulge. Grant Allow. 

Intbrbst. Interesse, To come 
between, so as to make or show 
a difference. As in the phrase, 
' It makes a great difference to 
me,' meaninff, my interest is 
much affected. Hence the na- 
tural feeling about such cases, 
namely, anxiety or attention. 
Used technically for the aggre- 
gation of persons commonly con- 
cerned, as, ' the agricultural inte- 
rest,' and other technical senses. 

Stn. Concern. Business. Advantage. 
Profit Attention. Curiosity. BehalC 

Ant. Unconcern. Disconnection. Repu- 
diation. Disadvantage. Lotis. Inattention. 
Incuriosity. Indifference. 

Intbrfbrb, V, tr. Inter and 
ferire, to strike. To strike in be- 
tween two contending parties to 
stop them. The word still re- 
tains the element of opposition, 
but is sometimes used in no 
sense of opposition. In these 
cases there is commonly a quali- 
fication, as, ' he interfered to save 

Stn. <Siec Interpose. 

Interior, adj. Lat. 

Syn. Inside. Inner. 
Ant. Exterior. Outside. 

Intbbjacbnt, adj. Inter and 
Jacere, to he. Lying between. 
See Intermediate. 

Intbrjbot. Interjicere, to throw 
httwetn. See Iiyect. 

Intbrlaob, v. tr, and int. In- 
ter and la^e, Lat. laguetm. 

Stn. Cross. Reticulate. Intertwine. 

Ant. Radiate. Diverge. Unravel. Dis- 

iNTBRLOCunoN, w. Inter and 
logui, to speak. 

Stn. Interruption. Interpellation. 

Ant. Speech. Oration. Flow. Unin- 

Intbrlopbb, n. Inter and 
Dutch loopen, to run. 


St/nonyrm and Antonyms. 

Stn. Intruder. Sapemumenuy. 
Ant. Member. Constituent. 

Intebmeddle, V, int. See 

Intkembdiatb, adj. Inter and 
mediuSy middle. Coming between. 
Used physically and metaphy- 

Syn. Intervening. Included. Inter- 
posed. Middle. C!ompriBed. Moderate. 

Ant. Circumjacent. Surrounding. En- 
closing. Embracing. Outside. Extreme. 
Excluded. Exclusive. 

Intebment. n. See Inter. 

Interminable, adj. In, not, 
and terminus y an end. or limit. 

Syn. Unending. Everlasting. Perpe- 
tual. Endlei«. Infinite. 

Ant. Terminable. Brief. Moderate. 
Curt. Short. Momentary. 

Intebmingle, v. int. See 

Intebmission, n. Inter and 
mittei^e, to send or place. Pe- 
riodical delay or cessation. 

Syn. Cessation. Interruption. Discon- 
tinuance. Suspension. Becurrence. 

Ant. Continuity. Continuance. Perma- 
nence. Perpetuity. Constancy. Uninter- 

Intbbmit, V. tr. See Inter- 

Stk. Suspend. Relax. Break. Discon- 

Ant. Continue. Prosecute. Urge. Dis- 

Intermix, v. tr. See Mix. 

Intebmutation, n. Inter and 
mtitare, to change. A mutual 

Syn. Intervariatlon. Interdlscrepanpy. 
Interredprocity. Interchange. Mutuality. 

Ant. Unity. Uniformity. InterresisU 
ance. Interdependence. 

Internal, adj. Lat. internus. 

Syn. Inner. Interior. Inside. 
Ant. Outer. Exterior. Outside. 

Intebnational, adj. Inter 
and natio, a nation. 

Syn. Interpolitical. Interdiplomatic. 

Ant. Independent. Non-interventive. 
Intestine. Domestic 

Intebneoine, adj. Inter and 
necinus, nex, necis, death, deadly. 
CJommonly used as an epithet (^ 
war, hatred, or hostility. 

Stn. Exterminating. Deadly. Irreooo- 
cileable. Inextinguishable. 

Ant. Desultory. Incursive. Maraud- 
ing. Buccaneering. Freebooting. Fili- 
bustering. Skirmishing. Guerilla. 

Interpellation, n. Inter- 
peUare, to intenmpt. 

• Syn. Interlocution. Suspension. Inter- 

Ant. Promotion. Prosecution. Oouduct. 
Flow. Uninterruptedness. 

Intebpbnbtration:, n. Intei*- 
penetrare. The mutual penetra- 
tion of two things. 

Syn. Interlngression. luterdlgitatioo. 
DovetaiL Inoculation. 

Ant. Interseporation. Interrecarrenoe. 

Intebpolatb, v. tr. Inter 
and polire, to furbish. 

Syn. Interlard. Interweave. Import. 
Garble. Gloss. Intersperse. Furbish. Li- 

Ant. Expunge. Elide. Erase. Verier. 
Authenticate. Expurgate. 

Intebposb, v. tr. and int. In- 
ter and ponere, to place. Used as 
act. and netit. 

Syn. Introduce. Insert. Intervene. In- 
terfere. Meddle. 

Ant. Withdraw. Retract Retire. Re- 
cede. Remove. Extract. 

Intbrpbet, V. tr. Interpre- 
tari, inter pres, an interpreter. 

Syn. Translate. Render. Construe. 
Explain. Expound. Expone. Represent 
Declare. Understand. 

Ant. Misinterpret. Misunderstand. Mis- 
take. Misconceive. Falsify. Distort JVIis- 
declare. Misrepresent 

Intebpbeteb, w. See Inter- 

Intebbogate, v. tr. Interro- 
gare. See Question. 

Intebbupt, v. tr. Inter and 

rumpere ; ruptus, to break. 

Syn. Break. Disconnect Dlacontlnne. 
Intersect Disturb. 

Ant. Contiune. Prosecute. Expedite. 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


• Intbeseot, V, tr, and int. In- 
ter and secure, sectus, to cut. See 

Intebspbbse, v. tr. Inter and 
spargere, sparsus, to scatter. 

Sth. Interlard. Powder. Scatter. 

Akt. £zpunge. 

Intebstige, n. Inter and sor- 
tere, to stand. 

Sth. Chink. Interval. Cleft. Cnmny. 
Fissure. Gap. Inten^pace. Crack. 

Aht. Seam. Suture. Stop-gap. 

Intebtwine. Inter and twine. 
Conn, with Two and Twain. See 

Intebval, n. Inter and vol- 
Itis, a stake or palisade. A me- 
diate portion of time or space, 
or a selected portion. 

Syn. Interim. Meantime. Pferiod. Gap. 
Intermission. Interspace. Cessation. 

Akt. Continnity. Simultaneousuess. Un- 

IJSTEBVENTION. Inter and ve- 
nire, to come. Used of space, 
order, and time. 

Syn. Intrusion. Insinuation. Inter- 
ference. Intercession. Mediation. 

Ant. Continuance. Non-intervention. 
Unintermptediiess. Non-interference. 

Intekview, n. Inter and 
view, from videre, to see. A 
formal meeting between two 

Sth. Colloquy. Confabulation. Con- 
sultation. Conference. Meeting. 

Ant. Isolation. Independence. Exclu- 
sion. Avoidance. 

Intebweavb. Lat. prep, in- 
ter, and verb to weave. See In- 

Intestate, adj, Intestatm. 
Without a will. Applied to 
persons and property. In, not, 
and testari, to make a wUl, from 
testis, a vntness. 

Sth. Unwilled. Undevised. Unbe- 

Ant. Willed. <Beqneathed. Devised. 

Intestine, adj. Intestinus, 
from intuSf within^ 

Sth. Interior. GviL Domestic. 
Ant. External. Foreign. Interna* 

Inthball, v. To keep in 
thrall, or bring into thraldom. 

8tn. Confine. Cage. Imprison. Incar- 
cerate. Intomb. Enslave. 

Akt. Liberate. Release. Disengage. 
Free. Unfetter. 

Intimate, v. tr, Intimus, in- 
most. To give, first, confiden- 
tial, and, secondarily, as now 
used, ordinary information. 

Sth. Impart. Communicate. Announce. 
Declare. Tell. 

Aht. Reserve. Repress. Conceal With- 

Intimate, adj. . Intimus, inr 

Sth. Close. Familiar. Exact Nice. 
Aht. Ditttaut. Unfamiliar. SuperfldaL 

Intimidate, v. tr. In and 
timidus, timid or frightened. 
Especially with some purpose of 
causing to act, or to deter. 

Sth. Frighten. Alarm. Threaten. 

Ant. Encourage. Inspirit. Animat e. 

Intolerable, adj. In, not, 
and tolerare, to bear. See Insuf- 

Intolebant, adj. See Tole- 

Intomb, v. tr. In and Low 
Lat. tumba, a tomb. Used lite- 
rally and metaphorically. 

Sth. Inter. Bury. Inhume. Incaroe- 
rate. Imprison. Immure. 

Ant. Exhume. Disinter. Disentomb. 
Liberate. Release. 

Intonation, n. In and tonv^, 
a tone or note, A sound, by use 
restricted to the voice, though 
tone is used of musical instru- 
ments also, which can be re- 
duced to a musical note. 

Sth. Melody. Accentuation. Reson- 
ance. Ring. 

Aht. Jar. Jabber. Gabble, BabeL 
Gibber. Rattle. 

Intoxication, n. In and 


Synonyms and AnUmyms. 

toxicum, poison. To poison or 
to affect, as by the fames of such 
herbs, and so impart a sensation 
of drowsiness, on the one hand, 
or delicious pleasure, on tiie 

Stk. Poison. Venom. Obfii.«cation. Be- 
wilderment. Delirinm. Hallucination. Ba- 
vislmient Ecstasy. Inebriation. 

Ant. Antidote. ClarificaUon. Sobriety. 
Sanity. Ebriety. Melancholy. Depres- 



Intbaotable, adj. 

Intbansient, adj. See Tran- 

Intbknohmbnt, n. In and 
trench. The word is used for 
that which is trenched, for the 
purpose of trenching, and also in 
a peculiar sense for the undue 
carrying on of the process of 
trenching, so as to encroach, as 
it were, on land not your own. 

Syn. Ditch. Dyke. Moat Circumval- 
latlon. Encroachment Infringement Tres- 

Ant. Wall. Rampart Mound. Mole. 
Embankment Glacis. Bastion. Forbear- 
ance. Deference. Respect 

Intrepid, adj. In, not, and 
trepidus, afraid. See Courage. 

Intricate, adj. See Extri- 
cate, verb. 

Syn. Complicated. Involved. Mazy, 
t Labyrinthine. Entangled. Tortuous. 

Ant. Simple. Uninvolved. Flaiiu 
Direct Obvious. 

Intrigue, n. See Intricate. 

Syn. Cabal. Plot Consphticy. Machi- 
nation. Artifice. Design. Manoeuvres. 
Cunning. Duplicity. Trickery. Chi- 

Ant. Insurrection. Rebellion. Con- 
gress. Assembly. Force. Violence. As- 
SHult. Openness. Candour. Sincerity. 
Honesty. Probity. Straight-forwardness. 

Intrinsic, adj, Intrinsecus, 
intra, within. 

Syn. Native. Inherent Innate. Ge- 
nuine. Immanent 

Axt. Extrinsic. Acqubod. Adven* 
titious. Borrowed. Pretended. Asciti- 
tious. ExteraaL Added. ABsomed. 

Introduce, v. tr. See Intro- 

Introduction, n. Intro, with- 
in, and ducere, to bring. 

Syn. Induction. Importation. Leading, 
Taking. Presentation. Insertion. Cum- 
menoement Preliminary. Preface. loi^ 
tiative. Portico. VesUbule. Entnnce; 

AsT. Eduction. Extraction. Exporta- 
tion. Elimination. S^ectioa Endrcle- 
ation. Estrangement Concluaion. Oon»> 
pletkMi. End. Egress. 

Introductory, adj. See In- 

Syv. l^efatory. Initiatory. Cammenda- 
tory. Precursoiy. Prelimhiaiy. Fiepa- 

Ant. Completive. FinaL Condnslve. 
Alienative. SupplementaL TerminaL Vale- 

Introvert. Intro, inwards, 
and vertere, to turn. To turn the 
outside inwards. 

Syn. Involve. Invert Beplicateu 
Ant. Explicate. Evolve. Endrdeate. 

Intrude, v. tr. and int. In 
and trudere, to thrust or tread, 
tiee Interpose and Interfere. 

Intrusion, n. See Intnide. 

Intuition, n, Intuitio, tu^i, 
to look or see. The faculty of di- 
rectly apprehending, without the 
medium of any information or 

S\-N. instinct Apprehension. Recogni- 
tion. Insight 

Ant. Information. Instruction. Learn- 
ing. Elaboration. Acquirement Induc- 
tion. Experience. 

Intuitive, adj. See Intuition. 

Intumescence, n. In and tu- 
m&<cere, to swell. 

Syn. Swelling. Protuberance. Tniges- 

Ant. Subsidence. Efenness. Attenua- 
tion. Concavity. 

Intwinb, v.-^r. /See Intertwine. 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


8nr. Twist Wreath. Plait. later- 
U0& Braid. Bind. 

Ant. (Jntwitft. Disengage. Untie. Un- 
lace. UnraveL Unbind. 

Inundate, v. tr. In and uvida, 

Stn. Overflow. Sabmeige. Deluge. 

Ant. Drain. Keclaim. Dry. Deslocate. 

Inubbanitt, n* See Urba- 

Inube, V, tr. In and urere, to 
give extreme effects o/heai and cdd. 
See Accustom. 

Inusitation, n. See Use. 

Inutility, n. See Utility. 

Invade, v. tr. In, on, and 
vadere, to go. Used of forcible or 
mde ingress. 

Stit. Attack. Assault. Encroach. Oc- 

AnT. Vacate. Abandon. Evacuate. 

Invasion, n. See Invade and 

Invective, n. In and vehi, to 
he carried, expresses being carried 
along the stream of eloquent 

Stn. Obloquy. Denunciation. Casti- 
gation. Vituperation. Reprobation. Abuse. 

Ant. CSomroendation. EncomiunL Eulogy. 
PuiegTric. Laudati<Ni. 

Inveigh, v. int. See Invec- 
tive. Used with the prep. 

Stk. Denounce. Reprobate. Attack. 
Vituperate. Abuse. 

Akt. Exculpate. Advocate. Defend. 
Laud. Eulogize. Fftnegyrize. 

Inveigle, v. tr. In and Fr. 
aveugle, Uind. To lead astray 
as if blind. . See Decoy. 

Invent, v. tr. Invenire, in- 
ventus, to find out. 

Stk. Discover. Contrive. Imagine. 
Concoct. Elaborate. ConoeiveT Design. 
Devise. Fabricate. Originate. 

Ant. Imitate. Copy. Execute. Re- 

Inventive, adj. See Invent 
and Ingenious. 

Inversion, n. In and vertere. 
Applies to state, relation, and 

Stn. Reversal. Deflection. Alteration. 
Permutation. Violation. Transposition. 

Ant. Verticality. Erectness. Stability. 
Permanence. Per^i8tence. Conservation. 
Sequence. Fixity. State. Order. 

Invest, v. tr. See Divest. 

Investigate, v. tr. In and 
vestigium, a footprint. To track 
closely. See Examine. 

Investiture, n., Investment, 
n. See Divest. Invest is used in 
a technical sense when it means, 
in financial matters, to secure 
capital, and, in military matters, 
to lay siege. 

Inveterate, adj. In veto- 
rascere, to grow dd, and so rooted. 
It is appliied both to persons and 

Stk. Confirmed. Ingrained. Indtr- 

Ant. Incipient. Undeveloped. Un- 

Invidious, adj. Invidia, envy. 
Is now used of such proceedings 
as shall tend to raise a grudge 
between the persons who are in 
any way the subjects of the com- 

Stk. Unfair. Gratuitous. PftrtiaL In- 

Ant. Fair. Impartial. Considerate. Due. 

Invigorate, v. tr. In and 
vigor, oris, strength, vigour. Ste 

Invincible, adj. In, not, and 
vincere, to conquer, 

Syk. Impr^;nable. Immoveable. Inei;- 
pngnable. Unsubduable. Irresistible. In- 

Ant. Weak. Spiritless. Powerless. Puny. 

Inviolable, adj. In, not, and 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

violare, via, violence, to violate. 
That will not yield to force. 

Sys. Impregnable. Invincible. SHict 
Immoveable. (Jnimpeachable. Unalter- 

AST. Alterable. Weak. FraiL 

Inviolate, adj. See Invio- 

Stn. Guarded. Treasured. Close. Vir- 
gin. Intact. 

Ant. Betrayed. Surrendered. Di- 

ImnsEBLB, adj. See Visible. 

Invttb, v. tr, Inviture. 

Snr. Ask. Summon. Call Challenge. 
Attract Allure. Tempt Incite. 

Ant. Forbid. Exclude. Discard. De- 
precate. Repel. 

Inviting, adj. See Invite. 

Invoke, v. tr. Invocare. To 
call to one's presence, observation, 
or protection. 

Stn. Summ<»n. Call Imprecate. Con- 
jure. Invite. Challenge. 

Ant. Deprecate. Ignore. Warn. In- 
hibit Elude. Defy. Deter. 

Involuntary, ac(j. See Vo- 

Involution. In and vdvere, 
volutus, to turn or roll. See In- 

Involve, v. tr. See Involu- 

Stn. Implicate. Confound. Mingle. 
Ant. Separate. Extricate. Disconnect 

Involved, adj. See Involu- 

Stn. Implicated. Concerned. Compli- 
cated. Confused. Compromised. 

Ant. Unconnected. Unconcerned. Simple. 
Lucid. Uncompromised. 

Invulnerable, adj. See Vul- 

Irascible, adj. Irasci, ira, to 
he angry. See Hasty. 

Irate, adj. See Irascible and 

Ire, n. See above, and Wrath. 

Iridescent, adj. Iris, the 

Stn. Prismatia OpaUne. PolydmBi^ 
tons. Nacreous. 

Ant. Achromatic. Blandied. NeotnL 
Dingy. Colourless. Etiolated, 

Scotch. To iireary. 

Tire. Tease. Boc«. Op* 
Rivet. Animate. 'S/b- 

See Ilk €bA 

Irk, v. tr. 

Stn. Weary, 
press. Jade. 

Ant. Interest 
fresh. Inspirit 

Irksome, adj. 

Irony, n. Gr. €ip<op€ia, an wr 
derstatement of truth. Li Eng- 
lish it signifies rather a oontnir 
diction under a mock acquies- 
cence. The following words are 
by no means strict synonyms. 

Stn. Satire. Banter. Quiz. RaUy. 

Ant. Compliment Seriousness. 

Ironical, adj. See Irony. 

Irradiate, v. tr. In and m- 
dim, a ray of light. See mumi- 

Irrational, adj. See Ea- 

Irreclaimable, adj. See Be- 

Irreconcileablb, ac(JM See 

Irrecoverable, adj. /SSseBe- 

Irredeemable, adj. See Be- 

Irreducible, adj. See * Be- 

Irrefragable, adj. See Be- 

Irrefutable, adj. See Be- 

Irregular, adj. See B^olar. 
Irrelevant, adj. See Bele* 

Irrbligion, n. See Beligion. 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 


f / Ibbkmediablb, adj, See Be- 

Ibbemissiblb, adj. See Be- 
'■ imssible. 

Ibbemoyeablb, adj. See Be- 

Trueparable, adj\ See Bepa- 
' lable. 

Irbepbbhensiblb, adj. See 

Ibbepbbssiblb, adj. See Be- 

Ibbepboaohablb, adj\ See 

Ibbxproyeable, adj\ See Be- 

Ibbesistible, a^\ See Be- 

Irbbsolutb, adj\ See Beso- 

Ibbbspbctiyb, adj. See Be-^ 

Ibbbspoksiblb, adj. See Be- 

Ibrbtbebyablb, adj. See Be- 

Ibbbybbbngb, adj. See Be- 

Ibbbybbsiblb, adj. See Be- 

Ibrbyooablb^ adj. See Bevo- 

Ibbigate, v. tu Irrigare, to 

Snr. Water. Wet Inmulate. Sub- 

Aht. D17. Drain. Parch. 

Ibbigation, n. See Irrigate. 

Ibbitablb, adj. Lat Irri- 
tare, to excite. See Hasty. 

Ibbitant^ck^'. iSeeLeniatiye. 

Ibbitatb, V, tr. See Irri- 

Snr. Tease. Provoke. Annoy. 
Amt. Southe. Gareaa. PadiV. Tame. 

Irritation, n. See Irritate. 

Irruption, n. In and rum- 
pere, ruptus, to burst or break. 

Stk. Incureion. Invadon. Inundation. 

An. Eruption. Ezcnrsion. Sallj. Be- 
treat. Outburst. 

Isolation, n. Isolare, for tw- 
sulare, to part off on all sides like 
an island. 

Snr. Segregation. Detachment. Dis- 
connection. Insularity. Self-contained- 

Airr. Organization. Co-membership. 
Community. Connectiun. Cuncatenation. 

Issue, n. A corruption of the 
word exitus, a forthcoming. It 
is used in a variety of senses, as — 

Stn. Effect. Outcome. Manifestation. 
End. Result. Progeny. Posterity. 

Amt. Cause. Operation. Working. Prin- 
ciple. Law. System. Action. Influence. 
Origination. Commencement. Paternity. 

Iteration, n. Iterum, again. 
See Bepetition. 

Itinerant, adj. Iter, itineris, 
a Journey. 

Stk. Wandering. Travelling. Locomo- 
tive. Roving. Roaming. Journeying. 

Ant. Stationary. Domestic. Fixed. 
Settled. Allocated. Local 


Jabber, n, and v. Allied to 
Gibber and Gabble. See Gabble. 

Jade, v. tr. From Prov. Eng. 
yaud. Soot, yade, a sori-y nag. 

Stn. Fatigue. Tire. Weary. Oppress. 

Amt. RefVesh. Recruit. Bait. Invi- 
gorate. Inspirit. 

Jangle, n. and v. Old Fr. 

Stm. Jargon. BabeL Wrangle. Con- 
tention. Bickering. 

Amt. Argumtnt. Debate. Discoursfe. 


Synonynis and Antonyms. 

Jantt, ctdj. Old Fr. jancer, to 
jolt or shake. So jant or Jaunt, 
an excursion. Others from Oentil, 

Syn. Flighty. Airy. Fantastic. Showy. 

Ant. Staid. Sober. Sedate. Demure. 

Jaeoon, n. Fr. jarnon. Used 
in the twofold sense of gibberish 
or unintelligible language, and of 
the cant of system contemptu- 
ously treated as unintelligible. 

Syx. Gibberish. Jangle. Slang. Cant. 
Ant. Speech. Conversation. Literature. 
Discourse. Oration. Eloquence. 

Jaundiced, adj. Jaundice, 
from Fr. Jaane, yellow. Meta- 
phorically used to mean seeing 
through discoloured media. 

Syn. Biassed. Prejudiced. Warped. 

Ant. Unbiassed. Unpr^udlced. Un- 

Jealous, adj. Is etymolo- 
gically the same word as zealous, 
from Gr. ^\os. To be zealous 
about one's self is often to be 
jealous of others. 

Stn. Envious. Self-anxious. Covetous. 

Ant. Unenvious. IJberal. GenlaL 
Self-denying. Indifferent. Ur^ealous. 

Jealousy, n. See Jealous. 

Jbbe, v. tr. Old Eng. Means 
to deride, but with varying de- 
grees of earnestness; followed by 
prep. at. 

Syn. Sneer. Scofif. Deride. Scout 
Rout. M<»clc Rally. Banter. 

Ant. Flatter. Adulate. Fawn. Cringe. 
Compliment. Eulogize. 

Jejune, arfj. Lat. Jejunus, 
hungry. Spare, as from want. 
Used metaphorically. 

Syn. Bare. Scant. Poor. Thin. Weak. 
Barren. Sterile. Poverty-struck. Bald. 

Ant. Rich. Exuberant. Racy. Abun- 
dant Intei-esting. Overwrought. Redun- 

Jeopardy, n. Fr. Jeu parti, 
a divided or dravm game, or a 
game in which the chances of 

success were nicely balanced. 
Afterwards, it was confoimded 
with yew perdu, a lost game, 

Stn. Danger. PeriL Hazard. Bisk. 
Ant. Sai'ety. Security. Provistoo. In* 

Jest, n. Old Eng. jeti and 
gest, from gestum, a deed, A 
recital of deeds, or a story accom- 
panied by illustrative gesture or 
gesticulation for amusement 
Comp. Jester. Hence it came 
to signify as follows : — 

Stn. Joke. Raillery. Fun. Sport. 
Ant. Earnest Seriousness. Gravity. 

Jingle, n. Formed to ex- 
press a senseless artificial asso- 
nance of words. 

Stn. Rhyme. Caiime. Tinkle. Tlngk 
Ant. Euphony. Consonaoce. Meliudy. 

JoooSB, adJ, Jocosus, Jocus, a 

Stn. Humorous. Funny. Joonkr. 

Ant. Melancholy. Seriotu. Eunest 
Grave. Lugubrious. Lackadaisical 

JoouLAE, adj. See Jooose. 
Jocund, adJ, See Jocose. 

Stn. Merry. Joyous. JoviaL Qiy. 
Gleeful. Blithesome. Careless. 

Ant. Melancholy. Dull Grave. Mourn- 
ful. Sorrowful Darksome. Cbeerlesa 
Woful. Rueful Doleful. Careworn. 

Join, v. tr, and int. "LaLJunr 

Stn. Unite. Adhere. AcUoIn. Adl 
Couple. Connect. 

Ant. Separate. Disjoin. Subtract. Dis* 

Joint, n. See Join. 

Stn. Articulation. Junction, nezme. 
Elbow. Knee. 

Ant. Solution. Disconnection. Di^mio- 
tion. Uniformity. Continuity. 

JoKE^ n, Lat. Jocus, See 

Jolly, adJ, Old Tt.Jdi. In 
modem Fr. the word means 
pretty, and is significant of the 
combination in the national mind 
of liveliness with attraction. 

Synonyms and Antonyms, 


Stk. Gay. Meny. JoyfiiL Gladsome. 
HirthfuL GenitO. 

Akt. Sad. MournfaL Joyless. Cheer- 
less. UnmirthfuL Lugubrious. Morose. 

Jollity, n. See Jolly. 

Jostle, v. tr. Also -written 
jtistle, from joust, the mockfiyht of 
the tournament. 

Stk. HnsUe. Push. Thrust. Jog. Jolt. 

Akt. Clear. Lead. Extricate. Convoy. 
Escort Precede. Pilot Attend. 

Jot, n, Gr. iota, letter /. 
Used metaphorically for a very 
small or insignificant thing or 

SiK. Tittle. Opher. Trifle. Rush. 
Fig. Particle. Atom. Thought Idea. 
Scrap. Bit Morsel. Fraction. 

Akt. Deal. Power. World. Mass. 
Light Load. Ocean. 

Jovial. Jupiter, Jove. Of the 
temper supposed to belong to 
those bom under the planet 
Jupiter. Comp. Saturnine. 

Stk. Jolly. Genial. Convivial. 
Akf. Ungenial. Melancholy. IJnoon^ 
yiviaL Saturnine. Lugubrious. Gloomy. 

Joy. Lat. gaudium, through 
Tr. joie. 

Stk. Gladness. Pleasure. Delight. 
Happiness. Exultation. Transport. Veh' 
city. Ecstasy. Rapture. Bliss. Gaiety. 
Mirth. Merrhnent Festivity. Hilarity. 

Ant. Sorrow. Pain. Trouble. Misery. 
Melancholy. Griet AlHiction. Tears. 
Depression. Despondency. Despair. 

Joyful, adj.. Joyless, adj., 
Joyous, adj\ tke Joy. 

Jubilant, adj, Heb. yohd, 
the blast of a trumpet. Celebra- 
tion of the year of jubilee, a 
sabbatical year of every fiftieth 
anniversary. Seven weeks of 
seven years making forty-nine, 
and the fiftieth being the year 
of jubilee. 

Stk. Joyous. Triumphant Festive. 
Congratulatory. Exultant. 

Akt. Doleful. Mournful. Sorrowftil. 
Wailing. Penitent PenitentiaL Lugu- 
brious. RemorsefuL 

JUBILEB, n. See Jubilant. 

Stk. Holiday. Feast Rejoicing. Mer- 
riment Festivity. ReveL PSeau. Cami* 
val. High-day. 

Akt. Fast Humiliation. Mourning. 
Penitence. Lent 

Judge, n. Judex. A person 
ofl&cially appointed, or selected 
by agreement, or naturally com- 
petent, to decide on a given 

Syk. Justice. Magistrate. Arbitrator. 
Umpire. Referee. Critic. Connoisseur. 

Ant. CriminaL Ignoramus. Tyro. 

Judgment, 7? . See Judge, la 
used in the senses of the process 
of judging, the faculty of judging, 
the faculty of judging rightly, 
and the result of judging. 

Stk. Decision. Determination. Abju- 
dication. Sagacity. Judiciousness. Pene- 
tration. Sense, Intellect. Belief. Esti- 
mation. Opinion. Sentence. Verdict 

Ant. Argument Consideration. Specn- 
lation. Proposition. Inquiry. Investiga- 
tion. Pleading. Insagacity. Iqjudicious- 
ness. Evidence. Pronunciation. 

Judicious, adf. See Judge. 
Able to judge rightly concerning 
the expedient 

Syn. Wise. Sagacious. Sensible. Prudent 
Discreet Well-judged. Well-advised. Polite. 

Ant. F«x>lLsh. Unwise. Silly. Impru- 
dent Indiscreet Ill-judged. Ill-advised, 
Impolitic. Inexpedient Kash. Blind. In- 

Juggle, v. tr. and int. Lat. 
joculari, toj'oke or deceive. It has 
come to express underhanded- 
ness in word or dealing, and 
in both act. and neut. senses. 
The combination of ideas is seen 
in Juggler, by whom men are 
both taken in and also amused. 

Syk. Conjure. Cheat Bamboozle. Shuffle. 
Trick. Beguile. Circumvent Swindle. 
Overreach. Mystify. Mislead. 

Ant. Expose. Detect. Correct En- 
lighten. Uulde. Lead. Undeceive. Dis» 

JuMBLB, V. tr. Fr. comblerf 


Stfnonyms and Antonyms. 

Lai cufrnvilare, to throw into con- 
fused masses or heaps. See Ar- 

Junction, n. Junctio, jun- 
gere, to join, 

Stk. Joining. Gonnection. Union. (Com- 
bination. Coalition. Attachment. Fa6ten> 
ing. Annexation. 

AxT. Separation. Disconnection. Dis- 
union. Division. Segregation. Dispersion. 
Iyx)8ening. Unfastening. Unilormity. 

Juncture, n. Is used dis- 
tinctively from Junction to ex- 
press a peculiar combination of 
evente, or a crisis. See Con- 

Junior, adj\ Lat. javenis^ 
junior. Younger. 

Stk. Toanger. 
AsT. Senior. Elder. 

Jurisdiction, n, Jus^ juris, 
right or justice, and dicere, to 
declare. The particular province 
or locality of a judge, magistrate, 
or court, or the exercise of his 

Stk. Administration. Cognizance. Go- 
vernment Control. Power. Legalization. 
Magistracy. Sway. Liability. 

Am-. Freedom. Independence. Exemp- 
tion. Immunity. 

Just. Justus, See Jurisdic- 
tion. Is used of physical adapta- 
tion as well as of conformity to 
right between man and man, and 
of things of thought and argu- 

Stk. Exact Fitting. Proportioned. 
True. Harmonious. Honest Fair. Rea- 
sonable. Sound. Honourable. Impartial. 
Equitable. Upright Regular. Normal. 
Orderly. Lawful 

Ant. Inexact Misfitted. Dispropor- 
tioned. Ill-proportioned. Untrue. Iniiar- 
monlous. Unfair. Unreasonable. Un- 
8<»mid. Dishonourable. Partial. Unequit- 
able. UcOust Irregular. Abnormal. Dis- 

Justice, n, Justitia, Justus, 
■ just, 

Stk. Equity. Impartiality. Fairness. 
Right Keasonableneas. Propriety. 

Akt. Injustice. Wrong. Pferdality. 
Unfairness. Unreasonableness. Unlawftd- 
ness. Inadequateness. 

Justification, w. Justus, just, 
and factre, to make. The mak- 
ing or proving right or, just. It 
is applied to persons' conduct, 
opinions, proceedings*, and senti- 

Stk. Vindication. Apology. Defence. 
Advocacy. Maintenance. Plea. Ezonera* 
tion. Exculpation. 

Akt. Condemnation. Censure. Convio> 
tion. ProteKt Abandonment Inculpa- 
tion. Crimination. Implication. Aggra* 

Justify, v, tr. See Justifica- 

JusTLB, V, tr. See Jostle. 

Juvenile, gw[/. Lat. juvenis, 

Stn. Youthful. Young. Infantine. 
Boyish. Girlish. Early. Immature. Ado- 
lescent Pubescent 

Ant. Mature. Later. Manly. Wo- 
manly. Elderly. Aged. Senile. Anile. 
Superannuated. Adult 

~ Keen, adj, Saxon. 

Syn. Eager. Vehement Sharp. Pierc- 
ing. Penetrating. Acute. 

Ant. Indifferent Languid. Blunt DuU. 

Keep, v, tr. Saxon. 

Stk. Hold. Restrain. Retain. Detain. 
Guard. Preserve. Suppress. Repress. Con- 
ceal. Tend. Support Maintain. Conduct. 
Conthiue. Obey. Observe. Haunt Frequent 

Akt. Release. Acquit Liberate. Send. 
Dismiss. Betray. Neglect Divulge. Aban- 
don. Discard. Interroit Disob^. Trans- 
gress. Disregard. Forsake. Desert Ob- 

Keeper, n. See Keep. 

Keeping, n. Used sometimes 
in the sense of congruity. See 

Ken, n. Old Eng., kennan^ to 
kn ow, Comp. Can, Canny, Enow, 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


Snr. View. Survey. Knowledge. Cog- 

AST. Oversight. Ignorance. Inob- 
■ervance. Inexperience. Incognizanoe. In- 

Kbbnbl^ n, Sox. cymel, a 
JUUe corn or grain. Used some- 
times metaphorically. See Core. 

EiOK, V. ir. and int. The word 
is said to be Welsh, and is 
used both as an act, and neut, 
verb, and in a metaphorical 

Stv. Caldtrate. ReSel. Resist. Spurn. 
AnT. Caress. Sootlie. Flatter. Obey. 

'KjLL,v,tr, Sax. Same word 
as Quell. 

Stx. Slay. Murder. Assassinate. De- 
stroy. Slaughter. Butcher. Immolate. 
Massacre. Despatch. 

Amt. Bevivify. Resuscitate. Vivify. 

Kin, n, Saxon. 

Snr. Race. Kindred. Offering. Kind. 
I^amily. Sort. Uk. Genus. Kidney. Class. 
Relationship. Consanguinity. Blood. 

AsT. Foreignersbip. Strangershlp. Dia- 
coonection. InafBnity. Irrelation. 

Kind, n. See Kin. Add. 

Snv. Style. Character. Description. De- 
signation. Denomination. Genus. Species. 
Ant. Su Kin. Dissimilarity. 

Kind, adf. See Kind, n. Hav- 
ing such feelings as befit crea- 
tures belonging to the same 

Syk. Benevolent Benign. Tender. In- 
dulgent. Humane, dement. Lenient. 

A2fT. Unkind. Harsh. Severe. CrueL 
HanL lUiberaL 

KiNDLB, V. tr. Scand. word, 
allied to Lat. candere, in accen- 
dere, incendere, Comp. Candes- 
cent, Candid, Candle. 

Stn. iJght. Ignite. Excite. Inflame. 
Akt. Extinguish. Suppress. Quench. 

Kindness, n. See Kind. 
Kindred, n. See Kin. 
Knave, n. Sax. cnapa, off- 
spring,, Qeim. knabe. Was not 

originally a term of reproach. It 
meant first a boy, then a servant, 
and lastly, as now, a rogue. 

Stn. Rogue. Cheat. Rascal. Villain. 
Airr. True-penny. Gentleman. Inoo* 
cent. Dupe. Simpleton. GulL Oat 

Knavery, n. See Knave. 

Knavish, ac^f. See Knave. 

Knit, v, tr. Sax. cnytan. Has 
the twofold sense of Join and 
Interlace, which see. 

Knot, n. Is really the part, 
pass, of Knit, and is used in 
many senses which are analo- 

Stk. Tie. Bond. Intricate. Difficulty. 
Perplexity. Cluster. Collection. Band. 
Group. Protuberance. Joint 

Airr. Loosening. Unfastening. Dissolu- 
tion. Solution. Explication. Unravelling. 
Dispersion. Multitude. Crowd. Evenness. 
Smoothness. Cavity. Indentation. 

Knotty, adj. See Knot. Used 
metaphorically and analogously. 

Stn. Tough. Hard. DlfQcult. Com- 
Amt. Plain. Shnple. Easy. Obvious. 

Knowing, (w?y. /See Ken. Pos- 
sessing practical knowledge ot 
no very high order. 

Stn. Shrewd. Astute. Sharp. Dis- 
cerning. Acute. Sagacious. Penetrating. 

Ant. Simple. Dull. Innocent Gullible. 
Undisceming. StoUd. SUly. 

Knowledge. See Ken. 

Stn. Apprehension. Comprehension. 
Recognition. Understanding. Conversance. 
Experience. Acquaintance. Familiarity. 
Cognizance. Notice. Information. In- 
struction. Learning. 

Ant. Misapprehension Inobservance. 
Incomprehension. Misunderstanding. Mis- 
conception. Inconversance. Inexperience. 
Ignorance. Unfamiliarity. luoognizance. 
Misinformation. Deception. MisinstrucUon. 
Uneducatedness. Uiitutoredaess. Rudeness. 

Laborious, adj, Lat. hbor. 
Applied to persons as exhibiting 
the disposition and productions, 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

and to operations as indicating 
the results of labour. 

Stn. AaBldnons. Diligent P&initaking. 
Indefatigable. Arduous. Burdensome. 
Toilsoaie. Wearisome. 

AnT. Idle. Indiligent Lasj. Indo- 
lent Ea^r. F«cile. Liglit Simple. 

Laboub, n. 8ee Laborious. 

Stk. Woric Toil Burden. Dmdgeiy. 
Exertion. Effort Industry. 

Amt. Indolence. Ease. Inactivity. 
Facility. SkUL Recreation. Rest Re- 

Labyrinth. Gr. XafivpivBof, 
Used metaphorically. 

Snr. Mase; Complexity. Bewilderment 

Airr. aue. Explication. Elimination. 

Lace, v. tr. Old Eng. las, a 
hce or tie, often netted or inter- 
twined. Coim,yniihlciqtmi8,anet, 
nooae, or snare. See Bind. 

Laoeratb. Jj&t.lcKerareffrom 
lacer, torn or mangled. See Tear. 

Laconic, adj\ Spartan, from 
Sparta, in the ancient Laconia. 

Stn. Terse. Curt. Epigrammatic. 
Akt. Prolix. Wordy. Tedious. Garru- 
lous. Circumlocutory. Prosy. Loquacious. 

Lack, n. Old Eng. lake, 
blame, fatdt, 

Stn. Failure. Scarcity. Deficiency. 
Want Need. Demand. 

Ant. Fulness. Abundance. Sufflden(y. 
Satisfaction. Supply. Competence. 

Lace, v, int. See noun. 

Lade. Sax. EJdadan. See 

Laden. See Lade. 

Lading. See Load. 

Lag, V, int, 'Gael, and Lr. 
lo^, Welsh Uag, weak, remiss, 

Stn. Loiter. Linger. Saunter. Dawdle. 
Dallv. Tarry. Idle. 

Ant. Press. Hasten. Speed. Rush. 
Hurry. Stir. 

Laggard, n. See Lag. 
Laioal, adj. Gr. \q6s^ the 

people. The mass of people, as 
distinguished &om the deigy or 
the legal profession. 

Stn. Secular. Non-legaL CltlL Tem- 

Ant. aericaL LeoL MinisteriaL Eo- 
deslasUcal. Sacerdotal. Priestly. Cuoni- 
caL Spiritual. 

Laitt, n. See LaicaL 

Lamb, adj\ Sax. lam. Used 
metaphorically, as, a lame excuse, 
speech, or production. 

Stn. Weak. Faltering. Hobbling. Heri- 
tating. Ineffective." Impotent 

Ant. Robust Agile. Potent Efll- 
cient. Satisfactoiy. Cogent Convincing: 
Telling. Effective. 

Lament, v. tr. and int Lat 


Stn. Deplore. Mourn. BewaiL Re* 

Ant. Welcome. HaiL 

Land, v, tr. Sax., meaning 
earth. It is used somethnes 
metaphorically, as, to land one in 
a conclusion. 

Stn. Plant Place. Fix. 

Ant. Extricate. Removei DIsertablisb. 


Language, n. Lat lingm, a 


Stn. Speech. Talk. Conversation. Dia- 
lect Discoune. Tongue. Diction. Plmae- 
ology. Articulation. Accents. 

Ant. Jargon. Jabber. Gibberish. Bs» 
beL Gabble. Cry. Whine. Bark. HowL 
Roar, kc Obmutesoence. Dumbness. Mute- 
ness. Inarticulateness. SpeechtoMnesB. 

Languid, adj. Lat. languidus, 

languere, to languish, 

Stn. Faint Weary. Feeble. Un- 
nerved. Unbraced. Pining, Drooping. 

Ant. Strong. Healthy. Robust Vigor- 
ous. Active. Braced. 

Languish, v, int. See Lan- 

Stn. Phie. Droop. Sink. Fidnt Withei^ 
Sigh. Decline. 

Ant. Flourish. Luzoriate. 
Thrive. Proq>er. 

Languor, n. See Tjanguid. 
Lank, adj. Sax. hlame. 

Synonyms and Antonyma. 


Sm. Lean. Loose. Slender. SUm. 
Long. Lax. Baw-boned. 

Awr. Plamp. Short. Fall. Roonded. 
Crisp. Carted. 

Lapse, n. Lat. lapms, from 
labi, to faU or glide. Commonly 
used in these two senses, as— 

Snr. GUding. FaUing. Flow. Onflow. 
Flax. Progreas. Eadieatment. Devola- 
tion. Reverrion. 

An. Stability. Uprightneai. Stotion- 
arlness. Fixture. ArreeUtion. Stoppage. 
RetentioiL Inheritance. Poflaeadon. 

Labgb, adj. Fr. large, Lat. 

Syv. Big. Balky. Extensiye. Aban- 
dant. Capadoaa. Ample. LiberaL Com- 
prvbensive. Enlightened. Catholic. 

Amt. Small. Mean. Marrow. Con- 
tracted. Circamacribed. Scanty. IIliberaL 
Niggardly. Bigotted. Petty. Sordid. 

Lash, v. Germ, lasche, a 
latchet of lecUher. See Bind. It 
has also the metaphorical sense of 
censure, or the infliction of casti- 
gation by words. 

Snr. Censnre. Castigate Satirize. 
Aht. ExtoL Compliment Eulogize. 

Lassttudb, n. Lamtudo, 
lasstis, weary. See Languor. 

Last, v. int. Sax. laestan, to 
petform or continue. 

Snr. Oantinae. Endure. Bemaln. Hold. 
Abide. LiTe. 

An. Oeaae. Fan. Fade. Fly. Wane. 
DeptrL Diaappear. Terminate. 

Last, adj. Sax. Contraction 
of latest 

Snr. Lateat. Ending. Final Con- 
cluding. Hindmoat Paat Extreme. 
Loweat Remotest Ultimate. 

Aht. First Introductory. Initiatory. 
0p(*niDg. Foremost Ensuing. Minor. 
Highest. Next Nearest 

Latb, ac(j. Sax. 

Snr. Slow. Tardy. Delayed. Ad- 
vanced. Deoeaaed. Past Recent 

AST. Early. Present Existing. Forth- 
oomtng. Coining. Future. 

Latent, adj. Lat. latere, to he 

Snr. Invisible. Inapparent Unobserved. 
Hidden. Concealed. Undeveloped. Im- 
pUdt PolentiaL Inherent 

Akt. Visible. Apparent llanifeat 
Conspicuous. Exposed. Unconcealed. 
Active. Developed. Explicit 

Lateral, adj. Lat. latus, eris, 
the side. 

Stx. Indirect Oblique. Secondary. 
Resultant CollateraL DevUtive. Addi- 
tive. ParaUeL A4Junctive. InddenUl. 

Avr. lineaL Direct Primary. Imme- 

Latter, adj. See Last, for 
Later, comparative of Late. 

Laud, v. tr. Lat. lattdare, 
laus, to praise. See Praise. 

Laudable. See Laud and 

Laxtdation, n. See Laud and 

Laughable, adj. Ijiugh from 
Old Eng. lighe. Conn, with 
Light The lighting up of the 
countenance with gladness or 
merriment. See Bidiculous. 

Laughter, n. See Laugh- 

Stv. Merriment Glee. Derision. Ridi- 
cule. Cachinnation. Contempt 

AHT. Weeping. Tears. Mourning. Sor- 
row. Admiration. Veneration. Respect 
Whimper. Whine. 

Launch, v. act. and neut. Old 
Pr. lancer. Used metaphorically. 

Stv. PropeL HurL Embark. Expa- 
tiate, flnlarge, 

Ayr. Repress. Recall. Ignore. Avoid. 

Lave, v. tr. Lat. lavare. See 

Lavish, adj. Old Eng. lave, 
to throw out. 

Stn. Pronise. Prodigal. Unsparing. 
BounUftiL Extravagant WasteftiL 

Ant. Chaiy. Spoi-ing. Niggardly. Eco- 
nomicaL Dainty. Close. Retentive. 

Lavish, v. See Lavish, adj. 

Stk. Pour. Heap. Squander. Waste. 
Ayr. Husband. Store. Keep. Retain. 
Accumulate. Hoard. Treasure. Spare. 

Law, w. Sax. lagyan, to lay 
down. Comp. Statute, from «te- 
tuere, to estabiish, Comp. also 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

the phrase 'to lay down the 
law/ It is used in the scien- 
tij&c sense of ' a directive rule to 
goodness of operation.' 

Snr. Rule. Edict. Regulation. Com- 
nund. Order. Ilecree. Statute, ikiact- 
inent. Mode. Method. Sequence. Prin- 
ciple. Order. Code. Legtelation. Ai^u- 
dication. Jurisprudence. Jurisdiction. 

Akt. Mlitrule. Diaorder. Anarchy. 
Rebellion. Insubordination. Hazard. 
Chance. Irregularity. Caprice. AcddenU 

Lawful, adj. See Law. 

Stn. Legal. Permissible. Right Or- 
derly. Allowable. Fair. 

Ant. lUegaL Inperminible. Unlaw- 
ful. Wrong. Lawless. Unfair. 

Lawless, adj. See Lawful. 

Stn. Wild. Rebellious. Disorderly. 
Savage. Marauding. Violent 

Akt. Peaceful LoyaL Orderly. Civi- 
lised. Honest Tractable. Well-disposed. 

Lax, adj\ Lat. laxus. Used 
metaphorically of statements and 

Stn. Loose. Vague. Incoherent Dis- 
solute. Licentious. Unprincipled. Re- 

Akt. Concise. Coherent Compact 
Strict. Rigid. Severe. Principled. Con- 
scientious. AttenUve. 

Lay, v. tr, Comp. Law. 

Stm. PUce. EsUblish. Deposit. Allay. 
Prostrate. Arrange. Dispose. Spread. 

It has other senses, but they 
are technical or peculiar, as, * to 
lay a ghost,' a wager, eggs, a 
tax, an accusation, an assess- 

ANT. Erect Raise. Lift. Excite. Dis- 
arrange. Disorder. Scrape. Abrade. 

Layman, n. See Laical. 

Lazy, adj\ Old Eng. See 

Lead, v. Sax. loedan, 

Stn. Conduct. Guide. Precede. In- 
duce. Spend. Pass. Commence. Inau- 
gurate. Convoy. 

Art. Misconduct Mislead. Follow. 
Dissuade. Abandon. Leave. Misguide. 

Lead, n. See Lead, verb, 
S\7T. Priori^. Pre-eminence, biitla- 
Uve. Guidance. ControL 

Axt. Sabordination. Inferiority. Sob- 

Leadino, ac(f. See Lead and 

League, n. Fr. ligue, *Lat 
ligare, to hind. 

Stn. Bond. ComUnatioii. Allianoe. 
Compact Confederacy. Union. 

Ant. Dissolution. Disconnection. Neu- 
trality. Secenlon. Disunion. DismptitiO. 
Alienation. Divorce. 

Leak, v. neut. Sax. leccan, to 
toet. See Ooze. 

IJEAN, V. tr, and int. Sax. 
Tdinian, allied to Lat. dtnare, as 
seen in indinare. Comp. Eng. 
Incline and Gr. xXiWiv. 

Stn. Incline. Rest Support Tend. 
Bend. Depend. Hang. Repoee. Confide. 

Ant. Stabilitate. Erect Be-erect 
Raise. Rise. Straighten. 

Lean, adf, A. S. lane. 

Syn. Meagre. Lank. Tabid. Ema- 
ciated. Shrivelled. Bony. 

Ant, Fat Brawny. Plump. Well- 

Leaning, n. See Lean, verb. 

Stn. Tendency. Inclination. Pro- 
clivity. Propensity. PartiaUty. Bias. 

Ant. Avoidance. Aversioa. Bepog- 
nance. Loathing. 

Learn, v. tr. Sax. leomian. 

Stn. Acquire. Attain. Imbibe. Col- 
lect Olean. Understand. Gather. 

Ant. Lose. Forget Teach. Instruct 

Of old, the word Learn meant 
also to t^h. It is in this sense 
that the participial adj. Learned 
is employed. 

Learned, adj. See Learn. 

Stn. Conversant Read. Erudite. SkiUed. 
Scholarly. literary. 

Ant. Inconversant niiterateL IgDonmt 
Unlearned. Unscholarly. 

Learner, n. See Learn. 

Stn. Tyro. Novice. Pupa Student 
Scholar. IMsclple. Catechumen. 

Ant. Teacher. Master. Prafessoc 
Adept Authority. 

Learning, n. See Learn. 

Stn. Knowledge. Erudition. Litera- 
ture. Lore. Lettere. AoqQirement& At- 
tatamients. Scfaolanhip. Edacation. Tui- 

Synonyms and ArUonyms. 


Am. Imoranoe. lUiterateneflS. Boor- 
fahneas. finptinoM. Sciolism. Intuition. 
Bevelation. Inq>lration. 

Lbabt, ddj. Superlatiye of 
lytel. Littlest. 

Stv. Smallest Lowest Meanest LaRt 
Amt. Greatest Higliest First Prin- 

Lbayb, V. Sax. lopfan. Conn, 
with Lat linguere and Gr. Xcurciv. 
See Abandon and Bequeath. 

Lbaye, n. Sax. leaf. 

Snr. Liberty. Permission. License. 

Airr. Restriction. Prohibition. Preven- 
tion. Inhibition. BeAuaL 

Legal, adj. Lex. legU, the 
law. Belonging to the profes- 
sion of the law, and permitted 
by law. See Laical. 

Snr. Lsgitimate. LawfU. Allowable. 
JoridicaL Oonstitutional. 

Amt. Illegal. IU(»itbnate. UnlawftO. 
Unallowable. Lay. UnoonstitationaL 

Legible, adf, Legere, to read. 
Easy to read. 

Stk. Plain. Dedphersble. Well-written. 

Ant. Obscnre. Undecipherable. lU- 
writien. Illegible. Cabalistic. Crypto- 

LBomiCATB, adj. See Legal. 

Stv. AUowable; NormaL Fair. Licit 
Amt. Illegitimate. Unallowable. Un- 
fair. lUidt. 

Leibubb. Fr. hisir, permission. 
Conn, with Lat licere, to be law- 
ftd or permitted. Permission or 
opportoniiy of ease or recresr 

Snr. Freedom. Vacation. Opportunity. 
Convenience. Ease. Quiet Retirement 

AST. Constraint Employment Occu- 
pation. Dbtraction. Toll. Labour. BusUe. 
BosinesB. Absorption. Engagement 

Leibubelt, adj. See Leisure. 

Snr. £s^. Deliberate. Sauntering. 
Ajm Esger. Hurried. Precipitate. 
Rapid. EzpedittouB. 

Lend, v. ad. Old Eng. To 
grant, for temporary use. Also 
to afford, as in the phrase, 'to 
lend a listening ear.' 

Snr. Advance. Loan. AfTord. Qrsnt 

Amt. Kesnme. Retract Appropriate. 

Retain. Withhold. Reftise. 

Lengthy, (w?/. Sax. lang, long. 

Stk. DiflTuse. Prolix. Tedious. Long- 
drawa Verbose. 

Amt. Concise. Compendious. Curt 
Short Brief. Laconic. Compact Con- 
densed. Succinct 

Lenient, adj. See Lenity and 
Lenitive, adj. See Lenily. 

Stm. PalliaUve. Mitlmitive. Soothhig. 

Amt. Inflammatory. Exaggerative. Pro- 
vocative. Aggravating. Irritant Exas- 

Lenity. Lat. lenitas, lenis, 
mild. See Kindness. 

Lentous, adj. Lat. lentus, 
pliable. See Gelatinous. 

Lessen, v. tr. To make less. 
See Dimimsh. 

Lesson, n. Legere, to read, 
lectio, a reading. 

Stk. Precept Warning. lostruction. 
Lecture. Information. Homily. 

Amt. Mlsiiistruction. Misguidance. Mis- 
instruction. Misinformation. 

Let, v. Sax. loetan, to permit. 
See below. 

Syk- Permit Allow. 
Amt. Prevent Hinder. 

Let, v. Sax. letian, to hinder. 
See above. 
Lethal, adj. Lethum, death. 

Stk. Deadly. MortaL Fatal Poisonous. 

Akt. Invigorative. Remedial. Sanative. 
Wholesome. Restorative. Vivifying. Vital. 

Lethargy, n. Gr. XfjBri, ob- 
livion, and dpy6s, idle. Usea me- 

Snr. Drowsiness. Torpor. Oblivion. 
Stupor. Swoon. Trance. 

Akt. Vigilance. Alertness. Liveliness. 
Mindfulness. Wakefulness. Alacrity. Ac- 
tivity. Life. 

Lettered, adj. Litera, a 
letter. Ste Learned. 
Level, n. Sax. 2cp/c?, Lat. 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

libeUa, a water level, from libra, 
a balance. 

Sth. Plane. Sarface. Floor. Equality. 
Aim. Platform. Ground. Go-oidiuateness. 

Ant. Unevenneas. Acclivity. Declivity. 
Inequality. Inco>ordinatene8S. Verticality. 

Leybl, V. See Level, noun, 
Stk. Plane. Smoothe. Flatten. Equalize. 

BolL Raze. 

Airr. Roughen. Furrow. DiaequaUse. 


Leybl, adj\ See Level, verb. 

Levigate, v. tr, Lat. levis, 
light and smooth, 

Stk. Comminute. Triturate. Pulverize. 
Smoothe. Polish. Plane. 

Ant. Oompound. Amalgamate. Boufl^en. 
Batter. Indent 

Levitt. Lat. levita*, levis, 
light. Used commonly, in an nn- 
favourable sense, of character and 

Stn. Lightness. Frivolity. Inconstancy. 
Aht. Earnestness. Seriousness. Gravity. 

Levy, v. Fr. lever, to raise, 
Snr. Raise. Impose. Muster. Exact 
Ain. Forego. Surrender. Behnburse. 
Bepay. Liquidate. 

Liable, adj, Lat. ligare, to 
hind. See Amenable. 

Libel, n. LibeUus, dim. of 
liber— famosus tmderstood. A 
de£ainatory pamphlet Also used 
of de&matory speech. 

Stn. Defamation. Detraction. Tradnoe- 
ment Calumny. Slander. 

Aht. Betractation. Vindication. Apology. 
Eulogy. Panegyric. Puff. Advocacy. Bi- 

Libellous, adj. See Libel. 

Liberal, adj, Liberalis, from 
liber, free, A person of free birth, 
manners, and education. Hence 
the character of such. Applied 
also to things liberally, i.e,, freely 

Stk. Free. Gentle. Refined. Polished. 
Generous. Bountiful Catholic Enlaiged. 
Copious. Ample. Profuse. Large. Htmd- 
some. Munificent Abundant 

Ant. Churlish. Low. Mean. Boorish. 
Ungenerous. Illiberal. Niggardly. Grasp- 

ing. Avaridoua. Greedy. GalnftiL Kar' 
row-minded. Bigoted. Pr^Jodioed. Con' 
-tracted. Scanty. Inadequate. 

Liberate, v, tr. See Liberal 
and Confine. 

Libebtins, n. Liberiinus, a 
freed-^man. The word is used of 
those who free themselves from 
wholesome restraint. 

Sth. Rake. Debauchee. 
Art. Ascetic. Andxnrlte. Beduse. 
Hermit. Puritan. Saint. 

Libebtt, n. Lat. libertas, liber, 

Snr. Freedom. Independence. Permis- 
sion, license. Privilege. Fnadxiae. Im- 
munity. Insult Impropriety. yoUtkm. 

Other senses are technical, as, 
' the liberty of a town,' &c. 

Ant. Slavery. Servitude. BetrtnOnt 
Constraint Submission. Dependenoe. Ob- 
ligation. Compulsion. Deference. Beapect 
Considerateness. Necessity. Fatality. Pte- 

Libbate, ad, and neut. Libra, 
a scale. To balance. /See Balance. 

License, n, Lai licentia, 
licere, to be permitted. Has much 
the same senses as liberty, with a 
stronger leaning to the sense of 
the abuse of freedom. See li- 
berty and Dispensation. 

License, v. See noun, 

Stn. Permit Allow. Indirige. 
Ant. Bestratn. Disallow. Withhold. 
Forbid. Prohibit 

Licentious, adj. See Lioenise, 

Syk. Voluptuous. Dissolute. BaUsh. 
Debauched. Self-indulgent 

Ant. Temperate. Strict Sober. Self- 
controlled. Ascetic. Self-denying. Bigld. 

Licit, adj, Lat. licitus, 

Stn. LawfuL LegaL Allowable. Eipiitable. 
Ant. IllegaL Illicit Unfair. 

Lie, n. Sax. lyge, 

Stn. Falsehood. Untruth. Fabrication. 
Subterfuge. Evasion. i 

Ant. Truth. Fact VeracUy. 

Lie, V, int. Sax. liegan. 
Stn. Best Bepose. Be. Benuiln. 
Ant. Bise. Move. Stir. 

Synonyms and Antonyms, 247 

LiBF. adv, and adl\ Old Enff. 5®- Scwi^. Active. Unencumbered. 

7 /w2... n^^ xl^^n ^P*y- Slight Trifling. Gentle. Un- 

le/e, dear. CX)inp. LiOVe. gteady. Capricious. Vain. Frivolous. 

Stx. Gladly. Willingly. Readily. Characterleaa. Thongbtleaa. UnthoughtftiL 

Ant. Slowly. Unwillingly. Reluctantly. Unconsidered. Inadequate. Incompact 

»th. Awp. Heavy. Pondenms. Weighty. 

T.Tw n PlftY 7«y Immoveable. Leaden. Solid. Hard, hi' 

i_^ w*,.x^^;^^l. T._. . digestible. Full Lasy. Encumbered. Bur- 

Stn. Vitality. Duration. Existence, a^^ (Wi^ntJ^ wSah^^^ 

OoodittoL Conduct Animation. Viva- J^dVn ^S^ aZe^taioii^lm- 

dty. Pferaonality. SUte. Society. Morals. ifS^V vioJnT* sl^d^ *?™ PHn 

i^^^S^^- "^SS^* "SJiiaiS??- Sp^L^ SuUl. '^fl?^vj.'"\eli^: 

ex»tence. P^l?«8^rpor. Portraiture. Semible, Rimest Tbougbiful. Well- 

I^thaiKy. Ufeleoneaa. considered. Well-weighed. Adequate. Stlflf. 

LiTELESs, aty. See Life and Compact 
Dead. Liohtsomb, adj. See Lights 

Lift, v. tr. Germ, litften, to ^own, and CbeerfoL 
raise into the luft or air, Comp. Likb, adj. Sax. lie, cdic 

Aloft and Lofty. Used also as a prep. When the 

hea^EwlT **• ^'"*^* ^^ <^J''^ ^^ separately after the 

Amt. Lower. Sink. DepreasL Crush, verb, the form is ' alike.' 
Overwhelm. Degrade. Dash. Cast Hurl. Stn. Equal Correspondent Similar. 

Ligament, n. Ligamentum, ^"^SJfSPnequaL Different Dissimilar. 
from ligare, to hind, ^ ^ o 7 • • 

Syk. Bond. Band. Bandage. Ligature. LJSX, v. tr, oax. ItCian, 
Brace. Strap. Girth. Syn. Love. Approve. Ei^oy. Relish. 

The (Merence between Liga. a«^ j,.te. Dbiike. L««,e. MWte. 

ment and Ligature is, that the Detest Abhor. Abomloate. 

fomer is generally appli^i to j,^^^^ SeeUke, Probable; 

natural, the latter to artificial ute causes producing like eflfeciB. 

"*'^"** See Prohfthlfl 

Airr. Divulsion. Discerptlon. DIscon- *^» J^^"»"ao- 

nectloiL Frwture. Dislocation. Severance. LlKBLIHOOD. See Likely and 

Laceration. Sphnter. Breach. Disband- -n u«u,-ii4.«. 

ment Shield. Fender. Disconnecter. l:TOt)ablllty. 

Light, n. Sax. leoht, conn. Likeness. See Like, 

witii?^. Used analogoiidy and .p.SSiJ:""SlSlmJSr""^. ^ 

metaphoncally. imiution. Portrait 

Stw. Luminosity. Radiance. Beam. Ant. Dissimilarity. Dissimilitude. Dis- 

Gleam. Phos^oresoence. Scintillation, parity. Inequality. Uulikeness. Original. 
ComscatSon. Flash. Brightness. Bril- y wnnrra*. T« i;l-a, «,««» 
liancy. EifiilKence. BlaS. Splendour. LIKEWISE. In hke WayS. 
Candle. Lamp. I>antern. Exi-lanation. Syn. So. Ako. 
Instmctlon. lUumiuatiun. Undemanding. Akt. Nor. Otherwise. 
Interpretation. Day. Life. LlKlNG n. See Like 

KhiJ"* iKSSSJ fiZT iS'JS'ioJ' 8m Lo^e. Approval Relish. AlTec- 

S*,*?*: 5?*''h'°*'«'- , ®'«»"- -^"nct on- tion. Taste. Inclination. Partiality. Fond- 

Misinterpretation. Ignorance. Misuiider- """' *■*»•*• **«'""•"«"• *^«M«i«-y. «wuu 

2S2ES xSJib^v''* ^'*'^***°- ^^^ AST. Hatred. DisUke. Disrelish. Aver- 

tification. Tenebroalty. ^^ Repugnance. Loathing. Dlslnclina- 

Light, adj. Sax. liht. Conn, tioa Abhorrence. 
with Lat. levis. It is used in Limit, n. Limes, itis. See 

seyeral analogous and metapho- Bound. 

"Ii'^ta^«. D,.wHghv. P»t. ^LnnTi,B88,ad;; Se*Limitand 

•Meb Booyut ToUtUe. Euf. Digati- Infimte. 


Synonyms and Anionyms. 

Limpid. Lat. limpidus, clear, 
from Gr. Xdfiireiv, to shine, 

Snr. Transparent Translucent. Crys- 

Ant. Opaque. TorbkL Lnteotu. Muddy. 

Like, n. Lai tinea. Used 

Stk. Cord. Thread. Length. Ontline. 
Row. Direction. Verse. C!ourse. Method. 
Succession. Sequence. Continuity. 

Akt. Breadth. Contents. Space. Di- 
vergency. Deviation. Fluctuation. Varia- 
tion. Intemiptiou. Discontinuance. So- 

Lineage, n. See Line. 

Stk. Desoent Family. House. 
Ant. Ancestor. Founder. Source. 

Lineament, n. See Line. 

Stn. Line. Feature. Mark. Form. 

Ant. Face. Countenance. Visage. As- 

LiNEAB. See Line. 

Stn. Direct Straight Rectilinear. 
Ant. Incurved. Divei^nt CollateraL 
LateraL Curvilinear. Zigzag. 

Linger, v. int. Sax. langra, 
comparative of lang, long. To re- 
main longer than right or usual. 

Stn. Tarry. Loiter. Lag. Saunter. 
Ant. Haste. Speed. Press. Push. 

Line, n. Germ, lenken, to 
bind. See Connection. 

Liquefaction, n, Liqtiere, to 
he liquid, and facere, to make. 
See Melt. 


adj. Liquescere, from liquere, to 
grow or become liquid. See Melt 

Liquid, adj. Lat. liquidus. 
Used analogously, as, 'liquid 

Stn. Fluid. Liquescent Melting. Run- 
ning. Watery. Fluent Soft. Melli- 
fluous. Limpid. 

Akt. Solid. Solidified. Concrete. Con- 
gealed. Hard, Dry. Indissolvahle. Jn- 
■oluhle. Harsh. Discordant 

Liquidate, v, tr. See Liquid 
and Pay. 

Listen, v, int. Sax. hJystan, 
followed by prep, to. 

SrN. Hear. Attend. Hearken. Li- 

Ant. Disregard. Ignore. Reftise. Bno- 

Listless, adj. Sax. listan, 
lustan, conn, with lust, to lean 
or incline to. Having no incli- 
nation or interest. 

Syn. Indifierent Careless. Uninterested. 
Vacant Languid. Indolent Sui^ne. 
Lackadaisical. Torpid. 

Ant. Eager. Interested. Curious. Ar- 
dent Attentive. Absorbed. Active. En- 
gaged. Earnest 

Literal, adj\ Litera, a letter. 
According to the letter. 

Stn. Exact. Grammatical. VerbaL 

Ant. General Substantial. Metaphori- 
cal. Free. Spiritual. 

Literary, adj\ See Literal. 

Stn. Erudite. Scholarly. Studious. 
Akt. Illiterate. Unsdiolarly. Unsta* 

Literature, n. See Literal. 
Learning, or a certain portion of 
general learning. 

Stn. Lore. Erudition. Reading. Study. 
Learning. Attainment 

Ant. Genius. lutuition. Inspiration. 

Lithe, adf. Sax. llndhe, tender, 
mild, gentle. Persuadable, flexible. 
Transferred from the moral to 
the physical. 

Syn. Pliant Flexible. Limber. Supple. 
Elastic Agile. Pliable. 

Ant. Tough. Inflexible. Stiif. In- 

Litigious, adj. Lis, litis, a 
lawsuit. Fond of going to law, 
or, generally, quarrelsome. 

Stn. Quarrelsome. Disputatious. Con- 

Ant. Complacent. Contented. Ac- 
quiescent Genial. Fadle. 

Litter, v. tr, Fr. litiere, from 
lectus, a couch, A portable couch. 
Then a bed made up for cattle, 
and their being brought to bed 
of young, as, ' a litter of whelps.' 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


From the straw bed of cattle the 
word derives the following mean- 

Stm. Scatter. Mislay. Discompose. 
Disorder. Derange. 

AxT. Clear, (hean. Order. Lay. Ar- 
range. Methodize. 

LiTTLB, adj. Sax. lytel, small, 
Sm. Small Tiny. Pigmy. Diminu- 
tive. Short Brief. Scanty. Unimpor- 
tant. Insignificant. Slight. Weak, in- 
considerable. Trivial. Illiberal. Mean. 
Ptetty. Paltry. Dirty. Shabby. 

Adt. Big. Bulky. liarge. Enormons. 
Huge. Monstrous. Full-sized. Developed. 
Long. Full. Much. Important. Grave. 
Serious. Momentous. LiberaL Generous. 
Noble. Higb-miaded. Handsome. 

LiVB, V, Sax. libban, lifian, 
Syn. Vegetate. Grow. Survive. Con- 

tinne. Abide. DwelL Last. Subsist. 

Behave. Act. Breathe. 

Asr. Die. Perish. Wither. Demise. 

Migrate. Vanish. Fade. Fail Languish. 

Depart. Drop. Decease. 

Live, adj\ See Live, verb, 

SrN. Animate. 

Aht. Inanimate. Defunct. 

Livelihood, n. See Live. 

Stk. Maintenance. Support. Living. 
Akt. Privation. Starvation. Want 
Beggary. Inanition. 

LrvBLT, adj. See Live. 

Stv. Brisk. Animated. Keen. Eager. 
BUthe. Alert 

Ant. lifeless. Torpid. Dull. Indif- 
fiBraoit Listless. Inanimate. Insensate. 

LiVBBT, n. Fr. Itvrer, to de^ 
liver, A gift of a suit from the 
master to his retainers. 

Snr. Uniform. Garb. Badge. Depend- 
ence. Servitude. Betainership. Betinue. 

AiiT. Freedom. Immunity. Insubser* 

Living, adj. See Live, adj. 
Living, n. See Livelihood. 
Load, n. Sax. hlad. 

Sth. Burden. Weight Ijading. Cargo. 
Oppression. Incubus. Drag. 

Akt. Befrpshment Support Solace. 
Alleviatton. Emptiness. Lightness. 

Load, v. See Load, noun. 
Stk. Burden. Charge. Lade. Cargo. 
Comber. Oppress. 

Akt. Disburden. Unload. Unlade. Dis- 
encumber. Lighten. Alleviate. Believe. 

Loan, n. Sax. Icenan, 

Stn. Advance. Mortgage. Hypotheca* 

Ant. Recall. Resumption. Foreclosure. 

Loathe, v, tr. Sax. Iddhian, 
to hate. See Abominate. 

Loathsome, adf. See Loathe 
and Abominable. 

Locality, n. Locus, a j/kuse. 
See Place. 

Locate, v. tr, *See Locality. 

Stn. Place. EsUblish. Fix. SetUe. 
Dispose. Lodge. 

Ant. Displace. Disestablish. Remove. 

Location, n. See Locality 
and Situation. 

Locomotion, n, locus, a plo/ce, 
and movere, to move. The move- 
ment from place to place. 

Stk. Movement TraveL Migration. 

Ant. Stationariness. Stoppage. Abode. 
Rest Kemanence. Fixture. 

Locomotive, iidf. See Loco- 

Stk. Migratory. 
Ant. Stationary. 

Lodge, v, tr. Germ, lauhe^ 
foliage. Arbour. See Locate. 

Lofty, adj'. Germ, lift, the 

Stk. Elevated. Towerinc;. High. Dig- 
nified. Emhient. Stately, ^ughty. Ma- 
jestic. Airy. 

Ant. Depressed. Low. Stunted. Un- 
dignified. Ordinary. Unstately. Mean. 
Unlmposlng. Unassuming. Affable. 

Logical, adf, Gr. XoyiK^, the 
art of logic. 

Stk. Close. Ar^meutative. Sound. 

Ant. Inooncluiuve. Illogical. Fallap 

Logomachy, n. Gr. X<5yof, a 
wordy and yMxn, hattle. A war 
of words. 

Stk. Wrangle. Strife. Contention. De- 

Ant. Chat Colloquy. Conversation. 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

LoiTEB, V, int Dan. letOeren, 
to dday. See Lag. 

Loll, v, int, Icel. Icila, to he 

Syk. Loange. Recline. 
Ant. Rise. Stir. 

Lonely, adj. See Lonesome 
Lonesome. Lone, abbreyatioa 
from Alone. 

Syk. ('orlorn. Dreary. ForBaken. WikL 

Amt. CheerfhL Befriended. Frequented. 
Populous. Feaiive. Gay. AnlQiated. 

Long, adj. Sax. lang, Lai 

Syn. Protracted. Produced. Dilatory. 
Lengthy. Tedious. Prolix. Diinise. Far- 
reaching. Extensive. 

AiiT. Short. Curt CurUiled. Brief. 
Speedy. Quick. Concise. Condensed. 

Longing, n. From i;fr6 to long, 
or long for, or stretch the mind 

Syk. Esgemess. Desire. Craving. As- 
piration. Yearning. 

Ant. Indifference. Repugnance. Aversion. 

Look, v, act, and neut. Sax. 
IScian. Used as act. with the 
prep, at, and as neut. with like, &c. 

Syk. See. fifhold. Contemplate. Ob- 
■erve. Seem. Appear. Face. 

Ant. Overlook. Miss. Misobserve. Mis- 
beseem. Lurk. Smoulder. 

Loom, v, int. Sax. leomian, to 
shine. To appear indistinctly in 
an uncertain light. 

Stk. Glimmer. Lower. Gloam. 
Ant. Dwindle. Pale. Recede. Fade. 
Vanish. Disappear. 

Loose, v. Sax. lesan, lysan. 
See Tie. 

Loose, adj. See Loose, v. 
Used physically and morally. 

Syn. Unbound. Detached. Flowing. 
Scattered. Sparse. Incompact. Vague. 
Inexact. Rambling. Dissolute. Licen- 

Ant. Bound. Tied. Fastened. Tight. 
Moored. Lashed. Secured. Thick. Dense. 
Compact Pointed. Accurate. Exact Gtm- 
secutlve. Close. Strict LogiiaL Scien- 
tific. Conscientious. 

Lop, v. fr. Prov. Germ. 
luppen, to cut. 

Stn. Prune. CurtaiL Shorten. Ke* 
trench. Amputata. Truncate. 

Ant. Grow. TraO. Train. Eloniate; 

Loquacity, n. Loquax,ln(fui, 
to 8f>eak, talkative. See Taci- 

LoBDLY, adj\ Lord. Sax. 
hlaford, a hreadrkeeper, a moMkr 
and distributor of the grain or Uaf. 

Syn. Loftv. Magnificent Noble. ]la> 
Jestic. Proud. Imperious. 

Ant. Mean. Begpirly. Ignoble. Un- 
imposing. Humble. Servile. Lowly. 

Lordship, n. See Lord. 

Syn. Rule. Dominion. Jnrisdictioa. 
Ant. Homage. SuttJection. Sabso^ 

Lore, n. Sax. Zoemn, to teach. 
See Learning and Tradition. 

Lose, v, tr. Sax. leoaan, to part 
with involuntarily. 

Syn. Miss. Drop. Mislav. Forl^L 
Ant. Keep. Retain. Find. Recover. 
Locate. Earn. Guard. Treasore. Econo- 
mize. Utilise. Preservei Abandon. Dis- 
card. R^ect. 

Loss, n. See Lose. 

Syn. Mislaying. Dropping. Missing. 
Forfeiture. Privation. Waste. Detriment. 

Ant. Preservation. Recoveiy. Esm- 
ing. Satisfaction. Restoration. Economy. 
Augmentation. Advantage. Gidn. 

Lot, n. Saxon. The word is 
nsed in two opposite senses, 
namely, allotment by design, and 
by chance. 

Stn. Chance. Fortune. Fate. Haard. 

Ant. Law. Provision. Arrangement. 
Disposal. Design. Purpose. Plan. Por- 
tion. Allotment 

Loth, adj. See Loathsome— 
the true spelling. 

Syn. Reluctant Unwilling. 
Ant. Ready. Willing. Lief. 

Loud, adj. Sax. hlud. 

Stn. Sounding. Sonorous. Noiqr. Re- 
sonant Audible. VodferooSb damorous. 

Synonyms and Antonyms, 


AxT. Soff. Gentle. Subdued. Whisper- 
ing. Ru8tliiif(. Monuuring. Babbling, 
hitterlng. Tinkling. Dulcet Inaudible, 

LoTJNOE, V. int CJonn. with 
Long. Either to be a long, or to 
spend a long time. See Loll and 

Lout, n. Sax. liitan, to bow or 
lend. Expressive, apparently, 
of a combination of awkwardness 
and servility, which make np the 

SxK. Clown. Looby. Clodhopper. Clod. 
Akt. Dandy. Fop. Cockney. Prig. 

LovB, n. Sax. lufe, Grerm. 

.Srtr. Affection. Attachment Passion. 
Devotion, fienevolence. Kindness. Cha- 

Amt. Hatred. Dislike. Disaffection. 
Alienation. Estrangement Bitterness. 
Coldness. Indifference. Repugnance. In- 
fidelity. Desertion. Unkindness. Malice. 

Lovely, adj. See Love. 
Worthy of love or exciting love. 

Stn. Amiable. Loveable. Charming. 
Enchanting. Beautiful. 

Ant. tJnamiable. Unloveable. Hate- 
faL Hideous. Plain. Homely. Unat- 
tractive. Unlovely. 

Low, adj. Old Eng. Sax. 
Ikgan, Germ, liegen, to lie, 

Stn. Abated. Sunk. Depressed. Stunted. 
Dedinlng. Deep. Subsided. Cheap. Gentle. 
Inaudible. Dejected. Degraded. Mean. 
Atject. Base. UnworChy. Lowly. Feeble. 
Moderate. Repressed. Subdued. Reduced. 
Poor. Frugal 

Ant. Elevated. Lofty. TalL Ascend- 
ing. Rising. High. Exorbitant Violent 
Loud. Excited. Elated. Eminent Con- 
siderable. Influential. High-minded. Hon- 
ourable. Proud. Strong. Aggravated. 
Intensified. Raised. Wealthy. Rich. 

Lower, v. tr. See Low. 

Stw. Depress. Decrease. Bate. Abate. 
Drop. Reduce. Humiliate. Sink. 

Ant. Hoist Raise. Heighten. In- 
crease. Exalt Aggrandize. Elevate. 

Lower, adj. See Low. 

Stn. Inferior. 

Ant. Higher. Superior. 

Lowly, adJ, See Low. 

Stn. Mean. Low. Common. Humble. 

Amt. Lofty. Elevated. Eminent Proud. 

LowNESS, w. See Low. 

Loyal, adJ, Fr. loial, lot, law, 
legal. Maintaining the autho- 
rity of the law. Faithful to the 
monarch as representing the law. 
Hence, faithful generally where 
allegiance is due. 

Stn. Submissive. Obedient FaithAil. 
Allegiant True. ConsUnt 

Ant. Insubmissive. Insurgent Mal- 
content Rebellious. Disobedient Un- 
faithful Unallegiant Untrue. Incon- 
stant Disaffected. 

Loyalty, n. See Loyal. 

Lubricate, v, tr. Luhricus, 
smooth. To smoothe by the ap- 
plication of oleaginous sub- 

Stn. Oil ^aae. Grease. Levigate. 
Gloze. Glaste. 

Ant. Rust. Clog. Indent Ronghen. 

Lucent, adj. Lucere, lux, to 
shine. See Limpid. 
Lucid, adj. Lux, lucidus, light. 

Stn. Shining. Bright Resplendent 
Luculent Luminous. Clear. Transpa- 
rent Crystalline. Pellucid. Distinct In- 
telligible. Rational Perspicuous. Or- 

Ant. Dark. Unlustrous. Opaque. Tur^ 
bid. Muddy. Obscure. Unintelligible. 
Conftised. Insolved. Insane. Mystified. 

Luck, n. Icel. lukka. See 

Luckless, ac^*. /See Luck and 

Lucky, adj. See Luck. 

Stn. Fortunate. Auspicious. Pros- 

Ant. Unlucky. Unfortunate. Inaus- 
picious. Unprosperoua. Adverse. 111- 
lated. Disastrous. 

Lucrative, adj'. See Lucre. 

Lucre, n. Lat. lucrum, gain, 
Stn. Gain. Profit Greed. Wealth. 
Ant. Loss. Poverty. Failure. Priva- 
tion. Drues. Reftise. 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

Lucubration, n. Lux, light, 
lucubrate, to work by lamp-light. 
Thence, a work of study gene- 

Stn. Study. Mediution. Work. CogjL- 

Aot. Idleness. Vacuity. Incogltancy. 

LuouLKNT. See Lucid. 
Ludicrous. Ludus, play, sport, 

Stn. Bidiculotu. Farcical. Lau^ble. 
Comic. DroU. 

Aht. Serious. Momentous. Grave. Sad. 
SorrowAiL Mournful. Tragic Lugu- 
brious. Melancholy. Doleful. Sombre. 

Lugubrious. Lat. lugvhrU, 
Kid, melancholy. See Ludicrous. 

Lull, v, tr, and int. It lal- 
lare, to sing lullaby. Act, and 
neut. See Assuage and Sub- 

Lull, n. See verb, 

Syn. Quiet. Assuagement. Cessation. 
Quiescence. Subsidence. 

Amr. Tumult Excitement Storm. 

Lumber, n. Lombard. The 
Lombards being the merchants 
of the middle ages, a Lombard 
room wafi a room for the stock- 
ing of commercial documents 
and valuables. It is used for 
useless stock. 

Stn. Trash. Rubbish. Refuse. 
Akt. Valuables. Commodities. Stock. 

Lumber, v. See noun. To fill 
with lumber. 

Stk. Choke. Crowd. Obstruct En- 

Airr. Clear. Disencumber. Utilize. 

LUMINART, n. Lumen, a light. 
Used metaphorically of persons, 
as, ' shining hghts.' 

SrN. Sage. Savant Celebrity. Light 

Ant. FooL Ignoramus. Dunce. Block- 
bead. Lout 

Luminous, oc^*. >See Luminary 
and Lucid. 

Lumpish, adj. Lump. Conn, 
with Clump. See Clumsy. 

Snr. Heavy. Cloddish. Sluggidi. Clumsy. 
AST. Light Airy. Agile. Sylph-like. 
Nimble. Active. 

Lunacy, n, Luna, the mwm. 
The condition of being moon- 
struck with madness. 

SvN. Madness. Insanity. Deranieeinent 
Craziness. Mania. Abeiration. Halluci- 

Ant. Sanity. Reason. Intellect Intel- 
ligence. RatiiHiality. Lucidity. 

Lunatic, n. See. Lunacy. 

Stn. Madman. Maniac. Monomaniac. 
Am^. Solon. Philosopher. Luminaiy. 

Lure, v, tr. Old Fr. loire, an 
artificial hawk used as a decoy. See 

Lurid, adj, Lat. lurtdta. 

Stn. Murky. Lowering. 
Ant. Bright Luminous. 

Lurk, v. int. Conn, with 

SvN. Hide. Lie. Skulk. Abscond. 
Akt. Rise. Spring. Show. Flash. 

Luscious, adj. Supposed to 
be a corruption of luxurious. 

Stn. Sweet Delicious. Honied. Su- 

Ant. Sour. Sharp. Tart Bitter. 

Lustration, n, Lustrare, to 
purify in a sacrificial sense, 

Stn. Purification. Expurgation. Expia- 

Ant. Desecration. Defilement Conta- 

Lustre, n, Lttstrum, a «acri- 
jice of purification or cleansing, 
from lucere, to be bright. Comp. 
Illustrious. See Bright. 

Lusty, adj. Lust, animal 

Stn. Robust Vigorous. Strong. Stout 
Ant. Infirm. Weak. Disabled. Ailing. 
Effete. Listless. 

LuTEOUS, adj, Ltitum, mud. 
Of muddy appearance. See 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 

LuxxTBIANT^ adj, Luxurtare 
or ari, to flourish, huxuria, luxury. 
See Exuberant. 

Luxuriate, v. int. See Luxu- 
riant. See Bask. 

Luxurious, adj\ See Luxu- 
riate. Applied to circumstances 
and character. 

Snr. Voluptuous. Self-indulgent Plea- 
snrable. SensuaL Pampered. 

Akt. Hard. PuinfuL Self-denying. 
Ascetic. Hardy. 

Luxury, n, Lai luxuria. 

Stn. ££feminacy. Epicurism. Yolnp- 
tuoudnesB. Wantonness. SelMndulgence. 
Softness. Animalism. 

Amt. Hardness. Asceticism. Self«deniaL 
Hardsliip, Stoicism. 


Macerate, v, tr, Macer, lean. 
To deprive of substance, espe- 
cially by steeping in water. 

Stn. Attenuate. AVa 


Lat. made' 

aste. Wither. Steep. 
Replenish. Repair. 

See Mace- 

Madefy. Rot 

Akt. Fatten. 
Pamper. SwelL 

Maceration, n, 

Machination, w. Machina, 
a machine or contrivance. Used 
in an unfavourable sense. 

Stn. Contrivance. Design. Plot In- 

Ant. Detection. Counteraction. BafBing. 
Defeat Exposure. Overthrow. Defiance. 
Challenge. Conflict Competition. 

Maculated, adj. Macula, a 

Snr. Spotted. Speckled. Mottled. Dotted. 

Ant. Unspotted. Spotless. Speckless. 

Mad, adj. Sax. gemcRd. 

Stn. Insane. Demented. Lunatic. Fn- 
rlons. Infuriated. Craxy. Mfuiiacal. 

Ant. Sane. Sound. Sensible. Quiet 
Composed. Unezdted. Sober. 

Madden, v. tr. See Mad. 

Stn. Inforiale. Enrage. Exasperate. 
Ant. Calm. Fadiy. AiMiage. Lay. 

Madepaction, n. 

facere, to make wet, 

SrN. Wetting. Moistening. Moisture. 
Humectation. Maceration. 

Ant. Exsiccation. Drying. Arefaction. 

Madman, n. See Mad and 
- Madness, n. See Mad. 

Magisterial, adj, Magister, 
a master, 

Stn. Dictatorial AuthoriUtive. Im- 
posing. Coniiequential. 

Ant. Submissive. Docile. Undignified. 
Uniniposing. Modest Unassuming. 

Magistrate, n. See Magis- 
terial and Judge. 

Magnanimity, n. Magnus 
animus, a great mind. 

Stn. High-mindedness. Generosity. For- 
bearance. Clemency. 

Ant. Meanness. Pettiness. Paltrinest. 
Spitefulness. Spleen. 

Magnificent, adj. Magnus, 
great, and facere, to make. 

Stn. Grand. Magnanimous. Noble. 
Splendid. Superb. Imposing. Gorgeous. 
Majestic Dignified. Stately. August 

Ant. Petty. Meaa Little. Small- 
minded. Paltry. Ordinary. Tawdry. Beg- 
garly. Unimposing. Tame. Flat 

Magnift, V. tr. See Magni* 

Syn. Enlarge. Axnplify. Augment 
Exaggerate. Increase. ExtoL 

Ant. Diminish. Contract Curtail Pal- 
liate. Extenuate. Decry. 

Magniloquent, adj. Magnus, 
great, and logui, to talk. Big or 
high-sounding in talk. 

Stn. High>flown. Altiloqnent Bom- 
bastic. Tumid. Turgid. BoastAil 

Ant. Simple. Unaffected. Plain-spokeit 

Magnitude, n. Magnus, great. 
See Size. 

Maim, v. tr. Old Pr. mahaig- 
ner, probably of Celtic origin. 

Stn. Disable. Cripple. Mutilate. Mar. 
Ant. Restore. Reinvigorate. Strengthen. 

Main, n. Sax. mOgen, st\ 



Synonyms and Antonyms 

magan, to he cMe, Gomp. May, 
the anxiliary verb, 

Stn. Balk. Mi^ritv. Body. Trank. 
Amt. PorUon. Section. MinoriQr. 
Branch. Limb. Trilrataiy. Member. 

Mainly, adv. See Main. 

Snr. Principally. Largely. Chiefly. 

Amt. Somewhat Partially. SUgfatly. 

Maintain, v, tr. Fr. main- 
tenir, Lat. mcrniu^ the hand, and 
tenere, to hold or support. See 

Majbstio, adj. Majestas, ma- 
jesty. See Magnificent. 

Majesty, n. See Majestic and 

Majobity, n. Lat. major, 
greater. Superiority of rank or 
of numbers. 

Stk. Superiority. Eldership. Priority. 
Bulk. Preponderance. Seniority. 

Airr. Inferiority. Juniority. Minority. 

Maeb, V. tr. Sax. modem. 

Snr. Create. Produce. Frame. Fashion. 
Fabricate. Construct Effect. Do. Per- 
form. Execute. Gain. find. Establish. 
Compel Constitute. Beach. 

Akt. Annihilate. Unmakei Undo. 
Dismember. Disintegrate. Destroy. De- 
feat Miss. Lose. Mar. Disestablish. 

Maeeb, n. See Make. 

Maladministbation, n. Male, 
hadly, and administrare, to admi- 

Stv. Misrule. Mlsgovemment Malver- 

Amt. Bute. Ctoyemment Adminis- 

Malady, n. Lat malus, had. 
Ft. maiadie, It. malato, sick. 

Stk. Disorder. Distemper. Sickness. 
Aihnent Disease. Uluess. Complaint 

Akt. Health. Sanity. Soundness. 
Heartiness. Vigour. Bloom. 

Malcontent, n. Fr. One 
who is ill-contented with the 

SOYemment under which he 
ves. An incipient traitor or 
rebel. See Insurgent. 

Malediction, n. liaiU Hcent 
to speak ill. See BenedictJon. 

Malefaotob, n. MdU fooae^ 
to do ill. See Culprit. 

Maleficent, adj\ See Male- 
fjEUitor and Beneficent. 

Malevolent, adj. Male vo- 
leois. m-inclined. See Benevo- 

Malfobmation, fi^ Male for- 
mare, to/ofm ill. See Deformity. 

Malice, n. Malitia, malus, 
had. Bad feeling. See Spite. 

Malign, v. tr. Lat. maHgnus, 
malus and genus, of evil race or 
ncUure. See Traduce. 

Malignant, adj. See Malign 
and Beneficent. 

Malignity, n. See Malign 
and Spite. 

Malleable, acfy'. Malleus, a 
hammer. Easily hammered oat 
See Ductile. 

Maltbeat, v. tr. Male trae- 
tare, to treat iU. See Iiy'ure. 

Malyebsation, n. Male ver- 
sari, to behave ill, especially in an 
official capacity. 

Stk. Malpractice. Cormptioii. 

Akt. Int^^ty. Unoorruptoesa Up* 

Manage, v. tr. Fr. menage, 
Low Lat. mansionaticum, the ad- 
ministration of a household. 

Stk. Handle. Manipulate. ControL 
Conduct Administer. Mould. Bq^te. 
Contrive. Train. Husband. 

Ant. Mismanage. Misconduct Upset 
Derange. Misuse. 

Manageable, adj. See Ma- 
nage. Apphed to undertakings 
and persons. 

Stk. Easy. Feasible. Poesiblei DocUe. 
Tractable. Practicable. 

Akt. DlflScult Impracticable. ] 
dble. Unmanageable. Intractable, 
ftactoxy. UntameaUe. 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


Management, n. /See Manage. 

Sth. Treatment Ck>Ddiict Adminis- 
inUkm. Govenunent. SkilL Address. 
i Snr. Maltreatment. Misconduct. Mai- 

I ftAnlnistntioD. MisgOTemment. Mal»> 

Manages, n. See Manage. 

Mandate, n. Mcmdare-datus, 
to command. An official com- 

Stv. Command. Order. Edict 
An. Soggestloa. Petition. Bequest 

Manful, adj. See Manly. 

Mangle, w. tr. Low. Genn. 
monk, deficient, mutHatid, See 
Maim and Lacerate. 

Manhood, n. See Man. 

8tv. Humanity. Virility. Maturity. 
M^f^^^w^t ii. Mftnf^lness. 

Amt. Divinity. Womanhood. Child- 
hood. ChUdishnees. 

Mania, n. Gr. See Madness. 
Maniao, n. See Mania and 

Manifest, cu^\ Lat. mcmi- 

Sxir. Visible. Obviou. Distinct Oon- 
qiieiioiu. IndubitaUe. Evident 

Axnr. Invisible. Dubious. Inconspicu- 
ous. Indistinct. 

Manifest, v. tr. See Exhibit. 

Manifold, adj. Sax. maneg, 
many, and feaMan, to fold, 

Stv. Numerous. Multiplied. Diverse. 
Multigenous. Multifiuions. Varied. Va- 
rlooB. Multitudinous. 

An, Few. Scant Bare. Scarce. 
limited. Uniform. 

Manipulate, v. tr, Mantpur 
lore, mantis, the hand. See 
Hiandle and Manage. 

Mankind, n. Man and Kind, 
meanii^ kindred or a race. 

Snr. Humanity. Man. Men. Society. 

An. Divinity. Deity. God. Heaven. 

Nature. Earth. World. Creation. CatUe. 

Manlike, adj. See Man and 

Stx. att Maoty, a oorruptlon of Man- 

Manlt, adj. For Manlike. 

Stm. Bold. Courageous. Generous. 
Opea Chivalrous. Frank. Firm. Noble. 
Statety. Fine. Mature. 

Ant. Womanish. Childish. Timid. 
Unmanly. Dastardly. Weak. Puny. Un- 
grown. Boyish. 

Mannbb, n. Fr. maniere, ma- 
nu8, the hand, A way of treat- 
ment. Thence, a way of conduct, 
life, deportment, or proceeding, 
and flEusnion of eidstence. 

Stn. Mode. Method. Style. Form. 
Fashion. Carriage. Behaviour. Deport- 
ment Habit Sort Kind. 

Airr. Work. Prqject. Design. Perform* 
ance. Life. Action. Proceeding. Appear^ 
ance. Being. 

Mannebism, n. See Manner. 
Is used for such adherence to 
affected peculiarity of style or 
expression as is carried to excess, 
as distinguished from natural 

Stn. Self-repetition. AfRectation. Eu- 
phuism. Self-consciousness. 

Amt. Naturalness. Unaffectedness. Cha- 
racter. Peculiarity. IdUxsyncnuy. Genuine- 
ness. Specialty. 

Manneblt, adj. See Manner. 

Syh. PoUte. WeU-behaved. Well-bred. 
Art. Unmannerly. Bude. Coarse. 

Mannebs, n. See Manner. 
The word in the plural, of old, 
meant moral conduct. It now 
means social demeanour. 

Stm. Deportment Behaviour. Csrrii^^ 
Courtesy. Politeness. Intercourse. De- 

Amt. Misdemeanour. Misbehaviour. Un- 

Manoeuvbe, n. Fr. main, 
hand, and ceuvre, work. 

Stm. Operation. Taq|^ Contrivance. 

Amt. Counteraction. Defeat Baffle- 
ment Detection. Oountennovement 
Check. Neutralization. 

Mansuetude, n, Lat. man- 
mettido, m<imt8, the hand, and 
stiescere, to hecome accustomed, 

Stm. DodUty. MUdnesa. Gentleness. 

Amt. Ferocity. Wildness. Fieroenew. 
SavagenesB. UntsmftaMflnfflii 


Synonyms and Antonyms, 

Manufactubb, n. Lat. manus 
sud facer e, to make. 

Stn. Make. Prodaction. Fabrication. 
Compo:»ition. Ck>nBtruciioiL Manipulation. 

Ant. Use. Employment. Consump- 
tion. Wear. 

Manumit, v. Lat. manus, a 
hand, and mittere, to send off — 
referring to the Eoman cere- 
mony of giving slaves their free- 
dom. See En£Jave. 

Manumibbion, n. See Manu- 

Many, adj. Sax. mcentg. 

Syn. Numerous. Abundant. Frequent 
Manifold. Divers. Sundry. 

Amt. Few. Scarce. Rare. Infrequent 

Mab, V. tr. Sax. merran, to 
impede or dissipate, 

Stn. Spoil. Hurt. Damage. Injure. 
Defeat. Impair. Maim. 

Ant. Make. Restore. Mend. Improve. 
Reinstate. Promote. Enhance. Conserve. 

Mabaudbb. Der. uncertain. 
Perhaps Lat. morari, to loiter, 
hang about. 

Stn. Plunderer. Invader. Rover. Free- 
booter. Moss-trooper. Filibuster. Pillager. 

Ant. Ranger. Guard. Sentry. Keeper. 
Outpost Marcher. 

Margin, n, Lat. margo, inis. 
Used metaphorically for avail- 
able contingent space over and 
above the primary limitations of 
a thing. 

Syn. Edge. Lip. Boundary. Latitude. 
Room. Jjoophole. 

Ant. Figure. Space. Centre. Limita- 
tion. Restriction. Stringency. 

Marine, adj, Marinus, mare. 
Belonging to 6ie sea. 

Syn. Oceanic Sea. Neptunian. Mari- 
time. Naval. Salt-water. Nautical. 

Ant. TerrestiiaL Terrene. Land. Fresh- 

Marital, adj. Of or belong- 
ing to the condition of a hus- 

Syn. Matrimonial. Conjugal. Connu- 
bial. NuptiaL Hymeneal. 

Amt. Single. Celibate. Unwedded. Uop 

Mabitime, adj. See Marine. 
Mabk, n. Sax. mearc Used 
metaphorically for notability. 

Syn. Trace. Token. Sign. Symptom. 
Impression. Indication. Note. 

Ant. Erasure. Obliteration. EAtoe- 
ment Unindicativeness. FlainnesB. 

Mabk, v. See Mark, n. To 
give heed to a mark, or to make 
a mark upon. 

Syn. Stamp. Label. I9gn. Indtoiie. 
Decorate. Brand. Stigmatize. Signalise, 
Note. Observe. Regard. Heed. Spedljr. 

Ant. Ignore. Overlook. Omit JDa- 
labeL Mismark. Misindicate. Misobserve 

Mabbtage, n. Low Lat. rmt' 

Syn. Matrimony. Nuptials. iSspoiisals. 

Ant. Celibacy. Virginity. 

Mabbow, n. Sax. mearg. 
Used metaphorically. 

Syn. Pith. Gist Substance. Eeaenoe, 
life. Cream. Kernel 

Ant. Surplusage. Rednndan^. Ezcre. 
scence. Superfluity. Clothing. DresslDgi 
Amplification. Volume. Mass. Body. 

Marshal, v, tr. Old Genn. 
vnarah, a horse (comp. Mace), 
and scale, servant, Fr. marSchal^ 
means a marshal and a farrier. 
The term seems to have ascended 
gradually from the rank of the 
lowest to that of the highest 
ofl&cer of cavalry, through inter- 
mediate stages, as, provost-mar- 
shal, &c., of a social or civil cha- 

Syn. See Order and Arrange. 

Martial, adj. Mars, martio. 
Having the qualities or bearing 
of soldiers, also appertaining to 
the profession of a soldier. 

Syn. MUitary. Warlike. 

Ant. Unmartial. Unmilitaiy. FMoefU. 

fidpTvs, a witness; one who bore 
witness unto death to the rdigion 
qf Christ, Used sometimeB ob- 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


bly in the sense of tor- 
Sec Torture. 


leDegatiun. Abjuration. 

HBL, n. Lat mirahUis, 
bjectively for a matter of 
, and subjectiYely for the 
of it 

Vonder. Prodigy. Admiration. 

Miracle. Astonishment. Amaze- 


Incuriofiitv. Unconcern. Joke. 

Faroe. Bagatelle. Moondiine. 

)rug. Imposture. Juggle. 

7ELLOU8, adj. See Mar- 

lULiNE, adj, MascuUnuSf 


[ale. Manly. ManM. 

Female. Feminine. Womanish. 

. Effeminate. 

(, V. tr. Sax. miscan, 


lix. Knead. Compound. Amal- 

Discompoimd. Sift. Winnow. 

c, n. Low. Lat. masca, 

iretext Pretence. Screen. Ruse. 

ith. Nakedness. Detection. 
Unmasking. Verity. Openness. 

i, V, tr. See noun. 

Hide. Screen. Blink. Qoke. 

Kpose. Unmask. Detect 

, n, Lat. Tnasm, Gr. 

, to knead. 

jomp. Body. Bulk. Majority. 

iVugment Bit Portion. Morsel 

AOBB,w. Fr. Low Lat. 
tm. Germ, mttzger, a 

See Carnage. 
lYS; adj. See Mass and 

oUd. Huge. Colossal Weighty. 


Slight Petty. Stunted. FraiL 


Masteb, n. Lat. magister, 
Stn. Lord. Ruler. Governor. Owner. 
Possessor. Proprietor. Teacher. Professor. 

Akt. Servant Slave. Subject Pro- 
perty. Learner. PupiL Tyra 

Master, v. tr. See noun, 

Stcs. Conquer. Overoome. Sabdne. 


Ant. Yield. Fail SoireDder. Sqc- 


Mastierly, adj. See Master. 

Stn. Finished. Artistic Consummate. 
Ant. Clumsy. Rude. Bunc^g. Boichy. 
UnskiUed. Maladroit^ 

MA3TERY, n. See Master. 

Stn. Authority. Leadership. Head- 
ship. Proficiency. Success. Miperlority. 
Victory. Advantage. 

Ajnr. Subservience. Submission. Tute- 
lage. Guidance. Obedlencn. Inezpertness. 
Ignorance. Failure. Defeat Surrender. 

Mastioate, V. tr, Lat mas' 

Stn. Manducate. Chew. 
Ant. ik>lt Gobble. 

Match, n. Sax. maca. Used 
in the following various senses :— 

Stn. Equal Mate. Companion. Con- 
test ComjMeUUon. Tallv. Equality. Pair. 

Ant. Superior, inferior. Mismatch. 
Oddity. Disparity. InequaUty. 

Match, v, tr, and int. See noun, 

Stn. Equal. Compare. On>oee. Pit. 
Adapt. Sort Suit Mate. 

Ant. Fail. Exceed. Preponderate. Sur- 
li. Dissodat " ' *"• 
Misadapt. Missort 

Matchless, ew^y. /See Match, r^ 

Sxv. Consummate. Luxnnparable. Peer- 

Ant. Common. Ordinary. Every-day. 

Mate, n. and v. Icel. nuiti, 
companion. See Match. 

Material, n, Lai materies, 

Stn. Substance. Stuff. 

Ant. Work. Production. Design. 

Material, adj. See noun, and 

MATRiMomr, n. Lat. Tnatri- 
monium, mater, a mother. See 


pass. Mismatch. Dissociate. SoMurate. Mis- 
fit "•• • 

'V'-iiCCli?: "SK lCC«:U32Xf% cea£ "^^^ :iJcra»s. iaBMO*. SHnaiB. 

ITjL'VXIiB. Tji/. SiCt IfcJMi. 

'"'i'i: '^uir^ -....T,r 5.a»i fw MiLissw*. Sftritam,*. The 

t^.rx.;), tk^ sentfcikce which is x^ MJ^TTifwI'" 'tSi'i'i ^^ 

tr>; *itir;L^«F5 or DMSt axab>rftft- Mkastm* ■- T^> noifrra. 

tiT^ f'OTn of stating a priEcftle. <^. Dnnensian. 

MaXIXTX, n, Lat The Sn^ Ifat. rnJMH Gmcb. Yaloe. 

^'^:ariart extent, or the hig^kst ^^•Sr^Hato. th v-^ ^ ■ c 

point MiateL lDarP>nu> 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 

Mbasubbless, adj. See Mea- 
sure and Infinite. 

Meghanioal, adj. Lai mar- 
china, Fr. mechanique. Going, 
as it were, by machinery, witii 
little appearance of volition. 
Sometimes opposed to chemical. 

Syn. Habitual. Automatic Unreflec- 
ttve. Spontaneous. EffortleBS. Unim- 

AST. Laboured. Self-conscious. Forced. 
FeeUng. Spirited. Appreciative. Life- 
like. Lively. Impassioned. Animated. 

Mbddle, V, int. Lat. medium, 
Comp. Middle and Medley. 

Snf. Set Interfere. 

Meddlesome, oc?;. iSee Meddle. 

Stn. Officious. Obtrusive. Intrusive. 

Aut. Unofficious. Inobtmsive. Un- 

Mediation, n. See Meddle. 

Syn. Interference. Interposition. Re- 
oondiiation. Atonement. Arbitration. 

AST. Neutrality. Non-interference. 

Medicament, n, Lat. medicar 
mentum, medere, to heal. See 

Medioate, V, tr. See Medi- 

Stk. Treat Ciompound. Amalgamate. 
Adulterate. Sophisticate. Drug. 

Ant. Clarify. Analyse. Purify. Defe- 
cate. SimpUry. Disadulterate. 

Medicine, n. See Medica- 

Stk. Remedy. Physic. Therapeutics. 
Antidote. Salve. Cure. Corrective. 

Akt. Aggravation. Poison. Vims. 

Mediocbity, w. Lat. m^dio- 
critas, medius. The quality of 
being in a middling state, as dis- 
tinguished from anything higher 
or better. 

Stk. Commonplace. Mean. Medium. 
Average. SufBcieney. 

Akt. Excellence. Superiority. Rarity. 
BrilUanoe. Distinction. 

Meditate, v, tr. and int. Lat. 


Stk. Thfak. Cogitate. Purpcee. Ru- 
minate. Contemplate. Plan. 

Akt. Execute. Enact. Complete. Con- 

M£DiX7M,n. Lat. /See Mean, ?/. 

Medley, n. Old Fr. meder, 
Lat. miscere, to mix. 

Stk. Jumble. Confusion. Tumult. 
Mixture. Hodgepodge. Litter. 

Akt. Assortment. Arrangement Dis- 
position. Classification. Interdistinctio!i. 
Grouping. CollocaUon. 

Meed, n. Sax. med, Gr. fiia06?, 
a reivard of merit. 

Stk. Guerdon. Premium. Prize. Re- 

Akt. Penalty. Punishment Brand. 
Stigma. Amercement 

Meek, adj. Old Eng. 

Stk. Mild. Gentle. Submissive. Mo- 
dest. Yielding. 

Akt. Bold. Arrogant Self-asserting. 
Irritable. Proud. High-spirited. 

Meet, v. act. and netd. 

Stk. Encounter. Confront Engage. 
Assemble. Unite. Coalesce. Converge. 

Akt. Miss. Pass. Escape. Elu >. 
Avoid. Decline. Disperse. Diverge. Sp- 
parate. Vary. Disagree. 

Melancholy, adj. Gr. fieXas, 
black, and x^^Vf ^^^^ ^ ^*^^- 

Stk. Gloomy. Sad. Dejected. Dis- 
consolate. Dismal. Moody. Hypochon- 

Akt. Lively. Sprightly. Gladsome. 
Gleesome. Blithesome. Happy. Cheeriul. 
Gamesome. MhrthfuL Merry. 

Melancholy, 72. See adjective. 

Meliorate, v. tr. See Ame- 

Mellifluous, adj. Mel, mellh, 
honey, and Jluere, to floiv. 

Stn. Dulcet Euphonious. Silvery 
Flowing, Smooth. 

Akt. Harsh. Hoarse. Abrupt Ran- 
corous. Rough. Discordant. Broken. 

Mellow, adj. Sax. milisc, 
sweet, ripe. 

Stk. Ripe. Rich. Full-flavoured. 

Akt. Unripe. Harsh. Sour. Acid. 
Acrid. Crabbed. Sober. Dry. 

Melodious, adj. Gr. ftcXcaSia. 
See Musical. 

8 2 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

Mblt, V, tr, and int. Sax. 
meltan. • 

Stk. Dlasolve. Liquify. ColUquate. 
Boo. Flaw. Fuse. 

• Airr. Consolidate. Crystallize. Indu- 

Membeb, n, Lat. memhrum, 
a limb. 

Stn. Limb. Part. Portion. Con- 
stituent Componont. 

Am-. Body. Whole. Entirety. Con- 
stitution. Organization. Community. As- 

Memobablb, adj. Memorare, 
memor, mind/id. Worthy to be 

Syk. Great Striking. Bemarkable. 
Conspicuous. Prominent. Noticeable. Illus- 
trious. Extraordinary. Famous. Distin- 

Ant. Petty. Trifling. Ordinary. In- 
significant Unnottceable. Slight TriviaL 

Memobial, h. See Memo- 

Stn. Monument Record. Memento. 
CelebratioiL Bemembrance. Belie. In- 

Amt. Obliviation. SUentiation. Obli- 
teration. Effacement Erasure. 

Mbmoby, n. Lat. memoria. 
Used subjectively for the faculty 
of remembering, and objectively 
for the state of being remem- 

Stn. Bemembrance. Beminiscence. Per- 
petuation. BecoUeciion. Betention. Be- 
trospect. Fame. 

Ant. Forgetfulness. Oblivion. 

Menaob, v. tr. Lat minari, 
mitiax, to threaten. See Threaten. 

Mend, v. tr. Lat. emendare, 
menda, a fault. 

Stn. Bepair. Bestore. Correct. Pro- 
mote. Improve. Bectify. Beform. 

Ant. Damage. Impair. Pervert Be- 
tard. Deteriorate. Falsify. Corrupt 

Mendacity, n. Lat. mendax, 
mendacious, lying. 

Stn. Falsehood. Lying. Untruthful- 
ness. Deception. Prevarication. Dupli- 

Amt. Veradty. Truthfulness. Frank- 
ness. Candour. Ingenuousness. 

Mendicity, n. Lat. metidicare, 

to beg. 

Stn. Mendican<7. Beggary. 
Ant. Industry. Labour. 

Menial, adj. Norm. Fr. mes- 
nee, a houseJidd or family. Gomp. 

Stn. Domestic. Attendant Dependent 

Ant. Paramount. Sovereign. Siqnreme. 
Lordly. Independent Uncontrolled. Anto> 

Mensubation,?!. iSee Measure. 
Used also in the technical sense 

Stn. Survq^g. Gecnnetry. Geode^. 

Mental, adj. Lat. tneiw, 
mentis, the mind. Appertaining 
to the mind. 

Stn. Intellectual Subjective. Met»' 
physical. Psychical Psychologioil 

Ant. Corporeal Objective. Physical 

Mention, l&i. meminisse, from 
mens, to remember. A memorial 

Stn. Dedaration. Notice. Annoanoe* 
ment Observation. 

Ant. Silence. Suppression. Foigetftil- 
ness. Omission. 

Mephitio. Lat. mephiticus, 
from mephitis. Foully vaporous 
or malarious. 

Stn. Malarious. Miasmatic. 
Ant. Balmy. Genial. Salubrious. 

Meboantile, adj\ Meroari, to 
traffic, merces^ merchandize. 

Stn. Commercial. InterchiiDgeable. 
Wholesale. Betail Marketable. 

Ant. Stagnant Unmarketable. Un- 

Meboenaby, arf/. Merx, profit. 
Acting from motives of profit 

Stn. ^Sordid. Venal Selfish. Avaricious. 

Ant. Liberal Generous. Disinterested. 
Profuse. Prodigal 

Mbbohant, n. *See Mercantile. 

Stn. Trader. Dealer. Importer. 

Ant. Shopman. Salesman. Retailer. 
Chapman. Hawker. Huckster. Pedlar. 
Chandler. Coetermonger. Jobber. 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


Mercy, n, Lat mtsericordta. 

Syn. GompassioQ. Caemency. Forgive- 
ness. Forbearance. Grace. Benefit. Olft. 

Ant. Exaction. Harshness. Cmelty. 
Vengeance. Unpityingness. IJnforgive- 

Mebe, adj. Sax. mcerc, Lat. 

Syn. Pure. Unmixed. Absolute. Un- 
inflnenced. Unadulterated. Unaffected. 

Ant. Mixed. Compoond. Impure. 

Mebbtbioious^o^/. Meretrix, 
a harlot. 

Stn. Tricksy. Unchaste. Gaudy. Im- 
pure. Tawdry. Flashy. 

Ant. Solid. Good. Chaste. Simple. 

Mebge, V. tr. liat. mergere, to 
sink. See Sink. 

Mebidian, n. The position of 
the sun at noon, from Lat. me- 
diu8 and dies, mid-day. Used 

Stn. Zenith. Summit. Culmination. 
Height. Apex. Acme. Pinnacle. 

Ant. Nadir. Depth. Depression. Pro- 
fundity. Base. 

Mebit, n, Mereri, meritus, to 

Stn. Goodness. Worth. Worthiness. 
Desert. Excellence. 

Ant. Badness. Demerit. Unworthiness. 
Worthlessness. Weakness. Imperfection. 
Error. Defect. Fault. Failing. 

Mebby, adj. Sax. myrig. See 

Mesh. Sax. masc, a reticula- 
tion. Used metaphorically. 

Stn. Intricacy. Entanglement. Invo- 
lution. Suare. 

Ant. Extrication. Escape. Deliverance. 

Message, w. Fr. from the Lat. 
mittere, missus, to send. 

Stn. Communication. Intimation. Mis- 
sive. Notice. 

Ant. Non-communicatiun. Intercep- 

Metaphob. Gr. ficrh, and 
<f>(p(iv, to carry out of the literal 
to a figurative. 

Stn. Similitude. Image. 
Ant. Letter. Literaluess. 

Metaphysical, adj. Meta- 
physics, fiera ra '^vcriica, after 
the Physics — which were first 
treated by Aristotle; as, secondly. 
Metaphysics, the science of 
thought and conception, as dis- 
tinct from the study of physical 
or external objects. 

Stn. Mental. Intellectual. Abstract 
Ideal. Conceptlonai. finbjectlve. Bela- 
tienal. Notional AbBtrti8e.v.^sychicaL 

Ant. Physical. Physiological^ ftil- 
pable. External. Substantial iSradicaL 
Corporeal Material Objective. 

Mete, v. tr. Metiri, to mea- 

Stn. Measure. Apportion. Distribute. 
Ant. Misdeal. Misapportion. 

Meteobic, a/?y. Like a meteor. 
fierecDpos, aerial. Used some- 
times in the sense of the follow- 

Stn. Momentary. Flashing. Displodve 
Phosphorescent Pyrotechnic Coruscant 

Ant. Permanent Beaming. Burning, 
steady. Pendstent. Enduring. 

Method, n. Lat. methodus, 
fiera, after, and ,6d6s, a . way. 
The word signifies, first, an 
orderly or approved mode of 
scientific inquiry after truth; 
thence, order, as shown in treat- 
ment, procedure, or arrange- 

Stn. Order. System. Rule. Way. 
Manner. Mode. Course. Process. Regu- 
larity. Arrangement 

Ant. Disorder. CoAjecture. Kmpiricism. 
Quackery. Experimentation. Assumption. 

Methodical, adj. See Me- 

Methodize, v. tr. See Method. 
To reduce to mental order or 
method. Not • used of things ex- 
ternal to the mind. 

Stn. Shape. Arrange. Order. Mar- 
shal Enucleate. Eliminate. Organize. 

Ant. Confuse. Jumble. Disorder. Dis- 


Synonyms and Antonyms, 

Mettle, n. Same word as 
Metal. MetaRum, a mine or 
metal. The stuff of which a thing 
is made; the characteristic spirit. 
Spirit emphatically. 

Syn. Ardour. Spirit. life. Fire. Ani- 

Airr. Hebetude. Insensibility. Galloas- 
ness. Placidity. Stoidsra. Oowardice. 
Submissiveness. Slavisliness. 

Mettlesome, adj. See Mettle. 

Mew, V, See Confine. From 
mutare, to change. To change 
feathers, or moult as birds do, 
and hawks in particular, which 
during the process were confined 
in ca^es called mews. The word 
is still used in the plural, and 
the sense of stables. 

MiASMATio. Miasma. Gr. 
fuaiv€Lv, to infect, 

Stx. Effluvious. Malarious. Foetid. 
Polluied. Noxious. Mephitic. 

Ant. Balmy. Pure. Untainted. Salu- 

jMtddle, n. Lat. medius. See 

Middling, adj. See Middle 
and Tolerable. 

IVIiDST, n. Contracted from 
middest, the superlative of mid. 

Syn. Middle. Centre. Thick. Tlirong. 

Ant. Outskirt ConQne. Edge. Limit. 
Extreme. Purlieu. Margin, 

Mien, n, Fr. mine. 

Syn. Look. Aspect. Air. Manner. 
Appearance. Carriage. Bearing. Deport- 

Akt. Character. Disposition. Tempera- 
ment Constitution. Nature. Being. Per- 

Might, n. Sax. maht, from 
magan, to he able — the root of 

Syn. Strensrtb. Force. Power. 
Akt. Weakness. Infirmity. Feeble- 

Mighty, ar^y. >Sc€ Might. Some- 
times used also in the sense of 

Mild, adj. Sax. mild, 

Stn. Moderate. Lenient. Calm. GiKntte. 
G«niaL Tempered. 

Ant. Violent. Wild. Fierce. Savage. 
Strong. Severe. Mercileas. Han»h. Bitter. 

MnJTABY, adj. Lat. militaris, 
miles, a soldier. See Martial. 

Militate, v. int. See Military. 
Used with the prep, against. 

Stn. Contend. Conflict. Jar. OaaL 

Akt. Harmonize. Agree. Suit O^ 

Milky. Sax. from meHcan, 
Lat. mulgeref Gr. d/tcXyetv, to 
milk. Having any or all of the 
properties of milk. 

Syn. White. Emulcent Chalky. 
Ant. Inky. Irritant. Luteous. 

MiNACiTY, n. See Menace. 

MiNATOEY, adj. See Menace. 

Mince, v, tr. Sax. minsian, 
from minn, minor. To cut or 
divide into lesser pieces. Used 
metaphorically for to diminish, 
as, the force of a statement. 

Syx. Attenuate. Comminute. Palliate. 

Ant. Exaggerate. Amplify. Magnify. 

Mincing, adj. See Mince. Said 
of speech and manner. 

Syn, Slow. AflTected. SyllablcaL Pfe- 
dantlc. Euphuistic. 

Ant. Rapid. Voluble. Unaffected. 
NaturaL Bluff. 

Mind, n. Sax. mynd, allied 
to Lat. mens. 

Syn. SouL Spirit. Intellect. Under- 
standing. Opinion. Sentiment. Judgment. 
Belief. Choice. Inclination. Desire. WilL 
Liking. Purpose. Spirit Impetus. Me- 
mory. Remembrance. Recollection. 

Ant. Body. Limbs. Organization. Ac- 
tion. Proceeding. Conduct. Object In- 
difference. Coolness. Aversion. Forget- 
fulness. Obviousness. 

Mindful, adj. See Mind. 

Syn. Regardful Attentive. ThonghtfoL 
Careful Recollective. 

Ant. Regardless. Inattentive. Mind- 
less. Oblivious. 

Mingle, v. tr, and int. Sax. 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


Stn. Mix. Oompound. Blend. Con- 
fotind. Confuse. Intermingle. Associate. 

Akt. Separate. Sefirregate. SifU Sort. 
Analyse, inscompoiind. Eliminate. Clas- 
sify. Unravel Avoid. 

Minimum, n, Lat. See Maxi- 
Minion, n, Fr. mignon. 

Stk. Favonrite. Darling. Pet. 
A^T. Antipathy. Horror. Aversion. 

MiNisTEB, n. Lat. A servant. 

Stv. Servant OfiBoer. Delegate. Offl- 
daL Ambassador. Subordinate. 

Ant. Monarch. Government. Master. 
Superior. Principal. Head. 

MiNiSTEB, V. int. S^ Minister, 
n. Used with prep. to. 

Stn. Attend. Subserve. Walt, Snpply. 
Ant. Lead. Rule. Command. Exact. 

MiNiSTBT, n., Ministration, n. 
See Minister. 

MmoB, adj. Lat. Less. 

Stn. Less. Inferior. Junior. Younger. 

Ant. MtOor. Greater. Superior. Senior. 
Elder. NLaia. Important 

MmuTE, adj. Lat. minutus, 
part, of minuere, to diminish, 

Stn. Diminutive. Microscopic. Tiny. 
Exact Searching. Specific. Detailed. 

Ant. Monstrous. Enormous. Huge. 
Inexact Superficial. General. Broad. 

Miraculous, o(f;. Miracvlum, 
a miracle, from mirari, to wonder. 
Stn. Supernatural. HyperphysicaL 
Ant. Ordinary. Natural 

Mibaccbptation, n. Prefix 
mis, and acceptare, to accept, 

.Syn. Misunderstanding. Misinterpret 
tation. Misuse. 

Akt. Acceptation. Meaning. 

Misadventubb, n. See Ad- 

Stn. Failure. Mishap. Misfortune. 
Ant. Success. Achievement 

Misanthropy, n, fuaelv, to 
hate, avOpwros, man. See Philan- 

Misapply, v, tr. See Apply. 

Misapprehend, v, tr. See Ap- 

Misappropriate, v. tr. Pre- 
fix, mis, and proprius, one's ovni 
or pectdiar, 

Stn. Misassign. Purloin. MIsdistribnte. 
Abuse. Misuse. 

Ant. Assign. Distribute. Employ. 

Misarrange, V. tr. See Ar- 

Misbecome, v, tr. See Become. 

Misbehaviour, n. See Be- 

Misbelief, n. See Belief. 

Miscalculate, V. tr. See Cal- 

Miscall, v, tr. Prefix mis, 
and call. 

Stn; Misname. Misindicate. 
Ant. Name. Call. Indicate. Denote. 
Specify. Denominate. 

Miscellany, n. Fr. Lat. 
miscdlaneus, from miscere, to 

Stn. Mixture. Intermixture. Jumble. 

Ant. System. Colleclion. Classification. 
Assortment Group. Selection. 

Mischance, n. See CHiance 
and Misadventure. 

MiscmEF, n. Old Fr. meschef, 
Lat. minus and caput. That 
which lessens or damages the 
head or life of a thing ; thence 
transferred to the quality which 
leads to purposed harm. 

Stn. Damage. Hurt Detriment Dis- 
service. Annoyance. Injury. Ill-turn. 

Ant. Compensation. Good-turn. Bene- 
fit. Favour. Gratification. Conversation. 

Mischievous, adj. See Mis- 

Stn. Detrimental. Injurious. Spiteful. 
Wan ion. 

Ant. Beneficial. Advantageous. Repa. 
ratory. Conservative. CarefuL Protective. 

MisciBLE, adj, Miscere, to 

Stn. Coropoundable. Amalframable. 
Ant. Uncompoundable. Immiscible. 



MisooNOKiVB. V. tr. See CJon- 

Misconduct, w. See Conduct, 
v., and Misbehavionr. 

MiscoNJBCTXJRB, n. ^c€ Conjec- 

Syn. Miscalculation. Missnpposition. 
Amt. Hit Discovery. Ascertainment 

MisooNSTBUB, V. tr. See Con- 

Miscount, v, tr. See Count. 

MisoEEANT, n. Old Fr. mes- 
creant, Lat. minus credens, an in- 
fidel or apostate. Thence, a term 
of reproach generally. 

Syn. See Rogue. 

Misdeed, n. See Deed and 

Misdemeanoub, n. See De- 
meanour and Felony. 

Misdibeot, v. tr. See Direct. 

Misdoing, n. See Misdeed. 

Misemploy, v, tr. See Em- 

Miser, w. Jj&l. miserable. One 
who makes himself miserable in 
his anxiety to hoard wealth. 

Stn. Niggard. ChnrL Skinflint Cur- 
mudgeon. Screw. Scrimp. 

Ant. Prodigal. Spendthrift Rake. 

Miserable, adj. Lat. misera- 
bUis, miser. 

Stn. Abject Forlorn. Pitiable. 

Ant. Respectable. Worthy. Contented. 
Happy. Comfortable. 

Miserly, adj. See Miser. 

Misery, n. See Miserable. 

Misestimate, v, tr. See Esti- 
mate and Value. 

Misfortune, n, Fortuna,for' 
tune. See Disaster and Misad- 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 

See Com- 

MiSGiviNO, n. See Give. A 
reluctance to give or repose tmst 
Sometimes, conversely, animpui- 
ing of distrust, as, 'my heart 
misgave me.' See Doubt and 

Misgovern, v. tr. See Govern. 

Misguide, v. tr. See Guide. 

Mishap, n. See Hap and Mis- 

Misinformation^ n. Seelsh 

Misinstruction, ft. iSee In- 

MisiNTELLiGENOB, n. See In- 

Misinterprbt, v. tr. See In- 

MisjoiNED. See Join and 

Mislay, v. tr. See Lay and 

Mislead, v. tr. See Lead. 

Mislike, v. tr. See Like. 

Mismanage, v. tr. See Manage. 
. Mismatch, n. See Match. 

Misname, v. tr. See Name, v. 

Misnomer, n. See Name, n. 

MisPERSUADE, V. tr. See Per- 

Misplace, v. tr. See Place, v. 

Mispronounce, v. tr. See Pro- 


Syn. Ungainly. Misformed. Hl-shaped. 
Ant. Weil-proportioDed. Elegant Har- 
monious. Shapely. 

Misquote, v. tr. See Quote. 
MiSRE0KON,v. tr. See Beckon. 
Misreport, n. See Beport. 
Misrepresent, v. tr. See Ee- 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 


t MiSBULE, w. See Etde. 

Miss, v, tr, Mittere, missus, to 
j loee. See Lose and Meet. 
^ Misshapen, adj. See Shapely. 

MissiLB, w. Mittere, to send, 

Stn. Projectile. 

Akt. Artillery. Hand-arma. Side-arms. 

Mission, n. Missio, Lat. 
mittere, missus, to send. 

Stn. Commission. Trust OflSce. Dele- 
satton. Ministry. Embassy. Legation. 

Ant. Assumption. Usurpation. Self- 

Missive, n. See Mission. 

Stn. Communication. Despatch. Mes- 

Ant. See Message. 

Misspend, v. tr. See SpeM. 
Misstate, v, tr. See State. 
Misstatement, n. See State. 
Mist, w. Sax. Used some- 
times metaphorically. 

Stn. Fog. Obscurity. Bewilderment. 
Perplexity. Haze. 

Ant. Brightness. Clearness. Lucidity. 

Mistake, n. See Take and 

MiSTEAOH, V. tr. See Teach. 

Mistranslate, v. tr. See 

MiSTBUST, V. tr. See Trust. 



Misuse, v. See Use. 

Misuse, n. See verh 

MmGATE, V, tr, Mitigare, 
mitis, gentle. See Aggravate. 

Mix, V, tr, Lat. miscere, 
Stn. Su Mingle. 

Moan, v, tr. Sax. m^cenan. See 

Mob, n. Mobile vulgus, the 
movahU or fickle mdgar. See 

Mobile, adj. See Mob. 

Stn. Movable. Sensitive. Ficlde. In- 
constant. Variable. Ductile. 

Ant. Immovable. Inexorable. Un- 
feeling. Unvarying. 

Mock, y, tr, Fr. moquer, to 

Stn. Jeer. Ridicule. Flount. Mimic. 

Ant. Salute. Welcome. Respect Ad- 
mire. Compliment. 

Mode, n, Lat. modiLS, manner. 
See Method. 

Model, n. Modulus , from mo- 
dus, a measure. That by which 
other things are to be measured. 

Stn. Standard. Pattern. Example. 
Type. Mould. Design. 

Ant. Imitation. Copy. Productiou. 
Execution. Work. 

The word is sometimes used 
in the sense of an imitative re- 
presentation, as a model of a 
palace, a fac-simile 

Moderate, v. tr. Moderare, 
to moderate, from modus, a meo/- 
sure. To keep within bounds or 

Stn. Control. Regulate. Repress. Go- 
vern. Temper. 

Ant. Disturb. Disorganize. Excite. 

Moderate, adj. See Moderate, 
V, Kept within limits. 

Stn. Limited. Temperate. Sparing. 
Steady. Ordinary. 

Ant. Extravagant Intemperate. Ri- 
gorous. Excessive. Violent. Extraor- 

Moderator, n. See Moderate, 
V. One who moderates or regu- 
lates common proceedings. 

Stn. Chairman. Regulator. Conductor. 

Ant. Disturber. Agitator. 

Modern, adj. Lat. modemus, 
from modo, just vow. 

Stn. Present Existent Later. New. 
New-fashioned. New-, fanfrled. 

Akt. Past Bygone. Former. Ancient 
Olden. Old-fashioned. Antiquated. Obso- 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 


Modest, adf, Modestm. 
Meek and Modesty. 

Modesty. Modestia, moduSf a 
limit. A refraimnent of manner 
proceeding from purity and hu- 

Stk. Sobriety. Diffidence. Basbfulness. 
Humility. Puremindedness. 

Ant. Vanity. Conceit. Self-sufficiency. 
Self-admiration. Foppery. Coxcombry. 
Wantonness. Sharaelessness. KfiFrontery. 

Modification, n. Modiis, a 
limit. The altering so as to 
bring within certain limits, or 
qualify the general character, or 
a natural variety of form. 

Syn. Alteration. Revision. Variation. 
Qualification. Species. 

Akt. Retention. Stereotype. Stabilita- 

Modish, adj. Adopting the 
present mode or fashion. See 

Syn. Fashionable. Stylish. Modem. 
Akt. Unfashionable. Quaint Unstylish. 
Gawky. Dowdy. 

Modulation, v. Modtdare. 
To vary by transitional changes 
the harmonies of keys or modes 
in music. 

Stx. Harmonization. Harmonies. 
Ant. Intonation. Recital Monotone. 

Moiety, n. Medietas, from 
medius, middle. See Half. 

Moil, v, tr. Mollis, soft. To 
discolour with damp, wet, or 

Syn. Daub. Stain. Dirt. Muck. Soil. 
Ant. Cleanse. Qean. Absterge. Purify. 

Moist. Der. unknown. 

Syn. Damp. Humid. 
Ant. Arid. Dry. 

Moisture, w. See Moist. 
Molecule. Dim. of Moles, a 

Syn. Atom. Monad. 
Ant. Body. Bulk. Organism. Com- 
pound, structure. 

Molest, v. tr. Molestus, trou- 
hlesmne, burdensome; moles, a 

Syn. Trouble. Disturl). Tease. Abdoj . 

Akt. Soothe. Caress. PaciQr. ABsnage. 
Pet Mollily. 

Molestation, n. See Molest 
MoLLiFy, V, tr. Mollis, soft, 
and /acere, to make. See Molest 
The former is used of i)6f80ii8 
and feelings, the latter of persons 

Moment, n. Momentum, nuh 
vimentum, movere, to move. Each 
minute step in the onward ad- 
vance of time. It retains also the 
active idea of power to move; 
hence weight, importance. 

Syn. Instant. Second. Twinkling. 
Trice. Weight. Force. Gravity. Im- 
portance. AvaiL 

Ant. Age. Period. Century. Genera- 
tion. Triviality, insignificance. Worth- 
lessness. Unimportance, inefflcacy. 

Monad, n. fiovos, single. An 
indivisible atom. See Mole- 

Monarch, n. fiovos, and dpxfif 
rule. A sole ruler. 

Syn. King. Sovereign. Despot Tyrant* 

Akt. Peer. Subject. 

Monarchical, adj. See Mo- 

Syn. Kingly. Royal. Despotia 
Ant. Republican. Democratia Oli- 
garchical Autocratic. 

Monastic, adj. See Monastery. 

Syn. Conventual Caenobitical Regular. 

Ant. Unconventual. Secular. Social 

Monition. See Admonish. 

Monitor, n. Monere, to advise. 

Syn. Adviser. Instructor. Mentor. 

Ant. Mlsadviser. Misinstructor. De- 
ceiver. Misdirector. Back-friend. Seducer. 

Monitory, adj. See Monitor. 

Syn. Advisory. Hortatory. 
Ant. Deceptive. Seductive. 

Monkish, adj. Monachm, a 
motik. bee Monastic. 

Monopoly. 'i/i6vos, alone, and 

Synonyms and Antonyms, 


9ra>Xca>^ to sell. The exclusive 
right of sale. Hence generally 
an exclnsive right of almost any 

Stn. Privilege. EDgrossment. Appro- 
priation. Exclusiveness. Preoccupancy. 

Akt. Participation. Partnership. Com- 
manity. Competition. Free-trade. 

Monotheism, n. fidvos, and 
O^os, the worship of one only 

Stk. Deism. 

Akt. PolyiheisoL 

Monotony, n. Gr. ijl6vos, 
and Tovos, a tone. Used meta- 
phorically for wearisome same- 

Stn. Sameceas. Unvarylngnesa. Tedlnm. 
AuT. Variation. Relief. Diversion. 

MoNSTEB, n, Monstrum, mmi- 
strare, to show. Originally an 
ominoxis appearance, applied to 
things physically and persons 
morally monstrous. 

Stn. Prodigy. Portent MarveL De- 
formity. Abnonni^. Fright Monstrosity. 
Leviathan. CoIodsus. Fiend. Brute. 

Akt. Beauty. Venus. Adunis. Nar- 
cissus. Gem. Pet Jewel. AngeL Augury. 

MoNSTBOUS, adj. See Monster. 

Sm. Prodigious. Portentous. Mar- 
vellous. Deformed. AbnormaL Hideous. 
Preposterous. Intolerable. 

Akt. Ordinary. Familiar. Unnoticeable. 
Fair. Comely. Shapely. Regular. Na- 
tural. Reasonable. Just 

Monument, n, Monere, to ad- 
vise or remind. See Memorial. 

Mood, n. Sax. mod, Germ. 
muth, mind, A temporary con- 
dition of mind. 

Sth. S^te. Temper. Hmnour. Feel- 

Akt. Mind. Character. Disposition. 

Moody, adj. See Mood. In- 
dulging in moods or a mood. 

Stk. Sullen. Humoursome. Gloomy. 
Airr. Blithe. Merry. Genial. Sociable. 

Moot, v, tr. Sax. mot, a meet- 
ing or assembly. 

Stn. Agitate. Discuss. Ventilate. 

Ant. Suppress. Stifle. Burke. Hush. 

MoBAL, adj, Lat. mores, morals. 
Is used to mean appertaining to 
moral things as distinguished 
from physical, to the science of 
moraliiy, and, lastly, to the prac- 
tice of it. 

Sth. Mental. Ideal. Intellectual Spi« 
ritual. Ethical. Probable. Inferential. 
Presumptive. Analogous. Virtuous. Well- 

Akt. Physical Material Practical. 
Demonstrative. Mathematical. Immoral. 

Morbid, adj, Morhidus, Lat. 
morbuii, a disease, 

Syk. IMseased. Unsound. Unhealthy. 
Akt. Wholesome. Healthy; Sound. 

Mordent, acff, Mordere, to 

Stk. Biting. Keen. Pungent 
Akt. Mellow. Mild. Soothing. 

Morose, adj. Mor, moris. Es- 
pecially addicted to a habit, but 
by usage to the particular habit 
of sullenness. 

Stk. Sullen. Austere. Moody. Crab* 
bed. Surly. 

Akt. Genial Indulgent Kindly. 

Morsel, n, Mordere, morsal, 
to bite, Comp. Bit. See Bit. 

Mortal, adj, Mortalis, mors, 

Stk. Human. Ephemeral. Sublunary. 
Shortlived. Deadly. Fatal. 

Akt. Divine. Immortal Celestial 
Life-giving. Venial. Salutiferous. Super- 

Mortality, n. See Mortal. 

Mortify, v. tr. and ird. 
Mors, and facere, to make, to 

Stk. Deaden. Subdue. Master. Vex. 
Disappoint Annoy. Rot Fester. Pu- 

Akt. Feed. Pamper. Indulge. Please. 
Gratify. Delight Satisfy. Heal Re- 

Motion, n, Motio, movere. See 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

Motionless. See Motion and 

Motive, n, Motivtts, inducing 
to movement or action, 

Stk. Inducement. Purpose. Design. 
Prompting. Stimulus. Incitement. 

Ant. Execution. Action. Effort. Deed. 
Attempt Prqject. Preventive. Deterrent. 

Motley, adj\ Welsh. Parti- 

Stn. Parti-coloured. Variegated. Mixed. 
Medley. Het<>rogeneous. 

Ant. Uiiifurm. Homogeneous. Alike. 

Mottled, adj. See Motley 
and Maculated. 

Mould, v. tr. Fr. Moule, from 
modulus, dim. of modus, a limit, 
mode, or standard. 

Syn. Fashion. Shape. Manipulate. 
Form. Cast. Configure. 

Ant. Distort. Strain. Pervert Mis- 

Mouldy, adj\ Sax. molde, 
mould, sfiil, 

Stn. Green. Rusty. Fusty. Musty. 

Ant. Fresh. Wholesome. Pure. Sweet. 

Mount, v. tr, and int, Fr. 
monter, Lat mons. See Ascend 
and Climb. 

Mourn, v, tr. and inf. Sax. 
murnan. See Grieve and Bewail 

Mournful, adj. See Mourn. 

Syn. Sad. Melancholy. Tearful. Dole- 
ful. Depressing. Wailing. Lugubrious. 
Ant. Joyous. MirthfuL Exhilarating. 

Movable, adj. Movere, to 
move. See Stationary. 

Move. Act. and neut, Lat. 

Stn. Change. (Jo. Progress. Stir. 
Affect. Agitate. Actuate. ImpeL Pro- 
pose. Advance. Propel. 

Ant. Stand. Stop. Lie. Rest Stay. 
Allay. Deter. Prevent Arrest With- 

Movement, n. See Move and 

Much, adj\ Sax. mucel. 

Stn. Abundant Plenteona. Greatly. 
Abundantly. Far. 

Ant. Little. Scant Slightly, fflwrt 

Shortly. Near. 

Mucilaginous, oc^'. Lot If tie^* 
lago, mucus, mticilage. 

Stn. Gelatinous. Albuminous. Orettoy. 
Glairy. Viscous. Lentous. 

Ant. Limpid. Crystalline. Bubbling. 
Frothing. Foaming. Effervescent Spait- 
ling. Spirituous. 

Muddle, v. Mud. 

Syn. Fail. Waste. Fritter away. Ouo- 
ftuse. Derange. Misarrange. 

Ant. Clarify. Manage. Economise. 
Classify. Arrange. 

Muddy, adj\ Like mud, or 
having mud. 

Sth. Luteous. Swampy. Clay^. Tur- 

Ant. Dry. Arid. Rocky. Arensoeous. 
Sandy. Limpid. Pellucid. Crystalline. 

Muffle, v, tr. Low Germ. 
muffe, a sleeve. To muffle in the 
first instance the head in the 

Syn. Enfold. Disguise. ConoeaL En- 

Ant. Unmuffle. Unfold. Exhibit Re- 

Muggy, adj. Prov. Eng. mug, 

Syn. Foggy. Misty. Dank. Damp. 
Murky. Dim. Vaporous. 
Ant. Clear. Bright ViqKmrlesB. 

Mulct, n. Lat. mulcter. 

Syn. Amercement Damages. Forfeiture. 

Ant. Guerdon. Douceur. Bonu& Re- 
ward. Premium. 

MuLXiFARious, adj. Midtis, 
many, and for,fari, to speak. Of 
many descriptions. 

Syn. Various. Varied. Multigcnous. 
Multitudinous. Multifold. Manifold. Mul- 

Ant. Single. Uniform. Unvaried. Un- 
varying. Few. 

Multifold, adj. See Multi- 

Multiform, adj. JHuUus, 
many, and forma, a shape. See 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


Multiplication, n. Mtdtus, 
many, and plicare^ to/dd, 

Syh. nunUlty. Multiplicity. Multi- 
tndinousnesa. Multi rarioumess. Multi- 
tude. Repetition. Reiteration. Reproduc- 
tion. Augmentation. Swarming. Teem- 

Ant. Singularity. Unity. Scantiness. 
Barity. Diminution. Extinction. 

MuLTisoNOUS, adj\ Multus, 
many, and sonus, a sound, 

Syw. Many-voiced. Tuneftd. 

Amt. Uniaonous. Monotonous. Droning. 

Multitude, n. lAtmultitudo, 
fntdtus, a collection of many, 

Stk. Crowd. Swarm. Throng. Accu- 
mulation. Concourse. Number. 

Anr. Flradty. Scantiness. Sprinkling. 

Multitudinous, adj. See 
Multitude and Mnltifiarious. 

MuMMBBY, n, Datch^ mom, 
a mask, 

Syh. Antics. Masquerade. Vagary. 

Ant. Pageant Procession. Exhibition. 

Mundane, adj, Lat. mundus, 
the world, 

Syn. Worldly. Secular. Temporal 

Ant. Unworldly. Spiritual Heavenly. 
EthereaL Supramundane. 

MuNiTiOBNT, adj, Munus, a 
gtftyfacere, to make, 
Syn. Liberal Princely. 
Ant. Niggardly. Beggarly. 

MuBKY, adj. See Muggy. 

MuBMUB, n. Lat murmur. 

Stn. Undertone. Whisper. Mutter. 
Grombie. Complaint. 

Ant. Clamour. Vociferation. Bawling. 
Oatcry. Defiance. Execration. Salutation. 

MuBMUBiNG. See Murmur. 
MuBGULAB. Muscle. 

Stn. Powerful Brawny. Robust. Sinewy. 
Ant. Debile. Flabby. Feeble. Lanky. 

Muse, v, int, A shorter form 
of amuse. 

Stn. Reflect Ponder. Cogitate. Dream. 
Ant. Stir. Act Move. 

Musical, acy. Music. Gr. 
linvaucri, the art of music. 

Stn. Melodious. Harmonious. Dulcet 

Ant. Unmelodious. Inharmonious. 
Harsh. Discordant 

Muster. Old Eng. 

Syn. Marshal Collect Assemble. 
Rally. Enroll. 

Ant. IXsmiss. Disperse. Relegate. Re- 
mit Disband. 

Musty, adj. Must, unfer- 
mented wine. Having the smell 
of wine in an old cask. 

Syn. Pusty. Rank. Mouldy. Frowzy. 
Ant. Fragrant Fresh. Balmy. Aro* 
matic. Odorous. 

Mutable, adj, Lat. mutabUis, 
mutare, to change, 

Stn. Changeable. Changeful. Mobile. 
Transient. Ephemeral. 

Ant. Unchanging. Permanent Im- 
mutable. Persbtent Changeless. 

Mutation, n. See Mutable 
and Change. 

Mute, adj. Lat. mutus, 

Syn. Silent Speechlew. Dumb. Taci- 
turn. Voiceless. Still. Death-like. 

Ant. Chattering. Talkative. Qarrulous. 
Loquacious. Vocal Tuneful Loud. 

Mutilate, v. tr, Lat. muti- 
tare. See Maim. 

Mutter, v, tr. and int, Prov. 
Germ, muttem. 

Syn; Murmur. Mumble. 
Ant. Enunciate. Exclaim. Pronounce. 

Mutual, adj. Lat. mutuus. ' 

Syn. Reciprocal Conmion. Inter- 

Ant. Ooe-sided. Unreciprocated. Un- 

Muzzle, v, tr, Fr. museau. 

Syn. Silence. Burke. Restrain. Gag. 

Ant. Release. Liberate. Open. Un- 
muzzle. Free. 

Mysterious, adj. Mystery. 

Gr. fivarrjptov. 

Stn. DUn. Obscure. Unrevcaled. Un- 
explained. Unaccountable. Reserved. 

Ant. aear. Plain. Obvious. Explained. 
Understood. Easy. Explainable. Siuiple. 
Frank. Communicative. 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

Mybtbbt, n. See Mystenons. 

Syx. Enigma. Pazzle. Obncarity. Se- 
crecy. Veil Shroud. Aroanmn. 

Ant. Publication. Solution. Common- 
place. Truism. Matter-of-fact. 

Mystic, Gr. ^vo-mcoff. 

Sr.v. Mygterioos. Cabalistic. MagicaL 
Ant. Plain. Matter-of-fact Every- day. 
Familiar. Commonplace. Obvious. House- 

Mystify, v, fr. See Mystic. 

Srx. Confuse. Bamboozle. Hoodwink. 
Puzzle. Confound. Mislead. Obfuscate. 

Ant. lllumiue. Enlighten. Inform. 

Myth, n. Gr. ftvOos, a fable, 
or veiled truth. 

Syx. Fable. Legend. Supposition. Fabri- 

Ant. Fact History. Narrative. 

Mythological, adj, fivOos, a 
fable, and Xoyos, an account. 
See Myth. 


Nacreous, adj. Fr. native, 
mothei' of pearl. See Iridescent. 
Naked, adj. Sax. nacod. 

Syx. Nude. Bare. Unclothed. Un- 
draped. Defenceless. Destitute. Unquali- 
fied. Uncoloured. Unvarnished. Mere. 

Ant. Dressed. Ilobed. Draped. Muffled. 
Protected. Qualified. Dressed. Veiled. 
Shrouded. Coloured. Varnished. 

Name, n. Lat. nomen, a name, 
Sax. nama, Gr. ovofjm. 

Si'.v. Designation. Cognomenation. Ap- 
pelltttion. Title. Fame. Reputation. Au- 
thority. Appointment Stead. Bepreseu- 

Ant. Namelessness. Anonymousness. 
Misnomer. Pseudonjrm. Obscurity. In- 
gloriousness. Disrepute. Individuality. 

Name, u. See nou7i. 

Syn. Specify. Designate. Call. Indi^ 

Ant. Misname. Miscall. Misdesignate. 
Misiudicate. Hint Surest Shadow. 

. Narrate, v. tr. Lat. narrare. 

Syn. Recite. Tell. Report DetaU. 
Akt. Suppress. Conceal. Blink. Mia- 


Mis. V 

Nabbation, n., Nabratob, n. 
See Narrate. 

Narrow, adj. A. S. nearu. 
Conn, with Near. 

Syv. Strai^t Straightened. Slender. 
Thin. Spare. Contracted. limited Crunped. 
Pinched. Scant Close. Scmtinisdig. 
Near. Bigoted. Niggardly. Tight 

A»T. Wide. Broad. Ample. TWct 
Expanded. Easy. LiberaL 

Nascent, adj. Nusci, to be 
horn or grmu. 

Stk. YouthfuL RisUig. Green. In- 
dpieut Embryo. RudimentaL Budding. 

Ant. Mature. Aged. Con&rmed. De- 
veloped. Grown. 

Nasty, adj. Prov. Eng. nasi, 
meaning dirt. 

Stk. Foul. Offensive. Odious. Dis* 
agreeable. Indelicate. 

Ant. Nice. Pleasant Sweet Savoury 
Agreeable. Pure. 

Native, adj. Lat. natimis, 
nasci, mitus, to he born. 

Stn. Indigenous. Home. Exported. 
Artless. Natural. Proper. Suitable. Con- 

Ant. Foreign. Imported. Exotic 
Alien. ArtlficiaL Acquired. Assumed. 

Natural, adj. Lat. tujUura, 

Snr. Intrinsic. Essential. Regular. 
Normal. Cosmical. True. Probable. Con- 
sistent. Spontaneous. Artless. 

Ant. Ascititious. A<lveniitious. Ab- 
normal. Monstrous UnnaturaL Ficii- 
tious. Improbable. Unsupposable. Forced. 
Artful. Affected. 

Nature, n. Lat. natura. 

Stn. Essence. Creation. Constitution. 
Structure. Disposition. Truth. Regularity. 
Kind. Sort, Character. Species, Affec- 
tion. Naturalness. 

Ant. Thing. Object Subject Man. 
Being. Creature. Monstrosity. Unnatural- 
ness. Art Fiction. Romance. Invention. 

Naught, n. Sax. Neg. of 
anght for anywhat. 

Stn. Nothing. 

Ant. Aught Anything. Everything. 

Naughty, adj. See Naught. 
As in Idndred words the forma- 

Synonyms and Antonyms, 


tion of worth or good implies 
actual evil. 

SvN. Worthless. Vile. Oorrnpt. Bad. 

Ant. Worthy. Good. Precious. Pure. 
Docile. Tractable. Well-behaved. 

Nausea, n. Gr. vavs, a ship, 
Seansickness ; hence generally a 
feeling of loathing. 

Sym. Loathing. Disgust. Abomination. 
Aiq^ Taste. Relish. Enjoyment. 

Nautical, adj. See Nausea 
and Marine. 

Near, adj. Sax. neara, 

Srx. Nigh. Close. Adjacent. Neigh- 
bouring. (Sometimes used in the sense of 

Akt. Far. Distant. Remote. 

Nearly, adv. See Near. 

Syx. Almost. Closely. Approximately. 
Akt. Quite. Entirely. Distantly. Re- 

Necessary^ adj. Lat. neces- 

Stn. Certain. Inevitable. Indispensable. 
Requisite. Essential. Compulsory. 

Ant. Contingent. Casual. Optional. 
DisaetionaL Unnecessary. Unessential. 

Necessity, n, Lat. necessitas. 

Syn. Indispensableness. Inevitableness. 
Need. Indigence. Requirement Want. 
Fate. Destiny. 

Ant. Dispensableness. Uncertainty. 
Superfluity. Uselessness. Competence. 
Affluence. Casualty. Contingency. Free- 
dom. Choice. 

Need, n. Sax. nead. See 

Needful, adj. See Need and 

Needless, adj. See Need. 

Syn. Unnecessary. Useles& Super- 
fluous. Gratuitous. 

Akt. NeedM. UaeftO. HelpfoL Obli- 

Nefarious, adj. Lat. nefas, 
wickedness. See Atrocious. 

Negation, n. Lat. negare, to 
deny. Ste Assert. 

Negative, adj. See Negation. 

Syn. Denying. Privative. Disclaiming. 

Ant. Assertive. Attributive. Positive. 

Neglect, v. tr. Lat. negligere, 
from ne, for not, and legere, to 
pick up or gather. 

Syn. Slight. Overlook. Omit. Disre- 
gard. Disesteem. Despise. Contemn. 

Ant. Consider. Respect. Notice. Ob- 
serve. Regard. Esteem. Tend. Attend. 
Foster. Study. 

Neglect, n. See verb. 

Negotiate, v. tr. and int. Lat. 
negotium, a matter of' business. 

Syn. Transact. Effect. Pass. Perform. 

Ant. Mismanage. Misconduct Quash. 

Neighbourly, adj. Neigh- 
bour. Nigh boor, one who dwells 
in the country near to another. 
See Sociable. 

Nerve, n. Lat. nervus. See 

Nervous, adj. See Nerve. 
Means both having nerve, that is, 
strength or vigour, especially as 
applied to style of writing or 
speaking, and possessing weak- 
ness of nerves, that is, timid. See 
Vigorous and Timid. 

Nettle, v. Sax. tiettle, from 
the plant so named. See Li- 

Neutral, adj. Lat. neuter, 
neitJier. Keeping aloof in feeling 
and action from two contending 
parties or two opposite opinions; 
also sometimes used in the sense 
of not belonging to either of two 

Syn. Uninterfertng. Impartial. Indi:- 
ferent Negative. Unavowed. 

Akt. PartlaL Interested. Interfering. 
Active. Positive. Declared. Avowed, 

Neutrality, w. See Neutral. 
Neutralize, v. tr. See Neu- 
tral. To destroy the agency of 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

opposed properties, qualities, or 

Sth. Ooonteract. ComjpeiuHite. Oonnter- 
balance. CouaterpotBe. Oountervail. 
AiiT. Aggravate. Enhance. Intensity. 

Nbw, adj. Lat. nevus, 

SvN. Novel. Recent Fresh. Modprn. 
Ant. Old. Ancient. Antique. Anti- 
qoated. Obsolete. 

Newfangled, adj. Sax. fan- 
gen, to take, an/en g, an under- 
taking. Used in a depreciatory 

SvN. Upstart New-Iij^t. Innovating. 
Strange. Odd. Fantastic. NoveL 

Ant. Venerable. Time-honoured. Es- 
tablished. Ancient Old. Old-fJashloned. 

Nibble, v. tr. Nib. Some- 
thing small and pointed ; to bite, 
as fish. Used metaphorically. 

Stn. Carp. CaviL Peck. Object De- 

Ant. Accept Eulogize. Command. 
Endorse. Allow. 

Nice, adj. Lat. nescnis, igno- 
rant. A nice man at the first 
was one simple and ignorant of 
the world's ways; he abstained 
from silliness and ignorance, or 
knowing too little; afterwards 
from fastidiousness, as knowing 
too much. It has also been trans- 
ferred to express that quality 
about which we should be apt to 
be nice. 

Sin. Fastidious. Scrupulous. Accurate. 
Neat Discerning. Dainty. Pleasant 
Agreeable. Exact. Fine. Finished. 

Ant. Coarse. Unscrupulous. Inaccurate. 
Kudo. Rough. Undiscriminatlng. Nasty. 
Nau>eou8. Disagreeable. 

Nicety, n. See Nice. 

NiGGAED, n. Scandin. See 

Niggardly, adj. See Liberal. 

Nimble, ac^'. Sax. nemol, car- 
pable, from niman, to catch. The 
word has abandoned the mental 
for the physical idea of capaciiy. 
See Agile, 

Nobility, n. Lat. nobUis, Ap- 
plicable to birth and character. 

Stn. Distinction. Dignity. BaoL 
Peerage. Lordship. Loftiness. GeiienMl9. 

Ant. Obscurity. Meanness. ConnMh 
alty. Serfdom. Paltrlneaa. Oootemplible* 
ness. Plebeianism. 

Noble, adj. See Nobilily. 

Stn. Grand. Aristocratic. Generoob 
Honourable. Fine. 

Ant. Mean. Plebeian. IgnoUe. PiHiy. 

Nobody, w. See Cipher.* 

Nocturnal, adj. Noctumw, 
nox, night. 

Snr. Nightly. Dark. Gloomy. Tene- 

Ant. Diurnal. Light BriUiairt. Sokr. 

Nodosity, n. Lat. nodtu, a 
knot or lump. 

Stk. Protuberance. ProtoberoiiSDeM. 
Knottiness. Tuberosity. Lunipiness. 

Ant. Planeness. Eyenness. Smooth- 
ness. Polish. Levigation. 

Noise, n. Lat. nocere, to hurt. 
Has almost, though not entirely, 
retained its original meaning of 
a noxious or disagreeable somid, 
of the human voice or otherwise. 

Stn. Sound. Clamour. RatUe. Wn. 

Ant. Note. Voice. Music. Melody 

Silence. Stillness. Voioelessneas. Hush. 

Noiseless, adj. See Noise and 

Noisome, adj. Old Fr. noisir, 
from Lat. nocere, to hurt, 

Stk. Hurtful. Harmful Nocoous. 

Ant. Wholesome. Salutary. Salu- 
brious. Beneficial 

Noisy, adj. See Noise. 

SrN. Loud. Clamorous. Stunning. 

Ant. Still Soft Inaudible. Whiraer- 
ing. Soothing. Musical. Melodious. Har- 
monious. Tuneful Subdued. Gentle. 

Nomad, adj. Gr. vofias, from 
vofsAs, a pasture, from vefiw, to 

Stn. Pastoral Vagrant. Arab. Scythian. 
Roving. Migratory. 

Ant. Fixed. Unwanderlng. Agrlral- 
tural UnroTing. Urban. 

Nominal, adj. Lat. nomm, a 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


name. Pertaining to a name, or 
gxia fJTig only in name. The 
latter is the ordinary meaning in 

Stn. Trlfliog. Suppositious. Ostensible. 
RmfeBsed. Pretended. FormaL 

Amt. Beal. Deep. Serious. Important. 
(Jrave. Substantiid. Actual. Intrinsic 
Veritable. EssentiaL 

NoMiNATB,v.^r. /See Nominal. 
To specify or appoint by name. 

Stx. Name. Specify. Appoint. Indi- 
vklnalize. Define. Invest. Present. 

Airr. Su^^st. Indicate. Conjecture. 
Describe. RecaL Deprive. CanceL With- 
draw. Divert. 

Nonsense, n, Lat. vmi, and 
mnsus, sense, 

Stn. Absurdity. Trash. Folly. Pre- 
tence. Jest. 

Aht. Sense. Wisdom. Truth. Fact. 
Gravity. Philosophy. Science. Reason. 

Normal, adj, Lat. norma, a 

SxK. Regular. Typical Usual. Re- 
cognized. NaturaL Ordinary. 

Amr. Abnormal. Irr^pilar. Unnatural. 
EzoeptionaL Monstrous. 

Notable, adj. Lat. notabUis, 
notare, nota, to note. See. Be- 
markable. * 

Notice, w. Lat. notitia. See 

Stn. Observation. Cognizance, Heed. 
Advice. News. Consideration. Vidtation. 
Marie Note. 

Ant. Oversii^ht Disregard. Misinfor- 
mation. Mistidings. Neglect Slight. 
Cunnivanoe. Ignorance. Inoognizance. 
Heedlessness. Anmes^. Omission. 

Notify, v. tr. Nottcs, knoum, 
Kad facere, to make. Used of the 
subject and the person; when 
the latter the j?rep. of is used— to 
notiiy a person of a fact. 

Stn. Intimate. Declare. Announce. 
Ant. Suppress. Withhold. Conceal. 

Notion, n. Lat. notio, > A 
conception, strictly of something 
abstract, as, an idea of something 
Tidble ; so, an idea of a man, a 
notiaQ of hnmaniiy. This is not 

strictly enough adhered to in 

Stn. Apprehension. Idea. Conception. 
Judgment. Opinion. Beliet Expectation. 

Ant. Misapprehension. Misconception. 
Misbelief. Mi^udgment Frustration. Falsi- 

Notortbtt. w. Lat. notorim, 
from notm. 

Stn. PubUdty. Vogue. Repute. Cele- 
brity. Knowledge. Certainty. 

Ant. Privacy. Secrecy. Concealment 
Obscurity. Mystery. Suspicion. Rumour. 

Notorious, adj. See Noto- 

Stn. Known. Undisputed. Recognized. 

Ant. Suspected. Reported. Reputed. 

Nourish, v, tr, Fr. nourrir, 
Lat. nutrire, 

Stn. Nurture. Feed. Foster. Cherish. 
Nurse. Tend. 

Ant. Starve. RUght Destroy. KiU. 

Nourishment, n. See Nou- 
rishment and Aliment 

Novel, adj\ NnveUus, from 
novus, new. See New-fangled. 

Novice, n. Lat. novitii^, from 
novus, new. See Tyro. 

Noxious, adj\ Noxius, from 
noxa, harm. See Noisome. 

Nudity, n. Lat. nuditas, 
nttdas, naked. 

Stn. Nakedness. Bareness. Exposure. 
Ant. Clothhig. Drapery. Investment. 


Nugatory, adj. Lat. nv^as, 

Stn. Trifling. Vain. Inoperative. In- 

Ant. Grave. Serious. Important Po- 
tent. Efficacious. Momentous. Successful. 

Nuisance, n. Lat. nocere, to 
hurt or he obnoxious, 

Stn. Offence. Annoyance. Plague. 

Ant. GratiflcatloD. Blessing. Pleasure. 
Delight. Benefit 

NuLLiry, V. tr. NvRm^ none, 



Synonyms and Antonyms. 

and /acere, to make. To make of 
no effect, or to canse that none 
shall be affected. 

Stn. Abrogate. Neutralize. CaBcel. 
AboUsh. Extinguish. 

Ant. Confirm. Perpetuate. Re-enact 
SUbilitate. Establish. Cherish. 

NuMBEB, V, tr. Lai nwrne- 
rare. See Connt. 

Nttmbebless, adj. See Num- 

Stn. Countless. Innumerable. Infi- 

Aar. Few. Scarce. Rare. 

Numbness, n. Old Eng. nuirib, 
Sax. n uman , to take or seize. The 
inability, through cold, to take 
hold, with the fingers, implying 
insensibility. Us«i metaphori- 
cally of moral considerations. 

Stn. Hebetude. Callousness. Insrasi- 

Amt. Acuteness. Sensibilily. Liveli- 
ness. Sensitiveness. 

Numerous, adj. Lat nume- 
ru8, a number. See Many. 
NuBSE, V. See Nourish. 
Nursery, n. See Nurse. 

Stn. Seed-plot Seminary, nantation. 

Amt. World. Life. Education. Pro- 

Nurture, v. See Nourish. 
Nutriment, n. See Nurture. 

Syn. Aliment Food. Sustenance. Nou- 
rishment. Replenishment. Sustentation. 

Akt. Starvation. Languishment De- 
cay. Inanition. Exhaustion. Poison. De- 

Nutrition, n. The process 
of imparting nourishment. See 
> utriment. 

Stn. Alimentation. Sustentation. Feed- 

Akt. Exhaustion. Starvation. Inani- 


Oaf, V . Apparently connected 
with auf and elf, meaning fairy. 
A foolish babe left by a fairy as 
a changeling. See Booby. 

Obdurate, adj. Lat db and 
durus, hard. 

Stk. Hardened. Obstinate. StnUbonL 
Impenitent Reprobate. 

Ant. Softened. Flexible^ Tcoder. 
Teachable. Yielding. Penitent. Docfle. 

Obedience, n. Lat.* chedien*' 
tia, ohcdire, to obey. 

Stn. Sabmisslon. Complianoe. ^dbuBt' 
vience. Submission. 

Ant. Resistance. Rebellion. Yidatioo. 
Transgression. Antagonism. DlsobedieDoe. 

Obedient, adj. See Obedience. 

Obesity, n. Obedere, 6besu8,to 
eat away. Eeflexively, the re- 
sult of continual eating. See 

Obey, v. tr. See Obedience. 

Object, n. Objicere, dbfeetta. 
Something cast or projected so 
as to be a matter of obserration 
or design. 

Stn. Appearance. Sight Design, find. 

Ant. Idea. Notion. Conception.- Fanqr* 
Subject Proposal Pnipose. EffcMrt 

Objective, adj. See Object 

Stn. Extrinsic. Concrete. Extenud. 
Ant. Intrinsic. Abstract NotknaL 

Objurgate, v. tr. and int. 
Lat. ohjurgare, jurgare, to qttarrd 
or scold. To remonstrate ooo- 
tumeliously. See Scold. 

Oblation, n. Lat offerre, <*• 
lotus f to offer. 

Stn. OflFering. Presentment Gift. 

Ant. Spoliation. Sacrilege. 'V^thhoU' 
ing. Resumption. RefusaL Negatioo. i 

Obligation, n. OUigare, to 
bind. I 

Stn. Duty. Necessity. Compulsion. 
Contract Bond. Covenant Behool 

Ant. Promise. Word. Choice. Free- 
dom. Assurance. Declaration. latentioo. 

Oblige, v. tr. See Obb'gotkm. 
Has the two senses of exerdsiog 
compulsion and of placing under 
the moral force of gratitude. 

Synomyma and Antonyms. 


8tn. Compel. Coerce. Necessitate. Force. 
Benefit Favour. Accommodate. Gratify. 

Awr. Release. Acquit Induce. Per- 
foade. Ajmoy. Disoblige. 

Obliging, adf. See Obliga- 

Stk. Kind. GoDsiderate. Compliant 
Complaisant Accommodating. 

Am*. Discourteous. Rude. Cross- 
nained. Perverse. Unaccommodating. 

- Oblique, adj\ Lat. dtliguus, 

Stk. Divergent Diagonal. Lateral. 

Amt. Straight Rectilineal Forward. 

Oblitbbate, V, tr, Ob and 
lUera, a letter. See Efface. 

Oblivion, n, Lat. oblivio, ob' 
livosci, to forget, 

Stv. Forgetfiilness. Dlsremembrance. 

An. Remembrance. Recollection. Me- 
moarv. Reminiscence. Commemoration. 
.^ OaleWatlon. 

h Obloqut, 91. Lai oUoqui, to 

m speak against, 

' Snr. Censure. Blame. Defamation. 

Ii Oootomelv. Reproach. 
AST. Praise. Panegyric. Acclamation. 
Obmutescence, 91. Oh and 
fmtius, dumb, Dmnbness from 
stupidity or amazement. 

Stx. Dumbness. Bewilderment Amaze- 

AST. Eloquence. Self-possession. Self- 
•asertion. Efii-ontery. 

Obnoxious, adj. Oh and 
noxius, hurtful Keflexively nsed 
also of persons amenable to some 
i xm&Yourable influence. 

I Stn. Odious. Detrimental. Feml- 

1 ckmB. Ammable. Liable. 
I Ant. Pleasant Grateful. Wholesome. 

I Salutary. BeneflclaL Unamoiable. In- 

* dependent Exempt 

IObscbnb, adj. Lat. ohscenus, 
Sth. Impure. Immodest Indecent 
, Aht. Pure. Modest Decent 

^ Obbcubb, adj, Lat. ohscurus. 

Used literally and metapho- 

Snr. Dark. Dim. Lowering. Indis- 
thuct Enigmatical. Uncertain. Doubtful. 
Unascertained. Humble. Mean. 

Aht. Bright Luminous. Distinct Lu- 
cid. Plain. Plain-spoken. Intelligible. 
Unambiguous. Ascertained. Eminent 

Obsequious, adj. Obsequium, 
obsegui. A ready following upon 
the known or expressed will of 
another, with a tendency to ex- 

Stn. Submissive. Servile. Deferential. 
Cringing. Sycophantic. Flattering. 

Ant. Insubmissive. Independent Arro- 
gant Self-asMcrtlve. Impudent 

Observance, n, Lat. obser- 

Stn. Attention. Fulfilment Respect 
Celebration. Performance. Ceremony. Cus- 
touL Form. Rule. 

Ayr. Inobservance. Inattention. Breach. 
Disrespect Disregard. Desuetude. Disuse. 
Non-performance. Informality. Uncere- 
moniousness. Omission. 

Observant, adJ, Lat obaer- 
tfare, to observe, 

Stk. RegardfttL Attentive. Mindftil. 

Ant. Disregardful. NeglectfuL Un- 
mhidful. Disobedient Heedless. 

Observation, n. See Observ- 

Stn. Contemplation. Study. Remark. 
Attention. Notice. Comment 

Ant. Disregard. Oversight. Inadvert- 
ence. Inattention. Silence. Ignorance. 

Obsolete, adj. Lat. ob and 
sdere, to be accustomed, 

Stn. Antiquated. Past Effete. Dis- 
used. Archaic. 

Ant. Fashionable. Modem. Current 
Customary. Operative. Extant 

Obstacle, n, Lat. obstare, to 
stand in the way, 

Stn. Impedhnent Obstruction. Hin- 
drance. Objection. Bar. 

Ant. Course. Proceeding. Career. Ad- 

Obstinate, adj, Lat. ohstir- 
nare (a form of ohstare, to stand 
in the way)y to persist in, 

Stn. Headstrong. Stubborn. Refrac- 
tory. Self-willed. Pertinacious. Obdurate. 

Ant. Amenable. Complaisant Yielding. 
Docile. Ductile. Characterless. Irresolute. 

Obstinacy, n. See Obstinate, 


Synonyms a/nd Antonyms. 

OBSTBEPEBOtTS^ adj, Lat 6b 
and strepere, to mdke a noise. 

Stn. Noisy. Uproarioos. Oamoroiu. 

Akt. Sabdned. Qaiet NoladesB. In- 

Obstbuot, V, tr, Obstruere, 
structm. To lay down or bnild 
something against, or in the way 
of another. Applied to persons 
and proceedings. 

Snr. Bar. Block. Choke. Hinder. Im- 

Ant. Open. Gear. Pave. Facilitate. 
Expedite. Further. Advance. Promote. 
Accelerate. Aid. 

Obstbuohon, w. /Siec Obstruct. 

Obtain, v. tr. Lat. obtinere. 
See Acquire. 

Obtestation, n. Teetari, to 
call upon solemnly , and, as it were, 
before witnesses. 

Syk. Entreaty. Supplication. Adjuration. 
Ant. Attjuration. l)q[>recation. Defiance. 

Obtbude, act. and neut. Ob- 
trudere, to thritst forward. 

Stk. Force. Thrust Interfere. Intrude. 

Airr. buggest. Insinuate. Retire. With- 

Obtxtse, adj. Lai dbtwndere, 
tmu8, to Hunt the end of a thing ; 
to deprive it of point or sharpness. 

Snr. DulL Stupid. UninteUigent 

Ant. Acute. Clever. Intelligent. Quick. 

Obumbbate, V. tr. Ob and 
umhra, a shade. To throw a 
shade, or darken. 

Syn. Shade. Overshadow. Darken. 
Ant. Lighten. Illumine. Elucidate. 

Obvebse, adj. Obversus, ver- 
tere, to turn. Turned towards 
the spectator. 

Stn. Opposite. Fadng. 
Ant. Hinder. Heverse. 

Obviate, v. tr. Ob and via, a 
road. To lay down something 
in the road by way of opposition, 
and so intercept, ike Preyent. 

Obvious, adj. 8se Obriate. 
Standing, as it were, in the 
middle of the road. 

Stk. Plain. Self-evident 
E^lidt. Apparent^ 

Ant. Bemote. Obecure. 
Involved. Latent. 

Occasion, n. Lat. occam, « 
befalling, 6b and cadere, oagiiM,tQ 


Snr. Caqjnneture. OppMtimity. QooB' 
rence. Cause. 

Ant. UntimelineaBw UnaeaaaDabhMM 

Occasionally, adv. See Oc- 

Stk. Sometimes. Casually. Rarely. 
Akt. Always. Regularly. Constantly. 

Occult, adj. Lat. occuUuSf 
occtUere, to cover up. 

Stk. Latent Hidden. Unrevealed. 
Mysterious. Secret 

Akt. Developed. Plain. Patent Clear. 
Familiar. Exposed. Open. 

Occupancy, n. Occupare, to 

Stk. Possession. Enjoyment Tenure. 

Ant. E;)ectlon. Eviction. Disposses- 

Occupant, n. See Occupancy. 

Stn. Owner. Resident Proprietor. 

Ant. Foreigner. Stranger. Visitor. In* 
tmder. Usurper. 

Occupation, n. See Occu- 

Stn. Employment Avocation. Pas- 
time. Possession. Usurpation. EncroidH 

Akt. Idleness. Yaaokcj, Ldsare. 
Abandonment Vacation. ReeignaUott. 

Occupier, n. See Occupant 

Occur, v. int, Occurrere, to 
run counter, or confront in the 
course of things. 

Stk. BeML Happen. Betide. Supervene. 

Ant. Pass. Threaten. Impend. 

Oculab, adj. Lat. oadus, the 
eye. Of the eyesight 

Stk. Visible. Demonstrable. Palpable. 
Ant. Inferential. Auricular. Hearsay. 
CircumstantiaL Deductive. Constructive. 

Synonyms and Anianyms. 


Odd, adj, Swedish and Welsh. 

Sw. Alone. Sole. Unmatched. Re^ 
maining. Over. Fragmentarv. Uneven. 
Staiffular. Peculiar. Queer. Quaint. Fan- 

AxT. Aggregate. Consodate. Matched. 
Balanced. Squared. Integrant Even. 
Oommon. Usual. Regular. Normal. 

Odious, adj. Odium, hatred, 

Syv. UatefuL Offensive. Detestable. 

AXT. Detectable. GratefiiL Accept- 
Able. Pleasant 

Odixtm, n. Lat. 

Stx. Hatred. Offensivenera. Dislike. 
In^idioiisness. Jealousy. Unpopularity. 

Airr. Love. Tastefulness. Acceptable- 
neaai. Popularity. Ungrudgingness. WeU 

Offal, n. Off and fall. See 

Offbmd, V, tr, and ini, Lat. 

Stv. Displease. AfRront Err. Fall. 
Aht. Cundliate. Gratify. Please. 

Offence, n. See Offend. 

Stn. Attack. Transgression. Crime. 

Ant. I>efence. Innocence. Guiltlessnesa. 

Offensive, adj. See Offend. 

Snr. Aggressive. Obnoxious. Distaste- 
ftil. Displeasing. Foul. Fetid. Un- 

Ant. Defensive. GratefuL Pleasant 

Offer, v. tr. Lat. offerre. 

SrN. Propose. Exhibit Proffer. Pre- 
sent Teu'icr. 

Ant. Withhold. Withdraw. Retract. 
Betain. Alienate. Divert 

Offering, n. See Offer and 
Office, n. Ijat. offidum. 

Stn. Service. Duty. Appointment 

Ant. Leisure. Vacancy. Resignation. 

Officer, n. See Office. One 
who holds an office. 

Snr. OflOcial. Functionaij. Conductor. 
Director. A«imhiistrator. Manager. 

Ant. Member. Servant Private. Sine- 

Official, n. See Officer. 

Official, adj. See Officer. 
Appertaining to office. 

Stn. Administrative. Authoritative. 
Negotiative. Functional. Professional. 

Ant. Private. UnoiBciaL Unprofes- 

Officiate, v. int. See Officer. 

' Stn. Act Serve. Perform. 
Ant. Retire. Witness. 

Officious, ac(f. See Officer. 
Over-ready to undertake an 

Stn. Meddling. Interfering. Pushing. 
Forward. Intrusive. 

Ant. Backward. Negligent Remiss. 
UnofiBduus. Retiring. Modest Back- 

Often, adj. Sax. oft, 

Stn. Frwjuently. Repeatedly. 
Akt. Inl'requently. Seldom. 

Old, adj. Sax. old. 

Stn. Aged. Pristine. Long-standing. 
Ancient Preceding. Antiquated. Obso- 

Akt. Touth(\il. Young. Recent Fresh. 
Modem. Subsequent New-fashioned. 

Oleaginous, adj, Lat. dlea, 
the dive. 

Stn. Oilv. Unctuous. Pinguetndinous. 

Ant. Harsh. Dry. Sour. Acid. Mols- 

Ominous, adj. Lat omen. 
Now used only in the unfavour- 
able sense. 

Stn. Portentous. Suggestive. Threat- 
ening. Foreboding. Ilremoniiory. Unpro- 

Ant. Auspicious. Propitious. Encou- 

Omission, n. Lat omittere, 
to leave out. Used both of the 
act of omitting and the thing 

Stn. Oversight Exclusion. 

Ant. Attention. Insertion. Notkse. 

Oneness, n. Lat. one, unta. 

See Unity. 

Onerous, adj, Lat. onus, eris, 
a burden. 

Stn. Burdensome. Toilsome. Heavy. 
Responsible. Oppressive. Laborious. Ope- 

Ant. Light Eaqy. TriviaL Inop. 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

Onsxt, n. On and set Lat 
tedere. See Attack. 

Onslaught, n. Sax. onslagan, 
to clash upon. See Onset 

Onwabd, adv. and udj. On 
and ward, the termination of 

8tv. Forward. Ahead. 

Akt. Backward. Astern. Aback. 

OozB, V. int. Sax. wos, Juice. 

Syh. DistiL Drop. Drip. Percolate. 
Perapire. Sweat Drain. LeSsik. 

Akt. Pour. Kush. Flow. Stream. Disgorge. 

Opaque, adj, Lat. opacus. 
See Transparent. 

Open, v. act. and neut. Sax. 

Stn. Undoae. Lay open. Lay bare. 
Expose. Explain. Diacloae. Initiate. Be- 
gin. Commence. 

Ant. Close. Shut up. Cover. Conceal 
Incloae. Mystify. Misinterpret. Conclude. 

Open, adj\ See Open, verb. 

SrN. Accessible. Free. Available. Un- 
closed. Candid. Frank. Ingenuous. Un- 
settled. Undetermined. 

Axr. Inaccessible. Closed. Barred. 
Unavaikble. Shut Close. Secretive. 
Reserved. Settled. Determined. 

Opening, ». See Open, verb. 

Sxs. Aperture. Gap. Opportunity. 
Space. Commencement Initiation. Start. 

Ant. Occlusion. Obstruction. Stop- 
gap. Unreasonableness. Contretemps. In- 
opportuneness. Enclosure. Termination. 
Close. End. Conclusion. 

Opeeatb, v. act. and neut. 
Operari, opus, to work, 
'Stn. Act Work. Produce. Effect 
Ant. Cease. Rest FaiL Mlsoperate. 

Operation, n. See Operate. 

Stn. Agency. Action. Exercise. Pro- 
duction. Influence. 

Ant. Cessation. Inaction. Rest In- 
operativeness. Ine£Bcacy. Inefficiency. 

Operative, adf. See Operate. 

Stn. Active. Efficacious. 
Ant. Inefficacious. Inoperative. 

Operose, adj, Operosus, See 

Stn. Onerous. Laborious. Burdensome. 
Tedious. Wearisome. Toilsome. 

Akt. Light Upbonleniioine. 
ing. Refreshing. ' 

Opinb, v. int, Lat. opinari. 
To think or have an opinion. 

Stn. Think. Believe. Ooi^Jectara. 
Suppose. Judge. Surmise. 

Ant. Know. Ascertain. Verify. 

Opinion, n. See Opine. 

Opinionativk, adj. See Opina 
Apt^ to rest too much on one's 
own opinion. 

Sth. DictatoriaL DogmatlcaL Self- 
conceited. Oracular. 

Ant. Modest Diffident rnqntrio^ 
VadUating. Cautious. Undemonstrative. 

Opponent, adj, Opponere, to 
place against. See Adversary. 

Opportune, adj. Lat. cppor- 
tunus, Ob and portus, a harbour. 
As timely as a x>ort in stress of 

Stn. Timely. Seasonable. Appropriate. 

Ant. Inopportune. Untimely. Unsea- 
sonable. Infelicitous. 

Opportunity, n. See Oppor- 

Stn. Occasion. Turn. Opening. 
Akt. Inopportuneness. unseasooable- 
ness. Lapse. Omission. Contretemps. 

Oppose, v, tr, Lat. opponere, 


Stn. Withstand. Resist Match. Ob- 
struct. Confront Oppugn. Bar. Hinder. 

Ant. Aid. Abet Back. Support 
Advance. Expedite. 

Opposite, adj. See Oppose. 

Stn. Facing. Adverse. Repugnant 
Inconsistent Irreooucileable. Gontraiy. 

Ant. Agreeing. Coincident Consen- 

Oppress, v, tr. Lat. oppri- 

mere, pressus. 

Stn. Burden. Grind. Weigh down. 
Persecute. Aggrieve. Maltreat Abuse. 

Ant. Encourage. Support Patroniie. 
Assibt Befiriend. 

Oppression, n. See Oppress. 

Option, n. Lat optio, optare, 
to wish or choose, 

Stn. Discretion. Ghoioe. RraHnenoe. 

8yn<m/m» and Antonyms. 


• ' Akt. Obligc^iiozL Neoeasitj. Borden. 

- Opulence, n, Lat opulentia, 
opes, resources, , 

Snr. Wealth. Affittence. RicheB. 

AiST. Pbverty. Indigence. Impeca- 

Obaoxtlae, adj, Lat. oracu- 

Ivm, Used of an anthoritatiye 

way of giving opinions. 

8tv. See Oplnionative. 
Obal^ adj, Lat. Os, oris, the 

SzN. Unwritten. Traditional. Vocal. 
Abt. Written. DocnmeDtary. 

Obbit, n, Lat. orbita, orhis, 
an orb, 

Snr. Revolution.' Path. Circuit. Sphere. 

AST, Eooentridty. Deviation. Pertnr* 

Ordain^ v, tr, Ordinare, ordo, 
to order, 

Sts, Set Appoint Decree. Institate. 

Akt. Subvert Revoke. Cancel. AnnnL 
Disestablish. Countermand. 

Ordeal, n. Sax. orddl, Germ. 
urtheilen, to pass sentence or di- 
vide judgment. The plunging 
of the arm into boiling water, 
and tiie walking barefoot over 
hot ploughshares, were the cus- 
tomary ordeals of England. 
Sometimes * the accused was 
thrown into deep water. If he 
escaped unhurt, in the former 
cases, or sank without effort to 
swim, in the latter, he was es- 
teemed innocent. The word is 
used generally for a severe test. 

Stn. Test Trial. Probation. Experiment. 
Akt. Argument Plea. Discussion. In- 
restigation. Evidence. 

Order, n, Lat. ordo, 

Stk. Arrangement Condition. Se- 
quence. Direction. Rank. Grade. 

Ant. Disarrangement. Confudun. Un- 
eettlement Inversion. Execution. Disorder. 

Orderly, adj. See Order. 

SxK. Regular. Equable. Peaceabla 
Akt. Irregular. Disorderly. Riotous. 

Ordinaitoe, n, Se^ Ordain. 

Stk. statute. Institute. Decree. Law. 
Akt. CustouL Usage. Prescription. 

Ordinary, adj\ See Ordain 
and Usual. 

Organize, v. tr. Gr. Sfyyavop, 
an instrument. To arrange the 
compound parts of a ihing for 
an idterior purpose. 

Syk. Shape. Adjust Constitute. 

Akt. Distort Break up. AnnuL Dis- 
organize. Dismember. Disband. 

Orifice, n. Lat. orificium, os, 
oris, a mouth. 

Stk. Aperture. Perforation. Mouth. 

Akt. Obstruction. Stopper. Plug. Im- 

Origin, n, Lat. origo. 

Stk. Source. Commencement Spring. 
Cause. Derivation. 

Akt. Termination. Conclusion. Ex- 

Original, adj. See Origin. 

Syk. Primary. Jjiltiatory. PrimordiaL 
Ancient Former. 

Akt. Subsequent TerminaL Modem. 
Later. ' Derivative. 

Originate, act, and neuf. See 

Syk. Commence. Spring. Rise. Start 
Initiate. Invent. 

Ant. Prosecute. Conduct. Apply. 

Ornament, n. Lat. ornamen" 

Syk. Decoration. Embellishment 
Akt. Disgrace. Brand. Disfigurement 

Ornate, adj. Lat. omatus, 
omare, to adorn. 

Syk. Decorated. Embellished. Rich. 
High- wrought 

Akt. Plain. Chaste. Nude. Naked. 
Bare. Bald. 

Orthodox, adj. Gr. 6p6ri B6$a, 
the right or true opinion. 
Stk. Correct. Sound. True. 
Akt. Heretical. Unorthodox. 

Ostensible, adj. Lat. osten- 
iere, to show. Now used in the 
sense of aYOwed, with the implied 
possibility of ihe avowed s- case 
not being the real one. 


Synonynis and Antonyms. 

Snr. Avowed. Pntended. DedAred. 
Outward. ProfeMod. 

Akt. Real. Genuine. Concealed. Un« 
pretended. ActuaL Veritable. 

Ostentation, n, Lai osten- 
tare, freq. of ostendere, to show. 

Snr. Show. Flsrade. Display. Flou' 

Ant. Reaenre. Retirement Modesty. 
Ck)noeahiient UnobtnisiTeness. Quiet. 

OSTBAOIBM, n. Gr. SarpaKov, 
a shell or tile, on which the name 
of the Athenian citizen was 
written, against whom a Tote of 
banishment was given. 

Stk. Banlahment Expulsion. Black- 

Airr. Admittance. Enlistment Out- 

Oust, v. tr. Old Fr. oster. 

Snr. ^ect Dispossess. Deprive. Evict 
AST. InstaL ReinsUte. Readmit Re- 

Outbreak, n . Out and break. 

Stn. Outburst Tumult Commotion. 
Insurrection. Rebellion. Ebullition. 

Ant. Subsidence. Pacification. Quel- 
ling. Quiet. Order. Cooling. 

Outcry, n. Out and cry. 

Stn. Clamour. Tumult Denunciation. 
Ant. Acclamation. Plaudit 

Outlandish, adj. Out and 

Stn. Strange. Queer. Grotesque. 

Ant. Fashionable. Modish. Native. 

Outline, n. Out and line. 

Snr. Delineation. Sketch. Contour. 

Ant. Form. Substance. Figure. Ob- 
ject Subject Field. Qround. Bulk. 

Outrage, w. Not, as would be 
perhaps supposed, from out and 
rage, but from a Low Latin 
word, tdtragium, from vltra, he- 
yond. An act transgressing due 

Stn. Outbreak. Offence. Wantonness. 
Mischiet Abuse. EbuUition. 

Ant. Moderation. Self-oontroL Self- 
restraint Subsidence. Coolness. Calm- 

Outrageous, adf. See Oat- 

Stn. Excessive. UnwammtaUA. Un- 
justifiable. Wanton. Atrudoua. Na* 
farious. ♦ 

Ant. Moderate. JustifiablA. Besion- 

Outset, n. Out and set. 

Stn. Opening. Start CommencemcBtt 
Exordium. Beginning. InauguratioiL Pie* 

Akt. dose. Termination. Cooduslon. 

Outshine, v, tr. Out and 

Stn. Surpass. Eclipse. Overshadow. 
Ant. Foil. ReUeve. Back. 

Outskirts, n. Out and skirt 

Snr. Border. Outpost PurUen. Envi- 
rons. Precincts. 

Ant. Interior. Centre. Bulk. Bo^f. 
Mass. Heart 

Outspoken, adf. Out and 

Stn. Plain. Frank. Unreserved. Can- 

Akt. Mysterious. EniRuutticaL Re- 
served. Tacitura Secretive. Uncom- 

Outspread, adj. Out and 

Snr. Expanded. Unfolded. Wrapped. 
P&tent Dlspread. Open. Outstretched. 

Ant. Folded. Contracted. Closed. Furled. 

Outstanding, adj. Out and 

Stn. Unappropriated. Uncollected. 

Ant. Appropriated. Collected. Gathered. 

Outstep, v. tr. Out and step. 

Stn. Exceed. Transgress. Outstrip. 

Ant. Observe. Regard. Accompany. 
Attend. ^^ 

Outstretched, adf. Out and 
stretched. See Outspread. 

Outstrip, v, tr. Out and strip. 
See Strip. 

Syn. Surpass. Beat Distance. Eclipse. 
Ant. Follow. Succeed. 

Outvie, v, tr. Out and yio. 
See Yie and Eclipse. 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


OurwAXD^adj, Out and ward. 
Sax. Termination of direction. 

Stn. External. Apparent Visible. 
Sensible. Superficial. Osteusible. Furth- 

Akt. Internal. Intrinsic Withdrawn. 
Inapparent. Inward. 

Outweigh, v. tr. Out and 
weigh. See Preponderate. 

Outwit, v. tr. Ont and wit, 
meaning knowledge. See Cir- 

OuTWOBK, n. Out and work. 

Stk. Screen. Abattis. Propognation. 
Fortification. Escarpment. 

AxT. Stand. Position. Ground. Centre. 

Ovation, n. Ovis, a sheep, 
granted in sacrifice to tiie ancient 
Boman general who had achieved 
a victory short of triumphal ho- 
nours. See Triumph. 

OvBBAWB, V. tr. Over and 
awe. See Browbeat 

OvBBBALANCB, V. tr. See Ba- 

OvxBBEABiNG, odj. Over and 
bearing, in the sense of de- 
meanour. See Arrogance. 

OvBBOAST, adj. Over and cast 
(with clouds). 

Stv. Cloudy. Nubllous. Lowering. 
Murky. • 

Ainr. doudlesB. Clear. Luminous. 

OvBBOHABGB,v. «r. See Charge 
and Exaggerate. 

OvEBOOME, V. tr. Over and 
ooma See Conquer. 

OvEBBSTiMATB, V. tr. Over 
and estimate. Lat. cestimare. 
See Disparage. 

OVEBFLOW, n. Over and flow. 
Lat. fluere. 

Stk. Redundancy. Exuberance. Super- 

Ant. Deficiency. Exhaustion. Subsi- 

Oyeblook^ v. tr. Over and 

look. To survey without at- 
tention or minute observation, 
and that purposely, especially as 
regards what is amiss. 

Stk. Condone. Connive. Disregard. 
Akt. Visit Scrutinize, luvestigata 

OvEBPOWEB, V. tr. Over and 
power, from Fr. pouvoir, to be 
able. See Master. 

OvEBBEAOH, V. tr. See Cir- 

OvEBSiGHT, n. Over and sight. 
As to overlook implies a pur- 
posed, so oversight is an acci- 
dental disregard. 

Stk. Error. Omission. Mistake. Slip. 
Akt. Scrutiny. Currection. Emenda- 
tion. Attention. Mark. Notice. 

OvEBT, adj. Fr. ouvert, from 
the Lat. aperire, to open. 

Stk. Deliberate. Public Open. 

Akt. Covert. Secret Implied. Clan- 
destine. Furtive. 

OvEBTHBOW, V. tr. Over and 
throw. Applies to matters ma- 
terial and logical. 

Stk. Destroy. Subvert Upset Over- 
turn. Ruin. Demolish. 

Akt. Restore. Reinstate. Construct 
Regenerate. Redintegrate. Revive. Re- 

OvEBTUBE, n. See Overt. 

The root meaning of this word 
is an opening or commencement, 
as, the first piece or prelude of 
an opera— the first proceeding 
or advance between negotiating 

Stk. Prelude. Advance. Proposal Offer. 
Invitation. Lead. Initiation. 

Akt. Inaction. Undemonstrativenesti. 

OvEBTUBN, V, tr. Over and 
turn. See Overthrow. 

Overwhelm, v. tr. Over and 
Sax. whelm, to cover. 

Stk. Crash. Quell. Extinguish. Drown. 

Akt. Raise. Reinvit^rate. BAlnatA,tA. 
Re-esUbUsh. B«8C»&. ^^s^Ra^A, 


Synonyms and Atdonyms. 

Owe. Ang.SB3Lagan,tohaveor 
possess. Had originally the sense 
of own, the old l^glish owen. In 
time, to the idea of possession 
was added that of responsibility 
(or the ground and con(^tions of 
possession) to some other, by 
•virtue of what we owned or had 

Syh. Btirrow. Hypothecate. Attribute. 
Ant. Requite. Repay. Liquidate. Defray. 

Own, v. tr. See Owe. To 
declare one's self the possessor 
of anything, as, property, an 
opinion, &c. 

Stk. Possess. Hold. Acknowledge. 

Ant. Alienate. Forfeit Lose. Dis- 
claim. Disayow. Disinherit Disown. Ab- 
jure. Abandon. 

Pabular, adj, Lai pabulum, 
food. Appertaining to, or afford- 
ing food. 

Stn. Esculent Nutritions. Comestible. 

Akt. Uneatable. Innutritions. 

Pacific. Lat. ;xic?J?ct^. Tend- 
ing to or characterized by peace 
or peacefulness. 

Syn. Coucillatory. Mild. Appeashig. 
Calm. Tranquil. Peaceful. 

Akt. Unconciliatory. Harsh. Quarrel- 
some. Exasperating. Irritating. Turbu- 
lent Noisy. Tumultuous. Warlike. 

Pacification, n. See Pacific. 

Pacify, v. tr. See Pacific. 

Applied to feelings and persons. 

Stn. Appease. Conciliate, dilm. StilL 
Quiet. Tranquillize. 

Ant. Exasperate. Agitate. Excite. 
Irritate. Rouse. Provoke. 

Pack, v, tr, and int. Germ. 
packen. To stow, or to admit of 
being conveniently stowed. Used 
also in the sense of unfairly collo- 
cating to bring about a certain 
end, as, a 'packed meeting.' 

Stn. stow. Coinp«ct Oamanm. (Ml 
Ant. Unpack, unsettle. Jumbls. Dis- 
place. Misarrange. Dissipate. NentrsUse. 

Pact, n, Lat. pactum, from 
pacisci, to make a bargain, 

Stn. Agreement. Barcpain. Corenant 
League. Bond. Alliance. Stipnlatioa. 

Ant. Understanding. Promise. Fwole. 

P^AN. Lat. and Gr. Origi- 
nally a hymn in honour of Apollo, ' 
as the healer. A jubilant hymn 

Stn. Jubilation. Te De«in. AUelniah. 
Ant. Dirge. Miserere. Threnody. Jer»- 

Pagan, n. Lat. paganus, a 
villager, remote in early Chiis- 
tian times from the influehoe of 
Christianity as centred in the 

Stn. Heathen. Idolater. GentOe. 
Ant. Believer. Christian. 

Pagan, adj. See noun. 

Paganism, n. See Pagan. 

Pageant, n, Lat. pagina, a 
fixture, scaffold, or archway, 

Stn. Pomp. Procession. Ceremony. 
Display. Spectacle. Show. 

Ant. Dream. IUosIod. Phantssmsp 
goria. Mockery. 

Pageantry, n. See Pageant 

Pain, n, Lat. poena, penalty, 
mental and bodily. 

Stn. Penalty. Suffering. Distress. Un- 
easiness. Grief. (Labour. Effort In the 
pi. Pains.) Anguish. Torture. 

Ant. Reward. Remuneration. Ease. 
Graaflcation. Joy. Pleasure. Felicity. 
Relief. Alleviation. Enjoyment Delight 

Pain, v, tr. See noun. 

Stn. Hurt Grieve. AfBlct Torment 
Rack. Agonize. Trouble. Torture. Ag* 
grieve. Annoy. 

Ant. GraUfy. Please. Delight Re- 
joice. Charm. Relieve. Ease. Beftesh. 

Painful, adj. See verb, ' 
Painfully, adv. See Pain. 
Paint, v. tr, Lat. pingere. 
Used literally and metaphoii* 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 


Snr. Ck>I<rar. Tinge. Tint Portray. 
Bepreaent. Delineate. Depict. Rketch. 

AsT. Danb. Caricature. Misportray. 
Misrepresent. Misdelineate. Miadeplct 

Palb, adj. Lat. pallidus, 
Snr. Pallid. Wan. Faint. Dim. Un- 
defined. Etiolated. Sallow. 

AxT. Buddy. Hl^ooloured. Con- 
sjdcaoas. Deep. 

Pall, v. tr, and int Fr. paXle, 

Stk. Blunt Dispirit. Satiate. Cloy. 
Akt. Quicken. Sharpen. Inspirit 

Paluatb, V. tr. Lat. paUium, 
a doak. To throw a cloak over, 
and 80 hide. 

Stm. Cloak. CoTer. Conceal. Ex- 
tranate. Mitigate. Soften. 

Ant. Expose. Denounce. Exaggerate. 
Aggravate. Magnify. 

Palm. Lat. pcdma. A branch 
of palm being borne as a symbol 
of victory or success. 

Stn. Trophy. Prize. Crown. Laurels. 

Akt. Brand. Stigma. Shame. Blot 

Palmy, adj. See Palm. 

Stk. Prosperous. Glorious. Distin- 
guidied. Victorious. Flourishing. 

Ant. Depressed. Inglorious. Undistin- 
guished. Unflourishing. 

Palpable, adj. Lat. palpare, 
to touch. 

Sts, Material. Corporeal Tangible. 
Obvious. Gross. Perceptible. 

Ant. Immaterial Incorporeal. Invisible, 
^therial. Impalpable. Indistinct Dubious. 

Palpitate, v. int. Lat. pal- 

Stn. Throb, natter. Beat Pulsate. 

Ant. Pause. Stop. Cease. 

Palter, v. Grerm. jpalte, a rag. 
To act in a ragged, i.e., mean or 
beggarly, way. 

Stn. Shuffle. Prevaricate. Trifle. Shift 
Dodge. Haggle. 

Ant. Act Determine. Decide. 

Paltry, a/1j. See Palter. 

Syn. Menu. Shabby. Shuffling. Trifling. 
Prevaricating. Sliifty. Contemptible. Piti- 
able. Vile. Worthless. Beggarly. Trashy, 

Ant. Noble. Honourable. Candid. Con- 
scientious. Determined. Straightforward* 

Estimable. Admirable. Worthy. Magnifi- 

Pampeb, V. tr. Fr. pampre, 
Lat. pampinus, a vine-leaf or 
branch — the idea being to foster 
into excessive luxuriance. 

Stn. Feed. Glut Spoil. Indulge. 

Ant. Harden. Starve. Inure. Stint 

Paiiegybio, n. Gr. Traw^yv- 
piKos, SC, Xdyoff. 

Stn. Eulogy. Encomium. 

Ant. Stricture. Satire. Sarcasm. Lam- 
poon, invective. Philippic. Tirade. 

Pang, n. Ang. Sax. pyngan, to 

Stn. Paroxysm. Throe. Agony. Con- 
vulsion. Smart 

Ant. Pleasure. Enjoyment. Gratifica- 
tion. Delight Delectation. Fascination. 

Pabable, n. Gr. naph, hy 
the side, and ^aXkctv, to cast or 
place. A didactic invention, in 
which things natural are used to 
illustrate things moral and 

Stn. Apologue. Similitude. 
Ant. uistory. Fact Narrative. 

Parade, v, tr. It. parare, to 

Stn. Vaunt Flaunt Display. 
Ant. Suppress. Veil. Conceal 

Pabade, n. See verb. 

Stn. Vaunting. Flaunting. Display. 
Pomp. Ostentation. Show. Pageant 

Ant. Suppression. Concealment Mo- 
desty. Humility. Simplicity. Undemon- 
strativeness. Plainness. Retirement. Un- 

Pabadise, n. Gr. napabctaosj 
a garden. Used metaphorically. 

Stn. Heaven. Bliss. Ecstac^. Eden. 
Ant. Purgatory. Hell Misery. Tor- 

Pabadox, n. Gr. irapa, be- 
side, and 6<5^a, an opinion. A 
truth so stated as to seem ab- 

Stn. Contradiction. Enigma. Mystery. 
Absurdity. Ambiguity. 

Ant. Precept nropoeitioiL Axiom. 
Truism. Postulate. 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

Fabadoxioal, adj. See Para- 

Stn. See Pftradox. 

Ant. Self-evident Axiomatic. Lucid. 

Paballbl, adj. Gr. Trap' oXX^- 
Xeoi'. Extending by the side 
of each other, as lines always 
keeping the same distance. Used 
in the general sense of the fol- 
lowing : — 

Stk. Correspondent. Congruous. Corre- 
lative. Analogous. Concurrent 

Ant. Different Opposed. Inoongruous. 
Irrelative. Unanalogous. Divergent Con- 

Pabamount, adj. Old Fr. 

Stn. Superior. Pre-eminent Chief. Prin- 

Ant. Subordinate. Minor. Inferior. 

Pabasitb, n. Gr. iraph, hy the 
wide, and (nrciv, to feed. One 
who dines at the expense of an- 
other, and, to ensure repetitions 
of the invitation, flatters his host ; 
hence, generally, a flatterer. 

Stn. Sycophant Flatterer. Toady. 

Ant. Detractor. Calumniator. Traducer. 

Paedon, V. tr, Lat. per, through, 
and donare, to give. To give so 
as to forgive. Applied to per- 
sons and their offences. 

Stn. Forgive. Condone. Absolve. Acquit 

Ant. Condemn. Punish. Visit 

Paedonablb, adj. See Pardon. 

Stn. Venial. Excusable. 

Ant. Inexcusable. Unpardonable. 

Pabsimonious, adj. Lat. par- 

Stn. Sparing. Close. Penurious. Frugal. 
Nigganlly. Illiberal. 

Ant. Liberal Unsparing. Profuse. Ex- 

Pabt, n. Lat. pars, partis. 

Stn. Portion. Piece. Fn^ent Frac- 
tion. Division. Member. Constituent 
Element Ingredient. Share. Lot Con- 
cern. Interest Participation. Side. Party. 
Interest Factioa Behalf. Duty. 

Ant. Whole. Oampletenesi. Enliietsr. 
Integrity. Totality. Mass. Bulk. Boiy. 
Compound. Transaction. Aifoir. 

TAB,TAKE,v.iftt. Comjxmnded 
of part and take, followed by the 
prep. of. 

Stn. Share. Participate. Accept Do* 

Ant. Forfeit Belinquish. Forego. OedflL 
Yield. AfifonL 

Paetial, adj. Lat. pars, parii$, 
a part. Affecting one part only, 
or biassed toward one part or 

Stn. Restricted. LocaL Peculiar. Spedflc. 
Favouring. Inequitable. Unfiedr. Biassed. 

Akt. Unrestricted. Total Universal. 
General Impartial. Equitable. Just Fair. 

Paetiality, n. See Partial 
Paetioipate, v. int. Partem 
capere. To take a part, followed 
by the prep, in or of. See Par- 

Paetioulae, adj. Lat. parti- 
cularis. Is used of the object 
and the subject; of the latter in 
the sense of critical. 

Stn. LocaL Specific. Subordinate. De- 
tailed. Partial SpecUl. Fastidious. Mi- 
nute. Scrupulous. Careful. Accurate. 
Kxact Circumstantial. Precise. Delicate. 

Ant. Universal General Utiq)ecial 
Comprehensive. Unscrupulous. Uncareftil 
Inaccurate. Inexact Rough. Coarae. In- 
discriminate. Undiscriminating. 

Paetioulae, n. See adjective, 

Stn. Detail. Point Feature. 
Ant. Whole. Sul^ect Case. 

Paetition, n. Lat. partire, to 
divide. Used for the thing sepa- 
rating and the space separated, 
as also for the act of dividing or 

Stn. Barrier. Division. • Ekidosure. 
Compartment Interspace. Separation. Dis- 
tribution. Allotment Screen. 

Ant. Non-partition. Non-distinction. 

Non-separation. Inclusion. Cinnprdieiiri<Hi. 

Combination. Amalgamation. Incorpora- 

'tion. Coalition. Union. OonoateoatioiL 

I Generalixatlon. Collection. 

Synonyms and Antonyms, 


Partneb, w. From part. One 
vrho in any way takes part with 

Stn. Associate. Ck)IIeagne. Coa4Jntor. 
Gonfederate. Accomplioe. Partaker. Com- 
panion. Spouse. 

Akt. Rival, Alien. Competitor. Op- 
ponent. Counter-agent. 

Passable, adj\ From pass. 
That may be passed or traversed. 
Also used in the sense of mo- 
derate, or what may pass un- 

Stn. Traversable. Navigable. Pene- 
trable. Admissible. Tolerable. Ordinary. 

Akt. Impassable. Impervious. Im- 
penetrable. Inadmissible. Excellent. 

Passible, adj\ Lat. pati, pas- 
8118, to suffer. 

Stn. Susceptible. Sensible. Sensitive. 

Amt. Insosoeptible. Insensitive. Im- 

Passion, n, See Passible. Its 
old sense of suffering is almost 

Stk. Emotion. Desire. Ardour. Vehe- 
mence. Lust. Anger. Animation. Ex- 
citement Warmth. Feeling. 

Ant. Coolness. Indifference. Apathy. 
Coldness. Frigidity. Iciness. 

Passive, adj. See Passible. 

Stn. Inactive. Inert Quiescent Un- 
resisting. Unquestioning. Negative. En- 
during. Patient 

Ant. Active. Alert Resistent Posi- 
tive. Insubmissive. Malcontent Vehe- 

Pastime, n.- From pass and 

Stn. Recreation. Entertaiimient. 
Amusement Diversion. Play. Sport. 

Ant. Business. Study. Labour. Task. 
Occupaticni. Work. 

Patch, v. tr. Conn, with 

Stn. Botch. Bangle. Cobble. Clout. 

Ant. Fine-draw. Embroider. 

Patent, ck?;*. It&t patens, from 
■patere, to open. 

Stn. Obvious. Evident Indisputable. 

' Ant. Dubious. Ambiguous. Qoestion- 

Pathetic, adj. Gr. irdBos, 


Stn. Affecting. Moving. Emotional 
Ant. Ludicrous. Unimpassioned. Far- 

dcaL Unaffecting. 

Patience, n. Lat. patientia. 

Stn. Endurance. Resignation. Sub- 
mission. Perbeverance. 

Akt. Resistance. Insubmissivenese. 
Repining. Rebellion. Inconstancy. Im- 

Patient, adj. See Patience. 
Patrician, n, Lat. patridm. 

Syn. Noble. Senator. Aristocrat 
Ant. Plebeian. Churl. 

Patronize, v. tr. Lat. patrO" 
nun, a patron. 

Syn. 0)untenance. Befriend. Favour. 

Ant. Oppress. Depress. Oppose. With- 
stand. Disfavour. Discountenance. 

Pattern, n. A form of 

Stn. Model. Sample. Archetype. Ex- 
emplar. Specimen. Mould. Design. Plan. 

Ant. Monstrosity. Caricature. Perver- 
sion. Misrepresentation. 

Paucity, w. Lat. paucv8,/ew. 

Stn. Rarity. Scantity. Fewness. De- 

Ant. Frequency. Qnantiiy. Number. 

Pause, v. int. Gr. vava-is, a 

Stn. Cease. Suspend. Intermit For- 
bear. Stay. Wait Hesitate. Demur. Stop. 

Ant. Continue. Proceed. Advance. 
Persist Persevere. 

Pave, v. tr. Fr. paver. Used 

Syn. Prepare. Facilitate. Smoothe. Ex- 
pedite. Adapt Fit Mature. Arrange. 
Dispose. Qualify. 

Ant. Obstruct Indispose. Disquality. 

Pawn, v. tr. Old Fr. pau, 

Stn. Pledge. Implgnorate. 
Ant. Ransom. Redeem. 

Pat, V. tr. Old Fr. paier, 
conn, with pax, peace. To ap- 
pease need, especially by com- 
pensation. Applied to the ob- 
ject and subject of payment 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

Stk. Compensate. Bemunerate. Satisfy. 
Discharge. Expend. Disborse. Requite. 

Ant. Deprive. Defraud. Exact Dis- 
satisfy. Hoard. Betain. hivest. Fund. 

Payment, n. See Pay. 
Peaob, n. Lat. pax, pacts, 

8tn. Quiet TranquilUty. Calm. Re- 
pose. Padflcation. Order. Calmness. Re- 
conciliation. Harmony. Concord. 

Ant. Noise. Disturbance. Tumult 
Agitation. Hostility. Disorder. Embroil- 
ment War. Discord. Variance. Strife. 

Peaceable, adj. See Peace. 
Applies more correctly to the 
disposition of persons, as peaceful 
to the state of things. 

Stk. Unwarlike. Inoffensive. Quiet 
Innocuous. Mild. Unquarrelsome. Serene. 

Akt. Pugnacious. Warlike. Litigious. 
Quarrelsome. Savage. Fierce. Hostile. 
Violent. Bellicose. Restless. 

Peasant, n. Old Fr. paisant, 
New Fr. paysan, from pays, conn, 
with Lat. pagus, the country, 

Stn. Countryman. Hind. Clown. La- 
bourer. Vilk^r. Swain. 

Airr. Citizen. Cockney. Townsman. 

Peccability, w. iSSee Peccable. 

Peccable, adj, Lat. peccor 
hUis, peccare, to sin. Liable to 

Sra. FraiL SinfuL 

AiiT. Impeccable. Pertecu Incorrupt 

Peccant, adj. See Peccable. 

SrN. Morbid. Corrupt CrlminaL Offen- 
sive. Objectionable. Vicious. 

Ant. Pure. Incorrupt Wholesome. 

Peculiar, adj, Lat pecidium, 
private property. 

Stn. l^ivate. Personal. Characteristic. 
Special. Specific Particular. Unusual. 
Singular. Uncommon. 

Ant. Public Common. General. Uni- 
versal. UnspeciaL Ordinary. Common. 

Peculiarity, w. >See Pectdiar. 
That which is peculiar to an in- 
dividual or subject. 

Syn. Specialty. Individuality. Dis- 
tinctiveness. Idiosyncrasy. 

Ant. Generality. Universality. Com- 
munity. Uniformity. Homology. Homo- 
geneity. Connaturality. 

Pedantio, adj. Ft. pedant, 
a corruption of the Lat. poedt^ 

Stk. P8Bda«;ogicaL Priggish. 

Ant. Unaffected. Slipshod. 

Peerless, adj. Without a 
peer of par, i,e,, equal. 

Stn. Matchless. Paramount Unique. 
Ant. Mediocre. Communplaoe. Ordi- 

Peevish, adj, A corruption 
of perverse. 

Stn. FretAiI. Querulous. Petulant 
Testy. Captious. Waspish. Splenetic 

Ant. GeniaL Complaisant Tnaj^aafat^ 
Inquerulous. Easy. Good-natured. Good- 

Pelp, n. Old Eng.peJ^ry, Old 
Fr. pdpe, booty, from pdper, to 
piUage, conn, with Lat. pUare, 
to plunder. Ill-gotten gain. 

Stn. Lucre. Mammon. 

Ant. Reward. Compensatiou. Wage. 

Pellucid, adj, Lai per and 

Stn. Translucent Limpid. CiystalUne. 

Ant. Opaque. S^ni-opaque. Lateooa. 

Penal, adj, Fr. penal, Lat 
panU', punishment, 

Stn. Retributive. Coerdve. VIsftatoriaL 
Castigatory. inflictive. Conrective. Puni- 

Ant. Remunerative. Reparatoiy. De- 
corative. Honorary. 

Penalty, n. Contracted from 
penality. See Penal. 

Syn. Pain. Punishment. Forfeiture. 
Price. Fare. Retribution. Amerconent 

Ant. Guerdon. Wages. Reward. Pre- 
mium. Prize. Douceur. Sop. Bribe. 
Honorarium. Compensation. Remunera- 

Penetrable, adj, Lat. pene^ 

Stn. Pervious. Permeable. 
Ant. Impervious. Impermeable. 

Penetbation, n, Lat pene- 

trare, to penetrate, 

Stn. Discernment Obeerv&tioo. Si^i* 
city. Acuteness. Discrimination. 

Ant. Indiscemment Dulness. Indto- 
crhnination. StoUdity. Hebetude. Short- 
sightednesB. Shallowness. Obtnaenesa. 

Synonyms and Antonyms* 


FlEKITENGB^n. JjQ,t poenitentia. 

Stn. Bepentance. Ciontritioa. Sorrow. 

Ant. Congratulation. Self-approval. 
OhAxuncj. Hard-heartfldneaa. 

Pbnitbnt, adj. See Penitence. 

Penitential, adj. See Peni- 
tence. Having the feeling, or the 
ontwaxd character which snits 
the feeling, of penitence. 

StK. Wailing. MoumfoL DiigeitiL 
SorrowfoL Contrite. 

Pensiyb, adj, Lat jpendere, to 

Stn. Meditatiye. Rnminating. Thought- 
ful. Musing. Befiectiye. 

Akt. Vacant. Joyous. Unreflecting. 
Caieleaa. Thoughtless. XJnmeditative. In- 
oogitant Unreflective. 

Penubious, adj. See Pennry. 

Stv. Niggardly. Farsimonioua. Avari- 
dous. Oriptag. Miserly. Close-fisted. 
Ajtt. LfteraL Open-handed. Bountiful. 

Penuby, n, Lat. penuria, 
Stn. Want. Privation. PoTerty. In- 

^genoe. Impecuniosity. 

Azrr. Competence. Wealth. AfSuence. 


People, n, Lat. populus, 

'Stk. Nation. Community. Populace. 
Mob. Crowd. Vulgar. Herd. Mass. 

Ant. Aristocracy. Nobility. Govern- 
ment Buler. Oligardiy. 

Peboeivable, adj. See Per- 

Stn. Cognizable. Appreciable. Per^ 
c^ble. Sensible. Distinguishable. 

Ant. Incognizable. Inappreciable. Im- 
perceptible. Insensible. Indisthiguishable. 

Peboeive, V, tr, Lat. percipere. 
Used of the senses and the mind. 

Stn. Discern. Distinguish. Descry. Ob- 
serve. FeeL Touch. See. Becognize. 
Understand. Enow. 

Ant. Miss. Misobserve. Overlook. Mis- 
miderstand. Misconceive. Mlsperoeive. 

Peboeptible, adj\ See Per- 
Pebcbption, n. See Perceive. 

Stn. Oigiiizance. Apprehension. Sight. 
UDderstanding. Discenunent. 

Ant. Inoofcnizance. Ignorance. Im- 
tioD. Misapprelieiisiim. Misnnder- 

Percbptivb, adj\ See Per- 

Stn. Copmitive. Apprehensive. Sensitive. 

Ant. Reflective. Beminiscent. Insen- 
dble. Impercipient. Inobservant. Inap- 
prehensive. Insensitive. 

Pbbcipient, adj\ See Percep- 

Pbboussion, w. 1j2X, percutere^ 
CU8SU8, to strike together, 

Stn. Collision. Shock. Encounter. 

Ant. Graze. Touch. Recoil. Bebonnd. 
Bepercussion. Beverberation. 

Perdition, n, Lat. perdere, to 
lose. Utter loss. 

Stn. Destruction. Buin. Loss. Demo- 

Ant. Bestoration. Beoovery. Benova 
tion. Bescue. Salvation. 

Pbregbination, w. Lat. pere- 
grinatiOf peregrinus, foreign, 
Foreign travel. 

Stn. Wandering. TraveL Perambula- 
tion. Perenation. 

Ant. Domiciliation. Besidence. 

Pebemptoby, adj, Lat. peri- 
mere, to destroy^ Deadly; deci- 
sive; final. 

Stn.- Decisive. Express. Absolute. 
Authoritative. Arbitrary. Dogmatical 
Imperious. » 

Ant. Suggestive. Entreative. Mild. 
Postulatory. Hortatory. 

Perennial, ac^'. JjB.i^perennis, 
per annum, or per annos. Lasting 
through iiie year, or through 
many years. 

Stn. Perpetual Unceasing. Unfailing. 
Ceaseless. Incessant Constant. Per- 
manent. Unintermittent Continual. , 

Ant. Periodical. Occasional. Inter- 
mittent Failing. Deficient Uncertain. 

Pebfect, adj, Lat perfectus. 
Carried out to its completion, or 
completely illustrating its nature 
or purpose. 

Stn. Consummate. Complete. Full. In- 
deficient. Immaculate. Absolute. Fault- 
less. Impeccable. Infallible. Unblemi^ed. 

Ant. Incomplete. Meagre. Faulty. 
Scant Short Deficient. Defective. Im- 
perfect Peccable. Fallible. Blemished. 
Marred. SpoUt 


Synonyms and Anionyms. 

Fkbfbotiov, n. See Perfect 
Perfidious. Lat. jperfidioms. 
Said of persons and their acts. 

Stn. FalM. Treacherom. Faithleat. 
Traitorous. DeceptiTe. 

Akt. True. Staunch. FaithftiL 

Pebfobate, adj, Lat. per- 

Stk. Bored. Pierced. Drilled. 
Amt. Unplerced. Imperforate. 

Pbbfobm, v. tr. Lat. per and 
fo7'Tna. To carry ont a plan, 
purpose, or design, to its com- 

Stn. Accomplish. Do. Act. Transact 
Achieve. Execute. Discharge. FolflL 
Effect. Complete. Oonsummate. "Eaaot. 

Amt. Miss. Mar. Misperform. Mis- 
execute. Botch. Misenact Misconduct 

Pebfobmanob, n. See Per- 

Pebftjme, 91. Lat. per and 
fumus, smoke, 

Stn. Odour. Scent Fragrance. Bedo- 
lence. Aroma. 

Airr. Fetor. Stench. Stink. 

Pbbfunctoby, adj, Lat. per- 
fungi, to discharge. Said of deeds 
or manner indicating indifference 
in the door, as acting by rontine. 

Syk. Uninten>8ted. Boatine. Mechani- 
cal. Cureless. Slovenly. 

Akt. IntcroHtKl. Zealous. Spirited. 

Animated. Ardent Assiduous Careiul. 

Pebhaps, adv, Lat. per, by, 
and Eng. hap, chance, 

SrN. Possibly. Peradventnre. Per* 

Ant. Certainly. Inevitably. 

Pebil, n. Lat periclum, 
Syk. Danger. Bisk. Haasard. Jeopardy. 
Insflcurity. Uncertainty. Unsafe^. 
Ant. Security. Safety. Certainty. 

Pebilous, a4f. See Peril. 

PebIOD, w. Gr. n€piobos, 
Syn. Time. Date. Epoch. Era. Arc. 

Duration. Continuance. Limit Bound. 

End. Conclusion. Determination. 

Ant. Eternity. Datelessness. Iromemorla- 

llty. Infinity. Perpetuity. IllimiiabiUty. 

Endlessness. Indeflnlteness. Indeterminate- 

Pebiqdioal, adj. See P«ciod. 

Snr. Stated. Bflconeni. BigiliL 
Systematic. Calcniable. 

Ant. Indeterminate. EooentrfcL JxtmOK, 
Incalculable. Spasmodic FftlU. 

PiBiBHABLi, cujff, Fr. ptfrn- 

Stn. FraiL Evaneacent FtagOe. Dt> 
Btructible. Fleeting. TnuMient E^tennd. 

Ant. Enduring. Lading. Indertroetftli. 
Imperishable. Pienfsteot PsrpetaaL F» 

PEBMAinotT, adf\ Laii>er and 
manere. See Perishable. 

Pebmeablb, adj. Lat per^ 
meare, to pass through. 

Stn. Penetrable. Pervadfblt. Fbno- 

Ant. Impenetxable. ImpenneaUsL 

Pbbmeatb, V, int. See F^ 


Pebmissible, adj'. Lat jwr- 

mittere, to permit. 

Stn. Allowable. SnfferaUe. lAwftiL 
Ant. Unallowable. Inralferable. Ub- 


Pebmissiok, n. See "Bet* 


Stn. Leave. Ucenoe. 
Allowance. Liberty. Consent 
Compliance. Endurance. 

Ant. Prohibition. ReftisaL DenitL 
Prevention. Hindrance. Besiatanoe. 

Pebmit, V, tr. See PermisslQn. 

Pebmut ATION, w. Lat permu' 

Stn. Interchange. Transference. Tnms- 

Ant. Stabilitation. Retention. Fixity. 
Sequence. Order. Series. Sucoeasion. 

Pebnioious, acff. Lat i?er- 
nicies, destmction, 

Stn. Hurtftil. HaimAil. Noxloos. Dele> 
terious. DetrimentaL Destructive. Deadly. 

Ant. Beneficial. Wholesome. In- 
nocuous. UndetrimentaL Innocent Salu- 

Pebpetbatb, V, tr, Lati^er- 
pctrare. To do, in a bad sense. 

Stn. Commit • 

Ant. Achieve Perfect 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


Pebpbtual, adj. Lai jper- 

Sxv. Constant. Unceasing. Endless. 
Eternal. Everlasting. Unfailing. Peren- 
OiaL Continual. Enduring. Incessant. 

Abt. Inconstant Periodic. Recorrent. 
Tonporary. Transient. Failing. Ex- 
lurastible. Occasional. Momentary. Casual. 

Pebpbtuatb, V. tr. See Per- 

8tn. Continue. Stabilitate. Eternize. 
AjstT, Discontinue. Abolish. Eradicate. 
CanceL DisesUbllsh. Break. 

Pbbpbtuitt, n. See Perpe- 

Syn. Constancy. Permanence. Perennity. 
Pereistence. Continuity. Fixity. 

Ant. Impermanence. Transience. Evan- 
escence. Discontinuance. Casualty. Mo- 

PEEPLiiJX,v.^r. Jj&t perplexari. 
To make intricate or involved. 
Also,asapplied to persons, toplace 
in a state of mental confusion. 

Syk. Embarrass. Puzzle. Entan^e. In- 
▼olYe. Encumber. Complicate. Confuse. 
Bewilder. Mystify. 

Airr. Qear. Enlighten. Explicate. Dis- 
entangle. SimpUfy. Elucidate. Disen- 

Pbbplexitt, n. See Perplex. 

Pbbsboutb, V, tr, LaiL per- 
segui, part, secutus, 

Srv. Harass. Molest. Annoy. Wony. 

Akt. Shconrage. Inspirit Abet Sup- 

Pbbsbvebance^ n. Lat. per- 

Sth. Persistence. Steadfastness. Con- 
stant. Indefatigableness. Besolution. 

AXT. Inconstant. Unsteadfastness. 
FItfiilnesB. Caprice. Irresoluteness. Vacil- 
lation. Wavering. Indecision. Variableness. 
Levity. Volatility. 

Pebbistence, n, Lat. per^ 
sigtere, to endure. It has the 
senses of permanence as an ex- 
ternal quality of objects, and also, 
subjectively, of permanence of 
purpose, or perseverance. See 
rexseverance and Perishable. 

Pebsonal, adj. Lat. persona. 
Belonging to the person, or re- 
ferred to the person, as distin- 
guished from belonging to the 

Stn. Indivldnal. Special. Peculiar. 

Ajtt. Generic. Common. 

Pbbspioaoitt, n, Lat. per^ 
spicacitas, Acuteness of discern- . 

St^. Acutenesa Discernment Sagacity. 

Ant. Hebetude. Dubiess. Stolidity. 

PBBSPioxnTY, n, Lat. perspi- 
CUU8, clear. Especially used of 
clearness of statement. 

Stn. Clearness. Lucidity. Transparency. 

AuT. Obscurity. Turbidity. Unlntelll- 
gibility. Mystification. Confusedness. 

Pebsuadb, V, tr,. Lat. per^ 
suadere. To persuade is to lead 
to a conclusion by moral, or con- 
vince by intellecinial, argument 

Stk. Induce. Influence. Incline. Coup 
▼ince. Dispose. 

Aht. Deter. Disincline. Indispose. 
Miapersuade. Misinduoe. Coerce. Compel. 

Pebsuasion, n. See Persuade. 

Pbbt, adj, Lat. apertus, open. 
Formerly frank, of open cha*- 
racter; now bearing the un- 
favourable sense of a combina- 
tion of weakness and forwardness. 

St». Flippant Saucy. Impudent 
Ain*. Modest Betiring. BashfuL De- 
mure, staid. 

Pebtinaoious, adj, Lat. per^ 
tinax, from per and tenax. 
Strongly holding to one's pur- 
pose, but with a shade of un- 
favourableness in meaning. 

Stk. Obstinate. Persistent Wilful. 
Dogged. Persevering. 

Ant. Flexible. Liconstant Irresolute. 

Pbbtinacitt, n. See Perti-^ 

PsBTiNBirr, adj, Lat. pertir 


£yiMMijfiis tffla 


^,,ioh^Umff. Simply beknging P jpiifmb oci^ o^. 
to ftDOtber tfaing, or IttTing a fit- pUme,VDAf^rTt^^l 
neffi of lelstioiHliip to it _ S"*-*" 

9tv. R«UCfedL Comcctcd. A|. 
tan. A p yrofri a ^ft. Hl Appixl:e. Jn 
Plropcr. O a m»m w . AppOabfat^ 

Asrr. UnroilittdL U w imn w - tfA ABi 
If»p|iropri«ce. I mpaHu aM 

PKRTA0K, r. ir. Lat /xfT- ^JP*^> ■- ProfcaWy rwitiig tB d 
iw/*fr«, f/> jjo ihrrAiqh awi ikrmtgK from Fr /^ > < y^ 
flT». Ptenaeate. FiIL Saante Golov. *?- t^**^ Furffa 

AST. Tooth. AtteeL ^^^ Hacror: 

TEKYYBsm, fxdj\ Jjtt perverwuM, p^, r. fc-. See «0Mi ad 
iurri^A ffi^. wrong tray, , Fondle. 

Stt. Frwanl Uotoward. Statt bo r nu _^ _ . 

FractkMM. WajwBnL UnnMnapmbk^ In- PRITIOK, «. JM^peiUil^pe' 

tweubte. Crntcbecj. j^-^ to OMk 

Am. todk. DadUe. If Hf Go- *^' '^y*^:. 
Tcmabte. CMniplAcaiL ^" ■wm''! *t ^m. 
PleaMAt. OUifEtog. 

Pebykb«io9, n. See Perrerae. 
A t^iflting of tmth, or of any- 
thing away from its right use. 

Stv. Ab«iH<^. Mi Mnpnmu tttkn. Db- 
ifuWtm. Comiptloa. MkiiiterpTetatioo. 
GftricAfoiv. Sopbtatrjr. 

Axr. \Zw^. CooMTTBtioii. BepffcwnU' 
tirjfi. KIgbt Tratfa. Portnitiire. Jfani- 
liMUtkiD. EspUnatkNL Interpretadon. 
Rean'/n. CorrecUon. AwthfntWtion. Yeri- 

PEBVioug, ddj. Per, through, 
and vi/j, a vxty, 

Snr. Penetrable. TiBTCiMbte. Ezpkr- 

ftr. Peira, a rock 
or stcme, tjil/aeere, to maJke, To 
turn rigid with wonder or fBtr. 

Sn. AstoamL Deetrt^. Umj. 
Horrifjr. Appd. Stun. Stapd^. Dnab- 

Ayr. loipeDetnible. 
pregnable, loexplorable. 

Iiii|MivIoaft. Idh- 

Pest. w. Lat. pestts, a pltigiie 
or disease. Metaphorically, any 
annoying or dcstractiye con- 

Stv. Plague. KoiMiwe. Caie. An- 

As-T. Benefit Bletdng. A«tnifttLwi 

Pester, v, tr. Old Fr. em- 
pestrer, to entangle. To freqnent 
with annoying infloence, or an 
annoying froqnenpy. 

Snr. Plague. Worry. Vex. Hann. 
tHaqniet Annoj. Tease. Tonnent 

AiTP. Treat. BegiOe. Amnae. Bcfrvah. 
Oratifjr. Soothe. 

Ajrr. Beaaaore. Tramrpinihe. 

Pettish, adj. Apt to he in a 
state of pet or croBBness, pet be- 
ing pro^hly fai pou^ tibe ex- 
{nreasion of tiiie moath in snllen- 

Snr. Petoknt Teilj. PeefiA. Wal- 
lah. Qoenikm. 

AvT. Ea^. Jovfad. Good-liiimoared. 

Petty, (wf/. Tt, petit. Small; 
especially in character, motive, 
dispositicsi, or yiewB. 

Sn. SmalL Mean. Pattiy. IgnoUe. 
Trifling. Narrow. 

A>T. Large. Larae-haarted. NoMe. 
GeneroUb CbivalroiiB. Mamiflrmt. Ubcal 

Petulant, cu^y. laX.peiulaM. 
/85ec Poeyish. 

Phantasm, n. Lat and Gr. 

PHANTASMA^n. AnappeazBiice 

Bynonyms and Antonyrta. 


[ piesomed to be Mse^and haying 
no existence but in the imagina- 

Stk. Cbimera. DeloMon. ITnreality. 
Phantasy. Bugbear. Vision. Dream. 
Hallucination. Shadow. 

Aht. Reality. Tmfh. Fact Sab- 
Btanoe. Verity. 

Phabisaioal, adj. Of the dis- 
' position of a Pharisee, having a 
' religion of form, without motives 
or spirit 

Stn. Sanctdmonlooa. FomiaL Cere- 
moniona. Precisian. 

Aht. Sincere. Qnileleas. Genuine. Godly. 

FhhiAnthbopio, adj, Gr. 
^iCk€ivf to love, and avBpomos, man. 
Having humanity, or re^d for 
the well-being of mankind at 

SxN. Humane. Large-hearted. Publio- 

Akt. Selfish. Cynical EgotisUcal. 
MOToae. Misanthropic. 

PmiiANTHBOPT, 71. /See Philan- 

Philosopheb, n. See Philo- 

Stk. Doctor. Savant. Teacher. Master. 

Akt. Ignoramus. Sciolist Freshman. 
Tyro. Greenhorn. Fool. Booby. Dunce. 

Philosophioal, cdj, Gr. 
<bik6a'0<l>0Sf a lover of wisdom. 
Of or belonging to the character 
and life of a philosopher, and 
also in conformity with such 
views of things as a philosopher 
might be supposed to take. 
Sometime^s used in the restricted 
sense of stoically or indifferently 

- Stn. Wise. Sound. Gonclusiye. Sden- 
tiflc Accurate. Enlightened. 

Amt. Unsound. Crude. Vague. Loose. 
Inaccurate. Popular. UnsdentiflG. Sciollatlc. 

Phbbnst. Gr. <f>pfiv, the mind. 

An excited state of the mind 

under the influence of insanily, 

reUgion^ or poetiy. 

Stk. Madness. Insanity. Delirium. 
Mania. Raving. Hallucihation. Afflatus. 

Akt. Sanity. Sobriety. BaUonaUty; 

Physical, adj, Gr. <^u<rtff, 
nature. Used in the twofold 
sense of appertaining to visible 
or material nature, and consonant 
with the ordinary laws of nature. 

Stk. Natural. Material. Visible. Tan- 
gible. Substantial. 

Akt. Mental Moral. Intellectual. 
Spiritual. Immaterial. Invisible. In- 
tangible. UnsubstantiaL SupematuraL 

Pick, v, tr, Ang. Sax. pyccm. 
Has the sense of peck, with which 
it is connected ; but, more fre- 
quently, that of seizing for indi- 
vidual selection. 

Stk. Choose. Cull. Select Gather. 
Eliminate. Enucleate. Extract. Glean. 

Akt. RciJect Discard. Repudiate. Re- 
legate. Bunch. Grasp. Clutch. 

Picturesque, adj, Lat. j^ic- 
tura, a painting. Having the 
components of an attractive 
figure, attitude, appearance, or 

Stn. Comely. Seemly. Graceful Scenic. 
Artistic. Pictorial. Graphic. 

Akt. Unseemly. Uncouth. Rude. Un- 

Scturesque. Beautiless. Flat Tame, 
onotonous. Dead. 

PiBBOB, V, tr. Old Fr. perser, 

Stk. Perforate. Bore. Drill. Penetrate. 
Excite. AflftKJt Rouse. Touch. Move, 

Ant. Deaden. Quiet Blunt Sootha 
Allay. LulL Compose. 

Piercing, adj\ See Pierce. 

Piety, n. Lat. pietas. Had 
in Latin the twofold sense of re- 
ligion and feeling of natural 
affection. It is in English re- 
stricted to the former, except 
where the classical sense is 

Stk. Religion. Devotion. Godlineaa, 
Holiness. Grace. 

Akt. Iireligion. Impiety. Ungodliness. 
SinAilness. Profitnity. Hypocrisy. Form- 
aliam. Sanctimoniousness. Pharisaism. 

u2 ^ 

29± ^ymmmi xnd JitrofiwiUL 

i.-'w. irom Tiiety -ir pity. A amll 

^tBBB. . ioie. IB :f ^rtuitBd tern, a &d[mg 
iMKHA -=- -—*— "Ji y^^ '^ pity* 

>Tu=.T. ^vnucBwi. JfipBTML Tum. 3*- j*y- ^^"^ IlriMtt. Drop. IWk 

; -juv ?- if. To -vaiziis ;»«3r p^j; ,, Aoodier ftnan of 
iLn.%n^S!^^.-«». "T^^ ^ xnnpMBaoiL Irat some- 

^^Tl '"iaan mubw:*. .luaa: 3BIbl rsmtS, ICjecQTQiy. ±irtl(»Beof ze- 

^*':^- _ ,3^; IB Thai it is sud; 'Itii 

- T' »iH . *. 7" r?i jBirrfr. "o Tuy-." :m»mxi^ it is a TTwrimaw to 

**.irr ri^->ur. ^r i xmaer jr 3^.uni. ■•. t. Fe. Mcfoe^ •* araai 

u nrmc Ta 
R-TS. ;.*.. Jr^'iniBr Jl a=T»'<t. -"timnrmm rrvn^ms. 

»i .. :i!:ir:;-"fi j#;-icta;.i*. »:*t. .fvisa^ r- muu e ^. TbaaufC Efc- 

- - - • — - ■" • ^~- » » 

"" ■•*- ^sitaR: 

Las. «ttn#ff'r»'. V ir-^.. 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 

Plant, v. tr. Ft. planter, 

Stk. Set iDwrt Settle. Establish, 
fntrodoce. Stock. Fix. Place. 

Am*. Remove. Extract. Eradicate. 
Extirpate. Disestablish. Transport. De- 
nude. Transplant. Diq>lace. 

Plasteb^ V, tr. Lat emplas- 
trurn. Used metaphorically for 
to danb over for the pnrpose of 
ooncealinent, as distmguished 
£rom substantial repair. 

Snr. FaUiate. PtUch. Vamp. Tinker. 
OohUe. Bokter. 

AST. Eiqxise. Bqiair. Bestore. Beno- 
▼ate. Bedintegrate. 

PliAffnO, adj\ irka(rTUc6s, from 
vkaaaew, to mould, la used 
in the double sense of having the 
power (actively) to mould, and 
capable of being (passively) 

Snr. to latter. DnctQe. Pliant. YieW- 
faig. Malleable. Tractile. Flexible. 

Abt. Stabbom. Unyielding. Inert 
Umnalleable. Inflexible. Intiactlle. Un- 

Platitudb, n. Fr. piat, flat, 

ST2r. Conunonplaoe. Geuerality. Tnilsm. 

Amr. Sophism. Laconism. Enigma. 
Dictom. Orade. 

Platonic, adf, From Plato, 
who advocated a spiritual affec- 
tion between the sexes. 

8nt. Cold. Intellectual TTnsensaaL 

IftentaL PhUosophicaL 

AST. Ardent Animal. SensnaL F&s- 

dooate. SexuaL 

Plausiblb, adf, Lat platuiere, 
to applaud. That which bears 
the outward semblance of merit, 
or seems good at a superficial 
glance, or wears an air of the 

Stv. Specioos. Soperfidal. Passable. 
UnctnouSb Fair-itpoken. Pretentions. 

Akt. Genuine. Sterling. Transparent 
Unmistakeable. Profonnd. 

Plba, n. Low Lat. placitum. 
Has its technical senses in law. 
In common parlance as fol* 
lows: — 


Snr. Excuse. Vindication. Jostiikation. 
Oroond. Defence. Apology. 

AST. Quu^^ Accusation. Impeadi- 
ment Action. 

PuBASANT. Fr. plaisant, Lat 
placere, to please, 

Srs. QratefuL Agreeable. Acceptable. 
Pleasurable. Desirable. Gratifying. Cbeer> 
fuL Enlivening. Sportive. 

AsT. Unpleasant Ungrateftil. Dis- 
agreeable. Obnoxious. Unacceptable. 
Offeosive. Unlively. Lugubrious. DuU. 

Pleasubb, n. See Pleasant 
Used for gratification generally; 
that which is morally preferred; 
that is, purpose or intention, and 
any specific thing which gives 
pleasure, as, a favour bestowed. 

Sts. £^]oyment Gratification. Sen- 
suality. SeLf-indulgenoe. Voluptuousness. 
Choice. Preference. WilL Inclination. 
Purpose. Determioatiim. Favour. Satis- 
faction. Indulgence. 

AST. Pain. Suffering. Affliction. 
Trouble. Asceticism. Self-denlaL Absti- 
nence. Disinclination. Aversion. Indis- 
position. Denial BefusaL 

Plebbiak. Lat plehs, the 
common people. Said of social 
rank, and of maimers or de- 

Sts. Low. Vulgar. Low-bom. Low- 
bred. Coarse. 

AST. Patrician. Noble. Aristocratic 
Refined. High-born. Higb-bred. 

Pledge, n. Old Fr. plege, Low 
Lat. plegium, pUgiare, to pledge, 
probably from prcebere. Some- 
thing given in security for the 
execution of a promise or con- 

Sts. Security. Guarantee. Warrant 

AST. Word. Promise. Assurance. 

PLENABT,a<^y. Lat p?enartt/s, 

firom plenus. Pull, in some other 

than a merely physical sense. 

Sts. Full Abundant Complete. En- 
tire. Unreserved. Unstinted. Unre- 

AST. Partial. Incomplete. Restricted. 
Reserved. Contingent Temporary. 

Plenitude, n. See Plenary. 

Synonyma a$id Jaiomfmt. 


Six. FnhM AJtma^vat. AnpDtDde. hyiare^from pUimbumg IbuL Td 
Smbtmioe-. LvfeneM. ILicfann^ Cum- ^ii fl,rnw li^A IamI in iiiA 

AxT. ScuiuiMK. lasoBcieD^. Be- iraler. 
BCicoaiL PanikhTT. Stint. NnivwDrH. Six. Dqi. Dive. 
I^«vvnj. InoonipkeiaiBK. r iw m . Mini- 

P1.KSTT, «. LaI- rfr«iZiM,frGBn 

jituu^,TuU. 5« Pksiitude. 

Plsos^aftic. o^y. Partskiiig 
of pIdC4ttsm or redxmdiDoe. Gr. 
s-Xfoo^ciy, i-o ahcund, from 
rXcMT. or rXcMw, tno^- Used 
of ex p re BE ioais of cpaedi which 
are more than seedfoL 

Six. MulntBde. 

Terae. CvCD:aMe. SaatiSfCL 

FuASLK. cfPj. Ft. f^wT, Lit 

f^ir.i'Y, fe'/.W. Used matexially 
and asAlocicallT. 

Six. Pjixh^ San^e- Liaber. TAf. 
Ajrx. SrJL StaMiom. Bn3^. Uih 

PuAST, <pij. Sk Pliable. 

Ploddixg, adj. QL GaeL 
rfixf, a ro./. As if trndgiEg 
laborioTis^T and slowly over 
rough groimd. 

Kv<enn& LdkbcncoL Snidk«&. 

Ayr. IsdilipsL Ur-ndvnioK. I%- 
tncted. liu'.seBCTe. IxcqiAZxaL Crpts^- 

Ploip, adj. GeznL j^umn, 
ru'i', cft;r*?, dait^sff. It has 
with us acquired a nxx^ pleasing 

Stx. We:><tn(£ticDBd. WcIl-raDidtd. 
OmU^. Scapiui^ Boooeas- Tkaisj. 

An. ni-eoodiiMCk-d. Len. E^BMUttd. 
Scns^. Wett--:-. lUajnX. Laak. Rav- 
booed. ShriTrJitd. FiwadL Tabid. 

Pluxpke, r. tr. Germ, j/mii- 
rfer, baggage, fi^PP^nf* Ste 

'*»4niaB, r. tr. and i«/. Fr.i 
r« as if fom Lat |ifif m- 

PoxncAL, ocfy. Gr. woi^m, 
pony. Haying the qnalitBQB ot 
poeiiy, and also luuieliiuea ex- 
hil]dtmg in exoBBB the inrentiTe- 
nessof it. 

Six. MtariaL Hjl^mSc. Ta 

Lrric Rhjiuiii^ lBaBiiKiv& 
K«nKnrtr ndaiaoH. Uchhj. 

POI62ULST, adj. Ft. po»mdre, 
Lat. pai.yrrf, ?o rfi'"^- In its 
older and milder sense pungent 
lu^i tiken its i^ace. It now re- 
feis to acute meotal, as pungent 
to stimnlating physical, senaa- 
tiims. &«Pierang. 

Poisii:eb8, adj. 'Without 
point, in the sense of fixed and 
Tirid significance. 

Six. Ta^ne. YafiL AinkM. Ibcx- 
pRSBve. FeeMe. 

AST. Qac SbKp. TcDJna. I^ig — 1 > 
S6pie5aai:L Expraave. ForMbl I^ 

PoiBK. r. tr. Old Pr. jxitar, 
Lat. penaare, from pemden^ to 
iTfiy^. See Balance 

PoifiOX, r. tr. Lat patio, oa 
mr^mo^ned potion, 

Stx. Tidue. Tan*. liJhcL am —. 

AST. Pttii^. S 

Poisosors, adj. See ] 

Stx. T«»jaMB. !■ 
Guuii|iUTe. Tiiiaiivct. Sc 

Stfnonyms and Antonyms. 

Malifccant. Morblfk. Peccant Yindent 
Fieskilieroas. Mephitic Deleterkm& 

AxT. Wholeiome. GenlaL BenefidaL 
Sniatiye. Invigorative. HealthfoL In- 
noziooflb BesUnative. BemediaL Hygeian. 

Polish, v. tr. Fr. polir, Lat 

Snr. Bornish. Forbiflh. Levigate. 

TOJJTE, a4Jfj\ lAtpcHittis. See 

Sm. Elegant Befined. Well-bred. 
Oomxteona. Obliging. Complaisant 

AVT. Awkward. Bode. Uncontb. Ill- 
bred. Disooorteoaa. Boorish. Clownish. 

PoLino, adf, Gr. nokiTiK6s, 
from ir6kis, a city. Appertain- 
ing to state administration, or 

Prudent Wise. Sagadoos. Pro- 
Tldent Diplomatic 

Am. Impmdent Unwise. Improvi- 
dent Undiplomatic. Impolitic 

Pollute, v. tr. Lat. pdUitere, 
jpoUtdum, Used physically and 

8m. Befonl. Taint Poison. Corrupt. 
Tamiah. Suin. 

Amt. Purify. Clarify. Disinfect Filter. 

Pollution, n. See Pollnte. 

POLTBOOK, n. It. pdtrone, a 
lossy heggar, to which has been 
added the character of cowardice. 

Sth. Scoundrel Coward. Hound. Skulk. 

Amt. Hero. Philanthropist Gentleman. 
Beneftctor. ModeL Example. 

Pommel, v. tr. It. porno, a 
lump or knob, 

Stk. Boat Thump. Baste. Thrash. 
Strike. Cudgel 

AST. Smoothe. Caress. Pat Stroke. 

Pomp. See Pompons. 

Stk. Ostentation. Magnificence. Parade. 
Ceremony. Show. Splendour. Pageantry. 

Airr. Quiet Betirement Simplicity. 
Unceremoniousness. Unadommeut Privacy. 

Pompous, adj. Gr. nofiTrrj, a 
procesfium. Displaying pomp or 
grandeur of exhibition ; and often 


used for snch exhibitions as are 
excessive or misplaced. 

Sth. Magnificent Gorgeous. Splendid. 
Showy. Sumptuous. Ostentatious. Turgid. 
Stur. Inflated. Pretentious. Coxcombical 

Akt. Unpretending. Unobtrusive. 
Modest Unassuming. Plain-mannered. 

Pondkbablb, adj\ Lat pon- 
du8. Of appreciable weight. 

Stk. Appreciable. Determinable. Palp- 

AxT. Inappreciable. Indeterminable. 
Impalpable. Imponderable 

Pondebous, (u^y. /Sec Ponder- 
able. Of great weight. 

StX. Weighty. Bulky. Massive. Heavy. 
Ant. Light Trifling. Airy. YolatUe. 

PooB, adj. Fr. pauvre, Lat. 
pauper. The word is used in the 
broadest sense, as well-nigh 
synonymous with deficient in any 
requirement whatsoever. 

Syx. Indigent Moneyless. Impecunious. 
Penniless. Weak. Meagre. Insufficient 
Deficient Faulty. Unsatisfactory. In- 
considerable. Thin. Scanty. Bald. 

Akt. Rich. Wealthy. Copious. Affluent 
Abundant LiberaL Laige. Ample. 
Moneyed. Sufficient Satisfactory. Con- 

Populab, adj. Lat. Belong- 
ing to the people, and hence 
likely to find, or finding favour 
with the people. 

Syn. Common. Current Vulgar. Public 
General. Received. Favourite. Beloved. 

Akt. Exclusive. Restricted. Scientific. 
Exoteric Unpopular. Odious. Detested. 

Populous, adj. See Popular. 
Full of people. 

Stk. Crowded. Dense. Swarming. 

Akt. Deserted. Thin. Scanty. Un- 
frequented. Unoccupied. Uninhabited. 

Porous, adj. Fr. poreux, Lat 
poruSf a pore. 

Syn. Foraminous. Pervious. Per- 
meable. Percolable. 

Akt. Impervious. Impermeable. Im- 


U* earn/. 

An. FwfdeniBL I ndlfc A«fc- 

vicd CuBiUUiyMbA. L'ltundjr. 

*irf. hAJfaOtc, Thrwvm. FnfswcS- 

CKUt. ftruucrt^. Jtvpv. I'ruigF. Uenjd. 

j|>7. 'x«.ir»<ic. NwrjT^-. Pt^scindt. 

F«reS«ud A'imuQt. Cwitaivifc. Aven. 

POKTEJTTOri, <My. JSfe* PoT- 

iettd- IndJcative of ilL 

fe:jF. JiriicrJie tNCBneiTe. TkreaseB- 
kii;, fr^Vif^^- frddkcre. OBftucna. 

Ajtt. AMpKkyaf. M<ipefaL Cfavcr- 

PoBnoJf, n. Lai wrf i». 5« 

PoETLT, a<(^ From port, 

PoKTBAT, V. ir. Fr. pwtrairt, 
Lat f/rotroIi/Te. 

hxTi. I>niw. lM:)itMt:JUt. Bcpnant. De- 


Pons, r. tr, Fr. /xwer, to ^>2a(oe 
or bririff to a stand, 

Hrv, Kaxzl«. P^rpkrx. Bevflder. DanlK 
f>)aud^. UjttUy, EmtNuraM. lAue. 

AxT. Knliiiibtcii. UnmystSiy. Indoctri- 

DftUf, IliHUUr. 

Po^rnvE, arf/. Lai positiinu, 
8aid of things and persons. 

tin. tU^ Actual, SateUmtUL Ab- 
•otnUi. liMk>peo4«nL UocxmditiofM]. Ex- 
pUcft Indi«voUbl«. I>«cUive. Ezpneac. 
Kuact^, A wared. CooildcoL Ilfrect 
IX«mAtk. Overtwaulng. 

An. N<igaiiv<. InsofartatitUL Unreal 
FictiU/itu, Imagbutfj. B<:laUve. Coo- 
Uuff^L I>ep<ndeot. GondUionaL Im- 
plkd. Dabiriiu. Qacstfotiable. MoraL 
Unonlain. IlmibifaL Indirect Ooca- 
ti'/uaL Stufrfckmi. 

Possess, v. <r. Lat. possidere. 

Hm. Occam. K^Joj Have. Hold. 



&T. Fntmsjr. 
AfZ. Aanessx- 

PonroxE, V. fr. LoL ^, 

AxT. ExpadiiK. 

PomxATB, r. fr. LaL jMite- 
^zrf , to ^ nasrd, as aoooeflinig to 
be eoDcedcd wMioat aigumm L 


Am Ppdvc 

ToTKSTfOdj. Lat/Nrfau,&om 
poo?, to 6e oUe. 

I Srx. IV^vofoL EBcM iBi 
, Actire. Strong tMMeirgeiic 
\ Ajte. WeaL Im^oteot. 

Ineflectivcu laMctN«. f^Bliliak 


POTESTIAL, aJy. iMLpoteniia, 
pcieniialu. A wdd e^)ecial]7 
of the scholastic fMkmojMij, 

Sm. PoHible. iBplidL UMfevdoped. 
Gcnnliiatnre. limnanrnt. TiraaL 

Art. ActnaL Ezplldt. Derelaped 
C^jeCOrt. ReaL ExpreaiL 

PouxB, V. tr, Aug. Sax. |nifui|, 
a/old or endontre. 

Snr. Impriaon. Oiftt. Gbop. 

Axx. DiadiarBe; libenle. Bdewe. 

PouHD, V. tr. Aug. Sax. 
punian, to bruise. 

8n. Beat Bndae. Potveriae. T^rtto- 

An. Soothe. Stroke. Aiulgunate. 

PovERTT. Fr. pauvrete, Lai 
paupertcu. Applied to express 
want of wealth, and also defi- 
ciency, metaphorically, in any 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


qnaliiy that enriches or adorns. 

PowBB, n. Pr. pouvoir, Lat. 
p089e, It. potere, 

Syv. Facolty. Capacity. Capability. 
Potentiality. Ability. Strength. Force. 
Energy. Susceptibility. Influence. Do- 
minion. Sway. Command. Government. 
Agency. Authority. Rule. Jurisdiction. 

Am*. Incapacity. Incapability. Im- 
potence. Inability. Weakness. Imbecility. 
Inertnessi. Insusceptibility. Subjection. 
Powerlessness. Obedience. Subservience. 

PowBBFUL, adj\ See Power. 

PEACnOABLE, odj, Gr. vpaT- 
T€iv, to do, irpaKTiK6s, which may 
he done, 
. Stk. Possible. Feasible. Usable. 
Ant. Impossible. Impracticable. Un- 

Pbactiob,w. iSee Practicable. 

Snr. Usi^ EUibit. Exercise. Ex- 
perience, ^erdtation. Action. Per- 

Akt. Disuse. Dishabltuation. Inex- 
perience. Theory. Speculation, l^onper- 

PSAaMATIOAL, odJ, Gr. irpay 
fiariKos, busy ; and now used in 
the tm&vonrable sense of over- 

Syn. Over-busy. Fussy. ConsequentiaL 
OflBdous. Meddlesome. 

Ant. Reserved. Uninterfering. Dis- 
tant. Unconcerned. Inobtriisive. Un- 
mfiddlesome. InofBcious. 

PRAISB, V. tr, Lat. pretium, 
pretiare, to set a high price upon 
in words. 

Srv. Eulogize. Laud. Commend. Extol. 
Applaud. Panegyrize. 

Akt. Blame. Censure. Discommend. 

Praise^ n. See verb. 
Praiseworthy, adj. Worthy 
of praise. 

Syv. Commendable. Laudable. Meri- 

Ant. Blameable. Censureable. Repre- 

Preamble, r?. Lat. proa, be- 
fore, and ambidare, to walk. 

Stv. PrefSice. Introduction. Exordium. 

Ant. Close. Termination. PeronUon. 
Finale. Conclusion. 

Precarious, '/rf/. Preces,prayei\ 
Uncertain, as if depending on an- 
other to grant . 

Syn. Hazardous. Perilous. Uncertain. 
Rislcful. Unassured. 

Ast. Assur<Hl. Certain. Systematic. 
Safe. Immutable. 

Precaution, n, Lat. prce, be- 
fore, and cavere, cautus, to be 
aware, or take care, 

Stn. Forethought. Provision. Prt- 
munition. Anticipation. Prearrangement. 
Care. Providence. 

Ant. Carelessness. Thoughtlessness. 

Precede, v. tr, and int. Lat. 
pTi'oe, before, and cedere, to go. The 
word is nsed abstractedly and 
relatively; that is, to express 
either simple precedence, or pre- 
cedence in relation to another or 

Stn. Lead. Introduce. Herald. Usher. 

Ant. Succeed. Follow. 

Precedence, n. See verb, 

Syn. Superiority. Lead. Priority. Su- 
premacy. Pre-eminence. 

Ant. Inferiority. Sequence. Subordi- 
nation. Posteriority. 

Precedent, cw^y. iSf-c Precede. 

Stn. Anterior. Prior. Earlier. 
Ant. Subsequent. Posterior, Later. 

Precedent, n. The same 
word as the former, but with a 
different pronunciation for the 
convenience of distinction. Some- 
thing going before which may 
serve as a warrant for another 

Syn. Instance. Example. Authori^* 
Warrant. Antecedent Pattern. 

Ant. Prohibition. DIswarrant. Dis- 

Precept, n, Lat. prceceptum. 

Stn. Rule. Maxim. Injunction. Com- 
mandment. Doctrine. Direction. Law. 

Ant. Suggestion. Prompting. Insti- 
gation. Impulse. 


Synonyms and Antonytm. 

Pbeceptob, w. See Precept. 

Stn. Master. Teacher. "Pedagogae. 

Akt. PupiL Learner. Sdiolar. Student 

PBEOiNOTS^n. L&t, prcBcinctum, 
from prcecingere, to gird about. 

Stk. Purlieus. Environs. Limit. 

Amt. Heart. Centre. Nucleus. 

Pbboious, adj, Lat. pretiosus, 
from pretium, price, 

Stw. Dear. Valuable. Costly. Cherished. 
Treasured. Beloved. 

Amt. Cheap. Valueless. Worthless. 
Unvalued. Disesteemed. Unwpreciated. 

Pbecipitatb, adj. See Pre- 
cipitous and Hash. 

Pbeoepitous, adj, Lat. prasceps, 
headlong, from pro:, and caput, the 

Stk. Steep. Headlong. Abrupt. Sheer. 

Ant. Shallow. Graduated. Inclined. 

Pbeoisb, adj, Lat. prce, and 
casder€f precidere, to ciit off, as if 
pruned of superfluities. 

Stn. Definite. Exact. Nice. Pointed. 

Accurate. Terse. Punctilious. Cere- 
monious. Formal. 

Ant. Indefinite. Vague. Inexact. 
Rough. Inaccurate. Loc«e. Circumlo- 
cutory. Ambagious. Tortuous. Informal 

Pbboision, n. See Precise. 

Pbecludb, v. tr. Lat. prce- 
dudere, to shut out, 

Stn. Prevent. Obviate. Bar. 

Ant. Admit. Promote. lYirther. Ad- 

Pbecooious, adj, Lat. ^02- 
cox, from prce, before, and coquere, 
to cook or ripen. The word differs 
from premature in being used 
more favourably, and of persons 
and not plans. 

Stn. Premature. Predeveloped. Over- 

Ant. Tardy. Backward. Slow-growing. 

Peboognition, n, Lat ^wob, 
"before, and cognitio, knowledge. 

Stn. Foresight Foreknowkdae. 
Ant. Reflection. ReooUectloQ. 

Pbeoonobption, n. Pros, be- 
fore, and conceptio, from ooncipen, 
to conceive. Used of the feoulty, 
and the object preconceived. 

Stk. Forethouc^t. Anticipation. Fon> 

Ant. Copy. Portraitore. OlMervallaB. 
Vision. Representation. Delineation. 

Pbbookcebted, adj\ Arranged 
or concerted (Lat canserere) be- 

Stn. Prearranged. Conoocted. Pre- 
pared. Premeditated. 

Amt. Extemporized. Unprepared. Ua* 
concocted. Unpremeditated. 

Pbboubsob, n. Pros, before, 
and cu/rsor, a runner, from eursare, 
to run. Used of things as well 
as persons. 

Stn. Forerunner. Harbinger. Henil 
Pioneer. Advance-guard. Cause. 

Amt. Follower. Conaeqaent^ Eesult 
Effect Event. 

Pbbcubsoby, adj. See Pre- 

Stm. Prevenient. Antecedent Intro- 
ductory. Prefiitory. Initiatory. Prior. 
Premonitory. Prognosticative. 

Ant. Subsequent. Consequent. Posterior, 
Entailed. Supervenient Eventual. 

PbbdaceouSj adj, Lat pree- 
dax, given to seizing prey, prasda, 
prey. It differs from predatory, 
as expressing rather the disposi- 
tion of animals, while predatory 
expresses no more than the cha- 
racter of an incidental action, as, 
a predatory incursion or war. 

Stn. Ravenous. Rapacious. QuOf 

Ant. Innocuous. Herbivoioua. Gia> 

Pbbdecessob, n. Lat. j^r(B, 
before, and decedere, to depart. 
One who withdraws from a 
locality, or a government or 
place to make way for another. 

Stn. Ancestor. Forerunner. Elder. 
ANT.r Posterity. Junior. Suooesaoc. 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


PBBixmlnKATiON, n. Lat. 

8th. Foreordalnment Foredoom. Ne- 
oeesi^. Fate. Election. Preordination.' 

Am. Free-wllL Freedom. Volition. 
Cboioe. Spontaneity. 

Pbediction, n. Lat. prcedi- 
cere, to declare beforehand, 

Sth. Prophecy. Prognostication. Vati- 
dnation. Fore-announcement. Premon- 
Btratloii. Foretelling. Forebodement Pre- 

Augory. Foreshowing. 
Aht. Narration. Relation. History. 
Aooomit Report 

Pbkdilbction, n, Lat. prce, 
he/ore, and diligere, to love, 

Sth. Prepossession. Preference. Lean- 
ing. Liking. Fondness. Bias. Inclination. 
Prediq)osition. Tendency. 

Aht. Prejudice. Aversion. Lidisposi* 
Hon. Antipathy. Disinclination. Apathy. 

Predisposition, w. Lat. proe, 
before, and disponere, to dispose. 
See Predilection. 

Predominancib, n. Prce, be- 
fore, and Fr. dominant, from 
domintis, exercising infliience, 

Sth. Prevalence. Superiority. Asocnd- 
ancj. Rule. 

Aht. Inferiority. Sul^ection. Minority. 

Pre-bmikent, cuij, Lat. prce, 
before, and eminere, to be eminent. 

Sth. Piuramount. Predominant Egre- 
gioQS. Consummate. Prevailing. 

Aht. Subordinate. Inferior. Minor. 

Prefaoe, w. Fr. preface, Lat. 
proRfari, to speak beforehand, 

Sth. lotroduction. Proem. Prelude. 
Prologue. Preamble. Premiss. 

Aht. Peroration. Sequel Appendix. 
Epilogue. Postscript 

Prefatory, adj. See Preface. 

Srn. Introductory. Prelusive. Initia- 
tive. Preliminary. Antecedent Prevenient 

Aht. Subsequent Concluding. Ter- 
minal. PeroratiunaL 

Prefer, v, tr. ToLtprai, before, 
and /erre, to have or bear — 
either externally, and so to pro- 
mote or put forward, or in- 

ternally, and so to esteem before 

Sth. Choose. Elect Select Fancy. 
Promote. Advance. 

Aht. Ri^Ject. Postpone. Defer. With- 
hold. Degrade. Depress. 

Preferment, n. See Prefer, 
Has, ecclesiastically, the senses 

Sth. Dignity. Promotion. Benefice. 
Ant. Degradation. Deprivation. Sos* 

Prefiguration, w. Lat.jwcB, 

before, B,nd fig urttj afi^jure. 
Sth. Type. Adumbration. 
Ant. Antitype. Fulfilment. 

Prefix, v. tr. Pre and fix. 

Stn. Preface. 

Ant. Append. Subjoin. Suffix. Sup* 
plement Add. 

Pregnant, adj, Lat. pra^g* 
nans, for prcegenans. Free, before, 
and genere, to beget. Used me- 
taphorically for fullness of a 
certain quality, meaning import 
and the like. 

Sth. Procreant. Generative. Prolific. 
Teeming. Significant 

Ant. Sterile. Unproductive. Barren. 
Void. Meaningless. 

Pregnable, oc^y. /See Pregnant. 
More commonly nsed in negative 
composition Lnpregnable. 

Stn. Weak, li^xposed. Expugnable. 

Ant. Impregnable. Inexpugnable. 

Prejudice, n. Lat. prcp, be* 
fore, and judicium, judgment. 
The forming a judgment before 
trial or without it, and so used 
in an unfavourable sense of con- 
demning beforehand in one's 
own judgment, and hence in the 
derived general sense of harm. 

Sth. Prepossession. Predisposition, ^as. 
Unfairness. Ii^ry. Harm. Impairment. 
Detriment PartiaUty. Disadvantage. 

Aht. Judgment Fairness. Impartially. 

Preliminary, adj, Lat. pr<B, 
before, and limen, a threshold, 
Sth. Introductoiy. Prefatory. Initia- 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

nere, to hdong. Simply belonging 
to another tiling, or haying a fi1>- 
ness of relationship to it. 

Stn. Related. Connected. Appertain- 
ing. Appropriate. Fit Apposite. Just. 
FnipeT. GongruoQt. Applicable. 

Akt. Unrelated. Unconnected. Alien. 
Inappropriate. Impertinent Incongruona. 
Discordant Repugnant 

Pervade, v. tr, Lai per- 
vadere, to go through and through, 

Sth. Permeate. Fill Saturate. Golonr. 

Akt. ToudL Affect 

Perverse, adj\ Lat perversus, 
turned the wrong way, 

Stk. Froward. Untoward. Stubborn. 
Fractious. Wayward. Unmanageable. In< 
tractable. Crotchety. 

Amt. Docile. Ductile. Amenable. Go- 
vernable. ' Complacent Acc<Hmnodating. 
Pleasant Obliging. 

Perversion, n. See Perverse. 
A twisting of truth, or of any- 
thing away from its right nse. 

Snr. Abuse. Misrepresentation. Dis- 
tortion. Corruption. Misinterpretation. 
Caricature. Sophistry. 

Ant. Use. Conservation. Representa- 
tion. Right Truth. Portraiture. Mani- 
festation. Explanation. Interpretation. 
Reason. Correction. Authentication. Veri- 

Pervious, adj. Per, through, 
and via, a vmy, 

Stk. Penetrable. TrsverBable. Eiqdor- 

Amt. Impenetrable. In4>ervion8. Im- 
pregnable. Inexplorable. 

Pest. n. Lat. pestts, a plagiie 
or disease. Metaphorically, any 
annoying or destructive con- 

Stn. Plague. NaJsaooe. Curse. An- 

Akt, Benefit Blessing. Aoqulsltioa 

Pester, v, tr. Old Fr. em- 
pestrer, to entangle. To frequent 
with annoying influence, or an 
annoying frequency. 

Stk. PUigue. Worry. Vex. Hanua. 
Disquiet Annoy. Tease. Torment 

Amt. Treat. Regale. Amnae. RcftvdL 
Gratify. Soothe. 

Pestitxboub, adlf. Pedk, a 
plagtie, and /errc, to bring, 

Sth. Insalubrloua. Morbific. PtttlleirtlBi. 
Deleterious. M^hltic. Yiralent MbrU- 
fierous. LethaL 

Amt. Genial. Salubrionii Balmj. Siln- 
liferous. Sanitary. Innocnong. RemedlaL 
Wholesome. NutriUve. Pore. Sanative. 

Pet, n. Probably contracted 
from Fr. petit, small, 

Str. Darling. Fondling. Favourite. 
Coeset Jewel Minion. IdoL 

Amt. Horror. Bugbear. Aversion. 

Pet, V, tr. See noun and 

Petition, tu Lat. petUvo, pe- 

tere, to ask, 

Stk. Supplication. Entreaty. Craving. 
Application. AppeaL Salutation. Prayer. 
Request Instance. 

Amt. Deprecatioo. Ezpostnlatkm. Fro> 
test Command. Ii^uncuon. Clatan. De* 
mand. Requirement Exaction. Dietatioo. 

Petrify, v. tr, Petra, a rock 
or stone^ and facer e, to maice. To 
turn rigid with wonder or fear. 

Stk. Astound. Electrify. Dismay. 
Horrify. AppaL Stun. Stupeiy. Dumb- 

Amt. Reassure. TranquiUixe. 

Pettish, adj. Apt to be in a 
state of pet or crossness, pet be- 
ing probably for pout, the ex-* 
pression of tiie mouth in sullen- 

Stk. Petulant Testy. Peevish. Ws^- 
ish. Querulous. 

Amt. Easy. JovlaL Good-humonnd. 

Petty, oc^y. "Fr, petit. Small; 
especially in character, motive, 
disposition, or views. 

Stk. Small Mean. Psttiy. IpoUSi 
Trifling. Narrow. 

Amt. Larga Larae-bearted. NoMe. 
Generous. Chivalrous. Magnifloent libenJ. 

Petulant, Gu^y. la^pMoM, 
See Peevish. 

Phantasm, n. Lat and 6r. 

PHANTASMA^n. Anai^raanBoe 

Bynonytiis and Antonyms. 


piesamed to be Mse, and haying 
no existence but in the imaginar 

Snr. Chimera. Delusion. Unreality. 
Phantasy. Bugbear. Vision. Dream. 
Hallucination. Shadow. 

Amt. Reality. Truth. Fact Snb- 
Btanoe. Verity. 

Phabisaioal, adj. Of the dis- 
position of a Fhansee, having a 
reKgion of form, without motives 
or spirit. 

Stm. Sanctimonious. FormaL Cere- 
monious. Precisian. 

Aht. Sincere. Guileless. Qennine. Godly. 

Philanthbopio, adj, Gr. 
^ikeiv, to love, and av^pamos, fnan, 
mving humaniiy, or regard for 
the well-being of mankind at 

K. Humane. Large-hearted. Pablio- 

Akt. Selfish. Cynical. Egotistical. 

Morose. Misanthropic. 

PmiiAirrHBOPT, w. /See Philan- 

Philosopheb, n. See Philo- 

Syk. Doctor. Savant. Teacher. Master. 

Akt. ignoramus. Sciolist Freshman. 
Tyro. Greenhorn. Fool. Booby. Dunce. 

Philosophical, adj, Gr. 
dbcX($o-o(^of, a lover of wisdom. 
Of or belonging to the character 
and life of a philosopher, and 
also in conformity with such 
views of things as a philosopher 
might be supposed to take. 
Sometimes used in the restricted 
sense of stoically or indifferently 

• Syn. Wise. Sound. Conclusiye. Sden- 
tifie. Accurate. Enlightened. 

Ant. Unsound. Crude. Vague. Loose. 
Inaccurate. Popular. Unsdenttfia SdoUstic. 

Phbenst. Gr. <^p^v, the mind. 
An excited state of the mind 
under the influence of insanity, 
religion, or poetiy. 

Stn. Madness. Insanity. Delirium. 
Mania. Raving. HallucihaUon. Afflatus. 

Akt. Sanity. Sobriety. BaUonaUty« 

Physical, adj, Gr. (f>va'is, 
nature. Used in the twofold 
sense of appertaining to visible 
or material nature, and consonant 
with the ordinary laws of nature. 

Stn. Natural. Material. Visible. Tan- 
gible. Substantial. 

Ant. Mental Moral. Intellectual. 
SpirituaL Immaterial. Invisible. In- 
tangible. Unsubstantial SupematnraL 

Pick, v, tr, Ang. Sax. pycan. 
Has the sense of peck, with which 
it is connected; but, more fre- 
quently, that of seizing for indi- 
vidual selection. 

Stn. Choose. Cull. Select. Gather. 
Eliminate. Enucleate. Extract. Glean. 

Ant. RciJect. Discard. Repudiate. Re- 
legate. Bunch. Grasp. Clutch. 

PiOTFBESQUB, adj, Lat. piC" 
tura, a painting. Having the 
components of an attractive 
figure, attitude, appearance, or 

Syn, Comely. Seemly. Graceful Scenic. 
Artistic. Pictorial. Graphic. 

Ant. Unseemly. Uncouth. Rude. Un- 
picturesque. Beautiless. Flat. Tame. 
Monotonous. Dead. 

PiBBCB, V, tr. Old Fr. perser, 

Stn. Perforate. Bore. Drill. Penetrate. 
Excite. Affect Rouse. Touch. Move. 

Ant. Deaden. Quiet Blunt Soothe; 
Allay. Lull. Compose. 

Piercing, adj. See Pierce. 

Piety, n. Lat. pietas. Had 
in Latin the twofold sense of re- 
ligion and feeling of natural 
affection. It is in English re- 
stricted to the former, except 
where the classical sense is 

Stn. Religion. Devotion. Godlhiesi. 
Holiness. Grace. 

Ant. Irreligion. Impiety. Ungodliness. 
Sinfhlness. Profitnity. Hypocrisy. Form- 
aUam. Sanctimoniousness. Pharisaism. 



Synonyms and Antonyms. 

Pile, v, tr, Tt. pSe, a haU or 

Snr. Heap. Aecamakte. Gatber. Sior: 

AxT. Demolich. DiMtpate. Sqiumder. 
ScMtter. SepanUe. IMpene, DeaL Dte- 

PnjWB, V. <r. Old Fr. pdfrer, 
Comp. Pelf. To commit petty 
theft, and secretly. 

Snr. Abstract. Peculate. FUdi. Par. 
lohL Smuggle. Gsbbage. 

AST. PUbee. Baoaeek. Fhmiler. Blfle. 

PnxAOS, V, tr. "Ft. piUer^ to 
plunder. See Pilfer. 

PDromD, adj. Lat. pinguidus. 
See Fat. 

Piquant, adj. Ft. Haymg a 
sharp flaTonr, or a mamier or 
conversation of a lively and in- 
teresting character. 

Stx. Ptmgeot Sham Lively. Racy. 
Ant. Tame. DalL Flat. CharacterleflB. 

Piteous, adj. Deserving of 

Srw. Sad. Miserable. Deplorable. La- 
mentable. Distreaeing. 

Ant. J«wou8. Enviable. Comfortable. 
Pleasant. Desirable. Delectable. 

Pith, n. Butch, pit, pith, 
kernel. Used metaphorically for 
the vital matter of a subject, as 
distinguished from what is not 

Stv. KemeL Marrow. Gist Substance. 
EMcnce. Cream. Root. 

Ant. Surplusage. Sorroundings. Dress- 
ing. Verbiage. 

Pithy, adj. See Pith. 

TSll3^. Terse. Laconic. Pregnant Ex- 
presstV)^ Nervous. 

Ant. Weak. Characterless. Dilated. 
Pointless, Flat. Vapid. 

Pitiable, adj., Pitiful, adj. 
See Piteous. 

Pitiless. Without pity, either 
specifically, or as a matter of 
hiabit or dBsposition. 

Syn. Merciless. Unsparing. Inexorable. 
Ant. Pltimi. Tender. MercifuL Clom- 
psaaionate. Lenient. Indulgent 

PiTTAXCK, fi. For pietanoe, 
from piety or pity. A small 
dole, as if granted from a feeling 
of piety or pity. 

Sn. Dole. DcflbleL Drop^ Dndn. 

Aart. EznberanoeL Abnndaiioe. Fn>- 
finioii. Lavuliiiient. 

Pitt, n. Another form of 
piety. Lat pietas. Properly 
used for compassion, bat scmie- 
times, objectively, for a case of re- 
gret, as when it is said, ' It is a 
pity;' meaning, it is a matter to 

Stv. Mercy. Oompassioa. TendenieBB. 
Oommlseratioa. Bath. 

Ant. Craelty. HardbeartednesB. Be- 
lentlesBnoB. Pltitessness. RathlesoDess. 

Place, v. tr. Fr. piace, a broad 

Stn. Locate. Assign. Fix. EstafaiidL 
Settle. Attrfbate. Sitaate. 

Ant. Dlstorb. Remove. Unsettle. 
Disarrange. Disestablish. Mi^lace. Mis- 
attribnte. MIssssign. Uproot Tnnq>lant 
Extirpate. Eradicate. Trsnsport 

Placid, adj. Lat. placidus. 

Stv. Calm. Qaiet Serene. Composed. 
Oentle. Unruffled. StilL Halcyonic. Un- 
exdted. Impertorbable. Passionless. 

Ant. RoiU(b. Troubled. Unquiet Dis- 
composed. Agitated. Ruffled. Disturbed. 
Irritated. Stormy. Excited. Lnpassioned. 

Plain, oc^*. lAt planus. Level; 
and used metaphorically, as oi 

. Stn. Level Even. Flat Smoofh. Open. 
Clear. Unencumbered. Unobstructed. Un- 
interrupted. Manifest Evident "Obvioas. 
Unmistakeable. Simple. Easy. NatnraL 
Unaffected. Homely. Unsophisticated. 
Artless. Open. Unvarnished. Unemp 
bellished. Unresoved. 

Ant. Uneven. Undulating. Rugged. 
Rough. Abrupt Broken. Confused, fki- 
cumbered. Obstructed. Intorupted. 
Questionable. Uncertain. Dubious. Am- 
biguous. Enigmatical Hard. Abstruse; 
Affected. Fair. Beautiful Sophirticated. 
Artfiil Varnished. Embellished. 

Plaintive, adj. Fr. pkiinte, 
Lat. plangere, to weep, 

Stn. Mournful Sorrowfiil Sad. Dole- 
fol Melancholy. WaiUng. 

Aht. Joyous. Exultant Glad. Jubi- 
lant CheerftO. Cheering. Qladdenlng. 

^ynonytM and Antonyms. 


PiiANT, V. tr. Ft. planter, 

Stn. Set Inaert SetUe. Estaldlsh. 
Introduce. Stodc. Fix. Place. 

Airr. Remove. Extract. Eradicate. 
Extirpate. Disestablisb. Transport. De- 
nude. Transplant. Displace. 

Plasteb, V, tr, Lat. empla&' 
trum. Used metaphorically for 
to danb over for tiie purpose of 
concealinent, as distmgiiished 
from substantial repair. 

Sth. PuUiate. F&tch. Vamp. Tinker. 
Cobble. Bolster. 

AST. Eiqxise. Bqiair. Restore. Reno- 
vate. Redintegrate. 

Plastic^ adj, TrkaariKSiy from 
irkaa€r€iv, to mould. Is used 
in the double sense of having the 
power (actively) to mould, and 
capable of being (passively) 

Stv. to latter. Dnctile. Pliant. Yield- 
ing. Malleable. Tractile. Flexible. 

Abt. Stubborn. Unyielding. Inert 
Unmalleable. Inflexible. Intiactile. Un- 

Platitudb, n. Fr. plat, flat, 

Snr. Conunonplaoe. Geueiality. Truism. 

AnT. Sopblsm. Laconism. TRnigm^ , 
Dictum. Orade. 

Platonic, adf, From Plato, 
who advocated a spiritual affec- 
tion between the sexes. 

Stn. C!old. IntelleetuaL TTnaensuaL 

HentaL PhiloaophicaL 

Aht. Ardent AnimaL SensoaL Pas- 

alonate. SexuaL 

Plausiblb, adj. Lat pHaudere, 
to applaud. That which bears 
the outward semblance of merit, 
or seems good at a superficial 
glance, or wears an air of the 

Sn. Specious. Superficial. Passable. 
UnctnouSb Fair-tipoken. Pretentious. 

Akt. Oenuiue. Sterling. Transparent 
Unmistakeable. Profound. 

Plba, n. Low Lat. placitum. 
Has its technical senses in law. 
In common parlance as fol* 
lows: — 

Snr. Excuse. Yindication. Justification. 
Ground. Defence. Apology. 

Ant. Cbai^ Accusation. Impeadi- 
ment Action. 

Pleasant. Fr. pktisant, Lat. 
placere, to please, 

Stn. QratefuL Agreeable. Acceptable. 
Pleasurable. Desirable. Gratifying. Cheei^ 
ful. Enlivening. Sportive. 

Ant. Unpleasant Ungrateftil. Dls- 
i^nt^eable. Obnoxious. Unacceptable. 
OBfensive. Unlively. Lugubrious. Dull. 

Pleasure, n. See Pleasant. 
Used for gratification generally; 
that which is morally preferred : 
that is, purpose or intention, and 
any specific thing which gives 
pleasure, as, a favour bestowed. 

Stn. Enjoyment Gratification. Sen- 
suality. Self-indulgenoe. Yolnptuousness. 
Choice. Preference. Will, Inclination. 
Purpose. Detennioation. Favour. Satis- 
faction. Indulgence. 

Ant. Pain. SuflTering. Affliction. 
Trouble. Asceticism. Self-deniaL Absti- 
nence. Disinclination. Aversion. Indis- 
position. Denial. Refusal 

Plebeian. Lat. plehs, the 
commofi people. Said of social 
rank, and of manners or de- 

Stn. Low. Vulgar. Low-bom. Low- 
bred. Coarse. 

Ant. Patrician. Noble. Aristocratic 
Refined. High-born. High-bred. 

Pledge, n. Old Fr.^%c,Low 
Lat. plegium, plegiare, to pledge, 
probably from prcehere. Some- 
thing given in security for the 
execution of a promise or con- 

Stn. Security. Guarantee. Warrant 

Ant. Word. Promise. Assunmoe. 

Plbnabt, CK^y. lAt plenarius, 
firom plenus. Pull, in some other 
than a merely physical sense. 

Stn. FulL Abundant Complete. En- 
tire. Unreserved. Unstinted. Unre- 

Ant. Partial. Incomplete. Restricted. 
Reserved. Contingent Temporary. 

Plenitude, n. See Plenary. 


SyfKmyms and AntonytM. 

Snr. FalDCM. Abnndanoe. AmpUtade. 
Exoberauoe. Langeness. Richness. Com* 
pleteneflB. LfberaUty. Height Maximnm. 

Akt. Scantiness. Jnsaffldeni^. Re- 
striction. PartiaUty. Stint. Narrownesa. 
Poverty. InoompletenesBw Reaarve. Mlni- 

PLENTY,n. laX, plenitas, from. 
plenus,/ull. See Plenitude. 

Pleonastic, adj. Partaking 
of pleonasm or redundance. Gr. 
ir\€ovd(€iv, to abound, from 
irkeoav, or n\ttwv, more. Used 
of expressions of speech which 
are more than needM. 

Snr. Rednndant Soperflaons. Sorphu. 

Anr. Reqnisite. Neoesaaiy. EasentiaL 
Terac. Concise. Succinct. 

Pliable, adj. Fr. plier, Lat 
plicare, to fold. Used materially 
and analogically. 

Snr. Flexible. Sapple. Limber. Like. 
DacUle. Yielding. Manageable. Facile. 

Akt. Stiit Stubborn. BrltUe. Un- 
bending. Unyielding. Unmanageable. In- 

Pliant, adj. See Pliable. 

Ploddino, adj. Cf. Gael. 
plod, a dod. As if trudging 
laboriously and slowly over 
rough ground. 

Snr. Painstaking. Industrious. Per- 
severing. Laborious. Studious. 

Akt. Indiligent Unindustrious. Dis- 
tracted. Inattentive. Impatient. Unper- 
severing. Flighty. Fitful. 

Plump, adj. Germ, plump, 
rude, coarse, clumsy. It has 
with us acquired a more pleasing 

Stn. WeU-conditioned. Well-rounded. 
Chubby. Strapping. Bouncing. Fleshy. 

Amt. Ill-conditioned. Lean. Emaciated. 
Scraggy. Weazen. Macilent. T.Ank. Raw- 
boned. ShriveUed. Flaccid. Tabid. 

Plunder, v. tr. Grenn. plun- 
der, baggage, frippery. See 

Plunge, v. tr. and tnt Fr. 
plonger, as if from Lai pltm^ 

buare, from pUtmbum, lead. To 
&11 or throw like lead in the 

Snr. Dip. Dive. Douse. Duck. Sob- 
meige. immerse. Ptecij^tatfli Stnlb 

AST. Emerge. lasna Soar. Batse. 
Extricate. Rescue. 

Plurality, n. lAt. plu9,mart. 

Sm Multitude. MnltttndlnoanMi 
Number. NumerousnesB. ftoftisloD. Host 
Legion. Collectioa. 

Akt. Unity. Singnlarttj. Onenan 
SoUtnde. Individually. RgngMwas. IfloU> 

Poetical, adj. Gr. froii}ais, 
poesy. Having the quaUties ot 
poeby, and also sometimes ex- 
hibiting in excess the inyentive- 
ness of it. 

Snr. MetricaL Rythmic. Versified. 
Lyric. Rhyming. Ima^nativa Creativei 
Ronuuitic. Fictitious. Dreamy. FUf^ty. 

Ant. UnmetricaL UnrythmicaL Prosaic. 
UnpoeticaL Unversified. Unimagfiiattve. 
Commonplace. HistoricaL MathematScaL 
Logical Matter-oMiacfc. Yeradoos. SdwEi 

Poignant, adj. Fr. poindre, 
Iiat. pungere, to sting. In its 
older and milder sense pungent 
has taken its place. It now re- 
fers to acute mental, as pungent 
to stimulating physical, sensa- 
tions. See Piercing. 

Pointless, adj. Without 
point, in the sense of fixed and 
yivid significance. 

Stn. Vague. Vapid. AimlewL Inex- 
pressive. Feeble. 

Akt. Close. Sharp. Telling. Pregnanl 
Significant Expressive. Forcible. £|>l- 

Poise, v. tr. Old Pr. peiser, 
Lat. pensare, from pendere^ to 
weigh. See Balance. 

Poison, v. tr. Lai potto, an 
envenomed potion. 

Stk. ViUate. Tamt Inflsct EavvnooL 

Airr. Purify. Disinfiect. Depunla. 

Poisonous, adj. See Pqisoil 

Snr. Venomous. Infectant VMoML 
Corruptive. Vitiative. Noxious. BsimAiI. 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 

Malignant Morbific. Peccant. Yirnlent 
Fteetiferons. Mephitic. Deleteriotis. 

Anr. Wholesome. GeniaL Beneficial. 
Sanative. Invigorative. Healthful In- 
noxiona. Kestorative. Remedial Hygeian. 

POLISH) V, tr, Pr. pdir, Lat. 

Stn. Bnmisb. Fnrbish. Levigate. 
Ant. Abrade. Scratch. 

Polite^ cw!/. Lat. pditus. See 

Sth. Elegant Befined. Well-bred. 
Oonrteons. Obliging. Complaisant 

AsT. Awkward. Rnde. Unconth. Ill- 
bred. Disconrteons. Boorish. Clownish. 

PoLiTio, adf. Gr. 7ro\iTiK6s, 
from rrdXts, a city. Appertain- 
ing to state adnunistration^ or 

SxK. Prudent Wise. Sagacious. Pro- 
vldttit Diplomatia 

Aid. Imprudent Unwise. Improvi- 
dent Undiplomatic. Impolitic. 

Pollute, v. tr, Lat. poUuere, 
jpoUtUum. Used physicsdly and 

Syk. Befoul. Taint Poison. Corrupt. 
Tarnish. Stain. 

Amt. Puriff. Clarify. Disinfect Filter. 

Pollution, n. See Pollute. 

Poltboon, to. It. poUrone, a 
lazy heggar, to which has been 
added the character of cowardice. 

Snr. Scoundrel. Coward. Hound. Skulk. 

Amt. Hero. Philanthropist. Qentleman. 
Benefactor. Model. Example. 

Pommel, v. tr. It. porno, a 
lump or knob. 

Syk. Beat Thump. Baste. Thrash. 
Strike. Cudgel 

AiTF. &noothe. Caress. Pat Stride. 

Pomp. See Pompons. 

Stn. Ostentation. Magnificence. Parade. 
Ceremony. Show. Splendour. Pageantry. 

Akt. Quiet Betirement Simplicity. 
Uncoremoniousness. Unadornmeut Privacy. 

Pompous, adj. Gr. irofiirrj, a 
procession. Displaying pomp or 
grandeur of exhibition ; and often 


used for such exhibitions as are 
excessive or misplaced. 

Sth. Magnificent Gorgeous. Splendid. 
Showy. Sumptuous. Ostentatious. Tni^id. 
Stiff. Inflated. Pretentious. CoxcombicaL 

Akt. Unpretending. Unobtrusive. 
Modest Unassuming. Plain-mannered. 

Pokdebable, adj. Lat. pon^ 
dus. Of appreciable weight. 

Stk. Appreciable. Determinable. Palp- 

AST. Inappreciable. Indeterminable. 
Impalpable. Imponderable 

PoNDEBOus, adj'. See Ponder- 
able. Of great weight. 

Snc. Weighty. Bulky. Massive. Heavy. 
Ant. Light Trifling. Airy. Volatile. 

PooB, adj. Ft. pauvre, Lat. 
pauper. The word is used iu the 
broadest sense, as well-nigh 
synonymous with deficient in any 
requirement whatsoever. 

Syn. Indigent Moneyless. Impecunious. 
Penniless. Weak. Meagre. Insufficient 
Deficient Faulty. Unsatisfactory. In- 
considerable. Thin. Scanty. Bald. 

Ant. Rich. Wealthy. Copious. Affluent 
Abundant Liberal. Large. Ample. 
Moneyed. Sufficient Satisfactory. Con- 

PopuLAB, adj\ Lat. Belong- 
ing to the people, and hence 
likely to find, or finding favour 
with the people. 

Syn. Common. Current Vulgar. Public 
General. Received. Favourite. Beloved. 

Akt. Exclusive. Restricted. Scientific. 
Exoteric. Unpopular. Odious. Detested. 

Populous, adj. See Popular. 
Full of people. 

Stn. Crowded. Dense. Swarming. 

Ant. Deserted. Thin. Scanty. Un- 
frequented. Unoccupied. Uninhabited. 

Porous, adj. Fr. poreux, Lat. 
poriis, a pore. 

Syn. Foraminous. Pervious. Per- 
meable. Percolable. 

Akt. Impervious. Impermeableu Im- 


Synonyms and ArUonyms. 

Portable, adj, Lat. portare, 
to carry. 

Stn. Moveable. Handy. Manageable. 

Ant. Ponderoos. Immoveable. Awk- 
ward. Unmanageable. Unhandy. 

Portend, v. tr. Lat. porteiv- 
dere, from protendere. 

Stk. Indicate. Threaten. Prr>gnostf- 
cate. Forbode. Angur. Presage. Herald. 

Ant. Contradict. Negative. Preclude. 
Forefend. Nullify. Contravene. Avert. 

Portentous, adj. See Por- 
tend. Indicative of ill. 

SrN. Indicative. Suggestive. Threaten- 
ing. Prophetia Predictive. Ominous. 

Ant. Auspicious. Hopeful. Cheer- 
ing. Assuring. Animating. Encouraging. 

Portion, n. Lai portie. See 

Portly, adj. From port, 
meaning carriage. 

Syn. Dignified. Burly. Imposing. 
Ant. Undignified. Unimposing. Mean. 

Portray, v. tr. Fr. portraire, 
Lat. protrahere. 

Syx. Draw. Delineate. Represent De- 

Ant. Misrepresent. Caricature. Mis- 

Pose, v. tr. Fr. poser, to place 
or bring to a stand. 

Syn. Puzzle. Perplex. Bewilder. Dumb* 
founder. Mystify. Embarrass. Daze. 

Ant. Enlighten. Unmystify. Indoctri- 
nate. Initiate. 

Positive, adj. Lat. positivus. 
Said of things and persons. 

Stn. Real Actual. Substantial. Ab- 
solute. Independent Unconditional. Ex- 
plicit Indisputable. Decisive. Express. 
Enacted. Assured. Confident Direct 
Dogmatic Overbearing. 

Ant. Negative. Insubstantial. Unreal 
Fictitious. Imaginary. Relative. Con- 
tingent Dependent Conditional. Im- 
plied. Dubious. Questionable. Moral. 
Uncertain. Doubtful Indirect Occa^ 
sionaL Suspicious. 

Possess, v. tr. Lat. possidere. 

Stx. Occupy. Enjoy Have. Hold. 

Akt. Abandon. Renoimoe. At^JiOe. 
Surrender. Lose. Forfeit Beaign. 

Possession, n. See Possess. 
Possible, adj. Lat. posaiHUs, 
posse, to be able. 

Stn. Practicable. Feasible. 
Ant. Impracticable. Impossible. 

Posterior, adj. Lat 

Stn. Later. Subsequent 
Ant. Earlier. Precedent Antecedent 

Posterity, n. See Posterior. 

Stn. Futurity. 
Ant. Ancestry. 

Postpone, v. tr. Lat post^ 
aftervMrds, ponere, to place. • 

Stn. Defer. Delay. Ihrorogae. Pro* 

Ant. Expedite. Despatch. Accelerate. 

Postulate, v. tr. Lat postu- 
lare, to demand, as somethmg to 
be conceded without argument 

Stn. Assume. Presuppose. 
Akt. Prove. Elaborate. Exemplify. 

Potent, adj. Lat potens, from 
posse, to be able, 

Stn. Powerful. EfBcacioua. Effective. 
Active. Strong. Energetic 

^Vnt. Weak. Impotent InefBdeot 
Ineffective. Inactive. Fmitless. Inopera* 

Potential, cwfy. lAt. potentia, 
potenttalis. A word especially 
of the scholastic philosophy. 

Stn. Possible. Implicit Undeveloped. 
Germinative. Immanent Virtual. 

Akt. Actual. Explicit. Developed. 
Objective. BeaL Express. 

Pound, v. tr. Aug. Sax. pQnd, 
a fold or enclosure. 

Snr. Imprison. Gage. Ooopk 

Akt. Discharge. liberate. Release. 

Pound, v. tr, Aug. Sax. 
punian, to bruise. 

Stv. Beat Bruise. Pulverize. Trtta- 

Ant. Soothe. Stroke. Amalgamate. 

Poverty. Fr. pauvrete, Lat 
paupertas. Applied to express 
want of wealth, and also defi- 
ciency, metaphorically^ in any 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


qnaliiy that enriches or adorns. 

Tower, n, Fr. jpouvoir, Lat. 
posse. It. potere, 

Stn. Facalty. Capacity. Capability. 
Fbtentiality. Ability. Strength. Force. 
Energy. Susceptibility. Influence. Do- 
minion. Sway. Conunand. Oovemment 
Agency. Autbority. Bale. Jurisdiction. 

Amt. Incapacity. Incapability. Im- 
potence. Inability. Weakness. Imbecility. 
Inertness. Insosoeptibility. Subjection. 
Powerlessness. Obedience. Subservience. 

PowKBPUL, adj\ See Power. 

PbAOTIOABLB, adj\ Gr. Trpor- 
reiv, to do, 7rpaKTiK6s, which may 
be done, 

Stk. Possible. Feasible. Usable. 

Ant. Impossible. Impracticable. ITn- 

PBAOTiOB,n. iSee Practicable. 

Stn. Usage. Habit Exercise. Ex- 
perience. Exerdtation. Action. Per- 

Ant. Disuse. Disbabltuation. Inex- 
perience. Theory. Speculation, flonper- 

PbAGMATIOAL^ adj\ Gr. npay 
fjMTiKos, busy ; and now used in 
the nnfEiYonrable sense of over^ 

Syv. Over-busy. Fussy. ConsequentiaL 
Officious. Meddlesome. 

Ant. Beserved. Uninterfering. Dis- 
tant. Unconcerned. Inobtnuive. Un- 
meddlesome. Inofilcioua. 

Pbaise, V, tr, Lat. pretium, 
pretiare, to set a high price upon 
in words, 

Stn. EulogisEe. Laud. Commend. ExtoL 
Applaud. Panegyrize. 

Aat. Blame. Censure. Discommend. 

Pbaise, n. See verb, 

Pbaisewobthy, adj. Worthy 

of praise. 

Stn. Commendable. Laudable. Meri- 

Ant. Blameable. Censureable. Bepre- 

Pbeamblb, w. Lat. prat, be- 
fore, and arr^ulare, to walk. 

Stn. Prefoce. Introduction. Exordium. 

Ant. Close. Termination. Peroration. 
Finale. Conclusion. 

Pbecabious, ndj, Preces, prayer. 
Uncertain, as if depending on an- 
other to grant. 

Syn. Hazardous. Perilous. Uncertain. 
Biskful. Unassured. 

Ant. Assured. Certain. Systematic. 
Safe. Immutable. 

Pbecaution, n, Lat. pros, be- 
fore, and caver e, cautus, to be 
aware, or take care, 

Stn. Forethought Provision. Pfe- 
munition. Anticipation. Prearrangement. 
Care. Providence. 

Akt. Carelessness. Thoughtlessness. 

Pbecede, V. tr, and int, Lat. 
p'CR, before, and cedere, to go. The 
word is nsed abstractedly and 
relatively; that is, to express 
either simple precedence, or pre- 
cedence in relation to another or 

Stn. Lead. Introduce. Herald. Usher, 

Ant. Succeed. Follow. 

Pbecedence, n. See verb, 
Stn. Superiority. Lead. Priority. Su- 
premacy. Pre-eminence. 

Ant. Inferiority. Sequence. Subordi- 
nation. Posteriority. 

Pbecedent, adj. See Precede. 

Stk. Anterior. Prior. Earlier. 
Ant. Subsequent Posterior. Later. 

Precedent, n. The same 
word as the former, bnt with a 
different pronunciation for the 
convenience of distinction. Some- 
thing going before which may 
serve as a warrant for another 

Stn. Instance. Example. Authority. 
Warrant. Antecedent Pattern. 

Ant. Prohibition. Dlswarrant. Dis- 

Pbecept, n, Lat. prceceptum. 

Stn. Buie. Maxim. Injunction. Com- 
mandment Doctrine. Direction. Law. 

Ant. Suggestion. Prompting. Instt 
gatlon. Impulse. 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

Pbecbptob, w. See Precept. 

Stn. Master. Teacher. Pteda^ogne. 

Akt. Pupil Learner. Sdiolar. Student 

PBBCiNOTS,n. lAi,jprcecimitum, 
from proecingere, to gird about. 

Stk. Purlieus. Environs. Limit. 

Ant. Heart Centre. Nucleus. 

Pbeoious, adj. Lat. pretiosus, 
from pretium, price. 

Stv. Dear. Valuable. Costly. Cherished. 
Treasured. Beloved. 

Ant. Cheap. Valueless. Worthless. 
Unvalued. Disesteemed. Unwpreciated. 

Pbecipitatb, adj. See Pre- 
cipitous and Eash. 

Pbboipitous, adj. Lat. prasceps, 
Tieadlong, from prce, and caput, the 

Syn. steep. Headlong. Abrupt Sheer. 

Ant. Shallow. Graduated. Inclined. 

Pbecisb, adj\ Lat. prce, and 
ccedere, precidere, to ctUoff,Bsii 
pruned of superfluities. 

Stn. Definite. Exact Nice. Pointed. 
Accurate. Terse. Punctilious. Cere- 
monious. Formal. 

Ant. Indefinite. Vague. Inexact 
Bough. Inaccurate. Loose. Circumlo- 
cutory. Ambagious. Tortuous. InformaL 

Pbboision, n. See Precise. 

Pbbcludb, V. tr, Lat. pros- 
dudere, to shut out. 

Stn. Prevent Obviate. Bar. 

Ant. Admit Promote. i\irther. Ad- 

Pbboooious, adj. Lat. prce- 
cox, from jyrce, before, and coquere, 
to cook or ripen. The word differs 
firom premature in being used 
more favourably, and of persons 
and not plans. 

Stn. Premature. Predeveloped. Over- 

Ant. Tardy. Backward. Slow-growing. 

Pbboognition, n. Lat prce, 
before, and cognitio, knowledge. 

Stn. Foresight Fordmowkdge. 
Ant. Beflection. BecoUection. 

Pbboonoeption, n. Pra, be- 
fore, and conceptio, firom ooncipere, 
to conceive. Used of the fEtculiy, 
and the object preconceived. 

Stk. Forethought. Anticipation. Fore- 

Ant. Copy. Portraitore. Observatko. 
Visi<ni. Bepresoitation. Delineation. 

Pbeoonoebted, o^;. Arranged 
or concerted (Lat. conserere) be- 

Stn. Prearranged. Conoocted. Pt«- 
pared. Premeditated. 

Ant. Extemporized. Unprepared. Un* 
concocted. Unpremeditated. 

PbeoubsoB; n. Prce, before, 
and cursor, a runner ^ from eursare, 
to run. Used of things as well 
as persons. 

Stn. Forerunner. Harbinger. Herald. 
Pioneer. Advance-guard. Cause. 

Ant. Follower. Consequent Etesalt 
Effect Event 

Pbbcubsoby, adj\ See Pre- 

Stn. Prevenient Antecedent Intro- 
ductory. Prefatory. Initiatory. Prior. 
Premonitory. Prognosticative. 

Ant. Subsequent Consequent Posterior, 
Entailed. Supervenient Eventual. 

Pbbdaceous, adf. Lat. prce- 
dax, given to seizing prey, prceda, 
prey. It differs firom predatory, 
as expressing rather the disposi- 
tion of animals, while predatory 
expresses no more than the clu^- 
racter of an incidental action, as, 
a predatory incursion or war. 

Stn. Bavenous. Bapaclous. Gand* 

Ant. Innocuous. Herbivorous. Gra- 

Pbbdeoessob, n, Lat. prce, 
before, and decedere, to depart. 
One who withdraws from a 
locality, or a government or 
place to make way for another. 

Stn. Ancestor. Forerunner. Elder. 
Ant.^ Posterity. Junior. Sucoessoc 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 



Stk. Foreordalnment Foredoom. Ne- 
cessity. Fate. Election. Preordination. 

Aht. Free-will. Freedom. Volition. 
Choioe. Spontaneity. 

Pbediotion, n. Lat. prcedi- 
cere, to declare beforehand. 

SiH. Prophecy. Prognoetication. Vati- 
dnatioa. Fore*annoancement. Premon- 
rtrattan. Foretelling. Forebodement Pre- 
sage. Augury. Foreshowing. 

Akt. Narration. Relation. History. 
Aooouit Report 

Pbkdilbction, n. Lat. proe, 
before, and dUigere, to love. 

Sni. Prepossession. Preference. Lean- 
ing. Liking. Fondness. Bias. Inclination. 
Predisposition. Tendency. 

AST. Prejudice. Aversion. Indisposi- 
tion. Antipathy. Disinclination. Apathy. 

Pbbdisposition, n. Lat. prce, 
before, and disponere, to dispose. 
See Predilection. 

Pbedominanox, n. Prce, be- 
fore, and Fr. dominant, from 
dominus, exercising influence. 

Sxv. Prevalence. Saperiority. Ascend- 
ancy. Bale. 

Am. Inferiority. SntiJection. Minority. 

Pbb-bminent, adj. Lat. prce, 
h^ore, and eminere, to be eminent, 

Sts. Fftramoont. Predominant Egre- 
gious. Consummate. Prevailing. 

Ant. Subordinate. Inferior. Minor. 

Pbefagb, n. Fr. preface, Lat. 
prcefari, to speak beforehand. 

Sth. Introduction. Proem. Prelude. 
Prologue. Preamble. Premiss. 

Ant. Peroration. Sequel Appendix. 
Epilogue. Postscript 

Pbbfatobt, adj. See Preface. 

Sin. Introductory. Prelusive. Initia- 
tive. Preliminary. Antecedent Prevenient 

Ant. Subsequent Concluding. Ter- 
minal. PerorationaL 

Pbxfeb, V. tr. Lat.jprcB, before, 
and feyre, to have or bear — 
either externally, and so to pro- 
mote or put forward, or in- 

ternally, and so to esteem before 

Syn. Choose. Elect Select Fancy. 
Promote. Advance. 

Ant. He^ect. Postpone. Defer. With* 
hold. Degrade. Depress. 

Pbefermbnt, n. See Prefer. 
Has, ecclesiastically, the senses 

Stn. Dignity. Promotion. Benefice. 
Ant. Degradation. Deprivation. Sos- 

Pbbfiguration, w. JjSii.prce, 
b^ore, and figura^ a figure, 
Stn. Type. Adumbration. 
Ant. Antitype. Fulfilment. 

Prbfix, V. tr. Pre and fix. 

Stn. Preface. 

Ant. Append. SuttJoin. Su£9x. Sup- 
plement Add. 

Pbbgnant, adj. Lat. prceg^ 
nans, for prcegenans, Prce, before, 
and genere, to beget. Used me- 
taphorically for fullness of a 
certain quality, meaning import 
and the like. 

Stn. Procreont Generative. Prolific. 
Teeming. Significant 

Ant, Sterile. Unproductive. Barren. 
Void. Meaningless. 

Pebgnablb, oc?;. 5ee Pregnaiit. 
More commonly nsed in negative 
composition Lnpregnable. 

Stn. Weak. Exposed. Ezpugnable. 

Ant. Impregnable. Inexpugnable. 

Pbejudicb, n. Jj&t prcp, 6e- 
fore, and judicium, judgment. 
The forming a judgment before 
trial or without it, and so used 
in an unfavourable sense of con- 
demning beforehand in one's 
own judgment, and hence in the 
derived general sense of harm. 

Stn. Prepossession. Predisposition. Bias. 
Unfairness. Injury. Harm. Iropairm^t. 
Detriment Partiality. Disadvantage. 

Ant. Judgment Fairness. Impartiality. 

Pbeliminaby, adj. Lat. prce, 
before, and limen, a threshold. 
Stk. Introductory. Prefotoiy. Iniila* 


Synonyms and Anlanyms. 

tarj. Preriooft. ProeniimL PRoinive. 
lYeiwory. AnteeedenL PrefMnUory. 

Arr. Sobsequmt. CooMqoent. Fol- 

Fbxludk, n. Lat i>rcp, hfore, 
and Iudf/8, pfay. 

Stv. Introdnctkn. Prefnntkm. Fxe- 
iiKe. Proem. Prelaskm. 
AxT. SeqoeL Condasfoo 

Pkematubb, adj. Lat. jwtp, 
hffr/re, and maturus, ripe, 

Stv. Hasty. Crude. Unaathenticated. 
Untimely. Preoodoos. Precipitate. 

AXT. Ripe. Timely. Seasonable. Op- 

Premeditate, v. <r. Lat.jpra, 
hefore, and meditari, to meditate. 

Stx. Plan. Propnee. Plot. Pre- 
arraitge. Prepare. Preoompoee. Pre- 

A^'T. Extemporize. Hazard. 

Premise, v, tr, and int. Free, 
h*>fore, and mittere, missus, Fr. 
mettre, to place. To lay down a 
statement beforehand in refer- 
ence to some other. 

Stx. Announce. Forcstate. Preface. 
AST. Add. Append. Infer. ChUber. 
Supplement. Sutijoin. 

Premises, n. Lat. pram,issa. 
Things laid down beforehand as 
the source of inference or by way 
of preamble. See Preamble. 

Stn. Antecedent Ground. 
Ant. Consequent. Inference. Deduction. 

Premium, n, Lat. proemium. 

Stn. Reword. Guerdon. Encourage- 
ment. Douceur. Enhancement Bribe. 

Ant. Penalty. Fine. Amercement 
Mulct Forfeit. Depredation. 

Preparation, n. See Prepare. 
Preparatory, adj\ See Pre- 
pare and Preliniinary. 

Pbbpabe, v. tr. Lat. proe, be- 
fore, and purare, to make ready. 

Stn. Fit Adapt. Qualify. Adjust 
Provide. Arrange. Order. Lay. Plan. 

Ant. MiMfit Misadapt Misnrovide. 
Derange. Di^arraqge. Demolish. Subvert 

Preponderant, adj. See Pre- 

PeKFOHUKBATK, v. M. Pftti 
heptre, uid ponduM, a tDeigfU, ^ 

Stx. Predo mi nate. Piwafl. 
AST. FaiL Sink. Suocmibu 

Pbxfobsbsino, adj. PrtB, 6c- 
/ore, and potsidere, possmsus, to 
potaess. Used in a foYoniable 

sense only. ^ 

Stv. Attncttveu Attnrini^ Cbarniiu^ 

AST. EepnUvc: Uosttnctive. SaristK 

Pbsfobtkboub, adj. Free, he- 
fore, and posterus, behind. Lite- 
rally, having that first which 
onght to be last, as in the pro- 
verb, ' to put the cart before the 
horse;' hence, generally, oat<^ 
due place. 

Stk. Monstrona. Ezoctitant. Uih 
reasonaMe. Absurd. 

An. JoBt Doe. Fdr. BenooaUe. 
Moderate. Bight Jndicioa. Otderiy. 

. Pbebooatiyb, n. Free, hrfore, 
and rogare, to ask. Politically, to 
ask or take votes. The tribe or 
century in the Eoman public 
assemblies which was elected to 
give its vote first was called piffi- 

Syn. Right Privilege. 
• AST. Disqualification. Disfirandiisement 

Presage, n. Lat prcesagium, 
from proe, before, and sagire, U» 
trace or perceive acutely. 

Stn. Omen. Indication. Prognoetie. 

Ant. Fulfilment Event Occorrenoe. 

Prescribe, v. tr. Free, hrfore, 
and scribere, to write or delitieate, 

Sts. Enjoin. Order. Impose. Reoom- 
mend. Indicate. 

Airr. Inhibit Prohibit Diaoomitenanoe. 

Prescription, n. See Pre- 
scribe. It has also the sense of 

Presence, n. Lai prcBseniia, 
from pros, before, and esse, to be. 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


It has the secondary meaning of 
carriage or demeanour. 

Stn. Nearneea. Influence. Intercoarae. 

Ant. Remoteness. Absence. Separation. 

Pbesent, adj. See Presenca 

Stn. See Presence. 

Pbesbntation, n. Lat. prce- 
sejitare. A placing in the pre- 
sence of another by way of intro- 
duction or gift. 

Stk. Introduction. Exhibition. OflFer. 
Delivery. Gift Donation. Bestowal Grant. 

Akt. Withdrawal. Removal Conceal- 
ment. Suppression. Retention. With- 
holding. Refusal. Nonpresentation. 

Pbesentimekt, n. Free, he- 
fore, and sentire, to perceive or 
feel, A feeling not definable of a 
coming event. 

Stn. Foreboding. Foretaste. Fore- 
thought Prescience. Forecast 

'AsT. Surprise. Inexpectancy. Miscal- 

Preservation, w. Lat. jproe 
and servare, Fr. preservation, 

Snr. Safety. Securi^. Conservation. 
Integrity. Protection. Nurture. Guardian- 
ship. Oare. 

Ant. Abandonment Exposure. Peril. 
Insecurity. Impairment Infringement 
Ii^ury. Damage. 

Phbsidknt, n. Lat. prce, be- 
fore, and sedere, to sit. One who 
sits before others or over them, 
in an assembly. 

Syk. Chairman. Moderator. PrindpaL 

Ant. Member. Subordinate. Consti- 
tuent. Corporation. Society. Ward. In- 

Press, v. tr. and int, Lat. 
premere, pressm. Used literally 
and metaphorically. 

Srw. Urge. Crowd. CompeL ' Force. 
Squeeze. Crush. Compress. Express. 
Cunstrain. Hurry. Instigate. Inculcate. 
Impress. Throng. Encroach. Lean. 
Weigh. Harass. 

Ant. Relax. Inhibit Persuade. En- 
tice. Allure. Solicit 1'ouch. Skim. 
Graze. Fi«e. Liberate. Ease. Avoid. 

Pressing, ad}. See Press. 

Sin. Urgent Compalsory. Importu- 

Ant. Unhnportant Slight TriviaL 

Pressure, n. See Press. 

Presume, v. tr, and int. Lat. 
prcB, before, and sumere, to take. 

Stn. Suppose. Anticipate. Apprehend. 

Ant. Infer. Deduce. Prove. Argue. 
Retire. Withdraw. Hesitate. Distrust 

Presumption, n. See Pre- 

Syn. Anticipation. Supposition. Hy- 
pothesis. Probability. Assumption. Un- 
derstanding. Condition. Concession. For- 
wardness. Arrogance. Audacity. Bold- 

Ant. Proof. Pe<1uctioa Inference. 
Demonstration. Verification. Fact Cer- 
tainly. Modesty. Diffidence. Backward- 
ness. Bashfulness. Hesitation. 

Presumptive, adf. See Pre- 
snme. Used of evidence. 

Syn. }*robable. Antecedent 
Ant. Demonstrative. Established. 

Presuppose, v. tr. Free, 6e- 
forehand, and supponere, 

Stn. Presume. Assume. Postulate. 

Ant. Prove. Establish. Infer. Deduce. 
Ai^pie. Demonstrate. 

Pretence, n, Sp. pretenaa, 
Lat. proB, before, ana tendere, to 
advance or stretch. Something 
put forward as a false ground of 

Syn. Excuse. Pretext Fabrication. 
Simulation. Cloak. Mask. Colour. Show. 

Ant. Verity. ReaUty. Truth. Sim- 
plicity. Candour. Guilelessness. Open- 
ness. Veritabieness. Actuality. Fact 

Pretend, v. tr. and int. See 

Stn. Feign. Simulate. Offer. Allege. 
Exhibit Propound. Affect 

Ant. Verily. Unmask. Detect. Test. 
Substantiate. Refute. 

Pretender, n. See Pretend. 
Pretension, n. See Pretend. 
Pretext, n. Lat. prcetextum, 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

from proB, heforey and texere, to 
weave. See Pretence. 

Pbevailino, adf. Free and 
vcdere, to avail. 

Stn. Controlling. Ruling. Influential 
Operative. Predominant. 

Ant. Mitigated. Diminisliing. Subor- 
dinate. Powerless. 

Pbevalenob, n. ^See Prevail- 

Stm. Custom. Power. Influence. 
Operation. Extension. Predominanlse. 

Ant. Disuse. Desuetude. Obsoleteness. 
Decay. Evanescence. Disappearance. 
Mitigation. Diminution. Subsidence. Sub- 
jection. Subordination. Collapse. Aban- 
donment Abolition. 

Pbevaeioate, v. int. Free and 
varicare, to straddle. To play a 
double and dishonest part, as if 
walking on two levels, or collud- 
ing with mutually hostile parties. 
A term of the old civil law. 

Stn. Sliuffle. Quibble. Equivocate. 

Ant. Affirm. Asseverate. Maintain. 

Prbvbnient, adj. Free, be- 
fore, and venire, to come, 

Stn. Preliminanr. Prefatory. Antece- 
dent Initiatory. Introductory. 

Ant. Subsequent Consequent Fol- 
lowing. Attending. 

Prevent, v, tr. Free, hrfcyre, 
and venire, ventus, to come. Of 
old meant to go before to pre- 
pare the way, now to obstruct it. 

Stn. Hinder. Obstruct. Bar. Neutra- 
lize. Nullify. Thwart Intercept Anti- 
cipate. Forefend. 

Ant. Promote. Aid. Facilitate. Ex- 
pedite. Encourage. Advance. Accelerate. 
Induce. Cause. Produce. 

Prevention, n. See Prevent. 

Previous, adJ, Fro?, heforey 
and via, a way, 

Syn. Antecedent Prior. Preceding. 
Anterior. Foregoing. Former. Earlier. 

Ant. Subsequent Posterior. Succeed- 
ing. Following. Later. 

Prsy^ n, Lai 'prosda. \ 

Stx. fooiL Booty. Plondsr. Ripine. 
PUlage. Victim. Seizure. Loot 
Ant. Earnings. Dues. Bigfata. 

Price, n, Lat. pretium, 

Stn. Cost Figure. CSiarge. KxpeiMe. 
Compensation. value. Appniseiiieat. 

Ant. Donation. Disooont AUowaooe. 
Remittance. Abatement 

Priceless, adj. See Price. 

Stn. InesUmable. Invaluable. 
Ant. Cheap, yaluelesa. 

Pride, n, Aug. Sax. pryta,pryt, 

Stn. Loftiness. Haughtiness. LocdU* 
ness. Self-exaltation. 

Ant. Lowlmess. Meeknees. Modestj. 

Priggish, adf. Like a prig. 

Stn. CoxcomblcaL Dandified. FoppUL 
Affected. Prim. 

Ant. Plain. Sensible. Unaffectel 
Shnple-tninded. Simple^^nanDered. 

Prim, adf, Der. uncertain. 

Stn. Formal. Precise. Demme. 
Starched. Stiff. Self-oonadous. Unbend- 
ing. Priradsh. 

Ant. LfnformaL Easy. GeniaL Un* 
affected. Natural Free. Naive. 

Primary, ac(f. Frimarius, 
from primits, first, 

Stn. First Oririnal. EarUest Ele- 
mentary. Chiet PrindpaL Important 

Ant. Secondary. Subordinate. Posterior. 
Unimportant Inferior. Subsequent Later. 

Prime, n, Lat primus. Ex- 
pressive of a first or foremost 
stage of excellence. 

Stn. Zenith. CuUnination. Perfectioo. 
Dawn. Spring. Cream. Flower. 

Ant. Decadence. Wane. Evening. Re* 
ftise. Winter. Decay. 

Prime, adj. See above. 

Stn. Excellent Superezcellent Vix^ 
rate. Perfect Consummate. 

Ant. Inferior. Impaired. Waning. 
Deteriorated. Ordinary. Second-rate. De- 

Primeval, adj, Frimm, first, 
and oevum, age, 

Stn. Archaic. PrimordiaL Indigenous. 
Autochthonic. Aboriginal. Pristine. 

Ant. Subsequent Recent Modem. 
Imported. Adventitious. 

Primitive, adj, Frimus, first 
or early. Belonging to an early 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


CfT past age, but restricted to 
matters of morals or custom. 

Stn. Old-fashionecL Primeval Quaint. 
Simple. Unsophisticated. Archaic. Pris- 

Akt. Modern. New-fimgled, Sophis- 
ticated. Modish. 

Pbimobdial, adj. Primus, 
and oriri, to spring. See Pri- 

Princblt, adj\ lAt. princeps, 
Stk. Imperial Munificent. Magnifi- 
cent. Superb. Aug^t. Regal Royal. 

Airr. Beggarly. Mean. Niggardly. 

Principal, adj. Lat. princi- 

Snr. Highest First Main. Leading. 
Ghiefl Primaiy. Foremost Pre-eminent 

Airr. Inferior. Subordhiate. Secondary. 
Sopplemental Subject Auxiliary. Minor. 

Pbinoiple, n. Lat. princi- 
pium, a rendering of the word 
dpxfif a term of tiie Greek phi- 

Sin. Source. Origin. Motive. Cause. 
Energy. Substance. Element Power. 
Faculty. Truth. Tenet Law. Doctrine. 
Axiom. Maxim. Postulate. Rule. 

Amt. Exhibition. Manifestation. Appli- 
catkoL Development Issue. Exercise. 
Operation. Formation. Action. 

Prior, adj, It&tfoi^mer, See 

Prismatic, adj. Appertain- 
ing to, or, in its common sense, 
formed by a prism, from irpla-fia, 
Lat. prisma, something cut or satun 
into faces, npiC^iv, to saw, 

Sts. Iridescent Crescent Polychro" 

Akt. Adux)matlc Colourless. 

Pristinb, adj\ Lat. from ob- 
solete pris, whence prior. See 
Primeval and Primitiye. 

Privaot, n. Lat. privus, prt" 

Stk. Retirement Secrecy. Solitude. 
Sedasion. Retreat 

Airr. Publicity. Currency. Notoriety. 

Private, adj\ See Privacy. 

Privation, n. Lat. privare, 
to deprive. 

Stn. Deprivation. Destitution. Absence. 
Negation. Loss. Bereavement. 

Ant. Accession. Supply. Restoration. 
Benefaction. Restitution. Presence. Com* 
pensation. Recovery. Privilege. 

Privilbgb, n. Lat. privHc' 

Syn. Prerogative. Immunity. Fran- 
chise. Right Liberty. 

Ant. Disfranchisement Disqualification. 
Exclusion. Prohibition. Inhibition. 

Prtvt, adj\ See Private. 

Prize, n, Fr. prise, from pris, 
part, of prendere, to take or seize. 
Something seized or carried oflf, 
whether milawfully, as booiy, or 
the reward of successful effort 
pr competition. 

Stn. Booty. Spoil Plunder. Prey. 
Forage. Trophy. Laurels. Guerdon. Pre- 
mium. Honours. Ovation. Palm. 

Ant. Loss. Forfeiture. Fine. Penalty. 
Amercement Sacrifice. Disappointment 
Failure. Brand. Stigma. Infamy. Mnlct 

Probability, n. Lat. prohor' 

Stn. Likelihood. Presumption. Veri- 
similitude. Chance. 

Ant. Unlikelihood. Improbability. Im- 
possibility, luconceivableness. 

Probable, adj. See Proba- 

Probation, n. Lat. prohatio, 
probare, to prove. 

Stn. Essay. Examination. Test Trial. 
Experiment Proof. Criterion. Touch- 
stone. Ordeal. Verification. 

Ant. Licence. Irresponsibility. Non- 

Probe, v. tr. Lat. probare, to 

Stn. Prove. Test Scrutinize. Verify-. 
Investigate. Examine. Search. Sift Ex- 

Ant. Skim. Misinvesttgate. Blink. 
Misexamine. Slur. Miss. Gloss. 

Probity, n. Lat. probitas. 

Stn. Soundness. Virtue. Integrity. 
Honesty. Uprightness. RecUtude. Prin- 
ciple. Conscientiousness. 


Synonyms and Antonyms^ 

Ant. Difihonesfy. Dlslntegrity. Un- 
Boiindness. Vice. UncoDscientlousness. 
Roguery. Rascality. 

Problbmatical, adj. Pro- 
blem. Gr. irpo, forward, and 
QdWciVt to cast or place. 

Six. Dubious. Questionable. Uncer- 

AsT. Evident Obvious. Self-evident. 
Certain. Demonstrable. 

Proceed, v. int. Lat. proce- 
derej to qo forward. 

Stx. Move. Pass. Advance. Progress. 
Continue. Issue. Arise. Emanate. Flow. 

Ant. Recede. Deviate. Retreat Stand. 
Stop. Stay. Desist Discontinue. Ebb. 

PROCEEDma, n. See Proceed. 

SrN. Step. Measure. Transaction. Pro- 
cedure. Conduct Behaviour. Action. 

Ant. Abandonment Desistence. De- 
viation. Discontinuance. Inaction. 

Procession, n. See Proceed. 
A fixed and orderly proceeding 
or movement of more than one. 

SrN. Train. March. Caravan. File. 

Ant. Rabble. Herd. Rush. Disorder. 

Mob. Confusion. Rout 

Proclaim, v. tr, Lat. procLa- 
mare, to call out 

Syn. Announce. Publish. Promulgate. 
Declare. Enunciate. 

Ant. Repress. ConceaL Silentiate. 
Obliviate. Secrete. 

Proclamation, n. ' See Pro- 
Proolivitt, n, Lat. prodir 

vitas, j)rodivis, prone, 

Syn. Tendency. Propensity. Bias. Gravi- 
tation. Disposition. Inclination. Prone- 

Ant. Aversion. DisincUnation. Indis- 

Procrastination, w. Latjoro, 
for, and eras, to-morrow. The 
habit of putting off to the mor- 
row, or indefinitely. 

Syn. Dilatoriness. Delay. 
Ant. Timeliness. Punctuality. Promp- 
titude. Alacrity. 

Procure, v. tr. Lat. procvr 
rare. i 

. Stn. Acquire. Provide. Gain. Get 
Contrive. EiFect 

Ant. Miss. Lose. Forfeit. Miqarovide. 

Prodigal, adj. 'LAt.prodigere, 
from pro, and agere, to drive or 
throw forvxird or away, 

Stn. Lavish. Profose. Extravagant 
Rectdess. WastefhL Squandering. 

Ant. Fru^L Saving. HoanUng. Eoo- 
nomicaL Niggardly. Mis^ly. Close. 

Prodigious, adj. Jj&i. prodi- 
gium, a yrodujy. 

Stn. Marvellous. Portentous. Wno- 
derfhL Astounding. Enormous. Mon- 
strous. Amazing. 

Ant. Ordinary, bommon-place. Eveiy- 
day. Usual. Familiar. Moderate. 

Prodigy, n. See Prodigious. 

Produce, v. tr. Lat. produr 

Stn. Exhibit Bear. Furnish. AifonL 
Cause. Create. Originate. Yield. EzteuL 
Prolong. Lengthen. 

Ant. Withdraw. Retain. Stifle. With- 
hold. Neutralize. Destroy. Anniliilate. 
Curtail. Shorten. Contract Reduce. 

Product, n. See Produce. 

Stn. Fruit Result Issue. Conse- 
quence. EflTect Entjanation. Work. 

Ant. Cause. Principle. Power. Mo- 
tive. Energy. Operation. Action. Ten^ 
dency. Law. 

Produotivb, adj. See Pro- 

Stn. Fruitful. Ftoliflc. Fertile. EflS- 
dent Causative. 

Ant. UnfruitftiL Barren. Sterile. Ud- 
productlve. Inefficient. Effete. 

Proemial. adj. Gr. vpooifuov^ 
firom irpo, before, and Sifios, a 
way. Something which leads 
the way; a preface or introduo- 
tion. See Prefatory. 

Profane, adj. Pro, forth, and 
fanum, a temple. Not dedicated 
to the service of any god or 
temple ; hence nnconsecratod, 
and, finally, unholy. 

Stn. Unconsecrated. Secular. Tempo- 
ral. Unsanctified. Unholy. IxretigioaB. 
Irreverent Ungodly. Wicked. Godlees. 
Impious. BlasphcmouB. 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 

Am. Holy. Oonsecrated. Sacred. Spi- 
rituaU Sanctified. Reverent. BeligiouB. 
Godly. Pious. Devout. 

Pbofess, V, tr, Lat. profiteri, 
fessus. To declare on one's own 
behalf, whether sincerely or in- 

Stv. Declare. Avow. Acknowledge. 
Own. Confests. Pretend. Proclaim. 

AST. C!onceal. Suppress. Disown. Dis- 
avow. Repudiate. Renounce. AtiJuxe. 

Pboffeb, V. tr. Lat. proferrey 
to bring forward, 

Stn. Offer. Propose. Tender 
Ant. Withhold. Detain. 

Pbofioibncy, n. lAi.proficere, 
to make yrogress, 

Snr. Success. Advancement Progress. 
Improvement Forwardness. 

Am*. Failure. Backwardness. Unsuc- 
cess. Tardiness. Relapse. 

Pbopioibnt, n. See Profi- 

Sts. Adept Master. Expert 

Amt. Tyro. Novice. Ignoramus. Dunce. 

Pbofioient, adj\ See noun. 

Stk. Expert Clever. Practised. Skilled. 
Trained, versed. Advanced. Conversant 

Aut. Backward. Ignorant Unskilled. 
JnooQversant Ill-versed. Awkward. Clumsy. 

Pbopit, n. See Proficiency. 

Snr. Gain. Emolument Advantage. 
AvalL Acquisition. Benefit. 

Aft. Losm. Detriment Damage. Dis- 
advantage. Waste. 

Pbopitablb, adj. See Profit. 

Stk. Gainful. Advantageous. De^>ir• 
able. Beneficial Useful. Productive. Re- 

Ant. Unprofitable. Disadvantageous. 
Undesirable. Detrimental Unbeneficial 
Unprofitable. Useless. Vain. Fruitless. 
Unproductive. Unremunerative. 

Pbotitless, adj. See Profit- 

Pbofligaot,«. lOLtprofligare, 
from pro andfligere, to strike or 
throw forward or away. ^ A reck- 
less casting away of what is right 
and good. 

Sth. Shamelessness. Dissoluteness. De- 
pfavity. Reprobation. 

Ant. Virtue. Probity. Integrity. Prin- 
ciple. GoDScientiousness. 


Pbopligatb, adj. See Profli- 

Propound, adj. Lat. profuri' 
du8. Used physically and me- 

Stn. Deep. Fathomless. Abysmal. 
Penetrating. Intimate. 

Ant. Shallow. Superficial 

Pbopusb, adj. Lat. profusvs, 
prOy and funder€,fusu8, to pour. 

Stn. Copious. Lavish. Prodigal Boun- 
tiful Extravagant E.xuberant. 

Ant. Scanty. Sparing. Chary. Parsi- 
monious. Niggardly. Churlish. Poor. 

Profusion, n. See Profuse. 

Syn. Copiousness Prodigality. Abun- 
dance. Exuberance. Extravagance. Mul- 
titude. MasH. Heap. Load. Flood. 

Ant. Scarcity. Economy. Poverty 

Parsimony. Drain. Dole. Driblet Pit- 

Progeny, n. Lat. progenies. 

Syn. Offspring. Young. Issue. Scion. 
Ofiishoot. Descendants. Posterity. 
Ant. Stock. Parentage. Ancestry. 

Prognostic, ??. Gr. irpoyvtoo- 
TLKos, from irp6, before, and -yty- 
vaxTKCLv, to know, 

Stn. Sign. Indication. Symptom. Pre- 
monition. Harbhiger. Token. Presage. 

Ant. Result Reminder. Memorial. 
Record. Register. Misindicatlon. Mis- 

Prognosticate, v, tr. See 

Syn. Foretell Presage. Predict Indi- 
cate. Betoken. 

Ant. Record. Register. Recal. Re- 
member. Note. Rehearse. 

Programme, r... From. Gr. 
irpo, before, and ypdfifia, a writing. 

Syn. Advertisement Notice. Plan. 

A>T. Review. Rehearsal. Repetition. 
Resume. Analysis. Precis. 

Progress, n. Lai progressus, 
from progredior, progressus, to ad- 

Syn. Advancement Advance. Move- 
ment Proceeding. Way. Journey. Pro- 
ficiency. Speed. Growth. 

Ant. Delay. Stoppage. Retreat Stay. 
Retrogression. Failure. Relapse. 


Synonyms atid Antonyms. 

Pbogbess, V, tnt. See noun. 
Progression, n. See Pro- 

Stn. Series. Gradation. Rate. 
Anr. Inversion. Dimination. . 

Prohibit, v. tr, Lat prohi- 
here, hihitus, 

Stn. Forbid. Interdict. Debar. Dis- 
allow. Inhibit. 

Aht. Permit Grant Allow. Sanc- 

Prohibition, n. See verb. 

Project, v. tr. and int, Lat. 
projicere, jectus, facere, to cast. 

Syk. Throw. Cast HurU Propel. 
Propound. Intend. Forecast Jut Ex- 
tend. Reach. Btdge. 

Akt. RccaL Withdraw. Draw. Re- 
tract Pull. Attract Rebound. Recoil. 
Adduce. Revert Rebate. 

Project, n. See verb. 

Stw. Plan. Purpose. Design. Scheme. 
Aht. Hazard. Chance. Venture. 

Projectile, n. See Project. 

Stn. Missile. 

Amt. Weapon. Side-arms. Hand-^rms. 

Projection, n. See Project. 

Stn. Protuberance. Prominence. Con- 
vexity. Propulsion, Emission. 

Amt. Reoess. Cavity. Concavity. Re- 
turn. Indentation. Hollow. Attraction. 
ReooiU Rebound. Ricochet Reaction. 

Prolific, adj. Pr. prolifiqtie, 
Lat. proks, offspring, and facere, 
to make or produce. See Produc- 

Prolix. laX. pro, and laxus, 

Stn. DifTuse. Lengthy. Tedious. Or- 
cumlocutory. Prosaic. 

Ant. Condensed. Terse. Epigramma^ 
tic Curt Brief. Laconic 

Prolong, v. tr. Lat. prdow- 
gare, from longus, long. 

Stn. Lengthen. Extend. Protract Con- 

Akt. Curtail. Shorten. Contract Dis- 

Prominent, adj. Lat. promt- 
nenSf part, of prominere, 

Stv. Jutting. Protuberant Believed. 
Embossed. Extended. Manifest Con- 
spicuous. Eminent Distinguifihed. Main. 

Important Leading. Cbaractertatic. Di»> 

Ant. Receding. Concave. Bel»ted. in- 
dented. Hollowed. Engraved. Intailed. 
Withdrawn. Inconspicuous. Minor. Sub- 
ordinate. Secondary. Unimportant In- 
distinctive. Undistinguishable. 

PROMiscuotJS, adj. Lat pro- 
miscuus, from pro, and miscere, 
to mix. 

Stn. Mingled. Confused. UndlBtin- 
gui^faed. Unselected. Unarranged. Undit- 
tributed. Unassorted. Common. Unre- 
served. Casual. Disorderly. Unordered. 

Ant. Sorted. Select Orderly. Arranged. 
Distributed. Reserved. Assorted. Exclu- 
sive. Nice. 

Promise, v. tr. Lat. promit- 
tere, missus. To engage by word 
of mouth, as distinguished from 
a bond. 

Stn. ikigage. Assure. 

Ant. Covenant Pledge. Stipulate. , 

The word is also used intran- 
sitively, as, * the thing promises 
well;' and when transitive, has 
either a single or a double accu- 
sative, as, * to promise a person,* 
' to promise a thing,' and * to pro- 
mise a person a tlung.' 

Promontory, n. Lat. promon- 
torium, pro, and moj*s, a moun- 

Stn. Headland. Jutland. Cape. 

Ant. Bay. Cove. Recess. 

Promote, v. tr. Lat. promo- 
vere, motus. 

Stn. Aid. Further. Advance. Exdte. 
Exalt. Raise. Elevate. Prefer. 

Ant. Discourage. Repress. Hinder. 
Check. Allay. VepreBt. Degrade. Dis- 

Promotion, n. See Promote. 

Prompt, adj. Lat promptus, 
part, of promere, to bring forth, to 
bring to light or to view. 

Stn. Ready. Alert. Responsive. Ac* 

Ant. Unready. Sluggish. Irresponsive. 
Inactive. * 

Promptitude, n. See Prompt 

Stn. Readiness. Qulckneas. Alertness. 
Alacrity. Activity. 

Akt. Unreadineas. Sluggiahnesi. Inao- i 

tion. InerineMk TutUucH. Hedtation 


Synonyms cmd Antonyms, 


Promulgate, v, tr. Corrupted 
for provvlgate, Lat. pro, and 
vtdgtm, the common peitple. The 
etymology is seen in the synonym 

Stv. Divulge. Announce. Publish. 
Spre-id. Propound. Disseminate. 

Amt. Repress. ConoeaL Suppress. 
Stifle. Hush. Burke. Discountenance. 

Pronb, adj, Lat. pronus, 
leaning forward. 

Stk. Disposed. Inclined. Bent Tend- 
ing. Apt. 

Amt. Imiisposed. Disinclined. Unapt 

Prokoxtnce, V, tr, Lat. pro- 
nuntiare, nuntitis, a messenger, 

Btk. Articulate. Utter. Declare. Pro- 
pound. Deliver. Assert. Afllrm. 

AxT. Mispronounce. Mispropound. Mis- 
afilmi. Suppress. SU^e. Silence. Choke. 
Swallow. Gabble. Mumble. 

JPBONUNOiATioir, ». See Pro- 

Proof, n. Old Fr. prove, Lat. 
prcbare, to prove, 

Snr. Test Trial Examination. Cri- 
terion. Essay. Establishment Comproba- 
tion. Demonstration. Evidence. Testi- 
mony. Scrutiny. 

Axrr. Disproof. Failure. Invalidity. 
Sbortpcoming. Fallacy. Undemonstrative- 
nesa. Reprobation. 

Prop, n. Dutch prcppen, to 
thrust. Staff: 

Stk. Support Stay. Buttress. Shore. 
Strut Pin. 

Akt. Superstructure. Superincumbent^. 
Top-wei|^t Gravitation. Extirpation. 
SuDverter. Destroyer. 

Propagate, v, tr, and int, 
Lat. propagare, 

Stk. Breed. Generate. Produce. Ori- 
ginate. Spread. Extend. Expand. Dis- 
seminate. Diffuse. Increase. Multiply. 
Promulgate. Propound. Broach. 

AST. Extinguish. Strangle. Stifle. 
Neutralize. Reduce. Contract Suppress. 
Diminish. Fail Dwindle. Die. Contra- 

Propel, v, tr, Lat propeUere, 
to drive fortuard, 

Sth. HurL Pntlect Driv«». Urge. 
An. Retard. Detaia Withhold. 

Propensity, n, Lat. propen- 
8U8, propendere, to hang forward. 
See ProcliTity, 

Proper, adj. Lat. 'proprius. 
Literally that which is one's own ; 
hence, secondly, that which is 
peculiarly, and, lastly, that 
which is generally, iitting. 

Syn. Peculiar. Appertinent Personal. 
Own. Constitutional. Special. Befitting. 
Adapted. Suited. Suitable. Appropriate. 
Right Decent. Becoming. 

Am*. Common. Inapp(>rtinent Alien. 
UniversaL Non-special. Unbefitting. Uu- 
adapted. Unsuited. Unsuitable. Inappro- 
priate. Wrong. Indecent Unbecoming. 

Prophetic, adj, Gr. npo(t)r}n] ?. 
Not 80 much a foreteller of events 
as a speaker on behalf of another, 
from 7rpo<^aVai, to speak forth, as 
on behalf of some god. 

Syn. Predictive. Omhious. Portentous. 
Premonitory. Fatidical Oracular. Sibyl- 

Ant. Historic. Narrative. Chronicled. 
Recorded. Recitative, Commemorative. 

Propinquity, n. Fropinquus, 
from prope, near. 

Stn. Nearness. Proximity. Contiguity. 

Ant. Distance. Remoteness. Longitude. 

Propitiate, v, tr, Propitius, 
favourable. To make favourable. 

Stn. Conciliate. Secure. Appease. 
Win. Reconcile. 

Ant. Exasperate. Alienate. Estrange. 

Propitious, adj. See Propi- 
tiate. Applied to persons and 

Stn. Tinlely. Favourable. Auspicious. 
BeneficlaL Friendly. Well-disposed. 

Ant. Untimely. Untoward. Unseason- 
able. Unfavourable. Inauspicious. Un- 
friendly. Hostile. Antagonistic. Adverse. 
Ill-disposed. Unpropitious. 

Proportion, n, Lat. piv, and 
portio, a share. 

Stk. Adaptation. Relation. Rate. Dis- 
tribution. Ac^ustment. Symmetry. In- 
terrelationship. Uniformity. Correlation. 

Ant. Misproportion. Misafljustment. 



Synonyms and Antonyms. 

iDcongmity. Dlsparitr. Disharmony. Dis- 
order. Irrelation. DiqproportioQ. 

Peoposal, n. Lat propoTiere, 
to propose, 

Snr. OiTer. Overture. Tender. Sug- 

Ant. Withholding. Withdrawal Ee- 
tentlon. Reticence. Dissuasive. Warning. 

Propose, v. tr. See Proposal. 

Proposition, t?. See Proposal. 
In addition to the sense of pro- 
posal, this word has that of — 

Stn. Statement. AfBmiation. Declara- 
tion. Sentence. 

Ant. Misstatement Inteijection. BabeL 
Jargon. Sound. Riddle, i'aradoz. 

Propound, v, tr. See Pro- 

Syk. Propose. Promulgate. Express. 
Declare. Maintain. Advocate. Propagate. 

Ant. Heprefis. Suppress. Contradict. 
Withdraw. Repudiate. Renounce. Ab. 
Jure. RecaL Retract 

Propriety, n. See Proper. 

Prorogation, n. See Pro- 

Prorogue, v. tr. Pro, for- 
luard, and rogare, to ask, to ask 
'botes. To defer the voting day. 

Syn. A<^oum. Postpone. Defer. 
Ant. Convene. Continue. Prolong. 
Expedite. Despatch. 

Prosaic, adj. Having the 
character oF prose (prorsa oratio, 
straightforward speech) in an ex- 
cessive degree. 

Syk. DulL Matter-of-fact Tedious. 

Akt. Poetia Animated. Interesting. 

Lively. Fervid. ELsquent Graphic 

Proscribe, v, tr. Fro and 
scribere, to write. The sense of 
this word is derived from the 
ancient Koman custom of writing 
up in public the names of those 

Sersons who were sentenced to 

Snr. Denounce. Condemn. Reject In- 

Ant. Permit Sanctioii. Encourage. 

Prose, n. See Prosaic. 

Prosectttb, V, tr, Lat. prose" 
qui, secutus. The radical idea of 
the word is, to follow out. This 
may be for purposes of investi- 
gation, as a subject, or an in- 
quiry, or a person, for the sake 
of bringing him, as an offender, 
to justice. 

Stn. Follow. Pursue. Investigate. 
Conduct Summon. Arraign. 

Ant. Drop. Discontinue. Abandon. 
Misconduct Misinvestigate. Hiss. Libe- 
rate. Excmerate. Acquit 

Prosecution, «. See Prose- 

Proselyte, n, Gr. irpofrff 
XxfTos, Literally, a comer to or 
comer over; that is, from one 
religion to another. 

Stn. Convert Catechumen. Neophyte. 
Ant. Misbeliever. InfideL Habitue. 
Pillar. Prop. Buttress. 

Prospect, n, ZAt, prospectus, 
a look out, from prospicere, to 
look out. 

Stn. View: Vision. Field. Landscape. 
Hope. Anticipation. Probability. 

Ant. Viewlessness. Dimness. Obscu- 
rity. Darkness. Cloud. Veiling. Ooculta- 
tion. Hopelessness. Improbability. 

Prospectus, n. See Prospect 

Syn. Programme. Plan. Catalogue. 
Announcement. BiU. Scheme. Gompoi* 

Ant. Subject Transaction. Proceed- 
ing, &c 

Prospbritt, n, Lat. prosper, 
and prosperus, from pro, accord- 
ing to, and spes, hope, 

Stn. Success. Weal. Welfiure. 
Ant. Unsuccess. Woe. Adversily. 
Failure. Reverse. 

Prosperous, adj. See Pros- 

Prostrate, adj\ Lat. orew- 
ternere, prostrcctus, to throw down. 

Synonyms and Anionyms, 


8th. Fallen. Flat Procumbent. Life- 
less. Ruined. 

AuT. Risen. Vertical. Erect Up- 
right Reiiivigorated. Revived. Restored. 

Prostration, n. See Pros- 

Protect, v. tr. Prot€gere,pro' 
tectits, to cover over, or throw a 
shield or other guard before. 

6th. IMend. Fortiiy. Guard. Shield. 
Preserve. Cover. Secure. 

Akt. Betray. Endanger. Imperil. 
Abandon. Expose. 

Protectiok, «. See Protect. 
Protector, n. See Protect 

Protest, v. int. When tused 
transitively, it is followed by the 
p-ep. against. 

Sth. Expostulate. Remonstrate. De- 
nonnoe. Repudiate. Deprecate. 

Aht. Acauiesce. Coincide. Sanction. 
Subscribe. Endorse. Agree. 

Protract, v. tr, Frotrahere, 
protractvs, to draw out. 

Sth. Prolong. Produce. Elongate. De- 
fer. Extend. Lengthen. 

Aht. Shorten. Abbreviate. Curtail. 
Contract Reduce. 

Protrude, v. tr. and int. Fro- 
trudere, to thrtist forth. 

Sth. Extend. Project Abut Jut De- 
moDstrate. Expose. 

Aht. Recede. Retract Adduce. Re- 
preas. Suppress. Conceal. 

Protrusion, n. See Protrude. 

Sth. Projection. Protuberance. Con- 
vexity. Tongue. 

Aht. Receas. Cavity. Hollow. Con- 
cavity. Mouth. 

Protuberance, n. Frojorth, 
and tuber, any kind of siveUing. 

Syh. Lump. Swelling. Excrescence. 

Aht. Cavity. Smoothness. Planeness. 
CoQcavity. Indentation. Hollow. 

Proud, adj. Ang. Sax. priit. 

Sth. Arrogant Haughty. Imperious. 

Supercilious. Presumptuous. BoastfuL 

Elated. Self-satisfied. Lofty. Imposing. 
Magnificent Self-conscious. 

Aht. Deferential. Humble. Afibble. 

Unpreauming. Meek. Lowly. Ashamed. 
UnimposiDg. Mean. 

Prove, v. tr. Lat. prohare. 

Syh. Try. Assay. Test Establish. 
Demonstrate. Ascertain. Argue. Show. 

Aht. Pass. Pretermit Misdemonstrate. 
Misindicate. Refute. i)isprove. Contra- 
dict Disestablish. Neutralize. 

Proverb, n. Lat. proverhium. 
A condensed saying of practical 

Sth. Maxim. Apothegm (properly Apo- 
phthegm). Adage. Saw. 

Akt. Essay. Dissertation. Disquisi- 
tion. Oration. Diatribe. Yam. 

Peovebbl/il, adj. See Pro- 

Sth. Notorious. Current Acknow- 
ledged. Unquestioned. 

ant. Dubious. Unfounded. Suspicious. 
Suspected. Questionable. 

Provide, v. tr. Fro, forward, 
and videre, to see. Vded some- 
times intransitively with the prep. 

Syh. Prepare. Arrange. Procure. Af- 
ford. Supply. Contribute. Yield. Pro- 

Ant. Misprovide. Neglect Overlook. 
Withhold. Retain. Appropriate. Refuse. 
Deny. Alienate. Divert Misemploy. 

Provided, adv. See Provide. 

Syh. Granted. Supposing. 

Akt. Barring. Saving. Excluded. 

Provedbncb, n. See Provi- 
Providbnt, adj. See Provide. 

Syh. Forecasting. Foreseeing. Cautious. 

Aht. Improvident Recklessi. Careless. 

Province, n. Fro and vincme, 
to conquer. A country brought by 
conquest under the dominion of 

Syh. Tract. Region. Department Sec- 
tion. Sphere. 

Akt. Metropolis. Centre. CapitaL 

Provincial, adj. See Pro- 

SvN. Appendant Annexed. Outlying. 
Rural. Countrified. Rustic. Bucolic. 

Aht. Central Metropolitan. Modish. 
Fashionable. Courtly. 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

Provision, n. See Provide. 

Stn. Preparation. Arrangement. Pro- 
duce. Sai^ly. Anticipation. Food. Sup- 

Airr. Neglect Misprovlsion. Forget- 
fnlness. ThoughtleaBoees. Ovenight. iJes- 
titnUoD. Want. Dearth. Starvation. 
Dole. Pittance. 

Pbovisional, adj. See Pro- 
vide. The term expresses that 
which is contingent upon some- 
thing else, foreseen, or supposed 
to be so; hence^ conditional, or 
upon present circumstances 
which may alter ; hence, tempo- 

Stn. Conditional. Contingent. Hypo- 
thetical. Temporary. 

Akt. Uncouditi(HiaL Absolute. Bermar 
nent PerpetuuL 

Provocation, n. See Pro- 

Provoke, v, h\ Lat. provo- 
care, to call forth. In the first 
place, simply so; and hence, as 
regards the feehng of resent- 
ment, to irritate. 

Syn. Educe. Summon. Bouse. Irritate. 
Excite. Ghallenge. Vex. 

Ant. Allay. Relegate. Pacify. Soothe. 

Prowess, n. From the Old 
English adjective prow, from pro- 
bus, having good knightly quali- 

Syn. Bravery. Valour. Gallantry. 

Ant. Cowardice. Weakness. Pol- 
troonery. Dastardliness. 

Prowl, v. int. Old English. 

Stn. Rove. Roam. Wander. Prey. 
Ant. Fly. Swoop. Chase. Scour. 

Proximity, n. Lat. proximus, 

nearest. See Propinquity. 

Proxy, n. A contraction of 
procuracy, from Lat. procurator, 
a proctor or substitute. 

Syn. Agency. Substitution. Represen- 
tation. Agent. Sub.'^titute. Representa- 
tive. Deputy. Commissioner. Lieutenant. 

Ant. Principalship. Personality. Prin- 
cipal Person. Authority. Deputer. 

Prudent, adj. Lat. prudew^^ 
for providena. Another form ot 
the word provident 

Stn. Wise. Wary. GaotioiiB. Gircam- 
spect Discreet GarefuL 

Ant. Foolish. Unwary. Incautioait. 
Undrcumspect. Indiscreet. Bash, impni- 
dent Silly. BeeUess. Andaciow. 

Prune, v. tr. For an old word 

Stn. Trim. Lop. DresB. Amputate. 
Ant. Pamper. Train. 

Pry, v. int. Probably conn, 
with prey and prowl. 

Stn. P**»-r. Peep. Scrutinise. Inquire. 
Ant. Connive. Overlooic Disregud. 

PuBLio, adj. Lat, publicus, for 
populicns, belonging to the people. 

Stn. Open. Notorious. Oommoo. So* 
dal. National 

Ant. Close. Secret Private. Domestio. 
Secluded. Solitary. Personal. Individual 

Publication, n. See Public. 
The word is also used of the 
thing published. 

Syn. Promulgation. Notiflcatiim. Pro- 
clamation. Divulgation. 

Akt. Suppression. Reservation. Con- 

Publicity, n. The state of 
being publicly known as opposed 
to suppression of things, or re- 
tirement of persons. See Public 

Puerile, adj\ Lat. puer, a 

Syn. Childish. Futile. Nugatory. Weak. 
Silly. Trifling. 

Ant. Manly. Vigorous. Effective. Pow- 
erftil Cogent Weighty. 

Puerility, w. See Puerile. 

Puff, v. tr. Germ, pufen. 
Used metaphorically for, to in- 
flate with praise. 

Syn. Flatter. Advertise. Hawk. Ven- 

Ant. Squash. Disparage. Lash. Clias- 
tise. Blast 

Pugnacious, adj. Lat pugnax, 
given to fighting, pugnu, a fight, 
Stk. Quarrelsome. Bellicose. 
Ass. Peaceable. Coudliatoiy. Soay 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


Pull, v. tr, Ang. Sax. puUian, 

Syk. Draw. Drag. Adduce. Extract 

AST. Push. E^Ject Extrude. Propel. 

Pummel, v, tr. It. pomo, an 
apple, or any round knob, as of 
a stick or sword-handle. See 

Pump, v, tr. Fr. pompe, a 
pump. Metaphorically and col- 
loquially used in the following 
senses — 

Syk. Cross-examine. Interrogate. Cross- 

Akt. Prime. Indoctrinate. Instruct 

Punch, v. tr, Fr. potngonner, 
Lat. pungere, punctus, to prick, 
Appbed to persons and things. 

Stk. Perforate. Poke. Pierce. Puncture. 
Terebrate. Bore. 

Aht. Stop. Plug. SeaL Bung. 

Punctilious, adj, Sp. pun- 
ttUo, a dimin. of Lat. pundum, 
A little or nice point of etiquette, 
or otherwise. 

Stn. Ceremonious. Nice. Scrupulous. 

Akt. Unceremonious. Unscrupulous. 

Punctual, adj. See Puncti- 
lious—in the sense of which it 
was once employed; now re- 
stricted to the observance of 
points of time. 

Stk. Exact Prompt Early. Timelv. 
AXT. Late. Tardy. Behindhand. Be- 
lated. Dilatory. UnpunctuaL 

PuNCTUBE, n, and v. See 

Pungent, adj. Fart, of Lat. 
jtungere, to prick, 

Stn. Pricking. Piercing. Acrid. Mor- 
dant. Biting. Slinging. Stimulating. Keen. 
Trenchant. Caustic. 

Ant. Soothing. Mellow. Luscious. 

Punish, v. tr, Lat. punire. 

Stn. Chastise. Castigate. Chasten. 

Ant. Reward. Recompense. Remunerate. 

]?UNT, adj. Old Fr. puisne, 
Fr. puis nS, Lat. post natus, born 
last, or youngest, 

Stn. Petty. Undeveloped. Undersized. 
Feeble. Pigmy. Dwarfish. 

Ant. Great. Developed. Fine. Robust 
Vigorous. Oversized. Colossal. Qigantic. 

Pupil, n, Lat. pupillus, dim. 
of pupus, boy, 

Stn. Scholar. Learner. Tyro. Novice. 

Ant. Teacher, Master. Proficient. 
Adept. Guardian. 

Pupilage, n. See Pupil. 

Stn. Minority. Discipleship. Ward- 
ship. Tutelage. Dependence. Government 

Ant. Majority. Mastership. Guardian- 
ship. Discretion. Independence. 

Puppet, n. Written also Pop- 
pet. Fr. poupee, a doU, Lat. 
pupa. Used illustratively for a 
person of high station, but with- 
out real power. 

Stn, Doll. Image. Lay-figure. Tool. 
Ant. Personality. Power. 

Puppy, n. In the sense of 
fop is not to be confounded with 
puppy, another form of pup, a 
small dog. It' is of the same 
derivation as puppet, which see, 

Stn. Fop. Coxcomb. Prig. 
Ant. Boor. Clown. Lout 

Purblind, adj. Now used in 
the sense of partly blind, pro- 
bably from a confusion with the 
par, or parboiled, or part-boiled ; 
but originally it meant entirely 
blind —pure, or purely blind. 

Stn. Blinkard. Owl-eyed. Short- 

Ant. Eagle-eyed. Hawk-eyed. Lynx- 
eyed. Argus-eyed. Far-sighted. 

Pure, adj. Lat. purus, 

Stn. Clear. Unmixed. Simple. Genuine. 
Unadulterated. Uncorrupted. Unsullied. 
Clean. Spotless. Immaculate. Undefiled. 
Guileless. Innocent 

Ant. Foul. Turbid. Impure. Adul- 
terated. Corrupt Sullied. Stained. Tar- 
nished. Defiled. Mixed. Guilty. 

Purgation, w. Jjot. purgatio, 

Stn. Clearing. Cleansing. Purification 
LustraUon. Clarification. Defecation. De- 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

Aht. ImpDtatkfL Gontractkm. Defile- 
ment. Befonlment 

PuBQE, V. tr. See PnrgatioiL 

PuBiFY, V. tr. ' Purtts, pure, 
tmd/acere, to make. See Ptirge. 

PuBiTANiCAL,a<f;*. Like in creed 
or in demeanonr to the Puritans. 

Snr. Pradish. Ascetic. Demure. 
Ant. OeniaL DisBolate. Yolaptaons. 

PuBiTT, n. See Pure. 

PuBLDBU, n. Oftener used in 
the plural. A corruption of 
puralie, for pwir and cUler. A 
liberty or district in the neigh- 
bourhood of a forest, defined by 
perambulation in old times. 

Snr. EnviroD. Prednct Suburb. 
An. Centre. Heart 

PuBLOiN, V. tr. Old Ft. pour- 
loignier. Not to carry a long 
way off, but to retard or delay ; 
hence, in the secondary sense, to 
keep back furtively. 

Stk. SteaL PUch. Thieve. 
Ant. Reinstate, ^tore. Seize. Plun- 

PuBPOBT, w. Old Fr. purport, 
from pur for pour, f or, bSiA porter, 
to carry. 

Stn. TendenQT. Meaning. Import 
Bearing. Signification. Drift. Tenonr. 

Ant. Statement Assertion. Declara- 
tion. Proposition. Announcement 

PuBPOSB, V. tr. and int. Der. 
uncertain. Perhaps another 
form of propose, from the French 
pour, forward, the Lat. pro and 
poser, from ponere, to put-; but 
more probably the French pour- 
penser, to think beforehand. 

Stn. Intend. Determine. Design. Be- 

Ant. Cliance. Risk. Hazard. Revoke. 
Miscalculate. Venture. Stake. 

Purpose, n. See verb. 

Stn. Intention. Design. Mind. Mean- 
ing. View. Object Aim. End. Scope. 
Point Resolve. 

Avr. Chance. Fortune. Fate. Acd< 
dent Hazard. Lot Gisaaltr. Lottttv. 

PuBSUX, V. tr. The same 
word as prosecute, but coming 
through the French poursuivre, 
and not directly from the Latin 
prosequi, secutus. See Prosecuta 

PuBST, oc/;: 'Ft. poussif, from 
pousse, asthma. 

Stn. Short-winded. Thick-winded. 

Ant. Liihe. Agfle. Long-winded. 

PUBULKNT, adj\ Pus, COTTUpi 


Syn. Feculent Festering. Corrupt 
Ant. Secretional. Healthy. 

PuBVEY, V. tr. Fr. pourvoir, 
the Latin providere, so that pur- 
vey is the French form of pro- 
vide, the latter coming directly 
from the Latin. It is by common 
usage restricted to the procuring 
of provisions. See Provision. 

Push, v, tr. Fr. pousser, Lat 

Syn. Press. Drive. Impel PropeL 
Butt Thrust Urge. Expedite. Acce- 
lerate. Beduce. 

Ant. Pull. Draw. Drag. Adduce. 


dim. of pusus, conn. withjpMcr, a 
little boy, and animus, the mind, 

Syn. Cowardice. Dastardliness. Mean- 
spiritedness. Faint-heartedness. Timidity. 

Ant. Magnanimity. Fortitude. Courage. 
Bravery. Venturesomenesa. Daring. 

Pusillanimous, adj\ See 
Put, v. tr. Dan. putte. 

Stn. Place. Lay. Set Propose. 
Ant. Remove. Raise. Displace. 
Transfer. Withdraw. 

Putative, adj. liSkt.putaiivus, 

pufare, to think. 

Syn. Reckoned. Supposed. Deemed. 

Ant. Real Authenticated. Veritable. 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


Purm, adj\ FiUidits, from 
putere, to stink, 

Snr. Stinking. Gorrnpt OfTensive. 
Rotten. FouU Mean. Base. Worthless.* 

Akt. Wholesome. Sound. Inoffensive. 
Pare. Redolent Fresh. Hononrable. 

PuTBBPY, V. tr,, but more com- 
monly intransitive, 

Sth. Bot. Gormpt Decompose. De- 

Akt. Preserve. Embalm. Freshen. 
Vitalize. Purify. Depurate. Disinfect. 

PuTBED, adj, Lat. putridus, 
ptttrere, from putris, rotten, 

Stn. Rotten. Decayed. Decomposed. 

Amt. Fresh. Wholesome. HealthfuL 

PuzzLB, V. tr. Low G^rm. 
pttsseln, comi. with pose, 

Stn. Pose. Perplex. Embarrass. Be- 
wilder. Confound. Mystify. 

AST. Enlighten, instruct. Illumine. 

Puzzle, n. See verb, 

SxK. Embarrassment Bewildennent 
Enigtira. Confusion. Conundrum. Intri- 
cacy. Lalqrrinth. 

Ant. Disentanglement Solution. Ex- 
planation. Extrication. Clue. 

Quack, n. From the cry. 
One who vaunts his wares or 

Snr. Empiric Mountebank. Charla- 
tan. Impostor. Pretender. 
AST. Dupe. Qull. Victim. 

Quackery, n. See Quack. 
Quaff, v, tr^ Swed. qva/a, to 
suffocate, immerse, 

Stn. Drink. Swallow. Imbibe. 
AST. Disgorge, ^w. Vomit 

Quail, v, int. Aug, Sax. ewe- 
Ian, to die, 

Sts. Sink. Shrink. Cower. Succumb. 
Crouch. Flinch. 

Ant. Stand. Defy. Withstand. Face. 
£k)dure. • 

Quaint, adJ, Partly from 
cognitfis, and partly from cmip- 


Stn. Curious. Recondite. Abstruse. 
Elegant. Nice. Affected. Whimsical. 
Odd. Antique. Archaic. Fanciful, te- 
gular. Old-fashioned. 

Ant. Commonplace. Ordinary. Usual. 
Coarse. Common. Modem. Modish. Fa- 
shionable. Dowdy. 

Quake, v, int, Ang. Sax. 

Stn. Tremble. Shake. Shudder. Vi- 
brate. Quiver. 

Ant. Stand. Rest Root 

Qualification, n. See Qua- 


Stn. Capacity. Fitness. Condition. Re- 
quirement. Limitation. Modlfltatlon. 

Ant. Incapacity. Unfitness. Absolute- 
ness. Disqualification. Non-qualification. 

Qualify, v, tr, Lat. qtialis, sttch 
as, and /wcere, to make. To make 
such as a state or circumstances 
require. So to qualify a person 
for an office, or a statement by 
such limitations as the case de- 

Stn. Fit Prepare. Adapt. Capacitate. 
Limit Restrict 

Ant. Unfit Misprepare. Misqualify. 
DisquaUfy. Incapacitate. Free. Absolve. 

Quality, n. See Qualify. 

Syn. Condition. Character. Sort. Kind. 
Description. Capacity. Power. Virtue, 
Nature. Tendency. 

Ant. Anomaluusness. Heten^eneons- 
ness. Nondescript. Incapacity. Weak- 
ness. Indistinctiveness. Ineffectiveness. 
Disqualification. Negation. DisabiUty. 

Qualm, n, Ang. Sax. cwellan, 
to day. An attack of deadly 
sickness. Used metaphorically 
for misgiving of the conscience. 

Syn. Misgiving. Remorse. Scruple. 

Ant. Comfort Ease. Self-satisfaction. 

Quandary, n, Fr. qu*en di- 
raije f what shall I say of it f 

Stn. Hobble. Difficulty. Doubt Per- 
plexity. Bewilderment DubltaUon. Halt- 
ing. Dilemma. Embarrassment 

Ant. Clearsightedness. Resolution. Plain- 
ness. Clearness. Obviousness. Fadlfty. 
Disencumbrance. Disentanglement Dla- 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

Quantity, n. Lat. quantus, 
hou) much, 

Stk. Measure. Amount. Bulk. Size. 
Sum. Portion. 

Ant. Margin. DeflcienQjr. Deduction. 
Want. Inadequacy. Scantinetis. Insuffl- 
ciency. Loss. Deterioration. Diminution. 
Waste. Wear. Leakage. 

QuARB^L^ n. Lat. querela, a 


Stn. Brawl. Altercation. Affray. 
Squabble. Feud. Tumult Dispute. 
Wrangle. Variance. Disagreement Mis> 
understanding. Hostility. 

Akt. Cunfabulation. Conversstlon. 
Chat Pleasantry. Conciliation. Agree- 
ment Hannony. Understanding. Friend- 
liness. Peace. Amliy. Qood-wUl. 

QuABBEL, V. int. See noun, 

QuABBELSOMB, adj\ See 


Syn. Choleric IraadUe. Petulant 
Litigious. Pugnacious. 

Ant. Peaceable. Amenable. Oenial. 
Unqnarrvlsome. Inoffensive. Mild. Meek. 
Conciliatory. Bland. Suave. 

QuABTBB, n, A division of 
space, especially one of the fonr 
quarters of the heavens; hence 
a space or margin of forbear- 

Syn. Mercy, Forbearance. Pity. 
" • • " rclle 

Ant. Extermination. Mercil 
Unsparingness. Pitiletiisneas. Huthleasness. 

Quash. Ft. casser, Lat. qtuis- 
sare, from quatere quassum, to 
shake to pieces. 

Sth. Crush. Extinguish. Overthrow. 
Annihilate. Annul. Nullify. 

Ant. Sap. Undermine. Disorganize. 

QuAVBB, V. int. Old Eng. 
quave, to shake. See Quake. 

QuEBB, adj, Grerm. queer, 
cross, athvart, 

Syn. Odd. Whimsical. Quaint Cross. 
Strange. Crotchety. 

Ant. Ordinary. Common. Usual. Fa- 
miliar. Customcury. 

Quell, v. tr. See Qualm. 

Stn. Extinguish. Crush. Reduce. Allay. 
SUfle. Quiet. Pacity. Quench. 

Akt Foster. Excite. Fan. Aggravate. 
*»ir. irritate. Disturb. Raise. Inflame. 

Quench, v. tr, Ang. Sax. 
cwencan. See Quell. 

QuEBiMONrouB, ac^\ Queri- 
monia, a complaint, from quen^ 
to complain. Given t» complain- 
ing or resisting. 

Stn. Malcontent Dissatisfied. Opposl- 
titious. Litigious. 

Ant. Contented. Satisfied. Oomplacent 
Amenable. Conformable. 

QuEBULOUS, acff. See Queri- 
monious. It has much the same 
meaning as querimonions, but is 
more objective in its force, im- 
plying the expression of the qua- 
lity of querimoniousness in look^ 
manner, &o. 

Syn. Quarrelsome Complaining. Dis* 
satistlcd. Chiding. Murmuring. Whining. 
Peevish. Fastidious. Irritable. 

Ant. Easy. Uncomplaining. Satisfied. 
Contented. Submissive. GeniaL Oompla- 
cent Cheerful. Qood-tempered. 

Question, v. tr. Lat. qua-stio, 

Syn. Ask. Inquire. Intfrrogate. Doubt 
Investigate. Dubitate. Controvert Dis- 

Ant. Dictate. State. Assert Pn» 
nounce. Enunciate. Concede. Endorse. 
Affirm. Qrant Allow. 

Question, n. See veib, 

Stn. Inquiry. Interroffation. Doubt 
Scrutiny, investigation. Topic. 

Ant. Reply. Response. Solution. An- 
swer. Explanation. Admission. Conces- 

Questionable, adj. See Ques- 

Syn. Doubtftil. Dubious. Problema- 
tical. Disputable. Debatable. 

Ant. Ceruin. Evident Self-evidAnt 
Obvious. Indisputable. 

Quibble, V. tw^. Perhaps from 
the Lat. quid, what — what you 

Stn. Shuffle. Evade. Trifle. OaviL 
Ant. Reason. Argue. Enunciate. In- 
vestigate. Discuss. 

Quibble, n. See verb. 

Quick, adj. Old. Eng. It 
had originally the sense of ahve, 
as, 'the quick and the dead, 

Bynonyms and Anionyms, 


now of rapid movement, as a 
sign of active life. 

Sth. Fast. Rapid. Speedy. Expedi- 
tious. Swift Hasty. Prompt. Bendy. 
Active. Brisk. Nimble. Lively. Agile. 
Alert. Sprightly. Traosient. Intelligent. 

Amt. Slow. Tardy. Sluggish. Inert. 
Inactive. DulL Insensitive. 

Quicken, v. tr. See Quick. 

Stk. Accelerate. Animate. Hasten. 
Urge. Excite. Promote. Expedite. 

AST. Retard. Delay. Encumber. Clog. 
Drag. Detain. Discourage. Allay. 

Qtjibt, n. Lat. quies, 

Sth. ResL Repose. Stillness. Calm. 
Ai^ieasement. Pacification. Silence. Peace. 

Akt. Unrest Motion. Noise. Agitsp 
tion. Excitement Disturbance. Turmoil 

QuiKT, V. tr. See nottrt, 

Stk. Allay. Appease. StilL Padfy. 

Hush. LuU. Trauquillize. Soothe. Calm. 

Akt. Rouse, lilxcite. Disturb. Agi- 
tate. Stir. Urge. Qoad. 

Quit, v. tr. Lat. quies. To 
leave quiet, that is, to abandon, 
as a place or a claim. 

Stk. Leave. Resign. Abandon. Re- 
linquish. DischarK«\ Release; 

Akt. Seek. Oi-cupy. Invade. Bind. 
Enforce. Haunt Enter. 

QCITB, adv. Ft. quitte, din- 
charyed, free, clear. With the 
sense of acquit, which is, literally, 
to quiet the mind of any by re- 
leasing it from obligations or 
claims, and so leaving it quiet. 

Stk. Perfectly. Entirely. Completely. 
Wholly. Truly. 

Akt. Partially. Imperfectly. Barely. 
Insufficiently. Hardly. 

Quittance, «. Fr. quittance. 
Something paid or granted for 
the quieting of the mind of a 

Sm. Discharge. Absolution. Remis- 
sion. Release. 

Akt. Distraint Exaction. Bond. Debt 

Quiver, v, int. See Quaver. 

Quote, v, tr, Lat. quotus, 
what in order, what number. 

Stk. ate. Name. Adduce. Plead. 

Akt. Disprove. Refhte. Retort Op- 
pose. Rebut Contradict Traverse. Mis-, 
quote. Misadduoe. 


Rabble, n. Old Fr. rapaUh, 
horn raj)€r, to rake. The rakings 
or scrapings of the people. 

Stk. Crowd. Mob. Scum. Dregs. 

Ajrr. Elite. Aristocracy. Galaxy. 

Babid, a^j, Lat. rabidus, 

Stk. Furious. Raging. Mad. Infu- 
riated. ManiacaL Frantic 

Akt. RationaL Sane. Reasonable. 

Racy, adf, Fr. race, Lat. radix, 
Eng. race. Of fine flavour, as 
indicating a fine source. 

Stk. Fine-flavoured. Fresh. Rich. 
Pungent Piquant Spirited. Smart 

Rage, v. tr. See Torture. 

Radiance, n. See Radiant. 

Radiant. Lat. radians, part, 
of radiare — from radius — to emit 
rays, especially of light. 

Stk. Beaming. Lustrous. Brilliant 
Qlittering. Splen^d. Luminous. Glorious. 

Akt. Dull. Lustreless. Non-luminous. 

Radical, adj. Lat. radix, a 
root. Pertaining to the root. 

Stk. Original. Fundamental. Tho- 
rough-going. Unsparing, l^treme. Eup 
tire. Innate. Natural Essential. Im- 
manent Ingrained. Underived. De«p- 

Akt. Derived. Ascltitious. Adventi- 
tious. Superficial. Extraneous. Partial. 
Moderate. Conservative. Acquired. 

Raob. n. Jj&t. rabies, Fr. rof/r. 
Any manifestation of ungovemed 

Syk. Furv. Rabidity. Mania. Passion. 
Madness. l*erocity. 

Akt. Reason. Moderation. Gentleness. 
Temperateness. Cahnness. Quieacence. 
Mitigation. Assuagement Tranquillity. 
Mildness. Softness. 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

Baimkht, n. Abbrev. from 
Ar raiment. 

8ra. Clothing. Yettmenta. Yeatare. 

AxT. B«0i. Nnditj. Nakednen. 

Baise, V. tr. Aug. Sax. rdsmn, 
from risdUf to rise. Used mate- 
rially and metaphorically. 

Sth. Lirt Heave. Elevate. Exalt. 
Advance. Promote. Heightm. Enhance. 
Awaken. Booae. Exdte. Cultivate. Bear. 
Produce. Collect. SammoiL Erect Ori« 
glnate. Propagate. 

Aht. Lay. Cart. Depress. Degrade. 
Retard. Dtshononr. Lower. Depreciate. 
LnlL Compoee. Quiet. Calm. Blight. 
Deatroy. Disperse. Disband. Stifle; Hu^. 
Silence. Neutralize. Confute. 

Bally, v, tr, and int. Lat. 
re-alligare, to unite again^ by 
restoring the courage; hence 
applied also to individnals, in 
the sense of inspirit. To rally, 
in the sense of banter, is, etymo- 
logically, a distinct word, and is 
in Fr. railler, as the former, to 
encourage, is rattier. 

Snr. Recal. Reunite. Inspirit. Ani- 
mal e. Recover. Reassure. 

Ant. Demoralize. Disperse. Disband. 

Bally, v. tr. Fr. raiUer. 

Stk. Banter. Satirize. Chaff. Twit 

Airr. Compliment. Flatter. Panegyrize. 

Ramble, v. int. Der. uncer- 
tain. Comp. Germ, rammeln, to 
tumhUy or Lat. re-amhulartf or 
possibly coDnected with Boam. 

Syv. Rove. Roam. Wander. Range, 
stroll. Saunter. 

Airr. Course. Speed. Hastea Drive. 

Bamifioation, n. Lat. ramus, 
a branch, and facere, to make. 
Used of the process of causing 
one or more branches (either 
literally, as in the growth of 
trees, or metaphorically, as the 
branches of a subject), and also 
' be branches so caused ; some- 

times also, as in botany^ the mode 
of their production. 

Stv. Brancfaiog. Branch. Off-ifaoot 
Division. Divergence. Sobdivisloii. 

Avr. Line. Tnmk. Stem. Bole; Gouim. 
Thread. S^iaence. Oontinnltj. Proaeoi- 
tton. Bectilinearity. In di vergeace. lodi- 
vision. Non-ramlficatioa. 

Bamepy, V. int. See Bamifi- 

Baiepaht, adj. Ang. Sax. 
rempend, rash. It expresses lite- 
rally the position which is some- 
thii^ short of springing, which 
in heraldiy is expre^ed by sa- 
lient, and is used metaphorically 
in the sense of unbridled. Ite 
opposite in heraldry would be 

Stn. Unbridled. Uncontrolled. VioteDt 
Licentious. Vehement 

Akt. Demure. Self-restrained. Self- 
controlled. Disciplined. Curbed. 

Bampabt, n. Ft. rempart^ 
from remftart-r, to fortify, 

Sm. Bulwark. Fortification. Security. 
WalL defence. Embankment Hound. 
Mole. Outwork. Breastwork. 

Ant. Non-fortification. Defenoelessness. 
Exposure. Insecurity. Vulnerability. 

Bancld, adj. Lat. rancidiis. 
Stn. Sour. Tainted. Rank Olid. Reasty. 
Amt. Sweet Pure. Untainted. Frew. 

Bancoub, n, Lat. rancor. It 
expresses hostile feeling of long 

Syk. in-blood. Spite. Grudfte. Ani- 
mosity. Hatred. Malice. Maligni^. En- 
mity. Antipathy. Vindictiveness. Male- 

Ant. Good-feeling. Friendliness. Kind- 
lines.x. Forgiveness. Geniality. Empathy. 
Congeniality. Unvindictiveness. 

Bandom, adf. Old Fr. randort. 

Stn. Haphazard. Stray. Chance. Wild. 
Afmless. Purposeless. Unpremeditated. 
Casual. Vague. Accidental. 

Akt. Steady. Aimed. Intended. Re- 
gular. Controlled. Purposed. Intentional. 
Deliberate. Designed. NormaL Systematic. 

Bangb, V. tr. Ft. ranger. 
Conn, with the Eng. Bank. 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


Sth. Bank. Dispose. Order. Collocate. 
File. Concatenate. 

Ant. Disturb. Disconnect. Disorder. 
Derange. Intermit, Disconnect 

Rake, n. See Bange. 

SrN. Row. Line. Tier. Order. De- 
gree. Grade. Dignity. 

AST. Disconnection. Disorder. Incon- 
tinnity. Solution. Intermission. Hiatus. 
Plebeianism. Meamiesa. Commonalty. 

Banelb, V, int. From Rank. 
Ang. Sax. ranc, which meant 
proud, fruitful, and luxuriant. 

St^. Fester. Smoulder. Bum. 
AST. Heal. CooU Close. 

Ransack, v. tr, Icel. ransnka, 
to explore. Applied to rough ex- 
ploration to the extent of spoil- 

Stk. Bummage. Bifle. Bavage. Over- 

Ant. Skim. Survey. Beconnoitre. 

Raksom, V, tr, Fr. rangon, 
Lat. redemptio, 

Syn. Bedeem. Belease. Indemnity. 

AsT. Prosecute. Indict Fine. Mulct 
Forfeit Damnify. 

Ransom, n. See verb. 

Rant, n. South Qerm. rant, 

Stn. Bombast Bhodomontade. Flum- 
mery. Declamation. Kavlng. 

Ant. Reason. Argument Eloquence. 
Logic. Bhetoric. 

Rapacious, adj, Lat rapax, 
from rapere, to seize or siuitch, 

Stk. Greedy. Bavenous. Voracious. 
Predaceous. Avaricious. Grasping. 

Ant. Bountiful. Liberal Contented. 

Rapid, adj, Lat. rapidus, 
Syn. Quick. Swift Speedy. Accele- 
rated. Flying. 

Airr. Slow. Tardy. Betarded. Cum- 
brous. Lazy. 

Rapiditt, n. See Rapid. 

8th. Quickness. Swiftness. Speed. Ve- 
locity. Celerity. Dispatch. 

Ant. Slowness. Tardiness. Cumbrous- 
nees. Delay. 

Raptube, n, Sp. raptura, Lat 
rnpere, ixiptus, to seize. The state 
of l)eing seized or carried out of 

one's self by pleasure or excite- 

Stn. Erstacy. Transport. Bliiis. Ba- 

Ant. Agony. Torture. Pain. Tedium. 
Eunui. irksomeness. 

Babe, adj, Lat. rams, 

Stn. Scarce. Choice. Inflrequent. Ex- 
cellent Few. Exceptional. Sparse. Un- 
usual Singular. Uncommon. Dispersed. 
Valuable. Precious. Thin. Volatile, 

Ant. Common. Frequent. Abundant. 
Numerous. Mean. Ordinary. Usual. Be- 
gular. Crowded. Dense. Vulgar. Worth- 
less. Cheap. Valueless. 

Rabefy v. tr. and int To 
make ran in the sense. 

Stn. Expand. Lighten. Attenuate. 

Ant. Solidify. Condense. Thicken. 

Rascal, w. Used by Shake- 
speare in the sense of a ' worth- 
less deer ' A man of low rather 
than heinous offences. 

Stn. Bogue. SooundreL Vagabond. 

Ant. Gentleman. 

Rascaltty, n. See Rascal. 

Rash, adj, Dutch rasch. Onca 
used in the simple sense of ener- 
getic, or acting or moving with 
rapidity, as, Shakespeare, 'rash 
gunpowder;' now restricted to 
energy, unreflecting and heed- 

Stn. Headstrong. AudadouR. Hasty. 
Precipitate. Beckless. FooUiardy. Over- 
venturesome. Incautious. Uuwary. 

AlNT. Wary. Cautious. Calculating. 
Discreet;. Unventuresome. Dubitating. Hesi- 
tating. Beluctant Timid. 

Ratify, v, tr. Lat. rattis, cal- 
culated, fixed, Bud/a^xre, to make. 

Stn. Sanction. Seal. Confirm. Endorse. 
Secure. Approve. Validify. Establish. 

Ant. Negative. Beject. Bepudiate. 
Disaffirm. Invalidate. Abrogate. Annul. 

Ratification, n. See Ratify. 

Rational, adj. Lat ratio, 

Stn. Sane. Sound. Intelligent Bea- 
soning. Beasonable. Judicioiui. Sober 


Synonyms and Anionyms. 

SMMible. ProlMble. EqutUble. Moderate. 

AXT. Iiuane. Untound. Weak. Silly. 
Unintelligent. Abford. InJndidotM. Fan- 
ciful. Kxtravagant. Preposterous. Un- 
reaMOiing. Uurcasonable. IrratlonaL Ex- 

Bay AGS, V. tr. Low Lat. ra- 
pagium, from rapere, to snatch or 

8tk. RpoiL Devastate. DespolL De- 
•troy. Desolate. Ransack. Waitte. Bain. 

Airr. ^>are. Conserve. Preserve. In- 

Rayb, V. int, Pr. reuer, to 
dream, or be delirious. It is some- 
times used as a transitive yerb» 
but only with an accusative, 
which has a cognate sense, as, 
'he raved nonsense* — tiie non- 
sense being the subject-matter of 
the raving. 

Stic. Wauder. DriveL Rant. 
AvT. Converse. Reason. Disoonrse. 

Bavel. Old Dutch ravelen. 
Of old used intransitively, now 
only as a transitive verb. 

Srir. Separate. Undo. Untwist Un- 
wind. Disentangle. 

It is singular that the word 
itself should have two opposite 
senses, yet the reason is not ob- 
scure; the dealing with many 
threads, even where the purpose 
is disentailglementjis very likely 
to lead to the opposite result; 
i\ hence, also, 

Airr. Entangle. Complicate. Conglo* 
merate. Confuse. 

Ba VENOUS, adj. Prob. conn,