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PREFACE., . ' 1 

Tek nature and use of this work are meant to be rather practical 
than scientific. 

The Author has accordingly not propounded any theory ot 
verbal analogy on the one hand, or verbal opposition on the 
other, as the basis of his Synonyms and Antonyms ; though he 
believes that the time has arrived when both ought to be sup- 
plied, and the co-ordination and opposition of words reduced to 
strict exactness and scientific rule, beyond what has hitherto 
been indirectly recognized by Logic. 

Words which agree in expressing one or more characteristic 
ideas in common he has regarded as Synonyms, those which 
negative one or more such ideas he has called Antonyms. 

Principles or Degrees of Similarity, and Principles or Degrees 
of Opposition, have not been laid down, though they have been 
recognized in his own mind. He has rather endeavoured to 
place himself in the position, alternately, of two opposed thinkers, 
or debaters, so furnishing each with a short catena of Synonyms 
to express or aid the current of his thoughts, tendering at the 
same time to each such negatives as might be employed in the 
opposite argument. The etymology of the words has been pre- 
fixed, as aiding ordinary readers in the apprehension and use of 
them, and prominent points of usage have been also noticed. 
One word of apology he feels to be duo for the employment 
of a word wliich he has ventured, not to coin but to re-issue. 

The word Antonym, unlike some others which have been 
admitted into English on the plea of a practical want, is at least 
coiTectly formed from the Greek, and is, indeed, a Greek word. 

If it should be said that, as a word of grammar, it would have 
the meaning of pronoun, the answer might be that it is net here 


vi Preface. 

used as a grammatical term. The names of the grammaticd 
parts of speech have been already made current in English 
imder Latin stamps ; and it would be a waste of the resources 
of our language to employ a word of Greek formation to express 
over again what is already expressed by the Latin derivativo 
" pronoun." Yet the word Antonym seems to be wanted. 

The Etymology of the word atrwi'v/ita merely expresses the idea 
of one word used in substitution for, which in matters of verbal 
debate, is equivalent practically to oj'j'ositiou to another; a double 
force which in addition to its analogy to Synonym, seemed to 
render Antonym a preferable word to Coimterterm. The word 
■Counterterm, however, is here suggested to those who may 
prefer it. 

It is of course true that ouofia, in its strictly grammatical 
sense means not a word, but a noun ; but for this modification 
those are responsible who have employed the earUer word 
Synonym in this loose acceptation, and have agreed to call not 
only volume and book, but also swift and rapid. Synonyms. 

The cross-references sometimes connect different parts of 
speech. This has been done in order to abridge the work, on 
the assumption that inflexional derivatives needed not in all 
cases to be repeated. For instance, a reference to the verbs 
" build " and " construct " would be sufficient, without any mental 
effort, to suggest the nouns " building " and " construction." 

In the Etymology the derivation of the word is often pur- 
posely indicated rather than traced. So the Enghsh Answer, for 
instance, is simply collated with the German Antwort, and the 
Latin roots are given as common to the English form, and the 
French form, from which the English is immediately derived. 

In conclusion, jjhrases have been avoided, as they are easily 
framed : but a harder task has been proposed— that of noting 
suitable and expressive words; while the form of a Dictionary 
has been adopted, from finding that the abstract classifications 
of words, under certain broad ideas, according to the plan of 
Dr. Eoget, seems invalidated by the necessity, in his well-known 
Thesaurus, of numberless cross-divisions, and is practically ilLs- 
rcgarded in favour )f the Alphabetical Index. 



Aback. Sax. a, for on or in, 
and ha c, had'. Toward tl ic back. 
An adverb, but used as a pre- 
position when followed by of. 

Syn. Backwards. Kearwards. Aft. Abaft. 
Asiein. Behind. ,, , . 

Ant. Onwards. Forwards. Ahead. A- 
front. Before. Beyond. Afore. 

Abaft. See Aback. Dcr. Ah, 
for Sax. a before a vowel, and 
a-ff, after, after, i. e., later in time 
or order. 

Abalienate, v. t. See Alienate. 

Abandon, v. t. Lat. a, from, 
and hannum, or handum, a pro- 
clamation, especially of ouflawry, 
Comp. Ban, Banns, and Banish. 
Its primary meaning is to place 
beyond the bounds of civil pro- 
tection and privileges, thende of 
favoiu* or protection generally; 
thence again, it has descended 
to the simple sense of leaving, 
the act surviving, and the mo- 
tive being lost sight of. 

S™. Leave. Forsake. Desert Re- 
nounce. Relinquish. Resign. Quit. Forego. 
Vacate. Surrender. Abjure. Repudiate. 

Ant. Pursue. Prosecute. Unrierlake. 
Seek. Court. Cherish. Favour. Protect. 
(Jlaim. Maintain. Defend. Advocate, 
dupnort. Uphold. Occupy. Haunt. Re- 
tain". Hold. Assert. Vindicate. Keep. 

Abandoned, adj. See Aban- 
don, is used in the pecuhar sense 
of self-abandoned to wrong or 

si-N. Profligate. Wicked. Vicious. Un- 
principled Sinful. Graceless. Demoralized. 
Disiulute. Depraved. LicentiouB. Bad. 

Ant. Virtuous. Conscior.tious. Up- 
riglit. Worthy. Righteous. Correct. High- 
principled. Self-controlled. Steady. Good. 

Abase, v. t. A, to, and Gr. 
^aa-is, that on ivliich anythin;/ 
^aivei '/oe.s. To bring to the 
pedestal or floor. To bring down, 
as worthy of disgrace. 

Syn. Degrade. Disgrace. Humiliate. 
Depress. Lower. Dishonour. Sink. 

Ant. Promote. E.xalt. Honour. Ele- 
vate. Dignify. Aggrandise. Raise. 

Abasement, «. See Abase. 

Syn. Degradation. Depression. Disgrace. 
Humiliation. Dishonour. Shame. 

Ant. Promotion. Elevation. Exalta- 
tion. Honour. Dignity. Aggrandisement. 

Abash, v. t. Etymologically 
the same word as Abase, imply- 
ing the effect of abasement on 
the feelings, countenance, or de- 
meanour, and therefore of a less 
serious cast. Persons may be 
abashed with or without guilt- 
as by the exposure of an offenc*^ 
in the one case, or excessive mo- 
desty in the other. 

Syn. Confnuiid. Confuse. Daunt. Co^v 
Disconcert. Dishearten. Shame. Humiliate 

Ant. Countenance. Cheer. Encourage 
Rally. Uphold. Inspirit. Animate. Km 
bolden. Abet. Buoy. Incite. 

Abashed, part. See Abash. 

Abate, v. t. Fr. Ahaftre, i<^ 
hmt down,— in Old English, with 
violence; in Modern English, 
without violence. It is used 
more commonly as an intransi- 
tive verb, and as transitive only 
in a few expressions of a legal 
I character, as to abate a nui.sancc. 

Synonyms and Antonyms 

or a writ. It is common, how- 
ever, to say, to abate a demand, 
or an expectation. 

Srx. Terminate. Remove. Suppress. 
Lower. Reduce. Mitigate. Morferale. 
Lessen. Subside. Decrease. Diminish. 

Ant. Prolong. Continue. Revive. De- 
velope. Increase. Aggravate. Brew. 
Ferment. Rage. Magnify. Extend. En- 
large. Amplify. Raise. Enhance. 

Abbre\t:ate, v. U Lat. Ad, 
and hrevis, short. See Abridge. 

Stk. Shorten. Abridge, Reduce. Con- 
tract. CurUil. Epitomize. Condense. Com- 

Ajrr. Lengthen. Prolong. Extend. Pro- 
duce. Elongate. Amplify. Enlarge. Di- 
late. Expand. 

Abbreviation. See Abbre- 

Stn. Abridgment. Reduction. Con- 
traction. Curtailment. Epitome. Sum- 
mary. Abstract. Condensation. Compres- 

Ant. Elongation. Prolongation. Ex- 
tension. Production. Amplification. En- 
largement. ISxpansion. Dilatation. Ex- 
patiation. Explication. Dilution. 

Abderite, ?<oi/?2 and r/f/y. From 
Abdera, a city of Thrace, the 
birthplace of the laughing philo- 
sopher, Democritus. The word 
expresses a levity of regard to- 
ward human life and troubles. 

SvN. to adj. Cynic. Sardonic. Derisive. 
Sarcastic. Jocular. Flippant. Sportive. 
Sprightful. Nonchalant. Buoyant 

Ani. Lachrymose. Querimonious. Plain- 
tive. Maundering. Dolesome. Lacka- 
daisical. Grumbling. Croaking. Lugubrious. 

Abdicate, v. t. Lat. ahdicare. 
To declare a thing resigned by 
one's self, implying voluntary 
surrender or resignation of high 
office before the natural term of 
its expiration. 

Syn. Abandon. Relinquish, Resign. 
Surrender. Vacate. 

Ant. Retain. Maintain. Claim. Occupy. 
Assert. Grasp. Seize. Usurp. 

Abduction, n. Lat. ah, from, 
and (Ulcere, to draw, or take. A 
taMng or drawing away, and 
specilicaUy an tmlawful taking. 

Stn. Abstraction Subtiacticn. l>tpiS 
vation. Ablation. Seizure. Rape. Ap- 

Ant. Addition. Adduction. Restitu- 
tion. Restoration. Surrender. Replace- 
ment. Reinstatement. 

Aberrant, adj. Lat. ahrrun . 
Wandering from some line of 
natui-al, mechanical, or proposal 
law or movement. IMetaphori- 
cally, from continuity of thought ; 
hence, where this is constitu- 
tional, insane. 

SvN. Erratic. Devious. Divergent. In- 
cou'inuous. Desultory. Disconnected. 
AVandering. Idiotic. Inconsistent. Incon- 
secutive. Abnormal Exceptional. 

Ant. Continuous. Rectilineal. Con- 
sistent. Uniform. Consecutive. Normal. 
Natural. Faithful. True. Regular. 

Aberration, «. See Aberrant. 

SrN. Wandering. Deviation. Divergence. 
Desultoriness. Disconnectedness. Incon- 
secutiveness. Rambling. Idiocy. Hallu- 
cination. Abnormity. Exception. 

Ant. Uniformity. Coniinuity. Conse- 
cntiveness. Connectedness. Law. Order. 
Type. Norm. Principle. Project. Line. 
Tenor. Progression. Regularity. Recti- 

Abet, v. t. Der. uncert. Either 
connected with better, to make 
better or stronger by aid and 
countenance, or with bait to lure 
on into wi-ong. The former is 
the more probable, because of 
old the word was employed in a 
favourable sense. It is now 
used of persons and practices. 

Stn. Aid. Support. Countenance. Up- 
hold. Assist Instigate. Encourage. Ad 
vocate. Sanction. Subsidize. Embolden. 

Ant. Thwart. Contradict. Oppose. 
Obstruct Riffle. Confound. Discotiragc. 
Disapprove. Disconcert. Counteract. Deter. 
Dissuade. Frustrate. Impede. Denounce. 
Exjiosc. N.B.— Bet was a cry to dogs. 

Abettor, n . See Abet. 

Syn. Supporter. Instigator. Advocate. 
Promoter. Assistant Accomplice. Ally. 
Adviser. Confederate, 

Ant. Opponent. Counteracter. Fof 
Adversary. Detector. Baftler. Disconcerter. 
Dissuader. Rival. Antigonist. 

Abeyance, n. Fr. hayer,togapc. 
Compai-e to bay as a dog, or fi 

S>j7ioni/tns and Anionyim. 


wild beast at bay. Abeyance is 
a slcite of gaping expectation; 
but the term has boon traus- 
Ibi-red reflexively from the per- 
son waiting to the thing waited 
ibr. Abeyance, according to 
usage, is suspension, with the 
expectation or possibility of j-e- 

Syn. Suspension. Reservation. Uor- 
tiiancy. Intermission. Expectiition. 

Ant. Revival. Renewal. Resuscitation. 
Action. Enjoyment, Possession. Opera- 
tion. Exercise. Force. 

A BHOR, Lat. ah, from, and 
horrere, to stand stiff luith drvnd 
vr horror. Abhorrence is that 
kind of hatred which flows from 
intense uncongeniality with one's 
o\m nature, taste, principles, or 

SvN. Hate. Loathe. Abominate. Do- Nauseate. Escbew. 

Ant. Love. Admire. Enjoy. Affect. 
Desire. Approve. Relish. Covet. Crave. 

Abide, v. int. Saxon, lldim, 
implies the continuous or more 
than momentary staying in a 
place, as a temporary or per- 
manent home. It is also used 
transitively in reference to what 
is endured or expected. 

Syk. Dwell. Stay. Rest. Tarry. Lodfje. 
Reside Live. Wait. Sojourn. K.xpect. 
Endure. Tolerate. Anticipate. Cunlront. 
Await. Bear. Face. AVatch. 

Ant. Depart. Migrate. Move. .Journey. 
Proceed. Resist. Mislike. Avoid. Shun. 
Forfend. Reject. Abandon. Forfeit. 

Ability, n. Lat. habco, habiUs. 
A natural possessiveness of 
power, faculties, or resources in 
one's own nature. Used also in 
the simple sense of power, or the 
being in a position to do a thing. 

Si-N. Power. Cleverness. Skill. Capa- 
city. Talent. Expertness. 

Ant. Weakness. Incapacity. Inability. 
Imbecility. Unreadiness. Maladroitiiess. 

Abject, adj. Lat. abjictre, 
ftbjectiis. To cast off or away 

worthy of being so cast off; vile, 
or with no sense of independ- 
ence, servile, mean in state. 

Sv.v. Degraded. 0ulca.<. Miserable. 
Vile. Piliable. Worthless Desiiicjible, 
Contemptible. Beggirly. .STvile. Cring. 
ing. \Vretclii'd. Sonliil. .Siiualid. Low. 

Am. Honourable. DigniSLd. Exalteil. 
Eminent. Esteemed. Honoured. Wortliy. 
Venerable. Noble. Princely. Illustrio.i.-. 
Independent. Self-assertive. Selt-reiianL 
Vain. Arrogant. Insolent. Haughty. 

Abjure, v. tr. Lat. ahjnrare. 
To put away, or deny with an 
oath, or with all the earnestness 
or solemnity of an oath. 

Syn. Renounce. Discard. Disclaim. 
Disown. Disavow. Repudiate. 

Ant. Profess. Assert. Demand. Claim. 
^'inllicate. Advocate. Acknow- 
ledi-'e. Appropriate. Retain, Hug. 

Ablation. Lat. auferre, abla- 
ti's, to take away. tSee Abduc- 

Able, adj. /See Ability. Used 
of persons possessmg, or things 
indicating, ability, as an able 
man, an able speech. 

SvN. Strong. Powerful. Skilful. Clever. 
Talented. Capable. Effective. Telling. 
Masterly. Nervous. Vigorous. 

Ant. Weak. Inefficient. UnskilfuL 
Silly. Stupid. Incapable. Ineffective. 

Ablution, n. Lat. abluere, to 
wash off. 

Syn. ' Washing. Purification. Cleansing. 
Abstersion. Defecation. 

Ant. Pollution. Soilure. Defilement. 
Dirt. Contamination. Taint. Stain. 

Abnegation, n. Lat. abnct/arc, 
to deny strongly. It is applied 
rather to rights and objects of 
desire than to statements, as the 
abnegation of self or evil desires. 

Syn. Denial. Renunciation. Abjuration. 
Abstinence. Stint. Disallowance. 

Ant. Assertion. Vindication. Claim. 
Indulgence. Concession. Licence. 

Abnormal, adj. Ab and norma, 
a type, lain, or nde. 

SvK. Irregular. Unusual. Exceptional 
Monstrous. Abenant. Devious. Di- 
vergeat. Eccentric. Erratic. 

Ant. Typical. Nonnal. Regular. Usual. 

Socially cast off, degraded, or i ordinary. Natural. Customary. lUuslrativa 

B 2 

St/7iomjms and Antonyms. 

Ad.ard, oiv 
boaj'd ship. 

Six. Aftoat. 
ANT. Ashoie. 

Abode, n. See Abide. 

.Svx. Home. Stay. Residence. Domicile. 
Habiuuion. Berth. With the idea of per- 

Ant. With the idea of transience. Halt. 
Perch. Tent. Bivouac. Caravansary. 

Abolish, v. t. Der. Fr. aholir, 
or Lat. aholcsctre, to groiu out, or 
ifie _ out ; the verb in English 
having taken the transitive sense 
of destroy. 

SvK. Destroy. Eradicate. Obliterate. 
K-xtirpate. Abrogate. Annul. Repeal. 
Revoke. Cancel. Annihilate. Expunge, 

Akt. Support. Sustain. Cherish. I'ro- 
mote. Continue. Confirm. Restore. Re- 
pair. Revive. Reinstate. Enact. Re-enact, 

Abominable, adj. Ab and 
omi-u. To be rejected as a foul 
thing of evil omen. 

SvN. K.ail. Detestable. Hateful. Hor- 
rible. Ivoiuhsome. Execrable. Nauseous, 

-VxT. Delectable. Desirable. Admirable. 
Enjoyable. Loveable. Charming. De- 
lightful. Grateful. Pure. 

Abominate, v. tr. See Abo- 
minable and Abhor. 

Abomination, ok See Abomin- 
able. Is used both for the feel- 
ing and the object of abomina- 

Svx. Hatred. Loathing. Detestation. 
Abhorrence. Nuisance. Evil. Annoy- 
ance. Curse. Infliction. Plague. 

AxT. Love. Affection. Desire. Long- 
Enioyment. Acquisition. Benefit. 
Oratincalion. 'i'reat. Blessing. Delight. 

Aboriginal, ah origine, from 
the first, or oriyin. 

Svx. Prima'val. Primordial. Indigen- 
ous. Autochthonic. Native. Immemorial. 

Akt. Subsequent. Adventitious. Im- 
ported. Exotic. Immigrant. Recent. Mo- 
dera. Ijate. Upstart. Novel. Fresh. 

Abortion, ??. Lat. uhoriri, 
•ihortus. That •which from the 
beginning misses the purpose or 
Vaw of its nature or birth. 

bix. Miscurnaiie. l.iiiurc. Misadveu- 

Nautical — on ' tu^. Downfall. Mishap. Defeat ^Vn* 
tration. Misproduction. Blunder. Mets. 
Ant. Success. Consummation. Comple- 
tion. Achievement. ReaIiz;ition. Perfec- 
tion. Exploit. Feat. Development. 

Abound, v. int. Lat. abundare, 
unda, a wave. 

Svx. stream. Flow. Swell. Increase. 
Overflow. Superabouud. Teem. Swarm. 
Luxuriate. F'lourish. Wanton. Revel. 

Ant. Fail. Waste. Dry. Lack. Ev.i- 
porate. AVane. Drain. Die. Decay. Vanish. 
Lessen. Decrease. 

About, prep, and adv., the 
latter more correctly Abouts. On 
or near the outside or bmits of 
a thing; and so approximating 
rather than exact. a.s. abutan. 

Syx. Near. Nearly. Touching. Con- 
ceminsr. Surrounding. Approximately. 
Roughly. Generally. 

AxT. Afar. Away. Away or afar from. 
Precisely. Exactly. 

Above, ^jj-ep. and adv. On the 
over or upper side. Metaphori- 
cally, in excess of, or superior 

Stx. Over. Beyond. Exceeding. 
Ant. Below. Within. Beneath. 

Abke.^st, adv. At the breast. 
Used with the prep, of, nautical. 

Svx. Beside. Alongside. 
Axt. Ahead. Asiern. 

Abridge, v. tr. See Abbre- 
viate. It is the same word as 
Abbreviate ; but, instead of com- 
ing directly from the Latin, has 
come to us through the French 

Abridgement,?;. /S'<'e Abridge. 
In addition to the sense of abbre- 
viation generally, it has tlie tech- 
nical meaning of a literary ab- 
breviation in particular. 

Srx. Abstract. Synopsis. Epitome. 
Compendium. Analysis. 

Ant. The opposite process, or its result 
Amplification. Expatiation. Di^q^i^ition 
Expansion. Dilution. Comment. Annota- 
tion. ExpoiJition. Paraphrase. 

Abroach, adv. A for at, or, 
relatively, to, and broccus, a i>e'j 

Su7iOiii/ms and Antonijhis. 

(»' spi'jvf. Used metaphorically 
of that which has escaped where 
it ought to have been confined. 

Stn. Aflow. Afloat. Abroad. Revealed. 
Ant. Close. Fast. Tight. Secret. Ke- 

Abroad, adv. On the broad. 
Used sometimes metaphorically 
of state of mind. 

SvN. Far. Away. Apart. Aloof. Adrift. 
About. ])ispersed. Distracted. Confused. 

Ant. Near. Close. Housed. Fast. Col- 

Abrogate, v. tr. As rogare 
was to ask the sanction of the 
citizens of ancient Eonie to the 
jiassing of a law, so the contrary 
process was expressed by oh- 

Syn. Cancel. Abolish. Annul. Repeal. 

Akt. Enact. Re-enact. Confirm. En- 
force. Continue. Revive. 

Abrogation, n. See Abrogate. 

SvN. Abolition. Repeal. Discontinuance. 

Ant. institution. Establishment. En- 
actment. Confinnation. Continuance. Sanc- 

Abrupt, adj. Lat. ahrumpere, 
<(hru2)tus. To break off, either 
physically, as an abrupt preci- 
pice, or metaphorically, as an 
abrupt departure. 

Stn. Sudden. Steep. Precipitous. Curt. 
Blunt. Unceremonious. Rugged. Rough. 

Ant. Undulating. Easy. Smooth. Glid- 
ing. Blending. Courteous. Polished. 

Abscond, v. int. Lat. ahs and 
condevf, to hide. The term is 
borrowed from the habits of 
.some animals, and is commonly 
used to imply shame or fear of 

SvN. Decamp. Disappear. Bolt. Hide. 
Withdraw. Retreat. 

Ant. Show. Emerge. Appear. 

Absence, v. Lat. ahsentia. 
Physically, the being at a dis- 
tance from a particular spot, or, 
njcntally, inattention to a pro- 
ix)sed subject or transaction. 

Also, in the most abstract sense, 
the non-presence of something, 
as the absence of a quality in a 

SvN. Want. Departure. Non-exlstencc. 
Failure. Separation. Lack. Non-appear- 
ance, inattention. Distraction. 

Ant. Presence. Supply. Existence, 
Appearance. Manifestation. Evidence. Im- 
manence. Inherency. Attention. Con- 

Absolute, adj. Lat. ahsolutus, 
part. pass, of uhsohere, to loosen . 
The root idea of the word is thtit 
of freedom from some bond or 
control ; and the meaning of the 
word varies according to the na- 
tiire of the bond implied, as free- 
dom from defect, physical con- 
ditions, stipulations, ideal asso- 
ciations, political restraint, un- 
certainty, or doubt. 

SvN. Perfect. Complete. Unconditional. 
Unconditioned. Irrelative. Irrespective. 
Supreme. Despotic. Autocratic. Irrespon- 
sible. Certain. 

Ant. Imperfect. Incomplete. Condi- 
tional. Conditioned. Contingent. Relative. 
Dependent. Constitutional. Accountable. 
Responsible. Dubious. 

Absolve, v. tr. Lat. ahsolvere. 
To loose or acquit from the im- 
jjutation or penalty of wrong, or 
from obligation implied or in- 

SrN. Acquit. Release. Liberate. Ex- 
empt. Discharge. Pardon. Forgive. Free, 

ANT. Charge. Accuse. Bind. Compel 
Oblige. Convict. Condemn. Inculpate. 

Absonant, adj. Ah, from, and 
sonare, to sound. When the in- 
tention is physically discordant, 
the form ado])ted sliould be ab- 
sonous, alisonant being reserved 
for that which is morally con- 

SvN. Dissonant. Discordant. Contrari* 
ant. Repugnant. Inconsonant. Inhar« 
monious. incompatible. Inappropriate. 

Ant. Consonant. Agreeable. Consistent 
Harmonious. Compatible. Congruous 
Suit;ible. Appropriate. Pertinent. Proper 

Si/ii07y.T/ms and Antonyms. 

Absorb, v. tr. Lat. libsorherc, 
to suck vp. Used physically and 
tnetaphorically, as, to absorb the 
time or attention. 

Sttj. 9.« allow. Drown. Imbibe. Engross, 
l.iiunlf. Consume. Monopolize Kxbaust. 

AXT. Kject. Emit. Exude. Disgorge. 
Uis.sipate. Distract. Disiil. Disperse. 

Abstain, v. int. Ahs and 
l< iiere. To hold off from. 

Stn. Refrain. Forbear. Refuse. Demur. 
.Scruple. Withliold. 

Ant. Indulge. Exceed. Revel. Wanton. 

Abstemious, adj. Ais and 
ti'iantum, strong mixed drink. 
Temperate in diet generally. 

Stn. Abstinent, Temperate. Sparing. 

Ant. Sensual. Self-indulgent. Glutton- 
ous. Greedy. Intemperate. 

Absterge, v. tr. Lat. ahs and 
lirgere, to vnpp. 

Sin. Wipe. Cleanse. Purify. Spunge. 
.Scour. Scrub. Purify. 

Ant. Foul. Besp;ittPr. Contaminate. 
Bedaub. Soil. Pollute. Begrime. 

Abstersive, adj. Having the 
property of absterging. 

Syn. Scouring. Detergent. Cathartic. 

Ant. Contaminative. Corruptive. Of- 

Abstinent, adj. See Abstain. 

Stn. Continent. Temperate. Abstemi- 
ous. Sober. Sell-denying. Austere. 

Ant. Self-indulgent. Sensual. Intem- 
perate. Epicurean. Dissipated. Debauched. 
I iicontinent. 

Abstract, v. tr. Ahstrahere, to 
draw or take off. Often with the 
idea of fitrtiveness. 

SvN. Separate. Remove. Part. Ap- 
propriate. Purloin. Thieve. Steal. 

Ant. Add. Unite. Conjoin. Adduce. 
Impoie. Restore. Surrender. Return. 

Abstraction, v. See Abstract. 
Has, in addition to the above 
senses of Abstract, the logical 
sense of separating those points 
on which individuals differ, and 
contemplating those on which 
they agree, for the purpose of 
forming a common noun or ; 

also that of mental absti-action 
from surrounding objects. 

Syn. Separation. liemoval. Appropria- 
tion. Purloining. Generalization. Classi- 
fication. Reverie. Absorption. Absence. 

Ant. Addition. Union. Conjunction. 
Adduction. Importation. Restoration. Re- 
stitution. Individualization. Enumeration. 
Analysis. Specification. Observation. At- 

Abstracted. See Abstract 
and Abstraction. 

Abstruse, adj. Abstrudere. To 
thrust away, as it were, into the 
dark, away from common light 
and understanding. 

Stn. Hidden. Recondite. Curious. Ol>- 
scure. Mystical. Occult. Hard. Dark. 

Ant. Patent. Popular. Superficial. 
Simple. Obvious. Trite. Intelligible. 
Plain. Easy. Manifest. Lucid. Clear. 

Absurd, adj. Ab and surdus, 
deaf or dissonant. Taken meta- 
phorically, it expresses that 
which is out of tune with truth, 
or discordant from the proprie- 
ties of tilings. It is apphed to 
persons and character. 

Syn. Irrational. Ridiculous. ^Monstrous. 
Preposterous. Silly. Nonsensical. Foolish. 

Ant. .Sensible. P^ational. Reasonable. 
Consistent. Sound. Substantial. AVise. Sa- 
gacious. Reflective. Philosophical. Logical. 

Abundance, n. Abundantia. 
IJnda, a wave. A copious sup- 

Syn. Plenty. Copiousness. Largeness. 
Ampleness. Profusion. Luxuriance. Wealth. 

Ant. Rarity. Scarcity. Paucity. Scan- 
tiness. Dearth. Deficiency. Failure. Poverty. 

Abundant, adj. See Abund- 

Syn. Plentiful. Plenteous. CoplouSw 
Large. Ample. Overflowing. Teeming. 
Plofuse. Liberal. Bountiful. Rich. 

Ant. Rare. Scarce. Scant. Short. De- 
ficient. InsufiScient. Niggardly. Sparing. 
Dry. Drained. Exhausted. ImpoverishedL 

Abuse, v. tr. To use a person 
or thing in any mamier away 
from the rule or line of right. It 
has the restricted sense of verl>aJ 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 

Stn. Injnre. -.JMnnge. Spoil. Maltreat. 
Misuse. Misemploy. Vilify. Vituperate. 

Ant. Tend. Protect. Conserve. Re- 
nnet. Regard. Consider. Shield. Cherisb. 
1,111(1. Praise. Panegyrize. Vindicate. 
I xtol. 

Abut, v. int. Frencli hont, end 
or covfine. To project in a solid 
mass upon another object, or a 
certain point without actual con- 

SrN. Extend. Project. Impinge. Ap- 

Ant. Recurve Retreat. Return. Re- 
cede. Diverge. 

Abyss,«. Gr.a,«o<, and/3 vo-o-os, 
depth. A bottomless pit. 

Stn. Gulf. Profound. Deep. Pit. 
Chasm. Depth. 

Ant. Surface. Depression. Cavity. In- 

Academical, adj. The grove 
of Academus, the resort of Plato, 
whence Academy, as applied to 
seats of learning. 

Stn. Collegiate. Learned. Classical. 
AjiT. Illiterate. UncoUegiate. 

Accede, v. int. Accedere, to 
come to. The word is by usage 
restricted to the coming over to 
a view or a proposal. It is fol- 
lowed by the prep. to. 

Stn. Assent. Comply. Acquiesce. Ac- 

Akt. Dissent. Decline. Withdraw. Re- 
fuse. Protest. Demur. 

Accession, has the ordinary 
sense of an-ival or addition, with 
the peculiar sense of arrival at 
power or office. 

Stx. Arrival. Addition. Increase. In- 
flux. Augmentation. 

Ant. Departure. Abandonment. Re- 
signation. Retirement. Diminution. De- 
crease. Efflux. Ebb. Drain. Subsidence. 

Accelerate, v. tr. Ad and 
cdtr, quick. To quicken tlie 
speed or process of events, ob- 
jects, or transactions. 

Stn. Quicken. Hasten. Urge. Speed. 
Expedite. Promote, despatch. Facilitate. 

Ant. Delay. Obstnict. Impede. Re- 
ttj-i!. aog. Hinder. Drag. Sliackle. 

Accent, n. Acccviua, from a<i 
and canere, to sing. A peculiar 
emphasis or beat upon a syllable. 
Also a peculiar mode of pronun- 
ciation, as a provincial accent. 
Accents in the plui-al is a some- 
what poetical expression for 
speech or language. 

SvN. Stress. Beat. Rhythm. Emphasis. 

Ant. Smoothness. Inacoentuation. Mono- 
tony. E<iuablenes9. Babble. Flow. 

Accept, ". tr. Accej-.ture, from 
accipere, to take. The word ex- 
presses more than receive, im- 
plying a reception with a will 
to receive. 

Stn. Welcome. Hail. Admit. Recog- 
nise. Avow. Aclinow ledge. 

Ant. Refiise. Decline. Reject. Disown. 
Disavow. Ignore. Repudiate. 

Acceptable, adj. See Accept. 

Stn. Grateful. Welcome. Pleasant. 

Ant. Unerateful. Unwelcome. Un- 
pleasant. Dii^greeable. 

Access, v.H. *See Accede. Ap- 
proach, or way of approach. 

SvN. Approach. Adit. Entrance. Ave- 
nue. Admittance. 

Ant. Exit. Egress. Departure. Ex- 
clusion. Repulse. 

Accessible, adj. See Accede. 
Used of demeanour. 

SvN. Affable. Easy. Approachable. 

Ant. Distant. Cold. Difficult Unap- 

Accessory or Accessary, adj. 
See Accede. 

Stn. Additive. Additional. Auxiliary. 
Supplementary. Conducive. Assistant. 

Ant. Essential. Inherent. Immanent. 
Incorporate. Superfluou.s. Irrelevant. MaU 
apropos. Obstructive. Cumbersome. 

Accident, n. Accidere, to fall 
or beful. Used in the technical 
sense of that which is attached 
to a thing without being essen- 
tial to it, in which sense it i.-? 
nearly sj-nonymous with con- 
dition or concomitant. 

Stn. Chance. Fortuity. Ct.'v.»Xiy. Aixi 

Spionyms and Antonyms. 

If of eV,;, Disaster. Calainity. Jlishap. 

Ant. Law. Purpose. Appointment. 
Ordainnient. Provision. Preparation. 

Acclamation, n. Ad and 
cJamare, to adl out. A calling 
out in favour. Vivid and unani- 
mous approval of persons or 

Syn. Applause. Homage. Gratulatlon. 
Salutation. Plaudit. Hosaiinah. Cheer. 

Ant. Obloquy. Censure. Execration. 
Contumely. Outcry. Sibllation. Denun- 

AccLI^^TY, ??. AccUvis, steep. 
The acclivity and the declivity- 
are the same things looked at 
from different points of view. 

Syn. Ascent. 

Ant. Declivity. Descent. 

Accommodate, v. tr. Con, to^ 
gether, and modtis, a limit. To 
accommodate is to make the 
limits of a man's circumstances 
commensurate with his require- 
ments; and so to oblige in any 
way, as by money, shelter, suffi- 
cient space, &c. It is also used 
in the rude sense of adapting one 
thing to another. 

Syn. Convenience. Oblige. Adapt. 
Snpply. Reconcile. Harmonize. Fit. 

Ant. Inconvenience. Disoblige. Misfit. 
Ir.'sommode. Disturb. Deprive. Aggravate. 

Accommodating, adj. See Ac- 

Syn. Ivind. Oblising. Unselfish. Polite. 
Considerate. Yielding. Conciliatory. 

Ant. Disobliging. Selfish. Churlish. 
Kude. Imperious. Dictatorial. Incon- 
tidcrate. Exacting. Unaccommodating. 

Accompany, v. tr. Der. un- 
cert. Either coji and panis, bread; 
so that a companion would be, in 
the first instance, a mess-mate ; 
or comj>cu]o-a<jinis, a fasteirii);/. 
one fastened with a tie of friend- 
nhip or association. 

Syn. Follow. Consort. Attend. Join. 
Oi-exist. Escort. Convoy. 

Ant. Deseit. Abandon. Leave. Avoid. 
i!i>i:l<ew. yult. Dlscara 

Accomplice, n. Ad, con, p^irn., 
a fold. One who is folded up 
with another in the circumstancee 
and responsibilities of his con- 
duct. See Abettor. 

Accomplish, v. tr. Ad and 
complere, to fill up. To biing to 
an issue of full success. To fill 
up an act to the measui'e of its 

Syn. Execute. Perform. Fulfil. Con- 
summate. Achieve. Finish. Complete. 

Ant. Fail of. Frustrate. Defeat. Dis- 
concert. Destroy. Bafflfe. Mar. SpoiL 

Accord, v. tr. and int. Ad 
and cor, cordis, tlie heart. Has the 
double sense of agreeing and 
granting as it were with the 
whole heart. 

Syn. Agree. Consent. Harmonize. Tally. 
Answer. Comport. Consist. Conform. 
Grant. Concede. Allow. Surrender. 

Ant. Disagree. Differ. Misfit. Miscom- 
port. Misconform. Withhold. Refuse. Deny. 

Accost, v. tr. Ad costam 
venire, to come to the side, for the 
presumed pui'pose of addressing 
another. Hence, to address in a 
friendly way, or otherwise. 

Syn. Address. Salute. Hail. Greet 
Stop. Apostrophize. 

Ant. Shun. Avoid. Elude. Pass. Ignore. 

Accountable, adj. Lat. com- 
piitare, to reckon. Liable to be 
called to a reckoning. 

Syn. Responsible. Amenable. Liable. 
Answerable. Accredited. Delegated. Sub- 

Ant. Autocratic. Independent. Abso- 
lute. Supreme. Irresponsible. Despotic, 

Accredit, v. tr. Ad and cre- 
dilare, from credere. Has the 
twofold meaning of, 1, to ])lace 
trust in, and, 2, to confer trust 
upon another, as, to accredit a 
statement, and an ambassador. 

Syn. Believe. Trust. Entrust, liil* 
gate. Depute. Commission. Authorize. 

Ant. Disbelieve. Distrust. Suspect 
Recall. Supersede. Discard. Dismiss. 

Accumulate, v. tr. and ir.t. 
i Lat. ad and camidus. a hmjj. 

Syx. Collwt. Grow. Mass. Heap. 

W-vip. Garner. Gather. Hoard. Husband. 
Aiiiment. Increase. Amass. 

ANT. Dissipaie. Disperse. Diminish. 
^L■atler. Expend. Waste. 

Accuracy, n. The synonyms 
iuay be formed as nouns from 
tho succeeding word. 

Accurate, adj. Ad and cura, 
care. Is said of a disposition or 
a production -whicli sliows an 
«jxact conformity to some stand- 
ard of requirement, the result of 
care and pains, 

SvN. Careful, 

Sijnonyms and Antonijms. 9 

brought to a head or illustrious 
termination. <b'ee Abortion. 

AciCULATt, adj. Aciis, ackulus, 
a needle. Needle-pointed. 

Exact. Faithful. Pre- 
cise. Correct. Close. Truthful. Strict. . . 

Ant. Careless. Inexact. Faulty. In- Sell "nitU It 
correct. Inaccurate. Loose. Defective, 

Stn. Spinous. Prickly. Thorny. Sharp« 
pointed. Bristly. Sagittate. Hastate. 
Ant. Obtuse. Blunt. Abrupt. Bluff. 

Acid, adj. Acidus. 
S\-N. Sharp'. Acidulous. Acetose. Vine, 

Ant. Mellow. Luscious. Mealy. Rich. 

Acknowledge, v. tr. Agnos- 
cere. To make matter of piiblic 
knowledge in relation to one's 
self, or openly to identify one's 

AccuBSE. See Curse. 

Accuse, v. tr. Ad and causa. 
To bring to a legal trial. To 
charge ; and, thence, to bring an 
imputation generally against an- 

Stn. Charge. Incriminate. Impeach. 
Arraign. Tax. Taunt. Cite. Summon. 

Ant. Defend. Vindicate. Discharge. 
Acquit. Absolve. Condone. Pardon. Re- 
lease. Exonerate. 

Accustom, v. tr. Ad and con- 
suetudo, ivay of living. 

Stn. Habituate. Inure. FamUiarize. 
Train. Reconcile. 

Ant. Disaccustom. Dishabituate. AVean. 
E.straDge. Alienate. 

Ace, n. Lat. as assis, a pound. 
A standard of unity. 

Syn. Unit. Atom. Point. Tittle. Jot. 

Ant. Numbers. Quantity. Bulk. Mass. 
Collection. Aggregate. Total. Sum. 

Acerbity, n. Acerbiis, Jiarsh, 
as the flavour of unripe fruit. 
Used also metaphorically of the 

SvN. Harshness. Acridity. Tartness. 
Sourness. Roughness. Acidity. Bitter- 
ness. Acrimony. 

jVnt. Sweetness. Mildness. Mellowness. 
Bcftncss. Gentleness. Amlnbleness. 

Achievement, n. Fv. achever, 
chef; Lat. capid, a head. A deed 

Stn. Avow. Admit. Recognize. Own. 
Accept. Confess. Profess. Endorse. 

Ant. Disavow. Disclaim. Disown. Re- 
pudiate. Ignore. Deny. 

Acme, n. Gr. aKjiJ], a point, or 

Srs'. Summit. Apex. Zenith. Pitch. 
Culmination. Mt-ridiun. Clima.x. 

Ant. Base. Floor. Ground. Nadir. 
Depth. Depression. Foundation, toot. 

Acquaint, v. tr. Pr. accointer, 
from the Lat. accognitare, from 
coqnittis, to make knoivn. 

Syn. Advertise. Inform. Tell. Teach. 
Noiifv. Apprize. Advise. 

Ant. Misinform. Deceive. Delude. 
Mislead. Misguide. Hoodwink. 

Acquaintance, n. See Ac- 

Sy-n. Knowledge. Familiarity. E.\peri- 

Ant. Ignorance. Unfamiliarlty. Inex- 
perience. It has also the colloquial meaning 
of a person with whom one is acquainted. 

Acquiesce, v. int. Ad and 
quits, rest. To rest quiet, if not 
contented, with arrangements, 
statements, and the like. 

Syn. Assent. Repose. Concur. 
Ant. Dissent. Demur. Object. 

Acquire, v. tr. Acguircre. To 
procure generally, with an im- 
Dlied effort in some degi'ee. 

Stn. Gain. Earn. Procure. Obtain. 
Ant. Lose. Forfeit. Surrender. Foro- 
go. Miss. 


Syncnyms and Anionyms. 

Acquirement, « . See Acqtiire. 

Syk. Knowledge. Attainment Accom- 
plishment. Learning. Erudition. 

Ant. Intuition. Inspiration. Genius. 

Acquisition, n. See Acquire, j i-- -ui 
Beside the meaning of the act ^PPf ^t , 
and process of acqtiiring, it has 
also that of the thing acquired, 
with an implied value in it. 

Syn. Gain. Boon. Accession. Benefit. 
Blessing. Advantage. Profit. 

Ant. Burden. Infliction. Loss. Draw- 
back. Disadvantage. Incubus. Blcmistu 

Acquit, v. tr. Ad and quies. 
Comp. Quit, to leave a place 
quiet, and Quittance, a legal re- 
lease, for the quiet of the debtor's 
mind. (The word is used in a 
reflexive way, to acquit one's 
self, to behave.) 

Stn. Absolve. Discharge. Exonerate. 
Exculpate. Release. Dismiss. Liberate. 

Ant. Charge. Accuse. Impeach. Con- 
strain. Implicate. Bind. Compel. Oblige. 
Condemn. Sentence. 

Acquittance, n. See Acquit. 

Syn. Release. Discharge. Receipt. 
Ant. Bond. Claim. Charge. Obligation. 

Acrid, adj. Lat. acer. Harsh. 

Stn. Harsh. Sour. 

Ant. Mellow. Sweet. Luscious. 

Acrimony, n. See Acrid. 
Spoken of manners and dispo- 

Stn. Sharpness. Bitterness. Sourness. 
Jll-feeling. A.speriiy. Animosity. Hostility. 

Ant. Smoothness. Courtesy. Mildness. 
Blandness. Pleasantness. Friendship. 

Across, adv. andp^rjp. Cross- 

Syn. Transversely. Athwart Against. 
Transverseness to a line of movement be- 
comes opposition. 

ANt. Lengthwise. Along. Concurrently. 

Act, w. Af/ere, actum. A thing 

Syn. Deed, rerfurmance. Action 

In Act, the thing done is re- 
giirded in its separation and 
finality, action, to speak genc-j 

rally, being the process of which I Briskness. 

act is the completion. Its mul" 
tiplicity of bearings flows from 
the simplicity of its meaning, a 
thing done,' which is variously 
A. thing done physi- 
cally is the .simplest act; the 
continuance or repetition of 
physical acts makes physical ac- 
tion, as, tlie ' action of a horse.' 
Acts of the state, as such, are 
laws ; hence, acts of parliament. 
The word Act has certain tech- 
nical or local meanings, which 
need only to be mentioned, such 
as, a literary exercise, of univer- 
sities, a term of study. A divi- 
sion of a play. Action, in addi- 
tion to the above, has the sense 
of a moral act, which is made np 
of minor acts (act and operf:tion, 
not action, are used of the mind) 
and is, J;ke mechanical action, 
made up of minor movements or 
acts; thus, reconcile differences 
between two friends is a good 
action. It is plain, however, that 
it involves many minor acts sub- 
ordinate to the general intention. 
The word action has acquired 
more than one technical applica- 
tion. Thus, with the mechani- 
cian, action is complex mechani- 
cal movement ; with the lawj^er, 
legal proceeding; with the sol- 
dier, military engagement on a 
field of battle; while, with tlio 
player, act, action, and actor, arc; 
theatrical terms. 

Sin. to Action. Movement Proceeding. 
Exercise. Operation. I'erlormance. Play. 

Ant. Inaction. Rest. Repose. Cessa- 
tion. Suspension. Quiet. Immobility, in- 
ertia. Quiescence. 

Activity, ». Is the faculty of, 
and tendency to, action. "When 
purely physical it is termed 

Stn. AgiL-ty. Quickness. Entrgy 

Si/nonj/ms and Aiiloii'jms. 


Ajtt. Ltacti/ity. Slowness. Awkward- 
B'-ss. Slotb. Clumsiness. Indolence. 
II;. .iness. Sluggishness. Lassitude. 

Active, adj. See above. 

Actual, ad/. Yv.(tctuel,actunlis. 

Syn. Developed. Positive. Demon- 
^tr.^ble. Certain. Real. 

Ant. Potential. Undeveloped. Hypo- 
t'l'^tical. Suppositious. Possible. Virtual. 
'I'lipr,retical. Fabulous. Kictitious. Uiiri-al. 

Actual implies the being 
brought into form, shape, or 
reality, as distinguished from 
lieing only mentally conceived, 
or falsely imagined. 

Actually, adv. See above. 

Actuate, v. tr. Same root. To 
induce to act. 

Syn. Urge. Instigate. Induce. Incline. 
Dispose. Impel. Incite. Prompt. Drive. 

Ant. Deter. Discourage. Retard. Hin- 
der. Prevent. Inhibit. Impede. Dis- 

Acuity, n. Aciis, a needle. 

Stn. Pointedness. Aculeation. Acu- 

Aculeated, adj. Aculeus, a 

Syn. Armed. Spinous. Acuminated. 

Ant. Unarmed. Blunt. Obtuse. Point- 
less. Slingless. 

AciTMEN, n. Latin word. 

Sin. Point. Penetrativeness. Sharpness, 
lijscemroent. Talent. Sagacity. 

Art. Bluntness. Obtuseness. Stupidity, 
liebetude. Dulness. Indiscernment. 

Acute, adj. Acutus. Same root. 
Used literally and metaphorically 
both of persons and of sensations. 

Syn. Sharp. Pointed. Penetrating. Sa- 
gacious. Severe. Distressing. 

AxT. Dull. Blunt. Obtuse. Stupid. 
Stolid. Undiscerning. Heavy. Chronic. 

Acutely, adv. See above. 

Adage, n. Adigere, ago, to 
hring to a head or a point. A sen- 
tence or saying which brings a 
matter to a point, and condenses 
it in a telling form. 

Syn. Ma.xim. Proverb. Dictum. 
AST. Discourse. Harangue. i>isquisi- 
Uon. Vam. 

Adapt, Adaptation, Adapteix 
Adaptai'e, to fit, apttts. Jit. To 
make one thing or idea fit to an- 

Syn. v. Fit. Atyust. , Accommodate 
Suit. Conform. Admeasure. Haimonizi'. 

n. Accommoilation. Adjustment. Ad- 
measurement. Conformity. Coioeidence. 

adj. Suite). Fitted. Adjusted. Aetoin- 
modated. Competent. Convenient. 

Ant. to Adapiation. Inconformitv. In- 
congruity. Incompatibility. Disharmony. 
MisHt. M.iltormation. Mismeasuremeiit. 

To Adapt. Misfit Misconform. Mis- 

To Adapted. Unsuitcd. Unfitted. Un- 
qualified. Unadapted. Inconvenient. 

Abt), Addo, ad and dare, 
to give. 

Syn. Adduce. Adjoin. Annex. 

Ant. Deduct, Subtract. Dissever. Ab- 

Addendum, ??. From addcre. 
Something to be added, as ne- 
cessary or advantageous. 

Syn. Acquisition, luiproveraent. Sup-. 
plement. Complement. Desideratum. Con- 
comitant, Annexation. Appendage. 

Ant. Surplusage. Detriment. Deterio- 
ration. Detraction. DrawbacV:. 

Addicted, adj. Addicere, to 
enrol as a Jol/oirer. 

Syn. Given. Accustomed. Prone. In. 
clined. Disposed. Habituattd. 

Ant. Unaddicted. Unaccustomed. Dis- 
inclined. Indisposed. Averse. Free. 

Additament, V. A formal ad- 
dition. From the same root as 

SvN. Adjunct. Annexation. Supple- 
ment. Addition. Acquisition. Increase 
Augmentaiion. Accession. SupplemeLt. 

Ant. Deduction. Detraction. Draw- 
back. Decrement. Deterioration. 

Addition, n. See above. 

Address, v. It. addrizzare, ad 
and dirigere. To move in the 
straight line towards another. 
To direct one's self, or a state- 
ment, or salutation, or request, 
towards him. 

Address, n. The. facility oJ 
employing means to secure at* 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

leution, or to gain a purpose. 
Skill. It has also the meaning 
of the locality or mode of com- 
munication connected with one; 
so, synonjTaons Anth Eesidence 
or Direction. Addresses in the 
phiral means courtship. 

Stn. to n. Tact. Manners. 

Ant. Awkwardness. Uumannerliness. 

SvN. to V. Accost. Greet. Salute. Ap- 
proach. Apostrophize. AppeaL 

AsT. Sec Accost. 

Adbttce, V. tr. Ad ducere, to 
hring. To bring a tiling to an- 
other as pertinent, corroborative, 
or supplementary to it. 

.Srs. Allege. Apply. Introduce. Pro- 
duce. Add. Impurt. 

Akt. Retract. Except. Withdraw. De- 
duct Deduce. Suppress. 

Adept, n. and adj. From 
adij)isci, to find, part, adeptas. 
One ■who, by sagacity or experi- 
ence, or both, has found the 
right way of doing a thing, and 
acts upon it. 

Stn. Expert. Adroit. Handy. Master. 
Perlormer. Professor. Artist. 

Ant. Awkward. Clumsy. Inexpert. 
Tyro. Novice. Lubber. Blunderer. 

Adequate, a'ij. Ad cequatus, 
cequus, equal. Equal to any re- 
quired measui-e, object, or pur- 

Stn. Equal. Sufficient. Fit Satisfac- 
tory. Full. Competent. Able. 

Ant. Unequal. JusuflBcient Incom- 
petent. Inadequate. 

Adhere, v. int. Ad liwreo, I 
stick. To remain ■united with 
little external contrivance; but 
rather by some peciiliarity of the 
substances adhering. Used meta- 
phorically of union of cause or 

Svs. Stick. Cohere. Unite. CUng. 

Adhere is better used of one 
Bubstance, Cohere of more than 
one. So, A adheres to B, but A 
and B, or A, B, and C cohere. 

Akt. Disunite. Part. Separate. Divide, 
fiecfdf. Sunder. Sever. 

Adherent, 71. See Adhere. 

Syx. Follower. Supjiorter. Ally. A* 
mirer. Backer. Aid. Partizan. 

Ant. Opponent. I)eserter. Adversary 
Renegade. Antagonist. 

Adhesive, adj. See Adhere. 

Six. Sticky. Viscous. Glutinous. 
AxT. Inadhesive. 

Adieu, znterj. A commending 
to God's care on taking leave. 

Six. Good-bye, which is 'God be with 
ye.' Farewell. \'aleiiiction. 

Ant. Greeting. Welcome. Recogni- 
tion. Salutation. 

Adipose, ac//. Adeps, fat. 

SvN. Obese. Corpulent Oleaginous. 
Sebaceous. Pinguetudinous. 

Ant. Leathery. Skinny. Bony. Thi.x 
Anatomical Mummitied. 

Adit, n. Aditus, adire. An 

Svx. Entrance. Ingress. Approach. 
Avenue. Access. 

Ant. Exit. Egress. Mouth. Debouchure. 

Adjacent, adj. Ad and Jaceo, 
I tie. 

Stn. Near. Neighlwuring. Contiguous. 
Ant. Remote. Distant Separate, 

Adjoin, v. tr. and intr. Ad- 
Jungere. Barely used in the 
transitive sense, this being re- 
served for the uncompounded 
verb, join. In the intransitive 
sense it seems to be used both of 
close proximity and actual con- 

Syn. Annex. Add. Connect. Append. 
Supplement Attnch. Unite. Ivt. Border. 
Neighbour. Touch. Abut Approximate. 
Verge. Trench. Touch. 

Ant. Disjoin. Dismember. Disconnect 
Detach. Disintegrate. Disunite. Int. Part 
Sei^arale. Recede. Return. Diverge. Be 
distant. RemoviKi. Remote. Incontiguous. 

Adjourn, v. tr. Ad, and dies, 
a day. Whence diurnvs, daily. 
So, It. Giorno, a d'ly, and in Eng- 
lisli, journal, a diary, a daily 
newspaper. To defer to a parti- 
cular day, or indefinitely from 
day to day. 

8tu. i^istpona Suspend. Defer. Tro- 
rogue. Delay. Pt Jtnict. 

Ant. Expedite. Despatch. Urge. Hasten. 
Conclude. Complete. Seal. Consummate. 

Adjtjdge, Adjudicate, y. tr. 
Adjudicare. Judex, a judge. 
Thougli they are the same word, 
■imcler a French and a more dis- 
tinctly Latin form, they are used 
differently. To adjudge is to 
award by arbitration. To adju- 
dicate is to exercise the office of 
judge in a case. To adjudge is 
active, adjudicate neuter, except 
in cases of cognate signification, 
as, to adjudicate a matter (of ad- 

Syn, Award. Confer. Assign. Present. 
Ailiilrate. Decide. 

Ant. "Withhold. Reserve. Retain. Re- 
fuse. Dismiss. Relegate. 

Adjunct, n. Ad jungere, ad 
jiindus. 1. A thing added to be 
of use. 2. A thing emphatically 
added, as distinguished from in- 

Stn. Addition. Additament. Attach 
menf. Appendage. Appurtenance. Aux- 
iliary. Aid. Acquisition. Advantage. 

Ant. Essence. Substance. Body. Clog. 
Detriment. Impediment. Hindrance. Ob- 
struction. Detraction. Drawback. 

Adjure, v. tr. Adjumre, to 
s'vcar. To appeal to one, as if 
putting him upon his oath — that 
IS, in the most solemn or impres- 
sive manner; hence it has 
adopted, in addition, the senses 
of entreaty and command. 

Si->-. Conjure. Kntreat. Enjoin. Urge. 
Supplicate. Move. Beseech. Command. 

Ant. Deprecate. Remonstrate. Expos- 
-ulatc. Warn. Dissuade. Inhibit, fto- 
hilMt. Defy. Dare. 

Adjust, v. tr. Ad and Justus. 
With the sense of the French 
juste, right in place or arrange- 

s™. Harmonize. Collocate. Arrange. 
Localize. Adapt. Affix. Right. Accom- 
modate. Reconcile. Compose. 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 13 

The word is used both of ar- 
rangement of things or parts, 
inter se, and also of the fitting of 
one thing to another. 

Ant. Dislocate. Disarrange. Disturb. 
Confound. Dismember. Disorder. Con- 
fuse. Discompose. Derange. 

Adjuvant, adj. Ad juvare, to 


Sru. Accessary.- Auxiliary. Promotive. 
Productive. Assistant Ministrative. An- 
cillary. Useful. Conducive. 

AiiT. 01)structive. Detractive. Retard- 
ative. Preventative. Counteractive. Irre- 
levant. Useless. 

Admeasurement, w. Ad and 
mensura, measure. Is used in. 
the sense, 1, of measurement; 
and, 2, of relative measurement 
or adaptation. 

Stn. Size. Dimensions. Adaptation. 

Ant. Misshapement. Misconfomiity. 
Mistit. Mismatch. Mismeasurement. 

Administer, v. tr. Ad minis- 
frare, from manus, the hand. 
Comp. Manage. To distribute 
generally, or to give out ; or to 
act out the responsibilities of 
office or government. 

Stn. Distribute. Award. Accord. Dole. 
Give. Impart. Afford. Discharge. Dis- 
pense. Execute. Perform. Conduct. 

Ant. Withdraw. Withhold. R«fuse. 
Retain. Assume. Resume. Resign. Deny. 
Divert. Appropriate. Misadminister- Be- 
tray. Misconduct. Mismanage. 

Administration, n. See Admi- 

Admire, v. tr. Ad and mirari, 
to wonder^ Had of old the sense 
of mere wonder ; but is now re- 
stricted to that of wonder on ac- 
count of beauty or excellence. It 
may be of physical or moral 
beauty, as, of a beautiful person, 
or noble conduct and character. 

Syn. Wonder. Gaze. Approve. A];- 
preciate. Extol. Affect. Adore. Revcn^ 

Ant. Abhor. Ridicule. Disesteem. l-x- 
ecrate. Abominate. Contemn. Jlislutu 
Despise. Slight. 


Sifiioni/iaa and Antonyms. 

Admiration, n. See Admire. 

Sys. Wonder. Approval. AppreciaUon. 
Adoration. Reverence. 

Akt. Disapproval Disesteom. Con- 
niniely. Opprobrium. Ridicule. ContempU 

Admissible, a<JJ. See Admit. 
Used of things and persons. 

SrN. Allowable. Pennissible. Probable. 
Reasonable. Proper. Just. Fair. Right. 
Qualified. ,,..,., t 

Ant. Unallowable. Inadmissible. Im- 
proper. Unrea-sonable. Absurd. Prepos- 
terous Monstrous. Unfair. Wrong. Un- 
qualified. Excluded. 

Admission, n. See Admit. 
Used of the admitting or conced- 
ing of truths as just, fair, true, 
reasonable, or right. See Ad- 

Syx. Concession. .VUo nance. Acknow- 
ledgment. Acceptance. 

AsT. Denial. Protestation. Negation. 
Contradiction. Rejection. 

Admit. Ad and mlttere, to 
^■■iid or receive. The root idea 
is that of granting a place to 
some person or thing. So, first, 
locally, as, to admit to a theatre ; 
then, slightly in advance of mere 
locality, to admit to one's pre- 
sence or counsels ; then, to grant 
place to things on some moral 
ground, as of necessity, or justice, 
or reasonableness. 

St>'. Receive. Pass. Permit. Accept 
r.rant. Concede. Allow. Acknowledge. 

Ant. K.Kclude. Debar. Disallow. R^ 
ject. Deny. Discharge. Dismiss. I^ei-t. 
Kxtrude. Repudiate. Disavow. Disown. 

Admittance, n. See Admit. 
Used of local or material cases. ^ 
So, strictly, we should say, the 
admission of an allegation as i 
true, but, the admittance of a | 
stranger to an assembly. | 

SrN. Introduction. Entrance. ^ 
JVfmit. Passport. Privilege. Acceptance, i 
Welcome. Reception. 

Ant. Kxclision. Denial. lyection. Pro- 
bibition. Bar. Hindrance. Rejection. Re- j 
pudiatiia. I 

Admonish, v. tr. Admonere. 
In Old English this word had 
the sense of simply teaching, in- 
forming, or instructing ; after- 
wards of reteaching or remind- 
ing. Its modern usage is warn- 
ing, because the reminding of 
principles is wamiag. Hence, 
like admonition, it has generally 
a prospective sense, not referring 
to physical dangers, but rather 
to moral or penal consequences. 
Sometimes, however, it refers to 
the deed, and is a premonitory 
penalty, equivalent to censure. 

SvN. Remind. Warn. Advise. Fore 
warn. Dissuade. Censure. Rebuke. 

Ant. Encourage. Instigate. Abet. In- 
cite. Urge. Applaud. Countenance. 

Ado, w. From verb, to do. 

S\-N. Hubbub. Commotion. Fuss. Ex- 

Ant. Calm. Composure. Quiet. Order 
Uness. Staiduess. Tranquillity. 

Adopt, v. tr. Ad optare, ('■ 
wish or choose. To take to one'.'^ 
self by choice or approval. It is 
ai)plied to persons, principles, or 
opinions, courses of conduct and 

SvN. Assume. Select. Affiliate. Choose. 
Endorse. Avow. Appropriate. 

Ant. Reject. Decline. Repudiate. Dis- 
avow. Discard. Renounce. Abandon. 
Disown. Disclaim. 

Adobe. Ad and os oris, the 
moath. To kiss the hand in 
token of worship. Applied of 
necessity only to persons, except 
in the sense of idolatry. 

SvN. Admire. Venerate Reverence. 

Worship. Idou^c. 

Ant. Abhor. Despise. Disesleera. Abo* 
minate. Execrate. Blaspheme. 

Adoration. *See Adore. 

Adorn. Ad ornare, to hcai'.' 

' "SvN. Beautify. Decorate. Embelli&h 
Deck. Garnish. Gild. Enrich. 

Ant. Mar. Spoil. Deform. Tiffacr. 
DisfiRure. Impoverish. Deuutie. Despoil 
Strip. Bare. Dis«mbellish. 

iS>/honi/iiis and Anionijins. 

ADRin, "'/'■. Drift, part,, of 
Drive. Drifting loose. Used 
metaphorically, as, ' Ids senses 
are gone adrift.' 

SvN. Loose. Afloat. Agog. Abroad. 
Abroach. Distracted. Disordered. 

Ant. Fast. Tight. Right. I^slied. 
JIuored. Secure. Collected. Composed. 

Adroit, adj. Fr. droit, Lat. 
dexter, the rvjht hand. 

Syn. Handy. Skilful. Dexterous. Ex- 

Ant. Awkward. Clumsy. Unskilful. 
Inexpert. Lubberly. 

Adscititious, or Ascititious, 

adj. Ad sciscere, to seek to know. 
To go out of one's way to find 
out and import. Applies to 
matter added, with the sugges- 
tion of its falsity or superfluity. 

SvN. Adventitious. Superfluous. Re- 
dundant. Alien. Artificial Spurious. 

.(Vnt. Essential. Necessary. Veritable. 
Regular. Ingenerate. Ingrained. Con- 
genil;iL Fundamental. Genuine. Inherent. 

Adulation, rt. Adidari, to 
flatter. Praise, excessive in 
quantity, and interested in ex- 

Syn. Flattery. Compliment. Sycophancy. 
Courtship. Cringing. Fawning. Blandish- 
ment. Incense. 

Ant. Detraction. Obloquy. Defamation. 
Calumny. Traducement. Sarcasm. Ridi- 
cule. Satire. Bespatterment. 

Adult, n. and adj. Adolescere, 
to gruiu tip, adult us. A grown- 
up person. 

Sra. Man. Woman. To adj. IMature. 
Ripe. Full. 

Ant. Youth. Stripling. • Boy. Child. 
Infant. To adj. Juvenile. Immature. 

Adulteratki), pcmi. Ad alte- 
rum, or adulari. Adultery is the 
tmlawfol love of some other 
than the wife or husband. Me- 
taphorically, mixed impurely. 

Syn. Impure. Ungenuine. Spurious. 
Concocted. Mi.xed. Falsified. Deteriorated. 

Ant. I'are. Original. Genuine. Un- 

tni.\rd. Unadulterated. Undeteriorattd. 

Adumbration, p. Aa r.r:d 
nndmt, a shf/dow. Also the put- 
ting forth in shadow, a shadow- 
ing forth. 

Syn. Sliudow. Foreshad-jwlng. Pres.ige. 
Prognostic. Sketch. Delineation. Sugges- 
tion. Hint. Premonition. Prototype 

Ant. Body. Substance. Fulfilment. 
Realization. Substantiation. Antitype. 

Advance, v. tr. and -int. Fr. 
auancer, avant, ah ante. To movo 
one's self, or an object, or other 
person toward the van, or for- 
wards. Ajiplied to moveable ob- 
jects, persons, interests, opinions, 

Syn. Propel. Elevate. Promote. Further. 
Lend. I>ropagate. Progress. Increase. 
Prosper. Rise. 

Ant. Retard. Hinder. Withhold. With- 
draw. Recall. Depress. Degrade. Sup- 
press. Oppose. Retreat. Decrease. 

Advancement,??. >See Advance. 

Advantage, n. Same root. 

An advantage is anything, the 
possession of which secures, pro- 
motes, or radicates success. It 
is used in the jjlural in no spe- 
cific reference, but broadly, as, 
the advantages of education. 

Syn. Gain. Success. Superiority. Help, 
Assistance. Profit. Acquisition. 

Ant. Loss. Disappointment. Defeat. 
Frustration. Inferiority. Obstacle. Ob- 
struction. Difficulty. Dilemma. Disad- 
vantage. Drawback. 

Advent, n. Advenio, adventus, 
I come or arrive. 

SvN. Approach. Arrival. Accession. 

Ant. Departure. Exit. Exodus. Re- 
tirement Relinquishment. Quittance. 

Adventitious, adj. See Ad- 
vent. That which is imposed 
without strict propriety, or ne- 
cessity, or rule. 

Syn. Extrinsic. Pvedundant. Super- 
fluous. Adscititious. Irregular. Casual. 

Ant. Regular. Proper. Pertinent. Essen- 
tial. Appropriate. Necessary, intrinsic. 


The occurrence of an incident ol 

Sijnoni/ms and Anton >/ms. 

See Adverse. 

Antagonist. Foe. 

Abettor. Aider. 
Ally. Ac- 


an nnusiially stii-ring character. 
The adventure is sometimes un- 
foreseen, sometimes sought pur- 

Syx. Incident. Crisis. Casualty. Un- 
dertaking. Experiment. Venture. Trial. 

Ant. Matter-of-fact. Matter-of-course. 

Ad\t:ntukqus, aJj. See above. 
Given to seek adventures. 

Syx. Bold. Brave. Paring. Enter- 
prising. Courageous. Gallant. Fearless. 

Ant. Timid. Unenterprising. Inad- 
vcnlurous. Cowardly. Nervous. Hesitat- 
xg. Cautious. 

Adversary, n 

Syn. Opponent. 
Enemy. Rival. 

Ant. Accessory. 
Friend. Helper. Assistant, 

Adverse, adj. Ad vertere, 
versus, turned to or against, in op- 
j^josition, aduersits. 

Adverse is spoken of physical 
influences or forces, feelings, and 

Sy-x. Opposed. Unlucky. Hard. IlDstile. 
Antagouistic. Unpropitious. Unfavourable. 

Ant. Favourable. Friendly. Amicable. 
Tropitious. Fortunate. Lucky. 

Adversity, n. See Adverse. 

Si-N. Ill-luck. Misfortune. Misery. 
Calamity. Disiister. Unsuccess. FaUure. 
Ruin. Trouble. AfBiction. Sorrow. 

Ant. Good-luck. Prosperity. Happi- 
ness. Success. Advancement. 

Advert, v. int. Ad vert ere, 
ncid., to turn (one's attention) 
to. It is followed by the prep. 

Srs-. Refer. Allude. Notice. Remark. 
Ant. Ignore. Pass. Drop. Omit 

Advertent, adj. See Advert. 
Loosely used of acts as well as 

SvN. Attentive. Regardful. Mindful 
Watchful Thoughtful Observant. Con- 

Ant. Inattentive. Inadvertent. Casual 
ThougUtle>s. Heedless. Inobservant, is- 

Advertise, v. tr. See Advert. 
To draw the mind to a piece of 
information, either the public 
mind or the mind of an indivi- 
dual, and so make it known. 
We say, to advertise a thing, 
and to advertise a person of a 

Syn. Publish. Advise. Inform. Pro- 
claim. Promulge. 

Ant. Suppress. Hush. Conceal Ig- 
nore. Hoodwink. Misguide. ilislead. 

Advice, n. See Advise. 

Advise, v. tr. Ad videre, to see. 
To cause to see, for the sake of 
information or guidance practi- 
cally, and prompting to action. 

Syn. Persuade. Urge. Prompt. In- 
stigate. Incite. Instruct. Acquaint In- 

ANT. Dissuade. Deter. Expostulate. 
Remonstrate. Prohibit. Inhibit Restrain. 
Curb. Misleai'. Misadvise. Hoodwink. 
Deceive. Deiude. IMisinform. 

AD^^SABLE, adj. That which 
might form a sulject of whole- 
some advice or recommendation. 

Syn. Politic. Judicious. fispedient. 
Desirable. Wise. Prudent. Beneficial. 
Profitable. ^ . _. 

Ant. Unadvisable. Impolitic. Injudi- 
cious. Inexpedient. Undesirable. Unpro- 

Advocate, v. Advocafxs. A 
person called to one's side as an 
assistant at law. Comp. Gr. 

TrapaKXr/rof. It is UScd of tho 

support of a cause or opinions, 
as well as of personal support. 

Syn. Pleader. Counsellor. Upholder. 
Propagator. Promoter. Supporter. Counte- 
nancer. Defender. Jlalnuiiner. 

Ant. Opponent. Adversary. Discount- 
cnancer. Accuser. Impugner. Gamsayer. 

Advocate, v. tr. See noun. 

Afar, adv. Fa r, another form 
(if for, which is from the Greek 
TToppoj and the Latin vro. 

Sra. Abroad. Away. Aloof. 
AST. Near. At borne. Cltse. 

Sijnonijms and Antonyms. 

Affable, aiJj. AffaliUs, affari, 
to address. Giving opporti^nitios 
of conversation, whore they im- 
ply kindness or condescension. 

'Syn. Courteous. Comiescending. Ac- 
cessible. Conversible. (irucious. I'jisy. 

Ant. Exclusive. iJiscourteous. Distiinf. 
Inaccessible. Unapproachable. Jnconver- 
gible. Haughty. Contemptuous. Super- 

Affair, ». Fr. affair", aficnr, 
to ajf'ecf. A tiling taken with its 
siirromidings, and viewed, as it 
were, in the gross; as, a love 
affair, a trivial affair, a serious 

SvN. Jlalter. Business. Concern. Trans- 

Ant. Dftiiil. Item. Point. Feature. 

Affect, v. tr. Afflcere. To 
make or produce an effect upon. 
Also to exhibit a tendency toward 
an object ; hence to seek natiu-ally 
or desn-e. The impulse may be 
physical or moral, as, water is 
affected by cold ; fluids affect a 
round figure; I do not affect 
that man. It is this last aspect 
of the word which is represented 
in common parlance by affection, 
though it is also used physically, 
as, a febrile affection. 

Sn.-. Like. Desire. Favour. Seek. 

Ant. Dislike. Eschew. Shun. Repel. 

Affectation, v. Is the false 
or idle form of the affection ; the 
assuming a state which is not 
one's own, or not natural; the 
affecting of the untrue ; the im- 
pulse on the one side, and the 
object or nature on the other, 
teing out of harmony. 

SvN. Pretence. Artifice. Hypocrisy. 
Assumption. Simulation. Mannerism. Eu- 
phuism. Airs. 

Ant. Genuineness. Naturalness. Sim- 
plicity. Artlessness. Unaffectedness. 

Affectibility, n. See Affect. 

Stn. Sensibility. Sensitiveness. Su.* 
ceptibility. Impressibility. Excitability 
Irritability. Nervousness. 

Ant. Insensibility. Insensateness. Hele« 
tude. Unimpressibleness. Callousness. 

Affection, »?. See Affect. 

SvN. Influence. Condition. Slate. In» 
clinatiim. Bent. Mood. Humour. Feel- 
ing. Love. Desire. Propensity. 

Ant. Insensibility. Indifterence. lie- 
pugi\auce. Disaffection. Repulsion. 

Affianck, i). Fr. affiancp, nd 
and fidiutia, from fides. Faith, 
expressed toward a superior is 
homage, toward an equal is 
iViendshiiD, toward a superior 
power, confidence, and, in a pe- 
culiar sense toward the other 
sex, betrothal. 

Syn. Homage. Trust. Confidence. Re- 
liance. Betrothal. Fealty. Faith. . Plight- 

Ant. Unfealty. Disloyalty. Distrust. 
Treason. Suspicion. Infidelity. Falseness. 

Affiliate, V. ^r. Adim^filuis, 
a son. To impute paternity. Also 
to connect, as with a parent 
stock or society. 

Syn. Aunex. Graft. Incorporate. Unite. 
Adopt Inoculate. 

.•Vnt Dismember. Disannex. Disaffiliate. 
Sever. Transplant. Separate. Disjoin. 

Affiliation, n. See AflBliate. 

Affinity, ii. Affinis means 
literally contiguity, closeness of 
location ; hence closeness of social 
location, that is, relationship be- 
tween persons not of the same 
blood, so differing from con- 
sanguinity. Hence, again, ana- 
logy of natiu-e or character, as 
in colour, soimd, sentiment, or 
mental character; hence, again, 
likeness in anytliuig which should 
form ground of classification, as 
groups of languages or natural 
history, a physical community, 
as chemical affinities. 

Syn. Relationship. Similarity. Analogy. 
Iloraogeneity. Harmony. Correlativene>i. 
Sympathy. Interdependence. Inteiconaco 
tion. Intercommunity. 


Synonijms and Aniomjms. 

AST. Dissimilarity Discordance. Dis- 
connection. Inrtepenience. Antagonism. 
Anlipaltiy. Repugnance. Inter-repulsive- 


Affirm, v. tr. FirnMs. To 
state in a firm manner, or on 
firm grounds AfHrmare. 

SvN. Assert 

Afflux, n. See Affluence. 

Syn. Accession. Importation. AugmunS. 
ation. Increase. AdMiiion. Influx. 

Ant. Decrea.-*. Detriment. Detract n>u 
Diminution. Exliau=tiuii. Failure, tl.b. 

Afford, v. tr. Ad and /or«///, 
mnrktt. To Lrins; to market, or 

impugn. Oppose. 

Affix, v. tr. Affirher, aftigerp. 

SvN Attacli. Fasten. Unite. Appeiid. 
AST. Detacli. Disunite. Separate, l^e- 
move. Disengage. Uutaslen. 

Afflict, Affliction, Afflic- 
tive. Affliijere, afflidare, to strike 



Svn" Assert. ProiTound. Asseverate. I to bring forward in COUrt. HeUCe, 
Depose. State. Declare. Endorse. M.^ntain. ^gj^erallv, tO produce according 

Se^r.;e.^^SJntr^r%afnS:- oSt. | U to 'mora/ and natur-al pro- 
^ " duction, as, the sea aftords iisli, 

the fields corn ; a well-spent hk- 
affords ]jeace at the last. Se- 
condly, to produce, confer, or 
expand economically, that is, in 
proportion to one's means and 

.,,,..,. I Sys. Produce. Supply. Yield. Grant. 

Usage restricts afflict and tlie AdmrnistenE^^^^^^^^ ^^.^^^^_,^^^, ^,^_ 

rather derivatives to things of the I ^,,,t l^^rU^^,. ^ 
mind and prolonged pams of the | ^ -^hise, v. tr. From the 

Lody. When the casual and i A™fHiSE 

uitentional wounding of the body ^ jj:^\[f ^^^ '',^^ ^ free. A^ 

is spoken of,theotlier com^und ^ ^(^1^^^^ 

inflict, is used, as, to inlLcL_ a , P ^^^.^. ^.^^^ LUx^ate. Eufiaiii 

wound ; but we speak of an m- | Manumit, guaiify. opeu. 

Mction meanmg ;m amW^eo , „,j-,S"-:,«,r'S».. '"""•"■ 

and of the inflKition, ot paui u. , ^ jv • i- . \ 

Sd Man inflicts, but God 1 Affray, .^ Fv. effroij.n- A 

!mlY afflicts. ! conflict that puts others m tear, 

SYx' Affliction. Trouble. Trial. Grief. \ therefore pubUc. 
•'■liii Disease. Misery. Hardship. Sorrow, j g^^. j^^^i, Tumult. Brawl. -Mt;lee. 
' ■ "^ • • ""=-' *■'""'="""" Fracas. Di^turbance. „ . . .. 

AXT. Order. TranquUlity. IViciiicalion. 
leasure. Dispersion. yueUing. 

, .. Ad and fluere,\ j^ffright, v. tr. Goth. To 

to flow. In usage expresses the | ^ j^ sx^lden fear by some ex- 
ao-o-regate rather than the process ^^.^.^^.^i exhibition 

of an inflowing abundance. In | •- - — ■ 

older English it applied to the; 

physical inflow of water, as ot ; affroxt, n. Ad tmij.ons, 
the tide, and the an-ival of any- i tu forehtud or faa An open 
thin- in large numbers, as, an insult, as distinguished Irom a 
atfluenoe ot strangers. It is now Lgeret or insidious attack l)> 
commonly used for an abund- i ^yord or deed. 

-— ^=r- Ple.ty. ^Vealt... indgy;;:^; 
^''tsT W^atlrScarcity. Penury. , Indi- j A,.logy. .^me,.i■ 
KHioe. I'vverty. Impecunioiity. htrait- , j^pjpj. ,„/^.. 


Hardship. Sorrow. 

"\sTrCo"n^laUon.' Relief. Alleviation. 

■\<suH!;emcnt. Or, more positively: Boon. 

iUessing. Gratification. "'— -" 

Affluence, n. 

Svs. Startle. Aslonisli. Terrify. 
Ant. Encourage. Embolden. Reassun 

Provocation. Insult 

Salutation. Ooiirlepy 
, Compliment. 

On fire. 

Sjyionyms and Anfoni/ia.-^. 


Stn. Ablate. Alight. Burning, ignited. 
Ant. Out. Extinmiislicd. yueiicliud. 

Afloat, adv. Sax., but seems 
Rkin to jluo, jlactus, a wcive. 
Comp. Fluctuate. It is used also 
in a metaphorical sense, as below. 

Syn. Adrift. Abroad. At sea. Abroach. 
Loose. ]1istracted. Daied. 

Ant. Ashore. Snug. Tight. Close. 
Fast. Collected. Concentratmi 

Afoot, adv. On fnoi. Liter- 
ally, on the feet, and with the 
metaphorical meaning of, set 

Sin. Working. Launched. Afloat. 
Agoing. Inaugurated. Started. Insti- 
tuted. Established. 

Ant. Uncommenced. Incomplete. Pro- 
jected. Proposed. Contemplated. Designed. 

Afore, adv. and adj. Fore, 
same as for Gr. iroppto, Latin jn-o. 
Precedent in time or space. 

SvN Precedent. Antecedent. Fore- 
going. Ahead. A-front. Before. Beyond. 

ANT. Behind. Following. Subsequently. 
After. Astern. Aback. Rearwards. 

Aforesaid, part. See Afore. 

SvN. Above-mentioned. Stated. 
Ant. Following. Subjoined. After- 
cited. Forthcomiug. 

Afraid, adj. See Affray. Ex- 
presses all degi-ccs of fear be- 
tween the most trifling appre- 
hension and the highest conster- 

Stn. FearfuL Apprehensive. Timid. 
Cautious. Careful. Frightened. Alarmed. 
Terrified. Suspicious. Distrustful. An.xious. 

ANT. Fearless. Jnapprehensive. Uu- 
.solicitous. Easy. Indifferent. Secure. 
Confident. Bold.' Hopeful. Eager. Reck- 
less. Audacious. Venturesome. 

Afresh, adv. Fr. frakhe, 

SvN. Anew. Again. Frequently. Re- 
peatedly. Intermittently. 

Ant. Continuously. Uniforml}'. Unin- 
terruptedly. Uuintermittently. Connectedly. 

Aft, adv. See Abaft. 

After, prejy. See Abaft. Ap- 
plied to posteriority both of 
time and order. 

8tn. Behind. V A\o\\\r\%. Suci:eeding. 

Ant. Afon. Before. Introducini:. I'r- 

Again, adv. Comp. (isitu. 
gehen, to go. With the twofold 
idea of going anew, and going at 
or towards ; hence again and 
against; for the latter vid'- 'I'ff". 
The idea of frequent repetition is 
expressed by the phrase, " agaiu 
and again." Sax. agen. 

SvN. Anew. Afresh. Repeatedly. Fre. 

Ant. Continuously. Uniforml.y. Unin 
terruptedly. Uuintermittently. Once. 

Against, pyxqj. See Again. 
Implies motion or position in 
opi^osition; and this both phy- 
sical and moral opposition. 

Syn. Over. Opposite. Abutting. Op- 
posing. Resisting. Despite. Across. A- 
thwart. Counter 

Airr. With. For. Accompanying. Aiding. 
Suiting. Promoting. 

Agape, adu. Gape, of Gothic 
j derivation. Comp. Gap. 

! Syn. Astare. Agog. Astonished. Cu 
rious. Inquisitive. Entertained. Amused 

Ant. Incurious. Listless. Lukewarm. 

I Absent. 

Age, n. Lat. cevum, cevitus, 

(etaa. Fr. Age. 
I This word expresses both a 

point and also a period of time ; 
t and these as applied both to his- 
j tory at large and the history of 

human lifetime. Sometimes used 

emphatically of old age, as, 

" from youth to age." 

SvN. Period. Generation. Date. Cen- 
tury. Antiquity. Senility. Eldership. 
I Ant. Vouth. Infancy. Boyhood. Child- 
hood. Moment. Instant. 

j Aged, adj. See Age. 

1 Syn. Old. Ancient. Antiquated. Fa- 
, triarchal. Primajval. Time-honoured. 
j Ant. .Juvenile. Youthful Young. L'i->- 
start. Recent. Fresh. 

Agency, n. Agentia. See Agent. 
Agent, n. See Act. Arolice 


Synomjms and Aniomjms. 

both lo acts and actions, also to 
physical influences. It has the 
technical sense of, a man of busi- 

Stx. Doer. Performer. Actor. Force. 
Means. Instrument. Influeuce, Cause. 
Promoter. Operator. 

Akt. Couiiteragent. Counteractor. Coun- 
teraction. Opponent. Neutralizer. 

AgglomEKATI, v. tr. Agglo- 
merare, fjloniun, a hall of cotton, a 
twist or yarn. 

To agglomerate is to collect 
into a mass of such a kind as 
shall convey the idea of a multi- 
plicity of parts, or intricacy with- 
i)ut organisation or structural 

Syx. Accumulate. Conglomerate. Lump. 
Agglutinate. Entangle. Heap. Confuse. 

Ant. Scatter. Dissipate. Sift. Separate. 
Disentangle. Disject. Divide. Disunite. 
Part. Unravel. Detach. J)ifference. Dif- 

Agglutinate, v. tr. Gluten, 

This idea differs from the pre- 
ceding, inasmuch as the totahty 
of the things agglutinated re- 
mains distinguishable, as in 
some languages compound ideas 
are expressed by concatenating 
monosyllables, or words expres- 
sive of elementary ideas, such as 
the Chinese ; they are called ag- 
glutinate languages. 

Syn. Adjoin. Splice. Weld. Solder. 
Gum. Affix. Attach. Paste. Post. SUck. 

AST. Detach. Abrade. Absterge. Dis. 
integrate. Resolve. Disglutinate. 

Aggrandize, v. tr. Grandis, 
great or large. To make gi'eat or 
greater. Applied to individuals 
and families, or their condition. 

Svx. Promote. Dignify. E.x^ilt. En- 
noble. Enrich. Advance. Elevate. Sig- 

Ant. Depress. Degrade. Enfeeble. Im- 
poverish. Debase. Humiliate. Lower. 
AbMe. Disgrace. DislioDour. 

Aggravate, v. tr. Gravis, 
heavy. To make hea'vy or heavier. 
It is not u.scd of the augmenta- 
tion of that -n-hich is physically 
weighty, but metaphoricaUy, as of 
the burden of trouble, or any- 
thing naturally oppressive. So 
the idea is by usage restricted to 
matters of feehng and moral re- 
sponsibihty. ^Ye aggravate a 
mental, not a material biirden. 
Circumstances also aggravate 
offences. It is less usually em- 
ployed directly of persons than 
of their feehngs or sentiments. 

Syk. Exasperate. Wound. Provoke. In- 
crease. Enhance. Embitter. Magnify. 

Ant. Soothe. Conciliate. Assuage. Di- 
minish. Palliate. Neutralize. Soften. 
Lessen. Alleviate. Atteimate. Mitigate. 

Aggregate, Aggregation, r. 

Ad and grex, a flock. 

Syn. Sum. Result. Total. Mass. 
Whole. Totality. Collection. Collation. 

A_nt. Dissipation. Dispersion. Separa- 
tion. Division. Segregation. Disunion. 
Individual. Unit Element. Ingredient. 

Aggression, n. Aggredio- 
Grudus, a step. Commonly im- 
plying the first to begin an en- 

Syx. Invasion. Attack. Onslaught. 
Assault. Encroachment. Provocation. In- 

Akt. Resistance. Retaliation. Repul- 
sion. Withdrawal. Retreat. Evacuaiion. 
Accession. Acceptance. Qualification. 

Aggrieve, v. tr. See Aggra- 
vate. To lay a bui-den of sorrow 
or mjury upon another. 

Sy.\. Wound. Trouble. Annoy. Hurt. 
Vc.\. Disappoint. Molest. Injure. Wrong. 

Ant. Soothe. Conciliate. Assuage. Con- 
sole. Satisfy. Compensate. 

Aghast, adv. From gaze, as 
it were agazed, or standing in a 
state of gaping or staring won- 

Syn. Affrighted. Astonisln-d. Astare. 
Dumbfounded. Bewildered. Uorror-etruck. 

Synoni/ms and Antonyms. 

AsT. Cool. Calm. Fearless. Unaffected. I 
Unmoved. Indifferent. Unexcited. Un- | 
Hlurmod, i 

Agile, adj. Ago, agilis, active. 
Eesti-ictecl by usage to bodily 

Syn. Nimble. Active. Fleet. Brisk. 1 
Ak'rt. Featly. Lithe. 

Ant. Slow. Heavy. Awkward. Clumsy. 
Inert. Bulky. Ponderous. Elephantine. 

Agitate, v. tr. Agere, agilare, 
to toss about. 

Six. Disturb. Trouble. Fjtcite. Ruffle. 
Stir. Fluster. 

Ant. Calm. Compose. Allay. Pacify. 

It is sometimes used of argu- 
mentative consideration, as, to 
agitate a question. 

Stn. Start. Moot. Ventilate. Pro- 

Ago, adv. For agone. 

Sin. Past. Gone. Since. 
Ant. Coming. Future. Hence. Here- 

Agog, ndv. For agoing. 

SrN. Abroad. Abroach. Astir. Adrift. 

The idea seems to be that of 
excited interest, with a tendency 
to distraction ; the faculties not 
only actively astir, but going, as 
it were, different ways at once, 
under the iniluence of curiosity, 
delight, surprise, or desire. 

Ant. Asleep. Indifferent. Incurious. 
Somnolent. Heedless. Collected. Cool. 

Agony, n. Torture, 'Aywi/ta, 
the struggle of the wrestler in 
the public contests of Greece. 
Agony is therefore, primarily, 
pain so severe as to produce con- 
tortion of the muscles; thence 
generally great pain of mind or 

Syn. Pain. Torture. Piacking. Excru- 

Ant, Soothing. Allaying. Assuage- 
ment. Comfort. Composure. Peace. P^se 
lleUef. Gratification. Enjoyment Raptur; 

AgkkE, v. int. Yv. Agrccr. Ad 
smdgratKS, grateful, pleasiut/. 

Agreement indicates physical, 
moral, or mental accordance. 
From its etymology it would 
appear that its transition has 
been, not from the physical to 
the moral, but the other way. 
Agreement may be with or with- 
out volition. 

Syn. Suit. Tally. Accord. Fit. Har- 
monize. Combine. Assent, Consent. Con- 
form. Consort. Comport. 

Ant. Differ. Disagree. Revolt. Pro- 
test. Decline. Refuse. Dissent. Demur. 

Agreeable, adj. See Agree. 
Has the above forces, and also 
as applied to things or persons. 

Syn. Obliging. Pleasant. Accommodat- 
ing. Grateful. Acceptable. Welcome. 

Ant. Disobliging. Unpleasant. Unac- 
commodating. Disagreeable. Obnoxiotis, 
Ungrateful. Unwelcome. Unacceptable, 

Agreeably, adv. See above. 

Syn. Suitabl}'. Confurmably. Consist 
ently. Accordingly. Pleasantly. Accept 
ably. Gratefully. 

Ant. Unsuitably. Inconsistently. Ini 
pertinently, inappropriately. Inharraoni- 
ously. Unbefiltingly. Unpleasantly. 

Agreement, n. Has the tech- 
nical sense of a permanent or 
attested agreement. 

Syn. Contract. Compact. Bond. Obli- 
gation. Uudertiibing. Treaty; 

Ant. (As without legal force or bond). 
Understanding. Promise. Parole. 

AoRICULruRE, n. Ager,aficld, 
colere, cultiira, cultivation. 

Syn. Cultivation. Hiibandry. Farming. 

Ant, Sterility. Unproductiveness. Waste. 
Fallowness. luculture. 

Aground, adv. On ground. 

Syn. Stranded. Ashore. 
Ant. Off. Afloat. 

Ahead, adv. Toward tho 

Syn. Forward. Afcre Afrcnt. On- 

Akt. Aft. Abaft. Astern. Behind 

Sii'iionyms and Antomjms. 
Fr. aider, to help. '' ance of the wishes or conimanda 

Aid, v. t 

Svx. Help. Assist. Succour. SupporU | of another, 
^bet. Encourage. Instigate. Subsidize. 1 

AST. Oppcse. Resist. Counteract AlABM. «. and V. It. nil \irme. 

VZrS!""^ '^"'""'- '"""'" ; A cry «t<; arms;" hence the verb 

Ailment, n. Ail, of northern alarm means to frighten, and the 

derivation ; to be weak. , ''>oun not only fear but a sum- 

SrN. Complaint. Illness. Sickness. Dls- [ monS tO selt-deience, aS, tO gn 

«ise. „ , ti 1.,, , the alarm. 

Ant. Recovery. Convalescence. H^lth. j g^^. Apprehension. Fear. Frisht. 
Timidity. Consternation. Tocsin. War-cry 
War-note. Reveille. 

Health. 1 

Sanity. Robustness. Vigour, 

Am, n. and v. int., as such it 
is followed bv at. From cesti- 
rnare, to estimate or c«;c»?.<e, as | Frighten. ^n^tj^date^_^_^^^^^_^ ^^^^^^^^ 
distance, eleyation, angles, Jorce. i R,^iy 

AST. Confidence. Security. Quiet. 
Stk. to V. Warn. Wake. Terrify 

Object. Scope. Goal. Purpose, 
Mark. End. Design. Intention. 

Srs. to V. Seek. LeveL Propose. De 
si^n. Affect. Intend. Purpose. 

AST. Shun. Disregard. Disaffect. Ig- 
nore. Overlook. Avoid. 

Alakmixg, fd/. See Alarm. 

Six. Terrible. Fearful. Frightful. Por- 
tent'iu?. Ominous. Threutening. 

Ant. Soothing. Assuring. Encouraging 
Inviting. Propitious. MopefuL Alluring 

Airy, adj. A metaphorical i^nt'cmg. Attractive, 
expression for light as air, over Alert, adj. Sp. nl' erta. Gr- 
and above its plainer meaning of ■ ^jjg mound or post of the sentinel 
ventilated or breezy. I on the fortifications or rampart. 

SvN. I-ight. iEthereal. Spiritual. .Joyous. 1 ^j.^. ;^,.*\vo. Vigilant. Ready. Wake- 
Sprightly. Lively. Animated. Frolicsome. f^,_ Watchful. Prepared. 

^**Asi.''l)ull. Inert Stony. Ponderous. | Although the WOrd is USed for 

Slow. Heavy. Cheerless. Sullen. Dole- ] briskness or activity, iu general, 

some. Lugubrious. Leaden. Wooden. 1 j^ gtiU is mOSt appropriately USed 

Akin, adj. Prefix a and kin ; 
whence kind and kindred. Like 
in nature or character. 

Svs. Related. Agnate. Cognate. Honio- 
gpueuus. Similar. Consanguineous. Con- 
cenlaL Allied. Sympathetic. 

Akt. Unrelated. Unconnected. Alien. 
Heterogeneotis. Foreign. Uncongenial. 
Hostile. Unallied. Anlagonistia Unsym- 
pathetic. Dissimilar. 

Alacrity, n. Alacer, quick, 

Sre. Quickness. Readiness. Cheerful- 
ness. Compliance. Willingness. Prompti- 
tude. ,„ 

AST. Slowness. Reluctance. Repug- 

The idea of alacrity is com- 
pound, implying both physical 
and mental or moral activity, 
and is by usage almost entirely 
refetrioted to the ready perfonu- 

of cases in which, according to 
the etymology, the mind and 
body answer to some external 
call upon them, to be on the 
alert, or to be on the look-out, 
ready to act on short notice, 
l)eins: found prepared. 

Ant. Slow. Sleepy. Lazy. Absent 
Oblivious. Unready. Sluggish. Inactive 
Unwaichlul. Dilatory. Drowsy. 

Alien, adj. Alius, aliernis. 
Belonging to another country; 
hence, metaphor., foreign to the 

Srs. Foreign. Strange. Undomesticatcd. 
Inappropriate. Irrelevant Impertinent 

Ant Pertinent Essential. Proper 
.Appropriate. Kclevant Germane. Akin. 
.\propos. Naturalized. 


tr. See Alioa 

Srnrnvjiiis and Antonyms. 


Ap]il]od to ])ropcrty, and tlic 
good-will or affections of others. 

SvN. Estrange. Abalieiiatp. Transrcr. 
Ant. Conciliate. K^tain. Kndear. liind. 
Kniail. Secure. 

Alfenatiox, )*. See above. 
Iliis, besides, the peculiar sense 
of constitutional estrangement of 

SvN. Insanity, .\berration. Hdlucina- 
(icn. iJerangetuint. Imbecility. 

Ani'. Sanity. .Souni1nP*s. Sobriety, na- 

Alight, v. inf. Light conn. 
with IcniH. To descend lightly. 

Syn. Percb. Drop. Descend. Dismount. 
Ant. Mount. Ascend. Spring. Soar. 

Alike, adj. and adc. A and 
like. Like in character or nature 
or community of circumstances. 

Syn. Reseniblinpt. Similar. Ilomogene- 
otis. Akin. Tos^etber. Kqually. 

Ant. Unlik.'. Heterogeneous. Dis- 
similar. Apart. Varioubly. J)ifferently. 

Aliment, v. Ahre, rdnnentum, 
to nourish. Is u.sed of whatever 
tends to promote growth in 
plants or animals. 

Syn. Food. Susienlation. Nutriment. 
Ant. Poison. IJanc. \'enom. Starva- 
tion. E.xhaustion. 

Alive, (tdj. A and life. Germ. 
h'hen. Possessing life, or full of 

Sy-n. Quick. Living. Breathing. Warm, 
l^ively. Vivacious. Alert. Brisk. Ani- 

Ant. Dead. Departed. Cold. J.ifeless. 
Defunct, inanimate. Di^piriled. Dull. 

All, adj. Saxon. Expresses 
completeness of number, extent, 
quantity, or duration. It pre- 
cedes the defnite article, while 
the svnonyms follow it. 

Syn. Whole. Entire. Complete. Total 
AST.^' preceding). Some. Part. 

Allay, v. tr. Sax. alecgan, to 
,ay down. To diminish or abate ; 
but by use to diminish in force 
especially. It is used of bodily 

pain and mental excitement, and 
of forces and feelings generally, 
so far as they are amenable to 
man's control. It may be total 
or partial. When used of metals 
it is a confusion with alloy, which 
has a totally distinct derivation. 

Syn. Soothe. Alleviate. Repress. Miti- 
gate. Quiet. Moderate. Appease. Com- 
pose. Soften. Pacify. 

Ant. K.xcite. House. Aggravate. Stir 
Kindle. Kan. Impassion. Provoke. In 

Allege, v. tr. Ad legare, to 
send or depute. To send or put 
forth as an authoritative state- 
ment; hence, as adding strength, 
to adduce the authority of an- 

Syn. Declare. Affirm. Assert. As- 
severate. Depose. Plead. Cite. Quote, 
Assign. Advance. 

Ant. Contradict. Gainsay. Refute. 
Deny. Disprove. Neutralize. Quash. 

Allegiance, «. Alligavtm, 
nd and li</(ire, to hiiid. That 
which binds a subject to his 
king or superior in the state ; 
used also for the personal feeling 
or recognition of it. 

Syn. Subjection. Obedience. Loyalty. 
Fealty. Homage. 

Ant. Dioloyal'y. Rebellion. Resistance. 
Disaffection. Makontentment. Treason. 

Allegory, v. Gr. akXo^, and 

nyopcvQ}, 1 spea/t'. 

Syn. Parable. Mrtaphor. Fable. Illus- 
tration. lmat;e. For tlie differences, see 
tlie Words m locis. 

The allegory is a form of di- 
dactic speech, in which the pro- 
perties of one subject are, for the 
sake of illustration, transferred 
to another. 

Akt. History. Fact. Narrative. 

Alleviate, v. tr. Ad and levis, 
light. To make light, or hghter. 
It is not used literally, or of 
things physical, but metaphori- 
cally of things ivliich weigh upon 


Sijiionyms and Antonyms. 

the mind, as care, sorrow, grief, 
&c. We speak, however, of al- 
leviating pain, penalty, and pun- 

Siw. Lighten. Lessen. Mitigate. Soothe. 
Assuage. Moderate. Relieve. Remit. 

Ant. Aggravate. Enhance. Embitter. 
Augment. Increase. 

Alliance, n. Alligantia, ad 
Ugare, to hind. 

An alliance is a voluntary- 
compact, binding persons or 
communities. Tlie alliance of 
states is either oflFensive, defen- 
sive, or both ; with individuals 
it means friendship or marriage- 

Stn. Compact. Treaty. Union. Co- 
operation. Coalition. Confederation. Friend- 
ship. Relationship. 

Ant. Disunion. Enmity. Divorce. Dis- 
card. Disruption. Antagonism. Estrange- 
ment. Hostility. Separation. 

Allot, v. tr. Fr. Jot, a Jot or 
share. To assign a lot or to dis- 
tribute lots. 

Six Assign. Grant. Award. Give. 
Distribute. Apj)ortion. Deal. Dispense. 

Ant. Withhold. Refuse. Retain. .Vp- 
propriate. Resume. Misapportion. Misdeal. 

Allotment, //. -Sep Allot. 

Stn. Piece. Parcel. Award. Assign- 
ment. Apportionment. 

Ant. Malappropriation., Seizure. En- 

Allow, v. tr. Fr. aJJouer, from 
aJJocare, or aJJaudurr. First, to 
make a deduction, as upon an ac- 
c'ount ; hence, to grant or gi \'e in 
9. stated manner or loeriodically ; 
lienco, again, to grant the claim 
of a thing on the ground of 
truth, justice, reason, or equity ; 
and, finally, to concede for rea- 
sons best knowTi to one's self. 

Si'N. Apportion. Allot. Assign. Afford. 
Concede. Grant. Remit. Recognize. Ac- 
l<iiowledge. Avow. Confess. Admit, 
rermlt. SufTer. 

Ant. Withhold. Withdraw. Resume. 
Refuse. Deny. Disallow. Repudiate. Pro- 
test. Withstand. Resist. Disapprove. 

Allowance, n. S'r Allow. 

Alloy, n. A and Fr. Joi, the. 

Alloy is the doliascmcnt of 
metal to that standard which the 
law allows. The word is not to 
be confounded cither with allow 
or allay, inasmuch as all come 
from dilferent roots. In time, 
the notion of legal debasement of 
value was lost sight of, and the 
word is now hiken metaphori- 
cally for the abatement of things 
pleasurable or good. 

Syn. Admixture. Deterioration. Adul- 
teration. Drawback. Diminution. Decre- 
ment. Impairment. Debasement. Depre- 
ciation. Disparagement. 

Ant. Purity. Genuineness. Enhance- 
ment, Integrity. 

Alloyed. See Alloy. 

SiN. Mixed. Deteriorated. Impaired. 
Diminished. Adulterated. 

Ant. I'ure. Absolute. Perfect. Com- 
plete. Genuine. Unmixed. Undeteriorated. 
Unimpaired. Undiminished. Unadulterated. 

Allude, v. int. Ad and Judere, 
to sport. To allude ^is to make 
such a reference to a subject as 
does not straightly refer to, but, 
as it were, plays about it, and is 
not specific but suggestive. It 
is followed by the prep. to. 

Syn. Refer. Point. Indicate. Suggest 
Hint. Signify. Insinuate. 

Akt. Specify. Demonstrate. Declare. 
Mention. State. 

Allure, v. tr. Lure with the 
sense of bait. To lead on by 
the enticement of a bait. 

Syn. Entice. Tempt. Seduce. AtU'act. 

Ant. Alarm. Deter. Terrify. Scare. 

ALLURE.MENT, n. See Allure. 
Allusion, n. See Allude. 

Syn. Reference. Insinuation. 
AST. Specification. Demoustrution, M«n> 

Si/nunyms and Antonyms, 

Ally, n. See. Alliance. 

SvN. Friend. Companion. Supporter. 
Alder. Abettor. Accomplice. Accessory. 
Colleague. Coadjutor. 

AxT. Foe. Enemy. Opponent. Adver- 
nary. Baffler, CountcracWr. Antagonist. 

Aloof, adv. Either all oflF, or, 
for aloft, from Germ, hi/t, the air. 
It is applied not to altitude but 
to disiance more commonly. 

SvN. Apart. Away. Separately. 
Ant. Close. Near. Together. 

Aloud, adu. A and loud. 

SvN. Audibly. Loudly. Sonorously. 
\'ociferously. Clamorously. Obstreper- 

Ant. Softly. Silently. Inaudibly. Sup- 

Altkr, V. tr. AUerare, to sub- 
si iJ.ute. Also to change, that is, 
to take another, or to make other- 

Syn. Substitute. Change. Modify. Ex- 
change. Vary. Diversify. 

Ant. lletain. Perpetuate. Conserve. 
Stereotype. Arrest. Solidify. Stabilitate. 

Alterable, adj. See above. 

Syn. Variable. Mutable. Changeable. 
Jloveable. Revocable. 

AxT. Invariable. Immutiible. Unchange- 
able. Pei-manent. Fixed. Perpetual. Un- 
alterable. Immovable. 

Alteration, v. See Alter. 

.Syn. Variation. Difference. Diversifica- 
tion. Modification. Change. PermuUition. 

Ant. Retention. Perpetuation. Conser- 
vation. Changelessness. Stabilitation. Iden- 
tity. Fixity. Permanence. 

Altercation, «. Same root as 
Alter. Mutual expressions of as- 
i)erity, or argument so conducted. 

Syn. Dispute, Wrangle. Contentiouu. 

Ant. Unanimity. Concord. Agreement. 
Compromise. Reconciliation. Consonance. 
Couversation. Harmony. 

Alternative, v. Same root. 

SvN. Clioice. Resource. Option. 
Vnt. Compulsion. Fix. Quandary. 

Altiloquence, n. Alius, high, 
lo nil, to speak. 

SvN. Bomliast. Tursidity. Inflatedness. 
Kupliuism. Magniloquence. 

Ant. Plain -spokainess. Veraacular. 

Tallness. Verticali 

Combined. In oiti 

Altitude, «, Same root. Mi; 
sui-ed height. 

Syn. Height. 
Ascent. Loftiness. 

Ant. Lowness. Depression. Descc.-. 
Declination. Depth. 

Altogether, adv. Ail to 

Syn. Collectively. 

Ant. Separately. Individually. Partially. 

Amalgamate, v. tr. MdXay/io. 
Any moist, ductile or viscou.-i 
compound, as an emollient plas- 
ter. Amalgam is the compound 
of quicksilver with other metals 

Syn. Fuse. Mix. Commix. Com- 
pound. Unite. Incorporate. Consolidate 

Ant. Separate. Disintegrate. Disunite 
Decompose. Dissipate. Detach. Disperse. 

Amalgamation. See Amalga- 

Amass, v. tr. Massa, limip es- 
pecially of molten metal. 

Syn. Collect. Accumulate. Heap. Ag- 

Ant. Divide. Dissipate. AVaste. Scatter. 
Disperse. Parcel. Portion. Spend. 

Amazement, n. Maze or la1>y- 
rinth. Expresses the combina- 
tion of surprise and difficulty, 
usually accompanied with fear. 
But compare also Fr. s'esmaier. 

Syn. Astonishment. Bewilderment. Sur- 
prise. Stupefaction. Marvel. 

Ant. Expectation. Preparation. Anti- 
cipation. Familiarity. Calmness. Compo- 
sure. Coolness. Self-possession. 

Amazing, adj. See above. 

Syn. Astounding. Astonishing. H^- 
wildenng. Marvellous. Prodigious. Pui- 
tentous. Ominous. Striking. 

Ant. Commoti. Ordinary. Familiar 
Trivial. Connuonplace. Customary. Fre- 
quent. Usual. 

Ambagious, adj. A m hages, am j 
for ambi, and agere, to tn-it ot 
drive. To twist about. 

SvN. 'r<irtu<ius. Indirect. Anfractnou? 
Circiimlocntorv. Periphrastic. Circuitou:i 
I Ambisuuus. Cnirtelligible. Pointless. Di* 
1 Jointed. 


^ynonijms and An'onyms. 

AxT. Sim)>le. Straightforward. Direct. 
Obviuus. Iiitellij;ibio. Lucid. Plain. Pointed. 
Terse. Pungent. Condensed. Telling. 

Ambiguous, wlj. Arribo, both. 
That quality of an expression 
wliich leaves ns in doubt which 
of two ways to take it in, and, by 
an extension of meaning, which 
leaves us in doubt generally. 

Stx. Kqnivocal. Doubtful. Enigmatical. 
Unintelligible. Perple.^ing. Dubious. In- 
disiinct. ^_ 

Ant Univocal. Obvious. Plain. Un- 
ambiuiious. Indisputable. UnmiMakeable. 
Necessary. Clear. Unequivocal. Lucul. 

AMBrrroN, n. Amhire, to (jo 
<il:0)(t. Canvassing for office in 
ancient Eome. Hence a ten- 
dency to self-raising, which may 
be moderate or immoderate. 

Svx. Aspiration. Emulation. Appetition. 
.\XT. Indifference. Inappetency. Mode- 
ration. Contentment. 

Ameliorate, v. tr. Melius, 

This word seems in present 
usage to be confined to such ma- 
terial improvement of men's con- 
dition as are closely dependent 
on a corresponding moral or 
mental state. Thus we do not 
speak of ameliorating an indi- 
vidual by knowledge, but of 
ameliorating the condition of the 
people bv education. 

S\N. Improve. Raise. Better, 
tage. Advance. Promote. .Vnitnd. 

Ant. Debase. Dtpres.s. Deteriorate. 
Injure. Imp.iir. Vitiate. Spoil. Mar. 

encc g>-;ne rally. (Anothtr doii- 
vation is from the mesne or 
demesne lord or feudal superior.) 
And, by a further extension, a 
voluntariness of subjection to 
such an influence as in the phrase 
' amenable to reason.' 

Syn. Liable. Dependent. Responsible. 
Answerable. Accountable. Subject. 
Impressible. Ductile. Docile. 

Ant. Independent. Autocratic. Uti- 
amenable. Irresponsible. Refractory. Ob- 

Amend, v. active uikI neuf'-r. 
Menda, a favM or defect. Fr. 

When used as neuter it h:\s a 
general, when as active, a par- 
ticular or detailed force : Thus?, 
' his character or condition has 
amended in general.' ' He takes 
pains to amend his ways,' implies 
specific attention to the comiter- 
acting of certain faults. 

Syn. Improve. Mend. Correct Repair. 
Better. Ameliorate. P>eform. 

Ant. Deteriorate. Degenerate. Xeglecf. 
Aggravate. Tarnish. Blemish. Spoil. 
Corrupt. Vitiate. Impair. Mar. 

Amends,^;. Thefillingupof de- 
fect in obligation towards another. 

Syv. Compensation. Satisfaction. Aft- 
knowledgment. Atonement. Expiation. 
Apoloav. Restitution. Rep.iration. 

Ant. Insult. Fault. Offence. Injury. 
Amenity, ». Aniarni$,pleusant. 
\dvan- ' Apphed to physical influences, 
I as climate, and to demeanour. 

I Syn. Plea.~antness. Mildness. lUandness. 
Graciousne^s. Geniality. Compliableiiess. 

, . f^ J A ' 6bli''incness. Courtesy. 

AMENABLE, adj. Supposed to | l^^ unpleasantness. Harshness 

be from mlwiri, to threaten, as the 
root of the French amener, to 
/,„.' or bring. So Amenable 
would at first imply that pro- 
carious condition of dependence 

Unpleasantness. Harshness. Aus- 
terity. Roughness. Moroseness. Unu-ra- 
ciou^n.^sj. Bearishness. Rigour. Asperity. 
Angularity. Discourtesy. 

Amerce, v. tr. Mei-ccs,'pen(dhj. 

Syn. Fine. Bind. Mulct. Condemn. 

.\NT. Remit. Acquit Absolve. In- 

which led a man to take groat , demnify. Release. 

account of the threats of a su- Aml\ble, ad,. Amn,-'- in tore 
perior; hence this servile idiQa.\v'ortln,to behr,-.!. Of old applied 
l>eing lost, the force survived of to things and places, now only 
a state of subjection or depend- to persons. 

S;f)ioni/ins luiil Antonyms. 


Srn. T,ovc.ilil<-. Goo.l. BGnernkMit. 
Charitable. Kind. lJelect:il)l.>. 

AST. Churlish. 1 lisagrepiiblc. Hateful 
Abominable. 1 ll-natuied. Unamiable. Ill- 

Amicable, nrlj. Amt'cus, (i 
friend. Exhibiting the character 
of a friend, a friendliness on a 
epecific occasion. 

.Syn. Friendly. Propitious. Favourable. 
Kind. Cordial. Neighbourly. 

Ant. Unfriendly. Unpropitious. Un- 
favourable. Unbind. Cold. Distant. ^Vn- 
tagonistic. Hostile. Adverse. 

Amidst, prep. Mediw^, muldle. 

SvN. Between. Among. Betwi.xt. 
Ant. Outside. Without. Beyond. 

Amiss, adj. Amitfere, rimiKsitfi. 
That which is lost, or has been 
made to swerve from its right 
scope or purpose, and so wrong. 

It is seldom used of physical, 
more often of moral things : and 
expresses wrong under the as- 
pect of swerving, deviation, or 
failure, and to transactions, as 
missing the mark of time and 

Syn. Wrong. Untrue. AVide. Bad. 
False. Defective. Short. Inappropriate. 
Inopportune. Injudicious. Untimely. Abur- 

Ant. Right. True. Good. Complete. 
Successful. Satisfactory. Consummate. 
Ktfective. Expedient. Appropriate. Op- 

Amity, n. Hee Amiable. 

Expresses an ordinary amount 
of goodwill without intimacy or 
strong feeling. 

Syn. Friendliness. Peace. Goodwill. So- 

Ant. Coolness. Distance. Indifference. 
Hostility. Opposition. Antagonism. Acri- 
mony. Asperity. Hatred. Dislike. Re- 
piignance. Unfriendliness. 

Amnesty, 7). avot,aindnivaoiuu, 

fif^vri^ai, ] remember. A consign- 
ing of offences (imrticularly politi- 
cal) to oblivion. 

Syn. J'ardoTi. Kemission. 
Conitonatiun. Obliviui,. l>i,-iM!i>awjM. Ab- 

Ant. Penalty. Retaliation. Punishmeat. 
Retribution. Requital. Visitation. Inflic- 
tion. Kxaction. Trial. Account. 

Among, prep. A mingled. .See 

AMORPHOtrs, adj. d not, and 
fiopcfiri, a shape or form. 

The Vv'ord is technically used 
of the elements of crystals which 
have not developed into shape 
and angularity ; but it is gaining 
a more and more extensive cur- 
rency, in the sense of floating, 
or not yet compacted into a set- 
tled shape. 

Syn. Shapeless. Unformed. Incomnact. 
Inchoate. Incomplete. Unordered. Unar- 
ranged. Floating. Unmoulded. Naiant. 

Ant. Systematized. Arranged. Com- 
pact. Finished. Shapely. Crystallized. 
I)eveloped. Stereotyped. Moulded. 

Amount, v. int. Er. Amonter, ad 
mo7dem. To reach the apex or 
culminating point, or a certain 
point or degree. 

Syn. Reach. Rise. Come. Attain. 

Ant. Fail. Recede. Relapse. Fall. 

Amount, ??. 

Syn. Total. Sum. Aggregate. Whole. 
Quantity. Totality. Equality. 

Ant. Failure. Decrease. Deficiency. 
Portion. Instalment. Deficit. Insufficiency. 

Ample, adj. Amplus,fidL 
The word primarily expresses 
fulness of superficial, though 
not necessarily plane extent, as 
ample space ; the ample folds of 
a robe. In usage it expresses 
such a fulness as satisfies rc- 
qviirement or need. 

Syn. Large. Bountilul. Liberal. Suf- 
ficient. Plentiful. Abundant. 

Ant. Narrow. Niggardly. Siingy. In- 
sufficient. Scanty. Mean. StinU Bare. 

Amplification, n. See Am- 

Amplify, v. tr. See Ampla 
I To make ample. 

Sipiont/ms and Antonyms. 

ITie word is commonly applied 
to the augmentation of resoui-ces 
and the enlargement of some 
literary subject or argument. 

Syn. Enrich. p;nlargf. Kxteiid. In- 
f raise. Augment. Multiply. Dilate. K.\p:i- 
tiate. Expand. Discuss. Unfold. 

Akt. Retrench. Amputate. Curtail. 
Condense, Abhreviate. Epitomize. Gather. 
Collect. Sum. 

Amplitude, n. See Ample. 
A31PUTATE, V. tr. Am for umh, 
and putcire, to prune. 

SvN. Prune. Lop. Curtail Clip. Re- 

AJs-T. E.\tend. Enlarge. Augment. 
Klongate. Amplify. Train. Trail. Deve- 
lop. Produce. 

Analogy, n. apa, <o, andXoyos, 

a relation. 

Analogy is of three kinds, 
according to the number of re- 
lated terms. Thus, 1, there is an 
analogy between A and B— this 
commonly means resemblance, a 
community of character or cir- 
cumstance". 2, As A is to B so 
is C — in this case analogy is 
equality of relationship. 3, As 
A is to B, so is C to D. In this 
case it is equality of proportion. 

.SrN. Relation. Resemblance. Propor- 
tion. Similarity. Coincidence. Affinity. 

Ant. Disproportion. , Dissimilarity. Dis- 
harmony. Irrelativeness. Heterogeneous- 
ness. Incongruity. InafBnity. 

Analysis, jk ava and Xvco, to 
loose. The resolution into parts 
of anything which is regarded 
as a whole — that is, a physical or 
metaphysical whole. 

SvN. Dissection. Separation. Segrega- 
tion. Anatomy. Decomposition. Resolu- 
tion. Partition. 

Ant. Composition. Synthesis. Aggre- 
gallon. Combination. Coalition. Coherence. 

Anarchy, «. « not, apxrj the 
principle of (/ovcrnrnent. The 
jailure of political power or au- 
tliority, and its consequence, civil 

Syn. Disorder. Tumult. Uebeillon 
Riot. Misgovernmenl. Insubor.lination. 

Ant. Order. Subjection. Government 
Organization. Control. Law. 

Anatomy, ». dvii tu, or up, and 
refiva, 1 cut. The resolution 
of an organized substance into 
its structural constituents; em- 
ployed also metaphorically as the 
anatomy of a discourse. 

SvN. Dissection. Division. Segregation. 
Analysis. Dismemberment. Resolution. 

Ant. Synthesis. Collocation. Organiza- 
tion. Union. Construction. Striicture. 
Form. Body. 

Ancient, at?/. Fr. anden. Low 
Latin, auteanus, one icho is before, 
of old. (Not to be confounded 
with ancient, meaning ensign, of 
which the derivation is insigne.) 
In common parlance ancient is 
used of that of which the cha- 
racter impresses us with anti- 
quity. As an ancient family; 
the ancient world. 

Sin. Old. Aged. Primeval. Primor- 
dial. Immemorial. Time-honoured. 

Ant. New. Young. Modern. Juve- 
nile. Upstart. Fresh. Parvenu. 

Ancillary, adj. Ancilla, a 

Syn. Assistant. Subservient. Promo- 
tive. Auxiliary. Accessory. Conducive. 
Available. Useful. Applicable. 

Ant. Insubservient. Redundant. Inap- 
propriate Irrelevant. Alien. Inoperative. 
Unconducive. Adverse. Obstructive. Im- 
pertinent. Counteractive. Preventative. 

Anew, adr. A and new. 

Syn. Afresh. Again. Repeatedly. 
Ant. Of old. Continuou^ly. Uninier- 

Anfractuosity, V. An for 
amhi, and frangerr, fractas, to 
break. The quality of being 
brolien off short, or about, so as 
to produce tlic effect of needless 
coigncs or angles. It is used me- 
taplioricallv of style of speech. 

SvN. Ambii^'ionsnes.-;. Angularity. T-t 
tuousness. Ambiguity. Circuinlocnti"!> 

Akt. Siraightforward'i(<s. Directncs* 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


Plainness. Simplicity. Unmistakablencss. 
Pointedness. i'lueiuy. Lucidity. Sruooth- 


Angelic, wlj. oyyeXo?, cm 
hfdvenly messfiinjcr. Suggestive 
of the character of angels, or 
their state. 

SvN. Pure. Ethereal. Spiritual. Lovely. 
Heavenly. Seraphic. Rapturous. Divine. 

Ant. Foul. Hideous. l)a?momacaI. Dia- 
bolical. Hellish. Fiendish. 

Anger, n. Lat. anf/oi: Is a 
tight compression, esjiecially of 
the throat. So the phrase, 
" choking with rage." Gr. dyxeiv, 
fi) s'lueeze. 

. Svs. Wrath. Ire. Resentment. Indig- 
nation. Rage. Animosity. Fury. Choler. 

Akt. Peace. Peacefuluess. Peaceable- 
ness. Appeasement. Forgiveness. Patience. 
Forbearance. Go<idwill. Reconciliation. 
Cuiiciliatoriness. Mildness. 

Angry, a<//. See Anger. 

Stn. Wrathful. Irate. Resentful. In- 
dignant. Passionate. 

Am. Peaceful. Forgiving. Forbearing. 
Calm. Good-tempered. Unresentful. 

Anguish, h. Sec Anger. Ex- 
treme pain of body or mind. 

Sin. Torture. Excruciation. Agony. 

Ant. Ease. Pleasure. Enjoyment. Ec- 
itasy. Rapture. Relief. Assuagement, 
ioluce. Comfort. 

Animadversion, n. Animum 
o.'loertere, to turn the mind or at- 
triition ; but by usage the doing 
so for pui'poses of censure. 

Svn. Censure, Blame. Disapproval. Re- 

Ant. Praise. Approval. Encourage- 
ment. Eulogy. 

Animate, v. tr. Animus, the 
mind or soul; anima, the principle 
of life. Animation is the having 
■ife, or the having it emphatically 
and demonstratively, 

.SyN. Enliven. Inspirit. Icstigate. 
Prompt. Incite. Stimulate. Stir. 

Ant. Dishearten. Deter. Depress. Cow. 
.Stifle. Damp. Deaden. Discourage. 

Animated, adj. See Animate. 
Picfers to a state which may be 
occasional or habitual. 

Syn. Roused. Excited. Enlivened. 
Stirred. Vivacious. Lively. Brisk. 

Ant. Sluggish. Indolent. Indifferent. 
Dull. Languid. Flat. Tame. 

Animation, n. See Animate. 

Syn. Life. Liveliness. Vivacity. Chfer- 
fulness. Briskness. Alacrity. Activity. 

Ant. E.xpiration. Spiritlessness. Dul- 
ness. Dolelulness. Deadness. Stolidity, 

Animositt, n. Animosns in 
Latin meant full of vigour or 
courage ; but in English ani- 
mosity is energetic dislike of 
persons. It is not so transient 
and violent as rage or anger, but 
of a more enduring character, 
and is, therefore, pertinent not 
only to individuals, as objects of 
dislike, but to cases in whicli 
energetic causes of disaffection 
exist, witli little probability of 
removal, such as religion, race, 
or protracted hostilities. 

Svn. Hatred. Antipathy. Dissension. 
Aversion. Acrimony. Feud. Strife. Acer- 
bity. Bitterness. Hostility. 

Ant. Congeniality. Companionship. 
Friendship. Sympathy. Fellow-feeling. 
Unanimity. Harmony. Concord. Alliance. 
Regard. Kindliness. 

Annals, n. Lihri annales 
annus. Yearly records. Used 
also for consecutive or philo- 
sophical history, to which strictly 
annals are precedent. It is a 
rhetorical expression to speak of 
history as annals. 

Syn. Chronicles. Records. Memorials. 
History. Archives. 

Ant. Tradition. Legend. Lays. Ro- 

Annex, v. tr. Ad and nedere, 
to knit. 

Syn. Add. Attach. Append. Unite. 
Fasten. Afli.x. 

Ant. Withdraw. Detach. Disconnect. 
Separate. Disengage, Disunite. Remove. 

Annihilate, v. tr. Ad and 
nihil, nothing. To make a thing 
be as if it had never been (so fax 


Sijiionyms and Antonyms. 

as this may be possible), to bring 
•utterly to an end. 

SvN. Abolish. Destroy. Extingui^h. 
Obliterate. Efface. 

AiNT. Keep. Conserve. Treserve. Foster. 
Tend. Protest. Cherish, Develope. Culti- 
vattf. Augment. Stabilitate. I'erpetiiate. 

Annotation, n. Aunoturc, 
nota, (I murk. To set a mark 
against, for the purpose of ob- 
servation and critical explana- 

Sin. Explanation. Criticism. Elucida- 
tion. Observation. Comment. 

Ant. Statement. Assertion. Proposi- 
tion. Xarrative. Text. 

Announce, v. tr. Aiimmtfdre, 
nuiitius, a messenger. To pro- 
claim a thing publicly ; if to an 
individual, a character of im- 
portance if not publicity, still 
attaches to the tidings. 

SvN. Declare. Propound. Reveal. Herald. 
Proclaim. Promulge. Intimate. 

Ant. Conceal. Suppress. Withhold. 
Hush. Hurbe. Stifle. Shroud. Bury. 

Annoy, v. tr. Low Lat. inodi- 
<tre,fo liurt,()'h'am. Fr. ennui. To 
hurt by continuous olfeusiveness, 
as distinguished from violent or 
momentary infliction of pain. 

Syn. Tease. Vex. Irritate. Affront. 
Disturb. Molest. Pain. Disquiet. Harass. 
Trouble. Inconvenience. 

Ant. Soothe. Conciliate. Appease. 
Quiet. Accommodate. Study. Regard. 
Tend. Foster. Cherish. Smooth. Gratify. 

Annoyance, ?i. See Annoy. 

Annul. Jd and null us. To 
make so that none shall be af- 
fected. Said peculiarly of laws, 
edicts, rights, and customs. 

Syn. Cancel. Obliterate. Abrogate. 
Abolish. E.xtinguish. 

Ant. Foster. Protect. Con.serve. Main- 
tain. Confirm. Enact. Ke-enact. Insti- 
tute. Establish. 

Anomalous, at//. See Anomaly. 

Anomaly, n. d, iiot, and J/xaXof, 

SiN. IrreguLirity. Exception. Abnor- 
mity, hiforniality. Peculluriiy. l-xci.- 

I Ant. 
' Specimen 


Anon, adv. Saxon. In one 
In one moment. 

SvN. Soon. Shortly. Presently. 
AkT. Hereafter. 

Anonymous, adj. 

.„;!, and 

Syv. Nameless. Authorless. Unattested. 
I Unauthenticated. Unidentified. 

Ant. Authenticated. Attested. Signed. 
Auihorized. Verififd. Identified. 

Answer, v. Germ, ant'cvrf. 
A word set against another. It 
would depend upon circum- 
stances whether it was so set 
merely in reply, or in argumen- 
tative or hostile contradiction, or 
an account before the law or a 

Syn. Reply. Response. Counter-argu- 
ment. Coulutation. Acceptance (as of a 
challenge). Tally. Solution. Counterpart. 
Vindication. Apologj'. Defence. Excul- 

Ant. Challenge. Question. Defiance. 
Summons. luleriogatioi]. Querj-. 

Answerable, eidj. Liable to 
give answer in the sense of ac- 
count, and also having suitable- 
ness or correspondence. 

Syn. Ijiable. Amenable. Accountable. 
Responsible. Agreeing. Correspondent. 

Ant. Independent. Unanswerable. Ir- 
re.sponsible. Different. Unsuitable. Dis- 
agreeing. Dissimilar. 

Antagonism, n. See Antago- 

Syn. Hostility. Opposition. Kimiity. 
Ant. Amity. Alliance. Association. 

Antagonist, «. iivtI and 
j dywv, the contest of the Greek 

games, especially wrestling. 
The antagonist is, priruarily, 

one pitted against another for 
I the piirjwse of testing their re- 
jspective skill and strength, it 
{ lias passed, this peculiarity lit'iiig 
j dropped, into the general 
Of opposition. 

Syn. Adversary. 0pp..ii(ta. l-W 
, !;tii-uiy. 

Siinoni/ms and Ardonyms. 

AlfT. Alder Abettor. Accomplice. Ac- 
cessory. Ally 

Antecedence, n. Ante, hcfore, 
and cederc, to ffo. 

In usage, antecedence is any 
i;oiDg before, in order of time, tiqi;e, 
place, thought, or grammatical 
expression; but not of worth, 
dignity, or honour, which is ex- 
jjressed by precedence. 

Syn. Anteriority. Priority. Precursor- 
ship. Premonition. Preparation. Pre-ex- 
Uteuce. Introduction. 

Ant. Posteriority. Subsequence. Suc- 
cession. Sequel. Supervention. Conse- 

Antecedent, aJj. See Ante- 

Antsrtor, ct(Jj'. Same root. 
Ante, anterior. Like antecedent, 
applies to priority in time, place, 
and idea. 

Syn Prior. Antecedent. Preeursive. 
Precedent. Earlier. Introductory. Pre- 
liminary. Former. 

Ant. Posterior. Later. Subsequent. 
Consequent. Succeeding. 

Anticipate, v. tr. Ante, 
he/ore, and arpcre, to take. To 
take in the mind before the right 
time, which is to treat prema- 
turely ; to take it in reference to 
its appointed time of coming, 
which is to expect ; also to take 
thought beforehand, for the pur- 
pose of prevention. 

Syn. Forestiil. Expect. Apprehend. 
Prepare. Prearrange, ^leet Prevent. Ob- 
viate. Intercept. 

Ant. Remember. Recollect. Recall. 
Remedy. Undo. Cure. Misapprehend. 

Anticipation. See Antici- 

SvN. Forestalment. Prevention. Expect- 
ation. Awaiting. Foresight. Foreosst. 

Ant. Surprise. Unprcparedness. Unex. 


Dislike. Unton- 

SvN. lu'pugnance. 
geniality. Abhorrence. 

Ant. Sympatliy. Kindliness. Con- 
geniality. Vellow-ieeling. Affinity. Har- 

Antiquated, adj. See An- 

SYiN. Old-fashioned. Bygone. Obsolete. 

Ant. Faslilonable. Modish. Stylish. 

Antique, adj. Antiquus, an- 

As ancient is that which gives 
the impression, as well as pos- 
sesses the nature, of antiquity 
(as, the ancient world, an ancient 
family), so antique is that which 
is artistically old, as antiquated 
is socially old or out of date. 

Syn. Archaic. Ancient. Ancestral. 
Ant. Modern. New-fangled. 

Anxiety, n. See Anger. A 
wearisome anticipation of things 
to come, or the issues of present 

Syn. Care, Trouble. Eagerness. Ap- 
prehension. Diffidence. Solicitude. Care- 
fulness. Misgiving. 

Ant. Carelessness. Ease. Contentment. 
Acquiescence. Confidence. Contentedness*. 
Apathy. Light-heartedness. No:27lialance 

Anxious, adj. See Anxiety. 

Apace, adv. Pace. Fassi's. 
A step or interval between the 
raising and planting of the same 
foot in walking. 

Syn. Rapidly. Fast. Eagerly. Astride. 
Ahead. Expeditiously. Speedily. 

Ant. Slowly. Imperceptibly. Leisurely 
Creepingly. Crawlingly. Sluggishly 


Apart, adv. A and jmrtiri, 
pant, to separate. 

SvN. Aloof. Away. Separate. Asunder 
Ant. Close. Together. United. 

Apathy, n. a, not, and 7ra^(n, 
. > > • J I feelinq. Used not of physical 

Antipathy, ». avr., "^"""^'^ 1 Ws. which is expressed b. 

and TvaBoi, j'mVuKj. A natural, 
often unexplainable, feeling of 
dislike to another. 


SvN. liiditlVrencp. Insensibility. In 
np-'l ny fl--l;ti'ide. SUiggishu si. 

Sijnoni/ms and Antonyms. 

particular defence of one's own 
conduct or opinions; or, o, in 
acknowledging inadvertency vr 
wrong shown by one's self ti» 
some other. 


Ant. Anxiety. Care. Eagerness. In- 
tevestedness. Sensibility. SusceptibiUty. 
Sensitiveness. Irritability. Curiosity. 

Aphorism, n. otto and opl^eiv, 
/., hound. Comp. Horizon. A 

sharply-defining sentence or pro- """svl-_ defence. Justification. Vindica. 
verb of law or morals, not of ; tion. Acknowledgment- Confession 
, . ,, j.-„„ Ant. Charge. Imputation. Offence 

i>hysics or mathematics. 

Syn. Adage. Proverb. Maxim. Apo- 
thegm. Saying. 

AST. Lecture. E.\hortation. Disserta- 
tion. Disquisition. 

Apiece, adv. A and piece. 

Stn. Distribulively. Individually. Sever- 
ally. Separately. Analytically. _ 

"Ant. Collectively. Together. Indis- 
criminately. Confusedly. Accumulatively. 

Apocalypse, n. atro and Ka- 
AvTTTeiv, to take away that ivhich 


Srs. Revelation. Disclosure. Unveiling. 
Exposure. Manifestation. Exhibition. Di- 

AST. Concealment. Suppression. Veil 
ing. Shrouding. Obscuration. Eclipse 


Ant. Charge." Imputation. Offenci 
Incrimination. Impeachment. Accusation 
Wrong. JnsuU, Injury. 

Apothegm, v. So now spelt. 
Strictly apophthegm, dnb, forth, 
and (jiOeyna, a saying. The Greek 
of the Latin proverbium.^ A con- 
densed expression of wisdom or 

Syx. Proverb. Dictum. Maxim, Saw. 
Saying. Adage. 

Ant. (as not so condensed). Exhortation. 
Sermon. Discourse. Disquisition. Exhort- 

Appal, v. fr. Appallescere, to 
grow pale (with fear). Comp. En,-;. 
jKile ; or, to cause to pall or fail. 

Syn." Affright. Alarm. Terrify. Scare. 
I Horrify. Dismay. Astound. 

Ant. Encourage, 
assure. Emboldetu 

Rally. Assure. Re- 

Apocryphal, adj. cnvoKpinrtiv, 
to conceal. That of which the 

.origin, authorship, authority, or Apparel, «. Siutable cover 

i-ufhenticity, is unknown. ing or clothes fitting to the per 

Syn. Obscure. Doubtful. Unauthorized. sOU. From par, equal, Clim. par 

Cnaullientic. Spurious. Unauthenticated. ^^^l^^^^ qj. cipparave, to prepare 

■unverified. ' ^ /-n...! — "d..i^^.^. Vcicttim 

Ant. Palpable. Accepted. Authorized. 
.Authentic. Genuine. Current. Undisputed. 

Verified. Attested 

Apologue, n. drrb, from or 
■forth, and \6yos, a speech. Is the 
Greek word for the Latin fable, 
though in its formation it corre- 
epoucls more exactly with pro- 

Syn. Kable. Fiction. Parable. 

AST Precept. History. Narrative. 

Apology, n. Same derivation, 
but differently applied. .,..<.. . ^ . 

All ir>ril(io-v is n sneech nut ' ""'^takable. Clear. Probable. Seeming. 
, 'V '^P?'"?^y li^ ^ ^1^^^^",. ^I'j 1'resi.mable. Likely. Patent. Ostensible. 
l(jrth : this is the essence OI tne j .^^t, uncertain. Dubious. Innpp-irent 
word. But for what inconspicuous. Y'jiule. UuoUserv-iW,-. Im- 

This is contingent. It may be, P-^'^^"'- i"-PP-«we. Hidden. Real. 
I, generally in defence ; or, 2, in 

Syn. Clothes. Robes. Vesture. Vest- 
ments. Raiment. Garniture. ITappings. 
Housings. Caparison. 

Ant. Nudiiy. Disinvostiture. Deshabille. 
Tatters. Rags. 

Apparent, adj. Appareo, 1 
appear. Appearing plainly or 
appearing probably. In usage 
it is equally divided between the 
palpable and the questionable. 
Tlie adverb apparently admits 
the sense of questiouableness yet 
more strongly. 

Sy-n. Obvious. Plain Conspicuous. Un- 

Appeal, v. int. Jppdlare. 1. To 

Si/)W}vjms aid Antomjms. 



speak in request or entreaty to 
another. Used witli the prep, to, 
ss, invoking aid or interference. 

Si'X. j\ccost. Adiiress. Apostrophize. 
Invite. Cite. Invoke. Urge. Eiurcat. 
Request Hesort. 

A^T. Deprecite. Repudiate. Protest. 
Disavow. Disclaim. Defy. Alijure. 

Appearance, ». See Apparent. 
The presentation of an object to 
the eye; the oliject so repre- 
sented; its general character, 
and the ideas or indications 
which it may suggest, as in the 
phrases : ' he made his appear- 
ance ;' * his personal appearance ;' 
' an ngly appearance ;' ' to all ap- 

Syn. Advent. Apparition, 
tion. Probability. Aspect. 

AST. Departure. Disappearance, 
appearance. Concealment. 

Appkasb, V. tr. Appaiser, Fr. 
pair, Lat. jmx, peace. 

It is applied to the abatement 
of the wants or passions of men. 

Syn. Pacify. Assuage. Mitigate. Mo- 
derate. Satisfy. Stay. Allay. Soften. 

Ant. Excite. Provoke. Aggravate. In- 
flame. Exasperate. Embitter. Incense, 
intensify. Stimulate. Kindle. 

Appellation, ??. See Appeal. 
The name by which a person or 
object is addressed or called. 

Sra. Name. Patronymic. Designation. 
Title. Denomination. Term. 

Ant. Namelessness. Non-description. 

Append, Appendage, Appen- 
dix. Appeiidere. To hang one 
thing on to another. To fasten, 
as by a string ; hence, to add as 
an appendage. Appendix, for 
the sake of distinction, is used 
for the appendage, supplement, 
or index of a liook. 

Sys. to verb. A£B.\. Supplement. Sub- 
Join. Attach. 

Ant. Separate. Disengage. Detach. 


Syn. tc rtouv. Addition. Annexation 
Adjunct. Supplement. 

Ant. Subtract ion. Disconnection. De- 
tachment. Separation. Disjunction. Divs 
slon. Incorporation. A rc&iganiation. 

Appetitk, «. Ad and pcferc 
to seek. Propensity of nature. 

Stn. Passion. Desire. Propensity. Pro- 
clivity. IncUnatiop. Propension. Want. 
Craving. Dispositio.^ Tendency. Prone- 

Ant. Repugnance. Aversion. Anti- 
pathy. Loathing. Indifference. Apathy 

Applaud, v. tr. Ad and plau- 
dere, to clap the hands. To praise, 
but on the pure ground of ap- 
proval. So we applaud acts, 
words, sentiments, performances, 
motives — in short, things good; 
not the aristocratic, the power- 
ful, or the beautiful. 

Syn. Laud. Praise. Approve. En- 
courage. Cheer. 

Ant. Disapprove. Denounce. Censure. 
Decry. Execrate. 

Applause, v. See Applaud. 

Syn. Praise. liaudatiou. Acclamation. 
Eulogy. Approval. 

Ant. Oblociuy. Condemnation. Denun- 
ciation. Dissatisfaction. Censure. Con. 
tempt. Blame. Vituperation. Sibllation. 

Appliance, ??. See Apply. 

Stn. Contrivance. Arrangement. Means 
Mechanism. Agency. 

Ant. Spontaneity. Growth. Productloa 
Evolution. Development. 

Applicable, adj. See Apply. 

SrN. Available. Useful. Convenient. 
Appropriate. Pertinent. Conducive. An- 

Ant. Useless. Unavailable. Incondu- 
clve. Inapplicable. Irrelevant. 

Application, n. See Apply 
and Dihgence. 

Apply, v. To fold upon. Ad 
plicare. Comp. Ply and Display, 
which is to unfold. Employ to 
enfold upon one's own purpose. 
To adduce, in the most broad 
and generic sense, with a purely 
physical or moral object, as, to 
apply a blister, or a sum of 
money to a charitable purpose, 


Sf/nonyms and Aidonj/rhS. 

or evidence to a case, or one's I 
self to studj-. It is used also in- 
transitively, as in the sense of 
making application, or showing 
it in the sense of diligence. Ap- 
pliance is used for contrivance 
or mechanical application; and 
applicable, in the sense of suit- 

SYN. To Apply. Adduce. Use. Employ. 
Devote. Exercise. Apportion. Direct. 

Akt. Disuse. Divorce. Discard. Super- 
sede. Alienate. Remove. Misapply. Mis- 
direct. Divert Misappropriate. Misem- 

Appoint, v. tr. Ad ptmdum 
(lucere, to bring to a point. A 
point of order, so to establish ; of 
office, so to instal ; of agreement, 
so to fix ; of vise or preparation, 
so to furnish. 

S\-x. Fix. Determine. Instal. Institute. 
Apportion. Apply. Employ. ]>signate. 
Assign. Intrust. Invest. Ordain. Ar- 

Airr. Reverse. Cancel. Recall. Re- 
serve. Withdraw. Withhold. Retain. 
Suspend. Undo. Disarrange. Disapp<.>int. 

Apportion, v. tr. Portio, por- 
tionare. To distribute according 
to proportion to one or more. 

Six. Assign. Deal. Craiit. Dispense. 
Administer. Distribute. Appoint. 

AxT. Reserve. Retain. Refuse. With- 
hold. Assume. Ttesume. Cancel. Suspend. 
Divert. Reapportion. Reappoint. 

Apportionment, n. See Ap- 

Apposite, 0(7/'. Ad andjwnere, 
positus, placed. Well suited or 

Sra. Suitable. Appropriate. Timely 
Congruous, (^onsi^teut. Pertinent. Fii. 

AxT. Untimely. Irrelevant. Imperti- 
nent. Unfitting. Jlistimed. MispUced. 
Jlls-spoken. Inappropriate. Misjudged. 

Appraise, v. tr. Appretiare, 
pretium. To set a value uixtn. 
.Sometimes written apprize, which 
tends to confusion with another 
word of diiferent derivation and 
meaning, to apprise, Fr. up- 
prer^re, to inform. 

Sts. Value. Survey. Estimate. Pricei 
AsT. Undervalup. 'Discard. Condemn. 
Brand, aiisappreciate. Misestimate. 

Appreciate, v. tr. Same de- 
rivation as appraise ; but mean- 
ing to set not a value simply, 
but such a value as one is lx)uncl 
in reason to recognize. 

Syn". Esteem. Recogulze. Acknowledge. 
Respect. Value. 

Akt. Undervalue. Misconceive. Jlis- 
Judge. Ignore. Misappretiate. 

Apprehend, v. fr. Ad and 
prehendfl, J grasp in tlie hands. 

In this sense it is now con- 
fined to the legal arrest of per- 
sons. To grasp witli the mind, 
as a matter of understanding, 
belief, or anticipation, and es- 
pecially of coming danger. 

Srs. Comprehend. UniKTstand. Expert. 
Fear. Conceive. Anticipate. Presume. 

AST. Ignore. Miss. Lose. Misconceive 
Misapprehend. Misconjecture. Misautici> 

Apprehension, n. See Ap- 

Apprize, v. tr. Fr. apprendre. 
See Apprehend. To grasp. Ee- 
fiexively, to cause another to 
grasp or know a thing. 

S«. Infonii. Advise. Advertise. Ac- 
quaint. Enlighten. 

Ant. Hoodwink. Mystify. Deceive 

Approach, «. Fr. proche, Lat. 
prope, nmr. Used for the state, 
the act, and the way, of ap- 

I SvN. Access. Adit. Avenue. Entrance. 
Vestibitle. Arrival. Advent. Approxima- 
tion. Nearing. Appropinqualion. Simi- 

AxT. Exit li^n^ss. lU-bonchare. Out- 
let Departure. Recessiim. Distance. Di- 
versity. Disparity. 

Approbation, rt. Approbare, 
to jtrove, or approri/. 

S\~s. Approval. Praise. SatisfacSca 
Encouragement. Confirmaliun. Aoce 

Sj/noni/ms and Aniomjms. 


Ant. Disapproval. Censure. Blame. 
Dissatisfaction. Discouragem°nt. Repu- 
diation. Protest. Denial. Kefu^^al. Dis- 
claimer. Disavowal. Disparity. Dissimilarity. 

Approximate, v. int. Prox- 
imui^, very near. To come close, 
ia fact, appearance, character, 

Syn. Approach. Border. Abut, lle- 
semble. Near. Trench. 

AxT. Separate. Difler. Vary. Diverge. 
Recede. Deviate. 

Appurtenant, a'JJ. Ad and 
pertineir, to be/on;/. 

Sts. Belonging. Connected. Appro- 
priate. Appended. Attached. Co-ordinate. 
Cuncnniitunt. Homogeneous. 

Akt. Unconnected. Disconnected. In- 
.ippropriate. Detached. Isolated. Incon- 
gruous. Unallied. Unrelated. Independent. 

Apt, adj. Aptus, fit. By na- 
ture or contrivance. 

Si-N. Fit. Apposite. Clever. Liable. 

Ant. Unfitted. Ill-timed. Awkward. 
Unlikely. Inapt. 

Aptitude, n. See Apt. 

Stn. Fitness. Suitableness. Liability. 
Readiness. Quickness. Cleverness. Sus- 
ceptibility. Tendency. Proneness. 

Amt. Unfitness. Unsuitableness. Insus- 
ceptibility. Slowness. Stupidity. Awk- 
wardness. Unreadiness. 

Arbiter, «. Same word in Lat. 

Arbiter is much the same as 
moderator or director. Arbitra- 
tor is one called in to settle spe- 
cific disputes or diflferences. 

Syx. Arbitrator. .Tudge. Umpire. Mo- 
derator. Director. Keleree. 

Ant. Appellant. Claimant. Disputant. 

Arbitrary, adi. See Arbiter. 

Used of a tendency to abuse 
the possession of po'\\'er. So 
harsh and unforbearing. 

S™. Tyrannical. Despotic. Harsli. Dic- 
tatorial. Imperious. Unforljearing. Over- 
bearing. Selfish. Irresponsible. 

Akt. Mild. Modest. Lenient. Consi- 
derate. Obliging. Limited. Constitutional. 

Abbitrate, V. int. and tr. See 

S^-K. Settle. Adjust. Decide. Compose 
Determine. Accommodate. A(^udicatl^ 

Ant. Dispute. Claim. Appeal. Lit:- 
gate. Contend. Misjudge. Misdetermiiic. 

Archaic, apxaiKos, ancient. See 

Ardent, adj. Ardere, to hum, 
SvN- Longing. Passionate. Warm. Eagef. 
Fervent. Excited. Fiery. 

Ant. Cool. Cold. Indifferent. Apa- 
thetic. Dispassioned. Passionless. Unim- 
passioned. Phlegmatic. Platonic. 

Ardour, n. See Ardent. 

Arduous, adj. Arduas, steep, 
lofty, or difficult of access. Used 
metaphorically of difficult under- 

Syn. Difficult. Hard. Onerous. La- 
borious. Steep. Precipitous. l..olty. 

Ant. Easy. Practicable Unlaborious. 
Light. Trivial. 

Argue, v. int. Argnere, to 
treat by reason. It is sometimes 
used in the active sense of to 
prove ; as, ' such conduct argues 

Si-N. Discuss. Debate. Question. Prove. 
Evidence. Establish. Imply. Sift. Dis- 
pute. Persuade. 

Ant. Dictate. Assert. Propound. Command. 

Argument. See Argue. 

Arid, adj. Aridvs. 

S'i'N. Dry. Parched. Sterile. Unpro- 

Ant. Moist. Dewy. AVatered. Fertile, 
Luxuriant. Exuberant. Verdant. Bloom- 
ing. Productive. 

Aright, adv. According to- 
the right way. Eectus, strair/ht. 
Applied physically and morally. 

Syn. Right. Well. Rightly. Truly. 
Correctly. Properly. Uprightly. Unex- 

Ant. AVrongly. Awry. Incorrectly. Im- 
properly. Defectively. Erroneously. 

Arm, V. tr. Lat. Arma, arms, 

Syn. Equip. (Jird. Accoutre. Array. 
Ani. I)isarm. L'ngird. Disarray. Divest 

Around, adv. and prep. A and 
round. From Lat. rotundus, rota^ 
a wheel. Comp. Eotund. 

SiT*. About. Environing. Encircliiig. 
Aa"T Wit'.in. Amid. A iiong. 


Sijnonyms and Antonyms. 


Arouse, v. tr. Sax 
Connected with raise. 

Syn. Stir. Excite. Disturb. Awaiceu. 
Alarm. ,,.^. . r,, 

AST. Allav. Assuage. Mitigate. Pa- 
cify. Compose. Moderate. StilL Quiet. 

Arraign, v. tr. Ad and ru- 
tionare, ratio, or reason. To call 
to account before some anthority 
or tribunal. 

Stn. Summon. A'-ouse. Indict. Im- 

^*Ant. Acqtiit. Condone. Release. Dis- 

Arrange- v. tr. Supposed to ! gance 
be from ad and arena, whence | ^vx. Claim, 
ring, rank, range. To order on u 
given ground or space, as troops 
on a field. Afterwards to set m 
order. But comp. Fr. rang. 

SvN Order. Range. Locate. Dispose. 
Assort. Deal. Sort. Parcel. Classify. 

Akt Derange. Disarrange. Confound. 
. Contuse'. Disturb. Disperse. Jumble. Dis- 

Arrangement, n. See Ar- 
, range. 

Arrant, adj. Fr. Errant, 
■ meaning vagabond. As an ad- 
verb, intensifying reproach. 

Syx. Veritable. Unqualified. Utter. In- 
famous. Emphatic. 

Ant. Suspicious. Slight. Mitigated. 

Arrat, 5?. Is said to be fr9m 
the same root as Arrange, which 
.!ief. It has the additional sense of 
clothe. But comp. It. arredure. 

Stn. Vest. Equip. Accoutre. Deco- 
rate. Invest. Attire. 

AKT. Disarray. Divest. Denude. Strip. 

Arrest, ('. iir. LowLat. on-es- 


Sts. Reach. Attain. Land. 
AST. Embark. Depart. Start. 

Arrogance, n. Arrocjare, to 
claim to onts-stlf. Such a habit 
of mind and manner as seems to 
abuse the deference of others by 
claiming more than one's due. 

Si-N- Haughtiness. Contemptuousness. 
Overbearingness. Brow-beating. Assump- 
tion. Hauteur. Insolence. Discourtesy 

A-NT. Bashfulness. Servility. Considerate- 
ness. Deference. Courtesy. Shyness. Mo- 
desty. Diffidence. PoUteuess. 

Arrogate, v. tr. See Arro- 

_ "Vindicate. Assert. 

Demand. „ . „ „ 

AxT. Forego. Waive. Resign. Surren- 
der. Abandon. Disclaim. 

Artful, adj. Ars, from, apa>, 
to fit. Art is the adaptation of 
nature by science to practical 
purposes, or the faculty of doing 
so, namely, skill. In a lower 
sense, cimmng is expressed by 
artful. ^^ -, 

Sv>-. Cunning. Designing. Sharp. Ma- 
noeuvring. Knowing. Crafty. Wily. bly. 

Ant. Simple. Undesigning. Open. 
Artless. Innocent. Unsophisticated. 

Artifice,?!, .see Artful. 

Sre. Manoeuvre. Contrivance. TncK. 

Ant. Fairness. Candour. Openness 
I Simplicity. 

Artificial, adj. As opposed 
to natural, produced by art; 
also false or assumed, as the 
effect of artifice. ^^ u • .^ 

Syx Invented. Fictitious. Fabncated. 
Concocted. Contrived. Deceptive. Artful. 
Affected. Unnatural. Constrained. As- 

KKST,'../. -^"-" r-y ■■, -;^ ^"""^^-r Natural. Inarttficial. Genuine. 
To cause suddenly to stop, spon^neou^ Transp^irent. Artless. Un- 
eSDeciallV by force of law. affected, see ArtfuL 

^VK Seize. Hold. Detain. Apprehend. 
Ant. Release. Dismiss. Liberate, Free. 
Discharge. Expedite. 

Arrival, n. -SVe Arrive. 

Arrive, v. int. Ad and ripa, 
fl, bank. To touch the bank, to 
arrive phy&ically or mentally at 
a point. 

Ascend, v. int. Ascendere. 

Syn Rise. :Mount. Soar. 
Axt. Fall. Descend. Sink. 

Ascendancy,". Fromascend- 
Elevation or superiority of po- 
sition. -, ._„ 

Syv. Superiority. Advantage. Mastery 
Control Influence. Supremacy. 

Sijnonifins and Anionijms. 


AST. Inferiority. Disadvantage. Suli- 
jectiou. Depression. Humiliaiiou. Servi- 
tude. Subordination. 

Ascertain, v. tr. Cemere, to 
discern. Ctrtus. To bring to 
clearness or certainty, as the re- 
sult of investigation. 

SvN. Prove. Verify. Discover. Con- 

Ant. Guess. Conjecture. Surmise. Sup- 
pose. Presume. 

AsciTiTious, adj. See Adsci- 

Ascribe, v. tr. Ad and scribere, 
to lurite. To account for one 
thing by another, as its cause or 
the subject in which it recedes, 
or to wliich it appertains. 

SvN. Assign. Attribute. Refer. Im- 
pute. Rendsr. 

Ant. Deny. Refuse. Exclude. Disso- 
ciate. Disconnect. Dissever. 

Askant, adv. Dutch. Conn, 
with Squint. 

Stn. Awry. Askew. Obliquely. As- 
quint. Aslant. 

Ant. Straightforwards. Rectilineally. 
Ahead. Forwards. Straight. 

Aspect, n. Aspicere, to look. 
The exposed or presented side of 
things, persons, or ideas. 

Six. Front. Face. Phase. Side. Ap- 
pearance. Presentation. Exhibition. Ex- 

Asperity, n. AsjKr, rough. 
Hence by analogy roughness of 
sound or taste, and metaphori- 
cally harshness and disagreeable- 
ness of feeling, character, or 

SvN. Acerbity. Harshness. Acrimony. 
Bitterness. Sharpness. Sourness. Rough- 

Ant. Mildness. Softness. Sweetness. 
Gentleness. Pleasantness. Smoothness. 

AsPEESr, V. <r. Asperger e,a!iper- 
sus, to sprinhh. By usage, to be- 
sprinkle with ill words or be- 
spatter with slander. 

Stn. Slander. Calumniate. Besoatter. 
Befoui Defy. Attaclt. Defame. Vilify. 

Ant. Clear. Defend. Kulnpize. Vin- 
dicate. Uphold. Shelter. Shield. Prilse. 
Laud. E.Ktol. 

Aspiration, n. Ad and ^pi- 
rare, to breathe or sigh. A long- 
ing desire after a higher object. 

SvN. Longing. Desire. Aim. Hope. 
Ambition. Appetition. Effort. Endeavour 

Ant. Apathy. Indifference. Aimless- 
ness. Dulness. Jnertia. C.iUuusness. 
Carelessness. Aversion. Avoidance. Re- 
jection. Repudiation. 

Assail, v. tr. See Assault. 
Fr. AssaiUir. Lat. Satire, to 

Assault, «. Assault is an 
active and violent attack by 
words or deeds; a recourse to 

Syn. Attack. Onset. Aggression. On- 

Ant. Defence. Resistance. Repulsion. 
Retaliation. Undermining. Sapping. Stra- 

Assay, v. tr. and int. From 
exagium, a balance. Ex and 
agere, to bring out the weight of a 
thing. Com. Examen for exag- 
men, whence examination. 

Stn. Try. Endeavour. Prove. Test. 
Ant. Siu'vey. Conjecture. Guess. Scan 

Assemble, v. tr. and int. See 

Assembly, n. Ad and simu- 
lare, from simid, to bring toge- 
ther. Fr. Assemble, ensemble. 

SvN. Meeting. Assemblage. Concourse. 
Gathering. Convention. Union. Aggre- 

Ant. Dispersion. Dissipation. Disrup- 
tion. Disunion. 

Assent, n. Assentire. Sentio, 
I feel, or think. 

S\-N. Agreement. Coincidence. Concert. 
Acknowledgment. Acquiescence. Approval 

Ant. iJisseiit. Disagreement Differ- 
ence. Disiivowal. Repudiation. I'eclen- 
sion. Disclaimer. Protest. 

Absent, v. int. See Assent, k, 

ASSBBT, V. tr. Ad and serere, 

to weave or bind. To bind & 

Srjnonyiis and Antonyms. 


statement on to a thing, to declare 
plainlj' or strongly, as to assert a 

Stk. Asseverate. Declare. Pronounce. 
Depose. MainUiii. State. Aver. Avow. 

Ant. Deny. Contradict. Contravene. 
Waive. Abandon. 

Asseverate, ^k fr. To assert 
Btrongly. Possi1)ly from severus, 
as it were a rigid statement, but 
more probably a corruption of 
separair, a distinct and specific 

^^jsee Assert. 

AesiDinTY, 71. All and sedere, 
to sit. The long and close sitting 
to a task. 

Si-K. Attention. Perseverance. Pains. 
Patience. E.Kertion. Labour. Application. 
Effort. Intcntness. Constancy. Sedulous- 
ness. Diligence. 

Ant. Indolence. Remissness. Desultori- 
ness. Inattention. Inconstancy. 

Assiduous, ndj. See Assiduity. 

Assign, ;'. tr. Ad sk/>wm, a 
marl-. To mark out, specify, or 
intrust,' as to assign a caiise, or 
to assign the custody of a thing 
to a person. 

SvK. Attribute. Apportion. Refer. Spe- 
cify. Consign. Intrust. Commit. 

AsT. Withhold. Withdraw. Retain. 
Resume. Refuse. Disconnect. Dissociate. 

Assimilate, v. ir. Ad and 
similis,like. To liken ; that is, 
either in the mind by comparison, 
or physically by incorporation. 

SvN." Compare. Liken. Match. Engros.s. 
Identify. Incorporate. Absorl.\ Appro- 

Akt. Separate. Segregate. Part. Con- 
trast. Reject. 

Assistance, n. Ad hy, and 
sister e, to stand. 

SvN. Help. Aid. Cotuitenance. Sup- 
port. Abetlance. Protection. Maiuie- 
nance. Ooa4)utorship. 

Akt. Resistance. Obstruction. Counter- 
action. Opposition. Antagonism. Draw- 
back. Clog. Preyenti\c'. 

ASSOCIATH V. tr. Socins. A 

companion habitually and on 
equal terms. 

Syn. Companion. Ally. Coadjutor. 
Friend. Consort. Comrade. Partner. Help- 
ANT. Rival. Alien. Foe. Antagonist 

Association, ft. See Asso- 
ciate. Has the meaning of the 
process, and also the result, of 
bringing together into alliance a 
companionship. It is used of 
mental as well as material things, 
and of two or more. 

Sw. Union. Connection. Conjunction. 
Consortment. Companionsliip. Alliance. 
Familiarity. Friendship. Community. Mem- 
bership. Society. Company. 

Akt. Disunion. Disconnection. Estrange- 
ment. Separation. Severance. Avoidance 
Independence. Disruption. Dismember- 
ment. SoUtude. Individuality. 

Assuage, v. tr. Ad and suavis, 
sweet. To soften, as grief or 

Sin. Mitigate. Soothe. Soften. Con 
sole. Moderate. Pacify. Lenify. 

Ant. E.xasperate. Excite. Increase. 
Stimulate. Incite. Provoke. Inflame. 
Embitter. Aggravate. 

Assuagement, n. See As- 

Assume, v. tr. Ad-Mi^sumere, 
to take. To take to one's-self, 
either simply so, or for the sake 
of appearance ; or mentally as a 
thing proved, though as yet it be 

Syn. Take. Appropriate. AVcar. Ex- 
hibit. Postulate. Suppose. Presume. 

Ant. Render. Surrender. Concede. 
Grant. Allow. Waive. Doff. Abandon. 
Argue. Demonstrate. Prove. 

Assumption, n. See A.ssume, 
with the additional sense of 
pride, arrogance, conceit ; or 
taking to one's self more than 
due to one's character or place. 

Assurance, ». Follows the 
above meanings with the addi- 
tional one of such a manner as 
indicates the extreme of this 
sonse of self-secm-ing. 

Sijnontjms and Anfouf/ms. 


Srs. Arrogance. Boldness. Impudence. 
Selt-coiifidence. Self-reliance. Self-assertion. 

AsT. Distrust. Timidity. Bishfulness. 
Misgiving. SelMistrust. Consternation. 
Dismay. Alarm. 

Assure, v. tr. Ad and secums, 
socare, sure. Free from care or 
doubt. To seek to confirm in 
another the certainty of a fact, 
or the inducement to dismiss 
anxiety about himself. 

Srx. Advise. Advertise. Promise. In- 
funn. Rally. Console. Encourage. Coun- 
tenance. Aid. Support.. Uphold. Con- 
vince. Certity. 

Ant. Misinform. Misadvise. Mislead 
Deceive. Discomfit. Disconceit. l)iscou- 
nige. Deter. Warn. Dissuade. Unsettle. 

Astonish, v. tr. Astound. 

Ad and tonitus, thunder. Comp. 
Stun. To strike as if with thun- 
der; to make thunder; struck 
with surprise. 

Sre. Surtle. Surprise. Confound. Alarm. 
Terrify. Scare. Dumb-founder. Electrify. 

Akt. Rally. Encourage. Assure. Em- 

Astonishment, n. See Asto- 

Astray, adf. A and stray. 
Fr. Estrayer, from extra, with- 
out, and vagari, to wander. 
Comp. Exti-avagant. 

Srs. Loose. Abroad. About. Missing. 
At large. Wrong. Erring. Wandering. 
Am. Rigbt. Close. At home. Safe. 

Astute, adj. Astus, craft. 

Syx. Crafty. Shrewd. Kno-.ving." Sharp. 
Discriminating. Sagaciou^. Acute. Pene- 

ing. Stolid. Asinine. Anstrine. Blind. 

Asunder, adv. Germ. Sou- 
dern, to divide. 

tjTK. Apuri. Separate. Divided. Dis- 
united. In twain. 

.Ajjt. In one. Close. Together. United. 

Atonement,??. At-one-ment. 
The reconciliation of two parties ; 
the maldng two to be as it were 
one; either the process or the 
iiwtrument of this. 

SvN. Reconciliation. Expiatioa. Sati»- 

Ant. Alienation. Separation. Estrange- 
ment. Enmity. Division. Offence. 'J'rans- 

Atrociotis, adj. Lat. atro.r. 
Applied both to the dis]X).sitiou 
and the deeds to wliich it giAX-a 

S\-x. Monstrous. Nefarious. Enormous. 
Shameful. Heinous. Flagrant. Facinorous. 
Flagitious. Criifl. 

Ant. Laudable. X(ible. Generous. 
Honourable. Humane. Admirable. Chival- 

Attach, v. tr. Fr. attacker, 
Celt, tac, Eng. tack, a nail or 
fastening. To attach the person 
is the phrase in civil, wliich cor- 
responds with arrest in criminal, 
cases. It is in this sense a legal 
attack, wliich is the same word. 
It is used of the bonds of lovo 
and friendship. Sincerely at- 

Sr>-. Fasten. Apply. Append. Unite. 
Tie. Connect. Conjoin. Conciliate. At- 
tract. Win. Bind. 

Ant. Unfastrn. Loose. Disunite. Un- 
tie. Disconnect. Detach. AUenate. RepcL. 

Attachment, 7>. See Attach. 

Attack, v. tr. Same word as 
attach: but as the former be- 
came in Fr. attucJwr, so the latter 
attaqmr, from the Celtic tac, or 
nail, which, as it is regarded as 
an object of striking or a means 
of fastening, would suggest the 
ideas of attach or attack. 

We may attack persons with 
weapons or words, or ojiinions, 
vd'sh the weapons of controversy ; 
or an army may attack a country 
or a city. 

Svx. Assail. Assault. Invade. Besiege. 
Contravene. Impugn. 

Ant. Defend. Resist. Repel With- 

I stand, on one's own part, or for another. 

I Protest. Supporr. Aid. Shield. UpboU 
I Vindicate. Shelter. 

I Attack, «. See yerh. 


Synonyms and Antonyms 

Syn. Assault. Invasion. Aggression. 
Onslaught. Onset. 

Ant. Defence. Resistance. Kepulse. 
Piotection. Aid. Vindication. Support. 
Maintenance. Siielter. 

Attain, v. int. Attinere. To 
reach, so as to get hold. It im- 
plies sustained effort, or at least 
movement, in an uniform direc- 
tion, and is sometimes used as 
int., being followed by the prep. 

Syn. Reacli. Extend. Master. Obtain. 
Acquire. Secure. Grasp. Gain. 

Ant. Lose. Fail. Forfeit. Miss. Abandon. 

Attainment, n. See Attain. 
Add also the peculiar sense of 
mental attaumients. 

Syn. Acquirements. Accomplishments. 

Ant. Intuition. Inspiration. Genius. 

Attemper, v. tr. Ad and tevi- 
•perare. To bring a thing to a 
state of internal or external har- 
mony or consistency. 

Syn. Moderate. Subdue. Compound. 
Commingle. Adapt. Adjust. Harmonize. 
Jlodify. Blend. Attune. Mould. Work. 
:\li.\. Medicate. Amalgamate. Accommo- 

Ant. Discompose. Confuse. Spoil. Mar. 

Attempt, v. tr. Attentare, 
freq. of tendo, to reach or stretch. 
To try generally or specifically, 
as a trial against another's safety 
or life. In the former case, it is 
followed by the infinitive, in the 
latter, by the accusative. 

Sre. Try. Endeavour. Strive. Seek. 
Essay. Attack. Force. Violate. 

Ant. Abandon. Disregard. Pretermit. 
Dismiss. Neglect. Shun. Drop. 

Attempt, n. See verb. 

Attend, v. Attendere, animuni. 
To stretch the mind in a specific 
direction. To be attentive. 
Hence, actively, to make another 
the object of attention, which is 
called attendance ; hence, again, 
in a "wider sease, to accompany, 

as said of anything naturally co- 
incident or concurrent with an- 
other, as paia commonly attends 

Stn. Listen. Heed. Notice. Observe. 

Watch. Accompany. Consort. Follow 
Imply. Involve. 

Ant. Wander. Disregard. Leave. 

Abandon. Forsake. Desert. Exclude, 

Attention, n. See Attend. 

Syn. Observation. Notice. Regard. Con- 
sideration. Study. Vigilance. Care. 

Ant. Disregard. Inadvertence. Remiss- 
ness. Jnditference. Carelessness. Abstrac- 
tion. Distraction. Absence. 

Attentive, adj. See Attention. 

Attenuate, v. tr. Ad and 
tenuis, fine, also thin. Hence the 
word has the two meanings of 
elongating and fining down or 
wearing away ; hence it runs out 
into apparently opposite mean- 
ings, namely, 1, to prolong, and, 
2, to contract. 

Sy-n. Educe. Elongate. Fine-draw. 
Narrow. Contract Reduce. Diminish. 

Ant. Broaden. Increase. E.xpand. Swell. 
Dilate. Enlarge. Develope. Amplify. 

Attest, v. tr. Testis, a tcitness. 
To evidence by, or so strongly as 
if by, a witness. 

To attest a statement may 
mean either to bring another, or 
the authority of another, as a 
witness of its truth, or to vouch 
for it one's self, in the capacity of 
a witness. It is used also of the 
inherent evidence which belongs 
to things miitually related, as, 
majestic nxins attest fonner mag- 

Si-N. Vouch. Aver. Assert Affirm. 
Evidence. Support. Testify. Confirm. 
Prove. Involve. Suggest. Demonstrate. 
Imply. Establish. Bespeak. 

AsT. Deny. Controvert, Contradict 
Contravene. Disprove. Disestablish. Ex- 
clude. Neutralize. Upset. Refute. Op- 

Attibb, ". Old Fr. atlirer, 

Si/nonymi and Antonyms. 


tie7-, still in iTse. Comp. 
the tiers, rows, or ranks of a 
theatre. Comp. also tiara. The 
wcrd originally applied to the 
omamentation of the head by 
tiers or bands ; thence extended 
to the dress generally, not, how- 
ever, io cheap or common cloth- 
ing. So, ' gorgeously attired,' 
bvit, ' meanly clad.' 

SrN. Rubes. Garments. Vestments. 
Clothing. Apparel. Accoutrement. Livery. 
Uniform. Costume. 

Ant. Nudity. Divestment. Denudation. 
Exposure. Bareness. Disarray. Dishabille. 
Tatters. Rags. Patches. Shreds. 

Attitude, n. Actitudo, actus. 
A state of internal harmony or 
external correspondence. 

If the former, it is that com- 
position of the limbs which fitly 
expresses the correspondent pos- 
ture of the mind or feelings, ex- 
cept where it is taken in the 
abstract, as simply equivalent to 
posture. If the latter, it is such 
a placement of them as shall 
suit some external piu-pose, as, 
an attitude of attention, defiance, 
or defence. It is a condition of 
rest, as opposed to movement. 

Syn. Posture. Position. Composition. 
Collocation. Aspect. Pose. Lie. 

Ant. Evolution. Exercise. Deportment. 
Bearing. IMovement. Manoeuvre. Gesti- 
culation. Gesture. 

Attract, v. tr. Ad and tra- 
here. To draw by physical in- 
iiuence. When taken metaphori- 
cally, it is used both for the pro- 
cess of drawing by love or admi- 
ration, and also for the qualities 
which prodiice the attraction. 
Thus we might say of beauty, 
that it influences by attraction, 
and also that it is itself an attrac- 

Syn. Draw. Influence. Induce. Incline. 
Dispose. Tempt. Prompt. Allure. 

Ant. Repel. Deter. Indispose. Disin- 
dSiio. Estrange, Alienate. 

Attraction, n. See .attract. 

SvK. Inducement. Influence. Adduc- 
tion. Inclination. Disposition. Charm. 
Beaut^'. Allurement. 

Ant. Repulsion. Disinclination. Indis- 
position. Aversion. Deformity. Repug- 

Attractive, adj. See Attract. 

Syn. Winning. Alluring. Tempting. 
Enticing. Interesting. Charming. Pleasant.. 
Beautiful. Agreeable. 

Ant. Unattractive. Uninteresting. Re- 
pugnant. Repulsive. Unpleasant. Dis- 
agreeable. Deformed. Ugly. Loatlisome. 
Forbidding. Deterrent. 

Attribute, v. tr. Ad and 
tribuo, I bestow. To refer one 
thing to another, as its cause. 

Syn. Assign. Reler. Apply. Coimect, 

Ant. Divorce. Disconnect. Dissociate. 

Attribute, «. See Attribute, 
V. Either a quality, simply, or 
as illustrative of the subject in 
wliich it resides. 

SvN. Property. Quality. Characteristic. 
Sign. Mark. Indication. Manifestation. 

Ant. Its correlative, viz. Essence. Na- 
ture. Substance, &c. Or, spuriously, Affec- 
tation. Misnomer. Semblance. Mask. 
Veil. Assumption. 

Attribution, n. See Attri- 
bute, V. 

Attrition, n. After ere, part, 
attritus. Lit. a wearing. Met. 
a wearing sense of guilt. 

Syn. Sorrow. Repentance. AQliction. 
Penitence. Compunction. Remorse. Self- 

Ant. Impenitence, Callousness. Ob- 
duracy. Reprobation. Relentlessncss. 

Attunb, To make to be 
in tune or tone. Either abso- 
lutely or in accordance with an- 
other. So, we may attimc either 
the note or the instrument. Me- 
taphorically used of sentiment, 
as, a mind well-attuned; man's 
will attuned to the Divine. 

Sytj. Temper. Attemper. Hurmoniia. 
Adjust. Accommodate. 

Ant. Unstring. Disharmonize. Disar. 
range. Discompose. Dislocate. Disturt 


Sijnoni/ms and Antonyms. 

Andax, au- 

AttdACIOUS, ad/, 
dere, to dare. 

Sis. Adventurous. Venturesome. RasU. 
Bold. DariuR. Reckless. Enterprising. 

ANT. T)i^>d. Cowardly. Cautious. In- 
adveaturons. Unventuresome. Unenter- 

AirD.\ciTY, n. See Audacious. 

Syx. Boldness. Rashness. Temerity. 
Recklessness. Hardihood. 

Ant. Caution. Self-preservation. Ti- 
midity. Calculation. Forethought. Fore- 
tiight. Diffidence. ludveuturousuess. 

Augment, v. tr. See Augment- 

Augmentation, n. Augere, to 
increase. The process of increase. 
The state of increase, and the 
thing itself added. 

Syn. Increase. Enlargement. Amplifi- 
cation. Supply. Enrichment. Enhance- 
ment. Addition. Acquisition. Improve- 
ment. . 

AsT. Deduction. Detraction. Dimmu- 
tion. Contraction. Withdrawal. Reserva- 
tion. E.\penditure. Loss. Waste. Detri- 
ment. Deterioration. Impoverishment. 
Reduction. Curtailment. 

Augmentative, adj. >SVe Aug- 

AUGUEY, n. Avis, a bird. The 
angur was the Eoraan public 

officer who predicted, according 
to the flights of birds or other 
celestial phenomena, as the ha- 
ruspex or auspex, from the ex- 
amination of victims of sacrifice, 
when auspicious, and inauspi- 
cious. Hence to augur, in the 
sense of predict. It is a super- 
human and conjectural, as op- 
posed to ordinary and scientific, 

Syn. Prophecy. Prediction. Prognosti- 
cation. Conjecture. Omen. Dlvinauon. 
Ant. Experience. Science. Observation. 

August, adj. Awjusttis, auyere, j 
to increase, or heap. In a pec a- j 
liar sense, to honour, especially 
by offerings, as, heaping gifts on | 
the altar ; hence, sacred, divine, 
and imposing ; said of great per- j 

sons, and their appearance and 

Syn. llajestic. Dignified. Imposing. 
Grand. Solemn. E.xalted. 

Ant. Mean. Undignified. Unimposing. 
Common. Vulgar. l>espicable. Unnotice- 
able. Commonplace. Beggarly. I'altry. 

Auspicious, adj. See Augury. 

Syn. Propitious. Favourable, Encou- 
raging. Satisfactory. Successful. Hopeful 

Ant. Unpropitious. Unfavourable. Da- 
couraging. Unsatisfactory. Unpromi»iDg. 
Icauspicious. Hopeless. Abortive. 

Austere, «'/y. Austerus. Eigid 
in disposition or hfe. 

Syn. Hard. Rigid. Stern. Severe. 
Morose. Unrelenting. Unyielding. Strict 

Ant. Mild. Affable. Kindly. Tender. 
Feeling. Bland. Indulgent. Geuial. 

Authentic, adj. Supposed to 
be from avros and deiveiv, to kill. 
So that authentic would be 
brought home to the perpetrator ; 
hence brought home (the notion 
of wrong-doing being omitted) 
to the doer generally ; and hence, 
having authority or verification. 

Syn. Genuine. Veritable. Reliable. 
True. Legitimate. Certair^ Accepted. 
Current. Received. 

Ant. Spurious. Unreliable. Apocry- 
phal. False. Disputed. Exploded. Re- 
iected. Counterfeit. Unfounded. Unau- 
'thorized. Baseless. Fabulous. Fictitious. 

Authenticate, v. tr. See Au- 

Si-N. Confirm. EstabUsh. Verify. Settle. 
Substantiate. Identify. 

Ant. Contravene. Disprove. Disestablish. 
Refute. Upset. 

Author, it. Auctor, a)((/ere,to 
hicreas". One who brings forth 
from his resom'ces, favourably 
and unfavourably. 

Sn«-. Creator. Producer. Originator. 
Parent. Cause. Agent. Maker. Com- 
poser. Fabricator. Inventor. Constructor. 
Committer. Perpetrator. Doer. 

Ant. Annihilator. Destroyer. Dcmolisher. 
Spoiler. Undoer. Revcrser. 

Authoritative, adj. Srr Au- 
thor. Having authority, or ex- 
ercising it, perhaps, too strongly. 

Si-N. Sure. Decisive. Conclu-iv.'. An- 
•ientlc. Powerful. Potent. F:rui. Dio- 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 

fatorial. Imperious. Arbitrary. Atrogant. 
Ant. Weak. Inconclusive. Vague. In- 
fieteniiinale. Indefinite. Vacillating. Un- 
decisive. Bland. Conciliatory. Afifuble. 

Lenient. Persuasive. 

AuTHOKiry, n. The principle 
of authorship. hiee Author. 
Rightfulness or truthfulness of 
origination ia matters of state- 
ment, or matters of government 
or control. 

Si-x. Ground. Justificition. Authen- 
ticity. Genuineness. Decisiveness. Con- 
clusiveness. Control. Jurisdiction. Go- 
vernment. Direction. Kegulation. Power. 

Ant. Groundlessness; Spuriousness. In- 
decision. Incondusiveness. Inoperative- 
ness. Incompetency. Weakness. Usurpa- 
tion. AVrong. 

AuTocEACY, n. See Auto- 

Autocratic, «<//. uvtos, Kpd- 
TSLv. Euling of one's own will 
and pleasure. 

Syn. Independent. Arbitrary. Despotic. 
Irresponsible. Absulute. 

Ant. Dependent. Subordinate. Re- 
sponsible. Constitutional. Limited. 

Auxiliary, of/y. Helpful. Aux- 
ilium, hdp. 

The word has technical mean- 
ings not here considered ; as, in 
military matters, a force which 
aids the line of battle, or the 
auxiliary verb in grammar. 

SvN. Helpful. Aiding. Abetting. Ac- 
cessary. Promotive. Conducive. Assistant. 

Ant. Unassisting. Unconducive. Un- 
promotive. Rndnndant. Superfluous. Ob- 
structive. Relardative. Irrelevant. Cum- 

Avail, v. int. Vaho, I am 
sfroiig. There is a peculiar 
phrase, to avail one's self of a 
thing, as an implement or an 
opportunity, the idea being that 
of adding by it to one's strength 
or resoui'ces. 

Si'N. Suffice. Hold. Stand. Endure, 
Aaswer. TelL Profit. 

Am. VaL. Fall Disappoint. Betray. 


Available, adj. See Avail. 
Convertible into a resource. 

Syn. Uselul. Appropriable. Convertiblft 
Attainable. Conducive. Applicable. Pro« 
curable. Handy. 

Ant. Useless. Inappropriate. Innppli* 
Ciible. Unprocurable. Inconducive. Irre- 
levant. Inoperative. Unavailable. 

Avarice, n. Avar us, greedy. 

Syn. Greed. Cupidity. Penuriousntss. 
Niggardliness. Miserliness. Stinginess. 
Covetousness. Acquisitiveness. Rapacity. 

Ant. Large-heartedness. Unselfishness. 
TJberality. Bountifulness. Profuseness. 
Squander. Prodigality. Extravagance. 

Avaricious, adj. See Avarice. 

Avenge, v. tr. Vindicare. To 
vindicate one's self or one's rights, 
or the person or rights of an- 
other. Grammatically, we avenge 
ourselves, avenge others, and 
avenge ourselves upon others. 
So, too, men revenge insults and 
avenge themselves on account of 

Syn. Vindicate. Right. Retaliate. Visit. 
Ant. Waive. Pardun. Forego. Con- 
done. Remit. Forgive. Overlook. 

AvBNUK, ii. Fr. avenir, Lat. 
ad venire, to approach. 

Syn. Approach. Adit. Entrance. Ac- 

Ant. Exit. Egress. 

Aver, v. int. Verus, true. To 
declare a thing as truth. It is 
better followed by the word that 
than directly by an accusative. 

Syn. Assert. Asseverate. AflSrm. De- 
pose. Avouch. Protest. Oblige. Declare. 

Ant. Deny. Contradict. Contravene. 
Disavow. Disclaim. Repudiate. Oppugn. 

Averse, adj. Aver tere, aver sits. 
Turned away from an object it 
taste or feeling. 

Syn. Hosiile. Disinclined. Indisposed. 
Ant. Ready. Disposed. Eager. Prone. 
Inclined. Desirous. 

Aversion, n. See Averse. 

Syn. Hatred. Dislike. Repugnance 
Uncongeuiality. Abhorrenre. A..tip«Ui7. 


Ant. Love. Desire. Affnction. Liking. 
Ccngeniallty. Sympathy. Ardour. Eager- 
ness. Avidity. 

Avidity, n. Avidus, greedy. 
Greediness of disposition, or the 
same tiling manifested in de- 

Sin. Cupidity Avarice. Greed. I-ong- 
ing. Desire. Rapacity. Eagerness. 

AxT. Coldness. Indifference. Apathy. 
Insensibility. Antipathj'. Nausea. Aver- 
sion. Repugnance. Loathing. 

Avocation, n. A, prefix, and 
vocare, to call. A calling which 
takes a man away from other 
pursuits, and dedicates him to 
one in particular, or, generally, 
an occupation for the time call- 
ing for his whole attention. It 
is for advocation. 

Svx. Profession. Calling. Ix)t. Busi- 
ness. Employment. Pursuit. Line. 

Ant. Holiday. Leisure. Idleness. Self- 
abandonment. Misemployment. 

Avoid, v. tr. Prefix a, and 
void, empty. 

In Old English it meant, to 
empty ; that is, to cause a void ; 
but in modem usage, to cause a 
void space, so far as we are con- 
cerned, in reference to something 
else, that is, to leave it. It would 
have various synonyms, accord- 
ing to the feeling or principle of 
an avoidance. 

Six. Quit Shun. Abandon. Desert. 

Forsake. Relinquish. Fly. Eschew. 

Ant. Seek. Court. Approach. Accost. 
Addrtss. Affect. 

Avouch, v. tr. Fr. voucher, 
Lat. ad vocare. To call or si:m- 
mon a witness. Practically, to 
make a statement, with the posi- 
tiveuess of one who, if he had 
the opportunity, would caU wit- 
nesses to it. 

SvK. Aver. Protest Propound. As- 
«everate. Declare. Profess. 

Akt. Deny. Contradict Oppose. Con- 
Iravene. Controvert. Oppugn. Gainsiiy 

Avow, V. tr. and int. Voveri., 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 

votiim, to vo7(\ To declare with 
an almost religious solemnity, as 
that which might weU-nigh be 
made the subject of it. 

SrN. and Ant. See Avouch. 

AwABD, V. tr. A and guarder, 
to look. Comj?. Guard and Ward. 
To apportion, after careful re- 
gard to the natui'e of the case, or 
the relative merits of individuals. 

Syn. Assign. Apportion. Attribute. 

Accord. Grant. Distribute. Divide. Allot 

Ant. Refuse. WithhoM Withdraw. 

Retain. Mis^ippropriate. Jlisapportion. 

Aware, adj. Of northern 
origin. Comp. Wary, Beware. 
Possessing knowledge of facts. 

Stn. Conscious. Sensible. Informed. 
Certified. Assured. 

Ant. Unconscious. Insensible. Unaware. 
Ignorant. Uninformed. 

Away, adv. Saxon ireg, conn, 
with via, Lat. A way, tending, 
or being out from, one's self. 

Syn. Far. Afar. Separate. Detached. 
Loose. Abroad. 
Ant. Close. Near. 

Awe, n. Word of northern 

Si-N. Fear. Dread. Veneration. Re- 

Ant. Fearlessness. Contempt Fami- 
liarity. Disrespect Irreverence. 

Awful, adj. See Awe. In 
Old English meant feeling, but 
now only inspiring awe. 

Stn. Fearful. Terrible. Al.imiing. 
Dreadful. Solemn. Portentous. Horrible 

Ant. Innocuous. Informidable. Unim- 
posing. Unastonishing. Commonplace 
Unnoticeable. Unalarming. Alluring. 

Awhile, adv. Sax. For a 

Stn. a little. Briefly. 
Ant. Ever. Always. For ever. Ever- 

Awkward, adj. Sax. aiueg. 
Away, and the termination ward, 
indicative of movement or direc- 
tion. Swerving or swajing fi-om 
lines of regulative movement. It 

Si/no}iyms and Antonijim. 


is sometimes used colloquially of 
things as well as persons, as, ' an 
awkward aifair.' 

Syn. Ungainly. Clownish. Clumsy. 
Maladroit. Unhandy. Gawky. 

Akt. Neat. Clever. De.xterous. Adroit. 
SkilfuL Handy. 

Awry, adv. A and w'ry, con- 
nected with wreath and writhe, 
wring, wrung, wrong. 

Syn. Askew. Aslant. Atwist. Wrong. 
Ant. Right. Straight. True. Direct. 


Babble, v. int. and tr. Germ. 
j! habbdn. It. hibholare. To utter 
■j words confusedly, or in a drib- 
i! bling monotony. For another 
sense nee Babbler. Poetically 
applied to the monotonous mur- 
mur of pebbly streams. ' Bab- 
bling brooks.' 

SvN. Prate. Prattle. Dribble. Twaddle. 
Blab. Cackle. 

Ant. Bawl. Enunciate. Vociferate. 
Hush. Suppress. 

Babbler, n. See Babble. The 
want of regulative power lead- 
ing to promiscuous babble, a 
babbler tells what he ought to 
reserve ; hence, a babbler is a 
teller of secrets. 

Syn. Blab. Chatterbox. Tattler. Tell- 
tale. Gossip. 

Ant. Confidant. Confessor. 

Babbling, n. 

Syn. Blabbing. Tattling. Cackling. 
Prating. Talkativeness. Gossip. Loquacity. 

Ant. Reticence. Reserve. Secretiveness. 
Closeness. Refrain. Incommunicativeness. 

Babel, n. From lahal, the 
Hebrew for to cGvfound, or a con- 
traction of Beth Baal, the house 
or temple of Baal or Bel. It is 
used from the Bible account of 
the Tower of Babel, to stand for 
confusion of tongues or talk 

SvN. Confusion. Hubbub. Clamour, 
Jargon. T)in. Discord. Clang. 

Ant. Elocution. Articulation. DUticct« 
ness. Consecutiveness. Intonation. Enun- 
ciation. Monotony. Unisoiiousness. 

Backbiter, «. A c-iandererof 
persons behind their backs. 

Syn. Traducer. Calumntatr.r. Slandetcr, 
Detractor. Cynic. Defanier. M.Iigner. 

Ant. Vindicator. Uph.-^lder. Advocate. 
Palliator. Mltigator. Beliiender. 

Backslider, v. One who 
slides or sliuffles back, especially 
from religious principle or pro- 

SvN. Apostate. Renegade. Recreant 

Ant. Professor. Confessor. Adherent. 
Zealot. Bigot. 

Backsliding, n. Sie Back- 

Backwardness,??. Tendency 
to hold back ; specific or habitual. 

Syn. Slowness. Shyness. Reluctance. 
Hesitation. Unwillingness. Repugnance. 

Ant. Forwardness. Readiness. Willing* 
ness. Promptitude. Alacrity. 

Backward, aJj. See Back- 

Bad, adj. See Good. 

Baffle, v. tr. 'Old Fr. heff'er. 
It. beffare, to disgrace or frus- 
trate. Applied to persons and 
designs. In Eng. to frustrate. 

It has a frequentative force, 
that, namely, of repeated skilful 
counteraction. Tliis follows, from 
the nature of skill, to be versa- 
tile, which demands versatility 
of counterfoil. It is applied both 
to persons and their eflorts or 

Syn. Frustrate. Counteract. Defeat. 
Perplex. Estop. Restrain. Mar. Upset. 
Counterfoil. Foil. Balk. Neutralize^ 

Ant. Aid. Abet. Point. Enforoa. 
Assist. Promote. Advance. Encourage. 

Bait, n. Connected with Bite. 
An alluring morsel, often imply- 
ing deception into dangci. 


Synonyms and Anfoni/ms. 

Srs. Morsel. Snare. Decoy. AUure- 
nent. Enticement. Inducement- Decoy. 

Ant Warning. Scarecrow. Dissuasive. 
Deterrent. Prohibition. Intimidation. 

BaL-VNCE, v. From Lat. hilanx, 
his, twice, or double, and lanx, a 
plate. To weigh a thing abso- 
lutely or relatively, that is, to 
ascertain its intrinsic weight or 
value, or comparatively with 
something else. 

Sv\. Weigh. Poise. Counterpoise, i-s- 
timate. Pit. Set. Redress. Adjust. 

Ant. Tilt Cant. Upset. bubvert. 
Overbalance. Mispoise. 

Baldekdash, 77. Etymol. un- 
certain. Frothy talk. 

SvN Gasconade. PJiodomontade. Bom- 
bast Fustian. Flummery. Froth. 

Ant. Sen-e. Wisdom. Logic. Keason. 
Sobriety. Truthfulness. 

Balk, v. tr. An old word sig- 
nifying a beam or barrier. Ap- 
plied to persons and their efforts 
or designs. 

Syn. Bar. Thwart. Estop. Frustrate. 
Foil. Slop. Prevent. Hinder. Neutralize. 
Nullify. Mar. Counteract. Disappoint. 
Defe»t. Baffle. 

Ant. Aid. Abet. Promote. Advance. 
Encourage. Instigate. 

Bandy, v. and adj. Bande was 
the French name for a bent stick 
or mace for playing at ball; 
hence the adjective, bandy, bent, 
and the verb, bandy, to mtcr- 
change, applied to the keeping 
up of (especially frivolous) argu- 
ment. ^ , 

Stn. to verb. Interchange. Exchange. 
Reciprocate. Cross. Pa-ss. 

Ant. Quash. Silence. Drop. Burke. 
Close. StiUe. Extinguish. 

• Banish, v. tr. Ban, a procla- 
mation of outlawry or excommu- 
nication. To put out of civil 
protection. The root of the word 
Abandon; so, generally, to put 
decisively away from one's pre- 
sence or consideration. 

SrN. Abandon. Expel. Disi»'L t'ject 
Extrude. Exclude. Pvelegate. Expa.nate. 
Repudiate. Disclaim. 

Ant. Cherish. Foster. Protect. En- 
courage. Locate. Retain. Domiciliate. 
Domesticate. Consider. Entertain. Har- 

Banquet, n. Fr. lanqndte, a 
seat. A sitting meal, supposed 
to be of an elegant, choice, or 
luxui-ious character. 

Si-N. Feast Regalement Cheer. 

Ant. Fast Abstinence. Starvation. 

Banter, o\. Supposed to be 
another form of the Fr. hadinage. 
A keeping up of playful talk, as 
distinguished from earnest speech 
or argument, and often savour- 
ing of personality. 

Syn. Badinage. Chaff. Bandy. 

Ant. Argument Discussion. Discourse. 

Barbarous, adj. The Greek 
syllables bar bar were employed 
to express strangeness of talk in 
foreigners; hence, at tu-st, bar- 
barous among the Greeks meant 
simply foreign; but in Greek, 
Latin, and English it came, by a 
national tendency to regard our 
own country as the centre of 
civilization, to mean rude, un- 
civilized, till, afterwards, it was 
employed not only of country, 
language, and manners, but also, 
morally, of character and actions, 
so that it came to mean almost 
the same as savage; so, 'bar- 
barous cruelty.' 

Syn. Rude. Strange. Unci\-Uizcd. Out- 
landish. Uncouth. Savage. Atrocious. 
Flagitious. Nefarious. Unlettered. Gross. 

Ant. Polite. Civilized. Refined. Hu- 
mane. Urbane. 

Bargain, «. Der., perhaps, 
harca, a tradlnr; vessel. Comp. 
Bark. To effect a transfer or 
sale of goods. By usage, the 
noun Bargain has come to be 
taken for such Irausactions as 
,arc favoiu-able to those who 

Synonyms and Antonyms, 

effect ti:em ; otherwise the term 
is quahfied, as, ' a bad bargain.' 

Srx. Transaction. Negotiation. Busi- 
ness. ProRi. Speculation. Gain. Hawk- 
ing. Chaffer. Higgling. HaggliLg. 

AxT. Loss. Misprotit. 

Base, wlj. Gr. ^aa-is. The 
ground on which something 
stands or moves. The floor. As 
an adjective it expresses lowness, 
and, metaphorically, of birth, of 
intrinsic value, of character, of 
social estimation, of artistic ex- 
cellence, or musical sounds. It 
is seldom employed to signify 
what is physically low in situa- 
tion, but is sometimes so used, 
as, the base story of a house. 

Svx. Vile. Dishonourable. Low. Soniid. 
Jgnoble. Disesteeuitd. Cheap. Corrupt. 

A-N-T. Lofty. Exalted. Refined. Xoble. 
Ej-teenitd. Honoured. Valued. J'ure. 
Correct. Shrill. 

Baseless, wJj. See Base and 

Bask, v. int. Akin to Bake. 
To enjoy the suusliine of pros- 
jjerity or comfort. 

Svx. Luxuriate. Repose. Lounge. 

Ant. Stir. 'Work. Toil Slave. Drudge. 

Baste, v. fr. Origin uncertain. 

Stx. Beat. Buffet. Cudgel. Pound. 
Ant. Soothe. Tickle. Caress. Stroke. 

Battle, 7i. Fi-. hattre. Eng. 
heat. An open conflict. 

Srx. Fight. Conflict. Engagement. 

Ant. Peace. Truce. Pacific-aon. Ar- 
bitrament. CounciL Mediation. 

Bauble, n. Bahiole. A baby's 
plaything. The fool's bauble 
was a stick with some oddity at 
the end, as a bladder of beads, or 
a head with an ass's ears. 

Srx. Toy. Trifle. Plaything. Knick- 
knack. Gewgaw. Gimcrack. Kickshaw. 

Ant. Valuable, i'ossession. Arqulsition 
Gem. Ornament. Decoratioa. » ewel. 


Bawl, v. int. Fiom Lat. 
balmr, fo Ihaf. 

Syn. Shout, ^'ocifersie. Halloo. r>oai. 

Ant. AVhisper. Mutter. JIumble. 

Bays, v. Crown of bay-leaves, 
the symbol of achievement, used 
for the achievement itself. 

SvN. Laurels. Trophy. I'rize. Pre- 
mium. Achievement. Success. Triumph. 

Ant. Failure. Defeat. Disgrace. Stigma. 

Beaming, odj. Sax. Yerb, to 
beam, or send forth light. 

SvN. Shining. Itright. Gleoming. 
Radiant. Beautiiul. Transpcrent. Trans- 

Ant. Dull. Opaque. I'ingy. Wan. 
Matt. Beamless. 

Beau, v. tr. Saxon. To carry, 
first, physically, as a l)urden, 
then, metaphorically, to carry, as 
oflBcially to bear a I'ank, title, or 
oflice, to carry in the mind or 
the feehngs; to exhibit what is 
so carried, as, to bear malice, or 
testimony, to sustain, as a cha- 
racter or part, to be able to 
carry, .so, to tolerate, to carry or 
bring forth, as fruit or children. 

SvN. Carry, i.ift. Transport. Convey. 
Sustain. Hold. Harbour. Entertain. Fill. 
Enact. Endure. Admit. Produce. Gene- 

Ant. Drop. Refuse. Decline. Resign. 
Kxpel. Eject. Kesisu KepeL Protest, 
Resent. Reject. 

Bearing, n. See Bear. The 
mode of carrying one's self, tbat 
is, behaving or seeming ; or, re- 
flcxively, the relative position of 
an external object, as land to a 

Sv.N. Behaviour. IManner. Aspect, 
Appearance. Inclination. PositioD. Direc- 
tion. Course. 

Ant. Misbehaviour. Misdirectivii. Mis- 

Beat, v. tr. Sax. verb act. and 
neuter, as, to beat the ground, 
to beat time, a beating heart" 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

hence, to boat successfully in 
battle, and, generally, to over- 

Syn. Strike. Pmind. Batter. Thrash. 
Cudgel. Overcome. Defeat. Surpass. 
Conquer. Worst. 

Ant. Defend. Protect. Shield. Shelter. 
Fail. Surreuder. Pat. Strolce. Caress. 

Beatitude, n. Beatus, blessed. 

Syn. Blessedness. Bliss. Beatification. 

Beautiful, adj. Fee Beauty. 
Beautify, v. tr. See Beauty. 

Syn. Decorate. Adorn. Embellish. Or- 
nament. Deck. 

From the rareness of the 
quaUty of beauty comes the 
cheapness of the term beautify ; 
for, inasmuch as beauty mtist be 
seldom imparted by art, the 
word beautify, unable to sustain 
its character, is more often used 
disparagingly or satirically. 

AUT. Deform. Spoil. Mar. Stain. De- 
face. Disfigure. Befoul. Soil. Denude. 
Bare. Strip. 

Beauty, «. 'La.i. beUus, 2^retty, 
neat. The word has risen to ex- 
press in the liigher sense the 
character of what is naturally, 
personally, or artistically exqui- 
site or fail'. 

Syn. Loveliness. Grace. Seemliness. 
Comeliness. Fairness. Picturesqueness. 
Exquisiteness. Embellishment. Adorn- 

Ant. Foulness. Ugliness. Deformity. 
Hideousness. Bareness. Unattractiveness. 

Because, adu. By cause of, 
physically, mentally, and mo- 

SrN. Owing. Consequently. Accord- 

Ant. Irrespectively. Independently. 
Unioixnectedly. Inconsequently. 

Beck, n. A nod. Sax. Conn, 
with Beckon and Beacon. A nod 
of intimation or of command, 
taker, for the power or commancl 

S¥> Nod. Sign. Signal. Symbol. 
Indication. .Vuthority. Orders. 

Instructions. Suljservienuy. Influence 
Command. Call Control. Mandate. 
Ant. Independence. Insubservience. 

Become, v, tr. is coming well 
to a person. But as ])ropriety is, 
where it can be attained, a matter 
of obligation, it has a force of 
moral necessity as well as fitness. 

Stn. Befit. Grace. Beseem. Behove. 
Ajtt. Misbeseem. Misfit. Misbecome. 

Becoming, adj. See Become. 

Stn. Beseeming. Comely. Seemly. Bo' 
fitting. Graceful. Decent. Suitable. Imi 

Ant. Unbeseeming. Unseemly, Un« 
comely. Unbecoming. Unbefitting. Un« 
graceful. Indecent. Unsuitable. Unim* 
proving. Derogatory. 

Bedaub, v. tr. Daub, conn. 
with dab, to dab dirt upon. 

Stn. Bespatter. Befoul. Mar. Dis- 
colour. Disfigure. Deface. Spoil. Soil. 
Stain. Besmear. 

Ant. Cleanse. Absterge. Purify. 

Whiten. Decorate. Beautify. Embellisli. 

Bedeck, v. tr. See Deck. 

Bedizen, v. tr., Bedizened, 
part. Origin imcertain. To 
dress tawdrily. 

Syn. to part. Tawdry. Betinselled. 
Gaudy. Flashy. Bespangled. 

Ant. Adorned. Kobeu. Decorated. 

Befall, v. int. To fall out to 
one. The prefix he gives the 
verb an active force. 

Syn. Happen. Occur. Fall. Super- 
vene. Betide. Bechance. 

Ant. Miss. Pass. Spare. Pretermit. 

Befitting, adj. Fitting, as a 
matter of suitableness generally, 
or pecuhar fitness to specific po- 
sition, or circumstances, or in- 

Stn. Fitting. Decent. Becoming. Suit- 
able. Appropriate. Consistent. Expe- 
dient. Desirable. I*roper. 

Ant. Obligatory. Compulsory. Unbe- 
fitting. Indecent. Unbecoming. Unsuit- 
able. Inappropriate. Incompatible. In- 
expedient. Improper. 

Befool, v. tr. To make a fool 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 

Stk. Deceive. lUude. Cheat. Mystify. 
Bwnboozle. Mislead. Ensnare. Hood- 

Ant. Guide. Enlighten. Lead. Advise. 

Before, prpp. and adv. For 
or Fore. Lat. pro. Gr. noppa,. 
Applicable to time and place. 

Si-K. I'recedently. Anteriorly. Ante- 

Akt. After. Afterwards. Subseauently. 
Posteriorly. Later. Behind. 

Befkiend, v. tr. To keep or 
f^iipport in any way as a friend. 

Stk. Assist. Countenance. Support. 
Advocate. Promote. 'Protect. Defend. 

Ant. Oppose. Discountenance. Thwart 
Withstand. Decry. Delame Oppress. 

Beg, v. tr. Supposed to be 
from Bag. To ask as a mendi- 
cant for liis wallet. 

Ant. Insist. Exact. Extort. Kequire. 

i Beggar, n. Sep Beg. 

t Stk. Jlendicant. Suitor. Petitioner 

■ Suppliant, Applicant. 

Ant. Exactor. Extortioner, 

Beggarly, adj. See Beggar. 

SrN. Miserable. Poor. AV retched. 
Stinted. Niggardly. Stingy. Scant. Il- 

Ant. Noble. Princely. Stately. Sump- 
tuous. Liberal. Profuse, ftodigal. Mag- 
nificent. Gorgeous. 

Begin, v, tr. Sax. ginnan, to 
cut. To make the first cut into 
a thing ; also, neutrally, to com- 

Sin. Initiate. Commence. Start. Pre- 
pare. Arise. Inaugurate. 

Ant. Achieve. Complete. Terminate. 
Conclude. Consummate. Finish. Close. 

Beginner, ??. See Begin. 

Stn. Tyro. Novice. Lcanier. Pupil. 

Ant. Adept. Expert, blaster. Au- 

Be«inning, n. See Begin. 

Sn. Commencement. Start. Origia. 


Rise. Initiation. Preparation. Preface. 
Prelude. Inauguration. Inceptl.ia. 

Ant. End. Close. Termination. Con- 
clusion. Consummation. Conipletion. 

Begrime, v. tr. A Northern 
word conn, with Rime, hoar- 
frost, but now applied, not to 
white particles, but foul. See 

Beguile, v. tr. Guile, conn. 
with wile, craft. See Befool. 

Behalf, v. Contiguity to 
one's own half or side, as against 
other persons or other interests. 

SrN. Side. Interest. Advantage. Aid. 

Ant. ^■ee Bestead. 

Behaviour, «., Behave. The 
way in which a man has, pos- 
sesses, or demeans himself gene- 
rally, or on a ^ecific occasion. 

SvN. Conduct. Beiiring. I)emeanour. 
Proceeding. Action. Comportment. De- 

Ant. Misdemeanour. Misbehaviour. 

Behest, n. Sax. Literally, 
that which is vowed or desired. 
Now, by usage, commanded or 

Sin. Injunction. Command. Instruc- 
tion. Mandate. Commission. Trust. Re- 

Ant. Option. Liberty. Discretion. 

Behind. See Before. Ilind; 
whence Hinder. 

Behold, v. tr. Hold, to ftxsteu 
the eyes on to an object continu- 

Stn. Look. Gaze. Observe. Contem- 
plate. See. Scan. Survey. 

Ant. Overlook. Disregard. Ignore. 
Miss. Blink. Wink. Connive. 

Beholden, adj. Fastened by 
ties of obligation, and sometimes, 
correspondently, of feeling. 

Stn. Bound. Obliged. Indebted. 
Thankful. Grateful. 

Ant. Unindebted. Unobliged. Unbound 
Unthankful. Ungrateful. 

Sijnon'jms and Antonyms. 

Stn. Under. 

AST. Above. Over. 


Ant. Above, 

Bbholdbr, n. See Behold. 

Sni. Spectator. Observer. Bystander. 
Witness. Looker-on. 
AST. &(.' Behold. 

Belief, ?;. Same root as 
Leave, in tbe sense of permission. 
The mind telieves a thing or 
person, that is, leaves it, gives it 
leave, or allows it to occupy the 
ground taken up. Another sup- 
position derives it from Jithm, to 
love or desire, as if it were 
natural in some measure to credit 
what we desire to be true. 

Stm Assent. Faith. Trust. Ciedence. 
Avowal. Assurance. Ailmissiou. Conces- 
sioii. Confidence. . ^ ^. , ^ m;- 

Ant. Dissent. Unbelief. Distrust. 3Il^- 
giving. Denial. DisavowaL Rcjecuou. 

Bellicose, arl). Br-llum, vnr. 

Si-N. QnarreUome. Pugnacious. BeUi- 
cereiit. Irascible. Contentious. 

Ant. Peaceful. Peaceable. Unquarrel- 
some. Pacific. Unwarlike. Unexcilable. 
Good-tempered. Genial. 

Belligeeent, ailj. Belhim, 
and f/e/v'/v, to Of warlike 

or quarrelsome nature, or actu- ^^_^ ^ 

ally engaged in war. gmshcd from benefit. 

Sre. See IfeUicose. Add. Contending. ° >,.„ Gmnt. Endowr 
Engaging. Fighting. Opposed. Adverse. 
Holiile. Conflicting. RivaU Antagonist. 
Assailant. _ ^ r i t>„ 

Ant. Neutral. Pacific. Peaceful. Re- 
conciled. Appeased. Non-belligerent. 

Bellow, v. inf. Sax. Conn, 
with Bawl. -See Bawl. 

Belonging, ar//., Belong. 
Long. Lying parallel to, or 
alongside ;* and so in any way 
related or appertaining. 

SxN. ReUted. Connected. Appertain- 
ing. Cognate. Congenial. OWigatory. Ac- 

ANT Unrelated. Unoonnected. Im- 
pertinent. Irrelevant. ^Alien. Ui.con- 
genial. Discretional. Optional. Lnin- 
volved. UuitupUed. Independent. 

Beloved, adj. See Love. 

Below, prep, and adi'. Low. 
Nortliern wor.l, allied to Eug. 

. Adowu. 


Bend, v. tr. and int. Sas. 
L'sed physically and metaphoii- 

Sy.v. Curve. Deviate. Incline. Tend. 
Swerve. Diverge. Jlould. Persuade, in- 
fluence. Bias. Dispose. Direct. Stoop. 
Condescend. Yield. Submit. 

Ant Proceed. Continue. Exter-.d. Ad- 
vance. ' Stand. Stiffen. Resist. Break. 

Beneath, adv. and _2»-ep. 
Neath. Germ, nieder, netlm: 

Below. Under. Underneath. A- 

Over. Overhead. Aloft. 

Benediction, v. Bene dicere, 
to bless. Is oflacial, or the result 
of kind feeling or approval, or in 
consequence of gratitude. 

St>- Blessing. Approval. Commenda- 
tion. Benison. Gratitude. Thankfulness. 
Thanksgiving. _ 

Ant. Curse. Malediction. Disapproval. 
Censure. Obloquy. Execration. Ingrati- 

Benefaction, «. Bene and 
facere, to do well. Commonly by 
some permanent gift, as distin- 

I ° ' Srs. Grant. Endowment. Bequest. 
Presentation. Favour. 

AST. Deprivation. Reservation. Dis- 
favour. Disendowment. Confiscation. Pre- 

Benefactor, n. See Benefac- 

Syn- Friend. Supporter. Contributor. 
Upholder. Well-wisher. WeU-doer. Fa- 
vourer. Patron. ^. , 

Ant Foe. Opponent. Djsfiwourer. 
Rival". 'Antagonist. Backfriend. Oppressor. 

Beneficial, adj. See Bene- 
faction. ^ „^ , 

Sy>-. Advantageous. Profitable. WTiole- 
some. Salutary. Salubrious. 

A.NT Prejudicial. Noxious. Lnprofit* 
able. Hurtful. Detrimental. 

Beneficent, adj. See Bene- 
faction. „ . 

SvN. Bountiful. Benerolent. Benignant. 
1 Ant. Uar.1. Uncommlseratiug. UUberal. 
C sbeneficenl. Griping. Cruel. Opf re»> 

Srjnonyms and Antonyms. 

Bbhefit. n. See Benefaction. 

Stn. Boon. Advantage. Profit. Favour. 

Ant. Evil. Loss. Disadvantaf;(>. Detri- 
nifnt. Damage. Calamity. Injury. Be- 
reavement. Privation. 

Benevolence, n. Bene and 
voJo, I tvish ladl. 

Syn. Kindness. Gooawill. Kindliness. 
Benignity. Liberality. Beneficence. 

Ant. Unkindness. Harshness. Niggard- 
liness. Barbarity. Maleticence. Malignity. 
lUiberality. lUwill. Cliurlishness. 

Sometimes the exiDression of 
goodwill— a gift. 

Benevolent, adj. See Bene- 

Benignant, adj. Benignus, 
iene and genus, of good birth. 
Gentle by birth and disposition ; 
thence kind. See Benevolent. 

Benison, «. See Benediction. 

Bent. See Bend. Physical or 
moral inclination. 

SvN. Angle. Inclination. Direction. 
Bias. Determination. Disposition. Inten- 

Ant, Indisposition. Aversion. 

Bequeath, v. tr.. Bequest, v. 
Be and an Old English word, 
meaning, to say, of which the 
past tense only survives in the 
word quoth. First, to adjudge 
by word of mouth ; then, to de- 
mise property orally; and, lastly, 
to demise generally, or leave as a 
gift at parting. 

Si-N. Give. Grant. Bestow. Impart. 
Leave. Demise. To noun. Legacy. In- 

Ant. Withhold. Alienate. To noun. 
Transference. Abalienation. Disinheritance. 

Berkave, V. tr. Sax. ]\Iean- 
ing rob. Apphed to persons. 

Syn. Rob. Deprive. Dispossess. Divest. 
Impoverish. Reduce. Spoil. 

Ant. Replenish. Compensate. Rein- 
state. Satisfy. Enrich. Benefit. 

Bereavement,?). .SVe Bereave. 

Stn. Deprivation. Loss. Affliction. 


Ant. Gift. Blessing. Donation. Bene. 

faction. Cumpensation. Reparation, lie* 
storation. Ileinstatenient. Restituticia. 
Substitution. Consolation. 

Ant. See Benefaction and Benefit. 

Bereft, jxirt. 

Si-N. Robbed. Deprived. Denied. Spoiled. 

Ant. Endowed. Enriched. Compensated. 
Consoled. Possessed. 

Beseech, v. tr. Seech, the 
same as seek. To seek another 
in entreaty. Used of the thing 
and the person. 

Sra. Ask. Entreat. Pray. Request. 
Supplicate. Petition. Beg. 

Ant. Insist. Demand. E.\act. Com- 
mand. Intimidate. Coerce. 

Beseem, v. tr. To seem or 
look well upon. Said of moral 
fitness or propriety. 

SvN. Befit. Suit. Belong. Appertain. 
Ant. Unbeseem. Disgrace. 

Beseeming, adj. See Beseem. 

SvN. Befitting. Suitable. Belonging. 
Appertaining. Consistent. Compatible. Re- 
quisite. Decent. Graceful. 

Ant. Unbefitting. Unseemly. Unsuit- 
able. Improper. Indecent. Ungraceful. 

Beset, v. tr. Set, sedeo. Comp. 

Sra. Hem. Surround. Environ. Be- 

Ant. Liberate. Abandon. 

Beside, prep.. Besides, adv. 
By the side ; the primary notion 
being proximity, and the second 
extraneousness or addition. 

Syn. Close. Near. Alongside. Addi- 
tionally. Over and above. Together. More- 

Ant. Separate. Apart. Inclusively. 

Besiege, v. tr. Fr. siege. Lat. 
sedere. To sit down before a 
fortified place. 

SvN. Beset. Beleaguer. Invest. Sit. 
Ant. Abandon. (Phrase ' raise the 

Besmear, v. tr. Sax. See Be- 

Besotted, adj. Sax. Steeped 
in drink cr prejudice. 

Syn. Stupefied. Intoxicated. Drunk. 
Steeped. Drenched. Stupid. Doltlah. 
Gross. Prejudiced. 

X 2 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

AvT. Sol)er. Temperate. Clear. Un- 
biassed. Unprejudiced. Knligbtened. Ke- 

Bespatter, v. tr. Conn, with 
spit and sputter. Metaphor., to 

Syn. Besprinkle. BefouL Bedaub. Re- 
sile. Vilify. Asperse. 

Ant. Absterge. Sponge. Cleanse. 
Purlly. Vindicate. Defend. ^Clear. 

Bespeak, v. tr. Has the double 
sense of ordering . beforehand, 
and of giving evidence. 

Syn. Betoken. I'oreorder. Forestall. 
Provide, Prearrange, indicate. Evidence. 
Ant. Belie. Resign. Countermand. 

Bestead, v. tr. Be and stead, 
a place. Comp. Instead. In the 
place of; to arrange for conveni- 
ence or benefit, and so to serve. 

Sin. Convenience. Uphold. Assist. 
Serve. Accommodate. Benefit. 

Ant. Thwart. Damage. Incommode. 
Oppose. Injure. 

Bestead, n. 

SrN. Interest. Behalf. Part. Side. Ad- 
vantage. Benefit. 

Ant. Injury. Disadvantage. Opposition. 
Detriment. Damage. 

Bestir, v. tr. Commonly used 
reflexively for, to stir one's self. 
See Stir. 

Bestow, v. tr. Sax. stov, a 
place for deposit. First, to place 
in its ovm appointed repository ; 
thence, and now exclusively, to 
make another the receptacle, that 
is, to give. 

SvN. Confer. Give. Present Award. 

Ant. Withhold. Withdraw. Reserve. 
Alienate. Transfer. Claim. Appropriate. 
Usurp. Seize. 

Betide, v. tr. Sax. Tide, 
meaning time, as, "WTiitsuntide. 
To befall in season; thence, to 
befall generally. 

Betimes, adv. By good time. 

SvN. i'^arly. Belbrehand. Readily. Pie- 

Am. Late. Behindhand. Slowly. Slug- 
{isbly. Belatedly. 

I Betoken, v. tr. To give evi- 
dence by token, which was any 

I kind of indication or mark. The 
word is connected with teach. 

Srx. Teach. Indicate. Proclaim. Evi- 
dence. Manifest. Imply. Involve. De- 

Ant. Misindicate. Misteach. 
Misdeclare. Belie, llask. Hide. 

I BCTUATT, V. tr. Tradere, to de- 
liver. To bring to light either 
persons or interests, which it 
was a duty to seiwe confidentially 
or honourably ; or, by an exten- 
sion of its usage, to indicate; 
though even here there is com- 
monly an impUed exposui-e of 
sometliing unfavourable. 

Syn. Deceive. Delude. Circumvent. 
Dupe. Ensnare. Dishonour. Indicate. 
Manifest. Reveal. 

Ant. Protect. Preserve. Guard. Con- 
serve. Foster. Cherish. Fence. Cover. 
Conceal. Suppress. 

Between, Betwixt, adv. and 
pre2\ See Amidst. 

Be\'y, 7i. Origin uncertain; 
but applied only to ladies, ex- 
cept, as by sportsmen, to larks 
and quails. A fair assemblage. 

Srx. Assembly. Parterre. Gataxy 
Constellation. Flock. 

Ant. Gang. Crevr. Herd. Mob. 

Bewail, v. tr. Wail, a word 
of Northern origin, probably 
formed in imitation of a cry of 

Syn. Lament Deplore. Bemoan. Rue. 
Ant. Kxult. HaiL Rejoica Greet. 


Beware, v. Ware, conn, with 
wary. Used only in the impera- 
tive and infinitive moods. 

Syn. Care. Refrain. Consider. Heei 
Look. Fear. Avoid. 

Ant. Overlook. Ignore. Xeglcct. Brave. 
Dare. Incur. 

Bewilder, v. tr. Wild. To 
place, as it were, on wild ground, 
where one looks in all directiona 
for landmarks, but in vain. 

Synonyms and Antonyms, 

Srs. Daze. Dazzle. Confound. Mystify. 
Confuse. Mislead. Astonish. 

Am. Guide. Inform. Lead. Enlighten. 
Edify. Instruct. 

Bewildered. See Bewilder. 

Bewitch, v. tv. Witch, Sax. 
wig, holy. Low Latin, vegius, a 
sorcerer. Of old used of male as 
well as female sorcerers. To in- 
fluence by magic, and especially 
with loYe or admiration. 

Stn. Enchant. Fascinate. Charm. 
Ant. E.xorcise. Disillusionize. Disen- 

Beyond, 2yrep. and adv. Sax. 
Comp. Yon and Yondei'. 

Syn. Over. Farther. Tsst. More. 
Ant. Her-.- Close, ^.ur. Hither. Less. 

■ Bias, n. Old Fr. hiais, a slope. 
See Bent. 

Bicker, v. inf. Scotch. For- 
merly tised of literal, now only of 
metaphorical, skirmishes. 

Sin. Wrangle. Quarrel. Dispute. Jar. 

Ant. Chat. Gossip. Converse. 

Bid, v. tr. Of Northern origin, 
from one word, meaning to re- 
quest, and another resembling it, 
to oifer ; hence the double sense 
of bid. 

Svx. Tell. Request. Instruct. Order. 
Command. Offer. I'l-fpose. 

AxT. Forbid. Deter. Prohibit. Re- 

Bide, v. int. Sax. Act. and 
neuter, that is, having the sense 
of wait and await. 

SvK. Wait. Remain. Tarry. Stay. 
Await. Expect. Anticipate. Bear. En- 

Ant. Quit. Depart. Migrate. Move. 
Resist. Resent. Repel. Algure. Rebel, 

Big, adj. An old Welsh word, 
haich, meaning burden. Mete- 
phorically used of bigness of de- 

Syn. Large. Great. Wide. Huge. 
Bn'Jjy. Proud. Arrogant. Pompous. Fat. 


Ant. Litlle. Sraivll. Narrow. Minute. 
Slight. Lean. Affable. Easy. Unafifected. 

Bigotry, n. Der. uncertaia; 
either from a Norman oath, attri- 
buted to Eollo when refusing 
homage to the French king, or 
from the Saxon higan, conn, with 
beg, to pray or worship ; whence 
the Flemish beg nine and heguin- 
age, good women engaged in cha- 
rity, and living together without 

Sy\. Prejndlce. Pharisaism. Obstinacy. 
Credulity. Fanaticism. Superstition. In- 

Ant. Liberality. Enlightenment. Charity. 
Toleration. Eclecticism. Latitudinarianism. 

Bind, v. tr. Sax. To tie. 
Metaphorically, to tie down to 
obhgatious or conditions. 

Syn. Tie. Fasten. Secure. Loce. 
Twine. Oblige. Compel. Pifistrlct. Re- 
strain. Secure. 

Ant. Untie. Loose. Unfasten. Free, 
Liberate. Acquit. 

Birth, n. Conn, with Bear 
and Born. First, the coming 
into life, and then the cu'cum- 
stances or position of the person 
so born. So birth used by itself 
often means nobility. 

Syn. Origin. Source. Rise. Lineage. 

Ant. Death. Extinction. Plebeianism. 

Bit, n. Is really the part, of 
Bite. _ A small piece bitten, or 
to bite; thus precisely corre- 
sponding with morsel, from Lat. 
m order e, to bite. 

Stn. Morsel. Piece. Fragment. Pait. 

Ant. Mass. Whole. 

Biting, adj. See Bit. Used 

Sin. Pungent. Piercing. Gnawing. 

Sarciistic. Sardonic. Censorious. Trenchant. 

Ant. I'leasant. Genial. Flattering. 

Soothing. Complacent. 

Bitter, adj. Conn, with Biie. 
Producing a pungent biting sen- 
sation. Applied, when used me- 
taphorically, both to the event 

Sf/nonij)iis and Antonyms. 


nnd the feeling consequent upon 
it, as, ' a Iritter calamity,' ' bitter 

lStn. Harsh. Sour. Sharp. Tart. Ac- 
rimomuns. Sarcastic Severe. Sad. Afflic- 
tive. Intense. 

AXT. Sweet. Mellow. Tleasant. Affa- 
ble. Kindly. GeniaL Light. Trivial, 

Bitterness. See Bitter and 

Blab, v. int. Germ. hlap2-)eln. 
Eng. blabber. To talk idly. See 
remarks on Babbler. 

Bl.\cken, v. tr. Black. Meta- 
phorically, to spoil the character 
or reputation. 

SrN. Bespatter. Befoul. Bedaub. De- 
fame. Decry. Calumniate. Tiishonour. 
Ant. Vindicate. Clear. Eulogize. 

Blackguard, n. Originally 
the comj^any of scullions, who, 
in the progresses of great men 
had the charge of the kitchen 
iitensils. A low sooty tribe; 
hence the present use of the 
term is including everything 
most vile. 

Stn. Scoundrel. Kascal. Rapscallion. 
Blackleg. ViUain. 
Ant. Gentleman. 

Bl.\me, V. tr. Is a contracted 
form of blaspheme, the Greek for 
evil-spealcing ; but is by usage i fluences. 
restricted to censure of persons 
or their conduct. 

SvN. Censure. Cliide. Itcbuke. Re- 
proach. Vituperate. Di-praise. 

Ant. Aciiuiu E-xculpaie. Exonerate. 
Kncourage. I'raise. Approve. 

Blamable, adj. See Blame. 
Blameless. See Blame. 

.Stn. Pure, innocent. Irresponsible 
Ant. Criminated, implicated. Blame- 
worthj'. Answerable. Faulty. Guilty. 

Blanch, v. fr. lUancus, white. 
Comp. Bleak, Bleach. 

Sin. Bleach. Whiten. 

To blanch is to promote in- 

herent whiteness. To bleach is 
to whiten by external influence. 

Ant. Darken. Colour. Obfuscate. 

Bland, mJj. Blandus. Eefei"S 
to manner. 

Stn. Soft Mild. Gentle, 
Ant. Harsh. Aljrupt. Rough. 

Blandiloquence, n. Blandus 
and loini, to talk. 

SvN. IJlamey. Humbug. Flattery. 
Specionsnfss. Glossiness. Adulation. 

Ant. Bluntness. Roughness. Abrupt- 

Blandishment, n. Is in deeds 
what blandiloquence is in words. 

Stn. Fliittery. Coaxing. Wheedling. 
Fawning. Cajolery. 

Ant. Roughness. Bluntness. Unman- 


Blank, adj. Blancua. A 
colourless and unmitigated bar- 

Six. Bleak. Bare. Utter. Broad. Un- 

Ant. JNIodificd. Qualified. Mitigated. 

BLASPHE>n:,ii. Gr. Impious 

Stn. Swearing. Imiiiety. rrofaneness. 
Ant. Reverence. \eiieratiun. Gudh- 

Blast, v. and r. Sax. hhesan, 
to htmr. Like flare, flame, from 
the Lat. flare, to hl<m\ Comj). 
Blaze. The verb to blast is used 
of destructive or noxious in- 

The voun blast has different 
analogous senses, as, blast oi 
wind, a blast, or, as it were, 
noxious breath of evil, the blast 
or explosion of a gun; but the 
notion of atmospheric influeuce 
or excitement runs through them 

Stn. Volume. Tuff. Afflalion. KfHa- 
(ion. Breeze. Bieath. Blight. 1-jcplosion. 
Burst. Frustration. Destruction, lilaze. 

Ant. E.xtinctiun. Neutralization. 

Blaze, n. See Blast. 
Blazon, v. tr. From the same 
root. To afl&x some mark oi 


Si/noni/ms and Antonyms. 


conspicuonsness. To light up a 
person, his character or history, 
lineage or reputation. 

Sin. Notify. Signalize. Publicate. Ad- 
renturc. Qrculate. I'ropagate. Dissemi- 

Ant. Cover. Conceal. Hide. Suppress. 
Hush. Palliate. Sbroud. Bury. 

Bleach, v. tr. Blancus, ivhite. 

Stn. AVliitcn. Blanch. 

Ant. Darken. Blacken. Soil. .See Blanch. 

Bleak, adj. Same cler. 

Syx. Blank. Bare. Open. E.^cposed. 
Cold. Stormy. Nipping. 

Ant. Sheltered. Warm. Verdant. Luxu- 
riant. Zepliyrous. Balmy. Halcyonic. 

Blemish, v. Fr. hlemir, to 
make blue or pule. To take the 
colour out; thence, to spoil or 
tarnish a substance ; and thence 
again, metaphorically, the cha- 
racter. The 7iou)i blemish fol- 
lows the same meanings. 

Sin. to noun. Spot. Blur. Blot. Stain. 
I)aub. Tarnish. Defacement. Discoloura- 
tion. Disfigurement. Disgrace. Dishonour. 
Defect. Blemish. Imperfection. 

Ant. Purity. UnsuUiedaess. Intact- 
ness. Honour. 

Blench, v. inf. Conn, with 
Blanch. To shrink through fear. 

Sin. start. Shy. Shudder. Shrink. Ke- 

Ant. Encounter. Dare. Venture. Stand. 

Blend, v. int. and tr. Sax. 
To mix easily or naturally. 

Srx. Mi.x. Harmonize. Unite. Coalesce. 
Ant. Run. Sepai-ate. Divide. Dis- 
sociate. Confound. 

Bless, v. tr. Sax. Conn, 
with BUthe. To make bhthe- 
Bome or joyous with gifts, and, 
reflexively, to express gratitude 

Stn. Felicitate. Endow. Enrich. 
Gladden. Rejoice. Cheer. Thank. 

Ant. Sadden. Deprive. Impoverish. 
Igcore. Curse. Anathematize. 

Blessing, n. See Bless. 

Stn. Felicitation. Benediction. Endow- , 
ment. Donation. Gift. Thanklulues? ' 
Ciratitude. Thanks. Benefit 

Ant. Impoverigbrccnt. Deprivation. Be- 
reavement. Malediction. Thankfulness. 
Obliviousness. Catastrophe. Calamity, 
Disaster. Detriment Damage. Ciuse. 

BuGHT, «. and v. Origin un- 
certain. See Blast, 

Blind, adj. Sax. Conn, with 
Blend, seeing objects confusedly. 
It is used of physical sightless- 
ness, moral bhndness, mental 
blmdness, or absolute ignorance, 
and casual blindness or casual 
ignorance. Sometimes used as a 
transitive verb. 

Stn. Sightless. Unseeing. Depraved. 
Prejudiced. Ignorant. Uninformed. Un- 
conscious. Unaware. 

Ant. Far-sighted. Penetrating. Keen. 
Sensitive. ftiscriminating. Pure-minded. 
Clear-sighted. Conscious. Aware. 

Blink, v. tr. and int. Sax. 
To shine, to twinkle, quickly to 
close and open the eyelids, to 
close the eyes a passing 
circumstance so as not to notice 

Stn. Wink. Ignore. Connive. Overlook. 
Ant. Notice. Visit. Note. j\lark. 

Bliss, /). See Bless. 

SvN. Blessedness. Joy. Ecstasy. Rap- 

Ant. Accursedness. Condetnnation. Suf- 
fering. Misery. Woe. 

Blithe, adj. Sax. 

Stn. Light, ilerry. Joyoirs. Happy 
Bright. Elastic. Gladsome. Bonny. 
Ant. Heavy. Dull. Dejeelnd. Sullen. 

Block, v. tr. From Uock; 
Northern word tor a mass. 

Stn. stop. Arrest. Fill. Obstruct. 
Ant. Free. Liberate. Open. Pave. 

Blockhead, n. See Above. 

Stn. Dolt. Dunderhead. Jolterhead. 
Dunce. Minny. Numskull. Dullard. Ig- 

Ant. Sage. Adept. Luminary. Philo- 
sopher. Schoolman. .Siivuiit. 

Bloom, n. and r. int. Gothic- 
Comp. Blossom. 

Stn. Blossom. Bud. Flower. Beauty 
Freshness. Delicacy. 

Anf. Decay. Decadence. Blight. Blast. 
Coarsene-s. Harshness. P.oughnesB. Tough- 


Sijnoni/ms and Antonyms. 

Ghastliness. Ca- 

ncss. Superannuati 

Bloom is applied to flowers 
purely omameutal, blossom to 

Blooming, adj. See Bloom. 

Stn. Flourishing. Flowering. Blossom- 
Jns Young. Beautiful. Fair. 

Akt. Fading. Waning. Blighted. 
Blasted. Paralyzed. Old. Superannuated. 
Unsightly. Deformed. 

Blot, v. and v. A Northern 
word, meaning a blur or stain. 
A dab, daub, or spot of tarnish 
upon a fair surface or a fair re- 
putation. Comp. the phrase, ' a 
blot on the escutcheon.' 

Stn. Comp. Blemish. 

Blot, v. 

Stn. Obscure. Tarnish. Spoil. Sully. 
Obliterate. Erase. 

Ant. Elucidate. Clear. Absterge. 
Cleanse. Manifest. Conserve Perpetuate. 

Blotch. Coim. Blot and 

Blow, n. Seems to be formed 
from many kindred words _ of 
Saxon or Gothic origin, having 
the various senses of breathing 
and blooming and sti-iking. 

Stn. Puff. Blast. Breath. Infliction. 
Stroke. 'Wound. Disappointment. Afflic- 

Ant. Assuagement. Consolation. Com- 
fort. Relief. Blessing. Sparing. 

Blitff, cuI). Old Eng. noun 
and adj. bluffs, or bluff rocks. 

Stn, Bare. Open. Bold. Abrupt. 
Franlc. Plain-spolcen. Blunt. 

Ant. Undulating. Inclined. Inabrupt. 
Courteous. Polished. Reserved. 

Blunder, n. Old Eng. Conn, 
with Blind and Blend. A mis- 
take through confusion of thought 
or purpose. 

SvN. Error. Mistake. Misunderstand- 
inc. Fault. Oversight, [naccuracy. 

'Aht. Accuracv. Truthfulness. E.xact- 
ness. Correctness'. Faultlessness. Correc- 
tion. IlectiBcation. Atonement. Foresight. 
Prevention. Hit. Success. Achievement. 

Blunt, ddj. Gothic n. Pby- 
Bical and metaphorical. 

Srs. Obtuse. Dull. Pointless. Edge- 
less. Insensitive. Blufif. Plain-mannered. 

ANT. Sharp. Keen. Pointed. Acute. 
Aculeated. Sensitive. Polished. Courteous. 
Reserved. Blandiloquent, 

Blunt, v. See adj. 

Stn. To subdue. Repress. Tranquillize 
Discourage. Harden. Ossify. Numb. 

Ant. Quicken. Sharpen. Instigate. Sus- 
citate. Stimulate. Animate. Excite. \ i- 

Blur. See Blemish. 

Blush, n. Conn, with Blaze, 
to grow red with warmth or a 
sense of shame. 

Stn. to former. Bloom. Colour. Com- 
plexion. Aspect. Carnation. To latter. 
Shame. Confusion. Guiltiness. Self-re- 
proach. . . 

AKT. to latter. Innocence. Punty. Guilt- 
lessness. Unconsciousness. Boldness. Ef- 

Bluster, v. and n. Allied to 

Si-N. to V. Storm. Rage. Puff. Blow 
Swagger. Fume. Brag. Insult. 
AXT. See Brag. 

Boast. Old Eng. 

Stn. Vaunt, Brag. Swagger. SweU 
Bluster. Vapour. 
Ant. See Brag. 

Bode, v. (r. Sax. Conn, with 
Bid, to tell or foretell. 

Stn. Foretell. Predict. Prophesy. Pro 
mise. Forebode. Herald. Announce. Prog- 
nosticate. Portend. Augur. 

Ant. Relate. Record. Narrate. Re- 

Bodily. From Body. Sax. 
Adv. and euJJ. 

Stn Wholly. Collectively. Summarily. 
Unitedly. Corapactedly. Together. Cor- 
poreal. Fleshly. „ t- 

AST. Piecemeal. Partially. Fragment- 
arily. Gradually. Spiritual. Ghostly. 

Body, n. Sax. 

Stn. Substance. Mass. Whole. Sub- 
stantiality. CoUectiveness. Assemblage. 
Collection Matter. Association. Organiz.i- 

Ant. Spirit. Fragment. Member. IMece. 

Boggle, v. int. Same as Bogle. 
Corrupted into bogey, an appa- 
rition. To hesitate, as i^ af- 
frighted ; hence, to hesitate gcno- 

and Antonyms. 


rally, and to work awkwcardly or 

Stn. Halt. Hesitate. Dubitate. Falter. 
Blunder. Hlotch. Botch. Mar. Spoil. 

Ant. Encounter. Face. Advance. Clear. 
Work, llcfine. Perfect. Complete. Ueau- 


Boil, v. inf. Lat, luUire. 
Comp. Ebullition. 

Stn. liubble. Effervesce. Explode. 
Rage. Fume. 

Ant. Calm. Subside. Recover. Cool. 

Boisterous, adj. Old Eng. 
Conn, witli Boast. Applied to 
the violence of the elements and 
to manner or demeanour. 

SvN. Loud. Violent. Tempestuous. 
Stormy. Unrestrained. Uncontrolled. In- 


Bold, adj. Sax. 

Stn. Courageous. Fearless. Adventur- 
ous. Brave. Self-confident. Forward. 

Akt. Timid. Fearful. Inadventurous. 
Sby. Bashful. Retiring. 

Bolster, v. tr. From the 
novn, -which is Gotliic. Conn, 
with Ball. A round or cyhndri- 
cal support for the head ; hence, 
to support, especially adventi- 
tiously ; applied to the weakness 
and the weak. 

Stn. Support. Prop. Sustain. Aid. 
Help. Subsidize. Patch. Tinker. Buoy. 
Ant. Depress. Dispirit. Relax. 

Bombast, n. Bomhyx, the silk- 
irorm. Bomhasium , cotton. An 
inflated talk or matter, or the 
quality of such talk. 

Sin. Rbodomontade. Gasconade. Brag- 
padocio. Bluster. Pompos^ity. Inflated- 
ness. Exaggerativeness. Fustian. 

Ant. Truthfulness. Moderation. Vera- 
city. Modesty, 'lemperateness. Humility. 

Bond, n. Sax. Comp. Bind 
and Band. 

Stn. Tie. Fastening. Chain. Manacle. 
Fetter. Association. Compact. Obli|;atlon. 

Ant. Freedom. Option. Discre.ion. 
Honour. Parole. 

Bondage, n. See Bond 

Stn. Servitude. Confinement. Imprt. 
sonment. Incarceration. Subjection. Slavery. 

Ant. Freedom. Liberty. Independence. 
Liberation. Manumission. 

Bondsman, n. See ahovc. 

Stn. Slave. Serf. Prisoner. Captive 

Ant. Freeman. Yeoman. Gentleman 
Lord, ilaster. 

BoNKY, adj. Der. uncertain, 
and used in several senses ; all, 
however, having brightness of 

Stn. Fair. Pretty. Pleasant. Cheerful. 
Lively. Shapely. Bu.xom. 

Ant. Dull. Unseemly. Ill-favoured. 

Bonus, n. Lat. Good. Conn. 

Syn. Premium. Douceur. Boon. Benefit 
Ant. Fine. Penaltv. Mulct. Amerce- 
ment. Discount. 

BooBY, n. The name of a sea- 

Syn. Idiot Dunce. Numskull. 
Ant. Wiseacre. Solon. Oracle. 

Bookish, adj. From Book. 
Conn, with Beech, because the 
ancient Saxons and Germans 
wrote on beechcn bark and 

Stn. studious. Erudite. Learned. Pe- 

Ant. Unbookish. Uiistudious. Ineru- 
dite. Unlearned. Ignorant. Uneducattd. 

Bootless, adj. Boot. Sax. 
Advantage. Conn, with Better. 

Stn. Useless. Profitless. Unavailing, 

Ant. Useful. Profitable. Availing. Ef- 
fective. Effectual. 

Booty, n. Same root. Profit 
by plunder. 

Syn. Plunder. Loot. Prey. Pillace. 
Ant. Restitution. Fine. Confiscation. 
Forfeiture. Amercement. Penalty. 

Border, «. Yr.hord. So scar 
board or coast. 

Stn. Limit. Boundary. Edge. Edging. 
Hem. B:md. Enclosure. Confine. 

Ant. Land. Tract. Interior. Substanca 
Space. Centre. 

BosoiT, n. Sax. Used bj 


Sijnonyms and Aniomjma. 

analogy of a natural hollow, as, 
'the bosom of the ocean,' and, 
metaphorically, of the seat of 

Sin. Hollow. Deep. Bed. Valley. 
Centre. Heart. Mind. Soul. Will. 

Ant. Surfiice. E.xteiior. Manner. De- 
portment. ]>t.'mcanour. 

Botch, v. fr. Conn, with Boss 
and Patch. Something between 
marring and mending. 

Stji. I'dtch. Cobble. Clump. Blunder. 
DiscoiK«rt. Spoil. Jumble. Mess. Bungle. 

Ant. Fine-draw. Trim. Harmonize. 
Mend. Beautify. Embroider. Handle. 
Manage. Manipulate. 

Both, adv. Sax. 

Stn. Twain. 
Ant. Neither. 

Bother, v. tr. Another form 
of Pother, which is supposed to 
be the Fr. poudre, dust. Eng. 
powder, the making a dust — 
about something or nothing. 

Stn. Fuss. Worry. Excitement. Stir. 
Confusion. Vexation. Flurry. Trouble. 

Ant. Calm. Composure. Orderliness. 
Peace. Quiet. 

Bottom, n. Sax. Said to be 
allied to the Gr. Trv6fjif]v, as that 
to ^d6os. Comp. Bathos in 

Stn. Deep. Profound. Floor. Depth. 
Ground. Foot. 

Ant. Top. Summit. Apex. Cro'.vn. 
IJrow. Surface. 

Bound, n. That which binds, 
bonds, or bounds, as an external 

Stn. Limit. Boundary. Confine. Border. 

Ant. See Border. 

Bound, v. Fr. hondlr. 

SvN. To Leap. Jump. Frisk. Spring. 

Ant. Hobble. Limp. Crawl. Creep. 

Boundabt. See Bound. 
Boundless, «(//. <See7?. Bound. 

SiTj. Infinite. Unlimited. Illimitable. 

I Ant. Narrow. Restricted. 
Confined. Circumscribed. 


Bountiful. See Bounty. 

Bounty, n. Fr. honte. Lat. 
honitas, f/oodness. Conn. Boon, 
Bonus. Liberality, or its expres- 
sion ; a liberal gift. 

Stn. Liberality. B.iunteousness. Bene- 
volence. Munificence. Donation. Gift. 

Ant. lUiberality. Closeness. Hardness. 
Niggardliness. Stinginess. Churlishness. 

Brace, v. tr. From hrachium, 
an arm. Comp. Embrace. 

Syn. Tie. Fasten. Strap. Bind. Bandage. 

Ant. Unfasten. Untie. Loose. Unstrapi 
Unbind. Relax. 

Braces'G, adj. See Brace. 

Syn. Strengthening. Invigorating. Tonic. 
Ant. Enervating. Enfeebling. Weaken, 
ing. Relaxing. 

Brag, v. int. Old Eng., mean- 
ing brisk, or full of spu-its. To 
vaunt personal strength or prow- 
ess is natural to childish char 
racters in high sphits. 

Syn. Boast. Vaunt Swasger. Bully. 
Ant. Cringe. Whine. Whimper. 

Braggart. See Brag. 
Braid, v. fr. Sax. hrrdan. 

Syn. Bind. Tie. Weave. Plait. 
Ant. Unbind. Dishevel. 

Branch, n. Conn, with hra- 
chium,u)t ((rm of a tree. Involves 
the ideas of separation from the 
line of growth, and connection 
with tne parent stem. 

Syn. Member. Bifurcation. Ramifica- 
tion. Offshoot. Scion. Relative. 

Ant. Trunk. Stock. Stem. Race. 
Family. House. 

Brand, adj. From Saxon 
hrinuan. Comp. Eng. Burn. 
A torch, stick ; hence, by analogy, 
a flashing sword; thence, tlie 
mark of burning, especially foi 

Srx. Stigma. Disgrace. Mark. InTiniy 
Ant. Decoration. Badge. Distinction 

Brandish, v. tr. See BrasA 

Sifnonyms and Antonyms. 

To move about rapidly, as a 

Stw. I'lourisli. Fence. AVield. Wave. 
Whisk. Shake. Agitate. 

Ant. Stay. Arrest. Suspend. 

Brawl, r. and «. Old Eng. 
Conn, with Broil. 

Stn. AVrangle. Broil. Scold. Roar. 
Shout. Vociferate. 

Ant. to moan. Whisper. Softness. Jlel- 
lowness. ilelodiousness. Intonation. 

Brawny, adj. Old Fr. hraon, 
the flesh or mvscles. 

SvN. Jluscular. Powerful. Sirong. 
Athletic. Sinewy. Herculean. Stout. Ito- 

Akt. Lean. Weak. Fragile. Delicate. 
Effeminate. Feeble. 

Bray, v. tr. Old Fr. h-ayer, to 
pound. Of diiferent origin from 
bray as an ass. 

.sVn. Pound. Bruise. Beat. PuWerize. 
Ant. Compact. Compound. Amalga- 
mate. Conglomerate. 

Breach, n. Same as Break. 
A physical or social rupture or 
division. Used peculiarly of 
breaking the vow or promise. 

Stk. Ptupture. Gap. Divulsion. Quarrel. 
Viol.ition. Non-performance. 

Ant. Iniegrity. Conservation. Healing. 
Keconciliation. Jnviolateness. Fulfilment. 

Break, ?•. Sax. Irecan. Used 
of the forcible divulsion of hard 
material substances, and meta- 
phorically expresses the ideas of 
mastery and infringement. 

Stn. Fracture. Rupture. Shatter. .Shiver. 
Destroy. Tame. Curb. Subdue. Violate. 

Ant. Heal. Piece. Conjoin. Protect. 
Conserve. Kncourage. l'.ally. Observe, 

Breast, n. Sax. For meta- 
phorical use, see Bosom. 

Breath, n. Germ, hrodcn, 
steam, vapour. Comp. Broth. 

Syn. Respiration. Inspiration. E.\pir.i. 
tioii. Inhalation. E.xhalation. Met., Life. 

Ant. to latter. Ces.sation. Passing. De- 
parture. Perishing. Dying. Death. 

Breathe, v. See Breath. 


Breathlkss, adj. Deprived 
of breath by rajiid exertion, in- 
terest, astoni.shnient, or surprise. 

SvN. E.Nhausted. Eager. Absorbed. Fas- 
cinated. Attentive. Astounded. Bewil- 

Ant. Cool. Calm. Collected. Fresh. 
Une.xciied. Indifferent. Inattentive. Un- 

Breed, v. fr. Sax. 

Syn. Generate. Procreate. Engender. 
Proj)agate. Met. Produce. Evolve. Cause. 

Ant. Destrf)y. Eradicate. Extinguish, 
E.xtirpate. Stifle. 

Brevity, n. Lat. brevis, short. 
Not used commonly of physical 

Syn. Shortness. Closeness. Conciseness, 
Compendiousness. Pointedness. Abbrevia- 
tion. Abridgment. 

*Ant. Length. Protraction. Elongation. 
E.xtension. Prolixity. Diffusiveness. In- 
terminableness. Tediousness. 

Brew, v. tr. and inf. Sax. 
hreovan. To exjwse to the action 
of lieat. Used metaphorically. 

Syn. Concoct. Compound. Hatch. Mix. 
Piepare. Season. Impend. Threaten. In- 
crease. Collect. Form. Grow. Gather. 

Ant. Pass. Disperse. Break. filar 
Spoil. Jliscompound. 

Bridle, v. fr. To hold as with 
a bridle. Sax. hridd. 

Syn. Curb. Restrain. Govern. Control. 
Master. Jloderate. Compress. 

Ant. Loosen. Liberate. Relax. Dis- 
charge. Ven t. 

Brief. See Brevity. 
Bright, adj. Sax. Applied 
to nature, art, mind, and temper. 

Syn. Shining. Luminous. Lucid. Bril- 
liant. Burnished. Radiant. Sparkling 
Limpid. Met., Clever. Happy. AVitty 
Joyous. Cheerful. 

Akt. Opaque. Dull. Dead. Muddy 
Stupid. Slow. Sullen. Dejected. Cheerles» 
Joyless. Imbecile. 

Brilliant, adj. From the 
precious stone called the beryl. 
BriUiance is more powerful 
brightness. A tiling is bright, as 
reflecting light ; brilliant, as seem* 
ing to give forth light. 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


Sra. Sparkling. Flashing. Radiant. 
Shining. Lustrous. Glorious. Luminous. 
Effulgent Bt-amin?. 

AST. See Uright. 

Bring, v. tr Sax. Irinrian. 
Implies conveyance in the direc- 
tion of one's self or one's own 
mind as the point. 

Srx. Ketch. Procure. Adduce. Import. 
Cause. Produo^. Induce. 

Akt. Export. Remove. Abstract. Sul>- 
tract. Prevent. Exclude. Debar. Trans- 

Brisk, arf/. Celtic. Used only 
of visible effects, as, ' brisk move- 
ments,' ' a brisk fire.' 

Srs. Quick. Lively. Vivacious. Active. 
Alert. Nimble. Sprightly. Effervescent. 

Ant. Slow. Heavy. Dull. Inactive. 
Sluggish. Indolent. Unenergetic. Stagnant. 

Bristling, adj. From bristle. 
Sax. Conspicuously full. ] 

Sts. Stocked. Full. Multitudinous. 

Multifarious. Swarming. Crowded. 

^V>-T. Bare. Nude. Scant. Devoid. 

Broach, v. tr. See Abroach. 

StTf. Start. Moot. Launch. Originate. 
Suggest. Exhibit. Propound. 

Ajxt. Seal. Secrete. Reserve. Repress. 
Cork. Bottle. 

Broad, adj. Sax. (Met., com- 
prehensive and indelicate.) 

Stn. Wide. Extensive. Expansive. 
Ample. Liberal. Comprehensive. Unre- 
served. Indelicate. Coarse. Generic. 

AXT. Narrow. Restricted. Limitnl. 
Confined. Bigoted. Prejudiced. Illiberal. 
Narrow-minded. Reserved. Veileti. Shrouded. 
Shaded. Sketchy. Enigmatical. Refined. 
Delicate. Specific. Pointed. 

Broadcast, adj. Tlu-own a- 

Sts. Scattered. Dispersed. Profusely. 
Unsparingly. Indiscriminately. Injudi- 
ciously. Abroad. Extensively. 

.<V}rr. Collectedly. Cncentrativcly. 
Sparingly. Reservedly. Locally. Partially. 
Discreetly. Charily. 

Brook, v. tr. Sax. hrucan, to 
eat, enjoy, or digest. 

Stn-. Boar. Tolerate. Endure. Permit. 
Akt. Resist. Present, Reject. 

Bro\vbe.\.t, V. tr. Sax. bra;', 
the hroir. To beat down by the 
expression of the coimteuance. 

.Snr. Intimidate. Dully. Overcear 
Cow. Overawe. 

Ant. Encourage. Rally. Suppori. 

Bruise, v. tr. Old Fr. hruser 
to break. See Break and Bray. 

Brunt, n. Sax. brottt. Conn, 
with Bum. A hot raging vio- 

S\-x. Impulse. Attack. Onslanght. Ag- 

AsT. Resistance. Endurance, Repul- 

Brush, v. act. and neuter. Old 
Fr. hross>\ Conn, with Bristle. 1. 
The rapid motion of cleansing. 
2. Eapid motion in close proxi- 
mity, 3. Eapid motion in the 

Svx. Wipe. Cleanse. Sweep. Dust 
Scrub. Scrape. Graze. Touch. Jostle. 
Scud. Stir. Scamper. Hasten. Bolt 
I AST. Befoul. Begrime. SoiL Avoid. 
Gear. Recede. Dawdle. Lag. 

Brutal, «(//. Bndum. Having 
any of the qualities or the cha- 
racter of a brute or brutes. 

Srx. Savage. Inhuman. Rude. Stolid. 
Ignorant. Dense. Cruel. "Violent. \in- 
dictive. Bloodthirsty. Intemperate. 

AxT. Humane. Civilized. Generous 
Intelligent. Polished. Chivalrous. Con- 
scientious. Self-controlled 

Bubble, n. Germ, poppeln, to 
bnhhle. Used metaphorically for 
almost anvthing wantmg solidity. 

Snr. Trifle. Toy. Conceit Fancy. 
Vision. Dream. Froth. Trash. 

Akt. Acquisition. Prize. Treasure. 
Pvcality. Substance. Verity JeweL Good. 

Buffoon, «. It. huff a, joke. 

Srs. AVag. Clown. Jester. 

The characteristic quality of 
the buffoon is, that he makes 
himself a fool for the arausoment 
of others ; that his jokes dejwnd 
not so much on wit as on tricks, 
ju-anks, ix)stm-es, and external 

Ant. Wit. Genius. Philosopher. Pe- 
dant Visionary Dissembler HypocrU*. 
Kuthusiasl. I'rig. 

Synomjms and Antonyms. 

EuiLDiNG, V. Build. Old 
Eui;. bohh; buUiUrifi. 

Syn. f^ditice. Arcliitccture. Construc- 
tion. Stniclure. Kiecliun. Fabric. 

Ant. Kuin. Dilapidation. Dismantle- 
Kent. Demolition. 

BriLDEK. See Buildiug. 

Bulk, n. Northern word, 
meaning swell ing. Taken to ex- 
press the quantity of space occu- 
pied by a substance, or its quality 
of entirencss. Sometimes, how- 
ever, used like mass, as equi- 
valent to the greater jiart. 

Syn. Mass. 'Whole. Entirely. Integrity. 
Majority. Size. Magnitude. Body. K.\- 

Ant. Tenuity. Minority. DismeniVwr- 
ment Disintegration. Diminution. Tor- 
tlon. Contraction. Section. Particle. Atom. 

Bulky, culj. See Bulk. 

Stn. Huge. Unwieldy. Heavy. ],argp. 
Ample. Ponderous. Gigantic. Burly. 
Brawny. Cumbrous. Massive. 

Ant. Small. Light. Slight. Airy. De- 
licate. Nimble. 'I'liin. Attenuated. Sylph- 
like. Slender. Puny. Tiny. 

Bully, n. Der. uncertain. 
Variously derived from Burly, 
Boil, and the assumed arrogance 
of popes' bulls. .SVe Blusterer. 

Bungler, i>. From Bungle. 
Der. quite unknown. 

Stn. Botcher. Clown. Fumbler. Lubber. 

Ant. Adept. Adroit, blaster. Artist. 
Workman. Proficient. Prolessor. 

Buoy, v. tr. Low Lat. hoja. A 
log or clog of wood bound with 
metal. Used metaphorically. 

SvN. Float. Support. Sustain. Klevate. 

Elate. Assure. Animate. Cheer. Inspire. 

Ant. Sink. Drown. Depress. Swamp. 

Overcome. Deject. Crush. Fail. Betray. 

Buoyant, adj. See Buoy. 

Syn. Light, i'loating. Hopeful. Cheer- 
ful. Elastic. Joyous. 

Ant. Heavy. Depressed. Cheerless. 
Jojless. Dejected. Moody. Desponding. 

Burden, n. Northern word, 
with the root Bear. Anytliing 
borne, being weighty. Physically 
or metaphorically, or the effect 


of it, as, labour, difficulty, or 

Syk. Load. Weight. Incubus. Obstruc- 
tion. Oppression. Difficulty. Grief. Afflic- 

Akt. Ease. Lightness. Airiness. Fa- 
cility. Expedition. Acceleration. Abjuga- 
tion. Liberation. Light-heartedness. Cod- 
solalion. Alleviation. Assuagement. Miti- 
gation. Disburdenment. 

Burke, v. From an Irish 
murderer, who suffocated liis 
victims with pitch plaster ; hence, 
to remove with as little noiso 
and violence as possible. 

Syn. stifle. Shelve. Strangle, Smother. 

Ant. Enucleate. Propound. Pronmlge. 
Piiblicate. Promote. Foster. Eliminate. 
Ventilate. Reanimate. Suscitate. Bruit. 

BuRLrsQUE, n. and adj. It. 
and Sp. hurla, mockery. The 
word is restricted by usage to 
the ludicrous exhibition of matter 
which is in itself not of that cha- 
racter. It is s5^lonJ^nous with 
Satire, only so far as that it is in 
itself satirical ; not that it has 
the object of satire— to ridicule 
persons or vices. It is generally 

Syn. Parody. Satire. Travesty. Cari- 
cature. Grotesque. 

Ant. to adj. Classic. Pure. Severe 
Tragic. Historic. Grave. Truthful. 

Burly, adj. Der. uncertain. 
Boila, a tassel, in Span. Thick. 
See Bulky. 

Burn, v. Sax. hrennan, to hum. 
Act. and neut. Used in the neut. 
metaph., to be under the influ- 
ence of desire. 

Syn. Ignite. ICindle. Brand. Cauterize. 
Consume. lUige. Glow. Blaze. Flash 

Ant. Extinguish. Stifle. Subside. Cool. 
Glimmer. Lower. Wane. Pale. 

Burnish, v. tr. Fr. hrunir. 
Sax. hrun, hroion. It seems liai'd 
to coimect the ideas of brownness 
and brightness. Probably; how- 
ever, the metals at the first bum- 


Sijuouf/ms and Antonyms. 

iflliod wtirc the less precious. So 
a bar of ii-on would be burnislied ; 
but tlie more attractive idea of 
?3uniisluug gold has given to th6 
term a hghter histre than what 
originally belonged to it. 

.SlW. Polish. Brighten. Glaze. GIozp. 
Ant. Scratch. DulL Abrade. Bedim. 
Cloud. Frost. Matt. 

Burst. ?\ int. Sax. lerstan. 
Act. and nent. 

Stn. Displode. E.^ctravasate. Discharge. 
Shiver. Shatter. Explode. 
Ant. Hold. Cohere. Stand. 

Burst, n. Ste v. 

Bury, v. fr. Sax. Conn, with 
Biu-row. Used often in a meta- 
phorical sense. 

Srx. Inter. Inhume. Conceal. Repress. 
Suppress. Obliterate. Cancel. Compose. 

Ant. Disinter. Exhume. Bruit. Ex- 
pose. Resuscitate. Publicate. Aggravate. 

Business, «. Germ, hesifj, husy. 
1 , That about which one is busy. 
2 That which has been brought 
ftbout by any means. 

Stn. Occupation. Profession. Trade. 
Oalling Office. Employment. Interest. 
Duty. Affair. Matter. Concern. 

Ant. Stagnation. Leisure. Inactivity. 

Bustle, v. Der. uncertain; 
but probably same as Busy, of 
%vhich it expresses the weak side. 
It expresses the condition of per- 
sons and places, that is, persons 

Syn. Business. Stir. Activity. Com- 
motoD. Energy. Excitement. Haste. 
Hurry. Eagerness. Flurry. 

Ant. Idleness. Vacation. Inactivity. 
Indolence. Indifference. Unconcern edness. 
Coolness. Calm. Stagnation. Quiet. De- 

But, adv. and prep. Sax. hitan, 
to be without. So, about, on the 
outer side; hence, the force of 
But is limitation or exception. 
* None but he ' would mean none 
put him out or except him. 

Sin. Save. Except. D;irrir.g. Heaiie. 
Yet. Excluding. 

Ant. With. Includivjc. Tnclusi'^e. Not- 
■withstanding. Nevertheless. However. 

Buxom, o///. Genn. bicgsam, 
compUditt. The other ideas at- 
tached to the word, hence, are 
accretive, such as— 

Si-N. Bonny. Blithe. Shapely, &c., for 
which see Bonny. 

Buy, v. tr. Sax. To procure 
anything for money, not only 
materials but indirect advan- 

SrN. Purchase. Bribe. Subsidize. Suborn. 

The three latter are applied to 
persons, not possessions. 

Ant. Sell. Vend. Hawk. KeLii!. 

Buyer, n. See Buv. 


Cabal, n. Fr. cahale. Heb. 
guhbala, mystic tradition. 

A cabal, as the word is com- 
monly Ui3ed, is a company united 
in a close design. The Hebrew- 
element of handing down the 
traditions of the association being 
lost sight of. By a quaint co- 
incidence, in 1671, the initial 
letters of the British cabinet 
ministers formed the word cabal. 

Stn. Confi (ieracy. Conspir.icy. Combi- 
nation. Coterie. Gang. Faction. League. 
Conclave. Clique, 

Ant. Parliament. Legislation. Govern- 
ment. Empire. Council. Synod. 

Cabalistic, adj. See Cabal. 
In this word there is no political 
tinge, but only that of mystic 

Syn. Mystic. Symbolical. Fanciful 

Ant. P.itent. Practical. Instructive. 
Lucid. Simple. 

Cabbage, v. tr. Old Fr. cJiohj: 
cnbiis. Headed cole, from caput. 
Comp. the heraldic term, Ca- 
boshed, beheaded. 

iSrjnonyms and Antonyms. 

To ciilibago is to filch, as 
tailors are said to snij) cloth to 
tlieir owni advantage. The idra 
seems to be that of snipping oti'. 
But comp. Du. kubassen. 

Sra. Rob. Steal. Filch. Puclcet. Shirk. 
Crib. Pillage. Abstract. Pilfer. Puiluiii. 
AST. See Purloin. 

Cachinnation. v. Cachinnarp. 
A monkey's grin ; the lowest as- 
pect of laughter. 

Syx. Grin. Chuclile. Giggle. Snigger. 
Titter. Cackle. 

AxT. l.oni;-facedness. A\'bine. AVliiuiper. 

Cackle, n. A term formed 
in imitation of the noise of a hen, 
and bearing the twofold sense 
of laiighter and tale-bearing — 
pointing the moral that slander 
commonly comes of silliness. 
*SVe Cachinnatiou, and Blab, Bab- 
bler, Babble. 

Cadaverous, arlj. Cadaver, a 
c(yi-pse, from cado, J fall. Like a 

Snf. Pale. Exsangtiineous. Bloodless. 
Hueless. Pallid. Ashy. Ghastly. 

AxT. Rosy. Incarnadine. Sanguine. 
Chubby. Branny. 

Caducity, w. Caducus, given 
iofalUriq. (JwJo, I fall. 

Stn. Decline. Infirmiiy. Decrepitude. ' 
Senility. Decadence. Transience. Delicacy, i 

Ant. Vouih. Frcslin.-ss. Vigour. Vi- 
tality. Renovation. Permanence. 

Cage, v. tr. Norm. cage. 

Stn. Jmprison. Immure. Incarcerate. 
Confine. Cabin. Crib. 

AxT. Liberate. Free. Dismiss. Unbar_ 

Caitiff, n. Captivus. It. cat- 
tivo, had. As if servitude and op- j 
pression tended, as they certainly I 
do, to the moral deterioration of 

Snr. Rascal. Miscreant. Rogue. CTinrl. 
Villain. Ruffian. 

A>'r. Worthy. Gentleman. Philanthro- 
pist. Patriot. 

Cajole, v. tr. Fr. cajoler. To 
flatter, from Norman cage. Either 
to allure into a cage, and so to 

entrap; or to keep up a chatter- 
ing, wheedling talk, like a bird 
in a cage. 

Sts. Tempt. Lure. Wheedle. Coax. 
I Flatter. Inveigle. Dupe. 
I Akt. Chide. liate. Scold. Warn. 

I Calamitous, Calamity. Cala- 
mus, a stalk. A blasting orblight- 

' ing influence on the grain. An 
influence of ill personally or col- 
lectively. Adj. and n. DoubtfuL 

SvN. Disaster. Misfortune. Misadvai- 
ture. Trouble. Visitation. Affliction. Re- 
vei-se. Blight. 

Ant. Blessing. Boon. God-send. 

Syn. to Calamitous, adj. Disastrous. Un- 
fortrmate. Troublous. Ill-starred. Inaus- 
picious. Ill-omened. 

Ant. Felicitous. Fortunate. Auspicious. 
Favourable. Propitious. Advantageous. 

Calculate, v. tr. Calx, cal- 
culus. A pebble used in primi- 
tive apparatus for coimting. 

Stn. Consider. Estimate. Weigli. Ap- 
portion. Proportion. Investigate. Reckon. 

Ant. Conjecture. Guess. Hit. Chance. 
Risk. Stake. Miscalculate. 

Calculated, adj. See Calcu- 

Stn. Fitted. Adapted. Congenial. Con- 

Ant. Unfitted. Unadapted. IJncon- 
genial. Unconducive. Adverse. Unquali- 
fied. Un»uited. Miscalculated. Ill-adapted. 

Calculating, adj. See Calcu- 

Syn. Wary. Cautious. Circumspect. Sa- 
gacious. Farsighted. Caretnl. Guarded. 

Ant. Shortsighted. Dull Obtuse. Im- 
provident. Incautious. Rash. Careless. 

Calculation. See Calculate. 
The fact and the quality. 

Syn. Consideration. Estimation. Balance. 
Apportionment, investigation. Reckoning. 
Computation. Anticipation. Caution. Care. 

Ant. Incoiisiderateness. Inconsideration. 
Incaution. Indi.-icretion. Miscalculation. 
Misconception. Exclusion. Omission. Se- 
position. E.xccpiion. Carelessness 

Calibre,?/. Said to be 7 ''^? libra. 
With what weight of ball; or, 
possibly, a corruption of equi- 
iibrium, that is, proportion of 


Synonyms and Antonyms, 

bore to ball. The extent or force 
of mind. Derivation doubtful 

Stn. Gauge. Diameter. Capacity. 
Ability. Force. Strength. Power. 

Ant. Its correlative, as, character, mind, 

Calm, v. tr. It. and Span. 
cahna. Possibly connected ^vitli 
Gr. Kavfia, heat. The heat of the 
day ; a dead calm. 

Syn. Smooth. Pacify. Allay. Com- 
pose. Still. 

Ant. Stir. Agitate. Excite. Lash. 
Baffle. Heat. Discompose. Disconcert. 

Calumniator, n. Lat. cahtm- 

Stn. See Backbiter. 

Calumny, n. See above. 

Stn. Slander. Defamation. Detraction. 
Libel. Traducement. 

Ant. Vindication. Clearance. Eulogy. 

Cancel, v. tr. CancelU, bars 
or grating. Comp. Chancel, a 
railed portion of a church ; Chan 
cellor, the judge within the rails. 
To obliterate a document by lines 
crossing and recrossing, like a 
grating. The annulling of a 
deedj obligation, or circumstance. 

Stn. Obliterate. Erase. Abolish. Coun- 
tervail. Discharge. 

Ant. Enforce. Enact. Re-enact. Cou. 
firm. Perpetuate. Contract. 

Candid, adj. Candidm. Of a 
shining, as distinct from a dead 
whiteness. Of transparent dis- 
position, from mndere, to hum. 
Comp. Candle. Used metaphori- 
cally of transparency of disposi- 

Stn. Fair. Honest. Open. Transparent. 
Unreserved. Ingenious. Sincere. 

Ant. Unfair. Close. Jlysterious. Re- 
eerved. Shuffling. Disingenuous. Insln- 
sere. Jesuitical. 

Candipate, 11. Candldata toga, 
tho robe of a more shining white, 
worn by those who sought offices 
in ancient Kome. 

Sth. Aspirant. Canvasser. Applicant. 
Pttltioner. Solicitor. Claimant. 

I Airr. Waiver. Decliner. Abandoxict 
Resigner. Abjurer. Noncompetitor. 

Candour, n. See Candid. 

Canon, n. Gr. A hollow 
cane, used as a rule or measure. 
The qualities of length and hol- 
lo-miess survived in the word 
cannon, wliich is the same word. 
(Technically, in the Church, a 

Syn. Kiile. Measure. Test. Lav?. Re- 

Ant. .Misguidance. Antinomy. Irregu- 
larity. Misrule. 

Canvass, v. tr. Cannabis, 

This, made into coarse cloth, 
would be the material of shij^s' 
sails or the painter's canvas. The 
same kind of cloth might bo 
used as a strainer ; hence, to can- 
vass would literally be to strain 
off minute particles of sediment ; 
or, metaphorically, to insjject de- 
tails, as, of a statement. After- 
wards, a careful application to 
every individual of a constitu- 
ency for his votes, in order to be 
returned to office. 

SvN. Question. Investigate. Challenge. 
Test. Dispute. Solicit. 

Ant. Pretermit. Allow. Ignore. Dis- 
regard. Admit. Pass. Misexamine. Mis- 

Cap.\bility, n. Capio, I take 

or hold. 

Capability is, strictly speaking, 
undeveloped capacity, and bears 
reference to matters of action, as 
capacity to matters of mind and 

Syn. Cleverness. Aptitude. Talent. Ca- 
pacity. Power. Facility. Faculty. 

Ant. Dulness. Inaptitude. Awkward- 
ness. Difficulty. 

Capacity, n. Capax, capcrc. 
The jiower of holding, grasping, 
or comprehending. /SVc Capa- 
bility. It is technically ased for 
character or part. 

tSy.ionyms and Antonyms. 

Sr». J/^mcK. Size. Volume. Tonnage. 
Calibre. Comprehensiveness. Accommoda- 

Ant. Narrowness. Restriction. Incapa- 
city. Coarctation. Contractedness. 

Capacious, a<lj. See Capacity. 

SvN. Spacious. Voluminous. Compre- 
hensive. Ample. Accommodative. Ksten- 
sive. Wide. 

Ant. Narrow. Restricted. Limited. 
■Com fined. Shallow. Contracted, Petty. 

Capital, ad/. Caput, the head. 

Stn. Chief. Excellent. Important Car- 
♦linal. PrincipaL Consummate. High. 

Ant. Inferior. Unimportant. Subordi- 
iiate. Minor. Defective. Mean. 

Capitulate, v. in t. Capu t, ca- 
pifalare. A heading, chapter, or 
olaiise, especially the conditions 
of a treaty of siu-render. 

.Sin. Stipulate. Surrender. Yield. Sub- 

Akt. Resist. Struggle. Contend. 

Caprice, ??. See Capricious. 

Capricious, adj. Caper, a goat. 
Like the friskiness or wantonness 
of a goat. 

^ Syn. Wayward. Uncertain. Changeful. 
AVhimsical. Humorsome. Crotchety. 

Ficl{le. Inconstant. 

Ant. Firm. Unchanf;in?;. Inflexible. 
Decided. Unswerving. Constant. 

Captious, adj. Capture, capere, 
:<> catch. Given to catching at 
•defects or objections. 

Stn. Carping. Cavilling. Censorious. 

Ant. Appreciative. Commendatory. En- 
couraging. Complimentary. Approving. 
Laudatorj'. Flattering. 

Captivated, part. See above. 

Sin. Taken. Charmed. Smitten. Fas- 
cinated. Enslaved. Captured. Enthralled. 

Ant. Free. Unaffected. Uninfluenced. 
Unscathed. Insensible. Insensitive. 

Captivating, adj. See above. 

Stn. Charming. Fascinating. Bewitch- 
ing. Alluring. Seductive. Attractive. 

Ant. Hideous. Loathsome. Repulsive. 
Uncaptivating. Uninteresting. 

Cardinal, adj. Cardo, a hinqe. 
Important enough to be that on 
which a thing turns or hinges. I 
Aj8 important as the hinge to the ' 


door by which it stands and 
moves; hence, chief, important. 
'S'ee Capital. 

Care, n. Cura, care. Is used 
of attentive anxiety of mind, and 
also the exhibition of it, as. cau- 
tion or custody. 

Stk. Attention. Pains. Anxiety. Soli- 
citude. Caution. Prevention. Custody. 
Preservation. Thrift. Foresight. Wariness. 
Prudence. Economy. Heed. 

Akt. Inattention. Neglect. Indifference, 
Carelessness. Disregard. Temerity. Re- 
missness. Improvidence. Unguardedness 

Career, n. Carrus, a waggon 
or cart. Comp. Cart, Carry, Car- 
riage, Charge. Cargo, &c. A 
road. A way of progress or suc- 
cess in life. 

Syn. Course. Success. Walk. Line. 

Ant. Misproceeding. Unsuccess. Mis- 
deportment. Miscarriage. 

Careful, adj. See Care. ' 

Careless, adj. See Care. 

Caress, n. Caritia, endear- 
metit, from cams, dear. 

Stn. Endearment. Blandishment. Strok- 
ing. AVTieedling. Fondling. 

Ant. Vexation. Irritation. Annoyance 
Teasing. Persecution. Provocation. 

Cargo. See Career. 

Sn«. Freight. Burden. Load. Con- 
Ant. Conveyance. Bearer. Carrier. 

Caricature, n. Carrus. See 
Career. Carkare, to carry abottt. 
Either, therefore, absurd charac- 
ters gouig about in carts, as at 
fau-s, or an overcharged, over- 
loaded description or delineation. 
It is used broadly of all exag- 
gerated or ludicrous descriptions. 

Stn. Mimicry. Travesty. Parody. Bur- 
lesque. Extravagance. Exaggeration. Hy- 
perbole. Monstrosity. 

Ant. Portraiture. Representation. Re- 
" ■ Fidelity. ~ 




Cabnage, n. See Carnal A 
mass of massacred remains. 


Sijnomjms and Antonyim. 


Syn. Massacre. SVaughter. Bloodshed. | 

Ant. Ransom. Deliverance. Quarter. 

Carnal, wlj. Caro, carnis, 


Stn Fleshly. SensuaL Licentious. 
St-lf-indulgent. Animal. Base. Coarse. 

Ant. Spiritual. Etliereal. Pure^ Self- 
controlled. Temperate. Exalted. Refined. 

Carnival, ti . Came vale, fare- 
well to the flesh. The last days 
of festivity before licnt : used of 
rollicking festivities in general. 

Syn. Revel. Route. Masquerade. Fes- 

'^'ant. Fast Mortification. Retirement. 

Carol, v. int. Low Lat., 
Carola. Formed, perhaps, from 
chorus ; originally a combmation 
of song and dance; afterwards, 
song of more than one without 
the dancing ; lastly, the cheerful 
notes of a solitary singer. 

Stn Sing. Warble. Chirp. ^Vhistle. 
Chirrup. Chant. Hum. 

Ant. Whine. Croak. Cry. Dirge. 

Carouse, 5?. Old Yv. Carousse. 

Stn. FestiTity. Feast. Banquet. Revel. 

Ant. Fast. Starvation. Maceration. 

Carp, v. int. Carpere, to plurlc 
or pick. To pick holes, more 
especially in statements of others, 
and for the sake of fault-finding. 
As a transitive verb it is followed 
b\' the preposition at. 

Stn Cavil. Censure. Cliallenge. Over- 
haul. Canvass. Hypercriticise. Catch. 
Object. . . ., ^ 

Ant Allow. Concede. Admit. Com- 
pliment. Encourage. Approve. Applaud. 
Kiidorse. Acquiesce. Assent. 

Carpet, n. Said to be from 
tapis andcaire ovcairo, as we say 
a Turkey carpet. Of old, the 
Avord was used for a covering of 
the table as well as the floor; 
hence to be on the tapis, or car- 
pet, was to be not ou the floor, 

but the table, as matter of con- 

Stn. Board. Table. Congidcratioa. 

Ant. Shelf. Rejection. Disposal. 01^ 

Carriage, n. Carrus. &-e 
Caricature. Has not only the 
direct active physical sense of 
transportation, as well as the 
neuter sense of movement or 
bearing, but the moral and re- 
flexive sense of demeanour or 
conduct. It is also used of the 
thing on which we carry. 

Stn. Transportation. Conveyance. Bear- 
in-' Manner. Conduct. Demeanour. 

°Ant. Jtisconveyance. Miscarriage. Mis- 
conduct. Misconsignment. 

Case, n. The multiplicity of 
meanings belonging to this word 
springs partly from its broad 
and generic character, but partly 
also from the fact that it is in- 
deed two words in one, being 
derived in one sense from casus, 
a b 'falling, from cadere, to falL 
and" in others from capsa, a chest 
or box. For instance, the medical 
man uses one word when he 
speaks of a case of fever, the 
other, when he speaks of his 
case of instruments. Both words 
have suggested metaphorical 
meanings. Such are the fol- 
lowing. „ . 

SYN.'Occurrence. Circumstance, tact. 

Subject. Condition. Insiauce 

AST. Hypothesis. Supposition. Theory. 
Fancy. Conjecture. 

Cast, v. Of Northern origin. 
The root idea is, to throw. The 
kind or direction of throwing 
determines the character ot the 
metaphor. ^ „ 

Stn So, to throw down, as the wrestler ; 
aside to reject; into condemnation, as a 
U vsuit; before the mind's eye, so to pr<^ea 
or forecast, abroad, and so spread; into 
8hu.f and 80 mould, 6 amp. or charactpnic 

Ant. lUibo. Elcv. ,te. Recover. Lrcct 

Sijnomjms and Antonyms. 

Accept. Approve. Retain. Carry. Ignore. 
Miscalculate. AlisproTide. Break. Dissi- 
pate. Dismember. Dislocate. 

Cast, n. 

Stn. Mould. Stamp. Kind. Character. 
Ant. Malformation. Deformity. Ab- 

Caste, n. Castus, pure. Pure 
or unmixed lineage, as the here- 
ditary castes of India. As the 
Indian term is colour, the sense 
of colour has imperceptibly at- 
tached itself to the word caste. 
It is taken to signify the class of 
the reputable and honoured. 

Stn. Class. Order. Rank. Lineage. 
Race. Blood. Dignity. Respect. 

Ant. Degradation. Taboo. Disrepute. 
Abasement. Reproach. 

Castigate, v. tr. Castus, pure. 
To purify or correct by personal 
discipline or punishment. 

Stn. \Vhip. Flagellate. Cane. 

Ant. Reward. Kncourage. Decorate. 


Casual, adj. Casus, a lefull- 
ing. Cadere, to fall. 

Stn. Accidental. Occasional. Incidental. 
Fortuitous. Contingent. 

Ajnt. Regular. Ordinary. Systematic. 
Periodic. Certain. Fixed. -See Casualty. 

Casualty, n. See Casual. 
Chance or Liability, with a leaning 
to the unfavourable. 

Stn. Accident. Contingency. Chance. 
Mischance. See Accident. 

Ant. Appointment. Assignment. Pro- 
vision. Ordinance. Enactment, 

Casuistry, n. See Casual. 
The science of treating cases of 

As tliis is popularly considered 
to result in unnecessary and un- 
edifying refinements, the term 
has acquired the popular accepta- 
tion of straw-splitting. 

Stn. Sophistry. Jesuitry. Fallacy. 
Refiuement. Quibble. Straw-splitting. 

A.-JT. Reason. Conscience. Common- 

C/.TASTROPHE, n. Kara, and 
aTpo<f>r], a turn. A sudden down- 


ward or unfavourable turn of 

Stn. Revolution. Disaster. Calamity 
Misfortune. Misadventure. Reverse, Blovr 

Ant. Blessing. Victory. Triumph 
Achievement. Fellcitetion. Ovation. Suc- 
cess. Godsend. 

Catch, v. tr. See Captious. 
Physical and mental. 

Stn. Take. Siege. Arrest. Compre 
hend. Hit. Overtake. Apprehend. 

Ant. Lose. Miss. Misapprehend. 

Catechism, n. Kara, and ^'xos, 
sound. Oral instruction or ex- 
amination by question and an- 
swer. Hence a collection of 
items of belief or persuasion. 

Stn. Erotetics. Socralics. Interrogation. 
Creed. System. Compendium. 

Ant. Reading. Excogitation. Kla- 
boration. , 

Catechumen, n. See Cate- 
chism. One under process of 
preparatory instruction. 

Stn. Tyro. Learner. Pupil. Novice. 


Ant. Master. 
Teacher. Savant. 

Doctor. Professor. 

Categorical, adj. Kara, and 
ayopday, I state. Appertaining to 
directness of statement. 

Stn. Plain. Positive. Declaratory. 
Demonstrative, ABirmative. Distinct. 

Ant. Obscure. Uncertain. Dubious. 
Contingent. Hypothetical. Ambiguous 
Oracular. Enigmatical. Mystical. Hazy. 

Category,/?, ^-p Categorical. 
Used in its Aristotelian sense of 
abstract classification, and thence 
of classification generally. 

Stn. State. Kind. Condition. Nature 
Order. Sort. Class. Predicament. Mixie 
Ant. Essence. Truth. Being. 

Causality, n. Giusa, a causr. 
The property of producing effects, 
sometimes used of the faculty ot 
tracing them. 

Stn. "Eventuality. Potentiality. Effer- 
tuality. Productiveness. Operativentes 

Ant. Prevent! veness. ObBtructivenws 
Retardativcncss. Counteractivity. Unm*/- 

V 2 


diictiveness. Ineffeciiveness. Barrenness, 

Causation, v. See Causality. 

Causation is tlie process, as 
causability is the property, of 
producing eflfects. 

Cause, n. Caum. That by 
force or reason of which some- 
thing else is brought about. 
Aristotle's causes were efficient, 
final, material, and formal, nearly 
answering to the agent, or origin, 
the purpose, the logical definition, 
and the creation. Of these, only 
the first was a cause, in the mo- 
dern sense ; the rest were scien- 
tific views and philosophical ac- 
counts and modes of conception. 
It is popularly used in the sense 
of a common pui-pose which men 
have at heart. 

Stn. Source. Origin. Agent. Producer. 
Creator. Purpose. Inducement. Reason. 
Account. Principle. Motive. 

Ant. Effect. Result. Acconiplisbment. 
Kn.i. Production. Issue. Preventive. 

Caustic, rtf//. Kal(o,fut, Kava-o), 
1 hum. Used physically and 
metaphorically of style, of re- 
mark, or expression. 

Syn. Burning. Mordant. Pungent 
Irritating. Biting. 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


Pointed. Sarcastic, 
rrenchant. Severe. 

Ant. Pointless. Mild. Soothing. Con- 
ciliating. Vapid. Flat. Tame. 

Caution, n. Cavere, toheware. 
Prudential foresight. 

Stn. See Care and Calculation. 

Cavil, v. int. Cavum, a hoVom ; 
cavdlum, a little hole. The pick- 
ing holes needlessly— the making 
empty and hollow criticism. tSee 

Caviller. See Cavil. 

Celebration, n. Ceh-b:'r,fre- 
'/uent. The frequent or periodic 
keeping up of the pubhc or do- 
mestic remembrance of events 

or persons, by ceremonss ; after- 
wards admitting of this without 
the idea of repetition. 

Syn. Commemoration. Solemnizatiiai. 

Ant. Oblivion. Inobservance. Desuetude. 

Celebrated, adj. See Cele- 

Syn. Famed. Renowned. Dlustrious. 
Famous. Noted. Distinguished. Notable. 

Ant. Unrenowned. Obscure. Undis- 
tinguished. Unknovpn. Mean. Disgraced. 

Celebrity, n. See above. 
The quality of being celebrated. 
Also sometimes signifying an 
illustrious person. 

Stn. t'ame. Honour. Glory. P^eputa- 
tioii. Distinction. Renown. Star. Nota- 

Ant. Obscurity. Meanness. Inglorious- 
tipss. Ignominy. Disgrace. Contempt. 
Cipher. Nobody. 

Celerity, n. C'eler, quick. 

Syn. Rapidity. Velocity. Speed. .T)e- 
spatch. Haste. 

Ant. Slowness. Inertness. Sluggish- 
ness. Tardiness. Cumbrousness. 

Celestial, adj. Calum. Be- 
longing to the heavens, or heaven; 
that is, either the visible or spi- 
ritual heaven. 

Syn. Heavenly. Atmospheric. Ethereal 

Supernal. Angelic. Radiant. Eternal. 

Ant. Earthly. Terrestrial. Terrene. 

Sublunary. Human. Mortal. Hellish. 

Cement, ?!. and v. Vv. Cement, 
dedimentum. Caidere, to cut or 
chip, because made of chips of 
stone or marble In-uised. Meta- 
phorically used for unitive or 
consolidating power. 

Syn. To v. Bind. Bond. Unite. Per- 

integrate. Divorce. 

Censorious, adj. Censeo, I 
esfimntr. Censor, the ancient 
Eoman state-officer of morals. 
Its present acceptation unplies 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 

being somewliat xmduly given 
to criticism, and especially ex- 
pression of blame towards indi- 
viduals. Sec Cavil and Carp. 

Censure, n. See Censorious. 
The expression of opinion about 
others, partly from their fault 
and partly from our own, is most 
likely to turn to blame. Hence, 

Stn. Blame. Stricture. Disapproval. 

Remonstrance. Rebuke. Keprimand. 

Ant. Praise. Eulogy. Approbation. 

Encouragement. Commendation. 

Central, adj. Gr. Kivrpov, 
aprick, thorn, a sharppoiuf. The 
point round which the circle is 
drawn. Used of localities near 
the centre of a district, and so, 
generally accessible. 

Stn. Mediate. Accessible. Convenient. 
Akt. Remote. Inaccessible. Inconvenient. 

tral. To dra 

Stn. Concentrate. Localize. Fix. Col- 

Ant. Disperse. Disseminate. Distribute. 
Apportion. Divide. Delocalize. 

Ceremonial, adj. Appertain- 
ing to ceremony. Also used as 
a noun for a ceremony regarded 
more in detail. A public and 
IDrolonged ceremony. 

Stn. Official. Ministerial. Functional. 
Pompous. Imposing. Sumptuous. Scenic. 

Amt. Ordinary. Private. Unimposing. 
Unostentatious. Undramatic. 

Ceremonious, adj. Unduly 
given to form and ceremony. 
The noun is derived from Care, 
a city of ancient Etruria, from 
which country Eome derived its 
ancient religious ceremonies, 
offices, forms of state, and the 

Stk. Punctilious. Formal. 
,», •^•, Brusque. Blunt. Supercilious. 
eiuff. Unceremonious. 

tr. See Cen- 
to a point or 


Certain, adj. Ortus, orig. 
part., from t'erno, I discrn. 

The original idea, therefore, 
is that sureness which is assur- 
ance. Ti-uth, not in the abstract, 
but as ascertained or verified, 
now used to indicate absolute 
certainty, irrespective, that is, of 
om-selves. It is not confined to 
present or past facts, but relates 
to the future when regarded 
as being as sure as if it were 
present. Thus, 'the rising of 
to-morrow's sun is certain.' It 
has also an apparently and sepa- 
rate force, as in the phrase ' a 
certain man.' The meaning here 
seems to be an assiu-ance on the 
part of the narrator, that such a 
man is or was implying that this, 
without detail of name or de- 
scription, is sufficient for the 
purposes of the story. 

Stn. True. Fi.xed. Established. Regu- 
lar. Incontrovertible. Undoubtful. Un- 
deniable. Positive. Convinced. Assured. 

Ant. Uncertain. Dubious. Exceptional. Casual. Occasional. Question- 
Uncertain. Vacillaiiiig. 

Certainly, adv. See Certain 

Stn. Surely. Positively. Unquestion- 

Ant. Possibly. Probably. Perhaps. 
Contingently. Occasionally. Doubtfully. 

Certainty, «. See Certain. 
Is used objectively and subjec- 
tively, that is, of fixity of facts, 
and of confidence in the observer 
or speaker. 

Stn. Assurance. Demonstrableness. Pisi- 
tiveness. Unquestionablenes*. Confidence. 

Ant. Precariousncsa. 

Casualty. Vicissitude. Uncertainty. Ir- 
regularity. Hesitiition. Doubt. Misgiving 
Conjecture. Indecision. 

Certity, V. tr. See above. 
To declare or prove certain, is 
used of things and of persons in 


Si/iionynis and Antonyms. 

tho sense of convince or 

Stn. Acknowledge. Avor. Avow. 
Avouch. Testify. Protest. Declare. De- 
moDSlrate. Prove, Evidence. Infoiin. 

Akt. Disprove. Disavow. Misinform. 

Cessation, n. Cessare, from 
r.cdcre, to cease. 

Sth. Stopping. Halt. Discontinuance, 
yuiescence. Suspension. Intermission. 
Abeyance. Pause. Rest. 

Ant. Continuance. Uninterruptcdness. 
Un intermission. Incessancy. 

Cession, n. Cedere, to grant. 

SvN. Concession. Yielding. Snrrender 
Abandonment. Relinquishment. Grant. 

Ant. Retention. Claimance. Mainte- 
nance. Appropriation. Usurpation. Vin- 
dication. Assumption. 

Chafe, v. tr. and int. Cahfa- 
cere, to mnhe hot. 

Syn. Gall. Vex. Irritate. Chagrin. 
Tease. Harass. Disappoint. Grieve. 
Annoy. Worry, n. Calcitrate. Resent, 
Resist. Fret. Fidget. Writhe. 

Ant. Soothe. Smooth. Coax. Calm. 
Humour. Console, v. Submit. Endure. 
Crouch. Truclcle. Succumb. 

Chaff, «. and v. Saxon ceof, 
a pod or husk. 

Stn. Banter. Bidinage. Nonsense. Fri- 
volity. Trash. Chaffer. 

Ant. Emphasis. Seriousness. Sense. 
Substance, Reason. Argument, I'ith, 
Marrow. Gist. 

Chaffer, v. int. Conn, with 
Cheap, an old word for market. 

SvN. Haggle. Bargain. Stickle. Higgle. 

Akt. Close. Conclude. Agree. Nego- 

Chagrin, n. and v. A galling 
vexation. Ch.agrin or Chagreen, 
a hard granulated leather (used 
also of a certain tough lish-skiu, 
which might be supposed to 
chafe the limbs), >S'ee Chafe, 

Challenge, v. tr. Calumniari. 
To impeach, and so force a man 
to clear himself. To summon to 
account for himself, as the chal- 

lenge of a sentinel. As applied 
to statements, to dispute, or, at 
least, call in question. 

SvN. Defy. Dare. Summon. Question. 
Investigate. Canvass. 

Akt. Pass. Allow, Grant. Concede. 

Champion, n. Campio, campus. 
A man of the field or lists, A 
man of battle, especially on be- 
half of some person or cause. 
Also an acknowledged chief in 
some department of competition. 

Stn. Hero. Combatant. Warrior. Vin- 
dicator. Challenger. Protector. Defender, 

Ant. Renegade. Deserter. Poltroon. 
Miscieant. Traitor. Coward. Adversary. 


Chance, n. Cudcntia, cadere, 
to full. A befalment. It has 
lieen said that chance flows, 1, 
from absence of assignable cause ; 
2, absence of aim or design. 
There is no essential difference 
between these, as the design 
would be the cause. 

Syn. Accident. Furtuity. Hazard. Ran- 
dom. Casualty. Befalinout. Luck. 

Ant. Law. Rule. Sequence. Conse- 
quence. Causation. Effectuation. Inten- 
tion, Purpose. Design. Certainty. 

Change, r). and v. Camhire, 
whence cambist, one learned in 
the theory of exchange. Has the 
threefold meaning of, 1, altera- 
tion; 2, substitution; 3, vicissi- 
tude. Fr, changer, 

Syn. Alter. Vary, Modify. Diversify. 
Qualiiy. Transmute. Substitute. Fluc- 
tuate. Shift. Veer. E.xchange. 

Ant. Con.serve. Retiiin. Stabilitate, Fi.\. 
Clinch. Stand. Endure. Last. Hold. 

Changeable, «(//'., Changeful, 
adj. JSee Change. 

It were well to keep up the 
distinction between these words, 
so as to use the former for such 
vicissitude as comes of liuman 
N\ill or caprice, and the latter of 
the variabkaiess of incidents and 
natural influenctis. So, chajiiio- 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 

fulness of we<atheror life ; change- 
ableness of disposition. 

Stn. Regular. Settled. Steady. Firm. 
StaUonaiy. Consistent. Resolute. RelKible. 
Uiiileviating. Uciform. Immutable, im- 

Ant. Irregular. Unsettled. Un.steady. 
Wavering. Fluctuating. Capricious. Irrc- 
ucilute. Vacillating. Variable. Mutable. 

Character, ??. Gr. xap«'o-a-o), 
I (jroove or engrave. A sculp- 
"tiu-ed symbol, as an alphabetical 
character. Taken for the aggre- 
gate of the mental and moral 
qualities. The social personality 
of the man; hence, also, the esti- 
mation in which he is held by 
society, -which is repute ; or his 
fixed place in it, sometimes 
called capacity; of tilings with- 
out hfe, the stamp or order. 

Stn. Symbol. Type. LetUr. Mature. 
Disposition. Genius. I'emperamcnt. Cast. 
Estimation. Repuie. Reputation. Office. 
Part. Capacity. Class. Order. Sort. 
Stamp. Kind. 

Ant. Vagueness. Anonymousness. Xon- 
description. Disrepute. 

Characteristic, >?. and adj. 
See Character. Stamping vriih. 
n distinctive character, or pecu- 
liarly appertaining. 

Stn. to culj. Distinctive. Specific. Pe- 
culiar. I )i;ignostic. Idiosyncratic. 

AXT. Common. Generic. Indistinctive. 
General. Unspecial. Impersonal. 

Snt. to noun. Distinction Peculiarity. 
?^)iitgnosis. Idiosyncrasy. Specialty. Indi- 
viduality. Personality. Singularily. 

Ant. Abstractedness. Xondescription. 
Generality. Jliscdlany. 

Characterize, v. tr. See 

Srx. Mark. Distinguish. Describe. In- 
dividualize. Specif. Identify. 

Ant. Hint. Insinuate. Suggest Sketch. 
Ad imbrate. 

Charge, v. tr. See Career. 

The rudimental notion is that 
of pm-posely placing something 
u]3on another person, or place, or 
thing, as the dej)ository of it, or [ 

that to which it is consigned. 
Hence such various meanings aa 
the following, involving, injunc- 
tion, ti-ust, accusation, assault, 
valuation, liability. 

Stn. Direct. Enjoin. Advise. Admonish. 
Entmst. Commit. Load. Accuse. Im- 
peach. Attack. Assault Impute. Carry. 

AST. Clear. Free. Discharge. Ac<iuit. 

The noun follows these signifi- 

Charitable, adj. Charity. 
Car if as. The Christian grace of 
love to God and man. 

Stn. Kii:d. Benign. Benevolent, Bene- 
ficent. Liberal. Considerate. Forgiving. 
Ccimpassionate. Placable. Jnexacting. In- 

Ant. Uncharitable. Unkind. Harsh. 
Selfish. Churlish. lUiberaL Censorious. 
Unforgiving. Uncompasslonate. Implaca- 
ble. Extreme. Exacting. Eetaliatlve. Re- 

Charm, r. and n. Carmen, a 
song or viagical incantation. 

To charm is to afiect, as if 
magically, like bewitch. Charms 
are those objects or personal at- 
tractions, wliich have such an 
elfect, either in enslaving the 
affections or subduing the fierce- 
ness or hostihty of persons or 

Stn. Bewitch. Enchant. Fascinate. 
Lay. Soothe. Mesmerize. Delight. En- 
trance. Captivate. Subdue. 

Ant. Disenchant. Disillusionize. Excite. 
Rouse. Disturb. Annoy. Irritate. Alarm. 
Terrify. Repel. Disgust. 

Chart, adj. From Cai-e. 
Taking care of a thing, so as to 
be imwilling to part with it ; 
hence, also, slow to enter on a 
given line of action. 

Stn. Careful. Cautious. Calculating. 
Sparing. Saving. Reluctant. Slow. 

Ant. Liberal. Lavish. Profuse. Eager. 

Chase, v. tr. Fr. chasse. Cap- 
tiure, from capto, to catrh after. 
To follow eagerly an object o( 
desire or aim. 

Synonyms mid Antonyms. 


Sm. Pursue. Hunt. Follow. Drive. 

Ant. Abandon. Relinquiish. Discard. 
Dismiss. Avoid. Elude. Evade. 

Chaste, adj. Castas. Pure, 
fis a matter of nature or taste. 
Purity iu nature, and simplicity 
in art, being analogous. 

Syn. Pure. Modest. Uncontamlnated. 
Incorrupt. Simple. Unaffected. Nice. 

Ant. Impure. Meretricious. Corrupt. 
Gaudy. Flashy. Over-decorated. 

Chasten, v. Chastise, v. Both 
from the same root as Chaste ; but 
chasten bears the sense of suffer- 
ing administered with the pur- 
pose of purification, and in some 
degree effecting its purpose; 
Chastise, of personal discipline, 
for the sake of correction of past 
offences, and implying nothing 
necessarily of any moral improve- 

Syn. Purify. Discipline. Spiritualize. 
Improve. Refine. Afflict. 

Ant. Indulge. Sensualize. Brutalize. 
I)egrade. Corrupt. Pamper. Carnalize. 
Spoil. Demoralize. 

Chattels, v. Chattel is the 
same word as cattle, primitive 
property consisting in heads of 
cattle. Hence the word capital 
(commercially), from caput, the 
head, expressing no longer live 
stock, but stock in trade. Com- 
pare the word Pecuniary, from 
pecunia, money, which comes 
from peciis, cattle, being at first 
stamped with the heads or forms 
of cattle, as the transition to a 
more refined system of currency. 
Chattels are strictly all goods 
which are not the freehold ; but, 
in common parlance, the word is 
used in a wider sense. 

Stw. Goods. Effects. Movables. 
Art. Freehold. 

Chatter, n. and v. Fr. car 
guetcr. Comp. Chat and Cackle. 

A hght rattling talk about oeg's 
own affairs or one's neighbours'. 

Syn. to nmn. Rattle. Jabber. Cackle 
Prattle. Twaddle. 

Ant. (To tallt well or not at all) Rea- 
son. Sense. Argument Philosophy. Con- 
versation. Reticence. 

Cheap, adj. From an Old 
Eng. word, meaning market. So 
cheap would at fii-st mean be- 
longing to market, and then, 
easily, marketable or common. 
It sometimes descends lower. 

Syn. Common. Inexpensive. Uncostly. 
Mean. Vile. Worthless. 

Ant. Rare. Costly. Expensive. Worthy. 
Honourable. Noble. High. 

Cheat, v. and ti. 

Cheat is probably the same 
word as escheat, which again 
was from scutum., a shield,, indi- 
cative of feudal tenure of rights 
or property. To escheat, then, 
was to lapse to a superior, under 
ccrtam conditions of forfeiture. 
In days of lawlessness the lords 
would make and seize oppor- 
tunities of escheat; hence, ta 
cheat is to do a person out of a 
thing, and generally to deceive 

Syn. Beguile. Deceive. Dupe. Deprive. 
Hoodwick. Prevaricate. Shuffle. Dis- 
semble. Juggle. Inveigle. 

Ant. Enlighten. Guide. Remunerate. 
Compensate. Undeceive. Disabuse. 

Stn. to noun. Deception. Fraud. Im- 
position. Tricli. Artifice. Illusion, 

Ant. Truth. Reality. Verity. Cer- 
tainty. Fact. Genuineness. Verification. 
Honesty. Authenticity. 

Cheat, ??. Of the person. 

Syn. Deceiver. Impostor. Trickster. 
Jutigler. Dissembler. Hypocrite. Liar. 
Rogue. Dicoy. 

Ant. Guardian. Undeceiver. Dupo; 
Gull. Victim. 

Check, v. tr. Fr. eclwc; in 
plural, echecs, cltess. The etymo- 
logy of this word is difficult. 
Comp. Cliess, Clieok, ('lieck- 
mate. It is somctinjes said tnal 

Sj/nonytns and Antonyms 

Checkmate is Persian. Shah mat, 
the king is dead, meaning the 
conclusion of the game. How- 
ever this may be, from the 
French certainly come Chess and 
Check and Exchequer. The 
latter would be a checkered or 
parti-coloui-ed board. Hence 
check gained a two-sided mean- 
ing ; one branched off into such 
words as Chequered; the other 
retaining the idea of restraining 
or stopping, derived, not fi-om 
the board, but the game; then 
these two sti-eams converge and 
meet in the banker's cheque, 
which is at once a bill of ex- 
chequer and a stop or check 
upon the account. 

Srs. Curb. Restrain. Stop. Stay. Im- 
pede. Inhibit. Cohibit. 

Ant. Loose. Liberate. Instigate. Ac- 
celerate. License. Indulge. Allow. Abet, 

Cheer, n. Old Fr. chere, the 
face or countejuince. So ' Be of 
good cheer.' Afterwards it was 
restricted to the more favourable 
or pleasing expressions of it, and 
transfen-ed to those tilings which 
peculiai-ly make men of 'cheer- 
ful countenance,' namely, food or 

Sim. Hope. Happiness. Comfort. Hos- 
pitality. Plenty. Conviviality. 

Ant. Dejection, SuUenness. Gloom. 
Starvation. Niggardliness. Dearth. In- 
hospitableness. Churlishness. Unsociable- 

Cheerful, adj. See Cheer. Ap- 
plied to persons and things. 

Stn. Lively. Gay. Bright. Happy. 

Bonny. Jlerty. Joyful. Pleasant. Kn- 

Ant. Lifeless. DulL Gloomy. Un- 
happy. Dejected. Depressed. Sullen. 
Joyless. Melancholy. Depressing. Dis- 

Cheerless. -See Cheerful. 

To hold clo.sG or warm, and so 
foster the ]i£3 and growth. UkcJ 
metaphorically, also, for the re- 
tention of any kind of behef or 

Stn. Foster. Nurse. Promote. Enter- 
tain. Value. Encourage. 

Ant. Stifle. Abandon. Discard. Dis- 
courage. Check, 

Chicanery, n. Old Fr. C7ac, 
a small piece of anythinrj. Espe- 
cially to play tricks with ; hence 
minuteness of dealing or speak- 
ing running into subterfuge and 

Stn. Artifice. Subtlety. Sophistry. Su!> 
terfuge. Prevarication. Shitt. Trickery, 
Dodge. Quibble. Mj^stification. Pettifog- 
ging. Underhandedness. 

Ant. Openness. Candour. Fairness. Co- 
gency. Demonstrativeness. Sotmdness. 

Chide, v. tr. Sax, To re- 
prove angrily. 

Stn. Rate. Scold. Trounce. 

Ant. Applaud. Flatter. Compliment. 

Chtef, adj. Same as Capital, 
Fr. chef, the head. Lat. caimt. 
Sin. See Cardinal and CapitaL 

Chieftain. See Chief. Comp, 
Captain from the Lat. caput, as 
Chieftain is from the Fr. chef. 

Syn. Captain. GeneraL Commander 

Akt. Follower. Attendant. Retainer. 
Subaltern. Vassal. Satellite. Minion. 

Childish, adj. Child. Goth. 
Eesembling the weakness as 
childlike is used for resembling 
the virtues of childhood. Said 
of character and action. 

Stn. "Weak. Silly. Puerile. Infantine. 
Imbecile. Foolish. Trifling. Paltry. Tri- 

Ant. Strong. Resolute. Manly, Wise: 
Judicious. Sagacious. Chlvahrous. Pro- 
found. Politic 

Cherish, v. tr. Cams, dear. Chivalrous, adj. Cheval, a 
Comp Caress. To hold as dear. | \ors,e. Chevalier, one who was 


Sijnonyms and Antonyms 

suffi-'jiently nf)ble to serve in the 
wars on horseback. 

The term is therefore formed 
to express that combination of 
qualities sucli as bravery and 
generosity, which befitted the 
knight or gentleman; chivalry 
being that system of knightly 
state and manners which was re- 
presented in the character and 
conduct of the chevalier. 

Stn. Couragpous. Generous. Knightly. 
Gallant. Heroic. Adventurous. Valiant. 
Spirited. Handsome. Highmiuded. 

Ant. Unhandsome. Dirty. Sneaking. 
Pettifogging. Scrubby. Dastardly. Ke- 
crcant. Ungenerous. Ungentlemanly. 

Choice, n. Old Eng. choose. 
Also chese. Hence the phrase 
"^ quite the cheese.' A preference 
made from two or more things. 
Also the thing chosen or pre- 

Stn. Option. Adoption. Election. Se- 
lection. Preference. Alternative. 

Akt. Compulsion. Necessity. Rejec- 
tion. Refusal. Unimportance. Indiffer- 
ence. Refuse. 

Choice, adj. See Choice, n. 

Syn. Select. Exquisite. Dainty. Pre- 
■cious. Cherished. Valuable. 

Ant. Common. Ordinary. Inferior. 
Cheap. Valueless. Despicable. Trum- 

Choke, V. tr. Used metaphori- 
cally of stifling statements or 

Syn. Throttle. Burke. Suffocate. Gag. 

Ant. Eliminate. Educe. Promote. De- 
monstrate. Discuss. Disseminate. Moot. 
Bruit. Ventilate. 

Choler. See Anger, 
Choleric, adj. See Choler. 

Syn. Hasty. Testy. Impetuous. Iras- 

Ant. Cool. Phlegmatic. Serene. Pla- 
cid. Dispassionate. Stoical. 

Choose, v. tr. See Choice. 

Stn. Se'ecU ElecU Prefer. Adopt. 

AST. l.ieave. Dismiss. Reject. Refuse. 
Decline. Disclaim. Repudiate. Ignore. 

Chuckle, ". inf. Comp. Cackle 
To laugh with satisfaction half- 
concealed. To harbour such 

SvN. Grin. Crow. Cackle. 
Ant. Cry. ^Vail. Grumble. Whine. 

Churlish, adj. From ceorl, 
the lowest class of Saxon freemar 
The word in the character which 
has attached to it seems to indi- 
cate how naturally such qualities 
are induced intimeswhennominal 
liberty was not free from oppres- 
sion, and the defects were im- 
puted to the lower, as the virtiies 
of human character to the ai-is- 
tocratic orders. 

Srs. Illiberal. Niggardly. Inhospitable. 
Unsociable. UTmeighbourly. 

Ant. Liberal. Bountiful. Hospitable. 
Neighbourly. Sociable. 

Cipher, »?. The system of 
numerals being Arabic, meant 
the symbol of the absence of enu- 
meration ; which, however, being 
placed after the number, increases 
its value tenfold. 

Hence it has the various mean- 
ings of a nonentity— a symbol, 
and a peculiar system of 'm'itiug, 
either as a monogram or of secret 

Syn. Nonentity. Dot. Nothing. Trifle. 
Button. Fig. Straw. Pin. Rush. Mole- 

Ant. Somebody. Big-wig. Something. 
Notability. Celebrity. Tiilon. Colossus. 

Circle,??. Lat. cnrH/«<s. Tho 
mathematical circle is a piano 
figure bounded by a curved lino 
at all points equitiistant from tlio 
centre. But as centre is used 
inexactly (see Centre), so circle is 
used of a region or a.ssembly of 
persons socially united. 

Stm. Region. .\rii;hlKnirhood. Assem- 
bly. Intercourse. F.unily. Acquaintance- 
ship. Society. oterie. 

S>j)ionijms and Antonyms. 

Ant Estt-angement. Distance. Non- 
ccminunicative. Exclusion. 

CntCTTiT, n. Circuitus. Cir- 
CHiii and ire, to gfi. Distin- 
guished from circumference as 
being not mathematical, but a 
sort of irregular ciromuference. 

Stn. Tour. Circumference. 

Ant. Line. Straightness. Directness. 

Circuitous, adj. See Circuit, 

Stn. Indirect. Tortuous. Devious. 
Ant. Direct. Linear. Straight. 

ClECULAK, adj. See Circle. 
Stn. Round. Spherical. 
Ant. LineaL Direct. 

Circulate. See Circle, ad. n. 
Either to send or move through 
a circuit. 

Syn. Disseminate. Publish. Notify. 
Travel. Spread. 

Ant. Suppress. Avert. Stagnate. 
Cease. Hush. 

Circumference, n. Circum 
and ferre, to hear. The line 
which bounds the mathematical 
circle is one which might be 
drawn round a globe ; or, vaguely, 
an outer enclosure or irregular 

Stn. Periphery. Enclosure. Circuit. 
Outline. Boundary. 

Ant. Diameter. Crossing. Bi-section. 
Transection. Transversion. 

Circumlocution, «. Circum 
and loqui. The voluntary or in- 
voluntary use of roundabout 
expressions; that is, either as 
explanatory or from want of 
skill in speech. 

Stm. Periphrasis. Verbosity. Inconcise- 
ness. Insucciuctness. Ambiguousness. An- 

Art. Terseness. Point. Cc.nciseness. 
Succinctness. Condensation. Directness. 
i'lainness. Simplicity. Coherence. 

Circumscribe, v. tr. Circum, 
around, and scribere, to write. 

Stn. Define. Designate. Delineate. Li- 
mit. Knclose. Confine. Restrict. Fence. 

Ant. Expand. Dilate. Dissipate. Dis- 
enclose. Distend. 


Circumscribed, adj. See Cir- 

Svn. Limited. Narrow. Restricted. 
Akt. Limitless. Ample. Unconfined. 

Circumspect, adj. Circum- 
spicere, to look round, as if on the 
look out for danger. 

Stn. Cautious. Wary. Careful Watch- 
ful. Scrupulous. Vigilant. 

Ant. Heedless. Incautious. Careless. 
Reckless. Invigilant. Incircumspect. 

Circumstance, n. Circum' 
stare, to stand around, i. e., the 
surroundings of a case ; thence, 
an event or attendant condition. 

Stn. Detail. Feature Point. Tojiic. 
Condition. Particular. Specialty. 

Ant. Deed. Case. Occunence. Trans- 

Circumstantial, adj. See Cir- 
cumstance. 1. Proving not 
dii-ectly but by attendant condi- 
tions or facts; also, 2, entering 
into circumstances or details. 

Stn. Inferential. Constructive. Minute. 
Detailed. Elaborate. Specific. 

Ant. 1. Jocular. Positive. 2. Loose. 
General. Inaccurate. 

Circumvent, v. tr. Circum.- 
venire. To come round or fetch 
or compass, so as to take by sur- 

Stn. Ensnare. Entrap. Outwit. Di- 

Akt. Force. Subjugate Reduce. Compel. 

Circumvention. See Circum- 

Cite, v. tr. Ciere, to cull. 
Freq. citare, to call up. To cite 
persons authoritatively or quote 
as from authority. 

Stw. Summon. Call. Quote. Adduce. 

Ant. Discard, Di.suiiss. Canvass. Dis- 
pute. Reject. Contradict. Disprove. Chal- 
lenge. Discredit. 

Citizen, v. Civitas. Ono 
who resides in a city, or one who 
has the rights of a free political 
community. Fr. citoyen. 

Syk. Townsman. Inhabitant. Burgess 
Subjeci. Denizen. 

Airr Alien. Foreigner. Viisitor. ExUa 

Synomjms and Antonyms. 

Civic, adj. Sa Citizen. Be- 
longing to the administration, as 
civil to the manners of the city. 

Stn. :Municipal. Corporate. Urbain'. 

Ant.' Suburban. Provincial. Rural. 

Civil, ad/. See Civic. 

Sra. Urbane. Polite. Obliging. Ac- 
commodating. Respectful. 

Ant Disobliging. Unaccommodating. 
Disrespectful. Boorish. Clownish. Churl- 
ish. Uncivil. 

Civil, n. See Civil. 
Civilization, n. See Civil. 

Stn. Amelioration. Humanization. Re- 
finement. ^ 
Ant. Demoralization. Savagery. iJar- 

barism. BrutaUty. Rudeness. 

Claim, v. tr. Clamare, to call 
Gilt. The public assertion of a 
right. The vrord seems to carry 
back the mind to times when 
wTiting was rare, and matters of 
right were determined orally be- 
fore witnesses. 

Stn. Demand. Ask. Require. Insist 
Ant. Forego. Waive. Disclaim. Ab- 
jure. Disavow. Abandon. Concede. Sur- 
render. Repudiate. 

Claim, n. See verb. 

Stn. Assertion. Vindication. Arroga- 
tion. Demand. ^. , . 

Ant. Waiving. Abjuration. Disclaimer. 


Claimant, ». See Claim. 

Stn. Assertor. Vindicator. Appellant. 
Litigant. „ . ._. . 

Ant. Relinquisher. Resigner. Waiver. 
Conceder. Renouncer. Abjurer. 

Clamour, «. See Claim. A 
loud contentious cry; a noisy 
claimiiig or asking. It has also 
l)y usage a repudiative force, as 
in the phrase, ' a clamour against 
a person.' ^ ^ 

Stn. Contention. Contentiousness, bquab 
ble. Uproar. Outcry. Obloquy. 

Aht. Silence, Acquiescence. Reticence. 

Clandestine, adj. Clam, se- 


Stk. Furtive. Secret. Sly. Stealthy 

Am-. Open. Unreserved. Unconceft'.ed 
Announced. Advertised. Public. 

I Clarify, v. tr. Clams, dt-ir, 

1 and facere, to make. 

I Stn. Purify. Strain. Defecate, Pre*.!- 

pitate. Inflltrate. 
I .4irr. Trouble. Foul. Thicken. Cor.^a 

minate. Pollute. Muddle. 

I Clash, »?. and v. Germ. To 
I meet in many collisions. Meta- 
phorically, to be signally dis- 

Stn. Differ. Disagree. Interfere. Jar. 
Ant. Agree. Harmonize. Accord 
Comport. Chime. 

Clasp, Hand r. Germ. To sur- 
round so as to embrace tightly. 

Stn. Grasp. Connect Unite. Bracket 
Concatenate. Embrace. 

Ant. Relax. Sever. Unclasp. Discon- 
nect. Detach. Exclude. 

Classical, odj The word re- 
fers to the original division of 
the Eoman citizens or subjects 
into political classes or ranks; 
thence, the admission of books as 
belonging to the piu-er ages ami 
styles of Greek and Eoman litc- 
ratui-e. Hence, again used of 
the purity of any sample or stage 
of literature or art. 

Stn. Pure. Refined. Elegant. Polished. 
Chaste. Augustan. 

Ant. Corrupt. Debased. Inelegant. 
Harsh. Barbarous. Uncouth. Unclassical 

Classification, Class. Ori- 
ginally the calUng (/cXcia-ty, from 
KoXfiv, to call) together of the 
primitive Eoman subjects; the 
grouping of a number of things 
or persons under some principlo 
of classification. 

Stn. Order. Genus. Species. Nature. 
1 Character. Cast Stamp. Group. Kind. 
Section. Sect Category. Assortment. 
Designation. Description. 

Ant. Individuality. Specialty. Isola- 
tion. Alienation. Division. Distinction 
Singularity. E.'Lclusion. Heterogeneity. 

Classify. See Class. 

Stn. Arrange, Systematize. Tabu'.ale 
Dispose. Collocate. Assort. 

ANT. Derange. Confound. Disorder 
Utoorganlie. Intermix. 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 

Clause, n. Claudere, Clan- 
Rus, to sh>/f. A paragi-aph or 
grammatical sentence comiDlete in 
itself, and shut oif. 

Sys. I'orlion. Paragraph. Chapter. 

Section. Passage. 

Akt. Document. Instrument. Jluni- 

Clean, ndj. Celtic. Pure 
from defilement or entanglement. 
Used metaphorically. 

Svx. Pure. Neat. Cleanly. Clear. Un- 
clogsed. Upright. 

Ant. Impure. Untidy. Dirty. En- 
tanelcd. Hampered. Unclean. 

Clear, v. tr. Clarus, clear as 
the light. To free physically; 
also morally, as from imputation ; 
or, mentally, from ideas which 
require to be dissociated. 

Stn. Clarify. Disencumber. Disentangle. 
Disembarrass. Vindicate. Liberate. Ex- 
tricate. Eliminate. 

Ant. Befoul. Contaminate. Pollute. 
Clog. Encumber. Embarrass, involve. 

Clear, adj. Physically and 
metaphorically. See above. 

Stn. Open. Pure. Bright. Transpa- 
rent. Free. Disencumbered. Disentangled. 
Disengaged. Absolved. Acquitted. Plain. 
Obvious. Intelligible. Lucid. 

Akt. Thick. Muddy. Foul. Opaque. 
Encumbered. Entangled. Condemned. 
Convicted. Turbid. Dubious. Indistmct. 

Cleave, v. Two Saxon words 
in one, meaning, the one actively 
to sunder, the other neutrally to 

.•^YN. Sunder. Split. Divide. Rend. 
l'i=sever. Adhere. Stick. 

Ant. Conserve. Unite. Splice. Bond. 
Cement. Agglutinate. CJonsolidate. De- 
jsert. Depart. Separate. Apostatize. Se- 

Clever, adj. Saxon. Able to 
adapt means to a proposed end. 
A]-ipUed also to the work or re- 
sult so contrived; said of the 
mind and the hand. 

Sy.n. Able. Ready. Talented. Quick, 
ingenious. Dexterous. Adroit. Well-con- 


Ant. "Weak. Dull. Stupid. Slow. 
Doltish. Uninventive. Awkward. Clumsy 
lU-contrlved. Bungling. Botched. 

Climate, ?;. KXtVeti^, to in- 
cline. The supposed inclination 
of the earth from the equator to 
the poles, which was imagined 
to account for the variation of 
temperature in different localities. 
The word is used of variation in 
these two respects. 

Syn. Air. Atmosphere. Temperature. 
Weather. Clime. Sky. Region. Sphere. 

Am. Earth. Globe. World. Sphere. 

Clemax, n. Gr. A ladder. 
The highest point. As a figure 
of rhetoric, the culminating or 
most forcible expression. 

Sys. Summit. Height. Consummation. 
Acme. Point. Head. Meridian. Culmina- 
tion. Zenith. 

Aht. Base. Floor. Bathos. Anticlimax. 
Depth. Gulf. Nadu-. 

Clmb, V. int. Sometimes used 
I actively. Sax. climhan. 

Stn. Ascend. Mount. Clamber. Swarm. 
I Surmount. Scale. Escalade. 

Ant. Descend. Drop. Fall. Slip. Tumble. 

Cling, v. int. Sax. clingan. 
I Used actively with the prep. to. 
I Used metaphorically, as, to cling 
to principles or determination. 

I Stx. Fasten. Hold. Adhere. Slick. 
' Cleave. Hang. Twine. Hug Embrace. 
1 Ant. Drop. Recede. Secede. Apostatize. 
' Abandon. Relax. Forego. Surrender. 
' Swerve. 

Clip, v. tr. Sax. 

Syn. Curtail. Prune. Contract. Abridge. 
Ant. Elongate. Cherish. Grow. Nourish. 

Cloak, v. tr. Old Fr. cloche. 
To throw a cloak over. Comp. 
■ Palliate, from pallium, a cloak. 
To hide wholly or in part. 

1 Stn. Conceal. Disguise. Palliate. Screen. 

Mitigate. Extenuate. 
1 Ant. Exhibit. Propound. Promulge. 

Portray. Aggravate. Expose. Demoa- 

slrate. Reveal. 

• Closb, adj. Claudere, to shut. 

St/nonyms and Anforitfnu 

J'art. daiisus. Used physically 
and metaphorically. 

Srs. Narrow. Limitpd. Restricted. 
Condensed. Packed. Secret. Kcserved. 
Kigg;irdiy. Shut. Fast. 

Ant. Wide. Open. Ample. Spacious. 
Airy. Unconfined. Dispersed. Rareiied. 
Subtle. Vaporous. Pat<^nt. Public. Ad- 
vertised. Open-handed. Liberal. Frank. 

Close, v. tr. ^ee adj. 

&TS. Shut. Conclude. Omiplete. Stop. 

Ant. Open. Initiate. Conduct. Pro- 

Clothe. Sax. Used meta- 
phorically of ideas and associa- 

Snf. Invest. Robe. Drape. 
AsT. Denude. Strip. Divest. 

Clownish, adj. From Clown. 
Colonus, a husbandman. 

SiN. Rustic. Boorish. Bucolic. Boeotian. 
Awkward. Clumsy. Cloddish. Untutored. 

AxT. Polite. Civil. Urbane. Affable. 
Graceful. Polished. Refined. Courtly. 
High-bred. Intelligent. Educated. 

Clumsy, adj. Clump, an old 
verl). To bennmb. Using the 
hands as if they were benumbed 
with cold. Used of persons and 
contrivances or productions. 

Sr«. Awkward. Inexpert. Maladroit. 
Botching. Bungling. Unskilful. 

jVnt. Neat. AVorkmanlike. Artistic. 
Handy. Skilful. Clever. Expert. Adroit. 

Cluster, n. and v. int. 

Srrs. Group. Bunch. Gathering. Muster. 

Ant. Scattering. Sprinkling. Disper- 

Clutch, v. tr. and int. with 
the prep. at. 

Stn. Grasp. Grab. Seize. Snatch. 

Ant. Liberate. Release. Emancipate. 

Coadjutor, n. Con and adjit- 
varc, to assist. 

Sts. Assistant. Co-operator. Accessory. 

Ant. Accomplice. Accessory. Opponent. 
Counieractor Bafller, .Adversary. Anta- 

Coagulate, v. int. Coagtdum, 
zurd. Con and ageir, to ivork. 

Stn. Mix. Blend. Fute. Coalecx:-. 
Amalgamate. Condense. 

Ant. Rarefy. Expand. Dissipate. Sub- 
tilize. Discombine. 

Coalesce, v. int. Con and 
alescere, to grow, from alere, to 
7)ourisJi. Expressss harmony of 

Stn. Harmonize. Blend. 5tix. -\ 
gamate. Cohere. 

Ant. Disagree. Discomport. 

Co.\lition, n. See Coalesce. 

Srx. Combination. Consentaneity. Com- 
promise. Consociation. Amalgamation. 

Ant. Dissociation. Disruption. Dis- 
agreement. Dissentience. 

Coarse, adj. Anciently \yritten 
Course — as if in the common 
course ; and so, metaphorically, 
exliibiting characteristics of the 
natural or common, not the po- 
lished or refined. 

Syn. Common. Ordinary. Rough. Rude. 
Unpolished. Immodest. 

Ant. Fine. Refined. Gentle. PolisheiU 
Delicate. Choice. 

Coax, v. tr. Coqims, a cool-. 
To hash up a little savory dish 
of wheedling. It impUes also 
persuasion against inclination, 
and sometimes to the detriment 
of the person coaxed. 

S™. Wheedle. Fawn. Flatter. Cijole. 
Overcome. Seduce. Allure. Circumvent. 

Ant. Intimidate. Coerce. Impel. In- 
stigate. Drive. 

Cobble, v. tr. Germ, knppeln, 
like Lat. copidare, to cuuph\ To 
join work clumsily. 

Srx. Patch. Botch. Clout. Bungle. 
Ant. Repair. Manipulate. Fine-draw. 

CoBWBB, -n. Used metaphori- 
cally for that which wants im- 
I portance or solidity ; also for 
, that which still hangs together, 
as— a prejudice, though it is liigU 
time to sweep it away. 

.Syn. Trifle. Cipher. Sloonshin*. Pre* 
judlce. Bugbear. Phantasy. Caprice. 

Ant. Substance. Verity. Axiuni. I.ivt 
Reality. Pei-petuity. Institution. I'lutli. 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 

Cockney, «. aud adj. An in- 
liabitant of Cocagne, a French 
word, meaning a country of ima- 
ginary liiximes aud delicacies, 
in which the houses are tiled 
with sweetmeats, from Old Fr. 
couqiir, It. cucca, a cake or dainty. 
Applied to the citizens of London 
by their simple or jealous fellow- 

Stn. Londoner. Citizen. Swell. 
Ant. Clodbopper. Bumpkin. Lout. 

Coddle, v. tr. From cojnere, 
codas. To parboil, as it were, 
with kindness; to make a little 
too much of; to keep warm. 

Sin. Spoil. Humour. Pamper. Nurse. 

Akt. Try. Expose. Inure. Harden. 

Codger, n. Thought to be 
cotier. Comp. Cot, Cotter, Cot- 
tage, Cottager. An outlandish 
old fellow. Associating also, like 
Churl, the notion of niggardli- 

Syn. Gaffer. Churl. Curmudgeon. 
AST. .Swell. Fop. Spendthrift. Scape- 
^r.icc. Puppy. 

Codify, v. tr. Coder and 
fitcrre. To reduce a multiplicity 
of laws, or, more generally, a 
number of opinions or statements, 
to a more compendious form. 

Stn. Summarize. Digest. Incorporate. 
Embody. Condense. 

Ant. Expunge. Abrogate. Disembody. 
Annul. Disincorporate. Rescind. 

Coerce, v. tr. Coercere. To 
use force upon another, especially 
metaphorically, as distingiiished 
from persuasion ; and is used of 
compulsion, prohibition, and con- 

Stn. Restrain. Inhibit. Impel. Com- 
pfl. Drive. Counteract. Confine, liitimi- 

Ant. Permit. Persuade. Urge. Insti- 
g.itr. Encourige. Liberate. Induce. Se- 
dutf. Tempt. 

CoETANEOUS, adj. Con and atas 
(ayvuiH, oevitas). 

Stn. Coeval. Omtemporary. Synchronous 
Ant. Incoincident. Incontenporaneous. 
Anachronistic. Asyucronous. 

Coeval. >See Coetaneous. 

Coexist, v. int. Con and ex- 
iste7'e (ex and sistere, to stand 
out). To be, or continue to be, 

Stn. Concur. Comport. Coalesce. A"^ 
company. Coincide. 

Ant. Disconcur. Discomport 

Coexistent, adj. See Co- 

.Stn. Concurrent. Coetaneous. Con- 
temporary. Coij f-ident. Compatible. 'Jflr 
respondent. Correlative. 

Ant. Discurrent. Incontemporaneous. 
Incompatible. Adverse. Repugnant. An- 

CoEXTENSioN, ??. Con and 
extendere, to reach. Equal in 
length or space, physically or 

Stn. Commensurateness. Equality. Pa- 
rallelum. Conterminousness. 

Ant. Incommensurateness. Inadequacy. 
Inconterminousness. Divergency. In- 
equality. Disparity. 

Coextensive. See Coextcn- 

Cogent, adj. Cohere, to compel. 
Used, not of physical, but moral 
or logical force. 

Stn. Forcible. Powerful Potent. Strong. 
Persuasive. Influential. 

Ant. Wealc. Ineffectual. Powerless. 

Cogitate, v. int. Cogitare, 
\ coagitare. To turn over and over 
j with one's self. Used in a neider 
1 sense, and in no specific reference 
! to any one line of thought or 

! Stn. Think. Ruminate. Meditate. Re- 
flect. Brood. Contemplate. Sjiiculala 
I'onder. Muse. 

Ant. Idle. Maunder. Dream. 

Cogitation, v. See Cogitate. 

Stn. Reflection. Thought. Meditation 
Ant. Incogitancy. Vacuity. D.eonii' 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


Cognizance, n. Cognoscsre, to 
tiofe. Recognition or knowledge. 
Also used, technically, of that 
wliich is a distmctive emblem or 
1-iadge, by -which the bearer may 
be recognized. 

Stn. Notice. Observation. Recognition. 
Knowledge. Experience. 

Akt. Inadvertence. Neglect. Ignorance. 
Inexperience. Oversight. Connivance. 

Cognizant, adj. See Cogni- 

Stu. Aware. Informed. 

AST. Unaware. Uninformed. Ignorant, 

CoHKKE, V. int. Con and 
h'xrere, to stick. To stick to- 
gether. Used physically and 

Srs. Stick. Adhere. Conform. Unite. 

Aici. Sever. Separate. Disunite. Dis- 

CoHKRENT, adj. See Cohere. 
Used especially of logical or rhe- 
torical coherence. 

Sre. Consecutive. Consistent. Com- 
plete. Compact. Sensible. Losrical. Close. 

A^T. Inconsecutive. Rambling. Dis- 
united. Inconsistent. Discursive. Loose. 
Silly. Illogical. Aberrant. 

CoHlBIT, V. tr. Cohihere, to 
hold in. Eestrain. 

Stn. Prevent. Hinder. Restrain. Curb. 

Inhibit. ^ , 

AST. Indulge. Permit. Incite. Instl- 
.g.ite. Encourage. Urge. 

Coin, v. tr. Cuneus, a wedge 
or die for stamping, transferred 
to the thing stamped. Used me- 
taphorically for the invention of 
new forms, as of words, and of 
false allegations. 

Srs. Fabricate. Counterfeit. Invent. 
Ant. ilisform. Miscontrive. 

Coincidence, n. Con and in- 
cidere, to full ujjon or out. Used 
of the fortuitous meeting of two 
things bearing relation or pro- 
priety; also in its etymological 
sense' of agi-eement in time, place, 
or opinion. 

] Srx. Chance. Fortuity. Casualty. O.n- 
temporaneousness. Commensurateness. Har- 
mony. Consent. Agreement 

Avr. Design. Purpose. Adaptation. 
Asynchronisra. Anachronism. Disharmun.i 
Incommensurateness. Discordance. Varia- 
tion. Difference. 

Collapse, n. Con and lapsus. 
A falling in, or general giviag 
way of the parts, either of that 
wluch is materially coherent only, 
or of the vital faculties and 

Stn. Subsidence. Coma. Faint. Ex- 
haustion. Shrivelling. Settlement Down- 
fall. „ , 
^Vnt. Stability. Integrity. VitaUty. 
1 Vigour. Renovation. Redintegration. Re- 
I covery. Re-erection. Resuscitation. Re- 

Collate, v. tr. Con andferre, 
part, latus. To bring together, in 
a mental sense, ideas or passages 
of writing, generally with a view 
of comparison or classification; 
and not unfrequently as tending 
to establish a view or particular 

Stx. Adduce. Collect Compare. Gather 
Induct Extract. Cite. 

Ant. Verily. Identify. Recognize. Au- 

Collateral, adj. Latus, the 
side. Apphed to relationship 
and evidence or argument. 

Srs. Indirect Related. Connected. 
Parallel. , ^ 

ANT. Direct Linear. Essential. In- 

Collation, n. See Collate. 
Used technically of repasts and 
of episcopal patronage. 

Colleague, n. Con and legere, 
to choose. One chosen or ap- 
pointed to the same office with 

Stx. Coadjutor. Partner. Assistant 
Adjutant Assessor. ^ . , ^ 

AST. Co-opponent Co-nval. Counter, 
agent. Co-antagonist. Competitor. Col- 

Collect, v. tr. Cdligere, part. 

Si/iionyms and Anfonijma. 

collect ■.t'. Usod i:)liysical]y and 

Stn. Collate. Gather. Glean. Sum. 
Infer. Learn. 

Ant. Classify. Arrange. Distribute. 
Dispose. Dispense. Divide. Sort. Deal. 

Collected, adj. See Collect. 
Said of the faculties. 

Syn. Calm. Composed. Cool. Atten- 
tive. Self-possessed. 

Ant. Excited. Distracted. AVandering. 
Dazed. Scared. Bewildered. 

Collection, »?. See above. 
Said of persons and things. 

Stn. Assembly. Assemblage. Store. 
Gathering. Collation. 

Ant. Dispersion. Distribution. Dis- 
pensation. Division. Arrangement. Classi- 
fication. Disposal. 

CoLLiQtTATE, V. act. and neut. 
Con and liquare. To melt away 
by instalments. 

Stn. Melt. Dissolve. Dribble. Drain. 
Ant. Replenish. Fill. Overflow. A- 

Collision, n. CoUidere, to 
strike together. The violent meet- 
ing of hard substances. Meta- 
phorically used of hostile en- 
coiinters in conflict. 

Syn. Encounter. Crash. Conflict. Op- 
position. Impact. 

Ant. Inters werving. Interdivergence. 

Collocate, v. tr. Con and 
locus, a jilace. To place one or 
more things in proper or close 

Stn. Place. Locate. Arrange. Classify. 
Tabulate. Alloaite. 

Ant. Move. Dislocate. Distribute. Dis- 
pense. Disturb. Disperse. Confound. Con- 
fuse. Displace. Misplace. 

Collocation. See Collocate. 

Colloquy, n. Con and ^(jui, 
to speak. A formal meeting in 

Stn. Conference. Consultation. Conver- 
sation. Council. Confabulation. 

Ant. Clamour. Outcry. Tumult. Babel. 

Colluctation, n. A struggle. 
From con and luctus, striving. 


Syn. Wrestling. Contoniion. Oonip. li 

Ant. Coadjutorship. Assistance. Sup 
port. Backing. 

Collusion, n. Con and Indtr,;, 
to sport or play. A conspiracy 
for purposes of trickery. 

Stn. Connivance. Accompliceship. CVn. 

Ant. Baffling. Frustration. Counfer- 
actioii. Defeat. Discomfiture. Disconcert- 
ment. Betrayal. Exposure. InformersUip. 

Colour, n. Lat. color. Used 
metaphorically for tinghig state- 
ments or cases. 

Syn. Hue. Tint. Complexion. Spe- 
ciousness. Garbling. Falsification. Distor- 
tion. Perversion. Varnish. 

Ant. Achromatism. Paleness. Naked- 
ness. Openness. Genuineness. Trans- 
parency. Truthfulness. 

Colourable, adj. See Colour. 
A word not formed with strict 

Stn. Specious. Ostensible. Deceptive. 
Warped. Dressed. Tinged. 

Ant. Genuine. Candid. Open. Nak^.d. 

Combat, ;;. Comhuttre, to hxit 

Syn. Encounter. Conflict. Engagement. 
Arms. Battle. 

Ant. Surrerider. Submission. Media- 
tion. Reconciliation. Truce. Arbitration. 

Combination, r/. Con and 

hiniis, two each, or two. Extended 
to more than two. 

Stn. Union. Association. Consortmcnt. 
Concert. Confederacy. Synthesis. Co- 

Ant. Division. Disunion. Disrup:i<iii. 
Dissolution. Dispersion. Analysis. Upp". 
sition. Resistance. Inter-repellence. 

Comely, adj. That which 
comes well or becomes. 

Stn. Seemly. Graceful. Shapely. Ele- 

Ant. Unseemly. Ungraceful. Unshapely 

Comfort, Comfortable. Con 

and fortis, strong. 

The first notion of comfort 
must have been the supply o. 


S'jnomjms and Antonyriis. 

such things as fortified a man's i 
position, makinc; him self-suffl- * 
cient, so as to bear up against ; 
trouble, want, and the like. It 
has assumed a meaning, in re- 
ference to every-day cii'ciuu- 
stances, which it is a familiar ; 
boast of Englishmen that no 
other language has a word to 
express. It applies to mind, } 
body, and circumstances. I 

Srx. Snus. Satisfied. Consoled. i 

Ant. Uncomfortable. Dissatisfied, j 

Troubled. | 

Comity, n. Comitas, comis, 

bland, pleasant. I 

Stn. Urbanity. Pleasantness. Affa- ] 

bility. Blandness. i 

Akt. Rudeness. Distantness. Rough- 
ness. Cliuriisbness. I 

Command, v. tr. Con and , 
mawlare, to order. 

Srti. Order. Direct. Instruct. Enjoin. 

Ant. Supplicate. Entreat. Persuade. , 
Beg. Petition. Suggest. Represent. I 

Commemor.vte, V. tr. Con and ; 
niTnor, miiid/td. To keep up,' 
either for once or periodically, \ 
the remembrance of past events 
or i^ersons by more or less pubhc 

S™. Perpetuate. Celebrate. Solemnize. 

Ant. Ignore. Drop. Abolish. Forget. 

Commence, i>. act. and neut. 
Corrupted from con and tnitiare, 
to bi'f/ix. Fr. commencer. 

Srij. Begin. Start, initiate. Dpen. In- 

Ant. Finish. Terminate. Conclude. 
Consummate. Complete. 

Commend, v. tr. 

Sm. Praise. Laud. Approve. En- 
courage. Applaud. Kulogize. 

Ant. BLinie. Censure. Disapprove. 
Discourage. Denounce. Condemn. I>is- 

Commendation. See Com- 
Commensurate, adj. Con and 

mensura, a measure. Sti'ictly ap- 
plicable only to cases in which 
two or more things have either 
physically or metaphorically the 
same outlines, and so are co- 
extensive. Usage, however, vl\>- 
plies it, as it does the term ade- 
quate, to number as well as size. 

Stn. Equal Adequate. Suffident. Co- 
e.xtensive. Conterminous. 

Ant. Unequal. Short. Scant, laade- 
quate. Insufficient. Incommensurate. 

Comment, n. and v. Commen- 
tari, a form of comminisci; root, 
mens, the mind. The gathering 
of a meaning into such a shape 
as may expound it ; followed by 
the jirep. upon. 

Srs. Note. Observe. Interpret. Illus- 
trate. Expound. Explain. Dilate Ex- 

Jlystify. Jlisinterpret. Misapprehend. 
Misconceive. Misrepresent. 

Comment, n. Follows the 
same meanings. 

Commentator, n. See Com- 

Stn. Interpreter. Explainer. Note- 
maker. Expositor. Scholiast. Glossarist. 

Ant. Mystifier. Misinterpreter. Puzdea 
Enigmaiist. (Edipus. 

Commerce, n. Con and merx. 

Stn. Trade. Traffic. Barter. Mer- 
chandize. Exchange. Business. Dealing. 

Ant. Stagnation. Exclusion. Dulness. 
Inactivity. Interdict. Embargo. 

Commiserate, v. tr. Con and 
miser, miserable. This word has 
the two meanings of despise and 
pity. For it is plain that tho 
miserable condition of another, 
according to the disix)sition of 
the beholder and the cii-cum- 
stances of the case, may raise on 
one occasion pity, on another 

Stn. Despise. Contemn. Pity. Com 
pasbiuimte. Sympathize. Oon«iole. 

Sijnomfms and Anionj/ms. 

Ant. Admire. En\y. Disregard. Mal- 
->roat. Molest. Ignore. Condemn. 

^ Commiseration, n. rollows 
the same meanings. 

Commit, v. tr. Con and mittere, 
to put or place. Said of deeds 
generally, and of the specific 
consignment also, both of things 
and persons, as, to commit to 
paper or to prison. 

Stn. Perpetrate. Execute. Relegate. 
Intrust. Assign. Allocate. Consign. 

Ant. Omit. Miscomniit. Misconsign. 

Commodious, adj. See Accom- 

SvN. Convenient. Spacious. Ample. 

Ant. Inconvenient. Incommodious. Nar- 
row. Ill-contrived. Incommensurate. Dis- 

Commodity, n. A convenient 
•article of commerce having a 
market value. 

Stn. Article. Stock. Ware. Staple. 
Ant. Refuse. Garbage. Offal. Drug. 

Common, adj. Communis. 
Either that which belongs to 
many, or that which belongs to 
all, or which all have in com- 
mon. I 

Syn. Ordinary. Familiar. Frequent. I 
Coarse. A''ulgar. Universal. 

Ant. Unusual. Exceptional. Rare, i 
Scarce. Uncommon. Refined. Partial. 
Sporadic. Infrequent. Excellent. Egie- 

Commotion, ??. Con and mo- 
vere. An agitation of, first, the 
inherent particles of a body ; and, 
secondly, any agitation, however 
wide, which produces a single 
and uniform impression. 

Stn. Agitation. Disturbance. Tumnlt 
Excitement. Perturbation. Turmoil. 

Ant. Quiescence. Calm. Subsidence. 
Pacification. Tranquillitv. Appeasement. 
Mitigation. Soothing. Allaying. Mode- 

CoMMUNiOATB, V. Communis. 
Is used actively and neutrally. 

8rN. Adjoin. Touch. Join. Attach. 

Co-operate. Unite. Impart. Tell. An- 
nounce. Declare. 

Ant. Separate. Disjoin. Recede. Stop. 
Suppress. Conceal. Secrete. Reserve 

Communion, n . See Commuui- 
catfi. Used for the process of 
participation and the aggregate 
of the participants. 

SvN. Share. Participation. Partnership, 
Comportionraent. Fellowship. Association. 

Ant. Exclusion. Deprivation. Non- 
participation. Disqualifiaition. Alienation. 
Disconnection. Disruption. 

Community, n. See Commur 
nion. Natural likeness ; or, ob- 
jectively, an association of per- 
sons, political or voluntary, as 
based upon the feelings or ideas 
which bind them together. 

Stn. Aggregation. Association. Co- 
ordination. Society. Sympathy. Order. 
Class. Brotherhoud. Fraternity. Polity, 
Nationality. Unity. Similarity, Homo- 

Ant. Segregation. Secession. Inde- 
pendence. Dissociation. Disconnection. 
Rivalry. Hostility. Animosity. Estrange- 
ment. Dissimilarity. Contrariance, Hete- 

Commute, v. tr. Commufare. 
Has this difference from trans- 
mute, that whereas the latter i^ 
to change, in the sense of, to alter 
into another shape abstractedly. 
Commute is to alter into some 
equivalent or correspondent form. 

Syn. Substitute. Exchange. Compen- 
sate. Equalize. Barter. Balance. Modily. 

Ant. Misappropriation. Misconvert. 
Misappropriate. Dirallow. Stabilitate. Per- 
petuate. Stereotype. 

Compact, adj. Con and pan- 
gere, pact us, to strike. Beaten 
close. Used physically and meta- 

Syn. Dense. Close. Hard. Condensed 
Contracted. Compendious. Convenient. 
Concentrated. Consolidated. Concrete. 

Ant. Ductile. Brittle. Friable. Diifuse 
Un.shapely. Straggling. Broadcast. Sparse. 

Companion, n. Der, either 
from con and punts, bread; ind 


Sijnonijms and Antonyms. 

so, primarily, a messmate; or 
from comjKigo-uy nil's, a boU or 
fastening. One fastened to an- 
other on terms of habitual equal 

SvN. Associate. Hate. Comrade. 
Ant. Rival. Foe. Antagonist. Adver- 

Companionable, adf. See 
Companion. Having the quali- 
ties for constituting a good com- 

Syn. Pleasant. Affable. Sociable. Con- 
versible. Easy. Friendly. Agreeable. 

Ant. Disagreeable. Cbnrlish. Unso- 
ciable. Distant. Reserved. Ungenial. 
Cold. Inaccessible. Unneighbourly. Soli- 

Companionship,??. /See above. 

Syn. Acquaintance. Converse. Fami- 
liarity. Intimacy. Friendliness. Associa- 

Ant. Ignorance. Distance. Avoidance. 
Kstr..ngement. Alienation. Unfamiliarity. 
Solitude. Isolation. 

Company, n. See above. 

Syn. Aggregation. Association. Union. 
Sodality. Order. Fraternity. Guild. 

The characteristic of an order 
seems to be that it is constituted 
by external authority, or, at least, 
depends upon it for its existence. 
So of orders of knighthood and 
rehgious orders, which could not 
be without the sovereign and the 
pope, when regarded irrespec- 
tively of such essential authority, 
they may be spoken of as purely 
volimtary or independent associa- 
tions, sodalities, fraternities, or 

Ant. Rivalry. Opposition. Disqualifi- 
cation. Antagonism. C'ompeiition. Counter- 
agency. Counter-association. 

Compare, v. tr. Compararc. 
To place together for the sake of 
observing likeness. 

Syn. Assimilate. Collate. Parallel. 
Ant. Contrast. Oppose. Dissociate. 
Disconnect. Pit. Distinguish. 

Comparable, adj. See Com- 

Syn. Resembling. Approximate. Sr- 

Ant. Dissimilar. Unlike. Remote. In- 

Comparative, adj., Compara- 
tively. Sec above. Said of 
persons and things which, witli- 
out equaUing others, or some 
abstract standard, absolutely, do 
so with reference to due propoi- 
tion of circumstances, and in their 

Syn. Relatively. Proportionately. 
Ant. Absolutely. Actually. Positively. 

Compartment, n. Con and 
partiri, to divide; from purs, part, 
or lot. 

Syn. Division. Partition. Allotment. 
Sphere. Space. 

Ant. Its correlative : viz., anything oj 
which it is a compartment. 

Compass, n. Con and pasms, 
a pace. A space enclosed by a 
walker ; a region ; generally, the 
circuit or circumference of it. 

Syn. Area. Enclosure. Circuit. Cir- 
cumference. Horizon. 

Ant. Space. Common. Tract. Ex- 
pause. Boundlessness. Limitlessness. in- 

Compass, v. tr. See above. 
Has, in addition to the literal 
sense of encircling, the metapho- 
rical meanings of embracing and 
completing a design. ' He com- 
IDassed the other's ruin. 

Syn. Sun-ound. Encompass. Enclosft 
Environ. Qrcumscribe. Embrace. Achieve. 
Effect. Effectuate. Consummate. Com- 
plete. Circumvent. 

Ant. Expand. Dispand. Unfold. Am- 
plify. Display. Dismiss. Liberate. DLs- 
card. Fail. Bungle. Botch. Misconceive. 
Mismanage. Miscontrive. 

Compassion, n. Con and p;*'/, 
passio, to suffer, or be in a state 

Ant. Hard-heartedness. Unforgivc 

tSyuouyms and ArJoiiyms. 


OtbO! ,7 Antipathy. Denunciation. Con- 
demi Ation. Vindictiveness. Ketaliation. 

Compatible, «'//. See above. 
Said of that wliich may coexist 
m the same state of circum- 
stances, or those things of wliich 
a person or a thing may be col- 
lectively, at one time, the reci- 
jjieut. Also coincident -with ex- 
ternal circimistances that are pos- 
sible or consistent. 

•SvN. Consistent. Consentaneous. Har- 
monious. Cocxioteiit. Correspondtnt. 

Am. Incompatible. Impossible. Insiip- 
jiosable. Inconsistent. Discordant. Hostile. 
Adverse. Antagonistic. Incongruous. De- 
structive. Interrepugnanl. Contradictory. 

Compeer, n. Compar, eqiud. 
Equal, in the first instance, poli- 
tically or in social rank ; hence, 
generally, on terms of equaUty or 

Stn. Equal. Co-ordinate. Peer. Fel- 
low. Mate. Cot patriot. Comrade. 
AST. Superior. Inferior. Solitary. 

Compel, v. tr. Con and ^:>e/- 
lere, to drive. Used of promotive 
not restrictive force. 

Syn. Force. Oblige. Drive. Coerce. 

Ant. Persuade. Convince. Coax. Al- 
lure. Egg. Induce. Tempt. Seduce. 
Cuzlh. Liberate. Acquit. Release. 

Compendious, adj. Of the 
nature of compendium, from con 
and jicndere, to iveiyh. A collec- 
tion of chief .elements, such that 
the subject or work may be 
weighed in a convenient form. 

Sin. Condensed. Conceu trilled. Abridged. 
Oomniodious. Convenient. UsefuL H.mdy. 
Compreheiisive. Compact. 

A.NT. Diffuse. Vague. Proli.x. Shape- 
less. Cumbrous. Undigested. 

Compendium, n. See Compen- 
dious and Abridgment. 

Compensate, v. Con and pen- 
enrt, to pay. Used actively and 
intransitively, the latter with the 
j>rep. for. 

Stn. Satisfy. Atone. Remunerate. In. 
damnify. Reimburse. 

Ant. Defraud. Deprive. Cheat. DlS' 
satisfy. Injure. Damage. 

Compensation, n. See Com- 
pensate. Is given to individuals 
and to the state. 

Stn. Remuneration. Equivalent. Wages. 
Pay. Allowance. Restoration. Restitution. 
Satisfaction. Atonement. Espiaiion. lu- 
demuification. Amercement. Damages. 

Ant. Deprivation. Injury. Non-pay- 
ment. Gratuity. Donation. Fraudidence. 

Compete, v. int. Con and pe- 
tere, to seek. To aim at the same 
object with another. 

Stn. Contend. RivaL Emulate. 
Ant. Share. Participate 

Competence, n. See Compete. 
Competentia, from comjjetere, in 
the sense of to be suitable or 
sufficient. The convergence of 
many requisites in one person; 
hence, such as the following : 

Stn. Power. Adequacy, SulSciency. 
Wealth. Ability. 

Ant. Weakness. Incompetence. Ina- 
bility. Insufficiency. Waut, Poverty. 
Impccuniosity. Indigence. 

Competition, n. See Compete. 
Competitor, n. See Compete. 

Stn. Rival. Emulator. Opponent. Ad- 
versary. Antagonist. 

Ant. Participator. Partner. Auxiliary. 


Compilation, n. Compilare, 
in Lat. to piUugp, afterwards used 
for to stow or pack together. 

Stn. Collation. Composition. Patch- 

Ant. Effusion. Creation. 

Complacent, adj. Con and 
]ilacere, to please. Applied to that 
state of pleasure which leads to 
acquiescence, and which may be 
natural or habitual. 

Stn. Pleased. Satisfied. Content. Plea- 
sant. Affable. Kiiid. Mannerly. Ac- 
quiescent. Amiable. 

Ant. Dissatisfied. Irritated. Churlish. 
Unmannerly. Morose. Atsterfc Grodging 

Complaint, 72. Cor and /Jon- 


Stjnonyms and Antomjms. 

(/ere, to iveep. Used for the feel- 
ing, the subject, and the expres- 
sion of pain, annoyance, or dis- 
content ; also, technically, in the 
sense of the physical cause of 
such expression, namely, disease. 

Svx. Murmur. Discuntent, Repiuing. 
Grievance. Annoyance. Remonstrance. 
Expostulation. Lamentation. Slctoess. 

Ant. Confn"atulation. Rejoicing. Com- 
placency. Boon. Benefit. Approbation. 
Applause. Jubilee. Health. Sanity. 

Complement, n. Cumplere, to 
jiU. Is used both of quantity 
and number; 1, as filling up 
of the whole to its proper mea- 
sui'e ; and, 2, the sujjply of "what 
is wanted to the completion or 
perfection of it. In the fii'st 
sense, so many men are the com- 
plement of a sliip's crew ; in the 
second, the wife is the comple- 
ment of the husband, or vice 

SVN. Completion. Fulfilment. Totality. 
Supply. Counterpart. Correlative. 

Ant. Deticiency Deficit. Insufliciency. 
Abatement. Detraction. Defalcation. Dimi- 
nution. Drawback. 

Complete, adj. See Comple- 

Svs. Full. Perfect. Finished. Ade- 
quate. Entire. Consummate. 

Ant. Incomplete. Partial. Imperfect. 
Unfinished. Inadequate. 

Completely, adv. See Com- 

Completion, 7i. See Complete. 

Complex, "dj. dm and pliairp, 
to fold. Folded thickly or intri- 
cately. Said of intricacy of move- 
ment, plan, proceeding, or argu- 

SifN. Intricate. Multifarious. Multifold, 
liivolved. Deep. Many-sided. Abstruse. 
Close. Tanglod. Obscure. 

r\NT. Obvious. Plain. Simple. I'irect. 
Siij)<.-rl!ci,.l. Uiircive.lid. \',igue. 



Complexion, /-. yauie i\yot. 

The latter is it«ed metaphoneally 
or analogously for — 

Syn. Face. Aspect. Colour. Appear- 
ance. Character. Hue. Interpretation. 

A>T. UnindJcitivenPss. Concealment. 
Reticence. Inexpressiou. Heart. Core. 

Complexity, n. See Complex. 

Compliance, n. Either from 
complere, to fill up the measure 
of another's requirements, or com- 
pJicare, to enfold one's self with 
them and his designs. Comp. 

Srx. Yielding. Submission. Obedience^ 
Acquiescence. Consent. Duciility. Docility. 

Ant. Resistance. Repulsion. Disobedi> 
euce. Refusal. Non-compliance. 

Compliant, adj. See Com- 

Complicated, adj. Same de- 
rivation as Complex. 

Sin. Confused. Intricate. Involved. 
Perplexed. Entangled. 

Ant. Clear. Simple. Uninvolved. Lucid 

Compliment, n. Same word 
as Complement; but with the- 
French form, com) ill merit, from 
compiUer. A compliment is there- 
fore the expression of the sum 
total of regard and duty. As 
this is likely to become merely 
ceremonious, the word has at- 
tached to it very often the notion 
of insincerity. 

Svs. Homage. Courtesy. Flattery 
Ant. ln=ult. Discourtesy. Contempt. 

Complimentary, adj. See 

Comply, v. iid. See Compli- 

Component,?;. Coji and ;>one/vv 
to put. Those things which, put 
together, make a compoimd 

S\-n. logreilient. Element. Constituent. 
Cont»-nt. Kudini>-nl. 

Ant. to n. Aggrepale. Sum. Eniinty 
Coiipiiml. V" odj. Niin-coiistiiuii,» 
tuicigii. Adveiiiiiiuus. Helfi.t itoas. 

Spionpns and Antonyms. 

Idhpokt, v. tr. and int. Con 
fiiicl portare, to carry. To carry 
one's self— in the phi-ase, comport 
■• 'lie's self. Also used in the sense 
of agreeing with something else. 

Stn. Demean. Conduct. Carry. Behave. 
JiiUy. Consist. Harmonize. Match. Agree. Coincide. 

AlfT. Mi.sdemean. Misconduct. Forget. 
Vary. Differ. Disagree. Contrast. Mili- 

Compose, v. tr. Componere. To 
put together in the way of collo- 
cation merely ; or also for the 
further purpose of pacification. 

SrN. Construct. Compile. Write. Form. 
Paciiy. Mitigate. Settle. Adjust. 

Ant. Analyze. Dissect. Criticise. Irri- 
tate. Excite. Awaken. Stir. 

Composed, adj. See Compose, 
and Collected. 

CoMPOsiTioJf, «. /S'ee Compose. 
Used of matters mental and ma- 

SrN. Compound. Conformation. Struc- 
ture. Mi.xture. Combination. Compromise. 
Adjustment. Settlement. Commutation. 

Ant. Analysis. Segregation. Criticism. 
Examination. Discussion. Disturbance. Ag- 
gravation. Perpetuation. 

Composure, n. See 
and Collected. 

Compound, v. tr. See Com- 
pose. Its application is commonly 
physical, yet also verbal and ideal. 

Stn. Concert. Mix. Amalgamate, Fuse. 
Akt. Analyze. Resolve. 

CoMPBEHEND, V. tr. Con and 
prehenderc. To grasp materially, 
or with the mind ; also, meta- 
physically, to contain. 

Syn. Comprise. Grasp. Understand. 
Enclose. Include. Involve. Embrace. 
Aht. Exclude. Except. Misunderstand. 

Comprehension, n. See Com- 

fJxN. Understanding. Conception. 
Ant. Misunderstanding. Misconception. 

Comprehensive, adj. See Com- 
prehend. Wide enough to in- 
clude many things or ideas. 


I Stn. Wide. Ample. Qen(.ral. Generic, 
SigniBcant. Capacious. Inclasive, Oom- 

j pendious. Pregnant. 

I Ant. Narrow. Restricted. Shallow. 
Exclusive. Adversative. Exceptive. 

Compress, v. tr. Con and 
premere, to j^ress. To make to 
occupy less space by making the 
parts of elements closer. 

•Stn. Condense. Compact Contract 
Abridup. Epitomize. Summarize. 

Ant. Expand. Dilate. Diffuse. Colll- 

Compression, h. Sec Com- 

Comprise, v. tr. Same as 
comprehend, thi-ough the Fr. 
compris,part. of comprendre. 

Stn. Embrace. Include. Involve. Con- 
tain. Comprehend. Imply. 

Ant. Exclude. Except. Discard. Bar 
Omit. Reject. 

CoMPROBATlON, u. Con and 
pirobare, to j)rove. Proof, but 
es]iecially joint proof. 

SvN. Induction. Co-evidence. Co-testi- 

Ant. Disproof. Count«r-evidence. Re- 
futation. Rejoinder. Iniercontrariance. 

Compromise, v. tr. Con pro- 
mittere. A joint promise, im- 
plying its fulfilment to settle 
matters of dispute by ai'bitration. 
Used also to signify the drawing 
of another into risk, by involving 
him in the responsibilities of 
yonr own position. 

Srx. Arbitrate. Compose. Adjust. Set- 
tle. Ead.iiigcr. Implicate. Involve. 

An-t. Assiavate. Excite. Foster. Per- 
petuate. Exempt. Enfranchise. Disen- 
gage. Extricate. Exonerate. 

Compulsion, n. See Compel. 

Compunction, n. Con and 
punf/ere, p)i(>ictus, toprrlck. The 
jDrickiug of the conscience. 

Stn. Misgiving. Remorse. Regret 

Ant. Satisfaction. Self-complacency. 


CoMPUTK, V. tr. C(»nputare, 
To reckon. 


St/nonyms and Antonyms. 

iSifK. Calculate. Reckon. Count. Rate. 

A;>i. Cunjecture. Guess. Surmise. 

OoilKADE, n. (.'(tmera, a dicim- 
h i: A chamber fellow, after- 
wards a companion generally. 
See Compeer. 

Concatenate, v. tr. See 

Concatenation, ??. Con and 
c'ltena, a chain. Linking toge- 
ther either. 

Sn«. Linking. Stringing. Connection. 

Am. Discatenation. Unlinking. Un- 
clianging. Severance. Intermission. Dis- 

Concave, adj. Concavus. Hol- 

Syn. Hollow. Scooped. Pitted. Ex- 
cavated. Retreating. Alveolar. 

AsT. Convex. Tumular. Protuberant. 
Uelievaut. Embossed. Intumescent. 

Conceal, v. tr. Con celare, to 


Sys. Hide. Secrete. Disguise. Dissem- 
ble. Screen. Suppress. 

Asi. Reveal. JIanifest. Exhibit. Avow. 
C'Oifi'si. Expose. Promulgate. Publish. 

Concede, v. tr. Con and ce- 
dere, to yield. 

Sts. Grant. Yield. Allow. Admit. 

AxT. Refuse. Withhold. Deny. Con- 
tiadici. Contest. Contend. Claim. 

Conceit, n. Concipere, to con- 
c'ii-'. The invention or enter- 
tainment of an idea or project ; 
thence the entertainment of un- 
due ideas respecting self; hence 
A-anity and the like. 

SVN. Idea. Notion. Thought. Affecta- 
tion. Vanity. Abstraction. Imagination. 

Akt. Substance. Reality. Verily. Body. 
Concretion. Fact. Naturalness, tjnaffect- 
eUness. Simplicity. Humility. 

Conceive, v. tr. See Conceit. 

Stjj. Imagine. Apprehend. Believe. 
Sujipose. Design. 

Ant. Produce. Express. Propound. De- 
clare. Execute. Misconceive. 

Conception, ??. .^ee Conceive, 
whose meanings it follows. 

Concentrate, v. tr. Cm and 
centrum, a centre. To bring to 
an actual centre, or generally to 
gather into a closer combination. 
Act. and neut. 

Stn. Assemble. Converge. Muster. 
Congregate. Convene. Draw. Conglo- 
merate. Condense. Localize. Centralize. ' 

Ant. Disperse. Scatter. Dismiss. I)e- 

Concentration, n. See Con- 
centrate, whose meanings it fol- 

Concern,?;. Con and.cer7iere,to 
look. With fixed look upon an ob- 
ject of interest. So where an un- 
dertaking, too, is a matter of in- 
terest on which the eyes of part- 
ners and subordinates may be 
supposed to look with a common 
interest, it is called, commerci- 
ally, a concern. It is used also of 
cases where the feehng of in- 
terest has suffered disappoint- 
ment ; hence sympathy and sor- 

Stn. Interest Regard. Anxiety. Re- 
gret. Sympathy. Sorrow. 

AsT. Indifference. Disregard. Careless- 
ness. Congratulation. Chuckling. 

Concerning, prep. 

Stn. About. Of. Relating. Regarding, 

Ant. Omitting. Disregarding. 

Concert, 7i. See Concern. Is 
the practical aspect of concern, 
an acting in common. 

Stn. Union. Combination. Association. 

Ant. Dissociation. Counteraction. Op- 

Concession, n. See Concede. 

Conciliate, v. tr. Lat. conci- 
Uum, a council. To combine in- 
to a party with a common in- 
terest or piu'poso ; thence ap- 
plied to such treatment from 
individuals. Used in a special 
force of bringing lack thoso who 
have taken olTeuoe. 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


Sn;. Win. Gain. Enlist. Pacify. Pro- 

Ant. Lose. Estrange. Excommunicate. 
VJi-tt. Alienate. Irritate. Displease. 

CONOINNITY, n. Cmicinnitas. 
Cinnus, a mixed drink of spelt- 
grain and wine. Used of style. 

SrN. Harmony. Nicety. Neatness. Ba- 
lance. Admixture. Temper. Taste. Urace. 

AifT. Harshness. Abruptness. Rugged- 
ness. Angularity. Disharmony. 

Concise, adj. Con and ccedere, 
to cut. Cut short. Used of style 
in a favourable sense. 

Syn. Condensed. Terse. Pregnant. Ex- 
pressive. Pointed. Neat. Compendious. 

Ant. Diffuse. Prolix. Verbose. Cir- 
cumlocutory. Rambling. Discursive. 

Conclave, n. Con and clavis, 
a key. A council held with 
closed doors. 

Stn. Council. Assembly. Bureau. Synod. 
Cabinet. Caucus. 

Ant. Crowd. Multitude. Assemblage. 
Population. Throng. Populace. Mob. 

Conclude, v. tr. and int. Con 
and claudere, to shut. As a pro- 
ceeding or a process of reasoning 

BriJ. Close.; Terminate. Complete. Fi- 
nisli. Infer. Deduce. Determine. Argue. 

Ant. Begin. Initiate. Start. Open. Pro- 
kiig. Protract. Perpetuate. Doubt. Dispute. 

Conclusion, n. See Conclude. 
Conclusive, adj. See Above. 

SvN. Definitive. Indisputable. Positive. 

Ant. Uncertain. Dubious. Question- 
abli'. Hypothetical. Supposititious. Pro- 
blematical. Theoretical. Vague. Indeter- 
minate. Inconclusive. 

Concoct, v. tr. Con and co- 
quere, to cook. 

Stn. Compound. Prepare. Mix. Hatch. 

Ant. Spoil. Upset. Disconcoct. Dis- 
concert. Mar. Mispieixire. 

Concoction, n. See Concoct. 

Stn. Brew. Mixture. Compound. 
Ant. CYudity. Rawness. Ingredient 

Concomitant, adj. Con and 

coiiU'S, a companion. 

Ktn. Accompanying. Attending. At- 
tendant. Synchronous. 

Ant. Precedent. Subsequent. Diverse. 
EJiisounected. Independent. Irrelat-ve. 

Concomitant, n. Set xdj. 

Stn. Accompaniment. Accet^ary. Ad 

Ant. Intrusion. Discrepancy. Incon- 

Concord, n. Con and cor, the 
heart. See Accord. 

Stn. Harmony. Accordance. Unani- 
mity. Amity. 

Ant. Discord. Disagreement. Variance 

Concordance, n. See Con- 

Concourse, n. Con cursir. 
cunere, to run, 

Stn. Assembly. Assemblage. Crowd. 
Mob. Throng. Convergence. 

Ant. Cabinet. Conclave. Cabal. Dis- 
persion. Desertion. Solitude. 

Concrete, adj. Con and crescert-, 
crttus, to (jrotu. From Compact. 
Used technically of binding ma- 
terials for foundations, and 
walks, or floors ; and in logic for 
the union of the idea with the 
subject in which it resides. 

Stn. rii-m. Compact. Consolidated. 
Indurated. Embodied.' Particularized. 

Art. Loose. Sloppy. Luteous. Shift- 
ing. Boggy. Swampy. Yielding. Unre- 
sisting. Abstract. Generalized. 

Concur, v. int. See Con- 
course. To meet in one point. 
Used analogously. 

Stn. Meet. Converge. Concentrate. 

Ant. Diverge. Radicate. Disagrae. Dis- 
sent. Part. Differ. 

Concussion, n. Concutere, to 
shake together. A violent meeting 
of two physical objects. See Col- 
lision and Commotion. 

Co.NDEMN, V. tr. Con and 
damnum. Loss or penalty. 

Stn. Convict. Cast. Censure. IJenotmca. 
Doom. Sentence. 

Ant. Absolve. Acquit. Exonerates 
Pardon. Justify. Approve. 

Condense, v. tr. Con and 
densus, dense. To make compact 
by a compression of particlea 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

Used metaphorically. See Com 

Condescend, v. int. Conde- 
scendere. To come down from 
one's own level to that of an- 

Stn, Stoop. Descend. Deign. Vouch- 

Akt. Disdain. Scorn. Spurn. 

Condescension, n. See Con- 

Stn. Affability. Graciousness. Favour. 

Ant. Haughtiness. Arrogance. Super- 
ciliousness. Pride. Disdain. Scorn. 

Condign, adj. Con and dignua, 
vjorthy. Used commonly of ill- 

Syn. Deserved. Merited. Meet. Just. 
Akt. Undeferved. Unmerited. Scant. 

Condiment, n. Condire, to 
preserve. A choice, sweet, or 
savoury compound. 

SvN. Sauce. Pickle. Preserve. Season- 

Ant. Gall. AVormwood. Ashes. Aloes. 

Condition, n. Condere, to 
luild. The aggregate of circum- 
stances which make up a state 
of mind or matter. Any one of 
them being regarded as neces- 
s?.ry", the word is used of that 
which must enter into another 
thing, in order rightly to consti- 
tute it, natui-ally or convention- 

SvN. State. Case. Mood. Term. Mode. 
Qualification. Requisite. Stipulation. 

Ant. Relation. Dependence. Situation. 
Circumstance. Concession. Fulfilment. 

Conditionally, adv. See Con- 

SvN. Relatively. Provisionally. Pro- 
vided. Hypothetically. Contingently. 

Ant. Absolutely. Unconditionally. Cate- 
gorically. Positively. 

Condole, v. int. Con and 
du/rre, dulor, to grieve. It is fol- 
lowed by the prep. with. 

tiVN. Syiuputliize. Console. Cumniiseratc. I 

Ant. Congratulate. Exhilarate, Rally 
Disregard. Discompassionate. Dlscoia> 

Condolence, n. See Condole 
Condonation, n. Condonare, 

donum, a grant. A granting of 


Syn. Pardon. Forgiveness. Amnesty. 
Excuse. Indulgence. 

Ant. Retaliation. Punishment. Atone- 
ment. Satisfaction. Expiation. 

Conduce, v. int. Con and 
ducere, to lead. 

Syn. Concur. Contribute. Avail Aid. 
Tend. Coincide. Converge. Conspire. 
Subserve. Lead. 

Conducive, adj. See Conduce. 

Syn. Contributive. Subsidiary. Promo- 
tive. Causative. Effective. Productive. 

Ant. Preventative. Counteractive. Con- 
trariant. Repugnant. Destructive. 

Conduct, v. tr. See Conduce. 

Sy.n. Lead. Bring. Transfer. Carry. 
Guiiie, Control. Manage. Administer. 

Ant. Mislead. Miscarrj'. Mismanage. 
Misconduct. Misadminister. 

Confabulation, n. Con and 
fabula, from fari, to speak. A 
consultation on a not very im- 
portant matter. See Colloquy. 

Confection, n. Conficere, to 
compound. See Concoction, Con- 
diment, and Compoimd. Used 
of sweet compounds. 

Syn. Sweetmeat. Sugarplum. Cake. 

Ant. /See Condiment. 

Confederacy, n., Confeder.a- 
TION. Con and fadus eris, a 
treaty. By usage, spoken not 
only of national but also personal 
alliances ; and used of the rela- 
tionship and of the states re- 

Syn. Alliance. Treaty. League. Unimi. 
Ant. Disruption. Secession. Dlfunion. 



Syn. Leagued. Allied. 
Ant. DisuniieiL Diikiolve<l. 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


CoNFEDEEATE, n. Set Com- 

CoNFKK, V. tr. Con and/erre, 
to hring. Used of bringing things 
together for consideration or 
comparison ; and also for carry- 
ing to another for presentation. 
Also nsed, intransitively, for de- 

Srs. Compare. Collate. Deliberate. 
Consult Give. Present. 

AST. Dissociate. Contrast Hazard. 
Conjecture. Withhold. Withdraw. 

Confess, v. tr. Covfiteor. Is 
used of the avowal of faults or 
offences; or, sometimes, of that 
which the speaker does not feel 
to be such, but treats as such 

Stn. Aver. Avow. Reveal. Disclose. 

Ant. Disaver. Disavow. Suppress. 
Silentiate. Deuy. 

Confession, n. See Confess. 
It ]ias also the technical sense of 
a creed, or the declaration of it. 

Svs. Creed. Catechism. Articles. Doc- 
trines. Tenets. Profession. Declaration. 

Ant. Heresy. Apostacy. Protest Con- 
demnation. Kefutatlon. Index. Renun- 
ciaiion. Abjuration. 

Confidant, n. Con and fi</es, 
faith. One to" whom we confide 
our secrets. 

Syn. Confessor. Adviser. Confederate. 
A ST. Traitor. Betrayer. Rival. 

Confide, v. int. See Confidant. 

SvN. Trust. Lean. Hope. Believe. 
Depend. Rely. 

jVnt. Doubt. Distrust. Disbelieve. 

Confidence, n. See above. 

.Syn. Trust. Faith. Belief. Assurance. 
Dependence. Reliance. 

Ant. Distrust. Mistrust. Doubt. Mis- 

Confidential, adj. See above. 
'1 rusted and ti-ustworthy, or re- 
garded as such. Used also of 
matters requiring secrecy or con- 

Stn. Private. Secret. Trustworthy, lu 

Ant. Public. Open. Patent. OCcial 
Treacherous. Insidious. 

CoNFlGTJEATioN, n. Con and 
figiira. Figure. 

Syn. Shape. Outline. Delineation. 
Form. Figure. Conformation. Contour. 

Ant. Shapelessness. Araorphousness, 
Formlessness. Indelineatlon. Contortion. 
Distortion. Deformity. 

Confine, v. tr. Con saxd Jin is, 
a houndai-y. 

Syn. Circumscribe. Restrict Narrow. 
Enclose. Imprison. Incarcerate. Bind. 

Ant. Dilate. Expand. Extend. Widen. 
Unfasten. Liberate. Loosen. Dlsenclose. 

Confined, adj. See Confine 
and Circumscribe. 

Confirm, v. tr. Confirmare. 
To make firm or fii-mer. Not 
used of things material, but 
moral and mental. 

Syn. Strengthen. Stabilitate. Establisn. 
Prove. Perpetuate. Sanction. Corroborate. 

Ant. Weaken. Shake. Upaet Cancel 
Abrogate. Repeal. Annul. Confute. Re- 

Confirmation, 71. See Con- 

Confiscate, v. tr. C'on and 
Jiscus, the treasury. To seize 
goods on the part of the State. 
In parlance used of common 
transactions, not gravely politi- 

Stn. Seize. Escheat Dispossess. Se- 
questrate. Distrain. 

Ant. Restore. Release. Refund. 

Conflagration, v. Con and 
flayrare, to hum. Comp. a fla- 
grant or burning shame or deed. 

SvN. Ignition. Combustion. Fire. Arson. 

Ant. Extinction. Quenching. Smoulder. 

CONPUCT, «. Confligere,ictas, 
to strike. 

Syn. Encounter. Engagement. Contest 

Ant. Reconciliation. Pacification. Amil^; 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

O'JNFLICTING, adj. See Con- 
flict Said of interests, opinions, 
and statements. 

Ssx. Adversf. Opposed. Irrreconcil- 
&b]e. Contradictory. 

Ant. Harmonizing. Consistent. Con- 
ten taneotis. Congruous. 

CoNTLUENCB, V. Co7i and 
flnere, to flow. The meeting of 
•waters, as of a tributary with its 
river. Used metaphorically. 

Stx. Conflu.'c Mev'ting. .Concourse. 
Convergence. Concurrence. 

Ant. Reflux. Refluence. Dispersion. 
Overflow. Diffluence. 

CoNFOBM, V. int. and tr. Con 
and forma, a form. To agree, or 
cause to agi'ee, in forms of cus- 
tom, belief, or procedure, 

Srx. Agree. Consent. Unite. Har- 
laonize. Adapt. Fit, Tally. Suit. 

A-XT. Disagree. Dissent Vary. Disso- 
ciate. Secede. Misfit. Dissimilate. Mis- 

Conformation, n. See Con- 
form and Configui-ation. 

Conformity, n. See Conform. 

Confound, v. tr. Con and 
fuadtre, ijart.fusus, to pour. To 
pour into a mixed and troubled 
mass. To mix one thing -with 
another in ignorance. To thi-ow 
the senses of another into con- 

Stn. Confuse. Disorder. Trouble. Dis- 
arrange. Intermix. Astoimd. Abash. 
Mystify. Obscure. 

Ant. Arrange. Classify. Order. AIlo- 
<"ate. Distribute. Dispense. UnraveL Kiiu- 
cleate. Eliminate, Elucidate, Enlighten. 

CoNFBATEENiTT, n. Con and 
fruter, a brother. See Company, 

Confront, v. tr. Con and 
frons, the face. 

SvN, Oppose, Face. Resist. Intimi- 
date, Menace, 

Ant. Rally. Encourage. Abet Coun- 

Confuse, v. tr. See Confound, 
It is the same word, but not so 
WL'igh.ty in its application. 

Contusion, n. See Confose. 

Confutation, n. Confutare. 
to confute. Comp, Futile. Fw 
tare is fi'Om fundere, to pov.r. 
Confutation is the complete 
drowning gr quenching of the 
statement. See Confirmation, 

Congeal, v. tr. Con and geln, 

Sts. Freeze. Benumb. Congelate. 
Ant. Thaw. Relax. Melt Dissolve, 

Congenial, adj. Con and 
genuix,the spirit or nature. Suited 
by nature. 

Syn. Natural. Concordant, Consonant 
Grateful. Sympathetic. Kindred. 

Ant. Unnatural Abhorrent. Discordaut. 
Dissonant. Disagreeable. Ungrateful. An- 
tagonistic. Alien. Dissimilar. Uncongenial. 

Congenital, adj. Con and 
gignere, gen if us, to beget. Is used 
of equality of age in persons, and 
also of tilings inherent from 
birth, especially as natm-ally in- 
herent in the individual. 

Stn. CoevaL Coetaneous (see Coeval) 
Natural. Inherent. Innate. Immanent 
Ingrained. Incarnate. Connate. Ingene 

Ant. Unnatural. Uncongenial. Habitua 
Acquired. Extraneous. Ascititious, Ac 
vemitious. .\rtiiicial. Assumed. 

Congestion, n. Con andgerere 
to carry. An undue anf' ol> 
structive collection of matter. 

Si-N. Congeries. Accumulation. Glome- 
ration. Redundancy. Plethora. 

Ant. Dissipation. Diffusion. Qearanct: 
Evacuation. Colliqiiation. 

Conglomerate, v. tr. See 

CoNGLUTiNATE, r. tr. See Ag- 

Congratulate, v. tr. Con and 
aratulor, from gratus, pleasant. 
To say or wish pleasant things. 

S-»-N. Felicitate. 
A>T. ^■e« Condole, 

CONGBEQATB, V. tr. See Ag' 




Congress, n. Congredior, from 
lirudns, to step into one. An open 
and lawful assembly. 

Syn. I'arliament. Counci). Conclave. 
Assembly. Synod. Legislature. Convun- 

Ant. Cabal. Conclave. Mob. 

Congruous, adj. Congruere. 
Said to be from grus, a crane ; in 
which case the original meaning 
of Congruous must have been 
gregarious or collective. Such a 
meaning it has entirely lost. 

Stn. Agreeing. Harmonious. Consonant. 
Accordant. Coherent. Homogeneous. 

Ant. Discordant. Dissonant Incon- 
gruous. Heterogeneous. 

Conjecture, n. Conjicere, to 
cast together. 

Stn. Guess. Divination. Surmise. Sup- 

Ant. Computation. Calculation. Reckon- 
ing. Inference. Proof. Deduction. 

Conjecture, n. See verb. 

Conjoin, v. tr. See Concate- 
nate. Lat. conjungere. 

Conjuncture, n. Conjungere, 
to join together. An important 
joining or meeting of circum- 

Syn. Crisis. Turning-point. Contin- 
gency. Occasion. Exigency. Emergency. 

Ant. Arrangement. Provision. T-e- 
paration. Ordainment. Course. 

Conjure, v. tr. Conjarare. 
To call upon by force of oath. 

Syn. Implore. Importune. Crave. En- 

Ant. Deprecate. Protest. Remonstrate. 

Connate, adj. Con and nasci, 
to be born, natus. See Congenital. 

Connatural. Con, with, and 
iiatura, nature. See Connate. 

Connect, v. tr. Con and 
vrctere, to iveave. See Concate- 

Synonyms and Antonyms, 
n. See Ag- 


Connection, n. See Conm^ct. 

aYN. (Juiijunction. Junction. Union. 
Association. Concatenation ReUtioii. 
Affinily. Relevance. 

Ant. Disconnection. Disjunction. Dis- 
union. Dissociation. Independence. Irre- 

Connive, v. int. Con and ni'- 
verc, conn, with nicare and nic- 
tare, to unnk. To wink at a 
thing, and so avoid observing it. 
■Followed by the prep. at. 

Stn. Wink. Pretermit. Puss. Over- 

Ant. Notice. Visit. Censure. Invus- 

Connubial, adj. Con and 
nvbtre, to marry. 

St:;. Conjugal. Matrimonial. Nuptial. 

Ant. Single. Celibate. Illicit. Adul- 

Conquer, v. tr. and int. Con 
and qucerere, to seek. To gain for 
one's self by force. To exert su- 
perior force over another. Ap- 
plied to the persons and the ter- 
ritory of the enemy. 

Stn. Subdue. Vanquish. Overtonie. 
Overpower. Overthrow. Defeat. Crush- 
Master. Subjugate. 

Ant. Fail. Fall. Retreat. Succumb 
Fly. Submit. Surrender. Lose. Forfeit 
Sacrifice. Resign. Cede. 

Conquest, n. See Conquer. 

Syn. Victory. Triumph. Overthrow 
Discomfiture. Subjugation. 

Akt. Failure. Defeat. Retreat. Sur- 
render. Forfeiture. Submission. Discom- 
fiture. Resignation. Cession. 

Consanguinity, n. Con and 
sanguis, blood. Blood relation- 

Stn. Kindred. Blood. Lineage. 
Ant. Disconnection. Dissociation. 

Conscience, n. Con and scire^ 
to know. The innate knowledge 
of right and wrong ; and some- 
times used for its right exercise. 

Syb. Sense. Intuition. Integrity. Prin- 

Ant. Irresponsibility. License. 

I scieJice. 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


s™. Scmpulous. Strict. Upright, 

Akt. LFnscnipulous. Lax. Unprinci- 
pled. Reprobate. Unconscientious. 

CoNSCiousNEBS, 11. See Con- 

Sm. Sense. Sensation. Intelligence. 

Ant. Insensibility. Unconsciousness. 

Conscription, v. Con^ and 
scrihere. The forcible levying of 

Si-N. Impressment. 

Akt. Enlistment. Volunteering. 

Consecrate, v. tr. Con and 
trtcer, sacred. 

Stn. Dedicate. Devote. Enshrine. Hal- 
low. Sanctily. 

Akt. Desecrate. Secularize. Profane. 

Consecration, «. See Conse- 

Consecutive, adj. Con and 
f>f<]ui, si'cittiis, to folloiv. Said 
of speech and style, follovring in 
due order. 

Syk. Orderly. Arranged. Coherent. 

Ant. Disordered. Undigested. Inco- 
herent. Rambling. Inconsequent. Incon- 
secutive. Discursive. 

Consent, v. int. Consentire. 
To think or feel together with 
a proposal or proposition, fol- 
lowed grammatically by the 
'prep. -to. 

Stn. Submit. Agree. Acquiesce. 

Ant. Resist. Disagree. Dissent De- 
cline. Refuse. 

Consentaneous, ad. Consen- 
tient. See Consent. 

Consequence, n. Consequentla. 
Con and m'jui, to follow. The 
process of following from a cause 
or reason, and the result so en- 
suing. Used also for the import- 
ance which is implied in such an 

Syn. Effect. Issue. Result. Inference. 
Coherence. Deduction. Conclusion. Im- 
ij-jrtance. Note, Moment. DIgrtty. 

Akt. Ouise. Causation. An.«»dence. 
Premiss. Oiiion. Datum. Postulate. Axiom. 

Unimportance. Insignificance. Inconse- 
quence. Inconsecutiveness. Irrelevance. 
Meanness. Paltriness. 

Consequent, adj. See Conse- 

Syn. Inferred. Deduced. Resultant. 
Axruing. Attendant. 

Ant. Assumed. Conjectured. Antece- 
dent. Conducive. Productive. Inconse- 

Consequential, adj. See 
above. Has both senses of Con- 

Stk. Coherent. Connected. Cogent. 
Logical. Pompous. Arrogant. 

Ant. Incoherent, Disconnected. Invalid. 
IllogicaL Inconsequential. Affable. Con- 
versible. Accessible. Easy. Humble 

Consequently, adv. Se' 

Stn. Accordingly. Therefore. See Ac- 

Ast. Irrelevantly. Inconseqnently. 

Conservation, n. Con sei-vure, 
to keep. 

Stn. Preservation. Keeping. Protection 
Guardianship. Maintenance. Stabilltation 

Ant. Neglect. Exposure. Abrogation 
Destruction. Abolition, 

Conservative, adj., Cox- 
serve, V, tr. See Conservation. 

Consider, v. tr. and int. 
Considerare. Der. uncertain. 
Either con and seder e, to sit; to 
sit close to a subject ; or sidus, a 
star. To form, as it were, astro- 
logical observations and infer- 
I ences. Nent. and act. 

Syn. Attend. Revolve. Meditate. Think. 
1 Reflect. Investigate Regard. Observe. 
I Judge. Opine, infer. Deduce. Deem. 

Ant. Disregard. Ignore. 
1 Despise. Guess. Conjecture. 

I Considerable, aJJ. S'. e above. 

1 Syn. Important. Large. Extensive. 
' Akt. Unimportant. Trifling. Incon- 
j siderable. 

I Considerate, adj. See above. 
I Given to consider the position or 
I requirements o' othere, or one's 


Sijnoiujms and Antonyms. 

Sto. Tho>ightfuI. Attentive. Forbear- 
'n;;. UDselfisb. Judicious. Careful. Cau- 

Ant. Tlioughtless. Inconsiderate. In- 
»ttetiUve. Kude. Overbearing. Selfish, 
injudicious. Rasii. Careless. 

Consideration, n. See Con- 
sider. Add. 

Stn. Importance. Respect. Consequence. 
Motive. Inducement. Compensation. Sub- 
sidy. Remuneration. 

Ant. Meanness. Insignificance. Unim- 

Considering. See above. Used 

S\"N-. Because. Regarding. 

Ant. Irrespectively. Independently. 

Consign, v. tr. Con and 
fiiynum, the sign or signature of 
a document of trust. See As- 

The difference between Assign 
ami Consign is that the former 
locates, without implying cus- 
tody or moral responsibility, 
which are implied by the latter. 

Consignment, ??. See Consign. 

Syn. Custody. Conmiission. Delegation. 
Ant. Miscommitment. Misconsignment. 

Consist, v. n. Con and sistere, 
to stand. Is the neuter form of 
Constitute, iind is equivalent ' to 
be constituted,' and is followed 
by (/, except where it is equi- 
valent to Cohere. See Constitute. 

Consistency, n. See Consist. 
Physical, moral, and mental co- 
herence or constitution of parts, 
with the additional idea, in the 
latter cases, of propriety in such 

Si-N. Consistence. Composition. Sub- 
stance, Material. Amalgamation. Com- 
pound. Mass. Density. Solidity. Close- 
ness. Compactness. Coherence. Uni- 
tormity. Harmony. Analogy. Proportion, 

Ant. Volatility. Vaporousness. Sub- 
tllity. Tenuity, Sublimation, Incoherence, 
inconsistency. Incongruity. Disproportion. 
C'ectrAriety. Contradiction. 


See CoLsist- 



Consociation, v. See Asso- 
ciation and Company, 

Console, v. tr. Con and solus. 
Is to relieve a person of the feel- 
ing of solitude under trouble. 
Sometimes applied directly to 
the feeling consoled. 

S™. Relieve. Soothe. Solace. Comfort. 

Ant. Congratulate. Felicitate. Aggra- 
vate. Oppress. Disturb. Trouble. Annoy 
Irritate. Disreconcile. Dissatisfy. 

Consolidate, v. tr. Con and 
soUdns, solid. To make firm or 
firmer by increased closeness of 
parts, or to unite firmly two 
things in one, 

Stn. Condense. IniTorporate. Conglnti- 
nate. Cement. Solder. Bond. Weld, 
Thicken. Strengthen. Fuse. 

Ant. Weaken. Dissipate. Disunite. 
Dismember. Disintegrate. CoUiquate. Dis- 
solve. Melt. Vaporize. Sublimate. At- 
tenuate. Triturate, Pulverize, 

Consonant, adj. Con and 
sonare, to sound. Harmonious. 
See Congruous and Consistent. 

Consort, v. v. Con and sors, 
a jyart or lot. Followed by the 
prep, with, 

Stn. Associate. Herd. Company. Fra- 


Ant. Avoid. 
cate. Black-ball. 

Abandon. Excommuni- 
Banish. Exclude. 

Conspicuous, adj. Consjncere, 
to behold. Easily seen, 

Stn. Visible. Manifest. Prominent. 
Salient. Observable. Noticeable. Magnified. 

Ant. Invisible. Inconspicuous. Inob- 
gervable. Unnoticeable. Microscopia 

Conspiracy, n. Con and 
sjnrare, to breathe. A union for 
a common purpose — by usage, 
applied unfavourably — so close 
that the members mingle their 
aspirations in secret. 

S™, Intrigue, CabaL Plot, Treasoa 

Ant, Legislation. Parliament. Congress, 
SyntKi. Comp. Conclave and Cabal. 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


CoNsriRK V See Con- 

Const AKT, aflj. Con and stare, 
(o st'ind. Standing firm, regular, 
or true. 

Syk. Uniform. Regular. Invariable. 
Perpetual. Continuou.s. Firm. Faithful. 
True. Trustworthy. 

Ant. Irregular. Exceptional. Variable. 
Casual. Accidental. Incidental. Broken. 
Interrupted. Inconstant. Fickle. Untrust- 
worthy. Faithless. Treacherous. False. 

Consternation. Con and 

sternere, to strcin or throw down. 
A knock-dowu blow of astonish- 

Syn. Amazement. Bewilderment. As- 
tonishment. Astounding. Horror. Terror. 

Ant. Encouragement. Boldness. Fear- 
lessness. Assurance. Anticipation. Wel- 
come. Expectation. Greeting. Congratu- 

Constituent, n. Con and 
stituo, from sido, to place or 
stand. Used of persons politi- 
cally, and of things as parts of a 
compound whole. 

Syn. Voter. Returner. Sender. De- 
putcr. Appuinter. Patron. Ingredient. 
F.lement. Component, 

Ant. Representative. Nominee. Com- 
mittee. Constitution. System. Whole. 

Constitute, v. tr. See Con- 

SvN. Form. Make. Compose. Organize. 

Ant. Dissolve. Destroy. Discompose. 
];)econipose. Disorganize. Abrogate. Annul. 

Constitution, n. See above. 
Applied to the human tempera- 
ment of body, forms of govern- 
ment, and to compound condi- 
tion generally ; sometimes to such 
laws or regiilations as conserve 
social organizations. 

Syn. Temperament. Habit. Natur;. 
Government. Polity. State. Consisli'iice. 
Composition. Substance. Organization. 
Structure. Regulation. Law. 

Ant. Accident. Habitu.ition. IModifica- 
tlon. Interference. Anarchy. I<e.spotisni. 
Tyracny. IlebeUlon. Revolution. Dissi- 

pation PisorganizatioiL Demolition, l** 

Constrain, v. tr. Constringert.. 
See Coerce. 

Construct, v. tr. Con and 
struere, to lay, 

SiTJ. Compose. Build. Fabricnte. Form. 

Ant. Derange. Destroy. Ovirtlirow 

Construction, n. See Con- 
struct. Used also for the spccitie 
formation of statements, or the 
shape which facts may take in 
the mind. 

Syn. Composition. Fabrication. Krection 
Fabric. Edifice. Reading. Understanding. 
Interpretation. View. 

Ant. Dislocation. Dismemberment. De- 
molition. Displacement. Misplacement. 
Misconstruction. Misunderstandhig. Mis- 
conception. Misinterpretation. 

Construe, v. tr. Same word 
as Construct; but, for the sake 
of marking a difference, it re- 
tains its present form : Construct 
being used of the process of put- 
ting together things physical oi 
analogous; Construe, of the re- 
solution of sentences or state- 
ments into their grammatical 
force and meaning. 

Syn. Parse. Resolve. Analyze. Inter- 
pret. Understand. Render. 

Ant. Nullify. Neutralize. Mystify. 
Distort. Falsify. Misconstrue. Misinter- 
pret. Misconceive. Mistranslate. 

Consult, v. tr. and int. Cwi- 
sulere, part, consultus. Act. and 
7ieut. To consult together, or to 
consult another. Also used in 
the sense of promote, the end 
being taken for the process. 

SvN. Interrogate. Canvass. Question. 
Deliberate. Confer. Promote. 

Ant. Resolve. Explain. Kxpouml 
Direct. Instruct. Dictate. Counteract. 

Consume, v. tr. and irit. ('on' 
sumere. To take up and alto- 
gether, so as to leave nothing 
behind. This may be done witL- 

S>jnonj/ms and Antonyms. 

economical purpose, or from 
■wantonness or purpose of de- 
struction. It has the int. sense 
of, to waste away. 

Syn. Usp. ^\ ppiopriate. Assimilate. 

Occupy. Absorb. Employ. Utilize.<?. 

])c>tioy. Spoil. Ravage. Expand. Pine. 

Wither. Decay. 

AsT. Reject. Supersede. TMsuse. Dis- 

Consummate, v. tr. Con and 

snnui/ns, fii])iiiost ; aummd, a sum. 
To bring to a point or head. 

Syn. Complete. Perfect. E.\ecute. Con- 
clude. Seal. End. 

AxT. Neglect. Drop. Interrupt. Nullify. 
Undo. Baffle. Frustrate. Alar. Spoil. 
1 tefeat. 

Consummate, adj. See verh. 

Syn. Perfect. Egregious. E.xcellent. 
Complete. Finished. 

AxT. Imperfect. Rude. Common. Me- 
diocre. Faulty. Defective. Ordinary. 

Consummation, n. Sec Con- 
summate, V. 

Consumption, n. See Con- 

Contact, ??. Contingere, con- 
factm. To come close enough to 

Si-N. Touch. Contiguity. Continuity. 
Apposition. Adjunction. 

Ant. Proximity. Adjacence. Interval. 
Interruption. Disconn.ction. Separation, 
instance. Isolation. Non-contact. 

Contagious, adj. See Contact. 
Produced by, or as if by, the in- 
fluence of contact. 

Syx. Catching. Communicated. Trans- 
ferred. Transmitted. 

Ant. Infectious. Sporadic. Endemic. 
Antipathetic. Preventative 

Tontain, V. tr. Continere. To 
hold together or inside. 

Syn. Hold. Include. Comprise. Inclose. 
Ant. Drop. Exclude. Extrude. Emit. 
Discharge. Afford. Yield. Produce. 

Contaminate, t'. ^z-, Contami- 
iiare, taminare, probably con- 
nected with tangere. Implying 
a diitiling touch. Used pliysi- 
cally and morally. 


Corrupt Sully 

Disdain. Deride. Scorn. 
Venerate. Re- 

Syn. Defile. Taint. 
Befoul. Soil. 

Ant. Purify. Clejise. Lave. Clarify 
Sanctify. Chasten. 

Contemn, v. tr. Lat. coidem- 

Syn. Despise. 
Slight. Disregard. 

Ant. Respect. Revcr 

Contemplate, v. tr. From 
templum, a sjiace of the heavens 
marked out for augury. Comp. 
one of the derivations given for 
Consider. It is used both as act. 
and neut. 

Si-N. Meditate. Behold. 0bser\-e. Pon- 
der. Study. Purpose. Design. Intend. 

Akt. Ignore. Overlook, 'Waive. Aban- 

Contemporary, adj. Con and 
tempiiH, time. See Coetaneous 
and Coeval. 

Contempt, n. See Contemn. 

Contemptible, adj. See Con- 

Syn. Despicable. Mean. Disreputable. 
Paltry. Trifling. Trivial. 

Ant. Important. Grave. AVeighty. 
Honourable. Respectable. Venerable. 

Contend, v. int. Con and 
tendere. To stretch or strive for 
an object, with one's self or 
against another. 

Syn. Strive. Compete. Cope. Contest. 
Struggle. Grapple. Argue. Maintain. Dis- 
agree. Wrangle. 

Ant. Resign. Concede. Allow. Re- 
linquish. Forego. Surrender. Waive. 

Content, adj. See Contain. 
In the state of containing enough, 
or being full. 

Syn. Full. Satisfied. Willing. Re. 

Ant. Unsatisfied. Dissatisfied. Un- 
willing. Reluctant. Discontented. 

Contented, adj. See Content, 
Contention, «. See Coutoud. 
Contentious, adj. See Con- 
tend. Given to contention. 


Sifnomjms and Antomjms. 

SvN. Litigiou'. Terverao Wayward. 
Splenetic. C;imaiikei-oiis. Kxf fptious. 

Ant. Pacific. Oblising. Considerate. 
Obsequious. Accommodating. Easy. 

Conterminous, adj. Con and 
terminus, a houndary. Having 
the same or equal limits; also 
has the Iwimclaries contiguous. 

SvN. Commensurate. Adjoining. Con- 
tiguous. Abutting. 

Axt Unequal. Inconformable. Ad- 
jacent. Proximate. Remote, luconter- 

CoNTEST, n. and v. Contestari, 
A struggle before witnesses. See 

Context, «. Con and texero, 
to weave. That into which a par- 
ticular passage is, as it were, 

Syx. Tenor. Treatment. Texture. Com- 
position. Matter. 

AxT. Text. Quotation. Cit;\tion. Pas- 
sage. Extract. 

Contexture, ?^ -S'ee Texture. 

Contiguous, adj. See Con- 
tagious, Adjacent, and Conter- 

Continence, «. See Contain. 

SvN. Abstinence. Self-control. Refrain, 
n. Cbastity. Sobriety. Temperance. 

Ant. Licentiousness. Sell-indulgence. 
Incontinence. Dissoluteness. Intemper- 

Contingent, adj. Contlngere, 
to toucli. Touching upon another 
thing, so as to move with and 
depend upon it. Used abstract- 
edly, in the sense of hypotheti- 

Srx. Dependent. Incidental. Resultant. 
Coefficient. Hypothetical. Uncertain. Con- 

Ant. Positive. Absolute. Independent. 
Unmodified. Unaffected. Uncontrolled. 

Contingent, n. See adj. 

SvN. Contribution. Subi^idy. Supply. 
Succour. Keintbrcemcnt Auxiliaries. Do- 
iiiitlon. Subscription. 

A.vr. Army, ^3um. Host. Campaign. 
fund. Capital. 

Continually, ado. Coidinw 
are, from continere. To hold to- 
gether over successive periods of 

Si-N. Constantly. Persistently. Re- 
pcafedly. Frequently. Continuously. 

Ant. C;tsually. Occasionally. Con- 
tinf.ently. Sometimes. Rarely. Fitfully 

Continuation, n. Sec Con- 
thmally. It is applied to moral 
or mental continuity. Where 
a])plied to external action, it in- 
volves also sustained action of 
tlie will, as, 'the continuation 
o-- a walk.' Physical sequence of 
matter is called continuity; the 
unbroken operation of physical 
influences, continuance, as, 'a 
continuance of fine weather.' 
Continuance is also sometimes 
used for continuation. Succes- 
sion implies series, not uni- 
formity ; so, ' a succession of fine 
days,' or, ' a continuance of fine 

Six. Sequence. Continuance. Succes- 
sion. Connection. Extension. Prolonga- 
tion. Perpeiu;uion. Concatenation. 

Ant. Interruption. Cessation. Discon- 
tinuance. Break. Gap. 

Continue, v. inf. See above. 

Syn. Last. Persist. Endure. Persevere. 

Axt. Cease. Fail. .Stop. Pause. Break. 

Continuity, n. See Continua- 

Contortion, «. Con and 
torc/iiere, ^xirt. tortus, to tu-ist. 

Syx. Twisting. Writhing. Wresting. 
Distortion. Deformity. Convolution. 

AxT. Synnnetry. Unit'orniity. Shapeli- 
ness. Contigtiration. Contour. 

Contour, «. Con and Lat. 
torn as, a lathe, in reference to its 
power of producing a rounded 
smoothness of surface. Set Con- 

Contraband, adj. Contra 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 

against, and lannum, or humlum, 
tt prodamation. See Abandon. 

Syn. Illicit. Interdicted. Smuggled. 
Ant. Licit. Uninterdicted. Free. 

COKTKACT, V. tr. Contraliere. 
To draw together. First, into 
narrower limits than formerly; 
hence applied, analogously, to 
the gathering into a document 
of the conditions of an agree- 
ment; and, lastly, the informal 
act, or the feeling, of agreement, 
as, to contract a friendship, ac- 
quaintance, or a feeling of friend- 

Stn. Abridge. Abbreviate. Ketrench. 
Curtail. Form. Agree. 

Ant. Kxpand. Amplify. Dilate. 
Elongate. Reverse. Cancel. Abandon. 

Contract, n. See verb. 

Sys. Covenant. Agreement. Bond. 
' Ajs'T. Promise. Assurance. Parole. 

.Contradict, v. tr. Contra, 
ngainsf, and dicvre, to speak. To 
speak or argue in opposition or 
confutation. Applicable to per- 
sons, statements, and evidence. 

Syx. Oppose. Dissent. Negative. Deny. 
Dis-prove. Confute. Refute. Gainsay. Con- 

A XT. State. Propound. Maintain. 
Argue. Confirm. Affirm. Endorse. 

Contradiction, ??. -See Con- 
tradict. Used of mutual repug- 
nance of terms or statements. 

Sin. Repugnance. Contrariety. Iijcod- 
sistency. Incompatibility. 

Ant. Harmony. Coincidence. Con- 
sentaneity. Concurrence. Convergence. 
Statement. Affirmation. Proof. 

Contradistinction, w. A 
distinction amounting to opposi- 
tion ; or distinction oi a marked 

Contraposition, «. Contra, 
and /'OS /Y/o, from pone re, to place. 
Opposite location. Placing. 

Svx. Oppositeness. Confrontment. 

fc*;* Side. Flank. Collateraliiess. 


Contrarious, adj. Said of 
disposition. ^S'ee Contentious. 

Contrary, adj. Contrarius, 
contra, against. 

&TS. Opposed. Opposite. Repugnant. 
Adverse. Incompatible. Inconsistent. 

Ant. Agreeing. Consentaneous. Com- 
patible. Kindred. Coincident. Consistent. 

Contrast, n. Contra and 
sistere, to place. 

Srx. Opposition. Contrariety. Dissimi- 

Akt. Harmony. Similarity. Comparison. 

Contravene, v. tr. Contra 
and venire, to come. To come in 
opposition to the statements or 
judgments of another. See Con- 

Contribute, v. Contribuere. 
To give or tend to a common 
fund, or for a common jjurpose. 
Act. and neut. ; as the latter, it 
has the force of conduce. 

Stn. Conduce. Add. Subscribe. Give. 
Tend. Supply. 

AxT. Refuse. Withhold. Misconduce. 
Misapply. Contravene. 

Contribution, H. Recontri- 

Stx. Donation. Oblation. Offering. Sub- 
scription. Subsidy. Aid. Assistance. 

Ant. Withholding. Retention. Disal- 
lowance. Misappropriation. Misapplica- 
tion. Contravention. 

Contrition, «. Conterere, 
tritus. See Attrition. 

Contrivance, n. See Con- 

Contrive, v. tr. Fr. trouver, 
to find. Conn. Treasure-trove. 
To find out ways in general, and 
the right way in particular, as 
the result of research and skill. 

Six. Plan. Design. Arrange. Fabri- 
cate. Adapt. Manage. Scheme. Devise. 

Ant. Hit. Hamrd. Run. Chanca 
Venture. Bungle. Over-vault. Over-do. 

Contriving, adj. Hee Oon- 

H 2 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


Snr. Schoraing. Arifiil. Designing. 
Deep. Cunning. Ingenious. Clever. In- 

Ant. Stolid. In.ipt. Fpsourceless. Un- 
re&dy. Artless. Uniiivcniive. 

Control, f. tr. Fr. rontre 
roUc. Tlie roll was rotuJus, a 
parchmeut wound on a cylinder 
of wood, and used as a register 
of deeds and accounts. 

SvN. Check. Curb. Moderate. Regulate. 
Restrain. Coerce. Manage. Administer. 

Ant. Xeglect. Abandon. Licence. Libe* 
rate. Fr^e. Slismanage. JMisconduct. 

Control, «. See verb. 

-Controversy, n. Contra, 
nrfainst, and vertere, to turn. The 
turning of one against another 
in debate. 

SvN. Dispute. Disagreement. Disputa- 
tion. Wrangle. Bickering. Question. 

AxT. Agreement. Unanimity. Coinci- 

Controvertible, adj. See 
Controversy. That may be made 
matter of controversy. 

SvN. Questionable. Dubious. 

Ant. Unquestionable. Jncontrovertible. 

Contumacy, n. Contnmacia, 
from femnere, to despise aidhority, 
or tumere, to swell cc/ainst it. 

SvN. Rebelliousness. Stubbornness. Res- 
tiveness. Waywardness. Self-will. Uu- 

Ant. Subniissiveness. Docility. Tract- 
fibleness. Servility. Cringing. Fawning, 

Contumely, n. See Contu- 

fliiN. Contemp^uousness. Scornfulness. 
Arrogance. Disrespect. Obloquy. 

Ant. Rrsppct. Rectard. Obligingness. 
Acconmiodution. Considerateness. Fawn- 
ing. Flattery. Adulation. Obsequiousness. 

Contusion, n. Con and ti(7i- 
dere, tus/is, to bmt or knock. 

SvN. Bruise. Knock. Blow. 
Ant. Soothing. Smoothing. Stroking. 
■Caress. Put. 

Convalescence, n. Convales- 
cere, from valere, to be strong. The 
state of health, especially in re- 
ference to previous sickness. 

St.\-. Health. Sanity. Vigour. Robuat" 
ness. Hardiness. Huleness. Recovery. 

Ant. Infirmity. Weaknes?. Unbealthi- 
ness. Sickliness. Complaint. Disease, 
Maladv. Ailment. I'lostratloii. Sinking. 

Convene, act. and int. Con 
and venire, to come. Used only 
of persons. 

Syn. Assemble. Collect. Gather. Sum- 
mon. Muster. Levy. Convoke. 
Ant. Disperse. Dismiss. Disband. 

Convenient, adj. See Con- 
vene. Coming opportunely or 
conducively. The older sense 
was, fitting, decent, becoming. 

Syx. Handy. Apt. Helpful. Commo- 
dious. Useful. Timely. Seasonable. Op- 
Awkward. Ob- 
structive. Useless. -Superfluous. Unsea- 
sonable. Untimely. Inopportune. 

Convention, 7?. .SVe Convene. 
Has the sense of an assembly for 
a common purpose, and the re- 
sult of deliberation, in the shape 
of compact. It differs from 
compact as being to nations or 
societies what compacts are to 

SvN. Assemblage. Blecting. Gathering. 
Conference. Cabinet. Convocation. Con- 
gress. Session. Synod. Treaty. Compact. 

Ant. Recefs. Non-convention. Disso- 
lution. Prorogation. Promise. Under- 
standing. Word. Parole. 

Conventional, adj. See Con- 
vene. Based upon social cus- 

SvN. Customary. Usual. Prevalent. 

Ant. Unusual. Unsocial. Legal. Com- 
pulsory. Statutable. Iinn)utable. Natural. 

Conventual, adj. See Con- 
vene. Belonging to the convent. 

SvN. Monastic. Regular. Ccenobitual. 
Ant. Laic. Secular. Social. 

Converge, v. inf. Con and 
vergere, to te)id or slope. Used of 
things among themselves, or ona 
to another, or a common point. 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 

RVN. Toiid. Bear. Incline. T.ead. Co- 
Sncide. Coiiiuice. Contribute. Meet. Con- 
ceii irate. Corradiate. 

Ant. Diverge. Deviate. Radiate. Mix. 
Foul. Entangle. 

Conversant, adj. Con and 
versari, to be versed. Having the 
knowledge of experience. 

Syx. Familiar. Acquainted. E.\peri- 
enccd. Versed. I^earned. 

Ant. Unfamiliar. Unacquainted. Ig- 
norant. Unversed. Unlearned. Strange. 

Conversation, «. See Con- 
versant. Applied by usage to 
community of speech, though, in 
old times, the word was equi- 
valent to mode of Jife. 

SvN. Converse. Dialogue. Colloquy. 
Confabulation. Chat. 

Ant. Speech. Oration. Harangue. 
Babel. Jabber. Babble. Prattle. Dribble. 
Mutter. Sililoquy. Apostrophe. Mono- 
logue. Interpellation. Interruption. Silence. 

Converse, v. See Conversa- 

Converse, adj. See above. 
Denotes duality of opposition. 

Syn. Opposite. Reverse. Contrary. Op- 
posed. Contradictory. Counter. Correlative. 

Ant. Identical. Same. One. Insepa- 
rable. Indistingni.shable. Connate. Uni- 
form. Direct, rrhnary. Unlnverted. 

CONVERSIELE, adj. See above. 
Comp. Affable. 

Conversion, v. Con and 
vertere, to tarn. Im2>lies the 
changed state of the whole per- 
)5on or thing; also the relative 
change of two things. 

SvN. Change. Alteration. Transmuta- 
tion. Transformation. Inlerchange. 

Awr. Persistence. Permanence. Con- 
Ecrvation. Reteniion. Identity. 

Convert, v. int. See Con- 
version. "With the additional 
sense of apply. 

SvN. Change. Alter. Transmute. Trans- 
form. Apply. Apiiropriate. 

Ant, Conserve. Perpetuate. Stabili»'«fA 
Stereotype. Clinch Alienate. Divert. 
Misappropriate. Misapply. | 


Convertible, adj. Sie above. 
In strict logic, said of terms 
which may interchangeably form 
the subject or predicate of a pro- 
position; as, the aggregate oi 
the English letters is the Eng- 
lish alphabet; or, the Enghsh 
alphabet is the aggregate of the 
English letters ; so, the terms 
are convertible. All trees are 
vegetables; here the terms ase 
not convertible, for there are 
vegetables which are not trees. 
But, in usage, the word has ex- 
tended to mean words or terms 
which, generally speaking, may 
be used interchangeably. 

Stn. Ideniical. Commensurate. Con- 
terminous. Equivalent. Equipollent. 

Ant. Variant, incommensurate. Ua- 
equivalent. Contrary. Contradictory. Coa- 

Convey, v. tr. Con and veliere, 
to carry. To carry bodily; im- 
plying, however, some definite 
direction and end. Used also 
metaphorically, as, to convey an 

SiN. Take. Carry. Transfer. Transv 
port. Remove. 

Ant. Bring. Adduce. Fetch. Drop, 
House. Slow. Deposit. 

Conveyance, ». See Convey. 
Used loosely for carriage, as a 
means of personal conveyance. 

Convict, v. tr. See Convince. 
Used of legal convincement ot 
crime or misdemeanour. 

Syn. Sentence. Condemn. 
Ant. Acquit. Discharge. 

Conviction, n. See Convict. 
Used also for assurance. 

Syn. Assurance. Persuasion. Belief. 
Ant. Doubt. Misgiving. Disbeliei. 

Convince, v. tr. Con ands 
vinc^re, to overcome. To over- 
come objections of the intellect, 
as to persuade is to overconrtj 
objections of the will. In usape 


Sijnonyms and Antomjms. 

it does not necessarily imply pre- 
vious resistance, but only igno- 
rance of mind. It is followed by 
the prep. of. 

SrN. Pei-suade. Eiiligblen. Inoculate. 

Ant. Misg:uide. Mislead. Misadvise. 
?ilystify. I'uzzle. Perplex. Mispersuade. 

Convivial, adj. Convivium, 
a repast. Said of meetings and 
persons ; the idea of feasting, as 
in the term Festive, being not 
rigidly present. 

SvN. Hospitable. Social. Festive. 
Jovial. Jolly. 

Ant. Inhospitable. Unsociable. Un- 
neighbourly. Churlish. Abstemious. Aus- 
tere. Ascetic. 

Convoke, Convooate, Con- 
vocation. Con and vocare, to 
mil. See Convene and Conven- 

Convolution, n. Con and 
voJvere, to roll, volutus. A coiling 

Syn. Coil. Involution. Implication. 
Spiral. Twist. Contortion. 

Ant. Unravelling. Explication. Evolu- 
tion. EniK Ifiatiou. 

Convoy, n. and v. Con and 
via, a way (^uiagium, \vhence 
voyage). Is to the sea what 
Escort is on land. 

Syn. Escort. Guard. Protection. Con- 

Akt. Loss. Betrayal. Capture. Inter- 

Convulse, v. tr. Con and 
vellere, to tear or pull, ^^art. viilsus. 
To produce internal agitation. 

Syn. Agitate. Shake. Perturb. 
Ant. Soothe. Collocate. Compose. As- 

Convulsion, n. See Convulse. 

Syn. Agitation. Commotion. Perturba- 
tion. Tumult. Turmoil 

Ant. Quiescence. Subsidence. Soothing. 
Pacification. Arrangement. Composure. 

Cool, v. tr. Germ. Used 
physically and analogously, 

SvN. Ventilate. Uefrigerate. Allay, 
Damp. Tcniper. Moderate. 

Ant. ■Warm. Heat. Chafe. Iiritata 
Excite. Inflame. 

Cool, adj. See Cool, v. 

Syx. Cold. Calm. Indifferent. Self- 
possessed. ' 
Ant. Warm. Hot. Ardent. Eager. 

Coolness, n. See above. 

SvN. Coldness. Calmness. Indifference 
Self-possession. Distance. 

Ant. Heat. Ardour. Eagerness. Pas- 
sion. Excitement. AVarmth. Heartiness. 

Coop, v. tr. Of Northern 
origin. Conn, mth Cup. See 

Co-OPEKATE, V. int. Con and 
opus, a xoork. Followed by the 
prep. with. 

Syn. Assist. Abet. Conspu-e. 

Co-operation, n. See Co- 

Co-ORDINATE, adj. Con and 
ordo, a rank. Either belonging 
to the same order or class ; or, 
more correctly, belonging to the 
same rank or degree. 

Syn. Consociate. Coincident. Equal. 
Coequal. Equivalent. Tantamount. Equi- 
pollent. Interequivalent. 

Ant. Extraneous. Diverse. Alien. Un- 
equal. Unequivalent. Inco-ordinate. Dis- 

Copartner, n. See Partner. 

Cope, v. int. Fr. couper, to 
cut. Coup, a blow. Conn. Copse 
or Coppice, where the wood is 
frequently cut for fuel. It is 
followed by the prep. with. 

Syn. Contend. Vie. Struggle. Strive 

Ant. Negotiate. Arbitrate. Compro- 
mise. Surrender. 

Copious, adj. Copia. Plenty. 
See Abimdant. 

Copy, n. See Copious. A con- 
trivance for multipljing an ori- 

Syn. Imitation. Portraiture. Likenesi 

Ant. Original. Prototype 'Vlcdel. E^ 
ample. Pattern. 

Sijyiomjms and Antomj 

Ccrd;al, adj. Cor, the heart. 

SVN. \\'aru, Kaniest. AflVctionate. 

Akt. Cold. Distant. Formal. Cere- 

Core, n. F,ee Cordial. 

SvN. Heart. Kernel. Nucleus. Centre. 

Ant. Face. Exterior. Aspect. Ap- 
pearance. Complexion. Ostensibility. Pre- 

COENER, n. Curnv, a horn. 
The angle made by the horns, 
the head being the point of meet- 
ing. By usage, any locality of a 
hollow or secluded kind. 

Syn. Cavity. Hole. Nook. Recess. 

Akt. Coin. Abutment. Prominence. 
Salience. Angle. Protrusion. Elljow. Pro- 
jection. Convexity. 

Cornice, «. Fr. Comp. with 
Crown. A moulded projection. 

SVN. Beadiiis. Moulding. Projection. 
Ant. Entoblature. Fluting. Corrugation. 
Cavity. Groove. 

Corollary, v. Corolla, a 
cJiajjht, from corona, coroUarium. 
A gift of elegance, as, a chaplet 
or bouquet of flowers, crowning, 
or superadded to the due wages. 
Hence, an additament of an in- 
ferential nature. 

Sr.v. Inference. Deduction. Additament. 

Ant. ftoblem. Proposition. 

Corporal, Corporeal, adj. 
Corpus oris, the lody. 

Stn. Bodily. Fleslilv. Physical. 
Ant. Mental. Moral. Spiritual. 

Corps, n. Corpus, a body. Or- 
ganized more especially for mili- 
tary purposes. 

Sre. Budy. P.egiment. Band. Squadron. 
Troop. Company. 

Ai:t. Army. "Host. Force. Mass. Or- 
ganization. Aggregate. 

Corpse, u. See Corps. By 
usage restricted to dead bodies. 

Stn. Carcase. Remains. Dust. Clay. 
Ant. Soul. Person. Individual. 

Corpulent, adj. See Corps. 

Syn. Stout. I'ortly. Burl", Fat. 
Ant. Lean. Ihin. AttenJi-i'ved. Slight. 


ms. 103 

Corpuscle, n. See a()ove. 

Syn. Atom. Particle. Monad. Jot. 

Ant. Mass. Body. Aggregate. Or- 
ganization. Matter. 

Corpuscular, adj. See Cor- 


TION, n. See Converge. 

Correct, adj. Con and regere, 
to rule. Whence Ecgular or 
Rule. True to a given standard 
of morals, mathematics, logic, 
art, &c. See Accurate. 

Syn. 'J'rue. Exact. Faultless. Eight. 
Ant. I'alie. Untrue. Incorrect. Faulty 

Correct, v. See adj. 

Syn. Chasten. Punish. Rectify. AmencL 
Akt. Spare. Falsify. Corrupt. 

Corrective, adj. and n. 

Si-N. Regulative. Alterative. Preventa- 
tive. Restorative. 

Ant. Confirniiitive. Conducive. Provo- 
cative. Stimulative. Jntensitive. 

Correlation, n. Con and 
rcfi'rre, relatiis, to refer. 

Syn. Correspondence. Interrelation. 
Interdependence. Mutuality. Apposition. 

Ant. Contradiction. Independence. In- 

Correlative, adj. See Cor- 

Correspond, v. inf. Con and 
respondere, to respond. 

Syn. Match. 'J'ally. Fit. Answer. 
Agree. Suit. Harmonize. 

Ant. Vary. Differ. Disagree. Jar. 

Correspondence, «. See 
Correspond. It has also the tech- 
nical sense of correspondence by 

Syn. Fitness. Agreement. Answerable- 
ness. Match. Congeniali y. Communica- 
tion. Letier. Writing. Despatches. 

Ant. Conversation. Colloquy. Con- 
fMbulation. Reservation. Withdrawal. 
Withholding. Non-intercourse. Difference. 

Corrigible, adj. See Correct. 

SvN. Amruable. Docile. Tractable. 
Am. Intractable. Stubbcm. Incorrigi* 


Synonyms and Antony] 

Corroborate, v. tr. Co7i and 
rohur, Htrength. Whence Eobust. 
To strengthen evidence, state- 
ment, or oiDinion. 

SvN. Strengthen. Confirm. Fortify. 

A.NT. Weaken. Invalidate. Shake. Con- 
fute. Rebut. Enfeeble. 

Corroboration, n. *Vee Cor- 

SvN. Confirmation. Fortification. 

Ant. Counterevidence. Contradiction. 
Invalidation. Shaking. Refutation. 

Corrode, v. tr. Con and ro- 
dere, to (jnaio. Used physically 
and metaphorically, as, corroding 

SvN. Eat. Kust Gnaw. Canker. Wear. 

Ant. Repair. Renew. Furbish. Con- 

Corrosion, n. See Corrode. 

CoRROsrv'E, adj. See Corrode. 

Corrugate, v. tr. Huga, a 

Svx. Furrow. Groove. Rumple. Crumple. 
AViinkle. Ruffle. Crease. 

AjiT. Plane. Flatten. Roll. 

Corrugation, n. See Corru- 

Corrupt, v. tr. Con and 
rinnpere. To break up the ele- 
ments of an organized body ; 
hence, morally, to taint, and also 
to spoil mental matter, as, the 
views of truth, or the text of a 
book, by false rendering. 

Stn. Spoil. Deteriorate. Impair. De- 
base. Detile. Contaminate. Pollute. De- 

Ant. Mend. Repair. Purify. Cleanse. 
Correct. Ameliorate. Better. 

Corrupt, adj. See vrrh. 

S\N. Defiled. Polluted. Vitiated. Con- 

Ant. Pure. Uncorrupt. Undefiled I 

Corruption, ». See Corrupt. I 
Physical and moral. ! 

Syy. Decomposition. Decay. , Defile- 1 
Kent. Deterioration. Taint. Contaiiiina- | 
tinn. Putrefaction. 

Ant. Vitality. Orgaiiization. Pari^ 
Purification. AmeUoration. 

Coruscate, v. int. ConiRtxire. 
To shine with a flashing hght, as 
distinguished from a steady 

Sin. Blaze. Flame. Flash. Scintillate. 

Ant. Pale. Smoulder. D.irken. Loom. 
Lower. Glimmer. Gleam, blare. Beam 

Coruscation, v. See Corus- 


CoSMiCAL, adj. Gr. 

the vorhl. 

Six. Universal. General. 

Ant. Local. Topical. National. Per- 

Cost, n. Germ, l-osten. Lat. 
constare. To stand at a jirice. 
The price at which a thing 

Syn. to V. Require. Consume. Absorb. 

Ant. Bring. Produce. Yield. Afford. 
Fetch. Return. 

Syn. to 71. E.xpenditure. Outlay. Pis- 
bursemeut. Payment. Compensation. Out- 

Ant. to n. Receipt. Income. Emolu- 
ment. Return. Profit. Perquisite. R'^ 

Costly, adj. See Cost. 

S\"N. \'aluable. Expensive. High-priced. 
Rich. Precious. Sumptuous. 

Akt. Valueless. Cheap. Low-priced. 

Jlean. ^Vorthless Beggarly. Paltry. 

Costume, n. Same word as 
Custom, from the Lat. consuetudo. 
Custom, or way of living ; but by 
usage restricted to distinctive 

Syn. Uniform. Livery. Robes. 
Ant. Disguise. Transformation. Inoog< 

CoSY, adj. Fr. causer, to chat. 
Svx. Snug. Comfortiible. Chatty. 
Akt. Bare. Comfortless. Cross. 

Cotempokary, adj. See Co8- 
taneous and Coeval. 

CovcH, i\ Fr. coHclter, to lie. 

Stw. LIp. Bend. .Stoop. Sfpiat. 
Ant. I{i>e. Stand. Spring. Dart 

COUCHANT, (ulj. 

Used heralclically. 

Council, n. Lat. conctlium. 
A lawful or standing combina- 
tion for purposes of consultation. 

SvN. Cabinet. Bureau. Chamber. Con- 
sultalion. Coiiclave. Parliament. Congress. 

Ant. League. Conspiracy. Cabal. In- 
trigue. Mob. Alullilude. Crowd. 

Counsel, n. The French form 
of Council. 

Syn. Advice. Instrui-tion. Jlonitlon. 
Ant. Misguidance. Misinstruction. Be- 

Counsel, v. See noun. 

Counsellor, ». See Coimsel, ??. 

Count, v. tr. Lat. computure, 
to compute : of which Count is a 
shoi-ter form. 

Srx. Compute. Reckon. Enumerate. 
Estimate. Number. Sum. 

Si/nomjms and Antonyms. 
See Couch 


Countenance, v. Contlnentiu 
vi'Itiis. The jixmeral pose, aspect, 
or expression of the features ; or 
the component parts of the face 
itself, irrespective of such ex- 
pression. Used metaphorically 
for aid, being the result of a 
favourable expression of counte- 

Svx. Help. Aid. Abet. Encourage. 
Ant. Oppose. Confront. Discourage. 
Diacouiitenance. Browbeat. 

Countenance, ». See verb. 

SvN. Aid. Abet. Encourage. Support. 
Ant. Discountenance. 

Counter. Lat. contra, against. 
It is used as an advei b, prtjjosi- 
tion, and prefix. 

Syn. Opposed. Contrary. Against. 
AxT. According. Coincident. 

Counteract, v. tr. Contra, 
or/uinst, and at/ere, to do or act, so 
as strongly to oppose, or eflfec- 
tually to neutralize. 

■ Syx. Connteriiif uence. Counterfoil. Foil. 
B'.m-. Neutralize. 0pp<,se. liival. Tbw;irt. 

Ant. Aid. Help. Abet. Promote, 
Conserve. Co-operate. Subserve. 

Counterevidence, n. Contra, 
evidentia, evidere, to look out, or 
manifest itself. Evidence in au 
opposite direction. 

Syn. Contradiction. Confliction. 
Ant. Corroboration. Confirmation. 

Counterfeit, v. Contra and 
facere, factiis, to do or make. A 
thing done falsely, that is, against 
truth or justice or actual fact. 

Misrepresent. Imper- 




Ant. E.xpose 

iiask. Detect. 

Counterfeit, n. See verb. 

Syn. Clieat. Trick. Juggle. Fraud. 
Artifice. Fabrication. Pretence. Ruse. 

Ant. Exposure. Detection. Unmasking. 
Unveiling. Reality. Verity. Fact. Truth. 

Counterfoil, v. tr. Contra, 
against, and folium, a leaf, or 
thin plate of metal (as tin-foil), 
placed at the end of fencing- 
swords for purposes of safety. 
Hence to foil may be to baffle or 
blunt the edge of an attack. But 
comp. Yv. fouler. See Baffle. 



Counterpart, n. Contra and 
pans, a part, lot, or i>lac\ That 
which is placed opposite to a 
thing to match it, as each gate- 
post is the counterpart of the 
other. From the usual similarity 
of comiterparts, the word has 
come strongly to express the 
idea of resemblance, which is not 
its primary force. Physical 
counterparts may be opposite in 
situation, but cannot be opposed. 

Svx. Alatch. Fellow. Tally. Brother. 
Twin. Copy. 

Ant. Correlative. Complement. Sup- 
Dlement. Opponent. Counterager.t. Ke- Obverse. Opjiosite. Amithesia 
Contrast. Coniradicti^>a. 


Synonyms and Antonynn 

Counterpoise, v. tr. Fr. contre I 

pois, pondus, u-eiglit. I 

SvN. Balance. Equalize. I 

Akt. Overbalatice. Aggravate. ] 

Counterpoise, «. See verh. \ 

Syn.. Makeweight. Kquilibrium. 
Ant. Preponderance. 

and prtmere, pressus, to press. 

Stn. Resistance. Stubbornness. Eeni- 

Axt. Yielding. Giving. Resilience. 

Countervail, v. int. Contra 
and valere, to be of force. Counter- 
vail is to the notion of influence 
"uiiat Countei'iDoise is to that of 

Syn. Counteract. Oppose. Withstand. 
Ant. Aggravate. Intensify. Subserve. 

Countless, adj. See Count. 

Syn. Innumerable. Numberless. 
Ant. Few. Scant. Sparse. 

Countryman, n. One of the 
country. Also one of a country, 
and one of the same country. 
Country is from It. contrada, 
from the Lat. contra, a tract 
lying opposite to the spectator. 

Syn. Rustic. Clown. Boor. Agricul- 
turist. Labourer. Peasant. Fellow-coun- 
tryman. Fellow-subject. Fellow-citizen. 
Subject. Citizen. Inhabitant. Native. 

Ant. Oppidan. Townsman. Cockney. 
Foreigner. Alien. Stranger. 

Couple, v. tr. Copidare, 
coptdiis, a link. Used of fasten- 
ing two things to each other. 

Syn. Bracket. Link. Conjoin. Unite. 

Splice. Buckle. Button. Clasp. Tie. 

Ant. Loose. Part. Isolate. Separate. 

Detach. Divorce. Uncouple. Unclasp. 

Courage, h. Fr. coitr, th<- 

Syx. Bravers'. Boldness. Valour. Gal- 
antry. Fearlessness. Intrepidity. 

Ant. Timidity. Cowardice. PuslUani- 
aiity. Poltroonery. 1 lastardliness. 

Course, n. Cursus, from cur- 
rere, to ru-n. 

Sin. Order. Sequence. Continuity. 
Direction. Progress. Line. Way. Mode. 
Plaa. Conduct . 

Ant. Disorder. Discursion. Solutioa. 
Interruption. Deviation. Hindrance. Error. 
Conjecture. Haziird. Speculation. Caprice. 

Court, v. Fr. coar. A court. 
To seek to gain, as it were, by 
courtly address. 

Syn. Woo. Seek. Affect. Flatter. Pur- 

Ant. Repel. Abjure. Disaffect. Insult 
Avoid. Shun. Repudiate. 

Courtesy, n. See Court. 

Syn. Politeness. Urbanity. Civility 

Affability. Gracioiisness. 

Akt. Churlishness. Rudeness. Arro- 
gance. Ungraciousness. Incivility. 

Courtly, adj. See Court. 
Having the manners of the 

Syx. Dignified. Polished. Refined. 
Aristocratic. High-bred. Mannerly. 

Ant. Undignified. Rough. Unpolished. 
Coarse. Unrefined. Plebeian. Awkward. 
Boorish. Rustic. Unmaunerl.v. 

Courtship, n. See Court. 

Covenant, ?i. Fr. convenancc, 
from conveniri', to come together. 
It is used of formal and ratified 

Syn. Agreement. Bond. Stipulation. 
Compact. Contract. 

Ant. Promise. Intimation. Assurance. 
Parole. Understanding. 

Cover, v. tr. Fr. couvrir. Lat. 
cooperii'e, to cover. To he SO 
placed over a thing as to conceal 
it, protect it, or be coexpansive 
with it. 

Syn. Hide. Conceal. Cloke. Screen. 
Secrete. Protect. INIect. Secure. 

Ant. E.\pose. Reveal. Beiraj-. Ex- 
hibit. Produce. Wis-sufBce. 

Covert, adj. Coopertas. See 
Coverture, v. See Cover. 

Syn. Marriage. Matrimony. Wedlock. 
Ant. Celibacj'. A'irginity. 

Covet, v. tr. Con and cvpidus, 
from cii]H-re, to desire. Covetous- 
ness and Concupiscence are the 
same Avord, with difference ol 
usage. Eagerly to desu-e, eSi)e- 
cially the possessions of others. 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 

SrK Desire. Long for. Yearn f(ir. 
Hauke; after. 

Ant, Despise. Dislike. Mislike. Un- 

Covetous, adj. See Covet. 

Syn. Acquisitive. Avaricious. Greedy. 
Grasping. Rapacious. 

Ant. Unselfish. Liberal. Self-sacri- 
ficing. Trofuse. Bountiful. Charitable. 

CovETOusNEss, n. See Covet- 

Cow, V. tr. Der. uncertaiQ; 
conu. either with Cover or 

Syn. Frighten. Abash. Intimidate. 

Oppress. Browbeat. 

Ant. Countenance. Eally. Encourage. 

CowAED, n. Der. nncertain. 
Low Lat. codardus. Said to be 
from anida, a tail. One who 
turns tail. 

Syn. Craven. Dastard. Recreant. Pol- 
troon. Renegade. 

Akt. Champion. Hero. Daredevil. 

Cower, v. int. Germ. Tcauern. 
To stoop fl'om fear. 

Syn. Shrink. Stoop. Crouch. 
Ant. I'viiie. SUind. Dare. Kace. Con- 

Coxcomb, n. From a strip of 
red clotli notched like a cock's 
comb, which the old jcfjters wore 
on their heads. The coxcomb is 
a man of folly, forwardness, and 

Syn. Fop. Dandy. Puppy. Prig. 

Ant. Genius. Savant. Authority. 
Celebrity. Philosopher. Sage. 

Coxcombical, adj. See Cox- 

Syn. ^'ain. Affected. Conceited. Dan- 
dified. Pedantic. Priggish. 

Ajst. Unaffected, llnconceited. Sensible. 

CcY, adj. Lat. quietus. Quiet 
or loving retirement. 

Syn. Shy. Reserved. Bashful. Shrink- 
ing. Retreating. Modest. 

Ant. Bold. Forward. Eompish. Hoy- 

Cozen, v. tr. To cheat. Der. 


uncertain. Germ, liehkosen, to 
wheedle; or to deceive luider 
pretence of cousinshii) or con- 

Syn. Circumvent. Wheedle. Coa.x. Se- 
duce. Deceive. 

Ant. Enlighten. Undeceive. Disabuse. 

Crabbed, adj. From crab, 
sour. Of Northern origin, akin 
to the Latin acerbus. 

Syk. Sour. Morose. Churlish. Crusty. 

Ant. Pleasant. Open. Easy. Genial. 
Conversible. Warm. Cordial. Hearty. 

Crack, v. tr. and int. Germ. 

Syn. Split. Break. Splinter. Chip. 

Ant. Mend. Repair. Unite. Piece. 

Creaky, Cracked. See Crack. 
Used metaphorically of the 

Syn. Crazy. Flighty. Queer. Deranged. 
Touched. Cranky. Cliiuky. 

Ant. Sound. Sensible. Clear-headed. 
Shrewd. Strong-minded. Sane. 

Craft, n. Saxon. Originally 
meant no more than skill, espe- 
cially in handiwork ; so handi- 
craft. It has dropped into an 
imfavourable meaning — natu- 
rally, for man tends ever to the 
misuse of knowledge, and of all 
his gifts. 

Syn. Art. Artifice. Cunning. Guile. 
Stratagem. Manoeuvre. Wiliness. Trickery. 
Duplicity. Chicanery. Intrigue. Under- 
handedness. Dodge. 

Ant. Openness. Fairness. Candour. 
Honesty. I'rankness. Sincerity. Artless- 
uess. Ingeiiuousness. Straightforwardness. 

Crafty, adj. See Craft. 
Cram, v. tr. Saxon. 

Syn. Stuff. Choke. Squeeze. Rain, 
Pack. Gorge. 

Ant. Disgorge. Vent. Discharge. Un- 
load. Unpack. Eviscerate. Empty. Elimi- 

Cramp, v. tr. Germ, kramp/, 
Fr. erampe. A clamp. 

Syn. Bind. Harrow. Itestrict 
Clog. Hamper. Fetter. Cripple. 


SiiHonyms and Anionijms. 

As'T. Vrfo. UbniaU". T.oose. lielieve. 
Extricate. Eiilarge. W'iduii. Kxpaiul. Easu. 

Cranky, ndj. Germ, l-rank. 
Said of sailing-vessels lialile to 
upset. Metaphorically, in the 
sense of Creaky, which se('. 

Crapulence, n. Lat. crapvli. 
The sickness which follows a 

Stn. Surfeit. Headache. Dissipation. 
Debauchery. Excess. Muddiness. 

Ant. Temperance. Sobriety. Clearness. 

Crash, n. Gothic. Comp. 
Crush. The sound of collision 
as well as the collision itself. 
Sharp and short, as distinguished 
from prolonged sound, however 

SvN. Jar. Clang. Clafh. Kesonance. 
Axt. Murnini. Whisper. Babljle. 
Rumbling, llcverberation. Din. 

Crassitude, v. Cr'isKint. 
Thickness of habit, suggestive of 
thickness or density of mind. 

SvN. Density. Thickness. Corpulence. 
Obesiiy. I<urlines.s. Hrawniness. Ani- 
malism. Pinguilude. Luiupiohness. Be- 

AsT. Tenuity. Spareness. Sliphtness. 
Agility. Activity. Spirituality. Jntcllec- 

Crave, v. fr. Sax. To iutreat. 

SvN. Intreat. Implore. Bog. Beseech. 
Supplicate. Cry. 

Axt. Demand. Insist. Require. Seize. 

Craven, v. Probably one 
who craves or cries off battle. 
JSee Coward. 

Crazy, ailj. Fr. ecrcufucr, to 
crush or crctK/i. Hence, broken, 
impaired in mind ; peculiarly 
applicable to those crazed by 
age, misery, or disappointment. 

SvN. Idiotic. Ihukeii-down. Lunatic. 
Demented. Daft. Insane. Aberrant. 

Ant. Sound, llubust. Vigorous. Un- 

Cream, ??. Fr. creme. Lat. 
ti-emor, thick "'uice. Uf^til, meta- 

phorically, for the choice part of 
a thing, or tho upper stratum of 
a society. 

SvN. Harrow, pith. Cist. Acme. 
Ant. Refuse. Offal. Dregs. Dross. 

Crease, v. and n. Germ- 
krausen, to rn'Kjj. <SVe Corrugate. 

Create, v. tr. C'reare, to 

Svx. iorm. I'r-oduce. Make. Fashion. 
Originate. Educe. InvenL Imagine 

Ant. Annihilate. Destroy. DemoIi>h. 

Cre.\tor, n. See Create. 

Creature, n. See Create. Ori- 
ginally anything created. Now 
restricted to living beings. 

SvN. B-iiis. Animal. Brute. 
Ant. CliimLTa. Ghost. Bugbear. 

Credence, h. Credere, to bc- 
liere or hdrmt. 

SvN. Belief. Faith. Confidence. 
Ant. Disbelief. Distrust. Denial. 

Credential, n. See Credence. 
A document empowering one to 
hold an office of trust, or any 
particular office. 

Six. Missive. Diploma. Title. Testa- 
ment. Sial. Wawant. Letter. 

Axt. SeK-license. Self-constitution, 
Self-appointment. Autocracy. 

Credible, ad/. See Credence. 
Worthy of credit. Said both of 
persons and things. 

SvN. Probable. Likely. Trustworthy. 
Ant. improbable. Incredible. Unlikely 


Credit, n. See Credence. Is 
trust or confidence shown to an- 
other, on grounds of trustworthi- 
ness ; hence reputation. 

Six. Belief. Trustworthiness. Reputa- 
tion. Security. Honour. I'raise. 

Ant. Disbelief. Distrust. Untrust- 
worthiness. Shame. Insecurity. Censure. 


Creditor, >'. See above. Ho 
who has advanced money or 
goods oil the credit of another. 

SvN. Claimant, Lender. Mortgagee. 
I Ant. Debtor. Borrower. Mortg:ijjor. 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


CiiEPULiTT, ». See above. A j 
tt'Xidency to give credence too | 
easily. i 

Sv.\. Gullibility. Simrlicity. Accopta- I 
Uveiiess. Opcn-mi>utlR-Jnoss. I 

AST. liicreduiity. Scepticism. Suspi- | 
ciousness. Sbrewdness. I 

Ckeed, n. See above. A sys- ! 
tern of articles of belief for a re- | 
ligious or loolitical party. 

Srx. Beliel. Ciitechism. Articles. Con- 
fession. .Subscription. 

Ant. Protest. Abjuration. Recantation. 
Iletractiition. IMsbelief. Nun-subscription. 

Crest, v. Lat. crista. 

•SvN. Top. Summit. Apex. Head. 

AXT. Base. Foot. Bottom. Sole. 

Crestfallen, ndj. See Crest. 

SvN. Cast-down. Humiliated. Abashed. 
AxT. Inspirited. Elated. Cunfident. 

Crew, h. From an old word, 
erne, from Lat. crescre, to grow, 
which appears in the word Ac- 
crue. The full complement of a 
ship's company. Used also in a 
depreciatory way. 

SvN. Complement. Company. Gang. 
Jlerd. Sft. Jliscellany. Horde. Swarm. 

-VXT. Supercargo. Bevy, cialasy. Con- 
stellation. Picking. Cream. Elite. 

Crime, n. Lat. crimen. A 
charge of offence. 

Six. Offence. Misdeed. Misdemeanour. 
Felony. Enormity. 

AxT. Good deed. Well-doing. Duty. 
Obligation. Exploit. Achievement. 

Criminal, adj. See Crime. 

SvN. Illegal. Felonious. Vicious. Ini- 
quitous. SinfiiL Immoral. Guilty. Ne- 
farious. Flagitious. 

AXT. Lawful. Virtuous. Right. Just. 
Innocent. Moral. Meritorious. Creditable. 
Honourable. Praiseworthy. Laudable. 

Criminality, n. See Criminal. 
Criminate, '•. fr. See above. 

."^yx. Charge. Jmpliciite. Accuse. 
AXT. Acquit. Extricate. Absolve. 

Crimp, v. fr. Connected with 
Crumple. -SVe Corrugate. 
Crimp, adj. 

Srs. Brittle. Friable. Crisp. 
AxT. Tough. Stubborn. Viscous. lasty. 

Ckimple, v. fr. See Cnimple. 

Cringe, '•. ueut. Conn, with 
Crank and Crinkle, to draw to 
gethcr. To draw one's self to- 
gether into an attitude of snb- 
missiveness. Used metaphori- 

Svx. Crouch. Etnd. Bow. Fawn. 
Grabble. <Trub. 

AxT. Face. Confront. Defy. Dare. 

Crinkle, v. tr. See Crimple. 

Cripple, v. and v. Originally 
a cripple was a creeple— onewho 
crawled on hands and knees, not 
having the of his limbs. 
Hence, metai^horically, to cripple 
is to weaken or deprive of 
strength or amplitude. 

Srs. Weaken. Impair. Curtail. Cramp. 

Ant. Strengthen. Renovate. Augment. 

Liberate. Free. Ease. Enlarge. Expedite. 

Crisis, n. Gr. Kpla-is, from 
Kpivas, I determine. The point at 
which a course of affairs seems 
to halt, before decision one way 
or the other. See Conjuncture. 

Crisp. Lat. crispus. Formed 
into curls or ringlets. Said of 
friable and corrugated sub- 
stances. -See Crimp, adj. 

Criterion, rt. See CrLsis, 
That, the use of which enables 
one to form a judgment. 

Syn. Test. Touchstone. Proof. 
Ant. Eye. Glance. Intention. Con- 
jecture. Scan. 

Critic, v. See Crisis. A 
judge, or presumed to be so, hi 
a department of literature or art. 

Srx. Judge. Censor. Arbiter. Savant. 
Ant. Author. Writer. Performer. 

Critical, ndj. See Crisis. 
Has the sense of exercising the 
functions of a critic; and also 
betokening a crisis. 

Sty. Nice. Exact. Fastidious. Dnbioui 
Precarious. Ticklish. Crucial. Import;-.!it 


Sfjiioni/ms and Antomjms. 

AlTT. Inexact. Topular. Loose. Easy. 
rndiEcriminating. Safe. iJetermined. De- 
cided. Settled. Ketrieved. Kedressed. 

Criticise, v. tr. See above. 
To examine as a critic. 

Stk. Examine. Scan. Perpend. Analyze. 
Discuss. Anatomize. 

Asr. Slur. Survey. Overlook. Skim. 

Ckiticism, n. See Criticise. 

Choak, v. int. A -u-orcl formed 
in imitation of the note of a 
raven. Used metaphorically for 

Srx. Complain. Murmur. Grumble. 
AxT. Crow. Whistle. Sing. Chirp. 
Chuckle. Cackle. Kejoice. 

Crone, n. Sax. for an old 
ewe. Used metaphorically and 

Stx. Hag. Witch. BeMarae. 

AST. Lass. Damsel. Maiden. Belle. 

Crony, n. The same word as 
the foi-mer; but, in usage, the 
elements of sex (though Crone 
was sometimes masculine) and 
age have been forgotten, and 
that of intimacy alone remem- 

Syx. Ally. Cbura. :Mate. 
Ant. Foe. Rival. Back-friend. 

Crooked, adj. Crook, croche. 
Conn. Crochet, Crocket. Used 
metaphorically of plans or policy. 

Stn. Bent. Incurved. Angular. An- 
fractuous. Tortuous. Underhanded. 

Ant. Straight. Linear. Direct. Honest. 

Crop, v. tr. Sax. Crop was 
the neck or upper part of any- 
thing, as the crop or craw, the 
throat or first stomach of a fowl. 
Hence, to crop was to cut off the 
head, or to cut short. 

Si-s. .'Mow. Reap. Reduce. Shave. 
Shorten. Curtail. 

.\XT. rJlongate. Grow. Foster. Raise. 
Trail. Train. 

Chop, n. See verb. 
Stn. Heaping. Harvest. In-gathering. 
Ant. Pro(iuce. Yield. Abundance. 
Grow 111. Fruit 

Cross, adj. From cross, crux^ 
crncis. Exhibiting a feeling of 
being thwarted, or f;mcy of it. 

Stx. lU-tempereii. Fretful. Ill-hu- 
moured. Cijsty. Peevish. Petiish. Frac- 

Ant. Amiable. Good-tempered. Good- 
humoured. Blithesome. Genial. 

Cross-grained, adj. As if 
the disposition found adversity 
and opposition in every circum- 
stance and person. 

Stx. Perverse. Wayward. Peevish. 
Zklc-rose. Cantankerous. lU-cocditioned. 

Akt. Genial. Pleasant Agreeabla 
Jolly. Obliging. Accommodating. 

Crouch, v. int. See Crooked. 
To bend or couch from ser^iUty 
or fear. See Cringe and Cower. 

Cbow, v. To make a noise like 
a cock. Used metaphorically. 

Stx. Exult. Rejoice. Cackle. Chucklek 

AxT. ^Vhine. Howl. Grumble. Croak. 
Cry. Whfmper. 

Crowd, n. Saxon. 

Stx. Throng. Mob. Swarm. Pack. 

Akt. Cream. Elite. Bevy. Galaxy. 
Constellation. Cabinet 

Crown, v. Corona. Used 
literally and metaphorically. 

Six. Top. Crest. Summit. Head. 
Brow. Ape.x. 

AxT. Basement. Base. Bottom. Floor. 
Pavement. Pedestal. Foundation. Foot. 

Crown, v. See 7wun. 
Stx. Complete. Consummate. Seal. 

A XT. JIar. SpoiL Frustrate. 

Crucial, ail/. Cmx, crucis. 
Searching, as if bringing to the 
test of the Cross. 

Stu. Searching. lYobiiig. Severe. Dis- 
criminating. Sharp. Critical. Piercing. 

^Vkt. SuperHcinl. Indifferent. Mild. 
Uncritical. Lenient Lax. 

Crude, adf. Lat. cmdnft, U7i- 
ripc. Said of id(!as and style of 

Synomjms and Antonyms. 

Sra, Raw. UndiRested. Unconsidered. 
Half-studied. Hnrth. Unshared. Un- 
cliastciied. Unfinished. Unrefined. 111- 

AxT. Well-prepared. AVell-digested. 
^V■c■ll■considered. Well-studied. Ripe. 

AVell-adapted. AVell-proportioned. AVell- 
expressed. Classical. Finished. Refined. 
Anistic. Elaborate. Highly- wrought. 

Cruel, adj. Lat. cnchlis. 
It A\"('Vo well to abanilon an un- 
reflecting nse of this word, as 
simply eqnivalent to severe, as, 
'a cruel clisai^pointment,' and 
adhere to the notion of violation 
of principles of mercy and hu- 

Stn. Savage. Barbarous. Inhuman. 
Maleficent. Malignant. 

AxT. Humane. Forbearing. Generous, 
r^lerciful. Forgiving. Benevolent. Bene- 

Crumble, v. act. and neuf. To 
bruise or fall into crumbs or 
particles. Sax. crumb, written 
also Crum. 

Syx. Disintegrate. Pulverize. Triturate. 
, A:;t. Consolidate. Couglutinate. Bond. 

Crumple, v. tr. See Crumple, 
Crinkle, and Corrugate. 

Crush, v. tr. In etymology 
connected with Crash and Craze. 

SrN. Pulverize. Triturate. I'o\md. 
Bray. Crumble. Overpower. Demolish. 

Ant. Consolidate. Compact. Cike. 
Solidify. Compress. Amalgamate. Up- 
raise. Stabilitate. Aggrandize. 

Crusty, adj. Lat. crmfa, a 
crumb or paste. Having a some- 
what rough and impracticable 
exterior, without badness at 
heart. See Cross. 

Cudgel, v. tr. Comp. Scotch 
end, a short thick stick. To beat. 
Used metaphorically. 

.■-TN-. Pound. Bruise. Buffet. Batter. 
Akt. Stroke. Pat. Clap. Tickle. 

Cue, n. Fr. qtieue, a tail. The 
knot of a periwig. Used of old 
for the last word of an actor "s 


speech, which was the signal for 
the next speaker; hence, to take 
the cue from a person. 

Stn. Sign. Hint. Wink. Catcli-word. 
Signal. Prompting. Suggestion. Insinua- 
tion. Implication. 

Ant. Response. Recognition. Kepeti. 
tion. Part. Echo. 

Cuff, v. tr. Of Northern 
origin. To strike with the palm 
of the hand, as distinguished 
from the use of any implement 
beside the hand. 

Stn. Slap. Box. Smack. Punch. 
Pommel. Hustle. Buffet. 

Ant. Cudgel. Flagellate. Thrash. Cane. 
Strap. Lash. Whip. 

Cull, v. tr. CoUigere. To 

collect. Comp. Fr. cniller, a 


Stn. Bunch. Gather. Pick. Collect. 

Ant. Scatter. Drop. Throw. Dissemi- 

Culmination, t?. The grow- 
ing to a head. C'ldmen, in. is, a 
top. The reaching of the final 
point of perfection. 

Stn. Consummation. Zenith. Acme. 
Meridian. Apex. Success. Completion. 

Ant. Fall. Descent. Decline. Failure. 
Downfall. Degradation. Defeat. Abortion. 

Culpability, n. See Cul- 

Culpable, ad/. Culpa, a 

Stn. Blameablc. Blameworthy. Guilty. 
Ant. Blameless. Innocent. Excusable. 
Laudable. Praiseworthy. 

Culprit, ??. See Culpable. 

Criminal. Delinquent 

Stn. Offender. 

Ant. Example. 

Pattern. Model. Hero 

Cultivate, v. tr. Colere, odtus, 
to cultivate. Applied physically, 
and also metaphorically, to the 
fostering of the growth of quali- 

Stn. Promote. Foster. Study. Im- 
prove. Fertilize. Nourish. Cherish. 

Ant. Neglect. Desert. Abandon. Stifle 
Prevent. Discourage. Bliglit 
Blast. Paralyze. Eradicate. Extinwta 


fnoi^yms and Antonyms. 

Cpmber, Lat. cinniiliif>.\ 
To oppress, as with the weight 
of a heavy heap. 

SvN. Clog. ii;'V'''-ft. Oppress. Load. 
Incommode. Obsuart. 

Ant. Liberate. tlKpedite. Alleviate. 
K.\tricate. Lighten. Itclieve. Support. 
Free. Kid. 

Cunning, n. Sax. Originally 
meaning no more than know- 
ledge. Comp. Ken. For its 
usage see Craft. 

Cupidity, v. Cupldus, from 
cupere, to desire 

Syk. Avarice. Acquisitiveness. Stingi- 

ANT. Prodigality. Extravagance. Libe- 

Curb, v. tr. C'urvm. Incurved. 
Said of reining horses. Comp. 

Stn. Restrain. Cuhibit. Hold. Check. 

Ant. Indulge. Liberate. Relea.'se. 
Kmancipate. Loose. Urge. Free. Incite. 
Instigate. Imi>ol. 


Curdle, e. f>\ and int. 

Syn Coagnlatf. Condense. Thicken. 
AST. Colliquify. Diffuse. Circulate. 

Cure, ii. Cnra, care. The 
successful issue of careful treat- 
ment, ^vith some degree of suc- 
cess, or with complete success. 

Syn. Remedy. Alleviation. Ameliora- 
tion. Reinstatement. Restoration. Reno- 
vation. Convalescence. 

Ant. Aggravation. Confirmation. Com- 
plaint. Disease. Ailment. Inoculation. 
Contagion. Corruption. 

Cure, v. See noun. 

Curiosity, n. Curiosim. See 
Cure. Having a care, often an 
undue care, to make inquiries. 
Also used for a thing of a curi- 
ous or rare kind. 

Stn. Inquisitiveness. Interest. Inter- 
rogativeness. Rarity. Phenomenon. Cele- 
brity. Oddity. Lion. 

Ant. Indifference. Heedlessness. Dis- 
regard. Abstraction. Absenci>. Weed. 
Drug. Oiit Cipher. Biigatelle. Song. 

Curious, adj. See Curiosity. 

Used in the sense of possessing 

curiosity, and also rare, or 
worthy of curiosity. 

Stn." Inquiring. Inquisitive. Searching. 
Interrogative. Prying. Peeping. Peering. 
Rare. Odd. Recondite. 

AXT. Indifferent. Uninquiring. In- 
curious. Uninterested. Trite. Common 

Curmudgeon, ik Camr, m<r- 
chant, or corn-mu(l(]in. Ill-con- 
ditioned-fellow. Churl. 

Syx. Miscreant. Wretch. Rascal. 
AST. Trump. Good fellow. Brick. 

Currency, v. See Current. 
Used technically for money, 
and generally for the prevalence 
of a matter of estimation or 

Syx. Circulation. Vogue. Publicity. 

Ant. Suppression. Repression. Recall. 
Stagnation. Rejection. Disbelief. With- 

Current, adj. Currere, to run. 
See Currency. 

Stn. Running. Prevalent. Ordinary 
Present. Popular. General. Floating 
Exoteric. Vulgar. 

Ant. Rejected. Obsolete. E.\ploded. 
Confined. Private. Secret. Esoteric. 

Curse, n. Conn, with Cross. 
That which, being evil, comes 
under the ban of the Cross. U.sed 
for malediction, literally and me- 
taphorically, for that w^hich is 
bad enough to have been the 
result of curse. 

Sy-k. Malediction. K.xtrlcation. Ana- 
thema. Bane. Blight. 

Ant. Blessing. Benediction. Joy. 
Crown. Glory. 

Curse, v. tr. See noun. 
Syx. Execrate. Anathematize. 
Ant. Bless. Felicitate. Welcoma 

Cursory, adj. Currere, cursuf, 
to run. Eunning or skimming 
over the surface, rather than 
stopping to investigate. Used 
also of works or procecdingB in 

tSynonyms and Antonyms. 


■«rhich this quality has lieen 

Stk. Summary. Rapid. Superficial. 
Ant. Searching. ^Minute. Elaborate. 

Curtail, v. tv. Fr. court, short, 
and tuilliir, to cut. To shorten, 
by lopping one or other of the 
extremities. See Abbreviate. 

CuBVE, V. tr. Curvus. In- 

Stn. Incurve. Bend. Inflex. Faleate. 

Ant. Straighten. Unbend. Kectilineate. 

CuRVB, n. See verb. 
Syn. Incurvation. Fle.xion. Deflexion. 
Ant. Rigidity. Inelasticity. Inflexi- 
bility. Rectilinearity. 

Custody, n. Lat. cmtodi<(. 

Stn. Keeping. Guardianship. Conser- 
vation. Care.'- 

Ant. Neglect. Betrayal. Exposure. 
Abandonment. Desertion. Jeopardy. Libe- 
ration. Discharge. 

Custom, n. Lat. consuetude. 
"Way of living. 

Sin. Manner. Habit. Use. Prescrip- 

Axt. Law. Regulation. Dictate. Com- 
mand. Rule. Disuse. Non-observance. 

Cut, v. tr. Old Eng. l-if. To 
divide with a sharp instrument. 
Used also of cutting, that is, 
avoiding, an acquaintance. 

Sin. Sever. Slice. Sunder. Avoid. 

Ant. Unite. Splice. Accost. Apprcich. 
Court. Address. Salute. 

Cutting, or//. See Cut. Used 
also metaphorically. 

Syn'. Sharp. Biting. Mordant. Trenchant. 
Piercing. Bitfr. Sarca.stic. Provoking. 
Stinging. Saidonic. Exasperating. Dis- 
appointing. Cruel. 

Ant. Mild. Conciliatory. Conipli- 
raejitary. Soothing. Klattering. Indulgent. 
Consoling. Gratifying. 

Ctnjcal. From the sect of 
Cynical philosophers, who de- 
rided human follies and vices. 

Stn. Sarcastic. Snarling. Sneering. 

Ant. Uenial. Lenient. Complaisant. 


Dabble. Dab. Conn, with 

Stn. Meddle. Mix. Trifle. .Skim. 
Ant. Study. Elaborate. luvestigatek 
Delve. Dig. Fathom. Gauge. 

Daft. Norwegian. 

Stn. Silly. Innocent. Idiotic. Lunatic. 
Light-headed. Cracked. 

Ant. Sane. Sound. Sensible. Practical. 
Rational. Shrewd. Deft. 

Daintt. Old Fr. dain. Pro- 
bably from diynus, luorthy, choice. 
Used also of the quality which 
seeks for such things. Fasti- 

Stn. Choice. Rare. Refined. Tasty. 
Exquisite. Luxurious. Epicurean. Fas- 

Ant. Common. Coarse. Unrelishing. 
Nasty. Dirty. Omnivorous. Greedy. 

Dally, v. in-. Germ, dahlen. 

Syx. Trifle. Play. Wanton. Sport. 
FoDdle. Delay. Dawdle. 

Ant. Toil. Labour. Work. Study 
Fag. Stir. Bustle. Hasten. 

Damage, n. Fr. domnge, Lat. 
damnum. Any injury to i^erson^ 
property, or reputation. 

Stn. Injury. Hurt. Loss. Detriment). 

Ant. Compensation. Recovery. Rein- 
statement. Advantage. Benefit. Repara- 
tion. Blessing. 

Damp, v. Germ, damp/, steam. 
Used metaphorically. 

Syn. Cool. Blunt. Discourage. Dis- 
countenance. Repre.-is. 

Ant. Urge. Inflame. Incite. Fan 


Danger, n. Fr. davc/er. Pro- 
bably from cZ((mw»m. The near 
probability of personal detri- 

Stn. Peril. Hazard. Risk. Jeopardy. 
Ant. Security. Custody. Defence. 
Safety. Pn'munition. Precaution. 

Dapper, adj. Germ, tap/cr, 
v(diaut. The word has deterio- 
rated in meaning, like some 
others. For instance, one sense 
of the word brave is vaUant; 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

another into wliich at one time 
it settled largely was, showy. 

Stn. Spruce. Neat. Natty. Smart. 
Akt. Slovenly. Awkward. Unwieldy. 

Daee, V. tr. and int. Sax. 
Allied to Gr. dappelv, to be strong. 

Sry. Venture. Face. Brave. Hazard, 
nisk. Defy. 

Ant. Shrink. Shun. Dread. Cower. 

Daeing. See Dare. 

Syn. Adventurous. Dashing. Bold. 
Ant. Cautious. Timid. Inadventurous. 

Daek, adj. Saxon. Applies 
to physical substances or condi- 
tions, matters of statement, hu- 
man character, and human con- 

Srx. Black. Dusky. Sable. Swarthy. 
Opaque. Obscure. Knigmatical. Recondite. 
Abstruse. Unintelligible. Blind. Ignorant. 
Besotted. Benighted. Dim. Shadowy. 
Sombre. Joyless. Mournful. Sorrowful. 

Ant. White. Fair. Light. Radiant. 
Bright. Lucid. Crystalline. 'J'ransparent. 
BriUiant. Plain. Intelligible. Euliglitened. 
Glaring. Dazzling. Illumined. Festive. 

Darling, n. Dearling. Little 
dear one. 

SvN. Pet. Love. Sweet. Pretty. Dear. 
Favourite. Delight. 

AxT. Antipathy. Abomination. Horror. 

Dart, v. tr. Low Lat. dardns. 
In Swed. dart means dagger. To 
Aurl or shoot forward with vio- 
lence or velocity. 

Srx. Hurl. Propel. Throw. Fling. 

AST. Fix. Place. Insert Hand. Pre* 


Dash, v. tr. and int. Northern 
word. To strike into pieces. To 
throw off. It differs from Dart, 
not only in implying injury to 
the component parts of the tiling 
dashed, but also in an implied 
tendency more or less down- 
wards, as if the object were that 
gravitation and concussion should 
aid the process. So we naturally 
dash downwards and horizon- 

tally, but never upwards. It is 
used in common parlance for 
rapid movement. 

Stn. Hurl. Cast. Throw. Subvert 
Detrude. Drive. Rush. Send. Fly. Speed. 

Ant. Raise. Reinstate. Erect. Creep. 
Crawl. Lag. Hobble. 

Dashing, adj. See Dash. 

Syn. Adventurous. Showy. Brave. 
Ant. Shrinking. Dowdy. Timid. 

Dastard, v. Sax. dmtrigan, 
to frighten. See Coward. 

Data, n. pL Dare, to give; 
datum, a tiling given. Certain 
granted points, the ground of 

Srx. Facts. Grounds. Basis. Axioms. 

Ant. Conjecture. Assumption. Problem. 
Proposition, inference. De4uctiou. 

Daub. See Bedaub. 

Daunt, v. tr. Old Fr. damter, 
Lat. doniitare, to tame. Subdue 
with fear. 

SvN. Terriiy. Scare. Intmiidate. Con- 

Ant. Countenance. Encourage. l^Uy. 

Dauntless, adj. See Daunt. 

Syn. Valiant. Gallant. Fearless. In- 

Ant. Cautious. Cowardly. Timid. 

Dawdle, v. int. Allied to 
Daddle and Dandle. 

Syn. Liig. Dally. Idle. 
Ant. Haste. Speed. Dash. Rush. 
Work. Fag. 

Dawn, v. int. Germ, tag, Eng. 
day, Lat. dies. To become day. 
To grow light. Used metaphori- 
cally of an accession of under- 
standing or perception. 

SvN. Gleam. Begin. Rise. Open, 

Ant. ^Vane. Set. Sink. Close. l">e- 

Dazzle, v. tr. Conn. Scotcli 
daze. To bewilder with excess 
of light. 

SvN. Daze. Bewilder. C.inftue. 
Akt. Enlighten. Illumine. 

Si/nonj/ms and Antonyms. 

Dead. A form of the part. 
died. Used not only of animals 
or i^lants defunct, but also meta- 
phorically of anything that may 
be supposed to have the attribute 
of hfelessness. 

Sys. Defunct. Deceased. Departed. 
Gone. Inanimate. Lifeless. Insensible. 
Heavy. Unconscious. Dull. Spiritless. 
Cheerless. Deserted. 

Ant. Vital. Living. Animate. Viva- 
cious. Susceptible. Alive. Joyous. Stirring. 
Thronged. Bustling. 

Deaden, v. tr. See Dead. 

SrN. Benumb. Paralyze. Blunt. Damp. 

Ant. Sharpen. Quicken. Enliven. 

Deadly, arJJ. See Dead. Said 
of qualities as well as substances. 

Si-N. Mortal. Fatal. Jlalignant. Baleful. 
Pernicious. A'oxious. Venomous. 

Ant. Vital. Life-giving. Healthfui 
MTiolesome. Nutritious. 

Deadness, n. See Dead. 

Stn. Torpor. Flatness. Inertness. 

Ant. Quickness. Vitality. Life. Viva- 

Deaf, odj. Sax. Physically 
wanting the sense of hearing, or 
having it impaired. Metajihori- 
cally, averse, that is, not inclined, 
to liear. Sometimes, also, ai> 
plied to express a certain cha- 
racter of sound. 

Sin. Surd. Hard of (hearing). Dis- 
inclined. Averse. Inexorable. Insensible. 
Rumbling. Inaudible. Heedless. Dead. 

Ant. Acute. Listening. Disposed. In- 
terested. Attentive. Wiliing. Susceptible. 
Sensible. Alive. 

Deal, v. tr. and ixt. Sax. 

Syn. BaiRain. Chaffer. Trade. Dis- 
pense. Market. Communicate. Negotiate. 

Ant. Hold. Close. Stop. Fail. 

Dealing. See Deal. 

Stn. Intercourse. CommunkatioT). 
Trade. Traffic. Negotiation. 

Ant. Lack. Failure. Closing. Bank- 
rxvptcy. Stagnation. WithdrawaL Non- 

Dear. Saxon. 

Syn. Costly. Expensive. Beloved. Pre- 


Ant. Cheap. Inexpensive. Mlslikcd, 

Dearth, v. Same origin as 
Dear. See Abundance. 

Death, ■». Sax. From Die. 
Used metaphorically. 

Syn. Departure. Demise. Decease. Dis- 
solution. Mortality. Fall. Failure. Ter- 
mination. Cessation. Expiration. 

Ant. Birth. Rise. Life. Growth. 
Vigour. Animation. Spirit. Activity. 
Operation. Action. Commencement. Vi- 
tality. Auspices. Inauguration. 

Deathless, adj. See Death. 

Stn. Undying. Immortal. Unfading. 

Ant. Mortal. Ephemeral. Fragile. 
Fugitive. Momentary. Transient. Fleet- 

Debar, v. tr. Welsh bar, a 
stake or branch of a tree. 

Stn. Exclude. Stop. Thwart. Obstruct. 
Hinder. Prevent. Deprive. Disqualify. 
Deny. Prohibit. 

Ant. Inclose. Embrace. Admit. Per- 
mit. Aid. Allow. Indulge. Qualify. 

Debase, v. tr. See Abase. To 
lower the intrinsic goodness or 
value of a thing or person. 

Stn. Degrade. Lower. Depress. De- 
prave. Deteriorate. Corrupt. Alloy. 

Ant. Praise. Enhance. E.xalt. Honour. 
Promote. Ameliorate. Purity. Improve. 

Debased, adj. See Debase. 
! Debate, v. Fr. batfre. Conn, 
! Beat and Abate. To combat ; 
but by usage restricted to de- 
liberation, and iTsed transitively, 
as, to debate a point ; or intran- 

Stn. Contend. Dispute. Argue. Dis- 
cuss. Deliberate. Question. Ventilate. 

Ant. Yield. Concede. Surrender. Ad- 
mit Allow. 

Debateable, adj. See Debate. 

Stn. Dubious. Doubtful. Inestimable, 
Uncer'uiin. Problematical. Floating. tTn* 

Ant. Certain. Sure. Unquestionable. 
Indisputable. Self-evident. Incontestible. 

Debauch, Debauchery, n. 
Old Fr. buuche, a luorkshop. To 
debauch was, therefore, origi- 
I 2 


S'jnonijms and Antonyms. 

Eally to seduce from work into 
idleness. An idlo, dissolute en- 

Stn. Kiot, Revel. Excess. Orgies. 

Ant. Meal. Moderation. Frucrality. 
Asceticism. Abstinence, Fast. Macera- 

DbbauCH, V. tr. See noun. To 
lead another into debauchery. 

Stn. Seduce. Corrupt. 
Ant. Turify. Enlighten. Ameliorate. 

Debility, n. Lat. dtbilis, 

Stn. AVeakness. Feebleness. Enerva- 
tion. Lassitude. Languor. 

Ant. Strength. Vigour. Robustness. 
Energy. Tone. Ner^-e. Musularity. 

Debt, n. Dehere, to oive ; de- 
hitnm, a thine/ oived. 

Syn. Debit. Liability. Default. Obli- 

Ant. Liquidation. Assets. Credit. 
Trust. Grace. Favour. Obligation. Ac- 
commodation. Gift. Gratuity. 

DsBTOR, n. See Creditor and 

Decadence, n. See Decay. 

Decamp, v. int. Camp. From 
campus, a field. To break up a 
camp. Hence said also of indi- 
viduals. To make a hasty re- 
treat, especially for the prnpose 
of getting out of sight. 

Stn. Start. Fly. Bott. Abscond. 
Ant. Appear. Answer. Shuw. 

Decay, v. int. De and cadere, 

Stn. Decline. AVane. Sink. Dwindle. 
Waste. Ebb. Decrease. 

Ant. Rise. Grow. Increase. Flourish. 
Luxuriate. Vegetate. Expand. Enlarge. 

Decay, n. See vei-l. 

Stn. Declension. AVaning. Sinking. 
Wasting. Decrease. Corruption. | 

Ant. Rise. Growth. Birth. Increase. 
Fertility. ExuberaLce. Luxuriance. Pros- 
per! tj-. ! 

Decayed, adj. Sec Decay. 
Fallen as to physical or social I 
conditio* ! 

Stn. Rotten. Correpi. Unsound. De- 
composed. Declined. I'aded. Suna. Un- 
prosperous. Impoverished. 

Ant. Sound. AYhoIesome. Healthful. 
Fresh. Prosperous. Flourishing. Wealthy. 

Decease, n . Lat. d'cessus, de- 
cedere, to dejmrt. See Death. 

Deceit, n. Lat. decipere, de' 
ceptus. Used of the character, 
the process, and the result of 

SvN. Cheat. Imposition. Trick. De- 
lusion. Circumvention. Guile. Beguile- 
ment. Treacherj*. Sham. Insidiousness. 

Ant. Enlightenment. Instruction. Guid- 
ance. Reality. Verity. Fair dealing. 
Honesty. Openness. 

Deceive, v. tr. See Deceit. 

Stn. Trick. Cheat. Beguile. Delude. 
Mislead. Betray. Ensnare. Entrap. Cir- 

Ant. Enlighten. Advise. Illumine, 
Guide. Disabuse. Undeceive. Deliver. 

Deceiver, n. See Deceive. 

Decent, adf. Decere, to be- 
come. See Becoming. 

Deception, n. See Deceit. 

Decide, v. tr. and int. Deci' 
dere. Ccedere, to cut. To cut oS. 
Separate the issue of a case. 

SvN. Determine. Settle. Adjudicate. 
Terniiiiale. Resolva 

Ant. Waver. Raise. Moot. Drop. 
Doul)t. Waive. Suspend. Misjudge. Mis- 

Decided, adj. See Decide. 

Stn. Determined. Ruled. Resolute. 
Firm. Unwavering. 

Ant. Undecided. UnsetUed. Irresolute, 

Deciduous. Decidere, to fall. 
Properly said of trees which shed 
their leaves simultaneously and 
renew them immediately; but 
by usage sometimes meaning 
Ephemeral, wliich see. 

Decipher, v. tr. See Cipher, 
Said of letters or sjinbols of any 

Syn. Read. Spell. Interpret Solve. 
Ant. Cipher. ."^ymbolixe. impuiilb 
Mystify. Enigmatize. 

Sijnomjms and Antonyms. 


I Syn. Concoction. Dish. Compound. 

Decision, ??. Sec Decide. 

SvN. Iicterni illation. Conclusion. Re- i ^^■^^^- Hatter. 
solution. Firmness. 

Ant. Irresoinioness. VagueiiPss. In 
decision. Uncertijinty. Unseitlement. j DECOMPOSE, V. tr. De ai)(l 

Deck, v. tr. Lat. fcr/cre, to i compoupre. To resolve into its 
cover. With ornament to em- elements organized or com- 

bellish. See Adorn. 

I pounded matter. 

TiT,r,t .»,, 71 7 m ' ^^^- -Analyze. Segregate. Individualize. 

Declaim, v. Dtclnrmrc. To | Resolve. Dissolve. 

hold forth. 

SvN. Harangue. Recite. Apostrophize. I ^'"''^''- Compose. 

Ant. Compound. Concoct. Mix. Or- 

Speak. Debate. 

Ant. Read. Study. Cumposo. Elabo- 


Syn. Oratory. Elocution. Haranprue. 
Effusion. Debate. 

Sec Decla- 

Ant. Stammering. Titubancy. Hesi 
tation. Tardiloquence. 

Declamatory, adj. 
the faults incidental to declama 

Stn. Loud. Noisy. Incoherent. Dis- 
tursive. Loose. Inconsecutive. 

Ant. Close. Connected. Logical. Stndiod. 
E.xact. yuiet. Consecutive. 

Decompositiox, 11. See De- 

Decorate, v. tr. Decus, an 
ornument. See Adorn. 

Decorum, n. Lat. 

Syn. Seemliness. I'ropriety. Dignity. 
i Ant. Unseemliness. Impropriety. Dis- 
Havinj2; turbance. Disorder. 

• Decoy, v. tr. See Coy. Quietly 
to entice into a snare. 

Syn. Allure. Entice. Ensnare. Entrap, 
Seduce. Mislead. Inveigle. 

Ant. Guide. Instruct. Warn. Conduct 
Disabuse. Extricate. 

Declaration, ??. Declarare, i Decrease, v. vet. and nevt. 
dams, dear. A clear statement -^^ 'IulI crescere, to grow. Said 

or announcement. 

Sin. Avowal. Exhibition. Manifesta- 
tion. Statement. Profession. 

Ant. Denial. Concealmtnt. Suppres- 

Declare, v. tr. See Declara- 

Declension, v. Dedinare. 
Gr. Kklvfiv, to dope. 

Stn. Decay. Decadence. Degeneration. 
Deterioration. Fall. 

Ant. Rise. Improvement. Advance- 
ment. Culmination. 

Decline, v. act. and neut. See 
Declension and Accept. 

Declivity, v. De and dlvus, 
a dope ; dediuis, steep. 

Syn. Descent. Fall. Slope. Incline 

Ant. Ascent. Rise. Verticiility. 

Decoction, v. J)e and cnquere, 
fo cook. Food usually of a liquid 
kind prepared by heat. 

of size, numbers, and degree. 

Stn. Diminish. Lessen. Wane. De- 
cUne. Retrench. Curtail. Reduce. 

Ant. Increase. Grow. Amplify. Ex- 
pand. Augment. Extend. Enlarge. 

Decrease, «. See verb. 

Deceee, ri. Lat. decretum, 
dcccrncre, to decide. 

Stn. Decision. Determination. Man- 
date. Law. Edict. Manifesto. Rule. 

Anp. Cue. Hint. Suggestion. Intima- 
tion. Request. 

Decresient, V. Decrescere, 
See Augmentation. 

Decrepit, adj. De and crepare, 
to make a noise. Having dropped 
into the infirm noiselessness of 
age, or a kind of creaking infir- 
mity, as of worn machinery. 

Stn. Infn-m. Weali Crippled. TottM. 
Ing. Aged. 


Decry, v. tr. To cry dov/n. 

Stn. Depreciate. Traduce. Vituperate. 
Msparage. Defame. Vilify. Censure. 
Abase. Denounce. 

Ant. ExtoL Laud. Praise. Eulogize. 

tr. Dedicarr. 

Synonyms and A-donyms. 

'. See 

Dedicate, v. 
To place a thing or person under 
the auspices or service of an- 
other; also to apply to a pur- 

Syx. Devote. Consecrate. Offer. Set. 
Apporlioa Assign. Apply. Separate. 

AXT. Alienate. Misapply. Desecrate. 
Misappropriate. Misconvert. Misuse. 

DEDrCE, V. tr. Dedvcere. To 
di-aw from another tiling, espe- 
cially in the way of inference. 

Syk. Draw. Inter. Conclude. Gather. 

Ant. State. Premise. Hazard. Con- 
jecture. Guess. Induce. Anticipate. Fore- 
see. Predict. Induct. 

Dedtjcible, adj. See Deduce. 

Deduct, v. tr. Do and ducere, 
to take or draw. To remove a 
portion from a whole. 

Stn. Subtract. Bate. Remove. 
AxT. Add. Annex. Subjoin. 

Deed,«. From Do. A thing 
done, or a record of it. .See Act. 

Stn. Act. A-ction. Commission. 
Achievement. Perpetration. Instrument. 
Document. Muniment. 

Ant. Omission. Failure. Aboriion. False- 
■witness. Innocence. Cancelling. Disproof. 
Invalidation. Retractation. Impossibility. 
Non-perfonnance. Recall. Reversion. Un- 

Dee.m, V. tr. Saxon denmn, to 
estimate. To pass an act of judg- 
ment. Conn, with doom, sen- 
tence, or judgment. 

Stn. Judge. Estimate. Consider. Think. 
Suppose. Conceive. 

Ant. Mi.-;judge. Misestimate. Miscon- 

DiEEP, adj. Saxon and Gothic. 
Connected with Dip, a hollow, 
and the verb to immerse. Used 
physically and metaphorically of j piemcnt.'' 

De- i character, design, or moiia of 
I thought. 

St?;. Profound. Subterranean. Sab- 
merged. Designing. Abstruse. Recondite. 

A:rr. Shallow. Superficial. Artless. 
Undesigning. Familiar. Commonplace, 

Deeply, adv. See Deep. 
Deface, v. tr. Face, fades. 
To spoil the face or external ap- 


Stn. Mar. Spoil. Injure. Disfigure. 
Axt. Decorate. Adorn. Embellish. 

Defalcation, n. De and/W7.c, 
ffl sickle. A pruning or deduc- 
tion. By present usage confined 
to non-payment of dues. 

Stn. Failure. Non-payment. Arrears. 

Ant. Payment. AcquittAl. Balance. 
Satisfaction. Assets. 

Defame, v. tr. Defamarr, 
fama, reputation. See Decry. 

Defamee, ?;. See Defame. 

Default, «. Fault. Fuller e, 
to fail. 

Stn. Lapse. Forfeit. Omission. Absence. 
AVant. Failure. 

Ant. Maintenance. Appearance. Plea. 
Satisfaction. Forthcoming. Supply. Pre- 

Defattlter, n. See Default. 

SvN. Debtor. Insolvent. B:\nkrupt. 
AST. Defrayer. Liquidator. 

.Defeat, n. Deficere, defectus, 
to fail. Used actively for failure, 
in competition with a superior 
in .strength or skill. 

Svx. Frustration. Overthrow. Discom- 

Ant. Victory. Triumph. Success. 

Defe.vt, V. fr. See noun. Used 
of persons and plans. 

SiN. Conquer. Overcome. Vi'orst. Frus- 

^Vnt. Baffle. Disconcert Beat FoiL 
Aid. S?cure. Promote. Insure. Speed 
Advance. litablish. 

Defect, i>. See Defeat. 

SvN. Shorlcoming. Omission. Fault 
I Ant. Supply. Suffiiency. Kmendatloa. 
i Compensation. Virtue Ornament. C<>a> 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


Defection. See Defect. A 
moral failing or falling off, the 
result of estrangement of will. 

Syn. Failure. iJereliction. Abaudon- 
meiit. Relinquishment. Desertion. 

Ant. Substitution. Supply. Super- 
abundance. Adherence. 

Defective, adj. See Defect. 

.Syn. Faulty. Imperfect. Insufficient. 
Deficient. Wanting. Short. 

Ant. Correct. Complete. Sufficient. 
Full. Ample. Abundant. Satisfactory. 

Defence, n. Dcfendere, dc- 

Syn. Resistance. Protection. Shelter. 

Ant. Abandonment. Surrender. Be- 
trayal. Exposure. 

Defenceless, n. See Defence. 

Syn. Unsheltered. Exposed. Unguarded. 
Unprotected. Unarmed. 

Ant. Sheltered. Guarded. Fortified. 
Defended. Protected. Aimed. 

Defendant, n. See Defend. 
One who in a court of law has a 
case of his own to defend. 

Syn. Accused. Prisoner. 

Ant. Prosecutor. Accuser. Plaintiff. 

Defensible, adj. See Defence. 
That may be defended in argu- 
ment as true or right. 

Syn. Vindicable. Justifiable. Tenable. 
Ant. Unjustifiable. Untenable. Un- 
warrantable. Indefensible. 

Defer, v. tr. Beferre, delatiis, 
whence Delay. To put off; also 
to waive, in deference to another. 

Si-N. Delay. Postpone. Waive. Ad- 
journ. Prorogue. 

Ant. Expedite. Hasten. Quicken. 
Press. Urge. Hurry. Overdrive. Despatch. 

Deference, «. See Defer. 

Syn. Respect. Consideration. Reverence. 
Obedience. Homage. Allegiance. 

Akt. Disrespect. Contumely. Contu- 
macy. Disregard. Slight. Impudence. 
Disobedience. Non-allegiance. Defiance. 

Defiance, n. Be and fdes. 
Literally, the breach of faith; 
more particularly, of the relation 
between a vassal and his su- 
j«rior ; hence, setting at nuught. 

iStk. See Deference. 

1 Deficient, ad/. Drfwerr, to 
fail. See Defective. It differs 
from Defective, in that Deficient 
is wanting as regards a duty or 
a requirement. Defective as re- 
gards a state or standard. 

Defile, v. tr. An old Enghsh 
-word, fill', fo pollute. Coun. with 
Foul. See Contaminate. 

DKFINte, V. tr. Definire, finis, 
a houndnry. To set limits to 
space, sig-nification, rights, &c., 
for the sake of clearness. 

Syn. Marlt out. Limit. Designate. 
Specify. Eliminate. Elucidate. Explain. 

Ant. Confound. Confuse. Obscure. 
Mystify. Misstate. Misconceive. Miscon- 
strue. Misdefine. 

Definite, adj. See vcrh. 

Sytj. Clear. Specified. Determined. De 
finitlve. Restricted. Specific. Certain. 

The difference between De- 
finite and Definitive is that the 
former refers to the condition of 
things objectively, the latter sub- 
jectively, as, matters of men's 
action. Thus, a definite idea, 
and, a definitive arrangement. 

Ant. Vague. Unspecified. Undeter- 
minod. Indefinite. Obscure. Confused. 

Definition, n. See above. 

Syn. Determination. Limitation. Speci- 
fication. Restriction. 

Ant. Confusion. Vagueness. Accepta- 
tion. Description. Explanation. Miscon- 
ception. Misstatement. 

Deflect, v. tr. and mt. De 
and fiectere, to turn or bend. To 
turn off from a given line. 

Stk. Turn. Deviate. Diverge. Swerve. 
Divert. Recurve. 

Deflection, n. See Deflect. 

Syn. Deviation. Divergence. Alienation, 
Swerving. Incurvation. Ourvity. Fal(» 

Akt. StraiRhtiies-s. DirectncBg. lUctk 
linearity. Inflcxiliility. Prolougatioc. ¥n^ 
secution. Uudcviatingness. 


Synonyms and Aniomjms. 

Deform, v. tr. Forma. To 
mar the shape or appearance. 
Bee Adorn. 

Deformity, n. See Deform. 
The quality of ugliness ; and 
also that which exemplifies it. 

SrN. Ugliness. Disfigurement. Hideous- 
ness. Abnormity. Monstrosity. 

Ant. Grace. Beauty. Decoration. Or- 

Defraud, v tr. De and fraus, 
fraud. See Cheat. 

Defray, v. tr. Through the 
Trench defrayer, frais. Lat. 
fredum, a 'penalty for breach of the 
peace. Payment of expenses, but 
in reference to a specific object. 

SrN. Meet. Liquidate. Pay. Discharge. 

Ant. Dishonour. Repudiate. Dissatisfy. 
Misappropriate. Embezzle. Repudiate. 

Defrayment, n. See Defray. 

Stn. Payment. Quittance. Liquidation. 
Compensalioi). Discharge. 

Ant. Non-payment. ITailure. Insolvency. 
Appropriation. Misappropriation. Em- 
bezzlement. Repudiation. 

Deft, adj. Saxon. See Clever. 

Defunct, adj. De and fungi, 
to discharge. One who has dis- 
charged hiis allotted part in life. 
See Dead. 

Defy, v. tr. See Defiance and 

Degenerate, ad/. See verb. 

Syn. Worse. Fallen'. Debased. Im- 
paired. Vitiateii. Decayed. 

Ant. Improved. Ameliorated. Ad- 
vanced. Regenerated. 

Degenerate, v. int. De and 
genus, a kind or stock. To ex- 
emplify in one's self a deteriora- 
tion of stock; also said of the 
stock itself. 

Stn. Deteriorate. Decline. Retrograde. 
Ant. Recover. Improve. Mend. Ad- 

Deglutition, n. Deglutire, to 
iwallmo down. 

Syn. Swallowing. Gorging. Glattecy 

Ant. Disgorgement. Vomit. 

Degradation, n. De and 
gradus, a step. To lower from 
the step or rank of society or 
office. See Debase. 

Degrade, v. tr. See Degrada- 
tion and Debase. 

Degree, n. See Degradation. 
Degree is the indication of rela- 
tive quantity, as distinct from 
absolute or unmeasui-ed quan- 

Syii. Grade. Extent. Measure. Mark. 
Ptange. Quantity. Amount. Limit 

Ant. Space. Mass. Magnitude. Size. 

Dehortation, n. De and 
hortare, to exhort. To exhort 
from, or dissuade. See Dissuade. 

Deign, v. tr. Dignus. To 
condescend to think one's self 
worthy. See Condescend. 

Dejected, adj. De and Jacere, 
to cast, dejectus. Cast do'niL 
Used only metaphorically. 

Syn. Dispirited. Gloomy. Melancholy. 

Ant. Elated. Inspirited. Blithe. Gay. 

Delay, n. and v. From di- 
latus, 'past part, of differre. See 

Delectable, adj. Delectare, 
to delight. 

Syn. Pleasant. Amiable. Agreeable. 

Ant. Unpleasant. Unamiable. Dis- 
agreeable. Unenjoyable. 

Delegate, v. tr. Delegare. 
To appoint to an office or mis- 

Syn. Appoint. Depute. Commission. 
Ant. Recal. Supersede. Relegate. Hi* 

Deleterious, adj. Lat. ddtre, 
to wipe out or dest oij. 

Stn. Destructive. .No.\i,'TS. Iqjnrioua 
Poisonous. Pernicious. 

S^jnonyr)^ and Antonyms. 


Ant. Whdesome. Nutritious. Esculent. 
Conservative. BeueficiaL 

Deliberate, v. int. De and 
llhrare, to xoeigh ; Uh^a, a balance. 
To weigh a subject carefully, for 
a practical purpose. Both as- 
sembhes and individuals are said 
to dehberate. 

Syx. Consider. Meditate. Consult. Pon- 
der. Debate. Perpend. 

Ant. Shelve. Burke. Discard. Hazard. 
Chance. Risk. 

Deliberate, adj. See verh. 
Exhibiting the quality of delibe- 
ration. Applied to persons and 
their acts. 

Stn. Grave. Purposed. Intentional. 
Designed. Detennined. Resolute. Earnest. 
Unbiassed. Unprejudiced. 

Ant. Playful. Jocose. Facetious. Ir- 
resolute. Unresolved. Undetermined. 
Dubious. Compulsory. Suggested. Dictated. 
Instigated. Biassed. Prejudiced. 

Deliberation, n. See De- 
liberate, V. 

Deliberately, adv. See De- 
liberate, adj. 

Delicacy, ??. Delicke, delight. 
That quality which pleases the 
senses of the refined. Applied 
also to such objects of taste as 
have tliis quality. In an ex- 
aggerated sense, used of organic 
delicacy or weakness. It is also 
used of mind and feeling. 

Stn. Nicety. Dainty. Morsel. Re- 
rinement. Tact. Softness. Luxury. Modesty. 
Scruple. Sensitiveness. Fragility. 

Ant. Coarseness. Rudeness. Rawnesg. 
Roughness. Indelicacy. Commons. Neces- 
saries. Fare. Physic. Vigour. Robustness. 

Delicate, adj. See Delicacy. 
Delicious, adj. See Delicacy. 

Stn. E.xquisite. Luxurious. Delighttul. 
Dainty. Choice. 

Ant. Coarse. Common. Unsavoury. 
Unpalatable. Nauseous. Loathsome. 

Delight, n. Delectare. Comp. 
Delectable. A high-wi-ought 
state of pleasurable feeling. 

Snt Enjoyment. Pleasure. Happiness. 
TfanBp<.'t. Ecstasy. Gladness. Rapture. 

Ant. Pain. Suffering. Sorrow. Trouble. 
Misery. Displeasure. Dissatisfaction. IMk 
appointment. Discomfort. Dejection. De- 
pression. Distress. Melancholy. Discon- 

Delightful, adj. See Delight. 

Delineate, v. tr. Be and 
linea, a line. To draw a line, or 
lines, SO as to mark out. 

Stn. Describe. Figure. Sketch. Por- 

Ant. Misrepresent. Caricature. Ex- 
aggerate. Misportray. 

Delinquency, n. ])e and 
limjuere, to leave. The leaving, 
omission, or failure of diity, aucl, 
more positively, the actual com- 
mission of crime, to which it is 
now, by usage, restricted. 

Stn. Crime. Offence. Guilt. Culpa- 
bility. Criminality. 

Ant. Innocence. Blamelessiiess. 

Delinquent, v. See Delin- 

Stn. Criminal. Culprit. 

Ant. Worthy. Paragon. Pattern. 

Delitescence, ». Delite.scere, 
lateo. To be hid. 

Stn. Concealment. Hiding. Skulking. 

Ant. Appearance. Publicity. Forward- 
ness. Sflf-presenf.ation. Openness. 

Deliver, v. rr. JJeliberare, 
liber, free. To set free from pre- 
vious confinement; also, from 
the confinement of one's o^vn 
mind, so as to utter; also, to 
hand over. 

Stn. Liberate. Free. Rescue. Pro- 
nounce. Hand. Give. Intrust. Consign. 

Ant. Confine. Capture. Suppress. I>- 
taln. Betray. AVilhdraw. Assume. Ap- 
propriate. Misdeliver. 

Deluds, v. tr. Deludere, Indus, 
sport. To cheat a man into 
something disappointing or in- 
jurious to him. ^ee Deceive. 

Deluge, v. Diluvium. A 
great wash of water. 

! Sin. Inundation. Rush. Flood. P-> 

i Ant. Mist. Moisture. Dearth. Drnght 

Aridity Subsidence. Exstcjaticn. 


Si/noni/ms and Antonyms. 

DblusioNj n. See Deceit. 

Delve, v. int. and tr. Sax. 
del/an. To dig. Used meta- 
phorically also. 

Syn. Dit;. Penetrate. Dive. Investi- 
gate. Search. 

Ant. Scratch. Rake. Slur. Diibble. 
Dally. Skim. 

Demand, v. tr. Demandare. 
Demand is the forcible injunction 
of a right as towards one's self, 
as command of an aclion in an- 

Syn. Claim. Require. lus'st. 
Ant. Disclaim. Waive. Forego. Peti- 
tion. Request. Supplicate. 

Demarcation, «. De and 

marc: I, Fr. demarquer. Is to terri- 
torial, what definition is to ideal, 
limits. Conn, with Mark and 
Marches 'On border - conntries, 
and Marquis, the holder of such 

Syn. Definition. Limifation. Configu- 
ratioK Outline. Slsetch. Delineation. 
Bounding. Inclosure. Plan. 

Ant. Indefiniteness. Openness. Space. 
AVaste. Plain. Void. 

Demean, v. tr. De and minari, 
to threaten, as a driver of cattle ; 
lience, It. inennre, to conduct ; so, 
demeanour, conduct. In later 
times the word became con- 
founded with the adj. mean, 
which had acquired the sense of 
low. So, demean one's self has 
the double sense of behave and 
condescend. See Behave and 

Demerit, n. See jMerit and 

Demesne, n. See Domain. 

Demise, v. tr. Fr. dtmdtre, 
Lat. demittere. To lay down, 
first, the life, and then the will, 
as to the disposal of the pro- 

Sru. Bequeath. Leave. Will. 
XST AllcniUe. JJivert. 

Demise, n. ^^ce Death. 

Democratic, aJJ. A^/ioy, itie 
people, and Kpurelv, to rule. Be- 
longing to a state of things in 
wliich the people, as such, bear 
rule. Belonging to, or akin to, 
democracy. Extended to the 
extreme issues of democracy, 
from wliich it were better to 
keep it distinct. 

Syn. Popular. Levelling. Radical. Sub- 
versive. Unlicensed. Anarchical. Destruc- 
tive. Republican. 

Ant. Regal. Imperial. Aristocratic 
Oligarchical. Constitutional. Conservative. 
Tyrannical. Despotic. Autocratic. 

Demolish, v. tr. De and moles, 
a mass or structure. To destroy 
utterly a compound or con- 
structed mass. See Destroy. 

Demoniacal, adj. Gr. dcvmon. 

Syn. Fiendish. Hellish. Diabolical. 
AST. Angelic. Seraphic. Heavenly. 

Demonstrate, v. tr. Demon- 
strare. To show liy external 
proof, and, secondly, to prove as 
conclusively, as if by external 

SiTJ. Prove. Show. E.xhibit. Illus- 

Ant. Disprove. Conceal. Misdemou- 
strate. Misexemplify, 

Demoralize, v. tr. De and 

mores, manners or morals. See 
Ameliorate. For a technical 
sense in military matters, see 

Demulcent, adj. Demulcere, 
to soothe. 

Syn. Soothing. Softening. Allaying. 

Ant. Irritating. Chafing. Blistering. 

Demur, v. int. Through the 
French, from the Lat. mora, de- 
lai/. To demur to a thing is to 
delay, from reasons of your own, 
; in giving assent or consent to it. 

ijTK. Dubitate. Hesitate. Halt Ol<Jec»» 
I AKT. Approve. Acquiesce. Agrea 
1 Assent, CoLstnU 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


Demuee, adj. Old Fr. murs, 
Lat. mores, morals or manners. 
Exhibiting refrain of manners 
and exj^ression, sometimes to an 
unnecessary extent. 

Srs. Sedate. Staid. Grave. Sober. 
Dispassionate. Prudish. Discreet. 

AST. Lively. Vivaciims. Facetious. 
Wanton. Wild. Noisy. Boisterous. 
Itompish. Iloj'denish. Iniliscreet. 

Denial, n. See Deny. 

Denizen, n. One who had 
the priyileges of a subject by the 
kin.£;'s ' donatio,' or grant. 

S-iTs-. Citizen. Subject. Inhabitant. 
Fieeti-inan. .Sojourner. Du-eller. 

AxT. Foreigner. Alien. Stranger. Exile. 

Denomlnate, v. tr. De and 
nomen, a name. To give a nfime. 

Srx. Name. Call. Designate. Specify. 

Akt. Misname. Miscall. Describe. 
Suggest. Delineate. 

Denomination, n. See De- 
nominate. A class or order 
having a common name. 

Syx. Name. Designation. Description. 
Kind. Class. Order. Appellation. 
Ajst. Non-description. Misnomer. 

Denote, v. tr. De notare, nota, 
a mark ; notits, known. To jwint 
out, so as to set a note npou, or 
make known specifically. See 

Denounce, v. fr. Denvntlare. 
To declare pulilicly as worthy of 
reprobation. Distinguished from 
renounce, which is, to make the 
same declaration, but in connec- 
tion with one's ovra. resolve to 
forego or abandon it. 

Stx. Keprobate. Decry. Proscribe. 
Brand. Stigmatize. Vituperate. Defame. 

Ant. Applaud. Eulogize. Vindicate. 
Panegyrize. Uphold. 

Dense, «<//. Densus, thick. 
With particles closely consoU- 
dated. Used metaphorically for 

Stk. Slow. Thick. Stupid. Stc.jO, 

Solid, stout. Compact. Consolidateu. 

Ant. Quick. Clever. Intelligent. Rare. 

Rarefied. Uncompacted. Sparse. 

Dent, n. Dens, a tooth. Conn, 
with Dint. 

Srx. Indi'nt^ition. Notch. Cavity. 
Ant. Tumour. Protuberance. Button. 
Knob. Tooth. 

Denticulated, ad/. See Dent. 

Stn. Notched. Crenellated. Indented. 
Akt. Toothed. Serrated. 

Denticulation, 17. See adj. 

Denude, v. tr. De and nudus 

Stn. strip. Divest. Bare. Spoil. 

Ant. Invest. Drape. Decorate. Enrich, 

Denunciation, n. See De- 

Dent. Denegare. To with- 
hold consent to a proposal, assent 
to a proposition or request, and 
assent to a statement of fact. 

Syn. Refuse. Reject. Withhold. Nega- 
tive. Contradict. 

Akt. Grant. Accepi. Concede. Admit. 
AflBrm. Confirm. Afford. Yield. Indulge. 

Depart, v. int. Fr. partir, Lat. 
rars. To quit a certain part or 
locality, in any one of many 
ways. Also, to leave a given 
place, or deviate from a given 

Stn. Leave. Quit. Go. Decamp. Start 
Sally. ReUre. Withdraw. Remove 

Ant. Sta.y. Cling. Remain. Coma 
Arrive. Alight. Used also for Die. 

Departed, adj. See Depart 
and Defunct. 

Department, v. De jxirs, a 
part or division. Fr. depurtrnent. 
A branch or part of an official or 
scientific institution, or a country 
so arranged. 

,Stn. Secticn. Division. Office. Branch. 

Ant. Institution. Establishment. Art 
Science. Literature. Service. .State Whola 
Organization. Community. Society Uodjl 


Synonipns and Antonyms. 

Depbjjdenoe, n. See Depen- 

Dependent, adj. Dependere. 
To hang, both merely physically 
and also consciously ; hanging on 
another thing. 

Syn. Hanging. Rpsting. Contingent. 
Trusting. Relying. Subject. Relative. 

Ant. Independent. Irrelative. Irrespec- 
tive. Absolute. Free. 

Depict, v. tr. Depingere. To 

Syn. Portray. Colour. Paint. Draw. 

AXT. Misrepresent. Exaggerate. Deform. 

Deplorable, adj. De and 
pjorare, to lament. 

Syn. Lamentable. Jliserable. Pitiable. 
Sad. Calamitous. Disastrous. 

Ant. Welcome. Glad. Acceptable. 
Felicitous. Beneficial. Joyous. 

Deplore, v. tr. See Deplor- 

Srx. Regret. T.,anient. Mourn. 
Ant. Welcome. Hail. 

Depopulate, v. tr. De and 
populus. To deprive a country 
of its population. 

Syn. AVaste. Dispeople. Unpeople. De- 
sert. Abandon. 

Ant. Occupy. Tenant. Colonize. In- 
habit. Settle. Replenish. Stock. Fill. 

Deportation, v. Deportare. 
To carry home or to its place. 

Syn. Arrival. Importation. Placement. 

Ant. K.xportation. Emigration. Dis- 

Deportment, n. Same root 
as Deportation. Used of bodily 
and moral carriage. 

Syn. IV'liaviour. Carriage. Movement. 
Ant. Misbehaviour. Misdeportiueut. 

Depose, v. tr. Dcponere. To 
lay down on evidence, or as 
ptrongly. .See Avouch. Used in 
the peculiar sense of dethrone- 
ment. See Enthrone. 

Deposition, n. See Depose. 

Deprive, v. tr. De and prnmis^ 
had. To corrupt the moral na- 
ture. *See Debase. 

Depraved, adj. Sec Deprave. 

Deprecate, v. tr. Deprecor^ 
ari. De and prex, a prayer. To 
beg off a thing. Also used, in a 
more positive sense, for disavow, 
as, to deprecate all knowledge of 
a thing, which really is to depre- 
cate another's supposition that 
one has such a knowledge. 

Syn. Disavow. iJisclaim. E.\postulate 

Ant. Beg. Supplicate. Ask. Entreat 
Request. Imprecate. Invoke. 

Depreciate, v. tr. De and 
'pretiinn, price. To cry down 
the value of an article or a cha- 

Syk. Disparage. Undervalue. Decry. 
Ant Appreciate, E.xtoL Enhance 
Value. Over-value. 

Depred.\tion, n. De and 
prcp.du, a prey. A coming do^vn 
upon a place, and carrying oif 
something by force. Usage has 
softened the word into meaning 
an unauthorized encroachment. 

Syt>. Havoc. Robbery. Spoliation. 
Plunder. Trespass. Invasion. Encroach- 

Ant. Pilfering. Perquisite. Abstraction, 
Pocketing. Restitution. Compensation. 

Depredator, n. See Depre- 

Depression, ti. Deprimere, 
depress/is. Used both physically, 
mentally, and analogously. 

Syn. Lowering. Degradation. Debase- 
ment. Detection. Discouragement. Hollow. 
Valley. Dip. 

Ant. Raising. Elevation. Exaltiition. 
Promotion. Preferment. Amelioration. 
Kncouragenient. Rallying. Rising. Mound. 
Prominence. Eminence. 

Deprive, v. tr. Deprioare, 
from privus, one's (rum. Conn. 
with Private. To take away A 
man's own. 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


Stu. Strip. Bereave. Despoil. Hob. 

.Vin. Iiivost. Kndow. Componsiite. 
Knricli. Supply. Present. Reinstate. In- 

Depitt, n. .Se.; Deep. 

.Syx. Profui.dity. Cliusm. Abyss. 

AxT. Surface. Shallowness. Siiper- 

Depute, v. fr. Dcputnre. To 
appoint a person to a specific 

Syn. Appoint. Comm'ssion. Charge. 
Entrust. Delesati;. Authurizp. Accredit. 

Ant. Pveciil. Discard. Dismiss. Dis- 
commission. Supersede. 

Deputy, ??. ^'e^ Depute. 

Si'N. Vicegerent. Lieutenant. Repre- 
Fputative. Agent. Commissioner, Legate, 
fro.xy. Substitute. 

SvN. Principal. Master. Chief. Go- 
\emor. Sovereign. Ruler. Head. 

Derange, v. tr. Fr. dcranger. 
From Eange. Conn, with Eing 
and Eank, from arena. See Ar- 

Derangement, n. See Derange 
and Aberration. 

Dereliction, 11. T>e and re- 

liuijlirre, rcjidus, fO I'UVe. A 

leaving off, or failure in, a 
l"»oint or course of duty. 

Syn. Abandonment. Failure. Short- 
coming. Desertion. Relintiuishment. Neg- 

Ant. Perforniai:ce. OVservance. Ad- 
herence. Attention. 

Deride, v. ir. See Derision. 

Derision, n. Be and riderc, to 
IdKjh ; risus, laughter. Contemp- 
tuous laughter. 

Stn. Scorn. Contempt. Contumely. 

Ant. Respect. Regard. Admiration. 

Derisive, cdj. See Deride. 

Derivation, «. J)e and rivit!!, 
a stream. The flow of a thing 
from its source. 

Stn. Origin. Source. Beginning. Cause. 
Etymology. Root. Spring. An.i lysis. 

Aht, Result. Issue. Formation. Ap- 
plicatloii. Use. 

Derive, '-. tr See Derivation. 

Syn. Deduce. 'J race. Follow. Track. 
Draw. Resolve. 

.\st. Misdeduce. SI isat tribute. SlU- 

Derogate, v. int. Derogarr. 
To ask the votes of the Eomau 
people concerning the modifica- 
tion of a law. Hence, to detract 
' from a thing, and, specifically, 
I from the value of it. Followed 
i by the jrrep. from. 

SvN. Detract. Disparage, Depreciate. 
Decry. Iieteriorate. 

Ant. Esteem. Value. Laud. Enhance. 
E.\tol. Exaggerate. Over-estimate. Over- 

Derogation, «. /See Derogate. 

Descant, v. int. J) is and 
cantus, a song. A variation from 
or in a given melody. Diffusely 
to talk. 

SvN. Dissert. Discuss. Expatiate En. 
large. Talk. Dwell. Amplify 

Ant. Condense. Abridge. Abbreviate. 
Curtail. Confine. Clip. Delineate. 

Descend, v. int. Descendere, 
saindere, to cUmh. See Ascend. 

Descendant, «. /S^e Descend, 

SvN. Offspring. Progeny. Slock. Scion. 
Seed. Branch. Issue. House. Family. 

Ant. Author. Founder. I'arcnt. Aiv 
cestor. Pi-ogenitor. Stock. Root. Source. 

Descent, n. See Descend and 

Describe, v. fr. Be and scri- 
bere, to vrrite or drcnr. To draw 
a line round a space, or, men- 
tally, round an idea, for sake of 

SvN. Draw. Delineate. Portray. Ex- 
plain. Illustrate. Define. Picture. 

Ant. Confound. Confuse. Mystify 
Misrepresent. Caricature. Distort. 

Description, n. See Describe 
and Denomination. 

Descry, v. tr. Discernere, dis- 
ever IIS. To discern. Comp. Dis- 
cretion. To see an object oa 
subject not distinctly manif'^st 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

Stk. Discern. Recognize. Discover. 
Distinguish. Kspy. Detect. Observe. 

Ant. Miss. Overlool£. Misobserve. 

Desecrate, v. tr. De and 
sacer, sacred. To Aiolate the 
sanctitj' of a tiling or place, or to 
put it to an -imwortliy use. 

Si-N. Profane. Secularize. Misuse. 
Abuse. Prostitute. Pollute. 

AXT. Use. Employ. Devote. Dedicate. 
Consecrate. Solemnize. Sanctify. Purify. 

Desert, n. Dcsn-ere. To dis- 
connect, i. €. abandon ; hence the 
itoriri, a place abandoned. 

Stn. Wild. Waste. ■\Vilderaess. Soli- 
tude. Vdid. 

Ant. luclosure. Field. Pasture. Gar- 
den. Oasis. 

Desert, v. tr. See noun and 

Deserter, n. See Desert. One 
who forsakes a person or a cause, 
derehction of duty being im- 

Stn. Renegade. Runaway. Recanter. 
Abjurer. Apostate. Traitor. Forsaker. 

Ant. Adherent. Supporter. Ally. Be- 
friender. Disciple. Bigot Slave. 

Deserve, v. tr. De and servire, 
to serve. To earn by service, or, 
generally, to merit. 

Si-N. Merit. Earn. Justify. Win. 
Ant. Forfeit. Misdeserve. Lose. 

Desiderate, v. tr. Desideriuni. 
Desire of the lost or absent. 
Sometimes used vaguely for de- 
sire, as a matter, not of passion, 
but requirement. 

Syn. Desire. A\'aut. Need. Require. 
Ant. Disregard. Forget. Supersede. 

Desideratum, n. See De- 

StN. P^equisite. Complement. Kssec- 
tial. Want. 

Akt. Sui-plusage. Superfluity. Incum- 
brance. Drawback. 

Dksion, V. tr. De and signare, 
to mark out. To mark out a 
plan of mental or jihysical coii- 
Bti-uctiou or proceeding. 

.Stx. Contpmplate Purpose lutend. 
Plan. Prepare. Project. 

Ant. Hit. Risk. Guess Conjecture. 
Chance. Fluke, ftlisci-nceive. Sliscon- 

Design, ??. See verh. Is used 
in the senses of the verb, and 
also in the degenerate sense of 
artifice and cunning; that is, 
design unworthily employed. 

Syn. Contemplation. Purpose. luten- 
tion. Plan. Preparation. Draft. Deline- 
ation. Sketch. Drawing. Artifice. Cun- 
ning. Artfulness. Guile. Contrivance. 

Ant. tJxecuiion. Performance. Result. 
Issue. Construction. Structure. Candour, 
Fairness. Openness. Artlessness. Sincerity. 
Simplicity. Chance. Accident. 

Designate. De and sigmar,, 
a mark or sign ; signare, to draw 
a line. To attribute a descriptive 
name. See Denominate. 

Designation, n. See Desig- 

Designed, part. See Design. 

Stn. Intended. Prepartd. Purposed. 
Adapted. Calculated. Planned. Contrived. 

Ant. Fortuitous. Casual. AccidentaL 
Miscalculated. Miscontrived. Unintended. 

Designing, adj. See Design 
and Artful. 

Desinence, n. Dcsinere. To 
leave off. 

SrN. Termination. Conclusion. Tpssa- 
tion. Discontiiniance. Cadence Period 

Ant. Origination. Initiation. Inaugu- 
ration. Continuance. Progression. Com- 
mencement. Inception. 

Desirable, adj. See Deside- 
rate. To be desired, either for 
itself or for some end beyond it. 

Syn. Kxpedient. Advisable. \'aluable. 
Acceptable. Proper. Judicious. Beneficial. 
Profitable. Good. 

Ant. Undesirable. Unadvisable. Inex- 
pedient. 01)jectionable. Improper. Inju- 
dicious. Unprofitable. Evil. 

Desire, «. See Desiderate. 

Stn. LiiiiKing. Affection. Propension. 
Cravius. Concupiscence. Appetency. 

Ant. Loathing. Hate. Repugnante. 
Disgust. Aversion. Abiniinatioc. Horror 

Desire, v. See "louu. 

Synonyms and Anioninna. 

DssiST. Be and sintere, to 
stand. To stand off from con- 
tinuing a process. Followed by 
prep. from. 

Stx. Cease. Stop. Discontinue. Drop. 
Abstain. Forbear. 

Akt. Continue. Troceed. I'eisist. Per- 

Desolate, adj. De and solua, 
alone. Lonely. Said of condi- 
tion and localities. 

Stn. Bereaved. Forlorn. Forsaken. 
]>eserted. Wild. AVaste. Bare. Bleak. 

A.N-T. Cheered. Cheerful. Consoled. 
Attended. Cultivated. Sheltered. Fertile. 
Luxuriant. Animated. Lively. Gay. 

Desolate, v. See adjective. 

Syn. Waste. Spoil. Sack. Plunder. 

Pillage. Ravage. IJevastate. 

Ant. People. Colonize. Plant. De- 

velope. Fertilize. Cultivate. Enrich. En- 

Desolation, ?;. See Desolate, 

Despair, n. Desperare,sperare, 
to hope ; spes, liope. 

Syn. Hopelessness. Despondency. Des- 

Ant. Hopefulness. Elation. Confidence. 
Sanguineness. E.xpectation. Anticipation. 

Despair, v. See noun. Fol- 
lowed by jn-ep. of. 

Stn. Despond. Faint. 
Ant. Hope. Trust. Confide. Rely. 
Presume. Ilaliy. 

Desperate, adf. See Despair. 
Showing in action the condition 
of despair, or, analogously, wild, 
as if desperate. Also used of the 
asjDects of affairs. 

Syn. Wild. Daring. Aitdacious. De- 
termined. Reckless. Abandoned. Hope- 
less. Inextricable. Irremediable. 

Ant. Cool. Calm. Cautious. Timid. 
Shy. Irresolute. Remediable. Hopeful. 
Promising. Propitious. 

Despicable, adj. Bespicari. 
A form of dtspicere, to look down 

Sra Sec Contemptible. 


See Despicable 

Despise, v.ti. 
and Contemn. 

Despite, prep. Fonned from 
de and spite, which is from de~ 
spicere. Spite is spise or con- 
tempt, but not inactive, but ma- 
licious despisement or contempt. 
In spite of. 

Syn. Kotwithstanding. Opposing. Re- 

Ant. Concurrently. Consentaneously. 
Aiding. Abetting. 

Despite, ii. See prep, and 

Despoil, v. tr. Dcspoliare, 
spolia, sjioiJs taken in ivar or 
comhat. Used generally of di- 
vesting, and so spoiling. 

Syh. Strip. Denude. Itavage. De- 
vastate. Rob. Havoc. Spoliate. 

Ant. Decorate. Adorn. Embellish. En- 
rich. Reinstate. Rehabilitate. 

Despond, v. ■«»<., Despondency, 
n. Despondere, to promise away, 
especially in marriage. Hence, 
to abandon and give up as lost. 
See Despair. 

Despot, ??. Gr. dfanoTrjs. An 
irresponsible head of a state, not 
necessarily cruel in character. 
Yet irresponsible power in hu- 
man hands so naturally leads to 
it, that cruelty has become asso- 
ciated with despot and tyrant. 

Syn. Tyrant. Autocrat. 
Ant. Slave. Subject. 

Despotic, adj. See Despot. 

Syn. Autocratic. Irresponsible. Abso- 
lute. Cruel. Tyramiical. 

Ant. Limited. Constitutional. Hu- 
mane. Merciful. 

Destine, v. tr. Destinare. An 
old and obsolete verb, stino, con- 
nected with sto, to place down 
firmly, as intended for a certain 
use or purpose. 

Stn. I'urpose. Intcnc?. Design. De« 

A»t. Alienate. Divcrce. aUsapply. 

Sj/nonyms and Antonyms. 


Destination, /;. Sec DoF'-ine. 

SrN. Purpose. Jntpntion. Fit'sign. Cu!i- 
signmeiit. Object. Ku't. Yt\tc. Doom. 
Arrival. Application. Use. Scope. Goal. 

Akt. Operation. Tendi-ncy. Kxprcise. 
Action. Movement. Iie^ign. Initiation. 
Project. Effort. Purpose. 

Destiny, ik See Destine. The 
fixed decree of fate iu general, or 
one's ovn\ fate in particular. 

SrN. Fate. Decree. Predestination. 
Necessity. Doom. End. 

An-t. Will. Volition. Choice. Delibe- 
ration. Freedom. Freewill. 

Destitute, adj. Bcstifutiis. 
See Deprive. 

Destroy, v. tr. Dcstrvere. 
Comp. Eng. Strew, to throw 

Syn. Demolish. Annihilate. Subvert. 
AsT. Restore. Reinstiite. Repair. Fabri- 
cate. Malce. Create. Construct. 

Destructive, adj. See De- 

Syn. Detrimental. Hurtful. Noxiou ». 
Injurious. Deleterious. Baleful. Baneful. 

Ant. Wholesome. Conservative. Pre- 
servative. Beneficial. Kcparaiory. Sub- 
sidiary. Restorative. 

Desuetude, ii. Desuetudo, de 
and suescere, to hs accustomed. 

Syn. Disuse. Obsoleteness. Non-ob- 

Ant. Use. Vosne. Custom. Practice. 
Observance. Exercise. Operation. I'eruia- 
nence. Perpetuation. 

Desultory, adj. De and 
s<dire, to leap. Literally, jumping 
about. Not steady to a line of 
thought or conduct. 

Syn. Riimblinsr. Discursive. Loose. 
Unmethodical. Superficial. Unsettled. 
Erratic. Inexact. Spasmodic. F'itful. 
Freakish. Aberrant. 

Ant. Settled. Consecutive. Earnest. 
Serious. Persevering. Continuous. Me- 
thodical. Exact. Diligent. Untiring. Re- 
current. Periodical. Systematic. 

Detach, v. it. See Attach. 

Detail, v. tr, De and Fr. 
taiUer, to cut., It. iayUare. Conn, 
with Intaglio. Literally, a cutting. 

Metaphorically, a minute portion 
of a subject oi work. To give 
the component parts in enumera- 
tive statement. 

Syn. Particulai ize. Enumerate. Indi- 
vidualize. Sift. Analyze. Specify. 

Ant Generalize. Condt-nse. Conglome- 
rate. Gather. Sketch. Suggest. Abstract. 
j Classify. Amalgamate. 

Detail, n. See vevh. 

SvN. Element. Component. Particular. 
Specialty. Point, 

Ant. Account. Statement. Recital 
Totality. Representation. 

Detain, v. tr. Detinere. To 
hold back. 

Syn. SUiy. Keep. Stop. Arrest. Em- 

Ant. I.ilierate. Expedite. Accelerate. 
Dismiss. Loose. Diseaibargo. 

]JETECT, V. tr. De and tp(/n-r, 
to cover. To uncover that wliich 
has been concealed. 

Svx. Di^cover. Descry. Unmask. Ex- 

Ant. Miss. Lose. Misobserve. Ignorfi 

Detention, ji. See Detain. 

Deter, v. tr. D.' and tei-reo, 1 
frighten. To warn by the decla- 
ration or the suspicion of ill con- 

Syn. Warn. Stop. Dissuade. Disin- 
cline. Indisixise. Dispirit. Discourage. 
Dishearten. Terrify. Scare. 

Ant. Encourage. Incite. Provoke. 
Move. AlMu-e. Prompt. Tiuipt. Seduce. 

Deterge, Detergent. See 

Deteriorate, v. tr. Deterior, 
worse. To make or grow worse, 
See Ameliorate. 

Determinate, adj. De and 
terminus, a limit. Having the 
limits well defined. See Delinite. 

Determination, ». See De- 
termint\ Dtliiiitit)!!, and Decision. 
It exiiivsses that (lutxlity of mind 
and character which, having first 
dehneated a course of condnct 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


and aim, resolutely strives to 
realize it. 

Determine, v. tr. and int. See 
Di^terminate, Define, Decide. 

Deteksion. See Deterge. 

Detest, v. tr. De and testis, 
a ivitness. To call, as it were, 
witnesses, before whom to make 
an expression of abjuration. 
Generally, to hate. *S'ee Abomi- 

Detestable, adj. See Detest 
and Abominable. 

Dethrone, v. tr. De and 
thronus (dpovos), a throne. 

Stn. Depose. Uncrown. 

Akt. Crown. Anoint. Enthrone. 

Dethronement, n. See De- 

Detonate, v. int. De and 
tonitus, thunder. To go off with 
a sharp report. 

Syn. Explode. Pop. 

Ant. Smoulder. Hang. Puff. 

Detortion, n. De and tor- 
quere, tortus, to twid buck or 
down. To tui-n from the original 
meaning. To twist out of right 
shape generally, as Distortion is 
with a specific object. 

Stn. Wresting. Violation. Twisting. 
Distortion. Perversion. Decurvity. De- 
vexity. Recurvation. 

Ant. Direction. Aim. Rectilinearity. 

Detract, v. tr. Detrahere, 
tractus. To take or draw away. 
In usage, applied to value and 
reputation. Used with the xirep. 

Stn. Lessen. Deteriorate. Depreciate. 

Ant. Augment. Enhance. Raise. In- 


Detraction, n. See Detract 
and Detriment. Used peculiarly 
of derogation from the social 
value of character. 

Stn. Dimicution. Deter1on.tioii. De. 

preciation. Slander. Backbiting. Deroga- 

Ant. Augmentation. Improvement, 
Enhancement. Eulogy. Compliment. 

Detractor, n. See Detrac- 

Stn. Slanderer. Cynic. Backbiter. 
Ant. Flatterer. Sycophant. Eulogist. 

Detriment, n. Detrimcjitum, 
tererc, to rub or wear. The wear- 
ing off or away of a substance, so 
as to diminish its value or use- 

Sru. Loss. Harm. Hurt. Injury. i:)e- 
terioratioii. Impairment. 

Ant. Enhancement. Improvement. 
Remedy. Reinstatement. Repair. Aug- 

Detreviental, adj. See De- 

Stn. Injurious. Hurtful. Pernicious. 
Ant. Beneficial. Profitable. Augnicn 

Detrude, v. tr. De and trn.- 
dere,to thrust. To throw down 
St-e Dash. 

Detruncation, n. De and 
truncus, the trunk or body. The 
separation, from the main body 
of the limbs or branches. 

Syn. Lopping. Disramification. Pollaul- 
ing. Dismemberment. Discorporaiion. 
Amputation. Stripping. 

Ant. Training, 'i'railing. Grafting. 
Inoculation. Luxuriance. 

Devastate, v. tr. De and 
vastus, vast. Coim. with Eng. 
Waste. To lay a place waste. 
See Despoil. 

Develope, v. tr. De and vo- 
luptus (doubtful). To envelope 
being to make comfortable by 
wi-appmg. Used of unfolding a 
tiling, and also of unfolding one 
thing out of another, enveloi^e 
representing the contrary pro- 

Stn. Educe. Enucleate. Eliminate 
LuuQciate. Amplify. Expand. Enl«rg3. 


Synonyms and Antompm. 

Art. Envelop*. AVr.ip. Obscure. JFys- 
tify. Conceal. Narrow. Restrict. Con- 
tract. Condense. Compress. Involve. 

Development, n. See De- 

Devexity, n. De and vehei'e, 
vexus, to mrry. See Detortion. 

Deviate, v. int. De and via-, 
a road. To strike off from a 
road or line of thouglit or 

SrN. Digress. Wander. Depart. Divari- 
cate. Diverge. 

Asiw Continue. Advance. 

Dkviok.?;. li.dl'jisar€,ixova.di- 
videre, to divide. First, a divided, 
coloured, peculiar, or personal 
badge or cognizance; tlionce a 
private scheme or mode of action, 
implying jirivacy to the extent of 
secretiveness. For the latter, 
deviser (vidert). 

Stn. Artifice. Expedient. Contrivance. 

Akt. Fair-dealing. Openness. Miscon- 
trivance. Abortion. Fortune. Luck. 
Hazard. Hit. Incognito. 

Devilish, adj. Aid/3oXor, the 
devil or accuser. See Angelic. 

Devious, adj. De and via, a 
road. Wanting in the directness 
and plainness of a road. 

Stn. Tortuous. Circuitous. Untracked, 
Trackless. Pathless. Ambagious. Round- 
about. Distorted. 

Ant. Direct. Plain. Trodden. Fre- 
quented. Straightforward. 

Devise, v. tr. See Device. 

Srs. Contrive. Plan. Manage. Ma- 
noeuvre. Concoct. 

AST. Jkliscontrive. Jlismanage. 

Devoid, '"//. A stronger form 
of Void, -which is connected with 
vidnum, empty or deserted. Hence, 

Srs. Void. AVanting. Destitute. Un- 
endowed. Unprovided. 

Ant. Furnished. Supplied. Replete. 
Provided. Gifted. 

Devolve, v. act. and neut. De 
and ^-oh'tre, to roll. To accrue 

or come to another in the way of 
oflSce or duty, usually in the ab- 
sence or failure of another. Fol- 
lowed by the jyrep. uiwn. 

Syn. Impose. Place. Ch.irge. Com- 
mission. Depute. Accrue. Attach. Be- 
fall. Fall. 

Ant. Deprive. Withhold. Recal. Can- 
cel. Alienate. Miss. Pretermit. Pass. 
Lapse. Skip. 

1 Devote, v. tr. De and votum, 
j a vow. To dedicate by vow. 
! More generally, in a weaker 
i sense, to assign. See Dedicate. 
I Devoted, adj. See Devote. 
Used in the sense of self-devoted. 

Stx. Attached. Fond. Absorbed. De- 
dicated. Given. Abandoned. 

AxT. Alienated. Estranged. Averse. 

Devotion, n. Sec Devote. It 
has the sense of strong attach- 
ment generally, and religious 
I attachment in particular. 

j Stx. Piety. Devoutness. Religiousness. 

Dedication. S3lf-abandonment. Solf-sur- 
I render. Self-sacriiice. Love. Attachment. 
I AST. impiety. Profanity. Selfishness. 

Aversion. Alienation. Antipathy. ludif- 
' ference. Apathy. 

Devour, v. tr. Devorare. 

I Stx. Eat. Consume. Swallow. Gorge. 
Gobble. Bolt. Absorb. 
Axt. Disgorge. Vomit. 

Devout, adj. See Devotion. 
Devoutless, adj. See Ant. to 
\ Devotion. 
' Dexterous, adj. Dexter, the 

right hand. Skilful in manual 
I things. See Awkward. 
{ Diabolical, adj. See Devilish. 
' Diadem, ». Aid8r^na. An 

ornament ' bound round ' the 
i head as a sjnnlwl of imperial, 
I princely, or noble rank, or as an 

ornament of beauty. 

I Sin. Crown. Coronet. Coronal Chaplet 
' WrfQih. Fillet. I'iara, Circlet. 

AST. Liberty-cap. Fool's-cap. Daisy- 

Diagnostic. Aia and yip<l)(TK€iv, 
to know. Something whereby 

Synomjms and Antonyms. 


we kiww or distinguish a case, 
especially in cases of disease. 

Stn. , Symptom. Indication. Feature. 
Sign. Cue. 

Ant. Development. Crisis. Formation. 
Consummation. Head. Deception. Illusion 


Dialect. AtaX/yetj/, to speak 
or converse. It is better to use 
Dialect in the sense of distinctive 
and local speech. 

Six. Provincialism. Accent. Idiom. 
A-NT. Tongue. Language. Speech. 

Dialectic, adj. See Dialect. 
Belonging to the dialectical 
science or rhetoric. 

Six. Rhetorical. Logical. Argumenta- 

Ant. Conversational. Colloquial. Cmn- 

Dialogue, «. See Dialect. 
Conversation confined to two 
persons, or also general. 

Syx. Tete-ii-Xete. Conversation. Dis- 
amrse. Colloquy. Confabulation. 

Ast. Monologue. Oration. Soliloquy. 

Diaphanous, adj. Ata, through, 
and (pdiveiv, to show. Said of that 
which the light shines through 

Sin. Transparent. Translucent. Crys- 
talline. Pellucid. Limpid. 

Ant. Muddy. Opaque. Turbid. 

Diatribe, v. Aiarpi^eiu, to 
vxar, waste, or spend time, es- 
pecially in pointless or abusive 
talk. The moral to be drawn 
from the word seems to be that 
men are far more cloqueut in 
abuse than in praise. 

Sin. Tirade. Kffusion. Yarn. In- 
vective. Abuse. 

Ant. Pith, Epigram. Point. Concinnitf. 
Eulogy. Panegyric. Discussion. Disqaj. 
sition. Treatise. Essay. 

Dictate, v. tr. Dictare, to 
pronounce for repetition, also for 
purposes of instruction or com- 

Enjoin. Com- 

Svn. Prompt. Suggest 

A.m. Follow. RepAit, 

Obey Ech.; 

Bee Dictate. 

Imperious. i>jmt 

Dictation, « 

Svn. Imperative 
neering. Arbitrarj-, 

AsT. Condescending. AfTable. Indul- 
gent. Modest. Uiassuming. .Suppliant. 
Supplicatiji-y. Precatory. Persuasive. In- 

Dictatorial, adj. See Dictate. 

Diction, ». Dictio. Dicere, 
to say or sjmil: Cori'ect style in 
WTiting and speaking. 

Sin. Style. Expression. Rhetoric. Gram- 

AxT. .Solecism. Provincialism. Mis- 

Didactic. Ai^da-Ktiv, to teach. 

Svx. Instructive. Directive. Moral, 
Ant. Unsound. Misinstructive. Er- 
roneous. IVriiicious. Misleading. 

Die. Scandin. Used physi- 
cally and aualogou.sly of the pro- 
cess of tending to extinction. 

Svn. Expire. Depart. Perish. Decline. 
Languish. Wane. Sink. Fade. .Decay. 

Ant. Begin. Originate. Rise. Live. 
Develope. Grow. Strengthen. Flourish. 
Luxuriate. Vegetate. 

Diet, h. Aiaira. A ivayof living, 
especially with reference to food. 
Hence food itself, involving, how- 
ever, the notion of choice or pre- 
scribed food. It lias the tech- 
nical sense of imi'liamentary 

Svn. Food. Victuals. Nourishrnent. 
Nutriment. Sustenance. Fare. Cheer. 

AxT. Starvation. Fasting. Abstinence. 
Gluttony. Omnlvorousness. 

DiFFERSNCB, n. Differentia. 
Dis and fcrre, to hear, to bear off 
in contrari((nt directions. The 
word is used to express partial 
and total unlikeness or separa- 
tion in kind and character. 

Svn. Separation. Destruction. Diss! 
milarity. Unlikeness. Disagreement. Di* 
s'lnance. Discord. Contrariety. Dissent 
Estrangement. Variety. 

Ant. Community. Consociation. Con. 
donation. Similarity. Likeness. Agree- 
nient. Sympathy. Consonance. Harmony 
Consentaneousness. Reconciliation. Un* 
formity. Identity. 


Si/noni/ms and Antonyms. 


Differentiate, v. tr. See 
Difference. To enumerate the 
differentife or pro]3erties where- 
by one thing is differenced from 
another of the same class. 

Si-N ParticuUuize. Individualize. Dis- 
tinguish. Identify. Verify. Specify. Se- 
•reeate Disseminate. Fuse. Lump. 3lass. 
" Ant. Generalize, Classify. Confound. 
Amalgamate. Confuse. 

Differentiation, n. See Dif- 

Difficult, ((<U- Difficilis. Dis 
find faeere, to do or make. Un- 
manageable, or hard to put to- 
gether in the structui-e of thought, 
language, or operation. 

Stn. Hard.- Intricate. Involved. Per- 
plexing. Enigmatical. Obscure. Un- 
manageable. Unamenable. Reserved. Op- 

^°''ant Easy. Plain. Straight. Simple. 
Lucid. Categorical. Tractable. Amenable. 
Unreserved. Favourable. 

Difficulty, n. See Difficult. 

Diffident, adj. Vis and 
fides, distrutifful of one's own 
merits or powers. See Modest. 

Diffuse, adj. Diffundere. Dif- 
fusus, to pour abroad. Said of 
style of speech. Copious to a 
fault, and without energy. 

Stn. Discursive. Prolix. Diluted. 

Ant. Laconic. Epigrammatic, lerse. 

Dig, V. tr. and int. Sax. See 

Digest, v. tr. Dis and gnrrr, 
'0 hear or carry. To separate 
carefully into portions, for pur- 
poses of nutrition, thought, or 
design. ^. . , 

Syn. Sort. Dispose. Ord. r. 
Prepare. Assimilate. Incorporate. Con- 
vert. Methodise. Tabulate. 

Ant. Displace. Confound. Complicate. 
Derange. Disorder. Discompose. Eject. 
Refuse. Ri'ject. Disturb. 

To treat as worthy of honour or 

Stn. Aggrandize. Elevate. ■ Invest 
Exalt. Advance. 

Ant. Degrade 

Promote. Honour. 
Uisinvest. HumilialP 

DiGBESS, V. int. T)is and gra. 
dior, gressns, I walk. To de- 
viate from the Une of treatment. 
See Deviate. 

Dilaceration. a tearing 
asunder. See Laceration. 

Dilapidation, n. Dis and 
lapis, a stone. The crumbling 
or faUing of a tenement or edifice, 
even though it be not constructed 
of stone. 

Stn. Ruin. Decay. Disintet^ration. 
Crumbling. Demolition. Dismantlement. 

Ant. Solidity. Reparation. Integrity. 
Soundness. Construction. Fabric. Structure 

Dilate, v. tr. and int. Dis 
and latus, hroad. To stretch into 
broader dimensions ; also to en- 
large, rhetorically, upon a point 
or siibject. 

Stn Stretch. Widen. Expand. Swell. 
Distend. Enlarge. Descant. Expatiate. 

Ant. Narrow. Contract. Restrict. Con- 
strict. Particularize. Dissect. Anatomize. 
Concentrate. Epitomize. Condense. 

Dilatory, adj. Differre, di- 
latiis. To put off. 

Stn. Tardy. Procrastinating. Beliind- 
hand. Lagging. Dawdling. „ , , , 

Ant. Quick. Prompt. Beforehand. 
Vigilant. Eager. Alert. Ardent. Hasty. 
Precipitate. Rash. 

Dilemma, n. .Air and Xi^f-fin, 
a lemma or thinq taken. An 
argument equally conclusive 
against the opponent on either 
of two suppositions. Popularly 
used for diificulty. 

Stn. Vix. Hobble. Quandary. Doubt 
Difficulty. Scrape. . ^ ., 

Ant. Extrication. Rebutment. Freedom 
Advantage. Superiority. Escape. Solutiou. 

JJIGWIFY, ". ti 



diligere, to love. 

n. Dilig-^ntia, 
That activity oi 

Synonijnia and Antonyms. 


Rsrsiduity which springs from 
the love of work or a particular 
task, hence industry generally. 

Stn. Care. Assiduity. Attention. Heed. 

Ant. Indifference. Carelessness. Neglect. 
Inattention. Heedlessness. Desultoriness. 
Inertness. Idleness. 

Dim, adj. Word of Northern 
origin. ISee Obscure. 

Dimension, n. Dis and 
metiri, to measure. Commonly 
used in the plural. 

Stn. Measurement. .Size. Configura- 
tijn. Delini ation. 

Akt. Mismeasurement. Segment. 

Dimidiate, v. tr. Dimidium, 
h df. 

SvN. Halve. Bisect. 
Ant'. Unite. Integrate. 

Diminish, v. tr. Diminuere, 
oniiuis. To lessen in size or 

Stn. Lessen. Reduce. Contract. Cur- 
tail. Retrench. 

Aot. Increase, Enlarge. Expand. Ex- 
tend. Amplify. Magnify. 

Diminutive, adj. See Diminish 
and Small. 

Dimness, n. See Dim and 

Din, n. Iceland, dyre, tiainder. 
Noise, harsh, confused, and con- 

Stn. Racket. Clamour. Rattle. Re- 
sonance. Clangour. Reverberation. 

Ant. Crash. Report. Burst. Explosion. 
Pop. Bang. 

Dingy, adj. Allied to Dim 
and Dun. 

Sin. Dull. Dusky. Rusty. Dim. 
Colourless. Obscure. Dead. Sombre. 

Ant. Bright. Burnished. Glossy. High- 
culoured. Radiant. Luminous. Gleaming. 


Dint, v. Saxon, dyut, a stroke. 

SvN. ARency. Instrumentality. Force. 
Tower. Eflic.icy. 

Ant. ^Veakness. Inoperativeness. In- 
cfilcacy. Uselessness. Helplessness. Op- 
position. Counterforce. 

l>ip, Gothic, /"^ee Immerse. 

Dip, ". The angle of decUna- 
tion below the horizon or any 
given level. 

Sra. Declination. Dopros.sion. Dev^xity. 

Ant. Elevation. Ascent. Acclivity 

DiPLOMAOY, rt. Diploma, cre- 
dentials, StTrXoO?, double or folded 
letters of trust, as distinct from 
letters patent. The science of 
international communication. It 
has degenerated into a lower 
meaning, representing the arts 
of diplomacy as merely pruden- 

Stn. Embassage. Ministry. Ambassa- 
dorship. Representation. Tact. Contri- 
vance. Management. Negotiation. Out- 
witting. Circumvention. 

Ant. Cancel. Recal. Conge. Miscon- 
trivance. Mismanagement. Mal-admini- 
stration. Over-vaulting. Self-entanglement. 
S'-lf-dcfeat. Self-stultitication. 

Diplomatic, adj. See Diplo- 

Sin. Judicious. Knowing. AVise. Pru- 
dent. Well-managed. Well-contrived. 
Well-planned. Well-conceived. Sagacious. 

Ant. injudicious. Bungling. Stultify- 
ing. Ill-managed. Undiplomatic. 

Dire, adj. Dirus. See Dread- 

Direct, v. Dirigere, directus. 
To rule so as to keep or send on 
a given line of conduct or duty. 
See Gu.ide, Command, In.struct. 

Direct, adj. See verb and 
Direction, n. See Direct, v. 

Stn. Course. Tendency. Inclination 
Line. Control. Command. Bearing. 

Ant. Misdirection. Deviation. Miscon- 
trol. Misinstruction. Aberration. 

Directly, adv., of motion 
and time. 

Stn. Straightly. Straightway. ImmaL 
diately. Undeviatingly. 

Ant. indirectly. By-and-by. Inter 

Director, n. See Dii-ect. Used 


Synonijins and Antonyms. 

m the tecliiiical sense of a com- 
mercial director. 

Srir. Ruler. Controller. Manager. 
Master, l.eader. Guide. 

Ant. Body. Company. luititution. 
Coucem. Subordinate. Follower. 

Dirge, ». A funereal hymn. 
Said to be from the first word of 
a Latin psahn, 'Dii'ige gressus 
meos,' ' Direct my steps.' It may 
have been some forgotten hymn. 

SrN. Requiem. Lament. Threnody. 
Elegy. AVako. Coronach. 

Ant. Authem. Te Deum. Jiibil.xte. 

Dirt. Iceland, drit. Used 
also metaphorically. 

Syn. Foulness. Dung. Filth. Unclean- 
ness. Meanness. Sordidness. 

Ant. Cleanness. Purity. Ablution. In- 

Dirty, nilj. See Dirt. 

Disability, n. The depriva- 
tion of ability (which see), as 
inability is simply the want of it. 

Syn. Disqualification. Impotency. Un- 
f.tness. Incapacity. Forfeiture. 

Ant. Qualification. Recommendation. 
Fitness. Deserving. Merit. 

Disabled, adj. See Disability. 

Disabuse, v. tr. Bis and 
uhidi, to abuse. To rescue a 
man's mind from that false use 
of things which comes from false 
views of them. 

StN. Undeceive. Inform. Ccnect. En- 
lighten. Rectify. 

Ajit. Deceive. Mislead. Prejudice. Pre- 
possess. Hoodwink. Inveigle. Stultify. 

Disadvantage, n. See Ad- 

Disaffection, n. See Affec- 

Disagreeable, cdj. See Agree- 

Disagreement, «. See Quar- 

Disallow, p. tr. Sc; Allow. 

Disannul, v. tr. A etronger 
form of Amiul. 

Disappear, v. int. See Vanish. 

Disappoint, v. tr. See Ap- 
point. To cause one to fail of 
reaching the point at issue, or 
the point of expectation. This 
may be done piirposely or indi- 
rectly. Expectations themselves 
and plans are said to be disap- 

Stn. Betray. Deceive. Frustrate. BafHe. 
Delude. Vex. Mortify. 

Ant. Realize. .Justify. Verify. FulfiU 
Encourage. Satisfy. Gratify. 

Disapprobation, 7i. See Ap- 

Disarm, v. tr. See Arm. 

Disarrange, v. tr. See Ar- 

Disarray, v. tr. See Array. 

Disaster, n. Dis and astrum, 
a star. A misfortune, as of the 
baleful influence of an evil star. 
See Calamity, from which it 
differs, as being more imme- 
diately connected with man's 

Disavow, v, tr. See Avow and 

Disband, v. tr. See Muster. 

Disbelief, n. See Belief. 

Disburden, v. tr. See Bur- 
den and Load. 

Disburse, v. tr. Dis and 
bursa, a purse. See Expend. 

Discard, v. tr. Dis and carta, 
a playing card. To throw out of 
the hand as useless. See Aban- 

Discern, v. tr. Discemrri , to 
discern. To see, generally, and, 
particularly, to see distinctions. 

Stn. Descry. Observe. Recognize See. 
Discriminate. Differentiate. Separate. Per- 

Discernible, adj. 

Stn. Visible. Conspicuous. Manifest. 

Ant. Invisible. Inconspicuous. Obscure. 
Indiscernible. Impalpable. Microscopic. 

Discernment, n. See Discern. 
Is used of the moral, not of the 
physical faculty. 

SrN. Discrimination. Farsightedness. 
Clearsigbtedness. Penetration. Observa- 
tion. Sagacity. 

Ant. Heedlessness. Blindness. Inob- 
BPrvance. Shortsiglitedness. Dulness. 
Density. Hebetude. 

Discharge, v. tr. See Charge. 

Stn. Liberate. Empty. Dismiss. 
Ant. Confine. Charge. Detain. 

Disciple. Biscere, to learn. 

Stn. P'oUower. Student. Believer. 

Ant. Master. Teacher. Leader. I'ro- 

Disciplinarian, n. See Dis- 
ciple and Discipline. 

Stn. JIartinot. Tight hand. 
Ant. Sloven. Kingdog. 

Discipline, n. See Disciple. 
The strict state of a disciple, and 
the personal coercion to which 
he is subject. 

Srx. Order. Strictness. Training. Co- 
ercion. Punishment. Organization. 

Ant. Disorder. Confusion. Rebellion. 
Mutiny. Encouragement. Reward. Dis- 

Disclaim, v. tr. See Claim. 

Disclose, v. tr. Disdudere, 
disclusus, claudere, to shut. 

Stn. Discover. Reveal. Confess. De- 

Akt. Cover. ConceaL Lock. Suppress. 

Discolour, v. tr. Color, colour. 

Stn. Daub. Stain. Taint. Disfigure. 
Ant. Paint. Colour. Kmbellish. Tiat I 
Decorate. Illuminate. 

Discomfit, v. tr. Disconficere. 
To upset or disconcert a plan, or ' 
those who had made it or put it I 
together, .s. e Disconcert. j 

Discomfiture, n. JSce Dis- j 
comfit. 1 

Si/iionyms and Anionyms. 
See Dis- 


Discomfort, n. Set Comfort. 

Stn. Disquiet. Vexation. Annoyance 

Trouble. Unpleasantness. 

. disagreeable- 


Ant. Comfort. Ease. 


Discompose, v. tr. Bis and 
coinjMuere, to put together. See 

Disconcert. Fr. concert, 
agreement, or harmm^y of parts 
or faculties. So, to disconcert 
is to throw into confusion a per- 
son's faculties, or the details of 
his plan. 

Sin. Abash. Confuse. Confound. Upset. 
Baffle. Derange. Discompose. Frustrate 

Ant. Encourage. Rally. Countenance 
Aid. Concert. Concoct. Arrange. Ordor 
Prepare. Scheme. Contrive. Hatch. De- 

Disconcerted, adj. See Dis- 

DiscoNFORMiTT, n. See Con- 

DiscoNGRuiTY, n. See Con- 

Disconnect, Disconnected, 
Disconnection. See Connection. 

Disconsolate, adj. See Con- 
sole and Forlorn. 

Stn. Sad. Forlorn. Melancholy. Un- 
happy. Desolate. Woful. 

Ant. Joyous. Chc-erful. Merry. Happy. 
Gay. Jovial. Gladsome. Blithe. 

Discontent, n. See Content. 
Discontented, adj. See Coi> 

See Con- 
See Cou- ' 

_ Discontinuance, n. 

Discontinuity, n. 

Discord, n. See Concord. 
Discorfance, n. See Accord. 


Srjnonyms and Antonyms. 



DiSENTHRONE, V. tr. See En- 

Discourage, u, ir. See En- 

Discouragement, n. See En- 

Discourse, n. Discursus, 
currere, to run. The running 
from point to point of conversa- 
tion or argument, either ad libi- 
tiun or under rule. Conversa- 
tion or reasoning. See Conver- 

Discourtesy. See Courtesy. 

Discover, v. tr. Be couvrir, 
(lis coopcrire. To open so as to 
reveal. It is used actively both 
of persons and things. 

SrfT. Find. Invent. Descry. Detect 
Betray. Indicate. Manifest. 

Ant. Conceal. Suppress. Repress. Miss. 
I-ose. Overlook. Masli. Cover. Screen. 

Discredit, n. See Credit. 

Discreditable, adj. See Dis- 

Discreet, adj. See Discern. 
One who by tact discerns the 
right from the wi-ong and the 
prudent from the imprudent. 

Syn. Discerning. Wise. Prudent. Re- 
gulative. Sensible. Judicious. 

Ant. Undiscerning. Blind. Foolish. 
Imprudent. Indiscreet. Unrestrained. 
Reckless. Injudicious. Silly. 

Discrepancy, n. Dis and 
crepure, to sound. To sound out 
of tune with something else. 

Stn. Dissonance. Disharmony. Discord. 
Contrariety. Disagreement. 

Ant. Consonance. Harmony. Accord- 
ance. Agreement. Correspondence. 

Discretion, n. See Discreet. 
Discretional, adj. Sie Dis- 

Stn. Optional 

Akt. Compuluory ObligAK)i7. | 

Discrimination, n. Disalmen, 
a difference. The faculty of dis- 
tinguishing difference, with a 
view to practical knowledge, as 
I/iscretion turns upon such 
matters as involve questions of 
personal interest and conduct. 

Stn. Penetration. Sagacity. Acuteuess. 
Nicety. Shrewdness. Discernment. 

Ant. Dulness. Confiisedness. Indis- 
criminateness. Shortsightedness. Hebetude. 

Discursive, adj. See Dis- 
coiu'se. Having a tendency to 
run away from the line of argu- 
ment. See Consecutive. 

Discuss, V. tr. Discutere, dis- 
cussus. To shake apart the ele- 
ments of a thing, so as to sift 
and investigate them. 

Stk. Debate. Argue. Sift. 

Ant. Mystify. Confound. Obscure. 

. Disdain, 7). Bis and dignm, 
worthy. A feeling of another's 
imworthiness in comparison with 
one's self. 

Stn. Contempt. Scorn. Supercilious- 

Ant. Respect. Reverence. Admiration. 
Respectfulness. Cousiderateness. Humility, 

Disdain, v. tr. See noun. 
Disdainful, adj. See Disdain. 
Disease, h. Bis and aise, ejeid, 

Stn. Complaint. Ailment. Malady. 


Ant. Health, 

Convalescence. Sanitv. 

See Em- 

DlSEMBODY, V. tr. 


Disenable, v. tr. See Enable. 

Disenchant, v. tr. See En- 

Disencumber, v. tr. See En- 

Disengage, r. tr. See Engage. 

Disentangle, v. tr. .See Esr 

Synonyms and Anlonyms. 

See En- 


DiSESTEEM, n. See Esteem. 
Disfavour, n. See Favour. 
Disfigure, v. tr. Bis and 

fiijvru, shape or figure. See 


See In- 

See En- 


Disfranchise, v. tr. 

Disgorge, v. tr. See Gorge. 

Disgrace, v. tr. See Dishonour. 

Disgrace, n. See verb. 

Disguise, n. See Guise. 

Disguised, adj. See Guise. 

Disgust, ??. Dis and gustare, 
to taste. A consciousness of con- 
trariety to one's taste. It is used 
of moral things rather than phy- 

Snr. Nausea. Loathing. Abomination. 

Disinherit, v. tr. 
herit and Disown. 

Disintegrate, v. tr. See In- 

Disinter, v. tr. See Inter. 

Disinterested, adj. See In- 
terested and Selfish. 

Disenthral, v. tr. See En- 

Disjoin, v., Disjointed, adj. 
See Join and Desultory. 

Dislike, v. tr. See Like. 

Dislocate, v. tr. See Locate. 

Dislodge, v. tr. See Lodge. 

Disloyal, adj. See Loyal. 

Dismal, adj. Originally a 
noun. ' The dismal,' from the 
Lat. dies mahcs, evil day. Uncert. 

Syn. Dreary. Ominous. Foreboding. 

Lonesome. Cheerless. Gloomy. Sad. De- 

A.VT. Desire. Liking. Partiality. Pre- ' gf^^,!'^- Lugubrious. Funereal. Tragic 

dilection. Relish. Fondness. Longing, j j^^ q^^ Propitious. PromUing 

I Cheerful. Lively. Elated. Joyous. 

Laughable. Ridiculous. Comic. 


Dishearten, v. tr. The Eng- 
lish form of the French deriva- 

Dismantle, v. tr. To deprive 

tive discourage. See Encoui-age. i of the cloak. Thence, generally, 
Dishevel, v. tr. Fr. cheveux ' of customary furniture, orna- 
Tiair, Lat. capillus. To entangle ! ments, or accompaniments. The 

the hau- 

Stn. Disorder. Entangle. Disarrange. 
Ant. Tire. Dress, Plait. Bind. Weave. 

Dishonest, adj. See Honest. 
Dishonour, n. See Honour. 
Dishonour, v. See noun. 

Dishonourable, adj. See 

Disincline, v. tr., Disin- 
clined, adj. See Incline. 

Disinfect, v. tr., Disinfect- 
ant, 11. See Infect. 

Disingenuous, adj. See In- 

name mantle is derived from 
Mantua, as millinery from ]Milan, 
and perpetuates the memory of 
the towns of North Italy, as at 
one time famous for their fabrics. 

Stn. Disrobe. Divest. Denude. De- 
spoU. Disarm. Strip. 

Ant. Robe. Invest. Drape. Adorn. 
Arrange. Kquip. Endue. 

Dismay, v. tr. Goth, magan, 
to he strung. Comp. Might and 
Mighty. To disable by fear. 

Srs. Afifright. Astonish. Appal. Terrify. 
Dishearten. Daunt. 

AisT. Encourage. Rally. Inspirit. As- 
sure. Allure. 

Dismay, n. See verb. 
Dismember, v. tr. Memh7iar^ 


Sijmmjms and Antonyms. 

a limb. To separate one or more 
limbs or portions from tlie trunk 
or body. The body may be a 
physical or social body. 

Stn. Disiutegrate. Disincorporate. De- 

Ant. Integrate. Incoi-porate. Organize. 
Reorganize. Kngraft. 

Dismiss, f. tr. Dis and mittere, 
missus, to fieml. 

Sin. Banish. Discard. Abandon. 
Akt. Ketaiu. Dutaiu. Keep. Main- 

Dismount, v. int. Fr. montei\ 
to rise. From mons, muatitain. 
Stn. Aliglit. Descend. 
Ant. Mount. Start. 

Disobey, v. tr. Set- Obey. 

Disoblige, Disobliged, Dis- 
obliging. iSee Oblige. 

Disorder, n. See Order, 

Disorderly, adj. See Or- 

Disorganize, v. t 

Disown, v. tr. See Own, 

Stn. Disperse. Scatter. Drive away. 

Ant. Collect. Eecal. Summon. Con- 
vene. Congregate. Conglomerate. Mass. 

Dispensation, «. See Dis- 
pense. A paying out or distri- 
bution. Applied to the ways 
and dealings of Providence with 
the world. It is used of signal 
stages of the world's religious 
liistory, and of the history of m- 
dividuals. It is also used of 
granting licence of exemption, 
and of foregoing, when followed 
by tuith. 

Stn. Economy. Dealing. Revelation. 
Distribution. Arrangement. Visitation. 
E.xempdon. Immunity. Privilege. Aban- 
donment. Dismiss;iL Disuse. Indulgence. 

Ant. Reservatio;i. Injunction. Prohi- 
bition. Enforcement. Retention. Restriction. 

Dispeople, v. tr. See People. 
Disperse, v. ad. and neut. 
See Or- i ^^•V'("''9^^s, sjmrgere, sparsits. To 
I scatter. 

Stn. Dispel. Scatter. Disseminate. Se- 
parate. Break up. Spread abroad. 
-_ -r, •, 1 ^''*'^- Collect. Summon. Recal. Gather. 

Disparage, v. tr. Dis and Concentrate. JNieet. 
par, equal. Comp. Eng. Peer, j Dispirit, v. tr. Dis and spi- 
To dishonour by comparison i ritus, the spirit, from spirare, tc 
with an inferior ; hence, to de- j breathe. See Encourage, 
predate Displace, v. tr. See Place. 

Stn. Depreciate. Decry. Underesii- ! ' 

inate. I DlSPL.\NT, V. tr. See Plant. 

Ant. E.xtol. Laud. Panegyrize. Over- I tn , t-, • ■, . m 

estimate. Kxaggerate. DISPLAY, V. tr. Dbsplicare. To 

Disparate, adj. See Dis- ^^M*^-.,. 


SiN. Unequal. DiEferent. Ill-assorted. 

Ant. Kqual. Co-ordinate. Well-assorted. 

DispASSiON, n. See Passion. 
Dispatch, i>. Dispiiigere. 

Stn. Expedite. Send. Accelerate. 
Hasten. Execute. Conclude. (Used also 
in the sense of K;.l.) 

Ant. KeUrd Detain. Obstruct. Im- 

Dispel, v. tr. Dis and jKUcrr, 
to drive. 

Stn. Show. Exhibit. Unfold. Evi- 
dence. Evince. Flaunt. Vaunt. Kxpose. 

Ant. Hide. Conceal. Dissemble. Simu- 
late. Suppress. AVrap. Cluke. 

DisPLE.\SE, Displeased, Dis- 
pleasure. See Please and Plea- 

Disport, v. See Sport. 

Dispose, v. tr. Disponere, po- 
situs. To place about in order. 
See Arrange and luchne. 

Disposition, n. See Dispose, 
Ari-ange, and Character. 

Srjnonyiiis and Antonyms. 


Dispossess, v. tr. See Possess. 

DispEAiSE, :;. See Praise. 

DisPREAD, adj. See Si)read. 

DiSPKizE, V. tr. See Prize. 

Disprove, v., Disproof, n. 
See Prove and Proof. 

Disproportion, n. See Pro- 

Disputant, v. Disjmtare, to 

Syn. Litiprant. Competitor. Claimant. 
Ant. Partner. Auxiliaiy. Advocate. 

DisPtTTATiotJS, adj. See Dis- 

Stn. Litigious. Argumentative. Can- 
tankerous. Quarrelsome. Querulous. 

Ant. Conciliatory. Unquarrelsorae. In- 

Dispute, v. tr. and mt. See 

SvN. Argue. Question. Canvass. Con- 
test. Challenge. 

Ant. AV'aive. Concede. Allow. Forego. 

Disqualify, v. tr. See Qualify. 
Disquiet, n. See Quiet. 
Disquietude, n. See Quiet. 

Stn. An.xiety. Solicitude. Uneasiness. 
Embarrassment. Apprehension. Agitation. 
Disturbance. Commotion. Dissatisfaction. 

Akt. Peace. Paciiic;Uion. Assurance. 
Calmness. Confidence. Contentment. Ac- 

Disquisition, «. Disquirere. 
A sifting examination of a sub- 
ject in words. 

Stn. Essay. Treatise. Discussion. Dis- 

Ant. Effusion. Tirade. Diatribe. Rlio- 
Uomontade. Blarney. 

Disregard, n. See Eegard. 

DibRELisH, n. See Relisli. 

Disreputable, adj.. Disre- 
pute, n. See Eeputable. 

Disrespect, n. See Eespect. 

Disrobe, v. tr. See Dis- 

Disruption, v. Disrumpere, 
riijjtus. A breaking up. 

[ Snj. Disintegration. Discord. Separa- 
tion. A lionation. Hostility. 

Ant. Union. Amalgamation. Kecon- 

Dissatisfaction, n. See Satis- 

Dissect, v. tr. Dissecare, jxirt. 
sect /IS. Comp. Section. To cut 
up into pieces, with the imiDlied 
object of investigation. 

Stn. Anatomize. Scrutinize. Investi- 

Ant. Grasp. Comprehend. Slur. Skim. 
Unite. Integrate. Oiganize. Compound 
Collocate. Conjoin. Confound. 

Dissemble, v. tr. Dissimidare. 
To conceal, as Simulate is to as- 
sume a charactei' or feelings. 

Stn. Disguise. Conceal. Repress 
Smother. Restrain. Cloke. 

Ant. Exhibit. Manifest. Protrude 
Vaunt. Pretend. Simulate. Feign. As- 
sume. Expose. Profess. Proclaim. 

Dissembler, n. See Dis- 

Syn. Feigner. Hypocrite. Disguiser. 
Suppressor. Concealer. 

Ant. E.\hibitor. Vaunter. I'retender. 

Disseminate, v. tr. Dis and 
semen, seed. To throw about 
like seed, in order that it may 
take root. 

SrN. Spread. Propagate. Preach. Pro- 
claim. I'ublish. Promulgate. 

Ant. Repress. Suppress. Stifle. Dis- 
countenance. Extirpate. Eradicate. 

and Consent. 

Dissent, n. See verb. 

Dissertation, n. Bis and 

serere, to lueove, sertum, a ivreath. 
A woven, that is, carefully pre- 
pared discourse on a given sub- 
ject. See Disquisition. 

Disservice, n. See Service. 
Dissever, v. tr. See Sever. 
DissiDENXE, t>. Dissidere. To 
i sit apart or diftur. See Agree. 

int. See Assent 

Synonyms and Antonyms, 


DissiLiENCB, n. Dis and 
salire, to leap. A tendency to 
jump apart, from physical or 
moral repugnance. 

Stk. Avoidance. Repulsion. Aversion. 
Dislike. Interrepugnance. Antipathy. 

Ant. Approach. Attraction. Appetency. 
Desire. Affection. Sympathy. Interest. 

Dissimilar, adj. See Similar. 

Dissimilitude, n. See Simili- 

Dissimulate, v. tr. See Dis- 

Dissipate, v. tr. Dissipare, 
from an obsolete verb, sipare, or 
supare, to throw. To throw 

Syit. Scatter. Squander. 
Akt. Collect, Hoard. 

Dissocial, adj. See Social. 

DissociATB, V. tr., Dissocia- 
tion, n. See Associate and Sever. 

Dissolute, adj. Solutus. 
Loosed from restraint. 

Sto, Abandoned. Profligate. Loose. 

Akt. UpriRlit. Conscientious. Strict. 
Sell-controUed. Correct. 

Dissoluteness, n. See Disso- 

DISSOLUTION,?;. See Dissolute. 
The natural decay and decom- 
position of bodies. See Decom- 

Dissolve, v. tr, Dissolvere. 
To melt. See Melt and Consoli- 

Dissonance, «. Dis and sonnt;, 
a sound. See Consonance. 

Dissuade, v. tr. See Persuade. 

Distance, n, Bistantia, dis- 
tare, to stand apart. 

Stn. Interval. Removal. Separation. 
Inlerspiue. Ucmotenes.'*. Absence. 

AKT. I'roximity. Nearness. Adjacency. 
OentiRuity. Neighbourhood. Propiuciuiiy. 
Loulact. I'restnce. 

Distant, adj. See Distance. 

Stu. Far. Remote. Ajjcf. Apart 

Ant. Close. Near. Adjacent. Cor« 

Distaste, n. See Taste. 

Distasteful, adj. See Taste. 

Distemper, «. Dis and tem- 
perure, to moderate. An irre- 
gular or disordered state of body. 
It has also the peculiar meaning 
of fresco colouring. 

Syn. Disorder. Disease. Ailment. 
Ant. Health. Sanity. Vigour. Conva- 

Distend, v. tr. Distendere, 
To stretch. See Dilate. 

Distil, v. tr. and int. Dis- 
tilhire, stilla, a drop. 

Syn. Drop. Emanate. Drip. ;Percolate. 

Am. Absorb. Condense. Retain. Suck. 

Distinct, adj. See Distin- 

Stn. Separate. Independent. Uncon- 
nected. Detached. Disjoined. Clear. Con- 
spicuous. Plain. Perspicuous. 

Ant. United. Consolidated. Conjoined. 
One. Obscure. Dim. Confused. Indistinct. 

Distinction, n. See Distin- 

,Stn. Difference. Separation. Dignity. 

Ant. Unity. Identity. Debasement. 
Insignificance. Degradation. 

Distinctness, n. Sec Distin- 

Stn. Clearness. Plainness. Conspicuous- 
ness. Perspicuity. 

Ant. Confusion. Indistinctness. Hazi- 

Distinguish, v. tr. Disfin- 
guere, stinctus, to distiinjuish. 

Syn. Discern. Descry. Discover. Sepa- 
rate. Divide. Dissimilate. Differentiate 

Ant. ]iliss. Overlook. Confound. Con- 

Distinguishable, adj. See 

Distortion, «. Disto.-guere, 
distortits. To twist out of shape. 
See Detortion and Perversion. 

Si/nonyms and Antonyms. 


DiSTEACT, V. ii\ Didrahere, 
iractus. To draw iu different 
directions. Commouly used 
metaphorically of the senses or 

SrN. Divide. Dissipate. Dissever. Dis- 
concert. Discompose. Perplex. Bewilder. 

Ant. Unite. Fix. Concentrate. Collect. 


Distraction, n. See Distract. 

Stn. Inattention. Madness. Absence. 
Ant. Attention. Composure. 

Distress, v. tr. Distrinijere. 
To pull or pluck different ways. 

Si'x. Harass. Embarrass. Trouble. 
Grieve. Annoj-. Vex. Mortify. Afflict. 

Distress, n. See verb. 

Distribute, v. tr. Distribuere, 
tributus, to distribute. See Dis- 

Distrust, n. See Trust. 

Disturb, v. tr. Bisturbnre, 
tiirba, a croivd. Comp. Turbu- 

Srx. Derange. Discompose. Disorder. 
Confuse. Rouse. Agitate. Annoy. Trouble, 
interrupt. Incommode. Worry. Vex. 
-Molest. Disquiet. 

Ant. Order. Collocate. Arrange. Pacify. 
Sftothe. Quiet. Compose. Leave. 

Disunion, n. See Union. 

Disuse, n. Sea Use and De- 

Divarication, n. Dis and 
varus, bow-lef/gcd. 

SvN. Deviation. Divergence. Digres- 
sion. Diversion. 

Diversion, n. T>is and vertere. 
A turning away from a given 
line of movement or occupation, 
especially for amusement's sake. 

Syx. Detour. Divergence. Deviation. 
Recreation. Amusement. Pastime. 

Ant. Continuity. Directness. Pro- 
cedure. Business. Task. Work. Study. 
labour. Avocation. 

Diversify, v. tr. T'iversm, 
different, and facere, to make. 

"SrN. Vary. Alter. Change, Modify 

Ant. Conserve. Prosecute. Stabilitate. 
Settle. Fix. Stereotype. Crystallize. Arrest. 

Diversity, n. See Diversify. 

Sin. Difference. Dissimilarity. Varia- 
tion. Multiformity. Heterogeneousnesoi 

Ant. Similarity. Ident-ty. Uniformity 
Homogeneousness. Co-ordination. Coinci- 
dence. Consonance. 

Divert, v. tr. See Diversion. 

Syn. Alter. Change. Deflect. Alienate. 
Ant. Continue. Prosecute. Prolong. 
Produce. Restrict. Confine. 

Divest, ','. tr. Bis and vestire, 
vest is, to clothe. Comp. Vest, 
Vestment, and Vesture. Used 
literally and metaphorically. 

Syn. Dismantle. Denude. Strip. Dis- 
robe. Unclothe. Disencumber. Deprive. 

Ant. Clothe. I!obe. Invest. Shroud. 
Envelope. Encumber. Indue. 

Divide, v. tr. Dividere. To 
separate into two or more equal 
or unequal part.s. 

Syn. Separate. Dissect. Bisect. Por- 
tion. Part. Divorce. Segregate. Multiply. 

Ant. Unite. Collocate. Classify. Con- 
vene. Congregate. Conglomerate. Con- 
glutinate. Commingle. Join. Consociate. 

Divination, n. Divinus, di- 
vine. To foretell the future by 
the aid of things considered di- 
vine, such as auguries, &c., or to 
arrive at knowledge by such 

Srif. Prediction. Sorcery. Magic. Witch- 
craft. Augury. Omens. 

Ant. Instruction. Information. Study. 
Investigation. Learning. 

Division, n. See Divide. 

Divorce, v. tr. Vivortium, 
from divertere. To tear away or 
alienate from a certain connec- 
tion or use. 

oTJf. Sep.irate. Disconnect Dissever 
Divert. Alienate. 

Ast. Conjoin. Unite. Connect Apply. 
Reconcile. IJeunite. 

DlVORCB, n. See verb. 

Sijnomjms and Antonyms. 


DiTULGE, V. tr. Bis and viilgus, 
the people. To make matter of 
public knowledge. By usage 
employed, not as promulge, but 
of something which had been 
hitherto kept secret. See Con- 

Do, V. tr. and int. Saxon. In 
the sense of fare. 

Six. Work. Act. Enact Perform. 
Produce. Complete. 

Ant. Undo. Mar. Neglect. Omit. 

Docile, adj. Vocilis, dvcere, to 
teach. Easily taught or per- 

Syn. Compliant. Amenable. Tractable. 
Teachable. Tame. 

Ant. Intractable. Stubborn. Obstinate. 
Self-willed. Dogged. 

Dock. Der. uncertain. 

Syn. Curtail. Lop. Abbreviate. Pnme. 
Ant. Grow. Elongate. Nourisb. Pro- 
long. Train. Coax. 

DncKED, adj. See Dock. 
Doctrinal, adj. See Doctrine. 

Syn. Didactic. Catechetical. Theo- 

^\j»T. Practical. Operative. 

DoCTEINE, n. Poctrina, docere, 
to teach. Something systemati- 
cally held or taught as true. 

Stn. Tenet. Article. Belief. Creed. 
Doema. Teaching. 

Ant. Practice. Operation. Duty. Con- 
duct. Action. 

Dodge, v. Possibly a form of 
to dog, as, to dog the steps. See 

Dodge, n. See verb and Arti- 

Doer, v. See Do. 

Syn. Agent. Actor. Performer. Origi- 
nator. Perpetrator. JIaker. 

Ant. Undoer. Preventer. Hinderer. 
Baffler. Neulralizer. Marrer. 

Dog, v. tr. From the habit of 
a dog to follow. 

Syn. Follow. Trace. Track. Pursue. 

Akt. Elndo. Baflle. Avoid. Escape. 

Dogged, adj. See a1x)Vo. 

Syn. Obstinate. Morose. Sullen. ln> 
practicable. Prejudiced. 

Ant. Docile. Genial. Agreeable. Con- 
ciliatoiy. Easy. Indulgent. Liberal Com- 

Dogma. AoKflv, to seem Jit. 
That which has seemed fit to 
authorities to propound as truth. 
See Doctrine. 

Dogmatic, adj. See Dogma. 
Used to express not only the 
promulgation of doctrine or 
dogma, but the imperious way 
of doing it. 

Syn. Doctrinal. Theological. Imperious. 
Dictatorial. Self-opinioned. Positive. 

Ant. Practical Active. Moderate. 
Modest. Diffident. Vacillating. 

Dole, v. tr. Conn, with Deal. 
Used sometimes of scanty dis- 
tribution in particular. 

Syn. Deal. Distribute. Dispense. Eke. 
Ant. Withhold. Refuse. Pour forth 

Dole, n. See verh. 

Stn. Pittance. Alms. Charity. 

Akt. Profusion. Bounty. Benefaction. 

DoLEFUi,, adj. Dole, from 
dolere, to qrieve. 

Syn. Dolorous. Rueful. Woebegone. 

Ant. Slerry. Joyful. Gay. BUtbe. 

Dolorous, adj. See Doleful. 
Dolt, n. Sax. 

Syn. Numskull. Ignoramus. Dunce 

Dullard. Ass. 

Ant. Savant. Genius. Philosopher. 

Scholar. Luminary. 

Doltish, adj. Sec Dolt. 

Stn. Stolid. Jolterheuded. Thick- 

Ant. Quick. .Sharp. Acute. Long- 

Domain, ». Lat. dominio, 
domimis. Comp. Dominion. An 
estate of a lortl of the soil. 

Siw. Estate. Lordship. Territory. In- 

Akt. Waste. Wildernes*. Wild. 

DoKESTIO, adj. Domus, u 

Sijnonmns and Antonyms. 


house. Attached to liome or a 

SrK. Domiciliary. Private. 
Akt. Foreign. Public. 

Domesticate, v. tr. See Do- 

Domestication, ??. See Do- 
mestic. The settlement in 
home; or, actively, the placing 
in a home. 

Syn. Settlement. Colonization. Locali- 
zation. Taming. 

Ant. Dissettlement. Displacement. Dls- 
lodgment. Ejection. Deportation. Exile. 

Domicile, «. Domus, n house, 
domicilium. A place of settle- 
ment or residence. 

Stn. Residence. Abode. Settlement. 

Ant. Estrangement. Migration. Home- 
Icssness. Houselessness. Wilderness. Wild. 

Domiciliary, adj. See Domi- 
cile and Domestic. 
Dominance, n. See Domain. 

Stn. Lordship. Slastery. Superiority. 
Preponderarjce. I'revalence. 

Ant. Inferiority. Subjection. Servi- 
tude. Weakness. Inprevalence. Minority. 

Dominant, adj. See Domi- 

Domination, n. See Domi- 
nance. The manifestation of 

Domineer, v. int. See Domi- 
nance. Followed by over, and 
referring to persons. 

Stn. Lord. Tyrannize. Assume. Usurp. 
Ant. Submit. Succumb. Defer. Yield. 
Bow. Patronize. 

Dominion, n. See Domain. 
Used for the power, exercise, and 
possession of lordship. 

Syn. Power. Authority. Rule. Tyranny. 
Despotism. Government. Control. Empire. 
Territory. Jurisdiction. 

Ant. Weakness. Submission. Subjuga- 
tion. Inferiority. .Servitude. 

Don, v. tr. Do on. 

Stn. Assume. Wear. 
AST. Doff. Cast. 

Donation, ». Douarr, to giue. 
See Presentation and Gift. 

Doom, «. From deem, to 
judge. The passing of judgment. 
The judgment or fate that awaits 
one, with an implied unfavour- 
able or condemnatory issue. 

Stn. Judgment. Fate. Sentence. Ver- 
dict. Condemnation. 

Ant. Liberation. Respite. Escape. 
Pardon. Acquittal. Approval. 

Dormant, adj. Dorm ire, to 

Stn. Sleeping. Slumbering. Latent. 
Undeveloped. Quiescent. Inert. 

Ant. Vigilant. Wakeful. Active. Opera- 
tive. Developed. Energetic. 

Dotage, n. Dote, written also 
Doat. Dutch, dutten. 

Stn. Imbecility. Senility. Fa(;;lty 

Ant. Intelligence. Acuteness. Judg- 
ment. Penetration. Vigour. 

Doubt, v. Duhietas, dnbius, 
duo, two. Uncertainty of judg- 
ment ; that is, as to the negative 
or affirmative proposition. It 
applies both to the feeling of 
doubt and the matter of doubt. 

Stn. Dubiousness. Dubitation. Uncer- 
tainty. Ambiguity. Difficulty. Indecision. 

Ant. Certainty. Clearness. Precision. 
Determination. JJecision. Conviction. 

Doubt, ?>. See noun. 

Syn. Dubitate. Hesitate. Vacillate. 

Waver. Demur. 

Ant. Decide. Determine. Resolve. 


Doubtful, adj. See Doubt, 
Doubtless, adv. See Doubt. 

Stn. Certainly. Clearly. Precisely. In- 

Ant. Perhaps. Probably. Possibly. 

Doughty, adj. Sax. dohtic/. 
Brave or useful. Seldom now 
used but in burlesque. 

Stn. Redoubted, liedoubtable. 
Ant. Craven. Puny. 

Dowdy, adj. Prov. Eng. dowd, 
flat. Conn, probably with Defsd. 

Synonyms and Antony ns. 


Sin. ImU. Shabby. Common. Plain. 
Homely. Dingy. Scrubby. 

Ant. Stylish. Dressy. Gay. Modish. 
Gorgeous. Dandified. Tawdry. 

Downfall, n. See Fall. 

DowNKiGHT, adj. See Abso- 

Downwards, adv. Down. Sax. 
dune. Comp. English Downs, 
undulating declivities. 

Stn. Below. Beneath. Adown. 
AsT. Upwards. Aloft. 

Deaft, V, From trahere, 
to dmio. A tiling drawn. 

Stn. Copy. Transfer. Transcript. 
Sketch. Abstract. Order. Check. 
Ant. Original. Deed. Cash. 
DbAFT, v. See vonn. 
Stn. Draw. Drain. Exhaust. 
Ant. Supply. Replenish. Import. 

Drag. See Draft. 

Syn. Draw. Pull. Haul. 
Ant. Carry. Convey. Push. I'ropel. 
Raise. Heave. 

Deaik, act. and nent. Saxon. 
To draw oflf or di'op away by 
slow degrees. 

Stn. Draw. Strain. Drip. Percolate. 
Drop. Exhaust. Empty. Dry. 

Ant. Replenish. Kill. Supply. Pour. 
Moisten. Drown. Inundate. Drench. 

Draught, n. Trahere, to draw, 
whence draw. See Drag. A 
word of many applications. 

Syn. Drink. Traction. Breeze. Check. 
Ant. Drought. Burden. Non-ventila- 
tion. Deposit. 

Draw, v. tr. See Drag. 

Stn. Drag. Pull. Attract. Induce. 
Ant. Push. Carry. Propel. Throw. 
Kepel. Drive. Compel. Impel. Thrust. 

Drawback, ??. See Detriment. 

Drawl, v. int. Dutch, dralen, 
to linger. To speak with a 
tedious mode of utterance from 

want of interest or from aflfecta- I ^^^^ 

SvN. Fear. Shuddering. Terror. Horroc 
Alarm. Intimidation. 

Ant. Courage. Confidence. Welcome 

Dreadful, adj. See Dread. 

Stn. Fearful. Terrific. Horrible, 
Alarming. Awful. 

Ant. Encouraging. Inspiritiug. As- 
suring. Promising. Hopeful. 

Dream, n. Probably conn, 

with dor mire, to sleep. Used 

analogously in the wider sense 
of the following — 

Stn. Trance. Vision. Fancy. Reverie 
Hallucination. Romance. 

Ant. Fact. Reality. Substance. Verity 

Dreamy, adj. See Dream. 

Stn. Fanciful. Visionai-y. Speculative. 
Abstracted. Absent. Foggy. 

Ant. Collected. Earnest. Attentive. 
Awake. Active. Energetic. Practical. 

Dreart, adj. Germ, traurig, 
sad. See Dismal. 
Dregs, n. Germ, dreck, dirt. 

Sm. Refuse. Sediment. Offal. Lees. 
Offscouring. Dross. Trash. 

Ant. Cream. Flower. Pink. Pickings. 
Bouquet. Sample. 

Drench, v. tr. Conn, ■ndth 

Syn. Wash. Inundate. Soak. Shower. 

Ant. Drain. Strain. Sponge. Mop. 
Dry. Exsiccate. 

Drenched, adj. See Drench. 

Dress, n. Fr. dresser. It- 
drizzare, to make straight. Comp. 
Direct and Address. 

Syn. Garniture. Preparation. Arrange- 
ment. Clothing. Habiliments. Accoutre- 
ments. Vestments. Uniform. Livery. 
Costume. Garb. Investiture. 

Ant. Nudity. IH.'iorder. Disarrange- 
ment. Undress. Deshabille. 

Driblet, ». Dribble. Conn, 
with Drip and Drop. A scanty 
instalment of a fortlicoming por- 


Stn. Drag. Lajr. Drone. 
Ant. Gabble. Rattle. Prattle. 

Stn. Drop. Dole. Instalment. Scrap 
Morsel. Bit. Particle. 

Akt. Total. ^Vbole. Aggregate. Mass 

Dread, n. Sax. drcxdan, tc, \ B-iy- Bulk. Entirety, sum. 
I car greatly. 1 Drift, y. m^. Bax. drif. Ex- 

Synonyms and Antomjms. 

presses the process of nuiform 
motion, but not the effect of 

Stn. Drive. Bear. Wander. Edge. 

Ant. Steer. Speed. Course. Make. 

Drift, n. See verb. Used 

Stn. Tendency. Direction. Motion, 
lenour. Meaning. Purport. Object. In- 
tention. Purpose. Scope. Aim. Result. 
Issue. Inference. Conclusion. End. 

Ant. Aimlessness. Pointlessness. Vague- 
ness. Unmeaningness. Indefiniteness. Con- 
fuseriness. Aberrancy. 

Drill, v. tr. Sax. Conn, 
■with Through and Thrill. To 
pierce a hole or run a groove; 
from the latter, to arrange in 
lines for exercise. 

Syn. Teach. Exercise. Train. Ordi- 
nate. Discipline. 

Ant. Confuse. Disarrange. Disorder. 
Misinstruct. Miseducate. Dishabituate. 

Dkink, V. tr. Sax. drincan. 

Stn. Imbibe. Swallow. Absorb. Drain. 

Ant. Disgorge. Replenish. Pour. 
Exude. Water. Moisten. 

Drip. Sax. dripan. 

Stn. Drop. Ooze. PercuUite. 
Ant. Imbibe. Swallow. Absorb. Suck. 
Dry. Retain. Hold. 

Drive. Sax. drifan. 

Stn. See Draw. 

^ Drivel, ». Form of Dribble. 
Saliva flowing from the mouth, 
as in dotage or idiotcy. Applied 
to fatuitous speech. 

Syn. Fatuity. Nonsense. Trifling. 
Snivel. Babble. 

Ant. Soundness. Coherence. Substance. 

Driveller, n. See Drivel. 

Stn. Idiot. Babbler. Dotard. 
Ant. Speaker. Debater. Lo£lclan. 

Droll, adj. Fr. drok, a short 
fat man. One whimsically 

Stn. \Vhimsical. Comical. Funny. 
Comic, fantastic. Farcical. 

Ant. Sad. Lamentable. Tragic. Lu- 
gubrious. Funereal. 


Drollery, n. See Droll. 

Stn. Fun. Whittiiiality. Comicality 
Trickery. Buffoonery. 

Ant. Gravity. Dismality. Ruefulness 
Priggishness. Starch. Lugubriousness. 

Drone, v. int. See Drawl. 
Droop, v. tr. and int. Scand. 

Stn. Sink. Flag. Decline. Pine. Laii. 
gui.*h. Drop. Bend. Incurve. 

Ant. Revive. Flourish. Luxuriate 
Prosper. Rally. Raise. 

Drop, v. int. Comi. with Drij) 
and Droop. 

Stn. Ooze. Emanate. Distil. Percolate. 
Fall. Decline. Descend; Faint. Droop. 

Ant. Evaporate. Rally. Rise. Soar. 
Ascend. Recover. 

Dross. A. Sax. dreosan, to fall. 
That which falls away, as the 
refuse. Comp. Trash. 

Stn. See Cream. 

Drought, n. Spelt also 
Drotith. Conn, with Dry. 

Stn. Dryness. Aridity. Parching. 

Ant. Moisture. Refreshment. Dew. 
Deluge. Slaking. Quenching. Watering. 

Drown. Sax. Conn, with 
Drink and Drench. 

Stn. Sink. Immerse. Sw.inip. Sub- 

Ant. Dry. Drain. E.^pose. Air. Venli- 

Drowsy. Sax. drusian, to fall. 

Ant. Light. Vigilant. Alert. Awake. 

Drudge. Conn, with Drag. 
To drag through low or menial 
work, or any work with chffi- 

Stn. Slave. Labour. Plod. 
Ant. Bask. Luxuriate. Hit off. ri:\y. 

Drug. Conn, with Dry. A 
dried substance for medicine, 
Metaphorically, a valueless thing, 
like a dead leaf. See Cipher. 

Dry, v. Sax. drygan. 

Stn. Drain. Parch. 

Ant. Drench. Moisten. Wet. 

Synomjms and Antonyms, 


Dry, adj. See verb. Used Dullabd, n. 
also metaphorically, as, wanting Blockhead, 
life or interest. 

Sin. Arid. Parched. Moisturcless. 
Juiceless. Lifeless. Dull. Tediuus. Un- 
inieiesling. Monotonous. 

Ant. Moist. Fresh. Juicy. Lively. 

It has also the peculiar sense 
of humorous. 'See Humour. 

Dubious, adj., Dubitation, ». 
See Doubt. 

Ductile, adj. Dudills, from 
duco, to had or draw. Physically, 
that may be easily dra^Ti out; 
morally/one who may be easily 

Syn. ;Malleable. Extensible. TractUe. 
Tractable. Docile. Irresolute. Ductile. 

Ant. Inelastic. Inflexible. Tough. 
Obdurate. Resolute. Firm. Obstinate. 

Dudgeon, n. Welsh, dygen, 

SvN. Indignation. Spleen. Resentment. 

Ant. Complacency. Contentment. 
Serenity. Satisfaction. 

Due, adj. DeUtus, dehere, to 


Si-N. Owing. AttribuUble. Just. Fair. 
Proper. Obligatory. 

Ant. Irrelative. Unattributable. Inde- 
pendent. Undue. Unfair. Improper. Ex- 
travagant. Deficient. 

Dulcet, adj. Dtdcis, sweet. 
Especially used of sound. 

SvN. Sweet. Soothing. Melodious. 
Soft. Warbling. Euphonious. 

Ant. Harsh. Grating. Discordant. 
Noisy. Clamorous. Dissonant. Rancour. 

Dulcify, v., Dulcorate, v. 
See Sweeten. 

Dull, adj. Sax. doJ, foolinh. 
Comp. Dolt. Used first of the | 
mind, and thence transferred to 
sensible objects. 

Syn. stupid. Stolid. Doltish. Insen- 
sible. Callous. Heavy. Gloomy. Dismal. 
Cloudy. Turbid. Opaque. Dowdy. Com- 
monpiacp. Dead. Matt. 

A«T. Sharp. Clever. Lively. Ani- 
nwtcd. Sensible. Cheerful. Exhilarating. 
Bri^t. Transparent. BrlUiaat. BurnisheU. 

See Dull and 

Dumbfoundeb, v. tr Sax. 
dumh, and founder, to sinJc, from 
fundus, the deep. Comp. Pro- 
found. To sink into speecliles.s 
astonishment. *S'ee Astonish. 

Dunce, n. From Duns Scotus, 
a learned schoolman, whose 
name became a byword when 
scholastic learning fell into dis- 

Stn. See Blockhead. 

Dupe, n. Fr. dupe, a foolish 
bird. Comp. Gull and Booby. 
To cheat, ^'ee Cheat. 

Duplicity, n. Duplex, douhle. 
Double-dealmg. See Artful. 

Durable, adj. Durare, to last ; 
durus, hard. 

Syn. Lasting. Permanent. Stable. Per- 

AST. Evanescent, Transient, Imper- 
manent. Unstable. 

Durance, n. See Endure. 

Syn. Confinement. Incarceration. Im- 

Ant. Liberty. Largc^ness. 

Duration, n. See Durable. 
Apphed to time, to express a 
portion of it, in reference to an 
event or series of events. 

Syn. Period. Continuance. Term. 
Space. Protraction. Prolongation. 

Ant. Momentariness. Instantaneous- 
ness. Infinity. Eternity. 

During. Used as a ^jz-ej). See 

Syn. Pending. Throughout. 
Ant. Barring. Excluding. Omitting. 

Dutiful, adj. Ready to per- 
form acts, as duteous is ready to 
feel the sentiments, duo to 

SvN. Obedient. Submissive. Docile. 
Deferential. Duteous. 

Ant. Disobedient. Intractable. Ke 
belUouu. UnduiiluL 

Synonyms and Antony 

DxrtX, 7?. Dihitas, deberr, to 
oj-f. That which is owed on 
gromids of moral obligation. 

SvK. Obligation. J'art. Business. Re- 
sponsibility. Allegiance. Function. Office. 
Province. Calling. Trust. Commission. 

Ant. Freedom. Exemption. Immunity. 
Licence. Dispensation. Desertion. Dere- 

The word is used in the tech- 
nical senses of tax, or what is 
due to the Crown, and ritual, as 
due from the clergy or the mili- 
tary, &c. 

Dwarf, v. tr. Low Germ. 

Srx. Lower. Stunt. Depress. 
Ant. Heighten. Elevate. Itaise. 

Dwarf, n. See verb. 

Sys. Pigmy. Imp. Abortion. Puck. 

Ant. Giant. Hlonster. Hercules. 

Dwell, v. int. Scand. Conn, 
with Dull. Implying to be slow 
or linger ; thence, to tarry as in 
a fixed alx)cle. 

SvK. Stop. Stay. Rest. Linger. Tarry. 
Live. Reside. Abide. 

Ant. Move. Travel. Hasten. Speed. 
Jligrate. Wander. Depart. Flit. Roam. 

Dweller, n. 

Dwelling, ?/. 

See Dwell and 

See Dwell and 

rii^. 141 

Early, ndj. and adv. Comp. 
Ere or Ever. In advance of time. 

Stk. Soon. Betimes. Forward. Ma- 
tutinal. Bffc.reliaiid. 

Ant. Late. Tardily. Backward. Ves- 
peniual. Belated. 

Earn, v. tr. Germ, aran, to 
plomjh. Comp. ear of wheat, and 
earth or land ploughed. Sax. 

Stn. Merit. ■VVTn. Gain. Deserve. Rea- 

Ant. Forfeit. Forego. Waste. Lose. 
Spend. Squander. 

Earnest, adj. Earn. Conn, 
with yearn. 

SiK. Eager. Serious. Intent. Deter- 
mined. Strenuous. Intent. 

Ant. Indifferent. Playful. Idle. De- 
sultory. Irresolute. Unearuest. Sportive. 
Jesting. Flippant. 

Ease, n. Fr. aise. Is used of 
condition or circumstances and 

SrN. Comfort. Enjoyment. Rest. Re- 
freshment. Quiet. Contentment. Satis- 
faction. FaciUty. Readiness. 

Ant. Trouble. Annoyance. Vexation. 
Disquiet. Difficulty. Awkwardness. 

East, adj. See Ease. In ad- 
dition to the foregoing has also 
the sense of indulgent. 

SvN. Quiet. Comfortable. Manageable. 
Indulgent. Facile. Lenient. Unconcerned. 

Am. Uneasy. Disturbed. Uneomfort- 

DWINDLE, V. int. Sax, dvinan I i^'^®- difficult. Unmanageable. Hard 
fn „/„^ ' Exactmg. Anxious. Awkward. Enibar- 

CC/ 1 1 lite. ■ riccoH 

Sto. Pine. Waste. Diminish. Decrease, 
recline. Melt. 

Ant. Expand. Enlarge. Increase. 
i»row. Flourish. Augment. Depelope. 


Eager. From Lat. acer, but j 
unlike acer, applied only to dis- 
position and feelings, not phy- 
sical qualities. 

Sin. Ardent. Earnest. Active. In- 
terested. Anxious. Keen. Hot. 

Ant. Cool. Indifferent. Inactive. Slug- 
gish. Listless. Unsolicitous. Di.U. 


Ebb, V. Sax. cUian, to ebb. 
Syn. Retire. Recede. Decrease. Sink. 
Decline. Decay. Wane. 

Ant. Flow. Increase. Abound. Swell. 

Ebbiett, n. Lat. Ehridas, 
ebriiis, sober. 

Syn. Soberness. Freshness. Temper- 


A NT. Inebriety, 

Intoxication. Cra- 

Ebullition, n. FbuUire, to 
boil out. Used of feeling. 

Syx. Boiling. Effervescence. Outburst 
Paroxysm. Eruption. 

Ant. Cooling. Refrigeration, Subsi 
dence. Composure. 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 


Eccentric, adj. Ex and cen- , ment, thence management ci Jfe- 
..rGr..v/o. The centre pen^ationg^ne^^^^^^^ ^ 
point of a circle or circulation. ' '^™- 

V ^.^^^^ -- _- I Dispensation, "ku'le. Arrangement. 

beviatine from a fixed and ens- j tribution. Husbanding 


l^evicttiug ''^.^-^:rT'~ '.-^ I —^i- M;radministration. Mismanage- 

ternary line of conduct, cnaracter, I ^^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^_ Disorder. Pro- 
or appearance. \ digamy. 

Syn. Peculiar. Singular. Idiosyncratic.; j^cONOMIZE, V. f r. .'«'ee EcOUOmy. 
Flighty. Aberrant. Abnormal. Odd. ^ ^r^^^lLnl Develope. Utilize. 
'"^ A^rkeS'^brdinary. Customary. I Akt. Waste. Misuse. Sacrifice. 
Xormal'. Common. Usual. Unnoticeable. , ECSTAST,W. EK,o«^andcrTa(ny, 
Unremarkable. " I ^^ standing. A standing out or 

Ecno, n. Gr. ^x"' ^''^^ ?22/mji/i j departui'e from the ordinary state 
of sound ; fjxos, sound. Of rever- Qf the mind under conditions of 
beration. Used metaphorically ! peculiar excitement. 

■nath the force of mechanical or Stk. Puipture. inspiration. Fervour 
servile repetition of the Senti- Ph^en^- cTZet° "indifference. Dalne^. 
- ■' Weariness. Tedium. Bore. Fidget. Misery. 

Ecumenical, adj. OlKovfievt) 
(y^, understood). The whole m- 
habited earth. 

Syn. Catbolic. Universal. 
Akt. Partial. National. Private. Do- 
mestic. Local. 

Edible, adj. Edibilis, edere, 

to eat. 

Stn. Esculent. ^Vholesome. Culinary. 

Ant! Noxious. Poisonous. Deleterious 

Edifice, n. ^dificium, adi- 
ficare, to build. 

Stn. Structure. Buil.iing. Tenement 
Fatiric. ^ ,.^. „, 

Akt. Ruin. Heap. Demolition. Dis- 

Edify, v. tr. See Edifice. To 
build up in an opinion or know- 
ledge, and so instruct and im- 

Syn Enligbten. Instruct. Improve. 
Ant. Misguide. Mislead. Misiiiform. 

Educate, v. tr. Educare, to 

bring np. .,, . ^ a 

Syn. Instruct Nurture. Train. Ground. 

School. Initiate. ,,. . , . m;^ 

Akt. Miseducate. Misinstruct Mis- 


Educe, v. tr. Edv.ccre, to bring 

Stn Draw. Eliminate. Produce. Elicll 
AST. Adduce. Apply. Insert. !>•► 
posit. Bestow. 

ments of others. 

Stn. Reverberation. Resonance, 
natition. Imitation. Answer. 

Ant. Sound. Voice. Original. Ques- 
tion. Proposition. Statement Opinion. 

Eclectic. 'E/cX/yfiv, to choose. 
Given to choosing rather than fol- 
lowing, and that from all soui'ces, 
with a simple view to the true 
and right, ii-respectively of 
pai'ty- „ ^ 

Syn. Exceptive. Selective. Broad. 

Ant. NaiTow. Prejudiced. Petty. Par- 
tial. Intolerant Biassed. Warped. Dog- 

Eclipse, n. 'EKXeiVeiv, a failure. 
As in the sun or moon, of a por- 
tion of their obscurated aspect. 
Used metaphorically to express 
the overshadowing of superior 

Syn Failure. Obscuration. Over- 
gbadowing. Shading. Diminution. Out- 
shining. Outdoing. Outrivalling. 

Ant Illumination. ElTulgence. Bright- 
ness. ReapiJoarance. Lustre. Reuowu. 
Reillumination. Ee-effulgence. Foil. 



Eclipse, v. See noun. 

Syn. Obscure. Overshadow. 
Outshine. Outvie. Outrival. 

Ant. Recommend. Brighten. 
Illustrate. Heighten. 

Economy, n. olKovofita, okos, 
a house, and vofios, distribution, 
mannrjement. Domestic manage- 

Stinonyms and Antonyms. 

Efface, '.•. tr. Lz and fades, 
a face or appidrance. To do away 
with a rei:)rcsentation, colouring, 
or delineation npon a surface. 

Stn. Erase. Obliterate. Expunge. 
Ant. Restore. Kevive. Delineate. Im- 
print. Portray. 

Effect, v. tr. Efficere, to effect. 
To work out an end proposed. 

Stn. Cause. Produce. Achieve. Com- 

Ant. Prevent. Obviate. Frustrate. 

Effect, n. See verb. Used 
also in the sense of the striking 
or efficient ia appearance. 

Effective, adj., Effectual, 
adj.. Efficient, adj. See Effect. 
Tending to produce an effect. 
The three words are somewhat 
differently applied. 

Effective refers to effect in the 
sense of impression upon the 
senses, as an effective i^icture. 
Effectual is practically conducive 
to bringing about a specific end, 
as an effectual remedy. Efficient, 
having the quality of effective- 
ness, ready to be exerted when- 
ever occasion may arise, as, an 
efficient man. 

Stn. Powerful. Conducive. Operative. 
Cogent. Telling. Able. Talented. 

Ant. Weak. Ineffective. Inconduclve. 
Inoperative. Futile. Nugatory. 

Effectuate, v. tr. See Effect. 

Stn. Produce. Ensure. Secure. Sta- 
allitate. Comp.iss. Complete. Establisli. 

Ant. Prevent Hinder. Nullify. De- 
feat. Nip. Blight. Strangle. Stifle. 

Effeminate, adj. F(mi'na,a 
woman. Having acquired the 
character or manner of a woman. 

Stn. Feminine. Delicate. Womanly. 
Womanish. Unmanly. Weak. Enervated. 

The epithet is commonly, 
though not always, used re- 
proachfully. In that case it 
were bettei to use Effeminate 


and Womanish of men, and ap- 
ply to women, as epithets of pro- 
priety. Feminine and Womanly. 

Ant. Manly. Robust. Vigorous. Hardy. 

Effervesce, v. int. Fervescere, 
h'eq. oi fervere, to boil. Strictly 
with heat, but also used of cold 
liquids, as the words boil and 
seethe are used of the foaming 
sea or the bubbling torrent. It 
is also used metaphorically of 
excitement of feeling. 

Stn. Bull. Bubble. Foam. Mantle. 
Froth. Ferment. Sparkle. Bluster. Ex- 

Ant. Subside. Bear. Brook. Digest 
Acquiesce. Refrain. Flatten. 

Effete, adj. Ex and fcetus, 
the yonng. No longer capable of 
bearing, hence generally worn 

Stn. Worn. Exhausted. Barren. De- 

Ant. Productive. Vigorous. Fertile. 

Prolific. Exuberant. 

Efficacy, n. Efficax, effica- 
cious, efficere, to produce. Better 
used of things, as efficiency of 

Stn. ElTiciency. Usefulness. Produc 
tiveness. EfTectiveness. 

Efficiency, n. See Efficacy. 
Effigy, n. EJftcjies, a statue. 
Properly a true likeness. 

Stn. Statue. Figure. Representation. 

Ant. Caricature. Misrepresentation. 
Distortion. Daub. 

Efflorescence, n. Ex and 
flos, oris, a flower. 

Stn. Budding. Luxuriance. Outburst. 
Crystallization. Uranulation. 

Ant. Nudity. Bareness. Denudation. 
Deflorcsccnce. Absorption. Desiccation. 

Effluence, n. Ex and Jiuere, 
to ffoir. 

Stn. Outpo7irlng. Emission. Dischare& 
Abundance. Overflow. 

Ant. Reflucnce. Infusion. Absorptiao 
Retention. Exhaustion. 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

EPFLUvroM, n. See Effluence. 
Exhalation by usage, restricted 
to such as are of noxious or un- 
pleasant character. 

Stn. Exhalation. Emanation. Malaria. 
Miasma. Stink. 

Ant. Ventilation. Scent. Disinfectant. 
Zephyr. Balm. 

Effokt, n. Ex and fort is. A 
putting forth of the strength for 
a specific purpose. 

Stn. Trial. Attempt. Endeavour. Ex- 

Ant. Failure. Misadventure. Unsuc- 
cess. Frustration. Futility. Inactivity. 
Ease. Facility. Spontaneity. 

Effrontery, n. E.r, out, and 
frons, the forehead or face. 

Syn. Barefaceduess. Impudence. Brass. 
Ant. Modesty. Timidity. Bashfulness. 


Effulgence, n. Ex and/i/?- 
gere, to shine. 

Stn. Splendour. Lustre. Brilliancy. Lu- 

Effuse, adj. Eff under e,fusus, 
to pour out. 

Stn. Copious. Effluent. Abundant. 
Ant. Dry. Scanty. Sparing. Jejune. 

Effusion, w. <S'ef Eifuse. Used 
literally of the pouring out of 
liquid, and metaphorically of the 
pouring out of speech. 

Stk. Pouring. Discharge. Emission. 
Effluence. Oraiion. Speech. Address. 

Ant. Infusion. Refluence. Absorption. 
Essay, Document. Instrument. Reading. 

Egotism, n. Lat. ego, 1. A 
tendency to undue thought and 
speech about one's self. 

Stn. Conceit. Vanity. Self-assertion. 
Ant. Considerateness. Deference. Self- 

Egregious, adj. E, out, and 
grex, the JJock or common herd. 
Apphed to persons or personal 
qualities. Often used ironically. 

Sin. Remarkable. Peculiar. Excelleut. 

Ant. Ordinary. Commonplace. Every- 
day. Mediocre. 

EOBESS, n. Egrediri, egressus, 

to step out. Used of the act and 
the passage of coming out. 

Stn. Exit. Departure. Sally. Outlet. 
Ant. Adit. Inlet. Approach. Avenue. 

Either, adj. Sax. du, ever, 
(Germ, ewig), livddhcr, I'jJiether of 
two. Whichever of the two you 

Ant. Neither (ne being the negative 

Ejaculate, v. tr. See Ejacu- 

Ejaculation, n. Ejaculari, 
jaculum, « javelin. Used for- 
merly of throwing, in its ordinary 
sense. Now only used of the 
casting forth of words in a sud- 
den way. 

Stn. Exclamation. Utterance. Cry. 

Ant. Obmutescence. Silence. Speech- 
lessness. Dumbfoundedness. Oration. 
Speech. Drawl. 

Eject, v. tr. Ejicere, jadus, to 
cast out. 

Stn. Gist. Throw. Discharge. Expel. 
Extrude. Evert. 

Ant. Accept. Receive. Retain. Hnuse. 
Store. Lodge. Accommodate. Admit. 
Welcome. Introduce. Inject. 

Ejection, ik See Eject. 

Eke, v. tr. Sax. Conn, with 
augere, and commonly used with 
the ^jre;;). out. To eke out, to 
add to what is scanty, often by 
only a scanty and barely sufficient 
I addition. 

Syn. Help. Increase. Augment. Raise. 
I Ant. Stop. Diminish. Stint. AViih- 
I hold. Drain. Exhaust. 

' Elaborate, v. tr. E and 
I labor. To woii out a conception 
or design. 

Stn. "Execute. Forge. Prepare. Cou^ 

coct. Mature. 
I Akt. Misconceive. Mismanage. Mi»- 
' contrive. Hit. Conjecture. Guess. Chance 


Elapse, v. int. E and laU, 
lapsus, to slip. 

Stn. Pass. Slip. Intervene. 

Ant. Wait. Abide. Hold. CoutlnnA 
Halt. Endure. 

S'jnoni/ms and Antonyms. 


Elastic, adj. Lat. Elasticus, 
from Gr. e\avva>, to drive or 
drauK Having a tendency to 
spring back, when stretched, to 
its original dimensions. The 
ideas suggested by tlie word are 
therefore of two kinds ; the one 
the capability of stretching, the 
other the tendency to recurrence. 
In metaphorical language the for- 
mer is the more prevalent idea. 

Stn. Ductile. Extensile. Alterable. 
Resilient. Modifiable. Flexible. Buoyant. 

Ant. Tough. Unchangeable. Rigid. 
Inflexible. Inelastic. Crystallized. Dull. 

Elated, adj. E.c and fcrre. 
To carry out, of himself, with 
joy or pride. 

Sra. Cheered. Joyed. Inspirited. Over- 
joyed. Proud. Inflated. 

Airr. Depressed. Dispirited. Disap- 
pointed. Abashed. Confounded. Humi- 
liated. Disconcerted. Dejected. 

Elder, n. Sax. eld. Eng. 
old. Comparative, elder. 

Stn. Senior. Father. 
Ant. Junior. Son. 

Elect, adj. Eligere, led us, to 

Syn. Elite. Choice. Accepted. Chosen. 
Ant. Rejected. Reprobate. 

Elect, v. See Elect, adj. 
Elected, part. See Election. 
Election, n. See Elect. 

Srw. Choice. Acceptance. Selection. 

Ant. Postponement. Rejection. Repro- 

Electrept, V. tr. From Elec- 
tricity, which is from the Gr. 
ffKfKTpov, Lat. electrum, amber. 
As being produced by the friction 
of amber. 

Syk. Astonish. Astound. Thrill. Amaze. 
Dumbfoiuider. Appal. 

Ant. Soothe. Compose. Calm, Mes- 

Elegance, n. Eleganiia, eli- 
gere, to choose. Primarily that 

kind of beauty in art or compo- 
sition which is the result of 
choice selection, and the omis- 
sion of everything otfensive to 
rule or taste. The word has 
acquired a wider m-eaning in 

Stn-. Beauty. Grace. Refinement. Sym- 
metry. Gracefulness. Taste. 

Ant. Deformity. Awkwardness. In- 
elegance. Disproportion. Ungracefulness. 
Coarseness. Rudeness. 

Elegy, ». A poem consisting 
of hexameters and j^entameters 
alternately. A metre employed 
in grave and mournful subjects. 
From 6 e Xeyfti/, to cry ; '4 t, in 

Stn. JJirge. Threnody. Lament. Jere- 

Ant. P.-ean. Jubilee. 

Element, n. Der. uncertain. 
Possibly from eleo for oleo {I 
groiu), becaiise out of the ele- 
ments all things gi'ow. Used 
also for the primary or consti- 
tuent parts of compound things. 

Syk. Component. 

Elementary, adj. Belonging 
to the elements, physically, but 
more frequently employed in re- 
ference to elements as component 
parts, elemental being reserved 
for the former. 

Stn. Physical. jMaterial. Natural. Elo- 
mentary. Primary. Rudimental. Inchoate. 
Component. Constituent. Ultimate. 

Ant. Immaterial. Incorporeal. Impal- 
pable. Compound. Collective. Aggregate, 
iJsveliped. Organized. 

Elevate. See Elevation, 

Syx. Raise. Dignify. Ennoble. 
Ant. Li'wer. Degiade. Debase. 

Elevation, n. Elcvare, to 
raise ; h'vis, lif/ht. 

Syn. Ileiglit Rise. Raisfag. Altitud-:'. 
Loftiness. Tallness. Improvement. .\mi- 
lioration. Refinement. Superiority. Kiiii- 

Ant. Depth. Fall. Decline. Poi r,^.:. 
sion. Shortness. Stuntedness. iHTeriura- 
tion. Debasement. Degradation. Juivi- 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


Elicit, v. tr. Lat. Elicere, to '_ 
entice out. \ 

Srx. Draw. Evoke. Educe. Eliminate. 
Enucleate. Express. Extract. Worm. Evolve. 

Akt. Insert. Implant. Introduce. Ino- 
culate. Insinuate. Inluse. Instil. In- 
corporate. Suggest. Extort. 

Eligible, aoy. See Elect. 
Worthy of being chosen. 

Stn. Desirable. Preferable. Choice. 

Ant. Undesirable. Worthless. Unpro- 
fitable. Ordinary. Indifferent. Ineligible. 

Eliminate, v. tr. E and 
limf;n, a thresliold. To bring out 
from the recesses of private con- 
cealment into the public light of 
day. Hence, 1, to explain; 2, 
to extract; and 8, to extract 
what is superfluous or objection- 

Sra. Elucidate. Explain, Enucleate. 

Ant. Mystify. Obscure. Involve. Smug- 
gle. Foist. Import. Confound. 

Elision, n. Elidere, to strike 
out. In grammar, the omission 
of a syllable, and the consequent 
shortening of the word. 

SrN. Omission. Ejection. Excerption. 
Abridgment. Ellipse. 

AST. Insertion. Introduction. Implanta- 
tion. Augmentation. Eloiigation. Inocu- 

ElliPSK, V. iv, and "KeiTreiv, 
to leave or fail. An omission of 
something wliich may be under- 
stood without lieing expressed, 
as, ' the man I saw,' for ' whom 
I saw.' The adj. EUiptical is 
sometimes used of style which 
leaves much to be understood 
wliich is not expressed. In tliis 
sense it would have such syno- 
nyms and antonyms as the fol- 
lowing : — 

Syn. Suggestive. Latent Pregnant. 
5l);nificant. Allusive. Subanditive. 

AxT. Categorical. FulL Expository. 
E.\planatory. Declaratory. Enunclalive. 

Elocution, n. Ex and h'jui 

to speaks The act and the pro- 
cess of public speaking. 

Srs. Oratory. Declamation. Eloquence; 
Asi. Reading. Lection. Bolbuliatlon. 

Elongation, n. E and long us, 
long. The addition of length. 

Stn. Production. Extension. 
Ant. Apocope. Curtailment. 

Eloquence, n. See Elocution. 

Else. Sax. el, other. Like 
alius, in Latin. 

Stn. Besides. Otherwise. 
AsT. So. Also. Likewise. 

Elsewhere, adv. See Else. 
Add Sax. /i",v?-. 

Stn. Oiherwise. Away. 
Ant. So. Here. 

Elucidate, v. tr. Ex and 

lucidus, lux, light, lucid. 
Stk. Explain. Clear. Illustrate. 
Ant. Mystify. Obscure. Confuse. 

Elude, v. tr. E and ludere, 
ludus, to niock. 

Stn. Escape. Avoid. Baffle. Evade. 
Parrv. Fence. Mock. Frustrate. 

Ant. Encounter. Meet. Confront 
Court. Dare. Defy. 

Elusory, adj. See Elude. 

Syx. Slippery. Intangible. Indetain- 
able. Fugitive. Shadowy. Unsubstantial 
AKT. Persistent. Stable. SoUd. 

Emaciation, n. E and macits, 

Stn-. I^eaimess. Attenuation. AV'asting. 
Ant. Fatness. Obesity. Corpulence. 

Emanate, v. tr. E and 
manare, to drop. 

Stn. Originate. Flow. Spring. Rise. 

AST. Terminate. Culminate. End. 
Evene. Issue. Arris-e. Eventuate. 

Emanation, n. See Emanate. 
Emancipate, ;•. fr. E and 
mancipium, a laying of the hand 
j on a thing, as on the head of a 
slave, to betoken a formal pur- 
1 chase. Used in various meta- 
] phorical applications. 

! Stn. Liberate. Enfranchise. Rescue. 

.AST. EnthralL Subjugate. EnsUiva 
. Bind. Disqualify. 

Synonyihi and Antonyms. 


Embalm, v. tr. Bahnmum, 
balsam or halm. To preserve in 
spices. To lay up carefully. 

Stn. Conserve. Preserve. 'J'reasure. 
Store. Enshrine. Consecrate. 

Ant. Expose. Desecrate. Abandon. 

Embaego, v. Spanish, harra, 
a bar. A restraint laid upon 
vessels in port. Used metapho- 

S™. Restraint. Detention. Prohibition. 

Ant. Permit. Permission. Discbarge. 
Liberation. Dismissal. Conge. 

Embark, v. int. Barca, a ship. 
Comp. Eng. Bark. Used meta- 
phorically of embarking in a 

SvN. Launch. Enter. Start. 
Ant. Arrive. Anchor. Laud. 

Embarrass, v. tr. Same der. 
as Embargo. 

Stn. Entangle. Disconcert. Trouble. 
Perplex. Confuse. Hamper. Clog. En- 

Ant. Extricate. Liberate. Expedite. 
Facilitate. Accelerate. Assist Disen- 

Embellish, v. tr. Bellus, neat, 
pretty. See Adorn. 

Embezzle, v. tr. Old Fr. besiler. 
Celt, bes, without, and loi, laiv. 
To come unlawfully by. Ap- 
])lied to money and accounts. 

Stn. Appropriate. Confuse. Falsify. 
Peculate. Misappropriate. 

Ajjt. Square. Balance. Clear. 

Embitter, v. tr. To make 
bitter. Sax. bifer. From bite. 
Mordant. Acrid. 

Syn. Aggravate. Molest. 

Ant. Alleviate. Soothe. Sweeten. 

Emblazon, v. tr. See Blazon. 

Emblem, 71. iji^dXXfLv, to cast 
or throw in, as, a device into 
tapestry or mosaic work. A 
pattern; and, thence, a device 
taken as a distinctive mark. 

Stn. Device. Cognizance. Sign. Sym 
bol. Representation. Type. Badge. Mark. 

Ant. Disguise. Decoy Incognito. 
Domino. Blind. Ruse. I 

I Embody, v. tr. Body. Sax. 
bodi;/. To put into "langiMo 
shape, or to attach or insert into 
another body. 

Stn. Express. Methodize. Systematize, 
Codify. Incorporate. Aggregate. Integrate. 
Compact. Introduce. Enlist. Combfne. 

Ant. Eliminate. Segregate. Analyze. 
Dissipate. Disintegrate. Dismember. Col- 
liquate. Disband. Disembody. 

Embolden, v. tr. Bold. Sax. 
See Encourage. 
Embosomed, adj. Bosom. Sax. 

Stn. Concealed. Enfolded. Wrapt. 
Enveloped. Surrounded. Begirt. En- 

Ant. Exposed. Unfolded. Ojien. Un- 

Embrace, v. tr. In and 
brachiiim, the arm. 

Stn. Clasp. Comprehend. Include. 
Ant. Exclude. Reject. Except. 

Embroider, v. tr. Fr. broder. 
To cover with ornamental needle- 
work. Comp. Braid. 

Stn. Emboss. Enrich. Emblazon. Em- 

Ant. Botch. Patch. Cobble. Dam. 

Embroil, v. tr. See Brawl. 
Has the double sense of to make 
confused, and to implicate in 

SvN. Implicate. Commingle. Entangle 

(in quarrel). Disturb. Distract. Trouble. 

Ant. Extricate. Separate. Remove. 
Arrange. Compose. Pacify. 

Embryo, v. eV, and ^pveiv, 
to conceive. 

Stn. Germ. Nucleus. Rudiment. 

Ant. Development. Shape. Completion. 

Emendation, n. E, out, and 
menda, a fault. 

Stn. Correction. Amendment. Recti- 
fication. Reformation. 

Ant. Error. Defect. Incorrectness, 
Fsult. Corruption. 

Emerge, v. int. E, out, and 
menjere, to dip or pluneje. To 
rise out of a fluid. Metaphori- 
cally, to escape out of a diffi- 


Sj/noni/ms and Antom/ms. 

Stx. Escape Issue. Evene. Appear. 
AST. Enter. Incur. Retreat. Kecede. 

Emergency, w. See Emerge. 
A crisis, like that of rescue from 
drowning, or else the sudden 
appearing of a crisis, as if it had 
risen out of the course of events. 

SvN. Crisis. Conjuncture. Pinch. Em- 
barrassment Strait. Necessity. Difficulty. 

Ant. Rescue. Deliverance. Solution. 
Subsidence. Provision. Anticipation. Ar- 

Emersion, n. See Immersion. 

Emigration, n. Emigrare, to 

&TS. Exodus. Colonization. Flit. 

Ant. Abode. Sojourn. Settlement 
Stay. Domiciliation. Immigration. 

Eminence, n. Eminere, to 
stand out or rise. Used of phy- 
sical height and moral or social 

SrN. See Height 

Eminent, adj. See High. 

Eminently, adv. See Highly. 

Emission, n. Emittere, to send 
forth. See Discharge. 

Emollient, adj. E and mollis, 

Stn. Softening. Laxative. Baltiamic. 
Akt. Astringent. Irritant. Galling. 

Emolument, n. Emoliri, to 
v)ork out or move out, from moles, 
a heavy mass. The result of 
labour. See Profit. 

Emotion, n. E and movere, to 

Stn. Passion. Feelins;. ENcitement. 

Ant. Indifference. Insensibility. Im- 
passiveness, Imperturb-ibility. Stoicism. 

Emphatic, adj. Gr. emphasis, 
accent or stress. Laying stress, 
or deserving to have stress laid 
upon it. 

Snr. Earnest Positive. Important. 
Special. Egregious. Consuntmate. 

Ant. Mild. Unemphalic. Cool. Un- 
impassioned. Uniraportan', Ordinury. 
Uunoticeable Commonplace. 

Empierce, V. tr. See Pierce. 

Empire, n. Imperium, im* 
pentre, to command. 

SvN. Dominion. Sovereignty. Rule. 

Ant. Independence. Insurrection. Au- 

Empirical, adj. enweipia. 
Experience or experiment, as 
distinguished from science. 

Stn. Experimental. Tentative. QuackisU 
Ant. Scientific. Regular. Inductive. 
Uniform. Constant. 

Empiricism, n. See Empirical. 

Employ, v. tr. Implicare. to 
enfold into one's plan. 

Stn. Use. Apply. Economize. 

Ant. Discard. Dismiss. Misuse. Mis- 

Empower, v. tr. Fr. pouvoir, 
Lat. pottstas, from posse, to be 

Stn. Enable. Commission. Encourage. 

Ant. Hinder. Prevent. Discourage 
Disable. Disqualify. 

Empty, adj. Sax. emtij. Con- 
taining nothing. 

Stn. Vacant. Void. Clear. Unen- 
cumbered. Unobstructed. Unoccupied. 
Waste. Uninhabited. Unfrequented. De- 
ficient. Weak. Silly. Idle. Senseless. 

Ant. Full. Occupied. Encumbered. 
Obstructed. Cultivated. Colonized. In- 
habited, informed. Well-instructed. Se:i- 
sible. Experienced. Significant Forcible. 
Important. Substantial 

Emulate, v. tr. ^nudari, to 
strive to excel. 

Stn. Rival. Vie. Compete. Aspire. 

Ant. Disaffect. Shun. For- go. Abandon. 
Despise. Contemn. Waive. 

Enable, v. tr. See Able. 

Stn. Empower. Qualify. Strengthen. 
AXT. Disqualify. Hinder. Disable. 

Enact, v. tr. See Act antl 

Enamour, v. tr. In and amor, 

Stn. Captivate. Fascinate. Enslava 
Charm. Endear. Bewitch. Enchain. 

Ant. Repel. Disgust. Eairacge. lik 
<ccuant Horrify. 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


Encamp, ''. int. Jn and campni^, 
ajitld; whence camp. 

Stn. Settle. Pitch. Qunitcr. Bivouac. 
AxT. March. Decamp. PvCtire. Retreat. 

EnchaiNj V. tr. In and chain, 
from catena, a chain. 

Sra. Bind. Fetter. Manacle. Enslave. 

Ant. Loose. Liberate. Extricate. Manu- 
mit. jDisenthrall. 

Enchant, v. tr. In and can- 
tare, to sin(j I cant us, a song or 
incantation. See Enamour. 

Encircle, v. tr. See Circle. 

Stn. Surround. Environ. Inclose. 

Hem. Circumscribe. Encompass. 

Ant. Disinclose. Disencircle. Disen- 

Enclose, v. tr. In and 
claudere, clausus, to sh2(t. 

SrK. Shut. Encircle. Environ. Include. 
Circumscribe. Envelope. Wrap. Afforest. 

Ant. Open. Disclose. Exclude. Dis- 
enclose. I^isencircle. Bare. Expose. De- 
velope. Disafforest. 

Enclosure, n. See Enclose. 
Applied both to that which in- 
closes, and that which is in- 

.Stn. Fence. Ring. Limit. Boundary. 
Park. Close. Qrcle. Field. Precinct. 

Ant. Space. Common. Waste. Wild. 
Desert. Wilderness. Void. 

Encomium, n. Kufios, a revel. 
A song in honoiu- of Bacchus, 
sung at the Bacchic festival. 
Thence, a speech in public 

Stn. Panegyric. Laudation. Compli- 
ment. Commendation. Eulogy. 

Ant. Vituperation. Vilification. Taunt. 
Obloquy. Invective. 

Encompass, v. tr. In, con, 
and jxissus, a step. Comp. Pace. 
To encircle by walking round, 
or in any other way. See En- 

Encounter, v. tr. In and 
contra, against. To come against 
something, or some other, sud- 
denly, or in opposition. 


Confront lace. With* 



Ant. Elude. Avoid. Escape. Miss 

Encourage, v. tr. Fr. cwur, 
the heart. 

Stn. Embolden. Rally. Reassure. Ani- 
mate. Inspirit. Prompt. Abet. 

Ant. Deter. Discourage. Dissuade. 

Encroach, v. tr. Fr. croc, 
crochet, a hook. To hook up 
what does not belong to you. To 
approach the property or rights 
of another for such a purpose. 
Followed by the prep. upon. 

Stn. Invade. Trespass. Transgress. 

Ant. Respect. Recognize. Observe. 

Encrust, v. tr. See Crusty. 

Stn. Coat. Line. Plaster. Face. 
Ant. Scrape. Abrade. Expose. 

Encrustation, n. See Eu:' 

Stn. Plaster. Coating. Lining. lu- 

Ant. Abrasion. Exfoliation. Peeling. 

Encumber, v. tr. Lat. incumu' 
lave, cmmtlus, a heap. 

Stn. Oppress. Obstruct. Clog. Impede; 
Ant. Disencumber. Free. Disburden. 

End, n. Sax. en>Je. See Ter- 
mination, Object, and Aim, ac- 
cording as the word is used iu 
the sense of natural termination, 
pui-pose, or result. 

Endanger, v. tr. Dangerium, 
a Low Latin word of Feudal law. 
Penal liability. 

Stn. Imperil. Expose. Jeopardize. 
Ant. Cover. Defend. Protect. Shield. 

Endear, v. tr. See Dear. 

Stn. Attach. Conciliate. Gain. 
Ant. Estrange. Alienate. Embitter. 

Endearment, n. See Endeai 
and Blandishment. 

Endeavour, n. and v. En 
and Fr. devoir, duty. To make 
an effort on behalf of duty; 
thence, an effort generally. Sea 
Attempt and Effort. 


S'jnonyms and Antonyms. 

Endless, adj. See. End. 
Having no end in time and space. 

Syu. Interminable. Illimitable. Per- 
petual. Eternal. Infinite. 

Ant. Terminable. Limited. Temporary. 
Brief. Transient. I'eriudic. EpliemeraL 
Fugitive. Finite. 

Endow, v. tr. In and dotare, 
from dos, a dowry. 

Syn. Present. Fnricli. Furnish. Qualify. 
A.dorn. Invest. Supply. 

Ant. Denude. Spoliate. Strip. Disen- 
dow. Deprive. Divest. 

Endowment, n. See Endow. 
Applies to the gifts of nature, 
art. and social provision. 

.Syn. Gift. Provision. Benefit. Bone- 
faction. Talent. Capacity. Attainment. 

Ant. Impoverishment. Spoliation. Dis- 
endowment. Incapacity. Poverty. I.ack. 

Endue, v. tr, Indnere, to 
clothe. See Clothe and Endow. 

Endure, r. 2 » ^. In and diaxtre, 
durus, hard. To last. See Last 
and Tolerate. 

Enemy, ??. Inimicus, in, vot, 
and amicus, friend. See Friend. 

Energy, «. ivepykia, epyov, a 
ivork. Active power. See Activity. 

Enervate, v. tr. E and 
aervxs, the nerve. 

Stn. Weaken. Enfeeble. Unnerve. 
Debilitate. Relax. Unstring. Unhinge. 

Ant. Strengthen. Brace. Invigorate. 
Harden. Nerve. 

ENFEEBLE,v.i?>-. Feeble. Lat./c- 
hilis, flere, to be lamented, mretched, 
sad. Hence weak. See Enervate. 

Enfold, v. tr. Sax. fealdan, 
to fold. 

Stn. Wrap. Envelope. Enclose. Em- 
brace. Comprise. 

Ant. Unwrap. Develope. Disclose. 

Enforce, v. tr. In and Fr. 
force, from Lat. /or^r.s, strong. 

Stn. Urge. Compel. Require. E.xact. 
Exert. Strain. 

Ant. Relax. A\'aive. Forego. Remit 

Enteanchise, v. tr. See Fran- 

Stn. Liberate. Qualify. 

Ant. Disfranchise. Disqualify. 

Engage, v. tr. In and garji', a 
pledge. To give a pledge. To 
pledge one's self to do a thing ; 
also, to pledge another to do it, 
or employ him in doing it. 

Stn. Promise. Undertake. Vouch. Em- 
ploy. Occupy. Hire. Adopt. Involve. 

Ant. Decline. Refuse. Withdraw. Dis- 
miss. Discard. E.xtricate. Disengage. 

Engageiient, n. See Engage. 
(For military sense, see Battle.) 

Engaging, adj. See Engage. 
With the metaphorical sense of 
occupying or enhsting regard or 

Sttk. Attractive. Interestitig. Winning. 
Ant. Unattractive. Uninteresting. Re- 

Engender, v. tr. Ingenerure, 
to generate. Used metaphori- 
cally, as, ' to engender strife.' 

Stn. Generate. Produce. Create. Breed. 

Ant. Stifle. Destroy. Extinguish. 
Neutralize. Blight Prevent. 

Engird, v. tr. See Gird. 

Engorge, v. tr., Engorge- 
ment, n. See Gorge. 

Engrave, v. tr. Sax. grafan. 
Conn, with ypa^eiv. 

SrN. Print Imprint. Sculpture. Stereo- 

Ant. Obliterate. Erase. Levigate. 

Engross, v. tr. In and Fr. 
gros, conn, with Lat. crassiis, the 
main bulk or body. To absorb, 
as it were, in the gross, or bodily. 

Stn. See Absorb. 

Engulph, v. tr. Gulph. Gr. 
KoXnos, the bosom of the sea. See 

Enhance, v. tr. Enhausser, 
hant, high. To heighten the 
value of a thing. See Depre- 

Enigmatical, adj. Em'gma. 

Gr. alviyfiariKos. 

Syw. Puzzling, rerplexiug. Obscure. 

oynonyms and Antonyms. 

Ant. Lucid r^NpIanatory. Plain Self- | 
evideut. I 

Enjoin, v. tr. In and jungere, I 
to join. To fasten strongly and ! 
permanently upon a person. 
Said both of the thing and the 

Stn. Impress. Command. Commission. 
Oblige. Piescribc. 

Amt. RecaL Dispense. Remit. Ab- 
solve. Release. Exonerate. Dissuade. 

Enjoy, v. tr. Er. joie. Eng. 
joy. To derive pleasure from 
the use or possession of a thing. 

Stn. Lilce. Relish. Possess. 
AuT. Dislike. Disrelish. Suffer. Loathe. 
Forfeit. Lose. Tolerate. Endure. 

Enkindle, v. tr. See Kindle. 
Enlarge, v. tr. Large, larger. 

Stn. Amplify. Expand. Extend. 
Stretch. Dilate. Increase. 

Ant. Narrow. Lessen. Contract. Re- 
strict. Diminish. Curtail Reduce. 

Enlighten, v. tr. Light. Sax. 
leoght — not to be confoimded 
with Uht, light, not heavy — the 
former being connected with 
lucidus, the latter with levis. 

Stn. Illumine. Edify. Instruct. In- 
form. Teach. 

Ant. Mislead. Darken. Confound. Ob- 
scure. Mystify. Perplex. 

Enlightened, adj. See En- 
lighten and Wise. 

Enlist, v. tr. In and Sax. 
list, a strip of cloth. A roll of 
names. Act. and neut. 

Stn. Enter. Register. EnroU. Incor- 
porate. Embody. 

Ant. Withdraw. Erase. Expunge. Dis- 
miss. Disband. Disembody. 

Enliven, v. tr. In and life. 
Sax. lif, Germ, lelen. 

St>-. Wake. Rouse. Inspirit. Amuse. 
Excite. Animate. 

Ant. Oppress. Depress. Stupefy. 
Weary. Tire. Paralyze. Deaden. 

Enmity, n. See Enemy. 

Stn. Discord. Hate. Animosity. Op- 
position. Bitterness. Acrimony. Asperity. 

.iVkt. Kriendship. Love. Affection. 
Esteem. Friendliness. Cordiality. 

Ennoble, v. tr. In and nobilis. 


To raise to noble rank, and to 
raise morally. 

Stn. Exalt. Dignify. Elevate. Ame- 
liorate. Agsrandize. 

Ant. Debase. Degrade. Deprave. De- 
teriorate. Depress. 

Enormity, n. E and norma, 
a rule. By usage restricted to 
flagrant deviations from law or 

Stn. Atrocity. Crime. Perpetration. 
Abomination. Sin. 

Ant. Achievement. Exploit. Charity. 

Enormous, adj. See Enormity. 
Of extraordinary size or extent. 

Stn. Huge. Immense. Gross. Mon- 
strous. Prodigious. 

Ant. Diminutive. Insignificant. Trivial. 
Venial. Average. Ordinary. Regular. 

Enough, adj. and adv. Sax. 

Stn. Sufficient. Ample. 

Ant. Bare. Scant Insufficient. In- 
adequate. Short. 

Enrage, v. tr. Fr. rage, Lat. 

Stn. Provoke. Incite. Madden. In- 
flame. Embitter. Infuriate. Exasperate. 

Ant. Soothe. Conciliate. Pacify. Tame, 
MoUify. Allay. Quiet. 

Enrapture, v. tr. Baptura, a 
snatcJdug; rapere, to snatch. To 
be snatched out of one's self by 

Stn. Beatify. Entrance. Ravish. 
Ant. Disgust. Nauseate. Torture. 
Horrify. Torment. 

Enrich, v. tr. Fr. riche. Said 
of wealth and decoration ; and, 
metaphorically, of endowments 
of nature or character. 

Stn. Aggrandize. Endow. Store. Aug- 
ment. Fertilize. Decorate. Enhance. 

Ant. Impoverish. Reduce. Rob. Beggar. 
Fleece. Denude. Disfigure. 

' Enrobe, v. tr. See Eobe. 

Syn. Drape. Invest, 
Ant. Disrobe. Divest. 

Enroll, v. tr. In and rotulus, 
a u-oodcn cylinder, round which 
was wound the parchment list 
or register. See Enlist. 


Sifnomjms %nd Antonyms. 

Enrolment, n. See Em-oU. 

Ensconce, v. tr. Germ, schanz, 
n fortification. Used as nent., 
and also followed by me or him- 
self. To hide behind a place of 
defence, ^e Hide. 

Enshrine, v. tr. Shrine. Lat. 
scrinium, a desk, box, or sacred 

Si-N. Consecrate. Treasiire. Embalm. 

Ant. Expose. Desecrate. Forget. 

Enslave, v. tr. In and slave. 
Slave originally meant a Scla- 
vonian, of whom the Germans 
made slaves. It is now, happily, 
only a metaphorical term, as re- 
lates to the English tongue. 

Syn. Captivate. Charm. Subjugate. 

Ant. Repel. Disgust. Alienate. 
Estrange. Liberate. Manumit. Disenthrall. 

Ensue, v. int. In and sequi, 
secutus, to follow. 

Syn. Follow. Accrue. Supervene. Be- 

Ant. Precede. Threaten. Premonish. 

Ensure, v. tr. Sure. Lat. 

Syn. Fix. Deteimine. Secure. Seal. 

Ant. Imperil. Hazard. Jeopardize. 

Entail, v. tr. In tailler, to 
cut, curtail, or limit. To limit a 
line of succession to j-iroperty. 
Used generally for bequeath ; or 
di-aw, as an effect after a caiise, 
as, ' learning entails industry.' 

Stn. Bequeath. Leave. Devolve. De- 
mise. Involve. Necessitate. Induce. 

Ant. Alienate. Supersede. Nullify. 
J'rcvent. Obviate. 

Entangle, v. tr. Eor Tangle. 
Probably from Goth, tagl, hair, 
conn, with tail. 

Syn. Knot. Mat. Ravel. Implicate. 
Ant. Disentangle. Unravel. Extricate. 

Enter, v. int. Intra, within. 
Stn. Invade. Penetrate. 
AuT. Itsue. Depart. L ive. Quit. 

Entekprise, n. Eiitre2>risei ^ 
to take in hand. See Adventure. 

Enterprising, adj. See En- 

Syn. Active. Bold. Daring. Adven- 
turous. Speculative. 

Ant. Inactive. 'J'imid. Inadventurous. 

Entertain, v. tr. Entrefener, 
from tenere, to hold. To hold, as 
an idea or project ; or, in a pe- 
cuhar sense, in one's house, as 
guests ; or keep persons going in 
the way of amusement. 

Syn. Harbour. Maintain. Conceive. 
Foster. Heceive. Recreate. Amuse. 

Ant. Elect. E.xclude. Deny. Debar. 
Annoy. AVeary. Bore. Tire. 

Enthrall, v. tr. Thrall. Sax. 
Slave or Bondman. See En- 

Enthrone, v. tr. In and 
Bpovos, thronus, a throne. 

Syn. Crown. Instal. 

Ant. Depose. Dethrone. Debase. De- 

Enthusiasm, n. iv 6e6s, a di- 
vinity. The feehng of inspira- 
tion imparted by a deity. Gene- 
rally, strong excitement of feel- 
ing- on behalf of an object. 

Syn. Excitement. Erenzy. Sensation. 
Inspiration. Transport. Rapture. Ardour. 
Vehemence. Passion. Devotion. 

Ant. Coldness. Callousness. Indiffer- 
ence. Disaffection. Repugnance. Aliena- 
tion. Contempt. 

Enthusla.stic, adj. See En- 

Entice, v. tr. Prefix en and 
Sax. stccan, to stlek, prick, or 
(load. Conn, with Gr. a-Tiy/xa. 
Its more violent has given way 
to a milder force. 

Syn. Allure. Seduce. Attract. Decoy 
Ant. Deter. Warn. Hinder. , Repel. 

Enticing, adj. See Entice. 

Entire, adj. Integer. 

Syn. Whole. Complete! Unimpaired. 

Ant. Partial. Broken. Impaired. !> 

Si/)ion ijim and Aniomjms. 

Entirely, adv. See Entire. 
Entitle, v. tr. In and titulus, 
a title. 

Stn. Qualify. Empower. Fit. Enable. 
A\T. Disqualifj-. Disentitle. Disable. 

Entity, n. Ens, being, from 
esse, to be. 

Stn. Existence. Being. 
Ant. Nonentity. Chimera. 

Entomb, v. tr. Tumba, a 

Sni. Biiiy. Inter. Inhume 

Ant. Disinter. Exhume. 

Entrammel, V. tr. TremacJum, 
a net, tres maculce, three spots or 
marks, to show its jDosition, and 
serve as bait. 

Stn. Entangle. Impede. Obstruct. 
Hamper. Decoy. Entrap. 

Ant. Disentangle. Liberate. Extricate. 
Expedite. Disentrammel. Disenthrall. 

Entrance, n. See Enter. The 
act and way of entering. 

Stn. Introduction. Penetration. Avenue. 
Portal. Ingress. Adit. 

Ant. Exit. Egress. Departure. De- 

Entrance, v. tr. Transitus, a 
going off. See Eni'apture. 

Entrap, v. tr. In and trap. 
See Entrammel. 

Entreat, v. tr. Entraiter, to 
handle. To clasp the hands upon 
another in entreaty. 

Stn. Implore. Obsecrate. Beg. Petition. 
Ant. Command. Insist. Bid. Enjoin. 

Entry, n. See Enter. Has 
the sense of a fomial or official 
introduction or insertion. 

Stn. Entrance. Initiation. Beginning. 
Record, Note. Minute. Register. Me- 

Ant. Conclusion. Quittance. Disposal. 
Blanli. Omiision. Falsification. Miseniry. 

Entwine, ?'. tr. and int. En 
ajid twine. Conn, with Two. 

Stn. Lace. Convolve. Interlace. 

Ant. Disentwine. Dissever. 

Enttmebatk, V. tr. Enumerare, 
to count; numerus, numbe". 


Stn. Specify. Name. Number. Re- 
count. Detail. Iveckoti. 

Ant. Confound. .Miscount. Jlisreckon. 

Enunciate, v. tr. E and 
nuntius, a messenger. To pro- 
claim; thence, to state dis- 

Stn. State. Propound. Pronounce. 

Ant. Jlutter. Babble. Balbutiate. 

Envelo<pe, V. tr. In and vo- 
luptas, pleasure. To wrap up, as 
if warmly and comfortably. See 

Stn. Wrap. Enfold. Encase. Cover. 
Ant. Unwrap. Develope. Reveal. 
Expose. Unfold. Extract. 

Envelope, n. See verb. 
Envenom, v. tr. In and vcne- 
man, poison. /See Poison. 
Environ, v. tr. Fr. 

Stn. Surround. Hem. Inclose. En- 
circle. Enfold. 

Ant. Disinclose. Disenfold. 

Ephemeral, adj. eVl, and 
rjfiepa, a day. Lasting but for 
a day, or, generally, for a short 

Stn. Transient. Evanescent. Fleeting. 
Fugacious. Fugitive. Momentary. 

Ant. Abiding. Persistent. Permanent. 
Perpetual. Eternal. Perennial. Immortal. 

Epigrammatic, adj. inlypayifia, 
an epigram.. Applied to style. 

Stn. Pointed. Terse. Graphic. Con- 
cise. Laconic. 

Ant. Diffuse. Circumlocutory. Point- ' 

Epitome, w. eVl Ttfiveiv. To 
cut or prune upon the surface, 
so as to leave only the salient 
points, doing away with inter- 
venient matter. See Abbrevia- 

Equable, adj. See Equal. Of 
uniform movement, that is, 
equal to itself at all times. 

Sl^N. Uniform. Regular. Proportionate 
Even. Smooth. Easy. 

Ant. Irregular. Desultory. VariabU 
Fitful. Disjointed. Uneafsy. 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

Equal, adj. Lat. cequalis. Ee- 
fers to every thing that can be 
tested by a standard of degrees. 

SrK. Uniform. Commensurate. Co- 
ordinate. Adequate. Coexten5ive. Smooth. 

Ant. Unequal. Incommensurate. In- 
co-ordinate. Inadequate. Disparate. Variable. 

Equality, «. See Equal. 

Equanimity, «. ^guus, equal, 
and ct'dmus, the mind. Steadi- 
ness of mind under fluctuating 

Stx. Calmness. Composure. Tranquil- 
lity. CoUectedness. Even-mindedness. 

Akt. Restlessness. Disquiet. Pertur- 
bation. Impatience. 

Equip, v. tr. To fit out. Conn, 
not with equus, but with skiff 
and ship. To rig or furnish, as 
a ship. 

Srx. Accoutre. Garnish. Invest Pre- 
pare. Furnish. Arrange. 

Ant. Divest. Dismantle. Denude. De- 
spoil. Derange. 

Equipage, n. 5ee Equip. Used, 
prunarily, for the apparatus of 
horses and carriage; and also, 
generally and loosely, for almost 
any apparatus. Not connected 
with eguus. 

Sirs. Accoutrements. Trappings. Furni- 
ture. Habiliments. Apparatus. Carriage. 

Equivalence, n. See Equi- 

Equivalent, adj. ^auiis, 
equal, and vulere, to avail or be nj 

Srx. Equiponderant. Equipollent 
Ant. Unequal. Unequivalent. 

Equivocal, adj. JEquus, equal, 
and vox, a word. Producing am- 
biguity, from the circumstance 
of the same word being equally 
applicable to different things. 

Syn. Dubious. Ambiguous. Double- 

A^-T. Univocal. Plain. Direct. Clear. 

Eradicate, v. tr. Eradicare 
radix, a root. To root out. 

Syn. Extirpate. Abolish. Extinguish 
Exterminate. Excise. 

Ant. Implant. Import. Instil. Foster. 
Propagate. Cherish. Encourage. 


Attendance. Ketinue. 

Ant. Dismantlement Unstateliness. 

Equipment, n. See Equip. 
Equipoise, n. j3^quus, equal, 
■ and pondus. Fr. poids, a iveight. 
See Balance. 

Equipollent, adj. ^quus, 
equul, and %iolhre, to he of force. 
Of equal force. See Equivalent. 

Equiponderant, adj. See 
Equipoise and Equivalent. i 

Equitable «c/y. ^quUas}^ ^^^^i ^'.'mission, .iission. 

OiquUS. Equity. j Delegation. Charge. 

SiN. Fair. Just Proportionate. Im- i -A^^t- Misdelivery. Misannouncement 

^"^Ant. Unfair. Unjust D.sproportionate I EeKATIC, adj. EiTare. Given 

J'artiai. ■ j to wandering, or having wan- 

Equity, n. See Equitable. j dered fi-om foiin or rule. 

n. See Eradi« 

Eradcre, rasus. 
Efface. Expunge. 


Erase, v. tr. 
To scrape out. 

Si-K. Obliterate. 
Blot Cancel. 

Akt. Mark. AVrite. Delineate. 

Erasube, n. See Erase. 

Erect, v. tr. Erigere, erectus, 
to erect. 

SrN. Elevate. Raise. Establish. Plant 
Uplift. Construct Build. 

Ant. Lower. Supplant Subvert. De- 
press. Remove. Destroy. Demolish. 

Erection, n. See Erect. 

Erode, v. tr. See Corrode. 

Ebb, v. int. Errare. To 
wander from the right Ime of 
physical or mental movement. 

SrN. Deviate. Wander. Mistiike. Blun- 
der. Mi^udge. Stumble. Misapprehend 
; A>T. Succeed. Prosper. Correct. Re • 
I tify. 

Si/ lion ij ins and Aidonijins. 

SvN. Desultory. Aberrant. Abnormal. 
?"llgbty. Changeful. Capricious. 

Ant. Regular. Normal. Methodical. 
i;alculable. Unalterable. Steady. Unde- 

Ebrob, n. See Err. 

SvN. Fault. Mistake. Blunder. Falsity. 
Deception. Fallacy. Untruth. 

Ant. Correction. Correctness. Truth. 
Accuracy. Soundness. Rectification. 

Erudition, n. E, out of, and 
rudis, rude or unlettered. 

Sxs. Learning. Lore. Letters. Scholar- 

Ant. llliterateness. Duncedom. Sciolism. 

Eruption, ;?. E and rumpere, 
ritptus, to break or hurst. 

Sin. Outburst. Explosion. Discharge. 
Eructation. Exsufflation. 

Ant. Absorption. Engulfing. Engross- 
ment. Swallowing. Irruption. Inburst. 

Escape, v. tr. and int. Fr. echap- 
fir, perhaps from Germ, kampf, 
battle. Comp. Camp, Decamp. 

Ant. Incur. Confront Encounter. 
X^el. .Suffer. 

Escheat, v. int. See Cheat. 

Eschew, v. tr. Old Germ. 
Scheie. Eng. shy. See Avoid. 

Escort, v. tr. Fr. It. scoi^ta, 
a guard or guide. See Convoy. 

Esculent, adj. Escu, a morsel. 
See Edible. 

Esoteric, adj. f'a-a>, iauyrepos, 
in, inner. Belonging to the 
learning more i)rivately. Com- 
innnicated to more privileged 
pupils or members. 

SrN. Private. Special. Exacter. Ad- 

Ant. Public. Popular. Rudimentary. 

Especial, adj. See Special. 

Espousal, n. Sponsus, spon- 
dere, to betroth. See Marriage. 

Espy, v. tr. See Spy. 

Essay, v. int. and tr. See 


Essay, n. See Assay and Dis- 

Essence, n. Essentia, esse, to 
be. That which makes a thing to 
be -what it is. 

Syn. Being. Life. Entity. Nature. 

Ant. Accident. Property. Additament. 
Garb. Clothing. Surroundings. 

Essential, adj. That without 
which a thing cannot be or be 
conceived. It is taken out of 
the sphere of thought and im- 
ported into that of action, and 
then becomes a synonym of Ee- 

Syn. Innate. Inherent. Requisite, 
Necessary. Vital. Immanent. 

Ant. Accidental. Qualitative. Quanti- 
tative. Promotive. Regulative. In- 
duced. Imported. Adventitious. Asci- 
titious. Redundant. Superfluous. 

Establish, v. tr. Fr. e'taUir. 
Lat. stahilire, sfubilis. Comp. 
Stable, from Stare, to stand. Ap- 
plied to things social and logical. 

Syn. Plant. Fix. Settle. I'ound. De- 
monstrate. Prove. Substantiate. 

Ant. Supplant. Unsettle. Break-up. 
Disestablish. Misstate. Confute. Refute 
Upset. Subvert. Presume. Suppose. Guess. 
Conjecture. Surmise. 

Established, adj. See Es- 

Estate, n. Status, a standing 
Used for a fixed condition and 

Syn. Order. Rank. Condition. Free- 
hold. Domain. 

Ant. State. Community. Country 
Waste. Chattels. Goods. EfiTects. 

Esteem, v. tr. Estimare, from 
OPS, brass or money. To value or 
price with an implied meaning 
that the person or object is more 
or less worthy of favourable re- 

Syn. Price. Value. Consider. Deem. 
JudKe. Believe. Estimate. Think. Re- 
gard. Affect. Love. Like. 

Ant. Disregard. Disconsider. Disaffecl 
Dislike. Undervalue. UiK^errate. Decry 

Si/noni/ms and Antont/ms. 


Estimable, adj. In addition 
to the sense of capable ot valua- 
tion, has accjuired the commoner 
meaning of worthy of regard. 

Svx. Amiable. Delectable. Worthy. 

AXT. Uiiamlable. liidelectable. Uu- 

wortby. Bad. 

Estimate, v. tr. Sec Esteem. 
Has the same sense as esteem, 
with a more distinct reference to 
the social or commercial than to 
the essential or intrinsic value. 

Estimation, n. See Esteem. 

Estrange, v. tr. To make 
strange, from extra, extraneous. 
See Alienate. 

EsUKlENT, adj. Esurire, to 
desire to eat. Prom edere, to tat. 
See Starved. 

Eternal, adj. Etemus, oevum, 
oevitas, atas, an age. From age 
to age. 

Sra. Infinite. Endless, Un- 
dylug. Unceasing. 

Ant. Ephemeral. Transient. Tern- 
poial. Fleeting. Evanescent. Subliinary. 

Etiquette, «. Fr. for ticket 
or label. A passport into good 
society, thence the form of such 

Syn. Manners. Breeding. Fashion. Con- 

Ant. Boorishness. Rudeness. Misob- 
servan se. Singularity. Nonconformance. 

Eulogy, n. ev, tvell, and 
Xe^fii', to speak: A set speech 
in one's praise. See Praise. 

Euphuism, v. From Lyly's 
Euphues, a work which gave rise 
to an affected style of talk at one 
time fashionable in the Court of 

Syn. Affectation. Pedantry. Purism. 
Highflying. Finicality. Factitionsness. 

Ant. Simplicity. Rusticity. Bluntness. 
Naturalness. Mother-tougue, Vernacular. 

EuPHUiBTic, adj. See Eu- 

Evacuate, v. tr. R and 
vacuus, to discJiarge so as to leave 
empty. Especially used as a 
military term. 

Syn. Void. Abandon. Desert. 
Ant. Occupy. Seize. FilL Hold. 

Evade, v. tr. E and vadere, 
logo. To get out of the way. 
See Elude. 

Evanescent, adj. E and 
vanescere, vanus, to become vain or 
void. See Ephemeral. 

Evaporate, v. -int. E and 
vapor, vapour, or steam. To go 
off in steam, to disappear as if 
in vapour. 

Syn. Melt. CoUiquate. Liquefy. Va- 
porize. Disappear. Dissolve. Exhale. 

Ant. Consolidate. Compact. Solidify. 
Indurate. Crystallize. 

Evaporation, n. See Eva- 

Evasion, o^. See Evade. Has 
a sense peculiar to it, that of 
eluding the statement, question, 
or charge of another. 

Syn. Prevarication. Shuffle. Fencing. 
Ant. Answer. Counter-argument. Grap- 

Even, adj. Sax. Used phy- 
sically and metaphorically. 

Syn. Level. Smooth. Uniform. Equable. 

Ant. Inclined. Abrupt. Rugged. Va- 
riable. Uneven. 

Event, ??. Evenire, veritus,to 
cmne forth or happen. 

Syn. Occurrence. Circumstance. Issue. 
Result. Fact. Incident. 

Ant. Cause. Antecedent- Operation. 
Inducement. Contribution. Convergence. 
Predisposition. Tendency. 

Eventful, adj. See Event. 
Full of remarkable events. 

Syn. Remarkable. Memorable. Signal. 
Important. Marked. Noted. CriticaL Stir- 
ring. Notoble. 

AST. Ordinaiy. Unsiarked. Unun- 
portant Evendess. UcjQterertlng. Qm- 
racterless. Trivial. 

Si/)ioiii/iiis and Autonyms. 


Ever, ar'r. Sax. 
SvN. Always. Coiitiuuullj-. 
Akt. Never. 

EvERSioN, n. E Old, and 
vertere, to turn. A turning inside 

Stn. Evolution. Explication. 
Akt. Inversion. Involution. Implica- 

Evert, adf. Ever, each. An 
expression for regarding all in- 
dividual parts or persons in the 
aggregate to which they belong. 
iSee Ever. Each is ilk. 

Stn. All. 

Ant. None. 

Evict, v. tr, Evincere, to dis- 
possess hy force. 

Syn. Dispossess. Eject. 

Ant. Reinstate. Admit. Settle. Lo- 
cate. Lodge. 

Eviction, n. See Evict. 

Evidence, n. Evidentin, evi- 
dere. The manifestation of that 
which goes to establish a charge 
or question. 

Svx. Manifestation. Appearance. Sign. 
Token. Proof. Indii-ation. Exemplifica- 
tion. Illustration. 

Akt. Surmise. Conjecture. Counter- 
evidence. Disproof. Refutation. Conceal- 
ment. Suppression. Misindicatiou. Fal- 

Evident, adj. See E\'idence. 

Srs. Plain. Visible. Conspicuous. Mani- 
fest. Indisputable. Incontrovertible. 

Ant. Doubtful. Obscure. Questionable. 
Uncertain. Dubious. 

Evil, adj. Sax. E/el, having 
what is physically deleterious. 
Morally wrong, circumstantially 

Syn. 11!. Noxious. Deleteriois. Wrong. 
Bad. Mischievous. Hurtful. Sinful. Un- 
happy. Adverse. Unprupitious. Miser- 
able. Sorrowful. 

Ant. Wholesome. Beneficial. Right. 
Virtuous. Holy. Pure. Happy. Fortu- 
nate. Felicitous. Joyous. Welcome. Grate- 
ful. Good. 

Evince, v. tr. See Evict. To 
show in a forcible way. 

Svx. Exhibit. Evidence. Show. no\e Suppress. Di.-prove. N guti\e. 

Eviscerate, v. tr. E and 
viscera, the bowels. To take out 
the inside. 

Syn. Disembowel. Draw. 
Ant. Stuff. Cram. Pad. 

Evoke, v. tr. Evocare, to call 

SvN. E.Kcite. Educe. Provoke. Elicit. 
Produce. Eliminate. Extract. 

Ant. Allay. Stifle. Stop. Silence, 
Prevent. Seal. 

Evolution, ?!. Evindvolvere, 
to turn or roll. Applied to 
studied exercises of the body. 
See Altitude. 

Exacerbate, v. tr. Ex and 

acerhus, sour. See Exasperate. 

Exact, adj. Exigere, to exact, 
exactus. See Accurate. 

Exactly, adv. See Exact. 

Syn. Precisely. Accurately. Corrc- 

Ant. Loosely. Inadequately. Incor- 
rectly. Differently. Otherwise. 

Exaggerate, v. tr. Ex and 
agger, a heap or mound of earth 
thrmvn up hy digging. To am- 
plify beyond the strict bounds of 
truth and justice. 

Si-N. ]\lagnify. Overstate. Overdraw. 
Strain. Overpaint. Overestimate. 

Ant. Disparage. Attenuate. Palliate. 
Understate. Underestimate. I^nify. Mi- 
tigate. Soften. Qualify. Modify. 

Exalt, v. tr. Ex and alius, 
high. See Elevate. 

Exalted, adj. See Exalt. 

Examine, v. tr. Examinare, 
exanien, a balance. Pr02)erly the 
tongue of the balance. 

Syn. Weigh. Ponder. Investigate. Per- 
pend. Test. Scrutinize. Criticise. Prove. 
Study. Discuss. Inquire. Search. 

Ant. Discard. Conjecture. Guess. Slur. 
Misconsider. Misinvesligate. 

Example, n. Exemphn i, exi' 
mere, to take out frwn a larget 
H 2 


giiantity as a sample. Comp. 
Sample. Its meaning has been 
widened so as to express the ap- 
plication of that idea in such 
ways as the following. 

SvN. Samplp. Specimen. Pattern. Model. 
Illustration. Instance. Issue. Uevelup- 

Ant. Stock. M.iterial. Substance. Law. 
TiUle. Character. Principle. System. 
Quality. Case. 

With any other correlatives, 
that is, things of wliich exami)les 
are given. 

Exanimate, adj. See Inani- 
niate and Dead. 

Exasperate, v. tr. Ex and 
asper, to drmu out the rough qua- 
lities. See Aggravate. 

Excavate, v. tr. Ex and 
mvKs, hollow. To dig out. 

SvN. Dig. Hollow. Trench. DiscoTer. 

Ant. Bury. Fill. Level. Conceal. 
Inter. Inhume. 

Exceed, v. tr. Ex and cedere, 
to go. To surj^ass generally. To 
surpass in what is good, 'being 
expressed by excel. Sometimes 
used intransitively for, to be ex- 
cessive. See Surpass. , 

Exceeding, adj. See Exceed. 

Exceedingly, adv. See Ex- 

Excel, v. tr. and int. Excel- 
Ire. Has the same sense as 
Exceed, but confined to cases of 
merit and superiority. See Sur- 

Excellence, n., Excellent, 
adj. See Excel. 

Except, 2^''<t- Excipcre. To 
take out of a common statement, 
class, or rule. 

SvN. Exclude. Save. Bar. Segregate. 

Ant. Count. Include. Kecknn. State. 
aaMlly. J'ropound. Affirm. Admit. 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


See Except. 

SvN. Qualification. Separation. Exclu. 

Exceptionable, adj. From 
Exception in the sense of objec- 
tion, as to take exception to a 
thing, that is, to ]3lace it out of 
the category of things one ap- 

Sin. Objectionable. Undesirable. 
A.NT. Unobjectionable. Desirable. Un- 
exceptionable. Exemplary. 

Exceptional. Sf-e Exception. 

SvN. Rare. Peculiar. Uncommon. Irre- 
gular. Unusual. Abnormal. 

Ant. Common. Regular. Normal. 
Usual. Ordinary. 

Exceptious, adj. See Con- 

Excess, 72. >See Exceed. Used 
for a mere physical or numerical 
balance, or, morally, for the ab- 
sence of self-control. 

Srx. Advance. Increase. Abundance. 
Redundancy. Superfluity. Extravagance. 
Dcbaucherj'. Intemperance. 

Ant. Deficiency. Failure. Shortcom- 
ing. Insufficiency. Temperance. Sobriety. 

Excessive, adj. Six Excess. 

Stn. Enormous. Undue. Exorbitant 

Ant. Insufficient. Scant. Inadeq:«te. 

Exchange, v. tr. See Change. 

Excision, 7i. Excidere, to cut 
out. See Eradication. 

Excitability, «. Ex and 
citure, intense fonn of ciere, to 

SvN. Sensibility. Sensitiveness. Irasci- 
bility. Irritability. 

Ant. Immobility. Imperturbability. 
Insensitiveness. Composure. Hebetude. 

Excitation, «. See Eouse. 
Excite, v. tr. See Excitabihty. 

Six. iSee Allay. 

Exclaim, v. int. Ex and cla- 
mare, to call. See Ejaculate. 
Exclude, v. tr. Ex and 

cl lud-rt, to shut. ,S<'' Admit. 

Sijnonyms and Antonyms. 


Exclusive, rulj. See Exclude 
and Comprehensive. 

Excogitation, n. A complete 
cogitation, which see. 

Snj. Elaboration. Deduction. 

Akt. Guess. Suimise. 

and communis, common. To put 
out of the society and privileges 
of the common body. 

~ " ' "" Bur. Iject. 


Ex and 


Si-N. Exclude, 

Ant. Admit 


crescere, to grow. 

Syn. Superfluity. Redundancy. Ira- 
postliume. Tumour. 

Ant. Eradication. Extirpation. E.\- 
cision. Levigation. Exsection. 

EXCRUCIATB, V. tr. Ex, out, 
and cruciare, crux, to tahe out the 
life by crucifixion. Used meta- 
phorically and exaggeratively. 

Stn. Agonize. Torture. Torment. Rack. 
Ant. Soothe. Please. Tranquillize. 

Excruciating, adj. See Ex- 

Exculpate, v. tr. Ex and 
culpii, a fault. To free from a 
charge, or endeavour to do so. 

Sy.v. Defend. Vindicate. Exonerate. 
Acquit. Release. 

Ant. Cbarge. Inculpate. Implicate. 

Excursive, adj. See Discur- 

Excuse, v. tr. Excusare, 
musn, a cause. To rid of accu- 

Syn. Exculpate. Absolve. Pardon. For- 
give. Overlook. Condone. Remit. In- 
dulge. Justify. Vindicate. Defend. Ex- 

Ant. Charge. Inculpate. Condemn. 
Sentence. Exact. Strain. Accuse. 

Execrable, adj. Exsecrari, 
scKer. To condemn or protest 
against, as unholy. 

Syn. Detestable. Loathsome. Hateful, 
bominable. Damnable. 
Ant. Desirable. Eligible. Respectable. 

Execrate, v. tr. See Exe- 
crable and Abominate. 

Execute, v. tr. Ex seqvi, 
seqit^, to follow out to the end. 
See Consummate, 

Exemplary, adj. Exem2Jum, 
a modd. Said of chai'acter and 

Syn. Laudable. Praiseworthy. Conspi- 
cuous. Honourable. 

Ant. Detestable. Objectionable. Ex- 

Exemplify, v. tr. See Ex- 

SvN. Illustrate. Manifest. Embody. 

Exhibit. R^present. 

Ant. Betray. Falsify. Misrepresent. 

Exempt, adj. Eximere, cmere, 
to buy. Bought oif. Generally 
applied to immunity. 

Syn. Free. Irresponsible. Unamenable. 
Ant. Subject. Responsible. Liable. 

Exemption, n. 

Syn. Freedom. Immunity. Dispensa- 
tion. Privilege. License. 

Ant. Liability. Amenableness. Sub- 
jection. Responsibility. 

Exercise, v. tr. Exercere, to 
practise. Originally a mihtary 
phrase; whence exercifus, an 
army. Afterwards applied to 
the systematic use of bodily and 
mental faculties, or training. 

Sin. Practise. Train. Cultivate. De- 

Ant. Rest. Ease. Disuse. Respite. 
Relax. Recreate. 

Exercise, n. See verb. 

Exertion, n. Ex and screre, 
to Join or bind together. To put 
forth strenuously. 

Syn. Effort. Labour. Toil. 

Ant. Rela.xation. Recreation. Rest, 

Exhalation, n. Ex and 

haJare, to breathe. 

Syn. Mist. Damp. Effluvium. 

Ant. Absorption. Exsiccaticn, 



tr. Ex and 


tSynomjms and Antonyms. 

Tiaurire, to cirau;. To draw ; to 
drain ofif liquid ; or, metapliori- 
cally, strength, resources, &c. 

SrN. Empty. Void. Drain. AVeakcn. 

Ant. Kill. Replenish. Augment. In- 
\'gorate. Refresh. 

Exhaustion, n. See Exhaust. 
Exhibit, v. tr. Exhibere. To 
hold forth or show. 

Stn. Show. Manifest. Evidence. Evince. 
Betray. Demonstrate. Illustrate. 

Ant. Suppress. Conceal. Secrete. Mask. 

Exhilarate, v. tr. Hilaris, 
joyous. To make joyous. 

Stn. Gladden. Rejoice. Inspirit. Elate. 
Ant. Depress. Dispirit. Unnerve. Un- 

Exhort, v. tr. Ex and hortari. 
To advise. 

Sra. Urge. Advise. Costisel. Enjoin. 
Ant. Deprecate. Dissuade. Warn. Re- 

Exhume, v. tr. Ex and humus, 
the ground. See Inter. 

Exigency, n. Exigpre, to exact. 
An urgent or exacting case of 
want ; or a state of things press- 
ing hard upon a person. 

Stn. Urgency. Pressure. Emergency. 
Conjuncture. Crisis. 

Ant. Provision. Preparation. Supply. 
Rule. Course. 

Exile, v. Exilium, exile. 

Syn. Banish. Relegate. 
Ant. AVelcome. Reinstate. Domesti- 
cate. Domiciliate. 

Existence, n. Existentia, 
existere, to exist. 

S\-N. Being. Entity. Creature. 

Ant. Nonentity. Non-e.\istence. 


Exit, v. Exitus, exire, to go 
out. See Approach and Egress. 

Exonerate, v. tr. To relieve 
of the burden. Onus, eris, a 
burden of a charge or accusation. 
See Exculpate. 

Exorbitant, adf. Ex and 

07-bita, an orbit. Out of the usaai 
way. See Excessive. 

Exoteric, adj. e^a, e^wrepoj. 

Outer. See Esoteric. 

Exotic, adj. See Foreign. 

Expand, v. tr. and int. Ex 
and pander e, to open. 

Sts. SweU. Dilate. Spread. Exteni 

Ant. Contract. Curtail. Attenuate. 
Restrict. Condense. 

Expanse, n. 

Stn. Vast. Void. Space. Breadth. 
Ant. Limit. Enclosure. Confine. Bound. 

Expatiate, v. int. Ex and 
spatiari, to walk. To ti'averse 
the length and breadth of a sulv 
ject. Followed by the prep. 

SrN. Amplify. Enlarge. Dilate. 
Ant. Contract. Condense. Epitomize. 

Expatriate, v. tr. Ex, out, 
and putria, one's native country. 
See Banish. 

Expect, v. tr. Expectnn-, e 
and spicere. To look out for. 

Anticipate. "" 



Ant. Welcome, 
Greet. Realize. 

Await. Forecast. 
Hail. Recognize. 

Expediency, n. Expedire, to 
expedite, or be expedient. 

Syn. Utility. Advantage. Interest. 

Ant. Inexpediency. Disadvantage. Ii:- 
utility. Detriment. 

Expedient, adj. See Expedi- 

Expedite, v. tr. See Expedi- 
ency and Accelerate. 

Expedition, n. See Expedi- 
ency. Technically used of a 
military r^ovement, or an ex- 
ploring movement. 

Stn. Haste. Speed. Despatch. 
Ant. Delay. Tardiness. Procrastina- 

Expel, v. tr. Ex and pdlcre, 
to drive. See Eject. 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


Expend, v. tr. I'.v and j^e??- 
dere, to pay. 

Syx. Spend. I^ay out. Waste. Cou- 
mime. Use. 

Ant. Save. Husband. Economize. 

Expense, n. See Expend. 

SvN. Price. Cost. Payment. Expendi- 
ture. Outlay. 

Ant. Income. Profit. Receipt. 

Expensive, adj. See Expend. 

Stn. Cosily. Valuable. Rich. Extra- 

Airr. Cheap. AVorthless. Poor. Eco- 

Experience, v. Experientia, 
experiri, to try. 

Stn. Try. Feel. Undergo. Encounter. 

Ant. Evade. Escape. Jliss. Lose. 

Experience, n. See verb. 
Experienced, adj. See Ex- 

Syn. Skilled. Practised. Familiar. Ac- 
customed. Conversant. 

Ant. Inexperienced. Strange. Unprac- 

Experiment, n. See above. 

Srx. Trial. Illustration. Test. Exem- 

Ant. Conjecture. Assumption. Hypo- 

Expert, ndj. See above. One 
who has experienced or tried, till 
he has become ready at the 
ai-t. See Clever, 

Expiate, v. ir. Ex and plare, 
to appease. See Atonement. 

Expire, v. inf. Ex, out, and 
spirare, to hreathe. See Die and 
Terminate. Used also as a syno- 
nym for exhale, as opposed to 

Explain, v. tr. Ex ajii planus, 
plain or smooth. To make 

Stn. Expound. Teaih. Illustrate. 
Akt. Mystify. Obscure. Misinterpret. 

Explanation, n. See Ex- 

Explanatory, a^tj. See Ex- 

Explication, n. Fx and 
plicare, to fold. See Explana- 

Explicit, adj. See Exphca- 

Stn. Plain. Detailed. Inobscure. De- 
claratory. Categorical. Stated. 

Ant. Imjilicit. Implied. Hinted. Sug- 
gestive. Obscure. 

Explode, v. int. E.xpIoderc, 
from plaudere, to clap. Conn. 
Applaud. See Burst. 

Exploit, n. Explicare, to un- 
fold. See Achievement. 

Explore, v. tr. Exphrare. 
See Examine. 

Explosion, n. See Explode. 

Exponent, n. Exponere, to 
put forth or expound. 

Stn. Interpreter. Propounder. Advo- 
cate. Representative. 

Aht. System. Opinion. Creed. Prin- 

Expobt, V. tr. Exportare. To 
carry out. 

Stn. Ship. Produce 
Ant. Import. Consume. 

Expose, v. tr. See Exponent. 
To lay bare of covering; and, 
metaphorically, so to ti'eat cha- 
racter or motives. *S'ee Conceal. 

Exposition, n. See Exponent 
and Explanation. 

Expositor, n. See Exponent. 

Expository, adj. See Ex- 

Expostulate, v. int. Er, 
out, and postuiure, to ask. To 
ask or require a person to leave 
or forego a certain course of 

Stn. Object. Remonstrate. 
Ant. Coincide. Abet. 

Expound, v. tr. Same word 
as Expose, having come to us 
through the French espondre. 
See Explain. 

>S>jnGni/ms and Antonyms. 


Express, v. tr. Exprimerp, 
pressua. To press out. Used in 
a physical or literal sense also. 

Stn. .See Enunciate and State. 

3, ad). See verb. 
Stn. Specific. Pointed. Direct. 
Ant. UeneraU Vague. Leisurely. 

Expression, n 
the character of the countenance, Apply, 
and the use or collocation of 

Sru. Countenance. Look. Indication. 
Phrase. Term. 

Ant. Face. Features. Lineament. 
Falsification. Misstatement. Solecism. 
■Enigma. Suppression. 

Extempore, adj. and adv. Ex, 
out of, and tempuff, the occasiorti 
Stn. Oflfhanl. Unpremeditated. 
Ant. Sludiel. Prepared. Premeditated. 

Extend, v. tr. and int. Ex 

and tendere, to stretch. Act. and 


. r 1 f ^^'- Prolong. Stretch. Expand. En- 

Appiieci to large. Increase. Augment. Reach. Avail. 

Expulsion, n. See Expel. 

Expunge, v. tr. Ex and 
ivmgere, to prick. To prick or 
rub out with something pointed, 
as a pen. 

Sra. Efface. Obliterate. Erase. Cancel. 
Ant. Write. Delineate. Mark. Trace. 

Expurgation, n. Expurgare, 
fa cleanse. A cleansing. See 

Exquisite, adj. Exquirere, 
to seek out ; exquisitus. That 
"which is sought or chosen out 
of a nmnber for its superiority. 

Stn. Choice. Rare. Refined. 
Akt. Common. Coarse. Ordinary. 

Exquisitely, adu. See Ex- 

ExsUFFLATioN, n. Ex and 
snfflare, to blow upwards. Comp. 
-Fr. souffle. 

Stn. Ebullition. Eruption. Eructation. 

Ant. Absorption. Inhalation. Gorge- 
ment. Deglutition. 

EXSUSCITATE, V. tr. See Sus- 

Extant, adj'. Ex and stare, to 
stand or exist. 

Stk. E.\i8teiit Surviving. Current, 
forthcoming. Present. 

AST. Dtfunet. Lost Obsolete. Past. 

.\nt. Curtail. Contract. Restrict. Nar- 
row. Limit. Recur. Return. Miss. FaiU 

Extensile, adj'. See Extend 
and Ductile. 

See Extend 

See above 

Extension, n. 
and Space. 

Extensive, adj. 
and Spacious. 

Extent, v. See above. 

SvN. Degree. Distance. Quantity. Space. 

Ant. Diminution. Restriction. Limita- 

Extenuate, v. tr. Ex and 
tenuis, s7naU. Used only of the 
mitigation of unfavourable state- 
ments or appearances. 

S™. iliUgate. Qualify. Palliate. 

Ant. Aggravate. Heighten. Enhance. 

Exterior, n. Lat. 

Stn. Outside. Surface. Face. Aspect. 

Ant. Interior. Heart. Core. 

Exterminate, v. fr. See Ex- 

Extermination, v. Ex and 

terminus, the boundary of a coun- 
try. To utterly destroy, and so 
take away from the place of oc- 
cupation. Etymologically, the 
word might mean expulsion, 
but, as a fact, is never so used. 

Stn. Eradication. E.\tirpation. Aboli- 
tion. Distraction. 

Ant. Settlement. Replenishment. Aug- 
mentiition. Colonization. IV'pulatiou. 
Propagation. Increase. 

External, adj. Extiinus, 
extra. Outside. 

Si/iionijms and Ajilomjms. 

1 CD 

Ptk, Outer. Apparent. Manifest. Super- 
ficial. VUMe. Palpable. 

Ant. Juner. Internal. Inapparent. 

Hidiien. Inmost. Intestine. 

Extinction, n. Exstlnguere, 
to put out. To destroy the life 
of a person or body. Applied 
also metaphorically, as, for in- 1 common rank or run of things, 

stance, to customs. ,. ^^V; Unwonted. Uncommon. Pecu- 


Stn. Extrinsic. Kxternal. ForpiiMi. 
Outside. Alien. Unconnected. Unnlaud. 
Ascititious. Adventitious. 

Ant. Intrinsic. Internal. Vital. Cui- 
nected. Essential, 


ordinem. Beyond or Ijeside the 

Annihilaiion. Obso- 

Ant. Origination. Inception. Planting. 
Birth. Life. Course. Operation. Action. 
Exercise. Prosperity. Continuance. Sur- 

Extinguish, v. tr. See Ex- 

Stn. Abolish. Destroy. Extirpate. 
Eradicate. Kill. Quench. Annihilate. 

Ant. Implant. Replenish. Cherish. 
Promote. Invigorate. I'rupagate. Establish. 
Confirm. Secure. 

Extirpate, v. tr. Ex, out, 
and siirps, a stem. To pull up 
by the stem. See Eradicate. 

Extol, v. tr. Ex and tollere, 
to raise. To raise in laudation. 
To exalt in praise. See Praise. 

Extort, v. tr. Ex and to7-- 
rjuere, to twist or ivring, tortus. 
Com p. Torture. 

Stn. Wring. Express. Squeeze out. 
Wrench. \Vrest. Extract. 

Ant. Coax. Wheedle. Cajole. Cheat. 

Extortionate, adj. Given 
to extorting. See Extort. Also 
applied to the thing which is the 
subject of extortion. 

Stn. Hard. Close-fisted. Severe. Rigo- 
roas. Exacting. Exorbitant. Preposterous. 

Akt. Liberal. Indulgent. Bountiful. 
Reasonable. Fair. Moderate. 

Extract, v. tr. Ex and tra- 
herp, tractus, to draw. 

Stn. Draw. Educe. Take out. Gather. 
Quote. Collect. Extort. 

Am. Replace. Insert. Restore. Im- 
pose, incorporate. Reinsert. 

Extraneous, adj. Lat. ex- 
traneus, extra, without Comp. 


Ant. Wonted. Common. Usual. Or- 
dinary. Frequent. Unremarkable. Unim- 
port ant. 

Extravagant, adj. Extra 
and vafiari, to wander, vagus. 
Conn. Vague. Which wanders 
from or exceeds the boundaries 
of propriety or moderation in 
thought or management. 

Stn. Wild. Monstrous. Preposterous. 
Absurd. Prodigal. Wasteful. Reckless. 

Ant. Sound. Sober. Consistent. Ra- 
tional. Fair. EconomicaL Frugal. Care- 
ful. Regular. Usual. 

Extreme, adj. Extremus. Is 
used of that which is physically 
or mentally the boundary of a 
place or subject, and also of that 
which is morally indicative of 
excess in thought or opinion. 

Sra. Terminal. Final. Remote. 
Farthest. Last. Extravagant. Immode- 

Ant. Initial. Primal. Moderate. Jj. 

Extremity, v. See Extreme. 

Stn. End. Termination. Close. Con- 

Ant. Beginning. Commencement. 0pei> 
mg. Origin. Body. Centre. Bulk. 

Extricate, v. tr. Ex and 
tricce, minute impedivients, as, 
the meshes of a net, or the small 
feathers on the legs of birds, 
which catch their feet. See In- 
^ Extrinsic, adj. Extrinsecus. 
See Extraneous. 

ExTBUDP, V. tr. Ex and 
trudcre, to thrust. 

Si/nonyms and Anionyms. 


Stn. Thrnst out. tject. Expel. 
AST. Intrude. Insert. Introduce. 

Exuberant, adj. Exuberare, 
uber, the udder. To teem. See 

Exudation, n. Ex and sudare, 
to sweat. 

Stn. Ooze. Drip. Percnlation. 

Ant. Absorption. Aridity. Parching. 

Exude. See Exudation. 

Exude, v. int. See Exudation. 
To drip or percolate. 

Exultant, adj. Exultare, from 
salire, to leap (for joy). 

Stk. Kejoicing. Elated. Jubilant. 
Joyous. Triumphant. 

Ant. Mournful. Depressed. Dispirited. 

Exult, v. int. See Exultant. 


Fable n. For, fan, to speak. 
An instructive mode of speech, 
having for its object prudential 
morality, and its vehicle an ima- 
ginary view of nature. Some- 
times used for false ^ representa- 
tion. See Parable, Metaphor, 
Allegory, Proverb, for the diflfer- 
ences between them. 

SvN. Apologue. Fiction. Invention. Fab- 

Ant. History. Narrative, lact. 

Eabric, n. Fabricare, to fabri- 
cate, faber, a ivorker in hard ma- 
terials, a smith, a mrpcnier. It 
has come to be employed also of 
lighter work and manufacture, 
as silk and muslin. 

Stn. Work. Construction. Edifice. Web. 

A.NT. Destruction. Dismantlement. De- 
molition. Frapnent. Wreck. Tatters. 
Ruin. Kags. Shreds. 

Fabricate, v. tr. See Fabric. 
Also used for the work of fic- 
titious composition. 

Stn. Construct. M&'te. Form. Fcrge. 
Invent. Falsify. Misrepresent. 

Ant. Demolish. Tear. Spoil. Ucerate. 
Dismember. Destroy. Narrate. Copy. 
Represent. Portray. Repeat. 

Fabulous, adj. See Fable. 

Stn. Fictitious, incredible. False. Mon» 

Ant. Actual. Real. Historic. Authentic. 
Reasonable. Fair. True. 

Face, h. Fades. See Aspect. 
Facetious, adj. Facetia, ivit. 

Syn. Witty, Funny. Humorous. Droll. 
Jocose. „ 

Ant. Heavy. Matter-of-fact. Dull. Grave. 
Serious. Lugubrious. Sombre. Saturnine. 

Facile, adj. Facilis. Easy to 
perform, and also easy to manage 
or influence. 

Stn. Docile. Tractable. Manageable. In- 
dulgent. Weak. Irresolute. Characterless. 
Pliable. . . 

Ant. Sturdy. Obstinate. Determined 
Resolute. Pig-headed. Crusty. Inflexible. 
Self-willed. Independent. Self-reliant. 

Facilitate, v. tr. See Facile 
and Expedite. 
Facility, n. See Facile, 

SvN. Ease. Address. Readiness. Quick- 
ness. Adroitness. 

Ant. Labour. Effort. Awkwardness. 

Facinorous, adj. Facinus, oris, 
an atrocity. See Atrocious. 

Fact, n. Facer e, fact its, to do. 
A thing done. 

Stn. Trath. Deed. Occurrence. Circimi- 
stance. Event. Reality. 

Ant. Fiction. Supposition. Falsehood. 
Unreality. Lie. Delusion. Chimera. In- 
vention. Romance. 

Faction, w. Factio, facere, to 
do a work. A party formed for 
working out its own interests 
as a section of the community. 
See Cabal. 

Factious, adj. Given to faction 
or opposition. 

Stn. Oppositious. Exceptions. Litigious. 
Crusty. MalcoiilPiit. Ad\•l■r^a^lve. 

Ant. Agreoable. Genial. Complaisant. 
Amenable. Ixiyal. Public-spirited. Har- 
monious. Co-op<Tativo. Auxiliary. Sym- 

S'jnoiujms and Anfoni/ms. 

FACTiTiors, adj. See Factious. 
Formed by art, and referred to 
an ai*titicial standard. 

Syx. Artificial. Affected. Euphuistic. 
Conventional. Cramped. Finical. Asciti- 
tioii?. Spurious. 

Ant. Natural. Unaffected. Genial. Truth- 
ful. Genuine. Pure. 

Faculty, v. Facultas, facere, 
to do. A natural power which 
enables tis to do a thing. <S'ee 
Capability. Used technically of 
a branch of science or art. 

Facukditt, n. Facundus, elo- 
quent. See Eloquence. 

Fade, v. int. Old Eng. Vacle, 
from Lat. Vadere, to fjo. 

.SvK. Fall. Fail. Decline. Sink. Droop. 
Dwindle. Vanish. Change. Pale. Bleach. 
Set. Etiolate. 

Ant. Kise. Increase. Grow. Bloom. 
Flourish. Abide. Stand. Last. Endure. 

Fading, Faded, 2^("'i- ^^^ 

Fag, ?'. Sax. firge, uvaA: 

Syn. Work. Toil. Slave. Drudge. 
Ant. Bask. Idle. Lounge. Dawdle. 


Fail, fallere, to decline or fail. 
Used actively with of or in. 

S\-x. Fall. Miss. Trip. Lose. 
Ant. Succeed. Exceed. Surpass. Excel. 
Achieve. Abound. Yield. 

Faen, ar(/. and «(/v. SRX.fagen, 
fjind. See Glad and Gladly. 

Faint. Old Fr., from Lat. 
fin(j< re, to feign. Feigning so as 
to escape work, thence weary 
even after work performed. Fr. 
ac ftrindre. Also nsed of the ob- 
jects which have been faintly 
treated, as faint writing, or which 
have become faint by time or 
other causes. 

Si-N. Weak. Languid. Fatigued. Un- 
energeiic. Timid. Irresolute. Obscure. 
Dim. Pale. Faded. Inconspicuous. 

Ant. Strong. Vigfirous. Energitic. 
Fresh. Daring. Resolute. Prominent, 
ilarkei Conspicucus. Glaring. 


F Am, adj. Sax.fafner. 

SvN. Open. Cl"ar. Spotless. Unbltnri- 
ishcd. Serene. Beautiful. Just. Honour- 
able. Equitable. 

Akt. Lowering. Dull. Foul. Iiis. 
figured. Ugly. Unfair. Dishonourablcs 

Fairly, adv. See Fair. 

Fairness, n. See Fair. 

Faith, w. Lat.j^c^es. *S'ee Be- 

Faithful, adj. See Faith. 

Stn. True. Firm. Attached. Loyal. 
Accurate. Close. Consistent. Correspon • 
dent. Exact. Equivalent. 

Ant. False. Fickle. Capricious. Wa- 
vering. Inaccurate. Untrue. Faithless. 

Falcation, «., Falcitoem, 

adj. FuLc, a reaping-hook. See 
Fall, v. int. Sax. faUan. 

Syn. Drop. Descend. Decline. Gravi- 
tate. Sink. Lapse. 

Ant. Kise. Ascend. Soar. Mount. 
Climb. Recover. 

Fallacy, «. Fallacia, fallere, 
to deceive. A logical error. Used 
also for error of reasoning or 
conception generally. 

Syn. Sophistry. Error. Blunder. Mis- 
conception. Bugbear. Fiction. Delusioti. 

Ant. Truth. Verity. Fact. Logic, 
Argument. .Soundness. Proof. Postulate. 

Fallible, adj. See Fallacy. 

Syn. Erring. Uncertain. Weak. Ig- 

Akt. Infallible. Certain. Omniscient 

Fallow, adj. Sax. . Conn 
with the Lat. jlavus. Supposed 
to represent the yellow-brownish 
colour of some lands when turned 
up by the plough. Ploughed, 
but not sown. Used metaphori- 

Syn. Quiescent. Idle. UnctiJtivated 
Unprwiuctive. Untilled. 

Ant. Cultivated. Worked. Tilled. Sown. 
Productive. Operative. I'rolific. fruitful 


Fa:.rk, or/y. 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 
Fallere,/alsi(s, to 


Sra. Untnie. Erroneous. Fallacious. 
SophLstical. Spurious. Dwoptive. Dls- 
honuurablp. Faithless. 

AsT. True. Correct. Sound. Conclu- 
sive. Auihcn:ic. Real. Genuine. Candid. 
Honourable. Faithful. 

Falsehood, v. ^ee False. 

Syx. Untruth. Error. Fallary. So- 
phistry, deception. Forgery. Lie. Cheat, 

Ant. Tiuth. Correctness. Verity. Fact. 
Authenticity. Genuineness. Honesty. 
Honour. Keality. 

Falsity, v. tr. See False. 

Si^x. Mistake. Misinterpret. Misre- 
present. Belie. Betray. Garble. Cook. 

AxT. Verify. Correct. Rectify. Certify. 
Check. Justify. Exhibit. Publicate. Ex- 
pose. Declare. 

Falter, v. int. Si)elt also 
Faulter. See False. 

Si-K. Halt. Hesitate. Hobble. Slip. 
Dubitate. Stammer. Demur. Flinch. 

Ant. Proceed. Run. Speed. Flow. 
Discourse. Determine. Persevere. Resolve. 

Fame, k-. Fuma. Eeport, 
both good and ill, but now used 
of lionoural)le reuo-wii, except 
when qualified V)y some addi- 
tional expression. It is also used 
of Eeport, ii-respective of per- 

Srx. Report. Rumour. Bruit. News. 
Tidings, llenown. Glory. Honour. Lau- 
rels. Celebrity. 

Akt. Silence. Suppression. Hush. Dis- 
grace. Dishonour. Disrepute. 

Familiar, aflj. Familia, the 
household, indudinr] the famuli, or 
servanti'. Said of things and 

Svx. Household. Common. Every-day. 
Accustoni'-d. Conversant. Intimate. 

Ant. Uncommoru R;tre. Strange. E.k- 
traordinary. Unaccustomed. Unacquainted. 
New. Inconversant. Unfamiliar. 

Family, n. See Familiar. 
Used scientifically as a metaphor 
for class and order. 

Famous, adj. See Fame. 

Srx. Renowned. Glorious. Celebrated. 

A\-t. Inclorious. Unknown. Obscure. 
Unrenownt-d. Unsung. 

Fan, V. tr. Lat. vannus, u-in- 
noiving fan. Used metaphori- 
cally for excite, from fanning a 
jlame. See Allay. 

Fanatic, ». See Fanaticism. 

.Sys. Euihusiast. Bigot. 

,\sT. Sceptic. Unbeliever. Cynic. 

Fanatical, adj. See Fanati- 

Fanaticism, v. Fanaticuf, 
fa H urn ,ati mpk. Excitement, as 
by some deity into a state of 

Stx. Frenzy. Enthusiasm. Supersti- 
tion. Bigotry. 

An-t. Indifference. Latitudinarianism. 
Disbelief. I'rofiiiiity. Disregard. Scepti- 
cism. Coldness. Cynicism. 

Fanciful, adj. (pavraala, 
phantasy. Fancy. 

Sr>r. Grotesque. Cliimerical. Unreal. 
Imaginary. Quaint. Eccentric. Freakish. 
Humoursome. Erroneous. Capricious. 
Whimsici\l. Erratic. Absurd. Fitful. 

Ant. Natural. Literal. Regular. Real. 
Sfibir. Ordinary. Truthful. Accurate. 
Correct. Orderly. Calculable. 

Fancy, n. See Fanciful. A 
lighter form of the imagination, 
or the object of it. Used also of 
cases in which the imagination 
determines or stimulates a pre- 

Syn. Thought. Belief. Idea. Supposi- 
tion. Imagination. Caprice. Predilection. 

Ant. Object. Subject. Fact Reality. 
Order. Law. Truth. System. Verity. 
Aversion. Horror. 

Fantastic, atlj. See Fanciful. 

Fantasy, n. See Fancy. 

Fab. Sax. See Distant. 

Farcical. Forcire, to sfuf. 
A play stuffed full of nonsense 
or ludicrous incident is a Farce. 

Syn. Ludicrous. Comic. Funny. Non- 
s nsiral. Uroll. Pantomimic. 

.\NT. Grave. Serious. Solemn. Dismal 
Tragical. Funereal. Ghasltj'. 

Si/nonijms and Antoni/ms. 

Fare, v. Faire, t^ do. 

.Sv\. [).). Li vs. Feed. Subsist. Sp'-i'd. 
Ant. Toil. Fast. Fail. Droop, tjiiik. 
Drop. Faiut. Halt. Falter. 

Fare, «. See Fare, v. Meaus 
for performing the journey of 
life generall}^ or any journey in 

Six. Provision. Passage-money. 
Ant. Starvation. Famine. Abstinence. 
Pauperism. Mendicity. 

Fascinate, v. tr. Lat. fasci- 

nare. Gr. ^aaKaiveiv, to inflitence 
hy magical arts. ISee Bewi'tcli. 

Fascination, n. Sue Fasci- 

Fashion, n. ] 

facere, to make. 

~ Shape. 




faqon, Lat. 

Style. Ap- 



SrN. Form, 
pearance. Character. 
Mode. Custom. 

Ant. Pei-aon. Work. Dress. Speech. 
Formlessness. Shapelessness. Deranne- 
raeut. p:ccentricity. Strangeness. Out- 

Fast, ad). Sax. 

It is hard to see how this word 
could have acquired the meaning 
of rapid, in addition to or j 
sure. The root idea seems to 
have been permanence or power 
shown both in rest and motion, 
Comp. Eestive, which means, 
fa.-st, given to resting, and se- 
condly, to restlessness. 

Syn. Firm. Secure. Rapid. Accele- 

Ant. Loose. Insecure. Slow. Tardy. 

Fasten, v. tr. See Fast. 

SvN. Secure. Hold. Compact. Grapple. 
AtUicn. Fix. 

Axt. Undo. Loose. Sever. Relax. 
Detach. Remove. Unfasten. 

Fastidious, adj. F<istidiion, 
a viitigttnl disgufit or disfasf'^ 
Squeamishness ; hence diflSculty 
to please on the grour,:! of over- 

SvN. Critical. Dver-nice. Over-refined. 
Censorious. Pu'_:tilious. Squeamish 

Fat, (('(/. Sax. Applied to 
the quality of the constitution ot 
animals and of the soil. 

SvN. Corpulent. Flesh.y. Brawny. 
Pursy. Rich. Luxuriant. Fertile. Unctuous. 
Obese. Oleaginous. 

Ant. Lean. Slender. Attenuated. Ema- 
ciated. Barren. Poor. Scant. Marrow- 
less. Exsanguineous. Anatomical. 

Fatal, adj. Fatum, fate or 
death. Ending in, or tending ta 

Stn. Deadly. Destructive. Mortal. Lethal. 

Ast. IJeneficial. Wholesome. Nutri- 
tious. Vitalizing. Silubrious. Restora- 
tive. Slight. Superficial. Harmless. 

Fate, n. See Fatal. 

Syn. Necessity. Destiny. Lot. End. 

Ant. Will. Choice. Decision. Free- 
dom, independence. 

Fathom, v. tr. Sax. fa Ihem, 
evibrace. As much as a man can 
measure with his arms extended 
at right angles to his body, about 
six feet. Hence to measure. 

Syn. Gauge. Pierce. Measure. Sound. 

Ant. Survey. Glance. Scan. Overlook, 
Miss. Graze. 'Skim. 

Fathomless, adj. See Fa- 

SrN. Bottomless. Profound. Abysmal. 
Ant. Superficial. Shallow. Skin-deep. 

Fatigue, n. Lat. fatigare, 
ivom.f(tiscor,to he weary. 

SvN. Weariness. Exhaustion. Lassi- 

Ant. Freshness. Vigour. Activity 

Fatigue, v. See noun. 

Syn Harass. Weary. Tire. Jad». 
Ant. Inspirit. Refresh. Animate. 




r.vN. Folly. 

Ant. Wisdom, 


Imbecility. Idiotcy. In- 

Senss. Soundness. Di» 


US, adj. 

See Fatuity. 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

Fault, n. Failure, to deceive, 
stumble, or slip. Used of what is 
•wrong or deficient in matters of 
construction, arrangement, cha- 
racter, conduct, statement, rea- 
soning, and behef. 

Si'K. Defect. Error. Omission. Blem- 
ish. Want. Drawback. 

Ant. Sufficiency. Conectness. Com- 
pleteness. Perfection. 

Faultless, adj. ISee Fault. 

Sin. Complete. Perfect. Correct. Ac- 

Ant. Incomplete. Imperfect. Incorrect. 
Inaccurate. Defective. Corrupt. Erroneous. 

Faulty, adj. See Fault. 

Favouk, n. Favor, favere, to 

SvN. Permission. Grace. Concession. 
Predilection. Gift. Condescension. Pre- 
ference Boon. Countenance. Patronage. 

Ant. Refusal. Denial. Prohibition. 
Disfavour. Withdrawal. Withholding. 
Fawn. Disapproval. Injury. Discountenance. 

Favourable, adj. See Favour. 

SvN. Permissive. Indulgent. Propi- 
tious. Concessive. Partial. Fond. Libe- 

Ant. Reluctant. Unpropitious. Un- 
favourable. Impartial. 

Favouritism, n. See Favoiu-- 

Stn. Partiality. Invidjousness. 
Ant. Odium. Prejudice. Antipathy. 

Fawn, v. hd. Sax. Conn, 
with Fain. Pretend, followed 
by the prep. Upon. 

Sin. Flatter. Wheedle. Cajole. Cringe. 
Glaver. Slaver. 

Ant. Insult. Deride. Satirize. Cen- 
sure. Kebulie. Reprimand. Defy. Dare. 

Fealty, «. See Fidelity. 
Fear, n. Sax.fiir. 

Stn. Apprehension. Solicitude Alarm, 
fright. Dread. Terror. Misgiving. 
Horror. Timidity. Awe. 

Ant. Assurance. Confidence. Courage. 
Fearlessness. Trust. Boldness. 

Fearful, adj. S>'e Fear. In- 
fluenced by fear, and inspiring 
f'.'iir : tlie former is l)ecoming ob- 
solete. I 

Syk. Timid. Cautious. Sbrln'.cinft 

Hesitating. Terrible. Awful. Horril>lc, 

Ant. Bold. Venturesome. Confident, 
Audacious. Consolatory. Inspiriting. As- 
suring. Alluring. Attractive. Hopeful. 

Fearless, adj. See Fear and 

Feasible, adj. Facere, to do. 
Sts. Possible, ilanageable. Contrlv- 
able. Permissible. 

Ant. Impossible. Unallowable. 

Feat, 7^. Facere, factum. Em- 
phatically a thing done. See 

Featly, adv. See Feat. 

SrN. Neatly. Cleverly. Dexterously. 

Ant. Clumsily. Hardly. Bunglinglj-. 

Feature, n. Factura, facere, 
a makirifi or formation. "Some- 
thing which belongs to a whole 
as a part and indication, and goes 
to make it ujd. 

SvN. Component. Element. Cliaracter- 
istic. Indication. Portion. Marli. Linea- 
ment. Sign. 

Ant. ^Vhole. System. Countenance. 
Case. Arrangement. (Here the Antonym 
is the Correlative.) Misindication. Falsifi- 
cation. Excrescence. Blind. Mask. Dis- 

Federation, n. See Con- 

Feeble, adj. Old Eng. Conn, 
with febilis, fere, to lueep. Piti- 
able on accoimt of wretched- 
ness, and thence wretched or 
weak. Applied to ]iei'sons, 
efforts, and the results of efforts. 

Stn. Wretched. ^Veak. Poor. Fainu 
Infirm. Incomplete. Vain. Fruitless. 
Scanty. Pitiable. 

Ant. Strong. Robust. Active. Effec- 
tive. Successful. Abundant. 

Feeling, n. Feel. Sax. flan, 
to touch. Used both of physical 
sensation and emotion of mind. 

Syn. Touch. Sensation. Contact. Emo- 
tion. Sentiment. Passion. Sensitiveness. 

Art. Insensibility. Callousness. Im- 
perturbability. Inexcitibility. Coldness, 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 

Feign, v. tr. TPr. feindre, Lat. 
jingere. See Pretend. 

Feint, n. See Feign and Pre- 

Felicitate, v. tr. Felix, 
fortunate. To sympathize on 
the score of good fortune. See 

Felicitous, adj. See Felici- 

Stn. Happy. Timely. Successful. Op- 
portune. Joyous. 

Ant. Unfortunate. Unhappy. Un- 
timely. Unsuccessful. Disastrous. Inop- 
jiortune. Sad. 

Felicity, n. See Felicitous. 
Fell, adj. Celtic, /«?. 

Stn. Cruel. Barbarous. Inhuman. 
Savage. Bloody. Direful. Truculent. 

Ai."T. Generous. Chivalrous. Humane. 
Lenient. Propitious. 

Fell, V. ^r. Sax.ftUan. Conn, 
with Fall. To cut down, as a 
tree, or a forest. 

Snj. Cut. Level. Prostrate. Demolish. 
Subvert. AVaste. Bare. 

Ant. Plant. Erect. Support. Propa- 
gate. Stock. Upraise. Pvear. 

Fellow, n, Saxon. Conn, 
with Follow. One who follows 

Stn. Companion. Adherent. Member. 
Match. Tally. Correlative. Partner. 
Krlend, Associate. 

Ant. Foe. Opponent. Stranger. Mis- 
match. Opposite. Antagonist. 

Fellowship, «. See Fellow. 

Stn. Association. Membership. Com- 
pany. Partnership. Sociality. 

Ant. Severance. Disconnection. Dis- 

Felonious, adj. Of the nature 
of felony. Feh, Law Lat. for 
felon. Felony is, in law, distin- 
guished specifically from misde- 
meanour, but has a broader 
sense popularly. See Criminal. 

Feminine, adj. Femina, a 
vmmari. Womanly. 


Syn. Dehcate. Womanly. Tender 
Modest. Soft. 

Ant. Bobust. Manly. Indelicate. Rud«k 
Ptough. Unlemiuine. 

Fence, v. tr. Fendere, to fend. 
Comp. Defence. Has the double 
sense of fencing in and fencing 

SvN. Circumscribe. Enclose. Protect. 
Elude. Parry. Stave. 

Ant. Open. Disenclose. Catch. Receive. 

Ferine, adj., Ferity, n. Fera, 
a wild beast. See Savage. 

Ferment, V. int. Fervimcntum, 
fermentum, ivova. fervere , to he hot, 
or seethe. Used metaphorically 
of feelings and designs. 

Stn. Seethe. Concoct. Brew. Warm- 
Chafe. Effervesce. Fester. Rankle. 

Ant. Damp. Cool. Dissipate. Subside. 
Disperse. Evaporate. Heal. 

Ferocity, n. Ferox, ferocious. 
See Fierceness. 

Fertile, adj. Fertilis, from 
ferre, to bear or produce. Used 
of natural productiveness and 
moral causativeness, also of the 
power of imagination and inven- 

Stn. Rich. Luxuriant. Productive. 
Exuberant. Causative. Conducive. Preg- 
nant. Fraught. Prolific. Ingenious. In- 

Ant. Poor. Sterile. Barren. Unpro« 
uuctive. Ineffective. Inconducive. Fruit- 
less. Inoperative. Uninventive. Unima- 

Fervour, «. See Ferment 
and Ardoui-. 

Fester, v. int. See Ferment. 

Festive, adj. Festivus,festum, 
a feast or holidai/. 

Syn. Convivial, jovial. Gay. Merry. 

Ant. Solitary. Deserted. Ascetic. 

Festivity, n. See Festive. 
Fetch, v. tr. Fetian. To 
bring. See Bring. 
Fetid, mlj, F tidus. Sl'.nk- 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


Syn-. Stinking. Corrupt. Foul. 
AxT. Inodorous. Fresh. I'erfumed. 
Scented. Balmy 

Fettee, v. tr. Conn, with 
Feet, as manacle with manus, the 
h Old. 

Svs. Manacle. Restrain. Hinder. Clog. 
Impede. Shackle. 

Ant. Free. Liberate. Expedite. Ac- 

Feud, ??. Sax. Conn, with 
Foe and Fiend. An enmity, but 
Especially of a domestic or social 
character, and perp(;tiiated. 

Syn. Enmity Antipathy. Animosity. 
Quarrel. Strife. Bitterness. Dissension. 

Ant. Fiiendliness. Sympathy. Con- 
geniality. Clanship. Pacification. Recon- 
ciliation. Sociality. Neighbourliness. 

Fever, n. Febris. Used me- 

Syn. Heat. Ardour. Fervour. Broil. 
Flush. Ferment. Passion. 

Ant. Coolness. Composure. Frigidity. 
Iciness. Indifference. 

Few. Sax./ea, Scand. word, 
conn, with Lat. pauciis. 

SvN. Scant. Rare. Lacking. 

Ant, Many. Abundant. Numerous. 

Fibre, n. Fr. fhre, Lat. fibra. 
Used metaphorically for strength. 

Syn. Strength. Sinews. Thews. Tough- 

Ant. Laxity. Debility. Flabbiness. 

Fickle, adj. Sax. ficol. Light 
of touch; crafty. The mobility 
of the word survives the crafti- 
ness which produced it; the 
liglithandedness having died out 
of the expression. 

SvN. Fanciful. Fitful. Capricious. 
Irresolute. Changeable. Vacillaiing. Mu- 
table. Unreliable. Veering. Shifting. 

Ant. Sober. Orderly. Reliable. Well- 
regulated. Calculable. Irustworthy. Steady. 

Fiction, n. Flncjere, fictus, to 
J vim. 

S^-N. Invention. Fabrication. Creation. 
Figment. Fable. 

Ant. Fact. Truth. Verity. Reality. 

Fictitious, adj. See Fiction. 

Supposititious. Bpurlons 
Historical. Genuine 

Syn. Unreal. 

Ant. Real. True. 
Authentic. Veritable. 

Fidelity, n. Fidelis, faithful, 
fides, faith. Expresses regard to 
an object of allegiance, which is 
fealty ; and of imitation or re- 
production, which is accuracy. 

Si-N. Fealty. Attachment. Truthfulness. 
AUegiauce. Accuracy. Closeness. Exact- 

Ant. Treachery. Disloyalty. Disaffec- 
tion. Untruthfulness. Inaccuracy. Inex- 
actness. Infidelity. 

Field, «. Sax. f eld. Ground 
that has been felled or cleared 
of timber for cultivation. The 
word is used metaphorically, as 
a space or basis of delineation, 
or a ground of thought or action. 

Sys. Ground. Scope. Province. Arena. 
Scene. Opportunity. Room. 

Ant. (Jircumscription. Constraint. Ex- 
clusion. Debarment. Interdiction. 

Fiendish, adj. Fiend. Sax. 
fian, to hate. See Angelic. 
Fierce, adj. Lat. /eras. 

Sra. Wild. Savage. Violent. Raging. 

Ant. Mild. Tame. Docile. Harmless. 
Calm. Gentle. 

Fierceness, ??. See Fierce. 
Fiery, adj. Fire. Sax. fyr. 
Conn. Avith Gr. nvp fire. 

Syn. Hot. Vehement. Ardent. Fer- 
vent. Fierce. Passionate. Irascible 
Choleric. Excited. Enkindled. 

Ant. Cold. Icy. Indifferent. Phleg- 
matic. Passionless. Unimpassioned. MiM 
Quenched. Extinguished. Tame. 

Fight, n. Sax.feoht. 

Syn. Battle. Contention. Struggle. 
Ant. Pacification. Reconciliation. 

FiGCR.^TIVE, adj. Figura, a 
figure. In the sense of a figuro 
"ojf speech, a metaphorical form 
of words. 

Syn. Metaphorical. Tropical. Poetical 

Ant. Literal. Prosaic. UnpoetlcaL Un- 

Figure, n. Sse FigurativQ 

Sijnomjms and Antonyms. 


Technically, the delineation of 
an aritlunetical symbol or nu- 

Syn. Aspect. Condition. Appearance. 
Form. Symbol. Metaphor. Delineation. 

Ant. Misrepresentation. Deformity. 

Filch, ■;;. tr. Goth, filhan, to 
hide or bury. To take furtively. 
.See Cabbage. 

File, v. Sax. To use the 
file or rasp for the i^urpose of 
smoothing ; hence, to improve 
by imparting a polish and finish. 
To file, in the sense of foul, as in 
the word defile, is also Saxon, 
but of different etymology. To 
file, as soldiers do, is the Latin 
filiim, a thread. ■ To move off in 
a line or series. 

Stn. Rasp. Polish. Smooth. Finish. 
Perfect. Improve. Refine. 

Ant. Roughen. Jag. Denticulate. 
Acuminate. Barb. Cusp. Notch. 

Filiation, n. See Affiliation. 

Fill. Sax. fyllan, act. and 

Syk. Replenish. Supply. Satisfy. 
Gorge. Glut. Occupy. Appoint. Rise. 
Swell. Grow. E.xpand. Increase. 

Ant. Kxhaust. Deprive. Drain. Dis- 
satisfy. Stint. Vacate. Misappoint. Sub- 
side. Shrink. Ebb. Evaporate. Diminish, 

Filter, v. tr. and int. Lat. 
JUtrimi, or fdtrum,fdt, a woollen 
doth used as a strainer. 

Stn. Strain. Percolate. Refine. Distil. 
Ooze. Exude. Leak. Depurate. Defecate. 

Ant. Befoul. Muddle. Disturb. Thicken. 

Filth, n. Sax. Conn, with 
Foul and File, as in Defile. 

Filthy, adj. See Filth. 

Stn. Dirty. Nasty. Foul. 
Ant. Pure. Sweet. Clean. 

Filtration, n. See Filter. 
Fimbriated, adj. Fimbria, a 

Stn. Fringed, lasselled. Fllame toat 
Ant. Bound. Hemmed. Unft.ngea. 

Final, adj. Finis, the end. 

Stn. Terminal. Conclusive. Definitive- 
Developed. Ultimate. 

Ant. Initiative. Open. Unconcluded 
Progressive. Continuous. Current. In. 
cipient. Inaugural. Inchoate. Rudi 
mentaL Nascent. 

Finality, «. See Final. 

Find, v. tr. Sax. 

Stn. Meet. Confront Perceive. Dis- 
cover. Furnish. Invent. 

Ant. Miss. Elude. Overlook. Lose 
Withhold. Withdraw. Miscontrive. 

Fine, adj. A Northern word ; 
but conn, with the Lat. Jin is. 
Having the fineness of finish ; 
but applied from that point 
very widely, so as to express 
artistic, moral, social, and intel- 
lectual refinement. The term is 
also used disparagingly, in the 
sense of over-fine, or affecting 
undue fineness. 

Stn. Thin. Minute. Smooth. Filmy 
Gauzy. Keen. Artistic. Choice. Finished 
High. Grand. Noble. Sensitive. Refined 
Generous. Honourable. Pretentious. Os- 
tentatious. Presumptuous. Nice. Casuisj- 
tical. Subtle. 

Ant. Coarse. Large. Rough. Blunt 
Rude. Unfinished. Mean. Petty. Il- 
liberal. Unimposing. Paltry. Modest 
Unaffected. Affable. Categorical. Plain- 
spoken. Unanalytical. Unreflective. In- 

Finery, n. See Fine. Used 
disparagingly of over-ornamenta- 
tion in dress or furniture. 

Syn. Over-ornament. Tawdriness. Tinsel. 
G«wgaw. Trinkets. Trash. Dressiness. 

.Ant. Ornameut. Dress. Decoration. 
Adornment. Chastity. Simplicity. So- 

Finical, adj. See Fine. Af- 
fecting refinement on a small 
scale and unsuccessfully. 

Syn. Affected. Dallying. Factitious. 

Ant. Unaffected. Effective. ' vactiial. 
Energetic. Real. Genuine. Nalurai. 
Or.tspokeu. Blunt. Coarse. Riid". 


Finish, v. tr. and int. 
To bring to an end. 

Stn. Complete. Conclude. 
End. Shape. Terminate. 

Ant. ]5ef;in. Commence. Start. Un 
dertake. Fail. Miscontrive. Mismanage 
Botch. JIur. 

Finished, adj. 

Stn. Artistic. Perfect. High. Refined. 
Ant. Inartistic. Incomplete. Rude. 
Poor. Coarse. Unfinibhed. 

Finite, adj. See Finish. 

Syn. Limited. Bounded. Restricted. 
Ant. Unlimited. Unbounded. Infinite, 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 



See Finish. 

FiRB, n. See Fiery. Used 

Firm, adj. Firmus. Used 
physically and morally. 

Stn. Fast. Secure. Strong. Established. 
Rooted. Immovable. Resolute. Deter- 
mined. Fixed Attached. 

Ant. Loose. Insecure. WeaK. Ill- 
rooted. Tottering. Vacillating. Irresolute. 
Ductile. Exorable. Indulgent. Wavering. 
Disaffected. Unreliable. 

First, ordinal adj. Sax. Conn, 
with For, Forward, and pro, a,s 
in the word Promote. _ It indi- 
cates primacy of position, rank, 
and importance. 

Syn. Leading. Foi»most. Principal. 
Highest. Chief. Earliest. Onmost. 

Ant. Subsequent. Secondary. Subor- 
dinate. Subservient. Lowest. Unim- 
portant. Last. Hindmost. 

Fit, adj. Comp. Featly. Made 
with adaptation, but as an ad- 
jective, rather used of moral than 
material adaptation, except when 
followed by /or. 

Stn. Right. Decent. Fitting. Adapted. 
Seemly. Appropriate. Suitable. Prepared. 
Adequate. Calculated. Contrived. Ex- 
pedient. Proper. Ripe. 

Ant. Awkward. Ungainly. MisfitliiiR. 
Ill-suiled. Unseemly. Inappropriate. Un- 
suitable. Unprepared. Inadequate. Mis- 
calculated. Miscontrived. Inexpedient. 
Improper. Unfit. 

Fitful, adj. Not to be con- 
founded with Fit, as above. Fit, 
the noun, is connected with 

Fight. Struggle, ConvulsiTm. 
So, Fitful is showing itself m de- 
sultory effort. 

Stn. Capricious. Desultory. Fanciful. 
Unequal. Irregular. 

Ant. Regular. Equable. Systematic 
Orderly. Calculable. 

Fitness, n. See Fit. 

Fitting, adj. See Fit. 

Fix, v. tr. Figere, jixvs. Usetl 
physically and metaphysically, 
as, to fix in the memory. 

Syn. Place. Settle. Locate. Plant. 
Root. Establish. Secure. Determine. De- 

Ant. Displace. Unsettle. Disarrange. 
Remove. Uproot. Transfer. Transplant. 
Disestablish. Weaken. SJiake. Reverse. 
Disturb. Change. Unfix. 

Flaccid, adj. Lat. jlaccidus, 
another form oiflaccus, drooping. 
Syn. Flabby. Limber. Lax. Tabid. 
I Ant. Firm. Muscular. Braced. Plump. 
Chubby. Brawny. 

Flag, v. int. See Flaccid. To 
grow weary; become flaccid in 
the muscles, and generally to 

Stn. Droop. Fine. Weary. Tire. Give 
in. Faint. Succumb. 

Ant. Hold. Freshen. Flourish. Per- 
severe. Battle. Struggle. Persist. Recruit. 

Flagitious, adj. Flagitium, 
a disgraceful act. 

Stn. Faciiiorous. Atrocious. Enormous. 
Monstrous. Disgraceful. Nefarious. Scan- 
dalous. Flagrant. Heinous. Aggravate. 

Ant. Noble. Creditable. Honourable. 
Meritorious. Distinguished. Pardonable. 
Justifiable. Excusable. Extenuated. 

Flagrant, adj. Flagrare, to 
hum. Comp. Conflagration. Said 
of acts done in the heat ot exces- 
sive passion, which is also tlte 
derivation of flagitious. See Fla- 

Flame, v. Flamma. Used 
metaphorically. See Fire. 

Flaming, adj. See Flame. 


adj. Flare, from 

ISijnonyms and Anioui/ms. 


flare, to lloiD into a jhime : or to 
blow as a flame or furnace. 
Comp. Blast. Used metaphori- 
cally of undue conspicuousness. 

iSyn. Flaming. Glaring. Conspicuous. 
Gaudy. Bright. Over-coloured. Flaunting. 

Akt. Toned. Subdued. Harmonized. 
Hull. Dim. Dowdy. Dingy. Keutral. 

Flashy, adj. From Flash, 
which was from Fr. fleche a feu, 
a lighted anvM, shot from the 
walls, to light up the doings of 
the besieging party. See Flaring. 

Flat, adj. Comp. Germ. ^>?a^, 
and Gr. nXarvs. Used meta- 

Stn. DuU. Tame. Insipid. Vapid. 

Ant. Exciting. Animated. Interesting. 
Thrilling. Sensational. 

Flatter, v. tr. Conn, with 
Flat. To make flat. To smoothe 

Stn. See Fawn. 

Flatterer, n. See Flatter. 
Flaunt, v. tr. and int. Celtic. 

Syn. Boast. Vaunt. Flutter. Flounce. 
Display. Flourish. Parade. Figure. 

Ant. Suppress. Oinceal. Retire. Re- 
cede. Skulk. Hide. Shrivel. Collapse. 

Flavour, n. Der. uncertain. 
Fragare, for flacjrare, to emit a 
smell or fragrance. Apphed 
sometimes to objects of smell, 
but commonly to those of taste. 

Stn. Taste. Savour. Smack. Odour. 
Ant. Insipidity. Tastelessness. Mawk- 
tahness. Inodourousness. Scentlessness. 

Flaw, n. Sax. floh, fragment 
or chip. See Blemish. 

Flee, v. int. Sax. fleon. See 
Escape. Act. and netd. 

Fleece, v. tr. Sax. flys. Used 
analogously for strip. 

Stn. Strip. Despoil. Shear. ^^ 

Akt. Invest. Endow Endua 

Fleet, adj. See Fleet and 

Fleeting, adj. See Fleet and 

Fleshy, adj. Sax. Jldsc, lard. 
Fat. See Fat. 

Flexible, adj. Hectere, to 
lend, flexns. Easily bent. Used 
metaphorically of character. 

Stn. Pliant. Lithe. Supple. Elastic. 
Easy. Indulgent. Ductile. 

Ant. Tough. Rigid. Inelastic. In 
flexible. Hard. Inexorable. 

Flexion, n. See Flexible and 

Flexure, n. See Flexion. 

Flicker, v. int. Sax. Conn, 
with Fly, Flutter, and Fledge. 

Stn. Flutter. Quiver. Bicker. Falter, 

Waver. Glimmer. Shimmer. Scintillate. 

Ant. Stream. Blaze. Gleam. Shine 

Flight, «. See Flee. 

Stn. Volitation. Departure. Escape. 
Evasion. Disappearance. 

Ant. Recurrence. Return. Reappear- 
ance. Perching. Alighting. Repose. 

Flighty, adj. See Flight and 

Flimsy, adj. Supposed to be 
conn, with Limp. So being ori- 
ginally limpsy. Used meta- 
phorically for that kind of pre- 
text which is so thin that it may 
be seen through. 

Syn. Gauzy. Poor. Thin. Transparent. 
Trifling. Trivial. Puerile. Inane. 

Ant. Solid. Sound. Irrefragable. Sub- 
stantial. Cogent. 

Flinch, v. int. Probably cor- 
rupt, from Blench. 

Stn. Blench. Swerve. Wince. RecoiL 
Ant. Dare. Face. Bear. Meet. En- 

Fling, v. tr. Allied to fligere. 
To strike or cast. 

Stn. Cast. Throw. Emit. Hurl 

Ant. Snatch. Grasp. Hold. Keeji 

Retain. Arrest. 

K 2 

Synonyms and Antomjms. 


Flippant, aJy. From ./Z/>, as | -See Fliumt. 
to flip about a whip. Dealing 
with words easily, playfully, and 
thoughtlessly, commonly with 
satire or disrespect intermixed. 

Svs. Pert. Saucy. Malapert. 

Ant. Flattering. Servile. Obsequious. 
Accurate. Considerate. DeferentiaL Com- 
plimentary. Respectful. 

Flit, v. int. Conn, with Flee, 
Flutter, and Fleet. See Flutter. 

Flitting, adj. See Flutter. 

Float, v. int. Sax. fleotan. 
Used metaphorically. 

Syn. Swim. Spread. Prevail. 
Ant. Sink. Drown. Die. Vanish. 

Flock, v. Sax. flocc, a flock of 
sh'-ep ; floccus, wool Comp. Flake, 
a piece of knotted wool. 

SvN. Herd. Congregate. Assemble. 
Crowd. ^ ^ „ 

Ant. Disperse. Scatter. Separate. Se- 

Flock, n. See Flock, verb. 

Flow, v. int. Lat. fluere. 

Srx. Stream. Issue. Progress, elide. 
Course. Career. Run. . 

Akt. Halt. Stick. Stickle. Stop. Hesi- 
tate. Fail. Stint. Beat Recoil. Regur- 
gitate. Ebb. 

Flower,^?. Flos,floris. Used 

Stn. Perfection. Acme. Pride. Orna- 
ment. Gem. Cream. 

Ant. Disappointment. Deformity. Blot. 
Abortion. Scum. Dregs. Blight. 

Flowing, adj. See Flow. 
Used literally and metaphori- 

Stn. Copious. Abundant. Fluent Ex- 
uberant Easy. Eloquent. 

Ant. Dribblins- Dry. Strained. Meagre 
Laboured. Unready. DifBcult. 

Flood, n. Sax. flod. Conn, 
with Float. 

Syk Deluge. Inundation. Abundance. 
Ant. Drought Drain. Ebb. Scarcity. 

Florid, adj. Floridus, flos, 
oris, a floirer. Having the bright 
colour of a flower, or over-orna- 

Syn. Rubicund. Sanguine. Ornate. 
Overwrought. Meretricious. 

Ant. Pallid. Exsanguineous. Bare. 
Unadorned. Nude. Sober. Chaste. 

Flounce,?'. int. Northeniword. 
Conn, with Phmge. See Flaunt. 

Flounder, v. int. Allied to 
Flounce. „ , 

Sy-n. Roll. Blunder. Bungle. Boggle. 
Wallow. Tumble. 

Ant. Emerge. Flow. Course. Career. 
Speed. Rise. Flourish. Skim. 

Flourish, v. tr. and int. Flo- 
refcere, flos, a flower. 

Stn. Prosper. Thrive. Speed. Triumph. 

Fluctuate, v. int. Fluctus,a 
wave. To move backwards and 

SrN. Waver. Oscillate. Vary. Veer. 
Ant. Persist. Abide. Stay. Stick. 

Fluent, adj. See Flowing. 

Flummery, n. A Welsh com- 
pound of sour oatmeal and milk. 
Poor stufl', and frothy. 

Syn. Nonsense. Trash. Emptiness 

Ant. Sense. Nourishment Satisfaction. 
Solidity. Reason. 

Flurbt, v. tr. Prov. Eng. 
To blow a.s with a sudden breeze. 
Flare, to blow. 

Syn. Agitate. Excite. Wony. Ruffle. 
Fluster. ^^ . ^ , 

Ant. Soothe. Compose. Quiet. CaUn. 

Flurry, n. See verb. 

Fluster. FInstrwm, a smll 
of the sea. See FluiTy, noun and 

Fluted, adj. Flute, from 

ilare, to blow. Shaped like a 

. „. I flute, having a long groove. See 

Ant. Fail. Fade. Decline. Miscarry, p,,,,.,.' „|y 
fotmder. Arrest Sheath. Ground. COllUgaie- 

Sijiioiiyms and Antonyms. 


Flutter, v. int. Low Germ. 
jluttern, to move the tuings ra- 

Syn. Vibrate. Quiver Palpitate. 
Flicker. Flit. 

Ant. Perch. Roost. Nestle. Settle. 
Subside. Collapse. Rest. Lull. Pause. 
Repose. Sink. 

Fltjx, n. Fluere, to floiu. Es- 
pecially the departure of existent 
particles to be renewed by fresh 

SvN. Flow. Motion. Progression. 
Change. Substitution. Transmutation. 

Ant. Stagnation. Stillness. Invariable- 
ness. Identity. Immutability. Crystalli- 
zation. Arrestation. 

'F\iY, Sax.jieogan. See 

Focus, n. Lat. focus, a hearth. 
In optics the point of meeting for 
reflected or refracted rays of 
light. Used metaphorically. 

Syn. Centre. Stand-point. Rendez- 
vous. Convergence. Nucleus. 

Ant. Circle. Dispersion. Dissipation. 

Foe, n. Sax. feon, to hate. 
Conn, with Friend. See Friend. 

F06GT, adj. Dan. fog, a 
thick fall us of snow. Used 
metaphorically of the senses and 

SrN. Confused. Dazed. Absent. Stupid. 
Hazy. Obscure. Misty. 

Aat. Clear. Alive. Alert. Awake. 
Luminous. Lucid. Bright. Shrewd. Sharp. 

Foible, ■». See Feeble. 

Syn. Peccadillo. Weakness. Inlirmity. 
Ant. Crime. Atrocity. Enormity. Sin. 

Foil, v. Fr. foider, to tram- 
ple with the feet, heat doimi and 
disarm, or render nugatory. See 
Baffle and Counterfoil, which 
partakes of the two senses of 
fouler and folium. 

Foil, n. From folium, a leaf 
As tinfoil plated by jewellers be- 
hind precious stones to enhance 
their coloui-. 

Sy-n. Set-off. Background.' Contrast 
Enhancement. Setting. Elucidation. 

Ant. Eclipse. Outshining. Extinction. 


Foist, v. tr. Fr. fausser, to 
falsify. To off surrepti- 
tiously or unfairly upon another, 

Syn. Falsify. Counterfeit. Palm. Pass. 
Ant. Expose. Detect. Verify. Authenti- 

Fold, v. tr. Sax.fealdan. 
SvN. Double. Enfold. Embrace. In« 
close. Wrap. 

Ant. Unfold. Disengage. Expose. 

Follow, v. tr. and int. Sax. 
folgian. Act. and neut. 

Syn. Pursue. Chase. Accompany. Obey. 
Imitate. Succeed. Result. Ensue. At- 

Ant. Avoid. Elude. Quit. Disobey. 
Precede. Cause. Produce. Abandon. Shun. 

Follower, n. See Follow. 

Stn. Partisan. Adherent. Disciple. 
Ant. Leader. Teacher. Antagonist 
Opponent. Rival. 

Folly, n . Fr. fov, a fool. 

Syn. Madness. Nonsense. Misconduct. 
Imprudence. Silliness. 

Ant. Sense. Wisdom. Sanity. Judg- 
ment. Prudence. Sobriety. 

Foment, v. tr. Fovlmentum, 
fomentiim , fovere , to cherish. 

Syn. Excite. Fan. Cherish. Propagate. 

Ant. Allay. Extinguish. Discourage. 
Extirpate. Quench. 

Fond. Part, formed of an old 
Eng. veih,fonne, to be foolish. To 
be foolishly loving. It still re- 
tains in one of its uses this force. 

Syn. Loving. Attached. Affectionate. 
Foolish. Silly. Weak. Doting. Empty. 

Ant. Unloving. Unaffectionate. Averse. 
Strong-minded. Austere. Rational. Well- 
grounded. Sensible. Undemonstrative. 

Fondle, v. tr. See Fond. 

Syn. Dandle. Pet. Caress. 
Ant. Tease. Worry. Annoy. Chafe. 
Irritate. Ruflie. 

Fondness, n. See Fond. 
Foolish, adj. See Folly. 

Sin. Senseless. Idiotic. Crazed. Shal. 
low. Wealj. Silly. Injudicious. Irra- 
tional. Absurd. Contemptible. Ol>jectioQ< 


Sijnomjms and Antonyms. 

Anx Sensible. Sane. Deep. Clear- 
Bighted. Sound. Sagacious. Strong- 
minded. Wise. Prudent. Judicious. Cal- 
culatiug. Advisable. Eligible. 

Footing, 72. Sax./o«. 

Syn. Standing. Status. 
Akt. Dislodgement. Ousting. 

Foppish, adj. Fop. Germ. 
foppen, to jeer. A supercilious 

Syn. Finical. Coxcombical. Dandified. 

AsT. IModest. Unassuming. Unaffected. 
Dowdy. Slovenly. Clownish. 

Foray, n. Fr. fouraqe, Low 
Lat. fodrum, fodder. A border 
invasion for the sake of phmder. 

Sra. Raid. Sally. Inroad. Dragonnade. 

Ant. Flight. Retreat. Recall. De- 
campment. Stampede. 

Forbear, v. int. For, imply- 
ing negation, and Bear, which 


SrN. Abstain. Refrain. Withhold. 
Ant. Seek. Indulge. 

Forbid, v. tr. See Bid. 
Forbidding, adj. See Forbid. 

Syn. Repulsive. Deterrent. Prohibitory. 
Ant. Attractive. Encouraging. Allur- 
ing. Seductive. Permissive. 

Force, n. Fr. force, Lat./ortls, 

Syn. Power. Strength. Agency. In- 
strumentality. Compulsion. Cogency. 

Ant. Feebleness. Weakness. Counter- 
action. Neutralization. Inefficiency. In- 
conclusiveness. Debility. Pointlessness. 

Forego, v. tr. Go. Germ. 
f/eJien. Fore, for expressive of 

Syn. Waive. Drop. Abandon. Abjure. 

Ant. Claim. Assume. Vindicate. Seize. 
Grasp. Retain. j 

Foreign, adj. Foraneus,foris, 
out of doors. Used metaphori- 
cally in the sense of uncongenial i 
or unconnected. I 

Syn. strange. Exotic. Outlandish. 
Alien. Irrelevant. ! 

Aj<t. Domestic. Native. Congenial. 
Pertinent. Germane. 

Forerunner, n. Fore, afore, 
and run. Goth, rinnan, to run. 

Syn. Predecessor. Precursor. Jlar- 
binger. Herald. Avant-courler. 
Ant. Successor. Follower. 

Foresee, v. tr. Fore, for, be- 
fore, and see. Sax. seen. 

Syn. Predict. Anticipate. Foretell. 

Ant. Reflect. Remember. Recollect 

Forestall, v. tr. Sax. stall, 
a stand or station. To place be- 
fore another; to be beforehand 
in doing something. See Antici- 

FoRESTALMENT, n. See Fore- 

Foretell, v. tr. Fore, for 
before, and tellan, Sax. to tell. 

Syn. Predict. Preindicate. Prognosti- 
cate. Forebode. 

Ant. Recite. Narrate. Detail 

Forewarn, v. tr. See Warn. 

Forfeit, n. Forts, factum, a 
thing done beyond the hounds of 
rigid, a transgression. Now the 
effect of such transgression. 

Syn. Fine. Penalty. Mulct. Amerce- 
ment. Damages. Loss. 

Ant. Piemium. Bribe. Douceur. Re- 
muneration. Compensation. Reward. 

FoREFEND, V. tr. Fore and 
fendere, to guard. Comp. De- 

Si-N. Stave. Obviate. Prevent. 

Ant. Rectify. Mend. Cure. Redress. 

Forge, v. tr. Fdbrica, the 
workshop of the faber or smith . To 
make by a forge. Used in the 
l^rimary sense of fabricate, and 
like fabricate in the sense also of 
false fabrication. 

Syn. Work. Frame. Produce. Ela- 
borate. Fabricate. Counterfeit. Feign. 

Ant. Shatter. Batter. Shiver. Blast. 
Fuse. Detect. Expose. Verify. Mig. 
construe, aiisfabricaie. Misshape. 

Sipionijins and Aiifojii/ms. 


FoRGEuy, «. Used in the 
secondary sense of Forge. >See 

Syn. Falsification. Counterfeit. 
Ant. Signature. Veritication. Attesta- 

Forget, v. tr. For, with the 
sense of negation, and Get ; Sax. 
getan. To let go from the 
memory or the attention, some- 
times involuntarily, and some- 
times voluntarily. 

Syn. Lose. Pretermit. Unlearn. Ob- 
llviate. Overlook. 

Akt. Acquire. Learn. Remember. Re- 
collect. Mind. Retain. Treasure. 

FoRGiVK, V. tr. For, negative, 
and Sax. gifan, to give. To give 
up. Specifically, a claim for 
compensation, or a feeling of 
wrong. See Pardon. 

FoKGOTTEN, adj. See Forget. 

Syn. Unremenibered. Bygone. Slighted. 
Overlooked. Obsolete. 

Ant. Remembered. Present. Treasured. 
Guarded. Regarded. Cherished. 

Forlorn. Sax. forloren, part. 
of forleo^an, to for-Ioose. Cast 
away, or apparently abandoned. 

Syn. Abaniioiied. Deserted. Forsaken. 
Solitary. Destitute. Desolate. Hapless. 
Luckless. Helpless. Disconsolate. 

Ant. Supported. Atiended. Cherished. 
Protected. Befriended. Cheered. 

Form, v. tr. Fonaare, forma. 
To shape. 

Syn. Shape. Mould. Fashion. Consti- 
tute. Arrange. Frame. Construct. Con- 
trive. Conceive. 

Ant. Deform. Dislocate. Distort. Dissi- 
p.ite. Derange. Dismember. Disiiitogruie. 
Analyze. Disorganize. 

Formal, adj. See Form. Ap- 
plied to both persons and things, 
and in each case meaning either, 
according to form, or with a 
strong or an undue attention to 

Syn. Regular. Complete. Shapely. 

Sufficient. Correct. Stately. Dignified. 
Ceremonious. Pompous. Stiff. 

Ant. Irregular. Incomplete. Informal. 

Inadequate. Incorrect. Easy. U 
tag. Unceremonious. 

Formalism, «. See Form. 

Syn. Rigidity. Ceremoniousnes,s. Pom- 
posity. E.Nternalism. Parade. Punctilio. 

Ant. Simplicity. Unostentutiousnegs. 
LTnaffectedness. Unceremoniousness. 

Formality, n. See Fonn. 

Syn. Ceremony. Parade. Affectation. 
Stateliness. Punctiliousness. Etiquette. 
Ant. See Formalism. 

Formation, n. See Form. 

Syn. Shape. Structure. Construction, 
Ant. Deformity. Malformation. Dis- 
location. Dislortion. 

Former, adj. Sax. forma. 
Meaning the same thing. 

Syn. Preceding. Antecedent. Pi-eviou*. 
Prior. Earlier. Ancient. Bygone. 

Am. Succeeding. Subsequent. Posterior 
Latter. Slodeni. Coming. Future. 

Formidable, adj. Formido, 
terror. Calculated to inspire 
terror, especially by a display of 
superior strength. 

Syn. Awful. Terrible. Akrming. Ter- 
rifying. Discouraging. Serious. 

Ant. Despicable. Weak. Contemptible. 
Light. Trivial. 

Formless, adj. See Form. 

Forsake, v. tr. For and Seek. 
To give up. See Abandon. 

Forswear, v. tr. For and 
Swear. Sax. sweriaii, to swear. 
See Abjure. 

Forthwith, adv. Forth and 
With. Attendantly upon some- 
thing done or produced as its 
immediate consequence. 

Syn. Immediately. Directly. 
Ant. By-aud-by. Hereafter. Soon. 

Fortify, v. tr. Fortis, strong, 
and fucere, to make. 

Syn. strengthen. Confirm. Corroborate. 

Akt. Weaken. Invalidate. Dismantle. 

Fortitude, n. See Fortify. 

Syn. Courage. Endurance. Braveness. 
Calnmess. Resignation. Hardihood. Com- 

Ant. Timidity. Flinching. Impatience, 
Irritation. Faiiitness. Delicacy. Effcmi' 
uaiy. Womanishuess. ChildishneaiL 


Synomjins and Antonyms. 

Fortuitous, adj. Fortuitus, 
accide)itul, ivomfors, chance. 
Syn. Accidental. Undesigned. 
Ant. Designed. Purposed. 

Fortunate, adj. Fwtuna, 

Six. Lucky. Propitious. Happy. Fe- 

Ant. Unlucky. Unfortunate. Unhappy. 

Fortune, n. See Fortunate 
and Chance. 

Forward, adj. Fore, in front, 
and the termination, Ward. Conn, 
■with guarder, to look, indicative 
of dii-ection. In addition to the 
meaning of advancement, it 
bears the moral signification of 
being too much given to ad- 
vancing one's self as a matter of 

SrN. Advanced. Ready. E-iger. 
Anxious. Obtrusive. Self-iissertlve. Im- 

Ant. Tardy. Backward. Reluctant, 
ndifferent. Slow. Retiring. Modest. 

Foster, v. tr. Sax. fottre, a 
nurse, from fedan, to feed. See 

Foul, adj. Fal. Conn, with 
the File in Defile. -See Corrupt. 

Found, v. tr. Fundare, to 
found,, fundus, a hottom. 

Stn. Establish. Institute. Ground. 
Plant. Root. 

Ant. Disestablish. Subvert. Supplant. 

Foundation. -SVe Found. 

Stn. Institution. Establishment. Foot- 
ing. Base. 

Ant. Disestablishment. Superstructure. 

Founder, n. See Found. 

Stn. Author. Instituter. Establishes 
Originator. Planter. Subverter. Destroyer. 

Founder, v. int. See Found 
and Sink. 

Fbaotious, adj. Franfiere, 
fractus. Said of those the tenour 

of whose demeanour breaks up 
easily into opposition. 

Srx. Snappish. Peevish. Cross. Pet- 
tish. Fretful. 

Ant. Good-humoured. Blithesome. 
Genial. Agreeable. Complaisant. 

Fragile, adj. Frangere, te 
break, fragilis, easily broken. 
Stx. Delicate. Frail. Brittle. Weak, 
Ant. Tough. Hardy. Stout. Strong. 

Fragment, n. See Fragile. 

Six. Piece. Bit Chip. Morsel. Drib- 
let. Scrap. 

Ant. Bulk. Body. Mass. 'W'hole. 

Fragrant, adj. See Flagrant. 

Stn. Odorous. Scented. Perfumed. 


Ant. Inodorous. Scentless. Fetid. 

Frail, adj. See Fragile, of 
which it is a contraction. It has 
a more direct application to 
things moral than has Fi-agile, 
which is used rather of things 

Stn. .s"ce Fragile. Add. Irresolute; 
Erring. Mutable. 

Ant. Resolute. Virtuous. Lasting. 

Frame, v. tr. Sax. fremman. 
See Form. 

Franchise, n. Fr. franc, free. 
Comp. Frank. 

Stn. Freedom. Liberty. Immunity. 
E.xemption. Right. 

Ant. Obligation. Disability. Jnrisdic 
tion. Liability. Disqualification. 

Frangible, adj. See Fi-agile. 
Frank, adj. See Francliise. 

Stn. Ingenuous. Candid. Open. Un- 

Ant. Disingenuous. Close. Reserved. 

Frantic, adj. For Frantic, 
which from Phrenetic, which 
from (j)pi)v, the mind. 

Syn. Mad. Raving. Furious. Dis- 
tracted. Wild. Frenzied. Maniacal. 

Ant. Sane. Sober. Calm. Collected. 
Cool. Unruffled. Composed. 

Fraternity, n. Frater, a 
brother. See Brotherhood. 

Fraternize, v. int. See Fra- 
ternity, followed by prep. with. 

Stn. Sympathize. Consort. Co-op.?rat« 
Ant. Renounce. Allure. Korswear. 

Sijnonyms and Antoni/ms. 

FrAUD; n. Frmis, fraudis. 
Deception generally, with a view 
to one's own advantage and the 
disadvantage of another. See 

Fraught, adj. Goth. Allied 
to Freight. More frequently 
used of iinfavonrable things, as 
' fraught with perils.' 

Syn. Loaded. Full. Pregnant. Teem- 
ing. Abounding. Charged. 

Ant. Devoid. Divested. Exempt. 
Empty. Wanting; Poor. Scant. 

Freakish, adj. Freak. Goth. 

Stn. Sportful. Frisky. Whimsical. 
Fanciful. Capricious. Erratic. 

Ant. Steady. Sober. Demure. Un- 
whimsical. Unfanciful. Reliable. Con- 
sistent. Uniform. Equable. 

Free, adj. Saxon. 

Syn. Detached. Playing. Operating. 
Open. Unoccupied. Unobstructed. Un- 
impeded. Permitted. Unhindered. Ex- 
empt. Gratuitous. Unconditional. 

Ant. Subservient. Bound. Shackled. 
Restricted. Clogged. Occupied. Obstructed. 
Impeded. Compulsory. Unlawful. Biassed. 
Subject. Liable. Amenable. ConditionaL 

Freight, n. A later form of 
Fraught. See Cargo. 
Frenzy, n. See Frantic. 

Syn. P'auaticism. Madness. Raving. 
Fury. Fire. 

Ant. Calm. Composui'e. CoUectedness. 
Coolness. Sanity. Sobriety. Equanimity. 

Frequent, adj. Frequens. 

Syn. Many. Kiepeated. Numerous. 

Ant. Few. Solitary. Rare. Scanty. 

Fresh, adj. Yr.fraiche. 

Syn. New. Young. Vigorous. Cool. 
Recent. Renewed. Unimpaired. Un- 
tarnished. Unfaded. Blooming. Ruddy. 

Ant. Old. Stale. Jaded. Weary. For- 
mer. Stagnant. Ordinary. Original. Im- 
paired. Tarnished. Faded. Deciyed. 
Pallid. Sickly. Putrid. Mouldy, ilusty. 

Fret, v. int. and tr. Fricare, 
/rictus, to rid). Comp. Friction. 
See Chafe. 

Febtful, adj. See Fret. 


Syn. Irritable. Fractions. Pcevith. 

Ant. Patient. Forbearing. Meek. Con- 
tented. Resigned. Unmurmuring. 

Friable, adj. Lat. friare, to 
crumble. See Fragile. 

Fribble, v, int. Conn, with 
Frivolous. See Trifle. 

Friction, n. Fricare, /rictus, 
to rub. 

Syn. Rubbing. Grating. Attrition. 
Abrasion. Contact. 

Ant. Lubrication. Detachment Isola- 
tion. Non-contact. 

Friend, n. Sax. /reogan, to 
love. It expresses every degree 
of acquaintance short of enmity. 

Syn. Associate. Companion. Acquaint- 
ance. Familiar. Ally. Coadjutor. Confi- 
dant. Adherent. 

Ant. Opponent. Foe. Adversary. An- 
tagonist. Enemy. 

Friendless, adj. See Friend 
and Forlorn. 
Friendly, adj. See Friend. 

Syn. Well-inclined. Well-disposed. 
Amicable. Kindly. 

Ant. Ill-inclined. Ill-disposed. Hostile. 
Inimical. Adverse. Antagonistic. 

Friendship, n. See Friend. 
Fright, n. Sax. /yrhtu. Fear. 
^See Alarm. 
Frightful, adj. See Fright. 

Syn. Terrible. Honible. AUarrning. 
Ugly. Hideous. Monstrous. Dreadful. 

Ant. Pleasing. Attractive. Fair. Beauti- 
ful. Encouraging. Lovely. 

Frigid, adj. Frigidus, /rigus, 

Syn. Cold. Inanimate. Lifeless. Pas- 

Ant. Warm. Ardent. Impassioned. 

Fringe, v. tr. Lat. fimbria. 
See Fimbriated. 

Frippery, «. Fr. /rijjer, to 
rumple or u-ade. Frippery, there- 
fore, is primarily cast-off fineryj 
and thence finery in general. 

Syn. Trumpery. Unery. Tawdriness. 
Ant. Apparel. Custume. UnUona 
Dress. Decoration. Ornament, 

Si/nonyms and Antonyms. 


Frisk, v. tut. Old Fv. /risque, 
fresh. Comp. Fresh. 

Syn. Sport. Leap. Jump. Play. Dance. 

Ant. Lie. Ruminate. Rest. Kepose. 

Roost. Mope. Sulk. 

Frisky, adj. See Frisk. 

Syv. Sportive. Playful. Wanton. 
Ant. Demure. Sedate. Meditative. 

Fritter, v. fr. Frigere,frictum, 
to fry. To fritter or to break 
into small pieces as if for frying. 
Metaphorically, to trifle, or waste. 

Stn. Dribble. Waste. Idle. Dissipate. 
Ant. Economize. Husband. Cultivate. 

Frivolous, adj. Frivolus. 
Applied to character and pur- 
suits, or objects. 

Syn. Trifling. Silly. Trivial. Petty. 
Ant. Serious. Jiarnest. Important. 

Frolic, n. Old Sax. frali, 

Stn. Play. Game. Sport. Festivity. 
Entertainment. Gambol. 

Ant. Study. Undertaking. Purpose. 
Engagement. Occupation. 

Frolicsome, adj. See Frolic. 

Syn. Playful. Gamesome. Sportive. 
Wanton. Festive. 

Ant. Serious. Grave. Studious. La- 
borious. Earnest. 

Front, n. Frovs, frontis, 
face or forehead. See Face. 

Froth, n. Sax. freodhan, to 
rub or lather. Used metaphori- 
cally. See Balderdash, 

Froward, adj. A contraction 
of Fromward, that is, pulhug in 
a contrary direction. 

Syn. Contrary. Perverse. Untoward. 
Wayward. Refractory. 

Ant. Favourable. Docile. Amenable. 
Ductile. Agreeable. Obedient. 

Frown, v. int. refrogner. 
Used metaphorically for Disap- 
prove, with the prep. upon. Sec 

Fructify, v. int. Fr actus, 
fruit, a.ndfacere, to make 

Syn. Produce. Teem. Boar. Aboun<i 

Ant. Witlier. Waste. Pine. Droopk 

Frugal, adj. Fruges, fruit, 
frvgi, fit for food. First, simiDle 
in diet, and thence economical 

Stn. Sparing. Economical. Parsi- 
monious. Abstinent. Abstemious. Tem- 

AST. Profnse. Luxurious. Extrava- 
gatit. Prodigal. Sclf-iiidulgent. Intem- 

Fruit, ??. Fructus. Used 

Syn. Production. Outcome. Outgrowth 
Result. Consequence. Produce. Reward. 

Ant. Seed. Origin. Cause. Growth. 

Fruitful, adj. See Fruit. 

Sm. Productive. Prolific. Pregnant. 
Fraught. Causative. Effectual. Useful, 

Ant. Unproductive. Sterile. Barren 
Fruitless. Ineffectual. Useless. Abortive, 

Fruition, n. Frui, to enjoy, 
whence Fruit. 

Stn. Reaping. Attainment. Enjoy- 
ment. Use. Possession. 

Ant. Disappointment. Loss. Non- 

Fruitless, adj. See Fruitful. 

Frustrate, v. tr. Frustra 
in vain. To cause to be in vain. 
See Baffle, 

Frustration, n. See Frus- 
trate and Disaj)pointment. 

Fugacious, adj. Fugax, from 
fugere, to jiy. 

Syn. Ephemeral. Fugitive. Fleetinfr. 

Ant. Persistent. Perennial. Perpetual. 

FuGiTiVTi;, adj. See Fugacious, 
Fulfil, v. tr. A tautological 
or repetitive compound of full 
and an. To fill to the full. 

Stn. Fill. Complete. Discharge. Verify. 
Ant. Neglect. Ignore. Disappoint, 


Full, ndf. Part. adj. from 
Fill. Snx.jglhiu. 

^ijnonj/ms and Antonyms. 


SlfK. KepKe. Stocked. Fuiuisbed. 
Uatisfied. Com|ilpte. 

Ant. Wanting. Unprovided. Devoid 
r)estitute. Unfurnished. Unsatisfied. 
Kmpty. Incomplete. 

Fulminate. Fulmen, thunder- 
I'olt. To caKt as it were the 
tliuiider of denunciation, fol- 
lowed by pyc'p. against. 

Stn. Thunder. Clamour. Roar. Voci- 
ferate. Denounce. 

Ant. Lauti. Panegyrize. Eulogize. 

Fulsome, ("//• 8six./nl. Foul, 
and the termination of quality. 

Stn. Excessive. Gross. Loathsome. 

Ant. Chaste. Sober. Nice. Delicate. 

Fumble, v. int. Prov. Eng. 
Fumble, to do imperfectly. *b'ee 

FuMBLER, n. See Fumble. 

Fume, v. int. Lat. fumus, 

Stn. Vapour. Chafe. Frown. 

Ant. Acquiesce. Smile. 

FuMiGATB. See Fume and 

Function, v. Fungi, to dis- 

Sy'n. Office. Part. Character. Capacity. 
Business. Administration. Discharge. 
Operation. Exercise. 

Ant. Usurpation. Maladministration. 
Misconduct. Jlisdemeanour. 

Functionary, n. See Func- 

Syn. OfHcial. Officer. Servant. Per- 

Ant. See Function. 

Fund, n. Ijat.fandiis, bottom, 
or fouridatiori. A stock which 
shall be the basis of operations. 

Stn. Stock. Capital. Investment. 
Ant. Expenditure. Ouilay. Disburse- 

Fundamental, adj,. Funda- 
viftdum, a foundation. Apper- 
taining to the foundation, and 
hence important. 

SI'S. Primary. Important. Indispen- 
Eable. Eiisential. 

Funereal, adj. Funus, eris, 
a funeral. 

Stn. Lugubrious. Dismal. Woeful. 
Sombre. Mournful. Plaintive. Deathlike, 

Ant. Joyous. Festive. Ridiculous. 
Funny. Stirring. Lively. Farcical. 

Funny, adj. Sax. Fean, joys. 
Applied to objects and persons. 

Stn. Sportive. Droll. Comical. Laugh- 
able. Humorous. Jocose. Ridiculous. 

Ant. Dull. Tedious. Mournful. Lugu- 
brious. Dismal. Grave. Serious. Sad. 

Furbish, V. <r. Yx.fourhir. 
Stn. Brighten. Polish. Burnish. 
Ant Dull. Cloud. Tarnish. 

Furious, adj. Furor, mad* 
ness. See Frantic. 

Furnish, v. tr. Yr.fournlr. 

Stn. Supply. Provide. Equip. Afford. 
Akt. Withhold. Withdraw. Dismantle. 

Further, !\ ^SiX.fordh, forth. 
To move forth. See Advance. 

Furtive, adj. Furtivus,fur, 
a thief. 

SvN. Stealthy. Clandestine. Secretive. 
Secret. Sly. 

Ant. Open. Public. Undisguised. Un- 
reserved. Unconcealed. 

Fury, n. See FuiTous. 
Fuse, v. tr. Fundere, fusus, 
to pour. Liquefy by heat. 

Stn. Liquefy. Melt. Smelt. Amal. 
gamate. Commingle. Consolidate. 

Ant. Disunite. Disincorporate. Diffuse. 

Fusion, n. See Fuse. 

Fuss, n. Sax. fics, ready, 

Stn. Stir. Excitement. Tumult. Worry. 
Ado. Bustle. Flurry. Fidget. 

Ant. Quiet. Peace. Sedateness. Tran- 
quiili ly. Composure. Calm. 

Fustian, w. A coarse twilled 
cotton stuff. So called from 
Fosfat, or Fossat, Cairo, where it 
was made. Used metaphori- 
cally for inflated, empty talk. 
See Bombast. 


Fusty, rulj. Old Fr. fast, a 
cask. Smelltug of the cask. See 

Futile, aJJ. Futilis, easily 
poured out. From fundere, to 
2iour; hence weak, as wanting 

Stn. Weak. Ineffective. Useless. Nu- 
gatory. Unavailing. 

Ant. Powerful. Effective. Cogent. 
Useful. Solid. Substantial. 

Future, adj. Futurus, part. 
of esse, to he. About to be. 

Stn. Forthcoming. Coming. Advenient. 
Ant. Gone. Bygone. Past. 


Gabble, n. Sax. gabban, to 
scoff. Originally, therefore, de- 
risive talk. iSTow idle and rapid 
talk with little sense or meaning. 

Syn. Prate. Jabber. JarRon. Stuff. 
Babble. Rattle. Twaddle. Gibber. Chatter. 

Ant. Conversation. Speech. Eloquence. 
Reticence. Taciturnity. Mincing. AloiUhi- 
ness. Grandiloquence. Euphuism. 

Gabble, v. int. See noun. 

Gaffer, n. Contraction of 
goodfather, as Gammer of good- 
mother. Comp. Goody. After- 
wards used disrespectfully. See 

Gag, v. Sax. mr/, a key. To 
lock up a person's talk. AppUed 
to the person himself. 

Syn. Silence. Stifle. Burke. Muzzle. 

Ant. Evoke. Provoke. Inspire. Ani- 

Gage, v. tr. Low. Lat. gadmm, 
vadium, Gothic, vadi, a pledge, 
from vidan, to hind. 

Stn. Engage. Bind. Pledge. Secure. 
Pawn. Deposit. 

Ant. Intimate. Promise. Acquit. Re- 
lefc'^o. lU'deem. 

Gaiety, n. See Gay. 

Synonyms and Antomjms. 
Gain, v. tr. 

V. ir. and ird. Fr. 


Stn. Acquire. Get. Win. Procuia, 
Obtain. Profit. Benefit. 

Ant. Lose. Forfeit. Suffer. 

Gain, n. See verb. 
Gainful, adj. See Gain. 

Si'N. Profitable. Beneficial. Advatt- 
tageous. Winning. 

Ant. Unprofitable. Detrimental. In- 
jurious. Disadvantageous. Gainless. Losing, 

Gainless, adj. See Gainful. 

Gainsay, v. tr. Sax. gea.n, 
against, and say. It is apphed 
to persons and their statements. 
See Affirm. 

Galaxy, n. ydXa, milk. The 
assemblage of stars called the 
IMilky Way. Used metaphori- 
cally for an illustrious or fair 
assembly. See Bevy. 

Gallant, adj. Fr. gaJa, slioio. 
Like the word Brave, courage- 
ous and showy in dress. Also 
courteous to the fair sex, in 
which case, for distinction sake, 
the accent is thl•o^\^l on the latter 
syllable. The noim keeps up 
the old combination of knightly 
qualities, not excluding the 
vicious excess of gallantry. 

SvN. Brave. Chivalrous. Courteous. 
Ant. Cowardly. Churlish. Discourteous. 

Gambol, v. iut. Old English. 

SvN. Frolic. Sport. Frisk. Play. Caper. 
Ant. Tire. Weary. Droop. Flag. 

Gambol, n. See verb. 
Game, n. Sax. gamen, sport. 

Syn. Sport. Recreation. Pastime. 
Amusement. Frolic. 

Ant. Study. Toil. Labour. Business. 
Duty. Weariness. Flagging. 

Gamesome, adj. See Game 
and Merry. 

Gang, n. Sax. Meaning e 
going. A number going to- 
gether. Never used in an ho- 
nourable sense. See Crew. 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


Gap, v. Conn, with Gab and 
Gape. An opening or break. See 

Garb, ??. Norm. Fr. garhs. 
Clothes or dress; more espe- _^ 

daily an oflficial, national, or in | ^ Syn. ■^Trinket. Trumpery. Finery 

Gather, v. tr. Sax. gadrinu, 
to gather. See Collect, whose 
meanings it follows. 

Gaud, n. Gaudiuvi, joy. A 
paltry piece of ornament. 

some way pecubar dress. 

Syn. Dress. Uniform. Clothing. Cos- 
tume. Vestments. Apparel. 

Ant. Undress. Tallers. Hags. Sbreds. 

Garbage, n. Old Fr. garher, 
to make clean. That which is 
thrown away, especially in pre- 
paring animals for food. Used 
metaphorically for oft'sconrings 
and refuse of anything. See 

Garble. Lat. garheJlare, for 
cribellare, from cribellum, dim. 
of cribrum, a sieve, or the Low 
Lat. garhellare, to sift corn. The 
term was originally used of 
cleansing impurities from valu- 
able spices. Hence, to select 
such passages from writings or 
statements as may suit one's own 

Syn. Misrepresent. Misquote. Mutilate. 
Cook. Dress. Culour. 

Ant. Quote. Cite. Extract. Recite. 

Garbled, adj. See Garble. 

Garnish, v. tr. Fr. gamir, to 
protect. Conn, with Warn. Ori- 
ginally, to bind or secure with 
ornamental work. 

Stn. Deck. Fumi.-ib. Adorn. Dress. 
Furbisb. Beautify. Embellisli. 
Ant. Denude. Strip. Dismantle. 

Garniture, 71. See Garnish. 
Garrulity, n, Qarrulus, talk- 

Syn. Verbosity. Loquacity. Talkative- 
ness. Chatter. 

Ant. Reticence. Taciturnity. Laconism, 

Garrulous, adj. See Gar- 

Gewgaw. Bauble. 

Ant. Decoration. Ornament Gtm, 
Jewel. Valuable. 

Gaudy, adj. See Gaud. 

Syn. Tawdry. Fine. Meretricious. 
Ant. Rich. Simple. Handsome. Chaste 

Gauge, v. Old Fr. gauge, a 
liquid measure. 

Si-N. Measure. Fathom. Probe. 

Ant. Survey. Conjecture. View. Scan 
Guess. Observe. Mismeasure. 

Gaunt, adj. Der. tmcertain. 

Stu. Grim. Savage. I^an. Hungry. 
Ant. Docile. Tractable. Tame. Sleek, 

Gawky, adj. Sax. geac, a 
cucl-oo, some silly ungainly bird. 

Stn. Awkward. Ungainly. 

Ant. Neat. Handy. Graceful. Hand- 

Gay, adj. Fr. gai. Used as 
an epithet of character or dispo- 
sition, and of scenes or objects. 

Syn. Merry. BUthe. Lively. Sprightly. 
Sportive. Smart. Festive. Gladsome. 

Ant. Heavy. Melancholy. Grave. 
Sombre. Dull. Dowdy. Sad. 

Gaze, v. int. Sax. gasan, to 
smite. To stare, being smitten 
with interest or wonder. 

Syn. Stare. Contemplate. Scan. Behold. 
Regard. View. 

Ant. Wink. Ignore. Overlook. Ogle. 
Disregard. Glance. 

Gear, n. Sax. geara, provision, 

Syn. Harness. Furniture. Accoutre- 
ments. Trappings. Tackle. Appurtenance. 
Rigging. Paraphernalia. 

Ant. Dismantlement. Unrig. Votrim. 
Unharness. Undress. Divestment. Strip- 
ping. Disarray 


Gklatinous, adj. Fr. rjelatine, 
from gelare, to congeal, which 
from gcJx, cold. Conn, with Jelly. 

Syn. Viscous. Albuminous. Mucila- 
pnous. Gummy. Glairy. Glutiiiuus. 
Semifluid. I^entous. 

Ant. Limpid. Sparkling. Crystalline. 

Gelid, adj. See Gelatinous. 

SvN. Frigid. Cold. Icy. 
Ant. Warm. Genial. 

Gem, n. Gemma, a hid or 
signet. A valuable of small size. 
A precious stone. See Gaud. 

Generality, n. Genus, Jcind 
or class. That which includes 
many species and individuals. 

Stn. Mass. Bulk. Body. Majority. 
Ant. Section. Minority. Exception. 

Generalization, n. The re- 
ducing of individual objects or 
terms to genera or classes. See 

Generate, v. tr. Genus, a 
race ; generare, to p7-opagate. 

Stn. Engender. Produce. Propagate. 

Ant. Stifle. Extinguish. Terminate. 

Generation, n. See Generate. 
Used also in the sense of so 
many individuals of a race as 
may be at a given time coex- 

Syn. Age. Period. Era. Epoch. Life- 

Ant. Perpetuity. Eternity Immor- 

Generic, adj. See Generate. 
Belonging to the class, as dis- 
tinguished from the peculiarities 
of individuals. 

Stn. General. Common. Collective. 
ANT. Particular. Personal Specific. 

Generous, adj. Generous 
meant of good genus or birth ; 
and when the virtues were attri- 
buted to such, as it was once the 
tendency to do, the word Gcne- 
roas was formed to express one 
of their imputed characteristics. 

Si/noni/ms and Antonyms. 

Sts. Noble. Chivalrom. Literal. Dto. 

Ant. Mean. Ignoble. PJiberal. Selfish 

Genial, adj. Genius was, 
properly, the tutelar deity of 
each person ; hence, the life. So 
Genial, that which tended to 
promote or preserve life. 

Syn. Warm. Cordial. Balmy. Revlvi- 
fying. Restorative. 

Ant. Cold. Cutting. H.irsh. Deleteri- 
ous. Noxious. Deadly. Blighting. De- 
structive. Ungenial. lithal. 

Genius, n. See Genial. Used 
also for that peculiar gift which 
shows itself in inventive or crea- 
tive power, or the discovery of 
new combinations. Talent, on 
the other hand, is the adapting, 
measuring, and weigliing faculty. 
Talent shows itself in operation 
or action; Genius, in discovery 
and creation. It is laxly used 
in the sense of the following. 

Sts. Talent. Cleverness. Inventiveaeis. 
Creativeness. Intellect. Skill. Giftednvss. 

Ant. Stolidity. Stupidity. Inanity 

Genteel, adj. Gentilis, he- 
longing to a gens, or family, espe- 
cially to higii family. The word 
is fast growing into disfavour. 

Stn. Polite. \V'ell-bred. Refined. Cour- 
teous. Fashionable. Elegant Aristo- 

Ant. Rude. Boorish. Ill-bred. Qownish. 
Unfashionable. Unpolished. Inelegant. 

Gentility, n. 

See Genteel. 

Gentle, adj. See Genteel 
for derivation, and remarks on 

Stn. Oiurteous. Polite. High-bred. 
Mild. Bland. Tame. Docile. 

A.vr. Rough. Kude. Coarse. Fier<« 

Gentlemanlike, adj. Sen 
Gentle and Genteel. 

Gently, ado. See Goutle. 

Si/uomjms and Antowjins. 


Sound. Uii- 
Ficiitious. Adulterated. 

Belonging to the true 
somve ov stock. 

SvN. AnthPTitic. Tme, 
adiiUiTated. Veritable. 

Ant. Siuirious 

Geum, n. Lat. (jcrmcn, from 
f/evrf, to bear. 

Syn. Seed. Nucleus. Embryo. Origin. 
AST. Fruit. Development. Result. 

Gebmane, adj. Oermnv, a 
Celtic wonl, meaning nei(jhhonr, 
that is, to the Gaul. 

Syn. Allied. Kindred. Related. Homo- 
geneous. Appropriate. 

Ant. Unconnected. Foreign. Allen. 

Germinate, v. int. See Germ. 

Stn. Sprout. Shoot. Bud. 
Ant. Rot. Decay. 

Gesticulate, v., Gesticula- 
tion, 11. Gesticulnri, from gerere, 
to hear (one's self). See Attitude. 

Gesture, n. Gestura, gerere, 
to hear (one's siJf). A significant, 
or in some way appropriate or 
illustrative movement. See At- 

Get, v. tr. Sax. getan. 

SiN. Gain. Procure. Acquire. Earn. 
Ant. Lose. Forfeit. Surrender. Forego 

Gewgaw, n. Fr 
Eng. gaud. See Gaud. 

Ghastly, adj. Sax. giist, gh 
or spirit. 

Sra. Deathlike. Spectral, 
Hideous. .Shocking. 

Ant. Blooming. Fi-esb. Comely. Seemly. 
Buxom. Ruddy. 

Ghost, «. .Sf^? Ghastly. 

Stn. Spectre. Apparition. Spirit. 
Ant. Body. Animal. Organism. 

Giant, n. Fr. geant, Lat. 
gigas, Gr. ynyevTii, earthhorn, or 
\iningfrom the earth. 

Stn! iMcnster. Cyclops. Colossus. 

Ant. Dwarf. Pigmy. Elf. Sylph. 

Gibber, v. int. Allied to 


See Gibber 




and Gabble. 
Gibbous, adj. Oihhosus, from 

gibhns, a hump. 

SvN. Coiuei. Protuberant. Hunch- 

Ant. Plane Flat. Linear. Concave, 

GiBE, V. int. Fr. giber. To 

Stn. Sneer. Scoff. Ridicule. Taunt. 
Ant. Salute. Compliment. 

GiDDT, adj. Sax. gidig. Hav- 
ing the feeling of giddiness, or 
the character of giddiness, or 
tendency to produce giddiness, 
as, a giddy height. 

Syn. Whirling. V^ertiginous. Thought- 
less. Inconstant. Unsteady. Lofty. 

Ant. Stationary. Slow. Ponderous. 
Thoughtful. Earnest. Steady. Low. Un- 
elevated. Wary. Circumspect. 

Gift, v. Sax. gif'an, to give. 
1 Something given. 

I Stn. Donation. Present. Grant. Boon. 
I Gratuity. Benefaction. Endowment. Talent. 


Ant. Reservation. Refustil. Wages, 

Purchase. Earnings. Compensation. Re- 

munnration. Inanity. Stupidity. Forfeit. 

Penalty. Fine. Surrender. 

Gigantic, adj. See Giant. 
I Like the appearance or the 
I strength of a giant. 

Syn. Colossid. Huge. Enormous. Her- 

Ant. Puny. Dwarfish." Feeble. 

Giggle, n. Lat. cachinnare. 
Silly laughter. 

SvN. CachiiitiHtion. Grin. Titter. 
Ant. Sob. Whimper. Whine. Blulber 

Giggle, v. int. See noun. 

Gild, v. tr. Sax. gold. To 
overlay with gold. Used meta- 
phorically for to embellish. See 

Gilding, n. See Gild. 
I Gimcrack, n. An Old Eng. 

Jabber and Gabble. See Gabble. | word, apparently employed a; 


Si/nonyms and Antonyms. 

first of weak and pert characters. 
Transferred to objects of cheap 
pretentiousness. iSee Gewgaw. 

Gird, v. tr. Sax. gynlan. 

S™. Surround. Encircle. Hem. En- 
viron. Belt. Enclose. Engirdle. 

Ant. Disclose. Open. Expand. Disen- 
circle. Disengirdle. Ungird. 

Girdle, v, tr. See Gird. 

Girth, n. See Gird. The 
measure of the girding in band 
or outline. 

Gist, n. Fr. giste, a lying. 
That in which the force of » 
thing emphatically lies. 

Sin. Essence. Pith. Marrow. Sub- 
stance. Kernel. Force. 

Ant. Surplusage. Redundancy. Addi- 
tament. Environment. Accessories. Garb. 

Give, v. tr. See Gift. 

Sin. Bestow. Grant. Cunfer. Impart. 

Yield. Produce. Surrender. Concede. 
Present. Afford. Communicate. 

Ant. Withhold. AVithdraw. Refuse. 

Retain. Grasp. Fail. Restrain. Deny. 

Glabrous, adj. Lat. glaber. 
Having a surface free of hairs 
or srich like small excrescences. 

Syn. Smooth. Polished. Bald. Shiny. 
Sleek. Glacial. Glassy. 

Ant. Rough. Hairy. Bristly. Wrinkled. 
Hank. Shaggy. Hirsute. 

Glad, aclj. Sax. gMd. Used 
both of persons possessing, and 
objects or occurrences producing, 

Stn. Happy. Joyous. Pleased. Grati- 
fied. Blithesome. Gleeful. 

Ant. Unhappy. Sorrowful. Disastrous. 
Sorry. Disappointed. Dismal. 

GLADDEN, V. tr. See Glad. 

Syn. Rejoice. Cheer. Gratify. Exhi- 

Ant. Grieve. Dispirit. Disappoint. 
Depress. Afflict. Trouble. Wound. 

Gladness, n. See Glad. 

Gladsome, adj. See Glad. 
Conducive to gladness, or of a 
glad nature. 

Glairy, adj. Fr. glaire, the 
wliite of an egg. /See Gelatinous. 

Glamour, n. Perhaps y\av 
Ka>Ha, a white secretion of the 
eyes, accompanied by indistinct- 
ness of vision. Metaphorically, a 
distorted or deceptive vision. 

Syn. Hallucination. Visionariness. Dig* 
tortion. Blindness. 

Ant. Clearsightedness. Observation. 

Glance, v. int. Germ, glam, 
flash. Followed by prej). at. 
See Gaze. 

Glare, v. inf. Allied to Lat. 
cktrus. To shine with a strong 
and steady brightness, to which 
has been added the idea of ex- 
cessive or unsubdued brightness. 

SvN. Beam. Shine. Gleam. Ray. 

Ant. Shimmer. Scintillate. Glitter. 
Smoulder. GUmmer. Glisten. Glister. 
Sparkle. Flash. Flicker. 

Glare, n. See verl. 
Glaringly, adv. See Glare. 

Stn. Broadly. Obviously. Manifestly. 

Ant. Covertly. Doubtfully. Obscurely, 
ively. Suspiciously. 

Glassy, adj. Having any one 
or more of the properties of 
glass. Sax. glds. 

Stn. Vitreous. Smooth. Polished. 
Glacial. Glabrous. Brittle. Transparent. 
Crystalline. Pellucid. Limpid. Glossy. 

Ant. Rough. Uneven. Rugged. Pliant. 
Tough. Opaque. Luteous. Muddy. Tur- 
bid. Scabrous. 

Glaver, V. tr. and iid. To 
flatter. See Glabrous and Flatter. 
To smoothe down \\ith words. 

Glaze, v. tr. See Glassy. To 
make glassy. 

Syn. Vitrefy. Gloss. Polish. Burnish. 

Ant. Roughen. Corrugate. Rumpla 

Gleam, v. inf. Sax. ;ldwan, 
to shine. See Glare. 

^l/itoinji ^s and Antonijuis. 


Glean, v. tr. Fr. (jlauvr. The 
vord is probably couuected with 
clean. To collect, so as to leave 
clean ; to clear off. See Collect, 
whose meanings it largely fol- 
lows, meaning, like it, to gather 
together, tc sum np, and to learn 
or infer. 

Glee, n. Old English. Comp. 

Glib, adj. Dutch glvppen, to 
slide. Allowing a body to sli^D 
easily over its sui'face. Metaphori- 
cally applied to ease of speech. 

Syn. Slippery. Voluble. Smooth. 

Akt. Eougb. Abrupt. Hesitating. 

Glimmer, V, i^(i. Germ.glim- 
mern, to glimmer. See Glare. 

Glimpse, n. See Glimmer. 

Stn. Sight Inkling. Glance. Glim- 
mering. Survey. 

Akt. Observation. Scrutiny. Investi- 
gation, Inspection. Analysis. Elxamina- 
tion. Exposure. 

Glisten, v. int. Sax. glesian. 
See Glare. 

Glistbr, v. int. Gevm. glistern. 
See Glare. 

GliiTTKE, V. int. Germ, glittern. 
See Glare. 

Gloat, v. int. Germ, glotzen, 
to look. Used in an unfavour- 
able sense, and followed by the 
p-ep. over. 

Stn. Revel. Glut. Feast. 
Ant. Avoid. Shun, Loathe. Abomi- 

Glomeration, ?;. See Con- 

Gloom, n. Old Eng. Comp. 
Glivm and Gloam. 

Stn. Gloaming. Twilight. Obscurity. 
Shadow. Obscuration. 

Ant. Light. Radiauce. Clearness. 
Brightness. Daylight. 

Glorify, v. tr. Gloria, glorg, 
and jacerc, to make. To make 
subject of praise, or illustrious. 

Sir. Exalt. Honour. Elevate, l.aud. 
Pra'se Signalize. Magnify. Aggrandize. 

Ant. Depress. Debiise. Abuse. Cen- 
sure. Degiade. Decry. Abase. Defame. 

Glory, n. See Glorify. 

Stn. Brightness, liadiance. Effulgence. 
Honour. Fame. Celebrity. 

Ant. Obscurity. Ignominy. Cloud. 
Dishonour. Degradation. 

Gloss, ??. The meanings of 
this word sccni to flow from two 
sources. Gcnn.gleissen, to glisten. 
gives it that of brightness or 
polish ; the Gr. y'Kcba-aa (whence 
Glossary), that of interpretation, 
but with a bias to a jiarticular 
meaning. yXoeiv, to polish, has 
been suggested as an obsolete 
root of yXaxraa, the tongue. 

Stn. Polish. Lustre. Misinterpreta- 
tion. Distortion. Perversion. Twist. 
Plea. Pretejice. Sjicciousness. 

Ant. Nebulousii'ss. Haze. Literal- 
ness. Truth, llcprfsentation. Interpreta- 
tion. Reality. A'erily. 

Gloss, v. tr. Sec Gloss, n. 

Glow, v. int. Sax. glowan. 
See Glare. 

Gloze, v. tr. See Gloss. 

Glut, v. tr. Lat. glutirs. 
Comp. Deglutition. 

•Stn. Gorge. Fill. Stuff. Cram. 
Ant. Disgorge. Empty. Void. 

Glut, n. See verh. Add. 
Stn. Surplus. Redundancy. Super- 
fluity. Overstock. 

Ant. Scarcity. Scantiness. Drainage. 
. Dearth. Failure. 

Glutinous, adj. Gluten, glue. 

See Gelatinous. 

Gluttony, n. Glutton. See 

Syn. Greed. Gorniaiidizement. Voracity 

Ant. Abstinence. Frugality. A\nU^ 
mlousness. Temperance. Vegetarianlem, 

Kii/no)it/uis and Antouxjiiis. 


Gnaw, v. tr. Sax. gnafjau, to 
bite. Used metaphorically. 

Sim. Bite. Corrode. Canker. Vex. 

Akt. Soothe. Gladden. Soften, tjise 
Comfort. Refresh. 

Go,v. int. Sax. gangun, Germ. 
(jehen. Comp. Gang, a num- 
ber going together. 

Snf. Move. Depart. Pass. Travel. 
^'anish. Reach. Extend. 

Ant. Stand. Stay. Come. Remain. 
Alildp. Rest. Persist. Kndure. Lack. 


Goal, n. Fr. gaule, a pole or 

Stn. End. Scope. Aim. Termination. 
Close. Attainmenu Consummation. Ar- 

Ant. Commencement. Starting-point. 
Course. Effort. Appetitlon. 

Gobble, v. tr. Old Fr. goh, 
a morsel. 

SvN. Swallow. Gorge. Bolt. 
Akt. Disgorge. Vomit. 

Godless, adj. Without God. 
See Wicked. 
Godliness, n. See Piety. 
Good, adj. Sax. god, good. 

Stn. Right. Complete. Sound. Vir- 
tuous. Pious. Benevolent. Propitious. 
Serviceable. Suitable. Efficient. Sufficient. 
Competent. Valid. Real. Actual. Con- 
riderable. Honourable. Reputable. 

Ant. AVrong. Imperfect. Unsound. 
Vicious. Profane. Niggardly. Unpropi- 
tlous. Unserviceable. Unsuitable. In- 
efficient. Inadequate. Incompetent. In- 
valid. Fictitious. Supposititious. Incon- 
si.lerable. JMean. Disgraceful. Disreput- 
able. Bad. EviL 

Good, n. See adj. 

Stm. Boon. Benefit. Advantage. Gain. 
Blessing. Mercy. 

Akt. Hurt. Injury. Loss. Detriment. 
Evil. Disadvantage. 111. Calamity, In- 
fliction. Curse. 

Goodly, adj. See above. 

Sth. Pleasant. Desirable. Fair. Comely. 
Considerable. , , . „ 

Aot. Unpleasant. Undesirable. Un- 
comely. Inconsiderable. 

Gorge, v. tr. To swallow 
greedily, and in large quantities. 

Fr. gorge, the throat. See Swal- 

Gorgeous, adj. Old Fr. gor- 
gias, a ri(ff or neckerchief. Comp. 
Gorge and Gorget, neck armour, 
thence applied to liighly orna- 
mental array in general, and also 
to decorations. 

Sto. Magnificent. Splendid. Costly 
Rich. Superb 

Ant. Poor. Naked. Bare. Cheap. 

Threadbare. Dowdy. Dingy. 

Gormandize, v. tr. and mt. Fr. 
qourmand, a glutton. See Gob- 

Gossip, n. and v. int. Sax. 
God sib, relation in Ood. God- 
father or godmother. The re- 
lationship giving an opportunity 
of discussing domestic matters, 
the word Gossip came to mean a 
babbler about the private affairs 
of others. See Babble and Bab- 

Govern, v. tr. Ouhernare, 
to rule or steer. 

Stn. Rule. Direct. Control. Moderate. 
Guide. Sway. 

AXT. Misrule. Misdirect. MiscontroL 

Governor, n. See Govern. 

Grab, v. tr. Conn, with Grab- 
ble, Grapple, and Gripe. See 

Grabble, v. int. Frequent; of 
Grab. See Grovel. 

Grace, ». Gratia. Physical 
and moral gracefulness, the latter 
being sho^Ti in condescension 
and benevolence. Grace has 
sometimes the sense of endow- 
ment as the result of kindness or 
love, as in theology. 

Stn. Favour. Beauty. Condescenaiox 
Kindness. Elegance. 

Ant. Disfavour. Deformity. Prida 
Unkindness. Inelegance. Awkwardness 

Si/no)iyms and Antomjms. 


Gbacklkss, adj. See Grace. 
Commonly used to mean want- 
ing grace in its moral or reli- 
gious sense. 

SvN. Ungraceful. Vicious. ScampiBh. 
Reprobate. Abandoned. Worthless. 

Ant. Graceful. Virtuous. Conscientious. 
Upright Worthy. 

Gracious, adf. See Grace, 

Stn. Affable. Courteous. Benignant 

Ant. Haughty. Discourteous. Ill-dis- 
posed. Ungracious. Churlish. 

Gradation, n. Gradus, a 
step. Used for the point and 
the process of it. 

Stw. Stage. Tier. Degree. Rank. 
Graduation. Ordination. Arrangement 

Ant. Equality. Uniformity. Fraternity. 
Abruptness. Saitation. 

Gradk, n. Degree. See Gra- 

Gradual, adj. See Gradation. 
Step by step. 

ST5f. Slow. Continuous. Unintermit- 
tent. GradationaU 

AUT. Sudden. Momentary. Instan- 
taneous. Periodic. Recurrent. Intermit- 
tent. Discontinuous. Brolien. Discon- 

Graduate, v. tr. See Gra- 
dation. To arrange in rank. See 

Graft, v. tr. Old Eng. graff. 

Stn. Bud. Insert Incorporate. Inocu- 

AuT. See Integrate. 

Grain, n. Granum, a seed. 
Conn, -with com and kernel. 
Used metaphorically in the sense 
of — 

Stm. Essence. Nature. Will. Texture. 
Disposition. Affection. Inducement 

Ant. Influence. Circumstance. 

Grand, adj. Grandis. 

Stn Large. Ilignified. Imposing. Im- 
portant. Eventful. Mapniflcent 

Ant. Little. Undignified. Unlmposir.g. 
.Secondary. Inferior. Unimportant Petty. 
Paltry. Beggarly. Mean, Common In- 

Grandeur, n. See Grand. 

SvN. Disnity. Mapcnlticence. 
Ant. Meanness. I'altriness. 

Grandiloquence, n. Grandit, 
grand, and loqiii, to speak. 

Stn. Verbosity. Pomposity. Mouthi- 
ness. Grandiosity. Altiloquence. Stilted- 
ness. Euphuism. Turgidity. Fustian, 

Ant. Simplicity. Plain-spokenness. 
Naivete'. Unaffectedness. Vernacular. 

Grandiose, adj. See Grand. 
Used in an unfavourable sense of 
the aflfectation of impressiveness 
in style of speech and manners. 

Stn. See Graudiloquence. 

Grant, v. tr. Old Eng. graunt. 
Supposed to be from credentare, 
wliich from credere, to believe or 

Stn. Give. Allot. Bestow. Confer 
Transfer. Admit. Allow. Concede. 

Ant. Withhold. Withdraw. Reserve. 
Resume. Deny. 

Graphic, adj. ypa^etr, to 
U'rite or describe. 

Stn. Picturesque. Illustrative, De- 
scriptive. Pictorial. . 

Ant. Unpicturesque. Unillustrative, 

Grapple, v. int. Conn, with 
Grab. See Contend. 

Grasp, v. tr. Old Germ, grab- 
ben. Used physically and in- 
tellectually. .SVe Grab. 

Stn. Seize. Hold. Clasp. Retain. 

Ant. Loose. Lose. Abandon. Re- 
linquish. Surrender. Release. Miss. Mis- 

Grate, v. tr. and int. Fr. 

Stn. Rub. Scrape. Jar. Scratch. 

Ant. Glide. Slip. SUde. Lubricate. 

Grateful, adj. Grains, plea- 
sant, grateful. 

Stn. Pleasant Acceptable. Agreeable. 
Thankful Obligod. Welcome. 

Ant. Unpleasant Unacceptable. Dli. 
agreeable. Ungrateful. Disobliged. 

Gratification, n. Gratm, 
pleasant, facere, to make. 


Si/nomjms and Antonyms. 

Sth. Pleasure. Knjoyment. Satisfac- 
tion, indulgence. 

Aht. Pain. Dislike. Disappointment. 
Abstinence. Abnegation. Stitting. Disci- 
pline. Inurement. 

Gbatify, V. tr. See Gratifica- 

S™. Please. Satisfy. Indulge. Hu- 

Ant. Displease. Dissatisfy. Disappoint. 
Stint. Discipline, Inure. Harden. De- 
prive. Deny. 

Gratitude, n. See Gratifica- 

Stn. Thankfulness. 

Akt. Unlhankfulness. Ingratitude. 
Thanklessness. Oblivion. Resentment. 

GEATXnTOUS, ad). Lat. f/ratis. 
Has the twofold meaning of 
without equivalent and without 
propriety; that is, uncalled for 
by circumstances. 

' Stn. Free. Uncompensated. Vo-luntary. 
Unwarranted. Groundless. AVanton. 

Akt. Compulsory. Involuntary. Obli- 
gatory. Necessitated. Warranted. Well- 

Gratuity, n. See Gratuitous. 

Stn. See Bonus. 

Geatulation, n. See Con- 

Geavk, adj. Gravis, heavy. 
The word is not used of physical 
things, but events, considera- 
tions, circumstances, character, 
and demeanour. 

Stn. Sad. Serious. Demure. Solemn. 
Important. Aggravated. Heavy. Co<rent. 

Akt. Joyous. Merry. Fac^-lious. Ridi- 
culous. Unimportant. Trivial. Light. 
Frivolous. Futile. 

Gravely, n. See Grave. 
GeaZE, v. tr. Sax. grdx, grass. 
To shave or pass lightly over. 

Stn. Shave. Scrape. Skim. Abrade. 

Akt. Strike. Impinge. Collide. En- 

Great, adj. Sax. great. 

STK. Big. Wide. Huge. Numerous. 
Pr:)tracted. Excellent. Magnanimotis. 
Soble. Powerful, txalted. Noticeable. 

AST. Little. Narrow. Pnny. Few 
Scanty. .Sbort. Jleau. ignoble. \V(ak 

GbkkDY, a'^^J. Greed. Goth. 
gredus, hunger. 

Stn. Gluttonous. Voracious. Hungry 
Desirous. Avaricious. 

Akt. Abstemious. Abstinent. Irdif 
ferent. Contented. 

Greet, v. tr. Sax. grijtan. To 
address. See Address. 

GeegAEIOUS, adj. Grex, gregi;^, 
a flock. Formed of society, or 
living in communities. 

Stn. Social. Sociable. Consociative. 
Ant. Unsocial. Unsociable. Solitary. 

Grief, n. Lat. gravis, heavy. 
That which weighs heavily upon 
the mind. 

Stn. Trouble. Tribulation. Affliction. 
Sorrow. Sadness. 

AST. Joy. Exultation. Delight Ela- 
tion. Hilarity. 

Grievance, n. Gravamen, a 
burden. See Grief. 

Stn. Burden. Injury. Complaint. 

Ant. Congratulation. Rejoicing. Boon. 
Benefit. Alleviation. Disburdenment. Rid- 
dance. Privilege. 

Grieve, v. tr. and int. See 
Grief, act. and neuf. 

Stn. Trouble. Burden. Annoy. Afflict 
Mourn. Lament. Complain. Deplore. 

Akt. Ease. Console. Soothe. Please. 
Rejoice. Exult. Gratify, Alleviate. 

Grievous. See Grief. 

Stn. Sad. Heavy. Afflictive. Lamen- 
table. Deplorable. Sorrowful. 

Ant. Joyous. Delightful. Pleasant 
Glad. Consolatory. Grateful. Welcome. 
Acceptable. Trifling. Light. Trivial. 

Grievously, adv. >Sec. Griev- 

Grim, adj. Sax. grimman, to 

Stn. Fierce. Ferocious. Terrible 

AN-r. Mild. Docile. Atiraciive. PUcId 

Grimace, n. Sax. grima, a 

Syiionijms and Anloiujiiis. 


Syk. Contortion. Taunt. Sneer. Scoff. 
AST. Countenance. Admiration. Ob- 
servance. Respect. Regaid. Gaze. 

Grime, v. tr. Sax> lirum,soot, 
iirim. Comp. Eime, Hoar-frost. 
To sully with particles of dirt. 

Sts. Smear. Sully. Dirt. Smtidse. 
AUT. Cleanse. Purify. Lave. Wash. 
Absterge. Beautify. 

Grin, n. and v. Sax. See 

Grind, v. Sax. grindan, to 
grind. Used metaphorically. 
See Oppress. 

Gripe. Sax. grlpan. Comp. 
Grab and Grip. To seize tightly ; 
to produce pain as if so seized. 

Sin. Grasp, beize. Clutch. Gnaw. 
Pain. Squeeze. Screw. 

AlJT. Abandon. Relax. Soothe. Ease. 

Griping, adj. See Gripe. 
Used metaphorically; also in 
the sense of Avaricious, which 

Groan, v. int. Old Eng. 

Stn. Moan. Whine. Growl. Grumbl-?. 
Ant. Giggle. Cackle. Chuckle. Titter. 

Grope, v. int. Sax. grapinn. 
Allied to Gripe, and used in the 
sense of feeling after an object, 
and in the dark. 

Syn. Feel. Search. Grabble. Fumble. 
Ant. Grasp. Seize. Hold. Expose. 
Discover. Attain. Manipulate. 

Gross, adj. Fr. gros, great. 
Implies, 1, size, and 2, a coarse 
degree of it. 

Sin. Entire. Vulgar. Vicious. Im- 
pure. Coarse. Bloated. Sensual. Animal. 
Ant. Partial. Nett. Pure. Refined. 

Grotesque, adj. Grotto. Gr. 
KpvTTTos, hidden. Comp. Crypt. 
Like the whimsical figures found 
in grottoes. 

Stn. Whimsical. Odd. Quaint. Bur- 
esque. Archaic. C;iricatured. Distorted. 

Ant. Classic, Chaste. Fine. Fashion- 
ible. Graceful. Severe. 

GsouND, n. Sax. grund, 

ground, earth, grn-i-d . Comp. 
Grind. Used metaphoricallj'. 

Syn. Basis. Foundation. Premiss. Rea- 
son. Cause. Account. Plea. 

Ant. Superstructure. Statement. Argu- 
ment. Inference. Deduction. 

Grounded, adj. See Ground. 
Applied to persons and ideas, or 

Stn. Rooted. Established. Initiated. 
Inaugurated. Prepared. Indoctrinated- 

Ant. Ungrounded. Untangled. Unpre- 
pared. Uninitiated. Unfounded. Baseless. 
Unauthorized. Groundless. 

Groundless, adj. See Groimd, 

Sy'n. Vain. Supposititious. Unfounded. 
Baseless. Fanciful. Gratuitous. Chime- 

Ant. Well-founded. Substantial. Au- 
thoritative. Actual. Authentic 

Group, n. Fr. groupe. A 
collection, with an implied idea 
of purposed arrangement, or at 
least orderliness. 

.Syn. Cluster. Bunch. Knot. Assem- 
blage. Collocation. Class. Collection. 

Ant. Isolation. Individual Crowd 
Confusion. Medley. 

Grovel, v. int. Germ, krah- 
heln, to cvaivl. Used always un- 
favourably, in the sense of ac- 
tions of a base or sensual de- 

Syn. Crawl. Cringe. Wallow. Grabble 

Ant. Soar. Aspire. Mount. Rise. 

Grow, v. int. Sax. growan. 
Conn, with crescere. Comp. Ac- 

Syn. Increase. Advance. E.xtend. Ac- 
crue. Become. Develop. Amplify. 

Ant. Diminish. Recede. Contract 
Fail. Stop. Die. Wane. 

Growl, v. int. Old Germ. 
gridlen, to be angry. 

Stn. Snarl. Grumble. Complain, Re- 
monstrate. Murmur. Grunt. 

Ant. Chuckle. Cackle. Grin. Pnrt 

Growth, n. See Grow. 
Grub, v. int. See GroveL 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

Geitdge, v. tr. Old English. 
To look upon, -with desire to 
appropriate or retain. Followed 
gmmmatjcally by the object, or 
the object and person, but not 
by the person alone. 

SvN. Spare. Retain. Covet Envy. 

Ant. Spend. Impart. Welcome. Satisfy. 

GKtTDGE, n. -See verb. 

Sr.v. Spite. Grievance. Dissatisfaction. 
Discontent. Refusal. 

AXT. \Velcome. Satisfaction. Approval. 
Ctmtentment. Complacency. Bestowal. 

Gextff, adj. Dan. (irof. 

Syv Rough. Surlv. Harsh. Bearish. 
AST. Smooth. iiUd. Affable. Coar- 


Grumble, v. int. Low. Germ. 
grummeln. See Growl. 

Grujipy, adj. See Grumble 
and Surly. 

Geunt, v. int. Lat. grunnire. 
See Growl. 

Guard, v. tr. Fr. gmrder. 
Compai-e Guard and Ward, 
Guardian and Warden, See Pro- 

Guarded, adf. See Guard 
Said of disposition and demean- 
our. See Calculating. 

Guardian, n. See Guard. 

Svx. Keeper, rrolector. Conservator. 

Custodian. r^ ■, ttt a 

Ant. Traitor. Betrayer. Pupil. Ward. 

Gimss, OldEng. Allied 
to Sax. gitan, to get. 

SvN. Conjecture. Surmiso. Divine. 
Suppose. Suspect 

Ant. Examine. Prove. Investigate. 
EstablUh. Demoiislraie. Elaborate. De- 

Guest, «. Lat. hofsfis,, a 
vh-o'Kjrr, afterwards, an enemy; 
•x^ in Gr. ^tfoy, fiv&i,a dratujiv, 
iil'tcvwards '/ friend. 

S.K Visitor. 

i.NT Enieruimr. Host. 

Ste Guide 

Semblance. Plea. 

Guide, v. tr. Fr. guider. 

Syn. Lead. Direct. Conduct Pilot 
Regulate. Superintend. Influence. Train. 

Ant. Mislead. Misdirect. Misconduct. 
Mismanage. Slisregulate. Misguide. Mir,- 
educate. Betray. Deceive. 

Guile, n. Sax. and Modem 
En^. wile. 

Srs. Craft Treachery. Deceit Cun- 
ning. Insidiousness. Artifice. 

A>.-T. Honesty. Simplicity. Frankness. 
Generosity. Candour. Sincerity. 

Guileless, adj. See Guile 
and Craft. 

Guilt, n. See Guile and 

Guiltless, adj. See Guile 
and Innocent. 

Guise, w. Fr. guise. General 

Sin. A>pect. Garb. 

Ant. Character. Person. Individual. 
Sentiment Di>position. Opinion. Life. 
Mind. Soul. Self. 

Gull, n. From the bird— said 
to be foolish. Comp. the use of 
the following names of birds — 
Dupe, Booby, Goose. 

Syn. See Cheat. 

Gulp, v. tr. "Dutch goJpe, a 
whirlpool or gulf.- See Swallow. 

Gush, v. int. Low Germ. 

Sts. Burst Stream. Flow. Gn>h. 
Spout. „ 

Ant. Drip. Drop. Dribble. Trickle. 
Strain. Drain. Ooze. Filter. Percolate. 

GusT, n., Gustablb, adj. ; 
Gustation, «.,- Gustful, adj.; 
GrsTLESS, ndj. Lat. gustus, 
tadi'. See Taste. 

Gust, n. Iceland, gustr. Used 

Sin. Squall. Blast PufL Fit Out- 
bnrst. „ . ., 

Ant. Calm. Tranquillity. Subsidcnc«i 
Resir.iiut. Coiniiosurc. Zi-pliyr. 

Grzzi.K. '•. i''f. A modlHcR.- 
liuii of Guttlo. See Gorge. 

Synonyms and Antomjms. 



Habiliment, n. Fr. habille- 
ment, Lat. habere, habitus, Eng. 
habit, in the sense of dress. Used 
also, in the plural, of official or 
state dress. 

Stn. Dress. Vestments. Robes. Uni- 

Habilitate, V. tr. See noun. 

Habilitation, n. Lat. habilis, 
habere, from -which is derived 
ability. An old word extensively 

Stn. Qualification. Entitlemeut. Em- 

Ant. Disqualification. Depression. De- 
basement. Dishabilitation. 

Habit, n. See HabiUment. 
That which is constantly asso- 
ciated with the individual, in 
dress or demeanour. The word 
illustrates the double sense of 
custom and costume, from con- 

Stn. Habituation. Custom. Familiarity. 
Association. Inurement. 

Ant. Dishabituatioii. Inexperience. In- 
conversance. Desuetude. See Habiliment. 

Habitation, n. Eabitare, 
habere. Where one has one's 
self, or abides continually. See 

Habitual, adj. See Habit. 

Stn. Regular. Ordinary. Perpetual. 
Customary. Usual. 

Ant. irregular. Extraordinary. Occa- 
sional. Unusual. E.\ceptioual. Kare. 

Habituate, v. tr. See Habit 
and Accustom. 

Habitude, n. See Habit. An 
habitual state. 

Stn. State. Fixity. Condition. Atti- 

Am. Action. E.xercise. Operation. 

Hack, v. tr. Sax. haccuK. 

Syn. Chop. Notct. Curtail. Indent, 
Ant. Smoothe. Plane. Polish. Glaze 
Varnish. Gloss. Repair. Turn. Carve. 

Hackneyed, adj. Old Fr. 
haque, whence hackney, a horso 
for hu-e. Used of ideas and ex- 

Stn. Trite. AVorn. Stale. Threadbare. 
Ant. Novel. Bright. Original. Recent. 

Haggard, adj. Conn, with 
Hawk. The original meaning 
of this term was wild, and in- 
clined to behave like a refractory 
hawk; hence, wild in appear- 
ance, especially with a wild, 
worn, anxious expression of the 

Snr. Wild. Wasted. Worn. Attenu- 
ated. AV'rinkled. 

Ant. Sleek. Smug. Chubby. Plump. 

Haggle, v. inf. Scotch, /(«.'/ 
for hack, to cut into small ps'.ces. 
To be hard at bargaining. 

Stn. Higgle. Cli.iffer. Bargain. Stickle. 
Ant. Yield. Deduct. Abate. Reduce. 

Hail, v. tr. Der. uncertain. 
Perhaps, /«■//, health, answering 
to the Latin s<duto, from salus, 
meaning the same thing. 

Syn. Accost. Address. Salute. Call, 
Welcome. Greet. 

Ant. Ignore. Pass. Cut. Avoid. 

Halcyon, Halcyonic, adj. 
The bird halcyon was said to lay 
her eggs close to the sea, during 
the calm of the winter solstice. 
Tins was taken to prognosticate 
the absence of stormy weather. 

Stn. Calm. Serene. Balmy. Unruffled. 

Ant. Stormy. Troublous. Tempcsm- 
ous. Blustering. Boisterous. 

Half, n. Sax. heal/. 

Syn. .Moiety. Bisection. Dlmldiation. 

Ant. integrity. Entirety. Totality. 

Hallow, v. tr. Sax. hcili^/, 

Syn. Consecrate. Venerate. Rererente 
Ant. Desecrate. Profane. BU'spheta 
Abominate. Execrate. 

Sijnomjms and Antonyms. 


Hallucination, iu Lat. Ind- 
luciuuri, to see disordered visions. 

Stn. Delirium. Delusion. Phantasm. 

Ant. Perception. Observation. Sight. 

Hallucination is the result of 
a disordered constitution, as 
phantasm of a disordered mind. 

Halt, v. int. Sax. healtian, to 


S-m. Stop. Best. Limp. Falter. Ilesi- 
late. Hammer. Stammer. Demur. Dubi- 

Ant. Advance. Decide. Determine. 
Siiecrt. Flow. Career. 

Handle, v. tr. Hand. 

Stn. FeeL Treat. Use. Manage. 

Ant. Drop. Mismanage. Bungle. 

Handmaid, n. A maid at 
hand or in service. The word is 
used, metaphorically, of that 
which is ancillary to another 
lliiug, from anciVn, a handmaid : 
as, ■ music, the handmaid of re- 

Syn. Servant. Auxiliary. Supporter. 
Ant. Antagonist. Opponent. 

Handsome, adj. Hand. The 
old meaning of the word was 
handy, adroit, dexterous. Thence 
applied, as still in Scotland, to 
the figure and limbs in which 
appear that moulded and well- 
turned character wliich accom 
pany agility; and thence trans- 
ferred again, as in England, to 
the contour and moulding of the 
features. It is used, metaphoii 
cally, of graceful deeds and cha^ 

Sn-. Comely. Good-loolcing. Generous. 

Ant. Uncomely, lli-loolcing. Ungene- 
rous, Illiberal. Unhandsome. 

Handy, adj. See Handsome. 
Coming well to hand. 

Stn. Near. Convenient. Useful. Help- 
fn). Manageable. 

•Vnt. Remote. Inconvenien; Aw'Kward. 
Useless. Cumbrous. Unwieldy, '^nhandy. 

Hang, '•. inf. and tr. Sa^. 
hanf/an. Used metaphorically. 

Stn. Rest. Lean. Depend. Suspend. 
Ant. Stand. 

Hanker. Allied either to 
Hang or Hunger. To hang about 
a thing in desire, and so to feel 
appetite. Used with the pi-ep. 

Stn. Lons. Yearn. Crave. Hunger. 
Ant. DUlike. Shun. Loathe. Abomi- 
nate. Detest. Abhor. Avoid. 

Hap, n. Welsh. Luck or 
chance. See Luck. 

Hapless, adj. See Luckless. 

Haply, adv. See Perhaps. 

Happen, v. int. See Haj) and 

Happy, adj. See Hap. Ac- 
cording to ha]) or luck. 

Stn. Luclvv. Fortunate. Felicitous. 
Successful. Delighted. Joyous. Merry 

Ant. Unlucky. Unfortunate. Infelici- 
tous. Unsuccessful. Sorrowful. Sorry. 
Disappointed. Dull. Lugubrious. De- 
sponding. Unhappy. 

Harangue, n. Arena. Comp. 
Eing. A speech made to a num- 
ber of persons. As speech is 
generic, so oration is an elaborate 
and prepared speech. Harangue, 
a speech, appeals not to the 
taste, but the passions. 

Stn. Speech. Oration. Effusion. De- 
clamaticn. Rant. 

Ant. Stiimmer. Stutter. Mutter 
Jtumble. Drawl. Insinuation. Suggestion. 
Reasoning. Blandiloquence. 

Harass, v. tr. Old Fr. liaras&e, 
a large heavy shield^ which fa- 
tigued and galled the wearer, 

Stn. AVeary. Annoy. Fatigue. Jade. 
Tease. Irritate. Chafe. Molest. Worry 
Vex. Harrow. 

Ant. Refresli. Comfort. Solace. Re- 
lieve. Soothe. Animate. .Inspirit. 

Harbinger, n. Germ, hn- 
herger. Conn, with Harbour. 
One who finds rest or lodging 

Synonyms and Anionymi 


^icoiidly, one who, to find lodg- 
ii\<:. goes before a great, personage 
t,i announce his coming; hence, 
thirdly, one who announces a 
person or event. 

Syn. Announcer. Herald. Precursor. 

Ant. Reporter. Narrator. Rclater. 

Historian. Follower. Attendant. 

Harbour, n. See Harbinger. 

Stx. Haven. Rest. Refuge. Sbelter. 
Ancboiage. Home. 

Akt. J.abour. Toil. Peril. Exposure. 
\'oyiige. Roving. Roaming. Wandenng. 
I'ilgiiniagc. Tossing. 

Harbour, v. tr. See Harbour, 
,1. Used in the senses of giving 
accommodation, and finding a 
]ilace in the mind for certain 
tlioughts or sentiments. 

Syn. Actonimodate. Cherish. Enter- 
tain. Encourage. 

Ant. Eject. Expel. Discard. Discou- 
vag''. Stifle. Exclude. Banish. Dismiss. 

Hard, adj. Sax. heard, Gr. 
KpciTos, strength. 

Syn. Firm. Dense. Solid. Compact. 
Unyielding. Impenetrable. Arduous. Diffi- 
cult. Grievous. Distressing. Rigorous. 
Oppressive. Exacting. Unteeling. Stub- 
Imrn. Harsh. Forced. Constrained. In- 

Ant. Soft. Fluid. Liquid. Elastic. 
Brittle. Penetrable. Easy. Mild. Lenient. 
Tender. Ductile. Uninvolved. Simple, 
hitelligible. Perspicuous. 

Harden, v. tr. See Hard. 

Stn. Inure. Train. Habituate. Con- 
firm. Indurate. Consolidate. Compact. 

Ant. Disinure. Relax. Enervate. De- 
bilitate. Dishabituate. Soften. Melt. 
Mollify. Colliquate. Vaporize. 

Hardihood, n. See Hardy 
and Audacity. 

Hardly, adv. See Hard. 

Stn. Barely. Just. Scarcely. Nar- 

Ant. Fully. Amply. Easily. Largely. 

Hardship, n. See Hard, 

Stn. Trouble. Burden. Annoyance. 
Grievance. Calamity. Infliction. Endnr- 

AST. Pleasure. Amusement. Allevia- 
tion. Recreatiiin. Gratification. Relief. 
Assuagement. Facilitation. Boon Treat. 

Hardy, adj. See Hard. 

Stn. Inured. Robust. Strong. P.jso- 

Ant. Weak. Uninured. Delicate. Ir- 
reso'ute. Enervated. Debilitated. Fragile. 

Harm, «. Sax. 

Stn. Hurt. Mischief. Injury. Detri- 
men t. Damage. 

Ant. Benefit. Boon. Amelioration. 
Improvement. Reparation. Compensati'ju 
Healing. Remedy. 

Harmless, adj. See Harm. 

Stn. Innocuous. Innoxious. Inoffen 
sive. Innocent. Gentle. 

Ant. Nocuous. Noxious. Hurtful 
Savage. Cruel. Deadly. Violent. Di- 
structive. Iklischievous. Pernicious. 

Harmonious. Harmony. Gr. 
apfiQvia, a Joint Joining or com- 
pucting ; apa, I Join. 

Stn. Congruous. Accordant. Propor- 
tioned. Uniform. Melodious. Musical. 
Dulcet. Tuneful. Peaceful. Agreeable. 
Amicable. Fiiendly. 

Ant. Incongruous. Discordant. D's- 
proportioned. Unshapely. Harsh. Grating. 
Unmelodious. Unfriendly. Riotous. Un- 
peaceful. Quarrelsome. 

As at present used, harmony, 
in music, is the relation of single 
notes to chords, melody, the 
ascent, dwelling, or descent of 
single notes. 

Harmony, «. See Harmo- 

Harness, n. Old Fr. Used 
formerly of the accoutrements of 
man, horse, and equipage. See 

Harp, v. Sax. hearpe, a harp. 
Used metaphorically. 

Stn. Peg. Strum. Hammer. Drum. 
Ant. Touch. Handle. Treat. Manage 


j Harrow, v. tr. Lat. hirpex, 
I Low Lat. hercia, a harrow. Used 
metaphorically. *See Harass. 
I Harsh, adj. Genn. harsch. 
j Expresses what is uncongenial, 
' more especially, in the first in- 
■ stajico, to the hearing and tha 


Sunonyms and Antonyms. 

toucli, and is used, analogously, 
of disposition^ language, and de- 

Stn. Rough. Grating. Severe. Sharp. 

Ant. Smoothe. Melodious. Lenient. 

Suave. Bland. Gentle. Genial Kindly. 

Harshly, adv. See Harsli. 

Harvest, ??. Sax. As it 
were, herb-feast, or time of car- 
rying the grain. It is used, me- 
taphorically, of abundance of 
things profitable. 

Srs. Growth. Produce. Abundance. 
Profit. Gain Influx. Accession. Aug- 
mentation. Crop. 

Ant. Diminution. Failure. Scarcity. 
Loss. Famine. Waste. Damage. Calamity. 
Ruination. Reverse. Blight. 

Haste, n. Old Fr. haste. 

Stn. Sp<=-«d. Celerity. Expedition. 
Hurry. Despatch. Excitement. Heedless- 

Ant. Slowness. Tardiness. Delay. 
Coolness. Reflection. ModeraUon. Steadi- 

Hasten, v. tr. and Int. See 

Stn. Accelerate. Urge. Expedite. 
Speed. Press. Hurry. 

Ant. Retard. Impede. Obstruct. De- 
mur. Hesitate. Halt. 

Hasty, adj. See Haste. 

Stn. Speedy. Rapid. ' Superficial. 
Hurried. Irascible. Impetuous. Reckless. 
Headlong. Crude. Incomplete. Unde- 
veloped. Immature. 

Ant. Slow. Leisurely. Careful. Close. 
Reflective. Developed. Matured. Complete. 
Klaborate. Thoughtful. Deliberate. 

Hatch, v. tr. Germ, hecken. 
Used metaphorically. 

Syn. Prepare. Concoct. Devise. Scheme. 
Brew. Plot. Contrive. Incubate. 

Ant. Disconcert. Upset Expose. Dis- 
sipate. Counteract. Baflle. Mar. Spoil. 
Frustrate. Neutralize. 

Hate, v. fr. Sax. liatiun, to 
hate. See Abhoi". 
Hateful, adj. See Hate. 

Sl-N. Abominable. Detestable. Vile. 
Odious. Heliums. E.\ecrable. 

Ant. Loveable. Lovely. Desirable. 
DellghtfuL Attractive. Enticing. Tempt- 
t2g. Plrj«anU E.-\)uyBble. I 

I Haughty, adj. Fr, naut^ 
' high. See Affable. 

Haul, v. tr. Dan. halen. Same 
as hale, to drag. See Drag. 

Haunt, v. tr. Sax. hentan, to 
pursue, go after. In English, to 
frequent. See Abandon. 

Have, v. tr. Lat. habere, to 

Stn. Own. Possess. Feel. Entertain. 

Accept. Bear. Enjoy. Keep. 

Ant. Want. Need. Lose. Forego. 

Discard. Rgect. Miss. Desiderate. Covet. 

Havin, n. Sax. ha/en. See 

Havoc, n. Welsh, hafog. 

Stn. Desolation. Ruin. Waste. Wreck. 
Ravage. Demolition. Destruction. De- 

Ant. Conservation. Enhancement. En- 
richment. Augmentation. Development. 
Productiveness. Lu.vuriance. Prosperity. 

Hawk, v. tr. Germ. Iwhen, to 
higgle. To sell by outcry, or iu 
different places, as a pedler. 

Stn. Sell. Peddle. Retul. 
Ant. Reserve. Store. Suppress. With- 
hold. House. Bond. Store. 

Hawker, n. See Hawk. 

Hazard, v. tr. Fr. An un- 
foreseen disaster, or hidilen 

Stn. Peril. Risk. Jeopardy. Danger. 

Ant. Safety. Security. Protection. 
Warrant Certainty. Calculation. Law. 

Hazy, axij. Haze. Armoric, 

ai-z, luarm vajioiir. 

Stn. Foggy. Nebulous, jilisty. i'.'jxiy. 
Gauzy. Cloudy. Cul'ginous. Murky. 

Ant. Diaphanous. Clear. Crystalline. 

Head, t?. Germ, hanpt. Alhed 
to Lat. caput. Used metaphori- 
cally or antdogously. 

Stn. Top. Crown. Chief. Leader. 
Ruler. Mind. Source. Section. Division 
Topic. tJalheriiig. Culmination. Cri«>s 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


Am Tail. Bottom. Foot. rDllower. 
StTvant. Retainer. Subordinate. Subordi- 
nation. Inferiority. Body. Bulk. Sub- 
ject. Continuation. 

Heading, n. See Head and 

Headlong, adj. See Hasty. 

Headstrong, adj. See Head 
and Obstinate. 

Heal, v. tr. Sax. Minn. From 
lidl, hale or sound. To make 
sound after injury. Applied 
both to wounds and tbe -wounded. 

Syn. Cure. Repair. Restore. Remedy. 
Assuage. Cicatrize. 

Akt. Harm. Hurt. AVound. Pierce. 

Healthy, adj. Health. -See 
Heal. Having or imparting 

Stn. Vigorous. Smind. Robust. Strong. 
Hale. Salubrious. Wholesome. 

Ant. Unhealthy. Unsound. Weak. 
Delicate. Fragile. Noxious. Pernicious. 


Health, n 
Heap, v. tr 

Heart, n. 

lierz, Gr. Kr)p 

.See Healthy, 
Sax. -See Accu- 

Sax. Tieorte, Germ. 
Lat. cor. Ee- 
garded as the centre of life and 
the seat of courage and benevo- 

Stn. Core. Nucleus. Kernel. Interior. 
Centre. Character. Uisposiiion. Omrape. 
Hardihood. Nature. Life. Feeling. Be- 

Ant. Exterior. Hand. Action. Aspect. 
Manifestation. Conduct Deed. Timidity. 

Heartiness. See Hearty. 

Hearty, a<lj. See Heart. Ex- 
hibiting heart in the two senses, 
oi the centre of vitality and the 
centre of feeling. 

Syn. Healthy. Robust. Sound. Cor- 
dial. Warm. Honest. 

Ant. Unhealthy. Delicate. Inlii-m. 
'Jolil. lusincere. 

Heat. Sax. hate. Comp. Hot. 
Used metaphorically of excite- 
ment of passion or feeling. 

Stw. Warmth. Ardour. Fashion. Ex- 
citement. Fever. Ebullition. Intensity. 

AHT. CooliK'SS. Indifferenc?. Subsi. 
dence. Calmness. Composure. Reflection. 

Heathen, Heathenish, adj. 
Either from (6vr], nations, mean- 
ing the unconverted world, or 
heide, Germ, hputh, or open 
country, as distinguished from 
the towns, in whicli the fii-st con- 
versions took place. So Pagans 
were rustics, inhabitants of pagi 
or villages. 

Stn. Unconverted. Unchristian. Pagan. 
Uncivilized. Unbelieving. 

Ant. Christian. Believing. Refined. 
Civilized. Polished. 

Heave, v. tr. Sax. hefan. Al- 
lied to capere, Lat. to take. To 
raise, as a weight, upwards. 

Stn. Lift. Raise. Uplift. Upraise. 
Sublevate. Hoist. 

Ant. Dash. Sink. Lower. Detruiie. 

Heavenly, adj. Belonging to 
heaven, which is of the same de- 
rivation as Heave, meaning the 
elevated or uplifted jilace ; after 
the analogy of Loft from Lift. 
See Celestial and Angelic. 

Heaviness, n. See Heavy. 

Heavy, wIJ. See Heave. Hard 
to heave. Used also metapho- 
rically of feelings and circum- 

Stn. Weighty. Ponderous. Inert. Slow. 
Stupid. Dull. Impenetrable. Stolid. Cum- 
brous. Grievous. AfBiclive. Oppressive. 

Ant. Light. Trifling. Trivial. Agile. 
Active. Quick. Brisk. Joyous. AUe- 
viative. Consolatory. Inspiriting. Ani- 
mating. Buoyant. 

Hebetude, n. Lat. hehes, etis, 
1)1 urd. Moral or intellectual 

Stn. Dulnes.^ Heaviness. Insensibility. 
Stupidity. Numbness. Insensateneaa 

Ant. Brightness. Animation. Sensibility 
iCleveruess. Acuteness. 


Hector J ?•. ird. From Hector, 
son of Priam, whose name has 
met with unmerited disparage- 
ment, and stands as a proverb 
for a bully. 

S™. Bully. Swagger. Bluster. Boast. 

Ant. Cower. Shrink. Hide. Sliulk. 

HectOE, T). See verb. 

Heed, v. tr. Sax. ludan, to 

Syk. Mind. Regard. Notice. Attend. 
Ant. Disregard. Slight. Ignore. 

Heed, n. See verh. 
Heedful, adj. See Heed. 

S\N. Mindful. Careful. Cautious. Con- 
siderate. Waiy. Circumspect. 

Ant. Unmindful. Careless. Heedless. 
Ueckless. Unheedful. 

Heedless, adj. See Heedful. 
Height, n. Sax. 

Syn. Altitude. Elevation. TaUness. 
Summit. Exaltation. Culmination. 

Ant. Depth. Lowness. Depression. 
Littleness. Base. Abasement. 

Heighten, v. tr. See Height. 

Syn. Exalt. Increase. Enhance. In- 
tensify. Colour. Vivify. Aggravate. 

Ant. Lower. Depress. Diminish. De- 
tericrate. Abase. Temper. Tone Ex- 
tenuate. Modify. Qualil}-. 

Heinous, adj. Fr. hair, to 

Syn. Hateful. Flagrant. Flagitious. 
Atrocious. Odious. Abominable. Exe- 
ciable. Detestable. 

Ant. Excellent. Laudable. Meritorious. 
Praiseworthy. Distinguished. Justifiable. 
Excusable. PnUiable. 

Hellish, adj. Sax. Belong- 
inc- to hell. See Angelic. 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 

Hem, v. tr. Sax 

Help, v. tr. 

Sin. Aid, Succour, 

Ant. Oppose. Obstruct. 


Help, «. See ^.trl. 
Helpless, adj Sa 

ax. hdpan, to 

Remedy. Prevent. 


Help and 

Ste Borler. 
Hem, oi. See verb. 

Herald,??. OldFr. An officer 
whose business it was to proclaim 
war, peace, &c. See Harbinger. 
Old Germ, harert, to sJtvut. 
Herald, v. tr. See noun, 
Herculean, adj. Hercules. 

Syn. »S'«e Gigantic. 

Herd, v. int. Sax. See Con- 

Hereditary, adj. Hares, edis, 

an Jieir. 

Sy:^, Inherited. Ancestral. Lineal. 
Ant. Conferred. Acquired. Won. 

Heresy, n. alpea-is, choice. A 
wrong choice in religion. 

Syn. .Schism. Unorthodoxy. 
Ant. Orthodoxy. Catholicity. 

Schism, or pro]")erly a breach 
of discipline by secession or dis- 
union, as Heresy is error in doe- 

Heritage, n. See Hereditary. 

Syn. Inheritance. Knt^iilment. Le-acy. 

Ant. Acquisition. Blcrit. \Vages 

Hermetically, adv. Hei-mcs 
Trismegistus, the fabled inven- 
tor of alchemy or chemistry. 
Hermetically sealed, is sealed as 
tightly as chemistry could seal it. 

Syn. Air-tight. Closely. 
Ant. Loosely. Misfittingly. 

Hero,??. Gr. "Hpco?. Cham- 
pion of the present or the heroic 
age. A character of daring, or 
one of romantic superiority. See 

Heroic, adj. See Hero. 

Syn. Brave. Undaunted. Chivalronai 
Daring. R<imantic. 

Ant. Dastardly. Cowaidly. Cravoiily, 

Hesitate, v. iid. ra^itar^, 
2>ri2). of harerc, to btick. 

Si/nonifiiis and Antonyms. 


Sin. Hubitate. Waver. Scruple. De- Falter. SUimnier. 

Ant. Decide. Dotormine. Run. Flow. 

Heterodox, adj. eTepos, an- 
I titer, and fio^a, opinion. Hold- 
ing a wrong belief. 

Stn. Unsound. Heretical. 
Akt. Sound. Orthodo.K. 

HeTEEOGENEOUS, arlj. erepos, 
other or strange, and yevos, 
genus or kind. The word is used 
of strong dissimilarity, either in 
one object to another, or in the 
l)arts of the same among them- 

Stn. Strange. Alien. Dissimilar. Dis- 

A^T. Accordant Congruous. Homo- 
geneous. Similar. 

Hew, v. tr. Sax. heaiuan. To 
cut broadly or roughly. 

Si-N. Cut. Hack. Chop. FalL 
AST. Mould. Model. Form. Carve. 
Sculpture. Engrave. Levigate. Turn. 

Hibernal, adj. Iliems, hibcr- 
nus. Belonging to winter. 

SrK. Wintry. Arctic. Brumal. Glacial. 
Akt. Summerly. Zephyrous. Balmy. 

Hide. Act. and neut. Sax. 
hgdan. ' 

SvN. Conceal. Secrete. Mask. Dis- 
semble. Store. Protect. Disguise. Ensconce. 

A-NT. Expose. Discover. Exhibit. Mani- 
fest. Betray. Strip. 

Hideous, (((//. Old Fr. hide, 

Sys. Frightful. Unsha:iely. Monstrous. 

AxT. Graceful. Beautiful. Captivating. 

Hie, v. tr. Sax. higan. To 
make haste. 

Syn. Fly. Haste. Speed. 

Am. Falt«r, Stop. Stay. Lag. Stick. 

Higgle, v. int. See Haggle 
and Hawk. 

High, adj. Sax. heah, Germ. 

8tk. Elevated. Lofty. TalL Emirent. 
E:iceUent. Nobie Haughty. 

Ant. Depre.'sed. Low. Stunted. Ig- 
noble. Mean. Base. Affable. 

Highly, adv. See High. 

Hilarity, n. Eilaritas, h ila r /.<, 
merry, in high spirits. See De- 

Hinder, v. tr. Sax. hind,hacn\ 
As Prevent is to stop by going 
before, so Hinder is to stop by 
pulling from behind. 

Srx. Prevent. Interrupt. Obstni.r. 
Pvetard. Debar. Embarrass. 

Ant. Accelerate. Expedite. Enable. 
Promote. Facilitate. 

Hindrance, n. See Hinder. 
Hjnge, I'. 2«f. OldEng. Conn, 
with Hang. 

Stn. Move. Turn. Hang. Depend. 
Work. Rotate. Circulate. 

Ant. Halt Crepitate. Jar. Grate 

Hint, ??. Hentan, to pursue 
or seize, with the impUed pur- 
pose of warning or suggesting. 
See Cue. 

Hint, v. See n. and Suggest. 

Hire, v. Sax. hyrian. To 
procure by compensation for 
temporary use. 

Stn. Engage. Commission. Employ 

Ant. Buy. Purchase. 

Hirsute, adj. Hirsidus, hirtds, 

Stn. Haiiy. Shaggy. Hispid. Do\\ny. 

Ant. Smooth. Glabrous. Bald. 

HlSPlD, udj. Hispidus. Sec 
Historic, adj. Historia, hitr- 

tory, Gr. la-TOpeco, J inquire. 

Syn. Genuine. Authentic A'uthe-jti- 

Ant. Prehistoric. Fabulous. Legen- 
dary. Unhistoric. 

History, n. See Historic and 


Histrionic, adj. Ilistrio, an 


S\N. Dramatic. Pantomimic. Thea^i< 

1 .\^■T. Uirlramatic. Untheatri-Jl. 


SijnonyuLS and Antonyms. 

Hit, v. tr. Sax. hettan, to jnir- 
sue or drive. 

SvN. Strike. Succeed. Chance, lloach. 
Hazard. Mistake. 

Ant. FaiL Mischance. Err. Miss. 

HiTOH, V. int. Scotch. Means 
to jerk or to move by jerks. 

SvN. Stick. Stickle. Bur. Jam. Catch. 

Ant. Kun. Glide. Slide. Rotate. Flow. 

Hoard, v. tr. Sax. hordan. 
To lay up in store. 

Syn. Treasure. Accumulate. Husband. 
jVnt. Waste. Squi'.nder. Dissipate, 

Hoarse, adj. See Harsh. 

ST.-N. H.irsh. Grating. Raucous. Husky. 
Act. Mell'^uous. Mellow. Rich. Sweet. 

Hoary, adj. Sax. har, gray. 

Syn. Whita. Gray. Silvery. Frosty. 
Ant. Dark. Raven. Jet. 

Hoax, v. tr. Sax. hues, 
modiertj, or possibly a form of 
<icvx in liocua pocus — 'Hoc est 
.-orjiKs,' in derision of transub- 
stantiation, but not probably. 

SvN. BefooU Gammon. Bamboozle. 
Dupe. Trick. Trepan. 

Akt. Guide. Enlighten. Undeceive, 
Infoira. Direct. Correct. Regulate. 

Hobble, v. int. Eop. To 
■u'alk with a hitch or hop. To 


SvN. Limp. Falter. 

Ant. Run. Course. Speed. Leap. 

Hobby, n. Dan. Iwppe, a mare. 
A strong cob; a child's toy in 
the tignre of a horse; hence a 
favourite pursuit. 

Syn. Pursuit. AVTiim. Amusement. 
Speciality. Idiosyncrasy. 

AxT. Nuisance. Horror. Aversion. 
Bugbear. Scarecrow, Incubus, 

HOYDKN, n. Heide, a heath. A 
bmmcing rustic. 

Stn. Romp. Tomboy. 
A3src. Prude. 

Hold, v. tr. and int. Sax. 

Stn. Keep. Grasp. Retain. Support. 
Restrain, Defend. Maintain. Occupy. 
Possess. Sustain. Regard. Consider. Co- 
here. Continue. 

Ant Drop. Aba-jdon, SijTr(n.1«'r. Kafl 
Release. Desert. Foregx Vacate. Con- 
cede. Break, Cease. 

Hollow, adj. Used mcta- 
pliorically. Sax. hoi. Comp, 

Stn. Empty. Concave. Foolish. Weak. 
Faithless. Insincere. Artificial. Unsub- 
stantial. Flimsy. Transparent. Senseless. 

Ant. Full. Solid. Well-stored. Strong. 
Firm. Sincere. True. Genuine. Sub- 
stantial. Sound. 

Holy, adj. Sax. halig. 

Stn. Sacred. Reverend. Pure. Conse- 
crated. Religious. 

Ant. Profane. Evil. Impure. Un- 

Homage, n. Homagium, homo, 
a man. An acknowledgment 
made to the liege lord by the 
man or vassal. 

Stn. Fealty. Allegiance. Submission. 
Worship. Deference. Affiance. 

Ant. Treason. Rebellion. Disaffection. 
Insubordination. Defiance. 

Home, n. Sax. ham, Germ. 
heim. A settled abode. See 

Homogeneous, adj. 6fi6s, the 
like,SiTidyevos, kind. See Hetero- 

Honesty. Uonestus was in 
Latin high-born, and the word 
has come to mean Probity, by 
the general tendency of language 
in past times to make all good 
quaUties aristocratic, aud mean 
quaUties plebeian. The classic 
sense of honcstus was not honest, 
but honourable. 

Stn. Integrity. Probity. Uprightness. 
Straightforwardness. Fairness. Sincerity. 

Ant. Dishonesty. Chicanery. Trickery. 
Insincerity. Deception. Fraud. Unfair- 
ness. Guile. 

Honour, n. Lai honor. Ob- 
jectively the deference paid by 
others. Subjectively the sense 
of the honourable. 

Stn. Respect. Reverence. Nobility 
Dignity. Eminence. Reputation. Fume 
High-mindedness. Spirit. Self-respect 

Sijnonyins and Antonyms. 


Ant. Disrespect. Contempt. Irre- 
vctpnce. Slight. Obscurity. Degradation. 
Disgrace. Abasement. Demoralization. 
Oowardico. Dishonour. Infamy. 

HoNOEART, adj. Honorarium, 
a fee. An oflSce held unofficially, 
as distinct from such as have 
attached to them a specific au- 
thority and specific claims. 

Srx. Gratuitous. Unofficial. Unre- 
munerative. Nominal. Titular. 

AxT. Official. Remunerative. Profes- 
sional. Jurisdictional. 

Hoot, v. int. To cry as an 
owl, with a cry of contempt, fol- 
lowed by the j^rejh at. 

Sts. Hiss. E.\ecrate. Denounce. Sibi- 
late. Decry. 

Ant. Cheer. Honour. Acclaim. Eulo- 
gize. Salute. Welcome. 

Hope, n. Sax. hopa, hope. 
Desire and expectation com- 

Stn. Anticipation. Prospect Vision. 
Longing. Confidence. Desire. 

Ant. Despair. Despondency. Distrust. 
Disbelief. Abandonment. Abjuration. 

Hopeful, adj. See Hope. 
Said subjectively of the disposi- 
tion or mind, and objectively of 
the event or circumstance. 

Stn. Eager. Ardent. Longing. Confi- 
dent. Promising. Propitious. Auspicious. 

Ant. Indifferent. Distrustful. Unpro- 
mising. Unpropitious. Improbable. Hope- 
ess. Desperate. Irreparable. lU-omeued. 
Discouraging. Inauspicious. 

Hopeless, adj. See Hopeful. 

Horizon, opi'^mi/, jJcrt. bound- 
ing, kvkXos, a circle, being un- 
derstood. Used metaphori- 

Stn. Limit. Periphery. Grcle. Boun- 

Amt. Space. Boundlessness. Infinitude. 

HoRBlBLK, adj. Ilorrtbilis, 
horrere, to shudder. 

Sts. Abominable. Detestable. Dread- 
ful. Fearful. Hideous. Ghastly. Terrific. 

AKT. Lovely. Desirable. Enjoyable. 
Attractive. Beautiful. Fair. Pleasant. 

Horrid, adj, Horrid us, St9 

Horror, n. Horrere, to groj'< 
stiff tvith dread. It has come to 
be used of strong dislike. 

Stn. Fear. Dread, shrinking. Loath- 
ing. Detestation. 

Ant. Love. Attraction. Allurement. 

Hospitable, adj. Hospes, a 

Stn. Sociable. Neighbourly. Chari- 

Ant. Unsociable. Exclusive. Retired. 
Unneighbourly. Churlish. Recluse. 

Host, n. Host is, an enemy. As 
it were, an army of the enemy. 
A multitude. 

Stn. Multitude. Number. Assemblage 

Ant. Handful. Sprinkling. Knot. 
Group. Corps. Section. 

Hostage, ?;. Said to be, not 
hostagium, from hostts, as given 
to the enemy in pledge, but 
from obses, idis, Lat. a hostage. 

Stn. Sponsor. Bail. Surety. 

Ant. Dictator. Conqueror. 

Hostility, n. Host is, an 
enemy. See Animosity. 

Hound, v. tr. Sax. and Germ. 
hund, Gr. Kvav, Lat. canis. Used 

Stn. Pursue. Hunt. Prosecute. 
Ant. Liberate. Discard. Abandon. 

House, n. and v. Germ, haits. 
See Abode and Store. 

Hubbub, n. Comp. Whoop. 
A confused sound of voices. See 

Huddle, act. and neut. Germ. 
hudeln. To do a thing hurriedly, 
and so bimglingly; expresses 
also the idea of joint movement 
in confusion. 

Stn. Mix. Confuse. Derange, Heap. 
Ant. Assort. Arrange. Adjust. Clas- 

Huge, adj. Conn, with High, 
thi'ough the Germ. hoch. 

Synomjms and A)ttonjjms. 


Sts Enormous. IMonstroiis. Colossal. 

Axi. Petty. Unlersized. Puny. Pigmy. 

Human, adj. Uomn, humanus. 
Belonging to man iu nature and 

Stx. Ethnical. Cosmical. Anlhropo- 
.ogical. Rational. Civilized. 

AST. Inbunian. Beastly, irrational. 

Humane, adj. See Htiman. 
More distinctly expressive of 
what ought to be regarded as 
hnman in sentiment and cha- 

Syn." Benign. Kind. Tender. Merci- 

Ant. Uiiliind. Crael. Umnorciful. In- 

Humanity, ». Like Human, 
expresses the existence of the 
human race, and what ought to 
be its moral characteristic. 

Stn. Man. Mankind. Kindness. Ten- 
derness. Compassion. 

Ant. Unkindness. Cruelty. Inhumanity. 
Bestiality. Irrationality. Barbarity. 

Humanize, v. it: See Hu- 
Kifiiity. ^ ,. ^, 

Syx. Civilize. Ameliorate. Enlighten. 
Christianize. Refine. 

Ant. Barbarize. Degrade. Debase. De- 
press. Brutalize. 

Humble, adj. Lat. Immilis. 
Low in station; or, morally, in 
self-estimation. ^, , 

Stn. Low. Lowly. Obscure. Meek. 
Modest. Unassuming. Unpretending. 

Ant. High. Lofty. Eminent. Proud. 
Boastful. Arrogant. Assuming. Preten- 

Humid, adf. Lat. himidm. 

Syx. Moist. Wet. Vaporous. Spongy. 
^"ant. Dry. Arid. Moistureless. Parched. 

Humiliate, v. tr. See Humble 
and Elevate. 

Humility, n. Sec Humble. 

Humour, n. Lat. hmnor, from 
hnmere, to he moist. Of old, the 
proportion of humours which 
entered into the constitution 
■were lielievea to make the dis- 
position It now stands for the 

disposition of the moment, axri 
for that which is especially mo- 
mentary—the exhibition of the 
ludicrous or jocose. 

Stn. Disposition. Temper. :Mi«d. 
Caprice. Jocoseness. Pleasantry 

Ant. Nature. I'ersonality. Jlind. \N ill. 
Purpose. Seriousness. 

HuMOURSOME, adj. See Hu- 
mour and Fanciful. 

Hunt, i'. tr. Sax. hc^ifaj,, pur- 
sue. See Hound. 

Hurl, v. tr. Old Eng. -See 

Hurry, act. and neut. Germ 
hurrcn, to haste. See Speed and 

Hurt, v. Sax. hyrt, hurt or 

Stn. Wound. Bruise. Harm. Injure. 
Damage. , _, 

Ant. Heal. Soothe. Console. Repair 
Reinstate. Compensate. Benefit. 

Husband, v. tr. Formed from 
the nvu7i, and used in the sense 
of economize. >See Economize. 

Hush, v. tr. Formed from 
the sound. See Silence. 

Husky, adj. Husk. Germ. 
hdsche, Sax. helan, to cover. A 
husk. Used of the voice, as li 
the throat were dry as a husk 
See Hoarse. 


Hustle, v. tr. Dan. 
to shake. See Jostle. 
Hybrid, «. Lat. hyhrida. 

Stn. Mixed. Impure. Mongrel. Mule. 
Ant. Pure. Unmixed. Thoroughbreu. 

Hypocrisy, n. See Hypociito. 

Hypocrite, n. v7roK,"n-7> 
the Greek masked actor. Used 
for one who masks his real iia- 
tTire or motive under a contrai-y 

SvN. Feigner. I^etender. Di8femb«a 

Syiioni/ms and Antonyms. 


The hypocrite feigns to be 
■K-hiit he is not. the dissembler to 
be not what he is. 

Ant. S;unt. Believer. Christian. Sim- 
pleton. Dupe. Bigot. Fanatic 

HypoCEiTiCAL, adj. Slc Hy- 

Syn. Pharisaical. Sanctimonious. Smug. 
Smooth. Mealy. Unctuous. Mincing 

Ant. Plain -spoljen. Candid. J'lutliful. 
Sincere. Genuine. Transparent. 


Idea, n. Gr. Was of old a 
term of the Platonic philosophy. 
In motlern parlance we mean by 
an idea, a mental image of an 
object of the senses, as a notion 
is the impression of a quahty. 
So the ' Idea of a Man,' the ' No- 
tion of Humanity.' Tliis is not 
.strictly adhered to. 

Sru. Image. Notion. Conception. Be- 
lief. Doctrine. Suppoiitiou. Understand- 
ing. Fiction. Fancy. 

Akt. Olject. Form. Subject. Thing. 

Ideal, adj. Sm Idea. Used 
also as a norm with the definite 
article prefixed — 'the ideal' — 
and in the two senses of creation 
and fiction of the mind. 

Stn. Mental. Notional. Conceptional. 
Intellectual. Creative Spiritual. Poetical. 
•Suppositious. Fictitious. Unreal. Ima- 
ginary. Chimerical. 

Ant. Physical. Visible. Material. Tan- 
gible. HistoricaL ReaL Actual. Palpa- 
ble. SubstantiaL 

Ideality, n. See Ideal. The 
faculty of forming ideal concep- 
tion, especially of the beautiful. 

Stn. Fancy. Creativeness. Genius. 
Ant. Imitation. Uninventiveness. Un- 
Imaginativeness. Copyism. 

Identify, v. tr. Idem, the 
S'lme, and /acere, to mahe. Means 
both to make into one and the 
same, and also to recognize as 
iKjiug one and the same. 

St*". Unite. Integrate. Uecognize. ' ''e- 
rtiy, iBcorporaie. 

Ant. Divide. Disunite. Confound. Om 
fuse. Overlook. Mistake. 

Identity, n. See Identify. 

Syn. Oneness. Unity. Sameness. 1 er- 
sonalily. IndividuaUty. Convertibllit.v. 

Ant. Difference. Distinctness. Stpa- 
ratenoss. Plurality . Contrariety. 

Idiocy, n. Gr. tStwrrjc, a per- 
son in private life uneducated to 

ji p 
bear office in the state or academi 
Hence mental deficiency. 

Stn. Imbecility. Aberration. Insanity. 

Ant. Sanity. Sagacity. Intelligence. 
Sense. Judgment. 

Idiom. I'Sioy, 'priuate or pecu- 
liar ; ISicofia, a 2)ecidiurity. A 
term of expression peculiar to a 

Sm Specialty. Peculiarity. Charac- 
teristic. Phrase. Turn. 

Ast. Solecism. Barbarism. 

IdIOSYNCRACY, n. '1810s a-vu 

Kpaa-is. The peculiar commix- 
ture or composition which makes 
up the taste and temper of a per- 
son, or anything peculiarly illus- 
trative of it. 

Syn. Peculiarity. Constitution. Tempe- 
rament. Specialty. Characteristic. Indi- 
viduality. Singularity. Eccentricity. 

Akt. Community. Universality. Gene- 

Idiot, «. See Idiocy. 

Syx. Imbecile. Fool. 

Ant. Luminary. Sage. Authority. 

Idle, adj. Sax. idel, vain, 

Syn. Void. Unoccupied. Waste. Vain. 

Empty. Unemployed 

Ant. Tilled. Occupied. Populated. Filled. 
Employed. Assiduous. Industrious. 

Idolize, v. tr. etSoAov, an 
id'l or image made to he wor^ 

Syx. Worship. Venerate. Adore. 

Ant. Loathe. Execrate. Abominate. 

Ignite, v. tr. Ignis, /ire. See 

Ignoble, acZ/. In, not, and no- 
bilis, noble. Used of social and 
nxirarcharacter or condition. 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 



Stn. Elucidate. Interpret. Exenij(ll!>. 

Stx. Moan. Base. Dishonourable. Hutn- 
Ke. Plebeian. I.owly. 

Ant. Hcnonrable Noble. Eminent Ex- 
alted. Lordly. Grand. Notable. Illustrious. 

^ ^ - I Demonstrate. Explain. Embody, 

Ignominy, n. In, riot, and no- \ sent. Paint, image 
meii,a)i<nne. A deprivation of a ' 
good name. 

Stn. Disgrace. Reprobation. Shame. 
Reproach. C^intempt. Dishonour. Infamy. 

Ant. Credit. Reputation. Honour. 
Glory. Distinction. Lustre. Renown. 


Ignoramus, n. Lat. we are uj- 

Srs. Dunce. Dullard. 
Ant. Savant. Luminary. 

Ignorance, n. In, not, and 
noscere, to know. See Knowledge. 

Ignore, v. tr. See Ignorance. 

Sys. Disown. Repudiate. Overlook. 
Ant. Own. Notice. Mark. Visit Re- 

Illegal, adj. See Legal, 
Illegible, adj. See Legible. 
Illegitimate, adj. See Legal. 
Illiberal, adj. See Liberal. 
Illicit, adj. See Licit. 

Illiterate, adj. See Lite- 
Illogical, adj. See Logical. 
Illuminate, v.^r. In and b'-, ^ r. .■ r, .• t^ , r, ■ 

7- ii TT 1 u -11 1 Stn. Creative. Conceptive. Ideal. Poeti - 

mew, a /j^A;;. Used physically and cal. Romamic. original, inventive. 

Ant. Obscure. iMisinterpret. Mystify. 
Coufuse. Misrepresent. Darken, 

iLLUSTRATrvE. See Ulnstrate. 
Illustrious, adj. See Illus- 

Stn. Renowned. Glorious. Brilliant 

Ant. Ismominious. Disgraceful. Disre- 
putable. Inglorious. Infamous. 

Image, n. Imaf/o, an imag" or 
reprefferdntion. A similitude of 
any kind, as in language of an 
illustrative character. 

Stn. Statue. Likeness. Representation. 
Effigy. Copy. Metaphor. Idea. Concep- 
tion. Fiction. Shadow. 

Ant Person. Original. Substance. Sub- 
ject. Object. Reality. Truth. Verity. 

Imagery, «. ^e Image. 

Stn. Poetry. Fancy. Illustration. Me- 
taphor. Similitude. 

Ant. Prose. Statement. Fact. 

Imaginary, adj. 
and Illusive. 

Imaginative, adj. ,^^ Image. 
Having the power of exciting the 
imagination, or having a quick 

See Image 


Stn. Lighten. Enlighten. Emblazon. 

Ant. Darken. Obscure. Bedim. 

Ant. Unimaginative. Unpoetieal. Ul- 
romantic. Prosaic. Matter-of-fact. Lite- 
ral. Uninventive. 

' Imagine, v. tr. See Image. 

Illusion, n. JUudere, to mock. ' , Stn Conceive. Suppose. Surmise. Un- 

Ai . 1 • • derstand. rancv. Fabricate, 

mockmg or unreal vision. • ant. Represent. Exhibit Demonstrate. 

Stn. Dream. Mockery. Deception. De- | Prove. Substantiate. Verity. Depict. 



lusion. Hallucination, 

Illusion is used of the senses. 
Delusion of the mind. 

Ant. Form. Reality. Body. Sub- 

Illusivs, adj. See Illusion. 

Stn. Deceptive. Visionary. Unreal. 
Dlaappointing. Fugitive. Erroneous. False. 

Ant. Substantial. Satisfactory. Real 
Triie. Solid. 

Imbecile, adj. Lat. tmbeciUis. 
Weak. Jn, on, and baculvs, a slaif. 
Stn. Foolish. Fatuous. Idiotic. 
Ant. Shrewd. Sagacious. Clever. 

Imbibe, v. tr. As to imbil>e 
opinions. Jn and hibere, to drink, 
Used metaphorically. 

Sin. Acquire. Leani. Assimilate. Ab 

Ant. Discard. Reject Renounce. Dis- 
vow \biure. Repui=«fe. 

b'l/nonyms and Anfouijnis. 


Imbrtje, v. tr. In and Old 
Eng. briie, allied to brew. 

Stn. AVet. Moisten. Soak. Drench. 
Ant. Wring. ]^ry. Wipe. Drain. 

Imbuk, V. tr. Jmbuere. Conn, 
■with Inhere, tn dri/J:, to sUtiu. 
Used metaphorically for to affect. 

St!J. Tinge, Dye. Stain. Impregnate. 
Inoculate. Ingrain. Affect. Infect. 

Ant. Disimbue. Disinoculate. Disabuse. 
Cleanse. Clear. Disinfect. Purge. 

Imitate, v. tr. Lat. imitari, 
to imitate. 

Stn. Represent. Copy. Follow. Ke- 
setnble. Portray. Depict. Repeat. 

Ant. Misrepresent. Caricature. Alter. 
Vary. Dissimilate. Differentiate. Modify. 
Remodel. Distort. 

Imitation, ». See Imitate. 
Imitative, adj. See Imitate. 

Stn. Mimicking. Caricaturing. Copy- 
ing. Unoriginal. Servile. Apish. 
Ant. Original. Creative. Inventive. 

Immaculate, adj. In, not, and 
macula, a spot or stain. Used of 

Stn. Pure. Sinless. Spotless. Stain- 
less. Virgin. Unpolluted. Undetiled. 

Ant. Impure. Corrupt. Sinful. Con- 
taminated. Defiled. Tainted. Polluted. 

Immanent, adj. Immanere, to 

remain in. 

Stn. Inherent. Innate. Subjective. In- 
dwelling. Internal. Intrinsic. Congenital. 
Ingrained. Implicit. Natural. 

AKT. Emanent. Transitive. Projective. 
Developed. Exsilient. Pbenomenal. Ex- 
plicit. Accidental. Ascitltious. 

Immantty, n. Immunis, sa- 

Stn. Cruelty. Atrocity, Savagery. Fe- 
rocity. Truculence. 

Ant. Mildness. Gentleness. Docility. 
Mansuetude, Tenderness. 

Immaterial, adj. In and 
materies, matter. Has the two- 
fold sense of non-material and 

Stn. Spiritual. Incorporeal. Unimpor- 
tant. Insignificant. Trivia!. Trifling. 

Ant. Material. Physical. Corpwoal. 
essential. Important. 

Immature, adj. Ir, not, and 
liifdurus, ripe. 

Sin. Unripe. Green. Crude. Unfi- 
nished. Undeveloped. 

Ant. Ripe. Complete, Finished. Ma- 
ture. Developed. 

Immeasurable, In, not, 
and mensura, a measure. 

Stn. Vast. Boundless. Illimitable. Im- 
mense. Unfathomable. Infinite. 

Ast. Finite. Bounded. Limited. Cir- 
cumscribed. Shallow. Restricted. 

Immediate, adj. In, not, and 
medius, middle. Not sepai'ated 
by anything else between. 

SvN. Proximate. Contiguous. Presmt. 

Ant. Distant. Remote. B'uture. ile- 

Immemorial, adj. In, w^t, and 
memoria, memory. That which 
is so ancient as to pass beyond 
human memory or tradition. 

Stn. Primitive. Ancient. Archaic. I're- 
mordial. Time-honoured. Remote. 

Ant. Recent. Modern. Late. Upptan. 

Immense, adj. Immensvs. In, 
and metiri, to measure. See Im- 

Immerse, v. In, and mergn-e, 

Syn. Dip. Plunge. Sink. Soak. Stfep. 
Macerate. Duck. Submerga Diowa In- 

Ant. Dry. Drain. Parch. Air. Von. 

Immersion, v. See 

Immethodical, adj. Sec Me- 

Immigration, n. In, and mi- 
grare, to migrate. 

Syn. Migration. Colonization. Settle- 

Ast. Emigration. Exodus. 

Imminent, adj. Imminere, to 
hang over. Hanging over one's 
head as if ready to fall. 

Syn. Impending. Threatening. Ilovor" 

Ant. Warded. Staved. E.'cai!««. 

Immiscibility, n. S'eeMi.scil lo, 
p 2 


Immission, n 
to send. 

Svs. Introduction. Injection. 

Synonyms and Antomjms 
//i,ancl mittere, 


AsT. IJjection. Emission. Discharge. 

Immitigable, uJj. tSee Miti- 

Immobility, n. See Mobile. 

Immoderate, adj. See Mode- 

Impair, v. tr. Said to be fro-Ti 
impejorare. Pejus, worse. To 
make worse. 

Stk. Deteriorate. Iijure. Iiamage. lie- 
duce. hjiiieeble. 

Ant. Kiihance. Improve. Augment 

Impalpable, adj. See Pal- 
Imparity, n. In, not, and par, 

Immodest, adj See Modesty. | ^?"«^- '""'^^ ^^^rity. 

Impart, I', tr. I7i, a.nd partiri, 
fo allot, pars, a lot. See Give. 

Impartial, adj. See Partial. 

Immolate, v. tr. Mala, a salt 
»ake or grains placed on the vic- 
tim. Hence to offer in sacrifice. 
Used metaphorically. 

Sn.'. Sacrifice. Victimize. 
Ant. Spoil. Humour. Indulge. Feed. 

Immoral, adj. See Moral. 

Immortal, adj. See Mortal. 

Immoveable, adj. See Move- 

Immundicitt, ri. ,SVc Mundi- 

Immunity, ». Immunis. In, 
not, and 'inunus, a p)ii,blic service. 
Exemption from service. Hence, 
exemption from Liability gene- 

Srx. Exemption. Dispensation. Free- 

Ant. Liability. Obligation. Jurisdic- 
tion. Impost. Burden. Amenability. 

Immuke, V. tr. In, and murus, 
a wall. See Incarcerate. 

Immutable, adj. See Mu- 

Imp, 71. Swed. Ymp, a bud or 
{/raft. Hence progeny, then mis- 
chievous child. 

Srs. Brat Scamp. DeviL Demon. 
Ant. Cherub. Angel. 

Impact, n, Impingere, pac- 
tum, to strike against. 

Sru. Contact Application. Impres- 
•loii. Collision. 

\NT. Isolation. Separation. 

I Impassable, adj. See Pass- 

Impassible, adj. See Impas- 

Sts. Immaterial. Immortal. 
[ Ant. Passible. Mortal. 

Impassioned, adj. In, and 
[ patior, 2^assns, to suffer or be 
I affected. 

Srv. Excited. Fervid. 

Ant. Unimpassioned. Cool. Impas- 

Impassive, adj. See Impas- 

Impatient, adj. See Patient. 

Impawn, i-. tr. See Pawn. 

Impeach, v. tr. Impingere, fo 
thrust or drive against. So to 
stop or pnll np for a charge or 

Syn. Accuse. Ajraign. Criminate. In- 

Ant. Acquit Absolve. Vindicate. 

Impeccability, n. See Pecca- 

Impede, t'. /r. In, and pes, pe- 
dis, afoot. To throw something 
in the way of the feet of the 
walker. See Accelerate. 

Impel, v. tr. ImpeUere, ic 

AvoiJance. Non-contact. Interval. Sb*v>.' 1 drive JW ward. See Urge. 

Si/ncwjms and Anioninns. 


jMrEJJD, V. int. In, on, or ouer, 
a!5d pendere, to hang. 
Stn. Hove' Threaten. 
Ant. Pass. Spare. 

Impenetrable, adj. See Pe- 

Impenitent, adj. Impeni- 
tence, n. >ee Penitent. 

Imperative, adj. IrniKvare, to 

Stn. Urgent. Irresistible. Dictatorial. 
Inexorable. Peremptorily. Compulsory. 

Ant. Indulgent. Lenient. Mild. Kn- 
treative. Supplicatory. Optional. Discre- 

Imperceptible, adj. See Per- 

Impercipient, adj. See Per- 

Imperfect, adj. See Perfect. 

Imperforate, adj. See Per- 

Imperial, «(/;'. Iviperium, cm- 

Stn. M.ajestic. Royal. Supreme. Mag- 
nificent. Superb. 

Akt. Ignoble. Servile. Slavish. Mean. 
Paltry. Beggarly. 

Imperil, v. tr. In, and ^'^''i- 
ciilum, danger. See Endanger. 
Imperious, adj. See Imperial. 

Stn. Arrogant. iC-Kacting. Dictatorial. 

Ant. Yielding. Submissive. Compliant. 
Docile. Ductile. Lenient. Gentle. Mild. 

Imperishable, adj. See Pe- 

Impermanence, n. See Per- 

Impermeable, adj. See Per- 

Impersonal, adj. See Per- 

Impersonate, v. tr. In, and 
persona, a ma^k (from per and -^o- 
vare, to aound, through which the 
voice sounded) or snistniiicd ,■}„,- 
racter. Used for the legitiniiite 

sustainmcnt of character, as on 
the stage, and also for the fi-au- 
dulent passing of one's self ofl 
for another iierson. 

Stn. Act. Kiinct. Represent. 
Ant. Det'Tt. Unmask. Expose. 

Impertinent, adj. See Perti- 

Imperturbable, adj. See Per- 
turb and Stoical. 

Impervious, adj. See Per- 

Impetrate, v. tr. Impetrura^ 
to entn-dt. 

Stn. Kntivat. Implore. Absecrate. I'ray. 

Akt. Demand. Command. Claim. h> 
sist. iJepricate. Dehort. Dissuade. Kx- 
postulate. Itemonstrate. 

Impetuous, adj. Impetus, haste, 
speed. See Hasty. 

Impiety, n. See Piety. 

Impignorate, V. tr. /See Pawn. 

Impinge, v. int. Impingrrc. tr. 
strike iqjon. See Impact. 

Implacable, adj. S-e Placa- 

Implant, v. tr. In, and plan 
tare. Planta, the sole. Hence to 
plant one's steps. The plant was 
the slip footed or planted in the 
soil. See Plant. 

Implement, n. Irnjilementnnt, 
a Jdling up, implere, to Jill. Com p. 

Stn. Instrument. Utensil. Tool. Ap 

Ant. Labour. Work. Science. Art 
Manufacture. Agriculture. 

Impletion, «. /S'ee Implement 
A tilling. 

Stn. Fillinpc. Sixtisfaction. 
Akt. Failure. Exhaustion, 
tion. Disappointment, 

Implicate, v. tr. In, and /■//- 
carr, to /old. To fold into a diffi- 
culty or charge by argum^itit oi 


I. I)ei.:;\: 


Syh. CoiJiect Ass 

^Vkt. ~L>connect. 

Synonyms ana Antonyms 

;ut3. Charge. Cri- 
Dissociate. Acquit 

Ste Impli- 

Impucation, n. 


iMPiaciT, ac?y. In, and plicdre, 
to folJ. Folded up inside but 
not brought to light. Also used 
in the sense of intimate, close, as 
'implicit trust.' 

SrN. Implied. Involved. Indicated. 
AxT. IJipressed. Explicit. Developed. 

Implied, part. See Implicit. 

Imploke, v. tr. In, and plo- 
rare, to iveep. To beseech ear- 
nestly, and, as it were, with tears, 
(b'ee Entreat. 

IfilPLT, V. tr. In, and plicare, 
to fold. To signify in a sugges- 
tive -way, not expressly. 

Sis. Involve. Mean. Indicate. Sug- 
gest. Hint. 

AsT. Kxpress. Declare. State. Pro- 

Impolite, adj. See Pohte. 

Impolitic, adj. See PoUtic. 

Impoinderablb, adj. See Pon- 

Impoxdekous, adj. See Pon- 

Imporous, adj. See Porous. 

LklPORT, V. tr. Importare, to 
■earn/ ijdo. 

Syx. Introduce. Bi-lng. 

Ant. Export. Banish. 

Import, n. See Lnport, v. 
That which is brought to beai- 
upon a point. 

Svx. Purport. Meaning. Drift. Tenor. 

Akt. Sutement. Proceeding. 

Import.\nt, adj. See Import 
I'. Said of that which brings in ' pofi><, o.ipaU^ 
Komethiug materially affectiug a 
Btatc or question. Applied also 
to persons and objects of im- , liBcatiou 
portance. Tmpocnd, 

Stn. Significant. Expretsive. Relevant 
Main. Le;»ding. Considerable. Great. D^> 
nified. InQuentiaL 

AsT. Insignificant. TrivlaL Inexpres- 
sive. Irrelevant. 'Inconsiderable. Petty 
Mean. UninfluentiaL Secondary. Cnlni- 
portant. Minor. 

Importation, 71. See Im- 
port, I'. 

iMPORTtTNATE, adj. Importu- 
nure. In, not, and portare, to 
bear, or he rdevant. To come in 
obtrusively, to ask. with great if 
not excessive eagerness. 

Srs. Over-urgent. Over-en creative. Press- 

Ant. Modest. Diffident. 

Importune, v. tr. See Impor- 

Sts. Pester. Solicit. Press. 

A>"T. Surrender. Abandon. Sacrifice. 

Impose, v. tr. Imponere, post' 
tus, to place upon. 
Srx. I..ay. Inflict. 
AST. Remove. Disburden. 

The word has also the iiecuLiar 
sense of Cheat. 
Imposing, adj. See Impose. 

Srx. Striking. Effective. Dignified. 

Ajrr. Ineffective. Undignified. Petty. 

Impossible, adv. See Pos- 
Impost, n. See Impose. 

Stx. Imivisiiion. Tax. Burden. 
Ant. ExempUuru Immunity. Proceeds 

Impostor, v. See Impose. 
One who imposes in the sense of 

Stn. Cheat Deceiver. Dissembler. Char- 

Akt. Detector. Undecriver. Enlight- 
ener. Guide. 


See Impostor. 
In, not, and 

Snt. Incapacity. Weakness. Disquali- 
fication. Disability. 

Atrr. Capacity. Vigour. Ability. QsSf 


Si/nonijms and Antonyms. 

Impoverish, v. i 
pdujicr, poor. To 

In, and 



See Enrich. 


Imprecate, v. ir. In, and 
prccuri, to pray. See Impetrate. 

Improper, adj. See Proper. 

Impregnable, adj. See Preg- 

Impure, adj'. In, not, and 
jmriis, pure. See Pure. 

Impute, v. tr. Lat. Impu- 

Stn. Ascribe. Refer. Charge. 
Ant. Withdraw. Retract. 

Inability, n. See Ability. 

Inaccessible, adj. See Ac- 

Inaccurate, adj. See Accu- 

Inaction, n. 



Inadmissible, adj. 

Inadvertknob, n. 

Syn. Oversi£;ht. 

Ant. Correction. Attention, 

Inadvertent, adj. 

Stn. Inobservant. Careless. Heedless. 
Ant. Careful. Observant. Aceur.ate,. 

Inalienable, adj. 

Stn. Alien. Intrausferable. Entailed. 
Ant. Unentailed. Transferable. 

Inane, adj. Lat. Inan is, empty. 

Syn. Empty. Pointless. Characterless. 
Vapid. Feeble. 

Ant. Significant. Pointed. Powerful. 
Sensible. Forcible. 

See Action. 
. See Activity. 
adj. See Ade- 

See Ad- 

See Ad- 

See In- 

Inanihate, adj. 



Inanition, n. See Inane. 

8v.\. Emptiness. Exhaustion. Starr«- 


Ant. Fullness. Plethora. Repletion. 

Inanity, n. See Inanition. 

SvN. See Inane. 

Inappetenoy, n. See Appe- 

Inapplicable, adj. See Ap- 

Inapposite, adj. See Appo- 

Inappreciable, adj. See Ap- 

SrN. InSnitesimal. Minute. Impercep- 

Ant. Perceptible. Ponderable. Appre- 
ciable. Calculable. 

See Pro- 

Inappropriate, adj. 

Inapt, adj. See Apt. 

Inarticulate, adj. In, not, 
and articidus, a Joint or division. 

SvN. Dumb. Mute. Confused. Inor- 

Ant. Articulalid. Enuntiated. Organic. 

Inartificial, adj. See Arti- 

Inattention, n. See Atten- 

Inaudible, adj. In, not, and- 
ire. to hear. 

Syn. Low. Inarticulate. Suppressed 
Muttering. Mumbling. Stifled. Muffled. 

Ant. Audible. Outspoken. Sonorous. 
Articulate. Clear. Ringing. Loud. 

Inaugurate, v. tr. In, ami 
aiKjiir, tlie Hainan officer whose, 
duty it luas to watch and consult 
omens on the appointment of state 
officers and the undertaking of 
inUifary e.rpeditions. Hence to 
go through a ceremony at the 
commencement or introduction 
of something. 

SvN. Initiate. Commence. IristaU. 
Ant. Deprive. Divert. Conclude. Te> 

See Inau- as 'the incarnation of selfiih- 
I ness.' 

sembijdiment. Spirituallzation 

216 Sijncnyms and Antonyms. 


iNATTSPTninna ndi Rpp Anc- I ^"'- Em^'odimcr. t. Impersonation. 
«,-ivl . ' "^* ^""T- l)isemb,:,diment. Snirituallz 


Inborn, adj. In, and home or 
horn. See Congenita]. 

Inbred, adj. In and Imd. 
See Inborn. 

See Cal- 

Incalculable, adj 

Incandescence, ». In, and 
candescere, to he of a white heat. 

Stn. Incalescetice. Glow. White heat. 

Ant. Iciness. Congelation. Refrigera- 
tion. Crystallization. 

Incantation, n. jncantare, 
to recite or chant a magical form 
of words. 

Stn. Recitation. Spell. Charm. Invo- 

Ant. Exorcism. Evocation. 

Incapable, adj. See Capabi- 

Ant. Unqualified. Unable. Incapable. 
Unfitted. Weak, incompetent. Feeble. 

Incapacious, adj. See Capa- 

Incase, v. tr. See Case. 

Syn. Inclose. Enshrine. Impnnnel. 
Board. Batten. 

See Can- 

Incapacity, n. 

Incarcerate, v. t) 
career, eris, a prison. 
Stn. Immure. Imprison. 
Akt. Liberate. Release. 

See Capa- 
•. In, and 

Incarceration, n . See Incar- 
Incarnadine, v. tr. Caro, car 

nis, To dye carnation ^ '"'I'^f^l-'eriodi?'^"" 

Incautious, adj. 

Incendiarism, n. Incendere, 
to burn. Used of malicious de- 
struction of property by fire. 

SvN. Arson. Conflagration. 
Ant. Extinction. Annihilation. Quench. 

Incendiary, n. See Incen- 

Incense, v. See Incendiarism. 
Used metaphorically. 

Sin. Inflame. Irrit^ate Provoke. Sting 
Nettle. Exasperate. Gall. Chafe. 

Ant. Allay. Soothe. Pacify. Appease. 
Mollify. Conciliate. 

Inception, ?;. Incipere, to he- 
gin. See Beginning. 

Incentive, n. Incirtere, to 
strike iif a tunc. A stiiTing up 
by note or sound. 

Si-N. Inducement. Excitation. Rous- 
ing. Motive. Stimulus. 

AlNT. Discouragement. Warning. Dis- 
suasive. Prohibition. Deterrent. 

Inceptor, 11. See Inception. 
Incertitude, n. See Cer- 

Incessant, adj. In, not, and 
cessare, to cease. 

Syn. Continual. Uninterrupted. Un- 


SrN. Redden. Rubricate. Crimson. 
Ant. Whiten. Pale. Etiolate. 

Ant. I'eriodic. Occasional, 
rupted. Intermittent. 

Inchoation. n. Incnoa: 

Incarnation, n. See Incar- \ ^%'"- ^'' Inception, 
nadine. The condition of a being '. ,-^^<^^,^^"°?'„."- Incide^-e, to 
i-lothed in human flesh; applied •'"'.• Il^e laiimg or striking &\ 
p.!so to the manifestation of ideas ! ^ S?^^^ P?^^* ^^ •'^"^le. 
or sentiments in Uving persons, ' l:^.SS'\esaS u^^^ 

Synonyms and Antonyms, 
See Incidence 



and Event. 

Incidental, adj. See Inci- 
dent. Used of that wMch regu- 
larly, and that which casually, 
befalls a tiling, without being 
absolutely essential to it. 

Stn. Casual. Occasional. Appertinent. 
Concomitant. Concurrent. Accidental. 

AxT. Systematic. Regular. Indepen- 
dent. Disconnected. Irrelative. Essential. 
Immanent. Inherent. Uniform. Inva- 

Incipience, n. See Inception. 

Incipient, adj. See Inception 
and Beginning. 

Incircumspect, adj. See Cir- 

Incite, v. tr. hicitare. See 

Incivility, n. See Civil. 

Inclement, adj. In, not, and 
demens, clement. 

Stn. Harsh. Tyrannical. Cruel. Un- 

.\NT. Mild. Benign. Clement. Genial. 

Incline, v. tr. and int. In- 

St». Slope. Bear. Lean. Point. Tend. 
Dispose. Induce. Dip. Bias. Prompt. 

AsT. Trend. Diverge. Ascend. Deter. 
Rise. Indispose. Disincline. 

Incline, n. See verb. 

Inclination, n. See Incline. 

Inclusive, adj. Jndudere, to 

Stn. Comprehensive. Additive. Em- 
bracing. Implied. 

-Ant. K.\clusive. E.xceptcd. Ilcnuntia- 
tii'e. Adversative. 

Incognlzable, adj. See Cog- 

Incoherence, n. Sec Co- 

Stn. Disunion. Disruption. Inconsecu- 
Uf^ness. Solution. Disconnection. 

Aht. Coherence. Continuity. Closeness. 

Incombustible, adj. In n<A, 
and coiiih/rrrj, Hstus, to burn. 
Stn. Uninflammable. Aphloglstlc 
Akt. Inflammable. Combustible. 

Incombustibility, n. See 
Income, ». In and come. 

Stn. Proceeds. Pay. Allowance. 
Ant. Disbursement. Expenditure. 

Incommensurable, adj. S:e 

Incommode, v. tr. See Accom- 

Incommunicable, adj. See 

Stn. Iiitransferable. Inalienable. 
Ant. Transferable. Alienable. Com- 

Incomparable, adj. See Com- 

Stn. Matchless. Unique. ' Consummate. 

Ant. Common. Ordinary. Average. 

Incompassionate, adj. Set 

Stn. Hardhearted. Unmerciful. 
Ant. Clement. Benignant. Compas 
sionate. Jlerciful. 

Incompatible, adj. See Com- 

Incompetence, n. See Com- 

Incomplete, «f/y. >See Complete 

Incomprehensible, adj. See 

Stn. Jlysterious. Unfathomable. Enig- 

Ant. Comprehensible. Cognizable. Plain. 

Incomprehension, n. See 

Incompressible, adj. See Cera- 

Inconceivable, adj. See Con- 

Inconcinnitt, 11. See Cou- 

Inconclusive, adj. Set Cuc- 


Sijnomjnis and A)i/o}iif)ns. 

iNCONGKUOli, adj. See Con- 

Incon SID EE ABLE, adj. See Con- Incouruptible, cdj. See Cor- 

Incorrigible, mfj. See CJor- 


Tnconsidekate, adj. ,SVe Con 

TnCONSISTENJ'. adj. See Cou 


Inconsolable, adj. See Con- 

Inconsonant, adj. See Con- 

Incontestable, adj. See Con- 

Syn. Indisputable. Unquestionable. Un- 
^^^Silil;lblp. Impregnable. 

Ani". Dubious. Queslioriable. Problem- 
itical. Supposititious. Arbitrary. Assump- 
♦ive. Hypothetical. 

Incontiguous, adj. See Con- 

Incontinent, adj. Sec Conti- 

Incontinently, adv. See In- 
continent. Used also in the 
sense of immediately, i. c., with- 
out holding in for a moment. 

Inconteovertible, adj. See 

Inconteovertibility, n. See 

Inconvenient, adj. See Con- 

Inconveesiblb, adj. In, not, 
and conversari, to hold conversa- 
tion. See Aii'able. 

Inconvertible, adj. See Con- 

Incoepoeeal, adj. See Cor- 

Tncoeporate, v. tr. See Cor- 
jvoroal and Disintegrate. 

Jscobrect, <(dj. Sec Correct. 


Incorruption, ii. See Cor- 

iNCil^'J.SATK, fc. fr. 1)1 and 
cra^, mid.. See Thicken. 

Increase, v. tr. and i/d. In 
and trtbcere, to (/row. See De- 

Incredible, adj. See Cre- 

Incbkdulity, n. See Credu- 

Incei'MENT, n. See Decre- 

Incrust, v. tr. Criida, a crust. 
To cover with a coat or crust. 

Snf. Coat. Overlay. Plaster. 
Akt. Scrape. Abrade. Levigate. Exfo- 

Inculcate, v. tr. In and cah-, 
the heel. To impress, and, as it 
were, stamp in. 

Stn. Impress. Urge. Enforce. Press. 

Akt. Ins] luate. Suggest. Disavow. 

Abjure. Der- ince. 

Inculp.* IE, V. tr. In and 

cidpa, aj'tult. See Implicate. 

Incumbent, adj. J)iciimherr, 
to lie tc/ioi). 

Syn. I'ressing. Urgent. Devolvent. Ob- 

Ant. Optional. Discretional. 

Incur, v. tr. Incurrere, to run 

Sts. Meet. Run. 

Ant. Avoid. Shun. Elude. Escape 

Incurable, adj. See Cure. 

SvN. Irremediable. Irredeemable. 
Ant. Tiactable. Rimovable. Kejr.;-Jb 

Inouriositv, '■. Sec Cario 

ISijnonijma and Antony mn. 


brctnasioN, n. See Incur. 

SrN. Invasion. Encroachment. Raid. 
Oraponnade. Sally. 

A.sT. Encampment Settlement. Abode. 

Incukvation, 71. In and om?-- 
uar>', curviis, to bend. See Bend. 

iNDAaATlON, n. Indaqari, to 
truck or trace. See Examine. 

Indebted, adj. In and debere, 
to o>re. Debitum, a dtbt. 

Syn. Oblitred. Beholden. 

AxT. Disobliged. Unbeholden. 

Indecent, adj. See Decent. 

Indecision, n. See Decision. 

Indecisive, adj. See Decision. 

Indecoeum, n. In, not, and 
de^or, grace or propriety. 

SiTJ. Impropriety. Coarseness. Incor- 

Ant. Propriety. Decorum. Correctness. 

Indefatigable, adj. In, not, 
defatigare, to luear out by fatkjue. 

Stn. Unwearied. Incessant. Persistent. 

AST. Indolent. Indifferent. Idle. 

Indefeasible, adj. See Fea- 
sible. Not to be undone. 

SrK. Irreversible. Unalterable. Immu- 

Axt. Reversible. Alterable. Mutable. 

Indefensible, adj. See De- 

Indefinite, adj. See Definite. 

Indelible, adj. In, not, de- 
lere, to luipe out. 

Syn. Indestructible. Indefeasible. In- 
effaceable. Persistent. Irreversible. 

Ant. jMutable. Evanescent. Transient. 

Indelicate, adj. In, not, and 
(JeJiciitus, nice. 

.Stn. Coarse. Broad. Indecent. 

Ant. Nice. Refined. Modest. Delicate. 

Indemnify, V. ir. ///,r(o^, and 
damnum, loss or damage. To 
rescue or secure from loss or 

Syn. Compensate. Secure. Satisfy. Re- 

An. Fine. Slulct. Amerce. 

I Independence, n. See De- 

Indescribable, adj. See De- 

Syn. Unaccountable. Inexpressible. In- 
effable. Unutterable. 

Ant. Familiar. Ordinary 

Indestructible, adj. See De- 

Syn. Imperishable. Indiscerptiblp. 
Ant. Perishable. Destructible. D» 


Indeterminate, adj. See De- 

Indicate, v. tr. Indicare, to 
point out. 

Syn. Show. Evidence. Betray. Evince. 
Manifest. Declare. Specify. 

Ant. Conceal. Contradict. Negative. 
Misindicate. Misdirect. Falsify. 

Indication, n. See Indicate. 

Stn. Mark. Sign. Token. Manifesta- 
tion. Evidence. Demonstration. Proof. 

Ant. Silence. Undemonstrativeness. Sur- 
mise. Misdirection. Misindlcation. Mis- 

Indict, v. tr. Indictare, from 
dicere, to charge. See Charge. 

Indifference, n. In, not, 
and differentia, a difference. The 
want of sufficient importance to 
constitute a difference, and con- 
sequently, in a secondary sense, 
the careless feeling about such 

Syn. Triviality. Unimportance. Insig- 
nificance. Coolness. Carelessness. Com 

Ant. Importance. Significance. Weight. 
Gravity. Eagerness. Interest. Affection 

Indigent, adj. In and egerc, 
to utant. 

Syn. Poor. Straitened. Impecunious, 
Ant. Wealthy. Rich. Monied. 

Indigestible, adj. See Digest. 

Syn. Crude. Raw. Heavy. 

Akt. Digestible. Nutritive. Light. 

Indignation, n. In, not, and 
diguus. Comp. Dignity. Worth;f 

Si/nonyins and Antonyms. 


the feeling roiisccl by an tin- 
worthy act. 

Stn. Resell jLent. Denunciation. Pro- 

Ant. Gratillcation. Admiration. Ap- 
plaif^e. Approval. Complacency. 

Indignity, «. >ee Indigna- 
tion. An offence against per- 
sonal dignity. 

Stk. Insult. Outrage. Affront. Pis- 



Indiligence, n. See Dili- 

Indirect, adj. See Direct. 

Indiscernible, adj. See Dis- 

Indiscerptible, adj. Lat. 
dt's and carpere, to pluck m- pull. 
See Indestructible. 

Indiscoverable, adj. See Dis- 

Stn. Untraceable. 
Akt. Cognizable, 

lible. Inappreciable. Mi- 

Incog^ zable. 

Indiscreet, adj. See Dis- 

Indiscretion^ n. See Discre- 

Indiscriminate, adj. See Dis- 
criminate. Used both of objects 
and actively of character. 

Stn. Mixed. Confused Medley. Pro- 
sniscuous. lU-assoned, Uiidiscerning. 

Ant. CareluL Sorted. Select. Discevn- 

Indiscrimination, n. See In- 





Indispensable, adj. 

Indisposed, adj. 

Stn. Disinclined. Unwilling. Reluc- 
tant. Sick. Ailing. 

A>T. Inclined. Prompt. Ready. Will- 
;ng. JJiger. Desirous. Sound. Healthful. 

Indisputable, adj.^ See Dis- 
imtart and Incontestable. 

I iNDIseOLCBLS, adj. See DiB* 

Sts. Inviolable. InseparsMe. _<li*- 
cerpiible. Indestructible, 

Akt. Separable. Terminable. Dlscetiv 
tible. Dissoluble. 

Indistinct, adj. See Distinct. 
I Indistinguishable, adj. See 

\ Snf. Iiidiscer 
nute. Confused. 

Ant. Distinguishable. Conspicuous. 

Indite, v. fr. Same word as 
Indict, but differently employed. 

Stn. Prompt. Suggest. Dictate. Word. 
Ant. Write. Transcribe. Pen. 

Individual, a^lj. In, not, and 
dividuus, divided or divisible. 

Stn. PersonaL Specific Peculiar. In- 
divisible. Identical. Singular. Idiosyn- 

AST. General Common. Collective. 

Indivisible, adj. See Divide. 

Stn. Minute. Atomic. Ultimate. 
Ant. Divisible. ])isccrptible. Sepa- 

Indocility, n. See Docile. 

Indoctrinate, v. tr. In and 
doctrina, doctrine. Docere, to 
teach. See Instruct. 

Indolence, v. In, not, and 
dolere, to fed pain. A state of 
pamless inacti^•ity ,• the tendency 
on the part of persons to desiie 
such a state. 

Stn. .S'ee Activity. 

Indomitable, adj. Domi/'ire, 

to tame. 

Stn. Invincible. Uutameable. Irre- 
pressible. Indefatigable. 

Ant. Effortless. Feeble. Languid. 

Indorse, v. tr. In and dor- 

mm, a hack. To write a signa- 
ture of approval or confirmation 
at the back of a document. Used 

Stu. S;inction. Approve. Stibecribft 
Accept. , . , u 

Ant. Protest. Repudiate. 0»DceL Ab- 
<iire. Rcnouii.:e. 

Sijnonyms and Antonyms. 
•J. See Doubt 

Tkdubitai'.le, '/. '' 
hiiil lucoutestable. 

Indubious^ adj. See "Dubious 
iVAd Doubt. 

Induce, v. ir. In and ducere, 
to bring or draw on. Used of 
natural agency, a power, influ- 
ence, and also of the exercise of 

Sra. Produce. Cause. Prompt. Per- 
Euade. Instigate. 

Ant. Slave. Prevent. Disincline. Dis- 


Induction, n. See Induce. 
Used in the sense of bringing a 
number of individuals or in- 
stances together ; to make a class 
or principle. 

Sto. Collection. Collation. Gathering. 
Application, as correlative to It. 

Ant. Statement. Generalization. Pro- 
position. Class. Principle. Law. Deduc- 
liiiii. Inference. Argumentation. Dis- 

Indue, v. tr. Induere, to put 
on. See Divert. 

Indulge, v. tr. Indulgere, from 
indoles, the nature or temperament. 
Act. and neut. To grant what is 
pleasing to another and also to 
one's self. Used grammatically 
as governing both persons and 

Syn. Spoil. Pamper. Humour. Gra- 
tify. Cherish. Bask. Revel. Grovel. 

Ant. Thwart. Deny. Contradict. Dis- 
appoint. Discard. Abjure. Counteract. 
Keiiounce. Mortify. Discipline. 

Indulgence, n. See Indulge 
Induration, n. In and diirus, 
hard. See Harden. 
Industry, n. Industry. 

Syn. Activity. Toil Assiduity. Dill- 
gi nee. Perseverance. 

ANT. Inactivity. 'Ease. Indulgence. 

Inebriety, n. See Ebriety. 
Ineffable, In, not, and effa- 
■HiiK. Effari, to speak. 

i*** luexpressible Inconceivable. In- 



purpassable. Iiuleclarable. 
E.\quisite. Perfect. 

Ant. Conunon. Trivial. Superficial. 
Vulgar. Conversational. CoUofiuial. Ob. 
vious. Commonplace. 

Ineffably, adv, See Inef- 

Ineffectual, ad>j. See Effec- 

Inelastic, adj. See Elastic. 

Inelegant, adj. See Ele- 

Ineligible, adj. See EUgible. 

Inept, adj'. See Apt. 

Inequality, n. See Equality. 

Inequitable, adj'. See Equi- 

Inert, adj. Lat. iners. Comp. 
of in, not, and ars, art. Inca- 
pable of skilful employment; 
hence disinclined to employment 

Stn. Indolent. Slothful. Lazy. Slug- 
gish. Heavy. . 
Ant. Active. Energetic. Alert. Brisk. 

Inertness, n. Inertia. See 

Inestimable, adj. See Esti- 
mable. It has also the sense of 
priceless; that is, I, not to be 
esteemed; 2, not to be sufficiently 

Inevitable, adj. In, not, evi- 
tare, to escape. 

Stn. Unavoidable. Infallible. 

Ant. Avoidable. Uncertain. Inietcr- 

Inexact, adj. 

See Exact. 
adj. See Et- 



Stn. Unmitigated, 

Ant. Mitieable. Palliable. Jn.'^tifiab'.* 
ViudicaWe iHfiaisible. Pardonable 

adj. See Ex- 
Unpardonable, la- 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

iNitXHAUSTiBLE, (ulj. See Ex- 

Stn. Incessant. Unwearied. Indefa- 
tigable. Perennial. Illimitable. 
Ant. Limited. Scant. Poor. 

Inkxiste\:b, n. See Exist- 

Inexorable, adj. In, not, 
exorare. to entreat. 

SvN. Merciless. Unrelenting. 

Ant. Lemenf. Exorable. Indulgent. 
Benignant. Clement. 

Inexpedient, adj. See Expe- 

Stn. Undesirable. Inadvisable. Dis- 

Ant. Advisable. Profitable. Expedient. 

Inexpensive, adj. See Expen- 

Inexperibkce, adj. See Ex- 

SrN. Ignorance. Inconversance. Un- 
familiarity. Strangeness. 

Ant. Experience. Familiarity 

Inexpert, adj. See Expert. 
Inexpiable, adj. See Expiate. 

Stn. Unatoneable. Unpardonable. 
A NT. Expiable. Redeemable. Pardon- 
able. Atoneable. 

Inexplicable, adj. See Ex- 

Stn. Mysterious. Enigmatical. 
Ant. Obvious. Plain. Easy. 

Inexpressible, adj. See Ex- 
press and Indescribable. 

Inexpressive, adj. See Ex- 

SrN. Characterless. Blank. 

Ant. Expressive. Telling. Speaking. 

Inextensive, adj. See Ex- 

Inextension, 71. See Exten- 

Inextinguishable, adj. See 

Inextricable, adj. See Ex- 

SvN. Overwhelming. Irredeemable. la- 

Am, Remediable Redeenmb'.e. 

Infallible, %.IJ. See FrIH- 

Infamy, n. In, not, and f'lma, 

Syn. Despair. De^adation. DlsIioDoi.r. 

Axt. Honour. Reputation. Celebrity. 
Glory. Renown. 

Infantile, adj. I»/ai:x, aa 
infant ; in, i,i,f, and fari, to speak. 
Ijike an infant or child. 

Stn. Puerile. Childish. Imbccil.!. 
Ant. Jlanly. Mature. Vigorous. Ro- 

Infatuation, n. In and /«- 
tmii^, siUy. Fatuous. 

Syn. Fatuity. Hallucination. ILuiness. 

Ant. Clear-sightedness. Sagacity. Wis- 
dom. Sanity. Soundness. 

Infeasible, adj. See 

Infect, v. tr. See noun. 

Infection, n. Injicere, to in- 
fect. Jnffctus. 

Syn. Taint. Poison. Contaniiuatioa, 
Corruption. Contagion. 

Disinfection, .\nti- 

I IlTFECTlous, adj. See Infec- 
I Infelicity, n. See Fehcity. 

Infer, v. tr. Inferre, to bring 
! to. Used in the restricted sense 
j of logical inference. 

I Stn. Gather. Collect. Deduce. Argue. 
Ant. State. Enunciate. Propound. Aii- 
j ticipate. Prognosticate. Conjecture. Assume. 
: Gutss. 

I Inference, n. See Infer. 
I Inferiority, n. Inferior, 
I lower. The state of being lower 
than some other thing or person, 
station, degree, or amount. 

Stn. Subordination Minor! ly. Poverty. 
Mediocrity. Subjection. Servitude. De- 

Ant. Superiority. Majority. Excellencjx 
Eminence. Independence. Mastery. 1S«» 
altation. Elevation. 

Infernal, adj. Infernnti, 

lower. Belonging to the reslras 

Synonyms and Antony ma 


l»low or the character of their 
Uiliabitunts. )ice Fiendish. 
Infertility, n. See Fertile. 

Stn. Barrenness. Poverty. Sterility. 
Uiipriiductiveness. Waste. 

Ant. Richnesa. Exuberance. Fruitful- 
ness. Productiveness. 

Infest, v. tr. Lat. infestus, 

Syn. Trouble. Harass. Teaze. Annoy. 

Ant. Comfort. Gratify. Regale. Re- 

Infidelity. See Fidelity. 

Infiltrate, V. </•. and inf.. See 
Filter. To ponr or sink into the 
pores of a substance. Used me- 

Stk. Instil. Inoculate. Permeate. Sa- 
turate. Soak. 

Ant. Strain. Draw off. Defiltrate. 

Infinite, adj. In, not, and 
finis, an end or limit. 
Stn. See Immeasurable. 

Infinitesimal, adj\ See Infi- 
nite. Used of infinite minute- 

Stn. Inappreciable. Inconspicuous. Jli- 
nute. Microscopic. Indiscernible. Ato- 

Ant. Enormous. Immeasurable. Vast. 

Infirm, adj. In, not, and fir- 
mvs, siroiKj. Used of the bodily 
constitution, and occasionally of 
weakness in argument or state- 

Syn. Weak. Df crepit. Lame. Inforci- 
ble. Unsound. Failing. 

Ant. Firm. Strong. Sure. Cogent. 
Forcible. Sound. 

Infirmity, n. See Infirm. 

Infix, v. tr. See Fix. 

Inflame, v. tr. Inflammnre, 
flamnid, ajinme. 

Stn. Fire. Kindle. Excite. Rouse. Fan. 
Incense. Madden. Infuriate. Exaspe- 

Ant. Quench. Extinguish. Allay. Cool. 
l»ciiy. Quiet, 

Ik^late, V. tr. In and flare, 
to blow. 

Stn. Distend. Expand. 
Ant. Exhaust. Empty. Flatten. Sq-j'*;* 

Inflated, adj'. See Inflate. 
Used metaphorically of style of 

Stn Pompous. Turgid. Bombastic. 
Ant. Plain. Unaffected. Simple. 

Inflect, v. tr. Infledere. See 

Inflexible, adj. See Flexi- 

Inflexion, n. See Inflect. 

Inflict, v. tr. In and fli<jerc. 

to strike or cast. 

Stn. Impose. Put. 

Ant. Remove. Alleviate. 


Infliction, n. See Inflict. 
Used also in the sense of 

Syn. Grievance. Trouble. Nuisance. 

Am. Gratification. Pleasure. Accom- 
modation. Sparing. Remission. Condona- 

Influence, n. In, on, and 
flvere, to flom. That which takes 
effect upon another less palpably 
than by mechanical action. Used 
of moral and the subtler physical 

.Stn. Kfffct. Control. Causation. Affec- 
tion. Impulse. 

Ant. inefficiency. Ineffectiveness. In- 
operativeness. Nullity. Neutrality. Inef- 

Influential, adj. See In- 
fluence. Used of things and per- 

Stn. Potent. Powerful. EBBcacious. 
Forcible. Persuasive. Controlling. Guid- 
ing. Considerable. 

Ant. Weak. Ineffective. Inoperative. 
Unpersua.'iive. inconsiderable. 

Influx, ». From Influtre, to 
flow in. Sf'e Accession. 

Infold, v. tr. See Enfold. 

Inform, v. tr. Informare, 
forma, a shape. To give life or 
shape to, as ' the informing 
.soul ;' hence its common accep- 


Sijnonyms and Antonyms, 

latiou of imparting knowledge as 
the life of tho spirit, and finally 
imparting specific knowledge. 
Forma, the essence of a thing. 

Sra. Enlighten. Instruct. Edify. Edu- 
cate. Acquaint. Apprise. 

AjtT. Misjudge. Jlisinstruct. Jlislead. 
Deceive. Hoodwink. Mystity. Misinform. 

Informal, adj. See Formal. 

Information, «. See Inform. 

Infraction, n. Infringere, to 
break. Used of laws, rules, and 

Syn. Violation. Infringement. Break- 
ing. Disturbance. 

Ant. Observance. Maintenance. Con- 
servation. Respect. Integrity. 

Infrangible, adj. See Fran- 

Infrequenct, n. See Fre- 

Srs". Rarity. Fewness. Paucity. Deartb. 

Ant. Multitude. Abundance. Fre- 
quency. Recurrence. 

Infrigidation, n. In andfri- 
gidiis, frigus, cold. The placing 
or being placed in a condition 
ef cold. See Incandescence. 

Infringe, v. tr. See Infrac- 

Infueiatb, v. tr. In and 
furor, rage. See Inflame. 

Infuse, v. tr. 1 1 if under e, fu- 
sus, to pour in. Used metapho- 
i-ically, as to infuse a spiiit into 
a meeting. 

Syn. Steep. Soak. Water. Instil. In- 
tiltrate. Insinuate. 

Ant. Strain. Dry. Drain. Unteach. 
Retract. Divert. 

Ingenious, adf. Ingenium, 
the genius or natural capacity/. 
Used of cleverness in finding 
forms of expression or contriv- 
ance. ! 

.Stw. Skilful. Adept. Clever. Inven- 
tivo. Heady. [ 

Ant. Unskilful, Slow Uninventive. 
Unready j 

Ingenuous, adf. Lat. Jng-f- 
nuv^, genus. Having the quality 
of honour and candour which 
befits and was at one time, like 
many other virtues, assumed to 
belong peculiarly to high birth. 
Com p. Generosity. 

Syn. Noble. Candid. Generous. Frank. 

Ant. Mean. Reserved. Sly. Disin- 
genuous. Insincere. 

Inglorious, adj. See Glorify. 

Stn. Shameful. Disgraceful. Unre- 
Ant. Illustrious. Glorious. Renowned. 

Ingraft, v. tr. See Graft, 

Ingrained, adj. In and gra- 
mtm, a seed or grain. Also the 
internal texture of a substance 
which might be conceived as 
minutely granulated. See Con- 

Ingratiate, v. tr. In and 
gratia. In the sense of favour; 
to place in a state of ftivour. 

Stn. Recommend. Insinuate. 

Ant. Discommend. Alienate. Estrange. 

Ingratitude, n. See Gratitude. 

Ingredient, n. Ingrediri, 
gradus, a step. Stepping or en- 
tering into a composition. 

Stn. Element. Ingredient. Component. 

Ant. Non-ingredient. Refuse. Resi- 
duum. Counter-agent Incongruity. 

Ingress, «. See Ingi-edient 
and Egress. 

Ingulp, v. tr. See Gulp. 

Ingurgitate, v. tr. Ingurgi- 
tare, giirges, a xchirlpool. To 
swallow gi'cedily Uke a whii-l- 
l^ool. See Swallow. 

Inhabile, adj. See Ability 
and Awkward. 

Inhabit, v. tr. and i7it. In' 
habitart, habitus, a fixed stai« 

o? . 1 lid) it 

.^TN\ Occupy. Tenant. Coloniz.e. Settle. 
Ant. Abaiiiion. Forsake. Migrate. 

Inhabitant, «. See Inhabit. 

Syk. Occupant. Tenant. Resident. >;a- 
tive. Inmate. 

AST. Stranger. Traveller. Foreigner. 
Visitor, intruder. 

and int. Se 

idj. See Rav- 
in and Jicerere, 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 22^ 

To occupy perma- Inhume, v. tr. See Exhume. 

Inimical, adj. In, vot, and 
amicus, a friend. See Hostility 
and Friendly. 

Inimitable, adj. See Imi- 

Syn. Transcendent. Matchless. Incom- 

Ant. Ordinary. Mediocre. 

Iniquity, «. In, oiot, and 
cequitKS, from ai(j[iius,Just. 

Syn. Injustice. AVrong. EviWoing, 

Ant. Justice. Integrity. Virtue. Holi- 

Initiate, v. tr. Initium, inire, 
an entrance or heginning. Applied, 
in the sense of commence, to un- 
dertakings, and inaugurate, to 
persons. See Commence and 
Inaugurate. Used in the tech- 
nical sense of initiate or intro- 
duce to mysteries or ceremonies. 

'Initiated, adj. See Initiate. 

Initiative, n. See Initiate. 
Used for the first step in a course 
of action. 

Syn. Start. Leadership. Commence- 
ment. Example. 

Ant. Waive, 

Inject, v. tr. 


Injunction, n. See Enjoin. 

Injure, v. tr. Injuria. In, 
not, and Jus, right. A wrong or 
hurt. When things without life 
are said to be injured, they are 
regarded as valuables or posses- 
sions. The term is often usi'l 
loosely of persons, as, ' he injured 
(meaning he hurt) ' his hand.' 

Stw. ])anlag■^, VKonnd. Hurt. Wronj; 
Impair. Maltrt'.it. 

Ant. Benefit. Profit. Repair. Ad- 
Vance. Advantage. 

Injury, n. Sec Injure. 

Inhale, v. tr 

Syn. Inspire. Snuff. Absorb. 
Ant. Exhale. 



Inherent, adj. 
to stick. 

Stn. Innate. Congenital. Immanent. 

Ant. ForeiRn. Ascititious. Separable. 
Temporary. Extraneous. 

Inherit, v. tr. In and Jxeres, 
edis, an heir. To come in for, 
as the heir, or analogously. 

Syn. Occupv. Possess. Enjoy. 

Ant. Acquire. Earn. (lain. Squander. 
Alienate. Dissipate. Bequeath. Leave. 
Iiemise. Devise. 

Inheritance, n. See Inherit. 

Sys. Bequest. Legacy. Heritage. Here- 

Ant. Purchase. Donation. Acquisi- 
tion. Dissipation. Alienation. Forfeiture. 
I,apse. Escheatraent. 

Inheritor, n. See Inherit. 

Syn. Heir. Successor. Legatee. De- 

AxT. Deviser. Testator. 

Inhesion, n. See Inhere. 

Syn. Introsusception. Innateness. In- 
herence. Indwelling. Ingrainedness. Im- 

Ant. Emanence. Emission. Ejection. 
Extrusion. Extraction. 

Inhibit, v. tr. Inhibere. To 
liold in, and so restrain. 

Syn. Prevent. Hinder. Prohibit. Ke- 
•train. Debar. 

Ant. Urge. Incite. Permit. Encourage. 

Inhospitable, adj. See Hos- 
Inhuman, adj. See Human. 

Rear. Prosecution. 

See Eject. 
adj. See Judi- 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

INJUSTICE, n. See Justice. 

Inlet. In and let. 
sometimes in the sense of open- 
ing or comraeucement. 

Syk. Opening. Ingi-ess. Commence- 

Inmate. Ill and Icel. matt, 
equal or companion. See Inha- 

Innate. In and natus, lorn. 
Born in a person, or so habitual 
as to seem so. See Congenital. 

Innek, Inmost. In, prep.; 
comparative and superlative. 

Stx. Interior. Vital. Secret. Close. 
Ant. Exterior. Outer. Outermost. 


Innocentia. cious 

iNNTJTRiTiors, adj. See Nu- 

Inobservance, n . See Observ- 

Inoculate, v. tr. In and ocn- 
lus, an eye. Used here for the 
eye or slit into -which the graft 
is inserted. It is applied both to 
jDcrsons inoculated and the sub- 
jects of the inoculation. 

Syn. Impreguate. Indoctrinate. Tinge. 
Insert. Imbue. Instil. Ingrain. Ingraft. 

Axt. Uisabtise. Unteach. Prune. Di- 

Inodorous, adj. See Odorous. 
Inoffensive, adj. See Offen- 
Inofficious, adj. See Offi- 

In, not, and nocere, to hurt. Spe 
cific, or generally of character 
and disposition. 

Syk. Innocuousness. Inoffensiveness. 
Guilelessness. Guiltlessness, Simplicity. 
Purity. Sinlessness. 

Ant. Hurtfulness. Offensiveness. Guile. 
Guilt. Contamination. Corruption. Im- 
purity. Sinfulness. 

Innocent, adj. See Inno- 

Innocuous, adj. See Inno- 
cent. Used rather of physical, 
as innocent of moral properties. 

Sin. Inoffensive. Harmless. Whole- 

Ant. Obnoxious. Hurtful. Deleterious. 

Innovation, n. In and novns, 
ncii\ An introduction, commonly 
implying a want of reason or 
authority, of something new into 
a previously existing system. 

Si-N. Alteration. Reversal. Novelty. 

Ant. Conservation. Maintenance. Ar- 
chaism. Old-fashion. Obsoleteness. 

Innoxious, adj. See Noxious. 
Innumerable, adj. See Num- 

Inoperative, adj. See Opera- 

Inopportune, adj. See Op- 

Inordinate, adj. In, not, and 
ordo, order. 

Stn. Extravagant. Disproportionate. Un- 
regulated. Exorbitant. 

Ant. Regular. Just. Moderate. 

Inorganic, adj. See Organic. 

Inosculate, v. int. In and 
oscidum. Used in a neid. and 
act. sense. 

SvN. Blend. Unite. Intertwine. So- 
lidify. Anastomose. Intersect. Interpene- 

Ant. Separate. Diverge. Bifurcate. Dis- 
unite. Divorce. 

Inquietude, n. See Quiet. 

Inquinate, v. tr. Lat. inqui- 
nare. See Contamiuate. 

Inquiry, n. In and qum-erc, 
to seek. 

Syn. Iiiterrocation. Question. Asking 
Investigation. Search. Examination. 

Ant. Conjecture. Guess. Intuition. Hy- 
pothesis. Assumption. Supposition. 

Inquibitori.vl, adj. See In- 

I^jnoni/ms and Ajiioni/ 


arrogant inqtiisitiveness. 

Svx. Minute. Arbitrary. Over-curious. 

Ant. Superficial. Perfunctory. Unin- 
quisitivc. Incurious. Inobservant. Un- 

Inroad, ??. In and rofuL 

Syx. Invasion. Ilaid. Incursion. Dra- 
gonnadc. Irruption. Trespass. Infringe- 

Ant. Occupation. Settlement. Evacua- 
tion. Retreat. Sally. Outbreak. Excur- 
sion. Egress. 

See Salu- 

ms. 227 

Havinc the character of ! U"*'«'?''ns- stolid, insusceptible. Unim- 

" i pressiblc. 

Ant. Sensitive. Feeling. Quick. Saga- 
cious. Discriminating. Observing. Acute. 
Susceptible. Impressible. 


Insensible, adj. See Sensi- 

Inseparable, adj. See Sejia- 

Insert, v. tr. In and severe, 
to plant. »S'ee Introduce. 

Inside, prep, and adv. In and 


SvN. Witliin. Internally. 

Ant. Without. Outside. E.xtraneousiy 

Insidious, adj. Insldiosus, in- 
sidiari, to sit or lie in tvait. 

Stn. Wily. Treacherous. Designing. 

Ant. Straightforward. Sincere. Un- 
designing. Innocuous. 

Insignificant, adj. See Sig- 

Insincere, adj. See Sincere. 

Insinuate, v. tr. In and 
!iinuK, the fold or hosom of a rohe. 
To insert, as it were, into the 
bosom. Used both of persons 
and subjects. 

SvN. introduce. Insert. Worm. Ingra- 

Ant. Withdraw. Retract. Alienate. 

Insalubrity, n 

Insane, adj. In, not 
sanus, sound. See Mad. 

Insanity, n. See Madness. 

Insatiable, adj. See Satisfy. 

SvN. Voracious. Unappeasable. Omni- 
vorous. Ravenous. 

Ant. Moderate. Delicate. Fastidious. 
Dainty. Squeamish. 

Inscribe, v. tr. In and scri- 
here, to inrite. To -mrito upon. 

SrN. Letter. Write. Label. Designate. 
Delineate. Mark. Imprint. 

Ant. Erase. Efface. Cancel. Oblite- 
rate. Expunge. 

Inscroll, v. tr. In and scroll. 
To write the name or thing on a 
scroll, or to ornament with scroll- 
work. Scroll, from Fr. escroler, 
which from corrotidare, rotulus, 
a roll. 

Syn. Enlist. Register. Enroll. Pat- 
tern. Flourish. Record. Calendar. 

Ant. Erase. DisenroU. Cashier. Ex- 
punge. Obliterate. Efface. Deface. 

Inscrutable, adj. In, not, 
and scrutari, to investigate. The 
positive has dropped out of use. 

SrN. Unintelligible. Untraceable. Mys- 
terious. Unfathomable. Profound. Insolv- 

Ant. Obvious. Self-evident. Familiar. 
Intelligible. Explainable. 

Insecure, adj. See Secure. 

Insensate, adj. In, nor, and 
nensus, feeling or 2>erception. 
Sth. Brute. Insensitive. InaonsiLiip. ! InSKARE, v. tr 

Insipid, adj. See Sapid. 

Stn. Tasteless. Vapid. Uninteresting. 
Characterless. Flavourless. Flat. Insnlse. 

Ant. Tasty. Sapid. Relishing. Racy. 
Interesting. Engaging. 

Insist, v. int. In, on, and 
sistere, to stand. To stand on a 
thing as necessary or right. 
Followed hjprep. on. 

Stn. Stand. Demand. Maintain. Cott- 

Ant. Abandon. ^Vaive. Concede. Yield 
Surrender. Forego. 

In and snare. 


iSipionyms and Antonyms. 

Stu. Intrap. Cajole. Decoy. Allure. 
Catch. Inveigle. 

Aht. Enlighten. AVarn. Deter. Dis- 
suade. Rescue. Liberate. Release. Extri- 

Insobriety, n. See Sobriety. 

Insolence, n. In, not, and 
solere, to he accustomed, soUta, 
riiatoms of society. The arrogance 
which overrides the customary 
restraints of society. 

Stn. Arrogance. Assumption. Impu- 

Ant. Deference. Consideration. Polite- 
ness. Modesty. Bashfulness. 

Insoluble, adj. See Soluble. 

Insolvable, adj. See Solve 
and Inscrutable. 

Insolvent, adj. In, vot, and 
solvere, to pay. Having not the 
means of i^aying his debts. 

Syn. Bankrupt. Ruined. Penniless. 

Ant. Flusii. r iourisblng. Blonied. 

Inspect, v. tr. Inspicere, to 
look into. 

Stn. Scrutinize. Examine. In\-%stigate. 
Search. Overhaul. 

Ant. Overlook. Connive. Dismiss. Glance, 
llisobserve. Misinvestigate. Pretermit. 

Inspector, ??. »S'ee Inspect. 

Inspiration, oi. In and spi- 
rare, to breathe. That which is 
l>reathed into the soul or mind, 
as it were, by Divine influence. 

Stn. Poesy. Frenzy. Impulse. Reve- 
lation. Intuition. Afflatus. 

Ant. Study. EUboration. Learning. 
-Vcquirement. Observation. Education. 

Inspire, v. tr. See Insi^ira- 

Stw. Animate. Inspirit Inflame. Im- 
bue. Impel. Encourage. 

Ant. Depress. ' Dispirit. Discourage. 

Inspirit, v. tr. See Inspire. 

Inspissation, h. In and spis- 
•■^us, thick. A thickening of tlie 
piwiicles, especially of liquids. 

Stk. Thickening. Turbidity. Incrassa- ' 
tion. DensiScation. ! 

Ant. Refining. Straining. Purwi.titk3a 
Precipitation. Clarification. Tenuity. 

Instability, n. See Stability. 

Instal, v. tr. In and stabu- 
lum, a jixed standing ])lace ; from 
siare, to stand. Comjx Stall and 

Syn. Establish. Institute. Induct. In- 

Ant. Deprive. Disinstal. Strip. De- 
grade. Disinvest. Eject. 

Instalment, n. See Instal. 
A security by periodical repay- 
ment. Used in the wider sense 
of a portion of a larger quantity. 

Syn. Fir^t-fruits. I'art-paj-ment. Drib- 

Ant. Payment. Reimbursement. Ac- 
quittal. Liquidation. Cancelment. 

Instance, n. Instardia. In 
and stare. Has the twofold sense 
of insistence, but in a milder 
form, and case or circumstance 
illustrative of a rule or state- 

SxN. f^ntreaty. Request. Prompting. 
Persuasion. E.xample. Solicitation. Case. 
Illustration. Exemplification. 

Ant. Dissuasion. Deprecation. Wanv. 
ing. Rule. Statement. Principle. Jlis- 

Instant, n. Sre Instance. 
The moment of time present 
now or at a given period. 

Syn. Moment. Second. Minute. Twink- 
ling. Trice. 

Ant. Period. Duration. Cycle. Time. 
Permanence. Perpetuity. Eternity. 

Instauration, n. In and 
obsolete staurar'', to establish. 
Comp. Store and Restore. Set 

Instigate, v. tr. Instirjare, to 
urge on with a goad or spar: 
from Gr. ariCfiv, ariyixa. Conip. 

Stigma. *SVt- Urge. 

Instil, v. tr. Instillare, stillu, 
a drop. To pour or soak drop 
by drop. 

Stx. Pour. Infuse. Introdcoe. lir 
port. Implant, insinuate. 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


Airr. Diain. Strain. Extract Kradi- 
«te. Kxtirpate. Kliminate. Remove. 

Instinct, «. Jnstingnerc, to 
prick in, or impuncturc. A sense 
of practical expedients, as it were, 
impunctured in the nature. 

Stx. PrompUug. Impulse. Intuition. 

Ant. Reason. Reasoning. Abstraction. 
Deliberation. Kxperience. Experimfent. 
Elaboration. Judgment. 

Institute, v. tr. Jnstiiuere, 
to instifnte. Applied to the in- 
stitution and the person insti- 

Sin. Found. Establish. Erect. In- 
vest. Instal. Appoint. Induct. 

AST. Disestablisli. Subvert. Disiuvest. 
Degrade. Deprive. 

Institutor, 11. See Institute. 

Instruct, v. tr. Jnstniere, 
atrudus, to lay a foundation (of 

Stn-. Enli-jhten. Educate Inform. In- 
doctrinate. Acquaint. Teach. Edify. 

AsT. Misinform. Miseducate. Misin- 
struct. Misguide. Mislead. Misacquaint. 
Deceive. Neglect. Barbarize. Brutalize. 

Unpermissible. Un- 
AUowable. Endurable. 

Instruction, n. 
Instructor, n. 

See Instruct. 
Stc Instnict. 

Instrument, n. See Instruct. ■ ^^,.|„i,i„ 
That which is employed as the P^^^^'^^^t 

Stn. Resistent. Recalcitrant. Rebel- 
lious. Undutiful. Refractory. 

ANT. Submissive. Imtiful. Docile. Obe- 

Insubstantial, adj. See Sub- 

Insubstantiality, n. See Sub- 

Insufferable, adj. See Suffer. 

Syx. Intolerable 

AST. Tolerable. 

Insufficient, adj. See SuflB- 

IssuLSE, adj. In, not, and 
sahits, salt — in Jlavour or in u'it 
See Insipid. 

Insult, v. tr. TnsiJire, sidtns, 
to leap upon in ussaidt. Meta- 
phorically, to trample on a per- 
son's self-respect. 

Sts. Affront. Outrage. Dishonour 
I Provoke. Mock. Ridicule. 
I AsT. Respect. Salute. Honour. Praisa 
I Flatter. Compliment. Gratify. 

j Insult, n. See Insult, verl. 
I Insuperable, adj. See Supe- 
i rable. 
! Insupportable, adj. See Sup- 

floor, basis, i^ivot, or hinge of 
action or proceeding. Applied 
to things mechanical and legal. 

Srs. Implement. Utensil. Tool. Docu- 
ment. Deed. Record. Munimeni. Means. 

AST. Misapplication. Counteraction. 
Counteragent. Neutralizer. Opponent. 
B;»r. Obstruction. Preventive. Stop. 

Instrumentality, n. See In- 

Sn;. Agency. Intervention. Medium. 
■ Use. Employment. Means. 

Ajtt. Non-intervention. Spontaneity. 
Efficacy. Virtue. Prop?rty. Quality. 
Force. Counteragency. Neutralization. 

In SUAVITY, n. See Suavity. 
Insubopj)inate, adj. See Sub- 

Insuppressible, adj. See Sup- 

Insure, v. tr. In and sure, 
from secnrus, secure. 

Syn. Provide. Slabilitate. Guarantee. 







Insurgent, n. In, on or 
against, and surgere, to rise. Qne 
who rises up in rebellion. 

Sts. Malcontent. Rebel. Traitor. Mu- 
tineer. Rioter. 

AST. Patriot. Adherent. Supporter. 
Constabulary. Executive. Ruler. Magis- 

Insurmountable, adj. 




Stn. Kebellion. Rising. Riot. Anarchy. 
Tumult. Mutiny. Emeute. Pionounce- 

Ant. Law. Peace. Order. Obedience. 
Government. Submission. Subjection. 
Servitude. Bondage. Subsidence. Pacifi- 
cation. Acquiescence. 


Intact, adj. In, not 
tactus, from tangere, touched. 

Syn. Pure. Undefiled. Uncontaminafed. 
Uncorrupted. Safe. Uninjured. Unhurt. 
Scatheless. Inviolate. Sacred. 

Ant. Foul. Defiled. Contaminated. 
Corrupt. Hurt. Injured. Affected. 

Intangible, adj. See Tangi- 

Integrate, v. tr. Integer, 
whole. Comp. Entire. To make 
"whole, or" into a whole. 

Stn. Sum. Complete. Solidify. Conso- 

Ant. Disintegrate. Discompound. Ana- 
lyze. Dismember. Amputate. Disunite. 
Detach. Remove. 

Integration, n. See Inte- 

Integrity, n. See Integrate. 
That entireness of character 
■".vhich tends to ]Dreserve man's 
relations to liis fellows. 

Si-N. Uprightness. Honour. Honesty. 
Candour. Single- 

Synonyms and Antonyms 
. See Insiir 

dj. See SlTS- 


Probity. Truthfulness, 
mindedness. Coiiscientiou->ness. 

Am. Unfairness. Sleight, 
handedness. Meanness. Chicanery 
Duplicity. Roguery. Rascality. 

Integument, n. In and te- 
gere, to cover. Used of snch 
coverings as are afforded not by 
art, but nature. 

Syn. Covering. Protection. Knvelo])c. 

Ant. Nudity. Bareness. Callowncss. 
Abrasion. E.xposure. 

Intellect, n. I'tellectus, in- 
telligere, to tiuderdand. 

Syn. Understanding. Mind 
lutinct. 'Jonsciousness. 

Ant. Mattov. Mechanism. Organiza- 
tion. Force. Growth. Pr^pension. Pas- 

Intelligence, n. See Intel- 
lect. Used in the twofold sense 
of the faculty of understanding, 
and that which is submitted to it 
in the way of tidings. 

Syn. Understanding. Apprehension. 
Comprehension. Conception. Announce- 
ment. Report. Rumour. Tidings. News. 
Information. Publication. 

Ant. Misunderstanding. Misinformation. 
Misapprehension. Misconception. Stupidity. 
Dulness. Suppression. Ignorance. Dark- 
ness. Concealment. Silence. Non-publi- 
cation. Misguidance. Misintelligence. 

Intelligible, adj. See Intel- 
lect. That may l)c ea.sily under- 
stood. See Inscrutable. 

Intemperate, adj. See Tem- 

Intend, v. tr. Intendere. To 
stretch towards an object men- 
tally, with tbe purpose of action. 
See Purpose. 

Intensity, n. See Intend. 

Syn. Tension. Force. Strain. Atten- 
tion. Eagerness. Ardour. Energy. Con- 

Ant. Laxity. Debility. Relaxation. 
Languor. Indiiference. Coolness. Hebe- 
tude. Diminution. 

Intent, adj. Used in the 
sense of intending. See Intend. 

Syn. Eager. Fixed. Bent. 

Ant. Indififerent. Distracted. Diverted. 

Intention, n. See Intend and 


Syn. Purposed. Designed. Deliberate. 
Ant. Undesigned. Casual. Uninten- 
tional. Accidental. Fortuitous. 

Inter. In and terra, the earth, 

Sy.\. Bury. Inhiimo. 
Ant. Exiiumi". Disinter. 

Intercede, r. tr. Intercedere. 
To go between, for the implied 
purpose of making some petitioc 

adj. See In- 

Synomjms and Antonyms. 


on behalf of another. To go be- 
tween the stronger and the 
weaker party. Followed by the 
2yrcp. for. 

SvN. Mediate. Interpose. Interfere. 
Adviicate. Plead. 

Ant. Abandon. Incriminate. Cliarge. 
Inculpate. Accuse. 

Interoept, V. tr. Intel' and 
capcre, to take or catch. To catch 
a thing or person on a certain 

Syn. Arrest. Stop. Catch. Seize. Neu- 

Ant. Send. Despatch. Forward. De- 
pute. Commission. Delegate. Exchange. 
Interchange. Intercommunicate. 

Intercession, n. See Inter- 

Interchange, n. See Change. 
A giving and taking between two 

Syn. Barter. Reciprocation. Recipro- 
city. Intercommunication. Correspondence. 
Intercourse. Mutuality. 

Ant. See Intercept. 

Interchange, v. See noun. 

Intercommunication, n. See 

Intercourse, n. Inter, he- 
tiveen, and cursua, a course (of 
deahng). Used of two parties. 

Stn. Correspondence. Dealing. Inter- 

Ant. Reticence. Suspension. Cessation. 
Disconnection. Interception. Interpella- 

Inteecuerence, •«. See Inter- 

Srt'. Intervention. Intrusion. Inter- 
venience. Interception. 

Ant, Non-intervention. Unobstructed- 
ness. Non-interception. 

Interdict, v. tr. Irder^dkere, 
dictus. To come authoritatively 
with proliibition between a party 
and the thing prohibited. Used 
actively of things and persona. 

Srs. Prohibit. Restrain. Kstop. Dis- 

Inteeest. Interesse. To como 
between, so as to make or show 
a difference. As in the phrase, 
' It makes a gxeat difference to 
me,' meaning, my interest is 
much affected. Hence the na- 
tural feeling about such cases, 
namely, anxiety or attention. 
Used technically for the aggre- 
gation of persons commonly con- 
cerned, as, ' the agricultural inte- 
rest,' and other technical senses. 

Stn. Concern. Business. Advantage. 
Profit. Attention. Curiosity. Behalf. 

Ant. Unconcern. Disconnection. Repu- 
diation. Disadvantage. Loss. Inattention. 
Incuriosity. Indifference. 

Inteefere, V. tr. Inter and 
ferire, to strike. To strike in be- 
tween two contending parties to 
stop them. The word still re- 
tains the element of opposition, 
but is sometimes used in no 
sense of opposition. In these 
cases there is commonly a quali- 
fication, as, ' he interfered to save 

Syn. S'ec Interpose. 

Interior, adj. Lat. 

Syn. Inside. Inner. 
Ant. Exterior. Outside. 

Interjacent, adj. Inter and 
jacere, to he. Lying between. 
See Intermediate. 

Interject. Interjicere, to throio 
between. See Inject. 

Interlace, v. tr. and int. In- 
ter and kice. Lat. laqueus. 

Stn. Cross. Reticulate. Intertwine. 

Ant. Radiate. Diverge. Unravel. Dis- 

Interlocution, n. Inter and 
loqui, to speak. 

SiTi. Interruption. Interpellation. 
Ant. Speech. Orition. Flow. Unia- 


Interlopeh *?. Inter and 

AJnf. Concede. Indulge. Grant. Adow 1 Dtltch loopen, to run. 


Smomjins and Anionyms. 

Stn. Intruder. Supernumerary. 
AxT. Member. Constituent. 

Intermeddle, v. inf. See 

Intermediate, (-/c/y. Inter and 
mediuf^, III iijillf. Coming between. 
Used pliysically and metaphy- 

Stn. Intervening. Included. Inter- 
posed. Middle. Comprised. Moderate. 

A XT. Circumjacent. Surrounding. En- 
closing. Embracing. Outside. Extreme. 
Excluded. Exclusive. 

Interment, n. See Inter. 

Interminable, a«?y. In, not, 
and terminus, an end or limit. 

Stn. Unending. Everlasting. Perpe- 
tr,al. Endless. Infinite. 

AST. Terminable. Brief. Moderate. 
Curt. Short. Idomentarj-. 




Intermission, n. Inter and 
inittere, to send or place. Pe- 
riodical delay or cessation. 

Svx. Cessation. Interruption. Discon- 
tinuance. Suspension. Recurrence. 

Ant. Continuity. Continuance. Perma- 
nence. Perpetuity. Constancy. Uninter- 

Intermit, v. tr. See Inter- 

Stx. Suspend. Piclax. Break. Discon- 

AST. Continue. Prosecute. Urge. Dis- 

Intermix, v. tr. See ]\Iix. 

Intermtjtation, n . In ter and 
mutare, to chanrje. A mutual 

Stn. Intervariation. Interdiscrepancy. 
Jterreciprocity. Interchange. Mutuality. 

Ast. Unity. Uniformity. Intcrresist- 
ance. Interdependence. 

Internal, adj. Lat. in tern us. 

Stn. ]nner. Interior. Inside. 
Aut. Outer. Exterior. Outside. 

International, adj. Infer 
and nafio, a nation. 

Stn. Interpolitical. Interdlplomatic. 

AST. liKkpendcnt. N^n-lnterventlre. 
intBetlne Domestic 

[ Internecine, adj, Jntev and 
! vecinus, ?/e.r, necis, death, deadh/. 
j Commonly used as an epithet of 
! war, hatred, or hostility. 

Stn. Exterminating. Deadly. Irrecor.- 
cileable. Inextinguishable. 

Ant. Desultory. Incursive. Marau.i- 
ing. Bucci\neering. Freebooting. Fili- 
bustering. Skirmishing. Guerilla. 

Interpellation, n. Inter- 
pcllare, to interrupt. 

Srx. Interlocution. Suspension. Inter- 

Ant. Promotion. Prosecution. Conduct. 
Flow. Uninterruptedness. 

Interpenetration, n. Inter- 
penetrare. The mutual penetra- 
tion of two things. 

Srs. Interingression. Interdigitation. 
Dovetail. Inoculation. 

Ant. Interseparation. Interrecurrence. 

Interpolate, v. tr. Inter 
and folire, tofurlish. 

Syn. Interlard. Interweave. Import. 
Garble. Gloss. Intersperse. Furbish. In- 

Ant. Expunge. Elide. Erase. Verify. 
Authenticate. Expurgate. 

Interpose, v. tr. and inf. In- 
ter and ponere, to place. Used as 
act. and neut. 

Stn. Introduce. Insert. Intervene. In- 
terfere. Meddle. 

Ast. AVithdraw. Retract. Retire. Re- 
cede. Remove. Extract. 

Interpret, v. tr. Interpre- 
tari, interpres, an interpreter. 

Srs. Translate. Render. Construe. 
Explain. Expound. Expone. Represent. 
Declare. Understand. 

AST. Misinterpret. ]Hisunderstand. Mis- 
take. IMisconceive. Falsify. Distort. Mis- 
declare. Misrepresent. 

Interpreter, n. See Inter- 

Interrogate, v. tr. Itdtrro- 
gure. See Question. 

Interrupt, v. tr. Inter and 

rumpere ; riiptuR, to break, 

Stn. Break. Disconnect. Discontinue. 

Intersect Disturb. 

Akt. Continue. Prosecute, txjiedite. 

Synonyms and Aniomjms, 


Intersect, v. tr. and int. In- \ 
tcr and secure, sictas, to cut. S(e j 

Intersperse^ ?■. tr. Inter and 
!>2Mrf/erp, spa7-suii, to scatter. 

Stn. Interlard. Powder. Scatter. 

Ant. E.xpunge. 

Interstice, n. Inter andsts- 
tere, to stcnid. 

Sts. Chink. Interval. Cleft. Cranny. 
Fissure. Gap. Interspace. Crack. 

Ant. Seam. Suture. Stop-gap. 

Intertwine. Inter and twine. 
Conn, with Two and Twain. >See 

Interval, «. Inter and val- 
his, a stake or palisade. A me- 
diate portion of time or space, 
or a selected portion. 

Syn. Interim. Meantime. Period. Gap. 
Intermission. Interspace. Ces.sation. 

Ant. Continuity. Simultaneousuess. Un- 

Intervention. Inter and ve- 
nire, to come. Used of sjiace, 
order, and time. 

SrN. Intrusion. Insinuation. Inter- 
ference. Intercession. Mediation. 

Ant. Continuance. Non-intervention. 
Uninterruptedness. Non-interference. 

Interview, n. Inter and 

vieiv, from videre, to see. A 

formal meeting between two 

Syn. Colloquy. Confabulation. Con- 
sultatioB. Conference. Jleeting. 

Akt. Isolation. Independence. Exclu- 
sion. Avoidance. 

Interweave. Lat. prep, in- 
Ur, and verb to weave. See In- 

Intestate, adj. Iniestatus. 
Without a will. Applied to 
persons and property. In, not, 
and testari, to make a will, from 
testis, a vritness. 

Sts. Unwilled. Undevised. Unbe- 

Ant. WiUed. Bequeathed. Devised. 

Intestine, adj. Intatinus, 
from intus, within. 

Civil. Domestic. 
il. Foreign. interaa* 

Stn. Interior. 
Ant. Extern 


Inthrall, v. To keep in 
thrall, or bring into thraldom. 

Syn. Confine. Cage. Imprison. Incar- 
cerate. Intomb. Enslave. 

Ant. Liberate. Release. Disengage. 
Free. Unfetter. 

Intimate, v. tr. Intinms, in- 
most. To give, first, confiden- 
tial, and, secondarily, as now 
used, ordinary information. 

Syn. Impart. Communiaite. Announce. 
Declare. Tell. 

Anx. Reserve. Repress. Conceal. WitU- 

Intimate, adj. Intimus, in- 

SrN. Close. Familiar. Exact. Nice. 
ANT. Distant. Unfamiliar. Superficial. 

Intimidate, v. tr. In and 
timidus, timid or frightened. 
Especially with some pm-pose of 
causing to act, or to deter. 

Stn. Frighten. AlaiTU. Threaten. 

Ant. Encourage. Inspirit. Animate. 

Intolerable, adj. In, not, 
and tolerare, to bear. See Insuf- 

Intolerant, adj. See Tole- 

Intomb, v. tr. In and Low 
Lat. tumba, a tomb. Used lite- 
rally and metaphorically. 

Syn. Inter. Bury. Inhume. lucarce 
rate. Imprison. Immure. 

Ant. Kxhumc. Disinter. Disentomb. 
Liberate. Release. 

Intonation, n. In and tonus, 
a tone or note. A sound, by use 
restricted to the voice, though 
tone is used of musical instru- 
ments also, which can be re- 
duced to a musical note. 

Stn. Melody. Accentuation. Reso:i« 
aace. Ring. 

Ant. Jar. Jabber. Gabble. Babeli 
G.bber. Rattle. 

Intoxication, ''. In anl 

Synon^ ms and Antonyms. 


toxieum, poison. To poison or I . .>*T- Extrinsic Acquired. Advew 
, re 1. 1 ±.1. JL r 1 titious. Borrowed. PretendeU. Asciti- 

to affect, as by the fumes of such | jious External. Added Assumed. 

herbs, and so impart a sensation Introduce, v. tr. See Intro- 
of di'owsmess, on the one hand, 
or delicious pleasure, on the 

Sr>-. Poison. Venom. Obfuscation. Be- 
wilderment. Delirium. Hallucination. Ra- 
vishment. Ecstasy. Inebriation. 

AxT. Antidote. Clarification. Sobriety. 
Sanity. Ebriety. ilelancholy. Depres- 

Intractable, adj. See Tract- 

Intraxsient, adj. See Tran- 

Intrenchment, n. In and 
trench. The word is used for 
that -R-hich is trenched, for tlie 

piU'pOSe of trenchiuc:, and also in | Allenative. supplemental. Terminal. Vale- 

a pecuUar sense for the i^ndue 1 ^^-^ j .^^^.^ 

carrsins; on of the process of _Jr 


Introduction, n. Intro, u-ith- 
in, and diicere, to briny. 

Stn. Induction. Importation. Leading. 
Taking. Presentation. Insertion. Com- 
mencement. Preliminary. Preface. Ini- 
tiative. Portico. Vestibule. Entrance. 

Akt. Eduction. Extraction. Exporta- 
tion. Elimination. i;iection. Encircle- 
ation. Estrangement. Conclusion. Com- 
pletion. End. Egress. 

Introductory, adj. See In- 

Srx. Trefatory. Initiatory. Commenda- 
tory. Precursoiy. Preliminary. Prepa- 

Ant. Completive. Final. Conclusive. 

carrsing on oi ine pr 
trenching, so as to encroach, as 
it were, on land not your own. 

Stk. Ditcb. Dyke. Sloat. Circumval- 
lation. Encroachment. Infringement. Tres- 

Akt. "Wall. Rampart. Mound. Jlole. 
Embankment. Glacis. Bastion. Forbear- 
ance. Deference. Respect. 

Intrepid, adj. In, not, and 
trepidus, afraid. See Courage. 

Intricate, adj. See Extri- 
cate, verb. 

Sin. Complicated. Involved. Mazy. 
Labyrinthine. Entangled. Tortuous. 

AKT. Simple. Uninvolved. Plain. 
Direct. Obvious. 

Intrigue, n. See Intricate. 

SrK. Cabal. Plot. Conspiracy, ilachi- 
nation. Artifice. Design. Manoeuvres. 
Cunning. Duplicity. Trickery. Chi- 

AST. Insurrection. Rebellion. Con- 
gress. Assembly. Force. Violence. As- 
sault. Opeimess. Candour. Sincerity. 
Honesty. Probity, Straight-forwardness. 

Intrinsic, adj. Intrinsecus, 
intra, ivithin. 

Sis. Native. Inherent. Innate. Ge- 
DGiue. Immanent. 

and vert ere, to turn. To turn the 
outside inwards. 

Stx. Involve. Invert. P^eplicate. 
AST. Explicate. Evolve. Encircleate. 

Intrude, v. tr. and int. In 
and trudere, to thrust or tread. 
See Interpose and Interfere. 

Intrusion, n. See Intrude. 

Intuition, n. Intuitio, tueri, 
to look or see. The faculty of di- 
rectly apprehending, withoiit the 
medium of any information or 

Svx. Instinct. Apprehension. Recogni- 
tion. Insight. 

Ant. Information. Instruction. Leam- 
ing. Elaboration. Acquirement. Induc- 
tion. Experience. 

Intuitive, adj. See Intuition. 

Intumescence, n. In and tn- 
luescere, to sirdl. 

SvN. Swelling. Protuberance. Turges- 

j\j>T. Subsidence. Evenness. Attenua- 
tion. Concavity. 

Intwine, V. tr. See. lutcrtwinG. 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


Sth. Twist. V/ieat'n. Plait. Inter- 
Iftce. Braid. Bind. 

Ant. Untwist. Disengage. Untie. Un- 
lace. Unravel. Unbind. 

Inundate, v. tr. In ani imda, 

Stn. Overflow. Submerge. Deluge. 

Ant. Drain. Keclaim. Dry. Desiccate. 

Inurbanitt, n. See Urba- 

Inuee, v. tr. In and urere, to 
(jive extreme effects of heat and cold. 
See Accustom. 

iNUSiTATioy, n. See Use. 

Inutility, n. See Utility. 

Invade, v. tr. In, on, and 
vadere, to go. Used of forcible or 
rude ingress. 

Stn. Attaclj. Assault. Encroach. Oc- 

Ant. Vacate. Abandon. Evacuate. 

Invasion, n. See Invade and 

Invective, n. In and vehi, to 
he carried, expresses being carried 
along the stream of eloquent 

Stn. Obloquy. Denunciation. Casti- 
gation. Vituperation. Reprobation. Abuse. 

Ant. Commendation. Encomium. Eulogy. 
Tanegyrio. Laudation. 

Inveigh, v. inf. See Invec- 
tive. Used with the prep. 

Syn. Denounce. Reprobate. Attack. 
Vituperate. Abuse. 

Ant. Exculpate. Advocate. Defend. 
Laud. Eulogize. Panegyrize. 

Inveigle, v. tr. In and Fr. 
aveugle. Mind. To lead astray 
as if blind. See Decoy. 

Invent, v. tr. Invenirc, in- 
ventus, to findj out. 

Syn. Discover. Contrive. Imaiine. 
Concoct. Elaborate. Conceive. Dtsign. 
Devise. Fabricate. Originate. 

Ant. Imitate. Copy. K\ecute. lie- 

Inventive, adj. &« Invent 
and Ingenious. 

Inversion, n. In and vertere. 
Applies to state, relation, and 

Stn. Reversal. Deflection. Alteration. 
Permutation. Violation. Transposition. 

Ant. Veiticality. Erectnesj. Stability. 
Permanence. Persistence. Conservation. 
Sequence. Fixity. State. Order. 

Invest, v. tr. See Divest. 

Investigate, v. tr. In and 

vestigium, a footprint. To track 
closely. See Examine. 

Investiture, «., Investment, 
n. See Divest. Invest is used in 
a teclmical sense when it means, 
in financial matters, to secure 
capital, and, in military matters^ 
to lay siege. 

Inveterate, adj. In vete- 
rascere, to grow old, and so rooted. 
It is applied both to persons and 

SvN. Confirmed. Ingrained. Incar- 

Ant. Incipient. Undeveloped. Uu- 

Invidious, alj. Invi,dia,envy. 
Is now used of such proceedings 
as shall tend to raise a grudge 
between the persons who are in 
any way the subjects of the com- 

SvN. Unfair. Gratuitous. Partial. In- 

Ant. Fair. Impartial. Considerate. Due. 

Invigorate, v. tr. In and 

vigor, oris, strength, vigour. See 

Invincible, adj. In, not, and 
vincere, to coii'/ner. 

Syn. lmpregnai)lc. Immoveable. laes- 
pugnable. Uusubduable. Irresistible. In- 

Ant. >\'oak. Spiritless. Powerless. Tuny 

Inviolable, adj. In, not, and 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

violare, vis, violence, to violate. 
That •will not yield to force. 

Stn. Impregnable. Invincible. Strict. 
Immoveaoie. Unimpeacliable. Unalter- 


Ant. Alterable. Weak. Frail. 

iNVloiiATE, adj. See Invio- 

Stn. Guarded. Treasured. Close. Vir- 
gin. Intact. 

Ant. Betrayed. Surrendered. Di- 

Invisible, adj. See Visible. 
Invite, v. tr. Invitare. 

Syn. Ask. Summon. Call. Challenge. 

-Vttract. Allure. Tempt. Incite. 

Akt. Forbid. Exclude. Discard. De- 

iirecate. Repel. 

Inviting, adj. See Invite. 

Invoke, v. tr. Tnvocare. To 
call to one's presence, observation, 
or protection. 

Stn. Summon. C.iU. Imprecate. Con- 
jure. Invite. Challenge. [ 

Ant. Deprecate. Ignore. Warn. In- j 
biblt. Klude. Defy. Deter. | 

Involuntary, adj. See Yo- j 

Involution. J71 and voJvere, 
"olutus, to turn or roll. See In- 

Involve, v. tr. . See Involu- 

Syn. Implicate. Confound. Mingle. 
ksi. Separate. Extricate. Disconnect. 

Involved, adj. See Involu- i 

Syn. Implicated. Concerned. Compli- 
cated. Confused. Compromised. 

Ant. Unconnected. Unconcerned. Simple. 
Lucid. Uncompromised. 

Invulnerable, adj. See Vul- 

Irascible, adj. Irasci, ira, t^ 
he angry. See Hasty. 

Irate, adj. See Irascible and 

Irk. n. Sec above, and Wrath. 

Iridescent, adj. Iris, the 

Stn. Prismatic. Opaline, rqlychroic*- 
tons. Nacreous. 

Ant. Achromatic. Blanched. Neutral 
Dlngv. Colourless. Etiolated. Monochro- 

Irk, ?•. tr. Scotch. To weary. 

Syn. Weary. Tire. Tease. Bore. Op- 
press. Jade. 

Ant. Interest. Rivet. Animate. Kc- 
frcKh. Inspirit. 

Irksome, adj. See Irk and 

Irony, ik Gr. eipcoveia, an tn,- 
derstate-ment of truth. In Eng- 
lish it signifies rather a contra- 
diction under a mock acquies- 
cence. The following words are 
by no means strict synonjTUS. 

Stn. Satire. Banter. Quiz, Rally. 

Ant. Compliment. Seriousness. 

Ironical, adj. See Irony. 

Irradiate, v. tr. In and ra- 
dius, a. ray of light. See Illumi- 

Irrational, adj. See Ea- 

Irreclaimable, adj. See Ee- 

Irreconcileable, adj. See 

Irrecoverable, adj. See Ee- 

Irredeemable, adj. See Ee- 

Irreducible, adj. See Ee- 

Irrefragable, adj. S<e Eo- 

Irrefutable, ad/. See Ee- 

Irregular, adj. See Eegiilar. 

Irrelevant, adj. See Eele- 

Ibbbligion, 7i. See Ecligiou. 

Synomjma and Antonyms 
See Ee- 


IbREMEDIABI.K, 0.(1/. 


Ikremissible, aJJ. See Rfi- 

Irresioveablb, adj. See Ro- 

Irreparable, «'(/'. See Ecpa- 

Irreprehensible, adj. See 

Irrepressible, a'JJ. See Ee- 

Irreproachable, odj. See 

Irreproveable, adj. See Ee- 

Irresistible, adj. See Ee- 

Irresolute, adj See Eeso- 

Irrespective, adj. See Ee- 

Irresponsible, adj. See Ee- 

Irretrievable, adj. See Ee- 
t rievable. 

Irreverexce, adj. Ste Ee- 

Irreversible, adj. See Ee- 

Irrevocable, adj. See Eevo- 

Irrigate, v. tr, Irrir/are, to 

Stn. Water. "Wet. Inundate. Sub- I 

^ AXT. Dry. Drain. Parch. 

Irrigation, ■». See Irrigate. 

Irritable, adj. Lat. Jn-i- 
tare, to excite. See Hasty. 

Irritant, adj. See Leniativc. 

Ibbitate, v. tr. See Irri- 

I'acliy. Tamei 

Syn. Tease. Provoke. 
Ant. Soothe. Caress. 

Irritation, h. See Irritate. 

Irruption, v. In and rum- 
jpere, riiptus, to burst or break. 

SvN. Incursion. Invasion. Inundation. 

Akt. Eruption. Excursion. Sally. Re- 
treat. Outburst. 

Isolation, «. Isolare, for /;/- 
sulare, to part off on all sides like 
an island. 

Srsf. Segregation. Detachment. Dis- 
connection. Insularity. Self-contained, 

Axt. Organization. Co-membersliip. 
Community. Connection. Concatenation. 

Issue, v. A corrnptioii of the 
word e.xitus, a fortlicomini]. It 
is used in a variety of senses, ai5 — 

Syn. Effect. Outcome. Manifestation. 
End. Result. Progeny. Posterity. 

Ant. Cause. Operation. Working. Prin- 
ciple. Law. System. Action. Influence. 
Origination. Commencement. Paternity. 

Iteration, n. Itemm, again. 
See Eepetition. 

Itinerant, adj. Iter, iiineris, 
a Journey. 

Syn. Wandering. Travelling. Locomo- 
tive. Roving. Roaming. Journeying. 

Ant. Stationary. Domestic. Fi.\fi.l 
Settled. Allocated. Local. 


Jabber, n. and 
Gibber and Gabble. 

Allied to 
See Gabble. 

Jade, v. tr. From Prov. Eng. 
j yaud. Scot, yade, a sorry narj. 
Syn. Fatigue. 'J'ire. Weary. 0[ipreAS 

Ant. Refresh. Recruit. Bail. In- 
gorate. Inspirit. 

Jangle, n. and v. Old Fr. 

Sin. Jargon. Bab-1. Wrangle, Cou 

tcDtion. Bickering. 

,\NT. Ar<:ument. Debate. Iiiscouree. 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

Jaktv, wlj. Old Fr. jancer, to 
jolt or shake. So Jant or jaunt, 
an excursion. Others from Gentil. 

Syn. Flighty. Airy. Fantastic. Showy. 

Ant. Staid. Sober. Sedate. Demure. 

Jargon-, H. Fr.jarr/on. Used 
in the twofold sense of gibberish 
or unintelligible language, and of 
the cant of sj'stem contemptu- 
ously treated as unintelligible. 

Stn. Gibberish. Jangle. Slang. Cant. 
A%*?. Speech. Conversation. Literature. 
Discourse. Oration. Kloquence. 

Jaundiced, adj. Jaundice, 
from Fr. jnnne, yellow. Meta- 
phorically used to mean seeing 
through discoloured media. 

Syn. Biassed. Prejudiced. Warped. 

Ant. Unbiassed. Unprejudiced. Un- 

Jealous, o'//. Is etymolo- 
gically the same word as zealous, 
from Gr. ^riXos. To be zealous 
about one's self is Often to be 
jealous of others. 

Stn. Envious. Self-anxious. Covetous. 

Ant. Unenvious. Libera!. Genial. 
Self-denying. Indifferent. Unjealous. 

Jealousy, n. Sc Jealous. 

Jeer, v. fr. Old Eng. Means 
to deride, but with varying de- 
grees of earnestness ; followed by 
prep. at. 

SvN. Sneer. Scoff. Deride. Scout. 
Flout. JI"ck. Rally. Banter. 

Akt. Flatter. Adulate. Fawn. Cringe. 
Compliment. Eulogize. 

Jejune, adj. Ijat. Jejunus, 
hunfiry. Spare, as from want. 
Used metaphorically. 

Stn. Bare. Scant. Poor. Thin. Weak. 
Barren. Sterile. Poverty-struck. Bald. 

Ant. Rich. E.^uberant. l!acy. Abun- 
dant. Interesting. Overwrought. Redun- 

Jeopardy, n. Fr. Jeu parti, 
a, divided or divn'ii (/ame, or a 
gamo in -^-hicb the chances of 

success were nicely balanced 
Afterwards, it was confounded 
with Jeit perdu, a lost f/ame. 
Syn. Danger. Peril. Hazard. Risk. 

Ant. Sai'ety. Security. Provision. In- 

Jest, ??. Old Eng. Jest and 
gest, from gestum, a deed. A 
recital of deeds, or a story accom- 
panied by illustrative gesture or 
gesticulation for amusement. 
Comp. Jester. Hence it cama 
to signify as follows : — 

Syn. Joke. Raillery. Fun. Sport. 
Ant. Earnest. Seriousness. Gravity. 

Jingle, ii. Formed to ex- 
press a senseless artificial asso- 
nance of words. 

Syn. Rhyme. Chime. Tinkle. Tingle. 
Ant. Euphony. Consonance. Melody. 

Jocose, adj. Jocosus, Jocus, a 

Syn. Humorous. Funny. Jocular. 

Ant. Melancholy. Serious. Earnest. 
Grave. Lugubrious. Lackadiiisical. 

Jocular, adj. See Jocose. 
JocuxD, adj. See Jocose. 

Syn. Merry. Joyous. Jovial. Gay. 
Gleeful. Blithe.sonie. Careless. 

Ant. Melancholy. DulL Grave. Mourn- 
fill. Sorrowful. Darksome. Cheerless. 
Woful. Rueful. Doleful. Careworn. 

Join, v. tr. and inf. Lat. Ju7i- 

Syn. Unite. Adhere. Adjoin. Add 
Couple. Connect. 

Ant. Separate. Disjoin. Subtract. Dis- 

Joint, n. See Join. 

Syn. Articulation. Junction. Flemre 
Elbow. Knee. 

Ant. Solution. Disconnection. Dl^unc- 
lion. Uniformity. Continuity. 

Joke, n. Lat. Jocus. See 
1 Jest. 

Jolly, adj. Old Fv.JoJi. In 
modern Fi". the word means 
pretty, and is significant of the 
combination in the national mind 
of liveliness witli attraction. 

Si/nonijms and Antonym? ■. 


Stn. Gay. l^fcrry. Joyful. Gladsome. 
Mirthful. Genial. 

Akt. Sad. aiournful. Joyless. Cheer- 
less. Unmii-ihfu:. J.ufvubaious. Morose. 

JOLLITT, n. See JoUy. 

Jostle, v. tr. Also wi-itten 
justle, irom joust, the mochfiyld of 
the tournament. 

Stn. Hustle. Push. Thrust. Jog. Jolt. 

AUT. Clear. Lead. Extricate. Convoy. 
Escort. Precede. Pilot. Attend. 

Jot, n. Gr. iota, letter I. 
Used metaphorically for a very 
small or insignificant thing or 

Sin. Tittle. Cipher. Trifle. Rush. 
Fig. Piirticle. Atom. Thought. Idea. 
Scrap. Bit. Morsel. Fraction. 

Akt. Deal. Power. World. Mass. 
Light. Load. Ocean. 

Jovial. Jupiter, Jove. Of the 
temper stipposed to belong to 
those born under the planet 
Jupiter. Comp. Saturnine. 

Stx. Jolly. Genial. Convivial. 
Ant. Ungenial. Melancholy. Uncon- 
vivial. Saturnine. Lugubrious. Gloomy. 

Jot. Lat. gaudium, through 
Fr. joie. 

Syn. Gladness. Pleasure. Delight. 
Happiness. Exultation. Transport. Feli- 
city. Ecstasy. Kapture. Bliss. Gaiety. 
Mirth. Merriment. Festivity. Hilarity. 

Ant. Sorrow. Pain. Trouble. Misery. 
Melancholy. Grief. Affliction. Tears. 
Depression. Despondency. Despair. 

JoTFUL, adj., Joyless, adj., 
Joyous, adj. See Joy. 

Jubilant, adj. Heb. yohel, 
the blast of a trumjjet. Celebra- 
tion of the year of jubilee, a 
sabbatical year of every fiftieth 
anniversary. Seven weeks of 
seven years making forty-nine, 
and the fiftieth being the year 
of jubilee. 

Sth. Joyous. Triimipbanl. Festive. 
Congratulatory. Exultant. 

Ant. Doleful. Moumful. Sorrowful. 
Wailing. Penitent. Penitentiai Lugu- 
brious. Remorseful. 

Jubilee, n. See Jubilant. 

Stn. Holiday. Feast. Rejoicing. Mer- 
riment. Festivity. Revel. Pa;au. Cami- 
val. High-day. 

Akt. Fast. Humiliation. Mourning. 
Penitence. Lent. 

Judge, «. Judex. A per.son 
officially appointed, or selected 
by agreement, or naturally com- 
petent, to decide on a given 

Syn. Justice. Magistrate. Arbitrator. 
Umpire. Referee. Critic. Connoisseur. 

Ant. Criminal. Ignoiamus. Tyro. 


Judgment, 1?. >See Judge. Is 
used in the senses of the process 
of judging, the faculty of judging, 
the faculty of judging rightly, 
and the result of judging. 

Stn. Decision. Determination. Adju- 
diGition. Sagacity. Judiciousness. Pene- 
tration. Sense. Intellect. Belief. Esti- 
mation. Opinion. Sentence. Verdict. 

Ant. Argument. Consideration. Specu- 
lation. Proposition. Inquiry. Investiga- 
tion. Pleading. Insagacity. Injudicious- 
ness. Evidence. Pronunciation. 

Judicious, adj. See Judge. 
Able to judge rightly concerning 
the expedient. 

Stn. Wise. Sagacious. Sensible. Prudent. 
Discreet. Well-judged. Well-advised. Polite 

Ant. Foolish. Unwise. Silly. Impru 
dent. Indiscreet. Ill-judged. Ill-advised 
Impolitic. Inexpedient. Kash. Blind. In 

Juggle, v. tr. and iuf. Lat 
Jocidari, to Johe or deceive. It has 
come to express underhanded- 
ncss in word or deahng, and 
in both act. and neut. senses. 
The combination of ideas is seen 
in Juggler, by whom men are 
both taken in and also amused. 

Stn. Conjure. Cheat. Bamboozle. Shuffle. 
Trick. Beguile. Circumvent Swindle. 
Overreach. Mystify. Mislead. 

Ant. Expose, Detect. Correct. En- 
lighten. Guide. Lead. Undeceive. His- 

Jumble, v. tr. Fr. comhler 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

Lat. cumidare, to throio into con- 
fused masses or heaps. See Ar- 

Junction, n. Junctlo, jun- 
fjere, to join. 

Stn. Joining. Connection. Union. Com- 
bination. Coaiition. Attachment. Fasten- 
ing. Annexation. 

AST. Separation. Disconnection. Dis- 
union. Division. Segregation. Dispersion. 
Loosenint;. Unfastening. Unilortnity. 

JcNCTUEE, It. Is used dis- 
tinctively from Junction to ex- 
press a i^eculiar combination of 
events, or a crisis. *b'ee Con- 

Junior, adj. Lat. juvenls, 
junior. Younger. 

Stx. Younfrer. 
AJiT. Senior. Elder. 

Jurisdiction, n. Jus, juris, 
right or justicp, and dicer e, to 
declare. The particular province 
or locality of a judge, magistrate, 
or court, or the exercise of his 

Stn. Administration. Cogaizance. Go- 
vernment. Control. Power. Legalizatioa 
Magistracy. Sway. Liability. 

AiJT. Freedom. Independence. Exemp- 
tion. ImmuQity. 

Just. Justus. Sec Jurisdic- 
tion. Is used of physical adapta- 
tion as well as of conformity to 
right between man and man, and 
of things of thought and argu- 

Sin. E.\act. Fitting. Proportioned. 
Trui-. Ilarnionious. Honest. Fair. Rea- 
sonable. Sound. Honourable. Impartial. 
Equitable. Upright. Regular. Mormal. 
Orderly. Lawful. 

Ant. Inexact. Misfitted. Dispropor- 
tioiied. Ill-proportioned. Untrue. Inhar- 
monious. Unfair. Unreasonable. Un- 
Boand. Dislionourable. Partial. Unequit- 
able. Unjust. Irregular. Abnormal. Dis- 

Justice, ». Justitia, Justus, 

Stk. Equity. Impartiality. Fairness. 
Bight. KeasonablencBs. Propriety. 

AST. Injustice. Wr)ng. Partiality 
Unfairness. Unreasonableness. Unlawful- 
ness. Inadequateness. 

Justification, n. Justus, justt 
and fucere, to mafce. The mak- 
ing or proving right or just. It 
is applied to persons' conduct, 
opinions, proceedmgs, and senti- 

Sts. Vindication. Apology. Defence. 

Advocacy. Maintenance. Plea. Exonera- 
tion. Exculpation. 

AST. Condemnation. Censure. Convic- 
tion. Protest. AbanJcnment. Inculpa- 
tion. Crimination. Implication. Aggra- 

Justify, v. tr. See Justifica- 

JusTLE, V. tr. See Jostle. 

Juvenile, adj. Lat. Juvenis, 

Sts. Youlbful. Young. Infantine. 
Boyish. Girli;-h. Early. Immature. Ado- 
lescent. Pubescent. 

AST. Mature. Later. Manly. W'o- 
manly. Elderly. Aged. Senile. Anile 
Superannuated. Adult. 

Keen, adj. Saxon. 

Syx. Eager. Vehement. Sharp. Pierc- 
ing. Penetrating. Acute. 

AST. Indifferent. Languid. Blunt. DulL 

Keep, v. tr. Saxon. 

Sts. Hold. Restrain. Retain. Detain. 
Guard. rrfser\'e. Suppress. Repress. Con- 
ceal. Tend. Support. Maintain. Conduct. 
Continue. Obey. Observe. Haunt. Frequent. 

AST. Release. Acquit. Liberate. ;>end. 
Dismiss. Betray. Neglect. Divulge. Aban- 
don. Discard. Intermit. Disobey. Trans- 
gress. Disrcsard. Forsake. Desert. Ob- 
• liviate. 

Kebper, «. See Keep. 
i Keeping, n. Used sometimes 

in the sense of congruity. See 

! Kkn, 7}. Old Eng., kemm7i, ta 

know. Comp. Can, Canny, Know 


Synonyms and Anionyms. 


StK. View Survey. Knowleilgc. Cog- 

Ant. Ovei-jiKht. Jgnovanco. Inob- 
serv.ince. Jnexperience. Jiicognizance. In- 

Keknel, n. Sax. cyrnel, a 
Utile corn or graui. Used some- 
times metaphorically. See Core. 

Kick, v. ir. and int. The word 
is said to be Welsh, and is 
nsed both as an ud. and neut. 
verb, and in a metaphorical 

StU. Caloitr.ite. Rebel. Tlesist. Spurn. 
Akt. Cai-esf. Sootlie. Flatter. Obey. 

Kill, V. </•. Sax. Same word 
as Quell. 

Syn. Slay. Murder. Assassinate. De- 
stroy. Slaughter. Butcher. Immolate. 
ilassacre. Despatch. 

Akt. Revivify. Resuscitate. Vivify. 

Kin, n. Saxon. 

Stn. Race. Kindred. Offspring. Kind. 
Family. Sort. Ilk. Genus. Kidney. Class. 
Relationship. Consanguinity. Blood. 

Akt. Foreignership. Strangership. Dis- 
connection. Inaffinity. Irrelation. 

Kind, n. See Kin. Add. 

Syn. Style. Character. Description. De- 
signation. Denomination. Genus. Species. 
Ant. See Kiu. Dissimilarity. 

Kind, ml/. See Kind, v. Hav- 
ing such feelings as befit crea- 
tures belonging to the same 

Syn. Benevolent. Benign. Tender. In- 
dulgent. Humane. Clement. Lenient. 

Ant. Unliind. Harsh. Severn Cruel. 
Hard. Illiberal. 

Kindle, v. tr. Scand. word, 
allied to Lat. candere, in uccen- 
dere, incendere. Comp. Candes- 
cent, Candid, Candle. 

Syn. Light. Ignite. Excite. Inflame. 
Ant. Kxtiiiguish. Suppress. Quench. 

Kindness, n. See Kind. 
Kindred, n. See Kin. 
Knave, n. Sax. oxdxi, of- 
ipriiifj, Germ. Jcuahe. Was not 

originally a term of reproach. It 
meant first a boy, then a serv^mt. 
and lastly, as now, a rogue. 

Stn. Rogue. Cheat. Rascal. Villain. 
Ant. True-penny. Gentleman. luiio* 
cent. Dupe. Simpleton. Gull. Oaf. 

Knavery, v. See Knave. 

Knavish, adj. See Knave. 

Knit, v. tr. Sax. cnytan. Has 
the twofold sense of Join and 
Interlace, which see. 

Knot, n. Is really the part. 
jKii^s. of Knit, and is used in 
many senses which are analo- 

Stn. Tie. Bond. Intricacy. Difficulty. 
Perplexity. Cluster. Collection. Band. 
Group. Protuberance. Joint. 

Ant. Loosening. Unfastening. Dissolu- 
tion. Solution. Explication. Unravelling. 
Dispersion. Multitude. Crowd. Evenness. 
Smoothness. Cavity. Indentation. 

Knotty, adj. See Knot. Used 
metaphorically and analogously. 

Stn. Tough. Hard. Difficult. Com- 
Ant. Plain. Simple. Easy. Obvious. 

Knowing, adj. See Ken. Pos- 
sessing practical knowledge ot 
no very high order. 

Stn. Shrewd. Astute. Sharp. Dis- 
cerning. Acute. Sagacious. Penetrating. 

Ant. Simple. Dull. Innocent. Gullible. 
Undiscerning. Stolid. Silly. 

Knov/lkdge. See Ken. 

Stn. Apprehension. Comprehension. 
Recognition. Understanding. Conversance. 
Experience. Acquaintance. Familiariiy. 
Cognizance. Notice. Information. in- 
struction. Learning. 

Ant. Misappreliension Inobservance. 
Incomprehension. Misunderstanding. Mis- 
conception. Inconversance. Inexperience. 
Ignorance. Unfamiliarity. Incognizance. 
Misinformation. Deception. Misinstructisn. 
Uneducatedness. Untutoredncss. Rudeness. 

Laborious, adj. Lat. J<d>or. 
Applied to persons as cxliiliiting 
the disposition and prtiiluclions, 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

and to operations as indicating 
the results of labour. 

Stn. Assiduous. Diligent. Painstaking. 
Indefatigable. Arduous. Burdensome. 
Toilsome. Wearisome. 

AxT. Idle. Indiligent. Lazy. Indo- 
lent. Easy. Facile. Light. Simple. 

Laeouk, n. See Laborious. 

SrJf. Work. Toil. Burden. Drudgery. 
Exertion. Effort. Industry. 

Ant. Indolence. Ease. Inactivity. 
Facility. Skill. Recreation. Eest. Re- 

Labyrinth. Gr. \a8vpivdos. 

Used metaj^horically. 

SrN. I\Iaze. Complexity. Bewilderment. 

Ant. Clue. Explication. Elimination. 

Lace, v. tr. Old Eng. las, a 
lace or tie, often netted or inter- 
twined. Conn, with laqimts,anet, 
noose, or snare. See Bind. 

Lacerate. Lat. lacerare, from 
lacer, torn or mangled. See Tear 

Laconic, adj. Spartan, from 
Sparta, in the ancient Laconia. 

Syn. Terse. Curt. Epigr.immatic. 
Ant. Prolix. Wordy. Tedious. Garru- 
lous. Circumlocutory. Prosy. Loquacious. 

Lack, n. Old Eng. lake, 
Mame, fault. 

Stn. Failure. Scarcity. Deficiency. 
AVant. Need. Demand. 

Ant. Fuluess. Abundance. Sufficiency. 
Satisfaction. Supply. Comiietence. 

Lack, v. int. See noun. 

Lade. Sax. Ilhladan. See 

Laden. See Lade. 

Lading. See Load. 

Lag, v. int. Gael, and Ir. 
lag, "Welsh Hag, lueak, reiniss, 

Syn. Loiter. Linger. Saunter. Dawdle. 
Dally. Tarry. Idle. 

Ant. Press. Hasten. Sj>eed. Rusb. 
Hurry. Stir. 

Laggard, n. See Lag. 
LaIOAL, adj. Gr. Xaos, t la- 

people. The mass of people, as 
distinguished from the clergy or 
the legal profession. 

SvK. Secular. Non-legal. Civil. Tem- 

Ant. Qerical. Legal. Ministerial. Ec 
clesiastical. Sacerdotal. Priestly. Canoni- 
cal. Spiritual. 

Laity, ??. See Laical. 

Lame, adj. Sax. lam. Used 
metaphorically, as, a lame excuse, 
speech, or production. 

Stx. Weak. Faltering. Hobbling. Hesi- 
tating. Ineffective. Impotent. 

AxT. Robust. Agile. Potent. Effi- 
cient. Satisfactory. Cogent. Convincing. 
Telling. Effective. 

Lament, v. tr. and -int. Lat. 

Stn. Deplore. Mourn. Bewail. Re- 

Ant. Welcome. Hail. 

Land, v. tr. Sax., meaning 
eai-th. It is used sometimes 
metaphorically, as, to land one in 
a conclusion. 

Stn. Plant. Fix. 

Ant. E.\tricate. Remove. Disestablish. 


Language, n. Lat. lingua, a 

Stn. Speech. Talk. Conversation. Dia- 
lect. Discourse. Tongue. Diction. Phrase- 
ology. Articulation. Accents; 

Ant. Jargon. Jabber. Gibberish. Ba- 
bel. Gabble. Cry. Whine. Bark. Howl. 
Roar, &c. Obniutescence. Dumbness. Mute* 
ness. Inarticulateness. Speechlessness. 

Languid, adj. Lat. languidus, 
Ian gn ere, to languish. 

Stn. Faint. Weary. Feeble. Un- 
nerved. Unbraced. Pining. Drooping. 

Ant. Strong. Healthy. Robust. Vigor- 
ous. Active. Braced. 

Languish, v. int. See Lan^ 

Stn. Pine. Droop. Sink. Faint. Wither 
Sigh. Decline. 

Ant. Flourish. Luxuriate. Blooia 
Thrive. Prosper. 

Languor, n. Ste Languid. 
liANK, adj. Sax. Mane. 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 

Stk. Lean. Loos?. Siender. Slim. 
LoB!; Lax. Raw-boiipil. 

^\JJT. Plump. Short. Full. Rounded. 
Crifp. Curled. 

Lapse, n. Lat. lapsus, from 
lain, to fall or glide. Commonly 
used in these two senses, as — 

Snj. Gliding. Falling. Flow. Onflow. 
Flu-x. Progress. Escheatment. Devolu- 
tion. Reversion. 

Ant. Stability. Uprightness. Station- 
ariness. Fixture. Arrestation. Stoppage. 
Retention. Inheritance. Possession. 

Large, adj. Fr. large, Lat. 

Stn. Big. Bulky. Extensive. Abun- 
dant. Capacious. Ample. Liberal. Com- 
prehensive. Enlightened. Catholic. 

Ant. Small. Mean. Narrow. Con- 
tracted. Circumscribed. Scanty. Illiberal. 
Niggardly. Bigotted. Petty. Sordid. 

Lash, v. Germ, lasche, a 
latchet of leather. See Bind. It 
lias also the metaphorical sense of 
censm-e, or the infliction of casti- 
gation by words. 

Stn. Censure. Castigate. Satirize. 
Akt. Extol. Compliment. Eulogize. 

Lassitude, n. Lassitude, 
lassus, tueary. See Languor. 

Last, v. int. Sax. laestan, to 
perform or continue. 

Stx. Continue. Endure. Remain. Hold. 
Abide. Live. 

Ant. Cease. Fail. Fade. Fly. Wane. 
Depart. Disappear. Terminate. 

Last, adj. Sax. Contraction 
of latest. 

SrN. Latest. Ending. Final. Con- 
cluding. Hindmost. Past. Extreme. 
Lowest. Remotest. Ultimate. 

Ant. First. Introductory. Initiatory. 
Opening. I'oremost. Ensuing. Jlinor, 
Highest. Xext. Nearest. 

Late, adj. Sax. 

Stn. Slow. Tardy. Delayed. Ad- 
vanced. Deceased. Past. Recent. 

Ant. Early. Present. Existing. Forth- 
coming. Coming. Future. 

Latent, adj. Lat. latere, to he 

Stn. Invisible. Inapparent. Unobserved, fi^y. 
Hidden. Concealed. Undeveloped. Im- ' ""'-^ 
pikit. Potential. Inherent. 


! Ant. Visible. Appa.-ent. Manifest. 
Conspicuous. Exposed. Unconcealed, 
Active. Developed. Explicit. 

Lateral, adj. Lat. latus, eris, 
the side. 

Stn. Indirect. Oblique. Secondary. 
Resultant. Collateral. Deviative. Adai- 
tive. Parallel. Adjunctive. Incidental. 

Ant. Lineal. Direct. Primary. Imme- 

Latter, adj. See Last, for 
Later, comparative of Late. 

Laud, v. tr. Lat. laudare, 
laus, to x>raise. See Pi'aise. 

Laudable. See Laud and 

Laudation, n. See Laud and 

Laughable, adj. Laugh from 
Old Eug. lighe. Conn, with 
Light. The lighting up of the 
countenance with gladness or 
merriment. See Eidiculous. 

Laughter, n. See Laugh- 

Stn. Merriment. Glee. Derision. Ridi- 
cule. Cachinnation. Contempt. 

Ant. Weeping. Tears. Mourning. Sor- 
row. Admiration. Veneration. Respect. 
Whimper. Whine. 

Launch, v. act. and neut. Old 
Fr. lancer. Used metaphorically. 

Syn. Propel. Hurl. Embiirk. Expa- 
tiate. Enlarge, 

Ant. Repress. Recall. Ignore. Avoid. 

Lave, v. tr. Lat. lavare. See 

Lavish, adj. Old Eng. lave, 
to throw out. 

Stn. Profuse. Prodigal. Unsparing. 
Bountiful. Extravagant. Wasteful. 

Ant. Chai-y. Sparing. Niggardly. Eco- 
nomical. Dainty. Close. Retentive. 

Lavish, v. See Lavish, adj. 

Syn. Pour. Heap. Squander. AVaste. 
Ant. Husband. Store. Keep. Retain. 
Accumulate. Hoard. Treasure. Spare. 

Law, n. Sax. lecgan, to lay 
Comp. Statute, from sta- 
tuere, to estMish Comp. also 


bynonyms and Antonyms. 

the phrase ' to lay down tlie 
law' It is nsecl iu the scion- 
tific sense of ' a directive rule to 
goodness of operation.' 

Stsj. Rule. Edict. Regulation. Com- 
mand. Order. Decree. Statute. Enact- 
ment. Mode. Method. Sequence. Prin- 
ciple. Order. Code. Legislation. Adju- 
dication. .Jurisprudence. Jurisdiction. 

Ant. Misrule. Disorder. Anarchy. 
Rebellion. Insubordination. Hazard. 

Chance. In'egularity. Caprice. Accident. 

Lawful, adj. See Law. 

Stn. Legal. Permissible. Right. Or- 
derly. Allowable. Fair. 

Ant. Illegal. Inpermissible. Unlaw- 
ful. Wrong. Lawless. Unfair. 

Lawless, adj. See Lawful. 

Stn. Wild. Rebellious. Disorderly. 
Saviisa. Marauding. Violent. 

AxT. Peaceful. Loyal. Orderly. Civi- 
lized. Honest. Tractable. AVell-disposed. 

Lax, adj. Lat. laxus. Used 
metaphorically of statements and 

SrJJ. Loose. Vague. Incoherent. Dis- 
solute. Licentious. Unprincipled. Re- 

Ant. Concise. Coherent. Compact. 
Stri(!t. Rigid. Severe. Principled. Con- 
scientious. Attentive. 

Lat, v. tr. Comp. Law. 

Syn. Place. Establish. Deposit. Allay. 
Prostrate. Arrange. Dispose. Spread. 

It has other senses, but they 
are technical or peculiar, as, ' to 
lay a ghost,' a wager, eggs, a 
tas, an acciisation, an assess- 

ANT. Erect. Raise. Lift. ICxcite. Dis- 
arrange. Disorder. Scrape. Abrade. 

Layman, n. See Laical. 
Lazy, adj. Old Eng. See 
Lead, v. Sax. Icedan. 

Stn. Conduct. Guide. Precede. In- 
-luce. Spend. Pass. Commence. Inau- 
gurate. Convoy. 

A^T. Misconduct. Jlislead. Follow. 
Dissuade. Abandon. Leave. Misguide. 

Lead, n. See Lead, verb. 
Syn. Prio.ity. Pre-eminence. Initia- 
Ure. Guidance. CuntroL 1 1 

Ant. Subordination. Inferiority Snt 

Leading, adj. See Lead ana 

League, n. Fr. lir/ue, Lat. 
ligare, to hind. 

Stn. Bond. Corabinaticn. Alliance. 
Compact. Confederacy. Union. 

Ant. Dissolution. " Disconnection. Xeu- 
trality. Secession. Disunion. Disruption. 
Alienation. Divorce. 

Leak, v. neid. Sax. leccan, to 
wet. See Ooze. 

Lean, v. tr. and iitt. Sax. 
Idinian, allied to Lat. clinare, as 
seen in incUnarc Comp. Eng. 
Incline and Gr. Kkivfiv. 

Syn. Incline. Rest. Support. Tend. 
Bend. Depend. Hang. Repose. Confide. 

Ant. stabilitate. Erect. Ke-erect. 
Raise. Rise. Straighten. 

Lean, adj. A. S. loene. 

Syn. Meagre. Lank. Tabid. Ema- 
ciated. Shrivelled. Bony. 

Ant. Fat. Brawny. Plump. Well- 

Leaning, n. See Lean, verb. 

Syn. Tendency. Inclination. Pro- 
clivity. Propensity. Partiality. Bias. 

Ant. Avoidance. Aversion. Repug- 
nance. Loathing. 

Learn, v. tr. Sax. Itornian. 

Syn. Acquire. Attain. Imbibe. Col- 
lect. Glean. Understand. Gather. 

Ant. Lose. Forget. Teach. Instruct 

Of old, the word Learn meant 
also to teach. It is in tliis sense 
that the participial adj. Learned 
' is employed. 

Learned, adj. See Learn. 

Stn. Conversant. Read. Erudite. Skilled 
Scholarly. Literary. 
1 Ant. Inconversant. Illiterate. Ignorant. 
[ Unlearned. Unscholarly. 

I Learner, v. See Learn. 

} Stn. 'I'yro. Novice. PupiL Student 
Scholar. IMsciple. Catechumen. 

Ant. Teacher. Master. Professor. 
Adept. Authority. 

Learning, v. See Learn. 

Stn. Knowledge. Erudition. Litera- 
ture. Lore. Lettoi-s. Acqiiireuients. At- 
tainments. Scholarship. Education. Tvi' 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


^,1. ignorance. Illiterateness. Boor- 
Ibtinriis. Emptiness. Sciolism. Intuition. 

Kevelatlon. Inspiration. 

Least, adj. Superlative of 
hjUl. Littlest. 

Srx. Smallest. Lowest. Meanest. Last. 
AxT. Greatest. Highest. First. Prin- 
cipal. Main. 

Leave, v. Sax. Jcpfan. Conn, 
with Lat. lingnerr. and Gr. Xe tTreiv. 
/S'ee Abandon and Bequeath. 

Leave, n. Sax. leaf. 

Hts. Liberty. Permission. License. 

Ant. Restriction. Prohibition. Preven- 
tion. Inhibition. Refusal. 

Legal, adj. Lex. h'f/is, the 
law. Belonging to tlie profes- 
sion of the law, and permitted 
liy law. See Laical. 

Syn'. legitimate. Lawful. Allowable. 
JuridiCiil. Constitutional. 

Ant. Illegal. Illei,'itimate. Unlawful. 
Unallowable. Lay. Unconstitutional. 

Legible, adj. Legere, to read. 
Easy to read. 

Svx. Plain. Decipherable. Well-written. 

Ant. Obscure. Undecipherable. 111- 
writlen. Illegible. Cabalistic. Crypto- 

Legitimate, adj. See Legal. 

.Syn. Allowable. Normal. Fair. Licit. 
Ant. Illegitimate. Unallowable. Un- 
fair. Illicit. 

Leisure. Fr. loisir, permission. 
Conn, with Lat. licpre, to he law- 
ful or permitted.. Permission or 
opportunity of ease or recrea- 

Stn. Freedom. Vacation. Opportunity. 
Convenience. Ease. Quiet. Retirement. 

Ant. Constraint. Employment. Occu- 
pation. Distraction. Toil. Labour. Bustle. 
Basiness. Absorption. Engagement. 

Leisurely, adj. See Leisure. 

Stn. Easy. Deliberate. Sauntering. 
Ant. Eager. Hurried. Precipitate. 
P>apid. Expeditious. 

Lend, v. act. Old Eng. To 
grant, for temporary use. Also 
to afford, as in the phrase, 'to 
lend a listening ear.' 

Stn. Advance. J.oan. Afforl Grant 

Ant. Resume. Retract. Appropriate 

Retain. Withhold. Refuse. 

Lengthy, rt(^//. Sax. lami,lonn. 

Svn. Diffuse. Proli.x. Tedious. Long- 
drawn. Verbose. 

Ant. Concise. Compendious. Curt. 
Short. Brief. Laconic. Compact. Con- 
densed. Succinct. 

Lenient, adj. See Lenity and 
Lenitive, adj. See Lenity. 

Syn. Palliative. Mitigative. Soothing. 

Ant. Inflammatory. Exaggerative. Pro- 
vocative. Aggravating. Irritant. Exas- 

Lenity. Lat. lenitas, lenis, 
mild. Sec Kindness. 

Lentous, adj. Lat. lent us, 
2:)Uable. See Gelatinous. 

Lessen, v. tr. To make less. 
See Diminish. 

Lesson, ir. Legere, to read, 
lectio, a reading. 

Syn. Precept. Warning. Instruction. 
Lecture. Information. Homily. 

Ant. Misinstruction. Jlisguidance. Mis- 
instruction. Misinformation. 

Let, V. Sax. laian, to permit. 
See below. 

Syn. Permit. Allow. 
Ant. Prevent. Hinder. 

Let, v. Sax. letian, to hinder. 
See above. 

Lethal, adj. Lethum, death. 

Syn. Deadly. Mortal. Fatal. Poisonous. 

Ant. Invigorative. Remedial. Sanative. 
■Wholesome. Restorative. Vivifying. Vital. 

Lethargy, n. Gr. Xijdr], ob- 
livion, and dpyos, idle. Used me- 

Stn. Drowsiness. Torpor. Oblivion 
Stupor. Swoon. Trance. 

Ant. Vigilance. Alertness. Liveliness. 
Mindfulness. \Vakefulness. Alacrity. Ac- 
tivity. Life. 

Lettered, adj. Litera, a 
h'tti r. Ste Learned. 
Level, n. Sax '(ffcl, lAt 


Synonyms and Anionyms. 

libcU^, a water level, from h'hra, 
a balance, 

Sxs. Plane. Surface. Floor. Equality. 
Aim. Platform. Ground. Co-ordluateness. 

Ant. Unevennoss. Acclivity. Declivity. 
Inequality. Inco-ordinateness. Verticality. 

Level, v. See Level, noun. 

SrN. Plane. Smoothe. Flatten. Equalize. 

Koll. Raze. 

Ant. Roughen. Furrow. 


Level, adj. See Level, verl. 

Levigate, v. tr. Lat. levis, 
light and smooth. 

Stn. Comniiiiute. Triturate. Pulverize. 
Smoothe. Polish. Plane. 

Ant. Compound. Amalgamate. Roughen. 
Batter. Indent. 

Levity. Lat. hoitas, levis, 
light. Used commonly, in an im- 
favourable sense, of character and 

Stn. Lightness. Frivolity. Inconstancy. 
Ant. Earnestness. Seriousness. Gravity. 
Levy, v. Fr. lever, to raise. 
SrN. Raise. Impose. Muster. Exact. 
Ant. Forego. Surrender. Reimburse, 
Repay. Liquidate. 

Liable, adj. Lat. ligare, to 
hind. See Amenable. 

Libel, n. Libellus, dim. of 
liber— famosus understood. A 
defamatory pamphlet. Also used 
of defamatory speech. 

■ Syn. Defamation. Detraction. Traduce- 
ment. Calumny. Slander. 

Ant. Retractation. Vindication. Apolosry. 
Eulogy. Panegyric. Puff. Advocacy. En- 

Libellous, adj. See Libel. 

Liberal, adj. LiheraUs, from 
liber, free. A person of free birth, 
manners, and education. Ilence 
the character of such. Applied 
also to things hberally, i.e., freely 

Stn. Free. Gentle. Refined. Polished. 
Generous. Bountiful. Catholic. Enlarged. 
Copious. Ample. J'rofuse. Large. Haud- 
•ome. llunlficent. Abundant. 

Ant. Churlish. Low. Mean. Boorish. 
Ungenerous. Illiljcral. Niggardly. Grasp- 

ing. Avaricious. Greedy. 5ainfcl Nar* 
row-minded. Bigoted. Prejudiced. Con" 
tracted. Scanty. Inadequate. 

Liberate, v. tr. See Liberal 
and Confine. 

Libertine, n. Lihertinus, a 
freed-man. The word is used ot 
those who free themselves from 
wholesome restraint. 

S™. Rake. Debauchee. 
Ant. Ascetic. Anchorite. Recluse, 
Hermit. Puritan. Saint. 

Liberty, n. Lat. lihertas, liber, 

Stn. Freedom. Independence. Permis- 
sion. License. Privilege. Franchise. Im- 
munity. Insult. Impropriety. Volition. 

Other senses are technical, as, 
' the liberty of a town,' &c. 

Ant. Slavery. Servitude. Restraint. 
Constraint. Submission. Dependence. Ob- 
ligation. Compulsion. Deference. Respect. 
Considerateness. Necessity. Fatality. Pre- 

Libeate, act. and neut. Libra, 
a scale. To balance. See Balance. 
_ License, n. Lat. licentia, 
licere, to be permitted. Has much 
the same senses as liberty, with a 
stronger leaning to the sense of 
the abuse of freedom. See Li- 
berty and Dispensation. 

License, v. See iwun. 

SrN. Permit. Allow. Indulge. 
Ant. Restrain. Disallow. " Vv'ithhold. 
Forbid. Prohibit, 

Licentious, adj. See License, 

Stn. Voluptuous. Dissolute. Puikish. 
Debauched. Self-indulgent. 

Ant. Temperate. Strict. Sober. Self. 
controlled. Ascetic. Self-denying. Rigid. 

Licit, adj. Lat. licitus. 

Stn. Lawful. Legal. Allowable. Equitableu 

^Vnt. Illegal. Illicit. Unfair. 

Lie, n. Sax. lyge. 

SvN. Falsehood. Untrutli. Fabrication 
Subterfuge. Evasion. 

Ant. Truth. Fact. Voracity. 

Lie, v. int. Sax. lieqan. 
Stn. Rest. Repose. Be. 'Remain. 
Aht. Rise. Move. Sllr. 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


LiKF, adv. and adj. Old Eng. 
We, dear. Comp. Love. 

Stn. Gladly. Willingly. Readily. 

AST. Slowly. Unwillingly. Reluctantly. 

Life, n. Sax. I if. 

Stn. Vitality. Duration. Existence. 
Condition. Conduct. Animation. Viva- 
city. Personality. State. Society. Morals. 

AUT. Mortality. Decease. Death. Non- 
existence. Dulness. Torpor. Portraiture. 
Lethargy. Lifelessness. 

Lifeless, adj. See Life and 

Lift, v. tr. Germ, liiften, to 
raise into the Juft or air. Comp. 
Aloft and Lofty. 

Stn. Kaise. Elevate. Upraise. Up- 
neave. Exalt. 

AxT. Lower. Sink. Depress. Crush. 
Overwhelm. Degrade. Dash. Cast. Hurl. 

Ligament, n. Ligamentum, 
from lifiare, to hind. 

Sin. Bond. Band. Bandage. Ligature. 
Brace. Strap. Girth. 

The difference between Liga- 
ment and Ligature is, that the 
former is generally apphed to 
natxu-al, the latter to artificial 

Ant. Divnlsion. Discerption. Discon- 
nection. Fracture. Dislocation. Severance. 
Laceration. Splinter. Breach. Disband- 
ment. Shield. Fender. Disconnecter. 

Light, jj. Sax. hoM, conn, 
with h(x. Used analogously and 

Snj. Luminosity. Radiance. Beam. 
Gleam. Phosphorescence. Scintillation. 
Coruscation. Flash. Brightness. Bril- 
liancy. Effulgence. Blaze. Splendour. 
Candle. Lamp. Lantern. Explanation. 
Instruction. Illumination. Understanding. 
Interpretation. Day. Life. 

AjfT. Darkness. Dimness. Obscurity. 
Shade. Duskiness. Gloom. Extinction. 
Misinterpretation. Ignorance. iMisunder- 
standing. Night. Death. Confusion. Mys- 
tification. Tenebrosity. 

Light, adj. Sax. liht. Conn, 
with Lat. hvii^. It is used in 
several analogous and metapho- 
rical senses. 

Sth Imponderous. Unweighty. Port- 
able. Biioyant. Volatile. Easy. Digesti- 

ble. Scanty. Active. Unencumbered. 
Empty. Slight. Trifling. Gentle. Un- 
steady. Capricious. Vain. Frivolous. 
Characterless. Thoughtless. Unthoiightful. 
Unconsidered. Inadequate. Incompact. 

Ant. Heavy. Ponderous. AVeighty. 
Immoveable. Leaden. Solid. Hard, in- 
digestible. Full. Lazy. Encumbered. Bur- 
dened. Oppressed. Weighed Loaded. 
Laden. Ballasted. Grave. Serious. Im- 
portant. Violent. Steady. Firm. Prin- 
cipled. Cautious. Reflective. Reliable. 
Sensible. Eiirnest. Thoughtful. Well- 
considered. Well-weighed. Adequate. Stift. 

LiGHTSOJiE, adj. See Light, 
noun, and Cheerful. 

Like, adj. Sax. lie, gelic. 
Used also as a x'i'<^P- When the 
adj. is used separately after the 
verl), the form is ' alike.' 

Stn. Equal. Correspondent. Similar 
. Ant. Unequal. Different. Dissimilar. 

Like, v. tr. Sax. lician. 

Stn. Love. Approve. Enjoy. Relish. 

Ant. Hate. Dislike. Loathe. Mislike, 

Detest. Abhor. Abominate. 

Likely. »See Like. Probable ; 
like causes producing like effects. 
See Probable. 

Likelihood. See Likely and 

Likeness. See Like. 

Si-N. Similarity. Resemlilance. Corre- 
spondence. Similitude. Parity. Copy. 
Imitation. Portrait. 

Ant. Dissimilarity. Dissimilitude. Dis- 
parity. Inequality. Uulikeness. Original. 

Likewise. Li like ways. 

Stn. So. Also. 

Ant. Nor. Otherwise. 

Liking, n. See Like. 

Stn. Love. Approval. Relish. Affec- 
tion. Taste. Inclination. Partiality. Fond- 

Ant. Hatred. Dislike. Disrelish. Aver- 
sion. Repugnance. Loathing. Disinclina- 
tion. Abhorrence. 

Limit, n. Limes, His. See 

Lmitlbss, adj. See Limit and 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

Limpid. Lat. limjndus, dear, 
from Gr. Xdnvreiv, io shine. 

Stn. Transparent. Translucent. Crys- 

Ant. Opaque. Turbid. Luteous. Muddy. 

Line, v. Lat. Unca. Used 

Stn. Cord. Thread. Length. Outline. 
Row. Direction. Verse. Course. Method. 
Succession. Sequence. Continuity. 

Ant. Breadth. Contents. Space. Di- 
vergency. Deviation. Fluctuation. Varia- 
tion. Interruption. Discontinuance. So- 

Lineage, n. See Line. 

Stn. Descent. Family. House. 
Ant. Ancestor. Founder. Source. 

Lineament, n. See Line. 

Syn. Line. Feature. Mark. Form. 

Ant. Face. Countenance. Visage. As- 

Linear. See Line. 

Stn. ]")irect. Straight. KecUlinear. 
Ant. Incurved. Divergent. Collateral. 
Lateral. Curvilinear. Zigzag. 

Linger, v. int. Sax. lengra, 
comi^arative of lang, lovg. To re- 
main longer than right or usual. 

Stn. Tarry. Loiter. Lag. Saunter. 
Ant. H;j£te. Speed. Press. Push. 

Link, n. Genn. lenhen, to 
hind. See Connection. 

Liquefaction, n. Liquere, to 
he liquid, and facere, to make. 
See Melt. 

adj. Liquescere, from liquere, to 
qroiu or hecome liquid. See Melt. 

Liquid, adj. Lat. liquidus. 
Used analogously, as, 'liquid 

Stn. Fluid. Liquescent. ]\I('lting. Run- 
ning. AVatery. Fluent. Soft. IMclli- 
fluous. Limpid. 

Ant. Solid. Solidified. Concrete. Con- 
gealed. Hard. Dry. ]ndissolvable. In- 
soluble. Harsh. Discordant. 

Liquidate, v. fr. See Liquid 
and Pay. 

Listen, v. int. Sax. IJijsian, 
followed by prep. to. 

S5-N. Hear. Attend. HearXen. Ib. 

Airr. Disregard. Ignore. Refuse. Ropa> 

Listless, ad/. Sax. listan, 
iitstan, conn, with lust, to lean 
or incline to. Having no incli- 
nation or interest. 

S\-N. Indifferent. Cai-eless. Uninterested. 
Vacant. Languid. Indolent. Supine. 
Lackadaisical. Torpid. 

Ant. Eager. Interested. Curious. Ar- 
dent. Attentive. Absorbed. Active. En- 
gaged. Earnest. 

Literal, adj. Litera, a letter. 
According to the letter. 

Syn. Exact. Grammatical. Verbal 

Ant. General. Substantial. Metaphori- 
cal. Free. Spiritual. 

Literary, adj. See Literal. 

SvN. Erudite. Scholarly. Studious. 
Axt. Illiterate. Unscholarly. Uustu- 

Literature, v. See Literal. 
Learning, or a certain portion of 
general learning. 

SvN. Lore. Erudition. Reading. Study. 
Learning. Attainment. 

Ant. Genius. Intuition. Inspiration. 

Lithe, adj. Sax. lindhe, tender, 
mild, gentle. Persuadable, flexible. 
Transferred from the moral to 
the physical. 

SvN. Pliant. Flexible. Limber. Supple. 
Elastic. Agile. Pliable. 

Ant. lough. Inflexible. Stiff. In- 

Litigious, adj. Lis, litis, a 
lawsuit. Fond of going to law, 
or, generally, quarrelsome. 

SvN. Quarrelsome. Disputatious. Con- 

Ant. Cnmplacent. Contented. Ao 
quiescent. Genial. Facile. 

Litter, r. fr. Fr. lUicrc, from 
Irefus, a couch. A portable couch. 
Tlien a bod made uj) for cattle, 
and their being brought to bed 
of young, as, ' o, litter of whelpe 

Si/nonyms and Anionyms. 

Fiom the straw bed of cattle the 
A\-ord derives the Iblbwing mean- 
ings :— 

SrN. Scatter. Mislay. Discompose. 
Pisorder. Derange. 

.\NT. Clear. Clean. Order. Lay. Ar- 
range. Metliodize. 

Little, adj. Sax. hjtlcy small. 

Srx. Small. Tiny. Pigmy. Diminu- 
tive. Short. Brief. Scanty. Unimpor- 
tant. Insignificant. Slight. Weak. In- 
considerable. Trivial. Illibe!'al. Mean. 
I'etty. Paltry. Dirty. Shabby. 

A^vT. Big. Bulky. I^arge. Enormous. 
Huge. Monstrous. Full-sized. Developed. 
Long. Full. IMuch. Impoitant. Grave. 
Serious. Momentous. Liberal. Generous. 
Xoble. High-minded. Handsome. 

Live, v. Sax. libhan, lifmn. 

Sra. Vegetate. Grow. Survive. Con- 
tinue. Abide. Dwell. Last. Subsist. 
Behave. Act. Breathe. 

Ant. Die. Perish. Wither. Demise, 
^ligrate. Vanish. Fade. Fail. Languish. 
Depart. Drop. Decease. 

Live, adj. See Live, verb. 

SrN. Animate. 

A>T. Inanimate. Defunct. 

Livelihood, n. See Live. 

Si'X. Slaintenance. Support. Living. 
AsT. Privation. Starvation. Want. 
Beggary. Inanition. 

Lively, adj. See Live. 

Srx. Brisk. Animated. Keen. Eager. 
BUthe. Alert. 

Ant. Lifeless. Torpid. Dull. Indif- 
ferent. Listless. Inanimate. Insensate. 

LiVERT, 11. Fr. Iivre7', to de- 
liver. A gift of a suit from the 
master to his retainers. 

Stit. Uniform. Garb. Badge. Depend- 
ence. Servitude. Retainership. Ketinue. 

Ant. Freedom. Immunity. Insubser- 

Living, adj. See Live, adj. 
Living, n. See Livelihood. 
Lo.\D, n. Sax. hlud. 

Syx. Burden. AVcIght, Lading. Cargo. 
Oppression. Incubus. Drag. 

Ant. Refrpsbment Support. Solace. 
Alleviation. Emptiness. Lightness. 

Load, v. See Load, noun. 
Stx. Burden. Charge. Lade. Cargo. 
Cumbei. Opoross 


Akt. Disburden. Unlojid. Oulade. Dis- 
encumber. Lighten. Alleviate. Relieve. 

Loan, n. Sax. kenan. 

Stn. Advance. Mortgage. Hypotheca> 

AST. Recall. Resumption. Foreclosure. 

Loathe, v. tr. Sax. Icidhian, 
to hate. See Abominate. 

Loathsome, adj. See Loathe 
and Abominable. 

Locality, 7i. Locus, a i>lace. 
See Place. 

Locate, v. tr. See Locality. 

Srx. Place. Establish. Fix. Settle. 
Dispose. Lodge. 

Ant. Displace. Disestablish. Remove. 

Location, ik See Localitj' 
and Situation. 

Locomotion, n. locus, a place, 
and movere, to move. The move- 
ment from place to place. 

SvN. Movement. Travel. Migration. 

Ant. Stationariness. Stoppage. Abode. 
Rest, liemacence. Fixture. 

Locomotive, adj. See Loo 

Syn. Migratorj'. 
Akt. Stationary-. 

Lodge, v. tr. Germ, lauhe, 
foliage. Arbour. See Locate. 

Lofty, adj. Germ, lit/t, the 

Sys. Elevated. Towerine. High. Dig- 
nified. Eminent. Stately. Haughty. Ma- 
jestic. Airy. 

Ant. Depressed. Low. Stunted. Un- 
dignified. Ordinary. Unstately. Mean. 
Unimposing. Unassuming. Affable. 

Logical, adj. Gr. XoyiKi;, the 

art of logic. 

Syn. Close. Argumentative. Sound. 

Ant. inconclusive. lUogiail. talla- 

Logomachy, n. Gr. Xdyo?, a 
tvord, and nuxi, battle. A war 
of words. 

Syn. Wrangle. Strife. Contention. Ite- 

Ant. Chat. Colloquy ConTsi-satlc^ 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

Loiter, v. int. Dan. leuteren, 
to delay. See Lag. 

Loll, v. int. Icel. Mia, to ie 

Syk. »jOunge. Recline. 

Akt. Rise. Stir. 

Lonely, adj. See Lonesome. 
Lonesome. Lone, abbrevatiou 
from Aloue. 

Syn. Forlorn. Dreary. Forsaken. Wild. 

Amt. Cheerful. Befriended. Frequented. 
Populous. Festive. Gay. Animated. 


Long, adj. Sax. lang, Lat. 

SvN. Protracted. Produced. Dilatory. 
Lengthy. Tedious. Prolix. Diffuse. Far- 
reaching. Extensive. 

Ant. Short. Curt. Curtailed. Brief. 
Speedy. Quick. Concise. Condensed. 

Longing, n . From verh to long, 
or long for, or stretch the mind 

Stn. Eagerness. Desire. Craving. As- 
piration. Yearning. 

AST. Indifference. Repugnance. Aversion. 

Look, v. act. and neiU. Sax. 
lociun. Used as act. with the 
prep, at, and as neut. with like, &c. 

Sys. See. Behold. Contemplate. Ob- 
serve. Sv-em. Appear. Face. 

Akt. Overlook. Miss. Misobserve. Mis- 
beseem. Lurk. Smoulder. 

Loom, v. int. Sax. leomian, to 
shine. To appear indistinctly in 
an -uncertain light. 

Syn. Glimmer. Lower. Gloam. 
Ant. Dwindle. Pale. Recede. Fade. 
Vanish. Disappear. 

Loose, v. Sax. lesan, lysan. 
See Tie. 

Loose, adj. See Loose, v. 
Used ijhysicaily and morally. 

Stn. Unbound. Detached. Flowing. 
Scattered. Sparse. Incompact. Vague. 
Inexact. Rambling. Dissolute. Licen- 

Ant. Bound. Tied. Fastened. Tight. 
Mx)rcd. Jjiished. Secured. Thick. Dense. 
Compact. Pointed. Accurate. Exact. Con- 
secutive. Close. Stric-t LogicaL Scien- 
tlGc. ConscieutioSi. 

Lop, V. tr. Prov. Germ, 
luppen, to cut. 

Stn. Prune. Curtail. Shorten. Rc« 
trench. Amputate. Tnmcate. 

Ant. Grow. Trail. Train. Elongate. 

Loquacity, «. Loquax, loqui, 
to speak, talkative. See Taci- 

Lordly, adj. Lord. Sax. 
Majord, a hread-heeper, a master 
and distributor of the grain or loaf. 

Stn. Lofty. Magnificent. Noble. Ma- 
jestic. Proud. Imperious. 

Ant. Mean. Beggarly. Ignoble. Un- 
imposing. Humble. Servile. Lowly. 

Lordship, n. See Lord. 

Stn. Rule. Dominion. Jurisdiction. 
Ant. Homage. Subjection. Subser- 

Lore, n. Sax. Im-an, to teach. 
See Learning and Tradition. 

Lose, v. tr. Sax. leosan, topart 
luith involuntarily. 

Stn. Miss. Drop. Mislay. Forfeit 

Ant. Keep. Retain. Find. Recover. 
Locate. Earn. Guard. Treasure. Econo- 
mize. Utilize. Preserve. Abandon. Dis- 
card. Reject. 

Loss, n. See Lose. 

Syn. Mislaying. Dropping. Missing. 
Forfeiture. Privation. Waste. Detriment. 

Ant. Preservation. Recovery. Earn- 
ing. Satisfaction. Restoration. Economy. 
Augmentation. Advantage. Gain. 

Lot, ■«. Saxon. The word is 
used in two opposite senses, 
namely, allotment by design, and 
by chance. 

Stn. Chance. Fortune. Fate. Hazard. 

Ant. Law. Provision. Arrangement. 
Disposal. Design. Purpose. Plan. Por- 
tion. Allotment 

Loth, adj. See Loathsome — 
the true spelling. 

Stn. Reluctant. Unwilling. 
Ant. Ready. Willing. Lief. 

Loud, adj. Sax. hlud. 

Syn. Sounding. Sonorous. Noisy. Puy 
sonant. Audible. Vociferous. ClAmoiocib 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


Am. Soft. Gentle. Subdued. 'Wliisper- 
hig. Rustlin;;. Murnniring. Babbling. 
Pattering. Tinkling. Dulcet. Inaudible. 

LotmGE, V. int. Conn, "with 
Long. Either to be a long, or to 
spend a long time. See Loll and 

Lout, n. Sax. liltan, to how or 
bend. Expressive, apparently, 
of a corobination of awkwardness 
and servility, which make up the 

Sto. Clown. Looby. Clodhopper. Clod. 
^ Ant. Dandy. Fop. Cockney. Prig. 

Love, n. Sax. lufe, Germ. 

Stn. Affection. Attachment. Passion. 
Devotion. Benevolence. Kindness. Cha- 

Ant. Hatred. Dislike. Disaffection. 
Alienation. Estrangement. Bitterness. 
Coldness. Indifference. Kepugnance. In- 
fidelity. Desertion. Unkindness. Malice. 

Lovely, adj. Bee Love. 
Worthy of love or exciting love. 

Stn. Amiable. Loveable. Charming. 
Enchanting. Beau tit ul. 

Ant. Unamiable. Unloveable. Hate- 
ful. Hideous. Plain. Homely. Unat- 
tractive. Unlovely. 

Low, adj. Old Eng. Sax. 
licgan, Germ, lie gen, to lie. 

SrN. Abated. Sunk. Depressed. Stunted. 
Declining. Deep. Subsided. Cheap. Gentle. 
Inaudible. Dejected. Degraded. Mean. 
Abject. Base. Unworthy. Lowly. Feebl?. 
Moderate. Repressed. Subdued. Reduced. 
Poor. Frugal. 

Ant. Elevated. Lofty. Tall. Ascend- 
ing. Rising. High. E.xorbitant. Violent. 
Loud. Excited. Elated. Eminent. Con- 
siderable. Influential. High-minded. Hon- 
ourable. Proud. strong. Aggravated. 
Intensified. Raised. \Ve:dthy. Rich. 

Lower, v. tr. See Low. 

Stn. Depress. Decrease. Bate. Abate. 
Drop. Reduce. Humihate. Sink. 

Ant. Hoist. Raise. Heighten. In- 
crease. E.\alt. Aggrandize. Elevate. 

Lower, adj. See Low. 

Stn. Inferior. 

Ant. Higher. Superior. 

Lowly, adj. See Low. 

Sin. Mean. Low. Common. Humble, 

Ant. Lofty. Elevated. Eminent. Proud. 

LowNESS, n. See Low. 

Loyal, ad/. Fr. loial, hi, law, 
legcd. Maintaining the autho- 
rity of the law. Faithful to the 
monarch as representing the law. 
Hence, faithful generally where 
allegiance is due. 

Stn. Submissive. Obedient. Faithful. 
Allegiant. True. Constant. 

Ant. Insubmissive. insurgent. Mal- 
content. Rebellions. Disobedient. Un- 
faithful. Unallegiant. Untrue. Incon- 
stant. Disaffected. 

Loyalty, «. See Loyal. 

Lubricate, v. tr. Lulricus, 
smooth. To smoothe by the ap- 
plication of oleaginous sub- 

Stn. Oil. Ease. Grease. Levigate. 
Gloze. Glaze. 

Ant. Rust. Clog. Indent. Roughen. 

Lucent, adj. Lucere, lux, to 
shine. See Limpid. 

Lucid, adj. Lux, lucidus, light. 

SvN. Shining. Bright. Resplendent. 
Luculent. Luminous. Clear. Transpa- 
rent. Crystalline. Pellucid. Distinct. In- 
telligible. Rational. Perspicuous. Or- 

Ant. Dark. Unlustrous. Opaque. Tur- 
bid. Muddy. Obscure. Unintelligible. 
Confused. Insolved. Insane. Mystified. 

Luck, «. Icel. luhha. See 

Luckless, adj. See Luck and 

Lucky, adj. See Luck. 

Syn. Fortunate. Auspicious. Pros- 

Ant. Unlucky. Unfortunate. Inaus- 
picious. Unprosperous. Adverse. lU- 
fated. Disastrous. 

Lucrative, adj. See Lucre. 
Lucre, n. Lat. lucrum, gain. 

Syn. Gain. Pi'oUt. Greed. Wealth. 
Ant. Loss. I'overty. Failure. Priv* 
tlon. Dross. Refuse 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

LtrouBRATiox, n. Jaix. light, I LuMPiSH, cir/J. Lump. Comi. 
Incubrare, to work hy lamp-IigJd. with Clump. See Clumsy. 
Thence, a work of study gene- s^tj. Heavy, aoddish. siuggii^h. aumsy. 

v,„n„ *' ° Ant. Light. Airy. Agile. Sylph-like. 

,■'• „ , ' Ximble. Active. 

oYX. Study. Meditation. Work. Cogi- 
tation. Lunacy, n. Luna, the moon. 

Art. Idleness. Vacuity. Jncogitancy. ! rjhe Condition of being mOOn- 

struck with madness. 



See Lucid. 

Ludicrous. Ludus, jduy, sport. 

Svx. Ridiculous. Farcical. Laughable. 
Cconic. Droll. 

AST. Serious. Momentous. Grave. Sad. 
Sorrowful. ]\Iournful. Tragic. Lugu- 
brious. Melancholy. Doleful. Sombre. 

sad, inekmcholi/. 

Lat. luguhris. 
See Ludicrous. 

SvK. Madness. Jr.sanitv. Derangement. 
Craziness. Mania. Aberration. Halluci- 

Ant. Sanity. Reason. Intellect. Intel- 
ligence. Rationality. Lucidity. 

Lunatic, n. See Lunacy. 

Srs. Madman. jNIaniac. Monomaniac. 
Ant. Solon. Philosopher. Luminary. 

Lure, v. ti 

Old Fr. hire, an 

Lull, v. tr. and int. It. M-\'^^'t>^ficiailiavjh usedasadecoy. See 
Jure, to sing lullaby. Act. and I Decoy. 

'/leuf. Sec Assuage and Sub- 

Lull, «. See verb. 

Srx. Quiet. Assuagement. Cessation. 
Quiescence. Subsidence. 

Ant. Tumult. Excitement. Storm. 

Lumber, n. Lombard. The 
Lombards being the merchants 
of the middle ages, a Lombard 
room was a room ibr the stock- 

LuRiD, adj. Lat. luridus. 

Stn. Murky. Lowering. 
Ant. Bright. Luminous. 

V. int. 

Conn, with 



Six. Hide. Lie. Skulk. Abscond. 
Ant. Itise. Spring. Show. Flash. 

Luscious, adj. Supposed to 
be a corruption of luxurious. 

Srx. Sweet, lielicious. Honied. Su- 

ing of Commercjal documents ^'^'^Ant. Sour. sharp. Tart. Bitter. 

and valuables. It is used for 
useless stock. 

Srx. Trash. Rubbish. Refuse. 
Akt. Valuables. Commodities. Stock. 

Lumber, v. See noun. To fill 
with lumber. 

Syn. Choke. Crowd. Obstruct. En- 

AXT. Qear. Disen.-umber. Utilize. 

Luminary, ;?. Lumai, a ligld. 
Used metaphorically of persons, 
as, ' shining hghts.' 

Sin. Sage. Savant. Celebrity. Light. 

Ant. Fool. Ignoramus. Dunce. Block- 
head. Lout. 

Luminous, adj\ See Luminary 
and Lucid. 

Lustration, 71. Lustrare, to 
purify in a sacrificial sense. 

Svn. Purification. Expurgation. Expia- 

Ant. Desecration. Defilement. Conta- 

Lustre, n. Lustrum, a sacri- 
fice of 2^itrification or cleansing, 
from Ulcere, to be bright. Comp. 
Illustrious. See Bright. 

Lusty, adj. Lust, animal 

Sin. Robust. Vigorous. Strong. Stout 
Ant. Infirm. AVoak. Disabled. Ailing 
Effete. Listless. 

LuTOSE, adj. Lutum mud. 
Of muddy appeai-ance Se* 

Sijnonyms and Antonyms. 


Humectalion. Maceration. 

Ant. Kxsiccation. Drying. Arefaction. 

Luxuriant, adj. Luxuriare | Madefaction, v. Lat. made' 
3r tloi(rish,luxuria,liixurij. Ifaccre, to make vef. 
^'ce Exuberant. i ^rN. Wettin?. Moistening. 

Luxuriate, v. int. See Luxu- 
riant. <S'te Bask. 

Luxurious, odj. See Luxu- 
riate. Applied to circumstances 
and cliaracter. 

SvN. Voluptuous. Self-indulgent. Tlca- 
surable. Sensual. Pampered. 

Ant. Hard. I'aiulul. Solf-denying. 
Ascetic. Hardy. 

Luxury, n. Lat. luxuria. 

Stn. Effeminacy. Epicurism. Volup- 
tuousness. Wantonness. Self-indulgence. 
Softness. Animalism. 

Ant. Hardness. Asceticism. Self-denial. 
Hardsbip. Stoicism. 


Macerate, v. tr. Macer, lean. 
To deprive of substance, espe- 
cially by steeping in water. 

Syn. Attenuate. Waste. Wither. Steep. 
Madefy. Kot. 

Ant. Fatten. Replenish. Repair. 
Tamper. Swell. 

Maceration, «. See Mace- 

Machination, n. Machina, 
a machine or contrivance. Used 
in an imfavourable sense. 

SrN. Contrivance. Design. Plot. In- 

Ant. Detection. Counteraction. Baffling. 
Def(v\t. Exposure. Overthrow. Defiance. 
Challenge. Conflict. Competition. 

Maculated, adj. Macula, a 

Sin. Spotted. Speckled. Mottled. Dotted. 

Ant. Unspotted. Spotless. Speckless. 

Mad, adj. Sax. qema^d. 

Syn. Insane. Demented. Lunatic 
rious. Infuriated. Crazy. Maniacal. 


Ant. Sane. Sound. Sensible, 
Composed. Unexcited. Sober. 

Madden, v. tr. See Mad. 

Syn. Infuriate. Enrage. Exasperate. 
Ant. Calm. Pacify. Assuage. Lay. 

Madman, n. See Mad and 
I Lunatic. 
1 Madness, n. See Mad. 

Magisterial, adj. Magister, 
a master. 

Syn. Dictatorial. Authoritative. Im- 
posing. Conseciuential. 

Ant. Submissive. Docile. Undignified. 
Unimposing. Modest. Unassuming. 

Magistrate, n. See Magis- 
terial and Judge. 

Magnanimity, n. Magnus 
animus, a great mind. 

SrN. High-uiindedness. Generosity. For- 
bearance. Clemency. 

Ant. Meanness. Pettiness. Paltriness. 
Spitel'ulness. Spleen. 

Magnificent, adj. Magnus, 
great, and facere, to maJce. 

Syn. Grand. Magnanimous. Nobla 
Splendid. Superb. Imposing. Gorgeousi 
Majestic. DigniBed. Stately. August. 

Ant. Petty. Mean. Little. Small- 
minded. Paltry. Ordinary. Tawdry. Beg- 
garly. Unimposing. Tame. Flat. 

Magnify, v. tr. See Magni- 

Syn. Enlarge. Amplify. Augment. 
Exaggerate. Increase. Extol. 

Ant. Diminish. Contract. Curtail. Pal- 
liate, Extenuate. Decry. 

Magniloquent, adj. Magnus, 
great, and lo(jui, to talk. Big or 
high-sounding in talk. 

SrN. High-flown. Altiloquent. Bom* 
b.istic. Tumid. Turgid. Boastful. 

Ant. Simple. Unaffected. Plain-spoken. 

Magnitude, «. Magnus, great. 

See Size. 

MaiM; -;. tr. Old Fr. mahaig- 
ner, probably of Celtic origin. 

Syn. Disable. Cripple. Mutilate. Mar. 
Ant. Restore. Reinvigorate. Strengthen. 

Main, n. Sax. mdgen^strcngtlif. 


magan, to he ahJe 
the auxiliary verb. 

ofx. Bulk. Majority. Body. Trunk. 
Ant. Portion. Section. Minority. 
Branch. Limb. Tributary. Member. 

Mainly, adv. See Main. 

Stn. Principally. Largely. Chiefly. 

Ant. Somewhat. Partially. Slightly. 

Maintain, v. tr. Fr. main- 
tenir, Lat. manus, the hand, and 
tenere, to hold or support. See 

Majestic, adj. Majesfas, ma- 
jesty. See Magnificent. 

Majesty, n. See Majestic and 

Majority, v. Lat. major, 
greater. Superiority of rank or 
of numbers. 

Syn. Superiority. Eldership. Priority. 
Bulk. Preponderance. • Seniority. 

Ant. Inferiority. Juniority. Minority. 

Make, v. tr. Sax. macian. 

Stn. Create. Produce. Frame. Fashion. 
Fabricate. Construct. Effect. Do. Per- 
form. Execute. Gain. Find. Establish. 
Compel. Constitute. Keach. 

Ant. Annihilate. Unmake. Undo. 
Disintegrate. Destroy. De 

Sijnomjms and Antonyms 
Comp. May 


feat. Miss. Lose. Mar. 



See Make. 

Maladministration, n. Male, 
ladly, and administrare, to admi- 

Stn. Misrule. Jlisgovernment. Malver- 

Ant. Rule. Government. Adminis- 

Malady, n. Lat. mains, lad, 
Fr. maladie, It. malato, sick. 

SrN. Disorder. Distemper. Sickness. 
Ailment. Disease. Illness. Complaint. 

Ant. Health. Sanity. Soundness. 
Heartiness. Vigour. Bloom. 

Malcontent, n. Fr. One 
who is ill-contented -with the 
government under which he 
lives. An incipient traitor or 
rebel. See Insurgent. 

Malediction, n. Male dieere, 

to speak ill. See Benediction. 

Malefactor, «. Male facer e, 
to do ill. See Culprit. 

Maleficent, adj. See Male- 
factor and Beneficent. 

Malevolent, adj. Male vo- 
lens. Ill-inclined. See Benevo- 

Malformation, n. Male for- 
mare, to form ill. /S'ee Deformity. 

Malice, n. Malitia, malus, 
bad. Bad feeling. See Spite. 

Malign, v. tr. Lat. malignus, 
malus and genus, of evil race (»• 
nature. See Traduce. 

Malignant, adj. See Malign 
and Beneficent. 

Malignity, n. See MaUgn 
and Spite. 

Malleable, adj. Malleus, a 
hammer. Easily hammered out. 
See Ductile. 

Maltreat, v. tr. Male trao- 
tare, to treat ill. See Injure. 

Malversation, n. Male ver^ 
sari, to behave ill, especially in an 
official capacity. 

Stn. Malpractice. Corraption. 

Ant. Integrity. Uncorruptness. Up- 

jManage, V. tr. Fr. menage. 
Low Lat. mansionaticum, the ad- 
ministration of a household. 

Stn. Handle. Mmipulate. Control. 
Conduct. Administer. Mould. Regulate. 
Contrive. Train. Husband. 

Ant. Mismanage. Misconduct. Upset 
Derange. Misuse. 

Manageable, adj. See Ma- 
nage. Apphed to undei-takings 
and persons. 

Sin. Easy. Feasible. Possible. Docile. 
Tractable. Practicable. 

Ant. Difficult. Impracticable. Impos* 
slble. Unmanasiable. lutractaVje. Il«- 
fractory. Uutameable. 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


Management, n. See Manage. 

Stk. Treatment. Condtict. Adminis- 
tration. Government. Skill. Address. 

Stn'. JIaltreatment. Misconduct. Mal- 
administration. JMisgovernment. Jlala- 

IManager, ». See Manage. 

Mandate, n. Ma-ndare-datm, 
to command. An official com- 

Stk. Command. Order. Edict. 
Ajjt. Suggestion. Petition. Eequcst. 

IVIanful, ad.j. See Manly. 

Mangle, v. tr. Low. Germ. 
mank, deficient, mutilated. See 
Maim and Lacerate. 

IManhood, 11. See Man. 

Stx. Humanity. Virility. Maturity. 
Manliness. Manlulness. 

Ant. Dirinity. AVomanhood. Cliild- 
hood. Childishness. 

Mania, n. Gr. Sec Madness. 

IManiac, r<. See Mania and 

Manifest, adj. Lat. mani- 

Stn. Visible. Ob\-ious. Distinct. Con- 
spicuous. Indubitable. Evident. 

Ant. Invisible. Dubious. Inconspicu- 
ous. Indistinct. 

Manifest, v. tr. See Exhibit. 

Manifold, adj. Sax. maneg, 
many, and fecddan , to fold. 

Stn. Numerous. Multiplied. Diverse. 
Multigenous. Multifarious. Varied. Va- 
rious. Multitudin(jus. 

Ant. Few. Scant. Bare. Scarce. 
Limited. Unifonn. 

IManipulate, v. tr. Manijm- 
Inre, manus, the hand. See 
Handle and Manage. 

]Mankind, 01. Man and Kind, 
meaning kindred or a race. 

Stn. Humanity. Man. Men. Society. 

Ant. Divinity. Deity. God. Heaven. 

Nature. Earth. World. Creation. Cattle. 

jManlike, adj. See Man and 

Stk. See llanlv, a corruption of 5Ian- 

Manly, adj. For lilanlike. 

Srs. Bold. Courageous. GoTierous 
Open. Chivalrous. Frank. Fim.. Ncble 
Stately. Fine. JMature. 

Ant. Womanish. Childish. Timid. 
Unmanly. Dastardly. AVeab. Puny. Un- 
grown. Boyish. 

Manner,?;. Fr. manierc, ma- 
nus, the hand: A way of treat- 
ment. Thence, a way of conduct, 
hfe, deportment, or proceeding, 
and fashion of existence. 

Stn. Mode. M_ethod. Style. Form. 
Fashion. Carriage.' Behaviour. Deport- 
ment. Habit. Sort. Kind. 

jVnt. Worlc. Project. Design. Perform- 
ance. Life. Action. Proceeding. Appear- 
ance. Being. 

Man-nekism, n. Sec Manner. 
Is used for such adherence to 
affected pecuUarity of style or 
expression as is carried to excess, 
as distinguished from natural 

Stn. Self-repetition. Affectation. Eu- 
phuism. Self-consciousness. 

Ant. Naturalness. Unaffectedness. Cha- 
racter. Peculiarity. Idiosyncracy. Genuine- 
ness. Specialty. 

Mannerly, adj. See Manner. 

Stn. Polite. Well-behaved. Well-bred. 

Ant. Unmannerly. Rude. Coarse. 

Manners, h. See Manner. 
The word in the plural, of old, 
meant moral conduct. It now 
means social demeanour. 

Stn. Deportment. Behaviour. Carriage. 
Courtesy. Politeness. Intercourse. De- 

Ant. Misdemeanour. Misbehaviour. Un- 

Manoeuvre, n. Fr. main, 
hand, and auvre, ivork. 

Stn. Operation. Tactics. Contrivance 

Ant. Counteraction. Defeat. Baffle- 
ment. Detection. Countermovement. 
Checlc. Neutralization. 

Mansuetude, n. Lat. man- 
saetudo, manus, the hand, and 
suescere., to become accustomed. 

Stk. bocilily. MUdness. Gentleness, 

Ant. Ferocity. Wildness. Firrecnesa 
Savageness. Untameableness. 


Manufacture, ». Lut. maims 
and /ace?-e, to maha. 

SiK. Make. Production. Fabrication. 
Composition. Construction. MauipulatioD. 

Ant. Use. Employment. Consump- 
tion. Wear. 

Manumit, v. Lat. manus, a 
hand, and mittere, to send off— 
referring to the Eoman cere- 
mony of giving slaves their free- 
dom. See Enslave. 

Manumission, n. See Manu- 

Many, adj. Sax. manii/. 

Syn. Numerous. Abundant. Frequent. 
Mtmifold. Divers. Sundry. 

Ant. Few. Scarce. Rare. Infrequent. 

Mar, v. tr. Sax. merran, to 
impede or dissipate. 

Stn. Spoil. Hurt. Damage. Injure. 
Defeat. Impair. Maim. I 

AST. JIake. Restore. Mend. Improve 
Reinstate. Promote. Knliance. Conserve. 

Mar.\udek. Der. imcertain, 
Perhaps Lat. morari, to hiter. 
hang about. 

Stn. Plunderer. Invader. Rover. Free- 
fcooter. Moss-trooper. Filibuster. PiUager. 

Ant. Ranger. Guard. Sentry. Keeper. 
Outpost. Marcher. 

Margin, ik Jj&t. margo, inis. 
Used metaphorically for avail- 
able contingent space over and 
above the primary limitations of 
a thing. 

StN. Edge. Lip. Boundary. Latitude. 
]loom. Loophole. 

Ant. Figure. Space. Centre. Limita- 
tion. Restriction. Stringency. 

]\Iarine, ad). Murinus, mare. 
Belonging to the sea. 

Stn. Oceanic. Sea. Neptunian. Mari- 
time. Naval. Salt-water. Nautical. 

Ant. Terrestrial. Terrene. Land. Fresh- 

Marital, adj. Of or belong- 
ing to the condition of a hus- 

Stn. Matrimonial. Conjugal. Connu- 
oial. Nuptial Hymeneal. 

AST. Single. Celibate. Unwcdded. Ln- 

iStjnonyms and Antonyms. 

Maritime, adj. See Marine. 
Mark, n. Sax. mearc Used 
metaphorically for notability, 

Substance. Essence, 

Stn. Trace. Token. Sign. Symptom. 
Impression. Indication. Note. 

AST. Erasure. Obliteration. Effate- 
ment. Unindicativeness. Plainness. 

Mark, v. See Mark, n. To 
give heed to a mark, or to make 
a mark upon. 

Stn. Stamp. Label. Sign. Indicate. 
Decorate. Brand. Stigmatize. Signalize. 
Note. Observe. Regard. Heed. Specify. 

Aht. Ignore. Overlook. Omit. Mis- 
label. Mismark. Misindicate. Misobserve. 

Marriage, n. Low Lat. ma- 

Stn. Matrimony. Nuptia:s. Espousals. 

Ant. Celibacy. Virginity. 

Marrow, n. Sax. 
Used metaphorically. 

Stn. Pith. Gist. " ' ' 
Life. Cream. Kernel. 

Ant. Surplusage. Redundancy. Excre- 
scence. Superfluity. Clothing. Dressing. 
Amplification. Volume. Mass. Body. 

]Marshal, v. tr. Old Germ. 
marah, a horse (comp. Mace), 
and scale, servant, Fr. marechal, 
means a marshal and a farner. 
The term seems to have ascended 
gradually from the rank of the 
lowest to that of the highest 
officer of cavalry, through inter- 
mechate stages, as, provost-mar- 
shal, &c., of a social or civil cha- 

Stn. See Order and Arrange. 

Martial, adj. Mars, martis. 
Having the qualities or bearing 
of soldiers, also appertaining to 
the profession of a soldier. 

Stn. 31ilitary. AVariiko. 

Ant. Unmartial. Unuiilitary. IVatcfii: 

Martyrdom, ??. Martyr. Gr. 
fjLcipTvs, a icitncss; one who Idrt 
7ritness itnto death to the reh'gioi^ 
of Chn'st. Used sometimes ol> 

Synonyms and Antoiujins. 


joctionably in the sense of tor- 
tiu-e. -b'te Torture. 

Snr. Confession. 

Ant. Renegation. Abjurntion. 

Marvel, n. Lat. mlraUUs. 
Used objectively for a matter of 
wonder, and subjectively for the 
feeling of it. 

Stn. Wonder. Prodigy. Admiration. 
Portent. Miracle. Astonishment. Amaze- 
ment. Phenomenon. 

Ant. Incuriosity. Unconcern. Joke. 
Trifle. Farce. Bagatelle. Moonshine. 
Cipher. Drug. Imijosture. Juggle. 

Marvellous, adj. See Mar- 

Masculine, adj. Masculinus, 
mas, a male. 

Sin. Male. Manly. Manful. 

Ant. Female. Feminine. Womanish. 
Womanly. Effeminate. 

Mash, v. tr. Sax. miscan, 
Germ, meischen. 

Syn. Mix. Knead. Compound. Amal- 

Ant. Discompound. Sift. Winnow. 

Mask, n. Low. Lat, masca. 
Used symbolically. 

Stn. Pretext. Pretence. Screen. Ruse. 
Cover. Hypocrisy. 

Ant. Truth. Nakedness. Detection. 
Exposure. Unmasking. Verity. Openness. 

Mask, v. tr. See noun. 
Stn. Hide. Screen. Blink. Cloke. 
Ant. Expose. Unmask. Detect. 

Mass, n. Lat. massa, Gr. 
uatrcreti', to knead. 

Stn. Lump. Body. Bulk. Mjjorlty. 

Ant. Fragment Bit. Portion. Morsel. 
Section. Minority. 

Massacre, «. Fr. Low Lat. 
7nazarium, Germ, mdzger, a 
hidclier. See Carnage. 

Massive, adj. See Mass and 

fc;vN. Solid. Huge, f^olossal. Weighty. 

Mightv. \'ast. 

Ant. Slight. Petty. Sliuited. Frail. 

SlciKiei-. Airy. 

Master, «. Lat. maf/>sf,'r. 

Syn. Lord. Ruler. Governor. Owner 
Possessor. Proprietor. Teacher. Professor. 

Ant. Servant. Slave. Subject. Pro- 
perty. Learner. Pupil. Tyro. 

Master, v. tr. See noun. 

Syn. Conquer. Overcome. Subdue. 

Ant. Yield. Fail. Surrender. Suc- 

Masterly, adj. See Master. 

Stn. Finished. Artistic. Consummate 
Ant. Clumsy. Rude. Bungling. Botchy 

Unskilled. Maladroit. 

Ma.stery, n. See Master. 

Stn. Authority. Leadership. Head- 
ship. Proficiency. Success. Superiority. 
Victory. Advantage. 

Ant. Subservience. Submission. Tute- 
lage. Guidance. Obedience. Inexpertness. 
Ignorance. Failure. Defeat. Surrender. 

Masticate, v. tr. Lat. mas- 

Syn. Manducate. Chew. 
Ant. Bolt. Gobble. 

Match, n. Sax. macu. Used 
in the following various senses : — 

Stn. Equal. Mate. Companion. Con- 
test. Competition. Tally. Equality. Pair. 

Ant. Superior. Inferior. Mismatch. 
Oddity. Disparity. Inequality. 

Match, v. tr. and int. See noun. 

Stn. Equal. Compare. Oppose. Pit. 
Adapt. Sort. Suit. Mate. 

Ant. Fail. Exceed. Preponderate. Sur- 
pass. Mismatch. Dissociate. Separate. Mis- 
fit. Misadapt. Missurt, 

Matchless, adj. See Match, v. 

Sts. Consummate. Incomparable. Peer- 

Ant. Common. Ordinary. E very-day. 

Mate, n. and v. Icel. 7nati, 
conqianivn. See Match. 

Material, n. Lat. materies. 

Syn. Subst;ince. Stuff. 

Ant, Work. Production. Design. 

Material, adj. See noun, and 

Matrimony, n. Lat. matri- 
mohiinii, huiter, a mother. See 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

Lat. matrona. 

Lat. rri'ifv.- 
in the morii- 



lal. Evening. 



Sts. Mother. Woman. Dowager. Dame. 

AST. Girl. Lass. Damsel. Spinster. 

Matter, n. Lat. mrtteries. 

Syx. Substance. Stuff. Subject. Bcdy. 
IniportancM. (Or, prefixing the definite article) 
The Visible. Taiigible. Substantial. Cor- 
jional. I'lij-sical. Ponderable. 

-■Vnt. Immateriality. Spirituality. Jlind. 
Intellect. .Spirit. The Invisible. Unseen. 
Spiritual, iloral. Blental. Intellectual. 

Mature, wlj. Lat. maturus. 
See Eipe. 

Matutinal, adj. 
tiiuts, from manf, 

"SiK. Early. iMorning. 

AXT. Late. Vcspoi 
.Slumbering. Waning. 

Maudlin, adj. 
from Magdalene, who was drawn 
hy painters with eyes red with 
weeping; the appearance being 
referred in other cases to semi- 
intoxication. The word was 
taken to express that state, and 
the sickly sentimentality which 
sometimes accomi5anies it. 

.Syn. Into.xicated. 'I'enmlcr.t. .Senti- i 

mental. JIawkish. Mellow. | 

A XT. Sensible. Uuromantic. Unsenti- i 

mental. Dry. Sober. I 

Mawkish, adj. Scot, maul-, j 
a magfiot. Having a disgusting 
and sickening effect. | 

SvK. Sickly. Sentimental. Jlatidlin. i 

Ant. Savoury. Sensible. Sound. Fine, i 
Pungent. Palatable. ; 

Maxim, n. Lat. maxima ( sen- 
ten tia). The sentence which is \ 
the strongest or most authorita- I 
tive form of stating a principle. | 

SvN. Adage. Pule, .\xiuni. Apothegm. 
Axt. Absurdity. .Siphiim. i^'uibble. j 
Pa) ados. Enigma. 

IMaximum, n. Lat. The ; 
greatest extent, or (i.c highest ; 
point. I 

Stn. Ultimatum. Climax. Acinc. ?«• 

nilh. Ape.\. Completion. Utmost. Con- 
summation. Culmination. 

Akt. Initiative. Commencement In- 

choation. Incompletion. Abortion. De- 
crease. Wane. Minimum. Morsel. Frag- 

jMaze, n. Sax, 7nase, a whirl- 
pool, Icel. meis, a curve. ,See 

Meagre, adj. Lat. 7nacer. 

Stn. Thin. Lank. Scanty. 

AXT. Stout. Fat. Brawny. Abundant. 
Fertile. Copious. 

Mean. Sax. man. Allied to 
Lat. comimtnis. 

Stn. Common. Low. Base. Spiritless. 
Dishonourable. Contemptible. Despicable. 
Beggarly. Sordid. Niggardly. 

Ant. High. Exalted. Eminent Spi- 
rited. Honourable. Lordly. IMncely, 
IMuuificent. Liberal. Generous. 

Mean, adj. Lat. mediamts, 
medius, or else from above. 

Srx. Jliddle. Intermediate. Avemge. 

Ant. Extreme. Excessive. E.\orbitant. 

Mean, n. See adject icf. 

Syn. Medium. Moderation. Balance. 

Ant. Extreme. Excess. Preixinderance 
Disproportion. Deficiency. Shortcoming, 

Mean, v. tr. Sax. riuman, re- 
cite, lajnenf, wean. 

Stn. Intend. Purpose. Design. Signify. 
Denote. Indicate. Suggest. Hint. 

Ant. .Say. State. Enunciate. Da 
Execute. Perform. 

Meaning, n. See Mesm. 

Meanness, n. See Mean, «<//. 

jMeans, ;/. <S'('e Mean, ». The 
middle thing between the pur- 
l^ose and the execution. 

Syn. Resources. Instnnntnt. Media. 
Ant. End. Purpose. OL'ject. 

Measure, ??. Lat. ni<-,iRura. 
See Dimension. 
Measure, v. Mitiri, rmnsus, 

to mete or measure. 

SvN. Mole. Estimate. Gaugc>. Vaioe, 

.Vnt. Misfit. Misconform. Misme«6Ure, 
Misdeal. Misaj-poi lioii. 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 

Measceeless, (tflj. See Mea- 
ffure and Infinite. 

Mechanical, uJj. Lat. ma- 
chine, Fr. mechanique. Going, 
as it were, by machinery, with 
little appearance of volition. 
Sometimes opposed to chemical. 

Sr\. Habitual. Automatic. Unreflec- 
tive. Spontaneous. Effortless. Unim- 

Akt. Laboured. Sclf-consrimis. Forced. 
Feeling. Spirited. Appreciative. Life- 
like. Lively. Impassioned. Animated. 

Meddle, v. int. Lat. medium. 
Comp. Middle and Medley. 

Six. Stie Interfere. 

Meddlesome, adj. See Meddle. 

Stx. Officious. Obtrusive. Intrusive. 

AxT. Unoflficious. Inobtrusive. Un- 

Mediation, n. See jMeddle. 

Stn. Interference. Interposition. Re- 
conciliation. Atonement. Arbitration. 

AxT. Neutrality. Non-interference. 

Medicament, ??. Lat. medica- 
ment um, mederi, to heal. See 

Medicate, v. tr. See Medi- 

SvN. Treat. Compound. Amalgamate. 
Adulterate. Sophisticate. Drug. 

AXT. Clarily. Analyze. Purify. Defe- 
cate. Simplify. Disadulterate. 

Medicine, n. See Medica- 

Sra. Kemedy. I'hysic. Therapeutics. 
Antidote. Salve. Cure. Corrective. 

Mediocrity, ?;.. Lat. medio- 
critas, mediu.t. The qnality of 
being in a middling state, as dis- 
tinguished from anything higher 
or better. 

Svx. Commonplace. Mear. Medium. 
A.ver«se. Sufficiency. 

Ant. Excellence. Superiority. Rarity. 
Brilliance. Distinction. 

Meditate, ?•. tr. and iut. Lat. 

Stn. Think. Cogitate. Purpose. Ru- 
minate. Contemplate. J'lan. 

Ant. E.xecute. Enact. Comploto. Con- 

Medium, n. Lat. See Mean, h . 

Medley, n. Old Fr. nnsltr. 
Lat. mincere, to mix. 

Syn. Jumble. Confusion. Tumult 
Mixture. Hodge-podge. Litter. 

AxT. Assortment. Arrangement. Dis- 
position. Classification. Interdistinction 
Urouping. Collocation. 

Meed, n. Sax. med, Gr. fiiaOo^, 
a reivard of merit. 

Stn. Guerdon. Premium. Prize. Re 

Ant. Penalty. Punishment. Brand. 
Stigma. Amercement. 

Mbek, adj. Old Eng. 

Syn. Mild. Gentle. Submissive. Mo- 
dest. Yielding. 

Ant. Bold. Arrog.iiit. Self-asserticft 
Irritable. Proud. High-spirited. 

Meet, v. act. and neut. 

Stn. Encounter. Confront. Engage. 
Assemble. Unite. Coalesce. Converge. " 

Ant. Miss. Pass. Escape. Elu(^« 
Avoid. Pecline. Disperse. Diverge. Se- 
parate. Vary. Disagree. 

Melancholy, adj. Gr. /xeXas-, 
Mack, and x°^^> .9^^^ o^" ^''^''• 

Stn. Gloomy. Sad. Dejected. Dis- 
consolate. Dismal. Moody. Hypochon- 

Ant. Lively. Sprightly. Gladsome. 
Gleesome. Bliihesonie. Happy. Cheerful. 
Gamesome. Mirthful. Merry. 

Melancholy,??. See adject ice, 

Meliorate, v. tr. See Ame- 

Mellifluous, adj. Mel, meil's, 
honey, and fluere, tojloiv. 

Stn. Dulcet. Euphonious. Silvery. 
Flowing, Smooth. 

Ant. Harsh. Hoarse. Abrupt. 
corous. Rough. Discordant. Broken. 

Mellow, adj. Sax. milisc, 
sweet, ripe. 

S^-N. Ripe. Rich. Full-flavoured, 

Ant. Unripe. Harsh. Sour. Acid. 
Acrid. Crabbed. Sober. Drj-. 

Melodious, adj. Gr. /xeXwSi'a 
See Musical. 

s 2 


Si/noni/ms and Aniomjms. 

MsLT, V. ir. and inf. Sax. 

Stm. Dissolve. Liquify. Colliquate. 
Ruu. now. Fuse. 

Member, //. Lat. memlrum, 
.7 limh. 

Stn. I.irab. Part. Portion. Con- 
stituent. Oomponont. 

Ant. Body. ftTiole. Entirety. Con- 
stitution. Organization. Community. As- 

Memorable, adj. Memorare, 
memor, mindful. Worthy to be 

Si-JT. Great. Striking. Efmarkable. 
Conspicuous. Prominent. Noticeable. Illus- 
trious. Extraordinary. Famous. Distin- 

Akt. Petty. Trifling. Ordinary. In- 
significant. Urmoticeable. Slight. Trivial 

Memoeial, n. See Memo- 

Stn. Monument. Record. Memento. 
Celebration. Remembrance. Ptellc. In- 

Act. Obliviation. Silentiation. Obli- 
teration. Effacement. Erasure. 


Memory, n. Lat. 

Used subjectively for the faculty 
of remembering, and objectively 
for the state of being remem- 

Stn. Remembrance. Reminiscence. Per- 
petuation. Recollection. Retention. Re- 
trospect. Fame. 

Akt. Forgetfulness. Oblivion. 

Menace, v. tr. Lat. minari, 
minax, to threaten. See Threaten. 

!Mend, v. tr. Lat. emendare, 
menda, afnuU. 

Stn. Repair. Restore. Correct. Pro- 
mote. Improve. P.ectify. Reform. 

Akt. Damage. Impair. Pervert. Re- 
tard. Deteriorate. Falsify. Corrupt. 

MENDACrrr, n. Lat. mendax, 
mendacious, lyiny. 

Srs. Falsehood. Lying. Untrathful- Deception. Prevarication. Dupli- 

AST. Veracity. Trath fulness. Frank- 
nes.s. Candour. Ingenuousness. 

MENDICITY,?*. 'Lxi. menlicare, 
to beg. 

Stn. Mendicancy. Beggary. 
AsT. Industry. Labour. 

Menial, adj. Norm. Fr. mes- 
nee, a houseliold or family. Comp. 

Srs. Domestic. Attendant. Dependent. 

Akt. Paramount. Sovereign. Supreme. 
Lordly. Independent. Uncontrolled. Auto- 

Mensuration, n . See Measure. 
Used also in the technical sense 

Six. Surveying. Geometry. Geodesy. 

Mkntal, adj. Lat. mens, 
mentis, the mind. Appertaining 
to the mind. 

Stk. Intellectual. SubJecUve. Meta- 
physical. Psychical. Psychological. 

Akt. Corporeal. Objective. PhysicaL 

Mention. Lat. meminisse, from 
mens, to remember. A memorial 

SrK. Declaratisn. Notice. Annonnce- 
ment. Observation. 

Akt. Silence. Suppression. Forgetful- 
ness. Omission. 

jMephitic. Lat. mephiticus, 
from mephitis. Foully vaporous 
or malarious. 

Si-K. Malarious. Miasmatic. 
Akt. Balmy. Genial. Salubrious. 

IMercantile, adj. Mercari, to 
traffic, merx, merchandize. 

Stk. Commercial. interchangeable. 
Wholesale. Retail. Marketable. 

Akt. Stagnant. Unmarketable. Un- 

Mercenary, adj. merces, j^ay. 
Acting from motives of profit. 

Stk. Sordid. Venal. Selfish. Avaricious. 

Akt. Liberal. Generous. Disinterested. 
Profuse. Prodigal. 

Merchant, ». See i\Iercantile. 

Stk. Trader. Dealer. Imiwrter. 

Akt. Shopman. Salesman. Retailer. 
Chapman. Hawker. Huckster. Pedlar. 
Chandler. C>slermonger. Jobber. 

Si/)ionijms and Antony uu 


Merct, n. Lai inisericordia. 

Stn. Compassion. Clemency. Forgive- 
ness.. ^Forbearance. Grace. Benefit. Gift. 

Ant. Exaction. Harshness. Cruelty. 
Vengeance. Unpityingness. Unforgive- 

Mere, adj. Sax., Lat 

Srx. Pure. Unmixed. Absolute. UU' 
iiifluenced. Unadulterated. Unaffected. 

Ant. Mixed. Compound. Impure. 

Mereteicious, (tdj. Meretrix, 
a harlot. 

Syn. Tricksy. Uncliaste. Gaudy. Im- 
pure. Tawdry. Flashy. 

Ant. Solid. Good. Chaste. Simple. 

Merge, v. tr. Lat. mergere, to 
sink. See Sink. 

Meridian, n. The position of 
the sun at noon, from Lat. me- 
diits and dies, mid-day. Used 

Sy.v. Zenith. Summit. Culmination. 

Height. Ape.K. Acme. Pinnacle. 

Ant. Nadir. Depth. Depression. Pro- 
fundity. Base. 

Merit, n, Mereri, meritus, to 

Stn. Goodness. Worth. Worthmess. 
Desert. Excellence. 

Ant. Badness. Demerit. Unworthiness. 
Worthlessness. Wealcness. Imperfection 
Error. Defect. Fault. Failing. 

Merry, adj. Sax. myrig. See 

Mesh. Sax. masc, a reticula- 
tion. Used metaphorically. 

SvN. Intricacy. Entanglement. Invo- 
lution. Snare. 

Ant. Extrication. Escape. Deliverance. 

Message, «. Fr.from the Lat. 
mittere, missus, to send. 

SrN. Communication. Intimation. Mis- 
«lTe. Notice. 

Ant. Non-communicatiun. Intercep- 

Metaphor. Gr. fifra, and 
<ptpiiv, to carry out y' tkc littnd 
to a figurative. 

Stn. Similitude. Image. 
Ant. Letter. Literalness. 

MErAPHTSiCAL, adj. Meta- 
physics. /xfT-a TO. ^vaiKa, after 
the Physics — which were first 
treated by Aristotle; as, secondly, 
Metaphysics, the science of 
thought and conception, as dis- 
tinct from the study of physical 
or external objects. 

Stn. Mental. Intellectual. Abstract. 
Ideal. Conceptional. Subjective. Rela- 
tional. Notional. Abstruse. Psychical. 

Ant. Physical. Physiological. Pal- 
pable. External. Substantial. Practical 
Corporeal. Material. Objective. 

Mete, v. tr. Metiri, to mea- 


Stn. Measure. 
Ant. Misdeal. 

Apportion. Distribute 

Meteoric, adj. Like a meteor. 
fifTfiopos, aerial. Used some- 
times in the sense of the follow- 
ing :— 

Syn. Momentary. Flashing. Displosive. 
Phosphorescent. Pyrotechnic. Coruscant. 

Ant. Permanent. Beaming. Burning. 
Steady. Per^istent. Enduring. 

Method, n. Lat. methodus, 
fifTci, after, and odos, a rvay. 
The word signifies, first, an 
orderly or approved mode of 
scientific inquiry after truth; 
thence, order, as shown in treat- 
ment, procedure, or arrange- 

Stn. Order. System. Rule. WaN. 
Manner. Mode. Course. Process. Regu- 
larity. Arrangement. 

AxT. Disorder. Conjecture. Empiricism. 
Quackery. Experimentation. Assumption. 

Methodical, adj. See Me- 

Methodize, v. tr. See Method. 
To reduce to mental order or 
method. Not used of things ex- 
ternal to the mind. 

Shape. Arrange. Ordei. Mar- 
shal. Luucleate. Eliminate. Organize. 

Ant. Confuse. Jumble. Disorder. Dl* 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

Mettle, n. Same word as 
Metal, Metalhnn, a mine or 
metal The stuff of which a thing 
is made ; the characteristic spirit. 
Spirit emphatically. 

Sts. Ardour. Spirit. Life. Fire. Ani- 

A>.'T. Hebetude. Insensibility. Callous- 
ness. Placidity. Stoicism. Cowardice. 

Submissiveness. Slavlshness. 

Mettlesome, adj. See Mettle. 

Mew, v. See Confine. From 
mutare, to change. To change 
feathers, or moult as birds do, 
and hawks in particular, which 
during the process were coniined 
in cages called mews. The word 
is still used in the plural, and 
the sense of stables. 

Miasmatic. Miasma. Gr. 

Uiatveiv, to infect. 

Stn. Effluvious. Malarious. Foetid. 
Polluted. Noxious. Mephitic. 

Ant. Balmy. Pure. Untainted. Salu- 

Middle, n. Lat. medius. See 

3I1DDLING, adj. See Middle 
and Tolerable. 

]\IiDST, n. Contracted from 
rniddest, the superlative of mid. 

Stn. ISIiddle. Centre. Thiclc. Tbroug. 

Ant. Outskirt. Confine. Edge. Limit. 
E.xtreme. Purlieu. Margin. 

Mien, n. Fr. viine. 

Stn. Loolt. Aspect. Air. Manner. 
Appearance. Carriage. Bearing. Deport- 

Ant. Character. Disposition. Tempera- 
metit. Constitution. Nature. Being. Per- 

Might, n. Sax. meaht, from 
mafjan, to he able — the root of 

S?>-. strength. Force. Power. 

Ant. Weakness. Inflrmity. Feeble- 

IVIiaHTY, af^/. /See Might. Some- 
times used also in the sense of 

Mild, adj. Sax. mild. 

Stn. Moderate. Lenient. Calm. Gentla 
Genial. 'J'empered. 

Ant. Violent. Wild. Fience. Savage. 
Strong. Severe. Merciless. Harsh. Bitter. 

MiLiTAKT, adj. Lat. militaris, 
miles, a soldier. See Martial. 

Militate, v. int. See MiUtary. 
Used with the prep, against. 

Stn. Contend. Conflict. Jar. Clash. 

Ant. Harmonize. Agree. Suit. Coin- 

Milky. Sax. from melcan, 
Lat. midgerc, Gr. a^eXyeiv, to 
milk. Having any or all of the 
properties of milk. 

Syn. White. Emulcent. Chalky. 
Ant. Inky. Irritant. Luteous. 

MiNACiTY, n. See Menace. 

MiNATOKY, adj. See Menace. 

MiNCE, V. tr. Sax. minsian, 
from minn, minor. To cut or 
divide into lesser pieces. Used 
metaphorically for to diminish, 
as, the force of a statement. 

Stn. Attenuate. Comminute. Palliate. 

-Ut. Exaggerate. Amplify. Magnify. 

IMiNCiNG, adj. See ]\Iince. Said 
of speech and manner. 

Stn. Slow. Affected. Syllabical. Pe- 
dantic. Euphuistic. 

Ant. Rapid. Voluble. Unaffected. 
Natural. Bluff. 

Mind, «. Sax. mynd, allied 
to Lat. mens. 

Stn. Soul. Spirit. Intellect. Under- 
standing. Opinion. Sentiment. .Judgment. 
Belief. Choice. Inclination. Desire. WiU. 
Liking. Purpose. Spirit. Impetus. Me- 
mory. Rememljrance. Recollection. 

Ant. Body. Limbs. Organization. Ac- 
tion. Proceeding. Conduct. Object. In- 
difference. Coolness. Aversion. Forget- 
fulness. Obviousness. 

Mindful, adj. See JTiud. 

Stn. Regardful. Attentive. Thoughtful. 
Careful. RecoUective. 

Ant. Regardless. Inattentive. Mind- 
less. Oblivious. 

Mingle, v. tr. aul iut. Sax, 

JSi/nonyms and Antonyms. 


SYn. Mix. Compound. Blend. Con- 
found. Coul'vise. Intermingle. Associate. 

j4j.t. Separate. Segregate. Sift. Surt. 
Analj'zp. 1 Mscomponnd. Eliminate. Clas- 
eif}'. Unravel. Avoid. 

Minimum, v. Lat. See Maxi- 

Minion, n. Fr. mignon. 

Syn. Favourite. Darling. Pet. 
Ant. Antipathy. Horror. Aversion. 

Minister, «. Lat. A servant. 

Syx. .SorvMUt. Officer. Delegate. Olli- 
cial. Aml):issador. Subordinate. 

Ant. JNIonarcb. Government. Muster. 
Superior. Principal. Head. 

Minister, v. int. See Minister, 
ri. Used with prep. to. 

Stn. Atiend. Subserve. Wait. Supply. 
Ant. Lead. Rule. Command. E.\act. 

Ministry, n., Ministration, n. 
Sec Minister. 

Minor, adj. Lat. Less. 

Syn. l^ess. Inferior. Junior. Younger. 

Ant. -Major. Greater. Superior. Senior. 
Elder. Main. Important. 

Minute, adj. Lat. minutus, 
part, of minuere, to dimininli. 

Stn. Diminutive. Microscopic. Tiny. 
Kxact. Searching. Specific. Detailed. 

Ant. Jlonstrous. Enormous. Huge. 
Inexact. Superficial. General. Broad. 

Miraculous, adj. Miraculum, 
a iidracle, from mir art, to wonder. 
.Stn. Supernatural. Hyperphysical. 
Ant. Ordinary. Natural. 

Misacceptation, n. Prefix 

mis, and acceptare, to accept. 

Syn. Misunderstanding. MisinterprC' 
tation. Misuse. 

Ant. Acceptation. Meaning. 

Misadventure, «. See Ad- 

Stn. Failure. Mishap. IMisfortune. 
Ant. Success. Achievement. 

Misanthropy, n. ixiae'iv, to 
hate, avBpanos, man. /See Philan- 

Misapply, v. tr. See £. pply. 

Misapprehend, v. tr. See Ap- 

Misappropriate, v. tr. Pre- 
fix, mis, and 2)roprius, one's own 
or }y'r.ah'<tr. 

Sto. Misassign. l^irloin. Misdistributo. 
Abuse. Misuse. 

Ant. Assign. Distribute. Employ. 

MiSARRANGE, 'v. tr. See Ar- 

Misbecome, v. tr. See Become, 

Misbehaviour, n. See Be- 

Misbelief, «. See Beh'ef. 

Miscalculate, v. tr. See Cal- 

Miscall, v. tr. Prefix mis, 
and call. 

Syn, Misname. Misindicate. 
Ant. Name. Call. Indicate. Denote. 
Specify. Denominate. 

Miscellany, n. Fr. Lat. 
miacellaneus, from miscere, to 

Srx. Mixture. Intermixture. Jumble. 

Ant. System. Collection. Classification. 
Assortment. Group. Selection. 

Mischance, n. See Chance 
and Misadventure. 

IMiscHiEF, n. Old Fr. meschef, 
Lat. minus and caput. That 
which lessens or damages the 
head or life of a thing ; thence 
transferred to the quahty which 
leads to purposed harm. 

Stn. Damage. Hurt. Detriment. Dis- 
service. Annoyance. Injury. Ill-turn. 

Ant. Compensation. Good-turn. Bene- 
fit. Favour. Gratification. Conversation. 

Mischievous, adj. See Mis- 

Stn. Detrimental. Injurious. Spiteful. 
Wan I on. 

Ant. Beneficial. Advantageous. Kepa- 
ratory. Conservative. Careful. Protective. 

Miscible, adj. Miscere, tc 


Stn. ConipaumiaMe. Amnl2.imablp. 
AM ITaot.mpoundable. Immiscible. 


MiscoMTUTE, adj. See Com- 

]\IiscoNCEivK. V. tr. See Con- 

MiscoNUTJCT, n. See Conduct, 
v., and i\lisbehaviour. 

^MiscoNJECTUKE, n. See Conjec- 

Si-x. Miscalculation. Missupposition. 
AxT. Hit. Discovery. Ascertainment. 

JkliscoNSTRUE, V. tr. See Con- 

]\IiscoofT, V. tr. See Count. 

]\lisCKEANT, 71. Old Fr. mes- 
creant, Lat. minus credens, an in- 
fidel or apostate. Thence, a term 
of reproach generally. 

Stn. See Rogue. 

Misdeed, n. See Deed and 

MiSDEMEANOUE, 11, See De- 
meanour and Felony. 

Misdirect, v. tr. See Direct. 

Misdoing, n. See Misdeed. 

Misemploy, v. tr. See Em- 

Miser, n. Lat. miseroMe. One 
■who makes himself miserable in 
his anxiety to hoard wealth. 

Srs. Nigpard. Churl. Skinflint. Cur- 
mndgeim. Screw. Scrimp. 

Ant. Prodigal. Spendthrift. Rake. 

Miserable, adj. Lat. m isera- 
bilis, miser. 

Sr.v. Abject. Forlorn. Pitiable. 

Ant. Respectable. Worthy. Contented. 
Happy. Cumfortable. 

Miserly, adj. See l^Iiser. 

Misery, h. -See IMiserable. 

Misestimate, v. tr. See Esti- 
mate and Value. 

]\IlSF0RTUXE, n. Fortuna, for- 
tune. See Disaster and Misad- 
A cnture. 

Sijmnyms and Aiitomjim. 

Misgiving, n. Su Give. A 
reluctance to give or rtipose trufei. 
Sometimes, conversely, an impart- 
ing of distrust, as, 'my heart 
misgave me.' *S'ee Doubt and 

MiSGOVBEN, V. tr. See Govern. 

Misguide, v. tr. See Guide. 

Mishap, //. See Hap and Itlis- 

Misinformation, n. See In- 

IVIisiNSTEUCTlON, n. See Jn- 

IMisiNTELLiGENCE, K. ^ee In- 

Misinterpret, v. tr. See In- 

MisjoiNED. See Join and 

]\Iislay, v. tr. See Lay and 

Mislead, v. tr. See Lead. 

MiSLiKE, V. tr. See Like. 

jMismanage, v. tr. See Manage. 

jMismatch, n. See Match. 

Misname, v. tr. See Name, v. 

Misnomer, n. See Name, n. 

MisPERsrADE, V. tr. See Per- 

]\li8PLACE, V. tr. See Place, v. 

Mibpronounce, v. tr. See Pro- 


Sts. Ungainly. Misfonned Ill-shaped. 
Ant. ■\Vell-proportioned. Elegant. Har- 
monicus. Shapely. 

IMiSQroTE, I', tr. See Quote. 
MiSRECKON, V. tr. See Eeckon. 
jMisreport, n. See Eeport. 
Misrepresent, v. tr. See Ho- 

Sijnoiiyms and Antonyms 

MisuuLE 71. See Eule. 
Mies, V. tr. Mittere, missus, to 
lose. See Lose and Meet. 
Misshapen, adj. See Shapely. 


Missile, n. Mittere, to send. 

Sr.\. Projectile. 

AxT. Artilkry. Hand-arms. Side-arms. 

Fr. mo(j^uer, to 

Mission, n. Missio. 
mittere, missus, to send. 

Stn. Commission. Trust. Oflke. 



gation. Ministry. Embassy. Legation. 

Ant. Assumption. Usurpation. Self- 

Missive, n. See Mission. 

Stn. Communication. Despatch. Mcs- 

See Spend. 
See State. 
. fe State. 
Used some- 

Ant. .See 

]\Iisspend, v. tr. 
Misstate, v. tr. 
Misstatement, : 
Mist, n. Sax. 

Mobile, adj. See Mob. 

Stn. Movable.' Sensitive. Ficlile. In- 
constant. Variable. Ductile. 

Ant. Immovable. Inexorable, Un- 
feeling. Unvarying. 

Mock, v. ti 

Stn. Jeer. Ridicule. Flount. ilimic. 

Ant. Salute. Welcome. Respect. Ad- 
mire. Compliment. 

Mode, n. Lat. modus, manner. 
See Method. 

Model, n. Modulus, from mo- 
dus, a measure. That by which 
other things are to be measured. 

Stn. Standard. Pattern. Example. 
Type. Mould. Design. 

Ant. Imitation. Copy. Productiou. 
Execution. AVork. 

The word is sometimes used 
in the sense of an imitative re- 
presentation, as a model of a 
palace, a fac-simile 

Moderate, v. tr. Moderare^ 
to moderate, from modus, a mea- 
sure. To keep within bounds or 

Stn. Control. Regulate. Repress. Go- 
vern. Temper. 

Ant. Disturb. Disorganize. Excite. 

Moderate, ndj. See Moderate, 
V. Kept witliin limits. 

Stn. Limited. Temperate. Sparing. 
Steady. Ordinary. 

Ant. Extravagant. Intemperate. Ri- 
gorous. Excessive. Violent. Extraoy- 

Moderator, n. See Moderate, 
V. One who moderates or regu- 
lates common proceedings. 

Stn. Chairman. Regulator. Conductor 

Ant. Disturber. Agitator. 

Modern, adj. Lat. modernus, 

from luodujjust PQir. 
j Syn. Preseiit. Existent. Later. New. 
Mobile vulqus, ;//e l New-fashioned. New- fanirled. 

' Ant. Past. Bygone. Former. Ancient 

Olden. Old-fashioned. Antiquated. Obso 


times metaphorically. 

Stn. Fog. Obscurity. Bewilderment. 
Perjilexitv. Haze. 

Ant. Brightness. Clearness. Lucidity. 

Mistake, n. See Take and 

Misteach, v. tr. See Teach. 

Mistranslate, v. tr. See 

Mistrust, v. tr. See Trust. 

Misunderstanding, n. See 

Misuse, v. See Use. 

Misuse, n. See verb. 

Mitigate, v. tr. Mitigare, 
mitts, gentle. See Aggi-avato. 

Mix, v. tr. Lat. miscere. 
SvN. See Mingle. 

Moan, v. tr. Sax. manan. See 

moiudie or fickle vulgar. 


IMODEST, adj. Mode&tu 
Moek and Modest}-. 

Modesty. Modest in, modus, a 
limit. A refrainment of manner 
proceeding from purity and hu- 

Sy.v. Sobriety. Diffidence. Bashfulness. 
Humility. Puremindedness. 

Ant. Vanity. Conceit. Self-sufficiency. 
Self-admiration. Foppery. Coxcombry. 
Wantonness. Shamelessness. Kffrontery. 

Modification, n. Modus, a 
limit. The altering so as to 
bring \vithin certain limits, or 
qualify the general character, or 
a natural variety of form. 

SVN. Alteration. Revision. Variation. 
Qualification. Species. 

Akt. Retention. Stereotype. Stabilita- 

Modish, adj. Adopting the 
present mode or fashion. See 

Srx. Fashionable. Stylish. Modem. 
Ant. Unfashionable. Quaint. Unstylish. 
Gawky. Dowdy. 

Modulation, v. Modulari, 
To vary liy transitional changes 
the harmonies of keys or modes 
in music. 

Syn. Harmonization. Harmonies. 
Ant. Intonation. Recital. Monotone. 

Moiety, n. Medietas, from 
mediiis, middle. See Half. 

Moil, v. tr. Mull is, soft. To 
discolour with damp, wet', or dirt. 
But cf. Goth, mail, macula. 

Srx. Daub. Stain. Dirt. Muck. Soil. 

.\:;t. Cleanse. Clean. Absterge. Purl.'y. 

]Mx)iST. Der. unknown. 

SvN. Damp. Humid. 
A.NT. Arid. Dry. 

Moisture, n. See Moist. 
Molecule. Dim. of Moles, a 

Svx. Atom. Monad. 
Ant. U;idy. Bulk. Organism. Cm- 
pound. Structure. 

Molest, v. tr. Molestus, trcu 
hhsonie , hjrdeiisome ; moles, c 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


SrN. Trouble. 

Ant. Soothe. 
Pet. MoUily. 

Disturb, lease. 
Caress. Pacify Aiitiaga 

Molestation, n. See Molest. 

Mollify, v. tr. Mollis, soft, 
•xadifacere, to make. See Molest. 
The former is used of persons 
and feelings, the latter of persons 

Moment, n. Momentum, mo- 
vimentum, movere, to move. Each 
minute step in the onward ad- 
vance of time. It retains also the 
active idea of power to move; 
hence weight, importance. 

Syn. Instant. Second. Twinkling. 
Trice. WeiKht. Force. Gravity. Im- 
portance. Avail. 

Ant. Age. Period. Century. Genera- 
tion. TrivLility. Jnsignificai,re. AVorth- 
lessness. Unimportance. Inefflcacy. 

Monad, ■>(. novas, single. An 
indivisible atom. See Mole- 

Monarch, ??. fx6vos, and u/jx"?! 
rule. A sole ruler. 

Syn. Kinsj. Sovereign. Tyrant 
Ant. Peer. Subject. 

Monarchical, adj. See JIo- 

Syn. Kingly. Royal. Despotic. 
Ant. Republican. Democratic. Oli- 
garchical. Autocratic. 

Monastic, adj. See IMonastery. 

Syn. Conventual.' Ci'nobitical. Regular. 

Ant. Unconventual. Secular. Social. 

Monition. See Admonish, 

IMoNiTOR, n. Monere, to advise. 
\dviser. Instructor. Mentor. 


Ant. Misadvise 
ccivcr. Misdirector. 

Mi>iMstructor. De- 
Back-fr:end. Seducer. 

Monitory, adj. See Monitor. 

SvN. .Aiivisory. Hortatory. 
Ant. Deceptive. Seductive. 

Monkish, adj. Monachus, a 
moiik. See [Monastic. 

Monopoly. MoVoy, (done, and 

ISijnoni/ins and Antonijms. 


n-wXeo), to sell. The exclusive 
right of sale. Hence generally 
an exclusive right of almost any 

Syn. Privilege. Engrossment. Appro- 
priation. Exclusiveuess. Preoccupancy. 

Ant. Participation. Partnership. Com- 
munity. Competition. Free-trade. 

Monotheism, n. fiovot, and 
deos, the u'orshi}} of one only 

SrN. Deism. 
Ant. Polytheism. 

Monotony, 77. Gr. fxovos, 
and Tovos, a tone. Used meta- 
phorically for wearisome same- 

Syn. Sameness. Unvarylngness. Tedium. 
Ant. Variation. Relief. Diversion. 

Monster, n. Monstrum, mon- 
strare, to show. Originally an 
ominous appearance, applied to 
things physically and persons 
morally monstroiis, or monere. - 

Syn. Prodigy. Porlent. MarveL De- 
formity. Abnormity. Fright. Monstrosity. 
Leviathan. Colossus, Fiend. Brute. 

Ant. Beauty. Venus. Adonis. Nar- 
cissus. Gem. Pet. Jewel. Angel. Augury. 

Monstrous, adj. See Monster. 

Syn. Prodigious. Portentous. Mar- 
vellous. Deformed. Abnormal. Hideous. 
Preposterous. Intolerable. 

Ant. Ordinary. Familiar. Unnoticeable. 
Fair. Comely. Shapely. Regular. Na- 
tural. Reasonable. Just. 

Monument, n. Monere, to ad- 
vise or remind. See Memorial. 

Mood, n. Sax. mod, Germ. 
muth, mind. A temporary con- 
dition of mind. 

Syn. State. Temper. Humour. Feel- 

Ant. Mind. Character. Disposition 


IMooDY, adj. See Mood. In- 
dulging in moods or a mood. 

Stn. Sullen. Humoursomo. Gloomy. 
ANT. Blithe. Merry. Sociable 

Moot, v. tr. Sax. mot, a mett- 
in(j or « 

Syn. Agitate. Discass. Ventilate. 

Ant. Suppress. Stifle. Buike. Hush. 

Moral, adj. Lat. mores, morals. 
Is used to mean appertaining to 
moral things as distinguished 
from physical, to the science of 
moraUty, and, lastly, to the prac- 
tice of it. 

Sra. Mental. Ideal. Spi- 
ritual. Ethical. Probable. Inferential. 
Presumptive. Analogous. Virtuous. Well- 

,\NT. Physical. Material. Practical. 
I lemuustrative. Mathematical. Immoral. 

Morbid, adj. Morhidus. Lat. 
morbus, « disease. 

Syn. Diseased. Unsound. Utihealthy. 
Ant. AVholesome. Healthy. Sound. 

Mordent, adj. Mm-dere, to 


Stn. Biting. Keen. Pungent. 
Ant. Jlellow. Mild. Soothing. 

Morose, adj. Mos, moris. Es- 
pecially addicted to a habit, but 
by iisage to the particular habit 
of sullenness. 

Syn. Sullen. Austere. Moody. Crab- 
bed. Surly. 

.\nt. Genial. Indulgent Kindly. 

Morsel, n. Mordere, mar sal, 
to bite. Comp. Bit. See Bit. 

Mortal, adj. Mortalis, mors, 

Syn. Human. Ephemeral. Sublunary. 
Shortlived. Deadly. Fatal. 

Ant. Divine. Immortal. CelestiaL 
Life-giving. Venial. Salutiferous. Super- 

Mortality, n. See Mortal. 
Mortify, v. tr. and int. 
Mors, and facere, to make, to 
1 Stn. Deaden. Subdue. .Master. Vex. 
I Dl-<ippoint. Annoy. Hot. Fester. l*u. 

Ant. Feed. Pamper. Indulge. F'cas*. 
I Gratify. Delight. Satisfy. Heal. Re- 
[ cover. 

i Motion, n, ]\[otio, mcvere. Set 
I Movement. 


Synonyms and Antonyms 

Motionless. See Motion and 

MoTlVEj n. Mctivus, inducing 
to movement or action. 

Stn. Inducement. Purpose. Design. 
Promptins. Stimulus. Incitement. 

Ant. K.xecution. Action. Effort. Deed. 
Attempt. Project. Preventive. Deterrent. 

MoTi,KY, adj. Welsh. Parti- 

Syn. Parti-coloured. Variegated. Mixed. 
Medley. Heterogeneous. 

Ant. Uniform. Homogeneous. Alike. 

IMoTTLED, adj. See Motley 
and Maculated. 

Mould, v. tr. Fr. Moule, from 
modulus, dim. of modus, a limit, 
mode, or standard. 

Syn. Fashion. Shape. ManipuUte. 
Form. Cast. Configure. 

Ant. Distort. Strain. Pervert. Mis- 

Mouldy, adj. Sax. molde, 
mould, soil. 

Syn. Green. Rusty. Fusty. Musty. 

Ant. Fresh. Wholesome. Pure. Sweet. 

Mount, v. tr. and int. Fr. 
monti-r, Lat. mons. See Ascend 
and Climb. 

MouEN, V. tr. and int. Sax. 
murnan. See Grieve and Bewail. 

Mournful, adj. See Mourn. 

Syn. Sad. Melancholy. Tearful. Dole- 
ful, i )cpressing. Wailing. Lugubrious. 
Ant. Joyous. Mirthful. Exhilarating. 

Movable, adj. Movere, to 
move. See Stationary. 

Move. AcL and neut. Lat. 

Stn. Change. Go. Progress. Stir. 
Affect. Agitate. Actuate. Impel. Pro- 
pose. Advance. Propel. 

Ant. Stand. Stop. Lie. Rest. Stay. 
Allay. Deter. Prevent. Arrest. With- 

Movement n. See Move and 
Motion, i 

Much, rt(7y. ^ax.mucel. 

.•^VN. Abundant. Plenteous. Greati; 
Abundantly. Far. 

Ant. Little. Scant. Slightly. Short 
Shortly. Near. 

Mucilaginous, adj. Lat. Muci' 
lago, mucus, m,ucilage. 

Syn. Gelatinous. Albuminous, Creamy 
Glairy. Viscous. Lentous. 

Ant. Limpid. Crj'stalline. Bubblikg 
Frothijig. Foaming. Effervescent. Spark 
ling. Spirituous. 

Muddle, v. Mud. 

Syn. Fail. AV'aste. Fritter away. Con- 
fuse. Derange. Jlisarrange. 

Ant. Clarify. JIanage. Economize. 
Classify. Arrange. 

Muddy, adj. Like mud, or 
having mud. 

Syk. Luteous. Swampy. Clayey Tur- 

Ant. Dry. Arid. Rocky. Arenaceous. 
Sandy. Limpid. Pellucid. Crystalline. 

Muffle, v. tr. Low Germ. 
muffe, a sleeve. To muflSe in the 
first instance the head in the 

Stn. Enfold. Disguise. Conceal. En- 

Ant. UnmufQe. Unfold. Exhibit. Re- 

Muggy, adj. Prov. Eng. mug, 

Stn. Foggy. Misty. Dank. Damp. 
Murky. Dim. Vaporous. 
Ant. Clear. Bright. Vapourless. 

Mulct, n. Lat. mulctir. 

Syn. Amercement. Damages. Forfeiture. 

Ant. Guerdon. Douceur. Bonus. Re- 
ward. Premium. 

Multifarious, adj. Jlultust 
many, and f'or,furi, to speak. Of 
many descriptions. 

Stn. Various. Varied. Multigenous. 
Multitudinous. Multifold. Manifold. Mul- 

Ant. Single. Uniform. Unvaried. Un- 
varying. Few, 

Multifold, adj. ^ee Multi- 

JIULTIFORM, adj. jMuUus, 
mittiy, and fonaa, a sliaiie. Set 

Sijnonyms and Antonyms. 


Multiplication, n. MuUus, 
many, and j>?tcare, to fold. 

SvN. Plurality. Multiplicity. Multi- 
tuilinousness. Multifariousness. Multi- 
tude. Repetition. Reiteration. Reproduc- 
tion. Augmentation. Swarming. Teem- 

Ant. Singularity. Unity. Scantiness. 
Rarity. Diminution. Extinction. 

MULTISONOUS, adj. Multus, 
•many, and sonus, a sound. 

Sto. Many-voiced. Tuneful. 

Ant. Unisonous. Monotonous. Droning. 

Multitude, «. Lat. muUitudo, 
midtus, a collection of many. 

SvN. Crowd. Swarm. Throng. Accu- 
mulation. Concourse. Number. 

Ant. Paucity. Scantiness. Sprinkling. 

Multitudinous, adj. See 
Multitude and Multifarious. 

MuMMKEY, n. Dutch, mom, 
a mask. 

Stn. Antics. JIasquerade. Vagary. 

Ant. Pageant. Procession. Exhibition. 

Mundane, adj. Lat. mundus, 
the world. 

Stn. Worldly. Secular. Temporal. 

Ant. Unworldly. Spiritual. Heavenly. 
Ethereul. Supramundane. 

Munificent, adj. Munus, a 
gift,facere, to make. 
Stn. Liberal. Princely. 
Ant. Niggardly. Beggarly. 

Murky, adj. See Muggy. 
Murmur, n. Lat. murmur. 

Stn. Undertone. Whisper. Mutter. 
Grumble. Complaint. 

Ant. Clamour. Vociferation. Bawling. 
Outcry. Defiance. E.xecration. Salutation. 

Murmuring. See Murmur. 
Muscular. Muscle. 

Stn. Powerful. Brawny. Robust. Sinewy. 
Ant. Debile. Flabby. Feeble. Lanky 

Muse, v. iid. A shorter form 
of amuse. 

Stn. Reflect. Ponder. Cogitate. Dream. 
Ant. Stir. Act. Move. 

Musical, adj. Music. Gr. 
^ovo-jKij, the art of music. 

Stn. Melodious. Harmonious. Dulcet, 

Ant. Unmelodious. Inharmonious. 
Harsh. Discordant. 

Muster. Old Eug. 

SvN. Marshal. Collect. Assemble, 
Rally. Enroll. 

Ant. Dismiss. Disperse. Relegate. Re- 
mit. Disband. 

Musty, adj. Must, unfer- 
mented wine. Having the smell 
of wine in an old cask. 

S™. Fusty. Rank. Mouldy. Frowzy. 
Ant. Fragrant. Fresh. Balmy. Aro- 
matic. Odorous. 

Mutable, adj. Lat. mutahilis, 
mntare, to change. 

Stn. Changeable. Changeful. Mobile. 
Transient. Ephemeral. 

Ant. Unchanging. Permanent. Im- 
mutable. Persistent. Changeless. 

Mutation, n. See Mutable 
and Change. 
Mute, adj. Lat. mutus. 

Stn. Silent. Speechless. Dumb. Taci- 
turn. Voiceless. Still. Death-like. 

Ant. Chattering. Talkative. Garruloua. 
Loquacious. Vocal. Tuneful. Loud. 

Mutilate, v. tr. Lat. mutv- 
lare. See Maim. 

Mutter, v. tr. and int. Prov. 
Germ, muttern. 

Stn. Murmur. Mumble. 
Ant. Enunciate. Exclaim. Pronovmce. 

Mutual, adj. Lat. mutims. 

Stn. Reciprocal. Common. Inter- 

Ant. One-sided. Dnreciprocated. Un- 

Muzzle, v. tr. Fr. museau. 

Stn. Silence. Burke. Restrain. Gag. 

Stop. ^ 

Ant. Release. Liberate. Open. Un- 
muzzle. Free. 

Mysterious, adj. Mystery. 

Gr. flVtTTTJpiOV. 

Stn. Dim. Obscure. Unrevealed. Un- 
explained. Unaccountable. Reserved. 

Ant. Clear. Plain. Obvious. Explained. 
Understood. Easy. Expbiuable. Simple 
Frank. Communicative. 


Symmjnia and Antony ma. 

Mtstbry, n. See Mysterious. 

Syn. Enigma. Puzzle. Obscurity. Se- 
trecy. Veil. Shroud. Arcanum. 

AiTT. Publication. Solution. Common- 
place. Truism. Matter-of-fact. 

3ITSTIC, Gr. nva-riKos. 

Sy.v. Mysterious. Cabalistic. Magical. 

AST. Plain. Matter-of-fact. Every- day. 
Familiar. Commonplace. Obvious. House- 

Mtstift, V. tr. See Mystic. 

Stn. Confuse. Bamboozle. Hoodwink. 
Puzzle. Confound. Mislead. Obfuscate. 

AST. Illumine. Enlighten. Infonn. 

Myth, n. Gr. [j.vdos, a fable, 
or veiled truth. 

Sts. Fable. Legend. Supposition. Fabri- 

Ant. Fact. History. Narrative. 

Mythological, adj. fxidos, a 
fable, and Xdyo$-, an account. 
See Myth. 


Nacreous, adj. Fr. nacre, 
mother of pearl. See Iridescent. 
Naked, adj. Sax. nacod. 

Sts. Nude. Bare. Unclothed. Un- 
draped. Defenceless. Destitute. Unquali- 
fied. Uncoloured. Unvarnished. Mere. 

AST. Dressed. Ptobed. Draped. Muffled. 
Protected. Qualified. Dressed. Veiled. 
Shrouded. Coloured. Varnished. 

Name, ?;. Lat. noiiien, a name. 
Sax. nama, Gr. ovofxa. 

Sis. Designation. Cognomenation. Ap- 
pellation. Title. Fame. Reputation. Au- 
thority. Appointment. Stead. llepresen» 

AsT. Namelessncss. Anonymousness. 
Misnomer. Pseudonym. Obscurity. In. 
gloriousness. Disrepute. Individuality. 

Name, v. See noun. 

Sts. Specify. Designate. CalL Indi- 

AST. Misname. Miscall. Misdesignate. 
IMisindicate. Hint. Suggest. Shadow. 

Narrate, v. tr. Lat. narrarc. 

Sts. Recite. Tell. Report. Detail. 
Ajrr. Suppress. Conceal. Blink. M it- 

report. Misrepicsent MisreUite. Mis 


Narration, n.. Narrator, n. 
See Narrate. 

Narrow, adj. A. S. neurit. 
Conn, with Near. 

Svs. Straight. Straightened. Slende:. 
Thin. Spare. Contracted. Limited. Crampec 
PiuL-hed. Scant. Close. Scrutinizing. 
Near. Bigoted. Niggardly. Tight. 

AST. Wide. Broad. Ample. Thick, 
Expanded. Easy. Liberal. 

Nascent, adj. Nasci, to he 
born or grow. 

Sts. Youthful. Rising. Green. In- 
cipient. Embryo. Rudimental. Budding. 

Ant. Mature. Aged. Coutirmed. De- 
veloped. Grown. 

Nasty, adj. Prov. Eng. na^t, 
meaniyiq dirt. 

Sts. Foul. Offensive. Odious. Dis- 
agreeable. Indelicate. 

AST. Nice. Pleasant. Sweet. Savoury 
Agreeable. Pure. 

Native, adj. Lat. nativus, 
iiasci, nntus, to he born. 

Sts. Indigenous. Home. Exported. 
Artless. Natural. Proper. Suitable. Con- 

Ant. Foreign. Imported. Exotic. 
Alien. Artificial. Acquired. Assumetl. 

Natural, adj. Lat. natura, 

Syn. Intrinsic. Essential. Regular. 
Normal. Cosniical. True. Probable. Con- 
sistent. Sponianeous. Artless. 

Ant. A.*cititious. Adventitious. Ab- 
nonnal. Monstrous Unnatural. Ficii- 
tious. Improbable. Unsupposable. Forced. 
Artful. Affected. 

Nature, n. Lat. natifa. 

Syn. Essence. Creation. Coiiitltution. 
Structure, lii.-position. Truth. Regularity. 
Kind. Sort. Character. Species. Affec- 
tion. Natvnalness. 

Ant. Thing. Object. Subject. Man. 
Being. Creature. Monstrosity. Unnatural- 
ness. Art. Fiction. Romance, invention. 

Naught, n. Sax. Neg. of 
aught for anywhat. 

Sts. Nothing. 

Ant. Auglii. Anything. Everything. 

Naughty, adj. See Naught. 
As in kindred words the forma- 

tSiinomjms and Antomjias. 


fion of worth or good implies 
actnal evil. 

SvN. WoilhlCbS. Vile. Corrupt. Bad. 

Am. Worthy. Good. Precious. Pure. 
Docile. Tractable. Wel.-behaved. 

Nausea, n. Gr. vavs, a ship. 
Sea-sickness ; hence generally a 
feeling of loatliing. 

Syn. Loathing. Disgust. Abomination. 
.ANT. Taste. Relish. Enjoyment. 

Nautical, a<l/. See Nausea 
and Marine. 

Near, ndj. Sax. neara, nigher. 

Syn. Nigh. Close. Adjacent. Neigh- 
liouriiij;. (Sometimes used in the sense of 

Ant. Far. Distant. Remote. 

Neaelt, adv. See Near. 
Syn. Almost. Closely. Approximately. 
Ant. Quite. Entirely. Distantly. Re- 

Necessary, adj, Lat. neces- 

Stn. Certain. Inevitable. Indispensable. 
Requisite. Essential. Ccmpulsory. 

Ant. Contingent. Casual. Optional. 
Discretional. Unnecessary. Unessential. 

Necessity, n. Lat. necessitas. 

Syn. Indispensableness. Inevitableness. 
Need. Indigence. Requirement. Want. 
Fate. Destiny. 

Ant. Dispensableness. Uncertainty. 
Superfluity. Uselessness. Competence. 
Affluence. Casualty. Contingency. Free- 
dom. Choice. 

Need, n. Sax. 7iead. See 

Needful, «dj. See Need and 

Needless, ((dj. See Need. 

Syn. Unneessary. Useless. Super- 
fluous. Gratuitous. 

Ant. Needful. Useful. Helpful. Obli- 

Nefarious, adj. Lat. nefas, 
icirkedness. See Atrocious. 

Negation, n. Lat. negare, to 
deny. See Assert. 

Negative, "dj. See Negation. 

Stn. Denying. rri%-ative. I>isclaiming, 

Ant. Assfrtive. Attributive. Positive. 

Neglect, l\ tr. Lat. vegliyera, 
from ne, for not, and legere, to 
pick up or gather. 

Syn. Slight. Overlook. Omit. Disre- 
gard. Disesfeem. Despise. Contemn. 

Ant. Consider. Respect. Notice. 01> 
serve. Regard. Esteem. Tend. Aitend. 
Foster. Study. 

Neglect, n. See verb. 

Negotiate, v. tr. and inf. Lat. 
ne(/otiuin, « matter of business. 

"Syn. Transact. Effect. Pass. Perform. 

^\j;t. Mismanage. Misconduct Quash. 

Neighbourly, adj. Neigh- 
Lour. Nigh boor, one who dwells 
in the crnmtry near to another. 
See Sociable. 

Nerve, n. Lat. nervus. See 

Nervous, adj. See Nerve. 
Means both having nerve, that is, 
strength or vigour, esiiecially as 
applied to style of vriting or 
speaking, and possessing weak- 
ness of nerves, that is, timid. See 
Vigorous and Timid. 

Nettle, v. Sax. netele, from 
the plant so named. See In- 

Neutral, adj. Lat. neider, 
neither. Keeping aloof in feeling 
and action from two contending 
parties or two opposite opinions; 
also sometimes used in the sense 
of not belonging to either of two 

Syn. Uninterfering. Impartial. Indif- 
ferent. Negative. Unavowed. 

Ant. Partial. Interested. Interfering. 
Active. Positive. Declared. Avowed. 

Neutrality, n. See Neutral. 
Neutralize, v. tr. See Neu- 
tral. To destroy the agency of 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


opposed properties, qualities, or 

Syn. Counteract. Compensate. Counter- 
baUiiice. Counterpoise. Countervail. 
AsT. Aggravate. Enhance. Intensify. 

New, art). Lat. novus. 

Sts. Novel. Recent. Fresh. Modem. 
Ant. 01 J. Ancient. Antique. Anti- 
quated. Obaolete. 

Newfangled, ar//. Sax. fan- 
grn, to take, anfang, an under- 
taking. Used in a depreciatory 

Six. Upstart. New-light. Innovating. 
Strange. Odd. Fantastic. Novel. 

AxT. Venerable. Time-honoured. Es- 
tablished. Ancient. Old. Old-fashioned. 

Nibble, v. fr. Nib. Some- 
tliing small and pointed ; to bite, 
as fish. Used metaphorically. 

Stn. Carp. CaviL Peck. Object. De- 

Akt. Accept. Eulogize. Command. 
Endorse. Allow. 

Nice, adj. Lat. nescius, icino- 
rant. A nice man at the tirst 
was one simple and ignorant of 
the world's ways; he abstained 
from silliness and ignorance, or 
knowing too little; afterwards 
from fastidiousness, as knowing 
too mnch. It has also been trans- 
ferred to express that quality 
about which we should be apt to 
be nice. 

Syk. Fastidious. Scrupulous. Accurate. 
Neat. Discerning. Dainty. Pleasant. 
Agreeable. Exact. Fine. Finished. 

Ant. Coarse. Unscrupulous. Inaccurate. 
I'ude. Rough. Undiscriminating. Nasty. 
Jfauseous. Disagreeable. 

Nicety, n. See Nice. 

Niggard, n. Scandin. See 

Niggardly, adj. See Liberal. 

Nqible, adj. Sax. rtemol, ca- 
2>abl(', from nimmi, to citcJi. The 
word has abandoned the mental 
for the physical idea of capacity. 
Bee Agile. 

Nobility, v. Lat. nohdis. Ap- 
plicable to birth and character. 

Syn. Distinction Dignity. Rank. 
Peerage. Lordship. Loftiness. Generosity. 

Ant. Obscurity. Meanness. Common- 
alty. Serfdom. Paltriness. Contemptible- 
ness. Plebeianism. 

Noble, adj. See Nobihty. 

Syk. Grand. Aristocratic. Generous, 
Honourable. Fine. 

Akt. Mean. Plebeian. Ignoble. Paltry. 

Nobody, n. See Cipher. 

Nocturnal, adj. Noctumus, 
nox, night. 

Sys. Nightly. Dark. Gloomy. Tene- 

AST. Diurnal. Light. Brilliant. Solar 

Nodosity, n. Lat. nodim, a 
knot or Jump. 

Stx. Protuberance. Protuberousness. 
Knottiness. Tuberosity. Dumpiness. 

Ant. Planeness. Evenness. Smooth- 
ness. Polish. Levigation. 

Noise, v. Lat. nocere, to hurt. 
Has almost, though not entirely, 
retained its original meaning of 
a noxious or disagreeable sound, 
j of the human voice or otherwise. 

I Syn. Sound. Clamour. Rattle. Din. 
1 Ant. Note. Voice. Music. Melody 
Silence. Stilhiess. Voicelessness. Hush. 

Noiseless, adj. See Noise and 

Noisome, adj. Old Fr. noisir, 
from Lat. nocere, to hurt. 

Syn. Hurtful. Harmful. Nc^cuous. 

Ant. A\Tiolesome. Salutary. Salu 
brious. Beneficial. 

Noisy, adj. See Noise. 

Syn. Loud. Clamorous. Stunning. 

Ant. Still. Soft. Inaudible. ^Vhisper- 
ing. Soothing. Musical. Melo<lious. Har» 
mouions. Tuneful. Subdued. Gentle. 

i Nomad, adj. Gr. vofxds, from 
vofios, a pasture, from ve'/xw, to 

I Syn. Pastoral. Vagrant. Arab. S.;7thia:\ 
1 Roving. Migratory 

Ant. Fixed. Unwanderlng. Agri^uW 
! tural. Unroving. Urban. 

1 NoMiN.xL, adj. Lat. nomm, a 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


name. Pertaining to a name, or 
existing only in name. The 
latter is the ordinary meaning in 

Stn. Trifling Suppositious. Ostensible. 
Professed. Pretended. Formal. 

Ant. Real. Deep. Serious. Important. 
Grave. Substantial. Actual. Intrinsic. 
Veritable. Essential. 

Nominate, v. tr. See Nominal. 
To specify or appoint by name. 

Six. Name. Specify. Appoint. Indi- 
vidualize. Define. Invest. Present. 

Ant. Suggest. Indicate. Conjecture. 
Describe. Recal. Deprive. Cancel. With- 
draw. Divert. 

Nonsense, n. Lat, non, and 

sen f; us, sense. 

Stn. Absurdity. Trash. Folly. Pre- 
tence. Jest. 

Ant. Sense. Wisdom. Truth. Fact. 
Gravity. Philosophy. Science. Reason. 

Normal, adj. Lat. norma, a 

Stn. Regular. Typical. Usual. Re- 
cognized. Natural. Ordinary. 

Ant. Abnormal. Irregular. Unnatural. 
Exceptional. Monstrous. 

NoTABLB, adj. Lat. notahilis, 
Tiotiire, nota, to note. See Ke- 

Notice, n. Lat. notitia. See 

Stn. Observation. Cognizance. Heed. 
Advice. News. Consideratioa Visitation. 
Mark. Note, 

Ant. Oversight. Disregard. Misinfor- 
mation. Mistidings. Neglect. Slight. 
Connivance. Ignorance. Incognizance. 
Heedlessness. Amnesty. Omission. 

Notify, v. tr. Notus, known, 
and facer e, to make. Used of the 
subject and the person; when 
the latter the prep, of is used— to 
notify a person of a fact. 

SvN. Intimate. Declare. Announce. 
Ant. Suppress. Withhold. Conceal. 

Notion, n. Lat. notio. A 
conception, strictly of something 
abstract, as, an idea of something 
visible ; so, an idea of a man, a 
notion of humanity. This is not 

strictly enough adhered to in 

Stn. Apprehension. Idea. Conception. 
Judgment. Opinion. Belief. Expectation. 

Ant. misapprehension. Misconception 
Misb'lief. Misjudgmeut. Frustration. Falsi- 

Notoriety, n. Lat. notorius, 
from notus. 

Stn. Publicity. Vogue. Repute. Cele- 
brity. Knowledge. Certainty. 

Ant. Privacy. Secrecy. Concealment 
Obscurity. Mystery. Suspicion. Rumour 

Notorious, adj. See Noto- 

Stn. Known. Undisputed. Recognized, 

Ant. Suspected. Reported. Reputed. 

Nourish, v. tr. Fr. nourrir, 
Lat. nutr'ire. 

Stn. Nurture. Feed. Foster. Cherish, 
Nurse. Tend. 

Ant. Starve. Blight. Destroy. Kill. 

Nourishment, n. See Nou- 
rishment and Aliment. 

Novel, adj. Novellus, from 
novus, new. See New-fangled. 

Novice, n. Lat. novilius, from 
novus, new. See Tyro. 

Noxious, adj. Noxius, from 
noxa, harm. See Noisome. 

Nudity, n. Lat. nuditas^ 
nudi(S, naked. 

Syn. Nakedness. Bareness. Eeposure. 

Ant. Clothing. Drapery. Investment. 

Nugatory, adj. Lat. nugce, 

SvN. Trifling. Vain. Inoperative. In- 

Ant. Grave. Serious. Important. Po- 
tent. Efficacious. Momentous. Successful. 

Nuisance, n. Lat. nocere, to 
hurt or he obnoxious. 

Stn. Offence. Annoyance. Plague. 

Ant. Gratification. Blessing. Pleasure. 
Delight. Benefit. 

Nullify, v. tr, Nidlus, no) r. 


Si/nonyms and Antonyms. 

and /or cere, to make. To make of 
no effect, or to cause that none 
shall be affected. 

Snr. Abrogate. Neutralize. Cancel. 
Abolish. Extingruish. 

Ant. Confirm. Perpetuate. Re-enact. 
Stabilitatc. Establish. Cherish. 

Number, v. tr. Lai numc- 
rare. /See Count. 

Numberless, adj. See Num- 

Stn. Countless. Innumerable. Infi- 

Am. Few. Scarce. Rare. 

Numbness, ?? . Old Eng. 7umb, 
Sax. nt'inaii , to fake or seizr. The 
inability, through cold, to take 
hold with the fingers, implying 
insensibility. Used metaphori- 
cally of moral considerations. 

8tn. Hebetude. Callousness. Insensi- 

-4»T. Acuteness. Sensibility. Liveli- 
ness. Sensitiveness. 

Numerous, ad/. Lat. nume- 
riis, a number. See Many. 
Nurse, v. See Nourish. 
Nursery, 71. See Nurse. 

Stn. Seed-plot. Seminary. Plantation. 

AST. World. Life. Education. Pro- 

Nurture, v. See Nourish. 
Nutriment, n. See Nurture. 

."^TN. Aliment. Food. Sustenance. Nou- 
rishment. Replenishment. Sustentation. 

Ant. Starvation. Languishment. De- 
cay. Inanition. Exhaustion. Poison. De- 

Nutrition, n. The process 
of imparting nourishment. See 
. utriment, 

Sra. Alimentation. Sustentation. Feed 

Akt. Exhaustion. Starvation. Inani 

Oaf, n. Apparently connected 

Obdurate, adj. Lat. oh and 
durus, hard. 

Stn. Hardened. Obstinate. Stubborn. 
Impenitent. Reprobate. 

Akt. Softened. Flexible. Tender. 
Teachable. Yielding. Penitent. DocUe. 

Obedience, n. Lat. obedient 
tia, obtdire, to obey. 

Stn. Submission. Compliance. Snfaeer- 
vience. Submission. 

Ant. Resistance. Rebellion. Violation. 
Transgression. Antagonism. Disobedience. 

Obedient, adj. See Obedience. 

Obesity, n. Obedere, obesus,to 
eat airiiy. Eoflexively, the re- 
sult of continual eating. See 

Obey, v. tr. See Obedience. 

Object, n. Objicere, object v a. 
Something cast or projected so 
as to be a matter of observation 
or design. 

Stn. Appearance. Sight. Design. End. 

Ant. Idea. Notion. Conception. Fancy. 
Subject. Proposal. Purpose. Kffon. 

Objective, adj. See Object. 

Syn. Extrinsic. Concrete. External. 
Ant. Intrinsic. Abstract. Notional. 


Objurgate, v. tr. and ?h^ 
Lat. objurgare, jurgare, to quarrel 
or scold. To remonstrate con- 
tumeliously. See Scold. 

Oblation, n. Lat. offerre, 00- 
lati'S, tu offer. 

Syn. Offering. Presentment. Gift. 

Ant. Spoliation. Sacrilege. Withhold- 
ing. Resumption. Refusal. Negation. 

Oblig.\tion, 71. Ohligare, to 

Syn. Duly. Necessity. Compulsion. 
Contract. Bond. Covenant. Behoof. 

Ant. Promise. '\\'ord. Choice. Fre«u 
ilom. Assurance. Declaration. Intentioa 

Oblige, v. tr. See Obligation. 

A\ith aiif and elf, meaning fairy. \ Has the two senses of exercising 
A foolish babe left liy a faii-y as compulsion and of placing undc: 
a changeling. See Booby. 1 the moral force of gratitude. 

tSijuonynis and Antonyms. 


Srv. Conipfl. Copv 
Ueni'lit. Favour. At 

Ant. Release. Acquit. Induce. Per- 
suade. Aunoy. Disoblige. 

Obuglng, adj. See Obliga- 

Stx. Kiud. Considerate. Compliant. 
CompUusant. Accommodating. 

Ant. DiscouriHou-s. Rude. Cmss- 
grained. Perverse. Uuaccoinmodaliug. 

Obliquk, adj. Lat. oNijiam. 

Sin. Divergent. Diagonal. Lateral. 

Ant. Straight. Rectilineal. Forward. 

Obliterate, v. tr. Ob and 
llteru, a letter. See Efface. 

Oblivion, n. Lat. obllvio, ob- 
Uvlsci, toforqet. 

.SvK. Forgetfulness. Disremembrance. 

Ant. Remembrance. Recollection. Me- 
mory. Pieminiscence. Commemoration. 

Obloquy, n. Lat. oUoqui, to 
speak aiiainst. 

Stn. Censure. Blame. Defamation. 
Contumely. Reproach. 

Ant. Praise. Panegyric. Acclamation. 

Obmutescbnce, n. Ob and 

iwdns, dumb. Duinbness from 
stupidity or amazement. 

SvN. Dumbness. Bewilderment. Amaze- 

Ant. Eloquence. Self-possession. Self- 
assertion. Effrontery. 

Obnoxious, adj. Oh and 
noxius, hurtfnl. Eeflexively used 
also of i^ersons amenable to some 
unfavourable influence. 

Stn. Odious. Detrimental. PernU 
cious. Amenable. Liable. 

Ant. Pleasant. Grateful. Wholesome. 
Salutary. BeneficiaL Unamenable. In- 
if pendent. E.xempt. 

Obscene, adj. Lat. ohsceiius. 

Stn. Impure. Immodest. Indecent. 
Ant. Pure. Modest. Decent. 

Obscure, adj. Lat. olscurus. 
Used literally and metapho- 

Stn. Dark. Dim. Lowering. Indis- 
tinct. Enigmatical. Uncertait. Donbtful. 
'Jna.vertalned. Humble. Mea:: 

XccPssUato. Force. ' Ant. Bright. Luminous. Diftlnct Lu- 
miodatp. (Jraiify. cid. I'lain. Plain-spoken. Intelligible. 

Urianibiu'uiius. Ascertained. Eminent. 


Obsequious, adj. Obsequium, 
ohseqni. A ready following ujion 
the known or expressed will of 
another, with a tendency to ex- 

Stx. Submissive. Servile. Deferential, 
Crniging. Sycophantic. Flattering. 

Ant. Insubmissive. Independent. Arro- 
gant. Self-asseitive. Impudent. 

Obsbbvance, n. Lat. obser- 

Syn. Attention. Fulfilment. Respect. 
Celebration. Performance. Ceremony. Cus- 
tom. Form. Rule. 

Ant. Inobservance. Inattention. Breach. 
Disrespect. Disregard. Desuetude. Disuse. 
Non-performance. Informality. Uncere- 
moniousness. Omission. 

Observant, adj. Lat. obser- 
vare, to observe. 

Stn. Regardful. Attentive. Mindful, 

Ant. Disregardful. NeBl°ctful. Un- 
mindfuL Disobedient. Heedless. 

Observation, n. See Observ- 

Stn. Contemplation. Study. Remark. 
Attention. Notice. Comment. 

Ant. Disregard. Oversight. Inadvert- 
ence. Inattention. Silence. Ignorance. 

Obsolete, adj. Lat. ob and 
solere, to be accustomed. 

Stn. Antiquated. Past. Effete. Dis- 
used. Archaic. 

Ant. Fashionable. Modern. Current. 
Customary. Operative. Extant. 

Obstacle, n. Lat, obstare, to 
stand in the tuay. 

Si-N. Impediment. Obstruction. Hin- 
drance. Objection. Bar. 

Ant. Course. Proceeding. Career. Ad- 

Obstinate, adj. Lat. obsti- 
nare (a form of obstare, to stand 
in the ivay), to persist in. 

Stn. Headstrong. Stubborn. Refrac- 
tory. Self-willed. Pertinaci'ius. Obdurate, 

Ant. Amenable Complaisant. Yielding. 
Docile. Ductile. Characterless. Irresolute, 

Obstinacy, 7i. See Obstinate. 


Synomjms and Anhnyms. 

Obstripkhous, adj. Lat. oh 
and strepere, to make a noise. 

Syn. Noisy. Uproarious. Clamorous. 

Ant. Subdued Quiet. Noiseless. Id- 

Obstruct, v. tr. Obstruere, 
structus. To lay down or build 
something against, or in the way 
of another. Applied to persons 
and proceedings. 

Sin. Bar. Block. Choke. Hinder. Im- 

AxT. Open. Clear. Pave. Facilitate. 
K.\pedite. Further. Advance. Promote. 
Accelerate. Aid. 

Obsteuction, ??. /See Obstruct. 

Obtain, v. tr. Lat. obtinere. 
See Acquire. 

Obtestation, 71. Teatari, to 
fiall upon sohnniily, and, as it were, 
before witnesses. 

Srx. Entreaty. Supplication. Ai^iuration. 
Akt. Abjuration. Deprecation. I)etian;e. 

Obtrude, act. and neut. Ob- 
trudere, fo t/irust forward. 

Syn. Force. Thrust. liiterfere. Intrude. 

Ant. Suggest. Insinuate, Retire. With- 

Obtuse, adj. Lat. obtundf^re, 
tusHS, to blind the end of a tiling; 
to defyrive it of point or sharjmess. 

Stn. Dull. Stupid. Unintelligent. 

Ant. Acute. Clever. Intelligent. Quick. 

Obumbrate, v. tr. Ob and 
nmbra, a shad^. To throw a 
shade, or darken. 

.''yn. Sliaile. Overshadow. Dark' n. 
Ant. Ligaten. Illumine. Elucidare. 

ObveesK, adj. Obversus, ver- 
fire, to turn. Turned towai'ds 
the spectator. 

Syn. Opposite. Facing. 
Ant. Hinder. Reverse. 

'Obviate, v. tr. Ob and via, a 
-rorKft. To lay down something 
in the road by way of opposition, 
and so intercept ' >S>je Prevent. 

Obvious, adj. See Obviate. 
Standing, as it were, in the 
middle of the road. 

Stn. Plain. Self-evident, Manifeat 
Explicit. Apparent 

Ant. Remote. 01)scure. Far-fetched. 
Involved. Latent. 

OoOASiON, n. Lat. occasio, a 
! befalling, oh and cadere, casus, to 


I Syn. Conjuncture. Opportunity. Occur- 

' rence. Cause. 

Ant. Untimeliness. Unseasonableness 


Occasionally, adv. Sre Oc- 

Syn. Sometimes. Casually. Rarely. 
Ant. Always. Regularly. Constantly 

Occult, adj. Lat. occultus, 
occulere, to cover up. 

Syn. Latent. Hidden. Unrevealed. 
Mysterious. Secret. 
' Ant. Developed. Plain. Patent. Clear. 
Familiar. E.\poscd. Open. 

Occupancy, n. Occupare, to 
, occuyiy. 

Syn. Possession. Enjoyment. Tenure. 
] Ant. I^ectiou. Eviction. Disposses- 

Occup.vNT, ?i. /See Occupancy. 

.SvN. Owner. Resident. Proprietor. 
' Tenant. 

I Ant. Foreigner. Stranger. Visitor. Ii>» 
I truder. Usurper. 

j Occupation, n. See Occu- 
! pancy. 

Svx. Employment Avocation. Pas- 
time. Possession. Usurpation. Encroach- 

Ant. Idleness. Vacancy. Leisure. 
Abandonment. Vacation. Resignation. 

I Occupier, n. See Occupant. 
I Occur, v. int. Occur rere, to 
I run counter, or confront in the 
1 course of things. 

Stn. Befall. Happen. Betide. Supervene. 

AxT. Pass. Threaten. Impend. 

Ocular, adj. Lat. oculus, the 
eije. Of the eyesight. 

j Syn. Visible. Demonstrable. Palpable. 

Ant. Inlercutial. Auricular. Hearsay 

I Circumstantial. l>eductivc. Constructive. 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


Odd, adj. Swedish and Welsli. 

Syn. Aloiie. Sole. Unmatched, llc- 
maining. Over. Fragmentary Uneven. 
Singular. Peculiar. Queer. Quaint. Kan- 

Ant. Aggregate. Consociate. Matched. 
Balanced. Squared. Integrant. Even. 
Common. Usual. Regular. Normal. 

Odious, adj. Odium, hatred. 

Syh. Hateful. OfTcnsive. Detestable. 

AiiT. Delectable. Grateful. Accept- 
able. I'lea'^nt. 

Odium, n. Lat. 

SrN. Hatred. Offensiveness. Dislike. 
Invidiousness. Jealousy. Unpopularity. 

Ant. Love. Tastefulness. Acceptable- 
nes.». Popularity. Ungrudgingness. Wel- 

Offal, n. Off and fall. See 

Offend, v. tr. and int. Lat. 
offender p. 

Sra. Affront. Krr. Fall. 

Ant. Conciliate. Gratify. Please. 

Offence, k. See Offend. 

Syn. Attack. Transgression. Crime. 

Ant. Defence. Innocence. GuiltlessaesB. 

Offensive, adj. See Offend. 

Syn. Aggressive. Obnoxious. Distaste- 
ftil. Displeasing. Foul. Fetid. Un- 

Ant. Defensive. Grateful. Pleasant. 

Offer, v. tr. Lat. offerre. 

Syn. Propose. Exhibit. Proffer. Pre- 
sent. Ton lor. 

Ant. Withhold. Withdraw. Retract. 
Retain. Alienate. Diveit. 

Offering, ri. See Offer and 
Office, n. I^at. officlum. 

Syn. Service. Duty. Appointment. 

Ant. Leisure. Vacancy. Resignation. 

Officer, ». See Office. One 
who holds an office. 

Syn. Official. Functionary. Conductor. 
Director. Administrator. Manager. 

Ant. Member. Servant. Prisate. Sine- 

Official, ?:. See Officer. 

Official, adj. See Officer. 
Appertaining to office. 

Syn. Administrative. Authoritalivo, 
Negotiative. Functional. Professional. 

Ant. Private. Unofficial. Unprofes- 

Officiate, v. int. See Officer. 

Stn. Act. Serve. Perfonn. 
Ant. Retire. W itness. 

Officious, adj. See Officer. 
Over-ready to undertake an 

Syn. Meddling. Interfering. Pushing. 
Forward. Intrusive. 

Ant. Backward. Negligent. Remiss. 
Unofficious. Retiring. Modest. Back- 

Often, adj. Sax. oft. 

Syn. Frequently. Ripeattdly. 
Ant. Infrequently. Seldom. 

Old, adj. Sax. edd. 

Syn. Aged. Pristine. Long-standing. 
Ancient. Preceding. Antiquated. Obso- 

Ant. Youthful. Young. Recent. Fresh. 
Modem. Subsequent. New-fashioned. 

Oleaginous, adj. Lat. olea, 
the olive. 

Syn. oily. Unctuous. Pinyuetudinous. 
Ant. Harsh. Dry. Sour. Acid. Uois- 

Ominous, adj. Lat. o?«e». 
Now used only in the unfavour- 
able sense. 

Syn. I'ortentous. Suggestive. Threat- 
ening. Foreboding. iTemonitory. Uupro- 


Omission, n. Lat. omittere, 
to hiive out. Used both of tho 
act of omitting and the thing 

Syn. Oversight. Exclusion. 

Ant. Attenticn. Insertion. Notice. 

Oneness, n. Lat. one, unus. 
See Unity. 

Onerous, adj. Lat. onus, eris^ 
a burden. 

Sin. Burdensome. Toilsome. Heavy. 
Responsible. Oppressive. Laburions. Oijc- 

Ant. Light. Easy Irivitd. Inop. 


Sijmnyms and Antonyms. 

Onsbt, n. On and set. Lat. 
sed'.re. See Attack. 

Onslaught, ??. Sax. onslagan, 
to dash upon. Sve Onset. 

Onward, adv. and adj. On 
and ward, the termination of 

Sru. Forward. Ahead. 

Ant. Backward. Astern. Aback. 

OozK, V. int. Sax. ims, juice. 
Sys. Distil. Drop. Drip. Percolate. 
Perspire. Sweat. Drain. Leak. 

Ant. Pour. Rusb. Flow. Stream. Oi^^gorge. 

Opaque, adj. Lat. opacas. 
See Transparent. 

Open, v. ad. and neat. Sax. 

Syn. Unclose. Lay open. Lay bare. 
Expose. E.Kplain. Disclose. Initiate. Be- 
gin. Commence. 

Ant. Close. Shut up. Cover. Conceal. 
Inclose. Mystify. Misinterpret. Conclude. 

Open, adj. See Open, verb. 

Syn. Accessible. Free. Available. Un- 
closed. Candid. Frank. Ingenuous. Un- 
settled. Undetermined. 

Ant. Inaccessible. Closed. Barred. 
Unavailable. Shut. Close. Secretive. 
Reserved. Settled. Determined. 

Opening, n. See Open, verh. 

Stn. Aperture. Gap. Opportunity. 
Space. Commencement. Initiation. Start. 

Ant. Occlusion. Obstruction. Stop- 
gap. Unreasonableness. Contretemps. In- 
opportunenes-i. Enclosure. Termination. 
Close. Knd. Conclusion. 

Operate, v. act. and neut. 
Operari, opus, to n-ork. 
' SvN. Act. Work. Produce. Effect. 
AsT. C^-'ase. Rest. Fail. Misoperate. 

Operation, n. See Operate. 

Syn. Agency. Action. E.xercise. I^ro- 
duction. Influence. 

Ant. Cessation. Inaction. Rest. In- 
operativeness. IneflBcacy. Inefficiency. 

Operative, adj. See Operate. 

SvN. Active. Efficacious. 

Ant. Iui!fficacious. Inoperative. 

Operose, adj. Ojierosiis. See 

Svw. Onerous Laboriovis. Burdensome. 
Tediona. Wearisome. Toilsome. 

Ant. Light. Unburdensonie. StSmuljit- 
ing. Refreshing. 

Opine, v. int. Lat. opinaH. 
To think or have an opinion. 

Syn. Tliink. Believe. Conjectiire 
Suppose. Judge. Surmise. 

Ant. Know. Asceitain. Verify. 

Opinion, n. See Opine. 

Opinionative, adj. See Opine. 
Apt to rest too much on one's 
own opinion. 

Syn. Dictatorial. Dogmatical. Self- 
conceited. Oracular. 

Ant. Modest. Diffident. Inquiring, 
Vacillating. Cautious. Undemonstrative. 

Opponent, adj. Opponere, to 
place a(juinst. See Adver.sary. 

Opportune, adj. Lat. ojipo^-- 
timus. Ob and partus, a harbour. 
As timely as a port in stress of 

Syn. Timely. Seasonable. Appropriate. 

Ant. Inopportune. Untimely. Unsea- 
sonable. Infelicitous. 

Opportunity, n. See Oppor- 

Syw. Occasion. Turn. Opening. 
Ant. Inopportuneness. Uuseasonable- 
ness. Lapse. Omission. Contretemps. 

Oppose, v. tr. Lat. opponere, 

Syn. Withstand. Resist. Match. Ob- 
struct. Confront. Oppugn. Bar. Hinder. 

Ant. Aid. Abet. Back. Support. 
Advance. Expedite. 

Opposite, adj. See Oppose. 

Syn. Facing. Adverse. Repugnant, 
Inconsistent. Irreconcileable. Contrary. 

Ant. Agreeing. Coincident. Consen- 

Oppress, v. tr. Lat. oppri- 
mere, piri^ssiis. 

Syn. Biirikn. Grinil. Weigh dowa 
Persecute. Aggrieve. Maltreat. Abuse. 

Ant. Encourage. Support. Patronise. 
Assist. Befriend. 

Oppression, v. See Oppress. 

Option, ii. Lat. optio, optare, 
to luish or choose. 

SvN. Discretion. Choice. PrefereiKW. 

iSi/noni/7ns and Anionyms. 


Ant 01 ligation. Necessity. Burden. 

Opulence, n. Lat. opuhntia, 

oj:(s, rfSdnrces. 

SvN. Wealth. Affluence. Eiches. 
A:<T. I'uverty. Indigence. Inipecu- 


Oracular, adj\ Lat. oracti- 
hart. Used of an authoritative 
way of .giving opinions. 

Stn. See Ojiinionative. 

Oral, adj. Lat. Os, oris, the 

Stx. Unwritten. Traditional. Vocal. 
Ant. Written. Documentary. 

Orbit, n. Lat. orhita, orbis, 
an orb. 

Sv:i. Revolution." Path. Circuit. Sphere. 

Ant. Eccentricity. Deviation. Pertur- 

Ordain, v. tr. Ordinare, ordo, 
to ordtr. 

Srx. Stt. Appoint. Decree. Institute. 

Akt. Subvert. Revoke. Cancel. Annul. 
Disestablish. Countermand. 

Ordeal, )/. Sax. ordaJ, Germ. 
uftheilen, to pass sentence or di- 
vide judgiaent. The plungiug 
of the arm into boiling water, 
and the walking barefoot over 
hot ploughshares, were the cus- 
tomary ordeals of England. 
Sometimes the accused was 
thrown into deep water. If he 
escaped imhurt, in the former 
cases, or sank without effort to 
swim, in the latter, he was es- 
teemed innocent. The word is 
used generally for a severe test. 

Syn. Test. Trial. Probation. Experiment. 
Ant. Argument. Plea. Discussion. In- 
▼estigation. Evidence. 

Order, ^. l&i.ordo. 

Stn. Arrangement. Condition. Se- 
quence. Direction. Rank. Grade. 

Ant. Disarrangement. Confusion. Un- 
Kttlement. Inversion. Execution. Disorder. 

Orderly, adj. See Order. 

Stn. Regular, liquable. Peaceable. 
jVnt. Irregular. Disorderly. Riotous. 

Ordenance, 72. /SVe Ordain. 

Si-N. statute. Institute. Decree. Law. 
Akt. Custom. Usage. Prescription. 

Ordinary, adj. See Ordain 
and Usual. 

Organize, v. tr. Gr. opyavov. 
an instrument. To arrange the 
compound parts of a thing for 
an ulterior purpose. 

Syn. Shape. Ac^ust. Constitute. 

Ant. Distort. Break up. Aimul. Dis- 
organize. Dismember. Disband. 

Orifice, ». Lat. orificJum, os, 
oris, a mouth. 

Stn. Aperture. Perforation. Mouth. 

Ant. Obstruction. Stopper. Plug. Im- 

Origin, n. Lat. origo. 

Stn. Source. Commencement. Spring. 
Cause. Derivation. 

Akt. Termination. Conclusion. E.k- 

Original, adj. See Origin. 

Syn. Primary. Initiatory. Primordial. 
Ancient. Former. 

Ant. Subsequent. Terminal. Modem. 
Later. Derivative. 

Originate, act. and 7ieut. See 

Syk. Commence. Spring. Rise. Start. 
Initiate. Invent. 

Ant. Prosecute. Conduct. Apply. 

Ornament, n, Lat. ornamen- 

Syk. Decoration. Embellishment. 
Ant. Disgrace. Brand. Disfigurement. 

Ornate, adj. Lat. or7uitus, 
ornare, to adorn. 

Stn. Decorated. Embellished. Rich. 

Ant. Plain. Chaste. Nude. NakeJ 
Bare. Bald. 

Orthodox, adj. Gr. 6p6f] 8o^a , 
the right or true opinion. 
Si-N. Correct. Sound. True. 
Ant. Heretical. Unorthodox. 

Ostensible, adj. Lat. osteu" 
dere, to show. Now used in the 
sense of avowed, with the implied 
possibility of the avowed :'• case 
not being the real one. 


Synonyms and Antomjms. 

Stk. Avowed. Pretended. Declared. 
Outward. Professed. 

Akt. Real. Genuine. Concealed. Un- 
pretended. Actual Veritable. 

Ostentation, n. Lat. osten- 
tare, freq. of ostendere, to show. 

Sir. Show. Parade. Display. Flou- 

Akt. Reserve. Retirement. Modesty. 
Concealment. Unobtrusiveness. Quiet. 

Ostracism, n. Gr. oarpaKov, 
a shell or tile, on whicli the name 
of the Athenian citizen was 
written, against whom a vote of 
banishment was given. 

Stn. Banishment. Expulsion. Black- 

Ant. Admittance. Enlistment. Out- 

Oust, v. tr. Old Fr. oster. 

Stn. Eject. Dispossess. Deprive. Evict. 
Ant. Instal. Reinstate. Readmit. Re- 


Outbreak, v. Out and 

Stn. Outburst. Tumult. Commotion. 
Insurrection. Rebellion. Ebullition. 

Ant. Subsidence. Pacification. Quel- 
ling. Quiet. Order. Cooling. 

OuTORT, n. Out and cry. 

Stn. Clamour. Tumult. Denunciatioa 
Ant. Acclamation. Plaudit. 

Outlandish, adj. Out and 

Syn. Strange. Queer. Grotesque. 

Ant. Fashionable. Modish. Native. 

Outline, 7?. Out and line. 

SrN. Delineation. Sketch. Contour. 

Ant. Form. Substance. Fi fire. Ob- 
ject. Subject. Field. Ground. Bulk. 

Outrage, w . Not, as would be 
jjerhaps supposed, from out and 
rage, but from a Low Latin 
word, nltraginm, from idtm, be- 
yond. An act transgressing due 

Syn. Outbreak. Offence. Wantonness. 
Wischiet Abuse. Ebullition. 

^Vnt. Moderation. S.'lf-control. St-lf- 
restraint. Subsidence. Coolness. Calm- 

OuTRAGEOUS, adj. See Ont- 

Stn, Excessive. Unwarrantable. Un. 
justifiable. Wanton. Atrocious. Ne. 

Ant. Jloderate. Justifiable. Reason- 

Outset, «. Out and set. 

Syn. Opening. Start. Commencement 
Exordium. Beginning. Inauguration. Pre* 


Outshine, v. tr. Out and 

Syk. Surpass. Eclipse. Overshadow. 
Ant. Foil. Relieve. Back. 

Outskirts, n. Out and skirt 

Si's. Border. Outpost. Purlieu. Envi- 
rons. Precincts. 

Ant. Interior. Centre. Bulk. Body 
Mass. Heart. 

Outspoken, adj. Out and 

Stn. Plain. Frank. Unreserved. Can- 

Airr. Mysterious. Enigmatical Re- 
served. Taciturn. Secretive. Uncom- 

Outspread, adj. Out and 

Stk. Expanded. Unfolded. Wrapped. 
Patent. Dispread. Open. Outstretched. 

Ant. Folded. Coutracted. Closed. Furled. 

Outstanding, adj. Out and 

Syn. Unappropriated. Uncollected. 

Ant. Appropriated. Collected. Gathered. 

Outstep, v. tr. Out and step. 

Stn. E.\ceed. Transgress. Outstrip. 

Outstretched, adj. Out and 
stretched. See Outspread. 

Outstrip, v. tr. Out and strip. 
See Strip. 

Si-N. Surpass. Beat. Distance. Eclij-,sa 
Ant. Follow. Succeed. 

Outvie, v. tr. Out and vie 
Sve Vie and Eclipse. 

^ijnonijms and Antonyms. 


Outward, «<//. Out and ward. 
Sax. Termination of direction. 

Stn. Kxternal. Apparent. Visible. 
Sensible. Superficial. Ostensible Forth- 

Ant. Internal. Intrinsic. Withdrawn. 
Inapparent. inward. 

Outweigh, v. tr. Out and 
weigh. ISee Preponderate. 

Outwit, v. tr. Out and wit, 
meaning knowledge. /See Cir- 

Outwork, v. Out and work. 

Stn. Screen. Abattis. Propugnation. 
Fortification. Escarpment. 

Akt. Stand. Position. Ground. Centre. 

Ovation, v. Ovis, a sheep, 
granted in sacrifice to the ancient 
Roman general who had achieved 
a victory short of triumphal ho- 
nours. >Ste Triumph. 

Overawe, v. tr. Over and 
awe. tjee Browbeat. 

Overbalance, v. tr. See Ba- 

Overbearing, adj. Over and 
bearing, in the sense of de- 
meanour. See Arrogance. 

Overcast, <t(lj. Over and cast 
(with clouds). 

Srs. Cloudy. Nubilous. Lowering. 

Ant. Cloudless. Clear. Luminous. 

Overcharge, v. tr. See Charge 
and Exaggerate. 

Overcome, v. tr. Over and 
come. See Conquer. 

Overestimate, i-. tr. Over 
and estimate. Lat. adimure. 
See Di-sparage. 

Overflow, n. Over and flow. 

Stn. Redundancy. Exuberance. Super- 

AST. Deficiency. Exhaustion. Subsi- 

Overlook, v. tr. Over and 

look. To survey without at* 
tention or minute observation, 
and that purposely, especially as 
regards what is amiss. 

Stn. Condone. Connive. Disregard. 
Ant. Visit. Scrutinize. Investigate 

Overpower, v. tr. Over and 
power, from Fr. pouvoir, to he 
able. See Master. 

Overreach, v. tr. See Cir- 

Oversight,??. Over and sight. 
As to overlook implies a pur- 
posed, so oversight is an acci- 
dental disregard. 

Stn. Error. Omission. Mistake. Slip. 
Ant. Scrutiny. Correction. Kmenda- 
tion. Attention. Mark. Notice. 

Overt, adj. Fr. ouvert, from 
the Lat. aperire, to open. 

Stn. Deliberate. PubUc. Open. 

Ant. Covert. Secret. Implied. Clan- 
destine. Furtive. 

Overthrow, v. tr. Over and 
throw. Applies to matters ma- 
terial and logical. 

Sin. Destroy. Subvert. Upset. Over- 
turn. Ruin. Demolish. 

Ant. Restore. Reinstate. Construct. 
Regenerate. Redintegrate. Revive. Re- 

Overture, n. See Overt. 

The root meaning of this word 
is an opening or commencement, 
as, the first piece or prelude of 
an opera— the first proceeding 
or advance between negotiating 

Stn. Prelude. Advance. Proposal. Offer. 
Invitation. Lead. Initiation. 

Ant. Inaction. Undemonstrativencss. 

Overturn, v. fr. Over and 
turn. *S'ee Overthrow. 

Overwhelm, v. tr. Over ar.d 
Sax. whelm, to cover. Forwthuan, 

Stn. Cru^h. Quell. Extinguish. I irown 
I .VxT. Raise. Reinvigorate. Relnsiaw 
Re-establish. Rescue. Extncftt^ 


S>/)ioivjms and Antonyms. 

Owe. An^. Sax. ngan, to have or 
j-Mssesa. Had originally the sense 
of own, the old English oinen. In 
time, to the idea of possession 
AViis added that of responsibility 
(or the ground and conditions of 
possession) to some other, by 
virtue of what we owned or had 

Sin. Borrow. Hypothecate. Attribute, 
Ant. Requite. Repay. Liquidate. Defray. 

Own, v. tr. See Owe. To 
declare one's self the possessor 
of anything, as, property, an 
opinion, &c. 

Syn. Possess. Hold. Acknowledge. 

Ant. Alienate. Forfeit. Lose. Dis- 
claim. Disavow. Disinherit. Disown. Ab- 
jure. Abandon, 


Pabular, adj. Lat. 2^"^uhim, 
food. Appertaining to, or aflFord- 
ing food. 

Stn. Esculent. Nutritious. Comestible. 

AsT. Uneatable. Innutritious. 

Pacific. JjuX. pacificm. Tend- 
ing to or characterized by peace 
or peacefulness. 

Stn. Conciliatory. Mild. Appeasing. 
Calm. Tranquil. Peaceful. 

AxT. Unconciliatory. Harsh. Quarrel- 
some. Exasperating. Irritating. Turbu- 
lent. Noisy. Tumultuous. Warlike. 

Pacification, n. See Pacific. 

Pacify, v. tr. See Pacific. 

Applied to feelings and persons. 

Syn. Appease. Conciliate. Calm. Still. 
Quiet. Tranquillize. 

Ant. Kxasperate. Agitate. Excite. 
Irritate. Rouse. Provoke. 

Pack, v. tr. and int. Germ. 
fachen. To stow, or to admit of 
being conveniently stowed. Used 
also in the sense of un&irly collo- 
cating to bring about a certain 
end, as, a 'packed meeting.' 

See noun 


Srx. Stow. Compact. Compress. C<xi)c 

AxT. Unpack. Unsettle. Jumble. Dfa* 

place. Jlisarrange. Dissipate. Neutralize. 

Pact, ??. Lat. vactum, from 
pariftri\ to make a hargain. 

SvN. Agreement. Bargain. Covenant. 
League. Ftond. Alliance. Stipulation. 

Ant. Understanding. Promise. Parole. 

P.aEAN. Lat. and Gr. Origi- 
nally a hjTnn in honour of Apollo, 
as the healer. A jubilant hymn 

Stn. Jiibilation. Te Deim. AUeluiah. 
Ant. Dirge. Miserere. Threnody. Jere- 

Pagan, n. Lat. 'paganm^, a 
villar/rr, remote in early Chris- 
tian times from the influence of 
Christianity as centred in the 

Stn. Heathen. Idolater. Gentile. 
Ant. Believer. Christian. 

Pagan, adj. 
Paganism, i 
Pageant, ??. Lat. pagina, a 

fi.xiure, scaffold, or archiuuy. 

Stx. Pomp. Procession. Ceremony. 
Display. Spectacle. Show. 

Ant. Dream. Illusion. Phantasma- 
goria. Mockery. 

Pageantry, ii. See Pageant. 

Pain, n. Lat. poena, penalty, 
mental and hodily. 

Stn. Penalty. Suffering. Distress. Un- 
easiness. Grief. (Labour. Effort. In the 
pi. Pains.) Anguish. Torture. 

Ant. Reward. Remuneration. Ease. 
Gratification. Joy. Pleasure. Felicity 
Relief. Alleviation. Enjoyment. Delight. 

Pain, v. tr. See now. 

St.n. Hurt. Grieve. Afflict. Torment 
Rack. Agonize. Trouble. Torture. Ag- 
grieve. Annoy. 

Ant. Gratify. Please. Delight. Re- 
joice. Charm. Relieve. Ease. Refresh. 

Painful, adj. See verb. 

Painfully, adv. See Pain. 

P.\INT, V. tr. Tjat. ^5?n(7e?T. 
Used literally and metaphori- 

Synonyms and Autonyms. 


Stn. Colour. Tinge. Tint. Portray. 
Rc-presont. Polineate. Depict. .Sketch. 

A:;t. P.iub. Caricature. Mirsportray. 
Misrc-prescnt. Misdeliiieaie. Misdepict. 

Pale, adj. Lat. palUdua. 

Stn. rallid'. Wan. Faint. Dim. Un- 
defined. Kliolated. Sallow. 

Ant. Eiiddy. High-coloured. Cun- 
Bpicuous. Deep. 

Pall, v, tr. and int. Fr. }->aUe. 

.Syn. Blunt. Dispirit. Satiate. Cloy. 
Ant. Quicken. Sharpen. Inspirit. 

Palll^te, V. tr. Lat. pallium, 
a chak. To throw a cloak over, 
and «o hide. 

Stx. Cloali. Cover. Conceal. Ex- 
tenuate. Mitigate. Soften. 

Ant. Expose. Denounce. Exaggerate. 
Aggravate. Magnify. 

Palm. Lat. pahna. A branch 
of palm being borne as a symbol 
of victory or success. 

Stn. Trophy. Prize. Crown. Laurels. 

Ant. Brand. Stigma. Shame. Blot. 

Palmy, adj. See Palm. 

Stn. Prosperous. Glorious. Distin- 
guished. Victorious. Flourishing. 

Ant. Depressed. Inglorious. Undistin- 
guished. Unflourishing. 

Palpable, adj. Lat. palpare, 
to touch. 

Stn. Material. Corporeal. Tangible. 
Obvious. Gross. Perceptible. 

Ant. Immaterial. Incorporeal. Invisible. 
.Stherial. Impalpable. Indistinct. Dubious. 

Palpitate, v. int. Lat. pal- 
pita re. 

Sin. Throb. Flutter. Beat. Pulsate. 

Anx. Pause. Stop. Cease. 

Palter, v. Germ, palte, a rarj. 
To act in a ragged, i.e., mean or 
beggarly, way. 

Stn. Sliuffle. Prevaricate. Tria>. Shift. 
Dodge. Haggle. 

Ant. Act. Determine. Decide. 

Paltrt, adj. Sie Palter. 

Stn. Mean. Shabby. SliufRing. Trifling. 
Prevaricating. Shifty. Contemptible. I'iti- 
able. Vile. Worthless. Beggarly. 'I"rashy, 

Ant. Noble. Honourable. Candid. Om- 
ideatlouB. Determined. Straightforward, 

Estimable. Admirable. Worthy. Magnifi- 

Pamper, "•• tr. Fr. pamprcj 
Lat. pa7npinu!<,- a vine-leaf or 
branch — the idea being to foster 
into excessive luxuriance. 

SvN. Feed. Glut. Spoil. Indu'.ge. 

Ant. Harden. Starve. Inure. Stin t 

Panegyric, n. Gr. Travrj-yi. 

piKos, SC, \6yos. 

Stn. Eulogy. Encomium. 

Ant. Stricture. Satire. Sarcasm. Lam* 
poon. Invective. Philippic. Tirade. 

Pang, n. Ang. Sax. pyngan, to 

Stn. Paroxysm. Throe. Agony. Con- 
vulsion. Smart. 

Ant. Pleasure. Enjoyment. Gratifica- 
tion. Delight Delectation. Fascination. 

Parable, n. Gr. ■waph, hj 
the side, and j^aWetv, to cast or 
place. A didactic invention, in 
which things natural are used to 
illustrate things moral and 

Syn. Apologue. Similitude. 
Ant. History. Fact. Narrative. 

Parade, v. tr. It. parare, to 

Stn. Vaunt. Flaunt. Display. 
Ant. Suppress. Veil. Conceal 

Paeade, n. See verb. 

Stn. Vaunting. Flaunting. Display 
Pomp. Ostentation. Show. Pageant. 

Ant. Suppression. Concealment. Mo- 
desty. Humility. Simplicity. Undemon- 
strativeness. Plainness. Retirement. Un- 

Paradise, v. Gr. 7rapa8eicros, 
a (jarderi. Used metaphorically, 

Stn. Heaven. Bliss. Ecstacy Eden. 
Ant. Purgatory. Hell. Misery. Tor- 

Paradox, v. Gr. napa, be- 
side, and ba^u, an opinion. A 
trutli so stated as to Beem ab- 

Stn. Contradiction. Enigma. Mystery, 
Absurdity. Ambiguity. 

ANT. Precept. Proposition. Axiom 
Triusm. Postulate. 


Sf/noni/ms and Antonyms. 

Pahadoxical, adj. See Para- 

Stn. See Paradox. 

Ant. Self-evident. Axiomatic. Lucid. 

PaEALLKL, f/f/y. Gt. Trap" dXKrj- 

Xcov. Extending by the side 
of each other, as lines always 
keeping the same distance. Used 
in the general sense of the fol- 
lowing : — • 

Sr.v. Correspondent. Congruous. Corre- 
lative. Analogous. Concurrent. 

Ant. Different. Opposed. Incongruous. 
Irrel.itive. Unaualcgous. Divergent Con- 
trarian t. 

Paramount, adj. Old Fr. 

Stn. Superior. Pre-eminent. Chief. Prin- 

Ant. Subordinate. Minor. Inferior. 

Parasitb, 71. Gr. napa, hy the 
side, and a-iTflv, to fctd. One 
who dines at the expense of an- 
other, and, to ensure repetitions 
of the invitation, flatters his host ; 
hence, generally, a flatterer. 

Stn. Sycophant. Flatterer. Toady. 

Ant. Detractor. Calumniator. Traducer. 

Pardon, v. tr. Lat. per, through, 
and donare, to givi-. To give so 
as to forgive. Applied to per- 
sons and their offences. 

Ant. Condemn. Punish. Visit. 

Pardoxablk, adj. See Pardon. 

S»N. Venial. Excusable. 

Ant. Inexcusable. Unpardonable. 

Parsimonious, adj. Lat. par- 

Stn. Sparing. Close. Penurious. Frugal. 
Niggardly. Illiberal. 

Ant. Liberal. Unsparing. Profuse. Ex- 

Part, n. Lat. pars, partis. 

Stn. I'onion. I'iece. Fragment. Frac- 
tion. Division. Member. Constituent. 
Klfment. Ingrrdienl. Share. Lot. Con. 
ci-'rn. Interest. Participation. Side. Party. 
Intirest. Faction. Bthalf. Duty. 

Ant. AVhole. CoH)letenes£. Entirety. 
Integrity. Totsility. Mass. Bulli. Body. 
Compound. Transaction. Affair. 

Partake, v. int. Compoi;nded 
of i^art and take, followed by the 
prep. of. 

Stn. Share. Participate. Accept. D». 

Ant. Forfeit. Relinquish. Forego. Cede. 
Yield. Afford. 

Partial, adj. Lat. pars, part is, 
a part. Aifecting one part only, 
or biassed toward one part or 

Stn. Restricted. LocaL Peculiar. Specific. 
Favouring. Inequitable. Unfair. Biassed. 

Ant. Unrestricted. Total UniversaL 
General. Impartial. Equitable. Just. Fair 

Partiality, n. See Partial. 

Participate, v. int. Partem 
capere. To take a part, followed 
by the 2^>'ep- in or of. See Par- 

Particular, adj. Lat. ^w/C/- 
cidaris. Is used of the object 
and the subject ; of the latter in 
the sense of critical. 

Stn. Local. Specific. Subordinate. De- 
tailed. Partial. Special. Fastidious. Mi- 
nute. Scrupulous. Careful. Accurate. 
Exact. Circumstantial. Precise. Delicate. 

Ant. Universal. General. Unspeclal. 
Comprehensive. Unscrupulous. Uncareful. 
Inaccurate. Inexact. Rough. Coarse. In- 
discriminate. Undiscriminating. 

Particular, ??. See adjective. 

Stn. Detail. Point. Feature. 
Ant. Whole. Subject. Case. 

Partition, v. Lat. part ire, to 
divide. Used for tlio thing sepa- 
rating and the space separated, 
as also for the act of dividing or 

Stn. Barrier. Division. EnclosurQ 
Compartment. Interspace. Separation. I)i* 
tribution. Allotment. Screen. 

Ant. Non-partition. Non-distlnctiou 
Non-separation. Inchision. Cuniproliension 
Combination Amalgamation. lDcorpor» 
lion. Coalition. Union. Concatenatluu 
CJeneralizatlon. Collection. 

Sijno7Vjms and Antonyms. 


Partner, n. From part. One 
who in any way takes part with 

Stn. Associate. Colleague. Coadjutor 
Confederate. Accomplice. Partaker. Com- 
panion. Spouse. 

Ant. Rival. Alien. Competitor. Op- 
ponent. Counter-agent. 

Passable, adj. From pass. 
That may lie passed or traversed. 
Also used in the sense of mo- 
derate, or what may pass un- 

Stn. Traversable. Navigable. Pene- 
trable. Admissible. Tolerable. Ordinary. 

Ast. Impassable. Impervious. Im- 
penetrai)le. Inadmissible. Excellent. 

Passible, adj. Lat. pati, pas- 
sus, to s/iffer. 

Stx. Susceptible. Sensible. Sensitive. 

Ant. Insusceptible. Insensitive. Im- 

Passion, n. See Passible. Its 
old sense of suffering is almost 

Stn. Emotion. Desire. Ardour. Vehe- 
mence. Lust. Anger. Animation. Ex- 
citement. Warmth. Feeling. 

Ant. Coolness. Indifference. Apathy. 
Coldness. Frigidity. Iciness. 

Passive, adj. See Passible. 

Stn. Inactive. Inert. Quiescent. Un- 
resisting. Unquestioning. Negative. En- 
during. Patient. 

Ant. Active. Alert. Resisteut. Posi- 
tive. InsubmissiTe. Malcontent. Vehe- 

Pastime, n. From pass and 

Stn. Recreation. Entertainment. 

Amusement. Diversion. Play. Sport. 

Ant. Business. Study. Labour. Task. 
Occupation. Work. 

Patch, v. tr. Conn, with 

Stn. Botch. Bungle. Cobble. Clout. 

AuT. Fine-draw. Embroider. 

Patent, adj. Lat. patens, from 
pattre, to open. 

Stn. Obvious. Evident. Indisputable. 

-Ant. Dubious. Ambiguous. Question" 

Pathetic, cxlj. Gr. ndBos, 

Stn. Affecting. Moving. Emotional. 

Ant. Ludicrous. Unimpassloned. Far- 
cical. Unaffetting. 

Patience, n. Lat. patientia. 

Stn. Endurance. Resignation. Sub- 
mission. Perseverance. 

Ant. Resistance. Insubmissivecess, 
Repining. Rebellion. Inconstancy, lai- 

Patient, adj. See Patience. 
Patrician, n. Lat. patricius. 

Stn. Noble. Senator. Aristocrat. 
Ant. Plebeian. Churl. 

Patronize, v. tr. Lat. i^o^/o- 
nw.s, a patron. 

Syn. Countenance. Befriend. Favour. 

Ant. Oppress. Depress. Oppose. With- 
stand. Disfavour. Discountenance. 

Pattern, n. A form of 

Stn. Model. Sample. Archetype. Ex- 
emplar. Specimen. Mould. Design. Plan. 

Ant. Monstrosity. Caricature. Perver- 
sion. Misrepresentation. 

Paucity, n. Lat. paucus,fnu. 

Syn. Puirity. Scantily. Fewness. De- 

Ant. Frequency. Quantity. Number. 

Pause, v. int. Gr. TraCo-t?, a 

Syn. Cease. Suspend. Intermit. For- 
bear. Stay. Wait. Hesitate. Demur. Stop. 

Ant. Continue. Proceed. Advance. 
Persist. Persevere. 

Pave, v. tr. Fr. paver. Used 

Stn. Prepare. Facilitate. Smootbe. Ex- 
pedite. Adapt. Fit. Mature. Arrange. 
Dispose. Qualify. 

ANT. Obstruct. Indispose. Disqualify. 

Pawn, v. tr. Old Fr. pan, 

Stn. Pledge. Impignorate. 
Ant Kansom Redeem. 

Pay, V. tr. Old Fr. faier, 
I conn, with pax, peace. To ap- 
{ pease need, especiiilly by com- 
pensation. Applied to the ol> 
I ject and subject of payment 


Sifnonyms mid Antonyms. 

Sin. Compensate. Remunerate. Satisfy. 
Discharge. K.xipeiid. Disburse. Requite. 

.\NT. Deprive. Defraud. Exact. Dis- 
satisfy. Hoard. Retain. Invest. Fund. 

Payment, n. See Pay. 

Pe.\CK, n. Lat. pax, pads. 

Sr.v. Quiet. Tranquillity. Calm. Re- 
pose. Pacification. Order. Calmness. Re- 
conciliation. Harmony. Concord. 

Ant. Noise. Disturbance. Tumult. 
Agitation. Hostility. Disorder. Emliroil- 
meut. AVar. Discord. Variance. Strife. 

Peacbablb, adj. See Peace. 
Ai^i^lies more correctly to the 
disposition of persons, as peaceful 
to the state of things. 

Syx. Unwarlike. Inoffensive. Quiet. 
Innocuous. Mild. Unquarrelsome. Serene. 

AST. Pugnacious. Warlike. Litigious. 
Quarrelsome. Savage. Fierce. Hostile. 
Violent. Bellicose. Restless. 

Peasant, n. Old Fr. jjuisnnt, 
New Fr. paysan, from pays, conn, 
with Lat. pagus, the country. 

Si-N. Countryman. Hind. Clown. La- 
bourer. Villager. Swain. 

-Ant. Citizen. Cockney. Townsman. 

Peccability, n. See Peccable. 

Pkccablb, adj. Lat. pecca- 
hilis, peccare, to sin. Ijiable to 

Syn. Frail. Sinful. 

Ant. Impeccable. Perfect. Incorrupt. 

Peccant, adj. See Peccable. 

SvN. Morbid. Corrupt. Criminal. Offen- 
eive. Objectionable. Vicious. 

Ant. Pure. Incorrupt. Wholesome. 

Pkouliar, adj. Lat. pccidium, 
private property. 

SvN. Private. Personal. Characteristic. 
Special. Specific. Particular. Unusual. 
Singular. Uncommon. 

Ant. Public. Common. General. Uni- 
versal. Unspeclal. Ordinary. Common. 

Peculiarity, n. See Peculiar. 
That wliich is peculiar to an in- 
dividual or subject. 

Syn. Specially. Individuality. Dis- 
tinctiveness. Idiosyncrasy. 

Akt. Generality. Universality. Com- 
munity. Uniformity. Homology. Homo- 
geneity. Couuaturaliv 

Pedantic, adj. Yr. pedant^ 
a corruption of the Lat. pceda- 


Stn. Paidagogical. Priggish. 
Ant. Unaffected. SlijisUod. 

Peerless, adj. Without a 
peer of par, i.e., equal. 

Syn. Matchless. Paramount. Unique. 
Ant. Mediocre. Commonplace. Orll- 

Peevish, adj. A corruption 
of perverse. 

Stn. Fretful. Querulous. Petulant. 
Testy. Captious. Waspish. Splenetic. 

Ant. Genial. Complaisant. Insensate. 
Inquerulous. Easy. Good-natured. Good- 

Pelf, n. Old 'Ens,, pelf ry , Old 
Fr. j>el2)e, booty, from pelpcr, to 
pillage, conn, with Lat. pilare, 
to plunder. Ill-gotten gain. 

Syn. Lucre. Mammon. 

Ant. Reward. Compensation. AV'age. 

Pellucid, adj. Lat. per and 

Ant. Opaque. Semi-opaque. Luteous. 

Penal, adj. Fr. iK-nal, Lat. 
paivi, punishment. 

Syn. Retributive. Coercive. Visitatorial. 
Casiigatory. Inflictive. Corrective. Puni- 

Ant. Remunerative. Reparatory. De- 
corative. Honorary. 

Penalty, n. Contracted from 
penality. See Penal. 

Sra. Pain. Punishment. Forfeiture. 
Price. Fare. Retribution. Amercement. 

Ant. Guerdon. Wages. Reward. I're- 
mium. Prize. Douceur. Sop. Bribe, 
Honorarium. Compensation. Remunera- 

Penetrable; a<fy. Lat. peue- 

Syn. Pervious. Permeable. 
Ant. Impervious. Impermeable. 

Penetration, n. Lat. pme- 
trare, to penetrate, 

Syn. Discernment. Observation. Saga* 
city. Acutcness. Discrimination. 

Ant. Indiscernment. Dulness. I,-.dia 
crimination. Stolidity Hebitude. Short 
Bightednea*. Shallowness. Obtusenes.-.. 

Sijnonyms and Antonyms. 

PknitencE,«. Jjatpnenitmtia. 

Syx. Repentance. Contrition. Sorrow. 

Ant. Congratulation. Self-approval. 
Olxiuracy. Hard-hearteduess. 

Penitent, adj. See Penitence. 

Penitential, adj. See Peni- 
tence. Having the feeling, or the 
outward character which suits 
the feehng, of penitence. 

S\-y. WailinL'. Mournful. Dlrgeful. 
gorrowlul. Contrite. 

Pensive, adj. Lat. pendcre, to 

Stn-. Meditative. P.uminatlng. Thought- 
ful. Musing. Reflective. 

Akt. Vacant. Joyous. Unreflecting. 
Careless. Thoughtless. Unmeditative. In- 
cogitant. Unreflective. 

Penurious, adj. See Penury. 

Syn. Niggardly. Parsimonious. Avari- 
cious. Griping. Miserly. Close-fisted. 
Ant. Liberal. Open-handed. Bountiful. 

Penury, n. Lat. i^enuria. 

Syn. Want. Privation. Poverty. In- 
digence. Impecuninsity. 

A^^. Competence. Wealth. Affluence. 

People, n. Lat. populus, 

•Stn. Nation. Community. Populace. 
Moh. Crowd. Vulgar. Herd. Mass. 

ANT. Aristocracy. Nobility. Govern- 
ment. Ruler. Oligarchy. 

Perceivable, adj. See Per- 

Stn. Cognizable. Appreciable. Per- 
ceptible. Sensible. Distinguishable. 

Ant. Incognizable. Inappreciable. Im- 
perceptible. Insensible. Indistinguishable. 

Perceive, Lat. percipere. 
Used of the senses and the mind. 

Stn. Discern. Distinguish. Descry. Ob- 
serve. Feel. Touch. See. Recognize. 
Understand. Know. 

Ant. Miss. Misobserve. Overlook. Mis- 
understand. Misconceive. Mlsperceive. 

Perceptible, adj. See Per- 
Perception, n. See Perceive. 

Stn. Cognizance. Apprehension. Sight. 
Understanding. Discernment. 

Ant. Incognizance. Ignorance. Im- 
perceptioa. Misapprehension. Misuuder- 

See Per- 

Pkrceptive, adj. 

Stn. Cognitive. Apprehimsive. Sensitive. 

Ant. Ufflettivo. ileniiniscent. Insen- 
sible. Inipercipient. Inobservant. Inap- 
prehensive. Insensitive. 

Percipient, adj. See Percep- 

Percussion, n. Lat. percutere^ 
cusffiix, to strike together. 

Stn. Collision. Shock. Encounter. 

Ant. Graze. Touch. Recoil. Rebound. 
Repercussion. Reverberation. 

Perdition, n. Lat. perdere, to 
lose. Utter loss. 

Stn. Destruction. Ruin. Loss. Demo- 

Ant. Restoration. Recovery. Rencva 
tion. Rescue. Salvation. 

Peregrination, ?j. Lat. pere- 
f/ririatio, peregrinus, foreign. 
Foreign travel. 

Stn. Wandering. Travel. Perambula- 
tion. Perenation. 

Ant. Domiciliation. Residence. 

Psremptort, adj. Lat. peri- 
mere, to destroy. Deadly; deci- 
sive ; final. 

Stn. Decisive. Express. Absolute. 
Authoritative. Arbitrary. Dogmatical. 

Ant. Suggestive. Entreative. Mild. 
Postulatory. Hortatory. 

Perennial, adj. Lat. peren n is, 
2>er annum, or per annos. Lasting 
through the year, or through 
many years. 

Stn. Perpetual. Unceasing. Unfailiiit;. 
Ceaseless. Incessant. Constant. Per- 
manent. Unintermittent. Continual. 

Ant. Periodical. Occasional. Inter- 
mittent. Failing. Deficient. Uncertain. 

Perfect, adj. Lat. perfectus^ 
Carried out to its completion, or 
completely illustrating its nature 
or piu'pose. 

Stn. Consummate. Complete. Full. In- 
deficient. Immaculate. Absolute. Fault- 
less. Impeccable. Infallible. Unblemisb»>d. 

Ant. Incomplete. Meagre. Faulty. 
Scant. Short. Deficient. Defective. Im- 
perfect. Pecoable. FalL'Ke Blemished. 
Marred. Spoilt. 


Sijnonfjins and Anioni/ms. 

Perfection, n. See Perfect. 
Perfidious. Lat. pcr/idivsns. 
Said of persons and their acts. 

Stx. False. Treacherous. Faithless. 
Traitorous. Deceptive. 

Ant. True. Staunch. Faithful. 
Peeforate, a>l/. Lat. jjer- 

Stx. Bored. Pierced. Drilled. 
Ant. Uupierced. Imperforate. 

Perform, v. tr. Lat. per and 
forma. To carry out a plan, 
purpose, or design, to its com- 

Stn. Accomplish. Do. Act. Transact. 
Achieve. Execute. Discharge. Fulfil. 
Effect. Complete. Consummate. Enact. 

Ant. Miss. Mar. Misperform. Mis- 
execute. Botch. Misenacl. Misconduct. 

Performance, «. See Per- 

Perfume, n. Lat. ^^er and 
fumas, smoke. 

Stn. Odour. Scent. Fragrance. Redo- 
lence. Aroma. 

Ant. Fetor. Stench. Stink. 

Perfunctory, adj. Lat per- 
fnngi, to disrJinrye. Said of deeds 
or manner indicating indiflference 
in the doer, as acting by routine. 

Six. Uninterested. Routine. Mechani- 
cal. Careless. Slovenly. 

AxT. Interested. Zealous. Spirited. 

Anunated. Ardent. Assiduous Careful. 

Perhaps, adv. Lat. per, hy, 
and Eng. hap, chance. 

Srx. Possiblj'. Peradventure. Per- 

A XT. Certainly. Inevitably. 

Peril, n. Lat. periclum. 

Stn. Danper. Risk. Hazard. Jeopwdy. 
Insecurity. Uncertainty. Unsafely. 
Ax-t. Security. Safety. Certainty. 

Perilous, adj. See Peril. 
Period, n. Gr. irfplobos. 

SiN. Time. Date. Epoch. Era. Age. 
Duration. Continuance. Limit. Bound. 
End. Conclusion. Determination. 

A.VT. Eternity. Datelessness. Immemoria- 
Uty. Infinity. Perpetuity. lUimitabillty. 
Enca(>«Baebak hidefiniteteas. Indeterminate- 1 

Periodical, adj. Ste Peiaort. 

Stx. Stated Recurrent. Regiilai 
. systematic. Calculable. 

AxT. Indeterminate. Eccentric. Irregular 
incalculable. Spasmodic. Fitful. 

Perishable, adj. Fr. 2>eris»' 

Stn. Frail. Evanescent. Fragile. De- 
structible. Fleeting. Transient. Ephemeral 

Ant. Enduring. Lasting. Indestructible. 
Imperishable. Pei-sisteut. Perpetual. Per- 

Permanent, adj. Lat. per and 
manere. See Perishable. 

Permeable, adj. Lat. pev 
meare, to pass through. 

Stn. Penetrable. Pervadible. Perco. 

Ant. Impenetrable. Impermeable. 

Permeate, v. int. See Pei> 

Permissible, adj. Lat per 
initfere, to ptermit. 

Stn. Allowable. Sufferable. Lawful. 

AxT. Unallowable. Insufferable. Un- 

Permission, n. Set Per- 

Stx. Leave. Licence. Dispensation. 
Allowance. Liberty. Consent. Sufferance. 
Compliance. Endurance. 

Ant. Prohibition. Refusal. Denial. 
Prevention. Hindrance. Resistance. 

Permit, v. tr. See Permission. 

Permutation, 7i . Lat. permu' 

Stn. Interchange. Transference. Trans, 

AxT. Stabilitation. Ketent'on. Fixity. 
Sequence. Order. Series. Suctession. 

Pernicious, adj. Lat per- 

nicies, destruction. 

Stn. Hurtful. Harmful. Noxious. Dele, 
terious. DetrimejitaL Destructive. Deadly. 

Ant. Beneficial. Wholesome. In 
nocuous. Undetrimental. Innocent Salu 

Perpetrate, v. tr. Latjoer. 
Ktrare. To do, in a bad sense. 

petra, _, 
o.rN. Commit. 
ASX Achieve rerfcct 

Synuiiijms d^^d Antonyms. 


PEBirTXJAL, adj. Lat. per- 

SrN. Constant. Unceasing. Endless. 
Etpmal. Everlasting. Unfailing. Peren- 
nial. Continual. Enduring. Incessant. 

Ant. Inconstant. Periodic. Pvecurrent. 
Temporary. Transient. Failing. Ex- 
haustible. Occasional. Momentary. Casual. 

Perpetuate, v. tr. See Per- 

Stn. Continue. Stabilltate. Eternize. 
Ant. Discontinue. Abolish. Eradicate. 
Cancel. Disestablish. Break. 

Perpetuity, n. See Perpe- 

Syn. Constancy. Permanence. Perennity. 
Persistence. Continuity. Fixity. 

Ant. Inipermanence. Transience. Evan- 
escence. Discontinuance. Casualty. Mo- 

Perplex,!'. tr. Jjdt. perplexari. 
To make intricate or involved. 
Also, as applied to persons, to place 
in a state of mental confusion. 

Stn. Embarrass. Puzzle. Entangle. In- 
volve. Encumber. Complicate. Confuse. 
Bewilder. Mystify. 

Ant. Clear. Enlighten. Explicate. Dis- 
entangle. Simplify. Elucidate. Disen- 

Perplexity, n. See Perplex. 

Persecute, v. tr. Lat. pcr- 
sequi, part, secid-us. 

Stn. Harass. Molest. Annoy. Worry. 

Ant. Encourage. Inspirit. Abet. Sup- 

Perseverance, n. Lat. per- 

Stn. Persistence. Steadfastness. Con- 
stancy. Indelatigableness. Resolution. 

jVnt. Inconstancy. Unsteadfastness. 
Fitfulness. Caprice. Irresoluteness. Vacil- 
lation. Wavering. Indecision. Variableness. 
Levity. Volatility. 

Persistence, n. Lat. per- 
sistere, to endure. It has the 
senses of permanence as an ex- 
ternal quality of objects, and also, 
subjectively, of permanence of 
purpose, or perseverance. See 
Pei-severance and Perishable. 

Personal, adj. Lat. persona. 
Belonging to the person, or re- 
ferred to the person, as distin- 
guished from belonging to the 

SvN. Individual. Special. Peculiar. 

Ant. Generic. Common. 

Perspicacity, n. Lat. pitr- 
spicacitas. Acuteness of discern- 

Stn. Acuteness. Discernment. Sagacity. 

Ant. Hebetude. Dulness. Stolidity. 

Perspicuity, n. Lat. perspi- 
cuus, clear. Especially used of 
clearness of statement. 

Sto. Clearness. Lucidity. Transparency. 

Abt. Ob.scnrity. Turbidity. Unintelli- 
gibility. Mysiitication. Confusedness. 

Persuade, v. tr. Lat. per- 
suadere. To persuade is to lead 
to a conclusion by moral, or con- 
vince by intellectual, argument. 

Stn. Induce. Influence. Incline. Cun- 
vince Dispose. 

Ant. Deter. Disincline. Indispose., 
Mlspersuade. Misinduce. Coerce. Compel. 

Persuasion, n. See Persuade. 

Pert, adj. Lat. aiwrtus, open. 
Formerly frank, of open cha- 
racter ; now bearing the un- 
favourable sense of a combina- 
tion of weakness and forwardness. 

Sts. Flippant. Saucy. Impudent. 
Ant. Modest. Retiring. BashfuL De- 
mure. Staid. 

Pertinacious, adj. Lat. per- 
tinax, from per and tenax. 
Strongly holding to one's pur- 
pose, but with a shade of un- 
favourableness in meaning. 

Stn. Obstinate. Persistent. Wilful. 
' Dogged. Perseverirg. 
I Ant. Flexible. Inconstant. Irresolute. 
I Volatile. 

I Pertinacity, n. See Perti- 

! nacious. 

{ Pertinent, adj. Lat. perti* 


nere, to helonfi. Simply belonging 
to another thing, or having a fit- 
ness of relationship to it. 

Stn. Related. Connected. Appertain- 
ing. Appropriate. Fit. Apposite. Just. 
Proper. Congruous. Applicable. 

Ant. Unrelated. Unconnected. Alien. 
Inappropriate. Impertinent. Incongruous. 
Discordant Repugnant. 

Pebvade, v. tr. Lat. per- 
vaderc, to go tliroiiqli and through, 

Stn. Permeate. Fill Saturate. Colour. 

Akt. Touch. Affect. 

Perverse, adj. Lat. perversiis, 
turned the vn-ong way. 

Stn. Froward. Untoward. Stubborn. 
Fractious. Wajward. Unmanageable. In- 
tractable. Crotchety. 

AuT. Docile. Ductile. Amenable. Go- 
vernable. Complacent. Accommodating. 
Pleasant. Obliging. 

Perversiox, n. See Perverse. 
A tT^isting of ti-rith, or of any- 
thing a-way from its right use. 

Srs. Abuse. Misrepresentation. Dis- 
tortion. Corruption. Misinterpretation. 
Caricature. Sophistry. 

Ant. Use. Conservation. Representa- 
tion. Right. Truth. Portraiture. Mani- 
festation. Explanation. Interpretation. 
Reason. Correction. Authentication. Veri- 

Pervious, adj. Per, through, 
and via, a way. 

Stn. Penetrable. Traversable. Explor- 

Ant. Impenetrable. Impervious. Im- 
pregnable. Inexplorable. 

Pest. ??. Lat. pesffs, a plague 
or disease. Metaphorically, any 
annoying or destructive con- 

Stn. Plague. Nuisance. Curse. An- 

Ant. Benefit. Blessing. Acquisition. 

Pester, v. tr. Old Fr. ein- 
ffstrer, to entangle. To frequent 
with annoying influence, or an 
annoying frequency. 

Sin. J'lague. AVorry. Vex. Harass. 
Diaquitt. Annoy. Teaze.. Torment. 

Aht. Treat. Regale. Amuse. Refresh. 
Sraiify. Sootbe. 

Sijnomjms and Anionyim. 

Pestiferous, adj. Pedis, a 
plague, and /erre, to bring. 

Syn. Insalubrious. Morbific. PeslilentitU. 
Deleterious. Mephitic. Virulent. Morti- 
ferous. Lethal. 

Ant. Genial. Salubrious. Balmy. Salc- 
lifemus. Sanitary. Innocuous. Remedial. 
Wholesome. Nutritive. Pure. Sanative. 

Pet, n. Probably contracted 
from Fr. petit, srrudl. 

Srx. Darling. Fondling. Favourite. 
Cosset. JeweL Minion. IdoL 

Ant. Horror. Bugbear. Aversion. 

Pet, v. tr. See noun and 

Petition, n. "Lai. petitio, pe- 
tere, to ask. 

Stn. Supplication. Entreaty. Cra\ing. 
Application. Appeal. Salutation. Prayer. 
Request. Instance. 

Ant. Deprecation. Expostulation. Pro- 
test. Command. Injunction. Cl.iim. De 
mand. Requirement. Exaction. Iiictation. 

Petrify, v. tr. Petra, a rock 
or stone, and/'fcere, to make. To 
turn rigid with wonder or fear. 

Stn. Astound. Electrify. Dismay 
Horrify. Appal. Stun. Stupefy. Dumb- 

Ant. Reassure. Tranquillize. 

Pettish, adj. Apt to be in a 
state of pet or crossness, pet be- 
ing probably for pout, the ex- 
pression of the mouth in sullen- 

Stn. Petulant. Testy. Peevish. Wasp- 
ish. Querulous. 

.\NT. Easy. Jovial. Good-humoureA 

Petty, af?y. "Ft. petit. Small; 
especially in character, motive, 
disposition, or views. 

Stn. Small. Mean. Paltry. Ifnoble. 
Trifling. Nan-ow. 

Ant. Large. I.arge-heart^l. Xoble. 
Generous. Chivalrous. Magnificent. I. beraL 

Petulant, lulj. Lat. petvlans 
See Peevish. 
Phantasm, n. Lat. and Gr. 
Phantasma, n . An appcaranc* 

Synonyms ana. Antoivjms. 


SvN. Madness. Insanity. Di'lldusu 
Mnnia. Raving. Hallucination. AQ!.if.:a, 

Akt. Sanity. Sobriety. Rationalityi 

Physical, aJJ. Gr. (j^vais, 
nctf.ure. Used in the twofold 
sense of appertaining to visible 
or material nature, and consonant 

presumed to be false, and having 
no existence but in the imagina- 

Stn. Chimera. Delusion. Unreality. 
Phantasy. Busbear. Vision. Dream. 
Hallucination. Shadow. 

Ant. Reality. Truth. Fact. Sub- 
stance. Verity. 

Pharisaical, aclj. Of the dis- 
position of a Pharisee, having a | with the ordinary laws of nature, 
rehgion of form, without motives 
or spii-it. 

Stn. Sanctimonious. Formal. Cere- 
monious. Precisian. 

Aot. Sincere. Guileless. Genuine. Godly. 

Philantheopio, adj. Gr. 
(fyiKelv, to love, and avdpcoTros, man. 
Having humanity, or regard for 
the well-being of mankind at 

SvN. Humane. Large-hearted. Public- 

AxT. Selfish. Cynical. Egotistical. 

Morose. Misanthropic. 

Philanthropy, n. See Philan- 

Philosopher, n. See Philo- 

SrK. Doctor. Savant. Teacher. Master. 

Ant. Ignoramus. Sciolist. Freshman. 
Tyro. Greenhorn. Fool. Booby. Dunce. 

Philosophical, adj. Gr. 
(})i\6(To(pos, a lover of luisdom. 
Of or belonging to the character 
and life of a philosopher, and 
also in conformity with such 
views of tilings as a philosopher 
might be supposed to take. 
Sometimes used in the restricted 
sense of stoically or indifferently 

Stn. ^Vise. Sound. Conclusive. Scien- 
tific. Accurate. Enlightened. 

AxT. UnsouTid. Crude. Vague. Loose. 
Inaccurate. PopuJar. Unscientilic Sciolistic. 

Phrensy. Gr. <^pr]v, the mind. 
An excited state of the mind 
under the influence of insanity, 
veligion, or poetry. 

Natural. Material. Visible, 
gible. Sub.stantial. 

Ant. Mental. Moral. Intellectual. 
Spiritual. Immaterial. Invisible. In- 
i:ingible. Unsubstantial. Supernatural 

Pick, v. tr. Ang. Sax. p%jcun. 
Has the sense of peck, with which 
it is connected ; but, more fre- 
quently, that of seizing for indi- 
vidual selection. 

Stn. Choose. Cull. Select. Gather. 
Eliminate. Enucleate. E.xtract. Glean. 

Ant. Reject. Discard. Repudiate. Ren 
legate. Bunch. Grasp. Clutch. 

PlCTITRESQIJE, adj. Lat. pic- 
tura, a painting. Having the 
components of an attractive 
iigure, attitude, appearance, or 

Stn. Comely. Seemly. Graceful. Scenic. 
Artistic. Pictorial. Graphic. 

Ant. Unseemly. Uncouth. Rude. Un- 
picturesque. Beautiless. Flat. Tame. 
Monotonous. Dead. 

Pierce, v. tr. Old Fr. perser. 

Stn. Perforate. Bore. Drill. Penetrate. 
Excite. Affect. Rouse. Touch. Move. 

Ant. Deaden. Quiet. Blunt. Soothe. 
Allay. Lull. Compose. 

Piercing, adj. See Pierce. 

Piety, n. Lat. x>ietas. Had 
in Latin the twofold sense of re- 
ligi(m and feeling of natural 
affection. It is in English re- 
stricted to the former, except 
where the classical sense is 

Stn. Religion. Devotion. Godliness. 
Holiness. Grace. 

Ant. Irreligion. Impiety. Ungodllnesa. 
Sinfolnesg. Profanity. Hypocrisy. FoTttn 
tUtm. Siinctimonlonsness. Pharisasm. 

Sijnonyms and Antonyms. 


Pile, v. tr. Fr. j^Ue, a hall or | 
mass. I 

Stn. Heap. Accumulate. Gather. Store. 

Ant. Demolish. Dissipate. Squander. 
Scatter. Separate. Disperse. Deal. Dis- 

Pilfer, v. tr. Old Fr. pelfrer. 
Comp. Pelf. To commit petty 
thjft, and secretly. 

Stn. Abstract. Peculate. Filch. Pur- 
loin. Smuggle. Cabbage. 

Ant. Pillage, llansack. Plunder. Eifle. 

Pillage, v. tr. Fr. 'piller, to 
plunder. See Pilfer. 

PnJGtflD, adj. Lat. pinguidus. 
jee Fat. 

Piquant, ndj. Fr. Having a 
(Sharp flavour, or a manner or 
conversation of a lively and in- 
teresting character. 

Stn. Pungent. Sharp. Lively. Racy. 
Ant. Tame. Dull. Flat. Characterless. 

Piteous, adj. Deserving of 

Stn. Sad. Miserable. Deplorable. T.a- 
mentable. Distressing. 

Ant. Joyous. Enviable. Comfortable. 
Pleasant. Desirable. Delectable. 

Pith, n. Dutch, pit, pith, 
kernel. Used metaphorically for 
\\\e vital matter of a subject, as 
distinguished from what is not 

Stn. Kernel Marrow. Gist. Substance. 
Essence. Cream. Root. 

Ant. Surplusage. Surroundings. Dress- 
ing. Verbiage. 

Pithy, adj. See Pith. 

Stn. Terse. Laconic. Pregnant. Ex- 
pressive. Nervous. 

Ant. Weak. Characterless. Diluted. 
Pointless. Flat. Vapid. 

Pitiable, adj., Pitiful, ndj. 
See Piteous. 

Pitiless. Without pity, either 
specifically, or as a matter of 
Jiabit or disposition. 

SvN. Merciless. Unsparing. Inexorable 
Aht. Pitiful. Tender. Merciful. Com- 
F«4>lionate. Lenient. Indu'gent, 

Pittance, «. For pietance, 
from piety or pity. A small 
dole, as if granted from a feeUng 
of piety or pity. 

Stn. Dole. Driblet. Drop. Draiu. 

Ant. Exviberance. Abundance. I'im- 
fnsion. Lavishment. 

Prrr, n. Another form of 
piety, Lat. pietns. Properly 
used for compassion, but some- 
times, objectively, for a case of re- 
gret, as when it is said, ' It is a 
pity ;' meaning, it is a matter to 
be regretted. 

Stn. Mercy. Compassion. Tenderness. 
Commiseration. Ruth. 

Ant. Cruelty. Hardheart^dness. Re- 
lentlessness. Pitilessness. Ruthlessness. 

Place, v. tr. Fr. place, a hroad 

Stn. Locate. Assign. Fi.x. Establish. 
Settle. Attribute. Situate. 

Ant. Disturb. Remove. Unsettle. 
Disarrange. Disestablish. Misplace. Mis- 
attribute. Misassign. Uproot. Transplant. 
E.Ktirpate. Eradicate. Transport. 

Placid, adj. Lat. placidus. 

Syn. Calm. Quiet. Serene. Composed. 
Gentle. Unruffled. Still. Halcyonic. Un- 
e.xcited. Imperturbable. Passionless. 

Ant. Rou«h. Troul)led. Unquiet. Dis- 
composed. Agitated. Ruffled. Disturbed. 
Irritated. Stormy. Excited. Impassioned. 

Plain, ar//. IjTii. planus. Level; 
and used metaphorically, as of 

Syn. Level. Even. Flat. Smooth. Open. 
Clear. Unencumbered. Unobstruct<?d. Un- 
interrupted. Manifest. Evident. Obvious. 
Unmistakeable. Simple. Easy. Natural. 
Unaffected. Homely. Unsophisticated. 
Artless. Open. Unvarnished. Unem- 
bellished. Unreserved. 

AxT. Uneven. Undulating. Rugged, 
Rough. Abrupt, Broken. Confuseii. En- 
c\mibered. Obstructed. Interrupted. 

Questionai)le. Uncertain. Dubious. Am- 
biguous. Enigmatical. Hard. Abstruse. 
Affectei Fair. Beautiful. Sophisticated. 
Artful. Varnished. Embellished. 

Plaintive, adj. Fr. plainte, 
Lat. plangere, to weep. 

Stn. Mournful. Sorrowful. Dol* 
fnl. Melancholy. Wailing. 

Ant. Joyous. Kxultint. Glad. Jntfr 
lant. Cheerful. Cheering. Gladdcnbag. 

Synonyms and Antonym^. 


Plant, v. tr. Fr. planter. 

Sts. Set. Insert. Settle. Establish. 
Introduce. Stock. Fix. Place. 

AST. Tiemove. Extract. Eradicate. 
Extirpate. Disestablish. Transport. De- 
i.iide. Transplant. Displace. 

Plaster, v. tr. Lat. emplas- 
triim. Used metaphorically for 
to daub over for the purpose of 
concealmeut, as distinguished 
from substantial repair. 

Stn. Palliate. Patch. Vamp. Tinker. 
Cobble. Bolster. 

Ant. Expose. Repair. Kestore. 'Reno- 
■^ate. Redintegrate. 

Plastic, adj. TrXaa-riKos, from 
n\a(T(Tiiv, to mould. Is used 
in the double sense of having the 
power (actively) to mould, and 
capable of being (passively) 

Stn. to latter. Ductile. Pliant. Yield- 
ing. Malleable. Tractile. Flexible. 

Ant. Stubborn. Upyielding. Inert. 
Unraalleable. Inflexible. Iniractile. Uu- 

Platitude, n. Fr. plat, flat. 

Stn. Commonplace. Generality. TruisFi. 

Ant. Sophism. Laconism. Enigma. 
Dictum. Oracle. 

Platonic, adj. From Plato, 
■who advocated a spiritual affec- 
tion between the sexes. 

Stn. Cold. Intellectual. Unsensu.^1. 

Mental. Philosophical. 

Ant. Ardent. Animal. Sensual. Pas- 
sionate. Sexual. 

Plausible, adj. Lat. plaudere, 
to applaud. That which bears 
the outward semblance of merit, 
or seems good at a superficial 
glance, or wears an air of the 

Stn. Specious. Superficial. Passable. 
Unctuous. Fair-spoken. Pretentious. 

Ant. Genuine. Sterling. Transparent. 
Unmistakeable. Profound. 

Plea, n. Low Lat. placitum. 
Has its technical senses in law. 
la common parlance as fol- 
lows: — 

Stn. Excuse. Vindicat--vi. Justification 
Ground. Defence. Apology. 

Ant. Charge. Accusation. Impeach 
ment. Action. 

Pleasant. Fr. plaisant, Lat. 
placere, to please. 

Stn. Grateful. Agreeable. Acceptable. 
Pleasurable. Desirable. Gratifying. Cheer* 
ful. Enlivening. Sportive. 

Ant. Unpleasant. Ungrateful. Dis- 
agreeable. Obnoxious. Unacceptable. 
Offensive. Unlively. Lugubrious. Dull. 

Pleasure, n. See Pleasant. 
Used for gratification generally ; 
that which is morally preferred ; 
that is, purpose or intention, and 
any specific thing which gives 
pleasure, as, a favour bestowed. 

Stn. Enjoyment. Gratification. Sen- 
suality. Self-indulgence. Voluptuousness. 
Choice. Preference. Will. Inclination. 
Purpose. Determination. Favour. Satis- 
faction. Indulgence. 

Ant. Pain. Suffering. Affliction. 
Trouble. Asceticism. Self-denial. Absti- 
nence. Disinclination. Aversion. Indis- 
position. Denial. Refusal. 

Plebeian. Lat. plebs, the 
common ptopile. Said of social 
rank, and of manners or de- 

Stn. Low. Vulgar. Low-born. Low- 
bred. Coarse. 

Ant. Patrician. Noble. Aristocratic. 
Refined. High-born. High-bred. 

Pledge, n. Old Fr. plecje, Low 
Lat. phgium, plegiare, to jdedye, 
probably from praibere. Some- 
thing given in security for the 
execution of a promise or con- 

Stn. Security. Guarantee. AVarrant. 

Ant. Word. Promise. Assui-ance. 

Plenary, a^^/. Lat. pUnarius, 
from ph'UKs. Full, in some other 
than a merely physical sense. 

Sra. P'uU. Abundant. Complete. En- 
tire. Unreserved. Unstinted. Unre- 

Ant. Partial. Incomplete. Restricted 
Reserved. Contingent. Temporary. 

Plenitude, u. See Plenary. 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 


Sin. Dip. Dive. Douse. Duck. Sub- 
merge. Immerse. Precipitate. Sink. 


Ant. Emerge. 
Extricate. Rescue. 

Soar. Raise. 

E.u>^au!e"^"ltrge^^sT'Sne^r'cl^. I J"f-^' ^'?^ i^Z^niS^m, had. To 
pleteness. Liberality. Heiglit. Uraximum. | I^l^ 01' tUrOW like lead, in the 

Ant. Scantiness. Insufficiencj'. Re- 
striction. Partiality. Stint. Narrowness. 
Poverty. Incompleteness. Reserve. Miui- 

Plenty, n. Lat. plenitas, from 
pUnns,full. See Plenitude. 

Pleonastic, adj. Partaking 
of pleonasm or redundance. Gr. 
Trkfova^av, to abound, from 
irKeajv, or ivKeiatv, more. Used 
of expressions of speech which 
are more than needful. 

SiTS. Redundant. Superfluous. Surplus. 

Ant. Requisite. Necessary. Essential. 
Terse. Concise. Succinct. 

Pliable, adj. Fr. iiilier, Lat. 
plicare, to fold. Used materially 
and analogically. 

Stn. Flexible. Supple. Limber. Like. 
Ductile. Yielding. Manageable. Facile. 
. Ant. Stiff. Stubborn. Brittle. Un- 
bending. Unyielding. Unmanageable, in- 

Pliant, adj. Sec Pliable. 

Plodding, adj. Cf. Gael. 
plod, a clod. As if trudging 
laboriously and slowly over 
rough ground. 

Syn. Painstaking. Industrious. Per- 
severing. Laborious. Studious. 

Ant. Indiligent. Unindustrious. Dis- 
tracted. Inattentive. Impatient. Unper- 
severing. Flighty. Fitful. 

Plump, adj. Germ, plump, 
nnJe, coarse, cHumsy. It has 
with us acquii-ed a more pleasing 

Syn. AVell-conditioned. Well-rounded. 
Clmbby. Strapping. Bouncing. Fleshy. 

Ant. Ill-conditioned. Lean. Kmaciated. 
Scraggy. Weazen. Macileuu Lank. Raw- 
boned. Shrivelled. Flaccid. Tabid. 

Plunder, v. tr. Germ. 2^/i«»- 
dcr, baggage, fripperrj. 

Plurality, n. Lat. pins, more. 

SrN. Multitude. Multltudinousness. 
Number. Numerousness. Profusion. Host. 
Legion. Collection. 

Ant. Unity. Singularity. Oneness. 
Solitude. Individuality. Singleness. IsoU- 


Poetical, adj. Gr. notrja-is, 
poesy. Having the qualities ot 
poetry, and also sometimes ex- 
hibiting in excess the inventive- 
ness of it. 

Sra. Metrical. Rythmic. Versified 
Lyric. Rhymin;:. Imaginative. Creative 
Romantic. Fictiti«us. Dreamy. Flighty. 

Ajjt. Unmetrical. Unrythmical. Prosaic. 
Unpoetical. Unversified. Unimaginative. 
Commonplace. Historical. M;iihematical. 
Logical. JIatter-of-fact. Veracious. Sober. 

Poignant, adj. Fr. pohidre, 
Lat. pungere, to sting. In its 
oldei and mildor sense pungent 
has taken its jjlace. It now re- 
fers to acute mental, as pungent 
to stimulating physical, sensa- 
tions. See Piercing. 

Pointless, adj. Without 
point, in tho sense of fixed and 
vivid significance. 

Stn. V.igue. Vapid. Aimless. Inex- 
pressive. Feeble. 

Ant. Close. Sharp. Telling. Pregnant. 
Significant. Expressive. Forcible. Epi- 

Poise, v. tr. Old Fr. p>eiser, 
Lat. p)e)isare, from jjcndere, to 
iveigh. See Balance. 

Poison, v. tr. Lat. potio, an 
envenonii'd potion. 

Stn. Vlliate. Taint. Infect. Envenoa. 

Ant. Purify. Disinfect. Depiuate. 

. „ _ . See 


Plunge, v. tr. and int Fr ! Poisonous, adj. See Poison 
Vl<y>^'je; as if from Lat. plu ' ' '"'• '^""""'"'- '°'"'"°'- '''"="*' 

Corruptive. Vitiative. Noxious. Banefb!, 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 

Malipiant. Morbific. Peccant. Virulent. 
fei^tiferous. Mephitic. Deleterious. 

Ant. Wholesome. Genial. Beneficial. 
Sanative. Invigorative. Healthful. In- 
noxious. Restorative. Remedial. Hygeiaa. 

Polish, v. tr. Fr. polir, Lat. 

Syn. Burnish. Furbish. Levigate. 
AjiT. Abrade. Scratch. 

Polite, adj. Lat. polltus. See 


Stn. Elegant. Refined. Well-bred. 
Couiteous. Obliging. Complaisant. 

Ant. Awkward. Rude. Uncouth. Ill- 
bred. Discourteous. Boorish. Clownish. 

Politic, adj. Gr. nokiriKos, 
from TToXif, a city. Appertain- 
ing to state administration, or 

Stn. Prudent. Wise. Sagacious. Pro- 
vident. Diplomatic. 

Ant. Imprudent. Unwise. Improvi- 
dent. Undiplomatic. Impolitic. 

Pollute, v. tr. Lat. jwlluere,' 
2wUufiim. Used physically and 

Syn. Befoul. Taint. Poison. Corrupt. 
Tarnish. Stain. 

Akt. Purify. Qarify. Disinfect. Filter. 

Pollution, n. See Pollute. 


used for such exhibitions as avo 
excessive or misplaced. 

Stn. Magnificent. Gorgeous. Spler.liil 
Showy. Sumptuous. Ostentatious. Turgiil, 
Stiff. Inflated. Pretentious. Co.Kcombical. 

AxT. Unpretending. Unobtrusive. 

Modest. Unassuming. Plain-mannered. 

PONDXBABLE, adj. Lat. 2^0h- 

dus. Of appreciable weight. 

SvN. Appreciable. Determinable. Palp- 

Akt. Inappreciable. Indeterminable. 
Impalpable. Imponderable 

Ponderous, adj. See Ponder- 
able. Of great weight. 

Syn. Weighty. Bulky. Massive. Heavy. 
Ant. Light. Trifling. Airy. Volatile. 

Poor, adj. Fr. ixmvre, Lat. 
'pauper. The word is used in the 
broadest sense, as well-nigh 
synonymous with deficient in any 
requirement whatsoever. 

Syn. Indigent, Moneyless. Impecunious. 
Penniless. Weak. Jleagre. Insufficient. 
Deficient. Faulty. Unsatisfactory. In- 
considerable. Thin. Sciinty. Bald. 

Ant. Rich. Wealthy. Copious. Affluent. 
Abundant. Liberal. Large. Ample. 
Moneyed. Suffitieut. Satisfactory. Con- 

Poltroon, n. It. pdltrone, a 
lazy heggar, to which hjis been j Popular, adj. Lat. Beloug- 
_i i... „i- - ,..,1.,, ^^^ ^^ ^^^^ peojile, and hence 

added the character of cowardice. 

Stn. Scoundrel. Coward. Hoimd. Skulk. 

Ant. Hero. Philanthropist. Gentleman. 
Benetactor. Model. Example. 

Pommel, v. tr. It. pomo, a 
lump or knob. 

Stn. Beat. Thump. Baste. Thrash. 
Strike. Cudgel. 

Ant. Smoothe. Caress. Pat. Stroke. 

Pomp. See Pompons. 

Stn. Ostentation. Magnificence. Parade. 
Ceremony. Show. Splendour. Pageantry, 

Ant. Quiet Retirement. Simplicity. 
Unceremoniousness. Unadornmeut. I'rivacy. 

Pompous, adj. Gr. ■rro^nvr), a 
procession. Displaying pomp or 
grandeur of exhibition ; and often 

likely to find, or finding favoui' 
with the people. 

Syn. Common. Current. Vulgar. Public. 
Genera). Received. Favourite. Beloved. 

Ant. E?:cliisive. Restricted. Scientific. 
Exoteric. Unpopular. Odious. Detested. 

Populous, adj. See Popular. 
Full of i^eople. 

S\-N. Crowded. Dense. Swarming. 

Ant. Deserted. Thin. Scanty. Un« 
frequented. Unoccupied. Uninhabited. 

Porous, adj. Fr. poretcx, Lat. 
porus, a pore. 

Syn. Foraminous. Pervious. Per- 
meable. Percolablf. 

Ant. Impervio'i", Impermeabla. Im- 


Portable, adj. Lat. portare, 
to carry. 

SrN. Moveable. Handy. Manageable 

Ant. Ponderous. Immoveable. Awk- 
ward. Unmanageable. Unhandy. 

Portend, v. tr. Lat. porten- 
dtre, from protendere. 

Six. Indicate. Threaten. Prognosti- 
cate. Forbode. Augur. Presage. Herald. 

Ant. Contradict. Negative. Preclude 
Forefend. Nullify. Contravene. Avert. 

Portentous, adj. See Por- 
tend. Indicative of ill. 

Sin. Indicative. Suggestive. Threaten- 
ing. I^rophetic. Predictive. Ominous. 

Ant. Auspicious. Hopeful. Cheer- 
ing. Assuring. Animating. Encouraging. 

Portion, n. Lat. porth. See 

Portly, adj. From port, 
meaning carriage. 

Sra. Dignified. Burly. Imposing. 
Ant. Undignified. Unimposing. Mean. 

PORTEAT, V. tr. Fi'. piortraire, 
Lat. protrahere. 

Syn. Draw, Delineate. Represent. De- 

Ant. Misrepresent. Caricature. Mis- 

Pose, v. tr. Fr. poser, to place 
or bring to a stand. 

Sts. Puzzle. Perplex. Bewilder. Dumb- 
founder. Mystify. Embarrass. Daze 

Ant. EnUghten. Unmystify. Indoctri- 
nate. Initiate. 

Positive, adj. Lat. jmsitivus. 
Said of things and i)ersons. 

Stn. Real. Actual. Substantial. Ab 
solute. Independent. Unconditional. Ex 

Synonyms and Antonijms. 

elicit. Indisputable, Decisive. Express. 
Enacted. Assured. Confident. Direct. 
Dogmatic. Overbearing. 

Ant. Negative. Insubstantial. Unreal 
Fictitious. Imaginary. Relative. Con- 
tingent. Dependent. Conditional. Im- 
plied. Dubious. Questionable. Moral. 
Uncertain. Doubtful. Indirect. Occa- 
sional. Suspicious. 

Possess, v. tr. Lat. possidere. 

Stn. Occupy. Enjoy Have. Hold. 

Ant. Abandon. Renounce, -ib'ara 
Surrender. Lose. I'orfeit. Resign. ' 

Possession, v. See Possess. 
Possible, adj. Lat. p>otiihili8, 
posse, to he able. 

Stn. Practicable. Feasible. 
Ant. Impracticable. Impossible. 

Posterior, adj. Lat. 

Syn. Later. Subsequent. 
Ant. Earlier. Precedent. Antecedent, 

Posterity, n. See Posterior. 

Stn. Futurity. 
Ant. Ancestry. 

Postpone, v. tr. Lat. post, 
afterwards, ponere, to place. 

Stn. Defer. Delay. Prorogue. Pro- 

Ant. Expedite. Despatch. Accelerate, 

Postulate, v. tr. Lat. postu- 
lare, to demand, as something to 
be conceded without argument. 

SvN. Assume. Presuppose. 
Ant. Prove. Elaborate. Exemplify. 

Potent, adj. Lat. p)otens, from 
posse, to be able. 

Stn. Powerful. EfHcacious. Effective. 
Active. Strong. Energetic. 

Ant. Weak. Impotent. Inefficient 
Ineffective. Inactive. Fruitless. Inopera- 

Potential, adj. Lat. potentia, 
potentialis. A word especially 
of the scholastic pliilosophy. 

Stn. Possible. Implicit. Undeveloped. 
Germlnative. Immanent. Virtual. 

Ant. Actual. Explicit Developed. 
Objective. Real. Express 

Pound, v. tr. Ang. Sax. iriind, 
a fold or enclosure. 

Sni. Imprison. Cage. Coop. 

Ant. Discharge. Liberate. Release. 

Pound, v. tr. Ang. Sax. 
pwiian, to bruise. 

Sth. Beat. Bruise. Pulverize. Trltn- 

Amt. Soothe. Stroke. Amalgamate. 

Poverty. Fr. pauvrete, Lat. 
pauper tas. Applied to express 
want of wealth, and also defi- 
ciency, metaphorically, in any 

Sijnoni/ms and Antonyms. 


quality that emiches or adorns. 
,5ee Poor. 

Power, n. Fr. pouvoir, Lat. 
posse, It. potere. 

Stn. Faculty. Capacity. Capability. 
Potentiality. Ability. Strength. Force. 
Energy. Susceptibility, influence. Do- 
minion. Sway. Command. Government. 
Agency. Authority. Rule. Jurisdiction. 

Ant. Incapacity. Incapability. Im- 
potence. Inability. Weakness. Imbecility. 
Inertness. Insusceptibility. Sabjection. 
Powerlessness. Obedience. Subservience. 
Ineffectiveness . 

Pow^ERFUL, adj. See Power. 

Practicable, iuJj. Gr. Trpdr- 
Tfiv, to do, npaKTiKos, tcliich may 
be done. 

Syn. Possible. Feasible. Usable. 

Ant. Impossible. Impracticable. Un- 

Practice,". »SVe Practicable. 

Syn. Usage. Habit. Exercise. E.x- 
perlence. E.xercitatioii. Action. Per- 

Ant. Disuse. Dishabituation. Inex- 
perience. Theory. Speculation. Nonper- 

Pragmatical, adj. Gr. irpay- 
^lariKos, busy ; and now used in 
the unfavourable sense of over- 

Syn. Over-busy. Fussy. Consequential. 


OfBcious. Meddlesome. 

Ant. Reserved. Uninterfering. 
tant. Unconcerned. Inobtrusive. 
meddlesome. Inofficious. 

Praise, v. tr. Lat. pretium, 
iwetiare, to set a high price itpon 

in tcords. 

Stn. Eulogize. Laud. Commend. E.\tol. 
Applaud. Panegyrize. 

Ant. Blame. Censure. Discommend. 


Praise, n. See verb. 
Praiseworthy, adj. "Wortliy 
of praise. 

Syt?. Commendable. Laud.ible. Meri- 

AST. Blame.ible. Censureable. Repre- 

Preamble, n. 
/ore, and ambulare, to walk 

Stn. I'reface. Introduction. Exordium 

ANT. Close. Termination. Pcroratloa 
Finale. Conclusion. 

Precarious, adj. Preces, prayer. 
Uncertain, as if depending on an- 
other to grant . 

Syn. Hazardous. Perilous. Uncertain. 
Riskful. Unassured. 

Ant. Assured. Certain. Systematic 
Safe. Immutable. 

Precaution, n. Lat. pr(s, be- 
fore, and cavere, cautus, to be 
aware, or take care. 

Sru. Forethought. Provision. Pre- 
munition. Anticipation. Prearrangemeut. 
Care. Providence. 

Ant. Carelessness. Thoughtlessness. 

Precede, v. tr. and int. Lat. 
jrrcp, before, and cedere, to go. The 
] word is used abstractedly and 
1 relatively; that is, to express 
j either simple precedence, or pre- 
I cedence in relation to another or 
' others. 

I Stn. Lead. Introduce. Herald. Usher. 
I Head. 

Ant. Succeed. Follow. 

j Precedence, n. See verb. 

Syn. Superiority. Lead. Priority. Su- 
j premacy. Pre-eminence. 
\ Ant. Inferiority. Sequence. Subordi- 
'■ nation. Posterionty. 

i Precedent, adj. See Precede. 

Stn. Anterior. Prior. Earlier. 
j Ant. Subsequent. Post«rior. Later. 

i Precedent, n. The same 
word as the former, but with a 
different pronunciation for the 

; convenience of distinction. Some- 
thmg going before which may 

I serve as a warrant for another 

Stn. Instance. liample. Authority. 
Warrant. Antecedent. Pattern. 
' Ant. Prohibition. Dlswarrant. Dis- 

Precept, n. Lat. prcpceptum. 

I Sys. Rule. Maxim. Injunction. Con> 
T , ^7^ mandment. Doctrine. DirecUon. Law. 

Liat. P'O-, ft- , j^jjT. Sut'gestion. Prompting. lusU 
*^ «.,„n. gat'?n. Impulse. 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


Preceptoe, 11. See Precept. 

Stn. Master. Teacher. Pedagogue. 

Ant. Pupil. Learner. Scholar. Student. 

Peecincts, n. L&t. pnectnctiim, 
from proecingere, to gird about. 

Stn. Purlieus. Environs. Limit. 

Ant. Heart. Centre. Nucleus. 

Peecious, adj. Lat. pretiosus, 
from j^r^tium, price. 

Stn. Dear. Valuable. Costly. Cherished. 
Treasured. Beloved. 

Ant. Cheap. Valueless. 'Worthless. 
Unvalued. Disesteemed. Unappreciated. 

Precipitate, adj. See Pre- 
cipitous and Rash. 

Peecipitous, adj. Lat. proEcepa, 
headlong, from ^Jiw, and caput, the 

Stn. Steep. Headlong. Abrupt. Sheer. 

Ant. Shallow. Graduated. Inclined. 

Peecise, adj. Lat. pne, and 
cadere, prcecidere, to cut off, as if 
pruned of superfluities. 

Stn. Definite. Exact. Nice. Pointed. 
Accurate. Terse. Punctilious. Cere- 
monious. Fonnal. 

Ant. Indefinite. Vague. Inexact. 
Rough. Inaccurate. Loose. Circumlo- 
cutory. Ambagious. Tortuous. Informal. 

Pbecision, n. See Precise. 

Peeclude, v. tr, Lat. p?Ye- 
i:ludere, to shut out. 

Stn. Prevent. Obviate. Bar. 

Ant. Admit. Promote. Further. Ad- 

Peecocioits, adj. Lat. proi- 
■cox, from pra, before, and coquere, 
io cook or ripen. The -word differs 
from premature in being used 
more favourably, and of persons 
and not plans. 

Syk. Premature. Predeveloped. Over- 

Ant. Tardy. Backward. Slow-growing. 

Precognition, v. Lat. jn-a', 
he/ore, and cognitio, khou'hdge. 

Stn. Foresight. Foreknowlodgc 
I Ant. Reflection. Recollection. 

Preconception, n. Proe, he- 

\fore, and concuptio, from concipere, 
to conceive. Used of the faculty, 
and the object preconceived. 

Stn. Forethought. Anticipation. Fore- 

Ant. Copy. Portraiture. Observation, 
Vision. Representation. Delineation. 

Peeconcerted, adj. Arranged 
or concerted (Lat. conserere) be- 

SXN. I'rearranged. Concocted. I're- 
pared. Premeditated. 

Ant. Extemporized. Unpri-pared. Un- 
concocted. Unpremeditated. 

Peecuesor, «. Pro', be/ore, 
and cursor, a runner, from cursare, 
to run. Used of things as well 
as persons. 

Stn. Forerunner. Harbinger. Herald. 
Pioneer. Advance-guard. Cause. 

AUT. Follower. Consequent Result. 
Effect. Event. 

Precursory, wIJ. See Pre- 

Stn. Prevenient. Antecedent Intro- 
ductory. Pre£itory. Initiatory. Prior. 
Premonitory. Prognosticative. 

Ant. Subsequent. Consequent. Posterior. 
Entailed. Supervenient. Eventual. 

Predaceotjs, adj. Lat. pr<je~ 
dax, given to seizing ptrty, prceda, 
prey. It differs fi'om predatory, 
as expressing rather the disposi- 
tion of animals, wliile predatory 
exiDresses no more than the cha- 
racter of an incidental action, as, 
a j)redatory incursion or war. 

Stn. Ravenous. Rapacious. Carni- 

Ant. Innocuous. Herbivorous. Gra- 

Predecessor, n. Lat. 2^^'^> 
before, and decedere, to depart. 
One who withdi-aws from a 
locaUty, or a government oi 
place to make way for another. 

SvK. Ance^tor. Forerunner. Elder. 
I Ant. Posterity. Junior. Successor. 

Srjnomjms and Antonyms. 




Stn. Foreordainment. Foredoom. Ne- 
eossity. Fate. Election. Preordination. 

Akt. Free-will. Freedom. Volition. 
Choice. Spontaneity. 

Prediction, n. Lat. prccdi- 
ccre, to declare beforehand. 

Syn. Prophecy. Prognostication. Vati- 
cinition. Fore-announcement. Premon- 
etration. Foretelling. Furebodement. Pre- 
sagH'. Augury. Foreshowing. 

AST. Narration. Relation. History. 
Account. Report. 

Predilection, n. Lat. prce, 
hi'/ure, and diligere, to love. 

Syn. Prepossession. Preference. Lean- 
;rig. Liking. Fondness. Bias. Inclination. 
Predisposition. Tendency. 

Ant. Prejudice. Aversion. Indisposi- 
tin. Antipathy. Disinclination. Apathy. 

Predisposition, n. Lat. frai, 
'(■fore, and rlisponere, to dispose. 
Bee Predilection. 

Predominance, n. Free, be- 
fore, and Fr. dominant, from 
dominuf:, exeixising influence. 

Syn. Prevalence. Superiority. Ascend- 
ancy. Rule. 

Ant. Inferiority. Subjection. Minority. 

Pre-eminent, adj. Lat. prw, 
he/ore, and eminere, to he eminent. 

Stn. Paramount. Predominant. Egre- 
gious. Consummate. Prevailing. 

Ant. Subordinate. Inferior. Minor. 

Preface, n. Fr. preface, Lat. 
prcefari, to speak beforehand. 

Syn. Introduction. Proem. Prelude. 
Prologue. Preamble. Premiss. 

Ant. Peroration. Sequel. Appendix. 
Epilogue. Postscript. 

Prefatory, adj. See Preface. 

SvN. Introductory. Prelusive. Initia- 
tive. Preliminary. Antecedent Prevenient. 

Ant. Subsequent. Concluding. Ter- 
minal. Perorational. 

Prefer, ■«. ^r. 'LaX.proe,hefore, 
and ferre, to have or bear — 
cither externally, and so to pro- 
mote or put forward, or in- 

ternally, and so tc esteem before 

Syn. Choose. Elect. Select. I'ancy. 
Promote. Advance. 

Ant. Reject. Postpone. Defer. \Vlth- 
hold. Degrade. Depress. 

Preferment, n. See Prefer. 
Has, ecclesiastically, the senses 

Stn. Dignity. Promotion. Benefice. 
Ant. Degradation. Deprivation. Sus- 

Prefiguration, ?i. Lat. prce, 
before, ixiidfltjura, a figure . 
Syn. Type. Adumbration. 
Ant. Antitype. Fulfilment. 

Prefix, v. tr. Pre and fix. 

Syn. Preface. 

Ajjt. Append. Subjoin. Sufii.x. Sup- 
plement. Add. 

Pregnant, adj. Lat. pro's' 
nans, for prcegenans. Free, before, 
and genere, to beget. Used me- 
taphorically for fullness of a 
certain quality, meaning import 
and the lilie. 

Stn. Procreant. Generative. Prolific. 
Teeming. Significant. 

Ant. Sterile. Unproductive. Barren. 
Void. Meaningless. 

Pregnable, adj. See Pregnant. 
More commonly used in negative 
composition Impregnable. 

Stx. AVeak. Exposed. Expugna1)le. 

Ant. Impregnable. Inexpugnable. 

Prejudice, n. Lat. prce, ie- 
fore, and judicium, judgment. 
The forming a judgment "before 
trial or without it, and so used 
in an unfavourable sense of con- 
demning beforehand in one's 
own judgment, and hence in the 
derived general sense of harm. 

Syn. Prepossession. Predisposition. Biaa. 
Unfairness. Injury. Harm. Impairmeni. 
Detriment. Partiality. Disadvantage. 

Ant. Judgment. Fairness. Impartiality. 

Preliminary, adj. Lat. p^-oe, 
before, and limen, a threshold. 
Sym. Introductory, ftefatory. InitU* 


tory. Previous. Proemial. Precursive. 
Prelusory. Antecedent. Preparatory 

Ant. Subsequent. Consequent. Fol- 

Prklubi:, n. Lat. j5?-ce, hefore, 
and Indus, play. 

Stn. Introduction. Preparation. Pre- 
face. Proem. Prelusion. 

Akt. Sequel. Conclusion 

Peematuke, adj. Lat. pne, 
hifure, and mat urns, ripe. 

" SiTN. Hasty. Crude. Unaathenticated. 
Untimely. Precocious. Precipitate. 

Ant." Ripe. Timely. Seasonable. Op- 

Peemeditate, v. tr. Lat.j»'ce, 
hfore, and meditari, to meditate. 

SrN. Plan. Propose. Plot. Pre- 
arrange. Prepare. Precompose. Pre- 

Am. Extemporize. Hazard. 

Premise, v. tr. and int. Free, 
If/ore, and mittere, missus, Fr. 
mtttre, to place. To lay down a 
statement beforehand in refer- 
ence to some other. 

Stn. Announce. Fcrestate. Preface. 
Akt. Add. Append. Infer. Gather. 
Supplement. Subjoin. 

PP.EMI8BS, «. Jjai. 2'>r(fmissa. 
Things laid do^vn beforehand as 
the source of inference or by way 
of preamble. >bee Preamble. 

Stn. Antecedent. Ground. 
Ant. Consequent. Inference. Deduction. 

Premium, n. Lat. prcemium. 

Stn. Reward. Guerdon. Encourage- 
ment. Douceur. Enhmcemert. Bribe. 

Ant. Penalty. Fine. Amercement. 
Mulct. Forfeit. Depreciation. 

Peepaeation, n. See Prepare. 

Preparatory, adj. iSee Pre- 
pare and Preliminary. 

Prepare, v. tr. Lat. _?)'•«;, be- 
fore, and parare, to make ready. 

Stn. Fit. Adapt. Qual'iy. Adjust. 
Provide. Arrange. Order. Lay. Plan. 

Ant. Misfit. JMisadapt. Misprovide. 
Derange. Disarrange. Demolish. Subvert, 

Piusponderant, adj. See Pre- 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 

Preponderate, v. int. Pros, 
he/ore, and pondus, a weight. 
Stn. Predominate. Prevail. 
Ant. Fail. Sink. Succumb. 


adj. Prce, he- 
fore, and possidere, possessns, to 
possess. Used in a favourable 
sense only. 

Stn. Attractive. Alluring. Charming. 

Ant. Repulsive. Unattractive. Sinister. 

Prkpostkrous, adj. Prce, he- 
fore, and p)osterus, hehind. Lite- 
rally, having that fii'st wliich 
ought to be last, as in the pro- 
verb, * to put the cart before the 
horse ;' hence, generally, out ot 
due place. 

Stn. Monstrous. Exorbitant. Un- 
reasonable. Absurd. 

Ant. Just. Due. Fair. Reasonable. 
Moderate. Eight. Judicious. Orderly. 

Peeeogative, n. Prce, hefore, 
and rogctre, to ask. Politically, to 
ask or take votes. The tribe or 
century in the Soman public 
assemblies which was elected to 
give its vote first was calbd prai- 

SvN. Right. Privilege. 

Ant. Disqualification. Disfranchisement, 

Presage, h. Lat. 2^1'ctsaginm, 
from prcp, hfore, and say ire, tt 
trace or perceive acutely. 

Stn. Omen. Indication. Prognostic 

Ant. Fulfilment. Event. Occurrence. 

Prescribe, v. tr. Prce, htfore, 
and scribere, to write or delineate. 

Stn. Enjoin. Order. Impose. Recom- 
mend. Indicate. 

Akt. Inhibit. Prohibit. Discountena■^e. 

Prescription, n. See Pre- 
scribe. It has also the sense of 
I custom. 

I Presence, h. Lat. prccseniia, 
' frem prw, before, and esse, to le. 

Synonyms and Antonyms, 

It has the secondary meaning of 
carriage or demeauotir. 


Si-N. Nearness. Influence. Intercourse. 

Ant. Remoteness. Absence. Separation. 

Present, adj. See Presence. 

Stn. See Presence. 

Presentation, «. Lat. pne- 
sentare. A placing in the pre- 
sence of another by way of intro- 
duction or gift. 

Stn. Introduction. Exhibition. Offer. 
Delivery. Gift. Donation. Bestowal. Grant. 

Ant. Withdrawal. Removal. Conceal- 
ment. Suppression. Retention. With- 
holding. Refusal. Nonpresentatlon. 

Presentiment, n. Free, he- 
fore, and sent ire, to perceive or 
feel. A feeling not definable of a 
coming event. 

Syn. Foreboding. Foretaste. Fore- 
thought Prescience. Forecast. 

Ant. Surprise. Inexpectancy. Miscal 

Preservation, n. Lat. jproe 
and servare, Fr. preservation. 

SvN. Safety. Security. Conservation. 
Integrity. Protection. Nurture. Guardian- 
ship. Care. 

Ant. Abandonment. Exposure. Peril, 
Insecurity. Impairment. Infringement. 
Injury. Damage. 

President, n. Lat. pros, he- 
fore, and severe, to sit. One who 
sits before others or over them, 
in an assembly. 

Syn. Chairman. Moderator. Principal. 

Ant. Member. Subordinate. Consti- 
tuent. Corporation. Society. Ward. In- 

Press, v. tr. and int. Lat, 
previere, pressus. Used literally 
and metaphorically, 

Stn. Urge. Crowd. Compel. Force. 
Squeeze. Cmsh. Compress. Express. 
Constrain. Hurry. Instigate. liiculcate. 
Impress. Throng. Encroach. Lean. 
Weigh. Harass. 

Ant. Relax. Inhibit. Persuade. En- 
tice. Allure. Solicit. Touch, Skim. 
Graze. Free. Liberate. Ease. Avoid, 

Pressing, adj. See Press. 

Syn. Urgent. Compulsory, importu- 

Ant. Unimportant. Slight. 'i'riviaL 

Pressure, n. See Press. 

Presume, v. tr. and int. Lat. 
2Jra', be/ore, and sumere, to taJce. 

Syn. Suppose. Anticipate. Apprehend. 

Ant. Infer. Deduce. Prove. Argue 
Retire. Withdraw. Hesitate. Distrust. 

Presumption, n. See Pre- 

Syn. Anticipation. Supposition. Hy- 
pothesis. Probability. Assumption. Un- 
derstanding. Condition. Concession. For- 
wardness. Arrogance. Audacity. Bold- 

Ant. Proof. Deduction Inference. 
Demonstration. Verification. Fact. Cer- 
tainty. Modesty. Diffidence. Backward- 
ness. Bashfulness. Hesitation. 

Presumptive, adj. See Pre- 
sume. Used of evidence. 

Syn. Probable. Antecedent. 
Ant. Demonstrative. Established. 

Presuppose, v. tr. Prce, he- 

forehiind, and siqiponere. 

Syn. Presume. Assume. Postulate, 

Ant. Prove. Establish. Infer. Deduce. 
Argue. Demonstrate. 

Pretence, n. Sp. pretei^sa, 
Lat. prce, before, and tendere, to 
advance or stretch. Something 
put forward as a false ground of 

Syn. Excuse. Pretext. Fabricatioiu 
Simulation. Cloak. .Mask. Colour. Show 

Ant. Verity. Reality. Troth. Sim- 
plicity. Candour. Guilelessness. Open 
ness Veritableness. Actuality. Fact. 

Pretend, v. tr. and int. See 

Stn. Feign. Simulate. Offer. Allege. 
Exhibit. Propovmd. Affect. 

Ant. Verily. Unmask. Detect. Test 
Substantiate. Refute. 

Pretender, n. See Pretend. 
Pretension, n. See Pretend. 
Pretext, n. Lat. pnttextum, 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

from prce, tefore, and texere, to 
■Mmve. See Pretence. 

Prevailing, adj. Free and 
valere, to amdl, 

Stn. ControllinR. Ruling. Influential. 
Operative. Piedoniinant. 

Ant. Mitigated. Diminishing. Subor- 
dinate. Powerless. 

Peevalence, n. See Prevail- 

Sto. Custom. Power. Influence. 
Operation. Extension. Predominance. 

Ant. Disuse. Desuetude. Obsoletenes.'. 
Decay. Evanescence. Disappearance. 

Mitigation. Diminution. Subsidence. Sub- 
jection. Subordination. Collapse. Aban- 
donment. Abolition. 

Prevaricate, v. int. Free and 
varicare, to straddle. To play a 
double and dishonest part, as if 
walking on two levels, or collud- 
ing with mutually hostile parties. 
A term of the old civil law. 

Stn. Shuffle. Quibble. Equivocate. 


Ant. Affirm, 


Prevenient, adj. Pro;, he- 
fore, and venire, to come. 

Stn. Preliminary. Prefatory. Antece- 
dent. Initiatory. Introductory. 

Ant. Subsequent. Consequent. Fol- 
lowing. Attending. 

Prevent, v. tr. Free, he/ore, 
and venire, ventus, to come. Of 
old meant to go before to pre- 
pare the way, now to obstruct it. 

Stn. Hinder. Obstruct. Bar. Neutra- 
lize. Nullify. Thwart. Intercept. Anti- 
cipate. Forefend. 

Ant. Promote. Aid. Facilitate. Ex- 
pedite. Encourage. Advance. Accelerate. 
Induce. Cause. Produce. 

Prevention, n. See Prevent. 

Previous, adj, 
and via, a ruay. 

Stn. Antecedent. Prior. Preceding. 
Anterior. Foregoing. Former. Earlier. 

Ant. Subsequent. Posterior. Succeed- 
ing. Following. Later. 

Prbt, n. Lat. pronda. 

Stn. Spoil. Booty. Plunder. ILapiSA 
Paiage. Victim. Seizure. Loot. 
Ant. Earnings. Dues. Rights. 

Prick, n. Lat. pretium. 

Stn. Cost. Figure. Charge. Expense. 
Compensation. Value. Appraisement. 

Ant. Donation. Discount. Allowance. 
Remittance. Abatement. 

Priceless, adj. See Price. 

Stn. Inestimable. Invaluable. 
Ant. Cheap. Valueless. 

Pride, n. Ang. Sax. pryta, pn/t. 

Sns. Loftiness. Haughtiness. Lordli- 
ness. Self-exaltation. 

Ant. Lowliness. Meekness. Modesty 

Priggish, adj. Like a prig. 

SrN. Coxcombical. Dandified. Foppish. 
Affected. Prim. 

Ant. Plain. Sensible. Unaffected. 
Simple-minded. Simple-mannered. 

Prim, adj. Der. uncertain. 

Stn. Formal. Precise. Demure. 
Starched. Stiff. Self-conscious. Unbend- 
ing. Priggish. 

Ant. Unformal. Easy. Genial. Un. 
affected. Natural Free. Naive. 

Primary, adj. Primarius, 
from primus, first. 

Stn. First. Original. Earliest. Ele. 
mentary. Chief. Principal. Important. 

Ant. Secondary. Subordinate. Posterior 
Unimportant. Inferior. Subsequent. Later. 

Prime, n. Lat ^j?'mi(s. Ex- 
pressive of a fii-st or foremost 
stage of excellence. 

Stn. Zenith. Culmination. Perfection. 
Dawn. Spring. Cream. Flower. 

Ant. Decadence. Wane. Evening. R^ 
fuse. Winter. Decay. 

Prime, adj. See above. 

Stn. Excellent. Superexcellent, First- 
rate. Perfect. Consummate. 

Ant. Inferior. impaired. Waning. 
Deteriorated. Ordinary. Second-rate. lie- 

Primeval, adj. Primus, first, 
Free, before, j and cevu7n, aye. 

I Stn. Archaic. Primordial. Indigenous. 
Ai;tochthonic Aboriginal. Pristine. 

Ant. Subsequent. Recent Modonj, 
Imported. Adventitious. 

Pbimitive, adj. Frimits, firsi 
or early. Belonging to an early 

Asseverate. Maintain 

Si/hjni/ms and Antoiii/ms. 



or past ago, but restricted to Private, adj. See Privacy. 

matters of morals or custom. Peivation n Lat 

Sra. Olii-fashioned. I'limeval. Quaint. , , • ^ » ' 

Simple. Uiisuphisticated. Archaic. Pris- tO deprive. 

tiue. Sim. Deprivation. Destitution. Al>sonce. 

Ant. Modern. New-fangled. Sophis- Negation. Loss. Bereavement, 

ticated. llodish. Ant. Accession. Supply. Restoration. 

. „ . Benefaction, llestitution. Presence. Com* 

Primordial, adj. rrtm.HS, pensatlon. Recovery. Privilege. 

and oriri, to spring. See Pri- 

Princely, adj. Lat. princepa. 

Stn. Imperial. Munificent. Magnifi- 
cent. Superb. August. Regal. Royal. 

A:nt. Begc;arly. Mean. Niggardly. 

Principal, adj. Lat. princi- 

Sys. Highest. First. Main. Leading. 
Chief. Primary. Foremost. Pre-eminent. 

Ant. Inferior. Subordinate. Secondary. 
Supplemental. Subject. Auxiliary. Minor. 

Principle, n. Lat. princi- 
pium, a rendering of the word 
dpxn, a term of the Greek phi- 

Stn. Source. Origin. Motive. Cause. 
Energy. Substance. Element. Power. 
Faculty. Truth. Tenet. Law. Doctrine. 
Axiom. Maxim. Postulate. Rule. 

AsT. Exhil)ition. Manifestation. Appli- 
cation. Development. Issue. Exercise. 
Operation. Formation. Action. 

Prior, adj. Lat. /o?'??ier. See 

Prismatic, adj. Appertain- 
ing to, or, in its common sense, 
formed by a prism, from Trpla-fia, 
Lat. prisma, something cut or sawn 
■into faces, irpiCei-v, to saw. 

Svx. Iridescent. Opalescent. Polychro- 

A_NT. Achromatic. Colourless. 

Pristine, adj. Lat. from ob- 
solete pris, whence prior. See 
Primeval and Primitive. 

Privacy, n. Lat. ^'rjVws, ^n- 

Sts'. Retirement. Secrecy. Solitude. 
Seclusion. Retreat. 

A>T. P^b'icity. Currency. Notoriety. 

Privilege, n. Lat. prioile- 

Syn. Prerogative. Immunity. Frano 
chise. Right. Liberty. 

A>T. Disfranchisement. Disqualification. 
Exclusion. Prohibition. Inhibition. 

Privy, adj. See Private. 

Prize, n. Fr. prise, from pris, 
part, of prendi-e, to take or seize. 
Something seized or carried oflF, 
whether unlawfully, as booty, or 
the reward of successful effort 
or competition. 

Stn. Booty. Spoil. Plunder. Prey. 
Forage. Trophy. Laurels. Guerdon. Pre- 
mium. Honours. Ovation. Palm. 

Ant. Loss. Forfeiture. Fine. Pen.alty. 
Amercement. Sacrifice. Disappointment. 
Failure. Brand. Stigma. Infamy. Mulct 

Probability, ». Lat. proha» 

Stn. Likelihood. Presumption. Veri- 
similitude. Chance. 

Ant. Unlikelihood. Improbability. Im- 
possibility. Xnconceivableness. 

Probable, adj. See Proba« 

Probation, n. Lat. probatio, 
probare, to prove. 

Stn. Essay. Examination. Test Trial. 
Experiment. Proof. Criterion. Touch- 
stone. Ordeal. Verification. 

AxT. Licence. Irresponsibility. Nod- 

Probe, v. tr. Lat. probare, to 

Stn. Prove. Test Scrutinize. Verify. 
Investigate. Examine. Search. Sift Ex- 

.\NT. Skim. Mislnvestigato. BlinJt. 
Misexamine. Slur. Miss. Gloss. 

Probity, n. Lat. probitas. 

Stn. Soundness. Virtue. Integrity, 
Honesty. Uprightness. Rectitude. Prta- 
dple. Conscientiousness. 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

Ant. Dishonesty. Disintegrity. Un- 
Bonndness. Vice. Unconscienliousness. 
Roguery. Rascality. 

Problematical, adj. Pro- 
blem. Gr. irpo, forward, and 
BaKKdv, to cast or place. 

SrN. Dubious. Questionable. Uncer- 

Ant. Evident. Obvious. Self-evident. 
Certain. Demonstrable. 

Proceed, v. int. Lat. proce- 
dere, to go forward. 

Stn. Move. Pass. Advance. Progress. 
Continue. Issne. Arise. Kmanate. Flow. 

Ant. Recede. Deviate. Retreat. Stand. 
Stop. Stay. Desist. Discontinue. Ebb. 

Proceeding, n. See Proceed. 

Stn. Step. Measure. Transaction. Pro- 
cedure. Conduct. Behaviour. Action. 

Ant. Abandonment. Desistence. De- 
viation. Discontinuance. Inaction. 

Procession, n. See Proceed. 
A fixed and orderly proceeding 
or movement of wore than one. 

Stn. Train. JNIarch. Caravan. File. 

Ant. Rabble. Herd. Rush. Disorder. 

Mob. Confusion. Rout. 

Proclaim, v. tr. Lat. proda- 
mare, to call out. 

Syn. Annotmce. Publish. Promulgate. 
Declare. Enunciate. 

Ant. Repress. Conceal. Silentlate. 
Obliviate. Secrete. 

Proclamation, n. See Pro- 

Proclivity, n. Lat. procli- 
vitas, proclivis, 2»'07ie. 

Stn. Tendency. Propensity. Bias. Gravi- 
tation. Disposition. Inclination. Prone- 


Procrastination, «. Lat pro, 
for, and eras, to-morrow. The 
"habit of putting off to the mor- 
row, or indefinitely. 

Syn. Dilatoriness. Delay. 
Akt. Timeliness Puuctuality. Promp- 
titude. Alacrity. 

Procure, v. tr. Lat. procu- 

SiTf. Acquire. Provide. iain. Qet 
Contrive. Effect. 

Ant. Miss. Lose. Forfeit Mlsprovide. 

Prodigal, adj. Lat. prodigere, 
from 'pro, and agere, to drive or 
throw forivard or aivay. 

Syn. Lavish. Profuse. Extravagant. 
Reckless. Wasteful. Squandering. 

Ant. Frugal. Saving. Hoarding. Eco- 
nomical. Niggardly. Miserly. Close. 

Prodigious, adj. Lat. prodi- 
giwm, a prodigy. 

Stn. Marvellou'?. Portentous. Won- 
derful. Astounding. Enormous. Mon- 
strous. Amazing. 

Ant. Ordinary. Common-place. Every- 
day. Usual. Familiar. Moderate. 

Prodigy, ?;. See Prodigious. 

Produce, v. tr. Lat. prodn- 

Stn. Exhibit. Bear. Furnish. Afford. 
Cause. Create. Originate. Yield. Extend. 
Prolong. Lengthen. 

Ant. Withdraw. Retain. Stifle. With- 
hold. Neutralize. Destroy. Annihilate. 
Curtail. Shorten. Contract, Reduce. 

Product, n. See Produce. 

Stn. Fruit. Result. Issue. 
quence. Effect. Emanation. Work. 

Ant. Cause. Principle. Power. Mo- 
tive. Energy. Operation. Action. Ten- 
dency. Law. 

Productive, adj. See Pro- 

Stn. Fruitful. Prolific. Fertile. Effi- 
cient. Causative. 

Ant. Unfruitful. Barren. Sterile. Un« 
productive. Inefficient. Effete. 

Proemial. adj. Gr. ■Trpooifiioi', 
from 77-po, before, and oifios, a 
rvay. Something which leads 
the way ; a preface or introduc- 
tion. See Prefatory. 

Profane, adj. Pro, forth, and 
fmuni, a temple. Not dedicated 
to the service of any god or 
temple ; hence unconsecrated, 
and, finally, unholy. 

Sra. Unconsecrated. Secular. Tenip"- 
ral. Unsanctitied. Unholy. Irreligious 
Irreverent. Ungodly. Wicked. Godlei; 
.'vmpioos Blasphcmoos. 

Act. Holy. Consecrated. Sacred. Spi- 
ritual. Sanctified. Keverent. Religious. 
Godly. Pious. Pevout. 

Profess, v. tr. Lat. profiteri, 
fessus. To declare on one's own 
behalf, whether sincerely or in- 

St». Declare. Avow. Acknowledge. 
Own. Confess. Pretend. Proclaim. 

AST. Conceal. Suppress. Disown. Dis- 
avow. Repudiate. Renounce. Abjure. 

Proffer, v. tr. Lat. proferre, 
to hrincf fonuard. 

Stn. Offer. Propose. Tender 
Akt. Withhold. Detain. 

Proficienct, n, Jj&i. proficere, 
to make progress. 

SrN. Success. Advancement. Progress. 
Improvement. Forwardness. 

Ant. Failure. Backwardness. Unsuc- 
cess. Tardiness. Relapse. 

Proficient, n. See Profi- 

Syn. Adept, blaster. Expert. 

Ant. Tyro. Novice. Ignoramus. Dunce. 

Proficient, adj. See noini. 

Stn. E.xpert. Clever. Practised. Skilled. 
Trained. Versed. Advanced. Conversant. 

Ant. Backward. Ignorant. Unskilled. 
Inconversant. Ill-versed. Awkward. Clumsy. 

Profit, n. See Proficiency. 

Stn. Gain. Emolument. Advantage. 
Avail. A-c<iuisition. Benefit. 

Ant. Loss. Detriment. Damage. Dis- 
advantage. Waste. 

Profitable, adj. See Profit. 

Stn. Gainful. Advantageous. Desir- 
able. Beneficial. Useful. Productive. Re- 

Ant. Unprofitable. Disadvantageous. 
Undesirable. Detrimental. Unbeneficial. 
Unprofitable. Useless. Vain. FruiUess. 
Unproductive. Unremunerative. 

Profitless, adj. See Profit- 

PrOFLIGACT, n. Lat profligare, 
from 2'>^'o a:ad Jligere, to strike or 
throw forivard or away. A reck- 
less casting away of what is right 
and good. 

Snf. Shamelessness. Dissoluteness. De- 
ji'avity. Reprobation. 

Ant. Virtue, ftobity. Integritv Prin- 
flpls. Conscientiousness. 

nfynonym& and Antomjms. 305 

Profligate, adj. Sec Profli- 


Profound, adj. Lat. profun- 
dus. Used physically and me- 

Stn. Deep. Fathomless. Abysmal. 
Fanetrating. Intimate. 

Ant. Shallow. Superficial. 

Profuse, udj. Lat. profusus, 
pro, and fundrre,fusuf;, to pour. 

Stn. Copious. Lavish. Prodigal. Boun- 
tiful. Extravagant. Exuberant. 

Ant. Scanty. Sparing. Chary. Parsi- 
monious. Niggardly. Churlish. Poor. 

Profusion, «. See Profuse. 

Stn. Copiousness Prodigality. Abun- 
dance. Exuberance. Extravagance. Mul- 
titude. Mass. Heap. Load. Flood. 

Ant. Scarcity. Economy. Poverty 

Parsimony. Drain. Dole. Driblet. Pit- 

Progeny, n. Lat. progenies. 

Stn. Offspring. Young. Issue. Scion. 
Offshoot. Descendants. Posterity, 
Ant. Stock. Parentage. Ancestry. 

Prognostic, n. Gr. ■npoyvuxr- 
TtKoy, from Tvpo, hefore, and yty- 
vaxTKeiv, to know. 

.Stn. Sign. Indication. Symptom. Pre- 
monition. Harbinger. Token. Presage. 
Signal. . , 

Ant. Result. Reminder. Memorial. 
Record. Register. Misindicatlon. Mis- 

Prognosticate, v. tr. See 

Stn. Foretell. Presage. Predict. Indi- 
cate. Betoken. 

Ant. Record. Register. Recal. Re- 
member. Note. Rehearse. 

Programme, «. From. Gr. 

irpo, before, and ypdfifia, a zvriting. 

Stn. Advertisement. Notice. Plan. 

Ant. Review. Eehearsal. Repetition. 
Resiime. Analysis. Precis. 

Progress, n. Lat. progressus, 
fvom progredioi progressus, to ad- 

Sto. Advancement. Advance. Move- 
ment. Proceeding. Way. Journey. Pro. 
ficiency. Speed. Growth. 

Ant. Delay. Stoppage. Retreat, Stay 
Retrogression. Failure. RelapB<>. 


Synonyms a:id Antonyms. 

Proorkss, v. int. S'-e noiii'. 
Peogeession, n. /Ste Pxo- 

Sra. Series. Gradation. Rate. 
Ant. Inversion. Dimiuutiou. 

Peohibit, V. tr. Lat. prolii- 
hare, Itihitiis. 

Stn. Forbid. luterdict. Debar. Dis- 
allow. Inhibit. 

Ant. Permit. Ortant. Allow. Sanc- 

Prohibition, n. See verb. 

Project, v. tr. and int. Lat. 
'projlcere, jedus, jacpre, to cast. 

Syn. Throw. Cast. Hurl. Propel. 
Propound. Intend. Forecast. Jut. E.x- 
lend. Reach. Bulge. 

Ant. Recal. Withdraw. Draw. Re- 
tract. Pull. Attract. Rebound. Recoil. 
>\aduce. Revert. Rebate. 

Project, n. See verb. 

Stn. Plan. Purpose. Design. Scheme. 
ANr. Hazard. Chance. Venture. 

Projectile, ii. See Project. 

Stn. Missile. 

Ant. Weapon. Side-arras. Hand-arms. 

Projection, n. See Project. 

Syk. Protuberance. Prominence. Con- 
vexity. Propulsion. Emission. 

Ant. Recess. Cavity. Concavity. Re- 
turn. Indentation. Hollow. Attraction. 
Recoil. Relwund. Ricochet. Reaction. 

Prolific, adj. Fr. proUfique, 
Lat. proles, offspring, and facere, 
to make or p)rodii.ce. See Produc- 

Prolix. Lat. ^j?o, and laxns, 

Syn. Diffuse. Lengthy. Tedious. Cu:- 
cumlociitory. Prosaic. 

Ant. Condensed. Terse. Epigramma- 
tic. CLu-t. Brief. Luconic. 

Prolong, v. tr. Lat. prolan- 
(j(iri>, from langns, long. 

Stn. Lengthen. Extend. Protract. Con- 

Ant. Curtail. Shorten. Contract. Dis- 

Prominent, adj. Lat. proiy^i- 
rwns, part, oi prominere. 

Sym. Jutting. Protuberant. Relieved. 
Embossed. Extended. Manifest. Con- 
^pl'.•uous. Kminent. Iiistingulshed. Main. 

Important. Leading. CharactiTlstic. l**.* 

Ant. Receding. Concave. Rebated. In- 
dented. Hollowed. Engraved. Intailed. 
Withdrawn. Inconspicuous. Minor. Sub- 
ordinate. Secondary. Unimportant. In- 
distinctive. Undistinguishable. 

PEOMiscnotrs, adj. Lat. pro- 
miscuus, from p)ro, and viiscere, 
to mix. 

Stn. Mingled. Confused. Undistin- 
guished. Unselected. Unarranged. Undis- 
tributed. Unassorted. Common. Unre- 
served. Casual. Disorderly. Unordered. 

Ant. Sorted. Select. Orderly. Arranged. 
Distributed. Reserved. Assorted. Exclu- 
sive. Nice. 

Promise, v. tr. Lat. p^i'omit- 
tere, jnissus. To engage by word 
of mouth, as distinguished from 
a bond. 

Stn. Engage. Assure. 

Ant. Covenant. Pledge. Stipulate. 

The word is also used intran- 
sitively, as, ' the thing promises 
well ;' and when transitive, has 
either a single or a double accu- 
sative, as, ' to promise a person,' 
' to promise a thing,' and ' to pro- 
mise a person a thing.' 

Promontory, «. Lat. promon^ 
torium, pro, and moiis, a moun- 

Stn. Headland. Jutland. Cape. 
Ant. Bay. Cove. Recess. 

Promote, v. tr. Lat. promo- 
vere, motus. 

Stn. Aid. Further. Advance. Excite 
Exalt. Raise. Elevate. Prefer. 

Ant. Discourage. Repress. Hinder 
Check. Allay. Depress. Degrade. Dis 

Promotion, n. See Promote. 

Prompt, adj. Lat. promptus^ 
part. oip)romere, to bring forth, tc 
bring to light or to view. 

Stn. Ready. Alert. Responsive Ac- 

Ant. Unready. Sluggish. Irresponsive. 

Peomptitudb, r?. »S'ee Prompt 

Stn. Readiness. Quickness. Akrtriee*. 
Alacrity. Activity. 

Akt. Unreadiness. Sluggishness. Ina» 
tiou. Inertness. Tardiiiess. UedUtioo. 

Synomjms and Antonyms. 


Pboktjlgate, v. fr. Corrupted 
for provuhjate. Lat. pro, and 
vuh/Hi^, the common p>eople. The 
etj-niology is seen in the synonym 

Stn. Divulge. Announce. Publish. 
Spread. Propound. Disseminate. 

Ant. Repress. ConceaL Suppress. 
.\ifle. Hush. Burke. Discountenance. 

Peone, arlj. Lat. pronus, 
2eaiiin<:i forycird. 

Stn. i)i.>posed. Inclined. Bent. Tend- 
ing. Apt. 

Ant. Indisposed. Disinclined. Unapt. 

Pronounce, v. tr. Lat. 2^^^^ 
nuntiare, nuntiua, a messenger. 

Snf. Articulate. Utter. Declare. Pro- 
pound. Deliver. Assert. Ailirm. 

Ant. Mispronounce. Mispropound. dis- 
affirm. Suppress. Stifle. Silence. Choke. 
S^vallow. Gab))le. Mumble. 

Pronunciation, n. See Pro- 

Proof,??. Old Fx. prove, 'L&i. 
j^rohare, to prove. 

Srs. Test. Trial. Examination. Cri- 
terion. Essay. Establishment. Comproba- 
tJon. Demonstration. Evidence. Testi- 
mony. Scrutiny. 

Ant. Disproof. Failure. Invalidity. 
Short-coming. Fallacy. Undemonstrative- 
ness. Reprobation. 

Prop, n. Dutch projypen, to 
thrust. Staff. 

SrN. Support. Stay. Buttress. Shore. 
Strut. Pin. 

Ant. Superstructure. Superincumbency. 
Top-weight. Gravitation. Extirpation. 
Subverter. Destroyer. 

Propagate, v. tr. and int. 
Lat. pjropagare. 

Sin. Breed. Generate. Produce. Ori- 
ginate. Spread. Extend. Expand. Dis- 
seminate. Diffuse. Increase. Multiply. 
Promulgate. Propound. Broach. 

AST. Extinguish. Strangle. Stifle. 
Neutralize. Reduce. Contract. Suppress. 
Diminish. Fail. Dwindle. Die. Contra- 

Propel, v. tr. Lat. propellere, 
to drive forward. 

Snr. Hurl. Project. Drive. Urge. 
ANT. Retard. DetAin. Withhold. 

Propensity, n. Lat. p}opcn- 
sus, pi-oprndere, to hang forward. 
See Proclivity, 

Proper, culf. Lat. proprii's. 
Literally that which is one's own ; 
hence, secondly, that which is 
]ieculiarly, and, lastly, that 
which is generally, fitting. 

Stk. Peculiar. Appertinent. Personal. 
Own. Constitutional. Special. Befitting. 
Ailapted. Suited. Suitable. Appropiiatc. 
Right, Decent. Becoming. 

Ant. Common. Iiiappi>rtinent. Alien. 
Universal. Non-special. Unbefitting. Un- 
adapted. Unsuited. Unsuitable. Inappro- 
priate. Wrong. Indecent. Unbecoming. 

Prophetic, adj. Gr. irpocprjTrii. 
Not so much a foreteller of events 
as a speaker on behalf of another, 
from 7rpo(pdvai, to sjvak forth, as 
on behalf of some god. 

Srx. Predictive. Ominous. Portent.i.s. 
Premonitory. Fatidical. Oracular, ^ibyi 

Ant. Historic. Narrative. C'hronic\sl. 
Recorded. Recitative. Commemorative. 

Propinquity, n. Propinqiaib. 
from prope, near. 

Stn. Nearness. Pftximity. Contignitj 

Ant. Distance. Remoteness. Longittide. 

Propitiate, v. tr. Propitius, 
favourahh. To make favottrabla 

Stn. Conciliate. Secure. Appease. 
Win. Reconcile. 

Ant. Exasperate. Alienate. Estrange. 

Propitious, adj. See Propi- 
tiate. Applied to pei-sons and 

SrN. Timely. Favourable. Auspicious. 
Beneficial. Friendly. Well-dispof-d. 

Ant. Untimely. Untoward. Unseason- 
able. Unfavourable. Inauspicious. Un- 
friendly. Hostile. Antagonistic. Adverse. 
Ill-disposed. Unpropitious. 

Proportion, n. Lat. pro, and 
portio, a sitare. 

Stn. Adaptation. Relation. Rate. Dis- 
tribution. Adjustment. Symmetrj-. In- 
terrelationship. Uniformity. Correlation, 

Aht. Misproportion. Mis*ljustmeiitj 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 


Incongruity. Disparity. Disharmony. Dis- 
order. Lrrelation, Disproportion. 

Snr. Denounce. Condemn. Reject. !&' 

AvT. Permit Sanction. Enconrag* 
Peoposal, n. Lat. proponere. . Enjoin. 

to propose. 

Syv. Offer. Overture. Tender. Sug^ 

Prose, n. See Prosaic. 

Prosecute, v. tr. Lat. prose- 
:. wunboiQing »v iinaraw^au r.«. j ■ gg^„ti,s^ The racUcal idea of 

tention. Reticence. Dissuasive. Warning. ' ' . . 

Prohibition ' the word IS, to follow out. Tins 

P.O.OS., .. ,r. S.e Propo^l. ;S„Jras'a''SS! t "^t 
Proposition,??. .See Proposal, quiry, or a person, for the sake 

In addition to the sense of pro- of bringing him, as an offender. 

posal, this word has that of- 

Stn. Statement. .\£Brmation. Declara- 
tion. Sentence. 

A>T. Misstatement. Interjection. BabeL 
Jargon. Sound. Riddle. I'aradox. 

>S'ee Pro- 




Stx. Propose. Promulgate. Express. 
Declare. Maintain. Advocate. Propagate. 

Ant. Kepress. Suppress. Contradict. 
Withdraw. Repudiate. Renounce. Ab- 
jure. Recal. P^tract. 

Propriety, n. See Proper. 

Prorogation, n 


ward, and rvf/are, to asl-, to ask 

to justice. 

Stn. Follow. Pursue. Investigate. 
I Conduct. Summon. Arraign. 

Ant. Drop. Discontinue. Abandon, 
^lisconduct. ilisinvestigaie. Miss. Libe- 
I rate. Exonerate. Acquit. 

! Prosecution, n. See Prose- 

Proselyte, n. Gr. irpoay]- 
\vTOi. Literally, a comer to or 
comer over; that is, from one 
religion to another. 

Srs. Convert. Catechumen. Neophyte. 
Akt. Misbeliever. Infidel. Habitue. 
See Pro- Pi'l^''- '''■°P- Buttress. 

Prospect, n. Ijni. prospectus, 

„ . \a look out, from prospiccre, to 
tr. Pro, for- ] ^^^j, ^^^^_ 

Syk. View. Vision. Field. Landscape! 

votes. To defer the voting day. ] Hope. Anticipation. Probability. 

Si-x. Adjourn. Postpone. Deter 
Ant. Convene. Continue. 
Expedite. Despatch. 

Prosaic, adj. Having the 
character of prose (prorsa oratio, 
straight/ortuard speech) in an ex- 

AsT. Viewlessness. Dimness. Ohscu- 
Prolong rity. Darkness. Cloud. Veiling. Occulta- 
tiou. Hopelessness. Improbability. 

Sto. Dull. Matter-of-fact. Tedious. 

Akt. Poetic. Animated. Interesting. 

Lively. Fervid. Eloquent. Graphic 

Proscribe, v. tr. Pro and 
scrihere, to write. The sense of 
this word is derived from the 
ancient Roman custom of wTiting , -. 
up in pubhc the names of those | P^^"^' 
persons who were sentenced to ' '^ 

Prospectus, n. See Prospect. 

SvN. Programme. Plan. CaUlogue. 
Announcement. Bill. Scheme. Compett- 

Ant. Subject. Transaction. Proceed- 
ing, &c. 

Prosperity, «. Lat. prosper, 
and prospcrus, from pro, accord- 
ing to, and spes, hope. 

Srs. Success. WeaL Welfare. 
A.NT. Unsuccess. Woe. Adversity. 
Fixilure. Reverse. 

PiiOSPEROUS, adj. See Pros- 

Pbostbate, adj. Lat. pro*- 
ternere, prostratus, to throw dcum. 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


8tk. Vallen. Rat. Procumbent. Life- 
less. Ruined. 

Ant. Risen. Vertical. Erect. Up- 
right. Reiiivigoratei Revived. Restored. 

Prostration, n. See Pros- 

Protect, v. tr. Protegere,pro- 
tectus, to cover over, or throw a 
shield or other guard before. 

Stn. Defend. Fortify. Guard. Sbield. 
Preserve. Cover. Secure. 

AiJT. Betray. Endanger. Imperil. 
Abandon. E.xpose. 

Protection, n. See Protect. 

Protector,??. /See Protect. 

Protest, v. int. When used 
transitively, it is followed by the 
prej). against. 

SrN. Expostulate. Remonstrate. De- 
nounce. Repudiate. Deprecate. 

Ant. Acquiesce. Coincide. Sanction. 
Subscribe. Endorse. Agree. 

Protract, v. tr. Protruherc, 
'protrartus, to draw out. 

Stn. Prolong. Produce. Elongate. De- 
fer. Extend. Lengthen. 

Ant. Shorten. Abbreviate. Curtail. 
Contract. Reduce. 

Protrude, v. tr. and int. Fro- 
trudere, to Ihrtist forth. 

Stn. Extend. Project. Abut. Jut. De- 
monstrate. Expose. 

Ant. Recede. Retract. Adduce. Re- 
press. Suppress. Conceal. 

Protrusion, n. See Protrude. 

Syn. Projection. Protuberance. Con- 
vexity. Tongue. 

Ant. Recess. Cavity. Hollow. Con- 
cavity. Mouth. 

Protuberance, n. Pro, forth, 
and tuber, any kind of swellijtfj. 

S\-s. Lump. Swelling. Excrescence. 

Ant. Cavity. Smoothness. Planeness. 
Concavity. Indentation. Hollow. 

Proud, adf Ang. Sax. prt^L 

SvN. Arrogant. Haughty. Imperious. 

Supercilious. Presumptuous. Boastful. 

Elated. Self-satisfied. Lofty. Imposing. 
Magnificent. Self-conscious. 

Akt. Deferential. Humble. Affable. 

Unpresuniing. Meek. Lowly. Ashamed. 
Unlmposics. Mean. 

Prove, v. tr. Lat. jyi-ohare. 

Stn. Try. Assay. Test Establish. 
Demonstrate. Ascertain. Argue. Show. 

Ant. Pass. Pretermit. Misdemonstrate. 
Misindicate. Refute. Disprove. Contra- 
dict. Disestablish. Neutralize. 

Proverb, n. Lat. proverlium. 
A condensed saying of practical 

Syn. Maxim. Apothegm (properly Apo- 
phthegm). Adage. Saw. 

Ant. Essay. Dissertation. Disquisi- 
tion. Oration. Diatribe. Yam. 

Proverbial, adj. See Pro- 

Syn. Notorious. Current. Acknow- 
ledged. Unquestioned. 

Ant. Dubious. Unfounded. Suspicious, 
Suspected. Questionable. 

Provide, v. tr. Pro, forward, 
and vklere, to see. Used some- 
times intransitively with the j'/rj;. 

Syn. Prepare. Arrange. Procure. Af- 
ford. Supply. Contribute. Yield. I^o- 

Ant. Mispro^'ide. Neglect. Overlook. 
Withhold. Retain. Appropriate. Refuse. 
Deny. Alienate. Divert. Misemploy. 

Provided, adv. See Provide. 

Syn. (iranted. Supposing. 

Akt. Barring. Saving. Excluded. 

Providence, n. See Provi- 
Provident, adf. See Provide. 

Syk. Forecasting. Foreseeing. Cautious. 

Ant. Improvident. Reckless. Careless. 

Province, n. Pro and vincere, 
to conquer. A country brought by 
conquest under the dominion of 

Syn. Tract. Region. Department. Sec- 
tion. Sphere. 

Ant. Metropolis. Centre. Capital. 

Provincial, adj. See Pro- 

Syn. Appendant. Annexed. Outlyiuft 
Rural. Countrified. Rustic. B\: colic. 

Ant. Central. Metropolitan. Madiill, 
Fashionable. Cotirtly. 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

Provision, n. See Provide. I Prudent, adj. Lat. prudcjut. 

Preparation. Arrangement. Pro- for providens. Another form Oi 
bupply. Anfc.pat.on. Food. S"P- | the WOrcl provident. 

Sv'^. Wise. Wary. Cautious. Circv.rn- 
spect. Discreet. Careful. 

Ant. Foolish. Unwary. Incautious. 
Uncircumspect. Indiscreet. Rash. Impiu- 
dent. Silly. Reckless. Audacioi.s. 


Ant. Neglect. Misprovision. Forget- 
fulness. Thoughtlessness. Oversight. i)es- 
titution. Want. Dearth. Starvation. 
Dole. Pittance. 

Provisional, adj. See Pro- 
vide. The term expresses that 
which is contingent moon some- j pi'een 

Prune, v. fr. For an old word 

thing else, foreseen, or supposed 
to be so; hence, conditional, or 
upon present circumstances 

SvN. Trim. Lop. Dress. AmputAto. 
Ant. Pamper. Train. 

Pry, V. int. Probably conn. 

rary. I Ant. Connive. Overlook. Disregard. 

Stn. Conditional. Contingent. Hypo- | Pretermit, 
thetical. Temporary. 

Ant. Unconditional. Absolute. Perma^ 
cent. Perpetual. 

Provocation, n. See Pro- 

Provoke, v. fr. Lat. provo- 
mre, to call forth. In the first 
place, simply so ; and hence, as 
regards the feeling of resent- 
ment, to irritate. 

Syn. Educe. Summon. Rouse. Irritate. 
&cite. Challenge. Ve.x. 

Ant. Allay. Relegate. I'acify. Soothe. 

Prowess, n. From the Old 
English adjective prow, from pro- 
hns, Jiaving good knightly quali- 

Sru. Bravery. Valour. Gallantry. 

Ant. Cowardice. Weakness. Pol- 
troonery. DasUirdliness. 

Prowl, v. int. Old English, 

Syn. Rove. Roam. A\'aiider. Prey. 
Ant. Fly. Swoop. Chase. Scour. 

Proximity, «. Lat. proximus, 
nearest. See Propinquity. 

Proxy, ?;. A contraction of 
procuracy, from Lat. jjrocurator, 
a proctm- or suhatitutr. 

Stn. Agency. Substitution. Represen- 
1*tion. Agent. Substitute. Representa- 
tive. Deputy. Commissioner. Lieutenant. 

AST. Principalship. Personality. Prin- 
cipal. Person. Authority. Deputer. 

Public, ndj'. Lat. puhlicus, for 
populicHS, belonging to thepeop>le. 

Syn. Open. Notorious. Common. So- 
cial. National. 

Ant. Close. Secret. Private. Domestic. 
Secluded. Solitary. PersonaL Individual. 

Publication, n. See Public. 
The word is also used of the 
thing published. 

Syn. Promulgation. Notification. Pro- 
clamation. Divulgation. 

Ant. Suppression. Reservation. Con- 

Publicity, n. The state of 
being publicly known as opposed 
to supi^ressiou of things, or re- 
tirement of persons. 6'ee Public. 

Puerile, adj. Lat. puer, a 

'Syn. Cliildisli. Futile. Nugatory. Weak. 
Silly. Trifling. 

Ant. Manly. Vigorous. Effective. Pow- 
erful. Cogent. Weighty. 

Puerility, n. See Puerile. 

Puff, v. tr. Germ, puthn. 
Used metaphorically for, to in- 
flate with praise. 

Syn. Flatter. Advertise. Hawk. Ven- 

Ant. Squash. Disparage. Lash. Chas- 
tise. Blast. 

Pugnacious, adj. Lat. pugnax^ 

given to fighting, pngna, a fight. 
Stw. Quarrelsome. Bellioose. 
Ant. Peaceable. Conciliatory, Sua\ity. 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


PtTLL, V. tr. Ang. Sax. puUian. 

Sys. Draw. Drag. Adduce. Extract, 

AxT. Push. Eject. Extrude. Propel. 

PlTMMEL, V. tr. It. porno, an 
apple, or any round knob, as of 
a stick or sword-handle. See 

Pump, r. tr. Tr. pompe, a 
pump. Metaphorically and col- 
loquially used in the follomng 

Svu. Cross-examine. Interrogate, Cross- 

Ant. Prime. Indoctrinate. Instruct. 

Punch, v. tr. Fr. poingonner, 
Lat. pungere, punctus, to pricJc. 
Applied to persons and things. 

Stn. Perforate. Poke. Pierce. Puncture. 
Terebrate. Bore. 

Akt. Stop. Plug. Seal. Bung. 

Punctilious, adj. Sp. pu7i- 
iillo, a dimin. of Lat. punctum. 
A little or nice point of etiquette, 
or otherwise. 

Stn. Ceremonious. Nice. Scrupulous. 

Ant. Unceremonious. Unscrupulous. 

Punctual, adj. See Puncti- 
lious—in the sense of which it 
was once employed; now re- 
stricted to the observance of 
points of time. 

Stn. Exact. Prompt. Early. Timely. 
Ant. Late. Tardy. Behindhand. Be- 
lated. Dilatory. Unpunctual. 

Puncture, n. and v. See 

Pungent, adj. Part, of Lat. 
pungere, to prick. 

Stn. Pricking. Piercing. Acrid. Mor- 
d;uit. Biting. Stinging. Stimulating. Keen. 
Trenchant. Caustic. 

Ant. Soothing. Mellow. Luscious. 

Punish, v. tr. Lat. punire. 

Sin. Chastise. Castigate. Chasten. 

AST. Reward. Recompense. Remunerate. 

Puny, adj. Old Fr. lu'svc, 
Fr. puis ne, Lat. pod /tutus, Lorn 
last, or young'sf. 

Stn. Petty. Undeveloped. UnJersized. 
Feeble. Pigmy. Dwarfish. 

Ant. Great. Developed. Fine. Robust. 
Vigorous. Oversized. Colossal. Gigantic. 

Pupil, n. Jjixi. xnipillus, dim 
of pupus, hoy. 

Stn. Scholar. Learner. Tyro. Novice. 

Ant. Teacher. Master. Proficient. 

Adept. Guardian. 

Pupilage, h. -S'ee Pupil. 

Stn. Minority. Disclpleship. Ward- 
ship. Tutelage. Dependence. Government 

Ant. Majority. Mastership. Guardian- 
ship. Discretion. Independence. 

Puppet, n. "Written also Pop- 
pet, Fr. poupee, a dull, Lat. 
pupa. Used illustratively for a 
person of high station, but with- 
out real power. 

Stn. DoU. Image. Lay-figure. Tool. 
Ant. Personality. Power. 

Puppy, ». In the sense of 
fop is not to be confounded with 
puppy, another form of pup, a 
small dog. It is of the same 
derivation as puppet, which see. 

Stn. Fop. Coxcomb. Prig. 
Ant. Boor. Clown. Lout. 

Purblind, adj. Now used in 
the sense of partly blind, pro- 
bably fi-om a confusion with the 
par, or parboiled, or part- boiled ; 
but originally it meant entirely 
blind — pure, or purely blind. 

Stn. Blinkard. Owl-tyed. Short- 

Ant. Eagle-eyed. Hawk-eyed. Lynx- 
eyed. Argus-eyed. Far-sighted. 

Pure, adj. Lat. pur us. 

Stn. Clear. Unmi.xed. Simple. Genuine. 
Unadulterated. Uncorrupted. UnsuUieiU 
Clean. Spotless. Immaculate. Undeftled. 
Guileless. Innocent. 

Ant. Foul. Turbid. Impure. Adul- 
terated. Corrupt. Sullied. Stained. Tar. 
nished. Defiled. Mixed. Guilty. 

Purgation, «. Lat. purgatio. 

Stn. Clearing. Cleansing. Purificatior 
!^nBtration. ClarificAtion. Defecation. P«- 


Synonyms and Antonyms. 

Ant. Impiitaaon. Contraction. Defile- 
ment. Befoulment. 

Purge, v. tr. See Purgation. 

Purify, v. tr. Fnrus, pure, 
and/uccre, to make. See Purge. 

PuRiTANiOAL,rff7/. Like in creed 
or in demeanour to the Puritans. 

Stn. Prudish, jiscetic. Demure. 

Purity, v. Sec Pure. 

Purlieu, n. Oftener used in 
the plural. A corruption of 
]».iralee, for pour and aller. A 
liberty or district in the neigh- 
bourhood of a forest, defined by- 
perambulation in old times. 

Syn. Environ. Precinct. Suburb. 
Ant. Centre. Heart. 

Purloin, v. tr. Old Fr. |w?«;-- 
loignier. Not to carry a long 
way oif, but to retard or delay ; 
hence, in the secondary sense, to 
keep back furtively. 

Stn. Steal. Filch, thieve. 
Ant. Reinstate. Restore. Seize. Plun- 

Purport, «. Old Fr. purport, 
horapur for j^our, for, and porter, 
to carry. 

Stn. Tendency. Meaning. Import. 
Bearing. Signification. Drift. Tenour. 

Ant. Statement. Assertion. Declara- 
tion. Proposition. Announcement. 

PuRPOSit, V. tr. and int. Der. 
uncertain. Perhaps another 
form of propose, from the French 
pour, forward, the Lat. pro and 
poser, from ponere, to jmt ; but 
more probably the French jw;o-- 
2)emer, to think hiforeha'nd. 

Sto. Intend. Determine. Design. Re- 

Ant. Chance. Risk. Hazard. Revoke. 
Miscalculate. Venture. Stake. 

Purpose, ??. See verb. 

SvN. Intention. Design. jVlind. Mean- 
ing. View. Object. Aim. End. Scope. 
Point. P.esolve. 

Airr. Chance. Fortune. Fate. Sen- 
dent Hazard, l.ot. Casualty. Luit-ry. 

Pursue, v. tr. The same 
word as prosecute, but coming 
through the French pourauivre, 
and not directly from the Latin 
pirosequi, secutus. See Prosecute. 

Pursy, aJJ. Fr. poussif, from 
poftsse, asthma. 

SrN. Short-winded. Thick-winded 

Ant. Lithe. Agile. Long-winded. 

Purulent, adj. Pus, corrvi,t 

Stn. Fecnlent. Festering. Corrupt. 
Ant. Secretional. Healthy. 

Purvey, v. tr. Fr. pourroir, 
the Jjatin p>rovidere , so that pur- 
vey is the French form of pro- 
vide, the latter coming directly 
from the Latin. It is by common 
usage restricted to the procuring 
of provisions. See Provision. 

Push, v. tr. Fr. poussrr^ Lat 

SrN. Press. Drive. Impel. Propel. 
Butt. Thrust. Urge. E.\pedite. Acce- 
lerate. P.educe. 

jInt. Pull. Draw. Drag. Adduce. 

Pusillanimity, n. Pusillns, 
dim. of pusus, conn, with ptier, a 
little hoy, and animus, the mind. 

Syn. Cowardice. Dastardliness. Mean- 
spiritedness. Faint-heartedness. Timidity. 

Ant. Magnanimity. Fortitude. Courage. 
Bravery. Venturesomeness. Daring. 

Pusillanimous, adj. See 
Put, v. tr. Dan. 2)iitfe. 

Syn. Place. Lay. Set. Propose. 
Ant. Remove. Raise. Displace. 
Transfer. AVithdraw. 

Putative, adj. Lat put a fivus, 
ptitare, to think. 

Syn. Reckoned. Supposed. Dceme<L 

Ant. Real. Authenliaited. Teritabl* 

Si/)ioiujms and Antonyms. 


jtVrn), cidj. Putidus, from 
puterc, to stink, 

Syn. Stinking. Corrupt. Offensive. 
Rotten. Foul. Mean. Base. Worthless. 

Akt. Wholesome. Sound. InoiTeiisive. 
Pnre. Redolent. Fresh. Honourable. 

Putrefy, v. tr., but more com- 
monly intransitive. 

Syn. Kot. Corrupt Decompose. De- 

Ant. Preserve. Embalm. Freshen. 
Vitalize. Purify. Depurate. Disinfect. 

Putrid, adj. Lat. 'prdridiis, 
pidrere, fvom 2^>itris, rotti-n. 

Sin. Rotten. Decayed. Decomposed. 

Ant. Fresh. Wholesome. Healthful. 

Puzzle, v. tr. Low Germ. 
pusseln, conn, with jjos'\ 

Syn. Pose. Perplex. Embarrass. Be- 
wilder. Confound. Mystify. 

Ant. Enlighten. Instruct. Illumine. 

Puzzle, ik Si-e verb. 

Syn. Embarrassment. Bewildernionl. 
Enigma. Confusion. Conundrum. Intri- 
cacy. Labyrinth. 

Ant. Disentanglement. Solution. J'lx- 
planation. Extrication. Clue. 


Quack, n. From the cry. 
One who vaunts his wares or 

Syn. Empiric. Mountebank. Charla- 
tan. Impostor. Pretender. 
Ant. Dupe. Gull. Victim. 

Quackery, n. See Quack. 
Quaff, v. tr. Swed. qvd/a, to 
suffocate, immerse. 

'Syn. Drink. Swallow. Imbibe. 
Ant. Disgorge. Spew. Vomit. 

Quail, v. int. Ang. Sax. cwe- 
lai^i, to die. 

Syn. Sink. Shrink. Cower. Succumb. 
Crouch. Flinch. 

Ant. Stand. Defy. Withstand. Face. 

Quaint, adj. Partly from 
cognitns, and partly from conq^- 

Syn. Curious. RecotJite. Abstruse. 
Elegant. Nice. Affected. Whimsical. 
Odd. Antique. Archaic. Fanciful. Siu- 
gular. Old-fashioned. 

Ant. Commonplace. Ordinary. Usual. 
Coarse. Common. Modern. Modish. Fa- 
shionable. Dowdy. 



Ang. Sax. 


Syn. Tremble. Shake. Shudder. Vi- 
brate. Quiver. 

Ant. Stand. Rest. Root. 

Qualification, n. See Qua- 

Syn. Capacity. Fitness. Condition. Re« 
quirement. Limitation. Modification. 

Ant. Incapacity. Unfitness. Absol!;;e- 
ness. Disqualification. Non-qualification. 

Qualify, v. tr. Lat. qualis, such 
as, and. facer e, to make. To make 
such as a state or circumstances 
require. So to qualify a person 
for an office, or a statement by 
such limitations as the case de- 

Syn. Fit. Prepare. Adapt. Capacitate. 
Limit. Restrict. 

Ant. Unfit. Misprepare. Misqualify. 
DisquaUfy. Incapacitate. Free. Absolve. 

Quality, n. See Qualify. 

Syn. Condition. Character. Sort. Kind. 
Description. Capacity. Power. Virtue. 
Nature. Tendency. 

Ant. Anomalousness. Heterogeneous- 
ness. Nondescript. Incapacity. Weak- 
ness. Indistinctiveness. Ineffectiveness. 
Disqualification. Negation. Disability. 

Qualm, n. Ang. Sax. cmeUan, 
to slay. An attack of deadly 
sickness. Used metaphorically 
for misgiving of the conscience. 

Syn. Misgiving. Remorse. Scruple. 

Ant. Comfort. Ease. Self-satisfaction. 

Quandary, «. Fr. qu'en di- 
raije f luhat shall I say of it f 

Syn. Hobble. Difficulty. Doubt Pe> 
plexity. Bewilderment. Dubitation. Halt- 
ing. Dilemma. Embarrassment. 

AlT. Clearsightedness. Resolution. PlaiQ- 
ness. Clearness. Obviousness. Facility. 
Disencumbrance. Disentanglement. fiw 


Synonyms and Autonyms. 

Quantity, n. Lat. quant us, 
'tow much. 

Srw. Measure. Amount. Bulk. Size. 
Sum. Portion. 

Ant. Margin. Deficiency. Deduction. 
Want. Inadequacy. Scantiness. Insuffi- 
ciency. Loss. Deterioration. Diminution. 
Waste. Wear. Leakage. 

Quarrel, n. Lat. querela, a 

S™. BrawL Altercation. Aflj-ay. 
Squabble. Feud. Tumult. Dispute. 
Wrangle. "Variance. Disagreement. Mis- 
understanding. Hostility. 

Ant. Confabulation. Conversation. 
Chat. Pleasantry. Contiliaticm. Agree- 
ment. Harmony. UndersUmding. Friend- 
liness. Peace. Amity. Good- will. 

Quarrel, v. int. See noun. 
Quarrelsome, adj. See 


SrN. Choleric. Irascible. Petulant. 
Litigious. Pugnacious. 

Ant. Peaceable. Amenable. Genial. 
Unquarrelsoine. Inoffensive. Mild. Meek. 
Conciliatory. Bland. Suave. 

Quarter, «. A division of 
space, especially one of the four 
quarters of the heavens; hence 
a space or margin of forbear- 

Stw. Mercy. Forbearance. Pity. 
Ant. Extermination. Mercilessness. 
Dnsparingness. Pitilessness. Eulhlessness. 

Quash. Fr. casser, Lat. quas- 
sare, from quatere qicassum, to 
shake to pieces. 

Stm. Crush. Extinguish. O\erthrow. 
Annihilate. Annul. Nullify. 

Ant. Sap. Undermiue. Disorganize. 

Quaver, v. int. Old Eng. 
quave, to shake. See Quake. 

QuEBB, adj. Gferm. queer, 
cross, athwart. 

Syn. Odd. Whimsical. Quaint. Cross. 
Strange. Crotchety. 

Ant. Ordinary. Common. Usual. Fa- 
miliar. Customary. 

Quell, v. tr. See Qualm. 

Syn, Extinguish. Crush. Reduce. Allay. 
Stifle. Quiet. Pacify. Quench. 

Ant Foster. Excite. Fan. Aggravate. 
Stir. Irritate. Dlsurb. Raise. Inflame. 

Quench, v. tr. Aug. Sar. 
cwencan. See Quell. 

QUERIMONIOUS, adj. Quert- 
monia, a complaint, from qmri, 
to compjlain. Given to complain- 
ing or resisting. 

Sin. Malcontent. Dissatisfied. Opposi* 
titious. Litigious. 

Ant. Contented. Satisfied. Complacent 
Amenable. Conformable. 

Querulous, adj. See Queri- 
monious. It has much the same 
meaning as querimonious, but is 
more objective in its force, im- 
plying the expression of the qua- 
lity of querimoniousness in looky 
manner, &c. 

SvN. Quarrelsome Complaining. Dis- 
satisfied. Chiding. Murmuring. Whining. 
Peevish. Fastidious. Irritable. 

Ant. Easy. Uncomplaining. Satisfied. 
Contented. Submissive. Genial. Compla- 
cent. Cheerful. Good-tempered. 

Question, v. tr. Lat. qucestio, 

Stn. Ask. Inquire. Interrogate. Doubt. 
Investigate. Dubitate. Controvert. Dis- 

Ant. Dictate. State. Assert. Pro- 
nounce. Enunciate. Concede. Endorse. 
Affirm. Grant. Allow. 

Question, n. See verb. 

Syn. Inquiry. Interrogation. Doubt 
Scrutiny. Investigation. Topic. 

Ant. Reply. Response. Solution. An- 
swer. Explanation. Admission. Conces« 

Questionable, adj. See Ques- 

Stn. Doubtful. Dubious. Problema- 
tical. Disputable. Debatable. 

Ant. Certain. Evident. Self-evident 
Obvious. Indisputable. 

Quibble, v. int. Perhaps from 
the Lat. quid, what — what you 

SvN. Shuffle. Evade. Trifle. Cavil.' 
Ant. Reason. Argue. Eiiunoiate. In- 
vestigate. Discuss. 

Quibble, n. See verb. 

Quick, adj. Old. Eng. It 
had originally the sense of alive, 
as, 'the quick and the deadj 

Si/nonyms and Anronijms. 

now of rapid movement, as a 
sign of active life. 

Sro. F;ist. Rapid. Speedy. Expedi- 
tious. Swift. Hasty. Prompt. Keady. 
Active. Brisk. Nimble. Lively. Agile. 
Alert. Sprightly. Transient. Intelligent. 

Ant. Slow. Tardy. Sluggish. Inert. 
Inactive. Dull. Insensitive. 

Quicken, v. tr. See Quick. 

Stn. Accelerate. Animate. Hasten. 
Urge. E.\cite. Promote. Expeiiite. 

Ant. Retard. Delay. Encumber. Clog. 
Drag. Detain. Discourage. Allay. 

Quiet, n. Lat. qities. 

Stn. Rest. Repose. Stillness. Calm. 
Appeasement. Pacification. Silence. Peace. 

Ant. Unrest, Motion. Noise. Agita- 
tion. E.xcitement. Disturbance. Turmoil. 

Quiet, v. tr. See noim. 

Stn. Allay. Appease. Still. Pacify. 
Hush. Lull. Tranquillize. Soothe. Calm. 

Ant. Rouse. Excite. Disturb. Agi- 
tate. Stir. Urge. Goad. 

Quit, v. tr. Lat. quies. To 
leave quiet, that is, to abandon, 
as a place oi' a claim. 

Stn. Leave. Resign. Abandon. Re- 
linquish. Discharge. Release. 

Ant. Seek. Occupy. Invade. Bind. 
Enforce. Haunt. Enter. 

Quite, adv. Fr. quitte, dis- 
charged, free, clear. With the 
sense of acquit, which is, literally, 
to quiet the mind of any by re- 
leasing it from obligations or 
claims, and so leaving it quiet. 

SvN. Perfectly. Entirely. Completely. 
Wholly. Truly. 

Ant. Partially. Imperfectly. Barely. 
Insufficiently. Hardly. 

Quittance, v. Fr. quittance. 

Something paid or granted for | tiousT* Superficial. Extraneous. Partial. 

the quieting of the mind of a 

Srw. Discharge. Absolution. Remis- 



Stn. Cite. Name. Adduce, 

Ant. Disprove. Rcfite. Reto.t. Op- 
pose. Rebut. Contradict. Traverse. Mis- 
quote. Misadduce. 


Eabble, n. Old Fr. rapaille, 
from rapcr, to rake. The rakings- 
or scrapings of the people. 

Stn. Crowd. Mob. Scum. Dregs, 

Ant. Elite. Aristocracy. Galaxy. 

Eabid, adj. Lat. rah'dioi. 

Stn. Furious. Raging. Mad. Infu- 
riated. Maniacal. Frantic. 

Ant. Rational Sane. Reasonable. 

Eacy, adj. Fr. race, Lat. radix, 
Eng. race. Of fine flavour, as 
indicating a fine source. 

Stn. Fine-flavoured. Fresh. Rich. 
Pungent. Piquant. Spirited. Smart. 

Eaok, V. tr. See Torture. 
Eadiance, n. See Eadiant. 

Eadiant. Lat. radians, 2^(irt. 
of radiare — from radius — to emit 
rays, especially of light. 

Stn. Beaming. Lustrous. Brilliant, 
Glittering. Splendid. Luminous. Glorious^ 

Ant. Dull. Lustreless. Non-luminous, 

Eadical, adj. Lat. radix, a 
root. Pertaining to the root. 

.Stn. Original. Fundamental. Tho- 
rough-going. Unsparing. Extreme. En- 
tire. Innate. Natural. Essential. Im- 
manent. Ingrained. Underived. Deep- 

Ant. Derived. Ascititious. Advent! 

sion. Release. 

Akt. Distraint. Exaction. Bond. Debt. 

QuiTER, V. int. See Quaver. 

Quote, v. tr. Lat. quotas, 
what in order, what )iumher. 

Moderate. Conservative. Acquired. 

Eage. n. Lat. rabies, Fr. ragr. 
Any manifestation of imgovenied 

Stn. Fury. Rabidity. Mania. Psission. 

Madness. Ferocity. 
j Ant. Reason. Moderation. Gentleness. 
I Temperatoness. Calmness. Quiescence. 

Mitigation. Assuagement. Tranquillity. 
! Mildness. Softness. 


Si/)wni/ms and Ardomjms. 
Abbrev. from 

Eaiment, h 

Stn. Clothing. Vestments. Vesture. 

jLnt. nags. Nudity. Nakedness. 

Eaise, V. ir. Ang. Sax. rdsian, 
from rmtn, to rise. Used mate- 
rially and metaphorically. 

Stn. Lift. Heave. Elnvate. Exalt. 
Advance. Promote. Heighten. Enhance. 
Awaken. Rouse. Excite. Cultivate. Hear. 
IVoduce. Collect. Summon. Erect. Ori- 
ginate. Propagate. 

Ant. Lay. Cast. Depress. Degrade, 
itetard. Dishonour. Lower. Depreciate. 
Lull. Compose. Quiet. Calm. Blight. 
Destroy. Disperse. Disband. Siifle. Hush. 
Silence. Neutralize. Confute. 

Eally, V. tr. and inf. Lat. 
re-aUigare, to unite again, by 
restoring the courage ; hence 
applied also to individuals, in 
the sense of inspirit. To rally, 
in the sense of banter, is, etymo- 
logically, a distinct word, and is 
in Fr. railler, as the former, to 
encourage, is rallicr. 

SrN. Recal. Reunite. Inspirit. Ani- 

mate. Recover. Reassure. 
Ant. Demoralize. Disperse. 


Eally, v. tr. Fr. railler. 

Stn. Banter. Satirize. Chaff. Twit. 

Ant. Compliment. Flatter. Panegyrize. 

Eamble, V. int. Der. uncer- 
tain. Gomp. Germ, rammdn, to 
tumhh', or Lat. re-ambular'', or 
possibly connected with Eoam. 

Stn. Rove. Roam. Wander. Range. 
Stroll. Saunter. 

Amt. Course. Speed. Hasten. Drive. 

Eamification, n. Lat. ramus, 
a branch, and facere, to make. 
Used of the process of causing 
one or more branches (either 
literally, as in the growth of 
trees, or metaphorically, as tlio 
brnnches of a subject), and also 
of the branches so caused ; som^ 

times also, as in botany, the mcvle 
of their production. 

Stn. Branching. Branch. Off-aDOot. 
Division. Divergence. Subdivision. 

Ant. Line. Trunk. Stem. Bole. Course. 
Thread. Sequence. Continuity. Prosecu- 
tion. Rectilinearity. Indivergenco. Judi- 
vision. Non-ramification. 

Eamify, V. int. See Eamifi- 

Eampant, adj. Ang. Sax. 
rempend, rash. It expresses lite- 
rally the position which is some- 
thing short of springing, which 
in heraldry is expressed l)y sa- 
lient, and is used metaphorically 
in the sense of unbridled. Its 
opposite in heraldi-y would bo 

SvN. Unbridled. Uncontrolled. Violent. 
Licentious. Vehement. 

Ajs-t. Demure. Self-restrained. Self- 
controlled. Disciplined. Curbed. 

Eampaet, «. Fr. rcmpart., 
from remparer, to fort if g. 

Svn. Bulwark. Fortification. Security. 
Wall. Defence. Embankment. Mouud. 
Mole. Outwork. Breastwork. 

Ant. Non-fortification. Defencelossness. 
Exposure, Insecurity. Vulnerability. 

Eancid, adf, Lat. rancid us. 
Syn. Sour. Tainted. Rank. Olid. Keasty. 
Ant. Sweet. Pure. Untainted. Fresh. 

Eancour, n. Lat. rancor. It 
expresses hostile feeling of long 

Si-N. Ill-blood. .Spite. Grudve. Ani- 
mosity. Hatred. Malice. Malignity. En- 
mity. Antipathy. Vindictiveness. Jlale- 

Ant. Good-feeling. Friendliness. Kind- 
liness. Forgiveness. Geniality. Sympathy. 
Congeniality. Unvindictiveness. 

Eandom,«c//. OldFr. randon, 
Stn. Haphazard. Stray. Chance. Wild. 

Aimless. Purposeless. Unpremeditated. 

Casual. Vague. Accidental. 

Ant. Steady. Aimed. Intended. Ro« 

guliir. Controlled. Purposed. Intentional. 

Deliberate. Designed. Normal. SystemuUo. 

Eange, v. tr. Fr. ranger, 
Conn with the Eng. Eank. 

Sijnonijms and Antonijins. 

Stn. Rank. IMspuso. OrJor. Collocate. 
File. Coiicatenatf. 

AST. Disturb. 1 ilsconnect. Disomor. 
Derange. Intermit, Disconnect, 

Bank, n. See Eange. 

Sy>-. Row. Line. Tier. Order. De- 
gree. Grade. Dignity. 

A>T. Disconnection. Disorder, li :.n- 
tinuity. Solution. Intermission. Hiatus. 
Plebei'anisni. ileonness. Commonalty. 

Eankle, v. inf. From Eank. 
Ang. Sax. ranc, whicli meant 
proud, fruitful, and luxui-iant. 

SvN. Fester. Smoulder. Burn. 
Ant. HL-al. Cool. Close. 

Ransack, v. tr. Icel. ransal-", 
to e:rj)lore. Applied to rough ex- 
ploration to the extent of spoil- 

Srs'. Rummage. Rifle. Ravage. Over- 

Ant. Skim. Survey. Reconnoitre. 

Eansom, V. tr. Fr. rangon, 
Lat. redemptio. 

SrN. Redeem. Release. Indemnify. 

Ant. Prosecute. Indict. Fine. Mulct. 
Forfeit. Damnify. 

Eansom, ik See verb. 

Eant, n. South Germ, raiit, 

Sts. Bombast. Rhodomontade. Flum- 
mery. Declamation. Raving. 

Ant. Reason. Argument. Eloquence. 
Logic. Rlieioric. 

Eapacious, adj. Lat. rapax, 
from rapere, to seize or snatch. i 

Syn. Greedy. Ravenous. Voracious. 
Predaceous. Avaricious. Grasping. 

Ant. Bountiful Liberal. Contented. ^ 
Frugal. ' 

Eapid, adj. Lat. rapidus. j 

Stn. Quick. Swift. Speedy. Accele- 1 
ra'ed. Flying. , . „ 

AST. Slow. Tardy. Retarded- Cum- 
brous. Lazy. 

Eapidity, n. See Eapid. 

Stn. quickness. Swiftness. Speed. Ve- 
locity. Celerity. Dispatch. 

AST. Slowness. Tardiness. Cumbrous- 
ness. Delay. 

Eapture, n. Sp. raptiira, Lat. 
rtpere, raptus, to seize. The state 
of being seized or carried out of 


'one's self liy pleasure or cxcite- 
' ment. 

I SfN. Tv-stacy. Transport. Bliss. Ra- 
I vishment. 

I ANT. AKony. Torture. Pai.n. I'cdiun*. 
Knnui. Irk-soniencss. 

I Eare, ndj. Lat. varv.x. 

I Stn. Scarce. Choice. Infrequent. Ex 
cellent. Few. Exceptional. Sparse. Un- 

1 usual. Singular. Uncommon. Dispersevl. 
Valuable. Precious. Thin. Volatile. 

Ant. Common. Frequent. ^ AbunJant. 
Xnmerous. Mean. Ordinary. Usual. Re- 
gular. Crowded. Dense. Vulgar. Worth- 
less. Cheap. Valueless. 

Earefy V. tr. and ird. Tc 
make rart in the sense. 

Stn. E.\p.\nd. Lighten. Atteauatu. 

Akt. Solidify. Condense. Thicken. 

Eascal, n. Used by Shake- 
speare in the sense of a ' worth- 
less deer ' A man of low rather 
than heinous oifences. 

Stn. Rogue. Scoundrel. Vagabond, 

Ant. Gentleman. 

Eascality, n. See Eascal. 

Eash, adj. Dutch rasch. Onca 
used in the simple sense of ener- 
getic, or acting or moving witt 
rapidity, as, Shakespeare, 'rash 
gunpowder;' now restricted to 
energy, unreflecting and heed- 

Stn. Headstrong. Audacious. Hasty. 
Precipitate. Reckless. Foolhardy. Over- 
venturesome. Incautious. Unwary. 

Akt. Wary. Cautions. Calculatini^ 
Discreet. Unventuresome. Dubitating. Hesi- 
tating. Reluctant. Timid. 

Eatefy, V. tr. Lat. ratus, cal- 
culated, fixed, and facere, to mal-e-. 

Stn. Sanction. Seal. Confirm. Endorsa 
Secure. Approve. Validify. Establish. 

Axt. Negative. Reject. Repudiate; 
Disaffirm. InvaUdate. Abrogate. Annul. 

Eatification, 11. See Eatify. 
1 Eational, adj. Lat. ratio _ 

Sts. Sane. Sound. Intelligent. Reat 
soniDg. Reasonable. Judicious. Sober 


fjynonyms and Antomjms. 

Sensible. IVobable. Equitable. Moderate. 

ANT. Insane. Unsound Weak. Silly. 
Unintelligent. Absurd. Injudicious. Fan- 
ciful Kxtravagaiit. Preposterous. Un- 
reasoning. Unreasonable. Irrational. Ex- 

Eavagk, v. tr. Low Lat. i-a- 
pa(/iu/n, from raj>ere, to snatch or 

Stn. Spoil. Devastate. Despoil. De- 
•Btrov. Desolate. Ransaclc. Waste. Ruin. 

Akt. Spare. Conserve. Preserve. In- 

EavB, V. int. Fr. rever, to 
dream, or he delirious. It is some- 
times used as a transitive verb, 
but oniy with an accusative, 
whicli lias a cognate sense, as, 
■'he raved nonsense' — the non- 
sense being the subject-matter of 
the raving. 

Srs-. Wander. Drivel. Rant 
Ant. Converse. Reason. Discourse. 

Eavel. Old Dutch ravelen. 
"•f old used intransitively, now 
";nly as a transitive verb. 

Stn. Separate. Undo. Untwist Un- 
■wind. Disentangle. 

It is singular that the word 
itself should have two opposite 
senses, yet the reason is not ob- 
scure ; the dealing with many 
threads, even where the purpose 
is disentanglement, is very likely 
to lead to the opposite result; 
w^hence, also. 

Ant. Entangle. Complicate. Conglo- 
tnerate. Confuse. 

Eavenous, adj. Prob. conn, 
not with Eaven but Eapine, but 
restricted by usage to matter of 

S\-N. Voracious. Hungry. Gluttonous. 
Rapacious. Omnivorous. 

Ant. Listless. Inappetent. Fastidious. 
Dainty. Nice. 

EAViNa, adj. See Kave. 
Eaw, adj. Ang. Sax. hrcaw. 
Used in many metaphorical 

Syn. Uncooked. T. nprepared. D'o« 
finished. Unripe. Crude. Unseasoned. In- 
experienced, Fresh. Green. Unpractised. 
Untried. Bare. Raid. Exposed. Galled. 
Chill. Bleak. Piercing. 

Ant. Cooked. Dressed. Prepared. 
Finished. Ripe. Slature. Mellow. Sea- 
soned. Experienced. Expert. Adept. 
Habituated. Familiar. Practised. Trained. 
Tried. Covered. Healed. Balmy. GeuiaL 

Eaze, V. tr. Fr. ruzer. 

Stn. Demolish. Level. Prostrate. Sub- 
vert. Reduce. Ruin. Destroy. Debase. 

Akt. Raise. Erect. Build. Rear. Re- 
pair. Restore. 

Eeach, v. tr. and int. Ang. 
Sax. rcpccan, to extend. 

&TS. Extend. Thrust Stretch. Attain. 
Gain. Grasp. Penetrate. Strain. Aim. 

Ajtt. Fail. Stop. Cease. Revert. Re- 
bate. Miss. Drop. 

Eeact, V. ird. Be, luch, and 

Srx. Recoil. Result Counteract. Re- 

Ant, Act Influence. Strike. Im- 

Eead, I', tr. and int. Ang. 
Sax. redan. 

Stn. Peruse. Interpret Discover. Re- 
cognize. I^ecipher. Learn. 

Ant. Blisread. Misinterpret Overlook 

Eeadiness, n. See Eeady. 

Eeady, adj. Ang. Sax. rdd, 
rcede. Applied botiti to things 
and persons. 

Stn. Prompt. Alert. Expeditious 
Speedy. Unliesitating. Dexterous. Apt 
Skilful. Handy. Expert Facile. Easy. 
Opportune. Fitted. Prepared. Disposed. 
Willing. Free. Cheerful. Compliant Re- 
sponsive. Quick. 

ant. Unready. Tardy. Slow. Hesi- 
tating. Reluctant. Dubi:ating. Awkward. 
Unhandy. Clumsy. Remote. Inaccessible. 
Unavailable. Inopportune. Unsuited. Un- 
fitted. Unprepared. Indisposed. Unwil. 
ling. Constrained. Grudging. Unaccom- 
modating, lucompliant Irresponsive. 

Eeal, adj. Low Lat. real is, 
from res, a tiling. It has in law 
the technical sense of pertaining 
to lauds and tenements. 

Svs. Actuid. VerlUble. Existent True. 
Uetmine. Developed. 

Axi. Fictitlou:^ la aginary. UuraaL 

Synonyms and Antonyms. 


Non-czisteDt. Untrue. False. Artificial. 
Spurious. Couiiterffit. Factitious. Adul- 
terated. Assumed. Pretended. Potential. 

Eealitt, n. See Eeal. 

Sra. Verity. Subaance. 'i'ruth. Exist- 
ence. Genuineness. Substantiality. 

Akt. Fiction. Falsehood. Untruth. 
Hypothesis. Supposition. Image. Fancy. 
Shadow. Figment. Fubrioition. Jiisub- 
stantiality. Emptiness. Hollowncss. Chi- 
mera. Unreality. 

Realize, v. tr. See Eeal. 

Si-N. Substantiate. Effectuate. Accom- 
plish. FIxhibit. Produce. Acquire. Gain. 
Ileap. Make. Verify. Conceive. 

Ant. Lose. Miss. Invalidate. Dissi- 
pate. Misrepresent. Falsify. Neutralize, 

Eeally, arJv. See Eeal. 

Sts. Veritably. Truly. Indeed. Un- 

AsT. Questionably. Possibly. Perhaps. 
Falsely. Untruly. Fictitiously. 

Eb,vp, V. tr. Ang. Sa^c. repan, 
tu seize. Used metaphoiically, as, 
to ' reap a reward.' 

Syn. Gather. Obtain. Realize. Derive. 

Ant. Scatter. Squander. Dissipate. 
^^'aste. Lose. 

Eear, n. Old Fr. rkr, Lat. 
iX'tro, bacJacards. 

Syn. Back. End. TaU. 
A^T. Van. Front. Face. 

Eear, v. tr. Ang. Sax. rcsran, 
to raise. 

Syn. Raise. Lift. Elevate. Erect. 
Train. Educate. Instruct. Foster. Esta- 
blish. Construct. 

Ant. Stifle. Extinguish. Kill. Depress. 
Subvert. Demolish. Destroy. 

Ebason, n. Fr. raison, Lat. 
ratio. Used for the gift of rea- 
son, the faculty of reasoning, and 
the princi])le of right of judg- 
ment, or what is consonant with 

Syn. Ground. Account. Cause. Ex. 
planation. Motive. Proof. Apology. Un- 
<ii rstanding. Reasoning. Itationality. Right. 
Propriety. Justice. Order. Object. Sake. 

Ant. Pretext. Pretence. Misinterpre- 
tation. FaUification. Misconception. Dis- 
proof. Un'€35onableness. Absurdity. Fal- 

lacy. Irrationality. Wrong. V'nreason. 
Impropriety. Unfaimess. Folly. Aimless- 
ness. Unaccountableness. 

Eeasonable, adj. See Ea- 

Eeassuee, v. tr. JRe and as- 

Syn. Rally. Restore. Encourage. In- 
spirit. Animate. Countenance. 

Ant. Disconrafie. Cow. Brow-beat. 
Intimidate. Discountenance. 

Eebel, V . He and helium, tuar. 

Stn. Revolter. Insurgent. 
Ant. Supporter. Adherent. 

Eebel, V. int. See noun. 

Eebound, n. Be and bound, 
from Fr. hondir, to leap. 

Syn. Reaction. Ricochet. Reverbera- 
tion. Recoil. Resilience. 

Ant. Impression. Impact. Collision. 

Eebuff, v. tr. Ee and buff, 
from the Old Fr. lufer, to buffet. 

Stn. Rebuke. Discouragement. Re- 
pubion. Check. 

-tJit. Welcome. Acceptance. Encou- 

Eebuke, V. tr. Der. uncertain. 
Probably more than one word 
have been confounded in tha 
syllable buhe, as the Fr. louche, 
mouth , and Icel. bucka, to subdue. 

Syn. Reprove. Chide. Rebuff. Cen- 

Ant. Approve. Encourage. Eulogize. 
Applaud. Incite. 

Eebut, V. tr. Be and Old Fr. 

boter, to push or thrust. 

Syn. Meet. Retort. Annul. Confute. 

Ant. Accept. Sanction. Recognize. 

Eecal, V. tr. Be and call. 

Stn. Restore. Reassemble. Revoke. 
Supersede. Recollect. Remember, ('ancel. 

Ant. Relegate. Dismiss. Dispens*'. 
Delegate. Appoint. Commission, i'orget. 

Eecant, V. tr. Becantare. To 
imdo or recal a former recitation 
or formal expression of opinion. 

Syn. Retract. Unsay. Recal. Revoke 
Abjure. Renounce. 

Ant. Propound. Profess. Assert, lie. 
Clare. Enunciate. V'Bdicate. Vttintaiijv 
Hold. Retain. 


Si/nont/ms and Antonyms. 

Eecapitulate, v. tr. To go 
over again the heads (atpitulum, 
dim. of caput, a head) of a recent 

Srs. Summarize. Rcjearse. 
Ant. State. Deliver. Propomid. 

Eecede, V. int. Lat. recedere, 
to qo hack. 

'&TS. Retire. Withdraw. Retreat. Re- 
trograde. Return. Ebb. 

Ant. Approach. Advance. Flow. Pro- 

Receive, v. tr. Lat. recipere. 

Stx. Take. Accept. Admit. Hold. 
Ant. Give. Impart. Afford. Reject. 
Discharge. Kmit. 

Eeceited, adj. See Eeceive. 

Six. Accepted. Current. Ordinary. 

Ant. Rejected. Exceptional. Unusual. 

Eecent, ocJ). Lat. recens. 

Stn. Late. New. Fresh. Novel. 
AXT. Ancient Antiquated. Primitive. 

Eeceptacle, «. Lat. recep- 
facidum, a place for receiving, 
from rtciperf, to receive. 

Sin. Repository. Lodgment. Reci- 
pient. Uagazine. Store. Case. Berth. 

-\nt. Carrier. Carriage. Conveyance. 
Discharger. Consigner. 

Eeception, n. See Eeceive. 

Sin. Admission. Admittance. Accept- 
ance. Acceptation. Entertainment 

Ant. Denial. Protest Repudiation. 
Rejection. Son-acceptance. Dismissal. 
Discardment. P.enunciation. Abjuration. 

Eecess, n. Lat recesms, fiam 
recedere, to recede or retire. Used 
physically and analogously. 

SrN. Cavity. Nook. AVithdrawal. Re- 
tirement Retreat Seclusion. Privacy, 
Vaci\tiiin. Holiday. 

Ant. Promontory. Protrusion. Pro- 
jection. Publicity. Work-time. 

Eecipient, n. See Eeceptacle. 

Eecipeocal, adj. Beciproaif!. 
SvN. Alternate. Interchanged. Mutual. 
Interchangeable. Reflexive. 

The difference between reci- 
procal and mutual is mainly in 
point of time or order. Mutual 
love is love interchanged betweer 

two ; reciprocal would be love it> 
turned by one, in return for that 
of the other. 

Akt. One-sided. Unreciprocated. Un- 


Eecipeocation, n. Ebcipro- 
CITY, n. See Eeciprocal. 

Eeoite, v. tr. Lat. recitare. 
Stn. Narrate. Rehearse. Quote. SpeaK. 
Tell. Ilecount Enumerate. 

Ant. Misquote. Misdeliver. Misre- 
I count. Misremunerate. Misrepresent. 

Eeckless, adj. Old Eng. 
reck, to care, and less, the termi- 
native privative. 

SvN. Careless. Heedless. Incautious.