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Full text of "A synopsis of the fishes of North America"

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Division of F!sh9s, 
U. S. National Museum . 





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SYNOPSIS 



OF THE 



FISHES OF NORTH AMERICA. 



/ 



BY 



DAVID HUMPHREYS STORER, M. D., A. A. S., 

VICE-PRESIDENT OF THE BOSTON SOCIETY OF NATURAL III: 1 "1.1 , Ml MI;]: 1. "1 THE 

AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY J CORRESPONDING MEMBER 01 THE 

ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA, ETC. 




CAMBRIDGE: 
\1 ET CALF AND CO M I' A N V 

PRINTERS TO THE UNIVERSITY. 

1846. 






MEMOIRS 



AMERICAN ACADEMY. 



VII. 

A Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 

BY DAVID HUMPHREYS STORER, M. D., A. A. 8. 

Communicated to the Meeting of the American Naturalists, at Neio Haven, 

April 3d, 1845. 



Several years since, at the suggestion of my friend, Dr. Harris, 
of Cambridge, I was induced to commence the preparation of a Sy- 
nopsis of the Fishes of the United States. After having been dili- 
gently engaged in this undertaking for a number of months, learning 
that Dr. Dekay intended to describe, in his contemplated Zoologi- 
cal Report of the State of New York, under the head of " Extra- 
limital," all the fishes of the United States not found in that State, 
I at once determined to proceed no further until the appearance of 
that work. Upon the publication of his Report, in the early part 
of 1842, I found so much had been done by Dr. Dekay towards 
the execution of the task I had contemplated, that I dismissed from 
my mind all thoughts of prosecuting the subject. This Associa- 
tion, at its annual meeting at Albany, in 1843, did me the honor 
to request me to prepare a paper "On the Comparative Ichthy- 
44 



2 Stover's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 

ology of North America and Europe." Grateful for this expression 
of their confidence, and desirous of acknowledging my sense of 
obligation, I extended my original plan, and have the pleasure 
now to present to you "A Synopsis of the Fishes of North 
America." 

The paper I offer you claims but little, I might say, perhaps, 
no originality. With most of the species found out of the waters 
of Massachusetts, my acquaintance is but slight. Many of them I 
have had no opportunities of examining. In characterizing them, 
I have accordingly oftentimes used the very language of the dis- 
coverer, or of those who may have heretofore described them. 
Knowing that the American ichthyologist has no dictionary to refer 
to, in which all the described species of this country are contained, 
I have endeavoured, by no inconsiderable amount of labor, to supply 
the deficiency. If, to my fellow-laborers in this extensive and as 
yet, when compared with the other departments of natural science, 
almost untrodden domain, it shall appear that I have added any 
facilities or removed any obstacles to their advancement, I shall 
ever recur to the time occupied in the preparation of this Report 
with pleasure and with pride. 

To accomplish the duty required of me by this Association, I 
have prepared a series of tables, exhibiting the geographical dis- 
tribution of genera. 

The first column includes those genera which are found both 
in Europe and North America. 

The second, points out those genera which are found in North 
America, but which are not peculiar to it, and not found in Europe. 

The third, enumerates genera peculiar to America, and, if not 
mentioned in the fourth column, confined to North America. 

The fourth, comprises genera found in North America, and ex- 
tending to South America. 



Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North .America. 3 

I have also catalogued the species found to exist both in Europe 
and North America ; and those extending from North into South 
America ; and those which are peculiar to the Northwest Coast 
of America; and, finally, I have enumerated the genera found 
in North America, with the number of species contained in each 
genus. 

The Synopsis concludes the paper. In this, I have pointed 
out the characters of each family, genus, and species, with the 
localities of the last, and the authorities for the localities, and have 
exhibited as full a list of synonymes as my opportunities have given 
me power. 

Seventeen volumes only of the " Histoire Naturelle des Pois- 
sons," by Cuvier and Valenciennes, have as yet been published ; 
the last which appeared containing the commencement of the 
family Cyprinidaj. The ensuing volumes will undoubtedly contain 
many species, from the Antilles particularly, as yet unknown to 
naturalists. Dr. Pamell, of Scotland, writes me, that he is now in- 
vestigating the fishes of the West Indies. Dr. Holbrook, of Charles- 
ton, is preparing for publication a work on the fishes of South Car- 
olina. Ichthyologists in different parts of our country will, each suc- 
ceeding year, add to our catalogue. Full well am I aware, that but 
a short period will elapse ere this Synopsis shall be looked upon as 
meagre and unsatisfactory. When that time arrives, I trust some 
one will take up the subject where I have left it, and, supplying all 
my deficiencies and adding what may have been recently discov- 
ered, present us with a work worthy the science of our country. 



Stover's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 



Geographical Distribution of Genera. 






i 



/ 



u. 





Genera found both in 


Genera found in North 


Genera peculiar to 
America. 


Genera found in North 


Family. 


Europe and North 


America, but not pe- 


America, and extend- 




America. 


culiars it. 


ing to South America. 




Perca. 


Plectropoma. 


Huro. 


Plectropoma. 




Labrax. a 


Mesoprion. 


Percina. 


Mesoprion. 




Lucio-perca. 


Centropristis. 


Centropomus. 


Priacanthus. 




Uranoscopus. 


Grystes. 


Rypticus. 


Rypticus. 




Serranus. 


Priacanthus. 


Centrarchus. 


Centrarchus. 


Percid^;. 


Sphyraena. 


Dules. 

Trichodon. 

Myripristis. 

Holocentrum. 

Polynemus. 


Pomotis. 
Bryttus. 
Aphredoderus. 
Lepisoma. 


Pomotis. 


- 




Upeneus. 






' 


Trigla. 


Hemilepidotus. 


Hemitripterus. 


Sebastes. 




Cottus. 


Blepsias. 


Prionotus. 


Trigla. 




Aspidophorus. 




Cryptacantho- 


Dactylopterus. 


TRIGLID.E. 


Sebastes. 




des. 


Scorpaena. 




Gasterosteus. 




Temnistia. 


Prionotus. 




Dactylopterus. 








- 


Scorpaena. 








"• 


Corvina. 


Otolithus. 


Leiostomus. 


Otolithus. 




Umbrina. 


Lobotes. 


Larimus. 


Corvina. 






Glyphisodon. 


Pogonias. 


Larimus. 






Heliasus. 


Conodon. 


Eques. 
Umbrina. 


SciENID^E. 








Micropogon. 

Haemulon. 

Pristipoma. 

Lobotes. 

Pomacentrus. 


. 








Heliasus. 


Sparidje. 


Sargus. 

Chrysophris. 

Pagrus. 






Sargus. 










^ 


Pagellus. 








Menidje. 


Smaris. 


Gerres. 




Smaris 








Gerres. 


r 




Chastodon. 


Pomacanthus. 


Ephippus. 


Chetodontid.e. { 




Ephippus. 
Holacanthus. 






1 








I 




Pimelepterus. 







Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 





Genera found both in 


1 i ! I'lind in North 


Genera peculiar to 
America. 


Genera found in North 


Family. 


Europe and North 


America, liut not pe- 


America, and extend- 




America. 


culiars it. 


ing to South America. 


' 


Scomber. 


Cybium. 


Argyreiosus. 


Scomber. 




Thynnus. 


Gempylus. 


Vomer. 


Thynnus. 




Auxis. 


Elacate. 


Rhombus. 


Pelamys. 




Pelamys. 


Trachinotus. 




Cybium. 




Xiphias. 


Blepharis. 




Trichiurus. 




Naucrates. 


Temnodon. 




Elacate. 


1 
SCOMBRID/E. 1 


Lichia. 


Pteraclis. 




Chorinemus. 


Caranx. 






Trachinotus. 




Seriola. 






Caranx. 




Coryphoena. 






Vomer. 




Lampugus. 






Seriola. 




Lampris. 






Temnodon. 
Coryphaena. 


I 








Rhombus. 


Teutiiid.e. 




Acanthurus. 




Acanthurus. 


Tje.vid^;. 






Stylephorus. 




Atherinidje. 


Atherina. 






Atherina. 


MuGILID*. 


Mugil. 




Dajaus. 


Mugil. 


' 


Blennius. 


Salarias. 


Chasmodes. 


Blennius. 




Pholis. 


Sicidium. 


Philypnus. 


Clinus. 




Clinus. 


Eleotris. 




Gobius. 


G0BID.E. 


Gunnellus. 

Zoarcus. 

Anarrhicas. 








■ 


Gobius. 








LoPHID.E. \ 


Lophius. 


Chironectes. 


Malthea. 


Chironectes. 




Malthea. 




Batrachus. 


I 




Batrachus. 






r 


Ctenolabrus. 


Cossyphus. 


Clepticus. 


Cossyphus. 


Acantholabrus. 


Malacanthus. 


Lachnolaimus. 


Julis. 


i 
Labrid.e. 


1 Tautoga. 
Julis. 


Scarus. 
Callyodon. 




Xyrichthys. 
Scarus. 


- 


Xyrichthys. 






Callyodon. 


r 




Bagrus. 


Noturus. 


Bagrus. 


SlLURID.E. 




Gaieichthys. 
Arius. 




Arius. 
Pirnelodus. 






Pirnelodus. 




Gaieichthys. 



Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 



\y^iJjuj(Ayl^w ' 



^^umAx. 



L 



Family. 



Cyprinid^;. 



\_ Htpsocid£. 



EsOCID.E. 



FlSTULARID.E. 



Salmonid.e. 



Clupeid.e. 



1 



Ik 






Saurid.e. 



Gadid.e. 



Genera found both in 
Europe and Norlh 
America. 



t 



PLANID.E. 

CyCLOPTERID-E. 
ECHENEID.E. 



Anguillids:. < 



Gobio. 

Cyprinus. 

Leuciscus. 

Lebias. 

Cyprinodon. 



Esox. 

Belone. 

Scomberesox. 

Exocetus. 

Hemiramphus. 



Salmo. 
Osmerus. 
Scopelus. 
Coregonus. 



Clupea. 
Alosa. 



Morrhua. 

Merluccius. 

Lota. 

Merlangus. 

Brosmius. 

Phycis. 

Macrourus. 

Hippoglossus. 

Platessa. 

Pleuronectes. 

Lumpus. 
Liparis. 

Echeneis. 

Anguilla. 

Conger. 

Ophidium. 

Fierasfer. 

Ammodytes. 



Genera found in North 
America, but not pe- 
culiar to it. 



Catostomus. 



Fistularia. 



Chatoessus. 

Elops. 

Butirinus. 



Plagusia. 



Genera peculiar to 
America. 



Sclerognathus. 
Exoglossum. 
Hydiargyra. 
Molinesia. 



Amblyopsis. 



Mallotus. 



Hyodon. 
Amia. 



Lepisosteus. 



Genera fou nd in North 
America, and extend- 
ing to South America 



Pcecilia. 

Hydrargyra. 

Lebias. 



Belone. 



Fistularia. 



Butirinus. 



Achirus. 
Platessa. 



Conger. 



Stover's Synopsis of the Fishes of North .America. 



,-..<•'■ l " ' 



, 






L *- 1 ' 



Family. 



SYNGNATHID.E 



•! 



Gymnodontidj:. 
Baljstid;e. 

OsTRACIONIDJE. 
StUKIONIDjE. 



SftUALIDJE. 



Raijdje. 



Petromyzonidje. 



Genera found both in ' Genera found in North 
Europe and North America, but not pe- 
America. culiartoit. 



Syngnathus. 
Hippocampus. 

Tetraodon. 
Ortbagoriscus. 

Balistes. 



Acipenser. 



Carcharias. 

Lanina. 

Mustelus. 

Selache. 

Acanthias. 

Scymnus. 

Zygaena. 

Squatina. 

Raia. 

Trygon. 

Myliobatis. 

Petromyzon. 
Ammoco3tes. 



Diodon. 



Monocanthus. 
Aluteres. 

Lactophrys. 



Pristi 



Aetobatis. 



Genera peculiar to 
America. 



Acanthosoma. 



Polyodon. 
Platirostra. 



Genera found in North 
America, and extend- 
ing to South America. 



Aetobatis. 
Trygon. 



Although it will be seen, by the above catalogue, that quite a 
number of genera are found to inhabit the coasts of both Europe 
and North America, but few of the species belonging to these genera 
have been detected upon the shores of both countries. 

They are as follows : — 



Trigla cuculus. 
Cottus gobio. 
Dactylopterus volitans. 
Aspidophorus Europasus. 
Scorpaena porcus. 
Sebastes Norvegicus. 
Gasterosteus aculeatus. 



Scomber colias. 
Scomber grex. 
Pelamys sarda. 
Trichiurus lepturus. 
Auxis vulgaris. 
Anarrbicas lupus. 
Salmo salar. 



Storer's Sij7iopsis of the Fishes of North America. 



Scopelus Humboldtii. 
Morrhua seglefinus. 
Morrhua minuta. 
Merlangus carbonarius. 
Zygoma malleus. 
Selache maximus. 



Alopias vulpes. 
Scymnus borealis. 
Hippoglossus vulgaris. 
Cyclopterus lumpus. 
Orlhagoriscus mola. 
Carcharias vulgaris. 



Many others of the North American genera will doubtless be 
met with on the coast of South America, by subsequent observers. 
Several of the species have been found to have a very extensive 
range ; even from Massachusetts and New York to Brazil. 



Among these are, — 

Dules auriga. 
Dactylopterus volitans. 
Micropogon costatus. 
Lobotes Surinamensis. 
Trichiurus lepUuus. 
Ephippus faber. 
Ephippus gigas. 
Elacate Atlantica. 
Temnodon saltator. 



Scomber grex. 
Pelamys sarda. 
Cybiuin maculatum. 
Trachinotus argenteus. 
Vomer Brownii. 
Mugil petrosus. 
Mugil Plumieri. 
Galeichthys Parra. 
Zygcena malleus. 



The following species inhabit the Northwestern Coast of Amer- 



ica : 



Triehodon Stelleri. 
Cottus pistilliger. 
Cottus polyacanthocephalus. 
Cottus asper. 

Aspidophorus acipenserinus. 
Hemilepidotus Tilesii. 
Blepsias trilobus. 
Sebastes variabilis. 
Cyprinus balteatus. 
L,euciscus caurinus. 
Leuciscus Oregonensis. 



Salmo salar. 
Salmo quinnat. 
Salmo Gairdnerii. 
Salmo paucidens. 
Salmo Scouleri. 
Salmo tsuppitch. 
Salmo nitidus. 
Mallotus Pacificup. 
Cyclopterus ventricosus. 
Acipenser transmontanus. 



Stover's Synopsis of the Fishes of North Jmerica. \ 9 

Jn Enumeration of the Genera found in North America, with the 
Number of Species contained in each Genus. 



Division I. — Osseous Fishes. 





Famihj I. — 


Percid.e. 






Genera. 


No. 


of Spei i»' u 




Genera. 


No. 


r Spei ■ 


3. 


Dactylopterus, 




1 


I. 


Perca, 




2 


4. 


CottU9, 




12 


_> 


Percina, 




11 


5. 


Aspidophorus, 




3 


3. 


Labrax, 




7 


6. 


Cryptacanthodes, 




1 


4. 


Ccntropomus, 




1 


7. 


Hcmitripterus, 




1 


5. 


Lucio-perca, 




3 


8. 


I K'niilepidotus, 




1 


6. 


Huro, 




1 


9. 


Scorpaena, 




4 


7. 


Serranus, 




20 


10. 


Sebastes, 




2 


8. 


Plectropoma, 




4 


11. 


Blepsias, 




1 


9. 


Mesoprion, 




16 


12. 


Gasterosteus, 




10 


10. 


Centropristis, 




5 


13. 


Temnistia, 




1 


II. 


Grystes, 




1 




Genera, 


13 




I2. 


Rypticus, 




1 




Species, 


42 




13. 


Centrarchus, 




10 








14. 


Pomotis, 




10 










15. 


Bryttus, 




3 




Family III — S 


:iENID.B 




16. 


Priacanthus, 




1 


1. 


Otolithus, 




3 


17/ 


Dules, 




1 


2. 


Corvina, 




7 


18. 


Trichodon, 




1 


3. 


Leiostomus, 




2 


19. 


Myripristis, 




1 


4. 


Larimus, 




1 


20. 


Holocentrum, 




2 


5. 


Conodon, 




1 


21. 


Uranoscopus, 




1 


6. 


Eques, 




o 


22. 


Aphrcdoderus 




1 


7. 


Uinbrina, 




4 


23. 


Spbyraena, 




4 


8. 


Pogonias, 




2 


24. 


Polynemus, 




1 


9. 


Micropogon, 




2 


25. 


Upencus, 




4 


10. 


Hceinulon, 




12 


26. 


Lepisoma, 




1 


11. 


Pristipoma, 




7 




Genera, 


26 




12. 


Lobotes, 




2 




Species, 


113 




13. 
14. 


Pomacentrus, 
Glypbisodon, 




1 
a 




Family II. — 


Trigi.id.e 




15. 


Heliasus, 




1 


1. 


Trigla, 




1 




Genera, 


15 




2. 


Prionotus, 




4 




Species, 


49 





45 



] Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 



Family IV.— 


Sparid*. 




Genera. 


No. of Species. 


1. Sargus, 




5 


2. Chrysophris, 




1 


3. Pagrus, 




1 


4. Pagellus, 




1 


Genera, 


4 




Species, 


8 




Family V. — 


MENID.E. 




1. Smaris, 




1 


2. Gerres, 




5 


Genera, 


2 




Species, 


6 




Family VI. — Chetodontidjs. 


1. Chsetodon, 




3 


2. Ephippus, 




2 


3. Holacanthus, 




2 


4. Pomacanthus, 




3 


5. Pimelepterus, 




1 


Genera, 


5 




Species, 


11 




Family VII — 


ScOMBRIDiE. 


1. Scomber, 




3 


2. Pelamys, 




1 


3. Thynnus, 




O 


4. Auxis, 




2 


5. Cybium, 




5 


6. Gempylus, 




1 


7. Trichiurus, 




1 


8. Xiphias, 




1 


9. Naucrates, 




2 


10. Lichia, 




2 


11. Chorinemus, 




3 


12. Trachinotus, 




5 


13. Palinurus, 




1 


14. Notacanthus 


i 


1 


15. Caranx, 




11 



Genera. 


No 


of Specie 


16. Blepharis, 




3 


17. Argyreiosus, 

18. Vomer, 




o 

1 


19. Seriola, 




6 


20. Coryphaena, 

21. Temnodon, 




5 

1 


22. Lampugus, 

23. Pteraclis, 




1 
1 


24. Rhombus, 




2 


25. Lampris, 




1 


26. Elacate, 




1 


Genera, 


26 




Species, 


65 




Family VIII. - 


- TEUTHIDjE. 


1. Acanthurus, 




3 


Genus, 


1 




Species, 


3 





Family IX. — T^nid^e. 
1. Stylephorus, 1 

Genus, 1 

Species, 1 

Family X. — Atherinid.e. 

1. Atherina, 6 

Genus, 1 

Species, 6 

Family XI. — Mugilid*. 

1. Mugil, 6 

2. Dajaus, 1 

Genera, 2 

Species, 7 

Family XII. — Gobidjs. 

1. Blennius, 3 

2. Pholis, 2 



Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 



II 



Genera. 

3. Chasmodes, 

4. Salarias, 

5. Clinus, 

6. Gunnellus, 

7. Zoarcus, 

S. Anarrhicas, 

9. Gobius, 
10. Sicidium, 
1 I. Eleotris, 
12. Philypnus, 

Genera, 
Species, 

Family XIII. - 

1 . Lophius, 

2. Chironectes, 

3. Malthea, 

4. Batrachus, 

Genera, 
Species, 



No. of Species. 

3 

2 
1 

7 
3 
1 

8 
1 

5 
1 



12 
37 

■LOTHIDJE. 



4 

12 



Family XIV. — Labrid.e. 



1. 


Cossyphus, 




1 


2. 


Ctenolabrus, 




1 


3. 


Acanttiolabrus, 




1 


4. 


Clepticus, 




1 


5. 


Lachnolaimus, 




5 


6. 


Tautoga, 




1 


7. 


Malacanthus , 




1 


8. 


Julis, 




9 


9. 


Xyricbthys, 




3 


10. 


Scarus, 




18 


11. 


Callyodon, 




2 




Genera, 


11 






Species, 


43 





Family XV. — Silurid^:. 

1. Bagrus, 2 

2. Galeicbtbys, 1 

3. Arius, 1 



Genera. 


No. 


of Specie 


4. Pimelodus, 




16 


5. Noturus, 




1 


Genera, 


5 




Species, 


21 




Family XVI.— 


Cyprinid.e. 


1. Cyprinus, 




o 


2. Gobio, 




1 


3. Leuciscus, 




38 


4. Pimephales, 




1 


5. Catostomus, 




27 


6. Sclerognathus 


i 


2 


7. Exoglossum, 




6. 


8. Pcecilia, 




3 


9. Lebias, 




1 


10. Fundulus, 




1 


11. Hydrargyra, 




9 


12. Molinesia, 




1 


13. Cyprinodon, 




1 


Genera, 


13 




Species, 


93 





Family XVII. — Hvpsocid^;. 
1. Amblyopsis, 1 

Genus, 1 

Species, 1 

Family XVIII. — Esocidje. 



1. 


Esox, 


5 


2. 


Belone, 


3 


3. 


Scomberesox, 


1 


1. 


Exocetus, 


5 


5. 


Hemiramphus, 


2 




Genera, 


5 




Species, 


16 


Fc 


imily XIX. FlSTULARID.E. 


1. 


Fistularia, 


o 




Genus, 


1 




Species, 


2 



12 Slorcr's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 



Family XX. — 


Salmonidjs. 


Genera. 


No. 


of Specie* 


1. Salmo, 




18 


2. Osmerus, 




i 


3. Scopelus, 




i 


4. Coregonus, 




8 


5. Mallolus, 




2 


G. Thymallus, 




I 


7. Saurus, 




1 


Genera, 


7 




Species, 


32 




Family XXI.- 


- Clvteidje. 


I. Clupea, 




8 


2. Alosa, 




6 


3. Pomolobus, 




1 


4. Chatoessus, 




5 


5. Hyodon, 




2 


6. Elops, 




1 


7. Butirinus, 




1 


8. Amia, 




1 


Genera, 


8 




Species, 


25 





Family XXII. — Saurid*. 

I. Lepisosteus, 3 

Genus, 1 

Species, 3 



Family XXIII. 

1. Morrhua, 

2. Merluccius, 

3. Lota, 

4. Merlangus, 

5. Brosmius, 

6. Phycis, 

7. Macrourus, 

Genera, 
Species, 



■ Gadidje. 



8 
1 
3 
4 

1 
3 
1 



7 
21 



Family XXIV. — Planidje. 
1. Hippoglossus, 1 





Genera. 




No. of Speci 


2. 


Platessa, 




7 


3. 


Pleuronectes, 




3 


4. 


Achirus, 




2 


5. 


Plagusia, 




1 




Genera, 


5 






Species, 


14 





Family XXV. — Cvclopterid*. 

1. Lumpus, 4 

2. Liparis, 2 

Genera, 2 

Species, G 

Family XXVI. — Echeneids. 

1. Echeneis, 4 

Genus, 1 

Species, 4 



Family XXVII. — 


A.NGUILL1U* 


1. Anguilla, 


7 


2. Conger, 


1 


3. Mursena, 


1 


4. Ophidium, 

5. Fierasfer, 


2 

2 


6. Saccopharynx, 

7. Ammodytes, 


1 
2 


Genera, 


7 


Species, 


1G 



Family XXVIII. — Syngnathid^. 

1. Syngnathus, 1 

2. Hippocampus, 1 

Genera, 2 

Species, 2 

Family XXIX. — GymnodontidjE. 

1. Diodon, 3 

2. Tetraodon, 4 



Stirrer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North .America. 



13 



Genera. 




No 


of Species. 


Gunera. ,\ i of Spei i 


3. Acanthosoma, 






1 


3. Aluteres, 3 


4. Orthagoriscus 






1 


Genera, 3 


Genera, 
Species, 


4 
9 






Species, 8 
Family XXXI. — Ostracionid.e. 


Family XXX. — 


BAi.ivnn.r.. 


I. Lactophrys, 3 


I. Balistes, 






1 


Genus, 1 


2. Monocanthus, 






4 


Species, 3 



Division II. — Cartilaginous Fishes. 



Family XXXII. - 


— Stuiuoni 


D.E. 


Family XXXIV. - 


— Raiid.i 




Genera. 


No 


of Species. 


Genera. 


No. of Species 


1. Acipenser, 




6 


1. Raia, 




8 


2. Polyodon, 




1 


2. Trygon, 




3 


3. Platirostra, 




1 


3. Myliobatis, 




3 


Genera, 
Species, 


3 
8 




4. Aetobatis, 

5. Rhinoptera, 

6. Cephaloplera, 

7. Torpedo, 




1 

1 
1 

1 


Family XXXIII. 


— Squalie 


JE. 


Genera, 


7 




1. Carcharias, 




4 


Species, 


18 




2. Lamna, 

3. Alopias, 




2 


Family XXXV. — Petromyzo.md.e. 


4. Mustelus, 






1. Petromyzon, 




7 


5. Selache, 






2. Ammoccetes, 




3 


6. Acanthias, 






Genera, 


2 




7. Scymnus, 






Species, 


10 




3. Zygaina, 




; 




35 




9. Squatina, 
0. Pristis, 


Making a total of, — 
Families, 




Genera, 


10 




Genera, 


218 




Species, 


11 




Species, 


729 





It may be observed that I have followed the Family arrangement 
of Dr. Dekay. 



14 Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North .America. 



The following works have been consulted in the preparation 
of this Report. 

Acad. Nat. Scien. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadel- 
phia. 8vo. Philadelphia. IS\"1 et seq. 

Jlmer. Acad. Memoirs of the American Academy of Aits and Sciences. 4to. 
Boston. 1785 et seq. 

Jlmer. Journ. Scien. The American Journal of Science. Conducted by Benja- 
min Silliman. 8vo. New York and New Haven. 1818 et seq. 

Amer. Month. Mag. The American Monthly Magazine and Critical Review. 
8vo. New York. 1817, 1818. 

Jlmer. Phil. Soc. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society for Pro- 
moting Useful Knowledge. 4to. Philadelphia. 

Jinn. Lye. Annals of the Lyceum of Natural History of New York. 8vo. 
1854 el seq. 

Bloch, M. E. Ichthyologie, on Histoire Naturelle, generate et particuliere. 
des Poissons. 6 pts. fol. Berlin, Paris, et London. 1787. 

Browne, Patrick. The Civil and Natural History of Jamaica, fol. London. 
1789. 

Calesby, M. Natural History of Carolina, Florida, and the Bahama Islands, 
fol. London. 1754. 

Cuvier, George. Regne Animal. Translated by Edward Griffith. 8vo. Lon- 
don. 1834. 

Cuvier el Valenciennes. Histoire Naturelle des Poissons. 8vo. Paris. 1828 
etseq. (Vol. XVII., 1844.) 

Dehay, James E. Natural History of New York. Part IV. Fishes. 4to. 
New York. 1842. 

D' Orbigny, .fllcide. Voyage dans 1'Amerique Meridionale. fol. Paris. 

Fabricius, Otho. Fauna Groenlandica. 8vo. Hafnia et Lipsiae. 1780. 

Haldeman, S. S. Supplement to an Account of a " Monograph of the Limniada?, 
or Fresh-water Univalve Shells of North America," containing Descrip- 
tions of apparently new Animals in different Classes, and the Names and 
Characters of the Sub-genera in Paludina and Anculosa. 8vo. p. 3. 

Humboldt, Alex. Recueil d'Observations de Zoologie et dAnatomie Comparee. 

Par Alex, de Humboldt et Bonpland. fol. Paris. 1838. 
Jardine, Sir William. The Naturalist's Library. Ichthyology. Vol. I. The 

Perch Family. 12mo. Edinburgh. 1835. 



Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 15 

Jenyns, Leonard. A Manual of British Vertebrate Animals. 8vo. Cam- 
bridge (Eng.). 173 6; 1%^S\ 

Kirlland, Jared P. Report on the Zoology of Ohio. 8vo. Columbus. 1838. 

Linsley, Rev. James H. Catalogue of the Fishes of Connecticut. Silliman's 
Journal, Vol. XLVII. 

Lit. and Phil. Soc. Transactions of the Literary and Philosophical Society of 
New York. 4to. 1815. 

Mem. da Museum. Memoires du Museum d'Histoire Naturelle. Paris. 1815 
el seq. 

Parra, Antonio. Descripcion de diferentes Piezas de Historia Natural, las mas 
del ramo maritimo, representadas en setanta y cinco laminas. 4to. En la 
Havana. 1787. 

Pennant, Thomas. Arctic Zoology. 4to. London. 1784. 

Rafnesque, C. S. Ichthyologia Ohiensis, or Natural History of the Fishes 

inhabiting the River Ohio and its tributary Streams. Lexington (Ky.). 

1820. 

Richardson, John. Fauna Boreali Americana, or the Zoology of the Northern 
Parts of British America. Part III. The Fish. 4to. London. 183G. 

Shaw, George. General Zoology. Vols. IV. and V. 8vo. London. 1803, 

1804. 

Slorer, D. H. Report on the Ichthyology of Massachusetts. 8vo. Boston. 
1839. 

Thompson, Zadock. History of Vermont. 8vo. Burlington. 1842. 

Wilson, James. An Introduction to the Natural History of Fishes. Being the 

Article "Ichthyology" from the Seventh Edition of the "Encyclopedia 

Britannica." 4to. Edinburgh. 1838. 

Yarr ell, William. A History of British Fishes. Second Edition. 8vo. Lon- 
don. 1841. 



1 6 Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of JYorth America. 



SYNOPSIS 



CLASS I. OSSEOUS FISHES. 

Skeleton bony, the osseous matter being deposited in fibres. Sutures of 
the cranium distinct, with maxillary or intermaxillary bones, always one, and 
generally both, present. Gill-membrane with rays. 

ORDER I. ACANTHOPTERYGIL SPINE RAYED. 

They are known by the spines which represent the first rays of the dorsal 
fin, or which alone sustain the anterior fin of the back, when they have two. 
Sometimes, instead of an anterior dorsal fin, they have nothing but a few free 
spines. Their anal fin has also some spines instead of the first rays, and there 
is, in general, one to each ventral. 

FAMILY I. PERCIDiE. 

Comprehends fishes with an elongated body, covered with hard or rough 
scales, in which the operculum or preoperculum, and frequently boih, have 
indented or spinous edges, and in which the jaws, the front of the vomer, 
and almost always the palatines, are furnished with teeth. 

GENUS I. PERCA. 

Two dorsal fins distinct, separated ; the rays of the first spinous, those of 
the second, flexible : tongue smooth : teeth in both jaws, in front of the vo- 
mer, and on the palatine bones: preoperculum notched below, serrated on the 
posterior edge: operculum bony, ending in a flattened point directed back- 
wards. Branchiostegous rays. Scales roughened, and not easily detached. 



Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of JYorth America, 17 

1. Perca flavescens, Mitchill. 

Above, greenish yellow ; sides and abdomen, golden yellow. Six to ten vertical black 
bands descend from the back to the inferior portion of the sides, the alternate ones being 
shorter. Pectorals, ventrals, and anal, orange. 

The fin rays are,— D. 13. 1-13. P. 15. V. 1-5. A. 2-8. C. 17. Length, 4 to V2 
inches. 

Lake Huron, Richardson. Massachusetts, Stoker Connecticut, Ayres, Linsley. Z t^h*. C/^^**- »^*** 
New York, Mitchill, Dekay. Ohio, Kirtland. Pennsylvania, Haldeman. ' ™~ /cvctC, t Lct*~(*. ?7 ■ ' , 

Bodianus flavescens, Yellow Perch, Mitchill, Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. of N. Y., I. p. 421. 
La Perche jaunatre d'Amerique, Perca flavescens, Cuv. et Val., ii. p. 46. 
Perca flavescens, American Perch, Rich., Fauna Boreal. Americ., m. p. 1, pi. 74. 
Perca flavescens, Common Perch of Massachusetts, Storer's Keport, p. 5. 
Bodianus flavescens, Yellow Perch, Kirtland's Rep. on Zob'l. of Ohio, pp. 168, 190. 
Perca flavescens, American Yellow Perch, Dekay's Report, p. 3, pi. 1, fig. i. 
" " " " " Linsley's Cat. of Fishes of Conn. 

La Perche a opercules grenues, Perca serrato-granulata, Cuv. et Val., ii. p. 47. 

" " " Griffith's Cuv., x. pi. 39, fig. I. 

" Dekay's Report, p. 5, pi. 22, fig. 64. 

La Perche a tele grenue, Perca granulata, Cuv. et Val., vii. p. 48, pi. 9. 

" " Jardine, Nat. Lib., i. p. 92, pi. 1. 

" " Dekay's Report, p. 5, pi. 43, fig. 220. 

" Linsley's Cat. of Fishes of Conn. 
La Perche a museau pointu, Perca acuta, Cuv. et Val., ii. p. 49, pi. 10. 

" " Sharp-nosed Perch, Rich., Fauna Boreal. Americ, in. p. 4. 
" " Sharp-nosed Yellow Perch, Dekay's Rep., p. 6, pi. 6S, fig. 222. 
La Perche grele, Perca gracilis, Cuv. et Val., ii, p. 50. 

" " Rich., Fauna Boreal. Americ, in. p. 4. 

" " Slender Yellow Perch, Dekay's Report, p. 6. 

2. Perca Plumieri, Bloch. >*■■ < ^ « <^JCZCa ; . ' >' 

■■ 7° 

Whitish, with four longitudinal yellow ribands, and eight vertical blackish bands. The ' 

first dorsal and pectorals, gray ; the other fins, yellow. 

D. 9. 2-8. P. 13. V.l-6. A. 7. C. 22. Bloch. Length, (?). 
Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Sciiena Plumieri, Bloch, pi. 306. 

" " Plumier's Sciiena, Shaw's Gen. Znbl,, iv p. r..37. 

La Perche de Plumier, Perca Plumieri, Cuv. et Val., ii. p. 51. 

GENUS II. ETHEOSTOMA,* Rap. 

Body nearly cylindrical, and scaly. Mouth variable, with small teeth. Gill- 
cover double or triple, unserrate, with a spine on the opercle, and without 

* Haldeman formed a genus, which he calls Percina ; and Dekay, in his " Report on the 
Zoology of New York," characterizes two genera under the names of Pileoma and Boleo- 
soma, to receive the fishes which Rafinesque introduced into his genus Elheostoma. As Dr. 

46 



18 



Storeys Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 



&iA.i 



scales : six branchial rays. Thoracic fins with six rays, one of which is spinous ; 
no appendage. One dorsal fin, more or less divided into two parts, the an- 
terior one entirely with spinous rays. Vent medial, or rather anterior. 

i^^yy 1- Etheostoma caprodes, Raf. 

Body quite cylindrical, whitish, with about twenty transverse bands, alternately shorter. 
Head elongate, obtuse : upper jaw the longer. Lateral line quite straight. A black spot at 
the base of the tail. 

D. 15-16. P. 14. V. 1-5. A. 13. C. 17. Length, 6 inches. 

Western rivers, Raf., Kirtland. 

Etheostoma caprodes, Common Hog-fish, Raf., Ichth. Ohien., p. 33. 

" " " Kirtland's Rep. on Zoiil. of Ohio, pp. 16S, 192. 

" " " " Bosl. Journ. Nat. Hist., m. p. 346, pi. 5, fig. 3. 

2. Etheostoma blennioides, Raf. 

Body elongate : head small, snout rounded, mouth small beneath, lower jaw shorter. 
Olivaceous, almost diaphanous, some brown spots on the back, and some brown geminate 
transversal lines across the lateral line, which is straight, but rising at the base. 

D. 15-13. P. 16. V. 1-5. A. 2-9. C. 13. Length, 2 or 3 inches. 

Western rivers, Raf., Kirtland. 

Etheostoma blennioides, Blunt-nose Hog-fish, Raf., Iclilh. Ohien., p. 37. 

" " Blenny-like Hog-fish, Kirtland's Rep. on Zobl. of Ohio, p. 108. 

" " " Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist., m. p. 349, pi. 6, fig. I. 

slx^yis^ 3. Etheostoma variata, Kirtland. 

Body sub-cylindric, back gibbous, abdomen rectilinear ; scales rough, apparently hexago- 
nal. Head conical, gibbous ; orbits prominent. Pectorals large, elongated almost to the 
origin of the anal fin. Caudal, fan-shaped. Body banded, behind the pectorals, with seven 
or eight while zones, spotted w'ilh orange, the intervening spaces green ; an orange stripe 
beneath the pectoral fins, on the sides of the body. Back and head olive and green. Ante- 
rior dorsal fin edged with orange, and banded through its middle with indigo. Anal fin 
verditer. 

D. 12-13. P. (?). V. (?)• A. (?)• C (.')■ Length, (0- 

Mahoning River, Ohio, Kirtland. 

Etheostoma variata, Variegated Elheostome, or Darter, Kirtland, Bost. Journ. Nat. History, in. p. 274, 
pi. 2, fig. 2. 



Kirtland has been able, by means of Rafinesque's descriptions, to identify several of his spe- 
cies, I do not feel at liberty, objectionable as his genus may be in some respects, to substi- 
tute any other for it. 



Storcr's Synopsis of the Fishes of JYorth America. 19 



4. Etheostoma maculata, Kirtland. , f^C^h-^t/^i~^~'Cc^^' 

Body flattish, tapering gradually to tail. Head narrow, compressed. Jaws equal. Back 
and head, olive and black ; sides and abdomen, sea-green, with from twelve to twenty car- 
mine dots near the medial line. 

D. 10-13. P. 14. V. 1-5. A. 1-7. C. 22. Length, 24 inches. 

Mahoning River, Ohio, Kirtland. 

Etheostoma maculala, Black Darter, or Speckleil Hog-fish, Kirtland, Boat. Journ. Nat. Hist., m. p 
pi. 2, fig. 3. 

5. Etheostoma Olmstedi, Storer. /J^Cel^r-^-^-t^^a^. 

Body cylindrical-, very slightly compressed. Head small. Pectoral fins very long. Lat- 
eral line nearly straight. Yellowish, marked upon the back and sides with reddish brown 
blotches, which, when looked upon from either extremity of the fish, resemble interrupted 
longitudinal bands ; when the fish is examined from above, these markings present more or 
less distinct tran=*erse bands upon the back, which are situated at the origin, the middle, 
and the termination of both the dorsal fins. A narrow, deep black band passes from the 
snout to the eyes, and another from above the eyes, interrupted by them, to the lower edo-e 
of the cheeks. 

D. 9-13. P. 15. V. 6. A. 11. C. 15. Length, (?). 

Massachusetts, Storer. Connecticut, Olmsted, Ayres. New York, Dekay. Sus- 
quehannah River, Pennsylvania, Haldeman. 

Elheosloma Olmstedi, Storer, Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist., iv. p. 60, pi. 5, fig. 2. 

" " Ayres, " " " p. 257. 

Percina minima, Hald., Journ. Acad. Nat. Scien., vm. p. 330. 
Boleosoma tessellatum, Tessellated Darter, Dekav's Report, p. 20, pi. 20, fig. 57. 
Etheostoma Olmstedi, Ground Fish, Linsley's Cat. of Fishes of Connecticut. 
Perca minima, Dekav's Report, p. 7. 



6. Etheostoma nebulosa, Hald. 

Body slender, slightly compressed ; head and mouth small ; dorsal fins separated ; lateral 
line straight ; scales small, and strongly serrated ; tail truncated; pectoral fins very long ; 
branchiostegous rays, six. Yellowish brown, with irregular dark transverse bands. 

D. 14-15. P. 14. V. 7. A. 11. C. 18. Length, 54 inches. 

Susquehannah River, Pennsylvania, Haldeman. 

Percina nebulosa, Hald., Journ. Acad. Nat. Scien., VIII. p. 330. 
Perca nebulosa, Dekay's Report, p. 7. 

i? 

7. Etheostoma semilasciata, Dekay. »/ 

Body oblong, cylindrical. Head small, sloping; scales moderate in size. Caudal fin 
broad, and very slightly emarginated. Olive-green, with about twenty dark olive or brownish 



^LC^^S 




20 Storer' s Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 

transverse stripes on the sides, alternately but not regularly longer. A dark round spot at 
the base of the caudal. 

D. 13-15. P. 15. V. 1-5. A. 12. C. 15jj. Length, 2 inches. 

Lake Champlain, Dekay. 

Pileorna semifascialum, Champlain Pickering, Dekay's Report, p. 16, pi. 50, fig. 162. 

May not this prove to be the Percina nebulosa of Haldeman ? 

(J*sic^~^ £ ^6vV^ * 8. Etheostoma bimaculata, Hald. 

Slender, lateral line sub-rectilinear above the middle. Light yellow ; sides transversely 
and irregularly banded with black, and dorsal fins clouded with brown ; a distinct black spot 
at the extremity of the lateral line. Ten or twelve irregular transverse bands upon the back 
and sides ; rays of the second dorsal and caudal fins crossed by dark brown bands. 

D. 15-15. P. 13. V. 6. A. 11. C. 17. Length, (?). 

Susquehannah River, Pennsylvania, Haldeman. 

Percina bimaculata, Haldeman, Proceedings of the Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., p. 157. 

jt tvt^v cv^t, ;/ i^/ 9. Etheostoma coerulea, Storer. 

Body oblong. Head slightly gibbous anterior to the eyes, which are prominent. When 
alive, reddish above, orange-colored upon lower portion of the sides, with nine or ten trans- 
verse blue bands, which are not seen upon the red above. Anterior dorsal, yellow, mar- 
gined with blue ; posterior dorsal, with a longitudinal blue band at its base and margin ; 
ventral, anal, and caudal fins, bluish ; pectorals, light yellow. A blue blotch upon the 
cheeks. 

In spirits, the colors disappear, leaving the fish of a yellowish green, with ten dark brown, 
perfectly regular transverse bands extending from the dorsum to the abdomen : the bands at 
the edge of the first dorsal, and base of the second, are nearly black, and that at the margin 
of the second entirely disappears. 

D. 10-13. P. 13. V. 1-5. A. 9. C. 16. Length, 2J inches. 

Fox River, Illinois, Storer. 

Etheostoma cffirulea, Storer, Proceedings of the Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., 1S45. 

10. Etheostoma tessellata, Storer. 

Body oblong. Head gibbous, less than one fourth the length of the body. Lateral line 
straight. Top of the head and upper portion of the sides of a greenish brown color; eight 
or ten transverse bluish bands upon the sides ; the intervals between these bands are yel- 
lowish, and in the centre of each is a bluish rhomb. A black blotch at the base of the tail. 
The lips, opercles, and rays of the first dorsal, gamboge yellow. 



Storer' s Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 21 

D. 12-13. P. 13. V. G. A .12. C. 17. Length, 3 inches ? 
Florence, Alabama, Storer. Caught in running water. 

Etheostoma lessellata,. Storer, Proceedings of the Boat. Soc. Nat. Hist., 1845. 

11. Etheostoma cinerea, Storer. 

Body oblong, compressed. Head gibbous directly over the eyes. The upper portion of the 
sides is of a light yellow color, crossed longitudinally by three or four cinereous interrupted 
narrow bands, one or two of which commence at the snout, the others back of the head, 
and are lost anterior to the tail. Beneath these bands is a series of longitudinally arranged 
oval blotches, of a similar color, and from these blotches descend obliquely backward and 
downward to the abdomen, narrow transverse lines; lower portion of the sides yellowish 
white. First dorsal margined with red ; second dorsal and anal variegated with red dots. 

D 11-13. P. 15. V. 0. A. 10. C. 17. Length, 3 to 4 inches. 

Florence, Alabama, Storer. Caught in deep, still water, when fishing for Perch. 

Etheostoma cinerea. Storer, Proceedings of the Boat. Soc. Nat. Hist., 1645. 



GENUS III. LABRAX, Cuv. 

Distinguished from the Perch by the scaly opercula, terminating with two 
spines, and by a tongue covered with prickles. 

1. Labrax lineatus, Cuv. 

Cylindrical, tapering. The upper part of the body is of a silvery brown color ; the lower 
part of the sides and abdomen of a beautiful, clear silver color ; eight or more longitudinal 
black bands on each side, commencing just back of the opercula, the upper bands running 
the whole length of the fish, the lower ones terminating directly above the anal fin. 

D. 9, 1-12. P. 18. V. 1-4- A. 3-11. C 18. Length, 3 to 4 feet. 

Maine, New Hampshire, and Massachusetts, Storer. Connecticut, Ayres. New 
York, Mitchii.l, Cuv., Dekay. 

Scicena lineata, Bloch. pi. 304. 

Perca Milchilli, Striped Bass, or Rock-fish, Mitchill, Trans. Lit. et Phil. Soc, I. p. 113, pi. 3, fig. 4. 

Rock-fish, Mease, 1, p. 502. 

Le Bar Ray6 (on Rock-fish) des Etats-Unis, Labrax lineatus, Cuv. et Val., ii. p. 79. 

Griffith's Cuv., x. p. 103. 

Rich., Fauna Boreal. Americ, ill. p. 10. 

Storer's Report, p. 7. 

Avres, Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist., iv. p. 257. 

Dekay's Report, p. 7, pi. 1, fig. 3. 

J.insley's Cat, of Fishes of Connecticut. 



22 Storefs Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 

2. Labrax rufus, Mitchill. 

Body deep compressed. Color, a silvery gray ; in very large specimens, all the upper 
part of the body, as well as the head and fins, are of a rusty black. The spinous ray of the 
second dorsal fin about two thirds the height of the first membranous ray. 

D. 9, 1-12. P. 15. V. 1-5. A. 3-9. C. 17. Length, 6 to 15 inches. Usual weight 
about half a pound. This is known by the fishermen of Massachusetts as the White Perch. 

Massachusetts, Storer. Connecticut, Ayres. New York, Mitchill, Cirv., Dekay. 
South Carolina, Dekay. 

Bodianus rufus, Red Perch, Mitchill, Trans. Lit. et Phil. Soc , 1. p. 420. 
Le Petit Bar d'Amerique, Labrax mucronatus, Cuv. et Val., ii. p. 86, pi. 12. 

" " Small American Bass, or White Perch, Storer's Report, p 8. 

Labrax rufus, Ruddy Bass, Dekay's Report, p. 10, pi. 3, fig. 7. 
Labrax mucronatus, Ayres, Bost. Journ Nat. Hist., iv. p. 257. 

" " While Perch, Linsley's Cat. of Fishes of Connecticut. 

3. Labrax pallidus, Mitchill. 

Body compressed, small, light colored. First ray of the posterior dorsal nearly as long as 

the second. Opercle with a single spine. 

D.9-13. P. 17. V. 1-5. A. 3-7. C. 17J. Length, 4 inches. 

Massachusetts, Storer. New York, Mitchill, Dekay. 

Merone pallida, Mitchill's Report on the Fishes of New York, p. 18. 

Bodianus pallidus, " Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. N. Y., I. p 420. 

Labrax pallidus, Little White Bass, or White Perch, Dekay's Report, p. 11, pi. I, fig. 2. 

4. Labrax notatus, Smith. 

This species differs from the L. lineatus in being more robust, and in being marked with 
rows of spots, five above and five below the lateral line, so regularly interrupted and trans- 
posed as to appear like ancient church-music. The back is brilliant with iridescent green, 
gold, and pink colors ; the sides, silvery. 

D. 9, 1-12. P. (?)• V. 1-6. A. 1-12. C. 17. Length, 1 to 2 feet. 

The river St. Lawrence, at Quebec, Richardson. 

Labrax notatus, Bar-fish, or Canadian Bass, Lt.Col. C. H. Smith ; Rich.. Fauna Boreal. Americ, in. p. ? 
'• " Dekay's Report, p. 14. 

5. Labrax multilineatus, Cuv. 

Of a dark olive upon the head and back, silvery upon the sides, white beneath. Inter- 
rupted dark brown longitudinal stripes, varying in their number, upon the sides. Cuvier, in 
his description of this species, from a specimen taken in the Wabash, describes the number 
of stripes as being from sixteen to nineteen. Kirtland, in his account of the same, speaks 
of six or seven. This species differs from the lineatus by its deeper body, shorter head, 



Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 23 

smaller teeth, coarser asperities upon the tongue, and particularly by the scales upon the 
maxillary bones being much larger, and similar to those of the mucronalus. 

Cuvier's»and Kirtland's species may, perhaps, by future research, be ascertained to be 
distinct species. 

D. 9, 1-14. P. 16. V. 1-5. A. 3-13. C. 16*. Length, 8 to 15 inches. 

The Striped Bass of the Ohio. White Bass of Lake Erie. 

Wabash River, Indiana, Cuv. Ohio River, Lake Erie, Kirtlahd. 

Perca cbrysops. Raf.. tenth. Ohien.. p 32. 
Perca mullilineatus, Lesueur, Cuv. et Val., hi. p. 488. 
Le Petit Bar d'Amerique, Labrax mucronalus, Cuv. el Val., III. p. 488. 
Labrax mullilinealus, Kirtland, Bosl. Journ. Nal. Hisl., v. p. 21, pi. 7, fig. 1. 
" " Dekay's Report, p. 14. 

6. Labrax nigricans, Dekat. 
Dark colored, with a tinge of yellowish. First dorsal more elevated than the second. 
D. 9 or 10, 1-12. P. 16. V. 1-5. A. 3-8. C. 15§. Length, 6 to 12 inches. 
New York, Dekat. 

Labrax nigricans, Small Black Bass, Dekay's Report, p. 12, pi. 50, fig. 160. 

7. Labrax albidus, Dekay. 

Bluish white, with a few narrow dusky lines. Anal fin with twelve soft rays. Second 
dorsal scarcely emarginate. 

D. 9, 1-13. P. 17. V. 1-5. A. 3-12. C. 171. Length, 10 inches. 
Lake Erie, Dekay. 

Labrax albidus, White Lake Bass, Dekay's Report, p. 13, pi. 51, fig. 165. 

GENUS IV. CENTROPOMUS, Lacep. 
The preoperculum is indented, but the operculum is obtuse and unarmed. 

1. Centropomus undecimalis, Cuv. 

In its general form it resembles somewhat the Pike. Silvery, tinged with brownish or 
greenish towards the back; lateral line brown and very distinct. Fins yellowish, and 
dotted with black towards their edges; dorsal fin gray, dotted throughout with black. The 
second fin has eleven rays ; hence its specific name. 

D. 8, 1-10. P. 15. V. 1-5. A. 3-6. C. 17. Length, 12 inches. 

Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Scisna undecimalis, Bloch, 305 3 

Pike-headed SciaBna, Shaw's Gen. Zou'l., iv. p. 535. 
Le Centropome brachet dc mer, Centropomus undecimalis, Cuv. el Val., ii. p. 102, pi. 11. 



24 Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 

GENUS V. LUCIO-PERCA, Cuv. 
So named because, to the characters of the Perch, they join teeth which 
have some relation to those of the Pike. The edge of their preoperculum 
has merely a simple indentation ; their dorsal fins are separated ; some of 
their jaw and palatine teeth are long and pointed. 

1. Lucio-perca Americana, Cuv. 

Of a grayish yellow upon the sides, darker upon the back. The operculum terminates in 
a strono-, flat spine. The lower edge of the operculum smooth. A black spot upon the pos- 
terior part of the spinous dorsal. The first dorsal higher than ihe second. 

D. 14, 1-20. P. 13. V. 1-5. A. 2-11. C. 17. Cuv. et Val. Length, 2 feet. 

D. 14, 1-21. P. 13. V. 1-5. A. 1-13. C. 17\\. Richardson. 

Salmon, of the Ohio River. Pike, of Lake Erie. Pickerel, of the settlers on Lake 
Huron. Sandre, of the French Canadians. Horn-fish, of the fur-traders. 

Vermont, Thompson. Lake Huron, Richardson. Lake Erie, Kirtland. New 

York, Mitchill, Cuv., Dekay. 

Perca vitrea, Mitchill, Supp. Am. Month. Mag., u. p. 247. 
" salmonea, Raf., Iclilh. Ohien., p. 21. 
" nigropunclata, Raf., Ichth, Ohien., p.23. (The male.) 
Le Sandre d'Amerique, Lucio-perca Americana, Cuv. et Val., II. p. 122, pi. 16. 
Perca tiuviatilis, Var? Rich., Franklin's Journal, 1823, p. 725. 
Lucio-perca Americana, American Sandre, Rich., Fauna Boreal. Americ, in. p 10. 
" Okow, or Horn-fen, " " " " P- 14. 

'• " American Pike-Perch, Thompson, Hist. Vermont, p. 130, fig. 

" " Salmon of the Ohio, &c, Kirtland's Report, p. 190. 

" " Yellow Pike-Perch, Dekay's Report, p. 17, pi, 50, fig. 163. 

" American Sandre, Kirtland, Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist., iv. p. 237, pi. 9, fig. 2. 

2. Lucio-perca Canadensis, Smith. 

The upper part of the body dark olive-green ; the lower whitish ; a few pale yellow spots 
below the lateral line. The posterior margin of the bony operculum armed with five acute 
spines. The two dorsal fins nearly equal in height, and marked with black spots. 

D. 12, 1-17. P. 12. V. 1-5. A. 12. C. 17. Length, 14 inches. 

The river St. Lawrence, at Quebec, Richardson, Smith. 

Lucio-perca Canadensis, Green Pickering, Lieut. Col. C. H. Smith; Griffith's Cuv., x. p. 270, fig. 
» " Canadian Sandre, Rich., Fauna Boreal. Americ, in. p. 17. 

•■ " Dekay's Report, p. 19. 

3. Lucio-perca grisea, Dekav. 
General hue grayish. Membrane of the spinous dorsal fin without the black spots. In- 
variably smaller than the L. Americana. 



Storefs Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 25 

D. 14, 1-17. P. 15. V. 1-5. A. 13. C. 17|. Length, 10 to 12 inches. 
Found with the L. Americana, Dekay. 

Lucio-perca grisea, Gray Pike-perch, Dekay's Report, p. 19. 

GENUS VI. HURO, Cuv. 

Have all the characters of the Perch, properly so called, except that the 
preoperculum is not indented. 

1. Huro nigricans, Cuv. 

Above, of an olive-brown, changing into yellowish white on the belly, and along the cen- 
tral ridge of each scale is a line of the same color with the upper parts, giving it a striped 
appearance on the sides. The first dorsal fin is smaller than that of the Perch, and is placed 
at a considerable distance in front of the second. The anal fin is somewhat larger in pro- 
portion. 

D. 6,2-12. P. 15. V. 1-5. A. 3-11. C. 17. Cuv. et Val. Length, 16 inches. 

D. 6, 2-8. P. 15. V. 1-5. A. 3-11. C. 17?. Richardson. 

Lake Huron, Richardson, Cuv. 

Le Huron, Huro nigricans, Cuv. et Val., II. p. 124, fie;. 17. 

" Huron, Rich., Fauna Boreal. Americ, III. p. 4. 
" " Black Bass of the Huron, Jardine, Nal. Lib., I., Perches, p. 103, pi. 6. 

" Black Huron, Dekay's Report, p. 15. 

GENUS VII. SERRANUS, Cuv. 

Have the preoperculum denticulated, and the bony operculum terminated 
with one or two points, and long and pointed teeth distributed in a greater or 
less number among the smooth teeth of the lower jaw. 

1. Serranus morio, Cuv. 

Brownish above, reddish beneath. The extremities of the maxillaries, the lower jaw, and 
the branchial membrane, red. The spinous portion of the dorsal is of a deeper color than 
the soft portion. The caudal is brown ; the anal is dark orange, margined with brown ; the 
pectorals are orange-colored, and the ventrals are ornamented with large red spots. 

D. 11-17. P. (?)• V. (.'). A. 3-9. C 17. Length, 30 inches. 

New York, Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Called " Negre," at St. Domingo. 

Le Merou negre d'Am6rique, Scrranus morio, Cuv. et Val., ii. p 2S5 
" " Dekay'9 Report, p. 23 

47 



26 Storefs Synopsis of the Fishes of North .America. 

2. Serranus lunulatus, Cuv. 
Of a dull white, with lunated red spots. Fins blackish-; ventrals spotted like the body. 
D. (?). P. (?)• V. (?). A. (?)• C (.')■ Length, (?). 
Gulf of Mexico, Parra. 
Called "Cabrilla," at Havana. 

Cabrilla, Parra, p. 93, pi. 36, fig. I. 

Le Merou a croissant, Serranus lunulatus, Cuv. et Val., II. p. 379. 

3. Serranus ouatalibi, Cuv. 

Of a bright red color, brownish upon the sides ; it has a large number of small violet dots, 
encircled with black. The dorsal, particularly its membranous portion, edged with olive ; 
anal, violet ; extremity of the caudal red, its base violet; pectorals olive, margined with 
bright orange. 

D. 9-15. P. 17. V. 1-5. A. 3-8. C 17. Length, 10 or 11 inches. 

Gulf of Mexico, Parra. Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Called, at Martinique, " Ouatalibe " ; at St. Thomas, " Butter-fish." 

Guativere, Parra, p. 7, pi. 5, fig. 2. 

Le Merou ouatalibi, Serranus oualalibi, Parra. Cuv. et Val., ii. p. 381. 

4. Serranus guativere, Parra. 

Red upon the back, yellow upon the remainder of the body ; tail yellow, with two black 

spots. Black dots upon the head ; a large one in front of the eyes. 

Gulf of Mexico, Parra- 

Guativere, Parra, p. 8, pi. 5, fig. 1. 

Le Merou guativere, Serranus guativere, Parra, Cuv. et Val., ii. p. 3S3. 

5. Serranus creolus, Cuv. 

Red, deeper upon the back, rose-colored beneath. Sixteen to eighteen parallel lines cross 
the sides obliquely towards the back. A bright orange spot at the base of the pectorals. 
The dorsal is spotted with green. 

D- 9-19. P. 19. V. 1-5. A. 3 -9. C. 17. Length, (?). 

Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Called "Creole," at Martinique. 

Rabirrubia de lo alto, Parra, p. 43, pi. 20, fig. 2. 

Le Barbier, Serranus creolus, Cuv. et Val., ii. p. 265. 

6. Serranus striatus, Cuv. 

Two longitudinal bands upon the forehead ; four or five irregular wide, vertical bands upon 
the body, and two upon the tail. Back of the dorsal fin, above the tail, a large, square 
black spot. Three spines upon the operculum. Very fine denticulations upon the preoper- 
culum. 



Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North .America. 27 

D. 11-17. P. 17. V. 1-5. A. 3-8. C. 16. Length, 3 feet. 
Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 
Called "Cabrilla," at Porto Rico. 

Chema, Parra. p. 50, pi. 24, fig. 1. 

Le Merou a croupe noire, ou Cherna des Espagnols d'Amerique, Serranus strialus, Cuv. et Val., ii. p. 233. 

7. Serranus arara, Parra. 

Dark brown, with gilded brown spots ; fins, bluish black ; the margin of the soft dorsal, 

of the anal, and of the caudal, black. No spots upon the fins. 

Gulf of Mexico, Cuv. 

Bonaci arara. Parra, p. 30, pi. 16, fig. 2. 

I.e Merou arara, Serranus arara, Cuv., Cuv. et Val., ii. p. 377. 

S. Serranus cardinalis, Parra. 

Red, with black spots. The sides, and beneath the head, yellow, with red spots ; abdo- 
men white, spotted with red. The soft dorsal, anal, and caudal fins, spotted with red and 
black ; ventrals half red and half yellow ; pectorals red, margined with blackish. 

Gulf of Mexico, Parra. 

Bonaci cardenal, Parra, p. 29, pi. 16, fig. I. 

Le Merou cardinal, Serranus cardinalis, Cuv., Cuv. et Val., ii. p. 378. 

9. Serranus bivittatus, Cuv. 

Two longitudinal brown bands upon each side of the body ; one above and one below the 
lateral line. A broad violet stripe arises upon the neck, passes between the eyes, and bi- 
furcates over each nostril ; two more upon the suborbitals ; and a shorter one upon the pre- 
opercle. 

D. 10-12. P. 16. V. 1-5. A. 3-7. C. 17. Length, 4 to 5 inches. 

Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Le Serran a deux rubans, Serranus bivittatus, Cuv., Cuv. et Val.. ii. p. 241. 

10. Serranus oculatus, Cuv. 

Elongated, of a beautiful golden aurora color. Caudal fin deeply forked. The dorsal fin 
much emarginated between its spinous and membranous portions. Eyes larger than in any 
other species of the genus. Two very short spines upon the operculum. 

D. 10-11. P. 16. V. 1-5. A. 3-8. C. 17. Length, 24 inches. 

Caribbean Sea, Ccv. 

Called " Gros yeux," at Martinique. 

Le Barbier, Serranus oculatus, Cuv. et Val., ii. p. 266, pi. 32. 



28 Slorefs Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 

11. Serranus catus, Cuv. 

Resembles considerably the preceding. The spots are larger and less numerous. Vertical 
fins, with white spots at their base, and their margin blackish. Pectorals yellowish at their 
base, blackish at their extremities. 

D. 11-17. P. 16. V. 1-5. A. 3-9. 0.17. Length, (?)■ 

Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Perca maculata, Bl., pi. 213. 

Le Merou chat (Serranus calus, Cuv., Perca maculata, Bl.), Cuv. et Val., II. p. 373. 

12. Serranus coronatus, Cuv. 

Body brown, variegated with rose and violet-colored spots; three moderate-sized spines 
upon the operculum. 
D. 9-15. P. 16. V. 1-5. A. 3-8. C. 17. Length, (?). 
Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Le Merou couronne (Serranus coronatus, Cuv., Perca guttata, Bl.), Cuv et Val., II. p. 371. 

13. Serranus nigriculus, Cuv. 

Violet, with numerous dull, round spots upon the orbits, lips, and vertical fins. Upon the 
posterior portion of the body these spots become more clouded. Pectorals and ventrals dot- 
ted with brown ; very fine denticulations upon the preopercle ; opercular spines feeble. 

D. 11-17. P. 16. V.l-5. A. 3-9. C. 17. Length, (?)• 

Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Called, at Martinique, " Petit Negre," " Grande Gueule," " Vieille." 
Le Merou petit negre, Serranus nigriculus, Cuv., Cuv. et Val., ii. p. 375. 

14. Serranus flavescens, Cuv. 

Body elongated, snout short and thick ; head flattened above ; preoperculum rounded and 
finely denticulated ; three opercular spines. Yellowish brown upon the back, orange upon the 
sides; more bright or red upon the abdomen, without spots or bands. Head above, bluish. 
Fins gray. Caudal margined above and beneath with deeper brown. 

D. 9-12. P. 15. V.l-5. A. 3-7. C. 17. Length, 7 inches. 

Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Le Serran jaunatre, Serranus flavescens, Cuv. et Val., vi. p. 506. 

15. Serranus fascicularis, Cuv. 

With five or six longitudinal bands. Preoperculum with two groups of radiating spines 
on the lower part of its posterior margin. Three transverse lines on the top of the head. 



Storefs Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 29 

D. 10-12. P. 15. V. 1-5. A. 3-7. C. 15. Length, 10 inches. 
South Carolina, Cuv. 

Le Serran a deux faisceaux, Serranus fascicularis, Cuv. et Val., II. p. 245, and IX. p. 431. 
" " Dekay's Report, p. 23. 

16. Serranus acutirostris, Cuv. 

Entirely brown. Snout more elongated than in the other species. Preopercle very mi- 
nutely denticulated. 
D. 12-16. P. 15. V. 1-5. A. 3-11. C. 18. Length, (.'). 
South Carolina, Cuv. 

Le Merou a museau ai^u, Serranus acutirostris, Cuv. et Val., II. p. 2SS, and ix. p. 432. 
" " Dekay's Report, p. 23. 

17. Serranus inermis, Cuv. 

Preoperculum with very small denticulations. The opercular spine hardly visible ; hence 
its specific name. The dried fish is reddish brown, with large, round white spots ; brown 
spots upon the head ; the dorsal, anal, and caudal fins blackish, spotted with white ; pecto- 
rals and ventrals greenish black, sprinkled with olive spots ; beneath the angles of the lower 
jaw, four round white spots. 

D.ll-19. P. 18. V. 1-5. A. 3-10. C. 17. Length, (.'). 

Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Le Merou inerme, Serranus inermis, Cuv. et Val., ix. p. 436. 

18. Serranus rupestris, Cuv. 

Violet-colored above, sprinkled with large, irregularly rounded spots, of a beautiful ver- 
milion red upon the back, base of the dorsal, and upon the ventrals; these are violet upon 
the head and sides, and upon the throat they become more vivid than the general color of the 
fish. Its height is nearly a fourth of its length ; its thickness is between a half and a third of 
its height. An emargination above the angle of the preopercle. 

D. 11-16. P. (?). V. (?). A. 3-10. C. (?). Length, 15 inches. 

Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Called "Rock-fish," at St. Domingo. 

Le Merou des roches, Serranus rupestris, Cuv. et Val., ix. p. 437. 

19. Serranus tigris, Cuv. 

The preopercle has no emargination. Body violet-colored more or less deep upon the 
back, and sprinkled with greenish brown spots ; brighter beneath. Eight oblique lilac-colored 
rays cross the body. 



30 Storefs Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 

D. 11-17. P. (?)■ V. (?)• A. 3-11. C. (?) Length, 13 inches. 
Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Le Mirou tigre, Serranus ligris, Cuv. et Val., ix. p. 440. 

20. Serranus erythrogaster, Dekaf. 
Olive-brown above; beneath red. Dorsal, caudal, ventral, and anal fins bordered with 
blue, and edged with dusky. 
D. 11-16. P. 16. V. 1-5. A. 2-10. C. 16. Length, 2 feet. 
Florida, Dekay. 

Serranus erythrogaster, Groper, Dekay, p. 21, pi. 19, fig. 52. 

GENUS VIII. PLECTROPOMA, Cuv. 

Differ from the Serrani only in having the teeth, which are more or less 
numerous on the preoperculum, directed obliquely forward, slightly resembling 
the teeth of the rowel of a spur. 

1. Plectropoma Hispanum, Cuv. 
Of a beautiful aurora color, marked with red and yellow. Eight dorsal spines ; but one 
tooth beneath the preoperculum. Canines short. Suboperculum denticulated. The twelfth 
anal spine very stout. 

D. 8-12. P. 16. V. 1-5. A. 3-7. C. 17. Length, (?)• 

Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Called, at Martinique, " Ouatalibe Espagnol." 

Le Plectropome pavilion d'Espagne, Plectropoma Hispamim, Cuv. etV.\L. r II. p 396. 

2. Plectropoma chloropterum, Cuv. 
Olive, marbled with black. Throat olive, spotted with white. Opercular spines very 
small. Edge of the preoperculum rounded, with two teeth beneath the angle directed 
forward. Pectorals green. 

D. 11-17. P. 16. V. 1-5. A. 3-8. C. 17. Length, 10 inches. 

Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Called, at St. Domingo, "Farlate." 

Le Plectropome a pectorales verles, Plectropoma chloropterum, Cuv. et Val., II. p. 393. 

3. Plectropoma puella, Cuv. 
Olive, crossed by six violet -black bands ; the third, in the centre of the body, is very broad 
and conspicuous, and is immediately followed by one of narrow dimensions. Blue bands 
upon the head and breast. 



Slorer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 31 

D. 10-16. P. 13. V. 1-5. A. 3-7. C. 17. Length, 4 inches. 

Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Called, at Martinique, " Demoiselle blanche." 

Le Plectropome demoiselle, Plectropoma puella, Cuv. eL Val., ii., p. 405, pi. 37. 

Jabdi.ne, Nat. Lib., Vol i., Ichthyology, p. 143, pi. 22. 

4. Plectropoma chlorurum, Cuv. 

Of a beautiful brown. Caudal and pectorals yellow. The other fins black. Three 
points to the operculum. Six teeth at the lower edge of the preoperculum ; its edge is very 
finely denticulated ; three stouter teeth towards the angle. 

D. 10-15. P. 12. V. 1-5. A. 3-7. C. 15. Length, (?). 

Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Called, at Martinique, " Petit Negre." 

Le Plectropome a caudale jaune, Plectropoma chlorurum, Cuv. et Val., ii. p. 406. 

GENUS IX. MESOPRION. 

Agrees with Serranus in its teeth, fins, and dentated preoperculum, but 
differs in its opercle being terminated by an obtuse angle, not spinous. 

1. Mesoprion uninotatus, Cuv. 

The back, upper part of the head, and cheeks are of a brownish steel-blue ; the lower part 
of the cheeks and sides of a rich rose-color, and the belly silvery. The entire body striped 
with seven or eight longitudinal golden bands, irregular and disconnected towards the dor- 
sum. Dorsal fin rose-colored, with three yellow bands; the other fins a jonquil yellow. 
A dark-colored spot beneath the posterior portion of dorsal fin. 

D. 10-12. P. 16. V. 1-5. A. 3-8. C. 17. Length, 13 or 14 inches. 

Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Called, at St. Domingo, " Sarde Doree." 

Salpa purpurascena varlegata, Lane Snapper, Catesby, n. p. 17, pi. 17. 

Spams Synagris, Lin., Shaw's Gen. Zoo]., iv. p. 410. 

Le M' oprion (lore, Mesoprion uninotatus, Cuv. et Val., ii. p. 449, pi. 39. 

" Wilson's Art. Iclith., p. 1G9, pi. 298, fig 5 

" Jardine, Nat. Lib., I., Ichthyology, p. 148, pi 24. 

2. Mesoprion chrysurus, Cuv. 

Above the lateral line, grayish, obliquely rayed with golden yellow ; beneath it, of a 
bright purple, with three longitudinal golden stripes. The upper, which is broadest, passes 
along the middle of the body. Dorsal and anal, olive-yellow ; caudal, a bright yellow, 
margined with two rose-colored lines; pectorals, rose-colored ; ventrals, orange. Tail very 
much forked. 



32 Storefs Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 

D. 10-13. P. 14. V. 1-5. A. 3-9. C. 17. Length, 20 inches. 

Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Rabirrubia, Parra, p. 42, pi. 20, fig. I. 

Sparus chrysurus, Gold-tailed Sparus, Bl., pi. 262? Shaw's Gen. Zob'l., iv. p.414, pi. GO 

Le Mesoprion a queue d'or, Mesoprion chrysurus, Cuv., Cuv. et Val., ii. p. 459, pi. 40. 

" " Golden-tailed Mesoprion, Jard., Nat. Lib., I. p. 150, pi. 25. 

3. Mesoprion cynodon, Cuv. 
Back tinged with orange ; abdomen white ; fins and sides greenish yellow. The upper 
canine teeth very stout ; also all the lower lateral teeth. 

D. 10-14. P. 16. V. 1-5. A. 3-9. C. 17. Length (?). 
Gulf of Mexico, Parra. Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Caballerote, Parra, p. 52, pi. 25, fig. 1. 

Sparus cynodon, Bl., 278? Shaw's Gen. Zobl., Dog-toothed Sparus, iv. p. 411. 

Le Mesoprion a dents de chien, Mesoprion cynodon, Cuv. et Val., ii. p. 465. 

4. Mesoprion jocu, Parra. 

Rose-colored ; fins yellowish, except pectorals. A series of silvery spots, edged with 

brown, upon the cheeks and suborbitals. 

D. 10-15. P. 17. V. 1-5. A. 3-9. C. 19. Weight, 12 to 15 pounds. 

Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Jocu, Parra, p. 53, pi. 25, fig. 2. 

Le Mesoprion jocu, Mesoprion jocu, Cuv., Anthias jocu, Bl., Cuv. et Val., ii. p. 46G. 

5. Mesoprion mahogoni, Cuv. 
Of a copper-colored russet-brown, which changes to a golden upon the sides, and silvery 
upon the back. 

D. 10-12. P. 15. V. 1-5. A. 3-8. C 17. Length, 5 inches. 

Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Called, at Martinique, " Sarde acajou." 

Le Mesoprion acajou, Mesoprion mahogoni, Cuv. et Val., ii. p. 447. 

6. Mesoprion analis, Cuv. 

All the upper part of the body and sides marked with irregular longitudinal golden and 
silvery lines. The lower part of the sides, and the space between the golden and silvery 
lines, of a rose-red color. The ventrals, the greater part of the anal, and the edges of the 
caudal fin, of a bright rose-color ; the dorsal bluish, rose-colored at its margin, with a wide 
yellow band at its base and upon its entire soft portion. 

D. 10-14. P. (?). V. (!) A. (.')• C. (?). Length, 5 inches. 

Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Called, at St. Domingo, " Sarde Haut-dos." 

Le Mesoprion a anale rouge, Mesoprion analis, Cuv. et Val., ii. p. 452. 



Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 33 

7. Mesoprion vivamis, Cuv. 

Of a golden aurora color, with oblique brown lines upon the back, and longitudinal lines 
upon the sides. A brownish spot at the posterior portion of the body. The extremity of 
the caudal fin bordered with black. 

D. 10-13. P. 16. V. 1-5. A. 3-8. C. 17. Weight, 40 pounds. 

Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Called, at Martinique, " Vivaneau." 

Le Mesoprion vivaneau, Mesoprion vivanus, Cuv. et Val., II. p. 454 

8. Mesoprion sobra, Cuv. 

Of a brilliant olive-yellow, longitudinally marked with thirteen or fourteen blue bands, 
some of which bifurcate upon the back ; three blue rays upon the cheeks. The dorsal fins 
olive, spotted with bluish. The caudal, olive, tinged with red. The anal and ventrals, red . 
The pectorals, rose-colored. A deep violet-colored spot upon the posterior part of the body. 

D. 10-14. P. 16. V. 1-6. A. 3-8. C. 17. Length, (•). 

Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Called, at Martinique, "Sobre." 

Le Mesoprion sobre, Mesoprion sobra, Cuv. et Val., ii. p. 453. 

9. Mesoprion buccanelJa, Cuv. 
Red ; each scale edged with silver. The caudal and anal fins, yellow ; the other fins, 
reddish. A black crescent-shaped spot at the base of the pectorals, — and hence its name. 
Oreille noire. 

D. 10-14. P. 15. V. 1-5. A. 3-8. C. 17. Weight, 15 to 20 pounds. 

Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Called, at Martinique, " Oreille noire," and " Noper." 

Le Mesoprion oreille noire, Mesoprion buccanella, Cuv. et Val., n. p. 455. 

10. Mesoprion aya, Cuv. 

Of a beautiful carmine-red color, scales edged with silver ; no black spot upon the pecto- 
rals, as in the preceding species. Four anal spines. 
D. 10-14. P. (?). V. (?). A. 4-9. C (?)• Length, 28 inches. 
Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 
Called "Garanha." 

Le Mesoprion rouge, Mesoprion aya, Cuv. et Val., II. p. 45". 

11. Mesoprion litura, Cuv. 
Of a beautiful red color; a continued blue line upon the cheeks. Perhaps a variety of 
the M. jocu. 

48 



34 Storeys Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 

D. 10-15. P. 16. V. 1-5. A. 3-8. C. 17. Weight, SO to 30 pounds. 
Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Le MSsoprion 1 raie. Mesoprion litura, Cuv. et Val., a. p. 467. 

12. Mesoprion linea, Cuv. 
Olive-brown ; paler upon the abdomen, with seven or eight vertical yellow bands. Fins 
olive. A narrow silvery line edged with brown passes from the middle of the maxillary 
hone to the preopercle, and divides upon the opercle. 

D. 10-15. P. 15. V. 1-5. A. 3-8. C. 17. Length, 3 or 4 inches. 
Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Le Mesoprion a ligne, Mesoprion linea, Cuv. el Val., ii. p. 463. 

13. Mesoprion griseus, Cuv. 

Grayish, verging to lilac upon the back, and upon the margin of the dorsal and caudal 
fins ; aurora-colored at the lower portion of the sides, and on the ventrals ; anal fin rose- 
colored or lilac. Beneath, white ; each scale has a yellowish spot, by which longitudinal 
slightly oblique lines are formed upon the sides, which are more mingled with the gray upon 
the back. 

D. 10-14. P. (?)• V. (?). A. 3-8. C. (.')■ Length, 18 inches. 

Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Called, at St. Domingo, " Sarde grise." 

Le Mesoprion gria, Mesoprion griseus, Cuv. et Val., ii. p. 469. 

14. Mesoprion flavescens, Cuv. 

With vertical yellowish bands, lighter upon the back and fins. Neither lines nor dots 
upon the cheeks. 

D. 10-15. P. 17. V. 1-5. A. 3-8. C. 17. Length, (?)• 
Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Le Mesoprion jaunatre, Mesoprion flavescens, Cuv. et Val., ii. p. 472. 

15. Mesoprion pargus, Cuv. 

Of a yellowish brown color, spotted with red. The four upper canines are very stout. A 
well marked tuberosity upon the interopercle. 

D.10-14. P. (?). V. (>). A. 3-8. C. (.')■ Length, 27 inches. 
Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Le Mesoprion pargo, Mesoprion pargus, Cuv. el Val.. ii. p. 473. 

16. Mesoprion isodon, Cuv. 

The teeth differ from those of all the other Mesoprions ; the upper jaw has three strong 
canines, and sixteen conical teeth, decreasing regularly from the first, which is less than 



Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 35 

half the height of the others. The first row of teeth in the lower jaw is similar to that 
of the upper, except that it has no canines. The dried fish is red above, silvery or golden 
upon its sides, without bands. 

D. 11-15. P. 1G. V. 1-5. A. 3-7. C. 17. Length, 21 inches. 

Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Le Mesoprion A dents egale.s, Mesoprion isodon, Cuv. et Val., ix. p, 143. 

GENUS X. CENTROPRISTIS, Cuv. 

A single dorsal fin ; branchiostegous rays, seven ; all the teeth small and 
crowded ; no canines. Their preoperculum is dentated and the operculum 

spinous. 

1. Centropristis nigricans, Cuv. 

This species is of a dark brown, almost black, color, lighter beneath ; the head is of a sea 
or bronze green. The young of this species present clouded transverse bands. The while 
connecting membrane of the dorsal and anal tins is barred with black. The central rays of 
the caudal fin, which are usually forked, are elongated somewhat in young specimens: 
thus this fin is trilobed ; this elongation is less perceptible in old specimens. 

D. 10-11. P. 18. V. 1-5. A. 3-7. C. 17. Length, 12 to 14 inches. 

Massachusetts, Storer. New York, Mitchill. 

c al^ct'ii-LS -hy-i'.ith A-- L'a* \c*t.£(x 
Perca varia. Mitchill. Trans. Lit. et Phil. Soc. New York, i. p. 415, pi. 3, fig. 6. ^ . ,^ ,^, b /lr 

Centropristis nigricans, Griffith's Ct'v., x. p. 11". ' ^ 

l.e Centropriste noir, Centropristis nigricans, Cuv. el Val., mi. pp. 37, 44. Lutjanus minims, Lacbp ■ 

" i: Black Perch, Black Bass, Storer's Report, p. 9. 

" " Black Sea Bass, Dekay's Report, p. 24, pi. II, fig. 5. 

„ a 

2. Centropristis trifurca, L. 

It is spotted, and ornamented with seven blue bands. The opercula are finely denticu- 
lated. The tail is three-pointed, like the nigricans. The third and fourth dorsal spines 
are furnished with tentaculae as long as the spines themselves. 

D. 11-12. P. 16. V. 1-5. A. 3-8. C. 20. Length, (?). 

South Carolina, Cuv. 

Le Centropriste trident, Perca trifurca, L., Cuv. et Val., mi. p. 43. Lutjanus iridens, Lacep. ? 
11 " Dekay's Report, p. 23. 

3. Centropristis tabacarius, Cuv. 
Of a reddish brown, deeper above, lighter beneath; with an oblong, dull whitish spot 
upon each side, at the upper edge of the lateral line, opposite the first seven dorsal spines; 
a second small spot at the first ray of the dorsal fin ; and a third at the base of the last few 
soft rays of the dorsal. Dorsal fin with clouded brown spots. Three spines upon the oper- 
culum. 



•36 Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 

D. 10-12. P. 13. V. 1-5. A. 3-7. C. 17. Length, (?). 

Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Called, at Martinique, " Le Bout de Tabac." 

Le Centropriste bout de tabac, Centropristis tabacarius, Cuv. etVAL., in. p. 41. 

4. Centropristis auro-rubens, Cuv. 

Upper part of the body of a vermilion-red, which gradually changes upon the sides and 
abdomen to a rose-red. The sides are sprinkled with oblong, irregular yellow spots. Dor- 
sal and pectoral fins red ; ventrals and anal, lighter. One spine upon operculum. 

D. 12-11. P. 18. V. 1-5. A. 3-8. C. 17. Length, 1 foot. 

Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

At St. Domingo, called " Fadale." 

Le Centropriste rmi^e-dore, Centroprislis auro-rubens, Cuv. et Yal., hi. p. 45. 

5. Centropristis rufus, Cuv. 

Of an uniform beautiful deep russet-color. A single spine upon the operculum. 
D. 10-11. P. 17. V. 1-5. A. 3-7. C. 17. Length, 8 inches. 
Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Le Centropriste roux, Centropristis rulus, Cuv. et Val., hi. p. 47. 

GENUS XI. GRYSTES, Cuv. 
Differs only from the Centropristis in having the preoperculum entire, and 
not denticulated at the edges. 

1. Grystes salmoides, Lacep. 

The adult fish is of a deep greenish brown color, with a bluish black spot at the angle of 
the operculum. The posterior portion of the dorsal fin rises high, and resembles somewhat 
that of some of the Greylings. The tail is shaped much like that of the Salmonidae, and has 
a dark Drown band crossing its centre. The young are marked with numerous longitudinal 
bands. 

1). 10 -13 or 14. P. 16. V. 1-5. A. 3-11 or 12. C 17. Length, 2 feet 

New York, Cuv. Carolina, Lacepede- Wabash River, Indiana, Cuv. 

Called " Trout," in the places where it is found. 

Le Growler salmoide (Grystes salmoides, Cuv., Labrus salmoides, Lacep.), Cuv. el Val.. hi. p. 54, pi 46 
Grystes salmoides, Salmon-formed Growler, Jaudine, Nat. Lib., l. p. 158, pi. 29. 
« " Growler, Dekav's Report, p. 26, pi. 09, fig, 223. 



Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 37 

GENUS XII. RYPTICUS, Cuv. 

A single dorsal fin. Small spines on the opercles ; scales small, and con- 
cealed beneath a thick epidermis. The species have been called Savonniers 
by the French, in consequence of their soft and soapy surface, which feels as 
if it had been lubricated by some unctuous matter. 

1. Rypticus saponaceus, Bloch; 

Oblong and compressed. Of a blackish color, verging to violet ; its whole surface covered 
with very small elliptical scales, which, through the microscope, exhibit radiating striae, 
and are crenulated at the edges. 

D. 3-25. P. (?). V. (?). A. 17. C. 17. Length, 8 or 9 inches. 

Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, Cuv. 

Jabonsillo, Parka, p. 51, pi. 24, fig. 2. 

Le Savonnier common (Ryplicus saponaceus, Cuv., Anthias saponaceus, Be), Cuv. et Val. . m. p. 63. 

GENUS XIII. CENTRARCHUS, Cuv. 

Have an oval, compressed body ; a single dorsal fin. Velvet-like teeth in 
both jaws, before the vomer, upon the palatines, and upon the base of the 
tongue ; the preoperculum entire ; the operculum divided at its angle into two 
flattened points. 

1. Centrarchus aeneus, Lesueur. 

Coppery, occasionally tinged with green. Head and back dusky olive, blotched irregu- 
larly with darker spots; the jaws, lips, and throat, dusky ; the thorax bluish or steel-gray. 
The spinous portion of the dorsal fin is longer than the membranous portion, and half of its 
height. 

D. 12-11. P. 16. V 1-5. A.6-10. C. 17. Lesueur. Length, 7 to 10 inches. 

D. 11-11. P. 14. V.l-5. A.6-10. C. 17. Cuv. et Val. 

D 11-11. P. 14 V.l-5. A 6-10. C. 175. Richardson. " 

D. 11-11. P. 16. V.5. A.6-10. C 17|. Kirtlanb. 

D. 11-12. P. 14. V.l-5. A. 6-11. C. 17g. Dekay. 

Lake Erie, Lesueur. Lake Ontario, Cuv. Lake Huron, Richardson. Lake Cham- 
plain, Dekay. Almost every permanent 6tream in Ohio, Kirtland. 

Called "Rock Bass," "Goggle-eyed Bass," "Black Sun-fish," in Ohm. "Rock 
Bass," in Lake Champlain. 

C chla renea, Lesueur, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc., n. p. 'ill. fig, 

Le Centrarchus bronze, Centrarchus a?neu*. Cuv. et Val, hi. p. 34. 

Bi ril f lenlrarchus, Rich , Fauna Boreal. An.er., mi I 

Cichla a nen, Rock Bass, Kibtland's Report on IheZobl of Ohio, pp. II 
Centrarchus ffineus, Fresh-walec Bass Dekay's Report, \> 27, pi 11, fig 4. 

" Kirtland, Cost. Journ. Nat Hist., iv p. 239, pi. II, fig. I. 



38 Storefs Synopsis of the Fishes of JVorth .America. 

2. Centrarchus fasciatus, Lesueur. 

Body compressed ; back arched and gibbous. Of a dusky bluish color, often with trans- 
verse bands. Anal fin with three spines. 
D. 9, 1-14. P. 18. V. 5. A. 3-12. C. 16|. Length, 18 to 20 inches. 
Lake Erie, Lesueur. New York, Dekay. Ohio, Kirtland. 

Cichla fasciata : Ohiensis : minima, Lesueur, Joum. Acad. Nat. Sc, n. pp. 116, 219. 

" " Black Bass of Lake Erie and the Ohio, Kirti-and's Report, p. 191. 

Centrarchus fasciatus, Black Fresh-water Bass, Dekay's Report, p. 28, pi. 1 1 1 , fig. 8. 

" " Kirtland, Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist., v. p. 28, pi. 9, fig. I. 

3. Centrarchus sparoides, Val. 

This species is of a more rounded form than the C. hexacanthus. Its dorsal fin is longer 
than that of the C. aeneus, and its anal fin is higher than that of any other species of the 
genus. The color is greenish above, and beneath silvery. The whole body exhibits golden 
reflections, and has numerous large black dots upon its sides, which form fourteen longi- 
tudinal lines. 

D. 12-13 P. 11. V. 1-5. A. 9-15. C. 17. Length, 7 inches. 

South Carolina, Cuv. 

Le Centrarchus a neuf 6pio.es, Centrarchus sparoides, Ctrv. et Val., vii. p. 459. 

" Dekay's Report, p. 31. 

4. Centrarchus pentacanthus, Cuv. 

Similar in form to the aeneus, but its anal fin has but five spines, and the dorsal ten. A 
narrow blackish line runs longitudinally across each row of scales. The connecting mem- 
brane of the fins is also marked with brown. 

D. 10-10. P. 14. V. 1-5. A. 5- 11- C 17. Length, 5 inches. 

River Wabash, Indiana, Cuv. 

Le Centrarchus a cinq epines, Centrarchus pentacanthus, Cuv. et Val., m. p S3. 
" " Dekay's Report, p. 30. 

5. Centrarchus hexacanthus, Val. 

Forehead and back maculated and variegated with dusky spots on a ground of sea-green ; 
similar spots extend downwards upon the upper half of the body, in irregular bands, on a 
ground color of light green or yellow. The sides of the head and body are silvery and iri- 
descent ; below, of a delicate white. Dorsal, anal, and caudal fins bordered with series of 
irregular dusky spots, more distinct in old than in young specimens. Pectoral and ventral 
fins ferruginous or yellowish. It differs from the sneus in the form of its dorsal, which is 
lower before, more elevated at its posterior portion, and has but six spinous rays. 

D. 8-16. P. 12 V. 1-5. A. 6 -18. C. 17. Cuv. et Val. Length, (?). 

D.6-15. P. 12. V. 1-8. A. 6-19. C. 17|. Kirtland. Length, (?)• 



Slorer's Synopsis of the Fishes of JVorth America. 39 

Abundant in the fresh waters of Carolina, Bosc. River Wabash, Indiana, Lesueur. 

Bayous of Cuyahoga, and the Big Miami River, Kiktland. 

Le Centrarchus sparokle (Cenlrarchus spatoidcs, Cuv., Labrus sparoides, Lacei\), Cuv. et Val., III. p 88 
Cantharus Digrc-maculatus, Lesueur, Cuv. et Val., hi. p. 83. 

Le Cenlrarchus a six epines, Cenlrarchu9 hexacanlhus, Val, Cuv. eL Val., vii. p. 456, pi. 43. 
Cichla Storeria, Kirtland's Reporl on Ihe Zool. of Ohio, p 191. 

Cenlrarchus hexacanlhus, Rock fish, Grass Bass, Kirtland, Bosl. Joum. Nat. Hist., III. p. 480, pi. 29, fig. '■!. 
" " Dekay's Reporl, p. 31. 

6. Centrarchus irideus, Cuv. 

Grayish brown, dotted and spotted with darker brown. A black spot upon the angle of 
the operculum. Upon the posterior portion of the dorsal fin is a very broad black spot, 
bounded above and beneath by a yellow line, and some red dots. All the fins are spot- 
ted with brown. It resembles the C. sparoides in the height of its dorsal fin, but its anal fin 
is similar to that of the C aeneus. 

D. U-14. P. (?). V. (?) A. 7-16. C. (?). Length, 6 inches. 

South Carolina, Cuv. 

Le Cenlrarchus iris, Cenlrarchus irideus, Cuv. et Val., hi. p. 89. 
" " Dekay's Reporl, p. 31. 

7. Centrarcluis gulosus, Cuv. 

This species, which was originally supposed by Cuvier to be a Pomoti3, is described as 
being similar in its color to the Pomotis vulgaris. The body is less orbicular ; the black au- 
ricle is shorter, and it has fewer soft rays in its dorsal and anal fins. The mouth of this 
species is exceedingly large. 

D. 10-9 P. 15. V. 1-5. A. 3-8. C. 17. Length, 8 inches. 

Lake Pontchartrain, and the lagoons in the vicinity of New Orleans, Cuv. 

Le Pomotis grande gueule, Pomolis gulosus, Cuv. et Val., hi. p. 49S. 
Le Centrarchus a Irois epines, Cenlrarchus gulosus, Cuv. el Val., vii. p. 4o9. 
a " Dekay's Report, p. 31. 

8. Centrarchus viridis, Val. 

It resembles the C. aeneus in its form mote than other species ; but its green color, sprin- 
kled with black spots, reminds us of the hexacanlhus. 
D. 11-10. P. (?)• V. (?) A. 3-8. C. (?)■ Length, 8 inches. 
South Carolina, Val. 

Le Centrarchus vert, Cenlrarchus viridis, Cuv. et Val., vii. p. 460. 
" " Dekay's Report, p. 31. 

9. Centrarchus tetracanthus, Cuv. 
Body compressed ; with blackish spots, large towards the head, very small at the posterior 
part of the body. Four anal spines. 



40 Slorer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 

D. 15-10. P. 13. V. 1-5. A. 4-9. C. 16. Length, 8 inches. 
Gulf of Mexico, Cuv. 

Le Centrarchus a qualre epines, Centrarchus tetracanthus, Cuv. et Val., vii. p. 460. 

10. Centrarchus obscurus, Dekay. 

Body not gibbous. Of a general greenish brown, or dark olive-color, with faint metallic 
bronze on the upper parts ; beneath, lighter. 
D. 9, 1-12. P. 16. V. 1-5 A. 3- 12. C 17§. Length, 6 inches. 
New York, Dekay. 

Centrarchus obscurus, Ohscure Freshwater Bass, Dekay's Report, p. 30, pi. 17, fig 43. 



GENUS XIV. POMOTIS, Cuv. 

A few denticulaiions, more or less obvious, on the borders of the preoper- 
culum. Palatines and tongue smooth, and without teeth. Minute teeth on the 
jaws, vomer, and pharyngeals. Branchial rays, six. A membranous elonga- 
tion at the angle of the operculum. 

1. Pomotis vulgaris, Cuv. 

The general color of this species is a greenish brown, with spots of blue and yellow upon 
each side. Longitudinal, undulating, deep blue lines across preoperculum and operculum, 
with rusty yellow blotches interspersed. Head of a darker color lhan the body generally. 
At the posterior angle of the operculum, a large black spot, embracing a portion of the oper- 
culum, and a fleshy prolongation, having a bright scarlet-colored margin. All the fins 
more or less colored with black. 

D. 10-12. P. 13. V. 1-5. A. 3 -10. C. 17. Length, 6 to 9 inches. 

Massachusetts, Stoker. New York, Mitchill. Cleveland Harbour, Bayous of Cuya- 
hoga, Kiktland. Common in the rivers, creeks, and ponds of Kentucky, Rafinesque. 
Lake Huron, Richardson. South Carolina, Catesby. 

Perca fluvialilis gibbosa venire luteo, Freshwater Perch, Catesby, n. p. S. 
L^brus auritus, Turton's Linneus, i. p. 794. 
" " Shaw's Gen. Zobl., iv. p. 482. 

" " Mitchill, Trans. Lit. et Phil. Soc. N. Y., i. p. 403. 

Ichlhalis aurita, Rafinesque, tenth. Ohien., p. 29. 

Le Pomotis commun, Pomotis vulgaris, Cuv. et Val., hi. p. 91, pi. 49, et vn. p. 465. 
Pomotis vulgaris, Northern Pomotis, Rich., Fauna Boreal. Americ, in. p. 24, fig. 76. 
" " Jardine, Nat. Lib., I. 162. 

Fresh-water Sun-fish, Pond Perch, Bream, Storer's Report on the Fishes of Mass., p. 11. 
" Sun-fish, Roach, Kirtland's Report on Zool. of Ohio, p. 191. 
" Harlequin Roach, Bust. Journ. Nat. Hist., m. p. 471, pi. 23, fig. 11. 
" Common Pond-fish, Dekay's Report, p. 31, pi. SI, fig. 166. 



Stover's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 41 

2. Pomolis Ravenelii, Val. 

The profile of the back is much more rectilinear, and descends more obliquely, than in the 
vulgaris, which gives a gibbous appearance at the base of the dorsal fin. The denticula- 
tions at the angle of its preoperculum are finer. 

D. 10-11. P. (?)• V. (?). A. 3-9. C. (?). Length, 8 inches. 

South Carolina, Cuv. 

I.e Pomolis de Ravenel, Pomolis Rarenelii, Cuv. el VaL-, vii. p. 4Go. 
« » Dekay's Report, p. 33. 

3. Pomotis Holbrookii, Val. 

Similar to the vulgaris in its color. Broader and deeper-colored black spots upon the soft 
portion of the dorsal fin. Preopercle very finely denticulated. 
D 10-11. P. (?). V. (?). A. 3-11. C (?). Length, 9 inches. 
South Carolina, Cuv. 

Le Pomotis il'Holbrook, Pomolis Holbrookii, Uuv. el Val., vii. P- 466. 
" " Dekay's Reporl, p. 33. 

4. Pomotis incisor, Val. 

The back of this species is more raised between the neck and 'the dorsal fin than in the 
vulo-aris. The preopercular denticulations are very fine ; the teeth of the front row of the 
upper jaw are a little stronger than in the vulgaris. The back of this species is brown, 
slightly gilded upon the sides, more brilliant upon the belly. A more or less distinct black 
ocellus exists upon the posterior soft rays of the dorsal. The opercular membrane is quite 
broad, and upon it is a great portion of the black auricular spot. 

D 10-10- P. (?). V. (.')• A. 3-9. C. (>)• Length, 6 inches. 

Lake Pontchartrain, Louisiana, Cuv. 

Le Pomolis coupeur, Pomolis incisor, Cuv. el Val., vii. p. 466. 
" " Dekay's Report, p. 33. 

5. Pomotis gibbosus, Val. 

The body is broader than that of the preceding species, and a little higher before the dor- 
sal fin. The denticulations at the angle of the operculum are rather stronger than those of 
the incisor, but lees so than in the vulgaris. The back is marked with longitudinal rows of 
blackish dots. The belly is of a dull green color. A large blackish spot upon the posterior 
rays of the dorsal. The opercular membrane is broad and striated. 

D. 10-12. P. (?). V. (?). A. 3-11. C. (?). Length, 8 inches. 

South Carolina, Val. 

Le Pomotis bossu, Pomolis gibbosus, Cirv. el Val., vii. p. 467. 
" " Dekay's Report, p. 33. 

49 



4-2 Stover's Synopsis of the Fishes of JVorth America. 

6. Pomotis solis, Val. 

Of a uniform greenish yellow color, more or less gilded, without any trace of spots or 
rays upon the body or the fins- The auricular membrane longer and narrower than in any 
other species- 

D- 10-11 P. (?)■ V. (•)• A. 3-10- C. (.'). Length, 4 or 5 inches 

Lake Pontchartrain, Louisiana. New York, Val 

Le Pomotis poisson du so] s =:>!is, Crv. el Val., yh. p. 46?. 

" " Dekat's Report, p. 33. 

7. Pomotis Catesbei, Val. 

Body elongated. Oblique brown lines upon its cheeks. The body is of a blackish brown, 

lighter beneath, with golden reflections ; blackish dots upon the dorsal and anal fins. 

D 10-10. P. (?)■ V. (?). A. 3-9. C. (?). Length, 44 inches. 

Pennsylvania. Val 

Le Pomolis de Calesby, Pomotis Calesbei, Cur. et Yal., ra. p. 469. 

Dzkay's P.eport, p. 33. 

8. Pomotis appendix, Mitch. 

Body sombre-colored, beneath whitish. Appendix entirely black. Body more robust than 
that of the vulgaris. The pectorals broader, and more rounded than in that species. 
D. 10-11. P. 13. V. 5. A- 3-10. C 19- Length, 5 to 6 inches. 
New York, jIitchill- 

Labrus appendix , Black-eared Pond £=h. Mitchill, Supp. loAmer. Month. Mag., u. p. "247. 
Pomotis appendix. Dekat's Report, p. 32. 

9. Pomotis macrochira, Raf. The Gilded Sun-fish. 

Body somewhat compressed, especially near the back ; uniformly oval. Back and head 
iridescent, brown, and purple, blotched with spots of darker brown ; throat, sides, and belly, 
a brilliant golden yellow. Opercular appendage semicircular, black, and sub-margined with 
a lighter border. 

D. 10-12- P- 15 V. 1-5. A. 3-10. C 17. Length, 2 to 8 inches- 

Tributaries of the Ohio River, Raf , Kiktlaxd 

Ichlhelis macrochira, Sun-fish, Gold-fish. Rap.. Ichlh. Oh: 

Pomotis macrochira.. Gilded Sun-fish, Kibtlasd. Bost. Joum. Nat. Hist,, m. p. 469, pL 27, fig. 3. 

10. Pomotis nitida, Kirtland. 

Body compressed, oval. Back gibbous between the eyes and dorsal fin. Brilliant, but 
evanescent. Upper part of the head and back brown, yellowish, and sometimes greenish. 



Storer's Synopsis of I he Fishes of A'orth Jhnerka. 43 

Head, jaws, operculum, and sides beautifully waved and spotted with verditer blue. Liis 
light blue, sides golden yellow, belly tinged with orange. 

D. 10-11. P. 12. V. 1-5. A. 2-9. C. 18. Length, 3 inches. 

Ohio, KlKTLAXD. 

Poinolis niiida. Sun-fish. Red-eyes, Kiktland. Bos Hist., m. p. 172. pi -2S. ne. 1. 

GENUS XV. BRYTTUS, Vu. 

The only character which distinguishes this genus from the Pomotis is a 
small narrow band of short velvety teeth along'the external edge of each pal- 
atine. 

1. Bryttus ptinctattis, Cuv. 

Greenish brown, with golden reflections, having parallel rows of rounded black dots. 
The operculum has, at its angle, a blackish blue spot, which extends along the lower edge 
of this bone. The membranous edge is not as highly colored as the bone itself. The dor- 
sal, anal, and caudal fins are greenish, with a whitish edge. The ventrals are greenish at 
their base, and almost black elsewhere. The first soft ventral ray is filiform ; the appendix 
is narrow, and not much elongated. 

D. 10-11. P. 12. V. 1-5. A- 3-8. C 17. Length, 5i inches. 

South Carolina, Cuv. 

Le Brytte poinliUe, Bryttus punclalus. Cuv. et Val. vu. p. 4t-2. 
" •• Dekav's Report, p. 33. 

Cuvier considered this species to be the Ichthelis macrochira of Rafinesque. With all 
proper respect for the authority of the illustrious naturalist, we cannot refrain from thinking 
he was incorrect ; as Dr. Kirtland, whose opportunities of investigating the Western fishes 
have been so admirably improved, describes Rafinesque's species so very differently from this. 

2. Bryttus reticulatus, Val. 

Of a yellowish green color, presenting a reticulated appearance, owing to the base of 
each scale being blackish, or of a very deep green color. The teeth of this species are 
stronger, and the opercular spot is much larger, than in the previous species. 

D 11-11- P. ( : )- V. (?). A. 3-11. C. (?). Length, 7 inches. 

South Carolina, Ccv. 

Le Brytte maille, Brynus reticulatus, Val., Crv. el Val., vil p. 463. 
" " Dekat's Report, p. 33. 

3. Bryttus unicolor, Val. 

Color uniform. Fins unspotted. This species has but three or four small teeth upon the 
anterior portion of the palatines. 



44 Storefs Synopsis of the Fishes of North .America. 

D. 11-11. P- (.') V (')■ A- 3-9. C (?) Length, 6 inches. 

Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Cuv. 

Le Brylle unicolor, Bryltus unicolore, Cuv. et Val., vii. p. 461. 
" " Dekay's Report, p. 33. 

GENUS XVI. PRIACANTHUS, Cuv. 
Have an oblong, compressed body, entirely covered, as well as the head 
and jaws, with small rough scales. Fine teeth on both jaws ; no canines. 
The lower angle of the preoperculum spinous. 

1. Priaeanthus macrophthalmus, Block. 

Oblong. Red. Its height equal to one third of its length ; length of the head equal to 
its height. The angle of the preopercle, in the male, is prominent and sharp, and the whole 
edge of the preopercle is notched ; in the female, the angle is obtuse, and the denticulations 
are very fine. 

D. 10-14. P. 16. V. 1-5. A. 3-15. C. 17. Length, 10 or 12 inches. 

Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Anlhias macrophthalmus, Bloch, pi. 319. 

Catalufa, Parra, p. 20, pi. 12, fig. 1. 

Le Priacanthe a gros yeux, Priacanthus macrophthalmus, Bl., Cuv. et Val., hi. p. 07. 

GENUS XVII. DULES, Cuv. 
tfix branchial rays. Teeth even. Operculum terminated in a spine. Pre- 
operculum denticulated. 

1. Dules auriga, Cuv. 

Compressed, arched. Yellowish gray, with three or more dusky vertical bands. The 

third ray of the dorsal fin elongated into a filament. 

D. 10-13. P. 17. V. 1-5. A. 3-7. C. 17|. Length, 6 to 8 inches. 

New York, Dekay. 

Le Doules cocher, Dules auriga, Cuv. et Val., hi. p. 112, pi. 51. 

" " Wilson, Eucyclop. Brit., Art. Ichth., p. 1(19, pi. 298, fig. 7. 
" " Dekay's Report, p. 34, pi. 19, fig. 54. 

GENUS XVIII. TRICHODON, Steller. 
In which the preoperculum has strong spines, and the operculum is termi- 
nated in a flat point. They have no scales ; their mouth is cleft almost ver- 
tically. 



Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 45 

1. Trichodon Sielleri, Cuv. 

This species, above the lateral line, is plumbeous, and beneath it white ; slightly golden 
towards its posterior extremity. The first dorsal fin is edged with brown, with a band of 
the same color along its base ; the second dorsal lias no band at its base. The body of the 
Trichodon is compared to the blade of a knife. The head is equal to a fourth of its entire 
length, and is nearly as high as long ; above, it is thicker than the body. The eyes are 
situated upon the sides of the head, and are directed laterally, but their upper edge touches 
the plane of the forehead. This is the only known species. It resembles the Weevers in 
its habits : it buries itself in the moist sand at low water, and is dug up with the hand. 

D. 14-17. P. 23. V. (.'). A. 28. C. 13. Length, 7 to 10 inches. 

The northernmost parts of the Pacific. Was found by Steller, at the island of Una- 

laschka. 

Le Trichodon de Steller, Trichodon Stelleri, Cuv. et Val., til. p. 154, fig. ;".?. 

" Griffith's Cuv., x. p. 121, pi. 15, fig. 3. 

" Rich., Fauna Boreal. Americ, m. p. 29. 

" " Jardinb, Nat. Lib., i. p. 166. 

" Wilson, Encyclop. Bril., Art. Ichthyology, p. 170. 

GENUS XIX. MYRIPRISTIS, Cuv. 

Have the brilliancy, form, and scales of Holocentrum ; but their preo- 
percultim has a double denticulated edge, and is without a spine at its angle. 
This genus is remarkable for a natatory bladder divided into two, whose an- 
terior portion is bilobed, and is attached to the cranium in two places, merely 
covered by a membrane, and answering to the cavities of the ear. 

1. Myripristis Jacobus, Cuv. 

The sides of a cherry-red upon a silvery ground, verging to a vermilion towards the back ; 
marked with longitudinal golden lines. The spinous portion of the dorsal is varied with vel- 
low and rose-color, with two series of vermilion spots ; a blackish band descends on each 
side upon the operculum, to the pectorals. Scales large, ten longitudinal rows on each 
side ; the middle row has thirty-six scales. 

B 8. D. 10, 1-14. P. 15. V. 1-7. A. 4-13. C. 19. Length, 8 inches. 

Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, Ctrv. 

Called, at Martinique, " Frere Jacques." 

Le Myripriatis d'Amerique, Myripristis Jacobus, Cuv. et Val., m. p. 162 

GENUS XX. HOLOCENTRUM, Artf.im. 
The scales of this genus are brilliant and denticulated ; the operculum i^ 



46 Storeys Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 

spinous and denticulated, and the preoperculura is not merely denticulated, but 
has at its angle a strong spine directed backwards. 

1. Holocentrum longipinne, Cuv. 

Oval, slightly compressed ; of a deep rose-color, silvery upon the abdomen, with seven or 
eight longitudinal golden bands along its sides. It is distinguished from all other species of 
this genus, by having the soft portion of the dorsal fin, and the forks of the caudal, longer 
and more pointed. 

B. 8. D. 11-15. P. 15. V. 1-7. A. 4-11. C. 19. Length, 12 inches. 

South Carolina, Catesby. Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Perca marina gibbosa cinerea, Margate fish, Catesby's Hist. Carol., n. p. 2, pi. 2. 

Matejudo Colorado, Parra, p. 23, pi. 13. 

Sci&na rubra, Bl , Red Scijena, Shaw's Gen. Zobl., iv. p. 5-10. 

Holocentrus sogo, Br. , Sog i hoi icentrus, Shaw's Gen. Zool., iv. p. 553, pi. 80. 

Bodianus penlacanlhus, Bl., Five-spined Bodiamis, Shaw's Gen. Zobl., iv. p. 570, pi. S3. 

L'Holocenlre a longu.es nageoires, Holocentrum longipinne, Cov. et Val., iv. p. 185. 

2. Holocentrum marianum, Cuv. 

Lower jaw projecting. The third anal spine very large. It has no black spot upon the 
dorsal fin, nor black dots upon the scales. It appears to have been silvery, more or less 
shaded with gold and red. 

D. 11-12. P. 14. V. 1-7. A. 4-9. C. 17. Length, (?). 

Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

L'Holocenlre a mandibule saillante, Holocentrum marianum, Cov. et Val., in. p. 219. 

GENUS XXI. URANOSCOPUS, L., Cuv. 

Eyes placed on the upper surface of a nearly cubical-shaped head ; mouth 
vertically cleft ; preopercle crenate towards its base ; a strong spine at each 
shoulder ; gills with only six rays. Many of the species have within the mouth, 
in front of the tongue, a long fleshy filament, which they are enabled to thrust 
out at their pleasure, to attract smaller fishes within their reach to prey upon. 

1. Uranoscopus anoplos, Cuv. 

Greenish above, minutely punctate with black ; beneath the lateral line, silvery. First 
dorsal fin blackish ; pectorals greenish ; the other fins white, tinged with yellow. Cheeks 
smooth and unarmed ; no projecting filament from within the mouth. 

D. 4, 1-12. P. 19. V. 1-5. A. 12. C. 11}. Length, 2 inches. 

South Carolina, Le Conte. 

L'Uranoscope anoplose, Uranoscopus anoplos, Cuv. et Val., viii. p. 493. 

" Unarmed Uranoscope, Dekav's Report, p. 37, pi. 22, fig. 66. 



Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 47 

GENUS XXII. APHREDODERUS, Lesueur. 
Six branchial rays. Teeth velvet-like. Denticulations on the two edges 
of the suborbital. Preopercle denticulated. Opercle with a spine at its 
angle. Ventral fins without a spinous ray. Vent under the throat. 

1. Aphredoderus Sayanus, Gilliams. 

Gibbous. Above blackish brown, becoming paler towards the inferior surface, which is 
light yellowish ; fins, except the ventrals, dusky. 

B 6. D. 3-11. P. 12. V. 0-7. A. 3-7. C. 17. Length, 3 inches. 
Pennsylvania, Gilliams. Lake Pontchartrain, Louisiana, Cuv. 

Scol-p is Sayanus, Gilliams, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc., iv. p. SI, pi. 3. 
L'Aphr6dodere bussu, Aphredoderus gibbosus, Lesueur, Cuv. el Val., ix. p. 448. 
Aphredoderus Sayanus, Spineless Perch, Dekay'g Report, p. 35, pi. 21, fig. 62. 

GENUS XXIII. SPHYRZENA, Cuv. 

Body elongated, with two distinct dorsals. Lower jaw longest ; both with 
long teeth. Ventrals back of the pectorals. 

1. Sphyrana becuna, Lacep. 

Considerably elongated. General color silver-blue, with a series of pretty large, round, 

dark blue spots along the sides ; tail spotted with blue. 

D. (?)■ P- (>)■ V. (?) A. (?). C. (?). Length, 4 feet. 

Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Picuda, Parka, p. 90, pi. 35, fig. 2. 
Sphyrsena picuda, Elocii. p. 29, fig. 1. 

Esox becuna, Becuna Pike, Shaw's Gen. Zobi., v. p. 112, pi. 109. 

La Sphyrene becune (Sphyrene becune, Lacep. ; Sphyra?na picuda, Bl., Schn.; Esox becuna, Sh.), Cot el 
Val., m. p.341. 

2. Sphyraena barracuda, Catesbt. 

Very large, elongated. Brown, with whitish abdomen. Operculum terminates in two 
points. This species is exceedingly ferocious, and is as much dreaded as any of the sharks. 
B. 7. D. 5, 1-9. P. 12. V. 1-5. A. 1-9. C. 19. Length, 7 or 8 feet. 
Caribbean Sea, Catesby, Cuv. 

Barracuda, Catesbv's Hist. Carol., n. pi. 1, fig. 1. 

Esox barracuda, Barracuda Pike, Shaw'. Gen Zoo"l., v. p. 105. 

La grusse Sphyrene, Sphyrrena barracuda, Cuv. el Val., ill. p. 313. 

3. Sphyraena guachancho, Cuv. 

Umber-colored, with a brilliant white lateral line. Caudal (in, green. 



48 Stover's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 

D. 5-10. P. (?)• V. (.'). A. 9. C. (?)• Length, 20 inches. 
Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Le Guachancho, Sphynena guachancho, Cut. et Val., hi. p. 342. 

4. Sphyrana borealis, Dekay. 

Small, much elongated, subcylindrical. Greenish brown above, silvery beneath. Lat- 
eral line yellow. Operculum with a single point. 

D. 5-10. P. 14. V. 6. A. 10. C. 20. Length, 9 inches. 
Massachusetts, Stoker. New York, Dekay. 

Sphyrasna borealis, Northern Barracuda, Dekay's Report, p. 39, pi. 60, fig. 196. 
'■ " Storer, Bost. Journ. Nat, Hist., p. 143. 

GENUS XXIV. POLYNEMUS, L. 

The head entirely scaled ; the preoperculum toothed ; the scales easily de- 
ciduous ; the dorsal fins far separated, and, with the anal fin, covered with 
scales ; before the pectoral fins, there are long filamentous appendages. 

1. Polyneraus Americanus, Cuv. 

Body silvery, greenish or plumbeous above ; pectorals dark brown ; the other fins punc- 
tured with black. Seven filaments on each side. Tail forked. 

D. 8, 1-12. P. 16. V. 1-5. A. 3-13. C. 17. Length, 20 inches. 

Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Called, at Martinique, " Barbu " ; at St. Domingo, " Barbe chau." 

Polynemus paradiseus, Bloch, 402. 

Paradise Polyneme, Shaw's Gen. Zool., v. p. 147, pi. 118. 

Le Polyneme d'Amerique, Polynemus Americanus, Cuv. et Vai.., III. p. 393. 

GENUS XXV. UPENEUS, Cuv. 
Branchiae with four rays ; teeth on both jaws, but frequently none on the 
palate ; opercle with a small spine ; a swimming bladder. 

1. Upeneus maculatus, Bloch. 

Of a red color ; sometimes with two or three spots. Opercular spine strong and pointed. 
Teeth conical, in a single row. From twenty to twenty-five mucous pores upon the lower 
edge of the suborbitar bone. 

D. 8. P. 17. V. 1-5. A. 7. C. 15. Length, 8 inches. 

Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Mullus maculatus, Bl., pi. 348, fig. 1 ? 

" " Bl. ; Spotted Surmullet, Shaw's Gen. Zool., iv. p. 617. 

L'Upeneus metara, Upeneus maculatus, Cuv. etVAL., III. p. 478. 



Slorer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 49 

2. Upeneus punctatus, Cuv. 

The back and the middle of the cheeks red ; the upper part of the snout, the inferior por- 
tion of the cheeks, and the operculum, a greenish yellow ; a yellowish tinge upon the sides ; 
abdomen white, fins yellow. A small silvery or lilac-colored spot upon each scale, and 
three narrow lines of a similar color pass from the eye to the snout. Four or five brownish 
spots upon the sides of the body. 

D. 7-9. P. 16. V. 1-5. A. 7. C. 15. Length, (.'). 

Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

L'Upeneus ponctue, Upeneus punclalus, Cuv. et Val., in. p. 432. 

3. Upeneus Martinicus, Cuv. 

Scales semicircular, with seven or eight crenulations at their base ; the cirrhi do not ex- 
tend quite to the angle of the preopercle. 
D. 7-9. P. 15. V. 1-5. A. 7. C. (.'). Length, 5 inches. 
Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

L'Upeneus Martiniquois, Upeneus Martinicus, Cuv. et Val., hi. p. 483. 

4. Upeneus balteatus, Cuv. 

Back violet ; abdomen white ; a bright yellow longitudinal band upon the sides. A 
black spot at the side of the tail. 
D. (?). P. (?). V.(?). A. (.'). C (.'). Length, (?)• 
Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

L'Upeneus a baudrier, Upeneus balteatus, Cuv. et Val., hi. p. 51. 

GENUS XXVI. LEPISOMA, Dekay. 

Body and fins scaly. Fleshy filaments along the basal line of the head, and 
on the orbits. A single dorsal fin. Branchial rays, six. Teeth in the jaws, 
vomer, and palatines. Ventrals before the pectorals. 

1. Lepisoma cirrhosum, Dekay. 
Soft portion of the dorsal higher and shorter than the spinous part- 
D. 18-12. P. 14. V. 3. A. 19. C. 10|. Length, 64 inches. 
Florida, Dekay. 

Lepisoma cirrbosum, Cirrous Lepisoma, Dekay's Report, p. 41, pi. 30, fig. 94. 

50 



50 Storeys Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 

FAMILY II. TRIGLIDiE. 

Contains a numerous series offish, to which the singular appearance of their 
head, variously bristled and covered with armor, gives a peculiar physiognomy. 
Their general character consists in having the suborbitar bone more or less 
extended over the cheeks, and articulated behind with the preoperculum. 

GENUS I. TRIGLA, Cuv. 

Head nearly square, covered with bony plates ; gill-cover and shoulder- 
plate ending in a spine directed backwards ; body elongated, nearly round ; 
two dorsal fins, the rays of the first spinous, those of the second flexible ; 
teeth in both jaws and on the front of the vomer, pointed, small, and numer- 
ous ; branchiostegous rays, seven ; gill-opening large ; three detached rays at 
the base of each pectoral fin. 

1. Trigla cuculus, L. 

Of a beautiful bright red above, sides and belly silvery white. Fins reddish white. The 
lateral line is crossed throughout its length with small, short, straight, elevated lines, which 
have the appearance of a series of pins. Bloch compared them to the acicular leaves of the 
pine, a resemblance which suggested to him the trivial name of pint for his species- Lin- 
naeus called it cuculus on account of its uttering a note similar to the cuckoo when caught. 

D.9-18. P. 10. V. 1-6. A. 16. C. 11. Length, 8 inches. 

New York, Cuv. 

Trivia cuculus, Cuckoo Gurnard, L.. Shaw's Gen, Zodl., iv. .p. 620, pi. 90. 
Polynemus tridigitatus, Mitchill, Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. ofN. Y., I. p. 449. 
Trigla lirieata, Montacit, Trans. Wernerian Society, n. p. 460. 
" Fleming, Brit. Animals, p. 215. spec. 153. 

" " Jenvns's Brit. Vert., p. 333. 

Le Grondin rouge (Trigla cuculus ? G., Trigla pini, Bloch, p. 355), Cuv. el Val., iv. p. 26. 
Trigla cuculus, Red Gurnard, Cuckoo Gurnard, Yarhell's Brit. Fishes (2d edit.), p. 3S, plale. 

" " Red Gurnard, Dekay's Report, p. 43, pi. 70, fig. 225. 

GENUS II. PRIONOTUS, Cuv. 
Pectorals very large, with numerous rays. A band of even teeth on the 

palatines. 

1. Prionotus lineatus, Mitchill. 

Above the lateral line of a slate-color, with a few irregularly distributed black spots; 
sides lighter, with a reddish tint; abdomen white. Beneath the lateral line, parallel to it, a 
broader brownish line runs the greater part of the length of the body. 



Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North diner ica. 51 

D. 9-13. P. 12. V. 6. A. 11. C. 15. Length, 9 to 18 inches. 
Massachusetts, Stoker. New York, Mitchill, Cuv-, Dekay. 

Trigla lineala, Gurnard, or Sea-Robin, Mitchill, Trans Lit. and Phil. Soc. of N. Y., p. 430, pi. 4, fig. 4. 
Le Prionole strie, Prionolus atrigatua, Cuv. et Val., iv. p 

Grunier, Storer's Report [■ 18 
Avi. Hit iv p, 253. 

Prionotua linea u Band LGumard, DekayV R i pi, I fig. 12 

2. Prionotus Carolinus, Cuv. 

Above of a reddish brown color, with irregular blotches and shadings of a darker brown : 
abdomen nearly white. The fleshy free rays, beneath the pectorals, of a yellow color, and 
widened at their extremities. 

D. 9-13. P. 14. V. 6. A. 12. C. 21. Length, 12 to 18 inches. 

Massachusetts, Storer Connecticut, Ayres. New York, Mitchill, Cuv., Dekay. 
Carolina, Cuv. 

' • pal Web-fingered Gurnard, Mitchill. Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. of N. Y, p. 431, pi. 4, fig. 5. 

Le Prionole de la Caroline, Prionotus Carolinus, Cuv. et Val , iv. [i 90. 

Web-fingered Grunter, Storer's Report, p. 14. 
" Ayres, Bost. Journ. Nav. Hist., iv. p. 258. 

Web-fingered Gurnard, Dekay's Report, p. 46, pi. 5, fig. 15. 

3. Prionotus tribulus, Cuv. 

Brown above, white beneath. Pectorals reaching to the end of the anal fin. All the spines 
upon the head, particularly those behind the orbit, and upon the subscapular, are acute and 
flattened like sword-blades. 

D. 10-13. P. 13. V. 1-5. A. 12. C. 11. Length, 7 to 8 inches. 

New York, Carolina, Cuv. 

Le Prionole chausselrape, Prionotua tribulus, Cuv., Cuv. et Val.. iv. p. 93. 

" " Spinous Gurnard, Dekay's Report, p. 48, pi. 70, fig. 226. 

4. Prionotus punctatus, Cuv. 

Above grayish brown, with clouded russet spots; sides yellowish ; abdomen white. A 
black spot upon the first dorsal, between the fourth and sixth rays ; small russet dots are 
scattered over the remainder of this fin. Brownish spots upon the pectorals. Two small 
spines upon each side of the snout. 

D. 10-12. P. 13-3. V. 1-5. A. 11. C. 11. Length, 1 foot. 

Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Rubio volador, I'arra, p. 98, pi. 38. 

Trigla punctata, Bloch, 353? Punctated Gurnard, Shaw's Gen. ZoSl., iv. p. 626. 

Le l'ii te ponctue, Prionotus punctatus, Cuv. et Val., iv. p. 93. 

" Dekay's Report, p. 48. 



52 Storefs Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 

GENUS III. DACTYLOPTERUS, Lacep. 

The rays under the pectorals are numerous and large ; and instead of being 
free, as in the preceding genera, they are united by a membrane into a super- 
numerary fin, larger than the fish itself, and which supports them in the air for 
some length of time. Their muzzle, which is very short, appears to be cleft 
like the lips of a hare ; their mouth is situated underneath ; there are, in the jaws 
only, certain rounded teeth, arranged like pavement ; their head is flat, rectan- 
gular, and granulated ; their preoperculum is terminated by a long and strong 
spine. All their scales are carinated. 

1. Dactylopterus volitans, L. 

Light brown above, with irregular dark spots; beneath, of a flesh -color. The larger pec- 
torals blackish, with bluish spots. Two flexible filaments at the side of each other, in 
front of the first dorsal. A short, stout triangular spine between the dorsal fins. 

D.2,4,1-8. P. 6-30. V.l-4. A. 6. C. 10|. Length, 6 inches. 

Newfoundland, Cuv. Massachusetts, Storer. Connecticut, Linsley. New York, 

Mitchili., Dekay. Gulf of Mexico, Parra. Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Trigla volilans, Flying Gurnard, L., Shaw's Gen. Zool., iv. p. 622, pi. 01. 

Morcielago, Parra, p. 25, pi. 14. 

Folynemus sexradialus, Mitchill, Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. of N. Y., i. pi. 4, fig. 10. 

" " " Suppl. Amer. Month. Mag., II. p. 323. 

Le Dactyloptere coramun, Dactylopterus volilans, Cuv. et Val., iv. p. 117. 

" Griffith's Cuv., x. p. 133. 

" Rich, Fauna Boreal. Americ, in. p. 40. 

" Wilson, Encyclop. Brit., Art. Ichthyology, p. 173 

" Sea-Swallow, Dekav's Report, p. 49, pi. 17, fig 48 

GENUS IV. COTTUS, Lin. 

Head large, depressed ; teeth in both jaws and in front of the vomer, small, 
sharp, none on the palatine bones ; preoperculum or operculum armed with 
spines, sometimes both ; branchiostegous rays, six ; gill-openings large ; body 
attenuated, naked, without scales ; two dorsal fins, distinct, or very slightly 
connected ; ventral fins small. , , / 

1. Cottus -gJofefoyrL. 

Body very slimy ; yellowish, clouded with black ; the first dorsal fin edged with a very 
narrow line of orange. Snout to first dorsal ray 0.84, and from here to the last dorsal ray 
1.5. The anus is midway between the snout and the base of the caudal rays. The lateral 
line is straight from the middle of the first dorsal fin backwards. 






Storer's Sy?iopsis of the Fishes of North America. 53 

D. 7-17. P. 14. V. 3. A- 12. C 13, of which 11 are long. Length, 3 inches. 
Connecticut, Olmsted, Ayres. New York, Dekay. Eastern Pennsylvania, Halde- 
man. Mahoning River, Ohio, Kirtland. Bear Lake, Lat. 67°, Richardson. 

Cottus gobio, Lin., Sys. Nat., p. 452. 

" " River Bull-head, Shaw's Gen. Zo'dl., iv. p. 254, pi. 35. 

Le Chabolde riviere, Cottus gobio, I-., Block, pi. 39 ; Ci v el Val., iv. p. 115. 

" " River Bull-head, Pennant's Brit. Zotfl , viii., p. 291, pi. 43. 
" " Jenyns's l>rit. Vert., p. 343. 

" " Miller's Thumb, Vaurell-s Brit. Fishes (2d edit.), i- p. 71. 
Cottus cognatus, Bear Lake Bull-head, Rich., Fauna Boreal. Americ, m. p 10. 
" " Dekay's lieport. p. 55. 

ci i8<-tP Cottua viscosus, Haldeman, Supplement. <fcc, p. 3. 

Uranideaquie.scens, Little Star-sazer. Dekay's Report, p. 61, pi. 5, fig. 14. 

Cottus cognatus; Coitus viscosus ; Uranidea quiescens; Coitus gobio, Atres, Bost- Journ. Nat. His; . v. 

p>io,p 1: n. (<iC „ /,,.,, ,,.,'ffr. JJ 3 y 

2. Cottus Groenlandicus, Cuv. 

The upper part of the body of this species is of a dark brown, with large clay-colored 
blotches on the top of the head and gill-covers, with a few smaller ones on the back and sides, 
and small circular yellow spots on the sides towards the abdomen. The throat is yellowish 
white, sprinkled with minute fuliginous specks. Upon the abdomen, beneath the pectoral 
fins, are large, circular, perfectly white spots. The preopercular spine does not extend to the 
tip of the opercular spine. A quadrangular area on the head, bounded by four tubercles. 

D. 10-18. P. 17. V. 3. A. 13. C. 16. Length, 13 inches. 

Greenland, Fabricitjs, Richardson. Maine and Massachusetts, Storer. New 
York, Dekay. 

Coitus scorpius, Fabricius, Fauna Groenlandica, p. 156, No. 113. 

Le Chaboisseau du Greenland {Cottus Groenlandicus, Cuv.), Cuv. et Val., iv. p. 185. 

Cottus Groenlandicus, Greenland Bullhead, Rich., Fauna Boreal. Americ, ill. pp. 46 and 297, and admirably 

figured, pi. 95. 
Cottus Groenlandicus, Greenland Sculpin, Stoker's Report, p. 16. 

Greenland Bull-head, Dekay's Report, p. 54, pL 4, fig. 2. 

3. Cottus Virginianus, Willoughby. 

The body is of a light brown color above, with darker irregular blotches, looking, when 
carefully examined, somewhat like transverse bands. The abdomen is pure white, slightly 
tinged, in portions, with fuliginous stains. Twenty spines upon and about the head ; ten on 
each side, all naked at their extremities. The spine at the posterior angle of the preoper- 
culum extends as far back as the extremity of the opercular spine. 

D. 9-16. P. 17. V. 3. A. 14. C. 12. Length, 11 to 18 inches. 

Newfoundland, Richardson. Massachusetts, Storer. Connecticut, Ayres New 
York, Mitchill, Dekay. Virginia, Willoughby. 

Scnrpius Virginianus, WrttODOHBY'a Hist. Pise. App., p. 25, pi. 10, fig 15 ! 

Coitus octodecimsp I ittus, Mitchill, Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. of N. 1 l. ] 

Le grand Chaboisseau a dix-huit opines de I'Amcrique du Nord, Coitus octod.- ii , Ci I el Val 

jr. p. 181. 



54 Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 

Coitus octodecimspinosus, Sculpin, Rich., Fauna Boreal. Americ., III. p. 46. 

" •< Griffith's Cvv., pi. 43. fig. 4. 

Coitus Virginianus, Common Sculpin, Will., Storer's Report, p. 18. 

" " Common Bull-head, Hekay's Report, p. 51, pi. 5, fig. 13. 

4. Cottus scorpioides, Fab. 

The upper portion of the body is fuliginous ; the abdomen yellow. A white line extends 
from the ventral fins to the anus. The anterior portion of the ventrals, and the inferior por- 
tion of the sides, are spotted with white. The spines on the head smaller than in the Groen- 
landicus. Pectorals very large. 

D. 10-15. P. 15. V. 3. A. 12. C. 15. Smaller than preceding. 

Greenland, Fabricius. 

Cottus scorpioides, Fad , Fauna Groenlandica, p. 157, No. 114. 

Le petit Chaboisseau du Groenland (Cottus scorpioides, Fab.), Cuv. el Val., iv. p. 187. 

Cottus scorpioides, Pokudtuk, Rich., Fauna Boreal. Americ, III. p. 47. 

Coitus quadricornis, Parry's Firs! Voyage, Appendix. 

3. Cottus ceneus, Mitchill. 

This species is of a yellowish brown color above, shaded throughout with fuliginous 
blotches, lighter colored on the sides of the abdomen, beneath the lateral line ; cheeks bra- 
zen ; fins yellowish, with brownish bars. A broad band of very minute black points, com- 
mencing beneath the pectoral fins, extends even beyond the anus, along the edge of the 
anal fin ; the portion in front of the anus contains one or more rows of well-marked, large, 
circular yellow spots. One or two irregular rows of very obvious roughened tubercles 
above, and quite a number of smaller tubercles scattered over the sides, beneath the lateral 
line. 

D. 10-15. P. 16. V. 3. A. 13. C. 17. Length, 5 to 12 inches. 

Massachusetts, Storer. Connecticut, Ayres. New York, Mitchill, Dekay. 

Cottus a;neus, Brazen Bull-head, Mitchill, Trans Lit. and Phil. Soc. of N. Y., i. p 3S0. 
Le Chaboisseau bronze, Collus ceneus, Cuv. el Val , IV., p. 139. 

" Brazen Bull-head, Storer's Report, p. 20. 
" " " Dekay's Report, p. 52, pi. 6, fig. 19. 

Cottus variabilis, Ayres, Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist., iv. p. 251). 

G. Cottus pistilliger, Pall. 

The body above is brown, with indistinct points of a deeper brown ; beneath, it is yellow- 
ish. The large spine at the angle of the preoperculum does not extend beyond the opercu-" 
lum, and it has but two spinules at its upper edge, one of them in its centre, the other near 
the point. The inferior edge of the preoperculum has three strong points directed obliquely 
forward. The lateral line is marked by a row of roughened tubercles ; and beneath it, upon 
the sides, are small filaments, terminated by enlarged extremities, causing them to look like 
little mushrooms. 

D. 9-13. P. 18. V. 1-3. A 16. C. 13. Length, 5 inches. 



Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 55 

Unalaschka, Cuv. 

Le Chaboisseau a bois de chevreuil (Cottus pislilliger, Paix.), Cuv. et Val., IV. p. 193. 
Cottus pistiliiger, Antlered Bull-head, Rich., Fauna Roreal. Americ, ill. p. 43. 

7. Cottus polaris, Sabine. 

Color light, with clusters of minute dusky spots. The head compressed and armed with 
two strong spines, placed before and between the eyes ; the gill-covers are also armed with 
four strong spines ; the pectoral fins are larger in proportion than those of the C. gobio, and 
the upper jaw rather exceeds the lower ; the lateral line is furnished with a series of small 
tubercles directed backwards. 

D. 6-13. P. 15. V. 5. A. 14- C. 14. Sabine. Length, less than 2 inches. 

D. 8-13. P. 15. V. 5. A. 15. C. 12-14. Capt. J. C. Ross. Length, (?) 

North Georgia (Lat. 75°), Sabine, Ross. 

Coitus polarU, Sabine, App. to Parry's First Voyage, p. 213; J. C. Ro6s, App. to Third Voyage. 
" " (Sabine), North Georgia Bull-head, Rich., Fauna Boreal. Americ., ill. p. 43. 

" " Pekay's Report, p. 55. 

8. Cottus polyacantliocephalus, Pallas. 

The body above is of a greenish brown color, sprinkled with numerous small pale dots ; 
these dots are larger upon the sides ; the entire abdomen is whitish. Upon the head are nu- 
merous small, pointed granulations, irregularly rayed, those back of the orbit being the 
largest. A similar collection of granulations, even more irregular still, are seen upon the 
temple. 

D. 10, 1 - 14. P. 17. V. 4. A. 12. C. 15 and some small ones. Length, 14 inches. 

Cape St. Elias, Northwest Coast of America (Lat. 60°), Cuv. 

Le Cotte a t£te tres-ipineuse (Cottus polyacanlhocephalus, Pallas), Cuv et Val., iv. p. 176 
Cottus polyacanlhocephalus, Many horned Bull head, Rich , Faun < ! i ill p I 

9. Cottus hexacornis, Richardson. 

Of the upper aspect, a clouded admixture of broccoli-brown and olive-green lints ; of the 
belly, white. The fins are striated with bluish black. Six club-shaped, or rather nail- 
shaped, processes stand erect on the top of the head; their summits flattish, minutely can- 
cellated, and scabrous. The smallest pair stand between the nares ; the largest over the 
posterior angles of the orbits ; and the third, of intermediate size, on the occiput 

D. 7-13. P. 16. V. 3. A. (?). C. 12. Length, 7 inches. 

Coppermine River, Richardson. 

Cottus haxacornis, Six-horned Bullhead, Rich., Franklin's Journ., p. 726 ; Fauna Boreal. Americ, in p 14 
" " Deka\ 's Report, p. 55. 



56 Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 

10. Cottus asper, Richardson. 

Colors Generally grayish white; top of the head, back, and sides, studded with small elove- 
brown spots, in some places confluent, and forming patches. Pectorals, dorsals, and caudal, 
marked with transverse rows of clove-brown spots. Under parts whitish, with minute 
specks. The skin of the head smooth to the touch, but dotted with minuts soft warts. The 
greater portion of the upper part of the body thickly studded with very small, subulate, 
acute spines, directed backwards. 

B6-6. D.9-21. P. 16. V. 1-4. A. 18. C. 9f. Length, 9 inches, 6 lines. 

Columbia River, Richardson. 

Coitus asper, Prickly Bullhead, Rich., Fauna Boreal. Americ, in. p. 295. , r -< /i c -?Q j i 

11. Cottus porosus, Val. 

Above grayish, marbled with plumbeous ; head lighter. The lateral line is formed of a 
series of small elevated tubes, pierced at their extremity, which serve as pores. Above and 
beneath this, and near the orifice of each pore, are seen the openings of smaller pores. A 
creat number of others upon the top of the head, the temples, and along the suborbitars. 
Between the lateral line and the dorsal fin is a series of small bony plates. This species re- 
sembles the C. scorpius of Europe in the armature of the top of the head and gill-covers, 
and C. Groenlandicus or scorpioides in the great number of its dorsal rays. 

D. 11,1-16. P. 18. V. 1-3. A. 13. C.17. Length, 6 inches. 

Baffin's Bay, Cuv. 

Le Chaboisseau poreux, Cottus porosus, Cuv. et Val , vm. p. 193. 

" " Porous Bull-head, Rich., Fauna Boreal Americ, in. p. 47. 

" " Dekay's Report, p. 55. 

12. Cottus Mitchilli, Cuv. 
Yellowish, with confluent bars and blotches ; all the fins with interrupted black bars. Or- 
bits unarmed. Preopercle with four spines. 

D. 10-4. P. 16. V. 3. All. C. 9|. Length, 3 inches. 
New York, Mitchill, Cuv., Dekay. 

Cottus scorpio? Mitchill. Trans. Lit and Phil. Soc. of N. Y., I. p 381. 
Cottus Mitchilli, Cuv. et Vai„, rv. p. 188. 
" " Smoothurowed Bullhead, Dekay's Report, p 53, pi. 17, fig. 47. 

GENUS V. ASPIDOPHORUS, Lacep. 
Body octagonal, covered with scaly plates ; head thicker than the body, 
with points and depressions above, flattened below ; teeth in both jaws only, 
none on the vomer ; snout with recurved spines ; branchiostegous rays, six ; 
body tapering to the tail ; one or two dorsal fins distinct. 



<\A ' \ 



Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North .America. 57 

1. Aspidophorus Europaeus, Cuv. 

Body above brown, with four broad dark-brown bands ; tail brown ; ventral and anal fins, 
and all the under parts of the head and body, very light brown, almost white. Two dorsal 
fins slightly connected by a membrane of a light brown color, mottled with dark brown. 
Anterior portion of the body hexagonal. Under the muzzle are small barbules, covering the 
whole surface of the branchiostegous membrane, the corners of the mouth, and border of 
the interoperculum ; there are two at the extremity of the snout, and a minute one before 
each orbit. 

B.6. D.5-7. P. 15. V. 1-2. A. 7. C. 11. Length, 3 to 6 inches. 

Greenland, Richardson. 

L'Aspidophore d'Europe (Aspidophorus Europ.-Eus, Cuv., Coitus cataphractus, L., Bloch, pi. 39), Cuv. 

et Val., iv p. 201. 
Cataphractus Schoneveldii, Pogge, Flem., Brit. Au., p. 216, pi. 155. 
Aspidophorus cataphractus. Pogge, Jenyns's Brit. Vert., p Ml 

Aspidophorus Europagus, Armed Bullhead, Yakrbll's British Fishes (2d edit.), i. p. 85. 
Cottus (Aspidophorus) Europreus, Pogge, Rich., Fauna Boreal. Americ, m. p 

2. Aspidophorus acipenserinus, Tilesitjs. 

Of a light, yellowish gray color, browner above, with transverse undulating brownish 
lines. It is distinguished from the preceding by wanting the barbules on the branchioste- 
gous membrane, and the numerous polygonal plates, marked with stelliform streaks, which 
cover the breast before the ventrals ; while, in the European species, that part is covered by 
four plates only, arranged in a square form. 

B. 6. D. 9-8. P. 17. V. 1-2. A. 8. C. 11. Length, 9 or 10 inches. 

Island of Unalasehka, Cuv. 

L'Aspidophore esturgeon (Agonus acipenserinus, Til., Phalangisles acipenserinus, Pal.), Cuv. et Val.. 

IV. p. 207. 
Aspidophorus acipenserinus, Slerronic Aspidophore, Rich., Fauna Boreal. Americ, III. p. 49. 

3. Aspidophorus monopterygius, Bloch. 

Above of a light-brown color, with six transverse broad dark bands, those near the head 

the broader. A single dorsal fin. 

D. 5. P. 10. V. 4. A. 4. C 16. Length, 4 to 6 inches. 

Greenland, Richardson. Massachusetts, Storer. 

Coitus monopterygius, Bloch, 178. 

" Single-finned Bull-head, Shaw's Gen. Zool., iv. p. 265. 

L'Aspidophore a une seule dorsale (Agonus monopterygius, Bl., Schn.; Aspidophoroide Tranquebar, Lacep.), 

I < \ el Val., iv p. 224 ; vi. p. 554. 
Coitus (Aspidophorus) monopterygius, Cuv., Aspidophore with one dorsal, Rich., Fauna Boreal. Americ. 

Ill, p. 50. 
Aspidophoroides monopterygius, Bullhead, Storer's Report, p. 22, pi. I, fig. 1. 
Aspidophorus monopterygius, American Aspidophore, Dekav's Report, p. 62, pi. 2, fig. 6. 

51 



58 Storeys Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 

GENUS VI. CRYPTACANTHODES, Storer. 
Body anguilliform, very much compressed, gradually tapering to the tail, 
destitute of scales. Head broad, with no projecting spines but the angles of 
the gill-covers. The scapular and humeral spines, and the inferior edge of 
the preoperculum, prominent to the touch. Numerous depressions in the 
frontal, suborbital', inferior maxillary, and preopercular bones. Branchioste- 
gous rays, seven. Mouth oblique. A single dorsal fin, composed of strong 
spinous rays, runs nearly the entire length of the fish, and is united, as well as 
the anal, to the caudal fin. No ventral fins. Teeth in the jaws, vomer, and 

palatines. 

1. Cryptacanthodes maculatus, Storer. 

Reddish brown, with darker brown blotches, forming two longitudinal series upon the 

sides. 

D.77. P. 13. V. (.'). A. 50. * C 19. Length, 21 inches. 

Massachusetts, Storer. Connecticut, Linsley. 

Cryptacanthodes maculatus, Spoiled Wry-mouth, Stoker's Report, p. 28. 

" " " " Dekay's Report, p. 63, pi. IS, fig. 59. 

GENUS VII. HEMITRIPTERUS, Cuv. 

The head depressed ; two dorsals, as in the Cottus ; no regular scales 
on the skin, but teeth in the palate. The head is bristly and spinous, and has 
several cutaneous appendages. The first dorsal is deeply emarginate, a cir- 
cumstance which has led some authors to believe they had three. 

1. Hemitriplerus Americanus, Gmei.in. 

This species varies exceedingly in color ; in some specimens being of a blood-red color, 
or a pinkish purple, or of a yellowish brown, darker on the back, variegated on the head 
and sides and fins with irregularly defined markings ; body beneath, yellowish. Surface of 
the body granulated, and studded with innumerable tubercles. 

D- 16-13. P- 18. V. 3. A. 1.5. C 19. Length, 2 feet. 

Nova Scotia and Gulf of St. Lawrence, Cuv., Richardson. Massachusetts, Storer. 
Connecticut, Linsley. New York, Mitchill. 

Coitus Acadianus, Acadian Bull-head, Pen., Arc. Zool., II. p. 118. 

Scorpama (lava, Yellow Scorpama, Mitchill, Trans Lit and Phil Soc. of N. Y., i. p. 382, pi. 2, fig. 8. 

Scorpajna purpurea and S. rata, Mitchill, Amer. Month. Mag., n. p. 245. 

L'Hemitriplere de l'Amerique, Hemitriplerus Americanus, Cuv. el Val., iv. p. 26S, pi. 84. 

Hemitriplerus Americanus, Rich., Fauna Boreal. Americ, III. p. 50. 

" " Griffith's Cuv., p. 141, pi. 53, fig. 3. 

" " Sea-Raven, Deep-water Sculpin, Storer's Report, p. 23. 

" " American Sea-Raven, Dekay's Report, p. 56, pi. 6, fig. 16. 



Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North .America, 59 

GENUS VIII. HEMILEPIDOTUS, Cuv. 

In the form of the head, and in the distribution of its spines, there is a 
resemblance to the Cotti ; but in the solitary dorsal fin, and the teeth on the 
palatine bones, as well as on the vomer, it partakes of the characters of the 
Scorpaena ; it is distinguished at once from both genera by two broad, longi- 
tudinal, scaly stripes on each side, alternating with stripes of smooth skin ; the 
scales become visible as the skin dries. 

1. Hemilepidotus Tilesii, Cuv. 

In its recent state, it exhibits red, violet, and purple tints ; specimens are sometimes seen 
with yellowish or olive. When dried, it is of a reddish brown, irregularly marbled, spotted, 
or dotted with blackish. 

B. 6. D. 11-18. P. 17. V. 1-3. A. 1-14. C. 12. Length, 7£ to 9 inches. 

Aleutian Islands, Cuv. 

L'Hemilepidote de Tilesius (Hemilepidotus Tilesii. Cuv., Cottus hemilepidotus, Til., Cottua trachurus, Pall ), 

Cuv. et Val . iv. p. 276, pi, 35 
Hemilepidotus Tilesii. Griffith's Cuv., x. pi. 53, fig. 4. 
Hemilepidotus trachurus, Hiekejak, Rich., Fauna Boreal. Ainer., m. p. 51. 

GENUS IX. SCORP^ExNA, L. 
The Scorpaense have a strong resemblance to the Cotti, in possessing a large, 
spiny head, large pectorals, and, in part, the thick simple rays of these fins, 
but they differ in the compressed form of the head, the undivided dorsal, and 
in the presence of palatine teeth. Seven branchiostegous rays. Cutaneous 
filaments on different parts of the body. 

1. Scorpaena porcus, L. 

Body brownish, marbled by large blotches ; beneath, the body and inferior tins of a rosy 
tint. Six small fleshy appendages at the extremity of the snout. 
D. (?). P. (?). V. (?). A. (.'). C. (.'). Length, 8 inches. 
New York, Cuv. 

Sr.orpsena porcus, L., Shaw's Gen. Zoifl., IV. p. 267. 

La polite Scorpene brune, Scorpama porcus, L,, Cuv. et Val., iv. p. 300. 

Small Sea-Scorpion, Dekay's Report, p. 58. 

2. Scorpaena bufo, Cuv. 

Brown, marbled with rosaceous and violet. The base of the pectorals, beneath, black, 
dotted with round milk-white spots. Sometimes the dorsal fin has a large black spot be- 
tween the sixth and seventh rays. 



60 Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 

B. 7. D. 12-9. P. 19 or 20. V. 1-5. A. 3-5. C. 13 or 14. Length, 17 to 16 
inches. 

Newfoundland, Richardson. Gulf of Mexico, Parka. Carihbean Sea, Cuv. 

Rascacio, Parra, p. 31, pi. 18, fig. 1. 

La Scorpene crapautl de Mer, Scorptena bufo, Cuv. et Val. , i v. p. 306. 

Scorpauia bufo, Sea-Toad, Rich , Fauna Boreal. Americ, in. p. 300. 

" " Spoiled Sea-Scorpion, Dekay's Report, p. 59, pi. 70, fig. 227. 

3. Scorpaena grandicornis, Cuv. 

Brownish, abdomen whitish. A brown spot at the base of the pectorals beneath, sprin- 
kled with small white spots. Very large acute spines upon the head. Large filaments re- 
sembling feathers are distributed upon different parts of the head, over the eyes, cheeks, and 
at the snout ; also upon the sides of the body. 

D. (?). P. (?). V. (?). A. (?)■ C. (?)• Length, 4 to 6 inches. 

Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

La Scorpena Plumier, Lacepede, hi. p. 282. 

Scorpania Plumieri, Plumler's Scorpaena, Shaw's Gen. Zool , iv. p. 270. 

La Scorpene a longs lentacules, Scorpaena grandicornis, Cuv. et Val., iv. p. 309. 

4. Scorpaana inermis, Cuv. 

Russet, marbled with deeper brown; beneath, paler; fins with irregularly distributed 
brown spots. Inconspicuous spines, and crests upon the head. Eyes very large. Very 
small cirrhi upon the body. 

D. (?)• P- (.')• V. (?)• A. (?). C. (.')• Length, (?). 

Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

La Scorp6ne sans armea, Scorpaena inermis, Cuv. et Val., iv. p. 31 1. 



GENUS X. SEBASTES, Cuv. 
Body oblong, compressed, covered with scales ; all the upper parts of the 
head also covered with scales ; eyes large ; preoperculum and operculum end- 
ing in three or more spines ; branchiostegous rays, seven ; teeth small, nu- 
merous, equal in size, placed on both jaws, the vomer, and palatine bones ; 
a single dorsal fin, part spinous, part flexible ; inferior rays of the pectoral fin 
simple. 

1. Sebastes Norvegicus, Cuv. 

All the upper part of the body, and the fins, of a reddish color ; darker upon the head and 
back, lighter upon the sides ; nearly white beneath. A brown blotch upon the posterior por- 
tion of the operculum. 






Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 61 

D. 15-15. P. 18. V. 1-5. A. 3-7. C. 19. Length, 2 feet. 

Greenland, Fabricius. Gulf of St. Lawrence, Newfoundland, Richardson- Massa- 
chusetts, Stoker. New York, Dekay. 

Perca Norvegica, Fab., Fauna Groen., p. 167. 
Perca marina, Sea-Perch, Penn., Brit. Zool., p. 226, 
Serranus Norvegicus, Fi.em., Brit An., p. 212, up. 110. 
Scorpsna Norvegica, Northern Sebastea, Jenyns's Brit. Vert., p. 347. 
Sebastes Norvegicus, Griffith's Cuv., x. p. 144. 

La S6baste septentrionale, Sebaatea Norvegicus, Cuv. et Val., iv. p. 327, pi. 87. 
ScorpEiia (Sebastes) Norvegica, Northern Sebaatea, Rich., Fauna Boreal. Americ., ill. p. 52. 
Sebastes Norvegicus, Bergylt, Norway Haddock, Yarrell's Brit. Fishea (2d edit.), i. p. 87. 
" Norway Haddock, Rose-fish, Hemdurgan Snapper, Storer's Keport, p. 26. 

" Northern Sebastes, Bekay's Report, p. 60, pi. 4, fig. 11. 

2. Sebastes variabilis, Cuv. 

Brown; beneath, white; in the female, the abdomen is reddish. This species has the 
head less armed than any other ; there are not even crests on the cranium, or over the orbits, 
and no teeth on the suborbitars ; the preoperculum has five short, obtuse teeth, and the oper- 
culum two points. 

D. 13 - 15. P. 18, of which 9 are simple. V. 1-5. A. 13 - 9. C. 17. Length, 2 feet. 

Aleutian Islands, Cuv. 

La S6baste variable, Sebastes variabilis, Cuv. et Val., iv. p. 347. 

Scorpania (Sebastes) variabilis, Tochoo, Rich., Fauna Boreal. Americ., in. p. 53. 



GENUS XI. BLEPSIAS, Cuv. 

The spiny preoperculum, compressed head, mailed cheek, palatine teeth, 
short, simple, and half-detached lower rays of the pectorals, and fleshy append- 
ages of the snout, connect this genus with Scorpaena ; from which, however, 
it is distinguished by its five branchiostegous rays, and its high dorsal, divided 
into three unequal lobes, as in Hemitripterus ; while the compressed head 
prevents it from entering the latter genus. 

1. Blepsias trilobus, Cuv. 

In its appearance, this species resembles some of the Blennies. The skin is destitute of 
scales, but is rough, with fine grains, which appear to be disposed in three longitudinal 
stripes, separated by narrow intervals. It is of a reddish brown color, with three bluish 
bands upon the cheeks, and a similarly colored spot at the extremity of the operculum. The 
pectoral and caudal fins are crossed by three brown bands. Oblique or irregularly distribut- 
ed bands on the dorsal and anal fins. 

D.7-24. P. 11. V. 1-3. A. 20. C 11. Length, 5 to 5J inches. 



62 Storefs Synopsis of the Fishes of North America, 

Northwest Coast of America, Cuv. 

Le Blepsias triloba, Blepsias trilobus, Cor., Cuv. et Val,, iv. p. 375, pi. 90. 
" Griffith's Cu?., p. 145, pi. 22, fig. 2. 
" " Three-lobed Blepsias, Rich., Fauna Boreal. Americ, in. p. 53. 



GENUS XII. GASTEROSTEUS, Cuv. 

Body without scales, more or less plated on the sides ; one dorsal fin with 
free spines. Ventral fin with one strong spine, and no other rays ; bones of 
the pelvis forming a shield, pointed behind ; branchiostegous rays, three. 

]. Gasterosteus trachurus, Cuv. 

Back and sides olivaceous, sometimes passing into yellowish brown or dusky blue ; the 
throat and breast, in some individuals, bright, fiery red, belly and flanks silvery. Three dor- 
sal spines. The sides are defended throughout their whole length by a series of elongated 
bony plates, arranged vertically ; these plates are continued along the sides of the tail, there 
being in all twenty-five or twenty-six, exclusive of five small ones that cover the keel of 
the tail, and render it more prominent. 

D. 111-9. P. 10. V. 1. A. 1-8. C 12. Length, 2 to 3 inches. 

Greenland, Faericius. 

Gasterosteus aculeatus, L. 

Bl., II. p. 73, pi. 53, fig. 3. 

" " Fab., Fauna Groenlandica, p. 169. 

" " Common Stickleback, Shaw's Gen. Zob'l., iv. p. 604, pi. 87, fig. 3. 

" " Three-spined Stickleback, Jenyns's Bnl. Vert., p, 348. 

L'Epinoche a queue armee, Gasterosteus trachurus, Cuv. el Val., iv. p. 4S1, pi. 98, fig. 1. 
Gasterosteus, Burnstickle, Rich., Fauna Boreal. Americ, in. p. 54. 
Gasterosteus trachurus, Rough-tailed Stickleback, Yarrell's Brit. Fishes (2d edit), I. p. 90. 

2. Gasterosteus biaculeatus, Mitchill. 

Dark olive-green above, gradually intermixing with light greenish and yellowish on the 
sides. Fins tinged with yellowish. Two distant spines on the back, and a third near the 
dorsal fin. A sharp, flat tooth on the external base of each ventral spine ; the European 
species having simply an enlargement there. 

D. 2, 1-12. P. 9. V. 1-1. A. 1-8. C. 12. Length, 2 inches. 

Newfoundland, Cuv. New York, Mitchill. 

Gasterosteus biaculeatus, Two-spined Stickleback, Mitchill, Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. of N. Y., I. p. 430, 

pi. 1, fig. 10. 
L'Epinoche a deux epines (Gasterosteus biaculeatus, Penn., Shaw, et Mitchill), Cuv. et Val., iv. p. 503. 
Gasterosteus biaculeatus, Two-spined Burnstickle, Rich., Fauna Boreal. Americ, in. p. 56. 
" Two-spined Stickleback, Dekay's Report, p. 65, pi. 3, fig. 8. 



Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 65 

3. Gasterosteus Noveboracensis, Cuv. 

Dark brown above the lateral line ; beneath it, silvery. This species differs from the G. 
trachurns in having- the dorsal plates narrower ; the lateral carina; of the tail more prominent, 
and the lateral line nearer the back. 

Mr. Thompson, Vice-President of the Belfast Natural History Society, Ireland, does not 
consider this species distinct from the trachurns. See his paper " On the Species of Stickle- 
back found in Ireland," Mag. of Zoology and Botany. 

D. 3-11. P. 10. V. 1-1. A. 1-8. C. 12. Length, 24 inches. 

Massachusetts, Storer. New York, Cuv., Dekay. 

L'Epinoche de New-York, Gasterosteus Noveboracensis, Cuv , Cuv. et Val , iv. p. 502, pi. 98, fig. 3. 
Gasterosteus Noveboracensis, Rich., FaunaBoreal. Americ, in p. 56. 

New York Stickleback, Storer's Report, p. 30. 

Dekav's Report, p. 66, pi. 6, fig. 17. 

4. Gasterosteus quadracus, Mitchill. >4/~t/ZZ* 

Greenish brown above the lateral line ; beneath this line, which is scarcely perceptible, 
darker and irregularly broken by the extension of the whiteness of the abdomen. In young 
specimens, the color is distributed in four or five bars, which become indistinct in the 
mature fish To the under portion of the ventral spine is attached a reddish membrane, 
which makes this part to appear as if covered with blood, when the fish is suddenly darting 
through the water with this spine projecting. Three or four spines in front of the dorsal fin. 
The three foremost fixed, the posterior movable. 

D. 3, 1-4. P. 11. V. 1. A. 10. C. 13. Length, 2 inches. 

Massachusetts, Storer. New York, Mitchill, Cuv., Dekay. 

/Gasterosteus quadracus, Four-spined Stickleback, Mitchill, Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc of N Y id 430 
pi. I, fig. It. r ' 

L'Epinoche a rpjatre aiguilles (Gasterosteus quadracus, Mitch.), Cuv. et Val., it. p. 504. 
L'Epinoche a bassin fendu (Gasterosteus apelles, Cuv.), Cuv. et Val., iv. p. 505. 
Gasterosteus apelles, Bloody Stickleback, Stoker's Report, p. 31. 

" Four-spined Stickleback, Dekav's Report, p 67, pi. 6, fig. 18. 

•> 5. Gasterosteus occidentalis, Cuv. 
Very similar to the G. pungitius; its form is more elongated. Olive-green, tinged with 
yellow. More than seven spines in front of the dorsal fin. Tail armed. 
D. 8. P. 11. V. 1-11. A. 1-9. C. 12. Length, 1 to 2 inches. 
Newfoundland, Cuv. Massachusetts, Storer. New York, Dekay. 

L'Epinochette de Terre-neuve (Gasterosteus occidentalis, Cuv.), Cuv. et Val.. iv. p. 509. 

Gasterosteus occidentalis, Newfoundland Stickleback, Rich., Fauna E al. Americ, in. p. 53. 

" W ipined Stickleback, Dekat's Report, p. 68, pi. 42, fig. 135. 

Gasterosteus pungitius, Ten spined Stickleback, Storer's Report, p. 32. 

G. Gasterosteus niger, Cuv. 
Entirely black. Ventral spines very long. Thirty-three lateral plates. Tail armed. Its 
form is more elongated, and its spines more slender, than those of the G. trachurus. 



64 Storefs Synopsis of the Fishes of North America, 

t 

D. (?)• P- (•')• v - (•')• A - (0 c - (0 Length, 2 inches. 
Newfoundland, Cuv. 

L'Epinoche noire (Gasterosteus niger, Cuv.), Cnv. et v\al., iv. p. £03. 
Gasterosteus niger, Black Burnslickle, Rich., Fauna Boreal. Americ, ill. p. 56. 
" " Dekay's Report, p. 68. 

7. Gasterosteus concinnus, Richardson. 

Olive-green, with a silvery belly, and the whole body and soft parts of the head sprinkled 
with black dots. Body scaleless. The soft dorsal has nine rays. Contiguous to the anal fin 
is a separate spine furnished with its proper membrane, like the dorsal spines, the longest of 
which it equals in size. All the spines, both dorsal and ventral, are movable, and none of 
them are serrated. Perhaps the smallest of fresh-water fishes. 

B.3. D. 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1-9. P. 10. V. 1-1. A. 1-9. C 13§. Length, 1 
inch, 3 lines. 

From the Saskatchewan, Lat.53°, to the Great Bear Lake, in the 65th parallel, Rich. 

Gasterosteus concinnus, Tiny Bumstickle, Rich., Fauna Boreal. Americ. in. p. 57. 
Uswae-atheek-asheesl, Cr.ee Indians. 
Gasterosteus concinnus, Dekav's Report, p. 6S. 

8. Gasterosteus Mainensis, Storer. 

Sides yellowish ; beneath, silvery. Several transverse black bands, varying in their width, 
upon the sides. Seven spines in front of the dorsal fin, that next the fin the largest. A 
broad, oblong, serrated plate on the side. 

D. 7-10. P. 10. V. 1. A. 1-8. C. 8. Length, 2 inches. 

Fresh water, Kennebec County, Maine, Storer. 

Gasterosteus Mainensis, Maine Stickleback, Storer, Eost. Joum. Nat. Hist., I. p. 465. 
" " Dekav's Report, p. 63. 

9. Gasterosteus inconstans, Kirtland. 

Olive or black upon the back ; faintly maculated with olive upon its sides ; a black or 
fuscous zone often extends along the median line. Throat and abdomen yellowish or white. 
Five or six movable spines in front of the dorsal fin. Body smooth. 

D. 5, 6, 9-12. P. (.')■ V. 1. A. 1-9, 12. C. (>). Length, \\ inches. 

Ohio, Kirtland. 

Gasterosteus inconstans, Kirtland, Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist., in. p. 273, pi. 2, fig. 1. 

10. Gasterosteus millepunctatus, Ayres. 

Greenish olive, thickly clouded over with brown, which latter color is produced by a 
vast number of small blackish spots, not dispersed uniformly, but gathered in clouds and 



Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of jyorth JJmerica. 65 

waves, and sometimes in tolerably well defined vertical bands. Abdomen silvery. 1 
dorsal spines, three of which are free. 

D. (?). P. (?) V. (?) A. (?). C. (?). Lenglh, 1J inches. 

Connecticut, Ayres. 

Gasterosteus millepunctatus, Ayres, Boat. Journ. Nat Hisl , iv p 294, p] 12, fig. 13. 



GENUS XIII. TEMNISTIA, Richardson. 

It has much resemblance, in external form, to Hemilepidotus and Scor- 
paena. It is separated from the former by its body being wholly scaly, and by 
the presence of barbels on the head ; and from the latter, by having only five 
gill-rays and a three-lobed dorsal. The want of scales on the head distin- 
guishes it from Sebastes, and its habit, which is very unlike that of a Blenny, 
its long pectorals and scaly body, detach it from Blepsias. 

I. Temnistia ventricosa, Rrcn. 

Brown, with darker spots, and four transverse broad, waved, red hands. Belly white, 
studded laterally with brown spots. Abdomen greatly inflated, pendulous and hemispherical. 
Dorsal fin notched anterior to t he twelfth ray by the gradual decrease of the six preceding 
rays. Another hut less decided notch at the third ray, the membrane of which readies only 
to the middle of the following ray. 

B.5. D.31. P. 16. V.5. A. 16. C. 11|. Length, (>). 

Northwest Const of America, Richardson. 

Temnistia ventricosa, Northwest Nolchfin, Rich., Fauna Boreal. Americ, m. p. 59. 



FAMILY III. SCIENIDiE. 

Is very similar to that of the Percoides, and presents nearly all the same com- 
binations of exterior character, especially the denticulations of the preoper- 
culum, and the spines of the operculum ; but it has no teeth, either on the 
vomer or palatines ; in general, the bones of the cranium and face are 
cavernous, and form a snout more or less rounded. It often occurs in this 
family that the vertical fins are rather scaly. Some of the genera of this 
family have two dorsals, others but one. 

52 



66 Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 

GENUS I. OTOLITHUS, Cuv. 
The bones of the anal fin are weak, and there are no barbels ; some of 
the teeth terminate in elongated hooks, or are of the canine form. Their 
natatory bladder has a horn on each side, projecting forwards. 

1. Otolithus regalis, Schn. 

Head and back brown, witb frequently a tinge of greenish. Ventrals and anal orange. 
Ventral fins with five branched rays. There are two strong canine teeth in the upper jaw, 
one of which is often broken ; the rest of that mandible is armed with a single row of teeth, 
which are very small, but distinct and pointed. The under jaw is also furnished with a row 
of small teeth, which is doubled anteriorly. The two dorsal fins separated, and the second, 
as well as the caudal and anal fins, is in a great part covered with scales. 

D. 9, 1-29. P. 16. V. 1-5. A. 1-13. C 17. Length, 1 to 2 feet. 

Bay of Chaleur, Lieut. Col. Hamilton Smith. Massachusetts, Storer. New 
York, Mitchill, Dekav. Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Labrus squeteague, Weak lisii, MlTCHILL, Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. of N. Y., I. p. 396, pi. 2. fig. 6 
L'Ololithe royal (Otolithus regalis, Cuv., Johnius regalis, Schn ), Cuv. el Val., v. p. 67. 
Scia?na (Ololilhus) regalia, Squeteague, Rich , Fauna Boreal. Amenc, III. p. G'i 
Ololilhus regalis, Weak-fish, Storer's Report, p. 33. 

" " " Dekay's Report, p. 71, pi. 8, fig. 24. 

2. Otolithus Drtnnmondii, Richardson. 

Slender. In a preserved specimen, received by Richardson, the back appeared to have 
been dark, and the sides and belly silvery. Many small, rounded, blackis.li brown spots on 
the back above the lateral line, and on the second dorsal and caudal. Two distinct rows of 
small pointed teeth round the upper jaw, the outer row being more widely set. Caudal fin 
rounded. Sixty-six scales on the lateral line, exclusive of the minute ones which extend 
pretty far over the caudal. 

D. 9, 1-25. P. 10 V. 1-5. A. 1-8. C 17|. Length, Hi inches. 

New Orleans, Richardson. 

Ololilhus Drummondii, Rich., Fauna Boreal. Amenc, III. p. 70. 
" Dekay's Report, p. 72. 

3. Otolithus Carolinensis, Cuv. 

Blue on the back, with silvery reflections ; beneath, white- The dorsals are gray, spotted 
with black. Caudal spotted Anal blackish blue. Scales small, more than eighty in a lon- 
gitudinal line. 

D. 10, 1-27. P. (?). V. (?). A. 1-11. C (?)■ Length, 14 inches. 

South Carolina, Cuv. 

L'Oiulilhe de la Caroline, Ololilhus Carolinensis, Cuv. el Vai. , lx p -175. 
" " Dekay's Report, p. 1-1 






Slorer's Si/nopsis of the Fishes of North Jmerica. 67 

GENUS II. CORVINA, Civ. 
Have neither canine teclh nor barbels ; all their teeth are even. They also 
differ from the Otolithi in the thickness and strength of iheir second anal spine. 
Teeth generally even, velvet-like on the jaws ; but with a series of teeth 
larger, pointed, and equal on the upper. 

1. Corvina oscula, Lesueur. 

The color on the head, snout, and caudal fin is of a bluish gray, tending to black upon 
the snout and above the eyes, more gray towards I he back and above the pectorals ; all the 
other fins are of a lighter gray ; some red tints upon the cheeks ; a yellowish reflection 
upon the scales of the back of the tail and of the opercula ; abdomen beneath the throat 
white. Anterior profile sloping, somewhat concave. Snout prominent and rounded. 

D.9-30. P. 19. V. 1-5. A. 2-7. C. 18, 5-5. Length, 16 inches. 

Lake Erie, Lesueur. Lake Ontario, Dekay. Ohio River, Kirti.and. jLo.^ Ck<k>« P Uaw. V"^^ 

Amplodon grunniens, Rap., [chth. Obien., p. - 

Sciosoai I rourn. Acad Nat. Sc., n. p. 252, pi. 13. 

I I rb de Lesueur, Corvina oscula, Cuv el V.u. , v. p 98. 

lla, ] iM, Rich., Fauna Boreal. AmeriC , in p. 68. 

Scixna oscula, Kir rust's Reporl on ihe Zdol. of Ohio, pp. 16 , 192, 
Scia?na grisea, Lesueur, Journ, Acad Nat Sc., n p. 254. 

" " hi . n ' Report, p. 76. 
Scia?na oscula, White Perch of the Ohio Kivcr, Kirtland, Bost. Joum. Nat Hist., in. p. 350, pi. 11, fig. 3. 
Corvina oscula, Lake Sheep head, Dekay's Report, p. 73, pi. 21, B 

2. Corvina ocellata, Cuv. 

Bluish above, lighter beneath. Upon the upper part of the tail, on each side, is a black 
spot, about three quarters of an inch in diameter, resembling the brand of a hot iron upon 
wood; whence it has been called the B r and al Brum. Sometimes two spots on one side, 
which are confluent on the other. 

D. 10 or 11, 1 -25 or 26. P. 17. V. 1-5. A. 2-7or8. C. 17. Length, 3 feet or 
more. 

New York, Mitchill. South Carolina, Linnjeus. Lake Pontchartrain, Louisiana. 
Lesueur. 

Called, at Charleston, S. C , "Bass," "Sea Bass," "Red Bass"; at New Orleans. 
" Red-fish." 

Perca ocellata, Ocellated Perch, Lin,, Sys. Nat. 

" " SH WV : (iiii Z08I , IV I>. 550. 

mi imberbis, Beardless Drum, Mitchill, Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. of N. Y., i, p. Ill 
Le Johnius ocelle ou bml6, Corvina ocellata, Cm el Vajl., v. p. L34, pi. 108. 
Corvina ocellata, Branded Corvina, Dekay's Report, p. 75, pi. 21, I 

3. Corvina argyroleuca, Cuv. 
The whole complexion whitish. The white of the back relieved by pale blown scales, 



7 2 Stover's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 

disposed in rows ascending towards tlie back, and thence inclining towards the tail. Below 
the lateral line, the sides and belly are alternated with shades of a silver white, and a milk 
white disposed into spaces and rows. Ventral and anal fins yellow. Pectorals, caudal, and 
second dorsal, yellowish. The first four spinous rays of the dorsal fins successively longer. 

D. 11, 1-22. P. 17. V. 1-5. A. 2-9. C. 17. Length, 8 inches. 

New York, Mitchill,, Dekay. Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Bodianus argyro leucos, Silvers Perch, Mitchill, Trans. Lit. and Phil. Sec. of N. Y., i. p. 417, pi. 0, fig. 9. 
Le Corb blanc-d'argent, Corvina argyroleuca, Cuv., Cnv. el Val., v p 105. 

" " Silvery Corvina, Dekay'e Report, p. 74, pi. 18, fig. 51 

4. Corvina Ricliardsonii, Cuv. 

Top of the head and the back greenish gray, with darker bands descending a short way 
from the laller ; sides ash-gray, with silvery tips to the scales ; belly cream-yellow. Dor- 
sal with a long membrane behind. Anal with a stout spine. 

D. 9, 1-18. P 15 V. 1-5. A. 1-7. C 17|. Length, 1 to 2 feet. 

Lake Huron, Richardson. 

Called " Sheepshead," on the borders of Lake Huron. 

Sciaaia (Corvina) Richardsonii (Cuv.), Malashegane, Rich , Fauna Boreal. Americ. in. p. 64, pi. 77. 

Corvina Richardsonii, Malashegany, Dekay's Report, p 76, 

Le Corb de Richardson, Corvina Richardsonii, Cuv. et Val., v p. 100. 

5. Corvina ronchus, Cuv. 
Very similar to the C. argyroleuca. The preopercular teeth are very stout. Anal fin 
forked. Anal spine stout. 

D. 10, 2 -23 or 24. P. 18. V. 1-5. A. 3-8. C. 17. Length, 11 inches. 

Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Called " Gronde," at St. Domingo. 

Le Corb grognant, Corvina ronchus, Cuv. el Val , v p. 107. 

6. Corvina dentex, Cuv. 

Silvery, tinged with gray, with very slightly marked longitudinal lines. Fins gray, doited 
with brown. Pectorals blackish at their base. Snout slightly prominent. Upon each jaw 
an outer row of slender, pointed, separated teeth, six or seven on each side. 

D. 12, 2-22. P. (?). V. (?) A. 2-9. C (.')• Length, (?) • 

Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Called " Gronde," at Port au Prince. 

Le Gronde de Saint Domingue, Corvina dentex, Cuv. et Val., v. p. 139, pi. 109. 

" " Wilson, Encyclop. Brit., Art. Ichth., pi. 299, fie. VI. 

7. Corvina oxyptera, Dekay. 
Operculum obsoletely serrate, with two spines ; preoperculum denticulated. Pectoral fins 
long and pointed. 



Store? s Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 69 

D. 10-10. P.20. V. 1-5. A.3-7. C. 10?. Length, 8 inches. 
New York, Dekay. 

Corvina oxyptera, Sharp-finned Corvina, Dekay': Report, p 77, pi. 30, fig. 96. 

GENUS III. LEIOSTOMUS, C uv . 
Anal spine feeble. Very minute denticulations on the preopercle. Teeth 
in the jaws even, and exceedingly small. Pharyngeals paved on their posterior 
border. Snout convex, arched. Two dorsals. 

1. Leiostomus obliquus, Mitchill. 
Back convex. Body compressed. Fourteen to eighteen narrow, transverse, oblique bands 
over the hack. A dark rounded spot behind the upper angle of the opercle. Fins yellowish. 
D. 10, 1-30. P. 10. V. 1-5. A. 2-13. C. 17. Length, 8 inches. 
New York, Mitchill, Cuv., Dekay. Pennsylvania, Cuv. 

Labrus obliquus, Litlle Porgee, Mitchill, Trans. Lit and Phil. Soc. of N. Y., i. p. 103 
Scitena multifasi ; Ha, l.i eub, Journ. Acad, Nat. Sc, n. p. 255. 
Le Leioslome a epaule noire, Leiostomus humeralis, Cuv. et Val., v. p. 141, pi. no. 
Leiosi is obliquus, Lafayette, Dekay's Report, p. 69, pi. 60, fig. 195. 

2. Leiostomus xanthurus, Lacep. 

Very similar to the preceding species, but the neck is a little more convex. Of a golden 

brown color, becoming silvery towards the abdomen, without bands or spots. 

D. 11, 1-32 or 34. P. 21. V. 1-5. A. 2-13. C. It. Length, (?). 

South Carolina, Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

It is called " Yellowtail," in South Carolina. 

Le Leiostome 4 queue jaune (Leiostomus xanthurus, Lacep.), Cuv. et Val., v. p. 142. 
Leiostomus xanthurus, Dekay's Report, p. 70. 

GENUS IV. LARIMUS, Cuv. 
Two dorsal fins. Teeth velvety. Forehead not arched. Snout very 
blunt. Preoperculum slightly denticulated. 

1. Laritnus breviceps, Cuv. 

Silvery, above grayish brown, with brownish oblique lines, which descend forward . 
towards the tail, these lines are longitudinal. The membrane of the first dorsal is blackish, 
with a triangular white spot at its base between each of the rays. Snout fiat, and very short. 

D. 10,1-28. P. (?). V. (.')• A. 2-7. C. 17. Length, 1 foot. 

Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Le Larime 4 court museau, Larimus breviceps, i i v. et Val., v. p. lit;. 



70 Stover's Synopsis of the Fishes of North .America. 

GENUS V. CONODON, Cuv. 
Distinguished from all the other Scienoides by a row of conical teeth in 

both jaws. 

1. Conodon Antillanus, Cuv. 

Silvery, with seven verlical brown bands. Fins brown. A row of eighteen or twenty 
conical teeth in each jaw ; the six anterior stoutest and longest. The six in the lower, thick- 
er than those in the upper jaw. Preopercular denticulations stout. Two very small pores 
at the chin. 

D. 12, 12 or 11-1, 12. P. (?)■ V. (?). A. 3-7. C (?). Length, 8 inches. 

Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Le Conodon des Antilles, Conodon Antillanus, Cuv. el Vai.., v. p. 156. 

GENUS VI. EQUES, Bl. 
Body compressed, long, high on the shoulders, and terminating in a point 
towards the tail ; their teeth are even : two dorsal fins, the first high, the 
second long and scaly. 

1. Eques balteatus, Cuv. 

Yellowish gray, silvery towards the abdomen, with three broad dark-brown bands; the 
first is vertical, passing from over the eye, across to the angle of the mouth ; the second 
begins upon the occiput, passes down across the operculum in front of the pectoral fin, and, 
curving a little, extends upon the base of the ventral fins ; the third, commencing at the an- 
terior base of the first dorsal, curves obliquely downward, and extends the whole length of 
the centre of the body, to the extremity of the tail. 

D. 16, 1-53. P. 15. V. 1-5. A. 2-10. C. 19. Length, 6 or 7 inches. 

Gulf of Mexico, Parra. Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Called " Genlilhomme," at Martinique ; " Serrana," at Havana. 

Serrana, Parp.a, p. 2, pi. 2, upper fig. 

Eques Americanus, Block. 

Eques balleatus, Griffith's Cuv, x. pi. 21, fig. 1. 

Le Chevalier a baudrier, Eques balleatus, Cuv. et Val, v. p. 1 5. 

2. Eques punctatus, Bloch. 

Of a dark brown color, with five narrow, gray, longitudinal bands upon the sides ; the 
three middle bands curve slightly upwards towards the first dorsal. Two verlical bands 
upon the head. Dorsal, caudal, and anal, with round bluish or gray spots. 

D. 11, 1-46. P. 18. V. 1-5. A. 2-7. C. 19. Length, (r)- 

Gulf of Mexico. Parra. Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 



Storefs Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 71 

Called " Maman-baleine," at Martinique. 

Serrana, Pakua. p. 2, pi. 2, lower figure. 

I i Chevalier ponctue (Eques punctatus, IIl.j, Ct:v. et Vai.., v. p. 107, pi. 116 

Eques punctatus, WuiON, Eucyclop. Brit., Art. Iclilh., pi. 229, fig 1 1 



GENUS VII. UMBRINA, Cuv. 

Distinguished from other Scia?.nac by a cirrhus under the symphysis of the 
lower jaw. 

1. Umbrina alburnus, L. 

Body elongated, slightly arched over the pectorals, gradually tapering towards the tail ; 
dull gray, with silvery reflections upon the sides, ornamented with irregularly disposed dark 
bars ; some passing obliquely forwards from the dorsal fin ; others passing obliquely back- 
wards from the nape of the neck ; and one broader one pursues a straight course backwards 
through tin; middle of the body, from the extremity of the pectorals to the tail. Beneath, 
yellowish. Caudal fin emarginated at its upper portion, rounded beneath. 

D. 9-20. P. 19. V. 5. A. 10. C 17. Length, 84 to 15 inches. 

Massachusetts, Stoker. New York, Carolina, Florida, Mitch-ill, Cuv., Dekay. 

Called "King-fish," at New York ; and "Whiting," in Carolina and Florida. 

Alburnus Americanus, Carolina Whiting, Catesbv's Hist. Carol., ir. pi. 12, fig. 2. 
Perca alburnus, L., I 

" " Whiting Perch, Shaw's Gen. ZoBl., iv. p. 54S. 

S i.ena nebulosa, King fish, Mitchill, Trans. Lit. and Phil, Soc. of N. V., i. p. 40S, pi. 3, fig. 5. 
L'Ombrine ties Elals-Unis (Umbrina alburnus, Cuv., Perca alburnus, Lin., Centropomus alburnus, LACki* , 

i i Vai. . v p 180. 

i ina nebulosa, King-fish, Storey's Report, p. 35. 
Umbrina alburnus, King fish, Dekay's Report, p. 73, pi. 7, fig. 20. 

2. Umbrina Martinicensis, Cuv. 

Very similar to the U. alburnus. Of an uniform brown color. No spots nor bande. Pre- 
opercular teeth prominent. Anterior teeth of the upper jaw, and the middle pharyngeal 
teeth, stout. 

D. 10, 1-24. P. 22. V. 1-5. A. 1 -10. C. 17. Length, 1 foot. 

Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

L'Ombrine de la Martinique, Umbrina Martinicensis, Cdv. <-t Vat... v. p. IS6. 

3. Umbrina coroides, Cuv. 

Nine broad, dusky, vertical bands ; anal fin with two spines ; lobes in front of the mi. nth 
rounded. 

D. 10, 1 -29. P. 17. V. 1 -5. A. 2- 6. C. 17. Length, 8 inches. 



68 Storefs Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 

South Carolina, Dekay. 

L'Ombrine coroide, Umbrina coroides, Cuv. et Val., v. p. 187, pi. 117. 

" Southern King-fish, Dekay's Report, p. 70, pi. 72, fig. 231. 

4. Umbrina Broussonnettii, Cuv. 

One fourth as high as long. Barbel short and pointed. All the teeth velvety. Preoper- 
cular teeth well marked. Dorsal spines slender. 

D. 10, 1-25. P. (?)■ V. (.'). A. 2-6. C. (.'). Length, (?). 

Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

L'Ombrine de Broussonnet, Umbrina Broussonnettii, Cuv. et Val., v. p. 187. 

GENUS VIII. POGONIAS, Lacep. 
Resembles the Uinbrinae, but instead of a single barbule under the jaw, there 
are several. 

1. Pogonias chromis, Lacep. 

Large ; body compressed and deep Brownish bronze, varying from blackish to reddish. 
A black spot behind the pectorals. Ten or eleven cirrhi suspended from about the chin. 
D.9, 1-22. P. 18. V. 6. A. 2-7. C. 171- Length, 24 inches. 
New York, Mitchill, Cuv., Dekay. New York to Florida, Dekay. 

Labrus chromis, Lin. 

Scisena fusca, Black Drum, Scisna gigas, Red Drum, Mitchill, Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. of X. V 

I. pp. 409, 412, pi. 5, fig. 10. 
Le grand Pogonias, Pogonias chromis, Cm', el Val., v p. 206. 

" •• Big Drum, Dekay's Report, p. SO. 

2. Pogonias fasciatus, Lacep. 
Dusky, banded with four or five blackish vertical bands. The fishermen suppose this spe- 
cies to be the young of the preceding. 
B.7. D. 10-23. P. 17. V.6. A. 7. C. 19. Length, 7 inches. 
New York, Mitchill. South Carolina, Dekay. 
Called " Grunter," " Young Drum,'" "Grunts," "Young Sheepshead." 

Labrus grunniens, Grunts, Mitchill, Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. of N. \".. i. p. 403, pi. 3, fig. 3. 
Le Pogonias a bandes (Pogonias fasciatus, Lacep.), Cdv. et Val., v. p. 210, pi. lis 
Pogonias fasciatus, Wilson, Encyclop. Brit., Art. Ichthyology, p. 176, pi. 299, fig 13 
" " Banded Drum, Dekay's Report, p. 81, pi. 14, fig. 40. 

GENUS IX. MICROPOGON, Cuv. 
The prominent snout and general form of Umbrina, with a few scarcely 
apparent cirrhi or barbules under the lower jaw. Preoperculum dentated, 



Storefs Synopsis of the Fishes of North .America. 73 

with two spines at the angle. Operculum with two flat points. Five pores 
under the chin. Dorsal fin deeply divided. 

1. Micropogon costatus, Mitchill. 

Silvery; blackish upon the operculum; with about twenty narrow gray or blackish bands 
over the back and along the sides, directed obliquely forwards. In young specimens, two 
or three longitudinal bands are formed upon the dorsal fins by small brownish spots. Ven- 
trals yellowish. The other fins gray. 

D. 10, 1-28 or 29. P. 17. V. 1-5. A. 2-8. C. 17. Length, 10 to 15 inches. 

New York, Mitchill, Cuv. Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Bodianus costatus, Middle Grunts, Mitchill, Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. of N. Y., I. p. 417. 

Le Micropogon rave (Micropogon lineatus, Cuv., Umbrina Foumieri, Desmek, Sciffina opercularis, Q. etG.), 

Cry. et Val., v. p. 215. 
Micropogon costatus, Banded Corvino, Dekay's Report, p. 83, pi. 72, fig. 230. 

2. Micropogon undulatus, Cuv. 

Neither vertical bands nor oblique lines, but indistinct brownish spots upon the back. 

D. (>). P. (?). V. (?) A. (?). C. (.'). Length, 13 inches. 

Chesapeake and Delaware Bays, Schozpff. Carolina, Catesby. New Orleans, Cuv. 

Called " Grunter," at New Orleans, and " Croker," in South Carolina. 

Le Micropogon ondule (Micropogon undulatus, Cuv., Perca undulata, L.), Cuv. et Val., v. p. 219. 
Micropogon undulatus, Dekay's Report, p. SI. 



GENUS X. H^EMULON, Cuv. 

Have rather a lengthened profile, which has been thought to have some re- 
semblance to that of a pig. The lower jaw is compressed, and opens wide, 
having under its symphysis two pores and a little oval dimple ; teeth even ; 
those parts of the lower jaw which are drawn in when the mouth shuts are 
generally of a bright red, from which they derive their name. Their single 
dorsal is a little emarginated ; the soft part of it is scaly. 

1. Haemulon formosum, Cuv. 

Of a golden gray color ; the head is marked with about a dozen steel-colored lines on each 
side. The second anal spine is very robust. 
D. 12-16. P. 17. V. 1-5. A. 3-0. C. 17. Length, 11 inches. 
New York, Dekay. Carolina, Lin. Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 
Called " Crocro dore," at St. Domingo. 

53 



74 Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 

Perca marina capite striato, Grunt, Catesby's Hist. Carol., II. pi. 6, fig. 1. 

Perca formosa, Lin., Sys. Nat. (12th edit.), p. 483. 

La Belle Gorette (Hasmulon formosum, Ctrv., Perca formosa, L., Labre Plumierien, Lacep.), Cuv. el Yal .. 

v. p. 230. 
Hffiinulon formosum, Squirrel-fish, Dekay's Report, p. 86,J>1. 20, fig. 59. 

2. Htemulon chrysopteron, Cuv. 

Silver-colored ; darker above ; obscure dark stripes upon the head. The ventrals and anal 

are tinged with yellow and orange. The other fins are of a brown horn-color. 

D. 12-15. P. 17. V. 1-5. A. 3-9. C. 15|. Length, 11 inches. 

New York, Cuv., Dekay. South Carolina, Catesby. 

Perca marina gibbosacinerea, Margate-fish, Catesby's Hist. Carol., n. pi. 2, fig. 1. 
Perca chrysoptera, Lin., Sys. Nat. (12th edit.), p. 488. 

La Gorette a nageoires fauves, Hsemulon chrysopteron, Cuv. et Val., v. p. 240. 
Haemulon chrysopteron, Yellow-finned Red-mouth, Dekay's Report, p. 85, pi. 7, fig. 22. 

3. Haemulon elegans, Cuv. 

Yellow, with seven or eight silvery lines upon each side, which are continued on to the 
head ; those towards the back irregular and more separated. Lips bright red'. Ventrals 
orange. Pectorals rose-colored. Dorsal, anal, and caudal, olive. 

D. 12-16. P. 17. V. 1-5. A. 3-9. C. 17. Length, 7 or 8 inches. 

Caribbean Sea, Cuv- 

Called " Ronco," at Porto Rico ; at St. Domingo, " Crocro gueule-rouge." 

Anthias formosus, Bl. , p. 323. 

La Gorette elegante, Hffimulon elegans, Cuv. et Val., v. p. 227. 

4. Haemulon canna, Cuv. 
Silvery, obliquely rayed with fifteen or sixteen wide brown bands. Fins more or less 
orange or brown. 
D. (.'). P. (?)• V. (>). A. (.')■ C. (?). Weight, 1A pounds. 
Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 
Called " Canne-canne," at Martinique. 

La Gorette canne-canne, HBemulon canna, Cuv. et Val., v. p. 233. 

5. Haemulon xanthopteron, Cuv. 

Golden, with oblique steel-colored lines. Two horizontal brown lines above and benealh 
the lateral line. Pectorals yellow. A row of conical and pointed teeth in each jaw ; the 
anterior, in the upper jaw, the larger. The second and third anal spine very stout. 

D. 12-14. P. 18. V. 1-5. A. 3-9. C. 17. Length, 13 inches. 

Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

La Gorette & nageoires jaunes, Haemulon xanthopteron, Cuv. et Val., v. p. 234. 



Storefs Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 75 

6. Hamulon heterodon, Cuv. 
Similar to the II. canna in its color, but the bands are less numerous than in that species. 
The soft portion of the dorsal and anal fins are entirely scaly, also the greater portion of the 
caudal fin. Some of the lateral teeth of the upper jaw, near the angle, are longer than the 
others, and slightly diverge. 

D. 12-14. P. (?)• V. (?). A- 3-8. C. (?)■ Length, (?). 
Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

La Gorette Chaponne, Hfrmulon heterodon, Cuv. et Val., v. p. 9.35. 

7. Haemulon aurolineatum, Cuv. 
Silvery, with longitudinal lines ; the first and fourth of these lines, which are one above 
and the other beneath the lateral line, at equal distances, are broader than the others. A 
brown spot at the base of the caudal fin. Fins yellowish gray. 
D. 13-15. P. (.')■ V. (?). A. 3 -8. C. (>). Length, 6 or 7 inches. 
Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 
Called " Crocro," at St. Domingo. 

La Gorette rnyee d'or, Hamilton aurolineatum, Cuv. el Val., v. p. 237. 

8. Hasmulon quadrilineatum, Cuv. 

Silvery ; grayish towards the back, with four longitudinal lines, the two upper brown, the 
two lower golden ; one is above the lateral line ; the second includes this line ; the third 
passes through the eye, beneath the lateral line ; the fourth runs from the pectorals to the 
tail. Dorsal fin grayish brown. Caudal brown. The other fins whitish. 

D. 13-11. P. (?). V. ('). A. 3-8. C. (?). Length, 6 or 7 inches. 

Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Called "Cricri," at St. Domingo. 

La Gorette a quatre Iignes, Haemulon quadrilineatum, Cov. et Val., v. p. 233, pi. 120. 

" " Wilson, Encyclop. Brit., Art. Ichlh., pi. 30O, fig. 1 

9. Haemulon album, Cuv. 
Of a dull silvery-white color. No canines. Preopercular denticulations exceedingly fine. 
A row of compact, small, conical teeth in jaws. 

D. 12-16. P. 18. V. 1-5. A. 3-9. C. 17. Length, 2 feet. 
Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

La Gorette blanche, Haemulon album, Cuv. et Val., v. p. 241. 

10. Haemulon chromis, Cuv. 
Silvery, with a brown spot between each of the dorsal spines. Teeth similar to those of 
the H. album. 



76 Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of JYorth America. 

D. 12-17. P. (?). V. (?). A. 3-7. C. (.'). Length, 6 inches. 
Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

La Gorette de Broussonnel, Hffimulon chromis, Cuv. et Val., v. p. 242. 

11. Hfemulon fulvo-maculatum, Mitchill. 

Rows of yellow-sprinkled oblique stripes above the lateral line, and horizontal stripes of 
a similar color beneath it. 

D. 12-15. P. 18. V. 1-5. A. 3-12. C. 17. Length, 6 inches. 
New York, Mitchill, Dekay. 

Labrus fulvomaculatus, Speckled Grunts, Mitchill, Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. of N. Y., i. p. 406. 
Hasmulon fulvo-maculatum, Speckled Red-mouth, Dekay's Report, p. 84, pi. 7, fig. 21. 

12. Heemulon arcuatum, Cuv. 

Body elevated. Of a dark blackish green color, with a brilliant gilded crescent on each 

scale. Fins blackish. The teeth, particularly of the lower jaw, very laige. 

D. 11-17. P. (?). V. (?)■ A. 3-9. C. (?)■ Length, 11 inches. 

South Carolina, Cuv. 

La Gorette a croissant, Kaemulon arcuatum, Cuv. et Val., ix. p. 481. 
" " Dekay's Report, p. 87. 

GENUS XI. PRISTIPOMA, Cuv. 

Have the same preoperculum, the same pores under the symphysis, as the 
Hasmulons ; but their snout is thicker, their mouth smaller, their dorsal and 
anal fins have no scales ; their operculum terminates in a blunt angle, hidden 
in its membranous edge. 

1. Pristipoma rodo, Cuv. 

The head and breast of this species are silvery, shaded with gray. A broad black band 
descends from the nape of the neck across the eye to the angle of the jaws ; a second 
band, situated before the dorsal, descends to and terminates at the pectorals. Behind this, 
upon each side, the body is divided into fifteen longitudinal lines, alternately golden and 
steel-colored. The edges of the scales are silvery, and the fins are yellow. 

D. 12-17. P. 16. V. 1-5. A. 3-10. C. 17. Length, 8 to 11 inches. 

Virginia, Carolina, Lin- Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Called "Rodo," at Martinique; "Fin," at St. Domingo ; " Parapel," at Guadaloupe ; 
" Catalineta," at Havana ; " Juannita," " Mariquita," at Porto Rico. 

Sparus Yirginicus, Virginian Sparus, L., Shaw's Gen. Zob'l., iv. p. 436. 
Le Prislipomerodo (Pristipoma rodo, Cuv.), Cuv. et Val., v. p. 274. 



Storefs Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 77 

2. Pristipoma coro, Cuv. 

Silvery, with eight transverse brown bands. The outer row of teeth conical ; the four 
anterior, in each jaw, larger than the others ; no teeth on the palatine bones. All the head. 
except the jaws, scaled. The second anal spine is large and very stout. 

D. 12-13. P. 15. V. 1-5. A. 3-7. C 17. Length, 6 inches. 

Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Scirena coro, Br.., Shaw's Gen. Zoiil., iv. p. 538. 

Le Pristipome coro, Pristipoma coro, Cov. el Vai.., v. p. 266. 

3. Pristipoma fasciatum, Cuv. 

Of a grayish brown color, with eight or nine clouded, blackish bands, alternately wider and 
narrower ; oblique lines upon the back, and a longitudinal brown band upon the top of the 
operculum. Thirteen soft anal rays, of which the third is longer than the second. 

D. 12-16. P. 1G. V. 1-5. A. 3-13. C. 17. Length, 5 to 8 inches. 

New York, Cuv. 

Le Pristipome a bandes (Pristipoma fasciatum, Cov.), Cuv. et Vai.., v. p. 2S5. 
Pristipoma fasciatum, Banded Pristipoma, Dekav's Report, p. 87. 

4. Pristipoma crocro, Cuv. 

Silvery brown. Dorsal brown, with a whitish line at its base ; the edge of its spinous 
portion blackish. The other fins brown. Upper jaw slightly projecting. Teeth very fine ; 
preopercular dentations delicate. The second anal spine stout. 

D. 13-12 or 14-11. P. 16. V. 1-5. A- 3-7. C 17- Length, 6 or 7 inches. 

Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Called "Crocro," at Martinique. 

Le Pristipome crocro, Pristipoma crocro, Cuv. et Val., v. p. 264. 

5. Pristipoma bilineatum, Cuv. 

Length two and a half times its height. Golden gray, lighter beneath, more silvery upon 
suborbitars. Two longitudinal dark-brown bands upon the sides ; one arising upon the top 
of the head and passing above the lateral line to the posterior base of the soft portion of the 
dorsal; the other, arising at the eye, passes through the centre of the body to the tail, where 
it terminates in a black spot. The anterior teeth rather stouter than the others. Second 
anal spine very stout ; the third spine as stout, but shorter. 

D. 12-15. P. 17. V. 1-5. A. 3-9. C. 17. Length, 44 inches. 

Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Called " Luppe," at Martinique. 

Le Pristipome a deux ligncs, Pristipoma bilineatum, Cov. et Val., v. p. 271, pi. 122. 

" Wilson, Encyclop. Brit., Art. Ichih., pi. 300, fig. 3. 



78 Storefs Synopsis of the Fishes of North Jlmerica. 

6. Pristipoma serrula, Cuv. 

More elongated than the bilineatum ; eyes larger. Violet-colored above, with four or five 
longitudinal yellow lines ; beneath silvery. The second and third anal rays of equal length. 
D. 12-13. P. 15. V. 1-5. A. 3-9. C 17. Length, 7 inches- 
Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Le Pristipome petile-scie, Pristipoma serrula, Cuv. et Val. , v. p. 272. 

7. Pristipoma auratum, Cuv. 

Of an uniform golden color, throughout. The number of the fin rays the same as in the 
P. serrula. 

D. 12-13. P. 15. V. 1-5. A. 3-9. C. 17. Length, 6 inches. 
Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Le Pristipome dore, Pristipoma auratum, Cuv. et Val-, v. p. 272. 

Note. Dekay has admitted into his extra-limital species the Pristipoma rubrum, although 
he does not mention its habitat ; and Cuvier, in his " Histoire Naturelle des Poissons," 
speaks of it as being found only in Brazil. 

GENUS XII. LOBOTES, Cuv. 

The snout is short, the lower jaw turned up in front, the body elevated ; 
the dorsal and anal lengthen their posterior angle, so that, with their rounded 
caudal, their body seems to terminate in three lobes. Preoperculum with 
strong dentations. They have four clusters of very small spots towards the 

end of their jaw. 

1. Lobotes Surinamensis, Cuv. 

Elliptical,, deepest opposite the first dorsal ray. The color of the back and sides is a rusty 
black ; of the belly, a dirty clay, variegated with blackish and yellowish specks Dorsal, 
anal, and ventral fins yellowish. ' 

D. 12-15. P. 17. V.l-5. A. 3-11. C 17. Length, 13 inches or more- 
New York, Mitchill. This species is also found in Brazil, and of course along the 
whole coast. 

Le Lobotes de Surinam (Lobotes Surinamensis, Cuv., Holocentrus Surinamensis, Bl., p. 243, Bodianus triu- 

rus, Mitchill?), Cuv. et Val., v. p. 319. 
Bodianus triurus, Triple-tailed Perch, Mitchill, Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. of N. Y., i. p. 418, pi. 3, fig. 10. 
Lobotes Surinamensis, Black Triple-tail, Bekay's Report, p. 88, pi. 13, fig. 49. 

2. Lobotes somnolentus, Cuv. 

Silvery brown. The soft portions of the dorsal and anal fins, and the extremity of the 






Stover's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 79 

caudal fin, black. Pectorals yellowish; ventrals silvery. Dentations upon the preopercle 
short and wide, and those at its angle truncated and denticulated. 

D. 12-16. P. (?). V. (>). A. 3-11. C (?)■ Length, 16 inches. 

Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Called " Dormeur," at St. Domingo. 

Lc Lobotes dormeur, Lobules somnolentus, Cm*, et Val., v. p. 32-1, pi. 126. 

" Wilson, Encyclop. Brit., Art. Ichlb... p. 300, fig. 4. 



GENUS XIII. POMACENTRUS, Lacep. 
Oblong ; head obtuse ; teeth in a single row ; preoperculum denticulated, 
operculum unarmed ; five branchial rays ; the lateral line stops beneath the 
soft portion of the dorsal. Suborbital's sometimes dentated. 

I. Pomacentrus planifrons, Cuv. 

Profile rectilinear. Brown ; a black spot at the base of the pectorals, beneath ; another 
back of the dorsal, above the tail. Dorsal and anal pointed. 
D. 12-15. P. ( ; ). V. (.'). A.2-13. C. 17. Length, 3 inches. 
Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 
Called, at Martinique, " Petite-jaquette." 

Le Pomacentre a front plat, Pomacentrus planifrons, Cuv. et Val., v. p. 431. 

GENUS XIV. GLYPHISODON, Lacep. 
Body compressed, oval, covered, as well as the head, with large scales. 
Profile rounded. Operculum and preoperculum smooth ; a single row of 
trenchant and generally notched teeth. 

1. Glyphisodon saxatilis, Lacep. 

Silvery, with golden reflections towards the back, and blue towards the head. Fins blu- 
ish. Tail deeply forked. A single row of from thirty-six to forty compact, equal, straight 
teeth in each jaw. When preserved, it is of a yellowish gray color, with five broad, black- 
ish vertical bands. Fins blackish. 

D. 13-13. P. 18. V. 1-5. A. 2-12. C. 15. Length, 6 to 8 inches. 

Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Chatodon saxatilis, Bloch, pi. 206, fig. 2. 

" " Rock Clnetodon, Shaw's Gen. Zobl., iv. p. 364. 

Le Glyphysodon saxatile (Glyphisodon saxatilis, Lacep.), Cuv. et Val., v. p. 446. 



80 Stover's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 

2. Glyphisodon chrysurus, Cuv. 

Chocolate-colored. Caudal fin yellow. Dorsal and anal fins almost covered with scales, 
as in the true Squamipennes. At least fifty teeth in the lower, and nearly eighty teeth in the 
upper jaw. 

D. 12-16. P. 18. V. 1-5. A. 2-13. C. 17. Length, 5i inches. 

Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Le Glyphysodon a queue d'or, Glyphisodon chrysurus, Cuv. et Val., v. p. 47G. 

GENUS XV. HELIASUS, Cuv. 
Body ovate, compressed ; mouth small, no denticulations upon the preoper- 
culum ; large scales ; teeth small and rounded. 

1. Heliasus insolatus, Cuv. 
Grayish. Suborbitars circular and scaled. Eyes large. A narrow band of velvety teeth 
in each jaw. Caudal emarginated. 
D. 13-12. P. 17. V. 1-5. A. 2-12. C. 17. Length, 4 inches. 
Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 
Called, at Martinique, " Chauffe-soleil." 

L'Heliase chauffe soleil, Heliasus insolatus, Cuv. et Val., v. p. 494, pi. 137. 



FAMILY IV. SPARIDiE. 

This family is characterized by the opercular pieces being unarmed ; the 
palate toothless ; the jaws not protractile ; scales large. Branchial rays not 
exceeding six. 

GENUS I. SARGUS, Cuv. 

Trenchant incisors in front of the jaws, almost similar to those of man ; mo- 
lars rounded. 

1. Sargus ovis, Mitchill. 

Elliptical. White, or obscure silvery, with a smutty daubing over the face and chin, a 
greenish tinge above the brow, and six or seven dark bands or zones, of an inch or more in 
breadth, regularly slanting from back to belly ; the latter a dull white, approaching in some 
places and individuals to cream-color. Anal black, with ten soft rays. In front of each jaw, 
six to eight quadrilateral incisors ; inside of these, above and beneath, two or three series of 
numerous rounded, flattened, paved teeth. The form of the mouth, and a certain smutti- 
ness of the face, have a distant resemblance to the physiognomy of the sheep. 



S'torer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 81 

I). 12-13. P.M. V. 1-5. A. 3-11. C. 17. Cuv. 

D. 24. P. 6. V. 6. A. 13. C. 19. Mitchill. Length, 14 to 20 inches. 
Massachusetts, Storer. Connecticut, Ayres. New York, Mitchill, Cuv., Dekay. 
Lake Pontchartrain, Louisiana, Lestjeur. 

Sparus ovis, Sheepshead, Mitchill, Trans. Lit. am] Phil. Soc. of N. Y., i. p. 392, pi. II, fi> 5. 
Le Sarguetete-de-mouton, Sargus ovis, Cuv. et Val , vi. p. 53. 
Sargus ovis, Sheepshead, Storer's Report, p. 36. 

" " Dekay's Report, p. 89, pi. 8, fig. 23. 

" " Avres, Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist., iv, 260. 

2. Sargus rhomboides, Cuv. 

Silvery, rayed longitudinally with twenty-four or twenty-five gilded bands. Four or five 
brownish bands descend from the back upon the sides, being more or less visible as the rays 
of light glance upon the fish. Behind the shoulder, a blackish spot crosses the lateral line. 
The dorsal is grayish ; the anal yellow, margined with violet ; the caudal olive-yellow ; 
the pectorals and ventrals of a brighter yellow than the other fins. Eight cuttino- teeth 
above, and eight below, notched on their summits. 

D. 13-11. P. 17. V.l-5. A. 3-10. C. 17. Length, 3 to 5 inches. 

New York, Carolina, New Orleans, Lake Pontchartrain, Cuv. 

Spams rhomboides, Lin., Sysl. Nat. (12th edit.), p. 170. 

Rhomboid Spams, Shaw's Gen. Zool., IV. p. 417. 
Le Sargue rhomboide, Sargus rhomboides, Cnv. et Val., vi. p. 63, pi. 143. 

Rhomboid Porgee, Dekav's Report, p. 93, pi. 71, fig. 228. 

3. Sargus arenosus, Dekay. 

Small. Banded as in the preceding. A short spine directed forwards in front of the dor- 
sal fin. A series of six flat, chisel-shaped teeth in front of the upper jaw, with their tips 
somewhat enlarged, and a row of eight similar shaped in the lower. Behind these, in 
both jaws, two or three series of small, rounded, molar-like teeth, which increase in size on 
the sides of the jaws. 

D.l-12,11. P. 16. V.l-5. A.3-12. C. 20. Length, 6 inches. 

New York, Dekay. 

Sargus arenosus, Sand Porgee, Dekay's Report, p. 91, pi. 22, fig. 67 

4. Sargus flavolineatus, Cuv. 
Back bluish, silvery beneath ; thirteen or fourteen longitudinal lines upon the sides, 
scarcely visible upon the abdomen. Dorsal fin bluish ; ils soft portion reddish. Caudal and 
anal red, pectorals blackish, ventrals gray. The incisors are broad and vertical ; molars of 
moderate size. 
D. 13-11. P. 17. V.l-5. A. 3 -10. C. 17. Length, 9 inches. 
54 



82 Storefs Synopsis of the Fishes of JYbrth America. 

Caribbean Sea, Cov. 

Called, at Cuba, "Grand-gore." 

Le Sargue a lignes jaunes, Sargus flavolineatus, Cuv. et Val. , VI. p. 60. 

5. Sargus unimaculatus, Cuv. 

Silvery, grayisb towards the back, with twenty narrow, golden, longitudinal bands 
upon each side. Back of the operculum, beneath the lateral line, a blackish spot. The soft 
portion of the dorsal fin, the anal and caudal, yellow ; pectorals pale ; ventrals blackish. 
Six incisors in the upper jaw, eight in the lower jaw, each "of which is notched in the mid- 
dle of its edge. Back of these, in the upper jaw, three rows of small, rounded molars; and 
two rows in the lower. 

D. 13-10. P. 14. V. 1-5. A. 3-10. C. 17. Length, 3 to 7 inches. 

Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Le Sargue unimacule, Sargus unimaculatus, Cuv. et Val., vi. p. 62. 

GENUS II. CHRYSOPHRIS, Cuv. 

Round molars on the sides of the jaws, forming at least three rows on the 
upper one ; a few conical or blunt teeth in front. 

1. Chrysophris aculeata, Cuv. 

Body elongated. A short, stout, recumbent spine before the dorsal. When preserved in 
spirits, this species is of a silvery white color, with a slight reddish tint upon the sides, 
which are marked by a score of golden longitudinal lines. The head is very showy, and 
has golden reflections. The suborbitar bones, the dorsal and anal fins, are reddish. The 
ventrals are red. The caudal is gray. 

D. 12-12. P. 16. V. 1-5. A. 3-12. C. 17. Length, 22 inches. 

New York, Cuv. 

La Daurade aiguillonnSe, Chrysophris aculeata, Cuv. et Val., vi. p. 137. 

Aculeated Gilt-head, Dekay's Report, p. 94, pi. 71, fig. 229. 

GENUS III. PAGRUS, Cuv. 

Differs from Chrysophris in having but two rows of small, rounded molar 

teeth in each jaw. 

1. Pagrus argyrops, Lin. 

Body very much compressed at its sides ; back gibbous, gradually curving towards the 
tail. General color, beautiful silvery, varying with brown, reddish, and blue. Head 



Slorer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 83 

scaleless, and of a purple color. Abdomen white. A large, semicircular scale, of a beauti- 
ful purple color, at the commencement of the lateral line ; between this scale and the outer 
ancle of a naked space, at the posterior angle of the eye, a band, half an inch or more in 
width, of smaller scales than those of the body, passes obliquely upwards to the an- 
terior portion of the ridge of the back. A short recumbent spine in front of the dorsal fin. 
The second and third dorsal rays often filamentous. 

D.24. P. 15. V. 6. A. 15. C 17. Length, 8 to 12 inches. 

Massachusetts, Storer. Connecticut, Ayres. New York, Mitchill, Cuv., Dekay. 

South Carolina, Lin. 

Sparusargyrops, Lin., Syst. Nat., Gmel., p. [277. 

" " Silver-eyed Sparus, Shaw's Gen. Zoo'l., iv. p. 426. 

Labrus versicolor, Big Porgee of New York, Mitchill, Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. of N. Y., I. p. 401, pi 3, 

fig. 7. 
Le Pagre ceild'argenl, Pagrus argyrops, Cuv. etVAL., vi. p. 164. 

" " Big Porgee, Scapaug, Scup, Stoker's Report, p. 33. 

" " Big Porgee, Dekay's Report, p. 95, pi. 9, fig. 25. 

" " Porgee, Atbes, Boat. Journ. Nat. Hist., IV, p. SCO. 



GENUS IV. PAGELLUS, Cuv. 
Teeth nearly resembling those of Pagrus, but the molars, also in two rows, 
are smaller ; the conical teeth in front are slender and more numerous ; and 
the physiognomy is different, in consequence of a more elongated muzzle. 

1. Pagellus calamus, Cuv. 
Forehead and neck more elevated than in any other species of this genus. Reddish ; sub- 
orbital spotted with bluish points. About twenty-two rows of sixty-five scales upon each 
side. In the upper jaw are two straight, pointed teeth, stouter than the others ; molars in 
three rows upon the upper jaw, and in two rows upon the lower jaw, the inner row stoutest. 
This species derives its name from the first anal spine, which resembles a quill cut into a pen. 
D. 12-12. P. 11. V. 1-5. A. 3-11. C. 17. Length, 1 foot. 
Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Le Pagel a plume, Pagellus calamus, Cuv. ct Val., VI. p. 206, pi. 152. 

FAMILY V. MENIDiE. 

The individuals of this family are similar in their forms to the Sparoides, 
but they are distinguished from that family by their very protractile mouth, 
and, in some instances, by the presence of teeth on the vomer, or denticula- 
tions on the preoperculum. 



84 Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 

GENUS I. SMARIS, Cuv. 

Body oblong, compressed, and somewhat similar to that of a herring ; an 
elongated scale above each of the ventrals, and another between them. 
Teeth in jaws extremely fine, forming a very narrow band. Vomer destitute 
of teeth. 

1. Smaris Martinicus, Cuv. 

Body rounded, contracted. Reddish upon the back, silvery beneath ; a small black spot 
upon the side. 
D. 11-11- P- (-')• V. (?). A.3-9. C. (.')• Length, 4 inches. 
Caribbean Sea, Cut. 

Le Picarel de la Martinique, Smaris Martinicus, Cuv. et Val., vi. p. 424. 

GENUS II. GERRES, Cuv. 

The mouth protractile, but when advancing it descends ; the body is ele- 
vated, the anterior part of the dorsal in particular, along the base of whose 
posterior portion is a scaly sheath. 

1. Gerres aprion, Cuv. 

Elongated. Silvery, with bluish reflections towards the back, as in the most beautiful 
herring. The dorsal, in the recent state, is a very pale yellow, finely dotted with blackish. 
This species receives its name from its preoperculum being unarmed ; also the interopercle 
and suborbitar. 

B. 6. D. 9-10. P. (.'). V. (?). A. 3-7. C. (?). Length, 3 to 6 inches. 

South Carolina, Catf.sby. Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Turdus cinereus pellalus, Shad, Catesby's Hist. Carol., n. pi. 2, fig. 2. 
Le Gerres sans scie, Gerres aprion, Cuv. et Val,, vi. p. 461. 
" " Dekay's Report, p. 97. 

2. Gerres Brasilianus, Cuv. 

Height equal to one fifth of its length. Silvery gray, with ten or eleven longitudinal lines 
upon the sides. 
D. 9-10. P. 16. V. 1-5. A.3-9. C. 17. Length, 8 or 9 inches. 
Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 
Called, at Porto Rico, " Moharra." 

Le Gerres du Bresil, Gerres Brasilianus, Cuv. et Val., vi. p. 45S. 



Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 85 

3. Gerres Plumieri, Cuv. 
Compressed ; height one third of its length ; length three and a half times its thickness. 
Silvery, with longitudinal grayish lines, seven or eight of which are distinct ; the others dis- 
appear towards the abdomen. The lower edge of the suborbitars has a slight reentering 
angle, and is denticulated. 
D. 9-10. P. 15. V. 1-5. A. 3-9. C. 17. Length, 6 inches to a foot. 
Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 
Called, at Porto Rico, " El moharra." 

Le Gerres de Plumier, Gerres Plumieri, Cuv. et Val., vi. p. 452, 

4. Gerres rhombeus, Cuv. 
Height equal to one half of its length, not including the tail. Silvery ; the membrane of 
the dorsal fin a very pale yellow ; the ventrals, and the anterior portion of the anal fin in 
young specimens, are of a beautiful jonquille-yellow. The lower edge of the suborbitars is 
without denticulations. 
D. 9-10. P. 16. V. 1-5. A- 2-9. C 17. Length, 7 inches. 
Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Le Gerres rhornboide, Gerres rhombeus, Cuv. el Val., vi. p. 459. 

5. Gerres gula, Cuv. 

Very similar to the G. aprion in its proportions ; but the second anal spine is shorter in pro- 
portion ; it is only a fifth of the height of the fish. In the G. aprion, it is one third. The third 
spine, also, is longer in this species than the second. Its snout is broader, and its profile 
more regular. Color same as that of G. aprion. 

D. 9-10. P. (?)• V. (?). A. 3-7. C. (?). Length, 5 inches. 

Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Le Gerres petite gueule, Gerres gula, Cuv. et Val., vi. p. 464. 



FAMILY VI. CHETODONTIDJE. 

Body compressed, scaly. The dorsal and anal fins covered with scales, 
especially on the soft portions. Teeth bristly or trenchant. Palatines smooth, 
or furnished with teeth. Preopercula occasionally spinous. Dorsals two, or 
one only. 

GENUS I. CELETODON, Lin. 
The body more or less elliptical ; the spinous and soft rays continuing in an 



86 Storeys Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 

uniform curve ; the snout projecting more or less, and sometimes a very fine 
denticulation on the preoperculum. 

1. CbaUodon striatus, Lin. 

Roundish ovate. Whitish, tinged with yellowish brown, with five vertical dark-brown 
bands. Several narrow, longitudinal, dusky streaks between the rows of scales. 
B.6. D 12-20. P. 15. V. 1-5. A. 3-16. C. 17. Length, 5 inches. 
Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 
Called " Zebre," or " Onagre," at Guadaloupe. 

Chaetodon striatus, Lin., Gmel., 1249. 

" " Bloch, vi. p. 66, pi. 205, fig. 1. 

" " " Striped ChaHodon, Shaw's Gen. Zocil., iv. p. 334. 

Le Chetodon barre, ChaHodon slriatus, Lin., Cuv. et Val., vii. p. 10. 

2. Chstodon capistratus, Lin. 

Ovate. Violet-colored when fresh, with oblique brown lines directed forwards. A large, 
round, black spot, surrounded with a white margin, at the posterior part of the body. A 
brown and a whitish line parallel to their borders, upon the dorsal and anal, and two sim- 
ilar vertical bands upon the tail. 

D. 13-19. P.(?). V (.')■ A. 3-17. C 17. Length, 34 inches. 

Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Called " Striped Angel-fish," at Jamaica; "Demoiselle," at Martinique ; "Young 

Girl," at St. Thomas. 

Chaetodon capistratus, Lin., Mus. Acad. Fred., pi. 33, fig. 4. 

" •' Bloch, vi. p. 6S, pi. 205, fig. 2. 

Le Chetodon bride, Chaetodon capistratus, Lin., Cuv. et Val , vii. p. 64. 

3. Chstodon bimaculatus, Bloch. 

Roundish ovate. White, fins yellow. The dorsal marked at the base of the hind part by 
a large, round, black spot, bordered with white, and at its extreme edge by a much smaller 
spot, of similar colors- 

D. 12-21. P. 15. V. 1-5. A. 3 -17. C. 17. Length, (>). 

Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Called " Catalineta," at Havana; " Mariquita," at Porto Rico. 

Chaetodon bimaculatus, Bloch, pi. 219? fig. 1? 

" " " Shaw's Gen. Zool., IV. p. 333. 

Le Chetodon Adeux laches, Chaetodon bimaculatus, Bl., Cuv. et Val., vii p. 67. 



GENUS II. EPHIPPUS, Cuv. 
Dorsal deeply emarginated between the spinous and soft rays ; the spinous 



Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 87 

part, which has no scales, can be folded into a groove formed by the scales of 

the back. 

1. Ephippus faber, Blocii. 

Orbicular. Brownish, with six broad, vertical, dusky bluish bands ; fins of the same color 
as the bands. Sixty-five scales between the gills and tail, and forty-eight between the back 
and abdomen. 

D. 9, 3-22. P. 18. V. 1-5. A. 3 -18. C. 16. Length, 9 inches. 

New York, Mitchill,, Cuv., Dekay. Carolina, Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Called " Three-tailed Sheepshead," "Three-tailed Porgee," and "Angel-fish." 

Chretodon faber, Bloch, p. 80, pi. 212, fig. 2. 

" " Shaw's Gen Zobl., iv. p. 340. 

" " Clouily ChiBtodon, Mitchill, Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. of N. Y., I. pi. 5, fig 1. 

ChaHodon oviformis, Mitchill, Amer. Month. Mag., II. p. 247. 
L'Ephippus forgeron, Ephippus faber, Cuv. et Val., vii. p. 113. 

" Dekay's Report, p. 9", pi. 23, fig. 68. 

2. Ephippus gigas, Parkinson. 

Oblong oval. Of a uniform silvery or leaden color. Crest of the cranium enlarged. The 
first interspinous bone of the anal fin is club or mallet-shaped. Much larger than the pre- 
ceding species. 

D 8, 1-21. P. 17. V.l-5. A. 3-17. C. 17. Length, 16 inches. 

New York, Cuv., Dekay. Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Called " Moon-fish," in the Antilles. 

ChaHodon gigas, Parkinson. 

L'Ephippus geant, Ephippus gigas, Cuv. et Val., vii. p. 121. 

" •' Moon-fish, Dekay's Report, p. 99, pi. 23, fig. 71. 

GENUS III. HOLACANTHUS, Lacep. 
Form oval or oblong. A large spine at the angle of the preoperculum, and 
the edges of the same bone in most species denticulated. 

1. Holacanthus ciliaris, Lacep. 

Greenish, with a golden tinge. The pectoral, ventral, and caudal fins of an orange- 
yellow color. An annular dark-brown spot, with a blue margin, upon the neck before the 
dorsal fin. Scales moderate, and ciliated round their edges with numerous hair-like processes. 

D. 14-21. P. 18 V.l-5. A. 3-20. C 17. Length, 14 inches. 

Carolina, Catesby ? Richardson. Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Called "Hairy Angel-fish," by Bloch; " Patate," at Martinique; " Polometa," at 
Porto Rico. 

Isabelila, Parra, p. 11, pi. 7, fig 1. 
ChaHodon ciliaris, Bloch, vi. p. 83, pi. 214. 

" " " Shaw's Gen. Zobl., iv. p. 326. 

L'Holacanthe ciliare (Holacanthus ciliaris, Lacep.), Cuv. et Val., vii. p. l&I 



88 Slorer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 

2. Holacanthus tricolor, Bi.och. 

Head, neck, shoulders, throat, breast, and also the pectorals and venlrals, yellow. The 
rest of the body black, except the tail, which is yellow. The preopercular spine, the mem- 
brane between the anal spines, and, in the female, a portion of the lower edge of the same fin, 
a portion also of the dorsal, is of a vermilion-red. 

D. 14-19. P. 18. V. 1-5. A- 3-18. C. 17. Length, 11 inches. 

Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Sea, Parra, Cuv. 

Called "Moubin," at Martinique. 

Catalineta, Parra, p. 12, pi. 7, fig. 2 (male). 
Chsetodon tricolor, Bloch, p. 425 ? 

" " " Shaw's Gen. Zool., iv. p. 360. 

L'Holacanthe tricolor (Holacanthus tricolor, Bl.), Cut. et Val., vii. p- 162. 

GENUS IV. POM ACANTHUS, Cuv. 

Form more elevated than in the Holacanthus ; more dorsal spines ; no den- 
ticulations upon the suborbital's or preopercle. 

1. Pomacanthtis aureus, Bloch. 
Of a bright golden yellow, shaded with orange on the upper part. Ventrals brownish. 
The extended parts of the dorsal and anal fins reaching beyond the tail. 
D.9-30. P. 18. V. 1-5. A. 3-24. C. 17. Length, 15 inches. 
Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Chirivita, Parra, p. 10, pi. 6, fig '2. 
Chretodon aureus, Bloch, pi. 193, fig. 1 ? 

" " " Golden ChaUodon, Shaw's Gen. Zobl., iv. p. 353. 

Le Pomacanlhe dore (Chsetodon aureus, Bl.), Cuv. et Val., vii. p. 202. 

2. Pomacanthus paru, Bloch. 

Oval. Black, with a golden tinge, most conspicuous towards the edges of the scales ; a 
yellow band at the base of the pectorals. 
D. (?). P. (?). V. (?). A. (?). C (?). Length, 15 inches. 
Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Chirivita, Parra, pi. 6, fig. I. 
Chaetodon paru, Bloch, p. 197? 

" " " Lin., Syst. Nat., 1256. 

" " " Paru Chaetodon, Shaw's Gen. Zool., iv. p. 325. 

Le Pomacanlhe noir (Chaetodon paru, Bl.), Cuv. et Val., vii. p. 205. 

3. Pomacanthus balteatus, Cuv. 

Of a yellowish gray color, spotted with dark brown, with a curved white or yellow band 
upon the side; a whitish band surrounds the base of the tail, and also its three edges; 
sometimes a whitish line extends from the neck to the posterior edge of the preopercle. 



Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North Jmerica. 89 

D. 9-33. P.18. V.l-5. A. 3-23. C. 17. Length, 8 inches. 

Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Called " Palometta," at Porto Rico. 

Le Pomacanthe 4 fcsharpe, Pomacanthus balteatus, Cov. et Val., vu. p 



GENUS V. PIMELEPTERUS, Cuv. 
Oval, compressed. With a single dorsal fin. With cutting teeth in both 
jaws disposed in a single row ; the teeth implanted in the jaws by means of a 
heel extended horizontally backwards. 

1. Pimelepterus Boscii, Lacep. 

Regularly oval. Brownish, with twenty to twenty-two longitudinal lines beneath, and 

ten to twelve above, the lateral line. 

D.ll-12. P. 19. V.l-5. A. 3-13. C. 17. Length, 5 inches. 

South Carolina, Cuv. 

Le Pimeleplere de Bosc (Pimelepterus Boscii, Lacep.), try el Val , vu. p. 259. 
Pimelepterus Boscii, Dekav'^ Report, p. 100, pi. 20, tig. 56. 



FAMILY VII. SCOMBRID.dE. 

The fishes belonging to this family have small scales, causing the greater 
part of the skin to appear as if entirely smooth ; the ventral fins are destitute 
of scales ; the opercula are without spines or denticulations ; in most of them 
the caudal fin is large and powerful, and generally they are furnished with nu- 
merous cceca. 

GENUS I. SCOMBER, Cuv. 
Body fusiform, covered by scales which are uniformly small ; sides of the 
tail not cat-mated, but merely raised into two small cutaneous crests ; dorsal 
fins widely separated ; some of the posterior rays of the second dorsal and the 
anal fin free, forming Unlets ; one row of small conical teeth in each jaw. 

1. Scomber colias, Cm el. 

Form cylindrical, plump, elongated, tapering towards the tail, at the origin of which it 
is very small. Upper part of the body of a light green color, with numerous contiguous 
beautifully undulating lines of a darker green passing down the sides, and just crossing the 

55 



90 Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of JYorth America. 

lateral line ; immediately beneath the lateral line, (if a dull bluish color, with indistinct cir- 
cular brown blotches. Abdomen lighter, but, as well as the sides, presenting cupreous re- 
flections. 

D. 9-12. P. 19. V. 5. A. 13. C. 22. Length, 1 foot. 

Massachusetts, Storer. Connecticut, Linsley. New York to Carolina, Dekay. 

Scomber maculalus, Spanish Mackerel, Cooch 1 Mag Nat, Hist., v. p. 22, fig. 8. 

" " " Jenyns's Brit. Vert., p. 361. 

Le Maquereau colias (Scomber colias, Gmel ), Cuv, el Val , vm. p. 3 l J. pi. 205, 
Scomber colias, Yarrell's Brit Fishes (2d edit.), i. p. 148, fig. 

" " Spanish Mackerel, Storer's Report, p. 45 

" " " Dekay's Report, p. 104, pi. 11, fig. 33. 

2. Scomber vernalis, Mitchill. 

Body fusiform, cylindrical. Upper part of the body of a dark green color, marked 
throughout ils whole extent, from occiput to tail, with beautiful transverse, more or less un- 
dulating, broken bands of a deeper hue, commencing on the side of the dorsal ridge and ex- 
tending below the lateral line. Sides white, with cupreous reflections. Abdomen white. 
A wide fuliginous line beneath the lateral line. A black spot at the base of the pectoral 
and ventral fins. 

D. 10-12. P. 17. V. 5. A. 12. C. 20. Length, 18 inches. 

Maine, Massachusetts, Storer. Connecticut, Linsley, Ayres. New York, Mitch- 
ill, Dekay. The whole of the Atlantic coast, Richardson. 

Scomber vernalis, Spring Mackerel, Mitchill, Trans Lit. and Phil. Sue. of N. Y., i. p. 423. 
Le Maquereau prinlanier (Scomber vernalis, Mitch.), Cuv. et Val., vm. p. 48, 
Scomber vernalis, Rich., Fauna Boreal. Americ, in. p. 80, 

" Spring Mackerel, Storer's Report, p. 41. 

" " Dekay's Report, p. 101. 

3. Scomber grex, Mitchill. 

Color as in the preceding ; the dorsal bands are more tortuous ; and there is a dark spot 

at the tip of the lower jaw. 

D. 12, 13-5. P. 19. V. 1-5. A. 1,12-5. C. 20£. Length, 9 inches. 

New York, Mitchill, Cuv., Dekay. 

Scomber grex, Thimble-eyed, Bull-eyed, or Chub Mackerel, Mitchill, Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. of N. Y., 

I. p. 422. 
Le petit Maquereau de l'Atlanlique (Scomber grex, Mitch.), Cuv. et Val., vm. p. 45. 
Scomber grex et vernalis, Chub and Spring Mackerel, Rich., Fauna Boreal. Americ, nr. p. 81. 
Scomber grex, Fall Mackerel, Dekay's Reporl, p. 103, pi. II, tig. 32. 



GENUS II. PELAMYS, Cuv. 

The fishes of this genus differ from those of the Thynnus, in having strong, 
separate, and pointed teeth. 



Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 91 

1. Pelamys sarda, Cuv. 

Form similar to that of the Mackerel. Body of a dull greenish color ; abdomen ash- 
colored. Ten or twelve dark-colored bands pass obliquely downwards and forwards from the 
dorsum towards the abdomen ; the first of these bands commences at the posterior extrem- 
ity of the dorsal fin ; the last at the origin of the caudal fin. Some of these bands pass very 
low down upon the sides, even to the abdomen. Besides these, several indistinct, lighter 
colored bands cross the body transversely. Jaws even. Teeth sharp and distinct. 

D. 20-14. P. 24- V. 6. A. 14. C 24. Length, about 2 feet. 

Massachusetts, Storeii. Connecticut, Linsley. New York, Mitchill, Dekay. 

Scomber sarda, Bloch, x p. 35? 

" " Shaw's Gen Zool., iv. p. 5S4. 

" " Bonetta, Mitchill, Trans. Lit. and Phil Soc. l \ Y i p 

Le Pelamide commune, ou Boniie a dos raye (Pelamys sarda, Cuv., Scomber sarda, Bl > Cuv el Yal . vm 

p. 149, pt. 217. 
Pelamys sarda. Skip-jack, Storer's Rep 

" " Sin],. ,1 Bonito, In u u '.- Report, p. 106, pi. 'J, fig. :'.7. 



GENUS III. THYNNUS, Cuv. 
Form of the body like that of the Mackerel, but less compressed. A kind 
of corselet around tin; thorax, formed by scales larger and coarser than those of 
the rest of the body ; a long, elevated crest on each side of the tail. The 
anterior dorsal reaching almost to the posterior one. Numerous finlets behind 
the dorsal and anal fins. A single row of small, pointed, crowded teeth in 
each jaw. 

1. Thynnus vulgaris, Cuv. 

Form elongated ; gradually sloping from the beginning of the dorsal fin to the snout, and 
tapering from the dorsal to the tail. Color of the whole upper part of the body nearly 
black; sides silvery; beneath white. Scales on the back, in front of the first dorsal, at 
the base of and beneath the pectorals wry large. Gill covers very large, perfectly smooth, 
of a silvery-gray color. Nine yellow finlets back of the second dorsal and anal fins. 

D. 14, 13-9. P. 34. V. 1-5. A. 2, 12-0. C. 19. Length, 9 feet and 3 inches. 

Massachusetts, Stoker. Connecticut, Linsley. New York, Dekay. 

Scomber thynnus, Lin Bloch, n p. 87, pi. 55. 

Tunny, Lis., Shaw'i tin Zob'l., tv p 58] 
Le Thon commun (Thynnus vul i Gov., Scon er thynnus, Lu I .in. p. :«.-•, pi. 210 

Scombei thynnus, Lin.. Jenyns's Brit Vert., p 
Thynnus vulgaris, Cuv., Yarrbll's Bril Fishes 2d edit i i p [51. 

" " Wilson,- Encyctop Bril., An Ichth., p. 182, pi. 302, fig. 3. 

" C Sto Report, p. 47, 

' " Griffith's Cuv., x p, 182, [.I I 

" Common Tunny, Dekay's Report, p. 1(0, pi. 10, fig. 2S. 



92 Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 

2. Thynnus coretia, Cuv. 
Corselet truncate ; scarcely emarginate behind. Second dorsal and anal fins low. Plum- 
beous above, silvery beneath. 

D. 13-l|14-8. P. 31. V. 1-5. A. 2, 12-8. C. 35. Length, 11 inches. 
Gulf of Mexico, Cuv. 

Le Thon d'Amerique, Thynnus coretta, Cuv. et Val., viii. p. 102. 
Thynnus coretta, IIekay's Report, p. 106. 

GENUS IV. AUXIS, Cuv. 
Have, with the corselet and moderate-sized pectorals of the Tunny, the 
dorsals separated, like those of the Mackerel. 

1. Auxis vulgaris, Cuv. 

Similar in form to a Tunny, but more slender. Snout short and pointed, jaws equal. 
Teeth exceedingly small. The space between the dorsals greater than the length of the first 
dorsal. The lateral line is very small and hardly perceptible ; it is lost at the anterior por- 
tion of the corselet. Above, this species is blue ; with irregular blackish-blue lines and spots 
upon the sides. The corselet is greenish blue above ; the sides and abdomen are silvery. 

D. (?). P- (.')• V. (?). A. (?) C (?) Length, 15 inches. 

Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

L'Auxide commune, ou Bonitou (Auxis vulgaris, Cuv., Scomber bisus, Raf. , Scomber Rochei. Risso, 
No. 165), Cuv. el Val., viii. p. 139, pi. 216. 

2. Auxis Sloanei, Cuv. 

Snout short ; mouth slightly cleft ; teelh small. Space large between the dorsals. Pec- 
torals short. Second dorsal and anal higher and more pointed in proportion than in any 
other species of the genus. 

D. (?). P. (?). V. (?). A. (?)■ C (?). Length, (?). 

Caribbean Sea, Sloane. 

L'Auxide de Sloane, Scomber Sloanei, Cuv. et Val., viii. p 148. 

GENUS V. CYBIUM, Cuv. 
These fishes have an elongated body without a corselet ; and large, com- 
pressed, sharp teeth. Their palatines have only short and even teeth. 

1. Cybiun) maculatum, Cuv. 
Cylindrical, elongated. The top of the head and the upper part of the sides of the body 
are of a dark leaden color ; the sides are lighter ; the jaws, opercula, and abdomen are of 



Slorer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 93 

a beautiful clear wliite, presenting a satin-like appearance ; llie dorsal ridge, throughout its 
whole extent, is of a beautiful dark green color ; twenty or more bright yellow spots, the 
largest being three eighths of an inch in diameter, situated above and beneath Ihe lateral line, 
ornament its sides ; the most anterior of these spots is beneath the pectoral fins; the largest 
number of the spots is anterior to the dorsal fin. Lateral line undulating in its course. 
Eight finlets back of second dorsal and anal tins. 

D. 18-2 | 15-9. P. 20. V. 4. A. 2 | 16. C. 2G. Length, about 2 feet. 

Massachusetts, Storer. Connecticut, Linsley. New York, Mitchill. Gulf of Mex- 
ico, Cuv. 

Scomber maculatus Spanish Mackerel, Mi remix, Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. of N. Y., i. p. <!2R, pi. 6, fig. 8. 
Le Tassard tachele (Cybium maculatum, Cuv., Scomber maculatus, Mitch.), Cuv. et Vai.., viii. p. 181. 
Cybium maculatum, Spotted Mackerel, Storer, Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist., iv. p. 17 l J. 
" Spotted Cybium, Dekay's Report, p. I0>. pi. 73, fig. 232. 

2. Cybium regale, Cuv. 

Back plumbeous, sides and abdomen silvery. A broad, brownish, longitudinal band, with 

oblong spots above and beneath it. Teeth compressed and trenchant. 

D. 17-2 | 15-8. P. 22. A r .l-5. A2|14-8. C.17andl5. Length, 1 or 2 feet- 

Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

ilis, Bloch, pi. 333? 
'• " Thazard Mackerel, Shaw's Gen. ZoBl., iv. p. 533. 

Le Tassard royal (Cybium resale, Cuv., Scomber regalis, El.), Cuv. et Vai. , vm. p 184. 
Cybium regale. Dekay's Report, p. 10S. 

3. Cybium acervum, Cuv. 

Silvery, violet, or plumbeous upon the back. The fins are gray, except the first dorsal, 
which has a black spot extending from the first to the sixth or seventh ray ; the commence- 
ment of the second dorsal is blackish. Teeth trenchant, as in C. regale, but less numerous. 

D. 17-2|15-8. P. (?). V. (.')• A. 2 | 15-8. C. (?). Length, 9 inches. 

Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Le Tassard sierra, Cylmnn acervum, Cuv etVAL., VIU. p. 186. 

4. Cybium caballa, Cuv. 
Above plumbeous ; sides and abdomen silvery ; plumbeous oval spots upon the sides ; pec- 
torals margined \\ ith black. 

D. 14-2 115-9. P. (?)• V (.'). A. (?). C (.'). Length, nearly 3 feet. 
Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

i Ca I larapui u, Cybi . I lev. et Val., vm, p 187 

5. Cybium im maculatum, Cuv. 

Body compressed. Of a russet-gray color ; abdomen silvery ; fins of a russet-gray. No 
black spot upon the dorsal. 



94 Stover's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 

B. 7. D. 15-2 | 12 or 13-9. P. 22. V. 1 - 5. A.2|H-9. C. 30. Length, 6or' 
inches. 

Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

LeTassard sans laches, Cybiuni immaculatum, Cuv. el Val., vim. p. 191. 



GENUS VI. GEMPYLUS, Cuv. 

These fishes have their anterior teeth longer than the others ; their palate 
is without teetli ; and their ventrals are almost imperceptible. 

1. Gempykts serpens, Cuv. 
Skin smooth. Silvery or plumbeous. Upper part of the dorsal fin black. The pectorals 
are also dusky, excepttheir inferior rays, which are whitish. Jaws with a row of compressed, 
trenchant, pointed teeth. 

D. 31, 13-6. P. 14. V.l -(.'). A. 10-6. C. 17 and some accessories. Length, 2 to 
3 feet. 

Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Le Gempyle serpent (Gempylus serpens, Cuv. Scomber serpens, Solander), Cuv. et Val., yiii p. 20' 



GENUS VII. TRICHIURUS, L. 
Head pointed ; body without scales, elongated, compressed, thin, riband- 
shaped. No ventral fins, nor scales instead ; no anal fin ; a single continuous 
dorsal fin ; tail without rays, ending in a single elongated hair-like filament, 
from which the generic name is derived. Branchiostegous rays, seven. A 
single row of compound, cutting, and pointed teeth. 

1. Trichiurus lepturus, L. 

Silvery, with a golden lateral line. The dorsal fin, which has a yellowish tinge, reaches 
from the back of the head to the tail, which is finless, and ends in an attenuated point. 
Lower jaw projects, and has two teeth jutting beyond the upper, when the mouth is shut. 
The upper jaw has in front from three to six teeth larger than the rest. All the teeth of the 
larger order are jagged on the inner or hinder sides, with a single barb towards the points. 

D. 133, 135, or 136. P. 11 or 12. Length, 2 to 3 feet. 

Massachusetts, Storer. New York, Mitchill, Cuv , Dekai. Gulf of Mexico, Ca- 
ribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Called "Sword-fish," at Jamaica. 



Stover's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 95 

Trichiurua lepturus, Lin., Bloch, v. p. 55, pi. 158. 

Trichiurus argenteus, Silver Trichiure, Shaw Gen. Zo5l., iv. p. 90, fig [2, 
Trichiurua lepturus, Strack 1 ! Plata ex. 
'• •■ Brows I 

Tricliiiirus arsenlcus, MlTClllLL, Trans. Lit. and Phil. S)c. of N V , I. p 361. 
Le Trichiure de I'Atlanlique (Trichiurua lepturua, L,), Cuv etVAL., viii. p. 237. 
Trichiurua lepturus, Silvery Hair- tail, Vara ell'i Bril Fishes (2tl edit.), t. p. 204. 

" ■• Storer, Boat. Joum. Nat. Hist , iv. p. 181. 

" " Dekay's Report, p. 109, pi. 12, fig. 35. 



GENUS VIII. XIPHIAS, Lin. 

Body fusiform, covered with minute scales ; a single elongated dorsal fin ; 
ventral fins wanting ; tail strongly carinated ; upper jaws elongated, forming a 
sword ; mouth without teeth ; branchiostegous rays, seven. 

1. Xiphias gladius, Lin. 

Body elongated, but slightly compressed. Surface of body smooth. Back and upper part 
of sides of a sl;y blue color, beneath silvery gray. Gill-covers silvery brown. Upper part 
of the head nearly Hat, slightly descending to the base of the sword, which is formed by an 
extension of the vomer, maxillary, and intermaxillary bones; extremity of sword pointed; 
upper pait of sword dark hrown, almost black, having a dorsal ridge, within which is a 
groove; under portion of the sword lighter colored, smooth, with a velvety feel. In the 
young fish, the dorsal fin is entire ; but in the adult fish a great part of the central portion of 
the fin is missing, supposed to be worn away by use. 

D. 18-3. P. 15. A. 11-3. C. 17. Length, 10 to 12 feet. 

Massachusetts, Storer. Connecticut, Linsley. New York, Mitchill, Dekay. 

Xiphias glailius, Lin., Syst. Nat , p. 432. 

" " Conn 1 Sword-fish, Shaw's Gen.Zonl., iv. p. 99, Til'. 14. 

" " " " Strack's Plates, XXI. fig. I. 

" " " " Pennant's Arc. Zool., u. p. 1 13 ■ 

11 " " " Griffith's Cov., x. p. 187, pi 27, fig. 1, and Supplement, on itie 

A < i : . i h »pter> gii, p 3 19 
L'Eapadon epee (Xiphias gladius, Lis < biVai , vm. p. 255, pi 225 and 226. 
Xiphias gladius, Wilson, Eocyclop. Brit.. Art. Ichth., p. 181, pi. 202. 

" " Jenyns's Brit. Veil , p ! 

( - " Yarrell's Brit. Fishes [2d edit ), i p. 104, fig. 

" " Storer's Report, p. 51. 

" Dekay's Report, p. 111. pi. 20, tig. 79. 



GENUS IX. NAUCRATES, Raf. 

Body covered with small scales ; dorsal fin single, elongated ; free spinous 
rays before the dorsal and anal fins ; sides of the tail carinated ; teeth small, 
numerous ; branchiostegous rays, seven. 



96 Storeys Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 

1. Naucrates ductor, L. 

Form somewhat similar to that of the Mackerel. Of a silvery grayish-blue color, darkest 
on the back, much paler on the belly ; five dark-blue transverse bands pass around the whole 
body ; indications of two other bands, one on the head, the other on the tail ; pectoral fins 
clouded with white and blue ; ventrals nearly black. 

D. 4-2G. P. 18. V. 1-5. A. 2-16. C. 17. Length, 12 inches. 

Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

The "Common Pilot-fish." 

Gasterosteus ductor, Lin., Syst. Nat., i. p. 499. 
Scomber ductor, Bloch, p. 338 

1: ' ; Shaw's Gen. Zobl., iv. p. 5S6. 

Le Pilote common (Naucrates ductor, Cuv., Scomber ductor, Liu.), Cuv. et Val., viii. p. 3!2, pi. 332. 
Naucrates ductor, Griffith's Cuv . p. 189, pi- 47. fig. I. 

" Wilson, Encycbp. Brit., Art. Ichth., p. 184. 
Centronotus ductor, Cuv., Jenyns's Brit. Vert., p. 365. 
Naucrates ductor, Yarrei.l's Brit. Fishes (2d edit), I. p. 170. 
" " Dekay's Report, p. 113. 

2. Naucrates Noveboracensis, Cuv. 

Four transverse blue bands, and four spines before the dorsal. Opercle not striated. 

D. (?). P. (?). V. (?). A. (?). C. (?). Length, (?). 

Connecticut, Linsley. New York, Mitchilx, Cuv. 

Scomber ductor, Pilot-fish, Mitchii.l, Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. of N. Y., i. p. 424. 
Le Pilote de New York, Naucrates Noveboracensis, Cuv. et Val., viii. p. 325. 
Naucrates Noveboracensis, Dekay's Report, p. 112. 



GENUS X. LICHIA, Cuv. 
Body compressed ; detached spines in front of the dorsal fin, and anterior 
to these is one inclined forwards ; two spines in front of the anal fin ; tail 
without lateral keels. 

1. Lichia Carolina, Dekay. 

Body compressed ; its height to its length is nearly as one to two. First rays of the second 
dorsal and anal fins very large. Upper part of the head and body bluish. Gill-covers of 
a faint flesh-color mingling with yellowish and silvery reflections on the sides and beneath. 

D. 1,6-25. P. 27. V.l-5. A. 2-20. C 18|. Length, 1 foot. 

New York, Carolina, Dekay. 

Lichia Carolina, Carolina Lichia, Dekay's Report, p. 114, pi. 10, fig. 30.' 






Storcr's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. '.r, 

GENUS XI. CHORINEMUS, Cuv. 
In the general characters similar to the Lichia ; but the rays of the second 
dorsal or anal are either entirely separated, or united by so delicate a mem- 
brane that it is easily destroyed, and they appear like the spinous fins of the 
Mackerel and Tunny. 

I. Chorinemus saliens, Cuv. 

Form of the Tunny. Darkish hlue upon the hack ; silvery on the sides and abdomen ; 
fins pale, with a yellowish cast. In spirit, a silvery brown, darker upon the hack ; the fins 
are gray or russet, excepting the ventrals, which are white. The anterior portion of the 
second dorsal brown. Four free spines upon the hack, besides the horizontal one. 

D. 4, 1-19. P. 17. V. 1-5. A. 2, 1-20. C. 23. Length, 20 inches. 

Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Called "Sauteur," at Martinique. 

Scomber saliens, Salient Mackerel, Bloch, pi. 315 ? 

" Sinn's Gen. ZoSl., iv. p. 5 5 
Lc Chorineme sauteur (Scomber saliens, Bl., Scomberoide sauteur, Lacep.), Cuv. et Val., vin. ■ 

2. Chorinemus saltans, Cuv. 

Of a beautiful silvery, bluish upon the back. The profile is slightly concave, which makes 
the snout to appear a little pointed. The firs, dorsal composed of five free spines. It receives 
its specific name from its sudden motions. It is called the Leather-coat at Jamaica, on ac- 
count of the thickness of its skin, which is of the consistence of leather. 

D. 5, l-io. P. 17. V. 1-5. A. 2, 1-19. C. 23. Length, 9 or 10 inches. 

Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Le Chorineme danseur (Chorinemus saltans, Cuv, Gasterosteus occidental*, L.N.J, Cuv. et Val, »„,. p. 393. 

3. Chorinemus quiebra, Cuv. 

Of the same color as the preceding species. Its profile is slightly convex, instead of being 
concave as in the saltans. The second dorsal is proportionally shorter than in that species 
D- (?). P. (?)■ V. (?) A . (?). C. (?). Length, (?). 
Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Qulebra-acha, Parr v. p. 21, pi. 12, fig 2. 

La Chorineme quiebre, Chorinemus quiebra, Cuv. et Vat,., vnt. p. 396. 

GENUS XII. TRACHINOTUS, Cuv. 
Body elevated, compressed. Profile descending abruptly before the eyes. 
First rays of the dorsal and anal elongated. Free spines before the dorsal 'and 
anal fins. 

56 



98 Slorer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North Jlmerica. 

1. Trachinotus glaucus, Cuv. 

Compressed, ovate. Of a beautiful silvery color ; blue above ; on each side, three, four, 
or five narrow, transverse black bands. Dorsal and anal fins blue, very long, and reaching 
to the centre of the tail, which is very widely forked. 

D. 6, 1-19. P. 17. V. 1-5. A. 2, 1-18. C 17. Length, 10 to 18 inches. 

Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Called " Pampano," " Pampaneto," at Havana. 

Chffltodon glaucus, Bloch. vi. p. 76, pi. 210. 

" " Glaucus chslodon, Shaw's Gen. Zool., iv. p. 357 

Le Trachinote glauque, Trachinotus glaucus, Cuv. et Val., viii. p. 400. 

2. Trachinotus rhomboides, Bloch. 

Rhombic, ovale. Above of a gray or greenish blue color, on the sides white, and on the 
abdomen pale yellow ; the blue of the upper parts breaks into the white of the sides in two 
or three acuminated bars, or fascia?, reaching almost to the abdomen. Dorsal, anal, and 
caudal, blue, tinged with yellow at their base ; pectorals and ventrals yellow. 

D. G, 1-19. P. 18. V. 1-5. A. 2, 1-19. C. 17. Length, 20 inches. 

Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

ChEelodon rhomboides, Bloch, vi. p. 75, pi. 209. 

" " Rhomboid Chaetodon, Shaw's Gen. Zool., rv. p. 358. 

Le Trachinote rhomboide, Trachinotus rhomboides, Cuv. et Val., viii. p. 407. 

3. Trachinotus cupreus, Cuv. 

Oblong. Of a copper color, with golden reflections upon the opercula and breast. 
D. 5 or 6, 1-24. P. (?). V. (?). A. 2, 1-21. C (?). Length, 44 inches. 
Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Le Trachinote cuivre, Trachinotus cupreus, Cuv. et Val., viii p. 414. 

4. Trachinotus spinosus, Mitchill. 

Body very much compressed, suborbicular ; olive-green on the sides above ; with metallic 

reflections beneath. Seven free spines before the dorsal, and three before the anal fin. 

D.7-19. P. 19. V. 1-5. A. 3-19. C 18. Length, 3 inches. 

New York, Mitchill. 

Spinous Dory, Mitchill, Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. of N. Y., i. pi G, fig. 10, no description. 

" " Zeus spinosus, Mitchill, Amer. Month. Mag., n. 246. 

Trachinotus spinosus, Spinous Trachinote, Dekay's Report, p. 117. 

Dr. Dekay considers this distinct from the T. fuscus, Cuv. et Val , viii. p. 410. 

5. Trachinotus argenteus, Cuv. 
Body elevated ; height to its length as one to two. Silvery, with blackish at the extrem- 






Slorer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 99 

ity of the dorsal, and on the middle of the pectoral. Five or six free spines on the back, 
besides the recumbent spine and that which is attached to the dorsal. 

D. 5 or 6 -24. P. 18. V. 1 - 5. A. 2, 1-21. C. 17|. Length, G inches. 

New York, Cuv. 

Le Trachinole argente, Trachinotus argcnteus, Cuv. el Val., vim. p. 413. 
Trachinotus areenteus, Dekay's Report, p. 116. 

G. Trachinotus pampanus, Cuv. 
Of a grayish brown color, changing to a deeper brown upon the back, as appearing when 
preserved in spirits. Scales very small. The fins are brown, without spots. Five or six 
very small free spines upon the back. Lateral line almost imperceptibly undulated. 
D. 5, 1-24- P. 18. V.l-5. A. 2, 1-21. C. 17 et 8. Length, 13 or 14 inches. 
South Carolina, Cuv. 

Le Trachinole pamplc, Trachinotus pampanus, Cuv. el Val., to. p. 413, pi. 237. 

GENUS XIII. PALINURUS, Dekay. 
Preopercle serrated, with spines on its margin. Opercle with one or more 
flat spines, more or less distinctly serrated beneath. Anal with one or more 
spines in front. Teeth small, pointed, subequal. Body compressed, oblong. 
The anterior portion of the single dorsal spinous. 

1. Palatums perciformis, Mitchill. 

Body oblong, compressed. Seven short spines precede the fleshy rays of the dorsal, which 
are connected with each other by a low membrane ; the posterior is united throughout, about 
its entire height, to the membrane of the dorsal. Color, in the living fish, a bright bronze 
black, with obscure reddish hues. Abdomen light colored. When preserved in spirits, it is 
of a bluish white upon the sides, looking as if covered with black dnts, owing to the dark 
outline of the scales ; beneath, of a dull white color. 

D. 7, 1-19. P. 19. V.l-5. A. 2, 1-17. C. 20. Length, 9 inches. 

Massachusetts, Stoker. New York, Mitchill, Dekay. 

Called "Rudder-fish," at Martha's Vineyard. 

Rudder fish, or Perch Coryphene, Mitchii.i., Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. of N. Y., I. pi. G, (i», 7, no de- 
scription. 
" " " CoryphiiMia perciformis, Mitchill, Amer. Mouth. Mag., tr p. 244. 

Trachinotus argenteus, Storku's Reporl , 
Palinurus perciformis, Black Pilot, Dekay's Report, p. 119, pi. 24, fig. 25. 

GENUS XIV. NOTACANTHUS, Bi.och. 

The body is very long, compressed, covered with soft small scales ; the 
snout is obtuse, projecting beyond the mouth, which is furnished with fine and 



100 Storey's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 

close teeth. A series of free spines, unconnected by a membrane, in place 
of a dorsal fin ; free spines before the anal, which is long, and joins the cau- 
dal ; ventrals remote from the pectorals, under the abdomen. 

1. Notacanthus nasus, Bloch. 

Its form is riband-like, being greatly elongated and compressed. The anus is about one 
seventh of the total length nearer to the snout than to the tip of the caudal. There are 
about eighty rows of scales in a longitudinal line. There are about thirty cylindrical, slight- 
ly flattened teeth crowded into a single row on each side of the upper jaw, and more 
slender, pointed, and slightly curved ones in the lower jaw, disposed in three or four rows 
anteriorly, and in one, on the sides. 

D. 10. P. 17. V. 1-8. A. 13-116. C. 8. Length, 2i feet. 

Greenland, O. Faericius. 

Acanthonotus nnaus, Bi-och, xii. p. US, pi. 431. 

" " Snouted Acanthonotus, Shaw's Gen. Zool., v. p. 93, fig. 106. 

Le Notacanthe nez (Notacanthus nasus, Bl), Cuv. el Val., vm. p. 407, pi. 241. , 
Notacanthus nasus, Beaked Notacamh, Rich., Fauna Boreal. Americ, ill. p. 82. 

GENUS XV. CARANX, Cuv. 
Body covered with small scales, with the exception of the lateral line ; 
lateral line armed with a series of broad scales, those on the posterior half of 
the body having an elevated horizontal keel in the centre, forming a continuous 
ridge, each scale ending in a point directed backwards ; two distinct dorsal 
fins ; free spines before the anal fin ; teeth exceedingly minute ; branchios- 

tegous rays, seven. 

1. Caranx Plumieri, Cuv. 

Above bluish black ; beneath silvery ; golden reflections upon the sides, forming bands. 
The lower edge of the operculum is slightly concave, and it has a semicircular emargination. 
Thirty to thirty-six bony plates upon the lateral line, which is but very slightly curved. 

D 8, 1-26. P. 20. V. 1-5. A. 2, 1-22. C. 17. Length, 8 or 9 inches. 

Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Called " Coulirou," at St. Bartholomew and Guadaloupe. 

Scomber Plumieri, Bloch, pi. 344 ? 

" " Plumier's Mackerel, Shaw's Gen. Zool., iv. p. 538. 

Le Caranx de Plumier, Caranx Plumieri, Cuv. el Val., ix. p. G5. 

2. Caranx Blochii, Cuv. 

■V 

Silvery, tinged with blue or green above. The head is less than a quarter ol its whole 

length ; the inferior edge of the operculum convex, and slightly emarginated- 









Stover's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 101 






D.(>). P. (?). v. (?) 

Gulf of Mexico, Cuv. 



A. (?)• C (.')• Length, 11 to 14 inches. 



Scomber ruber, Bloch, pi 

" " Red Mackerel, Shaw's Gen. Zo'dl., iv. p. 600, pi. SG. 

Le Caranx de Eloch, Caranx Blochii, Crv. et Vai .., ix. p. 69 

3. Caranx carangus, Cuv. 

Body compressed ; its greatest height is one third its whole length ; its thickness is 
equal to one third its height. Of a beautiful silver-color, plumbeous or violet above ; a black 
spot upon the operculum. The fins are yellow. The posterior edge of the extremity of the 
dorsal fin bluish ; the margin of the tail brownish. A round black spot at the base of the 
pectoral fin. Twenty-nine or thirty plates upon the lateral line. 

D. 7 or 8, 1-19 to 20. P. 22. V. 1 - 5. A. 2, 1-17. C. 17. Length, 24 feet. 

Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Called " Jiguagua," at Havana. 

Scomber carangus, Bloch, pi. 340? 

" " Carang Mackerel, Shaw's Gen. ZoiSl., IV. p. 599. 

Le Carangue, Caranx carangus, Cuv. et Val., ix. p. 91. 









4. Caranx punctatus, Cuv. 

Cylindrical, with a single finlet behind the dorsal and anal fins. Greenish blue on the 
hack ; yellowish along the lateral line and on the caudal fin ; silvery white on the throat, 
and belly whitish. A smutty oblong spot under each eye, and a dark spot on the margin of 
the operculum. Dorsals brownish. About twelve black points along the unarmed portion 
of the lateral line. 

D.-10-3, 21-1. P. 19. V. 5. A. 2-t, 2f-l. C. 19. Length, 8 inches. 

Caribbean Sea, Cuv. New York, Mitchill. 

Called " Quiaquia," at Martinique. 

Hippos Mackerel, MrrcBiLL, Trans. Lii. ami Phil. Soc. of N. Y., I. pi. 5, fig. 5. 
er hippos, Mitckiix, Amer. Month. Mag., n. p. 246. 

Le Caranx ponctue, Caranx | ctatus, i . ■ el \ u is p 33. 

Caranx punctatus, Spotted Caranx, Dekay's Report, p. 122, pi, 73, 6g. 233. 









5. Caranx chrysos, Mitchill. 

Elongated, compressed. A naked, recumbent spine anterior to the first dorsal. No finlet. 
Of a greenish blue color upon the back and upper portion of the sides; the greater portion of 
the sides of a bright yellow color. An obscure dark-brown blotch at the posterior superior an- 
gle of the operculum. Abdomen yellowish white. Dorsal and pectoral fins yellowish brown. 
Ventral and anal fins the color of the sides. Caudal fin yellowish throughout the greater ex- 
tent. Lateral line armed with about forty-eight bony plates. 

D. 8, 1-24. P. 21. V. 1-4. A. 2, 1-20. C. 19|. Length, 8 inches. 

Massachusetts, Storer. New York, Mitchill, Cuv., Dekav. 






102 Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 

Scomber chrysos, Yellow Mackerel, Mitchill, Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. of N. Y., r. p. 424. 
Le Carangue jaune (Scomber chrysos, Mitch., Scomber hippos, Lin.), Cuv. el Val., ix. p. 98. 
Caranx chrysos, Yellow Caranx, Dekay's Report, p. 121, pi. 27, fig. 85. 
" " " " Siorer, Proceed. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., p. 143. 

6. Caranx macarellus, Cuv. 

Elongated. Pectorals moderate-sized ; a finlet back of the dorsal and anal fins. Silvery, 
plumbeous above. A small black spot upon the operculum. Twenty-five small plates on 
the lateral line. 

D. 8-1,33-1. P. {'). V. (?). A. 2-1,17-1. C. (?). Length, more than a foot. 

Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Le Caranx faux maquereau, Caranx macarellus, Cuv. et Val., ix. p. 4u. 

7. Caranx fallax, Cuv. 

Differs from the carangus in having no black spot upon the operculum ; in the second dor- 
sal fin always having twenty-one soft rays ; in having the edge of its anterior and pointed 
portion black ; and in having all the fins of a less bright yellow. The number of lateral 
plates, thirty-five or thirty-six. Breast scaled ; in the carangus naked. 

D. (?). P. (?). V. (?). A. (?)• C. ( ; ). Length, 2 feet. 

Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Le fausse Carangue, Caranx fallax, Cuv. et Val., ix. p. 95. 

8. Caranx pisquetus, Cuv. 

Body more elongated than that of the carangus and fallax ; the fins are greenish ; the ex- 
tremities of the caudal black. Forty-four or forty-five plates upon the lateral line. 
D. 8, 1-24. P. (?). V. ( ; ). A. 2, 1-20. C. ( : ). Length, 14 inches. 
Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Called " Pisquet," at St- Domingo ; " Cojenudo," at Cuba. 
Le Carangue pisquet, Caranx pisquetus, Cuv. et Val., ix. p. 97. 

9. Caranx Bartholomaei, Cuv. 

TV 

Less elongated than the pisc[uetus. Silvery, without any black spot. Fins yellowish ; 
thirty-three to thirty-five plates on the lateral line. 

D. 8, 1-26. P. (?)• V. (?). A. 2, 1-22. C. (?). Length, 5 inches. 
Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

La Carangue de Saint-Barthelemi, Caranx Barlholomrei, Cuv. et Val., ix. p. 100. 

10. Caranx fasciatus, Cuv. 

Above, greenish. Eight or ten vertical dull bands upon the sides. Lateral line with a 
high arch, assuming a straight course beneath the commencement of the second dorsal. 



Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North .Imcrica. 103 



D. (?). P. (?). V. (?). A. (?). C. (?). Length, (?). 
Gulf of Mexico, Cuv. 

Le Caranx a bande, Caranx fasciatus, Cuv. et Vai.., ix. p. 70. 
This is described by Cuvier from a figure. 



11. Caranx defensor, Dekay. -iSla.; 



Elliptical, much compressed. A recumbent spine before the dorsal. No finlet. liack 
bluish, with a resplendent golden yellow on the sides. Ventrals, anal, and caudal, wax- 
yellow ; the lips of the latter dusky. A dark round spot on the posterior margin of the 
opercle ; another on the inner base of the pectoral, and occasionally a short, black, vertical bar 
across the middle of the pectoral fin. Dorsals brownish above. Chin satin-white. The 
straight portion of the lateral line furnished with twenty-five bony plates, commencing ob- 
scurely at first, but becoming more elevated, and terminating in acute triangular spines, di- 
rected backwards. 

D. 7,1 -20. P. 20. V. 1-5. A. 2-17. C. 19|. Length, 9 inches. 
New York, Dekay. 

Caranx defensor Southern Caranx, Dekay's Report, p. 120, pi. 24, fig. 72. 

GENUS XVI. BLEPHARIS, Cuv. 
Body much compressed, trenchant, with a rapidly declivous front. Small 
and nearly concealed spines in advance of the dorsal fin. Anterior rays of 
the dorsal and anal fins prolonged into very long filaments. Ventrals elongated. 

1. Blephaiis crinitus, Akerly. 

Body almost circular, much compressed, scaleless. Bluish above, white beneath. Dor- 
sal fin with seven filamentous, and eleven bifid rays. The first filamentous ray much the 
longest, the others successively shorter ; the bifid portion low and subequal. 

D. 18. P. 17. V. (?)■ A. 10. C. (?)■ Length, 5.5. 

Connecticut, Linsley. New York, Akerly. 

rinitus, Hair I ! x. Journ. Sc., h. p. 144, pi. 

laria crinilus, i 

2. Blephaiis sutor, Cuv. 

Rhomboidal ; ils length, including the caudal fin, is equal to once and a third its height. 
Plumbeous above, silvery upon the sides of the head, sides, and abdomen. Yellow spots 
upon the operculum. Fins of a yellowish brown. In immature specimens arc seen four 
wide, vertical, dark bands upon the back. 






104 Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of JYorth America. 

D. (?). P. (?)■ v - (•')■ A. (.'). C (?). Length, (?). 

Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Called " Cordonnier," at Martinique. 

Le Blcpharis des Antilles, Blepharis sutor, Cuv. et Val., ix. p. 161. 

3. Blepharis major, Cuv. 

Its height equal to half its length. Silvery, fins of a dark gray color. A black spot at the 
upper part of the operculum. The first filament of the second dorsal extends beyond the 
tail. The plates upon the lateral line are angular only upon the sides of the tail. 

D. (?). P. (?). V. (?) A. (?)■ C (?)■ Length, (?). 

Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Le grand Cordonnier, Blepharis major, Cuv. et Val., ix. p. 163. 

GENUS XVII. ARGYREIOSUS, Lacep. 

Body much compressed. Spines between the dorsal fins. Dorsal, ven- 
tral, and anal rays filamentous. 

1. Argyreiosus vomer, Lacep. 

Irregularly rhomboidal, compressed. Of a lustrous silvery color. Dorsal and ventral 
filaments blackish. One ray of the first dorsal elongated into a filament. The anterior rays 
of the second dorsal elongated, but not filamentous. 

D.1,4-4. 2dD.l-22. P. 17. V. 1-5. A. 2, 1 - 18. C. 17. Length, 3 inches. 

New York, Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Sea, Cuv- 

Zeus vomer, Brazilian Dory, Lin., fiLOCii, vi. p. 33, pi. 193, fig. 2. 

" " " " Shaw's Gen. ZoSl., iv. p. 281, pi. 41. 

" " " " Silver-fish, Strack's Plates, xxxvn tig. 3. 

Zeus rostratus, Rostrated Dory, Mitciiill, Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. of N. Y., I. p. 38-1, pi. 2, fig I. 
Argyreiosus vomer, Lacep., iv. p. 569. 

Abacatuia, Argyreiosus vomer, Cuv. et Val., ix. p. 177, pi. 255. 
Argyreiosus vomer, Rostrated Argyreiose, Dekay's Report, p. 121, pi. 75, fig. 233. 

2. Argyreiosus capillaris, Mitchill. 

Form very similar to the preceding species. Of a beautiful silvery lustre, with several 
dark, almost black, transverse bands crossing the upper part of the sides ; these bands dis- 
appear in the dead fish- The membranous rays of the first dorsal filamentous, the first ex- 
ceedingly elongated ; the anterior rays of the second dorsal also filamentous. 

D. 8, 1-22. P. 17. V. 1-5. A. 2, 1-18. C- 17. Length, 4 inches. 

Massachusetts, Stoker. New York, Mitchill, Dekay- 

Zeus capillaris, Hair-finned Dory, Mitchill, Trans Lit am! Phil. Soc. of N. Y., i. p. 333, pi. 2, fig. 2. 
Argyreiosus capillaris, Hair-finned Argyreiose, Dekay's Report, p. 125, pi. 27, fig. 82. 



Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 105 

GENUS XVIII. VOMER, Cuv. 

Body much compressed. Profile nearly vertical. No filaments nor pro- 
longations of the fins. 

I. Vomer Brownii, Cuv. 

Compressed. Back earinate, horizontal, abruptly descending above the eye, and forming 
a concave profile. Of a lustrous silvery tint, passing into leaden on the back. Pectorals ol- 
ive-green, verging to dusky. The membrane of the second doisal minutely punctated with 
black, tinged at its base with light yellow. The first dorsal composed of seven spines. 
Ventrals minute. 

D. 7, 1-23. P. 1-18. V. 1-3. A. 1-18. C. W v Length, 1 foot. 

Connecticut, Ayres. New York, Mitchill, Cuv., Dekay. Gulf of Mexico and Ca- 
ribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Zeus setapinnis, Bristly Dory, Mitchill, Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc, of N. Y., i. p. 3 ; 4, pi. 1, fig. 9. 
Vomer de Brown, Vomer Brownii, Cuv. el Val., i>:. p. 1*3, pi. 256. 
Vomer Brownii, Blunt nosed shiner, Dekav's Report, p. 127, pi. is, fig. ?S. 

GENUS XIX. SERIOLA, Cuv. 
Lateral line with scales not larger than those on the rest of the body. First 
dorsal fin with a continuous membrane. No finlets. 

1. Seriola zonata, Mitchill. 

Fusiform, subcompressed. Of a bluish green color, with five or six broad, vertical, dusky 
bands over the body and tail ; an oblique band on each side ascending from the nose through 
the eye to the first dorsal, and forming a sort of crescent in front. Dorsal fins deep olive ; 
ventrals bright olive-green above ; anal olive-green, margined with white. 

D 7, 1-34 P. 19. V.6. A. 1-20. C. 15?. Length, 7 5. 

New York, Mitchill, Dekay. 

I: li 1 Mitchill, Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. of N.Y., I. p. 427, pi. 4, fig. 3. 

I a Seriole ,'i ceintures Seri ila zonata, Uuv. et Val , i\, p, 213. 
Seriola zonata, Banded Seriole, Dekay's Report, p. 123, pi. 9, fig. 26. 

Cuvier, in his " Regne Animal," considered this species synonymous with the Nomeus 
Mauritii; subsequently, however, in the ninth volume of his " Histoire Naturelle des 
Poissons,' : he made no reference to it in his genus Nomeus, but arranged it among the Se- 
riola;. 

2. Seriola Boscii, Cuv. 

Silvery, with a brownish baud upon the temples ; faint strhe on the opercles. The spines 
of the first dorsal fin very .short and stout ; the second dorsal far anterior. 
D. 7, 1-31. P.(?) V (•). A.2, 1-20. C (.'). Length, 54 inches. 

57 



106 Stover's Synopsis of the Fishes of North .America. 

South Carolina, Cuv. 

La Seriole do Bosc, Seriola Boscii, Cm'. etVAL., ix. p. 209. 
Seriola Boscii, Dekay's Report, p. 129. 

3. Seriola fasciata, Bloch. 

The back of a beautiful brown, with greenish metallic reflections. Sides beneath the lat- 
eral line a bright yellow. Sixteen narrow ribands in pairs over the body. A black trans- 
verse band from one eye to the other. Caudal yellowish ; its upper lobe tinged with green ; 
pectorals gray, tinged with green ; ventrals green upon their superior face. 

D. 7, 1-30 or 31. P. (?). V. (?). A. 2, 1 -20 or 21. C (?)• Length, 6.J inches. 

South Carolina, Cuv. 

La Seriole rubanee, Seriola fasciata, Cuv. et VAL., ix. p. 211. 
Seriola fasciata, Dekay's Report, p. 129. 

4. Seriola leiarchus, Cuv. 

Silvery, plumbeous on the back. Three black spots on the dorsal and two on the anal. 
The ventral rays are whitish, their connecting membrane is black- 

D. 7, 1-35. P. (?)• V. (?)• A. 2, 1-20. C. (.')• Length, 9 inches. 
Delaware, Cuv. 

La Seriole a anus desarm6, Seriola leiarchus, Cuv. el Val., ix. p. 213. 
Seriola leiarchus, Dekay's Report, p. 129. 

5. Seriola cosmopolite, Cuv. 

Body elevated and very much compressed. Silvery ; back greenish, plumbeous, or violet- 
colored. A dark-colored spot upon the caudal fin near its base, and also a black spot at the 
origin of the pectoral fin, and another upon the edge of the operculum; the ventrals are 
very small. 

D. 7, 1-28. P. 18. V. 1-5. A. 2, 1-27. C. 17. Length, 10 inches. 

New York, Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Called "Pot-pot," at St. Domingo. 

La Seriole cosmopohta, Seriola cosmopolita, Cuv. et Val., ix. p. 219. 
Seriola cosmopolita, Dekay's Report, p. 129. 

G. Seriola falcata, Cuv. 

Body elongated. Silvery, bluish upon the back. The anterior portion of the second 
dorsal, and of the second anal fin, rises up into a point, and is, in the first of these fins, almost 
as high as the body. 

D. 7, 1-31. P. (?)• V. (?). A. 2, 1-21. C (.'). Length, 28 inches. 

Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Called "El-mereal," at Porto Rico. 

La Seriole a dorsale en faux, Seriola falcata, Cuv. et Val., ix. p. 210. 






Slorer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 107 

GENUS XX. CORYPH.ENA, Li.v. 

Body compressed, elongated, covered by small scales ; head compressed, 
profile circular ; eyes low, approaching the angle of the mouth ; dorsal fin 
rising from the cranium, and stretching continuously to the tail, towards which 
it decreases in elevation. 

1. Coryphxna globiceps, Dekay. 

Body compressed, elongated. Head prominent, rounded, and much compressed above. 
Length of the lobes of the caudal fin to the whole length as 1 to 4- 8. According to the 
colored figure of this species in Dr. Dekay's Report, it is of a bluish green color, with yel- 
low and reddish blotches. The dorsal, pectoral, and ventral fins are reddish brown. The 
caudal is green at its base, and blue at its extremities. 

D.63. P. 21. V.7. A. 29. C. 19?. Length, -12 inches. 

New York, Mitchill, Dekay. 

Coryphsna hippuris, Common Coryphene, Mitchii.l, Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soe. of N. y |l( 
Corypha:na globiceps, Bottle-headed Dolphin, Dekav's Report, p. 132, pi. 10, fig. 29. 

2. Corypbcena Sueurii, Cuv. 

The height of the anterior rays of the dorsal fin to its length as one to seven and a half 
D. 64. P. (?). V. (?). A.26. C. (?). Length, 3 feet. 
Coast of the United States, Cuv. 

La Coryphene de Lesueur, Coryphtena Sueurii, Cuv. et Val., ix. p. 302. 

3. Coryphoena virgata, Cuv. 

Back blue or green, spotted with yellow ; the sides of the head and the abdomen white. 
The lower portion of the dorsal fin yellow, the upper blue ; all the other fins yellow. 
D.44. P. (.'). V. (?). A. 25. C. (>). Length, (?). 
Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

La Coryphene rayee, Coryphrena virgata, Cuv. et V'ai.., ix. p. 303. 

4. Coryphaina dorado, Cuv. 

Much more elongated than the C. Sueurii. Spotted with black. The longest rays of the 
dorsal nearly equal to one sixth the length of the fin. The oblong scales are larger than 
those of any other Coryphene. 

D. 60or(il. P. (?). V. (?). A. 27. C. (?). Length, 3 feet, 8 inches. 

Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

La Coryphene dorade, Coryphtena dorado, Cov. cIVal., ix. p. 303. 



/ h i(& . ~ ft . ft-i/Jt /. 



108 Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North .America. 

5. Coryphaena dolfyn, Cuv. 

The ciest is lower, the rays of the dorsal fin are more slender, the ventrals are narrower 
and shorter, and the scales are smaller, than in the C dorado. Green above, beneath yellow, 
sprinkled over the entire surface with blue spots ; dorsal fin blue, anal yellow. 

D. 59. P. (0- V. (?). A. 27. C. (?). Length, 3 feet, 3 inches. 

Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

La Coryphene dauphin, Coryphsena dolfyn, Cuv. et Val., ix. p. 305. 



GENUS XXI. TEMNODON, Cuv. 

Has the tail unarmed, the little fins or the detached spines before the anal, 
as in Seriola ; the first dorsal is fragile and low, the second and the anal 
are covered with small scales; but the principal character consists in a row 
of separated, pointed, and cutting teeth at each jaw ; behind the upper ones 
is a row of smaller teeth, and there are some fine as velvet on the vomer, 
palate, and tongue. The operculum terminates in two points, and there are 
seven rays to the gills. 

1. Temnodon saltator, Cuv. 

Body oblong, subcylindrical, compressed. All the upper part of the body of a bluish 
color ; lower part of the sides, as well as of the abdomen, whitish. Pectorals, second dor- 
sal, and caudal fins, greenish brown. Venlral and anal fins white, tinged with blue. 

D.7-26. P. 17. V. 6. A. 28. C. 19. Length, 18 inches. 

Massachusetts, Stoker. Connecticut, Ayres, Linsley. New York, Mitchill, De- 

kay. South Carolina, Lin., Cuv. 

Saltatrix, Skipjack, Green-fish, Lin., Catesry's Hist. Carol., n. pi. 14. 

Gasterosleus sailalrix, Skipping Stickleback, Shaw's Gen. Zobl., IV. p. G09. 

Scomber plumbeua, Horse Mackerel, Mitchill, Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. of N. Y., I. p. 421, pi. 4, fig. 1. 

Le Temnodon sauleur, Temnodon saltator, Cuv. et Val., ix. p. 225, pi. 260. 

Temnodon saltator, Blue-fish, Storer's Report p. - r >7. 

" " Dekay's Report, p. 130, pi. 2G, fig. 81. 

GENUS XXII. LAMPUGUS, Cuv. 
Head oblong ; central crest of the forehead much lower than in the Cory- 
phaena ; dorsal fin equal, and low throughout its whole extent. 

1. Lampugus punctulatus, Cuv. 

Sea-green above the lateral line ; silvery on the sides, with metallic reflections on the 
opercles. Dark reddish-brown stripes across the head ; a series of distant rounded spots 



Slorefs Synopsis of the Fishes of North Jhncricu. 109 

along the base of the dorsal fin ; a few scattering ones on the back part of the head, and 
confused series of similar spols on the sides below the lateral line. Dorsal, pectorals, and 
ventrals, brown ; anal and caudal light colored. The last ten or twelve rays of the dorsal 
somewhat elevated. 

D.53. P. 20. V. 5. A. 25. C. 18*. Length, 2 feet. 

New York, Dekay. 

Le Lampuge ponctue, Lampugus punclulalus, Gov. et Val., ix. p. 327. 
Lampugus punctutatus, Spotted Lampugus. Dekav'h Report, p. 131, pi. 11, fig. 31. 

GENUS XXIII. PTERACLIS, Gronov. 
Head and teeth as in the Coryphsena, but the scales are larger ; the ventrals 
are very small, and placed upon the throat ; the dorsal and anal fins are yen 
much extended, and as high as the fish itself. 

1. Pteraclis Carolinus, Cuv. 

Silvery, with bluish reflections. The fourth dorsal ray longest. 
D. 52. P. (.'). V. (?). A. 44. C (?). Length, 4 inches. 
South Carolina, Cuv. 

Le Pteraclis de la Caroline. Pteraclis Carolinus, Cuv. el Val., ix. p. 3GS. 
Pteraclis Carolinus, Dekay's Report, p. 133. 

GENUS XXIV. RHOMBUS, Lacep. 
Head and body compressed. Body covered with minute scales. Extrem- 
ity of the pelvis forming, anterior to the anus, a small, pointed, and cutting 
blade, which resembles a vestige of the ventral fins. A horizontal, partially 
concealed spine before the dorsal and anal fins. 

1. Rhombus longipinnis, Mitchill. 

Form elevated, oval, and compressed. Silvery, with tints of blue, green, and iridescent ; 
dusky on the head, and with inky patches on the belly towards the tail, which, in certain 
lights, appear beautifully red and purple ; back bluish, with occasional clouds. Anterior 
rays of the dorsal and anal fins more than half the length of their respective bases. 

J). 3-11. P. 23. A. 4-43. C. l'Jj. Length, 7 inches. 

New York, Mitchill, Dkkay. South Carolina, Lin., Cuv. 

ChtBlodon atepidotua Lin., S3 I Nat. 

" " Shaw's G n Z08I . iv. p. 370. 

Strom i 1. h, Mitchill, Trans Lit. and Phil. Soc. of N. Y. 1. p 

LeRhombea] ruea nageoires, Rl ni , Cm bIVal., ix p. 401, pi. 274. 

Rhombus longipinni , 1 Bo led Harve I G h, Dekay's Report, p. 136, pi. 75. tig. 239. 



1 10 Stoi'cr's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 

2. Rhombus triacanthus, Peck. 

Body ovate, very much compressed, particularly at the abdomen ; more elongated than the 
preceding; its anterior dorsal and anal rays slightly elevated. Of a leaden color upon the back, 
lighter on the sides, silvery upon the abdomen. Cheeks, intermaxillaries, chin, base of pec- 
torals, and base of caudal fin, together with more or less of the abdomen, sprinkled with very 
minute black dots. Opercles cupreous. Besides the lateral line are two others, one above 
and the other beneath the lateral, which curve backwards with the body and terminate at the 
fleshy portion of the tail. Twenty or thirty small circular black punctures, the orifices 
of numerous ducts, on each side of the base of the dorsal fin. 

D. 45. P. 21. A. 43. C. 20. Length, 10 inches. 

New Hampshire, Peck. Massachusetts, Stoker. Connecticut, Ayres, Linsley. 
New York, Mitchill, Cuv., Dekay. 

Stromateus triacanthus, Peck, Mem. Amcr. Acad., ii. p. 4S, pi. 2, fig. 2. 

Stromateus cryptosus, Cryptous Broad Shiner, Mitchill, Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. of N. Y., T. p. 365, 

pi. 1, fig 111. 
Peprilus cryptosus, Cuv., Griffith's Cuv.,i. p 2^3. 
LeRhoiiihe a fossettes, Rhombus cryptosus, Cuv. et Val., ix. p. 403. 
Peprilus triacanthus, Three-spined Peprilus, Stot.er's Report, p. GO. 
Rhombus triacanthus, Short-finned Harvest-fish, Dekay's Report, p. 137, pi. 75, fig. 80. 

If all the species of this genus have (he three spines which are so well marked in this spe- 
cies, it may be thought necessary to change Peck's specific name, which now has the pri- 
ority ; in which case Mitchill's specific name will be very appropriately substituted. 



GENUS XXV. LAMPRIS, Retzius. 

Body oval, greatly compressed, scales small ; a single elevated and elon- 
gated dorsal fin, which has but one small spine at the base of its anterior edge ; 
there are ten very long rays to each ventral ; the lobes of their caudal are also 
very long, but all these prolongations become worn away with age. Sides of 
the tail carinated ; teeth wanting ; branchiostegous rays, seven. 

1. Lampris guttatus, Retzius. 

The upper part of the back and sides are of a rich green, reflecting both purple and gold 
in different lights, passing into yellowish green below ; above and beneath the lateral line 
are various round yellowish-white spots, from which the fish received the name of Luna; 
the irides are scarlet ; all the fins are bright vermilion. 

D. 2-52. P. 28. V. 1-9. A. 1-25. C. 30. Length, 4 to 5 feet. 

Newfoundland, Pennant. 



Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 1 1 1 

Zeus Luna, Gmel., 1 in., Syst. Nut., p. 1225. 
Zeus opah, Penh., Brit Zo63 

" " Opah Dory, Shaw's Gen. Zotil., iv. p. 287, pt. 42. 
Zeus imperialis, Shaw, Nat. Miscellany, pi. 140. 
Lampris Luna, Opah, or King fish, Ji:nyns's Brit. Vert., p. 3G9. 
Lampris guttata, Ketz., Griffith's Guv., x. p. 200, pi. 58, fig. 2. 
Le Lampris tachete (Lampris guttatus, Retz.), Cnv.etVAi,, x. p. 39, pi. 292. 
Lampris guttatus, Rich., Fauna Boreal. Americ, m. p 

" Wilson, Encyclop. Brit., Art. Ichth., p. 189, pi. 303, fig. G. 
" " Yarrell's Brit. Fishes (2d edit.), i. p. 1! 

GENUS XXVI. ELACATE, Cuv. 
Head depressed. No carina on the sides of the tail. No (inlets. No free 
spines before the anal. Ventral fin thoracic. 

1. Elacate Atlantica, Cuv. 

General form of an Ecliineis. Black above ; lighter on the sides. Beneath the lateral 
line, a slate-colored longitudinal band extends from the pectoral fin to the tail. Beneath 
silvery white. Eight triangular spines anterior to the dorsal fin. Dorsal long, triangular 
anteriorly, situated midway between the base of the pectoral and the origin of the anal fin. 
Pectorals long, falciform. Caudal deeply lunate, its upper lobe longest, and its rays project- 
ing beyond the membrane. 

D. 8-34. P. 20. V. 1-5. A. 23. C. 21. Length, 32 inches. 

Massachusetts, South Carolina, Dekay. New York, Mitchill. 

Scomber niger, Black Mackerel, Block, Shaw's Gen. Zool., iv. p. 593. 

Centronotu I iab-eater, Mitchill, Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. of N. Y., I. p. 490, pi. 3, fig. 9. 

L'Ecate d'Amerique, Elacate Atlantica, Cuv. et Val., viii. p. 334. 

Elacate Atlantica, Northern Crab cater, Dekay's Report, p. 113, pi. 25, fig. 77. 



FAMILY VIII. TEUTHIDiE. 

Body compressed, ovate, oblong. Mouth small, not protractile. Teeth 
often dentatetl, and disposed in a single row in both jaws. Palate and tongue 
smooth. A single dorsal, usually long. 

GENUS I. ACANTHURUS, Bloch. 
Teeth cutting and serrated. A movable spine on the side of the tail. 
Head deep, compressed. Eyes placed high up on the head. The skin thick, 
and usually covered with small scales. 

1. Acanthurus phlebotomus, Cuv. 
Deep brown. Pectorals partly yellow. Opercles deeply striated ; the scapular bone also 
striated. Tail nearly even. 



112 Storefs Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 

D. 9-24. P. 15. V. 1-5. A. 3-23. C. 16. Length, 7 to 12 inches. 

New York, Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Barbero, Parra, p. 45, pi. 21, fig. 2. 

L'Acanthure saigneur, Acanthurus phlebotomus, Ccv. et Val., x. p. 176, pi. 2S7. 

Acanlhurus phlebotomus, Surgeon, Dekay's Report, p. 139, pi. 73, fig. 234. 

2. Acanthurus ccemleus, Bloch. 

Of a bright blue color. Dorsal and anal rayed alternately with light and dark blue. 
D. 9-27. P. 15 or 12. V. 1-5. A. 3-25. C. 16. Length, 4 to 8 inches. 
South Carolina, Florida, Catesdy. Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Turdus rhomboldalis, Tang, Catesby's Hist. Carol., n. pi. 10, fig. I. 

" Browne's Jamaica, p. 431. 
L'Acanthure bleu (Acanlhurus crrruleus, Bl.), Cuv. et Val., x. p. 179. 
Acantliurus cceruleus, Dekay's Report, p. HO. 

3. Acantliurus chirurgus, Bloch. 

Brown, tinged with yellow. Vertical blackish lines upon the flanks, which do not reach 
either the back or the belly ; in some specimens, where they are most marked, twelve or 
thirteen exist, which commence back of the ear and terminate in front of the spines anterior 
to the tail ; in some specimens these bands do not exist. Ventrals blackish, pectorals yel- 
lowish ; very fine, blackish, radiating lines upon the dorsal. 

D 9-23. P. 15. V. 1-5. A. 3-22. C. 16. Length, 10 or 11 inches. 

Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Chanodon chirurgus, Bloch, vi. p. 74, pi. 208. 

Acanthurus chirurgus, Lancet Acanthurus, Shaw's Gen. Zoo'l., iv. p. 379, pi, 52. 

L'Acanthure chirurgien (Acanthurus chirurgus, Bl., Schs.), Cuv. et Val., x. p. 10?. 



FAMILY IX. TiENIDiE. 

Very similar to the Scombridse. They often have the elongated dorsal fin, 
as well as the anal when it exists, united to the caudal. The articulated rays 
are generally simple. The ventrals are frequently a single ray, or less than 
five ; the position of these fins beneath the throat causes them to resemble the 
Blennius. 

GENUS I. STYLEPHORUS, Shaw. 

Body very long, compressed. Snout lengthened, directed upwards, retrac- 
tile towards the head by means of a membrane. Mouth without teeth. Eyes 
pedunculated, standing on a short, thick cylinder. Branchia?, three pairs 
beneath the throat. Pectorals small ; dorsal nearly as long as the back. 



Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 1 1 3 

1. Stylephorus chordatus, Shaw. 

Body elongated, compressed, destitute of scales, of a silvery or pearly color. The caudal 
fin, looking like a second dorsal, is composed of six rays, the first five of which are short ; 
the sixth forms a hair-like cord, concave upon its sides, rounded above and beneath, which is 
more than twice the length of the body. 

D. (?). P. (?)• V. (?). A. (?). C. (?)• Length, 10 to 11 inches, exclusive of tail. 

Caribbean Sea, Shaw. 

Stylephorus chordatus, Shaw, Lin. Trans., i. p. 90, pi. 6. 

" " " Nat. Miscellany, VIII. pi. 274. 

" " Chordated Stylephorus, Shaw's Gen. Zool., iv. p. S7, pi. 11. 

" " Blainville, Journ. de Physique, Lxxxvn. p. 60, pi. 1, fig. I. 

" " Griffith's Cov., x. p. 211. 

Stylephore acorde, Stylephorus chordatus, Ccv. et Val., x. p. 381. 



FAMILY X. ATHERINIDiE. 

Mouth protractile ; no notch on the upper jaw, nor tuhercle on the lower. 
Suborbital not dentaled. A broad silvery band on the side. Very small 
crowded teeth on the pharyngeals. The first branchial arch with long pecti- 
nations. Two dorsal fins, most commonly distant. Ventrals behind the pec- 
torals. 

GENUS I. ATHERINA, Lin. 

Body elongated. Two dorsals widely separated ; ventrals further back than 
the pectorals ; the mouth highly protractile, and furnished with very minute 
teeth. A broad silvery band along each flank on all the known species. 

1. Atherina menidia, Lin. 

Light colored, the black points in the edge of the scales very small. Height one seventh 
of its length ; its head is three tenths its whole length. Dorsals distant ; the second dor- 
sal nearly over the middle of the anal. One of the most elongated of the genus. 

B. 5, 1-9. P. 15. V. 1-5. A. 1-25. C 19. Length, 5 inches. 

New York, Cuv. South Carolina, Liit., Dekay. 

Called "Silver-fish," in Carolina. 

Atherina menidia, Lin , Syst. Nat. (12th edit.), p. 519. 

Atherina viridescens, Green-striped Silver-side, Mitchill, Trans-, Lit. et Phil. Soc. of N. Y., i. p. ll.\ 

L'Alherine menidie (Atherina menidia. Lin.). Cuv. et Val., e. p 

Atherina menidia, Slender Silver-side, Dekay's Report, p. 112, pi. 74, fi». 226. 

58 



114 Stover's Synopsis of the Fishes of JYorth America. 

2. Atherina notata, Mitchill. 

Of a greenish brown color. Black points at the base of the anal rays. Dorsals contigu- 
ous, the second coterminal with the anal ; height one sixth its length ; length of head one 
fifth its whole length. 

D. 5-9. P. 14. V. 1-5- A. 25. C. 17. Length, 3 to 5 inches. 

Massachusetts, Storer. Connecticut, Ayres, Linsley. New York, Mitchill, 

Cuv., Dekay. South Carolina, Cuv. 

Atherina notata, Small Silver-side, Mitchill, Trans. Lit. anJ Phil. Soc. of N. Y., I. p. 446, pi. 4, fig. 6. 
L'Atherine de Bosc (Atherina Boscii, Cuv.. Atherina notata, Mitch.), Cnv. et Val., x. p. 465. 
Atherina Boscii, Small Silver-side, Storer's Report, p. 62. 
Atherina notata, Dotted Silver-side, Dekay's Report, p. 141, pi. 28, fig. S3. 

3. Atherina Carolina, Cuv. 

Snout pointed. Height to its total length as one to six and three quarters. 

D. 8, 1-12. P. 15. V. 1-5. A. 1-15 or 16. C. 17. Length, 4 inches. 

South Carolina, Cnv. 

Le Rosere de la Caroline, Atherina Carolina, Cuv. et Val., x. p. 445. 
Atherina Carolina, Dekay's Report, p. 143. 

4. Atherina Martinica, Cuv. 

Elongated ; head small and slightly pointed. Scales large, with their edges crenulated. 
Eighteen or nineteen soft rays to the anal. 

D. 6, 1-7. P. 15. V. 1-5. A. 1-18 or 19. C. 17. Length, 4 inches. 
Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

L'Atherine de la Martinique, Atherina Martinica, Cuv. et Val., x. p. 459. 

5. Atherina Humboldtiana, Cuv. 

Similar in form to the Perch, but the snout is more pointed and more depressed. The 
lower jaw the longer. Greenish, with silvery reflections upon the back, and a broad silvery 
ray upon each side. Caudal edged with blackish. Its greatest height one fifth of its entire 
length ; the length of the head one fourth the length of the body. 

D. 5, 1-10. P. 14. V. 1-5. A. 1-19. C. 17. Length, 11 inches. 

Mexico, Cnv. 

L'Atherine de Humholdt, Atherina Humboldtiana, Cuv. et Val., x. p. 479, pi. 306. 

6. Atherina vomerina, Cuv. 
Very similar to the above ; but it has small asperities upon the vomer, which are readily 
distinguished by the finger, and an additional soft ray to the dorsal and anal fins. 
D. 5, 1-11. P. (.'). V. (?). A. 1-20. C. (?). Length, 8 inches. 
Mexico, Cuv. 

L'Atherine vomerine, Atherina vomerine, Cuv. et Val., x. p. 481. 



Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 115 

FAMILY XI. MUGILIDjE. 

The body is almost cylindrical, covered with large scales, and furnished 
wilh two distinct dorsal fins, the first of which has only four spinous rays. 
The ventrals are attached somewhat behind the pectorals. The gills have six 
rays. The head is rather depressed, also covered with large scales or poly- 
gonal plates. The muzzle is very short. The teeth are very fine, sometimes 
scarcely perceptible. 

GENUS I. MUGIL, Lin. 
Ventrals placed a short distance behind the pectorals. The first dorsal 
with four spinous rays. The middle of the under jaw tuberculated within, and 
a corresponding cavity in the upper jaw. Teeth very small. 

1. Mugil albula, Lin. 

General hue whitish. Caudal with a blackish border. Lips finely pectinated. 
D.4-18. P. 15. V. 1-5. A. 1-7. C. 15. Length, 9 inches. 

Connecticut, Linsley. New York, Mitchill, Cuv., Dekay. Virginia, Schoepff. 
South Carolina, Lin., Catesby, Schoepff. 

Albula Bahamensis, Mullet, Catesby's Hist. Carol., n. p. 6, pi. 5. 
Mugil albula, Lin., Syst. Nat. (12th edit.), p. 520. 

" " American Mullet, Shaw's Gen. Zoo!., v. p. 137. 

" " New York Mullet, Mitchill, Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. of N. Y., i. p. 447. 

Le Muge blanqueue (Mugil albula, Lin.), Cuv. et Val., xi. p. &4. 
Mugil albula, White Mullet, Dekay's Report, p. 146. 

2. Mugil lineatus, Mitchill. 

Lower jaw equalling or exceeding the upper in length. Ten or twelve dark longitudinal 

stripes. Dorsal outline convex. 

D. 4-8. P. 16. V. 1-5. A. 3 -8. C. 12|. Length, 6 to 8 inches. 

Connecticut, Linsley. New York, Cuv., Dekay. 

Le Muge nji (Mugil lineatus, MiTm), Cuv. et Val., xi. p. OG. 
Mugil lineatus, Striped Mullet, Dekay's Report, p. 144, pi. 15, fig. 42. 

3. Mugil petrosus, Cuv. 

The second dorsal and anal covered with scales. No spot at the base of the pectorals. 
The edge of the caudal fin blackish. 
D. (?). P. (?). V. (?). A. (?). C. (?). Length, 6 to 7 inches. 






1 1 6 Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 

New York, Gulf of Mexico, Cuv. 

Le Mage des Roches, Mugil petrosus, Cuv. et Val., xi. p. 89. 
Mugil pelrosus, Rock Mullet, Dekay's Report, p. 147. 

4. Mugil Plumieri, Cuv. 

The edges of the scales golden yellow ; a blackish-blue spot at the base of the pectorals, 
and a small spot of the same color on every scale. The second dorsal and anal without 
scales. Height of the body to its length as one to four and a half, nearly. Scales small. 

D. (?). P. (.')• V. (?). A. (?). C. (?). Length, (?). 

New York, Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Le Muge de Plumier, Mugil Plumieri, Cuv. et Val., xi. p. 90. 
Mugil Plumieri, Spotted Mullet, Dekay's Report, p. 147. 

5. Mugil liza, Cuv. 

Of a silvery gray, tinted with golden. Head one fifth its length ; height, at middle, equal 
to one sixth its length. Thirty-five scales upon the side in a longitudinal series. The skin 
around the eye naked for some extent. 

D. 4, 1-8. P. 14. V. 1-5. A. 3-8. C. 14. Length, 2h feet. 

Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Le Muge liza, Mugil liza, Cov. et Val., xi. p. 83. 

6. Mugil curema, Cuv. 

Silvery, slightly gilded. Caudal edged with blackish. Second dorsal and anal covered 
with scales. The angle of the suborbitars truncated and denticulated. 

D. 4, 1-9. P. (?). V. (?). A. 3-9. C. (?). Length, 9 to 10 inches. 
Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Le Muge curema, Mugil curema, Cuv. et Val., xi. p. 87. 



GENUS II. DAJAUS, Cuv. 

The cleft of the mouth longitudinal. Velvety teeth upon the palatines and 
vomer. 

1. Dajaus monticola, Bancroft. 

Greenish gray, slightly gilded and silvery upon the belly, according to M. Ricord- The 
figure inserted in Griffith's Cuvier, drawn by Dr. Bancroft, is reddish brown upon the back, 
gilded upon the side, white beneath ; opercles and fins yellowish. Length of the head equal 
to the height of the body. About forty scales upon the side in a longitudinal series. 

D. 4, 1-8. P. 14- V. 1-5. A. 3-9. C. 17. Length, 4 to 8 inches. 



S/orer's Synopsis of the Fishes of JYorth America. 1 1 7 



Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Called " El dajao," at Porto Rico. 

Mugil monlicola, Bancroft, Griffith's Cm*., x. p. 367, pi. 36. 

Dejao ties Montagnes, Dajaus monlicola, Cuv. el Vai.., xi. p. 164, pi. 316. 



FAMILY XII. GOBIDiE. 



Body more or less elongated. Scales small, or entirely wanting. The 
spines of the dorsal fin slender and flexible. Branchial aperture small. 
Ventrals, when present, placed in advance of the pectorals. Many viviparous. 

GENUS I. BLENNIUS, Cuv. 

Head rounded and blunt ; body smooth, unctuous, compressed ; a single 
elongated dorsal fin ; ventral fins placed before the pectorals, and containing 
generally but two rays, united at their base ; teeth slender, in a single row. 

1. Blennius fucorum, Cuv. 

Greenish brown, with brown spots above the lateral line. Bifid cirrhi over the eyes, as 

long as the head. 

D. 11-17. P. 14. V. 3. A. 18. C. 14. Length, 2 inches. 

Coast of New York, Dekay. 

Le Elennie des fucus, Blennius fucorum, Ctrv. et Vai.., xi. p. 263, pi. 324. 
Blennius fucorum, Sea-weed Blenny, Dekay's Report, p. 149, pi. 22, fig. 66. 

2. Blennius geminatus, Wood. 

Head with a three-rayed cirrhus over each eye ; body with several pairs of brownish spots 
on the sides, above which are confluent marks on the back, extending a little way upon the 
dorsal fin. Dorsal fin with an irregular blackish spot anteriorly. 

D. 27. P. 13. V. 2. A. 17. C. 14|. Length, 2| inches. 

South Carolina, Wood. 

Blennius geminatus, Wood, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc., rv. p. 278. 

Le Blennie gernine (Blennius geminatus, Wood), Cuv. et Vai.., xi. p. 265. 

Blennius geminatus, Dekay's Report, p. 149. 

3. Blennius punctatus, Wood. 

A bifurcated cirrhus over each eye ; dorsal fin with an irregular blackish spot between the 
first and third rays ; body thickly covered with small blackish spots, which are confluent on 
the sides ; caudal fin with five obscure brownish bands. 



118 Storefs Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 

D. 27. P. 14. V. 3. A. 18. C 111- Length, 3 inches. 
South Carolina, Wood. 

Blennius punctatus, Wood, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc., iv. p. 279. 

Le Blennie tacrine (Blennius punctatus, Wood), Cuv. et Val., ii. p. 267. 

Blennius punctatus, Dekay's Report, p. 149. 



GENUS II. PHOLIS, Fleming. 
Neither cirrhi nor fleshy crests upon the orbits. 

1. Pholis subbifurcatus, Storer. 
Dorsal fin extending to the tail ; filaments upon the nostrils ; three dark-colored bands 
passing from the eyes ; lateral line subbifurcated. 

D. 43- P. 13. V. 3. A. 30. C 14. Length, 5 inches, 5 lines. 
Massachusetts, Storer. 

Pholis subbifurcatus, Subbifurcated Pholis, Storek's Report, p. 63. 
" " Radiated Shanny, Dekay's Report, p. 150. 

2. Pholis Carolinus, Cuv. 

Greenish, with four or five irregular clouded spots along the back. Brown points irregu- 
larly scattered upon the fins. Sixteen teeth in the upper, fourteen in the lower jaw, with 
stout canines. 

D. 12-18. P. (.')• V. (?). A. 18. C. (?). Length, 4 inches. 

South Carolina, Cuv. 

Le Pholis Carolin, Pholis Carolinus, Cov. et Val., xi. p. 276. 
Pholis Carolinus, Dekay's Report, p. 151. 

GENUS III. CHASMODES, Cuv. 
The branchial aperture open only above the pectoral fin. Mouth deeply 
cleft, with teeth only on the anterior part of the jaws ; these are firm, regular, 
and in a single row. 

1. Chasmodes Bosquianus, Cuv. 
With six clouded vertical bands. Dorsal united with the caudal. A minute filament over 
the eye. 

D. 29. P. 14. V. 2. A. 19. C. 15. Length, 3 inches. 

Chesapeake Bay, Mitchill. New York, Cuv., Dekay. South Carolina, Lesueur. 

Blennius Bosquianus, Lacep., Shaw's Gen. Zool., IV. p. 173. 

Blennius Pholis, Smooth Blenny, Mitchill, Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. of N. Y., i. p. 374. 
?v ^Blennius Hentz, Lbsueur, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc., IV. p. 363. 

Le Chasmodes Bosquien (Chasmodes Bosquianus, Cuv.), Cuv. et Val., xi. p. 295, pi. 327. 
Chasmodes Bosquianus, Six-banded Chasmodes, Dekay's Report, p. 151, pi. 24, fig 73. 



Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 119 

2. Chasmodes novemlineatus, Wood. 

Body with nine whitish longitudinal bands ; dorsal fin with an irregular blackish spot 

between the first and second rays ; remainder of the fin clouded with dusky brown. 

D. 30. P. 13. V.2. A. 20. C. 121. Length, 3i inches. 

South Carolina, Wood. 

Pholis novemlineatus, Wood, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc, iv. p. 2S0. 

Le Chasmodes a neuf raies, Chasmodes novemlineatus, Cuv. et Val., xi. p. 299. 

Chasmodea novemlineuius, Dekay's Report, p. 152. 

3. Chasmodes quadrifasciatus, Wood. <J / /? 
Body with four distinct brownish bands, and an interrupted obscure broad band on the 

neck ; belly with four yellowish spots over the anal fin ; ventral fin fasciate with brown 
Dorsal fin not joining the tail. 

D 27. P. 11. V. 2. A. 15. C. 9. Length, 2A inches. 

Maryland (.'), Wood. 

Pholis quadrifasciatus, Wood, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc., rv. p. 282, pi. 17. &°. 1. 

Le Chasmodes a quatre bandes, Chasmodes quadrifasciatus, Cuv. et Val., xi. p. 293. 

Chasmodes quadrifasciatus, Dekay's Report, p. 152. 

GENUS IV. SALARIAS, Cuv. 

Species whose teeth, forming a single range and placed close to each other, 
are compressed laterally, hooked at the end, exceedingly slender, and very 
numerous. They move, in the living subject, like the keys of a harp- 
sichord. Their head, strongly compressed above, is very broad below ; 
their lips are thick and fleshy ; their profile is completely vertical, and their 
spirally convoluted intestines are longer and thinner than in the common 
Blenny. 

1. Salarias Atlanticus, Cuv. 

Chocolate-brown, lighter towards the abdomen ; caudal blackish in its middle, yellowish 
upon its upper and lower edge. A black spot back of the eye. Head one fifth the whole 
length. A simple and very slender tentacle upon the eyebrow, the height of the eye. 

D. 11-21. P. 15. V. 2. A. 24. C. 11. Length, 3J inches. 

Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Le Salaria-s de I'Atlantique, Salarias Atlanticus, Cnv. et Val., xi. p. 321. 

2. Salarias periophthalmus, Cuv. 
Olive-green above, with small red points ; abdomen whitish ; dorsal dotted with red, vio- 
let at its base, and having six blackish spots upon its anterior portion ; llie caudal is orange 



120 Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North Jlmerica. 

towards its extremity. Head compressed, a little longer than high. A simple, slender ten- 
tacle upon the eyebrow, half the height of the head ; and a small one, with five divisions, 
at the nostril. 

D. 12-20. P. 13. V. 2- A- 21. C 11. Length, 4 to 7 inches. 

Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Le Salarias periophlhalme (Salarias periophlhalmus, Cuv.), Cuv. el Val., xi. p. 311. 

GENUS V. CLINUS, Cuv. 

Short, pointed teeth, scattered in several ranges, the first of which is the 
largest. Their muzzle is less obtuse, their stomach wider, and their intes- 
tines shorter than in the Salarias. 

1. Clinus gobio, Cuv. 

Russet-gray, with traces of clouded brownish bands ; one dark-brown band at the base of 
the tail. Plead large ; diameter of eyes equal to two fifths the length of the head- Pre- 
opercle and opercle rounded. Twenty-six equal teeth in the upper jaw, extending to the 
angle ; sixteen in the lower jaw, occupying half of the length of the jaw on each side, the 
two last stouter and more hooked. 

D. 18-9. P. 14. V. 2. A. 2-17. C. 15. Length, 2 inches. 

Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Le Clinus chabot, Clinus gobio, Cuv. et Val., XI. p. 395. 

GENUS VI. GUNNELLUS, Fleming. 

Body elongated, much compressed. Head oblong. Mouth small. Teeth 
velvet-like, or in cards. Dorsal rays spinous throughout. Ventrals exces- 
sively small, and reduced often to a single spine. 

1. Gunnellus vulgaris, Fleming. 

Deep olive, with a row of dark ocellated spots, varying in number, but generally from ten 
to twelve, along the line of the back, extending partly on to the dorsal fin ; belly whitish ; 
pectorals yellow. Dorsal united to the caudal. Ventrals mere spines. 

D. 76 or 77. P. 11 or 12. V. 1-1. A. 2-40. C. 15. Length, 4 to 12 inches. 

Greenland, Fabricius. 

Blennius gunnellus, Lin., Syst. Nal., i. p. 443. ; 

" " Fabricius, Fauna Groenlandica, p. 149. 

" " Bloch, II. p. 162, pi. 171, fig. 1. 



Stover's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 121 

Blennius gunnellus, Spotted Blenny, Pennant's Bril Zool., m. p. 282, pi. 60. 
" Gunnel Blenny, Shaw's Gen. Zobl., iv. p. 179. 
" Spotted Gunnel, Jenyns's Brit.1 

Gunnellu i nil; iri i, Fiem., Brit- \ . p. \n. 

Muranoides guttata, Spotted Gunnel or Butter-fish, Lacep., Yarrell's Bril. Fishes (1st edit.), i. p. 239, 

fig. ; (2d edit.), i. p. 269. 
Le Gonoelle rulgaire CGunnellua irulgaris, Civ., Blennius gunnellus, Lin.), Cuv. et Val., xi. p. 110. 

2. Gunnellus punctatus, Fad. 

Tawny ; the head dotted with white ; the throat, pectorals, and caudal striped with 
the same ; about seven brown streaks on the cheeks ; five black spots, joined to as many 
white ones, on the dorsal, and about twelve less conspicuous black spots on the anal. The 
dorsal and anal fins are continued to the caudal, the former being joined to it by a membrane, 
but the anal is distinct. 

D. 50. P. 17. V. 4. A. 38. C. 18. Length, G inches. 

Greenland, Fabricius. 

Called " Akulliakitsoc," by the Greenlanders. 

Blennius punctatus, Fab., Fauna Groenlandica, p. 153. 

Blennius (Clinus) punctatus, Fab., Akooliakeetsok, Rich., Fauna Boreal. Americ., ill. p. 88. 

Le Gonuelle ponctuS, Gunnellus punctatus, Cuv. el Val., xi. p. 428. 

3. Gunnellus Fabricii, Cuv. 

Back and sides palish, marked' irregularly with brown spotted circles. Head and pectorals 
yellowish ; belly white, with a yellowish tint behind the anus. The even dorsal occupies 
the entire back, but is distinct from the obovate caudal. Ventrals with three rays, the lower 
of which is longest ; the upper ray scarcely perceptible. 

D. 63. P. 15. V. 3. A. 41. C. 18. Length, 1 foot. 

Greenland, Fabricius. 

Called " Teyarnak," by the Greenlanders. 

Blennius lumpenus, Fab., Fauna Groenlandica, p. 151. 

Blennius (Clinus) lumpenus, Lumper, F.u:., Rich., Fauna Boreal. Americ, III. p. 90. 

Le Gunnelle de Fabricius, Gunnellus Fabricii, Guv. et Val.. xi. p. 431. 

4. Gunnellus anguillaris, Pallas. 

Olive-yellow, lighter beneath, with five longitudinal, parallel, interrupted brown bands, al- 
ternately darker and paler ; base of the caudal black ; caudal fawn-colored, crossed with 
brown lines; dorsal yellowish brown; anal yellowish; ventrals four-rayed, the external 
longest. 

D. 07 to 70. P. 14. V. 1-3- A. 45 -50. C 14. Length, Ij foot. 

Northwest Coast of America, east of the Aleutian Islands, Cuv. 

Called "Kanaise," at Kamtschatka. 

Le Gonnelle anguillaire (Blennius anguillaris, Pallas, Gunnellus anguillaris, Cuv.), Cov. et Val., xi. p. 134. 

59 



122 Storefs Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 

5. Gunnellus dolichogaster, Pallas. 

Olive-brown, clouded with greenish and yellowish. Green spots above the lateral line, 
and a yellow band along the lower edge of the belly. The dorsal and anal fins are brown, 
with pale vertical bands. The caudal and pectorals are tinged with yellowish. The lower 
jaw is the longer. The anus is situated before the middle of the body, but the ovaries are 
extended far behind it. The ventrals are two small bony tubercles projecting through the 
skin. 

D. 93. P. 14. A. 2-50. C. 30. Length, 1 foot. 

Northwest Coast, Cuv. 

Le Gonnelle a long ventre (Gunnellus dolichogaster, Cuv., Blennius dolichogaster, Pallas), Cov. et Val., 
xi. p. 436. 

6. Gunnellus Groenlandicus, Reinhardt. 

Yellowish gray, marbled with brown upon the back, with a dozen yellowish points above 
the lateral line between the pectorals and the anus ; back of the anus the spots are 
more numerous, and disposed beneath as above the lateral line in ten or twelve vertical 
bands. A dozen vertical brown bands anterior to anal fin. Along the base of the dorsal 
fin a series of ten large, roundish, yellowish spots, which are marbled with blackish spots. 
Three black lines upon the head. Fins yellowish. Scales very small. Neck and cheeks 
covered with pores. 

D. 89. P. 12. V. 1. A. 2-43. C. 24. Length, 5 inches, 9 lines. 

Greenland, Reinhardt. 

Le Gonnelle du Groenland (Gunnellus Groenlandicus, Reinhardt), Cuv. et Val., xi. p. 442, pi. 340. 

7. Gunnellus mucronatus, Mitchill. 

Yellowish brown, presenting a waved appearance, with twelve or more ocellated black 
spots along the base of the dorsal fin, surrounded with a lighter circle. Dorsal continued 
nearly to, but not united with, the anal fin. Two short spines in the place of the ventrals. 

D.75to78. P. 11 or 12. V. 1. A.2-36to40. C. 16 to 18. Length, 4 to 12 inches. 

Massachusetts, Storer. New York, Mitchill, Dekay. 

Ophidium mucronatum, Spinous Ophidium, Mitchill, Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. of N. Y., I. p. 361, pi. 1, 

fig. 1. 
Le Gonnelle epineux (Gunnellus mucronatus, Cuv., Ophidium mucronatum, Mitch.), Cuv. et Val., II. 

p. 427. 
Blennius (Centronotus) gunnellus, Lm., Spotted Gunnelle, Rich., Fauna Boreal. Americ, in. p. 91. 
Muranoides guttata, Spotted Gunnel, Lacep., Stoker's Report, p. 65. 
Gunnellus mucronatus, American Butter-fish, Dekay's Report, p. 153, pL 12, fig. 36. 

GENUS VII. ZOARCES, Cuv. 

Body elongated, and covered with a mucous secretion, in which are im- 
bedded very small scales. Dorsal, anal, and caudal united ; no spinous rays 



Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 123 

in the dorsal, except on its posterior part. Ventrals jugular, small. Vent 
with a tubercle. Teeth conical ; in two or three rows in front ; in a single 
row on the sides ; none on the palate or tongue. Branchial rays, six. 

I. Zoarces anguillaris, Peck. 

Elongated, compressed posteriorly. Yellowish brown, mottled with darker blotches ; two 
more or less distinct oblique hands upon operculum. In the living specimen, the dorsal is 
almost white, salmon-colored at its edge. Pectorals and ventrals salmon-colored. Anal 
salmon-colored at edge, flesh-colored at base, with seven distinct white blotches in its extent. 
Lips very large ; the upper projects much beyond the lower. 

D. 118 or 120. P. 19 or 20. V. 2. A. 100. C. 19. Length, 3 feet. 

New Hampshire, Peck. Maine, Massachusetts, Storer. New York, Mitchill, 
Cuv., Dekay. 

Blennius anguillaris, Peck, Mem. Amer. Acad., II. pt. 2, p. 46, fig. 

Blennius labrosus, Large-lipped Blenny, Mitchill, Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. of NY.,: p 375 nl I 
fig. 7. ' ' 

Le Zoarces a grosses levres, Zoarces labrosus, Cuv. et Val., xi. p. 466, pi. 3-11. 
Zoarces anguillaris, Eel-shaped Blenny, Storer's Report, p. 66. 

" Thick-lipped Eel-pout, Dekay's Report, p. 155, pi. 16, fig. 45. 

2. Zoarces fimbriatus, Cuv. 

Head greenish brown. Body and tail salrnon-eolored. Dorsal fin dark green, margined 

with yellowish. 

D. 95- 16, 16-127. P. 20. V. 4. A. 115. C. 20. Length, 20 inches. 

New York, Mitchill. 

Blennius ciliatus, Fringed Blenny, Mitchill, Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. of N. Y., I. p. 37 !, pi . I, fig. 6. 
Le Zoarces (range, Zoarces fimbriatus, Cuv. et Val., xi. p. 463. 
Zoarces fimbriatus, Bordered Eel-pout, Dekay's Report, p. 156. 

3. Zoarces Gronovii, Cuv. 

Brown ; teeth fine and sharp, disposed in a single row in the upper jaw, and in the angles 
of the lower jaw; but in the front of each jaw a double row. Scales small. Dorsal not 
emarginated. Caudal pointed. Pectorals very large. Ventrals round. 

D. more than 80. P. 10. V. 2. A. more than 6. C. (?). Length, 6 inches. 

Precise locality not mentioned. 

Le Zoarces de Gronovius (Zoarces Gronovii, Cuv., Blennius Americanus, Bl., Schx.iC rv. et V.u., xi 

GENUS VIII. ANARRHICAS, Lin. 

Head smooth, rounded, muzzle obtuse ; body elongated, covered with mi- 
nute scales ; dorsal and anal fins long, distinct from the caudal ; no ventral 



124 Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 

fins. Teeth of two kinds ; those in front elongated, curved, pointed ; the 
others on the vomer, as also on the jaws, truncated or slightly rounded ; 
branchiostegous rays, six. 

1. Anarrhicas lupus, Lin. 

Purplish brown, with ten or twelve transverse, nearly black bars, passing from the abdo- 
men high up on the dorsal fin. Pectorals and anal leaden gray. Dorsal rays black. Cau- 
dal slate -colored, reddish at extremity. The jaws, vomer, and palatines are covered with 
large bony tubercles, which support on their summits little enamelled teeth, but the anterior 
teeth are conical and larger. 

D. 74. P. 20. A. 46. C. 161. Length, 3 to 5 feet. 

Greenland, Fabricius. Maine and Massachusetts, Stoker. New York, Mitchill,, 
Dekay. 

Anarrhicas lupus, Lin., Syst. Nat., p. 430. 

" " Fabricius, Fauna Groenlandica, p. 133. 

" " Bloch, hi. p. 18, pi. 74. 

" " Shaw's Gen. Zool., IV. p. 93, pi. 13. 

« '• Wolf-fish, Penn., Brit. Zool., III. p. 201, pi. 27. 

" " Sea-wolf, Mitchill, Amer. Month. Mag., v. p. 242. 

L'Anarrhique loup (Anarrhicas lupus, Lin.), Cuv. et Val., xi. p. 473, pi. 342. 

Anarrhicas lupus, Wolf-fish, Flem., Brit. An., p. 203, sp. 127. 

" " " Jenyns's Brit. Vert., p. 384. 

" " Sea-wolf, Wilson, Encyclop. Brit., Art. Ichth., p. 193, pi. 304, fig. 2. 

" " Common Wolf-fish, Rich., Fauna Boreal. Americ, III. p. 95. 

" " "Wolf-fish, Yarrell's Brit Fishes (2d edit.), I. p. 277. 

" " " Storer's Report, p. 69. 

" " Sea-wolf, Dekav's Report, p. 158, pi. 16, fig. 43. 



GENUS IX. GOBIUS, Cuv. 

Ventrals joined together, forming a hollow disk, placed under the thorax. 
Two dorsals. Teeth velvet-like, or in cards. 

1. Gobius lanceolatus, Bloch. 

Grayish brown, with three or four blackish points before the first ray of the anterior dor- 
sal ; an indistinct black spot on the sides back of the pectorals. Height about one eleventh 
its length, of which the caudal is nearly a third. The caudal is so much pointed, that the 
outer rays are only one eighth the length of the middle rays. The base of the tongue 
pearly, clouded with green or bluish. 

D. 5, 1-13. P. 19. V. 1-5. A. 1-14. C. 15. Length, (?). 

Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Called " Emerelda," or " Emeraude," in Cuba ; " Endormi," at Martinique. 



Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 125 

I.i Lancelte, Gobius lanceolalus, Bloch, n. p. 7, pi. 38, fig. 1 and 2. 
Gobi us lanceolalus, Lin., Syst. Nat., Gmel., p. 1203. 

Lance-tailed (M,y. Shaw's Gen. Zo3L, iv. p. 233, pi. 34. 
Le Gobie lancetle (Gobius lanceolalus, Bl.), Cov. et Val., xii. p. 111. 

2. Gobius alepidotus, Bosc. 

Entirely destitute of scales. Height one sixth its length. Greenish brown, with seven 
vertical dusky bands. Fins brown. 

D. 6-14. P. 17. V. 12 or 13. A. 11. C. 19. Length, 24 inches. 
New York, Mitchill, Cuv., Dekay. South Carolina, Cuv. 

Gobius alepidolus, Bosc, Bl., Schneider, p. 547? 

Le Gobie do Bosc, Lacepede, Hist. Pois., n. p. 556, pi. 16, fig. 1. 

Gobius viridi-pallidus, Variegated Goby, Mitohol, Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. of N. Y., i. p. 379, pi. 1, fig. 8. 

Le Gobie de Bosc (Gobius Boscii, Lacep.). Cov. el val., hi. p. 96. 

Gobius alepidotus, Variegated Goby, Dekav's Report, p. 160, pi. 23, fig. 70. 

3. Gobius soporator, Cuv. 

Of a deep bistre-brown color ; grayish brown beneath. Fins brown ; transverse marks 
upon the caudal. Jaws nearly equal. The horizontal mouth is cleft to beneath the middle 
of the eye ; the anterior row of teeth project but little beyond the others. The last ray of 
the second dorsal and anal fins elongated. 

D. 6, 1-9. P. 15, and 5 filaments. V. 1 - 5. A. 1 - 8, the last double. C. 15. Length, 
4 inches. 

Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Called " Mapo," at Havana. 

Le Gobie endormeur, Gobius soporator, Cov. et Val., xii. p. 56. 

4. Gobius banana, Cuv. 

Brown, with small brown marblings ; the points of the dorsal and caudal brown ; those 
of the anal and ventral white ; of the pectorals gray. Body elongated. Scales moderate ; 
those on the neck small. Snout elongated ; upper jaw quite protractile. 

D. 6, 1-10. P. (?). V. (?). A. 1-10. C (.')• Length, 5 inches. 

Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Le Gobie banane, Gobius banana, Ccv. etVAL., xii. p. 103. 

5. Gobius Martinicus, Cuv. 

Gray, with brown spots upon the dorsal and caudal rays, and brown clouds in the inter- 
vals between the rays. This species is very similar to the G. banana, perhaps a mere variety. 
D. 6- 10. P. (.')• V. ( ; ). A. 1, 1 - 10. O. (?). Length, 6 to 7 inches. 
Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Le Gobie de la Martinique, Gobius Martinicus, Cuv. et Val., hi. p. 105. 



126 Stover's Synopsis of the Fishes of North Jlmerica. 

6. Gobius bacalaus, Cuv. 
The lateral spot more obvious than in the G. lanceolatus, and one still better marked, 
which is often triangular, at the base of the tail. In young specimens, the first dorsal and 
caudal are sometimes each one third its entire length. 
D. (?). P. (.')• V. (?) A. (?). C. (?). Length, (?). 
Gulf of Mexico, Cuv. 
Called " Emeralda," in Cuba. 

Le Gobie bacalaou, Gobius bacalaus, Cuv. et Val., xii. p. 119. 

7. Gobius smatagdus, Cuv. 

Head almost as wide as high. Body and fins of a deep greenish brown, more particularly 
the head ; sprinkled with small, yellow, round spots. Its tongue has the same colored base 
as the G. lanceolatus. 

D.6-11. P. 16. V 1-5. A. 1-11. C. 15. Length, 4 inches. 

Gulf of Mexico. Cuv. 

Called "Cabezona," in Cuba. 

Le Gobie emeraude, Gobius smaragdus, Cuv. et Val., xii. p. 120. 

8. Gobius crista galli, Cuv. 

Fawn-color ; the first dorsal black, particularly towards the middle of its margin ; the sec- 
ond blackish ; the other fins gray. Numerous brownish points between the rays of the cau- 
dal. Scales large, smaller on the forepart of the back. A small, low membranous crest 
commences between the eyes, and terminates at the neck. 

D. 6, 1-9. P. 18. V. 1-5. A. 1-8. C. 15. Length, 2J inches. 

Gulf of Mexico, Cuv. 

Called " Mapo," in Cuba. 

Le Gobie a Crete de coq, Gobius crista galli, Cuv. et Val., xii. p. 130. 

GENUS X. SICYDIUM, Cuv. 

The ventrals form a sort of bell, or round, concave basin, almost equally ad- 
herent throughout. The jaws have a single row of equal, compact, flexible 
teeth, and some stronger teeth within, upon the lower jaw. The teeth are 
somewhat like those of the Salarias ; the ventrals resemble those of the Cy- 
clopterus more than those of the Gobius ; but in other respects the fishes 
of this genus resemble the Gobius, with a round tail. 

1. Sicydium Plumieri, Cuv. 
Deep olive, tinged with yellow upon the sides, and whitish towards the belly. Dorsals, 






Storer's Synopsis of (he Fishes of North America. 127 

pectorals, and anal tinged with blackish. The third, fourth, and fifth rays of the first dorsal 
are prolonged into flexible filaments ; the third and fourth are double the height of the 
body. Second dorsal higher than the body. The head, throat, and shoulders near the pec- 
torals, and all the fins, are naked. Scales moderate upon the back and sides, becoming very 
small upon the belly. 

D. 6, 1-10. P. 19. V. 1-5. A. 1-10. C. 17. Length, 5 inches. 

Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Called " El Olivo," at Porto Rico. 

Gobius Plumieri, Bloch, pi. 178, fig. 3. 

Le Sicidium de Plumier, Sicydium Plumieri, Cuv. el Val., xii. p. 168. 



GENUS XI. ELEOTRIS, Gron. 
Ventrals entirely distinct. Sis branchial rays. Head obtuse and slightly 
depressed ; eyes at a distance from each other. 

1. Eleotris gyrinus, Cuv. 

Deep, uniform olive-brown, with small lines or brown points upon the rays of the vertical 
fins. Two brown lines upon the temples, back of the eyes. The scales upon the sides of 
the head are very small, and scarcely to be seen ; the cheeks are capable of being inflated in 
a remarkable manner. 

D. 6, 1-8. P. 16. V. 1-5. A. 1-8. C. 15. Length, 6 inches. 

Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Called "Dormeur," at Martinique. 

L'Eleotris tetard, Eleotris gyrinus, Cuv. el Val., xii. p. 220, pi. 356. 

2. Eleotris guavina, Cuv. 

Deep blackish brown, slightly russet upon the throat, chest, and belly. Fins nearly black, 
or spotted and dotted with black upon a blackish ground. The edge of the second dorsal, 
anal, ventrals, and upper and lower edges of the caudal, whitish gray. Scales smaller than 

the E. gyrinus. More than ninety scales in a longitudinal line from the branchise to the 
tail, and nearly forty in a vertical line. First dorsal not quite equal to half the height of the 
body ; the second two thirds its height, the last ray elongated. 

D. 7, 1 - 10. P. 16. V. 1-5. A. 1 - 10, the last double. C. 15, and some small ones. 
Length, 9 inches. 

Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 



in 



Guavina, Pahra, p. ins, pi. 39, fig. 1. 

L'Eleotris guavina, Eleotris guavina, Cuv. et Val., mi. p. 223. 



128 Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 

3. Eleotris mugiloides, Cuv. 

Blackish brown ; bands or series of black spots upon the fins ; upon the dorsal there are 
six or seven rows arranged obliquely ; there are three or four rows upon the anal towards its 
base, and eight or nine upon the caudal. The extremities of the rays of the second dorsal 
and anal, whitish. Height, at the origin of the dorsal, one fourth its length ; thickness half 
its height. The number of scales in a longitudinal line upon the side not more than thirty- 
five ; in a vertical line, rarely more than twelve. 

D. 7, 1-8. P. 14. V. 1-5. A\ 1-9 or 10. C. 15. Length, 7 inches. 

Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Called " Mulet," at Martinique. 

Sciffina maculata, Bloch, p. 299. 

L'Eleotris mulet, Eleotris mugiloides, Cuv. etVAL., xn. p. 226. 

4. Eleotris smaragdus, Cuv. 

More elongated than any other of the genus. Deep brown, slightly gray beneath ; fins 
paler ; browner points upon the dorsal rays. Height one tenth its length. The first dorsal 
has only very delicate rays. None of the three vertical fins exceed the height of the body. 
Scales very small. 

D. 6-16. P. (?)■ V. (.')■ A. 1-9. C. (?)• Length, 5 to 8 inches. 

Gulf of Mexico, Cuv. 

Called " Esmeralda negro," at Cuba. 

L'Eleotris emeraude, Eleotris smaragdus, Cuv. et Val., xii. p. 231. 

5. Eleotris sima, Cuv. 

The whole body greenish or blackish ; fins gray, with russet dots upon the rays. Snout 
obtuse. Lower jaw the longer. Thirty-two rows of scales upon the sides. The excretory 
milt orifice is situated before the genital papilla. 

D. 8-9. P. 14. V. 1-5. A. 10- C. 15. Length, 3 inches. 

Mexico, Cuv. 

L'Eleotris a museau obtus, Eleotris sima, Cuv. et Vai.., xii. p. 232. 

GENUS XII. PHILYPNUS, Cuv. 
Differs from the Eleotris in having card-like teeth upon the vomer. 

1. Philypnus dormitator, Cuv. 

Elongated, cylindrical, head depressed. Lower jaw longer. Preopercular angle rounded 
at its entire edge. Back and sides of a deep brown, verging to olive, with large, irregular, 
blackish cloudings. Beneath yellowish. Fins olive; the vertical fins have three or four 



Stover's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 1'29 

rows of blackish spots between the rays ; six or seven pairs of blackish lines along each pec- 
toral. Five or six blackish spots upon each ray of the ventral. Scales at the base of the 
caudal and pectorals. Back of the anus is the genital papilla, obtuse and slightly denticulated, 
flattened from before backwards. 

D. 6, 1 -9. P. 1G. V. 1-5. A. 1 -9. C. 13. Length, 12 or 14 inches. 

Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Called " Guavina," at Porto Rico. 

Le Philypne dormeur (Philypnus dormilalor, C-v., Platesccphalus dormitntor, Sens.), Ccv. el V *: 

p. 265, pi. 25-). 



FAMILY XIII. LOPHIDT.. 

Scales usually absent, or replaced by bony plates, or by small grains armed 
with spines. The two carpal bones elongated, and forming a kind of arm to 
support the pectoral fin. Branchial aperture round, or a vertical slit behind the 
pectorals. Suborbital bone wanting, except in the genus Malthea. 

GENUS I. LOPHIUS, Artedi. 
Head enormously large, broad, and depressed. Mouth large, armed with 
slender conical teeth on the jaws, palatines, vomer, and pharyngeals. Tongue 
smooth. Branchial rays, six ; branchial arches, three. Dorsal fins, two ; 
the anterior rays distant, detached, forming long filaments, supporting fleshy 
slips. 

1. Lophius Americanus, Cuv. 

Intermaxillary teeth smaller, and those of the vomer larger, than in the European species. 

D. 3-11. P. 25. V. 5. A. 9. C. 8. Length, 2 to 3 feet. 

Maine, Massachusetts, Storer. New York, Mjtchill, Cuv., Dekay. Delaware. 

Cuv. 

Lophiua piscator, Bellows-fish nr Common Angler, Hitchiu, Trans. Lit. and 1 . of N. V., i. p. 463. 

Lophius piscatorius, Angler, Frog-fish, Sea-devil, Goose-fish, Wide Oab, Stoker's Report, pp ri an I 
La Baudoire d'Amerique, Lophius Americanus, Cuv. el Vat... xii. p. 3S0. 
Lophius Americanus, American Angler, Dekay's Kcport, p. 102, pi. 2S, fig. 87. 

Note. In a notice of Dekay's Report in Silliman's Journal, I doubted whether our species 
was distinct from the European. It appeared in that report as a new species, Cuv. et Val. 
not being cited. As I had not seen their twelfth volume, I was not aware that it had been 
there described under the above-mentioned name. As, however, Ctivier describes ours as 
distinct from the European species, after having undoubtedly seen both species, I can have 
no hesitation in admitting it as such. 

60 



130 Slorefs Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 

GENUS II. CHIRONECTES, Cuv. 

Head vertically compressed. Three free rays on the summit of the head. 
Mouth cleft more or less vertically ; opening to the gills by a round aperture 
behind the pectorals. Tongue edentate. Intermaxillaries, lower jaw, vomer, 
palatines, and pharyngeals with minute card-teeth. Dorsal long. 

1. Chironectes gibbus, Mitchill. 

Pale brown, variegated along the sides wilh dark yellowish and ruddy, so as to resemble 
some sorts of iron-stones or fractures of ferruginous earth ; the deeper dark markings cross 
the dorsal rays obliquely and transversely, and the caudal in concentric curves. Surface of 
the body granulate. Tail rounded, with concentric bars. Posterior portion of the dorsal fin 
rounded. 

D. 12. P. 10. V. 5. A. 7. C. 9. Length, 2 inches. 

New York, Mitchill, Dekay. 

Lophius gibbus, Mouse -fish, Mitchill, Trans. Lit. anil Phil. Soc. of N. Y., I. pi. 4, fig. 9. 

" <■ " '• Amer. Month- Mag., II. p. 325. 

Chironectes gibbus, Gibbous Mouse-fish, Dekay's Report, p. 164, pi. 24, fig. 74. 

2. Chironectes lcevigatus, Cuv. 

A dull white, with irregularly distributed dark-brown blotches, or partially formed longi- 
tudinal bands, which are margined wilh a clear white ; clear white spots upon the abdomen. 
Surface of the body smooth. Posterior portion of the dorsal highest. 

D. II. P. 18. V. 4. A. 6. C. 8. Length, 2 inches. 

Massachusetts, Storer. New York, Dekay. South Carolina, Cuv. 

chironectes laevigatus, Cuv., Memoires du Museum, 111. p. 423, pi. IG, fig. 1. 
Le Chironectes uni, Chironectes lasvigatus, Cuv. et Val., xii. p. 399. 
Chironectes lasvigalus, .Smooth Chironectes, Storer's Keporl, p. 73. 

,( " Smooth Mouse-fish, Dekay's Report, p. 165, pi. 27, fig. 83. 

3. Chironectes scaber, Cuv. 

Yellowish brown, with black spots or lines irregularly distributed- Skin rough ; tubercles 
upon the eyebrow, cheeks, and lateral line. The first free ray of the dorsal terminates in 
two long slits or membranous leaves. 

D. (?)• P. (?)■ V. (!)• A. (?). C (.')• Length, (>.). 

Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Le Chirouecle rude, Chironectes scaber, Cuv. et Val., xii. p. 412. 

4. Chironectes ocellatus, Cuv. 
White, with three ocellated dark spots encircled wilh white ; one at the middle of the 



Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 131 

base of the dorsal ; one vertically beneath this, opposite the anus ; a third at the base of the 
caudal ; numerous black points distributed over the surface of the body. Dorsal and caudal 
fins irregularly banded- 

D. (.'). P. (?)■ V. (?) A. (?). C. (?). Length, {>.). 

Gulf of Mexico, Pahra. 

Pescailor, Parra, p. 1, pi. I. 

Le Chironecteaocellt-s, Chironectes ocellalus, Cuv. etViL., xii. p. -11D. 

5. Chironectes multiocellatus, Cuv. 

Red, with various black or blackish spots and lines. Upon the eighth, ninth, and tenth 
rays of the dorsal is a black ocellus, surrounded with a white circle ; between the third and 
fourth ray a halfocellus, bordered like the former ; another upon the anal ; three in the form 
of a triangle upon the caudal, and one upon the side, back of the pectorals. Its first ray is 
very long and slender, and without a tuft. 

D. (?). P. (?). V. (?) A. (?). C (?). Length, (?). 

Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

I £ Chironecte a beaucoup d'ocelles, Chironectes multiocellatus, Cuv. et Vai.., xn. p 420. 

GENUS III. MALTHEA, Cuv. 
Body with a hard and tubercular skin, and furnished with fleshy filaments. 
Mouth small, prominent, protractile, and placed under the snout. From be- 
neath the snout arises a process supported by a bony ray and terminating in 
several fleshy threads. 

1. Malthea vespertilio, Cuv. 

Pale reddish. brown above, lighter beneath. Skin rough, covered with numerous pointed 
tubercles. Snout elongated into a point. 
D. 4. P. 11. V. 5. A. 4. C. 9. Length, 8 to 18 inches. 
Newfoundland, Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Diablo, Parra, p. 5. pi. 1. 

Lophius vespertilio, Lin, Syst. Nat. 

Blocii. iv p 3, pi. tin. 

Sea-Bat, Browne's Jamaica, p. 457, pi. K 
Lophius rostralus, Lin., Beaked Angler, Shaw's Gen. Zoo] , v. p. 333, pi. 1G3. 
La Malthde vesperlilion, Malthea vespertilio, Cuv. ct Vai.., xii. p. 440. 
Malthea vesperiilio, Bat-Molthea, Iiekay's Report, p. 167. 

2. Malthea nasuta, Seba. 
Preserved in spirits, of a grayish white above, with brown blotches. Caudal and pecto- 
rals whitish, with small round spots. Grayish white beneath. Skin granulated throughout 



132 Slorer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 

with more or less distinct grains and tubercles. Head very wide. A rounded knob on the 
forehead ; beneath this is a deep circular cavity ; from within this proceeds a long barbel, 
composed of a bony ray, with a thickened tip. Snout short. 

D. 5. P. 11. V. 5. A. 4. C. 9. Length, 8 inches. 

Labrador, Richardson. New York, Dekay. Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Lophius (Malthe) cubifrons, Square-browed IVIalthus, Rich., Fauna Boreal. Americ, in. p. 103, pi. 96. 
La Mallhee a nez court, Malthea nasuta, Cuv. et Val., xii. p. 452. 
Mallhea nasuta, Short-nosed Malthea, Decay's Report, p. 166. 

3. Malthea notata, Cuv. 

Three or four round black spots on each side of the spine, midway between the eye and 

branchial orifice. Snout, in its proportions, resembling the preceding. 

D. (>). P. (?). V. (?). A. (.'). C. (.'). Length, 3k inches. 

New York, Cuv. 

1 i Malthee a stigmates, Malthea notata, Cuv. et Val., xil p. 453. 
Malthea notata, Dotted Mallhea, Dekay's Report, p. 167. 



GENUS IV. BATRACHUS, Schneider. 
Head depressed, broader than the body. Ventrals jugular, with three rays ; 
the first elongated. First dorsal small ; second low and long. Base of the 
pectorals elongated. Branchial aperture small, with six rays. Subopercle as 
large as the opercle, and both spinous. No suborbital. Teeth on the jaws, 
front of the vomer and palatines. 

1. Batrachus tau, Lin. 

Head and body olive-green, mottled with darker green. Yellowish after death. Pectorals, 
ventrals, and caudal fins, orange, the latter with interrupted bars of brown ; ventrals uni- 
form ; pectorals with two or more concentric bars of deep blackish brown, becoming obsolete 
towards the base. Dorsals connected ; the first with three, the posterior with from twenty- 
five to twenty-eight spines. Three spines upon operculum. 

D.3-25. P. 10. V. 3. A. 21. C. 14. Length, 1 foot. 

Maine, Massachusetts, Storer. New York, Mitchill,, Cuv., Dekay. Gulf of Mex- 
ico, Cuv. 

Called " Sapo," at Havana- 

Gadus tau, Lin., Syst. Nat. (12th edit.), p. 440. 

" " Bloch, ll. p. 150, pi. 67, fig. 2and3. 

" " Toad Gadus, Shaw's Gen. Zool., iv. p. 159. 
Lophius bufo, Toad-fish, Mitchill, Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. of N. Y., I. p. 463. 
Batrachoides variegatus, var. a. b., Lesueur, Journ. Acad, Nat. Sc., m. pp. 399, 401. 
Batrachus variegatus, Toad-fish, Stoker's Report, p. 74. 
Le Batrachoide tau, Batrachus tau, Cuv. et Val., xii. p. 478. 
Batrachus tau, Common Toad -fish, Dekay's Report, p. 163, pi. 23, fig. S6. 



Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 133 

2. Batrachus variegatus, Lesueur. 

Second dorsal distinct and with twenty-one rays. Laciniated processes on the jaws, 

eyes, and opercles. 

D. (?)• P. (?). V. (?). A. (?)■ C. (•). Length, 54 inches. 

New Jersey, Lesueur. 

Batrachoiiles variegatus, Lesueur, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc., in. p. 398. 
Le BatrachoYde vari'i, Batrachus variegatus, Cuv. et Val., XII. p. 1" !. 
Batrachus variegatus, Dekay's Report, p. 171. 

3. Batrachus celatus, Dekay. 

Head dark olive-brown. Body, on the side, greenish, pale-colored, with irregular dusky- 
brown transverse bars, which are frequently extended through the vertical fins. Dorsal fins 
separate. Opercle with two spines. 

D. 3-28. P. 18. V. 3. A. 23. C. 15. Length, 1 inch. 

New York, Dekay. 

Batrachus celatus, Two-spined Toad-fish, Dekay's Report, p. 170, pi. 50, fig. 161. 

Dr. Dekay, whose species this is, says, in his description of the preceding species, that he 
is doubtful whether that and this are not identical. 



FAMILY XIV. LABRIDiE. 

Body oblong and scaly ; a single dorsal is supported in front by spines, 
each of which is generally furnished with a membranous appendage ; the jaws 
are covered with fleshy lips ; there are three pharyngeals, two upper ones at- 
tached to the cranium, and a large lower one, all three armed with teeth, 
sometimes en pave, sometimes in points or lamina?, but generally stronger than 
usual ; an intestinal canal without cceca, or with two very small ones, and 
a strong natatory bladder. 

GENUS I. COSSVPHUS, Val. 

Maxillaries large ; back of the external row of pointed teeth, there are 
some small, compact granulations. Opercles generally more scaly than in the 
genus Labrus. The vertical fins are covered at their base by scales, which are 
raised or depressed with the rays, and which conceal the rays when they are 
closed. But they do not form a deep groove, similar to that of the Perches. 
In most species, deep denticulations upon preopercle. 






134 Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North .America. 

1. Cossyphus Bodianus, Cuv. 

Purple, sometimes orange-red upon the back ; beneath gray ; sides and fins citron-yellow. 
A black spot upon the dorsal and the extremity of the anal. Scales large, finely carved ; 
thirty-four in a horizontal line between the branchi:e and tail. Four conical teeth at the ex- 
tremity of each jaw ; the two middle are straight and directed forward ; the other teeth are 
small and like tubercles, even to the angle of the jaw, where there are two others long and 
prominent, the last stoutest. 

D. 13-9. P. 16. V. 1-5. A. 3-12. C. 15. Length, 14 inches. 

Gulf of Mexico, Parra. Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Perro Colorado, Parra, p. -1, pi. 3, fig. 1. 

Lutjanus verres, Bloch, 235 ? 

Labrus fulvus, Catesby's Hist. Carol., xi. fig. [ 7 

" " Lin , Syst. Nat. (12th edit.). 

I.e Cossyphe Bodian, Cossyphus Bodianus, Cuv. et Val., xiii. p. 103. 



GENUS II. CTENOLABRUS, Val. 
Body elongated, scaly. Preopercle denticulated. A band of velvet-like 
teeth in front ; behind, the conical teeth, in the jaws. Three spinous rays to the 
anal fin. 

1. Ctenolabrus ceruleus, Mitchill. 

Color very variable, generally bluish ; sometimes, however, of a uniform brown or rust- 
color ; while the ground of others is greenish, with copper-colored spots, or red, with black 
points or dots sprinkled over their entire surface, including oftentimes the fins. 

D. 18-11. P. 15. V. 6. A. 12. C. 16. Length, 6 to 12 inches. 

Newfoundland, Cuv. Maine, Massachusetts, Storer. Connecticut, Ayres. New 

York, Mitchill, Cuv., Dekay. 

Tautoga cerulea, Blue-fish or Bergall, Mitchill, Report in part, p. 24. 

Labrus chogset, Bergall of New York, Mitchill, Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. of N. Y., I. p. -102, pi. 3, fig. 

Crenilabrus burgall, Schoeppf., Griffith's Cuv., x. p. 253. 

" " Conner, Blue Perch, Chogset, Storer's Report, p. 73. 

" " " " Ayres, Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist., Iv. p. 263. 

Le Ctenolabre chogset, Ctenolabrus chogset, Cuv. et Val., xiii. p. 237. 
Ctenolabrus ceruleus, Dekay's Report, p. 172, pi. 29, fig. 93. 
Le Ctenolabre mouchS, Ctenolabrus uninotatus, Cuv. et Val., xiii. p. 239. 
Ctenolabrus uninotatus, Spotted Bergall, Dekay's Report, p. 174, pi. 29, fig. 90. 



GENUS III. ACANTHOLABRUS, Val. 
The external row of teeth conical and stout ; the posterior are small, form- 
ing a narrow band. Numerous spinous rays to the anal fin. 



Storefs Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 135 

1. Acantholabrus exoletus, Yal. 

Uniform brilliant blue, or with blue lines upon the body. Nineteen spinous rays to the 
dorsal fin. Five spines to the anal fin. 

D. 19-8. P. 13. V. 1-5. A. 5-8. C. 13. Length, (?). 

Greenland, Faericius. 

Called " Keblernak," in Greenland. 

Labrus exoletus, Lin., Syst. Nat. 

" " Fabric-its, Fauna Groenlandica, p. 166. 

L'Acantholabre du Nord, Acantholabrus exoletus, Cvv. el Vai.., xiii. p. 247. 



GENUS IV. CLEPTICUS, Cuv. 

Mouth small, protractile, received under the arch of the suborbital's ; a small 
number of scarcely visible teeth in a single row ; the pharyngeal teeth forming, 
by their union, small plates, serrated at their edge ; the vertical fins covered 
throughout their greater portion with scales similar to those upon the rest of the 
uody. Preopercle denticulated. Lateral line continuous. 

1. Clepticus genizara, Parra. 

Head obscure carmine ; back brighter, passing to rose ; sides orange ; pectorals black. 
Scales upon the operculum large; upon preoperculum small. Portion of head between the 
nostrils and snout destitute of scales. Posterior portion of the dorsal and anal fins pointed. 
Caudal lunated. 

D. 14-8. P. 18. V. 1-5. A. 5-10. C. 19. Length, 10 inches. 

Gulf of Mexico, Parra. Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Rabirrubia genizara, Parra, p. 44. pi. 21, fig. 1 
Clepticus genizara, Griffith's Cov.,1, p. 259. 
Le Cleplique Creole. Clepticus genizara, Cuv. ft Val., xirr, p. 267, pi. 37". 



GENUS V. LACHNOLAIMUS, Cuv. 

The general character of a true Labrus, but the pharyngeals have no teeth 
en paves, except at their posterior part ; the remainder of their extent, as well 
as a part of the palate, covered with a villous memhrane. Their first spinous 
rays are continued into long flexible filaments. Lateral line parallel to the 
back, continuous. The anterior teeth strong, projecting forwards ; behind 
them a series of small, equal teeth. 



136 Stover's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 

1 . Lachnolaimus aigula, Cuv. 

Purple-brown, with a round deep-brown spot at the posterior base of the dorsal fin. When 
alive, according to Plee, the back is red ; the sides red, clouded with white ; the lower jaw- 
white ; small, oblique blue lines upon the temples and cheeks ; the long, spinous rays of the 
dorsal are very red, and the spot at the posterior angle of this fin deep black. The first three 
dorsal rays nearly half the length of the body ; the fourth is only one third as long as these ; 
the remaining spinous rays are one half as long as the latter. Three short, stout spines to 
the anal fin ; the third and fourth membranous rays of the anal most projecting. The ex- 
ternal rays of the caudal are prolonged into sharp points. 

D. 15-11. P- 15. V. 1-5. A. 3-10. CM. Length, 11 inches. 

Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Called "Aigrette," at St. Bartholomew. 

Le Lachnoleme aigrette, Lachnolaimus aigula, Cuv. et Val., xin. p. 277, pi. 378. 

2. Lachnolaimus dux, Cuv. 

When recent, red, with yellow fins. The fourth dorsal ray only one third shorter than the 
third ray. In spirit, of an aurora color, with a black spot at the dorsal, blackish tints upon 
the border of the anal, and a triple series of blackish points upon the membrane of the caudal. 

D. (?). P. (?)• V. (?). A. ( : )- C (?). Length, 8 inches. 

Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Called " Capitaine," at St. Bartholomew. 

Le Lachnoleme capitaine, Lachnolaimus dux, Cuv. et Val., xiii. p. 285. 

3. Lachnolaimus suillus, Cuv. 

Edge of scales red, their base yellow ; top of head purple ; sides of the lower jaw of a 
bright blood-red color; scales of the cheeks of a bright blue upon an orange ground, covered 
with small red, undulating lines. The spinous portion of the dorsal brown ; their long 
points red or orange, with brownish filaments ; the second dorsal margined anteriorly with 
deep gray, red above ; pectorals yellow ; ventrals black at their extremities, and yellow- 
spotted with red at their base ; caudal half-black, the crescent yellow ; its extremities black. 
The dorsal has three elongated rays ; the fourth is as short as the ten succeeding. The an- 
gles of the caudal elongated into narrow, sharp points. The anterior teeth very strong, ex- 
cept the intermediate ones below- Besides the row of small teeth on each side, there are 
upon the internal faces of each jaw two or three rows of irregular, still smaller teeth. 

D. (?). P. (?)■ V. (?). A. (?). C. (.')• Length, 3 to 4 feet. 

Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Called " Hog-fish," at St. Thomas. 

Suillus, Great Hog-fish, Catesby's Hist. Carol., n. p. 15, pi. 15. 

Le Lachnoleme a grouin tie cochon, Lachnolaimus suillus, Cuv. et Val., xiii. p. 2S6. 



Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of Worth America. 137 

4. Lachnolaimus caninus, Cuv. 

Uniform red, without spots upon the sides, or brown upon the dorsal, or purple upon 
the neck. The three elongated dorsal spines reaching to the spot at the base of the fin. 
The fourth ray a short spine. In the middle of the upper jaw four very strong, conical, 
pointed teeth ; in the lower, four stouter, the two exterior projecting beyond the others. A 
single row of teeth along the jaws. 

D. (?). P. (.')• V. (?). A. (?) C (?) Length, 10 to 22 inches. 

Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Perro, Parra, p. 1, pi. 3, fig. 2. 

Le Lachnoleme petit chien, Lachnolaimus caninus, Cuv. el Val. , xiii. p. 233. 

5. Lachnolaimus psittacus, Cuv. 

Rose-red ; besides the black spot at the angle of the dorsal, another smaller one at the 
corresponding angle of the anal fin, which disappears after death. 
D. (?). P. (.'). V. (?)• A. (=)• C. (?). Length, (?). 
Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 
Called " Cotorra," at Porto Rico. 

Le Lachnoleme perroquet, Lachnulaimus psittacus, Cuv. el Val., xiii. p. 291. 



GENUS VI. TAUTOGA, Mitch. 

Jaws with a double row of teeth. Opercle and preopercle without spines 
or denticulations, and with few or no scales. 

1. Tautoga Americana, Bloch. 

Bluish black above, diversified with bands and blotches, mottled with darker spots towards 
the abdomen, which is whitish. Fleshy rays of dorsal fin considerably higher than the spi- 
nous portion. Small, floating, fleshy tentacular attached to extremities of spinous rays of 
dorsal. 

D. 17-11. P. 15. V. 1-5. A. 3-8. C. 15. Length, 6 to 18 inches. 

Maine, Massachusetts, Storer. Connecticut, Ayres. New York, Mitchili., Cuv., 

Dekay. South Carolina (introduced), Dekay. 

Labrus Americanus, Bloch, Schn., p. 261 7 

Tauloga niger, Mitciiill, Report in part, p. 23. 

Labrus tauloga, Black-fish or Tautog, Mitciiill, Trans. Lit. and Phil Soc. "1 N. V . i. p. 399. 

Labrus Americanus, Black-fish or Tautog, Stoker's Report, p. 7G. 

Ayres, Boat. Journ. Nat. Hisl., |v. 2G3. 
Le Tautogue noir (Tautoga nigra, Mitch.), Cuv. ct Val., xiii. p. 293. 
Tautoga Americana, New York Tautog, Dbkay's Report, p. 175, pi. 14, fig. 39. 

61 



138 Stover's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 

GENUS VII. MALACANTHUS, Cuv. 

Body elongated, but little compressed ; scales small ; the anal almost as 
long as the dorsal ; the other fins moderate ; head oblong ; the forehead 
slightly convex ; eyes moderate, and situated far back ; the mouth quite 
cloven ; lips fleshy. In each jaw a single row of teeth, among which some 
are stout and curved ; pharyngeal teeth like those of a card ; a strong spine 
at the angle of the operculum. 

I. Malacanthus Plumieri, Cuv. 

Variegated with yellow and lilac, or bluish. Before the eyes and upon the temple, the 
yellow and lilac are disposed in longitudinal lines. Yellow marblings upon a lilac ground on 
the operculum- The dorsal is of a reddish lilac, with three longitudinal series of yellow 
spots. Caudal yellow, its posterior edge bluish and transparent, and tinged with blue at 
its upper and lower edges. The upper and lower rays of the caudal elongated into slender 
points, as long again as the rest of the fin. Six strong, pointed teeth in the front of the upper 
jaw, with two small intermediate ones ; behind these, on each side, a row of fifteen small, con- 
ical, and pointed ones, and at the angle a stout one directed slightly forwards. In the lower 
jaw, in front, six and two small ones ; and then, on each side, five curved, pointed, compressed, 
increasing to the fifth ; the sixth is one half as large, and after it are ten or twelve, very fine, 
and a stouter one at the angle, slightly directed forwards, less than the corresponding one in 
the upper jaw. 

D.G-55. P. 16. V. 1-5. A. 1-50. C. 17. Length, 15 to 18 inches. 

Gulf of Mexico, Parra. Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Matajuelo bianco. Parka, p. 22 pi. 13, fig. 1. 
Coryphana Plumieri, Lin., Syst Nat., Gmel., p. 1191. 

" " Bloch, 175? 

" " Plumier's Curypliene, Shaw's Gen. Zool., rv. p. 215. 

Malacaiilhus Plumieri, Griffith's Cuv., x. p. 263. 
I.e Malacanthe de Plumier (Malacanthua Plumieri, Cuv., Spams oblongus, Ei. , Schn.}, Cuv. et Val., xm. 

p. 319, pi. 380. 

GEiNUS VIII. JULIS, Cuv. 

Head smooth ; cheeks and gill-covers without scales ; the lateral line bent 
suddenly downwards when opposite the end of the dorsal fin ; in other re- 
spects the generic characters are similar to those of the genus Labrus. 

1. Julis psittaculus, Cuv. 

Brown, more or less red upon the back, lighter beneath ; two longitudinal, parallel violet or 
lilac bands upon the sides. The upper band arises at the angle of the operculum ; the lower 



Slorer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 139 

at the suboperculum, and passes beneatli the pectoral. A violet band passes from the eye 
over the occiput, and unites with that of the opposite side, forming an angle upon the top of 
the head. From the top of this angle, a wide, short bone descends vertically, which anas- 
tomoses with another horizontal line, passing from the eye to the angle of the opercle. A 
transverse bridle passes beneath the lower jaw, and is prolonged in a lighter band, which di- 
vides the preopercle and extends to the opercle. Scales large ; twenty-four in a longitudinal 
line between branchiae and tail. 

D. 9-11. P. (?)• V. (.'). A. 3-12. C. (?)• Length, C inches. 

Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

• 'ailed "Patate," at Martinique. 

La GireUe perruche (Julis psittaculus, Cuv., Labrus psittacu - et Val., xm. p. 387. 

2. .Tulis Garnoii, Cuv. 

Body blue or greenish, bright red along the back ; the spinous portion of the dorsal black- 
ish blue; the soft portion gray, with red spots ; the anal of a tint approaching to the 1' 
wine, with deep blue spots between each ray, near the body; caudal rounded and grayish, 
rayed transversely with ten alternately narrow and wide rays ; pectorals bluish ; ventrals 
greenish. 

D. 9-11. P. (?). V. (?). A. 3-11. C. ( : ). Length, 6 inches. 

Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

La Girdle ile Garnot, Julia Garnoii, Cuv. el Val., xin. p. 390. 

3. Julis cyanostigma, Cuv. 
Head clouded with blue or violet and red. Seven or eight longitudinal rows of azure s 
upon the sides ; three large black spots at the base of the dorsal ; one upon the first simple 
rays ; one at the termination of the fin ; the central one includes the first four soft rays. A 
violet ray along the middle of the base of the anal. The caudal and the dorsal have 
traces of violet spots. 
D. (?). P. (?). V. (?). A. (?). C. (?). Length, 6 inches. 
Caribbean Sea, Ci:v. 

La Girelle aux laches bleuei, Ju!i:.- cyanostigma, i'i v el Val., xm. p. 391. 

4. Julis opalina, Cuv. 

The color of this species is a mixture of blue, green, yellow, orange, and red, which gives 
it an opaline or iridescent tint. The blue is disposed in lour well marked lines upon the 
belly. Head blue or llesh-color, with deeper blue rays. Dorsal blue. Anal with two 
violet-colored rays upon a deeper ground ; caudal blue, with violet bands, which are vertical 
or longitudinal. 



liO Storeys Synopsis of the Fishes of North America, 

D.9-11. P. 12. V. 1-5. A. 3-12. C. 15. Length, 15 inches. 
Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

La Girelle opaline, Julis opalina, Cuv. et Val., XIII. p. 392. 

5. Julis crotaphus, Cuv. 

Green, brownish upon the back ; a well marked green spot at the top of the operculum ; 
head rayed with red ; an oblique band crosses the top of the opercle, descends upon the an- 
terior portion of the pectoral, and terminates upon the belly, a little back of the inser- 
tion of the ventrals ; dorsal red ; caudal green, with three red bands. Small, distant pores 
upon suborbitars. 

D.9-11. P. 12. V. 1-5. A. 3-12. C. 13. Length, 7 inches. 

Gulf of Mexico, Cuv. 

Poncella, Parra, pi. 37. fig. 1. 

La Girelle aux tempes noirei, Julis crotaphus, Cuv. et Vat,., ziii. p. 305. 

6. Julis patatus, Cuv. 

Greenish, tinged with yellow. Large brown spots along the base of the dorsal, mingled 
with yellow. Wide longitudinal bands upon a yellow ground on the body. The top of the 
head green, its sides yellow, sprinkled with spots or small lines of a beautiful ultramarine blue 
color. Similarly colored rays upon the caudal, dorsal, and anal fins. Pectorals and ven- 
trals bluish. Eyes small. Two canines in upper jaw, followed by a series of small, conical 
teeth, and at the angle of the mouth are two projecting hooks. Four canines in lower jaw. 
Two or three rows of rounded tubercles back of the conical teeth in both jaws. 

D.9-11. P. 14. V. 1-5. A. 3-12. C. 13. Length, 15 inches. 

Gulf of Mexico, Cuv. 

Called " Doncella," at Havana. 

LaGirelle patate, Julis patalus, Cuv. el Val., xiii. p. 39S. 

7. Julis Principis, Cuv. 

Covered with a violet-colored network. Three violet rays upon the neck ; large violet 
rays upon operculum. Dorsal and caudal also rayed with violet. Two violet rays upon anal. 
Twenty-five longitudinal rows of strongly striated scales upon sides. 

D.9-11. P. (.')■ V. (?). A. 3-12. C. (?). Length, 11 inches. 

Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

La Girelle du Prince, Julis Principis, Cuv. et Val., xiii. p. 402. 

8. Julis dimitliatus, Agass. 
Of a deep rose-color upon the back and along the sides. A broad violet band extends from 
the snout to the caudal. Dorsal rose-colored along its edge to the fifth spine ; the rest is 



Stover's Synopsis of the Fishes of North .America. 141 

violet. Anal violet, margined with rose; upper lobe of caudal blue, lower, rose ; pectorals 
blue, yellow at their base ; ventrals rose-colored. The middle canines are strong and curved ; 
three rows of granulated teeth back of the conical ones, upon the external edge. 

D. 9-13. P. 12. V. 1-5. A. 3-13. C. 12. Length, 1 foot. 

Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

La Girelle parlagde (Julis dimidialus, Agass.), Cuv. el Yal., mi. p. -107. 

9. Jtilis detersor, Cuv. 

Head and breast of a beautiful violet, almost black ; the rest of the body a brilliant green. 
The anterior portion of the dorsal, the extremity of the pectorals, and the forks of the cau- 
dal, violet ; the rest of the body and anal green ; the middle of lunation of the tail grav. 
The spinous portion of the dorsal is low, and covered with scales. 

D. 8-13. P. (?). V. (?). A. 3-11. C. (?)• Length, 7 inches. 

Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Called " Degraisseur," at Martinique. 

La Girdle degraisseur, Julis detersor, Cry. et Yal , xill. p. 40S. 

GENUS IX. XIRICHTHYS, Cuv. 

Body compressed, head' trenchant. Head higher than long, truncated in 
front. A single long, uniform dorsal. Teeth in a single row in the jaws ; 
the anterior longest. Tongue and palate smooth ; pharyngeals tessellated. 

1. Xirichlhys Martinicensis, Civ. 

Fawn-colored, with violet tints upon the head and anterior portion of the dorsal. 
D.9-12. P. 11. V. 1-5. A. 3 -12. C. 13. Length, 8 inches. 
Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 
Called " Patate," at Martinique. 

Le Rason de la Martinique, Xiriehthys Martinicensis, Cuv. et Yal., xiv p 19 

2. Xirichthys lineatus, Cuv. 
A milk-white spot on the sides, from which descend alternately pale and deep red lines. 
Cheeks with bluish lines- Fins red. 

D. 4-17. P. 11. V. 1-5. A. 3- 12. C. 13. Length, 5 or 6 inches. 
South Carolina, Lin. Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Coryphtena lineatus, LiN.,Sy9t. Nat., Gmbx,., p. 1195. 

'• Sh w\ ' Gen. Zool., iv. p. 224, 
Le Rason rayc, Xirichthy* lineatus, Cuv el V.u. , xiv. p. 50. 
Xirichlhys lineatus, Dekav's Report, p. 1". 



142 Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 

3. Xirichthys vitta, Cuv. 

No lines nor spots upon the body or fins. Fawn-colored, with a pale longitudinal band 
passing through the middle of the body, from the angle of the operculum to the caudal fin. 
D. 9-12. P. 11. V. 1-5. A. 3-12. C. 13. Length, 6 inches. 
Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Le Kason bandelette, Xirichthys vitta, Cuv. et Val., xiv. p. 51. 



GENUS X. SCARUS, Lin. 

Jaws convex, rounded, and furnished with teeth arranged like scales upon 
their edge and upon their anterior surface ; during life, the jaws are covered 
by fleshy lips, but there is no double one adhering to the suborbital. They 
have the oblong form of a Labrus, large scales, and an interrupted lateral line ; 
three pharyngeal plates, two above and one below, furnished with teeth as in 
the Labrus ; but these teeth are transverse blades, and not rounded like paving- 
stones. 

1. Scams Abildgaardii, Bloch. 

Back of a beautiful blood-red color, sides paler red ; belly a pale rose-color ; the edge of 
the scales brownish, and the operculum edged with black. Scales large, hexagonal, almost 
smooth ; stria? scarcely visible. There is no trunk to the venations of the lateral line, and 
they divide, from the base, into six or seven branches, which give off branches and extend 
over almost the whole scale. 

D. (?). P. (?). V. (?). A. (?). C. (?)■ Length, 154 inches. 

Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Called "Red-fish," at St. Thomas. 

Sparus Abildgaardii, Blocii, pi. 2o9. 

Vleja, Pahra, p. 53, pi. "23. fig. 2. 

Sparus Abildgaardii, Abildgaard's Spams, Shaw's Gen. Zobl., iv. p. 412. 

Le Scare rouge, Scarus Abildgaardii, Cuv. et Val., xiv. p. 175. 

2. Scarus guacamaia, Parra. 

Bluish green beneath the pectorals, along the sides, and upon the whole posterior portion; 
head, anterior and upper part of the back, and the belly, yellowish gray ; base of the jaws 
of a verdigris-green color ; dorsal and anal fins brown, with green spots along their base ; 
the caudal with green rays in its middle, upon a yellowish gray ground ; pectorals and ven- 
trals with green tints. Dorsal spines not very stout. Caudal, when extended, has a slight 
point at its centre, but its extremities project much beyond this. Scales with granular stria;. 



Storefs Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 143 

A long- trunk to the venations of the lateral line, which is slightly raised, and terminating 
in a small bouquet of short, irregular branches. 

D. (?). P. (.'). V. (>). A. (?). C (?). Length, 2 to 3 feet. 

Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Called " Cacabelly," and " Great Parrot-fish," at St. Thomas. 

Guacamaia, Parra, p. 54, pi. 26. 

Le Guacamaia, ou grand Scare a niachoiiv- bti ui Scarus guacamaia, Cuv. et Val., xiv. p. 178. 

3. Scarus coelestinus, Cuv. 

Blue ; the lower jaw nearly all green ; the upper green near the edges. The extremities 
of the caudal fin not half the length of the rest of the fin. Scales granulated like the pre- 
ceding, but the bouquets produced by the arbuscules of the lateral line more elongated. 

D. (?). P. (?). V. (?). A. (?). C. (?). Length, 21 inches. 

Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Le Moyim et le petit Scare a roai : inus, Cuv. et Val., xiv. p 

4. Scarus turchesius, Cuv. 

Deep green ; belly rose-colored ; the extremities of the dorsal and anal rays blue. Jaws 
turquoise-blue. Scales slightly striated. The arbuscules of the lateral line have a trunk ter- 
minated by three or four small branches, one or two of which are forked. 

D. (.»). P. (?)■ V. (?). A. (?). C. (?). Length, 13 inches. 

Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Called "Cotorra," at Porto Rico. 

Le Scare cotorra, Scarus turchesius, Cuv. et Val., xiv. p. 181. 

5. Scarus Catesbsei, Lacep. 

Body and caudal green, with a red band upon this fin parallel to its margin ; dorsal red- 
dish ; anal red, margined with green ; ventrals red, edged with blue ; pectorals violet, upper 
edge blue ; head deep gray, tinged with violet, with purple at the edges of the opercle and 
preopercle ; a yellow spot upon the suprascapular scale ; a purple band upon the temples ; 
a yellow spot upon the side of the tail. 

D. (?). P. (?). V. (?). A. (?). C. (?). Length, (?). 

Hispaniula, Cuba, and the Bahama Islands, Catesbv. 

Paittacus piscis-vi > nsis, Parrot-fish, Catesby's Hist. Carol., it. pi. 29. 

Le Scare Cale C I nv. p. 183 

G. Scarus cltrysopterus, Blocii. 

Greenish blue ; dorsal and irides red. Scales large, slria; scarcely perceptible. The ar- 
buscules of the lateral line consistof a short trunk and six or seven branches, which bear still 






M4 Storefs Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 

smaller ones extending over almost the entire scale. When the fish is dry, it is of a green 
color, changing to blue ; fins yellow ; a wide green band upon the upper and lower edge 
of the caudal ; the outer edge of the ventrals green, with a brown or bluish spot above, at 
the base of the pectorals. 

D. (.')• P. (•')■ v - (•')• A. (?). C. (?)• Length, 1 foot to 14 inches. 

Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Called " Snoper," at St. Thomas. 

Scarus chrysopterus, Bloch, p. 2S6, No. 5 ? 

Le Scare i nageoires dorees (Scarus chrysopterus, Bl ), Cm. et Val., xiv. p. 185. 

7. Scarus cceruleus, Cuv. 

When dry, the whole body appears green or greenish gray. The scales and fins margined 
with brighter green. Forehead prominent. The points of the caudal fin more than one 
third of its whole length. Scales with a dead surface, smooth at their edges ; the puncta- 
tions scarcely seen without the lens. The arhuscules of the lateral line have a simple trunk, 
and three or four unequal, tortuous branches, which do not extend to the sides of the scales. 

D. (?)• P. (?)• V. (?). A. (?)■ C. (?)■ Length, 16 to 20 inches. 

Gulf of Mexico, Parra. Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Called "Bleu Serin," or " Peau bleue," at St. Thomas. 

Trompa, Parka, p. 57, pi. 27, fig. 2. 

Mormyrus ex cinereo nigricans, Bone-fish, Catesby's Hist. Carol., n. pi. 13. 

Le Scare a front bombe, ou le Scare bleu, Scarus ctEruleus, Cuv. et A r AL., xiv. p. 1S6. 

8. Scarus aurofrenatus, Cuv. 

Crimson, tinged with brown upon the back, mingled with green towards the belly. Chest 
greenish, an orange band passes from the angle of the mouth beneath the eye, backwards, and 
a small one upon the temple parallel to it. The dorsal is orange, grayish anteriorly ; anal 
red, edged with violet, and violet at its base. Caudal red, with a broad white edge, and ex- 
tremities black. Pectorals pale orange, first ray violet or blackish ; ventrals light red, irides 
rose-colored. Scales very feebly striated ; the aibuscules of the lateral line, with five or six 
slightly ramified branches, occupying all the exposed part of the scale. Back of the head 
one and one third longer than high ; two spines at the angle of upper jaw. Caudal crescent- 
shaped. 

D. 10-9. P. (?)■ V. (;). A. (?). C. (?). Length, 10 inches. 

Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Le Scare brid6 d'or, Scarus aurofrenatus, Cuv. et Val., xiv. p. 191. 

9. Scarus quadrispinosus, Cuv. 
When preserved, olive-brown ; lighter upon the sides and beneath the belly. The inferior 
fins tinged with yellow ; no lines nor bands upon the head or fins. Four sharp points 



Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 145 

placed longitudinally upon each side of the upper jaw. Scales feebly striated; the trunks of 
the venations of the lateral line nearly undivided. 

D. ( : ). P. (?). V. (>.). A- (.')• C (.»)• Length, 13 inches. 

Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Called " Cacabari," at St. Thomas. 

Le Scare 4 quatre pointe , Scarus quadrispinoaus, Cuv. et Val, xiv. p. 197. 

10. Scarus vetula, Bloch. 

Back olive-green ; a wide yellow band arises at the shoulder, and extends upon the side 
to the middle of the body ; belly greenish ; a bright green surrounds the lips, forming two 
bands, which pass from the snout towards the eye, and are continued upon the temple, and 
also upon the trunk above the yellow band. The dorsal has a longitudinal yellow band be- 
tween two bands of a bright green. Caudal bright green, with a yellow band above and 
below. Pectorals and ventrals yellow. Scales smooth to the touch ; under the glass they 
appear finely striated and granulated. The arbuscules of the lateral line aro divided into two 
or three small, short tufts. 

D. (?). P. (?)• y. (?)• A. (?). C. (?). Length, 9 or 10 inches. 

Gulf of Mexico, Parra. Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Vieja, Parra, p. 53, pi. 23, fig. 1. 
Scarus vetula, Bloch, p. 289, No. 1. 
Le Scare a raies vertes, Scarus vetula, Bl., Cuv. et Val., xiv. p. l: 3. 

11. Scarus punctulatus, Cuv. 
The middle of the vertical fins yellowish, dotted with green ; the edges of the caudal 
green. Two points on each side of the upper jaw. 

D. (?). P. (?). V. (?). A. (?). C. (?). Length, 6 inches. 
Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Le Scare pointille, Scarus punctulatua, Cuv. et Vat,., xiv. p. 195. 

12. Scarus tamiopterus, Desmarest. 

Brown, tinged with olive ; no green lines upon the head, nor yellow nor orange margins 
to the tail. An opaque, yellowish-gray band at the base of the dorsal and anal, and a nar- 
row brown line upon their margin. 

D. (?) P. (?)• V. (?)• A. (?)• C. (?)■ Length, 10 inches. 

Gulf of Mexico, Cuv. 

I.c Scare a bandeleucs (Scarus lasniopterus, Desmarest), Cuv. el Val., iiv. p. 195. 

13. Scarus diadema, Cuv. 
Greenish gray ; a yellow band across the forehead, and continued back to the top of the 

62 



146 Stover's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 

temples; a second parallel band beneath this- A line at the base, and upon the edge of the 
dorsal ; round and oval violet spots between these two lines. A row of spots, also, between 
two lines upon the anal. The arbuseules of the lateral line very slightly divided. 

D. (?). P. (.'). V. (>). A. (?). C. (.')■ Length, 6 inches. 

Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Called " Perroquet," at Martinique. 

Le Scare diademe, Scarus diaderna, Cuv. et Val., xiv. p. 193. 

14. Scarus alternans, Cuv. 

Silvery ; head rose-colored, with three brighter-colored, wide bands. All the fins yellow. 
Scales finely striated and dotted. The arbuseules of the lateral line are simple trunks, hav- 
ing two or three very short branches along the trunk. 

D. (?)■ P. (?). V. (?). A. (?). C. (?). Length, 7 to 8 inches. 

Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Called " Perroquet," at Martinique. 

Le Scare a raies rouges et blanche.?, Scarus alternans, Cuv. et Val., xiv. p. '200. 

15. Scarus rubripinnis, Cuv. 

Olive-green, brownish towards the back, mingled with rose-color upon the breast and 
belly ; ventrals and anal red ; dorsal olive-gray, the rays with brownish spots ; caudal ash- 
colored, marbled towards the base with deeper ash-brown ; pectorals tinged with olive. 
Scales large and almost entire. Each arbuscule of the lateral line has four or five branches, 
which extend in irregular rays upon the scale. 

D. 9-10. P. (?). V. (?). A. 1 - 10. C. (?). Length, 10 inches. 

Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Le Scare a ventrale et anale rouges, Scarus rubripinnis, Cuv. et Val., xiv. p. 199. 

16. Scarus (davc-marginatus, Cuv. 

Yellowish green, with neither lines nor bands upon the body or head. Dorsal is spotted 
with violet, with a yellow line near the edge, and another along the base. Anal similar; no 
spots upon the caudal. 

D. (.'). P. (?). V. (?). A. (?). C. (?). Weight, 2 or 3 pounds. 

Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Le Scare raye de jaune, Scarus flavo marginatus, Cuv. et Val., xiv. p. 202. 

17. Scarus virens, Cuv. 

Pale green, with reddish ventrals and caudal. When dried, greenish gray, with brownish 
tints ; pectorals and ventrals yellowish. Small brownish spots upon the caudal, forming ir- 



Slorer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North .America. 1 47 

regular bands. The arbuscules of the lateral line composed of one short and concealed 
trunk, with three or four long and straight branches. 

D. (.')• P. (?)■ V. (?). A. (!)■ C. (?). Length, (?). 

Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Called " Cotorra," at Porto Rico. 

Vieja, Parra, p. 58, pi. 2?, fig. 3. 

Le Scare veri d'eau, Scania virens, Cuv. et Vat.., mv , 

18. Scarus radians, Cuv. 

Greenish brown, or deep blue, with deeper reflected lines along the rows of scales. The 
arbuscules of the lateral line have concealed trunks, and three very slightly ramified branches 
which spread over almost all the scale. Four teeth on each side, occupying the whole cir- 
cumference of the upper jaw, are directed horizontally and divergent. 

D. (?). P. (?). V. (?). A. (?)■ C. ('.). Length, (?). 

Mexico, Cuv. 

Le & are a machoire rayonnee, Scarus radians, Gov. et Val ., jciv. p. 206. 

GENUS XI. CALLYODON, Gronov. 

Anterior teeth in several imbricated rows ; the lateral teeth of the upper 

jaw separate and pointed, and upon each side of this jaw an inner row of much 

smaller teeth. 

I. Callyodon flavescens, Cuv. 

Yellow, with flesh-colored spots; fins rose-colored, with a black spot at the base of the 
pectorals. 

D. (?). P. (.')• V. (?). A. (>). C. (?)• Length, (?). 
Gulf of Mexico, Parra. 

Vieja, Parra, p. 5S, pi. 28, fig. 4. 

Le Callyodon jaunatre, Callyodon flavescens, Cuv. et Val., xiv. p. 2S9. 

2. Callyodon auro-punctatus, Cuv. 

Greenish. The three vertical fins are sprinkled with small aurora-colored spots, which 
unite in oblique and irregular bands.' Spots of the same color upon the lower jaw. An 
aurora-colored line passes from the angle of the mouth to the eye, and another extends upon 
the cheek and towards the temple, where there is still another. Scales nearly smooth ; their 
arbuscules have one principal branch; and four or five lateral branches, which are also but 
little ramified. 

D. (?). P. (?)• V. (?). A. (?)■ C. (?). Length, inches. 

Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Le Callyodon a points dores, Callyodon auro-punctatus, Cuv. el Vat.,, xiv 



148 Slorefs Synopsis of the Fishes of North .America. 
ORDER II. MALACOPTERYGII. SOFT RAYED. 

All the fin rays soft and cartilaginous, with the exception sometimes of the 
first in the dorsal and the first in the pectoral fins. These rays are of an ar- 
ticulated structure, and generally more or less branched at their extremities. 

ABDOMINALES. 

The ventrals behind the pectorals, and not attached to the humeral bone. 

FAMILY XV. SILURLBvE. 

Skin naked, and covered with a mucous secretion. In some genera, the 
body is nearly covered by osseous plates. Head depressed, and generally en- 
larged, with several fleshy filaments. A second adipose dorsal often present. 
The intermaxillaries, suspended under the ethmoid bone, form the edge of the 
upper jaw. First ray of the dorsal and pectoral fins usually a strong, articu- 
lated spine, with a complicated movement. 

GENUS I. BAGRUS, Cuv. 

Behind the intermaxillary band of velvety teeth, another band, sometimes 
velvety and sometimes in a single range. The number of their barbels, and 
the form of their head, serve as characters for subdivision. 

1. Bagrus mesops, Cuv. 

Eye at half the distance hetween the extremity of the snout and the edge of the preoper- 
cle ; the interparietal is only a sixth the length of the head, and its edges diverge. The en- 
tire helmet with compact granulations ; the opercle is granulated near the articulation, and 
has closely crowded veins. Ventrals as long as the pectorals, and their rays singularly 
knotted. The maxillary barbel does not extend beyond the middle of the pectorals. 

D. 1 - 7. P. (?). V. (?). A. 18. C. (?). Length, 16 to 17 inches. 

Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Le Bagre mesops, Bagrus mesops, Cuv. et Val., xiv. p. 456.. 

2. Bagrus proops, Cuv. 

Of a beautiful plumbeous slate-color, beneath white. The eyes three times nearer to the 
tip of the snout than to the edge of the preopercle. The opercular angle granulated, sharp, 



Stover's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 149 

and as long as high ; dorsal and pectoral spines granulated upon their anterior face, dentated 
slightly behind. Jaws equal. The maxillary barbel extends only to the first quarter of the 
pectoral. 

D. 1-7. P. 1-11. V. 0. A. 19. C. 15. Length, Cinches to 2 feet. 
Caribbean Sea, Cuv. 

Le Bagre pruiips, Bagrus probps, Cr/v. el Val., .\iv. p 



GENUS II. GALEICHTHYS, Cuv. 

Head rounded, smooth, unarmed. Dorsal and pectoral fins long ; the first 
ray of each roughened, and ending in filaments. An adipose dorsal. Teeth 
on the jaws and vomer. Branchial rays, six. Mouth wide, with from four to 
six barbels. 

I. Galeichthys marinus, Mitchixl. 

Blue above, tinged with green ; sides silvery ; abdomen opaque white. Maxillary bar- 
bels not extending to the ventrals. Filament of the pectoral fin reaching to, and occasionally 
extending beyond, the ventrals. Caudal lunate, with pointed lips. 

D. 1-6. P. 1-11. V. G. A. 22. C. 17. Length, 6 inches to 2 feet. 

New York, Mitchill, Df.kay. New Orleans, South Carolina, Cuv. Gulf of Mexi- 
co, Parra. 

Bagre, Parra, p. 6 I, pi 31, fig. 1. 

Silurus marinus, Salt-waler Cat-fish, Mitchill, Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. if N. Y., i. p. 433. 

' i ichthe de Parra, Galeichthys Parra, Cnv. et Val., xv 

Galeichthys marinus, Oceanic Cat -fish, Dekav's Report, p. 178, pi. 37, fig. 1 1 



GENUS III. ARIUS, Cuv. 

W ith the general form of the Galeichthys, but the palatine teeth form two 
distinct and distant plates ; rarely any on the vomer. Branchial rays, five or 
six. 

I. Alius Milberti, Cuv. 

Brownish, steel-blue, verging to blackish above ; silvery beneath. Adipose dorsal black- 
ish ; the others gray or brown. Casque granulated all over, and not in radiating stria;. The 
maxillary barbels extend a little beyond the extremity of the operculum. 

D. 1 -7. P. 1 - 10. V. 6. A. 17. C. 15. Length, 5 to V, inches. 

New York, South Carolina, Cuv. 

L'Arius de Milbert, Arius Milberli, Coi el V»r... xv. p. 71. 
Arius Milberli, Milbert'a Arms, Dekay's Report, p. \:j 



150 Stover's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 

GENUS IV. PIMELODUS, Cuv. 
Palate smooth and without teeth. Barbels varying from six to eight. 
Casque occasionally present. 

1. Pimelodus catus, Lin. 

Fuliginous, darker upon the head and back, approaching to black ; lighter upon the sides, 
tinged with cupreous ; white beneath, in front of the ventrals. Upper jaw the longer. 
Caudal nearly even, rounded. The barbels at the angle of the upper jaw the longest. 

D. 1-5. P. 1-8. V. 8. A.21. C. 19. Length, 7 to inches. 

Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Storer. Connecticut, Ayres. New York, 
Mitchill, Cuv., Dekat. Lake Ontario, Lesueur. South Carolina, Cuv. 

Cat-fish, Catesby's Hist. Carol., n. p. 23, pi. 23. 
Silurus catus, Lin., Syst. Nat 

" « Common Freshwater Catfish, Mitchii.l, Trans. Lit. anil Phil. Soc. of N. Y., i. p. 433. 

Pimelodus nebulosus, Lesueur, Memoires du Museum, v. p. 149. 

" " Horned Pont, Storer's Report, p. 102. 

Le Pimelode chat, Pimelodus catus, Cuv. el Val., xv. p. 121. 
Le Pimelode nubuleux, Pimelodus nebulosus, Cuv. et Val., xv. p. 132. 
Pimelodus catus, Common Cat-fish, Dekay's Report, p. 182, pi. 37, fig. 119. 

2. Pimelodus coenosus, Richardson. 

Greenish above, marbled with deeper green ; paler beneath ; fins blackish. Labials end- 
ing in a tapering barbel, which reaches to the gill-opening. Pectoral spine serrated at its 
posterior edge by ten or eleven acute teeth. The outline of the dorsal, anal, and caudal 
rounded. 

B. 9. D. 1-7. P. 1-8. V. 8. A. 24. C. 17&. Length, 10 inches. 

Lake Huron, Richardson. 

Silurus (Pimelodus) ccenosus, Huron Pimelode, Rich., Fauna Boreal. Arneric, HI. p. 132. 
Le Pimelode sali (Pimelodus ccenosus, Rich), Cuv. et Val., xv. p. 129. 
Pimelodus ccenosus, Dekay's Report, p. 186. 

3. Pimelodus borealis, Richardson. 

Dark greenish brown on the back and sides ; on the belly, whitish. Head flat and broad. 
Neither pectoral nor dorsal spine serrated. Dorsal subquadrangular. Caudal has a wide, 
shallow fork, with obtusely rounded lobes. 

D. 1-6. P. 1-6. V. 9. A. 25. C. 17^. Length, 30 inches. 

Northern regions, Richardson. 

Silurus (Pimelodus) borealis, Maeteneg, Rich., Fauna Boreal. Arneric, HI. p. 135. 
Le Pimelode boreal (Pimelodus borealis, Rich.), Cuv. el Val., xv. p. 130. 
Pimelodus borealis, Dekay's Report, p. 1S7. 

4. Pimelodus albidus, Lesueur. 
Whitish ash. Fins red, excepting the adipose fin, which is brown. 



Storeys Synopsis of the Fishes of JVorth America. 15 1 

B.10. D.l-6. P.l-10. V.8. A. 22. CIO. Length, 12 to 15 inches. 
Delaware, Lesueur. 

Pimelodus albidus, Lesueur, Memoires lu Museum v. p 148 

Le Pimelode blanchatre (Pimelodus all,,,',. 1 Ci . .iVal, iv. p. 131. 

Pimelodus albidus, Dekay's Report, p. 186. 

5. Pimelodus nigricans, Lesueur. 

Large. Olive-brown ; sides of the body, towards the tail, ash-white, with occasionally 
large, confluent black spots ; a lew irregular, distant, round black spots on the upper part 
of the body. Beneath bluish white, varied with darker. Cauda] forked. 

D. 1-G. P. 1-9. V. 1-8. A. 26. C. 17=. Length, o (o 4 feet . Weight, 6 to 
30 pounds. 

Lakes Erie and Ontario, Lesieur. 

Le Pimelode noir&lre, Pimelodus nigricans, Lesueur, Mte i du Museum, v. p lol. pi. 1G. 

SiIu ™s (Pimelodus) ,,, ;res, ens, B '. Pi] t i i;,, „ , Fauna B \ . m. p. 134. 

Le Pimelode noiratre i i . et Val., xv. p. 133. 

Pimelodus nigricans, Great Lake Cat-fish, Dekay's Report, p. I 

G. rimelodus punctulatus, Cuv. 

Above brown, punctured with black ; beneath whitish. Fins brown. When fresh, sil- 
very gray. Branchial rays, twelve. The lower jaw the longer. The maxillary barbel does 
not extend beyond the middle of the operculum. Caudal even. 

D. 1-G. P. 1-10 or 11. V. 8. A. 10. C. 17. Length, 2 to 3 feet. 

Louisiana, Cuv. 

Called "Black Cat-fish," or "Mud-fish." 

Le Pimelode piquet*, Pimelodus punctulatus, Cuv. et Val., xv. p. 134. 
Pimelodus punctulatus, Dekay's Report, p. 1»7. 

7. rimelodus fcneus, Lesueur. 
Copper-colored, marbled with black. Lower jaw the longer. Caudal truncated. Dorsal 
spine without teeth ; pectoral spine denticulated at its edges. 
D. 1-G. P. 1-8. V. 9. A. 11. C.25. Length, 2 to 3 feet. 
Ohio, Cuv. 

Pimelode cuivre, Pimelo \i. du Museum, v. p. 160. 

Le Pimilodecuivre (Pimelodus reneus I Ctrl etVAi xv. p. 135. 

Pimelodus sneus, Dekay's Report, p. 1S7. 

8. Pimelodus furcatus, Lesueur. 

Silvery ; dull towards the back. Elongated. Tail furcated. Adipose fin small and nar- 
row. Upper jaw longer than the lower. The maxillary barbel scarcely extends beyond the 
preoperculum- Pectoral and dorsal spines denticulated posteriorly. 

D. 1-7. P.l-10. V. (.'). A. 32 -33 or 31. C. 15. Length, 1 to 1 feet. 






1 52 Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 

Ohio, Louisiana, Lesueur. 

Pimelodus a queue fourchue, Pimelodus cauda-furcalus, Lesueur, M6moires du Museum, v. p. 152. 
Le Pimelocle fourchu (Pimelodus furcatus, Lesueur), Cuv. et Val., xv. p. 13b". 
Pimelodus furcatus, Dekay's Report, p. 187. 

9. Pimelodus pullus, Dekay. 

Uniform dusky brown above, approaching to black ; beneath bluish white. Fins and cir- 
rhi black, the former tinged with red. Pectorals pointed ; ventrals subacute ; caudal fins 
emarginate. 

D. 1-5. P. 1-7. V. 8. A. 17. C. 19g. Length, 9 inches to 1 foot. 
New York, Dekay. 

Pimelodus pullus, Brown Cat-fish, Dekay's Report, p. 184, pi. 37, fig. 117. 

10. Pimelodus atrarius, Dekay. 

Deep black, occasionally blackish brown above and on the sides ; ashen-gray beneath. 
Adipose dorsal long and slender ; the rays of the fins passing beyond the membrane. Cau- 
dal emarginate, round, with numerous accessary rays. 

D. 1-6. P. 1-7. V. 8. A.,20.-. C. 17g. Length, 4 to-5 inches. 

New York, Dekay. 

Pimelodus atrarius, Black Cat-fish, Dekay's Report, p. 135, pi. 3G, fig. 116. 

11. Pimelodus cupreus, Raf. 

The upper surface of the head and back is olivaceous ; the sides and beneath coppery 
yellow, and the fins often orange or reddish. Upper jaw projecting. Maxillary barbels short, 
reaching only half the length of the head. Adipose small and narrow, and does not reach 
as far back as the termination of the base of the anal fin. Anal rounded anteriorly ; acute 
at its posterior angle. 

D. 1-7. P. 1-7. V. 1-7. A. 24. C. 24|. Length, 1 to 4 feet. 

Lake Erie, Ohio River, and their tributaries, Raf., Kirtland. 

Pimelodus cupreus, Yellow Cat-fish, Rap., Ichth. Ohien., p. 65. 

" " " " Kirtland's Report, pp. 169, 194; catalogued, not described. 

" " " Dekay's Report, p. 1S7 ; catalogued, not described. 

" Kirtland's Manuscript for publication in Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist. 

12. Pimelodus limosus, Raf. 

Dusky, clouded with irregular muddy spots on the head and back, and lighter gray on the 
abdomen and throat. Maxillary barbels extend to the pectoral fin. Lower jaw the longer. 
Anal rounded ; caudal nearly even. 

D. 1-7. P. 1-10. V. 9. A. 1. C. 20. Length, 48 inches. 

Ohio River, Raf., Kirtxand. 



Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of Worth America. 153 

Pimelodus limosus, Mud Cat-fish, Raf., Ichih. Ohien., p. 66. 

Pimelodus nebulosus, Mud Cat-fish, Ear (a i fchth. Ohien., p. 64. 

", \\ H Kibtland's Report, pp. 169, 194; catalogued, not described. 

„.,,,. " Dekav's Report, p .187; catalogued, not described. 

Pimelodus limosus, Mud Cat-fish, Kihtoand's Manuscript for publi, i t. Jon m. Nat. Hist. 

13. Pimelodus natalis, Lesueur. 
Color of the fins deep red, mingled with yellow. The top of the head is of a deep olive, 
which is lighter upon the back, passing into yellow upon the sides, and becoming a bright 
yellow upon the abdomen. Body equal. Caudal fin truncated in a straight line ; anal long, 
rounded. The barbels of the inferior jaw arc unequal ; the central two the shorter. 
D. (?). P.(?). V. (?) A. (?). C.(?). Length, 8 inches. 
Habitat, (?). Lesueur does not mention, although probably a southerner. 
Pimelodenoel, Pimelodus natalis, Lesueto, MSmoires du Museum, v. p. 1SS 

14. Pimelodus Iemniscatus, Lesueur. 

Pale and russet-colored. The first dorsal, anal, caudal, and pectorals, edged with black. 
Skin smooth, with small pustules upon the back. Its long and low.adipose fin is united to 
the caudal fin. Tail round, wide, and united to anal fin by a membrane. The dorsal 
not denticulated ; that of the pectorals short, and denticulated anteriorly. 

D.8. P. 12. v.9. A. 20. C. 50. All the fin rays subdivided. Length, 4-to 8 inches. 

Southern States, Dekay. 

Pimelodon livree, Pimelodus Iemniscatus, Lesueuk, Memoires du Museum v p. 155 
Pimelodus Iemniscatus, Dekay's Report, p. 1 , . 

15. Pimelodus ccerulescens, Raf. 

Back, head, and sides of the belly, dusky or lead color; forehead dark brown, sides of the 
head yellowish ; belly and throat white. The maxillary barbels extend beyond the pectoral 
fins. Adipose fin broad, oblong-oval. Caudal fin merely lunate in old specimens; deeply 
and acutely forked in the young. Pectoral spine serrated upon its posterior edge. 

D. 1-0. P. 1-7. V. 8. A. 30. C. 20. Length, 22 inches. 

Lake Erie and the Ohio River, Kirtland. Alabama, Storer. 

Pimelodus carulescens, Blue Cat-fish, Rap., tchth. Ohien., p. Ga. 

" " Kikti.and's Report, pp. 169, 194. 
maculatus, Spotted Cat-fish, Rap., tchth. Ohien., p. 62 (the youiie) 

i lus pallidas, White Cat-fish, Raf., tchth. Ohien., p. 63 (the 

" KlRTLAND'S Report, pp. 109, 194. 

Pimelodus argyrus, Silvery Cat-fish, Raf., tchth. Ohien., p. 61 (variety from locality). 

16. Pimelodus xanthocephalus, Raf. 
Iron gray, with the whole or part of the head yellow. Belly white. Upper jaw the 
longer. Barbels shorter than the head. Tail entirely truncate ? 
D. 1-6. P. (?). V. (?). A. 22. C 24. Length, 1 foot. 

63 



154 Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 

Ohio River and tributaries, Raf. 

The " Small Black Bull-head " of the northern streams and lakes. 

Pimelodus xanthocephalus, Yellow-head Cat-fish, Raf., Ichth. Ohien.. p. 66. 

" # Kirtland's Report, pp. 169, 194. 
" Dekay's Report, p. Ib7. 



GENUS V. NOTURUS, Raf. 
Adipose dorsal fin very long, decurrent, and united with the tail, which is 
decurrent on each side, but unconnected with the anal fin. It differs from the 
genus Plotosus of Lacepede by having the anal fin free, and from Pimelo- 
dus by the connection of the tail with the second dorsal fin. 

1. Noturus flavus, Raf. 

Back and head yellowish olive ; sides yellow ; nose, throat, and abdomen, white. Fins 
diaphanous, slightly dusky- Maxillary barbels not as long as the head. Rudiments of an 
immature adipose fin. Anal elongate, widened behind. 

D. 1-7. P. 1-7. V. 8. A. 1-7. C. (?). Length, 4 to 12 inches. 

Ohio, Mahoning River, and Lake Erie, Raf., Kirtxand- 

Noturus flavus, Yellow Back-tail, Raf., Ichth. Ohien., p 63. 

" Kirtland's Report on the Zob'l. of Ohio, pp. 169, 195. 
Pimelodus flavus, Young Cat-fish, with the rudiments of an adipose fin, Dekay's Report, p. 187. 
Noturus flavus, Raf., Kirtland's Manuscript for publication in the Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist. 

Dr. Kirtland considers this a full grown species, and distinct ; and has, therefore, adopted 

Rafinesque's genus. 

FAMILY XVI. CYPRINID7E. 

Mouth but slightly cleft ; weak jaws, most frequently without teeth, and 
the edge of which is formed by the intermaxillaries ; pharyngeals strongly den- 
tated. Branchial rays not very numerous. Body scaly. One dorsal fin. 
No adipose dorsal. Their stomach has no cul-de-sac, nor their pylorus any 
coecal appendages. They are the least carnivorous of all fishes. 

GENUS I. CYPRINUS, Lin. 

Body covered with large scales ; a single elongated dorsal fin ; lips fleshy ; 
mouth small ; teeth in the pharynx, but none on the jaws ; branchial rays, 
three. 



Storeys Synopsis of l he Fishes of North America. 155 

1. Cyprinus carpio, Lin. 

Golden olive-brown, head darkest ; belly yellowish white ; fins dark brown. Dorsal tin 
long, emarginate ; the second dorsal ray and first anal ray serrated posteriorly. Two barbels 
at the angle of the mouth. Tail forked. Twelve rows of scales between the ventral and dor- 
sal fins. 

D. 22. P. 17. V 9. A. 8. C. 19. Length, 6 to 12 inches. 

Introduced into Newburgh, Orange County, New York, from France, Dukay. 

Cyprinus carpio, Lin., Syst. Nat. 
La Carpe, Cyprinus carpio, Blooii, i. p. 77, pi. 1(5. 
Cyprinus carpio, Common Carp, Shaw's Gen. Zoo]., v. p. 179, pi. 121 
',', " Pennant 1 i: ,1 ,,„ p'. .iC7. pi. 81. 

" Griffith's Cov., x. p. .:. 
" Jenvns's Brit. Vert., p. 101, 

Yarrell's Brit. Fishes (2d edit.), 1. p. 319. 

STRACK'S Plates, p. 1 ■ : I, : 

" Dekat's Report, p. 183. 

La Carpe vulgaire, Cyprinus carpio, Cuv. et Vax., xvi. p. 23. 

2. Cyprinus auratus, Lin. 

Blackish at first, it assumes by degrees the fine golden red by which it is characterized ; but 
some are found of a silvery hue, and others variegated with these shades of color. Some in- 
d.viduals have no dorsal, others a very small one ; others have a very large caudal, divided 
into three or four lobes ; the dorsal and anal spines are denticulated as in the common Carp 

D. 16. P. 15. V. 9. A. 18. C. 17. Length, 4 to 10 inches. 

A native of China. Introduced. Breeds freely in ponds in New York, D EKAV , and in 
some portions of Massachusetts, Storer. 

Cyprinus auratus, Lin., Syst. Nat. 

" Blocii, hi. pi. 93, 94. 

Gold Carp, Pennant's Brit. Z08I., ill. p. 490. 
Golden Carp, Jenvns's Brit. Vert., p. 403. 
„ '' , '' 1 , ' ,,r I'> Yarrell's Brit. Fishes (2d edit.), 1. p. 3C| 

Gold.n Carp, Gold-fish, Griffith's Cuv., x. 'p. 377. 
„ " Storer's Report, p. 82. 

Gold Carp, Dekay's Report, p. 190. 
La Carpe doree, Cyprinus auratus, Cov. et Val., xvi. p. 101. 

GENUS II. GOBIO, Cuv. 
Dorsal and anal short, and without spines. Pharyngeal teeth conic, feebly 
bent at their summits, and in two series. Barbels at the angles of the mouth. 

1. Gobio cataractas, Val. 

Body elongated and rounded. The dorsal, in the middle of its length, is small ; caudal 
emarginate, and with rounded lobes; ana. rounded, and larger than the dorsal; ventrals 
small ; pectorals large. A barbel, very small, at each angle of the mouth. Scales small 



156 Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 

smooth, not striated, with seventy in a longitudinal series. Back deep gray, passing into 
plumbeous, and becoming silvery on the belly. Pectorals, dorsal, and caudal, gray ; ventrals 
and anal slate. 

D. 3-6. P. (?). V. (?). A. 2-6. C. 19. Length, 5 inches. 

Niagara Falls, Val. 

Le Goujon des calaractes (Gobio cataracta 3 , Val.), Cuv. et Val., xvi. p. 313, pi. 48-\ 
Gobio cataractte, Niagara Gudgeon, Dekay's Report, p. 394. 



GENUS III. LEUCISCUS, Klein. 

The dorsal and anal fins short, without strong rays at their commencement. 
No cirrhi nor barbels on the head. The dorsal either above the ventrals, or 
between them and the anal. 

1. Leuciscus Americanus, Lacep. 

Blackish, with shining white scales. Gill-covers golden, with a tinge of the same along 
the belly. Head often greenish ; and when the scales fall off, the back is frequently tinged 
with green and blue. Dorsal and abdominal outlines convex. 

D. 9. P. 17. V. 9. A. 14. C. 19. Mitchill. 

D. 9. P. 17. V. 9. A. 13. C. 19. Storer. Length, 5 to 7 inches. 

D. 10. P. 15. V. 10. A. 14. C. 193. Dekay. 

Massachusetts, Storer. New York, Mitchill, Dekay. Ohio River, Kirtland. 

Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Cuv. 

Cyprinus Americanus, Lacepede, v. pi. 15, fig. 3. P' ' '' x - 

" " American Carp, Shaw's Gen. Zool., v. p. 204. , 

Cyprinus crysoleucas, New York Shiner, Mitchill, Trans. Lil. anil Phil. Soc. of N. Y., I. p. 459. 
Luzilus cryso-cephahis 1 Raf., Ichth. Ohien., p. 48. 

Cyprinus (Leuciscus) crysoleucas, Rich., Fauna Boreal. Americ, in. p. 122. f . 

Leuciscus crysoleucas, Stoker's Report, p. 8S. "4 ir*- 

Stilbe crysoleucas, New York Shiner, Dekay's Report, p. 204, pi. 29, fig. 91. j .lr-i/t-M 

Leuciscus crysoleucas, Gold Shiner, Kirtland, Bust. Journ. Nat. Hist., iv. p. 305, pi. 15, fig. 1. . f_c«. 0. 

L'AbledeBosc (Leuciscus Boscii, Val.), Cuv. el Val., xvii. p. 313. pi, i~t)<f. '"Y^ M "^ ' 

2. Leuciscus atronasus, Mitchill. 

Above greenish. A broad dark-brown or blackish band passes from the nose, including 
the lower half of the eyes, and proceeds in a straight line to the tail. Abdomen silvery, with 
a few blackish stains. Tail forked. 

D. 7. P. 10. V. 9. A. 7. C. 19. Mitchill. Length, 3 inches. 

D. 8. P. 15. V. 8. A. 8. 0.193. Dekay. 

Massachusetts, Storer. New York, Mitchill, Dekay. 

Cyprinus atronasus, Brook Minnow, Mitchill, Trans. Lil. anil Phil. Soc. of N. Y., 1. 460. 

" " Black-nosed Dace, Dekay's Report, p. 205, pi. 33, fig. 69. 

L'Able a nez noir (Leuciscus atronasus, Mitch.), Cuv. el Val., xvii. p. 376. 



^*"J 



Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 157 

3. Leuciscus cornutus, Mitchill. 

Above blackish brown, with metallic reflections ; sides brilliant cupreous. Dorsal and 
caudal fins dark brown, sometimes mottled with darker clouds ; ventrals and pectorals 
light colored ; all the fins and the opercles margined with crimson. Numerous tubercles on 
the head. 

D. 8. P. 15. V. 8. A. 0. C. 19f Length, 5 inches. 

Massachusetts, Storer. Connecticut, Linsley. New York, Mitchill, Dekay. 

Cyprinus cornutus, Red-fin, or Rough-head, Mitchill, Amer. Month. Mag., n. p. 324. 
Leuciscus cornutus, Red-fin, Stoker's Supplement, Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist., in. 
" Dekay's Report, p. 207, pi. 23, fig. 02. 

Called, also, "Red Dace." 

4. Leuciscus atromaculatus, Mitchill. 

Above dark olive-green, with a broad, dark, longitudinal band extending from the gill- 
covers to the tail. Flanks golden-yellow. Beneath silvery-white. Head deep brownish- 
black. Dorsal fin with a dark spot at the anterior portion of its base. Back, anterior to the 
dorsal, with a depression in the vertebral line. Lips fleshy. 

D. 7. P. 13- V. 7. A. 7. C. 21. 

D. 9. P. 15. V. 8. A. 9. C. 18f. Length, 10 inches. 

New York, Mitchill, Dekay. 

Called "Lake Chub," and " Lake Dace." 

Cyprinus atromaculatus, Mud-fish, Mitchill, Amer. Month. Mag., 11. p 324. 
Leuciscus atromaculatus, Black-headed Dace, Dekay's Report, p. 210, pi. 32, fig. 102. 

5. Leuciscus Hudsonius, De Witt Clinton. 
A broad satin stripe extending from the gill-covers to the tail, and a dark, rounded spot at 
the base of the tail. Opercles silvery. Tips of the ventrals nearly reaching to the anal fin. 
D. 8. P. 11 V. 8. A- 8. C.20;S. De Witt Clinton- 
D. 8. P. 15. Y. 8. A. (?). C. 19*. Dekay- Length, 4 inches. 
New York, Clinton, Dekay. 

Clupeal lor, Clinton, Annals of Lye Nat, Hisl "I N YiTk, 1. p. -19, pi. 2, fig. 2. 

Leuciscus Hudson u .ter, Dekay's Report, p. 206, pi. 34, tig. 109. 

G. Leuciscus compressus, Raf. 

Head and back yellowish brown, sides and beneath silvery; pectorals yellow ; abdominal 
fins bright orange. Body very much compressed. Scales moderate size. Abdomen slightly 
carinated at the base of the anal fin. 

D. 9. P. 14. V. (.'). A. 9. C.30. Length, 2 to 4 inches. 

Ohio, Raf., Kirtland. 

Rulilus compressus, Fall fish, Raf., Ichlh. Ohicn., p. 51. 

" " Flat Shiner, Kiutland's Report, p. 1GD. 

Leuciscus compressus, Fall-fish, Kirtlakd, Bost. Journ Nat. Hist., iv. p. 30C, pi. 15, tig. 2. 



158 Stover's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 

7. Leuciscus erythrogaster, Raf. 

Two longitudinal black stripes upon sides ; the space between the stripes white and 
silvery ; abdomen white, occasionally tinged with carmine in some specimens, and wholly of 
a bright carmine in others. Head short. 

D. 8. P. 12. V. 8. A. 8. C. 20. Length, 3 to 6 inches. 

All the small brooks and rivulets of the West, Kirtland. Alabama, Storer. 

Luxilus erythrogaster, Red-bellied Shiner, Raf., Ichth. Ohien., p. 47. 

" " Kirtland's Report, Catalogue, p. 169. 

" " " " " Boat. Journ. Nat. Hist, iv. p. 23, pi. 11, fig. 2. 

S. Leuciscus plargyrus, Raf. 

Olivaceous and brown on the back and head ; white and silvery on the sides and opercu- 
lum, occasionally iridescent. A brown band extends from the base of the head to the 
caudal fin, and involves the lateral line in its posterior half; beneath this band, a delicate 
blue or purplish tint is finally lost in the pure white of the abdomen. Mouth diagonal. Eyes 
large. 

D. 9. P. 15 to 20. V. 9. A. 9. C. 20. Length, 4 inches. 

Kentucky, Raf. Every permanent stream in the State of Ohio, Kirtland. 

Rutilus plargyrus, Silver-side Fall-fish, Raf., Ichth. Ohien., p. 50. 

" Common Shiner of Ohio, Kirtland, Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist., v. p. 26, pi. 8, fig. 2. 

9. Leuciscus cephalus, Raf. 

Silvery. Back brownish. Sometimes the base of the caudal fin is marked like the dor- 
sal, with a round black or olive spot. The upper surface of the head and upper jaw often 
ornamented with prominent spines, varying in height and number. 

D. 9. P. 15. V. (.'). A. 9. C. 20. Length, 6 to 8 inches. 

Ohio, Raf., Kirtland. 

Semotilus cephalus, Big-head Chubby, Raf., Ichth. Ohien., p. 49. 

" " Homed Chub, Kirtland's Report, p. 169. 

" " " " " Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist., in. p. 345, pi. 5, fig. 2. 

Leuciscus cephalus, Horned Chub, Dekay's Report, p. 214. 

10. Leuciscus Kentuckiensis, Raf. 

Upper surface of the head and back dark umber, running into a lighter brown as it de- 
scends the sides, which are of a faint blue, that fades into a silvery white on the abdomen. 
Head of the male studded with minute tubercles above. Scales large. Caudal fin large, 
acutely lobed. 

D. 8. P. 12. V. (?)• A. 8. C. 22. Length, 3 to 5 inches. 

Kentucky, Raf. Ohio, Kirtland. 

Luxilus Kentuckiensis, Kentuckian Shiner, Raf., Ichth. Ohien., p. 4S. 

" * " White and Yellow-winged Shiner, Kirtland's Report, Catalogue, p. 169. 

" " Kentucky Shiner, Kirtland, Eost. Journ. Nat. Hist., v. p. 27, pi. 8, fig. 3. 



Stover's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 159 

11. Leuciscus diplemia, IIaf. 

Back olive, abdomen white and silvery, llie sides iridescent and violaceous, marked with 
irregular and interrupted black lines on the posterior edges of the scales. Fins orange-col- 
ored in the females, violet or red in the males. Head flat between the eyes. Snout rounded, 
and in the males warty. Opercular angle with a diaphanous membrane. Under jaw slightly 
projecting. Back elevated in front of the dorsal. 

D. 9. P. 14. V. 8. A. 9. C. 22. Length, 2 to 4 inches. 

All the Western streams, Kirtland. 

Scmolilus diplemia, Warty Chubby, Rap., Iclilh. Ohien., p 

" Red-sided Chub, Kim-land's Report, ( ata > p 169. 

Red-sides, Warty Chub, Kirtland, Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist., v p 27i" pi. 22, fig. 3. 

12. Leuciscus dorsalis, Raf. 

Head and back bronzed. A brown stripe extends from the base of the tail to the head 
above the lateral line. Abdomen white and silvery. Fins fulvous, the anterior part of the 
base of the dorsal and the centre of the base of the caudal marked with a dark brown or 
black spot. Back gibbous anterior to the dorsal fin. 

D. 8. P. (?)■ V. 8. A. 8. C. 20. Length, G to 10 inches. 

All the Western streams, Kirtland. 

Semotilus dorsalis. Big-back Chubby, Raf., Ichth. Oliicn., p. 49. 

" Smootb- headed Chub, Kirtland's Report, p. 169. 

Common i Ihub, Kirtland, Bosl Journ. Nat. Hist., v. p. 274, pi. 22, fig. I. 

13. Leuciscus gracilis, Richardson. 

Pale oil- green on the back, fading to white on the belly. Sides of the head nacreous. Head 
small. Scales large and thin. Lateral line straight, with fifty-five scales ; seventeen scales 
in a vertical row under the dorsal, of which seven are above the lateral line. 

D. 9. P. 17. V. 8 A. 10. C. 19|. Length, 12 inches. 

Northern regions, Richardson. 

' l '"'•'" CLeui is u I i.: i!i : Saskatchewan Pace. Rich.. Fauna Boreal. Americ, ill. p. 120. pi. 7- 

Nu-natcheegaes, Crbg Indians. 

1 I iscusgra ilis, Rich.), Cuv. et Val., jcvii, p 

II. Leuciscus caurinus, Rich. 

Moderately compressed. Head one fourth of its entire length, exclusive of caudal. 
Scales suborbicular, crenated exteriorly, and impressed with from foutteen to twenty fine but 
conspicuous lines, radiating from near the base, which is neither furrowed nor crenated. 
Seventy-five on the lateral line, twenty-four in a vertical line before the dorsal, and ten in a 
linear inch measured on the fore part of the sides. Caudal deeply forked. 

D. 10. P. 18. V. 10. A. 9. C. 19? Length, 12.} inches. 



160 Storefs Synojjsis of the Fishes of North America. 

Columbia River, Richardson. 

Cyprinus (Leuciscua) caurinua, Northwest Dace, Rich., Fauna Boreal. Americ, in. p. 304. 

Leuciscus caurinua, Dekay's Report, p. 215. 

L'Able in Nord-ouest (Leuciscua caurinus, Rica.), Cuv. et Val., xvii. p. 325. 

15. Leuciscus Oregonensis, Rich. 

Brownish, belly silvery white. More elongated than the preceding ; head longer. Scales 
more perfectly orbicular than those of the L. caurinus, and those on the belly are proportion- 
ally smaller. 

D. 10. P. 15. V. 9. A. 9. C. 19^. Length, 13 inches. 

Columbia River, Richardson. 

Cyprinus (Leuciscus) Oregonensis, Columbia River Dace, Rich., Fauna Boreal. Americ, ill. p. 305. 

Leuciscus Oregonensis, Dekay's Report, p. 215. 

L'Able tie l'Oregon (Leuciscus Oregonensis, Rich.), Cuv. et Val., xvii. p. 326. 

]6. Leuciscus Smithii, Rich. 

Lateral line straight, containing sixty scales. Scales commencing on the forehead above the 
eyes, rather large, shining, and pellucid, reflecting a brilliant green on the back, but having a 
silvery lustre on the sides and abdomen. Tongue toothed. Caudal forked. Eyes very large. 
Under jaw longest. Nostrils on the tip of the snout. 

D. 1-12. P. 12. V. 7. A. 1-27. C. 18. Length, 9 to 10 inches. 

St. Lawrence River, Lieut. Col. C. H. Smith. 

i 

Cyprinus (Abrainis?) Smithii, La Quesche, Rich., Fauna Boreal. Amer., in. p. 110, fig. 

Abramis Smithii, Dekay's Report, p. 192. 

L'Able a baudrier (Leuciscus Smithii, Rich.), Cm - , el Val., xvii. p. 327. 

17. Leuciscus balteatus, Rich. 

Back of the head and body mountain-green, with iridescent tints of yellow and blue. 
Belly silvery white. A bright golden-yellow band behind the eye, on the margin of the 
preoperculum, and a broad scarlet-red stripe beneath the lateral line, extending from the 
gill-opening to the anal fin. Fins of a uniform greenish-gray color, without brilliancy. 
About fifty-seven scales on the lateral line- The head is exactly one fourth the length of the 
fish. Nostrils near the eyes. 

D. 11. P. 17. V. 9. A. 19 to 22. C. 19f Length, 5 to 6 inches. 

Columbia River, Richardson. 

Cyprinus (Abramis) balteatus, Reil-sided Bream, Rich., Fauna Boreal. Americ, ill. p 301. 

Abramis balteatus, Dekay's Report, p. 192. 

L'Able de Smith (Leuciscus balteatus, Rich.), Cuv. et Val., xvii. p. 329. 

18. Leuciscus pulchellus, Storer. 
Back dark brown ; sides and abdomen of a beautiful flesh-color, tinged with golden reflec- 



Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of JYorlh America. 1 G 1 

tions. Head bluish on the top ; gill-covers silvery, with cupreous and flesh-colored tints, 
and edged with a brown, membranous prolongation. Scales large, transparent, rounded at 
their summit, truncated at their base, striated ; at the base of each scale is a fleshy, dark- 
colored membrane, which, projecting as far as the apex of the preceding scale, gives the ap- 
pearance of indistinct oblique bands across the fish. The lateral line contains fifty-one scales ; 
nine scales in an oblique line above the lateral line, and six below it. Dorsal nearly as high 
again as long. Anal higher than long. 

D. 10. P. 17. V. 8. A;'l0. C. 22. Length, 6 to 11 inches. 

Massachusetts, Storer. New York, Valenciennes. 

Leuciscus pulchellus, Beautiful Leuciscus, Storer's Report, p 91. 

" " Roach Dace, Dekay's Report, p. 208. 

Leuciscus argenleus, Silvery Leuciscus, Storer's Report, p. 90. 

" " Silvery Dace, Dekay's Report, p. 212. 

Cyprinus corporalis ? Corporal? Mitchill, Amer. Month. Mag., vn. p. 324. 
Leuciscus? corporally, O»rporaalen, Dekay's Report, p. 213. 
L'Able gentil (Leuciscus pulchellus, Storer), Cov. el Yal., xvii. p. 320. 
L'Able de Slorer (Leuciscus Sloreri, Val.), Cttv. et Vai., xvn p. 319, pi. 505. 

19. Leuciscus biguttatus, Kirtland. 

Olive and bluish above the medial line ; sides and abdomen faintly cupreous. Fins orange, 
tinged with ferruginous ; a black spot at the base of the caudal fin. Body and fins irregularly 
punctated with small black dots, and a large vermilion dot behind each eye. The older in- 
dividuals, especially the males, have the upper surface of the head and upper jaw studded 
with numerous spines in the spring of the year. 

D. (?)■ P- (.')• V. (?) A. (?)■ C. (•). Length, 6 inches. 

Ohio, Kirtland. 

Vulgar name, the " Jerker." 

Semotilus biguttatus, Two spoiled Chub, Kirtland, Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist., ill. p. 314, pi. 5, fig. 1. 
Leuciscus biguttatus, Dekay's Report, p. 211. 

20. Leuciscus elongatus, Kirtland. 

Back a beautiful sky-blue, edged below with a gilt band ; below this is an interrupted 
black band, extending from the point of the upper jaw to the tail, passing through the iris 
of the eye, but broken by a carmine, or, in others, a vermilion stripe terminating above the 
end of the ventrals. Sides and belly silvery. Body elongated, slim. Dorsal high ; caudal 
deeply forked. 

D. 8. P. (.'). V. (?). A. 9. C. 20. Length, 3 inches. 

Tributaries of Lake Erie, near Cleveland, and of the Mahoning River, Trumbull county, 
Ohio, Kirtland. 

I.uxilus elongatus, Red-bellied Shiner of the Lake, Kiriland's Report, pp ]C,9, Il>3. 

" ■' " Kirtland, Boat. Journ. Not. Hist., m.p. 339, pi. 4, fig. 1. 

Leuciscus elongatus, Dekay's Report, p. 211, 

64 



162 Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 

21. Leuciscus dissimilis, Kirtland. 

Back brownish or olive ; a belt of gilt along the lateral line, with about twelve bluish dots, 
which enlarge towards the tail ; an ochreous band runs along the back, which is faintly marked 
with darker spots ; abdomen white and silvery ; fins pale, rays slightly marked with dark 
tints. Head flat between the eyes ; nose prominent ; lower lip slightly fleshy and projecting. 

D. 8 or 9. P. (?). V. 8. A. 7. C. 20. Length, 44 inches. 

Mahoning River and Lake Erie, Kirtland. 

Luxilus dissimilis, Spotted Shiner, Kirtland, Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist., ill. p. 341, pi. 4, fig. 2. 
Leuciscus dissimilis, Dekav's Report, p. 214. 

22. Leuciscus nitidus, Dekay. 

Olive-brown above ; sides silvery. Head with mucous pores. Tail deeply emarginate, 
not furcate. Scales large, forty-six along the lateral line. Seven scales in an oblique line 
from the first dorsal ray to the lateral line, and five below it. 

D. 8. P. 16. V. 10. A. 9. C. 19|. Length, 2 inches. 

Lake Champlain, Dekay. 

Leuciscus nitidus, Shining Dace, Dekay's Report, p. 209, pi. 33, fig. 105. 

23. Leuciscus chrysopterus, Dekay. 

A general silvery color, with a darker hue above. Fins yellowish. Ventrals with an ac- 
cessory scale. Dorsal emarginate. Scales large, subequal. Forty-five scales in a longi- 
tudinal series. In a transverse series to the ventrals, seven above and six below the lat- 
eral line. 

D. 9. P. 15. V. 9. A. 10. C. 19§. Length, inches. 

New York, Dekay. 

Leuciscus chrysopterus, Bay Shiner, Dekay's Report, p. 211, pi. 30, fig. 95. 

24. Leuciscus vittatus, Dekay. 

Olive-green, with a golden dorsal stripe ; silvery beneath, tinged with flesh-color. Caudal 
deeply forked. Scales moderate. Upper edge of the anal slightly emarginate. 
D. 9. P. 15. V. 8. A. 8. C. 19|. Length, 4 inches. 
New York, Dekay. 

Leuciscus vittatus, Banded Dace, Dekay's Report, p. 212, pi. 34, fig. 108. 

25. Leuciscus pygmseus, Dekay. 

Very small. Head and back uniform dark brown or black above, and lighter towards the 
abdomen. One or more black ocellate spots on the base of the oblong, pointed tail. Scales 
soft, large in proportion to the size of the body. Caudal long, lanceolate. 



Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 163 

D. 14. P. 1G. V. 6. A. 13. C 17. Length, 1 inch. 
New York, Dekay. 

Leuciscus pygmajus, Pigmy Dace, Dekay's Report, p. 214, pi. 42, fig. 131. 

26. Leuciscus versicolor, Dekay. 

Silvery, varied with green, blue, and golden. Dorsal and abdominal outlines very convex. 
Scales very large, orbicular, with eccentric stria. Pectorals broad, placed very low ; anal 
with fourteen rays ; caudal forked, base covered with scales. 

D. 9. P. 14. V. 9. A. 14. C. 19|. Length, 4 inches. 

New York, Dekay. 

Called " Dace," at Peekskill. Known, also, by the names of " Yellow-bellied Perch," 
and "Wind-fish." 

Abramis versicolor, Variegated Bream, Dekay's Report, p. 191, pi. 32, fig. 103. 

27. Leuciscus nasutus, Aires. 

Above and on the sides dark bluish brown ; beneath nearly white. Dorsal and caudal fins 
light brown ; ventrals and anal nearly transparent ; pectorals a little darker than the ventrals. 
Snout projecting. Mouth small, semicircular. Dorsal trapezoidal ; pectorals situated very 
low, almost beneath the body ; caudal beautifully lunated. 

D. 10. P. 16. V. 9. A. 8. C. 19. Length, 34 inches. 

Massachusetts, Olmsted. Connecticut, Ayres. 

Leuciscus nasutus, Ayres, Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist., iv. p. 299, pi. 13, fig. 3. 

28. Leuciscus gardoneus, Val. 

Height of the body equal to one fourth its whole length ; length of the head equal to about 
one sixth the length of the body. Five pharyngeal teeth in a single row. The trapezoidal 
dorsal fin arises half way between the extremity of the snout and the base of the caudal fin. 
Anal short ; caudal slightly forked. Thirty-nine rows of scales upon the sides, seven above 
and three beneath the lateral line. Stria: upon the upper portion of the operculum ; but one 
or two striae upon the scales. 

D. 11. P. (?). V. (?). A. 10. C. (?). Length, 6 inches. 
L'Able gartlonnet (Leuciscus gardoneus, Val.), Cuv. ot VAL., xvit. p. 316. 

29. Leuciscus vandoisulus, Val. 

Body elongated and compressed; lower jaw longer than the upper; pharyngeal teeth 
hooked, in two rows, one with five, the other with two teeth. Height equal to one fourth 
the length of the body, not including the tail. Head equal in length to height of body. 



-/ 



J 



164 Storefs Synopsis of the Fishes of North .America. 

Caudal short ; the dorsal and anal similar to the same fins in the L. vulgaris. Scales small ; 
forty-seven longitudinal rows upon the sides, eight above, and three beneath the lateral line. 
D. 10. P. (>)■ V. (?). A. 11. C. (?)■ Length, 7 inches. 

L'Able vandoisule (Leuciscus vamluisulus, Val.), Cuv. el Val., xvn. p. 317. 

30. Leuciscus rotengulus, Val. 

Back much arched ; abdomen nearly straight ; jaws equal ; pharyngeal teeth in two rows, 
five and two. Three and a half times as long as high. The dorsal slightly posterior. 

D. 11. P. (.')• V. (.'). A. 11. C. (.')• Length, 6 inches. 

L'Able rotengule (Leuciscus rotengulus, Val.), Cuv. et Val., xvii. p. 318. 

Valenciennes has not given the habitat of the last three species ; but as they are all con- 
tained in Bosc's collection, they were probably obtained in South Carolina- 

31. Leuciscus spirlingulus, Val. 

■S Body compressed, outline straight along the back, curved beneath the belly ; its height a 

little more than one fifth its whole length. The dorsal is situated upon the anterior half of 
^ y the body. There are thirty-five to thirty-nine rows of very thin, caducous scales, which are 

V concentrically striated, but are not longitudinally furrowed or rayed. Back reddish brown, 

J^ with a silvery band ; belly silvery. Fins colorless, irregularly variegated with black. Pha- 

nr ryngeal teeth curved and sharp pointed, in two rows, one with four, the other with two. 

D.9. .P. (?). V. (?). A. 10. C. (?). Length, ( = ). 
New Jersey, Ohio, Valenciennes. 

L'Able eperlanule (Leuciscus spirlingulus, Val), Cuv. et Val., xvn. p. 321, pi. 506. 

32. Leuciscus lincella, Val. 

Similar in appearance to a Tench. Head small, snout slightly pointed ; lower jaw shorter 
than the upper; four pharyngeal teeth. Caudal scarcely emarginated. Scales small and 
very finely granulated ; seventy in a longitudinal series; fifteen above the lateral line, and 
twelve beneath it. Lateral line nearly straight. A very deep golden-gieen upon the back, 
brilliant upon the sides, yellowish beneath. Dorsal, caudal, and pectorals, green ; ventrals 
and anal paler. 

D. 9. P. 17. V. 9. A. 7. C. 21. Length, 5 inches. 

Mexico, Val. 

L'Able petite tanche (Leuciscus lincella, Val ), Cuv. et Val., xvii. p. 323. 

33. Leuciscus productus, Storer. 
Head broad, flattened above, and rather longer than the height of the body. Scales 



Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 165 

small ; seventy-five in a longitudinal row up the sides. Dorsal fin upon the posterior portion 
of the body. Silvery, with a bluish longitudinal line. 

D. 9. P. (?). V. (?)• A. 8. C. (.'). Length, 4 inches. 

Wabash, Lesueur. 

L'Able atong6 (Leuciscus elongalus, Val.), Cuv. et Val., xvii. p. 494. 

This species is called elongalus by Valenciennes, in the seventeenth volume of the " His- 
toire Naturelle des Poissons," but as that name has previously been applied by Kirtland to 
a species from the West, I have felt compelled to change it here. 

34. Leuciscus Storerianus, Kirtland. 

Back and upper surface of the body and head olivaceous ; sides silvery, and of a brilliant 
metallic lustre, with a brownish band extending the whole length of the lateral line. Pec- 
toral and ventral fins yellowish, anal white and translucent. Snout obtuse, projecting be- 
yond the mouth. Back convex in front of the dorsal. The lobes of the caudal acute. 

D. 9. P. 15. V. 9. A. 9. C. 23. Length, 8 inches. 

Lake Erie, Kirtland. 

Leuciscus Slorerianus, Storer's Leuciscus, Kirtland, Bust. Tourn. Nat. Hist., v. p. 36, pi. 9, fig. 2. 

35. Leuciscus croceus, Storer. 

Body oblong, convex in front of the dorsal fin. Lateral line straight. Head large. All 
upper portion of body greenish, throat ilesh-colored. An indistinct brown band runs along 
the middle of the sides from the operculum to the base of the tail ; at its termination is seen 
a small black blotch. All the fins orange. Surface of body covered with a slimy secre- 
tion. 

D. 8. P. 14. V. 8. A. 7. C. 19. Length, 3i inches. 

Alabama, Storer. 

Leuciscus croceus, Storer, Proceed, Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., July, l-lj. 

36. Leuciscus prolixus, Storer. 

Body much elongated. Head flattened above. Lateral line descends obliquely to a point 
above posterior extremities of the pectorals, then pursues a straight course to the tail. Top 
of head brown, with numerous minute tubercles ; dorsum greenish; upper portion of sides 
blue, with lilac tints ; lower portion of sides white. Dorsal fin brown, the other tins yel- 
lowish. 

D. 9. P. 11. V. 8. A. 9. C. 19. Length, 4 inches- 
Alabama, Storer. 

Leuciscus prolixus, Storer, Proceed. Boat. Soc. Nat. Hist , July, 1^ 15. 



1 66 Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 

37. Leuciscus obesus, Storer. 
Body short, chubby. Head large. Abdominal arch very convex. Dorsal ridge green ; 
sides yellow, with deep lilac intermixed, so as to appear like a longitudinal band of the latter 
color; lower portion of the sides bluish ; top of the head fuliginous. Pupils black, irides 
golden. Lateral line assumes the curve of the body. Fins straw-colored. 
D. (?). P. (.')• V. (?). A. O C (?) Length, 3i inches. 
Florence, Alabama, Storer. 

Leuciscus obesus, Storer, Proceed. Boat. Soc. Nat. Hist., July, 1S45. 

3S. Leuciscus gibbosus, Storer. 

Body very convex above. All upper portion of body green ; lower portion of sides a light 
lilac color ; fins greenish yellow ; opercles light, with lilac tints. 
D. (?). P. (?)'. V. (?). A. (?). C. (?). Length, 4 inches. 
Tuscaloosa, Alabama, Storer. 

Leuciscus gibbosus, Storer, Proceed. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., July, 1345. 

GENUS IV. PIMEPHALES, Raf. 

Body oblong, thick, scaly. Vent posterior, nearer to the tail. Head scale- 
less, fleshy all over, even over the gill-covers, rounded, convex, and short. 
Mouth terminal, small, toothless, with hard, cartilaginous lips. Opercle double, 
three branchial rays. Nostrils simple. Dorsal fin opposite the abdominals, 
with the first ray simple and cartilaginous. Abdominal fins with eight rays. 

1. Pimephales promelas, Raf. 

Diameter one fourth of the length, body olivaceous-silvery, head blackish, snout truncated 
and with soft warts ; fins whitish ; dorsal with a large, irregular black spot at its anterior 
base, with eight forked rays, and one simple, shorter, obtuse, hard ; anal with eight rays ; 
lateral line flexuous and raised at the base ; tail Iunulate. 

D. 1-8. P. 15. V. 7. A. 8. C. 20. Length, 3 inches. 

Kentucky, Ohio, Raf., Kirtland. 

Pimephales promelas, Raf., Ichth. Ohien., p. 53. 
" " Kirtland's Report, p. 194. 

" " Black-headed Flat-head, Kirtland, Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist., ill. p. 475, pi. 27, fig 2. 

GENUS V. CATOSTOMUS, Lesueur. 

Back with a single dorsal fin. Gill-membrane three-rayed. Head and 
opercula smooth. Jaws toothless and retractile. Mouth beneath the snout, 



Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 167 

lips plaited, lobed, or carunculated, suitable for sucking. Throat with pec- 
tinated teeth. 

1. Catostomus Hudsonius, Lesueur. 

Back and sides bluish gray, with considerable lustre, the back being darkest, and the tint 
of the sides gradually passing into the pearl-white of the belly. Dorsal and caudal fins blu- 
ish gray ; pectorals and ventrals ochre-yellow, tinged with red ; anal flesh-red. Irides saf- 
fron-yellow, with pearly lustre. Scales for the the most part broadly oval, or nearly orbicu- 
lar, and of a medium size; large towards the tail, and smaller on the belly, particularly 
between the pectorals. The anal extends to within its own length of the caudal. When this 
fin is turned backwards, its tip reaches the base of the caudal. Dorsal quadrangular. 
D. 12 to 14. P. 17. V. 10. A. 7. C. 18§. Length, 21 inches. 
Hudson River, Forster. Columbia River and its tributaries, Richardson. 
Cyprinus catostomus, Fokster, Phil. Trans., ljcih. p. 15S, pi. 6. 
Naymaypeeth, and Sucker, Pennant's Arc. Zobl., Introducl., p.SDO, and it. p. 402 
Catostomus Hudsonius, Lesuebr, Journ Acad. Nat. Sc., I. p. 10". 
" Rich., Franklin's Journal, p. 717. 

Gr W Sucking Carp, Rich., Fauna Boreal. Americ, in pH2 
Gray Sucker, Fur-traders. Carpe blanche, Canadians. Namaypeeth, Crees 
Le Catoslouie Hudsonien (Catostomus Hudsonius, Lesuevr), Cuv. el Val., xvii. p. 459. 

2. Catostomus Forsterianus, Run. 

Color of the back intermediate between honey-yellow and olive-green (like old olive-oil) ; 
the sides are occupied by a series of patches of light lake-red, more or less continuous, form- 
ing a broad, irregular stripe ; belly white. The under fins are tinged with ochre-yellow, and 
at some seasons have a red hue ; the dorsal and upper part of the caudal have nearly the tint 
of the back. Scales broadly oblong, radiated. From ninety-eight to one hundred and seven 
scales on the lateral line ; thirty in a vertical row behind the pectorals, and twenty-three just 
before the ventrals. Dorsal fin higher than long ; anal does not reach quite to the base of 
the caudal. 

D. 12 to 14. P. 18. V. 10. A. 8 or 9. C. 18|. Length, 22 inches. 
Northern Regions, Richardson. 

Cyprinus catostomus, var., Forster, Phil. Trans , lxiii. p. 158 
Milhomapeth, Pennant's Arc Z.»,| , [ritrod . p. 29a 
Catostomus Forsterianus, Rich., Franklin's Journal p 720 

Cyprinus (Catostomus) Forslerunus, Red Suck Carp, K,'c„., Fauna Boreal. A„,«, ■„ p. 116 

Catostomus Forsterianus, Red Sucker, Dekav's Report p 203 ' 

I • ( a.oslome de Forster (Catostomus Forsterianus. R,ch.), Cuv et Vai. , SVII. p. 4G3 
Ked Sucker, Fur-traders. Meelhcma-maypelh, Crees. 

3. Catostomus Suceti, Lacep. 
Fins and back brown ; sides silvery, with brown spots at the base of the scales. Head 
compressed and fiat. Lower lip very thick, crenated and curved outwardly. Scales semi- 
rhomboidal. 



168 Storer's Sy?iopsis of the Fishes of North America. 

D. 12. P. 13. V. 9. A. 9. C. 18. Length, 2 feet. 
South Carolina, Bosc. 

Cyprinus Sucetta, Lacepede. 

Catostomus Sucetta, Lesueur, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc, l p. 109. 

" " Dekay's Report, p. 203. 

Le Caloatome Sucet (Catostomus Suceli, Val.), Cuv. et Val., xvii. p. 466. 

4. Catostomus gibbosus, Lesueur. 

Back elevated in front of the dorsal fin, which is almost as high as broad, and rounded ; 
anal fin bilobated. Back deep blue, with golden reflections ; pectoral, ventral, and anal fins 
of a fine reddish orange color; caudal fin tinted with carmine and violet; dorsal bluish 
green ; abdominal scales red at their base. Body marked with four or five faint transverse 
bands. At some seasons of the year, three or four prominent horns or tubercles are seen on 
each side of the head, between the eyes and snout. 

D. 15, 16, or 17. P. 16. V. 8 or 9. A. 8, 9, or 10. C. 18 or 19f. Length, 5 to 14 
inches. 

New Hampshire, Connecticut, New Jersey, Dekay. Massachusetts, Lesueur, Sto- 
ker. Pennsylvania, Lesueur. 

Catostomus gibbosus, Chub Sucker, Lesueur, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc, i. p. 92, fig. 

" " Gibbous Sucker, Storer's Report, p. SS. 

Catostomus tuberculatus, Lesueur, Journ. Acad. Nal. Sc, I. p. 93, fig. 

" " Horned Sucker, Storer's Report, p. 85. 

Labeo gibbosus, Gibbous Chub Sucker, Dekay's Report, p. 194, pi. 32, fig. 101. 
Catostomus luberculatus, Horned Sucker, Dekay's Report, p. 199, pi. 31, fig. 97. 
Le Catostome bossu (Catostomus gibbosus, Lesueur), Cuv. et Val., xvii. p. 443. 
Le Calostome aux tubercules (Catostomus tuberculatus, Lesueur), Cuv. et Val., xvii. p. 444. 

5. Catostomus macrolepidotus, Lesueur. 

Back dark blue, base of the scales brown ; sides whitish, with yellow reflections; oper- 
cula yellowish. Head reddish brown. Dorsal, anal, and ventral fins tinged with blue and 
yellow ; caudal gray. Dorsal fin short, deeply emarginated, upper lobe elevated and pointed, 
lower lobe rounded. Scales large, and disposed in a lozenge form. 

D. 16. P. 18. V. 9. A. 9. C IS*. Length, 14£ inches. 

Delaware River, Lesueur. Lake Ontario, Val. 

Catostomus macrolepidotus, Lesueur, Journ. Acad Nat. ?c , I. p. 94, fig. 

" " Large-scaled Sucker, Dekay's Report, p. 202, pi. 77, fig, 242. 

Le Catostome aux grandes ecailles (Catostomus macrolepidotus, Lesueur), Cuv. et Val., xvii. p. 447. 

G. Catostomus aureolus, Lesueur. 

Body of a beautiful orange-color, deepest on the back ; the base of the scales dark red ; 
the sides are heightened with golden reflections ; pectorals, ventrals, and anal, of a fine red 
orange-color; caudal of a deep carmine. Anal fin long, pointed, and passing considerably 



Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 169 

beyond the base of the caudal, which is forked with pointed lobes, the inferior of winch is 
the larger ; abdominal fin truncated. 

D.H. P. 18. V.9. A. 8. CIS. Length, 12 to 18 inches. 

Lake Erie, Lesueur, Dekay. 

Known, at Buffalo, under the names of " Mullet," « Golden Mullet," " Red-Horse." 
Catostomus aureolua, Lesue™, Joum. Acad. Nal Sc i p <)5 fig 

C r [\" „""' *' GillSu *nsCarp I Rich, Fauna B ... p 119 

Catostomus auroleus, Mullet Sucker, 1'; hay' K, port, p. 201, pi I 

',', ',', MU " el ° f thoUke > Kibiland, Boat. Journ. Nat. Hisl III. p. 349, pi. 6, fig. 2. 

" " Report, pp. 169, 192. 

Le Catostome (lore (Catostomus aureolus, Lksceto), Crv. ci Vai.., mm. i 

7. Catostomus coramunis, Lesueur. 

General color of the head and back a reddish brown, in some specimens darker than in 
others ; sides reflecting golden tints ; abdomen whitish ; pectoral, ventral, and anal fins red- 
dish brown ; caudal reddish violet ; dorsal blue and yellow. Dorsal quadrangular ; ana] 
narrow, and extends as far as the base of the caudal fin. 

D. 14. P. 18. V. 10. A. 9. C. 24. Length, 14 to 10 inches. 

Maryland, Lesuecs. New York, Dekay. 

Catostomus communis, Lesuefk, Joum. Acad. Nat. Sc., i. p. 95 fi». 

Common Sucker, Dekay's Report, p. 190, pi. 33, fj». 10G. 
Catostomus gracilis, Kiistland's Report, pp. 169, 193. 

Catostomus communis, Brook Sucker, Kirtland, Host. Journ. Nat. Hist., v. p. 265 pi 19 fi. 1 
Le Utostome commun (Catostomus communis, Lesoeor), Cirv. et Val., ivii. p. 426. 

S. Catostomus longirostrum, Lesueur. 

Above reddish, paler on the sides ; abdomen white, with a bluish tint. Head horizontal, 
terminated in a long snout. The extremity of the anal does not reach the base of the cau- 
dal. Scales very small and roundish. 

D. 12. P. 10. V. 9. A. 7. C. 18. Length, 5 inches. 

Vermont, Lesueur. 

Catostomus longirostrum, LEsnEOR, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc., I. p. 102. 

Catostomus longirostris, Dekav's Report, p, I 

Le Catostome longirostre (Catostomus Ion i irum, LesobdtO, Coy. el Val., xvii. p. 453. 

9. Catostomus nigricans, Lesueur. 

Back black ; sides reddish yellow, with black blotches ; beneath white, with golden re- 
flections. Pectoral, ventral, and anal fins reddish ; caudal and dorsal fins blackish. Head 
large, quadrangular. Anal fin straight, its extremity reaching the base of the caudal fin. 
Dorsal fin small and quadrangular. 

D. 11. P. 18. V. 9. A. 8. C. 18. Length, 13 inches. 

Massachusetts, Storer. Lake Erie, Lesdeur. Every permanent stream in the West, 

KlRTLAND- 

65 



170 Stover's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 

Called " Shoemaker," at Lake Erie. 

Catostomus nigricans, Lesueur, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc, i. p. 102. 

Cyprinus (Catostomus) nigricans, Black Sucking Carp, Rich., Fauna Boreal. Americ, in. p. 120. 

Catostomus nigricans, Black Sucker, Storer's Report, p. 86. 

" " Mud Sucker, Kirtland's Report, pp. 169, 193. 

" " Black Sucker, Dekay's Report, p. 202. 

" " Mullet, Mud Sucker, Kirtland, Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist., v. p. 273, pi. 21, fig. 3. 

Le Catostome noiratre (Catostomus nigricans, Lesueur), Cuv. et Val., xvii. p. 453. 

10. Catostomus maculosus, Lesueur. 

Reddish, with irregular black blotches ; pectorals and venlrals reddish, dashed with black ; 
anal and caudal reddish white ; dorsal bluish, with black marks on the rays. Head large, 
quadrangular, declivous ; eyes small ; the lateral line straight, and runs from the operculum 
on a line with the eye. 

D. 12. P. 16. V. 9. A. 9. C 18. Length, 8 inches. 

Maryland, Lesueur. 

Called " Black Sucker," in Maryland. 

Catostomus maculosus, Lesueur, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc, I. p. 103. 

" " Dekay's Report, p. 203. 

Le Catostome tachele (Catostomus maculosus, Lesueur), Cuv. el Val., xvii. p. 454. 

11. Catostomus elongatus, Lesueur. 

Head dusky above, coppery on its sides ; back black, often slightly mottled ; sides and be- 
neath dusky and cupreous. Fins dusky and livid. Body subcylindric, very long. Dorsal 
fin very long, low, its anterior part high and falciform. Anal fin very small, and truncated. 
Scales large, flexible on the flanks, and a little quadrangular towards the tail. 

D. 35. P. 15. V 9. A. 8. C 18. Length, 2 to 3 feet. 

Ohio River, Lesueur, Kirtland. 

Catostomus elongatus, Lesueur, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc, I. p. 103, tig. 

Catostomus niger, Raf., Ichlh. Ohien , p. 56. 

Catostomus elongatus, Missouri Sucker, Black-Horse, Black-Buffalo, Kirtland's Report, pp. 169, 192. 

" " " " Kirtland, Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist., v. p. 267, pi. 19, fig. 3. 

" " ,( " Dekay's Report, p. 203. 

Le Catostome alonge (Catostomus elongatus, Lesueur), Cuv. et Val., xvii. p. 455. 

12. Catostomus vittatus, Lesueur. 

Back pale yellowish-red, abdomen and lower fins white. A black stripe passes from the 
snout, through the eye, to the caudal fin, dividing the body equally ; dorsal fin quadrangular ; 
tail forked- Scales very small, rounded. 

D. (?). P. 10. V. 9. A. 8. C. 18. Length, 2 inches. 

Pennsylvania, Lesueur. 

Catostomus vittatus, Lesueur, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc, I. p. 104. 

" " Dekay's Report, p. 203. 

Le Catostome a bandelettes (Catostomus vittatus, Lesueur), Cuv. et Val., xvii. p. 459. 



Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of JYorlh America. 171 

13. Catostomus Duquesnii, Lesueur. 
Back and forehead dusky olive and coppery, somclimes iridescent with pale blue ; sides 
coppery; abdomen white. Head about one fifth the length of the entire fish. Scales strong, 
greatly radiated, and as wide again as long ; scales nearly of same size over the entire body. 
The anal fin extends as far as the base of the caudal fin, which is greatly forked. Mouth 
wide. 

D. 11. P. 17. V. 10. A. 9. C. 183. Length, 19 inches. 
Ohio River, Pennsylvania, Lesueur. 

Catostomus Duquesnii, Lesueur, Journ. Acad. Nat.Sc, i p. 105, fig. 

" White Sucker, EClRTLAND's Report, pp. 169, 192. 

" " " Dekay's Report, p. 203. 

" Pittsburg Sucker, KedHorse of the fishermen, Kietxand, Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist., 

v. p. 268, pi. 20, fig. 1 (male), pi. 21, fig. 2 (f, i 
Le Catoslome de Duquesne (Catostomus Duquesnii, Lesueur), Cuv. et Val., xvn. p. 458. 

14. Catostomus Bostoniensis, Lesueur. 

Brownish, darker towards the head, which is nearly olive-colored ; sides reddish brown, 
presenting a beautiful metallic lustre ; beneath white. Pectoral, ventral, and anal fins, red- 
dish ; dorsal and caudal dark brown. Caudal deeply forked. Mouth very small. Sixty- 
four scales along the lateral line. Scales on the anterior portion of the body smaller than 
those on the posterior portion. 

D. 13. P. 18. V. 10. A. 9. C. 18. Length, 8 to 15 inches. 

New Hampshire, Peck. Massachusetts, Lesueur, Storer. New York, Pennsylva- 
nia, Cuv. 

Cyprinus catostomus, Forster, Peck, Mem. Amer. Acad., II. pt. 2, p. 55. 
Catostomus Bostoniensis, Lesueur, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc, i. p. 106, tig 

" " Storer's Report, p. S4. 

Le Calostome Boslonien (Catostomus Bostoniensis, Lesueur), Cuv. et Val., xvn. p. 432. 

15. Catostomus teres, Mitchill. 

Back and sides a speckled black and white. Belly whitish. Pectoral, abdominal, and 
anal fins yellowish. Dorsal and caudal dark brown. Elongated, round body. Tail almost 
even. 

D. 13. P. 17. V. 9. A. 8. C. 19. Length, 12 to 15 inches. 

New York, Mitchill. 

Cyprinus teres, Fresh-water Sucker, Mitchill, Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. of N. Y., i. p. 453. 
Catostomus teres, Fresh-water Sucker, Lesueur, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc., I. p. 103. 
Le Calostome grele (Catostomus teres, Lesueur), Cuv. et V.u. ., xvn. p. 463. 

10. Catostomus oblongus, Mitchill. 

Upper part of head a dark slate-color. Back greenish, fading into brilliant lemon-yellow 
on the sides. Four to six vertical obsolete bands, resplendent bluish green on the back, 
and becoming efiaced on the sides. Dorsal, caudal, and anterior portion of anal brown ; 






172 Storefs Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 

pectorals brownish, red at the base ; ventrals yellow. Second lobe of anal dull red. Head 
somewhat depressed. Back arched, approaching to gibbous. 

D. 14. P. 15. V. 9. A. 8. C. 19. Length, 6 to 12 inches. 

New York, Mitchill, Dekay. Charleston, South Carolina, Val. 

Cyprinus oblongus, Clmb of New York, Mitchill, Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. of N. Y., I. p. 459. 
Catostomus oblongus, Clmb of New York, Lesueur, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc., I. p. 108. 
Labeo oblongus, Brilliant Chub Sucker, Dekay's Report, p. 193, pi. 42, fig. 136. 
Le Catostome chub (Catostomus oblongus, Lesueue), Cuv. et Val., xvii. p. 441. 

17. Catostomus anisurus, Raf. ' 

Body and head brownish above ; sides and abdomen silvery ; dorsal and caudal fins olive ; 
anal reddish ; ventrals and pectorals orange. A deep transverse sulcation before the eyes. 
Snout gibbous. Anal reaches the base of the caudal. 

D. 17. P. 15. V. (?). A. 8. C. 22|. Length, 1 to 2 feet. 

Ohio, and most of its tributaries, Raf., Kirtland. 

Catostomus anisurus, Ohio Carp-Sucker, Raf., Ichth, Ohien., p. 54. 

" " White Sucker, White-No.se of the fishermen, Kirtland, Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist., v. 

p. 269, pi. 20, fig. 2. 

18. Catostomus melanops, Raf. 

Back olivaceous; sides whitish, with scattered black dots; a black spot on the gill- 
cover, and a large one between the dorsal and caudal fins. Caudal slightly lunated ; anal 
fin reaches the base of the caudal. Scales large. 

D. 14. P. 18. V. 9. A. 9. C. 18|. Length, 18 inches. 

Ohio and Big Miami Rivers, Raf., Kirtland. 

Catostomus melanops, Black-faced Sucker, Raf., Ichth. Ohien., p. 57. 
" " Spotted Sucker, Kirtland's Report, pp. 169, 193. 

" " Black-nosed Sucker, Spotted Sucker, Kirtland, Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist., v, p. 271, 

pi. 20, fig. 3. 

19. Catostomus bubalus, Raf. 

Back and head brown, sides bronzy and metallic ; abdomen whitish. Back gibbous. 
Dorsal long, terminating over the middle of the anal fin ; its anterior portion elevated, the 
posterior low. The lower lobe of the caudal fin the broader. Anal extends as far as the 
base of the caudal. Scales large, somewhat radiate with minute lines. 

D. 28. P. 16. V. (•). A. 11. C. 18f. Length, 1 to 3 feet. 

Ohio, Mississippi, Missouri, and their tributaries, Raf. Ohio River, Kirtland. 

Catostomus bubalus, Brown Buffalo-fish, Raf., Ichth. Ohien., p. 55. 
" " Kirtland's Report, pp. 169, 192. 

" Buffalo Sucker, Brown Buffalo, Kirtland, Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist., v. p. 266, pi. 19, 

fig. 2. 



Storefs Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 173 

20. Catostomus Sueurii, Rich. 

Back, sides, and gill-covers wood-brown, reflecting, when opposed to the light, many bril- 
liant tints, in which emerald-green and gold-yellow predominate ; bases of the scales bluish 
gray, producing an appearance of reticulation ; belly reddish white. The dorsal has the hue 
of the back, with a reddish margin ; the other fins are almost all entirely red. Scales very 
large, quadrangular. Forty-seven scales on the lateral line. Air-bladder divided into three 
portions, the central one the largest. 

D. 14. P. 16. V. 9 or 10. A. 9. C. 18§. Length, 19 inches. 

Northern Regions, Richardson. 

Cyprinus (Catostomus) Suerii, Picconow, Kich., Fauna Boreal. Americ, m. p. IIS. 

Catostomus Sueurii, Dekat's Report, p. 203. 

Le Catostome de Lesueur (Catoslomus Sueurii, Rich.), Ccv. et Vat.., ivii. p. 4G5. 

21. Catostomus elegans, Dekay. 
Above dsrk bluish ; beneath whitish, with pinkish suffusions along the abdomen. Head 
brilliant green, passing into yellowish and golden on the opercles. Dorsal and anal brown ; 
pectorals and ventrals faint orange ; caudal rosaceous. Dorsal subquadrate, rounded above. 
Scales large, with from three to six radiating impressed lines, crossed by others waved and 
concentric. 

D. 12. P. 15. V. 9. A. 8. C. 17. Length, 8 inches. 
New York, Dekat. 

Labeo elegans, New York Chub Sucker, Dekav's Report, p. 192, pi. 31, fig. 100. 

22. Catostomus esopus, Dekat. 

Back elevated. Scales large, oblong, the triangular area on the free portion with four ra- 
diating lines, the interstices between these lines with concentric wrinkles. Lateral line not 
obvious. Snout prominent. 

D. 12. P. 16. V. 9. A. 7. C. 19^. Length, 10 inches. 

New York, Dekay. 

Labeo esopus, Round-backed Chub Sucker, Dekay's Report, p. 195. 

23. Catostomus Oneida, Dekat. 

Dark bluish brown above ; lighter on the sides ; whitish beneath. Back gibbous, with 
two short subspinous rays to the dorsal fin. Head smooth, with numerous mucous po 
Scales very large. Seventeen in an oblique series from the dorsal fin. 

D. 2-13. P. 15. V.9. A. 8. C. 18;!. Length, 12 inches. 

Lake Oneida, Dekay. 

Called "Sucker," and " Mullet," at Lake Oneida. 

Catoslomus Oneida, Oneida Sucker, DsjCAY's Report, p 198. 



174 Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 

24. Catostomus pallidus, Dekay. 

Back light bluish, becoming mixed with yellow, and paler on the sides ; abdomen white ; 
dorsal and caudal dark brown, mixed with yellow ; anal with a faint tinge of yellow ; pec- 
torals and ventrals orange. Caudal fin falcate. Scales small on the back and shoulders, be- 
coming gradually larger towards the tail. The two portions of the air-bladder united by a 
wide aperture. 

D. 13. P. 16. V. 9. A. 8. C. 18|. Length, 9 inches. 

New York, Dekay. 

Catostomus pallidus, Pale Sucker, Dekay's Report, p. 200, pi. 33, fig. 104. 

25. Catostomus fasciatus, Lesueur. 

Body elongated, four times and three quarters longer than high. Height of dorsal equal 
to its length. Caudal deeply emarginated. Anal as high as the dorsal. Scales large and 
striated ; forty-five to forty-eight in a longitudinal series. The fish, when dried, is gray or 
plumbeous, variegated with green upon the back, with ten or twelve deeper gray lines, made 
more conspicuous with large blackish dots ; beneath white, unspotted. 

D. 14. P. (?)■ V. (?). A. 9. C (?). Length, 15i inches. 

Mississippi, Val. 

Le Catostome ray£ (Catostomus fasciatus, Lesueur), Cut. et Val., xvii. p. 449. 

26. Catostomus planiceps, Val. 

Body rounded anteriorly, slender, compressed posteriorly; height equal to one sixth its 
length. Profile rectilinear from the neck to the eye, from whence it descends in a very con- 
vex curve towards the mouth. Abdomen arched. Preoperculum very broad ; operculum 
narrow at its insertion, enlarging as it descends towards the angle of the pectorals. Dorsal 
short, height equal to three quarters its length. Anal rounded, height a little more than 
twice its length. Caudal emarginated,, its lobes rather longer than the anal. The pectorals 
and ventrals are truncated. Forty-eight scales in a longitudinal series upon the sides ; the 
radiating striae upon them are very conspicuous ; the circular ones very numerous and deli- 
cate. A green marbling, deep upon the back and sides; in scattered points upon the white 
belly. Fins greenish and dotted. 

D. 13. P. 13. V. 8. A. 8. C 4, 19-4. Length, 13i inches. 

Wabash River, Val. 

Le Catostome a tete plate (Catostomus planiceps, Val.), Cuv. et Val., xvii. p. 450. 

27. Catostomus carpio, Val. 

Body elongated, rounded. The third ray of the dorsal two thirds the length of the base 
of the fin. Dorsal longer than in the other species. The length of the anal equal to one fifth its 



Slorcr's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 1 75 

height ; this fin is higher than that of any other species of the genus, exceeding in length 
the caudal lobes. Pectorals very broad. Scales large, rounded, very strongly striated cir- 
cularly, slightly in rays ; forty-five in a longitudinal series. Golden green. 

D. 16. P. 10. V. 8. A. 8. C. 4, 19-1. Length, 25 inches. 

Lake Ontario, Val. 

Le Catostome carpe (Caloslomus carpio, Val.), Cuv. el Vai-, ivii. p. lo~. 

GENUS VI. SCLEROGNATHUS, Val. 
Snout slightly advanced beyond the mouth ; the extremity of the mouth is 
supported, as in the Catostomi, by the intermaxillary, which is furnished in 
front with a well developed, projecting, cartilaginous ethmoid. The upright 
branch is long, and of a styloid form, while the horizontal one is shortened, and 
a mere keel, the inferior edge of which serves merely to support the superior 
angle of the mouth. The remainder of the maxillary arch is formed by a 
fibrous ligament covered by a thin, undilated lip, reduced to a thin and 
fleshy protuberance. The upper jaw is a wide, very solid bony piece, under 
which the upper lip is partly drawn ; this bone is concealed by the first two 
suborbital's, being wider and no less advanced than those of the Catostomi. 
The lower lip is straight and delicate ; hence the mouth of the fish cannot ex- 
ercise suction in the manner of the Catostomi. As to its lips, it is a Leucis- 
cus ; hut the osteology of its mouth resembles that of the Catostomi. The 
dorsal is long, like that of the Carps. The head is naked, marked by lines of 
mucous pores. Pharyngeal teeth comb-like, finer and more equal than those 
of the Catostomi. The air-bladder is divided into two large lobes ; the ante- 
rior is large and rounded, with a slight depression at its superior face ; the 
second conical, twice as long as the first, and followed by two small lobes ; 
the second communicates with the oesophagus by an air-pipe. 

1. Sclerognathus cyprinus, Lesueur. 

Body compressed, elliptic, sharp at the base of the dorsal fin, which is very long and falci- 
form on its anterior part, and low behind. Fins of a gray-blue color. Anal fin lunaled. 
Caudal forked, with pointed lobes. Scales very large, semirhomboidal, and variegated with 
blue, yellow, and green reflections; thirty-five in a longitudinal series; seven rows of 
scales above, and six rows below, the lateral line. 

D. 31. P. 18. V. 9. A. 10. C. \H\. Length, 20 inches. 



176 Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 

Ohio River, Lake Erie, Raf., Kirtland. The fresh-water tributary streams of Chesa- 
peake Bay, Lesueur. Lake Pontchartrain, Val. 

Called " Sailor-fish," " Flying-fish," and " Skimbaek." 

Catostomus cyprinus, Carp, Lesiteur, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc., I. p. 91, fig. 

Catostomus velifer, Sailing Sucker, Raf., Ichth. Ohien., p. 66. 

Labeo cyprinus, Griffith's Cuv., x. p. 380. 

Caloslomus velifer, Carp of the Ohio, Kirtland's Report, pp. 169, 192. 

Labeo cyprinus, Long -finned Chub Sucker, Dekay's Report, p. 191, pi. 77, fig. 243. 

Le Sderognathe cyprin (Sclerognathus cyprinus, Val.), Cuv. et Val., xvn. p. 474. 

Sclerognathus cyprinus, Kirtland, Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist., v. p. 275, pi. 22, fig. 2. 

2. Sclerognathus cyprinella, Val. 
Body similar in form to that of the preceding species. The dorsal fin resembles that of 
the preceding ; but the anal fin is more pointed. The scales are much smaller ; there are 
forty-one in a longitudinal series, ten above and seven below the lateral line. Greenish gold, 
fins of a deeper color. 
D. 33. P. (<). V. (?). A. 12. C. (?). Length, (>)■ 
Lake Pontchartrain, Val. 

Le Sderognathe cyprinelle (Sclerognathus cyprinella, Val), Cuv. et Val., XVII. p. 477. 

GENUS VII. EXOGLOSSUM, Raf. 

Body elongated, slightly compressed, covered with small scales, vent nearest 

to the tail. Head scaleless, flattened above, mouth terminal, toothless ; lower 

jaw shorter, with three or five lobes, the middle one larger, simulating a 

tongue ; lips very small. Ventral fins with nine rays ; dorsal fin opposed to 

them. 

1. Exoglossum Lesueurianum, Raf. 

Head large, snout very short, broad, and convex ; lateral line curves regularly to the mid- 
dle of the body, and descends thence in nearly a straight line to the tail. The dorsal fin is 
large, quadrangular, in the centre of the body ; the caudal is forked. Back brownish olive ; 
sides blue, with a brownish band ; a black spot at the base of the caudal fin ; beneath silvery 
gray. 

D. 9. P. 18. V. 8. A. 9. C. 9 principal rays. Lesueur. 

D. 9. P. 15. V. 7. A. 8. C. 19f. Valenciennes. Length, 4 inches. 

Maryland, Lesueur. Lake Owaska, Val. 

Cyprinus maxilingua, Little Sucker, Lesueur, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc., I. p. 86. 

Exoglossum Lesueurianum, Raf., Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc, I. p. 420. 

Catostomus maxilingua, Little Sucker, Dekay's Report, p. 203. 

L'Exoglosse de Lesueur (Exoglossum Lesueurianum, Raf.), Cuv. et Val., xvn. p. 483. 

2. Exoglossum macroplerum, Raf. 
Head nearly square, forehead truncate, tuberculated, mouth protractile, lower lip five-lobed. 



Stover's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 177 

pyramidal, silvered, variegated, and reticulated with blackish ; lateral line straight, but faint. 
All the lower fins elongated ; the pectorals reaching the abdominal, the anal reaching the tail, 
dorsal fin with twelve rays ; tail forked. Scales very minute. 

D. 12. P. 12. V. (?). A. 10. C. 20. Length, 2 to 3 inches. 

Ohio River, Raf. 

Exoglossum macropterum, Stone Toter, Raf., Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc., i. p. 421, pi. 17, fig. 3. 
L'Exoglosse macroptere (Exoglossum macropterum, Raf.), Cuv. <;i Vai.., evil | 

3. Exoglossum annulatum, Raf. 

Head narrow, forehead smooth and convex, lower lip trilobated ; body oblong, olivaceous, 
back blackish, a black ring at the base of the tail ; lateral line curved downwards at the 
base. Fins olivaceous ; pectoral fins elliptic, obtuse, not reaching the abdominal ; dorsal 
fins in the middle of the back with nine rays ; caudal fin forked. Scales larger than in the 
preceding. 

D. 9. P. 15. V. (?). A. 9. C. 24. Length, 3 to 6 inches. 

New York, Raf. 

Exoglossum annulatum, Black Chub, Raf., Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc., I. p. 421, pi. 17, fig. 4. 
L'Exoglosse a. anneau (Exoglossum annulatum, Raf.), Cuv. et Vai. , xvn. p. l^r. 

4. Exoglossum nigrescens, Raf. 

Head short, forehead smooth and convex, lower lip trilobated ; body oblong; lateral line 
nearly straight; pectoral fins short, oval ; dorsal fin in the middle of the back ; tail sh: 
forked. Black, which color extends to the fins ; no caudal ring. 

D. ( ; ). P. (?). V. (.'). A- (.'). C.(?)- Length, 2 to 8 inches. 

Lake Champlain, Raf. 

Exoglossum nigrescens, Black Chub, Raf., Journ. Acad Nat. Sc., i. p. 422. 
L'Exoglosse noir.Urc (Exoglossum nigrescens, Raf.), Cuv. eL Val., xvn. p. 438. 

5. Exoglossum spinicephaluni, Val. 

Head short, less than one sixth the length of the body. Dorsal very small ; anal larger 
pectorals pointed. Scales smooth. Back greenish ; the remainder of the body silvery. 
D. 7. P. (?)• V. (?). A. 9. C. (?). Length, 1 inches. 
Wabash River, Lesueur. 

Leuciscus spinicephalus, Lesueur, Cuv. ct Val,, xvii. p. 489. 

L'Exoglosse spinicephale (Exoglossum spinicephalum, Val.), Ctrv. et Val., xvii. p. 1 (9 

G. Exoglossum dubium, Kirtland. 

Head and back olive ; operculum iridescent ; sides dusky, abdomen white. Fins fulvi 
Head elongated. The upper jaw projects beyond the lower, which is small, semicircular. 

66 



178 Storei-'s Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 

and mostly concealed by the projection of the upper when the mouth is closed. Scales 
small, oval. The upper lobe of the caudal fin is acuminate, the lower is obtuse. 
D. 8. P. 14. V. 8. A. 7. C. 20. Length, 4 to 6 inches. 

Ohio, KlRTLAND. 

Exo£lo3suni Lesueurianum, Rough-nosed Dace, Raf., Kirtland's Report, pp. 169. 193. 

Exoglossum dubium, Sucker-moulhed Chub, Kirtland, Eo^t. Journ. Nat. Hist., v. p. 272, pi. 21, fig. 1. 

GENUS VIII. POECILIA, Schn. 

Body but little elongated, the ventrals not very far back, and the dorsal just 
above the anal. Upper part of the head flat, the opercula large, rays three. 
Jaws flattened horizontally, protractile, but little cleft, furnished with a single 
range of small and very fine teeth. 

1. Pcecilia multilineata, Lesueur. 

Body compressed, wider towards the operculum. Lines and black spots forming longi- 
tudinal bands upon the sides. Dorsal twice as long as high. Snout cuneiform seen in the 
profile, fiat and wide seen from above. Scales moderate, rounded, and concentrically lined. 

D. 14. P. 16. V. 6. A. 9. C. 26. Length, 1A inches. 

Florida, Lesueur. 

Pcecilia muliilineata, Lesueur, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc, ii. p. 4, pt. 1, fig. 1. 
" " Dekav's Report, p. 215. 

2. Poecilia olivacea, Storer. 

Body oblong, head flattened above. All the upper portion of the body olive-colored, 
sprinkled with minute black dots; a light spot on the top of the head. A broad black band, 
commencing at the angle of the jaws, is continued the whole length of the body to the caudal 
rays. The throat and abdomen are white The fins yellowish green ; the caudal rounded, 
and spotted like the upper portion of the body. This species is caught at all seasons, swim- 
ming on the surface of the water, catching at floating objects, and hence commonly called 
Top minnow. 

D. 9. P. 13. V. 6. A. 12. C. 19. Length, 2i inches. 

Florence, Alabama, Storer. 

Puxilia olivacea, Storer, Proceed. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., July, L845. 

3. Poecilia catenata, Storer. 

Body oblong, compressed- Eight or ten interrupted longitudinal orange lines upon the 
sides ; spots of a similar color upon opercles. Two bands passing from eyes to mouth ; the 
upper yellowish green, the lower blue. Pectoral, dorsal, and anal fins yellow, and each of 



Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North* America. 179 

them more or less dotted with deep orange, so arranged in the dorsal as to appear like a lon- 
gitudinal band at its base. Base of caudal spotted with similar dots ; its centre ash-colored ; 
a black transverse band at its posterior extremity, margined with yellow. A bluish tint upon 
the body at the base of the pectorals, and upon the sides below the dorsal. 

D. (?). P. (?). v!(>). A. (?). C. (?). Length, 4i inches. 

Florence, Alabama, Storer. 



GENUS IX. LEBIAS, Cuv. 
Resemble Pcecilia, with the exception that their teeth are denticulated. 

1. Lebias ellipsoides, Lesueur. 

Deep brown. Greatest thickness of body is between the opercula, very compressed 
towards the tail. Eyes large. Scales large. Dorsal high, rounded ; anal small and round ; 
caudal unequal, enlarged and elongated posteriorly, and obliquely truncated. The young 
pale, generally with white belly, and silvery gill-covers. A few faint traces of longitudinal 
lines, and brownish mottles or marks, not quite amounting to bands or zones, distincuish- 
ing the sides perpendicularly. 

D. II. P. (?). V. G. A. 10. C. 20. Length, 2 inches. 

Connecticut, Ayres. New York, Mitchill, Dekay. Florida, Lesueur. 

ivious Sheeps-head, Killifiah, MrreaiLt,, Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. of N. Y., i. p. 111. pi. ; 
Lebias ellipsoides, Lesueur, Joum. Acad. Nat. Sc., n. p. 6, pi. 2, figs. 1 and 2. 
Cyprinodon ovinia, Yaj , Humboldt et Boxpland, n. p. 164. 
Lebias ellipsoides, Ayres, Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist., iv. p. 2G4. 

iasovinus, Sheeps-head Lebias, Dekay's Report, p. 215. pi. 27, fij.sM; youn». 
Lebias ellipsoides, Lesueur, Dekay's Report, p. 216. 

" " Ayres, Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist., iv. p. 26S. 

GENUS X. FUNDULUS, Lacep. 

Have many relations with Pcecilia ; but their teeth arc small and crowded, 
and those of the anterior range are bent ; they have some conical teeth rather 
strong at the pharynx ; there are but four rays to the gills. 

1. Fundulus iuscus, Ayres. 
Body rather rounded, somewhat compressed towards the tail. Above and on the sides very 
dark brown, striped longitudinally with narrow lines, which are lighter. Abdomen white. 
A transverse black band at the base of the caudal fin. 

D. 15. P. 14. V. 6. A. 9. C. 13. Length, 2 to 3 inches. 
Connecticut River, Ayres. 

Fundulus fuscus, Ai ss, Bost. Joum. Nat. Hi9t., vt 



1 80 Stover's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 

GENUS XI. HYDRARGYRA, Lesueur. 

Head flat, shielded above with large scales, the centre scale largest. Teeth 
in the jaws and throat ; those of the jaws conic and recurved ; none in the 
palate ; jaws protractile ; lower jaw the longer. Scales on the opercula and 
body. Branchial rays, four to five. Ventral fins six-rayed. The dorsal fin 
situated nearer to the tail than the head, opposite to the anal. 

1 . Hydrargyra fasciata, Schn. 

Back and sides greenish or olive. The sides are crossed by from ten to twenty vertical 
white lines or spots. Within these are numerous silvery-white and steel-blue dots, which 
extend over the dorsal and anal fins. In the spawning season, the abdomen is of a brilliant 
golden yellow ; hut during the rest of the year it is white. 

D. 12. P. 15. V. 6. A. 11. C. 27. Mitchill. Length, 4 inches. 

D. 10. P. 17. V. C. A. 10. C. 101. Dekay. 

Connecticut, Ayres. New York, Mitchill, Dekay. Carolina, Dekay. 

Esox pisciculus, Yellow-bellied Killifish, Mitchill, Trans. Lit. anil Phil. Soc. of N. Y., i. p. 441. 

Fundulus fasciatus, Vai.., Humboldt et Bonplamd, n. p. 162, pi, 62, figs. 1,4,5. 

Fundulus zebra, Barred Killifish, Dekay's Report, p 219. 

Hydrargyra fasciata (ScaN.), Ayres, Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist., IV. p. 2CG. 

2. Hydrargyra pisculenta, Mitchill. 

Olive-green above; lighter on the sides, and becoming whitish, tinged with yellowish on 
the abdomen. Opercles, pectorals, and ventrals light greenish-yellow. Caudal nearly even, 
round. In large specimens, the color of the sides is uniform ; in very small specimens are 
black vertical bands, constituting the Esox zonatus of Mitchill. 

D. 13. P. 15. V. 6. A. 11. C. '27. Mitchill- 

D. 11. P. 17. V. 6. A. 11. C. 25. Dekay. Length, 1 to 4 inches. 

Connecticut, Ayres. New York, Mitchill, Dekay. 

Esox pisculentus, White-bellied Killifish, Mitchill, Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. of N. Y., i. p. 441. 
Esox zonatus, Banded Killifish, IVIitchill, Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. of N, Y., l. p. 413. 
Fundulus viridescens, Big Killifish, Dekay'b Report, p. 217, pi. 31, fig. 99. - 
Hydrargyra pisculenta, Ayres, Bost, Journ. Nat. Hist., iv. p. 2G~. 

3. Hydrargyra flavula, Mitchill. 

Female- Yellowish green above, lighter upon the sides, white beneath ; opercles, and upper 
portion of abdomen, golden. Several interrupted longitudinal black bands, varying from one 
to four, upon the sides. Prom two to four transverse bands of a similar color, at the base of 
the caudal fin. Dorsal rather longer than high. 

Male. Back and sides greenisli black ; sides crossed by numerous slate-colored, nearly 

5- 



Storer's St/7iopsis of the Fishes of North America. 181 

black, vertical bands, varying; in their number from ten to twenty, or even more. Lower 
portion of sides, as well as of the abdomen, of a beautiful yellowish green. A large black 
blotch upon the operculum. A black spot upon the posterior rays of the dorsal tin, which is 
violet-colored ; caudal orange-colored, margined at its extremity with black ; anal emargi- 
nated posteriorly. 

D. 14 to 10. P. 1G to 18. V. G. A. 11. C. 18 to 23. Length, 1 to 4 inches. 

Massachusetts, Storer. Connecticut, Ayres. New York, Mitchill, Dekay. 

Eso: Vew York Gudgeon, Mitchill, Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. of N. Y., I. p. 439, pi. 4, fig. 8. 

Cyprinodon Qavulus, Val., Humboldt el Bonpland, ii. p. 101, pi. 62, tig. 3. 

Hydrargyra trifasciata, Storer, Bosl. Journ. Nat. Hist., I. p. 417. 

Hydrargyra fluvula, Storer's Report, p. 9.3. 

Hydrargyra forraosa (male), Storer, Proceed. Bost Soc. Nat. Hist., p 

Fundulus fascialus, Striped KHIifish, Dekay's Report, p. 21G, pi. 31. fig. 93. 

Hydrargyra Ilavula, Mitch., Ayres, Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist., rv. p.2G7. 

4. Hydrargyra diaphana, Lesueur. 

Body diaphanous, with sixteen irregular transverse brown bands confluent on the back. 
Back and upper part of the head brown-olive, lower parts while ; sides with delicate blue 
tints. Dorsal almost double the size of the anal fin. 

D. 13. P. 18. V. 6. A. 12. C. 18|. Length, 5 inches. 

Saratoga Lake, New York, Lesueur. 

Hydrargyra diaphana, Lesueur, Journ. Acad. Nat. So , t. p. 130. 

" Transparent Minnow, Dekay's Report, p. 219. 

5. Hydrargyra multifasciata, Lesueur. 

Fifty transverse bands on the sides, alternately olive-brown and blue. Dorsal and anal 

almost equal. Extremities of pectorals extending beyond the base of the ventrals. 

D. 14. P. 18. V. 6. A. 12. C. 16|. Length, 3 inches. 

New York, Lesueur. 

Hydrargyra multifasciata, Lesueur, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc, i. p. 131. 
Barred Minnow, Dekay's Report, p. 220. 

6. Hydrargyra ornata, Lesueur. 

Sides of a bright blue, with small white spots, and ornamented with fifteen or sixteen 
transverse, narrow silvery stripes; dorsal clear blue, with yellow spots, posteriorly marked 
with a large, deep-blue patch, surrounded with a white band, and another of blue. Back 
elevated. Dorsal and anal large. 

D. 11. P. 18. V. 6. A. 12. C. 18?. Length, 3 inches. 

Massachusetts, Lesueur, Storer. Delaware River, Lesueur. 

Hydrargyra ornata, Lesueur, .Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc, I. p. 131. 

" Ornamented Minnow, Storer's Report, p. 94. 
" " Dekay's Report, p. 221. 



132 Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 

7. Hydrargyra nigro-fasciata, Lesueur. 

Body above, a reddish yellow, deeper on the back ; abdomen yellowish white ; caudal 
o-reenish blue, the other fins yellow ; body with thirteen or fourteen transverse black bands. 
Back considerably elevated opposite the pectorals. Dorsal and anal fins long and narrow. 

D. 12. P. 18. V. 6. A. 10. C. 16|. Length, 2 inches. 

Massachusetts, Storer. Rhode Island, Lesueur. 

Hydrargyra nigro-fasciata, Lesueur, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc, i. p. 133. 
" " Banded Minnow, Stoker's Report, p. 94. 

" " Dekay's Report, p. 221. 

S. Hydrargyra limi, Kirtland. 

Body uniformly cylindric, fusiform, slightly compressed behind the dorsal and anal fins. 
Dark olive, irregularly waved with fuscous ; abdomen free from the olive ; an irregular trans- 
verse black band on the body, near the base of the caudal fin. 

D. 13. P. (?)■ V. (.'). A. 10. C. 14. Length, 2 to 3 inches. 

Ohio, Kirtland. 

Hydrargyra limi, Kirtland, Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist., in. p. 277, pi. 2, fig. 1. 

9. Hydrargyra fusca, Thompson. 

Above dark olive, mottled with blackish ; sides mottled with brown, green, and golden, 
with faint indications of yellowish bars; belly dull brownish, bronzy yellow; fins dusky 
yellow ; sides yellowish at the base of the tail, crossed by a vertical black bar, with a 
brownish crescent-shaped line along the base of the caudal rays, marking, with a vertical 
line, the form of the letter D. Scales large ; thirty-six along the lateral line. 

D. 14. P. 15. V. 0. A. 10. C. 16. Length, 2 to 4 inches. 

Lake Champlain, Thompson. 

Hydrargyra fusca, Mud-fish, Thompson's Hist, of Vermont, p. 137, fig. 
Hydrargyra atricauda, Champlain Minnow, Dekay's Report, p. 220. 

GENUS XII. MOLLINESIA, Lesueur. 

Head flat ; operculum large ; branchial rays or gills, four or five. Jaws 
flattened ; mouth horizontal, very small, furnished with small and slender 
teeth, anteriorly hooked, and with minute posterior ones resembling velvet. 
Body short, thick, and compressed. Anal between the ventrals. 

1. Mollinesia latipinna, Lesueur. 

Reddish. Scales posteriorly spotted with black, forming interrupted lines. Body most 
elevated anteriorly. Dorsal very large and long. 






Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 1 83 

D. 14. P. 1G. V.6. A. 16. C. (?). Length, 2i inches. 

Fresh water, Louisiana, Lesuecr. 

Mollinesia lalipinna, Lesvefh, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc, n. p. 3, pi. 3, fig. 1. 
" Dekav's Report, p. 221. 

- 

GENUS XIII. CYPRINODON, Lacep. 
Have fine and crowded teeth, and six rays to the gills ; in other respects 
they resemble the Lebias, Fundulus, and Mollinesia. 

1. Cyprinodon variegatus, Lacep. 
Body subovate, variegated with brown spots and bands. 
D. 12. P. 14. V. 6. A. 11. C. 20. Length, (.'). 
Rivers of Carolina, Val. 

Cyprinodon variegatus (Lacep.), Val., Humboldt et Bonpland, ii p. 165. 

FAMILY XVII. HYPS.EIDiLV Storee. 

The jaws of (his family are provided with lips ; the intermaxillaries and 
lower jaw are armed with minute, slender, and slightly recurved teeth, most 
abundant a short distance from the median line ; upper maxillaries destitute of 
teeth. The intermaxillaries form the borders of the mouth above, and extend 
nearly to its angles. No eyes to be seen on dissection. Body covered with 
circular scales, which are so imbedded in the cuticle as not to present free 
edges. No adipose dorsal. Intestinal canal shorter than the body ; stomach 
cylindrical, terminating posteriorly in a short triangular cul dc sac ; pylorus 
situated near the posterior extremity of the stomach, has a distinct valve which 
projects into the cavity of the duodenum ; two short, pyriform ccecal append- 
ages open by distinct orifices on opposite sides of the intestine. Air-bladder 
cordiform, deeply cleft anteriorly. 

This family, which I have formed in a great measure from the dissection 
of the only known species (Amblyopsis spekus) by my friend, Jeffries Wy- 
man, M. D., published in Silliman's Journal, appears to be more nearly 
allied to the Cyprinidce than to any other family of the Malacopterygii. It 
differs, however, from it, in the existence of a cul de sac to the stomach, and 

* Hypsaea cacior. ffor. 



The Maskaionge. 

We are glad our acknowledgment of the re- 
ception of four fine specimens of the Longe, or 
Vermont Salmon, from Lake Magog, has drawn 
the following interesting communication from 
our friend Mr. Thompson, whose merits as a 
Naturalist are no less extraordinary than his 
attainments, in every branch of the great science 
of Natural History. We always feel honored 
when Mr. Thompson makes our columns the 
medium for the publication of the results of his 
observations- or experiments, on any subject, and 
■ this feeling is naturally stronger when we find 
that our own crude reflections on any topic be- 
come suggestive of methodical and well-digest- 
ed thought to him. We know he will scarcely 
pardon us for these terms of slight praise,— 
which every body except himself knows to be 
far less decided than they might be without any 
; just implication of flattery. 

We have only a word to add, and that is, if 
the Maskaionge is not hereafter known and spo- 
ken of, if, the scientific world, as the Esox no- 
uilior, we hooK-and-line naturalists, whose •' in- 
vestigations" rarely extend beyond the gills and 
throat, in the lice specimen, and the muscular 
integuments in the cooked ditto, will know and 
speak of it as " nothing else .'" We lay it down 
as a good general rule, that a fish that Mr. 
Thompson finds himself obliged to name, has 
not been named before,— and Professor Agassiz 
himself "may put that in his pipe and smoke 
it V'—lEd. F. P. 

For the Daily Free Press. 
Mr. Editor:— Iq. one of your Daily's of last week 
1 observed a notice, which was highly commendato- 
ry, of a Fish, which is very common in Lake Mem- 
phremagog and many of the ponds in the Northeast- 
ern part of the State, and is there called the Longe. 
This is the same fish which was formerly caught in 
Lake Champlain, and was in early times called the 
Salmon Trout. It is called at the West the Greet 
Lake Trout, and specimens have been taken weigh- 
ing nearly 100 lbs. 

Now while I would abate nothing of your com- 
mendation of the Longe, I desire to say a word re- 
specting the Maskaionge. I had been often told by 
the fishermen previous to the publication of my His- 
tory of Vermont in 1842, that we had in our waters 
a fish resembling, but, at the same time, specifically 
distinct from, the Lake Pickerel, which they called 
the Maskaionge, and I received two or three speci- 
mens which were sent me as Maskaionge, but as they 
all provod to be overgrown Pickerel, I concluded the 
fishermen were mistaken 









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184 Storefs Synopsis of the Fishes of North .America. 

coecal appendages to the pylorus, and in possessing a cordiform natatory blad- 
der. From the Esoces, it is distinguished by the presence of coecal ap- 
pendages. From the Siluridte, it differs in the existence of scales and coeca, 
and by the absence of cirrhi. From the Salmonidae, by the existence of 
but two ccecal appendages, and by the absence of the adipose dorsal fin. 

GENUS I. AMBLYOPSIS, Dekay. 
Bady with scales. Vent anterior to the base of the pectorals. Eyes not 
apparent, even upon careful dissection. Ventrals minute. A single dorsal. 
Teeth on the jaws and palatines. No scales upon head, but slightly elevated, 
transverse ridges are observed upon it. No barbels. 

1. Amblyopsis spelseus, Dekay. 

Whitish. Head broad and flattened. Mouth large. Most of the fins with filamentous 

tips. 

D. 7. P. 12. V. 5. A. 8. C. 16|. Length, 3A inches. 

Mammoth Cave, Kentucky, Dekay. 

Amblyopsis spelteus, Dekay's Report, p. 187. 

" Wyman, SiUimau's Journal, xlv. p. 94. 

FAMILY XVIII. ESOCID^. 

Body elongated. One dorsal, and generally opposite to the anal. Edge of 
the upper jaw either formed solely by the intermaxillaries, or if the labials 
enter at all into its composition, they are destitute of teeth. Intestinal canal 
short, without coeca. Branchial rays vary from three to eighteen. Month 
large, and without sharp teeth. 

GENUS I. ESOX, Cuv. 
Head depressed, large, oblong, blunt ; intermaxillaries small, with small 
pointed teeth at the middle of the upper jaw, of which they form two bands. 
The mamillaries forming the sides have no teeth. The vomer, palatines, 
tongue, pharyngeals, and branchial arches, bristled with card-like teeth. Sides 
of the lower jaw with a row of long, pointed teeth. 

1. Esox estor, Lesueur. 

Back deep greenish-brown ; sides with numerous rounded and oblong pale-yellowish spots: 



Stow's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 185 

abdomen white. Fins reddish yellow, marbled with blackish and deep green. Scales small ; 
about one hundred and sixty along the lateral line, and forty-five in a vertical row before the 
ventrals. Caudal large, lunated, with equal and rounded lobes. 

D. 22. P. 18. V. 11. A. 20. C.20|. Lesueur. Length, 1 to 3 feet. 

D. 21. P. 14. V. 11. A. 17. C.26. Mitchill. 

D. 21. P. 12. V. 11. A. 21. C.19?. Dekav. 

Lake Erie, Lesueur. Lake Huron, Richardson. Ohio River, Kirtland. 

Esox estor, Pike, Pickerel, Maskallonge, Lesueur, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc, I. p. 413. 
" " Griffith's Cuv., i. p. 390. 

" " Maskinonge, Rich., Fauna Boreal. Americ, in. p. 127. 
" " Muskallonge, Kirtland's Report, pp. 169, 191. 
" " Muskellunge, Dekay's Report, p. 222. 

Muskallonge, Kirtland's Manuscript for Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist. 

2. Esox reticulatus, Lesueur. 

Yellowish green, with more or less distinct irregularly-distributed longitudinal black lines. 
Beneath white. Fins greenish. Pectorals, anal, and ventrals become reddish after death. 
A vertical black band beneath the eye. Caudal deeply emarginated. 

D. 18. P. 13. V. 11. A. 17. C. 19. Length, 1 to 2 feet. 

Massachusetts, Storer. Connecticut, Linsley, Ayres. New York, Dekay. Ohio. 

Kirtland. 

Esox lucius, Fickerel, Mitchill, Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. of N. Y., I. p. 440. 
Esox reticulatus, Lesueur, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc, I. p. 414. 

Common Pickerel, Storer's Report, p. 97. 

Pike, Kirtland's Report, p. 194. 
" Common Pickerel, Dekay's Report, p. 223, pi. 34, fig. 107. 

Esox fasciatus, Varied Pickerel, Dekay's Report, p. 224, pi. 34, fig. 110 (young). 
Esox reticulatus, Pickerel, Thompson's Hist, of Vermont, p. 138. 

Lesueur, Ayres, Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist., iv. p. 2G9. 

Pickerel, Pike, Kirtland, Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist., iv. p. 233, pi. 10, fig. 2. 
Esox tredecemlineatus, Federation Pike, Mitchill, Mirror, 1825, p. 361. 
Esox tredecem-radialus, Federation Pike, Dekay's Report, p. 225 

3. Esox ni^er, Lesueur. 

Golden yellow upon sides, with numerous black bands interrupted into about three parts. 
more distinct towards the head- Belly white, immaculate. Back and head deep black, im- 
maculate. Pectoral and anal fins orange-yellow; dorsal and caudal bluish, the latter 
slightly emarginate, lobes acute ; dorsal and anal fins opposite, subequal, rounded. 

D. 14. P. 15. V. 9. A. 14. C. IOjg. Length, 8 or 10 inches. 

Saratoga Lake, Lesueur- 

Esoxniger, Black Pike, Lesueur, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc, i. p. 415. 

Dr. Dekay thinks this may be the young of the E. reticulatus. 

4. Esox phaleratus, Say. 

Body dusky, with a vertical fulvous vitta, and three or four fulvous fascia:. 

67 



1 86 Stover's Synopsis of the Fishes of North Jmerica. 

D. (?)■ P- (■')• v - (•')• A. (?)■ C. (?). Length, (?). 
East Florida, Say. 

Esox phaleraliis, Say, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc, i. p. 416. 
,( " Dekay's Report, p. 226, 

5. Esox lucius (?), Lin. 

Back tinged with blackish green, which changes on the sides to light greenish-gray, and 
on the belly to pearl-white ; on the tip of each scale, there is a bright speck having the form 
of the letter V, and there are seven or eight longitudinal rows of oblong yellowish-gray spots 
on the sides of the head, body, and tail. Scales thin, broadly oval, their outer edge semi- 
circular, their covered portion deeply divided by fissures into three or four lobes, whose edges 
overlap ; one hundred and twenty-four on the lateral line, thirty-six in a vertical row before 
the ventrals. 

D. 20. P. 16. V. 10. A. 18. C 18|. Length, 20 inches. 

Northern regions, Richardson. 

Esox lucius. Common Pike, Rich., Fauna Eoreal. Ameiic. ill. p. 124. 
" ,; (''), Dekay's Keport, p. 226. 

Richardson says, " One specimen, taken in Lake Huron, was submitted to Cuvier's in- 
spection, and it has also been carefully compared with the English Pike, without any spe- 
cific differences having been detected." 






GENUS II. BELONE, Cuv. 



■ 



Head and body greatly elongated ; the latter covered with minute scales. 
Both jaws very much produced, straight, narrow, and pointed ; armed 
with numerous small teeth, those of the pharynx paved. Scales not very 
apparent, except a longitudinal range, carinated on each side, near the infe- 
rior edge. 

1. Belone truncata, Lesueur. 

Above light green, beneath clear silvery-white. Just above the base of the pectorals a 
deep blue band arises and passes in a straight line to the origin of the dorsal fin. Lower 
mandible the longer. Caudal fin obliquely truncated. Ventrals small. 
D. 16. P. 16. V. 6. A. 19. C. 20. Lesueur. Length, 1 to 2 feet. 
D. 15. P. 12. V. 6. A. 18. C. 19. Mitchill. " " " 

D. 15. P. 12. V. 6. A. 19. C. 20. Storer. " " " 

D. 16. P. 12. V. 6. A. 19. C. 19§. Dekay. " " " 

Massachusetts, Storer. Connecticut, Linsley, Ayres. New York, Lesueur, Mitch- 
ill, Dekay. Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Lesueur. 



Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of Worth America. 1 87 

. Bill-fiah, MiTrmi.L, Tran-'. I,n and Phil. Soc, of N. V.. i p II.; 

1 i Mitchoa, Amer. Month. Mag., u. p. 322. 

truncata, Gar or Bi i R, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc., n. p. 121 

Gar-fish, Storer's Report, p. 98. 
" Banded Gar-fish, Dekay'i Report, p. 227, pi. 35, fig. 112. 

2. Belone argalus, Lesueur. 
Bright blue upon the back ; the under side and opercula silvery. Dorsal and anal fins un- 
equal ; mil deeply forked, lobes rounded, the inferior the longer ; pectorals small. Lateral 
line very low, interrupted by the ventral fins, and beginning to rise above the base of the anal, 
is then continued along the middle of the tail. 

D. 16. P. 18. V. 0. A. 19. C. 26. Length, (?). 
Island of Guadaloupe, Lesueur. 

Belone arcalus, Lesceur, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc, li. 

3. Belone Caribbcea, Lesueur. 

Back deep blue; whitish beneath. Mandibles equal, slender, and pointed ; dorsal con- 
tinued farther back than the anal fin, the last rays also longer; caudal scolloped, lobes 
rounded, the inferior twice as long as the superior ; ventrals rather long. 

D. 24. P. 13. V. 6. A. 22. C 30?. Length, (>). 

Caribbean Sea, Lesueur. 

Belone naribbcea, Lesoeor, Journ Acad. Nat Sc., u. p. 127. 
" Bennett, Sowb. Zool. Journ., v. 



GENUS III. SCOMBERESOX, Cuv. 

Have the same structure of the jaws as those of the Belone ; and are simi- 
lar, also, in the form of the body and scales, with a keel-like edge to the 
belly ; but the posterior portions of the dorsal and anal fins are divided, forming 
finlets, as in the Mackerel. 



1. Scomberesox Storeri, Dekay. 

Back olive-green ; a silvery band half an inch wide, almost as strongly marked as in the 
Atherines, runs the whole length of the body, divided in its centre by a narrow longitudinal 
line of the color of the back. Abdomen silvery, with a cupreous tinge. The lower jaw the 
longer. Five or six finleis back of the dorsal fin ; five to seven finlets back of the anal fin. 
A longitudinal furrow along the sides. 

D. 10. P. 14. V. 6. A. 12. C. 20. Length, 10 inches. 

Newfoundland, Lesueur. Massachusetts, Storer. New York, Dekav. 



188 Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of JYorth Jmerica. 

Scomberesox equiroatrum, Lesueur, Joum. Acad. Nat. Sc, n. p. 132. 
Scomberesox scutellatum, ( * 

Scomberesox equiroatrum, Bill-fish, Stoker's Report, p. 100. 
Scomberesox Storeri, Bill-fish, Dekay's Report, p. 229, pi. 35, fig. 111. 

In my " Report on the Fishes of Massachusetts," I pointed out the error into which all 
ichthyologists might be led by Lesueur's specific name ; unquestionably it should be changed. 
Dr. Dekay has thought proper to affix mine ; I retain it, until some future ichthyologist pre- 
fers another. 

GENUS IV. EXOCETUS, Lin., Cuv. 
Head and body covered with scales ; pectoral fins very large, nearly as long 
as the body ; dorsal fin placed over the anal ; upper half of the tail the small- 
er ; both jaws furnished with small teeth. 

1. Exocetus comatus, Mitchill. 

Above brown, beneath white. Scales deciduous. Pectorals reach as far back as the pos- 
terior extremity of the dorsal ; ventrals long. A long black cirrhus depending from the chin. 
D. 11. P. 12. V. 0. A. 6. C. (?). Length, 5 inches. 
New York, Mitchill. 

Exocetus comatus; Single-bearded Flying-fish, Mitchill, Trans. Lit. and Phil Soc. of N. Y., i. p. 418, pi. 5, 

fig. 1. 
Exocetus appendicular (?), Wood, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc, iv. p. 2S3, pi. 17, fig. 2. 
Exocetus comatus, Single-bearded Flying-fish, Dekay's Report, p. 231, pi. 36, fig. 115. 

2. Exocetus furcatus, Mitchill. 

Bluish above, silvery on the sides. Pectorals and ventrals with brown bands. Abdomen 

carinated. Scales small. Two cirrhi or tough appendages suspended from the lower jaw. 

D. 15. P. (?). V. 10. A. 8. C. 17. Length, (>)• 

New York, Mitchill. Gulf of Mexico, Lesueur. 

Exocetus furcatus, Double-bearded Flying-fish, Mitchill, Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. of N. V i p 3 19 

pi. 5. Bg 2 
Exocetus Nuttallii (?), Lesueur, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc, II. p. 10, pi. 4, fig. 1. 
Exocetus furcatus, Double-bearded Flying-fish, Dekay's Report, p. 231. 

Cuvier suspects the E. furcatus and E Nuttallii to be one species. 

3. Exocetus Noveboracensis, Mitchill. 

Dark green above ; beneath white and silvery. Abdomen carinated on its sides. Ven- 
trals very long- Caudal forked, the lower lobe almost twice as long as the upper. Teeth 
very minute. No filaments to lower jaw. 

D. 14. P. 15. V. 6. A. 8. C. (?). Length, 12 inches. 

New York, Mitchill. 



Storcr's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 189 

Exocetus Noveboracensis, New York Fh Ing B h, Mitchill, Amer , n. p. 323. 

I port, p. 230, pi. 3G, fig. H4. 

4. Exocetus exilicns, Bloch. 

Bright silvery, with a blue or dusky tinge on the upper part ; fins dusky. Pectorals lan- 
ceolate, and scarcely extend to caudal ; anal and dorsal straight, low. and about equal ; cau- 
dal deeply forked, lower lobe nearly twice the length of the upper ; ventrals large, situated 
a little beyond the middle of the abdomen. In young specimens, there are brown bands on 
the pectorals and ventrals. 

D. 12. P. 18. V. 16. A. 10. C. 20. Length, 12 to 10 inches. 

Gulf of Mexico, Lesueur. 

Exocetus exiliens, Bloch, 397. 

" Lin., Syst. Nat., p 1400. 

Mediterranean Flying-fish, Shaw's Gen. Zool., v. p. 142. pi. HG. 

" Rich.. Fauna Boreal. Americ, m. p, 129 
Exocetus fascialus, Lesueur, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc., n. p. 9; youn" (?). 

Cuvier, in his " Regne Animal," says, he thinks the Exocetus fasciatus of Lesueur is 
the young of Blocks E. exiliens. Dekay is of the same opinion ; therefore I have thus 
arranged them. 

5. Exocetus mesogaster, Bloch. 

Silvery blue, with the ventral fins situated on the middle of the abdomen ; they are mod- 
erately large, and rounded. 
D. (?). P. (?). V. (.'). A.(>). -C. (.'). Length, 4 inches. 
Caribbean Sea, Plumier. 

Exocetus mesogaster, Bloch, 399 ? 

American Flying-fish, Shaw's Gen. Zool., v. p. 146, pi. 110. 

MiddUng Flying -fish, Mitchill, Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. of N. Y., i. p. 11- 

Although Cuvier observes, that "it is not easy to distinguish the exiliens and meso- 
gaster in the relations and the figures given by travellers," and Richardson (Fauna Boreal. 
Americ, p. 131) observes that Dr. MitehilPs notice of the E. mesogaster " is too slight to 
prove that he has applied the name rightly," I have introduced this species here, because it 
was noticed by Plumier in the Caribbean Sea, and by Mitchill's using, in his description of this 
species, the very words of Shaw when describing this species (Gen. Zool., v. p. 146), it is 
evident they answer perfectly to the description of his fish. Richardson is in error when he 
says, " Dr. Mitchill mentions the mesogaster as an inhabitant of the sea of New York " ; 
for although this might be inferred from the fact of its being contained in his "Memoir," 
yet Mitchill says, " The specimen I examined was brought from the ocean, somewhere to the 
south.'' 

GENUS V. HEMIRAMPHUS, Cuv. 
The upper jaw short, lower jaw elongated and pointed ; both furnished, on 






190 Storefs Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 

their edges, with minute teeth ; in other respects the species, in their fins, vis- 
cera, and general aspect, resemble the Gar-fish. 

1. Hemiramphns Brasiliensis, Bi.och. 

Upper part of the body blue, paler along the sides, and silvery upon the abdomen. 
Head a clear blue and silvery ; tail yellow and bluish ; beak brown and deep blue. Body- 
three limes the length of the lower jaw ; pectoral fins shorter than the half of the lower 
jaw ; posterior fins almost equal. Caudal deeply cleft. The upper mandible shorter than 
the semidiameter of the eye. The inferior very long and flexible. Scales large. 

D. 14. P. 10. V. G. A. 12. C. 20 to 24. Length, 12 or 15 inches- 

Caribbean Sea, near Guadaloupe and Martinique, Lesueur. 

Called " Balao," at Guadaloupe and Martinique. 

E.sox Brasitiensis, Bloch, 391. 

" " Lin ,Syst. Nat., p. S17. 

" " Piper, Browne's Jamaica, p. 443. pi. 4S, fig 2. 

" " Brazilian Pike, Shaw's Gen Zool., v. p. 109. 

Esox marginatum (?), Lacepedb, v. pi 7 fig. 2. 
Hemiramphus marginaius, Lesueur, Journ. Acad Nit. Sc, n, p. 135. 
Hemiramphus Brasiliensis (Cuv.), Griffith's Cuv., x. p. 3'j5. 

2. Hemiramphus balao, Lesueur. 

Color a little deeper than that of preceding, and tail bluish. Body four times the length 
of the lower jaw ; pectoral fin a third part shorter lhan the lower mandible ; anal fin as 
long as the dorsal. 

D. 14. P. 10. V. 0. A. 12. C. 20 to 24. Length, (>). 

Caribbean Sea, near Guadaloupe, Martinique, and St. Domingo, Lesueur. 

Also called " Balao." 

Hemiramphus balao, Lesueur, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc, u p 136. 



FAMILY XIX. FISTULARIDiE. 

Characterized by a long tube in the fore part of the cranium, formed by the 
prolongation of the ethmoid, vomer, preopercula, interopercula, pterygoideals, 
and tympanals, and at the extremity of which is the mouth, composed, as 
usual, of the intermaxillaries, maxillaries, and the palatine and mandibulary 
bones. Their intestine has neither great inequalities nor many folds, and their 
ribs are short or wanting. Some of them, the Fistulariae, have a cylindrical 
body ; in others, the Centrisci, it is oval and compressed. 

This family concluded the order Acanthopterygii in the " IU-gne Animal." 



Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North Jlmerica. 191 

But in the " Histoire Naturelle des Poissons," of Cuv. et Val., it does not 
appear in that family. That work is not yet sufficiently advanced for us to 
learn where Valenciennes will place it ; but as it has been considered by some 
ichthyologists a subfamily of the Scombrids, I follow the arrangement of 
Dekay, although he observes, " Its true place is probably near or among the 
Syngnatbichc." 

GENUS I. FISTULARIA, Lacep. 
Body elongated, cylindrical. Dorsal opposite to the anal. The intermax- 
illaries and the lower jaw are armed with small teeth. From between the two 
lobes of the caudal proceeds a filament which is sometimes as long as the body. 
The tube of the snout is very long and depressed. The natatory bladder ex- 
cessively small, and the scales are invisible. 

1. Fistularia serrata, Bloch. 

Upper part of the body of a reddish -brown color ; a narrow bluish band upon the sides, 
through the centre of which runs the lateral line ; back of the dorsal, this line is quite 
strongly serrated. Tube hard, horny, and strongly serrated laterally. Caudal deeply 
forked, with a filament between them, strong at its origin, very delicate at its termination. 

D. 14. P. 16. V. 6. A. 14. C. 10. Length, including filament, 27 inches. 

Jamaica, Catesby. Massachusetts, Stoker. 

Petimbuabo Brazil, Tobacco-pipe Fish, Catesbt's Hist. Carol , n, p i; 
Fistularia serrata (>), Bloch, variety of tabacaria. 

" Shaw's Gen. Zoiil,, v. pi. 107, fig. of tube. 
Tobacco-pipe Fish, Stoker's Report, 0. 
American Pipe-fish, Dekay's Report, p. 232, pi. 35. fig. 113. 

2. Fistularia tabacaria, Bloch. 

Brownish, with a row of pale spots. Belly white in the middle, and semidiaphanous on 
the right and left. Orbits of the eye with angular processes or spinas. 
D. 16. P. 16. V. 6. A. 16. C. 16§. Length, 14 inches. 
New York, Mitchill,. 

Fistularia tabacaria, Block, 387. 

" Lin., Syst, Nat., p. 515. 

" Slender Fistularia, Shaw's Gen. Zool., v. p. 9G, pi. 107 
Fistularia Noveboracensis, New Vork Trumpet-fish, Mitchill, Trans. Lit. and Phil. Sec of N Y i n 437 
pi. 3, fig. 8. ' ' ' 

Fistularia tabacaria, Spotted Pipe-fish, Dekay's Report, p. 233. 



192 Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of JYorth America. 

FAMILY XX. SALMONLDvE. 

Body scaly. First dorsal with soft rays, the second small and adipose. 
Numerous cceca, and a natatory bladder. The structure and armature of the 
jaws vary surprisingly. Almost all of them ascend rivers. 

GENUS I. SALMO, Lin. 

Head smooth ; teeth on the vomer, both palatine bones, and all the maxil- 
lary bones ; branchiostegous rays varying in number, generally from ten to 
twelve, but sometimes unequal on the two sides of the head of the same fish. 

1. Salmo salar, Lin. 

A beautiful, brilliant bluish silver-color above; lighter upon the sides, white beneath; 
black blotches upon the sides, much more numerous above the lateral line. Dorsal, pec- 
torals, and caudal, bluish ; ventrals dusky ; anal white. 

D. 12. P. 15- V. 9. A. 10. C. 19. Length, 2 to 3 feet. 

Labrador, Canada, Newfoundland, and Nova Scolia, Richardson, Dekay. Maine. 
Massachusetts, Storer. Connecticut, Linsley. New York, Mitchill, Dekay. 

Salmo salar, Lin., Syst. Nat. (12th edit.), p. 509. 
" " Block, i. pi. 20 (female) ; in. p. 98 (male). 
" " Salmon, Pennant's Brit. Zobl., vin. p. 382. 
" ( ' Common Sea-Salmon. Shaw's Gen. Zobl., v. p. 40, fig. 102. 
'' " Salmon, Fleming's Brit. An., p. 179, sp. 40. 
" Jenvns's Brit. Vert., p. 421. 
" " Griffith's Cuv . x p 416. 

" '"' '' Fabricius, Fauna Groenlandica, p. 170. 

Common Sain Mitchill, Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. of N. Y., i. p 435. 

" De Witt Clinton, Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. of N. Y., i. pp. 147, 49S 
" " " " Rich., Fauna Boreal. Americ, nr. p. 145. 

'• " Salmon, Storer's Report, p. 104. 
" " Common Sea Salmon, Dekay's Report, p. 241, pi. 38, fig. 122. 

" Salmon, Thompson's Hist, of Vermont, p. 140. 
,, ^,aJLrrra ' \-dL. xi, ti.Hb 

2. Salmo fontinalis, Mitchill. 

Above pale brown ; a large number of circular yellow spots, varying in their size, often 
having in their centres a brig lit red spot; sometimes, the yellow color surrounding them 
having partially disappeared, they seem distinct from the circular spots. In some specimens, 
but three or four red spots are observable, while in others are seen twenty or more. Gill 
covers golden, with fuliginous. Scales very small, those on the lateral line largest. 

D. 11. P. 13. V. 8. A. 11. C. 19. Length, 8 to 14 inches. 

Maine, Massachusetts, 'Storer. Connecticut, Linsley, Ayres. A^ermont, Thomp- 
son. New York, Mitchill, Dekay. Pennsylvania, Dekay. Ohio, Kirtland. Laki 
Huron, Rich. 



Stover's Synopsis of the Fishes of 'North America. 193 

ifontinali Common Trout, Mitchhx, Trans. Lit. and Phil Soi il N ¥., i. p. 435. 
Black! Rai [chth, I lliien., p IS 

Ri I potted Trout, Done < • t.Hist., i. p. 145, pi. 1 

Salmo fontinalis, New V.,rk Char, Mitch., Ri, ,... Fauna Boreal Americ. m. p. 176, pi 83 f> 1 • 

fig. 2 (head). = ' 

Salmo fontinalis, Common Brook-Trout, Storee's Report, p 106 
Speckled Trout, Kibtland': Report, pp. 169, r.il 
Brouk Trout, Thompson's Hist, of Vermont, p. 111. 
" " Dekav's Repon, p. 235, pi. 37, 6g 120, 
Baionc fontinalis, Spotted fto i 

i fontinalis. Brook Ti Ures, Bost. Journ \ i :i 

Common Brook-Trout, Kietland, Bost Journ Nat. Hisl iv p 305 
C\r*J~- 1-1 ■ ^teCe, If ft 

3. Salmo amethystus, Mitchill. 
Head, back, and sides of a dark greenish-gray color, which, when examined closely, is 
resolved into small, roundish, yellowish-gray spots on a bluish-gray ground, which covers 
less space than the spots. Teeth, gums, and roof of the mouth have a tinge of purple. 
Scales small ; one hundred and thirty-three on the lateral line ; a vertical row beneath the 
commencement of the dorsal contains eighty-two, of which thirty two are above the lat- 
eral line- 

D. 14. P. 14. V. 9. A. 11. CM:. Length, 2 to 5 feet. 

All the great lakes that lie between the United States and the Arctic Sea, Richardson. 
Called " Nammecoos," by Cree Indians ; " Thlooeesinneh," by Chippewayans ; "K 
teeleek, - ' by Esquimaux ; " Salmon Trout," by Canadians. 

Namaycush Salmon, Pennant's Arct. Zoo] , h. Suppl., p. 139 

So! methystus, Great T i of the Lakes, Mitchhx, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc, i. p. 410. 

Salrilo namaycush, N'amaycush (Penn.), Rich., Fauna Boi , m. p. 179, pi. 79. 

Kibtlano's Reporl pp i 

Namaycu h, Greal t i of the Lakes. Kirtland, Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist iv p 25 

pi. 3, fig. 2. 
amethystus, Mai kin iw Salmon, Dekav's Report, p. 240, pi. "6, fig. 241. 

J ' 

4. Salino eiytlnogaster, Doughty. 
Above, mottled with dark olive-green and light horn-color. Sides of the abdomen red- 
dish orange, separated by a distinct line from the pearl-color beneath. Tail broadly mar- 
gined with bright red. Scales very small and rounded. Dorsal varied with dark green and 
opaque or horn-color. 

D. 10. P. 14. V. 8. A. 10. C. 17|. Length, 15 to 20 inches. 

New York. Pennsylvania, Dekay. 

Creek rrout(?), Doughtv, CabinetofNal Hist., i p 134 pi i I, 
v " pthrogaster, Red-bellied Trout, Dekay's Report p.236,pl 

5. Salmo confinis, Dougiitv. 
Upper portion of the head and body bluish black. Sides of the head and body, base of the 
first dorsal, of the caudal, and anal fins, with numerous round, crowded, irregular, ligbt- 

68 






i ; : i Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 

gray spots. Body stout, thicker and shorter than the common Salmon. Scales small, or- 
bicular, and minutely striate. Caudal furcate, wjth a sinuous margin. 

D. 11. P. 14. V. 9. A. 12. C. 21|. Length, 2 to 4 feet- 

New York, Pennsylvania, Dekay. 

Called " Lake Salmon," " Lake Trout," and " Salmon Trout," in the State of New 
Yoik. 

J.ake Trout, Doughty, Cabinet of Nat. Hist., I. p. 145, pi. 13, fig. 1. 
Salmo eoufiuis, Lake Trout, Dekay's Report, p. 238, pi. 38, fig. 123. 

G. Saltno Scouleri, Rich. 

Back anterior to the dorsal fin gibbons. Jaws elongated ; the upper jaw much incurved 
and arched. Nine very strong incurved teeth in a row on each intermaxillary, exclusive 
of four smaller ones which occupy the tip of the snout on both sides of the principal rows. 
Scales small ; some oval, others four-sided, with the corners rounded ; one hundred and 
seventy scales on the lateral line, and seventy in a vertical row anterior to the ventrals, 
of which thirty are above the lateral line. 

D. 14. P. 16. Y. 11. A. 17. C. 19|. Length, 2 feet 

Northwest Coast, Richardson. 

Salmo Scouleri, Observatory Inlet Salmon, Rich., Fauna Boreal. Americ, nz. p. 158, pi. 93. 
Dekay's Report, p. 242. „ /i ,, / 

7. Salmo Rossii, Rich. 

Long, cylindrical. Back, top of the head, dorsal and caudal fins, have a hue intermediate 
between oil-green and hair-brown ; cheeks are nacreous, and the sides pearl-gray, with a 
blush of lilac and a silvery lustre ; a number of carmine dots in the vicinity of the lateral 
line ; beneath red. Scales small, ovate or oval, each scale surrounded by a distinct space of 
smooth skin ; one hundred and thirty-four on the lateral line ; seventy-eight in a vertical row 
under the dorsal, thirty of them being above the lateral line ; between two hundred and 
forty and two hundred and fifty rows on the sides. 

D. 13. P. 14. V. 10. A. II. C. 21|. Length, 2 to 3 feet. 

Arctic Seas, Richardson. 

Called " Eekalook," by t lie Esquimaux of Boothia Felix. 

Salmo Kosstij Rich., Nat. Hist., Appendix to Ross's Voyage, p. 56. 

" " Ross's Arctic Salmon, Rich., Fauna Boreal. Americ, in. p. 163, pi. SO. , . 

S. Salmo Hearnii, Rich. 

Olive-green above ; belly bluish ; several longitudinal rows of large flesh-red spots on the 
back and sides. Scales small, pearly. Teeth subulate, in a thin row on the labials and 
lower jaw ; a solitary tooth of the same size stands on each side of the intermaxillary notch. 



Slorer's Synopsis of Ike Fishes of North America. 195 

D. (?). P. (?). V. (?). A. 10. C (.'). Length, 12 inches. 

Coppermine Kiver, Richardson. 

loHeamii, Rich., Franklin's First Journal, p. . 

Coppermine River Salmon, Rich., Fauna E ' . , in. p. 16". 

" " Df.k.u 

f^-a-C, , -lCo r /.\ /iv> 

9. Salmo alipes, Rich. 

Slender. Hair-brown above, sides paler, with yellowish marks, belly white or yellow, and 
the under fins orange, with some darker streaks. Scales small, t bin, and roundish ; one hun- 
dred anl twenty-six compose the lateral line Labials, intennaxillaries, and lower jaw are 
armed with short conical, acute, ami very slightly curved teeth, in a single series. A pro- 
jecting cluster of six or seven on the knob of the vomer. Fins very lono-. 

D. 13. P. 15. V. 'J. A. 10 or 11. C. 19f. Length, 2 feet. 

Arctic regions, Richardson. 

Salmo alipes, Rich., Nat. Bast., App. loRos p jr. 

" Long finned CI tr, Ri FaunaBo 
" Dekay's Report, p. 242, 

10. Salmo nilidus, Rich. 

Deep green above ; orange-red beneath, with several rows of ocellate red spots along the 
course of the lateral line. For^m less elongated than preceding. Scales small, roundish ; 
one hundred and twenty on the lateral line ; ninety-two in a vertical row, of which thirty- 
six are above the lateral line, forty-two betwixt, it and the ventral, and twelve or fourteen 
below the first ray of the latter. Teeth as in S. alipes. 

D. 14. P. 17. X. 10. A. 12. C. 10 : |- Length, 20 inches. 

Arctic regions, Richardson. 

Rich., Nat. Hist., App. to Ross p, 57. 

" " 1 Rich., Fauna Boreal. Amer., in. | 

" '■ Dekay's Report, p. 

'7^/. -Lf 27/ /#v^ C<* 

11. Salmo Hoodii, Rich. 

Slender, cylindrical. Olive-green above, and covered with numerous yellowish-gray 
spots ; beneath white. Scales like those of S. nilidus ; one hundred and twenty-six on the 
lateral line ; fifty-three in a vertical row before the ventrals,of which twenly-eight are above 
the lateral line. A single row of teeth on each side of the tongue, which meet in a curve 
at the tip. 

D. 10. P. 15. V. 10. A. 11. C. 19-. Length, 2 feet. 

Northern Regions, Richardson. 

-ii, Rich., Nil Hist., App, to R03 
" Ylasamacush, Rich., ireal. Americ. rn. p. 173, pi. 83. 

R 



o~- 



Ki i 11 , p 21^. 
£ Z/- }~ I. lift 



[96 Storefs Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 

12. Salmo Mackenzii, Rich. 

Head long, compressed, flattened above. Grayish, tinged with blue on the sides and be- 
neath. Scales snborbicular. Teeth en velours. Dorsal obliquely quadrangular ; anal slight- 
ly crescentic ; caudal large, and forked. 

D. 15- P- 17. V. 12. A. 18. C 22f Length, 20 inches. 

Arctic Sea, Richardson. 

Incomiii, Mackenzie's Voyage in North America, p. 9. 

Salmo Mackenzii, Rich., Franklin's Journal, p. 707, plale. 

" '■ Inconnu, Rich, Fauna Boreal. Americ, m. p. 1S3, pi. 84. 

" " Dekay's Report, p. 242. r 

Sttn.-Uu <vn tt^oW. ex.(, e . TWk. 1^-^ d-J. N.A~-y^. [nnj 

13. Salmo quinnat:, Rich. 

Bluish gray ; dark spots along the lateral line ; whole body below the lateral line unspot- 
ted. Scales large. Teeth disappearing on the medial line of the upper jaw. Branchial 
rays, seventeen. 

D. 14. P. 16. V. 10. A. 16. C. 19|. Length, 2 to 3 feet. 

Columbia River, Richardson. 

Called " Quinnat," by the natives of the banks of the Columbia River. 

Salmo quinnat, Quinnat, Rich., Fauna Boreal. Americ, in. p 219. 
'• IIekay's Report, p, 242. 

14. Salmo Gairdnetii, Rich. 

Dorsal line nearly straight. Back of head and body bluish gray ; sides ash-gray ; bell;. 
white. A few faint spots at the base of the caudal. Jaws fully armed with strong hooked 
teeth, except a small space in the centre of the upper jaw. 

D. (?). P. 13. V. 11. A. 12. C (?). Length, 2 to 3 feet. 

Columbia River, Richardson. 

Called " Queachts," by the natives of the banks of the Columbia. 

Salmo Gairdnerii, Gairdner's Salmon, Rich., Fauna Boreal. Americ, m. p, 221 
Dekay's Report, p. 243. 

15. Salmo paucidens, Rich. 

Back of head and body bluish gray; sides ash-gray, with a reddish tinge; belly white. 
No spots on body or fins. Teeth sparsely scattered and feeble on the jaws ; only a few short, 
weak ones on the anterior extremity of the vomer, and on the palatine bones. 

D. 12. P. 17- V. 12. A. 17. C. (?)• Length, 2 feet. 

Columbia River, Richardson. 

Called " Quannich," by the natives of the banks of the Columbia. 

Salmo paucidens, Weak-toothed Salmon, Rich., Faunajforeal. Americ, in. p. 222. 



Storefs Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 107 

16. Salmo tsuppitch, Rich. 

Back of body and head studded with oval and circular spots ; sides and fins destitute ol 
General color of the fins ash-gray. Back convex in front of dorsal. Snout pointed. 
Minute sharp teeth in jaws. Caudal forked. 

D. 12. P. 13. V. 10. A. 13. C. (?)■ Length, 21 inches. 
Columbia River, Richardson. 

Called •• Tsuppitch," by the natives of the banks of the Columbia. 
Salmo tsuppitch, Tsuppitch, Rich . Fauna Boreal Americ, in. p 

17. Salmo Clarkii, Rich. 

Brownish purple-red above, passing on the sides into ash-gray, and into reddish white on 
the belly. Large patches of dark purplish red on the hack. Back, dorsal, and caudal (ins 
studded with semilunar spots. A large patch of arterial red on the opercle and margin of 
the preoperele. Jaws with strong, hooked teeth. Caudal nearly even. 

D. 11. P. 12. V. 8. A. 13. C. (?). Length, 14 inches. 

Columbia River, Richaudson. 

sum i i hrki:, ' lark'a Salmon, Rich, Fauna Boreal. Americ, in, p 

IS. Salmo Canadensis, Hamilton Smith. 
Above olive-green, sides lighter ; abdomen scarlet ; throat white. White ocelli along the 
sides, with a blood-red central dot. Pectorals, dorsal, and caudal barred with black. 
D. (?). P. (:)■ V. (?) A. (?) C. (?) Length, 10 inches. 
River St. Lawrence, H. Smith 

Salmo Canadensis, Griffith's Cuv., x. p. 474, pi. 41. 
Dekay's Report, p. 243. 

GENUS II. OSMERUS, Artedi. 

Body elongated, covered with small scales ; two dorsal fins, the first with 
rays, (lie second fleshy, without rays ; ventral fins in a vertical line under the 
commencement of the first dorsal fin ; teeth on the jaws and tongue very long, 
two distinct rows on each palatine bone, none on the vomer, except at the 
most anterior part ; branchiostegous rays, eight. 

1. Osmerus viridescens, Lesueur. 

Yellowish-green above the lateral line ; silvery-white beneath; a longitudinal satin band 
on the side. Lower jaw longer than the upper. Dorsal brownish. Scales equal, rhom- 
boidal. Air-bladder fusiform, swollen at the middle. Stomach with a few short cceca. 



198 Storefs Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 

D. 11. P. 14 or 16. V. 0. A. 15. C. 19. Length, 10 inches. 

Maine, Massachusetts, Lesueur, Stoker. New York, Mitchili., Dekay. "From 

the waters of Hudson River to the coast of Labrador," Dekay. 

Salmo eperlanus, v hit.!., Trans. Lit and rhil Soc, of N V . r. p 453. 

Osmerus viridescens, Lesueur, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc., i p. 230. 

h., Fauna Boreal. Americ, hi. p. 
Osmerus epe Ei's Report, p 103. 

Osmerus viridescens, American Sim It. I, suede, Dekay's Report, p. 243. pi. 39, fig. 121 

■Ud. U- 3<5"' l%U°i 
As Cuvier, in his " Regne Animal," did not acknowledge our fish to be distinct from 

the Osmerus eperlanus, I arranged it as that species in my "Report upon the Fishes of 
Massachusetts." Dr. T)ekay, in his "Report on the Fishes of Xew York," considers it 
as a distinct species, without stating;, however, that he had ever seen the European Smelt, 
or giving- any reason for doubling the opinion of Cuvier. To determine this matter definite- 
ly, I wrote to Mr. Yarrell upon the subject, who kindly sent me several specimens of the Os- 
merus eperlanus. Upon examination, they differ from our species, which, of course, will 
hear Lesucur's name of viridescens. With specimens of both the foreign and our fish, 
of the same size, before me, the difference was quite perceptible. Mr. Yarrell wriies me as 
,vs respecting the two species. " Our fish is considerably lighter in color, particularly 
on the back and on the dorsal and caudal fins. The double series of transverse lines on the 
sides in our fish are wider apart, and the lozenge-shaped spaces are in every sense larger. 
Our fish is deeper for the same length than yours ; the body thicker, but the head, particu- 
larly the parts about the jaws, is narrower. Our fish has the gape opening more freely 
vertically. The eye in our fish is smaller, the preopercle deeper, and its posterior edge 
more truly forming a vertical line." 

GENUS III. SCOPELUS, Cuv. 

Body long, slender ; the principal dorsal fin over the interval between the 
ventral and anal fins ; a second dorsal fin so small as to be scarcely percepti- 
ble. The head short ; the mouth and gill-aperture large ; small teeth on both 
jaws ; palate and tongue smooth. 

1. Scopelus Humboldtii, Cuv;* 

■i ; . - 

Back greenish ; sides, including gill-covers, silvery. A row of circular, brilliant metallic- 

colored'sppts runs along the belly , from before the pectorals to the anus; just above, paral- 
lel to them, extending- to the ^entral, a second row, commencing on the os hyoides. Behind 
these, a single row of smaller (dots is continued to the base of the tail. An insulated spot be- 
ii the anus and lateral line. Five oblong spotsof a similar appearance upon the preo- 
perculum. A slight ridge on the 'dors,um, back of dorsal fin. (adipose .'.). Body much com- 
ssed. Literal line almost irnperceptible^riearly straight. Mouth widely cleft. Eyes large. 

t 

- 



t 



Slorer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 199 

D. 10. P. 17. V. 8. A. 15. C. 19. Length, 2 inches, 1 line. 
M issachusetts Bay, Stoker. 

i I . ' : of Natural History, 

Cuv., Vakil:. i.i.':, Brit. Fishes (2d edit.), u. p. 102. 

Dr. Clarke's description and figure, winch Yarrell gives on pages 162 et seq., Vol. II., 
agree so perfectly with my specimen as to leave no doubt of the identity of the European and 
American species. 



GENUS IV. COREGONUS, Cuv. 

Body in appearance herring-like ; with two dorsal fins, the first higher than 
long, the second adipose ; the scales large ; the mouth small, sometimes with 
minute teeth on the jaws or tongue, or hoth. 

1. Coregonus albus, Lesueur. 

Bluish-gray on the back, lighter on the sides, and white on the belly. Scales large, or- 
bicular. About eighty scales in the course of the lateral line, and twenty in an oblique, series 
from the dorsal. Teeth on jaws scarcely to be felt ; vomer and palate smooth. Jaws 
equal. 

D. 15. P. 16. V. 11. A. 15. C. 19|. Richardson. Length, !7 to 20 inches. 

Lake Champlain, Thompson. Lake Erie, Lesueur. All the interior lakes of America, 
from Erie to the Arctic Sea, Richardson. 

Called ■'White-fish," by the fur-traders; " Poisson blanc," by the Canadians; " At- 
tihhawmegh," by the Cree Indians ; " Lake Shad," in Vermont. 

Salmo lavaretus (Guiniad and Tickomeg), Pennant's Arct. Zoiil., Inirod., p. 298, and n. p. 293. 
Coregonus albus, White-fish, Lesueur, Journ. Acad. Nat, Sc , i. p. 232, pi. 
Salmo (Coregonus) albus, Attihawmeg, Rich., Fauna Boreal. Aineric, m. p. 195, pi. 89, fig. 2. 
Coregonus albus, White-fish, KrRTLAND's Report, pp. 169, 195, 

" " KruTLANP, Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist., HI. p. 477, pi. 23, fig. 3. 

" Lake Shad or White-fish, Thompson's Hist, of Vermont, 143, fig. 

" White-fish, Dekay's Report, p. 247, pi. 76, fig. 240. 

l~su 1.1. flO-{ /£<*"-/ 

2. Coregonus Artedi, Lesueur. 

Ash-blue upon the back ; paler and silvery on the rest of the body, with yellow tints 
on the tail, head, and dorsal. Form of the body elongated in the males, deeper and more 
compressed in the females. Scales large, ascending high up on the caudal fin. No teeth 
on margin of jaws. 

D. 1-2. P. 10. V. 12. A. 14. C. 19|. Length, 10 to 15 inches. 

Lake Ontario, Dekay- Lake Erie, Lesueur. Lake Huron, Cayuga Lake, Mitch- 
ill. 






200 Store? s Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 

Coregonus Artedi, Herring-Salmon, Lesueur, Jonrn. Acad Nat. Sc., i. p. 231. 

Salmo clupeiformis. White-fish of tlie Lakes, Miichill, Amer Month. IVIag., h p 321, 

Salmo [Coregonus) Artedi, Lesueur's Herring-Salmon. Rich., FaunaBoreal. Americ., m. p. 203. 

Coregonus Artedi, Shad of the Lakes, Kietland's Report, pp. 169 195. 

" " Herring-Salmon, Kietlano, Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist , iv. p. 231, pi- 9, fig. 1. 

Coregonus clupeiformis, Common Shad-Salmon Dekay*: R in p 245. pi 60, fig [93. 

« " l^aJi. X(. 5-2 3 ftfay 

To Dr. Mitchill is due the credit of first distinguishing this from the preceding species. 
His notice was published in March, 1818. Lesueur's scientific description appeared the 
same month, a week or two afterwards ; and his must be the acknowledged one among sci- 
entific men. 

3. Coregonus Otsego, De Witt Clinton. 

Elongate, subcylindrical, compressed. Back arched. Dusky above the lateral line; sil- 
very beneath it. Six or eight dusky longitudinal lines upon the sides. Scales very small. 
Upper lip protuberant and bifid. 

D. (?). P. (?)• V. (?). A. (.'). C. (?). Length, 17 inches. 

Otsego Lake, De Witt Clinton. 

Salmo Otsego, Otsego Bas? Cmxtos Wed. and Phil Register, m. p. 1SS, pi. 

Coregonus Otsego, Otsego Shad-Salmon, Dekay's Report, p. 248. >*-jk t \ 

f\MX, II. ■oil- 

4. Coregonus tullibee, Rich. 

Much compressed, belly rounded, back rather more acute. When exposed to light, the 
whole body is silvery. In the shade, the back is greenish-gray, the belly white, the sides of 
an intermediate hue. Scales large, oblong, of an uniform size ; eighty-eight on the lateral 
line ; twenty-three in a vertical row under first ray of dorsal. A small plate of minute teeth 
on the centre of the tongue. Lower jaw the longer. Caudal slightly forked. 

D. 14. P. 16. V. 12. A. 14 or 15. C. 19|. Length, 14 inches. 

Northern Regions, Richardson. 

Called " Ottonneebees," by the Cree Indians ; "Tullibee," by the fur-traders. 

Salmo (Coregonus) tullibee. Tullibee, Rich., Fauna Boreal. Americ, ill. pp. 201, I 
Coregonus tullibee, DekayIs Report, p. 249. 

•j. Coregonus quadrilateralis, Rich. 

Subcylindrical, quadrilateral Color of back and sides intermediate between horny-yellow 
and wood-brown, with a narrow blackish gray border to each scale. Sides paler, belly 
white. Scales rhomboidal. The lower jaw the shorter. Edentate. Ninety-six scales along 
the lateral line ; twenty-three or twenty-four in a vertical line before the dorsal, of which 
nine are above the lateral line, and eight between it and the ventrals. 

D. 15. P. 15. V. 11. A. 13. C. 19?. Length, 18 inches. 

Polar Sea, Richardson. 

Called "Katheh," by the Copper Indians ; " Okeugnak," by the Esquimaux. 



Storcr's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 201 

'■' !1 I'M'in! r Ijn's Journal, p. 714. 

b, Rich . Fauna Bore i , in 

ius quadrilaterals, D }, 

6. Coregonus Iucidus, Rich. 
Body compressed. Mouth large ; when the jaws are extended, the intermaxillaries are 
brought into a line with the forehead, instead of dropping vertically, as in the C. quadrilate- 
ralis; lower jaw the longer; no teeth. Scales pearly and iridescent, transversely oval ; 
eighty-eight scales on the lateral line; ten rows above that line at the dorsal, eight between 
it and the ventral, and three or four from thence to the mesial line of the belly. Scales on 
'sides larger than on back. 

D. 14. P. 19. V. 11. A. 14. C. 19|. Length, 18 inch 
Northern regions, Richardson-. 

Salrao (Coregonus) Iucidus, Bear-Lake Herring-Salmon, Rich., F; ->1 90 

fig. I 
C i egonus Iucidus, Dekav's Report, p. 219, 

7. Coregonus harengus, Rich. 

■ Body compressed, back rounded, belly slightly S ittened. Olive-green on the hack, silvery 
on sides and belly, and blackish green on top of the head. Gill-covers, checks, and irides 
.. i whitish and nacreous. Lower jaw the longer. No teeth on the jaws ; but three rows of 
microscopic teeth on the tongue. Scales of same form as those of C. Iucidus ; eighty-four 
on lateral line ; twenty-two in a vertical row under the dorsal, of which nine are above lat- 
eral line, and eight between it and ventrals. 

D. 12 or 13. P. 16. V. 12. A. 13. C. 19f. Length, 13 or 14 inches. 

Lake Huron, Richakdson. 

Salmo (Coregonus) harengus, Lake Huron Herring-Salmon, Rich., Fauna Boreal. Americ ill n 210 

fig. 2. 1 IF- 

inus liirengus, Dekav's Report, p. 249. 

8. Coregonus Labradoricus, Run. 

Body much like that of C. quadrilateralis. Head small. Jaws toothless ; four longitudinal 
rows of teeth on the tongue. Adipose fin corresponds with the end of the anal. Scales 
orbicular; seventy-eight on the lateral line ; eight scales between the dorsal and lateral line, 
and as many between the latter and the ventrals. 

D. 15. P. 15. V. 12-11. A. 15. C. 19|. Length, 14 inches. 

Musquaw River, Richardson. 

Salmo (Coregonus) Labradoricus, Mu | mus, Rich., Fauna Boreal. Americ, in. p. : 



202 Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North .America, 

GENUS V. MALLOTUS, Cuv. 

With the cleft mouth of the preceding, have only even, small, and crowded 

teeth at the jaws, palate, and tongue. Their first dorsal and ventrals are lar- 

ther hack than the middle ; their broad, round pectorals almost touch each 

other underneath. 

1. Mallotus villosus, Cuv. 

Back and top of head dull leek-green, with bright green and yellow reflections when moved 
in the light. Sides and belly covered with delicate and very bright silvery scales, which are 
dotted on the margins with black specks. Back covered with small smooth grains like sha- 
green. In the male, a prominent obtuse ridge, composed of soft, tumid, semilanceolate, 
acute, diaphanous processes, minutely spotted with black, and densely tiled, with three points 
turned towards the tail, extends along the lateral line. Six cceca of unequal length. 

D. 14. P. 17. V. 8. A. 23. C. 19. Length, 6 to 7 inches. 

Greenland, Fabricios. Newfoundland, Richardson. 

Called " Angmaggeuck,'' by the Esquimaux; " Angmagsak," " Sennersulik " (male), 
by the Greenlanders. 

Clupea villosa, Lin., Gmel., p. 1409 

Mull., Prod., p. 425. 
Salmo arcticus, Fabiucius, Fauna Groenlandica, p. 177, No. 12?. 
Capelan, Pennant's Arctic ZooL, n. p. Ml, No. 17">. 
Salmo Groenlandicus, Bloch, 331. 

" " Greenland Salmon, Shaw's Gen. ZooL, v. p. 70. 

" " Rich., Franklin's Journal, p. 710. 

Mallotus Groenlandicus, Griffith's Co/., x. p, 120, 
Salmo (Mallotus) villosus (Cuv.), Capelin. Rich., Fauna Boreal. Americ., in. p. 1 7 

2. Mallotus Pacificus, Rich. 

Silvery white, passing on the back into a blackish tinge. Large, irregular, but generally 
oval spots of yellowish white, and blackish gray on the back. A bluish black spot over each 
orbit. Margin of lips black. Back of head grayish white. Minute black dots on the silvery 
bases of the cheeks. Dorsal situated more anteriorly than in the M. villosus. Teeth scarcely 
perceptible. Nine cceca ; three shorter than the others, which are equal in length. Ascends 
into fresh water to spawn. 

D. 11. P. 11. V. 8. A. 20. C. (?). Length, 7 to 8 inches. 

Columbia River, Richardson. 

Indian name, " Oulachan." 

Salmo (Mallotus) Pacificus, Northwest Capelin, Rich., Fauna Boreal. Americ, III. p. 226. 

GENUS VI. THYMALLUS, Cuv. 

Distinguished from the Trouts by the smallness of the mouth, the fineness 
of the teeth, the great size of the dorsal fin, and the largeness of the scales. 



Storer's Synopsis of I he Fishes of North America. 203 

1. Thymallus signifer, Rich. 

Back dark ; sides bluish gray ; belly blackish gray, with irregular whitish blotches. Five 
or six quadrangular prussian-blue spots on the anterior part of the body, each tinging the 
margin of the four adjoining scales. Head brown ; a blue mark on each side of the lower 
jaw. Dorsal blackish-gray, with lighter blotches, and crossed by beautiful Berlin-blue spots ; 
it is edged with light lake-red ; ventrals streaked will) reddish and whitish lines in the direc- 
tion of their rays. Scales seuiioval, covered with an epidermis ; eighty-seven on the lateral 
line, including three or four small ones on the base of the caudal, and twenty-seven in a 
vertical row anterior to the ventrals, of which nine are above the lateral line. Dorsal very 
large ; its three last and longest rays exceed in height the greatest depth of the body. 

D. 23. P. 15. V. 9. A. 13. C. Wi%. Length, 17 to 18 inches. 

Northwestern regions, Richardson. 

Called " Hewlook-powak," by the Esquimaux ; " Poisson bleue," by Canadian Voyagers. 

i' ignifer, Rich., Franklin's Journal, p. 711, pi. 26. 

Salmo (Thymallus) signifer, Ba ' i real, Americ., m p. 190, pi 

Coregonus Lhymalloides, Rich . Franklin's Journal, p. 711 (yo 

Salmo rhymallus thymalloides, Lessor's Grayling Rich., Fauna Boreal. Americ, in. p. 194. 

Thymallus signifer, Back's Grayling, Jardine, Nat. Lib., Ichlh., n. p. 120, pi. II. ^ / *f / <fi jj rtis}~l &- ?t£ C S . * *~ - 

GENUS VII. SAURUS, Cuv. 
Have the muzzle short ; the mouth cleft as far as behind the eyes ; the edge 
of the upper jaw formed almost entirely by the intermaxillaries ; several very 
pointed teeth along both jaws, the palatines, the tongue, and the pharyngeals, 
but none on the vomer ; eight or nine, and frequently ten or fifteen, rays to 
the gills. The first dorsal is a little behind the ventrals, which are large ; 
scales on the body, cheeks, and opercula ; the viscera resemble those of 
Trouts. 

1. Saurus Mexicanus, Cuv. 
Almost transparent. 

D. (?). P. (?)■ V. (?) A. (?). C. (?). Length, (?). 
Mexico, < rv. 

M ixicanus (Cuv., Regne Animal), Griffith's Cuv., x. p. -till. 

FAMILY XXI. CLUTEIIU:. 

No adipose fin. The upper jaw is formed as in the Trouts, at the middle 
by intermaxillaries, without pedicles, and on the sides by the mamillaries. 
Their body is always very scaly. 



204 Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North .America. 

GENUS I. CLUPEA, Cuv. 

Body compressed ; scales large, thin, and deciduous ; head compressed ; 
teeth minute or wanting ; a single dorsal fin ; abdominal line forming a sharp, 
keel-like edge, which in some species is serrated ; branchiostegous rays, eight. 

1. Clupea elongata, Lesueur. 

Body lengthened, fusiform, compressed. Above deep blue, tinged with yellow ; sides sil- 
very, with metallic reflections. Opercles yellow, oftentimes with a violet tint ; beneath sil- 
very. Abdomen carinated, the spines of which are scarcely perceptible. Scales large, sil- 
very, nearly smooth, deciduous. 

D. 18. P. 19. V. 9. A. 17. C 22. Length, 12 to 15 inches. 

Massachusetts, Lesueur, Storer. Connecticut, Linsley. New York, Mitchill, 
Dekay. 

Culled " English Herring," in Massachusetts. 

Clupea harengus, Herring of Commerce, Mitchill, Amer. Month. Mag., n. p. 323. 
; .i !, ■ :, Joum. Acad. Nat. Sc, i. ii 250. 

" " Common Herring of Massachuse ' port, p. 111. 

" Common American Herring, Dekay's Report, p 

2. Clupea fasciata, Lesueur. 

Body compressed ; back straight ; breast and abdomen forming a bow downwards as far 
as the tail. Seven to eight blackish blue lines at the sides of the back. A rounded notch 
at the bottom of the divisions of the tail, of which the lower lobe is longest. 

D. 18. P. 10. V. 9. A. 18. C. 22|. Length, 1 to 9 inches. 

Massachusetts, Lesueur. Connecticut, Linsley. 

r pea fa :iata, Fasciated Herring, Lescevk, Journ. Acad. Nat, Sc, i. p. 233. 
Clupea pusilla, Tiny Herring, Mitchill, Trans Lil and Phil. Soc. of N. Y., i p. 452 (young). 
Clu] il iata, F :iated Herring. Stoker's Report, p Hi 
Striped Herring, Dekay's Report, p. 251. 

Dr. Dekay thinks the C. pusilla of Mitchill may be the young of this species. 

3. Clupea virescens, Dekay. 

Body much compressed. Back green ; a longitudinal green stripe above the lateral line ; 
A black spot behind the upper angle of the gill-openings. Dorsal and caudal fins light olive- 
green. Abdomen serrated, with nineteen strong spines anterior to the ventrals, and twelve 
between these latter and the vent. Scales large, orbicular, deciduous. 

D. lfi. P. 10. V.9. A 17- C. 19l- Length, 6 inches. 

Connecticut, Linsley. New York, Mitchill, Dekay. 

Called " Greenback," and " Fall Herring.'' 



Storer's Sy7iopsis of the Fishes of North America. 205 

1 Phil. Soc. of N. V., I. p 151 (i . 

GrccnHerrin 

Dr. Dekay considers the C. h; I 10 of Mitchill a variety of this species. 

4. Clupea parvula, Mitchill. 

Delicate, semitransparent. Greenish ahout the head, gills, and eyes. Back of an un- 
mixed brown, which passes through regular gradations of hue to a silvery whiteness on 
the sides and belly. Belly serrated. Tail forked. 

D. 14. P. 11. V. 9. A. 18. C. 21. Length, 6 inches. 

New York, Mitchill. 

CIupi . Little Herring, Mitchill, Trans. Lie and Phil. Soc, of N. Y., i. p 

" " " " Dekay's Report, p. 253. 

5. Clupea vittata, Mitchill. 

Large, projecting upper jaw, small lower jaw, silver-striped sides, and forked tail. Belly 
carinated and moderately serrated. Anal with about twenty-one rays. 
D. (.= ). P. (?). V. (?). A. (?). C (?). Length, 34 inches. 
New York, Mitchill. 

Clupe:i vittata, Satin-striped Herring, [Mitchill, Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. of N. Y., I. i 
" " " '• Dekay's Report, p 

G. C'ltipca ccerulea, Mitchill. 

With bluish complexion, large head, forked tail, and small pectoral and abdominal fins. 
Scales large. Jaws about even. 
D. 0). P. (?). V. (.'). A. (.'). C. (.'). Length, 3 inches. 
New York, Mitchill. 

Chipsa cornlea, Blue Herring, Mitchill, Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. of N. Y., I. "157. 
'■ " " " Dekay's Report, p. 254. 

.Mitchill supposed this might be a variety of the preceding. 

7. Clupea minima, Peck. 

Back nearly black ; upper part of sides dark green ; sides silvery, with roseate and goli 
retlections ; in the younger specimens, t lie dorsal ridge is a black line, and the distance be- 
tween it and the lateral line is of a light green, sprinkled with darker points. Abdominal 
ridge serrated. Lower jaw projecting. Tail forked. 

D. 10. P. 15. V. 5. A. 12. C. 18. Length, 1 to 4 inches. 

New Hampshire, Peck. Massachusetts, Storer. 

ok, Belknap's HI I ol V .■. Hampshire, in. p. 130; catalogued, but not de 
" " Brit, Stoker's. Report, p. 113. 

Dekay's Rep i p. 253. 



206 Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North .America. 

S. Clupea harengus (?), Lin. 

Back green and gold : belly and sides white, with pearly lustre and violet reflections 
sides of head deeply tinged with gold-yellow. The edge of the labials is minutely toothed, 
and there is a cluster of minute teeth on the vomer. Scales large, thin, orbicular. 

D. 19. P. 10. V. 8. A. 16. C. (?). Length, 15 inches. 

Arctic Seas, Richardson. 

Called " Kapiselik," by the Greenlanders. 

Clupea harengus, Lin., Syst. Nat., p. 522 

" " Fabricius, Fauna Groenlandica, p. 182. 

" " Common Herring, Shaw's Gen. Zool., V. p lu6, fig. 

" •' Blo.ii, i. p. 19, pi 29, fig. 1 

" " Rich., Franklin's Journal, p. 716. 

" " Fleming's Brit. An , p. 1 

'■ " Pennant's Aret Zoo'l., vm p 335, pi 29. 

" " Rich., Fauna Boreal Americ, in. p. 229. 

" ' ; (?), Dekav's Reporl, p. -55. 

It is exceedingly doubtful whether the Arctic species is the harengus, and I introduce it. 
is did Dekay into his Report, with a query. 

GENUS II. ALOSA, Cuv. 
Upper jaw with a deep notch in the centre ; in other respects like the 
Clupea. 

1. Alosa sapidissima, Wilson. 

Body oblong, compressed- Bluish upon the top of the head and on the back ; the upper 
portion of the sides, including the opercula, cupreous ; beneatli silvery. At the posterior 
angle of the operculum, a black blotch of considerable size, which is sometimes very indistinct. 
When the scales are removed from the sides, six or eight other similar spots are noticed. 
Upon the middle of the caudal fin are two membranous appendages on each side. Scales 
large, rhomboidal upon the sides, rounded on the abdomen. Abdominal ridge serrated- 

D. 19. P. 16. V. 9. A. 20. C. 20i Length, 20 inches. Weight, 2 to 6 pounds. 

Maine, Linsley. New Hampshire, Belknap. Massachusetts, Storer. Connecti- 
cut, Linsley. New York, Mitchill, Dekav. South Carolina, Virginia, Dekay. 

Clupea sapidissima, Wilson, Rees's Encycloped. (American edit.) ; catalogued, but not described. 

" " Raf., Amer. Month, Mag , n. p. 205. 

Clupea alosa, Shad, Belknap's Hist, of New Hampshire, in. p 130, 

Mitchill, Trans. Lit. and Phil. Sue. of N. Y., I. p . I '..' 

Clupea indigena, Sprat Herring, Mitchill, Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. of N. Y., i. p. 454 fj ■ 

Alosa vulgaris, Common Shad, Stoker's Report, p. 11G. 
Alosa prreslabilis, American Shad, Pekay's Report p. 255, pi. 15, fig. 41. 

Alosa sapidissima, Shad, Wllson, Linsley's Cat, of Fishes of Connecticut, Silliman's Journal, xi.vn. 
. 



Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 207 

2. Alosa tyrannus, Latrobe. 

Body elongated, strongly compressed. Of a bluish purple-eolor on the back : the sides a 
light cupreous ; beneath silvery; four or five, ami sometimes even more, indistinct greenish 
longitudinal lines upon the sides. A deep black blotch just hack of the posterior angle of 
the operculum. Scales very large and deciduous. Anal nearly even. Caudal deeply 
forked. 

I). IT. P. 15. V. 9. A. 18. C 21^. Length, 8 to 10 inches. 

New Hampshire, Peck. Massachusetts, Storer. Connecticut, Linsley. New York, 
Mitchill, Dekay. Chesapeake Bay, Mitchill. 

Clupea serrata, Peck, Belknap's Hist, of New Hamp hire, m. p. 1.33. 

' .' pe i tyrannus, Bay Alewife, Latrobe, Amer. Phil. Soc. Trans., v. p. 77, pi. I. 

I i , Herring or Alewife, Mitchill, Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. of N. Y., i. p. 151. 

Alosa vernalis, Spring Herring or Atewive Storer's Report, p. 111. 

Alosa lyran in Alewive, Dekay's Report, p. 258, pi. 13, fig. 38. 

Alosa rernalis, Linsley 's Cat. of Fishes of Connecticut, Silliman's Journal, xr.vn. 

3. Alosa menhaden, Mitchill. 

Body much compressed. Abdomen serrated; serrations sharper behind the venlrals. 
Greenish brown upon the back, darker upon the top of the head and at the snout; roseate 
iipnii t lie upper part of the sides; silvery upon the abdomen; gill-covers cupreous, with a 
rosy lint ; a more or less distinct black spot upon the shoulders. Scales large, elliptical, cil- 
iate at edge. An accessory plate on each side of the ventrals. 

D. 19. P. 15, 16, or 17. V. 6. A. 20, 21, or 22. C. 20 3 . Length, 8 to 14 inches. 

Maine, Massachusetts, Storer. Connecticut, Ayres, Linsley. New York, Mitchill, 

Dekay. 

Ulupea uv .ili m1. ii, Bony fi^h, Hardheads, or Marsh-bankers of New York, Mitchill, Trans. Lit. and Phil. 

S'»-. of N. Y., i. p. 453, pi. 5, fig. 7. 
Alosa menhaden, Menhaden, Hard-head, Storer's Report, p. 117. 
" " Moss-bonker, Dekay's Report, p. 259, pi. 21, fig. CO. 

" " Ayres, Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist., iv. p. 275. 

- 

4. Alosa mattowacca, Mitchill. 

Bluish green on the back ; silvery, with a series of dark rounded spots, on the sides. 
Back regularly arched throughout. Abdomen serrated. Tongue with a band of teeth. 
Caudal pouches. 

D. 18. P. 10. V. 9. A. 20. C. 20§. Length, 20 inches. 

Connecticut, Ayres, Linsley. New York, Mitchill, Dekay. 

('ailed " Autumnal or Fall Herring," " Shad Herring," or " Greenback." 

ittowaca, Long Island Herring, Mitchill, Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. of N. Y., I. p. 451, pi. 5, 
. 
Clupea t i , . ] ocris, Staten I iland Herring, Mitchill, Trans. Lit. anil Phil. Soc. of N. Y., i. p. 451. 
Alosa mattowacca, Autumnal Herrin I 1 B ly's Report, p. 2G0, pi. -10, fig. 127. 
" '• Ayres, Bost. Jonrn. Nat. Hist., iv. p. 275. 



208 Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 

5. Alosa sadina, Mitchill. 

Oblong;, compressed. Abdomen indistinctly serrated. Greenish and blue above, with me- 
tallic reflections ; sides and belly silvery ; a dark, almost black spot upon the shoulder. No 
caudal pouches. 

D. 16. P. 16. V. 7. A. 21. C. 16|. Length, 6 to 12 inches. 

Connecticut, Ljnsley. New York, Mitchill, Dekav. 

Clupea sadina, New York Shidme, Mm : bit. and Phil. Soc. of N. Y., i. p. -1.37. 

sadina, Spotted Shadine, Dekay's Report, p. 263, pi. 11), fig. 129. 

Mr. Linsley considered this species the young of the Alosa sapidissima (see Silliman's 
Journal, Vol. XL VII.). 

6. Alosa teres, Dekay. 

Body elongated, cylindrical. Ventrals behind the dorsal. Bright silvery ; darker above, 
with a tinge of blue and yellow on the flanks. Dorsal and caudal tinged with yellow ; the 
remaining fins transparent, feebly punctate with black. 

D. 19. P. 15. V. 10. A. 12. C. I9§. Length, 7 inches. 

New York, Dekay. 

Alosa teres, Slender Herring, Dekay's Report, p. 2G2, pi. in fig, 128. 

■ 

GENUS III. POMOLOBUS, Raf. 

Body nearly cylindrical, elongate, scaly. Vent posterior. Abdomen ca- 
rinated and serrated from the head to the vent ; but without plates or broad 
scales. Head scaleless, opercle lobed, with a rounded shield above. Jaws 
without teeth ; upper, truncate, extensible ; lower, horizontal and fixed. Ab- 
dominal fins with nine rays, and without any lateral appendage ; dorsal fin op- 
posite. 

1. Pomolobus chrysochloris, Raf. 

Body subcylindric, compressed on the sides; abdomen slightly carinatc and serrate ; back 
rounded. Top of the head and back bluish-purple, iridescent ; the gill-covers and sides of 
the jaws golden and purple, sides of the body and the abdomen while. 

D. 18. P. 16. V 9. A. 18. C. 34. Length, 12 to 18 inches. 

Ohio River, Kirtland. 

Pomolobus chrysochloris, Ohio Gold Shad, Rap., Ichlh. Ohien., p. 30. 

Alosa chrysochloris, Gold Shad, Gold Herring, Skipjack, Kirtland. Eost. Journ. Nat. Hist., iv. p 
pi. 15, fig. 3. 

GENUS IV. CHATOESSUS, Cuv. 
The last ray of the dorsal is prolonged into a filament ; some have the jaws 



Stover's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 209 

equal, and the muzzle not prominent ; their mouth is small and without 
teeth. 

1. Chatoessus oglina, Lesueur. 

Back almost straight ; throat and abdomen describing an inverted arch as far as the tail, 
and armed with from thirty-two to thirty-three serratures, of which fourteen or fifteen are 
placed between the ventral and anal fins. Back blue, with three black longitudinal bands : 
beneath white. No teeth. Dorsal not emarginate. Anal hardly visible, almost concealed 
by the scales which cover its base. 

D. 18. P. 19. V. 9. A. 20 to 22. C. 18. Length, 8 inches. 

Newport, Rhode Island, Lesueur. 

Called " Alewife," at Newport. 

Megalops oglina, Lesueur, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc. i. p 
Chal .ii, Griffith's Cuv., x. p. 439. 

Dekay's Report, p. 265. 

- 

2. Chatoessus Cepedianus, Lesueur. 

Body subelliptical ; back greatly elevated, almost sharp ; abdomen very much arcuated, 
carinated, and armed with twenty-nine spines. Back grayish blue ; pale silver on the sides ; 
head of a burnt terra de sienna, mixed with golden ; throat and abdomen white ; extremity 
of the ventrals black ; the remainder of the fins tinted with gray-blue, yellow, and green, 
blackish at their extremities. The extremity of the pectorals extending beyond the anterior 
part of the base of the ventrals, which are situated somewhat before the dorsal fin. 

D. 15. P. 18 V. 8. A 33. C. 19?. Length, 8 to 12 inches. 

Delaware and Chesapeake Bays, Lesueur. 

Megalops Cepediana, Lesueur, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc , i. p. 361. 
Chatoessus Cepedianus, Griffith's Cuv., x. p. 439. 
" Dekay's Report, p 

3. Chatoessus notatus, Lesueur. 

Back almost straight; thorax and abdomen arcuated, carinated. Back blue, without 
blackish bands, but with five blue spots; sides of a pale blue color; abdomen and head 
white. Anal fin narrow, equal throughout ; ventrals small, truncated : dorsal fin longer than 
high. Scales large. 

D. 18. P. (?). V. (?). A. (.'). C (?)• Length, 6 to 8 inches. 

Guadaloupe, Lesueur. 

Megalops nolala, Lesdeor, Journ. Acad. Nat. St., I. p. 3G1. 
Llialoessus notatus, Griffith's Cuv., x. p. 439. 

4. Chatoessus ellipticus, Kirtland. 
Body oval, elliptical; sides flattened, back rounded, abdomen compressed, carinate, and 

70 



210 Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North .America. 

•- 

serrate. Back and head olive and bluish, iridescent; sides silvery; abdomen white ; fins 
dusky brown. Dorsal triangular; caudal deeply bilobed ; anal narrow, slightly falciform ; 
pectorals do not reach the commencement of the ventrals. 

D. 13. P. 15. V. (?). A. 30. C.22. Length, 12 to 18 inches. 

Ohio River and its tributaries, Kirtland. 

C toe us ellipticus, Hickory or Gizzard Shad, Kirtland's Pa-port, pp. 169, 195. 
Dorosoma notata (the young), Raf., Ichth. Ohien., p to, 

ClialoSdSus ellipticus, Hickory or Gizzard Shad, Kirtland, Eo.st. Journ. Nat. Hist., iv. p. 235, pi. 10, fig. 1. 
" " " " Dekay's Report, p. 2G5. 

5. Chatoessus signifer, Dekay. 

Body compressed, elliptical. Bluish above, with a series of dark points along the sides ot 
the back, forming four or five longitudinal lines. A round black spot behind the upper part 
of the branchial aperture. Pectorals, ventrals, and anal white; dorsal and caudal yellow. 
Abdomen serrate, with thirteen distinct rhomboidal acute scales between the ventrals and 
the vent, and eighteen smaller, scarcely prominent ones anterior to the ventral fins. Scales 
large- Dorsal subtriangular ; dorsal filament equal in length to the greatest depth of the 
body; anal very low, but distinct. 

D. 19. P. 18. V. 8. A. 21. C. 19§. Length, 8 inches. 

New York, Dekay. 

Called "Shad-Herring,'' "Thread-Herring," and "Thread-fish," in New York. 
Chatoessus signifer, Spotted Thread-Herring, Dekay's Report, p. 264, pi. 41, fig. 132. 

GENUS V. HYODON, Lesueur. 
Body compressed as in the Herrings, but without abdominal serratures. 
Eyes very large. Teeth minute and curved on the jaws, tongue, vomer, and 
palatines. Branchial rays, eight or nine. Dorsal opposite the commence- 
ment of the anal. Scales large, deciduous. 

1. Hyodon tergisus, Lesueuk. 

Body lengthened, elevated ; back almost straight, and parallel with the abdomen. Back 
bluish; sides silvery ; fins tinted with yellow, with metallic reflections on the rays. Ana] 
large, and rounded anteriorly, very narrow posteriorly. Lateral line nearly straight. Dor- 
sal subquadrangular ; ventrals with an accessory scale. 

D. 15. P. 18. V. 7. A. 32. C. 18|- Lesueur. Length, 9 to 13 inches. 

D 15. P- 15. V. 7. A. 29. C. I8 7 f . Dekay- 

New York, Dekay. Lake Erie, Ohio River, Lesueur. 

Called " Moon-eye," " Shiner," " Lake Herring," at Buffalo ; it is known also by the 
names of "Herring," " River Herring," and " Toothed Herring." 



Storeys Synopsis of Ihc Fishes of North America. 21 1 

Hyodontergi I it, Joum. Acad. Nat. Sc., i. p. 3GG. 

Notch-finned H n I uEtm, Rich., Fauna Boreal. Americ, ill | 
" M i-eyed Herring, Kmitland's Report, p. 170. 

River Moon-eye, Dekay 1 Report, p 265, p] II, fig. 130. 
Hyodon clodalus, Lesueur, Journ. Acad, Nat. Sc, i. p. 367, pi II 

Larger Herring, Kiktland i. 170, 1 

Lake ttoon-e I' ... i Report, p 266, pi 51, fii' 164. 

Lesueur, when lie described the IT. (ergisus and H. clod:ilus, was not perfectly satisfied 
that they were distinct species. Kirtland, in his unpublished description of" the H. tergisus, 
which will appear in the third number of the fifth volume of the "Journal of the Boston 
Society of Natural History," considers it as the male of the II. clodalus. With abundant 
opportunities of settling this question, his authority is deserving great respect ; and I have 
accordingly adopted his views. 

2. Hyodon chrysopsis, Run. 

Body greatly compressed ; thickest above the lateral line, and thinning gradually into the 
%ery acute, even edge of the belly; the back thins off more suddenly, but its ridge is less 
sharp than the rim of the belly. Scales large, irregularly orbicular, of a bluish slate-color 
at the base, with bright silvery tips. The irides and sides of the head are tinged with 
honey-yellow. Teeth'conical, in a single row on intermaxillaries ; two rows in lower jaw. 
Tongue furnished on its margin with hooked teeth, which are the largest of all, and its 
centre is occupied by a crowd of small curved ones. Caudal crescentic ; its lower lobe the 
longer. 

D. 11. P. 12. V. 7. A. 34. C. ( : ). Length, 16 inches. 

Northern regions, Richardson. 

Called " Oweepeetcheesees," by the Crees ; "Gold-eye," by the fur-traders; " Nac- 
caysh," by A r oyageurs. 

Hyodon clodalus, Rich.. Franklin's Journal, p. 716. 

H}"" 1 Arysopsis, Naccaysh, Rich., Fauna Boreal. Americ, III. p. 232. 

" Dekay's Report, p. 267. 

GENUS VI. ELOPS, Lin. 

Jaws formed like those of the Herrings. Body cylindrical. There are as 
many as thirty rays, or more, to the membrane of the gills. A flat spine 
arms the upper and the lower edge of the caudal. 

1. Elops saurus, Lin. 
Body elongated, cylindrical, compressed towards the tail. Bright silvery, with a greenish 
tinge along the back ; summit of the head bronzed. All the fins more or less punctate with 
black. Scales moderate, orbicular. Upper jaw longer than the lower. Dorsal subtriangu- 



212 Stover's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 

iar, covered at its base by a thick membrane ; ventrals under the anterior part of the dorsal ; 
caudal widely forked, with six accessory rays on each side, the first somewhat produced and 
flattened on the upper and under edges of the tail. 

D. 21. P. 15. V. 14. A. 17. C. 20|. Length, 11 to 22 inches. 

New York, Mitchill, Dekay. 

Elops saurus, Lin., Syst. Nat. (12lh edit.), p. 518. 

Elops inermis, Smooth Elops, Mitchill, Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. of N. Y7, i. p. 445. 

Blopa saurus, Saury, Dekay's Report, p. 267, pi. 41, fig. 131. 

Note. Dr. Dekay, in his account of the above species, says, — "I find an Elops (not 
named) among the drawings of the fishes of Carolina by my friend Dr. Holbrook, and sup- 
pose it to be a different species." 

GENUS VII. BUTIRINUS, Commerson. 
Body elongated and rounded. Muzzle prominent. Mouth but slightly 
cleft ; close and even teeth in the jaws. Twelve or thirteen branchial rays. 
Tongue, vomer, and palatines paved with rounded teeth. 

1. Butirinus vulpes, Lin. 

Body much elongated; depth very slight just in front of tail. Greenish blue above; sides 
and fins reddish brown. Snout projects beyond the lower jaw. Scales large and rounded. 
Dorsal upon the middle of the back ; caudal deeply forked. 

D. (?). P. (>). V. (?). A. (?). C. (?). Length, about 16 inches. 

Carolina, West Indies, Catesby. 

Esox vulpes, Lin., Syst. Nat , p. 516. 

Vulpes Bahamensis, Catesby's Hist. Carol., n. p. 1, pi. 1, fig. '.' 

Macabi, Pahra, p. 83, pi. 35, Eg 1 

Esox vulpes, E-sox Pike, Shaw's Gen. Zodl., v. p. 106. 

Clupea macrocephala (Lacep.), Shaw's Gen. ZooL, v. p. 177. 

Huunmis vulpes (Catesby), Dekay's Report, p. 268. 

GENUS VIII. AMIA, Lin. 
Head flattened, naked, with conspicuous sutures. Twelve flat gill-rays. 
Small paved teeth behind the acute conical ones. A large, long buckler 
between the branches of the lower jaw. Dorsal long ; anal short. Air- 
bladder cellular, like the lungs of reptiles. 

1. Amia calva, Lin. 
Body cylindrical anteriorly, compressed posteriorly. Back of head bluish-black ; sides 
obscurely maculated in some specimens with olive spots ; beneath while ; a black spot at 
upper edge of caudal fin. Scales subcircular, flat, depressed somewhat in their centres. 






Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 213 

D. 48. P. 17. V. 6. A.O. C. 22. Length, 18 indies to 3 feet. 
Lake Champlain, Thompson. Lake Erie, KutTtAND. Lake Huron, Richardson. Car- 
olina, Lin- 
Called tlie " Bowfin," at Lake Champlain. 

ilva, Lin., Sysi Vat., p 

Carolinian Amia, Shaw's Gen. Zoul , v. p. 9. 
Amiaocellicauda, Marsh-I una Boreal. Americ, ill. p. 23G. 

Amia calva, Dog-fish of Lake Erie, Kirtland, Host. Journ Nat. Hist., in. p. 479. pi. 29, fig. 1. 
Amia occidentalis, Western Mud-fish, Dekay's Report, p. 269, pi. 39, fig. 
Amia tz D :ay's Report, p. 

Mr. Zadock Thompson, the intelligent author of the "History of Vermont," writes me, 
that he compared his description of an Amia he took at Whitehall, Lake Champlain, with 
Dekay's A. occidentalis, Richardson's A. ocellicauda, and Kirtland's A. calva, and is satisfied 
" they all belong to one and the same species." 



FAMILY XXII. SAURLLXE. 

Body covered with scales of a stony hardness, which are extended into im- 
bricated spines upon the first rays of all the fins. In some genera, dorsal 
Unlets, each supported by a strong spine. 

GENUS I. LEPISOSTEUS, Lacep. 

Muzzle formed by the union of the intermaxillaries, maxillaries, and pala- 
tines to the vomer and the ethmoid ; jaws slightly unequal ; both jaws bristling 
over their whole interior surface with rasp-like teeth, have along their edge 
a row of long and pointed teeth. Dorsal and anal fins far back, and opposite 
one another. Their stomach is continued as far as a slender intestine, twice 
folded, having many short cceca to the pylorus ; their natatory bladder is cel- 
lular, as in Amia, and occupies the length of the abdomen. 

1. Lepisosteus osseus, Lin. 

Body elongated, fusiform. Head more than one fourth of its total length ; base of head 
less in circumference than any other section of the body anterior to the dorsal fin. Snout 
much elongated. Back and head brown or umber-colored, sides yellow, and body white : 
several circular black spots upon the caudal, a few smaller ones upon dorsal and anal fins. 
Scales smooth. Lateral line nearly straight. 

D. 7. P. 10. V. 6. A. 6. C. 12. Length, I to 5 feet. 

New York, Mitchill, Dekay. Lake Huron, Richardson. 






214 Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North .America. 

Called " Bony Pike," " Alligator," and " Alligator Gar," at Buffalo ; also called " Buf- 

falo-fish." 

Green Gar-fish, Cate.-dv's Hist. Carol., n. p- 30, pi. 30. 
I i o eus Lin., Syst. Nat., p. 516. 

Bloch, 39 i 

Bony -scaled Pike, Shaw's Gen. Zool., v. p. 115 

" " " " MlTCHILL, Trans. Lit. ami Phil SoC. of N. Y., I. p 144 

" " " " " Amer. Month. Mag., n. p. 321. 

v Lepisosteus oxyurus Ohio Gar-fish, Raf., Ichth. Ohien., p ■ I 

" •■ Common Gar, Kirtland's Report, pp 170, 10G. 

Lepisosteus Htironensis, Northern Mailed-fish, Rich., Fauna Boreal. Americ., ill p. 237. 
Lepisosteus rostratus (Cuv.), Rich, Fauna Boreal. Americ, m. p 238, 
Lepisosteus oxyurus, Ohio Gar-fish, Kirtland, Bost. Journ. Nat Hist., iv. p 1C, pi. 1, fig. 1. 

" Common Bill-fish, Thompson's Hist, of Vermont p 1-15. 
Lepisosteus bison, Buffalo Bony-Pike, Dekay's Report, p. 271, pi -13. fig. 139. 
~'~~\J Lepisosteus longirostris (Cuv., Rich Fauna Boreal. Americ, in p. 237), Dekay's Report, p. 27-1 

Mr. Thompson describes and figures a species in his " History of Vermont," p. 145, un- 
der the name of L. linealus, which he thinks may lie the young of the above species 
undoubtedly correct in this latter opinion. 

-U >/H Ul <' ~' Lepisosteus platostomus, Raf. 

Body cylindrical, flattened above. Head flattened above. Jaws hard, elongated ; upper 
jaw about as long as the head ; jaws furnished with numerous sharp, prominent teeth. 
Head and back dusky and umber; sides yellowish; abdomen white; iris golden yellow. 
Dorsal, caudal, and anal fins, maculate. A series of obscure circular spots on the medial 
line behind anal fin. 

D. 8. P. 10. V. 0. A. 9. C. 12. Length, 20 inches. 

Ohio, Raf., Kirtland. Florida, Dekay. 

Lepisosteus platostomus, Duck bill Gar-fish, Raf., Ichth. Ohien., p. 72. 

" '' " •■ Kirtland's Report, pp 170, 196 

" " (; " Kirtland, Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist., iv. p. 20 pi 1, 1 

±p_ ' , i_r — Lepisosteus platyrhincus, Flat-nosed Bony-Pike, Dekay's Report, p 273, pi 13, fig. 1 17 

Dekay's description of this species, having been drawn up from a preserved specimen, 
touches but slightly upon its colors ; but in other respects it resembles Rafinesqne's species 
so much, that I cannot doubt their identity. . 

fl 3. Lepisosteus ferox, Raf. 

Body fusiform, cylindrical, and flattened on the back. Head broad and flat above, and 
one fourth the whole length of the fish. Jaws nearly equal, not half the length of the head. 
and armed with numerous strong, prominent teeth. Scales imbricate, and sculptured on 
their external surface. In the prepared specimen, of a yellowish-brown color. 

D. 8. P. 15. V. 6. A. 8or0. C. 11. Length, 4 to G feet. 

Ohio River, Kirtland. Mississippi River, Raf. 

Lepisosteus ferox, Alligator Car fish, Raf., Ichth. Ohien, p. 75. 

'• *' " " Kirtland's Report, pp 170, VA\ 

" Kirtland, Bost. Journ Nat. Hist., iv. p 19, pi I, fig. 2 



Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 215 



JLHilLAUES. 



d ^vCtvLj c{ M 



Ventrals attached under the pectorals, and the pelvis immediately sus- UutA-'v. - 
pended to the hones oi the shoulder. 

i-Llt-luu, -Trvurr^-' 

/ Ca-t La-V-*-! 

FAMILY XXIII. GADIDjE. 






Body elongated, but little compressed, covered with soft scales not very 
voluminous ; their head well proportioned and without scales ; all their fins 
soft; their jaws and the front of the vomer are armed with pointed, irregular 
teeth, middling, or small sized, in several rows, forming a sort of currycomb 
or rasp ; their gills are large, with seven rays. Ventrals separate, jugular. 
Almost all have two or three fins on the back, one or two behind the anus, 
and a distinct caudal. Their stomach is in the form of a large and strong sac ; 
their cceca are very numerous, and their caudal tolerably long. They have a 
large air-bladder, with strong parietes, and frequently dentated in the sides. 



t t f > ^ 

irrnCj.tllUt 
iU.bQtt-L.~n '•* 

bTillm-cJiu 
picv-^u veins' 

"Lt TL-H-l* 



GENUS I. MORRHUA, Cuv. 

Three dorsal fins ; two anal ; ventrals pointed ; a barbel at the end of the 
lower jaw. 

1. Morrluia Americana, Storer. 

Body largest and deepest anterior to the dorsal fin. Color very variable ; generally, back 
ash -colored ; sides lighter ; both back and sides covered with yellowish spots, larger and 
more distinct upon the sides. Beneath dusky white. Lateral line lighter-colored than the 
body throughout its whole extent. The second dorsal and first anal with twenty-two rays. 

D 15, 22, 19. P. 19- V. 6. A. 22, 19. C 40. Length, 1 to 3 feet. 

Maine, Massachusetts, Storer. Connecticut, Linsley. New York, Mitchill, De- 



Gadii3 callarias, Common Cod of New York IVTrrcim.r., Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. of N. Y. i. p. ~G~ 
Morrhua Americana, American Cod, Stober's Report, p. 120. 

" " Dekav's Report, p. 274, pi. 11, fig. 14ft 



2. Morrhua seglefinus, Lin. 
Body robust, large in front, tapering behind. Above the lateral line, of a dark ;:ray color ; 
beneath this line, a beautiful silvery-gray, with a large, dusky, more or less circular patch 
on each side, on a line with the middle of the pectorals, ils upper portion generally extending 
above the lateral line, its larger portion usually beneath it. Lateral line of a jet black color. 
First dorsal elevated ; caudal emarginated. 



216 Stover's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 

D. 16, 24,20. P. 21. V. 6. A. 26, 21. C. 35. Length, 1 to 2 feet. 

Maine, Massachusetts, Storer. Connecticut, Linsley. New York, Mitchill, Deka v. 

Gadu teglefimia, Lin., Syst. Nat (12th edit.), p. 435. 
Haddock, Block, ii p. 125, pi. 62. 
" (( " Shaw's Gen. Zob'l., iv. p. 136. 

" Pennant's Brit. Zob'l., m. p. 241. 
" " " Jexvns's Brit. Vert., p. 411. 

" Mitchill, Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. of N. Y., i. p. 3 

Morrhu £ lefinu: Haddock, Griffith's Cov., x. p. 484. 

" " Yarrell's Brit. Fishes (1st edit.), n. p. 15::, fig ; l M edit ). u p, 233 fig 

<; " •" Storer's Report, p. 124. 

" " " Dekay's Report, p. 279, pi. 43, fig, 138. 

3. Morrhua pruinosa, Mitchill. 

Body oblong, fusiform ; head small and flattened above ; abdomen prominent. The color 
varies exceedingly ; generally, it is brown, greenish, or yellowish brown, with deeper patch- 
es, spots, and blotches; beneath lighter. The first two rays of the ventrals free at their ex- 
tremities, the second ray filamentous. 

D. 13, 18, 19. P. 17. V. 6. A. 22, 18. C 39. Length, 4 to 12 inches. 

Maine, Massachusetts, Storer. Connecticut, Linsley, Ayres. New York, Mitchill. 
Dekay. 

Frost Cod, and Frost-fi.sh, Pennant's Arct. Zobl., Supplement, p. 1 14 
Gadus pruinosus, Tom Cod or Frost-fish, Mitciiill's Report in part, p. 4. 
Gadus tomcodus, Tom Cod, Mitchill, Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. of N. Y., i. p. 368. 
Morrhua tomcodus, Tom Cod, Storer's Report, p. 126. 
Morrhua pruinosa, Tom Cod, Dekay's Reporl, p. 278, pi. 44, fig. 142, 
" " " Ayres, Eost. Journ. Nat. Hist., iv. p. 276. 

4. Morrhua vulgaris, Lin. 

Body oval, elongated, thickest behind the pectorals; somewhat tapering posteriorly. 
Back, head, and upper half of-the sides, cinnamon-brown, obscurely spotted with yellow ; 
lower half of the sides and abdomen white ; lateral line forming a narrow white band ; fins 
dusky; ventrals pale, approaching to white. Jaws nearly equal. 

D. 12, 20, 19. P. 19. V. 6. A. 19, 1". C. 34, and several short ones. Jenyns. Length. 
2 to 4 feet. 

D. 10, 20, 18. P. 20. V. 6. A. 20, 16. C. 26. Yarrell. Length, 2 to 4 feet. 

Greenland, Fabricius. Grand Bank, off Newfoundland. 

Called " Saraudlirksoak," or " Ekalluarksoak," by the Greenlanders. 

Gadus morrhua, Lin., Syst. Nat., i. p. 436. 

Codfish, Bloch, ii. p 131, pi. 64. 
" FABrticius, Fauna Groenlandica, p. 146. 
" " Common Cod, Shaw's Gen. Zobl., iv. p. 131. 

" " Bank Cod, Mitchill, Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. of N. Y., i. p. 367. 

" " Common Cod, Jenyns's Brit. Vert., p. 440. 

Morrhua vulgaris, Cod, Griffith's Cuv., x. p. 483. 

" " Common Cod, Yarrell's Brit. Fishes (2d edit ). II. p. 221. 

" " Bank Cod, Dekay's Report, p. 280. 

Gadus morrhua, Capt. J. C. Ross, Append., p. 4S. 
" " Common Codfish, Rich, Fauna Boreal. Americ. m. p. 242. 



borer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 1\1 

5. Morrhua minuta, Lin. 

Body cylindrical, fusiform. Depth one fifth of the length. First dorsal entirely before 
si anal. Reddish yellow above ; abdomen of a dirty white, or rather a yellowish white. 
covered with innumerable minute black points. Upper jaw the longer. 
D. 13, 24, 20. P. 18. V. 6. A. 28, 24. C. (.= ). Jenyns. 
D. 12, 19, 17. P. 14. V. (i. A. 25, 17. C. 18. Yarrell. 

D. 12, 19, 17. P. 17. V.6. ^.22,17. C. 20. Storer. Length, 6 to 8 inches. 
Massachusetts, Storer. 

Gadus minutus, Ln?.,Srst. Nat., i. p. 433. 
" " Poor, Bi i oh, n. p. 1 1-, pi, 6?, : 

" Jenyns's Brit. Vert,, p 
" Shaw's Gen. Zool., iv. p. 141. 
la minuta, Pour or Power Cod, Yareeli/s Brit, Fishes (2d edit.), 11. p. 2-11. .m,] plate 
'" Storek's Report, p. 12". 
" Power Cod, Dekay's Report, p. 277, pi. 44, fig. 141. 

G. Morrhua callarias, Lin. 

Body elongated, subventricose ; head, back, and sides more or less spotted ; lateral line 
white, bent; tail square ; upper jaw much the longer; snout prominent, sharp ; under jaw- 
only half as long as the head, and ending on a line half way between the nose and the eye. 

D. 15, 18, 20. P. 20. V. 6. A. 19, 18. C. 24. Length. 12 to 24 inches. 

Greenland, Fabricius. 

Gadus callarias, I. in,, Syst. Nat., p, 136. 
Bloch, ii. - 
" Fabricius, Fauna Groenlandica, p. 144. 
" " Dorse, Shaw's Gen. Zool., iv. p. 138. 

Variable Codfish, Pennant's Brit Zool., in. p. 239. 
Dorse, Rich., Fauna Boreal. Americ, m. p. 244. 
Morrhua callarias, Griffith's Cuv., x p. 48-1. 

Dorse, or Variable Cod, Yarrell's Erit, Fishes (2d edit.), II. p. 231, tig. 

7. Morrhua Fabricii, Rich. 

The color of the back is a soiled or livid white, the sides are minutely spotted with black. 

and the under parts are pure white. There is a short barbel under the chin. 

D. 13, 15, 23. P. 19. V. 6. A. 17, 20. C. 32. Length, 14 inches. 

Greenland, Fabricius. 

Gadiii :r ..,,, finus, Fabrioihs, Fauna Groenlandica, p. 142. 

Gadus Fabricii, Meesarkornak, Rich., Fauna Boreal Americ, hi. p. 245. 

8. Morrhua ogac, Rich. 

Larger than the Morrhua lusca, the Whiting-pout of the British seas: no black spot at 
the Imse of the pectorals. 

D. 15, 19, 10. P. 18. V. 6. A. 22. 17. C. 32 Length, IS inches. 
Greenland, Fabricius. 

71 



218 Stover's Synopsis of the Fishes of North Jlmerica. 

Called " Ogak," or " Owak " (the young, " Ogarak " or " Awarak," pi. " Ogarkaet '' 
or " Owarkaet "), by the Greenlanders. 

Gadus barbatus, Fabricius, Fauna Groenlandica, p. 146. 
Gadus ogac, Ogak, Rich., Fauna Boreal. Americ, ill. p. 246. 

GENUS II. MERLUCIUS, Cuv. 

The head flattened ; the body elongated ; the back furnished with two 
dorsal fins, the first short, the second long ; but one anal fin, also very long ; 
no barbels at the chin. 

1. Merlucius albidtis, Mitchill. 

Body elongated, somewhat compressed in front of the anus, rounded posteriorly. The top 
of the head and upper part of the body of a reddish-brown color when the fish is first taken, 
which afterwards becomes of a dull lead-color. Lower parts of the sides and abdomen 
white, with metallic reflections. Preopercular, maxillary, and intermaxillary bones of a 
beautiful, shining silver-color. Lower jaw the longer. Prominent teeth on palatine bones. 
A deep emargination in second dorsal fin, causing it to appear like two fins. 

D 11,18,20. P. 15. V. 7. A. 21, 19. C 34. Mitchill. 

D. 11, 39 P. 16. V. 7. A. 40. C. 17|. Dekay. 

In two species I have before me, the fin rays are as follows : 

D. 13,41 P. 13. V. 7. A. 40. C 23. 

D 13, 28. P. 13. V.7. A 40. C. 30. Length, from 18 to 24 inches. 

Massachusetts, Storer. Connecticut, Linsley, Ayres. New York, Mitchill, 
Dekay. 

Gadus albidua, New York Whiting, Mitchill, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc, I. p. 409. 
Gadus merlucius, Hake, Mitchill, Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. of N. Y., i. p. 371. 
Merlucius vulgaris, Hake, Storeh's Report, 132. 

" " Ayres, Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist., iv. p. 276. 

Merlucius albidus, American Hake, Pekay's Report, p. 280, pi. 46, fig. 14^. 

GENUS III. LOTA, Cuv. 
Body elongated. Two dorsal fins. A single anal fin. One or more bar- 
bels on the chin. 

1. Lota maculosa, Lesueur. 

Body oblong, compressed. Ground-color of the body reddish, marbled with brown, with 
roundish white spots scattered throughout. Dorsal, anal, and caudal fins also spotted. The 
first dorsal subtriangular. 

D. 10 or 12, 70 or 74. P. 16 or 18. V. (?). A. 70. C. 44 to 50. Length, 18 to 28 
inches. 

Every lake and river from Canada to the northern extremity of the continent, Richard- 



Storer' s Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 219 

son. Several of the small lakes in the Weslern District of New York, Dekay. Lake 
Erie, Lesueur. 

Gadus lota, Pennant's A re t Zooi., Introd., p 191. 

'■ '• Run., Franklin's Journal, p, 724. 
l, tdue lacuslris, Codfish of thfl Lakes MrrcniLL, Amer Month. Mag , u. p. 244. 
Gadus maculosus, Eel-pout, Dog-fish, Lbsueur, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc., i. p. S3. 
Le Moke tachete (Mr>h;i marnlnsa), Lesubuk, Meraoires du Museum, v. p. 159, pi. 16. 
Lola maculosa, Griffith's Cuv., x. p. 487. 

Gadua (Lota) maculosus (Cov.), Methy, Rich., Fauna Boreal. Americ, ill. p. 248. 
Lot. i maculosa, Eel-poul, Kirtland's Report, pp. 1 TO, 196. 

" " " Kirtlano, Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist , iv. p. 24, pi. 3, fig. 1. 

" " Ling or Methy, Thompson's Hist, of Vermont, p. 146. 

" " Spoiled Burbol, Dekay's Report, p. 284, pi. 52, fig. 169. 

Note. Kirtland, in his observations upon this species, in the " Boston Journal of 
Natural History," remarks that Lesueur is incorrect in giving this species the common 
name of Dog-fish; that term is exclusively applied to the Amia calva. 

2. Lota compiessa, Lesceur. 

Body, in front of the first dorsal, cylindrical ; at extremities of pectorals, begins to be com- 
pressed ; much compressed at posterior portion. Yellowish brown, variegated with darker 
brown spots; abdomen white. Upon the lower portion of the second dorsal, a row of dark- 
colored spots. Dorsal, anal, and caudal united together. 

D. (!). P- (?) V ('). A. (.'). C. (?) Length, to 8 inches. 

New Hampshire, Storer. Massachusetts, Lesueur. Connecticut, Linsley. 

Gadus compressus, Lesueur, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc, i. p. S4. 

Le Molve Hunt (Molvia Huntia), Lesueur, Memoires du Museum, v. p. 161. 

Lota compressa, Eel-poul, Storer's Report, p. 134. 

" " Thompson's Hist, of Vermont, p. 147. 

" Compressed Burbot, Dekay's Report, p. 285, pi. 78, figs. 244, 245. 

3. Lota brosmiana, Storer. 

Body broad in front of the dorsal ; compressed upon the sides, back of first dorsal, taper- 
ing to tail. Yellowish in the recent fish, with a reddish tint upon the back, between the 
back of the head and the origin of the dorsal. The top of the head and opercula fuliginous, 
the latter with golden reflections. The second ray of the ventrals is as long again as the first, 
and these two rays are disconnected from each other posteriorly, leaving the first free- 
Dorsals of nearly equal height. 

D 10,71. P- 16 V. 6. A. 68. C 34. Storer. Length, 27 to 29 inches. 

D. 9, 71. P. 19. V. 7 A. 63. C 45. Dekay. 

New Hampshire, Storer. New York, Dekay. 

Lola brosmiana, Storer, Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist., iv. p 5^, pi. 5, rig. 1 (IE 19 
Lola inornala, Plain Burbot, Dekay's Report, p. 283, pi. 45, fig. 145 (1842). 

Notwithstanding the difference in the radial formula of the caudal fin in Dekay's fish ai d 

mine, I cannot but believe they are identical. Dekay's specimen being a preserved one, the 

color had faded. 



220 Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 

GENUS IV. MERLANGUS, Cuv. 
Three dorsal and two anal fins. No barbels to the chin. 

1. Merlangus carbonarius, Lin. 

Body fusiform, cylindrical. All the upper pari of the body and head black; beneath the 
lateral line, of a bluish white ; abdomen lighter than the sides. Lateral line of a beautiful 
silvery-white color. The lower jaw the longer. Scales on the top of the head very small. 

D. 13,20, 20. P. 19. V. 0. A. 24, 21. C. 32. Stores. 

D. 13, 19, 19. P. 18. V. 6. A. 24, 19. C. 22|. Dekay. Length, 1 to 3 feet. 

Davis's Straits, Sabine. Massachusetts, Stoker. New York, Dekay. 

Palled " Pollack," and " Black Pollack," in New York and Massachusetts. 

Gadus carbonarius, Lin., Syst.Nat., p, !> 
" " Coal-fish, Block, ii. p. 146. pi. or,. 

" Pennant's Em. Zobl , in. p. 250. 
Shaw's Gen. Zool., iv. p. 145, 
Merlangus carbonarius, Coal-fish, Griffith's Cuv., x. p, ! 

Jenvns's Bnl- Vert., p, 446. 
" Yarheix's Brit. Fishes (2d edit.), n. p. 250 and i 
G idus (Merlangu :) c irbonarius, Coal-fish, Rich,, Fauna Boreal. Americ., in. p. 217. 
Merlangus carbonarius, Coal-fish, Stoker's Report, p. 129. 

Dekav's Report, p. 237, pi. 45, fig. 111. 

2. Merlangus purpureus, Mitchill. 

Body oblong, cylindrical, subcompressed. Upper part of head and body greenish-brown 
color; sides lighter; abdomen white. Lateral line grayish. Caudal deeply concave. 

D. 14, 19 or 22, 18 or 21. P. 10 or 20. V. 6. A. 22 or 24, 10 or 21. C. 30 or 40. 
Storer. 

D. 13,21,21. P. 20. V. 6. A. 25, 20. C. 24f. Dekay. Length, 1 to 3 feet. 

Massachusetts, Stoker. Connecticut, Linsley. New York, Mitchill, Dekay. 

G idus purpureus, New York Pollack, Mitchill, Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. oi'X. Y.. i. p. 370 
Merlangus purpureus, Pollack, Storer's Report, p 130. 

New York Pollack, Dekay's Report, p. 2SG, pi. 43, 6g 147. 

3. Merlangus polaris, Sabine. 

Distinguished from the Gadus virens of the European seas by the third dorsal being larger 
than the two anterior ones ; the lower jaw rather exceeds the upper one ; tail slightly forked. 
D. 14, 10, 19. P. IS. V. 6. A. 17,22. C 42. Sabine. Length, 10 inches. 
D. 13, 15, 20. P. 18. V. G. A. 17, 21. C. 42 to 48. Ross. » 
Baffin's Bay, Sabine. 

Merlangus polaris, Sabine, Parry's First Voya?e. 

Ross, Append. Parry's Third Voyage, p. 110. 
" Parry's Polar Voyage, p. 199. 
Gadus (.Merlangus) polaris, Polar Coal-fish, Rich., Fauna Boreal. Americ , in. p. 247. 



Stover's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. ll\ 

4. Merlangus leptocephalus, Dekay. 

Body compressed, subcylindric. Deep green above the lateral line ; silvery-white beneath, 
and minutely punctate with black. Lower jaw the shorter. 

D. 1-2, 19, 10. P. 18. V. 6. A. 27, 20. C. 22;. Length, 12 to IS inches. 
New York, Dekay. 

Merlangus leptocephalus, Green Pollack, Pekay's Report, p. 2-S3, pi. 1"», fig. 146. 

GENUS V. BROSMIUS, Cuv. 

Body elongated ; a single dorsal fin extending the whole length of the back : 
one barbel at the chin ; ventral fins fleshy. 

1. Brosmius flavescens, Lesueur. 

Body cylindrical, compressed posterior to the anus. In the larger specimens the back is 
brownish, the sides yellowish and sometimes a decided yellow ; occasionally, in very large 
specimens, the color is whitish, with brownish patches, looking as it' the skin was abraded ; 
the immature fish is of a uniform dark-slate color, or with transverse yellow bands. Dor- 
sal, caudal, and anal bordered with bluish black, with a white margin. Dorsal and anal fins 
continued to and united with the base of the tail. 

D. 96 or 93. P. 23, 21, or 25. V. 5. A. 71 or 73. C. 34 or 35. Length, 2 to 3 feet. 

Massachusetts, Lesueur, Storer. 

Le Brosme jaune, Brosmius flavescens, Lbsueur, Memoires du Museum, v. p. 158, pi. 1G. 
Gadus (Brosmius) flavescens (?), Lesubur, yellow Tusk, Rich., Fauna Boreal. Araeric, in. p. ioi. 
Brosmius vulgaris (Cov.), Cusk, Storer's Report, p. 136. 
" ,; (?), Cusk, Dekay's Report, p. 289. 

GENUS VI. PHYCIS, Artedi. 

Body elongated. Two dorsal fins, first short, second long ; ventral fins 
with a single ray only at the base, afterward divided. Chin with one barbel. 

- 1. Phycis Americanus, Schneider. 

Body cylindrical ; sides compressed. Grayish brown above, lighter beneath. The third 
ray of the first dorsal is filamentous, and considerably higher than the length of the fin. 
\ entrals composed of two rays, which, previous to dissection, appear as one; these tins 
extend to or beyond the vent. 

D. 10, 54. P- 17. V. 2. A. 48. C. 20 or 21. Length, 1 to 3 feet. 

Mi sachusetts, Storer. Connecticut, Linsley. New York, Miichill, Dekay. 

Called " Hake," by the fishermen of Massachusetts ; " Codling,'' by those of New York. 



222 Stover's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 

Enchelyopus Americ.inus (Schneider), Griffith's Ov., x. p 489 

Gadus longipes, Codling, Mitchill, Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. of N. Y., I. p. 372, pi. 1, fig. 4. 

Phycis furcalus. Stoker, Cost. Journ. Nat. Hist., i. p. 418. 

Phycis Americanus, American Hake. Storer's Report, p. 138. 

" American Codling. Dekay's Report, p. 291, pi. 46, fig. 15U. 

2. Phycis punctatus, Mitchill. 

Body cylindrical, subfusiform. Back and sides brown, or whitish with lines between the 
scales. Lateral line alternately black and white. A black spot on the first dorsal ; caudai 
emarginate. 

D. 9 or 10, 47. P. 13. V. 1. A. 47. C. 23. Length, 10 inches. 

Nova Scotia, Hamilton Smith. New York, Mitchill, Dekay. 

Gadus punctatus, Spotted Cod, Mitchill, Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. of N. Y., i. p. 372, pi. 1, fig. 5. 
Gadus (Phycis) punctatus, Spoiled Phycis, Rich., Fauna Boreal. Americ, III. p. 253, and fig. 
Phycis punctatus, Spotted Codling, Dekay's Report, p. 292, pi. 46, fig. 119. 

3. Phycis tenuis, Mitchill. 

Back and sides brown, lighter above. Fins dark brown, excepting ventrals, which are 

whitish. Throat internally streaked with red and purple. Convex tail. 

D. 11,54. P. 16. V.2. A. 44. C. 25. Length, 15 inches. 

New York, Mitchill, Dekay. 

Gadus tenuis, Slender Cod, Mitchill, Trans. Lit. and Phil Soc. of N. Y., i. p. 371. 
Phycis tenuis, Slender Cod, Dekay's Report, p. 293. 



GENUS VII. MACROURUS, Bloch. 
The entire head and whole body furnished with hard scales, bristling with 
small spines. Their suborbital's unite together in front, and with the nasal 
bones, to form a depressed muzzle, which advances beyond the mouth, and 
under which the latter preserves its mobility. Ventrals small and a little ju- 
gular ; pectorals moderate. The first dorsal short and elevated ; the second 
dorsal and the anal are both very long, and unite in a point at the caudal ; the 
jaws have only very fine and very short teeth. 

1. Macrourus rupestris, Bloch. 

Body oblong, thick anteriorly, slender posteriorly. Head large. Eyes large and promi- 
nent. Scales silvery, hard, and armed on the head and forepart of the body with several 
longitudinal serrated ridges, on the posterior parts with only one ridge. Lateral line near 
the back. 

D. 11,112. P. 18. V. 8. A. 112. C. (?). Fabricius. 

D. 1-11, 124. P. 19. V. 7. A. 148. C. 272. Schneider. 



Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North .hncrica. 223 



Greenland, Fabricius. 

'ailed " Ingmingoak," by the Greenlanders. 

Coryphrena rupeslris, Fabricius, Fauna Groenlanilica, p. 1"4 
Macrourua rupesiris (Schneider), Bloch, xxvi. p. 103. 

Rock Grenadier, Rich., Fauna Boreal. Americ, ill. p. 254. 



FAMILY XXIV. PLANIDiE. 

Body flat, compressed vertically. Upper surface dusky, and of various 
colors ; beneath white. Dorsal single, extending the whole length of the 
back. Both eyes placed on the same side of the head. No air-bladder. 
Branchial rays six. 

GENUS I. HIPPOGLOSSUS, Cuv. 

Both eyes and the color on the right side, and the fins are similar to those of 
the species of the following genus ; the jaws and the pharynx are armed with 
teeth that are sharper and stronger, and the form of the body is more elon- 
gated. 

I . Hippoglossus vulgaris, Cuv. 

Body oblong, very large, smooth. Of a dark-brown color on the right side, left side 
white- Lateral line arched above the pectorals- 

D. 09. P. 17. V. 6. A. 73. C. 18. Length, from 3 to 6 feet. 

Greenland, Fabricius- Maine and Massachusetts, Storer. Connecticut, Linsley. 

New York, Mitchill, Dekay. 

Pleuronecles Hippoglossus, Lin., Syst. Nat., p. 456. 

" HolybuL, Bloch, 11. p. 44, pi. 47. 

" " Fabricius, Fauna Groenlandica, p. 161. 

" " Holibut, Shaw's Gen.Znbl., iv. p. 295. 

" " " Pennant's Brit. Zoffl., III. p. 302. 

" " Halibut, Mitchiix, Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. of N. Y, I. p. 386. 

Hippoglossus vulgaris, Holibut, Jenvns's Brit. Vert., p. 460. 

" " Griffith's Cuv., x. p. 494. 

" Holibut, Yarrell's Brit. Fishes (1st edit.), II. p. 230; (2d edit.), n. p. 321. 

" " Halibut, Storer's Report, p. 145. 

" " " Pekay's Report, p. 294, pi. 49, fig. 157. 

GENUS II. PLATESSA, Cuv. 

Body rhomboidal, depressed ; both eyes generally on the right side of the 
head, one above the other ; a row of teeth in each jaw, with others on 
the pharyngeal bones ; dorsal fin commencing over the upper eye, that fin 



224 Slorefs Synopsis of the Fishes of North .America. 

and the anal extending nearly the whole length of the body ; but neither of 
them joined to the tail ; branchiostegous rays six. 

Eyes on the Right Side of the Head. 

1. Platessa plana, Mitchill. 

Form elliptical. Tlie smaller and middling-sized specimens, when first taken from the 
water, are of a greenish-brown linge, more or less spotted and blotched with rusty brown. 
The larger individuals are of a general rusty-brownish color, or a dark blackish-brown, or a 
dull slate-color, scarcely exhibiting any spots. White on left side. A spine at anus, nearly- 
concealed. Lateral line makes a very slight curve only over the pectorals. The half of the 
jaw next to the colored portion, edentate. The fin rays vary somewhat. 

D. 02. P. 9. V. 6. A. 46. C. i7. Mitchill. 

D. 65. P. 10. V. 0. A. 48. C. 17. Storer. 

D. 01. P. 10. V. 6. A. 46. C. 17. " 

D. 67. P. 10. V. 6. A. 46. C. 17§. Dekay. 

Massachusetts, Storer. Connecticut, Linsley, Ay _ res. New York, Mitchill, De- 



kay. 



Pleuronectes planus, New York Flat-fish, Mitchill, Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. of N. Y., i. p. 387. 
Platessa plana, Flounder of Massachusetts, Stori i - Report, p. I lit 

" " New York Flatfish, Dekay's Report, p 295, pi. 48, fig. 154, and pi. 19, tig. 1S3. 

Ayres, Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist., iv. p. 276. 

2. Platessa dentata, Mitchill. 

Body elliptical. All the right side of the body and the fins of a uniform reddish-brown 
color. Mouth very large. The lower jaw has a blunt spine at the chin. Jaws furnished 
with a single row of prominent, sharp teeth, separated from each other. 

D. 91. P. 11. V. 6. A. 70. C. 18. Length, 2 inches. 

Massachusetts, Storer. New York, Dekay, Storer. 

Pleuronectes dentatus, Flounder of New York, Mitchill, Trans Lit. and Phil. Soc. of N. Y., i. p 39 
Platessa dentata, Flounder of New York, Storer's Report, p. 143. 
" Dekay's Report, p. 293. 

3. Platessa femiginea, Storer. 

Body elliptical. Of a reddish slate-color, with a tinge of green, covered with numerous 
large, irregularly-formed ferruginous spots. The left side a clear white, except the posterior 
portion in front of the caudal fin, the caudal fin, and the margin of the dorsal and anal, 
which are of a lemon-yellow. Mouth small, lips tumid. Lateral line curves over the pecto- 
rals. Teeth in the jaws very small. 

D. 84. P. 10. V. 6- A. 65. C. 16. Storer. Length, 12 to 20 inches. 

D. 81. P. 10. V.6. A. 59. C. 143. Dekay. 



Slorcr's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 11^ 

Massachusetts, Storer. New York, DbkaT. 

Platessa ferruginea. Ru Ij Dab, Stosi i p 141. 

" Rusty Flat-fish, Dekay's Report, p. 297. 

4. Platessa pusilla, Dekav. 

Body more elongated than that of the P. plana. Nearly uniform olive-brown, with indis- 
tinct darker blotches towards the dorsal and anal fins. No anal spine. Jaws armed with mi- 
nute conic teeth. Lateral line but very sligluly curved over pectorals. 

D. 67-09. P. U. V. G. A. 50. C. 153. Length, 5 inches. 

New York, Dekav. 

Platessa pusilla, Pigmy Flatfish, Dekay's Report, p. 236, pi. 47, fig. 153. 

5. Platessa glabra, Storf.r. 

Body elliptical, perfectly smooth. Above grayish, mottled with dark brown. Dorsal, 
anal, and caudal fins, reddish yellow, with well marked, nearly black spots, more or less 
oval, differing in their size. A smooth ridge between the eyes. Lateral line scarcely de- 
viates from the straight course over the pectorals. Teeth cylindrical, slightly conical at their 
points. Numerous blunt teeth upon the hyoid bone. The extremities of the ventrals do not 
reach the anal fin. 

D.54-62. P.O. V. 6. A. 39-41. C. 16. Length, 8 inches. 

Massachusetts, Storer. 

Pialessa glabra, Storer, Proceed. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., I. p. 131. 

Eyes on the Left Side. 

6. Platessa oblonga, Mitchilx. 

Body oblong, smooth. Of a reddish-gray color, with more or less numerous circular'oval, or 
oblong blotches of a darker color, surrounded with a lighter margin, and also numerous white 
spots, which are distributed more copiously at the bases of and upon the fins. Right side 
white, without spots. A prominence at chin. Jaws with a single row of separated, quite 
large, sharp teeth ; the front ones much the largest. The external and central rays of cau- 
dal longest ; when unexpanded, the caudal appears roundish. 

D. 73. P. 11. V. 6. A. 59. C. 17. Mitchill. 

D. 89. P. 12. V. 6. A. 68. C. 16. Storer. Length, 15 to 30 inches. 

D. 89. P. 12. V. 6. A. 71. C. 10. 

D. 88. P. 12. V. 6. A. 66. C. 17. Dick-ay. 

D. 95. P. 12. V. 6. A. 72. C. 16§. 

Massachusetts, Storer. New York, Mitchill, Dekay. 

72 



■ 



226 Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North JImerica. 

Pleuronectes oblongus, Spotted Flounder, Mitchill. Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. of N.Y., i. p. 391. 
Rhombus aguosus, Watery Flounder, Storer, Bust. Journ. Nat. Hist., 1. p. 351. 

" " *' " Storek's Report, p. 146. 

Platessa oblonga, Oblong Flounder, Dekay's Report, p. 299, pi. 48, fig. 156. 
Platessa ocellaris, Long-toothed Flounder, Dekay's Report, p. 300, pi. 47, fig. 152. 

I cannot but believe the species described and figured in Dekay's Report as the P. oblonga 
and P. ocellaris are identical. The following are Dekay's characleristics of the P. oblonga : 
— "Oblong, smooth. Nearly uniform brown; occasionally with spots. Caudal fin angu- 
laled. Length, fifteen to twenty inches." While the P. ocellaris is thus described : — " Dor- 
sal fin with more than ninety rays. Chin prominent. Teeth long. Upper surface with 
ocellated and other spots. Tail rounded. Length, twelve to eighteen inches." 

A specimen lies before me, while writing this, with ocellated spots upon its surface, an 
angulated caudal fin, a prominence at the chin, and less than ninety dorsal rays. 

The ocellated spots upon its surface and prominent chin would mark it as the P. ocellaris of 
Dekay ; but that species, according to Dekay, has a " rounded tail," and a "dorsal with 
more than ninety rays." 

The angulated caudal fin and number of dorsal rays (less than ninety) would point it out 
as the P. oblonga of Mitchill. But Dr. Dekay would lead us to infer that it is without ocelli. 
He says this species is " nearly uniform brown, occasionally with spots." 

I have, during the last season (1844), seen a large number of this species in the market 
at the same time, and they presented the following characteristics. Some had distinct ocelli dis- 
tributed over the greater portion of the body, while in others they tare so dim as scarcely to be 
seen- They all had the chin prominent. It will be observed, by examining the descriptions of 
the P. oblonga and P. ocellaris, by Dekay, he says of the former, " lower jaw prominent " ; 
this is shown in his figure, but omitted in his characteristics ! Of the latter species, he re- 
marks, " chin prominent " ; this character does not appear in the figure. They all have an 
angular tail when unexpanded, which is more rounded when fully expanded. I have counted 
eighty-eight, eighty-nine, ninety, and ninety-one rays in the first dorsal fin. 

I cann"ot, with these facts before me, consider the two species as distinct from each other. 

7. Platessa stellata, Pallas. 

Profile of the body broadly elliptical, terminated by a strap-shaped tail and a caudal fin scol- 
loped between the rays. The dorsal and anal fins of the same form, and terminate opposite ; 
these two fins conjointly give a rhomboidal outline to the fish. Color of the upper side liver- 
brown, without spots ; of the under side white, tinged with red towards the tail. Fins red- 
dish, with broad, vertical black stripes. Both sides of the body studded with stellated, bonv 
tubercles. Under jaw the longer. 

D. (.'). P. (?)• V. (?). A. (0- C. (?)• Length, 1 foot. 

Arctic Sea, Richardson. 

Pleuronectes (Platessa) atellatus, Stellated Flounder, Pallas, Rich , Fauna Boreal. Americ, in. p. 257. 
Platessa slellala, Dekay's Report, p. 301. 



Storefs Synopsis of the Fishes of North Jlmerica. 227 

GENUS III. PLEURONECTES, Dekay. (RHOMBUS, Cuv.) 
With the jaws and pharynx of Hippoglossus, they have some close or even 
teeth, or pectiniforra ; but their dorsal advances towards the edge of the 
upper jaw, and extends, as well as the anal, very nearly to the caudal. The 
majority have the eyes to the left. 

1. Pluuronectes argus, Bloch. 

Oblong. Of a pale brown color, with scattered blue, half-ocellate spots. Tail lunate. 

D. 85. P. 1G. V. 6. A. 79. C. 17. Length, 10 inches. 

Precise locality not mentioned by Catesbv. 

Pleuronectes argus, Bloch, IS. 

" " Lin., Syst. Nat, Gmel., p. 1239. 

Solealunata et punctata, Sole, Catssby's Hist. Carol., n. p. 27. 
Pleuronectes argus, Argus Flounder, Shaw's Gen. Zool., iv. pp. 319, 320, fig. 45. 
Pleuronectes argus el lunulatus, Turton'S LlNKSUS, I. pp. 767, 7bo. 
Rbombus argus, Griffith's Cuv., x. p. 497. 

2. Pleuronectes maculatus, Mitchill. 

Orbicular. Body and fins pellucid, with numerous black spots. The anterior rays of the 
dorsal with membranous slips. Chin with a slight protuberance. Lateral line arched above 
the pectorals. 

D. 68. P. 12. V. 6. A. 56. C. 15|. Length, 12 to 18 inches. 

Massachusetts, Storer. New York, Mitchill, Dekay. 

Pleuronectes maculatus, New York Plaice, Mitchill, Report in part, p. 9. 

Pleuronectes aquosus, Plaice of New York, Mitchill, Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. of New York, i. p. 3S9. 

pi, 2, fig. 3. 
Pleuronectes maculatus, Spotted Turbot, Dekat's Report, p. 301, pi. 47, fig. 151. 

3. Pleuronectes glacialis, Pallas. 

Ovate. Color a mixture of yellowish-gray and dull greenish-gray, somewhat clouded, but 
without defined spots ; belly bluish white ; caudal fin irregularly spotted with red. Caudal 
cuneiform, entire- Scales small, rough on left side of the body. Lateral line straight. 

D. (?). P. (?). V. (?). A. (?). C. 0). Length, (r). 

Arctic Sea, Richardson. 

Pleuronectes (Rbombus) glacialis (Pallas), Arctic Turbol, Rich., Fauna Boreal. Amcric, m. p. 25S. 
Pleuronectes glacialis, Dekay's Report, p. 302. 

GENUS IV. ACHIRUS, Lacepede. 
Destitute of pectoral fins. Both eyes and color on the right side. Mouth 
distorted to the side opposite the eyes. Dorsal and anal extend to the tail, 
but are not united with it. 



228 Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 

1. Achirus mollis, Mitchill. 

Form oval. Dark brown, marked transversely with irregular black bands ; left side white, 
with circular dark-brown blotches scattered over its entire surface ; also, in a less marked 
manner, upon the fins. Scales small. A small, compressed spine, almost concealed, directly 
in front of the upper eye, just back of the commencement of the dorsal fin. 

D. 52. V. 4. A. 40. C. 16. Length, 6 inches. 

Massachusetts, north of Cape Cod, Storer. Nantucket to Carolina, Dekat. 

Pleuronectes mollis, New York Sole, Mitchill, Trans. Lit. ami Phil. Soc, of N. Y., i. p. 3S9, pi. 2, fig. 4. 
Achirus mollis, Griffith's Cuv., x. \> 

" " New York Sole, Stoker's Report, p. 119. 

" " " " Dekay's Report, p. 303, pi. 19, fig. 159. 

2. Achirus apoda, Mitchill. 

Body nearly circular. With about twenty transverse black stripes and as many pale ones, 
and each pale one is divided by a narrow brown stripe, giving the upper side the appearance 
of variegated black, pale, and brown cross-bars. Beneath white ; many soft caruncles or pa- 
pilla; beneath, on both sides of the mouth. 

D. (?). V. (?). A. (?). C. (?). Length (exclusive of caudal fin), 4 inches. 

Straits of Bahama, Mitchill,. 

Pleuronectes apoda, Apodal Sole, Mitchill, American Monthly Review, II. p. 2-14. 

Dr. Dekay, in his " Report on the Fishes of New York," considers this species, as de- 
scribed by Mitchill, a Monochirus. But as Mitchill distinctly remarks, " there are no pectoral 
fins," we must, until it is controverted by a recent specimen, consider it an Achirus. 

GENUS V. PLAGUSIA, Cuv. 

No pectoral fins. Dorsal, caudal, and anal fins united. 

1. Plagusia fasciata, Holrrook. 
Body elongated, terminating in a point, with seven broad, transverse dusky bands. 
D. (.'). V. (?). A. (?) C. (?) Length, (?). 
South Carolina, Holbrook. 

Plagusia fasciata (Holbrook's Illustrations), Dekay's Report, p. 304. 

FAMILY XXV. CYCLOPTERLLVE. 

Ventrals suspended all around the pelvis, and united by a single membrane, 
forming an oval and concave disk, which the fish employs as a sucker to fix 
itself to the rocks. Mouth broad, furnished at the jaws and pharyngeals with 



Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 229 

small pointed teeth ; opercula small. Branchial rays, six. Pectorals very 
ample, and almost uniting under the throat, as it were to embrace the disk of 
the ventrals. 

GENUS I. LUMPUS, Cuv. 

Two dorsal fins ; the first dorsal fin so enveloped by a thick and tubercular 
skin, that, externally, it might be* taken for a simple hump of the back ; second 
dorsal with branched rays, opposite the anal. Body deep and rough, with 
conical horny tubercles. 

I. Lumpus anglorum, Willoughby. 

Body suborbicular. All the upper part of the body of a bluish slate-color ; beneath yel- 
lowish. The disk of a bright yellow color. The young fish is blue above r and almost en- 
tirely white beneath. The whole surface of the body covered with an immense number of 
small stellated tubercles, studding even the fin rays. Three rows of tubercles project from 
each side, and another row projects from the dorsal ridge. 

D. — , 11. P. 20. A. 10. C- 12. Length, 8 to 20 inches. Weight, 1 to 18 pounds. 

Greenland, Fabiucius. Maine, Massachusetts, Storer. New York, Mitcuill, Dekay. 

Called " Neepeesa," il Angusedlok " (male), " Arnardlok '* (female), by Greenlanders. 

Cyclopterus lumpus, Lin., Syst Nat . i. p. 414. 

" " Lump, Bloch, hi. p. 92, pi. 90. 

Lumpus anglorum, Will., p. 208, No. 11. 

Cyclopterus lumpus, Lump-Sucker, Pennant's Brit. Zool., in. p. 176, pi. 24. 
" " '• " Shaw's Gen. Zool., v. p. 3 

•" " Common Lump-fish, Jenvns's Brit. Vert., p. 471. 

" " Lump, Rich., Fauna Boreal. Americ., m. p. 260. 

" " Fabricids, Fauna Groenlandica, p. 131. 

" Lump-Sucker, Yarrell's Brit. Fishes (2d edit ), II. p. 36.",. fig. 
Cyclopterus creruleus, Blue Lump fish, Mitchtll, Traus. Lit. and Phil. Soc. of N. Y., I. p. 460, pi. 2, fig, 7. 
Lumpus vulgaris, Cuv., Regne Animal, n. 

<( " Lump-Sucker, Stoker's Report, p. 151. 

Lumpus anglorum, Lump-Sucker, Dekay's Report, p. 305. 

2. Lumpus minutus, Pallas. 
Body compressed, naked. Two white, unequal bony tubercles on each side. Snout 
marked, above the mouth, by three tubercles. Tail even. Color whitish. 
D. (?). P. (?)• V. (•'). A. (.'). C. (?). Length, 1 inch. 
Greenland, Fabricius. 
Called " Nepeesardlooarksook," by the Greenlanders. 

Cyclopterus minutus, Lin , Gubl. 

" " ( P a i . i . \ i, l :i his. Fauna Groenlandica, p. 135. 

" " Ross, Appendix, p. xlvi. 

" " Small Sucker, Shaw's Gon. Zobl., v. p. 396. 

" Diminutive Lump, Rich., Fauna Boreal. Amoric, 111. p. 262. 



230 Stover's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 

3. Lumpus spinosus, Fae. 

Tubercles of the skin not arranged in rows, as in the L. anglorum ; their bases are rough, 
and they rise into a longish spine in the centre, the largest being upon the upper parts, while 
the belly is smooth. The first dorsal neither so high nor so thick as in the L. anglorum, and 
its edge not armed with tubercles, but its soft rays sufficiently evident. The hue of the fish is 
blackish, the belly whitish, and the first twelve rays of the pectorals quite white. 

D. 6, 11. P. 23. V. 6. A. 10. C. 10. Length, (?). 

Greenland, Fabricius. 

Called " Nepeesardlook," by the Greenlanders. 

Cyclopterus spinosus, Fabricius, Fauna Groenlandica, p. 134. 

" Spiny Lump, Rich., Fauna Boreal. Americ, III. p. 263. 

4. Lumpus ventricosus, Pallas. 

Body naked; skin covered with livid mucus; abdomen ventricose ; head thick, blunt, 
flattish above; eyes lateral, on the upper part of the head ; dorsal fin whitish yellow, with 
black rays, of which the sixth is longer than the rest ; pectoral fins wide ; tail suddenly at- 
tenuated beyond the vent ; disk orbicular. 

D. (?). P. (•)• v - (•')■ A - ( ? )- C. (?)• Length, 1 foot. 

Seas between America and Kamtschatka, Pallas. 

Cyclopterus ventricosus (Pallas), Lin., Gmel. 

" " Ventricose Sucker, Shaw's Gen. Zool., v. p. 304. 

" " Bellying Lump, Rich., Fauna Boreal. Americ, m. p. 263. 

GENUS II. LIPARIS, Artedi. 

Body smooth, elongated, and compressed behind. A single dorsal, later- 
ally long, as well as the anal. 

1. Liparis communis, Artedi. 

Body compressed, lengthened, soft, unctuous, subtransparent. Brownish above, with 
darker stripes ; beneath white, with a cast of yellow on the head and sides. Head large, 
thick, and rounded ; fins brown ; eyes small ; tail short and rounded. Disk bluish, marked 
with twelve radial spots. 

D. (?)■ P- (?)• v - (')■ A - (0- C. (.')■ Length, from 5 to 16 or 18 inches. 

Northern Seas, Richardson. 

Called " Abapokeetsok," by the Greenlanders ; " Sea-Snail,'" by the Yorkshire fishermen. 

Cyclopterus liparis, Artedi. 

" " Lin., Syst. Nat., i. p. 414. 

" " Fabricius, Fauna Groenlandica, p. 135. 

" " Snail-Sucker, Shaw's Gen. Zobl., v. p. 394. 

" " Bloch, iv. pi. 123, figs. 3, 4. 



Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 231 

Cycloptcrus liparis, Ross, Append. Parry's Polar Voyage, p. 199. 

" " I net i Sui k.r, Pennant's Brit. Zool., nr. p. 179, pi. 21. 

" " Common S:a s I - Brit. Vert., p. 472. 

Liparis communis, Sabine, Appe I 

" " Ross, Append., p. xlvii. 

Cyclopterus (Liparis) communis :. Fauna Boreal. Americ, ill. p. 263. 

2. Liparis gelatinosus, Palla-. 

Body slender, oblong, compressed, thicker towards the head, gradually tapering to the 
tail- Color whitish, with a rosy tinge. Skin smooth ; flesh very soft, trembling like jelly 
when touched. Dorsal and anal fins dark violet ; pectoral fins flaccid and rounded. 

D. (.'). P. (?). V. (?). A. (?)• C. (?)• Length, 18 inches. 

Seas between America and Kamtschatka, Pallas. 

Cyclopterus giilatinosus (Pallas), Lin., Gmel. 

" " Gelatinous Sucker, Shaw's Gen. Zool., v. p. 393. 



FAMILY XXVI. ECHENELtLE. 

Witli a flattened disk upon the top of the head, composed of numerous car- 
tilaginous transverse plates, directed obliquely backwards, dentated or spinous 
at their posterior edge, and movable, by means of which they are enabled to 
attach themselves to other substances. 

GENUS I. ECHENEIS, Lin. 

Body elongated, covered with very small scales. A single dorsal fin, 
placed opposite the anal. Head very flat, covered with a disk ; mouth wide, 
with numerous small, recurved teeth on both jaws, tongue, and vomer. 

1. Echeneis albicauda, Mitchill. 

Body cylindrical, elongated. Above of a grayish slate-color; lighter upon the sides, 
with a dark band, which, commencing at the tip of the lower jaw, as a small black point, 
runs along its margin to the angle of the jaw, then, assuming a band, passes to the tail, 
interrupted only by the eyes. All the fins margined with white- Disk upon head, with 
twenty-one transverse plates, divided by a fleshy median lino. 

D. 29. P. 18. V. 5. A. 30. C. 18. Storer. Length, 12 to 20 inches. 

D. 33. P. 18. V. 7. A. 30. C. 18. Dekay. 

Massachusetts, Storer. New York, Mitchill, Dekay. 

Echeneis albicauda, White-tailed Remora, Mirciinx, Anicr. Month. Mag., n. p. 211. 
Echeneis naucrales, Indian Remora, Sto R port, p. 153. 

Echeneis albicauda, White-tailed Remora, Dekay's Report, p. 307, pi. 5-1, fig. 177. 
" " " Storbr, Boat. Jouro. Nai. Hist., iv. p. 18" 



232 Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North .America. 

2. Echeneis naucrates, Lin. 

Olive-brown, without stripes. A whitish longitudinal cloud on each side, near the belly. 
Disk elliptical, inclining to oval, with twenty-two to twenty-four plates. 
D. 34. P. 10. V. 5. A. 34. C. 21. Length, 31 inches. 
Newfoundland, Audubon. New York, Mitchill.. 

Echeneis naucrates, Lin., Syst. Nat., p. 446. 
" " Bloch, v. p. 106, pi. 171. 

" " Indian Remora, Shaw's Gen Zotil., iv. p. 209, pi. 31. 

" " Bis Oceanic-Sucker, Mitchill, Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. of N. Y-, I. p. 377. 

" " Shipmaster Echeneis, Rich., Fauna Boreal. Americ, in. p. '266. 

" " Indian Remora, Decay's Report, p. 303. 

3. Echeneis remora, Lin. 

Body elongated. Dusky brown above ; lighter beneath. Fins darker than the rest of the 
body. Disk with seventeen or eighteen plates. Caudal crescent-shaped. 
D. 21. P. 22. V. 4. A. 20. C. 20. Length, 12 to 18 inches. 
New York, Mitchill. 

Echeneis remora, Lin., Syst. Nat., i. p. 446. 

" " Sucking-fish, Bloch, v. p. 109, pi, 172. 

" Mediterranean Remora, Shaw's Gen. Zobl., rv. p. 201, pi. 31. 

" Pennant's Bril. Zob'l., in. Append., p. 524. 
" Small Oceanic-Sucker, Mitchill, Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. of N. Y., i. p. 378. 
" " Common Remora, Jenyns's Brit. Vert., p. 473. 

" Yarrell's Brit. Fishes (2d edit.), II. p. 377, fig. 
" " " " Dekav's Report, p. 309. 

4. Echeneis quatuordecemlaminatus, Storer. 

Of a light reddish-brown color, rather darker beneath. Disk with fourteen plates. Cau- 
dal not emarginated. 
D. 32. P. 14. V. 4. A. 30. C. 18. Length, 5 1 inches. 
Massachusetts, Storer. 

Echeneis quatuordecemlaminatus, Fourleen-plated Remora, Storer's Report, p. 155. 
" " (Storer), an jur. ? Dekay's Report, p. 309. 



APODES. 

No ventral fins. 

FAMILY XXVII. ANGUILLLL\E. 

Body very much elongated and cylindrical, for the most part of a serpentine 
figure. Scales scarcely apparent, being imbedded in a soft and thick skin. 
Air-bladder of various singular forms. No ccecal appendages. 



Slorer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 233 

GENUS I. ANGUILLA, Cuv. 

The dorsal commencing considerably behind the pectorals, and uniting with 
the anal to form the caudal. Lower jaw the longer. Mouth with a row of 
teeth in each jaw, and a few on the anterior part of the vomer. 

1. Anguilla Bostoniensis, Lesueur. 

Body cylindrical, compressed posteriorly. Head equal to about one tenth the length ot 
the body. Lower jaw slightly projecting. Pectorals short and subovate. Greenish or olive- 
brown above ; yellowish or yellowish white beneath, frequently having a reddish tinge along 
the margin of the anal fin ; in the smaller specimens, the opercula, throat, and abdomen, an- 
terior to the vent, are of a bluish slate-color, with scarcely a tint of yellow. 

D. (?). P. (?). A. (?). C. (.'). Length, 24 inches. 

Massachusetts, Lesueur, Stoker. Connecticut, Linsley. New York, Mitchill, 

Dekay. 

Anguilla vulgaris, Common Eel, Mitchill, Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. of N. Y., i. p. 360. 

u Fresh-water Eel, Mitchill, Amcr. Month. Mag., n. p. 241. 
Murana Bostoniensis, Lesoeub, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc., I. p. SI. 

„ 11 Common Eel of Massachusetts, Storer's Report, p. 158. 

Anguilla tenuirostris, I Ml m in New York Eel, Dekay's Report, p. 310, pi. 53, f. 
An „ u; is (Lesueur), Dekay's Report, p. 313. 

°„ .. " Ayres, Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist., IV. p. 279. 

2. Anguilla argentea, Lesueur. 

Body much compressed. Pectorals very near the head. General color a silvery gray ; 
darker upon its upper portion, with a clear satiny-white abdomen. Lateral line exceedingly 
distinct, appearing to divide equally the darker-colored back from the beautiful lighter ab- 
domen. 

D. (>)• P- (?)■ A.. (.')■ C (?)■ Length, 12 to 24 inches. 

Massachusetts, Lesueur, Storer. Connecticut, Linsley. 

Murana argentea, Lesueur, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc., i. p. 82. 

,, i! " Silver Eel. Storer's Report, p. 153. 

Anguilla argentea, Dekay's Report, p. 313. 

3. Anguilla rostrata, Lesueur. 

Body tumid in the centre, and narrowed to a point at both extremities. Snout elongated, 
pointed, and straight. Upper parts varied with gray and olive, sometimes of a slate-blue, 
lower parts white; dorsal and anal fins reddish, which color deepens as it approaches the 
tail ; pectoral fins small, acute, and bluish. 

D. (?)• P- ('■)■ A. (?)• C (.')• Length, from 18 to 24 inches. 

Lakes Cayuga and Geneva, Lesueur. 

Muncna rostrata, Lesueur, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc., l. p I 

„ ii Beaked Eel, Rica., Fauna Boreal. Americ., in. p. 267. 

Anguilla rostrata, Beaked Eel, Dekay's Report, p. 312. 

73 



234 Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of JYorth America. 

4. Anguilla serpentina, Lesueur. 

Anterior part of body larger than the posterior. Pectorals very large. Head large, 
snout short. Color a dark copper-brown, which is lighter on the sides and belly ; the fins 
of the color of the body, though paler ; the dorsal fin arises nearer the pectorals than that 
of the A. argentea. 

D. (?). P. (?)■ A. (?). C. (?). Length, (?). 

Rhode Island, Lesuedr. 

Murania serpentina, Snake-Eel, Lesueur, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc, i. p. 31. 

5. Anguilla macrocephala, Lesueur. 

Head very large and elevated. Snout short. Eyes large and prominent. Olivaceous- 
yellow above ; from the angle of the mouth a golden band extends beyond the pectoral 
fins ; beneath pure white. 

D. (?). P. (?). A. (?). C. (?). Length, (?). 

Saratoga Lake, New York, Lesueur. 

Mursena macrocephala, Bull-head Eel, Lesueur, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc, I. p. 82. 
Anguilla macrocephala, Bull-head Eel, Dekay's Report, p. 313. 

6. Anguilla oceanica, Mitchill. 

Jaws equal. Tail pointed. Above brown ; on the sides pale ; belly smutty. A dark or 
somewhat bluish border on the vertical fins. 

D. (.'). P. (?). A. (?). C. (?). Length, 4 feet. 
New York, Mitchill. 

Anguilla oceanica, Sea-Eel, Mitchill, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc, I. p. 407. 
" " " " Dekay's Keport, p. 312. 

As intimated by Dekay, in his Report, this will probably prove to be, upon further investi- 
gation, a species of Conger. 

7. Anguilla lutea, Raf. 

Head flattened above, abruptly elevated behind the eyes, ventricose beneath the throat. 
Lower jaw projecting. Tail carinate at its extremity. Yellowish-brown on its sides and 
back, and whitish on the belly ; the two colors meeting abruptly on the sides of the abdomen. 

D. (.'). P. (>)• A. (.'). C. (?)• Length, 2 to 3 feet. 

Ohio, KlRTLAND. 

Anguilla lutea, Yellow Eel, Rap., Ichth. Ohien., p. 78. 

" " Kirtland, Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist., iv. p. 2.34, pi. 11, fig. 2. 
Anguilla laticauda (?), Broad-tailed Eel, Rap., Ichth. Ohien., p. 77. 



Stover's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 235 

GENUS II. CONGER, Cuv. 
The dorsal fin commencing close to the pectorals or on them, and in some 
species even before the pectorals, or at least at their base. The upper jaw is 
longest in all the known species. 

1. Conger occidentalis, Dekay-. 

Dark olive-brown ; chin, space behind the pectorals, and all beneath, soiled white. Dor- 
sal and anal of a deep black hue along their margins. Dorsal arising two inches behind the 
base of the pectorals. Jaws with a single series of contiguous, equal teeth. Lateral line 
distinct, with a series of white dots. 

P. 17. D., C, and A. 539. Length, 3 to 5 feet. 

New York, Mitchill, Dekay. 

Anguilla conger, Conger Eel, Mitchill, Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. of N. Y., I. p. 300. 
Conger occidentalis, American Conger, Dekay's Report, p. 314, pi. 53, fig. 172. 

GENUS III. MUR^ENA, Thunb. 

Have no vestige of pectorals ; their branchiaa open on each side by a small 
hole ; their opercula are so thin, and their branchiostegal rays so slender and 
concealed under the skin, that their existence has been denier!. The stomach 
is a short sac, and the natatory bladder small, oval, and placed near the upper 
part of the abdomen. 

1. Muraena moringa, Cuv. 

Black or green, sprinkled over its whole surface with innumerable black dots. 
D. (?). A. (?). C. (<). Length, 4 feet. 
Bahama Islands, Catesby. 

Itlurana maculala nigra et viridis, Muray, Catesdy's Hist. Carol., n. p. 20. 
Murffina maculata nigra, Black Muray, CatBSBY'S Hist. Carol., II. p. 21. 
Murana moringa, Griffith's Cuv., x. p. 527. 

GENUS IV. OPHIDIUM, Cuv. 
Head smooth. Body elongated, compressed ; teeth in both jaws, the pal- 
ate, and pharynx. Dorsal, caudal, and anal united. Gill-apertures rather 
large. Two pairs of small barbels adhering to the point of the hyoid bone. 

1. Ophidium marginatum, Dekay. 
Body elongated, much compressed, tapering to an acute point. Gray, with three dusky 



236 Storefs Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 

stripes along the body. Dorsal, caudal, and posterior portion of anal, edged with black on 
their margins. Pectorals yellow. 

D. 120. P. 22. A. 75. C. 17. Length, 9 inches. 

New York, Mitchill, Dekay-. 

Called "Little Cusk," by the fishermen. 

Ophidium barbatum, Cicrhous Ophidium, Mitchill, Trans. Lit and Phil. Soc. of N. Y., i. p. 3C.2, pi. 1. 

ag. ■-'. 

Ophidium marginatum, New York Ophidium, Dekay's Report, p. 315; pi. 52, fig. 1G9. 

2. Ophidium stigma, Bennett. 

Dilute brown, spotted, and with a purplish spot near the beginning of the dorsal fin. 
Snout obtuse, chin with a large gibbosity, teeth small. 
D. (?). P. (0- A. (?). C. (?). Length, 5 inches. 
Behring's Straits, Bennett. 

Ophidium stigma, Branded Ophidium (Bennett, Append. Beechey's Voyage), Rich., Fauna Boreal. Americ., 
m. p. 273. 

GENUS V. FIERASFER, Cuv. 

No barbels. Dorsal so thin as to resemble a simple fold of the skin. 

Their natatory bladder is supported by only two osselets ; that of the middle 

is wanting. 

1. Fierasfer borealis (?), Dekay. 

Body oblong, nearly round ; the color of the body is nearly that of the human skin, with 
scattered blotches of a pale rust-color. Dorsal of a uniform color; caudal fin rounded, 
and marked with numerous black dots. 

D. 76. P. 14. A. 49. C. 22. Length, 19 inches. 

New Hampshire, Peck. 

Ophidium (imberlie) maxillis imberbibus, Cauda rolundata, pinna dorsi unicolore, Peck, Mem. Amer. Acad., 

II., part ii., p. 46, pi. 2, fig. I. 
Fierasfer borealis 0), Dekay's Keport, p. 316. 

With much doubt, I follow Dekay in locating this species in the genus Fierasfer. 

2. Fierasfer Parrii, Ross. 

Greenish brown above. Pectoral fins large, with thirty-seven rays, and extending beyond 
the vent. Neck much arched. 

D. (?). P. (?). A. (?). C. (?). Length, 4 to 8 inches. 
Northern Seas, Ross. 

Ophidium Parrii, Capt. J. C. Ross, Append. Parry's Third Voyage, p. 100, and Polar Voyage, p. 199. 
" " Append. Ross's Second Voyage, p. xlvii. 

" Parry's Ophidium, Rich., Fauna Boreal. Americ, in. p. 274. 
Fierasfer Parrii, Dekay's Report, p 316. 



Stover's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 237 

GENUS VI. SACCOPHARYNX, Mitchill. 

The trunk, susceptible of being inflated like a thick tube, is terminated by a 
very slender and very long tail, along which proceed a very low dorsal and 
anal, and unite at its point. The mouth, armed with sharp teeth, opens far 
behind the eyes, which are quite near the very sharp point of the muzzle. Its 
gills open by a hole below the pectorals, which are very small. 

1. Saccopharynx chordatus, Mitchill. 

Skin smooth and scaleless. Of a dusky brown color ; a whitish line on each side of the 
back; interior of mouth black. Lower jaw without teeth ; upper jaw, for about an inch and 
a half, furnished with a row of bony, hooked teeth. Head small ; eyes small. Dorsal fin 
appearing like a narrow riband, and reaching to the tail; dorsal, caudal, and anal united. 
Filiform excrescences on each side of the whitish stripe all the way from the head down the 
back to the tail. Tail flexible enough to be tied into knots. 

D. (?). P. (?)■ A. (.'). C (.')• Length, 6 feet. 

Lat. 52° N , Long- 30 J W., Mitchill. 

Saccopharynx chordatus, Mitchill, Annals of Lye. Nat. Hist, of N. York, i. p. B2. 
I Iphiognathus ampuUaceus, Harwood, Phil. Trans., an. 1827, p. 49, pi. 7. 
pharynx flagellum, Griffith's Cuv., x. p. 531. 

GENUS VII. AMMODYTES, Lin. 
Head and body elongated ; gill-openings large ; dorsal fin extending nearly 
the whole length of the back ; anal fin of considerable length ; dorsal and anal 
fins separated from the caudal fin. Lower jaw longest. Their stomach is 
pointed and fleshy ; they have neither cceca nor natatory bladder. 

]. Ammodytes Americanus, Dekav. 

Body elongated, slightly compressed. Back of a dirty yellowish-brown color. Top of 
the head, and upper part of the opercula, slate-colored ; this slate or silvery-blue color passes 
down over the opercula in a broad band to the tail, giving the fish a beautifully brilliant ap- 
pearance ; beneath this, the sides and abdomen are silvery. The dorsal fin commences over 
the extremities of the pectorals. The anal fin is just one third the entire length of the fish. 
Without the strong forked teeth on the vomer, which exist in the Tobianus. 

D. 61. P. 13. A. 28. C. 14. Length, 6 to 12 inches. 

Massachusetts, Storer- Connecticut, Aykes, Linslev. New York, Mitchill, De- 
kay. 



238 Stover's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 

Ammodytes tobianus, Sand-Launce, Bloch, Mitchill, Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. of N. Y., i. p. 363. 

" " Sand-Eel, Storer's Report, p. 159. 

Ammodytes Americanus, American Sand-Launce, Dekay's Report, p. 317, pi. 52, fig. 167. 
Ammodytes lancea, Ayres, Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist., IV. p. 2S0. 
Ammodytes tobianus, Little Sand-Eel, Linsley's Cat. of Fishes of Connecticut. 
Ammodytes lancea, Banded Sand-Launce, *' " " 

Specimens of this Ammodytes, which in my Report I considered the A. tobianus, were 
sent to Mr. Yarrell, who writes me, — "I feel quite satisfied that it is distinct from both 
the tobianus and lancea." Never having seen the foreign species, I cheerfully prefix Dr. De- 
kay's specific name, after this careful comparison by the distinguished British ichthyologist. 

2. Ammodytes vittatus, Dekat. 
Body oblong, subcompressed, slender. Greenish olive above, with a broad silvery band 
along the sides, which is margined above with blackish ; belly white. Seven projecting 
spinous processes before the dorsal fin. 

D. 7, 54. P. 15. A. 28. C. 191. Length, 4 to 6 inches. 
New York, Dekay. 

Ammodytes Yiltatus, Banded Sand-Launce, Dekay's Report, p. 318, pi. GO, fig. 197. 

LOPHOBRANCHII. 

Gills, instead of being, as usual, pectiniform, are divided into little round 
tufts, dispersed in pairs along the branchial arches. 

FAMILY XXVIII. SYNGNATHIDiE. 

Body mailed with transverse angular plates. Opercle large ; branchial 
opening very small, and formed by a membrane which only exhibits vestiges 
of rays. Dorsal single. No coeca ; with an air-bladder. 

GENUS I. SYNGNATHUS, Lin. 

Body elongated, slender, covered with a series of indurated plates, arranged 
in parallel lines ; head long ; both jaws produced, united, tubular ; no ventral 
fins. Males with a pouch for the reception of the female roe. 

1. Syngnathus Peckianus, Storer. 

Olive-brown, with darker-colored blotches or bars. The posterior portion of the body is 
darker than the anterior. Beneath, anterior to the vent, of a beautiful golden-yellow ; por- 
tion back of vent nearly white. Body, anterior to vent, heptangular ; in front of posterior 
extremity of the dorsal fin, hexangular ; posteriorly quadrangular. Nineteen transverse 
plates in front of anus ; forty plates between the anus and the caudal fin. 



Storeys Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 239 

D. 45. P. 14. A. 3. C. 12. Length, 6 to 12 inches. 

Massachusetts, Storer. Connecticut, Linsley. New York, Mitchill, Dekay. 

Syngnathus typhle, Smaller Pipe-fish, IUitchiix, Trans. Lit. and Phil. Sic. of N. Y., [. p. 175. 

Syngnathus Peckianus, Peck's Pipe-fish, Storer's Report, p. 1G3. 

Syngnathus fuscus, Brown Pipe-fish, Stoker's Report, p i 

Syngnathus fascialus, Banded Pipe-fiili. Dekay's Report, p. 319, pi. 51, Bg.l 

Sj rignathua virideacena, Grei n Pipe Bsh, Dekay's Report, p. 321, pi. 54, fig. 170. 

Syngnathus fuscus (Stoiier), IIekay's Report, p. 321. 

Syngnathus Peckianus (Storer), Dekay's Report, p. 321. 

Ayres, Bost. Journ. Nat, Hist., iv. p. 282. 

GENUS II. HIPPOCAMPUS, Cuv. 
The jaws united and tubular, like those of the Syngnathi ; mouth placed at 
the end ; body compressed, short and deep ; the whole length of the body and 
tail divided by longitudinal and transverse ridges, with tubercular points at the 
angles of intersection ; pectoral and dorsal fins ; no ventral nor caudal fins ; 
the females only have an anal. 

1. Hippocampus Hudsonius, Dekay. 

Yellowish brown. Body heptangular, composed of twelve segments, banded by horny 
spines ; tail tapering to a point made up of thirty-six segments. Tubular jaws more than half 
the length of the head. A spine at the base of the snout, anterior to the eyes. A, bony 
protuberance on top of head, terminating in five points. 

D. 18 to 20. P. 14 or 15. A. 3. Length, 3 to 6 inches. 

Massachusetts, Storer. Connecticut, Linsley. New York, Mitchill, Dekay. 

Syngnathus hippocampus, Sea-Horse Pipe-fish, Mitchill, Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. of N. Y., i. p. 475 
Hippocampus brevirostris, Short-nosed Sea-Horse, Storek's Report, p. 167. 
Hippocampus Hudsonius, Hudson River Sea-Horse, Dekay's Report, p. 322, pi. 53, fig. 171. 
Hippocampus brevirostris, Linsley's Cat. of Fishes of Connecticut. 



PLECTOGNATHI. 

The maxillary bone soldered or fixedly attached on the side of the intermax- 
illary, which alone forms the jaw, and to which the palatine arch is dovetailed 
by a suture within the cranium, and consequently has no power of motion. 
Opercula and the rays are concealed under a thick skin, which only permits 
a small branchial cleft to be visible externally. 

FAMILY XXIX. GYMNODONTIDJE. 

Instead of apparent teeth, the jaws are furnished with an ivory substance, 



240 Stover's Synopsis of the Fishes of JYorth Jlmerica. 

divided internally into lamina, the general appearance of which somewhat re- 
sembles the bill of a parrot, and which is essentially composed of true 
teeth united together, and succeeding one another in proportion as there are 
any worn out by trituration. Opercula small ; their rays five in number. 

GENUS I. DIODON, Lin. 

Jaws undivided, presenting but one piece above and below. Behind the 
trenchant edge of each is a round part, furrowed crosswise, which forms a 
powerful instrument of mastication. No ventral fins. Skin armed with slen- 
der prickles or stout spines. 

1. Diodon maculato-striatus, Mitchill. 

Body subcubical. Greenish, with numerous meandering, olive-brown stripes, and a few 
dark-colored, large blotches, margined with green. The whole surface, except the chin and 
tail. covered with sharp, recurved, triangular, compressed spines, each with a trifid base. 
Tail even. 

D. 13. P. 24. A. 12. C. 9. Length, 5 to 7 inches. 

Connecticut, Linsley, Aykes. New York, Mitchill, Dekay. 

Diodon maculato-striatus, Spot-striped Diodon, Mitchill, Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. of N. Y., i. p. 470, pi. 6, 

fig. 3. 
Diodon rivulatus, Cuv., Memoires du Museum d'Hist. Nat., IV. p. 129, pi. fi. 
Diodon maculato-striatus, Spot-striped Balloon-fiel), Dekay's Report, p. 323, pi. 5G, fig. 135. 

" « (Mitchill), Ayres, Eost. Journ. Nat. Hist., iv. p. 2S4. 

" " Linsley's Cat. of Fishes of Connecticut. 

Diodon fuliginosus, Unspotted Balloon-fish, Dekay's Report, p. 324, pi. 55, fig. 1S1 (young). 

2. Diodon pilosus, Mitchill. 

Body oblong, cuboidal. Brownish above ; ashy-white beneath ; on the back and along 
the sides, several oblong, distant, blackish-brown spots. Every part of the body except a 
small space round the mouth and eyes, and another including the base of the caudal fin, 
furnished with soft, flexible bristles, of a metallic golden color. Caudal lanceolate. 

D. 12. P. 20. A. 14. C 9- Leagth, 2 to 4 inches. 

New York, Mitchill, Dekay. 

Diodon pilosus, Hairy Diodon, Mitchill, Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. of N. Y., I. p. 471, pi. 6, fig. 4. 
Diodon asper, Cuv., Memoires du Museum d'Hist. Nat., iv. p. 138. 
Diodon pilosus, Griffith's Cuv., x. p. 567. 

" " Hairy Balloou-fish, Dekay's Report, p. 326, pi. 55, fig. 1?0. 

3. Diodon verrucosus, Mitchill. 
Body cuboidal, oblong, small. Cinereous-brown above ; yellowish white beneath. With 
rounded areolae, from which arise soft, flexible spines. Caudal long, emarginate. 



Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 241 

D. 11. P. 22. A. 10. C. 10. Length, 1 to 4 inches. 
New York, Mitchill. 

Diodon verrucosus, Warty Balloon-fish (Mitchill), Dekay's Report, p. 325, pi. SO, fig. 184 

GENUS II. TETRAODON, Lin. 
Jaws divided in the middle by a suture, presenting the appearance of four 
teeth in front, two above and two below. The skin over a portion or its 
whole extent covered with prickles. 

1. Tetraodon lagocephalus, Lin. 

Body orbicular. Yellowish brown above ; whitish, with a silvery cast, beneath. Several 
short black or dark-brown bars of different sizes upon the back ; many round blackish spots 
upon the sides ; sides and abdomen beset with numerous short, radiated spines. Transverse 
brown bands upon the dorsal, anal, and caudal fins. 

D. 10. P. IS. A. 8. C. 10. Length, 12 inches. 

Yirginia, Catesby. 

Tetraodon lagocephalus, Lin., Syst. Nat., Ti-rton's Translat., i. p. 890. 
" " Starry Globe-fish, Rloch, IV. p. 127, pi. II". 

Hare Tetraodon, Shaw's Gen. Zob'l., v. p. 441, pi. irr. 
Orbis tevis variegatus, Globe-fish, Catesby's Hist. Carol., n. p. 28, pi. 28. 
Tetraodon geotnetricus, Griffith's Ctjv., x. p. 568. 

2. Tetraodon laevigatus, Lin. 

Body elongated, cylindrical, tumid in front, gradually tapering behind. Abdomen pendu- 
lous. Olive-green above. Belly only furnished with sharp prickles. The upper part of 
the body with series of mucous pores, forming numerous lines. • 

D. 14. P. 17. A. 12, 13. C 11,13. Length, 1 to 2 feet. 

Massachusetts, Storer. New York, Mitchill, Dekay. South Carolina, Lin. Gulf 
of Mexico, Parra. 

Tetraodon hevigatus, Lin., Syst. Nat., p. 411. 

" Shaw'., Gen. ZoSl., v. p. 4-1G. 

Tamboril, Parra, p. 37, pi, 19. 

Tetraodon lajvigatus, Brown Globe-fish, Mitchill, Report on the Fishes of New York, p. 28. 
Tetraodon mathematicus, Mathematical Tetraodon, Mitchill, Trans. Lit. and PhlL Sic. of N. Y., i. p. 474, 

pi. 6, fig. 6. 
Tetraodon mathematicus, Mathematical Tetraodon, Storer's Supplement to Report, Bost. Journ. Nat. Hi I . 

iv. p. 183. 
Tetraodon lajvigatus, Lineated Puffer, Dekay's Report, p. 329, pi. SG, fig. 182. 

3. Tetraodon turgidus, Mitchill. 

Body oblong, cylindrical ; when inflated, nearly globular. Olive-green above, beneath 
white. Several undefined black blotches on the back, which, as they approach the belly. 

74 



242 Slorer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 

assume the appearance of bars, six to eight of which are noticeable. The whole surface of 
the body, save the space between the dorsal and caudal fins, and the anal and caudal fins, 
roughened by innumerable small spines. Caudal rounded. 

D. 6. P- 15- A. G, 7, 8. C 7. Length, 6 to 14 inches. 

Massachusetts, Stoker. Connecticut, Linsley, Ayres. New York, Mitchill, De- 

KAY. 

Tetraodon turgidus, Puffer, Mitchill, Trans. Lit. ant] Phil. Soc. of N. T., I. p. 473, pi. 6, fig. 5. 
" " Swell-fish, Puffer, Stoker's Report, p. 169. 

,; c( Common Puffer. Dekat's Report, p. 327, pi. 55, fig. 173. 

" " Ayres, Boat. Journ. Nat. Hist., iv. p. 235. 

4. Tetraodon curvus, Mitchill. 

Back considerably arched and smooth. Dark brown above, variegated with faint bars 
across ; beneath dull yellow, and roughened by short, sharp spines, disposed in quincunx. 
A smooth brass-colored stripe or riband on the side from the head to the tail. General com- 
plexion brassy. Tail tapering. 

D. 13. P. 16. A. 13. C. 15. Length, 2A inches. 

New York, Mitchill. 

Tetraodon curvus, Curved Tetraodon, Mitchill, Trans. Lit. and Phil Soc. of N. Y., l. p. 472. 
" Curved Puffer (Mitchill), Dekay's Report, p. 323. 



GENUS III. ACANTHOSOMA, Dekay. 

Body globular, armed with spines, and susceptible of inflation. Dorsal, 
caudal, and anal united. Teeth as in Diodon. 

1. Acanthosoma carinatum, Mitchill. 

Body vertically oval, small. Olive-brown above ; silvery on the sides and beneath. Spines 
pointed, distant, and striated on their sides, with a dilated, rounded base. Eyes large, nos- 
trils small, slightly before the eyes. 

D. (?). P. (?)• A. (.'). C. (?). Length, (?>. 

New York, Mitchill, Dekay. 

Diodon carinatus, Mitchill, Ann. Lye. of Nat. Hist, of New York. ii. p. 2G4, pi. 5, fig. I. 
Acanthosoma carinatum, Small Globe-fish, Dekay's Report, p. 330, pi. 55, fig. 179. 

GENUS IV. ORTHAGORISCUS, Schn. 
Jaws undivided, forming a cutting edge. Body compressed, without spines, 
not susceptible of inflation, and whose tail is so short, and so high, vertically, 
that they have the appearance of fishes from which the posterior part has 



Storeys Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 243 

been cut away. Dorsal and anal, each high and pointed, are united to the 

caudal. No natatory bladder ; stomach small, and immediately receiving the 

biliary canal. 

1. Orthagoriscus mola, Lin. 

Form oblong, elliptical, compressed, subtruncated behind. Depth two thirds of its length. 
Back dark gray ; sides of a dusky white ; abdomen nearly white ; a broad black band at base 
of tail, running from origin of dorsal to origin of anal. Cuticle granulated, covered with a 
thick adhesive mucus. Dorsal and anal not united to caudal fin. Caudal formed of several 
digitations, varying in their height. Eyes moderate, convex ; snout prominent. 

D. 13. P. 12 or 13. A. 13 to 15. C. 9. Weight, 200 to 400 pounds. 

Massachusetts, Stoker. New York, Mitchill, Dekay. 

Tetraodon mola, Lin., Syst. Nat., p. 412. 

'• Short T Pennant's Brit. ZoSl., Hi. p. 172, pL 22. 

Diodon mola, Bloch, pi. I 
i phalus brei . . ShortSun fish, Mi w, 'si 437, pi. I". 

" " Mitchill, l'i ins 1 ■: tnd PI) So of N V., I. p. 471. 

Orthagoriscus mola, Short Sun-fish (Schneider), Jenyns's Brit. Vert., p. 490. 

" •• Griffith's ( li \ \ 

" " Short Sun-fish, 1 Brit. Fishes (2d edit.), n. p. 462 and fig. 

" " " '■ Stober's Report p. 170 pi : ' -. I. 

" " Short Head-fish, Pekay's Report, p. 331, pi. 59, fig. 193. 

FAMILY XXX. BALISTID-E. 

Body compressed. Snout prolonged from the eyes. Mouth small, with a 
few distinct teeth in each jaw. Skin roughened with prickles or scales. Dor- 
sals, two ; the anterior sometimes represented by a single spine. Ventrals 
often wanting or indistinct. Pelvic bone prominent. 

GENUS I. BALISTES, Cuv. 

Entire body covered with large scales, very hard and rhomboidal, not im- 
bricated. The first dorsal with three prickles or spines, the first of which is 
much the largest, the third very small, and separated, further back. The ex- 
tremity of their pelvis is always salient and prickly, and behind it are some 
spines engaged in the skin, which, in the long species, have been considered 
as rays of the ventrals. 

1. B-alistes fuliginosus, Dekav. 

Body oblong, elliptical. Dusky brown, unspotted. Caudal fin doubly emarginated ; a 
single spine between the first and second dorsals ; first dorsal spine is roughened with asper- 
ities upon its anterior edge, and broadly channelled behind. 



244 Slorer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 

D. 2, 1,28. P. 14. V. 7. A. 26. C 12. Length, 12 inches. 
New York, Dekay. 

Balistes fuliginosus, Dusky Balistes, Dekay's Report, p. 339, pi. 57, fig. 188. 



GENUS II. MONACANTHUS, Cov. 
Body covered with very small scales, bristling with stiff excrescences, and 
extremely crowded. The extremity of their pelvis projecting and spiny, as 
in the Balistes, but they have only one large dentated spine to their first dor- 
sal, or at least the second is almost imperceptible. 

1. Monacanthus aurantiacus, Mitchill. 

Oval. Of an orange-yellow, except the chin, lips, and belly, which are bluish-white. 
Dorsal and anal tinged with dusky. Tail doubly emarginate. Abdomen tumid. Lower 
jaw largest, with eight thin, flattened teeth, of which those in front are long and large, with 
emarginated edges ; upper jaw with smaller flat and lanceolate teeth. A rounded promi- 
nence anterior lo second dorsal fin ; anal extends further back than dorsal fin. 

D- 1, 36. P. 12. V. 0. A. 30. C 12. Length, 1 to 2 feet. 

Maine, Massachusetts, Storer. Connecticut, Linsley. New York, Mitchill, Dekay. 

Balistes aurantiacus, Orange File-fish, Mitchill, Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. of N. Y., I. p. 468, pi. 6, fig. 1. 
Monacanthus aurantiacus ('/), Orange File-fish (Mitchill), Dekay's Report, p. 333, pi. 57, fig. 186. 
" " Stokeb, Proceed. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., II. p. 72. 

2. Monacanthus broccus, Mitchill. 

Body subovale. Uniform brown. Covered with asperities. Dorsal fin with an equal, 
convex margin. Mouth prominent, projecting ; six to eight sharp incisorial teeth in both 
jaws. Anal not as high as the dorsal ; caudal long and rounded. 

D. 1,32. P. 13. V. 0. A- 32. C. 13. Length, 8 inches. 

Connecticut, Linsley. New York, Mitchill, Dekay. 

Balistes broccus, Tut-mouthed File-fish, Mitchill, Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. of N. Y., i. p. 4G7. 
Monacanthus broccus, Long-finned File-fish, Dekay's Report, p. 333, pi. 56, fig. 183. 

3. Monacanthus Massachusettensis, Storer. 

Body elliptical, much compressed. Yellowish brown, variegated over its entire extent with 
brownish markings and blotches, which are less obvious beneath. Anal and dorsal yellowish 
green ; caudal light olive-green ; pectorals light reddish. Faint, abbreviated, dark oblong 
streaks along the sides. Surface rough, with numerous minute cilia suspended from its 
sides. Dorsal emarginated posteriorly; ventral fold roughened by sharp stellated spines- 

D. 1,34. P. 12 to 15. V. (?). A. 30 to 34. C. 13. Length, 3 to 4 inches. 



Storey's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 245 

Massachusetts, Stoker. Connecticut, Linsley. New York, Dekay. 

Monacanlhus Massachuseltensis, Massachusetts File-fish, Stoker's Report, p. 171. 

" " " Dekay's Report, p. 336, pi. 57, fig 

4. Monacanthus signifer, Storer. 
Body elongated. Of a reddish-brown color, with greenish reflections. The second dorsal 
ray very much elongated. The whole surface minutely granulated, with the exception of 
the fleshy portion of the tail and a very small space anterior to it, which are studded with 
stiff seta; looking and feeling like the teeth of a card ; the points of these seta; incline for- 
wards. 
D. 1,32. P. 13 to 16. A. 32 or 33. C. 10 or 13. Length, 5 to 7 inches. 
Massachusetts, Storer. New York, Dekay. 

Monacanthus setifer, Dekay's Report, p. 337, pi. 59, fig. 194. 

I supposed, previous to the appearance of Dr. Dekay's Report, this species to be Mitch- 
ill's M. broccus, and thus I called it in the " Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural 
History," p. 84 (Sept. 1842). Dr. Dekay's specific name has been previously applied to 
another species of the genus by Bennett (Proceed. Zool. Soc. of London, Pt. I., p. 112, 
1830). 

GENUS III. ALUTERES, Cuv. 

An elongated body, covered with small and scarcely visible granules ; a sin- 
gle spine in the first dorsal ; the chief character is in the pelvis, which is com- 
pletely hidden under the skin, and is without that spinous projection observed 
in the other Balistes. 

1. Aluteres monoceros, Lin. 

Elongated. Olive-brown, with many irregularly distributed bluish lines, between which 

are sprinkled numerous black dots. 

D. 1,46. P.M. A. 50. C. 12. Length, 3 feet. 

Bahama Islands, Catesby. 

dspiscisB Bahama Unicorn-fish, Catesby's Hist. Carol., 12. p. 19k 

Bah !> , Turton's Linksus, i. p. 69S. 

" Unicorn File-fish, Shaw's Gen. Zool , v. p. 399, pi. 1GS. 

Aluteres m< s, Griffith's Cuv., x. p. 576. 

2. Aluteres cuspicauda, Mitchill. 
Elongated ; yellowish brown, mottled by a darker brown. Tail lancet-shaped, nearly half 
the length of the body- 

D. 1,38. P. 13. A. 42. C. 12. Length, 8 inches. 
Massachusetts, Storer. New York, Mitchill, Dekay. 

Balisti i, Sharp-tailed File-fish, Mitchill, Amer. Month. Mag., n. p. 326. 

Aluteres monoceros, Unicom File-fish (Shaw), Stoker's Report, p 175. 

Aluteres cuspicauda, Long-tailed Unicorn-fish, Dekay's Report, p. 338, pL 59, fig. 192. 



246 Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North Jlmerica. 

3. Aluteres angusticauda, Mitchill. 

Shades of brown over entire surface. Gibbous before the eyes ; belly prominent and 
flabby; snout projecting; mouth small. Tail isthmus-shaped, narrow immediately behind 
the anal and dorsal fins, and wider towards the origin of the caudal fin. 

D. (?). P. (?)■ V. (>). A. (>). C. (?). Length, (.'). 

Balistea angusticauda, Narrow-tailed File-fish, Mitchill, Amer. Month. Mag., n. p. 327. 
Aluteres angusticauda, Narrow-tailed File-fish, Dekay's Report, p. 339. 



FAMILY XXXI. OSTRACIONLLVE. 

Body triangular or four-sided, enveloped in a hard, bony case, composed 
of numerous plates, soldered together in such a manner that only the mouth 
and fins are movable. No ventral fins ; a single dorsal. 

GENUS I. LACTOPHRYS, Dekay. 

Body triangular ; with strong spines directed backwards before the anal fin. 
Orbits usually spinous.* 

1. Lactophrys sex-cornutus, Mitchill. 

With six spines ; two in front of the eyes, two on the sides of the abdomen, and two at 
the extremity of their bony corselet, one above and one below the tail. Skin somewhat 
clouded or streaked lengthwise. Beneath white. 

D. (?). P. (?). A. (?). C. (.'). Length, 7 inches. 

Gulf of Mexico, Mitchill. 

Ostracion sex-comutus, Six-horned Trunk-fish. Mitchill, Amer. Month. Mag., II. p. 328. 
Lactophrys sex-comutus, Six-horned Trunk-fish, Dekay's Report, p. 343. 

2. Lactophrys Yalei, Storer. 

Back convex ; no spines upon the orbits ; two abdominal spines. Of a uniform light, lurid 
color above ; back of dorsal fin darker-colored ; body beneath much lighter. 
D. 10. P. 12. A. 10. C. 10. Length, 14 inches. 
Massachusetts, Storer. 

Ostracion Yalei, Storer, Bost. Joum. Nat. Hist., I. p. 353, pi. 8. 

•' ( " Yale's Trunk-fish, Storer's Report, p. 17G. 

Lactophrys Yalei, Yale's Trunk-fish, Dekay's Report, p. 312. 

* Although I have not seen the necessity of this genus, I am not disposed to reject it on that 
account only. 



Stover's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 2 i J 

3. Lactophrys camelinus, Df.kav. 

Back elevated into a spine. Eight spines along ih e sides, over the orbits and tail. Ashen- 
, with irregular black blotches on the dorsal hump and the sides. Abdomen soiled yel- 
lowish-white. 
D. 9. P. 10. A. 10. C. G. Length, 3i inches. 
New York, Dekay. 

Lactophrys camelinus. Dromedary Trunk-fish, Dekav's Report, p. 341, pi. 58, fig. 190. 



CLASS II. CARTILAGINOUS FISHES. 

Skeleton cartilaginous. Cranium divided by indistinct sutures. < i ills gener- 
ally fixed ; the membrane without rays. Maxillary and intermaxillary bones 
either wanting or rudimentary, the palatines or vomer alone supplying their 
place. 

ORDER I. ELEUTHEROPOMI. 

Gills pectinated, free, as in ordinary fishes, with one large external aper- 
ture on each side, furnished with a strong opercle ; without rays. Upper jaw 
formed by the palatine bone, firmly united to the maxillary ; intermaxillary ru- 
dimentary. 

. FAMILY XXXII. STURIONTDJE. 

The genera of this family approach to ordinary fishes, by their gills being 
attached only at one extremity. They have but one branchial aperture, 
which is very open ; they have but one operculum, and are without rays to 
the membrane of the gills. 

GENUS I. ACIPENSER, Lin. Au«v^oxa \> U <rt U"Ua^> 

Body elongated and angular, defended by indurated plates and spines, ar- ,, r , ,- /,. a j 4 Cinxi^ 

ranged in longitudinal rows; snout pointed, conical ; mouth placed on the / ^ ^ ^f j U>.4?<ol. f» (e-lrf 

under side of the head, tubular, and without teeth. It 2>k> . 

1. Acipenser oxyrinchus, Mitchill. 
Body pentagonal. Of a grayish-brown color above ; inferior portion of sides silvery ; be- 



248 Stover's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 

neath white. Snout elongated, rounded at tip, covered with bony shields. Dorsal series of 
plates, ten to twelve ; lateral series, twenty-eight; abdominal series, eight plates. 

D. 38. P. 28. V. 24. A. 23. C. 125. Length, 3 to 7 feet. 

Massachusetts, Storer. Connecticut, Ayres, Linsley. New York, Mitchill, Dekay. 

Acipenser oxyrinchus, Sharp-nosed Sturgeon, Mitchill, Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. of N. Y., I. p. 462. 
" " Lesueur, Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. (New Series), I. p. 394. 

" " Sharp-nosed Sturgeon, Stoker's Report, p. 173. 

" " " " Dekay's Report, p. 316, pi. 58, fig. 189. 

" " Avres, Fishes of Brookhaven, L. I., Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist., iv. p. 387. 

" Sharp-nosed Sturgeon, Linsley's Fishes of Conn., Amer. Journ. Sc, XLVll., No. 1. / ^ C. 

2. Acipenser rubicundus, Lesueur. 

Body convex at origin of dorsal plates. Forehead broad and flat between the eyes. Head 
and body olive-brown above, white beneath. Fins reddish. Younger specimens maculated 
on the body and sides. Dorsal plates, from nine to fifteen ; lateral plates, thirty-five to 
thirty-nine ; abdominal plates, nine. 

D. 40 to 42. P. 50. V. 28. A. 22. C. (.'). Length, 4 feet. 

Lakes Ontario, Erie, Huron, Michigan, Lesueur. Lake Erie, Ohio River, Kirtland. 

Acipenser rubicundus, Lesueur, Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. (New Series), I. p. 388, pi. 12. 

Acipenser maculosus, Lesueur, Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. (New Series), I. p. 393. 

Acipenser Ohiensis, Raf., Ichth. Ohien., p. 81. ^ 

Acipenser serotinus, Raf., Ichth. Ohien., p. 80. , Ci/whj*"-^*-*-** - ' /' n 1( 

Acipenser macrostomus, Raf., Ichlh. Ohien., p. SI. f«"*"-* ' , , 'V^u \. C 1 ' "" lii-** 1 '' 

Acipenser rubicundus, Ruddy Sturgeon, Rich., Fauna Boreal. Americ, in. p. 284. net its. "■ ' y ' 

" " Kirtland's Report, p. 196. A* L '• •' H '' ' 

Acipenser maculosus, Kirtland's Report, p. 196. , // 

Acipenser Ohiensis, Kirtland's Report, p. 196. 
Acipenser nudus, Kirtland's Manuscript. 

Acipenser rubicundus, Lake Sturgeon, Dekay's Report, p. 344, pi. 58, fig. 191. 
Acipenser maculosus, Lake Sturgeon, Dekay's Report, p. 347. 

" " " " Kirtland, Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist., iv. p. 3Q3,^i. 14, fig. 1. 

3. Acipenser brevirostris, Lesueur. 

Head large and convex. Snout short and blunt. Dusky above, with faint traces of oblique 
bands ; beneath white- Dorsal series of tubercles, nine to twelve ; lateral series, twenty- 
three to twenty-nine. 

D. (?)■ P. (?)■ V. (?). A. (?). C. (.'). Length, 2 to 5 feet. 
t , ■ New York, Mitchill, Dekay. 

'. . Acipenser sturio, Round-nosed Sturgeon, Mitchill, Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. of N. Y., i. p. 461. 

Acipenser brevirostrum, Lesueur, Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. (New Series), i. p. 590. /o». / / 3 /3 , f ^ 

Acipenser brevirostris, Short-nosed Sturgeon, Dekay's Report, p. 345. , tliiyi~-£~ C1/**A- • ™* '* t(/i<.t^* ~~~ 



~-< 



4. Acipenser transmontanus, Rich. 
Top of the head slightly convex, both longitudinally and transversely, with a shallow de- 
pression extending from between the orbits backwards on the mesial line ; the profile shelves 
off" suddenly before the nostrils into the greatly depressed snout, which, when seen from 



Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 249 

above, is semilanceolate ; its breadth at the nostrils being equal to its length anterior to these 
openings ; in profile, the snoot appears thin and horizontal, but its flexible point is readily 
turned up a little. Body and top of head of a hue intermediate between yellowish and blu- 
ish, partially iridescent ; shields ash-gray, giving a spotted appearance to the back. Sides 
silver-white, with faint vertical bluish-gray bands ; belly white. Dorsal row of plates, fif- 
teen. Lateral plates, forty-two to forty-seven. 

D. 52. P. 43. V. 34. A. 33. C. 27-86. Length, 11 feet. Weight, COO pounds. 

Columbia River, Richardson. 

Acipenser transmontanus, Columbia River Sturgeon, Rich., Fauna Boreal. Americ, in. p. 278, pi. 97. 
" " Dekav's Report, p 

5. Acipenser Rupertianus, Rich. 

Snout slender, but not acute ; its sides are flattened and have a vertical height equal to 
half the transverse breadth. Dorsal plates, fourteen in number; lateral shields, thirty-five in 
number; abdominal shields, nine or ten, smooth, and indented rather than spined at tip. 

D. 40. P. 40. V. 30. A. 25. C. 28-84. Length, 20 inches. 

Northern Regions, Richardson. 

Acipenser Ruperiianus, Rupen Land-Sturgeon, Rica., Fauna Boreal. Ameiic, in. p. 311. 
" " Dekav's Report, p. 317. 

6. Acipenser platorynchus, Raf. 

Head one fifth its total length ; slightly convex above, entirely flat beneath. Head and 
body above brownish, beneath pure white. Dorsal plates, fifteen; lateral plates, forty ; 
abdominal plates, eleven. 

D. 25. P. 45. V. 20. A. 14. C. 18-60 = 78. Length, 1 to 2 feet. 

Ohio River, Kirtland. 

Acipenser platorynchus, Shovel-fish Sturgeon, Spade-fish, Shovel-head, Flat-head, Raf., Ichth. Ohien., p. 80. 
" " Shovel-nose Sturgeon, Kirtland's Report, p. 196. 

11 " Kirtland, Eost.Journ. Nat. Hist., v. p. 25, pi. 8, fig. 1. , / // 






'tJENTJS II. POLYODON, Lacep 
Snout enormously prolonged, with a dilated middle, resembling a leaf. 
Their general form, and the position of the gills, similar to those of the Stur- 
geon ; but their gills are still more open, and their operculum is prolonged 
into a membranous point, which is extended as far as the middle of the body. 
Their mouth is very much cleft, and furnished with many small teeth. The 
upper jaw is formed by the union of the two palatines to the maxillaries. 

1. Folyodon folium, Lacep. 
Body subcylindrie, flattened laterally. Head gibbous at its union with the body. The 

75 



250 Stover's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 

head, including the operculum and snout, is longer than one half the total length of the fish, 
and the snout exceeds the united length of the head and operculum. Above, of a beautiful 
steel-blue ; throat and abdomen white, and the gill-covers maculated by stellate impressions. 
Caudal fin bilobed ; the lower lobe shorter, broader, and less oblique than the upper, which 
is serrated on its superior edge. 

D. (?). P. (?)• V. (.'). A. (?). C. (?). Length, 1 to 5 feet. 

Ohio River and its tributaries, Hildreth, Clemens, Kirtland. 

Polyodon feuille (Lacepede), Griffith's Cuv., x. p. 591. 

Spatularia reticulata, Reticulated Spatularia, Shaw's Gen. Zoo!., v. p. 3G2, pi. 156. 

Polyodon folium, Western Spade-fish, Raf., Ichth. Ollien., p. 82. 

" " Wilson, Encyclop. Brit., Art. Ichth. (?th edit), p. 230. 

11 " Spoon-bill Sturgeon, Paddle-fish, Miichill, Hildreth, Clemens, Siiliman's Journal, xn. 

p. 201, plate. 
" " " Kirtland, Boat. Journ. Nat. Hist., iv. p. 21, pi. 2, fig. 1. 

GENUS III. PLATIROSTRA, Lesueur. 
Jaws, tongue, and throat destitute of teeth. Snout flattened, elongated, 
and spatuliform. Fins and body closely resembling those of the Sturgeon, 
but without plates. The tail only is covered on each side by small bony 
plates, as in that genus. 

1. Platirostra edentula, Lesueur. 

Snout not so long as one third of the body, dilated and rounded at the end. The skin sup- 
porting the gill-covers expanding and attenuating to a point posteriorly almost to the end of 
the pectoral fin. Tail large, notched with pointed lobes. Livid brown above, with small 
blackish spots upon the head ; beneath white, with a few spots. 

D. 58. P. 26. V. 40 to 50. A. 56. C. 15. Length, 4 to 5 feet. 

Ohio River, Lesueur, Kirtland. Mississippi River, Kirtland. 

Platirostra edentula, Lesueur, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc., i. p. 22S. 
" " " Say's Append. Long's Expedition. 

" " (( Kirtland's Report, p. 197. 

" " " Dekay's Report, p. 347. 

" " Toothless Spoon-bill, Kirtland, Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist., v. p. 22, pi. 7, fig. 2. 



ORDER II. PLAGIOSTOMI. 

Gills fixed by their external edges, with five small external openings on each 
side. No opercle. Jaws represented by the palatine and postmandibulary 
bones, which alone are armed with teeth. Pectorals and ventrals always 
present ; the latter (in the male) furnished on their internal margins with long 
appendages. 



Slorer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 251 

FAMILY XXXIII. SQUALIDJE. 

Body elongated, cylindrical. Tail thick and muscular. Eyes lateral. 
Branchial openings on each side, never underneath. 

GENUS I. CARCIIARIAS, Cuv. 

One anal and two dorsal fins, the first dorsal placed over the space between 
the pectoral and abdominal fins. Jaws and head depressed. Teeth flat, 
pointed, and cutting ; serrated in the upper jaw, sometimes in both jaws. 
No temporal orifices in adults, but rudiments may be observed in the foetus of 
some of the species. 

1. Carcharias ceruleus, Mitchill. 

Small, body cylindrical. Teeth in several series, small, triangular, serrated. Pectorals 

broad; anal deeply notched. Slate-blue above ; beneath whitish. 

D. (■>.). P. (?). V. (?). A. ( : ). C. (?). Length, 2 to 6 feet. 

New York, Mitchill, Dekay. 

Carcharias ceruleus, Smalt Blue Shark, Mitcbill, Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. of X. Y., I. p. 487. 
" " " Dekay's Keport, p. 349, pi. 61, fig. 200. 

2. Carcharias obscurus, Lesueur. 

Head flat and broad. Snout rounded. A single row of triangular, serrate teeth in the 
upper jaw; two rows of similarly formed, but smaller, teeth in the lower jaw. Pectorals 
long, narrow, and falciform ; ventrals subquadrangular, with no pointed process behind. 
Dark brown above, rather lighter than the Lamna punctata ; beneath of a dirty white. 

D. (?). P. (?). V. (?).. A. (?)• C. (>)• Length, 9 to 10 feet. 

Massachusetts, Stoker. 

Carcharias obscurus. Dusky Shark, Lesiteur, Joiirn. Acad. Nat. Sc, I. p. 223, pi. 9. 
<< " " " Storer's Report, p. 184. 

(t it u << Stoker, Bost. Journ. Nat 111 !.i. pp. 533, 558. 

" " " Dbkay's Report, p. 350, pi. 61, fig 

3. Carcharias littoralis, Mitchill. 

Body short, thick, wider towards abdomen. Fins large, not prolonged backwards. The 

second dorsal before the anal. Snout acute. Reddish ash-gray above, white beneath. 

D. (?). P. (.')• V. (?). A. (.'). C.(?). Length, 3 to 8 feet. 

New York, Mitchill, Lesueur, Dekay. 

Squalus littoralis, Ground Shark, MiTcmix, Ama. Month. Mag., it. p. 328. 

" " Aah-colored Shark, I.E8UBUR, Journ. Acad Nat. Sc., I. p. 224. 

Carcharias littoralis, Ground Shark, Dekay's Report, p. 351. 



< 



v 



, 



. 52 Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 

4. C'areharias griseus, Atres. 

Above of a light bluish-gray color, sides lighter, beneath white. Back convex in front of 
the first dorsal fin. Numerous long, pointed teeth in jaws, in some instances with a 
small projection on each side near the base ; edges of teeth smooth. Pectorals large ; sec- 
ond dorsal arises just posterior to the origin of the anal fin. 

D. (?)• P- (•')■ v - (•')■ A. (.'). G. (.'). Length, 3 to 7 feet. 

Brookhaven, Long Island, Ayres. 

Carcharias griseus, Ayres, Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist., iv. p. 293, pi. 12, fig. 4. 

GENUS II. LAMNA, Cuv. 

Muzzle pyramidal, under the base of which are the nostrils. Branchial ap- 
ertures all in front of the pectorals. 

^-.-/•'iv {,^-J/. , .i,.L 1. Lamna punctata, Mitchill. 

--' ' ( Body cylindrical, fusiform. Above greenish, becoming of a slate-color after death ; light- 

er upon the sides ; white beneath. Snout blunt. Each jaw is furnished with three rows of 
small, sharp, triangular teeth, smooth at their edges; the first two rows are straight ; the 
back row recurved ; the three teeth on each side of the middle of the lower jaw the largest. 
Anal fin opposite to the second dorsal- Caudal keeled on its sides ; the upper lobe of the 
caudal considerably larger than the lower lobe. Head and sides of body punctured by series 
of mucous pores. 

D. (?). P. (?)• "V. (?)• A. (?). C. (?). Length, 3 to 10 feet. 

Massachusetts, Storer. New York, Mitchill, Dekay. 

Squalus punctatus, Green-backei! Shark, JIitchill, Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. of N. Y., i, p. 483. 
Lamna punctata, Mackerel Shark, Storer's Report, p. 185, pi. 3, fig. 2. 

" " " " Storer, Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist., it. 534. 

" " Mackerel Porbeagle, Dekay's Report, p. 352, pi. (53, figs. 206, 207. 

2. Lamna terrae-novae, Rich. 

Body more elongated and cylindrical than in the L. punctata. Upper caudal lobe much 
elongated, and furnished with an accessory lobe at the tip. Teeth triangular, serrated. No 
caudal carina. Snout pointed, thin, and broad. Uniform dusky brown above, tinged with 
bluish ; white beneath. 

D. (?). P. (?). V. (?). A. (?). C. (?). Length, 7 feet. 

Newfoundland, Richardson. Rhode Island, Dekay. 

Bqualua (CarchariasJ terras-novae, Newfoundland Shark, Rich., Fauna Eoreal. Americ, ill. p. 239. 
Lamna caudata, Long-tailed Porbeagle, Dekay's Report, p. 354, pi. 62, fig. 205. 



Storer's Synopsis of I he Fishes of North .linaica. 

GENUS III. ALOriAS, Bonap. 

Head, dorsal and anal fins, and spiracles, as in the genus Lainna ; upper 
lobe of the tail very long, with a depression at the base. Teeth triangular, 
flat, with smooth cutting edges in both jaws, curving outwards on each side 
from the centre. Branchial openings small, the last over the pectoral fins. 

1. Alopias vulpes, Gmel. 

Body fusiform. The upper lobe of the tail nearly as long as the body. Teeth trian- 
gular, pointed, smooth upon their edges. A dark bluinh lead -color above ; beneath white. 
with light bluish blotches upon the outer edges of the abdom in. 

D. (?)• P. (?)• V. (?). A. (?). C. (?). Length, 12 to 15 feet. 

Massachusetts, Storer. New York, Mitchill,, Dekay. 

is, Gmel., Lin., Syst, Nat., i I p. 1496. 
Long-tailed Shark, I'esn v ■; , in. p. 110, pi. 14. 

. is vulpes, Fox-Shark, Shaw's Gl-u. Zoiil., v. p. 333. 
1 ii v her, VTitchill, .Medical Repository, via. p. 77. 

Squa i i ing-lailed Shark, Mitchill, Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. of N. Y., 1. p. 4S2. 

Carcharias vulpes, Fox Shark or Thresher, Griffith's Cuv., x. p 
Squatus S i sher, Jenyns's Brit. Vert., p. 498. 

Carcharias vulpes, Fox Shark or Thresher, Stoker's Report, p. 1S2. 

Alopias vulpes, Sea-Fox, Thre her, s a-Ape, Yarrell's Brit. Fishes (2d edit.), ii. p. 523, fig. 
Carcharias vulpes, Thresher or Fox-Shark, Linslby's Cat, Fishes ol Connecticut. 

" " Thresher Shark, Dekay's Report, p. 31S, pi. 61, fig. 199. 

GENUS IV. MUSTELUS, Cuv. 

Teeth blunt, forming a closely compacted pavement in each jaw ; with tem- 
poral orifices. First dorsal in advance of the ventrals. Lower lobe of the 
caudal short. No spines. 

1. Mustelus canis, Mitchill. 

Body cylindrical, tapering, elongated. Back and sides of a uniform slate-color ; abdo- 
men a dusky white. Body rough, when the finger is passed towards the head. Head flat 
between the eyes. 

D. (?)■ P. ( ; )- V. (?). A. (?)- C. (.'). Length, 2 to 4 feet. 

Massachusetts, Storer. New York, Mitchill, Dekay. 

Called " Dog-fish Shark," by the fishermen of Massachusetts Bay. 

Squalus cani , Dog-fish, iIitciiill, Trans. Lit. and Phil. S'oc. of N. Y-, i. -l-G, pi. CI, li^ , a tO - 
Mustelus canis, American Hound-fish, Dhkat's Report, p. 3.*>."<, pi. 64, fig, 209. 

GENUS V. SELACHUS, Cuv. 
Two dorsal fins, the first placed but little behind the line of the pectorals, 



254 Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North Jlmerica. 

the second over the interval between the ventral and anal fins. The skin 
rough. Snout short and blunt. Temporal orifices very small. Teeth very 
small, numerous, conical, edges smooth, no lateral denticles. Branchial open- 
ings large, nearly encircling the neck. 

1. Selachus maximus, Lin. 

Body cylindrical, fusiform. Above of a dark slate-color, lighter beneath. Snout blunt. 
Eyes very small. Jaws furnished with a great number of small, conical, recurved teeth. In 
a specimen I examined a few years since, fourteen hundred teeth were counted in the lower 
jaw. A carina on each side of tail. 

D. (?). P. (.')■ V. (?)• A. (?). C. (?). Length, 30 feet. 

Greenland, Fabricius. Massachusetts, Storer. New York, Mitchill, Dekay. New 
Jersey, Lesueur. 

Squalus maximus, Lin., Syst. Nat., i. p. 400. 

" " Basking Shark, Pennant's Brit. Zob'l., in. p. 134, pi. 16. 

" " " " Shaw's Gen. Zool., v p. 327, pi. 149. 

" Fabricius, Fauna Groentandica, p. 130. 

" " Basking Shark, Jenyns's Brit. Vert., p. 503, sp. 193. 

Squalus peregrinus, Blainyille, Ami. du Mus., xvni, pi. 6, fit:. 1. 

Squalus maximus, Basking Shark, Mitchill, Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. of N. Y., I. p. 486. 
Squalus elephas, Lesueur, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc, n. p. 343, pi. 

Squalus (Selaehe) maximus (Cuv.), Basking Sliark, Rich., Fauna Boreal. Americ, III. p. 291. 
Selachus maximus, Basking Shark, Sun-fish, Sail -fish, Yarrell's Brit. Fishes (2d edit.), II. p. 51S, fig. 

" " " " Griffith's Cuv., x. p. 603. 

Squalus elephas (Lesueur), Storer's Pieport, p. 407. 
Selachus maximus, Basking Shark, Dekay's Report, p. 357, pi. 63, fig. 208, 

GENUS VI. ACANTHIAS, Risso. 

Two dorsal fins, with a spine before each ; first dorsal behind the line of the 

pectorals ; the second dorsal over the space between the ventral and caudal 

fins ; no anal fin. Skin rough in one direction ; the scales heart-shaped, with 

a central spine directed backwards. Temporal spiracles large. Several rows 

of teeth in both jaws, cutting and sharp, the points directed outwards and 

backwards. 

1. Acanthias Americanus, Storer. 

All the upper part of the body is of a slate color, which is deeper upon the head and 
lighter below the lateral line ; beneath white. A row of circular white spots are situated 
just under the anterior portion of the lateral line, and a few similar spots are irregularly dis- 
tributed upon the back. The first dorsal fin commences posterior to the anterior third of the 
body ; the second dorsal is nearer to the first dorsal fin than it is to the extremity of the tail. 
Upper lobe of the caudal broad, and as long again as the lower portion. 



Stover's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 255 

D. (.»). P. (?). V. (?). C. (?). Length, 1 to 3 feet. 

Northerly, beyond the coast of Labrador, Dekay. Massachusetts, Storer. Connceti- 

cut, Ayres. New York, Dekay. 

Dog-fish, Stop eh'i Report, p. 187. 
" " Sp D 6sh, Dekay's Report, p. 359, pi. 64, fig. 187. 

" " I' Iyres, Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist., IV. p 

GENUS VII. SCYMNUS, Cuv. 
All the fins small ; two dorsal fins, the first but little before, and the second 
but little behind, the line of the ventrals ; no anal fin. Skin rough. Tem- 
poral orifices or spiracles large, placed rather high up on the head, above as 
well as behind the eyes. Teeth in the lower jaw crooked at the point, equi- 
lateral at the base ; in the upper jaw, lancet-shaped, but little curved ; the 
points in both jaws diverging from the centre. Gill-openings small. 

1. Scymnus brevipinna, Lesueur. 

Body elongated, very narrow at base of tail. Lateral line black, undulating at tlie 
head, and marked in its whole length with small transverse lines. Tail wide, emarginate. 
D. (!). P. (?). V. (>). C. (?). Length, 6 feet 5 inches. 

Massachusetts, Lesueur. 

Sornniosus brevipinna, Nur.se or Sleeper, Lesueur, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc., I. p. 222, pi. 

" " " " Stoker's Report, p. 189. 

Scymnus brevipinna, Nurse, Dekay's Report, p. 361, pt. Gl, lis- 202. 

Lesueur does not refer to the teeth, in his account of this species, and hence it is impossible 
to fix with certainty its generic locality. His general description, however, leads us to sup- 
pose that it is probably a Scymnus, and we therefore follow the opinion of Dekay, and place 
it in that genus, in preference to leaving it in Lesueur's " illy-constructed genus Somnio- 
sus," as is well remarked by Dekay. 

GENUS VIII. ZYG.9ENA, Cuv. 

Head depressed, more or less truncated in front ; the sides extend horizon- 
tally to a considerable length, with the eyes at the external lateral extremity. 
Teeth of the same shape in the upper and lower jaw, namely, the points di- 
rected towards the corner of the mouth, with a smooth edge when young, but 
distinctly serrated in adult specimens. Branchial openings, five. Two dor- 
sal fins ; the first in a line close behind the pectorals ; the second over the 
anal fin. 



256 Stover's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 

1. Zygaena malleus, Val. 

Body cylindrical, elongated. Head one third as long as broad. Grayish brown above, 
whitish beneath- Second dorsal arises slightly in front of the anal fin. Branchial openings 
all before the base of the pectorals. 

D. (?). P. (?). V. (?)• A. (.'). C. ( : ). Length, 2 to 12 feet. 

Massachusetts, Storer. New York, Mitchill, Dekay. Caribbean Sea, Bancroft. 
■'From Nantucket to Brazil," Dekay. 

Squalua zygsna, Lin., Syst. Nat., i p. 399. 

" " Hammer-headed Shark, Shaw's Hi. Zoo]., v. p. 334, pi, lot. 

" « " " Mitchill, Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. of N. T., I. p. 482. 

Zygaena malleus, Hammer- head, Val., Memoires du Museum d'Hist. NaL., IX. p. 422, pi. 11, fig. 1. 

" " " Jenyns's Brit. Vert., p. 507, Bp. 196. 

" " " Yarrell's Brit. Fishes (2d edit.), n p 51.11, fig. 

" " " Storer, Supplement to Report, Bost. Journ. Nai. Hist., iv. p. 185. 

" " Dekay's Report, p. 362 pi 62, fig. 204 

GENUS IX. SQUATINA, Dumeril. 
Body very much depressed ; head flat, rounded anteriorly ; both eyes on 
the upper surface ; temporal orifices large, behind the eyes ; mouth at the end 
of the snout ; pectoral fins large, attached anteriorly to the head, the posterior 
edge free ; two dorsal fins, both behind the ventrals ; no anal fin. 

1. Squatina Dumerili, Lestjeur. 

Head bordered on each side by a white membrane ; head and fins a bluish ash-gray, with 
reddish tints upon the head and margin of the fins ; abdomen, throat, and pectoral and anal 
fins, marked by large red spots ; nostrils with a broad, ciliated skin on each side, as in the 
Barbel. Teeth lanceolate, rather gibbous in front ; there are six or seven distinct rows, hav- 
ing each five teeth. 

D. (?). P. (?)• V- (?)• C. (?). Length, 3 to 4 feet. 

Dekay supposes Lesueur's specimen was from Florida, and thinks it is found on the coast 
of New York. 

Squatina Dumeril, Lesueur, Journ. Acadi Nat. Sc, i. p. 226, pi. 10. 

Squatina Dumerili, American Angel-fish, Dekay's Report, p. 303, pi. 62, fig. 203. 

GENUS X. PRISTIS, Latham. 

They unite to the elongated form of the Squali, in general, a body flat in 
front, and gills pierced beneath, as in the rays. But their proper character 
consists in a very long, depressed muzzle, in the form of the blade of a sword ; 
armed on each side with strong osseous spines, pointed and trenchant, and 



Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 257 

implanted like teeth. The true teeth in the jaws are small and rounded, as in 
Mustelus. 

1. Pristis antique-rum, Lath. 

Dusky above ; pale gray beneath. Elongated beak, with twenty-four teeth on each side. 
Skin fine shagreen. 
D. (>)• P- (•')• V. (.'). A. (.')• C. (>.). Length, 12 to 15 feet. 
New York, Schoepff. 

Squalus pristis, Lin., Syat, Nat, 

" " Pennant's Arct. Zool., Supplement, p. 105. 

" " Fabricics, Fauna Groenlandica, p. 130. 

" " Saw-snouled Shark, Shaw's Gen. Zool., v. p. 3j7. 

!Yz dfi Espada (?). Parra, p. 75, pi. 33. 
Pristis aniiquorum, Saw-fish, Griffith's Cut., x. p. 408. 
" " Common Saw-fish, Uekav's Report, p. 365. 

Besides the Squalidae above referred to, Mitchill, in his paper on the " Fishes of New York," 
very concisely speaks of a species which he calls " Squalus Americanus, —short, with ob- 
long, sharp teeth, each of which has a little one each side at its base." He remarks, that 
" both jaws have five rows of teeth in front, nearly an inch long, and not jagged at the 
sides." Subsequently, he considered it a new species, and in his Supplement, published, in 
1818, in the "American Monthly Magazine,"' p. 328, has called it Squalus macrodus, or 
Long-toothed Shark. What this species is must be determined by further research. In a 
supplement to my " Report on the Fishes of Massachusetts," published in the " Boston 
Journal of Natural History," Vol. IV., p. 1S8, I spoke as follows of a fragment of a Shark's 
jaw, which either belonged to this or an undescribed species. " The portion of the jaw be- 
fore me is six inches in length, and two inches wide at its lip. From the tip of the jaw to 
the posterior angle on each side are situated seven teeth ; the two on each side of the chin 
are longer, narrower, and straighter than those exterior to them. Dr. Prescott observed, in 
his letter to me, that when taken ' it exhibited three, and in some places four, rows of long, 
narrow teeth.' Now that the soft parts are removed, the two teeth next the chin are 
seen continued back into the mouth seven rows deep ; in the first row, the two exterior teeth 
are shorter than the third within them ; this third tooth, with the two still within it, are 
about the same size ; the outer tooih of the second row is of the same height as the third of 
the first row, and in this row they pass backwards, decreasing as in the first row. The teeth 
of the other five rows diller very much from those spoken of, in their form ; they are shorter, 
wider, and less stout, curving towards the angle of the jaw : those of the sixth and sev- 
enth row3 being shorter than those of the previous three rows." 

76 



258 Slorer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 

FAMILY XXXIV. RAIIDiE. 

Body very much flattened out, resembling a disk. Pectorals very large, 
uniting in front with the snout, and extending backwards to near the base of 
the ventrals. Tail more or less long and slender. Mouth, nostrils, and 
branchial openings beneath. Eyes and temporal orifices above. Dorsals 
(when present) almost always on the tail. 

GENUS I. RAIA, Lin. 

Disk rhomboidal. Tail slender ; with two small dorsals near the tip, and 
sometimes the vestige of a caudal fin. Teeth slender, close set, arranged in 
quincunx. 

1. Raia diaphanes, Mitchill. 

Body rhomboidal. Of a light brown color, thickly sprinkled, over its entire surface, with 
more or less circular black spots or blotches. Sides, anterior to pectorals, concave. Snout 
slightly projecting- The space between the anterior orbitar ridges and the snout is diapha- 
nous. In the male, two rows of prominent sharp spines, pointed inwards, about a dozen in 
each row, towards the outer portion of the pectorals. Two rows of spines on each side of 
the tail above ; between the two central rows a naked groove. 

Length, 2 to 3 feet. 

Massachusetts, Stoker. Connecticut, Linsley. New York, Mitchill, Deejiy. 

R.iia diaphanes, Clear-nosed Ray, Mitchill, Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. of N. Y., l. p. 478. 
" " " Dekay's Report, p 366, pi. 77, fig. 218. 

" " " " Linsley's Cat. of Fishes of Connecticut. 

2. Raia ocellata, Mitchill. 

Body rhomboidal, depressed, with the anterior margin of the pectorals slightly sinuous ; 
the posterior margin undulated, rounded behind, and much attenuated at its junction with 
the body. Patches of spines on the nose, over the eyes, and near the centre of the pecto- 
rals. A series of minute spines upon the dorsum, and on each side of the tail. Snout prom- 
inent. Chocolate-brown above, with numerous ocellated dusky or black spots, which are 
sometimes confluent, surrounded by lighter margins ; beneath dusky white, with light brown 
in the centre, and faint pink on the edges. 

Length, 2 to 3 feet. 

Connecticut, Linsley. New York, Mitchill, Dekay. 

Raia ocellata, Ocellated Ray, Mitchill, Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. of N. V., L p. 477. 
Spotted Ray, Dekay's Report, p. 369, pi. 65, fig. 212. 
" Ocellated Ray, Linsley's Cat. of Fishes of Connecticut. 

Dekay considers -this and Lesueur's R. Chantenay synonymous. But the coloring of the 



Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North .Imcrica. 259 

two species is very different- Lesueur, also, in his account of his R. Chantenay, speaks of 

the tail being " terminated by three rounded fins," and his figure exhibits them. Dekay, in 

his account of the above (ocellata), describes only " two small dorsals on the tail, ne: 

extremity"' 

■ 3. Raia erinacea, Mitchill. 

Form rounded; diaphanous. Pale brown, with dark-brown spots. Two dorsal fins, with 
the vestige of a third. Two series of prickles on the tail ; a patch of about twenty erectile 
spines on the pectorals. Prickles upon the cheeks. Snout pointed. 

Length, 17 inches. 

New Jersey, Mitchill. 

Raia erinaceus, Hedge-hog Ray, Mitchill. Amer. Journ. Sc, ix p. "200, pi. G. 
" " • " " Dekay's Report, p. 37a, pi. 75, fig. 2t6. 

4. Raia laevis, Mitchill. 

Body rhomboidal. Small spines on the orbits, and anterior margins of the pectoral fins ; 
the rest of the body smooth. Three rows of spines on the tail. Snout blunted. In the 
male, the under surface of the snout and exterior to the nostrils to the angle of the jaws, 
roughened by innumerable minute tubercles. Male of a uniform light-brown color. Female 
with blackish ocelli. 

Length, 2 to 5 feet. 

Massachusetts, Storer. Connecticut, Linsley. New York, Mitc-hill, Dekay. 

Raia lievis, Smooth-backed Skate, Mitchill, Amer. Month. Mag., n. p. 327. 

Raia balis, Skate, Storer's Report, p. 193. 

Raia laevis, Smooth Skate, Dekav's Report, p. 370. 

Raiabatis, Skate, Linsley's Cat. of Fishes of Connecticut. 

When my Report was written, the supplement of Dr. Mitchill to his " Fishes of New 
York," contained in the "American Monthly Magazine and Critical Review," was unknown 
to me. Dr. Dekay is probably correct in supposing my Skalc to be the R. laevis of Mitchill, 
and I cheerfully acknowledge it above. 

5. Raia Desniarestia, Lesueur. 

Body subrhomboidal. Brownish above, whitish beneath. Snout prominent, rounded at tip, 
slightly emarginated each side. Many ranges of long, curved points exterior to the eyes, and 
upon the pectoral fins ; a range of spines upon the dorsal line ; three ranges on the tail, and 
a 6pine at each extremity of the dorsal disk ; two approximate fins on the superior extremity 
of the tail; teeth discoidal, surmounted by a point. 

Length, 18 to 19 inches. Breadth, 124 inches. 

Florida, Lesueur. 

Raia Desmarestia, Lesuel-r, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc., iv/p. 100, pi I. 
" " Dekay's Report, p. 372. 



260 Storefs Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 
/d~* A*M'*£*fl** ^'/hJ^r^^L./j-r q Raia eglantiera, Bosc. 



Body flat, semiorbicular behind, with a wide, rounded emargination each side before, 
near the spiracles, anterior to which the edge is dilated opposite to the eyes, and then is con- 
tracted so as to form a short, rounded rostrum. Above reddish, sprinkled with small spots ; 
beneath whitish, with reddish tints. A longitudinal series of from nine to twelve simple 
spines on each side upon the pectorals ; tail longer than the body, with two fins at its tip. 

Length, 19 inches. Width, 10 inches. 

Delaware Bay and Southern coasts, Bosc, Lesueur. 

Rata eglantiera, Lacep., Hist, des Poissons, n. p. 105, pi. 4, fig. 1. 
" " Lesueur, Journ. Acad. Nat. b'c, IV. p. 103. 

" " Dekav's Report, p. 373. 

7- Raia Chantenay, Lesueur. 

Body fiat, subrhomboidal, about one fifth broader than long. Above glabrous, excepting 
on the anterior margin of the pectoral fins, between the eyes, and on the extremity of the 
rostrum, which are rough to the touch ; scattered reddish-brown spots of various sizes and 
forms, and a transversely-oblong subocellated spot each side of the middle; beneath whitish, 
slightly tinted with rosaceous; towards the anterior part of each side of the anus are six 
small black lines or spots. Three fins at the extremity of the tail ; tail armed laterally with 
points. 

Breadth, 24 feet. 

Delaware Bay, (?)• 

Raia Chantenay, Lesueut., Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc, IV. p. 106, pi. 5. 

V 

Lesueur's description was made out from a dried specimen in the Philadelphia Museum. 

S. Raia Americana, Dekay. 

Body rhomboidal. Uniform brown, unspotted. Snout elongated. Pointed groups of 
prickles on the upper surface ; a vertebral series, and three series along the tail. 
Length, 1 to 2 feet. 
New York, Dekay- 

Raia Americana, Prickly Ray, Dekay's Report, p. 303, pi. 66, fig. 215. 



GENUS II. TRYGON, Adanson. 

Head inclosed laterally by the pectorals ; posterior portion of the disk of 
the body somewhat rounded ; tail armed near its origin with a long and sharp 






Stover's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 261 

flattened spine, serrated on both edges ; the rest of the tail slender, without 
fins, and ending in a point ; teeth small. 

1. Trygon hastata, Dekat. 

JJudy quadrilateral, rounded on the pectoral angles. Uniform olive-brown above; white 
beneath. Upper surface partially smooth. Tail longer than the body, and armed with two 
or more spines. 

Width, 3 feet. Entire length, 5 to 8 feet. 

Rhode Island, Dekay. Connecticut, Linsley. 

Rata centroura(!), Prickly-tailed Sting-Ray, Mit-chill, Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. of N. Y., i p. 479. 
Pastinaca hastata, Whip Sting-Ray, Dekay's Report, p. 373, pi. 65, fig. 214. 
Trygon centroura, Whip tailed Sling-Ray, Linsley's Cat. of Fishes of Connecticut. 

2. Trygon Madura, Lesueur. 

l)ody oval, elliptical, broader than long. Tail short, one third of the length of the body. 
Above greenish blue, with small black vermicular, interrupted lines, and larger distant, pale 
spots; beneath, pale red. 

Length, 15 tq 18 feet. 

Rhode Island, Lesueur. Connecticut, Linsley. 

Raia Madura, Lesueur, Jonrn. Acad. Nat. Sc, I. p. 41, plate. 
Pastinaca Madura, Broad Sting-Ray, Dekay's Report, p. 375, pi. 65, fig. 213. 
" " " " Linslby's Cat. of Fishes of Connecticut. 

3. Trygon sabina, Lesueur. 

Body orbicular ; tail more than twice as long as the body ; ventral fins long, pointed ; a 
range of spines upon the back and the origin of the tail ; two spines on each side of the back. 
Upper part of the head rough ; appendices in the male slender, distinct, as long as the ven- 
trals. 

Length, (?)• 

Florida, Lesueur. 

Trygon sabina, Lssubub, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc., iv. p. 109. 
Pastinaca sabina, 1>ekay's Report, p. 375. 

Cuvier, not having assigned any reason why he has substituted the genus " Pastinaca" 
for Adanson's " Trygon," I have followed Yarrell in retaining the latter. 



GENUS III. MYLIOBATIS, Ddm. 

Head projecting from the pectorals, and the latter more broad transversely 
than in the other Rays, which gives them somewhat the appearance of a bird of 



262 Storcr's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 

prey with the wings extended, and has caused them to be compared to the 

eagle. Their jaws are furnished with broad, flat teeth, arranged like the 

squares of a pavement, and of different proportions, according to the species ; 

their tail, extremely long, is terminated in a point, and is armed, like that of 

Trygon, with a strong spine, serrated on both sides, and has above, towards 

its base, in front of the spine, a small dorsal. Sometimes there are two or 

more spines. 

1. Myliobatis Freminvillii, Lesueur. 

Body rhomboidal. Above olivaceous, more or less deep in different specimens, paler on the 
margins, and sprinkled with distinct rounded spots ; beneath white. Orbit salient, sur- 
mounted by an eminence. A r entrals rounded. Tail very long, filiform, triangular. 

Length, 2 feet. Width, 2 to 3 feet. 

Rhode Island, Lesueur. 

Myliobatis: Freminvillii, Lesuefr, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc, iv. p. 111. 
" " Dekav's Report, p. 366. 

2. Myliobatis Say, Lesueur. 

Suborbicular. Olivaceous red above. Teeth dilated, and rhomboidal at the base. Two 

elongated vertical opposite fins on the tail, behind the spine. 

Length, ('). Width, 17 inches. 

New Jersey, Lesueur. 

Myliobatis Say, LEsrErn, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc, i. p 42, pi. 
" " Dekay's Report, p. 376. 

3. Myliobatis acuta, Atres. 

Head rounded anteriorly, and extending backwards, widening but little for several inches, 
until opposite the eyes, where it joins the body. Body above smooth, entirely destitute of 
spines. AVhole body and head above reddish brown ; tail lighter at the base, but nearly 
black towards the tip ; beneath whitish. Tail very slender, smooth to the tip, bearing two 
reversely serrated spines. 

Length, 3 feet, II inches. 

Massachusetts, Storer. Connecticut, Ayres. 

Myliobatis bispinosus, Storer, Proceed. Bost Soc. Nat. Hist., p. 53. 

" " " Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist., IV. p. 187. 

Myliobatis acuta, Atres, Proceed. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., p. 65. 

Myliohatis bispinosus (Storer), Ayres, Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist., IV. p. 200, pi. 13, fig. 1. 
Myliobatis acuta (Ayres), Linsley's Cat. of Fishes of Connecticut, Silliman's Journal. 

In the year 1810, Dr. Yale sent me the tail and a portion of a jaw of this species, and 
from these I named it M. bispinosus in the fourth volume of the " Boston Journal of Natural 



Storefs Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 263 

History." Mr. Ayres afterwards found an entire specimen at Brookhaven, Long Island, 
and called it M. acuta ; this name, however, he withdrew, and allowed mine the priority. 
As, however, he has fully described from a recent specimen what I merely named from frag- 
ments of one, I feel that his name should be retained, and mine erased from the list. The 
remarks of my lamented friend, Rev. Mr. Linsley, of Connecticut, contained in his " Cata- 
logue of the Fishes of Connecticut," upon the impropriety of considering the number of 
caudal spines as specific characters, are very just, and conclusively show the impropriety of 
my specific name. 

GENUS IV. AETOBATIS, Mhller. 
Have no marginal teeth ; the jaws support only a single row of broad dental 
plates. In the upper jaw, these plates are arched, with the convexity turned 
forwards ; in the lower jaw, they pass straight across, with the extremities 
only a little bent backwards. The upper jaw is shorter and more curved than 
the lower one, the anterior extremity of which projects beyond the upper jaw, 
and can be used like a spade in digging out shell-fish, &c, from the sandy 
bottoms frequented by these Rays. 

1. Aetobatis guttata, Shaw. 

Subrhomboidal. Snout spatuliform. Above light brown, with regularly distributed, nu- 
merous yellowish-white ocelli ; beneath white. The tail, which is nearly four times as long 
as the body, is small at its origin, and terminates in a mere thread. In the dried specimen, 
a deep concavity upon the top of the head, between and back of the eyes, dilated anteriorly. 
Adult very large. 

Length of body, 17 inches ; of tail, posterior to dorsal fin, -15 inches. Greatest width of 
body, across pectorals, 20 inches. 

Porto Rico, Storer. 

Raia guttata, .Suaw's Gen. Zoifl., v. p. 2S5, pL 112. 

GENUS V. RHINOPTERA, Kt in.. 
Have the muzzle divided into two short lobes, under which are two similar 
ones. 

1. IMiinoptera quadriloba, Lesueur. 

Body rhomboidal, elevated along the dorsal line. Olive-brown above, beneath white. 
Pectorals acute. Tail slender, longer than the body. 
Length, 3 feet. Width, 2 feet. 



264 Storefs Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 

Connecticut, Linsley. New York, Mitchill, Dekay. New Jersey, Lestjeur. 

Raia bonasus, Cow-nosed Kay, Mitchill, Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc. of N. Y., I. p. 479. 
Raia quadriloba, Lesueur, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc, i. p. 44, pi. 
Rhinoptera quadriloba, Griffith's Cuv., x. p. 616. 

" " Cow-nosed Ray, Dekay's Report, p. 375, pi. 66, fig. 217. 

" " " " Linsley's Cat. of Fishes of Connecticut. 



GENUS VI. CEPHALOPTERA, Dcmeril. 

The head truncated in front, and the pectorals, instead of embracing it, 
prolong each of them their anterior extremity into a salient point, which gives 
to the fish the appearance of having two horns. Teeth slender, slightly 
dentated. The slender tail, the spine, and the little dorsal, as in Myliobatis. 

1. Cephaloptera vampyrus, Mitchill. 

Body dark brown above ; beneath black, calicoed with milk-white. Skin rough. Tail 
longer than the body, and armed with one or more spines. Dorsal between the ventrals. 
Anterior margin of the pectorals convex ; posterior concave. 

Length, 17 feet, 3 inches. Width, 10 to 18 feet. 

Delaware Bay, Mitchill. South Carolina, Catesby. Georgia, Lesueur. 

Cephalopterus vampyrus, Oceanic Vampyre, Mitchill, Annals of Lye. Nat. Hist, of N. York, i. p. 23. 

pi. 11, fig 1. 
Cephaloptera giorna (L.vcep.), Lesueur, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc, iv. p. 115, pi. 6, fig. 1. 
Cephaloptera vampyrus, Sea- Devil, Dekay's Report, p. 377, pi. 67, fig. 219. 
Cephalopterus manta, Bancroft, Sowerby's Zoological Journal, iv. p. -153. 

GENUS VII. TORPEDO, Dumeril. 
The disk of the body nearly circular ; pectoral fins large ; two dorsal fins 
placed so far back as to be on the tail ; surface of the body smooth ; tail 
short and rather thick ; teeth small and sharp. 

1. Torpedo occidentalis, Storer. 

Whole upper surface dark brown, with a few almost black dots distributed over it ; be- 
neath white. Very broad across the pectorals ; length of pectorals rather less than half the 
entire length. Caudal fin is nearly triangular, straight at its posterior margin. Eyes very 
small- Spiracles oval, directed outwards and a little forwards. 

Length, 4 feet, 2 inches. Width, 3 feet. 

Massachusetts, Storer. 

Torpedo occidentalis, Storer, American Journal of Arts and Sciences, xlv. p. 165, pi. S. 



Storey's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 265 
ORDER III. CYCLOSTOMI. 

Gills purse-shaped, fixed, opening outwards by several apertures. Jaw- 
represented by an immovable cartilaginous ring, formed by the union of the 
palatine and mandibular bones. Intestinal canal straight and narrow. 

FAMILY XXXV. PKTROMYZONIDJE. 

Body elongated, cylindrical, eel-shaped. No pectorals nor ventrals. Fins 
without rays. 

GENUS I. PETROMYZON, Lin. 

Seven branchial apertures on each side of the neck. Maxillary ring armed 
with strong teeth. Mouth beneath. 

1. Petromyzon Americanus, Lesueur. 

Body cylindrical anteriorly, compressed posteriorly, and terminating in an acute tip. A 
slight keel upon the back. Above olive-brown, mottled with dark-brown, almost black, con- 
fluent patches ; beneath of a uniform dull brown. Three large teeth in the throat. 

Length, 20 to 30 inches. 

Massachusetts, Storer. Connecticut, Linsley. New York, Mitchill, Dekay. 

Petromyzon marinus, Great Lamprey, Mitchill, Trans. Lit.'and Phil. Soc. of N V., i. p. 4GI. 
Petromyzon Americanus, Lesubdk, Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. (N< sv Series), 1. p. 3S2. 
" " Hist. N. A. Fishes, inert., plate. 

" American Lamprey, Ptorer's Report, p. 195. 

American Sea-Lamprey, Dekay's Report, p. 379, pi. &Q, fig. 216. 

2. Petromyzon nigricans, Lesueur. 

Body above of a deep blue color ; beneath bluish white. Mouth with numerous incurved 
teeth, or bony spines, projecting from widened bases, resembling the spines with which the 
Raiae are armed. Dorsals white. Caudal triangular at its termination. 

Length, 6 to 7 inches. 

Massachusetts, Lesueur, Storer. Connecticut, Linsley. 

Petromyzon nigricans, LBsmjCR, Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. (New Series), i. p. 3S5. 
" Bluish Lamprey, Stoker's Report, p 197. 

" Bluish Sea-Lamprey, Dekai : Report, p -I, pi. 79, fig. 2-17. 

3. Petromyzon Lamottenii, Lesueur. 

Yellowish on the sides, with irregular patches of dark brown above ; white beneath. The 
mouth pectinated on its margin- Dorsals continuous. 

77 



266 Storefs Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 

Length, (?). 

Petromyzon Lamottenii, Lesueuk, Hist. N. A. Fishes, ined., plate. 
" " " Dekay's Report, p. 3S2 

4. Petromyzon tridentatus, Gairdner. 

Back and sides bluish gray, with irregularly scattered yellowish patches ; belly yellowish 
white. Three conspicuous and contiguous teeth on the upper side of the maxillary ring. 
Dorsals distinct. 

Length, 21 inches, G lines. 

Columbia River, Richardson. 

Called " Squaqual," by the Indians on the banks of the Wallamet. 

Petromyzon tridentatus, Tridentale Lamprey, Gairdner, Kich., Fauna Boreal. Americ, SIX. p. 293. 
" " Dekay's Report, p. 382. 

5. Petromyzon argenteus, Kirtland. 

Body cylindrical, compressed towards the back. Back ash-gray ; sides and beneath 
silvery-gray, maculated with irregular rows of black dots. A black dot over each branchial 
opening. Dorsals continuous. 

Length, 11 inches. 

Big Miami River, Ohio, Kirtland. 

Petromyzon argenteus, Kirtland's Report, pp. 170, 107. 

" " Lamprey, Kirtland, Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist., ill. p. 342, pi. 4, fig. 3. 

" lt Dekay's Report, p. 382. 

6. Petromyzon appendix, Dekay. 

Dorsals continuous, yellow. Anal fin with a thread-like appendix on its anterior portion. 

Length, 4 to G inches. 

Rhode Island, New York, Dekay. 

Petromyzon appendix, Small Lamprey, Dekay's Report, p 331, pi. 64, fig. 211. 

7. Petromyzon fluvialis, Lin. 

Richardson, in his " Fauna Boreali Americana," says, — "A Lamprey, having teeth like 
P. fluvialis, was found in Great Slave Lake, adhering to an Inconnu (Salmo Mackenzii). It 
was very like Bloch's figure of the P. argenteus, which Cuvier thinks is not different from 
fluvialis." 

GENUS II. AMMOCCETES, Dumeril. 

Form of the body, the branchial apertures, and fins, like those of the Lam- 
preys ; upper lip semicircular, with a straight, transverse under lip ; mouth 
without teeth, but furnished with numerous short membranous cirrhi. 



Slorer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 267 

1. Ammocostes bicolor, Lesueur. 

Back and sides reddish ; abdomen white ; the color separated by an undulating line. 
Xape of the neck elevated. Dorsal fins low, separated. On the inside of the upper lip are 
small granules, and at the opening of the throat, small ramified papillae. 

Length, (?). 

Connecticut River, Lesueur, 

Ammoccetes bicolor, Lesueur, Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. (New Series), I. p. 3 ; G. 
" " Mini Lamprey, Storer's Report, p. Vj: . 

" Colored Mud-Lamprey, Dekay's Report, p. 383, pi. 79, fig. 248. 

2. Ammoccetes concolor, Kirtland. 

Body subcylindric, more compressed laterally behind the vent ; transversely marked with 
numerous curved sulcations. Back and sides uniformly of a light olive, or sometimes a 
leaden hue ; the belly and throat of a yellowish white ; the fins pale and diaphanous. Ir- 
regular series of dark brown dots are imprinted on the whole length of the sides of the body. 
and more faintly above the branchial openings. Body convex above the branchial openings. 
Dorsal single, commencing over the middle of the body. Mouth semicircular, elongate ; 
lower lip transverse ; nose terminates in a short snout, projecting over the mouth. 

Length, 4 to 5 inches. 

Mahoning and Scioto Rivers, Kirtland. 

Ammoccetes concolor, Mud-Eel, Blind Eel, Kirtland, Bost. Joum. Nat. Hist., iv, p. 173, pi. 27, £>. 1. 

3. Ammoccetes unicolor, Dekay. 

Color nearly uniform throughout. Dorsal single. Opening to the throat very large, but 
accurately closed by six irregular and ragged subcartilaginous processes, which meet in the 
centre. 

Length, 3 to 5 inches. 

Vermont, Thompson. New York, Dekay. 

AmmoccEtes unicolor, Plain Mud- Lamprey, Dekay's Report, p. 3S3, pi. 79, fig. 250. 



268 Storefs Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 



The seven following species are added from Sovverby's "Zo- 
ological Journal." 

GENUS H^EMULON, Cuv. 

13. Hremulon obliquatuni, Bennett. 

Yellowish, with twelve bluish bands upon the head, and numerous oblique bluish lines 
upon the body. 

D. 12-16. P. 15. V. 1-6. A. 3-12. C. 16. Length, (>). 
Caribbean Sea, Bancroft. 

Diabasia obliquatus, Bennett, Sowerby's Zoological Journal, v. p. 00. 



GENUS CHROMIS, Cuv. 

The lips, protractile intermaxillaries, pharyngeals, dorsal filaments, and 
general appearance of a Labrus ; but the teeth of the pharynx and jaws re- 
semble those of a card, and there is a range of conical ones in front. The 
vertical fins are filamentous, those of the belly being even frequently extended 
into long threads. The lateral line is interrupted ; the stomach forms a cul- 
de-sac, but has no cceca. 

1. Chromis tenia, Bennett. 

Blackish brown ; fins blackish ; tail rounded, banded with black dots ; a round black spot 
beneath the eye, another at the base of the caudal beneath, and a band continued from the 
eye along the middle of the side to the tail. 

D. 15-11. P. 13. V. (?). A. 4-9. C. 16. Length, (?)• 

Caribbean Sea, Bennett. 

Chromis trenia, Bennett, Proceedings of Zoological Society of London, I. 1S30, p. 112. 

GENUS HEMIRAMPHUS, Cuv. 

3. Hemiramphus apicalis, Bennett. 

Body four times the length of the lower mandible. Dorsal and anal fins of equal length. 
A silver stripe extends horizontally along the middle of the body, from the operculum to 
the tail. Apex-of the lower jaw of a bright flame color. Pectoral fins equal in length to 



Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 269 

one half of the length of the lower jaw. Upper mandible scarcely exceeding one half of 
the diameter of the eye in length. 

D. 15. P. (?). V. (.<). A. 16. C. (?). Length, (?) 

Caribbean Sea, Bancroft. 

Hemiramphus apicalis, Bennett, Sowerbj 's Zoological Journal, v. pp. 84, 69. 



GENUS ECHENEIS, Lin. 

5. Echeneis lunata, Bennett. 

Body elongated, scaly. Twenty-two to twenty-five bars on the disk ; caudal fin lunate ; 
pectorals acute. Black on the upper and more anterior portion of the back ; of a dark gray 
over the remainder of the body, with a lighter gray stripe from near the eye to near the 
vent. All the fins of a dark gray. 

D. 30 or 32. P. 21. V. 6. A- 30 or 33. C. 16. Length, 34 inches. 

Caribbean Sea, Bancroft. 

Echeneis lunata, Bennett, Proceedings of Zoological Society of London, I. 1S30, 1531, p. 13-1. 
" " Sowerby'sZoalogical Journal, v. p. -112, pi. 13. 

GENUS CONGER, Cuv. 

2. Conger Savanna (?), Cuv. 

Dorsal fin arises before the origin of the pectorals. Anterior teeth conical ; the side teeth 
disposed in many series, those of the middle series the greater, parallelopiped, wedge-shaped, 
those of the outer and inner series the smaller, granulated, rounded, and closely arranged ; 
the middle series of those on the vomer the larger, triangular, somewhat recurved, com- 
pressed ; those on the sides granulated. 

D. (?). P- (-')■ V. (?)■ A. (?). C. (?). Length, (?). 

Caribbean Sea, Bancroft. 

Called " Conger or Sea Eel," at Jamaica. 

Conger Savanna (Cuv.), Bennett, Proceedings of Zoological Society of London, I. 1830, 1831, p. ISJ. 
" " " tk>wcrby's Zoological Journal, v. p. 41G. 

GENUS SCYLLIUM, Cuv. 

An anal and two dorsal fins ; the first dorsal fin placed behind or opposite, 
but never before, the abdominal fins. Head short and blunt ; nostrils pierced 
near the mouth, and continued by a fissure in the upper lip, forming valves. 
Teeth small, triangular, pointed, with one or more lateral denticles at the base 



270 St over's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 

on each side. Eyelids wanting. Spiracles distinct. Branchial openings, 
five, partly ovei' the pectoral fins. 

1. Scyllium cirratnm, Gmel. 

Rufous. The young brownish .above, and somewhat fawn-colored beneath, marked on 
both surfaces, over the whole of the body and the fins, by small black, rounded spots, not 
closely set, and somewhat regular in their distribution. Spiracles small, just behind the 
eyes. It generally has ten rows of teeth. 

D. (>). P. (?). V. (?). A. (?). C. (?). Length, 1 to 15 feet. 

Caribbean Sea, Bancroft- 

Called "Nurse," at Jamaica ; " Gata," at Havana. 

Squalus cirratus, Lin., Gmel. 

Cirrated Shark, Shaw's Gen. Zool., v v p 344. 
Scyllium cirraium (Gmel.), Bancroft, Sowerby's Zoological Journal, v. pp. 82, 8G ; 115. 

GENUS CEPHALOPTERA, Dumeril. 

2. Cephaloptera hypostoma, Bennett. 

Smooth ; mouth beneath ; the anterior edge of the pectoral fins declivous- Spiracles sit- 
uated in a groove at the anterior base of the pectorals. 

Length to ventrals, 17 inches ; length of tail, 21 inches. Extreme breadth of body, 28 
inches. 

Caribbean Sea, Bancroft. 

Cephalopierus hypostomus, Bennett, Proceedings of Zoological Society of London, i. 1S30, 1S31, d. 13-1. 
" " " Sowerby's Zoological Journal, v. p. 411, pi. 50. 



Since this paper was prepared for publication, the following spe- 
cies have been discovered, and are described in the " Proceedings 
of the Boston Society of Natural History." 

GENUS PRIONOTUS, Cuv. 

5. Prionotus pilatus, Storer. 

Above of a reddish brown, beneath yellowish white. The first dorsal fin is crossed by 
two oblique white lines, with a black blotch upon the connecting membrane, between the 
fourth and fifth rays, above the upper oblique line. The entire head is roughened by elevated 



Storefs Synopsis of the Fishes of A'orth America. !'i I 

stria™. The lateral projections of the snout are prominent, and margined with very strong 
crenulations, which are longer than in either of the species contained in Cuvier's " Histoire 
Naturelle des Poissons." Two distinct spines at the anterior superior angle of the eye. 
Opercular spine of moderate size, not elevated at its base above the opercular plate. Pre- 
opercular spine large, naked at its posterior extremity, raised and crenulated along its whole 
outer edge. Length of the head equal to one fourth the length of the body. Length of the 
pectoral fins equal to nearly one third the length of the head. The caudal fin is quite deeply 
emarginated ; the outermost rays projecting. 

D. 10-13- P. 13. V. 6. A. 12. C 12|. Length, 12 inches. 

Massachusetts Bay, Storer. 

Prionotus pilatus, Stoker, Proceed. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., n p. 77. 

GENUS ARGYREIOSUS, Lacep. 

3. Argyreiosus unimaculatus, Batchelder. 

Body nearly circular, much compressed, being less than one tenth of an inch in thickness. 
Breadth, one and one tenth inches. Profile nearly vertical. Lower jaw the longer, and 
hooked. Eves one tenth of an inch in diameter. A filament, half an inch in length, 
arises on the back in a vertical plane with the origin of the pectoral fin ; three tenths of an 
inch back of this are three very minute spines. Several finlets upon the back and abdomen. 
Pectoral fins three-tenths of an inch long ; caudal fin deeply forked. 

Preserved in spirit, above the lateral line the color is dark ; below it, silvery. Upon the 
lateral line, which passes in nearly a right line from the superior angle of the gill-covers to 
the base of the caudal rays, is a nearly circular black spot, the anterior edge of which is just 
touched by the pectoral fin when depressed. 

D. (?). P. 16. V. (?). A. (?). C. 14. Length, ljo inches to the base of the caudal fin. 

Maine, Batchelder. 

iosus unimaculatua, Batchelder, Proceed. Boat. Soc. Nai. Hiat., n. p. 73. 

GENUS LEPTOCEPHALUS, Pennant. 

Have the cleft of the gills open in front of the pectorals, and the body 
compressed like a riband. Their head is extremely small, with a short and 
rather pointed muzzle, the pectorals almost imperceptible or actually wanting ; 
the dorsal and anal in like manner scarcely visible, united together at the point 
of the tail ; the intestines occupy only an extremely narrow line along the in- 
ferior edge. 



272 Stover's Synopsis of the Fishes of North .America. 

1. Leptocephalus gracilis, Storer. 

BoJy elongated, tapering posteriorly to a point, very much compressed. Translucent, the 
vertebral column and ribs distinctly visible through the skin. Length of the head equal to 
one seventeenth of the entire length of the fish ; the greatest depth of the body slightly ex- 
ceeds the length of the head. Snout pointed. Eyes circular. No pectoral fins; the dorsal 
and anal fins exceedingly small, and by their union forming the tail. In spirits, of a reddish- 
brown color. Small black points are noticed, by means of the glass, upon the margins of 
the dorsal and anal fins, and also along the lateral line. 

D. (.'). Y. (?). A. (?). C. (?). Length, 44 inches. 

Maine, Wheatland. 

Leptocephalus gracilis, Storer, Proceed. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., n. p. 76. 

GENUS SYNGNATHUS, Lin. 

2. Syngnathus Californiensis, Storer. 

Reddish brown, lighter beneath ; the lower portion of the sides irregularly dashed with 
white. Nineteen transverse plates anterior to the vent, and forty-seven plates posterior to 
it. From the tip of the tubular mouth to the posterior edge of the operculum, the length is 
rather more than one seventh the length of the fish. The greatest depth of the jaws is 
rather less than one half the depth of the head. The dorsal fin commences on the anterior 
third of the body, and the height of its rays is less than one third the depth of the body. 

D. 42. P. 13. A. 3. C 10. Length, 14 inches. 

California, Storer. 

Syngnathus Californiensis, Stoker, Proceed. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., n. p. 73. 



Making a total of, — 



Families, ..... 35 

Genera, ..... 221 

Species, ...... 739' 



Storeys Synopsis of the Fishes of North Jjmerica. 273 



ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS. 

In consequence of having added several genera to the preceding 
paper after the first eight pages were printed, I find it necessary 
to make the following additions and corrections. 

In the tables of Geographical Distribution of Genera, add to the family Scombridae the 
genera Pahnurus and Notacanthus, as peculiar to America. 

To the family Labrids, add the genus Chromis, as being found both in Europe and North 
America. 

To the family Cyprinida;, add the genera Pimephales and Fundulus, as peculiar to Amer- 
ica. 

To the family Salmonidic, add the genera Thymallus and Saurus, as being found both in 
Europe and North America. 

To the family Clupeida>, add the genus Pomolobus, as peculiar to America. 

To the family Anguillidte, add the genera Murfena and Leptocephalus, as being found both 
in Europe and North America ; and the genus Saccopharynx, as found in North America 
but not peculiar to it. 

To the family Squalida;, add the genera Alopias and Scyllium, as being found both in 
Europe and North America. 

To the family Raiidae, add the genera Rhinoptera, Cephaloptera, and Torpedo, as being 
found both in Europe and North America. 

Add the two following species from Fabricius. 

Genus Anarrhicas, A. minor, Olafsen, Fabr., Fauna Groenl., p. 139; Rich, 
Fauna Boreal. Americ., p. 96. 

Genus Squalus, S. Gunneri, Rich, Fauna Boreal. Americ, p. 313; S. Carcharias, 
Fabr., Fauna Groenl., p. 127. 

To the catalogue of works consulted, add the following. 

Bosl. Journ. Nat. Hist. Boston Journal of Natural History. 8vo. Boston. 1831 et seq. 
Proceedings of Boston Society of Natural History. 8vo. Boston. 1841rfsey. 
Zoal. Journal. Sowerby's Zoological Journal. 8vo. London. 
Proceedings of Zoological Society of London. 8vo. London. 1830 et seq. 

78 







ERRATA. 




^age 4, 


line H, for Percina, rtud 


Etheostoma. 




" 5, 


" 26, " Zoarcua, li 


Zoarces. 




6, 


" 9, " Hypsocida;, " 


Hypsseidie. 




9, 


" 7, " Percina, 


Etheostoma, 




11, 


'• 6. ■■ Zoarcus, *' 


Zoarces. 




11, 


[, 22, ■ Hypsocidas, " 


Hypsseidse. 




1?, 


11 r.i for vn., " 


ii. 




31, 


" 14, i fter Mesoprion, " 


Cuv. 




31, 


' ,■ Lane, 


Lone. 




'■ 33, 


" C, '■ p. 116, 


p. 21b". 




41, 


" 1, " Ravenelii, " 


Kaveneli. 




41, 


,, 7, " " " 


14 




41, 


" 9, " Holbrookii, 


Holbrooki. 




" 41, 


,. j, .. cc 


" 




42, 


to the synonymes of Pomolis appeDdix, adtt Potnoti 


l, Red-lailed 1 




Joutn, Nat. Hist., iv. p. 17' 






54, 


line 16, for 3, rend 5. 




62, 


" 24, after Gaslerosteus, 


1 aculealus. 




" 113, 


" 2C, for three tenths, ' 


one eleventh 




" 124, 


" 10, " (.'. 161, ' 


C. 16. 




" 129, 


" 8, " Platescephalus, ( 


Platycephalus, 




" 130, 


" 5, "• card-teeth, 


card-like leeth. 




" 202, 


" 11, " three, 


the. 




" 203, 


" 17, " Lesser's, 


lesser. 




' ' 224 


"' 25, " Length, 2 inches, ' 


Length, 21 inches 





Stoker, Cost. 



INDEX OF POPULAR WMKs. 





Page 






Page 


Abapokeetsok, 


. 230 


Bar-fish, .... 


22 


Abdominal Fishes, 


148 


Barracuda, Northern, 


18 


Acanthonolns, Snouted, 


100 


Bass 


, Black, 


35,38 


Acanthurus, Lancet, 


112 




Black, of the Huron, . 


25 


Aigrette, of St. Bartholomew, 


131 




Canadian, 


22 


Akooliakeetsok, 


121 




of ( Charleston, . 


67 


Alewife, 


. 200 




Fresh-water, 


37 


American, 


207 




Goggle-eyed, 


37 


Bay, • 


. 207 




Grass, 


39 


Amia, Carolinian, . 


213 




Little White, . 


22 


Angel-fish, 


87 




Obscure, 


40 


American, 


256 




Otsego, 


. 200 


Hairy, 


87 




Red, ... 


67 


Striped, of Jamaica, . 


86 




Rock, . 


37 


Angler, American, 


. 120 




Ruddy, 


22 


Beaked, 


131 




Sea, 


35,67 


Common, 


129 




Small American, 


22 


Angmaggeuck, 


202 




Small Black, 


23 


Angma»sak, 


202 




Striped, 


21 


Angmalook, 


195 




Striped, of the Ohio, . 


23 


Argyreiose, Hair-finned, 


. 104 




White Lake, 


23 


Rostrated, 


104 




White, of Lake Erie, . 


23 


Arius, Milbert's, 


149 


Bellows-fish, 


129 


Aspidophore, American, 


57 


Berg 


ylt, 


.-,-1 


Sturionic, 


57 


Bill-fish, . 


187 


with one dorsal, 


57 




Common, 


. 214 


Altihaumeg, . 


199 


Blac 


i fish, 


137 






Blennj , American, 


122 


Back-tail, Yellow, 


. 154 




1 >l-shaped, 


123 


Bagre, .... 


149 




Fringed, 


. 123 


Balao, of Martinique and Guadaloup 


;, 190 




Gunnel, . 


121 


Balistes, Dusky, 


244 




Large-lipped, 


. 123 


Balloon-fish, 


. 240 




Sea-weed, 


117 


Hairy, 


240 




Smooth, 


118 


Unspotted, 


240 




Spotted, . 


121 


Warty, 


241 


Blepsias. Three-lobed, 


62 


Barbc chau, of St. Domingo, . 


48 


Bleu 


serin, of St. Thomas, 


lit 


Barbero, .... 


112 


Blue 


fish, . . .108 


134, 229 


Barbu, of Martinique, 


48, 


Bodianus, Five-spincd, 


it; 



276 Storefs Synopsis of the Fishes of North America 



Bone-fish, 


144 


3arar 


x, . . . 


. 102 


Bonetta, 


92 




Southern, . 


103 


Bonito, Striped, 


92 




Spotted, 


. 101 


Bony-fish, 


. 207 


Carp 


American, 


156 


Bowfin, .... 


213 




Black, . 


170 


Bream, 


40 




Common, 


155 


Red-sided, 


160 




Golden, 


155 


Variegated, . 


163 




Gray Sucking, 


167 


Britt, .... 


205 




of the Ohio, 


. 176 


Broad-Shiner, Cryptous, 


. 110 




Red Sucking, 


167 


Buffalo-fish, 


214 


Carti 


aginous Fishes, . 


. 247 


Black, . 


• 170 


Catalineta, of Havana, 


76, 86 


Brown, 


172 


Catal 


ufa, 


44 


Bull-head, 


57 


Cat-fish, 


150 


Acadian, 


58 




Black, 


151, 152 


Antlered, . 


55 




Blue, 


153 


Armed, 


57 




Brown, 


. 152 


Bear Lake, 


53 




Common Fresh-water, 


150 


Brazen, 


54 




Great Lake, . 


. 151 


Common, . 


54 




Mud, 


153 


Greenland, 


53 




Oceanic, 


. 149 


Many-horned, 


55 




Salt-water, 


149 


North Georgian, 


55 




Silvery, 


. 153 


Porous, 


56 




Spotted, . 


153 


Prickly, 


56 




"White, 


. 153 


River, 


53 




Yellow, . 


152 


Six-horned, 


55 




Yellow-head, 


. 154 


Single-finned, 


57 




Young, 


154 


Small Black, . 


154 


Centrarchus, Bronzed, 


. 137 


Burbot, Compressed, . 


. 219 


Cha; 


todon, Cloudy, 


87 


Plain, 


219 




Glaucous, . 


98 


Spotted, 


. 219 




Golden, 


88 


Burgall, . . . . 


134 




Rhomboid, 


98 


Spotted, 


134 




Rock, . 


80 


Burnstickle, 


62 




Striped, 


86 


Black, . 


64 


Char, of New York, 


193 


Tiny, 


64 




Long-finned, 


. 195 


Two-spined, 


62 


Chasmodes, Six-banded, . 


118 


Butter-fish, 


121 


Chauffe-soleil, of Martinique, . 


80 


of St. Thomas, . 


26 


Cherna, 


27 






Chirivita, 


88 


Caballerote, 


32 


Chironectes, Smooth, 


130 


Cabezona, of Cuba, 


. 126 


Chogset, 


. 134 


Cabrilla, of Havana, 


26 


Chu 


i, Big-backed, 


159 


of Porto Rico, 


27 




Big-head, 


158 


Cacabari, of St. Thomas, 


145 




Black, 


177 


Canne-canne, of Martinique, . 


74 




Common, 


. 159 


Capelin, .... 


202 




Horned, 


158 


Northwest, . 


. 202 




Lake, 


157 


Capitaine, of St. Bartholomew, . 


136 




of New York, 


172 



Stover's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America 



Chub, Red-sided, 


. 159 


Dace, Columbia River, 


Smooth-headed, 


159 


Lake, 


Sucker-mouthed, 


178 


Northwest, 


Two-spotted, 


161 


Pigmy, 


Warty, 


. 159 


Red, . 


Chub-Sucker, Brilliant, 


172 


Roach, 


Coal-fish, 


. 220 


Rough-nosed, . 


Polar, . 


220 


Saskatchewan, 


Cod, American, 


. 215 


Silvery, 


Bank, 


216 


Darter, Black, 


Common, of New York, 


. 216 


Tessellated, 


Poor, or Power, 


217 


Variegated, 


Slender, 


. 222 


Degraisseur, of Martinique 


Spotted, 


222 


Demoiselle, of Martinique, 


Tom, 


. 216 


Diablo, 


Variable, 


217 


Diodon, Hairy, 


Codfish, 


. 216 


Spot-striped, . 


of the Lakes, 


219 


Dog-fish, . 


Codling, 


221,236 


of Lake Erie, 


American, 


222 


Picked, . 


Spotted, 


. 222 


Spinous, 


Cojenudo, of Cuba, 


102 


Dolphin, Bottle-headed, 


Conner, 


. 134 


Doncella, 


Cordonnier, of Martinique, 


104 


of Havana, 


Corvina, Banded, 


73 


Dormeur, of Martinique, 


Lesueur's, 


67 


of St. Domingo, 


Sharp-finned, 


69 


Dorse, . 


Silvery, 


68 


Dory, Brazilian 


Coryphene, Common, 


107 


Bristly, 


Perch , 


99 


Hair-finned, 


Plumier*s, 


. 138 


Rostrated, 


Cotorra, of Porto Rico, . 13 


7, 143, 147 


Spinous, 


Cottus, Eighteen-spined, 


53 


Drum, Banded, 


Crab-eater, 


111 


Beardless, . 


Creole, of Martinique, 


26 


Big, . 


Cricri, of St. Domingo, 


75 


Black, 


Crocro, of Martinique, 


77 


Branded, 


of St. Domingo, . 


75 


Red, 


Crocro dore, of St. Domingo, 


73 


Young, 


Crocro gueule-rouge, 


74 




Croker, of South Carolina, 


73 


Echeneis, Ship-master, 


Cusk, . 


221 


Eekalook, . 


Little, 


^ 236 


Eel, American, 


Cybium, 


93 


Beaked, 
Blind, . 


Dab, Rusty, . 


. 225 


Broad-tailed, . 


Dace, 


163 


Bull-head, 


Banded, 


161 


Common, 


Black-headed, 


157 


Conger, . 


Black-nosed, . 


. 156 


Fresh-water, 



160 
157 
160 
163 
157 
161 
178 
159 
161 
19 
19 
18 
111 
31, 86 
131 
240 
240 
219, 253, 255 
213 
255 
255 
107 
140 
140 
127 
79 
217 
104 
105 
103, 104 
104 
98 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 
67 

232 
194 

235 
233 
267 
234 
234 
233 
235, 269 
233 



278 Starer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America 



Eel, Lilile Sand, 

Massachusetts, 

New York, 

San J, 

Sea, 

Silver, 

Snake. 

Yellow, 
Eel-pout, 

Bordered, 
Thick-lipped, 
Ekalluarksoak, 
El dajao, 

El mereal, of Porto Rico, 
El Olivo, of Porto Rico, 
Elops, Smooth, 
Emeralda, of Cuba, . 
Endormi, of Martinique, 
Esmeraldo negro, of Cuba 
Etheostome, Variegated, 

Fadate, of St. Domingo, 
Fall-fish, 

Silver-side, 
Farlate, of St. Domingo, 
File -fish, Long finned, 

Long-tailed, 

Massachusetts, 

Narrow-tailed, 

Orange, 

Sharp- tailed, 

Tut-mouthed, 

Unicorn, 
Fin, of St. Domingo, 
Fistularia, Slender, 
Flat-fish, New York, 

Pigmy, 

Rusty, . 
Flat-head, Black-headed, 
Flounder, 

Argus, 

Long-toothed, 

Oblong, 

Spotted, 

Stellated, . 

Watery, 
Flying-fish, 

American, 
Double, . 
Mediterranean, 



238 
233 
233 
238 
23-1 
233 
234 
234 
219 
123 
123 
216 
117 
106 
127 
212 
124, 126 
124 
129 
18 

3fi 
157 
158 

30 
244 
245 
245 
215 
244 
245 
244 
215 

76 
192 
224 
225 
225 
166 
224 
227 
226 
226 
22G 
226 
226 
176 
189 
188 
189 



Flying-fish, Middling, 


189 


New York, 


189 


Single-bearded, 


188 


Frere Jacques, of Martinique, 


45 


Frost-fish, . 


216 


Gadus, Toad, 


. 132 


Garanha, of Brazil, 


33 


Gar-fish, 


. 187 


Alligator, 


211 


Banded, 


. 187 


Common, 


214 


Duck-billed, . 


. 214 


Green, 


214 


Ohio, 


. 214 


Gentilhomme, of Martinique, 


70 


Gilt-head, Aculeated, . 


82 


Girl, Young, of St. Thomas, 


86 


Globe-fish, 


. 211 


Brown, . 


211 


Small, 


. 241 


Starry, 


241 


Goby, Lance-tailed, 


. 125 


Variegated, 


125 


Gold-eye, 


. 211 


Gold-fish, of Ohio, . 


42 


Goose fish, 


. 129 


Grande Gueule, 


28 


Grand-gore, of Martinique, 


82 


Grayling, Back's, . 


203 


Lesser, 


. 203 


Green-back, 


204, 207 


Long Island, 


. 207 


Staten Island, 


207 


Green-fish, 


. 108 


Grenadier, Rock, . 


223 


Gronde, of St. Domingo, 


68 


of Port au Prince, 


68 


Groper, 


30 


Gros yeux, of Martinique, 


27 


Ground-fish, 


19 


Growler, 


36 


Salmon-formed, 


36 


Grunter, 


51,72 


of New Orleans, 


73 


Web fingered, 


51 


Grunts, 


72, 74 


Middle, 


73 


Red-mouthed, 


76 


Speckled, • 


76 



Moras ,byno]> 


SIS oj I 


lie 1 


"isnes oj jxorth .lincrica. 


:,:> 


Guativere, of Havana, 




26 


Herring, Thread, 


. 210 


Guavina, . 




127 


Tiny, . 


204 


of Porto Rico, 




129 


Toothed, 


. 210 


Gudgeon, New York, 




181 


Hewlook-povvak, 


203 


Niagara, . 


. 


156 


Hiekejak, 


59 


Guiniad, 




19!) 


Hog-fish, 


18 


Gunnel, Spotted, 


121 


122 


Blenny-Iike, 


18 


Gurnard, . 




51 


Blunt-nose, 


18 


Banded, 




51 


Great, 


. 136 


Cuckoo, • 




50 


Speckled, 


19 


Flying, 




51 


of St. Thomas, 


136 


Punctated, 




51 


Holocentrus, Sogo, 


46 


Red, 




50 


Horn-fish, 


24 


Spinous, 




50 


Horse, Black, 


170 


Woli-fingered, 




50 


Red, . 
White, 


169, 171 
172 


Haddock, ■ 




216 


Hound-fish, American, 


. 253 


Norway, . 




61 


Huron, Black, 


25 


Hair-tail, Silvery, 




95 






Hake, 


218 


221 


[nconnu, 


196 


American, • 


. 218 


222 


Ingmingoak, 


223 


Halibut, 




223 






Hanl-liead, 




207 


Jabonsillo, 


37 


Harvest fish, . 




10'J 


Jaquetle, Petite, of Martinique, 


79 


Long-finned, 




109 


Jerker, 


161 


■Short finned, 




no 


Jiguagua, of Havana, 


101 


Head fish. 




243 


Jocu, .... 


32 


Hemdurgan, . 




61 


Juannita, of Porto Rico, 


70 


Herring, American Common, 




204 






Blue, 




205 


Kanaise, 


121 


Common, 




206 


Kapiseltk, 


. 200 


English, 




204 


Kalheh, 


200 


Fall, 


. 204 


207 


Keblernnk, 


135 


Fasciated, 




204 


Keyteeleek, 


193 


Gold, . 




208 1 King-fish, 


71, 111 


Green, 




205 Southern, 


72 


Lake, 




210 Killi -fish, Banded, 


180 


Larger, 




211 Barred, . 


180 


Little, . 




205 


Big, • 


180 


Massachusetts, 




204 


Striped, . 


1S1 


Moon-eyed, 




211 White-bellied, 


180 


New York, . 




205 Yellow-bellied, . 


180 


liiver, 




210 




Satin-striped, 




205 


Lafayette, 


69 


Shad, 


. 207 


, 210 


Lamprey, 


266 


Slender, 




208 


American, 


205 


Spotted, 




210 


American Sea. . 


263 


Sprat, 




206 


Bluish, 


205 


Spring, . 




207 


Bluish Sea, 


36S 


Striped, 




204 


Great, 


. 265 



sau stovers synop 

Lamprey, Mud, 


sis oj me 

267 


jfisnes oj j\orui jimerica 

Meesarkornak, 


217 


Plain, 


. 267 


Meethqua-maypeeth, . 


. 167 


Small, . 


266 


Menhaden, . 


207 


Tridentate, . 


■ 266 


Mesoprion, Golden-tailed, 


32 


Lampugus, Spotted, 


109 


Methy, 


219 


Launce, Banded, 


. 238 


Miller's Thumb, 


53 


Sand, 


238 


Minnow, Banded, . 


182 


Lebias, Sheep's-head, 


. 179 


Brook, 


. 156 


Lepisoraa, Cirrous, 


49 


Champlain, 


182 


Leuciscus, Beautiful, . 


. 161 


Ornamented, 


181 


Silvery, 


161 


Transparent, 


181 


Storer's, 


. 165 


Mithomapeth, • 


. 167 


Ling, 


219 


Moharra, of Porto Rico, 


84, 85 


Lump-fish, 


. 229 


Moon-eye, 


. 210 


Bellying, 


230 


Larger, . 


211 


Blue, 


. 229 


River, 


. 211 


Diminutive, 


229 


Moon-fish, of the Antilles, 


87 


Spiny, 


. 230 


Morcielago, 


52 


Luppe, 


77 


Moubin, of Martinique, 


88 






Mouse-fish, 


. 130 


Macabi, 


212 


Gibbous, 


130 


Mackerel, Banded, 


105 


Mud-fish, • ■ .15 


1,157, 182 


Black, . 


111 


Western, 


213 


Bull-eyed, 


90 


Mullet, .... 


115, 173 


Carang, 


101 


American, . 


115 


Fall, 


90 


Golden, 


169 


Hippos, 


101 


of Martinique, 


128 


Horse, 


. 108 


New York, 


115 


Plumier's, 


100 


Rock, 


116 


Red, 


. 101 


Spotted, 


116 


Salient, 


97 


Striped, 


115 


Spanish, 


90, 93 


White, 


115 


Spring, 


90 


Muray, Black, 


255 


Thazard, 


. 93 


Muskallonge, . 


. 185 


Yellow, 


102 






Meeteneg, 


. 150 


Naceaysh, . 


211 


Mailed-fish, Northern, 


214 


Namaycush, 


. 193 


Malashegane, 


68 


Namaypeeth, 


167 


Malthea, Bat, 


131 


Nammecoos, 


. 193 


Dotted, 


. 132 


Neepeesa, . 


229 


Square-browed, . 


132 


Neepeesardlooarkook, . 


. 229 


Square-nosed, 


. 132 


Neepesardlook, 


230 


Mapo, of Cuba, 


126 


Negre, of St. Domingo, 


25 


of Havana, 


. 125 


Petit, of Martinique, 


28,31 


Margate-fish, 


46, 74 


No-natcheegaes, 


159 


Mariquita, of Porto Rico, 


76 


Noper, 


33 


Marsh-bankers, 


207 


Notacanth, Beaked, 


. 100 


Marsh-fish, 


. 213 


Notchfin, Northwest, 


65 


Masamacush, 


195 


Nurse, .... 


255, 270 


Maskinonge, . 


185 







281 



*j(i/r ci o Ktyit/vuaid 
Ogak, .... 


jj HK. 

218 


L IOIIVO WJ •. T t-'tl/l */-£/ltCI [IK 

Pickerel, 


185 


Okeugnak, 


. 200 


Huron, 


. 24 


Okow, .... 


24 


Varied, 


185 


Ophidium, Branded, . 


. 236 


Pickering, Champlain, 


20 


Little, . 


236 


Green, . 


24 


New York, 


. 236 


Picuda, 


47 


Parry's, 


236 


Pike, 


185 


Spinous, 


. 122 


Barracuda, 


47 


Oreille noire, 


33 


Becuna, 


47 


Ottonneebees, 


. 200 


Bony, 


214 


Ouatahbe Espagnol, 


30 


Brazilian, 


190 


of Martinique, 


26 


Buffalo Bony, 


. 214 


Oulaclian, .... 


202 


Federation, 


185 


Owak, 


. 218 


Flat-nosed Bony, . 


. 214 


Oweepeetcheesees, 


211 


of Lake Erie, - 


24 






Long-jawed Fresh-water, 


187 


Pampaneto, of Havana, 


98 


Scaled, 


214 


Pampano, of Havana, 


98 


Pike-Perch, American, 


24 


Parapel, of Guadaloupe, 


76 


Gray, 


25 


Parrot-fish, 


113 


Yellow, . 


24 


Great, of St. Thomas, 


. 143 


Pilot, Black, 


99 


Patate, . . . . 


87 


Pilot-fish, 


96 


of Martinique, 


. 141 


Pimelode, Black, . 


151 


Peprilus, Three-spined, 


no 


Huron, 


. 150 


Perch, American, 


17 


Pipe-fish, American, 


191 


American Yellow, 


17 


Banded, 


. 239 


Black, 


35 


Brown, . 


239 


Blue, 


134 


Green, 


. 239 


Common, 


17 


Peck's, . 


239 


Fresh-water, 


40 


Sea-Horse , . 


. 239 


Pond, . 


40 


Short-nosed, 


239 


Red, 


22 


Smaller, 


. 239 


Sea, 


61 


Spotted, 


191 


Sharp-nosed, 


17 


Piper, .... 


. 190 


Silvery, 


. 68 


Pisquet, of St. Domingo, . 


102 


Slender, 


68 


Plaice, .... 


. 227 


Spineless, 


. 47 


of New York, 


227 


Triple-tail, 


78 


Pogge, 


57 


White, 


22 


Pokudleek, . 


54 


White, of the Ohio, 


67 


Pollack, 


220 


Whiting, 


71 


Black, 


220 


Yellow, 


17 


Green, 


. 220 


Yellow-bellied, 


. 163 


New York, 


220 


Perro Colorado, 


134 


Polometa, of Porto Rico, 


87 


Perroquet, of Martinique, 


. 146 


Polyneme, Paradise, 


48 


of St. Thomas, 


146 


Pomotis, Northern, 


40 


Pescador, 


. 131 


Pond-fish, Black-eared, 


40 


Pez de Espado, 


257 


Common, . 


40 


Pholis, Subbifurcated, 


. 1H 


Porbeagle, Mackerel, 


252 


Picconou, .... 


173 


Long-tailed, 


. 252 



79 



282 



Porgee, 


83 


Sailor, 


. 176 


Big, . 


83 


Sail-fish, . 


254 


Little, 


69 


Salmon, 


. 192 


Rhomboid, 


81 


American, 


206 


Sand, 


81 


Bear Lake Herring, . 


. 201 


Three-tailed, . 


87 


Clark's, . 


197 


Pot-pot, of St. Domingo, 


. 10G 


Common Sea, 


192 


Pout, Horned, 


150 


Common Shad, . 


200 


Pristipoma, Banded, . 


77 


Coppermine River, . 


. 195 


Puffer, 


242 


Gairdner's, 


196 


Curved, 


. 242 


Greenland, 


. 202 


Lineated, 


241 


Herring, . 


200 






Lake, 


. 194 


Quannich, 


. 196 


Lake Huron, 


201 


Queachts, . 


196 


Lesueur's Herring, . 


. 202 


Quia quia, of Martinique, 


. 101 


Mackinaw, 


193 


Quiebra-acha, 


97 


Observatory Inlet, 


194 


Quinnat, 


. 196 


of the Ohio, 


24 






Otsego Shad, 


. 200 


Rabirrubia genizara, 


. 135 


Ross's Arctic, 


194 


Ray, Broad Sting, . 


261 


Weak-toothed, 


. 196 


Clear-nosed, 


. 258 


Sandre, American, 


24 


Cow-nosed, . 


264 


Canadian, 


24 


Hedgehog, 


. 259 


Sapo, of Havana, 


132 


Ocellated, 


258 


Saraudlirksoak, 


. 216 


Prickly, . 


. 260 


Sarde acajou, of Martinique, 


32 


Prickly-tailed Sting, . 


261 


Sarde doree, of St. Domingo, 


31 


Smooth, . 


. 259 


Sarde grise, of St. Domingo, 


34 


Smooth-backed, 


259 


Sarde haut-dos, of St Domingo, 


32 


Spotted, . 


. 258 


Saury, 


212 


Whip Sting, . 


261 


Sauteur, of Martinique, 


97 


Whip-tailed Sting, 


. 261 


Saw-fish, . 


257 


Red-eyes, . 


43 


Scieena, Pike-headed, . 


23 


Red-fin, 


. 157 


Plumier's, 


17 


Red-fish, 


142 


Red, . 


46 


of New Orleans, 


67 


Scorpajna, Plumier's, 


60 


Remora, Fourteen-plated, . 


232 


Yellow, 


58 


Indian, 


. 231 


Sculpin, Common, 


54 


White-tailed, 


231 


Deep-water, . 


58 


Roach, 


40 


Greenland, 


53 


Harlequin, 


40 


Sea-Ape, 


. 253 


Robin, Sea, 


51 


Sea-Bat, 


131 


Rock-fish, . 


21 


Sea-Devil, 


. 264 


of the Ohio, . 


39 


Sea-Fox, . 


253 


of St. Domingo, . 


29 


Sea-Horse, Hudson River, 


. 239 


Rodo, of Martinique, . 


76 


Sea-Raven, 


5S 


Ronco, of Porto Rico, 


74 


American, . 


58 


Rose-fish, 


61 


Sea-Scorpion, Small, 


59 


Rough-head, 


157 


Spotted, 


60 


Round-fish, 


. 201 


Sea-Snail, . 


230 


Rudder-fish, 


99 


Sea-Toad, 


60 



Stover's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 283 



Sea-Wolf, 


. 124 


Silver-side, Dotted, . 


114 


Sebastes, Northern, 


61 




Green-striped, 


113 


Sennersulik, 


202 




Slender, . 


113 


Seriola, Banded, 


105 




Small, 


114 


Serrana, of" Havana, . 


70 


Skate, 


. 


. 259 


Shad, 


. 84, 206 


Skimback, . 


176 


American, 


206 


Skip-jack, 


92, 108 


Common, 


206 


Sleeper 


, • . ■ 


258 


Gizzard, . 


. 210 


Smelt, 




. 193 


Gold, 


208 




American, 


198 


Hickory, - 


. 210 


Snappe 


r, Lone, 


31 


Lake, 


199 


Snoper 




144 


of the Lakes, 


. 200 


Sobre, 




33 


Ohio Gold, . 


208 


Soft Ra 


yed, 


148 


Shadine, New York, . 


199 


Sole, 




227 


Spotted, . 


199 


A 


jodal, 


228 


Shanny, Radiated, 


. 118 


N 


;w York. 


228 


Shark, Ash-colored, 


251 


Spade-fish, Western, 


250 


Basking, 


. 254 


Sparus, 


Abildgaard's, 


. 142 


Ciliated, . 


270 




Dog-toothed, 


32 


Dog-fish, 


. 253 




Gold-tailed, . 


32 


Dusky, 


251 




Rhomboid, 


81 


Elephant, 


. 254 




Silver-eyed, . 


83 


Fox, 


253 




Virginian, 


76 


Green-backed, 


. 252 


Spatularia, Reticulated, 


. 250 


Ground, . 


251 


Spoon-bill, Toothless, 


250 


Hammer-headed, 


. 256 


Squaqual, 


. 266 


Long-tailed, 


253 


Squetea 


S-ue, 


66 


Mackerel, 


. 252 


Star-gazer, Little, 


53 


Newfoundland, . 


252 


Stickleback, Bloody, 


63 


Saw-snouted, 


. 257 




Common, 


62 


Small Blue, 


251 




Four-spined, 


63 


Thresher, 


. 253 




Maine, . 


64 


Sheepshead, 


. 81, 179 




Many-spined, 


63 


Lake, 


67 




Newfoundland, . 


63 


of Lake Huron, . 


68 




New York, . 


63 


Three-tailed, 


87 




Rough-tailed, 


62 


Young, . 


72 




Ten-spined, . 


63 


Shiner, 


. 210 




Three-spined, 


62 


Bay, 


101 




Two-spined, 


62 


Blunt-nosed, . 


. 105 


Stone 'I 


oter, . 


. 177 


Common, of Ohio, 


158 


Sturgeon, Columbia River, 


249 


Flat, . 


. 157 




Lake, 


248 


Golden, 


156 




Round-nosed, . 


248 


New York, . 


156 




Ruddy, 


. 248 


Red-bellied, 


. 158, 161 




Rupert Land, . 


249 


Shining, 


161 




Sharp-nosed, 


. 248 


Spotted, . 


161 




Short-nosed, 


248 


White and Yellow-wint 


'ed, . 158 




Shovel-nose, 


. 249 


Silver -fish, 


■ 104, 113 




Spoon-bill, 


250 



'mUi 



/OS. 



^.y* on// e/ a uunvvvnB i 

Stylephorus, Chordated, 


'J l "° J 
. 113 


Tetraodon, Mathematical, 


• 241 


Sucker, .... 


167, 173 


Short, 


241 


Big Oceanic, . 


. 232 


Teyarnak, 


. 121 


Black, . 


170 


Thlooeesinneh, 


193 


Black-nosed, . 


. 171 


Thread -fish, . 


. 210 


Brook, 


169 


Tickomeg, 


199 


Buffalo, 


. 171 


Toad-fish, 


. 132 


Chub, 


168 


Two-spined, 


133 


Chub, of New York, 


. 173 


Tockoo, 


61 


Common, 


169 


Trachinote, Spinous, 


98 


Fresh-water, . 


. 171 


Trichiurus, Silver, 


94 


Gibbous, . 


168 


Trompa, . 


144 


Gilt Sucking, 


. 169 


Trout, 


36 


Large-scaled, 


168 


Black, 


193 


Little, 


. 176 


Common, . 


. 193 


Lump, 


229 


Common Brook, 


193 


Missourian, . 


. 170 


Creek, 


. 193 


Mud, 


170 


Lake, . 


194 


Mullet, 


. 169 


Red-bellied, 


. 193 


Oneida, 


173 


Red-spotted, . 


193 


Pale, 


. 174 


Salmon, . 


. 194 


Red, 


167 


Speckled, 


193 


Round-backed, 


. 173 


Troutlet, Spotted, 


. 193 


Sailing, . 


176 


Trunk-fish, Dromedary, 


246 


Shipmaster, . 


. 232 


Six-horned, 


. 246 


Small Oceanic, 


232 


Yale's, 


246 


Snail, 


. 230 


Tsuppitch, 


. 197 


Spotted, . 


171 


Tullibee, . 


200 


Unctuous, 


. 231 


Tunny, 


92 


Ventricose, . . 


230 


Turbot, Arctic, 


227 


White, 


. 171 


Spotted, 


. 227 


Sucking-fish, 


232 


Tusk, Yellow, . 


221 


Fourteen-plated, 


. 232 






Mediterranean, 


232 


Uranoscope, Unarmed, 


46 


Small Oceanio, 


. 232 






Sun-fish, .... 


254 


Vampyre, Oceanic, 


. 264 


Black, 


37 


Vieille, . 


28 


Fresh-water, 


50 


Vieja, .... 


. 142 


Gilded, 


42 


Vivaneau, of Martinique, . 


33 


of the Ohio, 


40,43 






Short, 


. 243 


Weak-fish, 


66 


Surgeon, .... 


112 


White-fish, 


199 


Surmullet, Spotted, 


48 


of the Lakes, 


. 200 


Swallow, Sea, 


52 


Whiting, Carolina, 


71 


Swell-fish, 


. 242 


New York, 


. 218 






Wind-fish, 


163 


Tabac, Le Bout de, of Martinique, 


36 


Wolf-fish, 


. 124 


Tang, .... 


112 


Wry-mouth Spotted, 


58 


Tautog, 


. 137 






Tetraodon, Hare, 


241 


Zebre, or Ooigre, of Guadaloup 


s, . 86 



INDEX OF SCIENTIFIC NAMES. 





Page 




Paoe 


ABDOMINA'LES, . 


. 148 


Aldsa sapidissima, 


. 206 


A'bramis balteatus, 


160 


teres, 


208 


Smithii, 


. 160 


tyrannus, 


. 207 


versicolor, 


163 


vernalis, 


207 


Acanthias Americanus, 


. 254 


vulgaris, 


. 206 


Acantholabrus exoletus, 


135 


Alutera angustica0.da, 


246 


Acanthonotus nasus, 


. 100 


cuspicaOda, . 


. 245 


ACANTHOPTERY'GII, 


16 


mondceros, 


245 


Acanthosdma carinatum, 


. 242 


Amblydpsis spelas'us, . 


. 184 


Acanthurus chinirgus, 


112 


A'mia calva, 


212 


ccerilleus, . 


112 


occidentalis, 


. 213 


phlebdtomus, . 


111 


ocellicatida, 


213 


Achirus apoda, 


. 228 


Ammocce'tes bicolor, . 


. 267 


mollis, 


228 


cdncolor, 


267 


Acipenser brevirdstris, 


. 248 


unicolor, 


. 267 


brevirdstrum, 


248 


Ammodytes Americanus, 


237 


macrdstomus, 


. 248 


lancea, • 


238 


maculdsus, 


248 


tobianus, 


238 


nildus, 


. 248 


vittatus, 


. 238 


Ohiensis, 


248 


A'mplodon griinniens, 


67 


oxyrinchus, 


. 247 


Anarrhicas lOpus, 


. 124 


platorynehus, 


249 


minor, 


273 


rubicund us, 


. 248 


Anguilla argdntea, 


. 233 


Rupertianus, 


249 


Bostonidnsis, 


233 


serotinus, 


. 248 


conger, 


. 235 


sturio, . 


248 


laticaOda, 


234 


transmontanus, 


. 248 


Intra, 


234 


Aetdbatis guttata, 


263 


macrocephala, 


234 


Agdnus acipenserinus, 


57 


oceanica, 


. 234 


monopterygius, 


57 


rostrata, . 


233 


A'lbula Bahamensis, . 


. 115 


serpentina, . 


. 234 


Alburnus Americanus, 


71 


tenuirdstris, 


233 


Alopias vulpes, 


. 253 


vulgaris, 


. 233 


Aldsa chrysochloris, 


208 


ANGUI'LLIDiE, 


232 


mattowacca, 


. 207 


A'nthias formdsus, 


74 


menhaden, . 


207 


macropthalmus, . 


44 


pra?stabilis, 


. 206 


saponaceus, 


37 


sadina, 


208 


Aphredoderus gibb6sus, . 


47 



286 Storeys Synopsis of the Fishes of North Jmerica 



Aphredoderus Sayanus, 
A'PODES, . 
Argyreiosus capillaris, 

unimaculatus, 
vomer, 
A'rius Milberti, 

Aspidophoroides monopterygius, 
Aspidophorus acipenserinus, 
cataphractus, 
Europae'us, . 
monopterygius, 
Atherina Boscii, . 
Carolina, 
Humboldtiana, . 
Martinica, 
menidia, . 
notata, 
viridescens, 
vomerina, 
ATHERI'NIDvE, 
Auxis Sloanei, 
vulgaris, 

Bagrus mesops, 
procips, 
Baione fotttinalis, 
Balistes angusticauda, 

aurantiacus, 

broccus, . 

cuspicauda, . 

fuliginosus, 

mondceros, . 
BALI'STID/E, . 
Batrachoides variegatus, 
Batrachus celatus, . 
tau, 

variegatus, 
Belone argalus, 
Cariboea, 
truneata, 
Blennius Americanus, 

anguillaris, 

Bosquiunus, 

ciliatus, 

dolichogaster, 

fucorum, 

geminatus, 

gunnellus, 

Hentz, 

labrosus, 



47 


Blennius lumpenus, . 


232 


pholis, 


. 104 


punctatus, . 


271 


Blepharis crinitus, 


. 104 


major, 


149 


sutor, 


57 


Blepsias trilobus, 


57 


Bodianus argyro-leticos, . 


57 


costatus, 


57 


flavescens, 


57 


pallidus, 


114 


pentacanthus, 


. 114 


rufus, 


114 


triurus, 


. 114 


Boleosoma tesselKuum, 


113 


Brosmius flavescens, 


. 114 


vulgaris, 


113 


Bryttus punctatus, 


. 114 


reticulatus, 


113 


unicolor, . 


92 


Butirinus vulpes, 


92 






Callj'odon auro-punctatus, 


. 148 


flavescens, 


148 


Cantharus nigro-maculatus 


. 193 


Caranx Bartholomffi'i, 


246 


Bldchii, 


. 244 


carangus, 


244 


chrysos, 


. 245 


defensor, . 


243 


fallax, 


. 245 


fasciatus, . 


243 


macarellus, . 


132, 133 


pisquetus, 


133 


Plumieri, 


. 132 


punctatus, 


132, 133 


Carcharias cceruleus, . 


. 187 


griseus, 


187 


littoralis, . 


. 186 


obsctirus, 


123 


terra; nova?, 


121, 123 


vulpes, 


118 


Cataphractus Schoneveldii 


. 123 


Catostomus anisurus, 


122 


aureolus, 


. 117 


Bostoniensis, 


117 


biibalus, . 


120, 122 


carpio, 


118 


cyprinus, . 


. 123 


communis, 



. 121 

118 

117, 121 

103 

104 

103 

61 

68 

73 

17 

22 

46 

22 

78 

19 

221 

221 

43 

43 

44 

212 

147 
147 

39 
102 
100 
101 
101 
103 
102 
102 
102 
102 
100 
101 
251 
252 
251 
251 
252 
253 

57 
172 
168 
171 
172 
174 
176 
169 



287 



Catdstomus Duquesnii, 


. 171 


L t.un.1 vi t I u 1 lib *'J IUI 1 tLU 

Cephaldpterus hypdstomus, . 


. 270 


elegans, 


173 


manta, 


264 


elongatus, 


. 170 


vampyrus, 


. 264 


esdpus, 


173 


Ce"phalus brevis, . 


243 


fasciatus, . 


171 


Chaj'todon alepiddtus, 


. 109 


Forsterianus, . 


167 


ailreus, 


88 


gibbdsus, . 


. His 


bimaculatus, 


86 


Hudsdnius, 


1G7 


capistratus, 


86 


longirdstris, 


109 


chirurgus, . 


112 


longirdstrum, . 


109 


ciliaris, . 


87 


macrolepiddtus, . 


. 108 


fiber. 


87 


maculosus, 


170 


glaucus, 


98 


maxillingua, 


176 


ovifdrmis, . 


87 


melanops, 


172 


paru, 


88 


niger, 


. 170 


rliomboides, 


98 


nigricans, 


109 


saxatilis, 


79 


obldngus, 


. 171 


striatus, 


86 


Oneida, 


173 


tricolor, 


8S 


pallidus, . 


. 173 


CILETODO'NTIDvE, 


85 


planiceps, 


174 


Chasmddes Bosquianus, . 


118 


Suceli, 


. 167 


novem-lineatus, . 


. 119 


Sucetta, 


168 


quadrifasciatus, 


119 


Sueurii, 


. 172 


Chatoessus Cepedianus, 


. 209 


teres, . 


171 


ellipticus, 


209 


tuberculatus, 


168 


notatus, . 


. 209 


velifer, 


170 


oglina, 


209 


vhtatus, . 


. 170 


signifer, . 


. 210 


Centrarchus ae'neus, 


37 


Chironectes gibbus, 


130 


fasciatus, . 


38 


lcevigatus, 


. 130 


guldsus, 


39 


multi-ocellatus, 


131 


hexaeanthus, 


38 


ocellalus, 


. 130 


irideus, 


39 


scaber, 


130 


obscurus, . 


40 


Chorinemus quiebra, . 


97 


pentacanthus, 


38 


saliens, 


97 


sparoides, 


38, 39 


saltans, . 


97 


tetracanthus, . 


39 


Chromis taenia, 


268 


viridis, 


39 


Chrysophrys aculeata, 


82 


Centronotus diictor, 


90 


Cichla a; v nea, 


37 


gunnellus, 


. 122 


fasciata, 


38 


spinosus, 


HI 


minima, 


38 


Centropomus albiirnus, 


71 


Ohiensis, 


38 


undecimalis, . 


23 


Storeria, 


39 


('entropristis auro-rilbens, 


36 


Cldpticus genizara, 


. 135 


nigricans, 


35 


Clinusgdbio, 


120 


lufus, 


36 


lumpenus, 


. 121 


tabacarius, 


35 


punctalus, . 


131 


trifurca, . 


35 


ClOpea aldsa, . 


. 206 


Cephaldptera gidrna, 


264 


coerillea, 


205 


hypdstoma, 


. 270 


elongata, 


. 204 


vamp3'rus, 


264 


fasciata, 


204 



283 Storer's Synopsis 


oj the 1 


nshes oj JXorth Jimerica. 




CMpea halec, . 


. 205 


Corypha» v na Sue0.rii, . 


. 107 


harengus, . 


204 


virgata, 


107 


harengus (?), . 


. 206 


Cossyphus Bodianus, 


. 134 


Hudsonia, . 


157 


Cottus Acadianus, 


58 


indigena, 


. 206 


se'neus, 


54 


macrocephala, . . 


212 


asper, 


56 


mattowacca, 


. 207 


cataphractus, 


57 


mediocris, . 


207 


cognatus, . . 


53 


menhaden, 


. 207 


Europae'us, . 


57 


minima, 


205 


gobio, 


52 


parvula, 


. 205 


Groenl&ndicus, 


53 


pusilla, 


204 


hemilepidotus, 


59 


sadina, 


. 208 


hexacornis, . 


55 


sapidissima, 


206 


Mitchilli, 


56 


serrata, 


. 207 


monopterfgius, 


57 


tyrannus, . 


207 


octodecimspinosus, 


53 


vernalis, 


. 207 


pistilliger, 


54 


villosa, 


202 


polaris, 


55 


virescens, 


. 204 


polyacanthocephalus, 


55 


vittata, 


205 


porosus, . 


56 


CLUPE'ID^E, 


. 203 


quadricornis, 


54 


Conger occidentalis, 


235 


scorpio, 


56 


Savanna (?), . 


. 269 


scorpioides, . 


54 


Conodon Antillanus, 


70 


scorpius, . 


53 


Coregonus albus, 


. 199 


trachiirus, 


59 


Artedi, 


199 


variabilis, 


54 


clupelformis, 


. 200 


Virginianus, . 


53 


harengus, 


201 


viscosus, . 


53 


Labradoricus, 


. 201 


Cryptacanthodes maculatus, . 


58 


lilcidus, 


201 


Cten61abrus chogset, 


134 


Otsego, 


. 200 


coer0.!eus, 


. 134 


quadrilateralis, 


200 


uninotiitus, 


134 


signifer, 


. 203 


Cybiumac^rvum, 


93 


thymalloides, . 


203 


caballa, 


93 


tullibee, 


. 200 


immaculatum, 


93 


Corvina argyroletica, 


67 


maculatum, 


92 


dentex, 


68 


regale, 


93 


ocellata, 


67 


CYCLOPTE'RID^, 


228 


oscula, 


67 


Cyclopterus cceruleus, 


. 229 


ox)'ptera, . 


68 


communis, 


231 


Richardsonii, . 


68 


gelatinosus, 


231 


r6nchus, . 


68 


liparis, 


230 


Coryphae'na dolfyn, . 


. 108 


liimpus, . 


. 229 


dorado, 


107 


minutus, 


229 


globiceps, 


. 107 


spinosus, 


. 230 


hipptlris, 


107 


ventrioosus, . 


230 


lineatus, . 


141 


CYCLO'STOMI, 


. 265 


perciformis, 


99 


CYPRI'NIDiE, . 


154 


Plumieri, 


. 138 


Cyprinodon fliivulus, . 


. 181 


rupestris, 


223 


ovinus, 


179 



Storer's Synopsis 


of the Fishes 


of North America 


289 


Cyprinodon variegatus, 


183 E'lops incrmis. 


. 212 


Cyprinus Americanus, 


156 


saurus, 


211 


atro-maculatus, 


157 


Encbe 


lyopus Americanus, 


222 


atronasus, 


156 i 


Epbippus faber, . 


87 


auratus, 


. 155 




gigas, 


87 


aureolus, 


169 


E\[ues Americanus, 


70 


balteatus, . 


. 100 




balteatus, 


70 


carpio, . 


155 




pnnctatus, . 


70 


catostomus, 


167, 171 


ESO'CIl 


184 


caurinus, 


160 


E'sox 


barracuda, . 


47 


cornutus, 


. 157 




becuna, 


47 


corporalis, 


161 




belone. 


187 


crysoleucas, 


156 




Brasiliensis, 


190 


Forsterianus, 


167 




6stor, 


184 


gracilis, 


. 159 




fasciatus, 


. 185 


maxillingua, 


176 




iluvulus, 


181 


nigricans, 


. 170 




lemgirostris, 


. 187 


oblongus, 


172 




lucius, 


185 


Oregonensis, 


. 160 




lucius (?), 


. 186 


Smithii, 


160 


niger, 


185 


Sucetta, 


. 168 


osseus, 


. 214 


Sueiirii, 


173 


ovinus, 


179 


teres, 


. 171 


plialeratus, 


. 185 








pisciculus, . 


180 


Daclyliiplerus volitans, 


52 




pisculenius, 


180 


Daj.ius monticola, . 


116 




reliculatus, 


185 


Diodon asper, . 


. 240 




tredecemlineatus, 


185 


carinatus, . 


242 




tredecera-radiatus, . 


185 


fuliginosus, 


. 240 




viilpes, 


. 212 


maculato-striatus, . 


240 




zonatus, 


180 


mola, . 


. 243 


Etheostoma bimaculata, 


20 


pilosus, 


240 




blennioides, • 


18 


rivulalus, 


. 240 




caprodes, 


18 


verrucosus, 


240 




cinerea, 


21 


Dorosonia notata, 


. 210 




ccErulea, 


20 


Diiles auriga, 


44 




maculala, 
nebulosa, 


19 
19 


ECHENE'ID.E, . 


231 




Olmstedi, 


19 


Echeneis albicauda, 


. 231 




semilasciata, 


19 


lunula, 


269 




tessellata, 


20 


naucrates, 


231,232 




variata, . 


18 


iiualuordecemlaminatus 


232 


Exocclus appendiculatus, . 


188 


rumora, 


. 232 




comatus, 


. 188 


Elicale Ailantica, . 


111 




exiliens, 


189 


Eleotris guarina, 


. 127 




fasciatus, 


l 1 -!! 


gyrinus, . 


127 




fu reams, 


188 


nmgiloides, . 


127 




mesogaster, 


189 


sima, 


128 




Noveboracensis, 


188 


smaragdus, . 


. 128 




Nuttallii, 


. 168 


ELEUTHEROPO'MI, 


247 


1 Exoglossurn annulatum, . 


177 



80 



290 



E\og]6ssum diihium, 


3 to vr t/tc. 

177 


Gasterosteus niger, 


63 


Lesueurianum, 


. 176, 178 




Noveboracensis, 


63 


macrdpterum, 


. 176 




occidentals, 


63 


nigrescens, . 


177 




pungitius, 


63 


spinicepbalum, . 
Fierasfer borealis, 


. 177 
. 236 




quadracus, 

saltatrix, 

trachurus, 


63 
108 

62 


Parrii, 
Fistularia Noveboracensis, 


236 
. 191 


Gempy 
Gerres 


us serpens, 
aprion, 


94 

84 


serrata, . 


191 




Brasilianus, 


84 


tabacaria, 
FISTULA'RID.E, 


. 191 

190 




gula, 
Plumieri, • 


85 
85 


Fiindulus fasciatus, 


180, 181 




rhombeus, 


85 


fuscus, 
viridescens, . 


179 
. 180 


Glypbisodon chrysiirus, 
saxatilis, 


80 
79 


zebra, 


180 


GO'BID^E, 


117 






Gobio cataracta?, 


. 155 


GA'DID^E, 


215 


Gdbius 


alepidotus, 


125 


Gadus oeglefinus, 


216,217 




bacalaus, 


. 126 


albidus, 


218 




banana, 


125 


barbatus, 


. 218 




Boscii, 


. 125 


eallarias, 


. 215,217 




crista galli, 


126 


carbonarius, 


. 220 




lanceolatus, . 


124 


compressus, 


219 




Marunicus, 


125 


Fabricii, 


. 217 




Plumieri, 


. 127 


flavescens, . 


221 




smaragdus, 


126 


lacustris, 


. 219 




soporator, 


. 125 


longipes, 
lota, 


222 
219 


viridi-pallidus, 
Grystes salmoides, 


125 

36 


maeulosus, . 


219 


Gunnel 


us anguillaris, 


121 


merbicuis, 


. 218 




dolichogaster, 


122 


mimitus. 


. , 217 




Fabricii, 


121 


morrbua, 


'. 216 




Groenlandicus, 


. 122 


c'igar. 


218 




mucronatus, 


122 


polaris, . 


. 220 




punctatus, . 


. 121 


pruinosus, . 
punctatus, 


216 
. 222 


vulgaris, 
GYMNODO'NTID^, 


120 
. 239 


purpureus, . 
tau, 


220 
. 132 


Has'mulon album, 


75 


tenuis, 


222 




arcuittum, 


76 


Galeichthys marinus, . 
Parrii, 


. 149 
149 




aurolineatum, 
canna, . 


75 
74 


Gasterosteus aculeatus, 


62 




chromis, 


75 


apeltes, 
biaculeatus, 


63 
62 




clirysopteron, . 

elegans, 


74 
74 


concinnus, 


64 




fnrmosum, 


73 


ductor, . 


96 




fulvo-maculatum, . 


76 


inconstans, . 


64 




heterodnn, 


75 


Mainensis, 


64 




obliquatum, 


. 268 


millepunctatus, 


64 




quadrilineatum, 


75 



Slater's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 291 



Hfc'mulon xanthopteron, 


74 


Labeo 


cyprinus, . 


176 


Heliasus insolatus, . 


80 




tilegans, 


. 173 


Hemilepidotus Tilcsii, 


59 




esopus, 


173 


tracburus, . 


59 




gibbosus, 


169 


Hemirampbus apicalis, 


. 268 




obldngus, 


172 


balao, 


190 


Labrax albidus, 


23 


Brasiliensis, 


190 




lineatus, . 


21 


marginatus, 


190 




mucronatus, . 


22,23 


Hemitripterus Americanus, 


58 




multilineatus, 


. 22, 23 


Hippocampus brevirdstris, . 


239 




nigricans, 


23 


Hudsdnius, 


. 239 




notatus, . 


22 


Hippogldssus vulgaris, 


223 




pallidus, 


22 


Holacanthus ciliaris, . 


87 




rul'us, 


22 


tricolor, 


88 


LA'BRID/E, . 


. 133 


Holocentrum longipinne, 


46 


Labrus appendix, 


42 


marianum, . 


46 




Americanus, . 


. 137 


Holoeentrus sdgo, 


46 




auritus, 


40 


Surinamensis, 


78 




burgall, 


134 


Hiiro nigricans, 


25 




clidgset, . 


134 


Hydrargyra atricauda, 


182 




clirdinis, 


72 


diaphana, 


. 181 




exoletus, . 


135 


fasciata, 


180 




fiilvo-maculatus, 


76 


fiavula, . 


. 180 




fiilvus, 


134 


formdsa, 


181 




grunniens, 


72 


fiisca, 


. 182 




obliquus, . . . 


69 


limi, 


182 




psittiiculus, . 


. 139 


multi- fasciata, . 


. 181 




salmoides, 


36 


nigro-fasciata, 


182 




sparuides, 


39 


ornata, . 


. 1S1 




squeteague, 


66 


pisculenta, . 


180 




tautoga, 


. 137 


trifasciata, 


. 181 




versicolor, 


63 


Hjodou clirysdpsis, 


211 


Lachnolaitnus aigula, 


. 136 


clodalus, 


. 211 




caninus, 


137 


tergissus, 


210 




dux, 


. 136 


HYPS^E'ID^E, 


. 183 




psittacus, . 
suillus, 


137 
. 136 


Ichthelis aurita, 


40 


Lactophrys camelinus, 


247 


macrochira, . 


42 




sex-cornOtus, 
Yalci, . 


. 246 
246 


Jdhnius re^alis, 


66 


Lamna c audita, 


. 252 


JUGULA'RES, 


. 215 




punctata, . 


252 


Jiilis crotaplius, 


140 




terrse-ndva;, 


. 252 


cyanustigma, 


. 138 


Lampris guttatus, 


110 


detersor, 


111 




Luna, 


111 


(laniiliatus, 


140 


Lampiigus punctulatus, 


108 


Garndti, 


138 


Lariifi 


us breviceps, 


69 


opalina, . 


. 138 


Lebiat 


ellipsoides, 


179 


patatus, 


140 




ovinus, 


. 179 


principis, 


. 140 


Leiostomus humeraiis, 


69 


psittaculus, . 


138 




oblitpjus, . 


69 



Leiostomus xanthurus, 


69 


L IOIICO "/ »' V "' lib ■ i lilt 1 H I*. 

Leuciscus spirilingulus, 


164 


Lepisoma cirrhosum, . 


49 


Storeri, 


. 161 


Lepisdsteus bison, ■ 


214 


Storerianus, 


165 


ferox, 


. 214 


tincella, 


164 


Hnronensis, 


214 


vandoisulus, 


163 


lineatus, . 


. 214 


versicolor, . 


163 


longirostris, 


214 


vittatus. 


162 


osseus, 


. 213 


Lichia Carolina, 


96 


oxyurus, 


214 


Liparis communis, 


230 


platostomus, 


. 214 


gelatindsus, 


. 231 


platyrhincus, . 


214 


Lobdtes somnolentia, 


78 


rostratus, . 


. 214 


Surinamensis, 


78 


Leptoeephalus gracilis, 


272 


LO'PHID.E, 


129 


Leuciscus Americanus, 


. 156 


Ldpbius Americanus, 


. 129 


argenteus, 


161 


bufo, 


132 


atromaculatus, 


157 


eubifrons, 


. 132 


atronasus, 


156 


gibbus, 


130 


balteiltus, . 


160 


rostratus, 


. 131 


biguttatus, 


161 


piscator, . 


129 


Boscii, 


. 156 


piscatorius, 


. 129 


caurinus, 


159 


vespertilio, 


131 


cephalus, 


158 


LOPHOBRA'NCHII, 


. 238 


chrysopterus, 


162 


Lota brosmiana, 


219 


compressus, 


157 


compressa, 


. 219 


cornutus, 


157 


inornata, 


219 


eorporalis, . 


161 


maculosa, 


. 218 


croceus, 


165 


Lucio-perca Americana, . 


24 


crysoleueas, 


156 


Canadensis, 


24 


diplemia, 


159 


grisea, 


24 


dissimilis, 


. 162 


Liimpus anglorum, . 


. 229 


dorsalis, 


159 


minutus, 


229 


elong-atus, . 


161, 165 


spinosus, 


. 230 


erytlirogaster, • 


158 


ventricosus, 


230 


gardoneus, . 


. 163 


vulgaris, 


. 229 


giblxtsus, 


166 


Lutjanus tridens, . 


35 


gracilis, 


. 159 


verres, 


. 134 


Hudsdnius, 


157 


Liixilus chryso-cuphalus, • 


156 


Kentuckiensis, 


. 158 


dissimilis, 


. 162 


tiasutus, 


163 


elongatus, 


161 


nitidus, 


162 


erytlirogaster, 


158 


ohesus, . 


166 


Kentuckiensis, 


158 


Oregonensis, 


160 






plargyrus, 


158 


Macron rus rupestris, . 


. 222 


prodiictus, . 


. 164 


Malacanthus Plumieri, 


138 


prolixus, 


165 


MALACOPTERYG1I, 


. 148 


pulchellus, . 


.• 160 


Mallotus Groenlindicus, . 


202 


pygmffi'us, 


162 


Pacificus, 


. 202 


rotengulus, 


. 161 


villosus, 


202 


Smilhii, 


160 


M.ilthea cubil'rons, 


132 


spinicephalus, 


. 177 


nasuta, . 


131 



Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 293 



MAhliea notata, 


132 


Mtigil albula, . 


. 115 


vespertilio. 


131 


curema, 


116 


Megalops Cepediana, . 


. 209 


lineatns. 


115 


notata, 


209 


liza, 


116 


oglina, 


. 209 


monticola, 


117 


ME'NIDjE, 


83 


petrosus, 


115 


Merlangus carbonarius, 


. 220 


Plumieri, 


. 116 


leptocephalus, . 


221 


MUGI'LIDiE, . 


115 


polaris, 


. 220 


Miillus maculatus, 


48 


purpirreus, 


220 


Muras'na argentea, 


233 


Merlucius albidus, 


. 218 


Bostoniensis, 


. 233 


vulgaris, 


218 


macrncephala, 


234 


Merone pallida, 


22 


maculata nigra, 


. 235 


Mesoprion analis, . 


32 


moringa, 


235 


aya, . 


33 


rostrata, 


. 233 


buccanella, 


33 


serpentina, 


234 


chrysurus, . 


31 


Muraenoides guttata, . 


121, 122 


evnodon, 


32 


Mustelus canis, 


253 


flav^scens, . 


34 


Myliobalis aciita, 


. 262 


griseus, . 


34 


bispinosus, 


262 


isodon, 


34 


Freminvillii, 


. 262 


jdcu, 


32 


Say, . 


262 


linea, 


34 


Myripristis Jacobus, . 


45 


litura, 


33 






mahdgoni, . 


32 


Naiicrates ductor, 


95 


pargus, . 


34 


Noveboracensis, 


96 


sobra, 


33 


Notacanthus nasus, . 


. 100 


vivanus, 


33 


NoU'irus flavus, 


154 


uninotatus, . 


31 






Micropogon coslatus, 


73 


Ophidium barbatum, 


236 


lineatns, . 


73 


imberbe, 


. 236 


undulutus, 


73 


marginatum, 


235 


Molinesia latipinna, 


. 182 


mucronatum, 


• 122 


Molvia Huntia, 


219 


Parrii, . 


236 


maculosa, 


. 219 


stigma, 


. 236 


Monacanlhus aurantiacus, . 


244 


Opbidgnatbus ampullaceus, 


237 


hroccus, . 


. 244 


O'rbis variegatus, 


241 


Massachusettfinais, . 


244 


Orthagciriscus m61a, 


243 


setifer, . 


. 245 


Osmt-rus eperlanus, 


198 


signifer, 


245 


viridescens, 


197 


Mormyrus excinereo-nigricans, 


. 144 


Ostracion sex-cornOltus, 


246 


Morrliua a?glel'inus, 


215 


Yalei, . 


246 


Americana, ■ 


. 215 


OSTRACIO'NIDiE, . 


. 246 


callarias, . 


217 


Otulithus Carolinensis, 


66 


Fabricii, 


. 217 


Drummdndii, 


66 


niiuuta, 


217 


regalis, . 


66 


ogac, 


217 






pruinosa, 


216 


Psgellus calamus, . 


83 


tomcddus, 


. 216 


Pagrus argyrops, 


83 


vulgaris, . 


216 


PalinQrus percifdrmis, 


99 



29 i Storer's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America 



Pastinaca liastata, 
Madura, 
Sabina, 
Pelamys surda, 
Perca acuta, 

alburnus, 

cbrysops, 

ebrysdptera, . 

flavescens, 

fluviatilis, 

fluviatilis gibbdsa, &c, 

furmosa, 

gracilis, . 

granulata, 

guttata, . 

maculata, 

marina, . 

marina capite striato, 

marina gibbosa, &c. 

minima, 

Mitcbilli, 

multilineatus, 

nebulosa, 

nigro-punctata, 

Norvegica, 

ocellata, 

Plumieri, 

salmonea, 

serrato-granulata, 

triftirca, 

varia, 

vilrea, 

undulata, 

pe'rcim:, 

Percina bimaculata, 

minima, 
nebulosa, 

Petromyzon Americanus, 
appendix, 
argenteus, 
fluvialis (.'), 
Lamottenii, 
marinus, . 
nigricans, 
tridentatus, 

PETROMYZO'NID^E, 

Phalangistes acipenserinus. 

Philypnus dormitator, 

Pholis Carolinus, 

novemlineiitus, 



261 

261 

261 

91 

17 

71 

23 

74 

17 

24 

40 

74 

17 

17 

28 

28 

61 

74 

46, 74 

19 

21 

23 

19 

24 

61 

67 

17 

24 

17 

35 

35 

24 

73 

16 

20 

19 

19 

265 

266 

266 

266 

265 

265 

265 

266 

265 

57 

128 

118 

119 



Phdlis quadrifasciatus, 


119 


subbifurcatus, . 


. 118 


Phj'cis Americanus, 


221 


furcatus, 


. 222 


punctatus, 


222 


tenuis, 


. 222 


Pileoma semifasciatum, 


20 


Pimelepterus Iioscii, . 


89 


Pimelodus aj'neus, 


151 


albidus, 


150 


argyrus, 


153 


atrarius, 


152 


borealis, 


150 


catus, 


150 


cauda-furcatus, 


152 


coerulescens, 


153 


ctEnosus, 


150 


cupreus, 


152 


flavus, . 


154 


furcatus, 


151 


lemniscatus, 


153 


limosus, 


. 152 


maculatus, 


153 


natalis, 


. 153 


nebulosus, 


. 150, 153 


nigrescens, 


. 151 


nigricans, 


151 


pallidus, 


153 


pullus, . 


152 


punctuliitus, 


151 


xanthoctiphalus, 


153 


Pimephales promelas. 


166 


PLAGIO'STOMI, 


250 


Plagusia fascia ta, 


• 228 


PLA'NID^, 


223 


Platessa dentata, 


. 224 


ferruginea, 


224 


glabra, 


. 225 


oblonga, . 


225 


ocelliiris, 


226 


plana, 


224 


pusilla, 


. 225 


stellata, . 


226 


Platirostra edt'ntula, . 


. 250 


Platycephalus dormitator, 


129 


PLECTO'GNATHI, 


. 239 


Plectropoma chloropterum, 


30 


chlorurum, 


31 


Hispanum, . 


30 


puella, . 


30 



295 



*JL\SI K.I O *JU iWf/Ul*} 




loin.' vf »»'■/(/( u i mi I nil 




Pleuronectes apoda, 


228 


Pristipoma crocro, 


77 


aquosus, 


. 227 


fasciatum, 


77 


argus, 


227 


rodo, . 


76 


argus et lunulatus, 


. 227 


serrula, 


78 


dentatus, 


224 


Pristis antirjuorum, 


257 


glaciiilis, 


. 227 


Psittacus piscis viridis, 


. 113 


hippogldssus, 


223 


Pleraclis Carolinus, 


109 


maculatus, 


. 227 






mollis, 


228 


Raia Americana, 


. 260 


oblongus, 


. 226 


batis, 


259 


planus, 


224 


bonusus, . 


. 264 


stellatus, 


. 226 


centroura, 


261 


Poecilia eatenata, . 


178 


Chantenay, 


. 260 


multilineata, . 


. 178 


Desmareslia, 


259 


olivacea, 


178 


diaphanes, 


. 258 


Pogonias chromis, 


72 


eglanticra, . 


260 


faseiatus, 


72 


erinaceus, 


. 259 


Polyncmus Americanus, 


48 


guttata, 


263 


paradiseus, 


4-t 


lai'vis, 


. 259 


sexradiatus, 


52 


Maclilra, 


261 


tridigitatus, 


50 


ocellata, . 


. 258 


Polyodon feuille, 


. 250 


quadriloba, . 


264 


folium, . 


249 


RAHD.E, . 


. 258 


Pomacanthus aureus, . 


88 


Rhinoptera quadriloba, 


263 


balteatus, 


88 


Rhombus aquosus, 


. 226 


paru, 


88 


argus, . 


227 


Pomacentrus planifrons, 


79 


cryptosus, . 


• 110 


Pomolobus chrysochldris, 


. 208 


glacialis, 


227 


Pomotis appendix, 


42 


longipinnis, 


. 109 


Catesbei, 


42 


triacaiuhus, 


no 


gibbosus, . 


41 


RQtilus compressus, . 


. 157 


gulosus, 


39 


plargyrus, 


158 


Holbrooki, 


41 


Rypticus saponaceus, . 


. " 37 


incisor, 


41 






macrochira, 


42 


Saccopharynx cbordatus, 


. 237 


nitida, 


43 


flagellum, . 


237 


Raveneli, 


41 


Salarias Atlanticus, 


119 


riibricauda, . 


42 


periopluhalmus, . 


119 


solis, 


42 


Salmo dlbus, . 


. 199 


vulgaris, 


40 


alipes, 


195 


Priacanthus macrophihalmus, 


44 


amethystus, 


. 193 


Prionotus Carolinus, • 


51 


arclicus, 


202 


lineiuus, 


50 


Artedi, 


. 200 


pilatus, 


. 270 


Canadensis, 


197 


punetatus, 


51 


Clarkii, 


. 197 


strigatus, 


51 


clupeifdrmis, 


200 


tribulus, . 


51 


confinis, 


193 


Prisli[K>ma auratum, . 


78 


eperlanus, . 


198 


bilineatum, 


77 


erythrogaster, . 


. 193 


euro, 


77 


fontinilis, . 


192 



2yb Store fs Synopsis q 


/ the 1 


<isnes 


oj JMorlli America 




Salmo Gairdnerii, 


. 196 


Scarus 


turchesius, 


. 143 


Groenlindicus, 


202 




vetula, 


145 


harengus, 


. 201 




virens, 


. 146 


Hearnii, 


194 


Sciae'na coro, 


77 


Huodii, 


195 




flisca, 


72 


Labraddricus, 


201 




gigas. 


72 


lavaretus, 


199 




grisea, 


67 


lueidus, 


201 




imberbis, 


67 


Mackenzie, 


. 196 




lineata, 


21 


namaycush, . 


193 




maculata, 


128 


nigrescens, 


. 193 




multifasciiita, 


69 


nitidus, 


195 




nebulosa, 


71 


Otsego, . 


. 200 




operculars, . 


.. 73 


Pacificus, 


202 




oscula. 


67 


paucidens, 


. 196 




Plumieri, 


17 


quadrilateralis, 


201 




regalis, 


66 


quinnat, 


. 196 




Richardsonii, 


68 


Rossii, 


194 




rubra, 


46 


salar, 


. 192 




undecimilis, . 


23 


Scouleri, 


194 


SCIE'NID^E, 


65 


signifer, 


. 203 


Sclerog 


nathus eyprinella, 


. 176 


ihymalloides, 


203 




cypn'nus, . 


175 


tsi'ippitch, 


• 197 


Seoldpsis Sayanus, 


47 


tullibee, 


200 


Scomber bisus, 


92 


villosus, 


. 202 




carangus, 


. 101 


SALMO'NID.E, . 


192 




colias, 


89 


Stilpa purpuniscens variegata, 


31 




diictor, 


96 


Sakatrix, .... 


108 




grex, 


90 


Sargus arcuosus, 


81 




hippos, 


101, 102 


flavolineatus, 


81 




maculatus, 


90, 93 


ovis, 


80 




niger, 


. Ill 


iliomboides, 


81 




plumbeus, 


108 


unimaculatus, . 


82 




Plumieri, 


100 


SAIPRID^E, 


213 




regalis, . 


93 


Saurus Mexicanus, 


. 203 




Rochei, 


92 


Scarus Abildgaardii, 


142 




ruber, 


101 


alternans, 


146 




saliens, 


97 


aurofrenatus, 


144 




sarda, 


91 


Catesbce'i, 


. 143 




serpens, 


94 


chrysopterus, 


143 




thynnus, 


91 


cceleslinus, 


. 143 




vernalis. 


90 


coeruleus, . 


144 




zonatus, . 


105 


diadema, 


. 145 


Scomberesox equirostrum, 


. 187 


fiavo-marginatus, . 


146 




scutellatum, 


187 


guacamaia, 


142 




Storeri, 


. 187 


punctulatus, 


145 


SCO'MBRID^, . 


89 


quadrispindsus, 


. 144 


Scopel 


us Humbuldtii, 


198 


radians, 


147 


Scorpas'na bufo, 


59 


rubripinnis, . • 


. 146 




rlava, 


58 


taeniopterus, 


145 




inermis, 


60 



Storer's Synops 



Scorps'na Norvegica, . 
Plumieri, 
porcus, 
purpurea, 
quadricornis, 
rufa, 

variabilis, 
Scorpius Virginianus, 
Scyllium cirratum, 
Scymnus brevipinna, 
Sebastes Norvegicus, 

variabilis, 
Selachus maximus, 
Semolilus biguttatus, 
cephalus, 
diplemia, 
dorsalis, 
Seriola Boscii, 

cosmopdlita, 
falcata, 
fasciata, 
leiarchus, . 
zonata, 
Serrana, 

Serranus acutirostris, 
arara, 
bivittatus, 
cardinalis, 
catus, 
coronatus, 
creolus, 
erythrogaster 
fascicularis, 
flavescens, 
gualivere, 
inermis, . 
lunulatus, 
morio, 
nigricnlus, 
Norvegicus, 
oculatus, 
ouatalibi, 
rupestris, 
striatus, . 
tigris, 
Sicvdium Plumieri, 
SILURID^E, . 
SiWrus borealis, 
catus, . 
coenosus, 



is of the Fishes of North America. 297 



61 


Sililrus 


marinus, 


60 




nigrescens, 


59 


Smaris 


Martinicus, 


58 


S61ea 1 


mala, 


60 


Somniosus brevipinna, 


58 


SPA'RID^E, 


61 


Sparus 


Abildgaardii, 


53 




argyrops, 


270 




chrysurus, 


255 




C}rnodon, . 


60 




oblongus, 


61 




ovis, 


254 




synagris, 


161 




Virginicus, 


158 


Spntularia reticulata, . 


159 


Sphyraj'na barracuda, 


159 




bec0.na, 


105 




borealis, 


106 




guachancho, 


106 




picuda, 


106 


Spinax 


acantbias, 


106 


SQUA'LIDiE, . 


105 


Squalus Americanus, 


70,71 




canis, 


29 




eUephas, 


27 




littoralis, 


27 




macrodus, 


27 




maximus, 


28 




peregrinus, . 


28 




pristis, 


26 




punctatus, . 


30 




terraj-novse, 


28 




viilpes, 


28 




zygae'na, 


26 


Squatina Dumerili, 


29 


Stilbe 


crysoleucas, •"' 


26 


Stromateus cryptosus, 


25 




longipinnis, 


28 




triacauthus, 


61 


STURIO'NID^E, 


27 


Stylephorus chordatus, 


20 


Suillus 


i, . 


29 


SYNGNA'THIDiE, . 


26 


Syngn 


athus Californiensis 


29 




faseiatus, 


126 




fiiscus, 


148 




hippocampus, 


150 




Peckianus, 


150 




typhle, . 


150 




viridtiscens, . 



119 

151 

84 

227 

255 

80 

142 

83 

32 

32 

138 

81 

31 

76 

250 

47 

47 

48 

47 

47 

255 

251 

257 

253 

254 

251 

257 

254 

254 

257 

252 

252 

253 

256 

256 

156 

110 

109 

110 

247 

113 

136 

238 

272 

239 

239 

239 

238 

239 

239 



81 



298 Stover's Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. 



TjE'NID.E, . 


112 


Trygon sabina, 


. 261 


Tautoga Americana, 


137 


Tiirdus cinereus peltatus, 


84 


cerulea, 


. 134 


rhomboidalis, . 


. 112 


niger, 


137 






nigra, 


. 137 


Umbrina alburnus, 


71 


Temnistia ventricosa, 


65 


Broussonnettii, . 


72 


Temnodon saltator, 


. 108 


coroides, 


71 


Tetritodon ciirvus, . 


242 


Fournieri, 


73 


geometricus, 


. 241 


Martinicensis, 


71 


laevigatus, 


241 


nebulosa, 


71 


lagocephalus, 


. 241 


Unicornis Bahamensis, 


. 245 


mathematicus, . 


241 


Vomer Brownii, . 


105 


mola, 


. 243 


Up. neus balteatus, 


49 


ttirgidus, 


241 


raaculatus, 


48 


teuthim:, 


111 


Martinicus, . 


49 


Thyniiillus signifer, 


203 


punctatus, 


49 


thymalloides, 


. 203 


Uranidea quiescens, . 


53 


Thynnus coretta, . 


92 


Urandscopus inoplos, 


46 


vulgaris, 


91 


Vulpis Bahamensis, . 


• 212 


Torpedo occidentalis, 


264 






Trachinotus argenteus, 


98, 99 


Xiphias gladius, 


95 


cupreus, 


98 


Xirichthys lineatus, 


141 


glaucus, . 


98 


Martinicensis, 


141 


pampanus, 


99 


vitta, 


142 


rhomboides, 


98 






spinosus, 


98 


Zeus capillaris, 


. 104 


Trichiurus argenteus, 


94 


crinitus, 


103 


lepturus, 


94 


imperialis, 


111 


Trichodon Stelleri, 


45 


Luna, 


111 


Trigla cucuius, 


50 


opah, 


111 


lineata, 


50, 51 


rostratns, 


104 


palmipes, 


51 


setapinnis, 


. 105 


pini, 


50 


spinosus, 


98 


punctata, 


51 


vomer, . 


104 


volitans, 


52 


Zoarces anguillaris, 


123 


TRI'GLID^E, 


50 


fimbriatus, 


. 123 


Trygon centroilra, 


. 261 


Gronovii, 


123 


hastata, . 


261 


labrosus, 


. 123 


Madura, 


. 261 


Zyga; v na malleus, . 


256 



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