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Full text of "Synopsis of natural history, by A. Macallum, Provincial Model School, Toronto: In explanation of the author's chart of natural history"

SYNOPSIS 



or 



NATUaiLv.HISTORY 



•"5; . 



A. MACALLUM, 

PROVINCIAL MODkX SCHOOL, TORONTO. 



IN EXPLANATION OF THE AUTHOR'S CHART OF NATURAL HISTORY. 



®0t0ut0: 



.PRINTED FOR THE AUTHOR BY JOHN DONOGH 

GUARDIAN STEAM PRINTING ESTABLISHMENT. 

1857. 



The EDITH and LORNE PIERCE 
COLLECTION of CANADI ANA 




Queen's University at Kingston 









SYNOPSIS 



NATURAL HISTORY, 



A. MACALLUM 



PROVINCIAL MODKL SCHOOL, TORONTO. 



IN EXPLANATION OF THE AUTHOR'S CHART OF NATURAL HISTORY. 



%axaixta: 



PRINTED FOR THE AUTHOR BY JOHN DONOGH, 

GUARDIAN STEAM PRINTING ESTABLISH MKNT. 

1857. 









A ■' 



SYNOPSIS 



Olf 



N" A. T TJ R A. L HISTORY 

&G. &C. &C 



GENERAL REMARKS. 

The world we inhabit is a globe 7912 English miles in dia- 
meter. Its circumference is 24,856.339, and its superficial area 
196,664,255.75 Eng. square miles. This surface consists of 
land and water. The former occupies 52,353,231 square miles : 
the latter 144,463,427 : the true proportion being as 266 to 734. 
The solid contents of this sphere are 259,333,41 1,782 cubic 
miles. Some idea of the vastness of our globe — small as it is 
when compared with its elder sisters of creation — may be formed 
from the statement that if Lycurgus, the Spartan lawgiver, who 
flourished 884 B.C., had commenced in that year to count the 
number of cubical miles of our earth's solidity, counting day and 
night at the rate of three every second, this sage of antiquity 
would not yet have completed his task. Our earth is surrounded 
by an aerial ocean extending at least 45 miles beyond its surface. 
The weight of the atmosphere is equal to an ocean of water 32 
feet deep, or of mercury 30 inches in height, or to a globe of lead 
66 miles in diameter. The pressure upon the earth is equal to 
five thousand millions of millions of tons ! 

The naked crust of our planet is covered with a carpet of 
plants and flowers, unevenly woven, varied from the pole to the 
equator, here dense and there sparse, here luxurious, there 
stunted. The marvellous variety, both in form and organism, 
of the subjects of the vegetable kingdom, may he inferred from 



the fact, that already 100,000 different species have been de- 
scribed : and every day increases the number. Among the stately 
forms of the tropics, the less luxuriant forests of the temperate 
zone, and the dwarfed productions of the arctic regions, where 
returning frosts nip the early blossoms of spring and prevent the 
autumnal seeds from ripening, there roam in all directions, countless 
numbers of other, higher, and more complex beings, adapted to a 
wider range of existence, and prepared to undergo change of 
clime, place or atmospheric temperature, to which plants are 
entire strangers. Animals and plants, in many ways, are insepar- 
ably connected. Both follow, with wonderful precision, the laws 
of their geographical distribution. And while the vegetable 
kingdom obtains its nourishment from the mineral, it in its turn 
yields the support, directly and indirectly, essential to the economy 
of animated creation. Great though the number of minerals, 
metals and earths may be, numerous as are the plants covering the 
crust of our planet, and varied and diversified though the animals 
now existing or whose remains are exhumed by geological research 
may be ; yet the simple or elementary substances — simple because 
nothing differing from themselves has been obtained from them — of 
which ocean, land, plants and animals are formed, number little 
more than three score. 

Viewing life in its simplest aspect as " the mutual exchange of re- 
lations," we have in this the bond of union common to everything 
surrounding us. This is the life of a mineral, of a continent, of the 
world itself, in all their sympathies, antipathies, and elective 
affinities. And although an impassable chasm separates the 
mineral from the vegetable, and as impassable a gulf intervenes 
between the plant and the animal ; which is again equalled by the 
distance intermediate between the animal and man ; yet it is 
impossible to say where the inorganic ends and the organic begins, 
and equally difficult to assign their proper limits to the vegetable 
and animal creations. In plants, this life, common to everything, 
is subordinate to another principle of existence — vegetable life ; 
in the animal both are subservient to a still higher principle — 
animal life : finally, in man all are instrumental in furthering the 
requirements of spiritual life. How wonderful the combination ! 
Not more so, however, than that everything in the composition of* 
minerals, plants, animals and man — all things physical around us — 
are referable to one or more of the few substances composing the 
crust of our planet and the atmosphere which floats around it. 



MINERAL KINGDOM. 

A Mineral may be defined as a substance having neither life, 
in its usual acceptation, motion nor feeling. The mineral de- 
partment of Nature consequently embraces all things destitute of 
these properties. The Classification of minerals depends entirely 
on the object aimed at, and will differ with the standard assumed. 
It may refer to their comparative geologic age, their distribution, 
medicinal properties, basic characteristics, agricultural value, or 
their commercial importance. We have given the simplest, as it 
seems to us the most natural, but we are far from supposing it 
necessarily the best. The only characteristics upon which entire 
dependence may be placed are their structure and composition. 
Matter is known to us in three forms, solid, liquid, and aeriform. 
The gases constitute the first or lowest class, and throughout the 
whole Chart the ascending order is observed. 

The great importance of a knowledge of this earliest form of 
matter will appear from a few fact.% respecting the gas, Oxygen 
(o%vs sour, yewxstv to generate). It is the most active and ener- 
getic as well as the most widely distributed agent in nature. It 
forms one-fifth of the atmosphere, eight of every nine pounds of 
water, and is supposed to form fully one-half the ponderable 
matter of our globe. It is the most powerful supporter of com- 
bustion, and is essential to respiration in the animal economy. Its 
symbol is O, combining number 8, i.e., it like all other substances 
combines with other materials only in definite proportions by weight 
and measure or multiples thereof. Its affinity for almost all the 
elementary substances is strong. This gas weighs 1.11, being 
a little heavier than air. Water at 62° Fah. for all solids 
and liquids, and atmospheric air for all gases are the stand- 
ards in determining their specific gravity. As every person 
has seen more or less of the next Class — the Non-Metal- 
lics, such as Sulphur, and Carbon or pure coal, they may 
be passed over without occupying much space, the object of 
this part of the chart being to present a convenient mode of see- 
ing the symbols, combining numbers, and specific gravities of the 
simple substances. Phos'phorus (ipo* light, <pepw 1 carry) in union 
with Calcium and Oxygen constitutes the material of bones of ani- 
mals. The substances placed in the next class, Solid-Metalloids, 
(metal, and si$os like,) are by many considered as much entitled to 
the term Metals as those placed in the fourth Class. Sodium and 



Potassium are respectively the bases of the Soda and Potash of 
commerce. Their symbols Na and Ka are from the German 
Natrium and Kalium, the names by which they are known in that 
language. So great is their affinity for Oxygen that when thrown 
on water they decompose it, seizing the oxygen and causing the 
Hydrogen (\>Sip water, yiwativ to generate), the other element of 
water, to burst into flame ; thus affording a beautiful experiment 
if performed in the dark. In the fourth Class are arranged those 
substances usually called pure metals, the most important of 
which are iron, gold, silver, copper, tin, platinum and mercury. 
The most prevalent of the elementary substances — those entering 
largely into the rocky masses of our globe are oxygen, carbon, 
sulphur, aluminum, silicon, potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, 
and iron. Very few of these simple bodies are used by animals 
directly. The vegetable kingdom is the great laboratory of 
Nature, wherein ; these substances are prepared for animal use. 
Almost all of them, if taken in their uncombmed state, would bt? 
rank poison ; but in union with others equally destructive to 
animal life, they are not only innoxious but highly conducive to 
health and comfort. Common salt itself, chloride of sodium, is a 
compound of the gas chlorine and the base sodium, either of 
which taken separately would put an end to our existence. 
Masses of the same material are held together by homogeneous, and 
those formed of two or more ingredients by elective attractions. 
" The proportionate volume and gravity of elementary molecules 
furnish another evidence of design in the beginning of the cre- 
ation. Suppose there had been no fixed proportion regulating 
the union of oxygen and nitrogen, but that they would mix with 
each other in any and in all proportions ; then there could have 
been no adjustment of the lungs of animated beings to the at- 
mosphere. Proportion in the one was necessary, in order that 
there could be adaptation and adjustment in the other. So of 
other compounds which affect other parts and processes of the 
animal economy. If there had been no definite proportions, in 
which alone the elementary substances would compound them- 
selves, there could have been no adjustment of the organs of 
motion and life to the conditions of nature." Design is the 
impress of Creation. 

VEGETABLE KINGDOM. 

The department of Natural History denominated the Vegetable 



Kingdom, comprehends every thing that has life, but neither motion 
nor feeling — from the lowly mushroom, the fern and the moss to the 
towering oak, and the cedar of Lebanon — from the microscopic 
plant to the majestic Baobab with its diameter of thirty feet. In 
duration they are as remarkable, some flourishing for a few days, 
others for thousands of years. The Olea fragrans reserves its 
sweetness for the midnight hour, and the night-flowering Cereus 
turns night into day. It begins to expand its sweet-scented 
blossoms at twilight, it is full-blown at midnight, and closes with 
the dawn of the morning, never to open again. The variety of 
plants is also very great One hundred thousand distinct species 
have already been described, and every day accessions are made 
to that number. The adaptation of living structures to the va- 
rieties of soil and climate, and the relation of plants to each other, 
render the study of Botany ((Soravr) a plant) interesting to all, 
especially to the young, as furnishing continued proofs of Divine 
goodness and wisdom. The laws by which the vegetable creation 
is regulated, are simple and easily comprehended. Economy of 
causes and exuberance of effects, — simplicity of laws and com- 
plexity of results, — order, harmony and beauty — are everywhere 
manifested in all branches of Natural History. How noiselessly 
do the flowers exhale their rich perfume, or the trees of the 
forest rear their majestic heads. Every plant has its place. 
Monopolies obtain not among them ; colours of every hue adorn 
them, not merely for ornament but for use. Different shades of 
colour absorb varying degrees of heat. Different plants require 
different degrees of heat to bring their seeds to perfection. 
Though latent heat is evolved by the various transmutations that 
take place in the interior of plants, — they, like animals, having a 
tendency to a temperature of their own, independent of external 
circumstances, — yet they receive nearly all their heat from the 
same source, the sun. The exact amount of caloric requisite for 
each plant is thus supplied, while God has so adapted our per- 
ception of the beautiful that the varied hues of plants no less than 
the blending colours of the "bow of promise," increase our 
happiness and deepen our veneration. The language of the heart 
is " There's not a flower or shrub that grows, but shows its 
Maker God." Many curious phenomena are presented in the 
vegetable kingdom. The sunflower turns instinctively towards 
the sun : the barberry folds its stamens over the pistil, if the latter 
be pricked with a pin : the hedysarum gyrans, found only on the 



banks of the Ganges, moves its leaves without any assignable 
cause : the mimosa or sensitive plant folds its leaflets when shaken 
or touched, as if it feared some harm : while the sun-dew and 
certain species of the pitcher-plant are provided with an apparatus 
for killing insects, from which they are supposed to derive some 
nourishment. Irritability is unquestionably a property of plants. 
Poisons kill them, and they possess an excretory power. Plants 
can imbibe nothing unless in a state of solution. The wheat plant, 
for example, requires a great amount of sand in the construction 
of its incomparable stem. It can imbibe not a particle unless in 
a soluble state, and it has no power of its own to dissolve silex. 
Should a particle of potash be placed in the soil, it will dissolve 
any sand in its vicinity. Both may then be taken up by the plant : 
the sand being deposited in its place in the stem or leaves in its 
solid condition, the potash that held it in solution is liberated, 
being no longer, necessary, and is thereupon returned to the soil, 
again to dissolve more sand, be carried up by the ascending cur- 
rent of sap and again returned to the soil in endless succession. 
Many contend that plants are endowed with instinct, lower in 
kind perhaps than that of animals, but not less instructive. Plants 
send their roots in the direction of good soil. The bean will find 
a pole placed at a short distance from it, though it be shifted daily : 
if, after it has twined some distance up the prop, it be unwound 
and twined in the opposite direction, it will return to its original 
position or die in the attempt. If two plants grow near each 
other, neither of them being supported, one of them will alter the 
direction of its spiral and they will twine round each other : if a 
pan of water be placed near the stem of a young pumpkin, it will 
approach it and place one of its leaves on the water : if good soil 
be placed above the roots, though their natural tendency is down- 
ward, they will ascend to reach it. Other instances might be 
given, but these are sufficient to induce the enquiring mind to 
pursue this interesting department of study. 

The geographical distribution of plants is a subject of great 
importance. They are supposed to have had their origin in dis- 
tinct localities or districts, and afterwards to have spread in every 
direction, winds, birds, waves, and tides being laid under tribute 
to facilitate their dissemination throughout the climatic zones con- 
genial to each species. It is impossible to say where life is most 
abundant — whether on the continents or in the unfat homed depths 
of the ocean. The black glacier flea (Desoria giacialis) and 



c 



Podurella? — the latter of which in countless myriads may be seen 
at times on the snows of Canada — may be found in the crevices 
and tubular spaces of the northern glaciers : lichens and mosses 
are not unfrequently found flourishing beneath great quantities of 
snow. Plants affect the atmosphere in a very peculiar manner. 
Animals by absorbing oxygen, causing it to unite with the carbon 
of the blood and form carbonic acid — a gas deleterious to ani- 
mals — render the air unfit for respiration. This mephitic 
air is a principal ingredient in the food of plants ; the other 
substances are water and ammonia, together with the inor- 
ganic portion extracted from the soil. They imbibe these 
substances, and having decomposed them return the oxygen, that 
which animals want, to the air, and consolidate the carbon, water, 
and nitrogen into wood, leaves, flowers and fruit. Thus we be- 
hold a reciprocal dependence existing between the animal and 
vegetable creations. The former by inspiration consume the 
oxygen of the air, the latter restore it by exhalation, and in their 
turn consume the carbonic acid exhaled by animals. " Few of 
the great cosmical phenomena have only one end to fulfil ; they 
are the ministers of the manifold designs of Providence." No 
person can attentively observe the flowers around us everywhere — 
those presents God has sent us — without becoming wiser and 
better as they lead us to love and reverence Him. No secondary 
causes intervene. They are pure and fresh from his hand. On a 
lovely evening in May a person was reading his favorite Flato. 
He was sitting in the grass mixed with flowers, on the banks of 
the crystal Colorado of Texas. Dim in the distant west arose 
with smoky outlines, massy and irregular, the blue cones of an 
offshoot of the Rocky Mountains. He was perusing one of the 
strangest of his dreams. It laid fast hold on his fancy without 
exciting his faith. He wept to think it could not be true. At 
length he came to that startling passage, " God geometrizes." 
" Vain revery," he exclaims, casting the volume on the ground at 
his feet. It fell by a beautiful little flower that looked as fresh 
and bright as if it had just fallen from the rainbow. He broke it 
from its silvery stem, and began to examine its structure. Its 
stamens were five in number, its calyx had five parts, its delicate 
coral base had five parts expanding like the rays of an ordinary 
star-fish. This combination of five in the same blossom appeared 
very singular. It had never occurred to him before. The last 
sentence he had read in the page of the pupil of Socrates was 
a2 



.10 

his ears, u God geometrizes." There was the text 
written long centuries ago, and here this little flower in the remote 
wilderness of the west furnished the commentary. Then suddenly 
passed before his eyes a faint flash of light— he felt his heart leap 
in his bosom. The enigma of the 'Universe was unfolded. 
Swift as thought he calculated the chances against the production 
of those three equations of five in only one flower by any prin- 
ciple devoid of reason to perceive number. lie found one hun- 
dred and twenty-five chances to one against such a supposition. 
He extended the calculation to two flowers by squaring the sum 
first mentioned. The chances amounted to the large sum of 
15,625. He cast his eyes around the forest ; the old woods 
were literally alive with those golden blossoms from which count- 
less bees and butterflies were sipping honey-dews. His feelings 
he could not describe. His soul became a tumult of radiant 
thoughts. He took his beloved Plato from the grass where he*had 
thrown him in a fit of despair. Again and again he pressed him 
to his bosom as a mother would her darling child. He kissed al- 
ternately the book and the blossom, bedewing them both with 
tears of joy. In his wild enthusiasm, he called to the birds on the 
boughs, trilling their cheery farewell to departing day, " Sing on 
sunny birds, sing on sweet minstrels. Lo you and I have still a 
God ! " " If God so clothe the grass of the field which to-day is 
and to-morrow is cast into the oven, shall He not much more clothe 
you, oh ye of little faith I " 

In the solar system the sun, all the primary and secondary 
planets revolve on their axes in the same plane, and in their orbits 
in the same direction. Had these matters been left to accident, 
the chances against this uniformity, though calculable, would have 
been inconceivably great. Laplace states them at four millions 
of millions to one. Arguments of a similar nature may be inferred 
from many of the objects around us. The number and constancy 
of our fingers and toes furnish an example. The argument is 
cumulative to any extent. 

Few things can interest the young more beneficially than the 
contemplation of God's handiwork in the temple of Nature. 
One of the reasons assigned for the study of mental philosophy is, 
that, go where you will, mind is always present — mind so wonder- 
fully endowed, that whether we roam over the barren heath, the 
sandy desert or the frozen north, or are shut up in a dungeon, it 
can appropriate mentally all that has been discovered in regions 



11 

however distant, and can call into being within itself a world as 
free and imperishable as the spirit by which it has been conceived. 
Flowers, shrubs, fruits and plants, are all but omnipresent. Their 
contemplation is always conducive to delicacy of sentiment and 
amenity of manners. " When in the middle ages religious en- 
thusiasm suddenly re-opened the sacred East to the nations of 
Europe, who were sinking into barbarism, our ancestors in return- 
ing to their homes brought with them gentler manners, acquired in 
those delightful valleys." 

In the Classification of vegetables two celebrated systems have 
obtained among naturalists — the Artificial and the Natural. The 
former was originated by Linnaeus, a Swede, born at Rceshult, 
1707. Based upon peculiarities of structure which are not con- 
stant even in different individuals of the same species, and which 
have little or no connection with the Physiology of plants, it fre 
queutly causes the most dissimilar specimens to be arranged in the 
same class. Its simplicity and the ease with which it may be 
acquired will always secure it a place in scientific research. Des- 
tined to be surpassed by its rival, it nevertheless forms an easy 
introduction to the latter method, which was greatly improved by 
Jussieu of Paris, and more recently by Dr. Lindley of London. 
It is an attempt to place next each other plants having the greatest 
resemblance in structure, external and internal, properties and uses. 
Plants in the Artificial method are placed like words in a diction- 
ary, not according to their meaning, but in accordance with their 
initial letter. The Natural places in juxtaposition those related 
in meaning — in family groups, like words derived from the same 
root. The sexual system of Linnaeus depends upon the number 
and relative position or degree of combination of the stamens and 
pistils. The Vegetable Kingdom is divided into Classes, these 
subdivided into Orders, these into Families, these into Genera, 
Species, Varieties and Individuals. 

CLASSES AND ORDERS OF THE LINN^EAN SYSTEM. 

Classes. 
Class I. Stamens 1, Mo-nan'-dri-a (fjtovo* one, av»^, avfyoy man 
— one stamen), examples: ginger, arrow-root. 

II. Stamens 2, Di-an'-dri-a < K <$is twice — two stamensj, ex- 
amp'es : olive, sage, lilac. 

III. Stamens 3, Tri-an'-dri-a (rptts three), examples : wheat, 
rye, barley, oats. 



12 

IV. Stamens 4, Te-tran'-dri-a (rsr/ja^four), examples: inno- 
cence, dodder, holly. 

V. Stamens 5, Pen-tan'-dri-a (ntvra. five), examples: to- 
bacco, potato, flax, grape. 

VI. Stamens 6, Hex-an'-dri-a, (?| six), examples : rice, lily, 
tulip, sorrel. 

VII. Stamens 7, Hep-tan'-dri-a (eV T a seven), examples: 
horse-chestnut, wintergreen. 

VIII. Stamens 8, Oc-tan'-dri-a ^Uro eighty), examples : 
fuchsia, buckwheat, cranberry. 

IX. Stamens 9, En-ne-an'-dri-a (/ma nine), examples: laurel, 
rhubarb, cinnamon, camphor. 

X. Stamens 10, De-can'-dri-a (£e*a 'ten), examples: mahog- 
any, saxifrages. 

XI. Stamens 12 — 19, Do-de-can'-dri-a (^o^xa eleven), ex- 
amples : mignonette, euphorbia. 

XII. Stamens 20 or more, inserted into the calyx ; I-co-san'- 
dri-a (s'laoa-t twenty,), examples: plum, apple, rose, strawberry. 

XIII. Stamens 20 or more, inserted into the receptacle; Po-ly- 
an'-dri-a (voXvs many), examples: poppy, tea, mandrake. 

XIV. Stamens 2 long and 2 short, .Did-y-na'-mi-a (ht two, 
<5yy«fjus- power), examples : honeysuckle, acanthus. 

XV. Stamens 4 long and 2 short, Tet-ra-dy-na'-mi-a (rsrftx 
four), examples: cruciferae, cleome. 

XVI. Stamens united by their filaments into a tube, Mo-na- 
del'-phi-a (^ovog one, aSe^os brotherhood], examples : geranium, 
baobab. 

XVII. Stamens united by their filaments into two parcels, 
Di-a-del'-phi-a [cits two], examples: pea, sweet-pea, clover. 

XVIII. Stamens united by their filaments into several parcels, 
Pol-y-a-del'-phi-a \vo\vs many], examples: lemon, orange. 

XIX. Stamens united by their anthers into a tube, Syn-ge-ne- 
si-a [aw together, yswaw I grow], examples: dahlia, dandelion. 

XX. Stamens united by the pistil, Gy-nan'-dri-a [ywn female, 
avrjp male], examples : milkweed, lady's-slipper. 

XXL Stamens and pistils in separate flowers, but both growing 
on the same plant, Mo-nce'-ci-a [//.ovoj- one, oixos house], ex- 
amples : Indian-corn, sago, cucumber. 

XXII. Stamens not only in separate flowers, but those flowers 
situated on two different plants ; Di-ce'-ci-a [£i two, otxot house], 
examples : willow, hop, hemp. 



13 

XXIII. Stamens separate in some flowers, united in others, ei- 
ther on the same plant or different ones ; Pol-y-ga'-mi-a [voXvs 
many, yxfxos marriage], examples : mimosa, ash, maple. 

XXIV. Stamens either not ascertained, or not discoverable 
with any certainty, insomuch that the plants cannot be referred 
to any of the foregoing classes ; Cryp-to-ga'-mi-a [xpwjrrog con- 
cealed, jockos marriage], examples: mosses, ferns, lichens. 

Orders. 

The characters of the Orders depend upon the number of the 
styles, or of the stigmas if there be no style, in the first thirteen 
classes ; such are accordingly named : — 
Mon-o-gyn'-i-a [fxovog one, yy»>] female— one style or stigma), 1 

style, ex. ginger. 
Di-gyn'-i-a [dig two — two styles or stigmas], 2 styles, ex. lilac. 
Tri-gyn'-i-a [rpsic three], 3 styles, ex. pepper. 
Tet-ra-gyn'-i-a [rerpx four], 4 styles, ex. parnassia. 
Pen-ta-gyn'-i-a jVevn* five], 5 styles, ex. flax. 
Hex-a-gyn'-i-a [e| six], 6 styles, ex. sago. 
Hep-ta-gyn'-i-a ^s'ttto. seven), 7 styles, stork's-bill. 
Oc-ta-gyn'-i-a [oxro eight], 8 styles, ex. poplar. 
En-ne-a-gyn'-i-a [ewsa. nine], 9 styles, ex. dog's-mercury. 
De-ca-gyn'-i-a [Jex* ten], 10 styles, ex. papaw-tree. 
Do-de-ca-gyn -i-a poXw« eleven], 12 styles, ex. water-soldier. 
Pol-y-gyn'-i-a [ttoXvs many], more than 12 styles, ex. cycas. 

In the 14-th class, Didyna'mia, the orders depend upon the nature 
of the ovary. In Gymnosper'mia (yt^vo? naked, cnn^oc seed), 
the first order, the ovary is divided into four lobes, from the base 
of which proceeds a single style, and within each of which is con- 
tained a single seed. In Angiosper'mia (ayyi<ov vessel or covered), 
the 2nd order, the ovary is not lobed, and is usually two-celled 
and many-seeded. 

In the 15th class, Tetradyna'mia, the orders are characterized 
by the form of the fruit: Siliquo'sae (siliqua, pod or husk) have the 
pods long ; the Silic'ulosse (diminutive of Siliqua) have them short. 

The orders of the 16th, 17th, and 18th classes, Monodel'phia, 
Diadel'phiaL, and Polyadel'phia, depend upon the number of the 
stamens, having the nomenclature the same as the first thirteen 
classes. 

The orders of Syngene'sia are determined by the arrangement 
of their flowers and by the sex of their florets. 



14 

The orders of the 20th, 21st, 22nd, and 23rd classes are de- 
termined by the number of the stamens. 

The 24th class is divided into orders according to the principles 
of the Natural system ; namely, 1 Filices, 2 Musci, 3 Hepaticae, 
4 Algae, 5 Fungi. 

FLORAL PROVINCES. 

The prevalence of certain plants, as well as the predominence 
of particular races of animals in certain districts, has led to the 
attempt to divide the whole earth into floral provinces, each dis- 
tinguished by characteristic vegetation. This is done in accord- 
ance with the idea now generally adopted, that each species, 
whether of plants or animals, originated in a single birth-place — 
the doctrine of specific centres. M. Schouw, a Danish pro- 
fessor, in an elaborate work has delineated this kind of novel 
geography, and reckons twenty-two great floral divisions of the 
earth, each subdivided into lesser provinces. 

First Region, of the mosses and saxifrages, comprising all 
the Alpine and Arctic localities ; mosses, lichens, gentian saxi- 
frages, and similar forms. 

Second Region, that of the cruciferous plants, extending from 
the Arctic circle, and from the lower limits of Alpine forms on 
the mountains, over the whole north of Europe, and part of north- 
ern Asia. Nine hundred species have been counted, comprising 
the cabbage, turnip, and other common vegetables. 

The Third Region, that of the mint tribes, or midland flora, 
comprising the countries bordering on the Mediterranean ; and in 
this province tropical forms are first met with. 

Fourth, Japan and the adjacent continent, the Region of the 
buckthorn and honeysuckle tribes. 

Fifth, the eastern part of North America. 

Sixth, the southern part of North America, the Region of 
magnolias. 

Seventh, Mexico and the West Indies, the Region of the 
palm and the cactus. 

Eighth, Peru, the abode of the Chincona, the quinine and 
fever-bark trees. 

Ninth, the South American Highlands, with their evergreen 
shrubs. 

Tenth, Chili, the land of calceolarias. 



15 

Eleventh, Buenos Ayres and the eastern coast of S. Amer- 
ica, the domain of peculiar flower-bearing trees. 

Twelfth, the Antartic circle. 

Thirteenth, New Zealand. 

Fourteenth, New Holland; the country of gum trees and 
peculiar forms. 

Fifteenth, South Africa, the home of encalypta and heaths. 

Sixteenth, Western Africa. 

Seventeenth, Eastern Africa, rich in ferns. 

Eighteenth, India, the Region of the ginger tribe. 

Nineteenth, the Indian Highlands. 

Twentieth, Cochin China. 

Twenty-first, Arabia and Persia, rich in spices, and orna- 
mented by the yellow-haired acacia. 

Twenty-second, the South Sea Islands, the K-egion of the 
bread-fruit tree. 

the natural system of classification. 

The Natural System is based on the principle that," the proof of 
a classification of plants being natural, is furnished when similar 
results are arrived at, whether from considerations drawn from the 
reproductive organs, or from those of vegetation." In this res- 
pect plants are divided into two great classes, Phenogamous (jpa-ivu 
I appear, yxixqs marriage ; stems and pistils visible) and Cryptog'a- 
mous (xp-j7r-ror concealed, and ya^ns marriage ; concealed fructi 
fication). The former is again subdivided into two classes. Thus 
the whole vegetable kingdom viewed in respect to the seeds of 
plants, consists of three sub-kingdoms, 

I. A-co-tyl-e'-don-ous (a without, xotvX^wv cotyledon or 
seed-lobes), Ferns, Mosses, &c. Cryp-to-ga'-mi-a of Linn. 

II. Mon-o-co-tyl-e'-don-ous (novo* one, cotyledon or seed- 
lobe), frequently called En'dogens (ev3o» inside, and yun^au I 
grow). The veins of their leaves are usually parallel : grasses, lil- 
ies, asparagus, and similar plants, palms, pines, &c. 

III. Di-co-tyl-e'-don-ous (Sis twice, two-lobed), generally 
called Ex'ogens (eg out or outside), so called because they grow 
by adding successive layers to the outside. The leaves are retic- 
ulated, (rete, a net.) Their stems consist of pith, older wood, 
newer wood or sap, and bark. The embryo has two cotyledons 
and their flowers are usually formed on the quinary type. 



16 



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ANIMAL KINGDOM. 

Zoology (£wov animal ; Xoyo<r a discourse) is the science of ani- 
mals, or that branch of Natural History which teaches the nature, 
propensities, and instincts of animals ; their classification, geo- 
graphical distribution, and succession upon the earth. The origin, 
size, number, and classification of animals now claim our attention. 



17 

Some persons have advocated the idea that all the higher animals, 
including man himself, have sprung from lower creatures, these 
from lower still, till we reach the limit of animated creation. There, 
however, they do not stop, but boldly affirm that these were pro- 
duced from vegetables, and these in their turn from the foam of 
the sea, the slime by its shore, or that they sprang out of the earth 
itself; that the whole phenomena of life is connected with the 
electric fluid, if not entirely dependent upon it. This hypothesis is 
based on the idea that any creature placed in favorable circum- 
stances will produce in the lapse of ages a progeny higher in or- 
ganization, more perfect in form ; in fine, superior to itself. Man, 
according to this hypothesis, is but a monkey removed by a series 
of developments from the initial type. But when were monkeys 
ever placed in more favorable circumstances than within the his- 
toric period of our planet 1 Has a single case of actual develop- 
ment ever been witnessed ? Has it ever been affirmed to have 
taken place ? When a single instance of a higher animal produced 
from a lower on the development hypothesis shall be incontestiblv 
proved, then, and not till then, may the advocates of this system 
consider they have some tangible basis on which to rest their notions, 
now at variance with reason, experience, and revelation. The 
truth seems to be that the seeds of species, whether by law or the 
direct fiat of God we say not, were produced with the conditions 
that were best adapted to develop and sustain the parents and 
progeny. Many of the geologic changes that occurred prior to 
the creation of man were destructive to whole races of beings, and 
the altered condition of things was not only not better for the 
previously existing species, but invariably the cause of their total 
extinction. Degeneracy in species, has marked the prooress of 
our planet. New and higher orders always succceeded these ca- 
tastrophes, not by developments from previously existing animals, 
but by successive creations. Is not the whole process alluded to 
in the graphic description of Israel's bard, Psalm civ., 29th and 
30th verses : " Thou hidest thy face, they are troubled ; thou ta- 
kest away their breath, they die, and return to their dust. Thou 
sendest forth thy spirit, they are created : and thou renewest the 
face of the earth/" 

The size of animals is almost as varied as their numbers are 
great. A few years ago the national debt of Great Britain was 
eight hundred millions pounds sterling ; the population of the 
globe was stated to be eight hundred millions of inhabitants, and it 



IS 

was likewise asserted that the creatures ifi a single drop of water 
were at least eight hundred mdlions. A globule of human blood if 
magnified 180,000 times would not exhibit an image larger than 
the accompanying figure. © Many of the animalcules are still 
smaller: 2000 of them placed together would measure only the 
twelfth part of an inch. Ehrinberg has computed that a cubic inch 
contains the remains of 41,000,000,000 creatures ! The largest 
land animal is the elephant, weighing some tons ; the smallest the 
white mouse, ci two of which just weigh one copper half-penny." 
In the ocean the largest is the whale, found not rarely to measure 
from 60 to 100 feet. The largest bird is the ostrich, seven feet 
high, the smallest the humming bird. The condor, the giant of the 
vulture tribe measures 16 feet across the wings, and is the largest 
bird that flies. 

It has been estimated that the number of species of animals 
now on the 'globe is about 250,000. We may safely suppose the 
fossil species equal to those now living. This would give us one- 
half a million of species. What a hopeless task it would seem for 
any person to attain to any knowledge of such a multitude of 
beings. But though one man can do very little, the labour of many 
in ditferent countries and in all ages can accomplish a great deal. 
And by transmitting the knowledge acquired in one generation to 
that which succeeds, those following in the path of science start 
from the vantage ground attained by the labours of their prede- 
cessors. Besides by the division of animals into kingdoms and 
classes, like a country divided into provinces, counties, &c, each 
group in the animal department of nature is parcelled out into 
smaller divisions, and known by distinctive appellations. At first 
sight we may- say that beasts walk on land, birds tly in the air, and 
fishes swim in the water. This is correct, but not sufficiently 
precise for the zoologist. Is the bat a bird because it flies 1 or 
the whale a fish because it swims and lives in the sea ? A 
judicious teacher will always seek by such questions to elicit the 
information of his pupils by engaging them in such inquiries. The 
difference between a bat and a bird is, the one is covered with 
fur and the other with feathers ; the one has a mouth with teeth, 
the other a horny beak ; the bat is born alive and suckled by its 
parent, the bird is hatched from an egg. Some years ago the 
question, whether a whale was or was not a fish, was discussed at 
full length in New York. A dealer in oil refused permission to 
the Government inspector of fish-oil to examine his stock, alleging 



19 

he had only whale oil in his warehouse, and that as the whale was 
not a fish he had no business with it. The Government brought 
it before the legal tribunal. On the one side it was argued that 
the whale was always spoken of as a fish, even by those engaged 
in the trade, the term whale-fishery implying the same idea ; 
that in books of high authority, a stack of which was produced in 
evidence, the whale was always classed among fishes, and that 
whale oil had uniformly been charged with duty as such. On 
the other side it was contended, that the language of uneducated 
sailors should not be regarded as evidence ; that the classification 
of old authors was based on a very imperfect knowledge of the 
structure of animals ; but if they wanted high antiquity they should 
go to the oldest writer on natural history, — Moses, who in his 
record of the creation mentioned whales as distinct from fishes, — 
"And God created great whales, and every living creature that 
moveth, which the waters brought forth after their kind." Fish 
breathe by gills, the whale by lungs ; the former is cold-blooded, 
the latter warm-blooded. The heart of the fish has two compart- 
ments, that of the whale four ; the young of the one are brought 
forth alive and suckled, those of the other are produced from 
spawn ; the one attends to its young with affectionate solicitude, 
the other knows nothing about them. The differences between 
them were numerous, striking, and sufficiently dissimilar to have 
the creatures placed in separate classes, yet the Government gained 
the case. But at the very next session of Congress the Act was 
changed, so that all trouble, on that score, in future, would be 
avoided. It is obvious that structure, external and internal, must 
form the basis of classification. All organs must be taken into 
account before we can arrive at any true systematic arrangement, 
and the accuracy of this will altogether depend on the amount of 
our knowledge. Animals should be so arranged as to exhibit their 
true affinities, and to embody the most comprehensive truths re- 
garding them yet elicited by the collective wisdom of the culti- 
vated men who have examined., with such splendid results, the 
domain of Zoology. 

There is no subject so pleasing to the youthful mind — so well 
calculated to drive away the whims and the phlegm from the fret- 
ting spirit, as one connected with natural history, — one which 
presents Nature in her floral grandeur, her verdant luxuriance, 
and her woodland minstrelsy. But apart from the mere pleasure 
which this study yields, its importance as a mental exercise cannot 



20 

be too highly estimated. Tim perceptive faculties are called into 
active exercise to detect points of similarity and interest, and by 
the admirable harmony which pervades the whole field of study, 
the mind is trained to order, accuracy, and arrangement, and puri- 
fied by the reflection that all these wonderful works proceed 
from the same Divine power whose providential care is manifested 
over all. Parents and teachers should accustom those under their 
care to watch closely the habits and instincts of animals, to 
mark the differences which subsist, the variety and the beauty 
everywhere presented ; for it is a duty as well as a privilege to study 
with the deepest interest the works which in so striking a manner 
display the wisdom, power, and goodness of Him in whom we live, 
and move, and have our being. A number of individuals having 
the same characteristics constitutes a variety, such as the five 
races of man, breeds of cattle, &c. A number of varieties col- 
lected together constitutes a species ; all the species of any kind of 
animals constitute a genus ; genera added together form a ( sub- 
family among birds ) family or tribe ; families or tribes united 
form an order, such as the rasores among birds, the carnivora 
among quadrupeds ; orders joined together constitute a class ; 
classes put together constitute a sub-kingdom ; sub-kingdoms 
aoain constitute a kino-dom ; and kingdoms constitute the 
empire of Nature. The knowledge of these particulars re- 
specting animals may be called the alphabet of the science, 
while the grammar may be said to consist of such a knowledge of 
the divisions of the animated creation as will enable the student of 
nature to learn, from the name, much respecting the structure, 
habits, and character of any specimen under consideration, of 
which he would otherwise be ignorant. This may be illustrated 
by taking any creature — a bird, a cat, or a dog ; the last would 
thus be described by a naturalist. Let us suppose a large New- 
foundland dog. 1. In the individual animal no one is interested 
save its possessor. 2. All the Newfoundland dogs constitute the 
variety known by that name. 3. Then if every variety of dogs 
be collectively considered they will compose the s-pecies cdnis 
familia'ris. Linnaeus could detect no characteristics to dis- 
tinguish them from the wolf, except the peculiar way in which the 
latter carried its tail. 4. It belongs to the genus Canis (Lat. 
dog), distinguished from the other genera of the same tribe or 
family by a peculiar adaptation of the teeth to live partly on 
vegetable food. 5. It belongs to the family or tribe Can'idae 



21 

(canis, dog ; «/&>? like.) It is distinguished from the bear and bad 
ger tribes by walking on the end of its toes instead of the sole of 
the foot. The former mode is termed Dig'-it-i-grade (digitus, a 
finger or toe ; and gradior, I walk), and the latter Plant'-i-grade 
(planta, the sole of the foot; and gradior, I walk). It is separ- 
ated from the Fel'idse (felis a cat), which are also digitigrade, 
by the absence of the power to retract the claws, possessed by the 
cat kind. 

6. It is one of the order Carniv'ora (caro, carnis, flesh ; 
and voro, I eat), characterized by its possessing claws, or nails, 
and three kinds of teeth — inci'sors, or cutting teeth ; canine, or 
dog-teeth ; and molars, or grinders. In these respects it agrees 
with man and monkeys, which constitute the eleventh and twelfth 
orders of the class ; but it differs from them in not having a thumb 
opposable to the rest of the fingers, and in the adaptation of the 
teeth and general structure to preying on animal food. In these 
respects, again, it agrees with the hedge-hog, mole, and other 
species of the order Insectiv'ora ; but it differs from them in hav- 
ing the molar teeth raised into cutting edges instead of conical 
points, and in the great size of the canine teeth, by which it is 
adapted to devour the flesh of large animals rather than insects. 

7. It belongs also to the class Mamma'lia (mamma, breast), 
the members of which produce their young alive and nourish them 
afterwards by suckling ; they breathe air by lungs during the whole 
of their lives, and their blood maintains a fixed and elevated tem- 
perature ; they are generally covered with hair, live on land (ex- 
cept whales, &c), and are altogether the most highly organized of 
the Vertebra'ta. All the preceding is included in saying, that an 
animal belongs to the class Mammalia ; and this much may be 
communicated, very easily, to a person but slightly acquainted with 
natural history. 

8. It is a member of the sub-kingdom Vertebra'ta (vertere, to 
turn). By this it is known to possess a jointed back-bone, contain- 
ing the spinal marrow, and expanded at one end into the skull, the 
cavity of which contains the brain ; it has red blood, five senses, 
and not more than four legs or members. These are but a few of 
the particulars involved in the idea of Vertebra'ta, as distinguished 
from the other sub-kingdoms. 

9. It belongs to the animal kingdom. It is, therefore, a being 
endowed with powers of sensation, of voluntary motion, and with 
a stomach for the reception and digestion of its food. 



22 

10. It belongs to the Empire of Nature, because it exists. All 
things of a physical nature by which we are surrounded are era- 
braced in this term, Empire of Nature. 

The last term, Empire of Nature^ includes every thing by which 
we are surrounded. It embraces the three kingdoms, Mineral, Ve- 
getable and Animal. Of the first and second enough has already 
been said ; it remains to allude briefly to the last. Its divisions 
are the four Sub- kingdoms : 

first, ra-di-a'-ta (radius, a ray) 

rayed animals, star-fish, &c. This sub-kingdom contains four 
classes : 

First, In-fu-so'-ri-a (infundo, I pour in), containing the infusory 
animalculae, which are for the most part developed in infusions of 
decayed vegetable matter. Pol-y-gas'-tri-ca (many stomachs). 
Ro-tif'-er-a (rata, a wheel ; and fero, 1 carry), wheeled animalculae. 

Second Class, En-to-zo'-a (evto? in, £W animals), internal 
parasites, tape-worm, common worm, &c. " Some get within him". 

Third Class, Zo-o-phy'-ta (£W animal, and p i/tov a plant), 
contains the orders 

First, Hy-droi'da (hydra, and £/&>$■ like) ; 
Second, As-ter-oid'-a (aster, star; and ti<$or, like), corals; 
Third, He-li-au-thoi'-da( r r)A<oj the sun, ei$os like), sea anem'o-ne ; 
Fourth, As-cid-i-oi'-da ih.a-y.oiy a bottle, and t$o$ like), polyps, 

sea-mats, &c. 

Fourth Class, Ra-di-a'-ri-a, rayed animals proper. It 
contains three orders : First, sea-nettles ; Second, sea-urchins ; 
and Third, the star-fish. 

SECOND, MOL-LUS'-CA (mollis, soft), 

containing six classes, 

First Class, Tu-ni-ca'-ta (tunica, a tunic), having a leath 
ern kind of cloak or tunic. As- cid'-i-a commu'nis or paps. 

Second, Bra-chi-o'-po-da (iSp«^iy/A, arm ; and tuovs, foot). 
Ter-e-brat'-u-la, Lingula, Orbicula. 

Third, La.-mel-li-bran-chi-a'-ta (lamella, a thin plate ; 
and branchiae, gills), plate-shaped gills, oyster, mussel, cockle, 
unio — found in our Canadian lakes, clam-shells, solens. 

Fourth, Pter-o'-po-da (<7rrefov a wing, and novg, a foot), 
wing-footed animals, the most remarkable of thein being the clio 
borealis, or northern clio, which abounds in the northern seas, 



23 

and though not exceeding an inch in length, forms the greater 
part of the food of the whale, (Baleena mysticetus). 

Fifth, Gas-ter-o'-poda (your? rig, stomach; wot;?, a foot), 
stomach-legged creatures, such as snails, slugs, limnea and murex. 

Sixth, Ceph-a-lop'-o-da [xe^Atj the head, *ovs foot], head- 
footed creatures. All the species are marine, sexes distinct. 
Placed by many as the highest of the Invertebrata. Cuttle-fish, 
nautilus, ammonites. About 5000 species of Mollusks have been 
described. 

third, ar-tic-u-la'-ta (articulus, a joint), 

jointed creatures, numbering about 200,000 species. Its classes 
are five in number : 

First, Ais-kel-la'-ta (anellus, a little ring), containing the 
orders : 

First, Suc-to'-ri-a (sugo, I suck), leeches ; 
Second^ Ter-ri'-cola (terra, the earth ; and colo, I cultivate), 

common earth worm (lumbricus) na'-ia-des (na'-ya-deez) &c. 
Third, Tu-bi'-cola (tubus ; and colo, I inhabit or cultivate), the 

serpula, sabella, &c. 
Fourth, Dor-si-bran-chi-a'-ta (dorsum, back j branchiae, gills), 

syllis monilaris, &c. 

Second Class, Cir-rip'-e-da (cirrus ; and pes, a foot), con- 
taining two orders : 
First, Sessile (sedeo, I sit), bal'anus (an acorn) or acorn-shells. 

The coronula is found on the backs of whales ; other species 

attach themselves to the backs of turtles. 
Second, Pe-dun-cu-la'-ta (pes, foot), barnacle, &c. 

Third Class, Crus-ta'-ce-a (crusta, a hard covering), a 
class of free articulate animals, with articulated limbs, a branchial 
respiration, and a dorsal ventricle or heart. It is subdivided into 
ten orders : 
First, Lim'-u-li (limus, oblique — sidelong) or King crabs ; to which 

group the fossil Tri'-lo-bite (tris, three ; lobus a lobe) are sup- 
posed to belong. 
Second, Os-tra'-po-da (oo-rpocxov a shell, trovg foot), the cypris. 
Third, Cope'poda, usually called One-eyed Cy'clops (monosculous) 

from their eyes being united. Their fecundity is truly astonishing. 
Fourth, Phyllo'poda (<pv\Xov a leaf, mov* foot), gill or leaf-footed ; 

branchipus, artemia salina, or brine-shrimp. 



Fifth, Clado'cera ; daphnia pulex or water flea is a common ex- 
ample. 

Sixth, Iso'poda («ros equal or alike, wov; foot), creatures having 
all their feet alike, and adapted for motion and prehension ; 
oniscus or wood-louse. 

Seventh, Laem-mo-dip'-oda (Xatuos throat, ttov^ foot), cyamus, 
usually called the w<hale-louse because they always infest the 
cetacea as parasites. All the species are marine. 
Eighth, Am-phip'-o-da (a^pir on both sides, irovs foot), feet di- 
versely conformed. The sand-hopper is a well known British 
species. 
Ninth, Stom-a'-po-da (<7T0^a a mouth, vov$ a foot), squilla man- 
tis, &c. 
Tenth, Dec-a'-po-da (£«*« ten, novs), including those creatures 
which have ^en thoracic feet, crabs, lobsters, shrimps, &c. 
Fourth Class, In-sec'-ta, (in; and seco, I cut), embracing all 
those articulate animals having the body composed of three distinct 
parts, — the head, corslet or thorax, and abdomen or body ; the 
legs, six in number, with usually two or four wings attached to the 
thorax ; and along the sides of the abdomen minute punctures, 
called spiracles, by means of which respiration takes place. — 
Entomology (evro/xa insects, Aoyoj a discourse) is the science of 
insects. A person versed in this study is called an Entomologist, 
and is described as an individual who gives to insects long names 
and short lives, a place in science and a pin through the body. 
The insects are divided into the following orders : 
First, Co-le-op'-ter-a [x.oXs<k sheath, nrrs^ov a wing], sheath- 
winged, wings four, the upper pair hard, sutures straight. 
Ex. stag-beetles, chafers. 
Second, Or-thop'-ter-a [op0o$ straight, and wrepov], straight- 
winged. Ex. crickets, grasshoppers, &c. 
Third, Neu-rop'-ter-a [vSvpov a nerve, and ttts^ov'], nerve-winged, 
wings four, membranaceous, anus unarmed. Ex. dragon-flies, 
may-flies. 
Fourth, Hy-men-op'-ter-a Qv^w a membrane, and wrefov], mem- 
brane-winged, wings four, membranaceous, anus aculeate. 
Ex. bees, ants, saw-flies, &c. 
Fifth, Strep-sip'-ter-a \arpzjros twisted, and ttte^ovJ, twisted- 
winged, possessing rudimental elytra in the form of linear 
and spirally-twisted scales. Ex. stylops, &c. 



25 

Sixth, Lep-i-dop'-ter-a \\ims a scale, and tfrefov], wings four, 

covered with scales. Ex. butterflies, moths, &c. 
Seventh, He-mip'-ter-a \^Y\\uavs half, and ttts^ov], wings four, the 
upper pair moderately hard and incumbent. Ex. cicada, 
water-scorpions, &c. 
Eighth, Dip -ter-a p.? twice, and ttte^ov], two-winged ; halteres 

two, in place of posterior wings. Ex. flies, gnats, &c. 
Ninth, Ap'-ter-a [#' without or privative, and vte^ov), wingless, 
wings none, no metamorphosis. Ex. fleas, spring-tails, &c. 
Fifth Class, A-rach'-ni-da (a^^v*» spider,--from centos slen- 
der, and i-^os a track, slender-tracked creatures, — and Ulog form). 
It is separated into two orders : 

First, Pulmona'ria (pulmo, a lung), including those creatures which 
breathe by means of pulnronary sacs or lungs. Ex. lunged 
spiders and scorpions. 
Second, Tra-chea'ria {r^xyixoe. windpipe), those of the class 
Arach'nida which breathe by means of tracheae. Ex. air-pipe 
breathers, mites. 

FOURTH, VERTEBRATA. 

We now approach the confines of life in a higher and 
nobler state of existence. The class Ver-te-bra'-ta comprehends 
all creatures having a jointed back, including man himself. 
True its lowest members, the fishes, are but a step in ad- 
vance of those forms we have been considering. The ascent is 
gradual, but not on that account the less certain. What particu- 
larly characterizes the vertebrata (verto, I turn) is the expansion 
of the backbone at one extremity into the skull, the cavity of 
which contains the brain, represented in lower orders by gangli- 
onic knots. The connection between the action and size of the 
brain and the amount of mental effort that can be put forth by 
different individuals has been satisfactorily established ; but how 
the soul acts through the medium of the brain is not so clearly 
defined. It affords matter for reflection to compare the mass of 
the brain with the mass of the spinal cord. In the lowest of the 
vertebrata, Pis'ces or Fishes, it is only two to one. In the Ara- 
phib'ia it is two and a half, to one : in the A'ves or Birds it is as 
three to one : still ascending, in the Mammalia generally it is four 
to one ; while in man it attains the great development indicated by 
twenty-three to one. This gives us the physical cause of man's 
elevation above the brute creation. His erect posture, his thumb 
opposable to the rest of his fingers, reason instead of instinct, 

B 



!>6 

the procuring and use of fire, and the faculty of speech, may be no- 
ticed as characters distinguishing man, stamping him the superior of 
all the animated creation. This sub-kingdom contains five classes. 

First Class, Pis'ces or Fishes. They are grouped into nine 
orders. 
First or Lowest, Cyclostomata or Cy-clos'-to-mi (kvkXos a circle, 

and a-TOfxa, a mouth) ; lamprey, hag, &c 
Second, Selachii or Se-la'-cii [a^tx^og a kind of grisly, scale- 
less fish), including rays and sharks. 
Third, Chondropteryg'ii \x o ^° os a cartilage, and wt*$©| a fin) ; 

sturgeons. 
Fourth, Plectog'nathi (ttAexo; I connect, and yvaOos a jaw), 

which includes those fishes having the maxillary bone anchy- 

losed to the sides of the intermaxillaries, which alone form the 

jaws ; sunfish, &c. 
Fifth order-, LQphobran'chii (Xotpos a tuft, and /S^ay^i* gills), those 

whose gills are in small tufts, and disposed in pairs along the 

branchial arches, as the pipe-fish, hippocampus. 
Sixth, Malacopteryg'ii Apo'da (^aXxaog soft, and vrifv^ a fin ; 

and a not, and irovq a foot]. All those fish in which the ventral 

fin is wanting form but one natural family, the MuraB'nidae or 

eel tribe. 
Seventh, Mai. Sub-Branchiata [p^xy^x g^ s ]> fi snes having the 

ventral fins brought forward beneath, or even in advance of 

the pectoral fins 5 cod, flounder, turbot, brill and common 

sucking-fish. 
Eighth order, Mai. Abdomina'Ies [abdomen, the belly], having the 

ventral fin situated under the abdomen, behind the pectorals. 

Salmon. 
Ninth order, Acanthoptery'gii \_ax.xvQos a spine, and mnqv^ a fin 

or wing], characterized by the bony spines which form the first 

ray of their dorsal and anal fins 

These are the orders of fishes, creatures of which it may be 
said, they are produced from eggs, and, generally speaking, cov- 
ered with scales, cold-blooded and aerate their blood by gills. 
Eight thousand species have been described. 

Second Class, Am-phib'-i-a [«f/<p/r both, /3»o* life], embraces 
all animals capable of living either on land or for a time in the 
watery element. In organization they are superior to fishes, 
though considerably removed from the higher walks of animated 
life. Some members of this class possess two sets of respiratory 
organs, one adapted to breathe air, the other to aerate the blood 



by exposing it to water. Those only that retain them both through 
life can properly be styled true Amphibia. Placed between fishes 
and reptiles they are oviparous and cold-blooded ; that is, the tem- 
perature of their blood is very little above the medium in which 
they live : their skin is soft and naked, and they are destitute of 
scales or plates. At first they are in the form of water-breathing 
fish, then their metamorphosis takes place ; after which, very closeW 
resembling reptilia in character, they attain the perfection of their 
kind. Some of them lose the tail, but generally the caudal ap- 
pendage adheres to them through life. The peculiar structure of the 
Am-phip-neur'-ta,to which the Menobran'chus found occasionally in 
our own lakes, and the siren belong ; the use of the toad to garden- 
ers and others, in repressing the inordinate increase of insects, 
worms, and slugs, on which it feeds ; its patient endurance, the 
lightning-like movement of its tongue, and the extreme beauty of 
its eyes, together with the perfectly harmless nature of the whole 
class should not only defend the members thereof from violence 
and cruelty, but to the lover of nature form a very interesting 
subject for reflective thought, as exhibiting wonderful adapta- 
tion to existing circumstances, which is indeed everywhere apparent. 
This class is subdivided into five orders. 
First, A'poda [a without, ixovs foot] ; water-serpent, &c. 
Second, Abran'chia [a privative, jSpxy^ta. gills] ; menopoma. 
Third, Amphipneur'ta [a^pis on both sides, me^ I breathe], by 
many considered as forming the only true amphibia, as they are 
provided with lungs and gills at the same time. 
Fourth, Urode'la [ovpx a tail, ^rjAo.c, manifest] : their tail is pre- 
served through all the stages of their existence. Salamanders, 
tritons, &c. * 

Fifth, Anour'a [« without, and ovpx a tail], such as the toad and 
frog, which loose the tail on arriving at maturity. 
Third Class, Reptil'ia (repo, I creep) or Reptiles, con- 
stitutes the next class in the Animal Kingdom. Its orders are 
five in number. 

First, O-phid'-i-a [«<£»<*■ a serpent, e$os a form], or serpents ; in- 
cluding all the serpentiform species of this class : adders, rat- 
tlesnakes, boas, pythons, &c. 

Second, Sau'-ri-a \_<rxvpoc. a lizard], Saurians : they have four 
legs, as the lizard. The remains of singular and gigantic sau- 
rians are frequently exhumed from the rocky strata of the earth. 

Third, Lor-i-ca'-ta [lorica, a coat of mail] : this includes all 



28 

those species which are protected by an armour of bony plates, 
such as the crocodiles, alligators, &c. 
Fourth, En-al-i-o-sau'-ri-a [ev in/asX? the sea, and aav^s a lizard]. 
All its genera are fossil. Their paddles, like those of the 
whale or turtle, were combined with the head and trunk of a 
croccdile : the ich-thy-o-sau'-rus and ple-si-o-sau'-rus belonged 
to it • 

Fifth, Che-lo'-ni-a [^aAwvvj a tortoise] : this order includes the 
tortoises, turtles and terrapenes, characterized by the body being 
enclosed in a double shell, out of which extend the "head, tail, 
and four extremities. Some of its members, e. g., the land tor- 
toise, have the power of retracting these, parts within the shell. 
Fourth Class, Avf.s or Birds. We now come to the 
volatile race, a more interesting division of the Animal Kingdom 
than that of which we have just been speaking, and equally dis- 
playing the -creative energy of Nature's God," whose plastic hand" 
has embellished them with so great a variety of colours, given 
them such a diversity of instincts suitable to their modes of life, 
and furnished them in so admirable a manner with a conformation 
of body perfectly corresponding with their habits and dispositions. 
Their whole structure is admirably calculated to facilitate their 
motion through the air : their bony framework is formed of hol- 
low tubes, which not only give lightness and buoyancy, but much 
greater strength than if solid ; while their feathery covering, so 
regularly and smoothly arranged, offers not the slightest resistance 
to the elastic air. In breathing, not only their lungs, but their 
quills and hollow bones are filled with air, thus altering their spe- 
cific gravity so as to admit of rapid flight ; while their tempera- 
ture being so high, ranging from 100° to 110°, while that of man is 
98°, enables them to endure a degree of cold which is somewhat 
astonishing On the bleak shores of Terra del ^uego, humming- 
birds, the tiniest and most delicately formed of the feathered tribes, 
have been seen during a snow-storm hovering over the expanded 
blossoms of a fuchsia. Birds are divided into seven orders, their 
features and functions being assumed as the basis of classification. 
First, Na-ta-to'-res [nato, I swim], swimmers: they are web- 
footed, and their delight is on the ocean. This order is subdi- 
vided into five families : First, Al'-ci-dae ["alca, auk ; and tiSos 
like or form] ; as the great auk, or penguin ; the little auk, or 
black and white divers; and the Labrador auk or puffin. 
Second, Co-lym'-bi-dae [divers], divers, loons. Third, Pel-i- 
can'-i-dae [pelican] : cormorants, pelican, &c. Fourth, Lar'-i-dae 



29 

[gulls] ; gulls, petrels, albatross. Fifth, A-nat'-i-dse [anas, 
duck j 8t$os like] : ducks, geese, swans. 
Second order, Gral la-to'-res [grallae, stilts ; long-legged birds] 
or waders, those adapted to walk in shallow water, in which 
they obtain their food. Its families are four. First, the 
Char-a-dri'-a-dae [plovers] : plover, sand-piper, lapwings. 
Second, Ral'-li-dae [rail] : rail, coot, crake, flamingo. Third, 
Scol-lo-pa'-ci-dae [snipe] : snipe, woodcock, curlew, ruff, avocet. 
Fourth, Ar-de'-i-dae [heron] : herons, bittern, crane, stork, ibis, 
white spoonbill. 

Third order, Cur-so'-res [curro, I run] : embraces those birds 
which, though not wingless, have not the power of flight : they 
approach, in structure, nearest to quadrupeds ; attain the 
greatest dimensions, and have their feathers of curious con- 
struction. It embraces the four following families : First, 
Di'-dus [dodo], now considered as fossil, though it has but 
recently become so. Second, Ap'-ter-yx Aus-tra'-lis, the 
apteryx Third, Cas-so-wa'-ri-us [cassowary] : emu and casso- 
wary. Fourth, Struth-i-on'-i-dae [struthio, an ostrich — some- 
times called the camel-bird] : the ostrich — largest bird ; rhe-a or 
American ostrich. 

Fourth order, Ra-so'-res [rado, I scratch] ; gallinaceous birds, or 
scratchers. This includes those birds whose feet are provided 
with obtuse claws for scratching up grain &cc. The upper 
mandible is vaulted, with the nostrils pierced in a membranous 
space at its base, and covered with a cartilaginous scale. The 
families of this order are four in number. First, Co-lum'-bi-dae 
[columbus, a dove ; and eiSos like], doves, pigeons. Second, 
Te-tra-on'-i-dae [tetrao, a moor fowl], partridges, quails, grouse. 
Third, Cra'-ci-dae [curasow], curasow-birds, guans, hoazin. 
Fourth, Pha-si-an'-i-dse [phasianus, a pheasant — so called from 
the supposition that they were first found on the banks of the 
Phasis, in Asia Minor], pheasants, barn-yard fowls, turkey, 
peacock, and guinea fowl. 

Fifth order, Scan-so'-res [scando, I climb], climbers, containing 
four families, namely : First, Psitta'-ci-dae [4^tt«jcu a parrotj; 
all the parrot tribe ; parrots, parrakeet, cockatoo, macaw. 
Second, Ram-phas'-ti-dae [^a^poj a beak], toucans; toucan, 
toucanets. Third, Cu-cul -i-dce [cuckoo], cuckoos. The 
American species faithfully pair and take care of their young. 



30 

Fourth, Pi'-ci-d:e [picus, a woodpecker], woodpecker, wryneck. 

Sixth order, In-ces-so'-res [insessor, one who sits ; from insideo, 
to sit or rest in or upon], perchers, birds that pass much of their 
time when awake, and all of it when asleep, on the branches of 
trees, &c. It is divided into four families : First, Ten-u-i-ros'- 
tres [tenuis, slender or fine ; and rostrum, a beak], slender- 
beaked birds, humming-birds, hoopoes and creepers. To this 
family belong the humming-birds, the smallest of birds. They 
are found from Cape Horn to BalhVs Bay, and are almost cos- 
mopolite in their migrations, though it is within the tropics they 
are most at home. Second, Fis-si-ros'-tres [fissio ; a cleaving, 
dividing], split-bills, so called from the formation of their beaks, 
which appear as if they had been slit up from their ordinary ter- 
mination to a point beyond the eyes, thus somewhat resembling 
the mouth of a frog, for the purpose of more easily securing their 
prey ; kingfisher, bee-eater, swallow, goat-sucker. Third, 
Den-ti-ros'-tres [dens, a tooth], tooth-billed birds, nightingale, 
thrush, fly-catchers, shrike. Fourth, Con-i-ros'-tres, cone- 
shape beaked ; crow, starling, finches, crossbill, hornbill, jay, 
magpie, jackdaw. 

Seventh order, Ac-cip'-i-tres [accipiter, a hawk ; from ad to, and 
capio, I seize] or Rapto'res [raptor, a robber ; from rapio, I 
rob, carry off by force], all birds of prey : they live by rapine, 
and hence are called raveners or rapacious birds. Their beaks 
are sharp-pointed, sharp-edged, curved and strong ; their legs 
are short, robust, with three toes before and one behind, armed 
with long, strong, crooked talons. The condor, whose wings 
when expanded measure sixteen feet, is the largest bird that 
flies. The eagle is called king of birds. In this order four 
families are found. First, Strig'-i-dae [strix, owl], owls ; hawk- 
owl, snowy-owl, burrowing-owl, seeps eared-owl, great eared- 
owl, and barn-owl. Second, Fal-con'-i-dae [falco, a falcon or 
hawk], falcons, hawks, griffin, kites. Third, Aqui'-li-dae (aqui- 
la, eagle], all kinds of eagles. Fourth, Vul-tur'-i-dae [vultur, 
a vulture], vultures of every description. Of this powerful 
bird Humboldt says : " The condor, the giant of the vulture 
tribe, often soared over our heads above all the summits of the 
Andes, at an altitude higher than would be the Peak of Tener- 
iffe if piled on the snow-covered crests of the Pyrenees. The 
rapacity of this powerful bird attracts him to those regions, 
whence his far-seeing eye may discern the objects of his pur- 
suit, the soft-wooled vicunas, which, wandering in herds, fre- 



31 

quent, like the chamois, the mountain pastures adjacent to the 

regions of perpetual snow." 

Fifth Class, Mam-ma'-li-a [mamma, breast], are distin 
guished from the other departments of the animal kingdom by a 
much greater development of brain and, consequently, a higher 
degree of intelligence ; while the exquisite perfection of the organs 
of sense, the structure and arrangement of the teeth, and the 
beautiful provision for the nourishment of their young, manifest 
the creative power of an Infinitely wise and Almighty Being. 
Some naturalists divide this class into tAvo sub-classes — the Vivip'- 
arous, and the Oviparous Mammals. In the latter, few mem- 
bers are found ; while in the former all the larger and better known 
species are perfectly arranged. When classified according to the 
relative intelligence of the different orders, we have : First,those that 
are in some respects closely connected with birds, called the 
Oviparous [producing young from eggs], embracing the first and 
second orders of the class, the Mon-o-trem'-a-ta and Mar-su-pi- 
a'-li-a; Second, the Phy-toph'-a-gous[purov a plant, and. p^yo; I eat), 
those that live exclusively on vegetable food — the E-den-ta'-ta, 
Ro-den'-ti-a, Ru-mi-nan'-ti-a and Pach-y-derm'-a-ta; Third,the Zo- 
oph'-a-gous [£«jov animal, and Qxyu I eat], those that feed on ani- 
mals, animal-feeders— the Ce-ta'-ce-a, Chei-rop'-ter-a, In-sec-tiv'- 
o-ra, Car-niv'-o-ra, Quad-ru'-ma-na, and, Lastly, Bi-ma'-na, man. 
About 1500 species of this class have been described. The 
number may probably reach 2000. The paucity of its species is 
far more than compensated by the compactness, size, and intel- 
lectual development of its members : moreover man, the perfec- 
tion of animated creation, the grand crowning type of all 
creatures terrene, belongs thereto. His presence alone, at once, 
claims superiority as an inalienable prerogative. In him all ani- 
mated cosmical creation centres : between him and the highest 
beast a chasm interposes, down which, however great .his degra- 
dation, he can never fall ; and up which none of the lower crea- 
tures can ever ascend. His moral nature stamps him divine. 
His connection with immortality, and his relations to God, more 
than anything else, indicate his privilege and his destiny. Ne- 
vertheless the fine thought of Pascal is true to nature and to man: 
" Man is but a reed, the feeblest thing in nature. But he is a 
reed that thinks. It needs not that the universe arm itself to 
crush him. A drop of water, an exhalation is sufficient to de- 
stroy him. But were the universe to crush him, man is yet nobler 
than the universe, for he knows that he dies ; and the universe, in 



32 

prevailing against him, knows not its power." " In nature there 
is nothing great but man ; in man there is nothing great but mind." 
This class — the highest, the most important and noblest in the 
animal Jwingdom — is divided into twelve orders: — 
First order, Monotrem'ata \_{mvos one, r^^x perforationj, con- 
taining but two species, the or'-ni-tho-rhynch'-us [o^y/s- a bird, 
and Iw-xps a beak], and e-chid'-na or spiny ant-eater, indigen- 
ous in Australia, where, in harmony with the idea" that every- 
thing there seems to be reversed, " the thick end of a pear is 
next the stem, and the stone of a cherry grows outside ," these 
creatures have their abode. The former of them is called, be- 
sides the name given above, the paradoxus [puzzling], duck- 
billed platypus [flat foot], and by the natives, water-mole. It, 
and the ostrich, though they have very little in common 
among themselves, form the connecting links between birds 
and mammals.' 
Second order, Marsupia'lia [marsupium, a pouch], embracing the 
families of— First, the Wom'bat ; Second, Kangaroo' and Kan- 
garoo'-rats ; Third, Pbalan'gers and Flying-Opos'sums ; Fourth, 
Koa'la and Opos'sums ; Fifth, Sar-coph'-a-ga [<rap% flesh, <pa.yu 
I eat], flesh eaters, such as the da-sy'-u-rus. 
Third order, Edenta'ta [e, without ; dens, a tooth], toothless ani- 
mals. Two families : First, Tardigra'da, so called from their 
slowness of motion, containing the sloths. Second, Edentata- 
proper, containing the ant-eaters, armadilloes, pan'golin, &c. 
Fourth order, Roden'tia [rodo, I gnaw], gnawing animals: em- 
braces the seven families following : First, Sciur'idae [sciurus, a 
squirrel; and ei^os like: N. B. — Wherever the termination idae 
occurs throughout the Chart, its derivation and meaning being 
the same, render their repetition unnecessary], squirrels, marmots, 
prairie-dog or barking squirrel. Second, Mur'idas, [mus, a 
mouse], mice, rats, jerboa or jumping-rat. Third, Castor'idae 
[castor, beaver], beaver, voles, water-rats. Fourth, Hystri'- 
cidae [va-rpt^ a porcupine], porcupine. Fifth, Cav'idje [cavia], 
guinea-pig, capybara. Sixth, Chinchil'lidEe, chinchillas. Sev- 
enth, Lepor'idae [lepus, a hare], hare, rabbit. 
Fifth order, Ru-mi-nan'-ti-a [rumino, 1 chew the cud], those crea- 
tures which, being the prey of the Carna'ria, do not require to 
chew their food, like other animals, when feeding ; but simply 
swallow it and then, retiring to a place of safety, properly chew 
their food. The following are the families of it. First, Ante- 
lop 'ida3, antelopes, chamois [pronounced sham'-my or sha-moi']. 



33 

gnu, vicu'nas. Second, Cap'riike [capra, goat], goats, sheep, 
ibex. Third, Bov'idae [bos, an ox], ox, buffalo, musk-ox, brah- 
min-bull. Fourth, Cer'vidre [cervus, a stag], stag, elk, rein- 
deer. Fifth, Camelopar'dse [camel, and leopard], giraffe. Sixth, 
Mos'chidae, musk-deer. It connects the deer and camel tribes. 
Seventh, Camel'idae, camel, llama. 

Sixth order, Pach-y-derm'-a-ta [wax 1 ** thick* h?[/M skin], thick- 
skinned animals : five families are embraced in it. First, Mana'- 
tidae, sea-cow. Second, Solidun'gula or E'quidae [solid-hoofed ; 
equus, horse], horse, ass, zebra, mule, quagga. Third, Tapir'- 
idae, tapir, rhinoc'eros [f»y nose, xe^os a horn], hy'rax. Fourth, 
Su'idae [sus, pig], swine or pig, hippopotamus ['twos horse, 
7tot<z[xos river], babyrous'sa. Fifth, Probos'cidae [tt^oI3o<7kis a 
trunk or proboscis], elephant and its extinct congeners. 

Seventh order, Ceta'cea [cetus, whale] : contains two families.: 
First, Delphin'idae, dolphin, porpoise, narwhal. Second, Balse'- 
nidae \J3xXxivx a whale], whale kind, whale, cach'alot. 

Eighth order, Chei-rop'-ter a [x si ? hand, irripov wing], wing- 
handed, so called from the singular manner in which their fore- 
paws or hands are developed into wings. Five families of bats 
now claim our attention. First, Rhinolophi'nae [piv nose] : nose- 
leaf complicated and membranous, only one joint in the fore- 
finger, wings broad and large ; horse-shoe bat. Second, Phyl- 
lostom'inae [tpuXXov a leaf, and o-tg/xo. mouth] : nasal appendage 
simple and fleshy, index-finger two joints ; vampire-bats. The 
wings measure between two and three feet across. Third, 
Vespertilion'idse [vespertilio, a bat] : destitute of na^al append- 
ages, and have one joint only in fore-finger ; bats of the tem- 
perate climates. Fourth, Noctilion'idae : destitute of nasal ap- 
pendages, but have two joints on forefinger : almost exclusively 
confined to tropical climates. Fifth, Pteropi'nae [irregov a 
wing], the omnivorous or frugivorous bats, widely diffused 
throughout warm climates. " The office of this group in the 
economy of nature, is evidently to assist birds in restraining 
the too rapid multiplication of insects, and to keep down the 
luxuriance of tropical vegetation/' 

Ninth order, In-sec-tiv'-o-ra [insectus, an insect ; and voro, I de- 
vour], insect-eating animals. Four families distinguish these 
creatures. First, Tu-pai'-a-dae, tupaia or banx'ring. Second, 
Erinace'adae [erinaceus, a hedgehog], hedgehogs. Third, Sori'- 
cidoe [sorex soricis, field-mouse], shrew. Fourth, Tal'pidae 
. [talpa, mole], moles ; chrysochloris or cape-mole. 



34 

Tenth order, Car-niv'-o-ra [caro, carnis, flesh ; voro, I eat], fl£sh- 
eaters. It embraces the five following families: Fir^f, Pho'- 
didse fphoca, seal), the Amphibia of Cuvier; seal, walrus, morse, 
sea-cow or sea-horse, and elephant-seal. Second, Ur'sid;e 
(ursa, a bear), bears, racoons, coati-mon'di, kinkajou, badgers, 
taxels or badgers of America, and the wolverine or glutton : 
the last four, by many naturalists, are considered as a connecting 
link between the Ur'sidse and Mustel'idae. This family forms 
the 6nly true plantigrade Carnivora. Third, Mustel'idae (mus- 
tela, a weasel} or weasel tribe ; also called Vermiform [worm- 
like], from the shape of the body: weasels, martens, sable 
[martes leucopus], polecat, stoat, otter, ratel. The glutton 
and badger are placed by some naturalists in this family. 
Fourth, Can'idae [canis, dog], dogs of all descriptions, wolf, 
.jackal, fox, hyena and civet, which latter two are placed by some 
naturalists among the Fel'idas, and ichneu'mon. The domestica- 
tion of the dog is the greatest conquest achieved by man over the 
brute creation, as by his aid he can overcome all the rest. His 
sagacity, fidelity and devotion are proverbial. He is suscepti- 
ble of very great improvement. Sir Waiter Scott said he 
could believe anything of a dog. Fifth, Fel'idae [felis, a cat], 
cat, lion, tiger, ounce, jaguar, puma ocelot,~ lynx, Canada 
lynx, panther, leopard. These creatures, like the noble fal- 
cons, it is said, never eat the flesh of animals they have not 
themselves killed, except when tamed or confined. 

Eleventh order, Quad-ru'-ma-na (quatuor, four; manus, hand), 
four-han(ied. Three orders of monkeys are distinctly marked 
out by naturalists. First, Lemur'idag (lemura, ghost], mon- 
keys of Madagascar and parts of Africa and India. Second, 
Ce'bidae [>o?/3o«r a monkey], pronounced Kebide ; American 
monkey, spider monkey, and howling monkey. Third, Simi'a- 
das [simia, an ape], apes, chimpanzee, ourang-outang, baboons, 
gibbon, kahau or proboscis monkey, entellus monkey, mandrill, 
monkeys of the old world generally. 

Twelfth order, Bi-ma'-na [bis, twice ; manus, hand], two-handed, 
comprehends the whole Human family. Family, Homin'idae 
[homo, man ; ttios like] : genus Homo, man. Species, sapiens 
[wise]. Varieties, negro, indian, malay, mongolian and Cauca- 
sian. Pickering enumerates eleven races of men, all of which 
he had seen. 1. Negro: number 55,000,000. 2. Australian, 
500,000. 3. Ethiopian, 5,000,000. 4. Telingah or East- 
Indian race, 60,000,000. 5. Negrillo : inhabit parts of Papua, 



35 

Solomon's Isles, &c. ; 3,000,000. 6. Papuan : parts of the same 
islands ; 3,000,000. 7. Malay race, 120,000,000. 8. Hot- 
tentot and Bushmen, 500,000. 9. Mongolian, 300,000,000. 
10. Abyssinian, 3,000,000 : and 11. Arabian race, 350,000,000. 
Population of globe, 900,000,000. Some geographers place 
it as high as one thousand millions. 

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF ANIMALS. 

While almost all animals are restricted to one particular local- 
ity, where alone they thrive and reach the full development and 
perfection of their symmetry, man is free to roam throughout the 
wide extent of Nature's domain. His reasoning faculties enable 
him to accommodate himself to every varied circumstance. He 
is at home on the burning sands of the tropics, or amid the ever- 
lasting snows of the polar regions;— in the dungeon's glopm, 
where no ray of sunlight ever pierces, or on the summit of some 
lofty mountain which raises its towering crest far above the re- 
gion of perpetual congelation. 

At the poles vegetation is stunted. Lichens, mosses and other 
cryptog'amous plants constitute the flora of these inhospitable re- 
gions The animal kingdom, though better represented, is still 
inferior. The number of types is small, and marine animals pre- 
ponderate. Superior types receive a fuller development in the 
temperate zone. Phanerog'amous plants preponderate. A de- 
cided progress is everywhere visible. A striking change may 
everywhere be seen as we approach the torrid zone. The cryp- 
tog'amous plants of the polar regions become arborescent. Grasses 
attain a height of seventy feet. A density elsewhere unknown 
marks the forest, while an exuberant profusion of the most bril- 
liant flowers adorn and variegate»the mountain and the plain. In 
the animar kingdom Nature is equally lavish. Birds are arrayed 
in the most gorgeous plumage. The huge pachydermata attain 
their fullest development, ^while ; ,the ferocious inhabitants of the 
jungle display a vigour and strength excessively disproportioned 
to their size. The ourang-outang^stands erect, and would seem 
to trench on man's domain. The negro looks upon him as a de- 
generate brother, too lazy to work. * 

Man had his origin s in the temperate zone. There civilization 
commenced, and in its western march it has spread to the north 
and to the south, but its highest achievements — its most splendid 
results have been within the zone which gave it birth. Ujon 
careful analysis it will be found that the progress of whole conti-* 



36 

nents, in commerce and the industrial arts, in morals and intellec- 
tual refinement, in science and civilization, and in the development 
of humanity in all its better phases, has been in some way .con- 
nected with the square miles of surface which compose their ter- 
ritory, compared with their line of coast. The following table 
will show at a glance the comparative relation of each. Carl 
Ritter was the first who applied himself to investigate " what are 
the fundamental conditions of the form of tlte surface of the globe 
most favorable to the progress of man and of human societies f 1 
and the table is based on his conclusions. 



Europe 

A merica 

Asia 

Africa 

Oceanica 



Surface in 

Eng. sq. 

miles. 



Length 

of coast 

line. 



3,820,00019,780 

14,070,009 43,300 

16,072,000 ! 32,000 

11.570,000 16,206 

4,100,000; 



Miles of 
surface to 
one of coast 



193 
343 

500 

714 





Do. 


Mean ele- 


Population. 


to sq. 


vation in 




mile. 


feet. 


260,000,000 


68 


671 


50,000,000 


h) 


N.A. 748 
S.A.1132 


420,000,000 


26 


1151 


88,000,000 


n 




25,000,000 


6 





Of the geographical distribution of the lower animals little needs 
be said. At the left side of the Chart are given the various 
regions into which it has been proposed to divide the earth's sur- 
face, and the animals predominating in each. But it were a mistake 
to suppose the species confined to the localities or latitudes indi- 
cated by this division. Many of them have a much wider range. 
The animals wholly or for the most part peculiar to any region, 
climate, or country constitute the fauna thereof. Similar fauna 
may be found at great distances from each other, while others in 
close proximity may differ widely. Parts of Europe and of the 
United States have fauna of the same character ; while those of 
the New-England States and Labrador diifer materially. It not 
infrequently happens that between the fauna and flora of places a 
direct connection may easily be traced. And wherever found, the 
instincts of animals invariably correspond with the physical char- 
acteristics of the countries they inhabit ; though we are by no means 
to view these as cause and effect. Their distribution as well as 
their organization are the sequences of laws superior to the im- 
press of surrounding circumstances and external influences, though 
these have a modifying effect. Thus we see that anterior to their 
creation the laws by which they are controlled were wisely de- 
signed by the Supreme Mind, who gave to each species, as to the 



37 

great sea, limits which they never passy. Throughout the whole, 
adaptation of means to ends is constantly perceptible. This part 
of the chart is but an approximation, as the smallness of space 
precludes the introduction of more minute subdivisions. He who 
would comprehend the plan upon which the Animal Kingdom has 
been arranged, must study the remains of extinct genera as well 
as those now walking the earth, — the one as the complement of 
the other, — and thus only can we have a correct idea of the sys- 
tem of Zoology. 

The following are the provinces into which the continental 
portions of our globe have been divided on the principle of the 
doctrine of specific centres of animals. In this division man is 
not included. 

First, the European region, comprehending Europe, the bor- 
ders of the Mediterranean, the north of Africa, and extending into 
Asia beyond the Ural Mountains and the Caspian Sea. The bear, 
fox, hare, rabbit, deer, are widely distributed. The mole, con- 
fined to the north of Europe, ranges eastward to the Himalayan 
range. 

Second, the African Fauna, singularly rich in generic forms, 
not met with in a living state in any other region. Chimpanzee, 
baboon, four-fingered monkeys (colobus), many carnivora, the hip- 
popotamus, camel'opard, &c. The elephant, camel, lion and 
jackal are common to Asia. 

Third, South Africa : in the north of it are found the horse, 
ass ; in the south the quagga and the zebra, rhinoceros, hog, 
hyrax, the spring-bok, the gnu, &c. 

Fourth, Madagascar, constituting a distinct zoological dis- 
trict. This is the home of the lemur, and the grave of the ex- 
tinct dodo. 

Fifth, India, containing a vast variety of peculiar forms, such 
as the sloth-bear, musk-deer, elephant, royal tiger, the long-armed 
ape and many others. 

Sixth, a portion of the Indian Archipelago, Java, Sumatra, 
Borneo, &c. 

Seventh, the Islands of Celebes, Amboina, Timor, and New 
Guinea; constituting a region allied to the Australian type, yet also 
showing an affinity to the Indian in such forms as the deer, weasel, 
pig. As we approach New Holland the marsupial type increases; 
tree-kangaroos and flying opossums, &c, are found in great num- 
bers. 



38 

Eighth, Australia, the, ro»ion of the pouched animals, such as 
the kangaroos, wombats, flying opossums, kangaroo-rats, or'-ni- 
tho-rhynch'-us [opvi?, o^y<flof,a bird; and ^y^o? a beak]. Allied 
species of the opossum inhabit South America, Mexico, California; 
and one, the Virginian opossum, the United States. 

Ninth, North America. 

Tenth, the West-Indian Islands ; and 

Eleventh, South America, the most distinct, except Austra- 
lia, of all the Provinces into which the Mammalia can be classed 
geographically. The prehensile-tailed quadrumana, ttie sloth, the 
true blood-sucking bats, or vampyres ; the capybara, the largest 
of the rodents ; and a host of other species, are exclusively char- 
acteristic of South America. 

ZOOLOGICAL ERAS. 

The diagram fpom Agassiz and Gould's Principles of Zoology, 
at the top of the chart on the right side, affords a very compre- 
hensive view of the animals long since introduced, and many of 
them long since extinct. 

The shape of the ray in which the name is placed, its com- 
mencement towards the centre, its expansion, contraction, and 
cessation, indicate whether the members were few or many, 
whether they increased or diminished in number ; and the outward 
end shows the epoch when their being reached its termination. 
Thus the Ganoids were called into existence at the commencement 
of the Reign of Fishes — a very early period; increased in number 
towards the close of that age ; continued nearly stationary during 
the fteign of Reptiles, and have been waning ever since. The 
Ammonites began at the same time as the Ganoids, but became 
extinct at the close of the Pweign of Reptiles. The blank space 
at the centre is intended to represent that portion of our cosmical 
history which elapsed before any organized beings were called 
into existence. It may be called the first age of our planet. 
The eras of organic creation are thus described by the author 
of this sectional view of our earth's crust : We may distinguish 
four Ages of Nature corresponding to the great geological divi- 
sions, namely : 

First, The Primary or Paleozoic Ags, comprising the 
Lower Silurian, the Upper Silurian, and the Devonian. During 
this age there were no air-breathing animals. The fishes were 
the masters of creation. We may, therefore, call it the Reign of 
Fishes. 



39 

Second, The Secondary Age, comprising the Carbonifer- 
ous formation, the Trias, the Oolitic, and the Cretaceous forma- 
tions. This is the epoch in which air-breathing animals first ap- 
pear. Reptiles predominate over the other classes, and we may 
therefore call it the Reign of Reptiles. 

Third, The Tertiary Age, comprising the Tertiary form- 
ations. During this age, terrestrial mammals, of great size, 
abounded. This is the Reign of Mammals. 

Fourth, The Modern Age, characterized by the appear- 
ance of the most perfect of all created beings. This is the Reign 
of Man. • 

As a general result of the inquiries hitherto made, it may be 
stated that the Paleozoic animals belong, for the most part, to the 
lower divisions of the different classes. The Secondary Age dis- 
plays a greater variety of animals as well as plants. The fantastic 
forms of the Paleozoic Age disappear, and in their place we see a 
greater symmetry of shape. Many of the most abundant types 
of former epochs have now disappeared : and the most significant 
characteristic of the Tertiary faunas is their great resemblance to 
those of the present epoch. The Modern epoch succeeds to, but 
is not a continuation of, the Tertiary Age. These two epochs 
are separated by a great geological event," traces of which we see 
everywhere around us. This was the cooling of the temperate 
zone so that the glaciers of the polar regions moved much farther 
to the south of their previous limits. It was this ice, as it is sup- 
posed, either moving or floating along the ground, that polished 
and rounded the rocks scattered about upon the soil, called the 
erratics, boulders, or grayheads. This is the Glacial or Drift 
period, to which the soil of Canada belongs. At the left of the 
chart are given the great geologic periods — the Primary or Pa- 
leozoic [waXa/os ancient, £wov animal], the Secondary or Mesozoic 
[iaSo-os middle, fwov animal], the Tertiary or Cainozoic [kxivo$ 
recent, £wov animal] ; — their subdivisions — the various strata into 
which geologists from characteristics essentially different in each, 
have arranged and classified the stony leaves of this great book of 
nature, revealing truths hidden for ages, exhuming forms more 
strange and fantastic than those of an Arabian tale, over which 
extinction of species has long since drawn its oblivious veil, pre- 
senting to our gaze in panoramic disclosures the successive fauna 
and flora of our pre-human planet ; affording us glimpses of the 
Creator's footsteps and the manner in which, in the universal pro- 
fusion of life everywhere distributed, he has prepared the earth as 



40 

the residence of man. Exceptions to the onward order of things, 
sparks from the anvil of creation, shards from the footsteps of the 
Creator, the results of general laws may, like the minute seeds in 
the ground never to be vivified, occasionally be met with ; but to 
marry minds they are no disparagement to Infinite Wisdom. I 
have mentioned the most important animal and vegetable remains 
found imbedded in each stratum, so far as space would permit. 
The comparative thickness is necessarily more or less hypothetical, 
as the same rocks are seldom found of uniform thickness in dif- 
ferent localities. All the strata intervening between the Devonian 
and Silurian, and the Pliocene are absent in Canada. This 
is the reason why coal can never be found in this country. 

COMPARATIVE ELEVATION OF SUB-KINGDOMS. 

The diagram at the top of the geological strata, and inside of 
it, is intended to exhibit at a glance the comparative elevation of 
the four great" sub-kingdoms of animated creation. The chain of 
being does not ascend in a straight unbroken line, but by a series 
of lines diverging from one another at a point near their upper 
extremity in the ascending order of nature. The lowest sub- 
kingdom embraces not only the animals lowest in the scale of or- 
ganization, but the lowest of the low are found at the lowest part 
of the line. And by a*series of gradations, more or less orderly, 
more or less intricate and irregular, we ascend through each 
sub-kingdom, throughout the whole animal kingdom. It is worthy 
of notice that the lowest members of a higher order are truly 
lower in organization than the highest forms of the lower sub 
kingdom : thus, the star-fish, the highest member of the lowest 
sub-kingdom R.adiata, is much higher in the scale of being than 
the ascidia communis or paps, the lowest member of the second 
sub-kingdom, Mollusca. Again, the leeches and earth-worms, 
members of a higher sub-kingdom, are less elaborately organized 
than the cunning, ferocious, and sharp-sighted cuttlefish, the highest 
of the Mollusks. Lastly, the spiders, the highest of the third 
sub-kingdom, are much more complex, and adapted to a higher 
sphere of existence than that worm-like fish, the hag or myxine 
[gastrobranchus caecus], and another fish called the lancelot 
[amphioxus lanceolatus]. Man, simply considered as an animal, 
crowns all : his form is unrivalled, his claims undisputed ; for in- 
stinct he has reason, and to the range of his faculties no limits 
are assigned. 

EXPLANATION OF OTHER DIAGRAMS. 

In the diagram just above the last one, man, whose zoological 



41 

position is indicated by a vertical line, is regarded as the perfec- 
tion of animated creation : while the position of the lower ani- 
mals is pointed out by lines at greater or less angles, as they re- 
cede from or approach man in organization and intelligence : thus 
the class Mammalia is nearer than Aves or Birds, and the elev- 
enth or highest order of Mammals, Quadrumana, is much less re- 
mote than the Monotrem'ata, the first or lowest order of the same 
class. The zoological position of a bird is given at the right- 
hand side, at the top : want of space prevents its being given for 
all birds. The same for a fly, also at the top. On the left-hand 
side, about the middle, this is repeated for a dog, and at the bot- 
tom will be found the generic terms used by naturalists in giving a 
description of animals. This description should be- so compre- 
hensive as to include all, and so precise as to apply to each mem- 
ber of the series ; these objects, so desirable,. are attained by this 
systematic arrangement, or natural system. 

MODE OF USING THE CHART. 

Tn the*nvestigation of truth, two methods present themselves : 
first, the analytical (av« again, Xvu I loose) method, or analysis, in 
which the whole is separated into its component parts ; in other 
words, the whole subject, whatever it may be, is first considered 
as a whole, and then decomposed for the special consideration of 
its parts. This is the method used in Algebra. The other method 
is the synthetic [c-w together, tiQvi'ja I place or set] or synthesis. 
In this method the elements in their isolated state are first exam- 
ined, carefully mastered, and then united for the purpose of con- 
templating them in their symmetry and united relations. This is 
the method pursued in Geometry, in Grammar, in History, &c. 
In using the Chart either method may be adopted. A general 
idea of the Empire of Nature may be given, then its subdivisions, 
then the further subdivisions of these, carefully mastering each suc- 
cessive step till all are well impressed on the mind. Or the lowest 
subdivisions may be first studied, and as one after another has been 
committed to memory, the whole should be grouped together ; so 
that at each successive step what we have passed over may be 
referred to the next higher group. Thus, suppose the families of 
Cud-chewing animals be under consideration; after they had sep- 
arately been described — in number, size, habits, instincts, uses to 
man, modes of life, geographical distribution, &c. — then the whole 
should be placed together and viewed in this new aspect, as 
joined by a common bond characteristic of the whole, though dif- 



41 

fering in many minor respects. "When the families of all the 
orders are thus gone over, the orders themselves are placed to- 
gether, thus forming a Class ; these in their turn constitute a Sub- 
kingdom ; these again Kingdoms, which in their turn united form 
the Empire of Nature. 

A very good mode is the following : — In giving the family to 
which the being under consideration belongs, to make the pupils 
state the order, class, sub-kingdom, and kingdom, of which this 
particular family is a unit. Say, for example, the lesson is about 
the horse : describe as above, then give its zoological position — 
Family Equidae (equus, horse ; ei^osr like), embracing all horse-like 
animals, horse, ass, zebra, &c. : Order Pachydermata; mention 
other members of the order : Class Mammalia, suck-giving ani- 
mals ; Sub-kingdom Vertebrata, containing all creatures with a 
jointed back-bone ; Kingdom Animal, embracing all the creatures 
on earth; and -lastly Empire of Nature, as existing on earth: 
this would be the synthetic method. Or take the analytic : a 
horse belongs. to the Empire of Nature, because it exists; Animal 
Kingdom, because it has life, motion and feeling ; Sub*kingdom, 
Vertebrata, because it has a jointed back-bone ; Class, Mammalia, 
because it brings forth its young alive, and afterwards supports 
them by suckling ; Order, Pachydermata, because it is a thick- 
skinned animal ; Family, Equid;e, because it belongs to the horse 
kind : thus stating the reason at every step, completely mastering 
every inch of the space traversed ; thereby adding vigor to the 
mind, and preparing it for new acquisitions in the boundless ocean 
of existence, in the illimitable domains of God. 

In giving instruction to children, the eye as well as the ear 
should be on the subject under consideration. " The eye remem- 
bers." In Natural History the object itself, when practicable, 
should be placed before the pupils. Their conceptions will thus 
be more vivid, the impression more lasting, and the ideas more 
correct. In the study of Ornithology for example. The initial 
types may be collected, and one at least of each order in a class 
exhibited. These being all properly arranged and labelled, the 
interest in the study would be greatly enhanced. To teachers 
desirous of making the experiment, such collections could be fur- 
nished at a moderate sum. In teaching Natural History it will be 
found beneficial, First, to describe the animal ; Second, its habits, 
instincts and mode of life ; Third, geographical range of the spe- 
cies ; Fourth, zoological position ; Fifth, uses to man ; and Sixth, 
the evidences it displays of the wisdom and goodness of God. 



43 

A# OBJECT LESSON. 
In giving object lessons, — vvhen a specimen of the animal to be 
described cannot be had, a picture of it should be placed before 
the class, that all the pupils may see it ; and also a map of the 
World, that the teacher may point to the place where such animal 
may be found in its greatest perfection. When the description 
has been given slowly and distinctly, so as to be understood by all, 
the teacher should then commence a series of questions on the 
lesson, first in a general way to inspire courage*, and then individ- 
ually to secure accuracy. As a matter of course, the more clearly 
and methodically the lesson is enunciated, the more prompt and 
correct will be the answers given. With the teacher rests the 
prer igative of making even a dry theme interesting and fascin- 
ating. The following mode has been followed with advantage-: — 

THE &HKEP. 

The Sheep is one of the most important of our domesticated 
animals. It is a quadruped, as you see, having four feet. It is a 
ruminant, or ruminating animal, because it chews the cud. It is 
about three feet, four inches long ; and six hands high ; varying in 
size and appearance in the different countries to which it belongs. 
The sheep is covered with wool, a soft species of hair with an 
imbricated surface. The face and legs are covered with hair. 
The hoofs are cloven, consisting of two longer and two shorter 
parts, the longer parts only touching the ground. The ears are 
usually erect, though in some cases pendulous, and are far back in 
the head. The pupil of the eye is somewhat in the form of a 
horizontal oblong, thus affording a very good range of vision along 
the ground. The dental characteristics of the sheep, as of all 
ruminants, are thus expressed in Zoology : incisors |, canine $, 
molars f . Many consider the last incisor on each side as truly 
canine. This would give the following" division : incisors -°, ca- 
nine |, molars f . Its age is determined by the incisor teeth. 
When two years old, two of the deciduous teeth give place to 
permanent ones ; two more at the end of three years, and the 
rest at the end of the fourth year ; after which the age cannot be 
accurately determined. The molars are crowned with two ridges 
of enamel, which aid in the process of mastication. The grass is 
cut by the front teeth of the lower jaw, pressed against the strong 
muscular upper lip. Like all ruminants the sheep has four stom- 
achs, or pet haps four compartments in one stomach. The first 
and largest, called the paunch or rumen, receives the food as it 



44 

is swallowed, and retains it till it is softened, if then passes into 
the second, called honey-comb, or reticulum, a term signifying a 

little net or bag. Here the food remains until it shells and fer- 
ments. By the alternate dilatation and contraction of the stom- 
ach, the food is formed into small portions termed cuds, which are 
again taken back to the mouth to be remasticated at leisure, while 
the sheep is not grazing. The food thus remasticated passes into 
the third stomach, where it undergoes a still further comminution 
and then passes into the fourth stomach, where it undergoes com- 
plete maceration, and the chyle is extracted from the various 
matters which have been reduced into pulp in the other compart- 
ments. 

'2?id. Habits, mode of life, SfC, The habits of the sheep are 
so well known generally, as to require very few remarks. Sheep 
usually go in large flocks, under the care of shepherds, and de- 
pend for their protection on the fostering care of man. They are 
tame, gentle and inoflensive in their disposition, and display less 
animation and sagacity than most other quadrupeds, although they 
are very discriminating in the selection of their food, and acutely 
susceptible of the approach of a storm. In .such cases they seek 
the lee side of some hill or cliff, where they may be secure from 
the biting blast. The great aim of the shepherd is to keep them 
from such shelter, when no proper pens or folds are near, as dur- 
ing snow-storms they are often buried by the drifting snow when 
they follow their natural instincts for preservation. Although a 
prey to almost every carnivorous animal, they will in case of at- 
tack, present to the enemy the united strength of the flock drawn 
up in a compact body, presenting towards every point a deter- 
mined front which cannot be attacked without injury to the as- 
sailant. The following anecdote furnishes a beautitul proof of the 
maternal instinct of the sheep. A gentleman travelling, received 
a strong proof of sagacity in a sheep that came bleating piteously 
to meet him. When near, she redoubled her cries and looked up 
in his face, as if to ask his assistance. Alighting, he followed her: 
she led him to a cairn at a considerable distance from the road, 
where he found her lamb, wedged in between two large stones, 
struggling with its legs uppermost. He extricated the little suf- 
ferer and placed it on the green-sward beside its dam ; and the 
mother poured forth her thanks iD a long and continued bleat. A 
man was driving a flock of sheep across a bridge, when, by some 
means or other, one of the foremost, getting frightened, jumped 
over the side of the bridge, and, before they could be prevented, 



45 

many of the rest followed, and were drowned in the river. A 
monkey came down from a tree to steal the breakfast of a shep- 
herd, who was resting under it with his flock of sheep and goats. 
He drove the monkey away, which, in his hurry, upset a bee's 
nest ; the insects flew out and attacked, not only the intruder, 
but the goats and sheep underneath. The curious part was to 
witness the behaviour of the two species. The sheep crowded 
together, buried their noses in the- sand, and did not attempt to 
resist, but bleated piteously. The goats ran as fast as they could 
to an encamping party close by ; seeking the assistance of man, 
as dogs would have done. In the following anecdote we have an 
illustration of their attachment to place. A female sheep with 
her lamb made a journey of nine days' length, to return to her 
native place, and was tracked so completely as to make her owners 
acquainted with her adventure. Nothing turned her back, and 
whenever her lamb lagged behind, she urged him on with her im- 
patient bleating. When she reached Stirling it was fair-day ', 
and she dared not venture into the crowd : she therefore laid her- 
self down by the roadside, with her lamb, outside the town, and 
early next morning stole through the streets. She came to a toll- 
bar, the keeper of which stopped her, thinking she had strayed 
and would shortly be claimed She frequently tried to get through 
the gate, but was as often prevented ; and she patiently turned 
back. At last she found some means of overcoming the obstacle ; 
for, on the ninth day, she with her lamb reached her destination, 
where she was re-purchased, and remained till she died of old age, 
in her seventeenth year. 

3rd. Geogtaplical range. No quadruped presents greater 
variety of form, size, and general appearance, or occupies a wider 
range of climate than the sheep. They abound in the elevated 
plateaus of Asia, and are found in the valley of the Nile, in the 
northern part of Europe, and in the southern portions of Austra- 
lia ; on the Atlantic coast o* America, and on the shores of the 
Pacific. Mountain, plain, hill and valley, yield in profusion the 
food they require. The principal varieties of the wild sheep are : 
1st. The Musimon (Ovis Musimon,a mongrel creature), inhabiting 
the mountainous parts of Spain, Greece, Corsica, and other islands 
of the Mediterranean. 2nd. The Argali (O. Amnion), which 
roam over the table lands of Asia, and are larger, more hardy and 
less tameable than the Musimon. 3rd. The Rocky-Mountain 
Sheep (O. Montana), called by western hunters Big-horn : they 
resemble the Argali, from which they probably have sprung ; 



46 

abound on the prairies west of the Mississippi to the Pacific. It 
is highly probable that the goats of which Father Hennepin, a 
French Jesuit who travelled through the territory now calletl the 
Western States and wrote nearly two hundred years ago, speaks, 
are this species of sheep. 4th. The Bearded Sheep of Africa 
(O. Tragelaphos — rpxyos goat, and e\a<pos stag; goat-stag): it 
inhibits the mountains of Barbary, Egypt, &c. They have a 
mane hanging below the neck, and large locks of hair at the an- 
kles. Then, The Common Domestic Sheep (O. Aries— the ram>, 
the Merino, the Saxon, and the Rambouillet. The best breeds 
in England are the South Down, the Cheviot, and the Bakewell or 
Leicestershire • inferior to them in some respects are the Cots- 
wold or Lincolnshire sheep. / 

The number of sheep in Great Britain is 40 millions, valued at 
($5 25 each?) $250 millions ; in the United States, 21,722,000, 
valued at ($1 50 each), $32,582,568; in Canada, 1,600,000, 
valued at (1 50 each), $2,400,000 ; in Canada West, 968,000, 
valued at ($1 50 each), $1,452,032. The annual produce of 
wool in United States, 52,789,174 lbs. ; in Canada, 4,130,740 
lbs. ; in Canada West, 2,700,000 lbs. Average weight of fleece 
in United States, 2 T 6 g lbs. ; in Canada, 2\§ lbs. ; in Canada West, 
2J-4 lbs. The sheep in Canada and United States are not indigen- 
ous, having been imported chiefly from Great Britain, France, and 
Spain. 

4th. Zmlogieal position. — The sheep belongs to the Empire of Nature, 
because it exists ; secondly, to the Animal Kingdom, because it is en- 
dowed wirti life, sensation, and the power of voluntary motion ; thirdly, 
Sub-kingdom, Vertebrata, because it has a jointed back-bone; fourthly, 
Class, Mammalia, because it brings forth its young alive, and afterwards 
suckles them ; fifthly, Order, Ruminantia, the members of which chew 
their cud ; sixthly, Family, Capridae, because it is of the goat kind ; 
seventhly, Genus, Ovis, which embraces only the sheep kind ; eighthly, 
it belongs to the Species O. Aries, which includes all the domesticated 
sheep ; ninthly, Variety, Merino, a kind of Spanish sheep celebrated for 
the fine texture of its wool ; teuthly, it is an Individual of that Variety. 

6. tTses to man. — Prom the sheep man obtains a great portion of his 
aliment, and also the most essential part of his clothing. The flesh of 
tbr? sheep is called mutton, the quality and flavour of which depend 
upon the particular breed. Tne largest breed of sheep in Britain is 
found on the banks of the Tees, in that fertile valley which separates 
Yorkshire from Durham. Some of them have been fed to weigh fifty 
pounds per quarter. Bigland mentions one as having weighed sixty- 
two pounds and a half per quarter, and then supposed to be the 
heaviest sheep ever slaughtered in Britain. The Dorsetshire sheep are 
remarked for their extraordinary fecundity, being capable of producing 



4<7 

twice a year. From this breed the tables of the opulent are supplied 
with early lamb at Christmas. In the north-west parts of England there 
is a hardy, black-faced breed, the flesh of which is esteemed excellent. 
In the northern parts of Scotland there is a small-sized breed of sheep 
which is remarkable for the fineness of its mutton. The Leicestershire 
sheep is held in great esteem, in consequence of its fattening quickly 
and carrying the greatest weight of. mutton on the smallest proportion 
of bone. The broad-tailed sheep, common in Persia, Syria, Barbary 
and Egypt, are remarkable chiefly for their large, heavy tails, which 
are esteemed a great delicacy, being of a substance between fat and 
marrow. The tails of these sheep are frequently a foot broad r and 
weigh from twenty to seventy pounds. From the skin of the sheep, leather, 
parchment, covers for books and other things are made; and glue is 
made from their hoofs and horns. Their entrails are' manufactured 
into strings for musical instruments, their bones are ground into dust 
to manure the soil, and butter and cheese can be made from theirmilk. 
We read in Joshua, vi. 6, of ram's horns being used as trumpets by the 
priests who surrounded the walls of Jericho previous to the destruction 
of that city. The fleece of the sheep is, however, the most important 
article of utility to man. From the wool of the sheep the principal 
part of his clothing is made. The quality of the wool depends upon 
the breed of the sheep. The following are the varieties in Britain : — 
1. The Zetland sheep. The finest fabrics are made of their wool, 
which forms a fine fur. 2. The Dunwooled sheep, at one time culti- 
vated extensively. Remnants of them still exist in Scotland, Wales and 
the Isle of Man. 3. The Black-faced Heath-sheep, inhabiting heathy 
mountains. They have spiral horns. Their legs and faces are black. 
Their wool is coarse, weighing from three to four pounds per fleece. 
They yield the most delicious mutton, weighing from ten to sixteen 
pounds per quarter. They are to be found in Yorkshire, Cumberland, 
Westmoreland, Argyleshire and the central Highlands of Scotland. 
4. The Moorland-sheep of Devonshire. They have horns, white legs 
and faces, long wool, and are of a hardy constitution. Their wool 
weighs four pounds the fleece. 5. The Cheviot sheep, which are indi- 
genous to the Cheviot Mountains. Their wool is fine. A medium 
fleece weighs about three pounds. When fat they weigh from twelve 
to eighteen pounds per quarter. 6. The Horned Varieties of Fine- 
wooled sheep of Norfolk, Wiltshire and Dorset. These sheep have 
large, spiral horns : their fleece weighs from two to four pounds. 
7. The Ryeland-sheep of Herefordshire, white-faced and Avithout horns ; 
wool fiue,*weighing from one and a half to two pounds a fleece. Their 
mutton is delicate. They fatten easily, and weigh from twelve to six- 
teen pounds per quarter. 8. The South-Down breed, inhabiting the 
chalky downs of England and the sheltered lawns of Scotland. They 
have no horns, their legs and faces are grey ; their wool isfine and from 
two to three inches long, and weighing from two and a half to three 
pounds a fleece. Their mutton is excellent and highly flavored. When 
fat they weigh from fifteen to eighteen pounds per quarter. 9. The 
Merino sheep, supposed to have been brought originally from Africa. 
The wool of this breed is*finer than that of any other sheep. 10. The 



43 

Devonshire, Romney-Marsh, Old-Lincolnshire and Oid-Leicester breeds. 
The Devonshire-Notts yields a fleece weighing ten pounds ; and, when 
tat, weighs twenty-two pounds per quarter. The Romney-Marsh breed 
are large animals, with white legs and faces, and yield a heavy fleece. 
The Old Lincolnshire yield indifferent mutton, but a fleece of very 
heavy, long wool. The Old Leicester is a variety of the coarse, long- 
wooled breeds. 11. The New-Leicester and Improved Teeswater, the 
great properties of which are their early maturity and disposition to 
fatten, in which they excel all other breeds. No country produces finer 
sheep than Great Britain. Yet such is the extent of their woollen 
manufactures, that they import nearly as much as they grow. Upwards 
of 340,000 persons are' employed in these manufactories in Britain 
alone ; and, when we take into account the families which are depend- 
ent on these operatives, and the thousands of machinists and other 
mechanics employed in making the machinery for these factories, and 
the families which are dependent upon them, and the thousands of 
merchants, and clerks, and shopkeepers whose business it is to supply 
the public with the cloth after it h.as been manufactured, and the tailors 
and dress-makers whose decorative industry is so highly appreciated — 
when all these considerations, and many more that might be suggested, 
are taken into account, we may form some idea of the use of this quad- 
ruped to man. 

G. Proofs of Divine Wisdom. — The adaptation of this creature to live 
in every part of our habitable globe, by undergoing changes, especially 
in its woolly coat, corresponding with the climatic zone it inhabits — in 
the torrid zone, where heat is not wanted, it being covered with wool, 
coarse as hair, but not less valuable on that account; in the frigid' re- 
gions its wool being more like fur than its usual texture — its generic 
characteristics, its great usefulness to man, in civilized no less than 
savage life — all are indicative of the goodness and care of Him, whose 
wisdom is infinite, and all whose operations tend to good and happiness. 

The stud} r of Natural History, besides being advantageous in other 
respects, is well calculated to redeem us from low views concerning 
the method and nature of God's government, and show us that all 
things are arranged and maintained according to avast, comprehensive 
plan; the discovery of which is the object of the scientific zoologist, 
as the general principles upon which it is based comprehend not only 
the manifest conformity to it, but likewise the apparent departures 
from it. 

In conclusion I would indulge the hope that this attempt to present 
to the eye by means of the Chart, novv amended, improved'and illus- 
trated, and this pamphlet, a complete system of classification on this 
new plan, different from anything hitherto presented to the world — 
may promote the introduction, into our common schools, through my 
fellow-labourers, our common-school teachers, for whose benefit, con- 
venience and use both were prepared, of a study which ranks among 
the noblest that can occupy the mind of mm: — it gives a nearer view 
of the character and attributes of the Creator, whose omnipotence, 
wisdom and love are so clearly manifested ia his handiwork. 

THE END.