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Full text of "Synopsis of phrenology and the phrenological developements [sic], together with the character and talents, of Geo A Smith Boston as given by O. S. Fowler Sept. 14th 1843, 20th ed."

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Whilst lecturing and practising phrenology in the city of New York, 
December 27, 1836, Dr. Howard, who then lived in Carmine street, 
called on me, and stated that the evening before, he had been called in 
great haste to visit a lady who was taken with a most violent pain in the 
head, which was so severe as in fifteen minutes entirely to prostrate her, 
producing fainting. When brought to, she had forgotten the names 
of every person and thing around'her, and almost entirely lost the use of 
words, not because she could not articulate them, but because she could 
not remember or think of them. She could not mention the name of her 
own husband or children, or any article she wanted, nor convey her ideas 
by words, yet understood all that was said to her, and possessed every 
other kind of memory unimpaired. " And where was this pain located, 
I eagerly inquired. " That is for you to say," said he. ■ If phrenology 
is true, yon. ought to be able to tell where it is." " Then it is located over 
her eyes" said I. He replied, " That is the place." The pain was seated 
there only. In other words, her phrenological organ of language had 
becomo greatly diseased, and the faculty of language was the only men- 
tal power that suffered injury, all the others remaining unimpaired. 

Dr. Miller, of Washington, District of Columbia, related to the author 
a similar case, which occurred in or near that city, accompanied by a 
pain in the same portion of the head, and there only. See also P. P. p. 18. 

Whilst examining professionally the head of a lawyer, Attorney 
General of one of the New England states, observing an unusual 
and feverish heat in his forehead, and particularly in the organs of 
the perceptive faculties, I observed, " Sir, the brain in your forehead is 
highly inflamed ; you have been studying or thinking too hard, or doing 
♦oo much business of some kind, and if you do not stop soon, you will bo 
lilher a dead man or a crazy one." He started upo.i his feet as if elec- 
trified, exclaiming, " Who has been telling you about me V " No one, 
sir." " But some one has been telling you." " Upon my honour arid 
my conscience, sir, I neither know you nor your occupation, nor condi- 
tion in life, nor one single thing about you, except what I infer from your 
phrenological developments," said I, pointing out to him the preternatu- 
ral heat of his forehead. He requested me to proceed, and at the close of 
the examination, stated that for several weeks he had been dreadfully 
afflicted with the most violent and intolerable pain in his forehead, parti- 
cularly the lower portion, and on that account, had requested my attend- 
ance, that his memory, which, up to that time, had been remarkably 
retentive, had failed him, and his intellectual faculties also sustained much 
injury, and that all this was brought on at a session of the Court in which 
his intellectual powers were employed to their utmost stretch of exertion 
for several days and nights in succession, upon very heavy cases, both for 
the state and for individuals. He was sixty years of age, had a powerful 
constitution, a most active temperament, and very large perceptive facul- 
ties, which the inflammation had rendered redder than the other portions 
of his forehead. 

After stating this class of facts at a lecture in Easton, Maryland, Mr. 
J. H. Harris remarked that he now could not help believing in phrenology, 
because he had experienced its truth. He said that at one time, whilst 
extensively engaged in superintending a great amount and variety of busi 

* N. B. This chapter should be read in connexion with the close of proposi- 
tion III. p. 9, and will be printed sometimes on the cover and sometimes in tn» 
»otiy of th* work. 


ness, including building, he was repeatedly seized villi a most intense 
pain over his eyes, which was so powerful, that to obtain relief he would 
have held his head still to have had it bored into, and that, whenever 
this pain seized him, he forgot every thing, and would drop the sentence 
he was speaking, unable to think of a single word or thing until the 
paroxysm abated. 

A Mr. C, of Boston, is subject to spells of violent pain in his forehead, 
and there only, (the seat of the intellectual organs,) which is accompa- 
nied with an irrepressible desire to read, think, study, write, &c. Ho 
often sits up whole nights indulging this intellectual mania. Nothing 
but sleep will relieve him, yet he is unwilling to seek rest because of the 
delight experienced in this exercise of mind, even though fully aware that 
he thereby aggravates the disease, 

At Carlisle, in June, 1837, I pointed out this same preternatural heat 
in the foi^head of a student, who, entering his class poorly prepared, had 
overdone This intellectual organs. He had been compelled'to suspending 
studies on account of the pain in his forehead, and the morbid action of 
his intellectual powers. 

EvENTu.ii.iTT. In April, 1837, Dr. Carpenter, of Pottsville, Penn- 
sylvania^elated to the writer the following. One of his patients fell from 
a horse, striking the centre of his forehead against the corner of a rock, 
on which portions of brain were found. I have seen the scar, and know 
that it was eventuality that was injured. As Dr. C. entered the room, 
the patient recognised him, as he did each of his neighbours, but he had for- 
gotten every fact and event, and them only. He asked what was the 
matter, and as soon as he was told, forgot, and asked again. To use Dr. 
C.'s expression, " fifty times over he asked what was the matter, and as 
soon as he was told, forgot, and asked again." He forgot that his brother 
was coming that day from a distance to visit him, and that he was then 
on his way to meet him. Every event was to him as though it was not ; 
yet all his other mental powers remained unimpaired. When depletion 
was proposed, he objected, and assigned his reasons, showing that his 
reasoning faculties were uninjured. After the brain had been re-sup- 
plied, he recovered, to a considerable extent, his memory of facts. This 
accident made him a believer in phrenology. 

Dr. Ramsey, of Bloomfield, Columbia county, Pennsylvania, reported 
the following case as having occurred in his practice: — About four years 
since, a patient of his, by his horses becoming frightened, was driven 
with great violence against a fence, the centre of his forehead striking 
against the corner of a rail. He recognised the Doctor as he entered, and 
asked him what all this fuss was about. As soon as Dr. R. had told him, 
he forgot, and asked again and again, for twenty times in succession, and 
to this day he has not the slightest recollection of this most important 
event of his life, except the mere fact that the horses were frightened. 

Another case anolagous to this, and affecting eventuality was narrated 
to the author by the Rev. S. G. Callahan, an Episcopal Clergyman and 
teacher of high intellectual and moral standing, in Laurel, Delaware. 
About twelve years ago, he was intimately acquainted with a Dr. Thomas 
Freeman, surgeon on board an English man-of-war, who, in an action 
with the Dutch, received a blow from a rope with a knot in it, which 
broke in the scull in the centre of his forehead, " Here," said he, (putting 
his finger upon the organ of eventuality,) " producing a cavity resembling 
the insida of a section of the larger end of a hen's egg." The accident 


caused a loss of memory of fads only, which caused his dismissal on 
half pay for life, whilst every other power remained unimpaired. Thus, 
if he went for wood, he was as likely to get any thing else, or nothing at 
all, as what he went for. Being employed to construct a vat for colouring 
broad-cloths, he constructed every thing right, his causality and con- 
structiveness remaining uninjured, but when he came to the chemical pro- 
cess of dyeing, with which he was as familiar as with his alphabet, he 
failed repeatedly, till they were compelled to employ another dyer, who 
pointed out the omissions which caused his failures. Although the doc- 
tor was an excellent chemist, and understood every part of the operation, 
yet he would omit one thing in one experiment, and another in another, 
and thus spoil every attempt. He could seldam succeed in any chemical 
experiment, though passionately fond of them, because of these omissions ; 
and yet, said my informant, start him on a train of thought, and he rea- 
soned as clearly, and logically,' and powerfully as almost any one I ever 
heard. Now observe, that the only organ injured was eventuality, and 
this was the only faculty impaired. 

Robt. McFarland, a tavernkeeper, who, in 1837, lived in Carlisle, Penn- 
sylvania, south of the Court-house, in consequence of a fall when about 
sixteen years old, had a deposition of W3tery matter which finally settled 
in the centre of his forehead, forming a sack between the scull and skin, 
which remained there for several years, until it became very painful, at 
iast intolerably so, compelling him to have the sack removed, and the 
decayed portion of the scull on which it had formed, scraped twice a-day 
for twenty days in succession, by which the disease was arrested. Before 
his fall, his memory of circumstances, what he read, saw, &c, was so 
excellent that he was often referred to. This kind of memory, and this 
only, was destroyed by the disease. On this account he called on me for 
an examination, but did not state his object, waiting to see if I would 
detect it. On examining his forehead, I told him that his memory of faces 
was among the best that I had ever seen, but that I observed a scar in the 
centre of his forehead, where memory of facts is located, and that if the 
wound which caused it affected the brain there, his memory of incidents, 
"very-day occurrences, what he read, and saw, and heard, &c, had been 
impaired. " Thai's a fact," said he. " If I sec a man who called on me 
ten years ago, I know him instantly ; but if a customer wants any thing, 
and another calls for something else before I have waited on the first, I 
forget the first, and thus often give offence ; but I can't help it. And it's 
of no use for me to read any thing; I forget it immediately." 

The intense pain caused by the dropsical deposit, shows an affection, 
long continued and severe, of the brain beneath it, and the location of the 
scar fixes it on eventuality, which was the only faculty impaired. 

A Mr. Camp, of New Haven, Connecticut, by the bursting of a gun, 
had the end of the barrel driven an inch or more into his organ of even 
tuality, scattering the brain upon the stone wall against which he was 
leaning. By this accident, his memory of facts was so much impaired 
that lawyer Stoddard said he was frequently compelled, on this account, 
to suspend or give up his suits. I have often seen the scar, and also been 
a witness to his miserably defective memoiy of facts, appointments, &e. 

Mr. Alex. Nathan Dalby, potter, Wilmington, Delaware, is another exam 
pie of the injury of theorgan, and with it, of the faculty of eventuality, cauwd 
by falling from a horse, and striking his forehead upon a stone, and Dr. D-, 
of Milton, Pennsylvania, furnishes another. 


Tuxe. Dr. Miller, of Washington, District of Columbia, report* tha 
following in vol. I. No. 1, p. 24, of the American Phrenological Journal. 
A lad was kicked by a horse, " the point of the shoe striking him under 
the left superciliary ridge, outer angle, fracturing the orbitar plate, and 
forcing the spicula of bone upwards and outwards, on the dura-mater, 
which was wounded by them." As the wound was three-fourths of an 
inch deep, and penetrated the head in the direction of tune, reaching the 
borders of that organ, but not penetrating it, it would of course highly 
inflame it, which would produce a disposition to sing. This result fol- 
lowed. When the boy came to, he began to sing, and sang most when 
the wound was most inflamed. Both before and after this occurrence, he 
had never been known to sing, but now, lying apparently at the point of 
death, he would break out singing songs, and, to use his mother's expres- 
sion, " did nothing but sing." On account of his singing propensity, Dr. 
M. sent for Dr. Sewall, the anti-phrenologist, and Dr. Lovell, then Presi- 
dent of the Washington Phrenological Society, who reminded Dr. S. that 
this case went to prove phrenology, and yet, p. 57, of Dr. S.'s attack 
on phrenology, he says no cases analogous to the above have ever been 
known to occur. His memory of such facts must be rather short 

A similar case occurred about 19 years ago, at Young's factory, on 
the Brandywine, five miles above Wilmington, Del., and was reported 
by Dr. Jacques, of W., attending physician. An Irishman, named Kobert 
Hunter, having charged a rock with a blast which did not ignite, swore 
that he would make her go off, at the same time jamming his iron crow- 
bar down among the powder. It struck fire, and blew up, but did not 
split the rock. The crowbar was sent no one knows where, both hands 
were torn off, and the charge, coming up in a body, struck his head along 
the superciliary ridge, cutting a furrow in the scull, and carrying away 
portions of the dura-mater and brain. It took its course along the bor- 
ders of tune, but did not disorganize it. From his friends, Mr. and Mrs. 
White, at whose house he boarded and died, I learned its precise location, 
viz. along the superciliary ridge, externally of it. It also carried away 
a portion of the superorbitar plate, and terminated near mirthfulness. 

In fifteen minutes after he was taken to the house of Mr. W., "he fell 
to singing songs," and continued singing almost without interruption till 
his death, which occurred nine days after. I took down from the lips of 
Mrs. W. the following description of his singing propensity. " He sung 
the whole time after he was blown up till he died. He did not stop one 
hour, put it all together. Mr. W. began to read the Bible to him, but 
he broke out singing and stopped him. He was very musical, much 
more so than when he was of himself. I thought this very strange. It 
was not a quarter of an hour after he was brought in before he began to 
sing. He sung all the time till he died, and stopped only when some 
one went in to see him, and then began again directly. His principal 
song was " Erin go bragh," and he sung it with a better tune than I ever 
heard it sung before ov since. It beat all how musical his voice was. 
He sung very loud, and seemed to take a great deal of pleasure in it." 
Dr. Jacques observed that what struck him most forcibly was to hear him 
sing with so much feeling, and pathos, and ecstasy. Several others bora 
their testimony to the same point. 

G. Combe, p. 416, of his large work, describes a similar case, and the 
American Phrenological Journal, Vol. I. p. 243, still another, and Gall 
end Spurzheim many others. 






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y f J ACS ui i 













L. N. F O W L E R, 



The proportionate size of the phrenological organs of the individual 
examined, and, consequently, the relative power and energy of his primary 
mental powers ; that is, his moral and intellectual character and manifesta- 
tions, will be indicated by the written figures 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7: figure 1 sig- 
nifying VERY SMALL ; 2, SMALL ; 3, MODERATE ; 4, AVERAGE ; 5, FULL ; 

In order to render the indications still plainer, these figures will be written 
In the table opposite to the organs marked, and in the perpendicular column 
headed " Full," " Large," or " Small," according as he has the organs full, 
large, or small. Adjoining these written figures will be references to 
''Phrenology Proved," &c, where he will find not only his individual 
faculties described in that degree in which he possesses them, but, also, the 
result produced by their combined action — he reading as descriptions of 
himself, those combinations which he is found to possess. 


Phrenology — Points out those connexions and relations winch exijl 
between the conditions and dcv elopements of the brain, and the mani- 
testations of the mind, discovering each from an observation of the other. 
Its one distinctive characteristic doctrine is, that each class of the mental 
functions is manifested by means of a given portion of the brain, called an 
organ, the size of which is the measure of the power of function. Thua 
the benevolent feeling is manifested and indicated- by means of brain in the 
frontal part of the top of the head, (see cuts) and in proportion to the 
developement of brain here, will be ones spontaneous flow of kind, obliging 
feeling ; and so of every other quality of mind. 

I. The brain is the organ of thexiim), orthevns sic al instrument 
of thought and feeling. 

II. The mind consists of a plurality of independent faculties or 
powers, each of which exercises a distinct class of functions. 

First. A plurality of mental powers would allow much greater variety 
and perfection of the mental operations than could be attained by the mind's 
being a single power. 

Second. If the mind were a single power, it could be doing only one 
thing at the same time, but if it be a compound of several powers, each 
could be in simultaneous action. Our own consciousness assures us that we 
can attend to more than one thing at a time — that we can be looking and 
thinking, walking and talking, feeling and acting, &c, all simultaneously. 

Third. Insane persons are eften deranged only upon a single subject, 
whilst they are sane upon every other. Now were the mind a single power, * 
and the brain a unity, sanity upon one subject, and insanity upon another, 
could not co-exist ; whereas, were it a plurality of powers, and the brain, 
of organs, a given organ, and with it its power, might be deranged, whilst 
the others remained in a healthy state, which coincides with facts. 

III. The brain consists of as many different portions called or- 
gans, as the mind does of faculties. 

If the brain be a unity, then the pathological or diseased condition of 
any portion of it must affect the brain as a ivhole, and prove injurious to 
the mind as a whole, affecting equally its every function and operation ; 
but in case the brain is an assemblage of parts or organs, it is plain that 
the injury of one of them will affect that particular class of mental func- 
tions which is exercised by it, and that only. Now this is the form which 
insanity generally assumes. This class of facts is of that positive, " ad 
ho?nine?i," conclusive character which will at once establish or refute phren- 
ology, and the force of which no reflecting mind can gainsay or resist. 

IV. The faculties are possessed originally in different degrees of 
power by different individuals, and also by the same individual. 

V. Other conditions being equal, the size of the brain, and of each 
organ, is the measure of their power of function. 

This principle of increase by exercise, and decrease by inaction, is 
familiar in its application to the hands of the laborer, sailor , &c, to the 
foot of the expert dancer and the pedestrian, to the breast of the rower, th 
right hand compared with the left, &c. And since the brain is governed 
by this same physiological law, why should not its effect be the same upon 
the organs of the brain 1 It is for our opponents to show that this is not 
the case, especially since there are so many facts establishing this point. 

Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1838, by 0. S. Fowler, 
in the Clerk's Office of the Eastern District of Pennsylvania. 


Explanation of the Cuts, (abbreviated c.) Cut 1 shows tb.p location 
number, and abbreviated name of the organs : 2, their general divisions or 
classification ■■ 3, 4, present occipital and frontal views of the organs 
5 is a profile cut of Washington : 6, of Franklin : 7, of Hersche 1 •• 8, 9, of 
Le Blanc, the murderer of Judge Say re and family, of N. J. : 10 represents 
a well balanced, or perfect head : 1 1 is a cut of a highly intellectual female, 
and one endowed with great versatility of talents : 12, 13, are cuts of 
Me-che-Ke-le-a-tah, the celebrated war-chief of the Miami Ind'ans : 14 s 
a cut of Aurelia Chase, murderer of Dr. Durkey's wife, Bait. : J ■>, <>f Black 
Hawk: 16, 17, of an Indian chief: 18, of De Witt Clinton: 19 of Biu- 
nell, engineer of the Thames tunnel, Eng. : 20, of Philip, a notorious thief 
and liar, (p. 320) : 21, 27, of a skull found on the British lines at York 
town, Va. : 22, 23, of a remarkably intelligent monkey : 24, 32, of a hyena : 
25, 26, of a N. A. Indian : 28, of an idiotick child : 29, of a full-grown idiot : 
50,37, of an ichneumon : 31, 36, of a fox : 34, crow : 37, 43, of a very cun- 
ning and roguish cat : 40, of Shakspeare, from an English portrait, said to 
be the most correct extant: 41, of Robert Hall : 42, a New Zealander. 

The principal conditions upon which the mental manifestations are 
found to depend. These are mainly as follows. 

I. The size of the brain, other conditions being equal, is found to be 
measure of the aggregate amount of the mental power ; and the rela- 
tive size of the several organs of an individual, indicates the proportional 
strength and energy of his corresponding faculties. 

It should, however, be remembered, that the amount of one's mental 
power, depends even more upon these "other conditioris," such as his 
organization, or the vigour of his constitution, the condition of his nutri- 
tive organs, the state of his health, his temperament, the amount of 
excitement under which his various faculties act, his education, habits, 
diet, &c, than upon the size of his brain alone. Accordingly, in conse- 
quence of different degrees of health, rest, fatigue, excitement, &c, the 
manifested quantity or amount of a man's mental power, will vary twenty, 
forty, and even eighty per cent., whilst the kind or quality will differ 
little if any. Hence, both in proving phrenology, and also in applying its 
principles, the province of the phrenologist is to point out the character 
or kind of talents and mental power, rather than their precise amount ,- 
and yet, if. he is informed as to these " other conditions," (and it is not 
only his right to know them, but preposterous in him to pronounce with- 
out such knowledge,) he can ascertain very nearly the amount, as well 
as the kind, of intellect and feeling. 

Average. — One having an average-sized brain, with activity only 
average, will discover only an ordinary amount of intellect ; be inadequate 
to any important undertaking ; yet, in a small sphere, or one that requires 
only a mechanical routine of business, may do well : with activity great 
or very great, and the organs of the propelling powers and of practical 
intellect, large or very large, is capable of doing a fair business, and may- 
pass for a man of some talent, yet he will not be original nor profound ; 
will be quick of perception ; have a good practical understanding ; will do 
well in his sphere, yet never manifest any traces of greatness, and out 
of his sphere, be common-place : with moderate or small activity, will 
Jiardly have common sense. 

, Full. — One having a full-sized brain, with activity great or very great 
Mid the organs of practical intellect and of the propelling powers, large o- 


very large, although he will not possess greatness of intellect, nor a deep*, 
strong mind, will be very clover ; have considerable talent, and that so dis- 
tributed that it will show to be more than it really is; is capable of being 
a good scholar, doing a fine business, and, with advantages and applica- 
tion, of distinguishing himself somewhat, yet he is inadequate to a great 
undertaking ; cannot sway an extensive influence, nor be really great : with 
activity full or average, will do only tolerably well, and manifest only a 
common share of talents : with activity moderate or small, will neither 
be nor do much worthy of notice: c. 15. 43. 

Large. — One having a large-sized brain, with activity average, will 
possess considerable energy of intellect and feeling, yet seldom manifest it 
unless it is brought out by some powerful stimulus, and will be rather 
too indolent to exert, especially his intellect : with activity full, will be 
endowed with an uncommon amount of the mental power, and be capable 
of doing a great deal, yet require considerable to awaken him to that 
vigorous effort of mind of which he is capable ; if his powers are not 
called out by circumstances, and his organs of practical intellect are only 
average or full, he may pass through life without attracting notice, o r 
manifesting more than an ordinary share of talents : but if the perceptive 
faculties are strong or very strong, and his natural powers put in vigorous 
requisition, he will manifest a vigour and energy of intellect and feeling quite 
above mediocrity ; be adequate to undertakings which demand originality 
of mind and force of character, yet, after all, be rather indolent (c. 1 8) : with 
activity great or very great, will combine great power of mind with greet 
activity ; exercise a commanding influence over those minds with which 
he comes in contact ; when he enjoys, will enjoy intensely, and when he 
suffers, suffer equally so ; be susceptible of strong excitement , and, with 
the organs of the propelling powers, and of practical intellect, large or 
very large, will possess all the mental capabilities for conducting a large 
business ; for rising to eminence, if not to pre-eminence ; and discover 
great force of character and power of intellect and feeling : with activity 
moderate, when powerfully excited, will evince considerable energy of 
intellect and feeling, yet be too indolent and too sluggish to do much ; 
lack clearness and force of idea, and intenseness of feeling ; unless lite- 
rally driven to it, will not be likely to be much or do much, and yet actu- 
ally possess more vigour of mind, and energy of feeling, than he will 
manifest; with activity 1, or 2, will border upon idiocy. 

Vert Large. — One having a very large head, with activity average or 
full, on great occasions, or when his powers are thoroughly roused, will 
be truly great; but upon ordinary occasions, will seldom manifest any 
remarkable amount of mind or feeling, and perhaps pass through life with 
the credit of being a person of good natural abilities and judgments, yet 
nothing more : with activity great, strength, and the intellectual organs 
the same, will be a natural genius ; endowed with very superior powers 
of mind and vigour of intellect; and, even though deprived of the advan- 
tages of education, his natural talents will surmount all obstacles, and make 
him truly talented (c. 7) : with activity very great, and the organs of prac- 
tical intellect and of the propelling powers large or very large, will possess 
the first order of natural abilities ; manifest a clearness and force of intel 
lect which will astonish the world, and a power of feeling which will carry 
all before him ; and, with proper cultivation, enable him to become a brigh 
star in the firmament of intellectual greatness, upon which coming age* 




may gaze with delight and astonishment. His mental enjoyment will be 
most exquisite, and his sufferings equally excruciating: c. 5. (i. 40. 41. 

Moderate. — One with a head of only moderate size, combined with 
great or very great activity, and the organs of the propelling powers and 
of practical intellect, will possess a tolerable share of intellect, yet appear 
10 possess much more than he does ; with others to plan for and direct 
him, will perhaps execute to advantage, yet be unable to do much alone ; 
will have a very active mind, and be quick of perception, yet, after all, 
have a contracted intellect (c. 10. 26) ; possess only a small mental calibre, 
and lack momentum both of mind and character: with activity only average 
jr fair, will have but a moderate amount of intellect, and even this scanty 
allowance will be too sluggish for action, so that he will neither suffer nor 
enjoy much : with activity moderate or small, be an idiot. 

Small on teri Small. — One with a small or very small head, no 
matter what may be the activity of his mind, will be incapable of intellect- 
ual effort; of comprehending even easy subjects; or of experiencing much 
pain or pleasure ; in short, will be a natural fool : c. 28. 29. 

II. The Strength of the Sistem, including the brain, or what is 
the same thing, upon the perfection or imperfection of the organization. 
Probably no phrenological condition is so necessary for the manifestation 
of mind, as a strong, compact constitution, and energetick physical powers. 
Even after a violation of the laws of the organization has brought on 
disease, a naturally vigorous constitution often retains no small share of ita 
former elasticity and energy, and imparts the same qualities to the mental 
operations (c. 5. 6. 7. 12. 15. 18. 40. 41. 43) ; but, in proportion as thi 
is defective, weakness and imbecility of mind will ensue. 

III. The Degree of Activity. — In judging of the manifestations of the 
mind, the activity of the brain is a consideration quite as important as it* 
size. Whilst size gives power or momentum of intellect an ' feeling, acti 
vity imparts quickness, intensity, willingness, and even a ret«»ess desire, to 
act, which go far to produce efficiency of mind, with accompanying effort 
and action. Under the head of size, however, the effects of the different 
degrees of activity were presented, and need not to be repeated here. 

The temperaments are capable of being greatly modified, and their 
proportion even radically changed, by the habits, diet, exercise, &c, of the 
individual. The hard-working man, who exercises his muscles mainly, 
and culcivates but little sensitiveness, either of bod}' or feeling, and the 
fashionable belle, who experiences the other extreme of excessive sensibi- 
lity, both physical and mental, will serve to illustrate this point. 

Tbi> author is of opinion, that, in the case of the temperaments, as in 
that of the several organs, the nearer equal they are, the better for the 
manifestation of both the physical and mental energies, and for long life. 
y The Propelling or Executive Faculties. — One having combat., 
destruct., firmness, self-esteem, hope, &c, large or very large, and an active 
brain, has impetus, enterprise, and efficiency, and drives what he takes 
hold of : these faculties being to the mind what steam is to the engine, or 
wind to the sail. Large in c. 5. 6. 12. 15. 16. 18. 40. 41. 42. 

Average or Full, is between one with these organs large and smalL 

Moderate or Small, takes hold of things softly and with mittens on , 
lacks efficiency ; and has not enough "go ahead" in him : c. 10. 21. 26. 

V. Upon the Temperament, by which term phrenologists designati 

8 stnofsis o*- FHRiffoioar, 

the degiee of energy with which various classes of the corporal organ* 
operate. With some propriety, they describe four temperaments. 

1. The Ltmphatick, or that in which the various secreting glands are 
the most active portion of the system, produces an ease-seeking disposition 
of mind and body, and aversion to effort. Hence it tends to lengthen out 
life, as is evident from its predominating more in young children and ad- 
vanced age. Signs : soft and abundant flesh ; slow but steady pulse ; love 
of ease ; light hair ; and great size of the abdominal viscera. The author 
regards this temperament in a more favourable light than do most other 
phrenologists: p. 39. c. 7. 41. 

2. The Sanguine, or that in which the arterial portion of the system, 
which gives circulation to the various fluids, particularly the blood, predo- 
minates in activity, is accompanied with strong feelings, warm passions, 
and a great amount of ardour, zeal, activity, and warmth of feeling, yet 
with less endurance and power. Its predominance indicates a strong con- 
stitution ; love of physical pleasure ; and a stirring, business talent : com- 
bined with much of the Iymphatick, it is less favourable to the menial 
manifestations, and requires much exercise in the open air. Signs : sandy 
or auburn hair ; fair skin , a fresh, florid countenance ; blue eyes ; a strong, 
rapid pulse ; warm passions ; a deep and broad chest and shoulders ; a 
stout, well built frame ; &c. : p. 39. 

3. The Bilious, or that in which the osseous and muscular portions of 
the system predominate in activity, produces great physical strength ; 
endurance and power both of body and mind ; with great force and energy 
of mind and character. Signs : a bony, muscular, athletick frame ; black 
hair ; dark skin ; dark eyes ; a strong, steady pulse ; hardness of flesh ; 
bones projecting; &c. : p. 39. c. 5. 12. 13. 15. 16. 

4. The Nervous, or that in which the brain and the nerves predomi- 
nate in activity, gives clearness of perception ; quickness of mind and body; 
susceptibility to excitement, with less power and endurance. Signs: light, 
fine, and thin hair; a thin, clear, delicate skin ; smaller frame; head relatively 
large ; small chest; rapid, but not hard or strong pulse ; &c. : p. 39. c. 10. 

The nervous predominant, with a large share of the bilious and san- 
guine, combines a great amount of power and endurance of mind and 
body, with great activity and excitability ; and is more favourable to intel- 
lectual pursuits, and vigour of thought and feeling, than perhaps any other 
When one of this temperament enjoys, he enjoys intensely, and when he 
suffers, his sufferings are extremely excruciating: c. 6. 11. 15. 40. 43. 

The sanguine-bilious is not an unfavourable temperament, nor particu 
larly favourable, but whilst it gives a great amount of mental power, it if. 
frequently, though not always, coupled with some manifest deficiency. 

The nervo-bilious unites great pc-wer with great activity, and, although 
it seldom gives great brilliancy, it produces that kind of talent which will 
stand the test, and shine in proportion as it is brought into requisition. A 
good share of the sanguine added, is more favourable to the manifestations 
of mind, and also, of physical power, than probably any other: c. 6. 41. 

The bilious, combined with the Iymphatick, gives considerable power of 
mind, and strength of body, accompanied with so much heaviness and indo- 
lence as to be less favourable ; yet, if one with this temperament acts under 
strong excitement, his efforts tell with power upon the object in view : c. 7. 

The nervo-sangutneous, with but little bilious, gives extreme intensity 
of action, and perhaps brilliancy of talent with vivid feelings and "onccp 






lions, yet, for want of the strength imparted by the bilious temperament, the 
mental operations will be flashy, vapid, and too intense to remain long 
enough to amount to much, the activity being too great for the strength. 

But the following classification and naming of the Temperaments, 
appears to the author more simple and comprehensive, and less liable to be 
misunderstood, than those now used. Mail's physical organization is com- 
posed of three, instead of four, classes of organs, namely, — 
^ I. The Vital Temperament, or the nourishing apparatus, embracing 
those internal organs contained within the trunk, which manufacture 
vitality, create and sustain animal life, and re-suppy those energies expen- 
ded by every action of the brain, nerves, or muscles. This temperament 
s anaJagous to the Sanguine and Lymphatic temperaments. 

II. The Motite Apparatus, or the bones, muscles, tendons, &c, 
which gives physical strength and bodily motion, and constitutes the frami 
work of the body. This is analagous to the bilious temperament. 

III. The Mental Apparatus, or nervous temperament, embracing the 
nrain and nervous system, the exercise of which produces mind, thought, 
feeling, sensation, &c. (For a full description of these temperaments, 
and their effects on mind and character, see " Fowlers Practical Phren 
ology," pp. 10 to 23.) 


GENUS I. Affective Faculties, on Feelings. These occupy 
the back and upper portions of the head, where the hair appears, and 
originate the feelings, emotions, sentiments, passions, &c. : p. 45. 

SPECIES I. Domestick Propensities, or Family and Social Feelings. 

'/ Average or Full, loves and enjoys his family, yet not passionately. 
I. Large or Vert Large, sets every thing by his family ; is an affec- 
tionate companion and parent ; very happy with, and miserable without 
or away from, his home and family, &c. : c. 5. 10. 11. 12. 14. 15. 42. 
Moderate or Small, is not well qualified to enjoy or perform family 
or social duties and relations ; considers other interests as paramount. 

\. 2 AMATIVENESS. — Reciprocal attachment and love of the sexes. 
Average, loves the other sex, and enjoys their society, well : c. 10. 11. 
Full, feels much love and tenderness for the opposite sex ; is fond of 
them, yet, with activity great, has excitability rather than power : p. 59. 
Large, is an ardent admirer and tender lover of the person and com- 
pany of the other sex ; capable of intense connubial attachments ; feels 
strong sexual impulses, desire to marry ; &c. : p. 57. c. 5. 7. 12. 15. 16. 
- Vert Large, is even passionately fond of the other sex ; experiences 
a power and activity of sexual love almost uncontrollable : p. 58. c. 14. 
Moderate, is rather deficient in sexual love, attentions to the opposite 
sex, &c. ; may have ardour, yet less strength, of this passion: p. 59.43 
Small, feels little sexual or connubial love, or desire to marry : p. 59. 
Vert Small, seldom or never experiences this feeling : p. 60. c. 29 31 

*, 3. PHILOPROGENITIVENESS.— Parental attachment,- love of 
one's offspring ,■ fondness for pets, young and tender animals, <5rc: p. 61. 
Average, loves his own children, yet not fondly, dislikes those of others. 
/Full, as a parent, is tender, but not indulgent ; fond of his own child- 
ren, yet not partial to others ; bears little from them : p. 63. c. 8. 11. 15 
Large, feels strong, tender parental love ; is devotedly attached, and very 



kind, to his own, if not all, children, to pets, &c. : p. 62. c. 12. 16. 
Very Larce, is passionately fond of all children, of pets, &c. ; a gene* 
ral favourite with them ; very indulgent and playful ; idolizes his own 
children ; is liable to over-indulge them : p. 63. c. 10. 14. 20. 21. 22. 42. 
Moderate, loves his own children some, yet bears little from them ; 
dislikes those that are young, or not his, or troublesome : p. 64. 
Small, feels little interest in even his own children, much less in those 
of others ; is liable to treat them unkindly : p. 64. c. 26. 
Very Small, has no parental love ; hates all children : p. 64. c. 30. 
4. f ADHESIVENESS. — Friendship ; social feeling ; love of society 
Average, is quite friendly, yet will not sacrifice much for friends. 

/ Full, is highly social, yet not remarkably warm-hearted : p. 66. c. 16 
^? ( Large, is eminently social, an ardent, sincere friend; enjoys friendly 
society extremely; forms strong, if not hasty, attachments : p. 65. C 11. 
Very Large, loves friends with indescribable tenderness and strength 
of feeling ; will sacrifice almost every thing upon the altar of friend- 
ship ; with amat. full or large, is susceptible of the most devoted con- 
nubial love ; falls in love easily : p. 65. c. 10. 14. 20. 21. 42. 
Moderate, loves friends some, yet self more ; quits friends often : p. 67. 

• Small, is unsocial, coid-hearted, likes and is liked by few or none : p. 67. 
Very Small, is a stranger to friendly social feeling : p. 67. c. 24. 32. 

I. 5. INHABITIVENESS.— Love of home as such ,• attachment to the 
place where one has lived ; unwillingness to change it ,- patriotism. 
Average, forms sonfe, though not strong, local attachments : c. 8. 12. 

/ Full, loves home well, yet does not grieve much on leaving it : p. 69. 

'f, Large, soon becomes strongly attached to the place in which he lives ; 
loves home and country dearly ; leaves them reluctantly ; is unhappy 
without a home of his own: p. 68. ^3. 12. 14. 15. 16. 21. 
Very Large, regards home as the dearest, sweetest spot on earth ; feels 
homesick when away ; dislikes changing residences; is pre-eminently 
patriotic ; thinks of his native place with intense interest : p. 68. c 5. 
Moderate, has some, but no great, regard for home as such : p. 69. c. 26. 
Small or Very Small, forms few local attachments ; cares little 
where he is ; makes any place home : leaves and changes residences 
without regret : p. 69. ( | The number according to Spurzheim.) 

6. CONCENTRATIVENESS.— Unity and continuity of thought ana 
feeling ,• power of entire and concentrated application to one thing. 
Average, possesses this power to some, though to no great, extent. 
Full, is disposed to attend to but one thing at once, yet can turn ra- 
pidly from thing to thing ; is neither disconnected nor prolix : p. 71. c. L5,\ 
Large, is able and inclined to apply his mind to one, and but one, sub- ■ 
ject for the time being, tiU it is finished ; changes his mental operations 
with difficulty ; is often 'p^lix?:'"]!. 72. c. 12. 42. 

Very Large, places his mind upon subjects slowly; cannot leave them 
unfinished, nor attend to but one thing at once ; is very tedious ; has 

3 great application, yet lacks intensity and point i p. 70. 
, Moderate, loves and indulges variety and change of thought, feeling 
occupation, &c. ; is not confused by them ; rather - lacks application ; has 
inte?isity, but not unity, of the mental action : p. 71. c. 16. 
Small, crave? novelty and variety ; has little application ; thinks and 
feels inten« -, yet not long on any thing ; jumps rapidly from premise 
to conclusion fails tc connect and carry out his ideas, &c. : p. 71. c. 14 



Vert Small, is restless; satisfied only by constant succession: p. 72, 
This faculty is sui generis, and affects both feeling and intellect. 

8PEC1ES II. Selfish Plopensities. These provide for the various 
animal wants ; have reference to the necessities, desires, and gratifications 
/ of their possessor ; and terminate upon his sensual interests and wants. 
( a Large or Vert Large, has strong animal desires ; is strongly tempted 
to gratify them ; prone to be selfish, unless the moral sentiments are still 
stronger ; and will take good care of number one : c. 8. 12. 14. 15. 16. 20. 
Moderate or Small, is not selfish enough ; easily trode upon; needs 
to have some one to take care of him ; and cannot give himself up to 
low-lived, sensual pleasures : c. 10. 11. 21. 41. 

A. VITATIVENESS. — Love of existence a.s such, dread of annihilation. 
Average, is attached to life, and fears death, yet not a great deal. 
xEull, desires life, but not eagerly, from love of it and of pleasure : p. 74 

(j, Large, loves, and clings tenaciously to, existence, for its own sake, 
craves immortality and dreads annihilation, even though miserable : p. 74 
Very Large, however wretched, shrinks from, and shudders at the thought 
of, dying and being dead ; feels that he cannot give up existence : p. 74 
Moderate, loves life, yet is not very anxious about living : p. 74. 
Small or Very Small, heeds not life or death, existence or annihilation 

6. 6. COMBATIVENESS. — Feeling of resistance, defence, opposition , 
boldness, willingness to encounter ,- courage, resentment, spirit : p. 75. 
Average, is pacifick, but, when driven to it, defends his rights boldly , 
avoids collision, strife, &c, yet, once excited, is quite forcible. 

i ^Full, seldom either courts or shrinks from opposition ; when roused, is 
quite energetick ; may be quiet tempered, yet is not contentious : p. 78 
Large, is resolute and courageous ; spirited and efficient as an oppo- 
nent ; quick and intrepid in resistance ; loves debate ; boldly meets, if 
he does not court, opposition : p. 75. c. 5. 15. 8. 16. 
Very Large, is powerful in opposition ; prone to dispute, attack, &c. 
contrary ; has violent temper ; governs it with difficulty : p. 77. c. 12. 14. 
Moderate, avoids collision; is rather pacifick and inefficient: p. 7S 
Small, has feeble resistance, temper, force, &c. ; is cowardly : p. 79 
Very Small, withstands nothing ; is chickenhearted ; an arrant coward 

7. l. DESTRUCTIVENESS. — Executiveness ,- indignation,- force,- 
severity ,- sternness ,- a destroying, pain-causing disposition .- p. 82. 
Average, has not really deficient, yet none too much, indignation. 19. 
Full, can, but is loath to, cause or witness pain or death ; has sufficient 

/* severity, yet requires considerable to call it out : p. 83. c. 5. 11. 
/<?t Large, when excited, feels deep-toned indignation ; is forcible, and dis- 
posed to subdue or destroy the cause of his displeasure : p. 82. c. 5. 18. 
Very Large, when provoked, is vindictive, cruel, disposed to hurt, take 
revenge, &c. ; bitter and implacable as an enemy ; very forcible : p. 83, 
c 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 24. 25. 26. 32. 33. 35. 42. 
Moderate, is mild ; not severe nor destructive enough ; when angry, 
lacks power ; can hardly cause or witness pain or death : p. 84. c. 10. 41. 
Small, would hardly hurt one if he could, or could if he would ; has 
so feeble anger that it is derided more than feared : p. 84. c. 21. 27. 
Very Small, is unable to cause, witness, or endure pain or death 
9. * ALIMENTIVENESS.— Appetite for sustenance ,- cause of hunger. 
Average, enjoys food well, but not very well ; hence is particular : c. 41. 
Full, has a good appetite, yet can govern it well ; is not greedy: p. S7„. 



Large, has an excellent appetite ; a hearty relish for food, drink, &C' 

enjoys them much ; is a good liver; not dainty : p. 86. c. 5. 12. 14. 

*fy A^Vehy Large, sets too much by the indulgence of his palate; eats with 

/ the keenest appetite ; perhaps " makes a god of his belly :" p. 87. c. 18 

/ Moderate, has not a good, nor very poor, but rather poor, appetite: p. 87 

Small or Vert Small, is dainty, mincing, particular about food ; eaU 

with little relish ; hardly cares when he eats, or whether at all : p. 88. 

9. 8. ACQUISITIVENESS. — Love of acquiring and possessing pro- 
perty as such ; desire to save, lay up. Jfc.,- innate feeling of mine and 
thine, of a right to possess and dispose of things .- p. 89. 
Average, loves money, but not greatly ; can make it, but spends freely 
Full, sets by property, both for itself, and what it procures, yet is not 

^penurious; is industrious and saving, yet supplies his wants: p. 93. 
*4- h Large, has a strong desire to acquire property ; is frugal ; saving of 
money ; close and particular in his dealings ; devoted to money-making 
trading, &c. ; generally gets the value of his money: p. 89. c. 5. 18. 
Very Large, makes money his idol ; grudges it ; is tempted to get it 
dishonestly ; penurious ; sordid ; covetous ; &c. : p. 92. c. 8. 9. 20. 26 
Moderate, finds it mcie difficult to keep than make money ; desires it 
more to supply wants than lay up ; is hardly saving enough : p. 94. c. 7. 14. 
Small, will generally spend what money he can get injudiciously, if not 
profusely ; lays up little ; disregards the prices of things-: p. 95. c. 27. 41 
Very Small, cannot know nor be taught the value or use of money : p. 95. 

10. 7. SECRETIVENESS.— -Desire and ability to secrete, conceal, <frc. 
Aterage, is not artful nor very frank ; is generally open ; can conceal. 

/" Full, can keep to himself what he wishes to, yet is not cunning : p. 99. 
(j) Large, seldom discloses his plans, opinions, &c. ; is hard to be found," 
out ; reserved ; non-committal : p. 96. c. 5. 40. 

Very Large, seldom appears what he is, or says what he means ; often 
equivocates and deceives ; is mysterious, dark, cunning, artful, given to 
double-dealing, eye-service. &c. : p. 98. c. 8. 9. 12. 13. 15. 16. 17, 20. 
25. 26. 22. 30. 31. 33. 34. 36. 37. 38. 43. 

Moderate, is quite candid and open-hearted; loves truth; dislikes 
concealment, underhand measures, &c. ; seldom employs them : p. 100. 
Small, speaks out just what he thinks ; acts as he feels ; does not wish 
to learn or tell the secrets of others, yet freely tells his own ; is too plain- N 
spoken and candid : p. 101. c. 21. 27. 41. \ 

Very Small, keeps nothing back; has a transparent heart: p. 101. 

GENUS III> Human, Moral, and Religious Sentiments : 102. 

SPECIES I. Selfish Sentiments. In their character and objects, these, 
faculties partake more of the human, and less of the animal, than do the 
selfish propensities, and although they terminate upon self, yet they have 
no inconsiderable influence upon the moral character : p. 47. 103. c. 2 
Average o" Full, has a respectable, though not great, regard for hia 
character, and desire to do something worthy of himself : c. 21. 10. 11 
Large or Very Large, thinks much of and about himself; has a great 
amount of character of some kind : p. 51. c. 5. 6. 12. 14. 15. 16. 18. 40 
Moderate, Small, or Very Small, has too little pride and weight 
of character and ambition to give manliness and efficiency : c. 20. 26. 

11. 10. CAUTIOUSNESS. — Carefulness,- provision against danger. 
Average, has some caution, yet hardly enough for success : c. 41. 
Fi'iXi has prudence and forethought, yet not too much : p. 105. c. 40 



fa Large, is always watchful ; on the look-out ; careful ; anxious ; solid* , 
tous; provident against real and imaginary danger, &c: p. 104. c. 5. 6. 
Very Large, hesitates too much ; suffers greatly from groundless fears , 
is timid, easily frightened, &c. : p. 105. c. 12. 13. 16. 17. 21. 26. 27. 31. 
Moderate, is rather imprudent, hence unlucky ; liable to misfortunes 
caused by carelessness; plans too imperfectly for action: p. 106. 
Small, acts impromptu ; disregards consequences ; fears nothing ; ' 
imprudent; luckless; often in hot water : p. 106. 
Very Small, is reckless, destitute of fear and forethought: p. 107. 
t Circumspection. Propriety; discreetness of expression and conduct 
Average or Full, has some, though none too much, discretion and 
propriety of expression and conduct ; sometimes speaks inconsiderately. 
Large or Very Large, weighs well what he says and does; has a 
nice sense of propriety ; thinks twice before he speaks once. 
Moderate or Small, does and says indiscreet things : unascertained. 

12. 11. APPROBATIVENESS.— Sense of honour, regard for charac- 
ter,- ambition,- love of popularity, fame, distinction, <Jjr. .• p. 107. 
Average, enjoys approbation, yet will not sacrifice much to obtain it. 
Full, desires and seeks popularity, and feels censure, yet will neither 
deny nor trouble himself much to secure or avoid either: p. 110. 
Large, sets every thing by character, honour, &c. ; is keenly alive to 
the frowns and smiles of publick opinion, praise, &c. ; tries to show off 
to good advantage; is affable, ambitious, apt to praise himself: p. 108. 
Vert Large, regards his honour and character as the apple of his eye ; 
is even morbidly sensitive to praise and censure ; over fond of show, 
fashion, praise, style, &c. ; extremely polite, ceremonious, &c. : p. 110. 

/(Moderate, feels reproach some, yet is little affected by popularity or 
^ unpopularity ; may gather the flowers of applause that are strewed in 

his path, yet will not deviate from it to collect them : p. 1 12. 

Small, cares little for popular frowns or favours ; feels little shame ; 

disregards and despises fashions, etiquette, &c. ; is not polite: p. 112. 

Vert Small, cares nothing for popular favour or censure. 

13. 12. Self-esteem. Self-respect ,- high-toned, manly feeling ,• innate 
love of personal liberty, independent, $c.,- pride of character : p. 113. 
Average, respects himself, yet is not haughty : c. 21. 41. 

s Full, has much self-respect ; pride of character ; independence : p. 1 16. 

(j? Large, is high-minded, independent, self-confident, dignified, his own 

master; aspires to be and do something worthy of himself; assumes 

£T responsibilities; does few little things : p. 114. c. 5. G. 

Os Vert Large, has unbounded self-confidence ; endures no restraint ; 

/ takes no advice; is rather haughty, imperious, &c; p. 1 16. c. 8. 14. 15. 16. 

Moderate, has some self-respect, and manly feeling, yet too little to 

give ease, dignity, weight of character, &c. ; is too trifling: p. 1 15. c. 26 

Small, lets himself down ; says and does trifling things ; associates 

with inferiors ; is not looked up to ; lacks independence : p. 117. c. 11. 

Very Small, is servile, low-minded: destitute of self-respect : p. 117. 

14. 15. FIRMNESS. — Decision, stability, fixedness of character, <fc. 119. 
Average, has some decision, yet too little for general success : c. -20. 
Full, has perseverance enough for ordinary occasions, yet too little for 

/ great enterprises; is neither fickle nor stubborn : p. 121. c. 21. 27. 
q , Large, may be fully relied on ; is set in his own way ; hard to be coa- 
* vincad or changed at all; holds on long and hard : p. 119. c. 6 

■U sruorsrs of phrenologt, 

/Very Large, is wilful ; and so tenacious and unchangeable of opi- 
/ nion, purpose, &c, that he seldom gives up any thing : p. 120. c. 5. 8. 
12. 14. 15. 16. 17. 

Moderate, gives over too soon ; changes too often and too easily ; thus 
fails to effect what greater firmness would do : p. 122. c. 11. 26. 
Shale or Very Small, lacks perseverance ; is too changeable and 
vacillating to effect much, or be relied upon : p. 122. 

SPECIES II. Moral and Religious Sentiments. These render 
man a moral, accountable, and religious being ; humanize, adorn, and 
elevate his nature ; connect him with the moral government of God ; 
create the higher and nobler sentiments of our nature ; and are the origin 
of goodness, virtue, moral principle and purity, &c. : p. 48. 123. c. 2. 
Average or Full, has moral feeling and principle, yet too Little to 

/withstand large or very large propensities : c. 15. 21. 

//(Large or Very Large, is morally inclined; sentimental; thinks and 
feels much on moral and religious subjects, &c: p. 52. c. 5. 6. 7. 11. 41. 
Moderate, Small, or Very Small, has not strong moral or religious 
feelings; lets his larger faculties rule him : p. 52. c. 14. 17. 20. 26.42. 

15. 16. CONSCIENTIOUSNESS.— Innate feeling of duty, accnunta- 

i bility, justice, right, S(C. ; moral principle ,- love of truth : p. 124. 
/A Average, has right intentions, but their influence is limited : c. 15. 

' Full, strives to do right, yet sometimes yields to temptation ; resists 
besetting sins, but may be overcome, and then feels remorse : p. 130. c 27. 
J- Large, is honest ; faithful ; upright at heart ; moral in feeling ; grate- 
^•° ful ; penitent ; means well ; consults duty before expediency ; loves and 
means to speak the truth; cannot tolerate wrong : p. 126. c. 13. 25. 11. 
Very Large, is scrupulously exact in matters of right ; perfectly honest 
in motive ; always condemning self and repenting ; very forgiving, con- 
scientious, &c. ; makes duty every thing, expediency nothing: p. 129. 
/\ , Moderate, has considerable regard for duty in feelmg, but less in prac- 
^ tice ; justifies himself; is not very penitent, grateful, or forgiving ; often 
temporizes with principle ; sometimes lets interest rule duty .- p. 131. 
Small, has few conscientious scruples ; little penitence, gratitude, re- 
gard for moral principle, justice, duty, &c. : p. 132. c. 20. 16. 17. 42. 
Very Small, neither regards nor feels the claims of duty or justice. 

16. 17. HOPE. — Anticipation,- expectation of future happiness, success, <$r. 
Average, has some, but generally reasonable, hopes ; is seldom elated 

f Full, is quite sanguine, yet realizes about what he expects : p. 139. 

/ Large, expects, attempts, and promises a great deal ; is generally san- 

v guine, cheerful, &c. ; rises above present troubles; though disappointed, 
hopes on still ; views the brightest side of prospects : p. 137. c. 5. 6. 26. 
Very Large, has unbounded hopes ; builds a world of castles in the 
air ; lives in the future ; has too many irons in the fire : p. 138. c. 12. 13. 
Moderate, expects and attempts too little ; succeeds beyond his hopes ; 
is prone to despond ; looks on the darker side : p. 139. 
Small, is low-spirited ; easily discouraged ; fears the worst ; sees many 
lions in his way ; magnifies evils ; lacks enterprise: p. 140. c. 17. 
Very Small, expects nothing good; has no hope of the future : p. 140. 

17. 18. MARVELLOUSNESS.— Belief in the supernatural; credulity. 
Average, believes some, but not much, in wonders, forewarnings, &c. 


Tull, is open to conviction; rather credulous ; believes in dreams, divine 
providences and forewarnings, the wonderful, &o. : p. 1 !'•>. 
Large, believes and delights in the supernatural, in dreams, ghosts, &c. ; 
thinks many natural things supernatural: p. 142. c. 8. 12. 
Vktiy Large, is very superstitious; regards most things with wonder 
Modkiiate, believes but little that cannot be accounted for, yet is open 
to conviction ; is incredulous, but listens to evidence : p. 144. 
h \ Small, is convinced only by the hardest ; believes nothing till he see-' 
■^ fads, or why and wherefore, not even revelation farther than a reason 
is rendered ; is prone to reject new things without examination : p. 145. 
Veuv Small, is skeptical ; believes little else than his senses : p. 146. 
e. ii VENERATION. — The feeling of worship for a Supreme Being; 
srespect for religion and things sacred, and 'J \ rs'i p. 147. 

■f/ AVEHAOH. may feel religious worship, yet little respect for meti. 10. 
/ Full, is capable of much religious fervour and devotion, yet is not habi- 
tually serious; generally treats his fellow men civilly: p. L49. C. 11.42. 
^- Large, loves to adore and worship God, especially through his works; 
^ treats equals with respect, and superiors with deference: p. 1 18. c. ti. 
V ehy Large, is eminent, if not pre-eminent, for piety, heart-felt devo- 
lion, religious fervour, seriousness, love of divine things, &c. : p. 149. 
C. 5. 12. 15. 16. 26. 41. 
/ Moderate, disregards religious creeds, forms of worship, &c. ; place* 
— ^ religion in other things; is not serious nor respectful: p. 15'J. c. 
"Small, feels little religious worship, reverence, respect, &c. : p. 150. 
Yi.iiv Small, seldom, if ever, adores God; is almost incapable of it. 
! 9. 13. BENEVOLENCE. Desire to see and make sentient beings h 
willingness to for this end; kindness; sympathy for disii 
Average, has kind, fellow feeling, without much active benevolence. 
Full, has a fair share of sympathetick feeling, and some, though no 
^reat, willingness to sacrifice for others: p. 158. 

Lari.e, is kind, obliging, glad to serve others, even to his injury ; feels 
L .ively sympathy for distress ; does good to all : p. 155. c. 6. 7. 18. 21. 
/ Vkht Large, does all the good in his power ; gladly sacrifices self upon 
/ the altar of pure benevolence ; scatters happiness wherever he goes ; u 
one of the kindest-hearted of persons : p. 157. c. 5. 11. 40. 41. 
Moderate, has some benevolent feeling, yet too little to prompt to much 
self-denial ; does good only when he can without cost : p. 158. c. 12. 2!». 
Small, feels little kindness cr sympathy ; is almost deaf to the cries of 
distress; hard-hearted, selfish, &c. : p. 159. c. 8. 14. 15. 26. 42. 
Vert Small, is destitute of all humanity and sympathy : p. 159. c. 24. 
SPECIES III. Semi-Intellectual Sentiments. By creating a taste 
for the arts, improvements, polite literature, the refinements and elegancies 
of life, &c, these faculties greatly augment human happiness, and adorn 
and elevate human nature : p. 48. 159. c. 2. Large in c. 6. 11. 18. 
Z0. 9. CONSTRUCTIVENESS. Mechanical dexterity and ingenuity . 
desire and ability to use tools, build, invent, employ machinery, $c. 
Average, has some, yet no great, relish for, and tact in, using tools. 
. Full, has fair mechanical ingenuity, yet no great natural talent or deiuro 
/ to make things; with practice, will do well ; without it, little : p. 163. 
'/ ^Large, shows great natural dexterity in using tools, executing mecba 
nical operations, working machinery, &c ; loves them: p. 161. c. 18. 




Very Large, is a mechanick of the first order ; a true genius / love* it 
too well to leave it ; shows extraordinary skill in it : p. 162. c. 7. 19. 
Moderate, with much practice, may use tools quite well, yet dislikes 
mechanical operations; owes more to art than nature : p. 163. c. 14. 
Small, hates and is awkward and bungling in using tools, &c. : p. 163. 
Vehy Small, has no mechanical skill or desire : p. 164. 

21. 19. IDEALITY. — Imagination ,■ taste ,• fancy ; love of perfection, 
poetry, polite literature, oratory, the beautiful in nature and art, <$-c. 

Average, has some taste, though not enough to influence him much. 

~ s f Full, has refinement of feeling, expression, &c., without sickly delicacy ; 

^ 6ome love of poetry, yet not ;t vivid imagination : p. 168. c. 6. 7. 42. 
Large, has a lively imagination ; great love of poetry, eloquence, fiction, 
good style, the beauties of nature and art : p. 166. c. 1 1. 18. 41. 
Very Large, often gives reins to his erratick imagination ; experiences 
revellings of fancy, ecstasy, rapture of feeling, enthusiasm : p. 167. c. 40. 
Moderate, has some, but not much, imagination ; is rather plain in 
expression, manners, feeling, &c. ; dislikes poetry, finery, &c. : p. 1C^. 1 i. 
Small, lacks tast-j, niceness, refinement, delicacy of feeling, &c. : p. 169. 
Very Small, is destitute of the qualities ascribed to this faculty : p. 169. 
B. SUBLIMITY. — Conception of grandeur ,■ sublime emotions excited 
by contemplating the vast, magnificent, or splendid in nature or art. 
Average, sometimes, but not to a great degree, experiences this feeling. 
/ Full, enjoys magnificent scenes well, yet not remarkably so. 
J'iLarge, admires and enjoys mountain scenery, thunder, lightning, tem- 
pest, a vast prospect, &c, exceedingly ; hence, enjoys travelling : p. 249. 
Very Large, is a passionate admirer of the wild and romantick; feels 
the sublimest emotions whilst contemplating the grand or awful in na- 
ture ; dashing, foaming, roaring cataracts, towering mountains, peals of 
thunder, flashes of lightning, commotions of the elements, the starry 
canopy of heaven, &c. : p. 249. c. 11. 40. 41. 

Moderate, has some, though not at all vivid, emotions of this kind. 
Small, or very Small, discovers little in nature to awaken this feeling. 

22. 21. IMITATION. — Disposition and ability to take pattern, imitate. 
Average, copies some, yet too little to deserve or excite notice. 

/ Full, with effort, copies some, but not well ; cannot mimick: p. 171. 
/ Large, has a great propensity and ability to copy, take pattern from 
if others, do what he sees done, &c. ; needs but one showing ; gesticulates 
much ; describes and acts out well : p. 170. c. 41. 
yp-KY Large, can mimick, act out, and copy almost any thing; de- 
scribe, relate anecdotes, &c, to the very life ; has a theatrical taste and 
talent; seldom speaks without gesturing: p. 171. c. 11. 40. 
*L Moderate, cannot mimick at all ; can copy, draw, take pattern, &c, 
^ only with difficulty ; describes, relates anecdote, &c, poorly : p. 171. 
.Small, dislikes and fails to copy, draw, do after others, &c. : p. 172. 
Very Small, has little ability to imitate or copy any thing: p. 172. 

23. 00. MIRTHFULNESS.— Intuitive perception of the absurd and 
ridiculous ; a joking, fun-making, ridiculing disposition and ability. 
Average, perceives jokes, and relishes fun, but cannot make much. 

s Ftjll, has much mirthful feeling ; makes and relishes jokes well : p. 175. 
(j^Large, has a quick, keen perception of the ludicrous ; makes a great 
amount of fun ; too much for his own good ; is quick at repartee ; smiles 
often ; laughs heartily at jokes: p. 173. c. 11. 18. 


Vert Large, is quick and apt at turning every thing into ridicule ; 
throws off constant sallies of wit ; is too facetious, jocose, &c. : p. 175. c 6 
Moderate, has some witty ideas, yet lacks quickness in conceiving, 
and tact in expressing them; is generally quite sober : p. 176. c. 26. 
Small, makes little fun ; is slow to perceive, and still slower to turn 
jokes; seldom laughs; thinks it wrong to do so: p. 177. 
Vert Small, has few if any witty ideas or conceptions : p. 177. 

GENUS III. Intellectual Faculties. These have to do with the 
physical and the metaphysical world ; with things in general, and their 
Qualities, relations, &c. ; with the world and its contents : p. 49. 177. c. 2. 
X~)Average or Full, has sufficient intellect to get along in the world, 
Is yet not enough to render him eminent for talents : c. 10. 15. 21. 27. 
Large, is possessed of sufficient natural talent and power of intellect 
to enable him to take a high intellectual stand among men, yet their 
direction depends upon other causes : c. 18. 

Vert Large, is by nature a truly great man ; possesses the highest 
order of natural talents ; is capable of rising to pre-eminence : c. 5. 6. 
7. 11.40. 41. 
Moderate or Small, shows little talent ; lacks sense : c. 8. 14. 20. 42. 

SPECIES I. The Senses , sensation, sight, hearing, taste, smell. 178. 

SPECIES II. — Observing and Knowing Faculties. These bring 
man into direct intercourse with the physical world ; observe facts of 
all kinds, that is, the conditions, qualities, phenomena, and physical 
relations of material things ; collect and treasure up information ; create 
the desire to see and know things, &c. : p. 50. 183. c. 2. 
y Average or Full, possesses fair perceptive powers : c. 6. 10. 11. 21. 
ff Large, with advantages, knows a great deal about matters and things 
in general ; is very quick of observation and perception ; has a practical, 
matter-of-fact, common sense tact and talent ; can show off to excellent 
advantage ; appear to know all that he really does, and perhaps more ; 
is capable of becoming an excellent scholar, or of acquiring and retaining 
knowledge with great facility, and attending to the details of business ; 
and has a decidedly practical intellect: p. 50. c. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 25. 
Vert Large, is pre-eminent for the qualities just described ; seizes as 
if by intuition upon the properties, conditions, fitness or unfitness, value, 
&c, of things ; has wonderful powers of observation and ability to 
acquire knowledge ; has a natural taste and talent for examining and 
collecting statistics, studying natural science, &c. : p. 53. c. 5. 7. 12. 40. 
Moderate or Small, is rather slow of observation and perception ; 
cannot show to be what he is ; acquires knowledge with difficulty ; 
is slow in learning and doing things off-hand, &c. : p. 53. 

24. 22. Individuality. — Observing and individualizing power and, 
desire ,■ curiosity to see and know ; disposition to specify, personify . 
Average, has some, yet no great, curiosity, and desire to see things. 

/ Full, has fair observing powers, and desire to see things : p. 185. c. 6. 21. 
/) .Large, has a great desire to know, investigate, examine, experience 
&c. ; is a great observer of men and things ; quick of perception ; sees 
what is transpiring, what should be done, &c: p. 184. c. 8. 10. 11. 14. 25 
Vert Large, has an insatiable desire to see and know every thing ; 
extraordinary observing powers ; is eager to witness every passing 
event: p. 185. c. 5. 7. 12. 13. 15. 22. 23. 40. 41. 42. 



Moderate, is rather deficient, yet not palpably so, in observing powe? 
and desire ; not sufficiently specifiek : p. 1 S5. 
Small, is slow to see things ; attends little to particulars : p. 186. 
Very Small, sees scarcely any thing; regards things in the gross : p. 186. 

25. 23 FORM. — Cognizance and recollection of shape, or configuration 
Average, recollects forms, faces, &c, quite well, but not very well. 

x Full, recognises persons, countenances, &c, well : p. 188. c. 9. 19. 
r. Large, notices, and for a long time remembers, the faces, countenances, 
forms, looks, &c, of persons, beasts, things, <Stc., once seen ; knows by 
sight many whom ho may be unable to name : p.- 187. c. 6. 18. 40. 26. 
Vert Large, never forgets the countenance, form, &c, of persons and 
things seen ; easily learns to read and spell correctly; reads and sees things 
at a great distance; has excellent eyesight: p. 188. c. 5. 7. 13. 17. 23. 39. 
Moderate, must see persons several times before he can recollect them ; 
sometimes doubts whether he has seen certain persons : p. 189. 
Small or Vert Small, has a miserable memory of persons, looks,, 
shape, &c. ; fails to recognise even those he sees often : p. 189. 

26. SIZE. — Cognizance and knowledge of relative magnitude, bulk, <$r. 
Average, measures bulk with tolcnjble, but not great, accuracy : c. 2 1. 27. 
Full, can measure ordinary and familiar distances well, yet shows no 
remarkable natural talent in it : p. 191. c. 6. 8. 9. 10. 14. 18. 
Large, has an excellent eye for measuring proportion, size, height, 
angles, perpendiculars, &c. ; quickly detects disproportions in them : 
p. 190. c. 11. 19. 25. 42.5. 

*"y< Very Large, detects disproportion, and judges of size, with wonderful 
/ accuracy, by intuition, and as well without as with instruments ; cannot 
/ endure inaccuracy : p. 191. c. 7. 12. 13. 15. 16. 17. 40. 

Moderate, is rather deficient in measuring by the eye ; with practice, 

may do tolerably well in short, but fails in long, distances : p. 191. 

Small, judges of relative size, <&c, very inaccurately : p. 191. c. 28. 29. 

Vert Small, can hardly distinguish mountains from molehills : p. 192. 

27. WEIGHT. — Intuitive perception and application of the principles 
of specifiek gravity, projectile forces, momentum, balancing, resistance. 
Average, balances himself tolerably well in ordinary cases, yet has no 
great natural talent in this respect: c. 21. 27. 

Full, keeps his centre of gravity well, but ventures little: p. 194. <\ . 
Large, can walk on a high or narrow place ; hold a steady hand ; throw > N 
a stone or ball, and shoot, straight ; ride a fractious horse, &c, very 
well : p. 193. c. 16. 17. 25. 26. 40. 41. 

Vert Large, has this power to a wonderful extent : p. 194. c. 7. 1 3. 15. 

IModerate, maintains his centre of gravity, &e., rather poorly : p. 194. 

l v ? Small or Vert Small, is unlike one with weight large : p. 195. c. 20. 

28. 26. COLOUR. — Perception and recollection of colours, hues, tints, <fc. 
Average, can discern and recollect colours, yet seldom notices them. 
Full, with practice, compares and judges of colours well; without it, does 
not excel: p. 196. c. 10. 11. 41. 

Large, has a natural taste and talent for comparing, arranging, mingling, 
applying, and recollecting colours ; is delighted with paintings: p. 195. 
Vert Large, resembles one with colour large, but excels him : p. 196. 
/ l, Moderate, aided by practice, can discern and compare colours, yet owes* 
W less to nature than art ; seldom notices colours unless obliged to, and 
then soon forgets them : p. 197. c. 20. * 

WITH references to "phrenology proved," &c 17 

Small, seldom observes the colour of one's hair, eyes, dress, &c. ; can- 
not describe them by what they wear, or compare colours apart ; hardly 
distinguishes the primary colours by candlelight, much less shades: p. 197. 
Vert Small, can tell white from black, but do little more: p. 197. c 19. 
*9. 28. ORDER. System,- physical arrangement ; a place for things. 
Average, appreciates order, yet not enough to keep it : c. 9. 10. 27. 

6 Full, likes order ; takes much pains to keep things arranged : p. 200. 
Large, has a place for things, and things in their places ; can find, even 

in the dark, what he alone uses ; is systematick ; annoyed by disorder : 

p. 199. c. 6. 11. 15. 19.40.41. 

Very Large, is very precise and particular to have every little thing in 

its place ; literally tormented by disorder; is fastidious : p. 199. c. 5. 7. 

Moderate, likes, but does not keep order ; allows confusion : p. 201 

Small or Very Small, is nearly destitute of order and system : p. 201. 

dO. 29. CALCULATION. — Intuitive perception of the relations ofnum- 

I hers ; ability to reckon figures in the head ; numerical computation. 

//Average, by practice and rules, may reckon figures quite well : c. 10. 

'Full, aided by rules and practice, may excel in reckoning figures, and 

do well in his head, but not without them : p. 204. c. 11. 27. 

Large, can add, subtract, divide, &c, in his head, with facility and 

correctness ; become a rapid, correct accountant ; delights and excels in 

arithmetick: p. 202. c. 5. 13. 15. 19. 

Very Large, has an intuitive faculty, to a wonderful extent, of reckoning 

even complicated sums of figures in his head ; delights in it: p. 203. c. 7. 

Moderate, does sums in his head rather slowly and inaccurately : p. 204. 

Small, is dull and incorrect in adding, dividing, &c. ; dislikes it: p. 205. 

Very Small, can hardly count, much less go farther : p. 205. c. 2S. 29. 
31. 27. LOCALITY. Cognizance and recollection of relative position, looks 

and geography of places, Sfc; desire to travel, see the world, 4"C- p. 205. 

Average, has a fair, though not excellent, recollection of places : c. 27. 

Full, remembers places well, yet is liable to lose himself in a city or 

forest ; ordinarily shows no deficiency ; seldom loses himself: p. 207. c. 8. 

Large, recollects distinctly the looks of places, where he saw things, 

&c. ; seldom loses himself, even in the dark ; has a strong desire to 

; travel, see places, <fcc. : p. 205. c. 20. 25. 26. 
'Very Large, never forgets the looks, location, or geography of any 
place, or hardly thing, he has ever seen ; is even passionately fond of 
travelling, scenery, geography, &c. : p. 206. c. 5. 7. 12. 13. 16. 17. 40. 
Moderate, recollects places rather poorly ; sometimes gets lost : p. 207. 
Small or Very Small, has little geographical or local knowledge or 
recollection ; seldom observes where he goes, or finds his way back : p. 208. 
SPECIES III. Semi-perceptive Faculties. These have to do with 
action or phenomena, and their conditions, and deal them out to the 
reasoning faculties : p. 50. 209. Large in c 5. 7. 17; small in 6. 25. 
82. 30. EVENTUALITY. — Recollection of actions, phenomena, occur- 
rences, what has taken place, circumstantial and historical facts ; p. 209. 
Average, has neither a good nor bad memory of occurrences, &c.; c. 8. 
Full, recollects leading events, and interesting particulars, and has a 
s good memory of occurrences, yet forgets less important details: p. 212. 
^> , Large, has a clear and retentive memory of historical facts, general news, 
L. what he has seen, heard, read, &c, even in detail: p. 210. c. 5. 10. 16. 
V ^vVehy Large, never forgets any occurrence, even though it is trifling ; 
/ 2* 



has a craving thirut for information and experiment ; literally devour* 
books, newspapers, &e. ; commands an astonishing amount of informa- 
tion ; p. 211. c. 12. 13. 14. 20. 

Moderate, recollects generals, not details ; is rather forgetful : p. 2 12. c. 6 
Small, has a treacherous, confused memory of occurrences : p. 213. 
Vert Small, forgets almost every thing, generals as well as particulars. 

33. 31. TIME. — Cognizance and recollection of succession, the lapse of 
time, dales, how long ago things occurred, §c. : p. 2 1 4. f\ 
Average, notices and remembers dates, times, &c, some, but not welL 
Full, recollects about, but not precisely, when things occurred : p. 216. 
Large, tells dates, appointments, ages, time of day, &c, well? p. 215 - ■ j 
Vert Large, remembers, with wonderful accuracy, the time of occur 
rences ; is always punctual ; tells the time, day, &c, by intuition : p. 216. 

JiModerate, has rather a poor idea of dates, the time when, &c. :p. 216. 
Small, can seldom tell ivhen things took place ; forgets dates : p. 217. 
Vert Small, is liable to forget even his age, much more other things. 

34. 32. TUNE. — Tone,- sense of melody and musical harmony ,• ability 
to learn tunes and detect chord and discord by ear ,- propensity to sing. 
Average, likes music ; with practice may perform tolerably well. 
Full, can learn tunes by ear well, yet needs help from notes : p. 220. 
Large, easily catches tunes, and learns to sing and play on instruments 
ny rote ; delights greatly in singing ; has a correct musical ear : p. 218. 
Veut Large, leams tunes by hearing them sung once or twice ; is 
literally enchanted by good musick; shows intuitive skill, and spends 
much time, in making it ; sings from the heart, and with melting pathos : 
p. 219. c. 12. 

Moderate, aided by notes and practice, may sing, yet it will be me chin '-> 
nically ; lacks that soul and feeling which reaches the heart : p. 220. 
Small, learns to sing or play tunes either by note or rote with great 
difficulty; sings mechanically, and without emotion or effect: p. 221. 
Vert Small, can hardly discern one tune or note from another : p. 221. 
85. 33. LANGUAGE. Power of expressing ideas, feelings, c]-c, by 
means of words, attaching meaning to signs, 8(C. ; verbal memory; 
desire and ability to talk: p. 222. 

Average, can communicate his ideas tolerably well, yet finds some 
difficulty ; uses common words ; can write better than speak. 
Full, commands a fair share of words, yet uses familiar expressions ; 
is neither fluent nor the reverse ; when excited, expresses himself freely, 
•- yet not copiously : p. 22?'. c. 6. 

(a Large, is a free, easy, ready, fluent talker and speaker ; uses good lan- 
guage ; commits easily ; seldom hesitates for words : p. 224. c. 5. 7. 20. 

^*t-Vert Large, has by nature astonishing command of words, copious- 
/'ness and eloquence of expression, and verbal memory; quotes with-" 

/ ease; is an incessant talker ; has too many words : p. 226. c. 11.40.41. 
Moderate, often hesitates for words ; employs too few ; may torite well, 
and be a critical linguist, but cannot be an easy, fluent speaker : p. 228 
Small, employs few words, and those common-place ; in speaking, 
hesitates much ; is barren in expression ; commits slowly : p. 228. , 

Vert Small, can hardly remember or use words at all, or read : p. 229. , ^ 
GENUS IV. Reflective or Reasoning Intellect. This looks 
beyond mere physical facts and natural phenomena, and investigates 
their causes, abstract relations, analogies, great principles, &c. ; originates 


ideas ; ascertains and applies natural laws; contrives; invents, &c. ; p. 229. 
Large or Very Large, with perceptive intellect less, gives great depth 
without brilliancy of talent ; shows to be less than he is ; holds out well. 

36. 35. CAUSALITY. — Cognizance of the relations of cause and effect ; 
ability to apply them, or to adapt means to ends ,■ power of reasoning, 
drawing inferences from premises, discovering first principles, <S(-c. 
Average, has some, but no great, ability to plan and reason : c. 

. C^Full, adapts means to ends well; has an active desire to ascertain 
causes, yet not a deep, original, cause-discovering and applying mind • 
f- / p. 236. c. 
*(tf 'Large, plans well ; can think clearly and closely ; is always inquiring 
into the why and the wherefore — the causes and explanation of things ; 
always gives and requires the reason ; has by nature excellent judgment, 
good ideas, a strong mind, &c. : p. 233. c. 5. 18. 19. 41. 
Very Large, is endowed with a deep, strong, original, comprehensive 
mind, powerful reasoning faculties, great vigour and energy of thought, 
first-rate judgment,, and a gigantick intellect: p. 236. c. 6. 7. 11.40. 
Moderate, is rather slow of comprehension ; deficient in adapting means 
to ends; has not good ideas or judgment: p. 237. c. 8. 12. 13. 15. 1G. 
Small, has a weak, imbecile mind ; cannot contrive or think : p. 238. 
c. 14. 20. 25. 26. 
Vert Small, little idea of causation : is a natural fool : p. 238. c. 2S. 29 

37. 34. COMPARISON.— Perception of analogies, resemblances, differ- 
ences ; ability to compare, illustrate, criticise, classify, generalize, Q-c. 
Average, perceives striking analogies ; illustrates tolerably well : c. 8. 2 1. 

f Full, illustrates, discriminates, &c, well, but not remarkably so : p. 243. 

L0 • Large, has a happy talent for comparing, illustrating, criticising, arguing 
from similar cases, discriminating between what is and is not analogous, 
or in point, classifying phenomena, and thereby ascertaining their laws, 
&c. : p. 241. c. 7. 12. 13. 15. 18. 19. 

Very Large, is endowed with an extraordinary amount of critical acu- 
men; analytical, comparing, and illustrating power: p. 243. c. 5. 6.40.41. 
Moderate, may discern obvious similarities, yet overlooks others : p. 244. 
Small or Very Small, is almost destitute of this power: p. 244. c. 28. 29. 
Having made numerous observations upon the following organs, and 
especially upon snavitiveness, the author considers them as highly pro- 
bable, but not as ascertained. (See pp. 248-9.) He therefore places 
Uiem before the tribunal of facts, and awaits its decision, meanwhile 
summoning the phrenological world as witnesses. They were first 
pointed out by L. N. Fowler, brother of the author. 
C. SUAVITI VENESS. Ability to render one's self agreeable,- pleasant- 
ness. ; 
/-— Average or Full, neither excels nor is deficient in this respect. 

^ Large or Very Large, readily wins confidence and affection, even of 
enemies ; can say and do hard things without creating difficulty ; obtain 
favours ; get along well ; so say and do things that they take : p. 248. 
Moderate or Small, is deficient in the power just described 

I'D. This faculty is as yet without a name. One with this organ 

\p , Large or Very Large, perceives, as if by intuition, the character ant! 
motives of men from their physiognomy, conversation, &c. ; is suspicious, 
and seldom deceived ; naturally understands human nature : p. 247. 40. 
Moderate or Small, seldom suspects others; is easily imposed upon ; 

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IS 14