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Scribendi recte sapere est et principium etfons. Hor. 





(All Rights resei-vea 



THIS work is intended to meet the want of an Introduc- 
tory Treatise for beginners, in a form suited to the 
previous training of educated Englishmen, and, in accord 
with the views expressed in a recent Manifesto of the 
Imperial Institute, aims at the promotion of a scholarly 
and appreciative cultivation of the most important of the 
Indian Vernaculars ah initio. 

The method adopted is that of the best books of the 
kind now used in our Public Schools, and may be shortly 
described as a compendious course of Syntax and Idioms, 
with Model Exercises in application step by step. Each 
Exercise in its turn explains and illustrates some new 
point or points of Usage, till the subject is exhausted, and 
a fairly complete view of the quality and resources of the 
l:in^nago placed before the student. The application of 
tin- ordinary principles of clause-an.-ilysis to the diction 
of Hindustani, which occupies the Second Part of the 
Kxerfises, is indispensable to the formation of a correct 
and idiomatic style, whether in speaking or writing. 

The Moilel Sentences are taken from the best modern 
writers, chiefly from the works of Maulavi Nazir Ahmed, 
the author of the Taulat (see note on p. 140 below), and 



from the Letters of the late Mirza Nausha (Galib), both 
Dehli men and of undisputed authority in native literary 
circles. Use has also been made of the generally excellent 
Urdu version of part of the Alf-Laila, which was published 
in Lucknow a few years before the Annexation. 

Thus, in addition to their more immediate function, the 
Hindustani Sentences serve as a Delectus or Introductory 
Reader. To give them in lithograph in the written cha- 
racter, which alone is of practical value, was unfortunately 
an impossible undertaking in this country ; but they may 
be published separately in this form hereafter if the 
demand arises. 

Part III. contains a series of Lessons in Translation, 
which are drawn up on the principle that the simplest and 
shortest way to teach this kind of work is to show how it 
is done ; and as there is no part of his preparatory course 
in which the learner needs more and usually receives less 
help, no apology is made for the fulness of the instructions. 

M. K. 

Dley, 1890. 


As regards Grammar, the change of method which under- 
lies the teaching of this work has been well received. At 
the suggestion of friends, an Introductory Chapter has 
been prefixed to Part I ; and the addition of sundry 
details to the grammatical commentary has completed 
the equipment of the Volume as an independent and 
sufficient aid to the acquisition of an accurate and 
idiomatic command of Hindustani, colloquial and literary. 

A better type-fount, of similar cast to that used in the 
Service Examinations of this country, has been found for 
the Reading Exercises, and vowel signs have been more 
freely used. 

Also, words inadvertently omitted in Vocab. No. 2 have 
been supplied. 

M. K. 

Ulcy, 1803. 




1. The Alphabet 2. Variations in the form of letters, as initial, 
medial, and final. 3. The recognition of Hindi, Persian,and Arabic 
words used in Hindustani. 4. Vowel sounds and their repre- 
sentation. 5. Orthographical signs, viz. : Hamza, TasJidid, 
Madda, Sukun. 



I. The Substantive verb. 2 . Tense nomenclature. 3. Summary 
Rules for the determination of the Gender of Noun*. 


t Order of the words in a simple sentence. 9. Particles of 
Inference and Emphasis. 


1 4-. Formation of Plurals. (5. Persian and Arabic Plural*. 
|5. Plurality of Subjects, how treat i-.l. 17. Order of tho 




22. Nouns and Pronouns in the construct state, before an Affix. 
23~26. Izufat and its signs and uses. 


3 1 . Postpositional Verbals and sign of izafat. 3 2 . Mode of 
expressing "have". 33. Nouns in apposition. 


38. Combination of Substantive verb with nouns, effective as 
intransitive Compound verbs. 39. The base form of the 
Substantive verb in combination with the intransitives jdnd. 
'hid, rahnd, etc. 40. K> the sign of Remote Object. 41. 
Another mode of expressing "have."- 42. -&'o, as marking 
;i point of Time. 43. Usage of the Reflexive Pronoun apnd, 


48. The verbal noun Infinitive or Gerund in nd. 49. Noun 
of Agency. 50. The Locative affixes men, par, tak. 52 
(15). Note on the use of he, instead of ko, with intransitives. 


55. The Gerund as a Jussive. 56. With negative particle as a 
strong form of denial or negation. 57. The Separative affix 
ye. 58. Comparison of Adjectives. 59. The affix sd of 
-imilitude or comparison. 


64. Combination of the transitive karnd with nouns, effective as 
transitive Compound verbs. 65. K> as a sign of the Near 
Object of a transitive verb ; rules for use. 66. The I'a-t 
Conjunctive Pirti-iple, or Past Defective: its usage 67. 
The Aorist. 



72. Causal Verbs and their formation. 73. Intensive Compound 
Verbs. 74-. Potentials and Completives. 75. Inceptive, 
Acquisitive, and Permissive Verbal Compounds. 


80. He, the sign of the Agent. 31. Excepted quasi-transitives. 
82. The Six Past Tenses in connection with which ne 
marks the Agent. 83. Formation of the Past or Perfect 


88. Causal verbals in t combined with dend (Intransitive): 
the Compounds sdth cfena, chal-dena, ho-lend (also Intran- 
sitive). 89. Secondary Forms of the Imperative. 90. 
The Verbal chdhi'e. 


95. The Ism-fd'il and Ism-maf'Al. 96. Substantival usage. 

101. Adjectival usage (1), Attributive (2), Predicative. 


106. Adverbial usage: construct form with suppression of Post- 
position men. 107 (!) Predicative of the Agent of a Transitive 
Verb. (2). Predicative of the Object with *o.--|08. With 
an Object of its own. 



113. "Csage of Participles in connection with Time and its lies sure- 
ment. ||5 (15). The first bit of Hindustani recorded br 
an Englishman. 


| J8. The Imperfect Participle in combination -with the tenses of 
junu, or rahnd, with effect as a Progressive : the combination 
jdid-ratnid. ||9. The Perfect Participle in combination 
with the Tenses of jdnd, as a "Passive Voice" : comparatively 
infrequent in Hindustani. (20. The sign of the object, Jco, 
occasionally used in this construction : Impersonal Passives. 1 2 I . 
Perfect Participles of intransitive verbs of motion in combination 
\\i\\\jdnd and and. 


J26. '^he Perfect Participle in combination with the Tenses of 
karnn, with effect as a Continuative Compound Verb infran- 
sitire: (27. ^ n "(-mbination with chahnd, as a Desiderative. 
also intransitive. 128. The Perfect Participle (construct 
state) in combination with jdnd or rahna. with cfTect as a Con- 
tinuative : 129 ^ u combination with dend or ddlna, z? a 





134-135 (!) Relative Clauses, and the Relatives jo, jitna, 
jaisd : qualitative ki. 136. Correlatives. 


|4-| (2). Predica 4 ive Clauses and connective Particles. 14-2. 
Uniform use of the oratio recta, with illustrations. 


14-7 (3). Adverbial Clauses, viz. : (48 (<*) Temporal, (6) Local, 
(c) Modal clauses, and the Particles which introduce them. 
14-9. Alternative phrtses : correlative terms. 


1 5 4-. Adrerbial Clauses continued, viz. : 155 (^) Final cl; : 

and Particles used. 156 ( e ) Causal clauses, and introductory 
Particles, etc. 


161. Adverbial Clauses continued viz.: (/) Conditional: Protaiis 
and Apodosis and Particles introductory. (62. Conditions 
which may be or may have been realised : The Dubious '1\ 
Historic Tenses employed, if the realisation of the condition 
is assumed. 163. Conversion of Conditional clauses into 
Predicative and Optative clauses. 


168. Conditions which might have been, but were not, realised: 
formation of the Past Conditional Tense : three forms of the 
Tense : Footnote as to the proper place of this Tense in the 
Verb-scheme. 169. Retention of Past Imperfect in apodosis. 
170. Conversion of Conditional clauses into Predicative and 
Optative clauses. 


175. Concessional Clauses a form of the Conditional : The Particles 
employed in protasis and apodosis : Turning of the phrase 
" No matter how " 



180 181. Co-oi'dinate clauses and their classification. 

(1) Appositive or Collateral clauses characteristic of Hindustani. 


186 (2)- Adjunctive Clauses ; the Conjunction aur ; used to denote 
simultaneity and contrast : other Connectives. 


191 (3) Alternative clauses, and Particles employed: yd in the 
sense of " instead " : alternative Conjunctions : use of kyd. 
192. Negative alternation: idiomatic omission of first 
negative : mode of expressing ' else.' 


197 (4)- Adversative clauses, and Disjunctives in use: shmles of 
difference in meaning. 




(. Diiliculty of the subject. 2. The origin of the Urdu or 
Hindustani Language. 3 Its simplicity and directness. 
4-. The Semitic aftergrowth. 5t Occasional ceremoniousness 
of phraseology. fi. Other literary characteristics. Note on 
the value of the Taitbat of M. ITazir Ahmed. 7. Suggestions 
for guidance in translation from English into Hindustani. 


Fables and Apologues for translation into Hindustani. Fourteen 
pieces, with directions. 


Easy Naratives from Indian History. Fourteen pieces, with direc- 
tions for translation. 


Miscellaneous pieces, eighteen in number, from Lawrence, Elphinstone, 
and Malcolm, with directions for translation. 


H.M.'s Proclamation (1858), with directions for translation. 



Conspectus of Arabic Verbal Forms current in Hindustani, -with 
explanation in detail of those which are derived from "weak" 
roots. Persian and Arabic Plurals current in Hindustani, with 
classification of the latter . 


The Tense System of the Hindustani Verb. (See Part I, para. 2, 
and Note on p. 114.) 


On the UPS of the RoTnan character in Transliteration. Three chief 
difllculties : 

(1). The representation of vowel sounds. 

(2). The differentiation of certain consonants. 

(3). The representation of the letter 'ain. 

.Xote on the pronunciation of the letters 'ain and gain. 

Cardinal Numbers from one to a hundred. 


Hindustani-English : Words used in the Reading Lessons of 
Parts I, II. 


English-Hindustani : Words used in the Translation Exercises of 
Parts I, II, III. 



































































































































vi or v 





















2. In script and type both, all the above letters are 
joinable with a preceding letter ; and, except in the case 
of \ . and of letters of the form j , , are joinable with a 
following letter also, in most cases by the removal of the 
curved stroke in which they terminate in the detached 

The following table shows this for type. (Read from 
right to left.) 


Medial. I Initial. Detached Form 



A A A A A 


J J J J J 


C. tl <L el 




Remark. The ' transliteration ' column in the first 
table shows what may be called the current literary mode 
of 'romanising' the various forms for tbe consonants 
t, s, z, etc., which are included in the composition of the 
Hindustani Alphabet ; but, so far as pronunciation is 
concerned, there is no necessity for this kind of dif- 

3. In the Hindustani Alphabet twenty-eight of the 
letters are pure Arabic. Of the remaining seven, Nos. 
3, 8, 17, 29 are adaptations of the form in each case 
immediately preceding to denote variations in sound 
required for the Persian language, when the Arabic 
character was adopted. In much the same way, Nos. 5, 
12, 15 transliterate the peculiar Hindi cerebrals for 
which it was necessary to find a place in the Hindustani 
Alphabet. In script, the delay caused by the four dots 
placed over each of these three letters is lessened by 
the adoption of a form resembling the letter toe, which 
includes the dots in a single stroke of the pen. 

As a rule, the ten letters 6, 9, 13, 20-25, and 27, are 
not used in the transliteration of Hindi words current in 
Hindustani. They occur in Arabic and Persi- Arabic words 


* Cliodzko says : DCS nuances d'articulation qui, en arabe, dis- 
tingueut quelques lettres lea unes des autres, di>p:iniissent dans la 

bouche des Persans. Ainsi, les lettres d_J et t _ i* t / w ^ __ 
J ..a i se prouoncent indiflercminent conime le t fni: 
lo * francais initial, ot comme le francais entre deux voyelles, on 
i-onnne le z slave. He accordingly transliterates the letters of each 
group by one and the same letter. See App. C. 



These pailiculars and the inferences to be drawn from 
them are important, for a first step to scholarship in 
Hindustani is ability to distinguish between the various 
constituents of the language. Certain letters and 
combinations of letters are pecular to Hindi, Persian, 
and Arabic respectively, so that the words in which they 
occur reveal their own origin. 



Sound and Transliteration. 



s > s 

,.t^sjJ^ anjuman 


a : as a in abroad, or u in w/j 


(03 J ^\ in dinon 
J.I urdii 

i : as i in iwre 
M : as u in c/, Germ. 


,JO> <_j 1 die hain 

d : as d in dwe, Fr. 

T = \\ 

i}A-'l fohwar 

: as 2 in C/e, Fr. *j 

IM^* *' 1 l I 

e : as e in efr-e, r r. J 


y j\ Upar 

ti : as oii in outre, Fr. "| 


^j\ 6ld 

6 : as o in open 


WJ 1 disd 

aii \ as rti in ctisttf 


J$j\ auldd 

an : as aw in a?;/, Germ. 


Tlie first three entries in the table (right hand column) 
are short sounds common to the Hindi, Persian and 


Arabic tongues. (As to their occasional modiGcation see 
App. C.) They are represented in the Arabic way by 
the signs called fatha, kasra, zamma (or zalar, zer, pesh in 
Persian), with silent alif as a prop. 

The next three entries are the same sounds prolonged 
by the addition of the semi-vowels alif, ye, wdv, homo- 
geneous respectively \\ithfatha, kasra, zamma.* 

The remaining two are diphthongs in which fatha is 
followed by ye and icdv. 

These five long sounds are also common to Hindi, 
Persian and Arabic. 

The Hindi language, however, uses two other exten- 
sions of i and , viz., e and 6, which are occasionally 
met with in Persian also, and these are represented IK 
Hindustani in the same way as i and u. In reading, this 
double use of ye and u-dv is the chief difficulty which 
meets the beginner.f 

When these ten vowel sounds are not initial in other 
words, when they vocalise the consonant which precedes 
them, the adventitious alif, being no longer necessary, is 
withdrawn. Thus, with the consonant re, we have, read- 
ing from the right : 

f ? * 

| ro or ru jj | re or ri ^ \ rd \ | ru , | ri j \ ra . 

ran )j \ rai ^j 

* In archaic forms of Arabic writing, the vowels are represented by 
alif, ye, wdo alone, rule or accent determining in each case the length 
of tone. 

t The use of <= _ instead of t_> for & final is a great convenience. 
Native scribes use whichever form best suits their idea of symmetry 
in relation to the adjoining letters, or tho linear space at their 

In the following pages o and e will be used instead of <J and < ; , where 
tr.mslitenition is resorted to. 


in the fourth of which it -will be noticed that the hori- 
zontal alif has disappeared. 

The examples given in the table will be found to 
illustrate the whole of the ten vowel sounds, initial or 

The student will find that the vowel signs fatlm, kasra, 
zamma are seldom or never used in script, as they are 
exceedingly troublesome to write, and bat rarely in print. 
Observation and the use of the dictionary will soon 
enable him to dispense with them. 


XG ^ 

(1) 2'^jj) hamza, an Arabic term, which technically 

signifies the ' effort' of uttering a vowel sound ai the 
beginning of a syllable, and is represented by the 
upper part of the letter c , the enunciation of which, in 
combination with a vowel sotmd, demands a peculiar effort. 
In strict accuracy, therefore, hamza should be written 
over each of the initial alifs in the table above ; and often 
is so written in Arabic, though not in Hindustani ; 
moreover, when these same vowel sounds follow, in the 
same word, a syllable which ends with a vowel, the rule 
is to retain the hamza and drop the alif, or, when the 
vowel indicated is liasra, to change the alif into ye, written 
without the subscript dots. Thus the dissyllable jjLs 

which fully written would be Jul^S reads dd'ud, and *jlj > 

* | I .. 

for |*1 w reads qaim. Were this word written +-\' i with 

the subscript dots of ye retained, the reading would be 


qdyim. Similarly *V.'<J' is written *Vu If the first 
syllable ends in war, and the vowel of the second is fatha, 
both alif and hamza are written, as in .$*) . These words 
are chosen because they, and others like them, arc current 
in HiL'dostani. 

Now it is in accordance with the principles above 
explained that hamza appears in the transliteration of 
Hindi words into the Hindustani character, that is to say, 
when, in the same word, a sellable which begins with a 
vowel follows one which ends with a vowel, hamza is 
written, more Arabico, above and between the syllables, 
and when the vowel of the second is kasra, has the support 
of ye without its subscript dots, e.g., 

ib pd'o, ^Uj bhd'i, ^^ ko'i, .U-j su'ar, jjuJujJ fe'zs, 

_\ ka'i, ^JLa"' barha'i, A^ lie, fj di'e, ^j*\>. cltdhi'e, 

^i^ */ ^^ 

words which are in constant use, though often misunder- 
stood and miswritten See note to 83. 

The Persian use of hamza for the sign of izdfat, when 
the governing word ends in ^ or o , is occasionally met 
with in Hindustani. In this case hamza supports the 
unwritten kasra. 

The use of hamza in a certain class of Arabic verbals, of 
which there are many examples in Hindustani, is ex- 
plained with some detail in App. A. 

C s 

(2) JU.XU tasMiil, an Arabic verbal of which the 

technical sense is 'duplication.' When the sign of 
tashdid is placed over a consonant, it shows that this letter 
is doubled in pronunciation, e.g., J^ sattar, 'sovi-uty.' 



(3) j^ maddah, 'prolongation' (of sound), is a term 
used to describe the horizontal nlif, as used in the pre- 
sentation of the long vowel a (see table above, 4th 

vowel sound). 
f ? 

(4) ( Y, sukuii) ' quiescence,' the sign for which is 

placed over a consonant, which is not moved by a vowel, or 
from which the vowel has been displaced ; as in the word 

' <- s 

&^c'^- jazma, which is the name for the term in this latter 
sense. The use of this sign is mostly confined to words 
which for some reason or other it is convenient to 
delineate with nicety, such for example as the model 
forms given in App. A. 

I conclude this introduction by remarking that a 
scholarly knowledge of Hindustani implies acquaintance 
with the principles of word-building which are the dis- 
tinguishing characteristic of the Arabic language. A 
very large number of Arabic verbals are current both in 
Hindustani and in Persian, and it is not too much to say 
that a tabulation of the forms of these with examples, 
provides a key, not only to their orthography, but to their 
meaning and interconnection, which is invaluable. App. 
A to this work explains how this may be effectively 
worked out, and it will be found that the examples quoted 
in the table are words used in the Exercises, and whose 
frequent occurrence in colloquial language is therefore 
guaranteed. The student is strongly recommended to 
study the details of this tabulation from time to time, as 
he proceeds from point to point of the teaching which is 
now placed before him. 




\ t In this and the four succeeding Exercises parts of 
the substantive verb ljj& Jiond alone are employed. The 
following conspectus of the tenses of which use is made 
is added for reference. 












will be -I 



hog a 



Final c changed to i for fern. subj. 
Final e changed to lor In fo: fern. subj. 


am, art, is/ * 
ctc ' \ P l. 




Hold, etc., prefixed to the persons of 
tho I'resi-nt gives a fuller form, for 
existence or status. 



was < 








Pronounce the th as Ih in ant-l,ill. 
Final rf and e changed as above for 
fern, sir j. 


been. ( . 
was, -, 
became (.pi. 





Ditto ditto 



will, or f i. 

must, ( 
have been I. pi. 

hfl'fl or hfl'e, prefixed 
to persons of the I mure 

Ditto ditto 

Past Remote 


'i e (" >. 

timr :IKO),< 
hud \>fvn (. pi. 

hft'ft or hG'e. pu-tlxfil to. 

l>iTMiiis cf ttio Impfrivct 

Ditto ditto 

N. 15. The letter n is nasal throughout. 


2, The order and nomenclature of the tenses of the 
Hindustani verb are given in App. B, to which the careful 
attention of the learner is necessary throughout the 
course. In the table there printed, the designations of 
the tenses adopted by the native grammarians are com- 
bined with the order usually followed by English scholars 
from Gilchrist upwards, except in one important particular, 
viz., the position of the Past Conditional. This point will 
be adverted to when the usage of that Tense comes to be 

3 Gender is a real difficulty, which arises in part from 
the composite character of the language. 

The following two summary Rules for the determination 
of the conventional gender, or, as the French call it, the 
sexe fictiv, of things inanimate will be found sufficient for 
all practical purposes. 

Rule I. Hindi nouns in \ and . are generally mascu- 
line; but Persian and Arabic nouns in \ and Persian 
nouns in . are generally feminine. 

Nouns ending in $ are generally feminine, whether 
Hindi, Persian or Arabic. 

Rule II. Nouns ending in a consonant are generally 
masculine, excepting chiefly 

(1) Arabic verbals in or ^--? servile, and Persian 

verbals in , servile ; e.q.. i" i_i^. .- musibat ' rais- 

fortune,' ,,..> paricarish 'cherishing.' 

(2) Arabic verbals of Form II., viz., JjowJ taf'U, in 
which ; and _*. are both servile. (See App. A.) 

E-O-i *A!XJ ta'lim 'education.' 
t " 

PAI:T i. EXERCISE j. 11 

(3) Hindi and Persian verbal bases, when used as 
nouns; e.g., ,t< mar 'beating,' j^l umad 'advent.' 

Exceptions under all these heads should be registered 
by the student. 

4i Translate the following sentences into English. : 

fJN.B. The Hindustani sentences are a key to the translation of 
(he English sentences which follow them; and this plan holds 
good throughout Parts I. and II. of this work. Study (1) the 
meaning and construction of the words used ; (2) tins way in 
which the thought is put in each example.] 

The first use of a foreign tongue is to ask questions. This 
Exercise is therefore devoted to modes of interrogation, and 
practically exhausts them. 

*, (3) J> ^ J ^\ (2) ^ ^ ^7 (1) 

^ (5) ^ ^<jT ^.< ^ ^ (4) ^ J^ LJ/ 
J,> (7) U U^ ^ (6) 1<A <-b UT 

^j* >U Jy* (11) ^ r b U^ (10) 

1JU . (13) lf^ ,Gi t^ liU (12) ...o 

J J J ^ * * ^ Ur" 

A.U -C ,j (14) U 


(1) Xp 'self,' 3rd p. pi., like the German Sie, is to be translated 
here 'you.' This pronoun is nothing more than a courteous mvgni- 
tion of respei-tultility, likf our word ' Sir.' 


(2) This question may be taken as addressed to a stranger of 
doubtful appearance. Are is a Tocative particle, and is often used 
to attract the attention of a person at a distance : as are Mohan ! 
or Mohan re; Abe, another vocative particle, is contemptuous, like 
our ' Sirrah ' ! 

(3) Kaunsd, as compared with Jcaun, expects an answer in detail. 

(4) Ye h and wok are plural as well as singular. The grammatical 
plurals, ye and we, are discarded in modern Hindustani. The 
repetition of kaun is an example of one of the commonest and most 
effective idioms of the language.- The sense varies with the con- 
text. Here it is distributive, and the questioner asks, not who the 
men are as a whole, but individually. With this \inderstanding, 
translate ' What men are these ' ? 

As regards the transliteration of yeh and icoh, see App. C. 

(5) But is a word of many uses, like the Latin res, which has 
been called 'a blank cheque, to be filled up from the context to 
the requisite amount of meaning.' The question here implies 
surprise or indignation, and corresponds to our ' What is the meaning 
of this' ? or ' What is this I hear' ? Pronounce kyd. So, too, Jcyiin 
and kyunkar in (13), (14). 

(6) This question is something of the same nature as the fore- 
going ' What 's the matter ' ? ' What 'a all this ' ? ' What has 
happened ' ? etc. 

(7) A customary form of greeting, like our ' How do you do ? ' 
or ' How do ' ? with pronoun suppressed. Ap kaise hain ? ' How 
are you ' ? or Ap achchhe hain ? ' Are you well ' ? are often used. 
Take care to sound the doubled letter in the last phrase. 

(8) Duk-ghar or ddk-khdna ' post-house.' Observe in this sentence 
the different ways in which h is printed in and _!,,, according 

as a vowel does or does not intervene between it and the consonant 

(9) Kitnl dur, lit. 'How much distance?' that is, 'How far?' 
So, too, bari dur 'very far'; thort dur 'a little distance'; dur 
nahin ' not far ' ; chunddn dur nahin ' not so very far.' 

(10) Dam, the name of the smallest copper coin (native), used 
in the sense of ' price,' and appropriate to small purchases. Mol 
indicates the purchasing 'value,' and qimat, tie fixed 'price' of 
things in general. Bahd is 'value,' and Ihuo and nirkh the market 
' rate of sale.' 


(11) Huzir hole hain 'are in attendance,' or 'on duty.' See App. 
A, Form I. The participle Jiotu always refers to status (hdl). 

(12) Tat/i/ir : the duplication of the middle radical in this Arabic 
verbal must be fully enunciated. 

(13) Thu 'was,' at some particular time. If fi fid had been used, 
the emphasis of the query would have rested on magrd. 

(14) Ma'lum hai 'is known'; ma'ldm hotu hai 'is in process of 
being known/ hence, ' seems to be." See App. A, Form I. For the 
romauization of the letter 'ain, and the effect which this letter 
exercises on the adjacent rowel, see App. C. 

(15) An idiomatic question which denotes surprise at a person's 
presence, like our ' How do you come to be here ? ' ' Who would 
have thought of seeing you here ? ' ' You here ! and why ? ' 

{>, Translate into Hindustani : 

[N.B. The student will probably find it convenient to write out 
his version of the following sentences in the Roman character to 
begin with; but correct spelling in Hindustani is a matter of 
eye, not ear, to the European, and therefore the sooner and the 
oftener he uses the native character the better. 

The best way to form the hand is to watch a native scribe, 
and to copy from a good lithograph. Books used in native 
schools are the best for this purpose.] 

(1) Where is the telegraph-office ? (2) How far off 
is the ferry? (3) What is the toll? (4) How much 
money is due ? (5) When will breakfast be ready ? 
(G) What book is this? (7) Who is this woman? 
(8) How did this mistake occur ? (9) Why were you 
absent? (10) Why such delay? (11) Where were 
you? (1-2) What river is this? (13) What is the 
reason? (14) What port of arrangement is this? 
(15) Who is the muster-ot'-the-house ? 


7, Direction*. 

(1) ' Telegraph-office ' is neatly expressed in Hindustani by 
tdr-ghar ' wire-house.' See 4 . 8. 

(2) Ghat 'landing-place,' is the usual term for 'ferry'; utur or 
titrd ' the crossing,' is another common term, and these mean 
' ferriage ' as well. 

(3) 'What' is here Jcifnu, though Tcyu may be used. Mahsul is 
the official term for 'toll.' The breathing sound of the Arabic h 
must always be fully given. It is one of those letters which modify 
the adjacent short vowel. The effect here is a hardening of the 
zabar. See App. C. 

(4) Rvpaya is ' money ' in general, as well as a 'rupee.' 

(5) The word generally used for ' breakfast ' is hdziri, which lit. 
means ' attendance,' hence, a ' muster,' or ' gathering.' 

(6) Use the interrogative pronoun of 4i 3. 

(8) ' Occur,' ' happen,' ' come to pass,' etc., are sufficiently trans- 
la'.ed by the substantive verb. 

(9) ' Absent ' gair-hdzir, that is, ' not present,' lit. ' other than 
present.' Other privatives are Id and , used in Persian and 
Arabic words ; and the Hindi a or an is occasionally met with. 

In -writing the, take care to use the form of the final letter shown 
in hote, 4.. II. 

(10) ' Such,' itnt, not aisi, agreeing with deri or der. Omit the 
verb as in English. Let the interrogative stand last. 

(14) The question is depreciatory. The Persian compound 
bandoba'st is an every-day word for ' arrangement." Intizdm is 
' order,' or ' administration ' ; and tajwtz, tadbir, etc. are used for 
' plan,' ' contrivance,' ' expedient,' etc. 


3, It Avill be noticed in the examples of the previous 
Exercise that the subject stands first, then the interroga- 
tive, and then the verb. In the affirmative sentence 
adverbs of time, place, and mauner generally precede the 


subject. As a rule, Time, in whatever way it is expressed, 
tukc'S precedence in the order of ideas in the Hindustani 

^, The particle to is a colloquial expletive in constant 
use. It is inferential and allusive, but often so delicately 
as to be untranslateable. Tt adds point to dialogue with- 
out burdening the expression. 

Shi 'even' or 'too,' when added to an indefinite pronoun, 
corresponds to our ' at all.' 

Hi italicises, as it were, the word it follows. In com- 
bination with, the demonstrative pronouns, yeh and ?o//, 
the h is dropped, and their meaning becomes ' this very,' 
' that same,' etc. 

i Translate into English. : 

ltU3 Vb .; J* (2) y^U ^ j* (1) 


(9) ^> J^-^B 

f s <*s 

; <_->! (10) 

U- f j (13) Uj U, (12) 


11, Notes. 

(1) Kal means 'to-morrow' or 'yesterday,' according to the con- 
text. The Persian/arda 'to-morrow' is also current. 

(2) The Arabic tamdshd (see App. A, Form VI.), means 'amuse- 
ment ' of any kind, and the exact sense is determined by the context. 
It may be translated here ' a bit of fun.' Hud iha is the Past 
Remote. Translate here ' happened,' or ' came off.' 

(3) The substantiye verb in the present tense is inherent in the 
strong negative naliln. The sentence is the ' cooch perwanny ' of a 
former generation : ' It does not matter.' 

(5) The repetition of the indefinite pronoun gives the sense of 
deficiency: Tcuchh kuchh 'some little ' ; Tcoi Jcoi ' some few.' 

(6) Aur koi or koi aur 'some other,' 'another'; aur kuchJi or 
kuchh aur ' some more.' 

(7) Dusrt 'second 1 is here used in the sense of 'other.' Observe 
that the negative is printed in combination with the verb, a common 
custom in writing. 

(8) Eupaua 'rupees' is constructed as a noun of multitude with 
the verb in the singular. Sau derh sau 'a hundred or a hundred 
and fifty,' lit. ' a hundred, one and a half hundred." The numbers 
mentioned are not really alternative, and Hindustani dispenses with 
the alternative conjunction. Derh is one of several fractional numerals 
with which the student cannot too soon mate himself familiar. That 
he should commit to memory the cardinals from one to a hundred 
goes without saying. See App. D for a list. 

(10) ' There is very little time indeed left now.' Tang lit. means 
<ti c -ht.' 

(11) Persian adjectives are indeclinable. Hot! or Jtoti Tiai, not 
hai, because the idea is that the soil is unsuitable for the growth of 
cotton. JTai would mean that it is not grown, though it misht 

(13) Koi na kot 'one or another' ; ek na ek is used in the same 
sense. Kht'J'i, like luqi (7. 4), is an Arabic noun of quality in the 
form of the Agent, and is indeclinable. This word is sometimes 
used adverbially in the sense of ' only.' Hoga is here Presumptive, 
not Future. 

(14) ' Somewhere or otli^r.' Hui hogi, the Past Presumptive. 


(15) The Persian .'chak 'dust' is idiomatically used for Jcuchh in 
the sense of anything valueless or of small account. Translate, 
' To-day not the slightest effect was produced.' 

12i Translate into Hindustani : 

(1) Is anyone here ? (2) It was not at all hot here 
yesterday. (3) This mare seems to be extremely vicious. 
(4) What a nice garden ! (5) Is the Munshi ill to-day ? 
(6) This was the very thing. (7) There is not the slightest 
cause. (8) Some mistake or other must have been made. 
(9) It is of no consequence. (10) Some two hundred and 
fifty rupees are wanted now. (11) The fort is a full 
J:os distant. (12) Mind you are in attendance to-morro\v. 
(13) The Pandit is very ready-with-his-answers. (14) Is 
this stream fordablo ? (15) There must be a bazar some- 
where or other. 

13 Directions. 

(2) Turn this: 'There was not heat,' etc. The idiom of the 
language is to use nouns instead of adjectives if possible. Dhup 
' sun ' is often used for ' heat,' and is feminine. 

(3) See 5. 14. 

(4) Kaisd not JcyA. The translation of such a variously used 
word as 'nice* requires consideration. The over-tasked achMu 
is, of course, the easiest resource, and 'ttmda 'excellent' is another 
handy adjective ; but it would be strange if the language of Persia, 
a country of gardens, had not supplied an equivalent to our idea of 
'nice' in this connection. The following Persian compounds are 
applicable, viz., khush-numa, khiish-ru, dil-pasand, dil-Jcushii, dil-rulu, 
of which the first two denote what pleases the eye, and the others 
the mind. 

(5) The tone of voice is sufficient to mark a question of this 
kind, but it is often well to preface it by l-i/tl. In using appellatives, 
take care to add the appropriate term of respect, viz., sahib with 



words of Persian or Arabic origin, and jl xit\\ Hindi. Munsht sahib 
is better than Munsht jl, and Pandit jl than Pandit sahib. See the 
proverb quoted at (82. r - 

(6) ' Thine; ' here means ' thing spoken of,' bat. 

(7) See |0. IS- 

(8) See |0. 14 for the verb. 

(9) Either (0. 3 or use the Arabic muzdyaqa in place of the 
Persian parwa. 

(10) 1 ' Wanted,' darlcdr or matJub, the first for preference in this 
connection. ' Just now,' abhi to, with, reference to something said 

(11) 'A full Icos? kos bkar, better than ek 7cos Wiar. Ek acts 
as an indefinite article when perspicacity requires it. It cannot be 
used iu 4 above, and is unnecessary in 15 below. 

(12) This is really a compound sentence. Turn, ' Take care ; be 
certainly in attendance to-morrow.' 

(13) 'Eeady-with-his-answers,' Jidzir-jawdb, an instance of the 
terseness which is effected by the use of compound words. ' Very ' 
is generally bahut, as in |Q. IO, but the adjective bard, in agree- 
ment with the noun qualified, is often preferable. Translate, Pandit 
ji bare hdzir-jairdb hain. Comp. 4. I. 

(14) Hotd hai, rather than hai, the state of the stream, as generally 
fordable or not, being intended. 

(15) See |0. 13 and 14. 


., The form of plural varies with the gender of the 
noun. Masculine common nouns have the same form for 
both numbers, with the exception of Hindi nouns in d or 
an (nasal), which change d to e : as \'--^ gJwrd 'horse' 
"^ fjliore 'horses.'* 

* The substitution of e for ah or eh in Persian nouns by analogy 
ith the Hindi change of d to & is not sanctioned by colloquial usage. 


All feminines, on the other hand, add en (nasal) for the 
plural, or an (nasal) for nouns ending in i; as cu*ii 
'aiirat 'woman,' .^j.+c. 'auraten 'women': JLo beti 

L*~ s-s ^_5 

'daughter, 1 ^IxLu betiydn 'daughters.' 

When the number of the noun is indicated by a 
precedent cardinal, the singular form is retained : as 
Uuu^ ,jJ tin mahind, ' three months.' i ^*2g?* 

A plural of totality for cardinal numbers is formed 
by adding on (nasal) : do(n)on ' both,' dthon ' all eight,' 
etc. Saikron has the sense of our ' hundreds.' 

The word c^I log ' folk,' added to a noun or pronoun 
supplies a collective plural : as bdbdlog ' children,' tumloy 
' you people.' For the plural of J^ Tco'i usage assigns 

^^ -^ 

the Arabic word ,^xj ba'z ; as ba'z ddmi ' some men ', 
ba l z log ' some folk.' 

f 5i The use of original Persian and Arabic plurals in 
Hindustani is a literary conventionalism rather than a 
grammatical necessity. They partake of the character of 
borrowed phrases, for occasional use, in formal conversation 
and correspondence, and in dealing with the technicalities 
of law. The student is advised to note the various forms 
us they occur. He will find a notice of the chief forms 
met with in Hindustani, at the end of App. A. 

IGi (1) Two or more subjects require the predicate 
to bo plural. If the subjects, whether singular or plural, 
are of one gender, the predicate is of that gender ; if of 
ililTcrent genders, the predicate is masculine for choice. 

( % 2) Allied subjects do not require a conjunction, but 
are conveniently summed up by the introduction of a col- 
lective term ; and with this term the predicate ngrccs. 



(3) Where conjunctions are used and the subjects are 
thus mentioned in severalty, the predicate agrees with the 
subject nearest to it. 

tY, There is a difference of idiom between English 
and Hindustani in the order in which the ' persons ' are 
mentioned. The first person (mutakallim 'speaker') 
takes precedence of the second (rmikhdiab " spoken to'), 
and both of the third (gd'ib 'absent'). Hence, 'you and 
I ' is main tu or ham turn, a conjunction being considered 
unnecessary, as the speaker and the person spoken to are 
in proximity ; but ' he and I ' or ' he and you ' are main 
nur woJi or tu aur woh, because personal contiguity is not 
necessarily implied. 

Translate into English : 



( 4 ) 

_\>- (8) 

^ (5) 
^yjJ (6) 

=-^ J^]\ 

< (9) 

*: ; 

(10) ,., 


x3 (11) 

.>j y ^\^j (12) 


19. Notes. 

(2) The Arabic aksar means ' most ' or ' many/ as in aJcsar auqdt 
' many times ' or ' often.' It is also used as an adverb in the sense 
of ' mostly ' or ' generally. 1 Hotin or hoti hain, not hain, because the 
statement is general and not particular. 

(3) iLct'i ek or kilne ek ' several,' one more or less being a matter 
of no account. This idiom holds good with numerals, as pach'as ek 
' about fifty.' 

(4) Fal t A 'spare' or 'extra' an anomalous adjective of Hindi 
origin. Asbdb is an example of an Arabic 'broken' plural in every- 
day use as a noun singular. The singular is sabab. 

(5) Eahar is the appellative of the bearer caste. The word log 
' folk ' is added to words of this class to form the plural. Sab is 
the Latin omuls; sard is totus. The Arabic tamdm or kull are 
frequently used in the sense of sard. 

(6) Tinon ' all three,' the plural of totality. 

(7) Subajut, not sube (see App. A, sub fin.). Ablar hote honge 
1 must be in a ruinous condition.' The Present Presumptive. 

(8) See |7. 

(9) Donon 'both,' the plural of totality again. Tdza-warid 
'recently arrived,' 'new-comers,' a Persi- Arabic compound. 

(10) Wa-gaira, et ccetera. See 7t 9- The form of the verbal 
nwhayyd shows that it means 'available' by arrangement, or 'pro- 
vided,' as compared with the verbal used at |Q. 8. See App. A, 
Form II. 

(11) The repetition of aisi gives the sense of 'many such.' The 
Arabic- dated, being a feminine, takes en in the plural. 

(12) An illustration of the rule given in (6. 3- 

2Oi Translate iuto Hindustani : 

(1) Several Thngs must have been captured. (2) Pole, 
IH'gs, qundts, etc., are all right. (3) The printing and the 
paper and the binding are good. (4) Are you fellows 
satisfied? (5) Well, you and all of us alike are men. 

(6) All the office-people must be distracted and unhappy. 

(7) ^Ir. a::d Mrs. Smith and the children started yester- 
day. (8) All the Zemindars are dissatisfied. (9) The 


North Western Provinces are extensive. (10) Such 
qualities as common sense, manliness, and modesty are 
rare. (11) Hundreds of rupees have been squandered 
there. (12) All four of you are deserving men. 

2 1 s Directions. 

(1) ' Several,' as in 1 3 . 3. 

(2) Qandt ' the canvas wall of a tent.' ' Eight,' in the sense of 
* in good order,' is thiJi or durust or ba-hdl. 

(3) On the model of 1 8. 12. 

(4) Preface by Tcya. ' You fellows,' turn-log. 

(5) Turn this : ' Well, we you alJ alike men are.' 

(6) ' All the office-people," sab daf tar-log, or sab daftar-icdle, or 
sard daftar, or kull 'omala. The last word is the plural of 'a mil 
1 employe,' and is vulgarly pronounced 'omla, and used as singular 
or plural. The tense is that of |8. 7- 

(7) ' Smith ' is written and sounded Ismit to suit the native ear. 
Ismit Sahib aur mem sahib aur ^aba-log. Mem is an abbreviation of 
' Madam.' 

(9) The N. W. P. : mamdlik magraM o shimdli. Never mind 
the Persian izdfat, which theoretically follows mamdlik. It is 
rarely pronounced in Hindustani, except after a. For ' extensive ' 
the Arabic word ^vas^ i is sufficiently common to be unpedantic. 
The ordinary Hindi bard would be incongruous. 

(lu) For ' common sense ' 'aql is perhaps as good as any other 
word. Translate on the model of |8. n- 

(11) 'Hundreds of rupees,' saikron rupayd' the plural of totality. 
' Squandered ' has a gooJ. representative in the Persian bar-bad ' on 
the wind.' 

(12) Turn this : ' You all four men,' etc. the plural of totality. 


22 There arc no declensions of nouns in Hindustani. 
The hdlat or construct state of a noun is indicated by post- 
positional affixes or 'signs'; and there is, therefore, no 
reason why a change or, inflection should take place in the 


r.oun itself. No doubt in one particular class of Hindi 
nouns in d that vowel becomes e in the construct state, 
but this change is euphonic and not grammatical ; euphonic, 
because the accent in these words being on the penulti- 
mate, as a rule, the effect of the affix is still further to 
lighten the sound of the final vowel. 

It will be observed, too, that Persian and Arabic nouns 
in a are uninflectcd before an affix. This may be due to 
the circumstance that they are foreign vocables, and that 
the accent generally falls on the final syllable ; but the 
fact remains that the affix is a sufficient indication of the 
construct state, and that no ambiguity is caused by the 
absence of inflection in the noun. These remarks are 
equally applicable to Persian and Arabic nouns in ah 
(54..), and, as a matter of fact, the best modern writers* 
omit the inflection as unnecessary, except ivhen the affix is 
dropped, in which case the change from ah to e is a useful 
indication that the noun is in the construct state. 

Nouns plural take on (nasal) before an aflix. 

The 1st and 2nd pers. pronouns, main (nnsal) and tit, 
become mujh and tujh before an affix, but the plural forms 
Jtam and turn are unchanged. 

* Maulavi Nazir Ahmed, the best representative of the Dehli 
school of writers, rarely inflects nouns of this class before nn affix. 
The MS. of his chief work, the Taubat, was in my hands in 1>7H. 
and the ubsenco of inflection duly noted in tliis and in the first 
Edition of the work which wi;s lithographed at Agra in tlie same 
year. The second Edition was entrusted to a Liu-know publisher, 
who thought proper to supply the inflections. ." ee Tatilat, IV.. 1. 

In the Lm-know translation of the A<f Laila, which was ti 
of a Mir Munshi of tin- Foreign Olliee after his ivtiieim-nt, the same 
word is frequently inflected ami uninlKvted in the same page. 

paper writers, who are not always the best of scholars, are 
similarly inconsistent. 


The corresponding possessive pronouns are merd, terd, 
hamdrd, tumlidrd. 

The 3rd pers. yeh and woh become is and us in the 
singular, and in and un in the plural, before an affix*. 
Emphaticised (see 9) these become isi, usi, inlion, iinhov. 

Similarly, the relative pronouns kaun and jo change to 
kis and jis in the singular, and to kin and jin OTJinhon in 
the plural. 

The indefinite pronoun ko'i becomes kisi before an affix, 
and the interrogative kyd returns to the older form of 

23 1 When the relation between two nouns is such 
that one is the complement of the other, the complemen- 
tary noun receives the sign of izdfat ' annexure,' viz., one 
or other of the affixes kd, ki,*or ke in agreement with the 
noun of which it is the complement. For example, in the 
Hindustani idiom 'the road to Delhi' is DeJili kdrdsta; 
' authority for this statement,' is bat ki sanad ; ' the Raja's 
sons.' Sdjd ke bete; 'fear of death,' maut kd khauf; 
' wanting in \vit,' aql kd mohtdj ; ' a horse worth a thousand 
rupees,' hazdr rupaija kd ghord; 'a gold watch,' sone ki 
ghari, etc. Obviously the relation expressed by izdfat is 
more comprehensive than that of the Genitive case in 
English, and the use of the latter term in connection with 
Hindustani is misleading. 

* Some authors prefer the form ns and iiii, by way of avoiding 
ambiguity in the absence of the vowel mark ; but, as a native scholar 
once remarked to me, they who write us for us ought to write is for is. 
The chief objection to the longer form is that the introduction of the 
wdv is a gi-eat hindrance to rapi'l writing. 


24i The sympathetic changes of the sign of izdfat 
show that the complementary relation is adjectival. This 
is very clearly seen in such expressions as ranj ki bat ' a 
sad affair ' ; laid kil gussa ' violent auger ' ; gazab ki nd- 
insdfi ' terrible injustice,' in which the metaphorical use of 
the English adjectives can be represented in this way only. 

Eanjida ddmi is ' a sad man,' but ranjida bat is inad- 
missible. On the other hand, to use bard gussa for ' violent 
anger' or bari nd-insdfi for 'terrible injustice,' though 
correct enough, would not be to translate the English 

25i The sign of izdfat is occasionally used to connect 
the same nouns or adjectives by way of completing .or 
intensifying the idea conveyed by the single word, as 
diidh kd diidh, pdui kd pdni ' the real article,' ' unadulte- 
rated '; kahdni M kahdni 'a tale and nothing else'; sab 
ke sab ' the whole lot ' ; kitmbe kd kumba ' the whole 

26i 1^ is a ^ so used to connect nouns and pronouns 
with postpositions, such postpositions being viewed as 
nouns in the construct state, as per ke tale ' under the 
tree'; iiske age ' befoi'e him'; unke sdth 'with them,' etc. 
When the postpositional noun is feminine, as in shahr ki 
tan if ' towards the city,' if the order of the words is 
changed, so that taraf stands first, the sign of izdfat loses 
its gender, and we have taraf shahr ke. 

27i Translate into English : 


t^.jj (2) ^ L*.o ^ ^LJ ij\ j)ju*Jl (1) 

^ ,t j \s * 

cjti ^..\\ (3) 



(1) The usual order of the nouns is reversed by way of emphasizing 
the word insiddd, for which see App. A, Form VII. Translate 
' How was this erceute put down ? ' 

(2) Teri is bat, not is teri bat on the principle laid down in |7. 

(3) Observe that pote ' grandson ' is in rational agreement with 
the plural pronoun turn, which is addressed to an individual. 

(4) Agrn, instead of Agrd. In either form inflection is out of 
place, for the word is a proper noun. 

Sarafc, as compared with rclsta, is ' a made road ' ; pakkl sarak is 
'a macadamised road ' ; kaehcM sarak, a made road but not IIKHMUU- 
misod. Tlie Persian ruh is also current, but is mostly reserved for 
the metaphorical use of ' wny,' as in the phrase ruh o rasm 'manners 
and customs.' 

(5) Here an inferior speaks of himself by the depreciatory term 
' slay-. 1 ,' in the 3rd sing., and addresses his superior as ' the Presence.' 

the connection between liazh- and huzur. 


(6) The pronominal interrogative is here used substnntively. For 
the translation, see 29. 8. 

(7) Aj kal ' now-a-days.' B/idri, is an example of a numerous 
class of Hindi adjectives of quality, formed by adding t to a noun. 

(8) See 24. 

(9) Sich kt ungli ' the middle finger' (24.); also called daini 
unffli ' witch-finger.' The repetition of the adjective gives the 
sense of ' so rough ' (from sewing). 

(10) The sign of izafat is dropped after is-qndr as an encum- 
brance; is qadr (&/') is equivalent to it n't. 

(11) For sab Tee sab see 25. 

(12) The meaning of age 'in front of is here metaphorical, viz., 
' in comparison with.' By way of variation, the Arabic conjunction 
is used between the second couple of nouns. 

(13) The word rel for 'railway' is quite naturalised. Ahanl 
sarak (chemin de fer) was the first attempt, but this was soon found 
to be too cumbrous. Pas hi ' very near' or ' close by." 

(14) Munind mere or inert munind 'like me,' 26. 

(15) A proverbial expression, in which s6th, which is generally 
used as a postposition, is a noun. Translate, ' What companionship 
is possible between a footman and a horseman ? ' 

2&, Translate into Hindustani : 

(1) What is your father's name and caste ? (2) This 
is no laughing matter. (3) In whose chart' e is the 
arrangement of supplies? (4) The shape arid colour of 
tliis horse are good. (5) There are two miles to a kos. 
(6) Where does this road lead to ? (7) Three days' leave 
of absence was sanctioned. (8) How much for this pony ? 
(9) An order to this effect is current. (10) An eK' pliant, 
and also two cami'ls, were with him. (11) My hou- 
close to the Court. (12) There was a veiy serious famine 
last year. (13) It is the shop of s unr liuniya or other. 
(14) What profit accrued this year? (15) Ho\v old are 


3Oi Directions. 

(1) Put the sign of isdfat in agreement with the nearest noun, and 
let the verb be in the singular. 

(2) See 24. 

(3) Turn this : ' Of supplies arrangement whose charge (zimma) 

(4) As in (1), the sign of izafat agrees with the nearest noun ; 
and by \Q, 3, the predicate agrees with the nearest noun also. 

(5) The Hindustani idiom is ' Of two miles one kos consists (hotd).' 
Our word ' mile ' is naturalised, but is prounced meel. 

(6) Turn ' This road whereof is ? ' 

(7) Tin din Tel chhutti, or tin din chhutli never dinon in connec- 
tion with a numeral. 

(8) Exactly as iu 27. 6. 

(9) The word used for 'effect' in |Q. IS is inapplicable here; 
mazmun (App. A, Form I) ' contents ' answers the purpose. 

(10) The indefinite article must be translated by ek here, to avoid 

(11) KotM best describes the kind of ' house ' intended. A native 
would say garib khana ' humble abode.' 

(12) For 'very severe' use Ihe idiom described in 24. &? 
with the sign of izafat. 'Last year,' l par sal \ 'this year,' imsal or 
sul-hal ; ' next year, sul-ayanda, 

(13) See |0. 13- Bani i/a, as an appellative, should be indeclinable 
in the singular, and take log in the plural. 

(14) For kitnd use kis qadr, 27. IO - ' To accrue ' Msil honct; 
and note the etymological connection between this verbal and that 
used for 'toll' in g. 3. 

(15) The Hindustani idiom is ' Your age how much ? ' See 1 3 . 2. 


31 1 Some few Arabic verbals, such as qdlil, nndabii). 
etc. act as postpositions, and are constructed in the same 
way as explained in 26, by the use of the sign of izdfat. 
ke ; as e'tibdr ke qdbil ' deserving of confidence.' 


32, 'Have' is expressed by the substantive verb in 
combination with. the postposition pas 'by,' 27. r 3 5 but 
chiefly when the property is movable, as kwiji kis ke pas 
hai ? ' Who has the key ? ' 

The verb ralihnd means ' having,' in the sense of ' keep- 
ing' or ' holding,' and is best reserved for such phrases 
as ikhliydr rakhnd ' to have authority,' ' aziz rakhnd ' to 
hold dear,' etc. 

33 1 Apposition occasionally supersedes the use of 
izafat ; e.g. ek shakhs Durgd ndm ' a person of the name of 
Durga,' pdnch rupaya mahind ' five rupees a month.' On 
the other hand, in some cases where apposition is the 
English idiom, Hindustani requires the sign of izafat; as 
4 the word river,' daryd ltd lafz. 

34i Translate into English : 

L J (2) ^ ^ uj* JjlS tUM JJ\ (1) 

* (3) i <,*!'- 

- >llc ,-Cl (8) 
^bU J ^JLr (9) 

u^U K ^b J/ (10) 



r -.O y ..c K J*i uJ y ^-^ **J ,j ^Jkii. (12) 

' ? 

..Iswcb lisJ la J-o y i^U; 1 . (18) ^(,JJ> 

h^ ybb lf,j ^jT Ujy ujy (U) 


(1) 'Circumspection' is the best rendering of this verbal (of 
which the gender is exceptional) with reference to its origin. See 
App. A, Form VIII. Other current words from the same root are 
Mtd ' enclosure," tnuhit ' circumference.' Qdbil belongs to Form I., 
and ta'rif to Form II. See App. A. 

(2) Kar raivai 'work-procedure' or 'procedure,' rawa'i being a 
derivative from the i'ersian raftan 'to go.' See |8. 3 for another 
verbal from the same verb. For mutdbiq see App. A, Form III. 

(3) Zabuni, used as a postposition, ' by the tongue of,' or, as we 
sa y> ' by the mouth of.' 

(4) Nawwdb sahib Jce yahdn ' at the Nawwab's,' an erery-day use 
of the adverb of place. Hdn, for ehdn, is often used in this connec- 
tion for yahdn. 

(5) Mere yaJidn ' cliez moi'; Sirddari 'brotherhood,' in a con- 
crete sense ; Ihd'ibandon Tci might have been used. 

(6) Sd'is, Arabic verbal, Form I. ; see App. A. KJtarch or Jcharcha 
means 'money for expenses' generally. FuziU-kharchi 'excessive 
expenditure,' 'extravagance' occurs in 27. IO - Rdhkharch is 
' travelling-money.' 

(7) Compare (8. 10. The regular plural chlzen is seldom used. 

(8) 'Etdb, see App. A, Form III. Wajh ' ground,' in the sense of 
primd facie reason. The word generally means in Arabic ' face ' or 
' surface.' 

(9) Khildf-qiyds ' inconceivable.' The ignorance of the weaver 
is proverbial. Both verbals belong to App. A, Form III. 

(10) For mulaqdt see App. A. Form III.; and for mushtdq, App. A, 
Form VIII. Edhar Jed 'of outside,' that is, 'not of the family,' 'a 


(11) The sign of izdfat here has the sense of 'between.' The 
phruse is proverbial, and means ' an enormous difference.' 

(12) Khudd kl qasam ' by heaven ! ' lit. ' God's oath.' Murtakib 
nahin hun ' I do not venture to commit'; the verbal literally means 
' mounting on," 'venturing on.' See App. A, Form VIII. 

(13) See 33. Bd-muhdwara 'idiomatic,' opposed to be-muhd- 
tcara ' unidiomatic,' App. A, Form III. 

(14) See 33. 

(15) Tdlib-'ilm, 'a seeker after knowledge,' 'a student.' For 
muyarrar see App. A, Form II. 

3Oi Translate into Hindustani : 

(1) How much cash have you. ? (2) This is the won- 
drous story of the mechanical horse. (3) I have no 
vacancy at present. (4) The plaintiff's claim is good, 
(o) The Dehli idiom is current here. (6) Daily quarrelling 
is never pleasant. (7) An indiscreet person is unworthy 
of confidence. (8) The compound wall wants mending. 

(9) What is the literal meaning of the word wajh? 

(10) This anonymous petition is the work of a rascal. 

(11) This box is a specimen of the local talent. (12) Cer- 
tainly your nephew deserves promotion (13) A beggar 
of the name of Shah 'Ali, blind of one eye, is standing 
before the gate. (14) In the opinion of some the Govern- 
ment plan is a mistake. (15) This District seems to bj 
very lightly assessed. 

37i Directions. 

(1) See 32. 

(2) The kal Jed ghord of the Alf-Laila, teal meaning ' machine.* 
Kal kd gh'jrd might mean ' yesterday's horse,' or ' the horse ridden 
yesterday.' Both noun and adverb are Ilimii words. 

(3) In reply to an ummeJwdr or applicant for employment. Turn 
' In my ofliee (mere yahdti) no place is vacant ' 

(4) ' Good," that is, 'good in law," j'd'i:. 


(5) c Dehli ' must bare the sign of izdfat. ' Current,' murawwaj. 

(6) Sozdna, rozhia, and rozmarra all bear the sense of ' daily/ but 
the idiom roz roz fed 'of every day" is here intended, and is most 
suitable. We shall come across another equally idiomatic phrase in 
connection with the participles. 

(7) An 'indiscreet' man is a man 'without discretion' be-taai':, 
a form of compound adjective, which is extremely useful in Hindu- 
stani. See 35. X 3- 

'Worthy of confidence' is e'tibdr Jce qdbil (3I.)> but the Hindu- 
stani idiom does not admit of e'tibdr Tee nd-qdbil, though n"<-qabii 
alone is a good rendering of ' unworthy.' We must say e'tibdr Tee 
qdbil nahin. 

(8) For ' wants mending,' an impossible expression in Hindustani, 
say 'is repair-wanting," marammat-talab hai. Hdtd (for ekdtd) is 
an ' enclosure ' of any kind, from a ' compound ' to a ' Presidency.' 

(9) Lvgaivt ' literal ' ; asli ' radical.' 

(10) Gum-ndm ' lost name ' is the regular word for ' anonymous ' ; 
be-ndm ' without a name ' may be used also. 

(11) ' Local talent ' may be expressed as ' the workmanship of the 
people here,' yahun Jce logon M Tcarigari. 

(12) Bhattjd 'the son of one's brother,' bhdnjd 'of one's sister.' 
A knowledge of the terms of family relationship is indispensable ; 
and it is a good plan to tabulate these in the form of a pedigree from 
a man's grandsire to his grandson. 

(13) In the Hindustani version ' blind-of-one-cye ' (kdnu) may 
stand before 'beggar' as a qualifying adjective. 

(14) 'In the opinion of some,' bauson ke nazdik, lit. 'near some." 
The Arabic ba'z acts as a plural of the indefinite pronoun Jcoi (14-. ) 

(15) Turn this : ' The revenue-settlement (bandobast) of this 
District seems to be very soft.' 


38 The substantive verb is often idiomatically com- 
bined with nouns in such a way that noun and verb, taken 
together, act as a single intransitive; for instance, 'the 
tale began' is ddstdn shuru'-liui, not ddafan kd 


Cliiefly Arabic verbal nouns are utilized in this kiiid of 
phrase; and the compound is a valuable addition to the 
verb vocabulary of Hindustani. 

30i The compound ho-jdnd, in which the base of the 
substantive verb is united \\iihjdnd 'to go,' is in constant 
use in the sense of ' bei-ome ' ; and it may be observed 
that the verb jdnd in composition conveys the idea of 
completeness or finality : d-jdnd, for instance, is to ' arrive,' 
rah-jdnd ' to stay where one is ' or ' be left behind.' Ho- 
and occasionally occurs in the sen^e of 'accompanying'; 
ho-rahnd is the continuance of a state. 

4Oi As we have seen (23.) the sign of izufat marks 
the complement of a noun ; the affix lio, on the other 
hand, marks the complement or object of a verb, whether 
intransitive or transitive, and is therefore called the Sign 
of the object. In other words, when the relation between 
two nouns is conveyed by a verb, the second noun takes 
the affix ko, if necessary for the avoidance of ambiguity ; 
for example, in the sentence main Agra (ko~) jdtd him ' I 
am going to Agra,' ko marks the object of the journey, 
but is not necessary, for the sense is obvious without it. 

Under certain circumstances fee is used instead of 7ro to 
mark the person affected by the action of an intransitive 
verb; but this will be reserved for notice further on (see 
52. 15). 

41 1 In combination with the substantive verb the 
atlix ko is used to denote the possessor, when the thing 
possessed is ideal rather than actual ; and thus we have 
another means of translating the verb 'have.' For 
instance, 'I have leisure' is mujkko fursat hai, not 7/u /<? 

pds fur^at hai, as in 32. Observe that /_.. ^ mujhe 



and ^J tujhe mny be used for niujJiko and tujhlco, and 
in the plur. hamen and tumlien (na^ai) for hamJeo and 
iumleo. Similarly isko, usko, jislco, kisko, may be replaced 
by ise, use, jise, kise. 

42 1 The same particle is likewise used for marking 

time, as an adverbial adjunct of the verb; as, do pahar ko 

at noon,' Pir ko 'on Monday,' i> waqt ko ' at this time,' etc. 

.^ i 43 1 The reflexive pronoun apitd refers back either 
, to (l) the grammatical subject of a sentence ; (2) the 

subject of discourse ; or (3) the speaker. 

Apne tain is preferred to apne ko ' oneself ' as the 
object of a verb; apne dp ko 'one's own self is a common 
variation; apne is also used substantively in the plural 
to mean ' one's own people.' 

4-4-m Translate into English : 

f > 

(2) (jjjs \Jy> 1^,,- j^c (1) 

^ (M\ i^-Jj ^1 (3) ^ 

l-r 5 - 3 ^j ^ :r :j ^ ^7 (4) 

^ u t/ 4-5- ,-> (5) 

^ (7) lf^ b, ..51. ^J.J JL- ^j7 .J^ (6) 

i f v V^ v >- v_ > 

* }** (8) 

^ e^i J Jj^ (9) 

i^L.i L^V^J ^-fs^ L^-OJ (^wl. (10) 

-i (12) JU5 JU J / ^J b (11) 



<-?,tLij : - 

(14) u yi> \jT J 

rj cAjt (15) Lf * Uj 13 


(1) 'I am taking leave,' said by a visitor on rising to end an 

(2) Ilere apnt agrees with the grammatical subject of the verb 
ydd-hain, and refers to the speaker also. 

(3) In this sentence apnd agrees with the nearest noun, and 
the verb ydd-d'e agrees with the nearest noun also. The particle ko 
is omitted aftcd usl toaqt. 

(4) Aj ke daswen din (ko) ' on the tenth day from this.' Xote 
here the difference of idiom. The connection between present and 
future time, being unbroken, is denoted by izufat. Thus 'to-night' 
is dj ki rut or dj rat. The n in daswdn is nnsal, and the word is 
therefore inflected as if it were an adjective in a. 

(5) ' Where does this road go ? ' The Hindustani idiom is more 
exact than the English. See back to 29 6 for another mode of 
asking the question. 

(6) See 33. -B'ty' Arabic noun of quality in form of Agent, 
App. A, Form I. 

(7) For kull see 21. 6. Kd'indt, an Arabic feminine plui-al, 
iiu 'uning ' existences,' used as s singular in Urdu, in the sense of 
'effects,' ' property,' etc. Chorl-hojdnd 'to be stolen,' 38. 

(8) For ixtc'ddd (the gender of which is exceptional) see App. A, 
Form X. 

(9) Translate ' The train must have come in some time ago.' The 
k-d iii kdb kd, or as it is often written kabhl kit, agrees with the 
subject of the verb. The interrogative form of the phrase implies 
that the question which led to it was umuvessai-v. 

(10) The same thing is observable of this example : ' I have no 
leisure now. Why ask ? ' 

(11) The repetition of apii! is distributive, as in the example ai 
^. 4. Chdl-dltdl, a compound of two verbal bases, of which the first 



means ' gait,' and the second ' mould,' may be translated ' manner 
of life,' 'manners,' 'fashions,' etc. The expression is proverbial, 
and means that no two men are alike. 

(12) Faramosh-kdri ' obliviousness.' In this sentence the -writer 
complains of his correspondent's neglect to answer inquiries. 

(13) Main khud ' I myself.' Hamrdh is here used postposi- 
tionally ; hence ke, not kd. 

(15) Shart-i-insdniyat ' a condition of humanity,' which amounts 
to a moral obligation. 

i Translate into Hindustani : 

(1) He took leave yesterday evening. (2) His oily 
tongue offends rue. (3) The Commissioner wil I return at 
noon to-day. (4) I remembered my folly. (5) After some 
days all his servants were dismissed. (6) A darbdr will 
be held at the Collector's on the 25th of the present 
month. (7) All of you go home. (8) Some day or other 
you will remember my advice. (9) The style and contents 
of your letter pleased me. (10) The result of the fault 
will soon become plain to you. (11) How much revenue 
was collected ? (12) The examination will begin at- the 
same time on Monday. (13) I generally enjoy good 
health here. (14) Who resides here ? (15) "When was 
this new dodge of yours invented ? 


(1) ' Yesterday evening,' kal sham ko. 

(2) Turn, as in 44 I2 > ' His oiliness-of- tongue does not come 
pleasant to me.' 

(3) The Commissioner, as the chief civil officer of a Division, is 
known as the Sure Sdhib (pi.). Do pahar means 'noon,' because the 
second of the four watches into winch the day is divided by native 
reckoning ends then. 

(4) Use the compound verb given in 44. 3- 


(5) ' Servants,' naukar chdkar. The duplication of synonyms is 
a favourite method of denoting plurality. ' Were ' should be here 
truncated as ' became.' 

^6) Turn this: '25th date month present (mdh hdl ko) at tlie 
Collector's (Kalektar Sahib ke yahdn),' etc. 

(7) Turn tins : ' to your respective home?,' apne apne ghar. 

(8) Some day or other,' ek na ek din (ko). 

(9) See the hint given at 30. 4- 

(11) ' To be collected,' wttsul hand. 

(12) Begin with ' on Monday at this very time,' etc., and for the 
verb see 4-4-. 4- 

(13) For 'generally' see (9, 2, Turn, ' I remain well ' (tatidu- 
rust or bhald changd). 

(14) Translate ' wlio,' kaun sahib, with verb in plural. 

(15) Ironical. For 'dodge' use hikmat, which means 'wisdom,' 
' skill,' etc. 


i The verbal ending in nd is called by native 
scholars the masdar, or ' source ' from which the other 
parts of the verb are derived, and is repi'esented in the 
dictionaries by the English prepositional infinitive. 
Itahnd, for instance, is 'to remain'; but the truer sig- 
nification is that of our verbal in -ing; e.g. merd waluiu 
raluiil ntundsib hai 'my remaining there is proper,' not 
innjh ko. The verbal approaches most nearly to the 
English infinitive when it is inflected after verbs of 
motion, the affix Jio being suppressed ; as roti khdne jdtd 
hii,i 'lain going away (just now) to eat bread ' (i.e. to 
my dinner). 

A certain similai'ity is observable with the Latin 
gerund, but the Hindustani verbal is more flexible. It 
is inflected like other nouns which end in u, and may be 


plural as well as singular. It may be qualified by 
an adjective and be itself used adjectively in agreement 
with common nouns. 

The addition of wold to this verbal personifies, 
so to say, the state or action which, is denoted. For 
instance, from rahnd ' dwelling ' we have rahne-icdld 
* dwelling-person ' or ' dweller,' in which the unaccented 
a of the verbal is softened to e, as described in 2 2 . before 
the affix. 

In verbs of motion or action this compound often 
supplies the want of a future participle active ; as, jdne- 
wdld Tiaun liai, Quis iturus est ? ' Who is about to go ? ' 

5Oi (1) The affix men, in -which the long vowel is 
softened to e, and the n is nasal, covers most of the meanings 
of the English prepositions 'in,' ' into,' ' among '; some- 
times it answers to ' between,' and sometimes to ' on ' or 
'round.' For example, 'a chain on (round) the foot' is 
pdon men zanjir, ' a ring on (round) the finger ' ungli men 
anguthi, etc. ; the reason of this difference of idiom being 
that the idea of ' on ' in Hindustani is chiefly applicable 
to articles which are easily removed. 

This affix is frequently dropped, especially in the case 
of participial nouns, as will appear hereafter. The noun 
remains in the construct state, and serves as a postposi- 
tion (see 26. ), or as an adjective; e.g. gusse 'angry,' for 
the inflection of which see 22. 

(2) Par corresponds to our 'on' or 'at,' and is an 
abbreviation of upar 'over.' 

It is also used to mark the object of an emotion, and 
thus answers to the English prepositions ' with ' or ' to ' 
in such phrases as 'angry \vith,' 'merciful to.' This 


particular difference of idiom is a great puzzle to our 
native friends. 

(3) Tak means ' to,' ' up to,' ' even to,' ' as far as,' and 
so foitb, according to the context. 

The sign of izdfat may follow all these affixes after the 
manner of the Erglish idiom ; e.g. is men kd pdni ' water 
out of this,' etc. 

>1 , Translate into English : 


(9) UAJ IAJJ \jO <X->1 ,-fj^ 

C - 'L^ _^= _Ju\ (10) N 

(11) ^,y t .y* 



52, Notes. 

(1) The verbal maslahat has here the adjectival sense of ' ad- 
visable' or 'expedient.' See App. A, Eem. 5 (3). 

(2) Ki'tui der talc or kabtak or Jcahdn tak ' how long ? ' The verb 
parnd, which literally means ' falling ' or ' lying,' is used in a variety 
of idioms. Here it gives to rahnd the obligatory sense of the Latin 
gerund in -dum ' Shall I have to remain ? ' MvjhJco rahnd Jiogd 
means much the same thing. Another idiomatic way of putting the 
question is, mujhJco yalian Jcitni der lagegi ? 

(4) ' Between this and that.' Compare the example at 34. Il > 
where farq follows the sign of izdfat. 

(5) The verb milnd is not a transitive like our ' receive ' ; hence 
the Hindustani idiom in this example, ' received to me,' the verb 
being always in agreement with the thing received. 'Inayat-ndma 
corresponds to our word ' favour ' in the sense of letter. Translate, 
therefore, 'I was favoured by your letter.' 

(6) See 33. 

(7) Bhd't means 'mate' or 'friend,' r.s well as 'brother,' and is 
often used when the object is to soothe. 

(8) Nayd niJcalnd 'a new goir.g-out,' 'a new departure,' or 
' novelty.' This example shows clearly the great difference between 
the so-called ' Infinitives ' in Hindustani and English or Latin. 

(9) This proverbial expression illustrates the adjectival usage of 
the verbal in nd. Ant jdnt shai 'a thing that comes and goes,' 
otherwise, dne jane Tci shai. 

(10) Similarly duliyun ant, where ant agrees with duliydn, and 
both with the verb shuru-hu'tn, is equivalent to duliyon Jed and. 

(11) A scrap of Euclid, which illustrates the exactness of expres- 
sion attained by the use of the double affix. For musallas and 
it'urabba' see App. A, Form II. Figures expressed by three and 
four (sides) respectively. 

(12) Idiomatic sentences of this kind cannot, of course, be trans- 
lated literally. The meaning is, 'I mean to go (or work, or read, 
etc.) thus far and no farther.' For irdda see App. A, Form IV. 

(13) The intransitive lagnd is a word in constant use in many 
idioms. The general idea is external attachment, adhesion, appli- 
cation, etc., according to the context. Here, hath laynd means ' to 
be handled," like hath and 'to come to hand.' 


(14) Proverbial. An assertion interrogatively put, as in 44. 
IO. The idiom burd lagnd corresponds to our phrase 'come amiss.' 

(15) Translate 'He was fatally wounded,' or 'be received a fatal 

The propriety of Jce instead of ko in this exam pie is apparent from 
the consideration that usJco zaJihm lagd, in accordance with the 
usage of the intransitive lagnd, as illustrated in the two preceding 
texts, would mean, 'a wound was attached to him,' as if it were 
something tangible and removable. A wound after infliction is 
part and parcel of the injured member, and thus vske is the logical 
resource. Uske su't chubht 'the needle pricked her," in which 
c/iubhi is an intransitive, may be quoted as another illustration of 
the same refinement. 

i Translate into Hindustani: 

(1) Government interference iu religions matters is 
inexpedient. (2) He was very angry with me indeed. 
(3) I mean to read as far as the eighth chapter and no 
farther. (4) Where is this kind of cloth to be got? 
(5) It is right you should join in this assembly. (6) I 
had to go to Agra the next day. (7) Anonymous peti- 
tions began to arrive. (8) You got this place a bargain 
in my opinion. (9) No one was hurt. (10) There is a 
great difference between theory and practice. (11) Your 
son came out first in the half-yearly examination. (12) 
Without interest no one obtains employment in this State. 

(13) It is forbidden to drink water from this well. 

(14) The key does not fit the lock. (15) We aie bound 
to obey the canon-law. 

(1) ' Religious,' mazhall, used in Upper India without respect to 
crood. The form of the Arabic -mizhab is that of a i/>;i-nted u HIM of 
iu-tion, and the literal meaning is 'passing' or 'passage' or 'wa\.' 
(3) Exactly on the model of 51. 12, omitting the verb 'read.' 
( 1) Turn this : ' Where is cloth of this kind received (miY/ri) ? ' 


(5) Turn this: 'Your joining in this assembly is right.' 

(6) See 5lt 2 - 'The next day,' tiske agle din (Jco). Agla, 
properly speaking, is 'prior,' age, that which is 'before'; hence the 
idea of ' future ' in respect of time. The sign of iscifat marks the 
close connection between the present and immediate future. 

(6) See 5 1 . 10. 

(8) See 36. 14- Mert rde men or mert ddnisf men will do 
equally well. ' Bargain ' is IchusJi-lcharii ' pleasant-purchase.' 

(9) Translate with attention to 51. I S- 

(10) See 51. 4 : one men on ly i 8 required. ' Theory ' is *Lc 
and ' practice,' .L^e The contrast is proverbial, and is heightened 
in the original by the fact that the same letters are used in botli 

(11) ' To come out first," awioal niJcalnd. The Arabic numeral 
carries with it a certain amount of dignity as compared with pahld. 
'Half-yearly' is 'six-monthly' in the Hindustani idiom. 

(12) ' Without interest,' be s'i'i o sifdrish, in which the first 
member of the compound phrase means ' effort,' and the second, 
' recommendation.' This kind of compound is often useful in the 
translation of single terms of complex meaning. Compare cldl 
dhdl as explained in 4-5. n - ' I n this State' stands first in the 
Hindustani sentence. 

(13) Use the double affix, as in 50> sub fin. 'Forbidden' (by 
the rules of religion or caste), hardm, which is, strictly speaking, a 
Mahomedan word. ' Well,' kunwdn or kud by the elision cf the 
nasals. Sometimes the first nasal alone is dropped, and sometimes 
the second. 

(14) Tula, tuli, are the Hindi words for 'lock and key,' and qi'jl 
and kunjl (or chiibf) the Urdu. 

(15) Turn this: 'Obedience (pd-bandt, lit. 'foot-binding') of the 
canon-law-of-Islam (shar't'at) is an obligation (farz) on us.' 


"he^-erbal in nd is constantly used as a jussive: 
turn jdnd, for instance, means ' go you ' ; and this usage 
is akin to, if not an abbreviation of, the gerundial form 


tumJco jdnd hai 'you are to go.' Na jdnd is the corre- 
sponding prohibitive ; but the use of mat also is sanctioned 
by the best authorities. 

5Gi A rare uoage of the verbal is that in which it 
takes the sign of izdfat in agreement with the subject 
of a negative sentence, and thus acts as a finite verb, 
with the force of a strong future, or non-possumus. The 
following proverb is an example: YaJidn tumhdri tikki 
naliin lagne ki ' Your bit of bread shall not be put here,' 
' cannot be baked in this oven,' i.e ' It is of no use your 
coming here.' 

*>7i Th e affix se marks the separated object in space 
or time, and so far corresponds with the English prepo- 
sition ' from ' ; and since ' from ' includes the idea of 
origin or cause, the sense of instrumentality denoted by 
the English 'by' likewise belongs to se. Again, the 
notion of looking from one object to another implies as- 
sociation of ideas, intercommunication, coTiiparison, etc. ; 
and thus se covers the meanings of the preposition 

58, In its meaning of comparison ' with,' se corre- 
sponds with the English 'than' after an adjective in the 
3cmparative degree. Thus, is se tez 'swift in comparison 
with this' translates the English 'swifter than this'; and, 
similarly, sab se tez is ' swifter than all ' or ' swiftest.' 

Other modes of comparison will be illustrated below. 

59, The affix $d of similitude or comparison is not ;i 
case-affix like those we have been considering, although, 
like the sign of izdfat, it is adjectival and agrees in 
uviuler and number with the noun which it precedes. 
It corresponds generally with the English adjectival 


terminations ' -like ' and ' -isb.' We had an example of 
the use of this affix in 4-. 4, where Jcaunsd means 'what- 
Hke ? ' and expects a descriptive answer. So, too, thord 
sd pdni means ' a smallish quantity of water,' or ' only a 
little water,' whereas thord thord pdni would mean ' a 
very little water.' Bahut se ddmi means a ' largeish 
number of men,' or 'a comparatively large number of 
men,' which accounts for the popular usage of the phrase 
in the sense of 'a great many men.' As applied to the 
personal pronouns, instead of yeli-sa and woh-sa, we have 
aisd and waisd, and instead of inain-sd and tu-sd, mujhsd 
and tujhsd. 

Translate into English : 
Jj (2) Uy> ^ ^ .3U- iLi ^ jj JZ (1) 

^ (3) K ^j^ ( ^ uJlU. d^s^r* ^ V^ 

(j\ (jMjjJ\ (4) l^J Njc^-l li 1> ^ ^rAiji 

\j^ (5) \ji. 
*Ui' (6) A b'U 


(9) c 

(11) ,JJ (lAj ^ ^^ ^U ,._ r: ^ I 

-A , 



(13) ^J ^c^i ^Jg Lurcsj-e ^tJc< 

* i 

(14) jj 

, Notes. 

(2) See 56. The example is taken from the Alf Laila, in which 
the word amr is constantly used in the general sense of ' thing,' 
like Mt. It will be noticed that all three forms of the sign of 
izdfat occur in this short sentence. For maizi see App. A, Form 1. 

(3) Said Tea sonewuld 'a terrible sleeper.' See 24. 

(5) Rishta-ndtd, a Persi-Hindi compound, which includes all the 
various degrees of family connection and kinship. 

(6) Note, with reference to 3. Rule I., that Hindi diminutives in 
iyd are always feminine. 

(7) Ap ke yahdn ' in your stable," 

(8) Sa-nisbat aitron Tee ' in relation to others,' a very common 
mode of denoting the superlative. Another idiomatic phrase of the 
same meaning is auron ki nisbat kar. 

(9) From Galib. The Sayyids claim descent from the Prophet. 
The other three great classes of Mahommedans are Shekh, Mugal, 
and Pathan. Instead of ke we might have had men, without altera- 
tion of the meaning. 

(10) Pesh-ana 'to come before' usually means 'to treat ' in this 
construction. Akhldq se ' courteously ' or ' kindly.' Se, used in this 
way with abstract nouns, supplies a large class of adverbs of manner, 
otherwise lacking in the language. 

(11) See 50. f r the usage of men here. Pd"on, for pdnon by 
elision of the fir^t nasal. Another common form of the word is 
jtdnw, in which the second nasal is dropped. Gaon or game ' vil- 
lage ' is another common word of similar form. Compare 54. 1 3- 

(13) Sd, after the sign of izdfat, is a very convenient turn 
for the English ' like that of.' The word taluffuz is understood 
after kd, so that the full nnMiiiii2 is 'His pronunciation is like the 
pronunciation of rustics.' And ft 'uu- Aryan' or 'ignoble,' u word 


with a history. The radical connection between talaffuz (see App. 
A, Form V.) and lafz, 34-. J 3> should be observed. 

(14) Jaist here replaces Tel si without derangement of the con- 

(15) For musdjir see App. A, Form III. 

1 Translate into Hindustani : 

''("0 His disposition is angelic. (2) A considerable 
number of these merchants have come from Kabul. 
(3) Hazari ^Mal is a banker of a thousand. (4) This 
Arab is the quietest horse in my stable. (5) This person's 
appearance undoubtedly matches the description given in 
the passport. (6) These three letters to your Honour's 
address have come from the office. (7) There is no better 
rough-rider than Pir Khan in the whole neighbourhood. 
(8) I got this pair a bargain at the Hard war fair. (9) I 
shall not come at your call. (10) For God's sake do not 
enter this quarter of the town. (11) Do not remain idle. 
(12) Who is the best writer in the school ? (13) My 
friend was not at home yesterday. (14) I like railway 
travelling. (15) He had a silver belt round his waist. 

^3 1 Directions. 

(1) On then.odelof 60. 13- 

(2) Turn ' Out of these merchants a largeish number,' etc. 

(3) Turn ' Of a thousand bankers H. M. is one banker.' 

(4) Gartb ' poor,' stands for ' quiet ' in the native idiom, 
whether it refers to men or animals. ' In my stable,' mere yaluln. 

(5) Begin with the adverb, and for ' matches' use the intransitive 
milnd. The nearest term for 'passport' is chdldn, which menus 
'descriptive rol',' 'invoice,' etc., according to the context. 

(6) ' To your honour's address,' h u:-Ar-ke ndm kl, the kl being in 
agreement with the feminine noun for ' letters.' 

(7) On the model of 60. 6. 

(8) See 54. 8. 

i. KXI:U.;ISK i.\. 47 

(9) The idiom explained in 56. is applicable liciv. 

(10) 'For God's sake,' Khmla ke waste. See 55. 

(10) For 'writer' use the Persian compound khush-nm-ifi. The 
best word for ' school ' here is maktab, which means lite ally ' place 
of writing'; madrasa is a ' place of reading,' nnd is generally ap- 
plied to a higher type of school than maktab. See App. A, Rem. 5. (3). 

(14) Turn ' Riding on rail comes pleasant to me,' as in 44. I2 - 

(15) See 50. I- 


<34-i The verb karnd 'acting,' as opposed to hond 
' being,' plays an important part in idiomatic Hindustani.* 
It is specially useful in combination with nouns on pre- 
cisely the same principle as that described in 38. with 
regard to hond. The noun and verb taken together act 
as one transitive verb ; in fact, the noun thus used is 
verbalized by the addition of Jcarnd. For example, apnd 
lull 'arz-kartd hiin ' I represent my condition,' not apne 
luH ki l arz kortd // 

65i There is no Accusative case in Hindustani, for, 
as remarked in 22. there is no declension of nouns or 
system of case-endings. Hence, after a transitive verb 
the direct object is unaltered; e.g. apnd hdl in the example 
above ; but, inasmuch as both subject and object precede 
the vei'b in the Hindustani idiom, it is sometimes 
necessary, in order to avoid possible confusion, to mark 
the latter by the sign of the object, ko. When a person is 
the object, ko is always necessary. Let the student, then, 

* Fallon specifies more than thirty different usages of this verb. 
The clue to these is in the context, for, as is often the case in Hindu- 
stani, the meaning of the word varies with its surroundings. 


bear in mind that lie is to use Ito with an object of a 
transitive verb (1) when, for one reason or another, it is 
necessary to particularise tb e object ; (2) when the object 
is a personal pronoun or a proper name or appellative. 

f>i The duplication of the predicate in such expres- 
sions as ' he went there and stayed ' is avoided in Hindu- 
stani by using the base form of the first verb, thus, u-ahdn 
jd rahd; and this base form is called the Past Conjunctive 
Participle by English writers. The native term is Past 
Defective, that is, a Past which fails to indicate number 
or person, except by reference to the context. By way of 
greater distinctness the designative suffix liar or /re, or 
even karJce, is added to this base form. 

The Past Conjunctive Participle is in rational agree- 
ment with the grammatical subject of the sentence, as in 
the above example, but, as was observed of the reflexive 
pronoun apnd in 4-3. it may also refer to the subject of 
discourse, or to the speaker. It is occasionally constructed 
independently, and in this form corresponds pro tanto 
with the Latin Ablative Absolute. 

f>Y, The Aorist (see App. B) alone of all the tenses of 
the Hindustani verb has personal inflection. 

For the substantive verb, the inflection is : 
1st p. 2nd p. 3rd p. 

Singular lion ho ho ~) 

i? 7 7 f ( n nasal) 

Plural lion no non j 

In other verbs, the following items are added to the 

1st p. 2nd p. 3rd p. 

Singular fin e e "i 

Di i > ( nasal) 

Plural at o en J 


The Future is formed from the Aorist by the addition 
of gd and ge for masc. sing, and plur., and of yi for the 
feminine of both numbers. 

When the Aorist occurs as a finite verb in a simple sen- 
tence, it denotes uncertainty or hesitation in the mind of the 
speaker; as kyd karnn? 'What shall I do ? ' or 'what 
am I to do ? ' Even in such phrases as Khuddjdne ' God 
knows,' the uncertainty still resides with the speaker. 
This accounts for the use of the Aorist in proverbial 
expressions, \vhich are generally and contingently, not 
axiomatically, true. 

. Translate into English : 

y jJ u* (2) ^ cJbu ur (i) 

Ui ,-> (3) ^J, 

s (10) ys 4/ 

jl _>wlj <Ll.f (13) ' .V' ^_^o- IS Ai 


(15) UA) "^ ^ ii>W. -^ ^V JJ ( 14 ) 

(1) This sentence occurs in the Biig-o-Bahih', and may bs trans- 
lated ' What shall I say at all, at all ? ' M. Adalat Khan, who 
published a version of this romance some years ago, has the in- 
genious rendering, ' What on earth shall I say?'; but TcMTc does 
not mean ' earth ' in tbii sense. See j | . 15. 

(2) Kyd munh leke, lit. 'having taken what mouth,' or, as we 
say, ' with what face.' 

(3) Here dekhkar agrees with the subject of discourse and not 
with the grammatical subject lean, 

(4) Itni larl holcar ' so old ' in our idiom, ' at your age." The 
Past Conjunctive Participle refers to the woman spolien to, that is. 
to the subject of discourse. 

(5) Ju mill 'falls,' lit. 'went and mixed.' The idiom of the 
Past tense here is identical with that of gal in 44. 5- 

(6) Mi'Jcar 'combined* or 'summed up/ I he sum of two or 
more numbers is jor 'union' in Hindi, anft jama' 'collection' in 

(7) Ru-la-Jcur liklikar ' the proceedings having been recorded.' 
The Past Conjunctive Participle is here absolute. The text is an 
official fornmla which connects the precis of a case with the order 
passed on it. 

(8) The Past Conjunctive Participle clihor 'having let g' is a 
similar usage. Translate ' Let alone one two doctors,' etc. 

(9) Lund is a contraction for le-dnd, and though it takes an*"' 
o'ject by virtue of the first member of the compound, is an intran- 
sitive verb. 

(10) Talush-karnd ' to search.' See 64. 

(11) Note a difference of idiom in the attachment of the negative 
to the second instead of the first verb. 

(12) Mukhtasar karke, lit. ' having made abridged.' Another way 
of putting it is mvkhtasar iaur par 'in an abridged fashion,' or 


more pedantically, mukhtasaran. For the form of the word see 
App. A, Form VIII. 

(13) From Gnlib. ' The taker down of a reflected picture ' is, of 
course, 'a photographer.' Taswir (App. A, Form II.) is the delinea- 
tion of a shape (st'trat). 

(14) Le-jana, like land, is an instransitive. 

(15) See 67. Translate 'Thief knows thief,' which is the 
counterpart of a well-known English proverb. 

i Translate into Hindustani : 

(1) Nine, nineteen, and twenty-nine make fifty-seven. 

(2) Some rascal must have gone and carried off my shoes. 

(3) Who brought this letter ? (4) Put all these books 
in order on the table. (5) How am I to deal with these 
rebels ? (6) The river Indus falls into the Indian Ocean. 
(7) I am fond of taking the air in the evening. (8) 
Briefly describe all your adventures. (9) Find out the 
exact state of the case and write me word. (10) How am 
I to ascertain the real cause of thisemeute? (11) Not 
one but three snakes came out of this very drain. (12) 
With what face shall I encounter my elder brother? 
(13) Never aouse a man behind his back. (14) 1 went 
home and took fever. (15) I admit the force of the 
Maulavi's objection. 

71 , Directions. 

(1) On the model of 68. 6. 

(2) There are plenty of words for ' rascal ' in Hindustani. The 
Arabic word makkur, which is a favourite with poets and women, 
will answer the purpose here. 

(3) Yeh chitthi, not is chltthi ko. The student must learn to do 
without the ko with due regard to the rule in 65. 

(1) ' In order,' tartlb se. See 61. 10. 



(5) 'How ? ' kis tarah se may be used as a variation of Jciinn 
For the form of the sentence see 60. IO - The word used foi 
'rebels' in the Mutiny was bagi or layi-log. Another Arabic verhn 1 
mufsid, which signifies the doer of fanad, 27. l > i g frequently used. 

(fi) See 68. 5- Sin dh, originally Hindi), is the Indus. 

(7) Turn this: 'Fondness (sTiauif) of eating air is to me.' In 
India one eats air and drinks smoke, or, as we say, ' imbibe?.' 
Compare fkefumum bibere of Horace. 

(8) For ' briefly ' see 69. I2 - 

(9) 'The exact state of the case,' haqtqat-hdl. 'To write word,' 
likh-lhejnd ; ' to send word,' kahld-bhejnd. 

(10) ' Emeute,' either fasad alone or danga-fasad, in which dangu 
describes the ' row,' andfasdd the 'mischief.' 

(11) On the model of 68. 8. 

(12) See 68. 2 - Instead of miildqat karnd use m Hud. 

(13) 'Behind the back,' ptth-pichhe. See 50. I- 'To abuse' 
is idiomatically biird-bhald kahnd ' to speak evil and good,' with se 
to mark the person abused. 

(14) Turn this: 'To me, having gone home, fever came,' the 
Past Conjunctive Participle being in rational agreement with the 
person speaking. 

(15) Use taslim-karnu for ' admit," which will render the transla- 
tion of ' the force of ' unnecessary. Mai'k the object in this sentence 
by ko. 


72i Causal verbs are a speciality of the language, not 
less useful than elegant. Theoretically, every simple 
Hindi verb is capable of producing, as it were, two secon- 
daries, the first of which is a causal of the simple, and 
the second a causal of the causal, or a double causal 
of the simple. The characteristic of the formation is the 
insertion of a between the base form of the simple verb 
and the Geiundial suffix nd, for the first causal, and 


similarly of wd for the second: bnt euphonic modification 
of the base itself, especially in the first causal, is often 

(1) As a rule, no change in the base form is made, 
when it is monosyllabic with a short vowel placed between 
two consonants: 
e.g., Ujo palcna ' to be cooked ' '.j'^o pakdnd ' to cook.' 

i ^ 

U~2- charnd ' to graze ' \jl >. ' char dud ' to pasture.' 

The following, however, ara examples of causals formed 
by merely lengthening the short vowel of the simple: 

UvJo katnd ' to be cut ' U.% kdlnd ' to cut.' 

Jchulnd ' to be open ' UJ.^i Jcholnd ' to open.' 
phatnd 'to be broken' \jU^ phdrnd ' to break.' 

In this last instance the final cerebral of the base 
has been changed to a cognate letter. 

liknd ' to be sold ' IxJo lecltnd ' to sell.' 

Uo>. rahnd ' to remain ' Uu, rakhnd ' to keep.' 
arc somewhat similar. 

(l2) If the vowel in the close monosyllabic base is long, 
such vowel is shortened in forming the causal, as : 

Uo"l:>- jd'jnd ' to be awake' Ijlxs*- j'tgdnd 'to awaken.' 
U.-.Co <l>-l-lin<i ' to see ' \J*J*J <liklidnd ' to show.' 

'V.Lv.' luilhnd 'to sit' \jUJv: lithdnd ' to seat.' 

\\hen, however, the final consonant of the ba- 
ivivbral, the vowel is inoilifu'd in sound but not shm-ti -lu'd, 
ami the t is changed to r, as in thu example noticed al) >\ r , 

chhilhtd 'to be let go,' U?i>- chhornd 'to let 

^ J ' " 


go,' and the second causal then takes the form of the 
regular first causal, viz., ljt ! li>. chhurdnd to 'make let go.' 

(3) If the monosyllabic base is open, that is, ends in a 
long vowel, such vowel is shortened and the letter lam 
inserted between it and the characteristics d and ivd : e.g., 

Uuo pind 'to drink.' \j\j pildnd ' to make drink.' 

\j^> sond ' to sleep.' Vi^Lj suldnd ' to make sleep.' 

Jchdnd ' to eat.' UK Jchildnd ' to make eat.' 

dend ' to give.' UVj dildnd ' to make give.' 

But UuJ lend ' to take.' \j\A liwdnd 'to make take.' 

(4) When the base is dissyllabic with two short vowels, 
the second of these is either dropped or lengthened in the 
formation of the first causal : e.g., 

s >majhnd ' to understand.' IjU^,^ samjltditd 'to 

make understand.' 

j nikalnd 'to go out.' IA!\JO nikdlnd 'to make go out.' 

No change takes place in the formation of the second 
causal in this case. 

i (1) The addition of jdnd to the base of verbs, 
whether transitive or intransitive, supplies a class of 
intransitive compound verbs, known as Intensives, because 
the state or action denoted by the single verb receives a 
more forcible expression. See 39. 

(2) To this class also belong the intransitive compounds, 
of which the second member is idltnd 'rising up,' and 
parnd 'falling down,' or 'lying.' As might be expected, 
the characteristic of the action portrayed by the first set 


is siiddenncss. The nature of the sfate or action in the 
case of tlie second set may be appropriately characterised 
us casual. Baithnd 'sitting down' is occasionally used in 
much the same way to denote finality. 

(3) Similarly contrasted Intensives are those of \vhicl 
the second member is dend ' giving,' and lend ' taking. 
Stated generally, the action denoted by the first concerns 
others, and that denoted by the second, oneself. Both 
forms are very common in causal verbs. 

Dend is occasionally replaced by ddlnd ' throwing,' of 
which the effect is vehemence or finality. 

74i Potentials and Completives are formed by the 
addition of the otherwise unused verbs saknd ' to be able,' 
and cliultna 'to be finished,' to transitive and intransitive 
bases. Obviously, when the base is transitive, these com- 
pounds take an object after them, but they are logically 
and grammatically intransitive, because action is not pre- 
dicated by the second member. 

75, Tnceptives, Acquisitives, and Pel-missives are 
compound phrases in which the gerund in the construct 
state (ko suppressed) is followed by the verbs lagnd 
'set'ing to,'j>wH(. 'getting,' and dend 'giving,' respectively. 

The first two of these forms are logically and grammati- 
cally intransitive, because beginning to act and acquiring 
the right to act are not acting. The third form, on the 
other hand, is transitive, because verbs of giving h:i\v 
two objects, and the permission to act, denoted by the 
compound phrase, passes on to the person who receives 

X.B. It may be taken as a principle of the verb system 
of Hindustani that the meaning rules the construction. 



Translate into Enlish 

Z) Sj (3) j 

^ ^oUt (4) ITU b ra y . 

^c jj^*- A. V~ ( 

j !jc (6) U <-j 

V ^ " 


\ { 



^" * 

*j (11) ^o> 

J*^\ Jut) ^^1 (12) 


\\j U\ UJ jly/ (13) ^ 



77, Notes. 

(1) Zar-Miarid 'purchase-money.' Note that the long rowel of 
the simple verb bhejnci becomes the homogeneous short rowel in the 
causal. 72. 2. 

(2) For yikdlnii, see 72. ^- By the addition of /ena the verb 
becomes Intensive, and means 'drive out.' 

(3) Eefer to45. 9- 

(4) Baii-parnd ' to be effected' or 'managed.' 


(5) For //;/ see 27. 5- Sol-uthn>i ' to exclaim.' 
(C) A very common idiom 'my power does not move,' that is to 
say, 'I have no power to move,' etc. Mo'umala (sec App. A, Form 
III.) is an affair in which two or more persons are mutually inte- 

(7) For chandun see 5.9- ^' ie force of the Intensive may be 
expressed by translating ' to make my son understand (what 1 
wanted),' etc. 

(8) The duplication of the Past Conjunctive Participle denotes 

(9) Nahln likh-sakd, better than liJch nahln saJcd, 'I could not 

(10) The peculiar phrase hdmi bharnd means ' to assent ' or ' say 
jcs to.' See Taubat, V., 55, for note on the origin of the 

(11) The force of the compound verb may be given by translating 
it ' has already gone.' 

(12) This idiom cannot be literally translated ; our phrase ' talk 
about this and that ' is the nearest approach. 

(13) Translate 'Beware! let not this secret be divulged.' For 
if slid see App. A, Form IV. 

(14) The sahn is the inner court of a native house. Consult the 
house-plan given in App. A of the Taubat. 

(15) Said se, an expression of impatience, like our 'Bother take 
it!' ' Ilang it!' ete. For bas see 51. I2 - Translate here 'and 
have done with it.' 

7Si Translate into Hindustani : 

(1) I cannot answer your question off-hand. (~2) I 
could do nothing, and that's all about it. (3) The cat 
must have drunk up the milk. (4) Pitch the tent to the 
north of that tope. (5) He finished his work before 
arrival. (6) The cultivators began to complain of hard 
times. (7) There is no harm in admitting him. (8) . 
no one be allowed to go outside the compound. ('2) Make 
an exact copy of this document. (10) Shall I enter a 
report of the insanitary condition of this village in >ny 


diary? (11) Don't let there be any contention among 
you. (12) Have the cricket-ground watered the first 
thing in the morning. (13) Hang it; chuck this rubbish 
into the waste-paper basket. (14) He will have come 
through the bazar. (15) Have all the horses shod 


(1) ' To answer a question,' is, in Hindustani, ' to give an answer 
of a question.' ' Off-hand,' sar-i-dast, lit. ' tip of Land,' or, as we 
say, ' finger-tip.' 

(2) See 76. 4 or 6. The second clause may be translated las, 
as in 76. 1 S- 

(3) Place the object first, with Jco. 'To drink up,' pi-juna. 

(4) 'To pitch a tent' is 'to rt.ake it stand,' khard kar-dend, or, 
simply, lagdnd, 'to fix' 'To the north' in the Hindustani idiom is 
' in the north.' In addressing servants or villagers Hindi words are 
more likely to be understood than Persian or Arabic ; tit tar is therefore 
better here than shimal. 

(5) 'Before my arrival," mere dne se pahle, in which se marks the 
lapse of an interval. 

(6) ' To complain of hard times,' zamuna k"t thikdgat Jcarnd. 

(9) ' Exact ' is to be rendered as ' according to the original,' 

(10) ' Insanitary condition,' na-sufi. ' To enter,' darj kardend. 

(11) 'Among you,' upas men. 

(12) ' A cricket-ground,' gend-khelne kd maiddn 'an open space 
for ball-placing'; gend-gliar or gend-gdh is used for a 'racquet- 
court.' There are several expressions for '(he first thing in the 
morning,' such as tarke, fajar ko, savere, or munh andhere ' when it 
is too dark to distinguish a face.' 

(13) See 77. 15- ' Into the waste-paper basket,' radd'i men. 

(14) ' Through the bazar,' Idzdr hoke. 

(15) Turn this : ' Have the shoeing of all the horses done to- 
morrow ' (kanvd-dind). 



3Oi The affix ne marks the Agent of a transitive verb 
in those six of its tense-forms which are derived from the 
Perfect Participle, and which therefore denote a perfected 
action. Under all circumstances, no matter what the 
gender or number of the agent is, agreement with the 
verb is barred by the presence of this affix. The verb 
agrees with what in our idiom is its object ; as, ham ne 
yeh kitdb parhi tht 'we had read this book.' When, how- 
ever, such object has the affix ko, in accordance with the 
reservations of 65., concord is again barred, and the 
verb becomes independent and absolute; as, ham ne 
Gulistdn ko parhd thd 'we had read the Gulistan.' 

The first of the above examples illustrates the general 
usage ; the second is a particular variation. 

31 In the case of the verbs lolnd ' to speak,' baknd 
'to chatter,' and bhiilnd 'to forget,' the subject is not 
marked by the sign of the Agent, because the meaning of 
the first and second is really 'utterance of a sound,' 
which may or may not be intelligible ; and, as to the third, 
' forgetting ' is distinctly an intransitive idea, for there is 
nothing to pass on. The verb samajhnd " to understand ' 
is both transitive and intransitive, according to the 
context ; and by some authors sochiid ' to think ' is vii-wid 
in tlie same way. 

32 1 The six tense- forms which are derived from the 
Perfect Participle are: (1) the Past, Absolute; (2) the 
Past Proximate; (3) the Past Remote; (4) the P;i-t 
Presumptive ; (5) the Past Dubious ; (6) the Past Con- 
ditional Remote. See App. B. The last two will bu 


illustrated under the head of Subordinate Clauses in 
Part II., Exercises XX1IL, XXIV. 

33i Rules for the formation of the Perfect Parti- 
ciple : (1) When the base of a verb ends in a consonant, 
the Past Participle is formed by adding a. There are 
two exceptions, viz., kiijd (Jcarnd) and mu'a (marnd), in- 
stead of kard and mard, though these latter forms occur. 
(2) When the base ends in \ or . the same augment is 
used, but y euphonic is interposed ; and Jiamza replaces ij 
when the participle is in the construct state, or is plural 
Or feminine ; e.g. khdyd, khde, khd'i, Ithain. Gayd from 
jdnd and JiiTa from hond are exceptional. (3) When the 
base ends in ^ (e or t), the insertion of y between the 
base and the augment is unnecessary, because the long 
vowels e and * are equivalent to iy ; consequently, lend 
has for its Past Participle liyd and lie, and in the femi- 
nine, li and lin (contracted) ; and in the same way pind 
has plyd, pie, pi, pin, which represent the Hindi forms. * 

Translate into English : 


* Xt'e, Jci'e, etc., are written Zf e, Jci'e etc., in the Bag-o-Bahar and 
such like texts. The explanation is that, Mahoniedan translators from 
Persian into Hin<lu>t;iiii, ;is Kaja Siva Prasad savs, "knew nothing of 
Sanskrit and ignored the Aryan basis of th vernacular." See Part III. 
hitrod. Tlcm. 


'^ c _j (6) UI^ Uj\ ^i 

(15) l^,^ t^^Le <UJJU ^J ^c 


(1) Translate ' I was forced to take, 1 etc. The Arabic verbal 
means one who is under pressure or (orce,jattr. Soi> A pp. A, Form I. 

(2) Ap Jce iqMl e ' by your good fortune ' is the ordinary reply to 
a complimentary remark. For iqbal see App. A. Form IV. 

(3) The verb is iu agreement with the collective term. See 


(1) Xiillxh karna (par) is tho toclinic:il term for 'putting into 
court,' or ' prosecuting.' 

(5) Charst'i Ihui- znniin se ' (slarting) a hide of land.' \vhii-h 
incans in India, as much as a pair of bullocks can irrigate in a day. 
^' l ' 73.3- f r t 


(6) The objeci is here particularised iu answer to a question ; 
hence it stands first with Jco. The full form of mol-lend 'to purchase' 
is rarely used. A be-chobd is a tent without a centre-pole. The 
name of the town here mentioned is one which it is difficult to 
transliterate. Pedantically written it should he Fathgarh, but this 
would convey no notion of the pronunciation to an ordinary reader. 
A former generation wrote it ' Futtyghur ' ; and perhaps the most 
intelligible compromise is ' Fatehgarh.' 

(7) Rah-numcfi, shortened from rdh-numiit ' road-showing.' 
Ta'indt karnd 'to appoint" or 'tell off for duty' (64.)- The 
vowel zabar before ain sounds almost as a. 

(8) From Galib. The use of the gerund as an agent is an illustra- 
tion of its flexibility (4-8.)- 

(9) Galib again. Urdu men liJchd Tiai 'has translated into Urdu' ; 
ulatnd ' to turn ' is another expression ; tarjuma karnd is, perhaps, 
the commonest. The Bo*tdn-i-Khaydl is a voluminous Persian 
romance, and the translation spoken of is well written. 

(10) Shd'i bahinon 'brother and sister' a compound in the 
Rational Plural. 

(11) Translate ' What led you to,' etc ? ' 

(12) Agair note the force of the compound kar-lin. For musta'dr 
see App. A, Form X. 

(13) ' Your letter to the address of B. K. C.' The proper name 
and the pronoun (unke) change places in the English version. 

(14) Ap Tee intizdr men ' in expectation of your coming.' For 
multawt see App. A, Form VIII. 

(15) The idea of the verb is the 'taking up a thing,' and not 
putting it (?swn until it is done with.' Translate ' He left nothic! 

Translate into Hindustani : 

(1) I got myself laughed at to no purpose. (2) My 
companions made this compact among themselves. (3) A 
Baniya of the name of Ram Lai has caused a false com- 
plaint to be laid against me. (4) I bought two country- 
bred mares at Hardwar for my own use. (5) You have 


written about many subjects in your report. (6) My 
mother-in-law gave roe no share at all in the house-keep- 
ing. (7) What made you let the gentleman go ? (8) 
You undertook a very risky "business. (9) I found it- 
hard to make both ends meet on twenty rupees a month. 
(10) Old age has made me useless. (11) The sick man 
asked after the whole family one by one. (12) Why 
did you omit this particular item in the account ? (13) 
The agent collected corn, grass, straw, and everything 
for the regiment. (14) He shot four tigers in quick 
succession. (15) You have treated me with great con- 
si deration in this matter. 


(1) ' To get oneself laughed at,' apni hansi karan.'t. 

(2) The phrase used in 79. IJ is equally applicable here. 

(3) See 33.; also 84. 4- 

(4) ' For my own use (or riding),' apni, or khud apni, or //' ki 
sowuri ke li'e. Desi is generally ' country -bred,' as opposed to 
n-il<"iyati ' foreign/ which describes English horses and ' Walers.' 

(5) Omit the word ' about,' and translate ' subjects ' by the 
Arabic masculine plural of matlab, viz., matulib. 

(6) The Hindustani idiom has ' entrance ' (duJchl) instead of 
share ; (ftissa). 

(7) See 84. II. 

(8) 'A rirky business,' jokhim orjokhon. Use the Past Remote. 

(9) This idiom cannot be literally translated. Turn ' With diffi- 
culty on twenty rupees I made sufficiency." 

(in) ' Useless ' is here nikammd ' do-nothing.' 

(11) ' One by one,' ek ek karke, that is, 'specifying each in turn.' 
Omit the word ' after,' as in (5) above. 

(12) ' This (particular) item ' is raqam ko, the position and con- 
struction both being particular. 'To omit" ia here qalam-aitddz 
karnd ' to throw a.-ido the reed,' as opposed to qalam-Lniul. 

(13) For the form of this sentence see 84-. 3- 


(14) 'In quick succession,' upar tale, lit. ' orer and under,' 'one 
on the top of the other.' ' To shoot,' bandiiq nidrnd, in which the se 
is elided. 

(15) 'To treat with consideration,' qadr-diini farmana. 


, The verb dend, in combination with causal verbals 
in t, has the intransitive sense of ' admit of,' as dikhdf 
dend, 'to admit, of being shown,' that is, 'to be visible.' 
Hence the subject cannot be constructed with ne. This 
appears very clearly in the following example from the 
Prem Sdgar ; Krisltn dp M bandhd"i diye ' Krishn let him- 
self be bound.' 

The same intransitive idea attaches to the compounds 
sdtJi-dcnd 'to accompany,' lit. 'to give one's company/ and 
chal-dend ' to move on,' ' start off,' etc. 

Ho-lend ' to accompany ' is another example of an in- 
transitive compound, of which the second member is 

Compare the remarks made in 74-. 75. 

8^1 I n addition to the regular form of the Impera- 
tive, which demands immediate action, Hindi provides 
the termination iyo for an action which may be deferred ; 
also iye and iyeyd for the intimation of a request or 
suggestion. In these latter Hamza replaces the letter ye 
in Hindustani when the base of the verb ends in a conso- 
nant, as ^11^ chali'e 'pray come.' When the base emls 
in \ or ,, hamza separates the base and the termination, 
as <== .j^'$ Id'iye 'please bring.' Lastly, when the base ends 


in I or e, the letter jim is inserted between base and ter- 
mination, as ^sa! Hjie ' please take.' 

The precativo of hond is hujie, from an older l>asp. 
The use of these forms in subordinate clauses will be 
considered in Part II. 

9Oi The verbal cJiulne is in all probability a survival 
of the Prakrit passive in ijja, so that the true meaning is 
'desired' or 'to be desired,' as an obligation or duty, 
which is the sense of the verbal in Hindustani.* Thus 
the phrase yiln lii cltdhie means ' that's as it should be,' 
etc.; tumko koshish karni cJidhie thi 'you ought to have 
tried,' in which chdhie thi agrees in gender and number 
with the gerund. 

The use of this verbal as the first member of a com- 
pound sentence will be noticed in Part II. 

9! . Translate into Enlish : 
(2) U_J \giif. J} 

rAiL, l.Jc< t-J , ^ T J >. (4) 

" ^S" V ^_ ^ V J J 

cr? ij^-J j^- 

) js ^j ^ juo i .0^ ^. (6) 

^\jj (9) cJ^ 

Sec Kellogg, 610, who quots taruhiye 'it U praised,' from the 



ni^ l-r N ; !<_ .1 nfh 

\ 1 JL I t - *>>. ^Jo ^J \.H>- s ? 1 I 1 V/ ) 

f \ i . \ t t T H /i K\ 1 

/ i 

92 1 Notes. 

(1) Chor-jahdz 'a pirate-ship.' Compare chor-darwaza (5) 'a 
secret door' or 'postern.' Synonyms for dikhul dend are nazar 
and or nazar parnd, the latter of which conveys the sense of a 
sudden or unexpected appearance. 

(2) -4wz, the sound of voices of men or animals ; dhat, the sound 
of steps. For mutlaq (abverb) see App. A, Form IV. 

(3) Chliufnd ' being loose.' See 72. 

(4) Ap M dp 'of his own accord'; merd sdth 'companionship 
xith me.' Merd sdth dend is therefore much the same thing as mere 
idth and. 

(B) Asl&n, an Arabic nceusative, used adverbially in the sense of 
'entirely,' 'radically.' Mutlaq (1) might have been equally mullaqaH. 

(7) Merd nctm I eke 'in my name,' like the phrase used at 68. 2 - 
Mdng-ldnd ' to ask for and bring.' 

(8) Musan-wada 'draft of letter,' etc., conveniently pronounced 
musauda. This verbal, like muqaddama (84. 1 4) belongs to 
App. A, Form II. In these cases the participle is nominalized by 
the addition of ah. 

(9) The inferior speaks of his house as a 'poor' house in the 
usual self-abusing style ; in tashrif fa i md'iye, tashrif means 'honour- 
ing by a visit ' ; and the sentence may be translated,' Please, your 
.M-i'l!ency, do mo the honour of entering my humble abode.' 
Similarly, ta.ihrif Idnd means ' to come,' tashrif le-jdnd 'to go ' in 
native etiquette. 

(11) 'Then, where will you be-pleased-to-go ? ' the position of 
the interrogative implying there is nowhere to go. 

,4*.' 2 +*/'. 


PART 1. EXEU:iSE Xll. 67 

(12) Vote here the form of the Persian iziifut after a word end- 
ing in d. Pakarnl ' to grasp,' where we use the milder expression 
' take.' For mubtalu see App. A, Form VIII. 

(13) Darldri Jcapre, to a native, is ' full-dress." 

(14) See the example given in 90. 

(15) Ba-har-hal, lit. 'under all circumstances ' or 'in every way.' 
In the English idiom the negative is joined to the adverbial phrase. 
Compare with this the idiom of 68. !' 

i Translate into Hindustani : 

(1) The sails of a ship were visible ten miles off. 
(2) He took leave and departed. (3) He accoirpauied us - 
half-way. (4) Please wire me inf< >rmation of his approach. 
(5) He ought to have taken warning from his brother's 
punishment. (6) Their language was quite unintelligible^ 
to me. (7) Explain to me the author's meaning. J-' (8) 
good enough to write down your instructions in detail. 
(9) Kindly honour me with a visit to-morrow or the next 
day. (10) the guns were audible at a distance of forty 
kos (11) The advance-guard of the enemy came in 
sight across the Satlej. (8'2) Pray be not out-of-heart. 

(13) In no case ought you to treat the people harshly. 

(14) Pray make no ceremony about entering the court- 
yard of my house. (15) There should be no parda 
between relations. 

^4i Directions. 

(1) Turn this: ' At a distance (fdaila) of ten miles,' etc. 

(-) Use the past Conjunctive Participle for first verb, and see 

44. i. 

0*) 91. 4- 'Half-way,' in the idiom of Hindustani is 'up to 
half -distance.' 

(4) Turn 'By means of wire send me,' etc. 'Approach,' tas'irlf- 
iiwari, which is the Persian original of the phrase tashrlf land,' 




(5) On the model of 91. 12 with due regard to tense. 

(6) Use the idiom explained in 88. 

(7) 'Meaning' has several representatives in Hindustani according 
to the context, such as ma'ni, matlab, irdda, mansha, of which the 
last is best here. ' To explain' or 'expound,' tashrih-karnd. 

(8) Prefix the phrase melirbdni karke. ' To write down,' tahrir 

(9) Use the verb of 91. 9. Omit the conjunction 'or.' 

(10) See 91.2; but say 'voice of guns.' 

(11) The 'vanguard' of an army \spesh-lashkar; the 'rear-guard.' 
pas-lashkar. 'Across the Satlej,' Satlaj par. For the verb use 
nazar-parna. 92. T - 

(13) See 91. I 5- 'To treat harshly,' ziyudati kurnii (par). 

(14) Turn ' Honour me by entering without ceremony,' etc. 

(15) Turn this interrogatively : ' What parda is wanted (chain e) 
among relations ? ' 


The Participles, to use the Latin term, piny an 
important part in idiomatic Hindustani: and familiarity 
with their usage and construction is a test of scholarship. 
Native grammarians treat them as verbal nouns, a term 
which includes adjectives, and have adopted the Arabic 
terms ism-fd'il (nomen ageatis), and ism-mof'ul (iwmen 
patientis) for the Imperfect and Perfect Participles re- 
spectively. As compared with other nouns, they convey 
the idea of status, more or less lasting and continuous ; 
nnd this is heightened by the addition of the auxiliary 
hud. See 5. n. 

There is no difference in the Participles in the matter 
of construction, and they will be treated together in the 
following sections in the order of usage, as, (1) Sub- 
stantival, Ex. XIII; (2) Adjectival, Ex. XIV; (3) 
Adverbial, Ex. XV. 


As verbal nouns, the Participles may stand alone 
in a concrete or abstract sense, and are oftenest used in 
the construct form before an affix or postposition ; as, 
j'l'jte men ' in a waking state ' or ' while awake ' ; sunte Ice 
sdth 'concurrently with hearing' or 'immediately on 
hearing ' ; kaJie se 'by order,' etc. 

The Perfect Participle, in combination with the pre- 
po-itions bin, be, bagair, etc., all of which mean ' without' 
privative, supplies a specially useful idiom in such forms 
as be mere de hue 'without my having come'; be khde 
' without having eaten,' etc. 

In all these cases the verbal and the postposition or 
preposition taken together are adverbial phrases. The 
strictly adverbial construction, in which the governing 
particles are suppressed, belongs to the third head. 
See Exercise XV. 

97, Translate into English : 

^ (2) I?/ ^ U ^ (1) 

f \ S S /Q\ ?^7 f ~S\ 

^^^> ^>fT jr>^ \ 6 ) eL' = ^^ ^r 1 

L-T ii (4) ^ 4 > 

_Cw (5) 

( 10 ) 


_.' ',} c _j i ,Lv< ,_i j^Aw^c _<ljf- (12) vx..-.' 


(1) A proverbial expression 'What will not a dying man do ?' 

that is, a man will do anything when driven to extremities. 

(2) Also proverbial ; descriptive of a coward. 

(3) Rah-chaltd, exactly our ' way-farer.' Sir hona, for sir par 
honu ' to pester,' ' sit upon,' etc. As regards the gentry spoken of, 
it is quite unnecessary to translate the appellatives in detail. 
' Religious mendicants ' will answer the purpose. 

(4) Literally, ' Slave, having been called of you, is in attendance,' 
that is, ' I am present at your summons.' 

(5) Jdgte men 'as I lay awake.' Jinn, the 'Genius' of the Alf 

(6) Sunte Tee sath 'immediately on hearing (of it).' 

(7) Proverbial. Kahe se ' by ordev.' 

(8) &ote se ' from a state of sleeping ' or ' sleep.' The Past Con- 
junctive Participle agrees with the subject of discourse (66.) F r 
the idiom of Tee here see 52. I S < 

(9) Samjhae se, ' by having been made to understand,' but the 
sentence cannot be translated literally. For rdzt see App. A, 
Form I. 

(10) Jawdn Tv&e par, lit. ' on having grown up,' that is, ' when he 
is grown up.' Surat is 'personal appearance,' generally in t he- 
sense of ' good looks.' 

(11) Bagair deJche hue marts ke 'without a sight of the 

(12) Se dpar gde ' without having ascended it.' 

Translate into Hindustani : 
(1) My fingers are not under raj control on account of 
choir trembling. (2) Grief at my departure is still felt 


by them. (3) Give the cartmen the usual return-hire. 
(4) His proficiency will be first-rate when he is growi- 
up. (5) How can you know the drift of the petition 
without reading it? (6) He departed without taking 
leave. (7) On my checking the accounts the treasurer's 
dishonesty \\;is exposed. (8) Who can tell the breadth 
of the Ganges without crossing it ? (9) Mere disgust 
will be caused by such familiarity. (10) He will agree 
to take service if he is made to understand its advan- 
tages. (11) We have come at your summons only. (12)1 
shall have to give the broker his commission. 

tOO Directions. 

(1) ' Under my control,' kahe men. Omit the pronoun 'their ' also. 

(2) ' Grief at my departure,' mere gae ku qaiaq. 'To be felt,' 
dil men lagna. 

(H) ' Return-hire,' phirtd. 

(4) ' When he is grown up' see 97. IO - Instead of the word for 
'proficiency' used at 44. &> which means rather 'preparedness,' 
choose here mahdrat ' skill ' or ' expertness.' 

(5) On the model of 97. " 
(G) For the verb see 88. 

(7) Use the form given in 97. 6, and express the 'my' by 
mvjhko placed ufter the adverbial phrase. 'To check account.-.' 
hixi'ih xnitiiir. 'To be exposed,' khiilm'i. The student \vill have 
noticed by this time the constant use of neuter verbs in Hindustani 
where the Passive Voice is the English mode. 

(8) ' Without crossing it,' be par lint-. 

(9) 'By such familiarity,' is tarah munh-laf/-fe se. The idea of 
tlio term here used is something like that of our 'cheek by jowl.' 

(10) Use the phrase given in 97. 9- om.tting in translation 'its 
advantages.' ' To agree to take,' /'iftul kar-l-mi. 

(11) As in 9 7. 4. 

(12) For the form of verb see 51. 2 - ' Commission,' dhartA, 
which lit. menus 'putting something down.' 



lOli (1) As attributive adjectives the Participles 
agree with the nouns they qualify, whether subject or 
object; and iu this usage the idioms of English and 
Hindustani are very similar, but in the case of the Imper- 
fect Participle the English adjectival use of such transi- 
tives as 'interesting,' 'amusing,' etc., cannot be imitated 
in Hindustani. Recourse is had to Persian or Arabic 
verbals, or to the adjectival use of nouns with izdfat, as 
explained in 24. Thus, 'an interesting book' may be 
translated dilcliasp kitdb ' a heart-clinging book,' or maza 
ki Jcitdb a ' book of flavour.' 

(2) As predicative adjectives also the Participles may 
agree with the nouns to which they refer; as, woh Jianstd 
hud phi rt d hai ' he goes about laughing ' ; but when the 
Participle thus used has an adverbial sense, as in the 
example given, where ' laughing ' might be read ' laugh- 
ingly, 'Hindustani, like English, has an alternative method 
of construction. This will be explained in the next 

1O2. Translate into English : 


^ Uo (-2) .^ ^b liLw ^ ^.bU- (1) 

(5) ^ ^L^' ^ ^ JV (4) 

a ? j> 

(6) .'U 


(9) j> ^JUAX. ^ ^yli ^yj Lo x (8) 

^^ ^^ W *O y ^"I> *" 

jS (10) ^ |^ 

^.' (11) 


(1) Phutd 'broken,' that is, 'boiling.' Note the difference of 
idiom in the use of the word 'fill.' In (6), on the other hand, the 
idioms of the two languages correspond. 

(2) Ankhon (kt) dekhi Mt ' an eye-witnessed affair,' in other 
words, ' the report of an eye-witness." Sai se barhkar, an adverbial 
use of the Past Conjunctive Participle, 'more than all,' equivalent 
to siydda. 

(3) Here the adjective bard is used substantivelj in the sense of 
' elder.' Khidmat men, lit. ' in the service of,' is a conventional 
I ih rase for 'to.' Da\i z ibiin se 'with depressed tongue,' that is, 
quietly ' or ' gently ' or ' with bated breath.' 

(4) Chaltt kasr means 'a progressive fraction,' that is, 'a re- 
curring decimal.' Ta'rif ' definition,' our word ' tariff.' For pronun- 
ciation of the see 85.7- 

(5) Die, the Hindustani form of diye. Sec 83. 3- Formustiiyhn 
ree Ajij). A, Form X. 

(G) Translate rakhtJiu'l ' standing,' so as to avoid the ambiguity 
of ' placed ' in the English sentence. 

(7) Gol-kumard ' company-room,' generally used for our term 
'drawing-room.' Richhti (hi'di) hni, is spread' or 'laid down,' ready 
I'm- use, in contrast with other rooms. 

(8) A proverbial expression' Have you got henna on you tVet 
(that you are afraid of moving) ? ' 


(9) Illustrative of |QI. Pitta-mart Tea kdm ' painstaking work,' 
which requires an effort of the will (pitta). Lit. ' spleen.' KhAsJcnr 
'especially,' not a Past Conjunctive Participle, but an adjective ith 
designative particle Icar attached. 

1 10) Kothu, the flat roof of Oriental houses. 

(12) Ae din Jcu jhagra ' quarrelling every day that comes,' that is, 
'daily quarrelling,' See 37. 6. 

1O4 Translate into Hindustani : 

(1) Jnst silence that barking dog. (2) I received this 
thriving business by inheritance from my forefathers. 
(3) He presented me to-day with a talking-bird in a 
cage. (4) All men eat the bread given by God. (5) The 
cloth is laid. (6) In illustration of this, I remember a 
very amusing anecdote. (7) These made-up speeches are 
disagreeable to me. (8) Fill the bucket with boiling 
porridge. (9) The coward in alarm retraced his steps. 
(10) A large number of interesting books are in the 
library. (11) The army in retreat reached the frontier 
with much difficulty. (12) Proceeding through the 
market he receives and returns the salutations of the 

tO5i Directions. 

(2) Turn 'In inheritance from forefathers to me.' etc. 'A 
thriving business,' cltaltd kdrkhdna. 

(3) 'In a cage' must be expanded in llindustani to ' placed or 
fixed in a cage,' pinjre men lagi ft til. 

(4) 'By' must be translated here by the sign of izufat, a- m 


(5) As in |02. 7- 

(6) For the verb see 44. 3- 

(7) 'Made-up speeches,' banal huln la/en. See also 4-4-. I2> 

(8) For ' boiling" use here khaultd hurt. 


(9) In alarm,' khauf khdkar, i.e. ' luring absorbed fear.' Coin- 
pore 71.7- 1 ' retrace steps ' is ulte puon (st) phirn i. 

(10) See |0 1. 

(11) 'In retreat,' bhagti fiii'i, in agreement with /aw/. 'With 
much difficulty,' bari mughkil se, bari bar! mwshkilon se t hazdr 
mnshkilon se. 

(12) 'Proceeding through the market,' bi'iznr hot a hii'i. See 
79. *4- Omit 'and returns,' because the word lend includes this. 
He who does not return &saldm is supposed not to receive it. 


The Adverbial construction is that in which 
tin- Participle is in the construct form with postpositional 
affix men suppressed. Thus, to recur to the example 
given in 96, instead of jdgte men 'in a waking state,' we 
might have jdgte hue or jdgte jdgte ' while awake,' the 
latter form having sometimes an intensive and sometimes 
a continuative sense.* 

Similarly, an alternative phrase for sunfe ke sdth is 
smite Id tnen, or, adverbially, sunte hi 'immediately on 
hearing' a form of expression so frequently employed 
that some grammarians make it an integral part of tin.' 
\ erl> scheme. 

Precisely in the same manner, the predicative Parti- 
ciple lianstd hiid, in the example given in IOI. (2), may be 
adverbially constructed as hanste hue 'laughingly,' or 
hanste 'continuously laughing.' 

1O7 (1) v.-licn the agent of a transitive 
takes the sign ne, concord with a predicating Part ieiple is 

* Examples of Participial adverbs in Fns:li:>li :uv 'lovingly,' 

4 dovi'ti'dly,' ftc., and in Latin, lileuttr, conc^l, cic. 


disallowed, and the Participle mnst be adverbially con- 
structed. In this case the Participle generally stands 
before the agent with ne. As chalte hue Begam ne mujhse 
kalia, 'as she was going, the Begam said to me.' 

(2) Similarly, when the object of a transitive verb 
takes ko, concord with a predicating Participle is barred, 
and the Participle is either constructed adverbially, or 
absolutely, without inflection, as, main ne usko rote (or 
rota) pdyd ' 1 found him or her weeping.' Main ne usko 
baithe hue (or baitltd hud) deJchd ' I saw him or her 

In these examples, and generally, the absolute con- 
struction is preferable, as being unambiguous 

iO8i When the predicating Participle has an object 
of its own, the adverbial construction is indispensable. 
For example, (1) 'main takrdr karte hue (or karte karte) 
thak-yayd ' I was tired with wrangling.' 

Alternative, but not equally exact, renderings of the 
English expression would be, main takrdr karne se thak- 
gayd, main takrdr kar-karke thak-gaya. 

(2) Wohbahdna kiehue thd 'he was pretending,' all 
along, not at some particular period, which would be 
kartd thd. 

1O9, Translate into English : 


kj^L-J <-> ^J}\# l== ^j\ ^ ^ ^> *fjJ (1) 

JU , jL ^\ JT c=: ; ^ c-> ( 2 ) dU-rf 

^ ,jj ,.<^l (3) if! ^;;b ^ ,^ 

.v.< (4) 


k^ (6) ^j* 

by JiU / ^^ o>^ ^ v ^r^ d (^ ( 7 ) 

AJ^ (8) L'JuU ...J^c 1>,J ^l> 

"v ^-'^Vv 

>t j (10) ifyb UL-j ^Jys 

/J (11) ..tJ^Kj -~i ,Jo! <--Jv& c^ C^ .obi.'.! 

(^5> tJ- _/ J {^ " " * 

^ ^ (12) ^ ^^ ^\4 * u^^ ^ JT 

UjJ ^Tf ^ : b _:J ^5 

11O. Notes. 

(1) Dekhte hi ' as soon as he saw it.' Datt-khatt is here used as 
a plural. 

(2) Hote hole ' gradually.' For the verb see 51. 1 3- 

(3) Translate ' He or she passed the whole day (in) weeping.' 

(4) Mere rahte (men) ' while I am here.' 

(5) See 87. * Baithe-bithae (men), 'lit. seated and making 
others sit,' for an explanation of which see Taubat, VII. 73. The 
general sense of the phrase is ' doing nothing.' The particular 
shade of meaning must be determined from the context. Trans- 
late hero, ' without an effort to avoid it." 

(6) Khatt likhti' likhte 'as he was writing his letters.' ffaiza 
knrna, 'to be seized with cholera.' For mo'allim see App. A, 
Form II. 

(7) Qt'ifd sofa 'sound asleep.' Compare the English phrase 
' sleep otforgetfulness? Se-khabar is synonymous with gdjil in this 

(8) Mekh se bundh'i hilt ' tethered to a peg,' in our idiom. 


(0) This sentence (from Ahmed) illustrates both 1he 
adjectival and adverbial usage. Bhdgte hue or bhdgtd liud, |Q7. 2 > 
' scudding.' 

(10) Chiruglie Tine 'lamp in hand' or ' with a lamp.' Lie liue 
even corresponds with our 'with' in such a phrase as 'a man with 
a lion-like face,' sher kd sd munh lie hue. Comp. 68. 2 > a ' so 61 . r 3- 

(11) From the Tatibat. Khdnd is understood after kd. Trans- 
late ' the girl has eaten nothing since this time yesterday,' for a 
li'eral version is out of the question. 

(12) This short sentence illustrates three participial forms. 
Dabe pdon (se) ' with subdued or gentle tread,' or, as we put it, ' on 
tiptoe.' See |Q2. 3- 

1 1 1 1 Translate into Hindustani : 
(1) It is a vexation at my age to be learning the 
alphabet. (2) Small and great have eaten nothing since 
this time yesterday. (3) Who is that person with the 
lion-like countenance ? (4) I found only this shop open 
in the market-place. (5) As she was going away the 
Begani offered me a gold mohur. (6) The Afghans con- 
quered the Panjab by degrees. (7) Unseen by others 
tho women were exposing their heads from inside the 
zenana. (8) The whole of them were left gazing at each 
other's faces. (9) A Maulavi, with prayer-mat spread, 
was engaged in his devotions inside the mosque. (10) I 
had made np my mind that this valley was my tomb. 

(11) As soon as he heard the rumour, he was dismayed. 

(12) While I am here, do not speak of bribery even by 

112i Directions. 

(1) See 68. 4. 'To be learning the alphabet,' alif-be parhte 

(2) On the model of (09. JI - T ne adverbial cor struction oi 
the Participle is independent of gender and number. 

(3) See ||0. 10. 

(4) ' Open,' khuld Md. 


~ ' 107. U)- 'Offered' may be here idiomatically translated 
dene la<;i,i lic^aii to give,' the verb being PI. Fern. 

(6) See IQ9.2. 

(7) ' Unseen by others,' Ankh bachd, lit. ' having escaped the eye.' 
Use the idiom of 108. (2) f *'' nikute thin, for the idea is that the 
women were continuously peeping out at some unusual sight. 

(8) Use the idiom described at 25. f r l ^ e subject, and also for 
the part icipial phrase ' gazing,' dekhte ke d' khte. 

(9) ' With prayer-mat spread,' jde namaz bichhde. The 'devo- 
tions' of a Moslem are known as sijda, and masjid is the 'place of 
s'jda.' See App. A, Kern. 5. (3)- 

(10) ' 1 had made up my mind,' samjhe hue thu, because descrip- 
tive of the state ot despair the speaker felt at the time. Alf Laila. 

(11) Use the adverbial form of |09. * 

(12) See |09. 4- 'Even by mistake,' bhulkar bht. 


\ 13. This exercise is reserved for illustration of the 
of the Participles in connection with time and its 

The old method of dividing day and night into eight 
paliar and again the pahar into eight ghari is still cur- 
rent, especially in the country districts and in native 
States.* Rude water-clocks (jal-yantra) still mark the 
pahar, which is sounded (bajnd) by the pahrd ' watch- 
m;m,' on a gong (ghantd). Modern Hindustani appro- 
priates the word ghari for a ' watch ' or ' clock,' and 

* The expression ath-pahar or uthon pahar ' the whole eight 
\\;\trlu'>,' often occurs in the sense of ' day and night,' 'the twont y- 
four hours,' etc. Chausath ghari is used in the same way. At't- 
pahri is a watchman employed day and night. 


gJiantd for ' hour.' according to the English reckoning, 
and bojd or baje for ' o'clock.' Thus, do pahar ' noon,' 
4-7. 3, becomes bdrah ghante baje or bdrah baje 'twelve 
o'clock'; and the quarters are saw a bdrah, sdrhe bdrah, 
and panne ek (' quarter less than one '), respectively. 
Derh bajd is ' half-past one.' The word ' minute ' (Ji^x^c is 
used, and occurs first, in literature, in the Urdu version 
of the Arabian Nights (1847), Ttai minit ke ba'd l after 
several minutes.' 

1 1 4i Translate into English : 

kJJ ^ ^ ^/ (1) 

xjj li >\ ,-1.0 ,-.i5 jjJ (2) 

.^ u^ (6) \ ^ ^\ ^ (5) 

J li . _.i 

J (12) b ^3 


ij.0 (14) ^j^ ,,-sr ^5T 

jj (15) LA ill <L 

i Notes. 

(1) Di charhnd ' ascending day,' that is, ante meridiem time 
from sunrise : the repetition of the Participle marking the gradual 
progress of time, ' the course of the morning." Do tin ghart is 
' about an hour ' of our time ; and, as literal translation is out of 
the question in idiomatic sentences of this kind, we may render 
the whole phrase ' about an hour after sunrise.' 

(2) Similarly, din dubnd or din dhalnd is ' declining day,' that 
is post meridiem time till sunset. 'The Rani's pankha' is the local 
name of a breeze which always springs up towards evening in a 
gorge near Kanibagh, a well-known halt on the way to Naini Tal. 

(3) Note the variation in the Participle as compared witlx (1) : 
and translate ' the forenoon was well advanced when he awoke." 
By our reckoning the phrase would mean ' between nine and a 
quarter to ten." 

(4) A very useful and common mode of expressing lapse of time. 
The meaning is obvious. 

(5) ' Why have you come so late at night ? ' The construction U 
ilnl rut gae (se). 

(6) Similarly, kuchh rut rahe ' while it was yet night.' 

(7) Mutatis mutandis, translate as in (6). 

(8) This may be freely translated, ' noon passed as he lay on and 
on he did not even turn in his sleep." Tak is adverbially used in 
1 he sense of 'so much as,' or 'even.' Karwat means 'lying on one 
side," and Jcarwat badalni, is ' changing to the other side.' 

(9) Top dagl is the morning 'gun-fire' in Indian cantonm. 
(li'n-l joto 'put the horses to (the carriage),' literally, 'yoke the 

(10) Fajar hote hi ' as soon as the daybreaks.' Comp. (09. ' 
Bart fajar, like ba/iut savere (6), means ' very early.' 

(11) Marte dam tak ' up to the time of his death." For ' after 
death," so exact are these usages, the Perfect Participle would be 



necessary, as mate pichhe uskl shardrat JcJiuli 'his wickedness \vaa 
exposed after his death.' 

(12) From Xazir Ahmed's graphic description of the cholera in 
the Taulat. 

(13) Kaibaje kain 'what o'clock is it?' lit. 'how many hours 
hare sounded ? ' The answer follows. 

(14) The Past Conjunctive Participle is here adverbial, and, if 
translated at all, corresponds to our ' counting.' 

(15) Tzre ghari ghari kibald durrahe 'fortheemay the evil of every 
ffhari be remote,' that is, ' May you be hourly blessed ' a common 
benediction. Tare, not iujlie, on the principle explained in 52. 1 5- 
Tlu's sentence is peculiarly interesting as the first bit of Hindustani 
recorded by an Englishman, and that so far back as the reign of 
Jehangir, in whose son's time Urdu is supposed, on the authority of 
Mir Amman, to have originated. Terry writes the sentence tere gree 
gree kee bulla doore, as it sounded to him. See Voyage to India, 
p. 216. He records two other words only, viz., ca-ca-ta (sic), by 
which he meant kyd kahtd ' what does he say ? ' This interesting 
woik lias long been out of print. 

1 lOi Translate into Hindustani : 
(1) At what o'clock will the train leave ? (2) It is 
some twenty days yet to the examination. (3) It must 
be a month since he went on tour. (4) Why do you 
leave off work so early ? (5) Why did you get up so 
late? (6) Office-work goes on from ten till five. (7) Our 
regiment reached the camping ground before day- 
light. (8) Who can have come to see me so late at 
night ? (9) As the morning advanced an island began 
to be visible in the distance. (10) As day declined an 
adverse wind began to blow. (11) Do not strike the 
hour without my giving you the signal first. (12) The 
moon rises at eleven ^o-night. (13) Will you not see 
him when you start ? (14) After having been ad- 
monished he coolly committed another bit of villainy. 
(15) I shall not forget your kindnesH as long as I live. 


\ f 7, Directions. 

(1) Rel stands for 'train' as well as 'railway.' The right word 
here for 'leave' is chhutnd. See 92.3- 

(2) Turn thus : ' As yet of the examination some twenty days 
are lying (pare hain).' For the use of the sign of izufat compare 
the phrase given at 54. 6. The idea of pare hain is that the 
days are lying unspent as yet, as, in our own idiom ' the future Uts 
before us.' 

(3) As in 1 1 4-. 4- The tense of the verb will be Past Presumptive. 

(4) ' So early," itnd din rake se. | f 4 . 7* 

(5) ' So lale,' Una din charhe. 1 14, 3. 

(6) See ||4. T 4- D as ^aje se lekar punch tab. 'To go on,' in 
this sense, jdri hond. 

(7) See || 4. 6. 

(8) See ||4. 5- '^ come to see,' mult'qdt Jco and. Use the 
Past Dubioxis tense. 

(9) See ||4. i. Also 9|. 6. 

(10) See ||4. 2. 'Adverse wind,' ultl hawd, or bdd-i-mukhdlif. 

(11) ' Without my,' etc., be mere ishdra d?e hue. See 96. 

(12) The rising of the moon may be picturesquely rendered Jchet 
karnd, of which the idea is the gradual clearance of the sky and 
land from the previous darkness. Otherwise the common verb 
nikalnd suffices. 

(13) ' When you start,' chalte waqt. Jlfilnd is the proper ex- 
pression for ' see ' hero, as in (8) above, where muldqdt is equivalent 
lo milnd. 

(14) 'After having been admonished,' tambih hde ptchhe. For 
'coolly' use the adverbial expression explained at ||0. 5- 'An- 
other bit of villainy,' ek aur shardrat. 

(lo) 'As long as I \i\f.' jite ji. 


118i The iidditinn of the tenses of the verbja/ai to 
the Imperfect Participle in predicative concord with thb 
subject of a scutenco supplies a verbal combination, 
which is called by some grammarians a Progressive Com- 
pound verb. Thus, wuh kahtd guyd 'ho went on saying.' 



The verb rahnd may be used in the same way, and is 
perhaps prefei'able when the Participle is intransitive. 
but there is little to choose between them, just as in 
English, ' to go on sleeping ' or 'to remain sleeping ' 
are much the same thing. 

We may notic3 here the curious combination jdt d rahnd 
( to remain going ' till the vanishing point is reached ; 
hence, ' to vanish.' 

llOi Similarly, the addition of the tenses of jdnd to 
the Perfect Participle of transitive verbs supplies the 
verbal conjugation known to us as the Passive Voice : as 
woh mdre jdenge l they will be struck.' Native gram- 
marians have borrowed the Arabic term majhul 'un- 
known' for this form of the verb, because the agent is 
not specified, in opposition to rna'ruf ' known,' our Active 

Except in translations from English, which even in 
native hands are too apt to follow the English idiom, the 
use of the Perfect Participle in this construction is com- 
paratively infrequent in Hindustani,* for, in addition to 
Hindi intransitives of passive signification, the language 
has been enriched by a large store of Persian and Arabic 
verbals, which combine with the substantive verb hond in 
a passive sense. To take an example, 'to be conquered' 
is no doubt capable of being rendered jitd jdnd, from 
jitnd ' to conquer ' : but hdrnd, shikast Jchdnd, mas/lub hond, 
etc., are best suited to the idiom of the language. f 

As Chodzko remarks of Persian il ya quelque chose d'autipathiquc 
&. 1'emploi de la roix passive. 

f To ask the student to commit to memory long parailigms of the 
so-called Passive Voice of the Hindustani verb, is to teach him what 
he had better leave unlearned. 


12O Again, though the patient in tlie passive con- 
si ruction poses as the subject of the verb, it is still the 
object of the act ; and in recognition of this the Hindu- 
stani idiom admits the use of the sign of the object with 
pronouns and proper names (comp. 65.), in which case the 
passive becomes impersonal, as, usko dekhdjdegd ' he shall 
be looked to.' Hence the use of deTthd jdegd in the 
general sense of ' the matter shall be seen to.' 

A similarly impersonal usage is observable in negative 
expressions which convey the idea of impossibility, such 
as, qismat se lard iiaMn jdtd ' there is no fighting against 
fate.' Compare with this the construction explained in 

1 2 1 1 A, curious but common idiom is the addition of 
the verbs jdnd and and to the Perfect Participles of in- 
transitive verbs of motion, in a progressive or completive 
sense according to the context ; as, sab log chede gae ' all 
went away ' ; larki dauri dti hai ' the girl comes racing 
along,' etc. 

122, Translate into English: 

.j\ (4) LxS' ULc ^ ij;W^J ^IjiS'J ,--j ^^ j-^ 

X_M ,j 


rjb (5) 


b, U^jj <JU- ^T / J_ :j ^ ^S\ (6) Uf 
LjU- JU \jLs (--a uJL-4 jXJ (jJ (7) 



123. Notes. 

(1) .Bar? 5a/-f se ' eaoh in turn' ; the repetition is distributive. 

(2) Tatllm-i-niswan ' female education.' 2lfer zimma ' my war- 
rant for it," or ' I warrant,' is parenthetic. 

(3) Paki han pahchdn 'as he recognised them in turn'; Jtar eJc se 
depends on gale miltd gai/d, ' lie went on embracing.' 

(4) He was to begin at one end of the row of vessels and in- 
spect each. From the story of the Forty Thieves. 

(5) Hotd gayd 'he grew more and more,' etc. very different 
from ho-gayd ' became.' 

(6) Ankh kholke ' with eyes wide opened ' in astonishment. 

(7) See ||8. sulfinem. 

(8) Multdvi kiyd jdnd ' the being adjourned,' 'adjournment.' The 
verbal iltiivd, from the same root, means the same thing. See 84. H- 

(9) Mare ffa"e ' were killeJ.' Khel rahe 'were left on the field' 
is an alternative expression.^^^^^^^^^^^ 

(10) ' Let the*ditcr of the paper be searched for ' ; taldtk-Jeamd 
being a compound verb. See (20. Cp. Tattbaf, IV, 11, also, X, 2. 

(11) Chald dtd hai ' comes regularly in.' 

(12) Mitnh andhere, Uf. ' when it was too dark to dislin.L'uish 
faces,' that is, before daylight. See the expressions used at ||4. 6. 
:ind 79. 12. Daura gayd ' ran off.' 


i Translate into Hindustani: 

(1) At the battle of Assaye (Asdi) some fifteen hundred 
men were left upon the field. (2) Let the murderer of this 
woman be well searched for. (3) He grows more and 
more saucy and unmanageable every day. (4) From 
small beginnings such a habit as this grows stronger and 
stronger. (5) That shall be seen to when we hare done 
with this. (6) The children were disgusted at the 
postponement of the story. (7) Keep watch upon him 
as he comes and goes. (8) I could not restrain myself. 

(9) Owing to your folly my character too will be lost. 

(10) One by one the worthless servants were turned off. 

(11) A kind of numbness creeps over my hands and 
feet. (12) The wine is oozing from the cask. 

125i Directions. 

(1) For the verb see 123.9- 

(2) See |22. 10. 

(3) ' Every day,' roz roz, or roz-ba-roz. See 122. 5- 

(4) 'From small beginnings, thore se ikuru* hokar. 

(5) ' When we have done with this,' is sefdrig hokar, impersonal. 
See |20. 

(G) On the model of 1 2 2 . S. 

(7) See |22. 6. 

(8) See 120. f r the idiom. Mujhse ntttd nahin gayd. 

(9) Turn 'my good name will vanish.' 122. 7- 

(10) ' One by one,' ek ek karke, impersonal. Coin p. 87. ' ' 

(11) 'A kind of numbness,' sansani si. 59. * or tne verb sec 

122. ii. 

(t2) ' Is oozing,' niklti tit a hai. 


Perfect Participle as a verbal noun in 
combination with the tenses of knrnd denotes continuance 


of state or action; and, since the state or action described 
by the verbal is by the nature of the case incomplete or 
unfinished (nd-tamdm), the compound is constructed in- 
transitively in those tenses of Ttarnd in which the subject 
ordinarily takes the sign of the agent, ne. Thus, woh 
(not tisne) likhd ki ' she continued writing.' Likhd lei is, 
in fact, just as much a Past Imperfect (mdzi-nd-tamdm) 
as likliti thi ' she was writing ' ; and in this we have 
another illustration of the principle laid down in 75 
that the meaning rules the construction. 

127i Similarly, in combination with the transitive 
chdhnd ' to wish for,' the Perfect Participle denotes a 
state or action, which is wished or willed, and therefore 
futuristic ; and the compound, which is called a 
Desiderative, is, by the nature of the case, intran- 
sitive. Thus, woh likhd chdhi ' she wished, or was about, 
to write ' ; not usne likhd chdhd. 

128i The Perfect Participle, in the construct state, 
with object (see 108), is occasionally combined with 
jdud or rahnd in an intermittently continuative sense; as 
dawd pilae jao ' continue giving the medicine (at the 
proper intervals),' a different thing from either pildte jdo, 
or i>ildtjd karo. 

Lastly, the verb dend, and sometime ddlnd 
(see 73. 3)> i 3 used in combination with Perfect Parti- 
ciples in the construct form, by way of energizing the 
action denoted by the associated Participle. This quasi- 
compound is of rare occurrence, and is practically limited 
to the first person singular of the present tense ; as, 
main tnjhsekahe detd hun, ' I tell you once for all.' 


13d Translate into English : 

^ J\# J\# (1) 
jj J* .j** (2) ^ Lx> 

,_/ U ^ jL^ JU- ^ V T / ^ ^ (4) 

L->~ (6) ^ \j& ^jjb ^ y>J^ ybjl Juo ^^ (5) 
Uul /^r (7) ^jJLs^ UU! ^UaJui ^b uJ,-.- 

- ^ v 

. ,JJ> l!O(U- ^ i^^ii (8) ....A U^U- L)0 .\ k JuOLe 

*^^ V V **^> V - ^^ ' 

^ J> 

^jfc/U- ^ ye^c ^5- V 1 ^ ^_5- : ' ^^V ( 9 ) 
^^ (11) jJJb, e-d; ^ ; U ^ Jb c-'ji ^y (10) 

-v< (12) U 



(1) The repetition of Ihui hero signifies plurality. Bare lutf o 
(i/iiik xe ' with much zest and zeal.' 

(2) The Arabic verbal mutawutir ' consecutively,' is redundant. 
See App. A, Form VI. Jayd is used for ffaya, when part of a com- 
pound verb. 

(3) Mtri dekhd-dekhl ' in imitation of me.' The union of a 
nuiM'uline and feminine verbal in this way generally denotes reoi- 
l>n>rity of action, as mtlnl-nuiri 'mutual strife.' 

(-t) Translate ' How are we to be kept regularly informed of ? ' 
etc. See also 57. 

(5) Sro 76. !- JIi't'<i kin ' were kept up.' Jfotl ruhin would be 
an altiTiiutive expression. 


(6) Translate ' You will be pleased to keep in your own hands 
the general superintendence only.' Balai, from the Persian bald 
' over." 

(7) Mutalannd ' adopted son.' See App. A, Form Y. 

(8) Translate ' Something awful is about to happen.' Gazab has 
already occurred at 2 7 8. 

(9) Shahrzad loquitur, ' I shall go on asking you from time to 
time,' etc. 

(10) Hath raTche rahiyo ' keep your hand plac-ed.' 

(11) Sheje detd hurt ' I will send at once,' etc. 

(12) From one of Nazir Ahmed's fables. The man boasts that 
lie will split the beam in two in a moment as a specimen of his 

132i Translate into Hindustani: 

(1) Undoubtedly female infanticide is practised in ibis 
district. (2) Tbe marriage rejoicings continued for 
several days in succession. (3) It is on tbe stroke of 
twelve. (4) Continue giving tbe patient iced water. 
(5) I sball wear tbis ring on my tinger in remembrance of 
you. (6) She came to and fro to inquire after me every 
day for a fortnigbt. (7) I am bringing dinner at once. 
(8) Tbis criminal ought to be put to death. (9) I forbid 
you once for all. (10) On bearing the sentence the plain- 
tiff and defendant stared at each other in astonishment. 
(11) While I am here let this custom be kept up. (12) Pray 
continue to allow him to come to me as opportunity offers. 

133 1 Directions. 

(1) ' Female infanticide 1 ,' rasm-i-duJchtar-kusM. ' To be practised. 
tiua Tcarna. 

(2) ' To continue,' hiia karna again. 

(3) Turn this, ' It is about to strike twelve ' : as in (30. 8. 

(4) For the form of the verb see 128. 'Iced water' is ' water 
of ice ' in the Hindustani idiom. 


(5) Use the same form of verb as in the lust sentence, with 
rahnu instead of janii. ' In remembrance of you, dp kt yddgdrt 
(men). See also 50. ' 

(6) On the model of (30. 2 - 'To inquire after ine" may be 
translated by the Arabic gerund ' eyddat, which is tl.c technical 
word for visiting the sick. 

(7) Put the verb in the form given in 129. 

(8) ' Ought to be put to death," qatl-iciyd chdhi'e, in which qatl- 
kiyd is the grammatical subject of chdhi'e. The affix ko will be 
required for the person affected. 

(9) The verb as in (7) above. 

(10) ' On hearing,' sunkar, not sunte hi, which would be out of 
harmony with the rest of the sentence, the verb being in the Con- 

tinuative form. Turn ' the plaintiff and defendant ' by ' plaintiff 

- y - y 

defendant both,' N jnA- UA- ,. v^. These common law 

.lw t - 1 >* *--*^- 

terms mean ' the plaintiff and the person against whom the plaint 
is laid.' For the verbals see App. A, Form VIII. In both cases 
the augment t coalesces under tashdld with the first radical. 

(11) See 109.4- ' To be kept up,' hud karnd. 

(12) 'As opportunity offers' may be rendered by the idiomatic 
waqt pare par ' on occasion be-falling.' For the sense of parnd see 
a remark made in 73. 2 - 








1 34i When a sentence is enlarged by the insertion 
or addition of explanatory clauses, it is said to be a Com- 
pound Sentence, and the additional clauses are called 

They may be conveniently classed as (1) Relative, 
(2) Predicative, and (3) Adverbial. The first of these is 
the subject of this Exercise. 

135i Relative clauses are introduced by the pro- 
noun jo ' who ' or ' which,' and by the pronominal adjec- 
tives of quality and quantity, jaitd and jitnd, for which 
English has no exact equivalents, and, as a rule, take 
precedence of the principal or correlative clause to which 
the noun explained belongs. It is customary, however, 
in order to avoid the uncertainty which might arise from 
the deferred mention of the subject of discourse, to 
transfer the noun to the clause which explains it. Tims : 
'The man, who does not know how to read, is ignorant,' 
jo ddmi parhnd nahin jdntd (\voJi) nculdn Jidi. Some 
authors are fond of adding the explanatory or qualitative 


particle ki to the noun in this position; as, jo ddmi ki 
parhnd, etc. 

When the relative clause follows the noun which it ex- 
plains, as in English, it is a common practice to place this 
same particle ki either before or after the relative pixmoun, 
or to allow it to stand alone, as the Persian representative 
of jo. Thus : woh ddmi kijo (or jo ki) parhnd nahin jdntd 
iidddn hai, or woh ddmi ki parhnd, etc., or ddmi ki wuh 
parhnd, etc. 

13f>i The Hindi correlatives so, taisd, utnd are very 
rarely used in Hindustani. For the latter, the contracted 
form s qadr is chiefly used, as also is is qadr for itnd, 
and jis qadr for jitnd. 

137i Translate into English : 

r e-- ^ (1) 


(7) ^.x^ 

bo ^ lT JU- 
cJUi _^r ^ ^ Lf j" W^ ^ ( 8 ) 



(1) BakJitd ho, tlie Present Dubious tense the use of which here 
implies that one of the persons addressed has the right of precedence, 
but the speaker is uncertain which. 

(2) Kt jae, Passive Aorist in agreement with bat. Farq has the 
sense here of ' dissension,' nifaq. 

(3) Samjhu ho, the Past Dubious tense in agreement \s ith jo kuchh. 

See 81. 

(4) Indefinite pronouns in a relative clause often take the form 
of a relative pronoun, notwithstanding the presence of another 
relative. Jisko here stands for Ictsi ko, and should be translated 

(5) See 55. The verb in the subordinate clause is assimilated 
to the jussive in the principal clause. The construction is^'o rhdhnd 
(hai) pahnnd (hai) ' it is for you to wear what you wish to wear,' 
that is, ' wear what you please.' 

(6) Another instance from the Alf Laila of the same kind of tense 
assimilation. FVlfaur, one of a few Arabic phrases in this form 
which are current in Hindustani. The sense is ' on the instant ' ; 


fauran 'instantly* is equally fashionable. The Persian jald is less 
forcible. For ittilu 1 see App. A, Form VIII., and what is said of 
this word in the Remarks attached. 

(7) Pesha is the object of the continaafive Jciyd kartd Tiun ' I am 
practising.' Kijo might have been -written jo ki, or jo might have 
stood alone. Similarly, ki might have stood alone, or we might 
have had ki woh. These alternatives exhaust the possibilities of 
construction in this form of sentence. 

(9) Ki is here equivalent to jis men, and elegantly avoids the 
repetition of the locative. 

(10) Keverse the order of the clauses in translation, and remember 
that^'aj.sM is in concord with khamyazu. 

(11) Nulahaza is the ' consideration ' of a thing, as compared 
with the sister verbal lihaz (84. 3), which generally means ' con- 
sideration 'for. See App. A, Form III. 

(12) It was remarked in 1 3 5 . that English has no exact equiva- 
lant forjaisd &\\Ajltnd. Jitnu bojh is ' the amount of weight which/ 
as compared witli jo bojh ' the weight which ' ; but the latter is a 
sufficient rendering of the former, so far as English is concerned. 

(13) For the verbs see ||8. and translate 'the higher I 
ascended,' etc. 

(11) See (!) above. For mutamnowar see App. A, Form V. 

(15) The construction here is analogous to the old English form 
' Mr. Peprs diary.' The ordinary phrasing would begarib ddmiyon 
ki bah-d-betiyetn , but if this had been adopted, the relative clause 
could not have been satisfactorily placed. Bahti-betiyun is a col- 
lective term for the daughters of the house, among whom, in an 
Indian home, the sons' wives are included. 

(16) The speaker means: 'What I observed when I came into 
your family was, that ' etc. 

139 1 Translate into Hindustani : 

(1) How miserably parses the time of women who do 
not know how to read. (2) The girl was some six years 
old in short, just the acre of our Hamida. (3) I am 
that very Siudbad who yon suppose is dead. (4) The 
voices were quite inaudible owing to the cotton with 
which his ears were stuffed. (5) I Lave nothing more to 


say beyond what I have already told you. (6) It is very 
unkind to forget the past claims of aged servants who 
can no longer work. (7) We are in the same fix that yoa 
are. (8) The more I cherished yon, the lazier and idler 
you became. (9) The wages which are due to anyone 
will be given him. (10) There is no such verse in the 
Qoran as you describe. (11) Is there any particular 
trouble which causes him annoyance ? (12) What has 
happened is the best for my interests. (13) The price 
you named was absurd. (14) Send me word immediately 
of whatever rumours you hear in the bazaar. (15) I have 
no horse in my stable which is fit for you to ride. 
(16) What I observed when I came to court was that 
bair-splitting was the fashion. 

14Oi Directions. 

(1) Turn thus : ' "Women who do not know how to road,' as in 
1 3 5 : an( i insert un leu in the correlative clause. 

(2) 'In short' may here be idiomatically translated by bas, 
parenthetic. See 5 1. I2 - ' Just the age of,' bi-' ainihi jitni. The 
Arabic bi-' ainihi lit. means ' in the eye of it,' i.e. ' exactly.' 

(3) Place 'that very Sindbad' first, and 'lam' last, with the 
relative clause between. 

(4) Place ' owing to the cotton,' ba-sabab rfii ke, first ; see also 
(02. I an d 9I. 2 - 

(5) Turn ' Except this which I have,' etc. See 77. II - 

(6) The construction may be imitated from |37. 1 S &ged 
servants from whom work is not possible,' etc. ' Very unkind ' 
may be translated ' great unkindness.' See 1 3 . 2 - 

(7) On the model of 1 3 7. 9. 

(8) On the model of |37. 13. 

(0) On the model of (37. 4> Du t nsejitni instead of jo, in agree- 
ment with tanklnvtih. 

(10) Place 'in the Qoran' first, followed by the relative clause. 
'Describe,' bat and. 


(11) Follow the order of the clauses in the original, and begin 
with khdsskar, instead of using the adjective khdss ' particular.' The 
tense in the relative clause is the Present Dubious. 

(12) ' To happen,' zuhur men and ; ' for my interests,' mere haqq 

(13) Repeat the verb, as in J37t 3 ; thus, ' The price you named 
(kahnu) you named absurd.' 

(14) On the model of 1 37. 6. ' Whatever ' is here best translated 
by jo jo. 

(15) See 63. 4, aud 87. 4- 

(16) On the model of 137. 16. 


14ti Predicative clauses, that is, clauses which 
are part of the predicate, and without which it would be 
incomplete, follow the predicating verb, and are linked 
to it by the connectives ki or jo. 

The statement, question, order, or whatever it is, by 
\\ Inch the predicate is thus completed, is uniformly worded 
in direct terms (pralio recta), whereas in English oblique 
or indirect forms of expression are preferred, or the addi- 
tion of a clause is avoided by the use of the infinitive or 
u participle. 

142i This difference of idiom is specially puzzling 
to native students of English. The following examples 
contrast the variety of oblique expression peculiar to 
English with the uniformity of the Hindustani mode : 

(1) ' He sent word that he would come to-morrow,' 
ktihld-bht-jd fii kal ittniyd ; lit. ' He sent word that " I will 
come to-morrow." ' 



(2) 'I am glad that you have come,' kltiixh hun jo turn 
ae ho. Hereto, as compared with ki, has the force of ' in 
that ' without being distinctly causal. 

(3) 'I regret that I came,' or ' I regret having come,' 
pachhtdtd huh lei main kyun ay a ; lit. 'I regret that "Why 
did I come ? " ' as if the speaker was soliloquising. 

(4) 'I fear that he will come to- day,' dartd hun aisd 
na ho ki woh dj d-jae ; lit. ' I fear " let it be not that ho 
come to-day,"' in which the fear is expressed in woi-ds. 

(5) ' He asked me who I was,' mujhse puc.hhd ki turn 
kaun ho ; lit. ' he asked me that " Who are you ? " 

(6) 'Ask if anyone is here,' puchho ki yahdn koi hai 
lit. 'Ask that "Is anyone here?"' To an Englishman 
the temptation to use agar instead of ki in this form of 
inquiry is almost irresistible. 

(7) ' Tell him to go home,' us se kahdo ki turn ghar j do ; 
lit. ' tell him that " you go home." ' 

(8) 'You ought to go home,' dp ko chdhie ki ghar jaiye. 
Here ghar jaiye ' pray go home,' is the thought in the 
speaker's mind. 

(9) ' My custom is to read the paper daily,' merd yeh 
ma'miil hai ki roz roz akhbdr parhtd hun. Here the speaker 
states his custom in the predicative clause. 

(10) 'I thought of going to Agra to-morrow,' khaydl 
dyd ki kal Agra jaun ; lit. 'the thought came to me that 
"I go to Agra to-morrow,"' the aorist merely indicating 
tlie uncertainty of the speaker's mind. 

(11) 'I saw a gorilla advancing from the opposite 
direction,' dekhd ki udhar se ek ban-maiius chald dtd hai, 
or more dramatically still, kyddekhtd hun ki udhar se, etc , 
' what do I see ? that, etc.' 


!43i Translate into English : 

v fr ^ ^r^ c=rS? 

*}' (3) y> Kj *j ^ ^j ^^< ^ *^ <jj (2) 

. (4) ^^ ^L- ^ lw U5 ^U- ^j^ ^ c=j 

Li" ^^ djyj i_ ^ol ,-Jc* _j'ljs c~i\ (5) 

r \3 ^ c_;T (13) 
.Ly, (1-i) 

(I 5 ) 

(7) ^yu 

(8) U* ^ICi ^ ^j^, ^r Jjui ^ 
j> j> 

^* P (-O XJ' .^- <-i .v'^ 

N_- ^ " ^V ^"TV 

^ ^iUi (9) 
l (11) 



144, Notes. 

(1) ee (42. (2). The \vords are addressed to a lady visitor 
Nasib ' fortune ' or ' destiny ' is treated as a plural in Hindustani. 

(2) In reply to a suggestion ; Lence the Past Dubious tense. 

(3) For be gine see 96. 

(4) See (42. (n)- -An allusion to the firing of the thatchers" 
ricks at Allahabad, some years ago, as a cure for incendiarism. 

(5) In this example translate the subordinate clause in the oratlo 
recta, reserving the oblique form of expression for the clause intro- 
duced by the second ki. See (42. (6). 

(6) See (42. ( IO )- Lahar is rather a favourite word of Galib's 
in the sense of ' idea.' 

(7) For jo see 142. (2). See also 87. 8. 

(8) The subordinate clause here conveys the exact words of the 

(9) Ehtimdl ' presumption,' in correspondence with the tense of 
the subordinate clause. See App. A, Form VIII. 

(10) For munsarim ' maniger ' see App. A, Form VII. 

(11) The subordinate clause explains the predicative participle 
likhd in the exact words of the newspaper. For tdrikh see App. A , 
Form II., and see the Remarks for explanation of the a. 

(12) Compare (42. (3)- Sir pit n Jci bat' a matter of head-beat- 
ing' (in token of sorrow), 'a sad job.' See 24. On the form of 
the word ijdzat, see App. A. Hem. F. IV. 

(13) Translate ' He said that he was expecting you,' the phrase 
up kd ndm leke being redundant in the English idiom. Where a 
third party is mentioned, an adjustment of this kind is necessary 
for the proper understanding of the Predicative clause. 

(14) See (42. (6)- The sarddr is the chief house-servant, gene- 
rally a ' bearer.' 

(15) See 142. (4)- The Persian mabddd, preceded by ki, is 
often used for aisd na ho. 

145i Translate into Hindustani : 

(1) I saw it stated in the Oudh Akhbar that a meet- 
ing of Taluqdars would be held at the Pavilion of the 
Kaisar Bag at two o'clock on Saturday. ("2) It behoves 


you to bo cautious in the adjustment of this dispute. 
(3) Ask the witness if he speaks English. (4) Tell the 
syce to go and wait half-way. (5) You did a very pru- 
dent thing in setting him free without security. (6) I 
am at a loss how to refute this calumny. (7) He boasted 
that he would mate him without his queen. (8) You did 
a great service to the Government in putting down the 
rebels at the very first. (9) I have a strong suspicion 
that he, too, was concerned with you in this dacoity. 
(10) I do not approve of your habit of flattering me at 
every turn. (11) It was his custom to take a stroll in the 
early morning. (12) The four agreed among themselves 
to hunt in company. (13) Knock at the door and ask if 
the master is at home. (14) He told my son he was 
coming to my house to-morrow. (15) I entreat yon to 
overlook this my first offence. 

14-Gi Directors. 

(1) On the model of (43. ll - 'Stated* Itkhd, because native 
papers are lithographed. 

(2) AS in 14-2. (8). 'To be cautious' may be picturesquely 
rendered duen bden deJchnu 'looking to the right and left.' 

(3) ' Do you speak English ? ' tumse angrezl all ? better than turn 
angrezt bolte. 

(4) Turn the subordinote clause ' having gone half-way, pit.' 

(5) Turn ' You did great prudence in that, without having taken 
eeurity, you gave him release (chhutktirti).' See 96. f r *!"' I""'- 
tii-ipial phrase. The sentence is ironical. 

(6) On the model of (4-3. IO - 

(7) 'Without his queen,' in the Hindustani idiom, 'having 
removed the queen,' farzln ulh<"ike. 

(8) 'Service to the Government ' is here sufficiently translated by 
khair-khicnhi ' well-wishing.' 'At the very first,' pahle pahal men. 

(9) ' A strong suspicion/ gumtin-i-giitib. ' Concerned with you, 1 
ttrd shdmil-Ml, lit. ' included in your condition.' 


(10) Turn ' I am not approving (ravdddr) of this custom in that 
you flatter me at every turn (har phirkar).' 

(11) See (4-2. (9)' 2% mav be omitted in the subordinate 
clause. ' To take a stroll,' cMhal qadami Jcarnd ) with which com- 
pare our phrase ' forty winks ' for ' a nap.' 

(12) Turn 'They made compact ('ahd) among themselves that, 
come, we all four together (milTcar) will hunt.' See 681 6. 

(13) See (42. (6)- Use the Past Conjunctive Participle in the 
first clause. 

(14) Here the orntio recta of the subordinate clause is, ' I am 
going to your father's to-morrow.' 

(15) On the model of (43 . 8 ' I entreat,' multamis liun or merd 
iltiiiias hai. ' To overlook ' or ' pass over,' darguzar karnd (se). 


Adverbial clauses are those which refer to the 
(a) time (fc) place, or (c) manner, and to the (d} ends, 
(e) reasons, or (/) conditions of the action of the 
principal verb. This Exercise deals with the relations 
of time, place, and manner. 

The construction of clauses of this kind is 
similar to that of the Relative clauses explained aud 
illustrated in Exercise XX that is to say, the adverbial 
clause, withjafe, jahdn, jidhar, jyun, or jaun, stands first 
as a rule, and is followed by the chief clause with or 
without the respective correlatives. In short, the normal 
shape and order of the clauses are those of the line 

Where the bee sucks there suck I. 

The particle lei may be combined with jal, etc., in the 
same manner asitis with^'o, jaisd, &ndjitnd (135.). The 


particle also, in cases where tho adverbial clause is 
not initial, may take the place of jab or jabse ' when ' or 
' since.' 

Jabtak ' as long as,' with a negative verb corresponds to 
our ' until.' 

i The relative phrases jis waqt, jis jagah, jis 
taraf, jis tarah, or jaise, constantly replace the adverbs 
named in the preceding section. Jyun, jaun, jon, are 
very rarely used, but the phrases jaun taun ' somehow,' 
jon kd ton ' as before,' and jonhin ' precisely as,' or ' pre- 
cisely when,' are common enough in colloquial Hin- 

The correlatives in general use are us waqt, waldn, 
U'lliar, us tarah, aise, etc. 

The adverbial combinations, ' before that,' priusquam 
or antequam, ' after that,' postquam, etc., are represented 
in Hindustani by qabl iske ki, ba'd uskc /a., etc. 

15Oi Translate into English: 

>- (1) 

^. u-^Lv^- (3) ^jb ub 

^ (5) 

r (0) Uf jf 


;> .liJv. LU- ^j ^Vr JAU:>- (7) 
<_UJ \^\ ^L ^ty j* ( 8 ) 

( 9j&u+s>- (9) blj 

. ^ y ^c. (10) 

s (11) 

^ ^l^r ( 15 ) 


(1) Yud-parna, as compared with ydd-hond, is ' cliance recollec- 
tion.' Compai-e 73. 2 - Be-iTchtiydr, lit. 'without power,' like 
inajbur, 84-. I- Translate ' I cannot help laughing,' etc. 

(3) See (48. sub Jin. Barandd (Hindi) or bardmcia (Persian). 

(4) The collocation is elegant. Qazd is the 'sors suprema.' Comp. 
the expression haiza Jcarnd, | |Q. (6). 

(5) The action denoted by the gerund with thd is immediately 
antecedent to the event described in the succeeding clause. Trans- 
late ' He had no sooner . . . than,' etc. 

(6) See J38. 5- Ba-iaur gumbaz he 'in the manner of a dome,' 
a pedantic paraphrase of gumbaz-ddr 'dome.l.' 

(7) See |38. 4- 

(8) Si-jinsihi ' intact,' lit. ' in the nature of it.' Compare the 
similar Arabic phrase given at 140. 2 - 


(10) Tasawwur karnu in the modal clause is 'to imagine.' For 
this verbal see App. A, Form V. ; see 68. '3- an d 137. *4 for 
verbals from the some root. 

(11) See ||7. I. 

(12) This sentence is very neatly worded. Translate ' The only 
plan I could think of was,' etc. 

(13) Qarib hni, impersonal, equivalent to ' nearly.' Jdwen, an 
alternative form of jd'en. Comp. dwen, 14-3 (15)- 

(14) In this example the correlative adverb only is expressed. 
Saht is one of those idiomatic terms which it is often easier to under- 
stand than translate. The original sense of the word is ' endured ' 
or ' allowed ' (sahnd), and the clause may be rendered here ' Then 
you will allow I am right.' See Taulat, VII, 69, also (82. 10. 

(15) Translate ' One more blemish may be put up with where 
there are a thousand already.' From Galib. 

152, Translate into Hindustani : 

(1) You have no resource left but to take service. 

(2) I will not leave you till you grant my petition. 

(3) So far as it is possible to prevent it, do not let this 
secret get abroad. (4) It must be more than fifty years 
since the Queen ascended the throne. (5) Sit where my 
voice may easily be heard. (6) When you have -wasted 
so many years already, a few more days won't signify. 

(7) When it was his own turn to suffer, he roared out. 

(8) The stars were still shining when he rose as usual 
for morning prayer. (9) His eyes were no sooner closed 
than he was in another world. (10) Wherever you find 
any curiosit)', bring it me just as it is. (11) He could 
not have gone five or six steps when suddenly he heard a 
man's voice close by. (12) Go and wait at the place 
where I first met you. (13) Why should I begin to ill- 
treat you now, after having treated you so well before r* 
(14) I saw what was in his mind before he could make 
any complaint. (15) He went out shooting u week ago. 


153 1 Directions 

(1) See 150. I2 - 'Resource,' surat, something like the Latin 
modus vlvendi.. The word has many meanings, and is a noun of 
unity from the same root as the verbals noticed in 1 5 1 . 10. 

(2) See 150. 3- 'I w iH not leave you' may be turned by the 
phrase pind na chhorungd. 

(3) Omit ' to prevent it.' Turn ' Let not a disclosure of this 
secret take place,' See 76. I 3- 

(4) On the model of 150. 4- 

(5) Turn ' Sit (in) such a place that wherefrom my voice may 
be well heard ' (Jean parnd). 

(6) For the second clause I50. r 5' chand din aur said. 

(7) Turn 'When (misfortune) lighted on (an-banniii) his own 
head he squeaked ' chin bolnd ' the cry of a trapped animal.' 

(8) For ' when ' use kl. ' As usual,' apne nia'mul par. 

(9) On the model of 1 5 Q . 5- 

(10) Eemember the hint of 138. 4- 'Just as it is' may be 
translated by the phrase noticed at 1 5 1 . 8, or by the word 

(11) The tense of the first verb is the Past Presumptive. 
' When,' ki. ' Close by,' nazdik se. 

(12) 'To meet,' do char hand (se). The idiom of two becoming 
four refers of course to the eyes. 

(13) On the model of |50 I( - Use nekl karnii ;uid burd'i 
karnd for the verbs. 

(14) Contruct as in the last sentence. ' What was in his mind, 1 
ma ft zamir an Arabic phrase. 

(15) Turn ' To him a week was (hud) that he had gone,' etc. 


Resuming from 147. the present Exercise 
shows the construction of those adverbial clauses which 
express the ends or the reasons of the state or action 
denoted by the principal verb, and are therefore culled 
Final and Causal. 


Final clauses are constructed like Predicative- 
clauses (141. ), that is to say, they follow the principal 
vt-rb and are linked to it by ki ' that,' ' so that,' ' in order 
that,' or by id ki or ki td, or by td alone, which is the 
Persian mode. 

Negatively final clauses, which, in English, are prefaced 
by the conjunction ' lest,' are introduced by the phrase 
aisd naho ki, which has been already noticed, 14-2. (4), in 
connection with verbs of fearing. 

156i Causal clauses, on the other hand, generally 
precede the principal clause, after the manner of the tem- 
poral, local and modal clauses which were the subject of 
the last Exercise, and are introduced by jo ki or chunk!, 
meaning ' since ' or ' because,' or by az-bas-ki, a Persian 
compound which signifies ' inasmuch as.' 

They may, however, follow the principal clause, and, 
in this case, are linked to it by the conjunction kyunki, or 
the phrases kis lie ki, kis waste ki, etc , or by ki alone, 
with an anticipative phrase, such as is sabab se, in the 
leading clause. 

157i Translate into English : 


^'U (5) 


(1) The compound par-jdnd here means 'to be exercised,' or 
' brought to bear.' 

(2) From the Alf Laila, where Sindbad and his companions fall 
into the hands of a man-eating Polyphemus. Aise bare marne se 
from such a cruel death," or ' way of dying.' See 48. stl ^ fi n - 

(3) The Final clause in this example is easily converted into a 
Predicative by the omission of id, and the adoption of the oratio 

(5) See |06. f r * ne duplication of the Participle, and also 
130. IO - f r tue leading clause. 

(6) From a native Grammar, to the effect that the sign of the 
agent is not used when the verb is intransitive. Note use of Per- 
sian izdfat. 

(7) Meri khattr ' obliging me. 1 Khatir is here equivalent to 

(8) Translate ' You had better post a sentry,' etc. See 91.5- 


(9) Khod khodke ' digging and digging,' the reduplication of the 
Past Conjunctive Participle denoting persistence. Close question- 
ing is the sense here. Take is sabub se and ki together, ' because." 
For mutawaffa see App. A, Form V- The word is of the same form 
as mittabanna, (30. 7- 

159 Translate into Hindustani : 

(1) I should not wonder if he has deceived you, in 
order to win your good will. (2) Inasmuch as nothing 
was found against me in the informers' statements, I was 
not summoned. (3) Write me word of his departure 
thence, in order that I may set on foot the preparations 
for his reception. (4) Grease his palm a little lest he 
put a spoke in our wheel, (b) As this verb is transitive, 
the sign of the agent is used in the past tenses. (6) You 
ought to confess your fault, for reconciliation is impos- 
sible without it. (7) Chastisement ought to be inflicted, 
to the intent that people may see it and take warning. 
(8) Be careful what yon say, for the abuse of others will 
not advance your own cause. (9) He shook the pot to 
find oat what it was filled with. (10) As he learned 
English in his childhood, he must be more or less a 
proficient in the language. 

tf>O Directions. 

(1) Turn ' What wonder that he may have given deceit that (fa) 
he may make you satisfied (rdzi) with himself.' 

(2) Az Las ki followed by lihazd 'therefore' in the correlative 
clause. 'Against me,' meri taraf. 'I was not summoned,' talabi 
nahln hii'i, lit. 'A summons was not (seat me).' The Pa 
should be avoided when the sense can be expressed without it. 

(3) 'To set on foot,' bar-pd kar-dend. 'Reception,' tW/<y/,7, the 
technical term for meeting a visitor and escorting him to hit 


(4) Literal translation is impossible in expressions of this kind, 
and the idea of 'greasing' the palm would disgust a high-caste 
Hindu. The nearest equivalent phrase must be sought for, and 
among other expressions for bribery, munh mithd karnd ' the 
sweetening of the mouth,' will serve the turn here. ' To put a 
spoke in our wheel ' may be rendered ' cast an impediment in our 
business.' There is, however, a somewhat similar idea in the 
phrase paliie men ot aru-dend ' to put a catch in the wheel.' 

(5) On the model of 1 5 7. 6. 

(6) ' Without it ' should be fully rendered barjair iqrur Tc?e. 

(7) Turn ' With this intent (murad) chastisement ought to be 
given, that people, seeing it (Past Conjunctive Participle) should 
grasp warning.' See 91. I2 - 

(8) Turn ' Having controlled (your) tongue, speak, because (fo> 
lie k'i) abuse of others will not answer (pesh-jdnd) in your 
interests.' See (4-0. J2 - 

(9) ' To find out,' td dari/dft ho. 

(10) ' As,' jo lei. Turn the correlative clause ' He will be holding 
rakhtu hogd) little (or) much proficiency,' omitting 'in the lan- 
guage ' as unnecessary. 


161 1 A Conditional clause conveys the conditioner 
limitation under which the state or action denoted bj 
the principal clause holds good. 

It stands or is put forward first (hence the term pro- 
tasis), and is introduced by the conjunctions agar or jo 
' if,' and is followed by the apodosis, or consequent propo- 
sition, prefaced by the illative particle to. 

The introductory particles of both protasis and apo- 
dosis are often omitted, when the sense is obvious with- 
out them. 


Tbere are two classes of conditions, viz. 

(1) those which may be or may have been realised; 

(2) those which might have been, but were not, realised. 
The present Exercise deals with the first only. By the 

nature of the case, the tenses generally used in the 
expression of conditions of this character are tho 
Dubious tenses, viz. the Aorist and the Present and Past 
Dubious ; but the historic tenses are also employed 
when the speaker, so to say, begs the question of the 
realisation of the condition. Thus, for example, (cigar) 
hukm lio (to) jd'un 'If the order is (given), I go'; 
but, if the realisation of the condition is assumed, as in 
'If he gives you the money (which he will do), bring it 
to me,' we shall have jo usne riipaya diyd mere pds li-do. 
And the same construction is lawful, if the clause is 
temporal, that is to say, if instead of jo 'if,' we read jab 
' wlien.' 

163i Conditional clauses are on occasion convertible 
into Predicative by inverting the order of the clauses 
and using ki in place of agar; e.g., kyd kJmb hai Id ijazat 
ho ' how nice if leave is allowed ! ' And hence arises the 
optative form of the Conditional clause, where kdsh takes 
the place of the leading clause, with or without ki or jo; 
a.s, kdsh ij'/zat ho ' would that leave be allowed ! ' or, 'if 
only leave be allowed ! ' 

1 Translate into English : 


J y ,-Jj (4) ^ ^Lu 



165, Notes. 

(1) From the Akhldqi Ndsiri. Compare the English proverb, 
' One swallow does not make a summer.' Awe for d'e often occurs in 
the Aorist, and is usefully unambiguous. So uwegi in (2). 

(2) For merd zimma, see 1 2 2 . 2 - See 136.6 for the form of 
the tense in the protasis. 

(3) See 1 2 7. 

(4) (Agar) bane ' if the thing can be done,' equivalent to (agar) 
hosake, (agar) merd bos chale. See 76. 6. 

(5) Hai, not ho, because the love of life is taken for granted. 

(6) An astrological forecast, in which the result is stated as cer- 
tain to follow the fulfilment of the condition. Our idiom requires 
a present tense in the protasis and a future in the apodosis. 

(7) Warq is the ' leaf of a MS. The sentence is from Galib. 

(8) Auqut, the Arabic plural of icaqt. The sense of the word 
here is 'condition.' Comp. our phrase 'hard times.' Auqut also 
means ' wages' (means of living or passing time). Galib, in using 


the future in the apodosis, evidently looks forward to a visit from 
his friend. 

(9) Sahcan, Arabic accusative of sahv ' inadvertence,' used ad 
verbially ' inadvertently.' 

(10) From the Alf Laila. See (63. 

i Translate into Hindustani: 

(1) If you ask me the truth, I should say he was a 
fool. (2) I will get him shod somewhere, if possible. 
(3) If you are not angry, why speak crossly ? (4) I 
shall certainly kill you, if you scream out. (5) Which- 
ever of the three I many you to, the remaining two will 
be displeased. (6) Leave off talking nonsense, if you 
wish to be respected. (7) If an opportunity occurs, I 
will make good the deficiency to-morro\v. (8) How nice 
if the rains have begun ! (9) Oh ! that I may get 
privilege leave ! (10) The prevention of bribery shall be 
contrived, if I can manage it. 

ICTi Directions. 

(1) Omit agar in the protasis, and remember that the Predica- 
tive clause after ' say ' must be in the oratio recta. 

(2) The protasis, as in I64-. 4- The form of verb in the apo- 
dosis will be causal. See 79. I S- 

(3) Let jo introduce the protasis, and turn the apodosis ' of cross 
(ukhrl ukhr't) words what is the intention (garz) ?' 

(4) Put the verb of the protasis in the Past tense, as the more 
forcible way of making the person realise the threat. 

(5) The protasis should be arranged thus : ' If your marriage 
with whom of these three (t' tinon men se jiske suth) I shall make,' 
etc., with attention to the principle laid down in (38. 4- 

(G) Turn the protasis ' If your honour is dear (manzAr) to you,' 
translating 'your' by the reflexive pronoun. 

(7) Omit agar. ' To make good a deficiency ' may be idiomatically 
mull-mi by nik(il-lend t lit. 'to cause the fraction to come out,' 
make up the balance, ' i-tc. 

(8) See (63. 



(9) See (63. Turn 'Would that to me privilege leave be 
received (mil-jdnd) ! ' RuJchsat ri'dyati is the technical term. 

(10) The Ihird of the phrases mentioned at 165. 4- ma 7 he 
adopted for the protasis. ' To be contrived,' tajwtz-hond. 


We now come to the second of the two classes 
of conditions named in |62> v ^ z - those conditions which 
might have been, but were not, realised ; in other words, 
the time for the realisation of which has passed by. 
Hence the propriety of the native term Past Conditional 
for those tense-forms of the Hindustani verb which are 
reserved for use in this connection, either in the protasis 
or apodosis of the compound sentence. 

The Past Conditional is formed from the Past Imper- 
fect by dropping the auxiliary thd, or by using hotd 
instead of thd. A third form is obtained by using hotd 
instead of thd in the Past Remote; and the tense thus 
formed may be distinguished as the Past Conditional 

1{>*^ But while one or other of these three forms is 
indispensable in the protasis of conditional sentences of 
this class, the Past Imperfect is frequently retained in 

* Mir Insha Ullah, the learned author of the Daryde Lattifat ;i 
compendium of Urdu Grammar in the Persian language speaking of 
the P. Imp. Tense, says " without thd it is used conditionally and 
optatively." His words are, in mdzi bagair thd barde shart o tamannl 
dyad (Murshidabad Edition (1850), p. 189). The usage is sim lar in 
Persian and Arabic, and Greek scholars will at once recognise the 
idiom. The proper place for the Past Conditional in the verb scheme 
is immediately after the P. Imperfect. (See App. B.) 


the apodosis, when the substantive verb is used in com- 
bination with nouns or adjectives. For example, in such 
a sentence as ' It would have been well if he had under- 
stood the order,' the protasis is either agar (or jo) woh 
hukin samajhtd (or samjhd hold, if the period spoken of is 
comparatively remote), but the apodosis may be to 
achchhd thd, as well as to achchhd hotd. 

17Oi The alternative construction explained in |53 
is equally available in the case of the unrealised condi- 
tion. Thus we have kyd khub hotd (or thd) ki woh hukm 
samajhtd ' how well it would have been had he understood 
the order.' And similarly for the Past Optative (to 
quote the example given by Mir Insha Ullah), kd*h yeh 
shakhs njiwwab Ice pas gayd hotd ' Would this person had 
gone to the Nawwab! ' 

1 71 Translate into English. : 

( 5 > 







(1) The apodosis means 'he would not have left me alive' (to 
tell the tale). A common exaggeration. Yorjita, see |Q7. ( 2 )- 

(2) Hdjat Tiott ' had there been any need.' MoTitdj ' needy,' a 
verbal from the same root as Mjat, will be found below (7). Hdjah 
is an everyday word in modern Arabic for 'anything,' as turid 
hdjah ' do you want anything ? ' For be kahe tumhare see 96. 

(3) Junta hotd, the second form of the Past Conditional, in which 
Tiotd takes the place of iha in the Past Imperfect. The shade of 
meaning which this rave tense implies cannot always be rendered 
in English. Translate ' had he been familiar with ' rather than 
1 had he known.' 

(4) A larly is here addressing a female relation. For Tcubhi &i, 
see 45. 9- The remoter sense of the third form of the Past 
Conditional is obvious in this example. 

(5) A proverbial form of expression, which denotes an intense 
feeling of shame. 

(6) For the construction of the apodosis see (69. -^ lir *& th e 
protasis means ' more.' 

(7) See 170. The tense in the subordinate clause is the Past 
Conditional Passive. For mohtdj see App. A, Form VIII. 

(8) Translate ' You ought to have inspected,' etc. 

(9) Translate 'Would that all possessed the discretion,' etc. 

(10) A wife here remonstrates with her husband for inviting a 
friend to dinner without giving her notice. From the Miratu-l-arfts 
of Nazii- Ahmed. 

173 1 Translate into Hindustani: 

(1) If we had lived in accordance "with our means, we 
should never have experienced this want of money. 
(2) He kept on complaining, ' Would tliat 1 had not 


born ! ' (3) I should have pat dowii gambling, if I had 
had the power. (4) It was beyond his sagacity to under- 
stand this hint. (5) I should have half killed him, if 
the people had not rescued him. (fi) You ought to have 
sympathised with me at this critical period. (7) Had we 
been on the alert, yonder intrigues would have been 
detected. (8) Had I followed the doctor's instructions, 
I should have given up drink long ago. (9) Would I 
had not been entangled in this mess. (10) If re- 
conciliation had been effected then, I should have been 

174i Directions. 

(1) ' In accordance with our means,' haisiyat te, at the beginning 
of the sentence. Turn the apodosis ' this emply-handedness (tihi- 
dasti) would never hare been.' 

(2) Use here the Fast Conditional Bemote in the optative 

(3) Compare this with (66. 10. 

(4) Turn thus: 'To him so much sagacity where was that he 
should have understood this hint?' An assertion in the interroga- 
tive form. 

(5) Turn the apodosis ' I should have already made him half 
cK'ad,' udh-mua kar-chukd thd. 

(6) On the model of 171.8. 'To sympathise with me,' mert 
hamdardi karnd. 

(7) Turn thus : 'From hither (if) alertness had been, the intrigue 
of thither would have been exposed (khul-parnA).' 

(8) ' Instructions,' kafni. 96. 

(9) Use the 2nd form of the Past Conditional (Optativ.O. 

(10) Turn thus : ' I should then indeed (tabM) have been pleased 
Unit when reconciliation had become' (Past Conditional Kernou-). 



173i The Concessional is a form of the Conditional 
clause, of which, the construction is illustrated in Exer- 
cise XXIII., the difference being that, instead of being 
introduced by agar ' if,' the protasis begins with agarclii 
' although.' The conjunctions harcliand, go, go ki mean 
the same thing, and are convenient alternatives. Hdldnld 
'albeit,' bd-wujudeki 'notwithstanding that,' mdnd l;i 
' granted that,' etc. are additional forms ; and the collo- 
quial saM, 151. T 4> is sometimes used at the end of a 
concessional clause, just as mdnd Jci is at the beginning. 

Our phrase ' no matter how ..." is idiomatically repre- 
sented in Hindustani by kaisd hi . . . Jcyun na . . . or 
Tcitnd M . . . kyun na . . ., with or without agarclii. 

The correlative conjunctions used in the apodosis are 
magar or lekin ' but,' and to bhi, pliir bhi, tdham, etc. 
'yet' or 'still.' 

Translate into English : 

(2) ^ ^ 
t ^ 

W _ V JI* 

UU (5) ^ U 


177. ^o^. 

(1) Ba-zaMn-i-hal, lit. ' in the present language,' that is, ' in 
such means of communication as they possess.' The speaker uses 
the Present Presumptive, as he linrs the monkeys chattering. 

(3) The concessional clause is here parenthetic. For muyassar 
see App. A, Form II. 

(4) For rahu see (7. (3). Mahalbat (root c-^>-) a mimated noun 
of action. See App. A, Remarks 5. (3). 

(5) Tinnhcn ' like yourself.' 

(6) For salti see 151. ! 4- Translate here 'no doubt,' or 'if you 
choose to say so.' From a scene in the Taubat, where Kali in 
nr^iu's witli his mother against what he considers unwarranted 
interference with his mode of life. For tu'urru:, App. A, Form V. 


(7) Translate ' No matter in what circumstances," etc. 

(8) Peshl men ' in presentation,' that is, ready to be brought 
up.' Faisala-hona ' to be decided.' (38) 

(9) Here the concessional clause stands at the end of the sen- 
tence as an afterthought : ' though it may he four kos distant.' 

(10) JaMn, as in (50. 1 S' Sdlhd sal (Persian plural and 
singular combined) ' year after year.' Cornp. tanhd tan, or tan 
tanha ' quite alone.' Eahi, Past Absolute, instead of rahe, Aorist, 
because the speaker assumes tho case to have occurred. Khwdh ma- 
khwdh ' will he nill he ' : but translate freely, as in (51. J - 

17Si Translate into Hindustani : 

(1) Though the debtor kept excusing himself on the 
ground that the bond was forged, yet when pressed he 
could not deny his own signature. (2) Though you do 
not know me, I know you well. (3) However easy a 
thing is, it always seems difficult to a beginner. (4) Not- 
withstanding that you have disguised yourself in man's 
attire, I know from your voice that you are a woman. 

(5) Granted that men's natures are different, yet this is 
no reason why there should not be concord in a family. 

(6) Though the education and correction of children are 
indispensable matters, yet a good example is a sine qua 
non. (7) I shall not sell it, no matter how much you 
offer. (8) Though the story is very long, it is very in- 
teresting indeed. (9) Though so enduring and gallanf, 
the army was not victorious. (10) You are addicted to 
drink, albeit the practice is altogether contrary to the 
law of Islam. 

179 1 Directions. 

(1) Turn thus: 'The debtor, although he kept making (||8) 
excuse that "this bond is forged," yet (/dham),' etc. 'Being 
pressed ' may be rendered hdrkar. 

(2) ' Though,' go ki, less formal than Ti 


(3) The concessional clause ia kaiad M d*dn Mm ho, without a 
following correlative. Instead of literally translating ' always,' 
use the Continuative Ma karnd (|26)- 

(4) Turn ' Notwithstanding (bd-wujUdeki) you have macle your- 
self in the disguise of men,' etc. 

(5) Put the assertion of the correlative clause interrogatively, 
yeh fcyd sabab hai, etc. 

(6) ' Q-ood example is a sine qua non' namuna short hai. Comp. 

44. is 

(7) Place the chief clause first and used the idiom described in 
5 6 followed by agarchi. 

(8) Instead of translating ' very long ' literally, use the com- 
pound phrase hU-tatoil. 

(9) 'To be enduring and gallant,' mehnat ojdn-fishdni karnd. 

(10) Follow the English order of the clauses. A strong expres- 
sion for 'being addicted to "is marnd (par). The law of Islam is 

the shar' c -i . 




18Oi Another form of the Compound sentence ia 
that in which a simple sentence is extended by the 
annexure of Co-ordinate clauses. These differ from 
Subordinate in being accessory, or even antithetic, to the 
leading sentence rather than explanatory of its parts 
They may indeed be connected with it by conjunctions 
argumentatively appropriate to the meaning they convey, 
but are constructively independent, and this too though 
they may have common terms. 

Thus, in the proverb kisi kd Idth chair, kisi ki znlxin 
clialo ' one acts, another talks,' chale is a common term, 


and may be omitted in the co-ordinate clause, as in 

English, if we translate 'of one the hand moves, of 
another the tongue.' 

Co-ordinate clauses may be conveniently classed 
as (1) Appositive, (2) Adjunctive, (3) Alternative, (4) Ad- 

The Appositive or Collateral relation is that in which 
no intermediary conjunction unites the clauses, as in the 
proverb above quoted. This form of the Compound sen- 
tence is common in Hindustani, a graphic and fluent 
language which dispenses as far as possible with punctua- 
tion either by signs or particles. 

182 1 Translate into English : 
i (*) V f 

jj &j (4) 

JJLs (j^ 




183. Notes. 

(1) A well-known proverb, which literally means ' Call others jt 
and be called ji yourself.' Kahldnd is a unique example of a verb 
which is causal in form and passive in sense. 

(2) The co-ordinate clause is here contracted into na 'did I 

(3) See 37. 14, 

(4) The pronoun usne is understood in the co-ordinate clause. 
The Persian hast o nist ' it is and it is not ' has here the meaning of 
{ yes or no.' Preserve in translation the etymological connection 
between the verbals suul and sd'i'l. 

(5) Muru phirnd is an idiomatic expression which applies to a 
person wandering about in distress. Our phrase 'knocking about' 
is something analogous. The speaker alludes to ' the unemployed.' 
Comp. J76. 5- The co-ordinate clause means 'no one notices 
(lit. questions) them.' 

(6) DekhnA 'to look for.' Mild is often used fir 1h'( in this 
kind of phrase. See |Q. 12. 

(7) The co-ordinate clause in this example is a common idiom. 
Literally, ' What mention of seeing it ? ' that is, ' Let alone having 
seen it.' Another mode of expressing the idea is us jagah kd 
dekhnd dar kinur main ne ndm bht nahln sund ' Setting aside seeing 
the place, I have not even heard its name.' 

(8) A remark of Galib's on receiving a friend's photograph. See 


(9) Apne sarf-i-:aK se ' at my own expense ' ; apnt likH to ' for 
his own selling,' that is, for recovery of outlay by the proceeds of 
the publication. 

(10) This, from the Biiwfu-ydsh of Nazir Ahmed, is a useful 
illustration of the concessional sense of sahi, |76. 6. The l;i-t 
tlnvc clauses arc a rejoinder to the first. 


184i Translate into Hindustani: 

(1) Some are devoted to philosophy, others have a 
greater liking for mathematics. (2) I dared not speak 
even, let alone laugh. (3) I asked for leave, and received 
a flat refusal. (4) You have seen the Taj, haven't you ? 
(5) Some wretch is peeping in by chinks in the door ; 
scare him away. (6) We have beaten the whole jungle 
\vithoutfindingatraceofgameanywhere. (7) Why should 
I object ? I am at the service of my friends. (8) I too 
was a tremendous sleeper ; I could have backed myself 
against the dead. (9) A new paper is being started here ; 
I send two prospectuses with this letter. (10) 1282 A.H. 
has begun ; I was born in 1212 ; my seventieth year will 
begin next Hajab. 

, Directions. 

(1) 'Devoted,' fee (76. 4- F r co-ordinate clause, see 71. 7- 

(2) On the model of |82. 7- Turn the first clause, ' To me of 
speaking (bat karnd) even daring (yard) was not." 

(3) Omit the conjunction. ' Flat refusal,' sdfjawdb. 

(4) In the form of (82. 2 - 'The Taj,' Taj mahall. 

(5) ' Scare away," hushkdrnd, & rustic word for scaring away 
birds from the crops. 

(6) 'To beat,' jhdrnd. The word was used at (50. n i n t^ 6 
usual sense of 'sweeping.' See (82. 6 for the form of the co- 
ordinate clause. ' Finding a trace,' surdg milnd. 

(7) Turn ' In this what is my objection ? I am the servant 
(khudim) of friends.' 

(8) See 60. 3' The co-ordinate clause is murdon se shart bdndh- 
kar soil (thi), the speaker being a woman. Shart bdndhni ' to 

(9) ' To be started," jdri hand ; use the gerund with affix wild. 

(10) Turn as follows: 'The jear 12S2 hijri have begun (pU ; 


my birth is of the year 1212 : from month of next Kajab seventieth 
year (s&V) will begin.' ' Next ' may be elegantly translated by ab Tee. 
See the remark made at 45. 4 en the use of izdfat in this con- 
nection. The sentence is taken from Galib's Letters. 


I n the Adjunctive relation the chief connective 
is aur. 

This conjunction sometimes denotes simultaneity of 
event or action, especially with the gerund. It is also 
employed to mark contrast or antithesis, like ' and ' in 

In cases where the adjoined clause implies a logical 
sequence of thought, aur may be replaced by phir ' then,' 
phir bin ' moreover,' pas ' so,' chundncM ' accordingly.' 

What are apparently adjunctive clauses, introduced by 
is lie ' therefore,' or other similar phrases, are de facto 
principal clauses, which are preceded by causal clauses in 
which the conjunctions chiinki, etc., have been omitted. 
See 156. 

187. Translate into English : 

ViU-T K ^Ui ^ ^ U^llc ^ ^ (-2) ^ 

3\ (4) jj ^ J^ \^ ^ (3) 

^ - 


l^. (9) c 

Jl>- U^ 

^ ^-i (io) 

c ~- 

->- _ 



(1) 5aZA properly means ' what is right,' and may be so ren 
dered here, in which case dil M fchwdhisk may he translated ' what 
one wishes.' Note the distinction between hai and Aoti hai. Note 
the double meaning of aur. 

(2) From Nazir Ahmed's powerful description of cholera in the 
first chapter of the Taubat, Ji Tea matldnd expresses the feeling of 
uausea, which is one of the first symptoms. The point is that a 
man was no sooner taken ill than he died. Compare the alternative 
construction at 1 5 . 5- 

(3) A well-known proverb. Translate ' "\\ hat comparison is there 
bti..veeu?' etc. Raja Bhoj is one of the dominantia nomina ot 
Hind A Literature. 

(4) The aur of contrast in this example may be literally trans- 


(5) We have nothing like this in English. Translate ' Look to 
your own insignificance before, etc. Compare the idea of the pro- 
verb chhotd munh barl bat ' Small mouth, big words.' 

(6) For lol-dthna, see 73. ( 2 )- -B< kdlnd ' to cut the speech (of 
another),' that is, to interrupt or contradict. 

(7) For gazab Tea, see 24-. Ba-zdt-i-khtid 'in his own person.' 

(8) Ydd farmdnd ' to call for, used of a superior something like 
our ' condescend to remember." 

(9) This and the next example are specimens of Gilib's style, 
of which several have been given already. Gilib wrote as he 
spoke ; and to hear him speak Hindustani was a lesson in itself. 
Jazira, of course, means the Andamans. Maulavi Fazl Haqq was a 
ringleader in the Mutiny of Fifty-seven. 

(10) For sochd Jciyd see 126. Rakh-U, see 74. (3)- 

, Translate into Hindustani : 

(1) What comparison is there between you a man and 
me a -woman ? (2) First that man came ; then this one ; 
more yet will be coming. (3) My son, and capable of 
theft ! (4) This amount of labour, and you gasp for 
breath ! (5) The autumn harvest was got in, then began 
cultivation for the spring harvest. (6) You have stuffed 
in so much wood that there is no passage for the air, and 
yet you ask why the fire does not burn. (7) It is not ad- 
visable to leave him to live alone, accordingly let you and 
him continue together. (8) The Sahib won the first game 
and I got the second and third : he was vexed at losing 
two games (9) It is the property of the loadstone to 
attract iron, and the nearer the iron is placed to it, the 
greater is the attracting force. (10) This companionship 
has altogether spoiled you ; and I regret now that I gave 
you permission to go to his house. 



(1) On the model of 187. 3- Mard, not acfwii, in opposition to 
' aurat. 

(2) The Past Remote in the first clause, the Past Absolute in tae 
second, and the Present Presumptive in the third. 

(3) ' Capable of theft,' chori karne (Jce) qdbil. 

(4) Use the gerund in the co-ordinate clause : ' gasping for 
breath,' which in the Hindustani idiom is ' breath coming into the 
nose,' dam nak men and, an expression which is often used to 
denote worry or alarm. 

(5) ' To be got in ' may be picturesquely rendered by bird par 
hand ' crossing of the raft,' metaphorically applied to a successful 
result. Khetiydn pi., better than kheti, for ' cultivation, ' to denote 
the various kinds of cultivation for the spring crop8. 

(6) Lakriydn, not laJcri. Use the Past Absolute for both verbs 
in the leading clause. 

(7) Omit 'to live' in the first clause, and turn the second 
'your his companionship (sdth) let remain (rahd kare).' 126. 

(8) Turn the first clause, 'to the Sahib from losing two games 
(do bdzi hurne se) vexation was '" 

(9) Turn the first clause, ' In the loadstone this property is tlat 
it attracts iron.' ' The nearer,' jis qadr nazdtk. 

(10) 'Altogether' may be idiomatically rendered pet barhkar 
' belly-full.' For ' and ' use pas. For the co-ordinate clause see 

142. (3). 


When the relation between the clauses is 
Alternative, the Persian conjunction yd ' or,' is used. 

' Either . . . or,' is yd io . . . yd ; but when the sentence 
is interrogative, the Persian interrogative dyd takes the 
place of the first yd. 


The conjunction yd occasionally serves to denote a 
marked difference of conduct or condition, in which case 
it represents our ' instead of this,' or ' whereas now.' 

Other alternative conjunctions are the Hindi verbal 
forms chdhe or chdho. and the corresponding Persiar 
khwdh, the exact counterparts of the Latin vel, sive, seu. 

The interrogative Jtyd also acts the part of an alterna- 
tive conjunction, when things or persons are contrasted. 

\ t Negative alternation is expressed by na . . . 
aur na ' neither . . . nor,' the Latin nee . . . neque. 

Na . . . na is also used, and occasionally the first na is 
dropped, especially in set phrases, such as sdn na gumdn 
' nor sign nor suspicion,' that is, 'unexpectedly,' ' without 
warning ' ; ziijdda na ham ' neither more nor less.' 

The English alternative particle 'else' is represented 
in Hindustani by the compounds naMn to or tvarna (wa 
tigar na 'and if not '), which are in reality conditional 
clauses in a contracted form. 

193. Translate into English: 
> f 

,.,JoJ \J -5> e^v^rs- ,-f^J ,-~i L>wi i)i ,.-.8 *J (1) 
O" ; ' v \ 

\j\ (3) Jii \j.^j Ul>- b ^ *K \JJ\ y {.- 

(J\t- \J ..>J! 

;.- \^. J^H^j i'>- jJ^ i'y>- ^ ^L***^.* ^.i *jl 
^i'ysj (5) ^ Ho' ^.'l^j \jj\ j: \ ^ U^, 


>\ tj rJ (6) j. Jj^ U< 

u ,x<> ^ ^ ^..^jT JL > (7) 

^ (8) ^r ; ^ jy ^. 


(1) Compare 60. 5- -^ l *'*'* ma J be used for ^ aA( whei 
the clause is subordinate. 

(2) The alternative clause is a proverbial expression, which 
means literally ' appear moving about,' and may be rendered ' move 
on ' or ' be off." 

(4) The sentiment is Gulib's. Nasrdn (pi. nasdru), ' Nazarene,' 
is the term used in the Qoran to describe Christians. Krishtdn is 
the term in ordinary use. 

(5) The construction is peculiar. Literally translated, we should 
have, ' Searching will not find,' etc. The sense is, ' Search as you 
may, you will not find,' etc. Ahl-i-hirfa 'persons engaged in Iradc,' 
' tradesmen.' 


(7) Proverbial. Men are supposed to be squatting round a fire, 
and the superstition is that if a person pushes in between two of 
them to procure a light, there will be a quarrel. 

(8) Hawdla dend ' to refer to.' The co-ordinate clause is a com- 
pound conditional sentence interrogatively stated : ' It was impos- 
sible hut that I should have answered it,' or ' I should of course 
have answered it.' 

(9) This distich is from a poem by Munsif on the Mutiny, and 
expresses his idea of the cause. Rum and Russ always stand for 
the Turkish and Russian empires in Persian literature. Observe 
that the first na is dropped, (92. ^ as > parenthetic, may be trans- 
lated here ' and nothing else.' 

(10) This graphic bit of description is from the Taubat, Ch. II. 
Observe the aur of simultaneity, and translate ' He no sooner set 
foot inside,' etc. 

Sahm charhu ' a panic mounted on,' where the English idiom is 
' fell upon.' Yd ab ' whereas now.' 

The idiom of the Aorist bajafo corresponds exactly with our own. 

195i Translate into Hindustani : 

(1) I have committed no offence either against God or 
against man. (2) Either accompany me or go about 
your business. (3) Put the lota in the shade or the milk 
will turn. (4) The whole city, Hindus and Mahomedans 
alike, are praying for his recovery. (5) Have the M;m- 
lavis decreed that India is a 'habitation of war' or not ? 
(6) If it will answer your purpose to mortgage the 
house, well ; if not, sell it. (7) A week ago I despaired 
of life, whereas to-day I was able to get up and join the 
company. (8) I am perplexed whether to go home or 
spend the hot weather on the hills. (9) Did you confess 
of your own accord, or did someone prompt you to do 
so ? (10) My paper is used up, or I would have written 
on for your amusement. 



1^6i Directions. 

(1) In the Hindustani idiom ' any offence neither,' etc. ' Against' 
may be translated here by the sign of isafat the objective geni- 

(2) For the first clause, see 91. 4; f r the second clause, 193. - 

(3) Either literally, sdya men rakho or dhup se Itachuo ' protect 
from the sun,' followed by nahin to. 

(4) ' H. and M. alike,' chuho Hindu chuho Musalmdn. 

(5) 'To decree,' in the Islamic sense, fatiod dend. 'Habitation 
of war,' ddru-l-harb, the technical term for a country in which a 
jehad or ' cresoentade ' is lawful, if it is feasible. 

(6) Omit ' if ' and ' your.' ' To answer one's purpose,' fed m ni- 
Jcalnd (se). 

(7) 'A week ago,' elc haft a hud. 'To despair of life,' jan se hath 

(8) ' To go home,' wildyat jdnd. Turn the second clause, ' in the 
heats (garmCon men) to reside on the hill.' 

(9) ' Of your own accord,' dp se dp or apne <'p se. ' Omit ' to do 
so ' in the co-ordinate clause. 

(10) Omit all the pronouns. The rerb in the co-ordinate clause 
will be in t,he Past Conditional tense. 


When a co-ordinate clause restricts or qualifies 
the first, the relation is Adversative, and the conjunctions 
in use are par, leltin, magar, or balki, all of which have 
the general sense of 'but.' Of these magar is preferen- 
tially used for the introduction of an exception or after- 
thought ; and balki generally has the enhanoive sense of 
' nay more,' or ' nay rather.' To bhi ' nevertheless ' and 
tdham 'yet still' are also used as adversative conjunc- 


Compound sentences of this class are often little more 
than a rhetorical variation of those which form the 
subject of Exercises XXITT. and XXV. 

i Translate into English: 

J 0) 

(2) y 

(3) ^ 

Ijl ^^j 

,. t- 


', (5) 



199 Notes. 

(1) For JaZa se see 77 J 5- For "<?# see (65. 8. Observe 
the structure of the adver.-ative clause in this example and in (3). 
Comp. the phrasing of 137. I 5- 

(3) Magar Mn (the French mals oui), in English generally 'yes,' 
introductory of an afterthought. Merd Jchatir-lchwah ' suited to niv 
ideas.' Comp. (57. 7- 

(4) The interrogative Jcyd strengthens the adversative batki, ' nay 
more," by deprecating, as it were, the previous remark. Balki may 
even be omitted, as in (6), (9). Lend means ' taking ' something 
which is given. ' Ain tumJidrd rupdya, literally, ' exactly your 
money.' See |4-0. 2 > and compare the phrases ' ain waqt par 'in 
the nick of time,' ' ain sarak men ' right in the road.' The clause 
may be rendered, ' his money is really yours.' 

(5) Khali Hasan Jcarke, literally, ' specifying him as Hasan only.' 
Compare the phrase elc ek JcarJce 'one by one.' 125. IO - For the 
position of the negative see 6 Q , 1 1 . 

(6) 'Black indeed! Why, he is, so to say, an upturned griddle.' 
Our way of putting it would be, ' Dark indeed ! Why, he is as bluck 
as my hat." 

(7) Ap Ice dushman (or dashmandn-i-Tiuzur) ' your enemies,' 
meaning 'yourself.' Oriental politeness, or servility, avoids the 
association of illness with the person of a superior, and prefers to 
ascribe it to an enemy. G-cfi guzrl bat ' a thing of the past.' 

(8) Translate the adversative clause, ' but no one was kicked.' 
Kisi Tee, not kisl ko. See 51. 15, where it was explained that Tee. 
not ko, marks the person affected, when the verb used is not transi- 


(9) Translate ' This is not a dog you fcecp, but a money-changer.' 
From the story in the Alf Laila, where a dog is described as able 
to detect counterfeit coin. For sarruf see A pp. A, Bern. 5 (5). 

(10) Ba-muqabali-i-yalcdifjar ' in comparison with one another.' 
For mutawassit see App. A, Form V. 

2OOi Translate into Hindustani: 

(1) Your comfort, nay more, your safety depends on 
your withdrawing from their society. (2) He and I bad 
a long consultation in the matter of this outbreak, but 
no remedy was arranged. (3) No such book is obtain- 
able ; but stay, there are several works on grammar ic 
the Government Library : if you wish it, 1 will send for 
them. (4) I tried very hard : the cotton kept coming 
into the eye of the needle, but never got threaded. 
(5) You. have performed a cure ; nay, a miracle. (6) What 
do you mean by misapprehension of orders F The plain 
fact is you have been guilty of wilful disobedience. 

(7) Neither you nor I will read, but he whose turn it is. 

(8) You may well call him intelligent he has au old 
head on young shoulders. (9) Not we alone the whole 
city, I may say, long for his advent. (10) Talk as much as 
you please, a man's life is the dearest of his possessions. 

20 1 1 Directions. 

(1) Turn ' Depends on (men) this that you withdraw,' etc. 

(2) Turn ' For a long time (der talc) in the matter (bara) of this 
outbreak my his together (btiham) consultation was,' etc. 'To be 
arranged,' ban-parnti. 

(3) On the model of (98. 3- 'Grammar,' sarf-nahr, lit. ' in- 
flirt ion and syntax.' 'If you wish it,' ir shad ho. 

(4) 'Cotton-thread,' dhittjii. The 'eye' of a needle U i!u' 
' mouth ' in Hindustani. ' Never got threaded.' piroyu nahiu y,;_ 

(5) On the model of 198. 9- 


(6) Turn 'misapprehension what meaning? Rather (kalJci) the 
plain (suf) word is this that you have knowingly done disobe- 

(7) Turn ' neither I will read noi you will read, but (balJci) whose 
turn (it) will be.' 

(8) Turn ' Intelligent what ! thus say, that a beard is on (men) 
his belly ' meaning that he has a long beard. The phrase is pro- 
Terbial, and is perhaps the nearest equivalent to the English of the 

(9) Turn ' We folk indeed well the whole city is desirous 
(mushtaq) of his advrnt (amad).' 

(10) Turn ' One may say a lakh (lakh Tcoi Jcahe), but more than 
all his own life (apiujdn) is dear to everyone.' 

PART if. 





1, The illustrations of Grammar and Syntax and oi 
the more important differences of idiom between Hindu- 
stani and English, which are contained in the foregoing 
Exercises, are by the nature of the case fragmentary and 
unconnected ; and, though they are sufficient for their 
immediate purpose of teaching colloquial Hindustani, 
something more is wanted before the student can attempt 
with confidence the task of translating continuous 
English narrative, even of the simplest kind, into good 
Hindustani prose. In a word, the diction of the lan- 
guage must be studied and an insight gained into the 
formation of periods and paragraphs and their linkature 
tantum series juncturaque pallet before satisfactory 
progress can be made in this direction. Under ordinary 
circumstances this kind of knowledge is best acquired 
ly an observant study of the best authors, but the short 
time usually at the disposal of the learner in this country 
is absorbed, so far as the text-books are concerned, in 


spelling out and committing to memory the words, and 
in grappling, among other novelties, with the want of 
punctuation ; and the consequence is that translation 
from English into Hindustani is the bugbear of the 
Examination room and ever afterwards. 

It may, therefore, be useful at this point to summarise 
in brief the more obvious features of the literary lan- 
guage, as a help to appreciation of style, and as a basis 
of a few suggestions for the encouragement and guidance 
of scholars in their first attempts at imitation. 

2, Urdu was, in its beginnings, a modus vivendi 
between the Hindu tribes of Northern India and their 
Moslem conquerors, which owed its origin to the neces- 
sities of the times, and is now their most valuable relic, 
It has become by gradual refinement and adaptation the 
mother tongue of Hindus and Hahomedans alike, and 
lends itself to their respective needs and prejudices with 
equal facility. Both parties in the compromise have held 
their own ; for, though the Persian character and vocabu- 
lary have been naturalised without essential change, 
much in the same way as the Mahomedans themselves 
have become part and parcel of the population, the core 
and structure of the language are Hindi and Hindi 
alone. The student will do well, therefore, to bear in 
mind from the very first that a due recognition of the 
Aryan basis of Hindustani is essential to a right under- 
standing of the genius of the language.* 

* See, when opportunity occurs, the remarks made on this sub- 
ject by Raja Siva Prasad in the English preface to the first edition 
of his Grammar of the Vernacular. The prose of Mania vi Xazir 
Ahmed and MirzA Nau.'m (Galib), both of Dehli, and the verse 


3, Simplicity and directness, for example, are among 
the most valuable qualities of Hindustani, which it owes 
to its base-form. This may be discerned in various par- 
ticulars, to which the attention of the student has been 
already drawn ; such, for example, as the use of words of 
which the meaning varies with the context, the device of 
doubling words to denote energy or distribution, the 
absence of case-endings, the avoidance of epithets, the 
large use of the Substantive Verb and of elementary 
verbs of action and movement, the terseness effected by 
the use of the Past Conjunctive Participle and of Causal 
and Compound Verbs, the exactitude of the tense- 
system, the preference for realistic description which is 
manifested in the use of the oratto recta and in the 
avoidance of impersonal statements, and lastly, a certain 
old world mannerism which proceeds from the love of 
what is familiar and conventional. 

4, The Semitic aftergrowth has supplemented the 
expressiveness of Hindustani, without obscuring the 
native simplicity of the srround-form, for the exercise 
of a choice in words has tended to the survival of the 
fittest, irrespectively of their origin. The best writer is 
he who uses these ' fittest ' words, and the best scholar 
he who knows why they are the ' fittest,' either per se, or 
with reference to the circumstances under which they are 

>, Another characteristic of the Vernacular is the 

of Nazir of Agra, owe their excellence to the fact that these 
writers, albeit Mahomedan by birth and education, have accepted 
the circumstances under which Urdu becume a language and 
L:ivi> used it accordingly. 


occasional cereinoniousuess of the phraseology. The art 
of putting things vernaliter, i.e. with attention to etiquette 
and custom, is a feature of orientalism which adds dignity 
to the affairs of common life ; and though, in the case of 
Hindustani, the forms used are mostly Persian, they are 
sufficiently in accord with Hindu sentiment to be very 
generally appropriate. 

{>, More distinctly rhetorical characteristics of the 
language are the regard paid to euphony and rhythm, 
not only in words and clauses, but throughout whole 
periods, and the management of the linkature rather 
by subtle changes in the form and setting of the diction 
than by the use of connective particles.* 

7 1 Suggestions for Guidance. 

(1) Alteration in the normal order of the words in a 
trauspositive language like Hindustani is a natural 

* Part II. deals with the principles of clause formation rather in 
a syntactical point of view than as an element of style, which, as 
said above, is best studied at first-hand from books. Students are 
now exceptionally fortunate in the possession of an admirable text- 
book, the Taubat of Nazir Ahmed. This is a story of everyday 
life among a class of natives who speak Hindustani in its perfec- 
tion, by one of themselves. It abounds in dialogue, is didactic 
and rhetorical in parts, and supplies incidentally a large number of 
words used in public as well ac private life, and is the best; avail- 
able resource (no better could be desired) for obtaining a mastery 
of the language, for whatever purposes it may be required. It is 
most earnestly hoped that Probationers for the Indian Civil Service, 
or officers who desire to cultivate the ' great Indian Vernacular ' for 
practical purposes, will not rest content with a hasty perusal of 
the first few chapters only which the Examiners demand, but that 
they will complete the study of the entire work after they havo 
become domiciled in India, and make it their vade mecum, for such, 
in more ways than one, it deserves to be. 


means of emphasis, which the translator should make 
the most of, so long as he is careful to avoid ambiguity 
or dissonance. 

(2) It has been already pointed out that expressions 
connected with the use of Time take the precedence. 
Time also is the chief function of the verb, and closes 
the utterance. Of all tenses none require more care in 
translation than the English present. Thus, in such a 
sentence as ' Send him to me when he comes,' the tem- 
poral clause means 'Avhen he has come,' and the verb 
must be rendered in Hindustani by a Past tense. Com- 
pare the sentences given at 4-4- 5 and 68. 5- See 
also 162. 

(3) Where there is a choice of terms or phrases, the 
most familiar is likely to be the fittest, but it is good 
style to vary the rendering, if the term recurs. In 
examinations, the student should remember that the 
knowledge of a word includes ability to spell it correctly 
(see 6. 4). If he is at a loss for the representative 
of a word, of which the meaning is important to the 
general sense of the passage before him for translation, 
he should use a paraphrase rather than leave a gap or 
resort to transliteration. 

(4) Exactitude in the use of pronouns, whether as a 
matter of grammar or etiquette, is essential. They are 
omitted only when the sense is unmistakeable without 
them. The usage of the Reflexive apnd (see Exercise VI.) 
is specially important. 

(5) The realism of Hindustani bars the easy transfer 
of personal qualities to things inanimate and vice r> 
which is characteristic of English. (See 24-.) It is better 
to omit an epithet than translate it unidiomuticallr. 


(6) Personal and individual expression leing charac- 
teristic of Hindustani, the English Passive should not be 
literally reproduced in translation, except when the 
agency is necessarily or intentionally vague. For 
example, such a sentence as ' The throne was occupied by 
a tyrant ' can only be rendered ' A tyrant sat upon the 
throne,' whereas ' Many men were killed in the battle ' 
may be translated literally. 

Hindi neuter verbs and Arabic and Persian verbals in 
combination with Tiona are often convenient representa- 
tives of the English Passive. (See 119.) 

(7) The English prepositions ' of,' ' to,' ' for,' ' by,' and 
' with ' after adjectives and verbs require careful atten- 
tion, or breaches of idiom will be inevitable. In this 
matter, the earlier sections of this work are very im- 

(8) Clause for clause translation is equally ineffective 
with word for word translation, whether from English 
into Hindustani or from Hindustani into English, for 
the English arrangement of sentences and their pa'ts, 
pauses, and parentheses is no guide to the formation of 
a Hindustani period, and must often be broken up by 
inversion or detachment to suit the methods of the latter. 
The translator should realise the general sense and argu- 
ment of the passage he is engaged upon, and think how 
best he could explain it in outline to a native ignorant of 

(9} In particular, the initial sentence should always 
be clearly and concisely worded, by the detachment of 
accessories, which may either form a separate sentence or 
be pieced in with what follows. 

(10) The adjustment of relative clauses is often a key 

PART III. 143 

to the cast of a period or paragraph. These clauses, and 
indeed all clauses which, in the idiom of Hindustani, 
precede the main statement, are especially useful in the 
passage from point to point of a description, without the 
more formal liukature of conjunctions, and at the same 
time without sacrifice of coherence. As in Latin, a great 
point is to let the verbs have room. 

Punctuation is, or ought to be, inherent in the dic- 

(11) A good prose style includes attention to sound as 
well as to sense ; in other words, to the choice of harmo- 
nious worae, tuwt phrases, and to concinnity and congruity 
in their combination, and to the symmetrical and rhythmic 
balancement of clauses. f 

(12) Finally, the student will find it an invaluable 
assistance in translation to have stored his memory with 
specimen passages from the text-book, or with any well- 
told tale or description he may meet with. 

* Native publications are never punctuated, but a good reader, 
though he makes no pauses except in the momentary action of 
taking breath, is always intelligible to the practised listener. I 
have among my papers a tract lithographed for private circulation 
in 1863, in which tho writer instructs his compatriots in the art of 
humouring the foibles of the ' Sahib-log.' One suggestion, under 
the head of Office-work, is that when a Munshi has to read papers 
to tho Sahib, he should make pauses in the English fashion BO aa to 
enable him (tho Sahib) to understand. 

t Carried to excess, this is the rangtnt 'eb&rat (or ' florid style ') 
of the Lucknow schoi-1. The plausibility of native 'petitions ' and 
the skill with which half-truths and the inferences therefrom are 
disguised by a caressing smoothness of diction, have often been 
noticed. This is the charb-zabCml, or ' oiliness of speech,' of t v * 
professional scribe, and is a very different thing from the shtrm- 
wib'int of the accomplished author. 


3, The Selected Passages which follow are divided 
into four sections of gradually increasing difficulty, 
though it is necessary to remember that the simplest 
English is not always the easiest to translate. 

(1) Fables and Apologues. Many of these are ancient 
friends in a slightly altered guise. They are adapted, 
for the purposes of this work, from the original Hindu- 
stani of Nazir Ahmed. 

(2) Easy Narratives from Modern Indian History. 
These extracts are translated from a History of India 
written in the Hindi language for the use of country 
schools by Raja Siva Prasad, C.S.I., whose name 1 a< 
been already mentioned. 

(3) Miscellaneous Pieces, relating to Indian subjects. 
The first nine of these form a single narrative from the 
pen of the late Lord Lawrence, which is quoted in Vol. 1. 
of Mr. Bosworth Smith's admirable Life, and are chosen 
partly for their continuity and partly for the interest 
and suitability of the subject-matter. The remaining 
Pieces of this Section are selected for exercise in trans- 
lating from a style of English which is not easily handled 
in Hindustani. They are borrowed from Dowson's Exer- 
cises, a work which contains no sufficient hints for the 
guidance of the student, and is, therefore, little used. 
The notes refer to a translation of my own, which was 
made for the benefit of Officers under my instruction at 
the Staff College in 1882. 

(4) Her Majesty's Proclamation on assuming the 
Empire of India at the Close of the Mutiny. This was 
read aloud in the first instance at a Darbar held at 
Allahabad on November 1st, 1858. The authorised ver- 
sion of this document, which was recited upon the same 


occasion, was the work of the Mir Munshi of the Foreign 
Office at that time, and is referred to in the notes 
attached. The stateliness of the English original is 
fairly represented in translation, and the terms are well 



*A starving fowl was scratching at a dung-hill in 
search of a grain of corn, when after a long time it 
suddenly 2 came upon a costly pearl. 3 ' Alas ! for my 

* Further practice for the advanced student may be found in the 
study of the Urdu versions of the Indian Peual and Civil Proce- 
dure Codes, which illustrate the efficacy of the language aa a legal 
instrument. They who wish to proceed farther may consult the 
translation of Mill's Political Economy, which was published by the 
Aligarh Society some years ago, or a recently finished version of 
the First Part of Butler's Analogy, by Mr. Williams of Shahjehan- 
yur. Both these works are fairly successful illustrations of the 
adaptability of Hindustani for the purposes of sustained argument 
and philosophical disquisition. For Logic, the best available 
treatise in the Vernacular is M. Nazir Ahmed's Mab'idt ul Ilikmat 
(1st Edit. 1871), which is based on Persian and Arabic works in 
use among the Moliamedans. A work in English and Urdti, by 
llev. T. J. Scott, of the American Mission in Oudh ami Rohilkhand, 
culled Quw&'iful Mantiq (1873), should be an equally valuable aid 
to Missionaries and others who are interested in the inner life of 
the Indian Moslems. 


ill-luck ! ' sighed the unhappy fowl. J After all this toil 
* I have got only a pearl, 5 which can neither soothe my 
feelings nor appease my hunger. 6 If some jeweller 
jr rich man had found it, he would have prized and 
loved it ; 7 but I am hungry enough to prefer a single 
grain of barley to any number of such pearls as this.' 


(1) Omit 'when' before the second clause, so as to make the 
clauses co-ordinate. Note that of the five indefinite articles in the 
first sentence the first and last are to be represented by ek. Omit 
' of corn,' as the term is general, but retain ' of barley ' in the last 
sentence. ' Starving ' would be insufficiently rendered by IhukhA 
' hungry.' The better way is to avoid the epithet and say ' being 
distressed by hunger,' bh&k se be-t*ib hokar, to follow the noun. 
For the verb use kurid-rahna, and omit ' at,' which is really a part 
of the verb. Use ko with the object. 

(2) The independence of the second clause will be increased by 
changing the subject of the verb. Say, therefore, ' a pearl turned 
up' (nikalnti). See 198. 4- 

(3) This sentence requires consideration. To begin with, the 
parenthetical use of the verb is impossible in Hindustani. Then 
again, our peculiar use of the verb ' sigh ' cannot be reproduced, 
and 'unhappy' is best avoided as an epithet of 'fowl.' Turn, 
therefore, ' Seeing the pearl, the fowl sighed dolefully and said, 
Uas ! ' etc. (to end of piece). 

"4) The contemptuous turn of the expression may be given by 
Inserting the order of the words and introducing the emphatic 
particles bhi and to, as mujhko mil& bhi to mott. 

(5) Avoid the idea of agency, which the English idiom easily 
it tributes to inanimate things, by turning thus: ' from which neither 
solace can be to my heart nor quieting to my hunger.' 

(6) Begin with yeh mott instead of the pronoun ' it,' and see 
Exercise XXIV. for the tense of the verbs. 

(7) The adversative clause should be constructed in harmony 
with the preceding, as follows : ' but in my behalf in such hunger 


one grain of barley would have been (thfc) much better than a lakh 
(see 20 1 1O ) of such pearls as this." To express 'such . . . aa 
this,' double the pronominal adjective. 


1 Someone taxed a lazy fellow with lying long in bed 
after he was awake, and asked him how he occupied him- 
self. He replied that 2 he occupied himself in deciding 
a very intricate case. 3 'When I wake up,' said he, 
'two fellows, 4 called Activity and Sloth, come to me. 
5 Activity tells me to get up at once and engage in uiy 
worldly duties. Sloth replies that there is no need to 
get up yet the whole day 6 is left for worldly duties ; 

7 one should take one's ease in the cool of the morning. 

8 And so they go on, each trying to convince his oppo- 
nent, while I arbitrate between them. 9 Surely you will 
allow that such a difficult case cannot be decided in a 
hurry 'i ' 


(1) This piece consists of two parts, a question and the reply. Tho 
first sentence contains the question, and may be turned as follows : 
' Someone asked a lazy fellow that your eye indeed opens early 
in the morning, but what do you keep doing lying on and on in bed 
till so late?' See ||4. 3,8. 

(2) Begin the reply here with the oratio recta, omitting ' said he ' 
in the next clause. 

(3) Ecpeat the phrase used by the questioner. 

(4) Express this parenthetically : ' the name of one is A. and the 
of the other S.' 

(5) To briiiL? out the personality, instead of 'Activity,' say 'that 
person whose name is Astivity ' j and so for 'Sloth' in the next 

(U) 'is loft,' parti hai. Seo ||7. 2. 


(7) Omit the conjunction and tuin ' This time of coolness is fcr 

(8) Turn ' In short, the two opponents go on convincing one 
another, and I,' etc. Use the Progressive form of verb (118) in 
the first clause, and the Continuative (126) in the other. 

(9) This form of appeal to justice is more directly expressed in 
Hindustani, as follows: 'Do you do justice (imp.), that, how can 
such a difficult case be decided quickly ?' Comp. \TQ. 8. 


1 An old man and his son were on a journey. They 
had a pony with them for carrying their traps, and went 
on foot themselves. The people said, 2 ' What idiots 
these two are ! 3 They keep the pony for show and do 
the hard work themselves.' 4 0n this the old man 
mounted the pony, and then they said, ' What a cruel 
father ! He rides 5 at ease himself, and the son 6 plods 
wearily along behind.' Then the old man got off and 
made his son ride ; 7 and the cry was, ' What a grace- 
less son ! The aged sire walks, and 8 the sturdy youth 
is not ashamed to ride.' Then the old man rode in 
front himself and mounted his son behind. Again the 
people said, 9 ' Apparently it is a borrowed pony, and 
carries the men and the baggage too ! 10 Have the 
fellows no pity ? ' 


(1) The form of this piece needs little alteration. The difficulty 
is the choice of natural and congruous terms suited to the simple 
humour of the piece. The second sentence may be introduced by 
aur, and more pointedly expressed as follows: ' A pony was with 
(them) (they) loaded on the pony (their) clothes and bedding, 
and both father and son went on foot.' Ption pffon chalnd, better 


here than paidal chalnti (143. 7)- r/nl being the verb of tho first 
clause, omit t,ho auxiliaries of tho two Past Imperfects which follow. 

(2) Introduce this, and the corresponding clauses which begin 
with ' What,' by dekho ' See ! ' 

(3) The idiomatic phrase total rakhnb closely corresponds to tho 
idea of ' keeping for show ' in this connection. The next clause 
may be turned ' themselves (kh&d} take up trouble.' 

(4) ' On this ' is best given by yeh sunkj,r ' hearing this.' 

(5) ' At ease,' maza men, or maze men, as the translator chooses 
lit. ' in taste,' ' nicely.' 

(6) The purposed dragging of this clause may bo represented in 
Hindustani by a similar lengthening of the phrase, p&on pd'on 
ptchhe ghasitta hu*i chal<l dtd hai. See 121. 

(7) The English phrase may be replaced by ' Then too the people- 
saiil,' to correspond with the terms already used. 

(8) Turn thus: ' Himself (Ar/idd) the shameless sturdy youth i* 

(9) 'Apparently,' ma'ldm hotA hai. See 5. '4- Turn the 
next clause, ' besides the baggage two men are loaded (on it),' lad- 
ICe hain. 

(10) Turn ' To them even does no pity como ? ' Comp. 68.4- 


1 A Lion, a Bear, a Leopard, and a Wolf, in search 
of prey, settled to go to the river marshes and hunt in 
company, 2 ou the understanding that they were to 
share and share alike in what was captured. 3 As it 
happened, they killed a nylghau, and this they divided 
into four equal shares in accordance with their agree- 
ment. 4 Each was about to take his share, when the 
Lion said, ' Listen, my friends ; one of these shares is 
mine by right of treaty; I claim the second 5 because 
I am king of the forest 6 and receive a fourth of what- 
ever is killed there by way of tribute ; I shall take the 
third share 5 because it includes the heart and livei, 
which you are aware is my 7 favourite food ; 8 and as 


for the fourth share, to avoid the difficulty of dividing 
it between you three, 9 1 may as well consume it 
myself.' 10 With this, the Lion devoured ail four 
shares, while his friends looked blankly on. 


(1) The first sentence is the most difficult hero, and may bo 
broken up as follows to suit the Hindustani idiom. Begin with a 
si. ort sentence in these terms : ' A Lion and a Bear and a Leopard 
and a Wolf, the four (cli&ron) were in search of prey," omitting the 
indefinite articles in translation. The next sentence will be, ' Thev 
all agreed that,' followed by the oratio recta. See (46. I2 - 

(2) The juncture, here may be effected by the use of a relati ve 
clause, ' What prey will be found, we will all four together divide 
into equal shares.' 

(3) All the pronouns may be omitted in this sentence. ' As it 
happened' is best translated by the Arabic adverb ittlf'iqan. 

(4) Turn 'It was near that,' etc. (150. J 3)> and take care to 
.fouble the reflexive pronoun. Begin a fresh clause at ' when,' 
itwe men. 

(5) For ' because,' see 156 sub fin. 

(6) Here again the junctura is best effected by a relative clause, 
jo kahin shikar ho. For ' by way of,' see |5 1 . 6. 

(7) The Arabic glz& may serve for adjective and noun together. 

(8) The best way of turning this is ' There remained the fourth 
share,' rah& chauthd hissa, followed by the correlative so, and the 
sentence then proceeds ' I do not know how to divide,' etc. 

(9) A fresh clause, ' than this it is better that,' etc. 

(10) ' With this ' should be translated yeh kahkar ' so saying.' 
Compare Note (4) to last Piece. ' To look blankly on,' or ' gaze 
stupidly,' munh-dekht&rah-jana, and see ||2. 8 for a suitable turn 
of the expression. 


1 A Cock, perched on the bough of a tree, was 
:rowing away to his heart's content, when a Cat observed 


him, and 2 being desirous of tempting him into her 
clutches, saluted him in a free and easy manner, and 
said : 3 ' Well, Mr. Cock, have you heard the proclama- 
tion? ' What proclamation ? ' said tho Cock. * ' Ha ! 
ha! 'laughed the Cat, ' then you don't yet know? 5 A 
Committee of all the animals, beasts and birds, has been 
sitting these ten days since, and they have solemnly 
agreed that for the future no animal shall oppress or ill- 
use another, but that all shall pass their lives in peace 
and harmony. 6 A declaration to this effect has been 
signed by all the animals, and read aloud in the King's, 
that is to say, the Lion's, Darbar.' ' Praised be God ! ' 
cried the Cock. ' I am rejoiced to hear it. A. great 
7 cause of anxiety is removed.* 8 He had no sooner said 
this than he stretched out his neck and 9 clucked in an 
ominous fashion, just as if something alarming had 
come in view. 10 ' Bless me ! What are you frightened 
at? 'asked the Cat. 'Oh! nothing,' said the Cock; 'a 
couple of hounds n are racing in this direction.' li! 0n 
this the Cat tucked in her tail and prepared to move 
on. The Cock said : 13 ' How now ? Madam Puss, where 
is your ladyship off to? I thought this was the era 
of peace and harmony.' l True ! ' said the Cat, ' but 
how can one tell whether these dogs have heard tin.- 
proclamation or not? Perhaps, like you, they don't yet 

Dit actions. 

(1) Begin, as in the last piece, with a simple sentence, and omit 
tho 'when* of the succeeding clause. The dea of 'was crowing 
away" may be conveyed in the Hindustani iliom by 'was giviii-; 
crow on crow'; and a certaia piquancy may be communicated to 
tho expression by using, in place of the ordinary word bang ' crow,' 


the term azdn ' call of the Muezzin,' which is permissible by asso- 
ciation of ideas. The expression jUj < Njl> for ^\4\ occurs in 
Gulistan iv., 13. See ib., ii, 19. Such & phrase as 'to Ins heart's 
content' cannot be literally translated ; khushl ki Ml at men 'in a 
state of happiness,' conveys the idea. 

(-) This may be conveniently broken up as follows : ' Desired 
that having brought him down by some stratagem (dhoti) she mny 
finish his job. The Cat in a free and easy manner,' etc. 

(3) ' Well ' may be omitted, though bhala, is common enough. 
' Mr. Cock,' miyiln murghe (vocative). 

(4) In Hindustani ' The Cat said aha,' etc. 

(5) Put the temporal expression first, and instead of saying 'a 
committee of all the animals,' etc., turn thus, ' a Committee has 
been going on : the animals of the whole worlJ, beasts and birds, 
were collected,' etc. 

(6) Turn : ' A declaration of this agreement having been made 
(bankar), the signatures of all the animals were attached (hue) 
that declaration was read out,' etc. 

(7) ' Cause of anxiety,' in one word, khadsha. 

(8) Either turn this in the way shown in |50. 8, or use the 
expression ' in this interval,' ist darmiy&n men, or simpler, itne 

(9) Turn thus : ' clucked in such a manner that, as it were, some 
alarming thing came suddenly in sight.' See 92. * 

(10) The corresponding interjection is kJiair to hai ? followed by 
' having seen what are you afraid ? ' 

(11) For this idiom see (21. 

(12) Turn thus : ' Hearing this the Cat having depressed her 
tail began-to-move ' (Inceptive compound). 

(13) Turn thus : ' Why, lady, Madam Cat, where are you taking 
yourself off to ? ' Ky&n bt gurba khdnam kahdn tashrif le-j'ite ho, 
or Ife might be used for le. See 108. ( 2 )- 


A poor countryman collected honey from the combs 
and l carried a jar full to the town for sale. - He 
was alone, and imagined to himself as he went along 
what arrangements he would make. ' I shall sell the 


honey,' be soliloquised, 'and buy a pair of fowls. As 
soon as tbey lay a good score of eggs I sball hatch the 
chickens ; and when the chickens grow up and begin to 
lay, I shall set tbeni on the eggs ; 3 and when I hive 
a hundred fowls, I shall sell them and rear a flock 
of goats ; 4 and after them in due course cows and 
buffaloes. Thus I shall become a great man, marry into 
a noble family, have an heir, employ a tutor for my 
son, and as I go in and out shall see him 6 reading, 
and in my delight shall take him up in my arms and 
kiss him.' 7 Suiting the action to the word, he stooped: 
the jar of honey fell to the ground and was broken ; 
8 and eggs, chickens, goats, cows, buffaloes, wife, son, 
tutor, the whole family, floated away with the spilled 


(1) Turn 'having filled a jar with (it) (|Q2. 1) carrier! (it) away 
towards the town to sell ' 

(2) 'Iho word 'soliloquised' should be brought into this sentonco 
from below, and the whole turned thus: '(He) was alone in the 
way (he) went on talking in (his) mind (dil ht dil men) he 
formed this imaginary plan, that,' followed by the oraiio recta, tho 
verbs in which should be in the Aorist tense, not the Future as in 

(3) Thojunctura may be varied here by turning the sentence 
thus : ' In this way having collected a hundred fowls,' etc. 

(4) Turn ' then increasing from goats,' etc., phir bakrfon se bar- 
Mte bar/Kite, etc. 106. 

(5) Translate bete ke wlste darw&za par u*M<i nankar rakh&ii. 
The insertion of darw&za par 'at the door,' that is, in the rooms in 
the entrance portico, is useful with reference to the expression 
' going in and ouc ' in tho next clause. 

(6) 'Reading' means 'reading aloud, ' piikAr puktir pa^htA hll, 


but ' see ' may be literally translated, because it was the sight of 
his boy thus occupied which pleased the father. 

(7) Turn thus : ' In tho idea of taking up the boy his head (on 
which Le was caivying the honey) stooped.' 

(8) Precisely as in English; but see 'for the whole family,' 25 
and for the last clause omit the word ' spilled,' and say ' floated 
away iu that very honey ' (bah-jdn 1 !). 


1 A poor man suddenly became great. 2 Whatever 
he put his hand to prospered and all his commercial 
ventures turned out well. 3 He was in the habit of 
lauding his own wise management as the chief agent in 
the creation of his wealth. ' In a certain year,' he used 
to say, 'I bought up cotton 4 in the expectation that 
war would break out in America and that the price 
would rise. 5 My anticipations were realised. 6 A certain 
village which I purchased was a losing concern at the 
time, but now, in consequence of my administration, 
there is a surplus revenue of thousands of rupees. I 
bought ten calves at the Batesur fair, and people thought 
them dear at the price, but I sold them in Eajwura 
7 for four times what I gave.' 8 And thus he would 
go on quoting instances by the thousand. 9 After a 
time fortune turned and he became the victim of bad 
luck. In two years he was again a pauper. His houses 
began to tumble down ; his tenants paid no rent ; no 
raiu fell in the village, and no corn was grown ; 

10 cows, buffaloes, horses, camels died of a murrain ; 
his mansion caught fire and his furniture was destroyed ; 

11 and his money was all stolen. Then he abused 
Fate; 12 but Fate said: ' Unur-iteful \victch, 13 you 


referred all your prosperity to your own wise manage- 
ment, and now you blame me for your adversity.' 


(1) ' Suddenly ' cannot be translated here by the ordinary 
Hindustani adverbs yak-A-yak, or n&g&h, or b'it kt b&t men, for it 
iMf.-ms ' comparatively soon ' with reference to the circumstances 
told below. Thore dinon men, placed in the middle of the sentence 
is best. For 'great,' the somewhat exaggerated phrase am'tr-kdbtr 
is better than plain bar& in this connection ; and it is good style to 
balance this double term by a slight extension of the subject. NVe 
shall have, therefore, ek gartb aur muftis fidmt thore dinon men 

-kablr bcnigay/l. Compared with hogaya, bangayd implies a 
power behind, in accordance with the teaching of the Apologue. 

(2) Turn this by collateral clauses, each beginning with the 
Relative, as ' in what work (he) was putting (his) hand, profit was 
what commerce (he) was doing, (to him) advantage was being 
received.' Omit the auxiliary of the Past Imperfect in all these 
verbs, it being obvious from the opening sentence that past time 
is spoken of. Comp. Piece 3. ^ ) " - - * 

(3) Again omit the auxiliary thd. Avoid the translation of ' wise ' 
by the use of two nouns, ' wisdom and management,' and begin the 
oi'atio recta with the clause ' as the chief agent,' ki main ne, etc. 
omitting ' he used to say ' in the next sentence. Comp. (45 7- 

(1) Turn thus, by way of adding force to the egotism, ' and I 
understood that,' etc. (samajh-lend). Use the future tense in the 
subordinate clauses. 

(5) Turn ' Accordingly as I thought (Past Remote), so indeed it 
cr,me to pass.' Jia'd waisA. See 135. 

(6) Turn ' When I bought a certain village there was a loss 
(.V/iasi^ra) in it every year. I so managed that now,' etc. 

(7) Chauguve d&manpar. 

(8) Turn 'and ho continued-describing thousands of examples of 
tliis tenour (tarah) before the people.' 

(9) This may be put as follows: 'After some days the turning 
of fortune and bad-luck surrounded lain.' 

(10) Turn ' sndi a nun-rain camo that all his cows, etc., po: 

but place the subjects of the subordinate clause first, after the 
manner of | 50. 4- 


(11) Effect the junctura here by a relative clause, jo kuchh naqd 
thA . . . 

(12) Omit 'but,' and with reference to the bur& kahna, of the 
preceding clause say ' Fate hearing himself abused ' (apni burdfi 
sunkar). Com p. 87 * 

(13) This will be most idiomatically turned by the use of two 
relative compound sentences, jitni behtari, etc.,jis qadr biircti, etc 
being the respective commencements. 


1 A traveller in the desert was sorely pressed by 
hunger, and 2 seeing a date-palm with ripe dates upon 
it 3 put a rope round his feet and climbed the tree. 
When he arrived at the top, the rope became detached 
from his feet and fell to the ground. 4 In this plight, 
his limbs refused their office and the man forgot to pluck: 
his dates. He shouted and shouted ; 5 not a soul was 
visible. He felt convinced that his end was come ; 
6 there was no rope to descend by ; nobody was in sight 
to help him ; 7 he could not cling to the tree for ever ; 
in another moment he must fall and be dashed in pieces. 
in his despair he vowed 8 that if he reached the ground 
alive he would sacrifice a she-camel when he got home. 
On this he began cautiously to slide down the stem. 
9 When he was nicely half-way down, he changed his 
mind. It occurred to him that the camel was pregnant, 
and that it would be wrong to sacrifice her ; he would 
kill a cow-buffalo instead. 10 Sliding down a little 
farther, he reflected that the cow was in milk; her too 
it would be a waste to sacrifice a goat would do as 
well. n He was now close to the ground, and gave up 
12 the idea of the goat. 13 The goat, he remembered, 


gave two sers of milk and threw three kids twice in 
the year it would be hard to find such another goat ; 
the object was to sacrifice a life of some kind, u and 
a fowl would answer the purpose. 13 When he reached 
the ground, he begrudged the fowl, though he told him- 
self that it was wicked to break his vow, and that, having 
promised a life, he was bound to give one. l6 Just 
then Satan suggested to him that he might catch a louse 
in his breeches and pay his vow with that. 17 So he 
quickly found and cracked his louse : and thus what was 
a camel at the top of the tree became first a buffalo, then 
a goat, then a fowl, and then a louse; and in this last 
shape was sacrificed to God. 


(1) As in former examples, begin with a simple sentence, and 
omit the conjunction ' and.' Avoid the Passive, and say ' to a 
traveller . . . violent huncrer was known.' For the adjective see 


(2) Turn thus : ' (He) looked and (fo) red ripe (IAI W) dates are 
hanging on a date-tree.' 

(3) Begin fresh sentence -with ' this person," etc. For ' rope ' say 
skein or ring of rope, rasst kt Antt, descriptive of the mode in 
which natives ascend a branchless tree. See also 50. ' 

(4) 'In this plight,' yeh h&l dekhkar, and see also 58. 3- I D 
place of 'refused their office' use the idiomatic pMJ-jdnd 'to 
swell,' and thus become incapable of motion; and lhA,l-j&n& in the 
Dxt clause, as an echo of the first verb. 

(5) Our phrase here is impossible in Hindustani. Turn ' up to 
the ran^c of vision there was no trace of a human beiner,' 'ulam-zAd. 

(6) Begir here with the oratio recta, connecting it with the pre- 
vious clause by lei. 

(7) Put this interrogatively, ' How long shall I remain clinging 
to the date ? ' Proceed thus : ' some short time (rfam) passes, 
when (Ai) I have fallen and been dasluul in pieces.' For this 
realisation of the Future, see 162. 'And' is here the aur of 
Rinultaneitv >. |86. 


(8) Turn : ' in this state of despair he vowed that,' followed by the 
oratio recta. 'On this' in the next clause will, therefore, be yeh 

(9) Turn thus : ' he descended half-way nicely ' (Piece 3 . Dir. 5 
above) ; then his intention (ntyat) changed, and he thought that,' 
followed by the oratio recta. 

(10) Turn ' then ( phir) he slid a little farther and thought,' etc. 

(11) Effect the junct ura here by yah&n tak ki. 

(12) The Hindustani idiom is bakrt fcd irdda ' his intention as to 
the goat.' 

(13) Continue the sentence with ' and thought that ' with the 
oratio recta down to ' purpose,' as follows : ' The goat is of two sers 
milk, every sixth month i she) gives three young ones,' eto. 

(14) Simply ' a fowl is enough.' 

(15) Turn thus : ' having reached the ground, desire of the fowl 
came, and he began to say,' etc. 

(Ifi) ' Just then,' itne men ; but the interruption is unnecessary. 
The suggestion may be put in the Imperative 2nd pers. sing. 

(17) Turn ' he having quickly (jha) got out (nikdl) a louse 
cracked (it) ' (chat mdr-dend), the jingle of jhat and chat giving 
point to the expression. The last clause is ' and that she-camel, 
which was at the top of the tree, becoming first a buffalo, then, 
etc., was killed in the way of God ' (khud& ki rdh men). 


1 Once on a time all the Members of the body hand, 
foot, mouth, tongue, teeth, throat, etc. mutinied against 
their king, the Belly. 2 They made out that they were 
over-tasked, and that he had no right to keep them in 
subjection. The hand said he was 3 tired of working 
for the Belly, 4 now splitting wood, now carrying loads. 
The foot said he was fatigued with running errands. 
The mouth said the Belly had turned him into a mill. 
In short, every member had a complaint to make; and 
all agreed that they would serve the Belly no longer. 


5 The army having thus swerved from its allegiance, 
King Belly began to suffer all kinds of inconvenience. 
c The hand would not reaca for water when the Belly 
was thirsty, nor the foot stir to fetch it. When he was 
hungry, the hand would not break the bread nor the 
mouth receive it. 7 He then stopped the army's pay 
and allowances, and suspended the issue of the blood 
ration. 8 The Mutineers began to starve and lose their 
vigour; 9 and at last in despair presented themselves 
before His Majesty, wei-e pardoned, and resumed service 
on the old terms. 


(1) For the method of dealing with a plurality of subjects seo 

16. (2). 

(2) This may bo expanded as follows : ' And all agreed among 
themselves that See ! wo are all engaged in his service night and 
day, and the belly keeps us in his slavery without reason.' 

(3) See 1 08. 

(4) Turn ' Sometimes I have to split wood, sometimes,' etc., and 
see 51.2. 

(5) Turn as follows : ' When all this army,' etc. 

(6) Bo<nn with the temporal clause, as in the next sentence. 
' The hand would not reach for water ' is ' the band was not moving 
(hilnd) to take water'; and similarly, ' the foot was not moving 
(cnaind) to the water-stand.' The auxiliary thil may be omitted 
hero, and in the next sentence, as in former examples. 

(7) The noun is here preferable to the pronoun in Hindustani. 
Translate ' allowances ' by jdgtr, an estate given in consideration of 
inilitary service. 'Suspend issue," band-kani'i. 

(8) Turn thus : ' the army of mutineers began to die of hunger 
and every soldier became weak." 

(9) Turn thus : ' at last in despair (majbur hokar) all the 
members being present in the belly's presence (hazir and TiwiiJr) 
got (their) fault pardoned,' etc. ' On the old terms,' ba-dastur-i- 



1 A tortoise who was bound on a jourcej was on the look 
out for a companion of his travels. A hare chanced to be 
going in the same direction, and the tortoise proposed 
2 that they should travel together, 3 The hare coulcf 
not help laughing. ' You idiot,' said he, 4 ' what com- 
parison is there between you, a sluggish unwieldy crawler 
at the rate of a span for hours, and me, who rush like 
lightning and fly like the wind ! 5 J should like to 
know how we can keep company.' ' True,' replied the 
tortoise ; ' but, please God, I shall reach the end of the 
stage before you do. If you do not think so, 6 I am 
open to a bet.' So they agreed that whichever lost 
should have his ears cut off. 7 The tortoise started at 
his own deliberate pace, and the hare was out of sight in 
a couple of bounds. 8 When he had gone a short way, 
the latter reflected that he had already travelled a dis- 
tance which the other could hardly make up by the 
evening. Why should he hurry ? It would be well to 
have a sleep ; and to sleep he went. Hours after, the 
tortoise dragged himself slowly up, and, seeing his rival 
asleep, quietly went on. 9 Late at night the hare woke 
up, and, seeing nothing of the tortoise, said to himself 
10 that Mr. Slow-pace had not yet arrived ; he would, 
therefore, go on and put up in the serai : n no doubt 
friend Tortoise would arrive on the morrow. 12 He 
had no sooner entered the serai than lo! there was the 
tortoise. 13 ' Now for your ears, my fine fellow ! ' cried 
the tortoise, as soon as he saw him ; u but the hare 
tucked ill his tail and tore off at such a pace that he is 
tearing about to the present day in dread for his ears. 



(1) Hindustani, like Latin, avoids the parenthetical relative 
clause, which is so convenient in English, because it is apt to bring 
the subordinate and principal verbs together. Hence, it is best to 
turn the initial sentence thus : ' To a tortoise a journey was on-the- 
t.-ipis (darpesK) ; search of this was that (if I) get a companion 
then (J) may travel.' 

(2) Oratio recta, and see (8.8 for the form of expression. 

(3) See (SO. I- 

(4) See (87. 3) f r the general idiom. 'Crawler at the rate of 
a span for hours ' may be turned by the aid of the Past Conjunctive 
Participle repeated. ' Crawling and crawling in pahars a span 
(of) land.' Omit ' who ' in the next clause. ' Fly ' may be literally 
translated by urna, or better still by the phrase farrate lend. 

(5) See 27. 1 S- ' I should like to know' may be translated b/ 

(6) Turn ' pray make a bet,' and proceed ' accordingly this was 
the bet, that who loses (Tidrnd) his ears be cut off." 

(7) Avoid the adjective by using the adverb ahista (bis). 

(8) Use the Past Conjunctive Participle, and put the reflections 
of the hare in the oratio recta down to ' sleep.' There is nothing in 
Hindustani to correspond to the ' latter ' and the ' former.' Either 
repeat the noun, or use the demonstrative pronouns, taking care to 
be consistent in the application of yeh or woh. The verbs will be 
in the Aorist throughout. Begin the reflections with jitna, and 
the rest is easy. For ' already ' see 77. * ' 

(9) See 1 1 14. 5. 

(10) Oratio recta. ' Goodness ! (allah re) Slow-paced Mr. Tor- 
toise (pi.) has not yet arrived ! ' For the verb use the ceremonious 
term which occurs in |98. 2 - 

(11) ' No doubt would arrive,' d M j'lenge. 

(12) Begin with jaun. See (49. 

(13) Turn thus : ' on seeing the hare the tortoise said, " Please 
bring (your) ears, my fine fellow," ' l&iye haarat kan, the order 
of the words being purposely pointed and emphatic. 

(14) The Hindustani junct ura dispenses with ' but.' ' In dread 
for his oars,' A- nwn fre dar ke mare. 



1 The Sun and the Wind once fell to arguing which 
was the strongest. The Wind said 2 she could tear up 
and toss away mighty trees and grand buildings, and 
even mountains ; she could create tempests on the ocean 
and sink ships, 3 turn day to night, 4 and with a mere 
shudder stop the business of the world. The Sun 
said nothing could withstand his heat ; mountains took 
fire, 5 tons of ice were melted, the very ocean boiled j 6 and 
if any man dared confront him he simply scorched his 
face. At last they agreed to try their strength upon 
some special object. 7 The victim was a p^or traveller 
wearing a cloak; and the test was, which could make 
him take it off. The Wind set to rage, and, filling the 
cloak, 8 lifted the traveller off his feet ; but he only 
wrapped it the more closely round him. Then the Sun 
gently 9 put forth his warmth, and by-and-by the 
traveller doffed his cloak, 10 and the Sun was master of 
the field. 


(1) The initial sentence may be rendered conveniently here by 
two collateral clauses ; as, ' Once between the Sun and the Wind an 
argument befel (Ao-parnd) : each was calling himself strong.' 

(2) Oratto recta, ' I am tearing up,' etc. 

(3) Expand here ' becoming a storm I am making d;iy night.' 

(4) The junctura is here best effected by a temporal clause; thus, 
' When I shudder n little, I stop the whole work of the world.' 

(5) 'Tons of ice (I'uklion man barf) melting become wator" 
(verb in sing.). 

(6) Effect the junctura as above (4) by way of rhetorical corre- 


(7) Torn thus : ' A poor traveller's misfortune (sh&mat) came- 
lio was going alone: dressed in a cloak : this was the condition that, 
Lot us see who can make him take off his cloak.' Potential com- 
pound of double Causal verb. 

(8) Use the compound le-urnA. 

(9) ' Put forth his warmth,' d/idp nikdlt. See (3. 2. 

(10) Turn thus : ' and the field remained (in) the Sun's hand.' 


1 A Wolf, a Pox, and an Ass were conversing 
together on the instability of the present world. 2 They 
came to the conclusion that it would be the right thing 
to confess their sins at the shrine of some holy man and 
repent of their misdeeds. There was a saint's tomb iu 
the forest, and, arrived here, each began to declare his 

The Wolf said : ' Alas ! 3 how can I hope for pardon ? 
* My hair stands on end when I recall one particular 
piece of cruelty. There was a confounded goat which had 
four kids, 5 and she used to leave these and wander 
about to people's houses in search of food. 6 I dis- 
approved of the goat's unkiudness in thus neglecting her 
young ones, and I killed her. 7 Then I reflected that 
the kids would certainly die without their mother. Why 
should they suffer such a misfortune ? And God knows 
this was my sole reason for eating them up as well/ 
8 With this the Wolf began to weep. 

(To be continued.) 


(1) As in the last piece, the first sentence may be rendered in 
iwo clauses. Insert in the first ' all three seated,' by way of sum- 



mation. The second clause may ran, ' there was mention of the 
world's instability.' 

(2) The idea of ' conclusion ' may be conveyed by turning the 
phrase thus : ' At length they agreed (saldh kama.) that,' followed 
by the oratio recta, but omitting the clause ' it would be the right 
thing,' because the verb chosen is sufficiently expressive. 

(3) Turn ' How will my pardon be ? ' 

(4) Turn thus : ' I have committed one such tyranny, that, when 
I remember it, my hair,' etc. 

(5) Use the Past Conjunctive Participle, with Continuative form 
1 2 6 f r the second verb. ' In search of food ' may be rendered 
here apn& pet bharne Ice Ife. 

(6) Turn thus : ' This unkindness of the goat in that (fci) she 
was not taking care, etc. . . . was displeasing to me.' 

(7) As always, put the reflections in the oratio recta, the first 
verb in the Future, and the second in i^e Aorist. 

(8) See Piece 4-. IO above. 



The Fox said : l ' Do not grieve, my good tender- 
hearted friend. Though you did kill the goat and her 
kids, God looks to the motive, and 2 your motive was 
righteous on both occasions. The goat deserved death 
for neglecting her young ;nes ; and in killing them too I 
feel sure 3 you had no thought of self. You saved 
them from orphanage and the sad fate of being mother- 
less, and may certainly hope for a reward in Heaven. 
* My sad case, on the other hand, is really difficult. 
What is to become of me on the Day of Judgment, or 
how I can expect to be pardoned, I do not know. 5 Hell 
itself would be scared at something which I did. Some- 
body had reared a lot of fowls, and the wretches were 
always quarrelling and screeching and making a noise ; 
6 the neighbours were worried to death ; the fowls 


dirtied not only 7 their own place but the whole 
quarter ; 8 their filth and stench were everywhere ; 
9 and they had the impertinence to drink water out of 
the citizens' plates and dishes. 10 It was the daily 
complaint. ll My soul was vexed at hearing of these 
annoyances, and one day when I could bear it no longer 
I went to the fowl-house and 12 made a clean sweep of 
all the fowls.' With this the Fox began 13 to shed 
floods of tears. ' My good lady,' said the Wolf, ' why 
weep so bitterly ? You have done nothing wrong. The 
fowls one and all deserved their punishment; and ir 
putting them to death 14 you have won the guerdon 
of a safe entrance into Paradise.' 

(To be continued.) 


(1) Place the vocative first with ae initiatory, and expand the 
verb to balance the double epithets by turning ' do not weep and 
do not lament ' (2nd pers. sing.). 

(2) Turn ' in your motive was goodness.' 

(3) Turn ' there was no object of your own,' terA kuchh opnd 
matlab na thd. 

(4) The point of this clause may be given in Hindustani by 
turning ' the difficulty indeed is of unfortunate me,' in which the 
particle to serves for ' on the other hand.' In the next sentence, 
the final ' I do not know ' may be idiomatically given by placing 
dckhfe at the beginning. 

(5) Turn as follows : ' I have done such a deed that oven Hell 
will seek refuge from me.' 

(6) Use here the phrase given in 1 9 . 4- 

(7) 'Their own place,' that is, the fowl-house, and translate 

(8) The proper way to turn this is, ' Wherever yon look, dunj? ; 
wherever you go, stench.' For the use of the Aorist, see 193. ia 


(9) Turn ' and these fowls were so ill-mannered that they were 
drinking water in the crockery of the people of the quarter.' 

(10) The Continuative form MA karnfi should be used here. 

(11) This kind of phrase can only be met by the use of some 
corresponding idiom, such as Jcalejfi pak-uthnd ; and for ' hearing ' 
recollect the idiom noticed at 1 6 . 

(12) Similarly for this phrase, the meaning may be expressed by 
' tearing them in pieces I swept the platter clean,' sofa chat har- 

(13) Here, too, either use the phrase &th dth &nsH rona or be- 
tahdshii ron& ' to weep unrestrainedly.' 

(14) Turn as follows : ' you have won such a reward (sawdl) that 
you will go (chcM jdn&) into Paradise without account.' 



Then the Wolf and the Fox told the Ass to declare his 
misdeeds. The Ass said : ' I have neither claws * to 
rend with nor teeth to bite with. In my whole life 2 I 
have only twice done wrong. Once, when I was very 
hungry and carrying a load of grass, I took a little of it 
without my master's leave. Another day, as I was going 
along, the boys began to torment me, and I lashed out at 
one of them, but 3 no one was kicked. Nevertheless, 
I admit that I was wrong.' 

The Wolf said: ' You villain ! 4 T\vo such enormities, 
and yet you hope for pardon ! You embezzled your 
master's property, and ate grass 5 for want of which 
there is no knowing how many animals died of hunger. 
6 You lashed out, as you say, at a poor boy. If the 
boy had been killed, 7 a life would have been lost, and 
his parents and relations, a whole family, in fact, would 
have perished of grief.' 


The Fox said: 'Verily, such sins as these are unpar- 
donable. I never heard such a tale before. This Ass is 
not merely a sinner, 8 but an ingrate, a thief, and an 
assassin, and as such is worthy of death.' 

On this, the Wolf and the Fox seized upon the Ass and 
tore hitn in pieces. 


(1) It is necessary to insert 'anyone' after each of the two 
verbs, ' with ' being omitted. 

(2) Turn ' by me two faults were done (hua) ' ; and in corre- 
spondence with this translate ' once ' by ek to yeh ki ek din, etc. 
and ' another day ' by dusre, ek roz, etc. 

(3) For the idiom here see 52. '5> v ' z - be for ku. 

(4) An illustration of this mode of expression occurs at 187. 4- 
In order to express 'enormities' and emphasise the two, translate 
aise bare bare ikhatte do do gunah. 

(5) Turn ' from which (it is) not known how many,' etc. 

(6) Repeat the ass's words with alteration of Pronoun, and omit 
' as you say.' 

(7) Avoid the Passive by saying ' there would have been loss of 
a life ' (TilU f/id). Comp. Piece |. Dir. 7. 

(8) Turn thus: 'but (balkt) on account of being a sinner, etc. 
is worthy of death.' 




1 European nations were for long ages unacquainte 1 
with a maritime route to India. 2 Commerce in India 
itself was carried on with the neighbouring countries of 
Persia (Iran), Arabia ('Arab), Egypt (3fsr), and China 
(Chin) only, 3 navigation being confined to the Arabian 
Sea and the Bay of Bengal. The mariners never ven- 
tured out into the open sea, 4 and were not likely to 
pass round Africa to the Atlantic. 5 But the treasures 
of India, conveyed by sea to Egypt and Bussorah (Basra), 
and thence overland to Europe, were a source of so much 
prodt, that the discovery of a direct route became a 
passion with Europeans. 7 Some, believing that tne 
earth was round, sailed westwards and found themselves 
brought up by the American coast. Others, under the 
impression that the land was surrounded by water on all 
sides, coasted northwards, and came to a standstill in the 
frozen waters of the Arctic Ocean. Others again, be- 
thinking themselves that India was to the east of Africa, 
attempted to sail round that continent, 8 but were 
driven back by tempests, and named the point of their 
retreat the Cape of Storms. 9 At length, in 1497 A.D., 
Emmanuel, King of Portugal, sent out an expedition of 
three vessels under Vasco da Garua, 10 who made light 
of the dangerous Cape, and, after a voyage of eleven 
months, cast anchor off Calicut (Kallikot) on the Malabai 
(Malebdr) coast. 



(1) The initial sentence may take the form suggested at 8 (0 
in the preceding section. 

(2) Give greater personality to this by saying 'people' rather 
than ' neighbouring countries,' and express ' people ' by the affix 
wild, in the plural, attached to the country last named in the list. 

(3) Begin a fresh clause here and arrange the clauses in the 
following manner : ' People ("<;) were sailing their ships as far as 
the gulfs of A. and B. thinking the sea (to be) a shoreless ocean 
they were not stepping outside those gulfs,' omitting the auxiliaries 
of the Past Imperfect, because tht will have been mentioned in the 
preceding sentence. 

(4) This terse sentence may be most effectively turned by 
placing it in the interrogative form, and using the Past Conditional ; 
as, ' When could they have had the spirit ? ' etc. See 1 74. 4- 

(5) Magar immediately followed by a relative clause. 

(6) Turn ' Europeans were remaining very enthusiastic in find- 
in^,' etc. 

(7) Express this and the similar beginnings of the next two sen- 
tences by kot yeh samajhkar ki, varying samajhkar by sochkar, or it 
khaydl se. The auxiliaries of the Past Imperfects may be omitted 

(8) Turn ' And having gone half-way on account of storms were 
turning (mur-dnd) back, and were calling the name of that place 

(9) The juncture, mny here bo effected by yak&n tak ki. See last 
Sect. 8. ii- 

(10) Conclude with a fresh sentence in the foil* w rig form : 
'Accordingly he thought nothing either < f the storms or the Cape 
of Storms, going on and on (106) rounding Africa in a period of 
eleven months,' etc. 


1 Following the example of the Portuguese (Portuydl- 
ivdle), the Dutch (Dach) and the French (Fardsis) bfiran 
to voyage hitherwards ; 2 and it was hardly possible 
that the English (Angrez) should remain inactive. 3 Au 



association of merchants was formed in London in 
1599 A.D., with a capital of thirty lakhs, and a charter 
was granted them by Queen Elizabeth, which secure 1 a 
fifteen years' monopoly of the eastern trade. 4 Such 
an association is caUed a ' company ' in English: hence 
the name ' East India Company.' 5 The shareholders 
held quarterly meetings known as the ' Court of Pro- 
prietors,' 6 and those of them who held shares of five 
thousand rupees or more were entitled to vote, pass laws 
and regulations, and declare dividends. 7 The general 
superintendence was vested in a body of twenty-four pro- 
prietors, who held shares to the amount of not less than 
twenty thousand each. These were called the ' Court of 
Directors,' and were presided over by a ' Chairman.' 
8 The Company's Indian possessions were gradually 
known as the Presidencies of Calcutta, Bombay, and 
Madras, and each of these was ruled by a ' President ' in 
< Council.' 

9 At that time the Company's servants were divided 
into four grades, viz., Writers, up to five years' residence 
in India ; Factors, from five to eight years ; Junior Mer- 
chants, from eight to eleven years ; and Senior Merchants, 
from eleven years upwards ; and from these latter the 
' Members of Council ' were selected. 


(1) See for i -Is idiom 130. 3- 

(2) Put this clause interrogatively, much in the same manner as 
was suggested in Note (4) to last Piece. 

(3) The best way to reproduce this sentence will be gathered 
from the following skeleton form : Some London merchants matle 
an association and collected a capital, and received a charter to the 


ffect that for fifteen years no fellow-countryman be allowed, etc. 
1 he student will observe that the Passives are avoided, and that 
' monopoly,' for which there is no corresponding term in the lan- 
guage, is paraphrased. 

(4) The words in guillemots are to be transliterated 

(5) Boyin with relative clause as follows : ' The assembly of 
shareholders which,' etc. After the transliteration of f-cnrt of 
Proprietors add the literal meaning in Hindustani. 

(6) The junctura is here-: ' In this assembly the person who,' 

(7) Considerable alteration will bo found necessary to avoid the 
English Passives. In skeleton form : ' For general superintendence 
(130. ^)- the twenty-four men whom they were appointing, 
etc. . . . their title was . . . ; and the shareholder who had less 
than . . . could not be chosen for the " Directory "; and they called 
the president of this " Court " " Chairman." ' 

(8) Turn thus : ' In India gradually three Presidencies became 
which are known by the name of, etc., and in the three three 
" President" with their respective " Council" began to dwell.' For 
'respective' see 44. " 

(9) For ' Company ' say sirkdr kampant. Omit ' viz.* aud use ek, 
d&sre, ttsre, chauthe for the several descriptive clauses. 


In 1715 A.T). the President of Calcutta sent two 
Factors with presents l on an embassy to the Court of 
Farrukhsiyar. His 2 Majesty was then labouring 
under a severe illness, and, as luck would have it, was 
cured by a Dr. Hamilton who accompanied the envoys. 
For this service be was desired to name his own reward . 
He asked nothing for himself, but s on tbe Company's 
behalf besought the imperial permission to purchase 
thirty-seven townships in Bengal, with the privilege of 
introducing and conveying merchandise free of search 
and duty. 4 We admire Dr. Hamilton's magnanimity 


in preferring his country's interest to his own. 5 India 
in those days exported chintz and cotton cloth to Eng- 
land, 6 and the object of the Company's servants in 
purchasing territory in the neighbourhood of Calcutta 
was to settle there a sufficient number of weavers to save 
them the trouble of bringing in cloth and chintz from 
remote villages. 7 Marvellous are God's ways ! 8 The 
Indian weavers have remained stationary, and English 
enterprise has won possession of the export trade to 
India. 9 The expected acquisition of territory was 
frustrated for the time by the Subahdar of Bengal, 
10 who prohibited the owners from selling their landed 
property. n But the permission of free trade materially 
affected his interests, for the President conveyed not only 
the Company's goods under his seal and signature free of 
search and duty, but also his own and his friends' mer- 


(1) ' On an embassy ' should bo personally expressed ' in the way 
of ambassadors,' ba-taur elchton Ice. See 1 5 . 6. 

(2) The next two sentences may be combined as follows : ' At 
that time the Emperor was very ill, but when, as luck would have 
it, the Emperor recovered under the treatment of Dr. H., who ac- 
companied the envoys, he commanded that Ask your reward, 
what you ask you shall have for the asking.' Our phrase ' as luck 
would have it ' may be turned by husn-ittifdq se. The use of the 
oratio recta in the final clause adds much to the force of the narra- 

(3) The oratio recta again : ' If Your Highness appi'oves, then lot 
leave, etc. be received by the Company, and whatever goods of the 
C. are despatched let them remain exempt from search on account 
of duty.' The Passives here are avoided by the use of the verba 

PAKT III. SEC110N II. 173 

milnd and raw&na hond, the latter r>f which should be in the Con- 
tinuative form. 

(4) The idiomatic rendering is, ' (If) you ask the truth, Dr. n. 
did a work of great magnanimity in that he,' etc. See 166. ' 

(5) Turn thus : ' In those days from India chintz, etc. was much 
going ' (Continuative). 

(6) Effect the juncture, here by chun&nchi. The final clause of 
this sentence may be turned ' that they may not again have to go 
about from village to village (g&on gfcon phirnd'), in search of 

(7) A common phrase is ky& sh>in 'izadi hai, followed by fct. 

(8) Turn thus : ' The weavers here remained the same weavers, 
and Englishmen becoming experts in this art instead (ulte) them- 
selves began to bring,' etc. 

(9) Avoid the passive construction by making the subahd&r the 
subject of the verb, and express ' expected ' by placing ' territory ' 
(zamtnd&rt to) at the beginning of the sentence. 

(10) The relative clause here is not in accordance with the 
idiom of the language. An appositive clause introduced by ya'nt, 
1 i.e.,' is the best resource. Translate ' owners ' by zamtnd&r, and 
then ' landed property ' may be omitted. 

(11) Turn thus : ' but from the C.'s goods becoming exempt from 
duty he had much loss, for the P., besides the C.'s goods, was 
making signature of exemption of,' etc. 


SirujudJaula then sent * a verbal message to the 
English prohibiting the strengthening of the Fort; 
2 and, being wild at their contemptuous disregard of 
his order, commenced hostilities by seizing the Factory 
at K&simbfeftr. He next laid siege to the Fort of Cal- 
cutta, s which was held at that time by less than a 
hundred men. As there seemed no hope of saving the 
Fort, many of the English community followed Governor 
Drake's example and took refuge on board ship ; and 


those who remained were taken prisoners next day by the 
Nawwab's ti-oops. 4 Mr. Holwell, who was the officer 
in command, was brought handcuffed into the Nawwab's 
presence, but was at once released from this indignity 
and assured by Sirajuddaula that he and his men should 
be unharmed. At night, however, 5 in default of other 
accommodation, the Nawwab's men confined their priso- 
ners, one hundred and forty-six in number, in a chamber, 

6 henceforth known in English as the ' Black Hole,' 
which was only eighteen feet long by fourteen broad. 

7 Of that night the prisoners alone could tell the 
horrors. Many of them were wounded, many were in- 
toxicated, 8 the heat and thirst were intolerable ; and 
when the door was opened in the morning only twenty- 
three came out alive, 9 and they more like dead than 
living men. 


(1) Torn this by saying ' Sent word by the mouth of a messen- 
ger' (34. 3)) followed by the prohibition directly expressed. 

(2) The description is best carried on in Hindustani thus : ' The 
E. paid no attention to this order (bat) ; then S.'s blood boiled, and 
being angry, he first, etc. . . . and after that,' etc. (down to ; Cal- 
cutta '). 

(3) See last Piece, Note ( i o). In this instance, begin the new 
clause with ittifdqan. 

(!-) Avoid the passives throughout this sentence by the following 
arrangement : 'When they brought their (unke) officer H. sahib 
handcuffed before S., then he immediately had the handcuffs opened 
and said that, " All of you be of good cheer ; there shall no harm 
be yours." ' 

(5) Turn ' When they found (mt2nd) no other place for the prisoners 
to remain in.' See 52. 5- 

f6"> Here are two relative clauses, of which the first should bo 

PART 111. SECTION II. 175 

detached in the form of a fresh sentence, as an additional particular, 
as follows : ' They call this chamber in English the " Black Hole," 
that iSj kAlil bit.' 

(7) The native idiom here is more realistic. ' \Vlritover passed 
on the lives of those prisoners, they indeed (iro/u) will be know- 
ing.' Use the Pres. Freump. 

(S) Use a double clause, ' There was violence of heat ; thirst was 

(9) Turn thus : ' But their persons (surai) were worse than even 
dead men.' 


Olive marched from Calcutta with three thousand men 
and nine guns. Sirajuddaula, * on the other hand, 
reached Plassy (Paldsfy with a force of fifty thousand 
horse and foot, including forty or fifty Frenchmen, and 
over forty guns. The battle was fought on the 23rd of 
May 1757 A.D. 3 Before the commencement of the 
action Sirajuddaula placed his turban at Mir Ja'far's feet 
and asked his forgiveness. In reply, he advised him 
3 to defer the engagement till the next day and to fall 
back in the meanwhile ; and the Diwan Rai Dallabh also 
expressed himself in favour of retirement on Murshid- 
abad. 4 The army had no sooner begun this movement 
than the English sprang upon it like leopards on a herd 
of deer. 5 The Nawwab's men fled, and the pursuit 
was continued for six miles. 6 Such was the victory of 
Plassy, \vhich may well be called the foundation of the 
English empire in India. 7 Sirfijuddaula was unable 
to stay his flight even at Murshidabad. 8 He could 
trust no one ; indeed, How could he? for he had wronged 
all. 9 He fled towards Eajmahal with one of his 
and a eunuch, but was recognised near that 


place by a Fuqir whose nose and ears he had ordered to 
be cut off on some previous occasion, and who now at 
once reported his discovery to the Governor of the 
District. This man, a brother of Mir Ja'far, sent the 
Nawwab back a prisoner to Murshidabad. 10 Mir 
Ja'far -was disposed to clemency, but his son, the hard- 
hearted Miran, had the captive put to death n without 
his father's knowledge 


(1) Express this by ddhar se at the beginning of the sentence, in 
correspondence with the foregoing Kalkatta se. 

(2) Pahle to will suffice for the first six words. 

(3) Use the oratio recta here, and in the next clause. 

(4) Turn this sentence in the fashion of (87. 2 - 

(5) Use fauj for 'men,' and insert Itampani Jet fauj in the next 
clause as the agents in the pursuit. Turn the second verb ' making 
pursnit came along.' See 1 2 1 . 

(6) Turn thus : ' By this same victory of Plassy, one mar say 
($royd), the foundation of the English rule was established.' 

(7) Turn thus : ' Even then S.'s feet were not planted in M.' 

(8) This sentence is difficult, and requires the use of the Past 
Conditional in the second clause, as follows : ' Trust indeed of 
anyone was not to him (th& ht naMn), and trust could have been 
(ho-saktA) then to him, had he done good (bhaltft M hoft) with 
anyone.' (See (170) Insert jab after ki in last clause. 

(9) Introduce this sentence by n&char. In the second clause 
avoid the passive by making facfir the subject of the verb, imme- 
diately followed by the first relative clause in parenthesis. The 
second relative clause should be detache.l as a new sentence. 

(10) This may be turned in imitation of the idiom exemplified 
at 201. 9 K v inserting to khair after M. J. 

(11) Turn ' without informing his father.' See 96. 



1 Mysore (Maisur) was ruled at this period by 
Haider 'Ali. 2 This man, whose father had risen from 
a common soldier to a high rank in the service of the 
Nawwab of Sira, became conspicuous for his daring 
valour in the army of the Mysore Diwan ; and eventually 
pensioned off the ruling Kaja and himself became sove- 
reign of the country. The discovery of a hidden treasure 
at Bidnaur further increased his resources, and he began 
to extend his dominions on all sides. In the year 
1767 A.D. Nizam Ali, accompanied by an English contin- 
gent, according to an existing treaty, made an attack 
upon Mysore ; and Haider, being defeated by the English, 
formed a junction with 3 the former. 4 The confede- 
rates, with an army of seventy thousand against twelve 
thousand English, were defeated with a loss of sixty-four 
guns. Hereupon, the Nizam made terms with the Eng- 
lish ; but Haider Ali still maintained hostilities, 5 some- 
times losing and sometimes gaining ground, till at last 
he too made peace with the Company and c concluded 
an offensive and defensive alliance on the basis of mutual 


(1) See ubove, Introductory Remarks, par. 7. (10). 

(2) If the English order of clauses were copied here, the subject 
would be too far removed from the principal verb ' became,' which 
in Hindustani must be placed at the end of the sentence. The 
best plan is to break up the sentence into two collateral clauses, 
thus: ' This man's father had risen,' etc., followed by lie himself 
tvm:iiiiing (106) > the army of D. of M., and doing work of 



bravery and manliness, increased so much that he,' etc. Observe 
in this the way in which the epithet 'daring' (see |QI. (0> i s 
got rid of, and the adverb ' eventually ' expressed. ' Ruling Eaja ' 
may be simply translated wdh&n k<% raj&, and ' became ' in the last 
clause may be forcibly expressed by the compound ian-baithnA. 

(3) Nizam AH was Subahdar of the Deccan, hence instead of the 
'former 'use the term subahddr. 

(4) This sentence is not easy to dispose of, though the terms are 
simple. Turn as follows : ' Then these two, acting in concert 
(muttafiq hokar), encountered the English with an army of seventy 
thousand, but the E. with an army of twelve thousand beat them 
all and took sixty-four guns.' 

(5) Turn thus : ' In these hostilities sometimes his loss was 
taking place (7io/dd), sometimes (the loss) of the English,' and 
connect this with the next sentence by yahdn tak ki. Comp. last 
Sect. 8. (") 

(6) Expand this difficult clause as follows : ' Both sides (tdra- 
fain), who the provinces of which had taken, those they restored, 
and both together for their respective protection made a treaty of 
mutual assistance.' 'Assistance' is here mo'&wanat, this form of 
T*rbal being expressive of reciprocity. See App. A, Form III. 


Tippoo (Tipu) had made peace with the Company 
1 under the pressure of necessity, and 2 it was not 
strange that he still cherished feelings of hostility. The 
Governor- General had proof that he was corresponding 
with the French, with the object of obtaining their assis- 
tance in his designs ; 3 and, being a man of great 
determination, he at once issued orders for the assembling 
of an array at Madras, and 4 gave Tippoo the choice of 
two alternatives, viz., either the cossion of his territory 
on the Malabar coast to meet the expenses of the con 
centration of the troops, an undertaking to give up all 
communication with the French and to expel all French- 


men from his dominions, the admission of a British 
Resident at the Court of Mysore, 5 or, on the other 
hand, war. 6 Tippoo having vouchsafed no reply to 
these demands, the Company's forces crossed the frontier 
on the Madras and Bombay sides. 7 The Nawwab of 
Haiderabad sent an auxiliary force, but 8 the Peshwa 
was induced by Scindhia (Sendhia) to hold aloof. 
Tippoo encountered the English at a distance of forty 
miles from his capital, and was defeated and fell back. 

(To be continued.) 


(1 ) This phrase may be turned by majbdr hokar placed at the 
beginning of the sentence. 

(2) Put this interrogatively, ' What wonder that the fire of hatred 
remained burning in his bosom ?' Comp. 159. * 

(3) Begin fresh sentence ' He was,' etc. 

(4) Turn thus : 'Wrote word to T.' following this by a statement 
of the terms offered in the oratio recta, the alternatives being 
either the payment of the expenses, a treaty adverse to the French, 
the admission of a Resident, or war. 

(5) Turn thus : ' or, consider the Company your enemy.' 

(6) The form of continuation best suited to the Hindustani 
idiom is 'When no answer to this came from the side of Tippoo.' 

(7) Get rid of the adjective here by saying ' The army of the 
N. of H. too was companion of the Government in this expedi- 

(8) Turn thus: 'by the tempting of Mahoraj Scndhia the P. 
was not a sharer in help.' 



1 He assumed that the English army would advance 
by the same route it came before, and therefore stripped 


that part of the country of foi'age and supplies ; but 
when he found that 2 another line of march was taken, 
he was utterly disheartened, and told his followers that 
3 his days were numbered. They said they would die with 
him. The English at once laid siege to S^ringapatam 
(Shrirangapatan), 4 while the allies looked on. The 
Governor-General in person directed the operations ; and 
on the 4th of May 1799 A.D. the English flag was planted 
on the wails. Tippoo's corpse was found amongst the 
slain, and his sons 5 surrendered themselves. 6 The spoils 
amounted to nine hundred and twenty-nine cannon and 
a hundred thousand stand of arms, with ammunition, 
and more than ten millions in cash and jewel". " By 
rights the territory of Tippoo ought to have been parti- 
tioned among the victors, but the Governor- General 
deeming it impolitic to enlarge the Nizam's dominions, 
divided a portion only between the Company and the 
Nizam, and assigned the remainder to 8 the representa- 
tive of the Hindu regime who had been dispossessed by 
Haider AH, 9 on condition that he should maintain a 
contingent of the Government troops for the safety of 
the kingdom, at a cost of seven lakhs, and that if the 
necessity arose, the civil administration of the country 
should be placed in the hands of English officials. 


(1) Use the Past Conjunctive Participle in the first clause fol- 
lowed by ki with the oratio recta, and omit ' and therefore ' in the 
next. 'Stripped,' etc. may be rendered by 'went along destroy- 
ing.' 121 

(2) Turn thus ; ' the English have not come by this road, (and) 
have chosen another road." 


(3) The corresponding idiom is ' My days are arrived.' The 
answer of the soldiers may be idiomatically paraphrased ' Where 
your sweat will fall, our blood will fall,' which occurs in the Hind' 

(4) A collateral clause in this form : ' The Nawwab's army re- 
mained looking at the spectacle.' See ||8. 

(5) The simple expression hdzir hUe ' were in attendance' (in the 
Governor- General's camp) is sufficiently significant. 

(6) Begin by the enumeration of the details, and add 'camo into 
the hands of the English.' See 51. '3- 

(7) Form a concessional sentence, and translate ' ought to have 
been,' etc. by ch&hfe th& fci, followed by the Past Conditional. 

(8) Turn : ' to the heir of the old Raja of M.,' the title of Raja 
being a sufficient indication of ' Hindu,' and serving as antecedent 
to the relative clause ' whom H. A. had turned out thence.' 

(9) Turn as follows : ' and had this stipulation made (kar<l-lend) 
that in future for protection a Government army remain (ra/id 
fcarnd), and seven lakhs of rupees yearly expenditure be paid (ad\ 
Tid'i tarnd), and when necessity falls (purnd) the Government 
carry on the administration of the country in its own method.' 


Scindhia sought to annex the district of Gohad to his 
territories, but J the Rana was an ally of the Company 
and asked for their assistance ; and in consequence Cap- 
tain Popham, who was marching with a small force to join 
the main army under General Goddard, received orders 
to drive the Marhattas out of Gohad. Having effected 
this, Pophaui seized the Fort of Lahur and then Kid 
siege to Gwalior, 2 one of the most formidable forts in 
India, perched on the summit of an almost perpendicular 
rock. The people of those parts believed that, if only 
toil men were present to roll down stones on the attick- 
ing party, 3 no force, however large, could take it by 
assault ; 4 and, as the Fort was then held by a thou- 


sand picked men of Scindhia's army, well supplied with 
the materials of war, 5 Pophatn was at a loss liow to 
proceed. Chance befriended him. He got hold of a 
thief who was in the habit of entering the Fort by a 
secret foot-path ; and by this route, before the morrow's 
dawn, Popham first and his men close behind, 6 by means 
of ropes and ladders, by driving pegs into the crevices of 
the rock, and grasping shrubs and roots, 7 more in the 
fashion of monkeys than men, scaled the heights and 
defences and 8 suddenly burst into the stronghold. 
9 The Marhatta garrison had scarcely risen from their 
slumbers, when, seeing the enemy like grim death upon 
them, they lost their wits and abandoned the Fort. 


(1) It will be convenient to carry down this sentence to 
' Gwalior,' so as to detach the descriptive sentence which follows 
for amalgamation with the next period, as more suitable to the 
Hindustani idiom. The sentence, then, takes the following form, 
and this shall be given in full as a good illustration of the Hindu- 
stani period : ' But as a treaty of the Eana had been made with 
(se) the Company, therefore he begged aid from the Company, and 
Captain Popham, who with a small army was going to unite with 
General Goddard's camp, he immediately on the order of Govern- 
ment arriving drove the Marhattas out of Gohad, and then having 
conquered their fort Lahar,' went and laid siege to the fort of 

(2) Turn thns: ' This fort on a standing rock was built with such 
strength and firmness that,' etc. 

(3) See |75. 

(4) Begin this sentence with aur ab to, and end it at ' war.' 

(5) Continue, 'Popham was at a loss by what device he may 
mount the hill, whe-n (fci) by good luck he net with a tlncf,' etc. 
See Piece 3 . ( 2 ) above. 

(6) The junctura of this period is formed by the use of the Past 
Conjunctive Participle with each item of the description. 

PAIII 111. SECTION 11. 1-.. 

(7) Treat as a parenthesis : ' There was no knowing at the frl.ue 
whether they are men or monkeys.' See last Sect. (4. (5)- 

(8) The expressive phrases sub he sab, b&t ki bat, will servo the 

(9) Turn as follows : ' The Marhattas, who suddenly rising from 
their pallets saw the enemies like death (ajal) mounted on ^their) 
heads, at that moment, losing their wits, abandoned ( tordend) 
the fort.' 


1 Jeswnnt Rao Holkar, Raja of Indore, was now the 
only chief who declined to acknowledge the authority of 
the Company. He refused to send a vakeel and did not 
scruple to plunder their dominions. Reprisals were de- 
termined upon, and a small force under the command of 
Colonel Mouson was sent to engage him ; - but this 
officer, after having blown up the gates of Tonk, allowed 
himself to be entangled in the Mukandara Pass and to 
be hemmed in there by Holkar's army. 3 The force 
extricated itself with the greatest difficulty, and, after 
much suffering and loss, fought its way to Agra in a 
shuttered condition. 4 Holkar's elation was unbounded. 
He at once proceeded to lay siege to Dehli with a force of 
twenty thousand men and thirty guns. The garrison at 
that time consisted of only eight hundred men with 
eleven guns ; but Ochterlony, the Resident, 6 completely 
baffled the Marhattas, and they decamped, on the news of 
Lord Lake's approach, 6 after a fruitless struggle of 
i ine days' duration. 


(1) Turn thas : 'Now only one, Jeswant Rao Holkar, l\aju of 
I n<loro, remained, who neither Lowed his head before the Company 
nor sent in his vakeel, nay more, unscrupulously kept plundering 
the Government province*. ' 


(2) ' But ' is not required for the junctura here. Begin ' The 
said sahib blew up, etc. . . . but having been misled (P. C. I'.), 
being entangled (P. C. P.), . . . was surrounded by,' etc. 

(3) Turn as follows: 'At last the force escaping (P.O. P.) thenca 
with very great difficulties, fighting, struggling (Imp. P.), under- 
going (Imp. P.) hundreds of troubles of heat and rains, and suffer- 
ing (Imp. P.) loss, being shattered (P. C. P.) reached Agra.' 

(4) Turn ' What limit was there to Holkar's elation ? ' 

(5) This phrase is best expressed by a proverbial turn, as ' quito 
set the Marhattas' teeth on edge.' 

(6) Turn this similarly : ' having beaten and beaten their heads 
for nine days ' a sign of despair. 


General Lake invested Bkartpur on the 3rd of January 
1805. l The first assault was made on the 9th, but the 
English, on arriving at the edge of the moat found the 
water 2 too deep to be forded, and 3 many men were 
lost in the attempt. On the 21st the attack was renewed 
from another side, 4 but here the moat proved too 
broad for the bridge which the attacking force had 
brought with them, and on their attempting to lengthen 
it with ladders the whole thing fell into the water, and 
many perished. A third attack was made next day on 
another part of the defences, and though 5 the Sepoys 
crossed the moat and mounted the walla, the English 
soldiers declined to accompany them, and they had to 
retire. Eight hundred and ninety-four men were killed 
on this occasion. Next day Lake bitterly upbraided the 
English soldiers for their disobedience of orders, and 
these, 6 ashamed of their conduct, led a fourth assault ; 
but the defenders had repaired the bastion and wall in 
the meantime, 7 and the attack was foiled with a loss 
of a thousand men. 8 The army was now worn out ;:n 1 

PART 111. StCTlOX II. 1 -" 

beaten with fatigue, their ammunition was expended 
and the supplies exhausted, ana Lake was forced to with- 


(1) Contracted collateral clause with the same subject. ' On the 
9th (he) attacked.' 

(2) Instead of this, say ' chest full deep,' chh&tt bhar gahrA. 

(3) Turn ' in this many men were lost (kdm dncl). 

(4) Turn as follows : ' But there the moat was so broad that the 
bridge which they had made and brought (bana-Zdnd) fell short 
(chhota parnd), and when joining on ladders they desired to lengthen 
it, that bridge fell into the water.' 

(5) For 'Sepoys' use Hindustani sip&ht, and for ' English sol- 
diers,' gore or gore log ' white-folk.' 

(6) Turn ' having come into a sense-of-shame.' 

(7) Turn ' For the attackers no way was found, and more than a 
thousand men were killed.' 

(8) Turn ' People became tired out and disheartened,' etc., and 
instead of ' and ' in the final clause begin with n&chdr ' helpless ' ; 
the form of verb is that used at 5 1 . 2 - Further, as the word 
' army ' is not reproduced in the first clause, treat the gerund as o 
transitive (causal) in agreement with fauj ; thus, fauj hat'lnt part. 


At this period Shah ShupV, grandson of Ahmed Shah 
Durrani, * was driven from the throne of Kabul by his 
brother Mali mud, 2 and became for a time the prisoner 
nf Ranjit Singh in the Pan jab. Here he was deprived of 
the famous diamond called the Koh-i-nur, and after much 
ill-treament eventually sought shelter in British territory. 
' Mahmud, on the other hand, was expelled from Kabul 
by Host, Mahomed, the son of the Vazir Fat eh Khan 
1'aruk/ai, whom the usurper had blinded and put to 
death. Under theso circumstances Count Simonich, the 


Russian Ambassador at the Persian Court, 4 by way of 
extending the influence of Russia, urged the Shah to lay 
claim to Afghanistan, and on his despatching an army to 
lay siege to Herat, paid him a subsidy on the Czar's be- 
half. 5 The result was the discomfiture and retreat of 
the Persians ; and when England asked for an explana- 
tion, the Russian Government disclaimed all knowledge 
of the Ambassador's proceedings. 6 The suspicion enter- 
tained by the authorities in India that Russia had designs 
on India, and would, if opportunity offered, advance in 
this direction, was confirmed, by the statement of Captain 
Burnes, who had been sent on a political mission to Kabul 
in 1837, that Dost Mahomed was in confidential corre- 
spondence with the Russians, and that the latter had 
even promised to recover Peshawar for him from Ranjit 

(To be continued.) 


(1) An attempt to reproduce the passive construction of the 
English in this sentence would end in confusion. Turn as follows : 
' In this time A. S. D.'s grandson S. S., who -was Amir of A., his 
brother M. had expelled from thence.' There is no obscurity in 
the Hindustani, for Shuja' will be marked by ko and M. by ne. 

(2) Begin this sentence with Shah Shujd 1 to, pointing to a corre- 
spondence with Mahmtid at the beginning of the next. 

(3) Construct this sentence on the model of (1) above. 

(4) Turn thus : 'Thinking this a fine opportunity of extending 
the power of the Czar in this direction,' and omit ' under those cir- 
cumstances ' at the beginning of the sentence. 

(5) Turn in the following manner : ' But that army being worsted 
returned from Hirat, and when England,' etc. 

(6) This period must be broken up as follows to suit the idiom of 
Hindustani: ' However, the Company had a strong suspicion that 

in. SECTION it. 187 

certainly Russia's tooth is on India, wnen (she) gets opportunity, 
(she) will advance foot in this direction, and in confirmation of this 
Capt. B.' etc. 



1 The Indian Government never seriously contemplated 
the question of a Russian invasion. 2 Should it be argued 
that Russia might incite the peoples of Persia, Tartary, 
and Afghanistan, to invade India by stimulating their 
hopes of spoil, it must be borne in mind 3 that the times 
of Mahmud of Gbazni and Changez Khan are passed 
away, when bare-headed and bare-footed Gakkars cut 
to pieces the cavalry of Mahmud ; 4 when a Raja liko 
Anandpal lost a battle by the flight of an elephant ; 
when the followers of Jelaluddin of Khwurazm, 5 with 
clubs cut from the forest, and mounted on bullocks, did 
battle with the army of Changez Khan in the Sindh 
SA^ar Doab; c and when powerful kings depended for 
success on the prowess of archers. 7 We have seen all 
along how small bodies of English troops have put to 
flight the armies of Shahs, Sultans, Nawwabs, Marhattas, 
Naipalis, and Burmese, 8 no matter how numerous th< \ 
were ; and that even men trained by Dupleix and 
Bussy were unable to face the English artillery. Surely 
the half-civilized invaders above spoken of are of no 

(To be continued.) 


(1) To use Hindustani for 'Indian' is of course impracticable, 
nor can our use of the word ' Russian ' he imitated. The sentence 
i :;iy bo turned ns follows : 'The Government paid no attention at 


all to this point (bat), that, well! bow can the Kussians come 
hither ? ' 

(2) Turn, in accordance with the principle so often laid down : 
If anyone say that, what ! cannot the Kussians,' etc. 

(3) This clause should be turned as follows : ' that now the 
period of .... has not remained, when (ki jab),' etc. 

(4) In correspondence with the above construction, 'when' 
here, and in the two next clauses, should be translated aur na 
icoh zamana hai ki, varied by waqt for zamana. 

(5) Use the Past Conjunctive Participle, ' having cut,' in the in- 
tensive form of k&t-k&t-kar. 

(6) Turn ' were placing their centre of battle on archers.' 

(7) The junctura required here is balki, and the verb dekhtd 
chal& And, and the subordinate clause may be thus put : ' that 
from very small armies of the English Government what numerous 
hosts (kaise kaise dal-bddal lashkar) of Shahs, etc. fled defeated.' 

(8) Form a detached sentence from this point to the end of the 
piece, as follows : ' The thing is this, that when an army, etc. flew 
away (wr-jdnd) like nocks of cotton before the English artillery, 
then (to pliir) what count (haqiqat) is there of Iiuu, Turan ?' etc. 



Should it be argued that * there is nothing to pre- 
vent a Russian army approaching the Panjab, we reply 
that 2 it is possible to suppose anything, 3 but 
at least let us remember the distance between Russia 
and the Panjab, and the deserts and mountains that 
block the way. 4 Again, the resources of Russia are un- 
equal to the transport of fifty thousand disciplined troops 
with the proper complement of artillery by this route. 
6 Then, too, the time occupied by the Russians in 
crossing the Hindu Kush 6 alone would enable our 
Government to convey twice as many men by steamboat or 
railway to the banks of the Indus. 7 Add to this, that 

PART 111. SECTION II. 189 

the Russians would arrive upon the scene tired and 
wearied with their long march, 8 famished for want of 
supplies in Afghanistan, and enfeebled by the change of 
climate, 9 while the English array, posted on its own 
frontier, would be fresh and ready for the fray, 10 with 
a fertile country in its rear and abundance of supplies. 
11 Moreover, a single English battalion in the Khaibar 
Pass would be enough to destroy the fifty thousand 


(1) Use the oratio recta in the form of an interrogation, viz. 
1 What ! cannot the Russians bring their armies to the Panjab ? ' 

(2) The corresponding phrase is bar taqdtr farz mumkin hai. 

(3) ' Magar Akhir one ought to reflect that, What deserts, etc. lie 
between Bussia and the Panjab, the passage of which how dif- 
ficult it is.' 

(4) Turn thus : ' Again, where has Russia so much money as 
that (she) can give the cost of bringing,' etc. 

(5) After the conjunction begin with relative clause. 

(6) Express by ek, placed before Hindu Kush. Comp. Piece 10 (i). 

(7) Either iske 'aldwa, or qat'-nazar in sab bdton ke. 

(8) Turn : ' Hungry thirsty on account of scantiness of supplies 
from Afghanistan.' 

(9) For ' while ' translate ' and here.' 

(10) Turn thus: 'And from the P., of which the fertility is 
famous, how easy will be the collection of supplies ! ' 

(11) Turn thus : 'Besides this (siiuOe iske), one white battalion 
(paltan) is enough for,' etc. 




In the Spring of 1838, when the famine l which had 
for some time afflicted the North-western provinces of 
India was still raging, it happened that I was encamped 
not far from the town of Eewari. 2 The perguunah 
was just surveyed, and I had come down to that part of 
the country to settle the land revenue fora term of thirty 
years. While I was there, a feud arose between the 
Mussulman and Hindu inhabitants of the town, 3 which, 
but for the interference of the authorities on the spot, 
would most unquestionably have ended in bloodshed, if 
not in a partial insurrection. 4 The point in dispute 
arose from a well-known prejudice of the Hindus against 
the slaughter of the ox, which they hold to be a sacred 
animal. The Mussulmans, on the other hand, wished to eat 
beef, as it was cheaper than either mutton or goat ; 5 and 
though they formed only a small minority of the popula- 
tion, they seemed determined now at length to get their 
way. 6 Year after year they had begged for permis- 
sion to kill the forbidden animal within the walls, or even 
at any reasonable distance outside. 7 But it had been 
all in vain, for the Hindus vowed that 8 they would 
have recourse to force if their religious scruples were dis- 
regarded, and so the Mussulmans remained dissatisfied 
and oppressed. 

(To be continued.) 

PAHT 111. SECTION' lU. 191 

Direction . 

(1) Put the relative clause after 'raging,' so as to avoid the 
clashing of tho verbs. See Int. Eem. f . (10). 

(2) Turn thus : ' A new survey in this pargana had been, and I 
had gone there to make a thirty-year settlement of the revenue.' 

(3) With ais'l in the preceding clause, proceed as follows : ' that, 
if the authorities arriving on the spot had not interfered, there 
would have been an emeute (baZtcd), or if there had not been an 
emeute, there would certainly have been bloodshed.' In this, the 
adjective ' partial ' of the text is avoided by tlio use of a word 
which rather falls short of our term ' insurrection." 

(4) Begin thus : ' The foundation of the disturbance was, 1 etc. 

(5) Turn as follows : ' and though (go") in comparison of the 
whole population the number of the Mussulmans was very small 
(fccrni), but at last they had already determined to obtain their 
desire.' For ' already ' see 76. J ' 

(6) Turn thus : ' Every year they were begging ' (Continnative). 

(7) Turn thus : ' but their requests were in vain (rVeghn j'lnd,').' 

(8) The oratio recta : ' if in this matter our religious rules wre 
set aside, we shall be ready to do violence.' For the tense of tho 
first clause see Introductory Remarks 7. (2). 



At last the leading members of the Mussulman popu- 
lation brought me one day, when I was in camp, a fresh 
entreaty * worded in somewhat the following manner : 
2 Hail, cherisher of the poor ! Be it known unto your 
enlightened Excellency, that for mauy years the Hindus 
of this town have, 3 by their lying and deceitful repre- 
sentations to the highest authorities, prevented the Mus- 
sulmans from killing cattle, 4 under the plea that those 
animals are sacred. Our lords, the Englisn, have 
nitherto made it their rule to prevent one class of their 


subjects from tyrannising over another, 5 and 
dealt out impartial justice to all, making no distinction 
between caste, creed, colour, or race. 6 Indeed, such 
is the protection which all enjoy, that it may be said that 
the wolf and the lamb drink from the same ghaut. 

7 What, then, have we oppressed creatures done, that 
we are denied the benefits which all others enjoy ? 

8 Trusting that you will take our grievous case into 
speedy consideration, and issue an order enabling us to 
eat beef, we pray that on you the sun of prosperity may 
ever shine glorioasly. uch was the petition that was 
read out on that day in open court before several hun- 
dreds of Hindus and Mussalmans. Everyone around 
could see and hear all that was going on, as the canvas 
walls of the tent were taken down on three sides. 

(To lie continued.) 


(1) That is, ' nearly (qartb qartb) to this effect.' See 30.9- 

(2) This is a. capital specimen of a native petition. The intro- 
duction and conclusion should be given in the stereotyped form, 
viz. garib-parwar sal&mat, and il&hi aft&b-i-dzulat o iqb'd hamesha 
tciban rahe,faqat. 

(3) Use the Past Conjunctive Participle ' having represented 
falsehood and deceit in the service of the superior officers.' See 


(4) Fresh clause : 'and have made this pretext,' etc. 

(5) Express this as part of the ' rule ' ; thus, ' and that with 
every person without distinction of etc. justice be done in one 

(6) Express the junctura here by chuminchi. 

(7) Turn as follows : ' then fpan) what fault have we oppressed 
ones done that we do not receive,' etc. 

(8) The correct form here is ' it is the hope that your Excellency, 
giving speedy consideration to our earnest-plea (ittig&sa\ will,' 




While the petition was being read, the audience l pre- 
served a respectful silence; the Mussulmans stood 
anxiously expecting my decision, and I observed the 
Hindus furtively glancing at my countenance to read, if 
possible, the order about to be issued. 2 1 may here 
remark that no people in the world are more observant 
of character, or more quick or able judges of it, than those 
of Hindustan. 3 They seem by a kind of intuition to 
understand every movement and every gesture. Nor is 
this surprising. Subject for so many centuries to rulers 
whose will is law, the ability to comprehend the character 
and anticipate the thoughts of their masters has become 
a necessary part of their education. I felt that both law 
and equity were on the side of the Mussulmans, but 
4 seeing how strong was the feeling of opposition 
among the Hindus, and what an infringement of a long- 
standing custom it would be, 1 advised them to make a 
formal application to the Commissioner, as superinten- 
dent of police, 5 who forthwith sent an order permitting 
the slaughter of cattle. I fixed upon a spot for this 
operation about three-quarters of a mile from the town, 
6 hoping thus to soften the blow to the Hindus. But 
their rage and indignation knew no bounds, and I was 
continually beset wherever I moved with petitioners. 
Finding me inexorable, they returned to their homes to 
deliberate with their friends. 7 They waited in ominous 
peace until the festival of the Mohurram, six weeks 

later, came round, theu suddenly rose and attacked 



8 the Mussulman procession with all manner of weapons, 
bricks, stones, and even dead pigs and dogs, animals to 
which ' the faithful ' have the greatest abhorrence. 
(To be continued.) 


(1) Turn thus : ' remained respectfully standing silent,' so as to 
relieve the next clause of the word ' stood,' which is not intended 
to apply to the Hahomedans alone, and proceed ' The Mussul- 
mans were aaxious in expectation of my decision, and the Hindus 
furtively looking (dekh-dekhkar) at my face, were wishing that, if 
possible, they may discover from my physiognomy (gtyd/a) that, in 
this business what order will be issued.' 

(2) See Sect. II. 3 . 4- f r tne best method of beginning this 
sentence, and proceed 'There are no such men in the whole 
world anywhere who in the art of physiognomy- knowing are 
more quick and intelligent than Hindustanis.' 

(3) This, too, is a difficult sentence. Turn : ' It seems that they 
have a kind of intuition (tafarrus) in discovering from every 
movement and sign the interior state.' 

(-1) Turn as follows : ' Seeing this, that the Hindus have a heart- 
felt desire of preserving this ancient custom, nay more, are ready 
for opposition/ etc. 

(5) As shown in former examples, the relative clause in this posi- 
tion must be detached : ' accordingly, the said Sahib issued an 
order,' etc. 

(6) Turn : ' with this hope that the grief of the Hindus may be 

(7) This may be expressed : ' they chose a superficial (Apart) 
silence, but when,' etc. 

(8) Say : ' the ta'zias of the Mnsalmans,' which are the chief 
feature of the processions on these occasions. 



1 The confusion and tumult which ensued were tre- 
mendous, and a desperate affray and loss of life would 


have been the result had not the Tahsildar, a native of 
much force of character and self-won influence in the 
place, hastily summoned the police to the spot, and put 
himself, though a Hindu and a Brahmin, at the head of 
the Mussulman procession, and conducted it iu safety 
through the town. The parties separated, mutually 
breathing vengeance against each other ; 2 the Muslims 
swearing by their fathers' graves that they would wash 
out the insult in the blood of every Hindu in the town, 
3 even if they died to a man the martyr's death. 

The Tahsildar was thankful for his success so far, but 
felt that the presence of the magistrate alone could arrest 
further mischief, and accordingly sent special messengers 
5 for me to the place where business had called me. I 
was in camp forty miles off, in a straight line, but with a 
range of steep and pathless hills between, 6 necessita- 
ting a circuitous route some twenty miles longer, so the 
information did not reach me till about noon the follow- 
ing day. 7 Here was a pleasant communication for 
me ; the hot wind was blowing a perfect simoon, and it 
required no small spirit of adventure at such a season to 
face the heat and sand over that wild country. I sum- 
moned some of the neighbouring villagers, and asked 
if they knew the direct paths over the hills, and whether 
they would engage to conduct me across. They replied 
that they knew the way well enough, but that it was 
quite impracticable for any but men on foot or for goats. 
' Never mind,' I replied, ' I can go, and you can show me 
the way '; and 8 a guide was started at once to wait at 
the base of the hill till the heat of the day had suffi- 
ciently subsided for me to \vnture across the plain. 
(To be continued.) 



(1) To attempt to follow the English form of the period here 
would lead to confusion. It may be broken up as follows (in skele- 
ton) : ' From this tremendous confusion, etc. was created, and 
there was suspicion that a desperate, etc. will be, but the Tahsil- 
dar, who was a very, etc., summoned the police, and though he 
himself was a Hindu, etc. but leading the Muslims he caused,' etc. 
For the epithet 'tremendous' see 24. The idea of 'self-won 
influence ' is fairly conveyed by ro'b, which means the c respect ' 
enjoyed by a man for personal or other merits. The adjectival 
form is ro'bd&r. 

(2) Turn: ' and the Muslims, taking oaths of, etc., were saying 

(3) For the mode of expressing this clause see J76. 9- 

(4) Turn as follows : ' from this idea that without the magistrate's 
having come (96) there will be no arrest of this disturbance,' 
and omit ' and accordingly.' 

(5) It is quite sufficient to turn this clause by mere p&s. 

(6) Turn ' in coming and going a circuit (pher) of twenty miles 
lay (par-j&n&).' Comp. the use of this verb at 157. I- 

(7) Tack this clause to the preceding in the form aur Ichalar 
kaisi ! 

(8) Turn thus : ' A guide at that very time was started that he 
may remain waiting below the hills till (t& &n 'ki), when the heat 
became rather less, I, too, may be able to make intention of passing 
over (se) the plain.' 



At 3 P.M. I mounted my best Arab, and, with, one 
mounted orderly, started for the hill, * at tlie foot of 
which I found the guide waiting. We dismounted, and 
led our horses up the steep ascent. Before we had gone 
far the orderly's horse fell ; we left him to his fate, as 
there was no time for delay. 2 The path now became 


more and more precipitous. In places it seemed all but 
impassable, and had there been room to turn my horse, 
I felt almost inclined 3 to give it up and go back. 

4 Yet we pushed on and on till we reached the top. 

5 If it was a labour for my poor horse to scramble 
up, the difficulty and danger of descending the other 
side was much greater; 6 any slip would hurl him 
headlong down ; 7 but by dint of care, what with 
sliding and slipping on his haunches, 8 we at last 
reached the bottom without serious damage. It was six 
o'clock by the time the descent was accomplished, 9 so 
that there was little more than an hour of daylight re 
maining, with more than thirty miles of sandy trackless 
plain intersected by ravines to traverse, 10 and nothing 
but a western star and information from an occasional 
village to guide me. But, trusting to the speed and en- 
durance of my gallant steed, well tried in many a hard 
dav's run before, I dismissed the guide, a-.d n set off at 
a hand gallop. 

(To be continued.') 


(1) Begin fresh sentence, and turn as follows : ' Then (pht'r) 
when wo arrived there where we found, etc., we, dismounting and 
taking (le le) the hor>os hv leading-rein, began to ascend the hill.' 

(2) Turn this clause in the manner indicated at (37. '3- 

(3) An expression used in Sect. I. Pieco 9 (faskh i'amd) will 
answer here. 

(4) Turn this as a simple sentence, and see ||2. 8. for Parti- 
cipial phrase. 

(5) This may be expressed as follows : ' On my poor horse what 
misfortune of ascent was (nn-bannd), than that a hundredfold mor> 
ilirticultics in descent- liet'ell.' 


(6) Turn ' if his foot had made the slightest slip he would have 
been overturned below.' 

(7) All this is extremely difficult. Turn ' when he was beginning 
to slip or slide we were carefully propping him.' 

(8) Begin fresh sentence, and combine it with the next clause as 
follows : ' so far that (yah&n tak Tci) at evening at the time of six 
o'clock we arrived sound and safe below the hill.' 

(9) Fresh sentence : ' For the rest of the journey, of daylight 
some one hour remained, and I had to traverse (tai karna}, etc., in 
which there were,' etc. 

(10) Again begin fresh sentence : ' Except a western star, or the 
information which there may be a chance of obtaining from vil- 
lagers, seeing no other means of guidance, and trusting,' etc. 

(11) Turn ' raised the horse's rein,' which is a mode of expression 
closely corresponding to the idea of the English phrase. 



Towards ten o'clock at night I discerned the thousand 
little twinkling lamps which light an eastern city, ] and 
riding into the town, found the people all on the alert, 
and was soon recognised, my horse and myself being well 
known there. 'Larens Sahib is come,' was repeated from 
mouth to mouth with much surprise. My sudden appear- 
ance scared them, and they slunk away to their houses. 
2 After parading the streets for a short time till they 
were quiet, I went to the Tahsildar and heard from him 
of the commotion having increased throughout that day. 
I sent messengers to collect all the police from the neigh- 
bourhood, and then repaired to the somewhat rough 
quarters of a hostelry outside the walls. Here I luckily 
found 3 an officer belonging to the political department, 

Captain E , who, being in ill-health, was glad to 

recruit in rather more comfort than in tents ; for I had 
repaired and slightly furnished two or three rooms in tiie 


serai, 4 in case of an emergency like the present. After 
seeing my horse well rubbed down and fed 1 retired to 
rest. In the morning I stationed police at the gates, at 
the market-place, and at other 5 central spots, so that 
they might be ready in case the Hindus should have 
recourse to arms, and there they remained for three 

(To be continued.) 


(1) Form the junctura here by a change in the form of the 
description, thus : ' (1) entered into the town, and (to) found the 
people alert and awake. Recognising me (they were knowing me 
and my horse well), they were astonished that how the Sahib came, 
and immediately (b&t ki b&t men) this news was spread (zab&nzad 
Tiond) that,' etc. 

( 2) Turn as follows : ' I paraded the streets for a short time, and 
when I saw that now there remained no fear of outbreak, I went to 
the Tahsiklar and heard (his) report of the increasing of the dis- 

(3) Political maJikama k& ek kapt&n s&hib. 

(4) Turn ' that if a necessity like to-day (3J joist) happened, 
there may bo no trouble." 

(5)- This may bo expressed by sadr maqAm. 



Thus the danger passed by, for l the Mussulmans, 
with their more active warlike habits, backed by the 
European forces, were too strong for their opponents 
2 so, after receiving a decided rebuff to a fresh petition 
from me, the Hindus tried a wholly new method. By a 
preconcerted and simultaneous movement they shut up 
all the shops, suspended trade and business of every 


description, and declared that, until the obnoxious order 
-was rescinded, they would neither buy nor sell, nor, 
indeed, hold any communication with the opposite party. 
3 This plan of passive resistance was by far the most 
effectual they could have adopted. It completely para- 
lysed their enemies, and 4 alarmed the magistrate more 
than lie would have liked to own ; for they had complete 
control over the supplies, being the wholesale, as well as 
retail, dealers of the town. The next morning, 5 when 
not only the Mussulmans but the lower orders of Hindus 
came as usual to purchase the day's provisions, they 
found all the shops closed. 6 Living from hand to 
mouth as they do, they were in blank despair, and, 
adjourning to my house, they implored my leave to break 
open the granaries and 7 help themselves, if I could not 
compel the traders to open their shops. I replied that 
the traders had done nothing contrary to law, and that I 
had no power to compel them in any way. 

(To be continued.} 


(1) A difficult sentence to reproduce. The meaning may be 
given as follows : ' In the first place the Mussulmans were active 
and quarrelsome, in the second place we were at their back, then 
(pns) their being victorious over their opponents was not 

(2) Begin a fresh sentence, thus : ' A new petition which the 
Hindus presented me, of it they received a flat refusal (see (85. 3) > 
therefore they sought to bring into operation a rare method, viz. 
this, that by mutual agreement they shut up,' etc. 

(3) The expression ' passive resistance ' cannot easily be imitatcJ 
in Hindustani. Perhaps the best way to treat the sentence is this : 
' In reality the method of patient encounter (fogdbuZ) which they 
adopted, this was very eff'?^i~~ c ' 


V/; The writer's avoidance of egotism here need not bo preserved 
in Hindustani. Turn thus : ' and, if you ask the truth (sack ptichho 
to) to me also was anxiety.' 

(o) Use here the form of expression indicated at 2 1 . 9- 

(6) Effect the junctura here by introducing the clause -with 
chnnki as follows : ' As these people, whatever they were earning all 
day, mi it were living,' etc. 

(7) Apnd k&m nibilnd. 



A plan occurred to me l which would give me time to 
reason with the Hindus, and possibly bring them to a better 
state of mind. I collected many waggon-loads of grain 
from the country round at my own risk, trusting that the 
Government would refund me when the peril was made 
known to them. This grain I stored, and 2 gave out 
by letters of credit to retail dealers whom I chose myself 
and placed in the streets. In this way all the slight 
wants of an Asiatic were supplied, and so careful was the 
organization of the whole thing, that there was no ulti- 
mate loss to the Government. Meanwhile I published 
proclamations 3 warning the Hindus against blind alle- 
giance to their priests, and telling them that any act 
of violence would meet with prompt retribution. This 
I was frequently able to do in isolated cases, as combina- 
tion was now impossible for them. They first sent peti- 
tions to the Commissioner, and 4 then to the seat of 
Government itself in the hills, complaining both of me, 
their magistrate, and the Tahsildar. These were in due 
time returned to mo for explanation. I did not think it 
iitvessarv to answer their charges against myself, but 
successfully vindicated the T;ihsililar. 
(To be continued.) 



(1) Turn as follows : ' that from it I shall obtain opportunity of 
arguing with the Hindus, and if by it they come into the straight 
way, it is no wonder.' 

(2) Turn thus : ' entrusted for retail sale,' etc., with the verbs 
' chose ' and ' placed ' in form of Past Conjunctive Participle. 

(3) Oratio recta, ' that let not the Hindus foolishly engage in un- 
lawful matters at the bidding of their Pandits, else, if any sort of 
violence is shown, simultaneously (ma? an) punishment will be 
inflicted.' Observe here the avoidance of the adjectives 'blind' 
and ' prompt." 

(4) Turn : ' and after that to Government on the hill.' 



For twenty-two days the Hindu traders 1 held out, 
till I was much worn and harassed with the constant 
work of inspection, repression, and writing answers to 
complaints. At last the poorer Hindus found that they 
were injuring themselves as well as the Mussulmans ; 
2 gradually a shop was opened here and there, and on the 
evening of the twenty-second day a crowd of Hindus came 
to me in a humble frame of mind, 3 owning that they had 
been led away by their priests, begging for pardon, and 
solemnly promising never to repeat the offence, and offer- 
ing to open their shops at once. I agreed to this, and thus 
a combination which had threatened to produce a genera] 
uproar was quietly and peaceably put down. 4 I was able 
to satisfy the inquiries of Government into my somewhat 
independent action in the matter, and so to establish the 
conduct of the Tahsildar that he received special thanks 
tor all he had done. 5 He did not, however, long survive 


to enjoy bis recovered credit. A few months afterwards 
he died from a sudden attack of cholera. 



(1) Turn thus: 'In that same way went on being contrary ' 
(sidd karnti), 'and I continuously doing (karte karte) watching and 
punishing (sar-kobf) and answer-giving was wearied ('d/tz d-j'una).' 

(2) Begin with chundnchi, and proceed ' place by place gradually 
the shops went on being opened' (||8)- 

(3) ' And declared ' followed by oratio recta. In the final clause 
the form of verb illustrated at 129 ma 7 be introduced, though 
the usage is rare. 

(4) Turn as follows : ' In this affair the inquiry which the 
Government made on my somewhat free proceeding, of it I was 
able to give a sufficient answer, and also so proved the good sei vices 
of,' etc. 

(5) Turn ' after this ho did not remain alive many days, that (ti) 
the approbation (trd/i tcAh") which he had obtained, from it he could 
have derived (Past Cond.) profit.' 


The Rajputs were l born soldiers : each division bad its 
bereditary leader, and each formed a separate community, 
like clans in ot'r .r countries, - the members of which 
were bound by many ties to their chiefs and to each 
other. The rules of caste still subsisted, and tended to 
render more powerful the connection just described. As 
the chiefs of those clans stood in the same relation to the 
I'aja as their ov.n retainers did to them, the king, 
nobility aiu soldiery, all made one body, united by the 
strongest feelings of kindred and military devotion. 8 Thc 
sort of feudal system which prevailed among the R-ij: 
gave additional stability to this attachment, and all to- 
gether produced the pride of birth, the high spirit, and 
romantic notions 4 so striking in the military class of that 


period. Their enthusiasm was kept up by the songs of 
their bards, and inflamed by frequent contests 5 for glory 
or for love. They treated women with a respect unusual 
in the East ; and 6 were guided even towards their 
enemies by rules of honour, which it was disgraceful to 

(To be continued.) 


(1) The Persian mddar-zdd suits the meaning exactly. 

(2) Turn thus : ' and to the members with their chiefs ami 
among themselves was a connection (wd-bastagi) of many sorts 
(tarah tarah fci), and the fashion of caste observance (jdt-dharm) 
too, which remained regularly in force, was more a causo of 
strengthening of this connection.' 

(3) This, too, is by no means easy. It may be paraphrased ' and 
from the fashion of giving (and) taking jdgtr and service, such as 
was current (riwdj) among the Eajputs, still more confirmation 
(isteJikdni) came into this body.' 

(4) Turn ' which at that period was a conspicuous mark of tho 
military class.' 

(5) This must be expanded : ' which sometimes for the sake of 
(barde) glory and sometimes for the sake of love took place.' 

(6) Avoid the change to the passive here, which spoils the sen- 
tence from a Hindustani point of view. The last clause may bo 
easily turned by ' to do the contrary of which was considered a dis- 



1 If to these qualities we add a very strong disposition 
to indolence, and make allowances for the effects of a long 
period of depression, we have the character of the Eaj- 
puts of the present day, 3 who bear much the same re- 
semblance to their ancestors as those did to the warriors 
of the Mahabharat. With all the noble qualities of \\\c 


early Rajputs was mixed a simplicity, 3 derived from 
their want of intercourse with other nations, 4 which 
rendered them inferior in practical ability, and even in 
military efficiency, to men actuated by much less elevated 
sentiments than theirs. Among the effects of their divi- 
sion into clans, one was that 5 although the Rajputs are 
anything but a migratory people, yet when they have 
been compelled by external force to leave their seats, they 
have often moved in a body like a Tartar horde ; and 
when they occupied new lands, 6 they distributed them in 
the same proportions as their former ones, and remained 
without any alteration but that of place. 



(1) The agency here being a matter of indifference, the passive 
construction may be conveniently adopted, thus: 'together with 
these qualities, if their being immoderately addicted to sloth be 
described.' The next clause may be given more literally. 

(2) Begin fresh sentence, thus : ' And this character is like that 
of their (apne) ancestors (see Q\, 13.). in the proportion in which 

jis nisbat se~) theirs (unki) is like that of the heroes of the Maha- 

(3) Turn thus : ' which was created by their remaining apart 
from other (jatr) nations.' 

(4) The above introduction of the relative bars its adoption here. 
Turn, therefore, ' and for this very reason they remained inferior in 
practical wisdom, nay more (balki) in war-making (jang-Aicart), to 
those peoole who in comparison with them were not ao mag- 

(5) Turn thus : ' though (30) migration is never agreeable to 

(6) Turn thus : ' Tie way in which land-division \vaa effected 
(hti& karnt) in their native country, in the same arrangement the 
land of here too is divided.' The last clause should be a collateral 
sentence: 'Except change of place no other difference waa 



1 The plain uninstructed Mahratta (Marliata), Suclra, 
or Khatri, enters upon his career as a soldier 2 with the 
same dress and with the same habits with which he tills 
his fields or attends his flocks ; 3 and he has, generally 
speaking, preserved, throughout revolutions that have at 
one time raised him to the highest consideration and 
power and again cast him back to his former occupa- 
tions, the same simplicity of character. 4 This may be 
referred to the nature of Hindu institutions, to the 
example of Sivaji and his leaders, and to the advantage 
derived from habits that gave facility to conquest 5 by 
placing him in strong contrast with the proud and formal 
Muhammadan ; by associating him with the Hindu 
population of the countries he invaded ; and by prevent- 
ing his progress ever being impeded by that pomp, 
luxury, or pride, which forms so often an 6 incumbrance, 
if not an obstacle, to the most successful conquerors. 
That the Mahratta soldier was more distinguished by art 
than by valour ; that he gloried as much in rapid flight 
as in daring attack, 7 is not denied by the warmest 
panegyrist of his tribe ; but though these facts are 
admitted, and, further, that he was often mean and 
sordid, 8 it is contended, and with truth, that he Lad 
many excellent qualities. 9 Few could claim superiority 
to him in patience under fatigue, hunger, and thirst, and 
in that plain manliness of character which remained un- 
changed by success or adversity ; 10 nor can we deny to 
the Mahrattas in the early part of their history, and 
before their extensive conquests had made their vast and 


mixed armies cease to be national, the merit of conduct- 
ing their Cossack inroads into other countries with a 
consideration to the inhabitants which had been deemed 
incompatible with that terrible and destructive species of 

(To be continued.) 


(1) ' Marhata ' and the pronouns which refer to it throughout tho 
passage become plural in Hindustani. 

(2) By way of simplification use one word waza' for ' dress ' and 
' habits,' as it describes both. 

(3) Turn as follows : ' and in general in those vicissitudes in 
which at one time they reached exalted rank and again came to 
their original status, that same simplicity of theirs remained (band- 

) as usual.' 

(4) Arrange thus : ' The cause of this perhaps in the institutions 
of Hinduism, and in the examples of Sivaji and his chiefs, and also 
(aur 7uz) in such (aist aist) habits, is found, from which (ki jin se) 
in victory easiness is obtained.' 

(5) This clause and the corresponding sequent clauses may now 
be introduced by jab ki. 

(6) Translate thus : muzdhini balki mdni'ul mohimm. 

(7) This clause should be placed first in the Hindustani sentence : 
' To the special panegyrists even of this tribe there is no denial 
that,' etc. 

(8) Turn thus : ' b"t yet in truth it is not remote from justice to 
admit their praiseworthy qualities.' 

(9) Turn thus : ' In tho matter of patience, etc. very few were 
taking precedence of (sc) the Marhattas.' 

(10) The junctura here is best effected by tis parbht, after which 
proceed thus : ' This fact (amr) is worthy of praise, that in former 
time and before that (qabl iske ki) their army so increased in ex- 
tensive conquests and in mixture with strange races that it did not 
remain the army of one nation, this people used to conduct their 
Cossack warfare (qazzdqdna favj-kasht) with such humanity which 
(jo ki~) was being considered,' etc. 




The character and actions of this people were in all 
respects singular; * they had indeed few, if. any, similar 
features in common with other nations. 2 Those means 
which the pride of conquerors has often rejected seem 
always to have been used in preference by this extra- 
ordinary race : not merely the discontented were invited 
to their standard, but robbers and plunderers were courted 
as auxiliaries, and allowed to act for a period in their own 
mode and for their own advantage. 3 To insinuate them- 
selves by wiles into a share of the government of a dis- 
trict or country, and to make a party amongst its inhabi- 
tants, were deemed better than using force, even when the 
latter was in their power; 4 and in effecting these objects 
their patience and humility were great aids. They were 
contented at first to divide the 5 government, as well as 
revenues, with the Hindu chiefs of the military class they 
found established, 6 trusting to time and intrigue for 

their gradual reduction. 



(1) The meaning of this sentence may be given as ' In reality, 
ways (<rwzd') like theirs (see above, 1 1 . Note 2) if (they) may have 
been in any other nation, then (they) have been fewer.' 

(2) Turn ' which means great conquerors will have often despised,' 

(3) This difficult sentence may be expressed in the following- 
way : ' When any strange province or country came into their 
power, in this case also, in comparison with force, by deceit to 
obtain entrance there and to do plottings with the inhabitants, this 
people thought their advantage.' It will be observed that the finai 


clan so of the English sentence is not left untranslated, but is worked 
into the initial clause. 

(4) Turn ' and in this affair (amr) their patience and humility 
were coming in very useful (k&tn dnu).' 

(5) Use the pbrase employed at (09. 2 - 'Chief of the military 
class ' may be rendered by the titlo ' Baja." 

(6) Begin fresh sentence : ' And they trusted that after some 
time and by means of plottings the time of reduction (taskhir) will 
gradually arrive.' 


The Bbcels that live in villages are reputed faithful 
and honest ; they are usually the watchmen, and have a 
portion of land or dues assigned them. 1 These village 
Bheels have little intercourse with their more numerous 
and independent brethren who dwell among the hills. 
The cultivating classes of Bheels, who live in districts and 
hamlets under their Tarwls or heads, 2 though indus- 
trious, have neither given up the habits nor arms of the 
tribes in a ruder state, and, like them, indulge in strong 
liquors to excess. They excite the horror of the higher 
classes of Hindoos by eating not only the flesh of buff a- 
Iocs but of cows. From this abomination, for such it is 
considered, they only rank above the chamdrs or shoe- 
makers, who feast on dead carcases, and are deemed so 
unclean that they are not allowed to dwell within the 
1'ivcincts of the village. The plundering, or wild, Bheels 
who reside amorig the hills are a diminutive and wretched- 
looking race, 3 whose appearance shows the poverty of 
their food ; but they are nevertheless active and capable 
of great fatigue. They are professed robbers and thi. 
4 Armed with bows and arrows, they lie in wait for the 

and unprotected, while they fly from the strong 



5 Ignorant and superstitious to a degree, they art devote! 
to their Tanvls, whose command is a law wtich thoy 
implicitly obey. 

(To be continued ) 


(1) Turn as follows: 'Of these Bhils with their mountain 
brethren, who are numerous and more free (kasir-ut-tz'dad aur 
ziyada <izdd), little intercourse is kept up (raTwid).' 

(2, Arrange matters so as to begin a trctsh sertence here : ' And 
though they are industrious, but they have the same mode of life 
and the same arms, which are customary in those rude (jangali) 
tribes, and also (n$z) like them are very reckless in liquor-drinking.' 

(3) This clause may be expressed by making it a third epithet 
before ' race,' in the idiomatic term Ic&l lea mar&, ' famine-stricken.' 

(4) Detach this clause from what follows, as an independent 
sentence, viz. ' Their arms (are) bows and arrows.' For ' strong ' use 
a pair of adjectives to balance the preceding pair, and omit ' while.' 

(5) Turn ' They are so ignorant and superstitious that they are 
devoted to their Ta^rwis, whose command is of the rank of a law, 
and is earned out without when or why ' (be-chdn o chir&) 



1 The men, and still more the women, have their intel- 
lect formed by their condition ; they are quick, have a 
kind of instinctive sense of danger, and are full of art 
and cvasioa. To kill one another, when their Tarwi 
desires, or to suffer death themselves, appears to them 
eaually a matter of indifference. The whole race are 
illiterate, and they are, without exception, fond of 
tobacco and liquor to excess. Their quarrels begin and 
end in drunken bouts ; no feud can be stauncnea. no 
crime forgiven, but at a general feast, 2 and here the 

FAR I III. SECTION 111. 211 

common and popular fine for every offence is more liquor 
to protract their riotous enjoyment, which sometimes con- 
tinues for days. 3 The Bheel women have much influence 
in the society ; but it is a curious fact, that their manners 
and disposition are in general quite opposed to those of 
the Pinduris. 4 They never accompany the men in their 
expeditions; and when prisoners are taken, their prin- 
cipal hope of life is in the known humanity of the 
women. The latter are usually the first sufferers from 
the crimes of their fathers and husbands, the women and 
children (when the men are suspected) being always 
seized when Government can lay hold on them. They 
show, in such circumstances, great patience and fortitude, 
5 as they well know the men will never abandon them, and 
that the guilty will surrender themselves to any punish- 
ment, even death, rather than allow them and their 
children to continue in confinement. 
(To be continued.) 


(1) Turn as follows : 'The men-folk and especially the women- 
folk, in the condition in which they live, have intellect in accord- 
ance with that same (condition), that is, they are quick, and their 
natural temperament is danger-knowing and deceiful and artful.' 

(2) Effect the junctuta hero by ydhan tak Art, and proceed : ' the 
customary and common fine is liquor, which is taken in compensation 
of every crime, and from which their riotous-living remains lasting 
(for) periods (muddaton).' 

(3) See (09. -4 for tne U8e of dakhl. 
(1) Join on by the use of kyunki. 

(5) Turn thus : ' because it is certain to them that our men wii 
not abandon us (use the idiom of 56j> but rather thoy who are 
guilty will deliver themselves up for punishment (s<ud-ydbf), though 
it may be the punishment of death (seo |76. 8.), and will not liko 
((jau.-<ira karnti.) that their) families roiuain in confinement.' 





1 In the recent reform of a great proportion of the 
Bheels of Central India, the women have acted a very 
prominent part, and one worthy of the character of their 
sex. 2 They have invariably been the advocates of the 
cause of good order ; but the fact is, they have been 
accustomed to industry and labour, and must be happy 
to see their partners, who have hitherto passed their time 
between crime and debauchery, compelled to more re- 
gular courses. The Bheels, though in distinct classes, 
are still one people. 3 They all eat the same diet ; they 
intermarry ; 4 and they unite in the mode as well as the 
substance of their worship. The latter, in essentials, is 
similar to that of other Hindoos; but the forms are 
different. The religious ceremonies of this rude race 
5 are much limited to propitiatory offerings and sacrifices 
to some of the Hindoo minor infernal deities, but par- 
ticularly to the Goddess of the Small Pox, whom they 
invoke under various names, 6 in the hope of averting the 
dreadful ravages this disorder at times makes among 
them. They also pay great reverence to Mahadeo, from 
whom they boast descent. 



(1) This is by no means an easy sentence. It may be fumed as 
follows : ' In the reform of a large class of Bhils, which is recently 
being carried out in Central India, their women have done great 
service (pesh-dastf), and certainly have done work worthy of their 
sex.' Observe that the choice of pesh-dusti. is suggested by the 
fact that pesh gives the notion of 'prominent.' 

TART 111. SECTION III. '213 

(2) Begin with ' the fact is,' taken from the following clause, and 
replace that phrase by ' and.' The clause ' compelled," etc., may 
he managed by ' began to leave off their irregularities ' (be-lag&mt). 

(3) Turn : ' their eating drinking is one.' 

(4) Simply : ' (their) religious ceremonies (dharm-rlC) are one 
and the same (i/afcsdn).' ' The latter,' in the next clause, may bo 
translated by p&jA. 

(5) Turn : 'are ended in this, that (fci) they do so and so.' 

(6) Turn : ' in order that in the days of small-pox they may 
remain safe from this dreadful plague.' 


The Thugs are composed of all castes ; Mahoinedans 
even are admitted ; but the great majority are Hindoos ; 
and among these the Brahmans, chiefly of the Bundel- 
khand tribes, are in the greatest numbers, and generally 
direct the operations of the different bands. They have 
fixed rules, particularly as to the division of booty. 

1 Auxiliaries to their enterprises are sought for in all 
ranks, but the most abandoned of the officers of govern- 
ment of the countries to which, they proceed are those 
they chiefly desire; and after having ascertained, by 
letter or verbal report, that circumstances are favourable, 

2 they usually send as precursors, for the purpose of 
minute local information, spies disguised as religious 
iiK-ndicants, as tradesmen, or as soldiers looking for ser- 
vice, who connect themselves with the loose characters of 
the country, and all is prepared for the principal part v, 
which otten consists of three or four hundred; 3 but 
these are never seen together, though the different bauds 
travel in perfect communication with each other. Som-- 
of them have horses, camels, and tents, and are e<juii>i>( a 
like merchants; others are dressed like soldiers goin^ 


under a leader to take service ; some affect to be Maho- 
medan beggars and Hindoo Bairdgis or holy mendi- 
cants : they assume, in short, every disguise. 4 Parties 
of the boldest and most active are always detached from 
the main band ; these sometimes seek protection from 
travellers ; at others afford it: 5 in either case the fate of 
them who join them is the same. 

(To be continued.') 


(1) Turn this sentence as follows : ' In their enterprises they 
recruit for assistance low and high people of every sort, and are 
specially desirous of the wicked (sharir sharir) officers of those 
states where it is their intention to go.' 

(2) Turn thus : ' It is their custom that they send precursors, 
etc. j these spies are in the disguise sometimes of faqirs, sometimes 
of merchants, and sometimes of soldiers, etc., and connect them- 
selves with, etc., and make preparation for the advent of the 
principal party,' etc. 

(3) The junctura is here : 'but not this that they are ever seen 
together, else, all the bands,' etc. 

(4) Turn thus : ' one or more (ek na elc) party of the brave and 
active always remains apart from the main band : their business is 
this, that either,' etc. 

(5) For the method of idiomatically representing this clause, see 
above Sect. I. 1 1 . (7) : 'in every case misfortune (shamaf) came on 
the poor people.' 



The Thugs have, concealed, a long silken cord with a 
noose, l which they throw round the necks of their heed- 
less companions, who are strangled and plundered. 
2 Their victims, who are always selected for having pro- 


perty, are, when numerous, or at all on their guard* 
lulled by every art into confidence. 3 They are invited to 
feasts, where their victuals and drink are mixed with 
soporific or poisonous drugs, through the effects of which 
they 4 fall au easy prey to these robbers and murderers, 
6 the extraordinary success of whose atrocities can only be 
recounted for by the condition of the countries in which 
they take place. 6 They attained great strength in Central 
India, and many gangs of this class passed annually 
through the country, on their way to the dominions of 
the Kizam and the Peshwa. In 1819 the manager of 
Mandisur surrounded a body of Thugs, who professed 
themselves, and appeared to be, 7 a party of horse and 
foot soldiers that were escorting their baggage on camels 
and bullocks from the Deccan. 8 He had, however, 
gained information who they were, and commanded them 
to submit; they refused, and an action took place, in 
which the Thugs were routed, some of them killed, and 
others made prisoners. The whole of their booty was 
captured, amounting in value to more thau a lac of 
rupees, and comprising every variety of personal clothes 
and ornaments, 9 rich and poor, for they plunder all 
classes indiscriminately. Among other articles, a great 
number of their strangling cords were taken and exhi- 



(1) In order to avoid the second llelativo anJ the Passives, turn 
' by whieh, having thrown (it) round the nocks, etc., they stran;_'lo 
Mid plunder (them).' Also see 50. (0- 

(2) Turn this ns follows : ' The object of the Thugs id with rich 
travellers only, and if these are numerous, etc. they bring them 


into the net of deceit with a thousand artifices and entangle them.' 
In this latter clause the first verb may bo constructed as a Past 
Conjunctive Participle. 

(3) Introduce this sentence by chvnanchi, and construct actively 
in connection with preceding sentence. 

(4) Turn ' come easily into power (gabil) of." 

(5) Begin a fresh sentence here. 

(6) Turn ' The Thugs especially increased in Central India (ivasat 
Hind"), and every year several gangs of them passing-through (hoke) 
this country were in the habit of going towards,' etc. See 1 26. 

(7) In the oratio recta. The word ' loaded ' must be placed before 
the preposition ' on.' 

(8) Turn thus : ' but to the h&Jcim their actual reality had been 
discoverer! .' 

(9) Turn this more accurately than the English expression by 
lya amiron fc4 aur kyd garibon M. ' Indiscriminately ' may be 
rendered by be taskhis-i-ashkh&s ' without specification of persons.' 
This kind of association of fellow-derivatives is considered to be 
good style. Comp. Sect. I. 9. (9) 

PAR: in. SECTION iv. 217 





By the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom of 
Great Britain and Ireland, and of the Colonies 
and Dependencies Thereof in Europe, Asia, Africa, 
America, and Australasia, Queen, Defender of the 

8 Whereas, for divers weighty reasons, We have re- 
solved, by and with the advice and consent of the Lords 
Spiritual and Temporal and Commons in Parliament 
assembled, to take upon Ourselves the Government of the 
Territories in India, heretofore administered in trust for 
Us by the Honourable East India Company. 

4 Now, therefore, We do by these presents notify and 
declare that, by the advice and consent aforesaid, \V>- 
have taken upon Ourselves the said Government; and W^ 
hereby call upon all Our subjects within the suid territo- 


ries to be faithful, and to bear true allegiance to Us, Our 
Heirs, and Successors, and to submit themselves to the 
authority of those whom We may hereafter, from time tc 
time, see n't to appoint to administer the Government 
of Our said Territories, in Our name and on Oar 

5 And We, reposing especial trust and confidence in 
the loyalty, ability, and judgment of Our trusty and well- 
beloved Cousin and Councillor, Charles John, Viscount 
Canning, do hereby constitute and appoint him, the said 
Viscount Canning, to be Our first Viceroy and Governor- 
General in and over Our said Territories, to admini- 
ster the Government thereof, in Our name, and generally 
to act in Our name and on Our behalf, subject to such 
Orders and Regulations as he shall, from time to time, 
receive from Us through one of Our Principal Secretaries 
of State. 

6 And We do hereby confirm in their several Offices, 
Civil and Military, all persons now employed in the ser- 
vice of the Honourable East India Company, subject to 
Our future pleasure, and to such laws and regulations as 
may hereafter be enacted. 

7 We hereby announce to the Native Princes of India 
that all Treaties and Engagements made with them by or 
under the authority of the Honourable East India Com- 
pany, are by us accepted, and will be scrupulously main- 
tained; and We look for the like observance on their 

8 We desire no extension of Our present territorial pos- 
sessions, and while we will permit no aggression upon 
Our dominions or Our rights to be attempted with im- 
punity, We shall sanction no encroachment on those of 


others. We shall respect the rights, dignity, and honour 
of Native Princes as Our own ; and We desire that they, 
as well as Our own subjects, should enjoy that prosperity 
and that social advancement which can only be secured by 
internal peace and good government. 

9 We hold Ourselves bound to the Natives of Our 
Indian Territories by the same obligations of duty which 
bind Us to all Our other subjects ; and those obligations, 
by the blessing of Almighty God, We shall faithfully and 
conscientiously fulfil. 

10 Firmly relying Ourselves on the truth of Christianity, 
and acknowledging with gralitude the solace of religion, 
We disclaim alike the right and the desire to impose Our 
convictions on any of Our subjects. We declare it to be 
our Eoyal will and pleasure that none be in any wise 
favoured, none molested <r disquieted, by reason of 
their religious faith or observances; but that all shall 
alike enjoy the equal and impartial protection of the 
Law: and We do strictly charge and enjoin all those 
who may be in authority under Us, that they abstain 
from all interference with the religious belief or worship 
of any of Our subjects, on pain of our highest dis- 

11 And it is Our further will that, so far as may be, 
Our subjocts, of whatever race or creed, be freely and 
impartially admitted to offices in Our service, the duties 
of which they may be qualified by their education, 
ability, and integrity, duly to discharge. 

12 We know, and respect, the feelings of attachment 
with which the Natives of India regard the lands 
inherited by them from their ancestors ; and We desire 
to protect them in all rights connected therewith, subject 


to the equitable demands of the State ; and We will 
that, generally, in framing and administering the Law, 
doe regard be paid to the ancient rights, usages, and 
customs of India. 

13 We deeply lament the evils and misery which have 
been brought upon India by the acts of ambitious men, 
who have deceived their countrymen bv false reports, and 
led them into open rebellion. Our power has been shewn 
by the suppression of that rebellion in the field ; Wo 
desire to shew Our mercy, by pardoning the offences of 
those who have been thus misled, but who desire to 
return to the path of duty. 

14 Already, in one Province, with a view to stop the 
further effusion of blood and to hasten the pacification 
of Our Indian dominions, Our Viceroy and Governor- 
General has held out the expectation of pardon on cer- 
tain terms, to the great majority of those who in the late 
unhappy disturbances have been guilty of offences against 
Our Government ; and has declared the punishment which 
will be inflicted on those whose crimes place them beyond 
*Jie reach of forgiveness. 

15 We approve and confirm the said act of Our Viceroy 
and Governor-General, and do further announce and pro- 
claim as follows : 

16 Our clemency will be extended to all offenders save 
and except those who have been, or shall be, convicted of 
having directly taken part in the murder of British 
subjects : with regard to such the demands of justice 
forbid the exercise of mercy. 

17 To those who have willingly given asylum to mur- 
derers, knowing them to be such, or who may have acted 
as leaders or instigators in revolt, their lives can alone be 


guaranteed; bat in apportioning the penalty due to such 
persons, full consideration will be given to the (dream- 
stances under which they have been induced to throw off 
their allegiance ; and large indulgence will be shown to 
those whose crimes may appear to have originated in too 
credulous acceptance of the false reports circulated by 
designing men. 

18 To all others in arms against the Government, We 
hereby promise unconditional pardon, amnesty, and 
oblivion of all offence against Ourselves, Our Crown and 
dignity, on their return to their homes and peaceful pur- 

19 It is Our Royal pleasure that these terms of grace 
and amnesty should be extended to all those who comply 
with their conditions before the 1st day of January 

20 When, by the blessing of Providence, internal tran- 
quillity shall be restored, it is Our earnest desire to stimu- 
late the peaceful industry of India, to promote worts of 
public utility and improvement, and to administer its 
Government for the benefit of all Our subjects resident 
therein. In their prosperity will be Our strength; in 
their contentment Our security ; and in their gratitude 
Our best reward. And may the God of all power grant 
to Us, and to those in authority under Us, strength 
to carry out these Our wishes for the good of Our 



(1) Persian, in some of its idioms, is a better conveyancer of 
official English than Hindustani, partly on account of its prestige 
as the former language of the Courts, and partly because it in- 
volves less inversion of the English order of the words. Thus, in 
translating the heading of this Proclamation, the Persianised form 
Ishtehdr-i-maliqa-mo'azzama ba-ijlds-i-kaunsil ba-ndm-i-iudliydn o 
sarddrdn o bdshindagdn-i-Hind, involving, as it does, nothing which 
is strange or unintelligible to an educated native, is statelier both 
in form and sound than Ishtehdr malika-mo'azzama Jed, kaunsil Ice 
ijlds men Hindustan Jcera'ison aur sarddron aur bdshindon Ice n\m, 
which is the Hindustani equivalent. 

(2) In this paragraph, native etiquette requires the word 
* Queen ' to be in the forefront of the sentence. Begin, therefore, 
jandb maliqa-mo'azzama Victoria, and instead of 'of say ' Eegent 
of the kingdoms of,' omitting ' united,' as unnecessary ; thus, 
khadiv-i-mamdlik-i-, etc. And, as the paragraph is not a heading, 
it should be completed in the Hindustani version; thus, 'on the 
part of (ki taraf se) it is published for public information in the 
following terms,' khdss o 'dmm M ittild' ke Ife hasb-i-tafsU-i-zail 
mushtahar kiyd jdtd hai. 

(3) Begin with the formal wdzeh ho ki ' Be informed that.' See 
Vocabulary for the remaining terms. For ' resolve ' the term most 
congruous to the occasion is irdda kar-lend, because ' irddd ' is the 
official term under Mahomedan Governments for a public decree. 
The last clause must be turned as a relative clause parenthetically 
adjusted, viz. ' of which the management till to-day was com- 
mitted in trust to the Honourable East India Company,' and the 
last four words are to be transliterated. 

(4) ' By these presents,' is qirtds ke rd se, lit. ' By the face or 
appearance of this document.' 'Call upon,' tdkidan farm&nd ki. 

(5) To be turned in this form : 'And as (jo) there is to us full 
trust, etc. in the loyalty, etc. of,' etc. The conventional terms 
1 trusty and well-beloved,' etc. may be rendered by the correspond- 
ing official Persian Farzand-i-arjmand mo'azzaz o mo'tamad 'alaiht 


mushir-i-kh&ss placed at the beginning of the clause. 'Through 
one of our principal,' etc., ma'rifat ham&re vaztr-i-a'zam ke. 

(6) Begin with relative clause : ' And those people who,' etc. 
'Hereby,' i.e. 'by these presents,' which may be repeated from (4). 
The clause ' subject to,' etc. should be introduced by lekin : 'but 
let them be subject,' etc. 

(7) To be turned as follows : ' And information is given to the 
Princes of India that we shall,' etc., the relative clause, however, 
standing first with doubled relative. ' Native ' is unnecessary. 
The final clause is emphasized by the preface aur chashm-d&sht hai 
lei, etc. ' and there is expectation that.' 

(8) Begin, ' The country which is at present in our possession, 
we do not wish to extend,' etc. ' And while,' etc., aur jab yeh 
hamko gawdra nahin hai lei, followed by to ham bht in the apoclosis. 
' As our own,' that is, ' like our own rights.' ' Internal ' need not 
be translated in the final clause. 

(9) Begin with relative clause : ' The obligations which are in- 
cumbent on us with respect to our other subjects, those same obli- 
gations we shall consider our necessary charge with respect to our 
subjects in India, and by God's grace we shall continue to regard 
the said obligations with faithfulness and sincerity." The student 
should bear in mind the use of the Progressive and Continuative 
forms of the verb in this and other paragraphs. The masculine 
and not the feminine plural should be used throughout. 

(10) Construct with concessive clause, followed by to bht in the 
apodosis, and proceed, ' it is neither our design nor desire that we 
cause to adopt (taslim karanA'),' etc. After this, carry on the 
junctura with balki. The final clause maybe turned 'and if not 
(wa iitd), our extreme wrath will be.' 

(11) ' Of whatever,' etc., Go kist gaum yd mazhab lit ho. ' Freely 
and impartially,' bild, ta'arruz o taraf-ddrt ke. 

(12) The translation of the verb ' respect ' in this connection is 
difficult, for the ordinary verbs in use are applicable to persons only. 
Approval of the sentiment referred to is intended : begin, there- 
fore, with iskd hamko ba-khtibt 'ilm hai ki, followed by ' the people 
of India love the lands (ardzf) which,' etc. The clause ' subject 
to," etc. may bo rendered here adverbially, ba-shart add knrrw 
mutdlaba sarkdrt ke, the word mutdlaba being technically used 


as a legal demand. The last part of the paragraph may run: 
' And it is our order that at the time of the framing and effecting 
(nifaz) of the law, full consideration continue (hotd rahnd) for (par) 
ancient rights and the habits and customs of India.' 

(13) ' Evils,' etc. cannot be the direct object of ' lament ' in the 
Hindustani idiom. Turn, therefore : ' On the hearing of this state 
of things (ba-istimd' is hdl fce) that some intriguers, by spreading 
(Past Conjunctive Participle) false reports and seducing their 
fellow-countrymen, caused them to make open mutiny and made a 
calamity descend on India, extreme sorrow was to us.' The implied 
' path of duty ' being submission, the phrase may be translated 
accordingly ; but the idea may also be expressed by the Persian 

(14) This paragraph is exceptionally difficult. Paraphrase as 
follows : ' With this intention that in future more bloodshed be not 
allowed (hone pdnti), and (that) peace and tranquillity take place 
quickly in our countries of India, our Viceroy, etc., in one province 
where (ki jah\n) the people in the days of foul mutiny did offence 
against the Government, made most of them expectant of pardon 
for their faults on special conditions ; and the faults of those 
which made them outside the enclosure (pale) of mercy, of those 
also has explained the punishments.' 

(15) Begin with chun&nchi. 

(16) This also is extremely difficult. Turn as follows : 'Except 
those people with respect to -whom it has been proved or may 
be proved that they have personally shared in the murder of a 
subject of the English Government, a declaration of mercy with 
respect to all the rest will be made ; but -with respect to the 
sharers in murder justice demands this, that no mercy be shown 

(17) ' Knowing them to be such,' jdn-bUjh-ke. ' But in appor- 
tioning,' etc., lekin aise logon kt tajwtz-i-saz& men. ' And large 
indulgence,' etc. Turn as follows : ' And in respect of those people 
who, without thinking (be soche*), having come into the false state- 
ments of the intriguers, became criminal, great clemency will bo 

(18) This may be constructed as follows : ' With (se) all the rest 
who are, etc. . . by these presents the promise is, that, if they go 


home and engage in their occupations peacefully, then their 
funks, which were committed (sarzad) in respect of us and in 
respect of our sovereignty and dignity, -without condition will be 
pardoned and forgiven and forgotten.' 

(19) ' Terms ' and ' conditions ' may be translated by the same 
word, shar&'it (pi. of shart). ' Extended,' muta'alliq (se). 

(20) The first sentence of this paragraph is thus constructed: 
' It is our earnest desire that, when in India by God's grace again 
tranquillity may be restored (ho-j&nd), then (to) there improve- 
ment of the arts of peace be effected, and for the benefiting (t/dda) 
of the people works like the making (tayy<lr) of roads and canals, 
etc. be established, and such an administration of the country made 
that from which advantage may be to all our subjects of the said 
country.' Join to this the following sentence by kyunki ' Their 
prosperity is for us a cause of power,' and so forth. The last sen- 
tense is thus turned : ' And may the God of all power (khud&e 
q'ulir) to us and our subordinates grant such grace that these our 
wishes (mur&d) for the advantage of the people may reach a happy 
ending ' (husn iJchtitAm ko pahtinchnA). 

S.\D OF PAST 111 










, 3 

^ o 

K ^ 1 



"* ^ 

J *"* 

L9 3 

3 " 

J a 



S J i < < 

J *l -2 ~e 

\ * 

*J " s 

' '*! "on 

"J ^ 

s S 








"w? J 




T^ *JJ 




"* 4 -IS 

3 | 

1 *1 -2 8 ^ 

:,] I 





ill > ^ ? 

*^> ?S 


^J ^ 

^j^ v "S ^ 

ju 5 


J S s I" 

J s ^ 

J 2 

J 1 

"J S S S 

-2k* 5 


^1 % 







> i 



a *r 

"8 ^ r^ 

'- "C "S ^ 



a M H ~> 

*^5\ - s 


J* ^ 
1 ^ 


-~-^ _^. -~ '- 


_-5 * 

p Forma IX., XI., 

*^H S 5 ' 

""?> "^ 

-o ^ ""' ' 

* vS -"3 

.J -g 



y ~3 3 ? 





Jj f ") "*J 



^3 y 

2! "* 

- 9 



g-J OJ 





B E 41 

<D H 



" .2 ^3 "< 

O b i 

%~P * 

o *S 

"d 2 o 

o ^ V 1 



C . J 
O to S B 

8| M .| 


" - ^ 

. CO 

." t Jg 



-3 .0 5 

nn 1 f) 



I" 5 

"c 2 

c "5 



The augment t 
effort, arid the 
d effectivent'.s: 
effect in counei 
its cause. 


The augment <a dciii 
quence with n fcr< 
idea conveyed by 1 
duplication of th< 
cal is intensive. 


Tho augment <t 
consequence w 
renco to Form 


Tr.e au^iTi' 
the passive 01 
realisation ol r 


The augment i a 
eertcd ti indica 
personal or 


The augment inti 
the attributin 
pectation of rr 



1. In the model Measures, which are given in large 
type in the Conspectus, Fd, 'Ain, and Ldm are radical 
letters, and the rest, whether vowels or consonants, are said 
to ' fatten ' the root, on the principle that extension of 
form means extension of meaning (see Col. 1). 

This process of word-building is regular and symmetri- 
cal, bat is subject to certain euphonic adjustments when 
one or other of the radicals is a ' weak ' letter, that is to 
say, is either \ . . These letters are severally homo- 
geneous with the vowels FatJia, Zamma, and Kasra ; and, 
when 'quiescent' by position, combine with them to 
form the long sounds d, u, and i. Only two other com- 
binations are admissible, viz., the diphthongs au and ai, 
in which fatha precedes wdv and yd (see Table V, p. 4). 
Consequently, in the structure of derivatives, when a 
weak radical (quiescent) succeeds a vowel augment in any 
other order than is indicated by the above five legitimate 
combinations, such radical gives way, and is either 
changed or dropped, as the circumstances of the case 
require. Thus, Alif-hamza may be changed to Wdv or Yd, 
Wdv to Yd, or Yd to Wdv. 

2. An examination of the examples which are given in 
the Conspectus, with their roots, for this special purpose, 
will explain the principle of these permutations. 

FORM I. (1) In -*0U rdzi, normally rdziw, the 3rd 
radical has been changed to yd, with which the charac- 
teristic Kasra of the second syllable is combined. In 


classical Arabic the radical wdv is dropped, and the Knsra 
preserved in the form of tan win, so that rdzin, not rdzi, is 
the mode. 

(2) In +j\j qaim the 2nd radical has been changed to 
yd to avoid the double alif. Hamza records, as it were, 
the nature of the change, and the suppression of the 
subscript dots in the substituted letter indicates that the 
sound of the syllable is 'im, not yim. The common word 
sd'is, vulgarly ' syce ' is another example (see p. G). 

(3) In /ujij^Lj mdnus, thefatla of the augment combines 
with the quiocent alif-hamza, and the same thing takes 
place in J^-^ maujud. In ^Juc< ma'ni, the characteristic 
augment u of the second syllable in the normal form has 
been changed to I, and the 3rd radical is dropped in 
writing, though the sign of tashdid is added by the gram- 

FORM II. (1) In -Jolj tdsir, the fatha of the augment 
combines with the quiescent alif-hamza ; and the same 
thin? takes place in the final syllable of moliaiyd. 

(2) In <Lio J or L^OO .j tarbiyat, the wdv has been changed 
to yd, and the lightening of the characteristic i, of the 
second syllable compensated by the affix at. 

(3) In the Participial forms (.Ov* mu'azzin, and c >jl^ 
muaddab, the 1st radical has been changed to teat', with 
which the zamma of the augment is homogeneous. Hamza 
records the nature of the change and reminds the reader 
that the pronunciation is unaltered. 

FORM III. (1) In iJ^^L* imidkhaza, the change is the 
same as that above described. The wdv unites in writing 
with the mini in both cases, but has no sound of its own. 


(2) In culS-U: middqdti normally muldqayat, the radical 
yd is dropped, and the characteristic fatlias unite to form 
the d of the final syllable. 

(3) In (JJ\^o muwdftq, no change was necessary in the 
writing, but the radical wdv is unsounded. 

FORM IV. (1) In (^Uj! imdn, and U.-1 imd, the 1st 
radical has been changed to yd in symphony with the 
chai'acteristic kasra of the augment, and though the 
radicals are different, the crasis thus formed is the same 
in sound. 

(2) In y^\.\ irdda, normally irwdd, the loss of the wdv 
is compensated for by the affix ah or at. In the Parti- 
cipial forms tnurid and tnurdd, from the same root, com- 
pensation is made by lengthening the characteristic vowels 
of the second syllable in each case. 

(3) In ^j^o munsM, the 3rd radical has been changed 

to yd in sympathy with the characteristic kasra of the 

second syllable. 

FORM Y. (1) In l^'u ta'ammuJ,t}\efatha of the augment 
forms a crasis in writing, but not in reading, with the 
homogeneous 1st radical. (Comp. F. II. (3) above.) 

(2) In ClJ^c mutashakkt, the 3rd radical has been 

changed to yd in symphony with the characteristic kasra 

of the final syllable. 

(3) In \ jJL* mtvtabannd, both servile and radical are 


retained in the form J^ which is usually written and 
read as d in Persian and Hindustani. 

FORM VI. (1) In ^LtJ tamdshi,tlie characteristic zamma 
of the final syllable has been changed to kasra in symphony 


with the 3rd radical. This word, and a few others of the 
same form, are written and read in Hindustani with a 
instead of i final. 

FORM VIII. (1) IntUl^l ehtii/dt, the 2nd radical which 
follows the medial augment ti, has been changed for the 
homogeneous yd. In multawi, on the other hand, the 
augment is ta not ti, and the wdv is retained. 

(2) In -JJUs-* inohtdj, normally mohtawaj, the wdv has 
been dropped, and (as in F. III. (2) above) the two fathas 
form a crasis in d. 

(3) In -Ajj\ ittifdq, normally itvtijdq, the loss of the 
icdo has been compensated by the duplication of the 
servile t. 

(4) In r^U\ ittild', r.^ mudda'i, ^j^ mud-la'd, the 

v^ ^ 

euphonic change consists in the absorption, under teukdid, 
of the medial augment t with the -1st radical. It may be 
added here that, when the 1st radical is j the t of the 
augment become -^ ; and when the 1st radical is ^ O1> ^ 
the t is written ^ 

FORM X. (1) In *jJLL*.. mustaqim, the 2nd radical has 
been dropped, and compensation been made, as in muri<1, 
P. IV., by lengthening the characteristic kasra of the 
tinul syllable. 

(2) In .\jtxv^ musta'dr, the same explanation holds 
good. Compare murdd, F. IV. 

3. The chief proportion of Arabic verbals current in 
Hindustani belongs to Form I., under the head ' Nouns 
of Action,' which arc used as Abstract nouns, and, with 
at or ah added, as 'Nouns of Unity.' Of the Derived 


Forms, the most fully represented are those which belong 
to Forms II., IV., VIII., bat it rarely happens that more 
than four or five Derivatives from the same root are in 
use. An example of four Forms from the same root 
occurs in the Conspectus, viz., l ihn ' knowledge,' and 
ma'liim 'known'; ta'lim 'education,' and mo'allim 'teacher.' 
In addition to these 'dlim 'knowing,' and l alim 'all- 
knowing,' an epithet of the Deity, and one or two rarer 
forms, are current in literature. 

4. The Gender of Nouns of F. 1. is conventional. For 
instance, 'ilm is masculine and 'aql feminine; filer ' thought ' 
is either Masculine or Feminine. Nouns of this class, 
however, which end in d are generally Feminine. (See 
Part I. 3.) The Gender of nouns which belong to the 
other Forms is almost invariably Masculine, except in the 
case of Form II., where the reverse is the case. Out of 
some 230 regular examples of this Form, which occur 
in Hindustani, only one, viz., ta'wiz 'amulet,' is Mascu- 

5. In addition to the three leading verbal measures of 
Form I., which are given in the Conspectus, the following 
are in every-day use : 

(1) A form denoting intensive agency in the noun, or 
superlativeness in the adjective; as, faqir ' a professional 
beggar ' ; hakim ' one who gives orders in a special branch 
of science,' 'a physician,' or 'sage '; amir 'one who gives 
commands,' ' a ruler ' ; rais ' one whe exercises headship ' ; 
sJiarir ' villainous ' ; rahirii ' compassionate ' ; 'alim ' all- 
knowing,' omniscient,' mentioned above. 

(2) Jllim-ated Nouns of Place and Instrument, so called 
because they receive the prefix ma or mi; such as, 


masjid 'place of worship'; malla? 'place of printing'; 
miftdh 'instrument for opening,' 'key ' ; mizdn (root, wazn) 
'instrument for weighing,' 'balance,' etc. etc. 

(3) Him-ateA Nouns of Action ; such ns, mahabbat 
' affection ' ; maslahat ' counsel,' etc. 

(4) Nouns formed by the addition of at, often softened to 
ah in passing through the Persian, to the Participial forms ; 
as, musibat ' misfortune ' ; muqaddama ' law-suit,' etc. 

(5) Nouns or adjectives, of which the characteristic is 
a duplication of the 2nd radical, which denotes intensive- 
ness (see F. II.) ; such as, nawwdb (Anglice, Nabob) ' a 
vi ce- regent '; sarrdf Anglice, shroff) 'a moner-changer' ; 
iayydr ' alert,' etc. etc. 


Persian Forms. 

The regular Persian pi. in dn (for things animate) is 
exemplified in ^Ij^L? sdhibnn as the pi. of sdliib, and 
JjjJu bandagdu, of bandu ' slave,' in constant use. The 
pi. in lid is occasionally met with in such phrases a 
..J'lfJG' tanhd tan 'alone,' JL^ yLs s-Uhd sal 'year after 
year.' The Persianised c^?lxjj*-0 siilajdt appears as the 
plur. of <o 4*? subah ' province,' at-i ti^l^jo. ruq'ajdt of 
<Lo , ruq'ah 'letter,' as .in alternative of the regular 
C^'U, ruq l dt. 


Arabic Forms. 

1. The regular masculine pi. in in, the daal in ain, ami 
the feminine in at, are to be met with in books and news- 
papers and legal phraseology. 

e.g., .' .-iW Jidzirin 'persons present' as the pi. of 


^f[~. lidzir. 


>t .*Jl? tarafain ('both sides') dual of < _ ;.U taraf 

O " -X -^ 

cul ,lj^>-^ ikktiydrdt 'powers' as the pi. of ,L\l>-\ 
^ .> * 


This last is the usual mode in the " derived forms " 
infinitive II. X. of the Conspectus. 

2. The " broken " plurals, used in Hindustani, may be 
classified as follows : 

CLASS 1. Plurals of triliteral verbal nouns infinitive of 
Form I. 

These chiefly occur in the form of Jbol afdl and J^j 
fu'ul. The first of these is very common, and in some 
instances the pi. thus formed is used as a singular noun in 
Hindustani : 

e.g., sing., i_^ou^ sabab ' cause,' pi. c-jljuJ asbdb. 
c-?J^ ada<b 'respect,' c__^jl dddb. 
,, i^-J waqt ' time,' ^j\j\ auqdt. 
J^~ ^ or J ^" hdl 'state,' pi. JL^-1 ahvidl 

,, ,j nur ' light,' pi. .\*j\ anwdr. 

,, _x! amr 'order,' pi. ,, c ! umur. 

'ilm ' science/ pi. ^Jj; 'ulum. 

Al'PEXDIX A. 237 

CLASS 2. Plurals of the " nomen aa^itis ' and the 
" intensive agent," and of similarly constructed verbals 

- f * 

Model forms arc Jlo /"aJ lo fn'ald 

e.g., sing., Xb. hakim 'governor,' pi. J&^ hukkdm. 

, __ ] II, tdlib 'student,' \jjj- tulaba. 

,-*> fcafciw 'sage,' U~ hukamd. 

-)^c\ amir ' chief ,' 1-^ umaid. 

^.jj^ ra'ts ' headman,' Uj ; runsu. 

Other modes of forming the plural of this class of verbal 
may seen in 

ng., i^os-Lr sahib, pi. tjlo^l aslidb ~| as j n 

-, oJsUj shdhid 'witness,' pi. jy^i shuhud j d. 1. 
jj waZt ' saint,' pi. \jjj\ auliyd. 

{\j "] aqribd. 
\ aqdtir. 

CLASS 3. Plurals of verbals of the same form as the 
above, with or 4 added (trisyllabic). 

Model forms J^^y /ai/;a't7, JJUi fa'd'il. 

e.g., sing., ajJ\j/ri't(Za 'advantage,' pi. jjlj fined* Id. 

t^zd qd-^ida 'rule,' pi. 0^1*5 qau-d'id 
->.>- jo-zira ' island,' pi. jJ^>- jazair. 
v^--JL>J^ haqiqat 'reality,' pi. ^{ji 

similarly, also sing., <JL.-. rifdla ' treatise,'pl. jJJLs, rasa' i I. 

I^^-AJ: . ra'iyat 'subject, 'pi. L>U , rn'dyd. 



(The difference in the final syllable is here due to the 
fact that the hrd radical of the root is o-) 

CLASS -1. Plnralfl of quadri literal verbals or triliterals, 
in which the prefixed augments count as radical. 

Model form JjUj 
e.g., eiog.,jb^>- jaukar ' jewel,' pi. jj>^->- jawdlrir. 
., j\ aklar, ' great,' pi. j^\ akdbir. 
M **-<; martaba 'rank,' pi. ^_^."\ ^ mardtib. 
j> J^syuu.^ masjid 'mosque,' J^L^.^ mnsaji<i. 

CLASS 5. Plurals of quinqueliterals, or triliterals in 
which the prefixed augments count as radical, and of which 
the final is preceded by a long vowel. 

Model form JuJbj fa'dlil. 
e.g., sing., ^*jlji qdnun 'law,' pi. .^JulJ qav:dnin. 

suUdn ' sultan,' pi. .jJ^^Lj saldtin. 
tadbir 'plan,' pi. juljC- taddbir. 

L J- 

iqlMn 'climate,' pi. ^jjlji aqdlim. 

\ r^ 

CLASS 6. Plurals of miscellaneous form. 

e g., sing., < _ >l_v kitdb ' book,' pi. t__^Jj> kutub. 

madina 'town,' pi. ^J^ mudun. 

mehnat 'toil,' pi. ..^j^c m&uvn. 

Other examples, under this class, may be added by the 
student in course of his reading. 


Occasionally Doable plurals are met with, which is an 
indication that the original plural is sometimes uaed as a 
singular noun in Hindustani. 

e.g., ^, rasm 'custom,' pi. .-*. rusum d. pi. o^L<-, 


jj^ jauhar 'jewel' pi. Ji!r>- jawdhir d. pi. 

>- jawdhir v t. 


Ex. mama ' striking' or ' to strike.' 

Native Nomenclature. 

Corresponding English 

3rd Pers. 

English Meaning. 


ree Tenses formed 

from the Ba 


(Which may itself be used as an Abstract Noun). 

1. Amr 

Imperative . 

mar 2 p.s. 

Strike thou. 


Strike (not neces- 

sarily at once). 

(Precative) . 

IURT"! 6 T lil^,- 

Pray strike (when or ; 

ri ega. 

as you please). 

2. MuzAri' . . j 

Aorist or Dubious ) 
or Optative . ) 

mare . 

f He strikes (perhaps) 
< or may strike. 
(. Would he may strike 

3. Nustaqbil 

Future or Presump- 


He will strike or must 




Six Tenses formed from the Imperfect Participle (Ism-ffriT). 

4. Hal 

Present . 

marta hai . 

He is striking. 

5. Hal-mashlctik . 

Present Dubious . 

marta ho . 

He is striking (per- 

haps), or may be 


6. H&l-ehtim&li . 

Present Presump- marta hoga 

He will be striking 


(perhaps), or must 

be striking. 

7. M&zi-n&tam&m 

Past Imperfect 

marta tha . 

He was striking. 

a TII- < f sharti ") 

p , (Conditional^ marta 

C Had he struck. 

!t {.tosMMMid*! 3 

s 1 Optative. ) 

| Would he had struck. 

C Had he been striking. 

9. Aizan . 

Do. do. (2nd Form) 

marta hota 

< Would he had been 

(. striking. 

Six Tenses formed from the Perfect Participle (Ism-maf'iil). 

10. Ifilzt-mwiZaq . 

Past Absolute 

mara . 

He struck. 

11. M&zt-qartb . 

Past Proximate 

mara hai . 

He has struck (re- 


12. Ifdzi-masJiftU 

Past Dubious . 

mara ho 

He struck (perhaps), 

or may have struck. 

13. M&zt-ehtim'di 

Past Presumptive . 

mara hoga . 

He will have struck. 

ormusthave struck. 

14. JMzS-ba'td . 

I'ast Remote . 

mara tha . 

He struck (some time 

ago), or had struck. 

{"Conditional") ; 

i' Had he struck ( 

15. Jfdrf- ( shart * ,,.1 
( camannat-) 

Pa ? tL (Remote H 
} Optative ^ 

mftra hcta . 

1 time ago). 
; Would he had struck 

C (3rd Form). J 

1 C. (some time ago). 



(1) For completion of conjugation in the matter of 
person, number, gender, see Ex. I. 1 for the verb h&iid, 
and for Aorist and Future Ex. IX. 67. 

(2) In respect of time, the first three Tenses are 
Future, the next three Present, and the last nine Past. 
Native grammarians place the Past Tenses first, in imita- 
tion of the Arabic manner, then the Present, then the 
Future. No. 3 is formed from No. 2 by adding gd for the 
sing, and ge pi. 

(3) In respect of Meaning, Nos. 5 and 12 serve as 
Auxiliary extensions of No. 2. 

(4) Similarly Nos. 9 and 15 serve as Auxiliary exten- 
sions of No. 8. 

(5) No 8 is formed from No. 7 by dropping the 
Auxiliary thd, and No. 15 is formed from No. 14 by drop- 
ping the Auxiliary thd, and using Jiotd in its place. 

(6) As regards the nomenclature, Muzdri 1 (No. 2) is a 
misnomer, and out of harmony with the rest of the di 
nations. It means ' resembling,' and is borrowed from 
Arabic grammar, in the tense-system of which what we 
call the Aorist has noun-like inflections. Some native 
scholars have suggested the term g air -mo'' ay y an to corre- 
spond with our term Aorist. 

(7) As regards the order of the Tenses, English gramma- 
rians place the Tense No. 8 where No. 4 stands in th- 
arrangement here adopted. In so doing they ignore tK 




fact that No. 8 is a Past Tense, formed, as said above (168), 
by dropping the Auxiliary in No. 7. 

(8) When the verb is transitive, the affix ne must be 
used with the agent in the six last Tenses of the Scheme, 
as explained in Ex. XI. 82. 

Al'l'ENDIX C. 243 



There are three difficulties in practice, viz. 
(I) The due representation of the short vowels, vi/., of 
Zabar, Zer, PcsJi, or Fatha, Kasra, Zamma. Sir "W. Jones's 
adoption of a, i, n, is undoubtedly the most convenient for 

Englishmen, and the word insular, which might be written 
* & 
J^j^ is a compendious exhibit of the sounds intended to 

be conveyed, the only objection being that, in English, a 
rarely has the sound which is here assigned to it. But, 
as a matter of fact, each of the vowels Zabar, Zer, Pesh, 
is liable to considerable modification of tone in connection 
with certain consonants, notably, so far as Hindustani is 
concerned, when the syllables in which they occur are 
closed by or j or a . A hard and fast rule is, therefore, 
misleading. Thus, the vowel Zabar has the sound of e 

rather thau a before and $ . For example, Jj^-^v is 
better written tehsil than tahsil ; and this variation in 
sound is due to the necessity of clearly aspirating the 
consonant. In several common words, such as \j^ kuhnd, 
Vj pahld, the Zabar approaches the sound of ei, and can be 
acquired by the ear only. Zabar before c hardens to 
'!, as was noticed at 85. 7, an effect due to the peculiar 
phonation of that consonant, for which see below. 

Again, the vowel Zer has the sound of e rather than t 
before $ and r when these letters close the syllable. 
Thus, ^^A^-f is tnchnat, not mihnai, and .l^^c mehmdn, 



not milimdn. In the same way iJ-*- is rightly writ leu 
Deldi, not Dihli. (Delhi is doubly wrong.) On the other 
hand, the native fashion of spelling J j is correctly given 

in DilU. Hence, too, <V. is belter rendered yeh than yih. 
Similarly, jl jotJLsl is more exactly pronounced iste'ddd than 

isti'dad, and \jj^} is e'tibdr, not i'tibdr, <J.*J fe'l, not /z'Z. 

The vowel Pesli before these same consonants is o rather 

than u, under the same circumstances. Thus ^U^^. is 

j> t- 

moJtidj,not muhtdj, and jj^,^ is rather 'ohda than 'uMa 

j> ^\ 

The pronoun ig is better rendered woh than with. Simi- 

larly, A*^ is mo'allim, not mu'alhm, aj^bt^ mo'dmalo, not 


It may be added here that, in such words as JLs or L^ 

C^ * 
which, exactly transliterated, would be fath and sulk, the 

necessity of clearly enunciating the aspirated final, pro- 
duces the di-syllabic utterances fateh and suleh. For a 
case in point see 85. u. 

(2) The representation of different consonants which 
have approximately the same sound to the European ear; 
such as, J is ^a : _ (JM .f cU , etc. The ordinary practice 
is to use one Roman letter, and to differentiate the Oriental 
letters by placing a dot or dots below this roman letter. 
The only other alternative is to invent separate symbols, 
such as those used by Prof. Newman in his Handbook of 
Modern Arabic ; but one might as well use the originals 
themselves.* The objection to the dot system is that it is 

* In the transliteration of Arabic words in the Nagri character, 
Hindu scholars make no attempt at differentiation. See Kellogg, p 27. 

APi'ENDIX C. 2i5 

not. sufficiently distinctive, and fails to catch the eye and 
impress the memory, so that when an exercise is written 
in the native character, misspelling is unavoidable by 
students who lean too much upon the romanization of the 
words. Tlie hints given in the first Exercise, if studiously 
attended to, will help to minimise the evil. The subscript 
dots are omitted in this work by way of compelling the 
student to refer to the original words. 

(3) The representation of the letter 'Ain. The real 
vocal affinity between this letter and Jlamza is indicated 
in the symbol adopted by the Arabs to denote the latter, 
which symbol is the upper portion of the 'Ain. Con- 
sequently, if the comma is accepted as a representative of 
][<imza, it is consistent pro tanto to take the inverted 
comma, inconvenient as it is, as the sign for 'Ain. 

Note. As regards the pronunciation of the 'Ain, the 
author above referred to says : " The letter Ain is not 
merely a hiatus like Ilamze, but a muscular upward jerk 
of the chest and stomach, accompanied with an elevation 
of musical note to the vowel." Whatever may be the case 
in the Desert, the Indian Mahomedan is content with a 
less spasmodic phonation. Without apparent effort he 
emits the sound directly from the larynx. 

The letter Gain, which represents the Gimel of Hebrew 
and the Gamma of the Greeks, is produced in much the 
same way, but has a harsher and coarser sound than 
''Ain. The Arabs themselves describe it as J: garr, j.Li 
or >'. gargarat 'gargling.' 



1 4 

-I I 

e ; 

<s -s *a TS 
^ b 

v> cc C S 

s - g '- ^ 

1 <S -S g 

-< e b S 

I 4 -i . i. 

V s> 4S <S *< 



L 'J 



V> V 

' "s .- v S *i * * S i i 



f 3 1 5 'i i 1 1 1 1 "i il 1 J T I s 


1, ts e * $ ? S ' T! a,"Sc S 






JA> r> A* -, 
J$ ^ ^ & ^l^Jtfyj'J ''3-3 




3 ^-\ ^- > ^> > ^> > ^> > > 

S S b l j b ,i J J J J J J J J J'l, 



< ? * $ <--^^2Z><^J 




g a g < , "5 




|si||ll^ 5 "3 " 1 1 ^ 






J ^1^^^^ l^l 1 g 1 '* < 



* ' 8, ^ e S T -O^^ 8, ^ 







k r fy 
^ : -s A> * t.J "3- } J^l 1" f 1 

O >l > i> I l> > > r-\ ::- ::< ::t t: ::J xM ::l 
VV TV Tk .^ ^ TV TV *P r P 'P 'P T 'P 'P T 






j j j jjjji c i i i ret 






ooo o^o o o^r^r^T^^^^J 1 





^J ei 

2 I 



(The numbers refer to the Exercises in which the wo;ds occur.) 


i^f\ ab now; ab to just now, 
for the present ; altak up 
to the present time, till 
now, as yet, 51. 

JuoM abdbil swallow, 1(34. a. 

JL'l abtar ruined, impove- 
rished, disorganized, 18. a. 

t j\ dbril honour; dbrii bar- 
hand to increase the ho- 
nour paid to a person, 
to honour, do honour to, 
84. p. 

<__! dp self or selves, what- 
ever the person: you, Sir, 
Your Honour; 3rd p. pi. 
(in addressing friends, 
equals, or superiors); dp 
hi, tip or dp se dp of one's 
own accord, 91. 

Uo! apndovtn; applicable to 
all persons and numbers 
(see 43); apne pi. one's 
own folk (44) ; apne dp 
ye of one's own accord. 

\jt\S\ utdrnd to take or bring 
down, 1st caus. of utarnd, 

^wuuOl at is aconite, 18. 

d did flour, 18. 

^\ dth eight. 

i ilf.'^ athdra eighteen, 68. 

ntJidnd to raise, take 
up, etc., 1st caus. of 
irltiid; uthd na ntkhiui to 
take a thing up and not 
put it down (till done 
with), 84. 

Jl CWT effect, 10. a. 



_\ oj to-day ; dj-kal now- 

a-days, 10. 
^j.l5-\ ijdzat leave, 143, 

150. a. 
gjj^s*-} ajnabi foreign, 60. a. 

achchhd good, etc. 

ehtimdl presump- 
tion, assumption, 143. a. 

lrljJU-1 eldiydt care, caution, 
circumspection, 34. a. 

,U^1 akhbdr (pi. of (khabar) 
newspaper, 122, 143. a. 

AjJ^s-l ikhtiydr authority, 
power, control, 150. a. 

.&.] dkhir at last; dkhir ko 
ditto, 187. a. 

i\~*-\ akhldq morals; akhldq 
se courteously, kindly, 60. 

( )j\ aiJab etiquette, good 

manners, 76. a. 

sc\ ddmi man, human 
being, 4. a. 

idhar hither : idhar 

udhar Id bdten small talk, 

,j*o! ddh half, 44. 
)\ .\ irdda intenti 
ruination, 51, 157. a. 

tt}\.\ irdda intention, doter- 

+\ \ dram ease, rest ; dram- 
talab lazy, ease-loving, 
indolent, 91. p. 

* ,' urdu name by which 
the Hindustani language 
was first known at Dehli, 
camp- language, 84. t. 

aristii Aristotle, 164. a. 
.l are vocative particle, 
like English 0! hallo! 
you there ! etc. 

. :\ azliaslii inasmuch as, 
157. p. 

Ljl dsdn easy, 182. 
lx-^ asbdb (pi. of sabab), 
things, baggage, furni- 
ture, etc., 18, 150. a. 
JkAJL:! iste'd dd proficiency, 
44. a. 

t*~:\ etc. iskd, isko or 
uskd usko inflected forms 
of yeh, icoli. 

i^j\*~i\ dsmdn sky, heaven, 
34. p. 

l^il dshkdr known, evident, 

34. p. 
I *\ ,*f\ ?.</ extravagance, 

12i'. a. 

"^f\ aslan totally, quite, 91. a. 

cilis^ ittild' information, 
^ 137. a. 




e'tibdr reliance, 102. a. 

t__>'JLs^ dffdb sun, 182. p. 

w---v,*^ of sos alas ! 60. p. 
ULJ^ ifshd disclosure, 70. a. 
Jl*j\ ofaZ (pi. of /e'Z) acts, 

deeds, proceedings, 176. a. 
J'j^ rg&uZ prosperity, good 

fortune, 84. a. 
,\ji\ iqrdr confession, agree- 

ment ; iqrdr k to con- 

fess, 91. a. 
UJol orUjil ikathdorikhntfa 

assembled, gathered to- 

gether in ewe place, 18. 
til aksar most, many, the 

greater number ; gene- 

I'ally, 18. a. 

&\z\ dgdh informed ; dgdhh. 

to be informed, 157; dgdh 

k. to inform, p. 
\ agar if; ayarclii al- 

though, 176. p. 

*\ or \\ a^ra 27, proper 

< S_\ age in front of, before, 
in comparison with, 27,97. 
albntta certainly, a. 

ultd up-turned, 198; 
ulti liaicd adverse wind. 
c \ amr thing, matter, pro- 
ceeding, affair, etc., 60, 
137. u. 

awnr (from same root as 
above), prince, ruler, 193. 

dmclani income, 137. 

imkdn possibility, IPS. 

ummedirdr hoping. 
143; applicant for eni- 
ployment, 198. p. 

\j\ and to come; d-jdnd to 
arrive, 187 ; due-do let 
him come, 76. 

^*\j\ atidri rustic, 60. 


.Uixjl ititizdr expectation, 
waiting, 84. a. 

*UiJu\ intizdm administra- 
tion, 109. a. 

iu\ andar inside, within, 

U*J\ insdn human beincr, 
176; insdniyat humanitv, 
44. a. 

Ju*Jl insiddd prevention, 
putting down, 27. a. 

j\ dnkh eye, 102. 114. 

angrez English (ap- 
plied to person?), 84. 

.J&1 wigli finger, 27. 

-,y died; voice, sound, 11. ;>. 
j \ upar over, above, 97. 


^!M ov Uf>\ iithnd to rise, 
get up. 

~:J .~:J uskd, iisko infl. 
s j j 

forms of ?o/i. 

i^'Js.', awgdi (pi. of tt-agi) 
limes, 164; wage, means, 
198. a. 

jjjfc. JjsA alili-hirfa trades- 
men, 193. a. 

aisd such, so, like this. 

(P- 2/ a ^) one, a or an. 
l a'tna mirror, 143. />. 

ju &c6i* Hindu title of re- 
spect, corresponding w'th 
our ' Master,' 8^b. 

( _ } \j bap father. 

C^'b &ai word, thing, matter 
(ace. to context), 4; gai 
guzri bat thing of the 
past, bygones, 198. 

jb MeWkdAroyal|l8.j. 

- &a,7aZ cloud, 109. 

* A.' Za'W^ rainfall. 10. p. 

5>,lj fcar/m (Persian pi.) 
-^ ' . . 

many times, again and 

agdn, 198. p. 
^j\j bdri turn; bdri bdri 
(se) in turn, turn-about, 

Aj bdz back; to 
leave off, 1T; bd:-dnd 
do., 114, 176. p. 

twJ\\j bdz-purs inquiring, 
questioning, !;/. p. 

c\j bag garden, 111. p 

^b bdqi mutineer, rebel, 
84. a. 
^{j bdqi d le, left, 44. a. 

A\j bdl child, 130; bdl- 
bachche children. 

ty\j bdldi over ; extra, 


general (as applied to a 
charge, or duty), 130. p. 

iJb bilfe'l at present, 198. 

bdndhnd to bind, 
fasten, 109 ; zin lag dm b. 
to put on saddle and 
bridle, 68. 

39-.ij bd-wujiid notwith- 
standing, 122. a. 
j bdkar ontside; 76; bd- 
liar Jed sdhib a stranger 
or visitor, 34. 

bd'en construct form 
of bdydn left, 130. 

-lL' bat and to say, declare, 
state, tell, etc., 122, 137. 

esT bajnd to strike (of tin) 
hour) ; bajd, baje corre- 
spond to our 'o'clock,' 



114; b.ijdnd to strike, 
beat, 193, 1st caus. of 
^j^^'bi-jinsihi intact,150. a. 

LA^~ or \j LSAJ^ bachnd or bach 

v 7*- 

jdnd to escape, 164. 
Uu^. bichl/nd to be spread, 

lj t ;^ bichJwnd bedding, 130. 

t^ bachcha babe, child, 
V 176. p. 

\.x^ bakhshnd to give, 
bestow on, pardon, 84. 

t \^jj bad-karddr ill-doer, 
) > 

157. p. 

<.s>^l<Jo bad:mizdji bad- 
temper, 193. p. 

.,v\JJy bad-ndmi disgrace, 
w '27. f). 

.r^ c^J^jo ba-zdt-i-khiid in 

person, 187. a. 
' j 6v? - a ill, bad, etc.; burd- 

vidnnd, to take a thing 

ill, 187. p. 

j\j bardbar like, equal to, 
' 137, 51. p. 
^ , _^ birddari brotherhood, 

caste-fellows, 34. p. 
,^ I Saras year, 164. 


', Ju .- barandd verandah, 150. 

\*b bard great (in most of 
the English senses), 10, 
51 ; is also used in the 
sense of ' very ' ; bard 
old or elder (as noun), 

[jjt'lj barlwd to increase, 
^row, be extended, 122 ; 
barhkar more, 102. 

t^f.jj buzurg venerated, 60. p. 

bas enough, hold ! 
'that's all,' 'and nothing 
else,' 51, 193. p. 

bas power, 76. 

bashra countenance, 
198. a. 

j ba'd after (post.), 44, 
137. a. 

u ba l z some (used ns pi. 
of koi), 182. a. 

Joc bagicha garden, 76. p, 
tj bagair without, 97. a 
^o bakri she-goat, 76. 
jo bikri selling, 1 82. 

bald misfortune, 114; 
b<ild kd awful or terrible, 
60; bald se bother it! 
76, 198. a. 

balki but, nay more, 
rafher, 11>7. p. 



,jJu bandar monkey, 176; 
bandri she-monkey, 130. 

...xJvj banduq gun, 68. p. 

(j ^ Joj band-hcnd to be 
'shut, 114. 

i^oo^Ju ba-nisbat in com- 
parison with 60. p. 

( JlGj bengdli (of Bengal), 
bangld bungalow, 10. 

bannd to be made, 
managed, etc. 164 ; ban- 
ana to make, 1st cans, of 
above, 102 ; band-lend to 
build or make for one- 
self, 84; ban-pari'd to be 
managed (somehow), 76. 

A J\ ,-AJ beni-ddam man- 
kind, i 93. a. 
->-.j boih weigh, 137. 

T . y ' 

Ijy;*.' bnrhd old, old man, 34. 

'JO*- 1 bolud to speak, utter 
sounds, 68; bol-uthud to 
speak suddenly, ejacu- 
late, 76, 187; buldnd 1st 
cans., to call, 97. 

-?,l-' bhdri heavy, .'7. 

bhdgnd to flee, to scud 
(of clouds), 109 ; bhdijtd 
runaway, i'7. 
jl^j bhui brother, mate, 51. 


>.hdr spring, 164. p. 
bahut very, much, 10. 
bhatijd nephew, 84. 
-Lj behtar better, p. 

Jl>. ^j ba-har-hdl in every 
case, on the whole, 91. 

\j .^.t bharnd to fill; bhar- 
dend int., 10?. 

bhusd chaff (fodder), 

\ well ! 76, 187. 
sister, 84. 

. baliu - betiydn 
(younger women of a 
family), 137. 

.*> bhoj name of an an- 
cient Hindu monarch, 187. 
b^. bhiikhd hungry, fani- 
' ished, 18. 

^ bhi also, even, too 
Jctichh bhi anything at 
all ; 7coV bhi anyone at all. 

j 67i,e/natosend,84, 130; 
bhijwdnd or bhijwd-dend 
to cause to be sent, 76. 

-> tAer sheep; 67(67- ia.tri 
sheep and goats, 76. 
j be without, 97 ; bc-tamiz 
silly, indiscreet, 176; be- 



dil out of heart, dis- 
heartened, 198. p. 

. iLvj bay an description, 157; 
b. karnd to describe, 68, 
84, 16 1. a. 

_, _, b!bi lady, wife, 109. p 

liiuo bttd son, 70 ; beti 

^Juo baithnd to sit; 
it nd to seat, 102; 
rahnd to remain seated, 
150; baithe-bithde at ease, 
coolly, without effort, 
etc., 109. 

bich middle : bich kd 

^-middle, 27 ; bich men in 
the middle (of what is 
going on), 187. 

bechobd kind of tent 
(poleless), 84. p. 
uo beddr awake, 143. p. 

" ' 

biii twenty, 34. 

j begum fern, of beg, 

1 198. t. 

,Lu,y bimdr sick, a sick 
person, 97, 164; bimdri 
sickness, 114, 193. p. 

MJ'J |?>' by, near to, in pos- 
session of ; j>os Ai close 
by, '27. 

a to find, obtain, ac- 
quire, 109, 150. 

i-iJb or . u *b or .j\j pdnon or 

***J -t "*' / / S f 

paon or pdrnv foot, 60. 
Jb j3cit water, rain, 10, 
51 ; paru Ara jjant really 
water, the real thing. 

'li pd'o quarter, 114. 

\Jj paid trace, address (of a 

"letter), 10, 182. 
Uu pittd spleen, or will ; 

pitta - marl kd kdm 
painstaking work, 102. 

y par on. See 50 (2). 

j par but. 

\.j parwd care, anxiety, 
^0. p. 
lj*>t*r> parwarith cherishing, 

taking care of, 44. p. 
\j ! j parnd to fall, befal, 
happen, lie, 51; par-jit "<t 
to be brought to bear, 157. 

lo-p parhnd to read, li 1-. 
, o*j pa* so, 187. 

pasand pleasant ; p. 

and to be agreeable, 44; 

pasamlida, agreeable, 176. 


-vi.J punht generation 

(past), ancestry, 137. p. 



pakarnd to seize, take, 
catch, etc., 91, 150; palc- 
rdi dend to be caught or 
catchable, 91. 
Jo pul bridge, 164. 

palang bed, 102. 

pandrawdn fif- 
teenth, 143. 
UGu pankhd fan, 114. 
b'j potd grandson, 27. 

Lxi=>--) pucMind to ask. make 
inquiry, 143 ; puchh- 
puchhke asking and ask- 
ing, 76. 

\ ,j purd full, complete, 44. 

Jj paune a quarter less, 

^_^ j .* 

.IX^J phitkdr curse, 102. 

Lvlii phatnd to be broken 
or burst, to open (as the 
earth in an earthquake) 
109, 171. 

Ujl^iJ pahchdnnd to know, 
recognise, 68, 109. 

^j phir then, 91, 187. 

.) pahar eighth part of a 
day, equal to three hours, 
a watch, 114; do paliar 
noon, 60. 

\^,j pahrd sentry, 157; p. 
lag and to post a sentry. 

U-w pliirnd to wander about. 

traverse, 176. 
v i,.,j pallid first; pahle before 

(se), 193. 
UL\J^ pahnnd wear (clothes), 

etc., 91, 137. 
IAJ^J pliutnd to be broken ; 

pMtd pdni boiling watei-, 

IJLxryj pahunchnd to an-ive; 

pahunch-jdi'.d int., 76. 
\j _vz.' pJiernd to return ; >7ier- 

(?e//a to give back, 187. 
Ulxy phailnd to spread, 

,Lu pydr love, affection, 176. 

/jwljo pyds thirst, 97. 

L\iLw pitnd to beat ; sir 
pitnd to beat the head in 
token of grief, 143. 
f^j^j piclihe behind, 97. 

" v " * 

L\.u paidd ^produced, ci-eated, 
born, 10, 18. p. 

Jjuo paidal footmai), oc 
foot, 27, 143. p. 

i_ ^.xj painnci pursuit, prose- 
cution, 157. jo. 

esfe before; pesh-dnd 
to treat, 60; pesha pro- 
fession, occupation, 137 ; 



peshgi advance of mo- 
ney), 51 ; pesJn present- 
ment, 176. p. 

pmd to drink ; pildnd 


to make drink, 130. 




in order that, etc. 
155.) p. 

?..\j tar ikh date, 143, 176. a. 

il x,\j tdza-wdrid newly 
arrived, 18. a. p. 

tdham yet, still, 197, p. 

tapdk zeal, warmth, 
130. p. 

c _sr tujhJfo or tujhe 
objective form of tu. 

jjusrxr tehsiltldr collector 
(native official), 187. a. 

;jl5\jL>Jiy tahqiqdt investiga- 
tion, 187. a. 

i/JJ tazkira mention, 137. a. 

V _^AJ^ V tarqib temptation ; i. 
dend to induce, 157. a. 

^jc< v tarmim emendation ; 
t. karnd to correct, 
emend, etc., 01. a. 

^-j^yjj tashkhis diagnosis, 
97. a. 

^_g_t asjvhonouring (by 
a visit), 91; t. farmdnil, 
t. land to visit, 198; t 
lejdnd to depart, a. 

,^aj' tasamcur imagination; 
t. karnd to imagine, sup- 
pose, 150. a. 

y 4fc aJ' taswir picture, 68. a. 

^fljti ta'arruz interference, 

176. a. 

v_gj L ^a'?-{/ praise, defini- 
tion, 34, 102. a. 
Joda*3' fa'^Z holiday, vaca- 
tion, 44. a. 

fa'lim education, 122; 
ta'lim - i - niswdn female 
education, a. 
lJUotJ' ta'mdt Ar. pi., lit. 
appointments ; ta'indt k. 
to tell off (for duty), to 
appoint, 84. a. 

takalluf ceremony, 
trouble, 171. a. 
Z&i taldsh search ; t. karnd 
to search for, 68. p. 
liijj talaffuz pronunciation, 

60. a. 
+j turn you, pi.; tumJun-il 

your; tnmhen you. 
Li)LJ' tamdshd (taking 
amusement or recreation), 
a bit of fun, spectacle, 
10. a. 




LxtJ tamiz discretion, dis- 
cernment, 171. a. 
Ju tambdku tobacco, 18. 

^...AJJ tandurust in good 
health, 150. p. 

tanlchwdh'p&y, 193. p. 

tang tight, short 
(time), 10. p. 
j' tu thou. 

tj to illative particle, 9; to- 
bM yet, nevertheless, not- 

Li' tawd griddle, 198. 

s_>" top gun; fop-da</vgun- 

"fire, 114. 

\ K .*ii tJiord small, little, 51, 
\ _xi' terd thy, thine. 

,\lj .jjJ tez-raftdr swift, fleet, 


rick, 143. 
piece, 130. 

thdnd police-station; 
thane - tfaW policeman, 

jU^Luj tfiekeddr contractor, 

60. p. 

teli oilman, 187. 


^m three; ^o?i all three 

' U>- jdgnd to be awake, 97, 
114, 193. 

^<^~ jdmi 1 masjid 
congregational mosque, 
the Chief Mosque (in 
Dehli), 97. a. 

\^- jdn life, 1 64. p. 

jdnd to go; jd-cTitdcnd 
to have already gone, 76. 
cJtXjl^ 9 - jdnkani, death- 
agony, the being at the 
point of death, 114. 
Uuls- jdnnd to know, 171; 

jdn-lend do., 143. 
Ijj^p- jitnd as many as, the 

amount which, 135. 
jbjo- jidhar whither. 
SJ^'jS" jazira island, 187. a 
*&- . i^_^_^s>-just oju search, 
'l76. p. 

.jJI (>j*>- fi s qadr equiv. to 


^f-9- jagah place, 60, 1^:!. 
\jj)iL-^ jnJdhd weaver, 34. 

A]^- jild volume (lit. parch- 
ment), 182. a. 

Lx-*j>- jamund orjamnd, 68. 

t >- jinn genius, demon, 97 

4 ^_ jo who, which, etc. 135 , 
jiskdjinkd, etc. inflect. 



L_I\ ^y- jawdb answer, 76 ; 

j. ihnd to reply, 171. a. 

^ *5>- jnwdn young, vigorous, 

JU.P- jotnd to yoke, 114. 

+*>- jokhim risk, 143. 

*>- jogi religious mendi- 
cant, ascetic, etc., 97. 

il^ .^;>- jauldn-gdh riding- 
school, 171. p. 

o*jf j un r jaun as ; jonhin 
precisely as ; jon kd ton 
as before ; jaun taun 
somehow. (See 149.) 

_*:>- jauhar jewel, excel- 
lence, faculty, 176. a. 

li ! ;Ujf- jlidrnd to sweep, 150. 

L,r>- j'fhdz ship, 91. a. 

s \ ' 

i^L^ jehdn world, 60. p. 

-L^sfc. jehdn \vhere ; jelidn- 
l>ar where to ; jehdn se 

\'l^s" jhagrd quarrelling, 
sedition, mutiny, 102, 193. 

>- jhalnd to swing, 114. 

jhuth lie, falsehood, 

ji soul, spirit, life, 
energy, 97 ; ji lacjdnd to 
apply the mind, 164. 

^ ji (title of respect), Sir 


jind to live, 164. 

n as (manner), 149. 

chdddn teapot, 102. p. 

,Us- char four. 
j t 

J\JSO J.U>- chdl-dhdl man- 
ners, behaviour, 44. 

chdnd moon, 109. 

chdhndto wish, desire, 
love, 130 ; hud chdhnd to 
be about to happen. 

chdhie see 90. 
c \ ~. chirdg lamp, 109. p. 

Lsj>- charsd hide (of land), 

L> _>- chiriyd bird, 60. 

Lx>'-;>- charhnd to ascend 

^/ V > 

114, 137; charh-baithndto 
go up and sit, 102 ; din- 
charhnd forenoon, 114 ; 
sahm-charhnd (par) panic 
to seize a person, 193. 



chasm - numai 

reprimand (prop, by the 
look), 122. p. 

ohalnd to move, go, 
etc. ; chalie chaliegd 91 ; 
chaldnd 1st cans. 198; 



chaltd thriving, recur- j 
ring; chaltd-phirtd nazar 
and to be on the move, 
to be off, 193, chd-dend 
to start, set off, etc., 91. 

>}\ju>- chundnchi, accord- 
"ingfy, 130, 187. p. 

jj^ chand some, some few, 
several, 44 ; chanddn 
somewhat, 76. p. 

a jje^ chanda'levj, subscrip- 

tion, contribution, 137. p. 

_ clior thief, 18; chor- 

} "jehdz pirate-ship, priva- 
teer, 91 ; chor-darwdza 
postern, back door, 157. 

^J,^>~ chori theft, 44; chori- 
'hond to be stolen; chori- 
karnd to steal. 

cliauM chair, 34. 

chokidar watch - 
man, 84. 

<\ ^-v. chunki as, since, 157. 


li'-l) t_^J^>- chaunk-parnd to 
y start up from sleep, 157. 

\Ju U>. chhdpnd to print ; 
chhapwdnd to get printed, 

chhotd small, young, 


U4jfr>- chhutnd to be loose, 


leave, be set free, be let 
go, 91, 150. 

t >~ chhornd to set free, 
etc., 1st causal of above, 
150, 171 ; chhor let alone, 
68; chhor-dnd to leave 
(and come away), 109. 

chirnd to split, 130. 

x-^ cMz thing, 34. p. 

->-U>~ hdjat want, need, 
137, 171. a. 

fidsil resultant ; hdsil 
Jiond to be obtained) 
176. a. 

-l>. hdzir present, in wait- 
ing, ready, 4, 10, 60. a. 

,J\->. 7aZ state, condition, 
circumstances, present 
time, 187 ; Mlat do. do. 
status, 176; hdldnki al- 
beit, 176. a. 

hasan prop, name, 
(Mahomedan), 198. a. 

^s- hazrat Excellency, 
religious title of saints, 
etc., 187. a. 

huzur presence (of a 
superior), terra of obse- 
quious address, 27, 34; 
ap ke huzur, 70. a. 

Jiukm order, command, 
, 182. a. 

>r *= 



hikmat science, 171. 

hakim physician, 68, 
1 " 1-22. a. 
^..s*. hall solution; h. karnd 

to solve, 171. a. 
\t~*. hawdla reference; ha- 

wdla dend to quote, or 

refer to, 193. a. 
,.i^j^>- hairdn being in 

^ ^ 

doubt, at a loss, perplexed, 
143. a. 

khdskar especially, 
^ 102. 

^JUi. Hafc lit. dust, used 
idiomatically for kuchh, 
10,68. p. 

.UL>. khdtir heart; meri khd- 
tir obliging me, 157 ; khd- 
tir-Tihwdh suited to one's 
ideas, or tastes, 198. a. 

JU- khdli empty, 10; 
^ sometimes 'only,' 'barely,' 
198. a. 

J:^<'o- khdmosh silent, 182. 


j^ kJmbar news, intelli- 
gence,114, 187; care, 193; 
khdbarddr take care ! 34. 

God, 84; khudd 
ki qasam By heaven ! 34. 

L^-.<Joi. khidmat service, 

102. a. 
_ ^. kharch money for ex. 

penses ; kharch-hond to 

be expended ; kharch- 

karnd to expend, 34. p. 
ei-^t a^r^- khusumat enmity, 

193. a. 
last. fc%a^ letter, 76, 84 ; line 

(geom.), 102. a. 

khatd offence, sin, 

crime, 91. a. 

khatra danger, 164. . 
JbL khafd angry, 91. p. 

jiUL khildf contrary to 

60 ; khilaf-ma'mul un- 
usual, 137; khildf-qiyds 
inconceivable, 34, 137 ; 
khildf -adab contrary to 
etiquette, 76. a. 

i-L*v*>- kJiamydzah retribu- 
tion ; kh. khainchnd to 
suffer retribution, 137. p. 

j\*~ khwdb dream ; kh. 
dekhnd to dream, 193. p. 
khwdja title of re- 
spect, like our Mr., 84, 
198. p. 

*s*- kJiwdh either . . . or, 
193; khwfih ma-k)iu'<i\ 



will he nill lie, 176; 
khwdltdn desiring, desi- 
rous of, 27 ; khwdhish 
desire, inclination, 187. p. 
c->p- khub well, 68, 164. p. 

jrk Jchud self (with all per- 
sons), 44, 150. p. 

,. khusli pleased, 193 ; 
khush-hdl well off, com- 
fortable, etc., 198. p. 

Jlxri- khaydl thought, ima- 
gination, 198. a. 

_^ khair well ! 18, 182. a. 

ddkhil entering ; 
ddkhil hond to enter, be 
admitted, 60. a. 

c \ j ddg spot, blemish, 150. a. 

i\\ j c7aZ pulse, 18. 

^j dam price, 4. 

,*bj dabdu pressure, 157. 

UuJ dabnd to be pressed 
down ; dai zdbdn se in 
subdued tones, gently, 
102; dabe 'i don with 
light tread, 109. 

u l> J dakhl entrance, power 

of interference, 109. 
ci\j iJ darbdri, darbdri ka- 
prd full dress, 91. ^). 

/.iuo J darpesh on the tapis; 
in prospect, ready for pre- 
sentation, etc., 34. p. 

&>-.,* darja degree, 193. a. 

lf,J durga prop. name 
' (Hindu). 

i-.l,J dancdza door, 150. p. 

lj j daryd river, sea, 109. 
" 157. a. 
Ci-ib IL> darydft finding out ; 

d. karnd to find out, 76. ^. 
i_j ,j dareg reluctance ; rfo- 

regr fc. to grudge, 157. p. 
s ten. 

t} dast-khatt signature 
! hand), 109. p. 

dasehrd a festival 
held on the 10th Jaith, 44. 

J dasu-dn tenth, 44. 

J dusJiman enemy, jp. 
For peculiar use, see 199 

JjJ dusliwdr difficult; 
chanddn d. nahin not so 
very difficult, 76. p . 

zj dw'a prayer, salutation, 
114. a. 

da'wat feast, enter- 
tainment ; invitation, 34, 
171. a. 



dikhdnd (1st caus. of 
delchnd) to show ; di- 
khai dend to be visible, 
J^J dalil proof, 164. a. 

^ j dam breath, time ; du>u 
waft we?i aa (breath 
coming into nose), gasp- 
ing for breath ; marts dam 
at time of death, 114. p. 

^p dm day, 44 ; din-liar 
all day, 1U9 ; a x e dtn 
every day, 102. 
\jjj dunyd world, 102. a. 

. j Jo two ; donon the two, 
both, 18 ; do pahar noon. 

\tj dawd medicine, 18, 114. 

^JtO.J dudl milk, 44, 176. 

, tki > dur distance, or dis- 
tant, 4 ; bari dur se a 
long way off, 91 ; diir-bin 
telescope, 176. p. 

L--.J dusrd second, other, 
10, 91. 

J^J.j du-latti kicking with 
both heels (of a horse), 

, Jjs>j or ^Jj dehlioT dill!. 

,!JOL) diddr sight (of per- 
son), 60, 182. p. 

^j J der or Jy.J ?<?/* delay, 

r>i. p. 

t belonging to 
country, 18 ; country, 
bred, 87. 

j dekhud to see, to look 
for, 68, 182; deJ:hd-d,-Mi 
imitation, following ex- 
ample of, 130. 
j j rfm religion, 137. jp. 

IJuJ <Ze?ja to give. 

^ j da/.- a dacoity, 187. 

^T u-5^5 daA; ghar post-office, 
4; dtt^ bangld dak-bun- 
galow, 27. 

UJ'5 ddlnd to throw, cast ; 
ddl-dend to cast (into), 

Uj j dubnd sinking, descend- 
ing, 114; din. dubnd af- 

li .5 darnd to fear, 109, 143. 

LAJ.J di'ibnd to sink; (7/<- 
mamd to be drowned, 

J.j J/i! litter, 51. 

ylfcj d/jn two and a half, 
51 ; dhd'i sau two hun- 
dred and fifty. 

L^ fCuo dhang fashion, man- 
ner of life, ' 



dhol drum, 193' ; dh. 
bajdnd to beat a drum. 
j>5 dhundhnd to seek. 
search for, 68, 193. 

derh one and a half. 
10 ; derh baje half-past 
one ; derh sau a hundred 
and fifty. 

J zarra just a little, 76, 
91. a. 

cj.J zari'a means; zari'a 
se by means of, 176. a. 
mention, 182. a. 

zimma charge, respon- 
sibility ; merd zimma ' I 
warrant it,' 164. a. 

CLj}. fdt night; rat ko at 

night, 51. 
\p>~\j rdjd Hindu title, head 

of Kshatri caste, 187. 
\ , rdz secret, mystery, 76. p. 
,f^\j fdzi satisfied, con- 
"" tented, 97, 193. a. 
J\ , rani fern, form of rand, 

a Raj pat title ranking 
above Raj A,, 114. 

, rah road, way, 143 ; rats 
chaltd Avayfarer, 97. p. 
-V^ZJS- , rukhsat leave ; r. 
hond to take leave, 76 ; 
r. karnd to dismiss, 44; 
r. lend to take leave (of 
absence), 84. a. 

or tS~i\ . rasta or rdsta 


road, way, 76. p. 
^. rassi rope, 97. 
\j\j <UJj , rishta-ndtd kin- 
ship, 60. p.h. 

. raJchnd to put, place, 
hold, 102 ; raTch-lend to 
keep for one's own, 187. 

riwdj customary, 137. a. 

li, rawdna started, de- 

spatched, 18. p. 
,.', rubaJedr proceedings 

(written official), 68. 
^jo i . rupaya money, 10; a 

^j. , rofi bread (leavened or 

unleavened), 10. 
^ , roz day ; roz ros daily, 

44,102. p. 
^t rumi inhabitant of 

Rum, the Sultan of Tur- 

key, 193. 

lj . rond to weep. 109. 
, ,JU, rihai release, 187. p. 

^_* j * 

. , 



\JUJ>. rahnd to remain, dwell, 
stay, abide ; rah-jdnd to 
be left over, or behind, 
int. 51. 

, ralt-numai showing 


the way, guidance, 84. p. 

j . rais chief, 198. a. 
Jb . rel railway or railway- 
train, 27, 44. e. 

+~\ zaJihm wound, 51. p. 

\ * 

^\j zabdn language ; ba- 
zabdn-i-hdl ' in such lan- 
guage as an animal has,' 
176; zabdni by word of 
mouth, used as a prep. 
or post., 34. p. 

, zar money ; zar-khartd 
purchase-money, 76. p. 

^jLe- zamdna time, fortune, 
60. p. 

,*xj zamin earth, land, 34; 

W " J 

zaminddr landowner, p. 
"; zanjir chain, 60. p. 

Lj zinhdr beware ! 76. p. 
>t .' zln saddle, 68. p. 

jLi sdth companionship, 
27 ; sdthi companion, 

157 ; sdth postp. with> 
60 ; sdth-dend to accom- 
pany, 91. 

^La sdth sixty, 143. 

\ .L> sard all, the whole, 84. 

^yL, sdrhe a half more, 114. 

jLjSaZyear; sdlhd -ml year 
after year, for years, 176. 

, uJLs sdis syce, groom, 34. a. 

JJLs sail questioner, peti- 
tioner, 182. a. 

t^^j sab all, every, 18 ; sab 
Tee nab the whole lot, 27 ; 
sabhon pi. of totality, 176. 

L^^I^ sabab cause, 68 ; as 
a postp. 76. a. 

saiaq lesson, 44. a. 

sipdhi or s'pdhi sepoy, 
soldier, policeman, 18. p. 
sitdnd to worry, op- 
press, bully, 198. 

...U-j sattdwan fifty-seven, 

i^jJU-j satldis twenty - 
seven, 68. 

.^v^j sakht very, 122. p. 

^ sir head, 193 ; sir (par) 
]n i ml to annoy, 97. 

^ sar head ; sanldr cliiof, 
head servant or ' bearer,' 
143; sarkdr governmoni ; 



sar-guzasJtt adventures, 
84, 164. p. 
\^t sird end, extremity, 122. 

<-$\ ]M t sarae ' serai,' inn, 60. 


tU-1 .-j sarishta office, 27 ; 
sarishta-ddr head of of- 
fice (native), 34, 60. p. 

t_&~s sarak road, 27, 44. 

sastd cheap, 18. 

j safar journey; safar k. to 
journey, to travel, 157. a. 

-\L-: satiqa taste, breeding, 
manners, 27. a. 
Ly-s samdnd to be swal- 
lowed up (lit. to be con- 
tained in), 171. 
.xyw samajh thinking, 
150 ; samajhnd, to under- 
stand, think, 84, 193; 
samajhlend do. ; samjhdnd, 
1st caus., to explain ; 
samjhdlend, do., do. 

sunnd to hoar, 97; 
sundi dend to be audible, 

sanad authority, 27. a. 

or fj^i san year, 68. a. 
_j sa hundred, 10. 

\^ sawd quarter more, 114 ; 
sawd-sau one hundred and 

or t^* sited or siwde 
% > 

besides, except, 150. 
fLd su'dl question, 
problem, 171, 182. a. 
X>-*-J sochnd to think, 187. 

v V 

^ ^ >i~t suraj - gaJian 
eclipse of the sun, 143. 

; so/asleep- 
ing 1 , sleep, 97 ; 8one-wdld, 
c _ tj^ savere early, 11-i. 

li'L*. ; sohdgd borax, 18. 
pj^i saTim panic, 193. a. 

\"tj^i mJican inadvertently, 
164. a. 
_,^ sahi for the idiomatic 

v^ ; \ 

sense of this particle, see 
150 (&iV), 176, 182. 

siydhi ink, 68. p. 

sayyid appellative of 
the Prophet's descend- 
ants, 60. a. 

._w ser a weight (about 2 
Ibs. av.), 44. 

. ti'iiLx-j saikron hundreds, 
\.^s - 

122 ; P. sadhd, plural of 

siTfhnd to learn, 164 

to sew, sewing, 




ii shddi marriage, wed- 
ding, 31. p. 
_oLi shd'ir poet, 60. a. 
^Li sham evening, 114. 
a Li shah king. p. 

shdh-russttic Czar, 
King of Russia, 193. 

shay ad perhaps, 97. p. 
*_; .LxJj shabdrozi of night 

-x -^-' ' 

and day, 164. 

.^L^yi shakhs person, fellow, 
individual, 10. p. 

Cl^.U-i> sliardrat wickedness, 
114. a. 

!?- shart condition, bet, 44. 

^^i sharm shame, 68. p. 

c. Jj shuru 1 beginning; shu- 
rd'-hond to begin, 44 ; sh. 
karnd to begin, trans, a. 

j i A shaiir wicked, 122. a. 

i_5o A shank sharing, part- 
ner, 18. a. 
_\lti shatir a beam, 130. a. 

,jl>-lJLi) shifo.-khdtia dispen- 
sary, 60. a. p. 

,\^j^i shnkr-guzdr thank- 
ful, grateful, 27. p. 

w-t ^ia^r city, 114, 193. ja. 
^ s^ai thing, 51. a. 
_v^ *^er lion or tiger, 143. p. 

lord, master, 
appellative of English- 
men in India, 34; sdhi- 
bdn or sdltib log, pi. a. 

so/ clean, 68. a. 
s ahn courtyard, 76. a. 
sahih correct, 84. a. 

198. a. 

sir/ only, 164. a. 

uJ^ sar/ expenditure, sarf- 
i-zar do., 182. a. 

c^\Ltf ^/a^ q a ality, attribute 
(tech. adjective), 84. a. 

_iLs saldh what is right, good 
advice, counsel, etc., 187- 

subah province ; siibajdt 
Pers. pi. 18. a. 

surat, appearance, 
good looks, 97. a. 

siya form, tense-form, 
157 ; siga-i-mdsi past 
tense, a. 



tbj\*a zdbita rule, regulation, 

34. a. 
j^ zuZcZ opposition, vexatious 

conduct, 176. a. 

,. -4J zarur, necessary, neces- 
sarily, 34, etc. a. 

e zila' district, side, 51. a. 

i_ Jl^ tdlib-'ilm seeker of 
knowledge, student, 34. a. 

ei ' Ijjp tibdbatilae profession 
of medicine, 76. a. 

Js tar ah manner, way, 
etc., 76. a. 

<_ U tara/ direction, side, 
150 ; taraf-ddn siding 
with, 157. a. 

<Ujl> tariqa plan, method, 

way, 44. a. 
. .^ ^awr manner; bataur (ke) 

in the shape of, like, 150. 

AjJ? sometimes wiitten .\jj 
ready, 4, 164. a. 

zaZz'm tyrant, 109. a. 

JLC 'dlam world, 176. a. 
CU.ljLc 'eldrat style, diction, 
written text, 164. a. 

i _ A.IC. 'e/a& reproof, repri- 
mand, 34. a. 

j_ ^^c 'ajb wonder, 164; ajb 
k., to wonder, a. 

,.; c 'arabi the Arabic lan- 
guage, Arabic, 18. a. 
jjUlc 'isza^ honour ; 'izzat-ddr 
honourable, held in re- 
spect, 27. a. 

'j'.. 'aziz (from same root 
as above) dear, a friend 
or intimate, 157; 'aziz 
ra-Jchnd to hold dear, to 
value, 193. a. 

UiC. ( atd gift ; l atd Tcarnd to 
bestow, 171. a. 

l aql common sense, in- 
telligence, wisdom, 84. a. 

'alts reflection (opti- 
cal), 68. a. 

'eldj cure, 76. a. 

'aldlat indisposition, 
76. a. 

'aldmat mark, sign, 
denotation, 157. a. 

J,_c. 'Urn knowledge, 176. a. 



^ 'mdaexcellent,176. a. 
*. f umr life, age, 164. a. 

s. 'amal action, practice; 

'(imaZ k. (par") to act upon, 

104. a. 
Ui-olJLe 'endyat favour .kind- 

ness ; 'en. karnd or /ar- 

?ana to grant, 143, 187; 

'en. Aona to be granted ; 

l en. ndma a letter. 51. a. 
d^, 'aurat woman, 76. a. 

v_^\ 'at& defect (in mind or 

body), wrong, 198. a. 
.^z 'ain (lit. eye) 198. a. 

gdftliorgetfu.]; gdfilso- 
nd to sleep sound, 109. a. 

,tJ\. gdnim name of a wor- 
1 thy in the Alf Laila, 164. 
iiXc gadr mutiny, 68. a. 

v__^.^ garib poor, pauper, 
193; garib-khdna humble 
abode (used by an infe- 
rior in mentioning his 
house or home), 91. a. 

gussa anger : gusse an- 
gry, 51. o. 

.^.A gazab misfortune, 
something awful or calami- 
tous, 27, 130. a. 

Jx ?/ uproar, noise, 143. a. 

^Lz goldm slave, used by an 
inferior instead of 1st 
pers., 27,44. a. 
c <7aZa wrong, 137. a. 

] gol-kamard draw- 
ing-room, 102. a. 
U yxi gairat sense of shame, 
150. . 


a? 4 st Persian, the 
Persian language, 18. ^>. 
Jjs'j/a't'Z agent (gr.), 157. a. 
J3U/0M1 extra, spare, 18. 

j Ju LJ fd'ida profit,ad vantage, 
27, 176. a. 

i-pU>A5 fateJigarh (lit. Vic- 

tory-Fort) 84. 
^sji /a/r early morning, 114 


a devoted (par) 176. a. 

i\i fidwi (same root as 
above), devoted (used by 
an inferior in speaking of 
self, like goldm, kamtarin 
etc.), 91. a. 

j*yt\jl fardnwsli-kdi-i, 
forgetf ulness, omitting to 
mention, 44. p. 



J:J farsh carpeting, 34, 
102. a. 

-i fur sat leisure, 44. a. 
^ j farq difference, 34, 51 ; 

dissension, 137. a. 
v_^.t j /arefr deceit, 143. a. 

jluJ fasdd disturbance, re- 
bellion, tumult, etc., 27. a. 

j-oj /'wZ season, 164. a. 

JLtfJ fuzul excessive; fazul- 
kharchi extravagance, 27. 

Jjts /e'Z deed, act (gram, a 
verb), 34. a. 

yjj faqir beggar, 97. a. 
Lr-v-j-^j fehrist list, 198. ^. 
J filfaur instantly, 

faisala decision, 
(law) ;/. hondto be decided, 
176. a. 

Jjljs (^afti'Z worthy, deserv- 
ing, 34, 137. a. 
Jjjj qabl before, 150. a. 
^jo qabr tomb, 150. a. 

AJ qadr worth, quantity, 
value, consideration, 27, 
122, 137. a. 


I ^ jjj qadam step ; qadart 
rakhnd to step, 193. a. 

2 ar *^ near, nearly, 
122, 150. a. 

scZ intention, 114. a. 
2J ^wsitr fault, 164. a. 

Lijf gaza that wliich >s al. 
lotted, death ; qazd karnd 
to die, 150, 187. a. 

^Uis qazzdq marauder (Cos- 
sack) ; qazzdqt maraud- 
ing, 137. a. 

Jjj qalam reed-pen, 68. a. 

j qiydfa physiognomy, 
143. a. 

l Jed sign of izdfat. 

Uuli kdtnd to cut ; fea Tidtnd 
to contradict, interrupt, 

A;ar work ; kdri effec- 
tive, fatal, 51 ; Jcdrdmad 
useful, 18 ; kdr-rawai 
business procedure, 34 ; 
Jcdr-guzdri performance 
of work or duty, 193. p. 

,^ kdrtuscorr. cartridge, 

iujtj , 
193. e. 

.& kdsh or Itdslike optative 
particle, 164, 171. p. 



Ji& kdyaz paper, 68. p. 

Jl kdfi sufficient, 157. a. 
W kdld black, 27. 
^ kdm work, 27 ; use, 187. 
1^6 kdn ear, 68. 

C^Ujl^ kaindt possessions, 
41. a. 

t^i kab when, or kis-waqt ; 
kub kd or kabhi kd long 
ago, some time ago, 76 ; 
kabhi ndhin never, 10. 

\A kuppd leathern vessel for 
holding oil, ghee, etc. 122. 

yUi kapds cotton-plant, 10, 

ilxxi k'iptdn capitano, cap- 

tain, 60. 
kuttd dog, 198. 

_jU kitdb book, 18. 84, 91; 
Arab. pi. kutub. a. 

kit nd how much, ho\v 
many r* 

kuchh anything, some- 
thing; kuchh kuchh sorm- 
little ; kuchh n<i kitchrt 
something or otUer ; aur 

kuchh or 

aur some 

, j iwy kirdya-ddr tenant 
(rent-payer), 122. p. 

[j karnd to do, make, etc. ; 
^karke (P.C.P. of karnd), 
68, 198 ; kardnd (1st 
cans.), 109; kar-rakhn<i 
to do a thing and keep 
it done, 84; apnd kar- 
lettd to make one's own, 

JL?t karwat lying on one 
side ; k. badalnd to 
change to the other side 
in lying, 114. 

kasr fraction, 102 ; 
chalti kasr recurrirg de- 
cimal. a. 

J^ kal to-morrow or yester- 

J^ kal machine, 10. 

J^ kull all, the whole, 44, 

109. a. 
L^^XO kambakht wretch, 

wretched (lit. little-for- 

tunate), 114. p. 

v JU kamtarm (lit. least) 
tcrai used by inferiors in 
speaking of self, 84. p. 

<r i A-owit reduction, 198. p. 
L^OO*^ kumet bay (horse 

or ^, or 
or kmcdn or kii\i a well. 

ko sign of object (near up 



kothd house-top, 102. 
_ ^ kiich march, 114. p. 


., kaun who, what; Itaun- 
sd what-like, what ? (asks 
for a description, either 
of persons or things). 

* Jcoi anyone, someone ; 

v^ > 

ko*i sau etc. some hun- 
dred etc. ; Tcdi koi some 
few; koi na hoi, some 
one or other, 198. 

\> kahd (verb, noun), order, 


,L kahdr appellative of the 
bearer or carrier class, 

,Vgi Tchdr alkali, potash, 18. 

iL kahdn where ? 

khdnd food, a meal, 
dinner , (as a verb), to 
eat; khd-jdnd to eat up. 

.J-ji khurdari rough (of 
surface), 27. 

ii Jchard erect, standing, 
34, 68. 

kahldnd to be called, 

kalmd to say, speak, 84; 
kah-dend, intens. 
j*^ khodtid to dig, exa- 
mine closely, 157. 

MoZntf to open, 122. 

Met field, 137. 

aMn somewhere ; fca- 
Tiin nahin nowhere ; ka- 
Mn na kahin somewhere 
or other, 10. 

ki or ^ ke sign of 
kai how many ? 

L\ A;?/a what; kyd...kyd 
whether... or ; 

kaisd what-like ? of 
what sort or kind ? how 
or what (with adjective 
of quality) ? in what 
state ? 

.o A'7/zm why? kyiinkar 
how ? kyunki because. 

&flu some, several. 18. 

> s , ! li' ^'' 1 ' carriage, 150. 

,,O J O 

or gdnw 
gdon-wdld villager, 76. 

5 ,\ JkT guzdr<i living, subsis- 
tence, 187. p. 

\j ,^ gugarnd to pass, 109 ; 
guzar-jdnii to pass away, 

~\< grami villager, 
thatcher, 143. 



'gird around, 182. p. 

\jj.>giriftdr caught, appre- 
hended, taken prisoner, 
18. p. 

\> girnd to fall ; gir-parnd 
to fall down, 97. 

\j[y>-'- gar-jdnu to be rooted, 

rf gaz yard measure, 97. p. 

. rjJLuS' gosdin saint, holy 
man, 97. 

^.ULuS' gustdkh insolent, im- 
pertinent, 122. p. 
<\jj& guftdr speech, 182. p. 

if gold neck, 122; gale 
milnd to embrace. 

^jj gumbaz dome, 150. p. 

IxJo* g a)i gd proper name, the 
Ganges, 68. 

Liuo* ginnd to count, 143, 

^or r&g or ghi although, 
176. p. 

+\ 3& goddm' godown,' ware- 
house, store-room, 102. 

jj* gosha-nishin are- 
cluse, 68. p. 

goyd so to say, 102, 157, 
198. p. 

i speech, 176. p. 

ghalrdnd to be in 
alarm, 91. 
^ ghar home, house, 76 ; 
ghar-wdle members of 

u$5|i gffcori a pei-iod of time 

'equal to one sixty-fourth 

part of natural d;iy; the 

eighth part of a pahar; 

a watch or clock, 114, 187 

\j^u^ gTiusnd to rush in, 143 
IAA^ gJiantd gong, hour, 114. 

ghord horse; gliori 
mare, 27. 
LLcki^ ghumnd to go round, 

J? gM 'ghee,' clarified 
butter, 18. 

Id (privative) ; lu-lidsil 
without success, 176; Id- 
kaldm unquestionable, 
157. a. 


\' litzim intransitive (gr.), 

157. a. 

W land to bring ; taslirif 
land to honour with a 
visit, 68. 

, ij}j laiq capable, suitable, 
worthy, 198. (/. 



lifidz modesty, con- 
sideration (for others), 
respect, observance, etc. 
84. a. 

J'-i lardi quarrel, fighting, 
battle, 102, 193. 

\j'$ lartd (from larnd) com- 
batant, 97. 

!':] larJcd boy, son, child, 
18 ; larl-i girl, 10 ; larak- 
pan childhood, 60. 

, :lil luff zest, enjoyment, 

130. a. 
L^_~.<! logat vocabulary, 91. a. 

lift] lafz word, 34. a. 

likJina to write, to 
translate, 84. 

U3 lagdm bridle, 68. 

3 lagnd to be set, be 
fixed, fix, etc. ; burd lagnd 
to come amiss, 51. p. 

lalachdnd to long fur, 
covet, 97. 
-SjA laundl slave-girl, 109. 

J lohd iron, 60. 


] laliar idea, 143. a. 

liydqat the being 
qualified, suitability, capa- 
bility, merit, etc. 137. a. 

.,Lxl lekin but, 197. p. 

UuJ lend to take, bay, 84 ; 
le-jdna to take away, 68 ; 
le-lend to keep in one's 
o\vn hand?, 130 ; lie 
postp , for sake of, on 
account of. 


ob jL mddydn mare, 60. p. 

mdrnd to strike, beat, 
slay, etc. 122 ; mdrd- 
phirnd to wander or 
knock about, 182; ware 
postp., on account of, 150. 

mdl wealth, 51 ; mdl o 
daulat wealth and riches, 
27. a. 

mdlik proprietor, 182. 

Ju mall financial (relat- 
ing to revenue), 109. a. 

^L man mother ; mdn-bdp 
or md-ldp parents, 18, 

\J L mdnd granted, 176. 

Tiidnda tired, 18. p. 

mdnijnd to ask for, 
198 ; mdng-ldnd to ask 
for and bring, 91. 

mdnind, postp., like 
27. p. 



4 mdh month, 143; mdh- 
lodri monthly, month by 
month, 122. p. 
j-U. mubdhasa discus- 
sion, 114. a. 

mubtald involved in, 
91. a. 

...v_<: mubram urgent, irre- 
sistible, 187. a 

o_^c mat prohibitive par- 
ticle, 198. 

\ JuuLc mtitabanna adopted 

son, 130. a. 

,**sJL<: mutasawiuar supposed, 
imagined, 137. a. 

U^LLc tnatldna or ji kd mat- 
land to feel nausea, 187. 

'MJLc mutawdtir consecu- 
tively, 130. a. 

(Jls^ li-:JLc mutawassit ul 
hdl in middling circum- 
stances, 198. a. 

\i+i-o mutawafd deceased, 
the deceased, 157. a. 

,t^\,*mathor earthen jar, 102. 

JUL misdl proverb, apho- 
rism, similitude, 164. a. 

i^i^LLc musallas triangle, 51, 

,jk^yc majbiir forced, 84. a 

^J * 

*C:ij- or ...^j,* mujhko or 
mujhe obj. form of main. 

machhli fish, 51. 

mohdsara siege, 132. 

J^Uj^o mohdivara idiom, dia- 
lect, fashion of speech ; 
6a - mohdivara idiomatic, 
34 ; be-mohdivara unidio- 
matic. a. 

^^J^sy mahabbat affection, 

176. a. 
iJUj^ mohtdj poor, 171. a 

mohtamim editor, 
122. a, 

mahrum deprived of, 
60. a. 

^o mukhtasar abridged, 
shortened ; m. karnd to 
abridge, abbreviate, 68. a. 

-?.X<5 muddat long period of 
time, 156. a. 

X< madad help, 171 ; ma- 
dad- gar helper, a. 

murabba 1 squai-e, 51. a. 

murtakib guilty, 
sin-committing, 34. a. 
^ mard man, 137. p. 

marz disease, 97. a. 
marzi pleasure, 60. a. 

^ mama to die, 97 ; death, 




i. 1 -c sick man, pa- 
tient, 97. a. 

^\'.^c inizdj temperament, 
state of health, temper, 
4. a. 

.iLu^e musdfir traveller, 60. 

\XJ^M^C musta'dr borrowed; 
musta'dr lend to borrow, 
84. a. 

ijJijLw-wc mustaqim straight, 

'"]02. a. 

r.)lx.Lu-<! musalmdn Moslem, 
Mahomedan, 60, 193. a. 

ij*u^c mitsawwuda rotigh 

draft, MS. 91. a. 
\jJLo mushtdq desirous, 

^ 34. a. 

^Ju^e mushkil difficult, 182, 
may be used as a noun. a. 

,j,A-<: fnaslihur known, pub- 
lished, 114. a. 

4_ jUs^c masdrif (pi. of tnas- 
raf) expenses, 198. a. 

c^sjL^j.* maslahat ex- 
pedient, expediency, 51. 

e^ouu.2,< musibat mis- 
fortune, 44. a. 

^Ua^ mutdbiq according to; 
mutdbiq-asl exact copy 
(lit. according to origi- 
nal), 34. a. 

matba' press, 182. a. 

/*lli< muting or mutlaqan 
quite, 91. a. 

wo'a/ forgiven; w. 
farmdnd to forgive, 164. n. 

mo'dmala affair, busi- 
ness matter, 76. a. 

mo'dyaita inspection ; 
in. farmdnd to inspect, 
171. a. 

mo'allim preceptor, 

teacher, 109. a. 

ma'lum known, 4. a. 

ma'ni meaning, 182. a. 
i.^JL muft gratis, 51. p. 

aJolJLc muqdbala comparison, 
opposition, 198; ba-nutqd- 
bala in comparison with. 

Lc muqaddama case (in 
law), 84, 176. a. 

,JU mvqarrar appointed, 
fixed, settled, 34; mnq>:,r- 
rara, fern, of above, 176. a, 

^J&r* malcdn place, abode. 
house (of a better sort), 
4, 84. a. 

Lc inagar but, 197, j.. 

mngrd cross, sullen, 
peevish, etc. 4. 



c /^''/"7mza considera- 
tion of, inspection, 137. a. 

Ll^'j^Lc muldqdt visit, inter- 
view; . karnd to pay 
a visit, interview, etc., 34, 
68. a. 

i?JvLc tnuUi.nvi deferred, 
postponed, adjourned ; m. 
kar-rakhnd to adjourn, 
84. a. 

^^Jwo innlki (relating to 
country), civil, 109. a. 

\j^L<, milnd to receive, ii tr. 
to meet, combine, be like, 
correspond, etc. 51 ; jd- 
iiiilnd to fall into (of a 
river), 68; mtilear (P.C.P. 
of. milnd) united, summed 
up, in combination, 68. 

,JLc malill grieved, discon- 
tented, 176. . 

...C AJ mumkin poss.ble, 143, 
"" 176. a. 

,Uui mandr minaret (Ar. 
noun of place), 97. a. 

.._ ilLe v.undsib befitting, 

'187. a. 

mu ut zir expecting, 
143. a. 




approved, 150. a. 

u< or ^ui or 
or munh mouth, face, 68, 

jj>-4^c maujud available, in 
hand, ready, in existence, 
10, 198. a. 

^Jj^e maulavi Moslem title 
of learning, 187. a. 

\^>-\.\j^c mahdrdjd chief Ra- 
ja. '198. 

<j \j_--x) mehrbdni kindness, 
favour, 27. p. 

u^L^c mohiat delay, respite, 
grace, 143. a. 

mehmdn guest, 51. p. 
mohaiyd provided, 
18. a. 

mahind month. 

^c miydn ji title of 
teacher, 91. p. 
\*o mekh tent-peg, 109. p. 
Lx mez table, 34. p. 

muyassar obtained, 
176, 182. a. 

^JL main I ; merd my, 

.jc< men post, affix locative, 
in, into, among, between, 

OJ^JUL* 7tte7iJi' henna, 102. 



nd (privative) ; nd-insdfi 
injustice, 27 ; nd-lamdm 
unfinished, 44 ; nd-haqq 
unfairly, 109 ; nd-gawdr 
displeasing, disgusting, 
122. p. 

to measure, 97. 

)\^\j ndddni ignorance, 
34. p. 
j\j nadir rare, 176. a. 

ndld ravine, ' nullah,' 

ndlish complaint, 
plaint ; ndlish karnd to 
lodge a complaint, file a 
suit, etc. 84, 157. p. 

^\j ndm name; ndm lend 
to mention a person's 
name, 91, 198. 

, -s-U nabz pulse ; nabz dekli- 
nd to feel the pulse ; nabz 
dikhdnd to let the pulse 
be felt, 130. a. 

c^UsT najdt salvation ; najdt 
pdnd to escape, 157. a. 

o Ju nadi river, 68. 

c^-ou*J nisi at proportion, 
relation, 137. a. 

nut-kha MS. 84. a. 

~kJ nsicn or u 

c^ s 

women, female sex (Ar. 
pi.) 122. a. 

J^ .^2J nasrdni Nazarene, 
(^* J 

Christian, 193. a. 

(^^u^j nasib pi., destinies, 
fate, fortune, 143. a. 

c^NsO^i 1 nasihat advice, ad- 
monition, 91, 1G4. a. 

\j\ Ai) nazar and to ap- 
pear, 1 64 ; nazar pdrnd to 
appear casually or unex- 
pectedly, 97. 

_jdij nazir exemplar; be- 
nazir unrivalled, 1 71. a. 
nilcdlnd to turn out, 
take out, drive out, etc. 
1st. caus. of nil-alnd, 76, 

) nikalnd to issue, come 
out, turn out, turn up, 
etc., 51, 198. 

namak salt, 18, 137. p. 

J nau nine, 68. 

< ?^i naicwdb (Nabob) vice- 
roy (Mahomedan title), 
34. a. 

.j naukar servant, 10 nnn- 
Tcari service (esp. under 
Government), 176. p. 

i^o Lj nelidyat very, exceed- 
ingly, 198. a. 



.,wJ nahin or ^ na no, 

not; nahin to else, 193. 
LiJ nay A new, 51, 68. 
JuJ nil indigo, 18. 

^jj nim tree with leaves of 
*a bitter taste, 18. 

father, 150. a. 
waste for the sake of ,on 
account of, etc. a. 
>-. 7a/fc reason, cause, 34. 

> ;. 

wazir vizier, chief minis- 

ter, 109. a. 
L\+* wusul collected 

(money), 137. a. 
..Ir. watan native country, 

44. a. 
<Ls_xl?. wazifa scholarship, 

stipend, 34. a. 
*. wa-gnira et caetera, 18, 

34, 97. a. 
j ,. warq pge or leaf (of n 

book or MS.), 1G4. a. 
J .. warna else (to be trans- 

lated ace. to context), 

193. p. 
c^o. waqt time, pi. anqdt, 

10, 44, 60. a. 

rco/i he, she, it, that, the 
remote of two persons, 
the latter as compared 
with the former (pi. as 
well as sing.) ; wold that 
same, that very. 
l&. wahdn there; wohin 
just there, 150. 

^la hdth hand, 51 ; Inith 
lagnd to come into one's 
hands, be acquired, 109. 

^j\& hdthi (unimanus) ele- 

L_5* ^ ' 

phant, 60. 
Ij _j -+ IN rtciinx o/iflt'?*7tft to 

w jff vy* 1 
assent, 76, (10). 

,\ji /tan yes, 10, 198. 

.B ^ar every, 68 ; 7/a?- e/r 

every one, 27. p. 
Ju^s- -to harchand although, 

176. p. 
a ,!_& harkdra messenger, 34. 

rJ 'SJt> hargiz na never, 176. 

Jlfc hazdr thousand; ha;n- 

ron or hazdrhd (pi. of to- 
tality), thousands, 176. 

^ ha*t o Hint 

u i^ 
yes or no, 1 b2. p. 



halM liglit, 137. 

^ ham we ; hamdrd our. 


v^_^jj> liimmat spirit, pluck, 

60. a. 
^wJb hamrdh companion; 

used as postp., in company 

with, 44, 157. p. 
jjLj**> hamesha always, 44, 

_\Ai hindil 193; hindustdn 

India north of the Ker- 

budda, 84. 
,_$-JuJfc hindi a form of the 

vernacular of Upper India 

written in the Nagri 

character, 18. 
_xi> liunar virtue, skill, ae- 

cornplisliments, etc. 27, 

84. p. 

lxuUJS> liansna to laugh, 102 
150 ; hann ridicule, 109. 

\>. haiva wind, air, atmo- 
spliere, 137. a. 

to> hawwd ogre, 193. 

hond to be, exist, etc. ; 
hiijie Precative form, 
91 ; hole hute gradually, 
by degrees, 109 ; hud P. 
Part, and P. Abs. 

of no account, 

^.jj. hech 
mean, 27. 

haiza cholera ; haiza 
karnd to be seized with 
cholera, 76, 109. a. 

[i yd or, instead of, whereas, 
" 193. 

j\j ydd remembrance ; ydd- 
Tiond to be remembered ; 
ydd-rakhnd to remember ; 
ydd-dnd to come to recol- 
lection, be remembered, 
44 ; ydd-parnd to recol- 
lect, be reminded of, 150 ; 
ydd-farmdna to ask at'te;-, 
call for, 187. p. 

. jJL> yaqin certain, 157. a. 

.2Jkj yaJcdigar one another, 

= ek dusrd, 198. p. 
^*j yun thus, 51, 182. 

__ ytih he, she, it, this, the 
nearer of two persons ; 
former as compared with 
the latter (pi. as well as 
sing.) ; yehi this same, 
this very. 

>Uj yahdn here. 




N.B. (1) See App. C. 1 (2) above lor principle of transliteration. 
(2) Exceptional genders only are marked, with reference 
chiefly to Rules given in Part I., 3. 


Abandon chh orn a alone, 
or chhor-jdnd chhir- 
dend int. ; chhor- 
rakhnd or ratch- 
chhornd are often use- 
ful ; chkor-bkdffnd 
describes itself. See 
abandoned (wicked) 


abhor nafi-al karnd (se). 
ability qdbiliyat, liyd- 


able, to bo saknd, as 
second nn-mbiT 
compound verb. 
able, a Ij. y<7;/7, I,/'!,/. 
about to i/ ir'ih Imi /.-/', 
ijiti-tti thd ki or the 
idva may be ex 
l>iv-sed by the verb 
chdhnd in coinbina- 
tion with perf. jiart. 
nml occasionally tiy 
the use of ivdtd witii 

about, adv. piis, rixpii.t ; 
about fifty pachas ek 
or qarib fiftc/i'ix. 

abroad, to get (of secret) 

absent ija 

absurd behiida. 

abuse mazammatjbura'i. 

abuse, v. burd bhald 
kahiid, ffdli dend. 

accept (formally or 
otticially) pazlr aur 
qabiilfarmdnd; orqa- 
bul farmdnd ali>ne : 
(generally) lend or le- 

accompany sdth-dend ; 
to accompany me 
me fd sdth dend, ho- 
lend, sdth ho-dnd 
(ke), hamrdh hond 

accordance with, in ba- 
mtljib (ke), muwdjiq 

accordingly chundncln. 

account or accounts 
hisdb; to check ac- 
counts hisdb sentud; 
accounted for man- 
sub ; on account of 
waste, li'e, mare (usu- 
ally in connection 
with an emotion), 
acknowledge (fornmlh ) 

<-'//>"'/' X-'- 

a.-ro?s /nir ; a. tho rivor 
Hudi pdr. 

acfc on, v. l amal k^rnd 

(par) ; act towards 

(treat) bartdo karnd 

active chust o chdldk, 

activity, chdldki, hash- 

accrue hond, hdsil, or 

paidd hond. 
actuated by elevate 1 

sentiments l dli-hii- 

addicted to, v. marnd 

address ndm o mitkdn, 

or simply p-itd; to 

his address K.vX> 


adjustment taxfiya. 
administration insirdin, 

int>:dm; admini>t ra- 

tion of law, 11 


admit (the force of an 
argument) tasllut 

kin-lit, or fj'fit hond 
(k'i) ; admit him tisko 
admitted, to be ddkhil 


nasi/uit detui. 



adopt (a son) muta- 

against me (of accusa- 

prove) gaivdrd karnd; 

bannd k. 

tion) meri taraf. 

(admit) taslim karnd ; 

adoi t, cause to taslim 

ge 'umr, f. 

to make allowance 


ged buddhd, sinn-ra- 

for lihdz rakhnd. 

advance, v. qadam bar- 


Almighty, the qddir- 

hand; as the morning 

agent kdr-pard6, go- 

i-mutlaq, khudue qd- 

advanced din charhte 

mdshta ; (in gram.) 



fd'il ; through the 

alone tanhd, akeld. 

advance-guard pesh- 

agency of ma'rifat 

alphabet dlif-be ; to 



learn the alphabet, 

advantage faida, pi. 

agree (to take) qabul 

("lif be parhnd. 


karnd or karlend, 

already abhi ; already 

advent dmad, tashrif- 

'ahd karnd ; to agree 



(on a course of action) 

although harchand, go, 

ad vent ure (ambition) 

saldh karnd ; agree 

ffoki, agarchi, hdldn- 


(solemn^) qaul o 


adventures sar-guzasht. 

qasam karnd. 

altogether(quite) mahz. 

adverse mukhdlif; ad- 

agreement qaul o qardr. 

mutlaq, bilkull, pel 

verse wind ulti hawd, 

'ahdopaimdn, muwd- 

barhkar, adj. ikat- 




adversity burd'i, bad- 

nggression (minor) 

always hamesha, har 

qismafi, bad-iqbdli, 




aid (mutual) mo'dwa- 

ambassador elcJii, safir. 

advice saldh, mashwara, 


ambitious hausila 


aici, v. madad dend; to 

mand, garz-mand. 

advisable maslahat 

be a great aid bahut 

ammunition (shot and 


kdm and. 

powder, gold bdrul, 

advocate of, to be an 

air hawd. 

sdz o sdnidn-i-jang, 

rawd jdnnd, rawdddr 

alarming, khaitfiidk, 

sdmdn - i - harb o 


khauf kd. 


affair mo'dmaJa, amr 

alas ! afsos. 

amnesty darguzar, 'afw 


nlbeit huldnki. 

among men ; from 

affect to be apne tail 

alert hoshydr, tayydr ; 

among men ye, min 

zdhir karnd. 

being on the alert 


afflicted (with) mttl 


amount, to this is qadr- 


alike yaksdn, bardbar. 


affray hangdma. 

alive z nda. saidmat, 

amuse dil-bahldnd. 

Afghan afg&n. 

sahih saidmat, jitd 

amusing maza kd,mazdq 

aforesaid m<izkur, maz 


kd, lutfkd. 

kura bald ; persoi 

all sab, sdrd, tdmdm, 

ancestors bdp-ddde, bu- 

aforesaid ndm-bur 

kull ; all the lot sab 



ke sab ; all (our) sub- 

anchor, to langar ddlnd 

after pichhe, ba'd ; af te 

jects jami'-i-ra'di/d. 

(to cast anchor). 

some days chand ro 

allegiance itd'at ; true 

ancient qadini, qnd'uni. 

ke ba'd ; afterward 

allegiance wafdddrto 

anecdote hikdi/at. 

iske or uske ba'd, o 

itd'at ; throw off alle- 

angelic Jerishfon kd sd 

pichhe ; after tha 

giance itd'at se phir 

or ferishton jaisd. 

ba'd iske ki. 


anger gussa. 

again phir. 

alliance ' ahd o paimdn. 

angry gusse, khafd. 

against muqdbil (ke). 

allow ijdzal dend; (ap- animal jdnicai: 



nnnex milana (lit. make 

anonymous gum-ndm, 

announce and proclaim 

I ildn farmdnd, ishte 
-hdr dend. 

answer jawdb ; to an- 
swer jawdb dend ; to 
answer (be useful) 
pesh -jd n a . ku m - n i kul- 

II it. 

answering jax>b-dih t. 
anyone fco'i; infl. kiii. 
anxiety andesha, tarad- 

dud, khadsha. 
anxious mutafakkir. 
apparently zdhir men, 

zdhiran, ma'luin hvti'i 

hai ki. 
appear nazar and or 

parnu, dik.'ui'i dend, 

zdhir ho.n'i. 
appearance silraf. 
appoint ta'liidt karnd, 

muqarrar k. 
appointed muqarrar. 
apportionment of pe- 
nalty tajwiz-i-sazd. 
approach, n. tashrif- 

liwdrt (ceremoni- 
approve manzur karna 

qabiU karnd, pazi- 

ra karna. 
approve of rawddur 


approved manzur. 
Arab (horse) 'arab't. 
arbitrate panchdyat k. 
archer lirandiiz. 
argue hujjat lundjiujjat 



ai-L'iiment bahs, f. 
arise nt/i(i, ttth-jdnt't 

(spring from) i>uid< 

hand, nikaliui. 
army Inxlikur. fnuj (, 

enormous army, did- 

bddal lashkar ; in 

arms hathydr-band. 
arrangement bando- 

bast, intizum, taj- 

n- 1:. 
arrange, add karnd to 

either of the above; 

to be arranged ban- 

arrive pahunchnd, d- 

irtlul dagdbiiz. 
irtifice ch&ldki, fit rat, 


artillery top-khdna. 
ascend charhnd. 
ascend (throne) julus 

ascent charhdo. 
ascertain ma'lum karnd 

darydft Jr., tahqtq k. 
ashamed sharminda; to 

be ashamed gairat 

men dnd, sharm and 

ask puchhnd ask after 

hdl puchhnd, khair o 

'dfiyat puchhnd ; ask 

for darkhwdst k. 
ass gadhd. 
assassin sajfdk. 
assembly jalsa, majlis 

f.,mahfil f.,jami'at. 
association with <"<me- 

z>'sh, sohbat, sanghat, 

assuredly albatta, haqt- 

qatan, wdqa'i. 
attack, to hamla karnd, 

yorish k. 
attacking (party) ham- 


attendance, in hdzir. 
attention tawajjoh, f., 


attract, tojazb karnd. 
attractive force qutr 


audible, to be fund'! 

aud ience hdzirin-i- ijldx. 

a,u\\\ormosannif; (com- 
piler) mo 1 all if. 

authority ikhtiydr, ta- 
nad, f. ; in authority 
farmdn-pazlr ; under 
authority farmdn- 
barddr, mdtaht. 
uxiliary madadgdr, 

available matijud. 

avert daf karnd. 

awake be-ddr ; to be 
awake jdgnd. 

awaken, jagdnd. 

aware, to be jdnnd, 
dgdh hand, wdqif 


back pith f., pusht, f. 


b:id burd, khrdb, (bad 
as first member of 

baggnge a&bdb (sing.). 

band guroh, dasta. 

Baniya baniyd. 

banker mahdjan,sarrdf. 

bard bhdf. 

1 areheaded and bare- 
footed sar o pd ba- 

bargain khush-kharid. 

bark bhaunknd. 

barley juwdr. 

bastion burj. 

battalion (regiment) 
pal tun, f. 

battle lard^i. 

bazaar bdzdr (a collec- 
tion of shops) ; 
through the la/.aar 
Idzdr hoke. 

iieiir rii-hh. 

t.ear, v. barddxhi karnd. 



beard dd i-Jit. 

beyond par, parle par ; 

beasts and birds cha- 

(except) siwde. 

rand o parand. 

binding (of book) jild- 

beahpitnd, mdrnd ; beat 


(a cover) jhdrnd. 

binding, adj. ivdjib. 

become ho-jdnd, ban- 

bird chiryd, f. 

jdnd, ho-lend, ban- 

birth, pride of khun- 



bed palang. 

bite kdtnd. 

bedding bicTihond, bis- 

bJame, to tolimat la- 



befall Tio-parnd. 

bless me ! khair to Jiai. 

before age, pahle, qabl, 

blind andhd ; blind of 

qabl islce ki,pe.?h. 

one eye kdnd. 

before, prep, sdmtme, 

blood khun. 

dge, ru-ba ru, pahle. 

bloodshed khun-rezi. 

Begam legam (f . of beg) 

blow (wind), to chain'', 

a lady of rank(Mah.) 

chal-rahnd ; blow up 

beggar faqir. 

(fort), urdnd. 

begin, int. shuni' hand ; 

boast, iofakhr samajh- 

tr. shuru' Jcarnd. 

nd, Idfzani k. 

bf ginner nwbtadi, nau- 

boat kishti. 

dmoz. \ body badan. 

beginning and end dgdz 

boil, intr. khavlna, 



behalf of, on ivdste, l*e-, bold baMdur, diler. 

on our behalf hamr're bond dastawez, f. 

nam se, ov hamdri ta- book Tcitdb, f. 

raf se. \ booty ganimat, Jut. 

behind picfihe ; behind 

born, to be paidd hond ; 

the back pith pichhe. 

a born soldier mddar- 

behoves it chdhi'e 

zdd sipdJii. 


borrowed mange lea. 

belief e'tiqdd. 


belly pet. 

bosom sina. 

below niche. 

both donon ; both sides 

belt peti. 

tarafain (Ar. dual). 

benefit fa-Ida, ifdda ; 

bough ddl, f. 

to promote the bene- 

bound chJialdng, f. ; 

fit of if Ada Jcarnd. 

to be bound by 

besides 'aldwa (ke), 

(obliged) ; pdband 

siwde iske. 


besiege mohdsara karnd 

boundary sarJir-dd, f. 

best sab se achchM, 

bows and arrows tlr o 

behtar. behtarin. 


bet short, f. ; to bet 

box sanduq, diliiyd. 

shart bdndhnd. 

boy larkd. 

better behtar. 

bravery dildwari,dllert, 

between me>i,darmii/dn, 


bich, Mch men. 

bread roll. 

n-eadth chaurui, ( arz. 
)reak, intr. tutnd, tiit- 

jdnd ; tr. tornd. 
Breakfast hdziri. 
jreeches nefa (lit. fas- 
tening of the 

drawers) . 
ribery risfnvat, rish- 

n-ick int, f. 
)ridge pul. 
bi-ie&vmtikhtasar karJce, 

mukhlasar taurpar. 
jring le-dnd, land, pa- 

sroad chaurd. 
broker dalldl. 
brought up by, to be 

(stopped) Tuk-jdnd. 
bucket bdlti. 
buffalo (she) bJiains. 
building mdkdn, 'imd- 


bush jhdri. 

business kdm, kdr-o- 
bdr, pesha, mo'ii- 

but lekin, magar, baJki, 

par, 197 ; but stay 

magar hdn. 
buy mol-lend, lend, 

kharidnd, kharul k. 
by and by thorl der 
men, ba'd chande. 


cage p mjra. 

calamity shdmat, dj\it t 

calf bachhrd. 
call (summons) luldwd. 
call, T. buldnd call 

upon (insist) tdkld 

far man a. 
calumny boJttdn. 



camel U'it ; slie-camcl 

camp qiydm-gtJi, f. 

camping-ground JcM- 

magtih, i. 
canon law (Islam) shar', 


canvas wall qanrit, f. 

capable of (qualified 
to\ niujdz, qulil. 

capo rax. 

capital siirm-'ii/a. 

captured ginftdr, md- 

carcass (of dead ani- 
mal), murdajdnwar. 

care khabar f., parted 
ddrt, hoshi/dri, ehti- 
ydt f. 

career, military shuf/l- 

carry off or away le- 
jdnd,le-cha1nd; carry 
a 1'^ad bojh uthi'mn ; 
to be carried on htid 
karnd ; carrkd out, 
to be ta'mtl hand ; to 
be carried out suc- 
cessfully huin-ikhli- 
turn ko pahunchnu. 

cart man gdrtbdn. 

case (in law) mttqad- 
dama ; (in gram.* 
hdlat ; (condition or 
circumstances) hdl, 

//"'/i'/, ttjnriil SlU'dt; 

in every case la-liar- 
hdl, ba-har-kaif ; 
grievoi'3 case isle- 

' (lit: complaint 
which calls for 

cash iiaqd,naqdrupaya. 

ru*k p'tpr'i. 

caste zi'il,ji'if, f. ; rules 
of caste, jdt -d /i a nn. 

cat ii7//, ffurba. 

catch, to 

rattle ma 

cause *f?i(/6 ; cause of 
anxiety khadtha. 

cause, to annoyance fz 
dend, takltfd. 

cautious, to be da en 
b<?en dekhnd. 

cautiously dhista dhis- 
ta, khabarddri se, 

cavalry soldier sowar ; 
cavalry regiment ri- 

cease (of famine, etc.) 
raf hand ; (leave off) 
bdz and. 

Central India wasat 

centre maddr. 

ceremony takalluf; re- 
ligious ceremonies 
dharm-rit, f. 

certain (indef.), fuldn, 
fuldna, koi sheikhs ; 
(sure) yaqin; on CIT- 
taiu (special) terms 
ba-shard" it-i-makh- 

certainly albatta, fil- 

chairman mtr-majlis. 

chamber kothrl, ka- 

change tabdil ; change 
of mind kisi ki nit/at 

change, v. int. ba<l<tlin't. 

chapter Idfi. 

character chdl-dhdl f , 
'ddat ; good charac- 
ter nekndmi ; of 
loose character att- 
bdxh ; character and 
actions atwdr o kir- 

charge zimma. 

chastisement taduruk, 

cheap arzdn, sast/i. 

clicck (accounts), sent- 

cheer, to be of good, 

khut'irjam 1 rak 
cherish parwarish kar- 

cherisher of the poor 

chest chMti. 
chicken bachcha (young 

of any animal), 
chief sarddr, P. pi. snr- 


childhood backpan. 
children bdbu-logjarke- 

bdle, larke larkiydn, 

'eydl o affdl. 
chink darz, f. 
chintz c/tliif. 
cholera, to be attacked 

with haiza karnd. 
choose, to ikhtiydr 

Christianity mazhab-i- 

cliuck (away) phenkn ?, 

circuit pher, m. 
circumstances ahwdl 

citizen mahaUa-iciild, 

city shahr. 
civil and financial mulkt 

o malt. 
civil and military kii<'< 

mnlki, kyd fauji. 
claim da'wd. 
claim, v. da'wd karnd ; 

d'awtddrhond ; claim 

superiority to sab- 

claims (past) hvquq pi. 

of haqq. 
chin qattm, f. 
rla-s fltiroh, jamd'nt ; 

large class jam,iat. 

claw panja. 
clemency ri;'in(, rahm, 

climate db o hav 



climb cJiarlint't. 
cling liptd-rahnd. 
cloak lubddd. 
close to pus, nazdik, 

(se) muttasil ; quite 

close to pels ft I. 
close, v. band-karttd. 
closed, to be band hond. 
closely (of dress) kfiiib. 
cloth kaprd ; talle- 

cloth dastdr-khwdn. 
club sontd. 
cluck, to kukurdnd. 
coast kindra ; to coast 

kindre kindre jdnd. 
cock murg, murgd. 
coincidence ittifdq ; a 

happy coincidence 

collect, to jam 1 ' karnd, 

ikatthd k. 
collected (revenue) , 

collector (revenue) iah- 

silddr, kalektar sahib 
colonies, dbddthd, Per. 


coiour rang. 
comb (honey) chhattd. 
combination ittifdq ; 

(conspiracy) sdzish. 
come and, tashrifldnd ; 

come to and fro and 


comfort chain. 
command hukm, ir- 

command, v. farmdnd, 

hukn dend, httkm 

commercial yenture ti- 


commission dhartd. 
commit, to murtakib 

hond, karnd. 
committed sarsad. 
committee panchdyat,i. 
common (customary) 

common sense 'aql, f. 

Commons in Parlia- concord muwiifaqat, 

ment assembled 

ittifdq, ittehdd, ham- 



hazirin-i-jalsa par- 

condition hdl, hdlat ; 

liament (lit. repre- 

original condition 

sentatives of the 

asalthdlat ; in a ruin- 

Commons, etc.). 

ous condition khrab- 

commotion jasdd. 

khasta, tabdh-hdl. 

communication laguu ; 

conduct (loyal) khair- 

(dealings) dud o 


sit ad). 

confederate, adj. mitt- 

compact 'and o paimdn, 

tafiq hokar. 

qaul o qardr. 

confess, to iqrdr karnd. 

companion sdthi, ham- 

confidence bharosd, 


e'timdd, e'tibdr, khu- 

companionship sdth, 

tir-jam l i. 

sanghat, sohbat. 

confined, miiqaii/ad. 

company mahfil f ., maj- 

confirm, totftd karnd, 

lis f . ; in company 

la-Mi farmdnd,qd'iiii 

with sdth. 


company, in milkar, 

confirmation taid. 

p.c.p. of milnd. 

confounded (term of 

comparison muqdbala ; 

abuse) kambakJd. 

what comparison is 

confront muqdbala kar- 

there between . . . ? 


kahdn. . . kaMn(\&l) . 

confusion shorish. 

complain shikdyat k., 

connected with muta- 

shdki or mutashakki 

'alliq (se), mild hud 


(se) ; to be con- 

complaint ndlish (logal) 

nected with rnild- 

cause a complaint 

rahnd (se). 

to be laid against 

conquer fatfh karnd, 

ndlinh karwd-dend 


(par); (general )far- 

conqueror fatehmand, 

ydd, f., shikdyat. 


comply with ta'mil 

conquest, fateh f., pi. 


futuJint, fatek- 

compound hdtd (for 



consequence (result) 

comprehpnd qiyds kar- 

iiiifija, anjdm-kur ; 

nd, samajh-lend. 

(import) parwd, init- 

concealed poahlda, 


chhipd hud. 

considerable number 

concentration (of 

bahut se. 

troops) favj-kaslii, 

consideration lihdz. 


muldhaza, gaur; full 

concerned, with or in 

consideration i/'iu - 


i-kdmil ; highest 

concluded (treaty) 



darja-i-'dlijdh o jaldl 



conscientiousness run- 

tl, rdnt-diii. 
constantly iiui/ 
consultation iiinxhdu'ii- 

rat, mas/nctirat. 
consume sarfmen ldn-i. 
contemplate, to tawaj- 
joh farmdnd (par), 

muldhaza k. 
content, to bo iktifd 

kurnd (}>ar). 
contented rdzi. 
contention takrdr f., 

F. II. (rare), 
contentment qand'at. 
contents mazmun. 
contest (military ) Jang. 


continually mutawatir 
continue hud karnd. 

< i< Sim rah nd. 
contrary to khitaf; 

contrary to law khi- 

h'tf-qdnun, nd-jfftz. 
contrast between imti- 

contrived, to be tajwiz 

control, v. zabt karnd ; 

to control the tongue 

zabdn sambhd/nd , 

under control kahe 


converse, to bdten kar- 
l>at-chlt or guft- 

<ju karnd. 
conviction (belief), 

'aqida ; to impose 

conviction on k/ui'<ih 

ma khivdh taslim ka- 

convince qd*il ma'qul 

convinced, to be yaqin 


coolly baithe-bithd^e. 
coolness khunttki. 
copy naql, f. ; exact 

copy naql muidbiq 


dort ; (for stran- 
utt ki dort. 

corn dda, atu!j,galla. 

corpse Idsh, I'. 

correction tahztb, isldh 
f., larmim. 

correspondence khatt- 

cossack inroads qnz- 
na fauj-kasht. 

cost qhnat. 

costly besh-qtmat, be- 

cotton rd'f; (cotton- 
plant) kapds, f . ; 
cotton cloth suti 
kaprd ; cot: on thread 
dhdgd ; flock of cot- 
ton ru*i kd gal. 

council kaunsil ; in 
council ba-ijldx-t- 
kaunsil (lit. in ses- 
sion of council) ; 
members of council 

councillor mushir. 

countenance munh, 

country mulk, watan. 

country-bred desi. 

countryman dehdti ; 
fellow - countryman 
ham-watan, mulk- 

couple do,jord. 

courage shajd'at. 

court (law) mahkama 
kachahii ; (royal) 
darbdr ; court-yard 
sahn ; open court 
bdr-i-'dmm, khule 

courted, to be raftq 
ho-jdnd (lit. to be- 
come sought as a 

cow ge. 

coward, adj. buzdil. 

cow-killing gd^e-kitshi. 

crawl, to rengnd. 

create, to paidd k. 
created, to be paidd h. 
credit (praise), w&h- 


creep on chald" and. 
cricket- ground gend 

khelne kd maiddn. 
crimrjurm (p].jurd"im). 

ma'. tii/at. 
criminal mujrim. 
critical (of a crisis) 


cross par hond. 
crossing 'ub4r, ghat. 
cross words ukhri ukhri 

crow, to bang dend ; 

(met.) azdn dend. 
crowd guroh, bhlr, f. 
cixwn (power of) sal- 

cruel, be-rahm, sang- 

dil, sakht-gtr. 
cultivator kdshtkdr. 
cultivation kdshtkr.,-1, 

khett, khetiydn. 
cure 'eldj ; to perform 

a cure 'eldj karnd. 
curiosity (rarity) tohfa. 
current^'aH, miirairii-nj. 
custom dastdr, riwoj. 
cut kdtnd. 


dacoity ddkd. 

daily roz-roz, roz-ro: 

kd, de din kd, roz- 


damage (hurt) zarar. 
danger khatra ; havini; 

a sense of danger 

dare yard hond (ko). 
dashed in piect 

be chiknd chvr hond. 
date ttirikh. 
duto-palin, or date 




day din, roz; to-day 
/, ajM ; days of the 
Mutiny ayydm-'- 
gadr ; for days mud- 
dat tak, muddaton ; 
at daybreak fajr 
hole; daylight din M 
roshni next day 
agle din, ; some day 
or other ek na ek din. 

dead murda, mud. 

deal, iopeshdnd (sdth). 

dealings sar-o-kdr ; 
wholesale dealings 
thok-faroshi ; retail 
dealings khurda-fa- 

dear mahngd (risen in 
price) girdn; pydrd, 
'astz ; to hold dear 
'aziz rakhnd. 

d-ath maut f., ajal f. ; 
put to death mdr- 
ddlnd,qatl-karnd; to 
suffer death apnijdn 
dend t 

debauchery 'ayydshi. 

debtor qarzddr. 

deceased mutawajfd. 

deceit fareb. 

deceive, to fareb dead, 
wargaldnnd, ddm-i- 
fareb men land. 

decide, to (in law) fai- 
sala karnd. 

decided, to be faisala 

decision faisala. 

declaration mahzar, iz- 

declare bay an karnd, 
zdhir k., 'elan far- 
stand ; in detail 
tashrih k. 

decree, iofatwd dend. 

deemed, to be muta- 
sawwar hond. 

deep f/arhd. 

deer hiran. 

defeat, v. shifcast dend. 

defeated, to be shifcast 
khdndjhdrnd, mayhlb 

defendant mttdda'd- 

defender qtVa-ivdld; 
Defender of the 
Faith zaMru-l-maz- 

degree darja ; by de- 
grees "hole hote. 

delay tawaqqi'f, der, f. 

deliberately dhista 


delight khusM ; in de- 
light khush liokar, 
khusM ki hdlat men. 

demand taldb karnd, 
muqfazd hond. 

denied, to be inkdr 

deny, to inkdr karnd. 

depart chal-dend, chald 

department mahkama. 

departure rawdnagi ; 
date of departure 

depend on munhasir 
hond (men). 

dependencies muzdfdt. 

depression dabdo. 

derived from paid a. 

descend, to utarnd 
cause to descend 
utdrnd; ndzil Lar- 

descended from auldd 
men hond. 

descent utdr. 

describe bai/dn karnd. 

description laydn, kai- 

deserve Id'iq hond. 

deserving sazdwdr. 
I'i'tq, qdbil-i-ta'rtf i 

deserving of death 
u-'iiili(-!-q<'itt ; deser- 
ving of punishment 
sazd ke la iq. 

desire manshd, itftfl- 
yo.q, drzu f., Inlacli. 

desire, v. cMhnd, khicd- 
hdn hond. 

despair nd-ummedi. md- 
yu&i, be-dili ; in de- 
spair majbur hokar. 
m d fius hokar, be-dil 
hokar ; blank de- 
spair sakht -may (mi. 

despair of, to lifdli 
akotid, mdyus rahnd. 

desert sahrd, baydbdn, 

destroy o nn'bud 
karnd, gdrat karnd. 

destroyed, to be khvk 
ho-jdnd, nist o ndbild 

detached judd, alag. 

detached, to be nikal- 
nd, alag ho-jdnd, judd 

detachment (mil.) d-ts- 

detail, in tafstl se, taf- 

detected, to be khul- 

determined mustaqill- 
inizdj (possessed of 
force of character), 
zabarJast (high 


devoted, tofidd (par). 

devoted, to be (to) 
marnd (par). 

devotions (Islam) s!j- 

devour, to chat kar 
jdnd, kh<'t-jd)id. 

diamond liird. 

diary rozndmcha. 

die, to iarnd,fand ho- 
Jdii-.i, q<iz<< karnd, etc. 

diet kh'tnd ^ 



different mukhtalif, i 
jud'ii/dna, mutafar- \ 
ditlicult mushkil, dush- 


ditliculty mushkil, f. 
dignity manziiut. 
diminutive past-qadd. 
dinner khdiid. 
direct ehtimdm k. ; di- 
reet route rdh-i- 


direction taraf, f. ; di- 
rection of operations 
(mil.) kdr-farmai. 

director nttzim. 

dirty, to najiskar-dend. 

disciplined qaivd'id- 
ddn, ta'lim-ydfta. 

disclaim inkdr karnd. 

discontented ndrdz, ha- 
rts o mufsid. 

discover, to durydft 
karnd, taldxh k. 
-e marz, bimdri. 

disgrace bad-ndmi. 

disgraceful bad-ndm. 

i-;e oneself, to 
apne ta"in bhes men 
bandnd, bhes badal- 

disguised bhes men 

disgust nafrat. 

i li-- usted, to be ndga- 

disgusting nd-gawdr. 

disheartened be-dil. 

dishonesty bad-diyd- 

dislodge, to be-dakhl 

dismayed, to be ghab- 
rdnd, <ili<iln'<i-j<'/nii. 

dismiss rukhsat karnd, 
mauqilf k. 

dismissed, to be mau- 
ij/if hond. 

dismount, to zln jmr xt- 

disobedience 'udul-huk- 1 door kiwdr, dar. dar- 
mt, nd-farmdni. 

disorder (plague) wa- 

doubtless be-shakk. 

bdl ; (gov.) bad-naz- 

drain badar-rau, f. 


dress libds. 

displeased ndrdz, nd- 

drift matlab. 


drink pind ; drink up 

disposed to md\l. 


disposition mizdj, khas- 

drink shardb, f. 


drinking shardb pind, 

dissatisfied nd-rdz, nd- 


khush, nd-razdmand, 

drive in gdrnd. 


due bdqt (lit. remain- 

distance dur f., duri, 

ing to be paid) . 


dues mahsul, vjrat. 

distinct mukhtalif. 

dunghill ktlre kd anbdr. 

distinction imtiydz. 

distracted muztarr, 



be-tdb, be-c/tain, be- 

each har ek, har ko*t; 


each other ek dusrd. 

distribution of lands 

eager for the fray 

khet-bdnt m. ; distri- 

khwdhdn-i- jang, jang- 

bution (proportion) 



ear kdn. 

district zila', suba, 

early munh andhere, sa- 

]>1. silbajdt. 

vere, bari fajr- so 

ditch khandaq, f. 

early (in the day) 

divide, to bdntnd, bunt- 

line din rahe se ; (of 

lend, taqsim k., hixse 

time) agld. 


earn, to kamdnd. 

divided munqasim. 

earnest ba-dil ojdn se. 

division taqsim ; (of 

ease dsdni, drum, 

tribes) got f., got- 



easily ba-khubi, dsdni se. 

do karnd ; doing good 

eastern mashriq ; east- 

fa' ida-rasdni ; to 

ern countries bildd- 

have done with fd- 


rig hond. 

easy dsdn, sahl ; how- 

doctor hakim. 

ever easy kaisd hi 

document (written) 

ds.ln, etc. 

tahrir, qirtds (from 

eat, to khdnd, khd-lcnd ; 

tlie Greek). 

eat up khd-j'iiid. 

dodge (iron.) hikmut. 

on (of teeth) 

ilolV, to iittlr-phenknd. 


dog kuttd. 
dolefully dard ohatrat 

education tarbtyat, tu'- 
Itm, 'ilmiyat. 

ke siif/i. 

effect asr pi. 

dominion riydsat, mam- 

nut (in pi. natd\j ; 


(gist) nidzmun. 




effective kdrgar, kdri. 
effusion of blood khiin- 

egg andd; to lay eggs 

ande dend. 
eight dfh. 
eighth dthwdn. 
elder bard. 
elephant hulM. 
else, if not, warna, na- 

htn to. 
embezzle, to khiydnat 

emeute dangd-fasdd, 

fasdd, sarkashi, bal- 

empire amalddri, sal- 

employ rakhnd (of a 

servant) ; iste'mdl 


employe muldzim. 
employed in office 'oh- 

da par mdmur. 
employment naukari, 


encounter (meet) mil- 
no, ; (resistance) ta- 


end anjum, intehd, ikh- 

titdm ; ia the end 

anjum ko ; from be- 
ginning to end awical 

se dkhir talc. 
ended, to b khatm 

h< inn. 
endurance mehnaf, sd- 

endure sahnd. 
enemy dushman. 
engage in masrufhond ; 

(in battle) muqdbala 

English angrez ; E. 

(language) angrezi. 
enjoy, tofd'ida uffidnd; 

to enjoy good health 

tandurust rahnd. 

enjoyment (riotous) 

enlightened purnur. 

enmity 'addicaf. 

ensue, to paidd hond. 

entangled, to be phans- 
nd, phans-rahnd. 

enter qadam rakhnd 
(men), ddkMl hond, 
darj karnd ; enter on 
(a career) ikhtiydrk. 

enterprise mohimm, f. 

enthusiasm sargarmi. 

enthusiastic sargarm. 

entice bahkdnd, targ'tl 

entreat multamis h., 
iltimds k. 

entrust, to supurd kar- 

equity 'addlat. 

era waqt. 

escape, to bachnd. 

escort, to pahunchdnd. 

essentials in asal men. 

establish, to sdbit kar- 

eunuch khwaja-saru. 

Europeans ahl-i-fa- 

evasive makkdr. 

evening sham, f. 

everyone har ek t sab 

every day roz-ba-roz, 
roz-roz, de din. 

every six months har 
chhate mahlne men. 

exact thik ; exact state 
of case haqiqat-hdl. 

examination imtehun. 

example namuna, nazir 
pi. nazuir. 

excellence khubi, 'urn- 
day t. 

excellent (laudable) 

-ive ba-darja-i- 

excite ubhdrnd. 

excuse 'uzr, ma'zarat. 

excuse oneself, to 'uzr 

excused mo' (if. 

exemplar peslmihdd. 

exempt, to be mo'df 

exhibition numu^ish. 

expectation intizdr, 

expecting muntazir, 

expense kharch, sarf. 

experience tajriba, t,ij- 
riba-kori. (In the 
sense of fefl the verb 
may generally be 
translated by hon.-'.. 
with ko to mark the 
person affected.) 

expert yaktde rozgdr. 

explain tashrih karnd, 
bay an k. 

explanai ion kaifiyat 
for explanation kai- 
fiyat likhne ke l?e. 

expose kholnd expose 
the head *;> nikdlnd. 

exposed, to be khulnd. 

extended, to be muta- 
'alliq hond. 

extensive bard, I trd 
bard, icasi'. 

extent, to some kisi 

extraordinary 'ajib, 'ajb 

extremely bahut hi, tie- 
haj/at. shiddat se. 

eye dnkh, f. ; eve < f 
needle nuke kd miuih. 


face mvnh, chehra. 

facility suhi"dii/<it. 
i'act (imr, pi. umur. 
factor kothl- 



faetury lio'ht. 
fair meld, adj. mitnaif. 
Ifse lurid mi hi it. 
t'aitlil'ul n/nnnk-khwdr, 

ii'fifi'iildr, in/i/nddr. 
full girnd, ///V-, 

fall into, to (of a river) 

false jhiitlii'i. 
familiarity munh-lagd- 

family, kunba,kh 

i/fitir; the whole 

family kunbe kd kun- 


famine qeht-sdli, qeht. 
famished kdl kd mdrd. 
far, far oil' tl/'ir, uoun 

and adj.; not far 

thori d&r, d&r naJtin 

not very far chain/ 'hi 

tlt'tr nii/iiii. 
f.ishioii larah f., tar't- 

qa, taur, duxf i'/,-. 
fast fez, tez-rafti'ir. 
last en, to liit/'iiiti. 
fate qismat, taqdir ; 

sad fate ~>iz 'b. 
father b </>, iriiiiil. 
fatigue thakdn f., man- 

fault qusur pi. 

i'lifxir pi. f<nj'i.i!r. 


favour, to td'!d /. 
favourable muneisib. 
fear, fright dar, kJniiif. 
feast iln'u-at. 
features (of ccv.duft) 

id* pi. Of It'll Z . 

feed /Jii/<hi/i iiave fed 


feel sure i/<irjt>t jdnnd, 
klu'ili jilii'iil ; to be 
felt </// men la 

!':!] 11 in-* of kinJiv-d 
liif'idiiri'ina fin 

1 Mow .V/H//.7/V ; \oll fel- 
low ! /v 

xlulklix; you fello\\.> fit /''/7, ijf'iliil. 

I it ml off: fellow coun- 

fit, v. lar/nd ; adj. muna. 

trymen ham-watan. 

Sib ; to SfC fit to ... 

fomalo infanticide 

mundsib santtjhnd ki. 


fix laiji'i IK'I, i/i'i'mi k. 

ferry >//i>if, utnr. 

fix (quandiiry) pfch. 

fertility sar-l'i'z'i. 

fixed qaim ; fixed rules 

feudal system ./''//''' 

qawd'id-i-mo' ait/an. 

kit id mA t lene dene ku 

flutter khUshdmad k. 


tlesh go.iht. 

fever bukhur. 

float, bahnd, bah-jdnd. 

few chand, ku"i ko'i, 

flock re war f . ; (of 

kuchh kuchh, kamtar. 

cotton) fff'tl. 

field maiddn, khet ; to 

fly r ; (flee) Ih't^na. 

be master of the 

follow pichhe jdnd ; 

field maiddn Mth 

(obey) mdmid. 

ruhnd ; of battle 

folly jahdlat, be-tott- 

maiddn - i kdrzur, 


ma iddn-i-jang. 

fond of shauq hond (kd). 

fifteen pandrah ; fifteen 

food (diet) yizd. 

hundred derh hazdr 

fool ahmaq. 

or pandrah sau. 

foot pdnon (and by 

fifty pachas. 

elision of either 

fifty-seven, sattdwan. 

nasal pdnw or pd*on), 

light lann'i ; fight one's 

pair, pd, qadam 

way larnd bhirnd. 

(pace) ; to go on 

filth (dung) bith f. 

foot pd"on pa on chal- 

fill bharnd, bhar-dend. 

nd, paidal chain ti. 

find pdnd \ find out 

foot-path pagdandi. 

darydft karnd. 

for ki/i'tnki, kis l?e ki, 

fine jarim&na ; fine 


fellow (iron.) haz- 

forbid man' karni. 


forbidden hardm. 

finger vngll. 

force (of men) jnmt'at. 

linish kar-chuknd, ta- 

f<nij ; (strength) zor ; 

mdm karnd, khatm 

violent force jalr o 

karnd \ finish a job 


(in sense of killing) 

force, to jalr karnd. 

kum ta md in k. 

forced majbur. 

fire ay f., dtish ; to 

fordable pdi/db. 

catch fire tig-lag nl 

fore fat hers, lniji-< : 

(men) \ to burnjalnd. 


firmness istehkinn. 

forged j'''/i. 

first, at the very pahle 

bit Hind, bht'd- 

pahal men. 

11 r.- 1 jinfilii, ait'iritl ; at 

forgetful //<</?/. 

liivt pahle, ibfidd- 

foruvtfiiliu^s, .'"ijl'i/, 

m en. 


lir-t-rate ainnil darj i 

formal (serious 





fort qil'a. 

fortitude istiqlal. 

fortnight do haft a. 

Fortune zamdna, iqbdl. 

forty chalis. 

foul makruh. 

found, to be Mth ana, 

hdth lagnd. 
foundation bunydd f., 

four char; four times 

as much chauguna. 
fourth chauthd ; (part) 
chautha hissa, cha- 

fowl mvrg, murgd 
(male), murc/i (fe- 
fowl - house darba, 

fox lomri. 
framing of laws taj- 

frequent (continual) 

fresh tdza, tdza-dam. 
friend dost, bh'Si, 
rafiq, 'aziz ; friends 
ahbdb (pi. of habib). 
fright khauf, sahm. 
frightened, to be darnd 

(M), khauf khdnd. 
front, in age. 
frontier sarhadd f. 
frozen jamd hud. 
fulfil, to purd karnd, 

wafd karnd. 
full, purd, kull, bhard 

hit 'L 

furniture asbdb. 
furtively chart se. 
future difanda, (gram/ 


gallant Lnhudur. 
gallantry bahdduri, jut 

gambling q-mdr-bdzi. 
game, bdzt, shikar. 

arden, bug. 

asp for breath, to dam 
ndk men ana. 

rate phdtak. 

raze dehhnd, taknu ; 
gazing dekhte ke 

generally aksar, 'umu- 
man, bil-'umum. 

gently dhistagi se. 

gesture ishdra. 
et pdnd, hdsil karnd, 
milnd, int. ; get off 
utarnd, utar-parnd ; 
get up uthnd. 
haut ghat. 

>ive, to dend, de-dend ; 
cause to give diland ; 
give up chhornd, 
chhor dend, hawdla 
karnd ; (an inten- 
tion) faskh karnd. 

girl larki. 

lory, for barde nang o 

glory in apnd fakhr 

gojdnd, ta&hrif lejdnd, 
chalnd ; to have to 
go jdnd parnd ; go 
away chald jdnd ; go 
back phir jdnd, wd- 
pas chalnd ; go about 
your business chaltd 
phirtd nazar and. 

goat (she) bakri. 

God khudd ; by God ! 
khudd kl qaiam ; 
God knows khudd 
June, khudd 'allm 
hai ; for God's sake 
khudd ke waste ; 
praised be God 

gold mohur ashrafl. 

good achchhd, 'umda 
nek, durunt, nek- 

bakht, nek - mizdj ; 
good got eminent 
husn - intizdm ; good 
fortune iqbil. 
overnment sa-rJcdr f. 
riydsat, hvfan-rdnt, 
'amalddri, adj. sar- 

grace fazl, taufiq. 
graceless be-adab. 
grade darjd. 
gradually ba - tadrlj, 
hote hote, rafta rajta. 
grain ddna, galla. 
grammar sarf-nahio f. 
granary aalla-khdna. 
grand 'dli-shdn. 
grandson potd. 
grant qabtl or manzur 

grant 'endyat karnd ; 

granted that >'"< nd 

ki, sahi (at the end 

of sentence). 
grass ffhds f . 
gratitude shttkr-guzn-i. 
graze, to charnd ; make 

graze chard nd. 
grease the palm, to 

(i.e. bribe) munh 

mithd karnd (lit. to 

sweeten the mouth) . 
great bard ; great man 

grief qalaq, ranj, has- 

rat, gam. 
ground za/iiin f. 
grow barhnd, hotd 

paidd hond ; grow 

up bard hond,jau;dn 

guard, on one's kha- 

barddr, chaiikas. 
guide rahnumd, rah- 

gulf khalij. 
gun banduq f., top (c-:ui- 

non) f . ; (heavy gun) 

zarb-top f. 



habit 'ddat. 

habits (of body or 
mind) wax' i. ; (of 
life) tarz-i-zindagt. 

' habitation of war ' 
ili'iru 'l-harb. 

hair bdl. 

liair to stand on end 
rongte khare hone. 

hair- splitting, mii-shi- 

lialf ddhd. 

lialf kill, to ddh mud 

half-way ddhi dur. 

half-yearly shashmdhl. 

liainlet kherd. 

liand hdth ; to take into 
one's own hands 
apne ehtimdm men 

handcuff, to mushken 

handful muthi. 

hang clown, tr. lat- 

hang it ! bald se. 

happen hond, icuqu' 
men and ; as it hap- 
pened ittifdqan. 

hard (difficult) mush- 
kil, ilux/np'ir ; (ma- 
terial) sakht; (wind) 
/< > ; to do hard 
work tnkUf utln'ind, 
mehnat karnd. 

hardship sakhtt. 
Hardwar, hardwdr 
(place where t he 
(ianges enters the 

hare khargosh. 
harm nabdh'it. 
liurvest (s]iring) raid' ; 
(autumn) kharif; 
harvest to be got in 
lira pnr hond (lit. 

the crossing of the 

hatch, to bachche nikal- 

wdnd (spoken of 

have, use subst. verb 

with postp. pds or 

affix ko for the po<- 

sessor ; occasionally 

rakhnd may be used, 
head sir II tar P.; 

(chief) ra'is, sarddr, 

peshwd ; head over 

heels aundhd. 
health tandurusti, t dfi- 

yat ; state of health 

mizdj, labi'at., to sunnd, nun. 

lend,sun-pdnd; hear- 
ing of istimd 1 . 
heard, to be kdn parnd, 

sund'i dend. 
heart dil ; out of heart 

be-dil, dzurda dil ; 

heart's content, 

Mtiisht M hdlat. 
hearty dill. 
heat garmi, dhup f., 

taish, tezt. 
heir wdris. 
held, about to be dar- 


hell dozakh. 
help sahdrd, madad f., 

madad-gdri, imddd. 
help, to madad dend or 

karnd ; help oneself 

apnd kdm nikdl-lend. 
helpless nd-kdr. maj- 

b-Ar, be-ikhtlydr. 
here yahdn, yahtn, i-i 

jagah (men) ; here 

and there jd-ba-jd. 
hi.;h 'did, dnchd, bu- 


higher class 'did darja. 
liill puhdr \ 'on the 

hills ' pahdr par. 
Hindooism hindii-miif. 
hindrance ta'arru: 

hint tmd, isMra. 
hold, rakhnd, taxaw- 

tour k ; to be held 

mutasawwar hond, 
jdrt hond ; hold out, 

to (in opposition) 

ztdd kfe jdnd, to 

hold oneself bound 

apnd zimma Idzim 
home, at ghar par ; to 

go home, ghar jnn i. 
honest diydnatddr. 
iioney shahd. 
honour 'izzat, hurmat. 
hope, ummed f. 
hope, to vmmed rakhn-'i. 
horde qaum f. 
horrible khauf - nak, 

bald kd, gazab kd. 
horror (aversion) dili 

nafr at. 
horse (/hard. 
hot garm ; the hot 

weather garmi kd 

mausim, garmiydn 


h iund, thikdri kuttd. 
\\o\n ghantd. 
house (general) ghar 

(better class) muki'in, 

kothl, hurcll. 
housekeeping khdna- 

however, ba-har Ml, 

phir bht, to bht. 
human being ddml, 

diiamzdd, insdn. 
humsmity marJ-ddtnl- 

yat, instinti/at. 
humble frame of mind 

'itjizi ki hdlat. 
humility inkisdr. 
hundreil, suu ; hun- 
dreds sa'kron, sadhd. 
hunger Ihuk f., pur- 

xinagl ; sore hunger 

zor kt bhnk. 
huiiiiry, to be bhuk 

lajnd,lhukhd hond. 



hunt, to shikar karnd. 
hurry jaldi ; in a hurry 


hurry, to jaldi karnd. 
hurt, to be chot lagnd. 
husband khdwind. 


iced water barf kd 

idea lahar f., khaydl, 

irdda,fkr ni. & f. 
idiom mohdwara. 
idiomatic bd-mohdwara. 
idiot ahmaq. 
idle be-kdr, sust. 
idle kdhil, be-kdr ; idle- 
ness kahili. 
ignorant jdhil, ndddn, 

ill It mar, 'altl; to be 

ill.// burd Tear nit. 
ill-luck bad-qismati, 

ill-treat bura'i karnd 

opp. to neki k. 
ill-use sitdnd. 
illegal, nd-jaiz. 
illiterate nd-khwdnda. 
illustration (verbal) 


imaginary Jchayali. 
iniiuin?, to tasawwur 

karnd, khaydl k. 
imitation of, in dekhd- 

immediately ba-mujar- 

impartial baya>r taraf- 

ddri ke. 

impeding, mu:dhim. 
impertinent nd-ham- 

!'>//, tfustdkh. 
implicitly bn-chtin o 

i-hird (lit. without 

when and why). 

implore, to multaji 

impossible nd-mumkin, 
muhdl, nahin ho- 

inasmuch as, az bas ki. 

inaudible, to be sunui 
na dend. 

incompatible nd ham- 

inconceirable be-qiyds, 

increase, to, int. barh- 
nd, tr. barhdnd. 

independent dzdd; in- 
dependent action, 
dzuddna kar-rawui. 

India hintlustdn, hind. 

indiscreet be-tamiz. 

indiscriminately, be- 

indi?pt-nsable Id-budd. 

indisposed 'alii. 

indisposition 'aldlat. 

indolence kahili. 

indulge in to excess 
nehdyat be-buk hond 
(men) . 

indulgence in strong li- 
quors sharub-khwdrl, 

Indus sindh. 

industrious jafd-kash, 

inexpedient ma^lahat 

infantry paidal ; foot- 
soldier piydda. 

inferior Team ratbd, 
a ind. 

inlernal deity putdl- 
l-'t deotd. 

inflame, to ishte'dl 

inflict dend (of punish- 

influence dakhl, ro'b. 

influential rn'ti-ilr'/r. 

inform dijdh kiirna to 
be informed 

hond to gain infor- 

mation who a person 

really is asaJi haql- 

qat dirydft kar '/><>. 
information ittiU'i' ., 

khabar f. 

informer mukhabbir. 
ingrate kijfir-ni'amat. 
\ inhabit rahnci, basnd, 

bud o bd&h k. 
inhabitant bdskinda, 

pi. bdshindagdn, 

inheritance tarkd ; by 

inheritance tarke 

iii en. 
inquiry bdz-purs f. ; 

(in sickness) 'eyd- 


inside andar, bhitar. 
insinuate oneself dakhl 


inspect mo'dyana k. 
inspection nig rant. 
instability nd-pdedCn I. 
instance misdl f. 
instead, adv. yd. 
instead of, post. 'ewaz. 
instigate, to tarylh 

institutions rah o 

f., rasm o rin'dj. 
instruction ta'llm ; in- 

structions Uddifit, 

hukm, kahd. 
insult tauhin. 
insurrection sar-k ix/i! ; 

(minor) bahrd. 
integrity diy<'.nat. 

intelligent zehin, 'aq } - 

mand, te:-ftlm. 
intent mi-<'nl f., n!i/'if. 
intention qasd, irt'nl<i ; 

to give up intention 

faskh karn/'i. 
intercourse dmad o 

raft f. ; want, of 




interest S(i't O sifi'u'ixh ; 

in your interest turn- 

hdrehaqq men. 

uni~a kit, mazdq kd. 
interfere, to dasta>uluzt 

karnd, ta'arruz k. 
interference dastan- 

intermarry, to dpai 

men shddt bydh 


internal andarunt ; in- 
ternal tranquillity 

amn o chain. 
intoxicated shardb ke 

nanhd men. 

ratxigoB fitrat, sdzish. 
intriguer mufsid. 
intuition tafnrrus, fira- 

imade, to charhdi 

ka'-n i. 

invasion charhd"o. 
invent tjdd karnd ; to 

be invented ijdd 

inveigled, to be dhokd 

invite to a feast ziyd- 

fat karnd. 
iron Mid. 

irregularity (of con- 
duct), irregular 

courses be-lagdmi. 
island _/a.:7r. 
isolated judajdna, judd 

. to (order) sddir 
k., int., nik'i/ni'i to 
l)i- issued nrijl: hond. 

raqam f. 


J :ir ,'/' : ' 

jeweller jitit/iurt. 
v\s juicdhir. 

join, to jornd, mildnd 
join in shdmil hond, 
xharlk hond. 

journey safar. 

judgment fahm o firu- 
sat, tamiz ; day of 
judgment qiydmat. 

junction, to form with 

justice insdf. 

just like bi'ainihi. 

just now abhi to. The 
idiom of 'just* in 
such phrases as 
' just wait/ etc. may 
generally be trans- 
lated by zarra to. 


keep rakhnd ; keep 
watch dekhtd rahnd ; 
to be kept up hud 

key kunji, chdbt, t&lt. 

kill, to mdrnd, m/tr- 
ddlnd, haldk k., qatl 
k. ; to be killed (in 
battle) kdm dnd, khet 
rahnd, mdrdjdnd. 

kind qi'sm f., rang, 
tar ah f. 

kindled, to be bharak- 

kindness suluk, mehr- 

king bddshdh. 

kiss, to bosa dend. 

knock at (door) dastak 

know, to kisi ko kha- 
bar hond, or 'tint 
hona, or ma'lilin hond, 
j'iiini'i. pahchdiin !. 

knowingly, jdn-bujh- 

known ma'liim ; made 
known i 


labour mi-hinit. 

ladder slrhi. 

lady blli. 

lamp chirdy ; (collec- 
tively) batli ckirdg. 

land samin f. 

landholder zaminddr. 

lands an'izi. 

language zabdn f., bolt. 

lasli out, to ilti/at/i 

last, at dkhir, dkhir 
kdr; last year par- 

late, to be der karnd 
BO late in the day 
itne din charhe ; so 
late at night itni rdt 

laud, to fa'Hf k. 

laugh, to hansnd to 
get oneself laughed 
at apni hanst kardnd. 

laughing, laughter 

hansi ; laughing, adj. 
hanst kd. 

law qdni'tn, pi. qaicd- 
ntn ; laws and regu- 
lations d'tn o qdnun. 

lazy suit. 

iead away (detvivi-) 
taking the lead, pesh- 

leader sarguroh, sar- 
tdir ; licnditary 

lea ler ?i'!]>i>f!-r,t'!.t. 

lea lnii, r -rein bdg-dort. 

leap, to kuihi'i. 

I'-ani, xikhtid, />ii 

leave ruk/isat, ijdzat. 
chhuthi ; take leave 
ruk/ix'if honi< oi 
give leave (di-siuis? 
in ititervit \ 

rukhs't! kin-ii'i. 



leave, to (start) chhut- 
nd ; trans, chhornd, 
chhor-dend ; leave off 
buz and, chhornd. 

leave off following 
pind chhornd. 

left bdqi; to be left 
rah-jdnd, parnd; to 
be left on the field 
khet rahnd. 

length tul, lambai. 

lengthen barhdnd. 

leopard, chitd. 

lest aisd na ho lei, lei 

letter khatt, chitthi, 
ruq'a, ndma. 

library kutub-khdna 
(Ar. pi. of kiidb). 

lie parnd. 

life jdn f., zindagi ; 
whole life 'umr bhar \ 
to pass life zist karna, 
basar auqdt karnd. 

lift uthdnd ; to lift off 
the feet le-urnd. 

light roshni, nur. 

light halkd, khafif, 

lightning, bijli. 

like, alike 

bardbar prep, misl ; 
have a liking for shauq 
hond (kd), chdhnd. 

limb 'azw, pi. a'zd, 

limit thikdnd, hadd f . ; 
to be limited to 
khaim hond (men). 

lion sher. 

listen sunnd. 

literal lugawi. 

little chhotii, thord ; n 
little zarra, thord sd, 
thorn thord, kuchh 

lire, to basar auqdt 
karna, zist karnd, 
rahnd; as long as 1 

liver jigar, kalejd. 

load bojh. 

load Iddnd; to be 
loaded ladnd, lad- 

loadstone sana-i-miq- 

local is jagah kd, 
yahdn ke logon kd. 

lock, qufl. 

long dardz, lambd ; 
very long tul-tawil ; 
long ago kabhi kd, 
kab kd, muddat 

long for mushtdq hond, 
ishtiydq rakhnd. 

look, look for dekhnd ; 

look blankly at 

munh dekhnd ; look- 

I ing for service muta- 

ldshi-i-rozgdr . 

looks, good surat. 

loose kholnd, chhornd. 

lord khuddwand ; lords 
spiritual and tem- 
poral umrde millati 
o mulki. 

lose (game or battle) 

loss khasdrd, nuqsdn, 
ziyun ; a losing con- 
cern/;* men khaadrd 
hotd ; at a loss, 

lost, to bejdtd rahnd. 

louse jun f. 

love 'aztz rakhnd, pyar 
karnd, chdhnd ; for 
love barde ishq o 

loyalty wafdddri,khair- 

luckily khush-qismati 
se, husn-ittifdq se ; 
bad luck bad-iqbdU, 

lull, to phusldnd. 

lying and deceit darog 
o dagd. 


made up bandyd hud. 

magnanimity 'dii-him- 

Mahomedan, Moslem, 
or Muslim, m vsal- 
man, ahl-i-isldm. 

maintenance (of treaty) 

majesty, his or her 

make banana, karnd ; 
make peace suh I 
kar-lend ; make a 
noise aid machtina ; 
make both ends 
meet kifdyat kurnd ; 
make a cleaa sweep 
safd chat karna, 
bardbar karnd; make 
good a deficiency 
kasr nikdlnd. 

man admi, ddam-zdd, 
rnard, insdn ; dead 
man murda; holy 
man buzura, kdmil, 
jogi, amd^in ; old 
man pir-mard, bud- 

managed, to be bannd, 
ban-parnd ; if I can 
manage it, merd bas 
chale, ho-sake, bane 

management intizam, 
tadbir, bandobast. 

manager, munsarim, 

manifest, roshan, ash- 

mankind insdn. 

manliness shujd'at, 
mardi, marddnagt. 

many bahut, bahut se, 
bahuterd, aksar ; 
many times bdrhd. 


march raw Ana hond. 

kuch karnd. 
mare ghorl, mddydn. 
mariner jahdzt, jahdz- 

wdld, ahl-i-jahdz. 
market bazar, ffanj. 
marmu'e xhd<H. 
marry shtidl k., bydh 

k.,shddi-bii<"h karnd, 
martyr shufi!"'. 
ma-ter mdlik, sahib; 

master of the house 

matcli, tomflnri (int.). 
mute (chess) mat dend. 
materials of war sd- 

mdn-i-harb o zarb. 
mathematics riydzi. 
matter amr, bat; (sub- 
ject) bub, bdra. 
Maulavi maulavi (Ma.- 

homedau religious 


mean past-himmat. 
means (of) wastla, pi. 

icaatfil ; by means 

of ba-zari'a ; in ace. 

with means haix'tiiut 

meaning mallab, man- 

shci, ma'ni. 
meanwhile itm men, 

is asnd men. 
mechanical, kal kd. 
meet milnd (se), do 

char hond (se). 
meeting jalta. 
melt, to pighrt/H -/'. 
mend, to marummal 

karnd ; wanting 

mending marammat- 


mention tazklra, zikr. 
mentioned mazl, 
merchant sauddgar, 


mercy raftm, tarahhitm. 
mere nird. 

phdnda, pech, 

hais-bais f. 

messenger, qdsid. 
method tartan. 
middle, midst darmi- 

ydn, bich, btch kd. 
migration naql-i-ma- 


\t\\\\\urvf aitjil'lr^jfinfft, 
fiiiiji; militjiry class 
faujt jamd'at ; mili- 
tary devotion jangi 

milk d udh ; to be in 

milk dudh dend. 
mill, chakkt. 
mind 1 khabarddr, :/ii- 

hdr, dekho, dckh- 

raho ; to coine to a 

right state of mind 

rdh-i-rdst par dnd. 
mind (what is in the) 

mingling dmezish. 
minor adnd. 
minute information 

mufa-isal hdl. 
miracle, a kamdl. 
misapprehension aalat- 


miserably burt tarah xe. 
misfortune khrdbl, 

sakhfi, mustbaf, tanq- 

misled, to be dhokd 

mistake galatt, tahr 

f., khatd ; even by 

mistake bhulkar bh!. 
mistaken galat. 
mix, to, tr. mild-dend 

modesty 'iff"at, hayd, 


molestation taklif. 
1110 nent dam, lamha ; 

in another moment 

kol dam ji'idi hai ki. 
Monday pir. 
money riij>ni/a, riipaya- 

paind ; ready innnry 


monkey bandar ; she 
monkey bandrt. 

month mihind, mdh. 

monthly muhwdrl. 

moon chdnd m. 

morning subh or xiibuh 
f. ; in the n or.iing 
savere; cool of morn- 
ing khunnkf. 

morrow kal, fardd. 

morsel (of food) laqma, 

mortgage, to girwl 

mother mdn ; mother- 
in-law sds ; beiUL' 
motherless be md 

motive nit/at, bd'is. 

mount, to, sawdr hond, 
charh-baithnd, tr. sa- 
wdr kardnd. 

mountain pahdr, koh. 

mountainous region 

mouth munh ; by word 
of mouth sabdni. 

move chalnd, hilnd, tr. 
chaldnd, hildnd. 

movement haraknt. 

much bisydr, balntt. 

Munshi munsht (pro- 
fessional writer). 

murderer qdlil, khiinl-. 
(Thug) phansigar. 

murrain tcabd. 

mutineer bdgi. 

mutiny gadr, bagdwat. 

mutual hamdigar, ek 
d lit re kd. 


name ndm. ism ; in our 

. name h r.ii'ir.i ndm 
Itke, hamdri taraf . 
luime, to ktihnd ; to be 
named kahldnd. 



nation qaum f., foreign (nonsense puchbdfi. 

nation gair qaum. 

noon do pabar f. 

national qaumi, ek 

noose phdnd; with a 

qaum kd. 

noose (rope) phdnd- 

native rahnewdld ; na- 


tives of India ahl-i- 

north uttar, sbrmdl; to 

hind ; native coun- 

the north uttar men. 

try witiin. 

northern shimdli; n.- 

nature tabi'at. 

western magrabi o 

near nazdik, qarib, 



nose ndk f. 

nearly qarib qarib. 

nothing kuchh nahin. 

qarib tbd ki. 

notify, to itttld' dend, 

necessary zarur, Idz'm ; 

muttali' karnd. 

necessaries zaruriat. 

notwithstanding that 

neck gardan f. 


need zartirat, hdjat. 

number ta'ddd. F. n. 

needy mohtdj, hdjat- 

like takrdr. 


numbness sansani. 

neglect gaflat, be-par- 

numerous kasi>-u t- 

iva'l, be-ehtiydti. 


neglect, to be-khabar 

nylghau nilgdo. 

bond, gdfil bond, 

kbabar na lend. 

neighbour hamsdya. 


neighbourhood (envi- 


rons) gird-nawdb f ., 


object chiz f., matlab, 

nepliew bhatijd, bhdnjd. 

garz f., murdd f , 

never kabhi nabi/i, Imr- 

object v. e'tirciz k. 

giznahin; nevermind 

objection e l ttrdz f. 

kvchh parwd nahin. 

obligations of duty la- 

new jadid, nayd ; 


(rare) aiiokhd. 

oblivion fa rdmosb i. 

next agld, ab kd. 

observance ta'n.ll. 

nice 'umrta, dil-pasand, 

observe dekhnd, mu'd- 

dil-kusbd, pasan- 

haza karnd, ta'm'J 

illda ; how nice ! kyd 



obstacle muzdhim ; ob- 

nicely maza men. 

sincle to progress 

night rdt f. ; night and 

mdni'u 'l-mohimm. 

day rdt din so late 

obtain pdnd, basil k. 

at nislit, itni rdt gae ; 

obtainable dastydb, 

to-night dj rdt. * 


nine iniu. 

oci'asion martaba ; qdb.i 

nineteen uni* 

in., inauqa 1 . 

no, not nab, nahin ; do 

occupation mashgala. 

not mat; no one ko"i 

occupy, to jd-basnu ; 

nnblii -. no matter 

occupied in masruf, 

how. etc., see 175. 


occur 7iond, wdqi 1 bond, 

ii-uqi.r men ria-i, kis! 

ke khatfdl men and, 


ocean samundar, bahr. 
offence qusur. 
offend (to be unplea- 
sant to) pasand na 

offer, to dene, lar/n ', 

oB'-hand sar-i-dast ; in 

off-hand manner le- 

takalluf hokar. 
office serisbta, 'obda ; 

(place) daftar ; 

(duty) mansab. 
office-people daftar- 

loa, 'omald, or l amla. 
officer of government 

mansabddr, 'ohda- 

ddr; superior officers 

oftentimes aksar aitqdt. 
old purdna, sdbiq, qa- 

<i!/n ; old age liir- 

ominous (in sen*e of 

outward indication) 

vpa rl. 
omit (ip .vriting) qa- 

lam-anddz karnd. 
once ek da fa, ek mar. 

taba ; at once J'<I>1, 

faurdn, jkat,jhatpat, 

dafatan, bat ki b it 

men, yakdyak. 
one ek ; one or other 

ek na ek ; one by 

one ek ek karkf ; one 

another tk da.-- 
only sirf,faqat, kbdli. 
ooze nikld and. 
open, to, int. khulnd. 
operation ktir-ra. 
opinion ddnist t 

f. ; in my opinion 

mere nazdlk. 
opponent mukhdlif. 
opportunity maiiqa 1 ; 



to think it a pood pair (of horses) jord. 1 pass to (of time), kaind 

opportunity yimiiimt pale of forgiveness 

intr. kill nd tr. 

ill ini ; as oppor- 


passage //" 

tunity offers waqt 

Pandit pandit (Hindu 

passport ch'll in. 

pare par. 

religious title). 

past tense tiga-i-mdzi, 

oppo.-P, tO mtiqribilfil 

panegyrist madh- 


/,;n- ml, khildf karnd, 

khwdn ; warmest 

path (track) P<*g- 

mukhdlif hand. 

] panegyrist khdss 


opposi! ion iiiukhdlnfut. 

madh-khirti n. 

pathless be-rdh. 

oppros, to zulm karnd, 

panic sahm ; panic- 

patience sabr, taham- 


stricken chhakke- 


oppressed mazldm, 

chhut (metaphor 

patient burdbdrdna. 

rlabd It 'iii. 

from dice). 

patient (uoun) marlz, 

or i/ii, >'it//!ii to. 

Panjab panjdb (five 


order hit/on, tartib; in 


patrol, or parade, 

order tartib se ; in 

pnper kdgaz. 

yasht karnd. 

order to tit, tdkl, ki 

Paradise jannat. 

pauper khult hdth, mitf- 

f>r, is garz se .... ki. 

\ aralysed, to be hdth 


etc. ; under the 

pd*on phtil-jdnd. 

pavilion bdrahdart. 

orders of zer hukm 
(ke), ma teht', good 

parda parda (custom 
of veiling and se- 

pay tankhtodh f. 
pay, v. add karnd piv 

order kh -ii'iz/ti!, 

cluding women). 

up chukdnd, chukd- 

huxn-iiifizi'im ; lower 
order adnd darja. 
orderly ardalt. 
organization bando- 
bast, intizdm. 

pardon 'a/to, dargnzar, 
bakhshish, magjirat. 
pardon, v. darguzar 
karnd or Jarm<\n<'i. 

peace and harmony 
peaceful industry sa- 
nd^e'-i-sulh (lit. arts 

ornaments zeioar. 
orphanage (state of) 

bakhshnd ; to get 
pardoned mo'df kar- 

of peace) . 
peacefully sulh <> 


On. l!i unidh. 

parents mdbdp. 

men (lit. in pear,' 
and rectitude). 

outbreak f<'X'H, dang A 

part hissa ; act a pro- 

pearl moti in. 

fasi'd, but ir it. 

minent ]>art j>Kxh- 

peep uijkantmd. 

over Hjiitr, Ix'il'i . 

t/'txf! k<t,- n >. 

pe^ (of tent) mekh f., 


partaker shnrlk ; par- 


overlook, to darguzar 

takers in murder 

people lofj, ra '/ // 

li/ixlu inl.t , ill. lidshin- 

o-.vinij to ba-aabab. 

particularly khaxits><m. 

(liii/.hi, k fin Id' iii. 

ox r/'io : slaughter of 


perch, to bait hud. 

oxen gdo-fauM, 

partncrshij) shirkat. 

perform, to <mjii.:i 

parly farq, fa~!q ; op- 

dend, add k<irmi. 

posite ]iarty J\tr!q-i- 

perhaps xlniiind. 


mnk/iiilif , make a 

pc>nl (critical eircuiu- 

party among 

* stances) ftndi.\<i. 

pace fJn'il f. 

shen knr 

period 'r.v<;, ^ 

pueiflcationamn oamdn. 

(larice) dttra ; 


pain il-inl ; ' on ]>ain 

permission futri- 

of may lie occasi >i;- 

\>:\~^, \ . ,/iiziiniii : ]iass 


ally rendered by the 

(a law) jiiri k'H-ii i, 

permit gaip-'ird knni'i, 

(/</;' k'<r,id. ijdzni 



perplexed to be hairdn 

hand, hairat men 

bond, hais-bais men 

person ddmt, shaikhs ; in 

person bi-zdt-i-khdss, 

bi-zdtihi, bi-zdt-i- 

khud ; some persons 

ba'z, ba'z log. 
petition 'arzi, 'arz- 

ddsht f. du'd, istid'd. 
picked chund hud. 
piece tukrd ; piece of 

cruelty zulm ; in 

pieces purze purze 

to be dashed in 

pieces ckiknd chur 

pig su'ar. 
pitch (tent) khard 

Jcarnd ; to be pitched 

nasab hond. 
pity tars. 
philosophy 'ilm-i-hik- 

mat, hikmat. 
physiognomist qiydfa- 


physiognomy qiydfa. 
place jagah f., mnkdn 

jd f.; (halting place) 

maqdm, manzil f. 
place, v. rakhna, rakh- 

dend ; take place 

icuqu' men and. 
plain maiddn. 
ulain zdhir, dshkdr 

(simple) be-sdkhta ; 

plain fact sdf bat. 
olaintiff mudda'i. 
plan tajwiz, tadb'tr. 
plant, to nasab karnd. 
plates and dishes 

(crockery) bariun. 
please pasand and (ko), 

kh&sh karnd. 
pleased khttsh. 
pleasant patandida, 
pleasure (will) mar:! 
plight ht'idixa \ in this i 

plight yeh hdl dekh- 

plod wearily behind 

pdon pdon ghasittd 

hud chalnd. 

pluck, to (fruit) tornd. 
plunder, to hit-lend. 
plundering luteru adj. 

and n. 

poisonous zahr-dluda. 
pole (of a tent) 

police polis, ahdli'dn-i- 


policeman thdna-wdld. 
police-officer thdnaddr. 
pomp and luxury karr 

o farr. 
pony taltu. 
poor garib, be-chdra, 

muflis, mohtdj. 
popular (customary) 


population, dbddi. 
porridge gJiunghniydn 


portion hissu. 
possession qabza. 
possible mumkin ; if 

possible hosake, bane 


pot lota. 
power iqtiddr, ikhti- 

ydr, qdbu, qabzd, 

bas ; to have power 

bus chalnd. 
practice (as opposed 

to theory) Carnal ; 

(liabit) ( ddat, 

practised, to be hud 


pray, to du'd mdnijnd. 
prnyer du'd, namdz {. 
prayer-mat (or carpet) 

jde-namdz f. 
precincts of village 

bastion H dbad't. 
preconcerted bu-itti- 
fdq- i-hamdigar. 

precursor agio An, pesh- 

prefer, to muqaddam 

pregnant gdbh in. 
prejudice ta'assub. 
1 1 reparation tai/ydri. 
prepare to be off, to 

chalne lagnd. 
p-esent, hdl, hdzir, 

maujud ; of the 

present day hdl 

kd ; at present filhul, 

present, to pesh karnd, 

nazr guzrdnnd- pre- 
sent oneself hdzir 

presents tohfa-tahd^if; 

' by these presents ' 

is qirtdx ke ru se. 
preserve, to mahfiiz 


preserved mahfiiz. 
presidency hdtd (ehdtd) 
pressed hard (driven 

to bay) hdrnd. 
pressure (external) 

bdhar kd dabdo. 
pretext bahdna. 
prevail, to riwdj hono, 

murawwaj hond. 
prevent, to rok-rakhnd. 
prevention insiddd. 
prey shikar. 
price qtmat, mol, (I'm. 
pride nakhwcit. 
prince wdli, ra^ts, 

principal party a-ial 

printing (type) chhapd ; 

(press) chhdpd- 

khdnd, nialha'. 
prisoner qaidt ; to be 

taken prisoner qaid 

privilege (leave) rukh- 

prize, to qadr karnd. 



proem! cfiafnd ; 'pro- 
ceed through :i 
place' may often be 
~lated by hond. 

proceedings ' amal-dar- 
dmad, fair-rated* i. 

proclamation nxnidi/i 
(by voice), ishtehdr 
(by writiim). 

profess, to ithdr karnd. 

profession pesha. 

proficiency mahurat, 

proficient, to be mahu- 
rat rakhnd. 

profit /', fuida. 

prohibition mitmdna'at. 

promise wa'da. 

promise, to wa'da kar- 

promotion taraqqt. 

prompt ta'l'un dend, 
batdnd, batldnd. 

property nidi ; (spe- 
cial) khdsxii/tll ; 
having property 
indlddr ; landed pro- 
perty ziiiiiinddit. 

propitiatory offerings 
and s:ifrilici'3 ni- 
chhuwar atirbaliddn. 

proprietor -mdlik. 

prospect, to be in dar- 
pesh hand. 

prospectus ishtehdr. 

prosper, to kist bdt 
men nafa' hand (ko) 

prosperity be'itarl, 

iqbdf, i'j'i'iimandt. 
sa'ddat, fan'abdli. 

protection hintiitiat, 
muhdfazat, ftifdzat. 

proud indf/rur. 

]I1M\ !'',! X.i/lit. 

jiroviili- moli'iiiit't karnd. 

provinces inn mill ik pi. 
of mamlakat, xit/Kijdf 
]>i. of silba ; Niiriii 
\Vf>t lYo\ inc. s ma- 

mdlik magrabi o shi- 

queen miUkn, malika 



provision ba-ham rast. 

queen (chess) farzin 

prudence peshlint, pesh- 

question su'dl. 


quick of resource phur- 

public, the khdss o 

tild, tez, tez-fehm, 


zaliln, tud-fehm, 

publish, to jdri kar- 



quiet garlb. 

published, to be mtixh- 

quieting, n. taskin. 

tahar hond or kiyd 

quietly chvpke, uhista. 


quite bilkull, mutlaqan, 

punishment sazd, sazd- 

mutlaq, muhz 

ydbl, siydsat, sarkobi. 

quote ka/md, baydn k. 

purpose irdda, nii/af, 

qasd ; to no purpose 

nd-haqq ; answer the 

purpose kdfi hond. 

pursue, to ta'aqqub or 

ta'asjiib karnd. 

race, qavm f. 

put rakhnd ; put the 

race along, to daurd 

hand to hath ddlnd 


to put a spoke in 

rage, to lezt karnd. 

wheel of harj ddlnd, 

rail rzl, rel-gdri. 

khahil ddlnd, pahve 

railway travelling rel 

men ot ard-d nd. 

par sowar hond, rel 

put down dabdnd, faro 

kd safar. 

karnd band kar-dend; 

rain pdni m., menh, bd- 

to be put down, 


mauqilf hond, ist o vain, to barasnd. 

nd-bitd ho-jdnd. 

rainy season barsdt f. 

put off mauqiif rakhnd. 

range (of hills) silsila, 

put up qiydiu karnd. 

rank rutba, darja ; 

rank of a common 

soldier rutba-i-piyd- 



rare kamydb, nadir, 

r.\<'.-.\\ intikkdr, bad-zdt t 

quality sifat, khdssi- 


yat ; qualities ausdj' 

ration rdtib. 

pi. of tcasf; noble 

ravine ndld. 

qualities shardfat. 

reach pahunclind. 

quarrel or quarrelling 

reail ptirhud ; read 

jfi/iifrd, I'li-n'i. 

aloud pukdrke />arh- 

quarrel, t<> l<irnd. 


quarter pdo, chahdrutn, 

le.uly tat/ydr, hdzir, 

(of town) mahalld. 

mohat/yd, mfinjt'iii, 

quarterly seh-mi'ihurdr 

diiiiiild ; ready at n- 

(lit. three monthly). 

swering hdzir-jau-db. 



real a-sli 

realised, to be 'amal 
men and, hand, ho- 

really haqiqat men. 

rear pdlnd. 

reason sabab, wajh f., 
bu ( i.i ; without reason 
nd haqq ; for divers 
weighty reasons ba- 

reason, to hujjat karnd. 

rebel bdgt, mufsid. 

rebellion, open baga- 

rebuff, decided sdf ja- 

receive lend, qabul k., 
milnd (ho). 

reception isllqbdl. 

reckon ginnd, hi sab If. 

recognise, to pahchdn- 
nd, pahchdn-lend. 

reconciliation safd'i. 

recourse to arms haih- 
ydr uthdnd. 

recovery ifdqa. 

recruit drum pdnd. 

recruit, to (military) 
bharti Jcar-lend. 

reduction (conquest) 

refer, to mnnsuba kar- 
nd, Jiaicala dend. 

reflect, to sochnd, gaur 

v -form, isldh f., tahzib. 

refuge, to take pani'h 
lend, pandhgir hand. 

refund (cost of outlay) 

irt'u>nl (flat) sdf ja- 

refuse inkdr Jcarnd. 

refute tardld karnd. 

regard with attach- 
ment 'aziz rakhnu 
in regard to ba-nis- 
bat, nazar bar an. 

regent khadlv. 

regiment (of foot) pal- 
tan f. ; (of cavalry) 

regret, to pachhtdnd. 

regular bd-zdbifa. 

rein bug, f. ; leading- 
rein bug-dori. 

reject, to nafrat karnd. 

rejoicing, matter of 
khitshi ki but. 

rejoicings jashn. 

relation rishtaddr. 

relation, relationship 
nisbat, ri&hta - ndtd, 

relations aqdrib. 

reliance 'etibdr ; firm 
reliance yaqin-i- 


religion mazhab. 

religious mazhabi ; re- 
ligious mendicant 
faqir, jogi. 

remain rahna ; to re- 
main the same ba- 
dastur band-rahnu ; 
remain at post ta't- 
ndt rdhna ; remain 
subject to mull" rah- 

remedy tadbir. 

remember, to yud rakh- 
nd or karnd to be 
remembered yad- 
hond. or ydd-dnd,ydd 

remembrance yddgdrl. 

remove, to hatdnd, le- 

removed, to be daf 

rent klraya ; to pay no 
rent at all Jcirdya ki 
ek kauri r.a dend. 

rep liv, to put in ma- 
rammai kar-rakJind. 

repent, to tauba karn-1. 

report kaif it/at wi-itten 
report tahrtri kaif'i- 
i ut ; verbal report 

Zflbuhl Jftlif it/at ! 

(rumour) afti'uh, I. ; 

false reports jhiith 

miith afwdhen. 
represent, to 'arz karnd. 
repression sarkobi. 
reprimand cJiasltm- 


reputed mashTiur. 
request darkhwdst f., 

ill i mas. 
rescinded, to be man 

sukh hand. 
rescue, to chTiurdnd t 

reside rahna, 

residence bud o bash, f. ; 

lenth of residence 

resolve (forcibly) irn- 
da-l-musammam kar- 

resource siirat, tadl/tr. 

respect l izzat, adub, 
lihdz ; with respect 
bd-adab ; with re- 
spect to ba-nisbat ; 
in all respects ba- 
ha, na-wi'jilh. 

respectfully adab se. 

restore, to wdpas kaniu. 

result nat'ija. 

i*etail dealing khnrda- 

retainer muTdzim. 

retire hatnu. 

retrace one's steps, to 
idte pa' on ph ir nd. 

rjtreafc bh'ignd, haina. 

retribution taddritk. 

return phirnd,phir dnd, 
laulni'i, tctip'is jdnd ; 
return to the path of 
duty riVi-t)'<ih hojdnu. 

return-hire phi'ia. 

revenue m('</\ 

Jinsil pi. of malisid; 
revenue settleiuent 



rereronre, to mtinix':. 
1 1 ions ,-n,:Unbi'it. 

reward si In ; best re- 
ward pilrii sila ; re- 
ward (in hea\e;ii 


rich dautatmand, mdt- 

ride, to saw'tr hond. 

riding sawdr!. 

right kaqq pi. ////>/ ?''/. 
-sv/4 ; (in u" "1 
order) <//?/, duruat, 
la-h<tl (proper) 
rawd, iltik, rust; by 
right oi ba-mujib. 

righteousness bhalui, 

ring angdthi. 

ripe pukka, Idl ft'l. 

rise uthnd ; (moon) 
&Ae karnd, itiknlnd. 

ri-c up, to <A khard 

ri^k, or risky affair 
'okhim f., jokhon f. 
(responsibility) zim- 

river daryA m., 
river-iniirches duryu ki 


IMM! sarak f., rdsta. 
run- or squeak out cA* 


r (highwayman) 

roll down, to dhalkd- 

dend, lurhkdnn. 
romantic Jasdna-dmez. 
root ^W t. 
rope, skein or ring of 

<i,l/i, ,-ilxx! k I rillti. 

rough-ruler chdlmk- 
Miwdr (lit. wliip- 

roxind (circuit) pher. 

round gol t ba-shakl-i- 
kitrti ( Lrllh'.>ha]>('ih. 

ro'.ijsd, adv. yifit , lu 

turn round ghumnd, salnfntion talnm, sahib- 



route rdsta maritime 

salute, to tuhib'talt'mat 

route siiHiundar ku 


rdita ; direct route 

sanctioned manzur. 

''at ri'stu. 

sand rtt, f. 

routed, to be slukunt 

sandy, regi.- 


Sdtan shaitdn. 

rub main A ; to have 

action itmlndn. 

rubbed down (of a 

satisfied rdzi, ser, ser* 

horse) malu-iiini. 

chasm, khuxh. 

rubbish (trnsh) khurd- 

Saturday sanichar. 

futf., radii. 

saucy shokh. 

rude jaug all. 

save, to bachdnd, najdt 

rule qd'ida pi. qain't'id; 


rules 'aqd'id pi. of 

say, to kahnd, kah-de- 

'aqida ; rules of ho- 

nd ; so to say goyd ; 

nour qaicd'id-i-izznf- 

that is to say ya'ni. 

partoarl ; (govern- 

scarcity of supplies 

ment) huk&mat. 


ruler hdkim. 

scare away hushkdrnd ; 


scared, to be ghabrdnd ; 

rumour afiodh f. (Ar. 

to be scared at pa- 

pi. offiih 'mouth'). 

nuh mungna (lit. usk 

run daurnd. 

refuge from). 

rnsli lunaknd ; ru.-h in. 

se.iltered chian bhinn 

to ghnsnd. 


school maktab,madrasa. 

scorch, tojkulas-dend. 


score kort ; 'a good 


score,' pfire 

the full twenty-two, 

sacred mtiqadilai. 

ref. to number of 

sacrifice, to haliil kar- 

Imperial provinces 

iui, zabh k., qdrbdn 


k., khudn ki n'th men 

scratch at kurednd. 

dind ; to be sacri- scream out, to chilidnd. 

ficed, haldl hand, screech, to chikhn '-. 


scrupulously bti-kamdl 

safe and sound tahih- 



searcli juxt-jii, faldsht ; 

safety hifazat. 

to search taldsh kar- 

sagacity firdsat. 

nd, dhun-ihnd. 

said (aforesaid) maz- 

second dusrd. 

kur, mausiif. 

seer, t chhipd hud, po- 

sail ,, 


sail, to jahAz ehati'n i 

secured, to be (attained) 


paidd hond. 

s:iilor jnh'izi. 

security hifdzat, it- 

saint kdmil. 




security (bail) amdnat. 

shade sdi/a. 

seduce, to voargaldnnA. 

shake, to hildnd. 

seem to be ma'lum ha- 

shame (sense of) gai- 


rat, sharm. 

seize, to gait kar-lend, 

shameless be-hai/d. 

clihin-lend ; seize 

shape shakl f., surat. 

upon lipat-jdnu. 

share hissa ; to give 

select chilnnd, mutita- 

a share in (work) 

khab karnd, intikhdb 

dakJil dend. 


shareholder Mssaddr. 

selected inuntakhab. 

sheep bheri. 

sell farokht k., bechnd, 

shine chhitaknd, tabdn 

bech-ddlnd, bai" k. 


send bhejnd send for 

shining tdbdn. 

manga - bhejnd send 

ship j aha z. 

word kahld-bhejnd. 

shoe juti. 

sentence faisala. 

shoe, to (a horse) na'l- 

separate alag, alnn 

bandi karnd ; to have 

alug, judd,juddjudd, 

shod na'lbandi kar- 

alag thalag. 


ser of 2 Ibs. ser. 

shoe-maker mochi. 

servant naukar ; ser- 

shoot bandvq mdrnd. 

vants (collectively) 

shooting, to go shikar 

naukar chdkar, khd- 


dim, muldztm. 

shop dukdn f. 

service khidmat, nvii- 

shore kindra. 

kari, mulct zimat 

shoreless be-kindr. 

take sevvice naukd'i 

short, in garz, afq ; ssfi ; 

kit ma ; with inten- 

q issa mukhtasar, 

tion to take service 

qissa kotdh, bas. 

ba-jihat-i-muld zimat. 

shout chilldna, pukdr- 

service (good) hhair- 

nd, dwdz dend. 


show, to batdnd, batd- 

set free, to 



show, to keep for ko- 

set ou foot, to bar-pd 

tal rakhnd. 


shrine tnazdr. 

set upon, to bithund 

shudder, to phuraJirt 

(make sit). 


settle (on course of 

shut up, to band kar- 

action) saldh karnd ; 


(colonise) dbdd 

sick man bimdr, mart:. 


side taraf f , id nib f., 

seventieth sattarwctn. on all sides chdron 

several Mi ek, kitne taraf ; both sides 

ek, chand. (Ar. dual) tara- 

severe balu kd. fatn. 

severity (e.g. of heat) sigh, to dh karnd. 

shidd/if. M_'ht, to come in naztv 

se\jinsiyat dud, natar parnd, 

dikhd^l dend ; out of 
sight nazar se gaib. 

sign (gram.) 'alchna-. 

sign, to dastkhatt kar- 
nd ; signed, to be 
dasikhatt hond. 

signal ishdra. 

signature dast-khatt. 

silence khdmoshi. 

silence, T. chup kard- 

silent cliup-chdp, khd* 

silken resJiam kd. 

silver chdndi. 

simoon bad-i-samiim. 

simple be-sdkhta. 

simplicity sddagi, sdda 
diU, be-sdkhta</i. 

simultaneously ma' an. 

sin gund h. 

sine qua non shart f. 

single ek. 

singular nirdld. 

sink, to dubond j int. 

sinner gttnahgdr. 

sire bdp. 

sit baithnd ; (of acour?- 
cil) ijlds farmdnd. 

situated ivdqi'. 

skill hunar military 
skill jang-dicari. 

slavery golilmt. 

sleep khvidb, sotd. 

sleep, to sond ; to go 
to sleep so-raJinii. 

slide, to khisalnd. 

slight (simple) qalil. 

slightest, in such 
phrases as the 
slightest cause, mis- 
take, etc. khdk bhi, 
zarra blii, kuchh 

slink off, to dab'ikii'i. 

slip, to lagzish khi'ind, 

sloth suf--/t. 

slowly qadam qadam. 



Slow-pace, Mr. miyun 

small chhotd, khurda ; 
; \ 1 and great 

chhote bare. 
rmall-poi chichak f. 
snake sinp. 
.- -rial advancement 

husn-akhldq kl ta- 

*" ,-ic-ty sohbat ; affairs 

of society qaumt- 

sulnce. tashajfi, txsalli- 

oldier sipuht. 
soldiery sipdh. 
soliloquise dil men bi- 

(en kariid. 

- ne ipl.) ba'z. 
someone ko't. 
something kuchh. 
somewhere kufun ; 

somewhere or other 
kahin na kahin. 
f in beta, auldd, far- 

* ings git bhajan. 
uonja/(l, iliorl der men. 
soporific khwubdwar. 
surdiil khasls. 

soul rnh f., nnfs; 
(human being) ddam- 


south janiib. 

#outlu-rii januli. 

span balisht . 

sp.'ak lolnu ; to speak 
of tithn lend, zikr 
knrna ; so to speak 

spirit jl m., himmal ; 

liiu'h spirit 'dli him- ' 

spectacle liimtishd. 

.-I'ccd raft iir f. 

spend aiirf k. t kliarclt 
k. to spend time at 
a place jd-baithnd. 

split, to chirnd. 

spoil, to Hydrnd ; de- 
spoil liltii'i. 

spot ddg ; central spot 
sadr maqdm. 

spread, intr. phailnd ; 
tr. bichhdnd, phail- 
dnd ; (reports) urdnd ; 
to be spread (of 
news) zabdnzadhond. 

spring, to lapaknd. 
I spring bahdr f., mau- 

spring harvest rait' f. 


squandered barbdd. 

stability istehkdm. 

stable ixtabal. 

stage (halt) manzil f. 

stain dug. 

standard jhandd, ni- 

standing khard. 

star sitdrd. 

stare takin'i. 

start, to ratodna Jiond, 
chald-jdnd, chat de- 
nd ; to be started 
(set on foot) jdri 
hond, barpd hand ; at 
starting chalte waqt. 

starving bhukhd, Ihuk 
se be-tdb hokar, 
bhukon mdrd, kdl kd 

-lute riydsat ; (condi- 
tion) Ml, hdlat, ah- 

station, to ta'indt kar- 
. liti/dmi. 

>:atemeut baydn, kai- 

launched, to be tas- 
f;',u hond. 

steal, to chart karnd 

steamboat d.'iuwdn- 

stem (tree) darakht. 

stench gandagt. 

step qnd'iiH. 

stimulate, to taraqqi 

stir, to, intr. Jiilnd. 

stone, rock patthar. 

stoop, to sir jh iiknd. 

stop, to, tr. band kar- 
nd, mauquf k., zabt 
k., roknd. 

story qissa, kahdni, 
dust an f. 

straight mustaqttn; (in 
a direct line) tidhd. 

strangle, to phdnsi 

stratagem dhab. 
straw bichhdll. 
stream nadt, daryd. 
street gall, ki'u-ha. 
strength mazbutf, zor- 

istehkdm ; (of go, 

vernment) iqtiddr ; 

attain strength afs&n 

strengthening mazbuti 

stretch out dardz 

strike mdrnd ; int. 

(clock) bajnd, causal 

striking mark, 'aldmat- 

i-'atdnit/a ; to be on 

the stroke of (clock), 

btijd ch-Mind. 
stroll, to chihal qadamt 

strong zabardast, zor- 

dwar ; very strong, 

or so strong as to be 

unlimited be-hadd ; 

to be too strong for 

fldlib hond (par). 
stulV in, to thontjnd. 

to bo stolen churl .-tulTed. to be bfiarnd. 
hond. i sturdy hattd-bakkd. 




style 'ebdrat. 

subject matlab, pi. 
matdlib ; ra'tyat, pi. 
ra'dt/d f. 

subject to ba-ri'dyat 
(ke) t taht-i-hukumat ; 
subject to the equi- 
table demands of the 
state ba-shart add 
Jcarne mutdlaba-i-sar- 
kdri ke. 

submit sir dharnd, sir 
jhukdnd ; submit to 
authority farmdn- 
barddri karnd. 

subsist, to jdri rahnd. 

success kdrbardri, 

kdmydbi, iqbdl. 

succession, in quick 
upar tale. 

successor jd-nisMn. 

such, aisd. 

suddenly nag ah, ekdek 
daf'atan, but Tel bdf 
men; (comparatively) 
thore dinon men. 

suHer inconvenience, to 
taklif uthdnd. 

sufferer multalde-musi 

suggest, to saldJi dend. 

suitor mustagis, sd^il. 

summon, totalab karnd, 

summoned buldyd Tiud. 

summons talabi, buh'i- 
wd ; I was not sum- 
moned merl talabi 
11 (ill in hiii. 

sun (if tab, dhiij), f, 

superintendence, gene- 
ral bdld^i intizdm. 

superstitious puch-pa- 

supplied, to be (of 
wants) raf hand. 

supplies rasad f., rasad 
kd sdmdii. control 
over supplies, rasad- 

support, to saniuhdl- 

suppose, (assume) 

j'dnnd, mdnnd, farz 


supposition farz. 
surplus revenue ba- 

chat, f. 
surprising ta'ajjub ki 

surrender oneself, to 

apne tain hawdla 

surround, to ghernd ; 

to be surrounded 

ghirnd, ghir-jdnd. 
survey paimdish. 
suspected of muttahim. 
suspend, to mauqrif k. 

band karnd, mu'attal 

suspicion gumdn; strong 

suspicion gumdn-i- 

swear, to qasam khdnd. 

swell, to phiilnd, 

swerve from allegiance 

munharif hond. 
syce sd'is. 
sympathise, to ham- 

dardi karnd. 


table mez f. 

Taj (Agra), tdj maJiall. 

take lend ; take air 
hatvd khdnd ; to take 
warning 'ibrat pa- 
karnd ; to take up in 
arms god men uthu- 
lend ; to cause to 
take off ittrwund. 

talent liydqat. 

talk bo'lnd, bd/en k., 
bdi-cMt k. t gvftyii k. ; 

to talk as much as a 

man pleases Idkh 

tear, to phdrnd ; tear in 

pieces phdr ddlnd ; 

tear up ukhdrnd ; 

tear off bhagnd; tear 

about bhdgd bhdgd 

tears dnsu ; to shed 

copious tears dth uth 

dnsu rond, be-tahdshd 

telegraph office, tar- 


tell kahnd, 'arz-karnd. 
temper mizdj ; bad- 
tempered bad-mizdj. 
temperament tabi'at 

natural temperament 

zdti tabl'at. 
tempest tufdn. 
ten das ; ten miles tff 

das mil kejdsila par. 
tenant kirdya-ddr. 
tender-hearted, narm* 


tent kfthna, dehra. 
tenth daswdn. 
terms, on the old la- 

terrible khilnkhwur, ga- 

zab kd. 
territory 'dldqa, qahim- 

rau, mamdlik. 
test shart f . 
thanks shukr, shukrgu- 

zdri; special thanks 

khdss shukariya. 
thief ehor, khd'in ; pro- 
fessional thief chori- 

thing (general sense) 

bat f., a:nr, cltlz f., 

shai f. 
think socZnd, samajh- 

nd, jdnnd ; to think 

dear girdn unl -ad. 
third Hard. 
\ thii'st tishnagi, pyds f. 



thirsty pydsd ; to be 
thirsty pi/ds laynd, 
pyds ma'lum hand. 

thirty its, si (Pcrs.) ; 
for thirty years, si- 

then pfiir, tab, us waqt. 

thence udhar se, wahdn 

theory (as opposed to 
practice) 'ilm. 

there trahdn, us jay ah. 

therefore is lfe,iswdste, 
is sabab se, lihazd. 

thought khaydl, fikr ; 
thought of self apnu 
matlab, khud-garzi ; 
thoughts of tlie 
heart ma-ft-zamtr. 

thousand hazdr ; thou- 
sands hazdrhd, ha- 

threaded, to be piroyd 

threatening dhamki. 

tliree tin; all three it- 

thrive cJiahid. 

thriving trade chaltt 

throat halq. 

throne takht ; dethrone 
takht se uftirn/i. 

throw, to phenknd. 

tie, heing bound by tics 

tiijer flier. 

tillage khett-kiydri. 

time waqt, zamdna, 
marlaba, dafa ; (oc- 
casion) jnaM^a'jonce 
on ;\ time ek mart aba; 
in due time bu-waqt, 
ma'tnult waqt par; 
from time to time 
u-aqt ba-waqt ; in 
old times zaindna 
sdbiq men; after a 
time, chand muddat 
ke ba'd. 

tired, to bo thakn<i, 
thak-jdnd, mdnda 

title laqab, khifnb. 

tobacco tambdkA. 

to-day, dj, dj ke din. 

togetheriArt ;, ikatthd, 
mi/kar, sdth, .tamet. 

toiljdn-kdh!, mehnat. 

toll (tax) mahsul, 

tomb turbat, maqbara, 
qabr f. 

to-morrow, Teal. 

tongue zabun f. ; oily- 
tongued charb-zabdn. 

tons of ice Idkhon man 

tooth ddnt. 

top choti. 

tope (of trees) bag. 

torment, tease sitdnd. 

tortoise kachhu-u. 

toss away, to phenk- 
ddlnd, phenk-dend. 

tour daura. 

town shahr, qasba. 

trace patd, surdg, 

trackless be-lik. 

trade len-den. 

trader beopdrt. 

tradesmen ahl-i-hirfa. 

train rel. 

trairod ta'Hm-ydfla. 

transitive wutcfaddi. 

traps asbdb, siinnin. 
orhnd bichhond (dress 
and bedding). 

traveller m ust'ifir. 

traverse, to tai kann'i. 

treasure, hidden d/ijina. 

treasurer khazdncht. 

treat (kindly) suluk 
karnd, suluk se pesJt 
and (sdth) ; treat 
harshly ziiiddatl ktir- 
HII, xii kh t ! se pesh - ilntl ; 
treat with considera- 
tion qitdr-ddni far- 

treatment (medical) 

treaty 'ahd o paimdn, 

qaul o qnrdr, sanad 

f., 'ahd-ndma. 
tree, darakht. 
trembling ra'cha. 
tremendous bald kd, 

gazab kd. 
tribe got f. ; member* 

of tribe goti,got-wdle. 
tribute khir/ij. 
trouble taklif. 
true sack, sahih. 
trust, to itmindn karnd ; 

placed in trust amdn- 

ata mufawwaz. 
truth sidq ; in truth 

fil-wdq t', sach p ih-hho 

try, to koshish karnd, 

tuck iii the tail, to 

diim dabdnd. 
tumult fasdd. 
turban pagri. 
turn burl ; in turn burl 

bdri men. 
turn phirnd, pJiernd 

ghtimnd, murnd ; (of 

milk) bigarnd ; turn 

up or out nikal- 

nd ; to turn round 

pher-dend ; turn into, 

tr. band-rakhi 

be turned off wi'- 

kdld jdr.d, mauqtij 

hond, bar-taraf hond. 
turn, at every har phir- 


turning, gardish. 
tutor ustdd, mo'allim. 
twenty bis. 
twenty-fifth pachiswin 


twenty-nine vntls. 
twinkle, to chhilaknd. 
tyranny znlardnst'^ 

ztilm, ziyddati. 




ultimately dkhir. 
unchanged yaksdn. 
unclean nd-pdk. 
unconditional Mid shart. 
under tale, niche. 
undertake vthdnd. 
understand samajhnd ; 

make to understand 

understanding samajh 

f. ; (condition) shart. 
undoubtedly be-shakk. 
unfortunate kam-nasib. 
ungrateful na-shukr. 
unhappy dil-shikasta, 

dil-tang, be-dil, pare- 

shdn-khdtir, ranjida, 

uninstructed gair- 

unintelligible, to be 

samjhai na dend. 
united munsalik. 
unkindness nd-ehsdn- 

mandi, be-rahmi. 
unmanageable na- 


unpleasant nd-pasand. 
unprotected be-naiod. 
unscrupulously, unre- 
strainedly, be-tahd- 


unseen dnkh bacM. 
unwieldy phappas. 
unworthy qdbil nahin, 

nd-qdbil, nd-laiq. 
upbraid, to sharminda 

uproar yorish, khal- 

lall, sharr o fasdd. 
usages and customs, 

rasrh, o riwuj. 
use, to iste'mdl karnd ; 

to be used up 

(spent) nibar-jdnd. 
useful /cam kd,faida- 

mand, miifld. 

useless be-fd^ida, ni- 

usual ma'muli ; as 

u?ual, ba-dastur, 

usually aksar. 


vacancy khiili jugah. 
valley dara. 
valour baMdurt. 
value qimat. 
various mutqfarriq. 
vaunting shekM. 
vehemence shiddat. 
venturesomeness him- 

venture outside, to 

qadam bdhar dharnd. 
verb fe'l. 
verily wdqi' men, haqt- 

qat m"n, sack hai ki. 
verse (of. Qoran) dyat. 
very sakht, khub, la- 
hut, bard. 
vex diqq karnd. 
vexation diqq at. 
vexed malul ; to be 

vexed maldl hand (ko) 
viceroy qaim-maqdm. 
vicious bad-mizdj, sha- 

victorious fatehyab, 

victory fateh f., fateh- 

jang f. 
victuals and drink, 

khdneptnekd sdmdn. 
\ vigour zor ; to lose 

vigour, kamzor ho- 

village ffdnon, also 

gdmo and ffd'on by 

elision of either ria- 

sal, basil ; villages 


villain bad-zdf, sharir. 
villainy shardrat. 

vindicate, to kist ki 
in Id karnd. 

violate (law), to khildj 

visible, to be dikhd'i 
den't, nazar and or 
parnd, zdhir bond, 
dshkdr hand, namu- 
ddr hand. 

vision, range of madd- 

voice dicaz. 

vote, to rde dend. 

vow, to mannat manna ; 
to break a vow bad- 
'ahdi karnd ; to pay 
a vow mannat add k. 


wage tankJiivdh. 

wager, to shart bdndhnd. 

waggon chakrd. 

waist kamari. 

wait, to muntazir rah- 
nd, baithnd, ihairnu 
lie in wait for ghat 
men baithnd. 

wake,or be awake,/ t <7. 

wake up, to, dnkh khulni. 

walk, to chalnd, pd'on 
pa on chalnd. 

wall dtwdr f . ; (of tent) 
qandt f. ; outer wall of 
town shahr-pandh f. 

wander, to phirnd. 

want hdjat ; want of 
money, inr.pecunious- 
ness tihidastt ; want 
of sanitation nd-sdfl. 

want, to mdngnd ; I 
want mujhe darkdr 
hai, mujhko chdhie, 
etc., hdjat hai, < 

wanted darkdr, matliib, 

war larai. 

warfare jang-dwari ; 

species of warfare 

tar z-i- jang f. 


warning 'tbrat ; take 

warning 'ibrat pa- 


warrior yoddhd. 
wash, to dhimi't. 
waste nuqsun. 
waste, to zd'i 1 karnd. 
'waste-paper h;i>ket ' 

raddl (lit. what is 

reject i-d). 
watchman choktddr, 

wntcliman's work 

choMddrl kd p ska. 
water pdni, m. 
wuter-pot stand gha- 

watered, to have pdni 

way dhab, dli'ing, tarah 

f., taur; by way of 

ba-taur; a short wny 

thorl diir. 
weak knmzor, 'a!!/. 
wealth daulat, mat. 
wear orhnd, pahnnd. 
wearied thukd mdnda. 
weaver jnltihd. 
week hafta. 
("]), to romi. 
well ! b/ia/ti, khair. 
well (restored to health) 

well kunwdtt, ki'td. 
well-known mashliur <> 

wotern tn 
what kii !,k(i :'.ttl -, what's 

o'clock ? kai baje. 
where ? kahdn. 
whereas yd, bar-khildf 

whether . . . or ? dyd 

. . . t/rf, kyd . . tyd, 

while, long bart der, 

huh n f ili-f. 
white ^t'nir), flord. 
who ? kaun \ wlio or 

which, ' 

whose ? kiskd, 

whole tamiim, kull \ 
whole family kunb? 
kd kunbd, tamdm 
gharwdle, kull khan- 

why ? kif&n. 

wicked sharir, burd. 

wife blbi. 

wild with anger, khun 
josh men and. 

wiles dagd-bdzt. 

will marzt. 

\vinjitnd (intr.) ; (earn) 
kamdnd \ to win a 
person's goodwill kisi 
ko apne se rtizi karnd. 

wind hawd, bdd f. 

wine shardb f. 

wire, to tdr ki khabar 
bhfjnd, tar ke zari'a 
se khabar bhejnd. 

wisdnni iliniishmandi, 
hikmat, 'aql f., 'aql 
kd zor ; practical wis- 
dom hikmal-i-'amali. 

wise ddnishmand, 'aql- 
mand, khiradmand. 

wish murdd f., khwd- 
hish, irshdd. 

with sdth, se, etc. 

withdraw dastkash 
hotid, hatnd. 

.vithout be, bagair, bild. 

with>tand muytil/ala k., 
dye thairnd. 

witness ijuwdh. 

wires and children ah I 


womiin 'durtit. 

\\mi.en 'aural-lop, 'au- 

rat-ziif, ni.tii'dn ; wo- 

men's quarters ze- 


wonder 'ajb, ta'ajjub. 
wondrous 'ajib, 'fi/6 or 

ta'ajjub kd. 
wood lakri. 
word lafz bdt f send 

word kahld bhejnd. 
work kdm. 
work, to kdm karnd, 

mrhiKit Aurin'i. 
workmanship kdrtgart 
world duni/d f., jehdn. 
worldly duties or af- 
fairs dvnyd kd kdr-o- 

worn out, to be 'djiz d- 

j it nil. 
fforried to denth, to bo 

dam nuk men and. 
worse bidtar. 
worship pujd f., 'ebd' 

dat, sijda. 

wor-ted, to be hdrnd. 
.vor th less nd-bakdr. 
wortliy of WV'y. 
would that 1 kdsh. 
wounded zakfnni. 
wrap round, to lapet- 


wret ch ka m bakltt. 
wretched-looking pdjt. 

sit rat. 
write word likh-bhejm't ; 

write down tah >> 
writer (clerk) muta- 

snddi ; (culligraphist) 

wrong ittik mi/iin, bur<i, 

nd-shdyastd, nd-jalz, 



year sal, baras, son ; 
full year baras roz ; 
this year imsnl ; for 
years, bar anon (se). 
>arly s<il<!/i'i, sdl-ba- 

_ ." I L ' I 


yearly oic..</i.. 
sdl, har-sdl. 
yes hi'tn. 

yet abtak, hano:,tilham. 
\ou turn. 
your titmhdrd. 

Kempson, Simon Matthews Edwin 
1983 The syntax and idioms of 

U Hindustani