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Full text of "Synthetic organic chemicals : United States production and sales"

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Given By 
U^ S. SUPT. OF DOCUMEJiii 



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UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 
WASHINGTON 



Tariff Information Series — No. 26 



Census of Dyes 

and other 

Synthetic Organic Chemicals 

1921 







WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

1922 



BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY 



3 9999 06317 177 9 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 
WASHINGTON 



Tariff Information Series — No. 26 



Census of Dyes 

and other 

Synthetic Organic Cliemicals 

1921 




WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

1922 



a 8. sUPrnrr-vnrNT OF documf.*it5 

UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 

Office: Eighth and E Streets NW., Washington, D. C. 

COMMISSIONERS. 

Thomas 0. Marvin, Chairman. 
William S. Culbertson, Vice Chairman. 
David J. Lewis. 
Edward P. Costigan. 
Thomas Walker Page. 
William Burgess. 

John F. Bethune, Secretary. 



ADDITIONAL COPIES 

OF THIS PUBLICATION MAY BE PROCURED FROM 

THE SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS 

, GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON, D. C. 

AT 

15 CENTS PER COPY 



CONTENTS. 



TEXT. Page. 

Introduction vii 



Summary of the census of dyes and other synthetic organic chemicals, 1921: 

Introductory 3 

Summary of domestic production, 1921 — 

Crudes 4 

Intermediates 4 

Dyes — 

Production 5 

Imports 6 

Exports 6 

Other finished coal-tar products 7 

Color lakes 7 

Photographic chemicals 7 

Medicinals 7 

Perfumes and fiaA'ors 7 

Synthetic phenolic resins 7 

(Synthetic tanning materials 7 

Synthetic organic chemicals, other than those derived from coal tar... 8 
PART II. 

iProduction of dyes and coal-tar chemicals, 1921: 

Coal-tar crudes — 

Description 11 

By-product coke ovens continue to I'eplace beehive type 11 

Output of coal-tar cinides 12 

Intermediates — 

Description 15 

Production 15 

Reduced output of fundamental intermediates 16 

Benzene derivatives 16 

Toluene derivatives 17 

. Xylene derivatives 18 

Naphthalene derivatives 18 

Anthracene derivatives 19 

Imports of intermediates, 1921 20 

Dyes and other finished coal-tar products — 

Introductory 32 

Dye?! — Summary of production in 1921 32 

Relation of production to consumption 33 

Production of dves bv classes 35 

Acid [....'. 35 

Sulfur 38 

Vat. . . : 39 

Direct 41 

Mordant and chrome 42 

Basic 43 

Color lake and spirit-soluble 44 

Food 45 

Domestic production in 1914 46 

m 



IV CONTENTS. 

Production of dyes and coal-tar chemicals, 1921^Continued. 

Export trade in dyes — Page. 

United States : 48 

Germany 50 

Dye imports of — 

China 52 

Japan 52 

India 53 

Production of dyes in Germany 56 

Other finished coal-tar products — 

Color lakes 59 

Photographic chemicals 59 

Medicinals 59 

Flavors and perfume materials 61 

Synthetic resins 61 

Synthetic tanning materials 62 

Prices of domestic dyes 74 

Employees and rates of pay 77 

Research work 78 

Directory of manufacturers of coal-tar products 79 

PART in. 

Dyes imported for consumption in the United States, 1921, calendar year: 

Introductory 85 

Summary of import of dyes during 1921 86 

Detailed census of dyes imported during 1921 91 

Index of dyes imported 132 

PART IV. 

Census of synthetic organic chemicals, not of coal-tar origin, 1921: 

Introduction 145 

Summary of production 145 

Developments in the industry — 

Perfume chemicals 146 

Esters 14-6 

Medicinals 146 

Butyl alcohol 147 

Acetylene derivatives 147 

Ethylene and propylene derivatives 147 

Dii'ectory of manufacturers of synthetic organic chemicals, 1921 156 

PART v. 

Appendix: 

Statistics of imports and exports 161 

TABLES. 

1. Summary of production of dyes and coal-tar chemicals, 1918 to 1921, in- 

clusive -. ^ 

2. By-products obtained from coke-oven operations in 1919, 1920, and 1921. . 13 

3. Production of coal-tar crudes during 1921, by firms not primarily engaged 

in operation of coke-oven plants and gas houses I'l 

4. Comparison of production of coal-tar crudes, 1920 and 1921, by firms not 

primarily engaged in operation of coke-oven plants and gas houses 15 

5. Production and sales of coal-tar intermediates during 1921 21 

6. Comparison of production of coal-tar intermediates, 1920 and 1921 -■ 

7. Production of coal-tar chemicals for sale for research and experimental 

purposes, 1921 -' 

8. Comparison of imports 1914 and 1921 with production of dyes 1917 to 1921 

inclusive, by classes - -^ 

9. Comparison of dyes imported in largest quantity, 1914 and 1921, with do- 

mestic production, 1921 , by classes 41 

10. Dyes produced in the United States in 1914 4' 

11. Domestic exports of dyes, by months, July, 1917, to March, 1922 4! 

12. German exporls and imjKJrts of dyes, 1913 5'„ 

1.3. Dyes, colors, and jiaints; indigo, artificial; imports, China &■ 



CONTENTS. 



14. Dyes, colors and paints; aniline, imports, China 55 

15. Imports of dyes, India 55 

16. Coal-tar dyes: Imports into Japan 55 

17. One-quarter production in German dye plants reserved for purchase of 

allied and associated Governments, February, 1920. to March. 1922 57 

18. Production and sales of dyes and other finished coal-tar products during 

1921 62 

19. Comparison of production of dyes and other finished coal-tar products, 

1920 and 1921 72 

20. Domestic prices of dyes, 1917 to 1921, with 1914 invoice values 75 

21 . Employees and rates of pay in 1921 78 

22. Comparison of employees and rates of pay. 1920 and 1921 78 

23. Summarv of dyes imported for consumption in the United States during 

calendar years 1921 and 1920, classified by application 87 

24. Imports of dyes during calendar year 1921 91 

25. Production and sales of synthetic organic chemicals. 1921 148 

26. Production of chemicals for sale for research and experimental purposes. . . 152 

27. Domestic production of organic chemicals (except coal-tar) 155 

28. Imports and production of svnthetic organic chemicals (except coal-tar) 

1914 and 1921 ". 155 

29. Imports of svnthetic organic chemicals in excess of $100 during year ended 

June 30. 1914 156 

30. Imports for consumption, 1921, of synthetic organic chemicals 156 

FIGURES. 

1. Production and imports of dyes compared by classes 36 

2. Value of domestic dyes exported by months 48 






INTRODUCTION. 



This report is a survey of the domestic dye and organic chemical 
industry in 1921. It presents the results of a special investigation 
made by the United States Tariff Commission as to the production 
in the United States of coal-tar dyes and also of synthetic organic 
chemicals, both those of coal-tar origin and those derived from other 
sources. In addition, there is included a detailed census of dye 
imports. The survey is divided into five parts, as follows: 

Part I, a summary of the census of dyes and other synthetic or- 
ganic chemicals in 1921, describes the progress made in the various 
branches of the American industry. The relation of the export and 
import trade to the industry is briefly shown. 

Part II, a census of dyes and coal-tar chemicals in 1921, gives 
a detailed discussion of the significant facts in the production of 
crude, intermediate, and finished coal-tar products during 1921. 
The dyes are classified by Schultz number and also by their method 
of application, and the imports during 1914 (fiscal year) and 1920. 
and 1921 (calendar years) are compared with the production from 
1917 to 1921, inclusive. One-quarter of the production of German 
dye plants, reserved for the allied and associated Governments from 
February, 1920, to March, 1922 is tabulated by months, together with 
details of the export trade of Germany in 1913. The number of 
employees, rates of pay, and cost of research in the domestic coal-tar 
chemical industry are given, and also a list of manufacturers whose 
production during 1921 was reported to the Tariff Commission. 

Part III contains dyes imported for consumption in the United 
States in 1921 (calendar year) and shows the quantity and value of 
imports of individual dyes and percentage of quantity of each dye 
by countries of origin. 

Part IV, a census of synthetic organic chemicals, other than those 
derived from coal tar, is included for the first time in a report of the 
Commission. This shows quantity and value of the production in 
1921 with a brief discussion of these products. In addition, there 
are listed those manufacturers whose production during 1921 was 
reported to the Tarift' Commission. 

Part V, an appendix, gives imports and exports of coal-tar dyes 
and chemicals and of natural dyes during 1921. 

In the preparation of this report the Tariff Commission had the 
services of Warren N. Watson, Dexter North, and C. R. DeLong, of 
the chemical division/ and of others of the commission's staff. 



PART I. 



SUMMARY OF THE CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER 
SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921. 



Part I. 

SUMMARY OF THE CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC 
ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921. 



Introductory. 



The United States Tariff Commission has reported annually, begin- 
ning with 1917, the progress of the American dye industry. In the 
1919 and 1920 reports and in the present report production figures 
on dyes are supplemented by a detailed census of dye imports. Other 
reports prepared by the Tariff Commission relating to conditions in 
the dye industry include (1) Costs of Production in the Dye Industry, 
1918 and 1919; and (2) Dyes and Other Coal-Tar Chemicals, Decem- 
ber 12, 1918. 

The general grouping of coal-tar chemicals adopted in the present 
1921 report follows that of the act of September 8, 1916, which con- 
forms in general (although not in every detail) with common prac- 
tice: Group I, crudes, exempt from duty, are contained in and sepa- 
rated from crude coal tar; Group II, intermediates, dutiable at 15 
per cent and 2^ cents per pound, are produced from the crudes by 
chemical processes and, with some exceptions, are used only for the 
manufacture of dyes or other finished products by further chemical 
treatment; and Group III, dyes and other fbiished products now duti- 
able in part at 30 per cent and in part at 30 per cent and 5 cents per 
pound. The term "other finished products" includes color lakes, 
photographic chemicals, medicinals, flavors, perfume materials, syn- 
thetic resins, and synthetic tanning materials. A summary of the 
production of coal-tar products in 1921 according to the classes given 
above is shown in Table 1 . 

The 1921 report is based on the production of 201 firms engaged in 
the manufacture of coal-tar products, which, it is believed, represents 
a complete record of the production of dyes and coal-tar chemicals 
in the United States. The quantity and value of the domestic pro- 
duction of each product and the analysis of these figures are given 
in as great detail as possible without revealing the operations of indi- 
vidual manufacturers. A detailed census of dyes imported for con- 
sumption during the calendar year 1921 is given as to quantity, 
invoice value, and countries of origin. An analysis is given of the 
export trade in dyes, by months, from July, 1917, to March, 1922, 
inclusive. This report also contains the one-quarter production in 
German dye plants reserved for the purchase of allied and associated 
Governments, by months, from February, 1920, to March, 1922, with 
a comparison of the present output with that of 1914, and also data 
on Germany's export trade, by countries, in coal-tar dyes in 1914. 



4 census of dyes and synthetic organic chemicals, 1921. 
Summary of Domestic Production, 1921. 

CRUDES. 

The Tariff Commission pointed out in its Census of Dyes and Coal- 
Tar Chemicals, 1920, that the output of coal tar by the American coke 
ovens was sufficient to meet demands in the coal-tar chemical indus- 
try for crude materials. A significant feature of the 1921 coke-oven 
output was that 78 per cent of the total was by-product coke, com- 
pared with 60 per cent for 1920. This continued increase in the pro- 
portion of by-product coke insures an adequate supply of coal tar 
for separation by distillation into crude coal-tar products, which are 
the basis of the intermediate and finished products. The total out- 
put of by-product and beehive coke in 1921 was 25,479,000 tons, a 
decreased 5,429,000 tons from that of 1920. 

The production of crudes at the by-product ovens during 1921 
reported to the United States Geological Survey is not yet available 
for publication. The output of crudes by firms primarily engaged in 
tar distillation was reported to the Tariff Commission. The produc- 
tion of benzene by those firms in 1921 showed a large increase. 
There were also substantial increases in the output of carbazole, cresol, 
and pyridine. There was a large decrease in the output of naphtha- 
lene and anthracene by the tar distillers. The production of anthra- 
cene, due to the domestic soft-pitch requirements, has not been 
adequate in any year to produce sufficient anthraquinone for the 
preparation of vat and alizarin dyes consumed in the United States. 
The commercial production of anthraquinone from phthalic acid and 
benzene indicates, however, that this important intermediate can be 
obtained in quantity from this source, thus supplementing the inade- 
quate supply of anthraquinone manufactured from anthracene. The 
production of crudes is given in detail in Part II of this report, 

INTERMEDIATES. 

The total production of intermediates in 1921 by 108 different 
manufacturers was 70,899,912 pounds, a decrease of 73 per cent in 
quantity from the 1920 output. The total sales during 1921 were 
33,637,326 pounds, valued at $8,483,463. The average price per 
pound of all intermediates sold in 1921 was 25 cents per pound com- 
pared with a price of 37 cents per pound for the total production of 
intermediates in the previous year. 

The number of intermediates reported in 1921 was 233 compared 
with 236 in 1920. Of the total number reported in 1921, 49 were 
reported for the first time. Some of these new products are of 
special importance in considering the progress of the industry, as 
they are required in the production of the more complex and faster 
types of dyes and represent a significant development in the industry. 
Several of these new intermediates are used directly in the production 
of dyes upon the fiber and have heretofore been imported. The 
large decrease in the 1921 production of intermediates may be 
attributed to several causes: (1) The loss of most of our export 
trade in dyes, (2) the large stocks carried over from the previous 
year, and (3) a general business depression. There has been a general 
decline in output of intermediates since 1918, due to the fact that at 



CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS^ 1921. 5 

that time a large part of the intermediates were consumed for muni- 
tions, poison gases, and for special dyes required in large quantities 
for dyeing military cloths. 

In general, the intermediates used in producing those dyes con- 
sumed in the largest quantity show large reductions. There were, 
however, notable increases in certain intermediates of the more 
specialized types, and the tendency during 1921 was toward the 
production of intermediates which more nearly represent normal 
domestic requirements. 

During 1921 the export trade in dyes was greatly reduced as com- 
pared with 1920; hence the intermediates produced in 1921 were 
used in the manufacture of dyes which more nearly represent the 
needs for consumption of the domestic textile industry. In addition 
to the requirements of the domestic dye manufacturer, these inter- 
mediates are also used in the production of photographic chemicals, 
medicinals, flavors, perfume materials, synthetic phenolic resins, 
and synthetic tanning materials. There are still a few intermediates 
for which production is not yet reported, or reported only in small 
amounts, which should be added to the domestic manufacturing 
program in order to give a complete line of dyes of domestic manu- 
facture. 

The production of coal-tar chemicals used for research and experi- 
mental purposes totaled 2,012 pounds in 1921, compared with 1,852 
pounds for the previous year. Total sales of these products amounted 
to 901 pounds, valued at $18,334. These products are essential for 
both technical and scientific research and are a necessary adjunct to 
the development of the domestic coal-tar chemical industry. 

DYES. 

Production. — The domestic output of dyes in 1921 by 74 manufac- 
turers totaled 39,008,690 pounds, a decrease of 56 per cent from that 
of 1920. The sales during 1921 totaled 47,513,762 pounds, with a 
value of $39,283,956. The sales exceeded the production by 22 per 
cent, indicating that a part of the domestic consumption for that year 
was supplied from stocks carried over from the previous year's abnor- 
mal production. The average sales prices of dyes for 1921 was 83 
cents per pound, compared with SI. 08 for 1920'and $1.26 for 1917. 
The greatly reduced output of 1921, as was stated under ''Inter- 
mediates," may be accounted for by (1) loss of the most of our export 
trade, (2) the large stocks carried over from the previous year, and 
(3) the business depression. 

The progress of the year includes the manufacture for the first time 
in this country of a large number of dyes of greater complexity and 
more specialized application. The development of these products is 
a highly technical achievement and a creditable advancement of the 
industry. Dyes of each class (according to application) were among 
the new products manufactured in 1921, and a considerable number 
of these new colors were among the more important not heretofore 
made in the United States. This progress has continued, as produc- 
tion of many new dyes has been reported during the first five months 
of 1922. The domestic dye industry is still deficient, however, in the 
manufacture of vat dyes, alizarins, and certain special types. 



6 CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921. 

The production of dyes in 1921, grouped by classes according to 
method of application, was as follows: Acid dyes, 7,843,009 pounds, 
or 20.11 per cent of the total production; basic dyes, 1,853,094 
pounds, or 4.7 per cent; direct cotton dyes, 7,053,761 pounds, or 
18.08 per cent; sulfur dyes, 10,239,255 pounds, or 26.25 per cent; 
vat dyes, including indigo, 7,019,120 pounds, or 17.99 per cent, the 
vat colors being divided into: Indigo, 6,673,968 pounds, and other 
vats, 345,152 pounds; morda,nt and chrome colors, 3,997,442 pounds, 
or 10.25 per cent; lake and spirit-soluble dyes, 720,406 pounds, or 
1.85 per cent; unclassified dyes, 282,603 pounds, or 0.72 per cent. 

Imports. — The total importation of coal-tar dyes during the calendar 
year 1921 was 3,914,036. pounds, valued at $5,156,779, compared with 
3,402,582 pounds, valued at $5,763,437, during the calendar year 1920. 
Reducing the vat dyes to a single strength basis, the total quantity of 
dyes imported in 1921 was 4,252,911 pounds. Germany supplied 
48.34 per cent of the total dyes imported during 1921; 40.53 per cent 
came from Switzerland, 7.34 per cent originated in England, while 
Italy supplied 2.7 per cent, these imports largely representing re- 
exported reparation dyes of German manufacture. Holland supplied 
0.45 per cent, probably nearly all of German origin; France, 0.37 per 
cent. The imports of dyes from all other countries totaled 0.27 per 
cent. 

The imports of dyes in 1921 are equal to 10 per cent of the quantity 
produced during that year, and 8.5 per cent of the total imports during 
1914, when the United States imported 45,950,895 pounds of dyes 
and produced 6,619,729 pounds from imported intermediates. The 
dyes imported during 1921 include those products which are either 
not yet manufactured in this country, or are not yet produced in an 
adequate c{uantity or in a satisfactory quality to meet all special 
requirements. 

Table 24 shows the quantity and value of each individual dye 
imported during the calendar year 1921 and also the percentage of 
each by the country of origin. 

Exports. — The Commerce Department reports exports of domestic 
''dyes and dyes tuffs " under (1) ''aniline dyes"; (2) ''logwood extract"; 
(3) " all other dyes and dyestuffs," and only the value of these groups 
is given. In 1922, however, a new classification was adopted which 
divided coal-tar dyes into (1) "color lakes," and (2) "other colors, 
dyes, and stains." 

The combined value of exports of ''aniline dyes" and "all other 
dyes" for 1921 was $6,270,155 compared with $29,823,591 for 1920, 
and $15,728,499 for 1919. In other words, exports of domestic dyes 
for 1921 showed a decrease of 79 per cent as compared with the pre- 
vious year. The total exports during 1917, one of the early years 
when the domestic industry was first expanding from its small pre- 
war size, were valued at $7,548,963, which is greater than the 1921 
exports. 

The combined value of exports of coal-tar "color lakes" and 
"other colors, dyes, and stains" for the first three months in 1922 
was $973,316 compared with $2,432,764 for "aniline dyes" and "all 
other dyes and dyestuffs" for the first three months of the previous year. 
In quantity, the exports during the first three months ol 1922 totaled 
1,387,594 pounds. This great reduction in our export trade may be 
attributed in part to the general business depression, but the chief 



CENSUS or DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921. 7 

cause was the appearance in the principal foreign markets, such as 
China, India, and Japan, of German dyes, with which the domestic 
producers have been unable to compete. As far back as 1919 the 
Tariff Commission pointed out in its Census of Dyes and Coal-Tar 
Chemicals for that year that any deductions as to the competitive 
strength of the domestic industry based on the large exports of 1919 
and 1920 were not warranted, as the domestic producers during that 
period met little competition in foreign markets from German colors. 
Subsequent developments have borne out the accuracy of that state- 
ment, as indicated bv the rapid decline in exports during 1921 and 
1922. 

OTHER FINISHED COAL-TAR PRODUCTS. 

Color lakes. — The total output by 43 firms of this class of pigments 
was 6,152,187 pounds compared with 10,983,538 pounds, valued at 
$5,871,820 in 1920. Total sales of color lakes for 1921 amounted to 
6,424,612 pounds, valued at $2,863,189. 

Photographic chemicals. — The production by five firms of those 
coal-tar chemicals used as photographic developers totaled in 1921 
183,798 pounds, compared with 440,759 pounds in 1920. Sales during 
1921 amounted to 170,221 pounds, valued at $248,041. 

Medicinals. — This class of coal-tar products, made by 34 firms, may 
be considered one of the most important, as they are essential to the 
Nation's welfare. The highest technical and research skill is required 
in the development and commercial production of these chemicals. 
During 1921 conspicuous progress was made in the development of 
synthetic medicinals of coal-tar origin. The total production for 
1921 was 1,545,917 pounds, including a small quantity of disinfect- 
ants, the sales amounting to 1,876,246 pounds, valued at $2,930,324. 
The 1920 production, including a considerable quantity of disinfect- 
ants, was 5,184,989 pounds, valued at $5,726,776. Total production 
figures for 1920 and 1921 are, however, not strictly comparable, on 
account of the large quantity of disinfectants of a relatively low value 
reported in 1920 and the small quantity of this group reported in 1921 . 

Perfumes and flavors. — These coal-tar products are closely related 
and certain members of this class are used both as flavors and per- 
fumes. The total output of flavors by 17 firms in 1921 was 901,245 
pounds, compared with 166,884 pounds in 1920. Sales for 1921 
amounted to 933,662 pounds, valued at $1,002,018. The production 
of perfumes by 15 firms in 1921 was 119,335 pounds, compared with 
99,740 pounds for the previous year. Sales in 1921 amounted to 
119,691 pounds, valued at $175,815. 

Synthetic phenolic resins. — These products are used as substitutes for 
amber in making pipestems and similar articles, electrical insulators, 
varnishes, and lacquers. The 1921 production by three firms was 
1,643,796 pounds, compared with a production of 4,659,680 pounds 
during the previous year. Sales in 1921 amounted to 1,674,456 
pounds, valued at $1,352,166. 

Synthetic tannina inaierials. — The output of these products by four 
firms amounted to 1,902,597 pounds in 1921, compared with 3,142,861 
pounds in 1920. The sales were 1,721,359 pounds, valued at $141,005 
during 1921. 



CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS. 1921. 



Table 1. — Summary of the -production of dyes and coal-tar chemicals, 1918 to 1921, 

inciusire. 



Group II — Intermediates. . 
Group III: 

Fiiiislied products 

Dyes 

Color lakes 

Photographic chemi- 
cals 

Medicinals 

Flavors 

Perfumes 

Tanning materials 

Synthetic phenolic 
resins 



1918 



Number 
of manu- 
factur- 
ers. 



Production . 



Quantity. 



Pounds. 
357, 662, 251 

76, 802, 959 

58, 464, 446 

9, 590, 537 

316, 749 

3, 623, 352 

458, 256 

116,263 

4, 233, 356 



Value. 



5124,382,892 

83, 815, 746 

62, 026, 390 

5, 020, 023 

823, 915 
7, 792, 984 
4, 925, 627 

5S4, 695 

2, 642, 120 



1919 



Number 
of manu- 
factur- 
ers. 



155 
90 
34 

10 

31 

9 

6 

1 



Production. 



Quantity. 



Pounds. 
177,362,426 

82, 532, 390 

63, 402, 194 

7, 569, 921 

335, 509 

6, 777, 988 

610, 825 

41,419 

3,794,634 



Value. 



$63, 210, 079 

84, 585, 544 

67, 598, 855 

4,179,964 

1,059,340 

7, 8,S3, 071 

1,318,654 

164, 302 

2,381,358 



Group II — Intermedi- 
ates 

Group III: 

Finished products . . 

Dyes 

Color lakes 

Photographic chem- 
icals . . . : 

Medicinals 

Flavors 

Perfumes 

Tanning materials. . 

Synthetic phenolic 
resins 



1920 



Niunber 
of manu- 
factur- 
ers. 



161 
82 
43 



Production. 



Quantity. Value 



Pounds. 
257,726,911 

112,942,227 
88, 263, 776 
10, 983, 538 

440, 759 
5, 184, 989 

166, 884 

99, 740 

3, 142, 861 

4, 659, 680 



$95,291,686 

112,731,547 

95, 613, 749 

5,871,820 

1,015,848 

5, 726, 776 

527, 493 

332, 008 

233, 674 

3,410,179 



Number 
of manu- 
factur- 
ers. 



108 

147 
74 
43 

5 

34 
17 
15 

4 



Produc- 
tion. 



Quantity. 



Pounds. 
70, 899, 912 

51,457,565 

39, 008, 690 

6, 152, 187 

1.83, 798 

1, 545, 917 

■ 901,245 

119,335 
1, 902, 597 

1,643,796 



Sales. 



Quantity. Value. 



Pounds. 
33, 637, 326 

60, 434, 009 
47, 513, 762 
6,424,612 

170, 221 

1, 876, 246 

933, 662 

119,691 

1,721,359 



SS, 483, 463 

47, 996, 514 

39, 283, 956 

2, 863, 189 

248, 041 

2, 930, 324 

1,002,018 

175,815 

141,005 



1,674,456 1,352,166 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, OTHER THAN THOSE DERIVED FROM 

COAL TAR. 

For the first time the Tariff Commission has undertaken the 
compilation of a census of chemicals other than those derived from 
coal tar or directly from natural sources. These included acids, 
alcohols, esters, ketones, aldehydes, derivatives of alkaloids, car- 
bocyclic compounds, etc., which are used as perfume and flavoring 
ingredients, solvents, medicinals, and in numerous industrial processes. 

The production of these synthetic organic chemicals during 1921 
was 21,545,186 pounds, and the sales amounted to 16,761,096 pounds, 
valued at $13,746,235, at a unit value of $0.82 per pound. In this 
production 1,129 pounds of research chemicals are included, and in 
the sales 428 pounds, which totaled $7,715 or $18.02 per pound. 

Without any previous census of this character, no comparisons call 
be made regarding the actual growth and progress of these industries, 
but this compilation is of value because it shows for the first time the 
quantity, value, and number of such synthetic organic chemicals 
produced or sold in the United States in a given year. Subsequent 
reports will reveal more definitive conclusions as to the existing 
conditions. In conclusion it should be added that the manufacture 
of most of the products enumerated has been developed in this 
country during or since the war era. 



PART II. 

PRODUCTION OF DYES AND COAL-TAR CHEMICALS, 

1921. 



541—22 2 



Part II. 
PRODUCTION OF DYES AND COAL-TAR CHEMICALS, 1921. 



Coal-Tar Crudes. 

Description. — In the manufacture of coke in by-product ovens and 
in the production of coal gas for city lighting and heating one of the 
by-products is coal tar, which yields by distillation or other simple 
methods of treatment (sublimation and washing with acids and 
alkalies) a class of substances known as coal-tar crudes. The most 
important crudes are benzene, toluene, naphthalene, and anthracene. 
Other crudes include xylene, cumene, carbazole, the cresols, and 
pyridine. These products, after purification, are used in the prepara- 
tion of coal-tar intermediates. The latter, in turn, are used in the 
manufacture of dyes and other finished products included in this 
census. In addition to the crudes, certain pitches are included in 
this report which are used for road making, roofing, prepared roll 
roofing and shingles, tar felt, building paper, and such other minor 
uses as sealing dry batteries, and for fuel. There also appear in 
commerce, mixtures obtained from coal tar by distillation, under the 
names of solvent naphtha, light oil, dead oil, creosote oil, anthracene 
oil, and pitch. Solvent naphtha is used mainly as a solvent for paint, 
rubber, cements, and other materials. Certain of the lighter dis- 
tillates containing benzene, toluene, and xylene are used in the 
preparation of blended motor fuels and serve in these cases as substi- 
tutes for gasoline. Creosote oil is used on a large scale for the preser- 
vation of wood (telegraph poles, fence posts, railroad ties, and pasing 
blocks) and also for animal dips. 

By-product coJce ovens continue to replace heehive type. — In 1921 the 
combined output of by-product and beehive coke, as reported by the 
United States Geological Survey, was 25,479,000 tons, divided as 
follows: by-product coke, 19,918,000 tons; beehive coke, 5,561,000 
tons. The combined coke output for 1920 was 30,908,000 tons. 
During 1920, 60 per cent of the coke was produced from by-product 
coke ovens compared with 78 per cent in 1921. The output of 
beehive coke in 1921 was less than that for any year since 1885. No 
new beehive ovens were constructed in 1920 and more than 6,700 
were abandoned. On January 1, 1921, there were in existence 10,881 
by-product ovens with a daily capacity of 117,319 tons. The beehive 
ovens on that date totaled 75,298, with a daily capacity of 196,065 
tons of coke. Of the ovens under construction, 396 were by-product 
and 332 were of the beehive type. 

This continued replacement of beehive ovens with by-product 
ovens, which recover the tar, ammonia, and gas products entirely 
wasted by the old beehive type, is of economic significance in the 
conservation of our resources, for (1) the by-product ovens increase 
production of ammonia for fertilizer and other uses; (2) the gas 
produced in these ovens is used for municipal lighting or industrial 

11 



12 CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921. ^ 

hcatino;; (3) the output of tar insures an abundant supply of coal tar 
for tiie preparation of crudes, whicii serve as the basis of the domestic 
coal-tar dye and chemical industry. 

Output of coal-tar crudes. — The domestic production of crudes is 
collected either by the Tariff Commission or the Geological Survey, 
according to the producers. The crudes produced by the distillation 
of tar at by-product coke ovens are reported to the United States 
Geological Survey. The output from this source for 1919-20 and the 
estimated production for 1921 are given in Table 2. The production 
of crudes by firms engaged primarily in the distillation of coal tar is 
reported to the United States Tariff Commission, and is shown in 
Table 3. The figures from both sources must be considered in 
arriving at the total output for a given year. The two tables referred 
to, however, do not include the production of crudes at coal-gas, 
water-gas, and oil-gas plants. Data for the i)ro(]uction in these 
plants are being compiled by the Ignited States Geological Survey, 
but are not yet available for publication. The output from this 
source, however, constitutes only a small percentage of the total 
crudes produced. 

The estimated tar production from coke-oven operations for 1921, 
reported by the United States Geological Survey, was 233,000,000 
gallons, compared with an actual output in 1920 of 360,064,124 
gallons, with total sales of 174,363,696 gallons, valued at S6, 378, 040. 
This table of the Geological Survey does not contain estimates for 
the output of individual crudes produced during 1921 at the by- 
product coke-oven plants. 

Table 3 contains the output of crudes reported to the United States 
Tariff Commission by firms not primarily engaged in the operation of. 
coke-oven plants and gas houses. There was a large increase in the 
output of benzene during 1921 compared with the previous year and 
also a substantial increase in the output of carbazole, cresol, and 
pyridine. In 1921 the output of benzene was 2,171,631 pounds, a 
148 per cent increase over the previous year. The output of toluene 
and xylene both decreased ; the figures, however, can not be pub- 
lished. The naphthalene outp\it for 1921 was 16,949,464 pounds, a 
36 per cent decrease compared with the previous year. The output 
of anthracene (25 per cent purity) totaled 1,604,717 pounds, a decrease 
of 43 per cent compared with the previous year. During 1919 and 
1920 a serious shoi'tage of naphthalene occurred, which resulted in a 
considerable importation during those two years. This shortage was 
due to miscalculation on the part of the producers, who believed that 
the stocks on hand were sudicient to meet the normal future demands. 
Later the large export trade in dyes during 1920 resulted in excessive 
consumption of naphthalene, which necessitated importation to 
supply the domestic recpiirement. During the latter part of 1920 the 
naphthalene production was increased and by 1921 it more nearly" 
met the domestic re(|uirenunits. The small shortage which still 
existed was met by importation. 

Three years ago the securing of an adeciuate supply of anthracene 
for the manufacture of vat and alizarin dyes was one of the more' 
important unsolved problems of the domestic dye industry. The 
present production of anthracene from coal tar is not adequate to 
produc-e all dyes of these classes consumed by the domestic textile | 
industry. Tiie commercial production of synthetic anthraquinone 
'n 1920, however, indicates that as fast as the requirements of the 



CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921. 13 



dye makers increase the supply of anthracene from coal tar and of 
synthetic anthraciuinone (from plithalic anhydride and henzene) will 
meet their demands. Imports of these pnxhicts are discussed under 
" Intermediates." 

Table 2. — Bij-jirodncls obtdined from coke-oven operations in 1919, 1920, and 1921. 
[Mineral Resources— United States Geological Survey.] 





Unit. 


1919 


Product. 


Production. 


Sales. 




Quantity. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Aver- 
age unit 
value. 


Tar : 


Gallons 


288,898,764 

544,231,98.'-> 
50, 535, 639 


217,980,143 

.5.^)7,619,631 
51,046,744 


$6,919,265 


JO. 032 




Pounds 




Ammonia: 

Sulptialo 


21,075,718 
15,692,950 


. 03S 


Aiitiy<lrouK, or frop ammonia 


Pounds, Nil:). .. 
Pounds. . .. 


.110 


Gas: 


1,000 cubic feet.. 




5,238,486 


2, 106, 800 


.010 


Uspfi in steel or alTiliatctl plant 


do 






do .. 












do 




138,179,761 
49,655,732 




8,015,877 
6,562,324 


. 058 




do 




. 132 


LikIiI oil aiuJ derivatives: 


Gallons 


92,356,750 

44,060,970 
17,006,532 




Benzol— 

Cnidc 


do 


44,697,615 
18,403,909 


7,776,609 
3, 78:5, 552 


. 174 


Konnocl 


do 


.20(5 




do 




Toluol- 
Crude 


do 








itefincd 


do 


1, 100, 136 

3,91.-5,489 

575,885 

3, 549, 998 
2, 763, 271 


1,353,827 

3,625,978 

127, 483 

4,038,4.56 
2, 663, 585 


355, 990 

552, 853 

18,358 

82, 244 
109, 120 
645, 142 


. 263 


Solvent naphtha 


do 


. 1.52 




do 


. 144 


Naphthalene — 

Crude 


Pounds 


. 020 


Kenned 


do 


.041 


01 her products sold 
















Total value of sales 


63,696,868 


















mil. 


1920' 


1921 


PriHluct. 


Production. 


Sales. 


Estimated 
produc- 
tion.* 




Quantity. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Aver- 

at,'e unit 
value. 


Tar 


Gallons 


360,664,124 

67.5,816,486 
6.5,777,259 

. 938, 925, 522 
■170,48.5,744 


174,363,696 

626,013,975 
02,076,772 

874,321,063 

53,220,824 

• 151,764,807 

25, 430, 288 


$6, .378, 040 


$0. 037 

.043 
.138 

.011 

.295 
.094 
.087 


233, 000, 000 


Ammonia: 

Siilfihate 


Pounds 


27,110,260 
"8,585,173 






Pounds, NH3. . . 
Pounds 

1,000 eul)ic feet.. 

do 

do 

do 




ammonia. 
Sulphate equivalent... 




35,695,433 


607, 000, 000 


Qa.s: 

l»istribute<l through 

citv mains. 
UsM in steel or afTili- 

ated plant. 
Use^l under boilers. 


15,716,888 
14,301,095 
2,216,3.35 


308,000,000 




.32,2:54,318 


.140 










Public service corpo- 
ration. 


do 






1 

















• Includes anhydrus ammonia reported as such— and ammonia liquor converted to equivalent. 
' Included in crude benzol. 

' Press notice, United States Geological Survey. 

* ICstimated by assuminj; that the (piantity of th(! several by-products obtained l)ore the same relation 
to the known production of coke in 1921 as iil 1920. The recoveries per ton of coal charged in 1920 were as 
follows: Aniiu'inia (sulphate or e(iuivaleul), 21.4 pounds; tar, 8.2 gallons; crude light oil, 2.7 gallons; gas 
10 K M cubic feet. 

'' Mostly ammonical litjuor, reported in content of NII3. 



14 CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS. 1921. 



Table 2. — By-products obtained from coke-oven operations in 1919, 1920, and 1921 — 

Continued. 





Unit. 


1920 


1921 


Product. 


Production. 


Sales. 


Estimated 
produc- 
tion. 




Quantity. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Aver- 
age unit 
value. 


Light oil and deriratives: 
Crude light oil 


Gallons 


109,709,915 

8,747,572 
16,977,556 
57,645,462 

287, 142 
2, 710, 649 
5,678,525 


1,067,045 

1,510,420 
15, 720, 356 
55,764,265 


« S126, 158 

401,296 

4,096,527 

^ 12, 644, 931 


SO. 118 

.266 
.260 
.227 


71 000 000 


Benzol — 

Crude 


do: 




Refined 


do 




Motor fuel 


do 




Toluol- 
Crude 


do 




Refined 


do 


2, 470, 364 
4, 695, 464 


740, 722 
851,048 


.300 
.181 




Solvent naphtha 


do 




Other refined oils 


do 




Naphthalene — 

Crude 


Pounds 


11,246,807 
2, 921, 282 


11,507,703 
2,941,059 


307,999 
179, 975 


.027 
.061 




Refined 


do 












19,348,656 




Other products sold 


8 36,317 




Total value of sales.. 








9 93,692,764 

















6 The quantity of crude light oil refined by the producer amounted to 108,584,417 gallons. 
' The benzol content of motor fuel ranged from 50 to 100 per cent. 

8 Includes coal-tar oil, crude heavy solvent, carbon, and pyridin oil. 

9 Exclusive of coke breeze, of which 2,460,835 tons was prbducel and 533,019 tons was sold at a value ot 
$1,249,004. 

Table 3. — Production of coal-tar crudes during 1921, by firms not primarily engaged in 
the operation of coke-oven plants and gas houses. 

[The numbers in the second column refer to the numbered alphabetical list of manufacturers given on 
page 79. An X indicates that the corresponding product was made by a manufacturer who did not 
consent to the publication of his name in connection therewith. Blanks in the third and fourth columns ' 
indicate that there was actual production of the corresponding article, but that the figures can not be 
published without revealing the output of individual firms.] 



Name. 



Total crudes ' 

Benzene gallons. 

Toluene do. . . 

Xylene do... 

Naphthalene, crude pounds. 

Anthracene, 25 percent pure do... 

Carbazole, crude, 60 per cent do. . . 

Cresol gallons. 

Pyridine do. . . 

Solvent naphtha do. . . 

Dead or creosote oil do... 



Anthracene oil do. . . 

Pitch of tar tons. 



Other distillates gallons. 

Refined tars barrels. 



Manufacturers' identifica- 
tion number (according to 
list on page 79). 



17, 23, 35, 42, 118, 128, X. 

17,35, 128 

17 



13, 17, 29, 35, 42, 46, 87, 99, 
118, 138, 145, 153, X, X, X. 

17, 138, 145, X,X 

138 



17, 138,X 

17, 113 

13, 17,35,42,87, 128, 145, X. 

13, 17, 23, 28, 29, 42, 46, 71, 85, 

99, 118, 138, 145, 153, IQp, 

X, x,x, x,x. . 

138, 145, X, X 

13,17,23,28,29,42,46,71,85, 

99, 118, 138, 145, 153, 100, 

174, X. 
13, 17, 23, 28, 42, 46, 85, 87, 99, 

138 153 X 
13, 17, 23,' 46,' 71, 85, 99, 118, 

138, 145, 153, X, X, X. 



1921 



Quantity' 



2,171,631 



16,949,464 
1,604,717 



649, 694 
28, 864, 156 



2, 857, 391 
347,011 



6,562,332 
1,029,282 



Value. 



$17,936,160 
463, 205 



380, 167 
83, 707 



111,286 

3,188,867 



519,347 
6,514,200 



1,209,291 
5, 196, 427 



Value per 
unit. 



$0.21 



.02 
.05 



.17 
.11 



.18 
18.77 



.18 
5.05 



» The instructions sent to manufacturers were as follows: 

Include under "dead or creosote oil" only products which may be used for creosoting. 

Inf^lude under "other distillates" shingle-stain oils, disinfectant oils, and flotation oils which do not 
contain over 5 per cent phenol. Include under "refined tars" those tars which are used for road treat- 
ment, saturating felt, and for protective coatings. Phenol and all distillates which on being subjected 
to distillation yield in the portion distilling below 200° C. a quantity of tar acids equal to or more thanS 
per cent of the original distillate are not to be included here, but are to be placed in Group II. 

Cresol , for the purpose of this report, is defined as a distillate containing more than 5 per cent of phenol 
and at least 50 per cent of the isomeric cresols. 



CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921. 15 

Table 4. — Comparison of production of coal-tar crudes, 1920 and 1921, by firms not 
primarily engaged in the operation of coke-oven plants and gas houses. 





1921 


1920 


Name. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Value 
per unit. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Value 
per unit. 


Total crudes 1 




$17,936,160 

463, 205 

380, 167 

83,707 

111,286 

3,188,867 

519,347 

6, 514, 200 

1,209,291 

5,196,427 






$21,163,937 

287,586 

791,403 

114,661 

74,669 

4,395,290 

593, 839 

5,245,554 

1,577,727 

7,582,553 




Benzene gallons.. 

Naphthalene, crude pounds. . 

A nthracene,25 per cent pure .do 

Solvent naphtha gallons. . 

Dead or creosote oil do 

Anthracene oil do 

Pitch of tar tons. . 

Other distillates gallons. . 


2,171,631 

16,949,464 

1,604,717 

649,694 

28, 864, 156 

2,857,391 

347,011 

6,562,332 

1,029,282 


$6.2i 

.02 
.05 
.17 
.11 

.18 

18.77 

.18 

5.05 


875, 561 

26,393,411 

2,829,500 

472,000 

37, 557, 245 

3, 284, 102 

342,401 

8,052,242 

1,386,056 


$0.33 
.03 
.04 
.16 
.12 
.18 

15.32 
.20 


Kefined tar barrels. . 


5.47 



Intermediates. 

Description. — This class of coal-tar chemicals does not occur as 
such in the tar, but is prepared from the crudes (benzene, toluene, 
naphthalene, and antliracene) by chemical treatment, such as with 
sulfuric acid, nitric aqid, alkalies, chlorine, or other chemicals. 
From less than 10 coal-tar crudes there are prepared from 200 to 300 
intermediates required in the production of hundreds of dyes. The 
various chemical steps required in the conversion of crudes to inter- 
mediates are (1) nitration; (2) reduction; (3) sulfonation; (4) caus- 
tic fusion; (5) chlorination ; (6) alkylation; (7) liming; (8) conden- 
sation; (9) carboxylation; (10) oxidation; and (11) dizaotization. 

Intermediates are the raw materials which, by the above complex 
chemical processes are converted into dyes, medicinals, perfumes, 
flavors, photographic chemicals, and synthetic resins and tanning 
materials. They are also used to accelerate the vulcanization of 
rubber, as camphor substitutes, in the direct production of dyes on 
the fiber, and for increasing the fastness of dyed colors, in which case 
they are known as "developers." After purification, many interme- 
diates are used directly as drugs, perfumes, and flavors. 

Production. — The production of intermediates in the United States 
during 1920 is shown in Table 5, in as great detail as possible without 
revealing the output of individual manufacturers. The total output 
in 1921 was 70,899,912 pounds. The sales during the same year 
amounted to 33,637,326 pounds, valued at $8,483,463. The produc- 
tion in 1921 represents a 72 per cent decrease from that in 1920. 
This large reduction in output may be attributed to (1) the loss of 
export trade in dyes ; (2) large stocks carried over from the previous 
year; and (3) the general business depression. 

The number of intermediates reported in 1921 was 233 compared 
with 236 in 1920. Of the total number reported in 1921, 49 were 
reported for the first time. The new products are of special import- 
ance in considering the progress of the industry, as they are required 
in the manufacture of the more complex and faster types of dyes. 
The development and commercial production of many of these inter- 
mediates require the highest technical skill. 

The manufacture of certain dyes, mostly of the vat and alizarin 
^lass, which are now produced in this country either in small amounts 



16 CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921. 

or not at all, would require a greatly increased output of certain in- 
termediates (for example, anthraquinone derivatives) and the initial 
production of others. While in many cases these dyes are consumed 
in relatively small quantities by our textile industry, they are never- 
theless essential for the dyeing and- printing of a variety of textile 
fabrics. 

It should be borne in mind that the 1921 production figures of 
intermediates do not take into account the stocks which were carried 
over from the previous year and which were consumed in the prepa- 
ration of dyes in 1921. The sale of intermediates in the United 
States represents a relatively small part of the consumption on ac- 
count of the fact that a large number of the manufacturers of dyes 
make their own intermediates. 

Reduced output of fundamental intermediates. — The most con- 
spicuous change in the 1921 output of intermediates compared with 
that of the previous year was the large general decrease in most 
products, with a marked decrease in those intermediates which are 
required in the largest quantities for the manufacture of dyes. A few 
intermediates, representing new developments, showed a considerable 
increase in production during 1921. The following include the more 
important intermediates used in the preparation of the dyes which 
represent the bulk of production in the United States; the percentages 
show the decrease in the 1921 output frojn that of 1920: 

Per cent. 

Aniline oil 86 

Benzidine (base and salt) 85 

Gamma acid (2-amino-8-naphthol-6-sulfonic acid) 48 

H acid (l-amino-8-naphthol-3 : 6-disulfonic acid) 68 

a-Naphthylamine (also used in ore flotation) 92 

b-Naphthol, technical 75 

p-Nitroaniline '. 61 

Benzene derivatives. — Aniline oil, prepared from benzene, is the 
most important of all finished intermediates. It is used in the 
manufacture of dyes of every class, based on method of application 
and in most classes based on chemical constitution. Among the 
dyes produced in large amounts which require aniline in their pro- 
duction are Indigo, Direct Black E W, Agalma Black 10 B, Induline, 
and Nigrosine. The production of aniline oil in 1921 was 5,639,234 
pounds; the value and quantity of sales were, next to naphthalene,, 
the highest of any intermediate and totaled 5,259,598 pounds valued 
at $1,161,381. The production in 1920 was 39,234,186 pounds. 
The production of aniline salt (aniline hydrochloride and aniline 
sulfate) showed a large decrease from the output of 2,024,956 pounds 
for the previous year. A large part of the aniline hydrochloride, 
sold is consumed by the cotton dyer in the direct production of 
" aniline black" on the fiber. 

Dimethylaniline, a derivative prepared from aniline by treatment, 
with methyl alcohol, is used in the manufacture of such important 
basic dyes as Methyl Violet, Methylene Blue B, and Malachite. 
Green. The output of this intermediate decreased from 5,447,107 
pounds valued at $3,857,631 in 1920, to 566,286 pounds in 1921. 
Total sak^s in 1921 were 390,931 pounds, valued at $210,910. The 
output of dicthyhmiline, used in the manufacture of certain more ex- 
pensive dyes, such as Brilliant Green, Acid Violet, and Patent Blue,, 
was 32,812 pounds in 1921, an 82 per cent decrease from that of tha 



CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS^ 1921. 17 

previous year. The production of ethylbenzylaniline in 1921 was 
16,949 pounds. 

Acetanilide (technical) is used as an intermediate, a medicinal 
(when purified) , a stabilizer for hydrogen peroxide, and an ingredi- 
ent in cellulose ester dopes and lacquers. The output in 1921 was 
1,152,713 pounds, compared with 2,667,252 pounds in 1920. 

Benzidine, prepared by reduction of nitrobenzene (oil of myrbane) 
is one of the most important intermediates used in the production 
of the substantive or direct cotton dyes. The combined produc- 
tion in 1921 of benzidine (base and sulfate) was 328,577 pounds, a 
decrease of 85 per cent from that of the previous year. The sales 
during 1921 totaled 277,388 pounds, valued at $235,076. The 
output of dianisidine, used also in the preparation of direct cotton 
dyes, showed a large decrease from that of 1920. 

In 1921 the sales of phenol (carbolic acid) totaled 292,645 pounds 
valued at $41,617. Phenol is used both in the manufacture of 
dyes and other intermediates, such as salicylic acid, and also for 
synthetic resins and medicinals. The production of salicylic acid 
U. S. P. (the grade meeting the specifications of the United wStates 
Pharmacopoeia) was 1,722,575 pounds in 1921, compared with 2,- 
663,494 pounds in 1920. Sales for 1921 totaled 1,185,062 pounds 
valued at $279,072. The technical grade of salicylic acid is used in 
large amounts for the preparation of certain mordant and direct 
cotton dyes. The output of this grade in 1921 was 1,777,752 pounds 
and the sales amounted to 131,532 pounds, valued at $25,725. 

The output of p-nitroaniline, an important intermediate used in 
the preparation of "para red", both on cotton fiber and for color 
lakes, and also in the manufacture of Diamine Green B and G, Aliza- 
rine Yellow R, and certain sulfur dyes, decreased from 2,138,492 
pounds in 1920 to 832,438 pounds in 1921, the sales in the latter 
year being 621,559 pounds, valued at $526,403. Phenylhydrazine 
p-sulfonic acid, used in the preparation of the yellow acid dye, 
Tartrazine, showed a large decrease. The output of o-nitroanisole 
and of the nitrochlorobenzenes showed marked decreases compared 
with the previous year. 

Triphenyl phosphate, a product used as a substitute for camphor 
in pyroxylin plastics, first reported in 1920, showed a large decrease 
in output in 1921. There was, however, a considerable output 
of tricresylphosphate, which is used for the same purpose. 

Of the aniline derivatives used chiefly as accelerators in the vul- 
canization of rubber, thiocarbanilide decreased from 2,226,807 
pounds in 1920 to 1,185,462 pounds in 1921. The sales in the 
latter year were 376,368 pounds, valued at $157,046. Triphenyl 
guanidine, a new accelerator of great promise, showed a large in- 
creased output in 1921 over the previous year. Considerable quan- 
tities of formanilide and anilidothiazol products were reported for 
the first time. 

Toluene derivatives. — The toluidines, used in the preparation of 
magenta, safranine, the primulines and indamines, showed a large 
decrease in production during 1921. The output of o-toluidine in 
1921 was 208,505 pounds, a decrease of 84 per cent, while p-toluidine 
totaled 268,629 pounds, a decrease of 70 per cent. 

Tolidine and salts, used in the manufacture of direct cotton dyes 
(mostly reds and bluef\, showed a large decrease in output in 1921. 



18 CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC OEGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921. 

The output of benzoic acid, U.S.P., in 1921 totaled 190,483 pounds, 
the sales amounting to 29,734 pounds valued at $18,432. The out- 
put of the technical grade reported for 1921 was only a small fraction 
of the U.S.P. grade. The combined output of U.S.P. and tech- 
nical benzoic acid for 1920 was 743,113 pounds. Benzoate of soda, 
used largely as a food preservative, showed a reduction in output of 
53 per cent; the production in 1921 was 381,154 pounds. The price 
receded from 79 cents per pound in 1920 to 57 cents per pound in 
1921. The sales for 1921 (413,595 pounds, valued at $236,784) ex- 
ceeded the production. 

Production of p-nitrotoluene-o-sulf onic acid showed a large increase 
in 1921, totaling 321,264 pounds. This intermediate is used in the 
manufacture of Direct Yellow R and other yellows of the stilbene 
class. Another toluene derivative, m-nitro-p-toluidine, which is 
sold to the textile trade under the name of Fast Red G base for the 
production of a fast red on cotton, showed a production of 70,094 
pounds. Production was also reported for p-nitro-o-toluidine, which 
is sold for similar purposes under the name of Fast Scarlet G base. 

Xylene derivatives. — The output of xylidine and xylidine salt, used 
in the manufacture of Ponceau 2 R, Sudan II, and wool scarlets, de- 
creased from 1,054,476 poimds in 1920 to 119,218 pounds in 1921. 

NapJitJialene derivatives. — As in the case of the benzene derivatives, 
the most important derivatives of this class showed large decreases 
in output in 1921. The production of refined naphthalene (solidify- 
ing 79° or above) reported to the Tariff Commission by firms primarily 
engaged in tar distillation, totaled 13,553,777 pounds, a decrease of 
55 per cent from that of 1920. The sales of naphthalene during 1921 
were 13,183,142 pounds, valued at $740,955, the price decreasing from 
$0. 08 in 1920 to $0. 06 per pound in 1921. This does not include 
the output of naphthalene at the coke ovens, data for which are being 
collected by the Geological Survey, but are not yet available for 
publication. 

b-Naphthol (technical) shows the largest output of any of the 
naphthalene derivatives, namely, 2,959,049 pounds. This represents 
a 75 per cent decrease from that of the previous year. This important 
intermediate is consumed in large amounts in the preparation of a 
variety of dyes, color lakes, and other intermediates, and in the pro- 
duction of "Para red" on the fiber. The sales of b-naphthol for 
1921 were 2,263,601 pounds, valued at $891,029. The price of b- 
naphthol in 1921 was 39 cents per pound, a reduction of 8 cents 
per pound from that of the previous year. 

H acid (l-amino-8-naphthol-3:6-disulfonic acid) is one of the most 
important intermediates derived from naphthalene. It is of particu- 
lar importance in the manufacture of direct cotton and acid dyes. 
The output in 1921 was 1,639,323 pounds, a decrease of 68 per cent 
from that of the previous year. The sales for 1921 were 988,277 
pounds, valued at $945,945. The 1920 price was $1.23 per pound, 
while the 1921 figure had declined to 95 cents per pound. 

Naphthionic acid (l-naphthylamine-4-sulfonic acid), used in the 
preparation of direct cotton dyes and also for the manufacture of 
Nevile and Winther's acid (l-naphthol-4-sulfonic acid), showed a pro- 
duction of 832,850 pounds for 1921. l-amino-2-naplithol-4-sulfonic 
acid, used largely in the preparation of Salicine Black, showed an out- 
put of 449,996 pounds, a decrease of 54 per cent from that of the 
previous year. The production of a-naphthylamine, used in the prep- 



CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921. 19 

aration of Fast Red B, Sulfoncyanine, Diamine Black F, and other 
blacks, as well as for certain intermediates, was 429,035 pounds, a 
92 per cent decrease from that of 1920. 2-naphthol-6 : 8-disulf onic 
acid, consumed in the manufacture of Brilliant Croceine, Cochineal 
Red A, Diamine Scarlet B, and Wool Green B S, decreased 73 per cent 
in 1921, or to 396,926 pounds. The output of R acid (2-naphthol- 
3 : 6-disulf onic acid), used chiefly in the preparation of Ponceau R 
and also for .Amaranth, Fast Red B, and Palatine Chrome Red B, was 
322,902 pounds, a 74 per cent decrease from that of 1920. 

Phthalic anhydride, used in the preparation of fluorescein, the 
cosines, rhodamines, and synthetic anthraquinone, showed a large 
reduction from the output of 796,210 pounds in 1920. This inter- 
mediate is of special importance, as it serves as a basis for the prepa- 
ration of s3Tithetic anthraquinone, which in turn is used for the pro- 
duction of vat and alizarin dyes. 

Gamma acid (2-amino-8-naphthol-6-sulfonic acid), used in the 
manufacture of direct cotton dyes, including Diamine Black B H, 
Diamine Brown M, and Diamine Fast Red F, showed an output of 
218-,717 pounds, a 48 per cent decrease from the previous year. 
Other intermediates, which were reported in large quantities during 
1921, showed the following decreases compared with the output of 
1920: 2-naphthylamine-l-sulfonic acid, used for Lithol Red R, 54 per 
cent decrease, and Nevile and Winther's acid (l-naphthol-4-sulfonic 
acid), used for Azo Rubine, Congo Corinth, Benzoazurine G, Benzo 
Blue B X, and Diamond Black F, 67 per cent decrease. b-Naphthyla- 
mine showed a large reduction. Chicago acid (l-amino-8-naphthol- 
2 : 4-disulf onic acid), used in the preparation of Chicago Blue 4 B and 
R W and Brilliant Benzo Blue 6 B, also showed a considerable decrease. 
The production of J acid (2-amino-5-naphthol-7-sulfonic acid), 
which may be considered as a specialty intermediate used in the 
preparation of the higher classes of direct dyes distinguished by 
greater fastness to acids such as the benzo fast scarlets (first reported 
in 1920), decreased slightly. 

Production was reported in 1921 of two important intermediates 
heretofore imported for use by the textile trade in the direct produc- 
tion of bright fast shades on cotton by both printers and dyers. 
These products were b-hydroxy-naphthoic anilide, known in the tex- 
tile trade as Naphthol A S and b-hydroxy-napthoic toluide, sold under 
the trade name of Naphthol B S. The fast shades produced from 
these products in conjunction with certain other intermediates are 
competitive with vat and alizarin dyed goods. The output of 
l-amino-8-naphthol-4-sulfonic acid used in the preparation of some 
of the faster direct blues showed a large increase in 1921. Production 
figures, however, for this, as well as certain other products, can not 
be published without revealing the individual operations of the manu- 
facturer. Several new intermediates derived from naphthalene were 
first reported in 1921, among these were di (l-naphthol-3-sulfonic) 
urea, 2-nitro-naphthalene-4 : 8-disulf onic acid, and 1-naphthylamine- 
2:4: 8-trisulf onic acid. 

Anthracene derivatives. — While the technical progress of the 
American dye industry in the development of new dyes and the 
improvement of the quality of colors already derived from anthracene 
was gratifying, the actual output of the intermediates and dyes 
derived from anthracene was still considerably below domestic 
requirements. The preparation of vat dyes, including the indan- 



20 CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS^ 1921. 

threnes and most of the algol colors, requires anthraquinone as a raw- 
material. Alizarin and the alizarin derivatives also use anthra- 
quinone. In either case anthraquinone may be prepared from 
anthracene by oxidation, or may be synthesized from phthalic 
anhydride and benzene. The vat colors except indigo constituted 
24.6 per cent of our 1921 imports. A large part of these were 
anthraquinone derivatives and future expansion to a well-balanced, 
self-contained industry will require considerably increased output 
in this field. 

As was pointed out in 1920, the quantity of anthracene available, 
together with the anthraquinone prepared by the synthetic process, 
gives assurance that adequate supplies of this intermediate will be 
available when needed for the increased output of vat and alizarin 
colors. 

The 1921 output of anthracene showed a large decrease from that 
of the previous year. The production of anthrac^uinone for 1921 
was 125,358 pounds and for 1920, 539,619 pounds, which represents 
a 77 per cent decrease. It is understood, however, that the output 
in 1921, while only a fraction of the rec{uirements of all anthra- 
quinone dyes consumed in the United States, represents only a small 
percentage of the domestic capacity for the manufacture of this 
intermediate. 

The production of b-amino anthraquinone, used in the manufac- 
ture of vat dyes, decreased slightly in 1921 from the 1920 output 
which was nine times greater than that of the previous year. Several 
anthracjuinone derivatives were reported for the first time in 1921. 

Imports of intermediates, 1921 — The imports of coal-tar products 
entered for consumption during the years 1917 to 1921, inclusive, 
may be found in Part V. These statistics are collected by the 
Department of Commerce under the heads indicated in the tables. 
The more noteworthy imports during 1921 include 261,645 pounds 
of anthracene, purity of 25 per cent or more, with a value of $12,639, 
a large decrease from 1920 w^hen 648,095 pounds w^ere imported. 
The imports of anthrac{uinone in 1921 w^ere 127,427 pounds with a 
value of $78,255, a large increase from the previous year w^hen only 
13,053 pounds were imported. A shortage of these two products 
existed as the result of the general reduction of manufacturing 
programs, and the imports supplied a considerable part of the raw 
material required for the preparation of vat an4 alizarin dyes derived 
from these intermediates. 

The imports of naphthalene (solidifying at 79° or above) in 1921 
showed a large decrease from that of the previous year. In 1921, 
441,685 pounds with a value of $31,458 were imported and in 1920, 
3,695,562 pounds, with a value of $416,172. These figures show 
that the large shortage of 1920, when the domestic demands were 
above normal, was greatly reduced by a modification of the domestic 
production program. The import of naphthol for 1921 was 333,356 
pounds with a value of $192,922. This probably includes not only 
alpha- and beta-naphthol but a number of the special naphthols 
such as naphthol B S and A S used for the production of dyes on 
the fi})er. No imports were given for naphthol during 1918 and 

1919. The 1921 import of resorcinol was 109,658 pounds with a 
value of $75,022, which was about double the quantity imported in 

1920. Imports of other intermediates are relatively small, when 
compared with domestic production. 



•CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921. 21 

Table 5. — Production and sales of coal-tar interynediates during 1921. 

JThe numbers in the second column refer to the numbered alphabetical list of manufacturers printed on 
page 79. An X signifies that the corresponding intermediates were made by a manufacturer who did 
not consent to the publication of his name in connection therewith. Blanks in the third and fourth 
columns indicate that there were sales of the corresponding intermediates in the United States during 
1921, but that the figures can not be published without revealing information in regard to the sales of 
individual firms. The blank space in the sixth column indicates that there was actual production of 
the corresponding intermediates in the United States during 1921, but that the figures can not be pub- 
lished without revealing information in regard to the output of individual firms. The details thus con- 
cealed are, however, included in the totals. Reports have been received from all firms known to be 
manufacturers.! 





Manufacturers' identi- 
fication number (ac- 
cording to list on p. 
79). 


Sales, 1921. 




Common name. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Average 
price per 
pound. 


Production, 
1921. 


Total intermediates 




Pounds. 
33,637,326 


1 8,483,463 


$0.25 


Pounds. 
70,899,912 




3,22,34, 112,124,145.. 
53, 64, 69, 114, 116, 145. 




Acetanilide, tech ... 


12,865 


2,957 


.23 
1.35 


1,152,713 


Acetyl-p-phenylcnediamine {p- 
aniino acetanilide). 


84,742 


34, 53, 145 










10 












53, 114, 116 












27, 34, 53, 55, 69, 70, 72, 

93, 114, 145. 
27, 34, 53, 69, 72, 114, 

117. 
76, 110, 144 . ... 






1.20 
.70 


49,763 


Aminoazotoluene 






35, 867 


p-Aminobenzoic acid 








p-Aminodimethylaniline. . 


X 










Aminodiphenvlamine-o-sulfonic 


5 










acid. 
l-Amino-2-naphthol - 4 - sulfonic 


22, 34, 53, 93, 117, 145, 

X. 
34, 114, 116 






1.01 


449, 996 


acid. 
l-Amino-8-naphthol - 4 - sulfonic 








acid. 
1-Amino- S-naphthol-2 : 4-disul- 


53, 114 










fonic acid (Chicago acid). 
l-Amino-S-nai)hthol-3 : 6-disul- 

fonic acid(H acid). 
2-Amiiio-5-naphthoI- 7 - sulfonic 


22, 53, 69, 109, 111, 114, 

116, 117, 122. 
53, 114, 116 


988,277 


945,945 


.95 


1,039,323 


acid (J acid). 
2-Amino-S-naphthol - 6 - sulfonic 
acid (Gamma acid). 


22,24,27,93, 114,116.. 
117 




32,528 


68,373 


2.10 


218,717 




8, 144, 163,167 

22,69, 114, 117, 167 


9,366 


21,581 


2.30 

.95 

1.39 


12, 775 


o-Aminophenol-p-sulfonic acid.. . 


54,355 


p-Aminophenol and hydrochlo- 
ride. 
Aminophenyltolylamine sulfonic 


8, 31, 53, 93, 116, 144, 

163, 167. 
116 


40,587 


56, 275 


72,572 


acid. 
Aminosalicylic acid 


24,45,53, 114 










Anilido benzene thiazol and de- 


X 










rivatives. 


24,27,53,108,112,114, 

134, X, X. 
24, 72, 114, X 


5,259,598 
366,533 


1,161,381 
97,225 


.22 

.27 


5, 639, 234 


Anihne salt (and sulphate) .... 




Aniline for red 


114 






114, 116 










Anthracene blue, base 


114 










Anthracene, refined 


138 










Anthranilic acid (o-aminoben- 


.53, 61, 112, 160 






1.67 
1.59 


35,616 


zoic). 


19, .53, 88, 114, 141, 156. 
10, 69, 114 


29,422 


46,700 


125,358 


Anthraquinonc-1 : .i-disulfonic 




acid. 
Anthraquinone-1 : .5-and-l : 8-di- 


116 










sulfonic acid. 
Anthraquiiione-2-sodium sulfo- 


10, 19, 53, 116 










nate (silver salt). 
Anthraquinone-4:8-dini t r 0-1:5- 


116 










disulfonic acid. 
Arsanilic acid 


47 










Benzalchloride and benzotrichlo- 


61, X 








ride. 
Benzaldehyde 


61,89,124, 143,162, X.. 
10, 53, 116 


82,234 


59,217 


.72 


66,365 


Benzaiithr'one 




Benzidine base and sulfate 

Hi'iizoate of soda. . . 


2,6,22,-53,70,111,114, 
116, 161, X. 

79, 124, 144, X, X 

79, 124, 143, 144, X 


277, 388 

413,595 
29,734 


235, 076 

236,784 
18,432 


.85 

.57 
.62 


328,577 
381,1.54 


Benzoic acid, U. S. P 


190,483 



22 CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921. 
Table 5. — Production and sales of coal-tar intermediates during 1921 — Continued. 





Manufacturers' identi- 
fication number (ac- 
cording to list on p. 
79). 


Sales, 1921. 




Common name. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Average 
price per 
pound. 


Production, 
192i. 


Benzoic acid, tech 


79, 144 


Pounds. 






Pounds. 


Benzoyl benzoic acid 


116 










Benzoyl chloride 


79 










Benzyl acetate 


X 










Benzyl alcohol 


89, 144, 150, 162, X, 

k, X. 
X 


9,959 


10, 142 


1.02 


17 152 


Benzylamine 




Benzyl chloride 


61, 79, 124, 143, 162.. 






.28 


473 296 


Broenner's acid. (See 2-naph- 

thylamine-6-sulfonic acid;. 
Bromobenzene 


61 








Carbazole, refined 


61 










o-Chlorobenzaldehyde 


114 










Chlorobenzan throne 


,3 










Chlorobenzene (mono) 


79,93, 143 






.08 


1,692,624 


Chlorometanilic ac id 


34 








Chloronaphthalene 


X 










l-Chljro-8-naphlhol-3;e-disulfcni( 


114 










acid. 
2-Chloro-5-nitrotoIuene-4-sulfomc 


145 










acid. 
Chlorotoluene 


114 










2-Chloro-5-toliudine-4-sulfonicacic; 


J7, 106, 145 










Chromotropic acid. {See l:8-di- 












hydroxy naphthalene-3:6-clisul- 
fonic acid. 
Cinnamic acid .... . . 


89, 150, X, X . 


807 


2,538 


3.14 


778 


Creosote oil, containing more 


13, 46, 174 




than 5 per cent tar acids. 
Cresol, ortho, metaandpara.... 
o-Cresol, purity of 90 per cent or 

more. 
o-Cresotinic acid 


17, 102 










17, 151 










X. 










Dehydrothio-p-toluidine sulfonic 

acid. 

l:5-Diamino anthraquinone 

2:6-D i am in o p h e n ol-4-sulfonic 

acid. 
Dianiinostilbene disulfonie acid. 


59,64, 114, X 






1.78 


18,204 


10 








117 










59, 114, 116 








66,909 




53, 114, 116 










l-Diazo-2-napthol-4-sulfonic acid. 


22,93, 117 










116 












5,116 












93 










p-Dichlorobenzene 


53,79,93, 121,143 

53 


375,543 


61,363 


.16 


402, 289 






Diethylaniline 


30, 53, 76, 114, 152 






.97 


32,812 


l:.5-Dihydroxy-anlhraquinone. . . 
l:5-Dihydroxy-4:8-dinitroanthra- 

quinone-3:6-disulfonic acid. 

l:5-Dihydroxynaphthalene 

1 :8-D i h y d r oxynaphthalene-3:6- 

disulfonic acid (chromotropic 

acid). 


114 








116 










69, 116, 117 . . 










53, 114, 116. . 










6, 24, 27, 53, 103,1 14, X.. 
114 


390,931 


210,910 


.54 


566, 286 


Di( l-naph1hol-3-sulfonic)-urea.. . . 




53. 












114 










Dinitrnbenzene 


14, 24, 53, 114, 103 

Ill 


333, 528 


72,007 


.22 


894.209 








14 53, 09, 93, 111, 170.. 






.21 


2, 408, 472 ■ 




110 










110 










Dinitroiiydro.x yphenylamine 


116 










110 












14 09 












117 












14,53 55 05,72,114,116 
53 


182, 229 


41, 500 


.23 


l,0l'i5,323 






Diphcnylmetiiane and sulfonate . 


114 










114 . 












114 










Ethyl-|)-aiiiinoa(c(anilide 


114 










110 












30, 53, 70, 152, 104. ..... 






l.CO 


16,949 


Ktliylbenzylariiliiie sulfonic acid. 


30, 114 









I 



CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1Q21. 23 
Table 5. — Production and sales of coal-tar intermediates during 1921 — Continued. 



Common name. 



Ethylbenzylaniline di sulfonic acid 

Flavanthrene 

Fluorescein 

Form aldehy de-p-amino-dimethy- 

laniline. 
Formamlide 

Gamma acid. (See 2-amino-8- 

naphthol-'rsulfonic acid). 
H Acid. {See l-amino-8-naph- 

thol-3:6-disulfonic acid.) 

m-Hydroxy benzaldehyde 

b-Hy droxy naphthoic acid 

b-Hydroxy naphthoic anilide 

b-Hydroxy naphthoic toluide 

p-Hydroxy phenyl arsonic acid 

and sodium salt. 

Indanthrene blue RS 

Laurent's acid. (See 1-naphthy- 

lamine-5-sulfonic acid.) 

Metanilic acid 

Methylene aniline 

Methylene base 

Methylene diphenyldiamine 

Michler's hydrol. (SeeTetrameth- 

yldiaminobenzhydrol. ) 
Michler's ketone, (SeeTetrame- 

thyldiaminobenzophenone.) 

Monoethylaniline 

Naphthalene, solidifying 79° C. 

or above (refined, flake). 
Naphthalene-1 :5-disulfonic acid . . 
Naphthalene-2:7-disulfonic acid.. 

a->faphthol 

b-Naphthol, tech 

b-Naphthol, U. S. P 

l-Naphthol-4-sulfonic acid (Ne- 

vile & Winther's acid). 

l-NaphthoI-5-sulfonic acid 

l-Naphthol-3:8-disulfonic acid. .. 
l-Naphthol-3:6:S-trisulfonic acid. . 

2-Naphthol-l-sulfonic acid 

2-Naphthol-6-sulfonic acid 

(Schaeffer's acid). 

2-Naphthol-7-sulfonic acid 

2-Naphthol-8-sulfonic acid 

2-Naphthol-3:6-disulfonic acid 



2-Naphthol-6:8-disulfonic acid.. 



a-Naphthylamine 

b-Naphth"ylamine 

l-Naphthylamine-4-suIfonic acid 

(naphthionic acid). 
l-Naphthylamine-5-sulfonic acid 

(Laurent's acid). 
l-Naphthylamine-6-sulfonic acid 
l-Naphthylamine-6 and 7-sul- 

fonic acid. 
1-Naphthylamine-S-sulfonic acid. 
l-Naphthylamine-2:4:S-trisul- 

fonic acid. 
l-Naphthylamine-3:8 - disulfonic 

acid. 
l-Naphthylamine-4: 8-disulfonic 

acid. 
l-Naphthylamine-3:6:8-t r i s u 1- 

fonic acid. 
2-Naphthylamine-l-sulfonic acid, 
2-Naphthylamine-6-sulfonic acid 

(Broenner'sacid). 
2-Naphthylamine-4:8-disulfonic 

acid. 



Manufacturers' identi- 
fication number (ac- 
cording to list on p. 
79). 



30, 64.. 
116.... 
72, 114. 
X 



Sales, 1921. 



Quantity. 



Pounds. 



145, X. 



30 

34, 53.. 

53 

53 

47, 105. 

116.... 



5, 53, 55,72, 114,117, X. 

X 

53 

X 



30,53, 76, 114 

13 17, 29, 99, 138, 143, 

166, 174, X. 
69 



145 

34,72, 80,114, 155 

24, 27, 34, 53, 72, 130, 

145. 

24,130 

2, 24, 27, 34, 45, 53, 114, 

116, 117. 

5,53,114,116,117 

2 



27,53,114,116 

56,130 

5, 34, 55, 69, 114, 116, 
117. 

34,145 

X 



2, 22, 24, 27, 34, 53, 54, 

69, 114, 116, 117, 145, 

146, 160, 164. 
22, 24, 27, 34, 53, 54, 

114, 145. 

17,53,93, 116 

34,53, 114, 130 

2,27,45,53.72,93,114, 

116, 117, X. 
27, 53, 64, 69, 114, 117, 

137. 

53, 114 

34, 116 



53,64,69,114,117,137, 
114 



2,34,116 

34,114,116 

22,53,69,114,116,122. 

5,34,56, 130, 145, X.. 
34,114,116 



10, 570 



13, 183, 142 



2,263,601 
6,' 680' 



28,642 



38, 736 



Value. 



8,876 



740, 955 



891,029 
"'8,'i73' 



43, 323 



32,453 



60,689 



Average 
price per 
pound. 



1.09 
.06 



L07 
.39 



1.22 
1.45 



.65 



.61 

.30 
L13 

.44 



1.04 

.39 

1.57 



Production, 
1921. 



Pounds, 



50, 647 



27, 479 
13, 553, 777 



95,735 
2,959,049 



182,595 
92,571 



178,906 

'i68,'835 



322,902 



396,926 

429,035 
102, 079 
832,850 

166,616 



533, 755 



260, 823 

2,026,003 

149,014 



24 CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921, 
Table 5. — Production and sales of coal-tar intermediates during 1921 — Continued. 





Manufacturers' identi- 
fication number (ac- 
cording to list on p. 
79). 


Sales, 1921. 




Common name. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Average 
price per 
pound. 


Production, 
1921. 


2-NaphthyIamine-5:7-disulfonic 


53, 114, 116 


Pounds. 






Pounds. 


acid. 
2-Naphthylamine-6:8-disulfonic 


22,53, 114, 116 






$0.75 
.63 


247, 357 


acid. 
Nevile and Winther's acid. {See 

l-naphthol-4-sulfonic acid.) 
p-Nitroacetanilide 


34,114,145, X 






288, 748 


Nitroaminophenol 


69,167 








m-NitroaniUne 


53,163 










p-Nitroaniline 


6, 22, 34, 53, 116, 144, 

145, 157, X. 
5,53,64,69,145,167... 


621,559 


$526,403 


.85 
1.46 


832,438 


p-Nitroaniline-o-sulfonic acid 


64,480 


o-Nitroanisole 


114, 116 








m-Nitrobenzaldehyde 


114 










Nitrobenzene (oil of myrbane) . . . 
Nitrobenzidine sulphate 


24, 27, 53, 114, 116, 134, 

X. 
116 


957,556 


112,643 


.12 


7,443,192 


p-Nitrobenzoic acid 


144 










m-Nitroeiilorobenzene 


14 










o-Nitrochlorobenzene 


14, 112 










p-Nitroclilorobenzene 


14,53, 112, 114 


119,495 


27,202 


.23 


51,744 


p-Nitroehlorobenzene-o-sulfonic 


5, 53 




acid. 
p-Nitrochlorobenzene-6-suIfonic 


145 










acid. 
8-Nitro-l-diazo-2-naphthol-4-sul- 


22 










fonicaeid. 
3-Nitro-4-hvdroxyphenvI arsonic 


47, 105, 110 










acid. 
Nitronaphtlialene 


17,53, 116 










2-NitronaphthaIene-4:8-d i s u 1- 


34 










fonic acid. 
o-Nitropiieuol 


8, 70, 163, 167 


24, 368 


15, 853 


.65 
.49 


50,661 


p-NitrophenoI 


8, 53, 112, 116, 163, 167 


86, 216 


2-Nitrophenol-4-suJfonic acid 


117 






Nitrosobetanaphtliol . 


X 










Nitrosodimethylaniline 


24, 53, 70 93, 114, 116, 

151. 
114 






1.56 


104, 690 


p-Nitrosodimethylaniline 








Nitrosophenol 


14, 31, 69, 77, 93, 114, 

157. 
114 








111,681 


Nitrosulfoanthrarufin . . . 










Nitrotoluene 


14,34, 53,55, 72, 116, X 








2, 342, 098 


o-Nitrotoluene 


14, 53,65, 114, 116, X.. 
5, 34, 64, 114, 116.... 


39, 054 


3, 337 


.09 


727, 177 


p-Nitrotoluene-o-sulfonic acid 


321, 264 


p-Nitrotoluene 


14, 34, 53, 65, 114, 116, 

X. 
34, 53, 145 


36, 886 
45, 126 


19. 185 
125,768 


.50 
2.79 


566, 551 


m-Nit ro-p-toluidine. . 


70,094 


p-Nitro-o-toluidine . 


160. . . 




Nitroxylene 


24,27,34, 116 








191, 840 


Oxalylarsanilic acid 


110 










Plienazine 1 93 










Phenol ■" 17. 102. I4M 


292, 645 


41,617 


.14 




Phenyl-a-naphthylamiue 

PhenyI-l-iiaphthyiamine-8- sul- 


22, 53. . . . 




53, 64, 69, 114, 117, 137 






.98 
1.06 


204, 647 


fonic acid. 
m-Phenylenediamine 


8,14,24,30,53,69,111, 

114, 116, 163. 
53 


96, 777 


102,919 


301, 169 


acid. 
p-Phcnylcnediamine 


144, 145, 157 


124,954 


212,613 


1.70 




Phenylglycine, sodium salt 


114. 




Phfiuylhydrazine-p-sulfonic acid 
Phthalamide. 


24,53... 










160 










Phtliaiic acid and anhydride 

Picramic acid 


53, 112, X. 


202,471 
35,706 


79, 162 
23, 858 


.39 
.67 




22,24,53, 114, X 

64, 114 126 


254,904 


Primuline 




Quinolinp yellow, base 


114 










Resorcinol, U. S. P. and tech!!!! 


114,127, 139, X 


33,268 


59,696 


1.79 


35,483 


lio-ianiline 


50 




Salicyhc acid, U. S. P 

SalicyHc acid, tech 


52, 108, 112, 143, X 

53,108,112, 143, X 


1,185,062 
131,532 


279,072 
25. 725 


.24 
.19 


1,722,575 
1,777,752 


Schaelfer'.s acid. {See 2-naphthol- 
6-sulfonicacid). 







CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC OEGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921. 25 
Table 5. — Production and sales of coal-tar intermediates during 1921 — Continued. 





Manufacturers' identi- 
fication number (ac- 
cording to list on p. 
79). 


Sales, 1921. 




CoTTiTTion name. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Average 
price per 
pound. 


Production, 
1921. 


Sulfanilic acid 


6, 24, 27, 34, 53, 69, 72, 

114, 163. 
83 


Pownds. 
171,117 


$41,636 


$0.24 


Pounds. 
1, 071, 904 


o-Sulfobenzoic acid, chloride of. . 




o-Sulfobenzoic acid and ammo- 


83 










nium salt. 
Tetramethyldiaminobenzhydrol 

CMichler's hydrol). 
Tetramethyldiaminobenzophe- 

none (Michler's ketone). 
Tetramethyldiaminodiphenlyl- 

methane. 


53,54,64,69,114 








58, 582 


22,53 










54,64 










114,134,151,X,X,X... 
53,111,114,116 


376,368 


157,046 


.42 


1, 185, 462 


Tolidine and salts 




Tolidine disulfonic acid 


X 










o-Toluene sulfamide 


70,112 










p-Toluene sulfamide 


112 










p-Toluene sulfochloride 

p-Toluene sulfo ethyl ester 


112 










114 










Toluidine 


53,65, 114, X 


148, 107 
83,324 
92,347 


38, 128 
21,065 
52,985 


.28 
.25 
.57 
.50 




o-Toluidine 


14, 53, 65, 114, 116, X.... 
14, ;W, 53, 65, 114, 116, X. 
6,53,72,114 


208 505 


p-Toluidine 


268, 629 


o-Toluidine sulfonic acid 


33,923 


p-Toluidine-o-sulfonic acid 

m-Tolylenediamine 


34 








8, 14, 53, 55, 69, 93, 114, 

116. 
114 


147,259 


167,796 


1.14 


621,359 


m-Tolylenediamine sulfonic acid. 


p-Tolylenediamine 


14 










Tolylmethane 


114 










Tolyl-l-naphthylamine-8-sulfonic 


114 










acid. 
Tricresyl phosphate 


X 










Triphenylguanidine 


114 










Triphenyl phosphate 


142 










Xylidine and salt 


24,27,34,53,114,116.... 
116. 


9,215 


4,503 


.49 


119 218 


Other intermediates 




Research chemicals (see Table 
No. 7). 


58,70,132,151,169, X.. 


goi 18,334 

i 


20.35 


2,012 



Table 6. — Comparison of the production of coal-tar intermediates, 1920 and 1921. 



Name. 



Total production. 



1921 


1920 


Quantity. 


Quantity. 


Pounds. 


Pounds. 


70,899,912 


257,726,911 


1, 152, 713 


2,667,252 


84, 742 


97, 275 


49,763 


152,310 


449,996 


971,370 


1,639,323 


5,180,993 


218,717 


418, 456 


72, 572 


41, 474 


5,639,234 


39, 234, 186 


125,358 


539,619 


66,365 


702, 543 


328,577 


2, 183, 583 


381, 154 


812, 193 


17, 152 


38,807 


473,296 


1,246,412 


1,692,624 


4, S29, 142 


778 


11,517 


18,204 


51,961 


66,909 


142,227 


402,289 


465,292 


32, 812 


180,542 


566,286 


5, 447, 107 


894,209 


2, 492, 178 


2,408,472 


5,917,791 



Total intermediates 

Acetanilide, tech 

Acetyl-p-phenylenediamine (p-amiuo acetanilide) 

Amiuoazobenzene 

l-Amino-2-naphthol-4-sulfonic acid 

l-Amino-8-naphthol-3:6-disulfonic acid (H acid) . . 
2-Aniino-8-naphthol-6-suIfonic acid (Gamma acid) 

p-Aminopheuol and hydrochloride 

Aniline oU 

Anthraquinone , 

Benzaldehyde 

Benzidine base and sulfate 

Benzoate of soda , 

Benzyl alcohol 

Benzyl chloride 

Chlorobenzene (mono) 

Cinnamic acid 

Dehydrothio-p-toluidiiie sulfonic acid 

Diaminostilbene disulfonic acid , 

p-Dichlorobenzene 

Diethylaniline 

Dimethylaniline 

Dinitrobenzene 

Dinitrochlorobenzene 

541—22 3 



26 CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921. 
Table 6.— Comparison of the production of coal-tar intermediates, 1920 and 1921 — Con. 



Name. 



Dinitrotoluene 

Ethylbenzylamline 

Metanilic acid 

Naplithalene, solidifying 79° C. or above (refined, flake). 

b-Naphthol, tech , 

l-Naphthol-4-suIfonic acid (Nevile & Wmther's acid). .. 

2-Naphthol-6-sulfonic acid (Schaeffer's acid) 

2-NaphthoI-3:6-disiilfonic acid 

2-Naphthol-6:8-disulfonic acid 

a-Naphthylamine 

l-Naphthylamine-4-sulfonic acid (naphthionic acid) 

l-Naphthylamine-5-sulfonic acid ( Laurent's acid) 

l-Naphithylamine-S-sulfonic acid 

l-Naphthylamine-3:6:8-trisulfonic acid 

2-Naphthylanune-l-su]fonlc acid 

2-Naphthylamine-6:8-disulfonic acid 

p-Nitroacetanilide 

P-Nitroanilme , 

Nitrobenzene (oil of myrbane) 

p-Nitrochlorobenzene 

P-Nitrophenol 

Nitrosodimethylaniline 

Nitrosophenol 

Nitrotoliiene 

o-Nitrotoluene 

p-Nitrotoluene 

m-Nitro-p-toluidine 

Nitroxylene 

m-Phenylenediamirie 

Picramic acid 

Resorcinol, U. S. P. and tech 

Salicylic acid, U. S. P 

Salicylic acid, tech 

Sulf anilic acid •. 

Tetramethyldiaminobenzhydrol (Michler's hydro!) 

Thioearbamlide , 

o-Toluidlne 

p-ToluIdine 

m-Tolylenediamlne 

Xyliduie and salt 



Total production. 



1921 
Quantity. 



Pounds. 
1, 065, 323 
16, 949 
50,647 

13, 553, 777 
2, 959, 049 
182, 595 
168, 835 
322, 902 
396,926 
429, 035 
832, 850 
166, 616 
533, 755 

2, 026, 003 
149, 014 
247, 357 
288, 748 
832,438 

7, 443, 192 

51,744 

86,216 

104, 690 

111,681 

2, 342, 098 
727, 177 
566, 551 
70,094 
191,840 
301, 169 
254, 904 
35, 483 

1, 722, 575 

1, 777, 752 

1, 071, 904 
58, 582 

1, 185, 462 
208, 505 
268,629 
621,359 
119,218 



1920 
Quantity. 



Pounds. 

1, 847, 191 

159, 636 

499,304 

30,230,734 

11, 920, 714 

561, 929 

475, 243 

1, 250, 674 

1,446,605 

5, 177, 547 

3, 773, 191 

294, 352 

562, 939 

3, 921, 950 

325, 036 

894, 624 

569, 728 

2, 138, 492 

53,244,008 

959, 405 

125, 693 

155, 986 

167, 855 

6,100,618 

2, 173, 279 

2, 004, 089 

71,197 

1, 649, 934 

658,313 

138,350 

139, 315 

2,663,494 

3, 914, 163 

1, 796, 838 

88,583 

2, 226, 807 

1,302,097 

894, 169 

689,036 

1,054,476 



Table 7. — Production of coal-tar chemicals for sale for research and experimental 

purposes, 1921. 



Common name. . 


Manufacturers' 

identification 

numbers.i 


Sales. 


Produc- 
tion, 
1921. 


Pounds. 


"Value. 


Total 




901 


$18,334 


Pounds. 
2 012 




58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58, 151 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 




Acetyl-m-aminobenzoic acid 








Acetyl-p-aminobenzoic acid 








Acetyl-o-aininophenol 








Acetyl-D-anisidine 








Acetylanthranilic acid 








Acetyl-n-butylaniline 








Acetyldiphenylamine 








Acetyl-p-methylaminophenol 








Acetylmethyl-o-foluidine 








Acetylmethvl-p-toluidine 








Acetylphenylglycine 








Acetylphen vlbydrazine 








Acetyl-n-propylaniline 








Acetyl-o-toliiidine 








Acetyl-p-toluidine 








p-Aminoacetophenone 








2-Amino-5-azfito]uene 








2-Amino-5-azotolucne hydrochloride 








m-Aminobenzoic acid 








p-Aminobenzoic acid 








p- Aminodimclhylaniline hydrochloride 







See Table 5, p. 21, for explanation of the numbers. 



CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, J 921. 27 

Table 7 .-Production of coal-tar chemicals for sale for research and experimental 
purposes, 1921— Continued. 



Common name. 



4-AminodiphenyI sulfate 

5-AmLao-2-hydroxytoluene sulfate 

m-Amlnophenol 

4-Aminotoluene-2-siilfonic acid ." .' ! 

4-Amino-m-xylene \\ 

Amino-p-xylene '.'.'.'.'.'. 

Anisic acid !.!!!!!! i 

p-Anisidine '..'.'.'.'.'. 

Anisole '..'.'..'. 

Aurin 

Azobenzene '.'.'..'.. 

Azoxybenzene '.'.'..'..'.'.'. 

p-Benzalaminophenol !!!!!! 

Benzalazine \[\\ 

Benzal chloride '.'.'.'...'. 

Benzamide """."." 

Benzanilide !.!!!! 

Benzene fCryst., ThJophenVfree)".' '. 

Benzeneazo-o-cresol 

Benzenesulfochloride 

Benzenesulfonamide [ ] 

Benzidine, base .'." 

Benzil '.'.'..'. 

a-Benzil dioxime 

BenzUic acid '.'.'. 

Benzoic anhydride 

Benzoin ". ' ] ' " ' 

Benzonitrile '.'.'....'.'.'.'. 

Benzonhenone 

dl-Benzoylalanine '..'...'..'. 

Benzoyl bromide 

Benzoyl carbinol '.'.'..'.. 

Benzoyl-a-naphthylamine. .......'. 

Benzoyiperoxide 

Benzoylpiperidine .....V..V^. 

Benzylamine 

p-Benzylaminophenol hydrochioride 

Benzyl bromide 

Benzylethyl ether 

Benzylmethyl ether ..'. 

p-BromoacetaniUde \\\ 

Bromoacetophenone 

m-Bromoaniline '.'.'..'. 

p-Bromoaniline '.'.\\ 

p-Bromoamline hydrochloride". 

o-Bromobenzyl chloride 

p-Bromobenzyl chloride 

Bromocyclohexanol 

Bromohydroquinol 

a-Bromonaphthalene .'.'.".'.'.'." 

b-Bronionaphthalene 

p-Bromophenylhydrazme 

p-Bromophen3lhydrazine hydrochloride 

o-Bromotoluene 

m-Broniotoluene " 

p-Bromotoluene .'.".'. ] ' ] 

n-Butylamine 

n-Iiutyl benzoate 

n-i5utylbenzyl ether ..'. 

n-Butyl-o-cresyl ether ..W 

n-Butyl-o-inethoxy benzoate 

n-But,ylphenyl ether 

n-Butyl sahcylate 

n-ButyraniUde 

Carbanilide '.'.'..'.'..'...'." 

o-Carboxybenzeneazodimethyianiiine .".','] 
o-Carboxybenzeneazodipropylaniline 
Catechol 

Chioranii ^ .!!!!..!!!!! 

p-CliloroacetaniUde !!!.'."..!!.!...' 

Chloroacetoplienone 

o-Chloroanilme .!!!!!!!!!!! 

p-Chloroaniline '.'.'..'.'.'.'.'. 

o-Chlorobenzaldehyde. .."!.'!!!!!.'."!.'. 

p-Chlorobenzaldehyde ...W/..V/. 

o-Chlorobenzoic acid .'.."[ 

p-Chlorobenzoic acid ...'.......'..". 



Manufacturers' 

identification 

numbers. 



58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
151 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58, 151 
58, 151 
58 
58 
58 
58 
169 
58, 151 
58 
58,151 
58 
58,151 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
151 
58 
58, 151 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58, 151 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
151 
151 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 



Sales. 



Pounds. Value 



Produc- 
tion, 
1921. 



Pounds. 



28 CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921. 

Table 7. — Production of coal-tar chemicals for sale for research and experimental pur-poses, 

1921— Qontinued. 



Common name. 


Manufacturers' 

identification 

numbers. 


Sales. 


Produc- 
tion, 
1921. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


o-Chlorobenzyl bromide 


58 
58 
58 

58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
151 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58, 70, 151 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 

58 
58 
58 
58 

151 

151 
58 

151 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 

132 
58,151 

132 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 

151 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 






Pounds. 


p-Chlorobenzyl bromide 








o-Chlorobenzyl chloride 








p-Chlorobenzyl chloride 








Chlorocyclohexane 








Chlorohydroquiuone 








2-Chloio-5-hydroxytoluene '. 








o-Chlorotohjene 








p-ChlorotoIuene 








3-Chlorotoluene-5-sulfonic acid 








o-Cresol-sulfone-phthalein 








o-Cresvl benzoate 








m-Cresvl benzoate 








o-Cresvlmethyl ether 








m-Crasvlmethvl ether 








p-Cresvlniethyl ether 








Cupferron ( Ammoniimi nitroso-b-phenylhydroxylamine). 








p-Cvanobenzoic acid 








Cyclohexanone 








Cyclohexene 








Cvclohexyl acetate 








Diacetyl-o-phenvlenediamine 








p-p-Diaminodiplienvlmethane 








2:5-Diaminotoluene "liydrochloride (Tolylene-2:5-diamine 
hydrochloride) 








Dibenzoylethylene diamine 








Dibenzyl 








Dibenzylamine. . . 








Dibromothymolsulfonephthalein 








Dibromo-o-cresol^ulfonephthalein 
















Dibromophenol 








Di-n-butvlaniline . . 
























2:5-Dichlorobenzene sulfonic acid 




■ 




















Diethyl a-naphthvlamine 








Di-a-naphthvl urea 








Diethyl-o-toluidine 








Diethyl-p-toluidine 






























































































































































































































"""i- 








■ '4 


























































Ethyl-m-nitrobenzoate 









CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1021. 29 

Table 7. — Production oj coal-tar chemicals for sale for research and experimental purposes, 

1921— Continued. 



Common name. 



Ethylphenyl bromoacetate 

Ethyl-o-toluidine 

Ethyl-p-toluidiiie 

Formanilide .' 

Formyldiphenylamine ............ 

Hippuric acid 

p-Hydrazinobenzoic acid 

Hydroquinol diacetate 

Hydroquinol dimethyl ether 

Hydroqiiinol monomethyl ether . . . 

p-Hydroxyazobenzene 

p-Hydroxyphenylglycine 

8-Hydroxyquinohne 

p-IodoacetaniUde 

p-Iodoaniline [ 

■ lodobenzene \ 

o-Iodobenzoic acid [, 

p-Iodobenzoic acid 

Lacmoid 

o-Methoxybenzaldehyde .......... 

o-Methoxybenzoic acid 

6-MethoxyquinoIine ] . 

MethylacetanUide ] . 

Methylaniline [, 

Methylanthranihc acid 

5-Methylbenzoxazole 

Methyleyclohexaiie 

2-Methylcyclohexanol 

3-MethyIcyclohexanol 

Methylethylaniline 

4-Methylcyclohexanol 

Methyl-o-methoxybenzoate 

Methyl methyl anthranilate 

Methyl-a-naphthylamine 

Methyl-o-nitrobehzoate 

Methyl-m-nitrobenzoate 

Methyl orange 

Methyl-p-phenylenediamine ... 

Methyl phenylhydrazine 

6-Methylqiiinoline 

Methyl"-o-toluidine '.'.'.'..'. 

Methyl-p-tolyl ketone 

b-Naphthalenesulfochloride .... 

b-Naphthalene sulfonic acid 

Naphthalene I otrachloride 

b-Naphthaqiiinaldine ..' 

a-Naphtholbenzein .".'.'.' 

a-Naphthylamine acetate .'.'..'. 

a-Naphthvlamine hydrochloride" 

a-Naphthylamine sulfate 

b-Naphlhylamine hydrochloride . . . 

b-Naphthyl iso-amyl ether 

3-Nitro -4-acetylaminotoluene. . . 

Nitro-p-xylene 

o-Nitroanihne ..'..'. 

P-Nitroanisole 

m-Nitrobenzyl chloride 

m-Nitrobenzene sulfonic acid. ....... 

o-Ni trobenzoic acid 

m-Ni trobenzoie acid 

p-NKrobenzoic acid '...'.'.... 

m-Ni trobcnzoy 1 chloride .' . .' . ........ 

p-Nitrobenzoyl chloride 

p-Nitrobenzyi bromide 

p-Nitro)x>nzyl chloride .'.'..'.'!.'!!! 

o-Nitrol)r(]mobonzene 

ni-Niir(il)romolicnzene .',.'. 

p-Ni I idl ir( niol lenzcne 

m-NilnK'hlorolx'nzene 

4-Nitrochlorol)enzene-2-sulfonic acid ! 

Nltrocymene 

m-Nitrodimpt hylaniline. 

P-Nitrodimelh.yhiniline 

4-Nitrodiphenylamine 

o-Nitroiodobenzenc 

P-Nitroiodobenzene 

P-Nitromethylacetanilide 

m-NitrometliylaniUne 



Manufacturers 

identification 

numbers. 



58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
70, 151 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
151 
58 
58, 151 
58 
58 
58 
58 
■ 58 
58 
58 
58 
132 
132 
132 
132 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58, 151 
151 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 



Sales. 



Pounds 



Value. 



Produc- 
tion, 
1921. 



Pounds. 



30 CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921. 

Table 7. — Production of coal-tar chemicals for sale for research and experimental 

purposes, 1921 — Continued. 



CoTTiTnon name. 


Manufacturers' 

identification 

numbers. 


Sales. 


Produc- 


Pounds. 


Value. 


1921. 


l-Nitro-l-metliylcy.clohexane 


58 
58, 151 
58 
58 
58 

132 
58 
58, 151 
58 
58 
58 

151 
58 

151 

132 
58 

151 
58 

151 

58 

132, 151 

151 
132, 151 
58, 151 

151 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58, 132, 151, X 
58 
58 
58 
58,169 
58 
58 
58 

151 

58 

58 

58 

58 

58, 151 

58 

58, 151 

58, 151 

58 

58 

58 

58 

58 

151 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 

151 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 

151 
58 
58 
58 




Pounds. 


p-^^it^ophenylhydrazine 








fi-Nitroquinaldine 








(i-Nitroquinoline 








p-Nitrosodiethvlaniline 








Nitrosodimethvlaniline hydrochloride 








p-Nitrosodiphenvlamine 








Nitroso-b-naphthol • . 








m-Nitrotoluene 








Orcinol 








Oxanilide 








Phenacetolin 








Phenetole 








Phenolsulfonephthalein 








Phenol sulfonic acid 








Phenvlacetvl chloride 








Phenylalanine 








Phenyl benzoate 








Phenylbenzylhydrazine 








o-Phenylenediamine hydrochloride 








Phenylhydrazine 








Phenylhvdrazine acetate 
















Phenylhydrazine p-sulfonic acid 
















Phenylhydroxylamine oxalate 
















Phenylmethyl carbinol 








Phenyl phthalate 








Phenylthiohydantoic acid 








Phenyl-p-toluene sulfonate 








Phenyl-p-tolyl ketone 
















Phloroglucinol 
















Phthalyl chloride 
















Picramie acid 
















Piperidine 
















Potassium benzene sulfonate 
















n-Propyl chlorocarbonate 
















Pyridine (pure) 
















Quinliydrone 
















Quinone 
















Resorcinol dimethyl ether 
















Resorcinol monomethyl ether 








Sahcylamide. 








Sodium benzene sulfonate 
















































































































































































Tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine 









CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921. 31 

Table 7. — Production of coal-tar chemicals for sale for research and experimental 

purposes, 1921 — Continued. 



Common name. 


Manufacturers' 

identification 

numbers. 


Sales. 


Produc- 
tion, 
1921. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


p-ThiocresoI 


58 
58 
58 
151 

58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 

151 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 

151 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 
58 






Pounds. 


Thio-b-naphthol 








Thiophenol 








Thymolsulfonephthalein 








p-Tolualdehyde. 








p-Toluamide. 








Toluene (thiophene free) . 
















p-Toluenesnl/onylmethylaniUne 








p-Toluencsiilfonyl-p-toluidine 








m-Toluidine 








p-TolyLhydrazine hydrochloride 








Tribenzylamine 








2:4:6-Trinitrobenzaldehyde . 








Trinitrobenzene. . 
















2:4:6-Trinitrobenzoic acid 
















Triphenylguanidine 
















Tyrosine 








Veratrole 








Xanthone 
















m-Xylene 
















o-Xylenol . .... .... 








m-Xylenol 








p-Xylenol 








o-Xylyl bromide 








o-Xylylene bromide 








p-Xylylene bromide 

















Table 8. — Comparison of imports, 1914 and 1921, with the production of dyes, 1917 

to 1921, inclusive, by classes. 





19141 


1917 2 


1918 2 


Class. 


Imports- 


Per cent 
of total. 


United 

States 

production. 


Per cent 
of total. 


United 

States 

production. 


Per cent 
of total. 


Acid 


Pounds. 
9, 286, 501 
3, 002, 480 

10,264,757 
1,512,605 
4.450,442 
7, 0,53, 879 

10, 352, 663 

8, 407, 359 

1,945,304 

27, 568 


20.2 

6.5 

22.3 

3.3 

9.7 

15.4 

22.5 

18.3 

4.2 

.1 


Pounds. 

9,372,121 

2, 073, 043 

11,181,761 

934,360 

4,164,902 

15,588,222 

289, 296 

274, 771 

14, 525 

2,368,541 


20.4 
4.5 
24.3 
2.2 
9.1 
33.9 
.6 
.55 
.05 
5.0 


Pounds. 
9,799,071 
2, 879, 639 

12,285,683 
1, 068, 466 
5,447,192 

23,698,826 

3,281,337 

3, 083, 888 

197, 449 

4,232 


16.8 


Basic 


4.9 


Direct 


21.1 


Lake and spirit soluble 


1.8 


Mordant and chrome 


9.3 


Sulfur.. 


40.5 


Vats (including indigo) 


5.6 


(a) Indigo 


5.3 


(6) Other vats 


.3 


Unclassified 








Total 


45,950,895 


100.0 


45,977,246 


100.0 


58,464,446 


100.0 







Class. 



Acid 

Basic 

Direct 

Lake and spirit soluble 
Mordant and chrome. . . 

Sulfur 

Vats (inchiding indigo) 

(a) Indigo 

(6) Other vats 

Unclassified 

Total 



1919: 



Pounds. 

12, 195, 968 
4, 036, 532 

14, 444, 934 
1,813,199 
3, 985, 050 

17,624,418 

9, 252, 982 

8, 8C3, 824 

389, 158 

49, 111 



63, 402, 194 



Per cent 
of total. 



19.2 

6.4 

22.8 

2.8 

6.3 

27.8 

14.6 

14.0 

.6 

.1 



1920 2 



United 

States 

production. 



Pounds. 

17,741,538 

4, 993, 001 

19, 882, 631 

2, 205, 281 

3, 900, 209 

20, 034, 500 

19, 338, 099 

18, 178, 231 

1, 159, 868 

. 168,517 



100. 88, 263, 776 



Per cent 
of total. 



20.1 

5.7 

22.5 

2.5 

4.4 

22.7 

21.9 

20.6 

1.3 

.2 



Imports. 



Per cent 
of total. 



Pounds. 
733, 405 
192, 163 
571, 581 

17, .527 
709, 482 
229, 140 
932, 464 
171, 101 
761,363 

16, 820 



21.5 
5.7 

16.8 
.5 

20.9 
6.7 

27.4 
5.0 

22.4 
.5 



100.0 3,402,582 



100.0 



• Fiscal year 



2 Calendar year. 



32 CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921. 

Table 8. — Comparison of imports, 1914 and 1921, with the production of dyes, 1917 to 
1921, inclusive, by classes — Continued. 



Class. 



Acid 

Basic 

Direct 

Lake and spirit soluble, 
Mordant and chrome. . . 

Sulfur 

Vats (including indigo) 

(a) Indiiro 

(6) Other vats 

Unclassified 

Total 



19212 



United 

States 

production. 



Pounds. 

7, 843, 009 

1,85.% 094 

7, 053, 761 

720, 406 

3, 997, 442 

10, 239, 2.55 

7, 019, 120 

6,673,968 

345, 152 

282, 603 



39,008,690 



Per cent 
of total. 



20.11 

4.75 

18.08 

1.85 

10.25 

26. 25 

17.99 

17.11 

.88 

.72 



100.00 



Imports. 



Pounds. 

1, 455, 823 

163, 527 

537,664 

43, 553 

695, 961 

220,938 

1,116,345 

70,975 

1, 045, 370 

19, 100 



4,252,911 



Per cent 
of total. 



34.24 

3.84 
12.64 

1.02 
16.36 

5.20 
26.25 

1.66 

24.59 

.45 



100.00 



2 Calendar year. 

Dyes and Other Finished Coal-Tar Products, 
introductory. 

The finished coal-tar products are divided into the following eight 
classes: (1) Dyes, (2) color lakes, (3) photographic chemicals (devel- 
opers), (4) medicinals, (5) flavors, (6) perfume materials, (7) syn- 
thetic phenolic resins, (8) synthetic tanning materials. In previous 
reports * the commission has emphasized the close relationship that 
exists between the manufacture of explosives, poison gases, and dyes, 
and the fact that many explosive plants since the signing of the 
armistice have been converted into dye factories. The dye industry 
is also closely connected with the manufacture of flavors, perfume 
materials, photographic chemicals, medicinals, and other coal-tar prod- 
ucts, which, although produced in smaller quantities than dyes, use 
many of the by-products obtained in the manufacture of coal-tar dyes. 

The production of dyes and other finished products during the 
calendar year 1921 is shown in Table 18, page 62, in as great detail as 
possible, without revealing the output of individual manufacturers. 
In Table 19, page 72, the production of individual dyes in 1921 is com- 
pared with tne output of the same dyes in 1920, in case the figures 
could be published. 

The total output of dyes and other finished coal-tar chemicals in 
1921 by 147 firms was 51,457,565 pounds, compared with 112,942,227 
pounds, valued at $112,731,547, by 161 firms in 1920. The total 
sales of dyes and other finished coal-tar products in 1921 was 60,434,- 
009 pounds, valued at $47,996,514. The 1921 production represents 
a 54 per cent decrease from the quantity produced in 1920, and the 
sales of 1921 constitute a 46.5 per cent decrease from the quantity 
produced in the previous year. 

DYES — SUMMARY OF PRODUCTION IN 1921. 

The domestic production of dyes by 74 firms in 1921 was 39,008,690 
pounds, a decrease of 56 per cent from that of 1920. The sales 
during 1921 totaled 47,513,762 pounds with a value of $39,283,956. 
The sales exceeded production by 22 per cent, indicating that part 



» Census of Dyes and Coal-Tar Chemicals, 1917, 1918, 1919, and 1920. 



CENSUS OF D^ES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921. 33 

of the domestic consumption for 1921 was supplied from stocks car- 
ried over from the previous year's abnormally high output. The 
pre-war domestic production of coal-tar colors in 1914 by 7 firms 
was 6,619,729 pounds with a value of $2,470,096 or 37 cents per 
pound. These dyes were made almost entirely from intermediates 
imported chiefly from Germany. The average price of all dyes sold in 
1921 was 83 cents per pound, compared with S1.08 in 1920 and $1.26 
for 1917. 

As was stated under ''Intermediates," the greatly reduced out- 
put of 1921 may be accounted for by (1) loss of most of our export 
trade, (2) the large stocks carried over from the previous year, and 
(3) the general business depression. 

Indigo constituted 17 per cent of the total output in 1921, Sulphur 
Black 20 per cent, and Agalma Black 10 B, 3.7 per cent. These 
three dyes made up 40.8 per cent of the total quantity produced. 
In general, each class of dyes (according to method of application) 
showed large reductions in production. The progress of the year 
included the manufacture for the first time in this country of a 
considerable number of colors of greater complexity and more 
specialized application. The development of these products is a 
technical achievement, highly creditable to the industry. Many of 
these new products were among the more unportant colors not here- 
tofore manufactured in the United States and the domestic production 
of these products is an important step toward a self-contained indus- 
try. This progress has continued in the spring of 1922 and pro- 
duction of new dyes has been reported in the first six months of 
the latter year. The domestic dye industry is still somewhat defi- 
cient, however, in the manufacture of vat dyes, alizarins, and certain 
special types. 

The relation of production to consumption. — The imports of dyes 
during 1921 totaled 3,914,036 pounds with a value of $5,156,779. 
This quantity is 10 per cent of the total production ^and 8.2 per cent 
of the total sales of dyes for the same year. During 1*921 the domestic 
exports of "aniline dyes" amounted to $5,067,000 in value and the 
exports of " all other dyes and dyestuffs" (a large part of which were 
undoubtedly coal-tar dyes) amounted to $1,203,155. The export of 
" aniline dyes" was 16 per cent of the value of the domestic production 
and the combined exports of ''aniline dyes" and "all other dyes and 
dyestuffs" were 19 per cent of the domestic output. The tariff act 
of September 8, 1916, provided that unless by September 8, 1921, the 
domestic industry should produce 60 per cent of the value of the 
domestic consumption, the specific duties on dyes should no longer 
be assessed. In any event, the specific duties, beginning at said 
date, were to be annually reduced by 20 per cent until such duties 
should no longer be assessed. The portion of the tariff act of Sep- 
tember 8, 1916, relating to these specific duties reads as follows: 

"During the period of five years beginning five years after the 
passage of this act such special duties shall be annually reduced by 
20 per cent of the rate imposed by this section, so that at the end 
of such period such special duties shall no longer be assessed, levied, 
or collected; but if, at the expiration of five years from the date of' 
the passage of this act, the President finds that there is not being 
manufactured or produced within the United States as much as 60 
per cent in value of the domestic consumption of the articles men- 



34 CEisrsus or dyes and synthetic organic chemicals, 1921. 

tioned in Groups II (intermediates) and III (dyes and other finished 
p'roducts) of section 500, he shall by proclamation so declare, where- 
upon the spe cial duties imposed by this section on such articles 
shall no longer be assessed, levied, or collected." 

It is evident, however, that the law is not clear or definite as to 
whether this should be applied to individual dyes or to dyes taken as 
a group. For the purpose of analysis it will be assumed that it 
applies to dyes taken as a group and that domestic consumption is 
represented by production plus imports minus exports. On this 
basis of calculation the consumption of dyes during 1921 amounted 
to $32,466,992, if the exports of "aniline dyes" alone are taken into 
consideration; or to $31,263,853, if the exports include both "aniline 
dyes and all other dyes and dyestuffs" (see page 48 for explanation 
of exports of dyes). In the first case the domestic production of 
dyes of $32,377,213 would represent 100.4 per cent of the domestic 
consumption; in the latter case, 103.6 per cent of the total domestic 
consumption. 

The United States Tariff^ Commission, in conformity with the 
President's request of October 27, 1917, to ascertain the facts on 
which to base executive action under this provision of the law, sent 
the following letter to the President on August 19, 1922: 

The President: 

Title V of the act of September 8, 1916, entitled "An act to increase revenue and 
for other purposes," imposing duties on dyes and other chemical coal-tar products, 
contains the following provision in section 501 : 

"Diiring the period of five years beginning five years after the passage of this act, 
such special duties shall be annually reduced by 20 per centum of the rate imposed 
by this section, so that at the end of such period such special duties shall no longer 
be assessed, levied, or collected; but if, at the expiration of five years from the date 
of the passage of this act, the President finds that there is not being manufactured 
or produced within the United States as much as 60 per centum in value of the domes- 
tic consumption of the articles mentioned in Groups II and III of section 500, he shall 
by proclamation so declare, whereupon the special duties imposed by this section 
on such articles shall no longer be assessed, levied, or collected." 

On October 27, 1917, the President requested the Tariff Commission to ascertain 
the facts on which to base executive action under this provision of the law. The 
Tariff Commission has therefore made a careful study of the progress of the American 
industry by taking a census of the production of dyes and other coal-tar products 
each year from 1917 to 1920, inclusive, together with a detailed analysis of imports 
during 1919 and 1920. A report is inclosed which shows the status of the domestic 
industry for the calendar year 1920. 

The production of the articles provided for in Group II (coal-tar intermediates) 
of the act referred to above, in the United States during the calendar year 1920, 
amounted to $95,291,686, whereas during the same period the imports of these articles 
had a value of only .$751,448, or less than 1 per cent of the value of the American 
production. The production in the United States during 1920 of the articles provided 
tor in Group III (dyes and other finished coal-tar chemicals) amounted to $112,165,865 
in value, whereas the imports of these articles dm^ing the same period amounted to 
$5,804,905, a little more than 5 per cent of the American production. Furthermore, 
during 1920 exports of aniline dyes amounted to $22,450,480 and exports of "all other 
dyes" consisting in part of synthetic dyes of coal-tar origin amounted to $7,373,111. 
It is, therefore, clear that during 1920 the domestic production of the articles enu- 
merated in Groups II and III was much in excess of 60 per cent of the domestic con- 
sumption. Although complete statistical evidence as to production is not available 
for any later period than the calendar year 1920, it is apparent that the importation 
of these products has not increased during 1921 to such an extent that at the present 
time less than CO per cent in value of the domestic consumption is supplied by domestic 
production. The facts, therefore, do not call for the issuance of a proclamation 
removing the specific duties under section 501 of said act. 
Respectfully, 

Thomas Walker Page, Chairman. 



CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921. 35 

On February 9, 1922, customs officers were instructed by the 
Treasury Department to continue to assess specific duties at the 
rates of 2^ cents per pound and 5 cents per pound under the pro- 
visions of section 501 of the revenue act of 1916, leaving to final 
decision upon protest the question whether the first reduction of 
duty became effective in 1921 or in 1922. (T. D. 39007.) 

In a decision by the Board of General Appraisers on April 25, 1922, 
an importation of imitation amber composed of synthetic phenoHc 
resin, which was withdrawn from warehouse between September 30, 
1921, and December 7, 1921, was held to be entitled to a reduction 
of 20 per cent on the special duty of 5 cents per pound imposed in 
section 501 of the revenue act of 1916. (G. A. 8523, T. D. 39093.) 

Production of Dyes by Classes. 

The dyes produced in the United States during 1921 have been 
classified according to method of application under the following 
classes: (1) Acid dyes, (2) basic dyes, (3) direct dyes, (4) lake and 
spirit soluble dyes, (5) mordant or chrome dyes, (6) sulfur dyes, (7) 
vat dyes, subdivided into indigo and other vats, and (8) unclassified 
dyes. While in certain cases, the classification of a color in one or 
two classes is arbitrary, because a dye may have properties which 
permit of its application by more than one method, it is believed that 
the above classifications facilitate the interpretation and comparison 
of production and import figures. 

The production of dyes in the United States from 1917 to 1921, 
inclusive, and imports during the fiscal year 1914 and the calendar 
years 1920 and 1921 are arranged according to the above classes in 
Table 9, and they are also shown graphically in Figure 1. 

ACID DYES. 

Description. — The acid dyes are commonly dyed in an acid bath, 
they have acid properties and are usually sodium salts of a color 
acid. They constitute the most important group used in wool 
dyeing; they have, in addition, considerable application on silk. 
With few exceptions, they are little used on cotton or linen on account 
of their lack of affinity for vegetable fibers. The acid dyes are of 
value in the dyeing of jute. On wool they are used in dyeing suit- 
ings, dress goods, knitting, hosiery, carpet yarns, and hat materials, 
their great use being confined to goods not requiring repeated 
wasliings. 

In general, acid dyes yield clear, bright shades, superior to the 
direct and mordant dyes in purity of shade, but are not equal to 
basic dyes in this respect. They have a wide color range, and vary 
greatly in both fastness and cost. In fastness, the acid colors show 
great individual variation; as a rule they are fair to light and acids, 
but have a tendency to bleed in washing. On wool they yield faster 
shades than on silk. Some of the more complex acid dyes produce 
shades of good general fastness. A considerable part of this group 
includes the lowest priced dyes produced. Their method of appli- 
cation in an acid bath is simple and of low labor cost. 
f' The line of demarcation between acid dyes and certain colors of 
the direct and mordant groups, is arbitrary. Certain acid dyes may 



36 



CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921. 



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CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1P21. 37 

be ''after treated" with sodium or potassium dichromate, thereby 
yielding shades of good fastness to milUng, light, washing, and other 
agents. These dyes, known as acid chrome colors, are used mostly 
on wool and are important for shades fast to milling on loose wool 
yarns and piece goods, particularly men's suitings. Most of the acid 
dyes are chemically included in one of the following groups: (1) nitro 
compounds; (2) azo compounds; (3) sulfonated basic dyes (mostly 
triphenylmethane derivatives) . 

Production. — This class ranks second in quantity produced (sulfur 
dyes were first), totaling 7,843,009 pounds, or 20.1 per cent of the 
total output in 1921 as compared with 17,741,538 pounds in 1920. 
The 1921 imports of acid dyes were the highest of any class, namely, 
1,455,823 pounds, or 34.24 per cent of the total importation and 18.5 
per cent of the domestic output. In 1920 the imports of this class 
amounted to 733,405 pounds, and the pre-war import (1914, fiscal 
year) amounted to 9,286,^01 pounds. 

The leading acid dyes from the standpoint of quantity produced 
include Agalma Black 10 B, Orange II, Nigrosine (water soluble). 
Indigo Extract, and Tartrazine. The production of Agalma Black 
10 B was 1,426,194 pounds, a 45 per cent decrease from 1920; the 
sales exceeded the output by 261,617 pounds. This color made up 
18 per cent of the acid dyes and 3.7 per cent of the total dyes pro- 
duced during 1921. The output of Orange II was 922,326 pounds; 
that of Nigrosine (water soluble) was 626,706 pounds, a 77 per cent 
decrease from last year; the sales (846,537 pounds), however, exceeded 
the production. Indigo Extract, with a production of 585,931 pounds, 
showed a 58 per cent decrease from that of last year; the sales 
totaled 723,025 pounds. Tartrazine had an output of 559,134 
pounds, a 20 per cent decrease from that of 1920. These five colors 
have been produced in large quantities since 1917 and the yearly 
production of each has exceeded the imports of 1914. 

Sulphoncyanine G had an output in 1921 of 365,998 pounds, a 
considerable reduction from that of 1920 when the figures could not 
be published. Azo Rubine had an output of 232,216 pounds, a 50 
per cent decrease from that of 1920, and slightly gi'eater than the 
1914 imports. The production of Ponceau 2 R, a color showing a 
large annual output since 1917, amounted to 178,272 pounds and 
the sales were 248,059 pounds. Wool Green S was first produced in 
(quantity in 1920, when the output was 212,362 pounds. The output 
in 1921 was 164,581 pounds, and the price receded from $4.99 per 
pound in 1920 to S1.88 per pound in 1921. Fast Red VR, Azo Yellow, 
Fast Red A, and Sulphon Acid Blue R were also produced in large 
quantities in 1921. 

Important additions to this class were made in 1921, and further 
developments in the production of new acid colors were announced 
in the first six months of 1922, thus giving a more complete variety 
of acid dyes of domestic manufacture. New acid dyes reported in 
1921 were Fast Light Yellow, Xylene Yellow, Azo Fuchsine B, Lanacyl 
Violet B, Acid Brown, Jet Black R, Biebrich Patent Black, Acid An- 
thracene Red, Patent Blue and Patent Blue A, Acid Violet 6 B N, and 
Quinoline Yellow. Many of these newly developed colors showed con- 
siderable importation during 1921. The production of these colors 
in this country is an important development. 



38 CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921. 

Among the more important acid dyes consumed in the United 
States during 1921, for which no production was reported in that 
year, are Alizarin Direct Green G (produced in this country in 1922), 
Wool Blue R L, Alizarin Astrol, Fast Green, Erio Chrome Azurol, 
Xylene Blue V S, and Cloth Fast Blue. 

SULFUR DYES. 

Description. — This group of dyes is used almost entirely in cotton 
dyeing, principally for heavy, deep shades, such as blues, greens, 
browns, and blacks. Sulfur colors are also used in the dyeing of 
linen and artificial silk. They are of great importance in cotton dye- 
ing for uniform cloths, hosiery, gingham yarns, and cotton warps to 
be woven with wool and later dyed with acid dyes. The greatly 
extended use of sulfur dyes during the war served to increase perma- 
nently their application in cotton dyeing. . 

As a class, the sulfur dyes possess excellent fastness to washing, 
fulling, alkalies, and acids in cross dyeing. With some exceptions, 
their fastness to light is good. As they are not fast to chlorine, they 
do not withstand the repeated bleaching action of hypochlorites in 
the modern laundry treatment. They are applied in a sodium sul- 
fide solution; the dyeings are after treated in certain cases with 
metallic salts to improve their fastness. The first dye discovered in 
this group, '^Cachou de Laval," was made by the fusion of sawdust 
with sodium sulfide and sulfur in 1867. They are now prepared by the 
fusion of various intermediates (containing the nitro, amino, or imino 
groups) with sodium sulfide and sulfur. The sulfur dyes are not 
pure, distinct compounds, and the presence of other substances ren- 
der them of comparatively low color value. Recent developments, 
however, have greatly increased the tinctorial value and range of 
shade of many of these dyes. 

Production. — This class, since 1917, has led in quantity produced. 
The 1921 output was 10,239,255 pounds, or 26.25 per cent of the 
total production. The domestic output has in each of the five years 
since 1917 exceeded the pre-war imports of 1914. The manufacture 
of these colors is exceptionally well developed in the United States, 
as is indicated by the relatively small import of 220,938 pounds dur- 
ing 1921, constituting 5.2 per cent of the total coal-tar dye impor- 
tations. 

Since 1917, with the exception of 1920, when Indigo led. Sulphur 
Black has been produced in the largest quantity. In 1921 the output 
was 7,832,696 pounds, and the sales 9,277,525 pounds, valued at 
$2,156,525. The price of this color receded from 60 cents per pound 
in 1917 to 23 cents in 1921, and on May 1, 1922, it sold for 18 cents 
per pound. 

The output of sulfur browns totaled 1,159,115 pounds, with sales 
of 997,581 pounds, valued at $384,366. This was slightly in excess 
of 1920. The production of sulfur blues was 190,621 pounds, and 
the sales, due to the stocks carried over from the previous year's 
production, amounted to 544,931 pounds, valued at $351,424. The 
output of Sulphur Maroon increased from 133,407 pounds in 1920 
to 230,773 pounds in 1921. Several new sulfur greens, blues, and 
yellows were first produced in the United States in 1921. The five 
largest sulfur dyes imported were: Cross Dye Green, 51,074 pounds 



CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921. 39 

(this color gives a green of great clearness) ; Thionol Yellow, 35,240 
pounds; Thionol Brown, 20,632 pounds; Eclipse Brown, 21,248 
pounds; and Thionol Green D Y, 16,600 pounds. With the exception 
of Eclipse Brown, which is a Swiss color, these dyes were of English 
manufacture. 

VAT DYES. 

Description. — This class of dyes, on account of their exceptional 
fastness, variety, and beauty of shade, is of special importance for 
cotton goods, where laundry-fast dyes are necessary. They are used 
on both dyed and printed shirtings, blouse material, dress goods, 
ginghams, muslin curtains, and other cotton wash goods. On 
account of their high cost, they are used largely for colored stripes 
or small printed patterns on white fabrics, and have comparatively 
limited use for solid or heavy shades. They possess technical 
advantages in application over the alizarin mordant dyes. Vat 
dyes are used to some extent on silk, but have, with a few exceptions, 
small application on wool, chiefly on account of the injurious action 
of the alKaline dye bath. 

The vat dyes as a class possess exceptional fastness to light, wash- 
ing, acids, alkalies, and in most cases to chlorine. Certain vat dyes 
possess good fastness to only a part of these agents. No other class 
of dyes possesses a corresponding fastness to chlorine. The use of 
vat dyes is increasing, and they promise to be of greater importance 
in the cotton dyeing and printing industry as their comparatively 
high cost is reduced. The vat dyes are insoluble in water. They are 
applied by reducing in an alkaline solution (with hydrosulfite) to a 
soluble form which is taken up by the fiber and is subsequently con- 
verted to the original insoluble form by exposure to air. The term 
"vat" originated from the fact that these dyes are applied in a 
relatively large volume of water at about 120° F., whereas most 
other dyes are applied with a small volume of water at a higher 
temperature. The old indigo dye bath was kno^vn as a vat. 

Vat dyes are of recent origin, except indigo, which is one of the 
oldest dyes known. They are difficult to manufacture, of relatively 
high cost, and are among the most complex dyes manufactured. . 
Chemically, they are divided into indigoids (including thioindigoids), 
anthraquinone derivatives, and the carbazole derivatives. Members 
of each of these classes were made in the United States during 1921, 
with the exception of the thioindigoids, which include scarlets and 
reds. 

Production. — The total production in 1921 of "vat dyes, including 
indigo," Avas 7,019,120 pounds, compared with 19,338,099 pounds for 
1920. The output of indigo alone for 1921 was 6,673,968 pounds as 
against 18,178,231 pounds for 1920, when this country enjoyed a 
large export trade in this dye. The 1921 sales of indigo exceeded the 
production, totahng 9,413,308 pounds, with a value of S4, 2.57, 572. 
The production of indigo in 1921 was 17 per cent of the total output of 
dyes during that year. The 1914 importation of indigo was 8,507,359 
pounds. During that year our total consumption was imported, as 
indigo was not commercially produced in the United ^States previous 
to the war. The price of domestic indigo in 1917 was $1.42 a pound 
and in 1921, 45 cents. The selling price for May 1, 1922, showed fur- 
ther reduction to 30 cents per pound. The pre-war (fiscal year 



40 CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921. 

1914) invoice price was 13 cents per pound; this does not represent 
the cost to the consumer, as the profits of the importer must be added 
to this figure. 

The production of vat dyes, other than indigo, in 1921 was 345,152 
pounds, a 70 per cent decrease from 1920. The chief cause of the 
large domestic decrease in output was the great reduction in output 
of the brom indigos, which were produced in the previous year in 
large amounts, partly for the export trade. Indanthrene Blue 
G C D is the most important vat dye, other than indigo, and led in 
quantity produced, showing a considerable increase in output over 
the previous year. Indanthrene Dark Blue B O ranked second in 
quantity produced, with a large increase over the previous year. 
The production figures can not be published without revealing the 
operations of individual manufacturers. The production of Indan- 
threne Yellow, Brown B, and Green B decreased from that of the 
previous year. 

In 1921 the total imports of vat dyes, other than indigo, was 
1,045,370 pounds, compared with a domestic production of 345,152 
pounds. This class represents the most conspicuous deficit in the 
domestic manufacturing program. They are complex and difficult 
to manufacture, as the investment for equipment is high and the 
profit is relatively small. Although in 1914 this class made up only 
4.2 per cent of the imports, these dyes are nevertheless indispensable 
to the textile trade for fast shades on cotton. They were naturally 
left to the last in the domestic program, on account of their high 
cost and small consumption. While the domestic production is not 
adequate, it is believed that the technical developments during the 
last year place the manufacturers in a better position for rapid 
expansion. 

In January, 1922, a new vat dye, Indanthrene Blue B C S, was 
imported. This is very similar to Indanthrene Blue G C D in its 
general properties, offering, however, a better fastness to chlorine. 
Within five months of the first importation of this dye two domestic 
manufacturers had conducted research and were manufacturing it on 
a commercial scale. Their capacity in May^ 1922, indicates that they 
can soon meet domestic requirements. This achievement shows that 
domestic producers can meet the technical problems in the produc- 
tion of this class of dyes. 

Production of Algol Yellow W G and Algol Red R was reported for 
the first time in 1921. With the exception of the latter color, there 
has been no domestic production of the vat pinks, scarlets, and reds. 
It is reported, however, that the experimental and semi-manufactur- 
ing scale work has been completed on vat pinks and that the man- 
ufacturer is ready to produce them on a commercial scale in case 
conditions are favorable. 

The first nine vat dyes in order of quantity imported are: Indan- 
threne Blue G C D (single strength), 201,835 pounds; Hvdron Blue 
(single strength), 146,072 pounds; Ciba Blue 2 B, 99,937 pounds; 
Indigo (20 per cent paste), 70,975 pounds; Indanthrene Golden Orange 
R, 56,390 pounds; Indanthrene Violet 2 R, 52,083 pounds; Indan- 
threne Yellow, 49,609 pounds; Indanthrene Golden Orange G (single 
strength), 33,423 pounds; Helindone Pink (paste), 31,813 pounds. 



ce:n^sus of dyes and synthetic organic chemicals,, 1921. 41 

direct cotton dyes. 

Description. — The direct or substantive dyes were introduced 
within the past 25 years. Their method of appHcation is simple, as 
they dye vegetable fibers full shades in a neutral or alkaline bath, 
''directly," without the use of mordants. The greatest application 
of this class of dyes is on cotton, in addition they are used on linen, 
silk, paper, and wool. Direct dyes are of special value in dyeing fabrics 
containing both cotton and wool (union goods) or silk and cotton. 
The use of this class of colors on wool is gradually increasing, .espe- 
cially for knitting, worsted and shoddy yarns and loose wool. 

The fastness of the individual dyes of this group shows a wide 
variation. On account of their high solubility they have a tendency 
to run when washed. Many direct dyes, particularly those first 
introduced, are sensitive to acids and fade on exposure to sunlight; 
others, especially the newer direct dyes, have good fastness to both 
acids and light and other agents. Certain direct colors are of good 
fastness, particularly to washing, following a treatment on the dyed 
fiber by ''coupling" with certain intermediates. An after treatment 
with metallic salts or formaldehyde also improves the fastness of 
certain direct dyes. These "developed" direct dyes were not avail- 
able in the early part of the war, and the use of the ordinary direct 
dyes by the hosiery dyers was a cause of much dissatisfaction on the 
part of the consumer. Developed blacks, such as Zambezi Black V, 
are now manufactured in this country for this purpose. 

With a few exceptions the direct dyes are chemically "azo" com- 
pounds and are nearly all derivatives of benzidine, tolidine, diamino 
stilbene, or a group closely approximating one of these. A small but 
valuable group of direct colors belong in the thiazol class. 

Production. — Direct dyes rank third in quantity of output, totaling 
in 1921 7,053,761 pounds, or 18.08 per cent of the total dyes manu- 
factured in that year. In 1920 this class totaled 19,882,631 pounds, 
or 22.5 per cent of the total dyes produced. The imports of direct 
dyes in 1921 amounted to 537,664 pounds, or 12.6 per cent of the 
total quantity of dyes imported. The imports of this class in a pre- 
war year (1914 fiscal) were 10,264,757 pounds, or 22.3 per cent of the 
total. Significant progress was made in this class in the production 
of new direct colors not heretofore reported. The domestic program 
is still lacking in the production of certain "developed" direct dyes. 

The largest direct dye in quantity produced and value of sales was 
Direct Deep Black EW. The output in 1921 was 2,229,842 pounds, 
and the sales were 4,073,425 pounds, valued at $3,225,152, or an 
average value of 79 cents per pound. The 1921 output represents a 
71 per cent decrease from that of 1920. This color made up 5.7 per 
cent of all the dyes produced in 1921 and 31.6 per cent of the produc- 
tion of direct cotton dyes. Imports of this type in 1914 were 
1,246,536 pounds, and in 1921, 11,102 pounds were imported. Benzo 
Blue 2B ranked second with an output of 571,217 pounds, a 68 per 
cent decrease from last year. The sales in 1921 were 803,548 pounds, 
with a value of S557,457. The output of this color has ranged from 
1,380,335 to 1,789,774 pounds per year in the period 1917 to 1920. 

Benzamine Brown 3 GO ranked third in quantity of output — 
491,347 pounds — and the sales were 544,933 pounds, valued at 
$624,377. Erie Direct Black RX with a production of 298,516 pounds 

541—22 4 



42 CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921. 

ranked fourth in this class. The sales totaled 335,508 pounds, 
valued at $239,572. This dye was first rei)orted in 1919. In 1920 
it showed the largest increase of any individual dye except Indigo, 
the production totaling 2,050,741 pounds in that year, when it was 
exported in large amounts. 

Other important direct dyes showing a large output included 
Oxamine Black BHN, output 281,852, sales 485,241 pounds, valued 
at $720,350; Congo Brown G, output 213,403 pounds. During 1920 
Congo Ked was exported in large amounts to India, and our production 
during that year amounted to 1,502,630 pounds. In 1921, however, 
with a loss of most of this export trade, the production declined to 
207,655 pounds, a decrease of 86 per cent from that of 1920. The 
dyes Oxamine Green B and Direct Yellow R were each produced in 
excess of 153,000 pounds. 

Among the new direct cotton dyes first reported in 1921 were: 
Benzo Fast Scarlet 4BS, 8BS, GS, which were reported in considerable 
quantity; Benzo Fast Yellow 5GL, Benzo Fast Pink 2BL, Diamine 
Black KO, Benzo Cyanine R, Diamine Black RO, Oxamine Blue B, 
Oxamine Copper Blue RRX, Oxamine Light Green G, Benzo Fast 
Black L, Benzo Fast Gray, Diamine Bordeaux B. 

The six most important direct cotton dyes in quantity imported 
in 1921 were Trisulpnon Brown, 38,558 pounds; Trisulphon Brown GG, 
22,872 pounds; Diamiribgen Blue, 17,308 poimds; Chicago Blue 6B, 
13,788 pounds; Diamine Scarlet, 12,399 pounds; Direct Deep Black, 
11,102 pounds; Benzo Fast Scarlet, 10,973 pounds. 

MORDANT AND CHROME DYES. 

Description. — These colors dye both vegetable and animal fibers 
in conjunction with metallic mordants, such as salts of chromium, 
aluminum, iron, and tin. The resulting shades are, in general, of 
exceptional fastness to color-destroj^ing agents. The mordant dyes 
yield on wool the fastest shades to light, washing, and other agents. 
They are also important in textile printing, particularly on cotton 
piece goods. This class is of relatively small importance on silk. 

The mordant dyes are frequently designated as chrome colors. 
As many of these colors were derived from alizarin, they were for- 
merly called alizarin dyes. The true alizarins are used mostly 
with a mordant; some of the new alizarin dyes can be used with or 
without a mordant ; the latter are known as acid alizarins. In the appli- 
cation of chrome dyes on wool, the mordant may be applied before, 
during, or after the dy;eing operation. There is little differentiation 
between some acid, acid chrome, and chrome colors, as certain dyes 
may be applied hj either of two nethods. The labor cost of dyemg 
with this class is higher than for other groups. 

The most important dye of this class, alizarin, is used in the pro- 
duction of the well-known Turkey red on cotton. This is one of 
the oldest dyed shades which was produced in ancient times by the 
use of madder root. For about 50 years alizarin has been prepared 
synthetically from anthracene. 

Chemically, the mordant dyes include members of the following 
chemical classes: (1) Anthracene, (2) azo, (3) oxazine, (4) triphenyl- 
methane, (5) nitroso, (6) oxyquinone, and (7) xanthone. 

Production. — ^The production of this class in 1921 was 3,997,442 
pounds or 10.25 per cent of the total quantity of dyes manufactured 



CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921. 43 

in that year. This quantity is a 2.5 per cent increase from that of 
1920. The 1921 unports of this class were 695,901 pounds or 16.36 

Eer cent of the total quantity of dyes imported. This importation, 
owever, represents a comparatively large percentage, namely 17 per 
cent, of the quantity of this class produced. During the pre-war year, 
1914, 4,450,442 pounds of this class were imported, or 9.7 per cent of 
the total importation. The quantity and variety of the mordant 
and chrome dyes manufactured in the United States is still insuffi- 
cient for the normal needs of the textile trade. Definite and en- 
couraging progress was made, however, in 1921 in the manufacture 
of dyes of tliis class. Many colors of this group are not identified, as 
they are not included in the Schultz tables and are consequently 
included only in the grand totals. 

Sahcine Black U led in quantity produced with an output of 1,523,- 
220 pounds and a sales of 1,426,550 pounds, with a value of $1,073,119 
or 75 cents per pound. This color was fourth in quantity of all dyes 
manufactured in 1921, and made up 38 per cent of the total quantity 
of mordant and chrome dyes. The production of 1921 represents a 
42 per cent increase from that of 1920. Metacln-ome Brown B was 
second of this group in quantity produced, with an output of 474,128 
pounds, an increase of 145 per cent over that of the previous year. 
Alizarin Yellow G ranks third, with a production of 271,285 pounds, 
a 28 per cent increase over the production of 1920. In 1918 the out- 
put of tliis color reached 2,233,208 pounds, the maximum for any 
year, when it was in demand for dyeing Army woolen uniforms. 
The production of Gallocyanine was 140,064 pounds in 1921. The 
maximum output of this color was in 1917, when it was used in large 
amounts for dyeing Navy uniform cloth. 

Other mordant or chrome dyes showing a large production include 
Alizarin Yellow R, Palatine Clu-ome Brown, diamond blacks. Mordant 
Yellow, and AHzarin Brown. Alizarin, with domestic sales of 34,236 
pounds and an import of 136,283 pounds, is one of the essential dyes 
of this group not yet produced in sufficient amounts for domestic 
requirements. This color, in addition to its use as a dye, serves also 
as an intermediate for the production of certain other dyes not yet 
manufactured in this country in adequate quantities. New dyes 
of the mordant and chrome class reported for the first time include 
Cloth Red 3 G, Cloth Red G, Diamond Green, and several colors not 
listed in Schultz tables. 

Individual dyes of this group were among the largest importations 

of dyes during 1921. The imports of four mordant and chrome colors 

amounted to nearly 600,000 pounds. The six largest colors of this 

class imported are Erio Chrome Black A, 224,002 pounds, the largest 

I import of any individual dye; Alizarin, 136,283 pounds, ranking fourth 

I in quantity of all dyes imported ; Erio Chrome Black T, 132,388 pounds; 

! Anthracene Blue WR, 107,769 pounds; Alizarin Blue Black, 43,277 

j pounds; and Erio Chrome Blue Black 38,226 pounds. 

1 

j BASIC DYES. 

j Description. — The basic dyes are characterized by their depth, 
i brilliancy of shade, and' purity of tone, surpassing all other classes of 
1 dyes in these respects. They possess high tinctorial power, but as a 
I class lack fastness, especially to light and washing. Basic colors are 



44 CElsrSUS OF dyes and synthetic organic chemicals, 1921. 

used on cotton in dyeing and printing, where bright shades or color 
tints are desired without special requirements for fastness. 

The basic dyes are used in the dyeing of paper and jute and also for 
lithographic inks, typewriter ribbons, copy paper, and pencils. These 
colors have little application on wool, with the exception of rhoda- 
mine B and a few others. Basic dyes are chemically basic in character 
and are fixed on vegetable fibers with an acid mordant, namely, 
tannic acid. 

This class is historically the oldest of the coal-tar dyes. Mauvine 
or Perkin violet, discovered by W. H, Perkin in 1856, was the first 
aniline dyestuff produced on a commercial scale. Basic dyes are not 
at present as important as formerly. This is due to a considerable 
extent to the replacement of these colors for cotton dyeing by direct 
dyes and sulphur dyes, both of which have advantages in economy of 
application and in many cases possess better fastness. In wool 
dyeing the acid dyes have almost entirely displaced the basic colors. 
Chemically, the basic dyes include a large number of the triphenyl- 
methane derivatives, and, in addition, members of the following 
chemical classes: (1) Azines, (2) azos, (3) thioazines, (4) thioazols, 
and (5) acridines. 

Production. — As shown in Table 8, the output of this class in 1921 
totaled 1,853,094 pounds compared with 4,993,001 pounds for 1920, 
when a number of dyes of this class were exported in quantity. The 
manufacture of dyes of this class is well developed in this country, 
as is seen by a comparison of the imports and production. The 
imports of basic dyes in 1921 were 163,527 pounds or 3.84 per cent of 
the total quantity of coal-tar dyes imported. This importation 
constituted 8.8 per cent of the total production of this class in 1921. 
The importation of basic dyes in 1914 was 3,002,480 pounds. 

Bismark Brown 2R, with a production of 557,753 pounds, led this 
group in quantity produced; the sales were 517,065 pounds with a 
value of $439,614. Both sales and production in 1921 exceeded the 
output of 1920. Chrysoidine Y, with an output of 253,693 pounds, 
ranks second in this class; the sales were 343,872 pounds, valued at 
$263,521. The 1921 production represents a 57 per cent decrease 
from that of the previous year. 

The production of Methylene Blue, another important basic color, 
was 209,395 pounds. Other basic dyes showing a large output in- 
clude: Methyl Violet, 190,643 pounds; Chrysoidine R, 100,246 pounds; 
and Auramine, 94,484 pounds. The output of Magenta and Malachite 
Green showed large decreases, while that of Phosphene showed an 
output of more than twenty times that of the previous year. The new 
basic dyes, production of which was first reported in 1921, are Victoria 
Blue R, Rhodamine 6 G, Methylene Violet, and New Fast Green 3 B. 

The first five basic dyes in order of quantity imported are: Aura- 
mine, 35,532 pounds; Phosphene, 21,153 pounds; Victoria Blue B, 
12,342 pounds; Rhodamine B, 10,890 pounds; and Rhodamine 6 G, 
10,069 pounds. All of these dyes were produced in the United States 
during 1921. 

COLOR lake and SPIRIT-SOLUBLE DYES. 



Description. — -These dyes constitute one of the smaller groups 
tie colo 
lown { 
heading. 



The color lake dyes are used in the preparation of a class of pigments 
known as ''color lakes," which are discussed in detail under that 



CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921. 45 

The spirit-soluble dyes are insoluble in water, but dissolve in either 
oils, fats, or various organic solvents; hence, they find application for 
coloring varnishes (both spirit and oil), fats, oils, waxes, and similar 
products. Many of the spirit-soluble dyes by chemical treatment, 
such as sulfonation, are converted into water-soluble dyes used in 
textile dyeing, and from this point of view these products may be 
considered partly completed dyes. 

Production. — The production of lake and spirit-soluble dyes in 1921 
was 720,406 pounds, constituting 1.85 per cent of the entire output. 
The production of this class of dyes in 1920 was 2,205,281 pounds, 
when it made up 2.5 per cent of the total. 

The imports of this class during 1921 were 43,553 pounds and dur- 
ing the previous year 17,527 pounds. 

FOOD DYES. 

Description. — These dyes, used for coloring food and food products, 
include a limited list of selected dyes which meet specifications of the 
Bureau of Chemistry for purity. The total production 0;f these colors 
in 1921, the first year that these products were separately compiled, 
was 50,709 pounds. The average value of sales during that year was 
$5.80 per pound. 

IMPORTANT DYES IMPORTED. 



Table 9 shows a comparison of the dyes of each class imported in 
the largest quantity during 1914 and 1921, with the domestic pro- 
duction for 1921 in case the figures can be published. This gives an 
indication of the more important requirements of the domestic con- 
sumer not adequately met by the domestic dye manufacturer. 

rABLE 9. — Comparison of dyes imported in largest quantity, 1914 and 1921, with domestic 

production, 1921, by classes. 



Schiiltz 
No. 



Class and name of dye. 



Production. Imports 



Imports. 



ACID DYES. 



22 
257 
566 
543 

23 
865 
858 



19 
523 
856 
613 



493 
606 
559 
573 
571 
705 
618 
512 



Wool blue R L 

Xylene light yellow 

Sulphonpyanme 

Wool green S 

Patent blue 

Tartrazine 

Alizarin direct green G. 

Alizarin saphirol B 

Cloth fast blue 

Fast light yellow 

Fast green 

Alizarin astrol 

Quinolme yellow 



BASIC DYES. 



Auramine 

Phosphine 

Victoria blue B . 
Rhodamine B. .. 
Rhodaniine 6 G . 
Indanune 6 R . . . 
Thiollavine T . . . 
Magenta 



Pounds. 



0) 

365, 998 
164, 581 

(1) 
559, 134 



0) 

"(1)' 



0) 



91, 484 

(') 

(1) 

(') 

{') 



Pounds. 
69, 719 
60, 422 
.51,989 
51, 822 
42, 718 
38, 395 
30, 534 
28,606 
23, 782 
23,375 
22, 619 
22,562 
21, 898 



35, 532 
21,153 
12, 342 
10, .S90 
10, 039 
9,946 
7,297 
7,110 



Pounds. 



23,074 
145, 694 

60, 073 

196, 228 

270, 477 

2,000 



3,796 
38, 908 
14, 347 
10.917 
15. 354 



449, 276 
168, 225 
127, 769 
.59, 354 
37,515 
66, 170 
35, 224 
87, 102 



' Proluction in ths Unitad States, but figures not publishable. 



46 CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921. 



Table 9. — Comparison of dyes importedin largest quantity, 1914 and 1921, with domestic 
production, 1921, by classes — Continued. 



Schultz 
No. 



Class and name of dye. 



1921 



Production. Imports 



Imports. 



449 
457 
273 
424 
319 
462 
279 
451 
274 
342 



184 
778 
183 
789 
862 
180 
774 
804 
782 
785 
780 
637 



Trisulphon brown. 
Trisulphon brown G G. 

Dianimop;eii blue 

Chicago blue 6 B 

Diamine scarlet 

Direct deep black 

Benzo fast scarlet 

Congo fast blue 

Diaminogen 

Chrysamine 



DIRECT DYES. 



Pounds. 



83,781 



2, 229, 842 
0) 



13, 328 



MORDANT AND CHROME DYES. 



Erio Chrome black A 

Alizarin, synthetic 

Erio Chrome black T 

Anthracene blue W R... 

Alizarin blue black 

Erio Chrome blue black . 

AhzarLa black 

Alizarin blue 

AUzarin brown 

AUzarin R G, G I 

Alizarin red 

GaUamine blue 



(1) 



0) 
"59,'6i3' 



726 
'746' 



842 
748 
881 
874 
761 
767 
849 
760 
910 
838 
873 
901 
831 
840 
918 
819 



Cross dye green 

Thionol yellow 

Echpse brown 

Thionol brown 

Thionol green D Y. . 

Pyrogene blue 

Thionine green G G . 
Katigene green 



SULFUR DYES. 



VAT DYES. 

Indanthrene blue GCD (single strength). 

Hydron blue 

Ciba blue 2 B 

Indigo, synthetic 

Indanthrene golden orange R , 

Indanthrene violet RR 

Indanthrene yeUow 

Indanthrene golden orange G 

Helindone pink 

Indanthrene blue RS 

IleUndone brown AN 

Ciba violet B 

Indanthrene red BN 

Indanthrene blue 3 G 

Hehndone red 3 B 

Algol red RFF 



0) 



6,673,968 



(1) 
(1) 



0) 



(1) 



Pounds. 

38, 558 

22, 872 

17, 308 

13,788 

12,399 

11, 102 

10, 973 

9,259 

7,864 

7,815 



224, 002 

136,283 

132,388 

107, 769 

43,277 

38, 226 

26,524 

21,521 

20,700 

18, 266 

15,565 

15, 179 



51,074 
35,240 
21,248 
20,632 
16,600 
11,718 
9,797 
6,543 



201,835 
146,072 
99,937 
70,975 
56,390 
52, OS? 
49,609 
33,423 
31,813 
28,908 
27,747 
21,987 
21,331 
19,715 
17,566 
14,489 



Pounds. 

16, 781 

7,562 

8,308 

118, 542 

41, 175 

1, 246, 536 

36,674 

4,449 

313,629 

608 



96,570 

202,392 

129, 550 

107,778 

54,706 

57,000 

205, 439 

98, 379 

115,586 

49,021 

81,929 

2,756 



100 



4,393 



10,934 
'63'929 



478,980 

296,723 

16,880 

8, 507, 359 

50,496 

68,419 

75, 192 

20,092 

41,699 

187,379 

2,831 

20,836 

6,056 

6,120 

27, 874 

2,322 



1 Production in the United States, but figures not publishable. 

Domestic production of dyes in 191 4-- — Table 10 contains a list of 
those dyes produced in the United States in the calendar year 1914. 
Seven establishments, with a capital investment of $3,386,212, pro- 
duced coal-tar colors totaling in quantity 6,619,729 poimds, with a 
value of $2,470,096. 

The persons engaged in the manufacture numbered 528, being 
divided into salaried employees 130 and wage earners (average 
number) totaling 398. As already pointed out, the American indus- 
try in that year was confined almost entirely to the assembling into 
finished dyes (mostly azo) of intermediates imported from Europe, 
chiefly from Germany. 

The names of the firms producing coal-tar dyes in that year are: 
Schoellkopf Aniline & Chemical Works (Inc.), located at Buffalo, 



CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS^ 1921. 47 



N. Y.; Heller & Merz, Newark, N. J.; The Bayer Co. (Inc.), with a 
plant at Rensselaer, N. Y.; W. Beckers Aniline & Chemical Works, 
located at Brookljoi, N. Y.; the Central Dyestuff Co., Newark, N. J.; 
the Consolidated Color & Chemical Co., also located at Newark, 
N. J.; and the Hub Dyestuff & Chemical Co., at South Boston, Mass. 

Table 10. — Dyes produced in the United States in 1914. 



Schultz 
No 


Name. 


Schultz 
No. 


Name. 




STILBENE AND PYRAZOLONE DYES. 




A20 DYES— continued. 


9 


Direct yellow F, 2RF. 


320 


Bordeaux extra. 


23 


Wool yellow extra cone. 


326 


Niagara violet 2B. 






326 


Niagara blue R. 




AZO DYES. 


327 


Niagara violet 3R. 


31 


Oil yellow A. 


333 


Diazine black, H extra. 


32 


Oil yeUow 2625. 


333 


Diazo black B H N. 


33 


Chrysoidine, Y extra, crystals. 


336 


Niagara blue GW, HW, RW. 


34 


ChrysoidineSR. 


337 


Direct blue W B B. 


36 


Oil orange 2311. 


337 


Niagara blue B, 2B. 


36A 


Oil yellow 2338. 


342 


Direct yellow WB. 


37 


Croceine orange, Y. 


342 


Buffalo direct yellow CG extra. 


38 


Crystal orange 2G. 


343 


Niagara fast red FD. 


48 


Alizarin yellow FF. 


344 


Erie direct brown 3RB. 


58 


Alizarin yellow R. 


362 


Buffalo direct orange R. 


64 


Buffalo fast crimson Q. 


3P3 


Buffalo direct red 4B. 


66 


Buffalo fast crimson R. 


375 


Buffalo direct violet 4R. 


68 


Oil yeUow 2681. 


386 


Niagara blue BR. 


70 


Croceine orange R. 


392 


Buffalo direct orange Y. 


82 


Xylidine scarlet. 


394 


Buffalo direct yellow CRR extra. 


83 


Cumidine scarlet. 


405 


Buffalo direct cardinal 7B. 


83 


Ponceau 3R. 


410 


Benzazurine W B. 


94 


Buffalo flamine B. 


410 


Buffalo direct blue G extra. 


95 


Buffalo flamine G. 


424 


Niagara blue 6B. 


105 


Sudan brown S. 


426 


Direct sky blue B. 


110 


Buffalo rubine. 


426 


Niagara blue 4B. 


112 


Azo Bordeaux. 


436 


Panama black R extra. 


112 


Bordeaux B. 


436 


Panama black 3G extra. 


126 


Indoine blue. 


441 


Niagara black blue R. 


134 


Metanil yellow. 


462 


Erie direct black G extra. 


141 


Azo yellow, A 5W. 


4G3 


Erie direct black R extra. 


• 143 


Resorcin yeUow. 


4t;4 


Erie direct green ET, WT. 


144 


Naphthol orange. 


474 


Erie direct green MT. 


145 


Orange A, II. 


477 


Erie direct brown GR, GB. 


147 


Buffalo fast fuchsine B. 


488 


Erie direct brown RF, 2RF. 


151 


Orange R. 






161 


Fast red, cone, S cone. 




TRIPHENYL-METHANE DYES. 


163 


Azo rubine, W B, extra. 






166 


Fast red A. 


.512 


Fuchsine, TR. 


168 


Amaranth. 


513 


Fuchsine NB. 


168 


Fast red. 


515 


Methyl violet. 


168 


Wool red 40 F. 


521 


Spirit blue, red and green shades. 


169 


Brilliant scarlet 3R. 


524 


Acid magenta. 


174 


Scarlet. 


536 


AlkaU blue, red and green shades. 


188 


Buffalo fast blue R. 


.537 


Paper blue, red and green shades, 6G 


188 


Acid fast blue S R. 




supra. 


189 


Buffalo fast blue B. 


537 


Soluble blue. 


189 


Acid fast blue S B. 


538 


Methyl blue. 


211 


Leather orange. 


539 


Acid blue. 


211 


Resorcin brown. 






tJL 217 


Buffalo black N B. 




XANTHONE DYES. 


m 217 


Acid black lOB. 


.587 


Eosine. 


b 220 


Buffalo black P Y extra. 


599 


Chrome blue R, paste and powder. 


K 223 


Sudan III. 






^m 227 <"ro(eine scarlet M 0. 




OXAZINE DYES. 


^K232 Sudan IV. 






^m 257 Buffalo cvanine R, 3R. 


026 


Chrome blue B, paste and powder. 


^■201 Buffalo black SB, lOB, R. 






^■,266 Buffalo black A D. 




AZINES. 


^B 2fiS Buffalo black E A. 






^B 2(i9 Buffalo black 4B. 


679 


Safranine Y extra. 


^F 272 Buffalo black 2B. 


680 


Safranine 6B. 


* 275 Buffalo chrome black BWN. 


684 


Brilliant safraiune R. 


283 Bismarck brown. Y. 


697 


Induline. 


284 Bismarck brown 53. 


698 


Nigrosine. 


303 Brilliant yellow C. 


698 


Nigrosine, spirit soluble. 


307 Congo red 4B. 


699 


Nigrosine from aniline (indulines). 


311 Erie orange 2R. 


699 


Induline. 


312 Buffalo direct garnet R. 


700 


Nigrosine, water soluble. 


313 Buffalo direct crimson B. 


700 


Nigrosine from nitrobenzol. 



48 CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921. 



The Export Trade in Dyes. 

Exports from the United States. — The Commerce Department re- 
ports exports of domestic dyes and dyestuffs, which classification is 
further divided into three groups: (1) aniline dyes, (2) logwood 
extracts, (3) all other dyes and dyestuffs. The value for each of 
these three groups is reported previous to 1922.. Under the third 
classification, all other dyes and dyestufi^s, there may be reported 
both natural dyes other than logwood extract and coal-tar dyes. 



FIG, z.— Value of domestic dyes exported by months. 






ANILINE Dye 5' 
All Other Dyes' 



1917 



1916 




1919 



1920 



1921 



I9ZZ 



Jc/LY 1917 To MARCH WZZ Inclusive 



1 The domestic exports of dyes, as shown by the Commerce Department, are divided into 3 groups— (1) 
aniline dyes, (2) logwood extract, and (3) all other dyestuffs. 

The third classification may include both natural dyes (other than logwood extracts, shown separately), 
as well as coal-tar dyes. Since logwood extract, however, is the most important natiu-al dye exported from 
the United States, it is reasonable to assume that a considerable portion of "aU other dyes and dyestuffs" 
represents coal-tar dj'es. 

In 1922, however, the Commerce Department adopted a new classification. Coal-tar dyes were grouped 
under coal-tar finished products and were divided into (1) color lakes and (2) other colors, dyes and stains. 
For the first time the quantity, as well as the value of exports, were published. 

Logwood extracts is by far the most important natural dye exported 
from the United States, and it is, therefore, reasonable to assume that 
a large part of all other dyes and dyestuffs represents coal-tar dyes. 
The most important natural dye included under Group 3 is quercitron 
and flavine, derived from the bark of the black oak (Quercus velutina). 
These domestic natural dyes have been exported in considerable 
amounts during the war and in smaller amounts before the war. In 
1922, however, the Commerce Department adopted a new classifica- 
tion. Coal-tar dyes were grouped under coal-tar finished products 
and were divided into (1) color lakes and (2) other colors, dyes, and 
stains. For the first time the quantity, as well as the value of the 
exports, were published. Table 11 shows by months the total exports 



CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921. 49 

of dyes from the United States, and this same information is shown 
graphically in Figure 2. The countries to which dyes are exported 
from the United States are shown in detail in Part V, appendix. 

The combined value of the exports of aniline dyes and all other 
dyes for 1919, was $15,728,499, compared with $29,823,591, for 1920. 
In 1921 this figure showed a sharp decline to $6,270,155. In other 
words, the exports of domestic dyes for 1921 showed a decrease of 79 
per cent, as compared with the exports of 1920. The total exports for 
1917, one of the early years when the domestic industry was first 
expanding from its small pre-war stage, were valued at $7,548,963, 
which exceeds the exports of 1921. The total exports of aniline dyes 
for 1920 were valued at $22,450,480, compared with an export of 
$5,067,000 for 1921. The greatest export for any month in 1921 of 
aniline dyes was in January, $943,595, whereas the smallest export 
was for December, amounting to $254,878. 

The combined value of the total exports of color lakes and other 
colors, dyes and stains of coal-tar origin for the first three months in 
1922, was $973,316 compared with $2,432,764 for aniline dyes and all 
other dyes and dyestuft's for the first three months of the previous 
year. The annual export at the rate for the first three months of 1922 
would equal in value about $3,900,000. In quantity the exports 
during the first three months of 1922 totaled 1,387,594 pounds. This 
great reduction in our export trade may be attributed in part to the 
general business depression, but the chief cause was the appearance 
of German dyes in the principal foreign markets, such as China, India, 
and Japan (see Dye imports of China, Japan, and India, p. 55). 

As far back as 1919 the Tariff Commission pointed out in its Census 
of Dyes and Coal-Tar Chemicals for that year that any deductions as 
to the competitive strength of the domestic industry based on the 
large exports of 1919 and 1920 were not warranted, as the domestic 
producers during that period met little competition in foreign mar- 
kets in German colors. Subsequent developments have borne out the 
accuracy of that statement, as indicated bv the rapid decline in ex- 
ports during 1921 and 1922. 

Table 11. — Domestic exports of dyes, by months, July, 1917, to March, 1922. 



Month. 



January 

February. . 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September . 

October 

November. 
December. . 



Total 3,502,218 



1917 



1918 



Aniline 



All other 
dyes.i 



8497, 106 
304, 768 
371,56.5 
623, .586 
532, 725 
1, 122, 468 



Total of 
aniline and 
all other. 



Aniline 
dyes. 



$576, 579 
644, 949 
757, 467 
695, 489 
73:^., 008 
639, 253 



$1,073,685 
949, 717 
1, 129, 032 
1, 319, 075 
1,31.5,733 
1,761,721 



$893, 760 
441,704 
552, 2a5 
453, 326 
6:^6, 204 
828, 801 
753, 236 
695, 472 
528, 207 
816, 377 

, 377, 623 
662,616 



4,046,745 



7,548,963 i 8,629,611 

I 



All other 
dyes.i 



$688, 958 
297, 278 
526, 400 
479, 428 
447, 898 
797, 403 
486,690 
5.30, 133 
449, 295 
532, 841 
757, 488 
643, 097 



Total of 
aniline and 
all other. 



6,636,909 



$1,582,718 

738, 982 

1,078,685 

932,754 

1, 074, 102 

1, 626, 204 

1, 239, 926 

1,22.5,605 

977, 502 

1,349,218 

2,135,111 

l,3a5,713 



15, 266, 520 



1 Commerce and Navigation lists under domestic exports of "dyes and dyestuffs"— "analine dye," 
"logwood extract," and "ali other dyes and dyestuffs. Under this latter designation may be included 
both natural and coal-tar dyes. However, s nee logwood extract — shown separately— is the most im- 
portant natural dye exported from the United States, it may be assumed that a considerable portion of 
the exports imder "all other dyes and dyestuffs" are coal-tar dyes. 



50 CENSUS or DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921. 
Table 11. — Domestic exports of dyes, by months, July, 1917, to March, 1922 — Contd. 



Month. 



1919 



Aniline 
dyes. 



January 

February. . 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September. 

October 

November. 
December. . 

Total 



$1,405,017 

1, 231, 355 

492, 291 

777, 123 

585, 970 

858, 661 

574,274 

761, 009 

785, 497 

1, 037, 708 

887, 710 

1,327,456 



10,724.071 



All other 
dyes.i 



$755, 382 
617, 050 
278, 591 
359, 512 
239, 744 
475,571 
267, 425 
350, 491 
557, 005 
453, 390 
300, 041 
350,226 



5, 004, 428 



Total of 

aniline and 

all other. 



$2, 160, 399 
1, 848, 405 

770,882 
1,136,635 

825, 714 
1, 334, 232 

841,699 
1,111,500 
1,342,502 
1, 491, 098 
1, 187, 751 
1,677,682 



15,728,499 



Aniline 
dyes. 



$917, 574 
1,850,662 
2,648,615 
1, 829, 771 
2,180,606 
2, 389, 515 
1,770,780 
1, 151, 196 
2,114,915 
1, 802, 142 
2,006,534 
1,788,170 



22, 450, 480 



All other 
dyes.i 



$372,468 
379, 825 
850,695 
891, 467 
817, 713 
1, 239, 191 
947,411 
623, 181 
551, 113 
334, 167 
211,465 
154,415 



7,373,111 



Total of 
aniline and 
all other. 



$1, 290, 042 
2, 230, 487 
3,499,310 
2, 721, 238 
2, 998, 319 
3,628,706 
2, 718, 191 
1, 774, 377 
2,666,028 
2,136,309 
2,217,999 
1, 942, 585 



29,823,591 



Month. 



Aniline 
dyes. 



All other 
dyes.i 



Total 

aniline and 

other. 



1921 

January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 

Total 



$943, 595 
397, 123 
574, 969 
305, 760 
278, 331 
444,273 
310, 357 
513, 012 
322, 477 
349,981 
372, 244 
254, 878 



$349, 114 
72, 641 
95, 322 
59, 250 
91,753 
81,477 
65, 626 
70, 663 
70, 228 
73,706 
78,703 
94,656 



$1,292,709 
. 469,764 
670, 291 
365, 010 
370, 084 
525,750 
375, 983 
583,675 
392, 705 
423,687 
450, 947 
349. 534 



5,067,000 



1, 203, 139 



6, 270, 139 



Month. 



Coal-tar dyes. 



Color lakes. 



Quantity, 



Value. 



Other colors, dyes, 
and stains. 



Quantity. 



Value. 



Total color lakes 
and other. 



Quantity. 



Value. 



1922.2 

January 

February 

March 

Total 



Pounds. 
5,059 
6,796 
3,612 



$4, 188 
5,124 
3,162 



Pounds. 
364,971 
298, 364 
708, 792 



$325, 048 
230, 544 
405, 250 



Pounds. 
370,030 
305, 160 
712,404 



$329, 236 
235, 668 
408, 412 



15,467 I 12,474 



1, 372, 127 



960, 842 



1, 387, 594 



973, 316 



1 Commerce and Navigation lists under domestic exports of "dyes and dyestuffs"— "aniline dyes," 
"logwood extract," and "all other dyes and dyestuffs." Under this latter designation may be included 
both natural and coal-tar dyes. However, since logwood extract — shown separately — is tlie most im- 
portant natural dye exported from the United States, it may be assumed that a considerable portion of 
the exports under "all other dyes and dyestuffs" are coal-tar dyes. 

2 In 1922 a now classification was adopted grouping these products under "Color lakes" and "Other 
colors, dyes and stains." 

Exports from, Germany. — The official statistics of the German Gov- 
ernment show that the total exports of coal-tar dyes for 1913 were 
239,598,133 pounds, with a value of $51,640,050. This export was 
subdivided as follows: (1) Aniline and other coal-tar dyes, 141,- 
729,325 pounds, valued at $33,814,802; (2) alizarin, alizarin dyes, 
and dyes from anthracene, 24,338,784 pounds, valued at $5,134,374; 
and (3) indigo, 73,530,024 pounds, valued at $12,690,874. 



CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921. 51 

Table 12 contains the exports of German dyes in 1913 by countries. 
An examination of this table shows that of the total exports of 
indigo, amounting to 73,530,024 pounds, China alone consumed 
47,090,256 pounds, with a value of S6, 396, 964. This quantity is 
larger than the total consumption of all other nations, as China has 
been one of the largest consumers of indigo for many years. The 
United States ranked second in quantity of indigo imported from 
Germany, with a total of 7,630,121 pounds; Austria was third, receiv- 
ing 3,000,461 pounds in 1913. The quantity imported to Great 
Britain was 2,601,428 pounds; to Dutch East Indies and other pos- 
sessions, 2,103,188 pounds. Other nations receiving between one 
and two million pounds were Japan, Italy, and the Netherlands. 
Russia and Egypt both received slightly less than 1,000,000 pounds, 
followed by France and the British Indies and other possessions, 
which received slightly more than 700,000 pounds of indigo. 

The total exports in 1913 of all alizarin, alizarin dyes, and dyes 
from anthracene was 24,338,784 pounds. The British Indies and other 
possessions were the largest consumers of this export, receiving 
5,866,441 pounds. Great Britain ranked second, with 5,857,622 
pounds, closely followed by the United States with a total of 5,855,418 
pounds. The Dutch East Indies and other possessions received 
1,298,509 pounds and Austria-Hungary 1,192,689 pounds. Russia 
and the Netherlands each received somewhat over 700,000 pounds, 
and Italy and France between four and five hundred thousand 
pounds each. 

The total exports of aniline and other coal-tar dyes from Germany 
in 1913 was 141,729,325 pounds with a value of $33,814,802. The 
United States ranked first in quantity of this group of dyes received 
from Germany, with a total of 30,544,733 pounds, valued at S6, 717, 074; 
Great Britain ranked second, with 24,285,874 pounds, valued at 
$5,352,144; China was third, receiving 18,653,121 pounds, valued at 
$4,536,994; Austria-Hungary received 12,740,383 pounds; Italy, 
the British Indies, and Japan received from seven and seven-tenths 
to nine million pounds each. France, the Netherlands, and Russia 
each received from two and four-tenths million to slightly more than 
3,000,000 pounds. Sweden, Switzerland, Spain, and Mexico each 
received from one and two-tenths to one and nine-tenths million 

f)ounds. Turkey, Canada, Norway, Denmark, and Finland consumed 
rom one-half to one million pounds each. 

China, with an import of all coal-tar dyes from Germany amount- 
ing to 65,743,377 pounds, Avas the largest individual consumer. 
The United States was second, receiving in that year 44,030,272 
pounds. Great Britain received 32,744,924 pounds; Austria-Hungary, 
16,933,533 pounds; the British Indies and other possessions, 
15,008,917 pounds; and Japan, 9,539,305 pounds. 

In 1920 Germany exported 56,000,000 pounds of dyes,^ less than 
one-fourth of her 1913 export. She received for this quantitv 195,- 
000,000 gold marks as against 217,000,000 gold marks for her 1913 
export, which totaled slightly less than 240,000,000 pounds. In 
other words, Germany received in 1920 for all dyes exported 90 per 
cent of the gold marks received for dyes exported in 1913, notwith- 
standing the fact that in 1920 she exported less than one-fourtli the 
quantity of dyes exported in 1913. 

' Verein zur Wahrung der Interessen der Chemischen Industrie, p. 37. 



5^2 CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921. 
DYE IMPORTS OF CHINA, JAPAN, AND INDIA. 

A comparison of the dye imports of India and Japan in the year 
1913 and the period 1919 to 1921 shows that Germany has re- 
covered a large part of her former trade in coal-tar colors to India 
and Japan, and that the export trade in dyes from the United States 
to these countries, which reached its maximum in 1920, shows a 
large reduction in 1921. 

China. — The total direct gross import of synthetic indigo by 
China in 1913 was 42,646,256 pounds, valued at $7,038,137. The 
official statistics of the Chinese Government show that of this quan- 
tity, 13,634,796 pounds came from Germany and 24,681,060 pounds 
from Belgium, the latter probably being of German manufacture; 
2,358,399 pounds of indigo came from France, the quantity from all 
other countries totaling 1,930,266 pounds. In 1919 China had a 
direct gross import of 2,512,399 pounds of indigo, with a value of 
$1,828,925. Of this quantity 1,246,400 pounds came from France; 
635,467 pounds from the United States. In 1920 the total direct 
gross import of indigo by China amounted to 20,813,328 pounds. 
Of this total, the statistical report shows that 5,979,332 pounds came 
from the United States, 3,334,532 pounds from Switzerland, and 
2,917,199 pounds from France. The quantity from Germany was 
2,876,666 pounds compared with no import from that country 
in the previous year. The import statistics of China are not avail- 
able for 1921. It is understood, however, that the import of indigo 
from the United States in 1921 was greatly reduced. 

According to official statistics of China, the direct gross import of 
aniline dyes in 1913 was valued at $3,961,962. Of this amount the 
value of the imports from Germany was $1,596,693, and $1,502,975 
from Belgium. The latter were undoubtedly of German manufacture. 
In 1919 the direct gross imports were valued at $4,548,401; the value 
of the aniline dyes received from the United States was $2,318,090 
and from Japan, $1,145,646. In 1920 the value of direct gross 
imports was $9,900,599. Of this amount the value of aniline dyes 
received from the United States was $2,543,185; from Germany, 
$1,519,967; from Japan, $1,352,793; while Belgium, the Netherlands, 
and Hongkong each furnished aniline dyes valued at slightly in excess 
of $1,000,000. The 1920 figures show the appearance of dyes direct 
from Germany for the first time in the post-war period. The 1920 
figure for the United States was the maximum export of this country. 
Official statistics for China for 1921 are not available, but it is under- 
stood that the value of dyes received from the United States, as was 
reported in the case of indigo, shows a marked decline. 

Japan. — The imports of aniline dyes in 1913, as shown by the 
Japanese official statistics, were 9,755,160 pounds, with a value of 
$2,100,255. Of this quantity 8,600,252 pounds came from Germany, 
while Switzerland furnished 663,977 pounds and Great Britain 
178,674 pounds. In 1919, the total imports of coal-tar dyes by 
Japan were 2,774,830 pounds, valued at $5,463,381. The United 
States led in the countries furnishing these imports, with a total of 
2,070,173 pounds, valued at $4,140,875, followed by Switzerland with 
454,368 pounds. The quantity furnished by Germany in that year 
was 47,781 pounds. In 1920 total imports of coal-tar dyes were 
4,451,867 pounds with a value of $7,763,214. Of this total 2,973,361 



CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921. 53 

pounds, valued at $5,153,858, came from the United States, while 
imports from Germany, totaling 779,980 pounds, showed a large 
increase in the quantity supplied over that of 1919. The 1921 
imports of Japan of coal-tar dyes showed a noteworthy change in the 
countries of origin. The total quantity imported was 5,587,881 
pounds, valued at S6, 488, 681. Germany led in quantity supplied 
with a total of 3,990,232 pounds, valued at $4,636,871. The quantity 
of dyes from the United States was 872,845 pounds, a large decrease 
from that of 1920, when this country supplied 2,973,361 pounds to 
Japan. 

India. — The official statistics of India show that the total quantity 
of dyes obtained from coal tar, not including indigo, imported during 
1913 was 17,784,897 pounds, valued at $3,676,159. Germany supplied 
13,270,694 pounds; Belgium, 1,859,091 pounds; and the United 
Kingdom, 1,320,005 pounds. No imports were shown of dyes from 
the United States. The total of all other countries was 440,302 
pounds. 

In 1919, the total imports of dyes, obtained from coal tar (not 
including indigo), was 5,053,861 pounds, with a value of $5,394,221. 
The United States furnished 1,036,172 pounds, valued at $1,731,445; 
United Kingdom, 3,522,531 pounds, with a value of $2,374,322. No 
imports from Germany were shown for 1919. 

In 1920 the total imports of coal-tar dyes (not including indigo) 
were 10,283,762 pounds, valued at $10,134,645. Of this quantity, 
3,506,405 pounds, valued at $2,596,238, came from the United King- 
dom. The United States furnished 2,832,554 pounds, valued at 
$3,368,715, the largest amount ever imported by India from the 
United States. German dyes appeared in the Indian market during 
that year, the total quantity amounting to 2,687,510 poimds, with a 
value of $2,650,522. The ^imports of Swiss dyes totaled 424,930 
pounds. In 1921 a significant change took place in the countries of 
origin of the dyes imported by India. The total quantity of imports 
in that year was 10,623,860 pounds. Germany led in the quantity 
supplied with a total of 4,770,288 pounds, nearly double the quantity 
received from that country in 1920, and 45 per cent of the total 
imports in 1921. The United Kingdom furnished 3,264,012 pounds. 
The United States supplied 897,570 pounds, a large decrease from 
that of 1920, when this country furnished India with 2,832,554 
pounds. It is thus seen that Germany in 1921 supplied 45 per cent of 
the dyes imported into India, compared with 74 per cent in 1913, and 
that the large export trade of the United States to India, which 
reached its maximum in 1920, declined rapidly in 1921. 



54 CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICAI^^ 1921. 

Table 12. — German exports andimports of dyes, ^ 1913. 
ANILINE AND OTHER COAL-TAR DYES NOT SPECIALLY MENTIONED. 



Metric 
tons. 



Pounds. 



Thousand 
marks. 



Value. 



Imports, total , 

Great Britain 

Switzerland 

Exports, total 

Belgium 

Denmark 

France 

Great Britain 

Italy 

Netherlands 

Norway 

Austria-Hungary 

Portugal 

Russia 

Finland 

Sweden 

Switzerland 

Spain 

Turkey 

British Indies 

China 

Japan 

Brazil 

Canada 

Mexico 

United States 



2,577 



5, 681, 254 



5,926 



223 
1,725 



491,626 
3, 802, 935 



513 
3,968 



64, 288 



141, 729, 325 



142, 079 



2,509 

237 

1,382 

11,016 

4,097 

1, 365 

270 

5,779 

418 

1,098 

236 

901 

784 

656 

437 

3,823 

8,461 

3,506 

627 

443 

543 

13, 855 



5, 531, 341 

522, 490 

3, 046, 757 

24, 285, 874 

9, 032, 246 

3, 009, 279 

595, 242 
12, 740, 383 

921, 523 
2, 420, 651 

520, 286 
1, 986, 345 
1, 728, 406 
1,446,218 

963, 410 

8, 428, 186 

18, 653, 121 

7, 729, 328 

1,382,284 

976, 638 

1,197,098 

30, 544, 733 



5,915 

560 

4,347 

22, 488 

9,083 

2,786 

633 

12, 494 

1,000 

3,516 

584 
2,002 
2,126 
1,770 

916 

8,154 

19, 063 

8,417 

1,682 

809 

1,209 

28,223 



ALIZARIN, ALIZARIN DYES AND DYES FROM ANTHRACENE. 



Imports, total 

Exports, total 

France 

Great Britain 

Italy 

Netherlands 

Austria-Hungary 

Russia ". 

British Indies and other possessions 

Netherlands Indies and other possessions 
United States 



603 
11,040 



222 

2, 657 

189 

325 

541 

329 

2,661 

589 

2,656 



1, 329, 374 
24, 338, 784 



489, 421 
5,857,622 

416, 669 

716. 495 
1, 192; 689 

725,313 
5, 866, 441 
1, 298, 509 
5, 855, 418 



754 
21,573 



780 
4,142 
522 
523 
1,426 
1, 837 
3,822 
1,026 
5,463 



INDIGO. 



Imports, total 

Exports, total 

France 

Great Britain 

Italy 

Netherlands , 

Austria-Hungary , 

Russia , 

Egypt 

l^ritish Indies and other possessions , 

China 

J apan , 

Netherlands Indies and other possessions 
United States , 



58 


127, 867 


389 


33,353 


73,530,024 


63, 323 


323 


712,086 


1,280 


1,180 


2,601,428 


1,592 


662 


1, 459, 445 


1,033 


611 


1,347,011 


850 


1,361 


3, 000, 461 


2,007 


434 


956, 796 


2,829 


443 


976, 638 


857 


324 


714, 290 


1,253 


21,360 


47, 090, 256 


26, 878 


821 


1,809,977 


5,732 


954 


2, 103, 188 


1,458 


3,461 


7, 630, 121 


4,209 



' Statisciches Jahrbuch fur das Deutsche Reich. 



CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS^ 1921. 55 
Table 13. — Dyes, colors, and paints: Indigo, artificial — Imports into China. 



From- 



1913 



Quantity. Value 



1919 



1920 



Quantity. Value. ! Quantity. Value, 



$6,156 
2,557,003 



24, 681, 060 
2,358,399 



3,656,631 
423,393 



Great Britain 40, 000 

Germany 13, 634, 796 

Netherlands 

Belgium 

France 

Switzerland 

Japan 

United States 

All other 1,930,266 394,687 

Direct gross imports 42,646,256 7,038,137 

Reexported abroad I 36,267 I .5,932 

Total net imports I 42, 609, 989 7, 032, 205 



300, 800 



SI 78, 205 



4, 000 
1,246,400 



11,632 
895,028 



1,733 



266 



263, 867 

635,467 

61, 867 

2,512,399 

6,400 

2,505,999 



213, 2.55 

474, 497 

56, 308 

1,828,925 

4,871 

1,824,054 



1,476,800 

2,876,666 

1,602,666 

1, 765, 866 

2,917,199 

3,334,532 

198, 267 

5,979,332 

662, 000 

20,81.3,328 

61,200 

20, 752, 128 



$1,147,238 

3, 242, 123 

1,406,532 

1,455,312 

2,292,991 

3, 460, 210 

139, 706 

5,543,398 

340,573 

19,028,083 

48,055 

18,980,028 



Table 14. — Dyes, colors, and paints — Aniline- 


-Imports into China 




From— 


1913 


1919 


1920 


Hongkong 


$398,084 


$321,029 


$1 002 843 


Dutch Indies 


' 408' 611 


Great Britain 


191, 126 
1,596,693 

175, 829 

1,502,975 

47,560 


51,441 


402 482 


Germany 


1,519 967 


Netherlands 




1, 022, 234 


Belgium 


50, 040 
439,613 


1 039 256 


France 


' 43*579 


Switzerland 


482' 542 


Japan 


11,493 


1,145,646 

182,328 

2, 318, 090 

40, 214 


1 352 793 


Canada 


61 143 


United States 


479. 
37,723 


2, 543, 185 


All other 


21 964 






Direct gross Imports 


3,961,962 
18, 633 


4,548,401 
318, 746 


9 900 599 


Reexported abroad 


315 038 






Total net imports 


3,943,329 


4,229,655 


9,585,561 







Table 15. — Imports of dyes into India. 



1913 



1919 



Quantity 



Value. jQuantity, 



Value. 



1920 



Quantity, 



Value. 



1921 



Quantity . 



Total of dyes obtained from coal 
tar (not including indigo;: 
From— 

I United Kingdom 
Germany 
Belgium 
Switzerland 
United Stat&s 

Other countries 



Total 

Indigo, synthetic . 



Pounds 
1,320,005 
13,270,694 
1,859,091 
894, 805 



I Pounds. 
$180,990 3,522,531 

2,792,875i 

419,935 
186,124 



$2,374,322 



440,302 



96,235 



27,787 
452,968 
1,036,172 
14, 403 



41,651 
1,197,070 
1,731,455 

49,723 



3, 506, 405 $2, 596, 238 
2,687,5101 2,650,522 
275,1411 346,168 



424,930 

2, 832, 554 

557, 222 



17,784,897 
731,696 



3,676,159! 5,053,861 
319,0141 14,336 



5,394,221 
11,510 



10,283,762 
147,728 



690, 545 
3,368,715 
482,457 



Pounds. 

3,264,012 

4,770,288 
380, 408 
293,073 
897, 570 

1,018,509 



10,1.34,645 
119,832 



10,623,860 
149, 520 



Table 16. — Coal-tar dyes — imports into Japan. 



From- 



1913 1 



1919 



1920 



1921 



Great Britain... 

France 

Germany 

Switzerland 

United States... 
Other countries . 



Pounds. 
178,674 



J, 600, 252 
663,977 



312,357 



Total. 



9,755,260 



$36,624 



1,854,528 
146,723 



62,380 



Pounds. 

123,615 

61,990 

47,781 

454,368 

2,070,173 

16,903 



2,100,255 2,774,830 

I 



$274,672 
116,760 
110,265 
769, 787 
4, 140, 875 
51,022 



Pounds. 
252, 247 
182,951 
779,980 
129,091 
2,973,361 
134,237 



5,463,-381 



4,451,867 



Pounds. 

$384,801 93,721 

345,016 88,154 

1,327,186 3,990,232 

273,499 ; 173,991 

.5,15:3,858 i 872,845 

278,854 368,938 



7,763,214 5,587,881 



$144,211 
116,968 
4,636,871 
234, 561 
874,087 
481,983 



6,488,681 



1 Aniline dyes. 



56 census of dyes and synthetic organic chemicals, 1921. 

Production of Dyes in Germany. 

Beginning with February, 1920, detailed statements of one-quarter 
of the monthly production (this portion is required to be reserved for 
optional purchases of the allied and associated Governments by the 
peace treaty. Annex VI, Part II) of dyes in Germany were made to 
the Reparations Commission. Copies of these monthly statements 
from February, 1920, to March, 1922, inclusive, have been received 
by the Department of State, which has given permission for their 
publication by the Tariff Commission. A summary of these reserve 
stocks, containing the monthly reserve for each class of dyes, accord- 
ing to application, is shown in Table 17. 

Production of dyes in Germany during the first year after the 
signing of the armistice was practically negligible compared with the 
pre-war output, when her exports (in 1913) were nearly 240,000,000 
pounds. During February, 1920, the quantity of dyes reserved by 
German plants for the Allies totaled 876,449 pounds, indicating a 
total output of over three and one-half million pounds for that month. 
A progressive increase is shown for each following month, reaching a 
maximum output of 3,026,247 pounds in August, 1920, which cor- 
responds to a total output of over 12,000,000 pounds monthly. Dur- 
ing the remainder of 1920 the fluctuation varied from a minimum of 
2,674,710 pounds in December to a maximum of 2,978,806 pounds 
in November. The total quantity of dyes reserved by the German 
plants from February to December, 1920, inclusive, was 25,842,201 
pounds, which corresponds to a production of 103,368,804 pounds. 

The quarterly reserve production for 1921 amounted to 29,110,554 
pounds, which corresponds to a total production of 116,442,216 pounds 
for that year by the German dye plants. During 1921 the quarterly 
monthly production reserve for the allied associated Governments 
varied from a minimum of 1,976,094 pounds in February to a maxi- 
mum of 3,494,165 pounds in December. 

In 1922 the production for each of the first three months showed a 
considerable increase compared with the months of 1921, the maxi- 
mum being for March, 1922, the last month for which data are avail- 
able. During March the quarterly production amounted to 4,001,162 
pounds, which is the highest for any month since February, 1920, 
the first month for which production was reported. The annual pro- 
duction at the March rate would amount to 192,055,776 pounds. 

The total exports of coal-tar dyes from Germany in 1913 were 
239,598,133 pounds. The domestic consumption of dyes in that year 
is estimated to be 55,000,000 pounds,^ which would give a total pro- 
duction of dyes in Germany of approximately 295,000,000 pounds. 
The March rate is accordingly about 65 per cent of her pre-war out- 
put (1913). 

Before the war Germany dominated the world's markets, producing 
three-fourths of the total dyes made. Over one-half of the dyes 
made outside of Germany were made from primary or intermediate 
products of German origin. Switzerland, which held second place, 
was entirely dependent on Germany for all materials. In England 
and France the dye factories were to a large extent owned and oper- 
ated by German dye manufacturers. They were built in these coun- 
tries on account oi the working clauses in the patent laws. 

1 Verein eur Wabrung der lateressen der Chemischen Industrie, p. 37. 



CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC OEGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921. 57 



An examination of the March, 1922, production list shows that at 
the rate of the March production the total annual output would be 
for Alizarin, 10,071,504 pounds, compared with 6,916,592 pounds in 
1921; for Indigo (paste), 39,458,208 pounds, compared with 24,589,- 
144 pounds for the year 1921. The output of Indanthrene Blue 
G C D for 1921 showed a decrease from that of 1920, when 374,580 
pounds were reported, whereas at the March, 1922, rate of produc- 
tion the output would total only 72,384 pounds. The output at the 
March, 1922, rate of production of all other dyes would total 142,- 
453,680 pounds, compared with 84,691,668 pounds for 1921. 

An examination, however, of the production figures of Germany 
in 1920 and in 1913 indicates rapid strides toward a high output of 
colors which compare somewhat favorabl}^ with her pre-war produc- 
tion, although due to government restrictions in England, France, 
Italy, and the United States for the free import of all colors, she has 
lost a part of her trade to these countries. She has regained since 
1920, as previously explained, a considerable part of her export trade 
to the large markets of the east, namely, India, China, and Japan. 

Table 17. — One-quarter of production in German dye plants^ reserved for purchase of 
Allied and Associated Governments, February, 1920, to March, 1922. 

[Pounds.] 



Group. 


Classification of colors. 


1920 


February. 


March. 


April. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


I 


Alizarin red 


28,629 
33,203 

15, 346 
3,135 

17,240 
262, 123 

63,402 

149,827 

61,313 

19, 912 


100,347 
^24, 258 

9, 361 


79,070 
306,371 

19, 577 
3,307 

40,622 
400,221 

54, 586 
265,094 

95,605 

72, 289 
235, 423 
156, 163 

85 527 


124,401 
338, 318 

62, 183 
9,489 

54, 643 
451, 138 

44,687 
360, 192 
132, 287 
106, 555 
190,515 
150, 085 

SQ 672 


241,194 206,251 


11 


Indigo paste 


291,294 j 543,747 


in 

IV 


Vat colors, except Indan- 
threne Blue GOD 

Indanthrene Blue GOD.. . . 

AUzarin colors other than 
red 


41, 786 72, 595 
11,329 14,420 


V 


22, 862 
346,301 

51, 495 
202, 819 

91, 257 

44, 374 
149, 452 
164,229 

12, 599 


92,022 63,411 


VI 

VII 


Direct colors for cotton 

Direct colors for diazotiza- 
tion 


541,534 I 694,700 
88,131 126,983 


VIII 

IX 

X 


Acid colors for wool 

Chrome colors for wool 

Basic colors 


419,842 j 512,594 
182,647 1 195,246 
124,035 i 126,723 


XI 
XII 


Sulphur colors 

Lake colors 


163,822 

56, 958 

1,539 


305,979 1 323,170 
170, 742 136, 196 


XIII 


■ Intermediate products 














Total 


876, 449 


1,319,354 


1,813,855 1 2,114,165 


2,510,535 


3,016,045 



Group. 



I 

II 
III 

IV 
V 

VI 
VII 

VIII 

IX 

X 

XI 

XII 



Classification of colors. 



AUzarin red 

Indigo paste 

Vat colors, except Indan- 
threne Blue GOD 

Indanthrene Blue GCD 

Alizarin colors other than 
red 

Direct colors for cotton 

Direct colors for diazotiza- 
tion 

Acid colors for wool 

Chrome colors for wool 

Basic colors 

Sulphur colors 

Lake colors 

Total 



August. 



210,328 
777, 774 

54,828 
9,370 

69,612 
573, 004 

113,973 
469, 589 
200, 504 
144, 595 
291,8:32 
110, 838 



3,026,247 



Septem- 



198, 632 
642, 729 

62,608 
16,043 

88,658 
593,694 

95, 439 
492,647 
208, 760 
163,661 
285, 804 

73, 565 



October. 



215, 028 
426, 599 

84, 366 
1,131 

58, 440 
666, 239 

117,582 
487, 131 
216, 057 
151, 145 
202, 744 
92,690 



2,922,240 I 2,779,132 



Novem- 
ber. 



Decem- 
ber. 



235, 775 
635,419 

88,410 
3,554 

59,698 
648, 916 

117,653 
518,041 
163, 304 
139, 805 
276,510 
91,661 



2, 978, 806 



191,066 

37o, 803 

66, 938 
21, 867 

42,306 
600,257 

103, 409 
486, 2.58 
224, 272 
164, 207 
320, 659 
79, 668 



Total 

for 11 

months, 

1920. 



1,8.30,721 
4, 493, 515 

578, 028 
93,645 

609, 514 
5, 778, 166 

977, 320 
4, .36 '.,034 
1,771,252 
1,257,301 
2,805,910 
1, 282, 795 



25,842,201 



1 Peace Treaty, Annex VI, Part II. 
541—22 5 



58 CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921. 



Table 17. — One-quarter of production in German dye plants ^ reserved for purchase of 
Allied and Associated Governments, February, 1920, to March, 1922 — Continued. 

[Pounds.l 



Classification of colors. 



Alizarin red 

Indigo paste 

Vat colors, except Indanthrene Blue GCD. 

Indanthrene Blue GCD 

AUzariu colors other than red 

Direct colors for cotton 

Direct colors for diaxotization 

Acid colors for wool 

Chrome colors for wool 

Basic colors 

Sulphur colors 

Lake colors 



Total 2, 669, 096 



1921 



January. February. March 



137,999 
630, 621 

50, 150 
1,759 

43, 563 
512,056 
132, 239 
479,602 
154,342 
128, 962 
285, 498 
112, 305 



■35,077 
529,970 

69,754 
2,811 

12, 560 
350, 355 

52,589 
358, 821 

98, 764 
159, 426 
207, 532 

98, 435 



1, 976, 094 



74, 103 
608, 849 

53, 797 
2,917 

22,090 
421, 938 

52,128 
390, 547 
106, 751 
153, 423 
204,609 

91, 936 



2, 183, 088 



1921 



Classification of colors. 



April. 



Alizarin red 

Indigo paste 

Vat colors, except Indan- 
threne Blue GCD 

Indanthrene Blue GCD . . . , 

Alizarin colors other than 
red 

Direct colors for cotton 

Direct colors for diazotiza- 
tion 

Acid colors for wool 

Chrome colors for wool 

Basic colors 

Sulphur colors : 

Lake colors 



Total. 



88,063 
366,405 

86,949 
22370 

18,322 
423,063 

63, 268 
430, 140 
131,205 
155,415 
252, 771 

76, 773 



2,094,744 



May. 



91,797 
556,210 

110,001 
2,037 

16, 698 
410, 545 

47, 668 
390, 589 
120,986 
136, 478 
255, 745 

71,431 



2, 210, 185 



June. 



124,953 

474,174 

97, 483 
9,793 

32, 491 
366, 588 

72,426 
401,991 

95,631 
124,919 
277, 676 

93,435 



2, 171, 463 



July. 



120,744 
552,056 

86,550 
8,415 

35,904 
379, 143 

48,618 
365,609 
100,351 
101, 180 
331, 292 

63, 534 



2,193,396 



August. September. 



200, 817 
526, 110 

95, 547 
11,424 

25,335 
472, 106 

61,705 
353, 545 
110,658 
100,968 
308, 794 

45,543 



2,312,552 



166,077 
411,325 

84,802 
4,575 

23,325 
466, 577 

83,819 
381,451 
153, 046 

76,960 
389, 989 

62, 071 



2,304,017 



Group. 


Classification of colors. 


1921 ._ 


Total. 


October. 


November. 


December. 


I 


Alizarin red 


141, 773 
425, 475 

89, 985 
8,212 

16, 219 
455, 951 
105, 589 
404, 546 
148, 696 
106, 634 
480, 305 

65, 739 


266,741 
394, 235 

74, 088 
4,685 

26, 524 
643,525 
114, 454 
538, 526 
207,312 
133,217 
534,970 
114,353 


281, 104 
671, 856 

93, 473 
2,205 

26,978 
624, 433 
128,356 
573, 456 
245,473 
148,028 
573, 853 
124, 950 


1, 729, 148 


II 


Indigo paste 


6, 147, 286 


III 


Vat colors, except Indanthrene Blue GCD 


992, 579 


IV 


Indanthrene Blue GCD 


61, 203 


V 


Alizarin colors other than red 


300, 009 


VI 


Direct colors for cotton 


5, 526, 280 


VII 


Direct colors for diazotization 


962, 859 


VIII 


Acid colors for wool 


5, 068, 823 


IX 


Chrome colors for wool 


1,673,215 


X 


Basic col ors 


1,525,610 


XI 


Sulphur colors 


4,103,034 
1, 020, 508 


XII 


Lake colors 




Total 






2, 449, 124 


3,052,630 


3,494,165 


29, 110, 554 









Classification of colors. 



1922 



January. 



February. 



March. 



Alizarin red 

Indigo paste 

Vat colors, except Indanthrene Blue GCD 

Indanthrene blue GCD 

Alizarin colors other than red 

Direct colors for cotton 

Direct colors for diazotization 

Acid colors for wool 

Chrome colors for wool 

Basic colors 

Sulphur colors 

Lake colors 

Total 



332, 734 
634, 808 

76, 340 
2, 205 

33, 336 
596.269 
132, 655 
601, 208 
238, 073 
135, 757 
525, 331 
1.33, 063 



254, 168 
703, 808 
103, 274 



32, 388 
581, 133 
105, 777 
570, 828 
232, 484 
144, 952 
573, 325 
125, 005 



3, 427, 142 



209,823 
822,046 
119,073 
1,508 
25,831 
729, 861 
113,116 
666, 860 
292, 208 
189,797 
706,887 
124,151 



4, 001, 162 



> Peace Treaty, Annex VI, Part II. 



census of dyes and synthetic organic chemicals, 1921. 59 

Other Finished Coal-Tar Products, 
color lakes. 

Description. — A color lake is an insoluble color pigment which 
consists of a precipitating agent, the coloring matter (a coal-tar dye) , 
and a carrier (the base). The desired properties of a color lake 
include good coloring power, easy workability, brightness, and fast- 
ness to weather, light, alkali, and acids. The precipitating agents 
used for coal-tar colors include barium chloride, lead salts, aluminium 
hydroxide, and tannin or tannin-tartar emetic. Among the more 
important carriers are aluminium hydroxide, zinc white, lithopone, 
barytes, whiting, China clay, and certam native clays, and ochers. 
The principal requirements of a carrier are (1) ready reduction to a 
finely divided state, and (2) absence of any deleterious effect on the 
shade of the finished lake. The coloring matter includes those coal- 
tar dyes known as acid dyes, basic dyes, and mordant dyes, as well as 
certain azo dyes which are produced directly on the carrier. An 
example is the preparation of Para red from the intermediates, 
p-nitroaniline and b-naphthol. Another group of color lakes is made 
by the precipitation of a water-soluble acid dye with the aid of a 
mineral salt to form an insoluble product. 

After precipitation the insoluble lake is filtered, dried, and ground 
with oil, and is then ready for use as a pigment. The color lakes 
included in this group are a class of pigment used for paints, litho- 
graphic inks, artists' colors, walk paper, rubber products, and for 
similar coloring purposes. 

Production. — Total production of color lakes in 1921 amounted 
to 6,152,187 pounds and the quantity of sales was 6,424,612 pounds 
valued at $2,863,189, with an average value per pound of 45 cents. 
This shows a considerable decrease from the output of 1920, which 
was 10,983,538 pounds, valued at $5,871,820, or 53 cents per pound. 

PHOTOGRAPHIC CHEMICALS. 

This class of coal-tar chemicals, owing to theh strong reducing prop- 
erties, is used for developing photographic films, plates, and prints. 
They are popularly known as "developers," and are commonly 
sold under various trade names. The total output of this class in 
1921 was 183,798 pounds, a large reduction from 1920, when 440,759 
pounds were produced. The sales for 1921 were 170,221 pounds 
valued at $248,041. The quantity of output of each individual 
developer can not be published without revealing the output of 
individual manufacturers. The largest developer in quantity pro- 
duced was hydroqumol, followed by metol (methyl-p-aminophenol- 
suKate). The other products were manufactured in relatively 
small quantities. The average price per pound of sales during 
1921 was $1.46 compared with $2.30 per pound in 1920 and $3.16 in 
1919. Production of p-hydroxyphenylglycine was reported for the 
first time in 1921. 

MEDICINALS. 

Descri'ption. — This class includes some of the most important de- 
rivaties of coal tar from the standpoint of our national nealth and 



60 CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921. 

welfare. Chemically, they include a variety of products and are 
used for a wide diversity of medicinal purposes. The development 
and preparation of medicinals constitute one of the most creditable 
accomplishments of the industry, as the highest technical skill is 
required in the manufacture of these products. The total produc- 
tion of medicinals in 1921 was 1,545,917 pounds and the sales were 
1,876,246 pounds, valued at $2,930,324, indicating that a portion was 
withdrawn from stocks carried over from the previous year. The 
1920 production was 5,184,989 pounds, a portion of which consisted 
of disinfectants which are of relatively low value. The 1921 figure 
for this class included . only a small quantity of disinfectants. A 
second cause for reduction in the 1921 production of medicinals was 
the inclusion of methyl salicylate under flavors instead of under 
medicinals, as was the case in 1920. 

Salvarsan, known also as arsphenamine, the hydrochloride of 3- 
diamino-4-dihydroxy-l-arsenobenzene, used for combating syphilis, 
and other protozoan infections, is one of the most important members 
of this group. Its production by four manufacturers in 1921 
amounted to 670 pounds, and sales were 694 pounds, valued at 
$281,841, or $406.11 per pound. The pre-war price of ''606," when 
this country was dependent upon Germany, was $3.50 per ampoule. 
The American-made product has retailed for about 60 to 75 cents 
per ampoule, and the Government has made purchases for less than 
30 cents per ampoule. Neoarsphenamine (3-cliamino-4-dihydroxy-l- 
arsenobenzene methanol sulfoxylate) had a total sales among the 
highest of the medicinals. Production of silver arsphenamine was 
reported for the first time in 1921. 

Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) led all coal-tar medicinals in quantity 
produced, with an output by five firms of 733,510 pounds compared 
with 1,708,436 pounds in 1920. The sales were 935,964 pounds, 
valued at $686,264. The average price per pound has receded from 
$5.49 in 1917 to 73 cents per pound in 1921. Production of sodium 
salicylate by six firms ranked second in quantity manufactured — 
319,350 pounds, and the total sales of 352,250 pounds Vv^ere valued 
at $100,968, or 29 cents per pound. Acetanilide, with a large de- 
crease in production from the previous year, ranked third in quantity 
of output with 207,433 pounds, and the sales were 243,655 pounds, 
valued at $70,053. The average price per pound in 1921 was 29 
cents. 

Other medicinals showing a relatively large production include 
chloramine T (sodium p-toluene sulfochloramid) ; phenolphthalein, 
phenol sulfonates, cinchophen (phenylcinchoninic acid), phenolte- 
trachlorophthalein, acetphenetidin, and benzyl benzoate. 

New medicinals reported in 1921 include salicaine, caft'eine sodium 
benzoate, benzyl succinate, p-cresol benzoate, phenacaine (ethenyl- 
p-diethoxy diphenylamidine hydrochloride), phenyltetrachldrph- 
thalein, potassium hydroxyquinoline sulfate, and hydroxy quinoline. 

The production of salol (phenyl salicylate) showed a very large 
decrease from that of the previous year; the sales for 1921 were 
36,200 pounds, valued at $32,451. 



► 



CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC OEGANIC CHEMICALS, 1D21, 61 
FLAVORS AND PERFL3IE MATERIALS. 

Deficri'ption. — These two classes of coal-tar chemicals have no sharp 
line of demarcation, as many of them are used as both flavors and 
perfumes, and a separate classification is in certain cases somewhat 
arbitrary. They are used as perfume materials for toilet articles, 
soaps, and similar products, and as flavors for food and food products. 

Production. — The total production of flavors in 1921 was 901,245 
pounds, and the sales amounted to 933,662 pounds, valued at 
$1,002,018. In 1920 the production was 166,884 pounds. This very 
large increase in this class taken as a group is due to the large 
quantity of methyl salicylate, 640,943 pounds, reported as a flavor 
instead of a medicinal, as was the case in 1920. The 1921 sales of 
metWl salicylate were 626,718 pounds, valued at S214,391. 

Saccharin, used chiefly as a sugar substitute and as a tobacco 
sweetener, increased in ciuantity of output, with a production of 
188,759 pounds; the sales were 235,241 pounds, valued at S52 1,543. 
Coumarin also showed a large increase over the production of the pre- 
vious year, totaling 52,097 pounds. This product is used both as a 
soap perfume and in the preparation of vanilla extracts. The produc- 
tion of ethyl benzoate was 5,551 pounds, and -of methyl cinnamate, 
2,786 pounds. Two new flavors were reported in 1921, namely, 
isobutylphenyl acetate and phenylpropyl acetate. 

The output of perfume materials wasl 19,335 pounds, a 20 per cent 
increase over that of 1920. Sales of these products totaled 119,691 
pounds, valued at $175,815. Diethyl phthalate, used as a denaturant 
for alcohol in the prefume trade, led in c{uantity of production, and 
value of sales, both showing a very large increase over that of the 
previous year. The production for 1921 was 73,937 pounds and sales 
were 65,360 pounds, valued at $58,660. 

Other important products of this group in quantity of production 
and value of sales include: Benzyl benzoate, amyl salicylate, aubepine 
(anisic aldehyde), benzyl acetate, cinnamic aldehyde, dipheny- 
loxide, phenyiacetic aldehyde,, and methyl benzoate. New perfume 
materials reported in 1921 include amylphenyl acetate, benzyl 
cinnamate, cinnamic alcohol, and phenyl propyl alcohol. 

SYNTHETIC RESINS. 

The manufacture of synthetic resins is a distinctly American dis- 
covery and development and has resulted only from the most careful 
research and engineering skill. These products were first made by 
the condensation of phenol with formaldehyde and ammonia and 
later with hexamethylenetetramine. In recent years cresol has 
been used as a base and also para-coumarone. S3^nthetic resins are 
used as amber substitute in the manufacture of pipe stems, cigarette 
holders, and similar articles. They have a large consumption for 
electric insulating materials and also in the manufacture of varnishes 
and lacquers. In 1921 the total production of. synthetic resins was 
1,643,796 pounds compared with 4,659,680 pounis for the previous 
year. The sales for 1921 totaled 1,674,456 pounds valued at 
$1,352,166. 



k 



62 CENSUS OF DYES A^TD SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1&21, 
SYNTHETIC TANNING MATERIALS. 

The synthetic tanning materials known as "syntans" are of quite 
recent development, having come into commercial use in Germany and 
England since 1912. They have considerable promise for use in the 
tanning of leather in conjunction with natural tanning extracts. 

Synthetic tans are made by condensation of certain coal-tar 
derivatives, such as the sulfonated phenols, cresols, and naphthols, 
with formaldehyde in the presence of an acid. They are commonly 
used in conjunction with the natural tanning extracts. Their use 
is reported to result (1) in an economy of time required for tanning, 
(2) a satisfactory leather of light color, and (3) a reduction in the 
amount of natural extract required. Three firms reported in 1921 
a total production of 1,902,597 pounds, with sales for the same year 
amounting to 1,721,359 pounds valued at $141,005, or an average 
price per pound of 8 cents. The 1921 production represents a de- 
crease of 1,240,264 pounds from that of 1920, when four firms pro- 
duced 3,142,861 pounds valued at $233,674. 

Table 18. — Production and sales of dyes and other finished coal-tar products during 1921, 

[The number in the first column identifies the dye according to the 1914 edition of the Sohultz tables. The 
second column gives the common name of the dye. The numbers in the third column refer to the num- 
bered alphabetical list of manufacturers printed on page 79. An X signifle? tliat the corresponding 
product was made by a manufacturer who did not consent to the publication of his identification number 
in connection therewith. Blanks in the fourth and fifth columns indicate that there were actual sales 
during 1921, but that the figures can not be published without revealing information in regard to the 
output of individual firms. The lilank space in the seventh column indicates that there was actual pro- 
duction of the corresponding dyes in the United States during 1921, but that the figures can not be pub- 
lished v/ithout revealing information in regard to the output of individual firms. The figures thus con- 
cealed are, however, included in the totals.) 



Schu^tzi 
No 



Common name. 



Manufacturers' identi- 
fication number (ac- 
cording to list on 
p. 79). 



Sales, 1921. 



Quantity. Value. 



price per 
pound. 



Production, 

1921 
(quantity). 



Total finished 
coal-tar prod- 
ucts. 

OTTEOSO DYES. 

Naphthol green 



Pounds. 
00,434,009 ||;47, 990,514 



SO. 79 



5, 55. 70. 



NITRO DYKS. 

Naphthol vcUow S. 



Figment chlorine [ 100, 

STILBENE DYES. 

Direct yellow R 



70, 72. 80. 155, X. 



47, ( 



Stilbene yellow , 

Chloramine orange G... 

PYRAZOLONE DYES. 



5, G, 27, 34, 59, 04, 114, 

116, 120. 
53 59 
5, 0, 59,' 04, i'l'4, Yii; .' .' '. \ 



206, 245 



00, 085 



1.45 



221,347 



89, 805 



1.07 

'i.'oo 



Fast light yellow 53, 129 

Xylene yellow 129 

Tartrazine 22, 24, 114, 129, 154, 155. . 

All other pyrazolone. . .| 114 



520, 425 



945, 817 



1.80 



Pounds. 
.1,457,665 



153,547 



57, 582 



559, 134 



1 Since 1917 the TarilT Commission has used the Schultz—FarbstolT Taliellcn— 1914 for the classification 
of dyes in the production tallies of the census The incompleteness of this reference hook is more apparent 
each year, as the number of dyes not listed in Schultz, production for which is reported l)y domestic manu- 
facturers, increases each year ' A large part of the dyes imported are similarly not listed in Schultz. It is 
hoped that for the next five census a more complete classification can be adopted, either a modification of 
Schult/,, or the Norton Census, whereby the colors which are not listed in Schultz can be reported in terms 
of the familiar pre-war types 



CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC' CHEMICALS, 1921. 63 

Table 18. — Production and sales of dyes and other finished coal-tar products during 

1921 — Continued. 





Common name. 


Manu'acturers' identi- 
fication niunber (ac- 
cording to list on 
p. 79). 


Sales, 1921. 


Production 

1921 
(quantity). 


Schultz 
No. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Average 
price per 
pound. 


31 


AZO DYE.S. 

Monoazo dyes. 


27,114 


Pounds. 






Pounds. 


32 


Butter yellow 


6, 27,38, 72, 114 

27, 53, 69, 72, 114 

14,27,53,55,69,72,114.. 

r> 


22, 584 

343, 872 

65, 931 


i-25, 605 

263,521 

51,642 


SI. 13 

.77 
.78 


18,521 


33 


Chrysoidine Y 


253,093 


34 


Chrvsoidine R 


100,246 


35 


Sudan G 




36 




27, 38, 72, 114 


25, 494 


23,894 


.94 




37 


Croeeine orange 

Orange G 


34 93 114 145 




38 


22,24,27,53,09,114,145 

X, X. 
114 116 X 


89,480 


85, 905 


.96 


91,783 


40 


Chromotrope 2 R 

Fast acid fuchsine B - . . 
Amino naphthol red G . 
Alizarin yellow G 

Paranitraniline red 

Chromotrope 2 B 

Alizarin yellow R 

Victoria violet 

Azo coralline 

Amino naphthol red 6 B 

PVlrnmntrnrvD fi Tl 




41 
42 
48 

56 


6,27,40,114,116 

5,30,53,64,69,114 

5,6,24,34,40,53, 69, 81, 
93,114,117,123,171,X. 
146 


8,344 

83, 931 

411,999 


11,950 
122, 445 
216, 898 


1.43 

1.46 

.53 


8,084 
61.433 
271,285 


57 


22 










58 
61 


5, 6, 24, 34, 40. 53, 69, 78, 
81, 93, 116, 123, 145, 
171. 

64, 114, 116 .. . 


114,382 


79, 250 


.69 
1.75 


128,080 
81,453 


65 


64,69 








66 
67 


53,64,69,114,117 

5, 114, X 


106, 653 


132, 864 


1.25 


90,790 


68 i Spirit yellow R ....'!.. . 

71 AzofuchsineB 

72 1 Pigment orange R 

73 ! Helio fast red 

76 SnHnn TT 


3,27,38, 114 


22,653 


26,572 


1.17 


20,837 


30. 




160 










146 










6,27,38,53,72,114 

5,24,27,34,72,114,145. 
114, X 


31,650 
248,059 


38, 117 
180,856 


1.20 
.73 




82 
83 


Ponceau 2 R 


178,272 


Pnnppan S R 




88 Acid anthracene brown 

89 ' Metachrome brown B . . 
94 ! AzoeosineC 

102 ; Diamond flavine G 

105 ; Sudan brown 

106 ! AutoIredRLP 


114.. 











22,24,53, X 


386, 164 


279,968 


.73 


474, 128 


116 






22, 69, 117 . . . 1 








6 1 








146 I 








145 ! 








112 
114 


Bordeaux B 

Chromotrope 10 B 

Geranine 

Diamine rose 

Metanil yellow 

Acid yellow G 

Methyl orange 

Orange IV 

Azo yellow 

Tropaeoline 

Orange I 

Orange II 

Orange R 

Permanent red 4 B 

Lake red C 

Palatine chrome brown. 
Acid alizarin garnet R . . 
Palatine chrome violet . 

Diamond black P V 

Alizarin black R 

Fast brown N 

Fast red A 

Azo rubine 


5, 24, 27, 34, 69, 72, 93, 

114,116, 145. 
116 


102, 590 


86,604 


.84 


84,754 


118 


59 










119 


20, 59, 114, 126 


25,900 

181,411 

5,100 


100, 834 

218,060 

5,306 


3.89 
1.20 
1.04 




134 
137 


34,50,53,55,69,72,114. 
53,55, 114... 


90,385 


138 


7 




139 


155 










141 
143 


53,54,55,69, 114, 155... j 142,959 
5,72 


264,683 


1.85 


125,358 


144 
145 

151 


27, 114, 155, X 

5, 6, 24, 27, 34, 38, 53, 
69,70,72,114,119,145. 

6, 53, 72, 114 


20,520 
99 J, 844 


£7,550 
504,993 


4.27 
.51 

.47 


28,981 
922,326 

49, 219 


152 


34. 








153 


97, 106, 145 










154 


22, 114, 117 


44,887 


68,527 


1.53 


52,080 


155 


22, 114 






156 


22,114... . 1 








157 


69 114 1 - - - 








159 


22. 










160 


69. 






. 




161 
163 


5,20,22,24,27,34,53, 
64, 72, 93, 114, 123, 
145, X. 

5, 27, 34, 53, 64, 69, 93, 


204,538 

374,429 
112,542 


196,642 

471, 776 
220,433 


.96 

1.26 
1.96 


120,251 

232, 216 


164 


Fast red VR 


114, 116, X. 
5, 114, 116, 117 


144,957 


166 


Fast red E 


5 




167 


Croeeine scarlet 3 BX.. 
Amaranth 


34 










168 


27,34,53,93, 114, 145, X. 
24,27,53,114,145 


64,246 
115,968 
87,737 


207,266 
114,936 
142,982 


3.23 

.99 

1.63 


31,994 


169 


Cochineal red 


139, 323 


173 


Lithol red R 


34, 56, 114, 145, X 


63,194 



64 CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921. 



Table 18. — Production and sales of dyes and other finished coal-tar ^products during 

J9^;— Continued. 





Common name. 


Manufacturers' identi- 
fication number (ac- 
cording to list on 
p. 79). 


Sales, 1921. 


Production, 

1921 
(quantity). 


Schultz 
No. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Average 
price per 
pound. 


177 


Azo DYES— contd. 

Monoazo dyes — Contd. 

Mordant yellow 

Erio chrome hlneblack 

B. 
Salicine black U 

Erin chrome black T. . . 
Erio chrome black A... 

Lanacyl violet B 

Sulphon acid blue R . . . 
Sulphon acid blue B . . . 


5,6,34, 114, X 


Pounds. 
36, 721 

8,537 

1, 426, 550 


$36,073 
9,931 

1, 073, 119 


M.98 
1.16 

.75 


Pounds. 
94 214 


180 


22,69, 114 




181 
183 


5, 22, 27, 34, 53, 64, 69, 

93, 114, 116, 117, 145, X. 

22 


1,523,220 


184 


22 










186 


53 










188 


5,64,69,114 


302, 255 


505, 747 


1.67 


336 079 


189 


114 




190 


126 










193 


Stanley red 


126 










• 194 


Thiazine red R 


34,59,116 


15, 042 
12, 509 


44,728 
26, 280 


2.97 
2.10 


15 229 


195 


Rosophenine SG 

Thiazine red G. . . 


59, 126, X 




197 


69,126 




198 


Mimosa C 


20,64,126 


2,835 


5,745 


2.02 


3 517 


199 


Cotton yellow R 

Lake red D 


126 




200 


160 










202 


Palatine chrome red B . 
All other monoazo dyes. 


•6,53,104,114,160 

22, 24, 69, 72, 114, 116, 
117, 160, X, X. 


17, 182 
685, 121 


43,397 
822, 191 


2.53 
1.20 


21,377 
696,466 




7, 483, 243 


7,516,312 


1.01 


7 029 401 




Disazo dyes. 

Resorcin brown 

Acid brow n 


5, 72, 114 




211 






1.21 


9 428 


212 


X 








213 




5,6, 114 










217 
223 


Agalma black 10 B 

Sudan III 


5, 6, 22, 27, 34, 40, 53, 
69, 78, 93, 114, 116, 
123, 145, X. 

27 


1,687,811 


1, 851, 862 


1.09 


1,426,194 


224 


Cloth red G 


34 










227 
22S 


BriUi.ant croceine 

Ponceau 5 R 


5,27,93, 114, 145 

27, 69 


82,442 


128, 217 


1.56 


34,463 


230 


Cloth reds Q 


53 










232 


Sudan IV 


6,34,38,72,114 










233 


Cloth red B 


6,69 










234 


Cloth red G 


117 










236 


Wool red B 


114, 117, X 


43,614 


61,713 


1.41 




246 


Cloth scarlet G 


55 72 




247 


Scarlet EC 


55 114 . 










257 
263 


Sulphoncvanine G 

.let black 'R 


5,53,64,69,114,117 

114 


381, 809 


665, 866 


1.74 


365,998 


264 


Fast sulphon black F . . 
Sulphoncyanine black. . 
Naphthylamine black 

D. 
Diamond black 


22, 69 










265 
266 


53,64,69, 114, 117 

5, 53, 69 


85,942 


127,312 


1.48 


83,796 


275 


45, 114 










276 


53 










278 


•Biebrich patent black.. 

Benzo fast scarlet 

Bismarck brown 

Bismarck brown 2 R . . . 

Palatine chrome black. . 

Benzo fast yellow 

Benzofast pink 2BL .. 


116 










279 


53 114 










283 
284 

288 


14, 27, 38, 53, 69, 70, 72, 

114. 
27, 53, 55, 59, 69, 72, 114, 

116. 
117 


159,341 
517, 065 


124, 739 
439,614 


.78 
.85 


153,695 

557, 753 


296 


53 










297 


53 










303 


53 59 114 






1.22 

2.03 

.89 


8,223 


304 
307 


Chrysophenine G 

Congo red 


6,53,59,114,116 

53, 69, 93, 114, 116, 123, 

X. 
114 


155,880 
238,099 


316,208 
213,542 


202, 303 
207,665 


311 


Orange TA 




312 


Congo Corinth G 


5 27 45 69 114 116. 




::::;:::::::-;:::; 




320 


5 34 










322 
323 


Trisulphon violet B 


114,116,117. 










126 










327 


Uiainiue violet N 

Diamine black R O 

0.\amine black BHN . . 

Benzo cyanine R 


5,6,22,27,53,93,114,116 
6 


22,984 


49, 896 


2.17 




328 




333 
336 


5, 6, 22, 27, 53, 93, 114, 

116,126. 
114 


485,241 


720,350 


1.48 


281, 852 



CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC OEGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921. 65 

Table 18. — Production and sales of dyes and other finished coal-tar products during 

1921 — Continued. 





Common name. 


Manufacturers' identi- 
fication number (ac- 
cording to list on 
p. 79). 


Sales, 1921. 




Schultz 
No. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Average 
price per 
pound. 


1921 
(quantity). 


337 


Azo DYES— contd. 
Disazo dyes— Contd. 

Benzo blue 2 B... . 


5, 6, 12, 14, 22, 27, 34, 40, 
53, 59, 78, 111, 114, 
116,123,X,X. 

34,53,111,116 


Pounds. 
803, 548 

22, 214 


$557, 457 
19, 117 


SO. 69 
.86 


Pounds. 
571,217 


340 


Benzo orange R 

Crumpsall direct fast 

red. 
Chrysamine G 


21,332 


341 


X 




342 


6, 34, 40, 114, X 


12,488 
49,946 

106, 924 


12,316 
104,558 

176, 040 


.99 

2.09 

1.65 


13,328 


343 
344 
351 


Diamine fast red F 

Diamine brown 

Cresotine yellow 

Anthracene red 

Oxydiamine orange 

Benzopurpurine 4 B 

Benzopurpurine B 

Congo Corinth B 


5, 6, 22, 27, 53, 93, 114, 

116, X. 
5, 6.22,27,53,93, 114, 

116, X. 
45, 114 


35,782 
69,610 


355 


116 










362 


114.. 










363 
365 


5, 14, 27, 34, 53. 69, 78, 

93,114,116. 
45 


249, 847 


300, 100 


1.20 


152,626 


375 


HI 










377 


38... 










378 


Trisulphon blue R 


38,116 










382 


114 




1 1 ::::;: 


385 


Oxamine blue 4 R 

Benzo blue BX 

Benzo blue 3 B 


114 




i ...1 


386 


34 114,116 






1 


391 


5,14,27,34,93,114,116. 
114 


93, 769 


96, 171 


1.03 




392 


Tdluylene orange G 

Diphenyl brown 3 GN. . 




393 


38 










394 


14 










400 


Acid anthracene red 

Diamine black BO 

Benzopurpurine 10 B.. . 
Benzazurine G 


X 










403 


6 










405 


53,114,116 


9,954 
54, 266 


23, 199 
82, 985 


2.33 
1.53 




410 


53, 114, 116 




415 


Dianil blue G . 


116 




419 


Chicago blueRW 

Oxamine blue B 

Chicago blue 6 B 

Benzaminepure blue.. . 
All other disazo dyes.. . 


114,116 










421 


114 










424 


53,114 116 






1.90 
1.39 

1.48 


83,781 


426 


53,78,114,116 


198,596 
280, 665 


275.570 
416, 697 






14, 40, 53, 72, 114, 116, 
117,16S,X,X. 


233,880 




6,581,028 


7,965,982 


1.21 


5, 531,. 36^ 




Trisazo dyes. 

Columbia black 

Diazoblue black RS... 
Direct deep black E W. . 

Erie direct black RX . . 

Erie direct green ET . . . 

Chloramine green B 

Chloramine blue 3 G... 

Diamine black H W 

OxamLuo green B 

Oxajnine green G 

Benzamine brown 3 G 
Congo brown G 

Congo brown R 

All other trisazo dyes... 

Total trisazo dyes 


53, 114 




436 










441 


114 










462 
463 
464 


5,6,12,22,34,40,45,53, 

114, 123, X. 
34,45,53, HI, 114, 116, 

123. 
5,6, 40, 45, 114 


4, 073, 425 
335,508 
71, 505 


3,225,152 
239,572 

85,774 


.79 

.71 

1.20 


2, 229, 8'12 
298, 516 
30,055 


470 


5, 116 


471 


116 










473 


126 










474 

475 
476 

477 

480 


5, 6, 12, 34, 53, 78, 114, 
116,123. 

14, 34, 45, .53, X 

6,34,59,114,116,123, X 
5, 6, 5,3, 69, 114, 116, 
^ 126, X. 


212, 232 

100, 228 
544, 933 
193,466 


257,467 

103, 010 
624, 377 
279, 812 


1.21 

1.03 
1.15 
1.45 


155, 753 

62, 028 
491,347 
213, 403 




40,53,78,111,114,116.. 


307,429 


464,237 


1.51 


353, 154 




5, 928, 274 


5, .397, 135 


.91 


3, 885, 557 




Tetrakisazo dyes. 

Benzo brown G 

Benzo brown B 

All other tetrakisazo 

dyes. 
All other azo dyes 

Total azo dyes.. . . 


14,45, 53,59,69, 116... 
27, 45, 59, 116 


485 
487 


59,349 
38,633 


63, 188 
44, 291 


1.06 
1.15 


53,326 
41,289 




126 




5, 6, 14, 22, 30, 34, 38, 
53, 59, 64, 69, 78, 93, 
116, X. 


459,479 


583,712 


1.27 


519,815 


^ 


20,551,196 


21 572 485 1-05 


17 062 .366 


K 




1- 




1- 





66 CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921. 

Table 18. — Production and sales of dyes and other finished coal-tar pi-oducls during 

i9f.?— Continued. 





Commoii name. 


Manufacturers' identi- 
fication number (ac- 
cording to list on 
p. 79). 


Sales, 1921. 


Production 
1921 

(quantity). 


Schultz 
No. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Average 
price per 
pound. 


493 


DIPHENTLM ETHANE 
DYES. 

Auramine 


38,53, 103 


Pounds. 
152,326 


$308,454 


$2.02 


Pounds. 
94,484 




TRIPHENYLMETHANE 
DYES 

Malachite green 

New fast green 3 B 

Turquoise blue 


40,50,70, 103, 114 

53 




495 


88,664 


174, 727 


1.97 




497 




498 


64 










499 


103, 114 










502 


Guinea green 

Brilliant milling green B 
Light green 


30, 53, 114 


46,808 


184, 262 


3.94 




503 


114 




505 


114 










506 


Erioglaucine 


114 










511 




114 










512 
513 


Magenta (or fuchsine). . 

New fuchsine 

Methyl violet 


34, 50, 53, 70, 72, 82, 114, 

133, 145, 157, X. 
114 


68,210 


223, 548 


3.28 


49, 797 


515 


34, 50, 53, 72, 77, 114, 

119, 157. 
22,53 


256, 729 


426,822 


1.66 


190 643 


516 


Crystal violet 

Methyl violet 5B 




517 


114 










521 


34, 70, 72, 133, X .. . . 


56,955 


165,645 


2.91 


87 464 


524 




34, 82 . . 




.528 


Fast acid violet 10 B . . . 


30, 53, 64 . 


11,712 
70, 366 


34,213 
256,420 


2.92 
3.64 




530 


30, 53, 64, 114 


43, 043 


531 




114 . . . . 




536 

538 


Alkali blue 

Methyl blue for cotton . 
Soluble blue 


34, 50, 72, 82, 114, 119, 

133, 145, 157, X. 
82 


49, 145 


168, 133 


3.42 


73, 596 


539 


34,50,82,114,119 

114 


21, 669 


90, 576 


4.18 


22, 356 


543 






545 




30, 114 










548 


Acid violet 6 BN 

Victoria blue R 

All other triphenylme- 
thane dyes. 

Total triphenyl- 
methane dyes. 

DIPHENYI.NAPHTHYL- 
METHANE DYES. 

Victoria blue B 


53 








558 


53 












22, 53, 114 








;:;::::::::: 
















786, 845 


2,153,636 


. 27 


722, 421 




22 53 




'559 










565 


54 










566 




53,54,64,69,114,117.... 
53 133 


166, 338 


312, 483 


1.88 


164,581 


571 


Rhodamine 6 G 

XANTHONE DYES. 


'. 




573 


•53 










580 




.53 










582 


Fast acid violet A 2 R.. 


53 










585 


53 72 










587 




53! 70, 72, il9, X 

53 


46,492 


116,579 


2.51 
< 


69,073 


589 






592 




53,72, 114, 119, X 

53 


6,282 


48,514 


7.72 


6,644 


593 






595 




53 










597 


Rose bengale B 


72 










599 


173 










600 




173 . ... 












All other xanthone dyes 

Total xanthone 
dyes. 

ACRIDINE DYES. 


119 
























103, 843 


383,629 


3.69 


126,925 




72 114 




606 










613 


QUINOLINE COLORING 
MATTER. 

Quinoline yellow 


lU 











CEISTSUS OF DYES AXD SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921. 67 

Table 18. — Production and sales of dyes and other finished coal-tar products during 

1921— Continued. 





CoTnTnonnanie. 


Manufacturers' identi- 
fication number (ac- 
cording to list on 
p. 79). 


Sales, 1921. 


Production, 

1921 
(quantity). 


Schultz 
No. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Average 
price per 
pound. 


615 


THIOBENZENTL DYES. 

Thioflavine S 


126 


Pounds. 






Pounds. 


616 


Primuline 


20, .53, 64, 114, 126, X . . 
20,64,114, 116,126 

6,40, 114, 117, X 

5,6,24,40, 114, 173 

114 


168,404 
114,663 

27,027 
136,879 


§230,922 
181, 745 

61,053 
333,780 


$1.37 
1.59 

2.26 
2.44 


129 281 


617 
622 


Columbia yellow 

OXAZINE AND THIAZINE 
DYES. 

Delphine blue B 


86,418 


626 
631 


GaUocyanine .. 


140 064 


ChromocvanLne V 




649 


Cotton blue or Mel- 

dola's blue. 
Methj-lene blue 

Methylene green 

Brilliant alizarin blue.. 

AZINE DYES. 

Neutral red 

Azo carmine 

Safranine 

Methylene violet ... 

New fast gray 


6, 27, 93, 114 . 


28, 110 
256,550 


59,675 
497, 136 


2.12 
1.94 


33,970 
209,395 


659 
660 


24, 40, 53, 70, 114, 136, 

170. 
114 


667 


64, 69 








670 


7 








672 


53 








679 


53, 70, 114, 136 


78,571 


204,454 


2.60 


52,771 


680 


77 


681 


24, 38, 116 








683 


Satranine MN 


114 








697 
698 
699 


Induline (spirit solu- 
ble). 

Nigrosine (spirit solu- 
ble). 

Induline (soluble in 
water). 

Nigrosine (soluble in 
water). 

All other azines 


20,27,34,38,69,72,114. 

20, 24, 27, 38, 69, 72, 

114, 117. 
20,69,72, 114 




50,986 

101, 559 
102,929 
846,537 


38,346 

70,800 

98,932 

571,798 


.75 
.70 
.96 
.68 


55,339 

168, 402 
92 988 


700 


20,24,69, 72, 114, 117.. 
114 


626, 706 


720 


SULFUR DYES. 

Sulphur black 


14, 38, 40, 53, 69, 75, 93, 

114, 170, 171. 
14, 19, 40, 53. 69, 77, 93, 

114, 116, 157. 
6, 34, 38, 40, 41, 53, 69, 

77, 93, 158. 
38, 40, 41, 53, 69, 77, 93. 
40, .53, S3, 172 


9, 277, 525 

544,931 

997,581 

56,916 
179, 882 
42,059 


2, 156, 525 

3.51,424 

384,366 

46,619 

170,387 

10, 967 


.23 

.64 

.38 

.82 
.95 
.47 


7,832,696 

190,621 

1 159 115 


■ 

1 

763 

765 
767 
778 
779 
782 
784 
789 
814 
817 
819 
838 
842 
849 
358 
867 


Sulphur blue 

Sulphur brown 


Sulphur green 


70,428 
230 773 


Sulphur maroon 

Sulphur olive 


40,41,69,93, 172 

40,69,114 


55 920 


Sulphur orange 




Sulphur tan 


14,34,41,69,172 

14,40,41,53,172 

114 


86, 788 
303, 766 


51, 568 
220, 745 


.59 
.73 


121 390 


Sulphur yellow 

All other sulphur dyes. . 

Total sulfur 
dyes. 

ANTHRAQUINONE DYES. 

Indanthrene dark blue 

BO. 
Indanthrene green B . . . 
Indanthrene violet RR . 
Alizarin 


316, 399 












11,827,181 


3, 687, 466 


.31 


10, 239, 255 


10,53,116 




2.31 


36,971 


53,116 




53 









19,53,114 

114 


34,236 


22,258 


.65 




Alizarin orange 




Alizarin brown 


40,53,160,173 

114 


39,907 


52,653 


1.32 


59, 613 


Alizarin SX 




Anthracene blue WR . . . 

Algol yellow W G 

.A,lgol yellow R 


19,114 






10 






10 






Algol red R 


10 






Indanthrene blue 

Indanthrene blue GCD . 

Indanthrene yellow 

Alizarin saphirol B 

Indanthrene brown B.. 
All other anthraqui- 
none dyes. 


53,116 






53,116 






53,116 






69,114 






116 






59,116,173 








, . . _ . . 

1 


1 


1 





68 CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921, 

Table 18. — Production and sales of dyes and other finished coal-tar products during 

1921— Continued. 





Common name. 


Manufacturers' identi- 
fication number (ac- 
cording to list on 
p. 79). 


Sales, 1921. 


Production, 

1921 
(quantity). 


Schultz 
No. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


1 Average 
i price per 
1 pound. 


874 


INDIGO AND ITS DE- 
RIVATIVES. 

Indigo, synthetic 

Indigo extract 


52,53,114 


Pounds. 
9, 413, 308 
723, 025 


$4, 257, 572 
472,253 


' .10.45 
.65 


Pounds. 
6, 673, 968 
585, 931 


877 


5,15,53,98,114,157 

52 


879 
880 


I Brom indigos 


883 


ANILINE BLACK GROUP. 

Aniline black . 


145 








922 




1 




923 


Ursol 


53, 66, 157 










Total aniline 
black dyes. 

FOOD DYES. 

Tartrazine 












103, 267 


202, 704 


1.96 


107, 890 




24,111,164 


23 










83 


Ponceau 3 R.. 


24,114 










144 


Orange I . . . 


24,114 










168 




24,114,161 










505 


Light green SF (yel- 
lowish). 


164 










592 


24 










877 


Indigo disulfonicacid.. 
Yellow AB 


24,114 












6,72 114 












Yellow OB 


72... 












PHOTOCHEMICAL DYES. 

Alizarin yellow R 


58. 


. 











58. 












E. yellow 


58. 












p - Hydroazobenzene- 
sulfonate. 


58. 












58. . . . 














58 














58. . . . . 








... 






58 












Propyl red 


58 












Resorcin yellow 

Bacteriological stains, 
biological stains and 
indicators. 

Total dyes. 


58 












36,68, 83,95, 169 


157 


15,717 


101.17 










47,513,762 


39,283,956 


.83 


39,008,690 




COLOR LAKES. 

Black lakes 


5, 40, 53, 73, 146, 168, 

• X. 

11, 21, 32, 40, 53, 57, 60, 
73, 84, 90, 94, 104, 140, 
146, 147, 148, 149, 160, 
168, X, X, X, X, X, 
X X X X 

32, 48,^53, 60, 73, 90, 146, 
147, 159, X, X,X. 

11,21,32,48,57,60,73, 
84, 90, 104, 140, 145, 

146, 147, 148, 149, X, 
X, X, X, X, X, X, 
X, X, X. 

11,21,32,48,53,57,73, 
84, 90, 94, 104, 146, 

147, 148, 149, 168, X, 
X, X, X, X, X, X, 
XXX. 

11,21,48, ,53,60, 73, 84, 
90, 92, 96, 104, 130, 
140, 145, 146, 147, 149, 
159,168,X,X,X,X, 
X, X, X, X, X. 






266,877 
347,620 

27,225 
314,973 

19.5,294 

288,320 


33,793 
228,091 

3,576 
243,029 

83,316 

238,939 


.13 
.66 

.13 

.77 

.43 
.83 


242,095 




Blue lakes 


360,807 




Brown lakes 


27,986 




Eosine lakes , 

Green lakes 


309,326 
200,924 




Lithol red lakes 


277,733 



CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC OEGANIC CHEMICALS. 1921. 69 



Table 18.— Production and sales of dyes and other finished coal-tar products during 

1921— Continued. 







Manufacturers' identi- 


Sales, 1921. 


Production, 

1921 
(quantity). 


Schultz 
No. 


Conimon name. 


fication number (ac- 
cording to list on 
p. 79). 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Average 
price per 
pound. 




COLOR LAKES— COntd. 

Maroon lakes 

Orange lakes 


11, 21, 32, 48, 53, 57, 73, 
S4, 90, 92, 100, 101, 
104, 145, 146, 168, X, 
X,X, X, x,x. 

11,21,32,48,53,57,60, 
73, 90, 94, 96, 104, 140, 
146, 147, 148, 160, 168, 
X, X, X, X, X, X, 
XXX 

11, 21, 4b,''48, 57, 73, 84, 
90, 92, 96, 100, 101, 
104, 145, 146, 149, 160, 
165, 168,X,X,X,X, 
X, X, X,X,X, X. 

11,21,32,48,53,57,60, 
73, 94, 96, 101, 104, 

107. 140. 146. 147. 148, 
149, 159, 160, 165, X, 
X, X, X, X, X, X, 
X, X, X, X. 

11,21,32,48,53,57,60, 
73, 84, 90, 96, 100, 101, 

140. 145. 146. 148. 149, 
159, 160, 165, 168, X, 
X, X, X, X, X, X, 
XXX 

11, 21, 32, 48, 53, 57, 60, 
^3, 84, 90, 94, 96, 104, 
140, 146, 147, 148, 149, 
168, X.X, X, X,X, 
X X X X 

11, 48, 53, 60, 73, 84, 90, 
94, 104, 145, 146, 147, 
148, 149, 168, X, X, 
X, X, X,X, X, X. 

X 


Pounds. 
552, 570 

260,964 
2,049,372 
1,045,004 

471, 226 

178,311 
202, 911 


$207,817 
82,169 

621,985 

516,7.55 

177, 466 

202, 8.59 
104,048 


80.38 
.31 

.30 

.49 

.38 

1.14 
.51 


Pounds. 

560,776 

233,818 




Para red 


1,925,017 




Red lakes 


1, 002, 749 




Scarlet lakes 


438, 115 




Violet lakes 


182,021 


'^ 


Yellow lakes 


190, 988 




















i Total onlnr lakp.*: 


6,424,612 


2, 863, 189 


.45 


6, 152, 187 




PHOTOGRAPHIC 
CHEMICALS. 

p-Aminophenol hydro- 
chloride. 

Diaminophenol hydro- 
chloride. 


31 
















167 












139, 173 












p-Hydroxyphenylgly- 

cine. 
Methyl p-aminophenol 

sulfate (metol). 

Total photographic 
chemicals. 

MEDIONALS. 

Acetanilide 


58 












58, 139 






















170, 221 


248,041 


1.46 


183, 798 




3. 108, 112, 120, 131, X. 






243.6.55 1 70.0.53 .29 


207,483 






X ' ' ' 






1 162 







10-methylacridine 
chloride). 


144 










X 








[ 


Arsphenamine . . 


47, 49, 105, 110 


694 
935,964 

910 
10,702 


281,841- 
686, 264 

18,010 
16, 700 


406. 11 
.73 

19.79 
1.56 


670 




Aspirin (acetylsalicylic 

acid). 
Benzocaine or anesthe- 

sine (ethyl-p-amiuo 

benzoate). 

Benzyl benzoate 

Benzyl succinate 

Bismuth betanaphthol. 


18,52, 112, X, X 

1 24 110 144 


733,510 




7 61 108. 162 






144 175 X 






108 131 










i 


lOs' 120 










r 


phenol. 
Caffeine sodium ben- 
zoate. 


144 
























70 CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921. 

Table 18. — Production and sale of d'/es and other finished coal-tar products during 

y^^i— Continued. 



Common name. 



Manufacturers' identi- 
fication number (ac- 
cording to list on 
p. 79). 



Sales, 1921. 



Quantity. 



Value. 



Average 
price per 
pound. 



Production, 

1921 
(quantity). 



MEDiciNALs— eontd. 

Chlorcosane 

Cliliraniine T (sodium 
p-toluenesiilfoch 1 o r- 
amide). 

Cinchophen (phenyl 
cinchoninic acid). 

Creosote carbonate 

p-Cresol benzoa te 

Oresol 

Dibromohydroxy mer- 
cury fluorescein, so- 
dium sa't 

Dichloramine T (p- 
tolueno suUone di- 
chloramide). 

Guaiacol benzoate 

Guaiacol carbonate 

Guaiacol crystals 

Guaiacol liquid 

Halozone (p-sulfone di- 
chloroamidobenz o i c 
acid). 

Ilydroxyquinoline and 
sulfate. 

Lithium benzoate 

Magnesium salicylate . . 

Mercuric benzoate 

Methoxymethy sali- 
cylate. 

b-Naphthol benzoate. . . 

Neoarsphenamine 

Novaspirin (methylene 
citryl salicylic acid). 

Other salicylates 

Phenacaine (ethenyl-p- 
diethoxydiphenyl 
amidine hydrochlo- 
ride.) 

Phenol phthaletn 

Phenolsulfonates (cal- 
cium, sodium, zinc, 
etc.). 

PhenolsTilfon e p h t h a- 
lehi. 

Phenol tetrachloroph- 
thalein. 

Potassium hydroxy- 
quinoline sulfate. 

Procaine (n-aminn- 
benzoyldiethyl- 
aminoetifianol). 

Proflavine (3:6-dianiino 
acridine sulfate). 

Salicaine (salicyl alco- 
hol). 

Salol, U. S. P. (phenyl 
salicylate). 

Salophen (acetyl-p- 
aminophenol salicy- 
late). 

Silver arsphenamine. . . 

Sodium cinnamate 

Sodium salicylate 

Strontium salicylate 

Tolysin (p-metnylphe- 
nylcincnoninic acid 
ethyl ether). 

All other medicinals 



Total medicinals. 



Benzaldehyde 

Coumarin 

Ethyl benzoate.. 

Ethyl cinnamate. 



112 

26, 112. 

1, 24... 



Pounds. 



Pounds. 



24, 53, 116, 129. 

144 

116 

83 



24, 112. 



144.... 

53 

5-3, 116. 
.53. 116. 
112.... 



91. 



144, X. 
X 

144.... 
18 



24, 01 108. 

47, lib 

X 



131. 
110. 



1, 24 102, 108, 131. 



64,923 



68, 83. 

S3 

91 

1, 110. 



1 

24 

108, 112, X. 
1 8 



36,200 



110. 
X.. 



52, 108, 112, 131, 143, X, 

X 

24 



352, 250 



1,876,246 



X 

XXX.. 

6l' 63^144,' 150,' i62rX,' 

X. 
61,63,89, 150, 162, X.. 



53,525 
4,937 

2,341 



$4, 945 



$2.70 



16, 581 



.26 



100, 968 



2, 930, 324 



220,371 
10,367 

10,085 



.29 



1.56 



4.12 
2.10 



4.31 



28,408 



319, 350 



1,545,917 



52,097 
5,551 



CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS^ 1&21. 71 



Table 18. — Production and sale of dyes and other finished coal-tar products during 

1921— Continued. 





Common name. 


Manufacturers' identi- 
fication number (ac- 
cording to list on 
p. 79). 


Sales, 1921. 


Production, 

1921 
(quantity). 


Schultz 
No. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Average 
price per 
pound. 




Flavors— Continued . 

Ethyl salicylate 

Iso butylphenyl acetate 

Methyl cinnamate 

Methyl salicylate 

Phenylpropyl acetate.. 
Saccharin (benzosulfln- 
ide). 

Total flavors 


61,63, 150 


Pounds. 






Pounds. 




61 










1 


61,63,89,150, 162, X,X. 
52, 63, 108, 143, 150, 

X,X, X. 
61 


2,846 
626,718 


$13,047 
214,391 


S4.59 
.34 


2,786 
640,943 




26,139,X,X 






















1 


933,662 


1,002,018 


1.07 


901 245 


L 


PERFUME MATERIALS. 

Acetophenone 


61,63,89,150 






187 


1,000 


5.37 


165 




Amylphenyl acetate . . . 

Amyl salicylate 

Aubepine (anisic alde- 
hyde). 
Benzophenone 


X 






61, 63, 150, X, X 

61, 62, 63, 89, 150, X... 

151 


6,831 
2,211 


9,746 
9,602 


1.43 
4.36 


3,327 
2,197 




Benzyl acetate 


7, 61, 63, 89, 150, 162, X. 
1,7,61,63,89,108,144, 

150, 162, X, X. 
61,89 


9,331 
13,546 


10,855 
19, 165 


1.16 
1.41 


7 191 




Benzyl benzoate 

Benzyl butyrate 

Benzyl cinnamate 

Benzyl formate 

Benzylphenyl acetate. . 

Benzyl propionate 

Benzylidene acetone — 
Bromstyrol 


13,789 




89, 150 












150,X 












150 












61, X 












150, X 












61, 89, 150, 162, X 

X 


306 


1,330 


4.35 


252 




Cinnamic acid 






Cinnamic alcohol 

Cinnamic aldehyde 

Diethyl phthalate 

Dimethyl anthranilate. 

Diphenylmethane 

Diphenyl oxide 

Kthylphenyl acetate. . . 

Iso-butyl benzoate 

Iso-butyl .salicylate 

Methyl anthranilate 

Methyl benzoate 

Methyl guaiacol 

Methyl-p-cresol 

Methylphenyl acetate. . 
Nerolin (b-naphthol 

ethyl ether). 
Phenylacetic aldehyde. 

Phenylethyl acetate 

Phenylethyl alcohol 

Phenylpropyl acetate. . 
Phenylpropyl alcohol. . 

Salicylic aldehyde 

Yara yara (b-naphthol 

methyl ether). 

Total perfumes 


89 












61, 62, 63, 150, X 

61,63,89, 150, 162, X.. 
150 


4,388 
65,360 


23, 183 
£8,660 


5.28 
.90 


4,977 
73,937 




89, 150,162 












89,150,X 












X 












X 












150 












61, 63, 89, 150, 162, X.. 
61, 63, 144, 150, 162, 

X, X, X. 
150 


947 
1,782 


4,611 
2,421 


4.88 
1.36 


655 
2,176 




150 












X 












63, 150, X 












61,63,89, 150, 162, X... 
61,89,150, X 


901 
44 
140 


11,843 

660 

1,584 


13.15 
15.00 
11.31 


822 




61,63,89,150,162 

X 


157 




X 












63 












63, X 






















119,091 


175,815 


1.47 


119,335 




SYNTHETIC PHENOLIC 

RESDJS. 

Derived from couma- 
rone. 

Derived from cresol 

Derived from phenol . . . 

Total resins . . 


17 
















135, X,X 










-' 


135, X,X 


493, 899 


649,951 


1.32 


495, 152 


' 








1,674,456 


1,352,166 


.81 


1,643,796 




SYNTHETIC TANNING 
MATERIALS. 


17 
















Liberty extract 

Synex 


93 










1 


X 










1 


Total tanning 
materials. 














1,721,359 


141,005 


.08 


1,902,597 









72 CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921. 

Table 19 —Comparison of production of dxjes and other finished coal-tar products, 1920 

and 1921. 



Product. 



Total fluished coal-tar products 

STILBENE DYES. 

Direct yellow R 

Chloraminc orange G . . , 

PYRA.ZOLONE DYES 

Tartrazine 

AZO DYES. 

Monoazo dyes. 



Butter yellow 

Chrysoidine Y 

Chrj'soidine R 

Orange G 

Fast acid f uchsine B 

Amino naphthol red G 

Alizarin yellow G 

Alizarin yellow R 

Amino naphthol red 6 B 

Ponceau 2 R 

Bordeaux B 

Metanil vellow 

Orange i 

Orange II 

Fast red A 

Azo rubine 

Amaranth '. I ,oq- ooq 

Cochineal red , r,,' iXi. 

H.;ilinin A hlapt TT '■' ^X^' tTi 

336, 079 

21,377 

696, 466 



Total production. 



1921 
(quantity). 



Pounds. 
51, 457, .565 



153,547 

67, 5S2 



559, 134 



18, 521 
253, 693 
100,246 

91, 783 
8,084 

61,433 
271,285 
128, 080 

90,790 
178,272 

84, 754 

90, 385 

28, 981 
922, 326 
120,251 
232, 216 

31,994 



Sahcine black U. 
Sulphou acid blue R — 
Palatine chrome red B.. 
All other monoazo dyes. 



Total monoazo dyes. 



Disazo dyes. 



Agalma black 10 B . . . 

Brilliant croceine 

Bismark brown 

Bismark brown 2 R . . 

Paper yellow 

Chrysophenine G 

Congo fed 

Oxamine black BHN. 

Benzo blue 2 B 

Benzo orange R 

Chrysaniine G — . . . . 
Diamine fast red F . . . 

Diamine brown 

Beiizopurpuriiie 4 B.. 
All other disazo dyes . 



, 426, 194 

34, 463 

153,695 

557, 753 

8,223 

202, 303 

207,665 

281, 852 

671, 217 

21,332 

13, 328 

35, 782 

69,610 

152,626 

233, 880 



Total disazo dyes 



5,531,363 



Trisazo dyes. 



Direct deep black EAV... 

Erie direct black RX 

Oxamine green B 

Oxamine green G 

Benzamine brown 3 GO . 

Congo brown G 

All other trisazo dyes 



2, 229, 842 
298,516 
155, 753 
62, 028 
491, 347 
213, 403 
353, 154 



Total trisazo dyes ^' ^^^' ^^^ 



Telrakisazo dyes. 



53,326 



Benzo brown G r;! o' oi i; 

All other azo dyes °^^' "^ 



Total azo dyes. 



17,062,366 



CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921. 73 



Table 19. — Comparison of production of dyes and other finished coal-tar products, 1920 

and 1921 — Continued. 



Product. 



Total production. 



1921, 
quantity. 



1920, 
quantity. 



TRIPHENTLMETHANE DYES. 



Magenta (or fuchsine). 

Methyl violet 

Acid violet 

Alkali blue 

Soluble blue 



Total triphenylmethane dyes 

DIPHENTL NAPHTHYL METHANE DYES. 

Wool green S 

XANTHOME DYES. 

Eosine 

Ervthrosine 



Total xanthone dyes . 



THIOBENZENYL DYES. 



Primuline 

Columbia yellow. 



OXAZINE AND THIAZINE DYES. 



Gallocyanine . . . 
Methylene blue. 



AZINE DYES. 



Safranine 

InduUne (spirit soluble) 

Nigrosine (spirit soluble) 

Induline (soluble in water) . . 
Nigrosine (soluble in water) . 



SULFUR DYES. 



Sulphur black... 

Sulphur blue 

Sulphur brown . . 
Sulphur green... 
Sulphur maroon. 

Sulphur olive 

Sulphur tan 

Sulphur yellow.. 



Total sulfur dyes. 



ANTHRAQUINONE DYES. 



Alizarin brown . 



INDIGO AND ITS DERIVATIVES. 



Indigo, synthetic. 
Indigo extract 



Total dyes. 



COLOR LAKES. 



Black lakes 

Blue lakes 

Brown lakes... 
Eosine lakes... 

Green lakes 

Lithol red 

Maroon lakes.. 
Orange lakes... 
Para red lakes. 

Red lakes 

Scarlet lakes... 

Violet lakes 

Yellow lakes... 



Total color lakes 

Total photographic chemicals. 



Pounds. 
49, 797 
190,643 
43, 043 
73, 596 
22, 356 



Poirnds. 

284,285 

600, 873 

144, 207 

74, 253 

98, 770 



722, 421 



164, 581 



69, 073 
6,644 



126, 925 



129,281 
86,418 



140, 064 
209, 395 



52, 771 
55, 339 

168, 402 
92, 988 

626, 706 



7, 832, 696 

190,621 

1,159,115 

70, 428 

230, 773 

55, 920 

121,390 

316,399 



10, 239, 255 



59,613 



6, 673, 968 
585,931 



39, 008, 690 



242, 095 

360, 807 

27, 986 

309, 326 

200, 924 

277, 733 

560, 775 

233, 818 

1,925,017 

1,002,749 

438,115 

182, 021 

190, 988 



6, 152, 187 



183, 798 



541—22- 



-6 



2, 482, 169 



85,489 
6,874 



215, 044 



183, 179 
100, 248 



70, 169 
577, 264 



149,629 
140,400 
919,242 
168, 048 
2,745,021 



16, 305, 037 
1,514,811 
1,269,731 
177, 927 
133. 407 
129, 582 
95, 038 
408, 987 



20, 034, 500 



18, 178, 231 
1,395,000 



88, 263, 776 



382, 277 
645, 647 
113,630 
60b, 618 
4>i,970 
49b, 600 
740,76b 
339, 275 
970, 589 
4,410,797 
783,011 
336, 969 
536, 122 



10,983,538 



440, 759 



74 CENSUS or DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921. 

Table 19. — Comparison of production of dyes and other finished coal-tar products, 1920 

and 1921 — Continued. 



Schultz 
No. 



Product. 



Total production. 



1921, 
quantity. 



1920, 
quantity. 



MEDICINALS. 

Acetanilide 

Arsphenamine 

Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) 

Phenolsulfonates (calcium, sodium, zinc, etc.) 

Sodium salicylate 

Total medicinals 

Total flavors. 

PEKFUME MATERIALS. 

Acetophenone f'.t iV'iiVn'^^A 

Amyl salicylate 

Total synthetic phenolic resins 



Pounds. 

207,433 

670 

733,510 

28,408 

319,350 



1,545,917 



901, 245 



165 

3,327 

1, 643, 796 



Pounds. 

1, 255, 140 

605 

1, 708, 436 

181, 516 

450, 764 



5,184,989 



166, 884 



742 

14,982 

4, 659, 680 



Prices of Domestic Dyes. 

iThe following table (No. 20) contains a comparison of the domestic 
sales prices of 100 dyes for the years 1917 to 1921, inclusive, together 
with the invoice value for the same dyes imported during the year 
1914. The colors included in this table represent about 88 per cent 
of the domestic production of dyes in 1921. It should be pointed out 
that the domestic sales prices are not directly comparable with the 
invoice values in 1914. The latter values do not represent the cost 
to the consumer as the importer's profit should be added to these, 
figures, and in most cases the invoice value does not include "charges 
for containers and packing, freight, and insurance to seaport, consu- 
lar certification, minor shipping charges at point of departure and at 
seaport." 

Column 1 contains the Schultz number as indicated in ''Farbstoff- 
Tabellen," by Gustav Schultz, 1914 edition. 

Column 2 contains the common name of the dye as adopted by the 
Tariff Commission for designating all dyes reported under a given 
Schultz number (column 1). 

Column 3 contains the domestic sales price reported to the Tariff 
Commission. This represents the weighted average price of all 
manufacturers for those dyes reported under a given Schultz number. 
Most of these prices were published in the "Census of Dyes and Coal- 
Tar Chemicals, 1917, 1918, 1919, and 1920." 

Column 4 shows the invoice price (1914), which represents the 
weighted average of all dyes classified under a given Schultz number 
in "Artificial Dyestuffs Used in the United States," Department of 
Commerce, Special Agents Series No. 121, by Thomas H. Norton. 
These invoice prices are considerably below the price at which these 
dyes were sold to the consumer in this country. This weighted 
average value for all types is usually higher than the invoice price 
per pound for those dyes representing the bulk of the importation 
under a given Schultz number. An examination of the individual 
dyes imported under given Schultz numbers in the Norton census 



CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS^ 1921, 75 



shows a wide variation in prices, frequently amounting to several 
hundred per cent. This is chiefly due to the great variation in the 
concentration of the different dyes and also to the variation in prices 
of special and pure brands, which are more costly than the ordinary 
brands. 

The average price of all dyes produced in 1917 was $1.26 per pound; 
for 1918, $1.07 per pound; for 1919, $1.07 per pound; for 1920, $1.08, 
and for 1921, $0.83 per pound. The tendency has been to reduce 
both the cost of production and sales price of dyes produced in the 
United States. 

Such reductions have occurred notwithstanding the yearly develop- 
ment and production of new colors of greater value and complexity. 
These have tended to increase the average value per pound of all 
dyes produced. 

As stated in the 1917 census the import statistics show that for 
several years before the war artificial dyes imported into the United 
States annually v/ere valued at between $9,000,000 and $10,000,000, 
and, furthermore, it is probable that the cost of these dyes used in the 
United States to the primary consumers (textile mills, tanners, etc.) 
was not less than $20,000,000 nor more than $25,000,000 per year. 
The actual importation of dyes in 1914, as stated in the Norton 
census, was 45,950,895 pounds. On the basis of the above values 
and the 1914 quantity imported, the cost of the dyes to the consumer 
was from 44 to 53 cents per pound, the invoice cost on the basis of 
invoice value of $10,000,000 would be 22 cents per pound. The 1921 
average sales price of 83 cents per pound is nearly comparable 
with the pre-war sales price of 44 to 53 cents per pound. 

Table 20. — Domestic prices of dyes, 1917 to 1921, with the 1914 invoice values. 





Name. 


United 
States 

pro- 
duction, 

1921. 


Average price per pound. 


1914 
invoice 


Schultz 
No. 


1917 


1918 


1919 


1920 


1921 


value 
imported 

dyes 

(weighted 

average 

of all 

types). 


9 


Direct yellow R 


Pounds . 
153, 547 


$2.55 


$2.61 


$1.74 


$1.49 

1.53 

1.88 

1.86 

.87 

.79 

1.04 

1.22 

1.78 

.63 

.86 

1.51 

.80 

.93 

5.33 

1.64 

.43 

2.08 

.62 

1.55 

1.65 

1.04 

1.43 

2.28 

2.11 

1.26 

1.52 

.81 

1.10 


$1.07 

1.22 

1.60 

1.80 

.77 

.78 

.86 

.96 

1.46 

.53 

.69 

1.25 

.73 

.84 

3.89 

1.20 

1.04 

1.85 

.51 

1.53 

1.25 

.96 

1.26 

1.96 

3.23 

.99 

1.63 

.98 

.75 


$0. 178 


10 


Stilbene yellow 


.162 


11 


Chloramine orpnge G 


57, .582 
559, 134 
253, 693 
100,246 


3.32 
1.50 
1.09 
1.22 
1.13 
1.25 
3.04 
.59 
.83 

"'i.'i5' 

1.46 


2.86 

1.91 

.77 

1.22 

.89 

.92 

1.16 

.68 

.91 

.88 

.79 

1.02 

5.56 

1.61 

.85 

2.02 

.68 

2.00 


1.99 

2.04 

1.04 

1.12 

.88 

1.04 

.97 

.72 

.84 

.81 

.80 

91 

5.15 

1.65 

"'i.'gs' 

.63 
1.68 


.239 


23 
33 


Tartrazine ". 

Chrysoidine Y 


.200 
.136 


34 


Chrysoidiae R 


.165 


37 


Croceine orange 


.133 


38 


Orange G 


91, 783 

61, 433 
271, 285 
128,080 

90,790 
178, 272 

84, 754 


.148 


42 


Ainido naphthol red G • 


.150 


48 


Alizarin yellow G 


.077 


5K 


Alizarin yellow R 


.154 


66 

82 


Amido naphthol red 6 B 

Ponceau 2 R 


.604 
.095 


112 


Bordeaux B 


.159 


119 


Diaminp insp 


.411 


134 


Metani! yellow 


90,385 


2.24 
1.32 
2.04 
.98 
1.90 


.164 


137 


Acid yellow G 


.176 


141 


Azo yellow 


125,358 

922,326 

52,080 


.249 


145 


Orange II 


.081 


154 


Palatine chrome brown 


.256 


157 


Diamond black P. V 


130 


161 


Fast red A 


120, 251 

232, 216 

144, 957 

31,994 

139, .323 

63, 194 

94.214 

1. 52?. 220 


1.19 
2.71 
2.25 
1.31 

1.44 
1.25 
.74 
2.92 


1.03 
1.51 
1.25 
.88 
1.16 
2.38 
1.35 
1.62 


1.05 
1.43 
2.20 
2.98 
1.32 
.39 
1.89 
1.25 


.118 


163 


Azo rubine 


.198 


164 


Fast red v. R 


.188 


168 


Amaranth 


.138 


169 


Cochineal red 


.127 


173 


Litholred R 


.083 


177 


Mordant yellow 


.149 


181 


Salicine black U 


.156 



76 CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921. 
Table 20.— Domestic prices of dyes, 1917 to 1921, ivith the 1914 invoice values— Con. 



Name. 



365, 998 
83,796 



SuJphonacid blue R 

Agalma black 10 B 

Brilliant croceine . 

Wool red B [, 

Sulphon cyanine 

Sulphon cyanine black 

Naphthylamine black D . . . 

Diamond black 

Bismark brown 

Bismark brown 2 R .... 

Chrysophenine G 

Congo red 

Diamine violet J<i , 

Oxamine black B H N. !!!...! . ! i"28i, 852 



United 
States 
pro- 
duction, 
1921. 



Pounds. 

336, 079 

1, 42'i, 194 

34, 463 



163, 695 
557, 753 
202, 303 
207, 665 



Average price per pound. 



1917 



Benzo blue 2 B 

Benzo orange R ........ 

Chrysamine G 

Diamine fast red F .'..'.'.... . 

Diamine brown 

Benzo purp urine 4 B. 

Benzo blue 3 B 

Benzo purpurine io B . . . .". 

Benzazurine G 

Chicago blue R W..! 

Chicago blue 6 B 

Benzamine pure blue 

Direct deep black E W . 

Erie direct black R X 

Oxamine green B 

Oxamine green G 

Benzamine brown 3 G O " 

Congo brown G 

Benzo brown G ' . 

Auramine 

Malachite green 

Brilliant green 

Guinea green 

Magenta 

Methyl violet 

Aniline blue ' 

Acid violet 

Alkali blue 

Patent blue 

Victoria blue B ........ 

Wool green S 

Rhodamine B 

Eosine '..[ 

Pho3phine 

Primuline 

Columbia yellow 

Gallocyanine 

Methylene blue 

Safraninc 

Iiiduline (spirit soluble).' '. '. '. 
Nigrosine (spirit soluble). . . 

Induline (soluble water) 

Nigrosine (soluble in water) 

Sulphur yellow 

.Sulphur black 

Sulphur blue 

Sulphur brown 

Sulphur tan 

Sulphur maroon 

Indanthrene dark blue B O 

Alizarin 

Aliiarin o ange 

Alizarin brown 

Indanthrene blue G C D.... 

Indanthrene yellow 

Indigo synthetic 

Indigo extract 



571, 217 
21, 332 
13, 328 
35, 782 
69, 610 

152,626 



.12. 25 
1.08 
1.35 
2.50 
2.25 
2.25 
1.89 
2.50 
1.17 
1.48 

12.64 
2.47 



2.50 
2.00 
2.00 
1.97 



2.82 
2.32 



83, 781 



2, 229, 842 
298, 516 
155, 753 
62, 028 
491, 347 
213, 403 
53, 326 
94, 484 



5.00 

.75 



2.30 
2.16 
1.80 
2.00 
1.80 
3.08 
6.28 



49,797 1 
190, 643 
87, 464 
43, 043 
73, 596 



164, 581 
' "69 ,"673 



129, 281 

86,418 

140, 064 

209, 395 

52, 771 

55, 339 

168, 402 

92, 988 

626, 706 

316,399 

7, S32, 696 

190, 621 

1,159,115 

121,390 

230, 773 

36,971 



59, 613 



6, 673, 968 
585, 931 



8.50 
9.10 
3.84 
4.85 
8.50 
4.71 
10.78 
11.91 
6.98 
10.00 
8.-58 
6.00 
4.43 
3.00 
5.96 
3.09 
5.93 
5.41 
1.11 
1.51 
.80 
.99 
.60 
1.63 
.55 
.90 



3.38 



1.42 
.38 



1918 



$2.25 

1.26 

1.92 

2.10 

2.25 

2.10 

.84 

1.40 

.81 

.97 

5.71 

2.01 



3.25 
1.37 
1..56 
1.53 



2.60 
2.46 
2.23 
4.73 
3.00 



4.49 
.85 



2.20 
2.09 
1.70 
2.25 
1.50 
3.76 
5.60 
5.63 
8.10 
7.72 
2.78 
5.66 
7.00 
8.33 
8.68 
8.46 



15.92 
7.81 
6.00 
3.04 
3.56 
5.12 
2.80 
5.85 
• 1.46 
.71 
.70 
.63 
1.09 
.37 
1.45 
.48 
.65 



1.95 

"."so' 



.62 



1919 



82.02 
1.47 
2.4) 
2.67 
2.21 
1.91 
1.01 
1.48 
1.01 
1.04 
2.53 
1.12 
3.32 
2.72 
1.00 
.88 
1.36 
2.72 
2.20 
1.80 
1.69 
2.07 
3.18 
2.40 
3.08 
1.97 
1.04 
1.04 
1.85 
2.14 
1.65 
1.83 
1.23 

.3.08 
3.26 
4.66 
5.12 
4.57 
2.44 
4.86 
4.93 
6.35 



3.65 

5.95 

6.90 

6.30 

3.86 

1.71 

2.66 

3.03 

3.03 

4.02 

.53 

.71 

.67 

.59 

.83 

.29 

1.11 

.47 

.34 

1.23 



1.68 

1.45 

1.58 

6.96 

17.62 

.59 

.64 



1920 



$1 95 
1.29 
2.23 
2.64 
2.26 
1.80 

.87 
1.55 

.84 

.91 
2.81 

.86 
2.97 
2.49 

.88 
1.07 
1.08 
2.59 
1.99 
1.46 
1.67 
2.47 
1.98 
1.88 
2.11 
2.43 
1.03 

.99 
1.51 
1.20 
1.60 
1.58 
1.39 
2.48 
3.32 
4.23 
5.22 
4.67 
2.39 
6.82 
5.20 
5.90 



5.14 

4.99 

6.72 

4.19 

4.17 

1.59 

2.36 

3.06 

2.94 

3.88 

1.21 

.88 

1.03 

.72 

.71 

.25 

.98 

.35 

.47 

1.62 

2.12 

1.45 

1.46 

1.68 

2.40 

4.68 

.74 

1.00 



1921 



$1.67 

1.09 

1.56 

1.41 

1.74 

1.48 

.94 

1.25 

.78 

.85 

2.03 

.89 

2.17 

1.48 

.69 

.86 

.99 

2.09 

1.65 

1.20 

1.03 

2.33 

1.53 

1.67 

1.90 

1.39 

.79 

.71 

1.21 

1.03 

1.15 

1.45 

1.06 

2.02 

1.97 

3.68 

3.94 

3.28 

1.66 

2.91 

3.64 

3.42 



3.86 
1.88 



2.51 
3.70 
1.37 
1.59 
2.44 
1.94 
2.60 
.75 
70 
.96 
68 
.73 
.23 
.64 
..38 
.59 
.95 
2.31 
.65 



1.32 

2.41 

3.76 

.45 

.65 



census of dyes and synthetic organic chemicals, 1921. 77 
Employees and Rates of Pay. 

Reports were made by 170 of the 201 firms manufactm-ing coal-tar 
products concerning the number of employees receiving specified rates 
of pay on either December, 1921, or the nearest representative normal 
date for which this information could be obtained. The result of this 
report is contained in Tables 2 J. and 22. The 31 firms not reporting 
in most cases either conducted a business in which coal-tar products 
were not the primary articles of manufacture or did not have sepa- 
rately organized departments dealing with coal-tar products. The 170 
firms reported a total of 13,292 employees, a decrease in number of 
8,895 from that of 1920. The 1920 number of employees, in turn, 
represented a decrease of 2,549 from that of 1919. The chemists and 
technically trained men in 1921 totaled 1,722, or 12.9 per cent of all 
employees. In 1920 there were 2,551 chemists and technically 
trained men who made up 11.5 per cent of all employees. In 1921, 
of all chemists and technically trained men, 25.4 per cent received $50 
but under $75 per week; 23.47 per cent received $75 per week and 
over; 9.2 per cent received $45 but under $50 per week; 9.5 per cent 
received $40 but under $45 per week; 9 per cent received $35 but 
under $40 per week. Of all men without technical training, 25.3 per 
cent received $20 but under $25 per week; 20.2 per cent received $25 
but under $30 per week; and 16.7 per cent received $30 but under $35 
per week. 

In general, the wages of 1921 for both classes of men show a reduc- 
tion from that of 1920, the percentage being small for chemists and 
technically trained men, whereas the decreased percentage for all 
other men without technical training was larger. Table 22 contains 
a comparison for the years 1920 and 1921 of specified rates of pay of 
technically trained men and men v/ithout such training. Among the 
technically trained men there was a decrease of about 5 per cent in 
each of the tliree classes receiving $30 to $35, $35 to $40, and $40 to 
$45 per week. Of all men without technical training there was a de- 
crease of about 32 per cent in the two classes receiving $25 to $30 and 
$30 to $35 per week. 

The Census of 1919 stated that the dye and coal-tar chemical 
industry has probably a larger proportion of technically trained men 
than will be found in any otlier manufacturing industry in the United 
States. 

There is a striking contrast between the size of the industry in 1914 
and in 1921. The Bureau of the Census reported for the calendar year 
1914 that the number of employees engaged in the manufacture of 
coal-tar colors and other products totaled 528, divided as follows: 
Salaried employees, 130; wage earners (average number), 398. The 
total number of firms engaged in this industry during that year was 7. 



78 CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921. 

Table 21. — Employees and rates of pay in 1921. 
[Dye and coal-tar chemical industry.] 



Wages per week. 



Number of employees at each 
specified wage engaged in 
manufacturing operations. 



Chemists 
and tech- 
nically 
trained 
men. 



Men 
without 
technical 
training. 



AU em- 
ployees. 



Percentage receiv- 
ing each specified 
wage. 



OfaU 
chemists 
and tech- 
nically 
trained 
men. 



OfaU 

men 

without 

technical 

training. 



Percentage receiv- 
ing each specified 
wage or more. 



Of all 
chemists 
and tech- 
nically 
trained 
men. 



Of all 

men 

without 

technical 

training. 



Under $10 

$10 but under $1.5. 
$15 but under $20. 
820 but under $2.5. 
$25 but under ?.30. 
$30 but under $.35. 
$35 but under $40. 
$40 but under $45. 
$45 but under $50. 
$50 but under $75. 
$75 and over 



Total. 



14 
45 
102 
106 
135 
155 
164 
159 
438 
404 



66 

471 

1,994 

2,937 

2.341 

1,940 

802 

516 

214 

245 

44 



66 

485 

2,039 

3,039 

2,447 

2,075 

957 

680 

373 

683 

448 



0.81 
2.61 
5.92 
6.16 
7.84 
9.00 
9.52 
9.23 
25.44 
23.47 



0.57 

4.07 

17.23 

25.38 

20.24 

16.77 

6.93 

4.46 

1.85 

2.12 

.38 



100.00 



99.19 
%.58 
90.66 
84.50 
76.66 
67.68 
58.14 
48.91 
23.47 



100.00 

99.43 

95.36 

78.13 

52.75 

32.51 

15.74 

8.81 

4.35 

2.50 

.38 



11,570 



13, 292 



100.00 



100. 00 



Table 22. — Comparison of employees and rates of pay, 1920 and 1921. 
[Dye and coal-tar chemical industry.] 





Percentage receiving each specified wage or more. 


Wages per week. 


Of all chemists and techni- 
cally trained men. 


Of all men without techni- 
cal trauiing. 




1921 


1920 


Decreased 

per- 
centage. 


1921 


1920 


Decreased 

per- 
centage. 


$10 but under $15. . . 








99.4 

95.4 

78.1 

52.8 

32.5 

15.7 

8.8 

4.4 

2.5 

.4 


99.9 
99.3 
95.2 
84.8 
65.2 
36.9 
19.4 
10.2 
4.9 
.2 


0.5 


$15 but under $20 


99.2 
96.6 
90.7 
84.5 
76.7 
67.7 
58.1 
48.9 
23. 5 


99.3 
97.1 
94.3 

89.7 
81.8 
72.3 
55.4 
47.0 
20.8 


6. i 

.5 

3.6 

5.2 

5.1 

4.6 

12.7 

1 1.9 

12.7 


3.9 


$20 but under $25 


17.1 


$25 but under $30 


32.0 


$30 but under $35 


32.7 


$35 but under $40 


21.2 


$40 but under ."545 


10.6 


$45 but under $50 

$50 but under $75 


5.8 
2.4 


$75 and over 


1.2 







1 Increase. 



Research Work. 



Of the 201 firms engaged in the manufacture of dyes and other coal- 
tar chemicals, 68 had separately organized research laboratories for the 
solution of technical problems in the manufacture of their products 
and for the development or discovery of new products. During 
1921 the net operating expenses of these laboratories, together with 
research work done in the laboratories not separately organized for 
research, was $4,246,668. This includes salaries, apparatus, and 
materials, after deducting the value of saleable products made in the 
research laboratories. The figure for 1921 shows an increase of 
$439,870 compared with 1920. This figure is doubtless an under- 
statement of the real cost of experimental work, since it does not 



CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921. 79 

include, in all cases, the cost of research done as a part of manu- 
facturing operations and not shown on the books of the companies 
as a charge against research. 

The total reported cost of research in the coal-tar dye and chemical 
industry for the four years 1917-1921, was $19,373,407. With the 
exception of the year 1917, this is net, and does not include the value 
of saleable products made in experimental departments. In probably 
no other chemical field has there been so extensive and energetic 
investigation carried out as in the manufacture of dyes. The achieve- 
ments of this period 1917-1921 must be attributed in no small part 
to the activity and liberal policy of the manufacturers in this field. 
Extended research is necessary for the development of a self-sustaining 
and competitive dye indus^try, and should be continued for the future 
welfare of the domestic industry. 

Directory of manufacturers of coal-tar products during 1921 . 



No. 



Name of company. 



Office address (location of plant given in parentheses if 
not in same city as office). 



Abbott Laboratories 

Agawam Chemical Works (Inc.). 



Albany Chemical Co 

Althouse Chemical Co 

Amalgamated Dyestufl & Chemical 
Works (Inc.)- 

American Aniline Products (Inc.) 

American Chemical Products Co 

American Nitration Co. (Inc.) 

American Tar Products Co 



American \'at Color Co 

Ansbacher & Co., A. B. (Inc.) 

Arista Chemical Co. (Inc.) 

Atlantic Chemical Works (Ltd.). 

Atlantic Dyestufl Co 

Atlas Color Works , 

Baird & McGuire (Inc.) 

Barrett Co., The 



Bayer Co. (Inc.), The 

Beaver Chemical Co. (Inc.) 

Beaver Manufacturing Co 

Brooklyn Color Works (Inc.) 

Butterworth-Judsou Corporation 

Cabot (Inc.), Samuel 

Calco Chemical Co., The 

Carey Manufacturing Co., The Philip. 

Carus Chemical Co 

Central Dyestufl & Chemical Co 

Certain-teed Products Corporation .... 



Chatfield Manufacturing Co., The. 



Chemical Company of America (Inc.), 
The. 

Chester Chemical Corporation 

Childs & Co., Charles M 

Chiris Co. , Antoine 

Cincinnati Chemical Works (Inc.) 



Citizens Gas Co 

Coleman & Bell 

Commonwealth Chemical Corporation.. 

Conmionwealth Color & Chemical Co. . . 

Condensite Co. of .\merica 

Consolidated Color & Chemical Co 

Cooks Falls Dye Works (Inc.) 

Coopers Creek Chemical Co 

Corona Chemical Division (Pittsburgh 

Plate Glass Co.). 
CresceRt Color &^ Chemical Works (Inc.) 

' .{h ,yy/iiiip .-Wr/jaVf'o l)rif:";li, 



4753 Ravenswood Avenue, Chicago, lU. 

531 Grosvenor Building, Providence, R. I. (North Attle- 

boro, Mass.). 
3-24 Broadway, Albany, N. Y. 
540 Pear Street, Reading, Pa. 
Plum Point Lane, Newark, N.J. 

80 Fifth Avenue, New York City (Lock Haven, Pa.). 

73 Chatham Street, Rochester, N. Y. 

River Road, Nutley, N. .1. 

208 South La SaUe Street, Chicago, 111. (St. Louis, Mo.; 

CarrollviUe, Wis.; Youngstown, Ohio.; Follansbee, 

W. Va.; Woodward, Ala.). 
3223 South Western Boulevard, Chicago, lU. 
527 Fifth Avenue, New York City. (Brooklyn, N. Y.) 
305 Broadway, New York City. (Brooklyn, N. Y.) 
Bayway, N. J. (Elizabeth, N. J.) 

88 Ames Building, Bo.^ton, Mass. (Portsmouth, N. H.) 
322 Ninth Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Holbrook, Mass. 

40 Rector Street, New York City. (Plants distributed 
throughout the United States.) 

117 Hud.son Street, New York City (Rensselaer,N. Y.). 
Damascus, Va. 
BaUardvale, Mass. 

Stewart Avenue and Cherry Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
61 Broadway, New York City., (Newark, N. J.) 
141 Milk Street, Boston, Mass. (Chelsea, Mass.) 
Bound Brook, N. J. 
Dockland, Ohio. 
La Salle, 111. 

Plum Point Lane, Newark, N. J. 

Boatman's Hank Building, St. Louis, Mo. (East St. 
■ Louis, 111.) 

Seventy-fourth and Lebanon Streets, Station P, Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio. 
46 Murray Street, New York City. (Springfield, N. J.) 

36-40 Delevan Street, Brookljii, N. Y. 

41 Summit Street, Brooklyn,"N. Y. 

147 Waverly Place, New York City. (Dolawanna, N. J.) 
Box 20, Evanston Station, Cincinnati, Ohio. (Norwood 

and St. Bernard, Ohio.) 
Majestic Building, Indianapolis, Ind.i .. ; ; . ,-i | i 4| 
Norwood, Ohio. .o'J yi :-i. .i!,l i lol 

15 Park Row, New York Citv. (Newark, I Wayne 

County, N. Y.) " ■ , : • ; 

Nevins. Butler, and Baltic Streets, Brooklyn, N. Y.; 
Bloomflcld. N. J. (Wvandotte, Mich.) 
122 Hudson Street, New York City. (Newark, N. J.) 
SO Maiden Lane, New York City. (Cooks Falls, N. Y.) 
West Conshohocken, Pa. , , ,; 

21.3-215 Lake Street, Milwaukee, Wis. :- • ;/; j ',.)! 

Fifty-ninth Street and Eleventh Avenue, New York 
City. (Dunellen, N. J.) 



80 CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921, 
Directory of manufacturers of coal-tar ^products during 1921 — Continued. 



1 



No. 



45 



Name of company. 



Croton Color & Chemical Co. (Inc.). 



Denver Gas & Electric Light Co 

Dermatological Research Institute 
(Inc.). 

Devoe k Kaynolds Co. (Inc.) 

Diarsenol Co. (Inc.) 

Dicks David Co. (Inc.) 



Dissosway Chemical Co. (Inc.) .. . 

Dow Chemical Co., The 

du Pont de Nemours & Co., E. I. 



DyaniUn Chemical Co. (Inc.) , 

Dye Products & Chemical Co. (Inc.) 

DvestuiTs & Chemicals (Inc.) 

Eakins (Inc.), J. S. & W. R 

Eastman Kodak Co 



Essex AniUne Works (Inc.) 

Fine Colors Co. (Inc.) 

Florasynth Laboratories (Inc.). 

Fries Bros 

Fries & Fries Co., The 

Garfield Aniline Works (Inc.).. 

Gary Chemical Co 

Gaskill Chemical Corporation. . 

Goodrich Co., The B. F 

Grahame Chemical Co 

Grasselli Chemical Co., The 



Harmer Laboratories Co. 



Helena Light and Railway Co., The 

Heller & Merz Co., The 

Herrmann & Co., Morris 

Hey den Chemical Co. of America(Inc.). 

Hind & Harrison Plush Co., The 

Hirsch Laboratories (Inc.), The 



Holland AniUne Co 

HolUday Kemp Co. (Inc.). 



Hooker Electrochemical Co ... . 
Hord Color Products Co., The.. 
Hub Dyestuff & Chemical Co.* , 

Hydrocarbon Chemical Co 

Hynson, Westcott & Dimning. . 

Imperial Color Works (Inc.) 

Independent Coal Tar Co 

Indiana Dye & Chemical Co 



International Coal Products Corpora- 
tion. 

Interstate Products Corporation 

Ising Corporation, The C. E 

Jaenecke-Ault Co 

Kem-0-Zone Laboratories (Inc.) 

Kentucky Color & Chemical Co 



Klipstein & Sons Co., E.G. 



Kohnstamm & Co., H 

La Motte Chemical Products Co 

Lasher & Co. (Inc.). F. G 

Lawrence Color & Chemical Works 

Lee Co., A 

Lewis Manufacturing Co., F. J 

Lucas Paint Co., Alston 

Lucas & Co. (Inc.), John 



MaUinckrodt Chemical Works 

Marietta Refining Co., The 

Marx Color & Chemical Co., Max 

Maspachusetts Department of Public 
Health. 

May Chemical Works 

Mepham A Co., Geo. S 

Merck & Co 

Merrimae Chemical Co 

Metz Laboratories (Inc.) H. A 

Monroe Drug Co 



OflBce address (location of plant giveninparentheses if 
not in same city as office). 



293 Broadway, New York City. (Croton-on-Hudson, 

N. Y.) . 

900 Fifteenth Street, Denver, Colo. 
1720 Lombard Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 

101 Fulton Street, New York City. (Chicago, 111.) 

904 Ellicott Square, Bufialo, N. Y. 

19 North Moore Street, New YorkCity. (Chicago Heights, 

55 Eckford Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Midland, Mich. 

1007 Market Street, Wilmington, Del. (Deepwater 

Point and Lodi, N. J.) 
Box 216, New Brunswick, N. J. 
200 Fifth Avenue, New York City. (Newark, N. J.) 
11th and Monroe Streets, St. Louis, Mo. 
24 WaUabout Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
343 State Street, Rochester, N . Y. ( Kodak Park Works, 

Rochester, N. Y.) 
88 Broad Street, Boston, Mass. (South Middleton, Mass.) 
21-29 McBride Avenue, Paterson, N. J. 
Olmstead and Starling Avenues, Unionport, N. Y. 
92 Reade Street, New York City. (Bloomfleld, N,J.) 
1501 West Sixth Street, Cincinnaiti, Ohio. 
Midland Avenue, Garfield, N. J. 
738 Broadway, Gary, Ind. (Chesterton, Ind.) 
157 Spencer Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Akron, Ohio (Akron Mill No. 3). 
636 East State Street, Trenton, N. J. 
130a Guardian Buildiag, Cleveland, Ohio. (Grasselli, 

N. J., Rensselaer, N. Y.) 
Baltimore and Hirst Avenues, East Lansdowne, Pa. 

(Lansdowne, Pa.) 
Helena, Mont. 

338 Wilson Avenue, Newark, N. J. 
200 Fifth Avenue, New York City. (Newark, N. J.) 
Garfield, N.J. 
Clark MiUs, N. Y. 
50 East Forty-first Street, New York City. (Brooklyn, 

N. Y.) 
Holland, Mich. 
Betts Avenue and Queens Boulevard, Woodside, L. I., 

N. Y. (New York, N.Y.) 

25 Pine Street, New York City. (Niagara FaUs, N. Y.) 
1636 Columbus Avenue, Sandusky, Ohio. 

595 East Seventh Street, South Boston, Mass. 
951 East Orange Street, Lancaster, Pa. 
Charles and Franklin Streets, Baltimore, Md. 
Glens Falls, N. Y. 

26 Broad Street, Boston, Mass. (Taunton, Mass.) 

One Hundred and Fiftieth Street and Calumet Avenue, 

Hammond, Ind. 
295 Fifth Avenue, New York City. (South Chnch- 

fleld Va.) 
Bristol, Tenn. 
Flushing, N. Y. 

Avenue B and Wright Street, Newark, N. J. 
375 EUicott Street, Buffalo, N. Y. 
Thirty-fourth Street, South of Bank Street, Louisville, 

644 Greenwich Street, New York City. (Chrome, N. J.; 
South Charleston, W. Va., and Edgewater, N. J.) 

87 Park Place, New York City. (Brooklyn, N. Y.) 

13 West Saratoga Street, Baltimore, Md. 

104 Grove Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

15 Merrimae Street, Lawrence, Mass. 

Lawrence, Mass. (Methuen, Mass.) 

2,513 South Robey Street, Chicago, 111. 

1031 Currier Street, Chicago, 111. 

322 Race Street, Philadelphia, Pa. (Gibbsboro, Cam- 
den Co.. N. J.) 

3600 North Second Street, St. Louis, Mo. 

Central Bank Building. Marietta, Ohio. 

192-194 Coit Street, Irvington, N. J. 

Room 540, State House, Boston, Mass. 

204 Niagara Street, Newark, N. J. 

Twentieth and Lynch Avenues, East St. Louis, lU. 

45 Park Place, New York City. (Rahway, N.J.) 

148 State Street, Boston, Mass. (North Woburn, Mass.) 

122 Hudson Street, New York City. (Brooklyn, N. Y.) 

Fourth and Oak Streets, Quincy, 111. 



CEISTSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921. 81 
ft Directory of manufacturers of coal-tar products during 1921 — Continued. 



Name of company. 



OfQce address (location of plant given in parentheses if 
not in same city as offlce). 



Monsanto Chemical Works 

National Ammonia Co. of Penna., The. 
National Aniline & Chemical Co. (Inc.). 



Naugatuck Chemical Co., The. 
Newport Co., The 



New England AnilineWorks (Inc.) 

New Haven Gas Light Co 

New York Color & Chemical Co. (Inc.) 
New York Quinine & Chemical Works 

Niagara Alkali Co 

Nitro Products Corporation 

Noil Chemical & Color Works (Inc.)... , 



Norvell Chemical Corporation, The 

Palatine Aniline & Chemical Corpora- 
tion. 

Peerless Color Co. (Inc.) 

Pennsylvania Coal Products Co 

Peoples Gas By- Products Corporation 



Pharma-Chemical Corporation 

Po Ambo Chemical Co. (Inc.) 

Powers- Weightman-Rosengarten Co 

Providence Chemical Laboratories 

Radiant Dye & Color Works , 

Raritan Aniline Works 

Redmanol Chemical Products Co , 

Reliance Aniline & Chemical Co. (Inc.). 

Republic Color & Chemical Works 

Republic Creosoting Co 



Rhodia Chemical Co. . 
Ruxton (Inc.), Philip. 



Sanborn Chemical Works 

Secaw Chemical Co 

Semet-Solvay Co 

Seydel Manufacturing Co 

Sherwin-Williams Co., The 

Sieglo Corporation of America, G 

Siemon & Elting 

Sinclair & Valentine Co 

Sun Chemical & Color Co 

Synfleur Scientific Laboratories (Inc.). 
Synthetical Laboratories of Chicago... 

T. M. & G. Chemical Co 

Tar Products Corporation 



Texdel Chemical Co. (Inc.) 

Textile Chemical Co 

Thatcher Process Co. (Inc.) , 

Tower Manufacturing Co. (Inc.). 

Trico Chemical Co. (Inc.) , 

Ullman Co., Sigmund 



Ultro Chemical Corporation 

Uniform Color & Chemical Corporation. 

Van Dyk & Co 

Verona Chemical Co 

Warner-Jenkinson Co 

Western Dry Color Co 

White Tar Co. of New Jersey (Inc.), The 

Wilbur White Chemical Co., The 

WilhelmCo., The A 

Will Corporation 

WiUiamsburg Chemical Co. (Inc.) 

Wolf Co., Jacques 

Wyoming Dyestutls & Chemical Corpo- 
ration. 
Zinsser & Co 



Zobel Co. (Inc.), Ernst... 
Stearns & Co., Frederick. 



1724 South Second Street, St. Louis, Mo. 

Delaware Avenue and Van Kirk Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 

40 Rector Street, New York City. (Brooklyn, N. Y.- 
Buffalo, N. Y.; Marcus Hook, Pa.) 

Naugatuck, Conn. 

1112 First Wisconsin National Bank Building, Mil- 
waukee, Wis. 

9.5 BroadStreet, Boston, Mass. (Ashland, Mass.) 

New Haven, Conn. 

12 Gold Street, New York Citv. (Belleville. N.J.) 

135 William Street, New York City. (Brooklyn, N. Y.) 

4205 Buffalo Avenue, Niagara Falls, N. Y. 

Nitro, W. Va. 

152 West One hundred and eighth Street, New York 
City. 

11 CUff Street, New York City, f Perth Amboy, N. J.) 

81 North Water Street, Poughkeepsie, N. Y. 

Bound Brook, N. J. 

Reiber Building, Butler, Pa. (Petrolia, Pa.). 

122 South Michigan Avenue, Chicago, III. (Hawthorne, 

233 Broadway, New York City. (Bayonne, N. J.) 

Matawan, N. J. 

916 Parrish Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 

51 Empire Street, Providence, R. I. 

2837 West Twenty-first Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

New Brunswick, N. J. 

636 West Twenty-second Street, Chicago, 111. 

15 WDliam Street, New York Citv. (Poughkeepsie. 

N. Y.) 
P. O. box 533, Reading, Pa. 
1614 Merchants Bank Building, Indianapolis Ind. (St. 

Louis Park, Minn.; Seattle, Wash.; Mobile, Ala.) 
89 Fulton Street, New York City. (New Brunswick, 

N.J.) 
220 West Forty-second Street. New York City. (247/253 

Water Street, Brooklyn, N. Y.) 
Putnam, Conn. 

525 Chancellor Avenue, Irvington, N. J. 
Syracuse, N. Y. 

78-100 Forrest Street, Jersey City, N. J. 
Cleveland, Ohio. (Kensington, Chicago, lU.) 
Rosebank, S. I., N. Y. 

93 Nassau Street, New York City. (Irvington, N. J.) 
11 St. Clair Place, New York City. (Edgewater, N. J.) 
309-321 Sussex Street, Harrison, N. J. 
Monticello, N. Y. 

1326 West Congress Street, Chicago, lU. 
BeUeviUe, N.J. 
913 Turks Head Building, Providence, R. I. (East 

Providence, R. I.) 
120 Maiden Lane, New York City. (Jersey City, N. J.) 
Public Street and Allen's Avenue, Providence, R. I. 
523 Tracy Street, Syracuse, N. Y. 
326 Broadway, New York City. (Newark, N. J.) 
502 Iroquois Building, Buffalo, N. Y. 
Park Avenue and One hundred and forth-sixth Street, 

New York City. 
41 Union Square, New York City. (Brooklyn, N. Y.) 
Market Street and Bertrand Avenue, Perth Amboy, N. J. 
4 Piatt Street, New York City. (Jersey City, N. J.) 
26 Verona Avenue, Newark, N. J. 
2526 Baldwin Street, St. Louis, Mo. 
Fifty-second and Wallace Streets, Chicago, 111. 
56 Vesey Street, New York City. (Kearney, N. J.) 
O wego, N. Y. 
Reading, Pa. 

845 Maple Street, Rochester, N. Y. 
2.30 Morgan Avenue, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Passaic, N.J. 
P. O. box 12, Scranton, Pa. 

Hastings-on-Hudson, N. Y. 

Second Avenue and Tenth Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Jefferson and BeUevue Avenues, Detroit, Mich. 



I'l ,BifiqIol' 



;!T ,.0'JInoifmri' 



I.HwJj.Oit , 



PART III. 

DYES IMPORTED FOR CONSUMPTION IN THE UNITED 
STATES, 1921 CALENDAR YEAR. 



83 



I 



i 



Part III. 

DYES IMPORTED FOR CONSUMPTION IN THE UNITED 
STATES, 1921 CALENDAR YEAR. 



Introductory. 



Since 1919 the United States Tariff Commission has compiled a 
detailed census of dye imports similar to the Department oi Com- 
merce publication, Artificial Dyestuffs Used in the United States, 
of the fiscal year 1913 and 1914, which is commonly known as the 
Norton Import Census. 

This information was first collected for use in the administration 
of section 501 of Title 5 of the act of September 8, 1916, making the 
specific duties on dyes and other finished coal-tar products after 
September 8, 1921, dependent upon whether as much as 60 per cent 
in value of the consumption of these products are being produced in 
the United States. Unfortunately, however, the provisions are not 
clear as to whether the domestic consumption is to be considered as 
a total consumption of each class of finished products or the con- 
sumption of individual items within the class. In either case there 
has been a lack of detailed information as to the importation of indi- 
vidual dyes, for years other than fiscal 1913 and 1914, this period 
being covered by Norton Census. The need of an import census of 
dyes has caused the Tariff" Commission to continue this compilation 
for the year 1921, the information being of direct value to manufac- 
turers, consumers, and importers. With the cooperation of the 
Treasury Department, invoices covering dye imports in the calendar 
year 1921, with the exception of those of the port of New York, 
were sent to the commission for tabulation. The statistics of dyes 
imported through the port of New York were obtained by trans- 
cribing the necessary information direct from the invoices in the files 
of the collector of the port of New York. 

During the year 1920 the data for the import census included 
under the term ''withdrawals" all withdrawals from entries made as 
far back as January 1, 1919. The collection for the warehouse with- 
drawals during 1921 differed from that of the previous year as follows: 
Withdrawals in the first place are not quite complete, due to the 
new system whereby a warehouse withdrawal is not entered in the 
statistical department of the warehouse entry division of the custom- 
house until all of the goods on that entry are taken from the ware- 
house. To illustrate, if an entry consists of 100 cases in the ware- 
house and 99 cases are withdrawn, there would be no record in the 
warehouse statistical books until the one-hundredth case, or the 
entire entry, had been withdrawn. To sum up, the withdrawals 
shown in this tabulation include (1) withdrawals which are complete 
and (2) nearly all of the withdrawals where only a part of the goods 

85 



86 CENSUS or dyes and synthetic organic chemicals^ 1921. 

has been taken from the warehouse. Owing to this new system 
mentioned in the above paragraph, in certain cases a hmited number 
of withdrawals are not available where such withdrawals represent 
only a portion of the entire entry. From actual contact with the 
customhouse books and authorities this figure covering poundage 
withdrawn from warehouse, but not recorded as available, represents 
only a very small per cent of total warehouse withdrawals, which 
would be even a smaller per cent of total dyes entered for consump- 
tion. 

The dyes imported were classified according to their chemical 
composition and tabulated according to the Schultz Farbstofi Tabel- 
len (1914 edition) ; various types were also identified according to the 
Norton Census ^ as well as some other sources of information in the 
files of the Tariff Commission. Dyes identified by Norton as a, b, 
and c classes under a given Schultz number were included in that 
number in each case without special designation, with the exception 
of a few incorrectly designated dyes in that census. It is under- 
stood that such dyes included under these a, b, and c classes are not 
always chemically identical with the original Schultz types. 

The Tariff Commission can not vouch for the accuracy of these 
classifications, as some identifications were supplied by dye experts 
and others by foreign manufacturers, and there was no opportunity 
to make a chemical examination of each dye imported. Those dyes 
which could not be identified by Schultz numbers were classified 
■according to their ordinary method of application under the following 
groups: Acid, basic, direct, lake and spirit-soluble, mordant and 
chrome, sulfur, and vat dyes. 

In many cases the classification of a dye by the class of application 
is arbitrary, as a color may be applied by two methods and hence 
could be grouped under either of two classes. 

A small number of dyes not classified either by Schultz tables or by 
the method of application are listed by name under the heading of 
unclassified and unidentified dyes. The published value in English 
dyes include c. i. f. charges. In the case of Swiss dyes, however, all 
extra charges are included in every instance. The German invoices 
vary in the method used, but in most cases the extra charges are not 
included in the invoice values. 

The rate of exchange used in converting the foreign invoice value to 
United States currency was either the rate given on the invoice or in a 
comparatively small number of cases the exchange value was used 
as published by the Treasury Department for that month in which 
consular certification occurred. 



Summary of Imports of Dyes During 1921. 



■•-) I ' 



Table 24 shows the quantity and value of each individual dye 
imported during the calendar year 1921. Table 23 contains a sum- 
mary of the dyes imported, classified into groups according to method 
of application. ■ 

The total import of coal-tar dyes during the calendar year 1921 was 
3,914,036 pounds (as received), valued at $5,156,779, compared with 
3,402, 582 pounds, valued at $5,763,437, during the calendar year 1920, 

• Norton, Thos. H., Artificial Dyestuffs Used in the United States, Department of Commerce, Special 
Agents Series, No. 121. 



CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS^ 1921. 87 



and 3,501,147 pounds during the fiscal year 1920. The value of the 
1921 unport of dyes is about one-half the value of the pre-war imports. 
The total quantity of dyes imported in 1921, in which most of the 
vat dyes are reduced to a single-strength basis, was 4,252,911 pounds. 
In comparing this 1921 poundage with that of 1920, allowance should 
be made for an increase of 338,875 pounds in the 1921 figure, due to 
the conversion for the first time of most of the vat dyes to a single- 
strength basis, ui order to give the total poundage of any individual 
vat dye on a definite known basis of strength. f • , 



Table 23.- 



-Summary of dyes imported for consumption in the United States during the 
calendar years 1921 and 1920, classified by application. 



•'!!■'/ in /v 



Class. 



1921 



Pounds. 



Per cent 
of total. 



Pounds. 



Per cent} 
of total., 



Acid 

Vat: 

(a) Indigo 

(b) Vat (other than indigo) . . 

Total ^.!^.^.['.\.. 

Mordant and chrome: 

(a) Alizarin 

(b) Mordant and chrome 

Total.bjJ,i.Jj 

Direct '. '. 

Sulfur .■ 

Basic 

Spirit soluble and color lakes 

XJnidentifjed, unclassified, special 

Total 



1, 455, 823 



34.24 



733, 405 



21.56 



70, 975 
1,045,370 



1.66 
24. 59 



171, 101 
761,. 363 



5. 04 
22.37 



1,116,345 



26.25 



932, 464 



27.41 



136, 2S3 
559, 678 



3.58 
12.78 



73, 252 
636, 230 



2.16 

18.71 



695, 961 



16. 36 



709, 482 



20.87 



537, 664 

220, 938 

163, 527 

43, 553 

19, 100 



12. 64 
5.20 
3.84 
1.02 
.45 



571,581 
229, 140 
192, 163 

17, 527 
16, 820 



16.80 

6.73 

5.64 

.51 

.49 



100. 00 



3, 402, 582 



100.00 



Table 24 shows the quantity and value of each individual dye 
imported during the calendar year 1921, and also the percentage of 
each, by the country of origin. In 1921 there were 379 Schultz types 
imported and over 1,300 different trade types. Of the total imports 
during 1921, 48.34 per cent, or 2,055,497 poimds, of these dyes origi- 
nated in Germany. In 1920 Germany furnished 51 per cent. S^^^ss 
dyes totaled 40.53 per cent in 1921, or 1,723,281 pounds; England 
furnished 7.34 per cent, or 312,128 pounds; Italy, 2.7 per cent, or 
115,009 pounds. The imports from Italy represented reexported 
reparation dyes of German manufacture. Dyes from Holland totaled 
0.45 per cent, or 19,295 pounds, probably nearly all of German ori- 
gin; France supplied 0.37 per cent, or 15,878 pounds. The imports 
of dyes from all other countries amounted to 0.27 per cent, or 11,823 
pounds. 

The imports in 1921 (as received) represent 10 per cent of the pro- 
duction during that year and 8.5 per cent of the imports during 1914, 
when the United States imported 45,950,895 pounds and produced 
6,619,729 pounds from German-made intermediates. The dyes im- 
ported include those products which are either not yet manufactured 
in this country or are not yet produced in an adequate quantity or 
in a satisfactory quality to meet all special requirements. 



88 CENSUS or dyes and synthetic organic chemicals, 1921. ^ 

The average invoice price of dyes imported in 1921, as received, 
was SI. 32 per pound, as compared with $1.70 per pound for 1920 and 
about 22 cents per pound for 1914. This large increase in unit value 
of the postwar imports compared with the pre-war imports is due to 
several reasons: (1) The increased export values of dyes shipped from 
Germany, (2) the tendency to sliip higher concentration colors in 
recent years compared with the pre-war standards, and (3) the dyes 
imported in the years 1919 to 1921 represent, for the most part, the 
more expensive products which either have not been made in this 
country at all or have not been made on satisfactory terms as to 
quality, delivery, or price. For these reasons the pre-war average 
invoice value of about 22 cents per pound is not comparable with the 
1921 average invoice value of $1.32 per pound. 

An examination of Table 23, containing a summary of dyes im- 
ported for consumption, classified by method of application, shows 
that the acid dyes made up the largest class imported, totaling 
1,455,823 pounds, or 34.24 per cent of the total imports. In 1920 
this class constituted 21.5 per cent of the total imports. A part of 
the increase of this class is due to the fact that certain acid dyes 
derived from alizarin, commonly used as acid dyes, were classified 
under the acid class instead of under the mordant and chrome colors, 
as was the case in 1920. The second class, in view of quantity 
imported, were the vat dyes, which totaled 1,116,345 pounds, or 
26.25 per cent of the total imports. The vat dyes, other than indigo, 
amounted to 1,045,370 pounds, or 24.59 per cent of the total, which is 
three times domestic production of 1921. The mordant and chrome 
dyes rank third in quantity, with a total of 695,961 pounds, or 16.36 
per cent of the total import, this group being further divided into. 
(1) alizarin, 136,283 pounds, and (2) mordant and chrome colors,, 
with a total of 559,678 pounds. The importation of direct cotton 
colors was 537,664 pounds, or 12.64 per cent of all dyes imported. 
The remaining classes, which were imported in relatively small 
amounts, are: Sulfur dyes, 220,938 pounds, or 5.2 per cent of all dyes 
imported; basic dyes, 163,527 pounds, or 3.84 per cent; spirit-soluble 
and color lake dyes, 43,553 pounds, or 1.02 per cent. The total im- 
ports of unclassified and unidentified dyes were 19,100 pounds, or 
0.45 per cent. 

Returning to a consideration of the acid dyes, Wool Blue R. L, 
which is not produced in this country, was first, with a total import 
of 69,719 pounds. Xylene Light Yellow was second in quantity, with 
an import of 60,422 pounds. The imports of Sulphoncyanine and 
Wool Green S each amounted to nearly 52,000 pounds. Patent blue 
ranks fifth, with an import of 42,718 pounds. Tartrazine, although 
produced in the United States to the extent of 559,134 pounds, 
showed an import of 38,395 pounds. Alizarin direct green G was 
produced in this country, for the first time, in 1922; the 1921 import 
was 36,534 pounds. Acid dyes imported in a quantity varying from 
21,898 to 28,606 pounds, included Alizarin Saphirol B, Cloth Fast Blue, 
Fast Light Yellow, Fast Green, Alizarin Astrol, Quinoline Yellow. 

In the class of vat dyes (other than indigo), Indanthrene Blue 
G C D, the most important vat dye other than indigo, led with a 
total import (single strength basis) of 201,835 pounds. In 1914 when 
this color was exclusively imported from Germany the imports were 
478,980 pounds. Hydron Blue ranks second in quantity imported, 



CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS^ 1921. 89 

namely, 146,072 pounds. Ciba Blue 2 B ranked third, with an im- 
port of 99,937 pounds. Indigo, although produced in large quan- 
tity in this country, was imported to the extent of 70,975 pounds. 
This figure is compiled by the Department of Commerce, and it is 
possible that it may mclude brominated indigos. Other vat dyes 
imported in substantial amounts are Indanthrene Golden Orange R, 
56,390 pounds; Indanthrene Violet 2 R, 52,083 pounds; Indanthrene 
Yellow, 49,609 pounds; Indanthrene Golden Orange G, 33,423 pounds; 
Helindone Pink (not produced in this country), 31,813 pounds. The 
following vat dyes varied in quantity imported from 14,000 to 29,000 
pounds each: Indanthrene Blue 3 G; Algol Red R F F; Indanthrene 
Blue R S; Helindone Brown A N; Ciba Violet B; Indanthrene Red 
B N; Helindone Red 3 B. 

Of the mordant and chrome dyes, Erio Chrome Black A showed the 
largest individual import of any dye, namely, 224,002 pounds; -Alizarin 
was second in quantity of all dyes imported, with a total of 136,283 
pounds. Erio Chrome Black T, with an import of 132,388 pounds, 
ranks third in quantity imported. Anthracene Blue W R followed 
with an import in 1921 of 107,769 pounds, compared with 103,913 
pounds for 1920, during which year this color constituted the largest 
import of any dye of the mordant and chrome class. Other dyes of 
this class which showed imports varying from 15,000 to 43,000 pounds, 
include in their order of quantity imported: Alizarin Blue Black, 
Erio Chrome Blue Black, Alizarin Black, Alizarin Blue, Alizarin 
Brown, Alizarin R G, G I; Alizarm Red, and Gallamine Blue. 

The imports of direct cotton dyes included a large number of dyes: 
Trisulphon Brown led with an import of 38,558 pounds, followed by 
Trisulphon Brown 2 G, with an import of 22,872 pounds. Diaminogen 
Blue, used as a developed dye, ranked third, with an import of 17,308 
pounds. Direct cotton dyes showing an import of from 7,000 to 13,000 
pounds include: Chicago Blue 6 B, Diamine Scarlet, Benzo Fast Scar- 
let, Congo Fast Blue, Diaminogen, and Clirysamine. Carbide Black 
E, a type of Direct Deep Black, showed an import of 11,102 pounds. 
The sulfur dyes constituted only 5 per cent of the dyes miported. 
These imports comprise a comparatively small number of dyes. 
Cross dye green, for which there is no domestic equivalent in bril- 
liancy, led with an import of 51,074 pounds. Thionol Yellow had an 
import of 35,240 pounds; followed by Eclipse Brown with an import 
of 21,248 pounds, and Thionol Brown, with an import of 20,632 pounds. 
Other sulfur dyes showing imports varying from 6,500 to 16,000 
pounds include Thionol Green D Y, Pyrogene Blue, Thionine Green 
G G, and Katigene Green. 

Basic colors made up 3.84 per cent of the imports; the total for 

this group was 163,527 pounds. The more important basic dyes 

imported are Auramine, with a total of 35,532 pounds; Phosphine, 

21,153 pounds; Victoria Blue B, 12,342 pounds; Rhodamine B and 

I 6 G, with an individual import of slightly over 10,000 pounds. 

I Symbols denoting manufacturer. — In the table of imports of dyes 

] under the heading ''manufacturer" is shown a symbol for each dye, 

which refers to the following list of manufacturers in foreign countries: 

541—22 7 



90 CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921. 

1. THE SIX LEADING GERMAN COMPANIES. 

A Actien-Gesellschaft fur Anilin-Fabrikation, Berlin. Founded 1873. 

Branches in France and Russia. 
B Badische Anilin- und Soda-Fabrik, Ludwigshafen on the Rhine. Founded 

1865. Branches in France and Russia, 
By Farbenfabriken vorm. Friedr. Bayer & Co., Leverkusen on the Rhine. 

Founded 1862. Branches in France and Russia. 
C Leopold Cassella & Co., Frankfort on the Main. Founded 1870. Branches 

in France and Russia. 
K Kalle & Co., A. G., Biebrich on the Rhine. Founded 1870. Branch in 

Russia. 
M Farbwerke vorm. Meister Lucius & Briining, Hochst on the Main. 

Founded 1862. Branches in France and Russia. 

2. THE SEVEN SMALLER GERMAN COMPANIES. 

BK Leipziger Anilinfabrik Beyer & Kegel, Furstenberg near Leipzig. Founded 

1882. 
CG Chemikalienwerk Greisheim G. m. b. H., Griesheimon the Main. Founded 

1881. 

CJ Carl Jager G. m. b. H., Anilinfarbenfabrik, Dusseldorf. Founded 1823. 

GrE Chemische Fabrik Griesheim-Electron, Offenbach on the Main. Founded 

1842. 
L Farbwerk Muhlheim vorm. A. Leonhardt & Co., Muhlheim on the Main. 

Founded 1879. Branch in France. 
tM Chemische Fabriken vorm. Weiler ter Meer, Uerdingen on the Rhine. 

Founded 1877. 
WD Wulfing, Dahl & Co., A. G. Barmen. Founded 1842. 

3. DUTCH, BELGIAN, AND FRENCH COMPANIES. 

FA Farbwerk Ammersfoort, Ammersfoort, Netherlands. Founded 1888. 

NF Niederlandische Farben- und Chemikalienfabrik Delft, Delft, Netherlands. 

Founded 1897. Branch in Russia. 
LG Lazard Godchaux, of Brussels. (These products are probably compounded 

largely from the dyes made by A. Wiescher & Co., of Haeren, Belgiam.) 
P Societe Anonyme des Matieres colorantes et produits chimiques St. Denis 

(formerly A. Poirrier), St. Denis, near Paris, France. Founded 1830. 

4. SWISS COMPANIES, ALL AT BASEL. 

DH Farbwerke vorm. L. Durand, Huguenin & Co. Founded 1871. Branches 

in Germany and France. 
G Anilinfarben- und Extract-Fabriken vorm. Joh. Rud. Geigy. Founded 

1764. Branches in France, Germany, and Russia. 

I Gesellschaft fur chemische Industrie. Founded 1885. Branch in France. 

S Chemische Fabrik vorm. Sandoz & Co. Founded 1887. 

- 5. ENGLISH COMPANIES. 

ClCo The Clayton Aniline Co. (Ltd.), Clayton, near Manchester. Founded 1876. 

CR Clauss & Co. (formerly Clauss & Ree), Clayton, near Manchester. Founded 

1890. 

CV Colne Vale Chemical Co., Milnsbridge, near Huddersfield. 

RHS Read Holliday & Sons (Ltd.), Huddersfield. Founded 1830. (Purchased 

by British Dyes (Ltd.).) 

BD British Dyes (Ltd.). P'ounded 1915. 

Lev Levinstein (Ltd.), Crumpsall Vale, near Manchester. Founded 1864. 

Q Importations of unknown source, through dealers in colors. 



I 



CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC OEGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921. 91 

Table 24. — Imports of dyes during the calendar year 1921. 





Name of dye. 


Manu- 
fac- 
turer. 


Imports. 


Countries of origin (percent- 
age of quantity). 


Schultz 
No. 


Quantity. 


Invoice 
value. 




Total 




Pounds. 
4,252,911 


15, 156, 779 


Germany, 48.34 per cent; 








Smtzerland, 40.53 percent; 
England, 7.34 per cent; 
Italy, 2.70 per cent; Hol- 
land, 0.45 per cent; France, 
0.37 per cent; all other 
eotmtries, 0.27 per cent. 


4 


190 




Germany, 100 per cent. 






C 




7 






80 




England, 100 per cent. 






Q 




g 






544 




Germany, 100 per cent. 




Naphthamine yellow BN 

Naphthamine yellow G 


K 






K 








16 


CLCO... 


1,000 
2,204 




England, 100 per cent. 
Switzerland, 100 per cent. 


18 








Diphenyl chlorine yellow 
FF supra 287. 


G 




19 




23,315 


36,989 


Germany, 54 per cent; Swit- 
zerland, 46 per cent. 






G 




Fast light yellow G 


Bv 








Fast light yellow G 10526. .. . 
Fast light yeUow G Pl-10o26. 
Fast light j-ellow G.VIIl 10526 
Fast light yellow G cone. 

80-100 10526a. 

Fast light yellow 2G N 

Fast light yeUow 3G 1110. . . . 

Fast light yellow 3G cone 

Fast light yellow 3G cone. 

75-100 1052SB. 

Fast light yellow RG 

Fast hght yellow GGN 10531 

Pill. 


By .. 










By 










By 










By 










By 










By 










By 










By 










By 










By 










M 








20 






6,096 




Germany, 100 per cent. 






M 




22 






60, 422 


99, 737 


Switzerland, 100 per cent. 




Xylene light yellow GG... . 

Xylene light yeUow 2G 

Xylene light yellow 2G cone. 

Xylene light yellow R 

Tartra^ine 


g 




S 










S . .. 










s 








23 




38,395 


46,541 


Switzerland, 90 per cent; 




Tartraiine XX 


B 


Germany, 9.9 per cent; 




Tartra dne con? 


S. 






England, 0.1 per cent. 




Tartra..ine cone, pure 


s 








RHS 












S 








25 


Dianil yellow 3G 


M 


100 
2,725 




Germany, 100 per cent. 


. 28 






Do. 






m:::.:;: 








Hansa yellow G lumps 


M 








29 




1,102 




Switzerland, 100 per cent. 




Erio chrome red B 915... 


G 




37 




198 




Germany, 100 per cent. 






C 




38 






320 




Do. 




Orange GG crystals 


C 






42 


Amide naphthol red G 




14, 130 




Switzerland, 100 per cent. 




Erio floxine 2G cone. 575 

Erio floxine 6B cone. 576 

Brilliant la:- e red R 


G 






G .. . 








45 




10,000 




Germany, 100 per cent. 




Brilliant lake red R paste 


M 






56 




2,694 




Do. 




Pigment red B paste 


M 








Pigment red G powder 

Azophosphine GO 


M 








60 




423 




Do. 




A/.ophosphine GOK 


M 






61 


Victoria violet 




2,230 


1,263 


Switzerland, 67 per cent; 




V^ictoria violet 4BS 


S 


Germany, 33 per cent. 




Vi 'toria violet 43S 


M 








M toria violet 43SL 


M 









92 CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921. 

Table 24 .—Imports of dyes during the calendar year 1921 — Continued. 





Name of dye. 


Manu- 
fac- 
turer. 


Imports. 


Coimtries of origin (percent- 
age of quantity). 


Schultz 
No. 


(Quantity. 


Invoice 
value. 


61 


Victoria viol?t— Continued. 


C 


Pounds. 










C 








63 






4,425 




Switzerland, 100 per cent. 






S 




64 






402 




Germany, 100 per cent. 






C 








C 








66 






200 




Do. 




Amido naphthol red B B 


M ■ 






73 




1,111 




Do. 




Heho fast red RL powder 


By 






81 




412 




Do. 




Brilliant cochineal 4R 


C 






82 


M 


1,298 

242 




Do. 


83 






Germany, 79 per cent; Eng- 
land, 21 per cent. 




Ponceau X I K . . . 








Q 






85 






1,001 




Switzerland, 100 per cent. 




Omega chrome black P cone. . 


S 




86 


M 


511 
300 




Germany, 100 per cent. 
Do. 


87 










C... 






88 






9,028 


$5, 138 


Do. 




Acid anthracene brown R 

Acid anthracene brown R 

11051. 
Acid anthracene brown R 

11051 (IX). 
Acid anthracene brown RH, 

extra. 
Acid anthracene brown RH, 

extra 110.55. 
Acid anthracene brown RH, 

extra 11055 Pi. 
Acid anthracene brown WSG 

27423. 
Acid anthracene brown RR, 

extra (11055). 


Bv 






By 










By. .. 










Bv. 










Bv. 










By 










By... . 










By. 








92 




.342 




Do. 




Metachrome Bordeaux B 

Sudan R 


A 






93 




1,285 




Do. 




Pigment purple A paste 


M 






113 




159 




Do. 






K 






118 






4,034 


1,030 


Do. 






By 








By 












By 








119 






1,491 


221 


Do. 






C 


• 




Diamine rose FFB, extra 


C 










c 








121 


Erica B 




2,802 


7,860 


Germany, 58 per cent; Swit 






A 


zerland, 42 per cent 




Erica BN . 


A 












S 








126 






709 


211 


Germany, 100 per cent. 






B 








C 












c 








132 






6,000 




Do. 






M 






133 






2,347 




Switzerland, 100 per cent. 




Erio chrome phosphine RR 

9.58. 


G. 






134 




3,637 




Do. 






Q 










I 








139 






220 




Do. 




Orange IV powder .522 


G 






140 




3,681 




Do. 




Jasmine liigh cone. 729 


G 







CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC OEGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921. 93 
Table 24.- — Imports of dyes during the calendar year 1921 — Continued. 



Schultz 
No. 


Name of dye. 


Manu- 
fac- 
turer. 


Imports. 


Countries of origin (percent- 
age of quantity). 


Quantity. 


Invoice 
value. 


141 






Pounds. 
15,118 


$12,534 


Switzerland, 99 per cent; Ger- 
many, 1 per cent. 




Helianthine GFF 731 

Helianthine G 751 


G 




G 








Azo yellow I... 


I . 










Azo yellow Q.. 


K 








152 






4,134 


6,914 


Germany, 100 per cent. 




Lithol niMne BN powder. . . 
Permanent red extra powder. 
Permanent red R extra 

powder. 
Permanent red 4B extra 

powder. 


B 




A 










A 










A... 








154 




900 




Do. 




Palatine chrome Lrown RX.. 
Chrome 1 rown RR 


B....... 






158 




794 




Switzerland, 100 per cent. 




Chrome hrown RVV 899 


G 




159 




3,808 


3,559 


Switzerland, 97 per cent; Ger- 




Acid alizarin 1 lack R 

Acid alizarin 1 lack R 

Acid alizarin Hack R 

Fast red . .... 


I 


many, 3 per cent. 




.\r. 








s 






R. 


161 




602 




Germany, 100 per cent. 




Fast red S 


M 




Do 


163 


Azo acid rul ine B 

Diamond line R 


K 


218 
1,455 




164 




Do. 




Diamond blue R 10043 (PI). . 
Amaranth 


Bv 






168 




520 




Do 




Amaranth 

Naphthol red EB 


c 








C 








177 






1,239 




Do. 






M 










M 










Salicine yellow L 

Erio chrome blueblack BC 


K .. .. 








180 




38, 226 




Switzerland, 100 per cent. 




Erio chrome blueblack BC 

926. 
Erio chrome blueblack G 925. . 
Salicine black U 


G 






G. .. 








181 




3,532 


309 


Germany, 100 per cent. 




Salicine black U 


k 




Salicine black C cone 


K 










K 












K 










Anthracene blue black BE. . 
Brilliant sulphon red. 


C 








182 




7,235 


10, 163 


Switzerland, 100 per cent. 




Brilliant sulphon red B 

BriUiant sulphon red lOB 

Fast sulphon violet 5BS 

Erio chrome black T cone 


S 




s 










s 








183 




132,388 




Do. 




Erio chrome black T 934 

Erio chrome black A 


G 






184 




224, 002 




Do. 




Erio chrome black A 922 

Anthracene chrome black 


G 






185 




2,196 


522 


Germany, 100 per cent. 




Anthracene chrome black 5B. 
Anthracene chrome black 

FE. 
Anthracene chrome black 

PF. 
Anthracene chrome black 

PPN extra. 
Thiazol yellow . . .... 


C 




C 










C 










c 








198 




6,945 




Switzerland, 100 per cent. 




Thiazol yellow G cone 


s 






G 








207 


Diphenvl fast brown GNC 




969 




Do 




Diphenyl fast brown GNC129. 

Diphenyl fast brown GF 365. 

Resorcine brown 




G 








G 








211 




300 




Germany, 100 per cent. 






K 




212 


Acid brown 




1,542 




Switzerland, 100 per cent. 




Acid brown RN 532 


G 




217 


Agalma l)lack lOB 




1,870 


263 


Germany, 100 per cent. 




Agalma black lOBX 


B 




Naphthol blue black 


c 










Naphthol blue black S 

Naphthol blue black pure. . . 


c 










c 









94 CENSUS OF DYES AXD SYNTHETIC OEGANIC CHEMICALS, 1021. 
Table 24. — Imports of dyes during the calendar year 1921 — Continued. 



Schultz 
No. 


Name of dye. 


Manu- 
fac- 
turer. 


Imports. 


Countries of origin (percent- 
age of quantity). 


[Quantity. 


Invoice 
value. 


218 






Pounds. 
1,000 




Germany, 100 per cent. 






B 






220 






14,850 


$9, 870 


Do. 




Wool black 6B 


A . . 






Wool black GRF 


A . .. 










Wool jet black 3B (old type) . 


A 








221 




889 




Do. 




Anthracene acid brown G. . . 


C 






222 




1,770 




Do. 






M 


1 




223 


Sudan III 




525 




Do. 






C 






227 






2,339 


2,191 


Germany, 51 per cent; Italy, 






C 


49 per cent. 




Brilliant croceine 3BA 


By 








c.^::.... 










Brilliant croceine M 85-100 . . . 


c 










B 








240 






400 




Germany, 100 per cent. 






M 






241 






188 




Do. 






C 






247 


Scarlet 




518 




Do. 




Scarlet MS 


C 






257 






51,989 


77,356 


England, 81 per cent; Ger- 




Sulphoii cyanine OR extra. . 
Coomassie navy blue 2RN. . . 
Alphanol blue 5RN 


By 


many, 19 per cent. 




BD ... 








C 








260 




2,667 




Switzerland, 100 per cent. 




Erio chrome verdon S 

Eriochrome verdon S1042 


G 








G 


■ 






265 




615 




Germany, 100 per cent. 




Tolyl black BGII 


M 






266 


Naphthvlamine black 




587 


76 


Do. 




Naphthylamine black 4B 

Naphthylamine black 4BS . . 
Naphthylamine bhuk ESN.. 

Naphthylamine black S 

Naphthylamine black 4BX.. 


C .. .. 


1 






C 










C 






, 




c 










B 








268 


C 


123 
1,705 




Do. 


269 






Do. 






M 






270 






362 




Do. ' ' 






C 






272 






513 




Do. 




Naphthol black P 


C 








Naphthol black BD 


C 








273 






19, 182 


16,529 


Germany ,98 per cent; Italy, 




Diaminogeneblue BB .'.. 

Piaminogene blue NA 

Diaminogene blue NB 


c 


2 per cent. 




c 










c 








274 




7,864 


10,053 


Germany, 94 per cent; Italy, 






c ... . 


6 per cent. 






c 










Diazo indigo blue BR extra . 

Diazo i ndigo blue 2RL 

I iazo indigo blue 2RL 1221.. 
r-iazo indigo blue 2RL 10417. 
Diazo indigo blue 2RL 10417. 

(VII). 
Diazo indigo blue 2RL cone. 

70-100 10417 a. 
Diazoindgo blue 2RL cone. 

70-100 10417 a (VII). 

Diazo indigo blue 3RL 

Diazo indigo blue 3! Lconc. 

50-100 1041Sa (VII). 
Zamt)csi pure blue 4B 


By 










By 










By 










By .... 










By . 










By 










By 










By 










By 










A 








275 




6,570 


1,037 


Germany, 91 per cent, 




Fast mordant lilack B 

Fast mordant l)lack FlI 

Fast mordant black T 

Diamond black FB 


M 


Switzerland, 9 per cent. 




M 










M 










By 






1 



CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921. 95 
Table 24. — Imports of dyes during the calendar year 1921 — Continued. 



Name of dye. 



Diamond green 

Diamond green SS 

Diamond green SS 10980 (PI). 
Anthracene acid black 

Anthracene acid black DSF . 

Anthracene acid black DSF 
extra. 

Anthracene acid black DSFB 

Anthracene acid black ST . . . 
Benzo fast scarlet 

Benzo fast scarlet 4BA 10024. 

Benzo fast scarlet 4BS 1024. . 

Benzo fast scarlet 4BS 10020 
(VI). 

Benzo fast scarlet 4BS 10020 
(PI). 

Benzo fast scarlet 4BS cone. . 

Benzo fast scarlet 4BS cone. 

75-100 10020a. 

Benzo fast scarlet 4BS cone. 
7.5-100 10020a (VI). 

Benzo fast scarlet 5BS 1161. . 

Benzo fast scarlet 5BS 10021 . 

Benzo fast scarlet 7BS 

Benzo fast scarlet SBS 1002.3. 

Benzo fast scarlet SBS 10023 
(PI). 

Benzo fast scarlet GS 

Benzo fast scarlet GS 10019 
(PI). 

rirect fast scarlet SE cone. . . 

Dianol fast red K 

Bismark brown 

Bismark brown GG 

Milling red 

Acid milling red G cone. 631. 
Fast mordant yellow 

Anthracene yellow C powder . 

Fast mordant yellow G pow- 
der. 
Cotton yeUow 

Cotton yellow GI 

Benzo fast yeUow 4GL extra. 

Benzo fast yellow 4GL e.xtra 
156.5. 

Benzo fast yellow 4GL extra 
10102. 

Benzo fast veUow KL 

Benzo fast yellow RL 28168. . 

Diamine fast yeUow 3G 

Cotton yellow GjX 

Benzo fast pink 2BL 

Benzo fast pink 2BL 

Chrysophenine 

Chrysophenine cone 

Pyramihe orange 30 

Pyramine orange 3G 

Pyramine orange 3GX 

Congo orange 

Congo orange G 

Brilliant congo G 

Diamine scarlet 

Diamine scarlet B 

Diamine scarlet B 130 per 
cent . 

Diamine scarlet 3B 

Diamine scarlet 3B 

Diamine scarlet 3B 120 per 
cent. 

Diamine scarlet HS 

Diamine scarlet HS. . .» 

Chloramine red B 

Chloramine red 3B 

Diamine brilliant Bordeaux 
R. 



Manu- 
fac- 
turer. 



K.. 
By. 



By.. 

By.. 

By.. 

By.. 
By.. 

By.. 

By.. 
By.. 
By.. 
By.. 

By.. 
By.. 

I.... 
BD. 



B.. 
By. 
By. 

By. 

§y- 

By. 
C. 
B.. 



By. 

S.'.'. 



By. 
A.. 



Imports. 



Quantity. 



Pounds. 
2,117 



1,576 



10, 973 



1,338 



2,655 



Invoice 
value. 



$13,835 



2,403 



4,321 



22 



1,300 
""537' 



77 
12,399 



15,575 



Countries of origin (percent- 
age of quantity). 



Germany, 100 per cent. 
Do. 



Germany, 76 per cent; Swit- 
zerland, 20 per cent; Eng- 
land, 4 per cent. 



Germany, 100 per cent. 
Switzerland, 100 per cent. 
Germany, 100 per cent. 

Do. 



Do. 

Switzerland, 100 per cent. 
Germany, 100 per cent. 

Do. 

•Do. 

Germany, 53 per cent; Swit- 
zerland, 45 per cent; Hol- 
land, 2 per cent. 



96 CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921. 
Table 24. — Imports of dyes during the calendar year 1921 — Continued. 



Schultz 
No. 


Name of dye. 


Manu- 
fac- 
turer. 


Imports. 


Countries of origin (percent- 
age of quantity). 


Quantity. 


Invoice 
value. 


322 


Trisulphon violet B .... 




Pounds. 
5,504 




Switzerland, 100 per cent. 




Trisulphon violet B 


S 




326 






1,910 


$291 


Germany, 100 per cent. 






B 




Naphthamine violet BE 

Benzo violet R 10196. . 


K 










By.... 












By.. 










Beiizo violet O 


By..:: 








S29 


Diamine brown V . . 




282 




Do. 






C 






330 


Zambesi brown . 




403 




Do. 




Zambesi brown 4R . . 


A... . 






332 


Benzo fast red 




6,046 


9,507 


Germany, 95 per cent; Hol- 




Benza fast red 8BL 


By 


land, 5 per cent. 




Benzo fast red 8BL 10018 

Benzo fast red 8BL 10018 (VI) 
Benzo fast red 9BL 

Benzo fast red 9BL 10043 (PI) 
Benzo fast red L 


By.. . . 








Bv-. . .' 








By.. 










By . 










o^ ■ 








333 


Diamine black 


2,265 




Switzerland, 97 per cent; 




Diamine black R. M. W 

Chloramine black B. H. cone, 
double. 
Diphenyl blue black double 


c ... 




Germany, 3 per cent. 




s 






334 




561 




Switzerland, 100 per cent. 




Diphenyl blue black double. . 
Naphthamine black 


G 




335 




772 




Germany, 100 per cent. 




Naphthamine black CE 

Naphthamine black GET 
(U4). 
Naphthamine blue 


K. . . . 








K. . . 








338 




376 




Germanj"^, 100 per cent. 




Naphthamine blue 3R 

Naphthamine blue 7R 

Benzo orange R 


K . .. 






K. 








340 


S 


500 
7,815 




Switzerland, IOC per cent. 
Do. 


342 


Chrysamine 






"Chrvsamme K 


s 






343 


Diamine fast red 




6,049 


9,070 


Switzerland, 67 per cent; Ger- 
many, 33 per cent. 




Diamine fast red 8BL 

Diamine fast red 8BL 140 

per cent . 
Diphenyl fast red B supra 340 

Chlorainine fast red F 

Bonzofast red FC 


c 




c 








G 










s 










By 










Dianil fast red PH... 


M 








344 


Diamine brown 




635 




Germany, 100 per cent. 




Diamine brown ATC 


C .. 






C 








346 


Oxaminered 




2,668 




Do. 




Oxam^ine red .... 


B 








Oxamine red X 


B 








349 


Diamine brown B 




208 




Do. 




Diamine brown B 


C 








Diamine brown B 


K 








352 


Direct violet R 


I 


2 
11, 155 




Switzerland, 100 per cent. 
Do. 


354 


Direct gray R 






Direct gray R paste 1022 

Anthracene acid red . 


G 






355 




336 




Do. 




Anthracene acid red 3B 

Diphenyl red 


Q 






358 




4,036 




Switzerland, 74 per cent; 

Italy, 19 percent; Germany 

7 per cent. 
Germany, 100 per cent. 
Do. 




DiphenvlredSC373. 


G... . 






Toluylene red 


GrE 






360 


Pyramine orange R 


B 


856 
621 




363 


Benzopurpurine 4B 






Ben7.opurpurine4B 


K 








Cotton fast red IBS P 

Diazo brilliant black 


B 








364 




751 




Italy, 53 per cent; Germany, 




Dia'o brilliant black B 

Dia/o brilliant black B 487. . 


Bv... 




47 per cent. 




By... . 








366 




727 




Germany, 100 per cent. 




Delta purpuriiie 5B extra 
Indian . 


By... . 






368 




1,243 




Do. 




Brilliant purpurine lOB 

Brilliant corigo 


A 






370 




1,273 


1,450 


Switzerland, 52 per cent; 






A 


Germany, 48 per cent. 




Brilliant conf^oR 10012 (PI).. 
Brilliant congo R 


By 










S 









CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921, 97 
Table 24. — Imports of dyes during the calendar year 1921 — Continued. 



Schultz 
No. 


Name of dye. 


Manu- 
fac- 
turer. 


Imports. 


Countries of origin (percent- 
age of quantity). 


Quantity. 


Invoice 
value. 


37.3 


Congo orange 




Pounds. 
500 




Germany, 100 per cent. 






A. . . 






388 


Chicago IdIuc R 


A 


101 
523 




Do. 


392 






Do. 




Toluylene fast orange GL... 
Toluylene fast orange GL 

10082. 
Tolnvlene fast orange GL 

10082E. 
Acid anthracene red . 


Bv 










Bv 








Bv 






400 




6,120 ! $2,025 


Do. 




Acid anthracene red 3B 

Acid anthracene red G 

Acid anthracene red 2BL 1949 
Diamine vellow N 


Bv 




r 


Bv 








, 


Bv 








404 




1.327 




Do. 




Diamine yellow N 110 per 
cent. 
Benzo a^urine G 


c 






410 


K 


112 
2 




Do. 


413 


Direct violet BB 




Switzerland, 100 per cent. 






I 






418 


Diamine brilliant bhie G 




100 




Germanv, 100 per cent. 




Diamine brilliant blue G 

Chicago blue 6B . . . 


K 






424 




18,418 


52,6.'52 


Switzerland, 98 per cent; 


r 


BriUiant benzo blue 6B 10134 

(PI). 

Chloramine skv blue FP 

Chloramme skv blue BB X 

FF. 
Direct sky blue green shade. . 
Direct sky blue green shade 

cone. 


Bv 


Germanv, "^ per cent. 


f 


s 










s 










I 










I 








426 




1,001 




Switzerland, lon per cent. 




Chloramine sky blue A cone. . 
Diamine gold. . 


'•S 








431 


c 


.... 

146 

1,225 




Germany, 100 per cent. 


432 


Diamine rutch 


334 


Do. 




Diamine cutch 

Diamine cutch 2475 

Diamine cutch 20495 


c 


.. 




436 
448 
449 

451 
456 

457 

458 


c 






n 






Columbia black. \ 


5,512 




Do. 


Columbia black FF extra 

Diamine bronze R. 


A 








2,ii6 




Do. 


Diamine bronze G : 

Trisulphon brov^Ti 


c 








38,558 




Switzerland, 100 per cent. 


Trisulphon brown B 

Trisulphon brown MB 

Congo fast blue. 


s 






g 






> 




9,259 




Germanv, 96 per cent; Swit- 


Congo fast blue R extra 

Chlorantine fast blue RL 
cone. 
Benzo fa.st blue 


A 




zerland, 4 per cent. 


I 










3,768 


7,125 


Germany, 98.4 per cent; 


Congo fast blue B 


A . . 


Italv, 1.6 percent. 


Benzo fast blue 2GL 

Benzo fast blue 4GJL 

Benzo fast blue 4GL 1854 

Benzo fast blue 4GL 10185. . . 
Benzo fast blue 4GL 10185 

(PI). 
Benzo fast blue 4GL 10185 

(VI). 
Trisulphon brown GG 


Bv 








Bv 








Bv 








By 








Bv 


:■.... 






Bv 










22,872 


30,477 


Switzerland, 100 per cent. 


Trisulphon brown GG 

Trisulphon brown GG cone. 

Trisulphon brown GG cone. 

Naphthamine direct black 


s 




s 








G 










2,083 


152 


Germanv, 100 per cent- 


Naphthamine direct black 

AK. 
Naphthamine direct black 

EK. 
Naphthamine direct black 

EK extra A. 
Naphthamine direct black 

ERK extra. 
Nanhthamine direct black 

FFK extra. 
Naphthamine direct black 

GNM. 


K 




K 








K 








K 








K 








K. 








1 









98 CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921. 
Table 24. — Imports of dyes during the calendar year 1921 — Continued. 



1 





Name of dye. 


Manu- 
fac- 
turer. 


Imports. 


Countries of origin (percent- 
age of quantity). 


No. 


Quantity. 


Invoice 
value. 


458 


Naphthamine direct black— Con. 
Naphthamine direct black 

RWK. 
Naphthamine direct black 
RWK extra A. 
Direct deep black 


K 


Pounds. 








K 








462 




11,102 




Switzerland, 100 per cent. 




Carbide black E cone 

Diphenvl green G 


I 




467 




2,204 




Do. 




Dip'henyl green KGW supra 
288. 
Chloramine black 


G 






469 




2,e02 




Do. 




Chloramine black extra cone. 
Chloramine black extra cone, 
pure. 
Chloramine blue 30 


S 








S 






A 


471 


S 


1,102 
370 




Do. fl 


473 


Diamine black H W 




Germany, 100 per cent. ■ 




Diamine black H W 


C 




475 


Oxamine green C 




806 








.Direct green G 


s.::::::: 




. wuzenana,iuu per cent. 1 




Chloramine G 


s 






1 


477 


Congo brown 




551 




Germany, 100 per cent. m 




Naphthamine brown H 

Auramine 


K 




493 




35,532 


$57,300 


Switzerland, 91 per cent; 
England, 6 per cent; Ger- 
many, 3 per cent. 




Auramine 


LG 




Auramine 


I 








Auramme4]83 











Auramine pure 


b:::::: 










Auramine cone 


B 










Auramine 


K 










Auramme 

Auramine 


S 










I 










Auramine OO 


I 










Auramine OE 


G 








495 


Malachite green 




2,525 




Germany, 100 per cent. 




Solid green 


M 






Malachite green small crys- 
tals. 
Setoglaucine 


Q 








496 




485 




Switzerland, 100 per cent. 




.Setoglaueme 753 


G 






497 


Victoria green BXX 


B 


77 
46 




Germany, 100 per cent. 


498 


Turquoise blue 




Germany, 52 per cent; 




Turquoise blue BB 569 

Turquoise blue Q 


By 




France, 48 per cent. 




Q 








499 


Brilliant green 




4,927 




Germany, 100 per cent. 




, Brilliant green extra cone, 
small crystals. 
Brilliant green crystals extra. 
Guinea green 


Q 








M 








502 




150 




Do. 




Acid green B 


C 






503 


Neptune green 




7,462 


16,063 


Switzerland, 55 per cent; 




Neptune green SBLX 

Neptune green SGX 


B... 


Germany, 45 per cent. 




B... 










BrilUant acid green 6B 

11653B (VIII). 
BriUiant acid green 6B cone. 

60-100 11653 A. 
Brilliant acid green 6B cone. 

65-100 11653. 

Erio viridine B supra 

Erio viridine B supra 561 

Guinea fast green B 


By.. 










By.. 










By.... 










G 










G 










A 










Benzyl green B 


I 








505 


Light green (yellowish) 




933 


1,325 


Germany, 100 per cent. 




Light green yellowish SFXX 
Acid green cone 


B 






M 










Acid green extra cone 

Erioglaucuie 


C 








506 




16,004 


37,455 


Switzerland, 100 per cent. 




Erioglaucine supra 528 

Erioglaucine E P 


G 






G 










Erioglaucine EP 54S 


G 










Erioglaucine AC 501 .. . 


G . 








507 


Xylene blue VS 




16,309 




Do. 




Xylene blue VS 


S . . 






508 


Xylene blue AS 




15,026 




Do. 




Xylene blue AS 


S 








Xylene blue ASL 


s 









CENSUS OF DYES AXD SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS^ 1921. 99 
Table 24. — Imports of dyes during the calendar year 1921 — Continued. 





Name of dye. 


Manu- 
fac- 
turer. 


Imports. 


Countries of origin (percent- 
age of quantity). 


No. 


Quantity. 


Invoice 
value. 


512 


Magenta , 




Pounds, 
7,110 


$5, 552 


Holland, 81 per cent; Ger- 






Q 


many, 14 per cent; France, 




Aniline red 3193 


Q 






5 per cent. 




Magenta small crystals 

Methyl violet. . . . 


Q 








515 




272 


145 


Germany, 100 per cent. 






C 






Methyl violet N FB 


B 










Methyl violet V3D . . 


K. 








516 


Crystal violet 




1,450 




Do. 




Crystal violet extra . . . 


B 








Crystal violet powder 

Crystal violet base 


B 










B 








517 




2,138 




Switzerland, 100 per cent. 




Benzyl violet 5BN 


I 






518 


Ethyl purple 




1,389 




Germany, 100 per cent. 






B 






522 






44 




Switzerland, 100 per cent. 




Victoria blue 4R 


I 






523 


Fast green... 




22, 619 


37,993 


Germany, 99 per cent; Italy, 






By 


1 per cent. 




Fast green bluish 365 

Fast green extra bluish 

Fast green extra bluish 329. . 
Fast green extra bluish 10543 

(PI). 
Fast green extra blue shade 

10543. 
Fast light green 


By 










By 










By .. 










By.:.... 










By 










By 








527 


Acid violet 4BN 




13,544 


24,479 


Switzerland, 96 per cent; 




Acid violet 4BNS 


S.. 


Germany, 4 per cent. 




Acid violet 4BNS 

Acid violet BW 


I 










By 










Acid violet BW 1175 


By 








528 


Fast acid violet lOB 




1-4,837 


30, 747 


Switzerland, 71 per cent; 




Fast acid violet lOB 


By. 


Germany, 29 per cent. 




Fast acid violet lOB 10604. . . . 

Fast acid violet lOB 10604 

^(VHI). 

Fast acid violet lOB cone. 

40-100. 
Fast acid violet lOB cone. 

40-100 10604B. 
Kiton last violet lOB cone . . . 
Acid violet 


By 










By 










By 








530 

531 

532 
534 

535 
536 

537 
539 

i 


By 








I 










2,692 


5,841 


Germany, 79 per cent; Switz- 
erland, 21 per cent. 


Acid violet 6B 


M 


Acid violet 6B 668 


G 






Acid violet 6BNOO 


B 








Acid violet 7B 


K 








Eriocyanine 




16, 808 




Switzerland, 100 per cent. 


Eriocyanine A 665 


G 






Eriocyanine AC 503 . . 


G . 








Alkali viulet 




50 




Germany, 100 per cent. 


Alkah vi ,let 6B00 


B 




Acid violet 7B 




1,287 


500 


Do. 


Acid violet 7B 


B 




Acid violet 7B cone 


B 








Acid violet 7B cone. F 

Methyl alkali blue 


B 










10 




Do. 


Methyl alkali blue 


M 






Alkali blue 




390 


522 


Do. 


Alkali blueB 


C 




Alkah blue3B 


C 








Alkah blue 3RV 


C 








Methyl blue for silk 




6,755 


22,388 


Switzerland, 90 per cent; 


Methyl Lyons blue 410 

Methyl silk blue (new) 706.. . 
Methyl silk blue (new) 217. . . 
Silk blue IV 


G... . 


Germany, 10 per cent. 


G 






G 








By 








Soluble blue 




3,560 


12,459 


Germany, 100 per cent. 


Water blue 32129 


A 


Soluble blue IN 


B 








Soluble blue T 


B 








Silk blue BT5BOO 


GrE 








Silk blue BT 5BOO 


Q 








Silk blue 


Q 








Pure blue 


M 









100 CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921. 

Table 24. — Imports of dyes during the calendar year 1921 — Continued. 



Schultz 
No. 


Name of dye. 


Manu- 
fac- 
turer. 


Imports. 


Countries of origin (percent- 
age of quantity). 


Quantity. 


Invoice 
value. 


541 


Brilliant dianil blue 6G 




Pounds, 
273 




Germany, 100 per cent. 




Brilliant sky blue 5G 1374. . . 
Patent blue 


By 






543 




42,708 


$91,373 


Germany, 86 per cent; Switz- 




Neptune blue BGX 


B 


land, 14 per cent. 




Neptune blue BGX cone 

Patent blue X cone 


B 










M. . .. 










Patent blue B 


M. . .. 










Patent blue B cone 


M. . . 










Patent blue J4 


M. . .. 










Patent blue N cone 


M 










Patent blue V 


M 










Patent blue VE 


M 










Patent blue VF 


M 










Patent blue VSK 


G 










Patent marine blue LE 

Patent marine blue LE 

Tetra cyanole extra 


M 










A 










C 










Tetra cyanole V 


c 










Brilliant acid blue V 

BriUiant acid blue V cone. 

60-100 107.'S4a. 
Kiton pure blue V 


By 










By 










I 










Kiton pure blue V cone 

Cyanine B 


I 








544 




3,651 




Germany, 100 per cent. 




Cyanine B 


M 




545 


Patent blue A 




16, 170 


29,483 


Germany, 99 per cent; Hol- 




Patent blue A 


K 


land, 1 per cent. 




Patent blue A 


M 






•■ 


Neptune blue BXX 


B 










Brilliant acid blue 


Bv 












By 










BriUiant acid blue A 1448 

BrUliant acid blue FF.. 

BrUliant acid blue FF C 573 . 
BriUiant acid blue FF 1507. . 
BrUUant acid blue FF 

10)';3D (VIII). 
BriUiant acid blue FF cone. 

60-100 10573B. 
BriUiant acid blue FF cone. 

60-100 10573B (VIII). 
Brilliant acid blue A cone. 

55-100 10573C. 
BriUiant acid blue A cone. . . 
BriUiant acid blue FF 

(105731). 
Cji^anol 


Bv 










By 










By 










By 










By 










Bv 










Bv 










Bv 










Q 










By 








546 




14,271 


30, 337 


Do. 




Cyanol extra 

Cyanol FF 


C 






C 












C 












C 










Cyanol BSB . . 


Q 










Cyanol ABC 


Q 










Cyanol BSB 


C 










Cj'anol MKH 


C . 










Cyanol MKH 


Q - - 








548 


Acid violet 6BN 




4,790 


11,421 


Sw^itzerland, 98 per"? cent; 




Acid violet 6BN 


M 


Germany, 2 per cent. 




Acid violet 6BN 


I 










Acid violet 6BN cone 


I 








551 




19,344 


36, 792 


Switzerland,' 100 per cent. 




Erio chrome azurol BX 

Erio chrome azurol BX 1041 . 
Chrome fast pure blue B 


G 






G 










I 








654 




2,050 




Do. 




Chrome azurol SXT 1046 


G 






555 




300 




Germany, 100 per cent. 






A 






558 






771 




Switzerland, 100 per cent. 






I 






559 






12,342 


33, 062 


Switzerland, 99 per cent; 






B 


Germany, 1 per cent. 






B 












1 












I 










Victoria blue B cone 


S 









CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921. IQl 
Table 24.— Imports of dyes durmg the calendar year :? 9;?^— Continued. 



Schultz 
No. 



559 

560 
562 

563 

564 



Name of dye. 



Manu- 
fac- 
turer. 



Imports. 



565 



Victoria blue B— Continued. 
Victoria blue B highly cone. 

Victoria pure blue B base.. B 

Victoria pure blue BO.. B 

Night blue 

Night blue .'.'.".'"" 

Night blue extra green shade 
Fast acid blue I 

Fast acid blue B 48.3!.'.'.' 'bv 

Wool blue SR extra 10564." ' ' By. 
New patent blue B 

New patent blue B 10570 (PI) 'Bv 
Naphthalene green 

Naphthalene green ......... 

Naphthalene green cone', 
extra. 

Naphthalene green V 

Erio green supra 657 " 

Erio green B supra 657.. 

Erio green BB supra 661 . 
. Kiton fast green V 

Kiton fast green V cone 
Acid blue B 

Wool blue G extra' '. A 

Woolblue5B a' 

Wool blue R extra... By 

Wool green S 

Wool green S B. 

Wool green S cone. .. .' S.' 

Wool green S highly cone. 

Wool green BS 10550 (,P1) By 

Cyanole green KBC C. 

Cyanole fast green G. . . C. 

Wool green S cone. 250 per I. 
cent. 

Wool green SC 655 



569 
570 



Wool green SC 655, 95 per cent! 
Acridine red 



572 

573 



579 
580 
581 



Rhodanrine S !!!!!!" 

Rhodamine S ! 

Rhodamine 6G !!!!!" 

Rhodamine 6G . . . ! ! ! 

Rhodamine 6G !!!!!' 

Rhodamine 6G 

Rhodaniine6G 12214..! 

Rhodamine 6G 18007....!!" 

Rhodamine 6G extra 

Rhodamine 6G extra. . . 

Rhodamine 6G extra 

Rhodamine 6G extra '" 

Rhodamine 6G extra pure 
Rhodamine 6GD extra 

Rhodamine 6GDN ! ' 

Rhodamine 6GDN extra .' 
Rhodamine 6G W cone... ' 
Rhodamine 6G extra. . 

Rhodamine G ! ' 

Rhodamine G ! ! ' ! 

Rhodamine G extra.. 

Rhodamine B ! _ _' 

Rhodamine B base. !!!!!!!!! 

Rhodamine B extra !! 

Rhodamine B extra ! ! ! 

Rhodamine B extra ! ! ! 

Rhodamine B extra !! 

Rhodamine B extra base . ! ! ! 

Rhodamine B extra cone 

Carthamine B 

Xylene red !.!!!!! 

Xylene red B 

Fast acid violet B ! ! ! ! ! 

Violamine B !!!!!!! 

Fast acid magenta G .!.!!!!!!!! ! 



B.. 
K.. 
M.. 
B.. 
B.. 
B.. 
By. 

M.. 
S... 
B.. 
M.. 
B.. 
B.. 
I... 
I... 



Quantity. 



Invoice 
value. 



Pounds. 



317 



597 



421 



23, 926 



Countries of origin (percent- 
age of quantity). 



Germany, 100 per cent. 



Do. 



S53, 859 



Do. 

Switzerland, 
France, 7 
many, 5 per cent. 



per 
per cent; 



cent; 
Ger- 



3,643 



51, 822 



4 
220 



10, 069 



115,279 



Germany, 100 per cent. 



Sv/itzerland, 70 per cent- 
Germany, 30 per cent. 



105 



76, 933 



France, 100 percent. 
Switzerland, 100 per cent. 

Germany, 63 per cent; Swit- 
zerland, 37 per cent. 



10, 890 



1,001 



428 



37, 146 



Germany, 100 per cent. 



Switzerland, 59 per cent; Ger- 
many, 41 per cent. 



Switzerland, 100 per cent. 
Germany, 100 per cent. 
Do. 



102 CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC OEGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921. 
Table 24. — Imports of dyes during the calendar year 1921 — Continued! 



Schultz 
No. 


Name of dye. 


Manu- 
fac- 
turer. 


Imports. 


Coimtries of origin (percent- 
age of quantity). 


Quantity. 


Invoice 
value. 


587 


Eosine 




Pounds. 
16, 192 


$26, 147 


Germany, 100 per cent . 




Eosine extra AG 


M 




Bromofluoresceine acid crys- 
tals. 

Eosine extra GF (free from 
salt). 

Eosine GGB 


M 










M 










C 










Eosine extra A 5G. 


M 










Bromofluoresceine A 3G 

Bromofluoresceine BL bluish 

Bromofluoresceine crystals. . . 

Eosine BNL 


M 










M 










M 








590 




161 




Do. 




Acid eosine L new 


B 






591 


Erythrosine G. . . 




110 




Switzerland, 100 per cent. 




Erythrosine G 


Q.. - 




592 


Erythrosine bluish 7699 


M 


514 

285 




Germany, 100 per cent. 
Switzerland, 96 per cent; 
Germany, 4 per cent. 


595 


Rose bengale 


1,644 




Rose bengale NTO . 


B 




Rose bengale double cone 

Rose bengale double cone, 
powder. 
Galleine 


DH 








DH 








599 




3,494 


432 


Germany, 100 per cent. 




Galleine SW powder 


B 




Galleine powder 


M 










Galleine WN 20 per cent 
paste. 
Coerulein S 


B... 








601 




2,942 


275 


Do. 




Coerulein 10 per cent paste. . . 
Coerulein S powder 


B 






B 










Coerulein SS powder 

Coerulein S W powder 

Coerulein 100 per cent pow- 
der. 
Acridine orange . 


B.. .. 










B 










B 








603 




1,613 


5,745 


Switzerland, 72 per cent; 
Germany, 28 per cent. 




EuchrysineSRX. 


B 




Euchrysine 3RX. 


L 










I 










RhoduUne orange NO 50-100. 
Pho-;phiiie 


By 








606 




21, 325 


89, 381 


Switzerland, 88 per cent; 
Germany, 9 per cent; Italy, 
3 per cent. 






M. .. 




Phosphine 3R 


A.. 








Para phosphine G 


C. . . 








Patent phosphine G cone. 

paste. 
Patent phosphine R cone. 

paste. 
Patent phosphine M cone 


I 










I 










I 










S 












s 










Saba phosphine M cone 

Coriphosphine OX extra 

Phosphine R 


s 










By ... 










BD 










Patent phosphine M 300 per 

cent. 
Patent phosphine G 300 per 

cent. 
Patent phosphine GG 300 per 

cent. 
Patent phosphine R 300 per 

cent. 
Brilliant phosphine 5G 300 

per cent. 
Brilliant phosphme 5G cone. 


I 










I 










I . .. 










I 










I . 










I . . .. 










I 










Phosphine 7G 807 leather .... 
Phosphine PG(i 808 leather.. 
Patent phosphine G cone. 

300 per cent balance. 
Patent phosphine GG cone. 

300 per cent. 


G... 










G 










I 










I 










I 








607 






130 




Germany, 100 per cent. 






B 










B.. 








60S 






872 


674 


Do. 






B 






Euchrysine GRNTN 


B 









CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921. 103 

Table 24. — Imports of dyes during the calendar year 1921 — Continued. 



Schultz 
No. 


Name of dye. 


Manu- 
fac- 
turer. 


Imports. 


Countries of origin (percent- 
age of quantity). 


Quantity. 


Invoice 
value. 


608 


Euchrvsine— Continued. 
Eiichrvsine RRLX . . . 


B 


Pounds. 








Eiic-hrvsine RT 


B 










Eiichrvsine 2RX 


B 








609 


Homophosphine 




918 


$2, 287 


Germany, 67 per cent; Eng- 
land, 33 per cent. 




Diamond phosphineGG 

Homophosphine 00.. . . 


C 




L 








Corioflavine GOOO .. 


GrE 








613 


Quinoline yellow 




23,000 


43, 893 


Switzerland, ')3 per cent; Ger- 
many, 37 per cent. 




QuinoMne yellow 


I . 




Quinoline yellow 


S 








Quinoline yellow 


A... . 










Quinoline yellow 


M. 










Quinoline yellow 10534 ( PI). . 
Quinoline yellow cone. 50/100. 

Quinoline yellow extra 

Quinoline yellow KT extra. . 
Quinoline yellow KT extra 

cone. 
Quinoline yellow N extra 

10536 cpn. 

Quinoline yellow OK 

Quinoline O cone 


Bv.. . 










By . . 










B.. 










Bv 










By 










Bv 










M 










M 










Quinoline yellow. . . 


By 










Quinoline yellow 0. . 


M 










Quinoline yellow extra (eas- 
ily soluble). 
Quinoline yellow 754 


B 










G 










Quinoline yellow 


S 








616 


Primuline 




771 




Switzerland, 100 per cent. 




Polychromine AC 127 

Columbia yellow 


G 




617 




5,243 


7, 436 


England, 58 per cent; Switz- 




Chloramine yellow G 

Diamine fast yellow B 

Diafninefast yellow FF 

Oxyphenine R 


S 


erland, 41.7 per cent; Ger- 




c 






many, 0.3 per cent. 




c 










c:Co 










Oxyphenine GG 300 per cent 
cone. 
ThioflavineT 


ClCc. 








618 




7,297 


13, 385 


Germany, 74 per cent; Italy, 
22 per cent; Switzerland, 




ThioflavineT 


s 




ThioflavineT 


K 






4 per cent. 




ThioflavineT.... 


c. .. 








Thioflavine TCN.. 


c 








Rhoduline yellow 6G 

Rhoduline yellow 6G 1280. . . 
Methylene yellow H 


By 








By 










M ... 








620 
622 

626 

627 

629 
635 

636 

637 

641 

642 

11 649 

: 651 
653 

. 654 


Capri blue GON 




549 




Germany, 100 per cent. 


Capri blue GON cone 

Capri blue GON 


L 






L 








Delphine blue B 




13,842 


21, 116 


Switzerland, 100 per cent. 


Brilliant delphine blue B 

BriUiant delphine blue BS... 
Delphine blue 


S 




S 








s 








Gallocvanine 




12, 343 




Switzerland, 97 per cent; 
Germany, 3 per cent. 


Gallocyanine paste. . . . 


s 




Gallocyanine F powder 

Anthracyanine 


B 








684 




Switzerland, 100 per cent. 


Anthraeyanine S powder 

Modern blue 


DH... 






DH 


10 
2,002 




Do. 


Modern violet 




Do. 


Ultra violet MO 


S 






Prune 




1,928 




Do. 


Prune pure 


S.. .. 






Gallamine blue extra paste 




15, 179 




Do. 


Gallamine blue extra paste 

900. 
Gallamine blue extra paste.. 
Celestine blue B 


G 






G 











5 




Do. 


Coreine RR powder No. 65.. 
Phenocyanine VS paste 


Q 






DH 


1,001 
3,513 




Do. 


Cotton blue 




Do. 


Meldola's blue 3R cone 

New blue RS cone 


S.... 






I 








New methylene blue GG 

Nile blue 


c 


266 
749 




Germany, 100 per cent. 
Do. 




Nile blue BX 


B 






NUeblue2BX 


B 


764 




Do. 









104 CENSUS or DYES AND S-YNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921. 
Table 2A.~Imports of dyes during the calendar year i9^i— Continued. 



Schultz 
No. 



658 



Name of dye. 



Manu- 
fac- 
turer. 



Imports. 



Quantity, 



659 



660 



661 



663 



tM. 



672 



673 



Fast black - ■ • • ■ 

Gallophenine P •• ^Y- 

GaUophenlne P 100 per cent . Hy- 

Methylene blue 

Methylene blue - - - - • 

Methylene blue medic, fine 

powder. 
Methylene blue BG extra 

cone. 
Methylene blue BBS zmc 
free. 

Methylene green 

Methylene green BX 

Methylene green W 748 

Methylene green P extra 

Thionine blue , 

Thionine blue GO ^ 

Thionine blue GO M 

New methylene blue --■ 

New methylene blue N ^ 

New Methylene blue N extra | M 

cone. 
New methylene blue N cone. 
145 per cent. 

Indochromine 

Indochromine RR cone, 
double. 

Indochromine T 

Indochromine T cone - 

Brilliant alizarin blue R 
powder 571. 

Indochromine RR 

Azo carmine. ..;..... 

Azo carmine GX 

Azo carmine GX 30853 

Azo carmine GX powder. . . 

Azo carmine B 

A-zo acid carmine B 



Pounds. 
408 



676 
€79 



S... 
S... 

By. 

s... 



M/ 



Azo carmine BB B 



By 



689 
690 



693 



700 
705 



706 



709 



710 



Azo carmine BX 

Azo carmine BXH 

Rosinduhne 2B bluish. . 

Neutral blue R extra 

Neutral blue R 

Safranine 

Safranine FF extra cone 

New fast gray 

Direct gray J 

Direct gray 

RosolaneCTR , ^ 

RosolaneC ---- ^ 

Methylene heliotrope extra I M 
cone. 

Rosolane - 

I, osolane 

Rosolane e.xtra strong 

Indazine M - 

Metaphenylene blue R 

Diphene blue RK 

Milling blue BC . . . - - 

Cloth fast blue B 

Cloth fast blue B extra 

Nigrosine (soluble in water) 

Silver gray P 

Indamine 6R 

Indocyanine B 

Acid cyanine BF 

Acid cyanine BF 

Katigene black brown - - -. 

Katigene black brown GN By 
extra cone. 11506 (XI). 

Pvroeene green 2G \'i" 

Pyrogene green 3G 250 per I., 
cent. T 

Pyrogene green 3G •^-• 

Immedial yellow D ■ • ■ • 

Immedial yellow D ' ^■■ 



A.. 
A.. 
By. 



Invoice 

value. 



Countries of origin (percent- 
age of quantity). 



1,600 



U, 586 



3,318 



421 



4,329 



8,725 



8,684 



1,774 



741 
'2,' 296 



2,393 



131 



258 
1,700 



4,056 



100 



9,946 



1,947 



6,490 



9,072 



23, 172 



Germany, 100 per cent. 

Switzerland, 39 per cent; 
England, 38 per cent; Ger- 
many, 33 per cent. 



Switzerland, 99.7 per cent; 
Germany, 0.3 per cent. 



Switzerland, 52 per cent; 
Germany, 48 per cent. 

Germany, 90 per cent; Eng-. 
land, 7 per cent; Italy, 3 per 
cent. 



Switzerland, 98 per cent; 
Germany, 2 per cent. 



19,428 



1,848 



14, 344 



Germany, 100 per cent. 



Germany, 89 per cent; Eng- 
land, 11 per cent. 



Switzerland, 100 per cent. 

Germany, 60 per cent; Swit- 
zerland, 40 per cent. 
France, 100 per cent. 

Germany, 100 per cent. 



France, 92 per cent; Ger- 
many, 8 per cent. 

Germany, 100 per cent. 
Do. 

Switzerland, 100 per cent. 

Germany, 100 per cent. 
Do. 



Do. 



Switzerland, 100 per cent. 



Germany, 100 per cent. 



CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921 j 105 
Table 24. — Imports of dyes during the calendar year 1921 — Continued. 



Schultz 
No. 


Name of dye. 


Manu- 
fac- 
turer. 


Imports. 


Countries of origin (percent- 
age of quantity). 


Quantity. 


Invoice 
value. 


711 


Immedial orange C 




Pounds. 
320 


- 


Germany, 100 per cent. 




Immedial orange C 


C 






726 






11,718 




Switzerland, 100 per cent. 




Pyrogene direct blue RL 
cone. 

Pyrogene direct blue RL 

Pvrogene yellow 


I 






I 








734 




2,912 


$6,652 


Do. 




Pyrogene yellow M 95 cone . . 
PjTOgene yellow cone 


I..; 






I 










I 










Pyrogene yellow 600 

Pyrogene yellow M 450 


I .. 










I 








735 




441 




Do. 






I 






746 


Katigene green 




6,543 


7,897 


Switzerland, 92 per cent; 




Katigene green 2G cone. 

50-100. 
Thional brilliant green GG.. 
Thional brilliant green 2G . . 


Bv 


Germany, 8 per cent. 




S 










S 










I 










Thional dark green GN 

Hydron blue (single strength) . . . 


S 








748 




146,072 


117,454 


Germany, 93 per cent: Italy, 




Hvdron blue G paste 20-100.. 
Hydron blue G paste 30-100.. 
Hydron blue G paste 40-100.. 

Hydron blue G powder 

Hvdron blue R paste 20-100.. 
Hydron blue R paste 30-100.. 

Hydron blue R powder 

Hydron violet B paste 

Hydron blue B paste 

Hydron blue RF powder 

Hydron blue B powder 

Hydron olive B powder 

Hydron olive G powder 

Anthraflavone G paste 


c... . 


6 per cent; England, 1 per 




c 






cent. 




c 










c 










c 










c 










c... 


1 






c 








c 








c 








c 


1 






c 








c... 


1 




759 




i6,594 14,389 


Germany, 95 per cent; Italy, 






B 


5 per cent. 




Anthraflavone G paste 

Anthraflavone GG paste 

Anthraflavone GC paste fine. 

Anthraflavone GC paste 

Indanthrene golden orange G 
(single strength). 
Indanthrene golden orange 

G paste. 
Indanthrene golden orange 

G paste sand free. 
Indanthrene golden orange 

G double paste. 
Indanthrene golden orange 

G double paste. 
Indanthrene golden orange 

G double paste sand free. 
Indanthrene golden orange 

G powder. 
Indanthrene golden orange R 


B 


1 






B 








B... 


I 






By 






760 






33,423 


44,829 


Germany, 95.7 per cent; 




B... 


England, 4 per cent; Italy, 
0.3 per cent. 




B 










B... 










A 


1 






B... . 










B 








761 




56,390 


101, 739 


Germany, 95.3 per cent; 




Indanthrene golden orange 

R paste. 
Indanthrene golden orange 

R paste sand free. 
Indanthrene golden orange 

RRT paste. 
Indanthrene golden orange 

RRT paste. 
Indanthrene golden orange 

RRT paste fine. 
Indanthrene golden orange 

RRT paste sand free. 
Indanthrene golden orange 

RRT powder. 
Indanthrene scarlet GS powder. 
Indanthrene scarlet G paste. . 
Indanthrene scarlet GS 

powder. 


B 


England, 2 per cent; Hol- 




B 






land, 2 per cent; Italy, 0.7 
per cent. 




A 










B 










B 










B 










B 








762 




472 




Germany, 100 per cent. 




B.. . . 








B 



















541—22- 



106 CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC OEGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921> 

Table 24. — Imports of dyes during the calendar year 1921 — Continued. 



Schultz 
No. 


Name of dye. 


Manu- 
fac- 
turer. 


Imports. 


Coimtries of origin (percent- 
age of quantity). 


CJuantity. 


Invoice 
value. 


763 


Indanthrene dark blue BO paste. 




Pounds. 
3,484 


SI, 822 


Germany, 57 per cent; Eng- 
land, 43 per cent. 




Indanthrene dark blue BO 

paste. 
Indanthrene dark blue BO 

paste sand free. 
Indanthrene dark blue BO . . 

Indanthrene violet RT paste 

Indanthrene green B paste 


B . 




B 








B 








764 


B 


516 
6,932 




Germany, 100 per cent. 
Do. 


765 


3,978 




Indanthrene green B paste. . 
Indanthrene green B double 

paste. 
Indanthrene green B double 

paste sand free. 


B 






B . 










B 








766 




5,241 




Italy, 85 per cent; Germany, 




Indanthrene violet R extra 

paste. 
Indanthrene violet R extra 

powder. 
Indanthrene violet RR 


B 




15 per cent. 




B 








767 




52,083 


62, 237 


Germany, 88 per cent; Italy, 




Indanthrene violet 2R extra 
paste. 

Indanthrene violet 2R extra 
paste fine. 

Indanthrene violet RR ex- 
tra. 

Indanthrene violet RR ex- 
tra paste. 

Indanthrene violet RR ex- 
tra paste fine. 

Indanthrene violet RR ex- 
tra paste sand free. 

Indanthrene violet RR ex- 
tra P paste. 

Indanthrene violet RR ex- 
tra powder. 

Indanthrene violet RR ex- 
tra p. powder. 

Indanthrene violet RRX ' 
powder. 

Indanthrene violet B 


B 


10 per cent; England, 2 per 




B 






cent. 




B 










B 










B 










B 










B 










B 










B 










B 








768 




14,957 


3,045 


Germany, 89 per cent; Hol- 




Indanthrene violet B extra 
paste. 

Indanthrene black BB paste 
redissolved. 

Indanthrene black BB 
double paste. 

Indanthrene black BB 
double paste. 

Indanthrene black BB 
double paste sand free. 

Indanthrene black BB pow- 
der. 


B 


land, 11 per cent. 




B . 










Q - - 










B. . 










B 










B 








771 


B 


1,572 
26,524 




Germany, 100 per cent. 


774 


AUzarin black .• 


10, 706 


Do. 






K 






Ahzarin black B powder 

Ahzarin black S paste for 

printing. 

Ahzarin black S paste 

AUzarin l)lack SHW paste... 
AUzarin black WR 16-100 

paste. 
AUzarin black WR 40-100 

paste. 
Alizarin black WX extra 

paste. 
Alizarin black WX extra N 

paste. 
AUzarin black WX extra 

single paste. 
AUzarin blue black GT pow- 
der. 


Bv 










M^:::::: 










B 










B 








B 










B 










B 










B 










B 










B 








778 
779 




136,283 
5,854 


49, 707 
1,500 






iioiland, 36 per cent; Ger- 




AUzarin orange 

Alizarin orange SW powder.. 


B 


many, 34 per cent; Eng- 




\ B 


1 




land, 30 per cent. 



CENSUS OF BYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921. 107 

Table 24. — Imports of dyes during the calendar year 1921 — Continued. 



Schultz 

No. 


Name of dye. 


Manu- 
fac- 
turer. 


Import.s. 


Countries of origin (percent- 
age of quantity). 


Quantity. 


Invoice 
value. 


779 


Alizarin orange— Continued. 
Alizarin orange OG 


M 


Pounds. 








Alizarin orange 80 powder. . . 

Alizarin orange W 15 

Alizarin orange 20-100 

Alizarin orange SW powder 
884 (R). 


M 










M 










Q 










By 








780 




15,565 


$16,6.53 


Germany, 96 per cent; Eng- 
land, 4 per cent. 




Ali/.arinred S powder 

Alizarin red SWB powder. . . 
Alizarin red SWBB powder. 

Alizarin red WB paste 

Ali'.arin red WX extra S 

paste. 

AU'.arin red W powder 

Alizarin red W powder 

Alizarin red W powder 773 . . 
Alizarin red W powder 11376. 
Alizarin red W powder 11376 

(PI.). 
Alizarin red W powder 10-400 

Alizarin red IWS powder 

Alizarin red IWS cone 


B 




B 








B 










B 










B 










K 










Bv 










By 










Bv.... 










By 










Bv 










M 










M 








782 




20,700 


1,272 


Germany, 100 per cent. 




Ali/.arin Vjrown 1687 


M 






M 










Alizarin brown 80 per cent. . . 
Alizarin bro^^^l F 


M 










M. 










Alizarin browTi H 


M.. 












M... 










Anthracene brown 20-100 

paste. 
Anthracene brown 40-100 

paste. 
Anthracene brown 100 per 

cent povvder. 
Anthracene brown S W pow- 
der. 
Anthracene brown SWR 

powder. 
Anthracene brown W 20-100. 

Anthracene brown WR 

Anthracene brown WR 20- 

100 paste. 
Anthracene brown WB 20- 

100 paste. 
Anthracene brown WG 20- 

100 paste. 
Alizarin SX GD 


B 










B 










B 










B 










B 










M 










M 










B 










B 










B 








784 




12, 205 


2,386 


Do 






B 






Alizarin SX 20-100 


B . 










AUzarin SX 20-100 paste 

Alizarin SX powder 


B 










B . 










Alizarin GD II 


B 










Alizarin GD 20 per cent 
paste. 
Alizarin RG, GI 


B 








785 




18,266 


4,673 


Germany, 77 per cent; Eng- 
land, 23 per cent. 




Alizarin RG powder 


B . 




Alizarin GI powder 


G .. 








Alizarin YC A 20-100 


Q 










Alizarin G(r 


By..::;: 










Alizarin red SDG 20-100 

Alizarin red SDG paste 

Alizarin Bordeaux B, BD 


M 










M 








787 




1,803 


1,43!; 






Alizarin Bordeaux B paste. . 
Alizarin Bordeaux B paste. . 

Alizarin Bordeaux 20-100 

Alizarin cyanine R 


B 




[ 


By 






1 


Q 






788 




2,750 


1,380 


England, 73 per cent; Ger- 
many, 27 per cent. 




Alizarin cyanine R powder. . 
Alizarin cvanine WRB paste 
11.30H(P1.). 

Alizarin cyanine 10-100 

Anthrac ene blue WR 


Bv 




By L- - 






By 








789 




107,709 


93,857 


Germany, 100 per cent. 




Anthracene blue WR paste. . 
Anthracene blue WR double 
paste. 


B 




B ...:::.: 

















108 CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921. 

Table 24. — iTnports of dyes during the calendar year 1921 — Continued. 



Schultz 
No. 


Name of dye. 


Manu- 
fac- 
turer. 


Imports. 


Countrie=i of origin (percent- 
age of quantity). 


Quantity. 


Invoice 
value. 


789 


Anthracene blue WR— Con. 
Anthracene blue WR double 

paste. 
Anthracene blue WR extra 
paste. 
Acid alizarin blue BB, GR 


Q 


Pounds. 








B.. 








790 




14,375 


$5,891 


Germany, 91 per cent; 
France, 9 per cent. 




Acid alizarin blue GR 

Anthracene blue SWGG 
powder. 

Anthracene blue SWGG 
extra powder. 

Anthracene blue SWR pow- 
der. 

Anthracene dark blue W 
paste. 

Acid alii-arin blue BB 

Indanthrene olive G powder 

Cibanone orange R 


M 




B 








B 










B.. 










B 










M 








791 


B 


5 

5,887 




Germany, 100 per cent 


792 


14,188 


Switzerland, 100 per cent. 




Cibanone orange R paste 

Cibanone orange R powder . . 

Cibanone green B paste 

Cibanone green G paste 

Cibanone olive B paste 

Cibanone blue 3G... 


I 




I 










I 










I 










I 








793 




227 




Do. 




Cibanone blue 3 G paste 10-100 

Cibanone blue 3G paste. 

Cibanone black ... . 


I 








I 








794 




1,102 




Do. 




Cibanone black B paste 

Cibanone vellow R 


I 






795 




1,770 


7,537 


Do. 




Cibanone yellow R paste 

Cibanone yellow R powder . . 
Acid alizarin green BG 


I 






I 








796 




1,322 




Germany, 100 per cent. 




Acid alizarin green B 

Acid aUzarin green 3G 

Alizarin garnet 


M 






M 








797 




1,523 




Do. 




Alizai in claret R paste 

Alizarin ni aroon W . . 


M.. . 






798 




2,751 




Do. 




Ahzarin maroon 20-100 paste. 
Alizarin eyanine G . 


B 






799 




3,336 


3,224 


Germany, 55 per cent; Eng- 
land, 38 per cent; France, 
7 per cent. 




AUzarin eyanine G extra pow- 
der 11319 (PI). 

Alizarin eyanine GG powder. 

Alizarin eyanine RR pow- 
der 11307 (PI). 

Alizarin eyanine GG powder 
100 per cent. 
Anthracene blue 


By 




By 








By 










By 








SOO 




4,057 




Germany, 100 per cent. 




Anthracene blue WB paste. . 
Anthracene blue WG paste. . 
Anthracene blue WGG 


B 






B 








801 




4,409 




Do. 




Anthracene blue WGG paste. 
Alizarin blue WX, A 


B 






803 




12, 482 


9,845 


Do. 




Alizarin blue A 20 


M 






Alizarin blue A 100 per cent.. 
Alizarin blue WX 20 pet cent . 
Alizarin blue WX 20 per cent . 
paste. 


M 










B 










B 










K 










Alizarin blue JR powder 1130 
Alizarin blue S . . . . 


By 








804 




21, 521 


11,801 


Germany, 98 per cent; Italy 






M 


6 per cent; Switzerland, 




Alizarin blue S 45—100 

Alizarin blue S powder 

Alizarin blue S powder 11388 

(PI). 
Alizarin blue S A P powder. . . 

Alizarin blue SAWS A 

Alizarin blue SB 45 


M 






per cent. 




B 










By 










By 










By 










M^ 










Alizarin blue SB 45 cone 

Alizarin blue S W powder 

Alizarin dark blue S 23 

Alizarin blui^ SR 


M 










By 










M^ 










M 










Alizarin blue SRW paste 

Alizarin blue SRW powder.. 
Alizarin blue SW.. . . . 


B 










B 










M 










Alizarin blue SW powder 

Alizarin blue S powder 

Alizarin blue SAP 


B 










By 










S.^ 









CENSUS OF DYES AI^^TD SYNTHETIC OEGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921. 109 

Table 24. — Imports of dyes during the calendar year 1921 — Continued. 



Name of dye. 



Manu- 

faf- 

turer. 



Alizarin green 

Alizarin green S paste 15-100. 

Alizarin green S paste 

Alizarin green S paste 

Alizarin green CG 

Alizarin green CG extra 

Alizarin indigo blue S 

Alizarin indigo blue S paste. 
Helindone yellow 3GN (single 
strength). 

Helindone yellow 3GN pow- 
der. 
Algol yellow 3G 

Algol yellow 3G paste 14S7.. 
Indanthrene orange RT paste.... 
Algol red 5G (single strength) 

Algol red 5G paste 

Algol red 50 powder 1.539 

Algol yellow R (single strength). . 

Algol yeUow R powder 

Algol pink R (single strength) . . . 

Algol pink R paste 

Algol pink R paste, 10 per 
cent, 11569 (111). 

Algol pink R paste 1:8 11569 
(PI). 

Algol pink R powder 

Algol pink R powder (166S).. 

Algol pink R powder (11570) 
Algol red R. KF (single strength). 

Algol brilliant red 2B paste 
S-100 11747 (111). 

Algol brilliant red 2B paste. . 

Algol brilliant red 2B pow- 
der. 

Algol brilliant red 2B pow- 
der 11573. 

Algol red F extra powder 
1870. 

Algol red F extra powder 
11563. 

Algol red FF extra paste 

Algol red FF e.xtra paste 
1857. 

Algol red FF extra paste 8 
per cent 11502 (111). 

Algol red FF extra powder 
11563. 

Algol red R extra paste 

Algol red R extra paste 1:8 
11560 (PI). 

Algol red R extra paste 
S-100 11560 (HI). 
Algol brilliant violet R 

Algol brilliant violet R paste 
1773. 

Algol brilliafit violet R paste 
1894. 

Algol brilliant \-iolet R paste 
10-100 11749(111). , 

Algol briUiant violet R pow- 
der. 

Algol brilliant violet R pow- 
der 11749a (111). 

Algol brillianlj violet R paste. 
Algol brilliant violet 2B (single 
strength). 

Algol brilliant violet 2B 

Algol brilliant violet 2B 
paste 10-100 11748 (111). 

Algol brilliant violet 2B pow- 
der. 

Algol brilliant violet 2B pow- 
der 11654. 

Algol blue 3R powder 

Algol blue 3RP powder 

Algol brilliant violet 2B 
paste. 



By. 
B.. 



By. 
By. 



By. 



By. 
By. 



By. 
By. 
By. 



By. 

By. 
By. 

By. 

By. 

By. 

By- 
By- 

By. 

By. 

By. 
By. 

By. 



By- 
By. 
By- 
By. 
By. 
By. 



By- 
By. 

By. 

By- 

By- 



Imports. 



Quantity. 



Povn(ts. 
2,000 



Invoice 
value. 



4,465 



352 



1,048 



212 

578 



2,400 

's'iss 



84,645 



3,372 



15,899 



Countries of origin (percent- 
age of quantity). 



1,951 



1,560 



England, 100 per cent. 
Germany, 100 per cent. 

Do. 

Italy, 100 per cent. 

Germany, 100 per cent. 

Do. 
Do. 

Do. 

Germany, 87 per cent; Italy, 
13 per cent. 



Germany, 88 per cent: Eng- 
land, 10 per cent; Holland, 
2 per cent. 



Germany, 100 per cent. 



Germany, 74 per cent; Italy, 
26 per cent. 



110 CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921. 

Table 24. — Imports of dyes during the calendar year 1921 — Continued. 



Schultz 
No. 



822 



825 



830 



831 



Name of dve. 



Manu- 
fac- 
turer. 



832 

833 

834 
836 
838 



Algol brilliant orange FR (single 
strength). 
Algol brilliant orange FR 

paste. 
Algol brilliant orange FR 

powder 1822. 
Algol briUiant orange FR 

powder 11576. 
Algol brilliant orange FR 

powder 11576 (111). 
Algol brilliant orange FR 
powder 11576 (111). 
Algol orange R (single strength). 

Algol orange R paste 

Algol orange R paste 1 : 8 

11574 (PI). 
Algol orange R powder 1501. 
Algol orange R powder 11575. 
Algol orange R powder 11575 
(PI). 

Algol red B 

Algol red B paste 

Algol red B paste 

Algol red B paste 11556 (PI). 
Indanthrene claret B extra (sin- 
gle strength). 
Indanthrene claret B extra 

paste. 
Indanthrene claret B extra 

paste, sand free. 
Indanthrene claret B double 

paste. 
Indanthrene claret B extra 

powder. 
Indanthrene Bordeaux B 

extra paste. 
Indanthrene Bordeaux B 

extra double paste. 
Indanthrene Bordeaux B 
double paste, sand free. 
Indanthrene red R (single 
strength). 

Indanthrene red R paste 

Indanthrene red R powder. . 
Indanthrene red BN (single 
strength). 
Indanthrene red BN extra 

paste. 
Indanthrene red BN extra 

paste, fine. 
Indanthrene red BN extra 

paste, sand free. 
Indanthrene red BN extra 

powder. 
Indanthrene red BN paste. . . 

Indanthrene violet RN 

Indanthrene violet RN extra, 
sand free. 
Algol ohve R (single strength) . . . 

Algol olive R paste 

Algol olive R powder 

Algol gray (single strength) 

Algol gray B powder 

Helindone brown 30N 

Helindone brown 3GN paste. 

Indanthrene blue RS (single 

strength). 

Indanthrene blue RS paste.. 

Indanthrene blue RS paste 

(for paper). 
Indanthrene blue RS paste 

(for pa7)er),sand free. 
Indanthrene blue RSP paste. 
Indanthrene blue RS double 

paste. 
Indanthrene RS double paste, 
sand free. 



By. 
By. 
By. 
By. 
By. 



K.. 
By. 

By. 
By. 



Q-. 
By. 
By. 



By. 
By. 



By. 
M.! 



Imports. 



Quantity. 



Po«7wis. 
1,228 



2,685 



6,626 



21, 331 



1,680 



337 



120 
""356' 

'28,' 908 



Invoice 
value. • 



$2,840 



301 



7,706 



8,532 



27, 249 



Countries of origin (percent- 
age of quantity). 



Germany, 82 per cent; Italy, 
18 per cent. 



Germany, 100 per cent. 



Germany, 98 per cent; Hol- 
land, 2 per cent. 



Germany, 84 per cent; Bel- 
gium, 12 per cent; England, 
4 per cent. 



Germany, 100 per cent. 



Germany, 97 per cent; Eng- 
land, 3 per cent. 



7,224 



Germany, 100 per cent. 

Germany, 74 per cent; Italy, 
26 per cent. 

Germany, 100 per cent. 

Do. 

Germany, 91 per cent; Italjj 
9 per cent. 



CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921. HI 

Table 24. — Imports of dyes during the calendar year 1921 — Continued. 



Schultz 
No. 



838 



840 



841 



842 



Name of dye. 



Manu- 
fac- 
turer. 



Imports. 



Quantity. 



B. 



843 

844 



847 



849 



B. 



B. 



Indanthrene blue RS .(single 
strength) —Continued. 
Indanthrene blue RS (for 

paper) powder, triple. 
Indanthrene blue RSP triple 
powder. 
Algol blue K (single strength).. 

Algol blue K powder 

Indanthrene blue 3G (single 
strength). 
Indanthrene blue 3G paste.. 
Indanthrene blue 3G paste B 

sand free. | 

Indanthrene blue 3G double 

paste, sand free. 
Indanthrene blue 3 G powder. 
Indanthrene blue 3GP pow- 
der. 
Indanthrene blue GGS (single 
strength). 
Indanthrene blue GGSP 

paste. 
Indanthrene blue GGSP 

double paste (thin). 
Indanthrene blue GGSP 

double paste (thick). 
Indanthrene blue GGSZ 

double paste. 
Indanthrene blue GGSNP 
quintriple powder. 
Indanthrene blue GCD (single 
strength). 
Indanthrene blue GCD single 

paste. 
Indanthrene blue GCD paste, 

sand free. 
Indanthrene blue GCD 

double paste. 
Indanthrene blue GCD 

double paste. 
Indanthrene blue GCD 

double paste, fine. 
Indanthrene blue GCD 

double paste, sand free. 
Indanthrene blue GCD 

powder. 
Indanthrene blue GCD 

double paste. 
Indanthrene blue GCD paste. 

Duranthrene blue CC 

Indanthrene blue CC paste 

Algol blue 3G (singlestrength)... 

Algol blue 3G paste 

Algol blue 3G paste 1412 

Algol blue 3G paste 11588 

Algol blue 3G paste 1:8 11588 

(III). 
Algol blue 3G paste 9-100 

11588. 
Algol blue 3G powder 1495.. , 
Algol blue 3G powder 115X9.. 
Algol green B (singlestrength)... 

Algol green B powder 

Indanthrene gray BP (single 
strength). 
Indanthrene gray B paste. . . 
Indanthrene gray B paste, 

sand free. 
Indanthrene gray double 
paste, sand free. 
Indanthrene yellow (single 
strength). 
Indanthrene yellow G paste. 
Indanthrene yellow G 

double paste, fine. 
Indanthrene yellow G 

powder. 
Indanthrene yeUow GP 
powder. 



By. 



B. 



B... 
BD. 
B... 



By. 
By. 
By. 
By. 

By. 

By. 
By. 



By. 



B. 



B. 



Pounds. 



66 



19, 715 



Invoice 
value. 



Countries of origin (percent- 
age of quantity). 



$12, 746 



2,310 



201, 835 



240 
4,623 



2,535 



75,061 



Italy, 100 per cent. 

Germany, 68 per cent; Italy, 
32 per cent. 



Germany, 100 per cent. 



Germany, 90 per cent; Italy, 
10 per cent. 



1, 



2,680 



3,435 



34,532 



Germany, 100 per cent. 
Germany, 90 per cent; Italy, 
10 per cent. 



Germany, 79 per cent; Italy, 

21 per cent. 
Germany, 80 per cent; Italy, 

20 per cent. 



Germany, 85 per cent; Italy, 
11 per cent; England, 4 
per cent. 



112 CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921. 

Table 24. — Imports of dyes during the calendar year 1921 — Continued. 



Schiiltz 
No. 



849 



850 



852 



853 
854 



Name of dye . 



Manu- 
fac- 
turer. 



855 



856 



Indanthrene yellow (single 
strength ) — Continued . 
Indanthrene yeDow GN 

extra paste, sand free. 
Indanthrene yellow R paste . 
Indanthrene yellow R paste, 

sand free. 
Indanthrene yellow R 

powder. 
Indanthrene yellow GT 

double paste. 
Indanthrene yellow G 

double paste. 
Indanthrene yellow R 
paste, 100 per cent. 

Duranthrene yellow GX 

Indanthrene blue WB 

Indanthrene blue WBO 

powder. 
Indanthrene blue W B 
powder. 

Alizarin direct blue B 

Alizarin direct blue E 3B 

Alizarin cyanole B 

Alizarin irisol DR 

Alizarin irisol R powder 

Alizarin irisol R cone. 75-100 
powder 11:362 B. 

Alizarin direct violet 

Anthraquinone violet powder... 

Alizarin viridine DW, FF 

Alizarin \iriiine FF paste... 
Alizarin viriaine FF paste 

11299 (V). 
Alizarin viridine FF paste 

112M (PI;. 
Alizarin viridine FF paste 

1:4 HI 299 A. 
Alizarin viridine FF paste 

11712. 
Alizarin viridine FF paste 

li:iOO(Pl*. 
Alizarin viridine FF powder. 

Alizarin pure blue 

Alizarin skj^ blue 

Alizarin sky blue 

Aliiiarin s,ky blue powder 

Alizarin sky blue B cone 

Alizaiin sky V)lue B powder. 
AUiarin sky blue B powder 

1038. 
Alizarin sky blue B powder 

11351. 
Alizarin sky blue B powder 

11351 (PI). 
Alizarin sky blue B powder 

11351 (V). 
Alizarin sky blue B powder 

113551. 
Alizarin skv blue B cone. 
70-100 powder (li:351a). 

Alizarin sky blue 1038 

Alizarin astrol 

Alizarin astrol B powder 

Alizarin astrol B powder — 
Alizarin astrol B powder 

11:350. 
Alizarin astrol B 

40-100. 
Alizarin astrol B 

1225. 
Alizarin astrol B powder 

11:550 (PI). 
Alizarin astrol B powder 

cone. 40-100 11358. 
Alizarin astrol B powder 
(■one. 40-100 li:350B (V). 

Alizarin astrol B extra 

Alizarin rubiuol 3G 



BD. 



By. 
By. 



By. 
By. 

By. 

By. 

By. 

By. 

By- 



powder 
powder 



K.. 
By. 
B.v. 
By. 
By. 
By. 

By. 

By. 

By. 

By. 

By. 

By. 



B.. 

By. 
By. 



By., 

By. 

By. 

By. 

By. 

By. 
By. 



Imports. 



Quantity. 



Invoice 
value. 



Pounds. 



116 



225 



1,165 
9,499 



Countries of origin (percent- 
age of quantity). 



$5, 657 



7,675 



12, 796 



24, 657 



36, 575 



52, 232 



Germany, 100 per cent. 

Do. 
Do. 



Do. 
Do. 



i 



Do. 



Germany, 94.9 percent; Hol- 
land, 2 per cent; li-nglaiul, 
1 per cent; Italy, 0.7 per. 
cent; Belgium, 0.4 percent; 
Denmark, ] per cent. 



CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921. Hg 

Table 24. — Imports of dyes during the calendar year 1921 — Continued. 



Name of dye. 



Manu- 
fac- 
turer. 



Alizarin astrol — Continued. 

Alizarin rubinol 3G powder.. 

Alizarin rubinol 3G powder 
11372. 

Alizarin rubinol 3G powder 
11372 (PI). 

Alizarin rul/inol 3G cone, 
powder 40-100 (11372AJ. * 

Alizarin rubinol GW powder. 

Alizarin rubinol GW powder. 

Alizarinrubinol GW powder 
1582. 

Alizarin rubinol G W powder 
11371. 

Alizarin rubinol GW powder 
11371 (PI). 

Alizarin rubinol GW powder 
11371 (Vj. 

Alizarin rubinol R 

Alizarin rubinol R 

Alizarin rubinol R powder... 

Alizarin rubinol R powder 
1395. 

Alizarin rubinol R powder 
U370(P1). 

Alizarin rubinol R powder 
cone. 40-100 11375A. 
AUzarin saphirol B 

Alizarin saphirol 

Alizarin saphirol B 

AUzarin saphirol B cone. 60- 
100. 

Alizarin saphirol B powder.. 

Alizarin saphirol B powder.. 

Alizarin saphirol BL powder 
11357 (PI).' 

AUzarin saphirol C 28365 
powder 11336 (PI). 

AUzarin saphirol SE cone. 
7.5-100. 

AUzarin saphirol SE powder. 

Ali/iarin saphirol SE powder 
847. 

Alizarin saphirol SE powder 
11341. 

AUzarin saphirol SE powder 
11341 (Plj. 

Alizarin saphirol SE powder 
11341 (V). 

Alizarin saphirol WSA pow- 
der 1780. 

AUzarin saphirol WSA pow- 
der 11345 (PI). 

Heliofast blue BL 

HeUofast blue BLconc 

HeUo fast blue BL 50-100 
conc.l0867B. 
Cyananthrol R 

Cyananthrol RBX powder. . 

Cyananthrol RX powder 

Cyananthrol RXO 

Cyananthrol RXG powder. . 
Cyananthrol G 

Cyananlhrol 

Cyananthrol BGA 

Cvananihrol BGA powder... 

Cyananthrol BG AO 

Cyananthrol BG AGO 

Cyananthrol BGAOO 90-100. 

Cyananthrol BGAOO pow- 
der. 

Cyananthrol BGAOO pow- 
der. 
Anthraquinone blue SR 

Anthraquinone blue SR 
extra powder. 



By. 
By. 

By. 

By. 

B.. 
By. 
By. 

By. 

By. 

By. 



K.. 
By. 
By. 
By. 

By. 

By. 



Q-- 
By. 
By. 

B.. 
Bv. 
By. 

By. 

By. 

B.. 
By. 



By. 
By. 
By. 
By. 
By. 

Bv. 

By. 
By. 



Imports. 



Quantity. 



Invoice 
value. 



28,606 



1,414 



12,713 



853 



871,560 



Coimtries of origin (percent- 
age of quantity). 



Germany, 76 per cent; Italy, 
13 per cent; HoUand, 8 per 
cent; Switzerland, 3 per 
cent. 



6,164 Germany, 100 per cent. 



39,946 



Germany, 91 per cent; Bel- 
gium, 9 percent. 



Germany, 100 per cent. 



114 CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921. 

Table 24. — Imports of dye's during the calendar year 1921 — Continued. 



I 



Name of dye. 



Manu- 
fac- 
turer. 



Alizarin blue black 

Alizarin blue black 3B 

Alizarin blue black 3B pow- 
der. 
Alizarin blue black 3B 

powder 11366 (PI). 

Alizarin blue black B 

Alizarin blue black B 

Alizarin blue black B cone. . 
Alizarin blue black B cone. 

11365 (PI). 
Alizarin blue black B cone. 

80-100. 
Alizarin blue black B paste.. . 
Alizarin blue black B powder 
Alizarin blue black B powder 
Alizarin blue black B powder 

725. 
Alizarin blue black B powder 

10364. 
Alizarin blue black B powder 

1136-1. 
Alizarin blue black B powder 

11364 (PI). 
Alizarin blue black B powder 

113644. 
Alizarin blue black B powder 

cone. 70-100 11365a. 
Alizarin blue black BT 

powder. 
Alizarin blue black B powder 

cone. 80-100 11365B. 

Anthraquinone blue green 

Anthraquinone blue green. . . 
Anthraquinone blue green 

BX powder D. 
Anthraquinone blue green 

BXO. 
Anthraquinone blue green 

BXO. 
Anthraquinone blue green 

BXO powder. 
Anthraquinone bluish green 

BX powder. 
Anthraquinone green GXNO 

powder. 
Anthraquinone green GXNO 
Anthraquinone green GXNO 

powder. 

Alizarin direct green G , 

Alizarin cyanine green E 

cone. 80-100. 
Ahzarin cyanine green E 

powder 1-294. 
Alizarin cyanine green E 

cone, powder 80-100 112944. 

AUzarin cyanine green G 

Alizarin cyanine green G 

e.xtra. 
AUzarin cyanine green G 

powder749. 
Alizarin cyanine green G 

extra powder. 
Alizarin cyanine green G 

extra powder. 
Alizarin cyanine green G 

extra powder 749. 
Alizarin cyanine green G 

e.xtra powder 11292. 
Alizarin cyanine green G 

extra powder 11292 (i'l). 
Aliiarin cyanine green G 

extra powder 11292 (V) 
Aluarin cyanine green 

extra 24498 powder 11302 

(Pi;. 



By. 
By. 

By. 

M.. 
C... 
By. 
By. 



By. 

M.. 
B.. 
By. 
By. 



G 



By. 

By. 
By. 
By. 
By. 



By. 



By.. 

By.. 

By.. 

Q... 
By.. 

By.. 

By. 



By. 
By. 
By. 
By. 
By. 



Imports. 



Quantity. 



Pounds. 
43, 277 



Invoice 
value. 



$30, 329 



3,040 



36, 534 



Countries of origin (percent- 
age of quantity). 



Germany, 98 per cent; Italy, 
1 per cent; Holland, 1 per 
cent. 



1,274 



80, 149 



Germany, 96 per 
France, 4 per cent. 



cent; 



Germany, 100 per cent. 



Germany, 94 per cent; Italy, 
3 per cent; Belgium, 3 per 
cent. 



CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921. 115 

Table 24. — Imports of dyes during the calendar year 1921 — Continued. 



Schultz 
No. 



867 



Name of dye. 



Manu- 
fac- 
turer. 



870 



873 



Alizarin direct green G — Contd. 

Alizarin cyanine green G 

extra powder cone. 11291B 

Alizarin cyanine green G 
"extra powder cone. 70-100 

11291A. 
Alizarin cyanine green G 
extra powder cone. 80-100 
11291. 
Alizarin cyanine green G 
extra powder cone. 80-100 
11291B. 
Alizarin cyanine green G 
extra powder cone. 80-100 
11291 B (V). 
Alizarin cyanine green CG 
extra. 

Alizarin direct green 5G 

Indanthrene brown (single 
strength). 
Indanthrene brown B double 
paste. 

Cibanone brown V paste 

Cibanone Thrown V powder. . 

Cibanone brown B powder. . 

Cibanone brown B paste 20 

per cent. 

Algol brown B (single strength) . . 

Algol brown R paste 

Algol brown paste 11744 (PI). 
Algol brown R paste 10-100 

11744(111). 
Algol brown R powder 11599 
(HI). 
Algol corinth R (single strength). 
Algol corinth R paste 10 per 
cent 11750 (III). 

Algol corinth R powder 

Algol corinth R powder 1765. 

Algol corinth R powder 11571 

Algol corinth R powder 11571 

(ID- 

Helindone brown AN (single 

strength). 

Helindone brown AN paste. . 
Indanthrene pink B paste... 
Indanthrene pink B paste 

sand free. 
Indanthrene pink B paste 

fine. 
Indanthrene pink double 

paste. 
Indanthrene pink BS powder 
Indanthrene red violet RRN 

paste. 
Indanthrene red violet RRN 

paste, sand free. 
Indanthrene red violet RRN 

powder. 
Indanthrene red violet 2 RN 

paste. 
Indanthrene red violet 2RN 



By. 



By- 



By. 



By. 



By. 



By. 
By. 
By. 

By- 



By. 

By. 
By. 
By. 
By. 



874 

877 
881 



paste, sand free. 
Indanthrene red 



violet 



RRNP paste. 
Indanthrene red violet 
RRNP powder. 

Indigo, synthetic 

Indigo carmine extra 

Ciba blue 2B 

Ciba blue2B powder 

Ciba blue 2B powder pat 

Ciba blue 2B pat 

Ciba blue BB powder 

Ciba blue 2BD paste 



Imports. 



Quantity. 



Pounds. 



Invoice 
value. 



Countries of origin (percent- 
age of quantity). 



11,558 



550 



6,640 



2,037 



$1,999 



12,047 



27,747 



42,595 



70, 975 

30 

99,937 



84,901 



126,817 



Germany, 77 per cent; Italy 
23 per cent. 

Switzerland, 100 per cent. 



Germany, 100 per cent. 



Do. 



Germany, 98 per cent; Italy, 
2 per cent. 



England, 100 per cent. 

Switzerland, 97.5 per cent; 
England, 2.0 percent; Ger- 
many, 0.5 per cent. 



116 CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921, 

Table 24. — Imports of dyes during the calendar year 1921 — Continued. 



Schultz 
No. 


Name of dye. 


Manu- 
fac- 
turer. 


Imports. 


Countries of origin (percent- 
age of quantity). 


Qufemtity. 


Invoice 
value. 


881 


Ciba blue 2B— Continued. 

Ciba blue 2BD paste 16-100. . 

Ciba blue 2B D paste pat 

Ciba blue 2BD paste 16-100 

pat. 
Durindone blue 4B 20-100 

paste. 
Durindone blue 4B .-. 


I 


Pounds. 








I 










I 










BD 










BD 










Indigo KB 20-100 paste 

Ciba blue G 


K 








882 




340 




Switzerland, 98 per cent; 
England, 2 per cent. 




Ciba blue G powder 


I 








BD 






883 


Indigo KG (single strength) 




3,811 


f2,161 


Germany, 61 per cent; Eng- 
land, 14 per cent; Italy, 25 
per cent. 




Indigo 6B powder 


M 




Indigo MLB 6B powder 

Durindone blue 6B 

Brilliant indigo B D paste 


M 








BD 






885 




12,656 


7,870 


Germany, 93 per cent; Italyl 
7 per cent. 




Brilliant indigo BD paste — 

Brilliant indigo B paste 

Brilliant indigo B paste base 
Brilliant indigo BB paste 
20-100. 


B 




B.. 








B 










B 








891 




441 




Switzerland, 100 per cent. 




CiDa green G paste 10-100 


I 




892 




2,159 




Germany, 100 per cent. 




Helindone green G paste 

Helindone green G powder. . 


M 






M 








893 




1,776 




England, 72 per cent; Ger- 
many, 28 per cent. 




Alizarin indigo G paste 1628.. 
Alizarin indigo G paste 20-100 


By 






By.. :: 








S94 




99 




Germany, 100 per cent. 




Alizarin indigo B paste 


K 






89o 




1,799 




Do. 




Ali ;arin indigo 3R paste 

Ali'.arin indigo 3R paste 
16-100, 11550 OA. , 


By 








By...: . 








89/ 




110 




Switzerland, 100 per cent. 




Ciba heliotrope B powder 
paste. 


I 






S99 




440 




Do. 






i 








Ciba gray G powder 


I 








.JOl 


Ciba violet 13 




21,987 


36, 643 


Do. 




Ciba \ iolet B paste 


I 






Ciba violet B paste 10-100 

Ciba violet (3 powder 


I 










I 










I 










Ciba violet R paste 10-100. . . 
V Ciba V iolet R powder 

Helindone brown 2R (single 
strength). 


I 










I 








902 




5,206 


9,813 


Germany, 100 per cent. 




M 






Helindone brown 2R paste 

10-100. 
Helindone brown 2R powder 
Helindone brown G (single 
strength) . 
Helindone lirown G paste. . . 
HeUndone l)rown G powder. 
Helindone brown CR paste. 
Helindone brown CH paste. 


M 










M 








904 




4,857 


4,853 


Do. 




M 






M 










M 










M . .1 






905 




554 




England, 92 per cent; Ger- 




Tliio iniiigo scarlet R powder 
Durindone scarlet R 


k 




many, 8 per cent. 




BD 






906 




6,122 


6,888 


Switzerland, 73 per cent; 




Tliio indigo scarlet 20 paste. 
Thio infligo scarlet 2G paste 
20-100. 


K . ... 


Germany, 27 per cent. 




K 








1 1 










I 








Ciba red G paste io-ioo 


I ' 






£07 




10,695 


20,085 


Switzerland, 96 per cent; 




Ciba scarlet G extra paste — 
Ciba .scarlet G extra paste 

20-100. 
Ciba scarlet G extra powder . 


I 


Germany, 4 per cenl.. 




I 








I 







CEIS^SUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921. 117 

Table 24. — Imports of dyes during the calendar year 1921 — Continued. 



Sehultz 
No. 


Name of dye. 


Manu- 
fac- 
turer. 


Imports. 


Countries of origin (percent- 
age of quantity). 


Quantity. 


Invoice 
value. 


908 


Ciba red R paste 20 per c«nt 


I 


Pounds. 

110 

31,813 




Switzerland. 100 per cent. 

Germany, 80 per cent; Eng- 
land, 12 per cent: Holland, 
6 per cent; Italy, 2 per 
cent. 


910 


$56,249 




Thio indigo pink AN paste. . 
Thio indigo rose AN paste . . . 
Tliio indigo rose BN paste.. . 
Helindone pink AN paste . . . 
Helindone pink AN paste 

10-100. 
Helindone pink BN paste. . . 
Helindone pink BN paste 

10-100. 
Thio indigo red B paste (single 
strength). 

Thio indigo red B paste 

Thio iTidigo red B paste 

20-100. 
Thio indigo red B powder . . . 
Thio indigo red B powder 

100 per cent. 
Durindone red B 


K 




K 








K 








M 










M 










M 










M 








912 




5,965 


5,897 


England, 34 per cent; Ger- 
many, 66 per cent. 




K 




K 








K 


1 






K 








BD 


■ 1 




913 


Helindone orange R - - - - 


919 


17, 759 


Germany, 100 per cent. 




Thio indigo orange R paste . . . 

Helindone orange R paste 
10-100. 

Helindone orange R powder.. 

Helindone orange D powder 

HeUndone red B powder 


K 




M 








M 


! 




914 


M 


33 
549 




Do. 


917 




Do 




Helindone red B paste 

Helindone red B paste 20-100. 
HeUndone red 3B 


M 








M 






918 




17, .566 




Do 




Helindone red 3B paste 

Helindone red 3B paste 
20-100. 


M. . . 








M 


1 




919 




4,625 


22, 772 


Switzerland, 100 per cent. 




Ciba bordeaux B 

Ciba bordeaux B paste 

Ciba bordeaux B powder 


I 




I 








I 






920 




2,425 


9,324 


Germany, 100 per cent. 




Helindone violet B paste 

Helindone violet B powder. . . 
Helindone violet BB paste . . . 
Helindone violet 2B paste 

20-100. 
Helindone violet 2B powder. 


M 




M . .. . 










M 










M 








M 


1 




921 




882 




Do. 




Helindone gray BB paste 

Ursol '. 


M 






923 




5,150 


9,248 


Do. 




Ursol D 


A 






Ursol DB 


A 










Ursol DF 


A 


1 






Ursol S A 


A . ... 


1 






UrsolP 


A 


1 








A 








Ursol SLA 


A 


1 






Ursol 4G 


A 


1 






Ursol 4R 


A 








Ursol A lumps 


A 








Ursol D lumps 


A 


» 






Ursol gray AL 


A 








Ursol gray B 


A 








Ursol gray G 


A 








Ursol gray R 


A 












. 





118 



CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921. 



Table 24. — Imports of dyes during the calendar year 1921 — Continued. 
UNIDENTIFIED ACID DYES. 







Imports. 


Countries of origin (percent- 
' age of quantity). 


Name of dye. 


turer. 


Quantity. 


Invoice 
value. 


Acetyl red 




Pounds. 
610 




Germany, 100 per cent. 


Acetyl red BBX 


B 




Acetyl red GX .- 


B 








Acid blue ; 




2,565 




Switzerland, 90 per cent; 
Germany, 10 per cent. 


Acid blue A 


K 




Acid blue RBF 


I 






Acid brown 




537 




Germany, 80 per cent; Eng- 
land, 20 per cent. 


Acid browTi 55 


Q 




Acid brown D Speine 


C 






Acid magenta N 


Q 


50 
10, 165 






Acid milling black 




Switzerland, 100 per cent. 


Acid milling black B 


G 




Acid milling black B 652 


G 








Acid milling red 




871 




Do. 


Acid milling red R cone. 666 


G 






Acid pure blue R supra 614 


G 

G 


110 

529 

3,681 




Do. 


Acid ponceau E 640. . . 




Do. 


Acid red 


si, 553 


Germany, 100 per cent. 


Acid red B 


K 


Acid red 2B 


K 








Acid red 4B 


K 








Acid red SDG 20-100 


M 










Q 


224 
4,166 




England, 100 per cent. 
Switzerland, 52 per cent; 


Acid rhodamine 


11, 887 


Acid rhodamine BG 


B 


Germany, 48 per cent. 


Acid rhodamine R 


I 








Acid rhodamine 3R 


I 








Acid rhodamine 3R cone 


I 












163 




Germany, 92per cent; France, 
8 per cent. 


Acid violet 6B SX extra 


C 




Acid violet 7B 


Q 








Alizarin brilliant green KG 


C 1 S4 




England, 100 per cent. 


Alizarin cyanole 




668 




Germany, 100 per cent. 


Alizarin cvanole E F 


c 








c 








Alizarin direct violet 




1,338 




Do. 


Alizarin direct violet E 2B 


M 






AUzarin direct violet RC 


M. .:::.; 






Alizarin delphinol 




1,472 




England, 100 per cent. 


Alizarin delphinol BS 


BD 






Alizarin emeraldole 




991 


2,352 


Germany, 100 per cent. 


Alizarin emeraldole G 


By 






By... .. 








Alizarin emeraldole G powder 1340 

AUzarin emeraldole G powder (VI) 
11349. 
Alizarin saphirole 


By 








Bv 










5,905 




Switzerland, 100 per cent. 


Alizarin saphirole SAP 


S 






Alizarin uranole R powder 


By 


622 
328 




Germany, 100 per cent. 


AlkaU fast green 




Germany, 70 per cent. 


Alkali fast green 3G cone. 33-100 

Alkali fast green 3G cone. 33-100 10553A 
Alphanol brown R 135 per cent 


By 




Holland, 30 per cent. 


By 








c^.:;::: 

M 

M....... 

By.r.... 


273 
100 
100 
132 
1,028 




Germany, 100 per cent. 


Amido azo black EG. 




Do. 


Amido red B L 




Do. 


Anthracyanine 3FL cone. 40-100 




Do. 






Do. 


Anlhosine B . . 


B 








B 








Anthosine 5B. .. . 


B 








Azo acid black 3BL extra 


M 


1,001 
189 




Do. 






Do. 




B 






Azo carmine I 30849 


B . 








Azo cyaiiine 




573 


954 


Do. 


Azo cyaiiine GR 


K. ... 




Azo cyanine GR extra 


K 










K 










K 

C 

Gr.E.... 
C 


125 

1,380 

100 

200 




Do. 






Do. 






Do. ■ 


Azo orsielle BB 




Do. ;■ 



- 



JENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS^ 1921. 



119 



Table 24. — Imports of dyes during the calendar year 1921 — Continued. 
XWIDENTIFIED ACID DYES— Continued. 



Name of dye. 


Manufac- 
turer. 


Imports. 


Countries of origin (percent- 
age of quantity). 


Quantity. 


Invoice 
value. 






Pounds. 
6,553 


S9,980 


Switzerland, 100 per cent. 




S 






s 










s 










c 

K 

c 


1,826 
368 
201 
217 




Germany, 100 per cent. 






Do. 


Jlue FS .... 




Do. 






Do. 




B 






Brilliant anthrazurol Q powder 


B 








K 

B 


100 

100 

1,018 




Do. 






Do. 






Do. 




C 








C 












2,175 




Germany, 95 per cent; Eng- 


Brilliant milling blue B 100 per cent... 


Q 




land, 5 per cent. 


C. 








K 








Jrilliant. milling red.. 




1,275 


219 


Germany, 100 per cent. 




C 






C 










C... 










C 

By 


185 

49 

6,559 




Do. 


Jrilliant pure yellow 6G extra 1648 




Do. 


12,443 


Germany, 66 per cent; 




Q -- 


France, 34 per cent. 




C 








C 










c 








Brill ant scarlet 3R 90 per cent 


c... 








c... 








c... 








Brilliant s "arlet (6) 


c... 








Brilliant scarlet ( 43 ) 


c 








c 








Brilliant ssarlet (147) 90 per cent 

Brill ant scarlet (909) 


c 








c 










Q 


22 
320 




France, 100 per cent. 


]Iitro ine 


390 


Switzerland, 100 per cent. 




s 




Citronine 000 . . 


I 








IJloth fast blue 




23, 782 


26,455 


Do. 


Cloth fast blue BB . 


I 




Cloth fast blue GTB 


I 








Clo*h fast blue R 


I . 










I 










I 










I 

I 

I 

BD 

BD 

M 

C 

M 

BD 

G 

G 

G 

G 


4 

110 

110 

1,000 

1,120 

337 

185 

807 

13,454 

992 

1,102 

970 

55 

1,685 




Do. 






Do. 






Do. 






England, 100 per cent. 






Do. 


Crystal ponceau 6RW 1025 




Germany, 100 per cent. 


Crvstal scarlet 6R 




Do. 


Dark eosinc 6R 60 Crystals 




Do. 






England, 100 per cent. 






1 Switierland, 100 per cent. 






i Do. 






Canada, 100 per cent. 






Swit.'.erland, 100 per cent. 






Do. 


Erio fast fuchsine BL cone. (573) 

Erio fast fuchsine BL 671 


G 






G 










G 

G 


501 
12,918 
17,820 




Canada, 100 per cent. 


Erio rnliine 2B cone 646 




Switzerland, 100 per cent. 




24,816 


Do. 


Erio violet BC 505 


G . 




Erio violet BC 505 95-100 


G 










G 










G 








Erio violet RL 670 


G 










G 









120 



CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1&21.I 



Table 24. — Imports of dyes during the calendar year 1921 — Continued. 
UNIDENTIFIED ACID DYES— Continued. 





Manufac- 
turer. 


Imports. 


Countries of origin (percent- 
age of quantity). 


Name of dye. 


Quantity. 


Invoice 
value. 


Erythrine BG 


M 


Pounds. 
403 

2,287 




Germanv, 100 per cent. 
Do. 


Fast acid cvanine 


$1,383 


Fast acid cvanine GR Pi 10583 


By 




Fast acid cvanine GR cone. 75-100 


By 








10583 A. 
Fast acid cvanine GR 10583 


By 








Fast acid cyanine 5R 10584 


By 


1 




Fast acid cyanine 5R cone. 75-100 


Bv 


[ 




10584B. 
Fast acid cyanine SR PI 10584 


By 








Fast acid green BB 


m: 


100 
300 




Do. 


Fast acid marine bhie 




Do. 


Fast acid marine blue HBBX 


B 






Fast acid marine blue HBBK 


B 








Fast acid red 


Q 


112 

476 




England, 100 per cent. 
Germany, 100 per cent. 


Fast felt bl le 




Fast felt blue extra 


c 




Fast felt blue extra 2484J. 


c 








Fast scarlet BX 


B 

B 


500 

50 

220 




Do. 


Fast wool blue BL 




Do. 


Formic blaclc 




SwitJerland, 100 per cent. 


Formic black TG cone. 292 


G 








G 








FormvlblcieBX ... 


c 

By 

Gr.E.... 
Gr.E.... 

I 

I 


68 
240 
100 
3,535 
661 
110 
11,290 




Germany, 100 per cent. 


Gloria black N cone. 60-100. . 




Do. 


Hvdra ine vellow lEG. 




Do. 


Ink blue BITBNOO. 




Do. 


Kiton fast orange G 




Switzerland, 100 per cent. 


Kiton fast red R 




Do. 


Kiton fast vellow 




Do. 


Kiton fast yellow 3G . . 


I 






Kiton fast yellow 


I 








Kiton red 




11,738 


16,877 


Do. 


Kiton red cone 


I 




Kiton red G 


I 








Kiton red G cone... 


I 






Kiton red 6B 


1 1 






Kiton red S 


I 






Kiton vellow 




1,653 




Do. 


Kiton yellow 3G . . . 


i 






Kiton yellow S.. 


s 








Milling red 6BA.... 


A 


225 
2,45S 




Germany, 100 per cent. 


Milling yellow 




Do. 


Milling yellow GA 


A 






Milling yellow O . 


c 








Milling vPllow R 


A 








Naphthlene black AB 


P 

M 

P 

c 

I 

A 

K 


24 

200 

2,220 

392 

1,323 

1,600 

150 

272 




France, 100 per cent. 


Naphthalene blue B 




Germany, 100 per cent. 


Naphthalene green NV 




France, 100 per cent. 


Naphthol dark green G 




Germanv, 100 per cent. 


Navy blue A... 




Switzerland, 100 per cent. 


Nerol2B 




Germany, 100 per cent. 


Nerol blaek 2B. 




Do. 






Do. 


Nero cyanine BS 


K 




Do. 




K 






Do. 


Neutral cloth blue R 669 


G 

Gr.E.... 

A 

Gr.E.... 
Gr.E.... 
Gr.E.... 
B 


551 
50 
560 
100 
100 
100 
481 
2,401 




Switzerland, 100 per cent. 


Orange 3RL.. 




Germany, 100 per cent. 


Ortho cvanine B 




Do. 


Oxy acid blue 6B 




Do. 


0.\y acid red BB 




Do. 


Oxy acid violet RO ) 




^0- <3 


Palatine light yellow RX 




Do. fl 


P atent t)lack 


233 


Do. fl 




C 


■ 


I'atent black II 


c 






■■ 


Patent black N 


C 






■ 


Polar red (' cone 596 


G 

I 

M 

Q 

G 

S 

B 


2, 579 
5,622 
42 
66 
110 
50 
150 




Switzerland, 100 per cent.W 






Do. ■ 






Germanv, 100 per cent. ■ 






P'rance, 100 per cent. 


Seto fla vine T 393 




Switzerland, 100 per cent. 






Do. 


Special blue G 




Germany, 100 per cent. 



CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921. 



121 



Table 24. — Imports of dyes during the calendar year 1921 — C'ontLnued. 
UNIDENTIFIED ACID DYES— Continued. 



Name of dye. 



Manufac- 
turer. 



Imports. 



Quantity, ^l^^ 



Cotmtries of origin (percent- 
age of quantity). 



By. 

By. 



Sulphon orange G By. 

Sulphon yellow . . . 

Sulphon yellow R cone. 10469 By. 

Sulphon yellow R cone. 30-100 10469A.; By. 

Sulphon yellow R cone. 35-100 10469C. | By. 

Sulphon yellow 5G I By. 

Sulphon yellow 5G cone. 35-100 By. 

Supramine black BR 1598 By. 

Supramiiie yellow R K. 

Tolane fast red 

Tolane fast red 2BL 

Tolane fast red 6BL 

Victoria fast violet 

Victoria fast violet 2R extra 

Victoria fast violet 2R extra PI 10613. . . 

Victoria fast violet 2R extra (VIII) 
10613. 

Victoria fast violet 2R extra 10613 

Victoria scarlet 

Victoria scarlet K 2Z I M . . 

Victoria scarlet K 3G I M.. 

Victoria yellow Q . . 

Violet blue acid 7B Q . . 

Violet for wool SB double couc ! Q . . 

Wool blue I 

Wool blue RL 647 ' G . . 

Wool blue RL 447 i G . . 

AVool blue extra cone ! Q . . 

Wool fast blue -' ] 

Wool fast blue BL By. 

Wool fast blue B L cone ! Q . . 

Wool fast blue BL (VIII) in564B | By. 

Wool fast blue BL 10564B By. 

Wool fast blue BL cone. 50-100 10564D. By. 

Wool fast blue G L couc. 50-100 10564G . j By. 

Wool fast marine blue BB B. 

Wool fast yellow 

Wool fast veUow G 

Wool fast Vellow 5GX. 

Wool violet RLF 

Xylenecyanol FF extra... 
Xylene fast gre«n B 



Pounds. 
1,268 
2,054 



49 
200 
882 



2,335 



9 

11 

275 

69,719 



SI, 099 



2,506 



Germany, 100 per cent. 
Do. 



Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



Do. 



Do. 



50 
151 



250 

500 

1,501 



France, 100 per cent. 
Belgium, 100 per cent. 
Switzerland, 100 per cent. 



Germany, 99 per cent; 
Holland, 1 per cent. 



Germany, 100 per cent. 
Do. 



Do. 
Switzerland, 100 per cent. 
Do. 



UNIDENTIFIED VAT COLORS. 



Algol blue C 

Algol blue C paste 11739 (IV) 10-100. . . 

Algol blue C powder 11739 A 

Algol brown G powder 1 1600 

Algol yellow S paste 

Chloranthrene Bordeaux 12^ per cent 

Chloranthrene red 5G Y paste 

Ciba rose 

Ciba rose BG paste 

Ciba rose BG powder 

Ciba rose BG powder patent 

Duranthrene blue RDX 

Duraiithf ene brown B 

Duranthrene dark blue BO 

Duranthrene red violet 

Duranthrene red violet 2RN 

Durindone red Y 

Helindone black 3B 

Helindone red BB 

Indanthrcne blue 

Indanthrene blue RC paste 

Indanthrene blue RZ paste 

Indanthrene blue G 2Z powder 

Indanthrene blue RC powder 

ilndanthrene brown 

Indanthrene brown 3R paste fine 

Indanthrene brown RR paste 



541—22- 



By. 
By.. 
K.. 
BD. 
BD. 



I... 
I... 
I... 
BD. 
BD. 
BD. 



BD. 
BD. 
M.. 

M.. 



3,045 



35 

498 

10 

10 

1,870 



10 

10 

10 

2,274 



10 

4,409 

152 

5,620 



$4,937 



Germany, 100 per cent. 



Do. 

Do. 
England, 100 per cent. 

Do. 
Switzerland, 100 per cent. 



England, 100 per cent. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 

Do. 

Germany, ion per cent. 
England", 100 per cent. 
Germany, 100 per cent. 



Do. 



122 



CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC OKGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921. 



Table 24. — Imports of dyes during the calendar year 1921 — Continued. 
UNIDENTIFIED VAT COLORS— Continued. 





Manufac- 
turer. 


Imports. 


Coimtries of origin (percent- 
age of quantity). 


Name of dye. 


Quantity. 


Invoice 
value. 






Pounds. 
1,223 




Germany, 100 per cent. 


Indanthrene golden orange RN extra 

paste. 
Indanthrene golden orange 3R paste. . 


B 






B 










7,124 




Germany, 47 per cent; Eng- 
land, 36 per cent; Belgium,, 


Indanthrene violet BN extra paste 

Indanthrene violet BN extra paste 


B 




Q 






17 per cent. " !jk 


Q 










2,590 




England, 100 per cent. ^ 


Indigo LL 2R 


BD 








BD 










K 

B 

K 


123 

180 
687 
200 




Germany, 100 per cent. 






Do. 


Thio indigo violet 2R paste . . . . 




Do. 






Do. 




B 

















UNCLASSIFIED MORDANT AND CHROME DYES. 







5,668 


$3,214 


Germany, 100 per cent. 




M 






M 








Acid alizarin black SET powder 


M 








M 












2,054 




Do. 




M 








M 












2,818 




Do, 




M 








M 










M 


379 
3,136 




Do. 






Do. 




B 








B 












8,922 


7,271 


England, 60 per cent; Ger- 




Q 


many ,35 per cent; Holland,. 




M 






5 per cent. 




M 








Alizarin blue SBW 


M. 








Alizarin blue SCB paste 20-100 

Alizarin blue SW powder 11390(EV)... 


Q... 








By 








B..: ::: 










B 










Q 












400 




Germany, 100 per cent. 


Alizarin blue black BB double paste. . 


B 








4,861 


1,143 


Do. 


Alizarin cyanine green EFP powder.. . 

Alizarin cyanine green 3G powder 

Alizarin cyanine green 3G powder 
n297(Pl) 


By. 




By- 








By 










B^.;:;.. 

By 

By 


4,418 

432 

1,482 

1,045 




Do. 


AUzarin fast l)lack SP powder (11368) 




Do. 




Do. 




579 


England, 86 per cent; Ger- 




M 


many, 14 per cent. 




Q 










q::::::: 










By 


99 
6,177 




Germany, 100 per cent- 




284 


Do. ' 




M 




Alizarin red CR 20-100 


M 








Alizarin red 5F 20-100 


M 








Alizarin red PS powder 11378(P1) 


By 








B . :.:: 










B 






Do. 
Do. 

Do. 
Do. 

England, 100 per cent- 




C 


1,065 
543 










c 






C 








B 

C 

BD 


25 

377 

6,720 








Anthracene brown WliP paste 





CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921, 



123 



Table 24. — Imports of dyes during the calendar year 1921 — Continued. 
UNCLASSIFIED MORDANT AND CHROME DYES— Continued. 



Name of dye. 



Manufac- 
turer. 



Imports. 



<->„.,«+;+„ i Invoice 
Quantity. ^,^i^g_ 



Countries of origin (percent- 
age of quantity). 



Anthracene chromate black 

Anthracene chromate 1 lack D 

Anthracene chromate hlack LC 

Anthracene chromate blue 

Anthracene chromate brown 

Anthracene chromate brown E B 

Anthracene chromate brown EB extra . 

Anthracene chromate brown EB extra 
90 per cent. 

Anthracene chromate brown EB 90 
per cent. 

Anthracene chromate brown EB 100 
percent. 

Anthracene chromate brown EB 100 
per cent. 

Anthracene chromate brown RR 

Anthracene chromate green FF 

Anthracene chrome black 

Anthracene chrome black KLT 

Anthracene chrome black KV 

Anthracene chrome black PBB 

Anthracene chrome black 5611Z 

Anthracene chrome blue H 

Anthracene chrome brown SWN 

Anthracene dark blue 

Anthracene direct green B 

Brilliant alizarin cyanineSG powder 

Brilliant chrome blue G 50 per cent 

Chromal blue GC (for printing) 939 

Chromacetin blue S powder 

Chrome black 

Chrome black AGZZ 

Chrome black B 

Chrome blue S 

Chrome Bordeaux B powder 

Chrome brown 17675 powder 

Chrome cyanine G 

Chrome fast blue 

Chrome fast blue BX 

Chrome fast blue 2R 

Chrome fast brown ' 

Chrome fast brown 

Chrome fast brown T Y 

Chrome fast green GL 

Chrome fast violet B 

Chrome olive JCSB powder 

Chromazurine G powder 

Chromochlorine G powder 

Chromorhoduline 

ChromorhoduUne B powder 

Chromorhoduline 6G extra powder 

Chromosafranine B powder 

Chnmoxamine violet 

Chromoxamine violet B 

Chromoxamine violet 5B 

Coeruleine H powder 

Diamond red 5G 1521 

Erio chrome blue S 9.55 

Erio chrome brown ROS 933 

Erio chrome flavine A cone. 1015 

Erio chrome green HK 1031 

Erio chrome red PEI 1035 

Erio chrome violet J 

Erio chrome violet B 918 

Erio chrome violet 3B 941 

Fast chrome green B powder 

Fast mordant blue 

Fast mordant blue B 

Fast mordant blue KR 

Fast mordant blue KRL '. 

Lanasol brown 2R pat 

Lanasol green G 

I Lanasol green G 

Lanasol green G cone 

Lianasol orange 

Lanasol orange G 

Lanasol orange 2R 



C... 
C... 
C... 

c... 

c... 
c... 

B... 
C... 
Q... 
G... 
G... 
DH. 



K... 

M... 
G... 
DH. 
DH. 
By. 



I.... 
I.... 
I.... 
I.... 
DH. 
DH. 
DH. 



DH. 
DH. 
DH. 



I': 

G.. 
G.. 
G.. 
G.. 



G... 
G... 
DH. 



Pounds. 
675 



51 
12,694 



99 
2,041 



670 
1,120 
284 
128 
752 
441 
220 
110 
1,081 



2,756 
100 
110 
229 
771 



220 
562 
110 
55 
220 
310 



100 
1,263 



242 

315 

110 

1,213 

110 

551 

1,587 

6,812 



110 
3,072 



220 

885 



J 15, 985 



Germany, 100 per cent. 



Do. 
Germany, 92 per cent; Eng- 
land, 5 per cent; Italy, 3 
per cent. 



Germanj-, 100 per cent. 
Do. 



Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Switzerland, 100 per cent. 

Do. 

Do. 
Germany, lOOpercent. 



Switzerland, 100 per cent. 

Do. 

Do. 
Germany 100 per cent. 
Switzerland, lOOpercent. 



Do. 



Do, 
Do, 
Do. 
Do, 
Do. 
Do, 

Do, 
Do. 
Germany, 100 per cent. 



Do. 
Do. 
Switzerland, 100 per cent. 
Do. 
Do, 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



Do. 

Germany, 100 per cent. 



Switzerland, lOOpercent. 
Do. 



Do, 



124 CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921. 

Table 24. — Imports of dyes during the calendar year 1921 — Continued. 
UNCI»ASSIFIED MORDANT AND CHKOME DYES— Continued. 



Name of dye. 



Lanasol red 

Lanasol red G 

Lanasol red G cone 

Lanasol violet ,. 

Lanasol violet B paste 

Lanasol violet R paste 

Lanasol yellow 

Lanasol yellow G paste 

Lanasol yellow G cone 

Metachrome blue black 

Metachrome blue black 2BX 

Metachrome blue black R 

Monochrome brown 

Monochrome brown E 

Monochrome brown E, 286 per cent. 

Mordant fast yellow E powder 

Mounsey olive brown 

Mounsey oUve brown 

Mounsey olive brown G powder 

Omega chrome brown 

Omega chrome brown P 

Omega chrome brown PB 

Omega chrome brown PB cone 

Omega chrome red B 

Oxychrome black FVOOO 

Oxychrome blue black 6BN00 

Potting black B 

SaUcine blue B 

SaUcine blue black AE 

Salicine Bordeaux RF 

Salicins brown RE 

SaUcine dark green CS 

Salicine orange 2R 

Salicine red B • 

Salicine violet R 



Manufac- 
turer. 



S.... 

s.... 
s.... 
s.... 

GrE. 
GrE. 
I.... 
K... 
K... 
K... 
K... 
K... 
K... 
K... 
K... 



Imports. 



Quantity. 



Pounds. 
881 



1,322 



50 
1,060 



5,486 



1,662 

3,000 

• 100 

11,023 

245 

1, 287 

50 

200 

77 

231 

282 

132 



Invoice 
value. 



Countries of origin (percent- 
age of quantity^- 




Do. 

England, 100 per cent. 

Switzerland, 100 per cent. 



Do. 
Germany, 100 per cent. 

Do. 
Switzerland, 100 per cent. 
Germany, 100 per cent. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 



UNCLASSIFIED DIRECT DYES. 



Azo diamine orange 2R. 



Benzo Bordeaux 

Benzo Bordeaux 6B PI10034 

Benzo Bordeaux 6B cone. 50-100 10034A. 

Benzo briUiant violet 2R 

Benzo bronze E 

Benzo bronze E 

Benzo bronze E19% 

Benzo chrome black blue B cone. 50-100 — 

Benzo chrome black pure blue B 

Benzo chrome blue black '. 

Benzo chrome blue black B 

Benzo chrome blue black B cone 

Benzo chrome brown 

Benzo chrome brown B 

Benzo chrome brown B670 

Benzo chrome brown G 

Benzo chrome brown G671 

Benzo chrome brown 5G 10211 

Benzo chrome brown 5G (VI) 10211. . . 
Benzo copper blue 

Benzo copper blue 2B 

Benzo copper blue 2B cone 

Benzo copper blue B PI10163 

Benzo fast black 

Benzo fast black 

Benzo fast black L 

Benzo fast black L (1425) 

Benzo fast black L (10268) 

Benzo fast black L cone. 78-100 

Benzo fast black L PI 10268 

Benzo fast black L (VI) 10268 



By. 

1^: 



By. 
By. 



By. 
P.. 



By. 

Sy- 
gy- 
Sy- 

By. 



By. 
By. 
By. 



By. 
By. 

Sy- 
Sy- 
gy- 

By. 
By. 



432 
491 



200 
331 



4,122 

2,593 

475 



3,439 



4,912 



$3, 847 



1,742 



5,255 



Italy, 80 per cgnt; Holland, 

20 per cent. 
Germany, 100 per cent. 



Do. 
Italy, 100 per cent. 



Germany, 100 percent. 

Do. 
Germany, 86 per cent, 
France, 14 per cent. 

Germany, 80 per cent; Eng 
land, 20 per cent. 



Germany, 100 per cent. 



Germany, 88 per cent; Bel- 
gium, 8 percent; England, 
4 per cent. 



CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS. 1921. 



125 



Table 24. — Imports of dyes during the calendar year 1921 — Continued. 
UNCLASSIFIED DIRECT DYES— Continued. 



Name of dye. 



Manufac- 
turer. 



Imports. 



Quantity 



Invoice 
value. 



Countries of origin (percent- 
age of quantity). 



Benzo fast black — Continued. 

Benzo fast black L 100 per cent 

Benzo fast black S 

Benzo fast blue 

Benzo fast blue FFL 

Benzo fast blue FFL 10179 

Benzo fast blue FFL 

Benzo fast blue G PI10176 

Benzo fast Bordeaux 6BL 

Benzo fast brown 

Benzo fast brown GL 10258 

Benzo fast brown RL 

Benzo fast brown RL 10257 

Benzo fast heliotrope 

Benzo fast heliotrope BL 

Benzo fast heliotrope BL cone. 50-100 
10207 A. 

Benzo fast heliotrope 4BL 

Benzo fast heliotrope 4BL 1759 

Benzo fast heliotrope 2RL 

Benzo fast heliotrope 2RL 10208 , 

Benzo fast heliotrope 2RL 10208(VI) . . 
Benzo fast orange 

Benzo fast orange 2RL , 

Benzo fast orange 2RL 10086 , 

Benzo fast orange S PI10085 , 

Benzo fast orange S 70-100 , 

Benzo fast orange S cone. 75-100 , 

BeUiO heliotrope , 

Benzo red 

Benzo red 12B , 

Benzo red 12B 10009 (VI) , 

Benzo red 12B cone. 50-100 , 

Benzo rhoduline red 

Benzo rhoduline red 

Benzo rhoduline red B 

Benzo rhoduline red B cone. 30-100... 

Benzo rhoduline red 3B 

Benzoform scarlet B ( 10307) 

BrilUant benzo green B 936 

Brilliant benzo violet 

Brilliant benzo violet B 

Brilliant benzo violet B 50-100 

Brilliant benzo violet B 1389 

Brilliant benzo violet B 10205 (PHI). . 

Brilliant benzo violet 2R 1388 

Brilliant benzo violet 2R cone. 40-100. . 

Brilliant copper blue G W 

Brilliant fast blue 

Brilliant fast blue 2G 

Brilliant fast blue 2G cone. 60-100 

Brilliant fast blue B 

Biilliant fast blue 2G cone. 60-100 
10182A 

BnUiant'fast blue 3X 1577 

BriUiant fast blue 3BX 

Brilliant sky blue 

Brilliant sky blue 8G extra 

Brilliant sky blue 2RM 

Chicago red III 

Chloramine brilliant red 

Chloramine brdhant red 

Chloramine briUiant red 8B 

Chloramine brilliant red 8B cone 

Chloramine brilhaiit red 8B cone. pure. 
Chloramine red 

("hloramuie red 8BS 

Chloramine red 8BS 1180 

Chloraminered 8BS (PI10031) 

Chloramine red SBS cone. 60-100 

Chloramine violet FFB , 

Chlorantine fast black 

Chloranline fast black B 

Chlorantine fast black B cone 

Chlorantine fast blue 

Chlorantine fast blue 2GL 

Chlorantine fast blue 2GL cone 



By. 
By. 
B.. 
By. 
Q.. 



By. 
By. 
By. 



By. 
By. 

?y- 

Bv. 
By. 
By. 
By. 



By. 
By. 
By. 
By. 
By. 
K.. 



By. 
By. 
By. 



K.. 
By. 
By. 

By. 
By. 



By. 
By. 
By. 
By. 

By. 



By. 
By. 
By. 
By. 

By. 



Q.. 
By. 
G.. 



By. 
By. 

By. 
By. 



Pounds. 



22 
3,601 



2,189 



50 
1,843 



3,950 



522 

297 

1,510 



100 
3,943 



5,341 



2,755 
4,932 



4,028 



265 
1,102 



5,070 



$7, 252 



5,865 



5,923 



2,918 3,844 



1,179 



785 



3,996 



11,178 



69,684 



Germany,. 96 per cent; Eng- 
land, 4 per cent. 



Italy, 100 per cent. 
Germany, 100 per cent. 



Do. 



Do. 



Do. 



Germany, 77 per cent; Hol- 
land, 23 per cent. 

Germany, 94 per cent; Italy, 
6 per cent. 



Germany, 100 per cent. 
Do. 
Do. 



Do. 
Do. 



Germany, 64 per cent; Eng- 
land, 36 per cent. 

Switzerland, 100 per cent. 
Do. 



Germany, 72 per cent; Italy, 
26 per cent; England, 2 per 
cent. 



Germany, 100 per cent. 
Switzerland, 100 per cent. 



Do. 



126 CElSrSUS of dyes and SYNTPIETIC organic chemicals, 1921. 



Table 24. — Imports of dyes during the calendar year 1921 — Continued. 
UNCLASSIFIED DIRECT DYES— Continued. 





Manufac- 
turer. 


Imports. 


Countries of origin (percent- 
age of quantity). 


Name^of dye. 


Quantity. 


Invoice 
value. 


Chlorantine fast Bordeaux 




Pounds. 
2,534 




Switzerland, 100 per cent 


Chlorantine fast Bordeaux 2BL 


I 




Chlorantine fast Bordeaux 2BL cone. . 


I 








Chlorantine fast brown 




4,589 


$9,398 


Do. 


Chlorantine fast brown 2GL 


I 




Chlorantine fast brown RL 










Chlorantine fast brown RL cone 


I 








Chlorantine fast orange 




2,348 




Do. 


Chlorantine fast orange TRL 


I 






Chlorantine fast orange TRL cone 


I 








Chlorantine fast red 




3,072 




Do. 


Chlorantine fast red 7B L 


I 






Chlorantine fast red 7BL cone. . . 


I 








Chlorantine fast rubine 




440 




Do. 


Chlorantine fast rubine RL cone 


I.. .. 






Chlorantine fast rubine RL paste 

Chlorantine fast violet 


I.. . . 










5,622 


10, 171 


Do. 


Chlorantine fast violet BL 


I . . 




Chlorantine fast violet BL cone 


I 








Chlorantine fast violet 4BL 


I 








Chlorantine fast violet 4BL cone 


I . 








Chlorantine fast violet 2RL 


I.. 








Chlorantine fast yellow 




3,637 


6,612 


Do. 


Chlorantine fast yellow 4GL... 


I . . 




Chlorantine fast yellow 4GL cone. 


I 








Chlorantine fast yellow RL 


I 








Chlorantine light blue 2BL 


I 

I 

I 


441 

441 

661 

3,510 




Do. 


Chlorantine light yellow 4GrL 




Do. 


Chlorantine orange TRL 




Do. 


Chlorazol brown 


4,258 


England, 100 per cent. 


Chlorazol brown G 


BD.. 




Chlorazol brown GM 


BD... 








Chlorazol brown RD 


B D 








Chlorazol fast red K 


BD 

BD 


2,150 
300 
400 




Do. 


Chlorazol violet R 




Do. 


Chromanile black 




Germany, 100 per cent. 


Chromanile black B F 









Chromanile black 2F extra. . 


A 








Columbia Bordeaux B 


A 

A 

A 

M 

C 


in 

51 

100 

776 

1,001 

2,666 




Do. 


Columbia fast scarlet 4B 




Do. 


Columbia violet R 




Do. 


Copper blue B extra 




Do. 


Cotton brown W 




Do. 


Cupranil brown 


3,926 


Switzerland, 100 per cent. 


Cupranil brown G 


I 




Cupranil brown G cone .... 


I 








Cupranil brown R 


I 








Cupranil brown R cone 


I ... . 








Cutch brown RR 


s 

c 

c 


220 

117 

541 

1,600 




Do. 


Diamine azo blue R 




Germany, 100 per cent. 


Diamine azo orange RR 




Do. 


Diamine azo scarlet . 


1,156 


Do. 


Diamine azo scarlet A 


c 




Diamine azo scarlet BBL extra . . 


c. . . 








Diamine azo scarlet SB extra 


c 








Diamine azo scarlet 4B L extra 


c 








Diamine azo scarlet 6BL extra 


c 








Diamine brilliant orange SS 


c 

c 

c 


710 

972 

172 

7,545 




Do. 


Diamine brilliant scarlet S 




Do. 


Diamine Bordeaux S 




Do. 


Diamine catechine 


9,108 


Do. 


Diamine catechine B 


c 




Diamine c^Ttenbine B , 


K 








Diamine catechine G 


c 








Diamine catechme G R cone 


c 








Diamine catechine GXN 


c. .. 








Diamine catechine 3G. 


c 








Diamine dark blue B 


c 

c 


269 
514 




Do. 


Diamine fast black X 




Do. 


Diamine fast blue 


15, 323 


20. 501 


Do. 


Diamine fast blue CG 


c 






Diamine fast blue FFB 


c 






Diamine fast blue FFB. 


K . .. 






Diamine fast blue FFC . . 


c 


1 




Diamine fast blue FFO 


c 








CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921. 127 



Table "li.^Imports of dyes during the calendar year 1921 — Continued. 
UNCLASSIFIED DIEECT DYES— Continued. 





Manufac- 
turer. 


Imports. 




Name of dye. 


Quantity. 


Invoice 
value. 


Countries of origin (percent- 
age of quantity). 






Pounds. 
1,331 




Germany, 100 per cent. 




C 






C 








Diamine fast brown 




3,529 


82,826 


Do. 


Diamine fast hrnwn Ci 


C 




Diamine fast brown GB 


C 










C 








Diamine fast orange 




6,261 




Do. 


Diamine fast orange EG... 


C 








C 








Diamine fast rose 




117 




Do. 


Diamine fast rose BBF... 


C 






Diamine fast rose G 


C 








Diamine fast scarlet . . 




2,826 


5,935 


Do. 


Diamine fast scarlet 4BS 


c 




Diamine fast scarlet 6BS 


C 








Diamine fast scarlet 8BSX 


C 








Diamine fast scarlet 8BN. . 


c 








Diamine fast violet FFR 


c 


551 
628 




Do. 


Diamine heliotrnpe 




Do. 


Diamine heliotrope B . 


c 






Diamine heliotrope O 


c 








Diamine jet black OO 


c 

c 


200 
254 
160 




Do. 


Diamine nitrazol green GF. 




Do. 


Diamine orange , 




France, 50 per cent. 


Diamine orange B 


p 




Belgium, 50 per cent. 


Diamine orange B 


c 






Diamine phosphine D . . . 


c 

c 

c 

Q 

c 

c 

M 

M 

M 

M 

M 

M 


50 

278 

11 

500 

20 

847 

1,533 

1,649 

637 

500 

350 

611 

1,558 




Germany, 100 per cent. 
Do. 


Diamine purpurine 6B . . 




Diamine steel blue L 




Do. 


Diamine yellow 




France, 100 per cent. 
Germany, 100 per cent. 
Do. 


Diamineral blue R . 




Diaminogene sky blue N. ... 




Dianil black ES 




Do. 


Dianil blue H 2G 




Do. 


Dianil brown MH. 




Do. 


Dianil chrome brown R 




Do. • 


Dianil Japonine G 




Do. 


Dianil red 1 OB 




Do. 


Dianil violet 


179 


Do. 


Dianil violet BE 


M 




Dianil violet BE cone 


M 








Dianil violet H 


M 










c 

BD 

BD 

BD 

BD 

M 

K 


276 
2,240 
1,000 
1,120 
1,120 

257 
2,205 
1,126 




Do. 


Dianoldark blue B 




England, 100 per cent. 
Do. 


Dianol fast blue 2B 




Dianol fast orange D 

Dianol violet R 




Do. 




Do. 


Diazanil pink B 




Germany, 100 per cent. 
Do. 


Diazo blue black T 




Diazo Bordeaux 


1,582 


Do. 


Diazo Bordeaux 


Bv 




Diazo Bordeaux PI 10404 


Bv . 








Diazo Bordeaux 7B 


Bv ... 








Diazo Bordeaux 7BC 160 


Bv 








Diazo Bordeaux 7BC 598 


By 








Diazo Bordeaux 7B 1312 


By:::::: 








Diazo brilliant orange 




437 


571 


England, 68 per cent; Ger- 
many, 32 per cent. 


Diazo brilliant orange GR extra 


M 


Diazo brilliant orange GR extra 1716. . 


By 






Diazo brilliant orange 5G extra 


By: 








Diazo brilliant scarlet 




3,578 


7,768 


Germany, 76 per cent; Eng- 
land, 24 per cent. 


Diazo brilliant scarlet extra BA 


K 


Diazo bnlMant scarlet extra B A 


By 






Diazo brilUant scarlet G 


Bv:. 








Diazo brilUant scarlet ROA extra 


Bv 








Diazo brilliant scarlet S4B 


Bv 








Diazo brilliant scarlet 2B extra cone. 


By 








(10394). 
Diazo brilliant scarlet 3B extra (1274). . 


By 








Diazo brilliant scarlet 3B extra (10390) . 


Bv 










By.. 








Diazo brilliant scarlet 6B extra (1275) . . 


By . 








Diazo brilliant scarlet 2BL extra cone. . 


By:::::: 








Diazo brilliant scarlet 2BL extra cone. 
1344. 


By 

















128 



CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC OEGANIC CHEMICALS. 1921. 



Table 24. — Imports of dyes during the calendar year 1921 — Continued. 
UNCLASSIFIED DIRECT DYES— Continued. 



Name of dye. 



Diazo brilliant scarlet — Continued. 

Diazo brilliant scarlet 2BL extra cone. 
(10394PI). 

Diazo brilliant scarlet 2BL extra cone. 
(10394 VII). 

Diazo brilliant scarlet 4BL extra cone. . 
Diazo brown 

Diazo brown G 

Diazo brown G (10432) 

Diazo brown NR 

- Diazo brown 3G 1811 

Diazo brown 3RB 1881 

Diazo fast blue 

Diazo fast blue 2BW 

Diazo fast blue 2BW cone 

Diazo fast Bordeaux 

Diazo fast Bordeaux BL 

Diazo fast Bordeaux BL 1731 

Diazo fast red 

Diazo fast red 5B L 1875 

Diazo fast red 7BL 

Diazo fast violet 

Diazo fast violet B L 

Diazo fast violet 3RL 

Diazo fast violet 3RL (10431PIII) 

Diazo fast yellow 

Diazo fast yellow G 1798 !!!!!!!!!!' 

Diazo fast yellow 2G 

Diazo geraniiie 

Diazo geranine B extra 10400 .......... 

Diazo geranine B extra PI 10400 , 

Diazo indigo black L 100 per cent 

Diazo indigo blue 

Diazo indigo blue 4GL extra 

Diazo indigo blue 4GL extra (10420PI) . 

Diazo indigo blue 4GL extra (1730). 

Diazo navy blue BP2S 

Diazo olive 

Diazo olive G (10409 PHI) 

Diazo olive G (10409) 

Diazo phenyl black 

Diazo phenyl black 3B 381 ...'.!!.!!!. ! 

Diazo phenyl black V 360 

Diazo rubine 

Diazo rubine B \,\ 

Diazo rubine B 1117 

Diazo rubine B 10386 

Diazo rubjne B ((0386PI). . . 

Diazo rubine B 10386 ( Vtl) 

Diazo scarlet 3BA extra 

Diazo sky black B ^ 

Diazo sky blue 

Diazo sky blue B (10426 PHI) 

Diazo sky blue B 1528 

Diazo sky blue B 95 per cent 

Diazo sky blue 3G 

Diazo sky blue 3G 1527 

Diazo sky blue 3G powder 

Diazo yellow R 1799 

Diphenyl fast blue 

Diphenyl fast blue FB cone. 383 

Diphenyl fast blue FB supra 379 

Diphenyl fast Bordeaux 

Diphenyl fast Bordeaux B cone 

Diphenyl fast Bordeaux G cone. 366.. . 

Diphenyl fast gray BC 254 

Direct brown 

Direct brown 5G 

Direct brown KR 

Direct brown TBSX18 

Direct catechine (! R cone 

Direct cutch brown 

Direct, cutch l)rown B 

Direct cutch ))rown B cone 

Direct cutch brown GR 

Direct cutch brown GR cone 



Manufac- 
turer. 



By. 
By 
By. 



By. 
By. 

By. 
By. 



By. 
By. 



By. 



By. 



By. 



By. 
By. 



By- 



By.. 

GrE. 



By. 



By. 

?y- 

By. 

Q.- 
K.. 



§y- 
?/: 
§y- 

By. 
By. 



Imports. 



Q.uantity. 



Pounds. 



1,077 



1,102 



718 



1,135 



559 



218 



383 



100 

277 



110 
201 



1,415 
"3,"ii3' 



Invoice 
value. 



62 
2,924 
6,892 



46 
1.322 



595 



no 

6, 734 



386 
6,614 



$1,788 



Countries of origin (percent- 
age of quantity). 



447 



8,597 



4,187 



9,601 



Germany, 100 per cent. 

Switzerland, 100 per cent. 
Germany, 100 per cent. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Italy, 81 per cent; Germany, 
19 per cent. 



Germany, 100 per cent. 
Do. 



Switzerland, 100 per cent. 



England, 87 per cent, 
Germany, 13 per cent. 



Italy, 100 per cent. 
Germany, 100 per cent, 
Germany, 98 per cent; Italy, 
2 per cent. 



Germany, 100 per cent. 
Switzerland, 100 per cent. 



Do. 



Do. 
Switzerland, 98 per cent;J 
England, 2 per cent. 



Switzerland, 100 per cent. 
Do. 



CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC OEGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921. 



129 



I 



Table 24. — Imports of dyes during the calendar year 1921 — Continued. 
UNCLASSIFIED DIRECT DYES— Continued. 





Manufac- 
turer. 


Imports. 


Countries of origin (percent- 
age of quantity). 


Name of dye. 


Quantity. 


Invoice 
value. 


Direct deep black T 


I 

C 


Pounds. 
99 




Germanv, 100 per cent. 


Direct fast black B 


1,322 I 
441 1 
198 

1,494 




Switzerland, 100 per cent. 


Direct fast orange SE 




Do. 


Direct fast scarlet 4BS . . . 




Germanv, 100 per cent. 






France, 100 per cent. 


Direct gray F 


P 






Direct safranine 




440 i 




Switzerland, 100 per cent. 


Direct safranine RW 


I 








I 


::::::::::::.;;;;;; 




Indigene blue RW cone 


I 

M 

K 

K 


110 
500 
311 
100 
1,382 




Do. 


Janus black I 




Germany, 100 per cent. 


Naphthamine black AB extra.. 




Do. 


NaphtbaTninp riirect bbie 2R 




Do. 






Do. • 


Naphthamine fast black SF 


K 






Naphthamine fast black KSG extra. . . 
Naphthamine fast bro^NTi RL. . 


K 


"":::::::::;::::::; 




K 


200 
12,023 




Do. 


Naphthogene blue 


$14,367 


Germanv, 93 per cent. 


Naphthogene blue B 


A 




Italy, 5 per cent. 
Holland, 2 per cent. 


Naphthogene blue 2R 


Q 




Naphthogene blue 2R 


A. 






Naphthogene blue 4R 


Q.. 


' 




Naphthogene blue 4R 


A 






Naphthogene indigo blue R 


A 

A 

B 

B 

I' 


100 
100 
500 
25 
994 
228 
152 




Germany, 100 per cent. 


Naphthogene pure blue 4B 




Do. 


Oxamine black RR 




Do. 


Oxamine brilliant violet RX 




Do. 


Oxamine chrome violet SB 




Do. 


Oxamine fast blue BX 




Do. 


Oxamine fast pink 






Do. 


Oxamine fast pink BNE 


B 






B... 


"::::::::;;::::: 




Oxamine light blue 




625 




Do. 


Oxamine light blue B 


B 






Oxamine light blue G 


B 










B 


113 




Do. 


Oxv diamine black. 




120 




Do. 


Oxv diamine black 5000 


C . 






Oxv diamine black N 


C 






Oxv diamine brown RN 


C 498 

C 225 

C 400 

S... . 882 




Do. 


Oxv diamine red S 




Do. 


Oxv diaminogene ED. .. 




Do. 


Parasulfon brovt'n G... . . .. 




Do. 


Patent dianil black 




2,240 




Do. 


Patent dianil black F^ B cone 


M 






Patent dianil black EB extra cone 


M 






Pluto black 




1,345 




Do. 


Pluto 1 lack CF extra cone. 60/100 


Bv 






Pluto black G (10289 PI). . . . 


By. 






Polyphenvl blue GC 103 


G 2,579 

G 3,637 

L 83 




Switzerland, 100 per cent.- 


Polvphenvl yellow RC 115 




Do. 


Pyramine G 




Germanv, 100 per cent. 


Pyrazol orange 




16,845 




Switzerland, 100 per cent. 


Pvrazol orange G 


S... 






Pvrazol orange G cone . .. 


S... 








Rosanthrene 




4,908 


7,824 


Do. 


Posanthrene B cone 


I 






I 










I 












4,739 




Do. 




I 








I 










I 

I 

A 


551 

992 

1,500 

992 




Do. 






Do. 


Solamine blue FF 




Germanv, 100 per cent. 


Triazol lilue 




Do. 


Triazol I'ltie BOOO 


Gr.E.... 






Triazol Hue BOOO 


Q- 










S 

S 

M 

M 

A 


441 
1,501 
2,090 
3,686 
1,752 

9im 




1 Switzerland, 100 per cent. 






1 Do. 


Union black M No. 8. 




Germanv, 100 per cent. - 


Union blue BD M 3 




Do. 






Do. 






Do. 


ZambesiRed4B A 1 132 




Do. 




Do. 




1 


1 







130 CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921. 

Table 24.— Imports of dyes during the calendar year 1921 — Continued". 
UNIDENTIFIED SULPHUR DYES. 





Manufac- 
turer. 


Imports. 


Countries of origin (percent- 
age of quantity). 


Name of dye. 


Quantity. 


Invoice 
- yalue. 


Cross dye green 




Pounds. 
51,074 


$49,646 


England, 100 per cent. 


Cross dye green 


BD 


Cross dye green B 


BD. 








Cross dye green 2G cone 


BD 








Cross dye yellow Y 


BD 

BD 


548 
2,240 
21,248 




Do. 


Disulphine blue 87724 




Do 


Eclipse brown 


9,947 


Switzerland, 100 per cent. 


Eclipse brown BK371 


G... . 


Eclipse brown 3GK 


G... 








Eclipse brown 3GK 366 


G... . 








Immedial direct blue B 


C 


520 
2,379 




Germany. 100 per cent. 
Do. " 


Tmmedial indogene 




Immedial indogene B 


C 






Immedial indogene AGG extra cone. . . 


C 








Katigene bronze GL(XI)11536 


By 


6 
12 




Do. 


Katigene direct blue 




Do. 


Katigene direct blue B extra cone. 


By 






11493(XI). 
Katigene direct blue RF extra cone. 


By 








11495(XI). 
Xatigene yellow brown 




12 




Do. 




By 






Katigene yellow brown 3RL 11521(XI) 


By.. 








Katigene yellow GR extra (XI) 11453 


By 


6 
949 




Do. 


Pyrogene brown 




Switzerland, 100 per cent. 


Pyrogene brown RS yellow shade 


Q 






Pyrogene brown RS yellow shade 


I 








Pyrogene brown DIB 


I- .. 








Pyrogene catechine 2G0 


I 

Q 


1,102 
500 
440 




Do. 


-Pyrogene cutch 2G 




Do. 


Pyrogene cutch brown 




Do. 


Pyrogene cutch brown 2R extra 


Q 






Pyrogene cutch brown 2R extra cone. . 


Q.. 










i:. ..:::: 

I 

Q 

M 

M 


2,205 
220 
141 
441 
172 

1,884 




Do. 


Pyrogene yellow brown RS 




Do. 


Sulphon catechine R 




Holland, 100 per cent. 


Thiogene brown GR 


Germany, 100 per cent. 


Thiogene orange R 




Italy, 100 per cent. 


Thional brilliant blue 




Switzerland, 100 per cent. 


Thioiial brilUant blue 6B.. . 


S... 






Thional brilhant blue 6B cone 


I 








Thional brilliant blue 6B 


I 








Tliional orange G 


s 

s 

Q 

BD 


2,002 
17,704 
9,797 
6,720 
20, 632 




Do. 


Thional yellow G 




Do. 


Thionine green GG 




England, 100 per cent. 


Thionol brilliant green 4GX 




Do. 


Thionol brown 


.9,927 


Do. 


Thionol brown GD 


BD 




Thionol brown P 


BD 






. 


Thionol brown R 


BD 








Thionol corinth RBX . 


BD 

BD 


2,240 
16,600 
35,240 




Do. 


Thionol green DY 




Do. 


Thionol yellow 




Do. 


Thionol yellow GR 


BD 






r Thionol yellow 3RD 


BD. ... 








Thionone black 6R 


BD 


10 




Do. 









UNIDENTIFIED BASIC DYES. 



Artificial silk black.. 




1,422 




Switzerland, 85 per 


Artificial silk black . 


I 




Italy, 15 per cent. 


Artificial silk black KG cone 


Q 








Brilliant cresyl blue 2BS, 200 per cent 

Cotton blue BC 


L 

K 

Q 

C 

M 

C 


55 

100 

4 




Germany, 100 per cent. 




Do. 


Ilomophosphine red 




France, 100 per cent. 


Isamine blue 6BX 


i.on.s 

100 
139 




Germany, 100 per cent. 


New ethyl blue B 




Do. 


Rosazeine 




Do. 









cent; 



CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC OEGANIC CHEMICALS^ 1921. 



131 



Table 24. — Imports of dyes during the calendar year ^9fi ^Continued. 
UNIDENTIFIED SPIRIT SOLaBLE AND COLOR LAKE DYES. 





Manufac- 
turer. 


Imports. 


Countries of origin (percent- 
age of quantity). 


Name of dye. 


Quantity. 


Invoice 
value. 


Autol orange 23 211 powder 


B 


Pounds. 

5 

180 




Germany, 100 per cent. 
Do. 


Black base 




Black base S 


B 






Bronze lake 


§::;:::: 


99 

220 
440 




Do. 


BriUant lake BB 




Do. 


Fat orange 




Switzerland, 100 per cent. 


Fat orange LG 


G 




Fat orange R S186 


G 








Hansa rubine G powder 


M 


459 
2,315 




Germany, 100 per cent. 
Do 


Hansa yellow 1 


$297 


Hansa yellow 5G lumps 


M 




Hansa yellow R paste 


M 








Hansa yellow R paste 1918 


M 








TTfilio Ttnrdpnuv 




1,343 


1,526 


Do 


Helio Bordeaux B L powder 


Bv 




Helio Bordeaux BL 1763 


By 








Helio Bordeaux BL 20-100 paste 10837. 


By 






• 


Helio fast violet 




743 


1,461 


Do 


Helio fast violet AL 


By.... 




Helio fast violet AL 1360 


By.. .. 









Helio fast violet AL 10866a 


By 








Helio violet solide 


Q^ 


251 




France, 100 per cent. 


Lake blue 


1 102 




Germany, 100 per cent. 


Lake blue 14228 0. 






Lake blue 142281 powder 


Q 








Liithol Bordeaux B paste 


B 


152 
900 




Do. 


Ldthol fast orange R 




Do. 


Lithol fast orange R powder 


B 






Lithol fast orange R paste 


B 








Oil yellow R 


B 5 

M fion 




Do. 


Pigment scarlet 3B cone 




Do 


Figment violet 2B paste 


M 

Q 

A 


1,113 

230 

5 




Do. 


Printers' red 




Do. 


Sudan 4GL 




Do. 









UNIDENTIFIED, 


UNCLASSIFIED, 


SPECIAL DYES, 


Aniline dves 


Q 

B 

§-:::: 
3::::::: 

B 

Q 


861 

800 
324 
2,756 
311 
716 
50 
100 
220 




France, 90 per cent; Ger- 
many, 10 per cent. 
Germany, 100 per cent. 

Do. 
France, 100 per cent. 
Germany, 100 per cent. 

Do. 

Do. 
Holland, 100 per cent. 
Germany, 100 per cent. 


Anthracene GC paste sand free 




Aurazin B cone 




Bistre T powder 




Brilliant bronze black B powder 




Brilliant chrome leather black extra 




Bronze blue for laundry 




Bronze red L 116 




Eulan 




Eulan F 


B 




Eulan F 2164 


B 






Furesin SB 


M 


20 

207 

3.51 

1,761 




Do. 


Oallo indigo blue S powder 




England, 100 per cent. 
Switzerland, 100 per cent. 
Germany, 100 per cent. 


Hvdrazol orange G 




Indigo blue 




Indigo blue 3BZ 90-100 


C 




Indigo blue X 


Q 








Light yellow G 10526 


§!;;:::: 

Q 

§-.:::: 

Q 

Q 

Q 

By 


40 
112 
500 
300 
2,7.53 
447 

11 

no 

.82 
110 




Do. 


Manila brown 




England, 100 per cent. 
Do 


Old gold aniline dye 




Faperfast Bordeaux B 




Germany, 100 per cent. 
Do 


'aper green 




iiakSBS.. . 




Italy, 100 per cent. 
France, 100 per cent. 
Switzerland, 100 per cent. 
Germany, 100 per cent. 
Do. 


;nse Aurore 




-^carlet red medicinal 




^ky blue B powder 




I'rsol brown 




Ursol brown 2G A 


A 






Virdine green 


Q 


755 




Do. 









132 CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC OEGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921. 

Table 24.-Imports of dyes during the calendar year I9f i-Continued. 

INDEX OF DYES IMPORTED. 



Name of dye. 



Acetyl red BBX.. . . : 

Acetyl red GX 

Acid aUzarin black E N T 

Acid alizarin black E T 

Acid alizarin black R 

Acid alizarin black SET 

Acid alizarin black SN 

Acid alizarin blue BB 

Acid alizarin blue GR 

Acid alizarin brown B 

Acid alizarin brown RR ■ 

Acid alizarin gray G ■ 

Acid alizarin gray S ■ 

Acid alizarin green B 

Acid alizarin green 2B 

Acid alizarin green 3G 

Acid anthracene brown R 

Acid anthracene brown RH. . . 
Acid anthracene brown RR . . - 
Acid anthracene brown WSG.. 

Acid anthracene red 

Acid anthracene red 3B 

Acid anthracene red 2BL 

Acid anthracene red G 

Acid black 

Acid blue A 

Acid blue B 

Acid blue RBF 

Acid brown 

Acid brown D 

Acid brown RN 

Acid cyanine BF 

Acid eosine L, new 

Acid green 

Acid green B 

Acid magenta N 

Acid milling black B 

Acid milling red G 

Acid milling red R 

Acid ponceau E 

Acid pure blue R ■ 

Acid red B 

Acid red 2B 

Acid red 4B 

Acid red SDG 

Acid red brown 

Acid rhodamine BG 

Acid rhodamine R* 

Acid rhodamine 3R 

Acid violet 4BN 

Acid violet 4BNS 

Acid violet BW 

Acid violet 6B 

Acid violet 6BN 

Acid violet 6BN00 

Acid violet 6BSX 

Acid violet 7B (K) 

Acid violet 7B (Q) 

Acid violet 7B (B) 

Acridine orange 

Acridine red 

Agalma black lOB 

Agalma black lOBX 

Algol blue C 

Algol blue3G 

Algol blue K 

Algol blue3R 

Algol blue 3RP 

Algol brilliant orange FR 

Algol brilliant red 2 B 

Algol brilHant violet 2B 

Algol brilliant violet R 

Algol brown B 

Algol brown G 

Algol brown R 

Algol corinth R 

Algol gray B 

Algol green B 

Algol olive R .,.,,..,,.,..., . 



Schultz 
No. 



159 



790 
790 



796 



796 



400 
400 
400 
400 
269 



565 



212 
705 
590 
505 
502 



527 
527 
527 
530 
548 
530 



530 



534 
603 
569 
217 
217 



844 
839 
821 
821 
822 
819 
821 
820 
869 



870 
834 
847 
833 



Name of dye. 



118 
118 
122 
122 
93 
122 
122 
108 
108 
122 
122 
122 
122 
108 
122 
108 
92 
92 
92 
92 
97 
97 
97 
97 
94 
118 
101 
118 
93 
118 
93 
104 
102 
98 
98 
118 
118 
95 
118 
118 
118 
118 
118 
118 
118 
118 
118 
118 
118 
99 
99 
99 
99 
100 
99 
118 
99 
118 
99 
102 
101 
93 
93 
121 
111 
HI 
109 
109 
110 
109 
■ 109 
110 
115 
121 
. 115 
115 
110 
111 
114 



Algol orange R 

Algol pink R 

Algol red B 

Algol red F 

Algol red FF 

Algol red 5G 

Algol red R 

Algol yeUow 3G 

Algol yellow R 

Algol yellow S 

Alizarin GD 

Alizarin GD II 

Alizarin GG • 

Alizarin GI 

Alizarin RG 

Ahzarin YCA 

Alizarin SX 

Alizarin astrol 

Alizarin astrol B 

Alizarin astrol 3G • 

Alizarin astrol GW • 

Alizarin astrol R 

Alizarin black B 

Alizarin black S 

Alizarin black SF 

Alizarin black SP 

Alizarin black SWR 

Alizarin black WR 

Alizarin black WX 

Alizarin blue A 

Alizarin blue JR 

Alizarin blue S 

Alizarin blue SAP 

Alizarin blue SAWSA 

Alizarin blue SB 

Alizarin blue SR 

Alizarin blue SRW 

Alizarin blue S W 

Alizarin blue WX 

Alizarin blue 

Alizarin blue F 

Alizarin blue RR- 

Alizarin blue SB W 

AUzarin blue SCB 

Alizarin blue S W 

Alizarin blue WC 

Alizarin blue WNN 

AUzarin blue black B 

AUzarin blue black BB 

Alizarin blue black BT 

AUzarin blue black 3B : . 

AUzarin blue black GT 

Alizarin blue soluble 

Alizarin Bordeaux B 

Alizarin brown 

Alizarin browai F 

Alizarin brown H 

AUzarin brown N 

AUzarin briUiant green KG.. 

Alizarin claret R 

AUzarin cyanine 

AUzarin cyanine G 

Alizarin cyanine GG 

AUzarin cyanine R 

AUzarin cyanine RR 

AUzarin cyanine WRB 

AUzarin cyanine green GG. . . 

AUzarin cyanine green E- - •- 

Alizarin cyanine green EPP . 

Alizarin cyanine green G 

Alizarin cyanole B 

Alizarin cyanole EF 

AUzarin cyanole SR 

AUzarin dark blue S 

Alizarin dark blue WW 

AUzarin delphinol BS 

Alizarin direct blue E 3B . . . . 

Alizarin direct green G 

AUzarin direct green 5G 

Alizarin direct violet 



Schultz 
No. 



824 
818 
825 
819 
819 
816 
819 
811 
817 



784 
784 
785 
785 
785 
785 
784 
866 
856 
856 
856 
856 
774 
774 



774 
774 
774 
803 
803 
804 
804 
804 
804 
804 
804 
804 



862 
862 
774 



787 
782 
782 
782 
782 



797 
788 
799 
799 
788 
799 
788 
865 
865 



865 
851 



804 



851 
865 
865 
852 



110 

109 

110 

109 

109 

109 

109 

109 

109 

121 

107 

107 

107 

107 

107 

107 

107 

112 

112 

112 

112 

112 

106 

106 

122 

122 

106 

106 

106 

108 

108 

lOS 

108 

108 

108 

108 . 

108 

108 

108 . 

122 

122 

122 

122 

122 

122 

122 

122 

114 

122 

114 

114 

105 

122 

107 

107 

107 

107 

107 

118 

108 

107 

108 

108 

107 

108 

107 

115 

114 

122 

114 

112 

118 

118 

108 

122 

118 

112 

115 

115 

112 



CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921. 133 

Table 24. — Imports of dyes during the calendar year 1921 — Continued. 
INDEX OF DYES IMPORTED— Continued. 



Name of dye. 



Alizarin direct violet E 2B 

Alizarin direct violet RC 

Alizarin emeraldole G 

Alizarin fast black SP 

Alizarin geranole B 

Alizarin green 

Alizarin green AGS 

Alizarin green BGX 

Alizarin green CG 

Alizarin green S 

Alizarin indigo B 

Alizarin indigo G 

Alizarin indigo 3R 

Alizarin indigo blue S 

Alizarin indole R 

Alizarin irisol R 

Alizarin maroon W 

Alizarin orange 

Alizarin orange 'GG 

Alizarin orange SW 

Alizarin orange W 

Alizarin pure blue 

Alizarin red CR 

Alizarin red I WS 

Alizarin red S 

Alizarin red SDG 

Alizarin red SS 

Alizarin red SWB 

Alizarin red S WBB 

Alizarin red W 

Alizarin red WB 

Alizarin red WR 

Alizarin red WX 

Alizarin red PS ^ . . 

Alizarin red 2AG 

Alizarin red 5F 

Alizarin rubinol 3G 

Alizarin rubinol GW 

Alizarin rubinol R 

Alizarin saphirol 

Alizarin saphirol B 

Alizarin saphirol B L 

Alizarin saphirol C 

Alizarin saphirol SE 

Alizarin saphirol WS A 

Alizarin saphirol SAP 

Alizarin sky blue 

Alizarin sky blue B 

Alizarin synthetic 

Alizarin uranole R 

Alizarin viridine FF 

Alkali blue B 

Alkah blue 3B 

AlkaU blue 3R V 

Alkali fast green 3G 

Alkali violet 6BOO 

Alphanol blue 5RN 

Alphanol brown R 

Amaranth 

Amido azo black EG 

Amido naphthol red BB 

Amido naphthol red G 

Amido red BL 

Auihue red 

Anthosine B 

Anthosine 3B 

Anthosine 5B 

Anthracene GC 

Anthracene acid black. 

Anthra<;'eue acid black DSF 

Anthracene acid black DSFB. . 

Anthracene acid black ST 

Anthracene acid black 3R 

Anthracene acid blue ER 

Anthracene acid blue KBB 

Aiitliracene acid brown G 

Anthracene acid red 

Anthracene acid red 3B 

Anthracene blue R 

Anthracene blue WB 



Schultz 
No. 



894 
893 
895 
809 



852 
798 
779 
779 
779 
779 
855 



780 
780 
785 



780 
780 
780 
780 



780 



856 
856 

856 
858 
858 
858 
858 
858 
858 



855 
855 

778 



854 
536 
536 
536 



532 
257 



168 



512 



277 
277 
277 
277 



221 
355 
355 



118 
118 
118 
122 
122 
122 
122 
122 
109 
109 
116 
116 
116 
109 
122 
112 
108 
106 
107 
107 
107 
112 
122 
107 
107 
107 
122 
107 
107 
107 
107 
122 
107 
122 
122 
122 
113 
113 
113 
113 
113 
113 
113 
113 
113 
118 
112 
112 
106 
118 
112 



118 

99 

94 

118 

93 

118 

92 

91 

118 

99 

118 

118 

118 

131 

95 

95 

95 

95 

122 

122 

122 

94 

96 

96 

122 

108 



Name of dye. 



Anthracene blue WG 

Anthracene blue WGG 

Anthracene blue WR 

Anthracene blue S WR 

Anthracene blue S WGG. 

Anthracene blue black BE 

Anthracene blue black UG 

Anthracene brown 

Anthracene brown S W 

Anthracene brown SWR 

Anthracene brown W 

Anthracene brown WB 

Anthracene brown WG 

Anthracene brown WR 

Anthracene brown WLP 

Anthracene chromate black 

I), LC 

Anthracene chromate blue 

Anthracene chromate brown E B 
Anthracene chromate brown RR 
Anthracene chromate green FF. 
Anthracene chrome black 5B . . . 
Anthracene chrome black FE.. 
Anthracene chrome black KLT . 
Anthracene chrome black KV . . 
Anthracene chrome black PBB. 
Anthracene chrome black PF... 
Anthracene chrome black o611Z . 
Anthracene chrome black PPN . 

Anthracene chrome blue H 

Anthracene chrome brown SWN 

Anthracene dark blue 

Anthracene dark blue W 

Anthracene direct green B 

Anthracene yellow C 

Anthracyanine 3FL 

Anthracyanine S 

Anthraflavone G, 2G 

Anthraflavone GC 

Anthraquinone blue SR 

Anthraquinone blue green 

Anthraquinone blue green BX . . 
Anthraquinone blue green BXO 
Anthraquinoneliluish green BX 
Anthraquinone green GXNO... 

Anthraquinone violet 

Artificial bilk black 

Auramine 

Auramine O 

Auramine 00 

Auramine OE 

Aurazin B 

Aurine SIS 

Autol orange 

Azarine S 

Azo acid black 3B L 

Azo acid blue B 

Azo acid carmine B 

Azo acid rubine B 

Azo carmine BB 

Azo carmine BX 

Azo carmine BXH 

Azo carmine GX 

Azo carmine I 

Azocyanine GR 

AzocyaDine5R 

Azo cyanole wool blue G R 

Azo diamine orange 2R 

Azo fast violet RR 

Azo milling yellow 5G 

Azoorseille IJB 

Azo phosphine GOK 

Azorhodine2B 

Azorhodine 6B 

Azorhodine 2G 

Azo wool blue SEX 

Azo wool blue S 

Azo wool violet 7R 

Azo yellow 

Azo yellow G 



Schultz 
No. 



800 
801 
789 
790 
790 
181 



782 
782 
782 
782 
782 
782 
782 



185 
185 



185 



790 



294 



627 
759 
759 
861 
863 
863 
863 
863 
864 
853 



493 
493 
493 
493 



63 
673 
163 
673 
673 
673 
672 



60 



141 
141 



134 



CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS. 1921. 



Table 24. — Imports of dyes for the calendar year 1921 — ^Continued. 
INDEX OF DYES IMPORTED— Continued. ■ 



Name of dye. 


Schultz 
No. 


Page. 


Name of dye. 


Schultz 
No. 


Page. 


Azo Yellow I 


141 
426 
410 


93 
97 
97 
124 
124 
124 
124 
124 
124 
124 
124 
124 
124 
124 
124 
125 
125 
125 
97 
97 
125 
125 
125 
125 
125 
125 
125 
125 
95 
96 
96 
96 
96 
96 
95 
95 
95 
95 
95 
95 
95 
95 
95 
125 
125 
96 
96 
125 
125 

125 

125 
96 
96 
96 
98 
99 

119 
95 
95 

131 

131 

119 
94 

100 

100 

100 

100 
98 

104 

123 

119 
97 

125 

125 

125 
94 

119 

131 

119 

123 






131 


Benzamine pure blue 


BriUiant cochineal 4R 


81 
316 
370 


92 


Benzo azurine G 


BrilUant Congo G 


95. 


Benzo Bordeaux 6B 


BriUiant congo R 


96 


Benzo brilliant violet 2R 




Brilliant copper blue GW 


125 


Benzo bronze E 




Brilliant cresyl blue 2BS 




130 


Benzo chrome black blue B 




Brilliant croceine 3B 


227 
227 
270 
227 
622 
622 
541 


94 


Benzo chrome black pure blue B 




Brilh'ant croeeirie 3R A . 


94 


Benzo chrome brown B 




Brilliant croceine 9B . . 


94 


Benzo chrome brown G 




BriUiant croceine M . 


94- 


Benzo chrome brown 5G 




BriUiant delphine blue B 

Brilliant delphine blue BS 

BrUliant dianil blue 6G. 


103 


Benzo copper blue B 




loa 


Benzo copper blue 2B 




100 


Benzo fast black 




BriUiant fast blue B . . 


125 


Benzo fast black L 




BriUiant fast blue 2G . 




125 


Benzo fast black S 




BriUiant fast blue 3BX . 




125 


Benzo fast blue FFL 




Brilliant fast blue 3X . 




125 


Benzo fast blue G 




BrUliant geranlne G . . . 


118 
499 

■ 885 
885 


92 


Benzo fast blue 2GL 


456 
456 


Brilliant green 


98 


Benzo fast blue 4GL 


BrilUant mdigo B^B . . 


116 


Benzo fast Bordeaux 6BL 


BrUUant indigo BD 


116 


Benzo fast brown G L 




Brilliant lake BB 


131 


Benzo fast brown RL 




BriUiant lake red R 


45 


91 


Benzo fast heliotrope BL 




BriUiant lanafuchsine BB .... 


119 


Benzo fast heliotrope 4BL 




Brilliant lanafuchsine SL 




119 


Benzo fast heliotrope 2RL 




BriUiant miUing blue B 




119 


Benzo fast orance 2RL 




BriUiant milling blue R 




119 


Benzo fast orange S 




BriUiant miUing red . 




119 


Benzo fast pink 2BL 


297 
343 
332 
332 
332 
332 
279 
279 
279 
279 
279 
279 
279 
296 
296 


BrUliant miUing red G 




119 


Benzo fast red FC 


Brilliant miUing red R 




119 


Benzo fast red 


BrUliant naphthol blue R 




119- 


Benzo fast red 8BL 


BriUiant phosphine 5G 


606 


102- 


Benzo fast red 9BL 


BrilUant pure yeUow 6G.. 


119 


Benzo fast red L 


BrUUant purpurine 4B 


368 
368 


96 


Benzo fast scarlet 


BrUliant purjjurine lOB 


96 


Benzo fast scarlet 4B A 


BriUiant scarlet 


119' 


Benzo fast scarlet 4BS 


BrUliant scarlet FB 




119 


Benzo fast scarlet 5BS 


BriUiant scarlet G . . . 




11» 


Benzo fast scarlet 7BS . 


Brilliant scarlet 3R . . 




119 


Benzo fast scarlet 8BS 


BriUiant scarlet 4R 




119 


Benzo fast scarlet OS 


Brilliant sky blue 5G . 


541 


lO* 


Benzo fast vellow 4GL 


BrilUant sky blue 80 


125' 


Benzo fast yellow RL 


BrUliant sky blue 2RN 




125 


Benzoform scarlet B 


Brilliant sulphon red 


182 
182 
182 
587 
587 
587 


93 


Benzo heliotrope 




BrUUant sulphon red B 


93^ 


Benzo orange R 


340 
363 


BrUUant sulphon red lOB 

Bromofluoresceine acid crystals. 

Bromofluoresceine A 3G 

Bromofluoresceine BL 

Bronze blue for laundry 


93 


Benzopurpurine 4B 


102 


Benzo red 12B 


102 


Benzo rhoduline red 




102 


Benzo rhodullne red B 




131 






Bronze lake 




- 131 




326 
326 
326 
503 
. 517 


Bronze red L 




131 




Capri blue GON 


620 
462 
573 
223 


10» 




Carbide black E 


98 


Benzyl green B 


Carthamine B 


101 


Benzyl violet 5BN . 


Cerasine red B 


94 


Biebrich patent black 4AN 


Cerise acid 


119 


Bismark brown.. 


283 
283 


Celesttne blue B 


641 
424 

388 


103 


Bismark brown G G . . 


Chicago blue 6B 


97 


Bistre T 


Chicago blue R 


97 


Bla?k base S 




Chicago red III 


125^ 


Blue FS 




Chloramine G 


475 

469 

333 

471 


98 


Blue black solid O 


269 
515 
545 
545 
513 
503 
667 


Chloramine black 


9S 


Brilliant acid blue 


Chloramine black BH cone, 
double 




Brilliant acid blue A 


96 


Brilliant acid blue FF 


Chloramine blue 3G 


98 




Chloramine brilliant red 


125- 




Chloramine brilliant red 8B 




125 




(Chloramine fast red F 


343 
319 
319 


96- 




Chloramine red B 


95 






Chloramine red 3B 


95 


Brilliant benzo blue 6B 


424 


Chloramine red 8BS 


125. 


Brilliant benzo green B. 


Chloramine sky blue A 


426 
424 
424 


97 


Brilliant benzo violet B 




Chloramine sky blue BB X FF. 

Chloramine sk y blue FF 

(/hloramine violet FFB 


97 


Brilliant l)cnzo violet 2R 




97 


Brilliant Maek 


272 


125 


Brilliant lilack blue R 


(Moramine yellow G 


617 


103 


Brilliant bronze ))lack B 




Chloranthrene Bordeaux 


121 






Chloranthrene red 5G Y 




121 


Brilliant chrome blue G 




Chlorantine fast black B 




125 



CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS. 1921. 



135 



Table 24.— Imports of dyes for the calendar year 1921 — Continued. 
INDEX OF DYES IMPORTED— Continued. 



Name of dye. 



Schultz 
No. 



Chlorantine fast blue 2GL 

Chlorantine fast Bordeaux 2BL 
Chlorantine fast brown 2GL. . . . 

Chlorantine fast browii RL 

Chlorantine fast orange TRL. . . 

Chlorantine fast red 7BL 

Chlorantine fast rubine RL 

Chlorantine fast violet BL 

Chlorantine fast violet 4BL 

Chlorantine fast violet 2RL 

Chlorantine fast yellow 4GL 

Chlorantine fast yellow RL 

Chlorantine light blue 2GL 

Chlorantine hght yellow 4GL 

Chlorantine orange TRL 

Chlorazol brown G '. 

Chlorazol brown GM 

Chlorazol brown RD '. 

Chlorazol fast red K 

Chlorazol violet R 

Chromacetin blue S 

Chromal l)lue GC (for printing)! 

Chromanile black BF 

Chromanile black 2F ....... 

Chromazurine G '.'.'.'.. 

Chrome azurol '.'.'.'.'.'. 

Chrome azurol SXT. . . 

Chrome black AGZZ ....... 

Chrome black B ..'..'.'. 

Chrome blue S '...'.'.. 

Chrome Bordeaux B.........'. 

Chrome brown 17675 ........ 

Chrome brown RR ....' 

Chrome brown RVV ....... 

Chrome cyanine G .'..'.' 

Chrome fast blue 2R 

Chrome fast blue BX 

Chrome fast brown ....'..'.' 

Chrome fast brown TV .... ..'... 

Chrome fast green G'L ..... ..." 

Chrome fast violet B 

Chrome fast pure blue B.. 

Chrome ohve JCSB ] 

Chromochlorine G '..'..'...'. 

Chromorhoduliue Ti ... ..... 

Chromorhoduline 6G .......!." ". 

Chromosafranine B 

Chromoxamine violet B, 5B. . .' '. '. 

Chrysamine ' 

Chrysamine K 

Chrysophenine . 
Ciba blue BB... 

Cibablue2BD.. 

Ciba blue G '..V.'.'.'..V.V/. 

Ciba Bordeaux B '.'.'" 

Ciba gray B ..'.'.'.. 

Ciba gray G ..'.'..'.". 

Ciba green G 

Ciba heliotrope B ..." 

Ciba red G '.'.'.'.' 

Ciba red R ......"." 

Ciba rose B G '.'.'...'." 

Ciba scarlet G ..'..'.'. 

Cil)a violet B . . 

Ciba violet R '.'.'.'""". 

Cibanone black B 

Cibanone blue 3G 

Cibanone brown B .....!!!!! ." 

Cibanone Ijrown X ...'.'.'.. 

Cibanone green B '.'.'.'... 

Cibanone green G ........ 

Cibanone olive B 

Cibanone orange B, .. ...'...'. . 
Cibanone yellow R . . . 

Citronine O '.'. 

Citrouine GOO... . 
Cloth fast blue B . . . 
Cloth fast blue BB. 
Cloth fast blue GTB.. 
Cloth fast blue R .. . 



554 
554 



158 
158 



342 
342 
304 
881 
881 
882 
919 
899 
899 
891 
897 
906 



907 
901 
901 
794 
793 



792 
792 
792 
792 
795 



693 



125 
126 
126 
126 
126 
126 
126 
126 
126 
126 
126 
126 
126 
126 
126 
126 
126 
126 
126 
126 
123 
123 
126 
126 
123 
100 
100 
123 
123 
123 
123 
123 
93 
93 
123 
123 
123 
123 
123 
123 
123 
100 
123 
123 
123 
123 
123 
123 
96 
96 
95 
115 
115 
116 
117 
116 
116 
116 
116 
116 
117 
121 
116 
116 
116 
108 
108 
115 
115 i 
108 
108 
108 I 
108 ! 
108 
119 
119 1 
104 
119 

119 ; 

119 



Name of dye. 



Cloth fast green G 

Cloth fast orange G 

Cloth fast red GR '..'. 

Coerulein H 

CoeruIeinS '. 

\ Coerulein SS '. 

Columbia black ' 

Columbia black FF ] 

Columbia Bordeaux B '. 

Columbia fast scarlet 4B 

Columbia violet R '. 

Congo brown \ 

Congo fast blue B " 

Congo fast blue R ". 

Congo orange G \ 

Congo orange R ' 

Coomassie fast black B 

Coomassie navy blue 

Coomassie violet R \.\ 

Copper blue B ] ] ' 

Coreine RR "" 

Corioflavine GOOO \". 

Coriphosphine OX 

Cotton blue " " 

Cotton blue BC ..." 

cotton brown W ' " ' 

Cotton fast red 4BSP .". 

Cotton scarlet ] ] " 

Cotton yellow " " 

Cotton yeUow GI '.'.' 

Cotton yellow GX 

Croceine orange X ] ' [ 

Cross dye green ] ] " 

Cross dye green B " " " 

Cross dye green 2G ..' 

Cross dye yellow Y " ' 

Crystal ponceau '..' 

Crystal ponceau 6R ." 

Crystal ponceau 6R W ." 

Crystal scarlet 6R " ' 

Crystal violet ..' 

Cupranil brown G '.'.\ 

Cupranil brown R \'.\ 

Curcumein '.'.\ 

Curcuphenine ' 

Cutch brown RR ".' 

Cyanine B ".'. 

Cyananthrol '. 

Cyananthrol BGA 

Cyananthrol BGAO 

Cyananthrol BGAOO ...'.'. 

Cyananthrol G '. 

Cyananthrol R '. 

Cyananthrol RBX .'. 

Cyananthrol RX \ 

Cyananthrol RXO \\ 

Cyanole ' 

CvanoleABC 

CyanoleBSB 

Cyanole FF 

Cyanole extra H 

Cyanole MKH '.\ 

Cyanole fast green G 

Cyanole green KBC ". 

Dark eosine 6R " 

Delphine blue '.\ 

Delphine blue B '.\ 

Delta purpurine 5B 

Diamine azo blue R 

Diamine azo orange RR 

Diamine azo scarlet 8B 

Diamine azo scarlet A 

Diamine azo scarlet 4B L 

Diamine azo scarlet 6B L 

Diamine azo scarlet BBL. 

Diamine black RMW V.V. 

Diamine Bordeaux S 

Diamine brilliant blue G.. ..... 

Diamine brilliant Bordeaux R.. 



Schultz 
No. 



601 
601 
436 
436 



477 
456 
451 
315 
373 



257 



641 
609 
606 
649 



363 

227 
296 
296 
296 
37 



113 
113 



140 
16 



544 
860 
860 
860 
860 
860 
859 
859 
859 
859 
546 
546 
546 
546 
546 
546 
566 
566 



622 
622 
366 



333 



418 
319 



136 CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921. 

Table 2i.— Imports of dyes for the calendar year i92-?— Continued. 
INDEX OF DYES IMPORTED— Continued. 



Name of dye. 



Diamine brUliant orange SS . . 
Diamine brilliant scarlet S — 

Diamine bronze G 

Diamine bronze R 

Diamine brown 

Diamine brown ATC 

Diamine brown B 

Diamine brown 3G 

Diamine brown V 

Diamine cat echine B 

Diamine catechine G 

Diamine catechine 3G 

Diamine catechine GR 

Diamine catechine GXN 

Diamine cutch 

Diamine dark blue B 

Diamine fast black X 

Diamine fast blue CG 

Diamine fast blue F FB 

Diamine fast blue FFC 

Diamine fast blue FFG 

Diamine fast Bordeaux 6BA. 
.Diamine fast Bordeaux 6BS. 

Diamine fast brown G 

Diamine fast brown GB 

Diamine fast brown R 

Diamine fast orange EG 

Diamine fast orange ER 

Diaminefast red 

Diamine fast red 8 B L 

Diamine fast rose BB F 

Diamine fast rose G 

"Diamine fast scarlet 4BS 

Diamine fast scarlet 6B S 

Diamine fast scarlet 8BSX... 
Diamine fast scarlet 8BN — 

Diamine fast violet FFR 

Diamine fast yellow B 

Diamine fast yellow FF 

Diamine fast yellow 3G 

Diamine gold 

Diamine gray G 

Diamine heliotrope B 

Diamine heUotrope O 

Diamine jet black 00 

Diamine nitrazol green GF. 

Diamine orange B 

Diam'ne phosphine D 

Diamine purpurine 6B 

Diamine rose 

Diamine rose G 

Diamine rose FFB 

Diamine scarlet 

Diamine scarlet B 

Diamine scarlet 3B 

Diamine scarlet HS 

Diamine steel blue L 

Diamine yellow 

Diamine yellow N 

Diamineral blue R 

Diaminogene 

Diaminogene B 

Diaminogene blue 

Diaminogene blue BB 

Diaminogene blue NA , 

Diaminogene blue NB 

Diaminogene sky blue N . . . 

Diamond black 

Diamond black FB 

Diamond blue R 

Diamond green 

Diamond green SS 

Diamond phosphine GG... 

Diamond red 5G 1521 

Dianil black ES 

Dianil blue H2G 

Dianil brown MH 

Dianil chrome brown R. . . 

Dianil fast red PH 

Dianil jai)oniae G 



Schultz p 
No. •^^^®- 



448 
448 
344 
344 
349 
344 
329 



432 



343 
343 



617 
617 
296 
431 
241 



119 
119 
119 
319 
319 
319 
319 



404 



274 
274 
273 
273 
273 
273 



275 
275 
164 
276 
276 
609 



343 



Name of dye. 



126 
126 
97 
97 
96 
96 
96 
96 
96 
126 
126 
126 
126 
126 
97 
126 
126 
126 
126 
126 
126 
127 
127 
127 
127 
127 
127 
127 



127 

127 

127 

127 

127 

127 

127 

103 

103 
95 
97 
94 

127 

127 

127 

127 

127 

127 

127 
92 
92 
92 
95 
95 
95 
95 
127 
127 
97 
127 
94 
94 
94 
94 
94 
94 
127 
94 
94 
93 
95 
95 
103 
123 
127 
127 
127 
127 
96 
127 



Schultz 
No. 



Dianil red lOB 

Dianil violet BE 

Dianil violet H 

Dianil yellow 

Dianil yellow 3G 

Dianol dark blue B 

Dianol fast blue 2B 

Dianol fast orange D 

Dianol violet R 

Diazanil pink B 

Diazo blue black T 

Diazo Bordeaux 7B 

Diazo brilliant black 

Diazo brilhant black B 

Diazo brilliant orange GR . . . 
Diazo brilliant orange 5G — 

Diazo brilliant scarlet G 

Diazo brilliant scarlet B A . . . 

Diazo brilliant scarlet 2B 

Diazo brilliant scarlet 3B 

Diazo brilliant scarlet 6B . . . 
Diazo brilliant scarlet 2BL. . 
Diazo brilhant scarlet 4BL.. 
Diazo brilliant scarlet S4B. . 
Diazo brilhant scarlet ROA. 

Diazo brown G 

Diazo brown 3G 

Diazo brown 3RB 

Diazo brown NR 

Diazo fast blue 2BW 

Diazo fast Bordeaux BL 

Diazo fast red 5BL 

Diazo fast red 7BL 

Diazo fast violet BL 

Diazo fast violet 3R L 

Diazo fast yellow G 

Diazo fast yeUow 2G 

Diazo geranine B 

Diazo indigo black L 

Diazo indigo blue BR 

Diazo indigo blue 4GL 

Diazo indigo blue 2RL 

Diazo indigo blueSRL 

Diazo navy blue BP2S 

Diazo ohve G 

Diazo phenyl black 3B 

Diazo phenyl black V 

Diazo rubine B 

Diazo scarlet 3B A 

Diazo sky black B 

Diazo sky blue B 

Diazo sky blue 3G 

Diazo yellow R 

Diphene blue RK 

Diphenvl blue black double 

Diphenyl chlorine yellow FF. 

Diphenyl fast blue FB 

Diphenyl fast Bordeaux B — 

Diphenyl fast Bordeaux G — 

Diphenyl fast brown GF 

Diphenyl fast brown GNC — 

Diphenyl fast grey BC 

Diphenyl fast red B 

Diphenyl green G 

Diphenyl green KGW 

Diphenyl red 

Diphenyl red SC 

Direct brown 5G 

Direct brown KR 

Direct brown TBS 

Direct catechine GR 

Direct cutch brown B 

Drect cutch brown GR 

Direct deep black T 

Direct fast black B 

Direct fast orange SE 

Direct fast scarlet 4 BS 

Direct fast scarlet SE 

Direct gray 

Direct gray F 



25 



364 

364 



274 



274 
274 



690 
334 

18 



207 
207 



343 
467 
467 
358 
358 



279 
681 



127 
127 
127 
127 
91 
127 
127 
127 
127 
127 
127 
127 



127 
127 
127 
127 
127 
127 
127 
127 
128 
127 
127 
128 
128 
128 
128 
128 
128 
128 
128 
128 
128 
128 
128' 
128 
128 
94 
128 
94 
94 
128 
128 
128 
128 
128 
128 
128 
128 
128 
128 
104 
96 
91 
128 
128 
128 
93 
93 
128 



CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS^ 1921. 137 

Table 24. — Imports of dyes for the calendar year 1921 — Continued. 
INDEX OF DYES IMPORTED— Continued. 



Name of dye. 



Direct gray J 

Direct gray R 

Direct green G 

Direct safranine RW 

Direct sky blue, green shade.. 

Direct violet 2B 

Direct violet R 

Disulphine blue ' 

Duranthrene blue CC 

Duranthrene blue RDX 

Duranthrene brown B 

Duranthrene dark blue BO.. . 
Duranthrene red violet 2RN. . 

Duranthrene yellow GX 

Durazol acid blue B 

Durindone blue 4B 

Durindone blue 5B 

Durindone blue 6B 

Durindone red Y 

Durindone red B 

Eclipse brown BK 

Eclipse brown 3GK 

Eosine AG 

Eosine A5G 

EosineGF 

Eosine GGB 

EricaB 

Erica BN 

Erio Chicago red III 

Erio chrome azurol BG 

Erio chrome azurol BX 

Erio chrome black A 

Rrio chrome black T 

Erio chrome blue S955 

Erio chrome blueblack BC 

Erio chrome blueblack G 

Erio chrome brown ROS 933. . 
Erio chrome Davine A cone. . . 

Erio chrome green HK 

Erio chrome phosphine R . 

Erio chrome phosphine RR 

Erio chrome red B 

Erio chrome red PEI 
Erio chrome verdon 
Erio chrome verdon S 
Erio chrome violet B 
Erio chrome violet 3B 

Eriocyanine A 

Eriocyanine AC 

Erio dark blue R 

Erio fast blue 

Erio fast cyanine S 

Erio fast fuchsine BL. 

Erio fast purple 

Erio flavine SX 

Eriofloxine2G 

Eriofloxine 6B 

Erioglaucine 

Erioglaucine EP 

Erioglaucine AC 

Erio green supra 

Erio green B 

Erio green BB 

Eriorubine 2B 

Erio violet BC 

Erio violet RL 

Erio violet RLC 

Erio \iridine B 

Erythrine BG 

Erythrosine G 

Ery throsiiie bluish . . . 

Ethyl violet 

Eucnrysine GRNTN . 

Euchrysine RRX 

Euchrysine RRDX.. 

Euchrvsine RT 

Euchrysine 2RX 

Euchrysine 3RX 

Eulan F 



Schuitz 
No. 



681 
354 
475 



424 
413 
352 



842 



849 



881 
882 
883 



912 



587 
587 
587 
587 
121 
121 



551 
551 
184 
183 



180 
180 




531 
531 



19 
42 
42 
506 
"506 
506 
564 
564 
564 



503 



591 
592 
518 
608 
608 
608 
608 
608 
603 



104 

96 

98 

129 

97 

97 

96 

130 

111 

121 

121 

121 

121 

112 

119 

116 

116 

116 

121 

117 

130 

130 

102 

102 

102 

102 

92 

92 

119 

100 

100 

93 

93 

123 

93 

93 

123 

123 

123 

93 

92 

91 

123 

94 

94 

123 

123 

99 

99 

119 

119 

119 

119 

119 

91 

91 

91 

98 



101 
101 
101 
119 
119 
119 
119 

98 
120 
102 
102 

99 
102 
102 
103 
103 
103 
102 
131 



Name of dye. 



Fast acid blue B 

Fast acid cyanine GR 

Fast acid cyanine 5R 

Fast acid cyanine SR 

Fast acid green BB 

Fast acid magenta G 

Fast acid marine blue HBBX. 

Fast acid red 

Fast acid violet B 

Fast acid violet lOB 

Fast black 

Fast chrome green B 

Fast felt blue 

Fast green bluish 

Fast light green 

Fast light yellow G 

Fast light yellow 2GN 

Fast light yellow 3G 

Fast light yellow RG 

Fast light yellow GGN 

Fast mordant black FH,B,T. . 

Fast mordant blue B 

Fast mordant blue KR 

Fast mordant blue KRL 

Fast mordant yellow 

Fast mordant yellow G 

Fast red 

FastredS 

Fast scarlet BX 

Fast sulphon violet 5BS 

Fast wool blue BL > 

Fat orange LG 

Fat orange R 

Flavazine S 

Flavazine L 

Formic black C 

Formic black TG 

Formyl blue BX. 

Furesin SB 

Gallamine blue 

Galleine 

Galleine S W 

Galleine WN 

Gallocyanine 

Gallocyanine F 

Gallo indigo blue S 

Gallophenine P 

Geranine 

Geranine G 

Gloria black N 

Guinea fast green B 

Guinea green 

Hansa rubine G 

Hansa yellow G 

Hansa yellow 5G 

Hansa vellow R 

Helianthine GFF 

HeUanthine G 

Helindone black 3B 

Helindone brown AN 

Helindone brown CH 

Helindone brown CR 

Helindone brown G 

Helindone brown 2R 

Helindone brown 3GN 

Helindone gray BB 

Helindone green G 

Helindone orange D 

Helindone orange R 

Helindone pinkAN 

Helindoue pink BN 

Helindone red B , 

Helindone red BB , 

Helindone red 3B 

Helindone violet B 

Helindone violet 2B 

Helindone yellow 3GN 

Helio Bordeaux BL 

Helio fast blue BL 



Schultz 
No. 



563 



581 



580 
528 
658 



523 
523 
19 
19 
19 
19 
19 
275 



294 
294 
161 
161 



182 



637 
599 
599 
599 
626 
626 



658 
118 
118 



503 
502 



28 



141 
141 



873 
904 
904 
904 
902 
836 
921 
892 
914 
913 
910 
910 
917 



918 
920 
920 
810 



858 



541—22- 



-10 



138 CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS^ 1921. 

Table 24. — Imports of dyes for the calendar year i9^i— Continued. 
INDEX OF DYES IMPORTED— Continued. 



Name of dye. 


Schultz 
No. 


Page. 


Helio fast blue SL 


858 
73 


113 


Helio fast red RL 


92 


Helio fast violet AL 


131 


Helio violet solid 




131 


Homophosphine OO 


609 


103 


Homophosphine red 


130 


Hydrazol orange G 




131 


Hydrazine yellow 




120 


Hydron blue B 


748 
748 
748 
748 
748 
748 
748 


lOj 


Hydron blue G 


105 


Hydron blue R 


105 


Hydron blue RF 


105 


Hydron olive B 


105 


Hydron olive G 


105 


Hydron violet B 


105 


Immedial direct blue B 


130 


Immedial indogene B 




130 


Immedial indogene AGG 




130 


Immedial orange C 


711 
710 

705 
843 
842 
841 
841 
841 
841 
840 
840 
83S 
838 
850 
850 


105 


Immedial yellow D 


104 


Indamine 6R 


104 


Indanthrene blue GC 


111 


Indanthrene blue GOD 


111 


Indanthrene blue G GS 


111 


Indanthrene blue GGSNP 

Indanthrene blue GGSP 

ladanthrene blue GGSZ 

Indanthrene blue 3G 


111 
111 
111 
111 


Indanthrene blue 3GP 


111 


Indanthrene blue RS 


110 


Indanthrene blue RSP 


110 


Indanthrene lilue WB 


112 


Indanthrene blue WBO 

Indanthrene blue G 2Z 


112 
121 


Indanthrene blue RC 




121 


Indanthrene blue RZ 




121 


Indanthrene Bordeaux B 

Indanthrene brown B 


827 
867 


110 

no 


Indanthrene brown 3R 


121 


Indanthrene brown RR 




121 


Indanthrene claret B 


827 
763 
760 
761 


110 


Indanthrene dark blue BO 

Indanthrene golden orange G. . . 
Indanthrene golden orange R. . . 
Indanthrene golden orange RN. 


106 
105 
105 
122 


Indanthrene golden orange RRT 
Indantlirene golden orange 3R . . 
Indanthrene gray 


761 

848' 

848 
848 
765 
791 
812 
873 
873 
■ 831 
830 
873 
873 
762 
762 
768 
768 


105 
122 
111 


Indanthrene gray B 


111 


Indanthrene gray B P 


111 


Indanthrene green B 


106 


Indanthrene olive G '... 


108 


Indanthrene orange RT 

Indanthrene pink B 


109 
llo 


Indanthrene pink BS 


115 


Indanthrene red BN 


110 


Indanthrene red R 


110 


Indanthrene red violet RRN . . . 
Indanthrene red violet RRNP.. 
Indanthrene scarlet G 


115 
115 
105 


Indanthrene scarlet G S 


105 


Indanthrene violet B 


106 


Indanthrene violet B B 


103 


Indanthrene violet BN 


122 


Indanthrene violet R 


766 
832 
767 
767 
764 
849 
849 
849 
849 
849 
689 


106 


Indanthrene violet RN 


110 


Indanthrene violet RR 


106 


Indanthrene violet RRX 

Indanthrene violet RT 


106 
106 


Indanthrene yellow G 


111 


Indanthrene yellow ON 

Indanthrene ycUow GP 


HI 
HI 


Indanthrene yellow GT 


112 


Indanthrene yellow R 


112 


Indazine M 


104 


Indigine blue RW 


129 


Indigo synthetic 


874 
883 

881 


115 


Indigo 6B 


116 


Indigo KB 


116 



Name of dye. 



Indigo E.U 

Indigo LL 

Indigo LL 2 R 

Indigo MLB 6B 

Indigo blue 2BZ 

Indigo blue X 

Indigo carmine 

Indochromine RR 

Indochromine T 

Indocyanine B 

Indoine blue R 

Indoine blue BB 

Ink blue BITBNOO 

Isamine blue 6BX 

Janus black 

Janus red B 

Janus yellow G 

Jasemine 

Katigene black brown GN 

Katigene bronze GL 

Katigene direct blue B 

Katigene direct blue R F 

Katigene green 2 G 

Katigene yellow brown RL 

Katigene yellow brown 3 RL.. . 

Katigene yellow GR 

Kiton fast green V 

Kiton fast orange G 

Kiton fast red R 

Kiton fast violet lOB 

Kiton fast yellow 

Kiton fast yellow 3 G 

Kiton pure blue V 

Kiton red 6 B 

Kiton red G 

Kit on red S 

Kiton yellow 3 G 

Kiton yellow S 

Lake blue 

Lake red P 

Lanafuchsine SG 

Lanafuchsine BBS 

Lanasol brown 2 R 

Lanasol green G 

Lanasol orange G 

Lanasol orange 2R : 

Lanasol red G 

Lanasol violet B 

Lanasol violet R 

Lanasol yellow G 

Light green yellowish SFXX . . . 

Light yellow G 

Lithol Bordeaux B 

Lithol fast orange R 

Lithol rubine BN 

Magenta 

Malachite green 

Malachite grocn small crystals . . 

Manila brown 

Meldola's blue 3 R, cone 

Metachrome blue black 2 BX. . . 

Metachrome blue black R 

Metachrome Bordeaux B 

Metachrome Bordeaux R 

Metanil j'ellow 

Metaphenylene blue R 

Metli3i alkali blue 

Methyl blue for silk 

Methyl Lyons blue 

Methyl silk blue (new) 

Methyl violet 

Methyl violet NFB 

Methyl violet V3D 

Methylene blue 

Methylene blue BBS 

Methylene blue B G 

Methylene green BX 

Methylene green P 

Methylene green W 



Schultz 
No. 



CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS. 1921. 



139 



Table 24. — Imports of dyes for the calendar year 1921 — Continued. 
INDEX OF DYES IMPORTED— Continued. 



Name of dye. 


Schultz 
No. 


Page. 


Methylene heliotrope 


687 
618 
693 
293 


104 




103 


Milling blue BC 


104 


Milling red 


95 


Milling red 6BA 


120 






120 


Milling yellow C 




120 


Milling yellow OM 


177 


93 




120 




198 
629 
635 


93 


Modern blue 


103 


Modern violet 


103 




124 


Mordant fast black B , T 

Mordant fast yellow E . . . . 


275 


94 
124 


Mordant yellow 


177 


93 




124 


Mounsey olive brown G 




124 


Naphthalene black AB 




120 


Naphthalene blue B 




120 


Naphthalene green 


564 
564 


101 


Naphthalene green V 


101 


Naphthalene green NV 


120 


Naphthanime black 


335 


96 


Naphthamine black AB 


129 


Naphthamine black CE 

Naphthamine black GET 

Naphthamine blue 


335 
335 
338 
338 
338 
477 
458 
458 

45S 
458 

458 

458 

458 


96 
96 
96 


Naphthamine blue 3R 


96 


Naphthamine blue 7R 


96 


Naphthamine brown H 


98 


Naphthamine direct black AK.. 
Naphthamine direct black EK.. 
Naphthamine direct black ERK 
extra 


97 

97 

97 


Naphthamine direct black GNM 
Naphthamine direct black FFK 
extra 


97 
97 


Naphthamine direct black 
HWK 


98 


Naphthamine direct black 
R WK extra A 


98 


Naphthamine direct blue 2R... 


129 


Naphthamine fast black SF 




129 


Naphthaminefast black KSG. . 




129 


Naphthaminefast brown BL. . . 




129 


Naphthamine violet BE 

Naphthamine yellow BN 

Naphthamine yellow G 


326 
9 
9 


96 
91 
91 


Naphthogene blue B 


129 


Naphthogene blue 2R 




129 


Naphthogene blue 4R 




129 


Naphthogene indigo blue R 




129 


Naphthogene pure blue 4B 




129 


Naphthol black BD 


272 
272 
217 
217 


94 


Naphthol black P 


94 


Naphthol blue black 


93 


Naphthol blue black S 


93 


Naphthol dark green G 


120 


Naphthol green B 


4 
168 

7 
268 
266 
266 
266 
266 
266 
266 
126 
126 


91 


Naphtholred EB 


93 


Naphthol yellow S 


91 


Naphthyl blue black N 


94 


Naphthvlamiue black 


94 


Naphthylamine black 4B 

Naphthylamine black 4BS 

NaphthVlaniine black 4BX 

NaphthVlanane black ESN 

Naphthylamine black S 

Naphthindon 


94 
94 
94 
94 
94 
92 


Naphthindon BB 


92 


Navy blue A 


120 


Neptune blue BXX 


545 
543 
503 
603 


100 


Neptune blue BGX 


100 


Neptune green SBLX 


98 


Neptune green SGX 


98 


Nerol2B 


120 


Nerol black 2B 




120 


Nerocyanine BS 




120 


Nerocyanine 2BN 




120 



Name of dye. 



New blue RS 

New ethyl blue B 

New fast gray 

New methylene blue G G 

New methylene blue N 

New patent blue B 

Night blue • 

Neutral blue R 

Neutral cloth blue R 

Neutral gray G 

Nigrophor 

Nigrosine (soluble in water) — 

Nile blue 

NUeblueBX 

Nile blue 2B 

Oil j'ellowR 

Old gold aniline dye 

Omega chrome black P , 

Omega chrome brown P 

Omega chrome bro.wn PB , 

Omega chrome red B 

Orange G 

Orange GG 

Orange 3RL , 

Orange IV , 

Orthocj^amne B , 

Oxanune black BB , 

Oxamlne brilUant violet RX . . 

Oxamine chrome violet SB 

Oxamine fast blue BX 

Oxamine fast pink BNE; 

Oxamine fast pink BX 

Oxamine green C" 

Oxaminelight blue B , 

Oxamme light blue G 

Oxamine light brown R , 

Oxamine red 

Oxamine red X 

Oxamine ^dolet 

Oxy acid blue 6B 

Oxy acid red BB 

Oxy acid violet ROO , 

Oxy chrome black F VOOO..., 
Oxy chrome blue black 6BNOO. 

Oiy diamine black 5000 

Oxy diamine black N , 

Oxy diamine brown RN , 

Oxy diamine red S 

Oxy diamine violet 

Oxy diaminogene ED 

Oxj-phenine GG 

Oxj-phenine R 

Palatine black 

Palatine chrome brown 

Palatine chrome brown RX 

Palatine light yellow RX 

Paper fast Bordeaux B 

Paraphosphine G 

Parasulfon brown G 

Patent black I 

Patent black II 

Patent black N 

Patent blue A 

Patent blue B 

Patent blue J4 

Patent blue N 

Patent blue V 

Patent blue VE 

Patent blue VF 

Patent blue VSK 

Patent dianil black E B 

Patent marine blue LE 

Patent phosphine G 

Patent phosphine 5G 

Patent phosphine G G 

Patent phosphine R 

Patent phospliine M 

Peri wool blue B 

Permanent red 

Permanent red 4B 



Schultz 
No. 



681 
651 
663 
563 
560 



241 
218 
700 
653 
653 
654 



85 



38 
'i39" 



475 



346 
346 
326 



326 



617 
617 
220 
154 
154 



606 



545 
543 
543 
543 
543 
543 
543 
543 



543 
606 
606 
606 
606 
606 
87 
152 
152 



140 CElvTSUS or DYES AND SYNTHETIC OEGANIC CHEMICALS, 1&21. 



Table 24. — Imports of dyes for the calendar year 1921 — Continued. 
INDEX OF DYES IMPORTED— Continued. 



Name of dye. 



Permanent red R 

Phenocyanine VS paste 

Phosplune 

Phosphine G 

Phosphine 7G 

Phosphine PGG 

Phosphine R 

Phosphine 3R 

Pigment purple A 

Pigment red B 

Pigment red G 

Pigment scarlet 3B 

Pigment violet 2B 

PinkSBS 

Pluto black CF 

Pluto black G 

Polar red G 

Polychromine AC 

Polypheny] blue GC 

Polyphenyl yeUow RC 

Ponceau R 

Ponceau 4R 

Ponceau X 

Potting black B 

Printers red , 

Prune 

Prune pure 

Pure blue for printing 

Pyramine G , 

Pyramine orange 3G 

Pyramine orange 3GX 

Pyramine orange R 

Pyrazol orange G 

Pyrogene blue 

Pyrogene brown RS (yellow 

shade) 

Pyrogens brown DIB 

Pyrogene catechine 2G O 

Pyrogene cutch 2G 

Pyrogene cutch brown 2R 

Pyrogene direct blue RL 

Pyrogene green 2G 

Pyrogene green 3G 

Pyrogene indigo I 

Pyrogene oUve 3G 

Pyrogene violet brown X 

Pyrogene yellow 

Pyrogene yeUow M 

Pyrogene yellow O 

Pyrogene yellow brown RS 

Quinolme yellow 

QuinoUne yellow KT 

Quinoline yellow N 

Quinoline yeUow KT extra 

QuinoUne yellow O 

Quinoline yellow OK 

Resoflavine 

Resorcine brown 

Resorcine brown F 

Rheonine G D 

Rheonine A L 

Rhodamine B .• 

Rhodamine G 

Rhodamine 6G 

Rhodamine 6G D 

Rhodamine 6GDN 

Rhodamine 6GD W 

Rhodamine S 

Rhodamine ponceau G 

Rhoduhne orange NO 

Rhoduline yellow 6G 

Roccclline scarlet 

Rosanthrenc B 

Rosanthrenc R 

Rosanthrenc Bordeaux B 

Rosanthrenc orange R 

Rosanthrenc pink 



Schultz 
No. 



152 

642 

606 

606 

606 

606 

606 

606 

93 

56 

56 



616 



636 
636 



306 
306 
360 



726 



726 
709 
709 
735 
746 



734 
734 
734 



613 
613 
613 
613 
613 
613 
771 
211 
211 
607 
607 
573 
572 
571 
571 
571 
571 
570 



Page. 



603 
618 



93 

103 

102 

102 

102 

102 

102 

102 

92 

91 

91 

131 

131 

131 

129 

129 

120 

103 

129 

129 

92 

92 

92 

124 

131 

103 

103 

120 

129 

95 

95 

96 

129 

105 

130 
130 
130 
130 
130 
105 
104 
104 
105 
105 
130 
105 
105 
105 
130 
103 
103 
103 
103 
103 
103 
106 
93 
93 
102 
102 
101 
101 
101 
101 
101 
101 
101 
120 
103 
103 
120 
129 
129 
129 
129 
129 



Name of dye. 



RosazeLne 

Rose aurore 

Rose bengale NTO 

RosinduUne 2B 

Rosolane 

Rosolane O 

Rosolane OTR 

Saba phosphine 2G 

Saba phosphine M 

Safranine FF 

Salicine black C 

Salicine black D 

Salicine black U 

Saheine black UL 

Salicine blue B 

Salicine blue black AE 

SaUcine B ordeaux R F 

Salicine brown RE 

Salicme dark green CS 

Salicme orange 2R 

SaUcine red B 

SaUcine violet R 

SaUcine yeUow L , 

Scarlet 

Scarlet MS , 

Scarlet red medicinal 

Setoflavine T 

Setoglaucine 

Silk blue 

Silk blue BT 5B 00 

Silk blue IV 

SUk scarlet 

Silver gray P 

SkyblueB 

Solamine blue FF 

SoUd green 

Soluble blue IN, T 

Special blue G 

Sudan III 

SudanR 

Sudan 4GL 

Sulphoncyanine 

Sulphoncyanine GR 

Sulphoncyanine black 

Sulphon orange G 

Sulphon yeUow R 

Sulphon yeUow 5G 

Sulphur catechine R 

Supramine black BR 

Supramine yeUow R 

Tartra/.ine. 

Tartrazine N 

Tartrazlne XX 

Tartrazine brown 

Tetra cyanole 

Tetra cyanole V 

Thiazol yellow 

Thiazol veUow G 

Thioflavine T 

Thioflavine TCN 

Thiogene brown GR 

Thiogene orange R 

Thio indigo black B 

Thio indigo orange R 

Thio indigo pink AN 

Thio indigo pink RN 

Thio indigo red B 

Thio indigo rose AN 

Thio indigo rose BN 

Thio indigo .scarlet G 

Thio indigo scarlet 2G 

Thio indigo scarlet R 

Thio indigo violet 2R 

Thional brilliant blue 6B . . 

Thional brilUant green 2G . 

Thional dark green GN — 

Thional orange G 



CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC OEGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921. 141 



Table 24. — Imports of dyes for the calendar year 1921— Continued. 
INDEX OF DYES IMPORTED— Continued. 



Name of dye. 


Schultz 
No. 


Page. 


Name of dye. 

i 


Schultz 
No. 


Page. 


Thlonal vellow G 




130 

104 

130 

130 

130 

130 

130 

130 

130 

130 

130 

130 

121 

121 

97 

97 

96 

94 

129 

129 

97 

97 

97 

96 

129 

98 

98 

103 

129 

129 

117 

117 

117 

117 

117 

117 

117 

117 

117 

117 

117 

131 

117 

117 

122 

100 


' Victoria blue R... 


558 
522 
497 
559 
559 


100 


Thionine blue GO 


661 


j Victoria IJue 4R. . 


99 


Thionine green GG 


{ Victoria green BXX 


98 


Thionol brilliant green 4GX 





1 Victoria pure Mue B 


101 


TMonol brown GD 


Victoria blue BO 


101 


Thionol brown P 




Victoria scarlet K2Z . . . 


121 


Thionol brown R ' 


Victoria scarlet K3G 




121 


Thionol corinth RBX 




Victoria violet 4BS 


61 
61 


91 


Thionol green D Y 




Victoria violet 4BSL 


91 


Thionol vellow GR 




^*ictoria yeUow . . 


121 


Thionol Vellow 3RD 




Violamiae B 


580 


101 


Thionone black 6R 


Violet blue acid 7B 


121 


Tolane fast red 2BL 


Violet for wool 8B 




121 


Tolane fast red 6BL 


\'iridine green 




131 


Toluylene fast orange GL 


392 
392 
358 
265 


Water blue 


539 
220 
220 
565 
565 
565 


99 


Toluylene orange 


Wool black 6B 


94 


Toluylene red 


Wool black GRF 


94 


Tolvl black BGII 


Wool blue 5B. 


101 


Triazol blueBOOO 


Wool blue G 


101 


Trisulphon bronze B * 


Wool blue R 


101 


Trisulphon brown B 


449 
449 
457 
322 


Wool blue RL 647 


121 


Trisuiphon brown MB 


Wool fast blue BL 




121 


Trisulphon brown GG 


Wool fast blue GL 




121 


Trisulphon violet B 


Wool fast marine blue BB 




121 


Trisuiphon violet N 


Wool fast yellow G . . . 




121 


Turquoise blue 


498 
498 
635 


Wool fast yeUow 5GX 




121 


Turquoise blue BB 


Wool green BS 


566 
566 
566 
220 


101 


Ultraviolet MO 


Wool green S 


101 


Union black M No. 8 


Wool green SC... 


101 


Union blue BDM 3 




Wool jet black 3B (old type)... . 
Wool violet RLF 


94 


Ursol 


923 
923 
923 
923 
923 
923 
923 
923 
923 
923 
923 


121 


UrsolA 


Xylene blue Af? 


508 
508 
507 


98 


UrsolD 


Xylene blue ASL .. 


98 


UrsolDB 


X ylene blue V S . . 


98 


Ursol DF.... 


Xylene cyanol FF. 


121 


Ursol P 






121 


Ursol SA 


Xylene light yellow 2G 

Xylene light yellow R 


.22 

22 

579 


91 


Ursol SB 


91 


Ursol SLA 




101 


Ursol 4G 




129 


Ursol 4R 




330 
330 
274 


96 


Ursol brown 2GA 


Zambesi brown 4R 


96 


Ursol grav G 


923 
923 


Zambesi pure blue 4B 


94 


Ursol grav R 


Zambesi red 4B 


129 


Vat pink AN 






129 


Victoria blue B 


559 













PART IV. 

CENSUS OF SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 
NOT OF COAL-TAR ORIGIN, 1921. 



143 



Part IV. 

CENSUS OF SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, OTHER THAN 
THOSE OF COAL-TAR ORIGIN^ 192L 



Introduction. 

Owing to the lack of previous information on the production of 
synthetic organic chemicals other than those of coal-tar origin, and 
because of its desirability for the use of Congress in connection with; 
pending tariff legislation, the United States Tariff Commission has. 
compiled a census of the production of this class of chemical com- 
pounds, showing the amount produced, the amount sold, and the 
value of the sales in all cases where the publication of these figures, 
does not reveal the operations of the individual producer. 

The products included in this census comprise those synthetic 
organic compounds derived from sources other than coal tar. They^ 
do not include aliphatic compounds derived from natural sources by 
isolation, distillation, extraction, hydrolysis, or purification, as for 
example alkaloids, constituents of essential oils, sugars, and acids,, 
such as stearic and tartaric. Nor does the census include cyanides,, 
cyanamides, or carbides of metals or inorganic radicals. Items the 
production statistics of which are obtainable from other sources 
are in most cases excluded. 

The Bureau of the Census has given in its reports the statistics of 
the more important non coal-tar organic compounds. These the 
Tariff Commission has not attempted to duplicate in its 1921 census, 
except in a few instances where the importance of the industry, or 
other conditions warranted. A summary table of the 1914 and 1919 
production of organic chemicals as determined by the Bureau of the 
Census is given. It is to be hoped that future enumerations riiay 
include all of these items, and also formic acid, mucic acid, and for- 
maldehyde. 

Summary of Production. 

The production of synthetic organic chemicals, other than those- 
derived from coal tar, in 1921 was 21,545,186 pounds, while the sales 
amounted to 16,761,096 pounds, valued at $13,746,235, at a unit 
value of $0.82 per pound. In this production 1,129 pounds of 
research chemicals are included (see Table 26) and in the sales 428 
pounds, which totaled $7,715, or $18.02 per pound. Exclusive of 
research chemicals, 226 different products are enumerated, manufac- 
tured by 66 concerns. 

The absence of statistics for any previous years precludes accurate 
comparisons of production with that of 192i, save where Bureau of 
the Census figures are available. 

145 



146 census of dyes and synthetic oeganic chemicals^ 1921, 

Developments in the Industry. 

Prior to the war there was practically no manufacture in the 
United States of synthetic organic chemicals other than those of 
coal-tar origin, with the exception of a few products produced in 
considerable amounts by relatively simple and inexpensive processes. 
These include acetone, chloroform, ether, acetic acid, formaldehyde, 
acetaldehyde, amyl acetate, vanillin, and a few others. 

As with coal-tar products, the supremacy of Germany in nearly all 
other organic compounds was virtually unchallenged prior to the* 
war. With the cessation of our imports from this source, production 
of these commodities was undertaken in this country, until to-day the 
United States is able to manufacture nearly all of its requirements 
of compounds of this nature. 

Perfume chemicals. — Since the outbreak of the war there have been 
noteworthy developments in the manufacture of perfume ingredients, 
the most important of which are citral, geraniol, heliotropine, ionone, 
and terpineol. The manufacture of vanillin was already well estab- 
lished prior to the war. Many other perfume materials of lesser 
importance were also developed and produced. In some cases the 
domestic product is obtainable at less cost than the foreign, which 
commands a higher price when the odor is more acceptable to the 
consumer, although chemically the foreign product is practically 
identical with the American. The domestic manufacture of these 
perfume ingredients is now well established, about 24 firms being 
producers during 1921. 

Esters. — The manufacture of esters was also well developed before 
1914, notably in the case of amyl acetate, and ethyl acetate. The • 
output of amyl acetate decreased from 1,300,000 pounds in 1914 to 
704,600 pounds in 1919, and less than 200,000 pounds in 1921. The de- 
crease is due chiefly to the development of substitute solvents for use in 
the pyroxylin plastic industry, but in 1921 the business depression 
was an important contributing factor in this reduced production. 

The availability of tax-free denatured alcohol was instrumental 
in the development of the ethyl esters, chief among which are ethyl 
acetate and ethyl chloride. Specially denatured alcohol, used under 
heavy bond, aided in increasing the production of ethyl ether and 
chloroform, already well established prior to the war, although 
chloroform is now largely made at a lower cost from carbon tetra- 
chloride or acetone. The production of both of these anaesthetics 
was greatly increased during the war. The production of ethyl 
esters, ether, carbon tetrachloride, and chloroform decreased from 
1919 to 1921, these years very nearly representing conditions of 
maximum business prosperity and depression, respectively. 

Another industry largely developed during and after the war was 
the manufacture of fruit ethers and esters, which was stimulated by 
the increased demand for soft drinks after prohibition became 
effective. Pre-war production figures for these products are not 
available, but they were not manufactured then to any considerable 
extent. They are produced from fusel oil and other alcohols, and 
certain organic acids. 

Medicinals. — The manufacture of synthetic medicinals was prac- 
tically nonexistent prior to the war. The cessation of imports 
resulted in the establishment of plants manufacturing a wide variety 



CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921. 147 

of synthetic non coal-tar organic medicinals, notably chloral hydrate, 
barbital, codeine, diacetyl morphine or heroin, and salts of glycero- 
phosphoric acid. Chloral hydrate was manufactured in the United 
States in different periods by two firms, but on account of severe 
foreign competition its manufacture was discontinued about 1913. 

Butyl alcohol. — A few years ago, butyl alcohol was of scientific 
interest only. The large war demand for acetone led to the develop- 
ment of a process of fermenting corn which produced both acetone, 
ethyl alcohol, and butyl alcohol. A large plant was erected at Terre 
Haute, Ind., by the United States and British Governments, and 
following the war it was purchased by the Conamercial Solvents 
Corporation, and reopened in March, 1920. The ability of this plant 
to operate in peace time was due to the development of the use of 
butyl alcohol as *a solvent in pyroxylin plastics. The process is 
patented and controlled by the Commercial Solvents Corporation. 
The output in 1921 was in excess of 2,000,000 pounds of butyl alcohol, 
and nearly the same amount of acetone and denatured alcohol. 

Acetylene derivatives. — A field of promising future development is 
the production of synthetic acetaldehyde and acetic acid, starting 
with calcium carbide as a base, oxidizing the acetylene derived 
therefrom, in the presence of a mercuric catalyst, and thus leading 
to the preparation of a large variety of aliphatic compounds. Among 
the most important of these are acetic anhydride, aldol, recently 
employed with success in the flotation process for concentrating 
copper ores, aldehyde ammonia for use as an accelerator in the 
vulcanization of rubber, butadiene, acetal for use as a solvent and in 
medicine, trichloroethylene, chloroacetic acid, and synthetic ethyl 
alcohol, the cheap production of which would be an exceedingly im- 
portant contribution as a motor fuel to the diminishing resources of 
petroleum and gasoline. 

The economic manufacture of acetaldehyde and glacial acetic 
acid by this method depends upon cheap calcium carbide, which, 
in turn, is dependent upon cheap electric power. Thus far the 
United States has been producing only a fraction of its requirements 
of acetaldehyde and its polymerized form, paraldehyde, obtaining 
these chiefly from Canada, where a plant was erected at Shawinigan 
Falls during the war to produce acetic acid and acetone from acety- 
lene. Development work and production on a small scale by this 
process is now in progress in the United States. 

Ethylene and propylene derivatives. — A prolific field for the 
development of ethylene and propylene derivatives, upon many of 
which commercial production has already been commenced by at 
least two concerns, based upon the recovery of ethylene and propy- 
lene from the waste gases of petroleum cracking processes and other 
hydrocarbon gases. 

Of these derivatives, ethylene dichloride will probably be the first 
to assume commercial importance because of its value as a nonin- 
flammable nonhydrolizable volatile solvent for fats and greases. 
Ethylene chlorohydrin may also be used as a solvent and in further 
organic syntheses. Ethylene glycol can be used to replace glycerine. 
Other products from these sources include diethysulphate for ethy- 
lating, particularly in dye manufacturing, and isopropyl alcohol for 
solvent purposes and for syntheses of perfume ingredients and other 
uses. 



148 



CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921, 



Synthetic camphor has been produced in the United States as a 
partial substitute for natural Japanese camphor. It has been found 
profitable to manufacture the synthetic product only when the price 
of the natural was above a certain figure. During 1921 the only 
domestic synthetic camphor plant was shut down. 

Mucic acid is one of the most recent of the rare organic chemicals to 
become available on a large commercial scale. It is produced by the 
hydrolysis and oxidation of mixtures of glucose and galactose obtained 
from the western larch {Larix occidentalis) . Its chief use is as a 
baking acid in the self-rising flour industry and as a mordant and 
chrome assistant in textile dyeing. It may also compete with citric 
acid in the preparation of effervescent salts, soft drinks, etc. Pro- 
duction is not reported for 1921. 

Other notable advances made during or since the war were in the 
production of gallic and pyrogallic acids for the dye and photographic 
trades and urea as a stabilizer in the pyroxylin plastic industry. 

As in the production of coal-tar research chemicals, so with the 
production of other synthetic organic research chemicals which 
were produced only in the course of laboratory research if at all, 
much credit is due one concern for the organization of facilities, 
together with the necessary exhaustive research, to supply the com- 
plete shortage of these materials during the course of the war. It 
may be said that practically any compounds of this nature can now 
be produced in the United States if the demand arises. 

Imports of most of the synthetic organic chemicals have been under 
license control. Importation was permitted if the domestic supplies 
were unsatisfactory either as to price, quality, or terms of delivery. 

Import statistics of but few of these organic chemicals are avail- 
able, and all are exceeded by domestic production, with the exception 
of cocaine, the basic material for which, namely, cocoa leaves, is not 
cultivated in the United States. Chemicals of which the domestic 
supply is inadequate and not separately given in the import statistics 
include certain perfumes and flavoring ingredients, medicinals, and 
research chemicals. 

Table 25. — Production and sales of synthetic organic chemicals during 1921. 

(Not derived from coal tar.) 

[The numbers in the second column refer to the numbered alphabetical list of manufacturers printed on 
page 156. An X signifies that the corresponding chemicals were made by a manufacturer who did 
not consent to the publication of his name in connection therewith. Blank's in the third and fourth 
columns indicate that there were sales of the corresponding chemicals in the United States during 
1921, but that the figures can not be published without revealing information in regard to the sales of 
individual firms. The blank space in the sixth column indicates that there was actual production of 
the corresponding chemicals in the United States during 1921, but that the figures can not be pub- 
lished without revealing information in regard to the outputof individual firms. The details thus con- 
cealed are, however, included in the totals.] 





Manufacturer.s' 

identification 

number. 


Sales, 1921. 


Total pro- 


Name. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Unit 
value. 


duction, 
1921. 


Total 




Pounda. 
16,761,096 


$13,746,235 


$0.82 


Pounds. 
21, 545, 186 




17-27-42-X 
15-16-48-54-61 
13 
13 
50 
42 
• X 




Acetaldehyde 








36,671 


Acetamide 


367 


1,330 


3.62 


441 
















Alcohols higher than butyl (mixed) 


















A.ldol (acetaldolj 











CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921. 149 

Table 25. — Production and sales of synthetic organic chemicals during 1921 — Continued. 

(Not derived from coal tar.) 





Manufacturers' 

identification 

number. 


Sales, 1921. 


Total pro- 


Name. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Unit 
value 


duction, 
1921. 


AUyl alcohol 


40 

40 

52 

14-18 

18 

X 

54 

57-X 

7-19-57-X 

1 

30 

6 

6 

30 

14-18 

5-29-58-X 

11 

50 

1-54 

38 

X 

54-X 

54 

15-38-X 

61 

39-X 

6 

16-30 

15-17-38 

13-22-60 

33-36 

13-36-X 

13 

13-49 

17-57-X 

17-X 

17 

17 

30 

30 

6 

17-20-57 

. 17-20-57 

30-33-37-45 

13 

6 

6 

1-25-54 

34 

25 

6-25 

30 

30 

6 

3-16-24-28-48-54 

8 

51 

5-14-18-20-29-30- 

35-3S-X-X. 

20-54-57-X 
1-6-13-20-25-45-54- 

55-57. 
7-15-17-18-20-38- 
57-X-X. 

17-X 

X 

18-21-47- X 

X 

X 

12-14-30-45-49-X 

17-20-38-57-X-X 

X 

6 

15-16-24-30-33- 

45-54-X. 

17-20-38-57-X-X 

X 

17-20-54 


Pounds. 






Pounds. 






















Amyl acptatp . , . .~ , . , 










Amy! butvrate 










Amvl caproate 










Amylene 










Anethol 










Aubepine (anisaldehyde) 


2,298 


$10, 136 


$4.41 


2,358 


Barbital 


Bromocamphor 










Bromodiethvlacetic acid 










Bromodlethylacetylcarbamide 










Bromoform 










Butyl acetate. . 










n-Butyl acetate 






.27 


630, 802 


n-ButVl alcohol (butanol) 






Sec. but vl alcohol 










n-Butvl bromide 










n-Butyl n-but yrate 










n-Butyl carbonate 




















Butyl n-malonic ester 










n-Butyric acid 








28,792 


Calcium bimalate 








b-Caloiam glycerophosphate 










Calcium monoiodobehenate 










d-Camphoric acid 










n-Caproic acid 










Carbon tetrachloride 


4,396,004 


449,709 


10 




Chloral hydrate 




Chloroacetic acid (Mono) 










Chloroethyl acetate. . . -- 










Chloroform 










Citronellol 


475 


4,850 


10.21 




Citronellyl acetate 




Citronellyl butyrate 










Citronellyl formate 










Cocaine 




















Cyanoacetic acid 











Decyl alcohol 


13 


780 


6.00 


16 


Decyl aldehyde 


38 


Diacetylmorphine 


699 


78, 169 


11.83 


622 


Dichloroacetic acid 




Dichlorohydrin 










Diethylacetic acid 










Diethylamine 










Diethylaminoethanol 










b-Dlethvlaminoethyl alcohol 










TJiethylbarbituric acid (veronal) 










Diethylsulfonedimethylmethane 










Diethylsulfonemethylethylmethane 










Diiodohvdroxypropane 










Dimethylglvoxime 


208 


4,802 


23.09 


221 


Pioxytartaric acid 




T)isuccinvl peroxide 










^thyl acetate 


2,946,206 


3, 360, 559 


1.14 


5,310,688 


T^thyl acetoacetate 


Jithyl bromide 


61, 108 
43, 561 


2.5,793 
60,295 


.42 
1.38 




Ethyl butyrate 




Ethyl carbonate 




Ethyl caproate 










Ethyl chloride 


99,649 


45,868 


.46 


106, 813 


Ethyl ehloroacetate 


Ethyl citrate 










Ethyl ether 


2, 981, 507 
3,000 


4,338,333 
2,320 


1.46 

.77 


3,025,041 
2,413 


Ethyl formate 


Ethyl fum irate 


Ethylglycolic acid ester of menthol 










Ethyliodide 


227 
744 


1,417 
6,370 


6.24 1 
8.56 


216 

S20 


Ethyl isovalcrate 


Ethyllactate 






ei 


714 ] 


1.71 


76 



150 



CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS. 1921. 



Table 25. — Production and sales of synthetic organic chemicals during 1921 — Continued.- 

(Not derived from coal tar.) 





Manufacturers' 

identification 

number. 


Sales, 1921. 


Total pro- 


Name. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Unit 
value. 


duction, 
1921. 


Ethyl malate 


X 
X 

1-C-57-X 

13 

37 

18-30-4.5-54-X 

X 

17-20-26-38-57-X 

16-17-X 

X 

7-17-20-26-57 

17-20-38-X 

X 

47-X 

17-20 

13-30-54 

13-X 

13-25-X-X 

13-X-X 

13-X 

17-57 

X 

20-48-54 

15-30-62-X 

17-20-53-57-X 

17-20-57 

17-20-53-57-X 

17-57 

20-57-X 

20 

39 

■ 54 
44 
X 

7-19-X 

17-20-57 

17-38-57-X 

13-X 

39-42-46-X 

6 

X 

6 

30-33-37-45-49 

17-20-2.3-26-57-X 

X 

X 

52 

5-17-20-29-38-58-X 

7-17-20-38-57-X-X 

X 

17-20-38-57-X 

X 

17-38-57-X-X 

3-41-54 

X 

17-20-38-X 

X 

17 

17-20-38-57-X 

X 

17-20-57-X 

X 

X 

17-20-38-57-X 

20-38-54 

7-17-20-57-59-X 

17-20-57-X 

50-X-X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

20-38-52 

17-20-26-53-57-X 


Pounds. 






Pounds. 


Ethyl maleate 










Ethyl malonate (mono and di) 


317 


S811 


$2.56 


56 306 


Ethyl monochloroacetate 




Ethyl morphine 










Ethyl nitrite 


44, 544 


26, 529 


.60 


45 942 


Ethyl tartrate 




Ethyl oenanthate 


3,433 


5,360 


1.56 


4 442 


Ethyl oxalate 




Ethyl oxalacetate 










Ethyl pelargonate .... 


449 


3,796 


•8.45 


576 


Ethyl propionate 




Ethyl stearate 










Ethyl sulfate 










Ethyl n-yalerate 










Ethylene bromide 


1,056 


750 


.71 


1 122 


Ethylene chloride and ethylidene chloride. . 




Ethylene ehlorohydrin ..." 






1.32 


• 5 614 


Ethyleneglycol 








Ethylene oxide 










Eugenol methyl ether 










Fumaric acid 










Furfural 






6.10 
.76 
6.90 
10.00 
9.30 


426 


Gallic acid 


147, 929 
234 


112,515 
1,614 


306 431 


Geranyl acetate 


'275 


Geranyl butyrate 


40 


Geranyl formate 


54 


502 


62 


Geranyl propionate 




Glycerol diacetate 






1.26 


101 










Glycerophosphates (all other except cal- 
Glycocol 


















Guanidine and derivatives 










Geraniol 












14,211 


37, 195 


2.62 




Heptaldehyde 


127 


n-Heptyl alcohol 








11 


H exachloroethane 










Hexamethvlenetetramine 


995,647 


856,294 


.86 


981 927" 


Hexamethylenetetramineanhydromethv- 

lene citrate. 
Hydroxvcitronellol 






















Iodoform 


10,793 
4,909 


42, 915 
37, 733 


3.98 
7.69 


4,606 




5,388 


a-Ionone 




b-Ionone 










Iron valerate (valerianate) 










Isoamyl acetate 


295,580 
7,813 


112,797 
11,415 


.38 
1.46 


347, 108 


Isoamyl butyrate 


7,334 


Isoamyl carbonate 




Isoamyl formate 






.71 


1,642 


Isoamyl iodide 








Isoamyl iso valerate 


521 


2,083 


4.00 
3.70 


454 




277 


Isoamyl propionate 














1.50 


587 


Isobutyl alcohol 








Isobutyl aldehyde 










Isobutyl butyrate 






2.27 


67 










Isobutyl formate 






2.30 


67 


Isobutyl iodide 
























2.00 


47 












2,708 


12,597 


4.65 

1.00 

.39 




Isopropvl acetate 


59 


Isopropyl alcohol 


163,720 


63,737 


184,470 




































Isovaleric acid 






3.07 
6.42 


3,050 


Linalyl acetate 


i,492 


9,585 


1,746 



CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC OEGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921. 151 



Table 25. — Production and sales of synthetic organic chemicals during 1921 — Continued. 

(Not derived from coal tar.) 





Manufacturers' 

identification 

number. 


Sales, 1921. 


Total pro- 


Name. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Unit 
value. 


duction, 
1921. 




17-53-57 

61-X 

54-X 

25-44-54 

20-35-X 

54 

17-38-X 

53-X 

15-16-33-54-X 

X 

X 

53 

X 

37 

17-X 

17 

X 

47 

6 

X 

6 

57 

17-20-28-57 

17-20-57 

53 

20-57 

3-15-16-17-20-53- 

54-57-61 

17-20-57 

17-20-57 

53 

X 

13-X 

15-38-X-X 

17 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

17-X 

X 

15-30-62 

1-8 

52 

17-57 

53 

53 

6 

30-51-X 

51 

43 

2-X 

45-59 

17-20-26-53-57-X 

13-31-X 

30 

44 

20-X 

41 

13 

13 

41 

4-X 

3 

3 

15-20 

17 

19-20-32-59-X-X 

52 

15-17-26-37-44- 

54-X 


Pounds. 
49 


$555 


$11.33 


Pounds. 






















7.43 
.23 


12^ 








14,890- 


















29 












ilethvl iodide 


207 


1,805 


8.72 


235. 












































































Methyl sulfate . . . 








































Nerol 




























16 
























142 
51 


2,430 
745 


17.10 
14.61 


726. 






Octyl aldehyde . 












































Propionic aldehyde 










n-Propyl acetate 




















n-Propyl butyrate 




















n-Propyl chloride 




















n-Propyl isovalerate 




















Pseudo ionone 










PjTOgallic acid 


180,997 1 202,020 


1.12 


197, 33T 


Pyruvic acid 






1 






Rhodinal 














Rhodinol formate 










.. 
















Succinic anhydride 










Sulfonemethane 










Terpiueol 










Terpin hydrate 












6,602 


9,404 


1.42 


7,83& 


s-Tetrachloroethane 




Thiosinamine 










Thiourea 










Triacetin 










Tribromotertiary butyl alcohol 










Trichloracetic acid 










Trichloroethylene 










Triclilorotertiary butyl alcohol 










Urea 










Urea nitrate 










Urea oxalate 




















Vanilhc ester 












210, 924 


1,675,081 


7.94 


206,150. 


1 Zinc valerate (valerianate) 


1 tails.) 


428 


7,715 


18.02 


1, 129. 















152 



CENSUS OF DYES AISTD SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921. 



Table 26. — Production of chemicals for sale for research and experimental purposes. 

(Not of coal-tar origin.) 





Manu- 
facturers' 
identifi- 
cation 
numbers. 


Sales. 


Produc- 


Common name. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


tion, 
1921. 


T otal 




428 


$7, 715 


Pounds. 
] r'9 








-Acetal 


15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
17 
17 
54 
54 
15 
15 
15 
15 
54 
15 
15 

15-54 
15 

15-54 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
54 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
26 
20 
2o 
2() 
44 
15 
15 
15 
15 
X 








^cetaldehyde sodium bisulfite 








Acetone sodium bisulfite 








Acetonitrile 








Acetylacetone 








Acetylbromide 








Acetylmethylurea 








Adipic acid 








dl- Alanine 








Aldehyde C12 








Aldehyde C14 








Alloxan 








Alloxantin 








Allyl alcohol 








Allyl bromide 








Allyl sulfide 








Allyl thiourea 








Aniino-n-caproic acid 








a-Amino-iscf-butyrie acid 








dl-a-Amino-n- valeric acid 








n-Amyl alcohol 








Amyl alcohol (tertiary) 








n-Amylamiue 








n-Amyl ether 








Barbituric acid 








d-Bornyl acetate 








Bromoacetic acid 








Bromoacetyl bromide 








a-Bromo-ri-butyric acid 








a-Bromopropionic acid 








b-Bromopropionic acid 








a-Bromo-iso- valeric acid .... ... 








a-Bromo-n- valeric acid . . . . 








n-Butyl acetate 








sec. Butyl acetate . . 








Butyl alcohol (tertiary) . 








n-Butyl bronude 








n-Butyl-n-butyrate 








n-Butyl carbamate 








n-Butyl carbonate 








n-Butyl chlorocarbonate 








n-Butyl citrate 








n-Butyl ether 








n-Butyl formate 








n-Butyl iodide 








n-Butvl mercaptan 








n-Butyl nitrite 








n-Butyl oxalate 








n-Butyl sulfide 








n-Butyl tartrate 








b-Butylcne bromide . 








n-Butyraldehvde . . 








n-But jTamide . . . 








n-Butyronitrile . - 








n-Butyrvl chloride. 








Caprie acid.. . 
















n-Caprylic acid . . 








Carvacrol .... . . - 








Cavone 








Catechol 








Chloral 








Chloral alcoholate 








Chloroacetal. 








CUoroacetone 








Chloroatetvl chloride 








Chlonimethvl ether 
























































Dccane (di-iso-amyl) 








Dia' ctvl monoxime 








.f-Dichloromcthvl other 








Dichlorovinyl ether 









CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC OEGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921, 153 



Table 26. — Production of chemicals for sale for research and experimental purposes — Con. 

[Not of coal tar origin.] • 





Manu- 
facturers' 
identifi- 
cation 
numbers. 


Sales. 


Produc- 


Common name. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


tion, 
1921. 


Di^yandiamidine sulfate 


15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
37 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
X 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
44 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 






Pounds. 


p-S-Dihvdroxyethvl sulfide 








DiclvcoUic acid 








Dihvdroxystearic acid 








Dimet hvl acetal 








Dimethvlamine (33 per cent in water) 








Dimethvilmine hydrochloride 








L»imeth\ .nmonium dimethyldithiocarbamate 








Dimethviglvoxime 








Diquinine carbonic ester 








Enirhl ohydrin 








Ethvl adipate 








Ethyl ^ elate 








Ethvl a-bromo-n-butvrate 








Ethvl a-bromopropionate 








Ethvl a-bromo-n-valerate 








Ethvl n-caprate ... 








Ethyl n-caproate 








Ethvl c„prvlate 








Ethyl carbamate 








Ethyl carbonate 
















Ethvl chlorocarbnnate 








Ethvl cvanoacetate 








Et.'ivl dibrnmoacetate. 








Eth\'l dichlornacetate 








Ethvl disulfide 








Ethvl laurate 








Ethvl mvristate 
















Ethyl oxalate 








Ethyl sebacate 








Ethyl succinate 








Ethyl sulfide 








Ethyl tartrate 








Ethyl thiocyanate 








Ethyl trichloroacetate 








Ethyl n-valerate 








Ethylal 
















Ethylamine hydrobromide 
















Ethylene chlorobromide 








Ethylenediamine hydrobromide 








Ethylidene chloride 








Eugenol methyl ether , 








Formamide 








Furfural 








Glutaric acid 








Glycerol diacetate 








Glycerol monochlorohydrin 
















Glycme ethyl ester hydrochloride 








Guanidine derivatives 








Heptaldehyde 








n-Heptyl alcohol 








n-Heptyl bromide 








n-Hexane 








n-Hexyl alcohol 








b-Hydroxj'propionitrile 








b-Iodopropionic acid 
















Isoamyl n-caproate 








Isoamyl n-caprylate 








Isoamyl carbamate 








Isoamyl ether 








Isoamyl formate 
















Isoamyl oxalate 
















Isoamyl sulfide 
















Isobutyl iodide 








Isobutvric acid 








Isobutyraldehyde 

















]54 



CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS. 1921. 



'J'a Hi E 26. — Production of chemicals for sale for research and experimental purposes— Con. 

[Not ol coal tar origin.] 





Manu- 
facturers' 
identifi- 
cation 
numbers. 


Sales. 


Produc- 


Common name. 


Pound!5. 


Value. 


tion, 
1921. 


Isocapronitrile 


15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
I5-X 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
37 
26 
26 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
X 






Pounds. 


Isopropyl bromide 








Isopropyl iodide 








Isovaleraldehyde 








Laurie acid ; 








Malonic acid 








p -Menthane 








1-Menthvl acetate , 








Mesitylene 








Metliylal 








Metliylamine 








Methylamine hydrochloride 








Methyl n-batyrate 








Methyl n-butyl carbinol 








Methyl n-capioate 








Methyl carbonate .- 








Methyl chlorocarbonate 








Methyl n-heptyiate 








Methyl laurate 








Methyl malonate 
















Methyl palmitate 
















Methyl n-propyl carbinol 
















Methyl sulfide 
















Methyl n- valerate 
















Methyleneaminoacetonitrile... . 








Methylene iodide 








Nitromethane 








Nitrosotriacetonamine 






Nitrourea 






n-Octane .* 






n-Octyl alcohol 




i 






1 


Oxamide 




1 


Potassium ethylsulfate 




1 


Potassium formate 








Potassium methylsulfate 








ProDionaldehyde 








Propionamide 






::;;;::;;: 


Propionitrile 








n-Propylamine 









n-Propvl bromide 









n-Propvl n-butyrate 








n-Propyl carbonate . . 
















n-Propyl iodide 








n-Propyl oxalate 








n-ProDyl propionate : 








Pyrogallol 








Quinine ethyl carbonic ester... 








Rhodinol butyrate. . 
















Sebacie acid . . .... 
































Stearic acid.. . 








s-Tetrabromoethane 
































Tributyrin 

































































































CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921. 155 



Table 27. — Domestic production of organic chemicals (except coal tar). 
[From Bureau of the Census; 1919 figures are preliminary.] 





1914 


1919 


Chemical. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Uait 
value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Unit 
value. 


Acetic acid (pyroligneous) 


Pounds. 
170,617,600 


$1,272,300 


$0.02 


Pounds. 

/46, 821, 000 

\ 5,050,000 

1,213,200 

5,054,500 

2,103,500 

5,313,000 

19,663,800 


82,816,300 

869,200 

578,600 

781,500 

,545,600 

4,2-2,400 

3,938,300 

1,794,300 

350,600 

340,000 

166,200 

1,114,400 

l,ia3,70O 

22, €00 

76,7,000 

167,700 

225, 100 

803,600 

516,600 

1,365,900 

296,392 

178,885 

90,454 

100, 100 


80. 1 




.17 


Acetic anhydride 


.48 


Lactic acid 








.15 


Oxalic acid 








.23 


Tartaric acid 








.80 




8,420,200 


055,200 


.08 


.20 


Other aldehydes 




Amvl acetate 


1,300,000 


465,700 


.36 


704,600 

2,2.51,000 

248, 100 


.50 


Ethvl acetate 


.15 


Ethvl chloride 








.67 


Other esters 










Ethvl ether 


2,120,000 


278,800 


.13 


4,111,800 


.27 


Other ethers 




A( etone 


10,425,800 


1,099,600 


.11 


6,045,900 
1,158,000 


.13 


i\l ethvl ethvl ketone 


.14 


Other ketones 










Carbon tetrachloride 








9,811,800 

1,677,600 

134,700 

2,312 

702 

516 

73,200 


.08 


Chloroform 


1,334,000 
120,600 


295,300 
525,200 


.22 

4.36 


.31 


^'aIlillin 


10.14 


Codein and salts 




128. 50 


Heroin and salts 


2,306 
25,891 




255. 00 


Cocaine and salts 




175. 00 


Methyl alcohol (wood) (galloas) 




.14 









Table 28. — Imports and production of synthetic organic chemicals {except those of coal- 
tar origin), 1914 and 1921. 



Articles. 



Acetic acid 

Formic acid 

G allic acid 

Glyeerophosphoric acid and 
salts of , 

Lactic acid 

Oxalic acid 

PyrogalUc acid 

Valerianic acid 

M ethyl alcohol 

Carbon tetrachloride 

( ' Woroform 

Chloral hydrate. ., 

Cocaine, ecgonine and salts of. 

Ethers conlaining not more 
than 10 per cent of alcohol: 

Ethyl acetate 

Ethyl chloride 

Fruit, containing no alco- 
hol 

Sulphuric 

Others, n. s. p. f 

Ethers containing more than 
10 per cent of alcohol and 
not more than 20 per cent . . 

All on which specific duty 
does not amount to 25 per 
cent 

Ethers containing more than 
20 and not more than 50 per 
cent of alcohol 

Formaldehyde solution con- 
taining not more than 40 
per cent of formaldehyde or 
formalin 

Iodoform 

Urea 



1921 (calendar year). 



Pounds. 



32,715 

422, 288 

2,260 

6,595 

593, 385 

1,016,471 

22 

435 

1,033 

100,380 

4,512 

1,905 

7,065 



30 
9,697 

44 
216 

484 



Value. 



240 



86,281 

7 

35,339 



$2,659 

51, 766 

904 

8,169 

44,986 

151,497 

45 

1,342 

2,836 

2,705 

615 

1,758 

18, 428 



8 
5,351 

101 
253 
752 



274 



16, 709 

27 

8,906 



Unit 
value. 



SO. 08 
.12 
.40 

1.24 

.08 

.15 

2.05 

3.09 

2.75 

.03 

.14 

.92 

2.60 



.27 
.55 

2.30 
1.17 
1.55 



1.14 



1921 pro- 
duction 
(poimds). 



306,431 



1914 (fiscal year). 



Pounds. 



197, 337 



.19 

3.S5 

.25 



5,406,995 

111,000 

48,615 

105 



5,307,078 
106, 813 



3,025,041 



27, 743 

1, 119, 745 

61,635 

24, 789 

276, 237 

8, 780, 852 

23,615 

1,161 

109, 022 

572, 910 

2,444 

644 

3,291 



110 
9,014 

1,309 

915 

12, 036 



4,606 
10, 120 



14,228 

86 

17,981 



Value. 



$1,952 
48,826 
20^429 

2:3,086 

30,223 

433, 783 

20, 496 

750 

52, 598 

28,300 

990 

241 

4,101 



20 
10, 046 

1,719 

131 

5,049 



1,845 



1,443 
301 

8,798 



Unit 
value. 



$0.07 
.04 
.33 

.93 
.11 
.05 
.87 
.65 
.39 
.05 
.41 
.37 
1.25 



.18 
1.11 

1.31 
.14 
.42 



.10 

3.50 

.49 



1914 pro- 
duction 
(pounds). 



70, 617, too 



1,334,000 



2, 120, 000 



156 CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921. 

Table 29.— SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMTC\LS IMPORTED IN EXCESS OF $100 IN VALUE 
DURING THE YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 1914.1 



Articles. 



Acetin (commercial) 

Acetylenetetrachloride (tetra- 

chloroethane) 

Ammonium valerate 

Amyl butyrate 

Amyl nitrite 

Amylene 

Aubepine: 

Technical 

Liquid 

Barbituric acid 

Butyric acid, 60 per cent 

Pure 

Calcium glycerophosphate: 

Granulated, 6 per cent 

Liquid, 50 per cent 

Soluble 

Granulated, effervescent. . . 

Camphoric acid 

Carbon tetrachloride 

Chloral hydrate 

Chloroform 

Citronellol 

Cocaine ^ 

Codeine, alkaloid 

Phosphate 2 

Sulphate2 

Dichlorohydrin 

Dimethylglyoxime 

Ethyl butyrate (absolute) 

Ethyl carbonate 

Ethyl chloride 

Ethyl ether 

Over sodium 

Reagent 

Eugenol: 

Crude 

Other 



Quantity 



Pounds. 
15, 958 

93, 581 

1,801 

350 



26 

1,302 

2,101 

39, 924 

51,530 

13 

4,697 

15, 757 

1,347 

305 

75 

572, 987 

800 

2,745 

1,526 

3, 340 

32 

335 

1,275 

782 

28 

1,363 

6 

9, 137 

992 

3,512 

122 

5 

485 



Value. 



$2, 425 

5,636 

1,637 

181 

122 

100 

864 

2,901 

2, 837 

13, 467 

41 

814 

9, 935 

1,611 

849 

138 

28, 322 

298 

2,0.S6 

4,318 

4,163 

1,669 

773 

2,648 

500 

301 

515 

311 

10, 260 

160 

870 

119 

4 

987 



Articles. 



Gallic acid 

G eranyl acetate 

Heliotropin, crystals ; . . . 

Hexamethylenetetramine 

Iodoform 

lonone: 

Alcoholic solution 

For soap 

Alpha, pure 

Iron valerate 

Methyl aniline, pure 

Methyl iodide 

Monochloracetic acid: 

Commercial 

Pure crystals 

Octyl aldehyde 

Pyrogallic acid 

Quinine valerate 

Rhodinal 

Succinic acid: 

Crude sublimed 

Pure crystals 

Anhydrous 

Terpin hydrate 

Terpinyl acetate 

Thiosinamine , 

Thymol 

Trichloracetic acid: 

Technical 

U. S. P 

Urea 

Valeric (Valerianic) acid 

VaniUin 2 

Veronol (diethyl barbituric 

acid) 

Veronol sodium (sodium die- 

thylbarbiturate) 

Zinc valerate, powder 



Quantity. 



Pounds. 

61.644 

198 

10,219 

11,470 

93 

50 
104 
35 
1,109 
13 
26 

12, 834 

318 

4 

24,964 
263 
181 

35 

620 

54 

12, 797 

19, 473 

111 

19, 056 

4 

439 

18, 137 

1,164 

38, 472 

4,971 

593 
1,517 



Value. 



S20, 417 

634 

8, 715 

21, l;36 

322 

71 

565 

542 

1,012 

137 



2, 756 

171 

127 

22,404 

1,45 6 

1,49 3 

92 
2,224 
435 
2,052 
10, 412 
296 
24, 793 

2 
346 

8,889 

755 

7,554 

26, 322 

5,284 
1,375 



I Miscellaneous Series No. 82, Department of Commerce. 2 Ounces. 

Table 30.— IMPORTS FOR CONSUMPTION, 1921— SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS. 



Chemicals. 



Ethyl chloride 

Chloroform 

Ethyl acetate (acetic ether) 

Gallic acid 

Carbon tetrachloride 

Glycerophosphoric and salts 

and compounds 

Iodoform 

Sulphuric ether 



Quantity. 



Pounds. 

9,697 

4,512 

30 

2,260 

100, 380 

6,595 

7 

216 



Value. 



$5, 351 

615 

8 

904 

2,705 

8,169 
27 
2.53 



Chemicals. 



Ethers, n. s. p. f 
Cocaine salts ' . . 

Urea 

Thyniol 

Valerianic acid. 

Vanillin 

Pyrogallic acid . 
Chloral hydrate. 



Quantity. 



Pounds. 

484 

7,065 

35, 339 

17,455 

435 

26, 456 

22 

1,905 



Value. 



$752 

18, 428 

8,906 

42,614 

4,242 

11,525 

45 

1,758 



1 Ounces. 



Directory of manufacturers of synthetic organic chemicals, 1921. 
(Not derived from coal tar.) 



No. 


Name of company. 


Office address (location of plant given in paren- 
theses if not in same city as office). 


1 




4753 Ravenswood .\ve., Chicago, 111. 


2 




80 Fifth Ave., New Yorlc City. (Nyack, N. Y.) 
73 Chatham St., Rochester, N. Y. 


3 




4 
5 


American Cyanamid Co 


511 Fifth Ave., New York City. (Warners, 

N.J.) 
266 Lodi Ave., Wallington, N. J. 


6 




117 Hudson St., New York City. (Rensselaer, 






N. Y.) 



CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1&21, 157 

Directory of manufacturers of synthetic organic chemicals, 1921 — Continued. 



Name of company. 



Office address (location of plant given in paren- 
theses if not in same city as office). 



Bush & Co., Inc., W. J. 



New York City. (Linden, 



Calco Chemical Co., The 

Carbide and Carbon Chemicals Corp. 



ChirisCo., Antoine 

Commercial Solvents Corp . 



370 Seventh Ave. 

N.J.) 
Bound Brook, N. J. 
30 East 42d St., New York City. (Clendenin, 

W. Va.) 
147 Waverly Place, New York City. (Dela- 

wanna, N. J.) 
17 E. 42d St., New York City. (Terre Haute, 

Ind.) 
194 Worth St., New York City. (Newark, N. J.) 
Midland, Mich. 
1007 Market St., Wilmington, Del. (Parlin & 

Gibbstowai, N.J.) 
Rochester, N. Y. (Kodak Parks Works, Roches- 
ter, N.Y.) 
205-211 3d Ave., New YorkCitj;. (Newark, N. J.) 
Olmstead & Starling Ave., Unionport, N. Y. 
Carlstadt, N.J. 

92 Reade St., New York City. ( Bloomfield, N. J.) 
l.iOl W. 6th St., Cincinnati, Ohio. 
619 Bangor Bldg., Cleveland, Ohio (9408 St. Cath- 
I erine Ave., Cleveland, Ohio.) 
Great Western Electro-Chemical Co j 9 Main St., San Francisco, Calif. (Pittsburgh, 

Calif.) 



Cooper & Co., Inc., Charles 

Dow Chemical Co.,' The 

Du Pont de Nemours & Co., E. I. 

Eastman Kodak Co 



Eimer & Amend 

Florasynth Laboratories, Inc 

Franco-American Chemical Works. 

Fries Bros 

Fries & Fries Co., The 

Gebauer Chemical Co., The 



Haarmann-de-Laire-Schaefer Co 

Harmer Laboratories Co., The 

Hirsch Laboratories (Inc.), The 

Ising Corporation, The C. E 

Lakeview Laboratories 

La Motte Chemical Products Co 

Maas & Waldstein Co 

MaUinckrodt Chemical Works 

Mathieson Alkali Works (Inc.), The. 



May wood Chemical Works 

Merck & Co 

Metz Laboratories (Inc.), H. A. 



Miner-Edgar Co., The 

Monsanto Chemical Works 

New York Quinine & Chemical Works (Inc.). 

Northwestern Chemical Co 

Norvell Chemical Corporation, The 

Organo Chemico Co 

Parke, Davis A: Co 

Perth Amboy Chemical Works 

Pharma-Chemical Corporation 



Phillips, Ross 

Powers- Weightman-Rosengarten Co. 

Redmanol Chemical Products Co 

Rhodia Chemical Co 



Special Chemicals Co. 
Squibb & Sons, E. R. 



Standard Oil Co. of New Jersey. 

Slearn.s A: Co., Frederick 

SterUiig Chemical Works (Inc.) . 



Synfleur Scientific Laboratories (Inc.). 
Synthetical Laboratories of Chicago. .. 

T. M. & G. Chemical Co 

U. S. Industrial Chemical Co. (Inc.)... 
Van Dyk & Co 



Van Schaaek Bros. Chemical Works (Inc.). 

Verona Chemical Co 

Warner Khpstein Chemical Co 



Will Corporation. 
Zinsser & Co 



May wood, N. J. 

Baltimore and Hirst Ave., East Lansdowaie, Pa. 

50 E. 41st St., New York City. (Brooklyn, 

N. Y.) 
Flushing, L. I., N. Y. 
2 Jersey St., Buffalo, N. Y. 
13 W. Saratoga St., Baltimore, Md. 
92 WiUiam St., New York City. (Newark, N. J.) 
3600 N. 2d St., St. Louis, Mo. 

25 West 43d St., New York City. (Niagara FaUs, 
N.Y.) 

Hunter Ave., Maywood, N. J. 

45 Park Place, New York City. (Rahwav, N. J.) 

122 Hudson St., New York Citv. (Brooklyn, 
N.Y.) 

110 WiUiam St., New York City. (Newark, N.J.) 

1724 So. 2d St., St. Louis, Mo. 

135 William St., New York City. 

Wauwatosa, Wis. 

11 CUff St., New York City. (Perth Amboy, 
N. J.) 

1636 Columbus Ave., Sandusky, Ohio. 

Detroit, Mich. 

709 6th Ave., New York City. (Perth Amboy, 
N.J.) 

233 Broadway, New York City. (Bayonne 
N.J.) 

Canandaigua, N.Y. 

916 Parrish St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

636 W. 22d St., Chicago, 111. 

89 Fulton St., New York City. (New Bruns- 
wick, N. J.) 

Erskine Bank Building, Highland Park, 111. 

SO Beekman St., New York City. (Brooklyn, 
N. Y., and New Brunswick, N. J.) 

26 Broadway, New YorkCity. (Ehzabeth, N. J.) 
Jeft'erson and BeUevue Avenues, Detroit, Mich. 
115 Broadway, New York City. (344 Thomas 

St., Newark, N. J.) 
33 Bedford Ave., Monticello, N. Y. 
1.326 West Congress St., Chicago, 111. 
BeDeville, N.J. 
Curtis Bav, Baltimore, Md. 
4-6 Piatt" St., New York City. (Jersey City, 

N.J.) 
3358 Avondale Ave., Chicago, 111. 
26 Verona Avenue, New York, N. J. 
52 Vanderbilt Ave., New York City. (South 

Charleston, W. Va.) 
845 Maple St., Rochester, N. Y. 
Hastings upon Hudson, N.Y. 



PART V. 

APPENDIX. 

STATISTICS OF IMPORTS AND EXPORTS. 



159 



i 



Part V. 
STATISTICS OF IMPORTS AND EXPORTS. 



Table I. — Imports of coal-tar products entered for consumption, 1917 to 1921. 

[Act of Sept. 8, 1916.] 
GROUP I, CRUDE (FREE). 



Calendar years. 



1917 



Quantity. 



Value. 



Quantity. 



Value. 



A^ids, carbolic, which on being subjected to distillation 
yield in the portion distilling below 200° C. a quantity of 
tar acids less than 5 per cent of original distillate, .pounds. . 

Anthracene oil gallons. . 

Benzol pounds.. 

Cresol do 

Dead or creosote oil gallons. . 

Naphthalene having a solidifying point less than 79° C. 
pounds. . 

Pyridine and quinoline do 

Coal tar, crude barrels. . 

Pitch, coal tar do 

Metacresol, orthocresol, and paracresol — purity less than 90 
per cent pounds . . 

Xylol do. . . . 

Ail other products found naturally in coal tar whether pro- 
duced or obtained from coal tar or other sources, n. s. p. f. 
pounds.. 

All other distillates, which on being subjected to distillation 
yield in the portion distilling below 200° C. a quantity of 
tar acids less than 5 per cent of the original distillate 
pounds. . 

Anthracene, purity less than 25 percent do 

Acenaphthene, cumol fluorene, methylanthracene, and 
methylnaphthalene pounds . . 

Carbazol, purity less than 25 per cent do 



151,2.54 

61,200 

3, 598, 733 

7, 665, 442 

9, 817, 085 

5, 206, 980 
12.247 
6, 780 
5,926 

20, 708 
9,332 



(^) 



(1) 

0) 



3, 105 
341, 700 
532, 529 
786, 638 

175, 554 

1,480 

10, 745 

12, 039 

1,404 
2,928 



10,448 



1,502 

(') 



155, 236 



2, 673, 855 
8,873,271 
1,545,247 

3, 902, 731 
9,237 
13, 087 
14,029 



(1) 
(1) 



S17, 260 



87,570 
779, 045 
162, 869 

130, 098 

1,036 

21,200. 

29, 095 



2,756 



10, 473 
5 



Acids, carbolic, which on being sub- 
jected to distillalion yield in the 
portion distillins; lielo'w 200° C. a 
quantity of tar acids less than 5 
per cent ol original distillate 

pounds. . 

Anthracene oil gallons.. 

Benzol pounds. . 

Cresol do 

Dead or creosote oil gallons. . 

Naphthalene having a solidifying 

point less thim 79° C pounds.. 

Pyridine and c|uinoline do 

Coal tar, crude barrels. . 

Pitch, coal tar do 

Metacresol, orthocresol, and para- 
1 cresol— purity less than 90 per 

I cent pounds. . 

I Toluol do 



Calendar years. 



1919 



Quantity. 



1,96.5,289 

IS, 699 

217, 865 

6, 435, 650 

11,268,379 

3, 239, 256 

105, 064 

22,339 

3,364 



11,200 
1, 195, 706 



Value. 



$187,788 

3, 994 

5,617 

557,214 

1,374,217 

92, 265 

20, 543 

38, 476 

8,598 



1,221 
30, 768 



1920 



Quantity. 



192, 692 
15,0.54 

486, 619 
10,318,070 
18,427,152 

15,012,096 

863, 456 

11,901 

8,780 



Value. 



S19,84S 

3,945 

10, 868 

901,381 

3,796,-399 

530,219 
168, 800 
24, 140 
26, 022 



Quantity. 



214, 185 

12,776 

1,722,085 

3, 353, 882 

33, 239, 432 

4, 495, 806 

72, 515 

21, .551 

417 



Value. 



$22,849 

5,019 

442, 370 

2.'53, 886 

4, 756, 618 

135,943 

11,367 

46, 784 

1,264 



* Imports not available by calendar year. 



161 



162 CENSUS or dyes and synthetic organic chemicals, 1921. 



Table I. — Imports of coal-tar products entered for consumption, 1917 to 1921 — Con. 
GROUP I, CRUDE (FREE)— Continued. 





Calendar years. 




1919 


1920 


1921 




Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


AU other products found naturally 
in coal tar whether produced or 
obtained from coal tar or other 
sources, n. s. p. f pounds.. 

All other distillates, which on being 
subjected to distillation yield in 
the portion distilling below 200° 
C. a quantity of tar acids less than 
5 per cent of the original distillate 
pounds. . 


380,525 

104,568 
82,669 

15,759 
112 


$6,334 

10, 548 
2,022 

946 

82 


240,096 


$14,046 


40,707 

7,310 
58, HI 

100 


$3,111 
959 


Anthracene, purity less than 25 per 
cent pounds. . 

Acenaphthene, cumol fluorene, 
methylanthracene and methyl- 
naphthalene pounds. . 


202,569 


16, 590 


1,198 
64 


Carbazol, purity less than 25 per 
cent pounds.. 























GROUP II (DUTIABLE AT 15 PER CENT PLUS 2J CENTS PER POUND). 



Article and years. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Duty. 


Actual 
and com- 
puted ad 
valorem 
rate. 


Not colors, dyes or stains, photographic chemicals, medic- 
inals, flavors, or explosives, and n. s. p. f.: 
Acids— 

Amidosalicylic — 

1917 


Pounds. 






Per cent. 


1918 










1919 










1920 . . 


11, 199 


$8, 182 


$1, 507 


18.42 


1921 




Benzoic— 

1917 


4,653 

1,791 

63 

250 

11, 263 

30,676 
148, 261 


20,539 
14, 060 
374 
1,087 
3,012 

4,954 
47,085 


3,190 

2,154 

58 

169 

733 

1,510 
10,769 


15.53 


1918 


15.32 


1919 


15.42 


1920 


15.58 


1921 


24.35 


Carbolic (phenol) which on being subjected to dis- 
tillation yields in the portion distilUng below 
200° C. a quantity of tar acids equal to or more 
than 5 per cent of the original distillate- 
Crystal— 

1917 


30.48 


1918 


22.87 


1919 




1920 










1921 


250 

314, 585 

134, 406 

2,061 

1,040 


142 

24, 246 

15, 186 

264 

244 


• 28 

11,502 

5,638 

91 

63 


19.40 


Liquid— 

1917 


47.44 


1918 


37.13 


1919 


34.52 


1920 


25.66 


1921 




Salicylic— 

1917 


26,273 
117 


23, 575 
112 


4,193 
20 


17.79 


1918 


17.62 


1919 




1920 










1921 










Amidonaphthol— 

1917 










1918 










1919 


150 


72 


15 


20.21 


1920 




1921 


11,025 


9,990 


1,774 


17.76 



CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921. 



163 



Table I. — Imports of coal-tar products entered for consumption, 1917 to 1921 — Con. 
GROUP II (DUTIABLE AT 15 PER CENT PLUS 2i CENTS PER POUND)— Continued. 



Article and years. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Duty. 


Actual 
and com- 
puted ad 
valorem 
rate. 


Not colors, dyes or stains, photographic chemicals, medic- 
inals, flavors, or explosives, and n. s. p. f.— Continued. 
Amidophenol— 

1917 . 


Pounds. 






Per cent. 


1918 










1919 


1,028 


J2,417 


S388 


16.06 


1920 




1921 


14,623 


11,699 


2,120 


18.12 


Aniline oil — 

1917 




1918 










1919 











1920 


220 
11,243 


72 
1,799 


16 
551 


22.64 


1921 


30.62 


Aniline salt— 

1917 . . . . ... 




1918 


21,273 


3,250 


1,019 


31.36 


1919 




1920 


4 
18,316 


1 
12, 109 


:25' 

2,274 


25.00 


1921 


18.78 


Anthracene, purity of 25 per cent or more — 

1917 .. 




1918 










1919 


51,895 
648,095 
261,645 


8,011 
87,413 
12,639 


2,499 

29,314 

8,437 


31.19 


1920 


33.54 


1921 


66.75 


1917 




1918 










1919 


3,147 
13,053 
127,427 


2,643 
5,612 
78,255 


375 

1, 168 

14,924 


14.20 


1920 . . . . . 


20.82 


1921 


19.07 


Benzaldehydfr— 
1917 














1919 , 


24,472 
9,479 
1,056 

5 


17, 790 

5,928 

465 

7 


3,280 

1,126 

% 

1 


18.44 


1920 


19.00 


1921 


20.68 


Benzylchloride — 

1917 . ... 


16.86 






1919 


1,000 
150 


430 
22 


90 

7 


20.81 




32.05 


1921 




Binitrotoluol— 

1917 


61,632 

22,635 

6,896 

4,692 

1,164 

5 


10,471 

3,333 

1,331 

1,216 

155 

3 


3,111 

1,066 

372 

300 

52.00 

.58 


29.71 


1918 


31.98 


1919 


27.95 


1920 .... 


24.64 


1921 


33.77 


1921 


19. 33 


Carbaz 1, purity of 25 per cent or more— 

1917 




1918 










1919 










1920 


157 


27 


8 


29.56 


1921 




Dimethylaniline — 

1917 










191S 










1919 


1,120 
22, 400 


427 
15, 968 


92 
2,955 


21.56 


1920 


18.51 


1921 




Metacresol, orthocresol, and paracresol, purity of 90 
per cent or more^ 

1917 










1918 










1919 










1920 


2,444 
556 


2,230 
341 


396 
65 


17.74 


1921 


19.08 


Methvlanthraquinone — 
1917.. 




1918 ... 










1919 


3,147 
13,053 


2,643 
5,612 


375 
1,168 


14.20 


1920 .' 


20.82 


1921 





164 CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921. 



Table I. — Imports of coal-tar -products entered for consumption, 1917 to 1921 — Con. 
GROUP II (DUTIABLE AT 15 PER CENT PLUS 2§ CENTS PER POUND)— Continued. 



Article and j^ears. 


Quantity . 


Value. 


Duty. 


Actual 
and com- 
puted ad 
valorem 
rate. 


Not colors, dyes or stains, photographic chemicals, medic- 
inals, flavors, or explosives, and n. s. p. f.— Continued. 
Naphthalene solidifying at 79° C. or above— 

1917 


Pounds. 

267, 057 

2, 795 

7,650 

3,697,562 

' 441, 685 

1,027 


$12, 125 
171 
384 

416, 172 
31,458 

1,069 


$8, 497 

96 

249 

154, 865 

15,761 

186 


Per cent, 
70 02 


1918 


55 87 


1919 •. 


64 80 


1920 


37.21 


1921 


50. IQ 


Naphthol— 

1917 


17.40 


1918 




1919 










1920 










1921. 


333,356 


112,922 


25, 272 


22.31 


Naphthylainine— 

1917 




1918 


11,761 


5,985 


1,192 


19.91 


1919 




1920 


69,695 


7,208 


2,824 


39.18 


1921 




Nitrobenzol— 

1917 










1918 










1919 


21,513 
45,891 


4,003 
6,009 


1,138 
2,049 


28.44 


1920 


34.09 


1921 




Nitronaphthalene— 

1917 


18, 102 


7,758 


1,616 


20.83 


1918 ... 




1919 . 










1920... .. 










1921.. .. 










Nitrophenylenediamine— 

1921 


1,132 


6,590 


1,017 


15.43 


Nitrotoluol— 

1917 




1918 








, 




542 
684 


452 
359 


81 
71 


18. OC 


1920 


19. 76 






Phenyleuediamine— 










1918 












2,746 
2,429 


1,769 

1,887 


334 
344 


18.88 


1920... . 


18.22 






Phthalic anhydride— 

1917... . . 


98 


1,853 


280 


15.13 


1918 




1919 










1920 










1921 








. 


Resorcin— 

1917 


134 


672 


104 


15. 5( 


1918 














1920 


51, 529 
- 109,668 

175 


39,932 
75, 022 

238 


7,278 
13,995 

40 


18.25 


1921 


18.6! 


Tolyleiiediamine— 

1921 


16. '( 


Xylidine— 




1918 




















1920 


56, 047 


41, 237 


7,587 


18.41 






All distillates, n . s. p. f., which on distillation yield in the 
equal to or more than 5 per cent of the original distillate: 










1918 


1, 550 
3,170 

85, 474 
16, 240 


2, 008 

4, 587 

36, 041 

11,811 


340 

767 

7,543 

2,178 


16. a 


1919 


16.7; 


1920 


20.9 


1921 


18.41 



CENSUS OF DYES AISTD SYNTHETIC OEGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921. 165 



Table I. — Imports of coal-tar products entered for consumption, 1917 to 1921 — Con. 
GROUP II (DUTIABLE AT 15 PER CENT PLUS 2i CENTS PER POUND).— Continnod. 



Article and years. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Duty. 


Actual 
and com- 
puted ad 
valorem 
rate. 


All similar products, obtained, derived, or manufactured 
in whole or in part from tlie products provided for in 
Group I (free): 
1917 


Pounds. 
193, 021 
13,445 
51,214 
87, 911 
87, 207 


$17, 595 

8,640 

39,861 

74,514 

41,965 


$7,465 
1,632 
7,260 

13, 375 

8,475 


Per cent. 
42. U 


191S t 


IS 89 


1919 


18.21 


1920 


17. 95 


1921 


20.19 


AU sulfoacids or sulfoacid salts of Group II: 

1917 




1918 











1919 










1920 


100 
6, 789 


87 
2,944 


16 
611 


17 88 


1921 


20.76 







GROUP III (DUTIABLE AT 30 PER CENT AD VALOREM). 



When obtained, derived, or manufactured in whole or in 
part from any of the products provided for in Group 1 
(free) or II, including natural indigo and their deriva- 
tives: 
Alizarin, natural — 

1917 

1918 

1919 

1920 

1921 

Alizarin, synthetic — 

1917 

1918 

1919 

1920 

1921 

Dyes obtained, derived, or manufactured from aliza- 
rin — 

1917 

1918 

1919 

1920 

1921 

Dyes obtained, derived, or manufactured from an- 
thrac ene and carbazol — 

1917 

1918 

1919 

1920 

1921 

Indigoids, whether or not obtained from indigo — 

1917 

1918 

1919 

1920 

1921 

Flavors — 

1917 

1918 

1919 

1920 

1921 

Indigo, natural — 

1917 

1918 • 

1919 

1920 

*■ 1921 

Indigo, synthetic — 

1917 

1918 

1919 

1920 

1921 

Mediciuals — 

1917 

1918 

1919 

1920 



Pounds. 

6,899 

108,711 

6,684 

58, 583 

59, 306 

19, 180 



73,23.2 
136,283 



34 

6,446 

1,920 

29,436 

246,837 



23,146 

12, 827 

7,162 

216, 508 

226,956 

129,983 
3,376 
34,049 
86,4.39 
76, 123 

35 
160 



2,261,122 

1,637,914 

2.i4,991 

36,537 

77, 121 

1,379,349 

69(J,414 

537,697 

171,101 

70,975 



$12, 216 

158, 816 

8,612 

41,381 

81, 816 

55, 179 



24,072 
49, 707 



75 

13,399 

3,864 

25, 489 

356, 658 



11,. 326 

20,087 

7,772 

208, 754 

422,941 

140,932 
13,744 
82, 779 

196,783 
72,154 

408 
816 



27 



4,230,510 
2,007,958 

285,925 
69,528 

154,538 

871,267 
342,589 
327, 133 
^^07,299 
'84,901 

284,346 
301,074 
168,466 
165,055 
280,299 



$3, 665. 00 
47, 644. 80 
2, 583. 60 
12,414.30 
24, 544. 80 

16, 554. 00 



Per cent. 
30.00 
30.00 
30.00 
30.00 
30.00 

30. CO 



7, 221. 60 
14,912.10 



22.50 

4,019.70 

1,159.20 

7, 646. 70 

106,997.40 



3,398.00 

6,026.10 

2,331.60 

62,628.20 

126,882.30 

42,280.00 
4, 123. 20 
24,833.70 
59,0.34.90 
21,646.20 

122.00 
244.80 



30.00 
3a. 00 



30.00 
30.00 
30.00 
30.00 
30.00 



30.00 
30.00 
30.00 
30.00 
30.00 

30.00 
30.00 
30.00 
30.00 
30.00 

30.00 
30.00 



30.00 



1,269,153.00 
602,387.40 
85, 777. 50 
20, 858. 40 
46,361.40 

261,380.00 

102., 776. 70 

98, 139. 90 

62, 189. 70 

25,470.30 

85,304.00 
90,322.20 
50, 539. 80 
49,516.50 
84,089.70 



30.00 
30.00 
30.00 
30.00 
30.00 

30.00 
30.00 
30.00 
30.00 
30.00 

30.00 
30.00 
30.00 
30.00 
30.00 



166 CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921. 



Table I. — Imports of coal-tar products entered for consumption, 1917 to 1921 — Con. 
GROUP III (DUTIABLE AT 30 PER CENT AD VALOREM)— Continued. 



Article and years. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Duty. 


Actual 
and com- 
puted ad 
valorem 
rate. 


"When obtained, derived, or manufactured in whole or in 
part from any of the products provided for ia Gro«p I 
(free) or II, including natural indigo and their deriva- 
tives: 
Colors, or color lakes obtained, derived, or manufac- 
tured from alizarin — 
1917 


Povndx. 

7,062 

1,490 

15, 358 

98, 735 

59, 290 

53, 205 
27, 900 
38,073 
960, 060 
62, 748 

2,257,476 
1, 799, 467 
1,991,687 
2, 807, 807 
2, 751, 535 

134, 702 


?18,680 
4,490 

14, 405 
172,841 

66, 171 

49, 729 
22, 546 
55, 475 
529, 966 
65, 635 

2,574,363 
2,161,799 
2, 848, 294 
4, 093, 389 
3,%8,319 

11, 596 


$5,957.00 

1,421.95 

5,089.40 

56,789.05 

22, 815. 80 

17,579.00 

8, 168. 80 

18, 546. 15 

171,992.80 

22,827.90 

885,183.00 
738,513.05 
954, 072. 55 
1,368,407.05 
1,328,072.45 

10,214.00 


Per cent 
31.89 


1918 


31.67 


1919 


35.33 


1920 


32.86 


1921 


34.48 


Colors, or color lakes obtained, derived, or manufac- 
tured from anthracene and carbazol— 
1917 


35.35 


1918 


36.19 


1919 


33.43 


1920 


32.45 


1921 


34.73 


All other colors, dyes, or stains, whether soluble or 

not in water, color acids, color bases, or color lakes— 

1917 


34.38 


19181 


34.16 


1919 


33.50 


1920 


33.43 


1921 


33.47 


Phenolic resin, synthetic— 

1917.. .. . 


88.08 


1918 




1919 


1,114 
2,479 
1,420 

12, 632 
14, 550 
12, 059 
21, 808 
28, 281 
124 

3,280 


2,860 
2,681 
2,366 

101,406 
108, 537 
77, 876 
67,640 
65,906 
50 

40,352 


913.70 
928.25 
780.80 

31,05.3.00 
33, 288. 60 
23, 965. 75 
21,382.40 
21,235.85 
12.00 

10,088.00 


31.95 


1920 


34.63 


1921 


33.00 


Photfisiraphic chemicals— 

1917 


30.62 


1918 


30.67 


1919 


30.77 


1920 


31.61 


1921 


32.22 


AcetaniUd (25 per cent), 1919 


25.00 


Acetphenetidin (25 per cent): 

1917 


25.00 


1918 




1919 










1920 










1921 










AcetylsalicyUc acid (25 per cent): 

1917 


1,474 


4,670 


1, 168. 00 


25.00 


1918 




1919 


26 


76 


19.00 


25.00 


1920 














Antipyrene (25 per cent): 

1917 . 


21, 842 
9,416 
13, 736 
14,737 


62,411 
106,643 
135,565 

53, 293 


15, 603. 00 
26,661.00 
33; 891. 00 
13, 323. 00 


25.00 


1918 .- 


25.00 




25. W 


1920 


25.00 


Aspirin 2 (25 per cent) 




Salol 3 (25per cent) 










Phenolphthalein (25 per cent): 

1917 










1918 


100 


1,200 


300.00 


25.00 


1919 




1920 


200 
5,055 

554 


726 
2,385 

6,544 


181.00 
596.25 

360. 00 


25.00 


1921 


25.00 


Saccharin (05 cents per pound): 

1917 


5.<0 


1918.. . . . 




1919 










1920 


40 
46 


39 
103 


26.00 
29.90 


66.67 


1921 


29.03 







1 Does not include 110 pounds, valued at $322, duty $81.68i, from Cuba. 

' Included under acetylsaUcylic acid. 

' Dutiable under the act of Oct. 3, 1913, rather than under the act of Sept. 8, 1916. 



CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 19'21. 



167 



Table I. — Imports of natural dyes and extracts of, entered for consumption, 1917 to 

1921— Continued. 



Calendar year. 


Annatto. 


Cochineal. 


Cudbear. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


1917 


Pounds. 
660, 102 
655, 250 
356,432 

1, 004, 129 
493,280 


$77,238 
62, 961 
19, 972 
40, 108 
17, 111 


Pounds. 
121, 879 
237,402 
116,014 
202, 808 
63, 331 


$48,345 
116,660 
52, 029 
81,979 
17, 052 


Pounds. 
55,897 
54,447 
33, 391 
50, 170 
22, 595 


$7 515 


1918 


9' 411 


1919 


4 150 


1920 


8 463 


1921 


3 241 







Calendar year . 


Dyewoods, diverse. 


Fustic wood. 


Indigo, natural. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


1917 


Tons. 

7,565 

15, 966 

922 

2,653 

1,804 


$94, 029 

407, 190 

23,286 

51, 904 

50,710 


Tons. 

10,442 

11,866 

696 

1,304 

2,926 


$289, 756 

280, 813 

15,091 

25,033 

47,543 


Pounds. 

2,261,122 

1,637,914 

234, 991 

36, 537 

77 121 


$4,230,510 

2,007,958 

285 925 


1918 


1919 


1920 


69 528 


1921 


154 538 









Calendar year. 


Logwood. 


Logwood (and other 
wood extracts). 


Madder, ground. 




Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


1917 


Tons. 
61,714 
33, 168 
29, 022 

72, &30 

26,740 


$1, 509, 878 
776, 735 
549, 885 

2,179,891 

636,932 


Pounds. 
736, 038 
277, 748 
539,252 

545,892 

253, 163 


$86,672 
45,895 
62,601 

50, 313 

18,668 


Pounds. 
2,193 


$253 


1918 


1919 


7,875 
/ 12, 835 
\ 1 2, 300 


1,545 
3,155 


1920 


1921 


1,340 








Calendar year. 


Orchil. 


Persian berries, extract. 


Safflower, saffron. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


1917 


Pounds. 


$50,005 
56, 284 
42,085 
58, 6S2 
83,507 


Pounds. 




Pougids. 


$105,516 
70 032 


1918 










1919 


372,606 
547, 384 
557, 457 


5,209 
11,357 
10,332 


$2,691 
3,631 
1,914 


23,663 
21,664 
29,985 


106' 951 
127,579 
63,509 


1920 


1921 




Calendar year. 


Turmeric. 


Gambler. 


All other extracts of 
vegetable origin. 




Quantity. Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


1917 


Pounds. 


$1,331 
11,278 
68,852 
86,141 
22,775 


Pounds. 
12, 050, 848 

8,755,270 

4,744,651 
10,095,325 

7, 022, 790 


$1, 138, 833 
949,971 
432, 499 
806,583 
269,912 


Pounds. 
150, 078 

2, 889, 865 
443, 749 
381, 537 
564, 212 


$30,757 

2.34, 375 

80,079 

75,613 

40, 212 


1918 




1919 


1,2.30,229 

1,215,057 

646, 182 


1920 


1921 





1 Extracts of madder, 1920. 



168 



CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANJC CHEMICALS, 1021. 



Table II. — Generalimports of coal-tar products, by countries, 1918-1921, calendar years. 

DEAD OR CREOSOTE OIL (FREE). 



Imported from— 


1918 


1919 


1920 


1921 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 

$2,568,235 

21,096 

2 .7, 624 

979, 444 


Quantity. 


Value. 


England 


Gallons. 




Gallons. 

8,934,045 

60, 756 

2,273,578 


$1,085,617 

10,462 

278, 138 


Gallons. 

12,514,150 

147,377 

1,619,903 
14,145,722 


Gallons. 

19,465,981 

819 

374, 845 

l.-^ .?Q7 7S7 


$3,114,867 

189 

64 713 


Scotland 

Canada .. 


1,125 

1,543,660 

462 


$862 

161,693 

314 


All other 


1 576 849 














Total 


1,545,247 


162,869 


11,268,379 


1,374,217 18,427,152 


3,796,399 


33, 239, 432 


4,756,618 



BENZOL. 





Pounds. 
1,315,696 


S33. 303 


Pounds. 

217. ses 


$5,617 


Pounds. 
486.619 


$10,868 


Pounds. 

1,562,951 

159, 134 


$39,020 
3,350 










1 I 






Total 


1,315,696 


33,303 


217,8 5 


5,617 


486,619 


10,868 { 1,722,085 


42,370 



CRESOL. 





Pounds. 
3,051,833 
1,676,354 


$256,917 
196,116 


Pounds. 

4,9.35,748 

1,516,610 

800 


$408, 407 

149,373 

1,028 


Pounds. 

6,037,223 

4,198,397 

16, 400 

66,050 


$509, 710 

382,637 

1,360 

7,674 


Pounds. 
1,708,992 

934, 842 
4,600 

705,448 


$139, 737 


Scotland 


86,380 
501 








27, 268 














Total 


4, 728, 187 


453, 033 


6,453,158 


558,808 10,318,070 


901,381 


3,353,882 


253,886 



NAPHTHALENE. 



United Kingdom 


Pounds. 
424, 147 


$13, 253 


Pounds. 
1,342,091 


$47,076 


Pounds. 

10,155,579 

413,274 

2,959,976 

381, 740 

98, 695 

. 494,644 

•168,923 

339,340 


$357,954 
16,972 
78,704 
34, 135 

7,653 
17,077 

3,528 
14, 198 


Pounds. 
2,644,997 

96,928 
1,708,868 

42,683 
2,320 


$83,353 
5,412 




1,328,496 


44, 540 


1,836,478 


43,795 


44,541 


Germany 


2,383 








612 


42 


252 


Italy 














60,0T5 


1,352 




























Total 


1,752,643 


57,793 


3,239,256 


92,265 


15,012,171 


530,221 


4,495,796 


135,941 



TAR AND PITCH OF COAL. 



England 


Barrels. 
51 


$686 


Barrels. 

600 

100 

25,003 


$2,725 

256 

44,093 


Barrels. 

1,127 

580 

18,824 
150 


$4,166 

3, 706 

41,940 

350 


Barrels. 

7 


$82 


Canada 


26,499 


49,069 


21,948 
13 


47,913 


All other 


53 














Total 


26,550 


49, 755 


25,703 


47,074 


20,681 


50, 162 


21,968 


48,048 



TOLUOL. 



Canada. 



Pounds. 



Pounds. 
1, 195, 706 



$30,768 



Pounds. 



Pounds. 



ALL OTHER CRUDES. 



1 All from Netherlands, except 6 gallons from Japan. 







$823 

57,364 

825 

104,765 




$54 

42,875 

870 

1,891 




$10, 903 

178, 866 

1,581 

876 

9, 179 

2,886 




$1,507 












19,015 
























840 












352 


All other 














4 


















Total 




163,777 




45,690 




204,381 




21,718 















CEIS^SUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC OEGANIC CHEMICALS, 1&21. 



169 



Table II. — General imports of coal-tar products, by countries, 1918-1921, calendar 

years — Continued. 



CARBOLIC ACID. 





1918 


1919 


Imported from— 


Carbolic acid, free. 


Carbolic acid, duti- 
able (phenol). 


Carbolic acid, free. 


Carbolic acid, duti- 
able (phenol). 




Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 




Pounds. 
155, 236 


$17, 260 


Pounds. 
208, 037 
75,300 


$54,884 
7,613 


Pounds. 
1,619,823 


$158, 820 


Pounds. 
2,061 


$264 












345,466 


28,968 




















Total 


155,236 


17,260 


283,337 


62,497 


1,965,289 


187, 788 


2,061 


2M. 





1920 


1921 


Imported from— 


Carbolic acid, free. 


Carbolic acid, duti- 
able (phenol). 


Carbolic acid, free. 


CarboUc acid, duti- 
able (phenol). 




Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 




Pounds. 

178, 652 

14,040 


$18,258 
1,590 


Pounds. 
1,040 


$244 


Pounds. 
205, 113 


$21,841 


Pounds. 
250 


$142 


Scotland 










9,072 


1,008 




















Total 


192,692 


19,848 


1,040 


244 


214, 185 


22, 849 


250 


142 







ALL OTHER ACIDS. 



Imported from- 



Quantity, 



Value. 



Quantity. 



Value. 



Quantity. 



Value. 



1921 



Quantity. 



Value 



England. . 

Japan 

France 

G ermany. 



Total. 



541—22- 



Pounds. 

125 

5 



,114 
2 



Pounds. 
63 



$374 



Pounds. 
250 



$1,087 



Pounds. 



11,199 
309 



8,182 
500 



11,263 



3,012 



130 1,116 63 374 11,758 9,769 11,263 3,012 







ANILINE OIL. 








Imported from— 


1918 


1919 


1920 


1921 


France 










Pounds. 
220 


$72 





















-12 



170 CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921. 

Table II.— General imports of coal-tar products, by countries, 1918-1921, calendar 

years — Continued . 

ANILINE SALTS. 
(Free under act of 1909; dutiable under act of Oct. 3, 1913, and under the act of Sept. 8, 1916.) 



Imported from— 


1918 


1919 


1920 


1921 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


1. 
Value. Quantity. 


Value. 


England 


Founds. 
21, 273 


$3,250 


Founds. 




Founds. 




Pounds. 

18,301 

15 


$12,029 
an 


Germany 






4 


$1 






'^ 








Total 


21, 273 


3,250 






4 


1 


18,316 


12 109 











ALL OTHER INTERMEDIATES. 



Belgium . . 

France 

Germany. 



Imported from— 



Italy. 

England 

Straits Settlements. 
Japan . 



1918 



4,348 



Canada 

All other.... 

Total. 



4,363 



1919 



$26,611 



82 
20, 788 



96, 203 



$41,291 
140, 095 
191,732 
17,491 
302, 235 
41,237 
68,323 



29,264 



1921 



$18,774 

62,028 

80,306 

740 

98, 502 



15 
40, 587 
40,650 



341,602 



INDIGO. 
(Free under act of October 3, 1913; dutiable under act of September 8, 1916.) 





1918 


1919 


Imported from— 


Indigo, natural 
(dutiable). 


Indigo, synthetic 
(dutiable). 


Indigo, natural 
(dutiable). 


Indigo, synthetic 
(dutiable). 




Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 




Founds. 

25,762 

264,975 

1, 138, 176 

234,452 

83, 709 


$38, 719 
463,510 
1,284,434 
299, 5.54 
108, 150 


Founds. 

770,212 

6,817 


$410, 421 


Founds. 
15. 796 


$29,857 
16,647 
99,901 
67,262 
46,448 


Founds. 

726, 440 
1,468 


$388,067 
1,970 




5, 587 10. 584 






99, 597 










60,940 
40,557 


8,400 
87,570 


5,729 


All other 






36,607 










Total 


1,747,074 


2,194,367 


777,029 


416,008 


227,474 


260,115 


823, 878 


432, 373 









1920 


1921 


Imported from— 


Indigo, natural 
(dutiable). 


Indigo, synthetic 
(dutiable). 


Indigo, natural 
(dutiable). 


Indigo, synthetic 
(dutiable). 




Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Switzerland 


Founds. 
57,411 
27,269 
10, 214 
.50,066 
■1,316 
2,850 


$150,957 

51, 556 

20,296 

70,008 

5,171 

7,392 


Founds. 

285, 153 

1,229 


$252,708 
361 


Founds. 

27,366 

9,245 

13, 158 


$.55, 142 
9,857 
11,112 


Founds. 

59, 873 

6,895 


$101,073 


England 


5,045 








400, 589 
25,029 


172,692 
18, 220 


331,320 
2,829 


87, 407 


(iermany 


882 


2,382 


2,288 






Italy 


54, 422 


37,311 






,532 
6,813 


128 


All other 


48 


48 


1,838 


7,202 


4,962 










Total 


1.52,204 


305,428 


766,422 


481,292 


52,489 


85,095 


408, 262 


200,903 







CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921. 



171 



Table II.— General imports of coal-tar products, by countries, 1918-1921, calendar 

years — Continued. 

ALIZARIN AND ALIZARIN DYES. 

(Free under act of Oct. 3, 1913; dutiable under act of Sept. 8, 1916.) 



Importel from— 


1918 


1919 


1920 


1921 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Germany 


Pounds. 




Pounds. 




Pounds. 

141,213 

222, 417 

25, 196 

297 


$197, 562 
81,393 

18, 898 
1,806 


Pounds. 

285,007 

110 

44,026 

2 


$393, 374 


Switzerland . . . 


440 

4,310 

1 

15, 141 


$572 

3, 739 

2 

58,948 


220 

23, 417 

215 


$2,517 

21, 084 

414 


374 


United Kingdom 


54,869 
5 


Japan 

Belgium 








46,283 

5,908 

444 


32, 857 

10,314 

689 


13, 280 
12, 483 
20, 204 


9,964 












21,582 


All other 


500 


7,629 


23 


265 


29, 870 






Total 


20, 392 


70, 890 


23,875 


24, 280 


441, 756 


343,519 


375, 112 


510, 038 







COAL-TAR COLORS OR DYES (DUTIABLE). 



Imported from— 


1918, 
Value. 


1919 


1920 


1921 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


UplcrillTn . , 




Pounds. 
36, 968 
11,746 
143,031 
1, 284, 199 
609, 703 
165, 750 


$63, 119 

20,853 

83,563 

2, 176, 463 

664, 548 

160, 730 


Pounds. 

190, 414 

70,821 

1,155,501 

1,372,490 

345, 889 

351,758 


$153,020 

100, 884 

1,565,300 

2,693,653 

394,668 

351,277 


Pounds. 
31,813 
62, 468 
1,050,028 
1,504,970 
287,377 
169, 699 


$56,481 


P'rance 


$76, 506 


90,328 


(Jermany 


1,718,776 


Switzerland 

iinsjland 


1, 762, 688 

561, 699 

68, 546 


2, 005, 265 
358, 463 


All other 


216,035 






Total 


2, 469, 439 


2,215,397 


3, 169, 276 


3,486,873 


5, 258, 802 


3,106,355 


4, 445, 348 



ALL OTHER COAL-TAR PRODUCTS. 



Imported from— 


1918 1 


1919 


1920 


1921 


France 


$11,900 

50 

3,045 

47,548 

32 








Netherlands 
















England . 


























Total 


62,575 

















1 Jan. l-June 30, 1918. 



MEDICINAL PREPARATIONS. 



Imported from — 


1918 2 


1919 


1920 


1921 


France 


$32, 129 


$58,749 


$21,724 

59, 133 

8 

21, 203 

523 

18,571 

40,339 

87 


$45, 378 


Germany 


124, 862 


Ilaly .. . 




1,329 

12,257 

94 

1,761 

20,302 

137 

77, 162 


60 






11,680 


Spain 




268 


Switzerland 

England 

Scotland 


154 
7,499 


39, 151 
59,681 


Canada 


53,324 
114 


1 


Peru 








69 
351 


7 

162 

3,816 




Japan 


6,142 
10 


299 


All other . . . 


10,229 








Total 


99,372 


172,211 


165, 573 


281, 609 







" July 1-Dec. 31, 1918. 



172 CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921. 



Table II. — General imports of coal-tar products, by countries, 1918-1921, calendar 

years — Continued . 



ALL OTHER FINISHED PRODUCTS. 



Imported from — 


19181 


1919 


1920 


1921 


France 


$4,162 


$25,955 


■$37,192 
21,409 
6,715 
10,307 


$39 314 


Germany 


6 518 


Switzerland 

England 

Canada 


2,901 

54, 502 

818 


1,447 
57, 1G6 


, 15,011 

2,657 


AU other 




29 


302 










Total 


62,381 


84, 568 


75,049 


C3,802 



\ 



1 July 1-Dee. 31, 1918. 

Table III. — Domestic exports of coal tar and of dyes and dyestuffs, 1918-1921, calendar 

years. 

COAL TAR. 



Exported to— 


1918 


1919 


1920 


1921 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. Value. 


Europe. . . 


Barrels. 

2,0G9 

54, 149 

808 

198 

154 

1, 176 


$12,297 
139,453 
6,288 
1,505 
1,739 
7 4.q.'^ 


Barrels. 
230 

71,749 

2,759 

475 

45 

1,334 


$900 

158,205 

20, 186 

3,174 

301 

15,7.57 


Barrels. 

243 

74,374 

3,725 

10 

81 

17 


$1,441 

208,561 

23,656 

65 

• 995 

49 


Barrels. 

212 

91,716 

457 

17 


$1,394 


North America 

South America 

Asia 


185,063 
3, 125 
1,857 


Oceania 




Africa 


4 43 








Total 


58,554 1 168,720 


76, 592 


198, .503 


88,360 


234,767 


92,408 ; $191,482 



COAL-TAR DISTILLATES, n. e. s. 
Benzol. 



France 


Pounds. 
32,599,682 


$1,854,216 


Pounds. 
12,319,900 


$407,022 


Pounds. 

2,528,494 

229,079 

57, 500 


$138,850 
10,760 
4.970 


Pou7ids. 
24,344,624 


.SI. 095. 063 


Chile 




England 






113,300 


10,197 


48,073,896 i 1.797.780 


Germany 






669,494 1 36! 902 




' 


Canada. 


136,-571 


7,389 


335,799 


21,313 


389,783 
3,150,240 

353,522 

67, 200 

4,981,878 

767,078 


23,904 
238,617 

23,907 

6,720 

357, 956 

79,354 


44,725 


287 


Belgium 




Argentina 


75,442 
136,480 
299, (■•59 

40,743 


7,329 

8,680 

22,704 

4,042 


973,978 
280,442 


00,563 
18,590 


549, 896 


37.571 


Japan 


900 1 81 


Italy 


348,880 j 22,030 


Another 


215,000 


16,847 


667,479 1 54,355 






Total 


33,294,577 


1,904,360 


14,238,419 


535,132 13,174,288 


927,940 l72,a30,400 3,007,086 

1 



ALL OTHER COAL-TAR DISTILLATES. 



Exported to— 


1918 


1919 


1920 


1921 


Value. 


Value. 


Value. 


Value. 


France 


$2,188,439 


$33,387 


$445,520 

474,793 

290,449 

1,632,599 

314, 641 

615,284 

138,063 

193,089 

1,158,196 

1,032,599 

69, 018 


$10,347 


Belgium 




Italy 


345, 407 

927, 295 
1,477,984 
98, 79S 
78, 160 
72, lt:2 

475,377 
46,831 

159,377 


14,674 

127,583 

105,335 

6.4,917 

61,441 

101,. 305 

250,061 

8,144 

336,903 




England 


28,498 


Canada 


158,917 


Spain 


28,334 


Mexico 


14,090 


Brazil. . 


32,550 


Japan 


79, 746 


Switzerland 


44,833 


AU other 


116,193 






Total 


5, 867, 830 


1,103,750 


6,962,249 


509,508 







• CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921. 173 

Table III. — Domestic exports of coal tar and of dyes and dyestuffs, 1918-1921, calendar 

years — Continued. 

DYES AND DYESTUFFS (VALUE). 



Exported to — 



T'ortugal 

W.'lgiura 

ranee 

^■:'inany 

'aiy 

L'lherlands 

Uussia 

Switzerland 

Hnited Kingdom. 

V.nada 

'•xico 

•ntral America.. 

■ I'St Indies 

S;iLith America... 

Asia 

Oceania 

A frica 

1 >enmark 

Spain 

Sweden 

Norway 

Allotlier 



Total. 



Calendar year^. 



Aniline 

dyes. 



$176, 769 
""6," 345' 
'274,963' 



22, 500 

380, 181 

836, 445 

289,327 

5,617 

23, 447 

1, 719, 408 

4, 248, 367 

100, 490 

3, 993 



Logwood 
extracts. 



$10, 541 
'263,'6i6 

"70'237' 



7,728 

345, 458 

82, 292 

5, 666 

400 

742 

128, 645 

504, 542 

20, 194 

715 



518, 895 



104, 748 



22, 924 



985 
4,877 



8,629,611 



1,551,380 



All other. 



$131,280 



496, 875 



234,238 



12, 825 

5,000 

524, 576 

724,522 

181,029 

5,498 

35, 473 

931, 600 

2, 720, 399 

133, 493 

15, 534 

1,055 

472, 222 



4,529 
6,761 



6, 636, 099 



Aniline 
dyes. 



Logwood 
extracts. 



$70, 296 

90 

127, 059 

150 

269, 130 

26, 284 

8,570 

193 

413, 700 

1, 015, 334 

467, 808 

5,941 

34, 307 

1, 651, 872 

5, 565, 053 

177, 964 

45, 566 

5, 334 

535, 383 

22, 694 

13,663 

267, 682 



$2, 319 
34, 787 
596, 042 
290 
58,716 
21,735 



10, 724, 071 



22, 824 

304, 686 

119,871 

17, 438 

892 

137 

66, 099 

48, 063 

14,041 

1, 508 

9,671 

18,349 

8,584 

1,300 

8,584 



1,355,936 



AU other. 



$36, 063 

19, 193 

229, 689 



180, 359 
9,104 



423, 719 

1, 007, 892 

230, 359 

14,544 

40, 900 

585, 127 

1, 921, 202 

143, 223 

8,281 

2, 438 

84, 544 

15,708 

7, 303 

44, 780 



5, 004, 428 



Exported to — 



Aniline 
dyes. 



Logwood 
extracts. 



All other. 



Aniline 
dyes. 



Logwood 
extracts. 



AU other. 



Portu-iil 

r.(.'li,'ium 

I''rance 

< : ormany 

llaly 

Netherlands 

iuissia (European) 

Swit;6erland 

United Kingdom.. 

Canada 

Mexico 

Central America... 

'.Vest Indies 

South America 

Asia 

Oceania 

Africa , 

I'enmark 

S])ain , 

s weden 

Norway , 

All other , 

Total 



507: 
807; 

582 
39; 

132, 

,318, 

,547, 

,091, 

13, 

52, 

,282, 

, 783, 

277, 

65, 

26, 

682, 

67, 

4, 

100, 



752 
371 
241 
454 
236 
682 
100 
359 
498 
109 
603 
159 
745 
210 
303 
660 
077 
463 
998 
921 
568 
971 



$5,970 

118, 339 

607,017 

1,456 

404, 367 

73, 472 



$20, 688 
41, 523 

391, 050 
7,745 

275, 149 
56, 057 



$1, 432 
100, 821 
67, 535 
653 
45, 058 
1,938 



$6, 843 

66, 762 

13, 885 

8,723 

2,535 



60, 157 

729, 026 

183, 081 

11,092 

1,852 

18, 144 

45, 586 

195, 493 

41, 283 

1,248 

2,903 

77, 183 

1,250 

1,110 

25,051 



92, 017 
1, 079, 871 

982,. 665 

210,145 
13, 730 
97, 922 

497, 029 
3, 208, 107 

134, 196 

28, 251 

2,794 

149, 365 
29, 802 
15,998 
38,997 



20, 374 

165,711 

584, 664 

149, 009 

7,982 

1, 585 

432, 881 

3,131,071 

207, 473 

61, 699 

1, 305 

36, 844 

2,786 

1,800 

44, 369 



21, 096 

71,331 

3, 560 

975 

91 

16, 466 

347,610 

13, 190 

486 



535 



15, 



22, 450, 480 



2,605,060 



7,373,111 5,067,000 589,756 



8,334 

6, 352 

70 

6, 590 



19 

58,630 

423, 914 

132, 075 

5,680 

2,057 

89, 156 

333, 703 

51,743 

13, 179 

3,849 

12, 040 

8,976 

1,304 

45, 433 



1, 203, 15o 



174 



CENSUS OF DYES AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1921, 



Table 1Y .—Imports and exports of inks arid ink powders, 1918-1921, calendar years. 
IMPORTS FOR CONSUMPTION. 



Calendar year. 


Printer's ink. 


Writing and copying ink. 


AU other, including ink 
powders. 


Rate of 
duty. 


Value. 


Duty 
collected. 


Rate of 
duty. 


Value. 


Duty 
collected. 


Rate of 
duty. 


Value. 


Duty 
collected. 


1918 


Per cent. 
15 
15 
15 
15 


$4,154 

199 

15,228 

5,554 


$623 

30 

2,284 

833 


Per cent. 
15 
15 
15 
15 


$13,363 
15, 116 
15, 505 
4,625 


$2,004 

2,267 

2,326 

694 


Per cent. 
15 
15 
15 
15 


$6,343 
8,143 
10,657 
10,813 


$951 


1919 


1,221 


1920 


1,599 


1921 


1 622 







DOMESTIC EXPORTS. 



Exported to— 



Calendar years. 



1918 



Printer's 
ink. 



AU other 
inks. 



1919 



Printer's 
ink. 



All other 
inks. 



1920 



Printer's 
ink. 



AU other 
inks. 



1921 



Printer's 
ink. 



AU other 

inks. 



Europe 

North America 
South America 

Asia , 

Oceania , 

Africa 

Total 



$18,394 
256, 507 
353, 023 
224, 345 
116, 424 
42, 189 



$25,371 

206, 360 

100, 8.33 

67, 736 

42,452 

5,429 



$210, 482 
320,008 
603, 758 
435,664 
113,288 
29,726 



$68, 382 
297,959 
210,212 
155,420 
109,962 
14,282 



$224, 129 
366,784 
535,265 
579,843 
171,640 
15,091 



$96,699 
328, 889 
208,272 
187,988 
105,984 
8,887 



$101,914 
321, 389 
140,612 
291,719 
108, 453 
6,743 



$71,818 
200,361 
49, 336 
75,867 
45,017 
6,700 



1,040,882 



448, 181 



1,712,926 



856,217 11,892,752 



936, 719 



970,830 



449,099 



o 






UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 
WASHINGTON 



TariflF Information Series — No. 27 



The Emergency Tariff Act 

and 

Long- Staple Cotton 




WASHINGTON . 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

1922 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 

WASHINGTON 



Tariff Information Series — No. 27 



The Emergency Tariff Act 

"and 

Long- Staple Cotton 




WASHINGTON 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

1922 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 

OflBce: Old Land Office, Seventh and E Streets NW., Washington, D. C. 

COMMISSIONERS. 

Thomas 0. Marvin, Chairman. 
William S. Culbertson, Vice Chairniait. 
David J. Lewis. 
Edward P. Costigan. 
Thomas Walker Pace. 
William Burgess. 

John F. livAHVUR, StcreUiiy. 



ADDITIONAL COPIES 

OF THIS PUBLICATION MAY BE PKOCUEED FS ) I 

THE SUPEEINTENDENT OFPUBLIC DOCUUE:U'i 

GOVERNMENT FEINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON, D. C. 

AT 

CENTS PER COPV. 



CONTENTS. 



Pase. 

Summary v 

Duty on raw cotton 1 

Origin of cotton tariff duty of 1921 I 

The American cotton crop 2 

Production of American-Egyptian cotton 3 

The Egyptian cotton crop 5 

Relative grades of Pima and Sakellarides 8 

Imports of raw cotton 9 

American consumption of cotton of If inches and over 12 

American consumption of Egyptian and American-Egyptian cotton 12 

Mill consumption, by geographic divisions 14 

Mill consumption, by industries 15 

Stocks on hand of Egyptian and American-Egyptian cotton 17 

The export of American-Egyptian cotton 18 

Effect of tariff on cotton of If inches and over 19 

Appendix: 

Foreign tariff duties on raw cotton, ginned 26 

1 World supply of and demand for extra long staple cottons 27 

Prices of Egyptian cotton as fixed by Cotton Control Commission 28 

Prices of Egyptian cotton at Alexandria 29 

Prices of Pima cotton at Boston 30 

Trend of extra staple prices since 1914 30 

Net imports of cotton, 1891-1921 33 

Production, consumption, exports, and imports of cotton, 1790-1920 33 

III 



FOREWORD. 



This report presents a general view of the economic situation in 
the long staple cotton industry with special reference to the effect 
of the emergency tariff act and to competition from foreign cottons. 
American-Egyptian cotton, which constitutes the bulk of the do- 
mestic growth naving a staple of If inches and over, has been treated 
in detail. A comparison of this cotton with the imported Egyptian 
has been made, and the consumption of the two kinds in the United 
States has been analyzed to show their competitive position and 
relative importance. 



In the preparation of this report the Tariff Commission had the 
services of W. A. Graham Clark, special expert, and Evelina P. 
Kean, of the textile division of the Commission's staff, and of 
others. 



IV 



SUMMARY. 



The effect of the emergency tariff duty of 7 cents a pound on cotton 
having a staple of If inches and over may be summarized as follows: 

(1) There has been a decrease in the ratio of imports of Sakellarides 
cotton to total imports of Egyptian cotton, although the monthly 
imports of all cotton have steadily increased since the enactment 
of the emergency act. Prior to June, 1920, imports of Sakellarides 
were about 50 per cent of the total Egyptian imports, but since that 
time Sakellarides has averaged less than 20 per cent per month of 
the total imports. 

(2) As shown by price tables herein, the emergency tariff has not 
resulted in actually increasing the price of American-Egyptian Pima 
cotton, although for reasons given below, it may have stabilized the 
price somewhat. On the other hand, the margin in Boston of 
Sakellarides cotton over Pima, exclusive of the duty, has steadily 
increased since June, 1921, largely because of the increased world 
demand for Sakellarides. 

(3) There has been an increase in the relatively small consumption 
of Pima cotton in recent months on account of the growing premium 
of Sakellarides over Pima. This premium, however, is caused 
partly by the increased world price of Sakellarides and partly by the 
additional 7 cents duty in the American market over the ruling price 
in Liverpool. 



THE EMERGENCY TARIFF ACT AND LONG-STAPLE COTTON. 



DUTY ON RAW COTTON. 

In the first United States tariff act, that of 1789, raw cotton was 
specifically exempted from duty. In the act of 1790 there was 
levied a duty of 3 cents per pound; this rate was also stated in the 
acts of 1816 and 1842. In the act of 1862 raw cotton was made 
dutiable at one-half cent a pound; in the act of 1864, at 2 cents a 
pound; in the act of 1865, at 5 cents a pound; and in the act of 1866, 
at 3 cents a pound. Raw cotton was specifically exempted from duty 
in the acts of 1883, 1890, 1894, 1897, 1909, and 1913. 

The emergency tariff act of May 27, 1921, imposed a duty of 7 
cents a pound on cotton having a staple of If inches or more in 
length. Cotton less than If inches in length remains on the free list. 

In the appendix is given a table, prepared by the Bureau of 
Foreign and Domestic Commerce, under date of August 15, 1921, 
which shows the status of raw cotton in the tariff laws of the various 
countries of the world. 

ORIGIN OF COTTON TARIFF DUTY OF 1921. 

Imports of cotton in the crop year ended July 31, 1920, were 
abnormally large but were preceded by two years of unusually small 
imports. These excessive imports, particularly of Egyptian cotton, 
were bought in the fall of 1919 on a steadily rising market occasioned 
by a short American crop and a strong demand, and were due to 
the great boom being experienced by cotton mills, particularly tire 
fabric mills. These imports arrived mainly in the early part of 1920. 
Shortly thereafter there was a sharp reaction, resulting from the in- 
ability of the general public to pay the high prices demanded for 
goods made from cotton bought at peak values. The mills using 
imported cotton were left with large stocks of high-priced cotton 
which they could not manufacture at a profit and several failed, 
including one very large tire fabric company. The decline in prices 
during the summer and fall of 1920 was sharp and continuous. 

In the meantime the cotton growers of the Southwest, planting at 
the time of high prices in the spring of 1920, greatly increased their 
acreage and that fall picked 92,561 bales of cotton as compared with 
40,437 bales the previous year. When this cotton was put on the 
market there was practically no demand, inasmuch as the mills had 
large surplus stocks of Egyptian cotton and in most cases were 
operating short time or else were shut down. Being unable to market 
their crop, from which they had anticipated large profits, at a price 
that would repay them the cost of production, the growers of cotton 
in the Southwest made request for a duty on competitive cotton 



2 EMERGENCY TARIFF ACT AND LONG-STAPLE COTTON. 

imported from abroad, and this was granted by the insertion of a 
duty in the emergency tariff act of May 27, 1921. This duty was 
placed on cotton having a staple of If inches or more. Cotton 
shorter than 1| inches was left on the free list, inasmuch as the 
growers of such cotton have no competition from abroad and depend 
on foreign markets for the sale of a large portion of their production. 



THE AMERICAN COTTON CROP. 

The United States is the largest producer, exporter, and manu- 
facturer of raw cotton. In normal years the American production 
amounts to more than 60 per cent of the world's requirements. The 
world production of commercial cotton — ^that is, cotton destined to 
enter commercial channels for factory use — amounted, in the 1920-21 
season, to about 18,810,000 bales of equivalent 500 pounds, and of 
this quantity the United States produced 12,859,000 bales, or 68.4 
per cent. The mill consumption of the world in the 1920-21 season 
amounted to about 16,170,000 bales of equivalent 500 pounds, and 
of this quantity the United States manufactured 4,690,000 bales, or 
28.6 per cent.^ 

The production of lint cotton (not including linters) in the United 
States in the 12 months ended July 31, 1921, amounted to 13,270,970 
running bales; its distribution during the same period was as follows : ^ 

Table 1. — Production and distribution of American lint cotton during year ended July 

31, 1921. 



Running 
bales. 



Per cent. 



Domestic miU consumption 

Destroyed by fire, etc 

Exported 

Surplus 

Production 



4, 676, 891 
60, 000 

5, 744, 698 
2, 789, 381 



35.24 

.45 

43.29 

21.02 



13, 270, 970 



100. 00 



The total domestic mill consumption, including foreign cotton, 
was made up as follows : 



Table 2. — Total domestic mill 


consumption in 


year ended July 31, 1921 






Running 
bales. a 


Per cent. 


United States cotton: 

Upland 


4,641,453 
16, 771 
18,667 


94.86 


American-Egyptian 


.34 


Sea island 


.38 










Total domestic cotton 


4,676,891 


95.59 










Foreign cotton: 

Egyptian 


159, 196 
12, 752 
32, 071 
11, 762 


3.25 


Peruvian 


.26 


Chinese 


.66 


other 


.24 










Total foreign cotton 


215, 781 


4.41 










Total consumption, all kinds 


4,892,672 


100.00 







» Quantities in both tables are given in running bales, except that round bales are counted as half bales 
and foreign cotton in equivalent oOO-pound bales. 



' "Cotton production and distribution, season of 1920-21," Bu. of the Census, Bulletin 147, pp. 82, 
2 Ibid., p. 7. Not including carry-over from previous year. 



EMERGENCY TARIFF ACT ANI^ LONG-STAPLE COTTON. 3 

Texas has long been the main cotton-producing State. In the 
1920-21 season it was followed by South Carolina, Georgia, Oklahoma, 
Arkansas, North Carolina, Mississippi, Alabama, Louisiana, and 
Tennessee in the order named. Smaller producers were Arizona, 
Missouri, California, and Virginia. 

Cotton under 1| inches is classed commercially as short staple, 

whereas cotton having a staple of 1| inches or more is classed as 

long staple. The Bureau of Crop Estimates of the United States 

Department of Agriculture estimated the domestic production in 

he 1920-21 season, according to length of cotton lint, as follows: 



Bales of 
equivalent 
500 pounds. 



Per cent. 



Short-staple uplands, under 1| inches. 

Long-staple cotton, IJ to 1} inches 

Long-staple cotton, over U inches. . . . . 

Total 



12,049,000 
1,112,000 
1 205, 000 



90.2 
8.-3 
1.5 



1.3, 3^6, 000 



1 The amount Included having a staple oi If inches or over is not known, but probably did not exceed 
100,000 bales. 

In addition to the ordinary short-staple upland cotton, which in 
1920-21 constituted 90.2 per cent of the domestic crop, the United 
States produces long-staple uplands, American-Egyptian, and sea- 
island cotton. The long-staple uplands are 1| to If inches in length 
of staple (a trifle of "extra" or "fancy" staple attaining lengths up 
to If inches) ; they are of the same species as the short-staple uplands, 
although it is possible that some of the longest have been slightly 
crossed with sea island. The cultivation of these long-staple uplands 
is mainly confined to the Mississippi delta and the lowlands of 
Louisiana. 

The production of sea island in 1916 amounted to 93,000 bales, 
but the spread of the boll weevil has reduced the crop to negligible 
proportions, only 1,440 bales of equivalent 500 pounds having been 
grown in 1920. 

The domestic cotton that is most similar to the imported Egyptian 
and which comes in most direct competition therewith is the 
American-Egyptian cotton grown in the Southwest. 

PRODUCTION OF AMERICAN-EGYPTIAN COTTON. 

The production in the United States of acclimated Egyptian cotton 
is a comparatively recent development. Several varieties of Egyp- 
tian cotton were imported into the LTnited States in 1901 and used 
as a basis of plant breeding work. In 1908 a "sport" in the Mitafifi 
I was noted and propagated. The name "Yuma" was given to this 
variety. In the spring of 1912 the United States Department of 
j Agriculture distributed selected Yuma seed to a number of farmers 
i in the irrigated sections of the Southwest, including the Salt Riv^r 
I Valley in Arizona and the Imperial Valley in California. Yuma was 
I grown in a small way until 1917, when it was displaced by Pima, a 
variety evolved from a single Yuma plant with improved and more 
! desirable characteristics. The plant was selected in 1911 and care- 
fully tested during the next four years. Its superiority was eo clearly 

110044—22 2 



4 EMERGENCY TARIFF ACT AND LONG-STAPLE COTTON. 

established that in the spring of 1917 a supply of Pima seed sufficient 
to plant 275 acres was furnished a group of farmers near Tempe, 
Ariz., and from this acreage a supply of pure seed was produced with 
which to plant the entire cotton acreage of the Salt River Valley in 
1917. This one variety has been grown in that valley exclusively 
since that time. The purity of the variety has been maintained by 
separate ginning and careful field inspection. 

The production of American-Egyptian cotton, from its beginning 
on a commercial scale, is given in the following table: 





Table 3.- 


-Production of . 


A.merican- Egyptian cotton. 




Crop years ended July 31— 


Equiva- 
lent .500- 
pound 
bales. 


Crop years ended July 31— 


Equiva- 
lent 500- 
pound 
bales. 


1912 


375 
2, 135 
6,187 
1,095 
3, .331 


1917 


15, 906 


1913 


1918 


1 36, 187 


1914 


1919 


I 40, 437 


1915 


1920 


1 92, 501 


1916 


1921 


1 37, 094 









I Running bales of approximately .500 pounds. 

The production of Americati-Egyptian cotton is confined almost en- 
tirely to the one county of Maricopa, in the Salt River Valley, Ariz., 
where the soil and climatic conditions closely approximate those of 
Egypt and where the necessary moisture must be supplied by irriga- 
tion. Pima is the only cotton grown in the Salt River Valley. It is 
grown only to a slight extent elsewhere; possibly 500 bales are pro- 
duced annually in the Imperial Valley in California. Most of the 
cotton grown in Arizona outside of Maricopa County, and in the Im- 
perial Valley (which extends across the border from California to 
California Baja, Mexico), consists of Durango or of upland varieties 
which rarely exceed \\ inches in length of staple. 

American-Egyptian or "Pima" cotton requires a growing season 
of 275 to 300 days between frosts, whereas upland cotton can be 
grown safely in 225 days. Upland cotton up to 1 ^^g inches can be 
ginned on saw gins, whereas the Pima, being longer, must be ginned 
on the slower roller gins. The lint of both types is marketed in the 
same kind of bales, and the seed of both types is manufactured in the 
same way. The production costs are approximately the same for the 
two types, but the harvesting costs are nearly twice as much for Pima 
as for upland, because a cotton picker will gather from 125 to 175 
pounds per day of upland seed cotton as compared with 60 to 100 
pounds per day of Pima cotton. On the other hand, the Pima cotton 
brings a much higher price on the market, usually about double that 
of the upland. 

Arizona has not been affected })y the boll weevil which has ravaged 
such a large part of the cotton belt, nor has the pink boUworm made 
its appearance, although it has been found in Louisiana and Texas. 
Immunity from these pests is due largely to the measures used by 
the State horticultural commission in requiring a rigid inspection of 
all cotton seed entering the State. 

Accurate data as to the cost of production of Pima cotton are not 
available. Mr. Dwight B. Heard, president of the Arizona Pima- 



i 



EMERGENCY TARIFF ACT AND LONG-STAPLE COTTON. 



cotton Growers' Association, in his testimony before the Senate 
Finance Committee in December, 1921, stated: 

My impression is that at this price of 35 cents we can lay it down in New England 
to-day and make a fair return to the farmer on his land, and that is about as low as we 
could do it. We may get it down to 30 cents.* 

The freight rate in 1922 on cotton from Arizona to Boston is 
quoted as follows: 

Effective 

Julv 1 
(per 100 
pounds). 

Cotton in bales, compressed to density of 22.*. pounds per cubic foot (minimum carload 
weight, 37, 500 pounds) '. $1. 69>- $1. 88i 

Cotton in bales, to be compressed in transit to 22i pounds per cubic foot (minimum 
carload weight, 37,.500 pounds) 1. 87i 2. 

Cotton in uncompressed bales (minimum carload weight, 20,000 pounds) 2. 20 2. 44 




Disregarding the rate on uncompressefd bales, it will be seen that the 
freight rate from Arizona to Boston is about If cents a pound until 
July, 1922, and in July will be advanced to about 2 cents per pound. 

This compares with a transit cost (freight, marine insurance, and 
fumigation) on Egyptian cotton to the same point of about 1 \ cents a 
pound, giving Egyptian cotton a differential of about one-half of a 
cent a pound. 

THE EGYPriAN COTTON CROP. 

Cotton is the main crop grown in Egypt. Consul Maynard estimates 
that cotton and its by-products are responsible for 90 per cent of the 
economic life of the country. Cotton constitutes the only article of 
importance that Egypt has to offer in international trade. It repre- 
sents over 80 per cent of the exports of Egypt, to which must be 
added cotton seed, and cottonseed cake and oil. The principal im- 
ports are cotton goods,'' mainly manufactured in England from 
American cotton, but the power to buy them depends upon the price 
realized from the sale of Egyptian cotton. 

Cotton gi'owing in E^ypt is a development of the past 100 years, 
dating from 1820. Inaugurated with imported sea-island and 
Brazilian seed, the result of crossbreeding and of special conditions 
of soil and climate has been the establishment oi a distinctively 
Egyptian type of cotton, of which, however, there are many varieties. 
The predominant type changes from time to time. A new variety is 
developed from a ''sport" or special crossbreeding and may become 
of such importance as to overshadow all others. Cross-pollenization 
in the fields with other varieties or with "Hindi" (an inferior cotton 

* The Daily News Record, in its issue of Jan. 19, 1922, printed a special from Phoenix, Ariz., in regard to 
cotton conditions in the .Salt River Valley. The foUowiug statements are ol interest: 

" While the valley has been through a trying period, the farmers still have faith in cotton, as demonstrated 
by the increase in cotton acreage for the coming year. A conservative estimate gives the acreage next year 
as 8.i,000 while there are many who predict cotton will be planted in lOO.OOOacres. 

" "Cotton bringing oO cents is more profitable than an ,■ other farm product.' declares .J. D. Taylor, presi- 
dent of the .Martin Cotton Co.. in reviewing the local situation. ' The farmers can make a better living out of 
cotton than by diversified farming. I do not mean the automobile farmer, but the real farmer who operates 
his farm, who malies from hall a bale to a bale an acre.' " 

= Egypt is an important importer of cotton gooils, normally ranking .sixth, and being exceeded only by 
India, China, Turkey, Dutch East Indies, and Argentina. Consuls report that the foothold secured by 
American cotton goods during the World War is menaced by the resentment of the population at the duty 
on their cotton that is now levied bv the United States. 



6 EMERGENCY TARIFF ACT AND LONG-STAPLE COTTON, 

of unknown origin) , the mixing of cotton before ginning, and the lack 
of care in maintaining the purity of seed at the gins, prevent the 
maintenance of such pure bred or carefully selected strains and make 
it easy for any new variety that shows an improvement to take the 
lead. Varieties such as Gallini, Bamia, Hamouli, and Abyad, which 
were once prominent, are now entirely extinct. For a considerable 
period prior to the war the predominant type was the Mitafifi; 
Abbassi and Joannovich were also well known, but these have in the 
course of recent years almost disappeared. Sakellarides, which 
originated about 1907, now constitutes over one-h'alf of the crop, and 
Ashmouni and Zagora are the only other varieties of commercial im-J 
portance. In 1921, of 1,291,878 feddans (1 feddan is 1.038 acres, prac-l 
tically 1 acre) of land planted to cotton in Egypt, 1,012,350 feddans 
(of which all but 28,583 feddans were under Sakellarides) were in 
lower Egypt, the delta north of Cairo, and 279,528 feddans (of which 
169,689 feddans were under Ashmouni and 89,665 feddans under 
Zagora) were in upper Egypt, extending along the Nile south of 
Cairo. Sakellarides is the highest type of cotton yet developed in 
Egypt, and once started it proved so profitable, owing to the longer 
staple^ which brings a higher price, that it was quickly adopted 
throughout the delta. The cottons grown in upper Egypt, and 
known as " Egyptian uppers, " are more productive per acre and give 
a larger yield of lint per pound of seed cotton, but are shorter in staple 
and hence command a much lower price on the market. The 
Sakellarides varies in length from 1^ to 1^ inches, and the uppers 
from 1^6 to 1^6 inches. The greater part of the Sakellarides imported 
into the United States is about ly^g inches and the uppers 1^ inches 
in length. 

Egypt is a small country and the total cultivable area to-day is only 
about 5,500,000 acres, as compared with the 700,000 square miles 
(about 448,000,000 acres) of the Southern Cotton Belt having a 
climate suitable for cotton. As Egypt is an almost rainless country, 
cotton is grown entirely by irrigation and its extension is limited by 
the amount of water available from the Nile. Efforts have been made 
by the erection of the Assouan and other dams to conserve and 
distribute the water supply to the best advantage. Other dams and 
reservoirs will doubtless be provided in the future, but even with the 
fullest utilization of the available water it is hardly probably that 
the area that can be planted to cotton will ever exceed 4,000,000 
acres. The acreage in cotton has been extended as more water became 
available for irrigation, but owing to lack of artificial fertilization or 
other cause it may be noted that the yield per acre has been declining 
for a long time. In 1897, for instance, there was attained an average 
production of 580 pounds per acre, whereas in 1921 the average was 
reduced to only 255 pounds per acre. The Egyptian Government is 
able to exercise direct control over the acreage and the kind of seed 
to be planted in Egypt. Owing to the low price received for the 1920 
crop, the Egyptian Government decreed that not more than one- 
third of any holding should be planted in cotton, and the cotton 
acreage of 1921 was thereby reduced about 28 per cent. This decree 
is to remain in force throughout 1922 and 1923, unless the Egyptian 
Government finds that conditions have so changed as to make re- 
striction of acreaire no lonjjer advisa})le. 



EMERGElSrCY TARIFF ACT AND L02TG-STAPLE COTTON. 



There is one small cotton mill in Egypt and some home manufac- 
ture, but the great bulk of the crop is exported. Egyptian official 
statistics record exports of cotton in bales for the crop years ended 
June 30, 1913-1921, as follows: 

Table 4. — Export of cotton from Egypt. 



Exported to — 


1913 


1914 


1915 


1916 


1917 


1918 


1919 


1920 


1921 


England 


Bales. 
426, 853 
124,634 
87, 014 
77, 177 
53,573 
75,740 
36, 609 
36,528 
21,356 


Bales. 
437, 820 
89, 723 
88, 033 
99, 943 
52,094 
78, 556 
35, 309 
35, 948 
20,391 


Bales. 
367, 774 
176,974 

24, 412 


Bales. 
350, 144 
185, 497 

42,390 


Bales. 
346, 196 
134, 891 

28,063 


Bales. 
503, 597 

75,865 
35, 819 


Bales. 
459, 774 
95,262 
69,620 


Bales. 

410, 923 

275, 617 

54, 593 

6,431 

1,426 


Bales. 
192 190 


United States 

France . . . 


46,423 
35 757 


Germany 


18, 634 


Austria 












2 935 


Russia 


45,109 

111,436 

59, 537 

17, 353 


45, &34 
18, 193 
37,934 
25, 728 


42,446 
19,456 
35, 270 

20,682 








Switzerland . . 


8,741 

140 

18,218 


23,201 
34,994 
22, 160 


12, 514 
38,320 
16,368 


26 139 


Italy 


19,320 
16 136 






Total 


958, 883 


970, 263 


832,721 


728,319 


630,610 


714,182 


718,309 


832,795 


379 842 







The foregoing figures represent running bales ; these average about 
738 pounds net, which with 22 pounds tare is equivalent to 760 
pounds gross. 

England is the main market for Egyptian cotton, taking over 
half of the total crop and a much larger proportion of the best grades. 
During the past decade the requirements of the rapidly expanding 
tire-fabric industry in the United States have caused this country to 
become the second largest buyer of Egyptian cotton. The imports 
of the United States are slightly larger than shown in Table 4, as a 
portion of the American purchases has been made through England; 
such indirect shipments have, however, become rarer, and practically 
all cotton for the United States is now shipped direct from Alexandria. 

A report by Mr. Lester Maynard, United States consul at Alex- 
andria, Egypt, forwarded July 27, 1921, gives careful, detailed esti- 
mates of the cost of production of Egyptian cotton. He arrived at 
the conclusion that the cost of producing a cantar of cotton delivered 
to steamer in Alexandria, but not including commissions and profits 
of factors, was P. T. 562.« This is 562 multiplied by $0.04991 divided 
by 99.0436, or 28.32 cents a pound at normal rates of exchange. With 
exchange at 90 per cent of par it is equal to 25.49 cents a pound. 

The freight rate on cotton from Alexandria to Boston or New 
York in April, 1922, was 40 shilhngs for 2 bales not exceeding 40 
cubic feet; in practice this is equal to 20 shillings per bale of 738 
pounds net. This is equal to 0.6594 cent per pound at normal ex- 
change or 0.5935 cent per pound, if exchange be at 90 per cent of 
normal. It is stated that this freight rate will probably be increased 
to 30 shillings, an increase of 50 per cent, in August of 1922. 

The marine insurance on the above is 10s. 6d. per £100, or 0.525 of 
1 per cent. If the cotton be valued at 40 cents a pound, then the 
marine insurance is equal to 0.21 of a cent a pound. 

The fumigation charges, to which all Egyptian cotton is sub- 
jected on entry into the United States, are $3 per bale, and if the 
bale be 738 pounds net, this is equal to 0.4065 of a cent a pound. 

" The Egyptian pound is composed of 100 P. T. or piasters tarif. The EngUsh pound sterling (normal 
value of $4.H665) is equal to 97* P. T., therefore 1 P. T. is equivalent at normal exchange to 4.991 cents U. S. 
If exchange be at 90 per cent of normal then 1 P. T. equals 0.90 multiplied by 4.991 or 4.492 cents U. S. 
The cantar is stated by Consul Maynard as 99.0436 pounds, and by the United States Department of 
Commerce as 99.0492 pounds. In commercial transactions it is usually taken as 99.05 pounds. 



8 EMERGENCY TARIFF ACT AND LONG-STAPLE COTTON, 

The freight and marine insurance from Alexandria, Egypt, to 
Boston, in March, 1922, together with the fumigation charges, there- 
fore amount to 0.5935 plus 0.21 plus 0.4065, or 1.21 cents a pound. 
Importers state that, allowing for handling and their other expenses 
and profits in addition to the above, imported Egyptian cotton costs 
the purchaser at Boston about 2^ cents a pound above the Alexandria 
price. 

RELATIVE GRADES OF PIMA AND SAKELLARIDES. 

American-Egyptian cotton until 1917 was mainly of the Yuma 
variety and was classified as fancy, extra, choice, standard, and 
medium. With the substitution of the Pima variety the United 
States Department of Agriculture introduced a number classification 
and American-Egyptian cotton is now sold as Pima Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 
and 5. No. 1 is the best and No. 5 the lowest grade. 

Egyptian cotton is classified as extra fine, fine, good, fully good 
fair, good fair, and fair, in descending order. During the war the 
prices of Egyptian cotton were officially fixed by the British Cotton 
Control Commission, and in order to secure a correct graduation of 
values, it substituted type numbers which took into account not 
only the grade of each variety but also the staple. These type 
numbers are shown, with grades and 1918 official prices, in the 
appendix, from which it will be seen that Nos. 1 to 23 were as- 
signed to upper Egyptian cotton, Nos. 30 to 58 to Sakellarides, 
and Nos. 70 to 127 to brown Egyptian. Since the war there has 
been a reversion to the former system, but the tendency is for the 
gradual substitution of the type numbers because of the more accurate 
grade and staple classification thereby secured. The official classifica- 
tion of 1918 serves to bring out the fact that for any type of Egyptian 
cotton, say Sakellarides, there is a wide range of prices at any 
particular time. Both Sakellarides and Pima are particular types of 
Egyptian cotton, the relative market prices of which can be secured 
only by comparing corresponding grades. 

The United States Department of Agriculture gives the equiva- 
lents of the Pima grades in Egyptian cotton, corresponding to the 
official cotton standards of the United States in leaf only, as follows: 

American-Egyptian No. 1 equivalent to extra fine Sakellarides; 
No. 2, fine; No. 3, good; No. 4, fully good fair to good fair; No. 5, 
strictly good fair. 

One of the leading importers of Egyptian cotton comments on this , 
comparison as follows: 

We have your favor of April 7 giving the Bureau of Markets comparison of American- 
Egyptian and imported Egyptian cotton. This differs from our comparison because! 
ours takes into consideration the comparative spinning values, whereas the Bureau of I 
Markets considers only the amount of leaf and other foreign matter in the grades of the! 
two growths. The just comparison is one which will produce the same results, equiva- j 
lent, rather than two types which carry the same amount of leaf. This is brought out j 
in price. We have recently sold fully good fair Egyptian Sakellarides (which the Bu- j 
reau of Markets considers equivalent to No. 4 American-Egyptian) at 45 cents landed] 
New England mill points, tariff paid. On the same day we were offering No. 4 Gov- 
ernment standard American-Egyptian at 32 cents. 



EMERGENCY TARIFF ACT AND LONG-STAPLE COTTON, 



9 



The following is our comparison: 

American-Egyptian No. 1 equivalent to fully good fair Sakellarides; No. 2 equiv- 
alent to good fair to fully good fair; No. 3 equivalent to good fair; No. 4 equivalent 
to fully fair to good fair; and No. 5 equivalent to fully fair. 

In the lower gi-ades we believe the depreciation is less in American-Eg\^ptian than 
in imported Egyptian. This also shows in the price. The low grade American- 
Egyptian and the low-gi-ade imported Egyptian with the duty added are much nearer 
together than the higli grades of the same. There is also a wider price variation 
between grades on the imported Egyptian than on the American-Egvptian, and for 
this reason we consider one-half gi-ade in the imported Egyptian as equal to full grade 
in the American in our comparison. 

Another importer states : 

We think that Egj'ptian Sakellarides No. 38 (fully good fair to good, extra fine 
staple) is equivalent to Pima No. 1; CCC No. 42 (fully good fair, extra staple) to 
Pima No. 2; and CCC No. 46 (good fair to fullv good fair, medium staple) to Pima 
No. 3. 

A third importer of importance states : 

Fully good fair Sakellarides corresponds to Pima No. 2 in grade, but the Pima will 
not do the work of Sakellarides of the same grade, particularly in high count yarns. 
Pima No. 1 corresponds approximately to good Sakellarides and the diffei'ence between 
fully good fair and good is normally 9^ cents a pound. This is the difference which 
was established by the Cotton Control' Commission of Egypt in 1918. Pima No. 3 
corresponds in grade to good fair Sakellarides, which sells normally for 3i cents a 
pound le.ss than fully good fair. 

IMPORTS OF RAW COTTON. 

Imports of raw cotton into the United States, by countries of 
production, are recorded by the United States Department of Com- 
merce as follows: 

Table 5. — Imports of foreign cotton. 
[Equivalent 500-pound bales.] 



Season ended — 



Produced in- 



Total. 



Egypt. 



Mexico. 



China. 



Peru. 



India. 



All 
other. 



Aug. 31, 1913 

July 31, 1914 

'July 31, 1915 

July 31, 1916 

July 31, 1917 

July 31, 1918 

Julv31, 1919 

July 31, 1920 

July 31, 1921 

Average 9 years 



227, 645 
260, 988 
382, 286 
437, 574 
291, 957 
221, 216 
201, 585 
700, 214 
226,341 



191, 075 

138. 579 
2.52,373 
350, 796 
199, 892 

114. 580 
100,006 
485, 004 

87, 168 



756 
80,285 
85,180 
30, 098 
32,858 
35, 726 
54,434 
65,343 
88, 155 



327,756 213,275 



52,537 



341 
772 
631 
792 
063 
%4 
871 
185 
722 



10,737 
12, 627 
10, 353 
10,909 
11,069 
19,692 
25, 230 
63, 426 
22, 597 



4,373 
7,849 
7,845 
4,214 
3,860 
7,096 
2,893 
14, 358 
8,489 



28,705 20,737 



6,775 



2,363 
876 
904 
5,765 
8,215 
5,158 
8,151 
14, 898 
5,210 



5,727 



10 EMERGENCY TARIFF ACT AND LONG-STAPLE COTTON. 

Subsequent imports by months have been as follows : 

Table 5a. — Imports of foreign cotton. 
[Equivalent SOO-pound bales.] 



Months ended— 



1921. 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 

1922. 

January 

February 

March 



Total. 



5,631 
6,361 
31, 269 
51, 440 
61, 006 



42, 093 
55, 024 
59, 958 



Produced in— 



Egypt. 



4,728 
3,396 
18, 972 
27, 126 
41, 224 



25, 929 
36, 242 
47, 636 



Mexico. 



300 
5, 531 
15, 257 
11, 847 



10, 034 
7,246 
3,123 



China. 



306 
"41' 



1,383 
4,564 
4, 532 



Peru. 



73 

928 

5,303 

7,855 

5,550 



3,779 
6,392 
2,246 



India. 



494 
935 
962 
333 
514 



66 
70 

784 



All 
other. 



30 
802 
460 
869 
1,871 



902 

510 

1,637 



In spite of its enormous surplus production of cotton the United 
States finds it necessary to import certain varieties from abroad. 
These cottons of special characteristics are supplementary rather 
than competitive, and in general are higher in price than the domestic. 

The cottons imported into the United States may be classed, in 
order of relative importance, as (1) Egyptian, (2) Mexican, (3) 
Chinese and Indian, (4) Peruvian, and (5) all other, including West 
Indian and Brazilian. 

(1) Egyptian cotton constitutes approximately two-thirds of our 
imports of foreign cotton. As previously shown, the term "Egyptian 
cotton" covers a wide range of staples and grades. The Sakellarides 
variety, about l^e inches in length of staple, is the one that is 
dutiable under the emergency tariff act, whereas Egyptian "uppers" 
(which term includes both Ashmouni and Zagora, as well as a trifle 
of Mitafifi and other varieties) are not dutiable as they are shorter, 
usually about l^^g^ inches in length. Before the imposition of a 
duty on cotton of If inches and longer, Sakellarides constituted 
nearly half of the total Egyptian imported; it has since declined in 
relative importance, in some months constituting less than 10 per 
cent of the total Egyptian imported. Sakellarides is a very high- 
class cotton, silky and soft but exceptionally strong, and can be spun 
to very fine counts; it is creamy white in color and unexcelled in 
its mercerization properties. 

Over one-half of the Egyptian cotton imported is used in making 
tire fabrics. One of the largest importers states that the tire-fabric 
industry uses Ashmouni (known as uppers) , medium grades, staple 
1^ inches; Sakellarides, medium grades, staple l^^ to 1^ inches; 
Sakellarides, medium grades, staple l^^ to If inches; Mitafifi, 
medium grades, staple 1^ to \^ inclies (small quantities). 

He states that other spinners, mainly manufacturers of sewing 
thread, use Sakellarides, high grades, staple lyV to U inches; Sakel- 
larides, liigh grades, staple 1 1^ to If inches; Ashmouni, medium 
grades, staple about 1^ inches. 

(2) The Mexican cotton imported is nearest to tlie American in 
its characteristics and is upland cotton of good staple, mainly 1 J to 
IjV inches, and is grown in the Imperial Valley in California Baja. 



EMERGENCY TARIFF ACT AND LONG-STAPLE COTTON. 11 

Much of this cotton is imported in the seed for ginning in the United 
States. On moving across the line through the Mexican customs at 
Mexicah, there is levied on baled lint or seed cotton an export tax of 
15 pesos per 1,000 kilos (equivalent to 3.39 cents per pound with the 
peso at par value). This cotton enters at Calexico, Calif., the only 
border point at which cotton is permitted entry into the United 
States. The Federal Horticultural Board of the United States 
Department of Agriculture has a representative at Calexico to super- 
vise imports with a view to preventing the introduction of dangerous 
insect pests; he inspects the cotton fields of California Baja and 
issues permits for the importation of Mexican-grown cotton into the 
United States. 

(3) The Chinese cotton imported is mainly a variety that grows 
wild in the district of Prong Tan Fou, outside of Tientsin; it is rough 
and curly, with a staple of five-eighths to seven-eighths inches. The 
Indian cotton imported comes from the Province of Assam, being 
exported through Calcutta; it has a staple or five-eighths to three- 
fourths inches, is very rough in texture, and so brittle that it is rarely 
spun alone. The Chinese cotton, either alone or mixed with the 
Indian, is used as filling in the m^anufacture of cotton blankets. 
These rough cottons possess certain springy or elastic properties 
not found in American cultivated cottons and give an exceptionally 
nappy surface, so that blankets made therewith are particularly 
sought by consumers. 

(4) Cotton grown in Peru includes three distinct types; (1) Mitafifi 
and Tangiiis, (2) rough Peruvian, and (3) smooth Peruvian. Mitafifi 
and Tangiiis, grown from Eygptian seed, now constitute the bulk of 
our imports of Peruvian cotton, being used to mix with or substitute 
for Egyptian grown varieties. The staple runs from 1^^ to l-^ 
inches. Rough Peruvian is the indigenous tree cotton that is grown 
by irrigation in the Department of Piura, in northern Peru; it has a 
strong, rough, woolly, crinkly staple of H to If inches. It is very 
similar to wool in its characteristics and is used as a substitute there- 
for, being sometimes called vegetable wool. Its price depends more 
on the price of wool and the supply of rough Peruvian than upon the 
price of other cottons. American imports of rough Peruvian are 
used in the manufacture of white flannels and in merino (wool-and-, 
cotton) yarns for hosiery and underwear. Smooth Peruvian is grown 
from American upland seed, and the staple is IJ to 1} inches. This 
variety is used in Peruvian mills; imports into the United States are 
very small. 

Under the provisions of the plant quarantine act of August 20, 1912 
(37 Stat. 315), the Secretary of Agriculture, on April 27, 1915, issued 
an order restricting the importation of cotton into the United States. 
This order, as revised July 18, 1917, is now (1922) in force. Import- 
ers must secure permits from the Federal Horticultural Board and, 
with the exception of the regulations in regard to the import of 
Mexican cotton through Calexico, as noted, foreign cotton can be 
brought in only at the ports of Boston, New York, Seattle, and San 
Francisco, where there are fumigating stations. All imported cotton 
must now be disinfected, except tnat from California Baja, and 
American cotton in original containers, when it can be clearly shown 
that this latter cotton has been grown in regions not under restriction 

110044—22 3 



12 EMERGENCY TARIFF ACT AND LONG-STAPLE COTTON, 

on account of the presence of the pink bollwprm. The Federal Hor- 
ticultural Board not only follows the cotton through to the mill, but 
requires that mills using such foreign cotton shall secure licenses and 
shall guarantee to screen their warehouses, burn daily their picker- 
room motes, and use all precautions to prevent the escape of the pink 
boll-worm and other insects. 

AMERICAN CONSUMPTION OF COTTON OF l| INCHES AND OVER. 

There are no exact figures as to the production and consumption 
of cotton of If inches and over. Prior to the crop of 1917 the bulk 
of the domestic production of such cotton consisted of sea island; 
since then it has consisted mainly of American-Egyptian or "Pima" 
cotton. In the crop year ended July 31, 1920, the Arizona Pima 
production amounted to 92,561 bales of equivalent 500 pounds, and 
about 500 bales of the same type were raised in California. Missis- 
sippi and South Carolina possibly accounted for 3,000 bales each of 
upland and sea island cotton of this staple. Allowing for a trifle in 
other States it is probable that the domestic production of cotton 
of If inches and over amounted in that year to 100,000 bales. In the 
crop year ended July 31, 1921, the production of Pima was only 
37,094 bales, and allowing for the production of sea island and long- 
staple uplands it is probable that the total domestic production of 
cotton of If inches and over did not exceed 45,000 bales of equivalent 
500 pounds. 

Importers estimate that prior to the enactment of the emergency 
tariff act imports of Egyptian cotton contained 40 to 50 per cent of 
cotton of If inches or over; in addition there was a small import of 
cotton of such length from other countries, such as Peru and the 
West Indies. Imports of cotton of this length may be estimated as 
normally about 100,000 bales of equivalent 500 pounds a year; in 
the crop year ended July 31, 1920, running up to a record of approxi- 
mately 200,000 bales, or a two years' supply. 

The American consumption of cotton of If-inch staple and over has 
probably never exceeded 150,000 bales of equivalent 500 pounds a 
year, and normally is probably not much over 100,000 bales a year. 

If the preceding estimates are even approximately correct it is evi- 
dent that both production and imports of such extra-long staple cotton 
in the crop year ended July 31, 1920, were abnormal, and that the 
1920 surplus of such cotton above the possible consumption of mills 
fitted to spin such staple was necessarily a matter of slow disposal. 

AMERICAN CONSUMPTION OF EGYPTIAN AND AMERICAN-EGYPTIAN 

COTTON, 

The following data, compiled by the Bureau of the Census, show by 
months the domestic mill consumption of imported Egyptian cotton 
of all kinds during the past seven crop years, and of American-Egyp- 
tian cotton during the past two crop years. The American-Egyptian 
or Pima cotton is all of 1| inches or more, whereas less than half of 
the imported Egyptian cotton is of this length. 



EMERGENCY TARIFF ACT AND LONG-STAPLE COTTON. 



13 



Table 6. — American mill consumption of Egyptian and of Am£rican-Egyptian cotton, 

[Crop year ended July 31.] 



Month. 



Egyptian cotton (equivalent 500-pound bales.) 



1915-16 1916-17 1917-18 1918-19 1919-20 1920-21 1921-22 



A merican-Egyp- 

tian cotton 
(running bales).* 



1920-21 1921-22 



August 

September. 

October 

November. 
December . . 

January 

February. . 

March 

April , 

May 

June 

July 



21,246 
20, 404 
23, 144 
24,060 
21,034 
24, 622 
21,336 
23,210 
20, 086 
22, 760 
19,680 
17,579 



17,175 
13, 433 
14, 895 
14, 745 
11,751 
11,194 
10, 407 
10,618 
8,047 
9,187 
7,634 
7,315 



7,895 

7,470 

7,829 

7,182 

10,331 

12, 889 

11,108 

11,217 

13,513 

11,376 

12, 413 

13, 404 



15,865 
16, 392 
22, 079 
20, 261 
24,989 
28,173 
24, 804 
31,578 
34,933 
33,606 
37,511 
32, 933 



20, 263 
15, 895 
18, 891 
22, 291 
20, 779 
20, 783 
19, 908 
20,379 



2,549 

1,590 

1,194 

771 

887 

389 

836 

947 

1,337 

1,838 

1,962 

2,471 



2,239 
2,158 
2,277 
2,557 
3,240 
4,030 
3, 759 
4,286 



Total 269,324 



259, 161 



136,401 126,089 



323,124 159,196 



159, 189 



16,771 



1 Of approximately 500 pounds each. 

The census figures do not differentiate between the various types 
of Egyptian cotton, such as the extra-long staple Sakellarides and the 
shorter staple "uppers." They show that the consumption of Egyp- 
tian cotton of all kinds was abnormally large during the crop year 
1919-20, that it declined to less than half this abnormal figure in the 
crop year 1920-21, and that in the crop year 1921-22 it is again in- 
creasing to its normal status of something over 200,000 bales of 
equivalent 500 pounds. The large consumption in 1920 and subse- 
quent decline and recovery have no tariff significance, but result from 
trade conditions in the American cotton industry, particularly in the 
tire-fabric and sewing-tliread branches. The lowest prices for Egyp- 
tian cotton during this period were during the summer of 1921 when 
imports were smallest. 

It is seen from Table 6 that the consumption of Pima cotton is much 
smaller than that of imported Egyptian. In the crop year 1920-21 
the consumption of Pima was less than 11 per cent, and in the first 
eight months of the crop year 1921-22 less than 15 per cent of the 
consumption of Egyptian. It shows that the relatively small con- 
sumption of Pima has, during the past year, been increasing faster 
than the consumption of Egyptian; this is said to be due to the very 
much lower price at which Pima could be bought, as compared with 
imported Sakellarides, since the passage of the emergency tariff act. 
The consumption of Pima attained the record of 4,286 bales during 
the month of March, 1922, allowing for the fact that less than half 
of the Egyptian used is vSakellarides, this probably represents more 
than a third of the quantity of cotton of If inches and over that was 
consumed in this country during that month. 



14 



EMERGENCY TARIFF ACT AND LONG-STAPLE COTTON. 



Table 7 .—Consumption of Egyptian and American-Egyptian cotton in the United 
States, by geographic divisions. 



Month. 



1920. 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 

1921. 

January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

12 months.. 
Per cent 

1921. 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 

1922. 

January 

Februarj' 

March 

8 months . . . 
Percent 



Egyptian cotton, in 500-pound bales. 



Total. 



26,682 
19, 581 
12,867 
10, 236 
7,219 



Massa- 
chusetts. 



7, G80 
7,100 
9,705 
12, 198 
14, 765 
15,446 
15,717 



17,386 
11,477 
5,832 
4,043 
2,803 



4,249 
3,316 
3, 467 
5,079 
7,404 
7, 959 
8,227 



159, 196 
100.00 



20, 263 
15, 895 
18,891 
22, 291 
20, 779 

20,783 
19, 908 

20,379 



81,242 



10,331 
7, 961 
9,844 
11,819 
10. 784 

11,844 
10,814 
10, 093 



159, 189 
100.00 



Rhode 
Island. 



3,113 
3,467 
2,651 
2,895 
1,320 



1, 146 
1,364 
2,947 
3,596 
2,936 
2,287 
2,874 



30, 596 



3,634 
2,342 
2,727 
3, 421 
3,510 

3,065 
2,732 
2,785 



Other 

New 

England 

States. 



2,494 
1,766 
1,682 
1,110 
905 



745 

742 

900 

838 

1,118 

1,666 

1,341 



1,749 
1,655 
1,813 
1,666 
1,656 

1,649 
1,538 
1,628 



13,354 



Total 

New 

England 

States. 



22,993 
16,710 
10, 165 

8,048 
5,028 



6,140 
5,422 
7,314 
9,513 
11,458 
11,912 
12,442 



127, 145 

79.87 



15,714 
11,958 
14,384 
16,906 
15, 950 

16,558 
15,084 
14, 506 



121, 060 
76.05 



Southern 
States. 



2,083 
1,813 
1,435 
1,235 
957 



676 
682 
1,317 
1,-524 
1,896 
2,187 
1,951 



17, 756 
11.15 



2,722 
2,200 
2,661 
3,780 
3,105 

2,558 
3,043 
3,846 



23,915 
15.02 







American-Egyptian cotton, 


in running bales, i 




Month. 


Total. 


Massa- 
chusetts. 


Rhode 
Island. 


Other 

New 

England 

States. 


Total 

New 

England 

States. 


Southern 
States. 


All other 

States. 


1920. 
August 


2,549 

1,590 

1,194 

771 

887 

.389 
836 
947 
1,337 
1,&3S 
1,962 
2,471 


1,082 

332 

119 

41 

45 

43 
172 
204 
260 
613 
474 
946 


176 
47 
27 
23 

48 

1 
3 
2 

6 

67 

278 

154 


197 
219 
247 
201 
172 

137 
111 

73 
134 
150 
107 

67 


1,455 
598 
393 
265 
265 

181 
286 
279 
400 
830 
859 
1,117 


639 
541 
300 
111 
71 

41 
320 
480 
654 
633 
684 
772 


455 


September 


451 


October 


501 


November 


395 


December 


551 


1921. 
January 


167 


February 


230 


March 


188 


April 


283 


May 


375 


June 


419 


July 


582 






12 months 


16,771 
100. 00 


4,331 


782 


1,815 


6,928 
41.31 


5,246 
31.28 


4,597 


Per cent 


27.41 


1921. 
August 


2,239 
2,158 
2,277 
2,557 
3,240 

4,030 
.3,759 
4,286 


669 
724 
550 
552 
1,244 

1,307 
1,257 
1,784 


60 
274 
324 
509 
510 

891 
724 
340 


171 

368 
487 
495 
522 

597 
570 

668 


900 
1,366 
1,361 
1,556 
2,276 

2,795 
2,551 
2,792 


575 
154 
180 
231 

84 

398 
335 
404 


764 


September 


638 


October 


736 


November 


770 


December 


880 


1922. 
Januarv 


837 


February 


873 


March 


1,090 






8 months 


24, 546 
100. 00 


8,087 


3,632 


3,878 


15,597 
63.54 


2,361 
9.62 


6,588 


Per cent 


26.84 













1 or approximately 500 pounds each. 



EMERGENCY TARIFE ACT AND LONG-STABLE COTTON. 



15 



Mill consumption, by geographic divisions. — Table 7 herewith 
has been prepared from an analysis of the original Census records, to 
show the consnmption of Egyptian cotton (including all varieties), 
and of Americau-Egyptian cotton, by geographic divisions. 

The figures from January to March of the present year (1922) are 
compiled from the preliminary figures of the Census Bureau and are 
therefore subject to some modificatio*n. 

The New England States include Massachusetts, Rhode Island, 
Connecticut, Maine, and New Hampshire; the Southern States in- 
clude Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Maryland; ''all 
other States'' include New York, New Jersey, California, Ohio, 
Illinois, etc. 

Massachusetts is the largest consumer of both Egyptian and 
American-Egyptian cotton; the consumption by other individual 
States is, with the exception of Rhode Island, not shown separately as 
the figures might possibly disclose the operations of particular mills. 

The consumption of Egyptian cotton in the eight months ended 
March 31, 1922, was almost identical with that for the 12 months 
ended July 31, 1921, which shows that the mills are recovering from 
the 1921 depression and getting back to normal conditions. In both 
periods Massachusetts accounted for somewhat over half, and New 
England for somewhat over three-fourths, of the total Egyptian used. 
The relative consumption of New England slightly decreased and that 
of the Southern States slightly increased. 

The consumption of Pima cotton increased from 16,771 bales in 
the crop year ended July 31, 1921, to 24,546 bales in the eight months 
ended March 31, 1922, so that the consumption for the full crop year 
1922 will probably be more than double that in the crop year 1921. 
The figures show that the increased consumption of Pima cotton has 
been due mainly to much larger takings by New England, inasmuch 
as its use in Southern mills has declined absolutely as well as rela- 
tively, and as the increased use in "all other" States is relatively 
small. 



Table 8. — Consumption of Egyptian and American-Egyptian cotton in the United 

States, by industries. 



Month, 



Eg^tian cotton, in 500-pound bales. 



Total. 



Tire 
fabrics. 



Sewing 
thread. 



Fine 
cloths. 



Other 
indus- 
tries. 



American-flgyptian cotton, in running 
bales.! 



Total. 



Tire 
fabrics. 



Sewing 
thread. 



Fine 
cloths. 



Other 
indus- 
tries. 



1920. 

August 

September . . . 

October 

November. . . 
December 



26, 682 
19, 581 
12,867 
10, 236 
7,219 



7,' 
7,100 
9, 705 



1921. 

January 

February 

March. . ." 

April ' 12,198 

May I 14,765 

June ! 15,446 

July 15,717 



12 months. 
Per cent 



13, 863 
9,276 
5,201 
4,669 
3,196 



4,308 
3,117 
4,428 
6,990 
9,637 
9,400 
10, 420 



4,286 
4,678 
3,719 
3,220 
2,435 



2,068 
2,457 
3,664 
3,644 
3,511 
3,983 
3,273 



3,444 
2,743 
2,572 
1,404 
859 



911 
903 
976 
751 
857 
985 
1,006 



5,089 

2,884 

1,375 

943 

729 



393 
623 
637 
813 
760 
1,078 
1,018 



159, 196 
100.00 



84,505 
53.08 



40,938 
25.72 



17,411 
10.94 



16, 342 
10.26 



2,549 

1,590 

1,194 

771 

887 



389 
8.i6 
947 
1,:337 
1,8:38 
1,962 
2,471 



1,687 
1,236 

838 
421 
583 



182 
657 
779 
1,148 
1,469 
1,360 
1,938 



319 
225 
212 
183 
183 



% 
32 
45 
4 
59 
158 
i:,4 



85 
102 

87 
153 
259 
327 
248 



16,771 
100.00 



12,298 
73. U 



1,6;50 
9. 84 



1,678 
10.00 



J Of approximately 500 pounds each. 
110044—22^ 4 



335 
68 
78 

117 



26 
45 
36 
32 
51 
117 
151 



1,146 
6. S3 



16 



EMERGENCY TARIFF ACT AND LONG-STAPLE COTTON. 



Table 8. — Consumption of Egyptian and American-Egyptian cotton in the United 
States, hy industries — Continued. 



Month. 



Egyptian cotton, in 500-pound bales. 



Total. 



1921. 

August I 20,263 

September ! 15,895 

October 18,891 

November 22, 291 

December 20, 779 



1922. 

January 

February . . . . 
March 



8 months. 
Percent 



20, 783 
19, 908 
20, 379 



159, 189 
100. 00 



Tire 
fabrics. 



13, 824 
8,723 
10, 686 
13, 288 
12,611 



13, 702 
12, 357 
11,561 



96, 752 
60.78 



Sewing 
thread. 



3,906 
4,137 
4,988 
5,542 
5,526 



4,483 
4,599 
6,003 



39, 184 
24.62 



Fine 
cloths. 



1,329 
1,579 
1,143 
1,160 
841 



1,064 
1, 543 
1,584 



10, 243 
6.43 



Other 
indus- 
tries. 



1,204 
1,456 
2,074 
2,301 
1,801 



1,534 
1,409 
1,231 



13,010 
8.17 



American-Egyptian cotton, in running 
bales.i 



Total. 



2,239 
2,158 
2,277 
2,557 
3,240 



4,030 
3,759 
4,286 



24, 546 
100.00 



Tire 
fabrics. 



1,729 
1,213 
1,036 
1,.305 
1,708 



2,394 
2,259 
2,066 



13,710 
55.85 



Sewing 
thread. 



65 
322 
604 



795 

787 
872 



4,651 
18.95 



Fine 
cloths. 



347 
445 
542 
425 
558 



653 

614 

1,191 



4,775 
19.45 



Other 
indus- 
tries. 



178 
95 
219 
376 



188 
99 
157 



1,410 
5.75. 



I 



1 Of approximately 500 pounds each. 

Mill consumption hy industries. — Table 8 herewith has been pre- 
pared, from an analysis of the original census records, to show ths' 
consumption of Egyptian cotton (including all varieties) and of 
American-Egyptian cotton in particular branches of the cotton 
industry. 

In making this distribution it has been comparatively easy to pick 
out mills which produce tire fabric, thread, and fine cloth, or which 
produce yarns for such goods. In a few instances, however, where 
the same mill makes yarn for different industries it has been tabu- 
lated under the industry to which it mainly caters, or where that 
was difficult to determine, under "other industries." "Other indus- 
tries" include, in addition to a relatively small amount used in mat- 
tress factories, mainly knitting yarns. There is a margin of possible 
error in that some of these knitting-yarn mills at times produce more 
or less yarns for use in tire-fabric, thread, or fine cloth, but inasmuch as 
the consumption noted under "other industries" is less than 10 per 
cent of the total, the margin of understatement in the case of the three 
particular industries recorded is believed to be small. 

It is seen that the tire-fabric industry is the largest consumer of 
both Egyptian and Pima cotton, accounting for over half of the total 
in both instances. It uses about seven bales of Egyptian for each 
bale of Pima, and tends to use relatively more Egyptian and relatively 
less Pima. The tire-fabric industry requires annually not more than 
36,000 to 42,000 bales of cotton of such staple as Sakellarides and 
Pima,' and 80 to 90 per cent of the Egyptian cotton used by tire 
fabric manufacturers is upper Egyptian as compared with 10 to 20 
per cent Sakellarides.® The tire-fabric industry is therefore using 
about as many bales of Pima as of Sakellarides, but its use of the two 
combined is only about one-third of its use of Egyptian uppers. 

' " Statement opposing tariff on long-staple cotton" (p. 4), submitted in December, 1921, to the Senate 
Finance Committee by tne tire manufacturers' division of the Rubber Association of America (Inc.), which 
includes in its membership approximately 125 automobile-tire manufacturers. 

8 Ibid, p. 7. 



EMERGENCY TARIFF ACT AND LONG-STAPLE COTTON. 



17 



The sewing-thread industry is the second largest user of Egyptian 
cotton but apparently the largest user of Sakellarides. This industry 
requires Sakellarides not only for making fine thread but also for 
naaking coarse thread where special strength is required, such as shoe 
thread; it is also used in making embroidery and crochet "cottons." 
The amount of uppers included in the Egyptian cotton used by this 
industry is small. The amount of Pima used by the thread industry 
is small as compared with its consumption of Sakellarides, but has 
increased so markedly during the past eight months that its increas- 
ing substitution for Sakellarides is very evident. This substitution 
has been due in large measure to the very much lower price, relative 
to Sakellarides, at which Pima cotton could be bought since the pas- 
sage of the emergency tariff act. 

The fine-cloth mills afford the most striking instance of the substi- 
tution of the cheaper Pima for the Sakellarides type during recent 
months. These mills when they use Egyptian require mainly Sakella- 
rides, but their consumption of Egyptian cotton has decreased and 
their consumption of Pima greatly increased. It is said that Sakella- 
rides is still required for cloths made of the finest yarns, but that Pima 
is being rapidly substituted for Sakellarides in cloths made of yarns 
not finer than 80s. Introduced because of its lower price, it is finding 
increased favor with the fine-cloth mills of New England, particularly 
those of New Bedford, for use in the manufacture of mercerized sateen 
linings as well as in voile and fine lawns. 

The column for " other industries " includes mainly those producing 
knitting yarns and yarns for special purposes; these, as a group, show 
an increase in the use of Pima cotton relative to Egyptian, but the 
increase is not so marked as in the thread and fine-cloth industries. 

STOCKS ON HAND OF EGYPTIAN AND AMERICAN-EGYPTIAN COTTON. 

The following data, compiled by the Bureau of the Census, show, 
by months, the stocks on hand in the United States of imported 
Egyptian cotton of all kinds during the past seven crop years, and of 
American-Egyptian cotton during the past two crop years. 

Table 9. — American stocks at end of each month. 
[Crop years ended July 31 .] 



Month. 



Egyptian cotton (equivalent .500-pound bales). 



1915-16 


1916-17 


1917-18 


115,208 


167, 256 


98, 722 


104, 956 


153, 262 


88,906 


90, 595 


131,673 


70, 351 


81,358 


108, 899 


53,244 


74, 148 


92,401 


44,834 


85, 368 


100,662 


44,571 


121,766 


113,317 


45, 053 


128,688 


122, 124 


34, 120 


144,863 


135,754 


41,586 


168, 18:5 


126, 573 


51,830 


168,670 


133, 114 


65,984 


182,608 


117,912 


67,278 



1919-20 



1920-21 



1921-22 



American- 
Egyptian cotton 
(running bales). 



1920-21 1921-22 



August 

September 
October . . . 
November. 
December . 
January. . . 
February. . 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 



84,496 
79, 201 
73, 273 
63, 313 
67, 732 
58,566 
48, 730 
39, 741 
40, 713 
52, 282 
53, 977 
51, 757 



46, 315 

70, 668 

68, 155 

63, 609 

71, 212 

88, 417 

105. 991 

133, 170 

229, 707 

259, 336 

244, 954 

220, 099 



198, 780 
182, 969 
167, 896 
157, 715 
153, 958 
150, 239 
145, 263 
144,039 
148, 990 
147, 051 
142, 319 
128,062 



113, 112 

98, 589 

85,384 

99,195 

116,375 

127,711 

126, 584 

147. 896 



19,060 ! 51,883 
17, 190 49, 166 
13,656 : 50,410 
29,991 i 58,351 
43,949 , 61,739 
50,661 91,293 
53, 974 92, 637 
54,794 i 92,919 

56,023 I 

53,946 

54,285 ' 

55.237 ; 



18 EMERGENCY TARIFF ACT AND LONG-STAPLE COTTON. 

Since imports of Egyptian cotton are mainly in the December- April 
period of each year, it is not surprising to find that American stocks of 
Egyptian cotton (including all types) in the spring of 1922 are in- 
creasing. The stocks of Egyptian cotton on hand March 31 are, 
however, larger in 1922 than for the similar date in any preceding 
year. At the same time it is seen that stocks on hand of American- 
Egyptian cotton are also increasing and were larger on March 31, 
1922, than ever before recorded. 

THE EXPORT OF AMERICAN-EGYPTIAN COTTON. 

Exports of American-Egyptian cotton are not separately recorded. 
The following extracts from the Daily News Record, of New York 
City, are of interest in this connection. 

PIMA COTTON FOR EUROPE. 

Phoenix, Ariz., February 19, 1922. — The first consignment of Pima cotton to the 
mills of Europe has started on its way. Under the Toll plan, the Farmers Ginning Co. 
has shipped the Arizona Pima cotton to the Kuffler mills. The carloads will go first to 
the compressor at San Pedro, where they will be loaded for shipment to Europe. 
Arriving at Hamburg, they will be railroaded to the mills about Prague, where the cot- 
ton will be spun into cloth and this cloth, a particularly fine product of the mills, will 
be disposed of through Hamburg and Liverpool. Seventy-five per cent of the product 
of the sales will be returned to the Arizona grower as the price of his cotton. 

This plan was evolved by the Czechoslovakian mills and American cotton organiza- 
tions. The state of exchange in central Europe is such as to make the direct purchase 
of American cotton prohibitive, consequently arrangements were made with the 
warrant warehouse of Birmingham, Ala., to collect the consignments of cotton for these 
mills, the consignments being made under the joint supervision of reputable American 
representatives in Europe and the Czechoslovakian Government. An advance on 
consignments is made by the warrant warehouse, by whom also the collections are made 
for the grower and shipper. 

The first cotton shipped under the Toll plan came from the middle south, and 
brought the producer two or three times the price that the cotton commanded in the 
home market, it is claimed. 

POSSIBILITY OF GERMANY AS LONG-STAPLE OUTLET. 

Phoenix, Ariz. March 15, 1922. — A German market for Arizona long-staple cotton 
can be easily developed if growers will cooperate with textile manufacturers in 
Germany, William Paar, Los Angeles importer, told officials of the Arizona Pima- 
cotton Growers' Association at their recent conference. Mr. Paar has just returned to 
the States from a tour of Central European countries during which time he visited 
many of the leading textile mills of Germany. 

"German experts have declared your long-staple variety superior to Egyptian 
Sakell for the manufacture of certain kinds of fine textiles, such as lisle silk, imitation 
linens, and cotton goods for underwear, " Mr. Paar said. 

"Two of Germany's foremost textile experts have passed upon the quality of Arizona 
cotton. Professor Johannson, recognized as the foremost cotton expert in all Germany, 
examined samples of Arizona cotton sent by the Arizona Pima Cotton Growers' Asso- 
ciation. ' I have never seen a raw material so suitable for the manufacture of high-class 
textiles, such as lisle silk for hosiery, underwear, and imitation linens,' Professor 
Johannson was quoted as sajdng. 

"Prof. J. Schiertz, textile expert of the Cologne University, had the following to say 
of Arizona long staple: 

" ' I have examined the samples of Arizona cotton given me by Mr. Paar and I con- 
sider this cotton extremely adapted for replacing Egyptian cotton.' 

"If your growers will agree to the Toll plan, however, there is no doubt that a market 
for your entire crop will be made available to you in Germany. 

"You send your raw material to the German spinner on consignment. He manu- 
factures it into the finished product, returning the finished article to you and the 
manufacturer receives his pay in raw material. This assures him against probable 
losses through the increasing or decreasing of the mark value on foreign exchange. It 
obliterates the gambling aspect of the transaction and establishes the market on a 
sound business basis." 



EMERGENCY TARIFF ACT AND LONG-STAPLE COTTON. 19 

EFFECT OF TARIFF ON COTTON OF 11 INCHES AND OVER. 

The quantity of cotton imported and the price of competitive 
domestic cotton are influenced by various factors other than the 
tariff, particularly by supply and demand, and it is necessary to give 
due weight to such factors when attempting to evaluate the effect of 
the tariff duty. 

Cotton having a staple of If inches or more is usually considered 
essential in the manufacture of warp yarns of 80s and above or of 
filling yarns of 90s and above. Because of its relatively high price, 
cotton of this length staple is not ordinarily used for lower counts 
except where strength is a more important consideration than price. 

Cotton of If inches or more is, because of its length, necessary in 
the manufacture of fine yarns for the higher numbers of sewing 
thread, for fine cloths, such as lawns, organdies, and voiles, and for 
fine knit goods, laces, etc. Because of its strength, it is used in the 
best grades of tire fabrics, in shoe threads, in embroidery cottons, 
and in cotton warp for high-class mohair linings. 

Prior to the passage of the emergency tariff act May 27, 1921, it is 
probable that the largest use of Sakellarides was by the tire-fabric 
mdustry, but it is important to note the extent to which, even before 
that time, cotton of shorter staple had been displacing cotton of the 
staple that is now dutiable. The number of motor vehicles registered 
in the United States rose from 1,254,971 in 1913 to 3,512,996 in 1916, 
an increase of 180 per cent. During this period the import of 
Egyptian cotton increased only 82 per cent, showing that the pro- 
portion of domestic cotton, particularly cotton of less than If inches, 
used in tire fabrics, must have increased. During the next few years 
the industry was affected by the war, and in 1918 tire-fabric pro- 
duction was curtailed by Government order. The number of motor 
vehicles in use has grown each year, in 1921 amounting to 10,125,000, 
about eight times as many as in 1913 or nearly three times as many 
as in 1916, yet the mill consumption of Egyptian cotton, although 
showing a sudden spurt in 1920, is not now (1922) as large per month 
as it was in 1916. Not only have the import and use of Egyptian 
cotton not kept pace with the demand for cotton by this industry, 
but the relative proportion of Sakellarides has decreased since the 
passage of the emergency tariff act. The decrease in the use of 
Sakellarides has not resulted in any material increase in the use of 
Pima, and the increasing demand for tires is being met most largely 
by the use of Egyptian uppers and of American staple cottons of 
l-j^ to H inches. Higher prices for extra long staple cotton, as com- 
pared with pre-war prices, the excessive competition in the tire in- 
dustry, and the greater use of cord tires (where the strength necessary 
is attained by ply yarns rather than by long-staple fiber), have 
greatly reduced the necessity for the employment of extra long staple 
cotton by tire manufacturers. 

The largest users of Sakellarides cotton are now (1922), in the order 
named, probably the sewing- thread industry, the tire industry, fine 
cloth weavers, and the knitting industry. In the case of fine yarns 
for thread, cloth, and knit goods there is a decided tendency toward 
the substitution of Pima for Sakellarides, because of the lower price 
of the domestic cotton. 



20 



EMERGENCY TARIFF ACT AND LONG-STAPLE COTTON. 



The total imports of Egyptian cotton during the months of the last 
thr6e crop years, and the imports of dutiable cotton since May^ 1921, 
have been as follows : 

Table 10. — Totalimports of Egyptian and of dutiable cotton. 





Total 

imports of 

Egyptian 

cotton. 


Dutiable cotton. 


Propor- 
tion of 


Montli of crop year. 


Quantity. 


Total 
value. 


Value 

per 
pound. 


total duti- 
able cot- 
ton to total 
Egyptian. 


1919. 
August . ... 


Pounds. 

5,639,715 
22,934,190 

5,510,065 
15,509,774 
13,678,977 

33,276,457 

48,261,821 

55,476,207 

28,058,777 

3,445,091 

4,226,350 

6,484,538 

6, 437, 879 
1, 246, 070 
5,840 
1,470,715 
4,041,337 

3, 527, 353 
3,954,053 
6,793,705 
7,594,835 
3, 184, 534 
4,101,036 
1, 226, 201 

2,363,992 
1,697,996 
9,486,021 
13,563,177 
20,611,870 

12, 964, 701 
18, 121, 194 
23,818,001 


Pounds. 




Cents. 


Per cent. 












October . . . 










Nnvpmhpr . . 










December 










1920. 
January 










February . . 










March . 










April 










May. . . 










June . 










July. 










August ... 


















































1921. 










February. . 










March . .... 










April . . ..... 






















1,137,249 
570, 854 

865, 746 

749, 965 

2, 180, 711 

1,805,754 

2,051,858 

737,924 
4, 144, 891 
4, 732, 436 


$296, 187 
126,476 

206,943 
- 178, 787 
797,946 
588,584 
697,641 

285, 638 
1, 240, 682 
1,642,058 


26.04 
22.16 

23.90 
23.84 
36.59 
32.59 
34.00 

38.70 
29.93 
34.70 


27.73 


July 


46.55 


August 


36.62 




44.17 


October 


22.99 




13.31 


December . 


9.95 


1922. 
January... 


5.69 


February 


22.87 


March 


19.87 







Small amounts of dutiable cotton come from Peru and the West 
Indies, but imports of dutiable cotton are so largely the Sakellarides 
variety from Egypt that the preceding table can be taken as showing 
with close approximation the ratio of dutiable cotton from Egypt to 
the total cotton from Egypt. Importers state that prior to the 
passage of the emergency tariff act imports of Egyptian cotton 
consisted of 40 to 50 per cent Sakellarides and 50 to 60 per cent 
"uppers." The imposition of a duty came at a time when the 
American cotton industry was just beginning to recover from a 
period of acute depression and between seasons of crop production, 
so that its effects were slight until the new Egyptian crop came on 
the market in the fall. Its effect was then apparent, not in reducing 
imports of cotton from Egypt, as these actually increased consider- 
ably over those of the previous year, owing to the greater demand 
occasioned by mills getting back to a more normal consumption, 
but in greatly reducing the proportion of Sakellarides cotton in the 



EMERGENCY TARIFF ACT AND LONG-STAPLE COTTON. 21 

total imports of cotton from Egypt. In January, 1922, for instance, 
Sakellarides constituted less than 6 per cent of the total Egyptian 
cotton imported. 

During June, July, August, and September of 1921, imports of 
Egyptian cotton were very small, but tliis would have been the case 
even if there had been no duty. The Egyptian crop is marketed in 
the fall, and imports are mainly in the period lasting from November 
to April. The effect of the emergency tariff act must therefore be 
judged during the latter period. 

With improvement in domestic demand, the arrival of the new 
crop at Alexandria, and an upward trend in prices, buying of Egyp- 
tian cotton for American consumption was stimulated, and imports 
during the period November, 1921, to April, 1922, have been, not- 
withstanding the new tariff duty, larger than for the same period 
during the preceding year. It will be noted that the average unit 
value of dutiable cotton during these months has increased over 
that of the months up to October; this increase has not been due to 
the duty (which is not included in the invoice prices stated) but to 
an increase in the market price of Egyptian the world over. 

During the months of February and March, 1922, there has been 
an increase in the proportionate amount of vSakellarides imported; 
in fact during February, 1922, imports of Sakellarides exceeded 
imports of Egyptian cotton of all kinds during the month of Feb- 
ruary, 1921. The American demand has, of course, greatly increased 
with the resumption of mill activity, but the larger proportion of 
Sakellarides is in good measure due to the scarcity of uppers ^ which 
forced mills wishing to sell fabrics made from ''Egyptian" cot- 
ton to use more of the longer and higher priced variety. It is to 
be remembered that uppers constitute less than one-half of the 
Egyptian crop. Considering the different conditions of supply and 
demand prevailing in 1922 as compared with 1921, it is evident that 
the operation of the emergency tariff act has effected a large reduc- 
tion in the use of Sakellarides cotton; i. e., imports have been less 
than they would have been without the imposition of a duty. 

A study of the Boston prices of imported Egyptian "vSakellarides" 
and of American-Egyptian "Pima" cotton does not show that the 
duty levied on cotton of 1 3-inch staple and longer has had any 
effect in raisino; the price of such domestic cotton. To illustrate, 
there is shown herewith a comparison of the prices of two grades of 
Sakellarides and two grades of Pima as printed weekly in the market 
circular of the United States Department of Agriculture. 

s Ralph Lawsoii, of John Malloch & Co., Boston, in an interview published in the Daily News Eecord 
of Doc. IN, 1921, stated: 

" The United States has thus far bought about 90,f 00 bales of Egyptians this season. At least sixty-odd 
thousand bales had been shipped up to Dec. 1, and I do not think an estimate of 3O,C0O bales contracted for 
December, January, and P'ebruary shipment an overestimate. By far the major portion of this buying 
has been of uppers.and as the present crop will not be over 100,COO bales and the carryover from last season 
was estimated at from 20,000 to 40,000 bales, it will be seen that upper Egypt cotton should be scarce by 
spring. A recent cable from Alexandria estimates that there are not over 10,COO bales of upper Egypt cotton 
available in Egypt outside of exporters' stocks. Sakel cotton, on the other hand, is very plentiful and it is 
really remarkable how the price has held in view of the tariff against it in this country and the relatively 
small demand from other parts of the world. At the moment it would look as if there were more than 
enough Sakel to satisfy the world for at least 12 months. 

"Arizona Pima cotton has been in poor demand, and is relatively verj' cheap as compared with Sakel, 
when onetakes the duty into consideration. No. 2 Pima has sold as low as 34 cents, which is 5 cents cheaper 
than the er|uivalent grade of Sakel and 12 cents cheaper, counting the duty. Many spinners have lately 
been expenitienling with Pima and are obtaining varying results, but spinners who have used it for several 
years tell us that they are able to get satisfactory results from it in consequence of careful studj' in regard 
to its liandling." 



22 



EMERGENCY TARIFF ACT AND LONG-STAPLE COTTON. 



Table 1L- 



-Comparison of Boston prices of Sakellarides and Pima cotton. 
(From the weekly Market Reporter of U. S. Dept. Agr.i) 
[Cents per pound.] 



Date. 


Fully good Sakel- 
larides— 


No. 2 
Pima. 


Margin 

of Sakel 

over 

Pima. 


Good fair Sakel- 
larides. 


No. 3 
. Pima. 


Margin 
of Sakel 




Without 
duty. 


With 
duty. 


Without 
duty. 


With 
duty. 


over 
Pima. 


1921. 
Jan 1 


41 

45i 

421 

41i 

40i 

41 

37i 

32 

35i 

m 

41 

38f 

40J 

39i 

4H 




354 

33 

36J 

321 
32| 

32J 

28J 

23i 

261 

32 

32 

291 

32 


7| 
8. 
8| 

i 

9 

? 

7| 

9 

9| 

81 


351 

33 

36i 

331 

331 

321 

32| 

28^ 

234 

261 

32 

32 

2% 

31i 

301 

32J 




34| 

32 

35| 


1 


8 






1 


22 






1 


29 








Feb 5 . . . 










12 ... 






31J 
31f 

27J 

22i 

251 

31 

31 

28i 

31 


1 


19 






1 


26 






1 


Mar 5 






1 


12 






1 


Apr 2 






1 


9 







1 


16 






1 


30 ... 






i 


May 7 . . . 






14 . . . 




32 

32 

34 

35 

351 

33 

33 

31 

32 

33 

34 

33 

33 

33 

34 

32 

35 

35 

354 

40 

42 

40 

46 

41 

41 

41 

40 

37 

38i 

34 

37 
39 

39 
39 
37 
35* 


n 




31 
. 31 
33 
34 
33| 
32 
32 


IJ 


21 








28 


361 
36| 
341 
34i 
33i 
32* 
34J 
33i 

in 

351 

36| 

37| 

37J 

43^ 

41i 

46i 

461 

491 

63i 

56t 

57^ 

5H 
48^ 
461 
48| 
51| 

521 
521 
50| 
49i 
49-1 
46 




n 

9i 

71 

8j 

9J 

7i 

7i 

9i 

9i 
10| 
10| 
12| 

i3r 

13| 

301 
171 
19i 
17i 
17i 

la 

17i 
14| 

22i 
20| 
18* 
17i 
191 
17i 


26^ 

261 

25^ 

261 

25i 

24 

24| 

251 

24i 

261 

251 

27 

27i 

26i 

27J 

311 

34 

331 

36i 

49i 

43 

42i 

381 

381 

38i 

36| 

37i 

38J 

39 

37i 
35J 
351 
32| 
234* 
36| 
36 
35i 
351 
2 351 
2 34i 
34i 
33| 
32* 
35' 
35i 
36J 




-6i 




431 
411 
41i 
40a 
39i 
41| 
40i 
41i 
42i 
42i 
43f 

50t^ 

48i 

53-1 

531 

56| 

701 

631 

63i 

58^ 

58J 

55i 

531 

a 

591 

591 
57i 
• 561 
561 
53 


331 

324 

33^ 

321 

31 

31| 

32^ 

311 

331 

32f 

32 

32J 

331 

34f 

38J 

41 

401 

43i 

564 

50 

49i 

451 

451 

45J 

431 

43J 

45J 

46 

46i 

44i 

42i 

421 

38| 

4H 

431 

43 

421 

421 

421 

41* 

4l| 

40| 

39i 

42 

42i 

43| 


- i 


11 


-11 


18 


\\ 


25 


i 


July 2 




9 


31 
33 
34 
33 
33 
33 
34 
32 
35 
35 
34 
37 
39 
37 
44 
38 
38 
38 
37 
35 
36 
32 

35 

37 

36i 

36* 

34i 

33* 

34 

34 

34 

31 

31 

30i 

30i 

30i 

29 

29 

30 

32 

33 


- 1 


16 


- f 


23 


-21 


30 


i 


Aug. 6 


- i 


13 


-1 


20 


-11 


27 


1^ 


Sept. 3 


- i 


10 


3i 


17 


7 


24 


31 


Oct. 1 


4i 


8 


19f 


22 


6 


29 


Hi 


Nov. 5 


71 


12 




19 


gi 


26 


8| 


Dec. 3 


7i 


31 


13i 


1922. 
Jan. 7 


11 


14 


9i 


21 


7f 


28 


6i 


Feb. 4 


71 


11 


51 


18 


7i 


25 


48J 
48f 
47i 
48i 


55f 
551 
54i 
55i 


36 

36 

33 

33 

32i 

32i 

32* 

31" 

31 

32 

34 

35 


19J 
19| 
21i 
22\ 


^ 


Mar. 4 


9 


11 


iij 


18 


111 


24 


12J 


31 








11 


Apr. 7 


461 
46J 
44i 
461 

m 

48 


53i 
53| 
51i 
531 
54| 
55 


21| 

1 

20t 
20 


Hi 


^ 14::.: 


m 


21 


lOi 


28 


12 


May 6 


lOi 


12 


lOi 







1 Name changed in January, 1922, to "Weather, Crops, and Markets" of U. S. Dept. Agr. 

2 Quotations from the Daily News Record. 



EMERGENCY TARIFF ACT AND LONG-STAPLE COTTON. 23 

It is seen from Table 11 that in the months prior to the passage 
of the emergency tariff act the Boston landed price of fully good 
Sakellarides was 8 to 9 cents a pound higher than the Boston price of 
Pima No. 2; similarly, that the price of good fail* Sakellarides was 
about 1 cent a pound higher than that of Pima No. 3. 

When the emergency tariff act of May 27, 1921, went into effect 
the between-season market was lifeless, and both imports and con- 
sumption of long-staple cotton were at a low ebb. This slack period 
was, however, probably the only time at which the duty affected 
prices. Egyptian surplus stocks were offered very cheap, although 
with few takers, whereas Pima, reinforced by the duty, maintained 
a better level. During June and July of 1921, fully good Sakellarides 
was landed, ex duty, at the same or only slightly above the price 
of Pima No. 2, whereas good fair Egyptian was landed, ex duty, at 
prices considerably below Pimia No. 3. 

When the new Egyptian cotton crop began to come on the market, 
various factors, such as the abnormally low estimate of the American 
cotton crop made by the United States Department of Agriculture 
and an increasing world demand for manufactured goods, caused 
prices of Egyptian cotton to rise rapidly, whereas American mills 
increased but slightly their actual purchases of Pima cotton. By 
October 8, 1921, fully good Sakellarides was selling on the Boston 
market, duty paid, at 70| cents a pound as compared with only 40 
cents for Pima No. 2; similarly, good fair Sakellarides was selling 
at 56| cents as compared with only 37 cents for Pima No. 3. 

From the October peak the prices of both Sakellarides and Pima 
gradually, with occasional reactions, slumped, but the American 
demand for Sakellarides has at all times been better than the American 
demand for Pima. On March 18, 1922, fully good Sakellarides was 
selling in Boston, duty paid, at 22^ cents a pound above Pima No. 2 , 
and similarly good fair Sakellarides was bringing 1 1 f cents a pound 
above Pima No. 2. Even without the duty, Sakellarides cotton is 
selling to-day in Boston at a higher price, as compared with Pima, 
than was the case when the emergency tariff act became effective. 

The only conclusion to be drawn from the above is that, with the 
exception of two months during the dull season just after the duty 
went into effect, the emergency tariff act has had no effect in increas- 
ing or even in upholding the price of Pima cotton. Even during the 
period stated the effect was slight, inasmuch as there were few pur- 
chases, and it is to be noted that American purchases of Sakellarides 
were most largely during the fall, when the margin of ^Sakellarides 
over Pima was much greater. . It is clear that American spinners 
are willing to pay a much higher price for l-j^-inch Sakellarides than 
they are for If -inch Pima. 

Short-staple uplands is the basic cotton crop of the world, and 
prices of other cottons necessarily follow a rise or fall in the price of 
uplands. wSuch variations from the price of the basic cotton are 
influenced and accentuated by special factors. Pima and Egyptian 
cottons tend to come together in periods of low prices and to draw 
apart on a rising market. The Pima crop, very much smaller than 
the Egyptian and in a few hands, is less subject to speculation, and 
being more securely financed and marketed by a few large growers 
can hold its level better in a distress market. It is largely controlled 
by the Pimacotton Growers' Association, and Government funds 
available through the War Finance Corporation, have been used to 



24 EMERGENCY TARIFF ACT AND LONG-STAPLE COTTON. 

enable the growers to hold for better prices. The Egyptian Gov- 
ernment also assists its growers, not only by advances through 
the National Bank of Egypt but also by the direct purchase of ' 
cotton in periods of depression. The Egyptian prices are affected 
primarily by conditions in the fine spinning industry of England, 
its main market, and secondarily by the American demand. 

The marketing of long-staple cotton is not entirely a matter of 
price. It is also largely a question of quality. This results from the 
fact that apparently slight superficial differences in cotton occasion 
great differences in spinning characteristics, so that the substitution 
of one type of cotton for another is not so simple a proposition as it 
appears to the layman. Mills maintain that it requires considerable 
adjustment of preparatory and spinning machinery to change from 
Egyptian Sakellarides of ly^-inch staple to American Pima cotton of 
l|-inch staple, and that it is inadvisable to go to this expense as 
long as the supply of the longer stapled Pima is uncertain ; the change 
is also distasteful to operatives who have become accustomed to 
working on Sakellarides. For these reasons some mills will pay a 
better price for a cotton which they have previously handled than 
for a comparable new type which in the finished product may be 
just as good. 

Sea-island cotton was at one time the only type of extra long-staple 
cotton on the market. Experimentation in Egypt developed varie- 
ties that were equal in length and strength of staple to most of the 
sea island, although somewhat inferior in fineness and luster. For 
most purposes the Egyptian cotton was as usable as the sea island, 
yet it was with considerable difficulty, notwithstanding the con- 
tinuous cooperation of the Egyptian Government, that growers 
of long-staple Egyptian were able to secure a permanent market for 
their cotton. The increasing demand for long-staple cotton afforded 
them the opportunity of establishing connections, and the subse- 
quent decline of the sea-island crop has given Egyptian cotton prac- 
tically universal preference in the long-staple industry. 

The growers of Pima cotton find themselves in a similar difficulty. 
Mills which have become accustomed to the extra-long staple 
Egyptian Sakellarides are willing to pay more for it if necessary, or, 
if the yarn count to be spun is not too high, to substitute shorter 
staple Egyptian uppers. This is not altogether because of their own 
preference but frequently because of the prejudices of consumers of 
their goods who insist on "Egyptian" cotton but not necessarily on 
any particular variety or staple of Egyptian. Therefore, without 
considerable price advantage to cover the cost of experimentation, 
many mills feel that they can not run the risk involved in a substitu- 
tion of American grown cotton for the Egyptian.^" Spinners of fine 

'» The Daily News Record (of New York City) in its issue of Feb. 4, 1922, states in a review of the New 
Bedford market: 

"Pima has commanded more than its usual share of interest among the long cottons. Cotton men 
declare that there can be no overlooking the fact that the use of Pima for line goods is meeting with consider- 
able favor with I he mills where it has been mtrodnced. Last week the Pima shijipers held out against the 
offers, based on a good demaiid early in the week, and prices were held more firmly than other grades of 
cotton. This week Pimas took their tumble, while other prices were strengthening. All grades of Pima 
were this week about 2 cents a pound under the quotations of a week ago. 

" One local broker who said frankly thai he regards Pima nuich lower than the same Sakellarides cotton, 
explained that the Pima interests must discount this by a realization that Pima is not known thoroughly 
enough by the mills to enable them to i>ush that cotton to its full value yet. 

'"They do not seem to realize the fact that they have a type of cotton with which most mills are not 
familiar/ he said. 'In order to introduce it and get any considerable number of mills into the habit of 
using it— to get the workers experienced enough in running it through the mill machinery so that they can 
get out of the cotton all the value there is in it— I believe it is absolutely essential that the cotton be made 
especially attractive from a price standpoint.'" 



EMEKGENCY TAHIEF ACT AND LONG-STAPLE COTTON. 25 

yarns, particularly thread manufacturers, maintain that notwith- 
standing its extra length, Pima has not the character or strength of 
Sakellarides, and therefore can not be satisfactorily substituted in the 
manufacture of fine counts above No. 80. 

The world demand for cotton of extra long staple has been increas- 
ing faster than the supply, and the probability is that, duty or no 
duty, the surplus stocks resulting from the recent depression will 
gradually be absorbed and long staple cotton from any source, 
Egyptian, American, or other, become increasingly easy to market. 



APPENDIX. 

Foreign tariff duties on raw cotton, ginned. 
(As compiled by the Bu. of For. & Dom. Com. for Aug. 15, 1921.) 



Cotmtry. 



Foreign units. 



Rate of duty. 



Cents per 
pound. 



Europe: 

Austria-Hungary 

Belgium 

Bulgaria 

Denmark 

France 

Germany 

Greece 

Holland 

Italy 

Norway 

Portugal 

Rumania 

Russia 

Serbia 

Spain 

Sweden 

Switzerland 

Turkey 

United Kingdom 

Asia: 

British India 

Ceylon 

China 

Chosen 

French Indo-CMna. . 

Persia 

Siam 

Japan 

Oceania: 

AustraUa 

New Zealand 

Philippine Islands. . . 
Africa: 

Algeria 

British South Africa. 

Egypt 

Morocco 

South America: 

Argentina 



Bolivia . . . 

Brazil 

Colombia. 

Chile 

Ecuador. . 
Paraguay. 



Peru 

Do.... 
Uruguay. . 
Venezuela . 



Silver lev per 100 kilograms, gross . 



Lire per 100 kilograms, net . 



Milreis per kilo, net 

Leu per 100 kilograms, gross weight . . 
Roubles per pood, net 



Pesetas per 100 kilograms, gross weight . 



Francs per 100 kilos . 
Per cent ad valorem. 



Haikwan taels per ciul, net. 



Ad valorem . 



Pence per pound. 



Ad valorem . 
do 



On a valuation of 0.36 peso per kUo, 
with inner packing. 

Boliviano per kilo, gross weight 

MUreis per kilo 

Per kilo, gross weight 



Sucres per kilo, gross weight 

On a valuation of 0.48 peso per kilo, 
gross weight. 

Soles per kilo, gross weight 

do 



Bolivar per kilo, gross weight. . 



Free 

Free 

20 

Free 

Free 

Free 

Free 

Free 

3 

Free 

0.030 

1 

4 

Free 

1.30 

Free 

1 

11 percent. 
Free 



Free 

Free 

0.8 

Free 

Free 

Free 

3 per cent . 
Free 



Free. 

4 

Free. 



Free 

Free 

8 per cent . . . 
12^ per cent . 

5 per cent . . . 



0.07 

1.09 

0.03 

Free 

0.025 

42 per cent . 



0.05.... 
0.05.... 
Free . . . 
0.25.... 



1 Conventional rate, including surtax. 

2 Rate varies according to fluctuations of standard of value. 

' Cotton of Persian origin is admitted at 0.. 57043 cents per pound. 
■• At Shanghai 0.309 cents per pound, including .surtax of 3 per cent. 
•'' Including surtax. 
8 There is a deduction of 2 per cent of weight for tare if packed in bales. 

7 There is a surtax of 2 per cent ad valorem. 

8 Including surtax, at the ports of Callao, Salaverry, Paita, and Pisco. 
» Including surtax, at other ports. 

'" Ad valorem surtax. 

26 



Free. 

Free. 

2.1010.1 

Free. 

Free. 

Free. 

Free. 

Free. 

0.2626. 

Free. 

1.26. 

0.0875.2 

5.7043.3 

Free. 

0.1138. 

Free. 

0.0877. 

11 per cent. 

Free. 

Free. 

Free. 

0.43.1 

Free. 

Free. , 

Free. 

3 per cent. 
Free. 

Free. 

8.1108. 

Free. 

Free. 

Free. 

8 per cent. 

12^ per cent. 

0.789. 

1.23. 

6.93.6,6 

1.388.5 

Free. 

1.2167.' 

9.1583.6 

1.3272.8 
1.305.9 

4 per cent.'" 
3.433.6 



i 



EMERGENCY TARIFF ACT AND LONG-STAPLE COTTON. 

Foreign tariff duties on raw cotton, ginned — Continued. 



27 



Country. 


Foreign units. 


Rate of duty. 


Cents per 
pound. 


North and Central America: 
Canada. 




Free 


Free. 






0.05 


1.1104.11 


Do 


. ...do 


0.05 


1.0786.12 


Cuba 


DoUars per 100 kilos, gross weight 

.do 


0.70 


0.3175.13 


Dominican Republic . . . . 


10.00 


4.5360. 






0.03 


0.722.13 


Haiti . 


Ad valorem 


20 per cent 

0.10 .• 

0.25 


23.8 per cent.5 


Honduras 


Peso per half-kilo, gross weight 

Peso per kilo, gross weight 


3.9272.H 




6.2249.5 




Peso per 100 kilos, gross weight 


1 


0.5114.5 


Newfoundland . . 


Free 


Free. 


Panama. . 


Ad valorem 


15 per cent 

Free 


15 per cent. 






Free. 






Free 


Free. 




\l| inches or more in length . . . . 


7 cents a pound.. 















5 Inchiding surtax. 

11 Including surtax for Provinces of Limon. 

12 Including surtax for other Provinces. 

13 Rate to United States; to other countries, 0.4536 cents per pound, 
n Rate varies according to fluctuations of standards of value. 

Note. — In general, conversions are based on the par or fixed standard rates of currency. In some 
instances the market rates of exchange have fallen below the standards which prevailed for a long time 
before the war. 

WORLD SUPPLY OF AND DEMAND FOR EXTRA-LONG-STAPLE COTTONS. 

The Cotton Research Board, of the Ministry of Agriculture, Egypt, 
in its first annual report, 1920, stated: 

When other sources of supply are considered, it will be seen that there is a great 
potentiality in Egypt for an increased production of Sakel, and in consequence, 
other factors being equal, for a lowering in price. But the future trade for fine cot- 
tons has an equally great possibility of increasing, and it may absorb all the fine 
cottons that can be produced and demand more. The increase of the motor- tire trade 
and the expansion of airplane traffic, the increased substitution of fine cotton fabrics 
for silk, the increased education of the masses and the consequent demand for rnore 
luxurious fabrics, all indicate that, in spite of the general depression now prevailing, 
it may be expected that the demand for long-staple cotton will increase. 

After stating that the production of sea-island cotton in the United 
States and the West Indies (British and Dutch) may be disregarded 
because of their smallness and the fact that their use is so highly 
specialized for a particular class of work that they can not be con- 
sidered as serious competitors of the Egyptian crop, the Cotton 
Research Board estimates the present and future positions of the extra 
long staple cotton crop (presuming that the present normal return 
per feddan or acre is maintained) as follows: 



Countrv. 



Present 
outturn. 1 



Possible 
outturn 
30 years 
hence.' 



Maximum 

possible 

after a 

long 

period. 1 



Egypt 

Oazira, Sudan 

Tukar and Kassala, Sudan 
Ame.'ican-Egyptian 



550, 000 

9,000 

10, 000 

35,000 



1,075,000 

56,000 

80,000 

200,000 



1 In 500-pound bales. 



1,075,000 
186, 000 
100,000 
310,000 



28 



EMERGENCY TARIFF ACT AND LONG-STAPLE COTTON. 



Buying and selling prices of Egyptian cotton as fixed by the Cotton Control Commission 

in 1918} 

UPPER EGYPT. 



Mark. 



UAA.. 
UAB.. 
UAC 
UBD.. 
UBE.. 
UBF.. 
UCG.. 
UCH.. 
UCJ... 
UDK. 
UDL.. 
UEM. 
UEO.. 
UFP.. 
UFR.. 
UGS.. 
UHT. 
UJV.. 
ULZ.. 
UMA. 
UOB.. 



Description. 



Fully good extra staple 

Fully good medium staple 

FuUy good short staple 

Good extra staple 

Good medium staple 

Good short staple. '. 

FuUy good fair to good extra staple . . . 
Fully good fair to good medium staple 
Fully good fair to good short staple — 

Fully good fair good staple 

Fully good fair staple 

Good fair to fuly good fair good staple 
Good fair to fuily good fair fair staple.. 

Good fair good staple 

Good fair fair staple 

Fully fair average staple 

Fairto fully fair average staple 

Fair ". 

Middling fair 

Middling 

Low middling 



Buying 
. price. 



Tallari? 
40 
39 
37§ 
-38 
37 
36 
36 
3.5i 
35 
35 
34i 
33 
32 
32 
31 
27i 
26' 
23* 
20' 
15 
10 



32 



SAKELLARIDES. 



SAA. 
SAB. 
SAC. 
SAD. 
SBE. 
SBF. 
SBG. 
SBH. 
SCJ.. 
SCK. 
SCL.. 
SCM. 
SDO. 
SDP. 
SDR. 
SES.. 
SET. 
SEV. 
SFX. 
SFZ.. 
SGA. 
SGB. 
SHC. 
SJD.. 
SKE. 
SLF. 
SMG. 
SOH. 
SPJ.. 



Fully good extra fine staple 

Fully good good staple 

Fully good fair staple 

Fully good short staple 

Good extra fine staple 

Good good staple 

Good fair staple 

Good short staple 

Fully good fair to good extra fine staple. . . 

Fully good fair to good good staple 

Fully good fair to good fair staple 

Fully good fair to good short staple 

Fully good fair extra staple 

Fully good fair medium staple 

Fully good fair short staple 

Good fair to fully good fair extra staple — 
Good fair to fully good fair medium staple 

Good fair to f(,illy good fair short staple 

Good fair good staple 

Good fair fair staple 

Fully fair to good fair good staple 

Fully fair to good fair fair staple , 

Fillly fair average staple 

Fair to fully fair average staple , 

Fair average staple 

Middling fair to fair average staple 

Middling fair average staple 

Middling average staple 

Low middling average staple 



57 

54 

52 

49 

53 

50 

48 

45 

48 

46 

44i 

43 

43i 

42 

41 

41i 

40J 

40 

40 

39 

38 

37 

35 

33 

30 

25 

20 

15 

10 



BROWN. 



BAA.... 
BAB... 
BAG.... 
BCD.... 
BCE.... 
BCF...-. 
BDG.... 
BDH... 
BDJ.. .. 



Fully good extra staple 

Fully good medium staple 

Fully good short staple 

Good extra staple 

Good medium staple 

Good short staple 

Fully good fair to good extra staple.. . . 
Fully good fair to good medium staple. 
Fully good fair to good short staple 



' As quoted in Commerce Reports No. 231, Oct. 2, 1918, pp. 26, 2?. 

2 In Egypt cotton is sold in tallari per cantar, which is practically the same as cents per pound. The 
canlar is equal to 99.05 pounds. Egyptian money is based on the niillicnic 10 inillicmes make 1 piaster 
tarif; 200 millieines make one tallari" or dollar; 1,000 milliemes make the pound Egyptian, which is equal 
to £1 Os fid. At normal exchange the pound Egvptian is equal to $4.9431 and the tallari to one-fifth of 
this, or 98.>-6 cents. The price of cotton as stated in tallari per cantar is therefore not materially different 
from dollars per hundred pounds or from cents per pound. 



EMERGENCY TAEIFF ACT AND LONG-STAPLE COTTON, 



29 



Buying and selling prices of Egyptian cotton as fixed hy the Cotton Control Commission 

in 1918 — Continued. 
BROWN— Coatinued. 



Type 
No. 


Mark. 


79 


BEK... 


80 


BEL.... 


81 


BFM.... 


82 


BFO.... 


83 


BGP.... 


84 


BGR.... 


85 


BHS.... 


86 


BHT.... 


87 


BJV... 


88 


BKX... 


89 


BLZ.... 


90 


BMA . . . 


91 


BOB.... 


92 


BPC... 



Description. 



FuUj- good fair good staple 

Fully good fair fair staple 

Good fair to fully good fair good staple 
Good fair to fully good fair fair staple.. 

Good fair good staple 

Good fair fair staple 

Fully fair to good fair good staple 

Fully fair to good fair fair staple 

Fully fair average staple 

Fair'to fully fair average staple 

Fair average staple 

Middling fair average staple 

Middling average staple 

Low middling average staple 



Buying 
price. 



Tallari. 
38i 
37i 
37 
36 
35i 
34i 
33 
32 
30 
28 
25 
20 
15 
10 



Selling 
price, 
f. o. b. 



Tallari. 
44i 
43i 
43 
42 
41i 
40i 
39 
38 
36 
34 
31 
26 
21 
16 



AFRICA. 




SakeDarides, first quality 

Sakellarides, second quality. 

Brown, first quality 

Brown, second quality 

Ashmuni, first quality 

Ashmuni, second quality 

Mixed , third quality 

Mixed, fourth quality 



7 


13 


6 


12 


6^ 


12i 


bit 


Hi 


7 


13 


6 


12 


4* 


lOi 


3* 


9i 



PRICES OF EGYPTIAN COTTON AT ALEXANDRIA. 

The following table is furnished by a leading importer of Egyptian 
cotton to show the prices in cents per pound of fully good fair Sakel- 
larides and fully good fair uppers f. o. b. Alexandria, Egypt. 

The importer states : "These are monthly prices and are as near as 
we can get to the average price of each month. By adding 2\ cents 
a pound to these prices you will get the c. i. f. Boston prices. Fully 
good fair Sakel corresponds to Pima No. 2 in grade, but the Pima 
will not do the work of Sakel of the same gi'ade, particularly in high- 
count yarns. The American staple type w^hich we would compare to 
the upper Egyptian prices is Middling 1^ inches." 

Prices f. o. b. Alexandria. Egypt, of fully good fair Sakellarides and of fully good fair 

uppers. 

[Cents per pound.] 



Month. 



1911-12 



Sakel- 
larides. 



Up- 
pers. 



1912-13 



Sakel- 
larides. 



Up- 
pers. 



1913-14 



Sakel- 
larides. 



Up- ! Sakel- j Up- 
pers, j larides. pers. 



1916-17 1 



Sakel- 
larides. 



Up- 
pers. 



August 

September . 

October 

November . 
December . 
January . . . 
February . . 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 



28 

25 

23J 

23 

22 

23 

23 

24 

24i 

24' 

25 



18 

16i 

15 

14 

14 

15 

loi 

16i 

17' 

18 

18 



23 

23 

21J 

23 

24 

23i 

23J 

23i 

23J 

225 

22i 

22 



16J 

17 

15 

16 

17 

17i 

18 

I8i 

19 

18i 

18 

m 



2H 

22i 

23 

22i 

22' 

21i 

2U 

21J 

211 

22 

22J 

215 



17 

175 

18J 

18 

17t 

165 

16i 

155 

16i 

16i 

16i 

16 



20} 

16} 
18 



17i 

18 

21 

22 

22 

215 

21 



15i 

85 
11 

95 
lOi 
11 
13 
14 
125 
125 
12 



1 1915-16 data lacking. 



» Closed. 



30 



EMERGENCY TARIFF ACT AND LONG-STAPLE COTTON. 



Prices f. o. b. Alexandria, Egypt, of fully good fair Sakellarides aiid of fully good fair 

uppers — Continued. 

[Cents per pound.] 





1917 


-18 


1918-19 


191E 


-20 


192C 


-21 


1921 


-22 


Month. 


Sakel- 
larides. 


Up- 
pers. 


Sakel- 
larides. 


Up- 
pers. 


Sakel- 
, larides. 


Up- 
pers. 


Sakel- 
larides^ 


Up- 
pers. 


Sakel- 
larides. 


Up- 
pers. 




60 

48 

46 

45 

45 

44 

41 

44 

44^ 

43 

43 

464 


40 

29 

32 

34. 

37 

36 

34 

37 

364 

36 

37 

40 


(3) 
(3) 

{') 
(=) 

(«) 
(') 
(=) 

(3) 


(3) 
(3) 
(3) 
(3) 
(3) 
(3) 
(3) 
(■3) 
(2) 
(3) 
(3) 
(3) 






134 
125 
80 
70 
40 
35 
30 
26 
30 
30 
27 
30 


75 
60 
40 
25 
26 
25 
15 
20 
17 
17 
17 
17 


30 

45 

48 

39 

40J 

40 

34 

36 

35 


17 




1 57 

1 60 

70 

92 

140 

187 

! 165 

i 162 

i 126 

105 

120 


50 

50 

70 

90 

115 

140 

115 

110 

90 

80 

75 


324 


October 


36 




30 


December . . . 


314 


January 


29 


Febi uary 


24 


March 


25 




24 












July 













3 Prices fixed by Cotton Control Commission (see p. 28). 

PKICES OF PIMA COTTON AT BOSTON. 

In answer to an inquiry from the Tariff Commission, the Arizona 
Pimacotton Growers' Association wrote, under date of March 29, 
1922: 

"After having checked the quotations on Pima No. 2 from every 
source possible, we find that the following quotations, Boston basis, 
are the best available: 



Month. 



1917. 

October 

December 

1918. 

January 

March 

October 

November. . . 
December . . . 

1919. 

January 

February 

April 



Cents per 
pound. 



77 

73 

70A 

G34 

CO 



Month. 



1919. 
May 

December ... 

1920. 

January 

February 

March 

May 

November. . . 
December 

1921. 

January 

February 



Cents per 
pound. 



97* 
108J 
110 
125 

454 
384 



Month. 



1921. 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September... 

October 

November. . . 
December . . . 

1922. 

January 

February 

March 



Cents per 
pound. 



294 

31 

33i 

32J 

33J 

33'4 

39 

42i 

39 

33 



Trend of Extra Staple Cotton Prices Since Early 1914, with Review op 1921. 
[By Benjamin Adler, in Daily News Record of Jan. 6, 1922.) 

The year 1921 had more than a sobering effect on prices of extra staple cotton,' 
which began to recover from its wild orgy of speculation for the rise toward the autumn 
of 1920. Prices gave sign of receding to a lower level in June, 1920, and, after a few 
precipitous declines, duplicated in June and July their highs of the month of May. 
The strength during these two months was due to technical reasons, bears having 
been unwary of the negligible amount of certificated cotton in New York, and lieing 
called on to" deliver what they had sold, were unable to accomplish it with the New 
\orK stock or to tiansport in time from the South for lack of facilities. 

This artificial strength of the New York future marKct gave comfort to holders of 
e ;t.a staple cotton in the P^ast and South. After the liquidation of the July positions, 



EMERGENCY TARIFF ACT AND LONG-STAPLE COTTON. 31 

at 43 J cents per pound, the highest price for short cotton since the Civil War, prices 
began to tumble like a house of cards. The continued stressing of the weakness of 
sterling and of other foreign exchanges, with their subsequent collapse: the coal 
strike in England, attended by a shut-down of cotton mills in Manchester and Lan- 
cashire; the uncomfortable position of the banks which, due to a long period of cheap 
money, encouraged speculation; the industrial slow-down here; the debatable policy 
of the retired administration's campaign of warning the great buying public to tighten 
its purse strings, and the wholesale calling of loans which forced on an unwilling 
market warehouses full of merchandise and commodities. All these things were too 
much for cotton. 

HOW SAKS SLUMPED. 

In the New Bedford market prices between sales of extra staple cotton fell 15 to 
20 cents a pound. From the high of $L50 a pound for Egyptian Sakellarides, which 
this gi-ade of cotton touched in June. 1920. prices already had fallen in November of 
the same year to 34 cents, and in March. 1921. could be bought at 20 cents. 

Cotton of other growths fared no better. In the pell-mell of liquidation one unfavor- 
able factor succeeded another. The 1920 crop of 13.400.000 bales of cotton came on 
the market at a time when its financing was well-nigh impossible. Its production had 
cost more than the price at which it could be marketed, therefore little of it had 
been hedged either by the banks or the growers, necessitating the carrying of the cot- 
ton or its sale at ruinous prices. 

Exports of cotton were down to a minimum. To combat the unfavorable economic 
situation a policy of reduced acreage to cotton was adopted by the growers throughout 
the world. In Egypt it was commanded by the Sultan's decree. The use of fertilizer 
was cut 50 per cent. 

FIRST CROP REPORT WAS DISCOUNTED. 

Notwithstanding all these aids to higher prices, the first Govei'nment report of the 
crop in June, indicating an alarming reduction of acreage and the lowest condition 
report on record, the market did not respond to the figures. The world had already 
begun to discount an 8,000,000-bale crop, the smallest in many years, by offsetting it 
with an estimated carryover of almost 8,000,000, with world consumption of American 
cotton going at the rate of 10,000,000 bales a year. 

Cotton had another sinking spell, and in June the lowest prices of the year were 
registered. To give an idea of the extent to which cotton had declined, 1^-inch 
strict good ordinary cotton was sold in Fall River at that time as low as 6 cents per 
pound. 

UPPERS TOUCHED 12j CEXTS. 

Egyptian uppers suitable for tire yarns sold as low as 12| cents, as against $1.20 
the year before. 

Peruvian mitafifi sold at 11 cents as against $1.15. 

Brazilian l-pg-inch sold at 9 cents, compared to 80 cents. 

In September alarming reports of boll-weevil infestation throughout the cotton- 
growing States caused a reversal of sentiment and a violent uprush started, carrying 
prices up almost $45 per bale in one month on the New York futures market alone. 

Extra staples advanced by leaps and bounds. Though mills tried hard to main- 
tain a hand-to-mouth buying policy, the shortage of good staple cotton and small 
stocks in spinning establishments rendered their position vulnerable. In September, 
Egyptian uppers had climbed to 44 cents, Sakellarides to 58 cents, Brazilians to 30 
cents; and l^s-inch Americans to 38 cents. 

POSITION STRONG TO-DAY. 

From these prices natural reactions have occurred, but prices have withstood pres- 
sure very well, indicating a very strong position. Cotton is very firmly held. Bul- 
warked by the knowledge of the shortage of desirable staple cottons, together with 
the fact that most long-staple producing countries are experiencing a deterioration 
in their growth, and that the tire industry, the chief users of staple cotton, are begin- 
ning to reawaken to renewed activity, the outlook for 1922 is encouraging. 



32 EMERGENCY TARIFF ACT AND LONG-STAPLE COTTON. 

Early 1914 pre-ivar prices, with short cotton selling around 12 cents. 



Strict middling Cents. 

l-iV-inch \A\ 

ifinch 15i 

lA-inch 16i 

li-inch 18 

li^-inch 20 

l|-inch 23 

1919 cotton prices {cents per pound). 



\ 
I 



January. 


June. 


August. 


October. 


35 


40 


46 


55 


39 


46 


52 


65 


41 


48 


54 


70 


43 


50 


.56 


73 


46 


52 


58 


75 


46 


47 


55 


58 


58 


. 69 


. 67 


68 


60 


60 


70 


70 


45 


48 


56 


60 


35 


38 


44 


48 



Novem- 
ber. 



American strict middling 

iTV-inch , 

l|-inch 

1-^inch 

ij-incli 

lA-inch 

P. Mitafifl 

American-Egyptian 

Sakellarides 

Uppers 

Brazilians 



1920 cotton prices {cents per pound). 



American strict middling: 

1-iVinch 

l|-inch 

li^inch 

IJ-incii 

lyV-inch 

P. Mitaflfl 

American-Egyptian 

Sakellarides 

Uppers 

Brazilians 



January. 



94 
100 
106 



May. 



60 
90 
100 
115 



115 
125 
150 
120 

80 



August. 



Novem- 
ber. 



1921 cotton prices {cents per pound). 





January. 


March. 


August. 


Septem- 
ber. 


Decem- 
ber. 


American strict middling: 
IJ-inch 


20 
22 
24 
26 
20 
30 
33 
22 
15 


IS 
20 
22 
24 
18 
27 
28 
20 
15 


18 
22 
24 
28 
17 


34 
38 
40 
43 
30 
40 
45 
32 
28 


28 


l-Tj-inch V 


31 


IJ-incli 


36 


lyVinch 


40 


P. Mitaflfl 


32 


American-Egyptian 


40 


Sakellarides 


32 

18 
14 


41 


Uppers 


33 


Brazilians 


25 







EMERGENCY TAEIFF ACT AND LONG-STAPLE COTTON. 



33 



Net imports of cotton, 1891-1921. 
[Compiled from "Commerce and Navigation of the United States.' 



Fiscal year. 



Imports. 



Reexports. 



Net imports. 



1891.. 
1892., 
1893., 
1894.. 
1895.. 
1896., 
1897., 
1898., 
1899., 
1900. 
1901. 
1902. 
190.3. 
1904. 
1905. 
1906. 
1907. 
1908. 
1909. 
1910. 
1911. 
1912. 
1913. 
1914. 
1915. 
1916. 
1917. 
1918. 
1919. 
1920. 
1921 ' 



Pounds. 

20,908,817 

28,663,769 

43,367,952 

27,705,949 

49, 332, 022 

55, 350, 520 

51,898,926 

52, 660, 363 

50, 158, 158 

67,398,521 

46,631,283 

98, 715, 680 

74, 874, 426 

48,840,590 

60,508,548 

70,963,633 

104,791,784 

71,072,855 

86,518,024 

86,037,691 

113,768,313 

109,780,071 

121,852,016 

123,346,899 

185,204,579 

232,801,062 

147,061,635 

103,325,647 

103, 592, 194 

.345,314,126 

125,938,754 



Valve. 

$2, 825, 004 

3,217,521 

4,688,799 

3, 003, 888 

4, 714, 375 

6,578,212 

5, 884, 262 

5,019,503 

5, 013. 146 

7,960,945 

6, 787, 828 

11,712,170 

10,892,591 

8,541,510 

9,414,750 

10, 879, 592 

19,930,988 

14, 172, 241 

13, 622, 802 

15,816,138 

24, 776, 320 

20,217,581 

22,987,318 

19,456,588 

23,208,960 

40,150,342 

40,429,526 

36, 020, 483 

37,633,612 

156,918,719 

44,666,171 



Pounds. 

447, 794 

132 777 

360^ 832 

1,029,936 

771,614 

1,188,356 

1,188,523 

499, 684 

293,988 

1,381,463 

306,452 

1,470,566 

1,475,494 

1,701,651 

650, 294 

3, 148, 439 

10, 836, 241 

.3,572,872 

1,515,871 

5,531,879 

2,332,679 

1, 176, 849 

871, 145 

1, 998, 231 

13,570,362 

9, 426, 354 

1,960,995 

1,798,821 

2, 249, 977 

8,491,346 

7,917,637 



Value. 

$83, 048 

20,964 

51,814 

141,051 

70, 546 

112,162 

114,768 

41,6.59 

31,147 

168, 761 

41,358 

172,890 

189, 786 

266, 195 

79, 727 

484,656 

1,366,478 

451,377 

204, 120 

1,299,245 

452, 938 

182,377 

129, 747 

329,311 

1,541,979 

1,344,878 

423,482 

679, 045 

904, 753 

5, 472, 629 

3,948,939 



Pounds. 
20,461,023 
28, 530, 992 
43,007,120 
26,676,013 
48,560,408 
54, 162, 164 
50,710,403 
52, 160, 679 
49,854,170 
66,017,058 
46, 324, 831 
97, 245, 114 
73,398,932 | 
47,138,939 
59,858,254 
67,815,194 
93,955,543 
67,499,983 i 
.85,002,153 ; 
80, 505, 812 
111,435,634 
108, 603, 222 
120, 980, 871 
121,348,668 
171,634,217 
223, 374, 70S 
145,100,640 
101,526,826 
101,342,217 
336, 822, 780 
118,021,117 



Value. 

$2,741,956 

3,196,557 

4,636,985 

2, 862, 837 

4,643,829 

6, 466, 050 

5,769,494 

4,977,844 

4,981,999 

7, 792, 184 

6,746,470 

11,539,280 

10, 702, 805 

8, 275, 315 

9,-335,023 

10,394,93'j 

18,564,510 

13, 720, 864 

13,418,682 

14,516,893 

24,-323,382 

20, 035, 204 

22,857,571 

19, 127, 277 

21,666,981 

38,805,464 

40, 006, 044 

35,341,438 

36, 728, 859 

151,446,090 

40, 717, 232 



' Includes 1,137,249 pounds, valued at $296,187, dutiable under emergency tariff act. 



PRODUCTION, CONSUMPTION, EXPORTS, AND IMPORTS OF COTTON, 

• (Census Bulletin No. 147— Published in 1921.) 

The table below shows the production of cotton, average net weight of bale, average 
value per pound, consumption of cotton and linters, exports of domestic cotton, and 
net imports of raw cotton from 1790 to 1920. The value of this table lies chiefly in its 
presentation for comparative purposes of relative quantities of each of the items 
shown for a series of years. The data here given can not be used for arriving at the 
aggregate supply and distribution of cotton and linters for a number of years, or even 
for a single year, as the table does not take into account stocks carried over, destroyed, 
or the balancing item shown on earlier pages, 

PRODUCTION, CONSUMPTION, EXPORTS, AND NET IMPORTS OF RAW COTTON, FOR THE 

UNITED states: 1790 TO 1920. 

Production . — The production statistics relate, when possible, to the year of growth, 
but when figures for the growth year are wanting, those for a commercial crop which 
represents the trade movement have been taken. The statistics of production for 
the years 1790 to 1898, inclusive, have been compiled from publications of the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture; for the years 1899 to 1920, inclusive, and for other years, when 
available, census figures have been used. 

Price of upland cotton. — For the years 1910 to 1920. inclusive, the price per pound 
shown for upland cotton represents the average price received for cotton by the 
growers as computed by the Department of Agriculture; for the years 1902 to 1909, 
it is the average price of the average grade marketed in New Orleans prior to April 1 
of the following year; for the years 1890 to 1901. inclusive, it is the average price of 
middling cotton on the New Orleans Cotton Exchange; and for the years 1790 to 1889, 
inclusive, it is taken from reports of the Department of Agriculture. 

Consumption. — The statistics of consumption for the years 1790 to 1894. inclusive, 
have been compiled from publications of the Department of Agriculture, and those 
for the years 1895 to 1903, inclusive, from the reports of Latham, Alexander ct Co. 
Census figures haA'e been used for the years 1904 to 1920, inclusive, and for other 
years when available. The statistics relate to the 12 months during which the crop 
of the specified year was chiefly marketed, and not to the calendar year specified. 



34 



EMERGENCY TARIFF ACT AND LONG-STAPLE COTTON. 



Domestic exports and net imports. — For the years 1790 to 1819, inclusive, the statis- 
tics have been taken from American State papers, and for the years 1820 to 1920 from 
the reports on Commerce and Navigation of the United States, published by the 
Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Department of Commerce. For the 
years 1790 to 1842, inclusive, the statistics of exports relate to the 12 months beginning 
with October 1 of the specified year; for 184.3 to 1866, inclusive, to the 12 months 
beginning with July 1; for 1867 to 191.3, inclusive, to the 12 months beginning with 
September 1; and for 1914 to 1920 to the 12 months beginning with August 1. The 
statistics of imports relate to the same periods as the statistics of exports. 

PRODUCTION, CONSUMPTION, EXPORTS, AND NET IMPORTS OF RAW COTTON FOR 
THE UNITED STATES: 1790 TO 1920. 



COTTON PRODUCTION (INCLUDING LINTERS). 



Running 

bales, 
counting 
round as 
half bales. 



1.3, 699, 975 
11,920,625 
12,816,716 
12,344,664 
12, 664, 078 

12,012,813 
16, 738, 241 
14, 613, 964 
14, 090, 863 
16, 109, 349 

11,965,962 
10, 386. 209 
13, 432; 131 
11,325,882 
13, 305, 265 

10, 725, 602 
13, 697, 310 
10,015,721 
10, 784, 473 
9, 748, 546 

10, 245, 602 
9, 507, 786 
11,189,205 
10, 897, 857 
8, 532, 705 

7,161,094 
9,901,251 
7, 493, 000 
6, 700, 365 
9, 035, 379 

8, 6.52, 597 
7,472,511 
6, 938, 290 
7, 046, 833 
6, 505, 087 

6, ,575, 691 
5, 682, 000 
5,713,200 
6, 949, 756 
5, 456, 048 

6, 605, 7.50 
5. 7.')5. 3.59 
5,074,155 
4, 773, 865 
4, 474, 069 

4,632,313 
3,832,991 
4,170,388 
3, 930, 508 
2,974,351 



Equivalent 

oOO-pound 

bales, gross 

weight. 



13,879,916 
12, 028, 732 
12, 970, 048 
12, 428, 094 
12, 780, 644 

12,122,961 
16,991,830 
14, 796, 367 
14,313,015 
16, 250, 276 

12,005,688 
10, 315, 382 
13, ,587, 306 
11,375,461 
13, 595, 498 

10, 804, 556 
13,679,9.54 
10,045,615 
10, 827, 168 

9. 675. 771 

10, 266, 527 
9, 459, 935 
11,435,368 
10,985,040 
8, 515, 640 

7. 146. 772 
10, 025, 534 

7, 433, 056 
6, 658, 313 
8, 940, 867 

8, 562, 089 
7,-472,511 
6, 923, 775 
6, 884, 667 
6,314,561 

6, 369, 341 
5, 477, 448 
.5,521,963 
6, 833, 442 
5, 136, 447 

6, 3.56, 998 
o,46>;.3K7 
4,745,078 
4, 494, 224 
4,118,390 

4, .302, 818 
3, 528, 276 
3, 873, 750 
3, 6.50, 932 
2, 756, 564 



Average 

net 
weight 
of bale 

(lbs.). 



484 
482 
484 
4,80 
482 

484 
485 
484 
486 
483 



475 

484 
480 



482 
478 
480 
481 



476 
489 
482 
477 

477 
484 
474 
475 
473 

473 
478 
477 
467 
464 

463 
460 
482 
470 
4S0 

460 
454 
447 
450 
440 

444 
440 
444 
444 
443 



Average 
price per 
pound, 
upland 
cotton 
(cents). 



15.8 
35.4 
28.8 
27.1 
17.3 

11.2 
7.3 
12.5 
11.5 
9.6 

14.0 
14.3 
9.2 
11.5 
10.0 

10.9 

8.7 
12.2 
8.2 
8.1 

9.3 
7.6 
4.9 
.5.6 
7.3 

8.2 
5.9 
7.5 
8.4 
7.3 

8.6 
11.5 
10.7 
10.3 
10.3 

9.4 
10.5 
10.6 
10.6 
12.2 

11.3 
12.0 
10.8 
11.3 
11.7 

13.0 
15.0 
17.0 
18.2 
20. 5 



Consump- 
tion of 

cotton and 
linters 

(equivalent 

500-pound 
bales).! 



5, 477, 908 
6, 807, 817 
6, 288, 922 
7, .555, 191 
7,721,354 

7, 326, 598 
6, 087, 338 
5, 942, 808 
5, 867, 431 
5, 400, 005 

4,713,126 
4, 7.59, 364 
5, 198, 963 
4, 493, 028 
4, 974, 199 

4, 877, 4S5 
4, 523, 208 
3, 980, 567 
4, 187, 076 
4, 080, 287 

3, 603, 516 
3, 687, 253 
3, 672, 097 
3, 472, 398 
2,841,394 

2, 499, 731 
2, 983, 665 
2, 300, 276 
2,415,875 
2, 846, 7.53 

2, 604, 491 
2,518,409 
2, 309, 2.50 
2, 205, 302 
2, 049, 687 

2, 094, 682 
1,087,108 
1,813,865 
2, 038, 400 
1,849,457 

1,80.5,922 
1,. 500, 688 
1,457,266 
1,458,667 
1,314,489 

1,2.5.5,712 
1,098,163 
1,213,052 
1, 115,691 
1,146,730 



Exports of 


domestic 


cotton 


(equivalent 


500-pound 


bales). 


6, 025, 915 


6,760,887 


5,663,920 


4, 587, 000 


5,963,682 


6, 405, 993 


8,931,2,53 


9,256,028 


9,199,093 


10,681,332 


8, 025, 991 


6,491,843 


8, 889, 724 


7, 779, 508 


8, 825, 236 


6,975,494 


9,057,397 


6,233,682 


6,913,506 


6,870,313 


6, 806, 572 


6,167,623 


7,626,525 


7,811,031 


6, 124, 026 


4,761,505 


6,961,372 


5, 307, 295 


4,485,251 


5, 896, 800 


5, 850, 219 


4,928,921 


4, 730, 192 


4, 519, 254 


4,301,542 


4, 200, 651 


3,783,319 


3, 733, 369 


4,591,331 


3, 376, 521 


4,4.53,495 


3, 742, 752 


3, 290, 167 


3,197,439 


2, 839, 418 


3, 037, 650 


2, .504, 118 


2,682,631 


2, 470, 590 


1,824,937 



|t ' Data collected in running bales. Conversion based on average weights of bales produced, which for 
lti(! country are heavier than those consumed. 



EMEEGENCY TAPJFF ACT AND LONG-STAPLE COTTON. 



35 



ODUCTION, CONSUMPTION. EXPORTS. AND NET IMPORTS OF RAW COTTON FOR 
THE UNITED STATES: 1790 TO 1920— Continued. 



COTTON PRODUCTION (INCLUDING LINTERS). 



is;70. 
1869. 
1868. 
1867. 
1866. 



1865. 
1864. 
1863. 
1862. 
1861. 

1860. 
1859. 
1858. 
1857. 
1856. 

18.55. 
1854. 
1853. 
1852. 
1851. 



1850. 
1849. 
1848. 
1847. 
1846. 

1845. 
1844. 
1843. 
1842. 
1841. 

1840. 
1839. 
1838. 
18:i7. 
1836. 



1835. 
1834. 
1833. 
1832. 
1831. 

1830. 
1829. 
1828. 
1827. 
1S26. 



1S25. 
1824 . 
1823. 
1822. 
1821 . 

1S20. 
1819. 
1S18. 
1817. 
1S16. 



1SI.5. 
1814. 
1813. 
1812. 
1811. 



Running 

bales, 
counting 
round as 
half bales. 



4, 352, 317 
2 3,011,996 
2. 366, 467 
2, 519. 554 
2, 097, 2.54 

2, 269, 316 

300, 000 

450,000 

1,600,000 

4, 500, 000 

3, 849, 469 
2 5, 387, 052 
4, 018, 914 
3, 257, 339 
3, 093, 737 

3, 665, 557 
2, 982, 634 
3, 074, 979 
3,416,214 
3, 126, 310 

2, 454, 442 
2 2, 469, 093 
2, 866, 938 
2, 439, 786 
1, 778, 651 

2, 100, 537 
2, 394, 503 
2, 030, 409 
2, 378, 875 
1, 683, 574 

1,634,954 
2, OoS, 915 
1,360,532 
1,801,497 
1, 423, 930 

1,360,725 
1,253,406 
1, 225, 895 
1,114,286 
1,069,444 

1,026,393 

1,076,696 

953, 079 

805, 970 

1, 057, 402 

817,308 
751,748 
656, 029 
704, 698 
636, 042 

575,540 
632,576 
446,429 
465,950 
439,716 

369; 004 
254,545 
304,878 
304, 878 
325, 203 



Equivalent 

500-pound 

bales, gross 

weight. 



4, 024, 527 
2, 409, 597 
2, 198, 141 
2, 345, 610 
1, 948, 077 

2,093,658 

299,372 

449, 059 

1,. 596, 6.53 

4, 490, 586 

3,841,416 
4, 309, 642 

3. 758. 273 
•3, 012, 016 
2, 873, 680 

3, 220, 782 

2. 708. 082 
2, 766, 194 
3, 130, 338 
2, 799, 290 

2. 136. 083 

1. 975. 274 
2,615,031 

■ 2, 128, 433 
1,603,763 

1,806,110 
2, 078, 910 
1,750,080 
2, 0.io, 481 
1, 398, 282 

1. 347, 640 
l,65i,722 
1,092,980 
1,428,384 
1, 129, 016 

1,081,821 
962, 343 
930, 962 
815,900 
805, 439 

732,218 
763, 598 
679, 916 
564, 854 
732, 218 

533, 473 
449, 791 
387, 029 
4;J9,331 
376, 569 

334, 728 
349, 372 
261,506 
271,967 
259,414 

209, 205 
146,444 
156, 904 
156,904 
167,364 



Average 

net 
weight 
of bale 
(lbs.). 



Average 
price per 
pound, 
upland 
cotton 
(cents). 



442 
440 
444 
445 
444 

441 

477 
477 
477 
477 

477 
461 
447 
442 
444 

420 

434 
430 
438 
428 

416 
429 
436 
417 
431 

411 
415 
412 
409 
397 

394 
383 
384 
379 
379 

373 
367 
363 
350 
360 

341 
339 
341 
335 
331 

312 

286 
282 
298 
283 

278 
264 
280 
279 

282 

271 
275 
246 
246 
246 



17.0 
24.0 
29.0 
24.9 
31.6 

43.2 
83.4 
101.5 
67.2 
31.3 

13.0 
11.0 
12.1 
12.2 
13.5 

10.3 
10.4 
11.0 
11.0 
9.5 

12.1 
12.3 
■ 7.5 
8.0 
11.2 

7.9 

.5.6 
7.7 
7.2 

7.8 



8.9 
13.4 
10.1 
13.2 

16.5 
17.4 
12.9 
12.3 
9.4 

9.7 
10.0 

9.9 
10.3 

9.3 

12.2 
18.6 
14.7 
11.4 
14.3 

14.3 
17.0 
24.0 
34.0 
26.0 



29.0 
21.0 
15. 5 
12.5 
10.5 



Consump- 
tion of 

cotton and 
linters 

(equivalent 

oOO-pound 
bales J. ' 



Exports of 
domestic 

cotton 
(equivalent 
500-pound 

bales). 



Net 
imports 
(equiva- 
lent 500- 
poimd 
bales J. 



1.026,583 
798, 616 
860, 481 

844. 044 
715, 258 

614.540 
344, 278 
219, .540 
287, 397 
369, 226 

841,975 
845, 410 
.S67, 489 
5.50, 708 
761,614 

731,484 
641,391 
663. 204 
736, 468 
617, 468 

422,626 
575,506 
586, 032 
537, 427 
385, 916 

363, 365 

337. 730 
298, 872 
278, 196 
222,461 

245. 045 
236, 525 
221,738 
195, 100 
176, 449 

184. 731 
166,523 
149, 159 
142, 352 
130, 895 

129,938 
89,723 
84,788 
84,516 

103, 535 



51. 778 



2, 922. 757 
1,987,708 
1,300.449 
1.502,756 
1,401,697 

1,301,146 
17,789 
23,988 
22, 770 
10, 129 



1.802 

3,026 

1,870 

345 

3 1,035 

10, 322 
68, 798 
52,405 
67, 695 
61, 731 



615, 032 




3, 535, 373 




2,772,937 




2, 237, 248 




2, 096, .565 


1,678 


2,702,863 
2, 016, 849 
1,975,666 


2,295 
4,425 
1,141 


2, 223, 141 


1,423 


2,186,461 


512 


1, 854, 474 
1,270,763 
2, 053, 204 


330 

485 

22 


1,628, .549 


558 


1, 054, 410 


122 


1,095,116 


386 


1,74.5,812 


3 680 


1,327,267 


517 


1,584, .594 


1,8.35 


1, 169, 434 


107 


1,060,408 

1,487,882 


1,210 
297 


827, 248 


319 


1,191,905 


355 


888,423 


3 510 


847,263 

774,718 


427 
1, .574 


769,436 
649, 397 


308 
69 


644,430 


2 22 


553,960 


22 


596, 918 


378 


.529,674 
421, 181 


a4J 
.597 


588,620 


74 


409,071 
352,900 


7J 
2o 


286,739 
347,447 
289,350 


932 

110 

2' 196 


249, 787 


427 


255, 720 


2 4,571 


175, 994 
184, 942 
171,299 


2 4, 454 
3,086 
2,048 


163, 894 


-44 


165, 997 


2 26j 


35, 45S 
38, 220 


101 
3, 133 


57, 775 


sy/ 



' Data collected in running bales. Conversion based on average weights of bales produced, which lor 
the country are heavier than those consumed. 
2 Equivalent 400-pound bales. 
> Excess of exports of foreign cotton over total imports. 



35 



EMEEGENCY TARIFF ACT AND LONG-STAPLE COTTON. 



PRODUCTION, CONSUMPTION. EXPORTS, AND NET IMPORTS OF RAW COTTON FOR 
THE UNITED STATES: 1790 TO 1920— Continued. 





COTTON PRODUCTION (INCIUDING LINTEES). 


Consump- 
tion of 

cotton and 
linters 

(equivalent 

500-pound 
bales).! 


Exports of 
domestic 

cotton 
(equivalent 
500-pound 

bales). 


Net 
imports 
(equiva- 
lent 500- 
pound 
bales). 


YEAR. 


Running 

bales, 
counting 
round as 
half bales. 


Equivalent 

500-poubd 

bales, gross 

weight. 


Average 

net 
weight 
of bale 

(lbs.). 


Average 
price per 
pound, 
upland 
cotton 
(cents). 


ISIO 


286. 195 


177, 824 
171,548 
1.56, 904 
167,364 
167, 364 

146,444 
135,983 
125, 523 
115,063 

100, 418 
73,222 
41,841 
31,381 

23, 013 
20, 921 
16, 736 
16, 736 

10,460 
6,276 
4,184 
3,138 


297 
250 
224 
276 
280 

230 
249 
270 

238 

228 
228 
225 
225 

225 
225 
225 
225 

225 
225 
225 
225 


15. 5 
16.0 
16.0 
19.0 
21.5 

22.0 
23.0 
20.0 
19.0 

19.0 


35, 565 
33,473 


124, 116 
1 86, .523 
101,981 
21,261 
127, 889 

71,315 

76,780 
70, 068 
75, 424 

47,763 


431 


1§09 


328, 000 
334, 821 
289, 855 
285,714 

304, 348 
261,044 
222, 222 
231,092 

210,526 
153,509 

88, 889 
66,667 

48, 889 
44.444 
35, 556 
35, 556 

22, 222 
13,333 

8,889 
6,667 


2560 


1808 


2 1,601 


1807 




6,297 


1806 




1,485 


1805 




961 


1804 


23,013 


456 


1803 


183 


1S02 




2 1,153 


1801 




2 170 


1800 


44.0 


18,829 


41,822 1 8,696 


1799 


28.0 
44.0 

39.0 
34.0 
36.5 
36.5 

33.0 
32.0 
29.0 
26.0 


16, 737 


35,580 
19,065 

18,720 
7, .577 

12,213 
9,414 

3,565 

1,097 

277 

379 


8,870 


1798 


7,532 


1797 




7,761 


1796 




7,336 


1795 




8,737 


1794 




8,592 


1793 




5,127 


1792 




5,503 


1791 




1,112 




11,000 


697 







1 Data collected in running bales. Conversion based on average weights of bales produced, which for 
the country are heavier than those consumed. 

2 Excess of exports of foreign cotton over total imports. 



o 



4 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 
WASHINGTON 



Tariff Information Series — No. 28 



HIDES AND SKINS 




WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

1922 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 
WASHINGTON 



Tariff Information Series — No. 28 



HIDES AND SKINS 




WASHINGTON 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

1922 



UxMTED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 

Office: Old Land Office, Seventh and E Streets NW., Washington, D. C. 

COMMISSIONERS. 

Thomas 0. Marvin, Chairman. 
William S. Culbertson, Vice Chaimian. 
David J. Lewis. 
Edward P. Costigan. 
Thomas Walker Page. 
William Burgess. 

John F. Bethune, Secretary. 



ADDITIONAL COPIES 

OF THIS PUBLICATION MAY BE PROCURED FROM 

THE SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON, D. C. 

AT 

5 CENTS PER COPY 



CONTENTS. 



Tariff paragraphs, 1897 to H. R. 7456 as amended 1 

Introduction 1 

Uses 1 

The supply of hides and skins 2 

The packers and their relation to the hide and leather industry 5 

The relation of the price of hides and dressed beef to that of live cattle 8 

The probable effect of a tariff on the price of hides 10 

The tanning industry 11 

Leather manufactures 13 

Exports of leather and manufactures of leather 14 

Imports and exports of hides and skins, and exports of leather products 15 

The relation of the price of hides and skins to the manufactured products 15 

The effect of an import duty on hides and skins on export trade m leather and 

leather products 19 

Revenue to be derived from a duty on hides 21 

Tariff considerations 21 

Compensatory duties on leather and leather products 22 

Statistical Tables. 

Table 1. Domestic production and imports of hides and skins, 1914 and 1920. . 5 

2. Average yearly prices of hides, live cattle, and carcass beef, 1908-1921 . 8 

3. Raw hides and skins used in tanneries, 1909, 1914, and 1919 13 

4. Value of production of finished leather manufactures, and of leather 

and partly manufactured leather products, 1914 and 1919 14 

5. Production, imports and exports of hides and skins, and exports of 

leather, 1910-1921. 15 

6. Wholesale price of hides, leather and shoes 16 

7. Specific compensatory duties on leather and leather products 23 

8. Ad valorem compensatory duties on leather and leather products... 23 

9. Specific rate eciuivalent of an ad valorem rate 24 

10. Ad valorem equivalent of a specific rate 24 

11. Imports of hides and skins, 1911-1921 24 

12. Value of leather and leather products exported from the United 

States, 1890-1922 27 

13. Average prices of packer hides, 1895 to 1911 27 

14. Average prices of country hides, 1895 to 1911 27 

15. Prices of leather, 1901 to 1911 28 

In the preparation of this report the Tariff Commission had the 
services of Frank A. Roper, Mark A. Smith, and Dr. Louis G. Connor 
of the agricultural division of the Commission's staff, and of «thers. 

in 



I 



I 



HIDES AND SKINS. 



Comparison of rates of duty. 





H. R. 74.56 as 

amended by the 

Senate Finance 

Committee. 


Act of 1913. 


Act of 1909. 


Act of 1897. 


Cattle hides: 


2 cents per pound . . 
4 cents per pound. . 


Free 


Free 

do 


15 per cent. 


Dried 


do 


^Do. 




Free 


....do 


do 


Free. 




do.. 


do 


do 


Do. 


p.f. 











INTRODUCTION. 

In the main, hides and skins are a by-product of the live-stock 
industry, and the supply is largely determined not by the demand 
for hides and skins but by the demand for the major live-stock pro- 
ducts, such as meat, milk, or wool, and by the need for work animals. 
To the packer or butcher the hide is a joint product with the dressed 
carcass and its value, as well as that of the major product, influences 
the price which can be paid for the live animal. 

Hides and skins are the chief raw materials for the leather industry, 
the value of the output of which in 1919 was third among the 
manufacturing industries in the United States. This country has 
grown to be the most important leather manufacturing and leather 
exporting nation of the world. Consideration of a duty on hides 
and skins, therefore, must keep in view its effect on the leather indus- 
try in both domestic and international trade. 

This renort is concerned wdth the following phases of the sub- 
ject: (1) The supply of hides and skins and the relation of domestic 
production to consumption; (2) the position of the large packers in 
the hide and leather industry; (3) the relation between the price of 
hides and of live cattle and the probable effect of a duty in benefiting 
the cattlemen; (4) the tanning and leather industries, with especial 
reference to the probable effect of a duty on hides and skins upon the 
price of leather products as well as upon the export trade therein; 
and (5) compensatory duties. 



USES. 

The term "hides" is applied to the pelts of cattle, horses, and buffa- 
loes; the term "skins" to those of calves, sheep, lambs, goats, kids, 
and in general to the pelts of all smaller animals.^ Some kind of 

I In commercial practice it is customary to treat i)elts under 25 pounds in weight as skins and those 25 
pounds and over as hides. 

1 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 



I 



leather may be made from, the pelt of most animals, but the product 
varies greatly in its suitability for the widely different uses to which 
leather is put. The different kinds of pelts, therefore, need separate 
consideration in connection with the tariff problems. 

Hides are primarily the raw material of the tanner of heavy 
leathers, the bulk of whose trade requires a tough, thick, and durable 
product. About 80 per cent of such leathers are used for the soles 
of boots and shoes and the remainder chiefly for a large class of 
industrial leathers such as belting (used in the transmission of 
power), for harness and saddlery, and for some kinds of cases and 
bags. Thin, "spready" hides, measuring well over 6 feet across 
the shoulders, are in demand for furniture and automobile upholstery. 

The tanner of light leathers chiefly uses skins, since his trade re- 
quires a more pliable, soft, and light product. About 70 per cent of 
the light leathers are used for shoe uppers and most of the remainder 
for gloves, bookbinding, purses, bags, and fancy leathers. A lower- 
priced grade of light leathers is also produced by splitting cattle hides 
into two or more layers. 

These, roughly, are the two distinctive branches of the tanning 
industry — the production of sole and other heavy leathers and of 
light leathers. According to the census of 1919, the total value of 
finished leather products was $1,500,000,000, of which boots and 
shoes constituted nearly 80 per cent. Harness and saddlery, trunks 
and valises, belting, and gloves formed most of the remainder. Since 
different kinds and grades of hides and skins are needed for the leather 
in these products and there are some differences in the preparation 
of the raw materials, which to some extent have distinct outlets and 
are subject to different dcOTces of foreign competition, a brief examina- 
tion of the character and sources of supply may indicate the char- 
acter of the tariff problems. 

THE SUPPLY OF HIDES AND SKINS. 

The supply of hides and skins is primarily determined by the 
demand for meats. The pelts are prepared in three different ways, 
the method employed depending largely upon the distance to market 
and upon transportation facilities. Roughl}^, they may be classified 
in order of perishability as green or green salted, pickled, and dried. 
Green or green salted, and pickled, are a product of large scale, 
commercial slaughter, or of neighborhood slaughter in countries or 
areas which have local tanning industries or have good transporta- 
tion facilities to hide markets. Dried hides and skins are chiefly 
the product of a more or less neighl^orhood slaughter in remote 
areas with poor transportation facilities to the markets. The im- 
mediately effective supply from such areas, especially the more 
remote, varies not so much with the current amount of slaughtering 
done as with the prices ottered by local and regional l)uyers of hides 
and skins. The higher tlie price the more thorough the canvass by 
local dealers for these products. This is in sharp contrast with the 
normal marketing of green, green salted, or pickled pelts, which are 
disposed of more or less as an incident to commercial slaughtering 
and meat packing. 

Cattle hides constitute the bulk of the world's supply of hides and 
skins. They comprise at least 60 per cent of the total international 



HIDES AND SKINS. 3 

trade of approximately 2,000,000,000 pounds,^ and a much larger 
proportion of the annual production. Calf and sheep skins consti- 
tute an additional 25 per cent of this total. Since the numbers of 
cattle and sheep have failed to keep pace with increases in popula- 
tion, and new uses for leather are constantly developing, there is a 
tendency toward an increasing shortage of hides and skins. The 
rapid development of substitutes undoubtedly has prevented an 
acute shortage. 

The United States is the most important source of hides and skins, 
although production falls far short of domestic manufacturing re- 
quirements. Argentina is the leading exporting country; most of 
her product is exported to the United States and Europe, in spite 
of the fact that Argentina has a vast store of quebracho for tanning, 
which is also exported. Other important exporting countries 
include Australasia, Brazil, Uruguay, China, British India, Russia, 
and Mexico. 

The number of cattle in the world reached the maximum thus far 
attained during the period 1905 to 1908; in the United States it 
was reached in 1907. Since then, in the face of a growing demand 
for leather, the number of cattle has been declining in the United 
States. This has been largely due to the limitation of range lands 
and the more intense competition between crops and live stock. 
During the war the number of cattle increased in this country, but 
it has declined since. 

In the case of sheep the decline in world numbers has been much 
more pronounced. It set in about 1895. The maximum number 
of sheep in the United States seems to have been reached in 1884. 

Despite a pronounced tendency in well-developed agricultural 
countries to market meat animals at earlier ages than formerly, 
the decline in numbers of cattle and sheep, through curtailment in 
supply, has resulted in an increase in the price of hides and skins 
out of proportion to increases in the prices of other commodities. 
The most marked increase occurred about 1909. From then through 
1911 prices remained about the same. In 1912, 1913, and 1914 
they advanced further, and during the war the increase was similar 
to that of most other products. Increased use of substitutes, 
especially rubber, cloth, and wood,^ and to a lesser extent new sources 
of supply, such as skins from fish and sharks, have been restraining 
factors on increases in prices. 

For the five-^^ear period of 1909-1913 the amount of hides and 
skins entering international trade from net exporting countries was 
approximately 1,000,000,000 pounds * (dry and green added together 
in the condition as reported). Of this amount the United States 
imported slightly more than one-half. Two-thirds of the net exports 
were from iirgentina, British India, Brazil, China, and Uruguay. 

2 Average figure for 1909-1913, inclusive. See Yearbook, U. S. Dept. of Ap-., 1920, p. 718. 

* " Rul)ber, lil)er, and wood are used for the heels of shoes, patented materials for soles, and cloth is sub- 
stituted for the uppers and tops of shoes. For the upholstering of furniture and automobiles, in which 
the consumption of leather has been large, substitutes that are not leather at all have been invented and 
are in extensive use. Cotton is woven into belts for transmitting power: sheet iron, tin. and wood have 
displaced leather in trunk making: chair seats are now rarely made of leather: and straw, rattan, wood, 
and cloth are often used for making traveling bags and suit cases. Harnesses consume a large amount of 
leather, but in place of leather are found chains for traces, rope driving Unes, cloth and fiber collars, and 
cotton saddle girths." (G. K. Holmes, in Yearbook, Dept. of Agr., 1917.) ' 

In 1921 a notable increase in the use of rubber heels is noted. Rubber soles wiM outwear leather and will 
be much more wideU' used after further improvements now under way are ccffeluded. (Boot and Shoe 
Recorder, Septi^mber, 1921.) " ''V 

<Net exporting countries shown in Yearbook, Dept. of Agr., 1917. ™ 



4 UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 

There is, however, a substantial export trade from nations whose 
production of certain classes is in excess of local demands or from 
nations which because of geographical limitations export from one 
section and import into another but which on the whole may be 
classed as importing countries. 

To supply tanning needs the United States imports raw material 
from all corners of the world. Cattle hides come largely from Argen- 
tina, Uruguay, Brazil, and British India; calfskins from Europe; 
horsehides from Argentina and, formerly, from Russia; sheepskins 
mainly from New Zealand, Argentina, and Australia; and goatskins 
chiefly from British India, China, Africa, and Central America. 

It would seem that the tariff problem chiefly concerns cattle hides. 
Table 1 shows that the annual American requirements of hides and 
skins, for the domestic and export trade in leather and its manufac- 
tures, is about 1,500,000,000 pounds (green basis) ,^ of which slightly 
less than half, or about 700,000,000 pounds, is imported. Of the 
total domestic production of hides and skins in 1914, cattle hides 
constituted 84 per cent by weight, and 45 per cent of the total imports 
were composed of cattle hides. Calfskins represented 8 and 15 per 
cent of these totals; sheep and lamb skins comprised 5 and 14 per 
cent; horse, colt, and ass skins 2 and 3 per cent. Foreign sources 
supplied virtually all of our requirements of goatskins, 148,000,000 
pounds, or 19 per cent of the total imports; all of the buffalo hides, 
i. e., 20,000,000 pounds, or 3 per cent, and also all of the kangaroo, 
wallaby, and miscellaneous skins. We produced 63 per cent of our 
consumption of cattle hides," 34 per cent of the calfskins, only 28 
per cent of the sheep and lamb skins, and less than 44 per cent of 
the horse and colt skins.'' 

In goat and miscellaneous skins there is virtually no tariff problem, 
for the reason that such skins sell at much higher prices than other 
kinds of hides and skins, are used for distinct purposes, such as glace 
kid and fancy leathers, and the supply is entirely of foreign origin. 
Neither can the imports of horse, colt, and ass skins be said to create 
a tariff problem, for the domestic supply is purely a salvage from city 
and farm animals that have perished, is generally of a quality inferior 
to the imported, and the uses of such skins are, in the main, not 
closely competitive with cattle hides. Buffalo hides are used in 
connection with textile machinery, and also for lower-priced sole 
leathers. The supply is imported from British India, and is subject 
to British Indian export tax, higher to the United States than to the 
United Kingdom, and this tax, of course, is in effect an import duty 
so far as concerns the United States. 

'' Dried hides and skins converted to the green basis according to the ratio of 1 pound of dried to 2 of green. 

In this connection it should be noted that each year more than 2,000,000 cattle and 1,000,000 sheep in 
the United States die from disease, exposure, and old ago. (Estimates by the Bureau of Crop Estimates, 
U. S. Department of Agriculture.) When prices warrant, fully 90 per cent of these animals are skhmed and 
the hides marketed. When prices are depressed, less than 50 per cent of such hides and skins are saved, 
and a large luimhcr arc handled in a careless nian)icr and must be used for glue stock. In so far as an 
import duty might raise the market price, the recovery of this raw material would be encwiraged and 
result in some benefit to stockmen. To a ccrtaiu extent this applies also to horse, mule, colt, and calf 
hides and skins. Additions liy this means could easily add to 8 per cent to total domestic ])rcduction 
of hides and ^kins suitable for tanning, almost entirely of cattle hides. Thus, " Prices (in 1921) were reduced 
to levels of I WW, 1W»4, and is'.).'), and with high freight'rales it was almost, impossible for farmers to ship hides 
last winter, as the freiglit. on them was as much as the value of the hides thcniselves, so that thousands of 
hides, not only in Nclnaska. Ijul all over the Western States, went to waste last year. None of the dead 
animals were skinned. The only hides that were taken oft v ere taken fr(ni Imtchcrcd animals. * * * 
Tlie price of shoes and o|hcr h'uther seemingly stayed at fairly high prices, while it was almost impossible 
to sell a hide for anytli^. This seeuicd uiireascinable, of course, to the farmer and stockman, so they 
did not buy anything ^ijleather goods that they did not absolutely have to have. * * * Hide prices 
will depend a great deal tipon our foreign trade. If foreign demand ojiens up for hides and leather, our 
pri'cs, of course, w ill adTvancc." Daily Drovers' Journal. (Stockman. South Omaha, Nebr., Jan. 2, 1922.) 

' Sec Table I, )». 5 and Table .5, p. 14. 



HIDES AIv^D SKINS. 



Table 1. — Domestic production and imports of hides and shins. 
[Converted to a green basis, 1 pound of dry to 2 pounds of green.) 



Domestic 
production 

(estimated). 



Imports.' 



Cattle hides (50 pounds) 2 

Calfskins (12 pounds) 2 

Sheep and lamb skins (2 pounds) 2. 
Horse, colt, ass skins (30 pounds) -. 



Pounds. 
600,512,000 
55,9.37,000 
38, 843, 000 
15,500,000 



Pounds. 

.351,232,000 

' 110,134,000 

101,065,000 

20, 058, 000 



Buffalo hides 

Goatskins (U pounds) ^ , 

Kangaroo and wallabj' skins 

All other hides and skins (exclusive of furs) . 



Total. 



Cattle hides (50 pounds) 2 

Calfskins (12 pounds) 2 

Sheep and lambskins (2 pounds) 2. 
Horse, colt, ass skins (30 pounds) 2. 



1920. 



710,792,000 
""748,' 666 



582, 489, 000 

29,162,000 

147,925,000 

1,332,000 

6,180,000 



711,540,000 



767,088,000 



Buffalo hides 

Goatskins 

Kangaroo and wallaby skins 

All other hides and skins (exclusive of furs) . 



Total. 



673, 676, 000 

115,9.54,000 

29, 719, 000 

* 36, 000, 000 



334,475,000 
.52,035,000 

112,523,000 
21,890,000 



855,349,000 

i8i,"666' 



520,923,(00 

20, 727, 000 

150, 074, 000 

1,389,000 

7, 000, 000 



Average of 1914 and 1920 . 



855,530,000 
783,535,000 



700,113,000 
733, 600, 000 



1 Fiscal year 1914; calendar year 1920. 

2 Per hide or skin. 

3 Includes kipskins — yearhng and smaU cattle hides. 
* Production for 1919. 

Our extensive import trade in the raw material is counterbalanced 
to a certain extent by exports of leather products. Were we to 
depend exclusively on the domestic market, our own production of 
hides and skins would supply about two-thirds of that need. There 
would, of course, be a serious deficiency in certain classes of hides 
and skins, such as goatskins for the glazed-kid industries and heavy 
cattle hides for sole leather. Aside from these, our shortage, while 
less severe, largely affects all classes. Beginning in 1914 there was 
for a time a shortage of first-class calfskins, owing to the curtailment 
of European exports, but the domestic supply practically doubled 
by 1919, and thus offset the decrease in imports. More recently a 
decrease in the domestic supply coincides with an increase in imports 
from European sources. 

THE PACKERS AND THEIR RELATION TO THE HIDE AND LEATHER 

INDUSTRY. 

Normally, before reaching the consumer hides and skins now pass 
through the following hands: 

I. Cattle producer, 
J II. Packer and butcher, 
/ [ III. Tanner, 
[ IV. Leather manufacturer, 

V. Merchant — wholesale and retail, 
VI. Consumer. 

The tendency toward combination of the various stages has 
increased rapidly in the last decade. The braces indicate actual 
2213—22 2 



6 UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 

combinations now in practice.^ The packer and tanner combines 
have become so strong that independent tanners are finding it expe- 
dient to encourage combinations with leather manufacturers, and 
in many instances with the succeeding stage, that of merchandizing 
finished products. It is interesting to note that there has been no 
movement by the producers of the raw material toward the process- 
ing of their product. Heretofore this has been left entirely to the 
intermediary agents. 

Hides and skins are the most important by-products of the meat- 
packing industry; in the case of cattle about 6^ per cent of the live 
weight consists of hides, and about 11 per cent of the value of the 
live animal is in the hide. Since these by-products deteriorate and 
lose much of their value if not properly cared for, the packers found 
it advantageous to tan their own output. Having first entered the 
tanning business for this reason, they expanded it to the point where 
they now handle a part of the hides and skins from other sources, 
and also frequently sell a part of their own ''take-off." 

In 1916 about 55 per cent of the cattle, 30 per cent of the calves, 
and 68 per cent of the sheep were slaughtered by the large packers. ** 
Through their subsidiaries or through leases and contracts, it is 
estimated that they tan approximately 25 per cent of the total 
leather produced in the United States. In certain classes of sole 
leather they tan as much as 50 per cent.^" Their position in the hide 
and leather industry is further strengthened by the fact that their 
hides receive a higher grading than those of smaller packers and 
butchers, which are arbitrarily classed as " country hides." Through 
their foreign establishments they also control a certain share of the 
imported hides. Since 1916 the packers' position has undoubtedly 
been strengthened, especially during the price depression of 1920-21 
and restriction of credit, owing to their strong financial position as 
contrasted with the weaker position of the small tanners. 

It is also probably true that the operations of the packer-tanner, 
because of his large supply of high-grade hides, tends to stabilize 
the market price of hides, for if the independent tanner will not 
offer for the hides and skins as much as the packer believes them to 
be worth the packer will tan them through his own plants or have 
them tanned on contract outside. 

In this connection the position of the packer may be contrasted 
with tjiat of small butchers and local packers. Hides removed by 

8 A few years ago some of the larger packers contemplated following their products through to the ultimate 
consumer. Investigations conducted under the Sherman antitrust law and the more recently enacted 
Federal supervisory legislation have undoubtedly delayed this movement for the present at least. 

9 Re[)ort of Federal Trade Commission on Meat-Packiiig Industry, Vol. I, p. 106. 

i» In sheep and lamb shoe stock the packer tanners combined have 44 per cent of the country's total 
production; in 191(> sheep and lamb glove stock, 17 per cent; in shoe stock tanned from calf and kip and all 
skins other than sheep and lamb, goat and kid. they have 11 per cent; and in other leather (except glove 
stock), tanned from such skins, they have 25 per celit. In shoe stock from cattle sides they have 12J per 
cent of the country's total; in harness, 9 per cent; strap, 4.5 per cent; belling, 21 per cent; sole, 22 per cent 
and finished splits, 1,3 per cent. In most of these kinds of leather the packer tanners are larger producers, 
as a group, than the Central Leather Co. and the American Hide & Leather Co. combined. The latter com- 
panies do not produce any leather in some of these hues and surpass the packers in only 3 out of the 10 
Kinds listed, viz, in shoe stock, etc., from cattle sides (13.71 per cent to the packers' 12.56 per cent); har- 
ness (where they produce 30 per cent to the packers' 9); and sole (where the Central Leather Co. produces 
32 per cent to 22 per cent for the packers.) 

Four packers, together with the two other largest companies in the industry, have 54 per cent of the 
country's sole leather: 49 per cent of the strap leather; 39 per cent of the harness leather; 35 per cent of the 
belting; 44 per cent of the sheep and lamb shoe stock; and smaller but nevertheless important percentages 
of other kinds. 

The above figures include leather produced Ijy companies for themselves in their own tanneries and that 
tanned for them on commission by others. 

(Ileport of Federal Trade Comrnission on Meat-Packing Industry, June 24, 1919, Vol. I, p. 200.) 



HIDES AXD SKIoSTS. 7 

most of the latter, and by all of the former, are classed as country 
hides, which also include those removed by farmers and ranchers. 
In fact, country hides may fairly be taken as a trade name for those 
removed in establishments not subject to Federal inspection. Such 
hides, therefore, constitute about 40 per cent of those produced in 
the United States during recent years, and approximately 25 per 
cent of the consumption. However, the importance of country 
hides in domestic consumption is much smaller than these per- 
centages would indicate. A considerable proportion of these hides 
have knife cuts and gashes, which detract from their value and in- 
crease waste, and also have blood and other stains which mar their 
dye-taking properties. They frequently are imperfectly cured and 
stored, and are rarely on the market in sufficiently uniform grades to 
permit careful selection in desired quantities. For the foregoing 
reasons, and because of the necessity for greater handling, both by 
large sellers in the markets, and at tanneries, the price of country 
hides is depressed considerably below that of packer hides by an 
average of about 20 per cent on a normal market, much more during 
periods of depression. ^^ However, there is a fairly constant normal 
relation between the prices of these two main divisions, and any 
effect which the large packers may have on the hide markets would 
seem to be reflected almost immediately in case of country hides 
under norma] market conditions. 

The question next arises as to whether the independent tanner 
would be at a disadvantage, compared with the packer-tanner, in 
case a duty should be levied on hides and skins. ^^ Since cattle hides 
predominate in production and consumption, and constitute 50 per 
cent or more of total imports, the effect of a tariff would be more 
noticeable in the case of such hides than with respect to other hides 
and skins. The following discussion in this section therefore may 
properly be confined to cattle hides. Inasmuch as about 35 per 
cent of the total supply of cattle hides are imported, it seems fairly 
certain that American hides should, in the long run, gain approxi- 
mately the full amount of any duty which may be levied. It should 
be remarked, however, that if the packers did not pass the duty on 
to the live-stock producers, they, the packers, would have a great 
advantage over the independent tanner. Some further data bear- 
ing on the question are presented in the next section. 

" See Table 2, p. 8. 

•2 The subject of cost accounting methods among the packer-tanners appears to have caused considerable 
concern to the iiule[iendent tanners, some of whom allege an overcharge to the meat account, on packe-s' 
books, in order to lessen the charge against hides. The usual practice seems to be an allocation of the 
purchase price of live cattle to meat, hide, and offal accounts on the basis of market prices for each com- 
modity on the day the cattle are butchered. The f jUowing quotation touches the subject: 

"The serious drop in values of hides, wool, and other by-products in 1920 necessarily was reflected in 
live animal values. Thus while the average wholesale selling prices * * * of the main products have 
also fallen during 1920, the prices of dressed beef and dressed mutton have not dropped as much propor- 
tionately as the i)rices of live cattle and li\-e sheep * * *. It is not generally realized how important 
an etlect by-product values have on prices of live stofk. In the first place, the returns from by-products . 
are included when we figure our profit on meat. In computing the profit on cattle, for example, the re- 
turns from cured hides, * * * are taken into account * * *. Since the returns from by-products 
are included in figuring our profits on meat, the prices that we get for these by-products have an "important 
bearing on prices and profits. When wo buy live cattle, for example, we base our bids on what we think 
we are going to get for the beef and by-products. The beef itself is s.ild within a couple of weeks after the 
animals are bought. We know daily what beef is selling for, although we can not foretell what it will 
bring. Hides, however, have to be cured for a mouth or more, and by the lime they are finally sold it 
may be two, three, or more months after the animals have br-en bought. An increase in hide prices, there- 
fore, means larger profits on cattle than we anticipated at the time of purchase. A decrease in prices has 
the opposite effect and often results in our beef business sl\owing a loss."— (Swift & Co,, 1921 Yearbook.) 



UlSriTED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 



THE RELATION OF THE PRICE OF HIDES AND DRESSED BEEF TO THAT 

OF LIVE CATTLE. 

The relative values of dressed meat, hides, and other by-products 
may vary considerably from time to time, according to the changing 
supply of, and demand for, the respective products. However, in 
order to give a rough indication of a normal situation, it may be 
said that the meat-packer obtains about 79 per cent of his total 
returns of the beef-packing end of his business from the dressed 
meat carcass, 11 percent from the hide, and about 10 per cent from 
a large number of minor products, such as tallow, oleo oil, stearin, 
casings, and the like. 

A comparison of average yearly wholesale prices for a period of 
five years (1912-1916) covering green salted, packers' heavy, native 
steer hides, good to choice steers, and good native steer carcass beef, 
all in the Chicago market, shows that while the price of dressed 
carcass beef in the Chicago market increased but 3.8 per cent, the 
price paid for good native steers increased 14.3 per cent. (See 
Table 2, following.) This was made possible almost entirely through 
the rise in price of hides, which was 48.9 per cent, and the increase 
in price of tallow and other by-products. 

A comparison for a period of nine years (1908-1916) brings out 
the same relationship. In this instance the price of dressed beef 
increased 31.4 per cent, the price of live cattle 60 per cent, and the 
price of hides 95 per cent. For a 14-year period (1908-1921), the 
price of dressed beef increased 122 per cent, the price of live cattle 
192 per cent, and the price of hides 193 per cent. 

In the decline from the high point in 1919 through 1921, the price 
of hides declined 65 per cent, the price of live cattle 50 per cent, and 
the price of carcass beef 30 per cent. Table 2 presents the foregoing 
in tabular form. The figure on the opposite page portrays the same 
data graphically. 

Table 2. — Average yearly prices of hides, live cattle, carcass beef, Chicago market, 1908- 

1921. 

[Bureau of Laljor Statistics.! 



Year. 


Hide .s- 
salted, 
heavy, 
steers. 


-green, 
packers' 
native 


Live cattle, steers, 
good to choice. 


Carcass beef, good 
native steers. 




Per 
pound. 


Relative 
to 1913. 


Per 
pound. 


Relative 
to 1913. 


Per 

pound. 


Relative 
to 1913. 


1908 


Cents. 
0.134 
. 165 
. 1.55 
.148 
.176 
.181 
. 196 
.242 
.262 
.327 
.301 
.393 
.312 
.139 


Per cent. 

72.6 

89.6 

84.1 

80.3 

95.7 

100.0 

106. 7 

131.6 

142.4 

178.0 

163. 8 

213. 8 

169. 6 

75. 5 


Cent.i. 
0.060 
. 065 
.070 
.057 
.084 
. 085 
.090 
.087 
.096 
.128 
.134 
.175 
.148 
.087 


Per cent. 

70.5 

75. 9 

82. 5 

79.1 

98. 8 

100.0 

106. 2 

102. 3 

112.5 

150. 6 

193. 1 

205.7 

174.1 

102.3 


Cents. 

. 0.105 
.110 
.115 
.112 
.133 
.130 
.136 
.129 
.138 
.167 
.221 
.233 
.2.30 
.163 


Per cent. 
81.3 


1909 


84.6 


1910 


89.1 


1911 


86.6 


1912 


102.6 


1913 


100. 


1914 


105.3 


1915 


99.5 


1916 


106.7 


1917 


167. 2 


191S 


170.9 


1919 


180. 2 


1920 


176.9 


1921 


125.4 







HIDES AND SKINS. 



In the long run, therefore, higher hide prices, Hke higher beef 
prices — only to a lesser extent — mean that higher prices can be paid 
for live cattle. Though temporary or short time variations, arising 
from local or other conditions, may cause the price of hides to move 



TREND OF WHOLESALE PRICES 

OF 


HIDES^CARCASS BEEF,& LIVE CATTLE 

CHICAGO MARKET 1908-1921 
(yearly average price) 










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CENTS 

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POUND 


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one Avay and the price of live cattle in the opposite direction, never- 
theless over a period of years the two price curves show a fairly 
close relation. 1^ On the basis of yield, a 1,000-pound steer of fair 

13 A depression in the hide market such as has occurred during the past year is reflected in a reduction in 
the price of live cattle, or an increase in the selhng price of the dressed meat, or sometimes both. Conversely, 
an increase hi the price of hides means a lowering of the selling price of dressed beef, or an increase In the- 
price paid the producer for the hve animal, or both. 



I 



1 



10 UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 

average quality will yield about 550 pounds of dressed carcass and 
60 pounds of green hide. An increase of 1 cent per pound in the 
price of hides is equal to a credit of about 11 cents per 100 pounds 
on the dressed beef, or 6 cents per 100 pounds on the live weight.^* 

Briefly, then, there appears good reason to believe that competitive 
buying in the live-stock markets forces the packers to pay the true 
market value for live cattle purchased and for the hides they carry. 
Competition among live-cattle buyers and hide sellers thus quickly 
tends to correct any apparent discrepancies which may occasionally 
exist between the values of hides and live cattle. It therefore seems 
probable that, in the long run, packers would be compelled by com- 
petition to add a duty to the price paid for live animals, getting this 
addition back when hides or leather are sold. It thus would appear 
that the packer-tanners and independent tanners would be affected 
practically equally by a duty, and that the chief effect on independent 
tanners would be the larger credits needed to carry stocks of higher 
priced hides. 

THE PROBABLE EFFECT OF A TARIFF ON THE PRICE OF HIDES. 

It has already been indicated that, owing to the necessity to im- W 
port nearly one-half of the hides and skins required, a tariff on hides 
probably would raise the price of domestic hides over the foreign 
level laid down in our ports by approximately the amount of the 
duty, assuming that there is a world hide market. It has also been 
claimed that a duty on hides would "stabilize" domestic prices. 
However, price stability increases with breadth of market and more 
numerous sources of supply. The latter view is particularly signifi- . 
cant in that the United States now imports nearly one-half the 
world's net exports of hides and skins, and that these imports amount 
to only about one-half the domestic consumption. A part of the 
imports are reexported as manufactured goods, but even if this 
export trade were entirely relinquished, total domestic production 
of hides and skins, particularly the latter, would not be sufficient for 
purely domestic needs. 

However, owing to the present abnormal state of the market, 
which results partly from heavy world stocks, but primarily from 
slackened demand, one of the chief domestic grades of hides prob- 
ably would be considerably benefited by a duty as contrasted with 
the other main grade. . Country hides are selling far below their 
normal price as compared with packer hides. Country hides are 
quite uneven in quality and their merchandising is relatively poorly 
organized when compared with the large lines of uniform grades, 
and the highly specialized marketing methods developed for disposal 
of packer hides. Accordingly, in periods of price depression, packer 
hides sell much more freely than those of country origin. This is 
well shown by the fact that, owing partly to high freight rates, 
during 1921, country hides often had little or no value at country 
points, while in the markets they sold for only 50 to 60 per cent as 
much per 100 pounds as packer hides. Normally they sell for 80 
per cent of the packer price. The immediate effect of a duty prob- 

"VVhalin, C, V.: U. S. Bureau of Markets. 



HIDES AND SKINS. 11 

ably would be a temporary restriction of imports. Heavy stocks on 
hand in the United States should then move more freely, and country 
hides should be in greater demand than at present. Their price 
then should rise, relative to packer hides, until approximately the 
normal price relation was reached. Beyond that they could hardly 
be expected to go. To that extent it could probably be said that a 
duty would "stabilize" hide prices. 

Assuming no increase in domestic demand, the chief permanent 
effect of a duty, unless it were prohibitory, probably would be to 
increase the removal and marketing of domestic "fallen" hides — 
from animals which die — and thus make a small addition to the 
domestic production. Should the result of a duty be such as to 
cause a partial withdrawal of the United States from the export 
trade in leather and leather goods, this deficiency in the world 
supply would soon be produced elsewhere. There should be little 
effect on the world demand for, or price of, hides and skins as a 
result of such withdrawal on the part of the United States. 

THE TANNING INDUSTRY. 

The object of the tanning process is to preserve and lengthen the 
life of the raw material. The process tends to preserve the fiber rather 
than to change it chemically, and the characteristics which are pres- 
ent in the raw hide show up in the finished leather product. Though 
some processes bring about both chemical and mechanical changes, 
different processes tan in varying manners and degrees. This is 
largely due to skill, which is very important in the tanning process. 

The skins of animals consist of two main layers, the outer skin or 
epidermis, composed of hard flattened cells, and an inner layer of 
soft spherical cells, which is usually called the corium, or mucous 
layer. The leather-manufacturing process is essentially the conver- 
sion of the corium into a hard, workable, nonputrefiable substance. 
After the hair has been removed the finest parts of the hide, e. g., the 
back and sides (butts and bends) are ready for tanning, but the remain- 
ing parts, neck, belly, etc., and all parts required for soft leather, must 
be softened before they can be tanned. ^^ The tanning process con- 
sists of soaking in bark extracts or mineral tannage for one week to 
three months, depending on the method employed, and, in the case 
of many kinds of leather, impregnating it with oils and greases. 

The tanning industry was at first localized around regions producing 
bark. Later, extracts were made from the bark and shipped to the 
place of origin of hides. More recently there has been a tendency to 
ship both materials to centers within easy reach of the market. As 
bark is bulky and deteriorates quickly, its transportation has always 
been more or less difficult. On the other hand hides and skins can be 
cured and salted by pickling in brine or by dry salting, or if necessary 
by simple drying in the smi. Drying is not advisable unless it is 
necessary to ship long distances, as it injures the raw pelt slightly and 
reduces its market value. However, the value of the dry hides is so 
high in proportion to their bulk that they can be more profitably 
carried longer distances than pickled or green. Consequently they 
have always been a great trading asset for economically retarded 



k 



12 UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 

nations or countries difficult of access. From most remote regions 
and distant inland points hides and skins enter the channels of trade.^* 

Mineral tanning, especially chrome, has materially benefited the 
light leather industry. Goatskins, the principal raw material for 
chemical tanners, are nearly all imported. The fact that a port city 
makes a desirable place for the localization of this industry and the 
fact that the industry started in Philadelphia have made it and the 
surrounding region the greatest center for chrome-tanned leather in 
the world. 

Despite the many kinds of leather, the bulk of the product is com- 
posed of two standard kinds — heavy and light, or sole and upper. 
Heavy leathers are made almost entirely by tanning with the bark of 
wood, of oak, hemlock, or quebracho, while light leathers, once made 
the same way, are now more often manufactured by a mineral process, 
generally referred to as the chrome process. To this generalization 
there are some minor exceptions ; for example. Great Britain, lacking 
the forests of the Americas or central Europe, imports a variety of 
tanning material ranging from the nibs of acorns to Italian sumac, 
while France, a specialist in high-grade light leather, forsakes in 
many of her plants the technical "tanning" process and adopts 
instead "tawing," changing the skins to leather by means of alum, 
and salts, or combinations of alum, salts, fats, albumens (egg), and 
oils. In the main, however, the tanning industry is supported by 
hides or skins transformed into leather by vegetable tans ^^ for the 
heavy leathers and chrome tanning for the light leathers. 

In Table 3 is given the numbers of hides and skins used in tanneries 
in the United States for the three periods 1909, 1914, and 1919. The 
number of hides tanned has increased about 20 per cent from 1909 to 
1919, while the number of skins treated has decreased about 20 per 



cent for the same period. In the last-mentioned group goat and kid 
skins showed a substantial increase, amounting to about 15 per cent. 
In general, about 65 per cent of the consumption of our tanneries 
are cattle hides, 10 per cent calfskins, 10 per cent goatskins, 10 per 
cent sheep and lamb skins, 3 per cent horse, mule, and colt hides and 
skins, and 2 per cent miscellaneous. 

1^ Matthews: Commerial Commodities. 

16 Keir, Malcolm: Alanufacturing Industries in America. 

" Ibid. 



HIDES AND SKINS. 



13 



Table 3. — Rmv hides and skins used in tanneries in the United States, 1909, 1914, and 

1919. 

[From Federal Census.] 





1909 


1914 


1919 


HIDES (PURCHASED). 

Total: 


20, 516, 332 


20, 867, 820 


24, 933, 895 


Cost 


$320,916,283 








Cattle: 


18, 613, 054 
$121,266,814' 

(') 


17, 776, 558 
$151,609,541 

1,2.50,245 
84,036,633 


22, 184, 517 


Cost 


$304, 994, 752 


Horse: 


2,294,308 


Cost . .. 


$12,954,273 
455, 070 


Other: 


Cost 






$2,967,258 










SKTNS (PURCHASED). 

Total: 

Number 


125, 812, 2.54 


117,679,872 


98, 847, 901 


Cost 


$195, 621, 577 








Calf and kip: 


19, 735, 549 
S31, 798, 263 

48, 193, 848 
$27, 928, 019 

26, 148, 336 
$12, 268, 487 

3,797,634 
$3,802,491 


16,067,793 
$33,117,713 

37, 755, 867 
$23,916,965 

40, 364, 926 
$19,339,258 

1,328,540 
$4, 377, 496 


12, 894, 274 




$74, 334, 355 


Goat and kid: 


55, 428, 830 


Cost 


$82, 500, 845 


Sheep and lamb: 

Number 


22, 766, 247 


Cost 


$29, 415, 744 


Other: 


7, 758, 550 


Cost 


$9, 370, 633 




Grand total, value 






$516, 537, 860 









I Separate figures not available. 

LEATHER MANUFACTURES. 

According to the census of 1919 the purchased value of hides and 
skins used in the manufacture of leather was $516,537,860, the value of 
the leather produced was $928,591,701, and the value of partly manu- 
factured and completely manufactured products was $1,686,042,659. 

Boots and shoes represented 79.3 per cent of the total value of all 
finished leather products in 1919; harness and saddlery, 5.7 per cent; 
trunks and valises, 4.4 per cent; belting leather, 2.8 per cent; gloves 
and mittens, 3.2 per cent; and all other leather manufactures, 4.6 per 
cent. 

For the years 1917, 1918, and 1919, 81 per cent of the total leather 
production reported in pounds (sole leather) and 68 per cent of the 
production in feet (upper leather) were used in the manufacture of 
shoes, according to reports of 319 tanning companies. ^^ As these 
companies manufactured most of the shoe leather made in the United 
States, a fair indication is given of the c^uantity of leather going into 
shoes. 



'8 Data from Federal Trade Commission. 



14 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 



Table 4. — Value of production of finished leather manufactures and of leather and partly 
maniifactured leather products. 

[From Federal Census.] 





1914 


1919 




Value. 


Per cent 
of value. 


Value. 


Per cent 
of value. 


Raw material, leather, tanned, cured 


$367,201,705 




$928, 591, 701 










Partly finished: 


59,964,523 
28,303,186 




161,203,310 
62,666,408 
















Total . 


88,267,709 




223,869,718 










Finished: 


501,760,458 
53,558,612 
26, 471, 527 
23,035,951 
21,614,109 
22, 684, 486 


77.3 
8.3 
4.1 
3.6 
3.3 
3.4 


1, 159, 171, 395 
83,699,050 
63,920,516 
40,540,653 
47, 181, 299 
67, 660, 028 


79.3 




5.7 




4.4 


Belting leather 


2.8 


Gloves and mittens, leather 


3.2 


Other leather goods 


4.6 






Total 


649, 125, 143 


100.0 


1,462,172,941 


100.0 







1 



EXPORTS OF LEATHER AND MANUFACTURES OF LEATHER. 

Exports of leather and its finished manufactured products greatly 
increased during the war. The total value of all exports amounted 
to $60,757,000 in 1912. In 1914 they were $57,566,000 and in 1920 
reached their maximum, $291,801,000. The average for the 10- 
year period of 1912-1921 was $127,721,000. The average annual 
export for the pre-war period 1910-1914 was $57,707,239; for the war 
period 1915-1919, $140,996,981; and for the post-war period 1920-21, 
$195,004,442. 

Of total exports the most important items are upper leather (calf, 
kip, goat, and kid, mostly the last two named) and sole leather. 
Upper leathers comprised 35 per cent of the value of all leather 
products exported, or $44,690,000 for the 10-year average 1912-1921, 
while sole leather comprised about 16 per cent, or $21,450,000. 
The average annual pre-war export of upper leather for the period 
1910-1914 was $25,400,180; for the war period, $44,301,094; and 
for the post-war period, $74,725,933. Exports of upper leather 
and sole leather are for the most part shipped to Europe, notably 
the United Kingdom, 'for reexport to the Continent. For sole 
leather, average annual exports were $8,567,609 for the period 
1910-1914; $27,327,189 for 1915-1919; and $20,819,527 for 1920-21. 

Next in importance are boots and shoes. Exports of all leather 
boots, shoes, and slippers were 7,257,000 pairs valued at $12,408,575 
in 1910, and 10,205,000 pairs valued at $18,230,000 in 1914. The 
10-year average 1912-1921, inclusive, was 14,479,384 pairs valued at 
$37,007,000, or 29 per cent of the value of all leather exports. Aver- 
age annual exports for 1910-1914 were 15,788,395 pairs of shoes 
valued at $15,788,395; for 1915-1919, 16,322,313 pairs valued at 
$38,785,275; and for 1920-21, 16,643,417 pairs valued at $61,677,256. 
The average is less than 5 per cent of total domestic production and 
the maximum is less than 7 per cent. Exports of boots and shoes 
are mostly to South and Central America, Cuba being our best cus- 
tomer. 



HIDES AND SKIN^S. 



15 



Other items in our export trade include belting, patent leather, and 
many other unspecified items. The total of this miscellaneous 
group is less than 20 per cent of the value of all leather and leather 
products exported. 

IMPORTS AND EXPORTS OF HIDES AND SKINS AND EXPORTS OF LEATHER 

PRODUCTS. 

For the 5-year period 1910-1914 the value of the imports of the 
raw material was $104,632,000, while the exports of leather and 
leather manufacturers were valued at $57,707,000. During the war 
the value of exports greatly increased, while the value of imports 
increased much less. The average value of imports for the period 
1915-1919 was $152,039,000 and for the exports $140,997,000. 
(See Table 5.) 

Table 5. — Production, imports, and exports of all hides and shins, and exports of leather 
and leather manufactures, 1910-1921. 



Fiscal year. 


Domestic 

production, 

hides and 

skins. 


Imports for consumption, 
hides and skins. i 


Domestic 

exports, 

hides and 

skins. 


Domestic 

exports of 

leather and 




Quantity. 


Value. 


leather man- 
ufactures. 


1910 


Pounds. 


Pounds. 
632,050,570 
373,457,317 
546,663,378 
584, 929, 352 
551,290,256 
538, 809, 820 
743,090,431 
710,801,551 
432,097,029 
448, 144, 652 
798,446,952 
3 352,169,897 


8115,365,882 
70,506,733 
102,371,585 
117,275,007 
117,639,905 
104, 188, 187 
1.58,838,112 
216,474,281- 
131,431,180 
149,268,316 
376,892,462 

3 105,989,967 


Pounds. 
14,6.35,075 
44,594,235 
25,246,800 
26, 130, 338 
19, 867, 135 
24,933,180 
17,122,019 
9,971,249 
12,144,817 
14,772,720 
24,006,361 
15,306,567 


352,646,755 


1911 




53,673,056 


1912 




60, 756, 772 


1913 




63, 893, 351 


1914 


2 711,540,000 


57, 566, 261 


1915 


120,727,156 


1916 




146,703,815 


1917 




153, 709, 573 


1918 




100, 880, 843 


1919 




182,963,517 


1920 


2 855,530,000 


291,800,591 


1921 


98, 208, 294 









1 Dried and green. 

* Based primarily on slaughter figures for calendar years. 

» General imports. 



THE RELATION OF THE PRICE OF HIDES AND SKINS TO THE 
MANUFACTURED PRODUCTS. 

The wide disparity between the price of hides and skins and the 
price of shoes, the present price of the latter being twice the pre-war 
price, while the former is less than the pre-war price, raises a question 
of prime importance in connection with a duty on hides. In January, 
1920, the price of green salted packer's heavy native steer hides at 
Chicago was 218 per cent of the 1913 average price. In Boston the 
wholesale price of men's vici-calf blucher was 298 per cent of the 
1913 average price. The situation one year later (January, 1921) 
shows hides at 91 per cent of the 1913 price, wliile shoes are at 233 
per cent. The situation two years later (Januar}^, 1922) was 90 per 
cent of the 1913 price for the hides >and 215 per cent for the shoes. 



16 



U:NriTED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 
Table 6. — Wholesale prices of hides, leather, and shoes. ^ 







Wholesale 


prices 2 (index numbers). 






Hides. 


Leather. 


Boots and 
shoes, men's 
vici-calf 
blucher 
(Boston), 
relative 
to 1913. 


Year and month. 


Green salted 
packer's 
heavy na- 
tive steers 
(Chicago), 
relative 
to 1913. 


Calfskins, 

country 

No. 1 

(Chicago), 
relative 
to 1913. 


Sole hemlock 

middle 

No. 1 

(Boston), 

relative 

to 1913. 


Chrome calf, 

B grades 

(Boston), 

relative 

to 1913. 


Monthly average: 

1913 


Per cent. 
100 
107 
132 
142 
178 
164 
214 
170 

218 
219 
198 
197 
192 
185 
160 
155 
154 
139 
126 
103 

91 
74 
63 
55 
65 
76 
76 
76 
77 
80 
86 


Per cent. 
100 
111 
114 
179 
215 
197 
363 
195 


Per cent. 
100 
107 
110 
138 
190 
172 
187 
189 


Per cent. 
100 
104 
106 
167 
215 
222 
360 
366 

473 
473 
473 
464 
436 
399 
325 
325 
297 
278 
232 
213 

195 
195 
195 
195 
195 
195 
195 
195 
195 
195 
186 


Per cent. 

100 


1914 .. 


102 


1915 


105 


1916 


119 


1917 


153 


1918 


181 


1919 


244 


1920 


288 


1920. 
January 




395 
351 
285 
278 
239 
162 
162 
122 
121 
98 




199 
202 
202 
202 
202 
202 
202 
195 
181 
174 
167 
145 


298 




305 




308 




308 




308 




292 


July 


292 




292 




292 




255 


November 


90 

75 

81 
71 
66 
72 
90 
82 
81 
86 
85 
82 
77 


249 


December 


249 


1921. 


142 
135 
131 
131 
131 
128 
124 
121 
121 
121 
121 


233 


February 


233 


March . . ^ 


233 


April 


225 


May . 


225 


June 


225 


July 


225 


August 


225 




225 




217 




217 















1 As reported in Survey of Current Business, Department of Commerce. 
» Data from U. S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. 



HIDES AND SKINS. 17 

Table 6. — Wholesale prices of hides, leather, and shoes^ — Continued. 







Wholesale 


prices 2 (numerical data). 






Hides. 


Leather. 


Boots and 
shoes, men's 
vlcl-calf 
blucher 
(Boston), 
average price 
per pair. 


Year and month. 


Green salted 
packer's 
heavy na- 
tive steers 
(Chicago) 
average price 
per pound. 


Calfskins, 
country 

No. r 

(Chicago), 
average price 
per pound. 


Sole hemlock 

middle 

No. 1 

(Boston), 

average price 

per pound. 


Chrome calf, 

B grades 

(Boston), 

average price 

per square 

foot. 


Monthly average: 
191.3 


$0. 184 
.196 
.242 
.262 
.327 
.301 
.393 
.312 

.400 
.403 
.364 
.361 
.354 
.341 
.294 
.28.5 
.284 
.255 
.233 
.190 

.168 
.136 
.115 
.101 
.119 
.140 
.139 
.140 
.141 


$0. 189 
.210 
.215 
.338 
.406 
.371 
.685 
.368 

.745 
.663 
..540 
. 525 
.450 
.305 
.306 
.229 
.229 
.184 
.169 
.141 

.1.53 
.134 
.125 
.1.36 
.169 
.1.56 
.153 
.162 
.160 


$0. 282 
.302 
.309 
.388 
.535 
.484 
.528 
.534 

..560 
..570 
..570 
..570 
.570 
.570 
.570 
..550 
..510 
.490 
.470 
.410 

.400 
.380 
.370 
.370 
.370 
.360 
.3.50 
.340 
.340 


$0,270 
.280 
.285 
.450 
..579 
.598 
.970 
.985 

1.275 
1.275 
1. 275 
1.250 
1.175 
1. 075 
.875 
.875 
.800 
.750 
.625 
.575 

. 525 
..525 
. 525 
..525 
.525 
. 525 
. 525 
.525 
.525 


$3.11 


1914 


3.17 


1915 


3.25 


1916 


3.71 


1917 .. 


4.75 


1918 


5.63 


1919 


7.60 


1920 


S.% 


1920. 
January 


9.28 


February 


9.50 


March 


9.60 


April ... 


9.60 


May . . 


9.60 


June 


9.10 


July 


9.10 


August 


9.10 


September 


9.10 


October 


7.94 


November 


7.75 


December 


7.75 


1921. 
January.. 


7.25 


February 


7.25 


March 


7.25 


AprU 


7.00 


May 


7.00 


June 


7.00 


July 


7.00 


August 


7.00 


September 


7.00 







' As reported in Survey of Current Business, Department of Commerce. 
2 Data from U. S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. 

Largely because of the attitude of the public beginning about May, 
1920, in their refusal to pay constantly mounting prices, and in what 
is commonly referred to as the ''consumer's strike," the retailer 
through the wholesale merchant began to cancel orders with the 
shoe manufacturers. This lessened retail demand, caused the shoe 
manufacturer to slow down, w^hich in turn affected the tanner who 
refused to buy hides. The problem confronting the retailer, shoe 
manufacturer, and tanner, then, was the same: To move the goods 
on hand at a profit, at cost, or as much as could be realized. 

The result was to lessen the supply of the partly or completely 
fabricated product, and through failure to utilize in anything like 
normal volume to increase the supply of the raw material. This 
situation has prevailed because of the nature of the live-stock indus- 
tr}^ in general and the production of hides and skins in particular. 
Production of the latter continues, despite losses incurred, until the 
producers' program is completed, which in the case of cattle raising 
usually extends over a period of two to four years. This is in sharp 
contrast to manufacturing industries, which, on relatively short 



18 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 



notice, can close down until production is profitable. In addition 
to this ''backwater'' operation, so to speak, in which the supply of 
hides was uninterrupted, whereas the demand for them was suddenly 
stopped, there was during 1920 and 1921 a continuous stream of 
imports through established foreign trade channels. 

This disparity between the price of hides and leather and its 
products is temporary, no doubt, and any calculations on the effect 
of a duty on hides under such conditions would not be so significant 
as under normal conditions. Therefore, without assuming to esti- 
mate the effect of a duty in the immediate present, some calculations 
are submitted on the increase in the price of leather products which 
may be expected to result from the proposed duty of 2 cents per 
pound on green and 4 cents on dry hides. 

As a rule, higher price levels for raw materials mean higher manu- 
facturing costs and consequently higher manufacturers' selling price. 
As an indication of the probable effect of higher priced raw material 
on leather manufactures, shoes — the principal finished product of 
leather — may be taken as an illustration. It may be assumed that 
on an average for all kinds of shoes — high and low, large and small — - 
that about 5 pounds of green hides or skins are required to make a 
pair of shoes. Then for each 1 cent increase in the price of the raw 
material the manufacturer's cost should be enhanced 5 cents or 
slightly more if increased interest charges are included. 

It should be mentioned, however, that the foregoing statements 
on the effect of an increased price of raw materials on manufacturing 
and selling costs are based on the assumption of an increase in price 
of all the hides and skins entering into a pair of shoes. If a duty 
were placed upon one item only, as, for instance, cattle hides, the 
increase in cost would be about three times the duty per pound for 
a pair of shoes instead of five times, as mentioned above, as on the 
average less than 3 pounds of cattle hides are used in a pair of shoes. ^' 

I' Quantity of leather and green hides and skins necessary to make one pair of shoes. — From data submitted 
by a prominent tamiing company with a cut-stock department, the estimate of average niunber of pairs 
of soles for shoes per whole hide is 35. On the basis of average weights and yield of domestic and foreign 
green and dry salted hides, the average weight of sole leather'per hide is approximately 40 pounds. This 
would give ah average of 1.2 pounds of outer sole leather per pair of shoes. 

The average amount of upper leather per pair of shoes is 3| feet for men's shoes and 3 feet for women's 
shoes. In addition to the sole leather and upper leather, other leather is required for welting, insoles, 
counters, etc. This other leather represents on an average from 20 to 25 per cent of the total leather of a 
shoe. 

Another large manufacturer figures on about 3 J feet oi upper leather and 2^ pounds of sole leather for men's 
work shoes and makes no extra allowance for welting, insoles, coimters, etc. Upper and sole leather fig- 
ures are supposed to be large enough to take care of the remainder. 

On the basis of 85 square feet of upper leather per 100 pounds of hides or skins and assuming 3J feet of 
upper leather necessary for one pair of men's shoes, 3.S pounds of green hides would be necessary for uppers. 
Tnen, taking 1.2 pounds of outer sole leather, on the basis of SO per cent yield, the amount of green nide 
necessary for the sole would be 1.5 pounds. As the sole and uppers represent SO per cent of the total hides 
and skin's in a shoe, the total amount of raw stock for the entire shoe would be the equivalent of 6J pounds 
of green hides or skins. This may be taken for a man's ordinary shoe. To average men's, women's, and i 
children's high and low cut shoes together, 5 pounds would probably be a fair figure for all the hides or skins j 
ii; a pair of shoes. 

Leather and raw stock necessary to make one pair of men's shoes. 



Kind. 


Amount of leather. 


Yield of leather 
from 100 pounds 
green hides or 
skins. 


■J 

Amount of 
raw hides 
or skins. . 




3J square feet 

1.2 pounds 

20 to 25 per cent of 
total required. 


85 square feet 

80 pounds 


Pounds. 
3.8 


Sole 


1.5 


Welting, insoles, counter, etc. ... 




1.32{fi 








Total 


6.62» 











• HIDES AND SKINS. 19 

However, whether or not all of an increase in the wholesale price 
would be finally passed on to the consumer is somewhat difficult to 
determine. Retail price adjustment usually move by multiples of 
25 cents, wholesale prices by multiples of 5 cents. Therefore, whether 
a change in wholesale prices would affect retail prices largely de- 
pends, first, upon the closeness of retail price adjustments, and, sec- 
ond, upon the sharpness of retail competition. Under some condi- 
tions for certain grades of shoes a 5-cent increase in the wholesale 
price might increase the retail price the full 25 cents per pair. Under 
other conditions an increase in the wholesale price of 15 or 20 cents 
per pair of shoes might be necessary before the retail trade responded 
to the increase. In short, while theoretically any increase in the 
wholesale price of shoes would be passed on to the consumer, in prac- 
tice it might result that some kinds of shoes would show no increase 
in price while others would show increases of several times the equiva- 
lent duty. 

Another possibility resulting from a duty on hides and skins would 
be the cheapening of the shoe by the use of leather substitutes. Five 
or ten cents per pair on an $8 pair of shoes is a small item to the 
consumer, but a saving of 5 cents per pair to the manufacturer may 
mean a material loss or gain in his manufacturing operations. Any 
increase in the price of leather will at once affect the amount of 
leather substitutes which he will put in his product. Well-organized 
selling campaigns and the manipulation of styles may enable the 
manufacturer to market a shoe with relatively little leather in it. 
The use of rubber, of composition soles and insoles, cloth tops, etc., 
materially decreases the demand for leather, with a consequent effect 
on the price. * 

Briefly, then, it may be said with considerable certainty that a 
duty on hides would be passed on by the manufacturer to the whole- 
salers and retailers of shoes and other leather products, but whether 
the retailer will be able to pass on to the consumer the duty or more 
than the duty largely depends upon the relation of the increased 
wholesale price, which moves in multiples of 5 cents, to the retail 
price, which usually is graded in multiples of 25 cents.-*^ 

THE EFFECT OF AN IMPORT DUTY ON HIDES AND SKINS ON EXPORT 
TRADE IN LEATHER AND LEATHER PRODUCTS. 

The statement is frec^uently made that if a duty were imposed on 
hides and skins additional capital would be required to carry the 
raw material, the cost of manufacture would be increased by the 
higher price of the material, and our manufacturers would therefore 

*» Regarding the profits of 56 tanning companies for the year 1919, as a result of a careful study, it was 
stated that " The correlations indicate that the largest profits on investment and on net worth were earned 
by those tanners whose margins of profit over cost were greatest. This would seem to indicate that the 
large profits earned in 1919 resulted from large margins of profit taken on each iniit of leather sold rather 
than from an unusually large volume of business done. Of course, many tanners who took only very small 
margins of profit on cich until sold were still able to show substantial returns on investment, which may 
be explauicd by the fact that the companies earning the smallest percentage of profit to cost had generally 
the largest turnovers of invested capital and may be presumed to nave had the largest turnovers of stock." 

On the profits of .'541 shoe manufacturers, this same report stated that "since the largest profits on invest- 
ment and on net worth were earned by companies whose margins of profit over cost were largest, it would 
seem that profits in 1919 depended upon 'markups' on each shoe sold rather than upon rapiditv of stock 
turnover. Of course, many com) anics were able to show a substantial return on investment in spite of 
small margins of profit taken on each shoe sold; this is explained by the fact that tlie com]janics earning 
the smallest percentages of profit to cost had generallv the largest turnovers of mvcsied capital, and may be 
presumed to have had the largest turnovers of stock." (Federal Trade Commission, Snoe and Leather 
Costs and Prices, pp. 207, 212.) 



20 UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 

be at a disadvantage in competing in foreign markets. In this 
country both the tanning and leather-manufacturing industries are 
well organized and are highly developed on the machine basis and, 
provided they can secure the raw material as easily, can, on some 
classes of products, compete with any country in either the home or 
foreign market. There are, on the other hand, some specialties in 
regard to which American ability to compete is doubtful. 

The situation would be relieved to some extent for the leather 
tanners by customary drawback provisions. The manufacturers of 
boots and shoes for export and other manufacturers whose product 
is a highly fabricated article, ready for consumption, would, however, 
experience difficulty in obtaining the drawback unless their product 
were made exclusively from imported hides and skins. Furthermore, 
if domestic hides and skins were increased in price by a duty, Ameri- 
can manufacturers who export leather and goods made of such hides 
and skins would be at a disadvantage, because there would, of course, 
be no drawback on that material. The only way that such manu- 
facturers could continue their foreign business on the same basis as 
at present would be to go over to the exclusive use of the imported 
raw material for their export trade. The effect on the American 
hide and skin market would then be the same as if such manufac- 
turers were actually operating in a foreign country. 

It has often been asserted that the difficulty of collecting the draw- 
back and the fact that not 100 per cent of the duty is refunded make 
its ostensible benefit greater than its actual advantage. It may be 
said that those manufacturers — of either leather or leather goods, 
including boots and shoes — who regularly use imported hides and 
skins or leather made from such materials, and are organized for the 
export trade, would probably be in a position to reimburse them- 
selves to a great extent through the medium of the drawback. 
Those, however, whose export business is only a minor consideration, 
or those who use a mixture of imported and domestic materials, or 
those who export only intermittently — perhaps to take advantage of 
a sudden favorable turn in foreign markets or to avoid unfavorable 
conditions in the home market — might not find it worth while to 
collect the drawback but perhaps withdraw from the export trade. 

To what extent the American export trade in leather and manu- 
factures of leather would or would not be affected by a duty on 
hides and skins can not well be predicted. It is impossible to measure 
accurately the amounts of relative advantage and disadvantage 
which would accrue to the difl^erent branches of production — the 
cattle raisers, tanners, boot and shoe and other leather goods man- 
ufacturers. 

During the 10 years from 1898 to 1907, when there wjxs a duty of 15 
per cent on cattle hides and when there were compensatory and pro- 
tective duties on leather and manufactures thereof under the act of 
1897,^^ the value of exports of leather and leather manufactures 
increased rapidly. The total amounted to $21,115,000 in 1898 and 
to $45,477,000 in 1907, showing an increase of more than 100 per 
cent. The average for the first five years was $26,080,000 and for 
the second five years $37,931,000.^2 

21 Paragraphs 437, 664, and 438, act of 1887. 
" See TaV)le 12, p. 26. 



HIDES AND SKINS. 21 

One of the most important items of export was glazed kid shoe 
leather made of imported goatskins tanned by the chrome process 
which was introduced after 1890. 

The prices of hides and leather have been increasing, with occa- 
sional downward fluctuations, ever since 1890. The tables on pages 
26 and 27 show that with the exception of a period of agricultural 
depression, 1892 to 1896, and the years 1910, 1911, 1920, and 1921, 
the tendency of hide prices has been upward. Between 1890 and 
1913 the average yearly price of green salted packers heavy native 
steers increased from 9 cents per pound to 18 cents per pound .^^ 
The prices of leather and leather goods have also been upward 
during the same period. The average price per pound of hemlock 
sole leather was 19.2 cents in 1890, 28.2 cents in 1913, and 52.8 cents 
in 1919. The average price per pound of oak sole leather in 1890 was 
37.7 cents per pound; in 1913, 44.9 cents per pound; and in 1919, 
91.3 cents per pound.-* In 1890 the average wholesale price per pair 
of men's calfskin welt shoes was $2.40; in 1913, $3,113; and in 1919, 
$7,604.^^ Since 1919 the prices of leather have fallen to about the 
pre-war level, while the prices of shoes are still above the pre-war 
level. 

REVENUE TO BE DERIVED FROM A DUTY ON HIDES. 

A duty on hides and skins would, if imposed, yield a substantial 
revenue; but owing to the drawback privilege allowed manufac- 
turers when the product made of foreign raw material is exported, 
the net returns to the Government would be reduced. A duty 
equivalent to 1 cent per pound on all items, on a green or raw basis, 
is estimated to yield net between $5,000,000 and $6,000,000 annualiy. 
The same rate applied to the directly competitive items only (cattle, 
calf and kip, sheep and lamb, horse, colt and ass), should vield 
$3,000,000 to $4,000,000 annually. A like rate of duty on c'attle 
hides, on the basis of 1914 imports, would yield between $2,000,000 
and $3,000,000. 

TARIFF CONSIDERATIONS. 

Except for the period of 1897-1909, hides and skins have been 
on the free list. Under the act of 1897, hides were duitable at 15 
per cent ad valorem. 

In case a duty were levied on hides, an ad valorem duty would 
probably prove most equitable, although compensatory duties to 
offset increased cost of raw materials would be more difficult to 
adjust. Under a specific duty, because of the wide range in values 
of the various classes of hides and skins, low-OTade stock would bear 
a higher rate of dut}^ than high-grade material. However, a specific 
duty would be especially advantageous to ''country" hide producers, 
in that its ad valorem equivalent on low grades of imported hides 
and skins, which are directly competitive with country hides and 
skins, would more definitely tend to restrict such imports. 

23 U. S. Dept. of Labor, Bu. of Labor Statistics, Bui. on Wholesale Prices, 1850-1919, pp. M and 1^5. 

24 Ibid, pp. 86 and S7. 
21- Ibid, pp. 72 and 73. 



22 UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 

The usual conversion equivalent between dried and green hides 
is about two to one.^" Dried hides yield about twice as much leather 
per pound as green. On the basis of value according to invoice 
figures, imported dried hides have averaged about 50 per cent higher 
per pojmd. In case specific duties are desired, per pound levies 
would be easy to administer and more satisfactory than any other, 
provided adequate provision was made for the different classes. 
For instance, the rate per pound should be about 50 per cent higher 
on dry than on green or pickled hides. 

COMPENSATORY DUTIES ON LEATHER AND LEATHER PRODUCTS, 

The following illustrative tables, while necessarily tentative and 
incomplete, have been prepared to suggest the ratio of duty which 
should exist between raw material and manufactured products in 
the levy of a compensatory duty on leather and leather products in 
case a duty should be placed on hides and skins. 

In so far as possible these figures have been prepared on the basis 
of what are believed to be fair prices, which are somewhat higher 
than pre-war values. According to these figures if a duty, say 
equivalent to 4 cents per pound, be levied on a green cattle hide, 
the compensatory duty ^^ on a pair of men's shoes made entirely of 
cattle hides should be about 24 cents; on a pair of men's shoes having 
soles, welting, etc., made of cattle hides, the compensatory rate 
should be 16 cents per pair. 

It should be said that because of the varying quantities and 
qualities of hides and skins used for the manufactured product, it is . 
impossible to ascertain exactly what the compensatory duty should be. 

In case duties are levied on hides and skins on an ad valorem 
basis, the compensatory rates may be determined by computing the 
specific rate per pound on the raw material and applying the com- 
puted rate to a table similar to Table 7. In ascertaining the specific 
rate on the raw material, it will be necessary either to find the 
actual imported value of the raw material or to make assumptions 
with reference to such value. For example, if the ad valorem rate 
were 20 per cent on a 15-cent hide, the specific equivalent would be 
3 cents. Then the compensatory rate on men's shoes, made of all 
dutiable material (from Table 6) would be 18 cents per pair. 

*s Yield of leather from dried and green hides: In general dried hides yield about twice as much leather 
per pound as green salted hides, and in value dried hides average about 50 per cent more. A dried hide 
depreciates somewhat in quality and is more difficult to tan. 

On the basis of data furnished by one of the largest tanneries, the average pounds of sole leather per 100 
pounds of domestic and imported hides, green and dry salted, for the years 1918 and 1919 was as follows 
(data furnished by Federal Trade Commission): 

Domestic: 

Green 73 

Dry salted 161 

Imported: 

Green 73 

Dry salted 166 

For upper leather from the same concern the average yields are in square feet of leather per 100 pounds 
of hides: 

Buffs, 4.5-60 pounds 85 

Extremes and buffs 87 

Extremes and buffs (country) 80 

Kipskins 100 

Calfskins 112 

'7 Increased value of trimmings and waste neglected, as offsetting increased carrying charges. 



HIDES AND SKINS. 



23 



Table 1 .. — Specific compensatory duties on leather and leather products necessary to balanc 
assumed specific duties on green hides.^ 



Assumed 

duty on 

cattle hides 

(green 

basis). 


Sole 
leather . 


Belting and 
harness 
leather. 


Upper 
leather. 


Shoes 
• made of 
cattle hides 

only. 


Shoes 
having 

cattle hides 
in soles, 
welting, 

etc., only. 


Factors for conversion." 


14 


2 


IJ 


6 


4 


Cents per 
pound. 
1.0 
1.5 
2.0 
2.5 
3.0 
3.5 
4.0 
4.5 
5.0 
.5.5 
6.0 


Cents per 
pound. 
1.5 
2.25 
3.0 
3.75 
4. .50 
5.25 
6.0 
6.75 
7.50 
8.25 
9.0 


Cents per 

pound. 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 


Cents per 
square foot. 
1.25 
1.88 
2.50 
3.13 
3.75 
4.38 
5.0 
5.63 
6.25 
6.88 
1 7.50 


Cents per 

pair. 

6 

9 

12 

15 

18 

21 

24 

27 

30 

33 

36 


Cents per 

pair. 

4 

6 

8 

10 

12 

14 

16 

18 

20 

22 

24 



1 Interest charges because of increased cost and duties on taiming materials and oil not included. 

2 The conversion factor here used is figured on the basis of the average amount of hide necessary to 
produce leather and leather products, i. e., IJ pounds of hides produce approximatelj^ 1 pound of sole 
leather; 2 pounds of hides produce approximately 1 pound of belting and harness leather, etc. 

Table 8. — Ad valorem compensatory duties computed on leather and leather products 
necessary to balance assumed ad valorem duties on green hides luith assumed values for 
the different products.^ 













Shoes hav- 






Belting 




Shoes 


ing cattle 




Sole 


and 


Upper 


made of 


hides in 


Assumed 


leather. 


harness 


leather. 


cattle 


soles, welt- 


duty on 
cattle 
hides 




leather. 




hides only. 


ing, etc. 
only. 


(green 






















basis) 
valued at 




Assum 


ed values pe 


rimit* 




SO.lSper 
pound. 
























$0.30 per 


$0.30 per 


$0.40 per 


$2.50 per 


$3.50 per 




pound. 


pound. 


foot. 


pair. 


pair. 


Per cent. 


Per cent. 


Per cent. 


Per cent. 


Per cent. 


Per cent. 





3.75 


3.76 


3.75 


1.8 


0.86 


7i 


5 . 025 


5.625 


5.625 


2.7 


1.29 


10 


7. ,500 


7. .500 


7.500 


3.6 


1.72 


m 


9.375 


9.375 


9. 375 


4.5 


2.15 


15 


11. 250 


11.250 


11. 2.50 


5.4 


2.58 


17J 


13. 125 


1.3. 125 


13. 125 


6.3 


3.01 


20 


15.000 


15. 000 


15. 000 


7.2 


3.44 


25 


18. 750 


18. 750 


18. 750 


9.0 


4.30 


30 


22.500 


22.500 


22.500 


10.8 


5.16 



' Interest charges because of increased cost and duties on tanning materials and oils, not included. 
* Values are assumed to be normal values but are higher than pre-war figures. 



24 



UN^ITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 



For purposes of comparison between specific rates and their ad 
valorem equivalents, the following is given: 

Table 9. — Specific rate equivalent of an ad valorem rate. 



Ad 






Hide: Values per pound. 




valorem 
rate. 














15 cents. 


16 cents. 


17 cents. 


18 cents. 


19 cents. 


20 cents. 








Cenf.s 


Cents 


Cents 


Cents 


Cents 


Cen's 




per 


per 


per 


per 


per 


per 


Percent. 


pound. 


pound. 


pound. 


pound. 


pound. 


pound. 


5 


0.75 


0.80 


0.85 


0.90 


0.95 


1.00 


10 


1.50 


1.60 


1.70 


1.80 


1.90 


2.00 


15 


2.25 


2.40 


2.55 


2.70 


2.85 


3.00 


20 


3.00 


3.20 


3.40 


3.60 


3.80 


4.00 


25 


3.75 


4.00 


4.25 


4.50 


4.75 


5.00 


30 


4.50 


4.80 


5.10 


5.40 


.5.70 


6.00 



The following table fgives the ad valorem equivalents of specific 
rates, with hide values ranging from 15 cents to 20 cents per pound, i. e., 
a specific rate of 3 cents per pound is equivalent to an ad valorem 
rate of 20 per cent on 15-cent hides and 15 per cent on 20-centJhides. 

Table 10. — Ad valorem equivalent of a specific rate. 



Specific 

duty 

per 

pound. 


Hide values per pound. 


15 cents. 


16 cents. 


17 cents. 


18 cents. 


19 cents. 


20 cents. 


Cents. 
1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 


Per cent. 
6.67 
13.33 
20.00 
26.66 
33.33 
40.00 


Per cent. 
6.25 
12.50 
18.75 
25.00 
31.25 
37.50 


Per cent. 
5.88 
11.76 
17.64 
23.52 
29.40 
35.28 


Per cent. 
5.55 
11.10 
16.65 
22.20 
27.75 
33.30 


Per cent. 
5.26 
10.52 
15.78 
21.04 
26.30 
31.56 


Per cent. 
5.0 
10.0 
1.5.0 
20.0 
25.0 
30.0 



Table 11. — Hides and skins — Imports for consumption, 1911-1921. 

FISCAL YEAR 1911. 





Dry. 


Green . 


Total dry 
and green. 


Converted 

to a green 

basis. 


Total 
value. 




Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Cattle hides 


Pounds. 
55, 415, 612 
23, 409, 138 
18,814,831 
4, 539, 921 
3,347,390 
64,331,441 

708, 400 
7,471,486 


$10,214,913 

7,762,033 

3, 613, 752 

1, 010, 1,54 

502, 507 

18, 790, 711 

436, 007 
1,354,513 


Pounds. 
95,108,021 
36,324,795 
36,677,265 

5,717,420 

18, 432 

21, 575, 159 


$11,4.53,135 
6, 429, 504 
5, 400, 763 
572,838 
1,839 
2,964,064 


Pounds. 
150,521,633 
59,733,933 
55, 492, 096 
10,257,347 

3, 365, 822 
85, 908, 600 

1,708,400 
7,471,486 


Pounds.^ 

205, 937, 245 

8:3, 143, 071 

74,300,927 

14, 797, 268 

6,713,212 

150, 238, 041 

1,416,800 
14,942,972 


$21,668,048 


Calfskins 


14,191,537 


Sheep ajid lamb skins 
Horse, colt, and ass. . 
Buftalo skins 


9,014,515 

1, 5S2, 992 

504,346 

21 754 775 


Kangaroo and wal- 
laby 


436, 007 


All other, except furs 






1,354,513 










Total 


178, 038, 219 


43,684,590 


195, 419, 098 


26,822,143 


373,457,317 


551, 495, 536 


70, 506, 733 



FISCAL YEAR 1912. 



Cattle hides 

Calfskins 

Sheep and lamb skins 
Horse, colt, and ass. . 

Buffalo skins 

(loalskins 

Kangaroo and wal- 
laby 

All other, except fur: 

Total 



77, 432, 776 
42, 252, 928 
25, 860, 502 
7, 265, 142 
4, 919, 945 
69, 128, 899 

871,616 
5,832,718 



233, 564, 526 



$15,084,398 

14, 743, 576 

.5,013,055 

1, 4^3, 276 

740, 501 

19, 980, 165 

448, 759 
1,021,325 



58, 515, 055 



173, 863, 832 
72, 902, 345 
34,613,049 
5, 496, 223 
82,313 
26,141,090 



313,098,852 



$23,316,115 
11,768,138 
4, 843, 149 
563, 282 
8,789 
3, 359, 057 



13, 856, 530 



251, 296, 608 
115,155,273 
60, 473, 551 
12,761,365 
5, 002, 258 
95, 269, 989 

871,616 
5,832,718 



546, 663, 378 



328,729,384 
157, 408, 201 
86,334,053 
20, 026, 507 
9, 922, 203 
164, 398, 888 

1, 743, 232 
11,665,436 



780, 227, 904 



538, 400, 513 

26, 509, 714 

9, 8,56, 204 

2, 046, 558 

749, 290 

23, 339, 222 

448, 7.59 
1,021,325 



102,371,585 



1 One pound of dry equal to 2 pounds of green. 



HIDES AND SKINS. 



25 



Table 11. — Hides and shins — Im ports for consumption, 1911-1921 — Continued. 

FISCAL YEAR 1913. 



Cattle hides 

Calfskins 

Sheep andlamb skins. 
Horse, colt, and ass. . 

Buff<iln skins 

Goatskins 

Kangaroo and wal- 
laby 

AU other, except furs. 

Total 



Dry. 



Green. 



Quantity. 



Pound f!. 
82, 419, 649 
40, 40*1, 670 
.30.917,905 
10, .514. 666 
16, 323, 8.54 
73, 166. 489 

1,097,038 
4,926,7.37 



2.59,773,008 



Value. I Quantity. 



Prtifvdx. 

$1S.6.54,.376 1 196, 241,. 5.39 
1.5, 203, .529 I .53,9.35,020 



6, 396, 267 

2, 129. 083 

2. 802, 997 

21,110,205 

719,188 
9.5.5, .331 



67, 970, 976 



40, 669, 270 

S. 5.54, 1.53 

.54, .505 

2.5,401,857 



324, 853, 344 



Value. 



S27,662,744 

11,088,168 

5, 967, .504 

953. 764 

4,409 

3, 627, 442 



49,304,031 



Total dry 
and green 



Pniivdx. 
278,661,188 
94, .341, 690 
71,. 587, 175 
19, 068, 819 
16, 378, 3.59 
98, 568, 346 

1 , 097, 038 
4, 926, 737 



.584, 629, 3.52 



Converted 

to a sreen 

basis. 



.361, 080, ,8.37 
1.34,748,360 
102, .505, 080 
29, 583, 485 
32, 702, 213 
171, 734, 835 

2,194,076 
9, S.53, 474 



844, 402, 360 



FISCAL YEAR 1914. 



Cattle hides 

Calfskins 

Sheep andlamb skins 
Honsfi, colt, and ar.s. 

BulTalo skins 

Goatskins 

Kangaroo and wal- 
laby 

All other, except furs 

Total 



71,197,161 
28,003,588 
31,028,747 
7,791,044 
14, 465, 550 
63, 315, 8.52 

1,331,. 568 
6,185,703 



$18,041 ,.521 
11,633,613 
6,411,713 
1,6.50,070 
3,069,221 
19,0.57,795 

898, 087 
1,148,711 



208, ,837, 663 
54. 126, 7.53 
39, 007, 285 
4, 475, 578 
230,516 
21, 293, 248 



327, 971, 043 



?34.] 23,276 
11, 745, .592 
6, 199, 5.59 
507, 398 
24,531 
3,128,817 



55, 729, 173 



280, 034, 824 
82, 130, .341 
70,036,032 
12,266,622 
14,696,066 



84,609,100 147,924,952 



1,331,568 
6, 185, 703 



551, 290, 256 



351,231,9.85 
110,133,929 
101,064,779 
20, 057, 666 
29,161,616 



2,663,1.36 
12, .371, 406 



774, 609, 469 



FISCAL YEAR 1915. 



Cattle hides 

Calfskins 

Slieep and lamb skins . 
Horso.fiolt.andass .. 

Buffalo skins 

Goatskins 

Kangaroo and wal- 
laby 

All other, except furs. 



93,-597,171 
15, 746, 654 
21,010,807 
5,431,165 
12, 422, 743 
50,812,613 

769, 125 
9,720,113 



Total 209,510,391 



$21,448,083 
4,192,667 
3, 983, 323 
1,2.53,306 
2, .325, 243 

13,925,615 

427, 127 
1,654,812 



49,210,176 



240,317,817 
31,147,2.53 
.37, 81 2, .573 
3,774,609 
517,325 
15, 729, 852 



329,299,429 54,978,011 



S39,.579,719 

6, 672, 277 

6, 017, 930 

399, 495 

53,090 

2,255,500 



3.33,914,988 
46,893,907 
5.8, 82;i, 380 
9, 205, 774 
12,940,068 
66, 542, 465 

769, 125 
9,720,113 



427, 512, 1.59 
62,640,561 
79, 834. 187 
14,6.36,939 
2.5,362,811 

117,355,078 

1,. 5.38, 250 
19, 440, 226 



538,809,820 !74S,320,211 



FISCAL YEAR 1916. 



Cattle hides 

Calfskins 

Sheepandlambskins. 
Horse, colt, and ass. . 

Buffalo skins 

Goatskins 

Kangaroo and wal- 
laby 

All other, except furs. 

Total 



153,100,016 
26, 825, 444 
.54, 766, 943 
6, 597, 292 
1.3, 1.38, 535 
84, 600, 242 

1,192,632 
9, 829, 294 



350, 050, 398 



$37,399,510 
7, 813, 836 

11,385,027 
1,227,145 
2, 489, 645 

25,190,460 



281,615,918 $50,694,454 
37,182,921 9,0.39,028 



46, 583, 371 

11, 494, .335 

1,041,296 

15, 122, 192 



7, 463, 170 

1,088,658 

126, 237 

2, 208, 536 



707,663 1,192,632 

2,004,743 ' 9,829,294 



434,715,934 
64, 008, 365 

101,3.50,314 
18,091,627 
14,179,831 
99, 722, 434 



88,218,029 393,040,033 j70,620,083 |743,090,431 



587, 815, 950 
90, 833, 809 

156,117,257 
24,688,919 
27,318,366 

184,322,676 

2, 385, 264 
19,658,588 



1,093,140,829 



FISCAL YEAR 1917. 



Cattle hides 

Calfskins 

Sheep and lamb skins 
inorse, colt, and ass . 

Buffalo skins 

Goatskins 

Kangaroo and wal- 
laby 

All other, except furs 

Total 



171,490,891 
34,664,217 

55, 478, 458 
12, ISO, 755 
27,095.228 
92, 362, 738 

958, 629 
10, 004, 698 



$48,769,802 '224,770,135 $51,279,610 1396,261,026 



404,235,614 



11,010,941 
17,948,002 
3,731,439 
6. 124, 789 
51,802,209 

721,754 
2, 784, 538 



142,893,474 



12,406.899 I 4. 534, .869 

40,457,403 |l 1,630, ,521 

15,498,220 I 2,461,303 

21 8, .528 i 32,105 

13,214.7.52 I 3.642,399 



306,565,937 73,5.80,807 



47,071,116 
95, 935, 861 
27, 678, 975 
27.313,7.56 
105, 577, 490 

958, 629 
10, 004, 698 



710,801,551 



567,751,917 
81,735,333 

151,414,319 
.39,8.59,730 
.54,408,9.84 

197,940,228 

1.917,2.58 
20,009,396 



1 115,037,165 



26 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 



Table 11. — Hides and sJcins— Imports for consumption, 1911-1921 — Continued. 

FISCAL YEAR 1918. 





Dry. 


Green. 


Total dry 
and green. 


Converted 

to a green 

basis. 


Total 




Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


value. 


Cattle hides 


Pounds. 
80, 036, 808 

8, 785, 186 
32, 305, 867 

2,654,507 
10,579,007 
56, 840, 030 

634, 975 
7,174,213 


$24,626,852 
3,652,790 

11, 814, 409 

625, 200 

2,799,211 

29, 799, 082 

694,016 
2, 075, 837 


Pounds. 
187,177,896 

4, 170, 862 
23, 716, 762 

6, 305, 379 

1,437,953 
10,277,584 


$43,095,152 

1,555,086 

7,421,582 

882, 460 

374,682 

2, 014, 821 


Pounds. 

267, 214, 704 

12,956,048 

56, 022, 629 

8,959,886 
12, 016, 960 
67,117,614 

634,975 
7, 174, 213 


Pounds. 

347,251,512 
21,741,234 
88, 328, 496 
11,614,393 
22, 595, 967 

123,957,644 

1,269,950 
14,348,426 


$67,722,004 
5,207,876 

19,235,991 
1,507,660 
3, 173, 893 

31, 813, 903 




Sheep'andlamb skins. 
Horse, colt, and ass . . 
Buffalo skins 


Kangaroo and wal- 


694, 016 


All other, except furs. 






2,075,837 






Total 


199, 010, 593 


76,087,397 


233, 086, 436 


55,343,783 


432, 097, 029 


631,107,622 


131,431,180 







CALENDAR YEAR 1918. 



Cattle hides 

Calfskins 

Sheep and lamb skins 
Horse, coit, and ass. . 

Cabretta 

Buffalo skins 

Goatskins 

Kangaroo and wal- 
laby 

All other, except furs. 

Total 



35, 



155, 106 
383, 279 
549,713 
868, 742 



779, 483 
458, 173 

645, 988 
863, 707 



$10,254,045 

2,175,470 

7,517,651 

183, 003 



1,537,182 
28, 626, 610 



719,093 
1,553,298 



52,566,352 



185,432,280 

2,093,402 

31,422,331 

4, 128, 814 



1,393,463 
9,057,918 



233,528,208 



$41,708,075 
717,367 

10,047,914 
536, 682 



380,961 
1,865,306 



55,256,305 



220,587,386 

7,476,681 

52,972,044 

4, 997, 556 



7, 172, 946 
62,516,091 

645, 988 
4, 863, 707 



361,232,399 



255,742,492 

12,859,960 

74,521,757 

5, 866, 298 



12,952,429 
115,974,264 

1,291,976 
9, 727, 414 



488, 936, 590 



$51,962,120 

2, 892, 837 

17,565,565 

719,685 



1,918,143 
30,491,916 

719, 093 
1,553,298 



107,822,657 



CALENDAR YEAR 1919. 



Cattle hides 

Calfskins 

Sheep and lamb skins 
Horse, colt, and ass. . 

Cabretta 

Buffalo skins 

Goatskins 

Kangaroo and wal- 
laby 

All other, except furs . 

Total 



175,601 
325, 180 
560, 327 
973, 796 
93,985 
619, 738 
133, 387 

383, 939 
264, 890 



333, 530, 843 



$34,.360,222 
20,914,313 
21,288.088 

3, 633; 399 
86, .382 

3, 463, 457 
85,827,011 

1,362,991 
2, 517, 525 



173,4.53,388 



310,965,319 
22,230,341 
41,471,500 
12,077,113 



1,892,149 
22, 522, 563 



411,158,985 



$91,223,542 
12, 738, 819 
15, 232, 461 
3, 612, 468 



611,966 
9, 729, 448 



133,048,704 



407,140,920 
64,55.5,521 
8.5,031,827 
28,050,909 
93,985 
17,511,887 

133,655,950 

1,383,939 
7, 264, 890 



744, 689, 828 



503, 316, .521 
106, 880, 701 
128,592,154 

44,024,706 
187,970 

33, 131, 625 
244, 789, 337 

2, 767, 878 
14, 529, 780 



1,078,220,671 



$125,583,764 

33, 653, 132 

36,520,549 

7, 245, 867 

86, 382 

3, 975, 423 

95, 556, 459 

1,362,991 

2, 517, 525 



306,502,092 



CALENDAR YEAR 1920. 



Cattle hides 

Calfskins 

Sheep and lamb skins 
Horse, colt, and ass. . 

Cabretta 

Buffalo skins 

Goatskins 

Kangaroo and wal- 
laby 

All other, except furs . 

Total 



, 150, 408 
,902,653 
, 832, 904 
, 043, 439 
12,377 
, 483, 786 
, 869, 332 

, 388, 732 
,313,721 



7, 
198,997,352 



$21,092,121 
9, 979, 730 

17,395,159 

1,619,774 

14, 285 

2,721,204 

84, 410, 287 

1,480,712 
3, 233, 328 



141,946,600 



216,174,099 
18, 229, 633 
52, 857, 541 
11,802,968 



1,759,648 
10, 336, 304 



311,159,193 



$64,383,203 
9,270,931 

20,800,980 
2,635,555 



502, 186 
6,229,955 



103,822,810 



275, 324, 507 
35, 132, 286 
82, 690, 445 
16, 846, 407 
12,377 
11,243,434 
80, 204, 636 

1,388,732 
7,313,721 



610, 156, 545 



334,474,915 
52,034,939 
112,523,349 

21,889,846 

24, 764 

20, 727, 220 

160,073,968 

2, 777, 464 
14, 627, 442 



709, 163, 897 



$86, 475, 324 

19, 250, 661 

38, 196, 139 

4,255,329 

14, 285 

3,223,390 

90,640,242 

1,480,712 
3, 233, 328 



245, 769, 410 



CALENDAR YEAR 1921. 



Cattle hides 

Calfskins 

Sheep and laml) skins 
Horse, colt, and ass. . 

Cabretta 

Buffalo skins 

Goatskins 

Kangaroo and wal- 
laby... 

All other, except furs. 

Total 



13,257,154 

14,263,427 

13,4.52,473 

811,602 

23,323 

1,918,0.50 

64,924,642 

4,55,246 
4,263,026 

103,368,943 



.$2,349,104 

3,272,580 

3,327,482 

96,677 

10, 678 

358,481 

22,373,876 

283,370 
989, 604 



33,061,852 



166,929,296 

33,676,661 

32,397,177 

3,247,873 



$20,910,248 

7,091,636 

4,686,324 

269,696 



223,658 
8,201,685 



244, 676, 139 



44,918 
1,497,338 



34,500,069 



180,186,449 
47,940,078 
4.''), 849, 650 
4,069,475 
2i,323 
2,141,608 
63,126,227 

4,55,246 
4,263,026 



348,045,082 



193,443,603 
62, 203,. 505 
59,302,123 
4,871,077 
46,646 
4,059,6,58 
118,050,869 

910,492 
8,526,062 



451,414,025 



$23,259,362 

10,364,215 

8,013,806 

366,273 

10, 678 

403, 399 

23,871,214 

283,370 
989, 604 



67,561,911 



HIDES AND SKINS. 



27 



Table 12. — Value of leather and leather products exported from the United States, 1890- 

1922. 



Fiscal year. 


Exports. 


Fiscal year. 


Exports. 


Fiscal year. 


Exports. 


1890 


$12,439,000 
13,279,000 
12,08.5,000 
11,912,000 
14,283,000 


1903 


?31,616,000 
33,980,000 


1915 


1120,727,000 
146,704,000 
153 710 000 


1891 


1904 


1916 


1892 


5-year average. 
1905 


1917. 


1893 


30,122,000 


1918 


100 881 000 


1894 


1919 


182,964,000 




37,937,000 
40,645,000 
45, 477, 000 
40,739,000 
42,976,000 


5-yearaverage. 
1920 


5-year average. 


12,800,000 


1906 


140,997,000 


1907 


1895 


15,614,000 
20, 243, 000 
19,161,000 
21,115,000 
23,468,000 


190S 


291 801 000 


1896 


1909 


1921 


98,208,000 


1897 


5-year average. 
1910 . 


2-year average. 

July, 1921, to April, 
1922 (10 months) . . 


1898 


41,555,000 1 


195 004 000 


1899 






52,647,000 
53,673,000 
60,757,000 
63, 893, 000 
57, 566, 000 




5-year average. 


19,920,000 


1911 


47,340,000 


1912 


1900 


27, 293, 000 
27,924,000 
29,799,000 


1913 




1901 


1914 






5-year average. 






57,707,000 





Table 13. — Average prices of packer hides, 1895 to 1911. 





Heavy 


Butt- 


Heavy 


Light 


Heavy- 


Heavy 


Light 


Branded 


Native 
bulls. 


Branded 
bulls. 


Year. 


native 


branded 


Texas 


Texas 


Colorado 


native 


native 




steers. 


steers. 


steers. 


steers. 


steers. 


cows. 


cows. 




1911 


$14. 81 


$13.50 


$14. 32 


$13. 54 


$13.47 


$13. 87 


$13.50 


$12. 56 


$12. 11 


S10.50 


1910 


15.29 


13.71 


14.88 


13.77 


13.42 


13.79 


13.04 


12.40 


11.96 


11.10 


1909 


16.47 


15.49 


16.41 


15.35 


15.29 


15.21 


14.83 


14.11 


13.10 


12.04 


1908 


13.36 


12.28 


13.86 


12.46 


12.21 


11.43 


11.04 


10.43 


10.03 


8.73 


1907 


14.55 


12.99 


13.96 


13.26 


12.70 


13.10 


U.71 


11.98 


12.13 


10.08 


1906 


15.43 


13.99 


14.89 


14.84 


13.65 


14.96. 


14.84 


14.27 


12.21 


10.56 


1905 


14.30 


13.21 


14.44 


13.91 


13.08 


13.16 


13.10 


12.74 


10.77 


9.76 


1904 


11.66 


10.89 


12.65 


11.67 


10.81 


10.60 


10.52 


10.28 


9.10 


8.15 


1903 


11.69 


10.57 


12.64 


11.19 


10.54 


10.07 


9.64 


9.19 


9.61 


7.69 


1902 


13.38 


12.33 


14.41 


12.42 


12.10 


11.12 


10.12 


10.01 


10.50 


9.10 


1901 


12.37 


11.46 


12.88 


11.53 


11.21 


10.66 


10.07 


9.87 


10.19 


8.54 


1900 


11.94 


11.04 


11.99 


11.09 


10.49 


10.62 


10.44 


10.18 


9.93 


8.42 


1899 


12.34 


11.44 


12.07 


11.55 


10.70 


11.27 


10.40 


10.90 


10.04 


8.50 


1898 


11.50 


10.08 


10.74 


10.43 


9.24 


10.84 


11.02 


9.72 


9.56 


7.32 


1897 


9.96 


9.14 


9.33 


8.94 


8.28 


9.35 


9.74 


8.74 


8.27 


6.36 


1896 


8.14 


7.25 


7.44 


6.94 


6.45 


7.51 


7.53 


6.66 


6.63 


5.25 


1895 


10.20 


8.97 


9.48 


8.60 


8.39 


8.76 


8.52 


8.00 


7.41 


6.42 



Table 14. — Average prices of country hides, 1895 to 1911. 



Year. 


No. 1 
heavy 
steers. 


Country 

packers, 

branded 

flat. 


No. 1 

heavy 
cows. 


Country, 

branded 

flat. 


No. 1 
buffs. 


No. 1 ex- 
tremes. 


No. 2 
buffs. 


Bulls 
flat. 


No. 1 

calf- 
skins. 


No. 1 

kips. 


1911 


$12. 24 


$10. 72 


$11.82 


$10.02 


$11.82 


$12. 80 


$10. 79 


$10. 01 


$16.34 


$13. 23 


1910 


12.16 


10.20 


11.26 


9.49 


11.13 


11.51 


10.02 


9.86 


16.02 


12.03 


1909 


14.17 


12.55 


13.40 


11.44 


13.24 


13.55 


12.21 


11.13 


17.92 


14.11 


1908 


10.61 


8.90 


9.35 


8.04 


9.29 


9.75 


8.21 


7.86 


14.17 


10.09 


1907 


12. 05 


10.69 


11.02 


9.66 


10.79 


10.99 


9.64 


10.02 


14.90 


11.60 


19(16 


13.83 


12.48 


13.49 


12.51 


13.43 


13.43 


12.47 


1L29 


15.54 


14.05 


1905 


12.47 


11.86 


11.92 


10.93 


11.88 


12.14 


10.96 


9.39 


14.84 


12.58 


1904 


10.03 


9.42 


9.47 


8.42 


9.45 


9.75 


8.49 


7.87 


13.37 


11.08 


1903 


9.71 


8.82 


8.66 


7.85 


8.59 


8.87 


7.63 


7.75 


12.05 


10.16 


1902 


10.99 


9.45 


9.41 


8.55 


8.74 


8.83 


7.78 


8.73 


11.89 


9.67 


1901 


10.50 


8.84 


9.25 


8.56 


8.73 


8.77 


7.73 


8.43 


11.93 


9.36 


1900 


10.29 


8.75 


9.30 


8.73 


9.11 


9.52 


8.26 


8.05 


11.91 


10.16 


1899 


10.79 


9.69 


10.13 


9.56 


10.08 


10.43 


9.58 


8.71 


12.84 


ia95 


1898 


10.25 


8.85 


9.90 


8.85 


9.94 


10.49 


9.43 


8.46 


12.49 


11.20 


1897 


9.00 


7.77 


8.65 


7.88 


8.86 


9.55 


8.35 


7.45 


12.08 


10.50 


1896 


7.20 


6.16 


6.86 


6.21 


6.85 


7.43 


6.36 


5.83 


9.10 


7.96 


1895 


8.79 


8.07 


7.97 


7.26 


7.86 


8.07 


7.36 


6.51 


11.23 


8.93 



28 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION, 



Table 15. — Prices of leather, 1901 to 1911. 
[Complied by the Shoe and Leather Reporter.] 



Date. 



Cents. 

1901— January 24-25 

April 24 -25 

July 24i-25 

October 24|-25 

1902— January 24-25 

April 23 -24 

July 23 -23i 

October 23 -24 

1903— January 23 

April 22 

July 22 

October 23 

1904— January 23 

April 23 

July 22 

October 22 -23 

1905— January 22|-23 

April 22|-23i 

August 22^23 

October 24-25 

1906— January 24-25 

April 25 -25^ 

August 25J-26 

December 26-27 

1907— April 26 -27 

August 26 -27 

October 26-27 

December 26-27 

1908-April 25 

June 24 

September 25-26 

December 25-26 

1909— April 25-26 

June 25-26 

September l 25 -26 

December | 26 

1910— April ! 25-26 

June I 25 

September 23 -24 

December ' 23-24 

23 -24 
24 
24 

24 -25 



Sole leather per pound. 



Oak. 



Hem- 
lock 
B.A.& 
Mont. 
Mid. 



1911— April 

June 

September 

December 



Union 

tannery 

run 



CrVtf!. 

31-32 

32-33 

31-32 

33-34 

34-35 

33-34 

34-35 

34-35 

34-35 

33-34 

33-34 

32-33 

32 

31-32 

30-31 

31-32 

35 

35 

35-36 

37-38 

37-38 

36-37 

36-37 

37-38 

37-38 

36 

36 

35 

33-34 

33-34 

36 

36 

34-36 

34^36 

34-36 

34-37 

33-35 

33-34 

33 

31-32 

31-32 

32-33 

32-33 

34 



Scoured 
backs 
Mid. 



Cents. 

35 

34 

35 

35-36 

37 

36 

37-38 

38-39 

37 -.38 

38-40 

37-38 

37 

34-35 

34-35 

32-33 

33-34 

36-37 

37-38 

37 

37-38 

38-39 

37-38 

37-38 

39-40 

38-39 

38-41 

38-41 

37-0 

36-38 

36-37 

39-40 

39-40 

41 

41-42 

41-42 

43 

43 

43-44 

38-40 

38-39 

38-40 

37-38 

40-41 

40-41 



Texas 
sides. 



Cen^s. 

30 
29-30 

30 

31 
31-33 
30-31 
30-31 
32-,33 
30-31 

31 
30-31 

30 
28-29 
28-29 
26-27 
29-30 

31 

31 

31 

33-34 

331-34 

32J-33 

33Ji 
34 -35 

34 
34 -35 

34 -35 

33 -34 

33 

32 -33 

35 -36 
35 -36 

34 -36 

35 -36 
35 -36 
34 -36 
34 -36 

33 -36 

34 

34 

31 -34 

30 -35 

30 -35 

31 -34 



Upper leather per foot. 



Satin. 



East- 
ern 
M. 



West- 
ern 
M. 



Cents. 
12 -13 
12 -13 
11 -12 

11 -12i 

12 -13 
11 -12 
10 -Hi 
10 -12 

10 -Hi 

11 -12i 
10-12 
11 -12§ 
11 -12J 
11 -12i 

11 -12^ 

12 -13 
12i-14 
12i-14 

14 -15* 
15i-16i 

15i-16i 
15i-16i 
15i-16i 

16 -16i 

16 
15 
14^15 
15 
14i-15 
10 -12 
12-14 

13 -15 

15 -16 

15 -16 

17 -18 
17 -18 

16 -18 
16 17J 

14 
12 -15 
12 -15 
15 -16 
15 -16 
15 -16 



Cents. 
13 -15 
13 -14 

12 -13 
12i-13J 

13 -14 

13 -15 
12 -14 
12-14 
12-14 
12 -14 
12 -14 
12 -14 
12 -14 
12 -14 
12 -14 

14 -15i 
14^16 

ui-m 

14i-17 

17i-18i 

17f-18i 

17J-18i 

17f-18i 

18i-19 

17 -18 

17 -18 

16f-17 

16i-17i 

16 -17 
16-17 
17i-17i 
17J-17i 
16i-17i 

17 -17i 
17 -17i 
16 -17 
16 -17 
16J-17J 

17J 

16 -17 
14i-17 

17 -18 
15i-17i 
15i-18 



Kangaroo. 



East- 
ern 
M. 



Cents. 



11 -12 
11 -12 

10 -12 
14 -16 
10^12i 

lOi-m 
10*-12i 
10i-12i 
ir-12i 

11 -I2i 

11 -12i 
lli-13i 
ll^lSJ 
lli-13i 
14 -14i 
15}-16 
16 -16i 
16 -16i 
16 -16i 

16 -16i 

15 
14i-15 
14'-14i 

14 
14 -15 

14i 
15J-16 
15^-16 

14 -16 

15 -17 

17 -18 
17 -18 

16 -18 
14 -15 
13 -14 
13 -17 

12 -18 
13i-17 
13i-17 
13it-17 



West- 
ern 
M. 



Cents. 



14 -15 

14 -15 

12J-14 

17- 19 

15i-16 

15H6i 

15J-16 

15i-16i 

15J-16 

15H6 

15J-16 

16 -17 

17 -174 
17 -17i 
17i-19 
19^-20* 
19i-20 
19i-20 
19^-20 

20 -20i 

19} 

19| 

18i-19 

18| 

18J 

18" 

181-19 

181-19 

19J-21J 

19i-21i 

21 -22 
20 -21 
20 -21 
20 -22i 
20 -20J 
18J-22 
18^20i 
19J-21i 
19^21i 
19J-21i 



Calfskins. 



Board 

ed 
chrome 
finish. 



Cents. 

22 

23 

23-24 

23-24 

23-24 

22-23 

22-23 

22 

22 

20 

20 

19-21 

19-20 

19-20 

19-21 

22-23 

23-24 

23-24 

22-23 

23-26 

23-26 

24-26 

2.5-27 

26-27 

22-25 

22-25 

22-25 

22-25 

22-25 

21-24 

22-25 

22-25 

23-24 

25-26 

26 

27 

25 

25 

25 

23-26 

22-27 

23-28 

23-28 

23-28 



Chrome 

dull 
finish. 



Cents. 



28-29 
26-27 
26-27 
26-27 
25-27 
24-26 
23-27 
24-28 
26-29 



o 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 
WASHINGTON 



Tariff Infonnation Series— No. 29 



THE EMERGENCY TARIFF 

And Its Effect on Cattle and Beef, 

Sheep and Mutton, Wool, Pork, 

and Miscellaneous Meats 




WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

1922 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 

WASHINGTON 



Tariff Information Series — No. 29 



THE EMERGENCY TARIFF 

And Its Effect on Cattle and Beef, 

Sheep and Mutton, Wool, Pork, 

and Miscellaneous Meats 




WASHINGTON 
OOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

1922 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 

Offire: Old Land Office, Seventh and E Streets NW., Washington, D. C. 

COMMISSIONERS. 

Thomas 0. Marvin, Chairman. 
William S. Culbertson, Vice Chairman. 
David J. Lewis. 
Edward P. Costigan. 
Thomas Walker Page. 
William Burgess. 

John F. Bethune, Secretary. 



ADDITIONA.L COPIES 

OF THIS PUBLICATION MAY BE PROCURED FROM 

THE SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON, D. C. 

AT 

5 CENTS PER COPY 



CONTENTS. 



Pa;e. 

Cattle 1 

Beef 16 

Sheep and mutton 21 

Wool 32 

Fresh pork and prepared and preserved meats 38 

STATISTICAL TABLES. 

1. Monthly average prices of cattle, sheep, and hogs, 1921 4 

2. Comparison of Chicago and Canadian prices of livestock, 1921 6 

3. Imports of cattle: 

(A) From principal countries, bv months, 1921 7 

(B) From principal countries, 1911-1921 ^ 9 

4. Exports of cattle: 

( A) To principal countries, by months, 1921 13 

(B) To principal countries, 1911-1921 14 

5. Comparative prices of domestic and foreign beef, 1921 16 

6. Imports of fi'esh and prepared and preserved meats, 1920 and 1921 18 

7. Imports and exports of beef and veal, 1914-1921 20 

8. Domestic production, imports, and exports of cattle and beef, 1900-1921.. 20 

9. Imports of sheep, 1911-1921 22 

10. Exports of sheep, 1911-1921 25 

11. Imports of sheep, by months, 1921 29 

12. Exports of sheep, by months, 1921 31 

13. Imports for consumption and domestic production of unmanufactured wool, 
1900-1921 33 

14. Imports of wool, by classes, 1921 35 

15. Wholesale price per pound of domestic wool, Boston, 1920-1922 36 

16. Wool values at the London sales, 192J-1922 37 

17. Trend of wool prices, London, 1900-1921 37 

18. Imports and exports of fresh pork and of prepared and preserved meats, 
1919-1921 39 

19. InTports of swine compared with number slaughtered in the United States, 
1918-1921 40 

2J. Exports of swine, 1918-1921 40 

III 



, 



FOREWORD. 



This report presents a general view of the effect of the emergency 
tariff act on domestic production of meats and wool. Normal pro- 
duction and import and export figures are contrasted with the 
trade movement in 1921 to bring out more clearly the effects of the 
act. 



In the preparation of this report the Tariff Commission had the 
services of Dr. L. G. Connor, of the commission's staff, and of others. 



L 



THE EMERGENCY TARIFF AND ITS EFFECT ON CATTLE AND 
BEEF, SHEEP AND MUTTON, WOOL, PORK, AND MISCEL- 
LANEOUS MEATS. 



CATTLE. 



The tariff act of 1909 placed a duty of $2 per head on cattle less 
than 1 year old, $3.75 per head on other cattle valued at $14 per head 
or less, and 21\ per cent ad valorem on other cattle valued at more 
than $14 per head. The duty on fresh beef and veal was \\ cents 
per pound. Under the tariff act of 1913 all the foregoing were placed 
on the free list. The emergency tariff of May 28, 1921, levied a dtuy 
of 30 per cent ad valorem on cattle and 2 cents per pound on fresh 
beef and veal. 

Until 1907 the United States virtually dominated the world's 
export trade in beef, and also exported large numbers of live cattle, 
mainly heavy, well finished animals for the British trade. The annual 
exports of fresh beef, and of live cattle, reduced to their equivalent 
in beef, averaged nearly 700,000,000 pounds per year from 1900 to 
1907, inclusive, or approximately 10 per cent of domestic slaughter- 
ings. Practically one-third of the exports consisted of fat cattle, 
which averaged nearly 478,000 head per year. During this same 
period the United States imported each year some live cattle, and a 
small amount of fresh, cured, and other beef. The cattle were almost 
all thin Mexican animals of stocker type, brought in to fatten on grass; 
an annual average of about 74,000 head was imported from 1900 to 
1907, inclusive, or approximately one-sixth as many as were ex- 
ported. The total imports of beef and of beef in the form of live 
cattle averaged less than 30,000,000 ppunds per year, or less than 
5 per cent of the amount exported. Beef imported in the form of 
live animals amounted to 90 per cent of the total imports. 

In the seven years following 1907 the total domestic production 
of beef and veal declined from 7,946,000,000 pounds to 6,072,000,000 
pounds, exports of beef and of cattle rapidly declined, and a small 
import balance — 108,770,000 pounds appeared in 1913. In 1914 this 
mport balance amounted to 461,271,000 and in 1915 to 14>r,205,000 
pounds.' During this period imports of live cattle steadily increased, 
especially after the revolution began in Mexico, when operators in 
ahat country sent large numbers to the United States in order to 
cvoid confiscation. Imports of live cattle from Canada also in- 
treased, particularly after the tariff of 1913 became effective. The 
total number imported increased from 92,000 in 1908 to 872,000 in 
1914, fell to 539,000 in 1915, and averaged nearly 346,000 head from 
1908 to 1915, inclusive. For 1913 to 1915, inclusive, the number 
averaged 612,000 a year.^ The average beef equivalent of these 
cattle— 243,000,000 pounds per year for 1913 to 1915, inclusive, 

' See report of the U. S. Tariff Commission, The Cattle and Beef Industry, 1922. 
^ See Table 3, p. 9. 



2 THE EMERGENCY TARIFF AND ITS EFFECT OX CATTLE, BEEF, ETC. 

accounted for the average net import balance of 239,000,000 pounds 
of beef and veal during these three years. 

Thus, in the space of six years following 1907, the United States 
changed from a heavy export to a small import basis. This change 
resulted from competition between cattle and crops in humid regions, 
between cattle and homesteaders in subhumid regions, and from 
drought and feed shortage during a few years ending in 1914. How- 
ever, the heavy war-time demand was developing in 1915; the scarcity 
of shipping placed a premium on American beef, and the high prices 
that followed had an almost immediate stimulating effect on domestic 
production. ' 

As a result, the number of cattle, and the production of beef, 
increased rapidly after 1914. Then, too, continued imports from 
Mexico and Canada, chiefly of stocker and feeder cattle brought in 
for fattening, were a factor of some, though small, importance in 
the increased production of beef and veal. Total imports of live 
cattle averaged 426,000 head per fiscal year from 1916 to 1920, 
inclusive. The total number slaughtered, exclusive of calves, had 
fallen from 13,469,900 in 1907 to 10,822,100 in 1915. It then rose 
to 15,750,400 in 1918. For 1916 to 1920, inclusive, the number of 
cattle slaughtered, other than calves, averaged 13,462,500 head per 
year. The number of calves slaughtered fell from 6,026,800 in 1907 
to 4,639,500 in 1915, but advanced to 9,662,800 in 1920 when war- 
time increases were being rapidly liquidated. The production of 
beef and veal followed the increase in slaughterings. From a total 
of 6,072,000,000 pounds in 1914, it increased to 8,367,000,000 pounds 
in 1918, or larger than ever before. The small balance of 1913 to 
1915, inclusive, was changed to a considerable surplus of exports 
during the following four years. For the time being the tariff 
problem, which came to the front in 1913, was forgotten. 

The tariff problem again asserted itself in 1920. In a partial 
liquidation of war-time increases, heavy marketings of domestic 
cattle occurred in that year. Heavy imports of Canadian cattle, 
also a partial liquidation of war increases, passed through the markets 
of the United States in 1920. Furthermore, alleviation of the ship- 
ping shortage made available large supplies of cheaper Australasian 
meats, while sharply depreciated foreign exchange militated against 
the more desirable but more costly American meats. Thus there 
was a large increase in the available supply. But owing to growing 
industrial stagnation at home and abroad, the demand decreased 
considerably in the latter part of 1920, and prices declined rapidly. 
Since the shipping scarcity had placed a premium on American 
beef, which could be landed in Europe in one-fourth the time nec- 
essary to ship from Argentina and one-sixth the time necessary to 
move beef from Australasia, American prices had risen out of line 
with these exporting countries. American prices, therefore, felt the 
effect of unrestricted world supplies some months before deflation 
set in in the Southern Hemisphere. Thus the seasonal decline in 
the fall of 1920 became a permanent decline throughout the winter 
of 1921, whereas prices in Argentina did not sliow much change 
until May, 1921. 

This decline in domestic price had a serious effect on the domestic 
producer, particularly in the range country. A three-year drought 



THE EMERGENCY TARIFF AXD ITS EFFECT ON CATTLE, BEEF, ETC. 3 

in the Southwest had ended in 1918; in order to restock, the stock- 
men had invested heavily during the period of peak prices. In 1919 
a severe drought on the northern ranges, followed by one of the most 
expensive winters on record, had forced the cattlemen to assume 
heavy financial obligations in order to save their herds. In the 
farming region the cattle feeders had made their 1920 beef with high- 
priced 1919 feed, much of it purchased from farmers who did not 
make a practice of fattening live stock. The erratic and declining 
market of 1920 came at a time when the stockmen and feeders could 
ill afford it. Largely because of receipts of Canadian cattle on the 
American markets, 316,559 head out of a total importation of 379,114 
cattle in the calendar year 1920, foreign competition was popularly 
fastened upon as the prime factor in the price decline, and an emer- 
gency tariff was demanded in the early winter of that 3-ear in order, 
if possible, to alleviate conditions. 

During 1921 the financial stringency and industrial stagnation of 
the latter part of 1920 continued. Forced lic| nidation of live stock, 
a distressing phenomenon of the latter part of 1920, when live-stock 
markets often were so seriously congested that the animals sometimes 
had to be penned in the " alleys" without feed or water for days at a 
time, was also repeated, though to a less extent; meanwhile depressed 
domestic demand forced prices downward still further. At the same 
time, financial stringency and earlier losses resulted in a serious 
curtailment of demand for feeder cattle. For the first five months 
of 1921 native beef steers at Chicago averaged only $8.50 per 100 
pounds, as against $12.95 during the same period in 1920, and $15.75 
in 1919. The condition of the beef producer, therefore, seemed critical 
in 1921. By early summer the producers foresaw a real danger to the 
future of American herds if domestic prices fell much further. Further- 
more, at the time of the passtige of the emergency tarift' the chief im- 
porting market — Great Britain — was glutted with imported meats. 
Large supplies were reaching Europe from the principal exporting 
countries, particularly from Australasia and Argentina. Although 
it was due to imports of live cattle from Canada that the United States 
was in a position of unstable equilibrium between a surplus of imports 
and a surplus of exports in 1920 and 1921, in the long run it was 
Australasia and Argentina that the domestic producers especially 
feared; beef is produced in those countries on a year-long grazing 
basis and at a much lower cost than in the United States. 

The emergency tariff became effective on May 28, 1921. There- 
after the decline in price of choice to prime beef steers ceased in the 
United States until the close of the grazing season, when a seasonal 
decline always occurs.^ However, because of a slack demand for 
other qualities, and despite smaller market receipts, the price of ani- 
mals below top grade fell somewhat after June 1. It is significant, 
however, that in Canada prices fell much more than in the United 
States. Canada has furnished the bulk of the live cattle imported 
during recent years, and, until Mexican herds are reestablished, is 
the only country from which the United States can expect to receive 
appreciable numbers of butcher animals. Owing to larger per capita 
supplies, after June 1 Canada had to remain on an export basis. 

3 Choice to prime beef steers on the Chicago market averaged $9.S6 per 100 pounds from Jan. 1 to May 31, 
and $9.95 from June 1 to Nov. 30, 1921. 



4 THE EMERGENCY TARIFF AND ITS EFFECT ON CATTLE, BEEF, ETC. 

Therefore, if the emergency tariff operated to hold the domestic 
market above the world level, its effects should show in an increased 
differential between Canadian and American markets. Since Canada 
was on an export basis, her prices logically would follow the world 
level, which was steadily declining during the summer of 1921. 
The following tabulation shows the average price, by grades and for 
all qualities within each grade, for the Chicago, Toronto, and Winni- 
peg markets during the five months ended May 31 and the six 
months ended November 30, 1921, Canadian prices converted at 
current exchange. Sheep, lamb, and hog prices are included for 
their general interest and for convenient reference. 

Table 1. — Monthly average 'prices of live cattle, sheep, and hogs, 1921. 

[Per 100 pounds.] 

CHICAGO. 



Month. 



Native beef cattle. 



Light, 
750 to 
1,050. 



Me- 
dium, 
1,050 to 
1,200. 



Me- 
dium to 
heavy, 
1,200 to 
1,900. 



Fat 

cows 

and 

heifers. 



Cut- 
ters 
and 
can- 
ners. 



Stock- 
ers 
and 
feed- 
ers. 



Sheep. 



Lambs. 



Hogs 
and 
pigs- 



January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

Average 

June 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

Average 



$7.90 
7.50 
8.40 
7.65 
7.75 



$8.60 
8.10 
9.10 
7.95 
7.90 



$9.67 
8.93 
9.83 
8. .50 
8.47 



$6.20 
5.85 
6.65 
6.25 
6.05 



$3.70 
3.25 
3.65 
3.00 
3.10 



$7.20 
6.80 
8.10 
7.40 
7.35 



$4.95 
4.75 
5.80 
6.45 
6.25 



$10. 90 
9.20 
9.65 
9.60 
11.10 



7.84 



8.33 



6.20 



3.34 



7.37 



5.64 



10.09 



7.55 
7.40 
6.90 
6.90 
6.75 
5.90 



7.75 
7.65 
7.50 
7.30 
7.35 
6.50 



8.15 
8.28 
9.08 
8.22 
8.48 
7.72 



5.05 
5.40 
5.10 
4.60 
4.80 
4.80 



2.20 
2.75 
2.50 
2.75 
2.95 
2.55 



6.10 
6.10 
5.90 
5.50 
5.65 
5.45 



4.60 
5.40 
4.75 
4.10 
4.70 
4.15 



11.00 
10.30 
9.65 
8.80 
8.55 
8.95 



6.90 



7.34 



8.32 



2.62 



5.78 



4.62 



9.54 



$9.55 
9.50 
10.20 

8.55 
8.22 



9.20 



8.05 
9.92 
9.37 
7.50 
7.82 
7.32 



8.33 



WINNIPEG. 





Steers. 


Cows 

and 

heifers. 


Cutters 
and 
can- 
ners. 


Stock- 
ers and 
feeders. 


Sheep. 


Lambs. 




Month. 


Heavy 

fin- 
ished. 


Medi- 
um 
weight. 


Light 
weight. 


Hogs. 


January 


$6.59 
6.76 
7.19 
6.88 
6.60 


$5.66 
6.76 
6.35 
6.38 
6.44 


$5. 26 
5.29 
5.85 
5.91 
6.17 


$4.97 
4.97 
5.16 
5.14 
5.35 


$2.81 
2.61 
2.78 
2.31 
2.51 


$4.83 
4.62 
5.34 
5.00 
5.07 


$4.80 
5.35 
5.32 
5.78 
5.61 


$8.04 
8.40 
8.32 
7.31 
9.12 


$9.89 


February 


10.10 


March 


10.19 


April 


10.07 


May 


8.90 






Average 


6.80 


6.32 


5.70 


5.12 


2.60 


4.97 


5.37 


8.24 


9.83 






June 


5.87 
5.04 
4.65 
4.22 
3.92 
3.83 


5.30 
4.19 
3.66 
3.60 
3.46 
3.49 


.5.06 
3.98 
3.51 
3.34 
3.21 
3.28 


4. 35 
3.76 
3.37 

2.86 
2.81 
2.88 


1.57 
1.13 
1.18 
1.35 
1.34 
1.53 


3.66 
2.71 
2.79 
2..S4 
2. S4 
2.86 


4.82 
4.03 
4.2:5 
3.49 
3.19 
3.09 


7.70 
7.85 
6.89 
6.38 
6.10 
6.19 


8.07 


July 


9.36 


August 


10.64 


Scpicniber 


9.05 


October 


8.16 


November 


7.19 






Average 


4. .'•)9 


3.95 


.3.73 


3.34 


1.35 


2.95 


3.81 


6.85 


8.74 







THE EMERGENCY TARIFF AND ITS EFFECT ON CATTLE, BEEF, ETC. 

Table 1. — Monthhj average price of live cattle, sheep, and hogs, 1921 — Continued. 

TORONTO. 



Month. 



March . 

April. 

May.. 



Average . 



June 

July 

August 

September. 
October . . . 
November. 



Average . 



Steers. 



January $8. 59 

Februarv 8. 26 



Heavy 

fin- 
ished. 



9.06 
8.8.3 
8.46 



8.64 



7.27 
6. .55 
6.81 
6.64 
5.98 
.5.84 



Medi- 
um 
weight. 



$7.52 
7.23 
7. 85 
7.82 
7.60 



7.60 



6.60 
5.44 
5.78 
.5.47 
4.96 
4.65 



5. 48 



Light 
weight. 



Cows 

and 

heifers. 



$3. 74 $3. 32 

6. 35 5. 74 

7. 26 6. 49 

7. 28 6. 62 

7. 30 6. 57 



6.34 
5.39 
4.91 
4.83 
4.27 
4.14 



6.35 



5.59 
4.52 
4.28 
4.16 
3.83 
3.83 



4.98 



4.37 



Cutters 
and 
can- 
ners. 



$.3.29 
3.13 
2.96 
2.73 
2.64 



2.95 



1..59 
1.63 
1. ."0 
1.74 
1.94 
1.87 



1.71 



Stock- 
ers and 
feeders. 



Sheep . 



$4.83 
5.16 
5.98 
6.79 
6.15 



5.78 



4.23 
3.19 
2.97 
2.43 
2.95 
2.78 



3.09 



Lambs. 



$8.81 
8.84 
9.82 
10.38 
10.87 



9.74 



10.89 
8.73 
7.09 
6.46 
6.59 
6.96 



7.79 



Hogs. 



$11. 94 
11.28 
11.73 
9.80 
7.75 



10.50 



8.74 
9.16 
10.18 
7.50 
6.99 
6.65 



8.20 



Table 1 shows a pronounced widening in the differential between- 
Chicago and Canadian prices after June in every class of live stock 
except hogs. In three instances — fat cows and heifers, sheep, and 
hogs — Toronto prices were higher than Chicago prior to June 1 , but 
during the next six months the first two fell far below the Chicago 
level. Although the difference was narrowed considerably, hogs, of 
which there appears to have been a shortage, remained higher at 
Toronto than at Chicago. Winnipeg prices were higher than Chicago 
prior to June 1 only in the case of hogs, which as yet are not exten- 
sively produced in western Canada. After June 1, owing to the longer 
rail haul to Toronto, the differential between cattle prices at Winni- 
peg and Chicago widened even more than between Chicago and 
Toronto. 

Table 2 brings out more clearly the increased differential between 
Chicago and the Canadian marlcets after June 1. It will be seen 
that during the six months after June 1 light to heavy beef steers 
averaged 76 to 99 cents, with a mean of 90 cents per hundred pounds 
less at Chicago than during the previous five months, but 
averaged from S2.01 to $2.13, with a mean of $2.09 less at Toronto. 
Since the differential in favor of Chicago averaged only 67 cents per 
hundred pounds prior to June 1, the greater decline in prices at To- 
ronto widened the differentials to $1.19 per hundred pounds. At 
Winnipeg it widened to $1.29 per hundred. 

3194—22 2 



6 THE EMEEGENCY TARIFF AND ITS EFFECT ON CATTLE, BEEF;, ETC. 

Table 2. — Comparison of Chicago and Canadian prices of live stock, 1921. 
[Average price per 100 pounds.] 





Steers. 


Fat 
cows 
and 

heifers. 


Cutters 
and 
can- 
ners. 


Stock- 

ers 

and 
feeders. 


Sheep. 


Lambs. 






Light. 


Me- 
dium. 


Heavy. 


Hogs. 


Chicago: 

Jan. 1 to May 31 


$7.84 
6.90 


$8.33 
7.34 


$9.08 
8.32 


$6.20 
4.96 


$3.34 
2.62 


$7.37 
5.78 


$5.64 
4.62 


110. 09 
9.54 


$9.20 


June 1 to Nov. 30 


8.33 


Difference 


.94 


.99 


.76 


1.24 


.72 


1.59 


1.02 


.55 


.87 








Toronto: 

Jan. 1 to May 31 


6.99 

4.98 


7.60 
5.48 


8.64 
6.51 


6.35 
4.37 


2.95 
1.71 




5.78 
3.09 


9.74 
7.79 


10.50 


June 1 to Nov. 30 


8.20 


Difference 


2.01 


2.12 


2.13 


1.98 


1.24 




2.69 


1.95 


2.30 






Winnipeg: 

Jan. 1 to May 31 


5.70 
3.73 


6.32 
3.95 


6.80 
4.59 


5.12 
3.34 


2.60 
1.35 


4.97 
2.95 


5.37 
3.81 


8.24 
6.85 


9.83 


June 1 to Nov. 30 


8.74 


Difference 


1.97 


2.37 


2.21 


1. 78 ! 1. 25 

1 


2.02 1.56 


1.39 


1.09 








Difference between Chicago 
and Toronto: 
Jan. 1 to May 31 


.85 
1.92 


.73 
1.86 


.44 
1.81 


-.15 
.59 


.39 
.91 





-.14 
1.53 


.35 
1.75 


-1.30 


June 1 to Nov. 30 


.13 


Increase 


1.07 


1.13 


1.37 


.44 


.52 




1.39 


L40 i -1.17 






Difference between Cliicago 
and Winnipeg: 
Jan. 1 to May 31 


2.14 
3.17 


2.01 
3.39 


2.28 
3.73 


1.08 
1.62 


.74 
1.27 


2.40 
2.83 


.27 
.81 


1.85 
2.69 


-.63 


June 1 to Nov. 30 


-.41 


Increase 


1.03 


1.38 


1. 45 - .54 


.53 


.43 


.54 .84 


-.22 















The widening of the differential between Chicago and Canadian 
markets greatly affected imports of cattle from Canada. Until 
near the end of the grazing season of 1921, prices in Canada did not 
fall enough to permit the importation of large numbers of cattle; but 
soon after September 1 Canadian prices dropped to new low levels. 
At the same time somewhat easier financial conditions in the United 
States broadened the demand for stockers and feeders. Both these 
forces were instrumental in causing a considerable movement of 
Canadian cattle to markets south of the border. This increased 
movement is shown in Table 3. From January to May, inclusive, 
1921, total imports from Canada averaged 13,000 head per month. 
This average fell to slightly over 6,000 head per month during the 
following three months. Beginning in September, however, when 
the grazing season was near its close, the number imported rose 
greatly and averaged 23,000 per month until the end of the year. 



THE EMERGEKCY TARIFF AND ITS EFFECT ON CATTLE, BEEF, ETC. 



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12 THE EMERGENCY TARIFF AND ITS EFFECT ON CATTLE, BEEF, ETC. 

It will be noted from Tables 1 and 2 that the emergency tariff was 
not followed by increased prices on the American markets. However, 
the fact that Canadian prices fell so much more than American prices 
after June 1 is of significance. Canada was on an export basis after 
June 1, i. e., her prices followed world prices, which declined greatly. 
Since Canadian prices fell far below the American level, it would seem 
logical that prices in the United States were held above the world level 
after June 1, 1921. However, it does not follow that American prices 
were held above the world level by the full amount of the duty. 

In view of the foregoing it might at first seem odd that during the 
calendar year 1921 more live cattle were exported from the United 
States than at any time since 1909. However, more than 75 per cent 
of the cattle exported in 1921 went to Mexico and Cuba, chiefly the 
former. Parts of Mexico have been so stripped of live stock that 
heavy shipments from the Southwest were necessary to supply beef, 
the price of which was very high in Mexico in 1921. Some breeding 
animals also were sent in. Texas and the Southwest were the logical 
area in which to buy, owing to nearness and convenience in shipping. 
At the same time, the animals sent to Mexico for slaughter were, for 
the most part, of the domestic "cutter and canner" grade. This 
relieved domestic markets from some of the oversupply of those 
inferior animals. A small number of cattle, 31,324 head, was sent 
t3 Great Britain, chiefly before July 1. Thereafter only occasional 
small shipments were made, apparently of ''bargain" animals 
secured by speculative exporters on days when the domestic 
markets were unduly depressed by unlooked for receipts. These 
small occasional shipments, averaging less than 1,100 per month from 
July to December, inclusive, were of no practical importance in the 
domestic markets. Table 4 shows domestic exports, by comitries of 
destination, by months during 1921, and by years since 1910. ^ 



k 



THE EMERGENCY TARIFF AND ITS EFFECT ON CATTLE, BEEF, ETC, 13 



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14 THE EMERGENCY TARIFF AND ITS EFFECT ON CATTLE, BEEF, ETC. 



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THE EMERGENCY TARIFF AND ITS EFFECT ON CATTLE, BEEF, ETC. 15 






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16 THE EMERGENCY TARIFF AND ITS EFFECT ON CATTLE. BEEF^ ETC. 

Beef. — The wholesale beef market perhaps gives a better measure 
of the efficacy of the emergency tariff than the cattle market. The 
former is steadier, and sudden variations in cattle prices (which fol- 
low beef prices more or less closely) are smoothed out. The beef 
market in 1921 was appreciably affected by the depressed industrial 
conditions and diminished purchasing power of the consuming public. 
Pork and prepared meats moved more freely than beef, owing to 
smaller cuts and somewhat greater ease in preparation. Accordingly, 
the depressed cattle market would seem to have been fully reflected 
in the wholesale price of beef. Table 5 shows the decline in whole- 
sale beef prices in the United States, Canada, England, and Argen- 
tina for the five months ended May 31 and the seven months ended 
December 31, 1921. 



Table 5. — Comparative prices of domestic and foreign beef. 
[Average price per 100 pounds, 1921.] 



New York, good steer beef 

Toronto, carcass No. 1 

Winnipeg, -carcass No. 1 

London, English beef 

London, Argentine chilled hind quarters. 

Buenos Aires, frigorifico steer, good 

Buenos Aires, fat steer, frigorifico quality 



Jan. 1- 
May 31. 



817.00 
19.02 
14.22 
27.79 
17.54 
9.70 
8.96 



June 1- 
Dec. 31. 



$15. 61 
14.65 
11.27 
19.54 
14. SI 
6.90 
6.80 



Decline. 



Amount. Per cent, 



$1.39 
4.37 
■2.95 
8.25 
2.73 
2.80 
2.16 




There is no parity of grades in Table 5; the prices are tabulated 
merely to show the trend in world prices. It is manifest that in 
Toronto ''carcass No. 1" is quite different in quality from that in 
Winnipeg, where virtually none but "grass fat" cattle are butchered. 
"English beef" has always commanded a large premium in the Brit- 
ish market over imported chilled and frozen; with a glut of imported 
beef on the market, a large drop in the wholesale price of English 
beef would be expected. An oversupply in the world market would 
gravely affect prices in Argentina, since the export outlet was sharply 
curtailed and large cattle supplies were seeking a market. Whole- 
sale prices in Australia declined even more sharply than in Argentina. 
The striking difference between New York and foreign markets, 
particularly the difference in percentage of price decline after June 
1, 1921, would seem to indicate clearly that American prices were 
held above the world level, following the enactment of the emergency 
tariff. 

Table 6 shows imports into the United States of beef and other 
meats during 1920 and 1921. Comparing the two periods from Janu- 
ary to May and June to December, 1920 and 1921, the already small 
imports of beef appear to have been further curtailed after June 1, 
1921, by a combmation of causes — the duty, shipping costs, and aj 
preference for domestic beef which is superior in quality because it 
is produced from corn-fed cattle. This slump in imports occurred 
despite the serious glut of beef in the world markets during the last 
hall of 1921. It should be noted, however, that imports of beef inj 
both 1920 and 1921, about 80 per cent of which was chilled beef from] 



THE EMERGENCY TARIFF AND ITS EFFECT OX CATTLE, BEEF, ETC. 17 

Canada, amounted to less than 1 per cent of domestic production. 
The small import balance of 1920 and 1921 resulted entirely from the 
beef equivalent of live cattle imported almost entirely from Canada. 
Only 41,000,000 pounds of fresh, canned, and pickled and other 
cured beef were exported from the United States in 1921, as compared 
with nearly 140.000,000 pounds in 1920 and 171,000,000 pounds in 
1919. Of the 1921 exports, 75 per cent consisted of canned, pickled, 
and other cured, which are special products for special markets 
widely scattered in North and South America, Europe, and, in fact, 
throughout the world. These products compete only indirectly with 
fresh beef. Of the 10,412,790 pounds of fresh beef exported in' 1921, 
practically 80 per cent was sent out prior to June 1. 



i 



18 THE EMERGENCY TARIFF AND ITS EFFECT ON CATTLE, BEEF, ETC. 






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THE EMERGENCY TARIFF AKD ITS EFFECT OX CATTLE, BEEF, ETC. 



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20 THE EMERGENCY TARIFF A^J'D ITS EFFECT ON CATTLE^ BEEF, ETC. 

Table 7 shows imports and exports of fresh beef and veal by coun- 
tries during recent years, and suggests the source of greatest potential 
competition which must be faced by the domestic cattleman in his 
liome market. 

Table 7. — Imports and exports of fresh beef and veal, 1914-1921. 
GENERAL IMPORTS. 





Imported from— 




Year. 


United 
Kingdom. 


Canada. 


Argentina. 


Uruguay. 


Australia. 


All other 
countries. 


Total. 


Fiscal year: 

19141 


Pounds. 

57,539,975 

8,676,776 


Pounds. 
15, 919, 799 
15, 305, 264 
9, 918, 326 
9, 435, 742 
20, 768, 167 

31,124,474 
37, 488, 425 
26, 469, 120 


Pounds. 

.59, 744, 937 

130, 680, 021 

52, 680, 436 

2,295,690 

431,041 

261,001 
2, 428, 393 
1,050,962 


Pounds. 

25, 902, 732 

13, 802, 565 

192,229 

86,662 

13, 120 

94,426 

1, 090, 284 

455, 819 


Pounds. 
19, 858, 526 
10, 482, 128 


Pounds. 
1, 141, 214 
5, 544, 005 
8, 310, 765 
3,197,373 
3, 670, 274 

5, 453, 719 
6, 710, 917 
3, 209, 263 


Pounds. 
180 137 183 


1915 


184, 490, 759 


1916 


71, 101, 756 


1917 




201,641 
569, 053 

1,528,138 
2, 444, 431 
1, 192, 758 


15, 217, 118 


1918 




25, 451, 655 


Calendar vear: 
1919.." 




38, 461, 758 


1920 


19,655 


50, 182, 105 


1921 :... 


32,377,922 







DOMESTIC EXPORTS. 





Exported to- 




Year. 


United 
Kingdom. 


Canada. 


Panama. 


France. 


Italy. 


All other 
countries. 


Total. 


Fiscal year: 
Average 1910-1914. 


Pounds. 

23, 410, 437 

54, 497, 192 

117,409,488 

125,687,523 

285, 789, 315 

73,073,602 
5,699,488 
2, 180, 902 


Pounds. 

372, 614 

545, 356 

3, 192, 196 

17, 771, 159 

37,349,521 

2, 621, Oil 

2,330,963 

228, 624 


Pounds. 
5, 026, 662 
3, 706, .596 
1, 504, 583 
235, 034 
144, 442 

51,950 

88, 537 

317, 522 


Pounds. 


Pounds. 

20, 279 

10, 472, 425 

47, 887, 945 

13, 066, 277 

8,566,613 

21, 375, 475 
211, 447 


Pounds. 
622,310 
1, 599, 270 
12, 119, 344 


Pounds. 

29,452,302 
170, 440, 934 
231.214.000 


1915 


99, 620, 095 
49, 100, 444 
38, 042, 278 
36,926,941 


1916 


1917 


2,374,832 '< 19?! 177! 101 


1918 


1,256,068 

77,304,961 
SO, 590, 496 
7,685,742 


370,032,900 
174, 426, 999 


Calendar year: 
1919 


1920 . . . 


730, 217 


89, 649, 148 


1921. 


10, 412, 790 









1 Included in " AU other meats" prior to 1914. 

As a summary of the foregoing, Table 8 shows the annual produc- 
tion, imports, and exports of cattle and of beef during recent years. 

Table 8. — Domestic production, imports, and exports of cattle and beef, 1900-1921. 

[Calendar year.] 





Number 
of cattle 

on 
farms. 


Cattle (in thousands). 


Beef and veal (in millions of 
pounds). 


Year. 


Number slaugh- 
tered. 


Imports.3 


Exports.' 


Domes- 
tic pro- 
duction. 


Tmports.3 


Exports. 3 




Cattle. 


Calves. 




1900 


57,721 

2 61, 804 

3 56,592 
58,329 
61,920 
64,583 
67, 422 
68, 560 
68,369 
66, 191 






175 
140 
872 
539 
447 
374 
294 
642 
379 
195 


397 

208 

18 

5 

21 

13 

18 

70 

85 

197 






329 


3909 


13,611 
11,005 
10, 822 
12,027 
13, 724 
15,750 
13, 635 
12,848 
12,271 


6,516 
4,661 
4,640 
5, 774 
7,031 
7,767 
9,041 
9,223 
8,655 


7,755 
6,072 
6,244 
6, 6.54 
7,348 
8,367 
7,422 
7,020 
7,0.58 




123 


1914 


180 
■ 184 
71 
15 
25 
38 
50 
32 


7 


1915 


170 


1916 


231 


1917 


197 


1918 


370 


1919 


174 


1920 


90 


1921 


10 







> Fiscal years until 1919. - 1910. ^ Estimate of the U. S. Department of Agriculture after 1910. 



THE EMERGENCY TARIFF AND ITS EFFECT ON CATTLE, BEEF, ETC. 21 

SHEEP AND MUTTON. 

The tariff act of 1909 placed a duty of $1.50 per head on sheep 
1 year old or over, and 75 cents per head on sheep less than 1 year 
old. The duty on lamb and mutton was 1^ cents per pound. The 
act of 1913 placed both sheep and mutton on the free list. The 
emergency tariff (May 28, 1921) levied a duty of $2 per head on 
sheep 1 year old or over, and $1 per head on animals less than 1 year 
old. The duty on fresh mutton and lamb was 2 cents per pound. 

In the case of both sheep and mutton, the American import and 
export trade normally is very small. During recent years relatively 
small numbers have entered from Mexico for consumption, and 
these were chiefly sacrifice sales by ranchers south of the border 
who had to adopt that expedient to avoid confiscation of their 
stock. Some animals have been imported from Canada, almost en- 
tirely for consumption, but additions to domestic supplies from both 
these sources have been small. Tables 9 and 10 show imports and 
exports of live animals by fiscal years since 1910, and for the last 
four calendar years. During the last four years imports have 
averaged only 158,000 head, chiefly from Canada: exports have 
averaged only 52,000 head, chiefly to Mexico. Total domestic 
slaughter has averaged about 15,000,000 head during the past four 
years, i. e., the imports have amounted to only 1 per cent of domestic 
slaughtering. 



22 THE EMERGENCY TARIFF AND ITS EFFECT ON CATTLE, BEEF_, ETC. 



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THE EMERGENCY TARIFF AND ITS EFFECT ON CATTLE, BEEF, ETC. 27 

Exports of mutton and lamb have been insignificant in amount, 
and until the early summer of 1920 imports of mutton and lamb 
also have been relatively small. They have come chiefly from 
Canada. The United States is not a mutton-eating country; the 
average per capita consumption from 1917 to 1920, inclusive, was only 
5.5 pounds, as compared with 69 pounds of beef and veal and 68 
pounds of pork and lard. In Great Britain about five times as much 
mutton is eaten per capita. Domestic supplies of lamb and mutton 
(averaging 547,000,000 pounds for 1917 to 1920) have been ample 
for domestic needs. Imports for 1914 to 1919, inclusive, averaged 
less than 7,000,000 pounds a year, or less than 1^ per cent of produc- 
tion in the United States. A decided preference for domestic 
chilled .mutton and lamb, the small duty per pound until 1913, and 
shipping scarcity until about 1920 have made impracticable other 
than trming importations of foreign frozen meat. 

However, owing mainly to efforts to move more rapidly heavy 
war-time accumulations in the hands of the British Government, 
116,000,000 pounds of frozen lamb and mutton (an amount equal to 
20 per cent of the domestic production) were imported between early 
summer of 1920 and the middle of the following winter. This was a 
costly venture for the importers, who lost heavily and had to reexport 
over half the amount brought in. After a brief flurry the consumers 
neglected these frozen stocks, which usually retailed at little less than 
domestic chilled, although wholesaled at much below the domestic 
product.^ But the presence of these stocks had a serious effect on 
the domestic sheep market during 1920 and 1921, as is shown below. 

The sheepmen were in even a worse position than the cattlemen 
to withstand adverse markets for sheep and lambs during the last 
half of 1920. On the average, in the United States during recent 
years wool has been approximately as important as sheep and lambs 
in total flock receipts. The wool market suddenly became mori- 
bund in the latter part of May, 1920,^ and the clip was virtually 
unsalable. Market quotations were nominal; most of the clip was 
still owned by the growers at the end of the year. In fact, a con- 
siderable part of the 1920 clip was not sold until nearly the close of 
1921, although normally nearly all of it passes into second hands 
within a few months after shearing. The sudden collapse of the wool 
market largely wiped out income from wool in 1920 for most flock- 
masters, while the depressed lamb market greatly curtailed receipts 
from that source. Where ordinarily the price of lambs averages 
5 to 10 per cent lower during the last seven months of the year than 
during the first five months, in 1920 they averaged 31 per cent 
lower— $13.10 per 100 pounds, compared' with $18.90. In that 
summer the price of native beef steers advanced slightly on the 
Chicago market, as is customary; the}^ averaged $13.70 during the 
last seven months of 1920, as compared with $12.95 during the first 
five months. 

With both classes of live stock, forced liquidation was the rule. 
Bankers were demanding curtailment of heavy loans made necessary 
during the adverse seasons just preceding, and the markets were 
glutted in the autumn of 1920 in an effort to satisfy creditors. Since 

' In one case the wholesale price of domoslic chilled lamb and mutton was 28 cents per pound; imported 
frozen, 17J cents. The retail price was suljstantially the same. 
' See page 28; also report of U. S. Tariff Commission on The Wool-Growing Industry pp. 14, 15. 



28 THE EMEEGENCY TARIFF AND ITS EFFECT OK CATTLE, BEEF, ETC. i 

enormous supplies of foreign frozen lamb were present and im- 
mediately available to distributors, the inevitable post-war decline 
in sheep and lamb prices was greatly accentuated. Instead of the 
customary rise after the peak of autumn marketings has passed, on 
the Chicago market from January 1 to May 31, 1921, aged lambs 
averaged only SIO.IO per 100 pounds, or 26 per cent lower than during 
the last seven months of 1920, when they averaged $13.70 per 100 
pounds, and nearly 50 per cent lower than during the first five months 
of 1920, when they averaged $18.90. 

Unfortunately for the sheepmen, forced liquidation continued 
throughout a large part of 1921, and with the exception of 1919, the 
1921 market receipts of sheep and lambs were larger than at any time 
since 1914." These receipts contained an unusual percentage of 
female lambs, animals which should have been retained for flock 
maintenance, but which had to be marketed to satisfy creditors. 
The breeding flocks, already too largely composed of old ewes, thus 
moved still further toward the point where they become a liability 
rather than an asset; i. e., when heavy losses, especially during the 
winter and lambing seasons, not only wipe out all chances for profit 
but make certain a net loss. 

Since forced marketings after June 1, 1921, gave supplies amply 
sufficient for the lessened domestic demand, the emergency tariff was 
unable to raise domestic prices. However, as with cattle, prices 
become firmer, and the spread which prevailed between Chicago and 
the Canadian markets during the first five months of 1921 widened 
greatly after June 1 (see Tables 1 and 2, pp. 4 and 6). There was an 
open market in the United States until June 1, with only a narrow . 
spread between domestic and Canadian markets, but the latter re- 
mained on a world level after June 1, and just as with cattle, Cana- 
dian markets continued downward as the world price declined. The 
widened price ditTerential between the United States and Canada 
would seem to indicate that the emergency tariff held the domestic 
sheep and lamb market somewhat above the world level after June 1. 
World and Canadian prices fell so low at the end of the grazing 
season that, although smaller than in previous years, considerable 
imports of live animals were received from Canada during the au- 
tumn despite the tariff. Table 11 shows the imports of live sheep 
and lambs during 1921, and Table 12 shows exports. As with cat- 
tle, the bulk of the small exports went to Mexico. Most of the rest 
represented a border trade with Canada. The total exports were of 
but negligible importance compared with domestic slaughter. 

« la 1921, receipts of sheep and lambs at all public stockyards amounted to 24,168,032 head as compared 
with 27,255,345 in 1919 and 23,537,534 in 1920. On the other hand, cattle receipts fell steadily from 25,294,557 
bead in 1918 to 19,786,794 in 1921. 



THE EMERGENCY TAEIFF AND ITS EFFECT ON CATTLE, BEEF, ETC. 29 



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30 THE EMERGENCY TARIFF AND ITS EFFECT ON CATTLE, BEEF, ETC. 



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THE EMERGE-^CY TARIFF AKD ITS EFFECT OiSr CATTLE, BEEF, ETC, 31 



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32 THE EMERGENCY TARIFF AND ITS EFFECT ON CATTLE, BEEF, ETC. 

Table 6, page 18, shows the pronounced drop in mutton and lamb 
imports in 1921. Most of the imports after June 1 came from 
Canada in the form of chilled mutton and lamb. The bulk of the 
imports prior to June 1 consisted of Australasian frozen. The duty 
and shipping charges, as well as preference for domestic chilled, and 
the costly experience with imported frozen, virtually eliminated the 
latter from our import trade by midwinter of 1921. 

WOOL. 

The tariff act of 1909 placed a duty of 11 cents per pound on wools 
of Class I (clothing), 12 cents per pound on Class II (English combing) 
and on Class III, 4 cents per pound if valued at not more than 12 
cents per pound; if valued at more than 12 cents per pound the duty 
was 7 cents per pound. Class I wools bore a duty of 22 cents per 
pound if imported in the washed condition, while Classes I and II 
paid 33 cents per pound if imported in the scoured condition. The 
act of 1913 put wool on the free list. The emergency tariff (May 28, 
1921) left Class III wools on the free list, but levied a duty of 15 cents 
per pound on Classes I and II if imported in the condition as shorn 
from the sheep, 30 cents per pound if washed, or if altered in any way 
from the condition as shorn from the sheep, and 45 cents on scoured 
wool. 

There has been a tariff problem in wool for more than a century. 
The acuteness of this problem has varied with conditions. Between 
about 1885 and 1917, although nearly arrested between 1900 and 1910, 
there was a considerable decline in total number of sheep in the United 
States. On the other hand, despite the smaller number of sheep 
kept, the average annual production of wool has varied but little 
throughout most of this 35-year period from the figure reached in 
1883, i. e., 300,000,000^ pounds. This resulted from improved 
breeding and selection and steady increase in average weight of fleece 
shorn. Since the population of the United States increased steadily 
during this time, more wool had to be imported to supply the demand. 
Therefore, the average annual imports for consumption for the 12 
years ending in 1915, amounting to 213,000,000 pounds per year, 
were practically one-third larger than for the preceding 12 years. 
Production and imports of wool, and imports of other animal fiber, 
by classes and by years,, are presented in the following table: 

' See report of U. S. Tariff Commission, on the Wool-Growing Industry, 1921, p. 21; and A Brief History 
of the Sheep Industry, in Ann. Report. Am. Historical Asso., 1918, p. 192. 



THE EMERGENCY TARIFF AND ITS EFFECT ON CATTLE, BEEF, ETC. 33 



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34 THE EMERGENCY TARIFF AND ITS EFFECT ON CATTLE, BEEF, ETC. 

Of the 213,000,000 pounds of wool, mohair, etc., imported per year 
from 1904 to 1915, approximately 100,000,000 pounds consisted of 
Class III, or carpet fiber. Most of the rest was composed of wools 
grown in South America and Australasia. Since the domestic clip 
amounted to an average of about 300,000,000 pounds, it furnished 
three-fifths of the total annual consiunption of slightly more than 
500,000,000 pounds of grease wool. As the domestic clip contained 
almost no carpet wools, it supplied three-fourths of the annual con- 
sumption of wools used in the manufacture of clothing — slightly over 
400,000,000 pounds. Despite some increase in the domestic clip after 
1915, the war emergency necessitated average annual imports of 
practically twice as much wool from 1916 to 1919, inclusive, as during 
the preceding 12 years. All of the increase consisted of Class I and 
II fiber. During these years, therefore, the domestic clip furnished 
only three-sevenths of the total amount consumed in the United 
States; and only one-half of the consumption of Class I and II fiber, 
i. e., wools habitually used in the manufacture of clothing. 

Slackened mill demand and smaller imports of wool in 1920 were 
merely part of a general return to normal after the period of abnormal 
demand and supply. However, civilian needs for garments made of 
wool were very inadequately met during the war. Thus there was 
a large potential market for woolen goods, which promised to absorb 
unusual supplies for several years to come. But prices had risen to 
such a point by 1920 that a large part of the consumers refused to 
buy. This "consumers' strike" was attracting some attention well 
before the middle of 1920, and, through its cumulative effect, was an 
important factor in causing the wool market to become moribund 
almost overnight.^ Until then the mill consumption had been prac- 
tically as large as at any time during the war, but beginning in June, 
1920, mill consumption and imports rapidly declined. The mills went 
on part time or in some cases temporarily ceased operations; any 
wool which they purchased was merely to supplement existing stocks 
in order to fill current orders; wool consumption averaged consider- 
ably below pre-war normal during the last half of the year and during 
the early months of 1921. However, the heavy consumption of the 
first 6 months of 1920 resulted in a total annual consumption con- 
siderably above the pre-war average for the calendar year 1920. In 
the early spring of 1921 a steady resumption of mill activity, after 
prices were lowered to- more reasonable levels, resulted in a total 
mill consumption for that year which was far above pre-war normal.' 

The collapse of the domestic wool market late in May, 1920, was 
believed at first to be only a temporary phenomenon. But domestic 
wools continued almost unsalable until after the end of the year, and 
the lamb market also was in bad shape and getting worse, so that 
the woolgrowers became seriously alarmed. Bankers with heavy 
loans on sheep and wool were ecjually alarmed. The situation was 
especially bad in that the sheepmen had been unable to make pro- 
vision for winter feed and the bankers were able to give little or no 
additional help. 

World wool prices were almost continually on the down grade 
throughout the winter of 1920-21. Anticipation of the passage of 

« See report of U. S. Tariff Commission, on the Wool-Growing Industry, 1921, pp. 14, 1."). 

9 Total c-onsiunplion for the calendar years 191S and following were 7 12,000,000, 627 ,()( 0,000, 579,0 0,000- 
and ().")(), ()• 0,0110. respectively, of grease, wool and grease caiiiva'ent of scoured and pulled wool. The pre- 
war normal, figured on the same basis, aniounied to ubout, ')25,000,000 pounds a year. 



THE EMERGENCY TARIFF AND ITS EFFECT ON CATTLE, BEEF, ETC. 35 



the emergency tariff, combined with a market "in buj^ers' favor," 
was an incentive for importers to stock up with wool. Accordingly, 
imports of Class I and Class II wools, i. e., clothing wools, during the 
first five months of 1921 amounted to nearly 200,000,000 pounds, 
while, in addition, the equivalent of approximately 30,000,000 
pounds of grease wool was imported in the form of tops. After 
May 28, owing to the fact that under the emergency tarift a double 
duty was levied on grease wool altered in any way from the condition 
as shorn from the sheep, skirted wools could only be imported under a 
30 cent duty per grease pound. Therefore imports of Class I and Class 
II wools, i. e., clothing wools, practically ceased after June 1. Occa- 
sional small arrivals were stored in bond for subsequent removal. 
Only carpet wools, imaffected by the emergency tariff, continued to 
enter freely. However, thej200,600,000 pounds of Class I and Class II 
wools imported in the five Tnonths prior to June 1, 1921, were twice 
the average annual importations during the 12 years ending in 
1915, and two-thirds of the average annual importations of similar 
wools during the period of super activity following June 30, 1915. 
Table 14 shows total imports of wools, by classes and bv months, 
during 1921. 

Table 14. — Total imports ofvjool, by classes, 1921 . 



Month. 



January. .. 
February. . 

March 

April 

May 

.June 

July 

August 

September. 
October. . . 
November. 
December . 



Total 208, 179, 224 



Class I. 



Class II. 



Mohair, 
Alpaca, etc. 



Pounds. 

15, 993, 109 

36,209,958 

80, 794, 265 

52, 387, 414 

10, 123, 845 

868, 215 

656,111 

3,947,376 

293, 857 

585,369 

2, 727, 225 

3,592,480 



Pounds. 

1,858,574 

1,387,360 

3, 862, 496 

2,637,019 

245, 804 

28, 365 

80, 008 



Pounds. 
51, 491 
153,494 

1,670,576 
316, 331 
209, 129 
412, 870 



24, 114 



373, 737 
273, 754 



75, 059 
139, 108 
606, 647 
353, 139 

72, 975 



Class III. 



Pounds. 
3,266,306 
5, 135, 156 
11,775,761 
9,995,477 
4, 165, 820 
4,642,305 
8, 660, 745 
11,844,309 
14, 135, 380 
7, 893, 690 
7, 492, 294 
8, 580, 644 



Total. 



Pounds. 

21, 169, 480 

42, 885, 968 

98, 103, 098 

65,336,241 

14, 744, 598 

5,9.51,755 

9, 396, 864 

15, 866, 744 

14, 592, 459 

9, 085, 706 

10,946,395. 

12, 519, 853 



10,771,231 4,060,819 97,587,887 320,599,161 



These heavy imports during the first five months of 1921 merely 
added to the stocks on hand, and in view of the accelerating mill 
consumption, which with normal stocks would have reacted quickly 
on wool prices, they evidently were a large factor in preventing a 
rise in the price of wool until several months after the emergency 
tariff became law. In fact, there was a slight drop in quotations for 
most grades after June 1, partly because earlier market quotations 
frequently were only nominal. Then, too, there was a large carry- 
over of domestic wools of the 1920 clip, previously virtually un- 
salable. Usually only the most desirable of the 1920 domestic 
wools were bid for prior to June 1, and the bulk of the large carry- 
over consisted of wools somewhat less desirable than those of the 
1921 clip. These 1920 wools were disposed of after June 1, with 
some eft'ect on average prices. 

However, as domestic and imported stocks became depleted, 
especially stocks of fine wools, domestic prices began to move up- 
ward. Medium and coarser wools already in stock also began to be 
more sought after, partly because of the very high duty to which 
foreign fine wools were subjected. The prices of most grades of 



36 THE EMEEGEISTCY TARIFF AND ITS EFFECT ON CATTLE, BEEF, ETC. 



domestic wools began to increase after about the first week in Novem- 
ber. This upward movement continued steadily until about July 1, 
1922, despite the fact that world wool prices fell sharply after the 
last of October and did not regain the October level until the first 
week in February. In other words, while the world market was 
declining from October levels the domestic market was rising, as a 
result of short supplies and no chance for immediate relief except 
at the expense of a very high duty. 

Tables 15 and 16 show the course of c{uoted prices for domestic 
wools during 1920 and 1921, and the course of prices at the London 
wool auctions during the greater part of 1921. As previously noted, 
the improvement in domestic prices began in November for nearly 
all grades. The relative stability of the domestic market during the 
summer months, as contrasted with the erratic English market, 
shows the effect of some steadying influence in this country after 
June 1, quite apart from the fact that domestic prices later rose at 
the same time that a decline occurred in world prices. Table 17, 
which shows the trend of prices on the London market since 1900, 
is added for its general interest. 



Table 


.5. — Wholesale price per pound of domestic wool, Boston. 


1 




Grade. 


1920 


1921 


1922 


Jan. 


Apr. 


July. 


Oct. 


Jan. 


Apr. 


July. 


Oct. 


Jan. 


Apr. 


July. 


Territory (scoured): 

Fine ."Staple 

Half-blood 

Three-eighths 
blood 


$2.00 
1.825 

1.35 

1. 125 

.725 

1.725 

1.(325 


$2.10 
1.90 

1..30 
1.15 
. 625 
1.80 

1.70 


$1.70 
1.50 

1.025 
.875 
.55 

1.50 

1.475 


$1,375 
1.225 

.875 

.675 

.55 

1.225 

1.025 


$0. 825 
.675 

.525 
.425 
.19 


$0.90 
.725 

.540 
.435 
.19 


$0.&3 
.70 

.51 
.40 
.215 


$0.83 
.70 

.525 

.40 

.215 


$0.91 
.795 

.60 
. 515 
.315 


$1. 075 
.975 

.750 
.635 
.410 


$1,350 
1.125 

.875 


Quarter-blood 

Common and braid 
Fine clothing 


.765 
.590 


Fine medium 






1 








Fine and fine me- 
dium clothing. . . 


.575 

.465 
.34 

.275 
.2.55 
.135 
.305 

.255 
.2,35 

.245 

.445 
.33 

. 2r.5 
.245 
.125 
.295 


.675 

.39 
.33 

.295 
.28 
.145 
.325 

.255 
.235 

.245 

.37 
.315 

. 285 
.27 
.135 
.305 


.615 

.355 
.30 

.265 
.255 
.16 
.275 

.255 
.2.35 

.245 

..32 
.29 

.26 
.25 
.16 
.28.5 


.625 

.345 
.295 

.265 
.242 
. 1.55 

.285 

.245 
.215 

.23 

..32 

.285 

.26 
.237 
.155 
.265 


.72 

.405 
.365 

.34 
.315 
.195 
.335 

.295 
.255 

2.275 

..385 
.345 

..325 
.315 
. 195 
.295 
.265 

.235 
2.25 


.900 

.465 
.400 

.375 
. 365 
.230 
.375 

.350 
.300 


1. 125 


Ohio and Pennsylva- 
nia (grease): 

Delaine 

Half-blood 


.93 

.85 

.70 

. m 

.415 

.71 


. 985 . 71 

.84 [ . 69 


.625 
.575 

.44 
.405 
.29 
.545 


.,560 
.505 


Three-eighths 
blood 


. 695 
.665 
.29 

.75 


.54 
.49 
.29 
.61 


.465 


Quarter blood 

Common and braid 

Fine <lothing 

Half-blood cloth- 
ing 


.435 
.345 

.465 

.430 


Three-eighths and 
one-fourth blood 
clothing. . . 










.410 


One-half, three- 
eighths, and one- 
fourth blood 


.61 

.885 
.81 

. 685 
. 66 
.415 
. 675 


.64 

. 995 

.81 

. 675 
.65 
.29 
.715 


.532 

.68 
.675 

.535 
.49 
.29 
.59 


.475 

.60 
.53 

"'.'465' 
.29 
.51 




Michigan and New 
York (grease): 
Delaine 


. 435 
.375 

.365 
. 31H) 
.2.30 
.345 
. 330 

. 27.") 


. .-ViO 


Half-blood 


.475 


T h r e e - e i g h t h s 

blood 

Quarter-blood 

Common and braid 

Fine 'lothing 

Half-I)lood clothing 
Three-eighths and 
onr-fourth blood 


. 4.55 
.435 
..345 
.440 
. 405 


















.370 


One-lialf, three- 
cighihs, and one- 
four I h blood 


..56 




.50 


.40 


.25 


.,24 


.24 


.22 















1 From the Commercial Bulletin, Boston, for date nearest to first day in specified months. Territory 
prices are per .scoured pound. Other wools are quoted per grease pound. 

2 Averaged from half-ljlood and three-eighths and one-fourth blood clothing. 



THE EMERGENCY TARIFF AND ITS EFFECT ON CATTT.E, BEEF, ETC. 37 

Table 16. — Wool values at the London sales} 

[Pence per clean pound.] 
FIRST COST, WITHOUT OIL, LONDON, 1921-22. 



32 

30i 

30" 

2S 

27 

29 

26 

23i 

18 

17 

16 

15J 



Description. 



70's super fleeces 

64/67 's good medium fleeces. 
60/64's good medium fleeces. 

64's good pieces 

60's good pieces .• 

58/60's good medium fleeces. 

56's fine crossbred fleeces 

50/56's fine crossbred fleeces. 

46/50's crossbred fleeces 

46's crossbred fleeces 

44's crossbred fleeces 

36/40's crossbred fleeces 



CAPES. 



10/12 months. 
6/7 months. . . 



CARBONIZING. 



60/64 's good pieces 

60/64's pieces and bellies. 

60's average locks 

64's average lambs 



Mar. 
5. 



51 
39 
30 
33 
24 
30 
24 
17 
14 

2 12 

(?) 

(?) 



Apr. I May 
15. 12. 



40 
33 
26 
29 
23 
29 
22 
15 
13 
10 
(') 



2 32 
2 22 



42 

36 

30 

34i 

27 

30 

24 

18 

15 

13 

11 



June 
18. 



30 

28 
22 
24 



July 


Sept. 


28. 


15. 


40 


48 


35 


40 


29 


35 


32 


38 


26 


31 


27 


32 


21 


25 


15 


20 


12 


14 


10 


12 


9 


10 


7 


8 


28i 


36 


28 


30 


25 


28 


20 


23 


22 


25 



Oct. 
15. 



Oct. 
29. 



53 
45 
39 
41 
34 
34 
24 
22 
15 
12 
2 10 

28 



53 
47 
42 
43 
36 
36 
24 
22 
15 
12 
10 



33 
30 

224 
2 27 



34 
32 
24 

27 



July, 
1914. 


Description. 


Nov. 
25. 


Dec. 

8. 


Jan. 
12. 


Feb. 
2. 


Mar. 
10. 


May 
8. 


May 
19. 


June 
6. 


32 


COMBING. 

70's super fleeces 


46i 
41i 
36 
35 
32 
31 
22 
20 
14 
11 
9 


47i 
42 
36 
36 
32 
31 
23 
20 
15 
12 
10 
8-9 

2 35 
2 24 

30 
28 
23 
26 


53i 

46i 

42 

43 

36 

36 

26 

22 

17 

13 

12 

10 

33 
30 
25 
31 


53 
47 
41 
43 
37 
37 
26 
22 
16 
12 
10 
9 

37 
30 

34 
30 
26 
30 


57i 
46i 
41 
40 
37 
37 
25 
22 
17 
13 
11 
9 

39 
30 

33 
30 
25 
31 


59i 

51 

45 

45 

41 

40 

30 

27 

19 

15 

13 

12 

43 
34 

38 
33 
26i 
31 


60 
52 
46 
45 
42 
40 
28 
26 
18 
15 
13 
11 

43 
35 

39 
35 
28 
32 


57 


30i 


64/67 's good medium fleeces 


50 


30 


fin/fi4's gnnr] mpdiiiTn flpppps 


44 


28 


64's good pieces 


45 


27 


60's good pieces 


41 


29 


58/60's good medium fleeces 


39 


26 


56's fine crossbred fleeces 


26 


2ii 


50/56's fine crossbred fleeces 


21 


18 


46/50's crossbred fleeces 


14 


17 


46's crossbred fleeces 


11 


16 


44's crossbred fleeces 


10 


15i 


36/40's crossbred fleeces 


9 


27 


CAPES. 

10/12 months 




42 


24 


6/7 months 




31 


26 


CARBONIZING. 

60/64's good pieces 


29 
27 
20 
24 


39 


25 


60/64 's pieces and beUies 


35 


20 


60's average locks 


27 




64's average lambs 


28 









1 From the Wool Record and Textile World, Bradford, England. 

2 Nominal. 

3 Unsalable. 



38 THE EMEEGENCY TARIFF AND ITS EFFECT ON CATTLE, BEEF, ETC. 

Table 17. — Trend of wool prices, London, 1900 to 1921.^ 
fPence per clean pound.] 





Merinos. 


Crossbred. 


Date. 


Port 

PhilUp, 

good. 


Adelaide, 
average. 


Cape, 

short, 

washing. 


Buenos 

Aires, 

average. 


Australian. 




Fine 
super. 


Fine. 


Medium. 


Coarse. 


December, 1900 

December, 1901 

December, 1910 

December, 19U 

December, 1912 

Decei; ber, 1913 

July, 1914 


19J 
21 
27i 
26J 
29 
2Si 
33J 
43 
65 
75 
138 
65 
45 


17 
18i 
25' 
24 
26 
25 
28 
35 
57 
63 
108 
40 
33 


14i 

15i 

22 

20* 

22i 

22i 

27j 

31 

48 

50 

97 

34 

30 


13i 

14 

20i 

19 

20J 

21 

23§ 

26 

39 

38 

68 

28 

23 


15 
16 
23 
22 
24 
22i 
26 
37 
51 
3 54* 
95 
45 
35 


12i 
11 
19J 
18 
20 
18i 
22| 
34 
47 
8 50J 
70 
30 
21 


16J 
15 
17 
1.5| 
17 
28 
35 
8 35 
40 
19 
lOi 


9i 
6i 

13i 

13 

15 


December, 1915 

December, 1916 

April, 1917 2 


25 

32 

332 


December, 1919 

December, 1920 

December, 1921 


29 

3 13 

8i 



I 



1 From Schwarte and Buchanan. London. 

2 April. 1919, close of London public auctions. 

3 Nominal. As against July, 1914. Merinos, about 30 per cent higher; pieces, 15 per cent higher; medium 
and coarse shreds, 40 per cent lower. 



FRESH PORK, AND PREPARED AND PRESERVED MEATS. 

The act of 1909 levied a duty of 1^ cents per pound on fresh pork, 
4 cents per pound on bacon and hams, and 25 per cent ad valorem 
on meats of all Idnds, prepared or preserved. Bologna sausage was' 
placed on the free list. The act of 1913 placed fresh pork and bacon 
and hams on the free list, also meats of all kinds, prepared or pre- 
served. The emergency tariff placed a duty of 2 cents per pound on 
fresh pork and 25 per cent ad valorem on meats of all kinds, prepared 
or preserved, not specially provided for in the act. The latter 
included bacon and hams and miscellaneous meats. 

Of the above, the export trade of the United States deals primarily 
with bacon and hams, of which this country is by far the leading 
exporter. Relatively small amounts of fresh and of pickled pork 
are sent abroad, but aside from canned, pickled, and other cured beef, 
exports of other meats, prepared or preserved, are quite small. 
With the exception of pork and pork products, these other meats 
really are special products which meet a more or less specialized 
demand. Imports of all the above are of only secondary importance 
when compared with exports. Table 18 shows exports and imports 
of these products for the calendar years 1919 to 1921, inclusive. 



THE EMERGENCY TARIFF AND ITS EFFECT ON CATTLE, BEEF, ETC. 39 



Table 18. — Imports and exports of fresh pork and of prepared and preserved meats, 

calendar years 1919-1921. 



Item. 



1921 



t); :■,■! EXPORTS. 






Canned beef . . .... 


Pounds. 
53,867,000 
42, 805, 000 


Pounds. 
23, 766, 000 
25,771,000 


Pounds. 
6 077 000 


Pickled and other cured > 


24' 571 ' 000 






Total 


96, 672, 000 


49, 537, 000 


30 648 000 






Bacon 


1,190,297,000 

596,796,000 

5, 792, 000 

26,777,000 

34,114,000 


636, 676, ono 
185,247,000 
1, 802, 000 
38, 305, 000 
38, 709, 000 


415 300 000 


Hams and shoulders 


232' 380' 000 


Canned pork 


1' 150' 000 


Fresh pork 


56 083' 000 


Pickled pork 


32 850'000 






Total 


1,853,776,000 


900, 739, 000 


737 763 000 






Sausage (total) 


22, 088, 000 


17,667,000 


8 90S 000 






Grand total 


1,972,536,000 


967,943,000 


777 319 000 







IMPORTS. 



Fresh pork 

Prepared and preserved meats. 



Total. 



2,779,000 
23,908,000 



1,541,000 
8,111,000 



816, 000 
3,362,000 



26, 687, 000 



It will be noted that in 1919 nearly 2,000,000,000 pounds of these 
meat products were exported, of which 94 per cent consisted of bacon, 
hams, and other pig meat. In 1920 these exports fell to slightly 
less than a billion pounds, and in 1921 to slightly less than 800,000,- 
000, with the meat of the hog contributing 92 per cent and 94 per 
■cent of the total. The decline from the wartime peak was a logical 
result of curtailed production after the war emergency was over, 
combined with depreciated foreign exchange and its effect on the 
purchase of American products. The peak of exports in 1919 repre- 
sents an increase from nearly 450,000,000 pounds of these products 
in the year ending June 30, 1914, when 91 per cent of the total con- 
sisted of pig meat. It will also be noted that imports for 1919 to 
1921, inclusive, averaged only 1 per cent of exports. In other words, 
imports were of only negligible importance compared with exports, 
which represented 8 per cent of total domestic production of fresh 
meats during the three years noted, though less than 4 per cent in 
1914. 

Since imports of these meats have averaged only 1 per cent of the 
•exports, but the latter are of large volume, it would seem that there 
is no tariff problem in these commodities, and that imports are vir- 
tually an incident in the foreign trade of the United States. This is 
particularly true of imports of miscellaneous canned, cured, and other 
preserved meats, including sausage, but excluding products of the 
liog. They have amounted to less than one-sixth of the exports of 
similar meats, but the latter have formed only about 1 per cent of 
total production from domestic slaughter.* 

Since over 90 per cent of the exports consist of hog products (ex- 
clusive of lard), and the United States dominates world trade in hog 
products, it would seem even more difficult to find a direct tariff 
pi-oblem therein. During the three years ending December 31, 1921, 



iO THE EMEKGENCY TARIFF AND ITS EFFECT ON CATTLE, BEEF, ETC. 

the total annual hog slaughter averaged 63,163,000 head in the 
United States, giving an average of 8,534,000,000 pounds of pork and 
2,069,000,000 pounds of lard. Of these totals, 5,356,000,000 pounds 
of pork and 1,346,000,000 pounds of lard were produced under 
Federal inspection.^" Of the total pork produced (exclusive of lard) 
14 per cent was exported during these years. With so large an export 
of hog products, the emergency tariff could not be expected to atfect 
domestic markets, since the United States has always been on an 
export basis, and domestic prices are profoundly influenced by world 
prices. 

Tables 19 and 20 show imports and exports of hogs during the last 
calendar years, and contrasts this movement with the total number 
slaughtered in the United States, also with total dressed weight of 
the domestic slaughterings, excluding lard. 

Table 19. — Imports of swine compared with number slaughtered in the United States 

1918-1921. 

(Free.) 











Calendar year. 


















Imported from — 


1918 


1919 


1920 


1921 




Number. 


Value. 


Number. 


Value. 


Niunber. 


Value. 


Number. 


Value. 


Canada 


7,454 
5 
5 
1 


$184, 595 

933 

54 

15 


20,584 
5 


$756, 650 
1,022 


881 
1 


$19,664 
214 


2,692 


$63, 40^ 


United Kingdom 


Japan 






Mexico 






136 

78 


2,435 
555 


122 
24 


1,437 


Virgin Islands 


68 


587 


205 


All other countries. . . 


2 


20 


















Total 


7,467 


185,617 


20,657 


758,259 


1,096 


22,868 


2,838 


fi."! 049P 






Number of hogs 
slaughtered in the 
United States 

Pork produced 
(pounds) 


65, 732, 450 
8,854,000,000 


66,680,330 
8,933,000,000 


60, 635, 884 
8,193,000,000 


62, 172, 855 
8, 475, 000, Of 





Table 20.- 


-Exports of swine. 


1918-1921. 








Calendar year. 


Exported to — 


1918 


1919 


1920 


1921 




Number. 


Value. 


Number. 


Value. 


Number. 


Value. 


Number. 


Value. 


Cuba 


9, 5S3 

132 

134 

s 

339 

16 

14 

19 

15 

14 


$276,475 
4,002 
5,127 

620 
39, 595 
1,375 
1,400 
1,240 
1,460 

425 


19, 947 

3,987 

177 

55 

221 

4 

246 


$521,035 
85, 392 
12, 833 
5,500 
19,315 
140 
35,015 


49,021 

5,2.37 

151 

41 

325 

5 

20 


$1,494,739 

135,009 

9,848 

3,515 

43, 424 

775 

2,520 


98,015 

24,217 

522 

123 

106 

7 

6 


$1,338,169 
409, 528 


Mexico 


Canada 


18,821 


Pnilippiue Islands 


9, 79(V 
20 300 


Chile 


2,ox;5 


Argeuiina . 


1,200 






Uruguay 






51 


15, 300 






Nira agua 


13 


079 






i78 
221 


6,230 
12, 424 






All other countries. . . 


34 


1,950 


95 4,002 


71 


3, 650 


Total 


10, 308 


333,729 


24, 745 


683,911 


55, 250 


1,723,784 


123,067 


1,S03,.541 







1" U. S. Dept. of Agr., Bu. of Animal Industry, Meat Production, etc., 1921. 

o 



■^■'t-3.^' 



n.y 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 
WASHINGTON 



Tariff Information Series — ^No. 30 



CATTLE AND BEEF 



IN THE 



UNITED STATES 



THE TARIFF PROBLEMS 
INVOLVED 




WASHINGTON 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

1922 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 
WASHINGTON 



Tariff Information Series — No. 30 



CATTLE AND BEEF 



IN THE 



UNITED STATES 



THE TARIFF PROBLEMS 
INVOLVED 




WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

1922 



i 



I 



\jr\J yC\ \Qry€^ 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 

Office: Old Land Office, Seventh and E Streets, NW., Washington, D. C. 

Commissioners. 

Thomas 0. Marvin, Chairman. • 

William S. Culbertson, Vice Chairman. 
David J. Lewis. 
Edward P. Costigan. 
Thomas Walker Page. 
William Burgess. 

John F. Bethune, Secretary. 



ADDITIONAL COPIES 

OF THIS PUBLICATION MAY BE PROCURED FROM 

THE SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

■WASHINGTON, D. C. 

AT 

15 CENTS PER COPY 



I 



CONTENTS. 

Summary: Page. 

Decline in beef surplus of the United States 1 

Reasons for loss of beef surplus 1 

The tariff problem in cattle and beef: 

Form of imports and exports 4 

Effect of tariff on form of imports 5 

Method of levying duties 6 

The cattle industry of the United States: 

Dairying and beef production 7 

Period of transition in the beef industry 7 

Production and consumption of beef since 1907 9 

Systems of management — 

Farming regions 11 

Range cattle 12 

Cattle in the South 12 

Geographic distribution of decline 13 

Causes of reduction in the beef supply 15 

Possibility of expansion 16 

Cost of production 18 

Cost of keeping cows and raising calves 19 

Cost of fattening steers 22 

The marketing of cattle: 

Cost of marketing 27 

The centralized markets 27 

Market prices 29 

Detailed price movement during and since the war 31 

The beef-slaughtering and meat-packing industry: 

Importance of the industry 34 

Cattle products 34 

Marketing of cattle products 35 

Geographic distribution of the industry 35 

Distribution of the ownership of the industry 36 

Foreign trade of the United States: 

Cattle, beef, beef fats, and competing meats and fats — 

General re\dew 37 

Exports of cattle 42 

Exports of beef and cattle products 43 

Imports of beef and beef products 44 

Imports of cattle ; quarantine regulations 45 

Imports and exports of all meats and fats 46 

Foreign production 47 

Canada 49 

The slaughtering industry 51 

Trade in beef and cattle 51 

The emergency tariff act 54 

Mexico 54 

Argentina — 

General 55 

Methods of production 59 

Cost of production 61 

Alfalfa fattening 62 

' ' Fine grass " fattening 63 

Breeding and fattening 63 

Slaughtering and shipping 64 

Future of the Argentine cattle industry 65 

Uruguay 66 

Brazil 67 

Paraguay 67 

Australia 68 

Xew Zealand 71 

Great Britain 72 

International beef trade 73 

III 



IV CONTENTS. 

Relation of domestic to world prices: Page. 

The relation of cattle prices in Canada to those in the United States 78 

Competitive conditions in the production of beef 81 

Tariff history 83 

Breeding stock 84 

Quarantine 84 

Tariff considerations 85 

Form of import duties 86 

List of Illustrations. 

Fig. 1. Net imports and exports of beef, 1900-1921 vi 

2. Averagemonthly price of corn, Chicago, 1903-1908, 1909-1915, 1916-1919. 26 

3. Monthly receipts, local slaughter, and stocker and feeder shipments, 

7 markets, 1916-1920 28 

4. Average monthlv price of cattle, selected grades, Chicago, 1903-1908, 

1909-1915, and 1916-1919 30 

4A. Average monthly price of cattle, selected grades, Chicago, 1903-1908, 

1909-1915, and 1916-1919 - 31 

5. Average monthly price of 1200-1500 pound native beef steers, Chicago, 

selected years 33 

6. Net exports of meats and fats, 1900-1921 47 

7. Comparison of wholesale prices of American and Argentine beef at 

Smithfield market, London, with wholesale prices of good native 

beef, Chicago, 1905-1920 78 

8. Comparison of prices of best butcher cattle, Toronto, with prices of 

native beef steers, Chicago, 1910-1920 79 

Statistical Appendix. 

Domestic exports, 1906-1921 : 

Table 1. Cattle 88 

2. Fi'esh beef and veal 91 

3. Canned beef 94 

4. Pickled and other cured beef 97 

5. Stearin from animal fats 100 

6. Tallow 102 

7. Oleo oil and neutral lard 104 

General imports, 1906-1921: 

Table 8. Cattle 107 

9. Fresh beef and veal 110 

10. Bologna sausage 112 

11. Stearin from animal fats 113 

12. Tallow. 115 

Imports for consumption: 

Table 13. Cattle 116 

14. Fresh beef 117 

15. Fresh veal 117 

16. Corned beef, canned ] 18 

17. Meat extract 118 

18. Livers, sweetbreads, etc., of beef, pork, and mutton 119 

19. Bologna sausage 119 

20. Oleo stearin 119 

21. Tallow 120 

Domestic slaughterings of animals and production of meat: 

Table 22. Number of animals slaughtered annually under Federal inspec- 
tion and otherwise 120 

23. Domestic production of meats: Estimated total and Federally 

inspected 121 

Rates of dutv: 

Table 24. Cattle 122 

25. Beef and veal 1 22 

Statistics of foreign countries: 

Table 26. Exyrorts of beef from Argentina to principal markets, 1914-1919. 123 

27. Number of chilled and frozen quarters of beef exported from 

Argentina, by companies, 1 918, and 1919 125 

28. Number of chilled and frozen quarters of beef exported from 

Uruguay, by companies, 1918 and 1919 125 



INTRODUCTION. 



The cattle industry is of substantial importance in the agricultural 
economy of the United States and most foreign countries. This 
report notes changes that have occurred in the industry since the 
United States has virtually ceased to export cattle and beef. It dis- 
cusses domestic production costs, marketing, the beef-packing 
industry, the import and export trade of the United States, and 
production in the principal competing countries, i. e., Canada, Argen- 
tina, Uruguay, Brazil, Paraguay, Australia, and New Zealand. The 
import trade of Great Britain, the world's leading importer of food- 
stuffs, also receives some attention. Estimated costs of production 
in xArgentina, the leading exporter of beef during the past 15 years, 
were secured by an a^ent of the commission for the period 1919-20 
and are incorporated m the report. These estimated costs are com- 
pared with similar costs in the United States during the same period. 
Other phases of the industry discussed are: Domestic and foreign 
prices, the history of tariff legislation with reference to cattle and beef, 
tariff considerations, and recommendations concerning the form which 
a duty, if levied, should take. 



In the preparation of this report the commission had the assistance 
of Dr. L. G. Connor and of C. K. Lewis and L. B. Zapoleon, of the 
commission's staff, and of others 



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VI 



CATTLE AND BEEF. 



Summary. 



Decline in heef surplus of the United States. — During the last 20 
years the United States has been steadily losing its position as a 
heavy exporter of certain staple food products. This is particularly 
true of cattle and beef. In these products this country virtually 
dominated the world export trade until about 1907; by 1914 trade 
had shifted to a heavy import basis. Temporarily the World War 
halted this drift, but by 1920 the United States showed a balance of 
imports. Figure 1, page vi, is a graphic portrayal of these changes 
in our foreign trade in beef and live cattle. In connection with this 
graph it should be noted that because of the proximity of Cana- 
dian and Mexican supplies, and also the varied trade in different 
kinds of cattle and beef, the United States has throughout maintained 
both an export and an import trade. Even when the country was 
upon an import basis, it had an appreciable export trade in canned 
and pickled or cured beef as well as in breeding cattle, and to some 
extent in butcher cattle. Although large amounts of dressed beef 
entered in 1914 and 1915, imports have consisted chiefly of live 
cattle, mainly of thin animals to be fattened in this country. 

Reasons for loss of heef surplus. — The decline of beef production and 
in the export trade in beef products may be accounted for by (1) the 
rapid increase in population, (2) greater competition between cattle 
and grain production, (3) homesteading and curtailment of free 
ranges, (4) increased competition between beef and dairy production, 
and (5) the indirect effect of competition between domestic and 
foreign beef in the world markets. Thus the population of the 
United States gained nearly 40 per cent between 1900 and 1920 and 
about 32 per cent between 1900 and 1915; this increase was the 
dominant factor in the decline in beef production and export. The 
augmented population had to be fed; cereal foods are cheaper than 
meats, and on tillable land in humid areas more food value per acre 
can be produced in the form of cereals than in the form of beef. 
Then, too, there were periods of industrial depression between 1900 
and 1914 which adversely affected domestic demand for meats at the 
same time that extensions in cereal production were curtailing cattle 
herds in the farming regions. Thus per capita consumption ot beef 
and veal averaged 86.8 pounds in 1907 and only 63.3 pounds in 1914. 
Moreover, the increase in population accelerated settlement in the 
region west of the one-hundredth meridian, and homesteading greatly 
curtailed the area of free range: the area of unappropriated and un- 
reserved lands decreased from 917,135,000 acres m 1900 to 290,759,- 
000 in 1914. To a large degree, the settlers neglected live stock in 

1 



2 UNITED STATES TARITF COMMISSIOIsr. 

favor of grain, and the cutting up of the better range areas greatly 
curtailed the value of the remaining lands to the cattlemen. Serious 
inroads were thus made on the herds which supplied the bulk of the 
feeder cattle normally finished on grain in the Corn Belt. 

This curtailment of free range was one of the most potent factors in 
diminishing the production of beef. It not only increased costs to 
range cattlemen and decreased the supply of cattle but, by reducing 
the supply faster than the demand subsided, resulted in higher prices 
to cattle feeders for thin animals needed to consume surpluses of 
grain and roughage. The "feeding margin" — i. e., the spread be- 
tween the price paid for thin animals and the price received for them 
when sold for butchering — was thus narrowed and the feeders' mar- 
gin of profit made more uncertain. The cattle feeders' difficulties 
were further augmented by the marked variations in the steadily ris- 
ing cost of feed resulting from abnormal seasons when feed supplies 
were reduced. Abnormal seasons appear to have been an important 
factor in the sudden increase in imports in 1914. Furthermore, a 
steady increase of urban population sharpened competition between 
beef and dairy cattle. The latter increased with the extension of 
market milk zones to supply the cities, and longer shipments of mar- 
ket milk caused a change to dairying in still more remote areas to 
meet the growing needs of butter and cheese factories. These changes 
were made at the expense of purely beef herds, though a considerable 
part of the gain in dairy production appears to have resulted from an 
increase of dual-purpose herds in more or less remote areas, herds 
wherein calves raised for beef are often almost as important as sales 
of milk or cream. For the foregoing reason, domestic production 
declined, absolutely as well as in proportion to population, although 
prices were rising both at home and abroad. 

Competition of domestic with foreign beef in the world market 
was an additional factor in the domestic decline, but was effective 
0nly indirectly. The decrease in American production paralleled a 
world tendency toward a decrease relative to population,^ which was 
partly lessened by a slow development in the marketing of earlier 
maturing beeves. As cattle were ready for slaughter a year or more 
earlier the output of meat was greatly increased, particularly in 
Argentina, whose beef largely replaced that of the United States 
on the European market as the American surplus declined.' But 
the price of beef tended slowly upward, and the increased price 
rather discouraged consiimption. Had other exporting countries, 
especially Argentina, not mcreased their exports, prices in the 
world market undoubtedly would have risen even more; to what 
extent production in the United States would have been stimulated 
is a matter of conjecture. It is significant, however, that pro- 
duction of beef and veal in the slaughtering plants of the United 
States declined 1,873,000,000 pounds, or 24 per cent, between 1907 
and 1914, inclusive, while domestic consumption declined 1 ,35 1 ,000,000 
pounds, or 17 per cent.^ In other words, 72 per cent of the decline 
m domestic production during this period, which marks the transition 
from a heavy export to a net import basis, was offset by decreased 
domestic consumption. It is apparent, therefore, that the decline in 
American production was due primarily to readjustments in the 

1 See Report 109, Office of the Secretary, U. S. Department of Agriculture, pp. 192 ff., 216 fl. 

' See p. 57. 

3 See Table 2, p. 7. 



CATTLE AND BEEF PEODUCTIOX IX THE UNITED STATES. 6 

agricultural activities of the United States necessitated largely by 
increases in population, and to decreased domestic demand as the 
price of beef increased. It was only indirectly affected by foreign 
competition. 

Table 1. — Summary. 





Number of 

cattle and 

calves 


Weight 

of 
dressed 
beef and 
veal pro- 
duced .1 


Fresh bee,„d ,eal j '^St'e?';!^!" 
e.xporiea. exported. 


Live cattle exported. 




slaugh- 
tered. 


Quan- 
tity. 


Value. 


Quan- 
tity. 


Value. 


Num- 
ber. 


Value. 


Fiscal year: 
1906 




Millions 

of 
pounds. 


Thou- 
sands of 
pounds. 
268,054 
281,652 
201, 154 
122, 9.53 
75,730 
42,511 
15,264 
7,362 
6, .394 
170,441 
231,214 
197,177 
370, 033 

514,342 
174, 427 
89,649 
10,341 


$24, 310, 038 

26,367,287 

20,339,377 

12,698,594 

7,733,751 

4, 478, 401 

1, 596, 319 

902, 149 

788, 793 

21,731,633 

28, 885, 999 

26, 277, 271 

67,383,426 

109,805,363 

40,280,747 
17, .564, 887 
1,798,398 


Thou- 
sands of 
pounds. 
453, 036 
402, 703 
.375, 211 
293,003 
207, 148 
219, 618 
215, 033 
159,878 
142,285 
219, 298 
220, 915 
220,846 
223,790 

269, 542 
232,066 
162, 110 
205, 140 


$33, 397, 252 
29,466,597 
30,465,520 
27,245,296 
20,546,848 
20,348,601 
19,957,577 
16,447,8.59 
14, 144, 214 
27,167,498 
28,730,509 
37,338,634 
53,003,276 

77,949,788 
61,978,708 
32,472,988 
22,758,867 


584,239 

423,051 

349, 210 

207,542 

139, 430 

150, 100 

105, 506 

24,714 

18,376 

5,484 

21,287 

13,387 

18,213 

17,280 
69,859 
85,302 
196,533 


$42,081,170 


1907 

1908 

1909 

1910 

1911 

1912 

1913 

1914 

1915 

1916 

1917 

1918 


19,490,700 
18,674,900 
20,127,398 
20,093,200 
19,222,600 
18,327,000 
16, 762, 100 
15,665,900 
15,461,600 
17,800,600 
20,754,600 


7,946 
7,281 
7,755 
8,010 
7,693 
7,177 
6,401 
6,072 
6,244 
6,654 
7,348 


34,577,392 

29, 339, 134 

18,046,976 

12,200,1.54 

13,163,920 

8,870,075 

1, 177, 199 

647, 288 

702,847 

2, 378, 248 

949,503 

1,247,800 


Calendar year: 

1918 

1919 

1920 

1921 


23,517,600 
22, 676, 100 
22,071,100 
20,925,900 


8,111 
7, 143 
7,399 
7,058 


1,082,758 
6,439,521 
10,752,525 
11,740,570 



I Calendar years. 



IMPORTS FOR CONSUMPTION. 



Fiscal year: 

1906.... 

1907.... 

1908.... 

1909.... 

1910.... 

1911.... 

1912.... 

1913.... 

1914.... 

1915.... 

1916.... 

1917.... 

1918.... 
Calendar 
year: 

1918.... 

1919.... 

1920.... 

1921.... 



Fresh beef and veal. 



Quantity. I Value. 



Pounds. 

302,717 

8.5, lis 

264, 773 

200, 617 

949,084 

381, 809 

1,023,097 

4, 228, 764 

178. 387, 307 

184,519,708 

70, 892, 487 

15,221,229 

25,699,415 



23,441,075 
38.461,756 
50, 182, 105 
32,377,922 



$31,709 

8,828 

33, 317 

20, 977 

63,664 

23,197 

78, 559 

322,567 

15, 273, 447 

16,943,663 

7,107,638 

1,613,102 

3, 683, 772 



4, 173, 445 
6,408,081 
8, 057, 270 
3,944,728 



Duty 
col- 
lected. 



$6,054 

1,188 

4,870 

3,574 

13, 185 

5,725 

15,346 

60, .544 

55,949 



Canned and other beef and 
beef products. 



Quantity. 



Pounds. 

3,447,254 

2, 165, 536 

2, 202, 816 

5,110,967 

10,916,693 

7, 770, 768 

6,437,412 

10, 890, 156 

12,524,715 

1.5,591,021 

5,815,729 

32,345,691 

104,768.408 



! 53,453,634 

'■ 37,752,412 

2.5,403,906 

382,228 ' 5,981,507 



Value. 



$519,436 

476, 472 

351, 570 

702, 220 

1,325,194 

1, 109, 190 

863,487 

1,314,977 

2, 315, 406 

3,025,133 

1,381,416 

4, 273, 700 

22,414,040 



44, 545, C24 

7, 415, 541 

3,369,837 

406.707 



Duty 
col- 
lected. 



$66, 538 

65, 890 

45,577 

114,363 

47, 391 

63, 250 

.59,890 

44,023 

28, 105 

9,9.52 

7,870 

9,410 

141 



Live cattle. 



Num- 
ber. 



27,481 
30, 638 
89,082 
137, 078 
193. 631 
180, 463 
316,002 
423, 813 
871,. 553 
5.39,361 
447, 152 
373, 6.86 
294, 207 



Value. 



Duty 
col- 
lected. 



$405, 

429, 

1,346, 

1,853, 

2, 700, 

2,587, 

4, 486, 

6,318, 

18,666, 

17,546, 

15,342, 

13,021, 

17,801, 



928 , $107,865 

138 ' 112,475 

454 364,750 

580 499, 277 

170 ! 726,709 

972 702,338 

305 1,214,481 

467 1,764,659 

386 568,686 

085 

135 

2.59 

579 



560 353.189 '25,170,588 

1,850 642,395 .53,296,078 

6,386 379,114 27,418,604 

19,102 194,869 6,117,439 673,482 



4 united states taeiff commission. 

The Tariff Problem in Cattle and Beef. 

Tariff Act of October 3, 1913. 

Paragraph 545. Meats: Fresh beef, veal, * * * (free). 
Paragraph 619. Cattle * * * (free). 

Prior to 1910, exports of beef and cattle formed a sufficiently large- 
percentage of domestic production to enable the world market largely 
to control the domestic price level. The duties in force could not 
have been effective to any appreciable extent. After about 1910^ 
exports were so small that they may be considered somewhat in th& 
nature of "hairgain" purchases on the live-stock markets. The 
duties in force probably exerted some indirect, though slight, effecy 
by limiting imports of cattle; the production and export of beef_ 
were thus curtailed and the effect oi the world market on domestic 
prices minimized. But the fact that the United States went on an 
import basis in 1913 indicates that a duty on cattle and beef then 
would have been effective. It should be noted, however, that| 
because of the interchangeability of beef and pork, and the fact that| 
the United States has always exported large amounts of pork anf 
pork products, no duty on cattle and beef can be 100 per cent effective 
while these heavy exports continue.^ 

During the war years, particularly after 1916, the scarcity of ship- 
ping placed a premium on North American beef supplies. Three toj 
six times as much beef could be sent to Europe within a given time as 
from Argentina or Australasia. Domestic prices therefore rose greatly, 
and production increased rapidly. At the same time, free entry foi 
Canadian and Mexican cattle, chiefly stockers and feeders, further! 
added to domestic production, partly through the large gains inl 
weight made by such cattle in American pastures and feed lots. The 
tariff problem in beef and cattle was forgotten, since, quite apart 
from the temporary return of the United States to an export basis; 
the market oi these years was virtually a seller's market. However, 
with the end of hostilities, rapid price declines, and liquidation of 
war-time increases in the cattle herds, the tariff problem again came 
to the front. With the return of the United States to an import 
basis, in 1920, a duty, if imposed, would naturally be effective in the 
interest of the domestic producer. This occurred under the emei 
gency tariff act.^ 

form OF IMPORTS AND EXPORTS. 

There are three forms in which beef may enter or leave the Unitec 
States: (1) Stocker and feeder cattle, (2) fat cattle; and (3) dressec 
beef. Exports from the United States have been almost exclusively 
in the form of dressed beef and fat cattle. Imports have beei 
largely in the form of live cattle from Canada and Mexico; two-thirds 
of the Canadian cattle, other than calves, have been stockers an(' 
feeders to be fattened in this country. Shipping costs eliminate 
other countries from such trade with the United States. The 
enormous corn crop in this country and the virtual absence of sucl 
grain in contiguous countries accounts for the preponderance oi 
thin cattle in our imports. 

< See p. 3. 

' See report of the U. S. Tariff Commission, The Emergency Tariff and its effect on Cattle, Becf.etc, 192 



CATTLE AND BEEF PEODUCTIOX IX THE UNITED STATES. 5 

Imports of feeder and stocker cattle compete with similar domestic 
animals, and indirectly with domestic fat animals, since thin animals 
fattened after this iniportation make a considerable addition to the 
supply of domestic beef. Such importations have a tendency to 
cheapen prices for similar domestic cattle and to widen the ''feeding 
margin.'"' The result is to encourage more extensive feeding opera- 
tions, which in turn tends to narrow the margin, and, by increasmg the 
demand for and price of feedstuffs, further to nullify the advantage of 
the slightly wider spread. There is thus a ready adjustment between 
supply and demand and a neutralization of disadvantages as between 
producers of different classes of cattle in the United States. Owing to 
the size and geographical extent of the corn and hay crops in the 
United States, there is an advantage to domestic producers of feed- 
stuffs through the entry of feeder and stocker cattle. The hides and 
other by-products derived from slaughter of these animals help to 
offset the decreasing domestic supplies of these commodities, par- 
ticularly of hides. 

Imports of fat cattle, which have come chiefly from Canada, com- 
pete directly with similar domestic animals, and mdirectly with 
domestic stockers and feeders, since the larger the imports of butcher 
animals, the less the demand for thin stock to be fattened for beef. 
Growers of corn and other feeds tuffs also are adversely affected, since 
the demand for their products is curtailed. As between fat and thin 
animals, the importation of the latter would therefore seem pref- 
erable from the farmer's point of view. 

Imports of beef have come mainly from Argentina, Canada, and 
Australasia. They have been practically negligible in amount 
because of the surplus of Canadian feeders available for fattening on 
American corn. Such imports compete with domestic producers in 
exactly the same manner as imports of fat cattle; they seem also to 
be somewhat to the disadvantage of the highly specialized and 
highly efficient slaughtering industry, which depends on maximum 
output to maintain narrow margins between first cost of fat cattle 
and wholesale prices to distributors of their products. 

EFFECT OF THE TARIFF ON FORM OF IMPORTS. 

From the foregoing, it is evident that duties upon imports of cattle 
and beef must be levied with reference to the different grades of 
cattle and with due consideration to the relation between cattle and 
dressed beef, or they may markedly affect the form in which beef 
may be imported. Should the duty bear more lightly upon imports 
of Beef, the slaughtermg industry in Canada and elsewhere would be 
favored at the expense of that in the United States, while domestic 
producers of both fat and feeder cattle would be discriminated against^ 
and cattle feeding in exporting countries would be stimulated. The 
reverse would be true if the duties were framed to favor the importa- 
tion of live cattle, particularl}' stockers and feeders. If duties were 
placed upon hides and other by-products, the balance between the 
levy on live cattle as compared with beef would also be affected. 

» Margin per 100 pounds between price paid for thin cattle and price received for fat cattle. 



■6 UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 

METHOD OF LEVYING DUTIES. 

An ad valorem duty on live animals would take care of the varying 
grades and values of cattle and, since the price of cattle bears a close 
relation to that of dressed beef, would adjust the duties with approx- 
imate justice between these two forms of imports. There are, how- 
ever, serious objections to an ad valorem duty, particularly on 
agricultural products. 

A specific duty per pound on dressed beef and on live cattle is not 
open to the fundamental objections to an ad valorem duty, and is 
readily adjusted as between fat cattle and beef. Thin cattle, how- 
ever, are worth much less per pound than fat cattle, and a flat specific 
rate that would be fair on fat cattle would discriminate against stock ers 
and feeders. Moreover, a rate which would adjust the duty on thin 
cattle to that on beef would still discriminate against stockers and 
feeders, because such a rate would be too low on fat cattle. A 
graduated specific duty on live cattle, adjusted to a specific duty on 
beef, would correct this difficulty, and could be made to approximate, 
an ad valorem duty in flexibility and justice to different classes of 
€attle. 

It has been proposed to base such a graduation on age, but age, 
while roughly correlated to weight and quality, is not a good measure 
of variations in quality, and no delimitation according to age can 
adequately differentiate between thin and fat cattle. Thus the age of 
stocker and feeder cattle imported from Canada ranges from about 
18 to 36 months, and of fat cattle from about 30 to 42 months. 
A rate on cattle less than 2 years of age and a higher rate on older 
cattle would tax most Canadian feeders at the same rate per pound 
as fat cattle. On the other hand, a graduation according to weight 
will readily differentiate between fat and thin cattle likely to be 
imported from Canada or Mexico for a number of years to come, since, 
broadly speaking, differences in weight are chiefly responsible for 
variations in quality and value per pound of imported cattle. 

As an illustration of the difference in value per 100 pounds on the 
Chicago market from 1910 to 1916, inclusive, stockers and feeders 
averaged 26 per cent cheaper per 100 pounds than native beef steers. 
Stockers and feeders as a class, therefore, should be taxed at approx- 
imately 75 per cent of the rate applied to fat cattle. Stockers appear 
to have averaged about 15 per cent cheaper than feeders during 
recent years, and if a further division were to be made, feeders should 
be taxed at approximately 80 per cent of the rate on fat cattle, and 
stockers at 70 per cent. With reference to graduations according to 
weight, a fair dividing line between imported fat and thin cattle is 
1,050 to 1,100 pounds. If a further division were made, feeders may 
properly be considered those which weigh from about 750 pounds to 
1,099 pounds, fat cattle 1,100 pounds or over, and stockers those 
which weigh less than 750 pounds. 

Since imports of live cattle, particularly stockers and feeders, are 
more desirable from the standpoint of the cattle industry than im- 
ports of dressed beef, duties which may be levied on hides and tallow 
might be largely or entirely neglected in adjusting the rate on beef 
to that on live cattle. Thus a duty of 2 cents per pound on fresh 
beef would be approximately paralleled by 1.1 cents per pound on 
fat cattle and 0.8 of a cent per pound on feeders and stockers, or 0.85 



CATTLE AND BEEF PRODUCTION IN THE UNITED STATES. 7 

of a cent on feeders and 0.75 of a cent on stockers. With some 
allowance for a duty on hides, a duty of 3.5 cents on fresh beef would 
correspond to about 2 cents on fat cattle and 1.5 cents on stockers and 
feeders, or 1.6 cents on feeders and 1.4 cents on stockers. With no 
allowance for a duty on hides, a duty of 3.5 cents per pound on beef 
would correspond to a duty of 1.9 cents per pound on fat cattle and 
1.4 cents on stockers and feeders, or 1.5 cents on feeders and 1.3 cents 
on stockers. 

The Cattle Industry of the United States. 

dairying and beef production. 

The two great divisions of cattle raising in the United States are 
for the production of beef and of dairy products. These branches 
of the industry differ in respect to marketable products and in meth- 
ods of management. Dairying is most important in the thickly 
populated regions north of the Potomac and Ohio Rivers and east 
of the Missouri River, with the centers of the industry conforming 
roughly to the chief centers of population. It is an intensive indus- 
try as compared with the extensive methods of beef raising, especially 
when the latter is carried on under range conditions. Dairying is 
beset with special problems which are unrelated to the production of 
beef, and which, therefore, will not be considered here.** The follow- 
ing table gives a statistical comparison of the two branches. Because 
of adjustments necessitated by changes in the dates when the several 
censuses were taken, the figures in Table 2 should be viewed only as 
rough approximations. 

Table 2. — Milch cores and other cattle {except calves) ' in the United States, 1900-1920, 

[From Federal Census.] 



Total cattle 
(except 
calves). 



other cattle (except calves). 



Milch cows. 



Total. 



Beef cows 

(cows other 

than "mill h 

cows"). 



1900 52, 407, 000 

1910 52, 494, 000 

1920 ". I 51, 275, 000 



17, 136, 000 

1 18, 150, 000 

19, 672, 000 



35,271,000 

1 34, 344, 000 

31, 603, 000 



11,559,000 
12, 024, 000 
12, 644, 000 



' The census of 1910 includes dairy cows over 15J months old: the censuses of 1900 and 1920 include 2-year- 
olds and over. To make the figures comparable,' 2,473,000 animals have therefore been deducted from the 
number of dairy cows in 1910 and added to ''other cattle.'' A further adjustment is necessitated by the 
fact that the census of 1900 was taken as of Tune 1, that of 1910 as of Apr. 15, and that of 1920 as of Jan. 1. 
From the "other calMe " in 1910 a deduction of one and one-half million has been made to allow for slaughter 
between Apr. 15 and June 1 to make the figures more nearly comparable with those for 1900. No deduc- 
tion has been made from 1920 figures to allow for slaughter and loss between Jan. 1 and June 1, the requisite 
data therefor being lacking. The above adjustments are based largely on data supplied by the U. S. De- 
partment of Agriculture. 

PERIOD OF TRANSITION IN THE BEEF INDUSTRY. 

The raising of beef cattle was greatly stimulated by the opening 
of the West, by subsequent developments in transportation facilities, 
and the growth of the meat-packing industry. In 1870 the number 



8 See survey of U. S. Tariff Commission, Dairy Products, for a study of the conditions of production and 
foreign competition in these products. 



« UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 

of ''cattle, other than calves and milch cows," was 13,566,005; in 
1890, it was 33,734,128; and in 1900 the peak was reached with 
35,271,000. During this period the number of milch cows increased 
much more slowly— from 8,935,332 in 1870 to 17,135,633 in 1900. 
Changes which occurred thereafter represented prhnarily readjust- 
ments to local conditions, except as more or less regional homestead- 
ing deprived cattlemen of range formerly used at will. In such parts 
of the great prairie sections as were adapted to crop production, 
ranching methods of cattle raising gave way to cereal production, 
and to some extent to a combination of crop husbandry with dairying 
or beef and pork production. These readjustments, however, left the 
relatively sparsely settled trans-Mississippi country as the beef sur- 
plus region of the United States. In general, the area east of the 
Mississippi constitutes the beef deficiency region and furnishes a 
market for the western surplus. Although population has increased 
during the past decade relatively faster in the West, the absolute 
increase east of the Mississippi has been twice as large. The beef- 
production status of the two regions has not been altered. 

The mere existence, prior to 1914, of substantial protective tariffs 
upon beef and cattle, it should be noted, was no more of a factor in 
the development of the industry until 1900 than it was in the subse- 
quent decline from 1907 to 1914; just as the removal of the tariff in 
1914 was not the cause of the great increase m production and 
exports during the war. It by no means follows, however, that 
import duties will not be of much more substantial effect now that 
the United States is virtually a beef deficiency country. The beef 
industry of the United States, both on the range and in the farming 
States, has been undergoing a period of transition. It is largely the 
familiar transition which has occurred or is in progress in all the 
newer countries. The pastoral type of production is a frontier 
industry, and is steadily relegated to regions whose physical limita- 
tions, except locally, render crop production unprofitable. In the 
farming regions it gives way to wheat and other grains; and these in 
turn usually yield to mixed farming, wherein crop husbandry is com- 
bined with one or more forms of live stock production. Substan- 
tially the same changes are in progress m Canada, Argentina, and 
Australasia. The foUowmg outline of the tariff problems treats 
briefly of the conditions of domestic production on range and farm, 
the character and geographic distribution of the decline, and the 
possibilities of renewed expansion. 

Between 1900 and 1920 the population of the United States increased 
more than 39 per cent. During the same period the number of dairy-j 
cows increased from 17,136,000 in 1900 to 19,672,000 in 1920, or 1,' 
per cent. In beef cattle there appears to have been an absolute 
decline in numbers, from 35,271,000 in 1900 to 31,602,000 in 1920. 
However, this numerical decline really was less than the figures indicate.^ 
The earlier census was taken as of June 1 and the later one as of 
January 1. Between January and June several million cattle were 
butchered and many died; these losses, however, were more than 
offset by animals which were reported as calves in December, but 
which would be classed as yearlings in June. Had the census of 1920 
been taken as of June 1 the number of beef cattle would probably 
have been almost as large as in 1910. As the number of beef cows 
ncreased slightly between 1900 and 1920, despite the apparent reduc- 



CATTLE AND BEEF PRODUCTION IN THE UNITED STATES. 



9 



tion in the total number of beef cattle, the probable declme, therefore, 
was ill steers and surplus females and not in the breeding stock. 

In connection with the reduction in the number of beef cattle during 
the census period 1910 and 1920, it should be remembered that this 
decline occurred between 1910 and 1914; subsequently the war caused 
a strong reaction. The census of January 1, 1920, therefore, records 
the numbers at the close of this war period. A better indication of 
the fluctuations in the beef supply is afforded by statistics of annual 
slaughter and production of beef and veal. 

The declme in beef cattle after 1900 was accompanied not only by an 
expansion m specialized dairying but also by a further development 
of combined dairymg and beef production in herds in which it often 
would be difficult to determme which phase was the more important. 
This development was especially pronounced west of the Allegheny 
Mountams. A partial abandonment of cattle breeding also took place 
in parts of the Middle and Central West, where producers frequently 
preferred to buy western cattle for fattening to raising young stock 
on their relatively high-priced land. Others changed from breeding 
to the grazing of purchased cattle, or sometimes to a combination 
of grazing and winter feeding. More recently, however, some pro- 
ducers have not been satisfied with the quality of purchased feeder 
I limals and have again begun to breed and raise beef calves. 

PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION OF BEEF SINCE 1907. 

Strict comparison of the number of cattle, it has been seen, is not 
possible because of changes in classification and dates of the censuses. 
Fluctuations in supply are better indicated by the number of cattle 
slaughtered each year and the quantity of dressed beef and veal 
produced than by census figures for live animals. Table 3 is of 
special interest in this connection. 

Table 3. — Annual slaughter and the production and consumption of beef and veal, 

1907-1921.^ 





Animals slaugh- 
tered .2 


Production of— 


Consumption of— 


Per capita con- 
sumption of— 


Calendar year. 


Beeves. 


Calves. 


Beef. 


Veal. 


Beef .3 


Veal. 


Beef. 


Total 

beef and 

veal. 


1907 


Thousand 
head. 
13,470 
12,845 
13,611 
13,541 
12,958 
11,979 
11,478 
11,005 
10,822 
12,027 
13,724 
15,750 
13,635 
12,848 
12,271 


Thousand 
head. 
6,027 
5,830 
6,516 
6,553 
6,265 
6,348 
5,285 
4,661 
4,640 
5,774 
7,031 
7,767 
9,041 
9,223 
8,655 


Million 
pounds. 
7,319 
6,676 
7,071 
6,733 
6.497 
5,920 
5,913 
5,639 
5,816 
6,118 
6,686 
7,320 
6,2,s;} 
6,463 
6,194 


Million 
pounds. 
626 
605 
684 
687 
657 
668 
488 
433 
428 
536 
662 
791 
860 
936 
888 


Million 
pounds. 
6,%7 
6,448 
6,908 
6,623 
6,405 
5,864 
5,902 
5,797 
5,542 
5,854 
6,335 
6,717 
6,022 
6,498 
6,223 


Million 
pounds. 
626 
605 
684 
687 
657 
668 
488 
438 
429 
537 
663 
792 
865 
944 
892 


Pounds. 
79.7 
72.4 
76.2 
71.8 
68.4 
61.7 
60.8 
58.9 
55.7 
58.1 
62.0 
64.8 
57.3 
61.1 
57.7 


Pounds. 
86.8 


1908 


79.2 


1909 


83.7 


1910 


79.2 


1911 


75.4 


1912 


68.7 


1913 


65.8 


1914 


63.3 


1915 


60.0 


1916 


63.4 


1917 


68.5 


1918 


72.4 


1919 


65.5 


1920 


70.0 


1921 


66.0 







1 Meat Production, Consumption, and Foreign Trade in the United States, 1907-1920, compiled by John 
Roberts, Bureau of Animal Industry, U. S. Department of Agriculture. 

2 Includes Federally inspected animals and estimates of fa,rm and other slaughter. 

3 Domestic production less net export or plus net imports of beef, for 1920 and 1921, includes differ- 
•ences between stocks on hand at beginning and end of the year. 



10 UjSTited states tariff commission. 

The production of beef and veal declined from 7,945,000,000 
pounds in 1907 to 6,072,000,000 in 1914, a reduction of 1,873,000,000 
. pounds, or 24 per cent. During the same period the slaughter of 
beeves declined from 13,470,000 to 11,004,500, a loss of over 18 per 
cent. The slaughter of calves declined nearly 23 per cent. In 
response to the extraordinary demands for beef during the World 
War, the number of beef cattle increased rapidly. In 1918 the record 
number of 15,750,000 cattle and 7,767,000 calves were slaughtered. 
This heavy slaughter somewhat depleted the resources of the pro- 
ducers, and with the falling away of the export and domestic demand 
after the war only 12,848,000 beeves were slaughtered in 1920. In 
that year the production of beef and veal was only 22 per cent 
above that of 1914. It is noteworthy that the slaughter of calves 
in 1919 and 1920, nearly 50 per cent greater than in 1910, was the 
largest on record; and this slaughter, amounting to 9,041,000 and 
9,223,000 head, in itself indicates a substantial liquidation of the 
war-time increase in cattle and a quick return to pre-war levels of 
production. 

In the consumption of beef a striking reduction has occurred.. 
From 6,967,000,000 pounds in 1907 there was a drop to 5,542,000,000 
in 1915; i. e., of 1,425,000,000 pounds, or 20 per cent.' Partly 
because of the high prices of beef relative to the price of other food- 
stuffs and partly because of the increases in population the per 
capita consumption of beef and veal declined even more markedly 
than production — from 86.8 pounds per capita to 60.0, or 31 per 
cent, during this nine-year period.^*' The high wages and general 
prosperity of the war period resulted temporarily in a larger con- 
sumption, but that of 1920 amounted to little more than the 1915 
consumption. The domestic beef consumption, therefore, is very 
elastic; high prices of beef and veal relative to other foodstuffs are 
likely to result in a materially diminished demand. As yet the per 
capita consumption of the United States is considerably higher than 
that of the principal importing nations. 

In connection with production and consumption of beef and veal 
it should be noted that veal is predominantly a secondary product 
of the dairy industry. The production of veal amounts to onlj^ 10 
per cent of that of beef; nearly two- thirds of the calves, as against 
only one-third of the beeves, are butchered in uninspected slaughter- 
houses — that is, the animals have been kiUed for local or intrastate 
consumption. The relatively small imports, largely in the form of 
live calves, are almost exclusively of Canadian origin. Since veal 
is a by-product of the dairy industry, which is one of the major 
agricultural activities in the United States, large quantities will 
always be available from American dairy herds. Moreover, dairy 
cows, as a rule, eventually find their way to the killers. Here, there- 
fore, is a further large source of beef. The beef and veal yielded as 
a by-product of the dairy industry may roughly be estimated at 
between 1,500,000,000 and 2,000,000,000 pounds, or about one- 
fourth of the total production. Owing to the importance of dairying, 
in the United States, this meat production as a by-product of dairy- 
ing might seem to be less directly affected by a tariff" on beef. The 
slow but steady growth of dairying during the past 20 years also 

' The diflerence between decline in production as compared with decline in consumption is accounte(i 
for by a change from a net export to a net import basis for beef and veal after 1912. 
i« See Table 3, p. 9. 



CATTLE AND BEEF PKODUCTIOX IX THE UXITED STATES. 11 

indicates that this form of beef production will become of still greater 
importance in the domestic supply. However, it can not properly 
be dissociated from other forms of meat production or from the 
tariff problem connected therewith. 

SYSTEMS OF MANAGEMENT. 

Beef cattle are raised in the United States under two general sys- 
tems of management. One is found in the farming' States east of 
the range country. The other prevails in the far West " and Texas, 
and in a modified form on unfenced or only partly fenced mountain 
pastures and ''boundaries" in the Appalachian region. 

Farming regions. — Under the first system many farmers in and 
around the Corn Belt either breed beef animals, largely to be retained 
on their own farms until ready for shipment to market for slaughter, 
or fatten the feeders and stockers purchased from the range States 
or from less favored near-by areas. Thus in certain hilly areas of 
the farmmg States, both east and west of the Mississippi River, it is 
more advantageous to sell the bulk of the cattle as calves, or as 
feeders at from 1^ to 2^ years of age. 

. Farm-bred cattle may be the offspring of strictly beef dams, or they 
may be bred in herds which also produce milk and butter. Those 
not sold as calves or as feeders may be fattened on grain, usually 
during their first -or second winter, and disposed of as baby beeves, 
or as fat steers at slightly over 2 years of age, or they may be sold 
in butchering condition from grass in the fall, generally as "long" 
2-year-olds. Formerly many were disposed of at about 3 years of 
age after being fattened on grain during the winter, or as "long" 3- 
year-olds from pasture, but the rise in price of feeds, pasture, labor, 
and value of the land during the past few years has discouraged the 
keeping of cattle to advanced ages and their feeding to more than 
moderate weights. Disposal of the cattle as baby beeves at about 
15 months of age has increased considerably during the past 10 years 
because of a marked increase m demand for relatively small cuts of 
tender, well finished beef. This demand has come principally from 
dwellers in the cities. In consequence of this tendency to market 
cattle at lighter weights there has been a reduction in the beef 
supply that is not indicated in the dimmution of the number slaugh- 
tered, but which is suggested by the greater percentage decline in 
production of beef as compared with the decrease in domestic 
slaughterings. 

Cattle bred on the farms furnish a ready market for grass, grain, 
and roughage. They also convert straw mto manure and provide 
winter work for farm labor. A large part of the financial return is 
due to the marketing of feed in the form of beef and pork at what, 
under favorable conditions, are better than farm prices for the 
feeds used.^- It should be noted, too, that bab}^ beeves, and corn- 
fed cattle not finished to too great a weight, command much higher 
prices per 100 pounds than does the bulk of the western stock. 

" Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, New Mexico and westward, as well as western Kansas, Nebraska, and 
the Dakotas. 

'^ It has been estimated that 19 per cent of the corn. 13 per cent of the oats, 12 per cent of the barley, .5 per 
cent ol the rye, 6 per cent of the wneat, 51 per cent of the hay, and 97 per cent of the silage produced in the 
United States each year are fed to cattle. A large part of these amounts is fed to dairy cows and to thin 
animals purchased for fattening. Yearbook, I'. S. Department of Agriculture, 1918, p. 676; 1919, p. 729. 

6303—22 2 



12 UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 

Range cattle. — The other system of producing beef cattle prevails 
in the arid or semiarid range States, and in the rough Appalachian 
region. Under this system the cattle are run on relatively low priced 
land or on the open public range. In Texas and the Southwest, as 
well as in more favorable areas to the northward, the animals are 
rarely given any feed except in periods of drought. On the central 
and northern ranges in general, however, considerable winter feeding, 
mainly with hay, is necessary to bring the herds through in good 
condition. The quantity fed depends on the season and the amount 
available. In an open winter on semiarid ranges, where water is 
plentiful during the cold season, very little feeding may be necessary. 
In the northern Great Plains area — -east of the Rockies and west of 
about the one hundredth meridian— large numbers of cattle are kept 
by homesteaders who use adjacent public range, when it is available, 
in connection with their own land. 

With the increase in the price of cattle and costs of operation 
during the past 15 years, range cattle, whether for fattening purposes 
or for slaughter, are now marketed usually as "long" 2 and 3 year 
olds, in order to obtain a quicker turnover of capital. Formerly 
they were shipped mainly as 3 and 4 year olds. Here, as in the farm- 
ing regions, is a loss in the beef supply beyond that indicated by a 
reduction in number butchered, except as better breeding has offset 
this and given equal weights at younger ages. 

A part of the national forest and some of the -other range lands, 
when not too closely grazed, furnish sufficiently good summer 
grazing to turn off each autumn a substantial number of cattle fat 
enough for the killers. But the cattle, in large part, leave the range 
country each fall in only a fair to good feeder condition. The per- 
centage of fat and thin stock varies appreciably from year to year- 
according to climate and the quality of the pasture. The animals 
that leave the ran^e too thin for immediate slaughter are purchased 
for fattening mainly by farmers in the Corn Belt. These "feeder" 
animals may be kept from 60 days to 12 months, though four or five 
months is the approximate limit on full feed. When they are 
retained more than about six months, pasture becomes a progres- 
sively important factor in their maintenance, and they are more 
apt to be sold from grass rather than from the feed lot. 

Cattle in the South. — South of Kentucky and Tennessee the cattle 
industry was, for many years, greatly retarded by the Texas fever 
tick. Coincident with the prevalence of this pest, the boll weevil 
was extending eastward and northward. The cleaning up of most 
tick-infested areas has progressed with sufficient rapidity to permit 
cattle to replace cotton to some extent in weevil-infested areas. 
The number of cattle has therefore tended to increase somewhat, 
since tick eradication resulted in a broader market for cattle. Much 
improvement has also been made in quality. But the large amount 
of labor formerly used in cotton growing can be advantageously 
diverted to peanut production. A large proportion of the peanuts 
are harvested by hogs. The turnover on capital investment is 
more rapid under such a system than is remotely possible with 
cattle. Cattle raising has therefore met with severe competition 
from the peanut and the hog outside of areas where the land is 
well adapted to the better pasture grasses. In cut-over areas cattle 
have been able to meet this competition. In such localities there 



CATTLE AND BEEF PEODUCTIOX IjST THE UNITED STATES. 



13 



are large areas of cheap grazing which are used by stockmen who 
sometimes have httle or no investment in such land, and who pay- 
only a nominal rental, or none at all.^^ 



GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTIOX OF DECLINE. 

The two phases of beef production — on the farm and on the range — 
are of nearly equal importance, because many of the animals finished 
in the farm States are raised on the range. Of the total number 
of cattle hides tanned each year, one-half are from branded cattle, 
i. e., from animals which were calved in the range region, where 
ownership is indicated by branding.^'* Table 4 affords an indication 
of the relative importance of the range and farm States with respect 
to cattle raising. This table shows the trend only. 

Table 4. — Number of cattle, excluding milch cows, on hand January 1, 1907-1921.^ 

[000 omitted.) 





1907 


1914 


1919 


1921 


Region. 


Numher. 


Per 
cent of 
change. 


Number. 


Per 
cent of 
change. 


Numher. 


Per 
cent of 
change. 


Number. 


The East 2 


2,851 
6,845 
14,333 
11,189 
16,348 


-23 
-17 
-32 

-47 
-25 


2,209 
5,704 
9,713 
5,925 
12,304 


+11 
+29 
+20 
+51 
+ 19 


2,443 
7,366 

11,6&3 
8,917 

14,676 


-3 

-2 

-2 

-14 

-4 


2,381 


The South » 


7,224 


The Middle West < 


11.444 


The Central West ^ 


7,744 


Far West and Texas 


14,077 








Total, United States 


51,566 


-30 


35,855 


+26 


45,085 -5 


42,870 



" Annual estimates, Yearbooks, U. S. Department of Agriculture, 1907, 1914, 1919, and 1921. 

2 Maine to the Potomac River. 

3 Potomac and Ohio Rivers southward, including Arkansas. 
* Ohio to Missouri and north to Canada. 

5 The Dakotas, NeVjraska, Kansas, and Oklahoma. 

After 1907 the decline in the beef herds was general ^ — in the Middle 
West, 32 per cent; in the Central West, 47 per cent; and in the Far 
West and Texas 25 per cent. Thus the most noteworthy reductions 
occurred in the new farming sections, that is, on the prairies of the 
Middle and Central West. On the range the decrease m numbers was 
almost as large, although the percentage of decrease was less. By 
1919, at the close of the reaction which had set in during the war, the 
greatest expansion had taken place in the South, Middle West, and 
Central West. The greatest numerical gains had occurred in the two 
regions last named, where the previous decline had been greatest. 
Only in the southern division, however, did the number of head in 
January, 1919, the year which marked the highest level of the war- 
time expansion, equal or exceed the figures for 1907. Lastly, the 
liquidation of the war-time increase appears to have been most 
prominent in the Central West, where the most striking changes had 

w This grazing is cheap in the per acre charge; per head of animal grazed it is often little, if any, cheaper 
than good pasture land. 

" The Producer, October, 1921, p. 11. 

'* In the annual estimates there is always a tendency to exaggerate decreases; yet the curtailment of the 
herds was rapid enough to attract widespread attention. The increases, likewise, are apt to be overesti- 
mated, but the war-time growth of the mdustry was one of the outstanding phenomena of those years. 
The statistics of the number of "cattle other than" milch cows," it should again be noted, are indicative only 
of the trend : so far as the actual beef production is concerned, a much more accurate record appears in Table 
3, p. 9. 



14 



XJNTTED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION". 



previously occurred. It seems probable, however, that a part of this 
increase in the Central West may be permanent. Rapid homesteading 
in this region after 1907 at first greatly reduced the range herds, but 
the high prices of the war years undoubtedly led many settlers to 
adopt cattle as .a permanent rather than as an opportunist or tem- 
porary enterprise. The dry years immediately preceding 1914 and 
the hardships they imposed on those who did not supplement crops 
with live stock, appear to have had some effect in stimulating the 
adoption of cattle as a permanent enterprise in subhumid areas. 

The large expansion during the war period resulted in a striking 
increase in our exports of beef and veal, indicating the potentialities 
of the industry under the stimulus of high prices or under the stress 
of national emergency. However, the expansion may be attributed 
in part to an export buying that disregarded the abnormal advances 
in price. The shipping situation, moreover, placed a premium upon 
North American supplies, particularly as against those of Australasia. 

Table 5 shows the increases in the acreage of wheat and hay, and 
in number of live stock, between 1914 and 1920. Despite the growing 
shortage of farm labor, there was a material increase in the area of 
most grain crops, particularly of wheat and hay. Yet live stock 
in general, and cattle in particular, also made pronounced gains. 
This was made possible through a much fuller use of roughages and 
through reductions in the exports of oil cake, coarse grains, and other 
feedstuffs. 

Table 5. — Number of cattle (exclusive of calves and dairy cows), sheep (of breeding age), 
hogs, and acreage of wheat and hay, ^ 1900-1920. 

[000 omitted.] 



Area and cortunodity. 



1900 



1910 



1919-1920 



United States: 

Cattle number. . 

Sheep do 

Hogs do 

Wheat acreage. . 

Hay do 

Middle West: 

Cattle number. . 

Sheep do 

Hogs do 

Wheat acreage. . 

Hay do 

Central West: 

Cattle number. . 

Sheep do . . . 

Hogs do... 

Wheat acreage. 

Hay do. . . 

Far West and Te.xas: 

Cattle number. 

Sheep do. . . 

Hogs do... 

Wheat acreage. 

Hay do... 



35, 268 
39, 853 
62, 868 
52, 589 
39, 133 



8,710 

8,581 

31, 737 

20, 718 

13, 900 



7,348 
1,523 
9,323 
16, 059 
7,252 



12,251 
23, 666 
4,127 
6,614 
5,311 



34, 345 
39, 644 

58, 186 
44, 263 

45,744 



2 28, 820 

2 35, 998 

58, 933 

53, 541 

49, 145 



9,290 

8,873 

27, 965 

12, 859 

20, 189 



7,810 

7,022 

27, 813 

15, 432 

19, 021 



6,691 
1,235 
9,616 
21, 212 
5,009 



4,765 
1,365 
8,397 
25, 607 
4,500 



12, 571 
24, 667 
4,168 
4,969 
4,913 



9,900 
23, 452 
4,889 
6,538 
8,680 



31, 602 
2 36, 753 
72, 909 
73, 243 
56, 348 



8,082 

7,783 

35, 765 

21, 491 

21, 606 



6,514 
1,680 
8,134 
31, 263 
5,796 



10, 980 
22, 850 
5,006 
12, 109 
18, 816 



> Census figures 1900 and 1910, revised as in Table 3 (see p. 9). Census figures for cattle in 1920. All other 
figures are estimates, including hay for 1899 and 1909, owing to census inclusion of forage crops with hay, 
and to large areas of wild hay west of the Mississippi River. Both these items are largely excluded in 
U. S. Department of Agriculture estimates. 

« U. S. Department of Agriculture estimates revised for comparability with census figures. 

• Adverse weather at sowing time caused pronounced decrease in wheat area in 1909. 



CATTLE AiSTD BEEF PRODUCTION IN THE UNITED STATES. 15 

CAUSES OF REDUCTION IN THE BEEF SUPPLY. 

It is clear that abnormal conditions were responsible for the expan- 
sion of the industry between 1915 and 1918. That the forces which 
reduced beef production prior to 1915 are again in operation is indi- 
cated by the unprecedented slaughter of calves during 1919 and 1920/® 
the subsequent reduction in the number of beef cattle on farms and 
ranges, and the diminishing production of beef. The im.port balance, 
moreover, reappeared in 1920 and 1921. To what extent may import 
duties offset these adverse forces f 

The decline, prior to 1915, occurred in the range States as well as 
in the farming districts. On the range, homesteading, overstocking, 
and the operation of the land laws account for the decline; in the 
farming sections other uses of the land were found more profitable 
than beef production. On both range and farm the practice of pro- 
ducing lighter cattle has been a contributing factor. 

In the pastoral regions, the encroachment of farm crops, or an 
attempt to grow them, was one cause of the decline prior to 1915. 
Before the enactment of the 640-acre grazing homestead act of 1916 
homesteading in the semiarid regions west of the Missouri proceeded 
apace after earlier experiences with years of drought were forgotten. 
More recently large areas have been alienated for grazing homesteads 
under this act. Between 1900 and 1920 the area of unappropriated 
and unreserved pubhc lands decreased from 917,135,000 to 200,000,000 
acres. It does not necessarily follow that the coming of the small 
farmer or cattle grower permanently reduces the number of cattle 
in the range States, but temporarily at least the change from range 
to farm conditions almost inevitably reduces the number of live stock. 

Homesteading has involved a loss beyond that consecpent upon 
the reduction of the range. It has crowded stockmen into semiarid 
areas already stocked to capacity or has forced them to reduce their 
herds or to go out of business. Owing to the breaking up of the 
range, the cattlemen who remained often have found it harder to 
use the portions available for free grazing, since cattle, unlike sheep, 
are not herded and can not readily be directed to the best feed- 
ing grounds. A large percentage of the homesteaders plowed up the 
native grasses in order to grow grain under dry-farming conditions. 
They enjoyed only moderate success during favorable years, and dur- 
ing dry seasons failures were frec{uent. Only too often such settlers 
not only made it difficult for stockmen to use the adjoining range, 
but were themselves unable to finance the procurement of small 
bunches of live stock to graze it. The land filed upon under the 
640-acre homestead act, for instance, is suited only for grazing. But 
it consists in large part of units lying between desert or winter ranges 
and summer grazing areas. Such grazing usually is vitally needed 
by neighboring stockmen for use in the spring before summer areas 
are ready or in the" fall prior to the passage of the cattle to winter 
range. Entry thereon has forced many stockmen to go out of busi- 
ness or to curtail operations until the lands are patented. Eventually 
a large percentage of these homesteads will pass into the hands of 
stockmen or live-stock companies able to survive the present crisis 
and get control of funds or credit to permit such purchase. An ad- 
vance in meat prices obviously should enable the smaller stockmen 

"See Table 3, p. 9. 



16 UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 

to compete with the large, well-financed companies in the purchase of 
these lands and to assist in the stabilization of the industry. 

Further loss in the beef supply because of the reduced carrying 
capacity of the range has resulted from overcrowding and unregu- 
lated grazing upon the public domain. Authorities estimate that 
this loss may conservatively be figured at 25 per cent. Not only 
can the range carry fewer cattle, but there has also been a loss in 
their quality and weight. ^^ 

Upon most of the conditions outlined above import duties can 
have only an indirect influence, at least in the essentially pastoral 
areas. To the farming regions import duties are of more direct im- 
portance. While the changes noted above were in progress in the 
range region there was an appreciable decline in the breeding of beef 
cattle in well-developed sections of the Central West and also in 
parts of the Middle West. Dairying, hog, and crop production to a 
considerable extent displaced cattle raising. As land values rose, 
many producers purchased feeder cattle instead of breeding them; 
others combined beef production with dairying; and still others, con- 
cluding that more profit was to be made from the sale of crops, 
turned to farming and ceased raising cattle of any sort, except inci- 
dentally to consume roughage and surplus coarse grains. In the 
farming sections, then, import duties may serve as a more sub- 
stantial corrective. Here there is little question that such duties 
will stimulate production, but in some measure this expansion would 
merely involve a shift from one form of production to another. A 
further increase might result from a more intensive production, based 
in part on more complete use of rough lands and rough feeds. Gains 
by either method are, of course, subject to the reduced demand for 
beef which high prices usually effect, 

A distinction should here be made between short and long term 
causes. Temporarily, there is a world surplus (1921-22). The 
impaired purchasing power of Europe and the war-time increases in 
production in exporting countries have disastrously affected the 
domestic and the world market. But the outstanding facts in the 
world's beef trade are that consumption is everywhere overtaking 
supply with a downward tendency in per capita consumption; that 
the exporting nations contribute only a small percentage of the inter- 
national requirements, and that no immediate increase in their 
surplus is to be anticipated. In short, the state of the world's de- 
mand and supply is such as to maintain, in the long run, the more 
expensively produced American product, as well as that of the export- 
ing countries. There may, however, be a lengthy interval between 
present and normal conditions; it is conditions at the present time 
(1922) that are causing grave concern on the part of domestic pro- 
ducers. 

POSSIBILITY OF EXPANSION. 

Future increases in the domestic production of beef are chiefly 
contingent upon settlement of the land problem, range improvement, 
and remunerative prices. The first two primarily concern the area 
west of the one hundredth meridian; the third affects the industry 
throughout continental United States. 

" Pasture ranges which formerly supported 3,200,000 cattle now carry only 640,000 head; in 30 years 
the carryinji capacity of the range has been much reduced. (V. S. Department of Agriculture Bui. 72. 
See also, Yearbook, Department of Agriculture, 191.5, p. 299 ff.) 



CATTLE AND BEEF PRODUCTION IN THE UNITED STATES. 17 

The land question is as pressing upon the cattlemen as upon the 
sheepmen. ^^ After the lands are patented stockmen able to survive 
will largely increase their holdings through purchase, since many of 
the homesteaders imdoubtedly will fail to make a permanent home 
and will patent for sale to range users. Unless the smaller stockmen 
survive, it is the strong cattle companies, with abundant resources 
that will absorb these small units and thus tend further to defeat the 
purpose of the homestead act. Many homesteaders on 320-acre 
units have already disposed of their land in this manner. vSuch 
amalgamation of holdings has taken place on a large scale in the sand 
hills of Nebraska, on lands that were homesteaded in 640-acre units 
under the Kinkaid Act; sales of lands already patented under the 
grazing homestead act have also begun. This concentration of 
ownership will make for stability in use of the land, warrant expend- 
itures for water development and other improvements, and will 
make range improvement practicable, particularly where land can 
be secured in sufficiently large areas to warrant fencing. 

Range improvement as a means of expansion in the cattle industry 
is equally as important as stabilization in use of the land. In the 
national forest reserves striking increases have been achieved in the 
carrying capacity of the ranges. These indicate that notable im- 
provements may generally be effected after enough of the land has 
passed into private ownership to give individuals substantially com- 
plete control of given areas, assuming that the value of such better- 
ment and the best methods for its attamment are fully realized by 
the stock raisers. Little can be done on the uncontrolled public 
range, since it is used by many ranchers and all users would have to 
agree on the policy to be pursued. If portions of the grazing were 
spared by some, the results would generally be nullified by others. 
On the remaining open range. Federal control, similar to that exer- 
cised in the forest reserves, would yield much quicker results and 
stimulate like work by ranchers. Immediate betterments of this 
nature are believed essential to the maintenance of the existing 
carrying capacity of the range. 

Both these aids — settlement of the land problem and range im- 
provement — probably are matters of the more or less distant future. 
That of remunerative prices is more immediate, if much of the war-time 
gain is to be maintained, possibly even if herds are to be maintained at 
pre-war figures. Although the prices of cattle have dropped to pre- 
war levels, costs of labor, fencing, freight rates, interest charges, and 
the prices of the products the producer buys have not correspond- 
ingly decreased. It is true that large quantities of beef and veal 
will always be produced in the United States. Millions of acres of 
pasture land in the farming States and still larger areas of range can 
only be used for live-stock production. ^^ Large quantities of beef 

isSee report of U. S. Tariff Commission, The Wool-Growing Industry, 1921, ch. 8. 

•9 See EmplojTnent and Natural Resources, Office of the Secretary, Department of Labor, 1919, p. 51 ff. 
Also Yearbook^ Department of Agriculture, 1915, p. 299 ff., and Bulletin 626, Department of Agriculture, 
1918. Of slightly over 1,0()0,000,000 acres (or 53. S per cent of the total area of continental United States) 
reported as not in farms in 1910, three-fifths (6l2,n()(),000 acres) were in the Mountain and Coast States. Of 
tms fraction, 52 per cent (390,000,000 acres) was land suitable only for grazing or which could be used to 
some extent for grazing purposes. There was an additional 1 2(5, 000, 000 acres of such land east of the 
Moimtain States and largely west of the one hundredth meridian. Of the total land in farms (S7S, 738,325 
acres), 33 per cent (291,439,.')15 acres) was reported as improved and unimproved pasture. Of this portion 
approximately 60 per cent lay east of the one hundredth meridian. With the exception of land pastured 
in rotation, stock raismg is the only use to which most of this land can ever be put. The bulk of the land 
east of the one hundredth meridian which was reported as not in farms consisted of timber, cut-over, and 
swamp lands, a part of which was used for grazing. A much larger part can be used for that purpose. 



18 UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 

and veal will also be available as a by-product of dairying.^" But if 
the industry is not profitable, cattlemen and farmers will curtail their 
herds. They will stock their farms and ranches only with the number 
of cattle that they can carry through the winter at least cost for labor 
and dry feed, with the idea that the pasture area will then carry 
this reduced number better and for a longer part of the year, and 
will thus further cheapen winter costs. In the farming districts 
feeding will also be curtailed. Cattle feeding is a speculative enter- 
prise. The feeder gambles on the future market, both for fat cattle 
and for feed. It is easy to curtail or withdraw from feeding. 

Cost of Production. 

In the cattle industry costs of production differ widely with the 
locality, and with the system of management, both in the same 
year and from year to year. Then, too, there is often marked varia- 
tion from farm to farm, or from ranch to ranch, under the same 
system of management and with only a line fence separating the 
two units. Thus two ranch herds with no perceptible difference in 
range, feed, water facilities, quality of animals, or annual losses 
will show large differences in production cost if one outfit weans 
80 per cent and the other only 60 per cent of calves. The same 
general statement applies to farms where cattle are bred. The 
breeder in the ''black belt" of Alabama, whose animals feed on 
alfalfa which grows during virtually 11 months of the year, and 
who normally has almost no labor charge other than for occasional 
feeding with hay, would naturally show a production cost below 
that of a breeder in eastern Ohio, where the carrying capacity of 
the pastures is lower and where the cattle must be hand fed about 
six months each year. Detailed figures prepared by the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, as well as those reported by the different Corn 
Belt States, show a very wide range in the cost of fattening cattle, 
particularly during the war years, when feedstuff s were dispropor- 
tionately high in price. For these reasons and because of abnormal 
conditions during recent years, the Tariff Commission has made no 
effort to secure costs of production in the cattle industry, but has 
relied upon cost studies made by the Department of Agriculture, 
often in cooperation with certain of the States in the Mississippi 
Valley. ■ 

Data on the cost of production in the cattle industry were gathered 
by the United States Department of Agriculture for most of the 
years from 1912 to 1920, inclusive. Much of this information was 
published by the Federal Trade Commission in its report on the 
meat-packing industry in December, 1919, but the data are of 
sufficient importance to justify a recapitulation of some of the pub- 
lished tables. Most of the recent studies have been upon the cost 
of fattening cattle, but for the three years 1914-1916 the costs of 
raising calves in the Middle West were obtained. The latter data 
are pertinent to the present inquiry because they indicate the profit 

'0 Rome expansion in the beef supply may also result from breeding up the quality of the cattle, from 
tick eradication in the South, and from the gradual elimination of animal diseases. It has been estimated 
that the average yield of dressed beef is 5:i.5 per cent. An increase of only U per cent per head would 
increase the annual beef supply by approximately 200,()00,()00 pounds — more actual beef than has been 
imported in any one year, 'iearbook, U. S. Department of Agriculture, 1920, p. 49. 



CATTLE AND BEEF PRODUCTION IN THE UNITED STATES. 19 

or loss involved in normal times in raising beef calves up to one 
year old, and in fattening beef steers, but failure to ascertain the 
cost between one year of age and the time cattle are sold for fatten- 
ing or for slaughter results in an incomplete portrayal of the cost 
of production. The studies which deal v\ith cattle fattening cpver 
that phase of beef production with exemplary thoroughness. 

It should be noted that these figures include in the cost of produc- 
tion items that are sources of income to the farmer. Feed, the 
largest item of expense, is charged, not at cost, but at the prevailing 
farm price; that is, the wholesale price at the nearest shipping point 
less cost of delivery to that point. -^ Herein usually appears a hidden 
profit, though in some cases it may be a hidden loss. Large quan- 
tities of coarse roughage, otherwise virtually unsalable, are debited 
to the cattle at a low value. Labor which otherwise is less fully 
occupied during the slack winter season is charged to cost whether 
performed by the feeder or by hired men. Interest on the value of 
the cattle is charged at 6 per cent. A charge is made for farm 
equipment, put to a fuller use, and for pasture used by the cattle. 
Pork made from undigested grain voided by the cattle is credited 
to them, as is the estimated value of manure. The above charges 
are legitimate if the purpose is to compare beef production with 
crop production, or beef production under different systems of 
management or on different farms, but under strict cost-accounting 
methods they are not deemed legitimate if the net income from the 
business is to be ascertained. Since the "net costs" shown in the 
tables are not true net costs, the ''net losses" therefore are not true 
net losses. 

Over a series of years the cattle raiser or feeder can not expect, in 
fact really does not expect, to show earnings much in excess of inter- 
est^ on investment, value of feed and labor, and rent of equipment. 
However, the cost studies which follow show that the cattle feeders, 
on the average, made virtually no profits above their imputed net 
costs from 1912 to 1916, and failed to meet their imputed net costs 
in later years. The true net profits or losses are impossible to ascer- 
tain. 

COST OF KEEPING COWS AND RAISING CALVES. 

During the tlu-ee years 1914-1916, inclusive, records were obtained 
for more than 18,000 cows and their calves. The results of this 
study are summarized in the table following: 

21 Purchased feed is charged at cost laid down at the farm. 



20 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSIOiSr. 



Table 6. — Cost of keeping cows and raising calves and yearlings in Iowa, Missouri, 

Nebraska, and Kansas.^ 

[Three-year average, 1914-1916.] 



Number of farms 

Number of cows 

Number of cows per farm. 



Cost of maintaining herd: 

Gross cost of maintaining a cow. 
Credits other than calf 



Net cost of maintaining a cow. 

Cost of raising a calf imtil weaned: 

Cow charge 

Bull charge 

Feed 

Labor 



Total cost at weaning time. 

Cost of raising a yearling: 

Number of farms 

Average number per farm 



Cost at weaning 2... 
Cost of winter feed. 
Other charges 



Gross cost . 
Credits 



Net cost per head. 



Number of yearlings inventoried as of May 1 . 

Value of yearlings inventoried 

Loss per head on yearlings inventoried 3 

Profit per head on yearlings inventoried 

Number sold prior to inventory 

Sale value of yearlings sold 

Loss per head on yearlings sold s 

Profit per head onyearlings sold 



Cows of 
beeftvpe 

(milk 
taken by 

calves). 



354 

11,261 

31.80 



$34. 23 
4.79 



29.44 



34.47 

2.25 

.01 



36.73 



296 
23.23 



536.85 

11.44 

4.60 



52.89 
1.60 



51.29 



6,783 
S3S.31 
$12. 98 



453 

$45. 05 

$6.52 



Cows 
milked 
(calves 
fed on 

skim 
milk.) 



157 
1,990 
12.67 



S55. 30 
52.12 



3.18 



4.02 
3.95 
9.73 
2.36 



Com- 
bination 

of first 
and 

second 
method. 



139 
3,182 
22.89 



$43. 43 
25.69 



17.74 



20.73 

2.82 
4.76 
1.02 



20.06 



141 
10.24 



$20. 64 
9.48 
5.00 



35.12 

1.94 



33.18 



1,294 
$30.92 

$2.78 



170 
$33.65 



$3.17 



29.33 



131 
17.99 



$29. 56 
11.14 
4.65 



45.35 
1.50 



2,395 
$34.17 
$9.74 



123 

$44. 06 
$7.59 



Cows 
partly 
milked 
(calves 
suckle 
remain- 
der). 



95 
1,541 
16,22 



$41.75 
22.25 



19. 50 



22.23 
3. IS 

.04 
.02 



Some 
cows 

milked; 
other 
cows 
nurse 

calves. 



37 

712 

19.24 



$43. 53 
31. 9i 



11.58 



13.75 

2.99 
.30 
.03 



25.47 



17.07 



84 
12.55 



35 

15. 97 



$24. 81 

10.95 

4.71 



$17. 09 
9.84 
4.09 



40.47 
1.53 



38.94 



1,007 
$35.91 
$2.98 



140 
$40. 19 



31.02 
1.66 



29.36 



556 
$33.37 



$3.95 

63 

$37.00 



$18. 68 



1 Data gathered by the U. S. Department of Agriculture; published by the Federal Trade Commis- 
sion in its report, The Meat-Packing Industry, Pt. VI, p. 12. 

2 In this part of table change in number of farms causes change in cost at weaning time. 

3 $9 average loss, 12,984 head of yearlings. 

The salient features of Table 6 are (1) the net costs of maintaining 
cows, (2) the cost of calves at weaning time, (3) the cost of year- 
lings, and (4) the inventory or selling value and net gain or loss 
per head on yearlings. 

The net annual cost of maintaining a cow is highest in the beef class 
and lowest in the dual purpose class, where the animal is milked and 
only skimmed milk fed to the calves. In the first instance it was 
nearly $30, and in the second, after the value of the milk was credited, 
only $3.18. 

The cost of raising calves until they are weaned ranges anywhere 
from $17 to $36, according to their class and the method of manage- 
ment followed. Yearlings are raised at a cost of from $30 to $51. 

For the various classes of yearlings, the inventory value or sale 
price does not vary as much as the costs. If the inventory value 
and selling prices of the yearlings be averaged, in the case of the 
beef type there appears a loss of $12.60 per head. The loss in the 



CATTLE AND BEEF PRODUCTION IN THE UNITED STATES. 



21 



several groups decreases progressively to the double nursing class. 
in which there is a gain of 15.45. The average w^eighted loss per 
head in all five groups for yearlings inventoried, as well as for those 
sold, was W, an amount almost equal to the charge for winter feed. 
It should be noted, however, that at 1 year of age these yearlings 
were at the point of heaviest charge, after a winter on dry feed and 
with the entire cost of cow and bull maintenance charged against 
them. After a summer on grass they would make a much better 
financial showing as ''long" yearlings, and it is at the latter period, 
or subsequent thereto, that most beef cattle are sold, whether for 
immediate slaughter or for fattening. The cost and profit or loss 
at 1 year of age may be quite misleading so far as concerns norma 1 
profits in the cattle industry. 

Table 7 shows in detail the cost of keeping beef cow^s in various 
States during the years 1914-1916. Cost data for these cow-s also ap- 
pear in column 1 of Table 6, page 20. Table 7 is presented pri- 
marily for its general interest. 

Table 7. — Cost of keeping beef coivs.^ 
[11,261 head, 1914-1916.] 





Num- 
ber 
of 

farms. 


Num- 
ber 
of 

cows. 


Charges. 


Credits. 


Net 
cost. 




Feed. 


La- 
bor. 


Equip- 
mojit. 


In- 
terest. 


other 
charges. 


To- 
tal. 


Extra 
calves. 2 


Ma- 
nure. 


To- 
tal. 


1916. 
Iowa 


48 
33 
13 
30 


1,506 
822 
456 

1,231 


S24.55 


S3. 34 


$2.88 
2.30 
1.65 

.77 


$4.24 
4.30 
3.72 
3.72 


$1.21 


$36.22 


"'"jo.'si 


1 

$5.90 

4.08 

4.94 

3.43 


$5.90!$30.32 


Missouri 


21.33 3.74 
18.55 3.76 
19.00 3.149 


1.08| 32.85 
1.13 28.81 
l.Oll 28.19 


4.081 28.77 




4.94 


23.87 


Kansas 


3.74 


24.45 






Weighted aver- 
age for 1916... 

Weighted aver- 
age for 1915... 

Weighted aver- 
age for 1914... 


124 
110 
120 


4,015 
3,703 
3,543 


21.72 
24.80 
24.60 


3.60 
3.53 
4.21 


2.09 
1.83 
1.67 


4.08 
3.78 
3.87 


1.121 32.61 

.91 34.85 

1.02 35.37 


.08 
.04 


4.72 
4.89j 
4.66' 


4.80 
4.93 
4.66 


27.81 
29.92 
30.71 


3-year weighted 
average 


354 


11,261 


23.64 


3.79 


1.87 


3.91 


1 
1.62; 34.23 


.04 


4.75 


4.79 


29.44 



1 Published by the Federal Trade Commission in its report, The Meat Packing Industry, Pt. VI, p, 23. 
'Twin calves. 

It will be observed that there is no credit whatever for milk because 
the calves run with the cows, but there is a credit of $4 to $6 per 
head for the manure, leaving a net cost in the various States of 
from $24 to $30 per head. The feed cost is several times larger 
than all other items of expense combined, about $22 out of an 
average cost of $27.80 for the year 1916. Labor charges are about 
$3 to $4 per head, or approximately 10 per cent of the total, while 
interest charges are somewhat greater, and charges for equipment 
are substantially less. 

Data on the cost of range cattle production ^^ are also presented 
for their general interest. On six Texas and Oklahoma ranches the 
cost of raising calves to the age of 8 months ranged from $35 to $51 
during the period 1914 to 1917. On five of these ranches the cost 

w Data gathered by the U. S. Department of Agriculture; published by the Federal Trade Commissioa 
in its report. The Meat Packing Industry, Pt. VI, p. 39. 



22 UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 

at 20 months old ranged from $52 to $73; at 32 months to 3 years 
old they ranged from $65 to $97 on four ranches. The charge against 
calves at weaning appears to have averaged higher than for the beef 
calves, as shown in column 1, Table 6. As ''long" 2-year-olds the 
reported cost, which comprises all items of overhead — including mar- 
keting charges ranging from $2.85 to $4 per head — -was higher than 
the average cost, laid down at the farm, of the 47,000 head of beef 
steers for which data appear in Table 8. 

Owing to the necessity of using expensive dry feed during the 
drought period, which lasted from 1916 to 1918, inclusive, all these 
costs were raised considerably. This was a serious matter for the 
ranchers, and also for the buyers of their cattle. Animals from this 
area are extensively drawn upon by graziers and feeders to the north- 
v/ard. In fact, in 1914 Texas and Oklahoma carried four-fifths as 
many cattle as were present in the Rocky Mountain and Pacific Coast 
States; as a breeding ground for range cattle, these two Southwestern 
States are almost as important as the entire far West. 

Another cost study was made in 1914 in the far West.^^ In the 
Southwest, calves at 12 months of age showed an average cost of 
approximately $18 per head; as 2-year-olds the average was about 
$24. As "long" 2-year-olds — i. e., about 30 months — these animals 
would cost about $28.^* A very large part of these southwestern 
cattle are shipped northward for 12 to 18 months grazing on the 
better grasses of the central and northern ranges; i. e., these cattle 
are shipped as stockers. On the northern ranges the cost at 12 
months of age averaged $31, at 2 years old $45, and as "long" 2-year- 
olds about $52.2* These costs include a hidden profit where feeds 
used were grown on the ranch, but not otherwise. As no interest, 
depreciation, or maintenance charges were made for ranch equipment 
or improvements, fences, water developments (particularly important 
in the Southwest), or any other form of overhead, these costs are 
probably much below the true figure. Since 1914, feed, labor, rentals, 
marketing, and overhead charges have increased greatly, though 
during 1921 labor charges have receded considerably from war-time 
levels. However, the market decline apparently has been far greater 
than the recent lowering of costs. 

COST OF FATTENING STEERS. 

For ^ number of years the Department of Agriculture has con- 
ducted investigations regarding the cost of fattening steers in the 
Corn Belt. Cattle feeding furnishes an outlet for the thin cattle which 
reach the markets, particularly during the heavy autumnal range run 
at the close of the grazing season. This outlet is of great value to all 
producers who market their animals in the fall, because it removes 
large numbers of cattle not well suited for slaughter, but which would 
glut the butcher market and greatly depress prices if forced into 
slaughter channels at that time. The feeder outlet thus not only 
sustains cattle prices but tends to equalize the supply throughout the 
year. It increases the total supply of beef through gains made by 
animals put on feed and augments greatly the supply of high-quality 
beef. There is a wide difference in the quality of meat on a 1,000- 



I 



» Report no, Office of the Secretary, U. S. Department of Agriculture. 
»< Calculated on the basis of cost at 2 years of age as given in this report . 



CATTLE AND BEEF PRODUCTION IN THE UNITED STATES. 



23 



pound feeder steer and that carried by the same animal when finished 
to a weight of 1,200 to 1,300 pounds.' 

Results of a study for the years 1912 to 1916, inchisive, are pre- 
sented in Table 8. Data are tabulated for 47,000 head — 667 in 
Illinois, 4,586 in Missouri, 1,718 in Kansas, and 40,141 in Nebraska. 
The systems of feeding vary little in the different States. For Mis- 
souri and Nebraska the data are for a sufficient number of cattle to 
give the figures substantial value. Particular significance is attached 
to the average for all the droves in the various States, since it relates 
to operations for five years and is roughly representative. 

Table 8. — Cost of fattening cattle in the Corn Beli.^ 
[Averages for 1912-13 to 1916-17, inclusive.] 



Item. 

• 


Illinois. 


Missouri. 


Kansas. 


Nebraska. 


General 
average. 


Initial cost per head ... 


S71.69 

40.60 

3.04 

.27 

2.32 

1.98 

2.56 

122.46 

10.79 

111.67 

115.21 


S56. 39 

28. 15 

1.91 

.84 

1.60 

.86 

3.39 

93.14 

4.26 

88.88 

S3. 97 


$72. 04 
42.56 
1.60 
2.90 
2.93 
1..30 
2.83 

126. 16 
4.93 

121.28 

127. 81 


S6S. 19 
38. 04 
2.04 
2.24 
2.01 
4.19 
3.14 

119. 85 
7.50 

112. 35 

110.52 


S67. OS 


Feed 

Labor 


37.34 
2.15 


Equipment.. 


1.56 


Interest 


2.21 


Miscellaneous 


2.08 


Marketing cost 


2.98 




11.5. 40 


Credit, pork and manure 


6.87 


Final net cost 


108. 53 


Sale price 


109. 38 






Profit per head 


3.54 




6.58 


i.'83' 


.85 




4.91 












Days on feed 


1.51 

1.60 

1,266 

667 

8 


1.37 

1.49 

989 

4,586 

3 


147 

2.18 

1,3.32 

1,718 

2 


142 

1.76 

1,2.39 

40, 141 

15 




Pounds gained per day. . .... 








Number sold 

Number of farms. . 


47,112 







1 Based on data gathered bv the U.S. Department of Agriculture and published by the Federal Trade 
Commission in its report on The Meat Packing Industry, Pt. VI. 

The profit or loss for the feeding seasons of 1912 to 1916 varied 
considerably from State to State and from year to year. The season 
of 1912 was favorable; the reverse was true for 1913-1915, while that 
of 1916 was unusually profitable in all four States. The average 
profit for each State that year was large enough to turn a general 
average loss for all the States during the preceding four years into a 
slight profit for the five-year period. This amounted to 85 cents per 
head, or 4 cents per 100 pounds, on 47,112 steers. The initial cost of 
the feeder cattle averaged 58.1 per cent of the gross cost of the finished 
animals; feed averaged 32.4 per cent, labor 1.9, equipment 1.3, inter- 
est 1.9, miscellaneous 1.8, and marketing 2.6 per cent during these 
five years. For reasons already given, the profit per head in Tables 
6 and 8 is below the true profit, owing to hidden income in items of 
cost, especially in the feed. Under the system of accounting used 
the losses are also exaggerated. 

For the year 1916-17 a separate study was made to determine the 
profit or loss in fattening steers. Table 9 shows the cost of fattening 
9,541 steers in the Corn JBelt. To these figures have been added data 
obtained by the Department of Agriculture,^^ on the fattening of 
13,970 cattle in 1918-19, and 15,210 in 1919-20. 

25 Loaned to the U.S. Tariff Commission in advance of publication. 



24 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 



O 2 C3 

J»2 



lO CO CD *^ CO CO 
lO CO CO (M 05 t^ 



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CATTLE AJJ'D BEEF PRODUCTION IN THE UNITED STATES. 25 

It will be noted in Table 9 that in 1916-17 the average profit per 
head was S12.32, or 1 cent per pound live weight, the steers averaging 
1,231 pounds per head at the stockyards. This was a substantial 
profit from the feeding operation. It resulted from relatively low 
prices for feed, an abnormal spread between the purchase and sale 
price of the steers, and a rapid rise in price of pork made as a by- 
product from undigested grain voided by the steers. The margin 
between purchase price and sale price of the steers was nearly twice 
as wide in 1916-17 as during the preceding 10 years, and almost 
twice as much credit was allowed for pork. Without the pork the 
average profit per head was only $2.62, or about one-fifth cent per 
pound live weight. 

The next two years, 1918-19 and 1919-20, showed losses, averaging 
So. 76 and $17.25 for the two respective years. These losses resulted 
mainly from high costs of feed, though the narrower margin between 
purchase and sale price of the steers was also an important factor. 
During 1918-1920, feed averaged 5 per cent more of the gross cost 
of the steers than in 1916-17, and 7 per cent more than in 1912-1916. 
The losses shown in 1918-19 are not, however, necessarily true net 
losses, owing to possible hidden profit in home-grown feed. In the 
following year, because of the much more rapid deflation in prices 
than in costs of production, this qualification undoubtedly would 
not hold true. 

It has already been noted that the cattle feeder engages in a 
speculative enterprise. He gambles on the future cattle market and 
on the price of feed, much of which is generally purchased. Since 
each pound of gain made usually costs more than it is worth on the 
market, profit in cattle feeding depends less on gain in weight than 
on the higher selling price which results from increase in quality 
of the entire carcass. This "feeding margin" — i. e., the relation 
between purchase and sale price per 100 pounds — may or may not 
be sufficient to show a profit. The controlling factor is the relation 
between feeding margin and the cost of feedstuffs. These are the 
two chief factors in determining profit or loss in fattening cattle. 

Corn is by far the most important feed in the fattening of cattle; 
it averaged 74 per cent of the total feed cost from 1912-1916, in- 
clusive. For 1916 alone it averaged 75 per cent of the feed cost. Of 
the final cost of the gains in weight made by the steers (including 
interest at 6 per cent upon their initial cost), corn constituted 67 
per cent from 1912-1916, inclusive, and 72 per cent in 1916. The 
relationship between prices of corn and beef, therefore, largely 
determines profit or loss in steer feeding. After 1916 corn was even 
more important than previously, as its price rose relatively more 
than the price of fat cattle. And the price of corn, it is important 
to note, is upon an export basis, both because of exports in the form 
of grain and of far larger exports in the form of pork and lard. Of 
the latter the United States exports fully 75 per cent of the interna- 
tional shipments. The rapid advances in the price of corn are shown 
in Figure 2. 



26 



UNITED STATES TAEIFF COMMISSION. 



Price 



r 



.d rH 



A U O Q 

ABB 



per bushels xtuhpta^^'- 



Cents 4 ^ 
170 



160 



4^ I 



pi 6) o o «> 

< 03 O fe R 




150 



140 



130 



lEO 



110 



100 - 



Fig. 2.— Average monthly price of corn, Chicago (1903-1908, 1909-1915, and 1916-1919). 



cattle aistd beef productiolsr in the united states. 27 

The Marketing of Cattle, 
the cost of marketing. 

The increased cost of marketing is in some measure responsible for 
the present plight of cattle shippers. Between net cost in the feed 
yard and sale price at the market the margin is often so narrow that 
even under normal conditions the actual marketing cost can easily 
turn a small book profit into a loss. Under such abnormal conditions 
as prevailed in the late fall of 1920 and in 1921 freight charges were 
sometimes almost prohibitive. Such charges have particularly 
affected cattle feeders, since their operations involve a transportation 
of cattle from place to place. With the rapid return of prices to 
pre-war levels, the disproportionate cost of marketing in the autumn 
of 1921 augmented the difficulties of producers. The chief items in 
the cost of marketing are (1) freight; (2) loss in weight in transit; 
(3) feed in transit; (4) commission charge for selling; and (5) 
yardage and feed. 

THE CENTRALIZED MARKETS. 

The marketing of cattle in the United States is greatly simplified 
by the system of centralized market points with their stockyards and 
large slaughtering and packing plants. Of the total sales, the propor- 
tion disposed of through the central markets ranges in the different 
sections from 40 to 85 per cent.^" The proportion is highest, about 
85 per cent, in the Middle and Central West. Here a large part of 
the corn crop is marketed in the form of cattle which are bought or 
raised to consume the grain. For the most part these go directly to 
the killers. On the other hand, a large proportion of the cattle 
shipped annually from the range country, as well as from the Ap- 
palachian and contiguous territory, is sold to feeders in the Corn 
Belt or in farming sections to the east; these are grass or corn fattened 
before reaching the market centers and meet a demand for the better 
qualities of beef. American corn-fed beef commands a price premium 
in the world markets. 

The seven chief primary markets of the Corn Belt — Chicago, Kansas 
City, Omaha, East St. Louis, St. Joseph, Sioux City, and St. Paul — 
receive the great bulk of the annual shipments. In the years 1916- 
1920 the annual receipts at these markets averaged 12,894,000 head, 
or 57 per cent of the average receipts of 22,200,000 head at 54 
markets. These figures, however, do not adequately show the im- 
portance of the large primary markets because of duplication in 
reported receipts of cattle at the various centers. With but one 
exception, live stock unloaded in transit, for instance, is always 
included in receipts. Stockers and feeders appear at least twice 
and sometimes more than twice, at different markets, and there is 
also some reforwarding of fat cattle. Consequently the slaughter- 
ings at these seven markets is a better index of their im- 
portance. In the period 1916-1919, 8,894,000 head of cattle, or 
70 per cent of the annual average number of cattle slaughtered under 
Federal inspection, were butchered at these points. 

The average monthly receipts, local slaughter, and stocker and 
feeder shipments for the seven leading markets in the Middle West 

*« See Report 109, Office of the Secretary, U. S. Department of Agriculture, 1916, p. 10. 
6303—22 3 



28 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 



for 1916-1920, inclusive, are shown in Figure 3. Receipts'^show a 
pronounced but logical increase during the fall months, when the 
grazing season closes. These curves show the typical seasonal 
movement throughout the country east of Denver and north of Fort 



Hundreds 
of 
Thousandb h 
(Head) 




Fig. 3.— Monthly receipts, local slaughter, and stocker and feeder shipments, 7 markets (1916-1920). 

Worth. At the various markets there are minor fluctuations due 
to local conditions, but they all show the typical autumnal rise, caused 
by heavy shipments of range and other cattle at the close of the sum- 
mer grazing season. The receipts at Canadian markets are likewise 



CATTLE AND BEEF PRODUCTION IN THE UNITED STATES. 29 

heaviest in the fall for the same reason, so that the bulk of the 
Canadian shipments during recent years have come at a time when 
they swelled the already large domestic marketings. 

The local slaughter curve in Figure 3 follows the same general 
course as receipts, but shows much less of a rise after July, because 
of stocker and feeder shipments from primary markets to farms 
and because of an increase in the reforwarding of fat cattle. The 
stocker and feeder curve follows the same general course as the 
others, but with the difference that it shows a slight rise in March. 
This difference is due mainly to the movement back for finishing or 
for further finishing of cattle shipped to market mainly from points 
north of Oklahoma. The seven markets mentioned handle an annual 
average of 2,850,000 stockers and feeders, or 64 per cent of those re- 
ported from the 35 markets which are of appreciable importance in 
this trade. Kansas City shipped 30 per cent of those handled at 
the seven points shown in Figure 3. 

In Figure 3 are also shown receipts and local slaughter at Chicago, 
the leading cattle market of the world, whose annual cattle slaughter 
exceeds the combined slaughter of the two next largest American 
markets. Chicago is the ruling domestic market for cattle. At 
other markets the prices of cattle usually correspond quite closely 
to those at Chicago when difference in shipping costs is taken into 
consideration. 

MARKET PRICES. 

Since 1900 the farm or producer's price of cattle has manifested a 
strong upward tendency. In 1905 the farm price of ''cattle other 
than milk cows" was $15.15 per head; in 1914 it was $31.13; and in 
1919 the peak was reached with $44.22 per head. In 1921 the farm 
price, $31.41, was at the pre-war level. Prices of milk cows showed 
substantially the same trend. 

A number of curves are presented in Figures 4 and 4A to show the 
seasonal trend of cattle prices at Chicago, and thus fairly accurately 
for the United States in general. The average price for three series 
of years, 1903-1908, 1909-1915, and 1916-1920, is charted in the 
form of monthly averages for a number of grades of cattle. These 
three series of years not only indicate the effect of seasonal market- 
ings on seasonal prices, but they also show the price trend during 
three distinct phases of the beef trade, (1) 1903-1908, the period of 
heavy exports of domestic beef; (2) 1909-1915, when this country 
was losing its export trade in the face of increase in population and 
decline in production; and (3) 1916-1920, the war years, with their 
abnormal demand and price conditions. Domestic and foreign 
prices of beef are shown in Figures 7 and 8, opposite pages 78 and 79. 

It is important to note that there is a distinct demand for different 
types and qualities of live cattle. This diversity in demand, as 
well as seasonal variations in supply, results in material price varia- 
tions. Furthermore, it has also resulted in an import trade in 
certain types of cattle coexistent with an export trade in other types, 
i. e., feeders and stockers were a more or less regular item in our 
import trade during the period when this country was a heavy 
exporter of finished beef cattle. 



30 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSIOlSr. 



It will bo noted that stocker and feeder cattle uniformly sell at a 
price lower than that of good butcher steers, but in each series of 
years the price of stockers and feeders has averaged higher from late 
winter to midsummer than during the fall and early winter months. 
This is mainly due to the fact that from late winter to midsummer 
the animtils which go out for further finishing are relatively few in 




Average monthly piicc of cattle, selected grades, Chicago (1903-190S, 191)9-1915, and 1916-1919). 



number: they have passed most or all of the whiter on dry feed, and 
therefore are worth more to the grazier because of the cheap gains 
which can be made on grass during the grazing season soon to open 
or at hand. The cattle feeders compete more sharply for them 
because the prices of fat cattle for a number of months thereafter! 
usually rise fairly steadily, and there is an opportunity to get those. 



CATTLE AND BEEF PRODUCTION IN THE UNITED STATES. 



31 



heavy feeder animals back on the market in better flesh before 
prices are forced down by heavy autumn receipts. If put on a 
lattening ration these cattk> are usually fed not longer than 90 days; 
many are returned to the market in 60 days or less. A large pro- 
portion are shipped from o;rass in late summer. 

The prices of beef cattle average higher in the summer because 
animals fattened in winter are in large part marketed by June. In 
summer the main rehance of the butchers, aside from part of the 
feeders which mo^'e out to farms for fattening after midwinter and 
considerable range receipts from Texas and contiguous territory, is 
on animals from limestone areas, where the rich blue-grass pastures 
enable graziers to turn off well-finished cattle from grass. These 



Prlee per 
100 & 
pounds 
Dollars 




Fig. 4A.— Average monthly price of cattle, selected grades, Chicago (1903-1908, 1909-1915, and 191ti-1919). 

pastures usually become quite dry after midsummer: this fact 

E laces an added premium on well-finished animals prior to the 
eginning of heavy autumnal marketings. 

In the fall months prices decline with the heavy receipts at the 
close of the grazing season. The fall in prices is somewhat influenced 
by the lower average (juality of receipts, because a large percentage 
of both "native" or farm States and western cattle are thin and are 
shipped back to country points for further finishing; these are, 
however, available for slaughter if their price is sufficiently favorable. 
Detailed price inovements duriru/ and since the war. — With the 
abnormal demand for all meats alter 1915, there was a strong up- 
ward trend in the market until early in 1919. But rather violent 



32 UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. ^ 

fluctuations occurred during the entire period. During 1919 and 
1920 in particular, the market fluctuations were unprecedented in 
extent, owing to changes in export demand which resulted from, 
high American prices, unfavorable exchange, desire for cheaper 
meats, the decline in European credit, and the desire of Great Britain 
to utilize large stocks accumulated in Australasia during the shipping 
scarcity subsequent to 1917. More recently, somewhat curtailed 
domestic consumption in the 'United States has also been an im- 
portant factor in the market. These variations in monthly prices 
for individual years are shown in Figure 5. 

In this figure will be noted substantially the same narrow seasonal 
price variations prior to 1912 as in Figure 4. The effect of diminish- 
ing exports and the rising domestic market show very clearly during 
and after 1912. The pronounced subsequent rise and the very erratic 
market in 1919 and 1920 are also clearly depicted. The influence 
of tight money and of forced liquidation late in 1920 is especially 
striking, as also is the result of continued heavy marketings in the 
face of curtailed demand in 1921. 

It should be noted, however, that monthly price averages fail to 
show weekly and daily variations which result from temporary con- 
ditions of glut or scarcity at the live-stock markets. The price of 
live cattle is determined primarily by that of beef, which varies in 
response to seasonal rather than purely temporary market conditions. 
But unusual variations in supply and demand at the live-stock mar- 
kets may temporarily throw cattle quite out of line with wholesale 
prices for dressed beef. Unexpected daily or weekly shortage in 
receipts at the live-stock market usually results in sharp advances in . 
price, to the advantage of the relatively small number of shippers 
affected. Such advances, however, are generally followed by heavy 
receipts from shippers who hope to share in the rise; the market is 
temporarily oversupplied. Prices then swing as far the other way, 
to the detriment of a greater number of shippers than the few who 
gained previously. In the first case, in order to fill their cooling 
rooms, the packers bid actively for many cattle of the feeder type 
which usually would be passed by entirely unless the price was quite 
low in comparison with the price of animals fit for slaughter. In the 
second case all animals not in prime condition for butchering tend 
to be cut in price to a point at which the market is sustained by com- 
petition between yard traders, speculators, feeder and order buyers, 
and packers. To a considerable extent monthly and seasonal vari- 
ations in price of live cattle represent a mean of temporary irregulari- 
ties which result from the above causes. 



CATTLE AND BEEF PRODUCTION IN THE UNITED STATES. 33 



trloe per 
, 100 

louars % i I % 



§ ^ £ S g S 




Fig. .5.— Average montlily price of 1,200-1,500 pound native beef steers, Chicago, selected years. 



34 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 



The Beef-Slaughtering and Meat-Packing Industry, 
importance of the industry. 

This business ranks first in value of products among the industries 
of the United States. The census report shows that in 1919 the 1,305 
wholesale establishments of the industry turned out products valued 
at $4,246,000,000. The total cost of raw materials, principally live 
stock, was $3,775,000,000, or 88.8 per cent of the total value of 
products. The cost of beeves and calves slaughtered was 37.8 per 
cent of the total cost of animals, as compared with 57.4 per cent for 
hogs, and 4.8 per cent for sheep, lambs, goats, and kids. In 1914 the 
cost of beeves and calves constituted 43 per cent of the total cost of 
animals. 

Table 10. — Wholesale slaughtering and meat packing — Summary for the industry, 1919 

and 1914. 

[From the Federal Census; 000 omitted.] 



1919 



1914 



Materials: 

Animals slaughtered 

Beeves 

Calves 

Sheep, lambs, goats, and kids . 

Hogs 

All other materials 



Number. 



10,818 

4,395 

13, 523 

44, 519 



Value. 

$3,055,495 

1,055,319 

95,720 

146, 965 

1, 757, 491 

719, 406 



Number. 



7,149 

2,019 

15, 952 

34, 442 



Total cost. 



3,774,901 



Value. 

$1,199,642 

490, 108 

27, 623 

84,813 

597,098 

242,021 



1,441,663 



Products: 

Fresh meat- 
Beef 

Veal 

Mutton, lamb, goat, and kid , 

Pork , 

Edible offal and all other fresh meat. 

Cured meat — 

Beef, pickled and other cured , 

Pork, pickled and other cured 

Canned goods 

Sausage — 

Canned ." 

All other 

Lard 

Lard compounds, and substitutes , 



Oleo oil . - . 
Other oils. 



Tallow and oleo stock 

Oleomargarine '. 

Hides and pelts — 

Cattle hides 

Calfskins 

Sheep, lamb, goat, and kid skins. 



Fertilisers and fertilizer material . 
All other products i 



Pounds. 

4,932,284 
422,928 
501,201 

2,112,243 
516,983 

129, 960 

4,145,232 

305, 943 

161,002 

629, 701 

1,372,550 

521,122 

Gallons. 

20, 339 

6,721 

Pouvds. 

.. 242,084 

123, 639 

Number. 

10,818 

3,353 

12,244 

Tons. 

391 



Total value . 



846,806 

83, 884 

120, 451 

532,075 

59,832 

28, 360 

1,217,420 

96,904 

27, 985 
145,601 
415,817 
123,724 

30, 953 
9,153 

36, 536 
36,778 

185,020 
24,797 
33, 780 

18,315 
172,099 



Pounds. 

3,658,334 
194,699 
629,233 

1,877,099 
296, 667 

91,572 

2,929,310 

160, 799 

74,004 

435, 147 

1,119,189 

396,398 

Gallons. 

16, 502 

6,715 

Pounds. 

209, 614 

60.388 

Number. 

7,159 

1,464 

15,917 

Tons. 

294 



4,246,290 



421,297 
26, 299 
74,676 

226,535 
20, 576 

14,395 

393,605 

26,418 

9,845 
58,350 
120,414 
33,037 

11,926 
4,010 

13,733 

8,819 

69,959 
3,513 
13, 621 

8,737 
92,197 



1,651,965 



1 Includes valae of ammonia, butter, butter reworked, condensed milk, glue, glvcerin, hog hair, ice, 
sausi:je casings, scrapple, soap, wool, etc., an 1 amoant received for slaughtering and refrigeration for others, , 



CATTLE PRODUCTS. 



In 1919, the production offresh beef was4, 932, 284, 000 pounds, valued 
at $846,806,000; of fresh veal, 422,928,000 pounds, $83,884,000; of 
pickled or other cured beef, 129,960,000 pounds, $28,360,000; the 
production of cattle hides and calfskins was valued at $209,817,000 



CATTLE Al^D BEEF PRODUCTION IN THE UNITED STATES, 35 

and of tallow and oleo oil at $67,489,000. Table 10 also shows a large 
production of canned goods, and of sausage. These doubtless con- 
sisted in large part of beef products; cattle products also entered 
into the reported production of fertilizer, glue, and casings, while 
beef fats entered into the lard compounds and soaps. Of the reported 
production of ''canned goods," beef constitutes about 75 per cent. 

Dressed beef accounts for about 55 per cent on the average of the 
live weight of the animal, and according to the report for 1920 of 
one of the largest packers, beef made up 81 per cent of the total money 
receipts for cattle products. The most important by-products are 
hides, skins, tallow, oleo oil, and oleo stearin. 

The census figures for 1919 show that beef and veal sold fresh con- 
stituted 95 per cent of the output of beef and veal in all forms; some- 
what over half the rest was canned, while pickled and other cured beef 
accounted for the remainder. 

MARKETING OF CATTLE PRODUCTS. 

Approximately 90 per cent of the fresh beef and veal is chilled; 
very little is frozen under ordinary conditions, because chilled beef 
usually sells at a premium over frozen. Chilled meat, however, is 
highly perishable; it must be maintained at temperatures ranging 
from 32 to 38 degrees. It is the aim of domestic producers to market 
their chilled meats within a few weeks after the animal is slaughtered. 
This necessity for quick marketing has been a factor in the develop- 
ment of extensive marketing organizations by the large packers, 
although the concentration of production has, of course, largely 
grown out of the greater efficiency of large scale production and 
marketing. 

Two general methods of fresh meat distribution have been devel- 
oped, (1) the branch house for distribution of meat in the large cities 
and towns, and (2) the car route for distribution of meat to small 
villages. The large packers own fleets of refrigerator cars in which 
fresh meat is shipped directly to the branch houses, of which there 
are over 1,200 in the United States. No important city is without 
at least one of them. Through the branch house the packers dis- 
tribute the meat directly to the retail dealers in the cities. Retail 
dealers in the smaller towns get their meat dhectly from the peddler 
car which covers a regular route at definite intervals. One of the large 
packers has over 500 of such car routes. By these two methods nearly 
every part of the country is directly reached. Frozen, pickled, and 
canned beef, and beef by-products, such as hides, tallow, oleo oil, 
oleo stearin, bones, and fertilizer, are marketed much more slowly 
than fresh beef, often not for several months after the slaughter of 
the animals. 

GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF THE INDUSTRY. 

The beef-packing industr}^ was formerly concentrated in the East 
near the centers of consumption. The live animals were driven or 
shipped for slaughter from the West and Middle West to the East. 
With the development of artificial refrigeration, especially of the re- 
frigerator car, which made possible the long-distance shipment of 



36 UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 

fresh meat and the economies which the shipment of the meat entailed 
as compared with the shipment of the live animal, the industry- 
shifted to the great producing sections. In 1914, Illinois, Kansas, 
Nebraska, Missouri, and Texas produced over 2,000,000,000 pounds 
of fresh beef, 58 per cent of the national production. 

The cattle-slaughtering industry is of two types: (1) The large 
slaughtering plants located in the important stockyard market 
centers, such as .Chicago, Kansas City, Omaha, East St. Louis, Jersey 
City, Fort Worth, and St. Paul. The products of these plants enter 
largely into interstate commerce and are therefore subject to Federal 
inspection. These plants take care of the bulk of the meat business 
of the country. In 1920 approximately 70 per cent of the total num- 
ber of cattle slaughtered were butchered under Federal inspection in 
the large marketing centers. 

(2) The numerous small plants which supply a purely local demand 
for meat by slaughtering cattle that are produced in the vicinity. 
These plants are scattered over the country wherever there is a local 
supply of meat animals and a substantial local demand for meat. 
Their products are limited to intrastate markets because they do not 
have Federal inspection. The slaughter of cattle in these plants and 
on farms makes up somewhat less than one-third of the total. 
Such small establishments usually have an advantage over the large 
packer in that they have a shorter haul for their cattle and for 
their products. But lacking sufficient volume of business they can 
not afford to utilize the by-products to the extent that the large packer 
can. The latter employs highly developed processes which permit a 
virtually complete transformation of raw material to finished or inter- 
mediate products. These products in turn are essential ingredients 
in innumerable further products. 

DISTRIBUTION OF THE OWNERSHIP OF THE INDUSTRY. 

A report of the Federal Trade Commission on meat packing shows 
that in this industry there is a high degree of concentration of control 
under five large concerns. According to the report 81 per cent of the 
cattle and 74 per cent of the calves slaughtered under Federal inspec- 
tion in the year ended June 30, 1917, were handled by these five com- 
panies. Only one other packer handled as much as 1 per cent. This 
marked concentration of control is of interest if it be remembered that 
these companies have large plants in foreign countries. As they con- 
trol the bulk of the beef output of the surplus-producing countries, 
the large packers conduct an international business, and therefore 
they may be in the position of exporters of meat and cattle products 
to the United States from their foreign plants. Thus reports ^^ for 
1918 and 1919 show that American firms control approximately two- 
thirds of the meat exports of Argentina and Uruguay and that they 
own about 75 per cent of the packing houses built or building in 
Brazil. 2^ Only one of the five American interests is not substantially 
represented in South America. The large American packers also 
have extensive producing and distributing interests in Australasia, 
Canada, and Great Britain. ^^ 

2' U. S. Commerce Report, Mar. 13, 1920, p. 1471. 

28 Interim report on meat, prepared by a subcommittee appointed by the standing committee entrusts, 
London, NovemV>er, 1920, p. 12. 

29 Report of Federal Trade Commission, The Meat Packing Industry, Pt. I, pp. 186-199. 



CATTLE A^B BEEF PRODUCTIOiSr IjST THE UNITED STATES. 37 

Foreign trade of the United States: Cattle, Beef, Beef Fats, 
AND Competing Meats and Fats. 

general review. 

During the thirty-odd years preceding 1908 the United States con- 
tributed the bulk of the world exports of beef and of butcher cattle. 
These products formerly constituted one of the principal items of 
our export trade. Reference has already been made to the fact that 
dating from 1907, the rise in beef prices was accompanied by a marked 
decline in the total domestic production as well as the total and per 
capita consumption of beef and veal.^" Notwithstanding this falling 
off in the domestic demand, the reduction in production between 
1907 and 1915 was so great as to cause a progressive decline in the 
amount available for export, and temporarily to add the United 
States to the list of countries dependent in some measure upon for- 
eign supplies. An import balance first appeared in 1913. It 
reached appreciable proportions in 1914, but was greatly reduced 
in 1915, when the influence of the war began to make itself felt. 
An export balance reappeared from 1916 to 1919 inclusive, but a 
small excess of imports again appeared in the fiscal years 1920 and 
1921. The disturbed conditions which prevailed in the cattle trade 
during these two years suggest caution in drawing conclusions from 
recent changes, but, speaking broadly, the pre-war trend toward a 
deficiency of beef has been resumed. 

Figure 1 (p. IV) is a graphic presentation of the foregoing. Be- 
cause of the proximity of Canadian and Mexican supplies, and also 
because of the trade in different classes of cattle and of beef, the 
United States has maintained both an import and export trade. 
Figure 1 shows net exports or net imports in the different years. 
Detailed figures showing changes in American import and export 
trade in cattle and beef since 1900 are presented in the following 
table : 

3« See Table 3, p. 9. 



38 



UNITED STATES TAEIFF COMMISSION. 





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CATTLE AND BEEF PRODUCTION IN THE UNITED STATES. 



39 








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41 



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KS 



42 UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 

It will be noted that total exports of beef, and of the beef equiva- 
lent "^ of cattle exported, amounted to 764,409,000 pounds in 1906, 
or about 10 per cent of the probable domestic production. The 
bulk of these exports went to Great Britain. Imports, which con- 
sisted almost entirely of Mexican cattle, amounted to only 1.5 per 
cent of the exports. The precipitate decline in domestic production 
during the next few years left an export total, largely of beef, of only 
54,988,000 pounds in 1913, while the import total rose to 163,659,000 
pounds, with practically all imports entering as live cattle from 
Mexico. Owing to the free entry for cattle and beef after October 
3, 1913, to the turmoil in Mexico, and to feed shortages in the United 
States, imports totaled 505,422,000 pounds ^- in 1914, while exports 
were still further reduced. It should be further noted that instead 
of the usual preponderance of live cattle, 35 per cent (178,387,000 
pounds) of the 1914 imports entered in the form of beef. In 1915 
total exports rose to 280,027,000 pounds, with only 1 per cent in the 
form of live cattle, while total imports declined to 427,232,000 pounds, 
with an unprecedented amount, 184,519,000 pounds, or 43 per cent, in 
the form of beef. After 1915, with an excess of domestic production, 
imports of fresh and cured beef declined precipitately, and from 1916 
to 1919, inclusive, the Unij:.ed States went on an average annual 
export basis to the extent of 211,000,000 pounds, almost entirely of 
fresh and cured beef. A large part of this net export balance was 
made possible by imports of live animals from Mexico and particu- 
larly from Canada. 

The large imports during the first two years of free entry under 
the tariff act of October 3, 1913, were not entirely due to the removal 
of the duty. As a matter of fact, domestic prices of beef and cattle 
were higher in 1913 and 1914 than at any time during the preceding 
half century. Seasonal factors had greatly accentuated the steady 
decline in production; several more or less widespread droughts had 
occurred from 1911 to 1913, and severe frost damage affected the 
corn crop in 1914; there were relatively short harvests of corn and 
some other feedstuff's during several years between 1911 and 1915,^^ 
and prices rose materially. The average weight of beeves slaughtered 
in 1914 was over 30 pounds per head less than in 1912, and a large 
part of the sudden increase in imports for 1914 and 1915, particularly 
of dressed beef, probably resulted from this unusual though temporary 
shortage in the domestic supply. Subsequent to 1915, the beef 
equivalent of imports of live cattle formed over 80 per cent of the 
total imports of beef — a natural consequence of the enormous corn 
and hay crops normally harvested in the United States. A discussion 
of the different phases of this varied trade follows. 

EXPORTS OF CATTLE. 

Of the exported products of the beef and cattle industry, live cattle 
constituted a large proportion for many decades prior to 1900 and 
for some years thereafter. It will be noted in Table 11 that the peak 
was reached in 1904 with exports of 593,409 head. Sixty-five per 

" Tilt U, sittlc in terms of beef according to conversions shown at the foot of Table 11, p. 38. TheEO 
conversions will be noted, by years, in lines 3 and 4. Totals of beef and beef equivalent of live cattle 
are shown in lines 9 and 10. 

32 These and foregoing figures do not include beef fats, of which the United States has remained a heavy 
■exporter. (See Table 11, j). 40.) 

" For conditions in western Kansas see Breeder's Gazette, Nov. 3, 1921, p. 619. 






I 



CATTLE AND BEEF PRODUCTION IF THE UNITED STATES. 43 

cent of the exports went to the United Kingdom. They were well 
finished, moderately heavy animals of the type desired for slaughter 
in that market. From 1906 on there was a rapid decline; by 1914 
our exports of live cattle to that country had ceased. The same was 
virtually true of exports to England from all other countries but 
Ireland. Live animals were replaced by chilled and frozen beef 
shipped chiefly from Argentina and Australasia. Between 1913 and 
1919 our total cattle exports ranged from 5,000 to about 42,000 head, 
mainly to Canada and Mexico, and nearly all of the shipments to 
Canada consisted of breeding stock, principally dairy cows. In the 
fiscal year 1920 exports rose to 93,000 head, mainly southwestern 
animals shipped into Mexico, partly for slaughter and partly to 
restock some of the ranches previously denuded of live stock.^* In 
1921 the number exported was 146,000 head, most of which went to 
Mexico,, Cuba, and the West Indies. In the calendar year 1921 
exports of cattle amounted to 196,533 head, of which nearly 80 per 
cent went to Mexico and Cuba, mainly medium to low grade animals 
for slaughter. About 20 per cent of this export total went to Great 
Britain; nearly all of the cattle were shipped to the latter market 
prior to June 1, as the emergency tariff act went into efl^ect May 28. 
Breeding animals of registered strains, sent mainly to South 
America, have formed an appreciable item in the relatively small 
exports of recent years, and this trade, encouraged by the Govern- 
ment and by cattle breeders' associations, may develop a valuable 
market for pure breds. But except for the relatively small shipments 
of breeding stock, and some sales of medium to low grade butcher 
stock to West Indian customers, the former American export trade 
in beef cattle seems to have virtually ceased, save as Mexico continues 
to draw on southwestern herds until her own ranches are restocked. 

EXPORTS OF BEEF AND CATTLE PRODUCTS. 

Of beef products, ^ likewise, our exports rapidly declined. In 

1901, a record year, the total was 434,258,000 pounds, of which 

fresh beef and veal constituted 81 per cent; in 1907 the total was 

361,160,000 pounds, of which fresh beef and veal constituted 78 

per cent. Over 90 per cent of this export trade went to the United 

Kingdom, a market which was soon supplied by the rapidly expanded 

surplus of South America and by Australasia. Thus in the fiscal years 

1913 and 1914 total exports averaged only 36,500,000 pounds, of 

I which only about 20 per cent consisted of fresh meat, largely shipped 

I to Panama. Beginning with 1915 the American exports of fresh 

I beef and veal again became an important factor in the European 

supply, reaching the new record of 370,000,000 pounds in the fiscal 

I year 1918, when total exports of fresh and prepared beef amounted 

to 514,341,529 pounds. About 80 per cent went to the United 

Kingdom. But with postwar readjustment and liquidation, exports 

of fresh beef as swiftly declined, and for the fiscal year 1921 they were 

only 21,084,203 pounds out of a total of 55,182,000 pounds of fresh 

and prepared beef. 

' See Table 1, pp. 89-91, for number and value of cattle exported by years, 1910-1920. 
^ Fresh, canned, pickled, and other cured beef. 

6303—22 4 



44 UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 

From the foregoing it would seem that the smaller and somewhat 
specialized trade in canned, pickled, and other cured beef has been 
better maintained than that in fresh beef. Between 1910 and 1914 
exports of pickled and other cured beef ranged from 23,000,000 to 
40,000,000 pounds; they rose to 54,000,000 in 1918 and reacted to 
25,000,000 pounds in the calendar year 1921. Of canned beef, 
exports ranged between 3,000,000 and 15,000,000 pounds in the period 
1910-1914; owing to war exigencies the peak was reached in 1918 
with over 97,000,000 pounds, but m 1921 shipments fell to 6,077,000 
pounds. The shipments of cured, pickled, and canned beef have 
been distributed among most of the countries of the world. Great 
Britain being the largest single customer. 

Exports of beef fats, i. e., tallow and its derivatives, oleo oil, and 
oleo stearin, have also receded. Shipments of tallow declined from 
nearly 128,000,000 pounds in 1907 to less than 16,000,000 pounds in 
1914 and have since been maintained at about this level. Exports 
of oleo oil were 195,000,000 pounds in 1907; but declined to 139,000,- 
000 pounds in 1911 and to 93,000,000 pounds in 1913. They averaged 
less than 80,000,000 thereafter until 1921, when exports rose to 
128,000,000 pounds. 

In hides, the last major product of the cattle industry, the United 
States has been upon an import, basis for many years. For some 
time it has imported about 35 per cent of its supply. If consumption 
is maintamed at its present rate, there is virtually no prospect of a 
sufficient domestic production. 

IMPORTS OF BEEF AND BEEF PRODUCTS. 

During the pre-war period, when exports of fresh beef were large, 
imports were insignificant. They did not reach 1,000,000 pounds a 
year until 1912, and resulted chiefly from a border trade with Canada. 
In 1913 the total import amounted to only 4,229,000 pounds; in 
1914 it rose to 178,387,000 pounds, and in 1915 to 184,520,000 
pounds, coining chiefly from Argentina and Australasia in response 
to more or less temporary domestic shortages which resulted from 
restricted feed supplies. Veal was imported from Canada in 1915 to 
the amount of only 1,690,000 pounds. Reference has already been 
made to the fact that the domestic production of veal has been 
better maintained than that of beef, and to the further fact that veal 
is chiefly a by-product' of the dairy industry. With the return of the 
United States to an export basis, imports of beef and veal greatly 
declined, averaging less than 40,000,000 pounds annually during 
the last six vears. Annual domestic exports exceeded them many- 
fold until 1921. 

Of other forms of foreign cattle products, imports have been 
insignificant, although imports of beef fats, almost exclusively tallow 
and oleo stearin, have tended to increase. They consist chiefly of 
inedible fats, such as are rendered from butchers' scraps, and are 
used for soap making in the United States. There is a small domestic 
shortage of such fats, although much larger amounts of the better, 
grades of fats are being exported each year. 



CATTLE AND BEEF PRODUCTION IN THE UNITED STATES. 45 

IMPORTS OF CATTLE— QUA RANTINE REGULATIONS. 

In the United States, as well as in many other countries, the 
importation of live cattle is subject to quarantine regulations ^^ in 
order to protect domestic live stock from contagious animal diseases. 
Except as applied to Canada and Mexico, whence large numbers of 
cattle are received for slaughter or for grazing or feeding before 
slaughter, and to which more lenient treatment is accorded, these 
regulations, in addition to cost of shipping, virtually prohibit entry 
for slaughter and greatly deter entry of high-priced pure-bred stock 
from most countries. When cattle from any country are held in 
quarantine it is at the expense of the owner or importer for feed 
and care. Although these regulations do not apply to cattle for 
immediate slaughter, only Canada and Mexico are in a position to 
profit by the exemption. 

Two distinct classes of cattle are recognized in the import returns, 
as well as in the tariff acts. One class, consisting of breeding stock, 
forms a relatively unimportant numerical proportion of the receipts. 
Nearly all of the imports fall in the second group, i. e., animals 
brought in for slaughter, feeding, or grazing. This class, the meat 
equivalent of which constitutes the great bulk of the imports of beef 
and veal, comes exclusively from Canada and Mexico. 

Subject to the quarantine regulations, registered animals of a 
recognized breed brought in by a citizen of this country for breeding 
purposes have been exempt from duty since 1883 and have been 
extensively used for improving domestic herds. Between 1910 and 
1914 the cattle imported duty free, almost entirely for breeding, 
numbered about 2,500 head. Great Britain sent approximately 

36 Under the quarantine act of Feb. 2, 1903, the Secretary of Agriculture is authorized to make 
such regulations and take such measures as he may deem proper to prevent the introduction or dissemi- 
nation of any otitagious, infectious, or communicable disease of animals from a foreign country into the 
United States. Enforcement of the lav.- lies with the Bureau of Animal Industry, which has fixed the 
conditions under which cattle may be imported from various countries. 

With the exception of imports for immediate slaughter at port of entry which may be imported without 
quarantine but subject to other regulations of the Bureau of Anim