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Full text of "Synthetic organic chemicals : United States production and sales"

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UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 
WASHINGTON 



Tariff Information Series— No. 31 



Census of Dyes 

and other 

Synthetic Organic Chemicals 

1922 




WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

1923 



BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY 



3 9999 06317 178 7 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 
WASHINGTON 



Tariff Information Series — No. 31 



Census of Dyes 

and other 

Synthetic Organic Chemicals 

1922 




WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

1923 



u « <^,i»oFRmTfK 



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UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 

Office: Eighth and E Streets NW., Washington, D. C. 

COMMISSIONERS. 

Thomas O. Marvin, Chairman. 
William S. Culbertson, Vice Chairman. 
David J. Lewis. 
Edward P. Costigan. 
William Burgess. 
Henry H. Glassie. 

John F. Bethune, Secretary. 



ADDITIONAL COPIES 

OF THIS PUBLICATION MAY BE PROCURED FROM 

THE SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON, D. C. 

AT 

20 CENTS PER COPY 



PXmCHASEE AGREES NOT TO RESELL OR DISTRIBUTE THIS- 
copy FOR PROFIT. — PUB. RES. 57, APPROVED MAY 11, 1922' 



CONTENTS. 

Page. 

1 iitroduction vii 

Part I. 

Summary of the census of dyes and other synthetic organic chemicals, 1922: 

Introductory ?. 

Summary of domestic production, 1922 — 

Crudes... 3 

Intermediates 4 

Dyes — ■ 

Production increases 66 per cent 4 

Large price reduction 5 

Vat and alizarin dyes increase over 200 per cent 5 

Many new dyes produced 5 

Quality and standardization of American dyes 5 

Relation of production to consumption 6 

Production by classes 6 

Imports 6 

Research 6 

Exports — 1922 decrease 6 

1923 increase , 7 

International dye trade 7 

Other finished coal-tar products — 

Color lakes 8 

Photographic chemicals 8 

Medicinals 8 

Perfumes and flavors 9 

Synthetic phenolic resins 9 

Synthetic tanning materials 9 

Research chemicals 9 

Synthetic organic chemicals other than those derived from coal tar. . . 10 

Part II. 

Production of dyes and coal-tar chemicals, 1922: 
Coal-tar crudes — 

By-product coke exceeds twenty-eight million tons 13 

Output of coal-tar crudes 13 

Production of crudes by tar refiners 14 

Imports of crudes during 1922 14 

Intermediates — 

Description 17 

Production 18 

Benzene derivatives 18 

Toluene derivatives 20 

Naphthalene derivatives 20 

Anthracene derivatives 21 

New intermediates 22 

Dyes and other finished coal-tar products — 

Introductory. 29 

Dyes — Summary of production in 1922 — 

Increased production 30 

Large reduction in price of dyes 30 

Output of vat and alizarin dyes increases over 200 per cent 33 

Many new dyes produced 33 

Quality of American dyes 34 

Relation of production to consumption 34 

The Ruhr occupation 34 

III 



IV CONTENTS. 

Production of dyes and coal-tar chemicals, 1922 — Continued. 

Dyes and other finished coal-tar products — Continued. Page. 

Production of dyes by classes 35 

Acid 35 

Basic 37 

Direct cotton : 38 

Mordant and chrome 39 

Sulphur 40 

Vat 41 

Color lake and spirit-soluble 43 

Food 44 

Dye exports from the United States — 

1922 exports show large decline 44 

1923 exports show increase 45 

Other finished coal-tar products — 

Color lakes 46 

Photographic chemicals 47 

Medicinals 47 

Flavors and perfume materials 48 

Synthetic phenolic resins 49 

Synthetic tanning materials 49 

Dyes not classified by Schultz number 60 

Employees and rates of pay 64 

Research work 66 

Part III. 

Dyes imported for consumption in the United States, 1922 calendar year: 

Introductory 69 

Important dyes imported 71 

Index to table of imports 100 

Part IV. 
Census of synthetic organic chemicals, not of coal-tar origin, 1922: 

Introduction 109 

Developments in the industry 109 

Synthetic aromatic chemicals 110 

Esters 110 

Chloroform and carbon tetrachloride 110 

Pharmaceuticals 110 

Butyl alcohol. 110 

Aldehyde ammonia 110 

Ethylene and propylene derivatives 110 

Mucic acid Ill 

Gallic acid and pyrogallic acid Ill 

Dihvdroxytartaric acid Ill 

Furfural. Ill 

Lactic acid Ill 

Oxalic acid Ill 

Directory of manufacturers of dyes and other synthetic organic chemicals, 

1922 117 

Part V. 
International dye trade: 

Imports and exports of the world's chief dye-consuming and producing 
nations, 1913, 1920, 1921, 1922— 

Introductory 123 

Summary of international dye trade 123 

Pre-war production of dyes 124 

Dye-consuming nations 124 

Developments during and after the war 126 

Present conditions and future tendencies 126 

Swiss dye industry 127 

Raw materials 128 

Export trade 129 

French dye industry 134 

Imports 135 

Exports. 136 

Groat Britain's dye industry 140 

Monthly production of dyes in Germany February, 1920-March, 1923 151 



CONTENTS. V 

Part VI. 

Appendix: Page. 

Statistics of imports and exports 167 

Statistical Tables. 

1. Summary of production of dyes and coal-tar chemicals, 1918-1922 9 

2. By-products obtained from coke-oven operations, 1920-1922 14 

3. Production of coal-tar crudes during 1922, by firms not primarily engaged in 

the operation of coke-oven plants and gas houses 17 

4. Comparison of production of coal-tar crudes, 1921 and 1922, by firms not 

primarily engaged in operation of coke-oven plants and gas houses 17 

5. Production and sales of coal-tar intermediates, 1922 22 

6. Comparison of production of coal-tar intermediates, 1921 and 1922 28 

7. Comparison of imports of dyes, by classes, fiscal year, 1914, with domestic 

production, calendar years, 1917-1922 29 

8. Domestic sale prices of dyes, 1917-1922, compared with invoice values of 

the same dyes, 1914 32 

9. Domestic exports of dyes, by months, 1919-March, 1922 45 

10. Production and sales of dyes and other finished coal-tar products, 1922 50 

11. Comparison of production of dyes and other finished coal-tar products, 1921 

and 1922 62 

12. Employees and rates of pay, dye and coal-tar chemical industry, 1922 .... 65 

13. Summary of dyes imported for consumption classified by method of appli- 

cation in calendar years 1920-1922 71 

14. Dyes of each class according to method of application, imported in largest 

quantity, 1922 71 

15. Imports of dyes, 1922 74 

16. Production and sales of synthetic organic chemicals, 1922 Ill 

17. Comparison of production of synthetic organic chemicals, 1921 and 1922. . . 115 

18. Domestic production of organic chemicals (except coal-tar), 1914, 1919, and 

1921 116 

19. Synthetic organic chemicals imported in excess of $100 in value, year 

ended June 30, 1914 116 

20. Imports and production of synthetic organic chemicals (except those of 

coal-tar origin), 1922 117 

21. Total imports of dyes into chief consuming countries, 1913 and 1921 125 

22. German exports of dyes, 1913 126 

23. Imports of intermediates into Switzerland, 1911 and 1922 130 

24. Exports of dyes from Switzerland, 1913, 1920, and 1921 131 

25. Coal-tar dyes — Imports and exports from Switzerland, 1922 133 

26. Imports of coal-tar crudes and intermediates into France, 1913 136 

27. Imports of coal-tar dyes into France, 1920-1921 138 

28. Exports of coal-tar dyes from France, 1920-1921 139 

29. Imports of coal-tar dyes into United Kingdom, 1913, 1919, and 1921 143 

30. Total imports and exports— United Kingdom, 1920-1922 144 

31. Exports of coal-tar dyes from United Kingdom, 1913, 1920-1921 144 

32. Imports of coal-tar dyes into Argentina, 1913, 1919, and 1920 145 

33. Austria — Coal-tar products, imports and exports, 1920, 1921 146 

34. Coal-tar dyes — Imports into and exports from Austria-Hungary, 1913 146 

35. Indigo, natural and artificial — Imports into and exports from Belgium, 

1913, 1920, and 1921 147 

36. Imports of coal-tar dyes into Brazil, 1913, 1920, and 1921 147 

37. Imports of coal-tar dyes into Canada, 1913, 1920-1922 148 

38. Imports of coal-tar dyes into China, 1913, 1919-1921 148 

39. Imports of coal-tar dyes into the Dutch East Indies, 1913, 1920, and 1921. . 149 

40. Imports into and reexports of dyes from Egypt, 191.3, 1921, and 1922 150 

41. One-quarter production in German dye plants reserved for purchase of 

allied and associated governments, February, 1920, to March, 1923 153 

42. Exports of coal-tar dyes from Germany, 1913, 1920, and 1921 155 

43. Imports of coal-tar dyes into Germanv, 1913, 1920-1922 157 

44. Imports of coal-tar products into British India, 1914, 1920-1922 157 

45. Exports of indigo from British India, 1920-1922 158 

46. Imports of coal-tar dyes into Japan, 1913, 1919-1921 159 

47. Imports of coal-tar dyes into Italy, 1913, 1920, and 1921 159 

48. Exports of coal-tar dyes from Italy, 1913, 1920, and 1921 160 

49. S^Tithetic organic colors — Imports into and exports from Italy, July- 

December, 1921 160 

50. Imports of coal-tar dyes into Mexico, 1919-1921 160 



VI CONTENTS. 

Pag«. 

51 . Imports of coal-tar dyes into the Netherlands, 1920 and 1921 161 

52. Exports of coal-tar dyes from the Netherlands, 1920 and 1921 161 

53. Imports of coal-tar dyes into Russia, 1913 162 

54. Imports of coal-tar dyes into Spain, 1914, 1920, and 1921 162 

55. Exports of coal-tar dyes from Sweden, 1913, 1920, and 1921 163 

56. Imports of coal-tar dyes into Sweden, 1913, 1920, and 1921 163 

57. Coal-tar dyes — Imports into and exports from Turkey, March, 1913-March, 

1914 164 

58. Imports of coal-tar products entered for consumption, 1917-1922 167 

59. General imports of coal-tar products, by countries, 1918-1922 175 

60. Domestic exports of coal tar and dyes and dyestuffs, 1918-1922 182 

61. Imports and exports of inks and ink powders, 1918-1922 185 



INTRODUCTION. 

This report is a survey of the domestic dye and synthetic organic 
chemical industry in 1922. It presents the results of a special in- 
vestigation made by the United States Tariff Commission as to the 
production in the United States of coal-tar dyes and also of syn- 
thetic organic chemicals, both of coal-tar and of noncoal-tar origin. 
There is included a detailed census of dye imports and official pre- 
and post-war statistics for the imports and exports of coal-tar dyes 
by the large consuming and producing nations of the world. 

The survey is divided into six parts as follows : 

Part I. — A summary of the census of dyes and other synthetic 
organic chemicals, 1922, describes the progress made in the various 
branches of the American industry, and analyzes the export and 
import trade. 

Part II. — A census of dyes and coal-tar chemicals, 1922 discusses 
significant phases of the domestic industry, compares the imports of 
dyes in 1914, 1920, 1921, and 1922 with the production from 1917 
to 1922, inclusive, and gives detailed data, as to number of employees, 
rates of pay, and cost of research in the domestic coal-tar chemical 
industry. 

Part III. — Contains a census of dyes imported for consumption 
mto the United States in 1922. 

Part IV. — A census of synthetic organic chemicals other than those 
derived from coal tar presents a comparison of production in 1922 
with that of 1921, the first year for which such data were compiled. 
There are listed those manufacturers whose production in 1922 was 
reported to the Tariff Commission. 

Part V. — Contains a brief discussion of the international dye trade, 
with special reference to the industries of Great Britain, France, 
and Switzerland. Official statistics are given for the pre-war year 
1913, and the post-war years 1920 and 1921, and where available, 
1922, for the exports and imports of dyes by the important consum- 
ing and producing nations of the world. 

Part VI. — An appendix gives domestic imports and exports of 
coal-tar dyes and chemicals during 1922. 



In the preparation of this report the Tarifl[ Commission had the 
services of Warren N. Watson, Frank Talbot, and C. R. De Long, 
of the chemical division of the commission's staff, and of others. 



VII 



PART I. 

SUMMARY OF THE CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER 
I SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1922. 



Part I. 

SUMMARY OF THE CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC 
ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1922. 



Introductory. 



The United States Tariff Commission has reported annually, begin- 
ning with 1917, the progress of the American dye industry. Since 
1919 production figures on dyes and other coal-tar chemicals have 
been supplemented by a detailed census of dye imports. There is in 
addition, in the report of 1921 and in the present report, a census of 
synthetic organic chemicals other than those derived from coal tar, 
A new feature of the 1922 report is the discussion of the international 
dye trade, particularly the status of the industry in Great Britain, 
Switzerland, and France. Official statistics are given as to the 
exports and imports of the more important dye consuming and pro- 
ducing countries of the world in post-war as compared with pre-war 
years. There is also presented a detailed statement of the monthly 
production of dyes in Germany from February, 1920, to March, 1923, 
and a summary of the stocks of each class reserved for the purchase 
of the allied and associated governments. 

Other reports prepared by the Tariff Commission relating to condi- 
tions in the dye industry include (1) Costs of Production in the Dye 
Industry, 1918 and 1919, and (2) Dyes and Other Coal-tar Chemicals, 
December 12, 1918. 

The general grouping of coal-tar chemicals adopted in the present 
report follows that of the tariff act of 1922, which conforms in gen- 
eral — although not in every detail — with common practice. Crudes, 
paragraph 1549, free, are contained in and separated from crude 
coal tar; intermediates, dutiable under paragraph 27 at 55 per cent 
and 7 cents per pound, are produced from the crudes by chemical 
processes and with some exceptions are used only for the manufacture 
of dyes or other finished products by further chemical treatment ; and 
dyes and other finished products are dutiable under paragraph 28 
at 60 per cent and 7 cents per pound. The term "other finished 
products" includes color lakes, photographic chemicals, medicinals, 
flavors, perfume materials, synthetic resins, and synthetic tanning 
materials. Explosives, derived from coal-tar materials, although 
dutiable under paragraph 28, are not included in tliis census. A 
summary of the production of coal-tar products in 1922, according 
to classes given above, is contained in Table 1. Figures of the pro- 
duction of dyes and coal-tar chemicals in the United States are 
compiled from the returns of 209 companies. It is believed that these 
represent a complete record of the manufacture of such products in 
that year. In presenting the figures the quantity and value of each 
product are given in as great detail as is possible without revealing 
the operations of individual manufacturers. 

Summary of Domestic Production. 

CRUDES. 

The production of coal-tar crudes is dependent upon the output of 
by-product coke. In 1922 there were produced in the United States 
28, .500, 000 short tons of by-product coke, an increase of more than 

3 



4 UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 

3,000,000 tons. This increase occurred despite a scarcity of coal 
following a strike. As a result of the increased production of by- 
product coke in 1922, the output of tar was the greatest in the history 
of the American industry and supplied crude materials for the coal- 
tar chemical industry far in excess of domestic demands. Of the 
total tar produced, about one-half was consumed as fuel; only a part 
of the remainder was distilled into refined products owing to the 
demand for partly refined products such as motor fuel, solvents, and 
soft pitches. 

The domestic production of crudes is collected by two agencies, 
according to the producer. The Geological Survey gathers informa- 
tion as to that produced by the distillation of tar at by-product coke 
ovens and the United States Tariff Commission collects data as to 
the output of firms primarily engaged in tar distillation. Figures 
from the two sources appear in Tables 2 and 3. 

The production of crude anthracene in 1922 was a slight gain over 
that reported in 1921. Several years ago one of the unsolved prob- 
lems of the domestic dye industry was how to secure an adequate 
supply of anthracene for use in the manufacture of anthraquinone 
which, in turn, is required in the manufacture of vat and alizarin 
dyes. Several firms now produce anthraquinone by a synthetic 
process from phthalic anhydride and benzene; the output by the 
synthetic process supplements the supply derived from anthracene, 
and it can be stated that as fast as the requirements of the dye 
makers increase there will be an adequate supply of anthraquinone 
from the two sources. 

INTERMEDIATES. 

Increased ^production. — The total production of intermediates in 
1922 by 106 firms was 165,048,155 pounds, an increase of 133 per 
cent over the output in 1921. The total sales in the same year were 
58,004,435 pounds, valued at $12,910,486. The average sales price 
for intermediates was 22 cents per pound, a 12 per cent decrease 
from that of 1921. This decrease was a general one both for bulk 
intermediates and for products used in smaller quantities. The price 
of aniline decreased from 22 cents per pound in 1921 to 15 cents in 
1922; H acid, from 95 cents to 73 cents; b-naphthol, from 39 to 24 
cents; anthraquinone, from $1.59 to $1.34 per pound. 

Increase in number of intermediates. — -The total number of inter- 
mediates in 1922 was 280. Of this number 85 were not reported in 
1921. Many of these are new and are required in the manufacture 
of the more complex and faster types of dyes. Their addition to the 
domestic manufacturing program is an important advancement in 
the industry. The coal-tar intermediates are used not only in the 
manufacture of dyes but in the production of medicinals, flavors, 
perfume materials, photographic chemicals, synthetic phenolic resins, 
synthetic tanning materials, accelerators for vulcanizing, and explo- 
sives. The industry is still deficient in certain products, wliile in 
others production is not yet adequate for all domestic needs. 

DYES. 

Production increases 66 per cent. — The domestic production of 
dyes in 1922 by 87 firms was 64,632,187 pounds, an increase of 
66 per cent over that of the previous year. Sales totaled 



SUMMARY OF THE CENSUS OF DYES, 1922. 5 

69,107,105 pounds, valued at $41,463,790. The pre-war production 
in 1914 by 7 firms was 6,619,729 pounds, valued at $2,470,096. 
The general increase in dye production during 1922 was largely due 
to the business revival. Beginning about June, the textile and other 
dye-consuming industries became more active after a long business 
depression, and during the remaining months of the year the demand 
for dyes steadily increased. All classes of dyes shared in this increase. 

Large price reduction. — The average price of all dyes produced in 
1922 was 28 per cent below that for the previous year. The price 
averaged 60 cents per pound, compared with 83 cents in 1921 and 
$1.26 per pound in 1917. 

The large reduction in the price of dyes was a general one both for 
bulk colors and for dyes consumed in smaller quantities. The aver- 
age price of indigo in 1922 was 24 cents per pound, compared with 45 
cents in 1921, a 47 per cent decrease. Direct deep black EW declined 
in price 47 per cent ; Acid black, 28 per cent ; Salicine black U, 27 per 
cent. Among dyes which do not constitute bulk colors there were 
reductions in price as follows : 30 per cent in Indanthrene blue GCD ; 
20 per cent in Alizarin; 34 per cent in Alizarin saphirol B; 41 per cent 
in Wool green S; and 24 per cent in Eosine. 

Vat and alizarin dyes increased over 200 per cent. — The large in- 
crease in the production of anthraquinone dyes was one of the con- 
spicuous developments of the year. These dyes are fast to laundry 
treatment, and are used for dyeing and printing cotton. The alizarin 
derivatives are of great value in wool dyeing. Their manufacture in 
the United States is essential to a well-rounded and self-contained 
dye industry. 

The use of vat dyes is on the increase with the dissemination of 
information as to the availability of fast shades for cotton. Higher 
prices for cotton goods have also favored the use of the best available 
dyes, even at a slight increase in cost. The total production of anthra- 
quinone dyes in 1922 was 1,234,963 pounds; the production of vat 
dyes other than indigo was 1,075,992 pounds, compared with 345,152 
pounds in 1921. 

Many new dyes produced. — The addition to the domestic manu- 
facturing program of many important dyes for silk, cotton, and 
wool was one of the developments of 1922. These include vat dyes, 
alizarins for wool, developed cotton dyes, and mordant and acid 
colors. Increased production of these dyes is reflected in the reduced 
importation. Most of the new dyes are colors of great complexity and 
their manufacture is the result of painstaking investigation. The 
developments in the past year are highly creditable, but the domestic 
industry is still deficient in vat dyes and certain of the mordant, acid, 
and direct colors. 

Quality and standardisation of American dyes. — The satisfactory 
quality of American dyes is one of the evidences of the progress made 
by the domestic industry. Dye for dye, with relatively few excep- 
tions, the domestic product is the equal of the pre-war German 
product. In the early stages of the American dye industry, after the 
outbreak of the war, there was a lack of uniformity as to strength 
and quality, but this condition no longer prevails. Domestic manu- 
facturers now market uniformly standardized products of good 
quality. Statements of the largest silk and woolen manufacturers, 
and of cotton printers and dyers, agree as to the satisfactory results 
obtained from American colors. 



6 UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 

Relation of production to consumption. — The imports of dyes in 
1922 were 6.2 per cent of total production by quantity and 6.5 per 
cent of the apparent consumption which is assumed to equal produc- 
tion plus imports minus exports. The production by quantity is 
104.8 per cent of the total consumption. The United States produced 
about 93.5 per cent of the dyes apparently consumed. 

Production hy classes. — -The production of dyes in 1922 grouped 
by classes according to method of application was as follows: Acid 
dyes, 9,880,014 pounds, or 15.29 per cent; basic dyes, 2,937,585 
pounds, or 4.54 per cent; direct dyes, 11,931,737 pounds, or 18.46 
per cent; lake and spirit-soluble dyes, 1,009,512 pounds, or 1.56 
per cent; mordant and clirome dyes, 3,749,701 pounds, or 5.8 per 
cent; sulphur dyes, 16,913,767 pounds, or 26.17 per cent; vats, in- 
cluding indigo, 16,926,744 pounds, or 26.19 per cent; indigo, 15,- 
850,752 pounds, or 24.52 per cent; and other vat dyes, 1,075,992, or 
1.67 per cent. Unclassified dyes amounted to 1,283,127 pounds, .or 
1.99 per cent of total production. 

Imports. — Total imports of coal-tar dyes in 1922 were 3,982,631 
pounds, valued at $5,243,257, compared with 4,252,911 pounds 
m 1921 and 45,950,895 pounds in 1914. Of the total imports dur- 
ing 1922, 44.58 per cent came from Germany, 43.72 per cent from. 
Switzerland, 5.25 per cent from England, 4.18 per cent from Italy, 
and 2.27 per cent from other countries. In 1921 Germany supplied 
48.34 per cent and in 1920, 51 per cent. Imports in 1922 classified 
by method of application were as follows: Acid dyes, 601,395 pounds; 
indigo, 505 pounds; vat dyes, other than indigo, 1,548,519 pounds; 
alizarins, 27,086 pounds; mordant and chrome dyes, 689,704 pounds; 
direct cotton dyes, 671,621 pounds; sulphur dyes, 194,883 pounds; 
basic dyes, 155,084 pounds; spirit-soluble and color lake dyes, 76,853 
pounds; and unclassified dyes, 16,981 pounds. 

Table 15 shows the quantity and value of each dye imported in 
1922. Table 14 shows the leading dyes of each class according to 
application imported in that year. 

Research. — The coal-tar chemical industry has expended over 
$21,000,000 in research alone during the last five years (1917-1922). 
In probably no other field have there been so extensive investigations 
as in the manufacture of dyes. The progress and developments of 
that period may be attributed in no small part to the enormous 
expenditures in research. New dyes and other chemicals have been 
developed and costs of production have been reduced. The decrease 
in expenditure for research in 1921 and 1922 may be attributed in 
part to the business depression. While the progress of the industry 
was retarded somewhat by reduced allowances for experimental 
work, advances were nevertheless made during that period. 

1922 exports show large decline. — The combined value of the ex- 
ports of ''color lakes" and "other colors, dyes, and stains" in 1922 
was $3,023,127, and the quantity amounted to 6,956,593 pounds. 
This value represents a 52 per cent decline from that of 1921, when 
the combined value of exports of "aniline dyes" and "all other 
dyes" was $6,270,155. The 1922 figure is a 90 per cent decline from 
that of 1920, when the dye export trade reached a maximum of 
$29,823,591. 



SUMMARY OF THE CENSUS OF DYES, 1922. 7 

The large export of 1920 was during theboom year of business activity 
before the German dyes had again appeared in the international dye 
markets. The official imports of Chma, India, and Japan show that 
German dyes were exported in large quantities to those countries 
after 1920, and that Switzerland, France, and Great Britain were 
also factors in 1921 in the Far East markets. 

The large exports in 1919 and 1920 are not a measure of the com- 
petitive strength of the American industry because during those 
years Germany was not active in foreign markets. Since the out- 
break of the war Great Britain, the United States, and France have 
developed large dye industries, and Switzerland has also expanded 
her industry, with the result that competition in the world's markets 
has been greatly increased. 

19£3 dye exports increase. — The total exports of ''coal-tar colors, 
dyes, and stains," as reported by the monthly summary of foreign 
commerce for the first four months of 1923, were 5,456,812 pounds, 
valued at $1,787,063. This increased demand for American dyes, 
largely by the Far East market, may be attributed in part to the 
reduced exports of German dyes since the occupation of the Ruhr by 
the French in 1923. 

INTERNATIONAL DYE TRADE. 

Prior to the war Germany, with an output totaling three-fourths 
of all synthetic dyes produced, dominated the world's dye markets; 
of the remainmg fourth, one-half were made from German intermedi- 
ates, and consequently the production was dependent upon Ger- 
many. On this basis about 88 per cent of the world's dye trade 
was controlled by Germany. Switzerland, although without raw 
materials, ranked second, with about 7 per cent of the world's 
production. Practicall}^ all raw materials used by the Swiss dye- 
makers were of German origin. Great Britain prior to the war pro- 
duced about one-tenth of her requirements, and France produced in 
French-owned and operated plants about 10 to 15 per cent of her 
consumption. In both France and Great Britain dye plants were 
operated and owned by German dyemakers; in France or England, 
as the case might be, in the manufacture of dyes from intermediates 
of German production, the final assembling operations were com- 
pleted in order to meet the patent requirements of those countries. 
In the United States prior to the war the small industry that existed 
depended almost entirely on intermediates from Germany. 

Soon after the beginning of the World War the supply of German 
dyes was shut off from dye-consuming nations. The stocks on 
hand were soon exhausted and there developed a dye famine which 
threatened the activities of the vast textile industries as well as others 
dependent upon dyes for operation. The prices of dyes rapidly in- 
creased and certain colors were not to be had at any price. 

As a result of War conditions the manufacture of dyes in the United 
States, Great Britain, and France was greatly stimulated and great 
progress was made toward the development of a self-sufficient industry. 
Each of these countries has exported significant quantities of dyes 
since the signing of the armistice and each now produces more than 
eighty per cent of its own requirements. The German monopoly of 
the world's dye production has been temporarily if not permanently 



8 UNITED STATES TAEIFF COMMISSION. 

broken. The large developments during the war have probably re- 
sulted in the doubling of the world's capacity to manuiacture dyes. 

The German industry offers a united front to the world under the 
powerful combination known as the I. G. — Interessen Gemeinschaft — 
and has the advantage of cumulative experience, lower manufacturing 
costs, and a unified organization for buying and selling. The three 
Swiss firms have also formed an amalgamation. Severe competition 
may be expected in the world's dye market as a result of the large 
developments during and since the war. The first contact in tms 
competitive rivalry occurred in the Far East markets in 1921 when 
Germany recaptured a large part of her lost trade. In consequence 
the exports of the United States in that year showed a sharp decline 
from the large foreign sales of 1920. 

China leads all nations as a consumer of dyes. Present estimated 
consumption exceeds 70,000,000 pounds per year. The United 
States ranks second, with an average annual consumption of about 
55,000,000 pounds. Great Britain follows with a consumption of 
approximately 50,000,000 pounds per year. It is anticipated that 
Germany will make every endeavor to recover a part of her large dye 
trade in these markets during the coming years. In case tariff or 
other measures designed to stimulate domestic production are con- 
tinued by those countries, the German industry may establish facto- 
ries or seek industrial affiliations, as has been done by Swiss manufac- 
turers who have established plants in both the United States and 
Great Britain. 

The export prices of German dyes are far above pre-war levels and 
a reduction is possible in case sharp competition develops. 

As a result of experiences during the war and of the Ruhr occupa- 
tion, it is considered probable that the large industrial nations will 
endeavor to retain their dye industries to meet their essential re- 
quirements in time of peace and to provide for the emergencies of 
national defense. The future of these newly established dye indus- 
tries will depend upon many factors, among which are reduced costs 
of manufacture, development of new products, governmental meas- 
ures adopted to stimulate production, and ability to retain a portion 
of the world's export trade for certain bulk products as a source of 
income and as a means of balancing production. 

OTHER FINISHED COAL-TAR PRODUCTS. 

Color lakes. — The total output of this class of pigments in 1922 
by 43 firms was 10,578,664 pounds, compared with 6,152,187 pounds 
in 1921. The total salesof color lakes amounted to 10,366,676 pounds, 
valued at S4, 551, 572. 

Photographic chemicals. — ^The production by 7 firms of those coal- 
tar chemicals used as photographic developers totaled, in 1922, 
345,798 pounds, compared with 183,798 pounds in 1921. Sales 
amounted to 347,647 pounds, valued at $483,269. 

Medicinals. — This class of coal-tar products may bo considered 
as essential to national welfare. The highest technical and research 
skill is required in the development and commercial production of 
these chemicals. During 1922 conspicuous progress was made in the 
development of synthetic medicinals of coal-tar origin. The total 
production as reported by 35 firms was 2,946,347 pounds, and the 
sales amounted to 3,092,915 pounds, valued at .$4,233,443. The 1921 



SUMMARY OF THE CENSUS OF DYES, 1922. 9 

production totaled 1,545,917 pounds and the sales amounted to 
1,876,246 pounds, valued at $2,930,324. 

Perfumes and flavors. — These coal-tar products are closely related, 
certain members of the class being used both as flavors and perfumes. 
The total output of flavors in 1922 by 20 fhms was 1,215,668 pounds, 
compared with 901,245 pounds in 1921. Sales amounted to 1,278,857 
pounds, valued at $1,260,588. The production of perfumes by 17 
firms in 1922 was 793,148 pounds, compared with 119,335 pounds 
for the previous year. Sales amounted to 778,696 pounds, valued at 
$643,436. 

Synthetic pJienolic resins. — These products are used as substitutes 
for amber in making pipe stems and a great variety of other articles, 
and for electrical insulators, varnishes, and lacquers. The 1922 
production by 5 concerns was 5,944,133 pounds, compared with an 
output of 1,643,796 pounds during the previous year. Sales in 
1922 amounted to 6,415,931 pounds, valued at $4,315,196. 

Synthetic tanning materials. — The output of these products by 4 
firms amounted to 1,910,519 pounds in 1922, compared with 1,902,597 
pounds in 1921. Thesales were 1,981, 588 pounds, valued at $103,598. 

Research chemicals. — The production of research chemicals by 4 
manufacturers amounted to 1,667 pounds in 1922. The total sales 
were 650 pounds, valued at $12,434. 

Table 1. — Summary of the production of dyes and coal-tar chemicals, 1918-1922. 



Group II — Intermediates. . 
Group III — Finished prod- 
ucts 

Dyes 

Color lakes 

Photographic chemi- 
cals 

Medicinals 

Flavors 

Perfumes 

Tanning materials 

Synthetic phenolic 
resins 



1918 



Number 
of manu- 
factur- 
ers. 



128 



Production. 



Pounds. 



357,662,251 

76,802,959 

58, 464, 446 

9,590,537 

316, 749 

3,623,352 

458, 256 

116,263 

4,233,356 



Value. 



$124,382,892 

83,815,746 

62,026,390 

5,020,023 

823,915 
7,792,984 
4,925,627 

584,695 

2,642,120 



1919 



Number 
of manu- 
factur- 
ers. 



116 

155 
90 
34 

10 

31 

9 

6 

1 



Production. 



Pounds. 



177,362,426 

82,532,390 

63, 402, 194 

7,569,921 

335, 509 

6,777,988 

610, 825 

41,419 

3,794,534 



Value. 



$63,210,079 

84,585,544 

67,598,855 

4, 179, 964 

1,059,340 

7,883,071 

1,318,654 

164, 302 

2,381,358 





1920 


1921 


Number 
of manu- 
factur- 
ers. 


Production. 


Number 
of manu- 
factur- 
ers. 


Produc- 
tion. 


Sales. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Poimds. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Group II— Intermedi- 
ates 


119 

161 
82 
43 

8 

35 
15 
12 

4 

4 


257,726,911 

112,942,227 
88,263,776 
10,983,538 

440, 759 
5,184,989 

166,884 

99,740 

3,142,861 

4,659,680 


$95,291,686 

112,731,547 

95,613,749 

5,871,820 

1,015,848 

5,726,776 

527,493 

332,008 

233,674 

3,410,179 


108 

147 
74 
43 

5 
34 
17 
15 

4 

3 


70,899,912 

51,457,565 
39,008,690 
6,152,187 

183,798 

1,545,917 

901, 245 

119,335 

1,902,597 

1,643,796 


33,637,326 

60,434,009 
47,513,762 
6,424,612 

170,221 

1,876,246 

933,662 

119,691 

1,721,359 

1,674,456 


$8,483,463 


Group III— Finished 
products 


47,996,514 


J Dves 


39,283,956 


' Color lakes 


2,863,189 


Photographic chem- 
icals 


248, 041 


Medicinals 


2,930,324 


Flavors 


1,002,018 




175,815 


Tanning materials. . 
Synthetic phenolic 


141,005 
1,352,166 









52805—23- 



10 UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 

Table 1. — Summary of the production of dyes and coal-tar chemicals, 1918-1922 — Con. 



1922 



Number 
of manu- 
factur- 
ers. 



Production. 



Pounds. 



Sales. 



Pounds. 



Value. 



Group II— Intermediates 

Group III— Finished products 

Dyes 

Color lakes 

Photographic chemicals . . . 

Medicinals 

Flavors 

Perfumes 

Tanning materials 

Sjmthetic phenolic resins.. 

Research chemicals 



106 

164 

87 

43 

7 

35 

20 

17 

4 

5 

4 



165,048,155 

88,368,131 

64,632,187 

10,578,664 

345, 798 

2, 946, 347 

1,215,668 

793,148 

1,910,519 

5,944,133 

1,667 



58,004,435 

93, 370, 065 

69, 107, 105 

10,366,676 

347,647 

3,092,915 

1, 278, 857 

778,696 

1, 981, 588 

6,415,931 

650 



812,910,486 

57, 067, 326 

41, 463, 790 

4, 551, 572 

483, 269 

4, 233, 443 

1, 260, 588 

643, 436 

103, 598 

4, 315, 196 

12,434 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS OTHER THAN THOSE DERIVED FROM 

COAL TAR. 

The Tariff Commissioii for the first time in 1921 compiled a census 
of organic chemicals other than those derived from coal tar or directly 
from natural sources. These included acids, alcohols, esters, ketones, 
aldehydes, derivatives of alkaloids, carbocyclic compounds, etc., and 
are used as perfume and flavoring ingredients, solvents, medicinals, 
and also in industrial and other processes. 

Organic chemicals of noncoal-tar origin have been rather neglected 
during the past 30 years, owing to the great interest and remarkable 
progress made in the coal-tar organic chemicals. The rapid develop- 
ment of the past few years in the noncoal-tar organic chemicals indi- 
cates that there will be further expansion in this field and that new 
products of great economic value will continue to be placed on the 
market. 

The production of synthetic organic chemicals other than those 
derived from coal-tar in 1922 was 79,202,155 pounds, and sales for 
that year amounted to 60,494,494 pounds, valued at $11,964,074. 
The production in 1921 totaled 21,545,186 pounds. There were in- 
cluded in 1922, however, a number of products which were not 
reported in 1921, so the totals for the two years are not strictly com- 
parable. 

A detailed census of this group of organic chemicals is contained in 
Part V, showing production and sales in cases in so far as the publica- 
tion of such figures can be given without disclosing the output of 
the individual manufacturer. 



PART II. 

PRODUCTION OF DYES AND COAL-TAR 
CHEMICALS, 1922. 



11 



Part II. 
PRODUCTION OF DYES AND COAL-TAR CHEMICALS, 1922. 



Coal-Tar Crudes. 

By-product coke exceeds 28,000,000 tons. — 'The preliminary figures 
for the domestic production of coke in 1922, as reported by the United 
States Geological Survey, show a total of 36,586,000 tons. The out- 
put of by-product coke alone was 28,553,000 tons, while that of bee- 
hive ovens totaled 8,033,000 tons. The total domestic production 
of coke in 1921 was 25,288,000 tons and for 1920, 51,345,000 tons. 
During 1922 and 1921, 78 per cent of the coke produced was from by- 
product ovens, as compared with 60 per cent in 1920 and 22 per cent 
irom beehive ovens. 

The increased production of by-product coke is reflected in the 
record output in 1922 of the by-products, tar, ammonia, and gas. As 
stated in the census of 1921, the replacement of beehive ovens by 
the by-product variety, which recover the tar, ammonia, and gas 
products entirely wasted by the old beehive type, is of great economic 
significance in the conservation of national resources for the follow- 
ing reasons: (1) The by-product ovens increase production of am- 
monia for fertilizer and other use; (2) the gas produced in these ovens 
is used for municipal lighting and industrial heating; and (3) the out- 
put of tar insures an abundant supply of coal tar for the preparation 
of crudes which serve as a basis of the domestic coal-tar dye and 
chemical industry. 

Output of coal-tar crudes. — The output of tar in 1922 approximated 
328,000,000 gallons compared with 253,000,000 gallons in 1921. An 
estimate for light oil similarly shows the large increase to 102,000,000 
gallons compared with 76,000,000 gallons for 1921, while ammonia 
(sulphate equivalent of all forms) totaled 896,000,000 pounds. 

The domestic production of crudes is collected either by the Tariff 
Commission or by the Geological Survey, according to the producer. 
Crudes distilled from tar at by-product coke-oven plants are reported 
to the Geological Survey. The production from this source lor the 
years 1920-1922 is shoMTi in Table 2. The production of crudes by 
firms engaged primarily in the distillation of coal tar is reported to 
the Tariff Commission and is shown in Table 3. The figures from 
both sources must be considered in arriving at the total output for 
a given year. Of the total production of lignt oil at by-product coke 
ovens, the greater part is refined at the coke-oven plants. The bulk 
of the refined product is marketed in the form of motor fuel, which 
is partly refined benzene containing toluene and a small amount of 
solvent naphtha. Details for the production of refined benzene, 
toluene, and naphthalene at coke ovens are contained in Table 3. 
In comparing the production of crudes at the by-product coke ovens 
with the production by tar refiners, it will be noted that a very large 
part of the total output of refined naphthalene was made by tar 
refiners. 

13 



14 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 



Production of crudes ly tar refiners. — ^The total domestic output of 
tar at coke ovens is far in excess of the needs of the domestic dye and 
coal-tar chemical industry. The detailed tables of the by-product 
ovens show that only a part of the tar is refined; in fact, approxi- 
raately 50 per cent of the tar is consumed as boiler fuel in metallurgi- 
cal plants. The tar distillers must accordingly pay somewhat more 
than the fuel value of the tar. Of the total tar sold by the by-product 
oven operators only a part is distilled into refined benzene, toluene, 
naphthalene, and anthracene, as there is a considerable demand for 
partly refined products, such as motor fuel, solvents, and soft pitches. 
Table 3 shows production of crudes reported to the Tariff Commission 
by firms not primarily engaged in the operation of coke-oven plants 
and gas houses. There was, in general, an increased production of 
practically every crude during 1922 over the previous year. Benzene 
showed a large gain, totaling 5,708,421 gallons compared with 
2,171,631 gallons in 1921. The outjDut of toluene for 1922 was nearly 
five times that of 1921; xylene likewise showed a large increase. 
The production of naphthalene was 19,323,393 pounds compared 
with 16,949,464 pounds in the previous year. In 1922 the production 
of crude anthracene (less than 30 per cent) was 1,738,444 pounds, 
which represents a slight increase over that for 1921. Production 
of carbazole (crude, 60 per cent) showed a large gain, while the out- 
put of pjTidine declined. Crude cresol showed a large increase in 
production, and the figures for solvent naphtha, creosote oil, and 
anthracene oil also recorded gains in 1922. 

Imports of crudes during 1922. — Details of the domestic imports for 
consumption are given in Part VI of this publication. The more 
important items include "benzol," with a total of 172,528 pounds, a 
large decline from 1921, when the figure was 1,722,085 pounds. Total 
imports of cresol were 3,756,651 pounds, a large increase over the 
previous year, while imports of creosote oil totaled 41,566,767 pounds 
compared with 33,239,432 pounds in 1921. Imports of crude naph- 
thalene were 3,144,332 pounds. 

Table 2. — By-products obtained from coke-oven operations, 1920-1922. 
[From Mineral Resources of the United States, 1921, published by the Geological Survey.] 





Production. 




Sales. 




Product. 


Quantity. 


Value. 




Total. 


Average. 


1920. 
Tar gallons . . 


360, 664, 124 


174,363,696 


.1:6,378,040 


$0,037 


Ammonia: 

Sulphate pounds. . 

Ammonia liquor (NH3 content) do 

Other forms (NH3 content) do 


675,816,486 
65,777,259 


626,01.3,975 
62,076,772 


27,110,260 
8,585,173 


.043 
.138 












Sulphate equivalent of all forms do 


(938,925,522) 


(874,321,063) 


3.5,695,433 


.041 


<;as: 

Distributed through city mains. . .M cubic feet. . 

Used in steel or affiliated plants do 

I'scd under boilers, etc do 


[1476, 185, 744 


f 53,220,824 
151,764,807 
25,430,288 


15, 716, 888 
14, .301, 095 
2,216,335 


.295 
.094 
.087 




1 476, 485, 744 


230,415,919 


32,234,318 


.140 



1 Includes gas wasted and gas used for heating retorts. 



PEODUCTIOX OF DYES AXD COAL-TAR CHEMICALS, 1922. 15 

Table 2. — By-products obtained from coke-oven operations, 1920-1922 — Continued. 







Production. 


Sales. 


Product. 


Quantity. 


Value. 




Total. 


Average. 


1920. 

Light oil and drivatives: 

Crude light oil 

Benzol- 
Crude 

Refined 

Motor fuel 3 

Toluol: 

Crude 


...gallons.. 

do.... 

do.... 

do.... 

do.... 

do.... 

do.... 

...pounds.. 
do.... 


2 109,709,915 

8, 747, 572 
16, 977, 556 
57,645,462 

287, 142 
2, 710, 649 
5,678,525 


1, 067, 045 

1,510,420 
15,720,356 
55, 764, 265 


$126, 158 

401, 296 
4, 096, 527 
12,644,931 


$0. 118 

.266 
.260 
.227 


Refined 

Solvent naphtha 


2,470,364 
4, 695, 464 


740, 722 
851, 048 


.300 
.181 




92, 046, 906 


81,227,914 


18, 860, 682 


.232 


Naphthalene: 

Crude 

Refined 


11,246,807 
2, 921, 282 


11,507,703 
2,941,059 


307,999 
179, 975 


.027 
.061 




14,168,089 


14,448,762 


487,974 


.034 


Other products < 






36,317 














Value of all by-products sold 






93, 692, 764 






...gallons.. 

...pounds.. 

do.... 

do.... 

do.... 

cubic feet.. 

do.... 

do.... 

. . .gallons. . 

do.... 

do.... 

do.... 

do.... 

do.... 

do.... 

do.... 

. .pounds. . 
do 








1921. 
Tar 


253, 051, 649 


135, 293, 047 


5,645,309 


.042 


Ammonia: 

Sulphate 

Anunonia liquor (NH- content) 


528, 638, 763 

31, 899, 398 

191, 162 


530,041,716 

35, 102, 561 

53, 993 


13, 100, 703 

3, 515, 416 

10, 135 


.025 
.100 
.188 




(657, 001,003) 


(670,667,932) 


16, 626, 254 








Gas: 

Used under boilers, etc M 

Used in steel or affiliated plants 

Distributed through city mains 


'310,188,713 


f 12,122,777 
{ 98,352,049 
1 43, 826, 172 


1, 120, 087 
10, 593, 204 
14, 249, 961 


.092 
.108 
.325 




1 310, 188, 713 


154,300,998 


25,963,252 


.168 


Light oil and derivatives: 

Crude light oil 

Benzol — 

Crude 

Refined 

Motor benzol 

Toluol- 
Crude 

Refined 

Solvent naphtha 

Other miscellaneous products 


6 76, 917, 269 

1,494,329 

4,912,131 

48, 052, 882 

26, 529 

942, 982 

3, 822, 776 

590, 173 


2, 433, 078 

1, 536, 312 

5, 302, 709 

50, 022, 573 

26, 529 

808, 964 

2, 881, 656 

291, 635 


240,111 

343, 463 

1, 268, 258 
8, 966, 686 

4,410 

228, 968 

510, 509 

12,310 


.099 

.224 
.239 
.179 

.166 
.283 
.177 
.042 




59, 841, 802 


63, 303, 456 


11,574,715 


.183 


Naphthalene: 

Crude 

Refined 


2, 827, 756 
115,229 


1, 652, 466 
331, 057 


40,659 
18,676 


.025 
.056 




2, 942, 985 


1, 983, 523 


59,335 


.030 


Other products 






121,813 














Value of all by-products sold 




1 


59,990,678 | 





' Inchides gas wasted and gas used for heating retorts. 

2 Of this {|uantity, crude Ii,ght oil refined on the premises amounted to lC6,c64,417 gallons. 

' The benzol content of motor fuel ranged from 50 to 100 per cent. 

* Includes coal-tar oil, crude heavy solvent, carbon, and pyridin oil. 

'■' Of this amount 75,760,334 gallons were refined on the premises to make the derived products listed. 



16 UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 

Table 2. — By-products obtained from coke-oven operations, 1920-1922 — Continued. 







Production. 


Sales. 


Product. 


Quantity. 


Value. 




Total. 


Average. 


1922.8 
Tar 


.gallons.. 

.pounds.. 
....do.... 
....do.... 

....do.... 

ubic feet.. 
....do.... 
....do.... 

..gallons.. 

....do.... 
....do.... 
....do.... 

....do.... 
....do.... 
including 
..gallons.. 
do 


327,921,000 


149,151,000 


$5,967,000 


SO. 040 


Ammonia: 

Sulphate 

Ammonia liquor (NHa content) 

Other forms (NH3 content) 


699, 069, 000 

48, 590, 000 

694, 000 


718,279,000 

47,121,000 

193,000 


17,906,000 

3,417,000 

12,000 


.025 
.073 
.062 


Sulphate equivalent 


896, 205, 000 


907,535,000 


21,334,000 


.024 


Gas: 

Used under boilers, etc M c 

Used in steel or affiliated plant 

Distributed through city mains 


[1 442,546, 000 
















442,546,000 


230, 197, 000 


37,347,000 


.162 


Light oil and derivatives: 

Crude light oil 

Benzol- 
Crude 

Refined 

Motor benzol 

Toluol- 
Crude 

Refined 

Solvent naphtha (crude and refined, 
xylol) 

Other light oil products 


'102,118,000 

1,937,000 
9,359,000 
57,117,000 

38, 000 
1,846,000 

2, 845, 000 
579, 000 


5, 138, 000 

1, 922, 000 
8,518,000 
55,031,000 

4,000 
1,788,000 

2,723,000 
212, 000 


631,000 

504, 000 
2, 432, 000 
10,510,000 

652 
522, 000 

511,000 
15,000 


.123 

.262 
.286 
.200 

.163 
.292 

.188 
.071 


Total 


73, 721, 000 


70,198,000 


14,494,652 






.pounds.. 
)...do.... 




Naphthalene: 

Crude (melting point below 79° C.).. 
Refined (melting point 79° C. or over 


6, 345, 000 
1,811,000 


3,299,000 
1,589,000 


52, 000 
79,000 


.016 
.050 


Total 


8,156,000 


4,888,000 


131,000 










Other products 






155,000 














Value of all products sold . . . . 






79,428,652 











1 Includes gas wasted and gas used for heating retorts. 

8 Preliminary figures. Subject to revision. 

' Of this amount 95,554,000 gallons were refined on premises to make the desired products listed. 



PRODUCTION OF DYES AND COAL-TAR CHEMICALS, 1922. 



17 



Table 3 — Production of coal-tar crudes, 1922, by firms not "primarily engaged in the 
operation of coke-oven plants and gas houses. 

[The numbers in the second column refer to the numbered alphabetical list of manufacturers given on 
page 117. An X indicates that the corresponding product was made by a manufacturer who did not 
consent to the publication of his name in connection therewith. Blanks in the third and fourth columns 
indicate that there was actual production of the corresponding article, but that the figures can not be 
published without revealing the output of individual firms.] 





Manufacturers' identification 
numbers (according to list on 
page 117). 


1922 


Name. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Value 
per 
unit. 


Total crudes i 






$21,261,849 
1,531,134 




Benzene gallons. . 


16, 24, 49, i62, X, X 


5,708,421 


$0.27 


Toluene do 


16,X,X 




Xylene do 


16 








Naphthalene, crude pounds. . 

Anthracene, less than 30 per cent 
pounds. . 


8, 13, 15, 16, 32, 49, 94, 102, 111, 
131, 155, 165, 179, 206, X. 

8, 155, 165 


19,323,393 
1,738,444 


352,957 
100,713 


.02 
.06 


Carbazole, crude, 60 per cent 
pounds.. 


16, 155 




Cresol gallons. . 


16, 102, 111, 155 








Pyridine do 


16, 126 








Solvent naphtha do 

Dead or creosote oil do 

Anthracene oil do 


13, 16,49,94, 102, 165, X, X 

8, 13, 16, 32, 49, 94, 102, HI, 131, 

155, 165, 179, 208, X, X, X. 
8, 155, 165 


996, 852 
33,874,418 

3,705,882 
371,314 

9, 710; 745 

1,203,089 


281, 870 
3,698,319 

674, 586 
6,607,673 

1,498,741 

5,758,296 


.28 
.11 

.18 


Pitch of tar tons. . 

Other distillates gallons. . 

Refined tars barrels. . 

Motor fuel 2 gallons. . 


8, 13, 16, 24, 32, 49, 94, 111, 131, 
155, 165, 179, 206, X, X, X. 

8, 16, 24, 32, 49, 102, 111, 155, 179, 
199, 208, X. 

8, 13, 16, 24. 32, 94, 111, 131, 165. 
179, 208, X, X, X, X, X. 

102, 131, X 


17.80 

.15 

4.79 













1 The instructions sent to manufacturers were as follows: Include under dead or creosote oil only products 
which may be used for creosoting. Include under other distillates shingle stain oils, disinfectant oils, 
and flotation oils which do not contain over 5 per cent of phenol. Include under refined tars those tars 
which are used for road treatment, saturating felt, and for protective coatings. Phenol and all distillates 
which, on being subjected to distillation, yield in the portion distiUing below 190° C. a quantity of tar 
acids equal to or more than 5 per cent of the original distillate, or which, on being subjected to distillation, 
3deld in the portion distiUing below 215° C. a quantity of tar acids equal to or more than 75 per cent of the 
original distillate, are not to be included here but are to be placed under intermediates. 

s Included in benzine last year. 

Table 4. — Comparison of production of coal-tar crudes, 1921 and 1922, by firms not 
primarily engaged in the operation of coke-oven plants and gas houses. 



Name. 



Total crudes 

Benzene gallons. . 

Naphthalene, crude pounds. . 

Anthracene, 25 per cent pure 

pounds . . 

Solvent naphtha gallons. . 

Dead or creosote oil do 

Anthracene oil do 

Pitch of tar tons. . 

Other distillates gallons. . 

Refined tar barrels.. 



Quantity. 



5, 708, 421 
19, 323, 393 

1,738,444 

996, 852 

33,874,418 

3,705,882 
371,314 

9,710,745 

1,203,089 



Value. 



Value 
per 
unit. 



$21,261,849 I. 

1,531,134 i 

352,957 I 

100,713 
281,870 
3,698,319 I 
674,-586 j 
6,607,673 
1,498,741 
5,758,296 



$0.27 
.02 

.06 
.28 
.11 
.18 
17.80 
.15 
4.79 



Quantity. 



2,171,631 
16, 949, 464 

1,604,717 

649,694 

28, 804, 156 

2, 857, 391 
347,011 

6, 562, 332 

1,029,282 



Value. 



$17, 936, 
463, 
380, 

83, 
111, 
3, 188, 
519, 
6,514, 
1, 209, 
5, 196, 



Value 
per 
unit. 



$0.21 
.02 

.05 
.17 
.11 
.18 
18.77 
.18 
5.05 



Intermediates . 

Description. — This class of coal-tar chemicals does not occur as 
such in coal tar, but is prepared from the crudes (benzene, toluene, 
naphthalene, and anthracene) by chemical treatment with sul- 
phuric acid, nitric acid, alkalies, chlorine, or other chemicals. From 



18 UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 

less than 10 coal-tar crudes there are prepared from 200 to 300 
intermediates for use in the production of hundreds of dyes. The 
various chemical steps required in the conversion of crudes to inter- 
mediates are (1) nitration; (2) reduction; (3) sulphonation; (4) caus- 
tic fusion; (5) chlorination ; (6) alkylation; (7) liming; (8) conden- 
sation; (9) carboxylation; (10) oxidation; and (11) diazotization. 

Intermediates are therefore the raw materials which by complex 
chemical processes are converted into dyes, medicinals, perfumes, 
flavors, photographic chemicals, and synthetic resins and tanning 
materials. They are also used to accelerate the vulcanization of 
rubber, as camphor substitutes, in the direct production of dyes on 
the fiber, and for increasing the fastness of dyed colors, in which case 
they are known as "developers." After purification, many interme- 
diates are used directly as drugs, perfumes, and flavors. 

Production. — The production of intermediates in the United States 
in 1922 is shown in Table 5 in as great detail as is possible without 
revealing the output of individual manufacturers. The total output 
in 1922 was 165,048,155 pounds compared with 70,899,912 pounds ia 

1921. The sales in 1922 totaled 58,004,435 pomids with a value of 
$12,910,486. 

The average sales price for intermediates in 1922 was 22 cents, 
which is a 12 per cent decrease from that of 1921. This decrease is 
substantial for bulk intermediates, as well as for products used in 
small quantities. Aniline decreased in price from 22 cents per pound 
in 1921 to 15 cents in 1922; H acid, from 95 cents to 73 cents; b-naph- 
thol, from 39 to 24 cents; anthraquinone, used in the preparation of 
the alizarin and vat dyes, from $1.59 per pound to $1.34 per pound. 

The total number of intermediates reported was 280, of which 85 
were not reported in 1921. Many of these intermediates are of great 
complexity and their manufacture presents great technical difficul- 
ties. They are used where fast colors or special types of dyes are 
required, and their addition to the manufacturing program is an 
important advancement in the industry. One of the conspicuous 
features of production in 1922 was the significant increase in the out- 
put of anthraquinone, J acid, and Chicago acid and other intermedi- 
ates, used in the manufacture of fast and special types of dyes, such 
as the vat colors, alizarin, and the direct dyes. 

Benzene derivatives. — -Aniline prepared from benzene through the 
intermediate product nitrobenzene is the most important of all 
finished intermediates. In 1922 it ranked first in value and second 
in quantity. It is used in the manufacture of dyes of almost every 
class, whether the classification be based on method of application or 
on chemical constitution. Among the dyes which require aniline in 
their production, those produced in significant amounts are Indigo, 
Direct black E W, and Agalma black 10 B. These constitute three 
out of four leading colors in quantity produced in this country during 

1922. The production of aniline was 21,401,864 pounds, compared 
with 5,639,234 pounds in 1921, and sales totaled 12,064,465 pounds 
with a value of $1,827,941. The production of aniline salt (aniline 
hydrochloride) was 825,558 pounds and of aniline sulphate, 289,913 
pounds. Aniline hydrochloride is largely consumed by the cotton 
dyer in the direct production of "aniline black" on the fiber. Di- 
methylaniline (prepared from aniline by treatment with methyl 
alcohol), is used in the manufacture of such important basic dyes 
as Methyl violet. Methylene blue B, and Malachite green. The out- 



PRODUCTION OF DYES AND COAL-TAR CHEMICALS, 1922. 19 

put of this intermediate in 1922 was 2,327,561 pounds, compared 
with 566,286 pounds in 1921; the price was 32 cents, compared 
with 54 cents for the previous year. Diethy aniline, the production of 
which was 42,040 pounds, is used in the manufacture of certain more 
expensive dyes, such as Brilliant green, Acid violet, and Patent blue. 
The output of ethylbenzylaniline increased from 16,949 pounds in 
1921 to 129,340 pounds in 1922. Dichloroaniline showed an increase 
in out-put of over 600 per cent. m-Phenylenediamine doubled 
in output compared to the previous year, with a total of 636,646 
pounds. The production of p-nitro aniline, an important inter- 
mediate used in the preparation of ''para red," both on the fiber and 
for color lakes and also for the manufacture of Diamine green B and 
G, Alizarin yellow R, and certain sulphur dyes, totaled 1,563,665 
pounds. Dmitrochlorobenzene, used for the manufacture of sulphur 
blacks and blues showed an increase to 6,243,116 pounds, compared 
with 2,408,472 pounds m the previous year. The output of phenyl- 
hydrazine p-sulphonic acid represented one of the largest increases 
of all the intermediates. 

During the past few years, one of the significant developments in 
the coal-tar industry has been the production of substitutes for 
camphor used in the manufacture of pyroxylin plastics. These 
were first reported in 1920 and have since showed large increases 
in output. During 1922 there was a large increase in the output of 
tricresyl-phosphate compared with the previous year. 

Owmg to increased activity m the rubber trade, the consump- 
tion of rubber accelerators showed a large increase. The out- 
put of thiocarbanilide for 1922 was 2,591,856 pounds and the sales 
were 938,921 pounds, with a value of $258,856. The average price 
receded to 27 cents from 42 cents in the previous year. Other rubber 
accelerators reported in large amounts were triphenylguanidine, 
anilidobenzene thiazol and derivatives, and diphenylguanidine. 

The production of phenylglycine, used for indigo, recorded large 
gains over the previous year. Acetanilide (technical), used as an 
intermediate, a medicinal (when purified), a stabilizer for hydrogen 
peroxide, and an ingredient in cellulose ester dopes and lacquers 
was produced to the amount of 1,418,127 pounds. 

Benzidine, prepared by reduction of nitrobenzene is one of the 
most important intermediates used in the production of the direct 
cotton dyes. The production of benzidine base in 1922 totaled 
685,669 pounds, and that of sulphate and hydrochloride totaled 
446,294 pounds. The combined production of benzidme base and 
salts in the previous year was 328,577 pounds. 

The production of phenol represents one of the larger increases of 
the year, totaling in 1922, 1 ,285,978 pounds, with total sales of 1 ,266,552 
pounds, valued at S268,311. The large war stocks of Government 
phenol on hand at the signing of the armistice were about 35,000,000 
pounds. This represents a carry over from the war production, 
which in 1918 exceeded 106,000,000 pounds. Contrary to the 
expectation of the trade these war stocks were exhausted during the 
latter part of 1922, and a scarcity developed on the open market. 
Unfortunately the synthetic phenol plants built during the war were 
almost entirely dismantled and neither the tar distillers nor the 
synthetic phenol manufacturers were prepared for the demand. At 
least one new synthetic phenol plant has commenced production, and 
several other firms are expected to enter the field in 1923. Now that 



20 UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 

the uncertainty as to the carried-over stocks is removed, it is probable 
that a balance of production of phenol from coal tar and from syn- 
thetic plants will be established. Future domestic requirements 
will probably be supplied from the two sources — coal tar and syn- 
thetic — as the domestic production from tar has not been sufficient 
to date for the entire domestic needs. 

The production of salicylic acid U. S. P. totaled 3,085,882 pounds 
in 1922. This acid is extensively consumed in the manufacture of 
pharmaceuticals as well as for certain mordant and direct cotton 
dyes. 

Toluene derivatives. — The production of the various toluidines 
showed an increase in 1922. This class of intermediates is used in the 
production of such important dyes as Magenta, Safranine, the Prim- 
ulines and Indamines. The production of o-toluidine was 742,268 
pounds and that of p-toluidine was 793,690 pounds. Tolidine, which 
is used in the manufacture of direct cotton dyes, mostly reds and 
blues, showed a very large increase in output. The output of tolidine 
and salts in 1922 was 138,206 pounds. The production of benzoate 
of soda, which is largely used as a food preservative, was 566,349 
pounds and the sales were 552,856 pounds with a value of $278,759. 
The price per pound receded from 57 cents in 1921 to 50 cents in 1922. 

The production of m-nitro-p-toluidine was 118,972 pounds. This 
sold to the textile trade under the name of Fast red G base, for 
dyeing cotton a fast red. 

Leukotrope W (dimethylphenylbenzylammonium disulphonic acid 
calcium salt) used in cotton printing for discharges on indigo-dyed, 
fabrics, is now manufactured in this country in adequate quantities. 
This is one of the many products essential to the textile industry, but 
its consumption is not great either in quantity or value. 

Cresylic acid. — The large output of refined cresylic acid is one of 
the significant stages in the development of intermediates. While 
the quantity produced in 1922 was not adequate to domestic con- 
sumption, it ranks among a small group of the leading intermediates 
by quantity of production. The production of ortho, meta, and para 
cresol showed a very large increase over the previous year. 

Naphthalene derivatives. — -The intermediates derived from naph- 
thalene showed a large increase in quantity of output and a con- 
spicuous decline in price, compared with the previous year. The 
new products reported are indicative of expansion and progress. 
The production of refined naphthalene reported to the Tariff Com- 
mission by firms primarily engaged in tar distillation totaled 
17,419,998 pounds, compared with 13,553,777 pounds for 1921. 
The sales of naphthalene in 1922 were 14,059,838 pounds, valued at 
$794,435. This product ranked third of all intermediates in quantity 
of output for 1922. Statistics on the output of refined naphthalene 
at coke ovens are collected by the Geological Survey. The pre- 
liminary figures show a production from that source of 1,811,000 
pounds of refined naphthaJene. 

The most important intermediate derived from naphthalene is 
b-naphthol, the output of which in 1922 was 3,255,901 pounds. This 
derivative is consumed in large amounts in the manufacture of a 
variety of dyes, color lakes, other intermediates, and in the direct 
production of para red on the fiber by the cotton dyers and printers. 
The average price was 24 cents per pound, a 38 per cent decrease 
from that of 1921. 



PRODUCTION OF DYES a:N'D COAL-TAR CHEMICALS, 1922. 21 

H acid (l-amino-8-naphtliol-3:6-disii]plionic acid) ranks second 
among the naphthalene derivatives and is one of the leading inter- 
mediates used in the production of direct cotton and acid dyes of the 
azo class. The production in 1922 vras 2,208,657 pounds; the sales 
were 958,397 pounds, valued at S701,612. The average price 
decreased from 95 cents in 1921 to 73 cents in 1922. 

Phthalic anhydride is an intermediate of great importance to a 
well-developed industry, as it is used in the manufacture of synthetic 
;anthraquinone, which, in turn, is used for the preparation of alizarin 
and many vat dyes. It is also used in the production of fluorescein, 
the eosine dyes and the rhodamines. The production in 1922 was 
the highest on record, reaching 1,629,182 pounds, an increase of 
several hundred per cent over that of 1921. 

The production of naphthionic acid (l-naphthylamine-4-sulphonic 
acid) was 1,194,677 pounds. The price was 39 cents, compared with 
44 cents for the previous year. The output of l-amino-2-naphthol-4- 
sulphonic acid, used largely in the manufacture of Salicine black U was 
646,502 pounds. a-Naphthylamine (refined), used in the preparation 
of Fast red B, Sulphoncyanine, Diamond black F, and other azo 
blacks, recorded an increase in production for 1922. The produc- 
tion of R acid (2-naphthol-3 : 6-disulphonic acid) increased to 464,918 
pounds. This is used in the preparation of Ponceau R, Amaranth, 
T'ast red B, and Palatine chrome red B. 

Gamma acid (2-amino-8-naphthol-6-sulphonic acid) used in the 
manufacture of direct cotton dyes, including Diamine black BH, 
Diamine brown M, and Diamine fast red F, showed a total output of 
197,236 pounds, a decrease from 218,717 pounds in 1921. The price 
decreased from $2.10 in 1921 to SI. 72 in 1922. The production of 
2-naphthylamine-l-sulphonic acid, used for Lithol red R, increased 
to 217,752 pounds; alpha and beta-naphthylamine also showed 
marked increases. 

The production of l-naphthylamine-6 and 7-sulphonic acid, used 
for the preparation of Sulphoncyanine and Columbia black, totaled 
323,348 pounds, an increase of several hundred per cent. 

Of the intermediates, used in the production of the fast or special 
^yes consumed m smaller quantities, two products deserve mention, 
namely Chicago acid (l-amino-8-naphthol-2:4-disulphonic acid) and 
J acid (2 amino-5-naphthol-7-sulphonic acid). J acid is required in 
the preparation of certain direct cotton dyes distinguished by their 
fastness to acids. It was first reported in 1920; its production in 
1922, totaling 92,919 pounds, was a large increase. Chicago acid is 
used in the production of Chicago blue 4B, RW. and Brilliant benzo 
blue 6B; its output m 1922 was 58,182 pounds. 

Anthracene derivatives. — The production of anthracene derivatives 
is of particular interest in tracing the progress of the American dye 
industry, as the preparation of the fast vat dyes (including the indan- 
threnes and most of the algol colors) and alizarin and its derivatives 
require anthraquinone as a raw material. Anthraquinone is made 
by two methods: (1) Oxidation of anthracene; (2) synthesis from 
phthalic anhydride and benzene. Both methods are in use in this 
•country. In 1922 there was a very large increase in the output of 
anthracene, production in that year totaling 251,950 pounds. The 
production of anthraqumone likewise showed a large gain to 395,107 
pounds, an increase of several hundred per cent over that of the 



22 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 



previous year. A considerable part of the total output of anthra- 
quinone is made by the synthetic process. In 1923 a new firm began 
to produce synthetic anthraquinone in large quantities. The in- 
creased production of this intermediate insures dye makers a supply 
sufficient to meet any increase in their output of vat and alizarine 
dyes. 

There was a large gain in the output of various anthraquinone 
derivatives used in making vat dyes, especially silver salt and 
b-amino-anthraquinone. 

New inter mediates. -^Oi the 280 coal-tar intermediates reported in 
1922, there were 85 for which no production was shown in 1921. 
These are, in the main, products of great complexity whose manufac- 
ture presents technical problems. The new intermediates include 
products derived from benzene, toluene, naphthalene, and anthra- 
cene. Among such new products are naphtho-1 :8-sultam-2 :4-disul- 
phonic acid, amino benzoyl-J acid, ethyl hydrol, diphenylguanidine, 
ditolydiamide of methane, ethylidene aniline, dichlorophenylhydra- 
zine sulphonic acid, benzyl benzoic acid, 5 :5 dihydroxy 7 :7-disul- 
phonic-2 :2-duiaphthyl urea, 5 :5-dLhydroxy-2 :2 dinaphthylamine- 
7 :7-disulphonic acid. 

Table 5. — Production and sales of coal-tar intermediates, 1922. 

[The numbers in the second column refer to the numbered alphabetical list of manufacturers printed on 
page 117. An X signifies that the corresponding intermediates were made by a manufacturer who did 
not consent to the publication of his name in connection therewith. Blanks in the third and fourth 
columns indicate that there were sales of the corresponding intermediates in the United States during 
1922, but that the figures can not be published without revealing information in regard to the sales of 
Individual firms. The blank space in the sixth column indicates that there was actual production of 
the corresponding intermediates in the United States during 1922, but that the figures can not be pub- 
lished without revealing information in regard to the output of individual firms. The details thus 
concealed are, however, included in the totals. Reports have been received from all firms known to be 
manufacturers.'] 

GROUP n. 



^ 


Manufacturers' identi- 
fication numbers ac- 
cording to list on 
page 117. 


Sales. 




CoTnnionname. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Average 
price per 
pound. 


Total pro- 
duction. 


Total intermediates... 




Poiinds. 
58, 004, 435 


$12, 910, 486 


?0.22 


Pounds. 
165, 048, 155 




23,118,124,165 




Aeetanilide, tech 






.21 


1,418,127 


Acetyl-p-phenylenediamine (p- 

amino aeetanilide). 
Aeet vl-p-tolaidine 


64, 77, 79, 84, 127 






110,039 


38,64,165 








144, 652 


b-Amino anthraquinone . 


64, 127, 129 . 










Aminoazobenzcne 


30, 3S, 65, 84, 85, 127, 165 






.63 


153, 968 




64 








acid. 


127.... 










Aminoazotoluene 


4,30,38,84,85,127,130, 

151. 
130... . 








181, 023 














89,122,164 








3,824 




198- 








p-Araino dimethylaniline 

Aminodiphenylamine sulphonic 

acid, 
p- Aminodiphenylamine o-sul- 

fonio acid. 
1- Amino- 2-naphthol- 4- sulfonic 

acid. 
1 - Amino- 8-naphthol-4-su]fonic 

acid. 
l-Amino-x-naphthol-2 : 4-disnl- 

sulfonic acid (Chicago acid). 
l-Amino-8-naphthol-3 : G-disul- 

fonic acid (11 acid). 


81 










198 










4 











4, 38, 64. 84, 127, 1.30, i 






646,502 


165, X. i 
.38,127,129 1 






107, 162 


64, 127 129 ' - - 






58, 182 


2;i,64, 84, 121, 127, 129, 
164. 


958, 397 


701,612 


.73 


2, 208, 657 



PEODUCTION OF DYES AND COAL-TAR CHEMICALS, 1922. 



23 



Table 5 — Production and sales of coal-tar intermediates, 1922 — Continued. 
GROUP II— Continued. 





Manufacturers' identi- 
fication numbers ac- 
cording to list on 
page 117. 


Sales. 




Common name. 


Quantity. Value. 


Average 
price per 
pound. 


Total pro- 
duction. 


2- Amino-5-naphthol-7-s u I f o n i c 
acid f.T acid). 

2 -Amino -5 -naptitliol -7 -sulfonic 
acid, amino benzoyl deriva- 
tive of. 

2 -Amino -8 -napiithol -6 -sulfonic 
acid (gamma acid). 

O-Aminophenol 


38,64,127,129 


1 
Pounds. 




Pounds. 
92, 919 


64 








23,38,64,127,129 

79,164,193,198 


62,972 $108,202 

13,452 1 27,901 
33,021 36,318 


$1.72 

2.73 
1.10 


197, 236 
13, 0&3 


p-AminophenoI and hydroclilor- 

ide. 
o-AminophenoI-p-sulfonic acid. . . 
o-AminophenoI disidfonic acid- 


56, 64, 68, 79, 89, 129, 

164, 193, 198, 203, X. 

4,84,127,198 


220,383 
19, 104 


130 












38,129 










acid, base and salt. 
Aminosalicvlie acid . 


52,127,130 








23,572 


Aminosalicylic acid, diazo 


64 


1 








X 


1 








X 


1 






derivatives. 
Aniline oil 


25, 64, 83, 118, 120, 124, 

127, 128. 
25,8.3,127,128 


12,064,465 , 1. 827. 941 


.15 

.22 
.29 


21, 401, 864 


Aniline livdrocMoride . . . 


821,315 


180, 021 


825, 558 
289, 913 


Aniline sulfate 


64,85,127,128,147 


Aniline disulfonic acid 


64,127 








o-Anisidine 


64,129 










o-Anisidine sulfonic acid 


64 










Anthracene, refined, 100 per cent. 
Anthranilic (o-aminobenzoic) 


16,64,183 








251, 950 


63,64,124,188 






1.31 
1.34 


36,603 


acid. 

Anttiraquinone, 99-100 per cent. 


18,64,127, 183.x 






395, 107 


Anthraquinone -1:5 -disulphonic 
acid. 

Anthrac)uinone-2:7-disulfonic acid 

Anthraq uinone - 2 - sodiuqi sul- 
fonate f silver salt). 

Anthrarufin 

Arsanilic acid 

Benzaldehyde 

Benzanthrone 

Benzidine base 

Benzidine sulphate and hydro- 
chloride. 
Benzoate of soda 


84,127 








18 










9,18,64,129 








394, 304 


127 










58 










75, 101, 1.38, 190, X,X.. 
9,64, 129 


135, 109 


105,030 


.78 


156, 502 
60, 355 


6, 30, 34, 38, 64, 75, 84, 

127, 129. 
2,84, 127, 129, X 


201,768 167,479 


.83 


685, 669 
446,294 


91, 164, X, X, X 

29, 75, 91, 164, X, X, X 
164 


552, 856 278_ lh9 


.50 
.55 


566,349 
104,469 


Benzoic acid, U. S. P 

Benzoic acid, tech 


63,926 


35,370 


Benzoyl benzoic acid 


129 








Benzoyl chloride 


91, X 


1 






Benzyl alcohol 


101, 164, 176, 190, X.... 


7,239 


8,683 


1.20 


3,373 


Benzvlamine 


Benzyl benzoic acid 


127 










Benzyl chloride 


138,190 










Broenner's acid. (See 2-naph- 

thylamine-R-sulphonic acid.) 
Bromoben'one 


63. 










2-Chloroanthraquinone 


9 










o-Chlorobenzaldehvde 


127 










Chlorobenzanthrone 


64 










Chlorobenzene (mono) 


91, 105, X 


3,542,688 


262, 111 


.07 


4,151,312 


Chlorometanilic acid 


77, 130. . 


C h 1 r m etaphenylenediamine 

and sulfonic arid. 
Chloronaphthalene 


130 










X 










Chloro-2:0-dimtrobenzene-4-sul- 


198 










phonic acid. 
o-Chlorotoluene 


127 . 










o-Chloro toluene sodium sulphon- 


64 










ate. 
2-Chloro-5-toluidine-4-sulphon i c 


117,165 










acid. 
Chromotropic acid. (See l:8-di- 

hydroxy naphthalene-3:6-di- 

sulphonic acid.) 
Ciimamic acid 


101, 176, 190, X, X 


515 


1,642 


3.19 


1,138 



24 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 



Table 5. — -Production and sales of coal-tar intermediates, 1922 — Contiimecl. 
GROUP II— Continued. 





Manufacturers' identi- 
fication numbers ac- 
cording to list on 
page 117. 


Sales. 




Common name. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Average 
price per 
poimd. 


Total pro- 
duction. 


Cresol, ortho, meta, and para 


114 


Pounds. 






Pounds. 


o-Cresol, purity of 90 per cent or 


16 










more. 
o-Cresotinic acid 


X 










Cresylic acid, refined 


16 










Cumidine 


127 










Dehydrothio-p-toluidine sul- 

phonic acid. 
Di (2-a m i n o-5-naphtliol-7-sul- 


70, 129,X 








29,112 


64, 129 








phonic^ urea J acid. 
Diaminostilbene disulplionic acid 


70, 127, 129 








70, 433 


Dianisidine 


38,64, 127, 129 








l-Diazo-2-rLaphthol4-sulp h o n i c 

acid. 
Dibenzan throne 


4, 38, 127, 130 








171 632 


129 










Dibenzylaniline 


64 










2;5-Dichloroaniline 


198 










2 : 5-Dichloroaniline s u 1 p h onic 


147,198 










acid. 
Dichlorobenzene 


64, 91, 105, 129, 134, X. 
38 


951,574 


$151,601 


$0.16 


1,154,278 


Dichlorobenzidine 


Dichloro-phenylhydrazine - s u 1 - 
phonic acid. 


147 










64 










Diethylaniline. * ... 


89, 127, 178 









42,040 


Diethylaniline sodiiun sulpho- 

nate. 
5 : 5-Dihydroxy-2 : 2-dinaphthy- 

lamine-7 : 7-disulphonic acid. 
6 : 5-Dihy droxy-7 : 7-disuIphomc- 

2:2-dinaphthyl urea (I acid 

urea). 

1:8 Dihydroxy:iaphthalene-3:6- 
disulphonicacid (chrome- 
tropic acid). 


64 










64 










127 










84 










4,64,121,127,129 






1.10 


78,313 


150 








Dimethvlaniline 


6,25,30,64,81,127 

X 


1,237,149 


397, 517 


.32 


2,327,561 


Dimethylphenylbenzyl am- 
monium disulpnonic acid, cal- 
cium salt (Leukotrope W). 

Dinitroanthraq uinone 




18 












129 










Dinitrobenzene .' 


12,25,64,127,193,201.. 
64 


792,284 


155,419 


.20 


2,066,367 


m-Dinitroben7ene 




Dinitrochlorobenzene. . 


12,64,84,105,127 

130 


179,374 


38,069 


.21 


6,243,116 


Dinitrochlorobenzene-p-sul- 
phonic acid. 




129 










Dinitrohydroxy diphenylamine . 
Dinitrophenol, and sodium salt. . 
Dinitrotoluene 


38. 










12. 










12,64,65,78,85,98,127. 
64. 


1,009,520 


166, 660 


.17 


2,098,252 






Diphenyldiamide of methane 

Diphenylguanidine 


64. 










64, 127, X. . 










Diphenylmethane siUplionate 


127 










127 










p-Ditolyldiamide of methane 


64 










127 












81,127 . 












127 










Ethyl-p-aminoacetanilide 

Ethylaniline 


127 










127 ... 










Ethylbenzylaniline 


34,64,89,127,178 

34 77 127 


29,793 


37,273 


1.25 


129,340 


Ethylben/ylaniline sulphonic 
acid . 




189 












128 












55,85,127,150 










Formaldehyde-p-amino- 
dimethylaniline. 


81 










165 










Gamma acid. {See 2-amino-8- 
naphthol-6-sulphonic acid.) 













PRODUCTION OF DYES AND COAL-TAR CHEMICALS, 1922. 



25 



Table 5. — Production and sales of coal-tar intermediates, 1922 — Continued, 
GROUP II— Continued. 



Common name. 



Manufacturers' identi- 
flcal ion numbers ac- 
cording to list on 
paee 117. 



Sales. 



Quantity. 



Value. 



Average 
price per 
pound. 



Total pro- 
duction. 



H acid. (See l-amino-8-naph- 

thol- 1 :fi-disulphomc acid.) 

Heptylidene aniline 

b-Hydroxy naphthoic acid 

b-Hydroxy naphthoic anilide 

(naphthol AS). 

b-Hydroxy naphthoic tohiide 

p-Hydroxy phenylarsonic acid. . . 
p-Hydroxy phenyl arsonic acid 

and sodium salt. 

Indanthrene R-S 

Indophenols 

Laurent's acid. {See 1-naph- 

thylamine-5-sulphonic acid.) 
Metanilic acid 

Methyl ester of p-tolylsulphonic 

acid. 

Methylene dianilide 

Methylene diphenyldiamine 

Michler's hydrol. {See tetra- 

msthvldiaminobenzhydrol.) 
Michler's ketone. {See tetra- 

methyldiaminobenzophcnone.) 

Mono?tnylaniline 

Monoethyl-m a^riinophenol 

Monomcthylaniline 

Mononitrochlorobenzene, mixed 

ortho and para. 
Naphthalene, solidifyine; 79° C. 

or above re'ined, iake). 
1 : .VNaphthalP-ne disulphonic acid 
2: 7-Naphthalene disulphonic acid 
Naphtho-l:3-sulton-8-sulphonic 

acid. 
Naphtho -1:8- sultam -2:4 -disul- 

phoni'^ acid. 
a-Naphthol 

b-Naphthol, U. S. P 

b-Naphthol, tech 

1-Naphthol - 8 - chloro -3:6- disul- 
phonic a"id ''Chlor H acid). 

l-Naphthol-4 sulphonicacid (Ne- 
vile >k \Vinth"r's acid). 

l-Naphthol-5-sulphonic acid 

l-Naphthol-3:6-disulphonic acid . 

1-Naphthol - 3:6:8 - trisulphonic 
acid. 

2-Naphthol-l-sulphonic acid 

2-Naphthol-6-sulphonic acid 
(ScTiasfTer's acid). 

2-Naphthol-7-sulphomc acid 

2-Naphthol-8-sulphonic acid 

2-Naphthol-3:6-disnlphonic acid . 

2-Naphthol-6:8-disulphonic acid . 

a-Naphthylamine, crude 

a-Naphthylamino, re^'ned 

a-NaphthyJamine and hydrochlo- 
ride. 

b-Naphthylamine and hydrochlo- 
ride. 

1-Naphthylaminc-isulphonic acid 
inaphthionic acid). 

l-Naphtiylainine-j sulphonicacid 
( Laurent's a"id). 

l-Naphthylamino 6 sulphnnic acid 

l-Naphthylainine-6 and 7-sul- 
phouic acid. 

l-Naphthylamine-8 sulphonie acid 

l-Naphthylamine-3:8-dtsulphonic 
ajid. 

52805—23 3 



128 

38,64,84.. 
61,84,127. 



Pounds. 



Pounds. 



27, 587 



$77, 381 



$2.81 



47, 124 
36, 115 



64.. 
58.. 
116. 



129 

105, 127, X. 



4, 38, 64, 65, 84, 85, 127, 

130. 
127 



.42 



277,071 



34,64,89. 

64 

64 

64 



13,16,20,25,32,33,111, 
129, 180, 199. 

84, 129 

127 

38 



14, 059, 838 



794,435 



.06 



17, 419, 998 



38,64 

30, 38, 85, 92, 127, 169, 

182. 

25,148 

25, 30, 38, 85, 148, 165, 

169. 
127 



41, 196 



36,755 



,89 



229,240 



2,530,317 



604,800 



3, 255, 901 



2, 6, 30, 52, 64, 127, 129, 
130. 

4,64,127,129,130 

165 



52, 318 



50,423 



334, 740 
61,765 



30, 127, 129. 



148 

4,38, 64, 65, 127, 130, 165 



38, 165,181 

38 X 

2, 4,''23,' 25', 30, 38, 64V84,' 

127, 129, 165, 188, 195. 

4,25,30,38,64,127, 165. 

64, 129 

16,64, 129 

150 



26,116 
17, 299 



14, 795 
29, 275 



.57 
1.69 



78,320 



87, 496 



48, 592 



464,918 
94,206 



775, 277 



38,64, 127, 148,150 

2, 6, 30, 38, 52, 64, 85, 

127, 129, X. 
4,30,64,84,85,127,130. 



127 

38, 64, 127, 129. 



139, 762 



55, 016 



.39 



322, 716 

1,194,677 

62, 213 



4, 64, 84, 127, 130. 
38,64, 129 



323,348 



175, 302 
38, 345 



26 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 



Table 5. — Production and sales of coal-tar intermediates, 1922 — Continued. 
GROUP II— Continupd. 



Common name. 



Manufacturer?' identi- 
fication numbers ac- 
cording to list on 
page 117. 



Sales. 



Quantity. 



Value. 



Average 
price per 
pound. 



l-Naphthylamine-4: S-disulphonic 

acid. 
l-Naphthylaminc-3:6:8-trisul- 

phonic acid. 
1-NaphthyIamine - 8 - hydroxy-4- 

sulphon'ic acid. 
2-Naphtliylamine - 1 - sulphonic 

acid. 
2-Naphthylamine-6-sulphonic acid 

(Broenner's acid). 
2-Naphtliylamine-4: 8-disuIphonic 

acid. 
2-Naphtliylamine-5: 7-disulphonic 

acid. 
2-Naphthylamine-6 : 8-disulphonic 

acid. 
Nevile & Winther's acid. (See 

l-naphthol-4-suIphonic acid). 

p-Nitroacetanilide 

Nitroaminophenol 

m-Nltroaniline 

o-Nitroaniline-p-sulphonic acid . . 

p-Nitroaniline 

p-Nitroaniline-o-sulphonic acid . . 

o-Nitroanisole 

Nitro arsanilic acid 

Nitrobenzene (oil of mirbane) 

Nitrobenzene sulphonic acid 

Nitrobenzidino sulphate 

p-Nitrobenzoic acid 

p-Nitro benzoyl chloride , 

o-Nitrochlorobenzene , 

o-Nitrochlorolbenzene sulphonic 

acid. 

p-Nitrochlorobenzene , 

p - Nitrochlorobenzene - o - sul- 
phonic acid. 

p-Nitrodichlorobenzene , 

o-Nitro-p-chlorophenol , 

8-Nitro-l-diazo-2-naphthol-4-sul- 

phonic acid. 
3-Nitro-4-hydroxyphenyl arsonic 

acid. 

Nitronaphthalene 

1 - Nitronaphthalene -4:8- disul- 

phonic acid. 

o-Nitrophenol 

p-Nitrophenol 

Kitrosobetanaphthol 

Nitrosodimethylaniline and hy- 

diochloride. 
Nitrosophcnol 

Nitrosulphoanthrarufin 

Nitrotoluene 

o-Nitrotolucne 

o-Nitrotoluene sulphonic acid 

p-NitrotoIucnc 

p-Nitrotoluene-o-sulphonic acid.. 

m-Nitro-p-toluidine 

p-Nitro-o-toluidinc 

Nitro -cylenc 

Oxalvl-arsanilic acid 

Oxalyl-p-nitroanilinc 

Oxalyl-m-phenylenodi amine 

Oxalyl-p-phenylenodiaminc 

Phenol 

Phenolatf of soda 

Phenol sulphonic acid 

Phenol disulphonic acid 

Phenyl cresyl phosphate 

Phenyl glycine^ sodium salt 

Phenylhydracme - p - sulphonic 
acid- 



Pounds. 



38,64, 127, 129.... 
23, 64, 84, 127, 129. 

64 

4,26,38,148,163.. 

38,127 

38,64, 129 

38,64, 127, 129.... 
38,64, 129 



137, 692 



$152, 976 



$1. 11 



23,38,127,164,165... 

130, 198 

64, 193 

198 

6, 23^164, 'l65,'i85.'!!! 

4, 64, 77, 84, 165, 198. . 

64, 127,129 

122 

25,64,83,127,128,129. 

130 

129 

1,64, 164 

64 



33,906 



13, 935 



1,113,866 
'2,'665,'399' 



770, 703 



189, 113 



.09 



64, 124, 127. 
130,198.... 



64,124,127 

4,38,64, 127, 198. 



198 

198 

38, 64, 84 . 



447, 514 



82.981 



.19 



58, 116,122. 

16,64, 129.. 
38 



181,193,198 

64,124,181,193,198 

'84, X 

25, 46, 64, 84, 90, 105, 
127, 128, 129, 150. 

12, 18, 46, 68, 84, 90, 105, 
127, 185, X. 

127 

12,64,65,78,85,98,127, 
129. 

12,38,64,78,98,127,129. 

77 



6,284 
8, 613 



3,699 
4,636 



12,64,78,98,127,129.. 
4,64, 127, 129, 198.... 

.38, 64, 165 

38,61, 188 

61 

122 

64 

64 

64 

16,114,144,181, X... 

64 

150, 198 

150 

161 

63,64,127 

25,64,147, 181 



379, 527 
'229,154' 



20,912 
'i69,'452 



.06 



117, 161 



255,634 



.48 

'i'is 



1,266,552 



268,311 



.21 



PRODUCTION or DYES AND COAL-TAR CHEMICALS, 1922. 



27 



Table 5. — Production and sales of coal-tar intermediates, 1922 — Continued. 
GROUP II— Continued. 





Manufacturers' identi- 
fication numbers ac- 
cording to list on 
page 117. 


Sales. 




CoTTiTtion name. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Average 
price per 
pound. 


Total pro- 
duction. 


PhenylraothylpjTazolone 

Phen yl-a-naphthj'Ianiine 

Phenyl -1-naphth ylamine-S-sul- 

phonic acid. 
Phenyl rnsindnlinc and sulfate. . 


64 


Pounds. 


' 




Pounds. 


23, 64 










4,64, 84, 127, 130 

64 


387 


$484 


SI. 25 


124,077 


ni-Plienylcnediamine 


4, 12, 25, 30, 34, 38, 84, 

85, 127, 193. 
64, 129 


41,665 


33,619 


.81 


636,646 


m-Plionylenediamine, crude 


m-Phenylenediamine sulphonic 


64 










acid. 
p-Phenylenediamine and liydro- 

ciiloridc. 
Phthalamido 


64, 79, 164, 165,185.... 
124, 188 


308, 884 


428, 858 


1..39 


342,111 


Phthalic acid and anhydride. . .. 


64, 124, 127, X 


1,317,625 
26, 889 


461, 944 
14,250 


.35 
.53 


1, 629, 182 


Picramic acid 


23,25,64, 127, X 

77, 127, 143 


138, .'65 


Primulinc, base 


204, 563 


Pyrazolone 


130,147 










Quinone 


X 










Resorcino], U. S. P 


62, 144,X 










Resorcinol, tech 


127,144 










Salicylic acid, U. S. P 

Salicylic acid, tech 


63, 120, 124, X,X 

120, 124, X, X. 


1,882,757 
42,270 
154,448 


453,814 

9,410 

29,392 


.24 
.22 
.19 


3, 085, 882 

336, 362 

1,515 421 


Sulphanilic acid 


6, 25, 30, 38, 64, 85, 127, 

147,181,193. 
96 


o-Sulphobenzoic acid 




o-Sulphobenzoic acid, ammo- 


96 :.:.;.:; 










nium salt. 
o-Sulphobenzoic acid, chloride of. 


96 












85 










Tetrachlorophthalic anhydride. . 
Tetraethyldiaminobenzhydrol 

(ethyl hydrol). 
Tetraethyldiaminodiphenylme- 

thane. 
Tetramethyldiaminobenzhydrol 

(Michler's hydrol). 
Tetramethyldiarainobenzophe- 

none (Michler's ketone). 
Tetramethyldiaminodiphenyl- 

metbane. 
Thioaniline 


64 ■ 










127 










127 










64, 77 










23,64 










64,84,127 








192,132 


4 










Thiocarbanilide 

ToliJine and salts 


81, 127, 128, 159, X 

38, 64, 127, 129. . . 


938, 921 


258,856 I 


.27 


2,591,856 
138, 206 


Toiidine base, crude 


129 










Tolidine disulphonic acid 


X 








o-Toluenc sulphamide 


X 









p-ToIuene sulphamide 


X 










29, 124 






.... 




p-Toluenesulpho ethyl ester 

Toluidine 


127 






1 




64, 78, 127, 129 


14,389 
321,988 


5,088 ! 
57,586 1 


.35 
.18 




o-Toluidine 


12,38,64,78,98,127,129. 
64, 84, 127, 181 


742,268 


o-Toluidine sulphonic acid 

p-Tolnidine 




12,38,64,78,98,127,129. 
64 


282, 143 


187,828 I 


.67 


793, 690 


p-Toluidine, crude 




p-Toluidine sulphooic acid (meta 
1-Tolyl-I-naphthylamine-S-sul- 
m-Tolylenediamine 


38,64,198 








10, 464 


127 




j 






4, 6, 12, 30, 38, 64, 65, 
84, 85, 127, 129, 203. 
127. 


291,408 


1 
275, 051 


.94 


958,761 


m-Tolylenediamine sulphate 

m-Tolylenediamine sulphonic 

acid. 
p-Tolylenediamine . . 




127, 129. . 










12.. . . 












127,128 












161, X 










161, 174 








Xylidine, mixed . 


64 










25, 38, 127, 129 


142,317 


46,676 1 .33 . 






23, 129 















23 UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 

Table 6.— Comparison of production of coal-tar intermediates, 1921 and 1922. 



Total intermediates . 



Acetanilide, tech -. i* " "-i-'j '< 

Aeetyl-p-phenylenediamine (p-amino acetanilide) 

Aminoazobenzene 

Aminoazotoluene -. .- - 

l-Ainino-2-naphthol-4-sulphonic acid . . . ... . . .... 

l-Amino-8-naphthol-3:6-disiilphonic acid (H acid) 
2-Amino-8-naphthcl-6-sulphonic acid (gamma acid) 

o-Aminophencl ■,■,--•.•,• 

p-Aminophenol and hydrochloride 

Aniline oil - :■• 

Anthranilic acid (o-aminobenzoic acid) 

Anthraquinone 

Benzaldehyde 

Benzidine base and sulphate 

Benzoate of soda 

Benzoic acid, U.S.P 

Benzyl alcohol 

Chlorob^nzene (mono) 

Cinnamic acid ■,■%""■■ ■ V 

Dehydrothio-p-toluidine sulphonic acid 

Diaminostilbene disulphonic acid 

Diethy 'aniline 

Dimethvlaniline 

Dinitrobenzene 

DinitrocMorobenzene 

Dinitrotrluene 

Ethylbenzylaniline 

Metanilie acid ■--■ • ; • • a- ■ ■•,• a'{'\ 

Naphthalene, solidifying 79° C. or above (refined flake) 
a-Naphthrl 

l-NaphtVV'-s\Whoni"cacidYNevYle"& Wm^^^^ 

1-N aphthol-5-siilphon ic acid 

2-Napht.hrl-6-sulphonic acid (Schaeffer s acid) 

2-Naphthol-3:fi-di-^ulphonic acid 

2-Naphth'-l-fi:8-di?ulphonic acid 

b-Naphthvbmine and hydrochloride . . ..... ..... - - . • - . 

l-Naphthvlamine-4-snlphonic acid (naphthionic acid) . 
l-NaphthvH.mine-5-sulphonic acid (Laurent s acid) . . . 

1-Naphthvlaminc-a-sulphonic acid 

l-NaphthVlamine-4:S-disulphonic acid 

l-Naphthvlamine-3:6:S-trisulphonic acid 

2-Naphthvlamine-l-sulphonic acid 

2-Naphthvlamine-6:8-disulphonic acid 

p-Nitroac'^tan lide 

p-Nitroan In? .- - 

p-NTif-oanil ne-i-sulphonic acid 

N itrob mzpne (oil of mirbane) 

p-Nitrnc' lorobenzene .- 

p-Nitrop! en 1 

Nitros idiraethylaniline 

Nitrosophenol 

Nitrotrliiene 

o-Nitrot 1 lene 

p-Nitrot luene - - 

p-N itrotol lene-n-sulphonic acid 

m-Nitro-p-t-'luidine :•■•■.% 

Phenvl-l-naphthvlamine-8-sulphonic acid 

m-Phenvlenediamine 

Picramic acid 

Salicylic acid U. S. P 

Salicylic acid, tech 

Sulphan lie acid 

Thincarbanilide 

o-Tolui ' ine 

p-Tf luidinc ' 

m-Tol yl ::ndiamine 




1,418,127 
110,039 
153,968 
181,023 
646,502 
2,208,657 
197,236 
13,083 
220,383 
21,401,864 
36,603 
395, 107 
156,502 
1,131,963 
566,349 
104,469 
3.373 
4,151,312 
1,138 
29,112 
70,433 
42,040 
2,327,561 
2,066,367 
6,243,116 
2,098,252 
129,340 
277,071 
17,419,998 
229,240 
3,255,901 
334,740 
61,765 
78,320 
464,918 
94,206 
322,716 
1,194,677 
62,213 
175,302 
268,032 
2,433,508 
217,752 
206,728 
129,238 
1,563,665 
54,197 
37,833,561 
432,618 
107,940 
94,a31 
213,786 
7,222,307 
3,230,382 
1,932,8,50 
475,250 
118,972 
124,077 
636,646 
138,365 
3,085,882 
336,362 
1,515,421 
2,591,856 
742,268 
793,690 
958,761 



1,152,713 
84,742 
49,763 
35,867 
449,996 
1,639,323 
218,717 
12,775 
72,572 
5,639,234 
35,616 
125,358 
66,365 
328, 577 
381,154 
190,483 
17,152 
1,692,624 
778 
18,204 
66.909 
32,812 
566,286 
894,209 
2,408,472 
1,065,323 
16,949 
50,647 
13,553,777 
95,735' 
2,959,049 
182,595 
92,571 
168,835 
322,902 
396,926 
102,079 
832,850 
166,616 
533,755 
260,823 
2,026,003 
149,014 
247,357 
288,748 
832,438 
64,480 
7,443,192 
51,744 
86,216 
104,690 
111,681 
2,342,098 
727,177 
566,551 
321,264 
70,094 
204,647 
301,169 
254,904 
1,722,575 
1,777,752 
1,071,904 
1,185.462 
208, 505 
268,629 
621,359 



PRODUCTION OF DYES AND COAL-TAR CHEMICALS, 1922. 



29 



Table 7. — Comparison of imports of dyes, by classes, fiscal year 1914 with domestic pro- 
duction, calendar years 1917-1922. 





1914 


1917 


1918 


Class. 


I-P-ts. ^f-o?5* 


United 

States 

production. 


Per cent 
of total. 


United 

States 

production. 


Per cent 
of total. 


Acid 


Pounds. 
9, 286, 501 
3, 002, 480 

10, 264, 757 
1,512,605 
4, 450, 442 
7,053,879 

10, 352, 663 

8,407,359 

1, 945, 304 

27, 568 


20.2 

6 5 

22.3 

3.3 

9.7 

15.4 

22.5 

18. 3 

4.2 

.1 


Pounds. 

9,372,121 

2,073,043 

11,181,761 

934,360 

4,161,902 

15, 588, 222 

2S9, 296 

274, 771 

14,525 

2,368,541 


20.4 

4.5 

24 3 

2.2 

9.1 

33.9 

.6 

.55 

.05 

5.0 


Pounds. 
9,799,071 
2, 879, 639 

12, 285, 683 
1,068,466 
5, 447, 192 

23, 698, 826 

3,281,337 

3, 0.83, 888 

197, 449 

4,232 


16 8 


Basic 


4 9 


Direct 


21.1 


Lake and spirit-soluble 


18 


Mordant and chrome 


9 3 


Sulphur .... 


40.5 


Vats (including indigo) 


5 6 


(a) Indigo 


5.3 


(6) Other vats 


.3 


Unclassified 








Total 


45,950,895 


100.0 


45,977,246 


100.0 


58, 464, 446 


100.0 







Class. 



Acid 

Basic 

Direct 

Lake and spirit-soluble 
Mordant and chrome.. . 

Sulphur 

Vats (including indigo) 

(a) Indigo 

(6) Other vats 

Unclassified 

Total 



1919 



United 

States 

production. 



Pounds. 

12,195,968 
4, 036, 532 

14, 444, 934 
1,813,199 
3, 9a5, 050 

17,624,418 

9, 252, 982 

8, 863, 824 

389, 158 

49,111 



63, 402, 194 



Per cent 
of total. 



19.2 

64 

22.8 

2.8 

6.3 

27.8 

14.6 

14.0 

.6 

.1 



1920 



United 

States 

production, 



Pounds. 
17, 741, 538 

4, 993, 001 
19, 882, 631 

2, 20.5, 281 

3, 900, 209 
20, 034, 500 
19,338,099 
18, 178, 231 

1, 159, 868 
168,517 



100. 88, 263, 776 



Per cent 
of total. 



20.1 

5.7 

22.5 

2.5 

4.4 

22 7 

21.9 

20.6 

1.3 

.2 



100.0 



Imports. 



Pounds. 
733, 405 
192, 163 
571,581 

17,527 
709, 482 
229, 140 
932, 464 
171,101 
761,363 

16, 820 



3, 402, 582 



Per cent 
of total. 



21.5 

5.7 

16.8 

; .5 

20.9 

6 7 

27 4 

50 

22.4 

.5 



100. 





1921 


1922 


Class. 


United 

States 

production. 


Per 
cent of 
total. 


Imports. 


Per 
cent of 
total. 


United 

States 

production. 


Per 
cent of 
total. 


Imports. 


Per 
cent of 
total. 


Acid 


Pounds. 
7,843,009 
1,853,094 
7, 0.5.3, 761 

720, 406 
3, 997, 442 
10, 239, 255 

7, 019, 120 

6,673,968 

345, 152 

282,603 


20.11 
4.75 
18.08 

1.85 
10.25 
26.25 

17.99 

17.11 

.88 

.72 


Pounds. 

1, 455, 82:} 
163, 527 
537, 664 

43,653 
695,961 
220, 938 

1,1 16, .345 
70, 975 

1,04.5,370 
19,100 


34.24 
3.84 
12.64 

1.02 
16. 36 
5.20 

26. 25 

1.66 

24. 59 

.45 


Pounds. 
9, 880, 014 
2, 937, 585 
11,931,737 

1,009,512 
3, 749, 701 
16, 913, 767 

16, 926, 744 

15, 850, 752 

1, 07.5, 992 

1, 283,-l27 


15. 29 
4.54 
18.46 

1.56 

5.80 

26.17 

26.19 

24.52 

1.67 

1.99 


Pounds. 
601, 395 
15.5, 084 
671,621 

76,853 
716, 790 
194, 883 

1, 549, 024 

505 

1, 548, 519 

16,981 


15.10 


Basic 


3.89 


Direct 


16. 86 


Lake and spirit-solu- 
ble 


1.93 


Mordant and chrome. 
Sulphur 


18.00 
4.89 


Vats uncluding indi- 
go) 


38.90 


(a) Indigo 

(6) Other vats... 
Unclassified 


.01 

38.!-9 

.43 






Total 


39,008,690 


100.00 


4,252,911 


100.00 


64,632,187 


100.00 


3, 982, 631 


100. 00 







Dyes and Other Finished Coal-Tar Products. 

introductory. 

The finished coal-tar products are divided into the following eight 
classes: (1) Dyes, (2) color lakes, (3) photographic chemicals (.devel- 
opers), (4) medicinals, (5) flavors, (6) perfume materials, (7) synthetic 



30 UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 

I 

phenolic resins, (8) synthetic tanning materials. In previous reports * 
the Tariff Commission has emphasized the close relationship that 
exists between the manufacture of explosives, poison gases, and dyes 
and the fact that many explosive plants since the signing of the 
armistice have been converted into dye factories. During the war 
the dye plants of Germ.any supplied the army of that country with 
poison gases and explosives. The dye industry is also closely con- 
nected with the manufacture of flavors, perfume materials, photo- 
graphic chemicals, medicinal, and other coal-tar products, which, 
although produced in smaller quantities than dyes, use many of the 
by-products obtained in the manufacture of coal-tar dyes. 

The production of dyes and other finished products in 1922 is shown 
in Table 10 in as great detail as is possible without revealing the out- 
put of individual manufacturers. 

The total output of dyes and other finished coal-tar chemicals by 
164 firms was 88,368,131 pounds compared with 51,457,565 pounds 
by 147 firms in 1921. The total sales amounted to 93,370,065 pounds, 
with a value of $57,067,326. The 1922 production represents a 72 
per cent increase in quantity compared with 1921, and sales con- 
stitute 54 per cent increase over that of the previous year. 

DYES — SUMMARY OF PRODUCTION IN 1922. 

Increased 'production.— The, domestic production of dyes by 87 
firms was 64,632,187 pounds, an increase of 66 per cent over that of 
the previous year. The sales totaled 69,107,105 pounds, valued at 
$41,463,790. The pre-war production of coal-tar dyes by 7 firms in 
1914 was 6,619,729 pounds, valued at $2,470,096. These dyes were 
made almost entirely from intermediates imported chiefly from 
Germany. 

The general increase in dye production during 1922 was largely due 
to the revival of business. Beginning about June, the textile and 
other dye-consuming industries became more active, and during 
the remaining months of the year the demand for dyes steadily 
increased. This increase was general, extending to dyes of all 
classes. 

Large reduction in price of dyes. — A conspicuous feature of the dye 
industry in 1922 was the reduction of 28 per cent in the average price 
of all dyes from that of 1921. The average price of all dyes sold in 
the United States was 60 cents per pound compared with 83 cents 
in 1921 and $1.26 per pound in 1917.^ 

The substantial decrease in the selling price of dyes in 1922 is 
illustrated by the reduction in price of the important dyes which 
make up a large part of the total consumption. The average price 
of indigo was 24 cents compared with 45 cents in 1921, a 47 per cent 
decrease. Other dyes that declined in price in 1922 were Direct deep 
black Il^W, 47 per cent; Sulphur black, 9 per cent; Agalma black lOB, 
28 per cent; Nigrosine, 22 per cent; and Salicine black U, 27 per cent. 

> Census of Dyes and Coal-Tar Chemicals, 1917 1921. 

''■ As stated in the 1017 census the impart statistics show that for several years before the war artificial 
dyes imported into the United States annually were valued at between S9,()00,000 and 810,000,000. 
Furthermore, it is probable that the' cost of these dyes used in the United States to the primary consumers 
(textile mills, tanners, etc.) was not less than .$20,',00,000 nor more than 3f25,COO,0(X) per year. The actual 
importation of dyes in 1914, as stated in the Norton Census, was 4.'i,950,.S95 pounds. On the basis of the 
above values and the 1914 quantity imported, the cost of the dyes to the consumer was from 44 to 53 cents 
per pound, the invoice cost on the basis of invoice value of $10,000,000 would be 22 cents per pound. 



PRODUCTION OF DYES AND COAL-TAR CHEMICALS, 1922. 31 

Notable reductions in price also occurred in the case of the special 
and fast dyes. Indanthrene blue GCD declined 30 per cent; Alizarin, 
20 per cent; Indanthrene dark blue BO, 29 per cent; Alizarin saphirol 
B, 34 per cent; Wool green S, 41 per cent; and Eosine, 24 per cent. 

The reduction of 28 per cent in the average price of dyes from 
that of 1921 has occurred notwithstanding the development during 
1922 and the production of new colors of greater value and com- 
plexity. These have tended to increase the average price per pound 
of all dyes produced. 

Table 8 presents a comparison of the domestic sale prices of 100 
dyes for the years 1917-1922, together with the invoice value of the 
same dyes imported during the year 1914. The colors for which 
statistics are given in this table represent about 90 per cent of the 
domestic production of dyes in 1922. It should be noted that the 
domestic sale prices are not directly comparable with the invoice 
values in 1914. Invoice values do not represent the cost to the con- 
sumer as they do not include the importer's profit, or in most cases 
"charges for containers and packing, freight, and insurance to sea- 
port, consular certification, minor shipping charges at point of 
departure and at seaport. " 

The Schultz number as indicated in column 1 is that of "Farbstoff- 
Tabellen, " by Gustav Schultz, 1914 edition. In column 2 is shown 
the common name of the dye as adopted by the Tariff Commission 
for designating all dyes reported under a given Schultz number 
(column 1). The invoice price (1914), as shown in column 3, repre- 
sents the weighted average of all dyes classified under a given Schultz 
number in "Artificial Dyestuffs Used in the United States," Depart- 
ment of Commerce, Special Agents Series No. 121. These invoice 
prices are considerably below the price at which the dyes were sold to 
the consumer in this country. This weighted average value for all 
types is usually higher than the invoice price per pound for dyes 
representing the bulk of the importation under a given Schultz 
number. The individual dyes imported under given Schultz numbers 
in the Norton Census show a wide variation in price, frequently 
amounting to several hundred per cent. This is due chiefly to the 
great variation m the concentration of the different dyes and also 
to the variation in prices of special and pure brands, which are more 
costly than the ordinary brands. Column 4 gives the domestic sales 
price as reported to the Tariff Commission. This represents the 
weighted average price of all manufacturers for those dyes reported 
under a given Schultz number. Most of these prices were published 
in the "Census of Dyes and Coal-Tar Chemicals, for the years, 
1917-1921." 



32 

Table 8. 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 

-Domestic sale prices of dyes, 1917-1922, compared with invoice values of the 
same dyes imported, 1914. 





Name, 


1914 
invoice 

value 
imported 

dyes 

(weighted 

average 

of all 
types). 


Average price per pound. 


Schultz 
No. 


1917 


1918 


1919 


1920 


1921 


1922 


9 


Direct yellow R 


«0. 178 
.162 
.239 
.200 
.136 
.165 
.133 
.148 
.150 
.077 
.154 
.604 
.095 
.159 
.411 
.164 
.176 
.249 
.081 
.256 
.130 
.118 
.198 
.188 
.138 
.127 
.0&3 
.149 
.156 
.252 
.134 
.165 
.143 
.166 
.110 
.144 
.172 
.186 
.183 
.270 
.179 
. 255 
.133 
.041 
.231 
.189 
.362 
.194 
.133 
.209 
.234 
.267 
.222 
.275 
.440 
.144 
.139 


S2.55 


$2.61 


$1.74 


$1.49 
1.53 
1.88 
1.86 

.87 

.79 
1.04 
1.22 
1.78 

.63 

.86 
1.51 

.80 

.93 
5.33 
1.64 

.43 
2.08 

.62 
1.55 
1.65 
1.04 
1.43 
2.28 
2.11 
1.26 
1.52 

.81 
1.10 
1.95 
1.29 
2.23 
2.64 
2.26 
1.80 

.87 
1.55 

.84 

.91 
2.81 

.86 
2.97 
2.49 

.88 
1.07 
1.08 
2. .59 
1.99 
1.46 
1.67 
2.47 
1.98 
1.88 
2.11 
2.43 
1.03 

.99 
1.51 
1.20 
1.60 
1.58 
1.39 
2.48 
3.32 
4.23 
5.22 
4.67 
2.39 
6.S'2 
5.21 
5.90 


$1.07 

1.22 

1.60 

l.SO 

.77 

.78 

.86 

.96 

1.46 

.53 

.69 

1.25 

.73 

.84 

3.89 

1.20 

1.04 

1.85 

.51 

1..53 

1.25 

.96 

1.26 

1.96 

3.23 

.99 

1.63 

.98 

.75 

1.67 

1.09 

1..56 

1.41 

1.74 

1.48 

.94 

1.25 

.78 

.85 

2.03 

.89 

2.17 

1.48 

.69 

.86 

.99 

2.09 

1.65 

1.20 

1.03 

2. .33 
1.53 
1.67 
1.90 
1.39 

.79 
.71 
1.21 
1.03 
1.15 
1.45 
1.06 
2.02 
1.97 

3. 68 
3.94 
3.28 
1.66 
2.91 
3.64 
3.42 


$0.88 


10 


Stilbene j^ellow 


11 


Chloramine orange G 


3.32 
1.50 
1.09 
1.22 
1.13 
1.25 
3.04 
.59 
.83 

"'i.'is' 

1.46 

'"'2.24" 

1.32 

2.04 

.98 

1.90 


2.86 

1.91 

.77 

1.22 

.89 

.92 

1.16 

.68 

.91 

.88 

.79 

1.02 

5.50 

1.61 

.85 

2.02 

.68 

2.00 


1.99 

2.04 

1.04 

1.12 

.88 

1.04 

.97 

.72 

.84 

.81 

.80 

.91 

5.15 

1.65 

'""i.'gs' 

.63 
1.68 


1 32 


23 


Tartrazine 


1 08 


33 


Chrysoidine Y 


.63 


34 


Chrysoldine R 


.63 


37 


Croceine orange 


.77 


38 


Orange G 


.58 


42 


Amido naphthol red G 


.83 


48 


Alizarin yellow G 


.50 


58 


Alizarin yellow R 


.61 


66 


Amido naphthol red 6 B 


.66 


82 


Ponceau 2 R 


.61 


112 


Bordeaux B 


.75 


119 


Diamine rose 


3.01 


134 


Metanil yellow 


.92 


137 


Acid yellow G 


1.03 


141 


Azo yellow 


1.30 


145 


Orange II 


.38 


154 


Palatine chrome brown 


1.34 


157 


Diamond black P. V 




161 


Fast red A 


1.19 
2.71 
2.25 
1.31 
1.44 
1.25 
.74 
2.92 
2.25 
1.08 
1.35 
2.50 
2. 25 
2.25 
1.89 
2. .50 
1.17 
1.48 
12. 64 
2.47 

"2." ,56" 
2.00 
2.00 
1.97 


1.03 
1.51 
1.25 

.88 
1.16 
2.38 
1.35 
1.62 
2.25 
1.26 
1.92 
2.10 
2.25 
2.10 

.84 
1.40 

.81 

.97 
5.71 
2.01 

""3." 2.5" 
1.37 
1.56 
1.53 


1.05 
1.43 
2.20 
2.98 
1.32 

.39 
1.89 
1.25 
2.02 
1.47 
2.41 
2.67 
2.21 
1.91 
1.01 
1.48 
1.01 
1.04 
2.53 
1.12 
3.32 
2.72 
1.00 

.88 
1.36 
2.72 
2.20 
1.80 
1.69 
2.07 
3.18 
2.40 
3.08 
1.97 
1.04 
1.04 
1.85 
2.14 
1.65 
1.83 
1.23 
3.08 
3.26 
4.66 
.5.12 
4. .57 
2.44 
4.86 
4.93 
6.35 


.83 


163 


Azo rubine 


.92 


164 


Fast red V. R 


1.50 


168 


Amaranth 


.86 


169 


Cochineal red 


.76 


173 


Lithol red R 


1.25 


177 


Mordant vellow 


.76 


181 


Salicine black U 


.55 


188 


Sulphon acid blue R 


.91 


217 


Agalma black 10 B 


.79 


227 


Brilliant croceine 


1.09 


236 


Wool red B 


1.02 


257 


Sulphon cyanine G 


1.21 


265 


Sulphon cyanine black 


1.14 


266 


Naphthvlamine black D 


.66 


275 


Diamond black 


.94 


283 


Bismark brown 


.66 


284 


Bismark brown 2 R 


.63 


304 


Chrysophenine G 


1.70 


307 


Congo rod 


.65 


327 


Diamine violet N 


1.44 


333 


Oxamine black B H N 


.91 


337 


Benzoblue 2 B 


.48 


340 


Benzo orange R 


.89 


342 


Chrysamine G 


.93 


343 


Diamine fast red F 

Diamine brown 


1.39 


344 


""2.' 82' 
2.32 


2.60 
2.46 
2.23 
4.73 
3.00 


1.10 


363 


Benzo puri^urine 4 B 


.90 


391 


Benzo blue 3 B 


.78 


405 


Benzo ijurnurine 10 B 


1.64 


410 


Benzazurine G 


1.28 


419 


Chicago blue R W . 


1.45 


424 


Chicago bhie 6 B 


"'5.' 66" 

.75 


"4.' 46' 

.85 


1..52 


420 


Benzamine pure blue 


1.22 


462 


Direct deep black E W 


.42 


463 


Erie direct black R X 


.61 


474 


Oxamine green B 


.174 
.230 


2.30 
2.16 
1.80 
2.00 
1.80 
3.08 
6.28 

"'s.'ot' 

9.10 
3.!^4 
4.85 
8.50 
4.71 
10.78 
11.91 
6.98 
10.00 


2.20 
2.09 
1.70 
2.25 
1..50 
3.76 
5. 60 
5.63 
8. in 
7.72 
2.78 
5. .56 
7. on 
8.33 
8.68 
8.46 

"15.' 92' 


.92 


475 


Oxamine green G 


.98 


476 




.73 


477 


Congo brown G 


.194 
.170 
.240 
.241 
.221 
. 255 
.294 
.248 
.368 
.2*1 
.409 
. 305 
..312 
.353 
.415 


.88 


485 


Benzo brown G 


.93 


493 




1.66 


495 


Malachite green 


1.22 


499 


Brilliant green 




502 


Guinea green 


1.77 


512 


Magenta 


2.26 


515 


Methyl violet 


1.29 


521 


Aniline blue 


4.56 


.530 


Acid violet 


1.86 


.536 


Alkali blue 


2.42 


.5i3 


Patent blue 




559 


Vif toria blue B 


3.6,'; 
5. P5 
6.90 


,5.14 
4.99 
6.72 


3.86 

1.88 




.566 


Wool trreen S 


i.io 


573 


Rhodamine B 





PRODUCTION OF DYES AXD COAL-TAE, CHEMICALS, 1922. 



33 



Table 8. — Domestic sale prices of dyes, 1917-1922, compared with invoice values of the 
same dyes imported, 1914 — Continued. 



Schultz 
No. 



587 
606 
616 
617 
626 
659 
679 
697 
698 
699 
700 

720 

725 

739 
763 

778 
779 
782 
842 
849 
874 
877 



Name. 



Eosine 

Phosphine 

Primuline 

Columbia yellow , 

Gallocyaniae 

Methylene blue 

Saframne 

Induliuo (spirit soluble) 

Nigrosine f spirit soluble) 

Induline (water soluble) 

Nigrosine (water soluble) 

Sulphur yellow 

Sulphur black 

Sulphur blue 

Sulphur brown 

Sulphur tan 

Sul phur maroon 

Indanthrene dark blue B O . 

Alizarin 

Alizarin orange 

Alizarin bro\vTi 

Indanthrene blue G CD 

Indanthrene yellow 

Indigo synthetic 

Indigo extract 



1914 

invoice 

value 

imported 

dyes 

(weighted 

average 

of all 

types). 



Average price per pound. 



1917 



SO. 418 
.352 
.144 
.1.36 
.347 
.390 
.359 
.198 
.126 
.258 
.149 



,100 



,107 



.186 
.227 
.100 
.224 
.290 
.354 
.334 
.128 
.340 



$8.58 

6.00 

4.43 

3.00 

5.96 

3.09 

5.93 

5.41 

1.11 

1.51 

.80 

.99 

.60 

1.63 

.55 



1.42 
.38 



1918 



S7.S1 

6.00 

3.04 

3.56 

5.12 

2.80 

5.85 

1.46 

.71 

.70 

.63 

1.09 

.29 

1.45 

.48 

.65 



1.95 

"Vio' 



.62 



1919 



$6.30 
3.86 
1.71 
2.66 
3.03 



3.03 

4.02 
.53 
.71 
.67 
.59 
.83 
.37 

1.11 
.47 
.34 

1.23 



1.58 

1.45 

1.58 

6.96 

17.62 

.59 

.64 



1920 



1921 



$2.51 
3.70 
1.37 
1.59 
2.44 
1.94 
2.60 
.75 
.70 
.96 
.68 
.73 
.23 
.64 
.38 
.59 
.95 
2.31 
.65 



1.32 

2.41 

3.76 

.45 

.65 



1922 



$1.90 
2.05 
1.07 
1.29 
1.92 
1.40 
1.69 
.94 
.54 
.82 
.53 
.78 
.21 
.60 
.40 
.56 
.79 
1.65 



.26 
.26 



Ontput of vat and alizarin dyes increases over 200 per cent. — The 
large increase in the production of vat d3'es which are used for dye- 
ing and printing fast shades on cotton goods, and to a less extent on 
silk, denotes great progress in the domestic dye industry. These 
dyes are derived from anthraquinone; they are of great complexity 
and their production presents serious difficulties. Their use steadily 
increases with the growing demand for fast shades; the increase in the 
price of cotton goods also favors the use of more costly but better dyes. 

The production of this class of dyes is still below the domestic 
recjuirements, and further increases in output are therefore desirable. 
Alizarin, used in the production of the well-known Turkey red, and a 
number of alizarin derivatives used in dyeing fast shades on wool, 
show conspicuous increases. The total output of the anthraquinone 
dyes in 1922 was 1,234,963 pounds. The production of vat dyes 
other than indigo in that year was 1,075,992 pounds, compared with 
345,152 pounds for 1921. 

Many new dyes produced. — New dyes were produced in 1922 for 
dyeing silk, cotton, and wool. These include vats, the alizarins for 
wool, developed cotton dyes, mordant and acid colors. These dyes 
were previously imported; their production gives a more complete 
range of fast and special colors of domestic origin for the textile 
industries. Their manufacture was the result of laborious research 
and painstaking investigation both in the laboratory and in the dye 
plant, and the successful production is highly creditable to the in- 
dustry. Many other new dyes have been added to the manufacturing 
list since January, 1923. 

Part V of this report contains a list of the dyes imported in greatest 
quantities during 1922. From this list may be deduced the deficien- 
cies of the domestic industry in meeting the needs of the dye-con- 
suming: manufacturers. 



34 UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 

Quality of American dyes. — The satisfactory quality of American 
dyes is one of the evidences of marked progress made by the domes- 
tic industry. It can be stated conservatively that, dye for dye, with 
relatively few exceptions, the domestic products are the equal of the 
pre-war German product; in a few cases they are superior. Dyes of 
domestic manufacture are now supplying more than 90 per cent of 
the requirements of the textile and other dye-consuming industries. 

In the early stages of the domestic dye industry, after the out- 
break of the war, there was a lack of uniformity in the strength and 
quality of many dyes. This condition no longer prevails, as do- 
mestic manufacturers after much painstaking research are able 
to market dyes uniformly standardized and of high quality. This 
is one of the significant accomplishments of the domestic dye 
industry. 

The manager of a large cotton printing, dyeing, and finishing 
concerns states: ''In sharp contrast to the conditions that prevailed 
before the war, I may say that at the present time more than 90 
per cent of the total poundage of dyes required to operate our plants 
are made in America. Type for type, they are the equivalent of 
the German product, and we are able to do fully as good work with 
the American dyes of the same type as we ever were able to do 
before the war when operating wholly with German dyes." 

One of the largest silk manufacturing concerns reports that over 
84 per cent of the dyes consumed in its plants in 1922 were manu- 
factured in the United States, and that the average price paid for 
American dyes in that year was $1.09, which compared very favor-, 
ably with the pre-war average price of 67 cents per pound. 

In an Institutional Story advertisement, the largest domestic 
manufacturer of woolen goods, referring to American textile mUls, 
states : 

They are employing American dyes that are as fast and as eflScient as any foreign 
dyes ever were. 

Relation of production to consumption. — Imports of dyes in 1922 
were 3,982,631 pounds ^ and the invoice value was $5,243,257. Pro- 
duction in that year amounted to 64,632,187 pounds, valued at $38,- 
779,312. Imports were, accordingly, 6.2 per cent of total production 
by quantity and 13.5 per cent by value. It should be noted, how- 
ever, that in the comparison by value the cost to the consumer of 
imported dyes is greater than the invoice value, so that the true 
ratio of sales value of imports to value of production is greater than 
the estimate of 13.5 per cent given. 

Exports of "color lakes, and other colors, dyes, and stains" during 
1922 totaled 6,956,593 pounds, valued at $3,023,127. The domestic 
consumption of dyes is assumed to equal production plus imports 
minus exports, or 61,658,225 pounds for the year. In volume pro- 
duction was 104.8 per cent of domestic consumption. Imports con- 
stituted 6.5 per cent by quantity, and production about 93.5 per cent 
of apparent consumption. In 1914 imports were about 90 per cent 
of consumption. 

The RuJir occupation.— The occupation of the Kuhr by the French 
Army has been of great interest to the chemical world, owing to the 

• This figure is in excess of the actual quantity imported, owing to the fact that most of the vat dyes 
have been reduced to a single strength basis. 



PRODUCTION OF DYES AND COAL-TAR CHEMICALS, 1922. 35 

fact that a large number of the chemical and dye factories of Germany 
are located in the occupied section. The export restrictions of 
the French and Germans, the conflict between the two authori- 
ties, together with the hindrances to transportation and other 
abnormal conditions, have resulted in a partial paralysis of the 
export trade of Germany in both dyes and chemicals. Prior 
to the war Germany dominated the world's dye and organic chemical 
markets. After the outbreak of the war the large dye-consuming 
nations, such as China, the United States, Great Britain, and France, 
suffered an acute shortage of dyes, owing to the shutting off of the 
German supply. Subsequently the United States, Great Britain, and 
France developed their own dye and organic chemical industries. 
The occupation of the Ruhr was probably as little expected by the 
textile mills and dye and chemical consumers as was the war itself. 
Fortunately, however, for domestic dye consumers the dye industry 
of the United States is able to supply more than 90 per cent of do- 
mestic consumption. Regardless of the outcome of the Ruhr occu- 
pation, this country is no longer completely dependent on Germany 
for dyes and organic chemicals, as was the case prior to 1914, and 
consumers have no present reason to fear another dye famine. 

Production of Dyes by Classes. 

The dyes produced in the United States in 1922 are classified 
according to method of application as follows: (1) Acid dyes, (2) 
basic dyes, (3) direct dyes, (4) lake and spirit-soluble dyes, (5) mor- 
dant or chrome dyes, (6) sulphur dyes, (7) vat dyes, subdivided into 
indigo and other vats, and (8) unclassified dyes. While in certain 
cases the classification of a color is arbitrary, because a dye may have 
properties which permit of its application by more than one method, 
it is believed that the above classifications facilitate the comparison 
of production and import figures. 

The production of dyes in the United States from 1917 to 1922, 
inclusive, as compared with the imports during the fiscal year 1914 
and the calendar years 1920 and 1922, are arranged according to the 
classes given above in Table 7. 

ACID DYES. 

Description. — The acid dyes are commonly applied in an acid bath; 
they have acid properties and are usually sodium salts of a color acid. 
They constitute the most important group used in wool dyeing, being 
especially adapted to the dyeing of hosiery and carpet yarns, suitings, 
dress goods, and hat materials; they have, in addition, considerable 
application on silk. They are little used on cotton or linen because 
of their lack of affinity for vegetable fibers, but are of value in the 
dyeing of jute. In general, their use is largely confined to goods not 
requiring repeated washings. 

Acid dyes yield clear, bright shades. They are superior to the 
direct and mordant dyes in purity of shade, but are not equal to 
basic dyes in this respect. They have a wide color range, and in 
fastness they show great individual variation; as a rule they are 
fairly fast to light and acids, and have a tendency to bleed in washing. 
They yield faster shades on wool than on silk. Some of the more 
complex acid dyes produce shades of good general fastness. A con- 
siderable part of this group is of the lowest-priced dyes produced. 



36 UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 

Their method of application in an acid bath is simple and of low 
labor cost. 

The line of demarcation between acid dyes and certain colors of the 
direct and mordant groups is arbitrary. Certain acid dyes when 
*'aftertreated" with sodium or potassium dichromate, yield shades of 
good fastness to milling, light, washing, and other agents. These 
dyes, known as acid chrome colors, are used chiefly on wool, especially 
on loose wool yarns and piece goods, such as men's suitings. Most 
of the acid dyes are chemically included in one of the following 
groups: (1) Nitro compounds, (2) azo compounds, (3) sulphonated 
basic dyes (mostly triphenylmethane derivatives). 

Production. — Acid dyes rank fourth in order of quantity produced, 
totaling 9,880,014 pounds, or 15.29 per cent of all dyes manufactured. 
The production in 1921 was 7,843,009 pounds. 

Three acid dyes exceeded a million pounds each in production. 
Of these, Agalma black lOB, with a total production of 1,645,373 
pounds, ranked fifth in quantity of all dyes manufactured. Sales of 
this color amounted to 2,032,531 pounds, valued at $1,603,149; the 
price decreased from $1.09 per pound in 1921 to 79 cents in 1922. 
The output of Orange II was 1,341,971 pounds. Nigrosine (water 
soluble), with a total of 1,338,063 pounds, showed an increase of 100 
per cent over 1921. Tartrazine, with a slight decrease in production 
from the previous year, totaled 551,480 pounds. Other important 
bulk acid dyes include Indigo extract, the output of which was 
543,044 pounds; Azo rubine, 372,060 pounds ; Metanil yellow, with 
a large increase to 290,502 pounds. The output of the diphenyl- 
naphthylmethane color, Wool green S, which was produced for the 
first time in 1920, reached 256,461 pounds in 1922. Ponceau 2R, 
Fast red A, Bordeaux B, Brilliant croceine, Sulphoncyanine black, 
and Victoria violet recorded large increases in output in 1922 and an 
individual output of over 146,000 pounds. 

Sulphoncyanine G again declined in production during 1922, the 
total amounting to 152,807 pounds. The maximum output of this 
color was 365,998 pounds in 1921. Other dyes which recorded 
decreases for 1922 include Patent blue A, Fast red VR, Fast acid 
violet lOB, and Guinea green. 

No production was reported for Patent blue V. There was a 
deficiency also in certain of the acid alizarins, such as Alizarin rubinol. 
On the other hand, the production of Alizarin saphirol B showed a 
noteworthy increase to 180,284 pounds. Sales of this dye ranked 
fifth in value, totaling $789,365. The average price declined from 
$6.22 in 1921 to $4.08 per pound in 1922. Other notable increases 
were in the output of Fast light yellow. Xylene yellow, and Fast 
acid fuchsine. Among the new acid dyes reported m 1922 are Pala- 
tine black, Crumpsall yellow, Fast acid blue, and Phloxine. 

/mporte.— The imports of acid dyes during 1922 amounted to only 
601,395 pounds, or 15 per cent of all dyes imported, compared with 
1,455,823 pounds in 1921, w^hen this class ranked first in quantity of 
dyes imported. The imports during the pre-war year 1914 amounted 
to 9,286,501 pounds. The six leading acid dyes in order of quantity 
imported in 1922 were: Fast green, 52,498 pounds; Patent blue, 
49,136 pounds; Kiton fast yellow, 46,753 pounds; Alizarin rubinol, 
26,457 pounds; Erioglaucine, 25,852 pounds; and Fast light yellow, 
25,555 pounds. 



PKODUCTION OF DYES AND COAL-TAR CHEMICALS, 1922. 3? 

BASIC DYES. 

Description. — The basic dyes surpass all others in depth brilliancy 
of shade, and purity of tone. They possess high tinctorial power, but 
as a class lack fastness, especially to light and washing. 

Basic colors are used on cotton in dyeing and printing, where 
bright shades or color tints are desired without special requirements 
for fastness. They are also employed in the dyeing of paper and 
jute and for lithographic inks, typewriter ribbons, copy paper, and 

Eencils. With the exception of Rnodamine B and a few others they 
ave little application on wool. Dyes of this class are chemically 
basic in character and are fixed on vegetable fibers with an acid 
mordant, namely, tannic acid. 

They are historically the oldest of the coal-tar dyes. Mauvine 
or Perkin violet, discovered by W. H. Perkin in 1856, was the first 
aniline dyestuff produced on a commercial scale. Basic dyes are not 
as important as formerly; for cotton dyeing they have been super- 
seded by direct and sulphur dyes, which have advantages in economy 
of application and in many cases possess better fastness. In wool 
dyeing the acid dyes have almost entirely displaced the basic colors. 
Chemically, the basic dyes include a large number of the triphenyl- 
methane derivatives, and, in addition, members of the following 
classes: (1) Azines, (2) azos, (3) thioazines, (4) thioazols, and (5) 
acridines. 

Production. — The 1922 output of basic dyes was 2,937,585 pounds, 
or 4.54 per cent of the total, as compared with 1,853,094 pounds in 
1921. There was a general increase in the output of individual basic 
dyes and accompanied by conspicuous price reductions in this group. 
With a few exceptions, the domestic manufacture of this class of dyes 
is well developed. Imports of 1922 were only 155,084 pounds, or 3.9 
per cent of the total compared with 3,002,480 pounds in 1914. 

The leading basic dye produced in 1922 was Bismarck brown 211, 
the output of which was 658,060 pounds; the sales amounted to 
702,247 pounds, valued at $442,394. Chrysoidine Y, with total pro- 
duction of 538,733 pounds, showed a gain of more than 100 per cent 
over the previous year. Methylene blue, with an output of 372,077 
pounds, and Methyl violet, with a total of 350,564 pounds, both 
recorded gains over the previous year. The production of Auramine 
by 5 firms was 344,827 pounds, the highest since its first production 
during the war and an increase of 265 per cent over 1921. The 
price receded from S2.02 per pound in 1921 to $1.66 per pound in 1922. 
The imports of Auramine in 1914, when the entire consumption was 
obtained from abroad, totaled 449,276 pounds, receding to 35,532 
pounds in 1921 and to 12,599 pounds in 1922. The output of Safranine 
recorded a large gain to 138,590 pounds. The output of Rhodamine 
B showed a marked increase. Conspicuous exceptions to the general 
increase in output of basic dyes were Rhodamine 6G and Phosphine. 
Declines in the production of these two dyes were reflected in an 
increase of imports. The five leading basic dyes in quantity imported 
during 1922 were Phosphine, 51,711 pounds; Rhodamine 6G, 13,545 
pounds; Auramine, 12,599 pounds; Thioflavine T, 6,765 pounds; 
and Methylene green, 6,069 pounds. 



38 UNITED STATES TAEIFF COMMISSION. 

DIRECT COTTON DYES. 

Description. — The direct or substantive dyes have been introduced 
within the past 25 years. Their method of apphcation is simple, as 
they dye vegetable fibers full shades in a neutral or alkaline bath, 
"directly," without the use of mordants. Although their principal 
application is on cotton, they are of special value in dyeing fabrics 
containing both cotton and wool (union goods) or silk and cotton. 
They are also used on linen, silk, and paper and to an increasing 
extent on wool, especially for knitting yarns, worsted and shoddy 
yarns, and loose wool. 

In fastness, individual dyes of this group show a wide variation. 
On account of their high solubility they have a tendency to run 
when washed. Many direct dyes, particularly those first introduced, 
are sensitive to acids and fade on exposure to sunlight; others, espe- 
cially the newer direct dyes, have good fastness to both acids and light 
as well as to other agents. Certain direct colors are of good fastness, 
particularly to washing, after a treatment of the dyed fiber by ''cou- 

f)ling" with certain intermediates. An aftertreatment with metal- 
ic salts or formaldehyde also improves the fastness of certain direct 
dyes. These "developed" direct dyes were not available in the early 
part of the war; the ordinary direct dyes then used for hosiery 
caused much dissatisfaction on the part of the consumer. Developed 
blacks, such as Zambezi black V, are now manufactured in this 
country for hosiery. 

With a few exceptions the direct dyes are chemically "azo" com- 
pounds and are nearly all derivatives of benzidine, tolidine, diamino 
stilbene, or a group closely approximating one of these. A small but^ 
valuable group of direct colors belongs in the thiazol class. 

Production. — The direct cotton dyes ranked third in quantity pro- 
duced in 1922 with a total of 11,931,737 pounds, or 18.46 per cent of 
all dyes manufactured. In 1921 the output of this group was 
7,053,761 pounds, or 18 per cent of total production for that year. 
The imports of direct colors in 1922 were 671,621 pounds, or 16.86 per 
cent of all dyes imported. In 1914 the imports totaled 10,264,757. 
pounds. 

Direct deep black EW, with a total of 5,326,457 pounds, ranked 
third of all dyes manufactured. Sales of this color amounted to 
6,009,842 pounds, valued at $2,504,197, while the price showed a con- 
spicuous decline from 79 cents in 1921 to 42 cents per pound in 1922. 
Oxamine black BHN, with an output of 700,015 pounds, showed a gain 
of 148 per cent over that of 1921. The price decreased from $1.48 
per pound in 1921 to 91 cents per pound in 1922. 

Benzamine brown 3 GO again ranked second in quantity of produc- 
tion, 695,602 pounds, compared with 491,347 pounds in 1921. The 
price of this color declined from $1.15 in 1921 to 73 cents per pound 
m 1922. Benzo blue 2B showed a shght gain in output to 593,487 
pounds. The stilbene dye. Direct yellow R, recorded a gain of 144 
per cent to 375,224 pounds, while Benzo purpurine 4B increased 100 
per cent to 309,384 pounds. The total output of thiobenzenyl dyes, 
Primuline and Columbia yellow, was 252,450 and 230,204 pounds, 
respectively. Other important bulk direct dyes were Congo brown 
G, with a production of 234,963 pounds; Oxamine green B, 215,140 
pounds; Erie direct black RX, with a decline to 181,308 pounds; 



PRODUCTION OF DYES AND COAL-TAR CHEMICALS, 1922. 39 

Chrysophenine G, 168,454 pounds; and Columbia black, with a very 
large increase to 161,718 pounds. 

Perhaps the most important development in this group of colors in 
1922 was the addition of a range of developed direct dyes which are of 
great value in producing shades of good fastness on cotton and silk. 
Of this class Zambesi black D, which presents great difficulties in its 
identification and manufacture, recorded a very large gain. This 
black is consumed in large quantities by the hosiery industry. The 
Gamma acid, Chicago acid, and J acid derivatives showed conspicu- 
ous increases in production. Among the direct dyes which showed a 
smaller tonnage in consumption and yet are of great value to the 
textile trade are Chicago blues. Diamine rose. Diamine scarlet, Benzo 
fast scarlets, Benzo fast pink. Diamine violet N, Diamine catechine. 
Diamine fast blue FFD, Rosanthrene AW,' L, B, R, Rosanthrene 
orange, and Congo fast blue R. The six leadmg direct dyes in quan- 
tity of imports are: Trisulphon brown, 45,697 pounds; Trisulphon 
brown GG, 37,648 pounds; Toluylene orange, 36,920 pounds; Di- 
phenyl red, 33,945 pounds; Diammogene blue, 18,620 pounds; Chloran- 
tine fast violet, 18,188 pounds. 

MORDANT AND CHROME DYES. 

Description. — These colors, in conjunction with metallic mordants, 
such as salts of chromium, aluminum, iron, and tiii, dye both vege- 
table and animal fibers. The resulting shades are, in general, of 
exceptional fastness to color-destroying agents. The mordant dyes 
yield on wool the fastest shades to light, washing, and other agents. 
They are also important in textile printing, particularly on cotton 
piece goods, but are little used on silk. 

The mordant dyes are frequently designated as chrome colors. As 
many of these colors are derived from alizarin, they were formerly 
called alizarin dyes. The true alizarins are generally used with a 
mordant; some of the new alizarins, known as acid alizarins, can be 
used either with or without. In the application of chrome dyes on 
wool, the mordant may be applied before, during, or after the dyeing 
operation. Certain dyes may be acid, acid chrome, or chrome, 
according to the method of application. The labor cost of dyeing 
with mordant and chrome dyes is higher than for other groups. 

The most important dye of this class, alizarin, is used in the produc- 
tion of the well-known Turkey red on cotton. This is one of the 
shades produced in ancient times from the madder root. Alizarin 
has been prepared synthetically from anthracene for about 50 years. 

Chemically, the mordant dyes are members of the following 
chemical classes: (1) Anthracene, (2) azo, (3) oxazine, (4) triphenyl- 
methane, (5) nitroso, (6) oxyquinone, and (7) xanthone. 

Production. — The output of mordant and chrome colors in 1922 
was 3,749,701 pounds, or 5.8 per cent of all dyes produced. This is 
a slight decrease from 1921, when 3,997,442 pounds were produced. 
The imports of this class in 1922 were 716,790 pounds, or 18 per 
cent of the total; in 1914, prior to the extensive development of the 
industry, they totaled 4,450,442 pounds. Although the mcrease in 
the output of individual dyes and the j)roduction of new dyes reflect 
definite progress in this branch of the industry durmg 1922, further 
development is desirable. 



il 



40 UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 

Salicine black U ranked first among the mordant and chrome dyes 
in quantity produced, totaling 1,165,939 pounds, with sal«s of 1,114,- 
275 pounds valued at $612,008. The decrease from the 1921 figure 
may be attributed in part to the increased output of other wool 
blacks. The average price per pound decreased from 75 cents in 

1921 to 55 cents in 1922. 

The output of Eriochrome black T was 303,085 pounds, a very lar^e 
increase over that of 1921. The imports totaled 132,388 pounds m 
1921, but in 1922 receded to 13,977 pounds. 

Production in large quantity of Eriochrome black A was reported 
for the first time in 1922. This dye was imported in larger quantities 
in 1921 than any other, totaling, 224,002 pounds as compared with 
24,499 pounds in 1922. The production of Erichrome blue black B 
showed a large gain to 92,163 pounds. Alizarin yellow G ranked 
second among this class of dyes, with an output of 441,699 pounds, 
compared with 271,285 pounds for the previous year. This dye was 
consumed in large amounts for army uniforms during the war. 
Metachrome brown B held third place, with a total of 312,828 
pounds. 

Among the mordant and chrome dyes showing a large output are 
Alizarin yellow R, 198,362 poimds; Diamond black, 176,988 pounds; 
Gallocyanine, 82,253 pounds; Alizarin brown. Palatine chrome 
brown, Diamond flavine G, Palatine chrome red B, and Mordant 
yellow were also made in quantity. 

Alizarin showed a conspicuous increase in output. The imports for 

1922 were 27,086 pounas, compared with 136,283 pounds for the 
previous year. Important alizarin derivatives now produced in the 
United States are Alizarin GI, Alizarin SX, Alizarin orange, Alizarin 
redS. 

Production was reported in 1922 for Prune pure, Fast mordant 
yellow, Milling orange G, Alizarin black. Anthracene chrome black, 
Chrome brown RR, Anthracene chromate brown EB, Anthracene 
chrome violet AA, Anthracene acid brown, and Alizarin blue black. 

The eight leading mordant and chrome dyes in the order of quantity 
imported during 1922 are: Anthracene blue WR, 52,364 pounds; Aliza- 
rin saphirol B, 46,596 pounds; Erio chrome azurol BC 43,191 pounds; 
Alizarin blue S, 32,916 pounds; Gallamine blue, 29,237 pounds; 
Alizarin, 27,086 pounds; Alizarin viridine, 25,910 pounds; Alizarin 
red, 25,872 pounds. 

SULPHUR DYES. 

Description. — This group of dyes produce heavy, deep shades of 
blue, green, brown, and black. They are used almost entirely in 
cotton dyeing, being especially adapted to uniform cloths, hosiery, 
gingham yarns, and cotton warps to be woven with wool and later 
dyed with acid dyes. Their greatly extended use during the war 
served to increase permanently their application in cotton dyeing. 
Sulphur colors are also used in the dyeing of linen and artificial silk. 

The sulphur dyes possess excellent fastness to washing, fulling, 
alkalies, and acids in cross dyeing. With some exceptions, their fast- 
ness to light is good. As they are not fast to chlorine, they do not 
withstand the repeated bleaching action of hypochlorites in the mod- 
ern laundry treatment. They are applied in a sodium sulphide 
solution with after treatment in certain cases with metallic salts to 



PRODUCTION OF DYES AND COAL-TAR CHEMICALS, 1922. 41 

improve their fastness. The first dye discovered in this group, 
"Cachou de Laval/' was made in 1867 by the fusion of sawdust 
with sodium sulphide and sulphur. Sulphur dyes are now prepared 
by the fusion of various intermediates (contammg the nitro, amino, 
or imino groups) with sodium sulphide and sulphur. These dyes are 
not pure, distinct compounds, and the presence of other substances 
render them of comparatively low color value. Recent develop- 
ments, however, have greatly increased the tinctorial value and range 
of shade of many of them. • 

Production. — Sulphur dyes ranked second in quantity of output 
with a total of 16,913,767 pounds, or 26.17 per cent of the total 
production in 1922. This group ranked first in output during the 
years 1917-1921. The manufacture of sulphur dyes received the 
early attention of dye manufacturers and is now well developed 
both in variety, quality, and quantity. The small amount of the 
imports during the last two years (totaling 194,883 pounds in 1922) in- 
dicates that the domestic sulphur dyes supply nearly all requirements. 

Sulphur black constituted 20 per cent of the total production of all 
dyes in 1922, with an output of 12,877,649 pounds and sales of 
13,401,540 pounds, valued at $2,869,933. This is a large increase 
over 1921, when the output was 7,832,696 pounds. The average 
price of sulphur black during 1922 was 21 cents per pound com- 
pared with 23 cents in 1921 and 60 cents in 1917. The output of sul- 
phur browns was 1,778,780 pounds. The sulphur blues which include 
a variety of dyes showed a noteworthy increase from 190,621 pounds 
in 1921 to 865,091 pounds in 1922. Increases were also recorded in 
the output of Sulphur green, Olive, Tan, and Yellow, while the pro- 
duction of Sulphur maroon decreased slightly. New sulphur dyes 
reported include blues, greens, browns, orange, and yellows. 

The five leading sulphur dyes imported during 1922 were Thionol 
brown, 48,750 pounds; Eclipse brown, 35,991 pounds; Cross-dye green, 
27,834 pounds; Thionol yellow, 26,682 pounds; and Sulphur green, 
24,872 pounds. 

VAT DYES. 

Description. — Vat dyes, on account of their exceptional fastness, 
variety, and beauty of shade, are of special importance for cotton 
goods where laundry-fast dyes are necessary. They are used 
on both dyed and printed shirtings, blouse material, dress goods, 
ginghams, muslin curtains, and other cotton wash goods. Because 
of their high cost, they have comparatively limited use for solid or 
heavy shades but are used for color stripes or for small printed pat- 
terns on a white background. They possess technical advantages in 
application over the alizarin mordant dyes. They are little used on 
wool, because they must be applied in an alkaline bath, a process 
that is injurious to wool. 

The vat dyes as a class possess exceptional fastness to light, wash- 
ing, acids, alkalies, and in most cases to chlorine. Certain vat dyes 
possess good fastness to only a part of these agents. No other class 
of dyes possesses an equal fastness to chlorine. The use of vat 
dyes is increasing, and they promise to be of greater importance 
in the cotton dyeing and printing industry as their comparatively 
high cost is reduced. 

52805—23 i 



42 UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 

With the exception of indigo, which is one of the oldest dyes 
known, vat dyes are of recent origin. They are difficult to manu- 
facture, of relatively high cost, and are among the most complex of 
dyes. Chemically, they are divided into indigoids (including 
thioindigoids) , anthraquinone derivatives, and the carbazole deriva- 
tives. Separate dyes of these different classes were made in the 
United States during 1922, with the exception of the thioindigoids, 
which include scarlets and reds. 

Production. — Classified by method of application the production 
in 1922 of vat dyes including indigo ranked first, totaling 16,926,744 
pounds, or 26.19 per cent of total output. 

Indigo. — The production of indigo alone for 1922 was 15,850,752 
pounds, or 24.52 per cent of total production of dyes. This rep- 
resents a large increase over 1921, when the output was 6,673,968 
pounds, but it does not equal the output of 1920, when the maximum 
figure was 18,178,231 pounds. During that year, the United States 
exported large quantities of indigo to China. Sales of indigo in 1922 
were 16,106,020 pounds, valued at $3,922,541. The average price 
was 24 cents per pound compared with 45 cents in 1921, and $1.45 
per pound in 1917. Indigo has recently sold below 20 cents per 
pound, indicating sharp competition between domestic manufacturers 
of this product. 

Vat dyes (not including indigo) show large increase.— The production 
of vat dyes (other than indigo) in 1922 was 1,075,992 pounds, an in- 
crease of 211.7 per cent over that of 1921. This large increase is 
probably the most important expansion in the dye industry during 
that year. The total quantity of this group of dyes is slightly below 
production in 1920, when the United States before the reappearance 
of German dyes had a large export trade in the world's markets. 
The output in 1920, however, represented only a few dyes; a very 
large percentage consisted of brom indigos for export to the Far 
East. 

Indanthrene blue GCD, the most important vat dye other than 
indigo, led in quantity of production, with an increase of over 200 per 
cent over the previous year. The price declined 30 per cent. The 
production of Indanthrene yellow increased nearly 1,000 per cent; 
Indanthrene violet, over 500 per cent; Indanthrene green and black, 
nearly 400 per cent; and Indanthrene brown B, over 700 per cent. 
A large commercial production was reported for the first time of 
Ciba blue 2 B and 2 BD and the carbazole derivatives, H3^dron blue R 
and G. Anthrene jade green, a vat dye of American develop- 
ment, showed a large increase over that of the previous year. The 
output of Indanthrene dark blue BO showed a decline from that of 
1921. Small quantities compared with total consumption were 
reported for Indanthrene claret B, Blue R and Blue GrG, and Gray B. 

The story of Indanthrene blue BCS is of particular interest in tracing 
the development of the industry and its resourcefulness in meeting 
new conditions. In January, 1922, this new vat dye was imported. 
It is very similar to Indanthrene blue GCD in its general properties, 
but dift'ers, however, in a somewhat greater fastness to chlorine. 
Within five months from the first commercial importation of this 
dye two manufacturers had completed research and plant trial work 
and were producing the dye on a commercial scale. It is under- 



PRODUCTION OF DYES AND COAL-TAR CHEMICALS, 1922. 43 

stood that the capacity of these two plants is equal to the domestic 
requirements. The production in 1922 made up a significant part 
of the vat blues. The imports of vat dyes (other than indigo) 
totaled 1,548,519 pounds (single strength), or 38.89 per cent of all 
dyes imported during that year. 

During 1914, when the entire consumption of vat dyes was im- 
ported, the total import of this group was 1,945,304 pounds, or 4.2 
per cent of all imports. Adding production in 1922 to the imports for 
that year, there is an indicated consumption of over two and one- 
half million pounds. Domestic production in 1922 was about 41 
per cent of that total; consequently, to supply the total needs of the 
group there is a demand for a 150 per cent increase in output over 
that of 1922. 

The vat dyes are among the most complex, and their manufacture 
presents great difficulty. As their consumption is about 5 per cent 
of total domestic dye requirements, they were among the last to be 
developed and produced in this country. As the diversity of this 
class is fairly great, the manufacture of complete domestic require- 
ments does not promise any considerable profit, because many of 
the special types are consumed only in small quantities. For a 
well-rounded and independent dye industry, however, the produc- 
tion of this class is of importance, and it is to this class of dyes that 
the domestic industry should give special attention. 

Consumers are slowly coming to recognize the fact that fast dyes 
aro obtainable and that colored cotton goods, fast to light, washing, 
alkalies, acids, and severe laundry treatment, can be purchased. 
There is therefore an increased demand for fast colors on cotton 
goods. Furthermore the higher price of cotton makes the slight 
increase in cost per yard of goods, resulting from the use of more 
expensive but better colors, of relatively less importance. These 
conditions indicate that the consumption of vat colors will increase 
year by year and that the annual requirement will exceed 3,000,000 
pounds within the next few years. The United States is to-day 
the largest consuiner of vat dyes, and increased production in both 
variety and quantity is desirable. 

The eight vat dyes which lead in quantity imported are: Indanthrene 
blue BCS (single strength), 239,085 pounds; Ciba blue 2B (single 
strength), 205,582 pounds; Ciba violet B (single strength), 131,661 
pounds; Indanthrene golden orange E, (single strength), 78,145 
pounds; Indanthrene golden orange G (single strength), 73,305 
pounds; Indanthrene violet B (single strength), 54,768 pounds; 
Helindone pink An and BN (single strength), 48,633 pounds; and 
Helindone pink BR (single strength), 40,668 pounds. 

COLOR LAKE AND SPIRIT-SOLUBLE DYES. 

Description. — These dyes constitute one of the smaller groups. 
The color lake dyes are used in the preparation of a class of pigments 
known as color lakes, discussed in detail under that heading. 

The spirit-soluble dyes are insoluble in water, but dissolve in 
either oils, fats, or various organic solvents; hence they find applica- 
tion for coloring varnishes (both spirit and oil), fats, oils, waxes, 
and similar products. Many of the spirit-soluble dyes are con- 



44 UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 

verted by chemical treatment, such as sulphonation, into water- 
soluble dyes for use in textile dyeing, and from this point of view- 
may be considered partly completed dyes. 

Production. — The production of lake and spirit-soluble dyes in 1922 
was 1,009,512 pounds, constituting 1.56 per cent of the total output 
of dyes. The production of this group in 1921 amounted to 720,406 
pounds. Imports during 1922 totaled 76,853 pounds, or 1.93 per 
cent of all dyes imported, compared with 43,553 pounds in 1921. 

FOOD DYES. 

Production. — Dyes, used for coloring food and food products, 
include a limited list of selected dyes which meet the specifications 
of the Bureau of Chemistry. The total production of these colors in 
1921, the first year that they were separately compiled, was 50,709 
pounds. The output in 1922 was 186,600 pounds and the sales were 
181,812 pounds, valued at $695,254. The average value of sales 
during 1922 was $3.82, compared with $5.80 for 1921. 

Dye Exports from the United States. 

1922 exports show LARGE DECLINE. 

The total exports of " color lakes and other colors, dyes, and stains " 
in 1922 were valued at $3,023,127, or less than one-half that of 1921, 
when the total exports of ''aniline dyes and all other dyes" were 
valued at $6,270,139. The 1922 figure represents a decline of 90 
per cent from 1920, when the total value was $29,823,591. 

Prior to 1922 the Department of Commerce reported only the 
value of exports of domestic dyes and dyestuffs, which it classified 
under the following groups: (1) Aniline dyes, (2) logwood extracts, 
(3) all other dyes and dyestuft's. The third classification covers 
both coal-tar dyes and natural dyes, other than logwood extract. 
Since logwood extract is by far the most important natural dye 
exported from the United States it is reasonable to assume that a 
large part of the figures returned for all other d3^es and dyestuffs, 
represents coal-tar dyes. The most important natural dye included 
under Group 3 is derived from the bark of the black oak (Quercus 
velutina) in two forms, viz, quercitron and flavine. These were 
exported in considerable amounts during the war and in smaller 
amounts before the war. In 1922 the Department of Commerce 
adopted a new classification, grouping coal-tar dyes under (1) color 
lakes and (2) other colors, dyes, and stams. For the first time the 
quantity as well as the value of the exports was published. Table 
9 shows by months the total exports of dyes from the United States. 
The countries to which dyes are exported are shown in detail in 
Part VI, Appendix. 

The combined value of the exports of aniline dyes and all other 
dyes in 1919 was $15,728,499, compared with $29,823,591 for 1920. 
In 1921 this figure showed a sharp decline to $6,270,155, a decrease 
of 79 per cent, as compared with the exports of 1920. 

Exports of "color lakes" in 1922 were 12,761 pounds, valued at 
$7,454, and the total of '' other colors, dyes, and stains " was 6,943,832, 
pounds, with a value of $3,015,673, making a grand total of 6,956,593 
pounds, valued at $3,023,127. This value is a 52 per cent decline 
from the total exports of aniline and other dyes in 1921. 



PRODUCTION OF DYES AND COAL-TAR CHEMICALS, 1922. 



45 



The import figures of China, India, and Japan for 1920 and 1921 
(see Part V), shows that Germany, Switzerland, France, and Great 
Britain exported dyes in large quantities to China and India, and 
that German exports of dyes to Japan li-kewise increased during 
those years. 

1923 DYE EXPORTS SHOW INCREASE. 

The total exports of ''coal-tar colors, dyes, and stains," as reported 
in the monthly summary of foreign commerce for the first four months- 
of 1923, were 5,456,812 pounds, with a value of $1,787,063. This; 
increased demand for American dyes by the Far East markets may 
be attributed in part to the reduced exports of German dyes since 
the occupation of the Ruhr b}^ the French in 1923. The Tariff Com- 
mission in its previous reports on Dyes and Coal-tar Chemicals has 
called attention to the fallacy of measuring the competitive strength 
of the domestic industry by the large exports of 1919 and 1920 as 
Germany was scarcely in the market during that period. The rapid 
decline in exports during 1921 and 1922 has justified the commission's 
position. 

Table 9. — Domestic exports of dyes, by months, 1919-1922. 



Month. 



1919 



Aniline 
dyes. 



January 

February. . 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September . 

October 

November . 
December. . 

Total 



51,405,017 

1,231,355 

492, 291 

777, 123 

58.5, 970 

858,661 

574, 274 

761,009 

785, 497 

1, 037, 708 

887,710 

1,327,456 



10, 724, 071 



All Other 
dyes.i 



$755, 382 
617,050 
278, 591 
359, 512 
239, 744 
475,571 
267, 425 
350, 491 
557, 005 
453, 390 
300, 041 
350, 226 



5, 004, 428 



Total. 



$2, 160, 399 
1, 848, 405 

770, 882 
1, 136, 635 

825, 714 
1, 334, 232 

841,699 
1,111,500 
1,342,502 
1,491,098 
1,187,751 
1,677,682 



15, 728, 499 



1920 



Aniline 
dyes. 



$917, 574 
1,850,662 
2,648,615 
1, 829, 771 
2,180,606 
2,389,515 
1,770,780 
1,151,196 
2,114,915 
1,802,142 
2, 006, 534 
1,788,170 



22, 450, 480 



All other 
dyes.i 



$372, 468 
379, 825 
850, 695 
891, 467 
817,713 
1,239,191 
947,411 
623,181 
551,113 
334,167 
211,465 
154,415 



7,373,111 



Total. 



$1,290,042 
2, 230, 487 
3,499,310 
2,721,238 
2,998,319 
3,628,706 
2,718,191 
1,774,377 
2, 666, (28 
2,136,309 
2,217,999 
1,942,585 



29,823,591 



January 

February. . 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September. 
October. . . 
November. 
December . 



Month. 



Total 5,067,000 



1921 



Aniline 
dyes. 



$943, 
397, 
574, 
305, 
278, 
444, 
310, 
513, 
322, 
349, 
372, 
254, 



All other 
dyes.i 



$349,114 
72,641 
95, 322 
59, 250 
91,753 
81,477 
65, 626 
70, 663 
70, 228 
73, 706 
78, 703 
94, 656 



Total. 



, 292, 709 
469,764 
670,291 
365,010 
370, 084 
525, 750 
375,983 
583,675 
392,705 
423, 687 
450, 947 
349, 534 



1,203.139 6,270.139 



I Commerce and Navigation lists under domestic exports of "dyes and dyestuffs" — "aniline dyes," 
"logwood extract," and "all other dyes and dyestuffs." Under this latter deVignation may be included 
both natural and coal-tar dyes. However, since logwood extract — shown separately — is the most im- 
portant natural dye exported from the United States, it may be assumed that a considerable portion of 
the exports under "all other dyes and dyestuffs" are coal-tar dyes. 



46 UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSIOlsr. 

Table 9. — Domestic exports of dyes, by months, 1919-1922 — Continued. 



Month. 



1922.« 



Color lakes. 



Pounds. 



Value. 



Other colors, dyes', 
and stains. 



Pounds. 



Value. 



Total. 



Pounds. 



Value. 



January 

February. . 

March , 

April , 

May , 

June , 

July 

August 

September . 

October 

November . 
December. . 

Total 



5,059 

6,796 

3,612 

8,446 

401 

282 

356 

593 

341 

576 

1,702 

64 



$4, 188 

5,124 

3,162 

2,105 

500 

361 

249 

411 

607 

890 

2,228 

103 



364,971 
298, 364 
708, 792 
581,367 
328, 733 
398, 975 
726, 624 
896, 701 
664, 348 
954, 922 
, 084, 890 
,307,272 



$325, 048 
230, 544 
405, 250 
271,571 
227, 898 
222, 370 
364, 737 
383, 692 
304, 022 
399, 439 
395, 579 
446, 365 



370, 030 
305, 160 
712, 404 
589, 813 
329, 134 
399, 257 
726, 980 
897, 294 
664, 689 
955, 498 
1,086,592 
1,307,336 



$329, 236 
235, 668 
408,412 
273, 676 
228, 398 
222, 731 
364, 986 
384, 103 
304, 629 
406, 329 
397, 807 
446, 468 



12.761 



7,454 



6,943,832 



3.015,673 



6, 956, 593 



3, 023, 127 



s The new classification adopted in 1922 was "Color lakes" and "Other colors, dyes and stains.' 

Other Finished Coal-tar Products. 



COLOR LAKES. 

Description. — -A color lake is an insoluble color pigment consist- 
ing of a precipitating agent, the coloring matter (a coal-tar dye), 
and a carrier (the base). The desired properties of a color lake 
are good coloring power, easy workability, brightness, and 
fastness to weather, light, alkali, and acids. The precipitating 
agents used for coal-tar colors include barium chloride, lead salts, 
aluminium hydroxide, and tannin or tannin-tartar emetic. Among 
the more important carriers are aluminium hydroxide, zinc white, 
lithopone, barytes, whiting, China clay, and certain native clays, 
and ochers. The principal requirements of a carrier are (1) ready 
reduction to a finely divided state and (2) absence of any deleterious 
effect on the shade of the finished lake. The coloring matter includes 
those coal-tar dyes known as acid dyes, basic dyes, and mordant dyes, 
as well as certain azo dyes which are produced directly on the carrier. 
An example is the preparation of Para red from the intermediates 

E-nitroaniline and b-naphthol. Another group of color lakes is made 
y the precipitation of a water-soluble acid dye with the aid of the 
mineral salt to form an insoluble product. 

After precipitation the soluble lake is filtered, dried, and ground 
with or without oil; it is then ready for use as a pigment in paints, 
lithographic inks, artists' colors, wall paper, rubber products, and for 
similar coloring purposes. 

Production. — The total production of color lakes in 1922 amounted 
to 10,578,664 pounds and the sales to 10,366,676 pounds, valued at 
$4,551,572, with an average value per pound of 44 cents. This is an 
increase over 1921 when the output was 6,152,187 pounds and when 
the sales ajnounted to 6,424,612 pounds, valued at $2,863,189, with 
an average value per pound of 45 cents. 



PRODUCTION OF DYES AND COAL-TAR CHEMICALS, 1922. 47 

PHOTOGRAPHIC CHEMICALS. 

Coal-tar chemicals of this class, owing to their strong reducing 
properties, are used for developing photographic films, plates, and 
prints. They are popularly known as ^'developers," and are com- 
monly sold under various trade names. 

The total output of photographic chemicals in 1922 was 345,798 
pounds, an increase over 1921, when 183,798 pounds were produced. 
The sales for 1922 were 347,647 pounds, valued at $483,209, with an 
average value per pound of $1.39. The quantity of output of each 
individual developer can not be published without disclosing the 
output of individual manufacturers. The developer produced in 
largest quantity was hydroquinol and metol (methyl p-aminophenol 
sulfate) was the second largest. The production of p-hydroxyphenyl- 
glycine increased considerably in 1922 over the previous year. 

MEDICINALS. 

Description. — From the standpoint of national welfare this class 
includes some of the most important derivatives of coal tar. Chemi- 
cally, they include a variety of products used for a wide diversity of 
purposes. The development of medicinals constitutes one of the 
most creditable accomplishments of the coal-tar industry, as the high- 
est technical skill is required in their manufacture. 

The total production of medicinals in 1922 was 2,946,347 pounds; 
the sales were 3,092,915 pounds, valued at $4,233,433, or an 
average price of $1.37 per pound. The 1921 production was 
1,545,917 pounds; the sales for the same year were 1,876,246 pounds, 
valued at $2,930,324. 

Arsphenamine, known also as salvarsan and as "606," the hydro- 
chloride of 3-diamino-4-dihydroxy-l-arsenobenzene, used for com- 
bating syphilis and other protozoan infections, is one of the most im- 
portant medicinals of this group. Its production in 1922 by 7 
manufacturers was 865 pounds; sales were 917 pounds, valued at 
$257,022, or $280.28 per pound, as compared with 694 pounds, valued 
at $406.11 per pound in 1921. The pre-war price of "606," when 
this country was depended upon Germany, was $3.50 per ampoule. 
The present price per ampoule is about $1 wholesale to the public and 
about 20 cents to the Government. Neoarsphenamine (3-diamino-4- 
dihydroxy-1-arsenobenzene methanol sulfoxylate) had a total pro- 
duction by 4 manufacturers of 2,904 pounds. The total sales were 
2,229 pounds, valued at $1,032,725, or an average price per pound of 
$463.31. Production of silver arsphenamine, which was reported for 
the first time in the census of 1921, showed a decrease for 1922. 

Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) led all coal-tar medicinals in quantity 
produced, with an output by 5 firms of 1,482,998 pounds, com- 
pared with 733,510 pounds in 1921. The sales in 1922 were 1,427,385 
pounds, valued at $1,062,346. This shows a slight increase in the 
average price, from 73 cents in 1921 to 74.4 cents in 1922. Sodium 
salicylate, of which 467,264 pounds were produced by 6 firms, ranked 
second in quantity manufactured; the total sales were 423,834 
pounds, valued at $140,308, or 31 cents per pound. Phenol sulpho- 
nates (calcium, sodium, zinc, etc.) with a large increase in production, 
ranked third in quantity of output with 300,993 pounds; the 



48 UNITED STATES TAKIFF COMMISSION. 

sales were 336,456 pounds, valued at $94,436. Acetaniiido, with a 
production of 222,517 pounds, ranked fifth. Other medicinals show- 
ing a relatively large production were acetphenetidine, chloramine T, 
and salol. 

A number of medicinals were reported for the first time in 1922. 
Some of these are of great interest to the medical world. Among 
the more important are: Apothesine (hydrochloride of diethyl.-amino- 
propyl cinnamate), a synthetic local anesthetic belonging to the 
procaine type of anesthetic, which differs from the cocaine type in 
that it is eilective for injection but ineffective when applied to mucous 
membranes; butyn (p-amino-benzoyl-gamma di-normal butylamino 
propanol sulfate) a new product which is of value as a local anesthetic ; 
sodium luminal, the sodium salt of phenylethyl barbituric acid, is of 
special value in the treatment of some forms of epilepsy. The lack 
of this product was a serious inconvenience during the first year of the 
war. Its commercial manufacture involves problems of technical 
interest to the chemist. Cinchophen and neocinchophen (ethyl- 
methyl-phenyl-quinolin-carboxylic acid) reported in 1922 but not in 
1921, are of value in the treatment of gout and acute articular rheu- 
matism, and the latter is said to relieve the pain of sciatica. Profla- 
vine (3:6-diamino acridine sulfate), prepared from acridine, proved 
to be of value during the war as an antiseptic in the treatment of 
wounds. 

FLAVORS AND PERFUME MATERIALS. 

Description. — There is no sharp line of demarcation between these 
two classes of coal-tar chemicals as many of them are used as both 
flavors and perfumes; a separate classification is, therefore, in certain 
cases arbitrary. They serve as perfume materials for toilet articles, 
soaps, and similar products, and as flavors for food and food products. 

Production. — The total production of flavors in 1922 was 1,215,668 
pounds; the sales amounted to 1,278,857 pounds, valued at $1,- 
260,588. In 1921 the production was 901,245 pounds. 

Some of these products show a large increase in production, notably 
saccharin, which is used as a sugar substitute, and methyl salicylate, 
used largely as an artificial wintergreen flavor. The total production 
in 1922 of methyl salicylate was 854,763 pounds. Coumarin, used 
both as a soap perfume and in the preparation of flavoring extracts, 
also shows a large increase in production over the previous year, 
totaling 72,350 pounds. 

A new flavoring material reported for the first time in 1922 was 
isobutyl coumarone. 

The output of perfume materials in 1922 was 793,148 pounds. 
This was a very large increase over 1921, when 119,335 pounds were 
produced. Sales of these products totaled 778,696 pounds, valued 
at $643,436. 

Diethyl phthalate again ranked first in quantity of production 
and value of sales. This product was used under a special formula 
as an ethyl alcohol denaturant. The restriction of the use for 
illegal purposes of alcohol so denatured will probably cause pro- 
duction for 1923 to show a large decrease in volume. 

Other products of this group made in quantity are amyl salicylate, 
benzyl acetate, phenyl acetic acid, benzylidene acetone, and diphenyl 
oxide. 



PRODUCTION OF DYES AND COAL-TAR CHEMICALS, 1922. 49 

The production of such important synthetics as phenylethyl 
alcohol, phenylacetic aldehyde, and cinnamyl alcohol are still below 
the domestic demand, while others such as the artificial musks are not 
reported at all. 

Among the products reported for the first time in 1922 are 
dimethyl resorcinol, methyl anisate, methyl-p-tolyl ketone, beta- 
naphthyl anthranilate, nonyl anthranilate, phenylethylphenyl acetate, 
and phenyl vinyl ethylene methyl ketone. 

SYNTHETIC PHENOLIC RESINS. 

The manufacture of synthetic resins is distinctly an American 
development and has resulted only from the most careful research 
and engineering skill. These products were first made by the 
condensation of phenol with formaldehyde and ammonia and later 
with hexamethylenetetramine. In recent years para-coumarone, 
as well as cresol, has been used as a base. Synthetic resins are used 
as a substitute for amber in the manufacture of pipe stems, cig- 
arette holders, and similar articles. There is also a large consumption 
for electric insulating materials and for varnishes and lacquers. In 
1922 the total production was 5,944,133 pounds, as compared with 
1,643,796 pounds for the previous year. The sales for 1922 totaled 
6,415,931 pounds, valued at $4,315,196. 

SYNTHETIC TANNING MATERIALS. 

The synthetic tanning materials known as ''syntans" are of quite 
recent development, having come into commercial use in Germany 
and England since 1912. They give considerable promise for use in 
the tanning of leather in conjunction with natural tanning extracts. 

Synthetic tans are made by condensation of certain coal-tar 
derivatives, such as the sulphonated phenols, cresols, and naphthols, 
with formaldehyde in the presence of an acid. They are commonly 
used in conjunction with the natural tanning extracts. Their use is 
reported to result (1) in an economy of time required for tanning, 
(2) a satisfactory leather of light color, and (3) a reduction in the 
amount of natural extract required. 

Four firms reported in 1922 a total production of 1,910,519 pounds, 
with sales amounting to 1,981,588 pounds, valued at $103,598, or an 
average value of 5.2 cents per pound. 



50 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 



Table 10. — Production and sales of dyes and other finished coal-tar products, 1922, 

[The number in the first column identifies the dye according to the 1914 edition of the Schultz tables. The 
second column gives the common name of the product. The numbers in the third column refer to the 
numbered alphabetical list of manufacturers printed on page 11 7. An X signifies that the corresponding 
product was made by a manufacturer who did not consent to the publication of his identification number 
in connection therewith. Blanks in the fourth and fifth columns indicate that there were actual sales 
during 1922, but that the figures can not be jjublished without revealing information in regard to the out- 
put of individual firms. The blank space in the seventh column indicates that there was actual pro- 
du tion of the corre>ponding dyes in the United States during 1922, but that the figures can not be 
published without revealing information in regard to the output of individual firms. The figures thus 
concealed are, however, included in the total.] 

GROUP III. 





Common name. 


Manufacturer's iden- 
tification number 
(according to list 
on page 117). 


Sales. 




Schultz 
No. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Average 
price per 
pound. 


Production. 




Total finished coal- 
tar products. 

NITROSO DYES. 

Naphthol green 




Pounds. 
93,370,065 


$57,067,326 


$0.61 


Pounds. 
88,368,131 




4,65 




4 










7 
8 


NITRO DYES. 

Naphthol yellow S 

Pigment chlorine 

STILBENE DYES. 

Direct yellow R 


30,55,85,92,182 

188 


46,235 


50, 584 


1.09 


38,426 


9 


4, 6, 38, 70, 77, 127, 

129, 143. 
64, 70 


375,937 


332,466 


.88 


375, 224 


10 


Stilbene yellow 




11 

19 
22 


Chloramine orange G 

PYRAZOLONE DYES. 

Fast light yellow 

Xylene yellow 


4,6,70,127,129 

64, 84, 127, 130, 147. . 
38 


93,374 
53,345 


122,863 
142,992 


1.32 
2.68 


102,983 
61,048 


23 


Tartrazine 


25, 84, 89, 127, 147, 
181, 182. 

6 


586, 862 


636, 247 


1.08 


551,480 


31 


Azo Dyes. 

MONOAZO DYES. 

Spirit yellow 




32 


Butter yellow 


6, 30, 44, 85, 129, 

200, X. 
25, 30, 64, 84, 85, 127. 
4, 12, 30, 64, 84, 85, 

127. 
6,30 


29,264 

495,571 
141,085 


27, 192 

311,398 
88,531 


.93 

.63 
.63 


25,852 


33 


Chrysoidine Y 


538,733 
52, 745 


34 


Chrysoidine R 


35 


Sudan G 


36 


Sudan 1 


30, 44, 85, 127, 129, 

200, X. 
4, 3S, 105, 127, 165... 
23, 25, 30, 64, 127, 

165, X. 
127, 129, 130. . . 


38, 193 

22,969 
131, S69 


33,988 

17, 775 
76,580 


.89 

.77 

.58 


31,356 


37 


Croceine orange. ... 




38 


Orange G 


124,311 


40 


Chromotrope 2R 

Fast acid fuchsine B 

Amino naphthol red G.. 

Brilliant lake red R 

Alizarin yellow G 

Paranitraniline red 

Chromotrope 2B 

Alizarin yellow R 

Victoria violet 




41 
42 
45 


6, 30, 34, 46, 127, 129, 

136. 
4, 30, 34, 64, 77, 84, 

127,142. 
117 


22, 541 
117,250 


18, 456 
97, 250 


.82 
.83 


19,004 
89,683 


48 
56 


4, 6, 25, 38, 46, 64, 
84, 93, 127, 136, 
X, X, X, 

166 


513, 800 


258,533 


.50 


441,699 


67 


23 










58 
61 


4, 6, 23, 25, 38, 46, 
64, 84. 93, 129, 130, 
165, X, X, X. 

4, 3.S, 64, 77, 127, 
129, 142. 

165 


172,572 
162, 089 


105, 758 
235, 866 


.61 
1.46 


198,362 
146, 990 


64 






65 


Azo coralline 


77,84,X 


12,325 
125, 878 


29, 702 

82, 758 


2.41 
.66 

1.01 
1.04 


10,749 


66 
67 


Amino naphthol red 6B. 

Chromotrope 6B 

Spirit yellow K 


30,61,77,84,127,129, 

142. 
4,127,129 


107,938 
54,860 


68 


6, 30, 44, 127, X 

165 


37,209 


38, 779 


42,432 


70 


Brilliant orange 

Heiio fast red 




73 


166 











PRODUCTION OF DYES AND COAL-TAR CHEMICALS, 1922. 



51 



Table 10. — Production and sales of dyes and other finished coal-tar products, 1922 — 

Continued. 





Commoii name. 


Manufacturer'siden- 
tification number 
(according to list 
on page 117). 


Sales. 




Schultz 
No. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Average 

price per 
pound. 


Production. 


76 


Azo Dyes— Continued. 
MONOAZO DYXs — contd. 
Sudan II 


6,30,44,64,85,127.... 
.30,165 . ... 


Pounds. 

20,388 


$21, 479 


SI. 05 


Pounds. 
20,275 


79 


Xylidine orange 2R 

Ponceau 2R 


82 


4, 25, 30, 38, 85, 127, 

129, 165. 
64,127 


355,548 


215, 773 


.61 


236, 010 


88 


Acid anthracene brown 

R. 
Metachrome brown B . . . 




89 


23,25,64,X 


371, 666 


262,055 


.71 


312, 828 


94 


6,129 


102 


Diamond flavine G 


23,64,84,130 








21,953 


105 


6 










106 


Autol red RLP 


30,166 










107 


Sulphamine brown A . . . 
Palatine red A . 


165 










109 


165; 










112 


Bordeaux B 


4,6,25,30,38,84,105, 

127, 165. 
6,129 


202,703 


152,299 


.75 


i67, 142 


114 


Chromotrope lOB 

Erica 2GN 




117 


70,143 










119 


Diaminfi rnsA 


19,70,127,143 

165 


34,092 


102, 449 


3.01 


32,897 


132 






134 


Metani] yeUow 


38,64,65,84,85,127... 
4,64,65,127 


315,047 
6,284 


291,078 
6,465 


.92 
1.03 


290, 502 


137 


Acid yellow G 


7,315 


139 


Orange IV. . 


182 




141 


Azo yeUow 


30,64,65,84,127,182, 

X. 
4,85 


142,895 


186, 107 


1.30 


109,699 


143 






144 




6,30 










145 


Orange II 


4, 6, 25, 30, 38, 44, 64, 

85, 127, 165. 
6,64,85,127 


1,440,055 
53,487 


545,018 
23,744 


.38 

.44 


1,341,971 


151 


Orange R 




152 


Permanent red 4B 

Lake red C 


38 




153 


117,165,168 


79, 119 
49,204 


116,977 
65, 828 


1.48 
1.34 


80, 412 


154 
155 


Palatine chrome brown. . 
Acid alizarin garnet R . . . 
Palatine chrome violet . . 

Diamond black P V 

Chrome brown RR 


23, 46, 105, 127, 130, X 
23,65 127 


44,109 


156 


23,64,65,127 


6,677 


7,955 


1.19 


7,232 


157 


84,127 




158 


46 










160 


84 










161 


Fast red A 


4, 6, 23, 25, 30, 38, 64, 
85, 105, 127, 136, 
165, X, X. 

4,6,30,38,64,84,105, 
127, 129, 130, X, X. 

4, 127, 129, 130 

4 


236,239 

363,427 
117, 273 


195, 169 

333, 048 
176, 192 


.83 

.92 
1.50 


189,389 


163 


Azo rubine 


372,060 


164 


Fast red VR 


57,572 


166 


Fast red E 




167 


Croceine scarlet 3 BX 


38 










168 


6, 30, 38, 64, 105, 127, 

129, 165. 
25,30,38,64,105,127, 

165. 
26,38,66,148,165,188 
4,6,38,127 


53,603 

134,061 

195,071 
57,347 


45,924 

101, 294 

243, 388 
43,615 


.86 

.76 

1.25 
.76 




169 


Cochineal red 


97, 196 


173 


Lithol red R 


228,692 


177 


Mordant yellow . 


20,785 


178 


Crumpsall yellow 

Erio chrome blue black 

B. 
SaUcine black U 

Erio chrome black T 

Erio chrome black A 

Lanacyl \ijlet B 

Sulphon acid blue R 

Sulphon acid blue B 


127 




180 


23,38,84,127,130 






.94 
.55 

.93 


92, 163 


181 
183 


4, 23, 30, 38, 64, 84, 
105, 127, 129, 130, 
165, X. 

23,38,64,130 


1, 114, 275 
290, 247 


612,008 
269,835 


1,165,939 
303,085 


184 


23 38 64 




186 


64 










188 
189 


4,64,84,127,130 

127 


250, 626 


227,344 


.91 


60, 163 


190 


143 










193 




143 










194 


Thiazine red R 


38,70,129 


4,724 
11, 227 


7,927 
17, 767 


1.68 
1.58 


2,978 


195 


Rosophenine SG 

Thiazine red G 


70,143, X,X 


11,171 


197 


84 143 




198 


Mimosa C 


19,70,77,129,143 

188 


1,744 


2,943 


1.69 


2,812 


200 






202 


Palatine chrome red B. . . 
Total monoazo dyes 


6, 30, 38, 64, 115, 127, 
129, 130, 165, 188, X. 


49,800 


58, 726 


1.18 


44,550 




8,433,593 


6,279,470 


.74 


7, 578, 570 









52 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 



Table 10. — -Production and sales of d'^es and other finished coal-tar products, 1922 — • 

Continued. 





Common name. 


Manufacturer's iden- 
tification number 
(according to list 
on page 117). 


Sales. 




Schultz 
No. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Average 
price per 
pound. 


Production. 


208 


Azo Dyes— Continued. 

DISAZO DYES. 

Leather brown 


165 


Pounds. 






Pounds. 


211 


Resorcin brown 


4, 6, 64, 84, 85, 127, 

136, X. 
4,6,30,64, 127 






10.89 

1.29 
.79 


117 753 


213 


Fast brown 






28,073 
1,645,373 


217 
220 


Agalma black lOB 

Palatine black 


4,6,23,30,38,46,64, 
84, 105, 127, 129, 
136, 142, 165, X. 

38 


2,032,531 


$1,603,149 


221 


Anthracene acid brown . 
Sudan III 


64 










223 


30 










227 
228 


Brilliant eroceine 

Ponceau 6R 


4,30,64. 127, 165 

30 


144,021 


157,538 


1.09 


151,829 


230 


Cloth red 3G 


64 










232 


Sudan IV 


6, 30, 38, 44, 127, 129, 

X. 
4,6 


22,051 


26,744 


1.21 


20 453 


233 


Cloth red B 




231 


ClnthredCi 


38, 130. . . . 










236 


Wool red B 


12,38, 127, 130, X.... 
129 


53,268 


54,477 


1.02 


51,226 


241 


Neutral grav G 


246 


Cloth scarlet G 


65,85 










247 


Scarlet EC 


6. 65, 127 


40,963 


48,364 


1.18 


34,316 


250 


Milling orange G 

Sulphoncvanine G 

BufTalo black lOB 

Sulphoncyanine black. . . 
Naphth vlamine black D . 

Naphthol black B 

Diamond black 


130 


257 
261 


4, 64, 77, 84, 127, 130. 
4, 127, 130 


394,906 
17,. 336 


478,473 
19,173 


1.21 
■1.11 


152,807 


265 


64,84, 127,1.30 


149,503 


266 

272 


64,84, 129, X 

136 


31,128 


20,631 


.66 


43,010 


275 


52,64, 105,127, 130... 
64 


200, 586 


189,259 


.94 


176,988 


276 


Diamond creen 


279 


Benzo fast scarlet 

Bismarck brown 

B ismarck brown 2R 

Palatine chrome black. . 
Acid alizarin black SN . . 
Fast mordant yellow. . . 

Benzo fast yellow 

Beiizo fast pink 2 BL.. 

Paper yellow 

ChrysophcniTie G 

Congo red 


64, 127 










283 

284 
288 


6, 12, 30, 44, 52, 64, 
70, 84, 85, 127, X. 

4, 6, 12, 30, 38, 52, 64, 
65, 84, 85, 127. 

130 


181,025 
702, 247 


119,147 
442,394 


.66 
.63 


185,774 
658,060 


289 


46 










294 


4 










296 


64 










297 


64 










303 


6, 64, 127, 129 


34,851 
229, 594 
493,031 


53,307 
389,913 
318,983 


1.53 
1.70 
.65 


23,619 


304 
307 


6,64,70, 127, 129 

6,61,84,127,129,136, 

X. 
127 


108,454 


311 


Orange TA 




312 


Congo corinth G 


4, 6, 30, 52, 84, 127, 

. 129. 

64, 127 


144,354 


179,649 


1.24 


122, 224 


319 


Diamine scarlet 




3^0 


Bordeaux 


4,38 

127, 129,130 

143 










322 


Trisulphon vinlet B 

Dianil blue R 


35,770 


42,520 


1.19 




3:3 




327 
3''8 


Diamine violet N 

Diamine black R 

examine black BHN. . . 

Benzo cvanine R 

Benzo blue 2B 


6, 23, 30, 38, 64, 105. 

127, 129, 136. 
6, 136 


48,452 


69,544 


1.44 


27,383 


333 
336 


4,6,23,30,38,64,105, 
127, 129, 136, 143, 
X. 

127 


705,995 


643,342 


.91 


700,015 


337 


4,6,23,30,38, 16,64, 
127, 129, 130, 136, 
X. 

38,64,84,129 

X 


777,491 
70,506 


375,778 
62,922 


.48 
.89 


593,487 


310 
311 


Benzo orange R 

Crumpsall direct fast red. 

Chrysamine G 

Diamine fast red F 

Diamine brown 


73,411 


342 
343 

344 


6,38,46,61, 127,X.... 
6, 23, 30, 38, 64, 70, 

105, 127, 129, 136, 

X. 
4,6,23,30,38,64,70. 

105, 127, 129, 138, 

X. 
S"* 127 


7, 564 
86,013 

164,914 


7.062 
119,360 

181,355 


.93 
1.39 

1.10 


12,213 
78,030 

123,975 


351 


Cr"' otinc v^lliw 




355 


129 










362 


O-xydlamine orange 


127 











PRODUCTION OF DYES AND COAL-TAR CHEMICALS, 1922. 



53 



Table 10. — Production and sales of dyes and other finished coal-tar products, 1922 — 

Continued. 





Common name. 


Manufacturer's iden- 
tification number 
(according to list 
on page 117). 


Sales. 




Schultz 
No. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Average 
price per 
pound. 


Production. 


363 
365 


Azo Dyes— Continued. 

DiSAzo DYES— contd. 
Benzopurpurine 4B 

Benzopurpurine B 

Azo blue 


4, 6, 12, 30, 38, 64, 

105, 127, 129, X. 
52 


Pounds. 
362, 206 


$327, 550 


$0.90 


Pounds. 
309,384 


377 


44 










378 


Trisulphon blue R 

Azo mauve B 


44, 129 










382 


127 










385 


Oxamiiie blue 4R 

Benzo blue BX 


127 










386 


38, 127, 129 


50, 463 
86, 700 


47, 877 
67, 461 


.95 

.78 


38, 126 


391 


Benzo blue 3B 


12,30,.38, 105, 127, 129. 
127,129 


24,343 


392 


Toluylene orange G 

Diph'enyl brown 3 GN. . 

Acid anthracene red 

Diamine blaclc B > 

Benzopurpurine lOB 

Azo violet BS,2B 

Bcnzazurine G 




393 


44 










400 


X 










403 


6 










405 


64, 127, 129 


20, 893 


34, 303 


1.64 




407 


4 




410 


6,64, 127,129 

129 


51,718 


66, 145 


1.28 




415 


Dianil blue G 




419 
421 


Chicago blue RW 

Oxamine blue B 

Chicago blueOB 


6,64,127,129 

127 


52, 598 


76, 142 


1.45 


53, 637 


424 


6,64, 127, 129 

4,6,04, 127, 129 


133, 525 
215, 225 


202, .394 
263, 040 


1.52 
1.22 


118, 178 


426 


Benzamine pure blue 

Total disazo dyes 


125, 521 




8, 295, 424 


7,606,538 


.92 


6, 881, 592 




TRISAZO DYKS. 

Columbia black 


6,38,46,64,127 

127 




436 


130,719 


146,850 


1.12 


161,718 


441 


Diazo blue black RS 

Congo fast blue R 

Benzo fast blue 




451 


64 










456 


64 










462 

463 
464 


Direct deep l)lack EW.. 

Erie direct black RX.... 

Erie direct green ET 

Chloramine green B 

Diamine black HW 

Oxamine greeu B 

Oxamine green O 

Benzamine brown 3 GO. 

Congo brown' G 


4, 6, 38, 46, 52, 64, 127, 

129, 136, X. 
6,38,52,64,127,129... 
6,46, l;i7 


6, 009, 842 

180, 173 
66,797 


2, 504, 197 

110,547 
64, 748 


.42 

.61 
.97 


5,326,457 

181,308 
57, 066 


470 


129 




473 


143 










474 

475 
476 

477 


4,6,30,38,64,70,127, 

129. 
12,38,64, 129, X,X.. 
6, 30, 38, 70, 84, 127, 

130, 136, X. 
4, 6, 64, 84, 127, 129, 

143, X. 
64 


231, 749 

59, 236 
733, 214 

271,421 


213, 836 

57, 824 
535, 986 

237, 524 


.92 

.98 
.73 

.88 


215, 140 

53, 235 
695, 602 

234, 963 


480 


Congo brown R 




485 


TETRAKISAZO DYES. 

Benzo brown G 


12, 30, 52, 64, 70, 136 . 
70, X 


103, 850 


96,274 


.93 


129, 436 


487 


Benzo brown B 






All other azo dyes 




818, 576 


941,503 


1.15 


875, 695 




Total azo dyes .... 








25,388,717 


18, 857, 233 


.74 


22,448,895 




DIPHENYLMETHANE 
DYES. 

Auraminc 


23,44,64, 74, 104 

64, 104, 127 


493 


339, 532 
172, 735 


562, 040 
210,585 


1.66 
1.22 


344 827 


495 


TRIPHENYLMETHANE 
DYES. 

Malachite green 




498 


Turrjuoiso blue 


77 




499 


Brilliant green 


104, 127 










502 


Guinea green 


34,04, 127 


67, 830 


119,952 


1.77 




503 


Brilliant milling green B 
Light green 


34,127 




505 


64, 127 










506 


Erioglaucine 


127 










511 


Para-fuschine 


127 










512 
513 


Magenta (or Fuchsine).. 
Ne^^ fuchsine 


38, 61, 64, 85, 95, 127, 

153, 185. 
127 


96,786 


218, 894 


2.26 


84,683 


515 


Methyl violet 


38,61,64,85,90, 127, 
132, 185. 


370,878 


476. 793 


1.29 


350, 564 









54 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 



Table 10. — Production and sales of dyes and other finished coal-tar products, 1922 — 

Continued. 





Common name. 


Manufacturer's iden- 
tification number 
(according to list 
on page 117). 


Sales. 




Schultz 
No. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Average 
price per 
pound. 


Production. 


516 


TRIPHENYLMETHANE 

DYES— continued. 
Crystal violet 


23, 64 


Pounds. 






Pounds. 


517 


Methyl violet 5B 

Aniline blue 


127 










521 


38, 64, 85, 95 


131 


$597 


84.56 




524 


Aci.l niaeenta 


38,95 




528 


Fast acid violet lOB.... 
Acid violet 


34,64 










539 


34, 64, 77, 127, 142, X. 
127 


129,278 


239, .872 


1.86 


125 299 


531 


Eriocyanine 




536 


Alkali blue 


38, 61,85, 95, 127, 132, 

153, 165, 185. 
85 


104, 187 


252,621 


2.42 


94,832 


537 


Methyl blue for silk 

Methyl blue for cotton... 
Soluble blue 


538 


95 










539 


38, 61,95, 127, 16.5.... 
127 


21,914 


75,209 


3.43 


21,029 


543 


Patent blue V 




545 


Patent blue A 

Acid violet 6BN 


.34, 127 










548 


64 










558 


Victoria blue R 


64 












Total triphenyl- 
methane dyes. 

DIPHENYL-NAPHTHYL- 
METHANE DYES. 

Victoria blue B 




! 








..1,206,831 


2,204,545 


1.83 


898, 781 




23,64 






559 










562 


Fast acid blue 


64 










565 


Acid blue B 


34 










566 


Wool green S 


23, 64, 77, 84, 127, 142 
X. 

64 


, 287,017 


■ 315,337 


1.10 


256, 461 


571 


XANTHONE DYES. 

Rhodamine 6G 




573 


Rhodamine B 

Fast acid violet B 

Fast acid violet A 2R... 


64 










580 


64 










582 


64 










585 


55, 64, 85 . . 










5S7 




.55, 64, 85, 132 . 


74,915 


142, 133 


1.90 


74,697 


589 


Kosine SP 


64 


592 


P-rvthrosine B 


5,5,64,85, 132 

64....... 


4,674 


25,638 


5.49 


6,713 


593 


Phloxino P 


595 




64 










596 


Phloxine. 


85 










597 


Rose hen^ale B 


85 










599 


Gallein 


205 










600 


Coerulein ... 


205 










606 


ACRIDINE DYES. 

Phosphine 


64, 85, 127 








6,2S2 


613 


QVINOI.INE DYES. 

Quinoline yellow 

THIOBENZENYI, DYES. 

ThioHavine S 


127 










615 


143 










616 


Primuline 


19, 77, 127, 129, 143, X. 
19,70,77,127,129,143. 

6,46 127,130. 


243,416 
184,357 

19,408 
119, ,357 


259,912 
237, 122 

38,021 
229,296 


1.07 
1.29 

1.96 
1.92 


252,450 


617 
622 


Columbia yeUow 

OXAZINE AND THIAZINE 
DYES. 

Dclnhine blue B 

Gallocvanine 


230,204 


626 


4,6,25,46,127,205.... 
127 


82,253 


631 


Chroiiiocyanine V 




636 


6 










649 


Cotton blue or Meldola's 
blue. 

Methylene blue 

Methvlenc green 

Brilliant alizprin blue . . . 


6,46,105,127 


28, 663 

382,869 


59, 146 
536,969 


2.06 
1.40 


26,289 


659 
660 


2.5,30,46,127,201 


372,077 


667 


77.84 











PRODUCTION OF DYES AND COAL-TAR CHEMICALS, 1922. 



55 



Table 10. — Production and sales of dyes and other finished coal-tar products, 1922 — 

Continued. 





Common name. 


Manufacturer's iden- 
tification number 
(according to list 
on page 117). 


Sales. 




Schultz 
No. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Average 
price per 
pound. 


Production. 


672 


AZINE DTES. 


64 


Pounds. 






Pounds. 


679 




64, 127, 151 


113,629 


$192, 473 


$1.69 


138, 690 


6.S0 


Methylene violet 


90 




681 


25,44, 129 


24, 700 


37,837 1 1.53 


27, 414 


683 


Safranine MN 


127 








687 




64 










697 
' 698 

699 

700 

720 


Induline (spirit soluble). 
Nigrosino (spirit solu- 
ble). 
Induline (water soluble) . 
Nigrosine (water soluble). 

SULPHUR DYES. 

Sulphur black 


19, 30, 38, 44, 85, 127 . 
19, 25, 30, 44, 84, 85, 

127, 130. 
19, 38, 84, 85, 127.... 
19, 25, 84, 85, 127, 130. 

12, 44, 46, 64, 84, 88, 

105, 127, 201. 
12, 18, 46, 54, 64, 84. 

90, 105, 127, 129, 

185, X 

6, 12, 38, 44, 46, 47, 
55, 64, 83, 84, 90, 
105, 127, 163, 171, 

186, 203. 

4, 44, 46, 47, 64, 84, 
90, 105, 127, 129, 
163, 203. 

12,46,64,84,105,203. 

46, 47, 84, 105, 163, 
171,203. 

46, 84, 203 


32, 164 
290, 423 

123,561 
1,445,432 

13,401,540 
938,221 

1, 678, 320 

130,919 

259,975 
154,844 

80,961 
261,054 
443,901 


30, 367 
157, 459 

101,. 548 
761, 124 

2,809,933 
562,098 

673,256 

116,022 

205, 388 
58, 849 

45,975 
146,718 
348,436 


.94 
.54 

.82 
.53 

.21 
.60 

.40 

.89 

.79 

.38 

.57 
.56 

.78 


45,045 
349,325 

121,009 
1,338,063 

12, 877, 649 




Sulphur blue 


865, 091 




Sulphur brown 


1,778,780 




Sulphur green 


169, 769 




Sulphur maroon 


210, 222 




Sulphur olive 


115,702 




Sulphur orange 


109,642 




Sulphur tan 


4,38, 47, 84, 163, 203. 
12, 44, 46, 64, 127, 
163, 203. 


242, 835 




Sulphur yellow 


544, 077 










17,349,735 


5, 026, 675 


.29 


16,913,767 




CARBAZOLE DYES. 

Hydron blue R, G 

ANTHRAQUINONE DYES. 

Indanthrene dark blue 

BO. 
Indanthrene black and 

green B. 
Indanthrene violet RR. . 


105 


748 










763 


9,64 129 


29,731 


48,911 


1.65 




765 


64 129 




767 


64 










778 


18,127 










779 




18,127 










780 




IS 64 










782 


Alizarin brown 


46,64,182,188,205.... 
127 


58,842 


109,678 


1.86 


67,609 


784 


Alizarin SX 




785 


Alizarin GI 


18 




1 




789 


-Anthracene blue WR. . . 
Algol yellow WG 


18, 100, 127, X 








8,825 


814 


9 










817 


9 










819 


Algol red R 


9 










828 


Indanthrene claret B 

Indanthrene blue RS 

Indanthrene blue GCD.. 
Indanthrene blue GC... 

Indanthrene gray B 

Indanthrene yellow 

Alizarin saphirol B 

Alizarin blue black 


9 










838 


64 129 










842 


64 129 










843 


129 










848 


9 










849 


64 129 . ... 










858 
862 


84,100,127,129 

34 


193,401 


789,365 


4.08 


180,284 


865 


34 










867 


Indanthrene brown B... 
All other anthraquinone 
dyes. 

Total anthraqui- 
none dyes. 


129 














49, 843 


111,983 


2.26 


6,5, 719 










1,207,324 


2,654,527 


2.20 


1,2.34,963 




\ 





56 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 



Table 10. — Production and sales of dyes and other finished coal-tar products, 1922 — 

Continued. 





CoTninon name. 


Manufacturer's iden- 
tification number 
(according to list 
on page 117). 


Sales. 




Schultz 
No. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Average 
price per 
pound. 


Production. 


874 


INDIGO AND ITS DERIVA- 
TIVES. 

Indigo, synthetic, 20 per 

cent paste. 
Indigo, white 


63 64,127 


Pounds. 
16, 106, 020 


$3,922,541 


$0.24 


Pounds. 
15 850 752 


876 


46 




877 


Indigo extract 


14,64,110,127,185.... 
63 


608, 105 


265,344 


.44 


543 044 


881 


Ciba blue 2B, 2BD 

fBrom indigos 




879 
880 


63 










883 
923 


ANILINE BLACK GROtFP. 

Ursol 


79, 165, 185 










7 


FOOD DYES. 

Naphthol yellow S 

Tartrazine 


X 










23 


6,25, 127, 195, X 

127 


49,907 


173, 412 


3.47 


50,578 


32 




83 




127, X 










144 




25, 127, X 










168 


Amaranth 


6,25, 127, 195, X 

127, 195 .. 


66, 558 


218,467 


3.28 


77, 829 


502 






505 


Light green SF (yellow- 
ish) 
Methyl violet 


127,195.. 










515 


127 










692 


Erythrosine 

Indigo disulfonic acid. . . 
Yellow AB.... 


6, 25, 66, X 










677 


25, 127, X 


4,639 
2,190 
1,951 


39,305 
5,819 
5,228 


8.47 
2.66 
2.68 






6, 66, 85, 173 


2,712 




Yellow OB.... 


6,66, 85, 173 


4,370 




PHOTO CHEMICAL DTES. 


68 .. . 








68. . .. . 
















1,271,307 
2,895 


1,595,179 
39,123 


1.25 
13.51 


998,800 




Bacterinlngical stains, bi- 
ological stains and in- 
dicators. 

Total dyes 


68, 82, 96, 108, 127, 
150, 177, X. 


6,798 




69, 107, 105 


41, 463, 790 


.60 


64.632.187 




Research chemicals 

COLOR LAKES. 

Black lakes 


68,82,108,177 

4, 35, 46, 86, 165, 200, 
X. 

11, 14, 21, 26, 35, 59, 
64, 67, 71. 86, 97, 
106, 109, 115, 160, 
165, 166, 167, 168, 
175, 188, 200, X,X, 
X, X,X, X, X. 

35, 59, 64, 71, 86, 97, 
165, 166, 167, 187, 
X. 

11, 21, 26, 59, 67, 71, 
86,97,103,109,115, 
160, 165, 166, 167, 
168, 175, 187, X, X, 

x,x,x,x,x,x, 
x,x,x. 

11, 21, 35, 59, 64, 67, 
81, 86, 97, 106, 109, 
115, 160, 165, 166, 
167. 168. 175, 187. 

x,x,x,x,x,x, 

X X 

4, if, 2i, 26, 59, 64, 
71, 86, 97, 103, 109, 
115, 160, 165, 166, 
167, 175, 188, 200, 

x,x,x,x,x,x, 
x,x. 






650 

529, 279 
811,022 

193, 294 
482, 686 

408,764 

524,314 


12,434 

54,426 
359, 975 

18,958 
364,9% 

131,070 

390, 248 


19.14 

.10 

.44 

.10 

.76 

.32 
.74 


1,667 

544,284 




Blue lakes 


840,584 




Brown lakes 


199,932 




Eosine lakes 


482,639 




Green lakes 


420,824 




Lithol red lakes 


655,716 









PRODUCTION OF DYES AND COAL-TAR CHEMICALS, 1922. 



57 



Table 10. — Production and sales of dyes and other finished coal-tar products, 1922- 

Continued. 



Schultz 
No. 



Common name. 



COLOR LAKES — COntd. 

Maroon lakes 



Orange lakes. 



Para red lake-s. 



Red Lakes. 



Scarlet lakes 



Violet lakes. 



Yellow lakes . 



All other lakes 

Total color lakes. 



PHOTOGRAPHIC CHEMI- 
CALS. 

Diaminophcnol hydro- 
chloride. 

Hydro juinol 

Methyl p-aminophenol 
sulfate (Metol). 

p-Hydroxyphenylgly- 
cine. 

Total photo- 
graphie chemi- 
cals. 

MF,DICI.N"ALS. 



Acetanilide 

Acetphenetidin 

Acrillavinc (3:6 diam- 

ino-10-methyl acridine 

chloride"). 



Manufacturer's iden- 
tification number 
(according to list 
on page 117). 



11, 21, .35, 59, 64, 67, 
86,97,103,112,113, 
115, 165, 166, 167, 
175, 18.8, 196. 200, 

x,x,x,x,x,x. 

11, 21, 28, 35, 59, 64, 
67, 71, 86, 97, 106, 
109, 115, 132, 160, 
165, 166, 167, 168, 
175, 187, 188, X, X, 
X,X,X,X,X,X, 

x,x. 

11, 21, 26, 46, 50, .59, 
64, 67, 86, 97, 103, 
109, 112, 113, 115, 
165, 166, 175, 187, 
188, 196, 200, X,X, 
X,X,X,X,X,X, 
X. 

11, 21, 26, 35, 46, 50, 
59, 64, 67, 71, 86, 
97, 103, 106, 109, 

112, 113, 115, 160, 

165, 166, 167, 168, 
175, 187,188,X,X, 
X,X,X,X, x,x, 

X. 
11. 21, 26, .59, 64, 67, 
71, 86, 97, 103, 109, 

113, 115, 160, 165, 

166, 167, 168, 175, 
188, 196, 200, X, 
X,X,X,X,X, X, 
X X. 

11, 14, 21, 26, 3.5, 46, 
.59, 64. 67, 71, 86, 97, 
103, 109, 115. 132, 
160, 165, 166, 167, 
168, 175, 187, 188, 
200, X, X, X, X, 

x,x,x,x,x. 

11. .35, 46, 59, 64, 71, 
81, 86, 97, 106, 115, 
165, 166, 167, 168, 
175, 188, 200, X, X. 
X,X,X,X,X,X. 

X 



Sales. 



Quantity. 



Pounds. 
813, 121 



584, 000 



2, 425, 634 



Value. 



198. 



7, 120. 205, X. 
7,68,X 



733, 360 



4.58, 467 



700, 499 



53,612 



$285, 651 



165, 576 



781,020 



Average 

price per 

pound. 



$0.35 



Production. 



Pounds 
822, 105 



628, 813 



32 2, 388, 976 



.60 



292, 127 



10, 366, 676 



247, 966 



. I 347, 647 



11,8,120,124,133. 
X 



1,127,190. 



413, 207 



237,715 ; .34 



26, 639 



.,50 



4, ,551, 572 



234,983 



483, 269 



1,651,649 



783,001 



471,6,50 



7.34.. K711 



53,6li 



10,578,664 



.95 



1.39 



111,321 



244, f.8fi 



345, 798 



222, 517 
422 



52805—23- 



-;) 



68 



UNITED STATES TAEIFF COMMISSION. 



Table 10. — Production and sales of dyes and other finished coal-tar products, 192? — 

Continued. 



Schultz 
No. 



Common name. 



MEDiciNALs — Continued . 

Acri aavine, neutral 

Ammonium benzoate . . 

Ammonium salicylate.. 

Apothesine (hydrochlo- 
ride of diethylamino- 
propyl-cinnamate) . 

Arsphenamine 

Aspirin (Acetylsaiicylic 
acid). 

Benzocaine or Anesthes- 
ine (ethyl p-amino 
benzoate). 

Benzyl benzoate 

Benzyl succinate , 

Bismuth betanaphthol. . 

Bismuth tribromophe- 
nol. 

Brilliant green, medi- 
cinal. 

Butjna (p-amino ben- 
zoyl-^amma di normal 
butyl amino propanol 
sulfate). 

Chloramine T (Sodium 
p-toluene sulfochlora- 
mide). 

Cincophen (phenyl cin- 
choninic acid). 

Creosote 

Creosote carbonate 

Dibromohydroxy mer- 
cury fluorescein sodi- 
um salt of. 

Dichloramine T (p-tol- 
uene sulfone dicnlora- 
mide). 

Ethyl-p-amino benzoate. 

Formidine (methylene 
disalicylic acid deriva- 
tive). 

Guaiacol benzoate 

Guaiacol carbonate 

G uaiacol crystals 

Guaiacol liquid , 

Halo^.one (p-sulphone 
dicliloroamido benzoic 
acid). 

Lithium benzoate 

Luminal sodium (phen- 
ylethylmalonylurea 
sodium salt). 

Magnesium salicylate . . . 

Mercuric benzoate 

Methyl salicylate (see 
Flavors). 

Methyl violet 

Methylhydroxyrnethyl- 
ester of salicylic acid. 

Monoglycol ester of 
salicylic acid. 

b-Naphthol benzoate 

Neoarsphenamine 

Neocinchophen 

Novaspirin (methylene- 
citryl-salicylic acid). 

Para fuchsiiie, medicinal 

Phenacaine (ethenyl- 
p - diethoxy - dipheiiyl 
amidinc hydrochlo- 
ride). 

Phenolphthalein 

Phenolsulphonates (cal- 
cium, sodium, zinc, 
etc.). 



Manufacturer's iden- 
tification number 
(according to list 
on page 117). 



127. 
164. 
X.. 
X.. 



1, 58, 60, 116, 122, 149, 

172. 
17, 63, 120, 124, X.... 

1, 122, 164 



72, 101, 120, 164, 190. 

164, X 

120, 133, 149 

120,133 



127. 
1... 



172, X. 



1,25. 



64 

25, 64, 138, 147. 
96 



124, 172. 



122. 
X.. 



164 

64 

129 

64, 118,'l29,'i38! 
124 



118, 164, X. 
17 



X.. 

164. 



127. 
17.. 



25,72 

1, 58, 122, 149. 
1 



127. 
122. 



]40,X 

1,25,114,120,149. 



Sales. 



Quantity. 



Pounds. 



917 

1, 427, 385 

1,744 

15, 945 



1,034 



10,871 



2,229 



336,456 



Value. 



8257, 022 

1,062,346 

23,391 

20,299 



Average 

price per 

pound. 



$280. 28 

.74 

13.41 

1.27 



21, 120 



24,533 



1, 032, 725 



1.46 



2.26 



463.31 



Production. 



Pounds. 



865 

1,482,998 

1,658 

12, 798 



10,631 



2,904 



300,993 



PRODUCTION OF DYES AXD COAL-TAR CHEMICALS, 1922. 



59 



Table 10. — Production and sales of dyes and other finished coal-tar products 1922 

Continued. 



Schult 
No. 


Common name. 


Mannfacturer's iden 
tiflcation number 
(according to list 
on page 117). 


Sales. 




Quantity 


Value. 


Average j Production, 
price per 
pound. 




M E DiciNALS— continued 

Phenyleth vl m a 1 o a y 1 

urea. 
Phenylthiocarbamide . . 


17 


Pounds. 






Pounds. 




- 31 












Phloroglucinoi 


. 53 












Procaine (p-amino ben- 
zoyldiethyl - amino- 
ethanol). 
Proflavine (3o diamine 

acridine sulphate. 
Proposote (creosote de- 
rivative). 
Pyoktanine blue, me- 
dicinal. 

Pyoktanine yellow 

Resorcinol monoacetate 
Sal-ethyl (ethyl salicy- 
late). 
Salicaine (Salicyl alco- 
hol). 
Salicylates, 'miscel- 
laneous. 
Salol (phenyl salicylate), 
Salophen (Salicylic-acid- 
acetyl-paraminophenol- 
salicylate). 
Scarlet red (extra) me- 
dicinal. 

Silver arsphenaraine 

Sodium salicylate 

Strontium salicylate 

Tolysin (p-m e"t h y 1 - 
phenyl-cinchoninic 
acid ethyl ester). 

Tribromophenol 

Trypan bine, medicinal. 
All other medicinals 

Total medicinals. . 


1,122,172 












1,127 












X 












127 












127 












6S 












X 












25 












149 












120, 124, X. . 


.57,025 


$35,883. 


SO. 63 






17 






127 












122 












63, 120, 124, 149, X,X. 
X 


423,834 


140,308 


.31 


467,264 




25 












63 












127 












17 














3,092,915 


4,233,443 


1.37 


2,946,347 




FL.WORS. 

Coumarin (synthetic). . . 
Ethyl benzoate 


118,X,X,X 




83,444 
4,640 

1,455 

512 


253,220 
7,631 

5,893 

2,514 


3.03 
1.64 

4.05 

4.91 


72, ,3,50 




72, 73. 137, 164, 176, 
189, 192, X, X. 

72, 76, 101, 176, 192. 
X. 

72, 76, 176, 189, 192 

192 


• 


Ethyl cinnamate 

Ethyl salicylate... 


4,370 
1,364 




Iso-butyl coumarone. . . . 

Methyfcinnamate 

Methjd salicylate 

Saccharin 

Vanillin 


619 




72,76, 101, 176, X.... 
63, 76, 120, 176, X, 

X, X. 
29, 164, X, X, X 


2,30-1 
882,311 


9,591 
295,482 


4.16 
.33 


2,332 
854,763 




Total flavors 














1,278,857 


1,260,588 


.99 


' 




PERFUME M.^TERIALS. 

Acetophenone 


72,101, 176,190 

176 


1,215,668 




194 


695 


3.59 






Amyl phenyl acetate... 


194 




Amyl salicylate 

Aubepine (Aai;ic alde- 

hj'de). 
Benzophenone 


72, 76, 125, 176, 190, 

XX. 
72, 76, 101, 176, 190. . 

72 


7,995 

840 


7,494 
2,157 


.94 

2.57 


11,010 

805 




Benzyl acetate 

Benzyl benzoate 


72, 76, 101, 125, 176, 

190, X, X. 
1,72,76,101,176,190.. 
101 


19,607 
3,886 


25,618 
4,475 


1.31 
1.15 


18, 135 




Benzyl butjTate 

Benzyl cinnamate 

Benzyl formate 


.3,768 




72,101,176 

176 












3enzyl i;oen?enoI 

Benzyl propionate ! 


178 












176 










Beii/yaaine acetone | 


12,5, 176 











60 



UNITED STATES TAEIFF COMMISSION. 



Table \0 .—Production and sales of dijes and other finished ccal-tar products, 1922 — 

Continued. 





Common name. 


Manufacturer's iden- 
tification number 
(according to list 
on page 117). 


Sales. 




Schultz 
No. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Average 
price per 
pound. 


Production. 




PERFUME MATERIALS— 

continued. 
Bromst3Tol . . 


72, 101, 176, 190 

68 


Pounds. 
135 


$517 


$3. S3 


Pounds. 
139 




Chloroacetophenone 

Cinnamic aldehyde 

Cinnaniyl acetate 

Cinnamyl alcohol 

Cinnamyl cinnamate 

Diethyl phthalate 

Dimethyl anthranilate . . 

Dimethyl resorcinol 

Diphenylmethane 

Diphenvl oxide 




72, 75,76, 176 












176 












72, 176 












72 












72, 76, 101, 176, 190, 

X, X. 
176 


714, 196 


541, 788 


.76 


725,984 




176 












176, 190 












101, X 












Hydratropic aldehyde. . . 
Iso butyl phenyl acetate . 

Iso butyl salicylate 

Methyl acetophenoiie. . . 
Methvl auisate 


176 












72, 125 












176 












176 












176 .. 












Methyl anthranilate 

Methyl benzoate 

Methyl guaiacol 


72, 76, 101, 176, 184, 

190. 
72, 76, 137, 164, 176, X 
176 


548 


2,579 


4.71 


625 














Methyl-p-tolyl ketone. . . 
Methvl phenyl acetate... 
Nerolin (b-naphthol 
ethyl ether) 


72 












72, 125. 176 


94 


394 


4.19 






72, 76, 176 






b-Naphthyl anthranilate 

Nonyl anthranilate 

Phenj'l acetic acid 

Phenylacetic aldehyde.. 

Phenyl ethyl acetate 

Phenylethyl alcohol 

Phenylethyl formate 

Phenylethyl phenylace- 


72 












72 








' 




76 












72, 101, 176, 190 

72,101,176,190, X.... 

72, 101, 176, 190 

176 


. 413 
47 

188 


4,908 

716 

1,648 


II. 88 
15.23 
8.77 


411 
49 

202 




176 












Phenylethyl propionate. 
Phenylpropyl alcohol . . . 
Phenylvinylethylene- 

methyl ketone 

Salicylic aldehyde 

Yara-yara (b-naphthol 


176 












192 












176 












72 












76, 176 












Total perfume ma- 
terials 














778,696 


643,436 


.83 


793,148 




SYNTHETIC PHENOLIC 
RESINS. 


154 X X 














125' 154 XX 












Derived from eoumarone 


16 












Total resins 












6,415,931 


4,315,196 1 .67 


.5,944,133 




Total synthetic 
tanning ma- 
terials 


13,105,204,X 


1,981,588 


103, 598 


.05 


1,910,519 






' 


Mai 
famili 


DYES NOT 

nuf acturers were r 
ar ore-war design 


CLASSIFIED BY 

equested to re 
ations the pro( 


SCHULT 

3ort sep 
auction ( 


Z NUMB 

irately ii 
3f dyes n 


ER. ' 

1 terms 
Lot clas 


of their 
sified by 



Schultz. * The following table is a list of such dyes, together with 
certain new dyes of American development for which there are no 
foreign equivalents: 



PRODUCTION OF DYES AND COAL-TAR CHEMICALS, 1922, 



61 



Name of dye. 



Acid anthracene brown B 

Acid anthracene brown RH 

Acid anthracene brown VA 

Acid blue R 

Acid blue WG and acid violet 

Acid chrome brown RM 

Acid dark green 

Ah^arin black 

Alizarin blue (indigo shade) 

Alizarin brown 5R 

Alizarin green (not similar to any pre- 
war type) 

Alizarol black 3G 

AJizarol brown B 

Alizarol giay DG 

Alizarol yellow 3G 

Amido naphthol red 2B 

Anthracene chrome black DN W , 

Anthracene chrome Bordeaux LR , 

Anthracene chromate brown EB , 

Anthracene chrome violet AH , 

Anthracene direct green B 

Anthranol chrome green 3G 

Anthrene jade green 

Azo eosine 2B 

Benzo chrome brown B ! 

Benzo chrome brown G 

Benzo chrome brown R 

Benzo chrome brown RR. ...... ....... 

Benzo fast black L 

Benzo fast gray ] __[[ 

Benzo fast orange S 

Benzo fast scarlet SB 

Benzo rhoduline red B and ben/o red 
12B 

Blackley fast scarlet '. 

Bordeaux 2BS '_, 

Bordeaux red 

BriUiant wool blue B 

Bromo acid B '__[[ 

Bromo flourescein [. 

Buffalo black AR, RB, 8B, "ad.. 

Buffalo chrome black NS 

Cashmere black ' 

Chrome black 

Chrome blue D 

Chrome fast brown R [....... \. 

Chrome green 

Chrome green B ..!!....!!.!!..'!!! 

Chrome green CB 

Chrome green G 

Chrome green SW ..[.WW....... 

Chrome heliotrope '.' 

Chrome yellow '. ] 

Chrome yellow C LM .....'. 

Chrome yellow DF 

Chrome veliow SS 



Manufac- 
turers' 

identifi- 
cation 

number 
(according 

to list on 

p. 117). 



Clironie veliow S\V,3G. 
Cloth red 



Cloth red R, 2R 

Cotton brown R 

Dcvoloped black 2B, G 

Diamine azo Bordexiix B . . 
Diimine cUechine B and G 

Diimine fast blue FFB . 

Diimond green 

Diimond red BH A. 

Dianil brown GN 

Dia ine beti black N 

Diizine black DM 

Diadne black VNX, VZ . 



84 

84 

84 

4 

X 

77 

23 

205 

205 

205 

70 
127 
127 
127 
127 
4 

34 

34 
130 

34 

4 

130 

129 

129 



6 

4, 64, 130 

64 

64 

129 

64 
64 
X 

4 

127 

55 

55, 132 

127 

127 

X 

2r^, 44 

44 

64 

4,23 

• 38,70 

127 

38 

X 

44 

25 

77 

130 

84 

X 

84 

127 

4 

12, 129 

64 

04 

64 

77,81 

84 

129 

127 

127 

127 



Name of dye. 



Manufac- 
turers' 

identifi- 
cation 

number 
(according 

to list on 
p. 117). 



Diazo Bordeaux 7B 54 

Diazofast red 7BL 64 

Direct black EV 129 

Direct blue 3RX 38 

Direct bro\vn R 129 

Direct dark green 4 

Direct fast brown BR 143 

Direct fast garnet X 

Direct fast orange R 129 

Direct fast scarlet ' X 

Direct fast violet 4B i 143 

Direct green L j 4 

Direct salmon red 1 x 

Direct seal brown ; X 

Erie brown GB 127 

Erie fast gray MR ' 127 

Fast brilliant blue E A 4 

Fast crimson R , 127 

Fast wool violet B 127 

Helio Bordeaux BL 64 

Indanthrene blue BCS (pdr) 64, 129 

Lake scarlet G > 127 

Leather yellow ' ]27 

Marine blue ] 23 

Navy blue T i 25 

Nerol black [ 4 

Nerol 2B ; 129 

New blue | X 

Niagara blueNR, RL | 127 

Oil brown ; 44 

Oil brown M 127 

Oil maroon O 127 

Oil orange X 

Oil red 3B 200 

Oil red O 127 

Oil red 3BX ; 200 

Oil red C i 2OO 

Oil yellow A, F, 2625 ; 127 

Orange Y powder , ]32 

Oxamine blue i X 

Oxamine copper blue RRX [ 64 

Oxamine fast claret | X 

Oxamine light green G i 64 

Oxydiamine violet ; X 

Falachrome maroon i X 

Palachrome veliow Y X 

Pala-^ide brown B 1 X 

Palaside green X 

Phloxine B ; 55 

Rapid fast red GL 64 

Ro;anthrene AWL and B I 64 

Rosanthrene R ' 64 

Rosanthrene orange ; 64 

Ro-:e bengale 3G ' 55 

Ro-;olic acid ' .53 

Se-ichrome black WSE 127 

Se'ichrome green B ■ 127 

Silk black 4B F 38 

Silk l)rown G \ X 

Silk brown R i X 

Solamineblue FF ' 129 

Sudan AX 30 

Sulnhonvi milling red 23 

Victo-ia"fast violet 2R , 84 

Wool black B ' 129 

Wool blue AD, CB, CG I 127 

Wool bine BM ' 127 

Woo! green B 127 

Wool navy B j 127 

Zambei lilack D 127 

Zambezi black V 38,64, 127 



62 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 



Table 11. — Comparison of production of dyes and other finisTied coal-tar products, 1921 

and 1922. 



Schultz 
No. 



Product. 



Total production. 



1922 



32 
33 
34 

38 

41 

42 

48 

58 

61 

66 

68 

82 

89 

112 

134 

141 

145 

154 

161 

163 

164 

169 

173 

177 

181 

IRS 

194 

198 

202 



211 
217 
227 
257 
265 
283 
284 
303 
304 
333 
337 
3!0 
342 
343 
344 
363 
424 



462 
463 
464 
474 
475 
476 
477 



485 



Total finished coal-tar products 

STILBENE DYES. 

Direct yellow R 

Chloramine orange G 



PYRAZOLONE DYES. 



Tartrazine. 



MONOAZO DYES. 



Butter yellow 

Chrysoidine Y 

Chrysoidine R 

Orange G 

Fast acid fuchsine B 

Amino naphthcl red G . . 

Alizarin yellow G 

Alizarin yellow R 

Victoria viol?t 

Amino naphthol red 6 B. 

Spirit yellow R 

Ponceau 2 R 

Metachrome brown B . . . 

Bordeaux B 

Metanil yeUow 

Azo yellow 

Orange II 

Palatine chrome brown. . 

Fast red A 

Azo rubine 

Fast red VR 

Cochineal red 

Litholred R 

Mr.rdant yellow 

Palicine black U 

Sulphon acid blue R 

Thiazine red R 

Mimosa C 

Palatine chrome red B . . 



DISAZO DYES. 



Resorcin brown 

Agalma black 10 B 

Brilliant croceine 

Sulphoncyanine G 

Sulphoncyanine black . 

Bismarck brown 

Bismarck brown 2 R . . 

Paper yellow 

Chrysophenine G 

Oxamine black BHN.. 

Benzo blue 2 B 

Beiizo orange R 

Chrysamine G 

Diamine fast red F . . . . 

Diamine brown 

Benzopurpurine 4 B . . . 
Chicago blue G B 



Total disazo dyes. 



TRISAZO DYES. 



Direct deep black E W. . . 

Erie direct black RX 

Erie direct green ET 

Oxamine green B 

Oxamine green G 

Bonzamine brown 3 GO . 
Congo brown G , 



TETRAKISAZO DYES. 



BoDzo brown G 

Total azo dyes. 



Pounds. 

88,368,131 



375, 224 
102,983 



551,480 



25,852 


18,521 


538,733 


253,695 


52,745 


100,246 


124,311 


91,78.3 


19,004 


8,084 


89,6,83 


61,433 


441,699 


271,285 


198, 362 


128, 08C 


146,990 


81,453 


107,938 


90,790 


42,4.32 


20,837 


236,010 


178,272 


312,828 


474, 128 


167,142 


84,754 


290,502 


90,385 


109,699 


125,358 


1,341,971 


922,326 


44,109 


52,080 


189,389 


120,2.51 


372,030 


232, 21'6 


57,572 


144,957 


97, 196 


139,323 


228,692 


63, 194 


20,785 


94,214 


1,165,939 


1,523,220 


60, 163 


336,079 


2,978 


15,229 


2,812 


3,517 


44,550 


21,377 


117,753 


9,428 


1,645,373 


1,426,194 


151,829 


34,463 


152,807 


365,998 


149,503 


83,796 


185,774 


153,695 


658,060 


557,753 


23,619 


8,223 


168,454 


202,303 


700,015 


281,852 


593,487 


571,217 


73,411 


21,332 


12,213 


13,328 


78,030 


35,782 


1?3,975 


69,610 


309,384 


152,626 


118,178 


83,781 


6,881,592 


5,531,363 


5, .326, 457 


2,229,842 


181,308 


298, 516 


57,066 


30,055 


215,140 


155,753 


53,235 


62,028 


695,602 


491,347 


234,963 


213,403 


129,436 


.53,326 


22, 448, 895 


17,062,366 



PRODUCTION OF DYES AND COAL-TAR CHEMICALS, 1922. 



63 



Table 11. — Comparison of production of dyes and other finished coal-tar products, 1921 

and 1922 — ( 'ontinued. 



512 
515 
539 
536 
539 



587 
592 



616 
617 



626 
649 
659 



679 
697 
698 
699 
700 



720 



782 



874 
877 



Product. 



DIPHENYLMETHANE DYES, 



Auramine . 



TEIPHENTLMETHANE DTES. 



Magenta (or fuchsine) . 

Methyl violet 

Acid violet 

Alkali blue 

Soluble blue 



Total triphenylmethane dyes 

XANTHONE DYES. 



Eosine , 

Erythrosine . 



THIOBENZENYL DITIS. 



Primuline 

Columbia yellow. 



OXAZINE AND TmAZINE DTES. 



GaUoeyanine 

Cotton blue or Meldola's blue. 
Methylene blue 



AZXNE D^-ES. 



Safranine 

Induline (spirit soluble) . . 
Nigrojine (spirit soluble). 
Induline (water soluble) - 
Nigrosine (water soluble) . 



SULPHUR DYES. 



Sulphur black 

Sulphur blue 

Sulphur brown 

Sulphur green 

Sulphur maroon 

Sulphur oUve 

Sulphur tan 

Sulphur yellow 

Total sulphur dyen. 



Alizarin brown . 



ANTHRAQUINONE DYES. 



INDIGO AND ITS DERIVATIVES. 



Total production. 



1922 



Pounds. 
314,827 



84,683 
350, 564 
125,199 
91,83: 
21,0.9 



898,781 



74,697 
6,713 



252, 450 
230, 204 



82,253 

26, 289 

372, 077 



i:'8,590 

45,015 

.349,325 

121,009 

1,338,0153 



12,877,6-9 
865,091 
1, 778, 780 
169, 769 
210, 222 
11.5,702 
242,835 
544,077 



16,91.3,767 



Indigo, synthetic . 
Indigo extract . . . 



Total dyes. 



67,609 



15,850,752 
543,044 



COLOR LAKES. 



Black lakes 

Blue lakes 

Brown lakes 

Eosine lakes 

Green lakes 

Litholred lakes. 

Maroon lakes 

Orange lakes 

Para red 

Red lakes 

Scarlet lakes 

Violet lakes 

Yellow lakes 



Total color lakes 

Total photographic chemicals. 



1921 



Pounds. 
94,484 



49,797 
190,643 
43,043 
73,596 
21,356 



•21 



09,073 
6,644 



129, 281 
86,418 



140,064 
33, 970 
209, 395 



•52, 771 
55, 339 

168, 402 
92, 988 

626,706 



7,832,696 

190,621 

1,159,115 

70, 428 

230, 773 

55, 920 

121,390 

316, 399 



10, 239, 255 



6,673,968 
58), 931 



64,632,187 


39,008,690 


544, 284 


242,095 


840, 584 


360, 807 


199,932 


27,986 


482,639 


309,326 


420,824 


200,924 


555,716 


277,733 


822, 105 


560,775 


628,813 


233,818 


2,388,976 


1,925,017 


1,651,649 


1,002,749 


783,001 


438, 115 


471,659 


182,021 


734,870 


190,988 


10,578,664 


6, 152, 187 


345,798 


183,798 



64 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 



Table 11. — Comparison of production of dyes and other finished coal-tar products, 1921 

and 19f2 — Continued. 



S chill tz 
No. 



Product. 



MEDICINALS. 

Acetaoilide 

Arsphenamine 

Aspirin (aeetylsalicylic acid) 

Phenolsulphonates (calcium, sodium, zinc, etc) 
Sodium salicylate 

Total medicinals 

FLAVORS. 

Coumarin 

Ethyl benzoate 

Methyl cinnamate 

Methyl salicylate 

Total flavors 

PERFUME MATERIALS. 

Acetophenone 

Amyl salicylate 

Aubepine (anisic aldehyde) 

Benzyl acetate 

Benzyl benzoate 

Bro'nstyrol 

Diethylphthalate 

Methyl anthranilate 

Phenylacetic aldehyde 

Phenylethyl alcohol 

Total perfumes 

Total synthetic phenolic resins 

Total synthetic tanning materials 



Total production. 



1922 



Pounds. 

222,517 

865 

1, 482, 998 

300, 993 

467,264 



2,946,347 



72, 350 

4.370 

2,332 

854, 763 



1,215,668 



194 

11,010 

805 

18, 135 

3, 768 

139 

725,984 

625 

411 

202 



1921 



Pound*. 

207,433 

670 

733,510 

28, 408 

319,350 



793, 148 



5,944,133 



1.910,519 



1,545,917 



52,097 

5,551 

2,786 

640,943 



901,246 



165 

3,327 

2,197 

7,191 

13,789 

252 

73,937 

655 

822 

157 



119,335 



1,643,796 



1,902,597 



Employees and Rates of Pay. 

Reports were made by 177 of the 209 firms manufacturing coal- 
tar products concerning the number of employees receiving specified 
rates of pay on December 18, 1922, or the nearest representative 
date for which this information could be obtained. The data re- 
turned are contained in Table 12. The 32 firms not reporting 
either conducted a business in which coal-tar products were not the 
primary articles of manufacture or they did not have separately 
organized departments dealing with coal-tar products. The 177 
firms reported a total of 16,259 employees, an increase of 2,967 over 
1921. The number of employees in 1921 in turn represented a 
decrease of 8,895 from 1920. The chemists and technically trained 
men in 1922 totaled 1,757, or 10.8 per cent of all employees. In 1921 
there were 1,722 men of this class constituting 12.9 per cent of all 
employees. Of chemists and technically trained men in 1922, 
29.93 per cent received $50 or more but under $75 per week; 22.81 
per cent received $75 per week and over; 9.85 per cent received $40 
or more but under $45 per week; 9.27 per cent received $45 or more 
but under $50 per week; 6.55 per cent received $35 or more but under 
$40. Of men without technical training 29.16 per cent received $20 
or more but under $25 per week; 22.13 per cent received $25 or more 
but under $30 per week; and 20.03 per cent received $15 or more but 
under $20 per week. 



PRODUCTION OF DYES AND COAL-TAR CHEMICALS, 1922. 



65 



In general, the wages of 1922 for chemists and technically trained 
men showed a small increase over wages in 1921, whereas for all men 
without technical training there was a small reduction during the 
same period. Table 12 contains a comparison for specified rates 
of pay of technically trained men and of men without such training. 
Among the technically trained men, there was an increase of about 4 
per cent in the pay of each of the three classes receiving $40 to $45, 
$45 to $50, and $50 to $75 per week. Of men without technical 
training, there was a decrease of about 7 per cent in the weekly wages 
of the two classes receiving $25 to $30 and $30 to $35 per week. 

In 1919 the dye and coal-tar chemical industry had probably a 
larger proportion of technically trained men than were in any other 
manufacturing industry in the United States. 

There is a striking contrast between the size of the industry in 
1914 and in 1922. According to the bureau of the Census, the 
number of employees engaged in the manufacture of coal-tar colors 
and other products in 1914 was 528, divided as follows : Salaried 
employees, 130; wage earners (average number), 398. The total 
number of firms engaged in this industry during that year was seven. 

Table 12.— Employees and rates of pay, dye and coal-tar chemical industry, 1922. 





Number of employees at each 
specified wage engaged in 
manufacturing operations. 


Percentage receiv- 
ing each speci- 
fied wage. 


Percentage receiv- 
ing each specified 
wage or more. 


Wages per week. 


Chemists 
and tech- 
nically 
trained 
men. 


Men 
without 
technical 
training. 


All em- 
ployees. 


Of all 
chemists 
and tech- 
nically 
trained 
men. 


Of all 

men 
without 
technical 
training. 


Of all 
chemists 
and tech- 
nically 
trained 
men. 


Of all 

men 
without 
technical 
training. 


Under $10 


3 
13 
35 
73 

153 
102 
115 
173 
163 
526 
401 


97 

495 

2,905 

4,229 

3,210 

1,882 

871 

481 

193 

131 

8 


100 

508 

2,940 

4,302 

3,363 

1,984 

986 

654 

356 

657 

409 


0.17 

.74 
1.99 
4.16 
8.72 
5.81 
6.55 
9.85 
9.27 
29.93 
22.81 


0.67 

3.41 

20.03 

29.16 

22.13 

12.98 

6.01 

3.32 

1.33 

.90 

.06 


100. 00 
99.83 
99.09 
97.10 
92.94 
84.22 
78.41 
71.86 
62.01 
52.74 
22.81 


100 00 


$10 but under $15 


99 33 


$15 but under $20 


95 92 


$20 but under $25 


75 89 


$25 but imdcr m) 


46 73 


$30 but under $55. 




$35 but under $40 


11 62 


$40 but under $45.. . . 


5 61 


$45 but under S-50 


2.29 


$50 but under $75 


96 


$75 and over 


06 






Total 


1,757 


14,502 


16, 259 


100.00 


100. 00 
















Percentage rec 


eiving eac 


ti specified 


wage or more. 


Wages per week 


f all chemists and t 
trained mer 


jchnically 
1. 


Of all me 


n without technical 
training. 




1922 


1921 


Increased 
percent- 
age. 


1922 


Decreased 
1921 percent- 
age. 


$10 but under $15 


99.8 
99.1 
97.1 
92.9 
84.2 
78.4 
71.9 
62.0 
52.7 
22.8 




99.3 

95.9 

75.9 

46.7 

24.6 

11.6 

5.6 

2.3 

1.0 

.1 


99. 4 0. 1 


$15 but under $20 


99.2 
96.6 
90.7 
84.5 
76.7 
67.7 
58.1 
48.9 
23.5 


0. 1 

«.5 

«2.2 

.3 

M.7 

M.2 

«3.9 

>3.8 

.7 


9.5.4 
78.1 
52.8 
32.5 
15.7 
8.8 
4.4 
2.5 
.4 


2.5 


$20 but under $25 


2.2 


$25 but under $30 


6 1 


$30 but under $35 


8.9 


$35 but under $40 


4.1 


$10 but under $45 


3.2 


$45 but under $.50 


2 1 


$50 but under $75 


1.3 


$75 and over 


.5 







I Decrease. 



* Increase. 



66 united states tariff commission. 

Research Work. 

Of the 209 firms engaged in the manufacture of dyes and other 
coal-tar chemicals, 67 had separately organized research laboratories 
for the solution of technical problems and for the development or discov- 
ery of new products. The net operating expenses of these laboratories, 
together with research work done in the laboratories not separately 
organized for research, were $2,172,508. This includes salaries, appa- 
ratus, and materials, after deducting the value of salable products 
made in the research laboratories. The figure for 1922 shows a 
decrease of $2,074,160 compared with that of 1921. This figure is 
doubtless an understatement of the real cost of experimental work, 
since it does not include, in all cases, the cost of research done as a 
part of manufacturing operations and not shown on the books of the 
companies as a charge against research. 

The coal-tar chemical industry in the United States has expended 
$21,545,915 in research work alone, according to reports to the Tariff 
Commission during the last five years (1917-1922;) with the exception 
of the year 1917, this is net, and does not include the value of salable 
products made in the experimental department. The energetic and 
extensive investigations into the manufacture of dyes have been 
greater probably than in any other field of chemical research. The 
achievements of this period, 1917-1922, namely the establishment of 
a large dye and synthetic organic chemical industry, with its early 
progress and developments, must be attributed in no small part to 
the enormous expenditures in research. New dyes and other chemi- 
cals have been developed each year. The costs of production have 
been reduced, as reflected in the prices of dyes. A large expenditure 
for research is essential if an industry is to be self-contained and 
placed on a stable, efficient basis of operation. Not only must the 
industry consider, as in the past, the production of products already 
in existence, but the development and discovery of new dyes, phar- 
maceuticals, and other products are necessary if the industry is to 
develop and maintain a competitive position in the world's markets. 
The expenditures for research decreased during 1921, and still more 
so in 1922, because many concerns were obliged to retrench 
when business conditions were poor. While this no doubt retarded 
the progress of the industry to some extent, there were nevertheless 
advances made during that period and better progress may be ex- 
pected during 1923. 



PART III. 

DYES IMPORTED FOR CONSUMPTION IN THE 
UNITED STATES, 1922 CALENDAR YEAR. 



67 



I 



Part III. 

DYES IMPORTED FOR CONSUMPTION IN THE UNITED 
STATES, 1922 CALENDAR YEAR. 



INTEODUCTORY. 



Since 1919 the United States Tariff Commission has compiled a 
detailed census of dye imports similar to that pubhshed by the 
Department of Commerce under the title Artificial Dyestuffs used 
in the United States (fiscal year 1913 and 1914), commonly known 
as the "Norton Import census." 

The commission first compiled such statistics for use in the admin- 
istration of section 501, Title 5, of the act of September 8, 1916, 
making the continuance of specific duties on coal-tar products after 
Septembers, 1921, dependent upon whether there should be produced 
in the United States as much as 60 per cent in value of the consump- 
tion of these products. As the information was found to be of direct 
value to manufacturers, consumers, and importeis, as well as to the 
commission itself, the census of imports was continued into 1922. 
Through cooperation with the Treasury Department the figures were 
compiled from invoices of shipments of dyes to the various ports of 
the United States. Statistics of warehouse withdrawals were incom- 
plete for 1921, as figures could not be obtained in cases where only a 
portion of a shipment had been withdrawn. It was possible to 
obtain a complete record of warehouse withdrawals during 1922 
which makes the statistics for this year more complete than those of 
the preceding year. 

In tabulating the statistics the commission has followed in the main 
the Schultz Farbstoff Tabellen (1914 edition), which is based on the 
chemical composition of the dye. Certain types were also identified 
according to the Norton census and others according to sources of 
information in the files of the Tariff Commission. Dyes identified 
by Norton as "a, b, and c" classes under a given Schultz number are 
listed under that number (without subdivision) except in a few 
instances where they were incorrectly designated. Dyes included 
under these ''a, b, and c" classes are not always chemically identical 
with the original Schultz types. Those dyes which could not be 
identified by Schultz numbers are classified by the ordinary method 
of application as follows: Acid, basic, direct, lake and spirit-soluble, 
mordant and chrome, sulphur, and vat. In many cases the classi- 
fication of a dye by its method of application is arbitrary, as certain 
colors may be applied by either of two methods. A few dyes could 
not be classified by either the Schultz tables or the method of appli- 
cation, and are therefore listed under the heading "unclassified and 
unidentified dyes." 

The Tariff Commission does not vouch for the accuracy of these 
classifications, as the identifications were supplied by dye experts, 

69 



70 



UNITED STATES TAEIFF COMMISSKjN 



and by foreign manufacturers; it was not possible to make a chemical 
examination of each dye imported. 

In the Case of English dyes the published value includes c. i. f. 
charges. In the case of Swiss dyes all extra charges are included. 
The German invoices vary, but usually the extra charges are included 
in the invoice values. 

The approximate value of the extra charges incident to importation 
of coal-tar colors into the United States in 1922 is as follows: 

1. Consular certification. — A fee of $2.50 for all invoices covering 
shipments the value of which exceeds $100. 

2. Freight. — This includes freight to seaport and ocean freight. 
The cost of freight from all German factories to New York, as fur- 
nished by one large importer, was $0.0147 per pound. The cost of 
freight from Basel to New York in the case of a large shipment of 
colors was $0.01 per pound. The freight cost varies of course to a 
considerable degree, as it depends upon the packing, the size of ship- 
ments, and other factors. 

3. Insurance charges for shipments from factory to New York in 
the case of German dyes as reported by a large importer were $0.0043 
per $1. In the case of a large shipment of Swiss dyes from Basel, 
the insurance charge was $0,005 per $1. 

4. PacMng. — These charges for dyestuffs as reported by a large 
importer were as follows: 



Quantity (kilos). 


Powder 
products 
(charges 
perWlos). 


Paste 

products 

(charges 

per kilos). 


Quantity (MIos). 


Powder 
products 
(charges 
per kilos). 


Paste 
products 
(charges 
per kilos). 


1 to 10 


Marks. 
30 
10 

8 


Marks. 
35 
15 
12 


51 to 100 


Marks. 
6 

5 
4 


Marks. 
10 


11 to 25 


101 to 150 


8 


26 to 50 


151 and above 


6 









For liquid products in iron drums the packing charges were : 

Drums containing — Marks. 

100 liters 3, 000 

250 liters 4, 350 

500 liters 7, 500 

540 liters : 8, 000 

The rate of exchange used in converting the foreign invoice value 
to United States currency was the rate given on the invoice. 



DYES IMPORTED FOR CONSUMPTION IX UNITED STATES^ 1922, 71 

Table 13. — Summary of dyes imported for consumption, classified by method of 

application. 

CALENDAR YEARS, 1920-1922. 





1922 


1921 


1920 


Class. 


Pounds. 


Per 

cent of 
total. 


Pounds. 


Per 

cent of 
total. 


Pounds. 


Per 

cent of 
total. 


Acid 


601,395 

505 
1,. 548, 519 


15.10 
.01 


1,455,823 

70,975 
1,045,370 


34.24 

1.66 
24.59 


733,405 

171,101 
761,363 


21.55 


Vat: 


5.04 




22.37 






Total 


1,549,024 


38.90 


1,116,345 


26.25 


932,464 


27.41 






Mordant and chrome: 

C a ) Alizarin 


27,086 
689,704 


.68 
17.32 


133,283 

559,678 


3.58 
12.78 


73,252 
636,230 


2.16 


(b) Mordant and chrome 


18. 71 






Total 


716,790 


18. 00 


695,901 


16.38 


709,482 


20.87 






Direct 


671,621 

194, S«3 

155,084 

76,853 

16,981 


16.86 

4.89 

.3.89 

1.93 

.43 


537,664 

220,938 

163,527 

43, .553 

19,100 


12.64 

5.20 

3.84 

1.02 

.45 


571,581 

229,140 

192,163 

17,527 

16,820 


16. 80 


SulDhur 


6.73 


Basic 


5.64 




.51 




.49 






Total 


3,982,631 


100. 00 


4,252,911 


100. 00 


3,402,582 


100. 00 







Important dyes imported. — The following table lists the dyes of each 
class imported in largest amounts. It is readily seen that certain dyes 
are not yet on the domestic manufacturing list, or from the size of the 
import that they are not yet produced in sufficient quantity to meet 
domestic requirements. The figures should prove of particular 
interest in readjusting a domestic program for a self-contained dye 
industry. 



Table 14. — Dyes of each class according to method of application, imported in largest 
quantity during the cahndar year 1922, compared with imports in 1921 and fiscal 
year 1914. 



Schultz 
No. 



Class and name of dye. 



1922 



1921 



523 
543 



506 
19 
860 
546 
564 

265 
531 

22 
220 



606 
571 
493 
618 
660 
573 
516 
681 
608 
559 



Fast greea 

Patent blue , 

Kiton fast yellow 

Alizarin rubinol 

Erioglaucine 

Fast light yeUow 

Cyananthrol G 

Cyanol 

Naphthalene green 

Polar red 

Sulphoncyanine black. 

Eriocyanine 

Acid rhodamine 

Xylene Ught yeUow . . . 
Palatine black 



BASIC DYES. 



Phosphine 

Rhodamine 6G.. 

Aura mine 

ThioflavineT... 
Methylene green . 
Rhodamine B . . . 
Crystal violet . . . 
New Fast gray.. 

Euchrysine 

Victona blue B . . 



Pounds. 


Pounds. 


Pounds. 


52,498 


22,619 


14,347 


49,136 


42,708 


196,228 


46, 753 


11,290 


3,157 


26, 457 


« 


10,917 


25,852 


16,004 


66, 526 


25,555 


23,315 


38,908 


20,648 


12,713 
14,271 




20,658 


40,015 


19, 298 


23, 926 


22, 144 


14,926 


2,579 


2,821 


14,858 


615 


69, 590 


14,808 


16,808 


25,091 


13,275 


4,166 


6,463 


12,937 


60, 422 


23,074 


11,436 


14, 850 


299, 274 


51,711 


21,325 


168,225 


13, 545 


10,069 


37,515 


12,599 


35,532 


449, 276 


6,765 


7,297 


35, 224 


6,069 


3, 318 


30,812 


5,077 


10, 890 


59, 354 


4,331 


1,450 


51,872 


3,628 


2,2% 


29,507 


3,476 


872 


15,403 


3,417 


12, 342 


127, 769 



1 Included under Schedule No. 856. 



72 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 



Table U—Dues of each dciss according to method of application, imported in largest 
quantity during the calendar year 1922, compared with imports %n 1921 and fiscal year 
1914 — Continued. 



Schultz 
No. 



449 
457 
392 
3.58 
273 



206 
451 
198 
319 



354 



789 
551 
S58 
801 
637 
778 
S54 
780 
181 
159 
800 
■862 
29 
622 



Class and name of dye. 



DIRECT DYES. 



Trisulphon brown 

Trisulphon brown GG 

Toluylene orange 

Diphenyl red 

Diaminosene blue 

Chlorantiue fast violet 

Diphenyl citechine G 133. 

Congo fast blue 

Thiazol yeUow 

Diamine scarlet 

Diazo sky blue 

Chi o"an tine fast blue 

Direct gray R 

Benzo fast heliotrope 

Dia '.amine blue 



881 
901 
761 
760 
768 
910 



748 
919 
907 
918 
873 
908 



1922 



MORDANT AND CHROME DYES. 



Pounds. 
45, 697 
37,648 
36, 920 
.3.3,915 
18, 620 
18, 188 
17,000 
17,012 
16, 196 
14, 137 
14,067 
12, 898 
12, 608 
12, 407 
11,378 



Anthracene blue WR 

Eriochrome a 'urol BC 

Ali arin saphirol B 

All arin bhie S 

Gallamine blue extra paste 

Ali '.arin (sjmthetic) 

Ali arin viridine DG FF 

Ali arin red 

Eriochrome black A , ,.,■ „y , 

Acid alizarin black w' 996 

Anthracene blue 22' 277 

Alizarin blue black 2o' 227 

Eriochrome red , „' .,„„ 

Delphine blue B \^'iil 

Eriochrome brown ROS 933 ^''^*' 



52, 364 
43,191 
46, 596 
32,916 
29, 237 
27, 086 
25, 910 
25, 872 
24, 499 



SULPHUR DYES. 



Thi on ol brown.. 
EcUpse brown.. 
Cross dye green . 
Thionol yellow. 
Sulphur green.. 



VAT DYES.' 



Indanthrene blue BCS * (single strength) 

Ciba blue 2B (single strength) 

Ciba violet B (single strength) - - . . 

Indanthrene golden orange R (single strength) . 
Indanthrene golden orange G (single strength) . 

Indanthrene violet B (single strength) 

Helindone pink, AN, BN, paste 

HeUndone pink, BR paste - 

Indanthrene blue RS (single strength) 

Hydron blue (single strength) 

Ciba Bordeaux B (single strength) 

Ciba scarlet - - 

Helindone red 3B (single strength) . . 

Helindone brown AN (single strength) 

Ciba red R paste 



48, 750 
35, 991 
27, 834 
26,682 
24, 872 



1921 



1914 



Pounds. 

38, 558 

22, 872 

523 

4,036 

19, 182 

5, 622 



9,259 
6,945 

12, 399 
6,892 
5,070 

11,155 
2,189 



Pounds. 
16, 781 

7,562 
67, 032 
14, 305 

8,308 



107, 769 
19,344 
28,606 
21, 521 
15, 179 
2 136, 283 

9,499 

15, 565 

224, 002 

3,808 

4,057 
43, 277 

1,102 
13, 842 

1,213 



20,632 
21,248 
51,074 
17,704 



239,085 
205, 582 
131,661 
78, 145 
73, 305 
54, 768 
48, 633 
40,668 
39,999 
39, 723 
33,621 
33, 246 
32, 819 
31,450 
25, 188 



99,937 
21,987 
56, 390 
33, 423 
14,957 
31, 813 



28,908 
146,072 
4,625 
10,695 
17, 566 
27, 747 
110 



s Figure from Department Of Commerce. j, . , , +v, k„o;c 

« Vat dyes imported in 1914 were not converted to smgle-strength basis. 
< Imported as powder. 



8,642 
4,449 
29, 879 
41,175 
6,150 



13,018 



107, 778 

21,060 

14, 305 

98, 379 

2, 7,56 

202,392 



81,929 
96, 570 
16, 800 
54, 812 
54, 706 
5,491 



4,393 
100 



9,157 



16, 880 
20, 836 
50,496 
20,092 
50, 034 
41,699 



187,379 

296,723 

899 

22,265 

27,874 

2,831 

1,001 



DYES IMPORTED FOR CONSUMPTION IN UNITED STATES^ 1922. 73 

1. THE SIX LEADING GERMAN COMPANIES. 

A Actien-Gesellschaft fur Anilin-Fabrikation, Berlin. Founded 1873. 

Branches in France and Russia. 
B Badische Anilin- und Soda-Fabrik, Ludwigshafen on the Rhine. Founded 

1865. Branches in France and Russia. 
By Farbenfabriken vorm. Friedr. Bayer & Co., Leverkusen on the Rhine. 

Founded 1862. Branches in France and Russia. 
C Leopold Cassella & Co., Frankfort on the Main. Founded 1870. Branches 

in France and Russia. 
K Kalle & Co., A. G., Biebrich on the Rhine. Founded 1870. Branch in 

Russia. 

M Farbwerke vorm. Meister Lucius & Briinin^, Hochst on the Main. 

I Founded 1862. Branches in France and Russia. 

2. THE SEVEN SMALLER GERMAN COMPANIES. 

BK Leipziger Anilinfabrik Beyer & Kegel, Furstenbers: near Leipzig. Founded 

1882. 
CG Chemikalienwerk Greisheim G. m. 1). H., Griesheim on the Main. Founded 

1881. 

CJ Carl Jager G. m. b. H., Aniliufarbenfabrik, Dusseldorf. Founded 1823. 

GrE Chemische Fabrik Griesheim-Electron, Offenbach on the Main. Founded 

1842. 
L Farbwerk Muhlheim vorm. A. Leonhardt & Co., Muhlheim on the Main. 

Founded 1879. Branch in France. 
tM Chemische Fabriken vorm. Weiler ter Meer, Uerdingen on the Rhine. 

Founded 1877. 
WD Wulfing, Dahl & Co., A. G. Barmen. Founded 1842. 

3. DUTCH, BELGIAN, AND FRENCH COMPANIES. 

FA Farbwerk Ammersfoort, Ammersfoort, Netherlands. Founded 1888. 

NF Niederlandische Farben- und Chemikalienfabrik Delft, Delft, Nether- 
lands. Founded 1897. Branch in Russia. 

LG Lazard Godchaux, of Brussels. (These products are probably compounded 

largely from the dyes made by A. Wiescher ik Co., of Haeren, Belgium.) 

P Societe Anonyme des Matieres colorantes et produits chimiques St. Denis 

(formerly A. Poirrier), St. Denis, near Paris, France. Founded 1830. 

4. SWISS COMPANIES, ALL AT BASEL. 

DH Farbwerke vorm. L. Durand, Huguenin & Co. Founded 1871. Branches 

in Germany and France. 
G Anilinfarben- imd Extract-Fabriken vorm. Joh. Rud. Geigy. Founded 

1764. Branches in France, Germany, and Russia. 

I Gesellschaft fur chemische Industrie. Founded 1885. Branch in France. 

S Chemische I'abrik vorm. Sandoz & Co. Founded 1887. 

5. ENGLISH COMPANIES. 

Bro Brotherton and Co. (Ltd.), City Chambers, Leeds. 

B. A. C British Alizarine Co. (Ltd.), Silvertown. 

B. D British Dyestuffs Corporation (Ltd.), London. 

<'l. Co The Clayton Aniline Co. (Ltd.). Clayton, Manchester. 

t '. V The Colne Vale Dve and Chemical Co. (Ltd.). Milnsbridge. Huddersfield. 

Hoi L. IL HoUiday and Co. (Ltd.), Huddersfield. 

Sol Solway Dyes Co., Carlisle. 

Scot Scottish Dyes ("Ltd.), Grangemouth. 

52805—23 6 



74 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION, 



Table 15. — -Imports of dyes, calendar year 1922. 

[This table gives details as to the quantity and invoice value of each dye imported, together with the 
various commercial types and their corresponding foreign manufactures.] 



Schultz 
No. 


Dye. 


Manu- 
facturer. 


Imports. 


Quan- 
tity. 


Invoice 
value. 




Total 




Pounds. 
3,982,631 


$5,243,257 




Martins yellow 1 . 




6 


200 






Napthaline yellow 


Q 






Martins yellow 


A 






9 


Direct yellow 




25 






Naphtamine yellow BN 


K 




11 


Chloramine orange 




30 


25 




Micado brown B 


L 






Micado brown G 


L 








Micado brown M 


L 






18 


Diphenyl fast yellow 




6,458 








G 




19 


Fast light yellow 




25,555 


46,682 




Erio flavine SX 


G 






Erio flavine SX 654 . 


G 








Fast light yellow GG 


By 








Fast light yellow GGG. 


By 








Fast light yellow G 


By 






22 


Xylene light yellow . 




13,506 






Xylene light yellow 2G cone . 


S 






Xylene light j'ellow R . . 


S 






28 


Hansa yellow G . 




6,294 


3,922 




Hansa yellow 5G lumps 650 . 


M 






Hansa yellow G lumps 


M 








Hansa yellow G paste 


M 






29 


Erio chrome red 




20, 227 






Erio chrome red B 915 


G 






Erio ciu-ome red G 978 


G 






38 


Orange G , 










Orange 2RL 


C 

M 


100 

1 

399 




40 


Chromotrope 2R 




42 


Amido naphthol red G 








G 




56 


Autol red 




4,001 






Autol red B L powder . 


B 






Nitrosamine red paste . 


B 






.57 


Chromotrope 2B . . . 


M 

S 


1 
251 
201 




58 


Ultra orange R 




63 


Azo acid blue .... 






Azo acid blue B cone 


S 




64 


Lanafuchsine ... 




1,012 






Sorbine red X .. 


B 






SorbineredBB 


B 






67 


Fast acid red ... 


BD 


100 
450 




87 


Peri wool blue. . 






Peri wool blue B ' 


C 






Peri wool blue G 


C 






88 






2,632 






Acid anthracene brown R 


By 








By 






91 


Anthracyl chrome green 


WD 

A 

B 


441 

6,118 

1 

201 




100 


Eosamine B . . 




106 


Autol red RLP powder 




118 


Geranine 






Geranine G 295 . 


By 




121 


Erica B 




2,458 


8,045 




Erica B cone 


S 






Erica B extra 


B 








Erica B extra 


A 








Erica BN . . . 


L 






124 






1 








M 








M 






125 


Diazinc black G 


K 

M 


1,2.50 

13 

2,498 




126 


Janus blue B. 




1.33 




2,499 






G 








G 










G 










G .. 






139 


Orange IV. ... .. 


M 


4 
5,834 




140 


Curcnmeine . . 


5,469 






DH 








DH 








Jasmine high cone 729 


G 








DYES IMPORTED FOR CONSUMPTION IN UNITED STATES, 1922. 75 
Table 15. — Imports of dyes, calendar year 1922 — Continued. 



Schaltz 


Dye. 


Manu- 
facturer. 


Imports. 


No. 


Quan- 
tity. 


Invoice 
value. 


141 


Azo yellow 




Pounds. 

248 






Azo flavine F. F. UX 


B 






Azo flavine cone 


Q 






145 


Orange II extra cone 


B 

Q 

B 

B 

G 


25 

99 

201 

500 

1,020 

23,975 




147 


Azo fuchsine S 




151 


Orange RO 




154 


Palatine chrome brown RX. 




158 


Clirorae brown R VV 899 . 




159 


Acid alizarin black 






Acid alizarin black R 


s 




160 


Naplitvlamine brown 


B 


5 

4,628 




177 


Mordant vellow . . . 


86,550 




Milling vellow 


c 




Milling yellow 3G 


c 








Chrome yellow D F powder 


By 






180 


Erio chrome blue black BC 




14, 227 






Erio chrome blue black BC 926. 


G... 






Erio chrome blue black G 925 


G... 






182 


Brilliant sulphur red 




9.557 


11,796 




Brilliant sulphon red B 


s 






s 








Fast sulphon violet 5BS 


s 






183 


Erio chrome black T 934 


G 


13,977 
24,499 




184 


Erio clirome black A 








(i. ., 






Erio chrome black E 965 


G 






187 




C 


556 
16, 196 




198 


Thiazol yellow 








G 




206 


Diphenyl catechine G 133 


G 


17,000 
9,797 




207 








Diphenyl fast brown GNC 129... 


G... 






Diphenyl fast brown GF 365 


G. 






211 


Re^orcine brown F 


K 

G 


350 
^9 
52 




212 


Acid brown RN 532 




217 


Naphtylamiue black 








Bv 






Naphtylamine black 4B 


C . 






220 


Palatine black 




11,436 






Palatine black 4BXX. 


B 








A 






222 


Janus yellow G 


M 


1,200 
277 




227 








Cotton scarlet extra 


B 




240 


Janus red B 


K 

M 


1 570 ' 




- 241 
247 


Neutral grey G 

Diamine grey G.. 
Scarlet E C 


"6.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 


550 






Imperial scarlet SB .\... 


Bv 


9^ 






Erio clirome verdon 




16,502 






Erio chrome verdon S 1042 

Aliiarino chrome green A 


G 






Victoria black 




251 








Bv 




265 


Sulpho cyanLna black 




14, 858 


""i2,'465 






G 




Acid milling black B 652 cone 


G... 








Sulphon cyanine black 2B 


Bv 






266 


Naphthylamine black 




51 






Naphthylamine black 6B 


c 




273 


Diamino:<eno blue 




22,42.) 






Diaminogene blue N A 


c 




274 


Diaminogeno blue BB 


C 








Dianiinogene extra 


c 


8,527 


13,382 






Bv 








Zambesi pure blue 4B 


A 






276 


Diamond green 




2,796 






Diamond green SS 


Bv 






Diamond green 3G 


5y 






279 


Benzo fast scarlet 




992 






Direct fast scarlet SE 


I 




293 


Milling red 




9,955 








(i 






Fast mordant yellow 




820 . 






Fast mordant yellow G powder 


B 






Cotton yellow 




3,579 . 






Benzo fast yellow 4GL extra 


Bv . 






Benzo fast yellow RI^ 


Bv 







76 UNITED STATES TAKIFF COMMISSION. 

Table 15. — Imports of dyes, calendar year 1922 — Continued. 



Dye. 



Chrysophenine 

Chrysophenine cone, pure 

Pyramine orange 3G ■ 

Pyramine orange RR 

Congo orange G 

Diamine s ^arlet 

Diamine scarlet B 

Diamine scarlet ."^B 

Chloramine rol B 

Chloramine re'l B 

Chloramine red 3B 

Trisulphon violet B 

Oxy diamine violet 

" Benzo violet 

Benzo violet O 

Nanhthamine violet BE 

Benzo fast red 

Benzo fast red 

Benzo fast red SB L 

Naphthamino blue 

Naphthamine blue GEF 91 per cent 

Naphthamine blue 3R 

Benzo orange R 

Chrysamine 

Chrysamine K 

Diamine fast red 

Chloramine fast red F 

Diamin'i fast red 8BL 

Diamine brown 

Diamine brown 3G 

Direct dark brown M 

Oxamine red 

Oxamine red 3BX 

Diphenvl brown BN , 

Dinhenyl browTi BBNC 132 , 

Diphenyl brown GS 199 

Diamine brown B 

Diamine brown B 

Direct gray R 

Direct gray R paste 1022 

Diphenyl red 

Aceto purpurine SB 

Aceto purpurine SB 

Aceto purpurine SB , 

Toluylene red 

Toluylene red 00 , 

Chloramine red 8BS 

Diphenyl red .SC 373 

Chloramine red SB cone 

Chloramine red 8BS... 

Chlorantine red 8BS . .' 

Trypan red 

Pyramine orange R 

Sulphonazurine , 

Sulphonazurine D , 

Diazo brilliant black , 

Diazo brilliant black B , 

Diazo briUiant black B , 

Diazo brilliant black B cone. 70 per cent. 
Delta purpurine 

Delta purpurine 5B , 

Delta purpurine 3B , 

Brilliant congo 

Brilliant cougo R 

Congo orange 

Congo orange R 

Chloramine blue 

Chloramine blue BXR , 

Typhan blue 

Toluylene orange 

Pyrazol orange G 

Pyrazol orange G cone 

Toluylene fast orange G L 

Acid anthracene red 

Acid anthracene red 5B L 

Diamine yellow N.> 

Diamine yellow N 110 per cent 



Manu- 
facturer. 



By. 
By. 

K.. 



By. 
By. 



Q... 
B... 

A... 
GrE. 
GrE. 

^■:: 

I 

I 

Q... 
Q... 
B... 



By. 



Q.. 
By. 
By. 



By. 
By. 



By. 

A.'! 



s... 
By. 



By. 
cV." 



Imports. 



Quan- 
tity. 



Pounds. 
701 



2,110 

35 

50 

14,137 



251 
1,413 



1,991 



201 
4,432 



110 
'2,' 598 



662 

"ii'eos 

'33,'945" 



4 

1,946 

954 



7,769 



120 
'366" 



2,502 



2 
36. 920 



535 



DYES IMP(JRTED FOR CONSUMPTION^ IX UNITED STATES^ 1922, 77 
Table 15. — Imports of dyes, calendar year 1922 — Continued. 



Schultz 
No. 


Dye. 


Manu- 
facturer. 


Imports. 


Quan- 
tity. 


Invoice 
value. 


416 


Brilliant azurihe .5G 




Pounds. 
1,270 








By.. . . 






Brilliant azurine 5G 30 percent 


By 






424 


Chicago blue 6B 




7, 337 


$7 177 




Chloramine sky blue FF 


S 






Chloramine sky blue FF cone 


S 1 






Chloramine skrv blue FF cone. 200 per cent 


s 








Diamine skv blue FF 


c 






426 


Benzamine pure blue 




1,751 






Chloramine sky blue A cone 


s 






Chloramine sky blue A cone. 2{)0 per cent 


s 






436 


Columbia black . . ." 




7 






Columbia black FF 


A . . 




446 


Benzo olive 


By 


.50 
1,040 




448 


Diamine bronze R 






Diamine bronze G 


c 




449 


Trisulphon brown 




45,697 


74 935 




Trisulphon brown B 


s . . . 






Trisulphon brown B 12 


s 








Trisulphon brown B cone 


s 








Trisulphon B cone, 200 per cent 


s 








Trisulphon brown MB 


s 






451 


Congo fast blue 




17,012 






Chlorantine fast blue RL cone 


I . . 




4.56 


Benzo fast blue 




6,997 


12 145 




Benzo fast blue 4GL 


By.... 






Benzo fast blue 4G L 


Q...:.:: 








Benzo fast blue 2GL 


By 








Benzo fast blue B 


Q : 




; 


4.57 


Trisulphon brown GG 




37, 648 


52 114 




Trisulphon brown GG 


S 






Trisulphon brown GG cone 


s 








Trisulphon brown GG cone 


I 








Trisulj)hon brown GG 12 


s 











s 








Trisulphon brown GG2G 


I 






462 


Direct deep black 




4,409 






Direct deep black E W 


By 






Carbide fast black GF cone 


r 




' 


471 


Chloramine blue 3G 


s 


1,261 

440 




484 








Cloth fast red R cone 


I 






Cloth fast red B cone 


I 






493 


Auramine 




12, 599 


11 382 






I 






Auramine O 


s 








Auramine Y 


Q 








Auramine cone 


B . 






494 


Auramine G 




110 






Auramine G 437 


G 




495 


Malachite preen 




14 






Malachite green 


Q 






Diamond green BXX powder 


B .. .. 






4% 


Setoglaucine 




1,198 






Setoglaucine 753 


G 




498 


Turquoise blue 




12 






Turquoise blue 


By 




499 


Brilliant green 




1 






Brilliant green cone 


B 




500 


Setopaline 




2,824 






Setopaline cone. 707 


G.. . . 






Setocyanine 396 


G 






£03 






1,661 






Neptune green sgx 


B 






Benzyl green B cone 


I.. . 






505 


Light green (yellowish) 




300 






Light green SF yellowish XX 


B 




£06 


Erioglaueine 




25, 852 


47,916 




Erioglaucine 


G. 




Erioglaueine EP 54S 


G. 








Erioglaucine supra 528 


G 








Erioglaucine AC 501 


G. 








Erioglaucine AP 545 


G 








Erioglaucine AP 545 


I 


1 




507 j 






10,310 






Xylene blue VS 


S 






Xylene blue VS cone 


s 


1 





78 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 



Table 15. — Imports of dyes, calendar year 1922 — Continued. 



Dye. 



Xylene blue AS 

Xylene blue AS 

Xylene blue AS cone 

Magenta 

New Magenta C 

Red violet 

Violet R , 

Methvl violet 

Methyl violet 5R 

Methyl violet 6B 80 

Methyl violet B extra 

Methyl violet BB extra 

Methyl violet NFB 

Crystal violet 

" Crystal violet lOB 

Crystal violet extra 

Crystal violet extra powder 

Benzyl violet 

Methyl violet 6B extra , 

Ethyl purple 

Ethyl vinlet 

Ethyl violet , 

Ethyl violet cone 

Aniline blue 

Night blue 

Victoria blue 4R 

Victoria blue 4R highly cone 

Victoria blue 4R cone 

Fast green , 

Fast green extra bluish 

Fast green extra bluish 

Fast green extra bluish cone. 60 per cent . 

Fast green extra bluish 

Fast §reen extra blue shade 

Fast light green , 

Acid magenta 

Acid magenta , 

Acid magenta (BASF) 

Acid violet 4BN 

Acid violet 4BNS 

Acid violet 4BNS cone 

Acid violet N 

Fast acid violet lOB , 

Kiton fast violet lOB cone 

Acid violet 

Guinea violet 4B 

Eriocyanine , 

Eriocyanine A 665 

Eriocyanine A 665 cone 

Eriocyanine AC 503 

Acid violet 7B , 

Acid violet 7B cone 

Methyl alkali blue 

Methyl alkaUne blue MLB , 

Alkali blue ; 

Alkali blue 3R cone 

Methyl blue for silk 

Methyl Lyons blue 

Methyl Lyons blue 410 

Silk blue \V 

Methyl silk blue NCW 706 

Soluble blue 

Soluble blue T 

Soluble blue IN 

Silk blue BT 5BOO 

Silk blue extra cone 

Pure blue cone 

Water blue 32129 

Patent blue 

Tetra cyanole A 

Tetra cyanole A 

Tetra cyanole V 

Tetra cyanole 

Tetra cyanole 

Patent'bluo V 

Patent marine blue LE 

Kiton pure blue V cone 

Neptune blue BOX cone 

Brilliant acid blue V 

Cyanine B 

Cyanine B 

Cyanine B 544 



Manu- 
facturer. 



Q.. 

By. 
By. 
By. 
By. 



tM. 



G.. 
G.. 
By. 
G.. 



B... 
B... 

GrE. 
O... 
M... 
A... 



A.. 
M.. 
M.. 
C... 

M.. 
M.. 
M.. 
I... 
B.. 

By. 



Imports. 



Quan- 
tity. 



Pounds. 
4,441 



7 
..... 

'264 



4,331 



2 
'2,'i25 



10 
'366' 



52,498 



4,275 



1,874 



14, 808 



15 



25 

'1,162' 
'9,' 926' 



2,192 



49, 136 



400 



Invoice 
value. 



$397 



3,287 



99,723 



5,818 



40,515 



37,014 



5,142 



61, 334 



DYES IMPORTED FOR CONSUMPnON IN UNITED STATES, 1922. 79 
Taple 15. — Imports of dyes, calendar year 1922 — Continued. 





Dye. 


Manu- 
facturer. 


Imports. 


Schnltz 

No. 


Quan- 
tity. 


Invoice 
value. 


545 


Patent blue A . . 




Pounds. 
3,436 


$7,118 




M 






I 








Brilliant acid blue FF 


By 






546 






20, 658 


48,755 




Cyanol FF 


C 




Cyanol F F 


Q 








Cyanol F F . 


By 










C.^ 










C 










Q 










C 








S 








Xylene cyanol F F extra 


S 








Xylene cyanol FF extra cone. . 


s 






M8 


Acid violet 6BN . . .. 




9,980 








I 




551 






43, 191 


132,298 






G 






I 










G 








Chrome fast pure blue BX cone 


I 






552 


Chromal blue 




996 






Chromal blue GC 


G 








G 






653 


Erioehrome cyanine RC . . . 




881 








G 




555 


Aurine 




666 








Q 






Aurine SIS 


A 






558 






882 








I 








By 






559 






. 3,442 


8,401 






Q 






Victoria blue B . 


B... 










I ... . 








Victoria blue B base 


I .. .. 








Victoria blue B base . 


B 








Victoria blue B extra cone . 


B 








Victoria blue B highly cone 


B 








Victoria blue base 


I 








Victoria blue B 


G 








Victoria brilliant blue B 


M 








Victoria pure blue BO 


B 






560 


Night blue 




214 








B 






Night blue 


M 








Night blue 


I 






562 


Fast acid blue 




8,961 


18,537 




Fast acid blue B 


By 






Brilliant wool blue FFR extra 


By.. . 








Brilliant wool blue G extra 


By.. ... 








Acid blue RBF 


I.^...... 








AcM blue RBF cone 


I 








Wool blue SR extra. . . . .. 


By.. 






564 


Naphthalene green 




19,298 


48, 825 




Naphthalene green V 


M. . . 






S 








Kiton fast green V cone 


I 










G 






565 


Acid blue B 




537 


1,099 




Wool blue 3R 


BD... 






Wool blue 5B 


A 






566 


Wool green S 




3,503 






Wool green S cone . 


S.... 






Wool green S cone. . . . . 


G... 






568 


Pyronine G 




4 








M 




569 


Acridine red 




100 


288 




Acridine red 3B. 


L... 






Acridine red 3B 


B 








Acridine red B 


L 






571 


Rhodamme 6G 




13, 545 


52,021 




Rhodamlne6GDN 


B... . 








B 








Rhodamme 6GDN extra . 


Q... 








Rhodamine 6GDN extra . 


By.. 








RhodamineBGDN X 


..:: 








Rhodamine 6GDN cone 


GrE.... 







80 UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 

Table 15. — Imports of dyes, calendar year 1922 — Continued. 



Schultz 
No. 



571 



a72 



573 



574 
579 



580 



581 
587 



592 



593 
596 
597 
602 



603 



606 



607 
608 



609 



Dye. 



Rhodamine 60— Continued. 

Rhodamine 6GDN extra 

Rhodamine 6GDN extra 

Rhodamine 6G DH cone 

Rhodamine G 

Rhodamine G extra: 

Rhodamine G extra 

Brilliant rose G 

Rhodamine B 

Rhodamine B base 

Rhodamine B extra 

Rhodamine B extra 

Rhodamine B extra 

Rhodamine B extra 

Rhodamine B extra base 

Rhodamine B extra base 

Rhodamine B extra 500 per cent. . . . 

Rhodamine B X 

Rhodamine 3B 

Rhodamine 3B cone 

Xylene red 

Xylene red B cone 

Xylene red B cone. 400 per cent 

Sulnho rhodamine BG 

Fast acid violet B 

Fast acid violet R 

Violamine R 

Fast acid magenta G 

Eosine 

Eosine A (free from salt) 

Erythro'rae 

Erythro^ine 

Erythro5ine extra 

Floxine P 

Phloxine O 

Ro^e Beneiale B 

Acridine yellow 

Acridine yellow R 

Acridine yellow G 

Acridine orange 

Acridine orange 

Acridine orange cone 

Acridme orange GG 

Acridine oranee NO 

Acridine orange DHE powder 

PhosTihine 

Phosphine 3R 

Phosphine G cone 

Patent phospnine M cone 

Patent phosphine G cone 

Patent phosphine R cone 

Patent phosphine R base 

Patent phosphine GG 

Patent phosphine GG 300 per cent. . 

Patent phosphine GG cone 

Patent pho=;phine 5G 

Brilliant phosphine 5G cone, patent. 

Brilliant phosphine 5G cone 

Rrilliant phosphine 5G base 

Phosphine GG cone 

Phosphine 5G cone , 

Saba nhosnhine M cone 

Cori phosphine OX 

Cori phosphine OX extra 

Cannelle ALX 

Rheonine 

Rheonine A cone 

Rheonine AL cone 

Euchrysine 

Euehrysine 2RD 

Enchrysine 3RX 

Euchrysine RRDX 

Euchrysine RRX 

Euchrysine GRNTN 

Euchrysine RRDX 

Homophosphine 

Diamond phosphine GG 

Corioflavine G 

Corioflavine GOOO 



Manu- 
facturer. 



By. 

M.. 
L.. 



I.... 
I.... 
L... 
L... 
DH. 



Bv. 
By. 
B.. 



C... 
GrE. 
GrE. 



Imports. 



Quan- 
tity. 



Pounds. 



1,679 
'5,"677 



1,543 
'5," 856 



400 



100 
10 



66 



711 



51,711 



101 



3,476 



955 



Invoicn 
value. 



$3,959 
is,' 229 



36,469 



2,685 



117,359 



8.185 



628 



DYES IMPORTED FOR CONSUMPTION IN UNITED STATES, 1922. 81 
Table 15. —Imports of dyes, calendar year 1922 — Continued. 



Schultz 
No. 



612 



620 
621 



622 



624 
626 



636 
037 
641 
649 
6.53 



6.54 
65S 



659 



660 



663 
667 



66S 
669 



Dye. 



Qiiinoline yellow spirit soluble 

Quinoliiie yellow cone 

Quinoline yellow soluble in spirit 

Quiiioline yellow A soluble in spirit 

Quinoline yellow cone 

Qiiinoline yellow 

Quinoline yellow KT extra cone 

Quinoline yellow KT extra cone 

Quinoline yellow N extra 

Quinoline yeUow 

Columbia yellow 

Chloramine yellow GG 

Diphenyl chlorine yellow FF supra 287. 

Diamine fast yellow B 

Thioflavine T 

Thioflavine T 

Thioflavine T 

Thioflavine T 

Thioflavine TCN 

Capri blue GON 

Cresyl blue 

Cresyl blue 2RN 

Cresyl blue 2BR 

Brilliant cresyl blue 2B 

Brilliant ■ resyl blue 2B 

Delphine blue B 

Brilliant delphine blue B 

Brilliant delphine blue B S , 

Brilliant delphine blue BS cone 

Brilliant delphine blue 

Modern violet N 

Modern violet N powder , 

Gallocyanine 

Briliiant chrome bine P 

Gallocyanine pa4e 

Anthracyanine 

Anthracyanine S powder 

Anthracyanine S powder 

Modern violet 

Modern violet powder 

Ultra violet MO 

Prune 

Prune pure S , 

Gallamine blue extra paste 

Gallamine blue extra paste 900 

Cclestine blue B 

Coreine RR powder No. 65 

Cotton blue 

Meldola's blue 3R cone 

Nile blue 

Nile blue AX 

Nile blue BX 

Nile blue 2BX 

Fast black 

Gallophenine P 

Gallophenine D 

Gallophenine W 

Methylene blue 

Methylene blue 

Methylene blue BG cone 

Toluidine blue 

Methylene preen 

Methylene green G 

Methylene green W 748 

Methylene green extra yellow 

Thionine blue 

Thionine blue GO 

Thionuie blue GO 

Thionine blue GO old 

Thionine blue GO old 

Thionine blue GO cone 

New methylene blue 

New methylene blue N 

Indochromine 

Indochromiae T cone 

Indochn mine T cone 

Brilhant alizarin blue G powder 

Flaviaduline O 

Neutral violet D , 



Manu- 
facturer. 



S... 

I... 



Imports. 



Quan- 
tity. 



Pounds. 
10,653 



Z 



C... 



DH. 



DH. 



DH. 

S.... 



DH. 



6,955 



3,652 



Invoice 
value. 



$17,473 



12,723 



4,041 



6,765 16,502 



52 
104 



330 



3,874 



3,503 



29, 237 



44 



By. 
Q-- 



s... 
I... 

By. 
B.. 
M.. 



lU 
1.500 



6,069 



2,746 



2,060 



1,249 



306 



19,370 



423 



9,339 
'5,' 049 



3,616 



82 UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 

Table 15. — Imports of dyes, calendar year 1922 — Continued. 



Dye. 



Azo carmine GX 

Azo carmine GX 

Azo carmine GX powder 

Azo carmine B 

Rosinduline 2B bluish 

Neutral blue R 

Safranine 

Saffranine 

PafFranine T extra cone 

Saffranine O for spirit lake 

New fast grey 

Maltagrey B 

Maltagrey J 

Maltagrey J 

Iris violet extra 

Rosolane CTR 

Methylene Heliotrope Extra Strong 

Rosolane R Paste 

Rosolane Extra strong 

Rosolane 

Rosolane paste 

Rosolane paste 

Rosolane O 

Metaphenylene blue R 

Diphene blue R 

Nigrosine alcohol soluble 

Induline NN 

Induline NN 

Fast blue RR 

Nigrosine (soluble in water) 

Nigrosine T 

Indamine 6R 

Acid cyanine B F 

Indocyanine B 

Pyrogene green 20 ■ 

Pryogene green 3G cone 

Pyrogene green 3G 

Pyrogene blue 

Pyrogene direct blue RL cone 

Pyrogene yellow 

Pyrogene j^ellow O cone 

Pyrogene indigo 

Katigene green 

Thional brilliant green GG cone 

Thional brilliant green GG 

Katigene green 2G 

Pyrogene blue green B cone 

Hydron blue (single strength ) 

Hydronblue G 30 per cent paste 

Hydron blue R 30 per cent paste 

Hydron blue G powder 

Hydron blue G powd.er 

Hydron blue R powder 

Hydron blue G lOO^jer cent powder 

Kryogene violet 3RX 

Anthraflavone G paste, GC Paste, GC Pdr 

Indanthrene golden orange G (single strength) 

Indanthrene golden orange G paste 

Indanthrene golden orange G double paste 

Indanthrene golden orange G double paste fine. . . 

Indanthrene golden orange G paste sand free 

Indanthrene golden orange G powder 

Helindone golden orange IG double paste 

Indanthrene golden orange R 

Indanthrene golden orange RRT paste 

Indanthrene golden orange RRT paste sand free. 

Indanthrene golden orange RRT paste fine 

Helindone golden orange IRRT paste 

Indanthrene golden orange RRT powder 

Indanthrene golden orange 2R paste 

Indanthrene golden orange 3 R paste 

Indanthrene scarlet G S powder 

Indanthrene dark blue BO paste 

Helindone dark bine IBO paste 

Indanthrene green B paste 

Indanthrene blue green B double paste 

Indanthrene green B double paste 

Indanthrene green B double paste "fine" 

HeHndone blue green IB double paste 

Indanthrene violet R extra powder 



Manu- 
facturer. 



S... 

s... 

By. 
I... 



C... 
C... 

Z. 
Z. 

B.. 
B.. 



Imports. 



Quan- 
tity. 



Pounds. 
9,327 



3,555 



110 
34 



1,775 



275 



2,714 



500 
'2,' 800 



6,503 



24,251 
"§,"528 



441 
11,397 



39,723 



300 
20,594 
73,305 



78, 145 



2,200 
20 



2,676 



249 



DYES IMPORTED FOR CONSUMPTION IN UNITED STATES, 1922. 83 
Table 15. — Imports of dyes, calendar year 1922 — Continued. 



Dye. 



Manu- 
facturer. 



Imports. 



Quan- 
tity. 



Invoice 
value. 



Indanthrene violet RR 

Indanthrene violet RR extra P powder 

Indanthrene violet RR extra paste 

Indanthrene brilliant violet powder RRP. . . 

Helindone violet RR extra paste 

Indanthrene violet B 

Indanthrene black BB double paste 

Hehndone black IBB double paste 

Alizarin black 

Alizarin black S paste 

Alizarin black S paste for cotton 

Alizarin black B 

Alizarin black WX extra S paste 

Alizarin synthetic 

Alizarin VI extra pure 20 per cent (for lake) 

Alizarin VI extra pure 20 per cent 

Alizarin bluish VI 

Alizarin red 20 per cent paste 

Alizarin bluish VI 

Alizarin orange 

AUzarin orange 20 per cent paste 

Alizarin orange A 20 per cent paste 

AUzarin orange R paste 20 per cent 

Alizarin orange powder 

Alizarin red 

Alizarin red S powder 

Alizarin red W powder 

Alizarin red W powder 

Alizarin red IWS powder 

Alizarin red soluble powder 

Alizarin red SWB powder 

Alizarin brown 

Anthracene brown RD paste 1040 

Alizarin 6X, GD 

Alizarin SX 20 per cent paste 

Alizarin RG, GI 

AUzarin red SDG 20 per cent 

Anthracene blue WR 

Anthracene blue WR double paste 

Acid alizarin blue BB, GR 

Anthracene blue SWGG extra powder 

Anthracene blue SWR powder 

Cibanone orange R 

Cibanone orange R Pdr 

Cibanone orange R paste 10 per cent pat 

Cibanone green B paste 10 per cent pat 

Cibanone olive B paste 10 per cent pat 

Cibanone blue 3G 

Cibanone blue 3G powder pat 

Cibanone blue 3G paste 10 per cent pat 

Cibanone blue 3G paste 

Cibanone blue G powder pat 

Cibanone black 

Cibanone black B paste 10 per cent pat 

Cibanone black B paste pat 

Cibanone black 2B powder pat 

Cibanone yellow R 

Cibanone yellow R paste 10 per cent 

Cibanone yeUow R paste 10 per cent pat 

Cibanone "yellow R powder 

Cibanone yellow R powder pat 

Alizarin garnet 

AUzarin claret R paste 

Alizarin maroon W 

AUzarin maroon 20 per cent 

AUzarin cyanine G 

Alizarin cyanine G G powder 

Anthracene blue 

Anthracene blue WB paste 

Anthracene blue WG paste 

Alizarin blue S 

AUzarin blue S powder 

Alizarin blue S powder 

Alizarin blue SB powder 

Alizarin blue SR powder 

AUzarin blue S extra paste 



B.... 
B.... 
B.... 
BAG. 
B.... 



BAC. 
B.... 
By... 
M.... 



B.... 

M.... 
BAC. 
B.... 



B.. 
By! 



B.. 

^.: 

B.. 

By. 



Pounds. 

7,248 



$3,544 



54,768 



7,343 



4,564 



27,086 



7,812 



15,523 



7,276 



25,872 



26,439 



4,596 

'7,' 795' 



6,500 
'52.' 364' 



1,672 
'23,'i36' 



20, 571 



15,587 



19. 188 



1,543 



16, 367 



3,248 
'8,'776 



310 
'266' 



6,377 
22,' 995' 



32,916 



32,331 



84 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 



Table 15. — Imports of dyes, calendar year 1922 — Continued. 



Dye. 



Alizarin green S paste 

Alizarin green S paste 

Alizarin green CE 

Alizarin green V paste 

Alizarin green 15 per cent paste 

Helindone yellow 3GN sifigle strength 

Helindone yellow 3GN powder 

Algol yellow 3G 

Algol yellow 3G paste 

Algol red 5G single strength 

Algol red 5G powder 

Algol red 5G paste 

Algol yellow R (single strength) 

Algol yellow R powder 

Indra yellow GK paste 

Algol red R. FF (single strength) 

Algol red FF extra paste 

Algol red R extra paste 

Algol red R extra powder 

Algol brilliant red 2B paste 

Algol brilliant red 2B powder 

Algol brilliant violet R 

Algol brilliant violet R paste 

Algol brilliant violet R powder 

Algol brilliant violet 2B (single strength) 

Algol brilliant violet 2B powder 

Algol brilliant violet 2B paste 

Algol brilliant orange FR (single strength). .. 

Algol brilliant orange FR powder 

Algol violet B paste 

Algol orange R (single strength) 

A Igol orange R powder 

Algol orange R paste 

Algol red B 

Algol red B paste 

A Igol red B powder 

Indanthrene claret B extra (single strength).. 

Indanthrene claret B extra paste 

Indanthrene red R (single strength) 

Indanthrene red R paste 

Indanthrene red BN (single strength) 

Indanthrene red BN extra paste 

Indanthrene red BN extra paste SF 

Indanthrene red BN extra paste fine 

Indanthrene red BN extra powder 

Indanthrene violet RN 

Indanthrene violet RN extra paste fine. . 
Algol olive R (single strength) 

Algol olive R powder 

Algol grey (single strength) 

Aleol grey B powder 

Indanthrene blue RS (single strength) 

Indanthrene blue RSP triple powder 

Indanthrene blue RS powder 

Indanthrene blue RSP powder 

Indanthrene blue RS double paste 

Indanthrene blue RS double paste 

Indanthrene blue RS triple for paper 

Algol blue K (single strength) 

Algol blue K powder 

Algol blue K paste 

Indanthrene blue 3G (single strength) 

Indanthrene blue 3G paste 

Indanthrene blue 3G powder 

Indmthrene blue 3GP powder 

Indanthrene blue 3G double paste 

Indanthrene blue 3G paste fine 

Indanthrene blue GGS (single strength) 

Indanthrene blue GGSP paste 

ladanthrene blue GGSP double paste 

Indanthrene GGSNP quintriple powder. 
Indanthrene blue GCD (single strength) 

Indanthrene blue GCD double paste 

Indanthrene blue GCD double paste 

Indanthrene blue GCD double paste fine. 

Indanthrene blue GCD powder 

Indanthrene blue GCD powder 

Indanthrene blue CC paste 

Indanthrene blue GC powder 



Manu- 
facturer. 



By... 
BAG. 



By. 



By. 
By. 



By. 
By. 



By. 
By. 



By. 
By. 



By. 
By. 



By. 
By. 



By. 
By. 



By. 



B.. 

By! 



By. 



By. 



Imports. 



Quan- 
tity. 

Pounds. 
10, 281 



280 



5,000 
'i,'i34' 



1,721 
14,825 



8,241 



6,358 



1,888 

""'99' 
2,730 



13,422 
"5,' 446' 



27,383 



1,000 



1,464 
""'i23 
'39,"999' 



528 



24,992 



2,830 



16,802 



5,620 



DYES IMPORTED FOR CONSUMPTION IN UNITED STATES, 1922. 85 
Table 15. — Imports of dyes, calendar year 1922 — Continued. 



Schultz 
No. 



Dye. 



Manu- 
facturer. 



Imports. 



Quan- 
tity. 



Invoice 
value. 



844 



847 



850 



851 
852 



853 
854 



855 



856 

858 



859 



861 

862 



863 
864 



Algol blue 3G (single strength) 

Algol blue 3G powder 

Algol blue 3G paste 

Algol blue 3G 

Algol green B (single strength) 

Algol green B powder 

In dan throne grey BP (single strength) 

Anthra grevB double paste 

Indanthrene yellow (single strength) 

Indanthrene yellow GP powder 

Indanthrene yellow G powder 

Indanthrene yellow GN extra paste 

Indanthrene yellow G paste 

Indanthrene yellow GN extra powder 

Indanthrene yellow G double paste fine . . 

Vat yellow R paste 

Helindone yellow IG 

Helindone yellow IG double paste 

Indanthrene blue WB 

Indanthrene blue WB powder 

Indanthrene blue WBO powder 

AUzarin direct blue B 

Alizarin irisol DR 

Alizarin irisol R powder 

AUzarin direct violet R 

Anthraquinone violet powder 

Alizarin \iridine DG, FF 

AU7,arin \'iridine FF paste 

Alizarin pure blue 

Alizarin sky blue 

Alizarin sky blue B powder 

AUzarin sky blue B cone 

AUzarin astrol 

Alizarin astrol B powder 

AUzarin saphirol B 

Alizarin saphirol WSA powder 

AUzarin saphirol WSA 

AUzarin saphirol WSA 

Alizarin saphirol WSA cone 

AUzarin saphirol B powder 

AUzarin saphirol B cone 

AUzarin saphirol B 

AUzarin saphirol SE powder 

AUzarin saphirol SE cone 

AUzarin saphirol SE cone. 75 per cent 

AUzarin saphirol SE 

AUzarin sapliirol WS powder 

Alizarin blue WS 

AUzarin blue WSA 

Alizarin light blue B 

AUzarin light blue SE cone 

HeUo fast blue SL cone 

Cyananthrol R 

Cyananthrol RXO powder 

Cyananthrol RXO 

Cyananthrol G 

Cyananthrol BGAOO 

Cyananthrol BGAOO, 90 per cent 

Cyananthrol BGAOO powder 

Cyananthrol 3G powder 

Cyananthrol BGA powder 

Cvananthrol BGA 

Cyananthrol BG AC 

Cyananthrol 3G 

Anthraouinone blue SR 

Anthrac|uinone blue SR extra powder 

AUzarin blue black 

Alizarin bine black B powder 

Alizarin bine black B powder 

Alizarin blue black BT powder 

Alizarin blue black B 

Alizarin blue black B 

Alizarin blue black 3B 

Alizarin blue black 3B powder 

Anthraquinone bine green 

Anthraquinone blue green BXO 

Anthraquinone blue green BXO powder. 
Anthraquinone green GXNO 

Anthraquinone green GXNO 

Anthraquinone green GXNO 

Anthraquinone GXNO powder 



By. 
By. 
By. 



By. 
B." 



By. 

M.. 
B.. 



By. 



By. 
By. 



By. 



1^: 
II: 

By. 
By. 

S.. 

By. 
By. 

Bv. 

s.". 
s.. 
By. 



By. 
M.. 
B.. 
By. 
Q.- 
By. 
By. 



Pounds. 
5,315 



20 



$5,322 



3,261 



500 
2,655 



1,233 
25, 910 



8,155 



46,596 



949 



20.648 



22,277 



1,611 



728 



55,614 



149, 256 



61,200 



25,536 



86 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 
Table 15. — Imports of dyes, calendar year 1922 — Continued. 



Dye. 



Manu- 
facturer. 



Imports. 



Quan- 
tity. 



Alizarin direct green G 

Alizarin cyanine green G extra powder. . 

Alizarin cyanine green G extra 

Alizarin cyanine green G extra 

Alizarin cyanine green G extra paste — 

Alizarin cyanine green E powder 

Alizarin cyanine green 3G powder 

Alizarin cyanine green E powder 

Alizarin cyanine green 3G extra powder. 

Alizarin cyanine green G E 

Alizarin direct green G 

Indanthrene brown (single strength) 

Indanthrene brown B double paste 

Anthra brown B double paste fine 

Cibanone brown V paste 

Cibanone brown B powder 

Cibanone brown B paste 10 per cent 

Cibanone brown V powder pat 

Algol brown B (single strength) 

Algol brown R paste 

Algol brown R powder 

Algol corinth R (single strength) 

Algol corinth R powder 

Algol corinth R paste 

Helindone brown AN (single strength) 

Helindone brown AN paste 

Indigo, synthetic 

Indigo LL powder 

Indigo solution BASF 20 per cent 

Indigo R powder 

Indigo pure 

Indigo pure BASF/RBN powder 

Indigo MLB/2B paste 

Indigo MLB/4B powder 

Ciba blu e 2B (single strength) 

Cibablue 2BD paste 16 per cent pat 

Ciba blue 2BD paste 16 per cent 

Ciba blue 2BD paste pat 

Ciba blue2B powder 

Ciba blue 2B powder pat 

Ciba blue G (single strength) 

Ciba blue G powder 

Ciba blue G powder pat 

Indigo KG (single strength) 

Indigo 6B powder 

Brilliant indigo BD paste 

Brilliant indigo B paste 

Brilliant indigo G paste 

Brilliant indigo 4G 

Brilliant indigo 4G powder 

Brilliant indigo 4G paste 

Ciba yellow G 

Ciba yellow G 10 per cent paste pat 

Ciba yellow G 10 per cent paste 

Ciba green 

Ciba green G paste 10 per cent pat 

HeUndone green O 

Helindone green G paste 

Helindone green G extra paste 

Helindone green G powder 

Alizarin indigo G 

Alizarin indigo G paste 

Alizarin indigo B 

Alizarin indigo B paste 

Alizarin indigo green B paste 

Alizarin indigo 3R 

Alizarin indigo 3R paste 

Alizarin indigo 3R powder 

Ciba grey 

Ciba grey G paste 

Ciba violet B (single strength) 

Ciba violet R powder pat 

Ciba violet B powder pat 

Ciba violet R paste 10 per cent pat 

Ciba violet B paste 10 per cent 

Helindone brown 211 (single strength) 

Helindone brown 2R powder 

Helindone brown 2R powder 

Helindone brown 2R paste 



ly- 

Q.. 

By. 
By. 
Q-. 
By. 
By. 

M.. 



gy- 

By. 



§y- 

By. 



BAC. 
B.... 
M.... 



By. 



Sy- 

By. 



By. 
By. 



Pounds. 
11,669 



11,860 



3,717 



16,778 



2,526 



25 



505 



205,582 



15,149 



3,711 



4,541 



1,000 
431 



5,844 



658 



5,099 



1,259 



4,305 



220 



131,661 



DYES IMPORTED FOR CONSUMPTION IN UNITED STATES, 1922. 87 
Table 15. — Imports of dyes, calendar year 1922 — Continued. 



Schiiltz 
No. 



Dye. 



Manu- 
facturer. 



Imports. 



Quan- 
tity. 



Invoice 
value. 



904 



906 



907 



910 



911 
913 



914 
915 
917 
918 



919 
920 



922 
923 



Helindone brown G (single strength) 

Helindone brown G powder 

Helindone brown G powder 

HeUndone brown G paste 

Helindone brown CR paste 

Thio indigo brown G paste 

Thio indigo scarlet G (single strength) 

Cibared G powder 

Ciba red G powder pat 

Ciba red G paste 

Ciba scarlet (single strength) 

Ciba scarlet G extra paste 20 per cent pat . 

Ciba scarlet G extra paste 

Ciba scarlet G extra powder 

Thio indigo scarlet 2G 

Thio indigo scarlet 2G paste 17 per cent . . 

Thio indigo scarlet 2G paste 20 per cent . . 

Helindone fast scarlet C paste 

Ciba red R paste 

Ciba red R powder 

Ciba red R paste 20 per cent pat 

Ciba red R paste 20 per cent 

Ciba red R paste 10 per cent pat 

HeUndone pink (single strength) 

Helindone pink BN paste 

Helindone rose AN paste 

Helindone pink AN extra 

Helindone pink AN 

Helindone pink BN 

HeUndone pink AN extra 

Thio indigo pink AN paste 

Thio indigo rose BN extra paste 

Thio indigo pink BN paste 

Ciba orange G paste 10 per cent pat 

HeUndone orange R (single strength) 

Helindone orange R powder 

HeUndone orange R paste 

HeUndone orange D paste 

Helindone fast scarlet R paste 

HeUndone red B paste 

HeUndone red 3B (single strength) 

Helindone red 3B paste 

Indanthrene red violet RH paste 

Helindone red 3B powder 

Thio indigo red 3B paste 

Ciba bordeaux B (single strength) 

Ciba bordeaux B powder pat 

Ciba bordeaux B paste 

Helidone violet (single strength) 

Helindone violet R paste 

HeUndone violet B paste 

Helindone violet R powder 

Diphenyl black base 

Ursol 

Ursol A 

Ursol 4R 

Ursol grey G 

Ursol grey B 

Ursol grey ALA 

Ursol D F 

Fur gray ALA 

Fuscamine G 



M.. 
M.. 
By. 

K.. 



Pounds. 
4,016 



3,178 



7,733 



55, 202 



25, 188 



17,695 



48,633 



58, 319 



110 
9,240 



33,621 



1,707 



200 
1,105 



25T 

2,929 . 
1,651 
32,819 54,138 



3,787 



2,116 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 

Table 15. — Imports of dyes, calendar year 1922 — Continued. 
UNIDENTIFIED ACID DYES. 



Dye. 



Acid alizarin gray G : 

Acid ponceau E 640 

Acid pure blue R supra 614 

Acid rhodamine 

Acid rhodamine R 

.' cid rhodamine R cone 

Acid rhodamine BG 

Acid rho iamine 3R cone 

Acid violet 4RNOO 

Alizarin cyanol 

Alizarin cyanole SB 

Alizarin cyanole SR 

Alizarin delphinol BS 

Alizarin direct violet ER 

Alizarin emeraldole G powder 

Alizarin rubinoi 

Alizarin rubinol GW 

Alizarin rubinol R 

Alizarin rubinol R powder 

Alizarin rubinol 5G powder 

Alizarin rubinol 3G powder 

Alizarin rubinol R cone. 40-100 

Alizarin rubinol GW powder 

Alizarin rubinol B powder 

Alizarin rubinol 

Alizarin rubinol GW powder 100 per cent . 

Alizarin rubinol G W 

Alizarin rubinol powder 3G 

Alizarin rubinol R 

Alizarin rubinol R 

Alizarin rubinol GW 

Alizarin uranole '-'B powder 

Alkali fa'^t green .3 Q 

Alphanol brown B 

Anthcs'nr- 

Anthc'sine 5B 

Anthf^sinpSB 

Azo acid black B 

Azo rhodine 2GN cone 

Biebrich acid violet 7B 

BlucBSJ 

Brilliant milling blue 

Brilliant milling blue 41424 

Brilliant milling blue B 

Brilliant pure yellow 6G extra 

Cloth fa^t green 

Cloth fast green G cone 

Cloth fast green B cone 

Cloth fast orange 

Cloth fast orange R cone 

Cloth fast orange R cone, pat 

Cloth fast orange G cone 

Cloth fast red 

Cloth fast red GR 

Cloth fast red GR cone 

Cloth fast red 3B cone 

Cloth fast violet 

Cloth fast violet R cone 

Cloth fast violet R cone, pat 

Cloth fast violet B cone 

Cloth fast yellow 

Cloth fast yellow G cone 

Cyanine green'G extra powder 

Erio carmine 2BC 512 

Erio fast cyanine SE 676 

Erio fast fiichsine BBL649 

Erio fast yellow R cone. 593 

Erio rubihe 2B cone. 646 

Erio violet BC 505 

Fast acid marine blue 

Fast acid marine blue HBB JC 

Fast acid marine blue HBBX 

Fast acid purple A 

Fast red GL base ^ 



Manu- 
facturer. 



C... 
C... 
BD. 
B... 
By.. 



Q-- 
By. 
By. 

By. 
By. 

Q-- 
Q.. 

I':- 

By. 
B.. 
Q-- 

By. 
Bv. 

c:.. 



B... 
B... 

M... 
I.... 
K... 
GrE. 



K.. 
C. 
By. 



I... 
Bv. 
G.. 
G.. 
G.. 
G.. 
G.. 
G.. 



B... 

Q... 
BD. 
GrE. 



Imports. 



Quan- 
tity. 



Pounds. 

7,555 

685 

5,130 

13, 275 



300 
130 



1,200 

120 

536 

26,457 



577 

613 

100 

2,504 



400 
441 
100 
503 

R72 



2,J35 
3,5:;6 



991 



1,542 



220 



1,499 

3,109 

440 

2,999 

no 

699 
2,500 
1,040 



DYES IMPORTED FOR CONSUMPTION IN UNITED STATES, 1922. 89 

Table 15. — Imports of dyes, calendar year 1922 — Continued. 
UNIDENTIFIED ACID DYES— Continued. 



Dye. 



Manu- 
facturer. 



Imports. 



Quan- 
tity. 



Invoice 
value. 



Fast wool blue BL 50: 100 cone 

Guinea fast red B L 

Kiton blue A cone 

Kiton fast red 

Kiton fast red R cone 

Kiton fast red R 

Kiton fast yellow 

Kiton fast yellow R cone 

Kiton fast yellow 3G cone , 

Kiton red 

Kiton red G . cone 

Kiton red S 

Kiton yellow 

Kiton yellow S , 

Kiton yellow S cone 

Marine blue patent LE 

Naphthalene black ABP , 

Naphthalene bine black P 

Naphthazineblue JEF 

Palatine light yellow 

Palatine light vellow RX 

Palatine light yellow BX , 

Palatine light yeUow 

Polar maroon VC 680 

Polar orange 

Polar orange R cone. 599 

Polar orange RC 599 , 

Polar red 

Polar red R cone. 597 

Polar red G . cone. 596 

Polar red RS cone. 606 

Polar red red shade 

Polar red B cone. 603 

Polar red blue shade 

Polar yellow 2G cone. 602 

Rosinduline GXF 

Scarlet RR , 

Soluble pure blue 

Sulphon cyanine OR extra 

Supramine black BR 

Supramine brown 

Supramine brown R 

Supramine brown R 

Supramine red 2G 

Supramine yellow 

Supramine yellow R 

Supramine yellow R 

Supramine yellow R 

Supramine yellow R 

Victoria navy blue B 

Violet B paste 10 per cent patent . . 
Wool black 

Wool black N 

Wool black N 

Wool fast blue 

Wool fast blue BL 

Wool fast blue GL 

Wool fast blue BQ 

Wool fast blue B L double cone 

Wonifa<;t, blueBL 

Wool fast yellow 3G 



By. 

A.. 
I... 



G.. 
G.. 
G.. 
G.. 
G.. 
G.. 
G.. 
K.. 
S... 

c 

By. 
By. 



By. 
B.. 

By. 



By 

K.. 
B.. 
O.. 



M.. 
Q.. 
By. 
By. 

I': 

B.. 



Poundf. 

9 '6 

200 

1,323 

1,212 



46,753 



5,402 



],.320 

50 

50 

250 

618 



7,312 
1,329 



14,926 



2,998 
1,604 
500 
451 
1 
249 
252 



6 
1,307 



271 

1,3?3 

200 



10,568 



52805—23 1 



90 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSIOlSr. 



Table 15. — Imports of dyes, calendar year 1922 — Continued. 
UNIDENTIFIED VAT COLORS. 



Dye. 



Manu- 
facturer. 



Imports. 



Quan- 
tity. 



Invoice 
value. 



Algol brown (single strength) 

Algol brown G powder 

Algol brown G powder 

Algol red extra paste 

Cibanone dark blue BS paste 20 per cent 

Ciba pink 

Ciba pink B paste 10 per cent 

Ciba pink B paste 20 per cent patent 

Ciba rose (single strength) 

Ciba rose B G powder 

Ciba rose BG paste 20 per cent patent 

Ciba rose BG pa4e 10 percent patent.... 

Ciba rose B G powder patent 

Helindone black JBB double paste 

HeUndone blue 3G powder X 10 

Helindone blue gi een DIB double paste 

Helindone golden orange DIu double paste . 
Helindone pink 

Helindone pink R extra paste 

Helindone pink B extra oaste 

Helindone pink A A paste 

Helindone pink R extra paste 

Helindone B extra paste 

Helindone pink R paste 

Helindone red DIBN extra paste 

Helindone violet 

Helindone violet DIRR extra paste 

Helindone violet IR extra paste 

Helindone yellow , 

Helindone yellow AGG paste 

Helindone yellow DAGC paste 

Helindone yellow DIG double paste 

Hydron bordeaux , 

Hydron Bordeaux R , 

Hydron Bordeaux B paste , 

Hydron Bordeaux B. , 

Hydron Bordeaux R double paste - 

Hydron Bordeaux B double paste 

Hydron Bordeaux R paste 

Hydron brown 

Hydron brown G naste 

Hydron brown OG 

Hydron brown OB , 

Hydron brown R paste 

Hydron brown G paste 

Hydron brown G 

Hydron brown R 

Hydron dark blue fsingle strength) , 

Hydron dark b'ue G powder X- .5 

Hydron dark blue GG paste 30 per cent. 
Hydron green 

Hydron green B 

Hydron green G paste 

Hydron green G double paste 

Hydron navy blue 

Hydron navy blue C paste 30 per cent. . 

Hydron navy blue C 

Hydron olive (single strength) 

Hydron olive <j 110 per cent 

Hydron olive GN 

Hydron olive G powder 

Hydron olKe R 

Hydron orange 

Hydron orange R paste 

Hydron orange R 

Hydron orange R paste 

Hydron pink 

Hydron pink FF paste 

Hydron pink FB paste 

Hydron pink FB 

Hydron pink FF 

Hydron ?iink FF 

Hydron sf arlet 

Hydron scarlet BB oaste 

Hydron s?arlet BBB paste 

Hydron scarlet BB 

Hydron scarlet 3B paste 



Q-. 
I... 



Pounds. 
3,344 



110 
651 



5,509 



200 

3,310 

40 

40 

40, 668 



$39, 796 



260 



374- 



356 



754 



801 



105 



320 



226 



160 



636 



191 



1,035 



20,250 



30,271 



6,733 



8,977 



DYES IMPOETED FOR CONSUMPTION IN UNITED STATES, 1922. 91 

Table 15. — Imports of dyes, calendar year 1922 — Continued. 
UNIDENTIFIED VAT COLORS— Continued. 



Dye. 



Manu- 
facturer. 



Imports. 



Quan- 
tity. 



Invoice 
value. 



Hydron violet (single strength) 

Hydron violet B powder 

Hydron violet R powder 

Hydron yellow (single strength) 

Hydron yellow N F paste 

Hydron yellow NF 

HeUndone yellow 3RN powder 

Indanthrene blue BCD 

Indanthrene blue BCD single paste 

Indanthrene blue BCD double paste fine 

Indanthrene blue BOS powder (single strength). 
Indanthrene blue DRS 

Indanthrene blue DRS double paste 

Indanthrene blue DGCD double paste 

Indanthrene blue RZ 

Inlanthrene blue RZ double paste 

Inlanthrene blue RZ 20 per cent paste 

Indanthrene brown 3R 

Indanthrene golden orange 

Indanthrene golden orange 3R paste 

Indanthrene golden orange 3R paste fine 

Indanthrene golden orange RN extra paste. . 
Indanthrene violet 

Indanthrene violet BN extra paste 

Indanthrene violet BN extra paste 

Indanthrene violet FRN paste 

Indanthiene violet BN extra paste fine 

In lanthrene violet BN extra 

Indanthrene red violet 

Indanthrene red \ iolet r. RN paste 

Indanthrene red violet K RN powder 

Indanthrene pink 

Indanthrene pink B 

Indanthrene pink B S 

Thio inligo pink 

Thio indigo rose R N extra paste 

Thio indigo pink RN extra paste 

Thio indigo scarlet 2B paste 20 per cent 

Vat brown CM solution 

Vat heliotrope 

Vat heliotrope R double paste 

Vat heliotrope R double paste fine 

Vat pink 



Vat pink B 

Vat pink R 

Vat pink R extra paste. 
Vat red BB solution. . . 
Vat yellow CG solution. 



Pounds . 
195 



2, 064 «2, 240 



239, 085 
80 



2,251 



474 
3,504 



11,690 



18,680 



9,l71 



6,977 



4,908 



42, 233 



UNIDENTIFIED MORDANT AND CHROME DYE.S. 



Acid chrome blue 2R 

Alizarin blue: 

AUzarin blue TR 

Ahzarin blue 6B 

Alizarin direct blue 

AUzarin fast gray 

Alizarin fast gray 2BL powder 

Ali/.arin fast gray 2BL powder 

Alizarin green soluble 15 oer cent paste 

Ali?arin geranole B powder 

Alizarin in ligo blue O paste 

Ahzarin fast blue 

Alizarin fast blue BHG 

Alijarin RW powder 

Anthracene blue 3GG extra 

Anthracene chromate bla-'k LC 

Anthracene chromate brown 

Anthracene chromate brown EB 

Anthracene chromate brown EB extra 

Anthracene chromate brown EB 

Anthracene chromate brown ED 

Anthracene chromate brown KB 90 per cent. 

Anthracene chrom;iti brown EE 

Anthra cyanine brown RL 

Anthra cyanine green 3CiL 



By. 

K.. 
M.. 



Q.... 
Bv... 
BAC. 
By... 
M.... 



By. 



C... 
C... 
C. 
L... 
C. 
By. 
By. 



750 



635 



2, 202 
110 
4 
50 



498 

20 

600 

12, .326 



92 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 



Table 15. — Imports of dyes, calendar year 1922 — Continued. 
UNIDENTIFIED MORDANT AND CHROME DYES— Continued. 



Dye. 



Anthrazurine G 

Brilliant alizarin green A 

Chromanetine blue S powder 

Chromate brown G cone 

Chromazurine 

Chromazurine P powder 

Chromazurine E powder 

Chromazurine G powder 

Chromazurine G 

Chromazurine G powder 

Chrome brilliant blue G 1039 

Chrome fast brown 

Chrome fast brown TV cone 

Chrome fast brown TV 

Chrome fast violet B cone 

Chrome printine red G powder 

Chrome yellow CR 1037 

Chromorhoduline 

Chromorhoduline 6GN powder 

Chromorhoduline BN powder 

Chromorhoduline 6GN extra 

Chromoxane blue R 

Chromoxane brilliant blue 

Chromoxane brilliant blue 

Chromoxane brilliant blue G 

Eriof hrome black 

Erio"hroDie black 

Eriochrome black E 965 

Eriochrome blue S 955 

Eriochrome bordeaux B 916 

Eriochrome brown ROS 933 

Eriochrome flavine A cone. 1015 

Eriochrome geranol R cone. 991 

Eriochrome green 0.931 

Eriochrome red 

Eriochrome red G 978 

Eriochrome red PEI 1035 

Eriochrome violet 

Eriochrome violet B 918 

Eriochrome violet 3B 941 

Eriochrome yellow 6U 914 

Fast chrome green 

Fast chrome green B powder 

Fast chrome green B powder 

Fast mordant blue B 

Lanasol blue 

Lanasol blue B 

Lanasol blue B patent 

Lana=ol bro' n 2R type patent : 

Lanasol orange 

Lanasol orange G cone, patent 

Lanasol orange 2R cone, patent 

l^eather black BC 

Metachrome blue black 2BX 

Motachrome olive 2G 

Metachrome olive brovn 

Metachrome olive brown G powder. 

Metachrome olive brown G powder. 

Metachrome olive brown G paste. .. 

Modern black N powder 

Modern grey 

Modern grey CVX powder 

Modern grey RC powder 

Monochrom e brov n 

Monochrome brown E 286 per cent.. 

Monochrome bro'vn E 100 per cent.. 

Monochrome brown BX 

Mounsey olive bro ■ n G powder 

J.'aphthachrome azurine 

Napht hachrome azurine B 

Naphthaohrome azurine B cone 



Manu- 
facturer. 



K.... 
RHS. 
DH.. 
I 



DH. 
DH. 
DH. 
I.... 
I.... 
G... 



I.... 
I.... 
I.... 
DH. 
G... 



DH. 
DH. 
DH. 
By.. 



By. 
By. 



DH. 
Q.. 
M... 



A... 
Q... 
A... 
DH. 



DH. 
DH. 



K.. 
K.. 

Q.. 



Imports. 



Quan- 
tity. 



Pounds. 

MO 

10 

441 

198 

4,589 



3?2 
4,300 



1,2"6 
100 
110 
440 



1 
2,256 



5,366 



2,500 
1,168 
17,,5.'i5 
12, 293 
1,106 
1,109 
5,714 



7,997 



1,109 



440 



1, 151 
10,006 



772 
2,645 



64 

3,251 

610 

5,070 



110 
220 



4,362 



500 
2, 535 



DYES IMPORTED FOR CONSUMPTION IN UNITED STATES, 1922. 93 

Table 15. — Imports of dyes, calendar year 1922 — Continued. 
UNIDENTIFIED MORDANT AND CHROME DYES— Continued. 



Dye. 



Manu- 
facturer. 



Imports. 



Quan- 
tity. 



Omega chrome brown 

Omega chrome brown G cone... 

Omega chrome brown PB cone. 

Omega chrome brown P cone. . . 

Omega chrome red B cone 

Omega chrome brown PB 

Naphto chrome violet 

Naphto chrome violet R cone. . . 

Naphto chrome violet R 

Omega chrome red B cone 

Pure blue for printing 

Salicine Bordeaux RF 

Salicine orange 2R 

Salicine red G 

tlltramarine green in balls 



Pounds. 
8,570 



1,001 

2,205 

300 

400 

85 

220 



UNIDENTIFIED DIRECT DYES. 



Aminogene blue RN cone 

Benzo Bordeaux 6B 

Benzo bronze E 

Benzo elirome black blue B .' 

Benzo chrome brown 

Benzo chrome brown G 

Benzo chrome brown 5G 

Benzo copper blue 2B 

Benzo dark brown extra 

Benzo fast black 

Benzo fast black L 

Benzo fast black L 

Benzo fast blue 

Benzo fast blue EFL 

Benzo fast blue G 

Benzo fast blue L 

Benzo fast bordeaux 

Benzo fast Bordeaux 6BL 

Benzo fast Bordeaux 6BL 

Benzo fast brown 

Benzo fast brown GL 

Benzo fast brown 3GL 

Benzo fast brown 3GL 90 per cent 

Benzo fast brown RL 

Benzo fast grey 

Benzo fast heliotrope 

Benzo fast heliotrope BL 

Benzo fast heliotrope 2RL 

Benzo fast heliotrope 4BL 

Brilliant benzo fast violet B 

Brilliant benzo fast violet B 

Brilliant benzo violet B 

Brilliant benzo fast violet BL cone. 50 per cent. 

Brilliant benzo fast violet BL 

Brilliant benzo fast violet 2R 

Brilhant benzo fast violet 2RL 

Benzo fast orange 2RL 

Benzo fast rubine BL 

Benzo light blue 4G L 

Benzo light Bordeaux 6BL 

Benzo light brown 

Benzo light brown GL 

Benzo light brown 2GL 

Benzo light brown 3G L 

Benzo light grey BL 

Benzo light yellow RL 

Benzo red 12B 

Benzo rhoduline red 

Benzo rhoduline red B 

Benzo rhoiluline red 3B 

Brilliant benzo green B 

Brilliant benzo violet 

Bri!liant benzo violet 2R 

Brilliant benzo violet B 



I... 
Bv. 
By. 
By. 



Q.. 

Bv- 
By. 



Q.. 

By. 



By. 
Bv. 
By. 



Bv. 
Q.. 



By. 
By. 

Sy- 

By. 



By. 
By. 
K.. 
Q.. 
By. 

By. 
K.. 
By. 
Bv. 
BV. 

§y- 

By. 



By. 

gy- 
By. 

gy- 

By. 
By. 



gy- 

By. 
By. 



gy- 

By. 



220 
415 
110 
513 
3,197 



1,391 
1,100 
2,989 



1,771 



2,765 
'3," 547' 



220 
12,407 



769 

209 

275 

53 



1,342 

441 

8, 053 

2,702 



1,561 
965 



94 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 



Table 15.— Imports of dyes, calendar year 1922 — Continued. 
UNIDENTIFIED DIRECT DYES— Continued. 



/ 


Manu- 
facturer. 


Imports. 


Dye. 


Quan- 
tity. 


Invoice 
value. 


Brilliant copper blue GW 


A 

M 


Pounds. 

100 

1 

3,862 




Brilliant dianil green G 




Brilliant fast blue 


$11, 250 


Brilliant fast blue B 


By 


Brilliant fast blue 3BX 


By 






Brilliant fast blue 2G, 60 per cent 


By 






Brilliant fast blue 2G 


By. .... 






Brilliant fast blue 2G 


Q..:.... 






Brilliant fast blue 2G 


L 






Brilliant indigo 4B powder 


Q 


2 
7,490 
5,104 
4,914 




Brilliant sky blue 8G extra 




Chirago red III 




Chloramine brilKant red 


13, 273 


Gill iramine brillian t red 8B 


S 


Chlnramine brilliant red 8B 


I 






Chloramine brilliant red SB cone 


s 






Chloramine brilliant red 8BI cone 


s 






Chloramine brown G 


P:::;:: 


262 
1,322 
12,898 




Chlorantine fast black B cone 




Chlorantine fast blue 




Chlirantine fast blue 2GL cone 


I 








7,827 


24,479 


Chlirantinefast Bordeaux BL cone 


I 




I 






Chlorantine fast Bordeaux 2BL 


I 










7,715 


11,607 


Chlirantine fast brown RL 


I 


C'llorantine fast brown 3GL 


I 






I 








I : 






Chlorantine fast brown 3GL cone, pat 

Chlorantine fast orange TRL 


I 






I 


1 
11,022 




Chlorantine fast red . ^ 






I 




Chi irantine fast red 7BL cone 


I 










4,299 




Chlorantine fast ruhine RL 


I . 




Chlorantine fast violet 


I........ 








18, 188 


47,520 




I .. 




Chlorantine fast ^ iilet BL cone ... 


I ... . 








I 






Chlorantine fast ^i^let 4BL cone ... 


I 








I 






Chlorantine fast violet 4BL cone, .pat 


I 








I 






Chlorantine fast vi ^l^t 2RL pat 

Chlorantine fast violet 2RL c mc. pat 

Chlorantine fa^'t yellow 


I 






I 








9,808 


21, 821 


C'll )rantine fast yell iw 4GL cone 

C'll rantine fast ypUow RL 


I.. 




I . . .. 






Chi irantine fast yellow RL cone 


T 






Chi irazol fast blaik N ■ 


BD 

BD 

BD 

A 

DH 


.50 

500 

300 

1,000 

110 

75 




Chi oraz 1 fast red K 




Chloraz A vi ilet R 








Chromonurpiirine JJ powder 






184 


CittinpinkGN 


B 




CittonpinkBN 


B 






Cotton pink B extra 


B 






Cupranil brown 




2,975 




C'lpranil brown G cone 


I . .. 




Cunranil brown R cone 


I 






Cuteh brown RR cone 


S 

C 

C 

C 

C 


2,901 
1,500 
363 
1,005 
4,152 
9,418 




Diamine azo Bordeaux B 




Diamine azo orange 2R 




Diamine brilliant rubine S . 




Diamine brilliant scarlet S.. . . .... 






15,253 


Diamine cateehine GR cone 


C 






C 






Diamine catechine G . 


c 








c 






Diamine catechine G 160 per cent 


c 







DYES IMPORTED FOR CONSUMPTION IN UNITED STATES, 1922. 95 

Table 15. — Imports of dyes, calendar year 1922 — Continued. 
UNIDENTIFIED DIRECT DYES— Continued. 



Dye. 



Manu- 
facturer. 



Imports. 



Quan- 
tity. 



Invoice 
value. 



Diamine dark blue B 

Diamine fast black 

Diamine fast black X 

Diamine fast black XN 

Diamine fast blue 

Diamine fast blue FFB 

Diamine fast blue GC 

Diamine fast Bordeaux 6BS 

Diamine fast brown 

Diamine fast brown R 

Diamine fast brown G 

Diamine fast brown GB 

Diamine fast brown 3G 

Diamine fast orange 

Diamine fast orange ER 

Diamine fast orange ER 

Diamine fast orange ER 

Diamine fast orange EG 

Diamine fast rose BBF 

Diamine heli trope G 

Diamine orange 

Diamine orange B 

Diamine orange F 

Diamine orange G 

Diaminogene sky blue 

Diaminogene sky blue 3B 

Diaminogene sky blue N 

Dianil brown 

Dianil brown 3G0 

Dianil chrome brown G 

Dianil fast blue G L 

Dianil fast grey BBL 

Diazamine blue 

Diaiamine blue BR cone 

Diazamine blue BR 

Diazanil pink B 

Diazanil scarlet 4B A 

Diazo blue B 

Diazo Bordeaux 

Diazo Bordeaux 

Diazo Bordeaux 7B 

Diazo brilliant green 

Diazo brilliant green 3G 

Diazo brilliant green 3G 

Diazo brilliant orange 

Diazo brilliant orange GR extra 

Diazo brilliant orange 5G extra 

Diazo brilliant orange G 

Diazo brilliant red B 

Diazo brilliant scarlet 

Diazo brilliant scarlet B 

Diazo brilliant scarlet B extra 

Diazo brilliant scarlet P4B 

Diazo brilliant scarlet 2BL extra cone. 

Diazo brilliant scarlet G extra , 

Diazo brilliant scarlet 2BL extra 

Diazo brilliant scarlet SBL extra 

Diazo brilliant scarlet GB extra , 

Diazo brilliant scarley 6B extra 

Diazo brilliant scarlet 6B extra 

Diazo brown 

Diazo brown 3G 

Diazo brown NR 

Diazo brown 3RB 

Diazo fast bordeaux BL 

Diazo fast green BL 

Diazo fast ^ iolet , 

Diazo fast \ iolet BL , 

Diazo fast violet 3RL 

Diazo fast yellow 

Diazo fast yellow 2G 

Diazo fast yellow G 

Diazo^cne orange 

Diazopen" orange GR extra , 

Diazo^ene orange GR 



Q.. 

I': 

c. 
c. 
c. 



By. 



By. 
K.. 



By. 
Q-. 
By. 



By. 
By- 

II: 

Q-- 



By. 

By. 
By. 
By. 



By. 



By. 



Pounds. 

57 

4,000 



1,219 
3,187 



8,719 



112 

441 

1,323 



2,924 



1,150 



1 

1 

11,378 



110 
1,000 
1,380 
2,451 



859 
"734' 



1,100 
10,913 



1,744 



538 
22 
815 



129 



125 



96 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 



Table 15. — Imporls of dyes, calendar year 1922 — Continued. 
UNIDENTIFIED DIRECT DYES— Continued. 





Manu- 
facturer. 


Imports. 


Dye. 


Quan- 
tity. 


Invoice 
value. 


Diazogene red B 


K 

By 

By 


PouTids. 
300 
143 
220 
841 




Diazo geranine B extra 




Diazonine blue B 




Diazo indigo blue 


$1 422 


Diazo iadiijo blue 4GL extra 


By 




Diazo indigo blue 4GL extra 


Q ..:.:. 






Diazo indigo blue M 


By 






Diazo light green BL 


By 

By 


198 

126 

6,172 




Diazo light \iolet BL 




Diazo phenyl blaclf 




Diazo phenyl black V 360 


G 




Diazo phenyl black 360 


G 






Diazo rubine B 


By 


2, 358 
14, 067 




Diazo sky blue 


17 854 


Diazo sky blue B 


By 




Diazo sky blue B 


Q. 






Diazo sky blue B 


K 






Diazo sky blue B powder 


By 






Diazo sky blue 3G 


Bv 






Diazo violet R 


G 


84 

2,500 

1,609 

610 




Diphenyl dark green BC 235 




Diphenyl fast blue FB supra 379 








Diphenyl fast gray BC 254 


G 






Y 






DirectblueRB 


L 

I 

L 

L 

L 

L 

L 

I 

L 

I 


10 

794 

50 

10 

225 

10 

25 

500 

25 

1,102 

5,129 








Direct chrome brown B 








Direct fast red 8BL 




Direct fast violet B . 




DirectredSB 




Direct safranine RW cone 




Fast cotton red 4BS extra 








Naphthamine blue 






K 




Naphthamine blue JE 52.5 per cent 


K 










550 




Naphthamine fast black KSG extra 


K 






K 






Naphthamine fast blue B pat 


K 

K 


250 
220 
630 




Naphthamine fast brown BL 




Naphthamine fast green 






k 




Naphthamine fast green G 


K 








K 

K 


325 

50 

375 




Naphthamine fast violet FB 






724 


Naphtharrine light blue R 


K 






K 






Naphthamine light blue FF 


K.. 








K 






Naphthamine liuht blue 2B 


K 










1,125 




Naphthanine light brown D . . 


k... . 






K 






Naphthamine light green G 


K 

K 


125 
100 
750 








Naphthamine light red 






K 




Naphthamine light red 6B 


K 








K 


625 
8,709 




Naphthogene blue 


14, 126 


Naphthogene blue B 


A 




Naphthogene blue 2R 


A 








A 






Naphthogene indigo blue B 


A 

B 


25 

3,000 

600 




Oxamine afid brown G 




Oxamine black 




Oxan ine bla'^k BBNX 


B 




OxaiTine black RX 


B 








B 


1 
217 




Oxamine fast pink 






B 




Oxamine fast pink BX cone 


B 







DYES IMPORTED FOR CONSUMPTION IN UNITED STATES, 1922. 97 

Table 15. — Imports of dyes, calendar year 1922 — Continued. 
UNIDENTIFIED DIRECT DYES— Continued. 



Dye. 



Manu- 
facturer. 



Imports. 



Quan- 
tity. 



Invoice 
value. 



Oxamine light blue G 

Oxamine light brown G 

Oxy dia !.ino;-ene ED 

Para blue 2RX 

Para brown V extra 

Pluto black 

Pluto black A extra 

Pluto black A 

Pluto black G 

Pluto brown 

Pluto brown GG 

Pluto brown 2G 

Pluto brown R 

Polyphenvl blue 

Polvphenvl blue GC103 

Polyphenyl blue GNH cone. 376 

Polyphenyl yellow RC 115 

Pyran ine oran'je R 

Pyrazol fast brown 

Pyrazol fast brown B 

Pyra'ol fast brown D 

Rosarithrene 

Rosanthrene R 

Rosanthrene R cone, pat 

Rosanthrene GWL extra 

Rosanthrene RN cone, pat 

Rosanthrene BN cone 

Rosanthrene RN cone 

Rosanthrene B cone, pat 

Rosanthrene B cone 

Rosanthrene Bordeaux 

Rosanthrene Bordeaux B cone, pat 

Rosantherne Bordeaux B cone 

Rosanthrene fast red 7B L 

Rosanthrene fast red 7B L cone 

Rosanthrene fast Bordeaux 

Rosanthrene fast Bordeaux 2BL cone 

Rosanthrene fast Bordeaux BN pat. cone. 

Rosanthrene fast Bordeaux RN pat. cone. 

Rosanthrene fast Bordeaux 

Rosanthrene oran?e 

Rosanthrene oran.ce R cone, pat 

Rosanthrene orange R cone 

Rosanthrene orange R pat 

Rosanthrene rose 

Rosanthrene rose 

Rosanthrene rose cone, pat 

Solairine blue FF 

Thiazine brown 

Thiazine red RXX 

Triazol oranee G cone 

Trisulphon bronze B cone 

Zambesi black 

Zambesi black D 

Zambesi black F 

Zambesi black V 



B.. 
B.. 
C... 
By. 
By. 



By. 
By- 
By. 



By. 
By. 
By. 



Pounds. 
110 
oOO 
200 
10 
100 
1,084 



2,696 



2,402 



1,797 

220 

3,553 



7.823 



5, 179 



1,431 



1,118 



500 

122 

10 

2,822 

2,002 

3, 000 



1897 



1,622 



26, { 



19,674 



4,22t 



1,625 



UNIDENTIFIED SULPHUR DYES. 



Cross dye green 

Cross dye green B 

Cross dye green 2G cone 

Eclipse brown 

Eclipse brown 3G K 366 

Eclipse brown 3G K .366 

Eclipse brown BK 371 

Eclipse brown B K 371 | Y 

Eclipse brown B K 371 \ G 

Immedial brilliant green G extra 300 per cent ' C. 

Immedial direct blue B i C 

Immedial indigene GCL cone i C 

Immedial \'iolet C I C 



BD. 
BD. 



27,834 



35,991 



2 
551 
200 
600 



$26,321 



16,689 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 

Table 15. — Imports of dyes, calendar year 1922 — Continued. 
UNIDENTIFIED SULPHUR DYES— Continued. 



Dye. 



Katigene kaki G extra 

Katigene brilliant green 3G '. 

Pyrogene brown RS yellow shade cone. , 

Pyrogens cutch 2R extra cone 

Pyrogene cutch brown 2R extra 

Pyrogene violet brown X cone 

Pyrogene yellow brown RS cone 

Sulphur green 

Sulphur green B 

Sulphur green 2G cone 

Thiogene brown GR 

Thiogene new blue 

Thiogene new blue 2RL 

Thiogene new blue 2RL cone 

Thiogene new blue 2 i; L extra cone . 

Thionone black 6R 

Thional biilUant blue 

Thlonal briUiant blue 6B cone , 

Thional brilUant blue 6B cone 

Thional brilliant green 

Thional brilliant green GG cone 

Thional green GG 

Thional brown , 

Thionol brown Q 

Thionol brown GD , 

Thionol brown R 

Thionol green DY , 

Thionol orange G 

Thionol yellow 

Thionol yellow 3RD 

Thionol yellow GR 

Thionone IsabeUina 



Manu- 
facturer. 



I... 
I... 
I... 
I... 



BD. 
BD. 

M... 



M.... 
M.... 
M.... 
RHS. 



BD. 
BD. 
BD. 
BD. 

S.... 



BD. 
BD. 
Q.. 



Imports. 



Quan- 
tity. 



Pounds. 

551 

441 

1,243 

551 

1,146 

1,102 

2, 756 

24, 872 



7,560 
1,136 



100 
3,757 



3,647 
'48 "756' 



3,890 
..2,121 
26,682 



100 



UNIDENTIFIED BASIC DYES. 



Acridine fast blue FFB 

Blue brilliant pure 8G extra 

Brilliant rhoduline blue 

Brilliant rhoduhne blue R 

Brilliant rhoduhne blue R 

Brilliant rhoduhne red B 

Brilliant violet R paste 1:8 

Cresyl fast violet 

Cresyl fast violet BB 

Isamine "blue 

Isamine blue 8B .• 

Isamine blue R 

Isamine blue R 

Janus black G .' 

Methylene green I A 

New ethyl blueBS 

Rhodam'ine 

Rhodamine 6 GH. cone 

Rhodamine 6GH 

Rhodamine 6G H extra 

Rhoduline sky blue 3G 

Saffranine T. S. extra highly cone. 

SoUd Bordeaux BL 

Thionine blue gold 

Thionine green GG 

Violet 

Violet PDH powder 

Violet PDN powder 



CI. 
By. 



By. 
Q.. 
By. 
By. 



I... 
I... 
I... 
By. 
B.. 

By. 

M.. 



DH. 
DH. 



550 

152 

2,991 



295 

624 

26 



1 

4 

120 

2,822 



697 

1 

763 

50 

2,650 

550 



DYES IMPORTED FOR CONSUMPTIOlSr IN UNITED STATES, 1922. 99 

Table 15. — Imports of dyes, calendar year 1922 — Continued. 
UNIDENTIFIED SPIRIT-SOLUBLE AND COLOR-LAKE DYES. 



Dye. 



Autol orange 23211 powder 

Black base S 

Hansa green O Pdr : . . . 

. Hansa rubine G 

Helio Bordeaux 

Helio Bordeaux BL powder 

Helio Bordeaux BL paste 

Helio Bordeaux B L paste 1 :5 By. 

Helio fast violet AL By. 

Indigene blue RW cone I... 

Lithol fast orange I 

Lithol fast orange R powder B . . 



Manu- 
facturer. 



By- 



Lithol fast orange B powder . 
Lithol fast yellow GG extra lumps. 

Lithol rubine 3B powder 

Oil red B powder 

Oil yeUow 

Oil yellow R 

Oil yellow R powder 

Parme soluble in spirit 

Spirit orange S 

Typophor black FB 

Typophor yellow FR 



Imports. 



Quan- 
tity. 



Pounds. 
1 

15 

100 

25 

5,600 



740 

110 

1,400 



500 
20 
25 
60 



Invoice 
value. 



UNIDENTIFIED, UNCLASSIFIED, SPECIAL DYES. 



All other aniline dyes 

Artificial silk black G cone. 50-100. 

Bron7e blue for laundry 

Ink blue 

InkblueBITN 

Ink blue special 

Ink blue special 

Gallo indigo blue S 

Japan black 

Japan black extra 

Japan black extra 

Japan black MBG 

Neolan blue 

Neolan blue B cone 

Neolan blue G cone 

Neolan green B cone 

Neolan grey B cone 

Neolan red" B 

Neolan violet R 

Neolan yellow 

Neolan yellow G cone 

Neolan yellow R cone 

New claret RX 

Nlgrogene B 

Paper fast Bordeaux B 

Primal black 

Radio yellow R 

Radio red G 

Radio brovsrn 

Radio brown B 

Radio brown S 

Radio black 

Radio black SB 

Radio black ST 

Rapid fast brovim B powder 

Rapid fast blue B powder 

Rapid fast orange KG paste 

Rapid fast red 

Rapid fast red B paste 

Rapid fast red BB paste 

Rapid fast red G L paste 

Rapid fast red GE paste 

Rapid fast red GZ paste 

Washmarine 



GrE. 
I.... 
0... 
By.. 



I... 
I... 
B.. 
B.. 
By. 

A.. 
C. 
C. 



C... 
C... 
GrE. 
GrE. 
GrE. 



GrE. 
GrE. 
GrE. 
GrE. 
GrE. 



220 

400 

6,105 



399 
851 



330 



no 

110 
220 
220 
440 



150 
200 
3,063 
1,000 
20 
20 
40 



100 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 
Index to Table 15. 



Dye. 


Schultz 
No. 


Page. 


Dye. 


Schultz 
No. 


Page. 


Aceto purpurine SB 


35S 
159 


76 
75 
88 
76 
79 
75 
91 
82 
78 
75 
75 
88 
88 
88 
88 
88 
78 
78 
78 
79 
88 
78 
80 
98 
79 
80 
75 
85 
81 
84 
84 
84 
84 
PC 
86 
86 
85 
84 
84 
84 
90 
84 
84 
84 
84 
84 
84 
91 
83 
85 
85 
83 
83 
83 
83 
83 
91 
83 
83 
85 
85 
85 
85 
75 
83 
83 
86 
86 
88 
88 
85 
91 
86 
85 
88 
88 
91 
91 
91 
91 


Alizarin g^een CE, V 


808 
808 
89 1 
893 
895 


84 


Acid alizarin black R 




84 


Acid alizarin gray G 


Alizarin indigo B 


86 


Acid antliracene red 5BL 


400 
582 
212 


Alizarin indigo G 


86 


Acid blue RBF 


Alizarin indigo 3R. . 


86 


Acid brown RN 


Alizarin indigo blue G 


91 


Acid chrome blue 2R 


Alizarin indigo green B 


891 
852 
85« 
858 
798 
779 
779 
780 
780 
785 
780 
780 


86 


Acid c vanine B F 


705 
524 
265 
293 


Alizarin irisol B 


85 


Acid magfinta 


Alizarin light blue RE 


85 


Acid in'Hin<; black B 


Alizarin light blue B 


85 


Acid milling red G 




83 


Acid ponceau E 




83 


Acid pure blue R 




Alizarin orange A, R 


83 


Acid rhodamine BG 




Alizarin red IWS 


83 


Acid rhodamine R 




Alizarin red S 


83 


Acid rhodamine 3R 




Alizarin red SDG 


83 


Acid violet 4BN 


527 
527 
527 

518 


Alizarin red S WB 


83 


Acid violet 4BNS 




83 


Acid violet N 


Alizarin rubinol 3G, 5G 


88 


Acid vi-^let 6BN 


Alizarin rubinol G W 




83 


Acid violet 4RNOO 


Alizarin rubinol R, B 




88 


Acid violet 7B (B) 


534 
603 


Alizarin saphirol B 


858 
858 
858 
855 
855 


85 






8.5 


Acridine fast blue FFB 


Alizarin saphirol VYS, WSA 


85 


Acridine red B, 3B 


5fi9 
602 
217 
844 
839 
822 
819 
821 
820 


85 






85 


Agalma black lOB 




88 


Algol blue 3G 




854 
536 


85 


Algol blue K 


Alkali blue 3R 


78 


Algol brilliant orange FR 


Alkali fast green 3G 


88 


Algol brilliant red 2B 


Alphanol brown B 




88 


Algol brilliant violet 2B 


Aminoirene blue RN 




93 


Algol brilliant violet R 


Anthoiine 3B 




88 


Algol brown G 


Antho^ine 5B 




88 


Alsjol brown R 


869 
870 
847 
833 
824 
825 


Anthra brown B 


867 


80 


Algol corinth R 


Anthra azurine G 


f2 


Algol green B... . . 


Anthracene blue W B 


800 
800 


83 


Algol olive R. . . ... 


Anthracene blue WG 


83 


Algol orange R. . . . . 


Anthracene blue 3GG 


91 


Aleol red B 


Anthracene blue WR 


789 
790 
790 
782 


83 


Algol red extra 


Anthracene blue S W R 


83 


Algol red FF 


819 
816 
819 
823 
811 
817 


Anthracene blue SWGG 

\nthracene brown RD 


83 


Algol red 5G 


83 


Also) red R 


Anthracene chro'nate black LC. 


91 


Algol violet B 


Anthracene chromate brown 
EB, ED, EE 






Aleol yellow 3G 


91 




Anthracyanine brown RL 




91 


Alizarin R W 


Anthracyanine green 3GL . . 




91 




784 
856 
856 
774 
774 
778 
• 774 
804 


Anthracyanine S 


627 
91 
759 
759 
848 
861 
863 
864 
864 
853 
493 
493 
493 
493 
494 
555 


81 


Alizarin astrol 


Anthracyl chrome green 

Anthra lavoneG 


74 


Alizarin astrol B 


82 




Anthraiiavone GC 


82 


Alizarin black S 


Anthra gre v B 


85 


Alizarin synthetic 


Anthra uinoneblueSR 

Anthra uinoje blue green BXO 
Antha uinone GXN 


85 


Alizarin black WX .... 


85 


Alizarin blue S 


85 


Alizarin blue TR,6B 


Anthra uinone green GXNO — 


85 




804 
804 
858 
862 
862 
862 
260 
797 
799 
S65 
865 


85 






77 


Alizarin blue WS; WSA 




77 






77 


Alizarin blue black BT 




77 


Alizarin blue black 3B. 




77 


Alizarin chrome green A.. . 


Aurine yiS 


79 


Alizarin claret R 


Autol orange 


99 




Autolred BL 


56 
106 


74 


Alizarin cyanine green E,GE. .. 


Autol red RLP 


74 




88 






63 
672 
141 
147 


74 


Alizarin delphinol BS 




Azo carmine GX 


82 


Alizarin direct blue B 


851 


Azo flavine 


75 


Alizarin direct blue. 


Azo fucshinc S 


75 




865 
852 




88 




Benzo Bordeaux 6B 




93 








93 






Bcnzo chrome black blue B 




93 


Alizarin fast gray 2BL. 




Benzo chrome brown G 




f3 


Alizarin fast blue BHG. 




Benzo chrome brown 5G 




83 










?3 


Alizarin green soluble 




Benzo dark brown 




98 



DYES IMPORTED FOR CONSUMPTION IN UNITED STATES, 1922. 
Index to Table 15 — Continued. 



101 



Dye. 



Benzo fast black L 

Benzofast blue FFl, G, L 

Benzo fast blue B 

Benzo fast blue 2GL 

Benzo fast blue 4GL 

Benzofast Bordeaux 6BJ^ 

Benzofast bro^vn GL, 3GL 

Benzo fast brown RL 

Benzo fast £;rey 

Benzo fast hdiotrope BL 

Benzo fast heliotrope 413L 

Benzo fast heliotrope 2RL 

Benzo fast orange 2RL 

Benzo fast rubine 2RL 

Benzo fast rubine BL 

Benzo fast red 

Benzo fast rei 8BL 

Benzo fast yeUow 4GL 

Benzo fast yellow RL 

Benzo light blue 40 L 

Beijzo light Bordeaux 6BL 

Benzo light brown GL 

Benzo light grey BL 

Benzo light yellow RL 

Benzo orange R 

Benzo oUve 

Benzopurpurine 4B 

Benzo red 12B 

Benzo rho luline red B 

Benzo rho luline red 3B 

Benzo violet 

Benzo violet O 

Benzyl green B 

Biebrich aci 1 violet 7B 

Black base S 

Blue BSt 

Blue briUiant pureSG 

Brilliant acid blue FF 

Brilliant aci 1 blue V 

Brillian t alizarin blue G 

Brilliant aUzirin green A 

Brilliant azurine 50 

BriUiant benzo fast \iolet B, BL. 
Brilliant benzo fast violet 2R, 

2riL 

Brilliant ben/.o irreen B 

Brilliant benzo violet B 

Brilliant benzo violet 2R 

Brilliant chrome blue P 

Brilliant congo R 

Brilliant copper blue G W 

Brilliant cresyl blue 2B 

Brilliant croceine OF 

Brilliant delpliine blue B 

Brilliant delpbine blue BS 

Brilliant dianil green G 

Brilliant fast blue B 

Brilliant fast blue 2G 

Brilliant fast blue 3BX 

Brilliant green 

Brilliant indigo 4B powder 

Brilliant indigo B 

Brilliant indigo G 

Brilliant indigo 40 

Brilliant milling blue B 

Brilliant milling blue 

Brilliant phosphine 5G 

Brilliant pure yellow 6G 

Brilliant rose G 

Brilliant rhoduline blue R 

Brilliant rhoduline red B 

Brilliant sky blue 8G 

Brilliant suiphon red 

Brilliant suiphon red B 

Brilliant suiphon red lOB 

Brilliant violet R paste 

Brilliant wool blue 

Bron'.e blue for laundry 

Cannelle ALX 



Schultz 
No. 



456 
456 
456 



332 
332 
296 
296 



340 
446 
363 



326 
326 
503 



545 
543 
667 



416 



62fi 
370 



621 
227 
622 
622 



499 



885 
886 
887 



606 
'572 



182 
182 
182 



562 
'606 



Page. 



86 



Dye. 



Capri blue GON 

Carbi le fast black OF 

Chicago red III 

Chloramine blue BXR 

Chloramine blue 30 

Chloramine brown G 

Chloramine briUiant red 8B. 

Chloramine fast red F 

Chloramine red B 

Chloramine red 3B 

Chloramine red 8BS, 8B 

Chloramine sky blue A 

Chloramine yellow GO 

Chlorantine fast black B 

Chlorantine fast blue RL 

Chlorantine fast Bordeaux 2BL. 
Chlorantine fast brown 30L. .. 

Chlorantine fast brown RL 

Chlorantine fast orange TRL. . 

Chlorantine fast red 7BL 

Chlorantine fast rubine RL — 

Chlorantine fast violet B L 

Chlorantine fast violet 4B L 

Chlorantine fast violet 2RL 

Chlorantine fast yellow 4GL... 

Chlorantine fast yellow RL 

Chlorazol fast black N 

Chloraiol fast red K 

Chlora/ol violet R 

Cloth fast green G.B.... 

Cloth fast orange R, G 

Cloth fast red B, R 

Cloth fast red O, R, 3B 

Cloth fast violet R, B 

Cloth fast yellow G 

Chromacetin blue S 

Chromal blue (^.C (for printing) 

Chromate brown G cone 

Chromanil black B F 

Chromazurine O, E, P 

Chrome briUiant blue G 

Chrome brown R VV 

Chrome fast pure blue BX 

Chrome fast brown TV 

Chrome fast \ iolet B 

Chrome printing red G 

Chrome yeUow CR 

f^hrome yellow DF powder — 

Chromocitronine R, V 

Chromopurpurine J J 

Chromorhoduline BN 

Chromorhoduliue 6GN 

Chroraotrope 2R 

Chromotrope 2 B 

Chromoxane blue R 

Chromoxane brilliant blue 

Chrysamine K 

Chrvsophenine 

CibablueBB 

Cibablue2BD 

CibablueG 

Ciba Bordeaux B 

Ciba gray G 

Ciba green G 

Ciba orange G 

Ciba pink B 

Ciba red G • 

Ciba red R ■ 

Ciba rose BG 

Ciba scarlet O 

Ciba violetB 

Ciba violet R 

Ciba yellow 

Cibanone black B,2B 

Cibanoneblue3G, O 

Cibanone brown B 

Cibanone brown V 

Cibanone dark blue 



Schultz 
No. 



620 

462 



386 
471 



343 
319 
319 

358 
426 
617 



484 



158 
551 



177 
140 



342 

304 
881 
881 
882 
919 
899 
891 
911 



906 
908 



907 
901 
901 
890 
794 
793 
868 
868 



102 



UNITED STATES TAEIFF COMMISSION. 
Index to Table 15 — Continued. 



Dye. 



Cibanone green B 

Cibanone oli\ e B 

Cibanone orange R , 

Cibanone yellow R 

Columbia black FF 

Congo orange G 

Congo orange R 

Coreine RR 

Corioflavine GOOO 

Coriphosphine OX 

Cotton pink B, BN, GN.. 

Cotton scarlet 

Cresyl fast violet 2B 

Cresyl blue 2BS 2RN 

Cross dye green B 

Cross dye green 2G 

Crystal violet 

Cupranil brown G 

Cupranil brown R 

Cutch brown RR 

Cyanine B 

Cyanine green G 

Cyananthrol BGA, BGAC 

Cyanantliroi BGAOO 

Cyanantiirol 3G 

Cyananthrol RXO 

Cyanole extra 

Cyanole FF 

Delta purpuxine 3B, 5B 

Diamine azo orange RR . . . 
Diamine brilliant scarlet S 
Diamine brilliant rubine S 
Diamine bronze G 
Diamine bronze R 
Diamine brown B 
Diamine brown 3G 
Diamine catechine B 

Diamine catcliine G 

Diamine catchine 3G 

Diamine catchine GR 

Diamine dark blue B 

Damine fast black X, XN.. 

Diiamine fast blue CG 

Diamine fast blue FFB 

I^iamine fast Bordeaux 6BS 
Diamine fast brown G, 3G.. 

Di: mine fast brown GB 

Diamine fast brown R 

Diamine fast orange EG 

Diamine fast orange ER 
Diamine fast red 8BL 
Diamine fast rose BBF 
Diamine fa -;t yellow B 

Diamine gray G 

Diamine heliotrope G 

Diamine orange B, F, G 

Diamine scarlet B 

Diamine scarlet 3B 

Diamine sky blue FF 

Diamine yellow N 

Diiminogene e^tra 

Diaminogene blue N A 

Diiminogene blue NB 

Di\minogeno sky blue N, 3B 

Diamond green 3 G 

Diamond green SS 

Diamond pho^phine GG 

Dianil brown 3GO 

Dimil chrome brown G 

Dianil fast b'ue GL 

Dianil fast gray BBL 

Diazine black G 

Diazamine blue BR 

Diaz mil pink B 

DiizTuil scarlet 4BA 

Di 1 zo blue B 

Diazo Bordeaux 7B 

Diazo brilli mt black B 

Diazo brilliant green 3G 



Schultz 
No. 



792 
792 
792 
795 
436 
315 
373 
641 
609 
606 



621 



544 



860 
860 
860 
869 
546 
546 
366 





319 
319 
424 
404 
274 
273 
273 



276 
276 
609 



364 



Dye. 



Schultz 
No. 



Diazo brilliant orange GR 

Diazo brilliant orange 5G 

Diazo brilliant red B 

Diazo brilliant scarlet G 

Diazo brilliant scarlet B 

Diazo brilliant scarlet 6B 

Diazo brilliant scarlet 2BL 

Diazo brilliant scarlet S4B 

Diazo brown 3G 

Diazo brown 3RB 

Diazo brown NR 

Diazo fast Bordeaux BL 

Diazo fast green BL 

Diazo fast violet B L 

Diazo fast violet 3RL 

Diazo fast yellow G 

Diazo fast yellow 2G 

Diazo geranine B 

Diazo indigo blue 4GL, M 

Diazo indigo blue 2RL 

Diazo light green BL 

Diazo light violet BL 

Diazo plienyl black V 

Diazo rubine B ". 

Diazo violet R 

Diazo sky blue B 

Diazo sky blue 3G 

Diazogene orange GR 

Diazogene red B 

Diphene blue R 

Diphciiyl black base 

Diphenyl catechine G 

Diphenyl chlorine yellow FF. . 

Diphenyl dark green BC 

Diphenyl brown 

Diphenyl chlorine yellow FF 

supra 

Diphenyl fast blue FB 

Diphenyl fast brown GF 

Diphenyl fast brown GNC 

Diphcnvl last grey BC 

Direct blue 8B 

Direct catechine GR , 

Direct chrome brrwn B , 

Direct clear blue FF 

Direct dark brown M 

Direct deep black EW 

Direct fast red .«BL 

Direct fast violet B 

Direct fast scarlet SE 

Direct gray R 

Direct red 8B 

Direct safranine RW 

Eclipse brown BK 

Eclipse brown 3GK 

Eosamine B 

Eosine A 

Erica B 

EricaBN 

Erio carmine 2BC 

Erio chrome azurol BX 

Erio chrome black A, E 

Eriochrome black 

Eriochrrme bordeaux 

Eriochrome geranol R 

Eriochrome yell' iw 6G 

Eriochrrme black T 

Erio chrome blue S955 

Eriochrome blue black BC 

Erio chrc me blue black G 

Erio chrnme brnwn ROS 933. . . 

Erir c rtime cyanine RC 

Erio chrome flavine A cone 

Erio chrome green 

Erio clirome phosphine R 

Erio clirome pho phine RR. . . . 

Erio chrdme red B, G 

Erio chrome red PET, G97S 

Erio chrome verdon 



274 



690 

922 

206 

18 



617 



207 
207 



344 
462 



279 
354 



100 
587 
121 
121 



551 

184 



183 



180 
180 



553 



133 
133 
29 



260 



DYES IMPORTED FOR CON^SUMPTIOlSr IF UNITED STATES, 1922. 
Index to Table 15 — Continued. 



103 



Dye. 



Erio chrome violet B 

Erie chrome violet 3B 

Eriocyanine A 

Eriocyanine AC 

Erio fast cyaninc SE 

Erio fast fuchsine BEL 

Erio fast yellow R 

Erio flavihe SX 

Erio floxine 2G 

Eriogalucine 

Erioglauciiie EP 

Erioglaucine AC, AP 

Erio green B supra 

Erio rubine 2B 

Erio violet BC 

Erythrosine 

Ethyl violet 

Euchrysine GRNTN 

Euchrysine RRX 

Euchrysine RRDX 

Euchrysine 2RD 

Euchrysine 3RX 

Fast acid blue B 

Fast acid magenta G 

Fast acid marine blue HBBX . 

Fast acid purple A 

Fast acid red 

Fast acid violet R 

Fast chrome green B 

Fast cotton red 4BS 

Fast green bluish extra 

Fast light green 

Fa^t light yellow G, 2G 

Fast light yellow 3G 

Fast mordant blue B 

Fa^t mordant yellow G 

Fast red GL 

Fast sulphon violet 5BS 

Fa^t wo 1 blue BL 

Floxine P 

Flavindulnie O 

Fur gray A LA 

Fuscamine G 

Gallamine blue 

Gallocyaninc 

Gallo indigo blue S 

Galliphenine P, D, W 

Guinea fast red BL 

Guinea violet 

Hausa green G 

Hansa rubine G 

Haiisa yellow G 

Hansa yellow 5G 

Helindone black IBB 

Helindone black JBB 

Helindone blue green IB 

Hehndone blue 3G 

Helindone blue green 

Helindone brown AN 

Helindone brown CR 

Helindone brown G 

Helindone brown 2R 

Helindone dark blue I BO 

Helindone fast scarlet R 

Helindone green G 

Helindone golden orange IG, 

DIG 

Helindone orange D 

Helindone orange R 

Helindone pink AA, B, R 

Helindone pink AN 

Heliadonc pink BN 

Helindone red B 

Helindone red DIBN 

Helindone red 3B 

Helindone violet B, R 



Schultz 
No. 



531 
531 



19 

42 
506 
506 
506 
564 



592 
518 
608 
60S 
608 
608 
603 
562 
581 



67 
580 



523 

523 

19 

19 



294 



182 



593 
668 
923 
923 
637 
626 



658 



28 

2S 

768 



873 
904 
904 
902 
763 
915 
892 

760 
914 
913 



910 
910 
917 



918 
920 



Dye. 



HeUndone violet IR, DIRR.... 

Helindone yellow 3GN 

Hehndone yellow AGG,D1G, 

DAGC 

HeUndone yellow IG 

Helindone yeUow 3RN 

Hclio bordeaux BL 

HeUo fast blue 

Helio fast violet AL 

Hydron blue G 

Hydron blue R 

Ilvdron Bordeaux B, R 

Hydron brown, G, OG, OB, R. 

Hydron dark blue G, GG 

Hydron green B , G 

Hydron navy bhie C 

Hvdron oUve R 

Hydron olive fl, GN 

Hydron orange R 

Hydron pink FB, FF 

Hydron scarlet 2B, 3B 

Hydron \'iolet, B, R 

Hydron yellow N F 

Immedial brilliant green G 

Immedial indigene GCL 

Immedial violet C 

Immedial direct blue B 

Imperial scarlet 3B 

Indamine 6R 

Indanthrene black B B . . » 

Indanthrene blue BCD 

Indanthrene blue BCS 

Indanthrene blue GC 

Indanthrene blue GCD 

Indanthrene blue GGS 

Indanthrene blue GGSNP 

Indanthrene blue GGSP 

Indanthrene blue 3G 

Indanthrene blue 3GP 

Indanthrene blue RS 

Indanthrene blue RSP 

Indanthrene blue WB 

Indanthrene blue WBO 

Indanthrene blue DRS, DGCD 

Indanthrene blue RZ 

Indanthrene blue green B 

Indanthrene brilUant violet 

RRP 

Indanthrene brown B 

Indanthrene brown 3R 

Indanthrene claret B 

Indanthrene golden orange G. . . 
Indanthrene golden orange 2R. . 
In ianthreno golden orange Rl>. 
Indanthrene golden orange RRT 
Indanthrene golden orange 3R. . 

Indanthrene pink B 

Indanthrene pink BS 

Indanthrene red BN 

Indanthrene red R 

Indanthrene red violet RRN . . . 

Indanthrene red violet R tl 

Indanthrene scarlet GS 

Indanthrene violet BB 

Indanthrene violet BN, FRN. . 

In ianthrene violet R 

Indanthrene violet RN 

Indanthrene violet RR 

Indanthrene yellow G 

Indanthrene yellow GN 

Indanthrene yellow GP 

Indigene blue R\V 

Indigene blue FBW 

Indigo synthetic 

Indigo LL 

Indigo 6 B 



Schultz 
No. 



810 
'849' 



748 
748 



247 

705 
768 



843 
842 
841 
841 
811 
840 
840 
838 
838 
850 
850 



767 
867 



827 
760 
761 



761 
761 



831 

830 



918 
762 
768 



766 
832 
767 
849 
849 
849 



874 
874 
883 



104 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 
Index to Table :?5— Continued. 



Dye. 



Schultz 
No. 



IndisioR 

Indis^o pure 

Indoehro'nine T 

Indocyanine B 

Indra yellow G K 

Ink blue BITN 

Iris violet extra 

Isamino blue R, 8B 

Janus black 

.lanus blue B 

.1 anus green G 

Janus red B 

Janu"? yellow G 

Ja'^mine 

Japan black MBG 

Katigene kaki G extra. ...... 

Katigene brilliant green 3G. . 

Katigene green 2 G 

Kiton blue A 

Kiton fast green V 

Kiton fast red R 

Kiton fast vi'^lot 10 B 

Kiton fa'^t yellow R 

Kiton fast yellow 3 G 

Kiton pure blue V 

Kiton red G 

Kiton red S 

Kiton yellow S 

Kryogene virilet 3RX 

Lanacvl blue marine B 

Lanasol brown 2R 

Lanas'^1 orange G 

Lanasol orange 2R 

Leather black BC ....... 

Light green vcllowish SFXX... 

Lithol fast orange R 

Litholfast yell w2G 

Lithol rubihe 3B 

Malachite green 

Martins vell^w 

Malta gravB, T...... 

Marine blue Pat. LE 

Meldola's blue 3 R cone... . ;;^. . 
Metachrome blue black 2 BX. . 

Metachmme olive 2G . . 

Metachrome i^live brown G 

Meth vl alkali blue 

Methyl I>von« blue 

Methyl silk blue NOW 

Methyl vi'^let 5R 

Methyl yi'^letNFB.... 

Methyl violet B , 2B , fiB 

MethVl yi'^let 6B extra 

Methylene blue 

Methylene bine BG - 

Methylene green extra yellow.. 

Methylene green G 

Methylene green W 

Methylene green I A 

Methylene heliotrope 

Micado bmwn 

Milling yellow O, 3G . . . - 

Mimosa Z 

Modern black N 

Modern grey, CVX, RC 

Mortem yiolet 

Modern violet N 

Monochrome brown E 

Mounsev "live brown G 

Naphth'achrnme azurine B... - 

Naphthalene black APB 

Naphthalene blue black P 

Naphthalene green V 

Naphthalene yellow 

Naphthamine bhie GE1< 

Naphthamine blue 3R 

Naphthamine blue ,TE . . . 
Naphthamine fast black KbG 
Naphthamine fast blue B 



879 
880 
667 
70.'i 
817 



120 
121 

240 
222 
140 



746 



564 



528 



543 



754 
187 



505 



495 

6 

681 



649 



535 
537 
537 
515 
515 
515 
517 
6,59 
659 
660 
660 
660 



687 
11 
177 
198 



635 
624 



564 



338 
338 



Dye. 



Schultz 
No. 



Page. 



S6 N aphthamine fast brown B L . . . 

86 Naphthamine fast green Y, G. . 

81 Naphthamine fast gray B 

82 Naphthamine fast violet FB . . . . 
»i Naphthamine light blue B, 4B, 

99 R, FF 

82 Naphthamine light brown D,2G 

98 Naphthamine light green G..... 

98 Naphthamine light orange I^ . . 
74 Naphthamine light red R, 6B . . 

74 Naphthamine light violet 2B . . . 

75 Naphthamine violet BE 

75 Naphthamine yellow BN 

74 Naphthazineblue lEF 

99 Naphthogene blue B 

98 Naphthogene blue 2R 

98 Naphthogene blue 4R 

9.2 Naphthogene indieo blue B 

89 Naphthvlamine black 6B 

79 Naphthylamine brown 

80 Naphthylamine black 

78 Naphtochrome violet R 

89 Neolan blue B. G 

89 Neolan green B 

78 Neolan gray B 

8*^ Neolan red B 

go Neolan violet R 

go Neolan yellow G, R 

82 Neptune blue BGX 

75 Neptune green SGX • 

92 New claret RX 

92 New ethyl blue BS 

92 New magenta C 

92 New methylene blue N 

77 Night blue 

go Night blue 

99 New Victoria blue B 

99 Neutral blue R 

77 Neutral violet D - - - • 

74 Nigrosine (s luble in water) . . . 

82 Nigrosine alcohol soluble 

89 Nigrogene B 

81 Nile blue AX, BX 

92 Nilcblue2BX 

92 Nitrosamine red 

92 Oil yellow R 

78 Oil fed B ---• 

78 Omega chrome brown PG 

78 Omega chrome brown PB , 

78 Omega chrome red B 

78 Orange RO 

78 Orange 2RL.. 

78 Orange TI extra cone 

81 Orange TV -- 

81 Oxamine acid brown G........ 

81 Oxamine black BB NX, KX... 

81 Oxamine brilliant violet RX. . 

81 Oxamine fast pink BX 

98 Oxamine light blue G 

82 Oxamine light brown R 

74 Oaxmine red 3BX 

75 Oxy diaminogene ED 

75 Palatine black v; :<^' "li V 

92 Palatine light yellow RX, Ba 

o2 Palatine chrome brown R X . . 

81 Paper fast Bordeaux B 

81 Para blue 2RK 

92 Para brown V extra 

92 Parm6 -soluble in spirit 

92 Patent blue A, AS 

89 Patent bhie V 

80 Patent marine blue LE 

79 Patent phosphine G 

74 Patent phosphine 5G 

76 Patent phosphine GG 

76 Patent phosphine R 

96 Patent phosphine M 

96 Peri wool blue B, G 

96 ' Phloxine O 



326 
9 



266 
160 
217 



5<3 
503 



130 
512 
663 
560 
5?1 
5.58 
676 
669 
700 
698 



653 

654 

56 



1.51 
38 
145 
139 



3-46 



220 



154 



515 
513 
5'3 
606 
606 
606 
606 
606 
87 
596 



96 
96 

96 

96 

96 

96 

96 

96 

96 

96 

96 

76 

74 

89 

98 

96 

96 

96 

75 

75 

75 

93 

99 

99 

99 

99 

99 

90 

78 

77 

99 
74 

78 
81 
79 
78- 
79 
82 
81 
82 
82 
99 
81 
81 
74 
99 
99 
93 
93 
93 
75 
74 
75 
74 



DYES IMPORTED FOR CONSUMPTION IN UNITED STATES, 1922. 
Index to Table 15 — Continued. 



105 



Dye. 



Phosphine G,2G 

Phosphine 5G 

Phopphine 3R 

Pluto black, G A 

Pluto brown 2G, R 

Polar maroon VC 

Polar orange R, RC 

Polar yellow 2G 

Polar red G, R, RS, B 

Polyphenyl blue GC, GNH.... 

Polypheny] yellow RC 

Prune pure 

Pure blue 

Pure blue fir printing 

Pyramine orange 3G 

Pyramine orange RR 

Pyramine orange R 

Pyrazol orange G 

Pyrazol fa'^t brown D, B 

Pyrogene blue green B 

Pyrogene brown R8 (yellow 

sliade) 

Pyrogene cutch 2R 

Pyrogene cutch brown 2R 

Pyrogene direct blue RL 

Pyrogene green 2G 

Pyroeene green 3G 

Pyrogene indigo 

Pyrogene violet brown X 

Pyrogene yellow brown RS 

Pyroxene yellow O , 

Pyronine G extra 

Ouin line yellow spirit soluble.. 

Ouinrline yellow KT 

Ouinrline yellow N 

Ouin' line yell'>w 

Radio yellow R 

Radio fed G 

Radio brown B, S 

Radio black SB, ST 

Rapid fa-^t brown B 

Rapid fa<;t blue B 

Rapid fa=t red B,BB, GL. 

Rapid fast orange 

Resorcine brown F 

Rheonine A 

Rheonine AL 

Rhodamine B,BX 

Rhodamine 3B 

Rhodamine G 

Rhodamine 6GDH 

Rhodamine 6GDN 

Rhodamine fiGH 

Rhoduline sky blue 3G 

Rosanthrene B, BN 

Rosanthrene R, RH, GWL 

Rosanthrene R ordeaux B 

Rosanthrene fast red 7BL 

Rosanthrene fast Bordeaux BN, 

2BL 

Rosanthrene orange R 

Rosanthrene rose 

Rose hengale B 

Rosinduline 2B 

Rosinduline GXF 

Rosolane 

Ro.solane O 

Rosolane OTR 

SafranineT, O 

Salicine Bordeaux RF 

Salicine orange 2R 

Salicine red G 

Scarlet RR 

Setocyanine 396 

Setogiaucine 

Setopaline 

Silk Dlue extra cone 

Silk blue BT 5BOO 



Schultz 
No. 



606 
606 
606 



636 
539 



306 
314 
360 
392 



726 
709 
709 
73.5 



73 < 
568 
612 
613 
613 
613 



211 
607 
607 
573 
574 
572 
571 
571 



597 
673 



688 
687 
687 
679 



500 
496 
500 
539 
539 



Dye. 



Silk blue IV 

Solamineblue FF 

Solid Bordeaux 

SohiblebluelN, T 

Sorbine red X, BB 

Soluble pure blue 

Spirit orange S 

Suplhonazurine D 

Sulphoneyanine OR 

Sulphoncyanine black 

Sulpho rhodamine BG 

Sulphur green B, 2G 

Supramine balck BR 

Supramine brown R 

Supramine red 2G 

Supramine yellow R 

Tetra cyanole 

Tetra cyanole V 

Tetra cyanole A 

Thia ine brown 

Thia ine red RXX 

ThioflavineT 

Thioflavine TCN 

Th iogene brown G R 

Thiogenenew blue 2RL... 
Thio indigo pink An, BN.. 

Thio indigo red 3B 

Thio indigo rose RN 

Thio indigo rose, BN 

Thio indigo scarlet 2B 

Thio indigo scarlet 2G 

Thional brilliant blue 6B . . 
Thional brilliant green 2G . 

Thionineblue GO 

Thionine blue gold 

Thionine green GG 

Thionol brown GD 

Thionol brown B, Q 

Thionol orange 

Thionol green DY 

Thinol yellow GR 

Thinol yellow 3RD 

Thionone black PR 

Thionone Isabellina 

Toluidine blue 

Toluylene fast orange GL.. 

Toluylene red 

Triazol orange G 

Trisulphon bronze B 

Trisulphon brown B 

Trisulphon brown MB 

Trisulphon brown GG 

Trisulphon violet B 

Turquoise blue G 

Typhan blue 

Typan red 

Typophor black FB, FR. . 

I'itra orange R 

Ultra violet MO 

Ursol 

Ursol A 

Ursol DF 

UrsoHR 

Ursol gray G, B, ALA 

Ursol gray R 

Vat pink R 

Vat pink B 

Vat yellow R 

Vat brown CM 

Vat heliotrope R 

Vat red 2B 

Vat yellow CG 

Victroia black B 

Victoria blue B 

Victoria blue R 

Victoria blue 4R. 

Victoria brilliant blue B. . . 



Schultz 
No. 



537 



539 
64 



265 
579 



543 
543 
545 



618 
618 



910 
918 



906 



746 
661 



659 
392 

358 



449 
449 
457 
322 
498 
391 
359 



58 
635 
923 
923 
923 
923 
923 
923 



262 
559 
558 
522 
559 



52805—23- 



-8 



106 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 
Index to Table 15 — Continued. 



Dye. 


Schultz 
No. 


Page. 


Dye. 


Schultz 
No. 


Page. 


Victoria navy blue B 




89 
79 
80 
89 
98 
78 
99 
78 
75 
89 
79 
79 
79 


Wool fast blue BL, BO. . . 




89 


VictoriapureWueBO 


559 
580 


Wool fast blue GL 




89 


Violamine R 


Wool fast yellow 3G . . 




89 


Violet B 


Wool ereen S . 


566 
507 
546 
564 
22 
22 
579 


79 


Violet PDH 




Xylene blue VS. . . 


77 


Violet R 


514 


Xylene cyanol FF 


79 


WasVimarine 


Xylene fast CTeen B 


79 


Water bine . . 


539 
220 


Xylene fast li^ht yellow 2G 

Xylene fast li^ht yellow R 

X vlene red B 


74 


Wool blank ORF 


74 


Wool black N 


80 


Wool bl tie 5B 


565 
5P2 
565 


Zambesi black D, F, V 


97 


Wool blue SR 


Zambesi pure blue 4B 


274 


75 


Wool blue 3R 











PART IV. 

CENSUS OF SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 
NOT OF COAL-TAR ORIGIN, 1922. 



107 



Part IV. 

CENSUS OF SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS OTHER THAN 
THOSE OF COAL-TAR ORIGIN, 1922. 

Introduction. 

The United States Tariff Commission published for the first time 
m 1921 a census of the production of synthetic organic chemicals 
other than those of coal-tar origin. The commission has again in 
1922 compiled such a census showing the quantity of production, 
the amount, and value of the sales in all cases where the figures could 
be published without disclosing the operations of the individual pro- 
ducer. 

The products included in this census comprise synthetic organic 
compounds derived from sources other than coal tar. They do not 
include aliphatic compounds derived from natural sources oy isola- 
tion, distillation, extraction, hydrolysis, or purification, as for example 
alkaloids, constituents of essential oils, sugars, and acids, such as 
stearic and tartaric. Nor does the census include cyanides, cyana- 
mides, or carbides of metals or inorganic radicals. Statistics of 
items which are obtainable from other sources are in most cases 
excluded. 

The Bureau of the Census gives in its reports statistics of the 
more important noncoal-tar organic compounds. The Tariff Com- 
mission has not attempted to collect statistics on these commodities 
for 1922, except in a few instances where the importance of the 
industry or other conditions warranted. A summary table of the 
1914, 1919, and 1921 production of organic chemicals as determined 
by the Bureau of the Census is incorporated in this report. 

The production of synthetic organic chemicals other than those 
derived from coal tar, in 1922, was 79,202,155 pounds compared with 
21,545,186 pounds in 1921. The sales in 1922 amounted to 60,494,- 
494 pounds, valued at $11,964,074. In this production are included 
1,097 pounds of research chemicals, and in the sales are included 376 
pounds, valued at $5,855, or $15.51 per pound. 

Developments in the Industry. 

The establishment of the synthetic organic chemical industry was 
a direct result of the war. Previous to the World War, chemicals 
of this class were imported almost entirely from Germany. The 
United States produced a few of those used in large quantities. 
After the outbreak of the war the acute shortage of synthetic organic 
chemicals for the perfume, flavor, pharmaceutical, and fine chemical 
trade in general created for a time a serious situation. The American 
manufacturers of these products deserve high credit for the rapid 
growth of the industry, tlie variety of products, and the continuous 
improvement in the quality of the products, 

109 



110 UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 

SYNTHETIC AROMATIC CHEMICALS. 

The synthetic aromatic chemical industry, which is a source of 
supply of raw materials for the flavoring and perfumery industries, 
appears to be in a healthy condition since the resumption of general 
business activity. The constant aim of manufacturers is to make 
the best quality of products possible. The manufacturing perfumer 
knows that it is false economy to use any product, either natural or 
artificial, which has a by-odor or which may discolor or decompose 
his finished perfumes. Citronellol, terpineol, ionone, geranyl acetate, 
and many of the esters used in perfumes and flavors show large 
increases in production. Heliotropin and vanillin show a slight 
increase. Geraniol and linalyl acetate are some of the more important 
synthetics which show a decrease in production. 

Esters. — The manufacture of esters appears to have made great 
strides in the past year. The total production of amyl acetate for 
the year 1922 was 1,692,074 pounds; that of ethyl acetate was 16,- 
114,458 pounds as compared with 5,310,688 pounds in 1921. Several 
new fruit esters are reported for the first time in 1922, including 
some of the oenanthates and vanillyl vanillate. 

Choloroform and carbon tetrachloride. — The production of chloro- 
form and of carbon tetrachloride increased very greatly in 1922. 
The latter is a raw material used to a large extent as a solvent and is 
highly valued as a fire extinguisher. Its output in 1922 was 11,166,- 
318 poumis. 

Pharmaceuticals. — The manufacturers of synthetic medicinals 
have increased production in barbital, chloral hydrate, and hexa- 
methylenetetramine. The last named is used not only in medicine 
but in greater amounts as a rubber vulcanizer and in the manufac- 
ture of synthetic resins. Formaldehyde, which is used as a disin- 
fectant and antiseptic and in the manufacture of hexamethylene- 
tetramine, shows a total production in 1922 of 23,958,152 pounds. 

Some medicinals of particular interest which were first reported in 
1922 are the esters of chaulmoogra oil, used in the treatment of 
leprosy; theocin sodium acetate used as a stimulant diuretic; and 
8-chloro theophyllin . 

Butyl alcohol. — The production of butyl alcohol in 1922 represents 
a very large increase over the 1921 production when it exceeded 
2,000,000 pounds. Butyl alcohol is used largely as a solvent in 
pyroxylin plastics. 

Aldehyde ammonia, which is used as an accelerator in the vulcani- 
zation of rubber, shows an increase in production for the year 1922. 
Other acetylene derivatives were also manufactured in this country 
in larger quantities than heretofore; acetaldehyde and aldol both 
show an increased production. The United States has produced 
only a part of its requirements of acetaldehyde and its polymerized 
form, paraldehyde. These products are imported in large amounts 
from Canada, where during the war a large plant was erected at 
Shawinigan Falls to produce acetic acid and acetone from acetylene. 

Ethylene and propylene derivatives. — Ethylene dichloride and ethy- 
lene chlorohydrin, both of which find important uses as solvents and 
in further organic synthesis, were made in commercial quantities 
in 1922. 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, NOT OF COAL-TAR ORIGIN, 1922. Ill 



These derivatives are manufactured by at least two companies. 
The process is based upon the* recovery of ethylene and propylene 
from the waste gases of petroleum cracking processes and other hydro- 
carbon gases. Other products from these sources are diethyl sul- 
phate, used as an ethylating agent, particularly in dye manufac- 
turing, and isopropyl alcohol, used in organic synthesis, particularly 
for the perfumery and flavoring industries. 

Mucic acid, which is now made on a commercial scale, is produced 
by the hydrolysis and oxidation of mixtures of glucose and galactose 
obtained from the western larch (larix occidentalis) . It is used as an 
ingredient in baking powder and as a mordant and chrome assistant 
in textile dyeing. It may have value as an a3idulent to be used in 
lieu of citric or tartaric acid. 

Gallic acid and pyrogallic acid are important products in this group. 
Gallic acid is a white crystalline substance made from nutgalls and is 
of use in the manufacture of dyes, pyrogallic acid, ink, and in medi- 
cine. Pyrogallic acid is one of the oldest of photographic developers. 

Dihydroxytartaric acid. — A large increase in the manufacture of 
this product is noted for 1922. It finds use in the manufacture of 
a dye known as tartrazine. 

Furfural, a comparatively new product, was first made in commer- 
cial quantities in 1922. This synthetic may be the basis of a new in- 
dustry of great size, as corncobs, the necessary raw material, are 
now waste material available in unlimited quantities. Furfural 
may have valuable uses in the synthetic resin an I varnish in lustrv. 

Lactic acid, used in the leather, textile, and dye industries, will 
probably continue to appear on the market in larger amounts. Its 
manufacture by a controlled fermentation process is an American 
development. 

Oxalic acid is one of the most important chemicals of this group 
of synthetics. Production as reported for 1922 by 4 concerns totaled 
3,978,807 pounds. 

Table 16. — Production and sales of synthetic organic chemicals, 1922. 

(Not derived from coal tar.) 

[The numbers in the second column refer to the numbered alphabetical list of manufacturers printed on 
page 117. An X signifies that the corresponding chemicals were made by a manufacturer who did 
not consent to the publication of his name in connection there vith. Blanks in the third and fourth 
columns indicate that there were sales of the corresponding chemicals in the United States dui ing 1922, 
but that the figures can not be publi-'hed without re ealing mformation m regard to the sale-; of mdi idual 
firms. The blank space in the sixth column indicates that there was actual production of the correspond- 
ing chemicals in the United States during 1922, but that the figures can not be published without re> eal- 
ing information in regard to the output of individual firms. The details thus withheld are, however, 
included in the totals.) 





Manufacturer's identifi- 
cation number (according 
to list on p. 117). 


Sales,. 




Name. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Average 
price per 
pound. 


Total pro- 
duction. 


Total 




Pounds. 
60, 494, 494 


$11,964,074 


$0.20 


PouikIs. 
79, 202, 155 




27,72, 107, 145 




Acfttaldehyde 








71,. 337 


Acetaldol (aldol) 


27 










Acetamide 


53,68, 170 










Acetic acid ester of tannlcacid. 


17 










Acetic anhydride 


63 










Acetine 


125 










Acetylene tetrabromide 


63 











112 UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 

Table 16. — Production and sales of synthetic organic chemicals, 1922 — Continued. 





Manufacturer's identifi- 
cation number (according 
to Ust on p. 117). 


Sales. 




Name. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Average 
price per 
pound. 


Total pro- 
duction. 


Aldehyde ammonia 


27, 145 


Pounds. 






Pounds. 


AUyl alcohol 


140 












140 












31, 140 












174 










Amyl acetate 


10, 64, 72, 76, 123, 123, 137, 

158, 170, 189, 191. 
189, X 


1,158,455 


$374,028 


$0.32 


1,692,074 


Amyl alcohol and higher 

alcohols. 
Amyl butyrate 




22 












72 












177 












72, 76, X 










Anisaldehyde (aubepine) 


22,72,75,76 


2,141 


8,266 


3.86 


2,302 


69,129... . 


B r m diethylacetylcarba- 

mide. 
Bromocamphor 


17 










63, 114 












63 










Butyl acetate, n. and sec 

n-Biityl alcohol (butanol) — 
sec -Butyl alcohol 


64, 68, 72, 76. 123, 191, X, X. 
42, 189 


438,205 


117, 156 


.27 


2, 467, 506 


X 












42 












68, 177 












68, 177 












72 




' 








42 










Butyl xanthic disulfide 


128 




' 






42 












76, 137 










n-Butyric acid, crude 

Butyraldehyde . . 


X 










27, 72 










d-Camphcic acid. ... 


114 












72, 76, 137, 170, 177 








537 




177 












63, 135, 197 


9,231,824 


760,439 


.08 


11,166,318 




17 






120, 124 










Chlo-oacetic acid (Mono) 


63, 64 










37,63 










8-Chlo"o-theophyUin. 


17 . . 






1 


CitroaeUol 


72, 76, 101, 184, 190, 192 

72, 76, 176, X 


3,351 
55 


23, 298 
301 


6.95 
5.47 


3,953 




105 




138 






27 












17 












72 ... 












72 76 










Diacetylmorphine (Heroin).. 


133 149 










17 






' 




1 68 










17 










17 










17 










17 










1,89,170 








978 




89 








DiethVlbarbituric acid (bar- 
bital or veronal). 

Diothylbarbituric acid so- 
dium (So lium barbital). 


1 17 . .. 








17 






1 


27 






1 


Dihydroxvtartaric acid 

Diio lohydroxynropane 


25 147 








17' 








68 170 i77 








91 


1:3 Dimethylxanthine 

Disuccinylperoxide (alpho- 
zone). 


17 








173 








72 






1 




72 










72 










17 










17 








Ethyl acetate (85%) • 


10,64,72,114,123,125,158, 
189, 192,X,X,X. 


11,801,661 


1,013,515 


.09 


16,114,458 



» Correct value for 1921 sales $249,600 and unit value $0. 85. 



SYNTHETIC ORGAJSTIC CHEMICALS, NOT OF COAL-TAR ORIGIN, 1922. 113 
Table 16. — Production and sales of synthetic organic chemicals, 1922 — Continued. 





Manufacturer's identifi- 
cation number (according 
to hst on p. 117). 


Sales. 




Name. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Average 
price per 
pound. 


Total pro- 
duction. 




76,170,189. . 


Pounds. 






Pounds. 




17,63,89,114,178,192 


1 




155, 162 


Ethyl butyrate 


22, 72, 76, 137, 170, 189, 192, 

x,x.x. 

68 72 189 


32, 192 


S37, 883 


SI. 18 


22, 958 








189 


1 




Ethyl chloride 


48, 75, 80, 157, 189, X, X ; 156, 411 

192 


59, 149 


.38 


164, 198 


Ethvl citrate 




Ethyl ether 2 


48, 64, 72, 114, 172, 189, X.... 
137, 189, 192, X 


3,712,997 
1,383 


429, 940 
1,127 


.12 
.81 


4,017,043 
1,627 


Ethyl formate . ... 


Ethyl glycolic acid ester of 
menthol. 


17 




68,114,120,177 


268 
271 


1,621 
1,074 


6.05 
3.96 


238 




72, 76, 137, 189 




Ethyl lactate 


72,189 




Ethyl laurate.. 


72,177 












189 












189 










Ethyl malonate (Mono and 
di). 

Ethyl monochloracetate 

Ethyl nitrite 


1, 17,72,170,177 








21, 747 


189 . 










114,X 










Ethyl oenanthate... 


7',76, 101,1.37, 192 


3,370 


5,584 


1.66 


4,731 


Ethyl oxalate 


17,72,189,192 


23,025 


Ethyl pelargonate 


22,72,76,125 


626 


1,356 


2.17 


971 




72, 170, 1S9, 192, X 




Ethvl-n-yalerate 


72, 76, 190, X 








175 


Ethylene 


189 










Ethylene bromide. 


63. . . . 












27, 89 










Ethylene dichloride 


27 










Ethvleneelycol 


27 










Ethylene oxide . 


27. .. 










Ethylidene chloride 


68 










Eugenol methyl ether 

Formaldehyde 


72 










57, 123, 138, 145, 154, X.... 
X 


16,140,007 


1,676,401 


.10 


23,958,152 


Formic acid (85 per cent) 

Fumaric acid 




127 










Furfural 


152, 170 










Gallic acid, tech 


68, 114, 205 


96, 100 


48,308 


.50 


411,768 


GalUc acid, U.S.P... 


205 . 




Geraniol 


76, 184 










Geranvl acetate 


72, 76, 125, 176, 190, X 

72, 76, 101 


5,828 


12,674 


2.17 


7,066 


Geranvl butyrate. . 


65 


Geranvl formate 


72, 76, 101, 176, 190 


32 


190 


5.94 


SO 


Geranyl pro ionate 


72 




Glycerol monochlorohydrin 


68 










Glyceronhosphoric acid and 

salts of 
Glycol diacetate . . . 


138, X 










27 










Heliotropin 


22, 72, 75, X 


5,919 


12, 497 


2.11 


6,794 


Hentaldehyde 


72, 128, 170, 190 




n-Hc'tvl alcohol 


68, 72 . . 












27 63 










Hexameth ylenetetramine 


138, 145, 154, X 


1,691,802 


1,168,984 


.69 


2,6i5,i6i 




17 




anhvdromethylene citrate. 


42 










Hydroxycitronellal 


184 










Indol 


72 












17 




■ 








17 




: 




Iodoform 


114, 133, 149... 


11,981 


57,375 


4.79 1 11.811 


lonone, alpha 


72 






lonone 


76, 101, 125, 190, 192, X 








18,626 




174 










Isoamyl butyrate 


72, 137, 189, X, X 


5,039 


7,080 


1.41 


5,576 


Isoamvl formate. 


72, 137, 1S9 


155 




72, 137, 1S9 










IsoamVl nitrite 


68, 170, 177 






4.33 


47 




1S9 








Isobut yl acetate 


72, 76, 137, 189 


140 


400 


2.86 


510 


Isobutyl alcohol 

Isobut'yl butyrate 

Isobut vl forinate 


189 




72, 76, 137, 189. . 


36 


128 


3.56 ! 70 


72. 189 







' Correct value for 1921 sales $929,125 and unit value $0. 31. 



114 UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 

Table 16. — Production and sales of synthetic organic chemicals, 1922 — Continued. 





Manufacturer's identifi- 
cation number (according 
to list on p. 117). 


Sales. 




Name. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Average 
price per 
pound. 


Total pro- 
duction. 


Isobiit vl indol 


72 


Pounds. 






Pounds. 


Isobutyl isovalerate 


1S9 










Isobutyl oenanthate 


72.... 












72, 189 












7fi, U7 












72 












22, 72, 193, X 


2,638 


$11,510 


$4.36 






72 




l30T)roiyl al'-ohol (Isopro- 
panol). 


27, 140, 189, X 


247, 392 


130,418 


.54 


256, 868 


27,140 






ISS 












72 












1:^7 174 












194, X 










Laurie aMi 


177 












192 










Linalyl a'^etato 


72,76,101,176.190 

72 


589 


4,805 


8.16 


738 






Linalvl formatfi 


72,176,190 


27 


249 


9.22 




Linalyl propionate . . . 


7"' 






72 












127 












123 189 ... 












rtS 












61,177 












17 












72,137,189 


22 


40 


1.82 


36 




72.176 






1S1 










Methyl inlol (-katoH 

Methvl io li le 


72 










177 










Methyl isoiucenol 

Methvl OKalat'i 


176 










72,189 












72,189 










Methyl S'llfntft 


X 












189 












17 












17 












99 












72 76 












72 76 










Octode 'vl al 'ohol 


72 












72 











0"to le"vi k'^toni . . 


72 










O'-tyl a'^ntate an 1 so-, "-"tyl 
acetate. 

Octvl alcohol, n.ani se' 

Oftvl allehvde 


72,76,176,190 


8 
23 


325 
440 


40.63 
19.13 


56 


68,72.76,176,177,190 

72 101 


106 


Octvl formate 


176 . • 










0\ali'a"i1 


.5 99, 139, X 


4,099,228 


562,439 


.14 


3,978,807 




27,107 






138 145 












27 












27 










Pi' erinic ketone (• i eronone) 
Propionic acil. crude 


72 










X 










X 












72 












72,76.189 








145 


n-Propyl alcohol 

n-Propyl isovalerate 

n- Propyl-n-t)ut yrate 

Propyl oenanthate 

n-Propyl propionate 

Propylene chlorohydrin 

Propylene dichlori'de 

Propylene glycol 

Pyrogallic acid (Pyrogallol).. 


140 170,189 










189 










189 










72 










72 189 










27 










27 .... 










27 










68 114,20.') 


174,940 


181,674 


1.38 


187, 536 


2.5 




Quatrodecyl alcohol 

Quatrodecyl aldehyde 

Quatrodecyl ketone 


72 










72 










72 










68 177 










Rhodinol 


72.76, 101,190, X 


767 


10,955 


14.28 


777 




72 176 




Rhodinol butyrate 


72.....;...!.] 1 









SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, NOT OF COAL-TAR ORIGIN, 1922, 115 
Table 16. — Production and sales of synthetic organic chemicals, 1922 — Continued. 





Manufacturer's identifi- 
cation number (according 
to list on p. 117). 


Sales. 




Name. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Average 
price per 
pound. 


Total pro- 
duction. 




72,176 


PouTids. 






Pounds. 


Rhodinol valerate 


72 










Sextodecyl aldehyde 


72 










Sextodecyl alcohol 


72 












72 












114,173 












173 










Sulfomnethane, U. S. P . . 


147 










Terpenyl butyrate 


72 










Terpenyl formate 


72 










Terpeayl propionate 


72 












69,X 










Terpin hydrate 


193 










Terpineolene . . . 


69 129 










Terpinyl acetate 


72, 76, 101, 125, 176, X 

27 


13,290 


$19,306 


SI. 45 


13, 802 






Tetramethyldiaminopenta- 

nol. 
Theocin sodium acetate . . 


17 










17 










Triacetin 


76,189 












27 










Trichlorotertiary butyl alco- 
hol (methaform). 
Tridecyl alcohol .......... 


173,X 










72 










Tridecyl aldehyde 


72 










Tridecyl ketone 


72 










Trimethylene bromide 


1 










64 












76,177. . 












72 










Vanillic alcohol 


72 










VaniUin 


75, 76, 118, 124, 193, X 

72 


239,778 




1,716,766 


7.16 


221,046 








128 












174 












177 























Table 17. — Comparison of production of synthetic organic chemicals, 1921 and 1922. 



Name. 


1922 


1921 


Name. 


1922 


1921 




Pounds. 

71,537 

2,302 

91 

16,114,458 

155, 162 

22,958 

164, 198 

4,017,043 

1,627 

238 

21, 747 

4 731 

971 

411,768 


Pounds. 

36,671 

2,358 

221 

5,310,688 

176,744 

42,144 

106,813 

3,025,041 

2,413 

216 

56,306 

4,442 

576 

306,431 


Geranyl butyrate 


Pounds. 

65 

80 

2,015,161 

11,811 

5,576 

155 

47 

510 

70 

256,868 

736 

36 

187, 536 

13,802 

221,046 


Pounds. 
40 


Anisaldehyde ( Aubepine)... 




62 


Hexamethylenetetramine. . . 
Iodoform 


981,927 




4,606 




Isoamyl butyrate 


7,334 




Isoamyl formate 


1,642 




Isoam vl nitrite 


277 


Ethyl ether 


Tso butyl acetate 


587 




Iso butyl butyrate 


67 


Ethyl iodide .. 


Iso propyl alcohol 


184, 470 


Ethyl malonate (mono and 
di) . 


Linalvl acetate 


1,746 


Methyl n-Butyrate 


29 




Pyrogallic acici 


197,337 




Terpinyl acetate 


7,836 


Gallic acid, technical 




206. 150 







f 



116 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 



Table 18. — Domestic production of organic chemicals (except coal tar), J 9 14, 1919, and 

1921. 

[From Bureau of the Census; 1921 figures are preliminary.] 



Name. 



Acetic acid (pyroligneoiis) 

Acetic acid (glacial) 

Acetic anhydride 

Tartaric acid 

Fori laldehyde 

Aiiyl acetate 

Ethyl acetate 

Ethyl chloride 

Ethyl ether 

Acetone 

Methyl ethyl ketone 

Carbon tetrachloride 

Chloroform 

V aaill in 

Codeine and salts 

Heroin and salts 

Cocaine and salts 



1914 



Pounds. 
75, 303, 375 

(2) 

3 8, 426, 247 
1,315,730 

(=>) 

(^) 
3 2, 120, 082 
'10,425,817 

(2) 

(2) 

1,333,954 
120,619 

(2) 
(2) 
(2) 



1919 



Pounds. 

f42, 248, 803 

20,131,487 

t 1,794.9S5 

5,312,965 

25,006,815 

917, 793 

5, 780, 549 

248, 103 

4, 875, 255 

6,045.914 

1,158,032 

11,908,704 

1, 677, 641 

134,687 

3.295 

6,933 

6,781 



1921 



I 



Pounds. 
' 23, 530, 100 

|- 11,115,200 

9, 682, 700 

410, 990 

906, 600 

208, 300 

3, 763, 300 

4, 380, 100 



944,300 
191, 700 

i?) 



1 Dilute. 



2 Figures not available. 



3 Production for sale. 



Table 19. — Synthetic organic chemicals imported in excess of ^100 in value during the 

year ended June 30, 1914-^ 



Article. 



Acetin 'commercial 

Acetylenetetrachloride (tetra- 

chloroethane 

Ammonium valerate 

Amyl butyrate 

Amyl nitrite 

Amylene 

Aubepine: 

Tech nical 

' iquii 

Barbituric acil 

Butyric acid, 60 per cent 

Pure 

Calcium glvceropliosphate: 

Granulated, 6 per cent 

Tiquil, 50 per cent 

Solui le 

Granulated, effervescent — 

Camphoric acid 

Carbon tetrachloride 

Chloral hydrate 

Ci liroform 

Citronellol 

Cocaine ^ 

Coieine, alkaloid 

Phosphate 2 

Sulphate^ 

Dichlorohydrin 

Di !nethyl<^lyoxime 

Ethyl butyrate absolute 

Ethyl carbonate 

Ethyl ciUoride 

Ethyl etler 

Over sodium 

Reagent 

Eugenol: 

Crude 

Otter 



^uantity. 



Pounds. 
15, 958 

93,581 

1,801 

350 



26 

1,302 

2, 101 

39, 924 

51,530 

13 

4,f97 

15, 757 

1,.347 

305 

■ 75 

572, 987 

800 

2,745 

1,52.-| 

3,340 

32 

335 

1, 275 

782 

28 

1,363 

6 

9,137 

992 

3,512 

122 

5 

485 



Value. 



$2, 425 

5, 636 

1,637 

181 

122 

100 



2,901 

2,837 

13, 4t- 

41 

814 

9,935 

1,(11 

849 

13S 

28, 322 

298 

2,086 

4,318 

4, 1( 3 

l,<f9 

773 

2,648 

500 

301 

515 

311 

10,2 

IfO 

870 

119 

4 
987 



Article. 



Gallic acid 

Geranyl acetate 

Heliotropin, crystals 

Hexamethylenetetramine 

Iodoform 

lonone: 

Alcoh olic solution 

For soap 

Alpha, pure 

Iron valerate 

Methyl aniline, pure 

Methyl iodide 

Monochloracetic acid: 

Commercial 

Pure crystals 

Octyl aldehyde 

Pyrogallic acid 

Quinine valerate 

Rhodinol • 

Succinic acid; 

Crude sublimed 

Pure crystals 

Anhydrous 

Terpin hydrate 

Terpinyl acetate 

Thiosiriamine 

Thymol 

Trichloracetic acid: 

Technical 

U. S. P 

Urea 

Valeric ( Valerianic) acid 

Vanillins 

Veronal (diethyl barbituric 

acid ) 

Veronal sodium (sodium di- 
ethyl barbiturate 

Zinc valerate, powder 



Quantity. 



Pounds. 

61,644 

198 

10, 219 

11,470 

93 

50 
104 
35 
1,109 
13 
26 

12, 834 

318 

4 

24,964 
2f3 
181 

35 

620 

54 

12, 797 

19, 473 

111 

19,056 

4 

439 

18, 137 

1,164 

38,472 

4,971 

593 
1,517 



Value. 



$20, 417 

634 

8,715 

21,136 

322 

71 

565 

542 

1,012 

137 



2,756 

171 

127 

22,404 

1,456 

1,493 

92 

2,224 

435 

2,052 

10, 412 

296 

24,793 

2 
346 

8,889 

755 

7,554 

26, 322 

5,284 
1.375 



'Miscellaneous Series No. 82, Department of Commerce. 



2 Ounces. 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, NOT OF COAL-TAR ORIGIN, 1922. 117 



Table 20. — Imports and production of synthetic organic chemicals (except those of coal- 
tar origin), 1922* 



Article. 



Acetic or pyroligneous acid 

Containing by weight — 

Not more than 65 per cent acetic acid. 

Formic acid 

Gallic acid 

Glycerophosphoric acid, and salts and compounds 

Lactic acid 

Containing by weight of lactic acid — 

55 per cent or more 

Oxalic acid 

Pyrogallic acid 

Methyl alcohol 

Carbon tetrachloride 

Chloroform 

Chloral hydrate .* 

Cocaine, etc 

Ethers and esters: 

Containing not more than 10 per cent alcohol- 
Ethyl ether 

Ethyl chloride 

Amyl acetate 

Amyl nitrate 

Ethyl acetate 

Nitrous spirits of 

Other n. s. p. f 

Containing more than 50 per cent alcohol 

Formaldehyde solution (not more than 40 per 

cent) 

Formaldehyde solution (formalin) 

He^ amethylenetetramine 

Iodoform 

L' re a 

ThjTiiol 

Vanillin 



Imports. 



First 9 months. 



Pounds. Value 



18,706 



22,744 

4,490 

5,460 

380, 840 



29,767 



125 
44,092 



1,000 
'5,015 



9,774 

200 

6 

200 

1,998 

2,287 

1,616 

407 



182,257 

6,666 

«3,514 



$1, 318 



2,368 

2,387 

4,789 

37, 913 



3,591 



39 
1,251 



895 
11,514 



1,811 

258 

17 

276 

1,365 

1,034 

1,442 

67 



Last 3 months. 



Pounds. Value 



43 

.255, 397 



7,021 



5,000 

1,260,308 

1 

12 

22, 039 

15 

354 

2 2, 503 



7,322 



43, 891 

21, 220 

1,448 



300 
16,010 



78, 379 
4,737 



S19 
18,113 



3,870 



758 

102, 895 

3 

4 

603 

3 

291 

7,031 



,095 



50 
7,765 



17, 670 
13,206 



Production 
(pounds). 



411,768 



3, 978, 807 
187, 536 



11,166,318 



M, 017, 043 

3 164, 198 

3 1,692,074 



3 16,114,458 



23, 958, 152 



2, 015, 161 
11,811 



221.046 



* Preliminary figures for imports. 
1 Gallons. 



' Ounces. 

3 Alcohol content unknown. 



Directory of manufacturers ofdye^ and other synthetic organic chemicals, 1922. 



No. 



Name of company. 



Office address (location of plant given in paren- 
thesis if not in same city as office). 



Abbott Laboratories 

Agawam Chamical Works 

Althouse Chemical Co 

Amalgamated Dyestuff & Chemical Works (Inc.) 

American Alkali & Acid Co 

American Aniline Products (Inc.) 

American Chemical Works, The 

American Tar Products Co. (Inc.) 

American Vat Color Manufacturing Co 

Anderson Chemical Co 

Ansbacher & Co. (Inc.), A. S 

Atlantic Dyestuff Co 

Atlantic Tar & Chemical Works (Ltd.) 

Atlas Color Works 

Baird & McGuire (Inc.) 

Barrett Co. The 

Bayer Co. (Inc.) The 

Beaver Chemical Co. (Inc.) 



4753 Ravens wood Avenue, Chicago, 111. 

531 Grosvenor Building, Providence, R. I. 
(North Attleboro, Aiass.) 

500-540 Pear Street, Reading, Pa. 

Plum Point Lane, Newark, N. J. 

43 Main Street, Bradford, Pa. 

80 Fifth Avenue, New York City. (Lock Haven 
Pa.) 

331-341 Bay Street, San Francisco, Calif. 

208 South La Salle Street, Chicago, 111. (Chicago , 
111.; Youngstown, Ohio.; St Louis, Mo.; Wood- 
ward, Ala.; FoUansbee, W. Va.; Carrollville 
Wis.) 

80 Fifth Avenue New York City. (Lock Haven, 
Pa.) 

P. O. Box 307, Passaic,N. J. (262 Lodi Avenue, 
Wallington, N. J.) 

527 Fifth Avenue, New York City. (Brookh'n, 
N. Y.) 

88 Ames BuUding, Boston, Mass. (Portsmouth, 
N. H.) 

Bayway, Elizabeth, N. J. (Elizabeth, N. J.) 

322 Ninth Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. (417 Hamil- 
ton, Avenue, Brooklyn, N. Y.) 

Hoi brook, Mass. 

40 Rector Street, New York City. (Plants dis- 
tributed throughout Ignited Statfi.) 

117 Hudson Street, New York City. (Rens- 
selaer, N. Y.) 

Damascus, Va. 



118 UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 

Directory of manufacturers of dyes and other synthetic organic chemicals, 1922 — Continued. 



Name of company. 



Office address (location of plant given in paren- 
thesis if not in same city as office). 



Beaver Maniifacturinp; Co 

The Briggs Chemical Co 

Brooklyn Color Works (Inc.). 



Bush Co. (Inc.), W. J 

Butterworth-Judson Corporation. 



Cabot (Inc.), Samuel 

Calco Chemical Co., The 

California Ink Co. (Inc.) 

Carbide & Carbon Chemicals Corporation. 



Carey Manufacturing Co., The PhiUp 

Carus Chemical Co 

Central DyestufT & Chemical Co 

Central Specialty Co 

Certain-teed Products Corporation 



Chatfleld Manufacturing Co., The. 

Chemical Company of America (Inc.), The. 

Childs & Co. (Inc.), Charles M 
Chiris Co., Antoine 



Chlorine Products Co 

Cincinnati Chemical Works (Inc.) , 



Citizens Gas Co 

Coleman & Bell Co 

Combustion UtiUties Corporation 

Commercial Solvents Corporation 

Commonwealth Chemical Corporation. 



Commonwealth Color <fe Chemical Co. 



Condensite Company of America (Division of 

Bakelite Corporation). 
Consolidated Color & Chemical Co 



Cooks Falls Dye Works 

Coopers Co., Charles 

Coopers Creek Chemical Co 

Corona Chemical Division (Pittsburgh Plate 

Glass Co.) 
Crescent Color & Chemical Works (Inc.) 

Croton Color & Chemical Co. (Inc.) 

Crystal Chemical Co 

Davis Chemical Products (Inc.) 

Debrook Co. (Inc.) 



Dehls & Stein 

Delta Chemical & Iron Co 

Dcrmatological Research Institute (Inc.). 
Devoe & Raynolds Co. (Inc.) 



Diarsenol Co. (Inc.) 

Dicks David Co. (Inc.). 



Dissosway Chemical Co. (Inc.) 

Dow Chemical Co., The 

Du Pont de Nemours & Co. (Inc.), E.I. 

Dye Products and Chemical Co. (Inc.) . 



Dye Stuffs & Chemicals (Inc.). 
Eakins(Inc.),J.S.& W. R.... 

Eastman Kodak Co 

Essential Oil Co 

Esse.x AnUine Works (Inc.) 



Fine Colors Co. (Inc.) 

Florasynth Laboratories (Inc.). 

Foitcr-Heaton Co 

Frankcn Color Works, A. 



Fries Bros. 



Ballardvale, Mass. 

Amherst, Ohio. 

Stewart Avenue and Cherry Street, Brooklyn, 

N. Y. 
370 Seventh Street, New York City. (Linden, 

N.J.) 
30 Church Street, New York City. (Newark, 

N.J.) 
141 Milk Street, Boston, Mass. 
Bound Brook, N. J. 
West Berkeley, Calif. 
30 East Forth-second Street, New York City. 

(Clendenin, W. Va.) 
Loekland, Ohio. 

1377 Eighth Street, La Salle, 111. 
Plum Point Lane, Newark, N. J. 
524 Delaware Street, Kansas City, Mo. 
BoatsTren's Bank Building, St. Louis, Mo. 

(East St. Louis, 111.) 
Seventv-fourth and Lebanon Streets, Station P, 

Cin -innati. Ohio. 
46 Murray Street, New York City. (Springfield, 

N. J.) 

43 Summit Street, Brooklvn, N. Y. 

147-1.53 Waverly Place, New York City. (Dela- 

wanna, N.J.) 
81 Maiden Lane, New York City. (Niagara 

FaUs, N. Y.) 
Evanston Station, Box 20, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

(Norwood and St. Bernard, Ohio.) 
Majestic Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 
Norwood, Ohio. 

24 State Street, New York City. 
Terre Haute. Ind. 

25 West Forty-third Street, New York City. 
(Newark, N. J.) 

Nevans, Butler and Baltic Streets, Brooklyn, 

N.Y 
Bloomfield, N. J. (Wyandotte, Mich.) 

122 Hudson Street, New York City. (Newark, 

N.J.) 
5 Cedar Street, New York City. (Cooks Falls, 

N.Y.) 
194 Worth Street, New York City. (Newark, N.J.) 
West Conshohocken, Pa. 
213-215 Lake Street, Milwaukee, Wis. 

Fifty-ninth Street and Eleventh Avenue, New 

York City. (Dunellen, N. J.) 
293 Broadway, New York City. (Croton-on-Hud- 

son, N. Y.) 
3854 North Harding Avenue, Chicago, 111. 
671 Broad Street, Newark, N. J. (Springfield, 

N.J.) 

26 Court Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. (1105 Metro- 
politan Avenue, Brooklyn, N. Y.) 

237-243 South Street, Newark, N.J. 

Wells, Delta Co., Mich. 

1720-1724 Lombard Street, Philadelphia. 

101 Fulton Street, New York City. (New York 

and Chicago.) 
904 Ellicott Square, Buffalo, N. Y. 

44 Watts Street, New York City. (Chicago 
Heights, 111.) 

55 Eckford Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Midland, Mich. 

Tenth and Market Streets, Wilmington, Del. 
(Deepwater Point and Lodi, N. J.) 

200 Fifth Avenue, New York City. (Newark, 
N.J.) 

Eleventh and Monroe Streets, St. Louis, Mo. 

24 Wallabout Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

343 State Street, Rochester, N. Y. 

Trenton, N. J. 

88 Broad Street, Boston, Mass. (South Middle- 
ton, Mass.) 

21-29 McBride Avenue, Paterson, N.J. 

Olmstcad & Starling Avenues, Unionport, N. Y. 

27-31 Badger Avenue, Newark, N.J. , 

129 Fifth Avenue, New York City. (Chatham, 
N.J.) 

92 Rcade Street, New York City. (Bloomfield, 
N.J.) 



SYNTHETIC ORGAlsriC CHEMICALS,, NOT OF COAL-TAR ORIGIN, 1922. 119 
Directory of manufacturers of dyes and other synthetic organic chemicals, 1922 — Continued. 



Name of company. 



OflSce address (location of plant given in paren- 
thesis if not in same city as office). 



Fries & Fries Co., The i 1501-13 West Sixth Street, Cincinnati, Ohio. 



Garfield Aniline Works (Inc.). 

Gary Chemical Co 

Gaskill Chemical Corporation. 
Gebauer Chemical Co., The. . . 

Goodrich Co., The B. F 

Grahame Chemical Co 

Granton Chemical Co 



Grassclli Chemical Co., The. 



Heller & Merz Co., The 

Hermann & Co., if orris 

Hoyden Chemical Co. of America (Inc.). 

Hind & Harrison Plush Co., The 

Hirsch Laboratories (Inc.) 

Holland Aniline Co 

Hooker Electrochemical Co 

Hord Color Products Company, The. . . 

Hub Dyestufl & Chemical Co 

Huggins & .Son, James 

Hydrocarbon Chemical Co 

Hynson, Westcott & Dunning 



Imperial Color Works (Inc.) 

Industrial Chemicals Laboratory (Inc.). 
International Chemical Products Co 



Interstate Chemical Co 

Ising Corporation, The C. E 

Jordan Coal Tar Products Co. (Inc.). 
Kentucky Color & Chemical Co 



Kerin Manufacturing Co., The. 
Klipstein & Sons Co., E. C 



Kohnstamm & Co. (Inc.), H 

Lakeview Laboratories 

La Motte Chemical Products Co. 

Lasher & Co. (Inc.), F. G 

Lee Co., A 

Lewis Manufacturing Co., F. J. 

Lucas Paint Co., Alston 

Lucas & Co. (Inc.), John 



Mallinckrodt Chemical Works 

Mar.x Color & Chemical Co., Max 

Massa ■hus'^tts df^partment of public health. 

May Chemical Works 

May wood Chemical Works 

Mepham & Co., Geo. S 



Merck & Co 

Merrimac Chemical Co 

Metz Laboratories (Inc.), H. A. 

Miner-Edgar Co., The 

Monsanto Chemical Works 

Morana Incorporated 



National Ammonia Co. of Pennsylvania, The . . . 
National Aniline & Chemical Co. (Inc.) 



Naugatuck Chemical Co., The. 
Newport Co., The 



New England Aniline Works (Inc.) 

New Haven Gas Light Co 

New York Color & Chemical Co. (Inc.) 

New York Quinine & Chemical Works (Inc.). 

Niagara Alkali Co 

Niagara Smelting Corporation 

Noil Chemical & Color Works (Inc.) 



Northwestern Chemical Co 

Norvell Chemical Corporation, The. 



Oldbury Electro Chemical Co , 

Organo^Chemical Co 

Palatine Aniline & Chemical Corporation. 



Midland Avenue, Garfield, N. J. 

738 Broadway, Gary, Ind. (Chesterton, Ind.) 

157 Spencer Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

619 Bangor Building, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Akron, Ohio. 

221 East State Street, Trenton, N. J. 

350 Madison Avenue, New York City. (New 
Brunswick, N. J.) 

Guardian Building, Cleveland, Ohio. (Rensse- 
laer, N. Y., and Grasselli, N. J.) 

338 Wilson Avenue, Newark, N . J. 

200 Fifth Avenue, New York City. (Newark, N.J. 

River Road, Garfield, N. J. 

Clark Mills, N. Y. 

593 Ir%'ing Avenue, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Holland, Mich. 

25 Pine Street, New York City. 

1636 Columbus Avenue, Sandusky, Ohio, 

595 East Seventh Street, South Boston, Mass. 

239 Medford Street, ivfalden, .^'a-^s. 
951 East Orange Street, Lancaster, Pa. 
Charles and Chase Streets. (1030 North Charles 
Street, Baltimore, Md.) 

Glens Falls, N. Y. 

Hammond, Ind. 

13 West Saratoga Street, Baltimore, Md. (Eu- 
reka, Mint.) 
667 Garfield Avenue, Jersey City, N. J. 

Flushing, Long Island., N^ Y. 

11 Chfl Street, New York Citv. (Matawan. N. J.) 

Thirty-fourth Street, .south of Bank Street, 

Louisville^ Ky. 
Central National Bank Building, Marietta, Ohio. 
644 Greenwich Street. New York City. fCart- 

eret, N. J., and South Charleston, W. Va.) 
87 Park Place, New York Citv. (Brooklyn, N. Y. 
2 Jersey Street, Buffalo, N. Y. 
13 West Saratoga Street, Baltimore, Md. 
Maspeth and Gardner Avenues, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Lawrence, Mass. (Methuen. Mass.) 
2513 South Ribey Street, Chinago, 111. 
1031 Currier Street. Chi-ago. TU 
322 Race Street, Philadelphia, Pa. (Gibbsboro. 

N. J.> 
.3600 North Second Street, St. Louis, Mo. 
192-194 Coit Street, Irv ington, N. J. 
Room 540, Statehouse, Boston, Mass. 
204 Niagara Street, Newark, N. J. 
Maywood, N. J. 
Twentieth Street and Lynch Avenue, East St. 

Louis, 111. 
45 Park Place, New York City. (Rah way, N. J.) 
148 State Street, Boston, Mass. 
122 Hudson Street, New York City. (Brooklyn, 

N. Y.) 
110 William Street, New York Citv. 
1724 South Second Street, St. Louis, Mo. 
118 East Twentv-seventh Street, New York 

City. (EUzabeth, N. J.) 
Delaware Avenue and Vankirk Street, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 
40 Rector Street, New York City. (Brooklyn and 

Buffalo, N. Y.; Marcus Hook, Pa.) 
Naugatuck, Conn. 
P. O. Box 1582, Milwaukee, Wis. (Carrollville, 

Wis.) 
95 Broad Street, Boston, Mass. (Ashland. Mass.) 

80 Crown Street, New Haven, Conn. 
Belle^ ille, N. J. (Philadelphia. Pa.) 

152 William Street, New York City. (Brooklyn, 

N. Y.) 
4205 Bufl^alo Avenue, Niagara Falls, N. Y. 
Niagara Falls, N. Y. 
152 West One hundred and eighth Street, New 

York City. 
Wauwatosa, Wis. 
11 Cliff Street, New York City. (Perth Amboy, 

N.J.) 
Niagara Falls, N. Y. 
1636 C ^lumbus Avenue, Sandusky, Ohio. 

81 North Water Street, Poughkeepsie, N. Y. 



120 UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 

Directory of manufacturers of dyes and other synthetic organic chemicals, 1922 — Continued . 



Name of company. 



Office address (location of plant given in paren- 
thesis if not in same city as office). 



Passaic Color Corporation 

Peerless Color Co. (Inc.) 

Pennsylvania Coal Products Co 

Perth Amboy Chemical Works 

Pfizer & Co. (Inc.) , Chas 

Pharma-Chemical Corporation 

Po Ambo Chemical Co. (Inc.) 

Powers- Weightman-Rosengarten Co 

Providence Chemical Laboratories , 

Puritan Dye & Chemical Co 

Quaker Oats Co., The 

Radiant Dye and Color Works 

Redmanol Chemical Products Co 

Republic Cresoting Co 

Rhodia Chemical Co 

Roessler & Hasslacher Chemical Co., The... 

Rossville Co., The 

Rubber Service Laboratories Co , 

Ruxton (Inc.), Philip 

Secaw Chemical Co 

Selden Co., The 

Sepoy Color & Chemical Co , 

Seydel Chemical Co. • 

Sherwin-Williams Co., The 

Siegle Corporation of America, The G 

Siemon & Elting 

Sinclair & Valentine Co 

Southern Dyestuffs Co 

Special Chemicals Co 

Springdale Finishing Co. (Inc.), The 

Squibb & Sons, E. R 

Steams & Co., Frederick 

Sterling Chemical Works (Inc.) , 

Sim Chemical & Color Co 

Synfleur Scientific Laboratories (Inc.) 

Synthetical Laboratories of Chicago 

T. M. & G. Chemical Co 

Tar Products Corporation 

Terpene Chemical Co., The 

Texdel Chemical Co., (Inc.) 

Textile Chemical Co., (Inc.) 

Thatcher Process Co., (Inc.) 

Todd Co., A. M .- , 

Tower Manufacturing Co 

Trico Chemical Co., (Inc.) , 

UUman Co., Sigmund 

Ultro Chemical Corporation 

U.S. Industrial Chemical Co 

Van Dyk&Co 

Van Shaack Bros. Chemical Works 

Vernon Synthetic Chemical Corp. (Inc.).. . . 

Verona Chemical Co , 

Wamesit Chemical Co 

Warner-Jenkinson Co , 

Western Dry Color Co 

Westvaco Chlorine Products (Inc.) 

Wilbur White Chemical Co., The 

White Tar Co. of N. Y. (Inc.) The , 

Wilhelm Co., The A 

Williamsburg Chemical Co. (Inc.) 

Wolf Si. Co., Jacques 

Wyoming Dyestufl & Chemical Corporation 

Yocum Laboratories (Inc.), The 

Zinsser Co 

Zobel Co. (Inc.), Ernst. 



50-60 Eighth Street, Passaic, N. J. 
521-535 North Avenue, Plainfleld, N. J. 
Reiber Building, Butler, Pa. (Petrolia, Pa.) 
709 Sixth Avenue, New York City. (Perth Am- 
boy, N. J.) 
81 Maiden Lane, New York City. 
233 Broadway, New York City. (Bayonne, N.J.) 
Matawan, N. .7. 
916 Parrish Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 

51 Empire Street, Providence, R. I. 
East Main Street, Northboro, Mass. 

160O-168( East Jackson Street. Chicago, lU. (Cedar 
Rapids, Iowa.) 

2837 West Twenty-first Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

636 West Twenty-second Street, Chicago, 111. 

1614 Merchants Bank Building, Indianapolis, 
Ind. (Indianapolis, Ind.; St. Louis Park, 
Minn.; Mobile, Ala.; Seattle, Wash.; Norfolk, 
Va.) 

89 Fulton Street, New York City. (New Brans- 
wick, N. J.) 

709 Sixth Avenue, New York City. 

Lawrenceburg, Ind. 

611 Peoples Savings & Trast Building, Akron, 
Ohio. (Nitro, W. Va.) 

220 West Forty-second Street, New York City. 
(Brooklyn, >J. Y.) 

525 Chancellor Avenue, Irvington, N. J. 

339 Second Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

371 Durham Avenue, Metuchen, N. J. 

120 Broadway, New York City. (Nitro, W. Va.) 
601 Canal Road, Cleveland, Ohio. (Kensington, 

111.) 
Rosebank, Staten Island, N. Y. 
Irvington, N. J. 
11 St. Clair Place, New York City. 

25 West Forty-third Street, New York City. 
(Nitro, W. Va.) 

Highland Park, 111. 

Pine Street, Canton, Mass. 

80 Beekman Street, New York City. (Brooklyn, 

N. Y.; New Brunswick, N. J.) 
6533 East Jefferson Street, Detroit, Mich. 
115 Broadway, New York City. (Newark, N. J.) 
309-321 Sussex Street, Harrison, N. J. 
Monticello, N. Y. 

1326 West Congress Street, Chicago, 111. 
Meadow Lane, Elizabeth, N. J. 
913 Turks Head Building, Providence, R. I. (E 

Providence, R. I.) 

121 Arthur Street, Sandusky, Ohio 

120 Maiden Lane, New York City. (Jersey City. 

N.J.) 
Public Street and Aliens Avenue, Providence,R.I. 
523 Tracy Street, Syracuse, N. Y. 
Kalamazoo, Mich. 
85 Doremus Avenue, Newark, N. J. 
502 Iroquois Building, Buffalo, N. Y. 
Park Avenue and One hundred and forty-sixth 

Street, New York City. 
41 Union Square, New'York City. (Brooklyn, 

N.Y.) 
27 William Street, New York City. (Baltimore, 

Md.) 
4 Piatt Street, New York City. (Jersey City,N. J. 
Chicago, 111. 
166 Vernon Avenue, Long Island City, N. Y. 

26 Verona Avenue, Newark, N. J. 
Lowell, Mass. (Wamesit, Mass.) 
2526 Baldwin Street, St. Louis, Mo. 
Fifty-second and Wallace Streets, Chicago, 111. 

52 Vanderbilt Avenue, New York City. (South 
Charleston, W. Va.) 

Owego, N. Y. 

56 Vesey Street, New York City. (Kearny, N. J., 

Reading, Pa. 

230 Morgan Avenue, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Passaic, N. J. 

Carbon Street, Scranton, Pa. 

168 Coit Street, Irvington, N. J. 

Hastings on Hudson, N. Y. 

104-126 Second Avenue, Brooklyn, N. Y. 



PART V. 

INTERNATIONAL DYE TRADE. 

IMPORTS AND EXPORTS OF THE WORLD'S CHIEF DYE- 
CONSUMING AND PRODUCING NATIONS, 
1913, 1920, 1921, AND 1922. 



52805—23 ^9 121 



Part V. 

IMPORTS AND EXPORTS OF THE WORLD'S CHIEF DYE- 
CONSUMING AND PRODUCING NATIONS FOR 1913, 1920, 
1921, AND 1922. 

Introductory . 

This section is a new feature of the census of dyes and coal-tar 
products pubHshed annually by the Tariff Commission. It presents 
statistics of imports and exports taken from foreign official publica- 
tions. The year 1913 is selected as a pre-war year for comparison 
with the post-war years 1920, 1921, and so far as figures are avail- 
able, 1922. The figures for the two periods furnish a basis for a 
detailed analysis of the international trade in dyes. 

International Dye Trade. 



SUMMARY. 

The world's annual production of coal-tar dyes previous to the 
war approximated $90,000,000 in value. Figured at 25 cents per 
pound, this was equivalent to about 360,000,000 pounds. In any 
event it is reasonable to infer that the output exceeded 300,000 000 
but was less than 400,000,000 pounds. The best available estimate 
of the world's production by countries is contained in the followino- 
table : ^ *= 



World's approximate production of dyes by countries, 1913. 



Germany $68, 300, 000 

Switzerland 6, 450, 000 

Great Britain 6, 000, 000 

France 5, 000, 000 

United States 3, 000, 000 

Austria 1, 500, 000 



Russia §1, 000, 000 

Belgium 500, 000 

Netherlands 200, 000 

Other countries 20o! 000 



Total 92,150,000 



The pre-war production of dyes by quantity and value is esti- 
mated by Grandmougin ^ as follows : 

World's production of artificial dyes. 



Dye. 



Indigo, 20 per cent. 

Sulphur black 

Sulphur dyes 

Azo dyes 

Aniline dyes 

Anthracene dyes... 
Other dyes 



Total. 



Pounds. 



88, 160, 000 
33, 060, 000 
11,020,000 
132, 240, 000 
22, 040, 000 
13, 224, 000 
13, 224, 000 



312,968,000 



Mean value, 



«0. 175 
.175 
.175 
.175 
.525 
.525 
.263 



Total value. 



$15, 440, 000 
5, 790, 000 
1,930,000 
23, 160, 000 
11,580,000 
6, 948, 000 
3, 474, 000 



68,322,000 



trlil"''ThomTs*H.S?S'"''® ^^^"^^ ^^^^^^ ^®"^ ^' "'^^'^^^^ ^°^ American Textile and Other Indus - 
' Grandmougin: L'Essor des Industries Chimiques en France, 1919. 

123 



124 UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 

PRE-WAR PRODUCTION OF DYES. 

Germany, with an output totaling three-fourths of all synthetic 
dyes produced, dominated the world's dye markets. Of the remain- 
ing quarter, over one-half was made from intermediates imported 
from Germany, and consequently the production of these dyes was 
dependent on that country. On the hasis of the above, about 88 
per cent of the world's dye production was controlled by Germany. 

Switzerland, although without raw materials, ranked second, 
with about 7 per cent of the world's production. In 1913 Swiss 
exports of dyes were valued at over one-tenth of the dye exports of 
German}^. Practically all the raw materials required by the Swiss 
dye makers were of German origin. Great Britain, although pos- 
sessing an abundant supply of coal-tar crudes, ranked far below the 
two preceding countries as a dye producer. At the beginning of the 
war she produced only one-tenth of her domestic requirements, which 
totaled about 40,000,000 pounds, with a value of .$9,700,000. Official 
figures for 1907 show an output of 15,568,000 pounds, with a value 
of $1,815,205. In the manufacture of alizarin and several interme- 
diates the British held a notable position. 

France also possessed a synthetic dye industry; French-owned 
and operated plants manufactured from 10 to 15 per cent of the con- 
sumption of that country. In both France and Great Britain, in 
dye plants operated and owned by the German dye makers, final 
assembling operations were completed in the case of certain dyes 
made from German intermediates, in order to meet the patent re- 
quirements of those two countries. 

In the United States just before the war a small dye industry 
produced dyes almost entirely from intermediates imported chiefly 
from Germany. The American industry of that period was in no 
sense self-contained or complete. The output in 1914 of 7 firms was 
6,619,729 pounds, valued at $2,470,096. 

Dye-consuming nations. — China leads the world as a consumer of 
dyes. The present estimated consumption of synthetic dyes by 
China (with indigo figured on the 20 per cent paste basis) exceeds 
70,000,000 pounds. In 1913 Germany, Switzerland, and France 
exported to that country 69,781,276 pounds, valued at $11,673,917. 
In that year one-fifth oi the total value of Germany's entire exports 
was taken by China. China used more indigo than all other nations 
of the world combined, and, because of the excessive use of blue 
color, continues to lead in its consumption.'' 

During 1913, 64 per cent of the German exports of indigo went 
to China, totaling 47,090,256 pounds, with an export value of $6,396,- 
964. China consumes probably not more than 25 dyes in large 
quantities. The dyes consumed in the China trade are almost wholly 
those used on cotton and silk, as wool is used for clothing material 
only in negligible quantities. Among the basic dyes imported are 
Malachite green. Magenta, Methyl violet 2B, Methylene blue, Bis- 

8 Before the war the total production of indigo (100 per cent) was about 8,000 tons per year, to which 
should be added 2,000 tons of natural indigo. Of the 8,000 tons of synthetic, Germany produced 
about 7,000 tons. About 500 tons were consumed in Germany and the remainder exported. About 400 tons 
were made in France by the German branch factories. There was also production of indigo in England 
under similar conditions. The Swiss made about 400 tons . (France, Mmistfere du Commerce I'lndustne 
Francaise, vol. 2, 1919, p. 205.) 



INTERNATIONAL DYE TRADE. 



125 



marck brown, Chrysoidine, and Auramine. There is considerable 
consumption of the direct blues and reds, and of Croceine scarlet for 
dyeing silks and for paper staining. Sulphur black and a few other 
sulphur dyes are also imported into China. 

The United States, with an average annual consumption of about 
55,000,000 pounds, ranks second among dj^e-consuming countries. 
The imports of 1913 were about 45,950,895 pounds. The United 
States is the largest consumer of fast vat dyes, chiefly for use on 
cotton. Great Britain ranks third among dye-consuming countries; 
its present consumption is about 50,000,000 pounds. 

The consumption of Germany is not accurately known, owning to the 
lack of official figures for that country. The annual consumption has 
been variously estimated at from 33,000,000 to 55,000,000 pounds. 
The post-war consumption, however, is probably below 40,000,000 
pounds per year. France has an annual consumption of 20,000,000 
pounds, and the British colonies, with India leading, have a combined 
consumption of about 18,000,000 pounds per year. Italy, Japan, 
and Switzerland follow in importance as dye consumers. Prior to 
the war Russia and Austria-Hungary were both important con- 
sumers of dyes; Grandmougin estimates that Russia consumed 
about 22,000,000 pounds and Austria-Hungary about 18,000,000 
pounds per year. 

The tables at the end of this section give complete official figures 
on exports and imports of each of the above-mentioned countries, 
showing the status of each nation as a producer and consumer of 
synthetic dyes. 

Table 21. — Total imports of dyes into chief consuming countries, 191-3 and 1921. 



Country. 



1913 



Pounds. 



Value. 



1921 



Pounds. 



Value. 



China:' 

Indigo '42, 

Aniline 

Unit od States 2 1 45, 

Great Britain I 41, 

Austria-Hungary. 
British India 3.... 
Italy. 



Japan ( aniline) . 

Turkey 

Russia 



17, 

16: 

is: 
9: 

2 

i. 

France -4: 

Canada 3 j 2: 

Germany : 7, 

Sweden I 2, 

Dutch East Indies < j 2, 

Switzerland 1, 



609, 989 
(■■■) 

950, 895 
203, 008 
168, 764 
923, 607 
542,429 
755, 260 
631,703 
835, 647 
706, 601 
633, 516 
138, 495 
376, 166 
073, 434 
201, 292 



032, 205 
943, 329 
537, 870 
207, 684 
616, 199 
741,031 
611,705 
100, 255 
641, 321 
701, 186 
416,316 
594, 414 
682, 422 
699, 737 
890, 366 
431, 197 



46, 939, 187 



$13, 219, 349 



4,252,911 
6, 600, 160 



5,156,779 
6, 333, 162 



10, 842, 191 

6 7,450,665 

5, 587, 881 



12,779,646 
2,558,657 
6,488,681 



2,531,320 



1, 539, 907 



1,084,337 



608, 823 



1 Exports to China from Fran?e, Germany, and Switzerland amount to 69,761,276 pounds — 811,673,917. 
' Fiscal year 1914. Quantity from Norton's Special Agents Series No. 121. Value from Commerce and 
Navigation. 
' Year ended March 31, 1914. 
< Quantity of synthetic indigo not shown. 
6 Not stated. 
' Figures include 3,493,275 pounds of reparation dyes for which no value is shown. 



126 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 
Table 22. — Exports of dyes from Germany, 1913. 



Country of destination. 



Total artificial colors and 


Per cent- 
age of 


intermediates. 






quantity. 


Tons. 


Pounds. 


Per cent. 


29, 821 


65, 743, 376. 60 


23.0 


24, 004 


52,919,218.40 


19.2 


16,066 


35, 419, 103. 60 


13.0 


8,510 


18,761,146.00 


7.0 


8,787 


19, 371, 820. 20 


7.2 


6,392 


14,091,803.20 


5.1 


4,813 


10, 610, 739. 80 


3.8 


4,674 


10, 304, 300. 40 


3.7 


3,733 


8,229,771.80 


3.1 


2,547 


5,615,116.20 


2.1 


1,783 


3, 930, 801. 80 


1.4 


2,920 


6, 437, 432. 00 


2.4 


1,076 


2, 372, 149. 60 


0.9 


909 


2,003,981.40 


0.7 


9,420 


20,767,332.00 


7.4 


125, 455 


276,578,093.00 


100.0 



China 

United States 

Great Britain , 

British colonies — 
Austria-Hungary . . 

Italy 

Russia 

Japan 

Switzerland 

Netherlands 

Dutch East Indies 

France 

Sweden , 

Spain 

All others 

Total 



1 From Rapport General sur L'Industrie Francaise, Part I, vol. 2, p. 204. 

DEVELOPMENTS DURING AND AFTER THE WAR. 

Soon after the beginning of the World War, the supply of dyes 
from Germany was shut off from other dye-consuming nations. 
After exhaustion of the stocks on hand there developed an acute 
shortage which threatened the textile and other industries dependent 
upon dyes for their operations. The prices of dyes rose to many times 
their normal level, and certain colors were not to be obtained at any 
price. These conditions stimulated an expansion by existing firms 
and the establishment of new firrus, ultimately resulting in the 
manufacture of intermediates and dyes on a large scale in the United 
States, England, France, and, to a smaller extent, in Italy and Japan. 
Developments during the war were greatly hindered by lack of raw 
materials on account of the enormous demands for munitions. 

PRESENT CONDITIONS AND FUTURE TENDENCIES. 

The United States, Great Britain, and France are now producingfrom 
80 to 90 per cent of .their own requirements and have exported 
significant quantities of dyes to the Far East. Their extensive 
progress in dye manufacture during and since the war has broken, 
temporarily at least, Germany's monopoly in dye production. 
These countries depend upon Germany for a relatively small tonnage 
of dyes, and these are largely specialties. The world's post-war capacity 
to produce synthetic dyes greatly exceeds the normal requirements and 
is now nearly double the pre-war capacity. The newly created dye in- 
dustries in the United States, Great Brit in, and Fran e are p otected 
by higher tarifi's or by licensed control of imports. On the other hand, 
the German dye industry, with cumulative experience, lower manu- 
facturing costs in plants built before the war and paid for by pre-war 
profits, offers a united front to the world under a powerful combina- 
tion known as the I. G (Interessen Gemeinschaf t) . The three Swiss 
manufacturers have also formed an amalgamation. Sooner or later 
the German dye industry will return to a normal condition and severe 
industrial competition will probably follow between it and the dye 



INTERNATIONAL DYE TRADE. 127 

industries of the United States, Great Britain, and France. There 
has already been severe competition in the Far East markets, where 
in 1921 Germany regained most of her trade. Later, it is probable 
that the Germans will strive to obtain a commanding place in the 
home markets of the newly created industries. As the present export 
prices of German dyes are far above the pre-wai* levels, redaction in 
prices may be expected. A reduction in the prices of special types 
not as yet highly developed in those countries would tend to dis- 
courage their production and at the same time prove an entering 
wedge for competition with respect to products already made there. 

If present protective measures continue in the new dye-producing 
nations, Germany is likely to establish factories and seek industrial 
affiliations in those countries, as was the case in Italy. The Swiss dye 
manufacturers have already established plants in the United States 
and Great Britain. Governmental measures, in various ways designed 
to stimulate dye manufacturing, will probably play an important part 
during the next 5 to 10 years in the United States, Great Britain, and 
France. 

Another factor, important in the long run, is the progress achieved 
in those countries in reducing manufacturing costs and in develop- 
ing new dyes, in contrast to the earlier methods of merely imitating 
dyes already in existence. 

Both reduced costs and new color production hinge largely upon 
research, which in turn depends upon a large force of highly trained 
chemists and technologists and a comprehensive program covering a 
period of years. Furthermore, any nation with a large, self-con- 
tained industry will seek an outlet in export trade for many of its 
products in order to balance production as well as to avail itself of 
a source of revenue. It is unwise to predict the results of the probable 
future competition between the dye industries of the United States, 
Great Britain, France, and Germany. Many factors are involved 
and the final result is problematical. The dye famine during the 
World War and the Ruhr occupation suggest the likelihood that 
the large industrial nations ^\dll endeavor to retain a considerable 
portion of their newly developed dye industries to meet their essential 
domestic recjuirements, both in time of peace and for the emergen- 
cies of national defense. 

The dye industry is intimately associated with the manufacture 
of many synthetic organic chemicals, among which are certain syn- 
thetic medicinals essential to the public health. 

The Swiss Dye Industry. 

Switzerland is the only nation without the raw materials, coal 
and the products of the coking industry, possessing a well-developed 
and flourishing dye industry. Prior to the war its dye industry 
ranked second to that of Germany, producing about 7 per cent 
of the world's total output. The value of the coal-tar dye exports 
from Switzerland in 1913 was over 10 per cent of the toal value 
of the exports of these products from Germany. At that time 
the Swiss were dependent upon Germany for raw materials required 
in the manufacture of dyes. The dye industry of Switzerland is 
located at Basel. The four firms now manufacturing were founded 
previous to 1887 and the development of dye manufacturing 



128 UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 

paralleled that of the German dye industry. Owing to their con- 
structive accomplishments in research and to their efficient produc- 
ing and merchandizing organization the Swiss have developed a good 
variety of dyes and have distributed them in all important world 
markets. During and immediately after the war, in the absence 
of German dyes, the Swiss industry had a period of great prosperity. 
The three large producers, Sandoz & Co., J. R. Geigy, and the Society 
for Chemical Industry, united their interests. The purposes of this 
combination, which is to last for 50 years, are: The advantageous 
purchase of raw materials, the marketing of finished products, and 
the pooling of profits. Branch firms for manufacturing colors have 
been established by the Swiss in Great Britain and the United 
States. The Swiss dye industry, as before the war, continues to be 
a notable factor in international trade. 

RAW MATERIALS. 

With the exception of salt, Switzerland does not possess coal or 
other mineral substances required in the chemical industry. For 
this reason dye making in that country does not represent a com- 
plete and self-contained industry. Prior to the war the German 
and Swiss dyemakers maintained relationships whereby the Swiss 
received nearly all their raw materials from the German dyemakers 
and participated to a considerable extent in the conventions and 
trade agreements of Germany. As Switzerland was entirely de- 
pendent upon foreign sources for the raw materials of the industry 
the origin of these since the outbreak of the war is of particular 
interest. 

Official statistics of Switzerland show that Germany supplied, 
before the war, the vast majority of the crudes and intermediates 
imported by the Basel dye makers. This is illustrated by the 
figures for 1910 and 1911, when 83 to 85 per cent of '^coal-tar 
derivatives and auxiliary materials used for aniline dye manufacture" 
came from Germany, together with about 98 per cent of "aniline 
compounds." After the outbreak of the war, demand was made 
upon Switzerland by Germany that exportation of dyes to all coun- 
tries at war with Germany cease. The German manufacturers of 
intermediates, furthermore, notified Swiss dyemakers that unless 
dye exports to those countries ceased the supply of raw materials 
would be cut off. The German Government informed the Swiss 
Government that failure to comply with these demands would 
result in an embargo to Switzerland on German chemicals and 
medicinals. As a result of the refusal of Switzerland to comply 
with these demands the supply of crudes and intermediates from 
Germany ceased entirely, or at least was greatly reduced, and the 
Swiss were compelled either to seek other sources for their raw 
materials or to stop manufacture. 

Great Britain was confronted with an acute dye shortage early in 
the war and supplied the Swiss manufacturers with crudes and 
intermediates, receiving in return finished dyes. The United 
States during the war made extensive developments in the produc- 
tion of crudes and intermediates, and were able to supply the Swiss 
certain materials. France also contributed a portion of the Swiss 
requirements. The new sources of raw materials were evident 



INTERNATIONAL DYE TRADE. 129 

from Swiss imports of 1917-1918. In 1917, 24 per cent of "coal- 
tar derivatives and auxiliary materials used for aniline dye manu- 
facture" was imported from Great Britain, and in 1918, 50 per cent. 
In 1917 of the "aniline compounds" 45 per cent came from the 
United States and 44 per cent from Great Britain. Of the "benzyl 
chloride, nitro-benzene, naphthol, etc.," imported, 39 per cent came 
from the United States, 33 per cent from France, and about 23 per 
cent from Great Britain. In 1918, 60 per cent came from Great 
Britain and 31 per cent from France. 

Owing to the exclusion of German dyes from the world's markets, 
the Swiss dye industry enjoyed a period of unprecedented prosperity 
during the war, and in 1920, before German dye manufacturers 
were again active in the world's dye markets, Swiss exports reached 
the maximum in the history of that industry. Since the war the 
Swiss have obtained their crudes and intermediates from several 
sources and are no longer dependent upon a single country for 
raw materials. This is illustrated by the imports of 1921 and 1922. 
In the former year, of the total imports of "coal-tar derivatives 
and auxiliary materials used for aniline dye manufacture," about 
55 per cent came from the United States, 17 per cent from France, 
and 15 per cent from England. 

Of the imports of " aniline " in 1922, 65 per cent came from Germany, 
23 per cent from Czechoslovakia, and about 8 per cent from Great 
Britain. Of the "aniline compounds," 73 per cent came from Ger- 
many, 18 per cent from Great Britain, and 6 per cent from France. 
Of the "benzyl chloride, nitrobenzene, naphthol, etc.," 57 per cent 
came from Germany, 23 per cent from Great Britain, 12 per cent 
from France, and 9 per cent from the United States. Detailed 
import figures are given at the end of this section in the tables for 
crudes and intermediates for the years 1911 and 1922. 

The supply of crudes and intermediates from Germany was greatly 
diminished after the occupation of the Ruhr. The Swiss, however, 
owing to their connections with other countries, were able to obtain 
raw materials from France, Great Britain, United States, Italy, and 
Poland. 

An important Swiss development was the purchase of foreign dye 
plants; the Cincinnati Chemical Works, at Norwood and St. Bernard, 
Ohio, and the Clayton Aniline Co. (Ltd.), in England. The latter 
plant is owned by three Swiss firms and manufactures dyes and 
intermediates for them. 

SWISS EXPORT TRADE. 

Prior to the war the Swiss had a valuable export trade in dyes to 
Germany, the United States, Great Britain, British India, Belgium, 
China, and Italy. The total quantity of dyes exported by Switzer- 
land in 1913 was 19,458,902 pounds, valued at S5,549,752. During 
the war the quantity of exports increased and the value showed a 
very large increase owing to the great scarcity and consequent high 
prices of coal-tar dyes. In 1918, although the quantit}^ of dyes 
exported was less, the value was over three times that of the year 
1913. In 1920, the year of maximum export of the Swiss dye 
industry, the quantity was 23,739,793 pounds, with a value reaching 
the high figure of $35,411,115, over six times that of the pre-war 
year 1913. In 1921, owing to the widespread business depression. 



130 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 



the reappearance of German dyes in the world's large markets and 
the low prices of reparation dyes, together with the new protective 
measures adopted by various foreign countries, the Swiss export trade 
showed a large decline to 10,779,612 pounds, valued at $11,654,516. 

In 1922, however, owing to increased business activities in the 
dye-consuming countries, the exports increased to 16,167,655 pounds, 
with a value of $13,042,635. In that year the largest consumers of 
Swiss dyes were France, Great Britain, the United States, China, 
Japan, and Belgium. 

A consideration of the Swiss export trade is not complete without 
special mention of indigo. The total exports of indigo in 1913 were 
3,950,202 pounds, valued at S754,792. China, the largest consumer 
of indigo, received 72 per cent of this quantity. Before the war the 
world's production of synthetic indigo was dominated by Germany, 
Switzerland being the only competitor. The exports of Germany for 
1913, according to official figures, totaled 73,530,024 pounds, with a 
value of $12,690,874. Of this China received 47,090,256 pounds, 
valued at $6,396,964. In 1917 Swiss exports of indigo totaled 
3,246,274 pounds and in 1920, 5,027,149 pounds, 90 per cent of which 
was sent to China. In 1921, the year of business depression, the total 
exports decreased to 2,607,823 pounds. In 1922, however, the exports 
of mdigo showed a large increase, totaling 7,629,680 pounds, valued 
at $2,508,441, of which China received 6,822,796 pounds, valued at 
$1,896,487. This quantity is 14.5 per cent of the German export 
of indigo to China in 1913. 

These figures indicate a recent increased capacity of Swiss indigo 
plants compared with the pre-war years, and also show the prominence 
of the Swiss product in the Far East market. 

Table 23. — Imports of intermediates into Switzerland, 1911 and 1922. 





1911 


1923 




Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Derivatives of coal tar— carbolineum: 

Germany 


1,998,470 




3,517,660 

9,259 

1,764 

22,928 


$17, 690 
410 


France 




Great Britain , 






246 




46,076 




1,147 








Total 


2,044,546 


$19,689 


3,551,611 


19,502 




Derivatives of coal tar and auxiliary materials for 
manufacture of aniline colors: 
Germany 


5,247,830 
104,278 




1,695,117 


42, 035 








Austria 




375, 223 
493, 610 
545,418 
940,041 
113,0% 
50,926 
11,684 
265, 213 


8,850 


France 


325,619 
433,424 




15, 814 


Great Britain 




30, 646 


United States 




16,552 








2, 622 


Poland 






901 


Italy 






574 


other countries 


21, 164 




4,998 








Total 


6,132,315 


298,876 


4,490,328 


122,992 






Aniline: 

Germany 


1,877,437 
220 




1,820,338 

66,579 

240, 301 

639,554 

24,471 


96, 361 


France 




4,998 


Great Britain 




19, 748 


Czechoslovakia 






36, 791 


Other countries 






1,065 










Total 


1,877,657 


167,666 


2,791,243 


158,964 







INTERN ATIOI^AL, DYE TKADE. 131 

Table 23. — Imports of intermediates into Sivitzerland, 1911 and i5>.?5— Continued. 





1911 


1922 




Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Aniline compounds: 


2,116,416 

3,307 

24,471 




507,940 

40,785 

122,355 

4,630 

17,416 

5,952 


$55,637 






10,243 






23,435 


United States 




1,065 


Italy 






4,425 




1,323 




1,475 










Total 


2,145,517 


$458,216 


699,078 


96,280 






Phthalic acid— resorcin: 


122,355 

60,926 

2,205 




48,281 


9,997 












5,071 
51,367 
5,071 


1,393 






4,998 








492 










Total 


175,486 


44,653 


109,790 


16,880 






Salicylic acid: 


46,738 
44,533 
11,023 




124, 780 
55,997 
33,510 


10,734 






6,227 






1,393 








Total 


102,294 


14,328 


214,287 


18,354 








1,772,719 

57, 099 

1,323 

441 




606,706 


36, 136 








France 




126, 324 
249,781 
100, 089 
36,455 


12,373 






29,416 






4,425 


Italy 






4,507 


















Total 


1,831,582 


237,652 


1,060,000 


86, 857 







Table 24. — Exports of dyes from. Switzerland, 1913, 1920, and 1921. 





1913 


1920 


1921 




Quaintity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Inligo, natural and artificial: 

Great Britain 


Pounds. 




Pounds. 
53,792 
2,205 
68, 863 
44,974 
22,487 


$45,911 
5,068 
27,949 
41.122 
12,171 
350 
33,112 


Pouiids. 

4,630 

46, 297 

3,748 

14, 991 

661 


$5,899 
12,839 


France 


1,102 

80,247 

235, 892 

18,739 

55, 556 


$767- 

11,931 

37,436 

3,601 

29, 983 


Italy 


3,470 


Belgium 


3,644 




174 








9,480 






Sweden 


33,069 


8,004 






Brazil 


14, 109 


14,448 








5,071 

882 

5,291 

2,646 

45, 194 

2,845,698 

143,960 

476, 855 


3,314 

145 

3,212 

394 

6,742 

493,081 

84,781 

71,401 
















Spain 


6,614 
441 
'16,297 
4,511,714 
39, 242 
149,692 
67,240 


15,129 
306 
21,410 
2,176,503 
89, 746 
68,530 
31, 839 


26, 676 

23,589 

56, 879 

2,192,916 

145,504 


62, 807 


British India 


11,798 


East Indies 


27, 066 


China 


1, 124, 627 


Japan 


344, 398 


United States 




Egypt 


63,713 
28,219 


31,404 


Other countries 






19,606 














Total 


3,950,202 


754,792 




5,027,149 


2,583,595 


2,607,821 


1,647,730 







132 UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 

Table 24. — Exports of dyes from Switzerland, 1913, 1920, and 1921 — Continued. 





1913 


1920 


1921 




Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Aniline, anthracene, naphthalene, 
and other coal-tar dye.s, n. s. p. f.: 
Germany 


Pounds. 

3,586,223 
711,645 
309, 967 

1,386,032 
764, 3.35 
169, 975 

1,879,202 
313,715 
188, 052 
38,801 
157, 849 
101,632 
175,045 
8,157 


$1,126,770 

211,085 

174,238 

401,320 

211,372 

47,310 

640, 607 

229, 626 

59,490 

13,237 

47, 909 

29, 160 

61,624 

2,885 


Pounds. 

661 

9,700 

3,165,585 

1,414,030 

1,191,807 

223, 767 

7,572,360 

15,212 

524,915 

32, 628 

206,571 

98.546 

518,301 

82,673 

2,646 


$1,215 

13,324 

8,267,993 

1,793,802 

2,596,639 

344,230 

10,535,726 

30, 395 

728,078 

59,650 

323,212 

134,065 

764,293 

153,462 

4,515 


Pounds. 

3,527 

18,519 

1,485,900 

578, 708 

496, 476 

166, 227 

1,376,332 


$3, 817 

17,871 

2,236,762 

576,367 

446,416 

1.53,548 

1 831 460 


Austria-Hungary 


France "...'. 


Italy 


Belpiura 


Holland 


Great Britain 


Russia 




Sweden 


100,971 
11,905 

108,687 
47,840 

207, 232 
17,637 


92,823 
11 972 


Norway 


Denmark 


118,674 
48 407 


Portugal 


Spain 


288 704 


Greece 


22 902 


Mesopotamia 




Serbia 


441 
11,464 
882 
4,850 
20,503 
3,968 
661 


isi 

3,701 
342 
1,157 
3,654 
1,334 
253 


1,984 
50, 265 
25,353 

2,425 
13,448 


2,776 

41 987 


Bulgaria 


47,840 
4, 189 
24,912 
16,535 
8, 157 
1,323 
1,764 


74,896 
6,464 
45,320 
30,492 
11,624 
2,795 
2,445 


Rumania 


20,994 
2 256 


European Turkey 


Egypt 


18,565 


Algeria and Tunis 




South Africa 






Straits, etc 






Asiatic Turkey 


11,905 
1,090,175 

28, 880 


3,037 

244,435 

5,086 








306, 219 
4,850 


578,026 

7,387 


645,066 


571,509 


Siam 




3,527 


4,685 


French Indies 






7,0.55 

7,937 

220 

188. 273 

324,517 

86,420 


20, 827 

13, 177 

324 

419,382 

678,447 

144,062 

135 

2,699,272 

4,826 

426,076 

351 




1,543 


240 


17,416 


26, 372 


Philippines 






589,069 
767,862 
144,401 


89,528 
242,099 
41,620 


46,517 

307,542 

94,798 


75, 126 


Japan 


427, 157 


Canada 


102 365 


Cuba 






2, 815, 274 


800,368 


1,447,540 

3,086 

208,776 

220 


1,500,451 


1,961,071 


Colombia 




49, 604 
9,700 


17,722 

2,188 


80, 247 


104, 447 


Central America 






661 

39,021 

42,990 

7,275 


868 


Brazil 


91,932 
53,351 


55,605 
17,941 


402, 780 

179, 675 

30, 203 

1,543 

9,0.39 

161,597 

661 

32,628 

14,330 

104, 057 

1,323 

24, 912 

661 


940, 656 

327, .383 

53, 657 

3,302 

16, 801 

269, 940 

1,091 

55,854 

32,422 

166,280 

2,684 

39, 180 

1,343 


64,889 


Argentina 


47,192 


Chile 


11,798 




882 


363 




Rest of Asia 








12,346 


3,105 


9,700 


13,533 


Oceania 









14,991 
327, 163 
302, 692 


22, 728 


Poland 






353,593 


Czechoslovakia 






256,086 


Hungary 










' 








Morocco 












8,377 


4,418 


18, 298 


27,066 










Total 


15,508,700 


4, 794, 960 


18,712,645 


32,827,520 


8,171,791 


10,006,786 







I 



INTERN ATIONAIi DYE TKADE. 
Table 25. — Imports of dyes into Switzerland, 1913, 1920, and 1921. 



133 





1913 


1920 


1921 




Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Alizarin, artificial: 

Germany 


Pounds. 
505, 074 
3,527 


$61,903 
432 


Pounds. 
229, 058 


$59, 199 


Pounds. 
221,562 


847, 712 


Great Britain 


Austria 


2,425 
3,968 


785 
878 






Czechoslovakia 






70, 547 
1,323 


14, 227 
174 


Others 


















Total 


508, 601 


62 335 


9.^.'^ i?.^ 


60, 862 


293, 432 


62 113 








Aniline, anthracene, naphthalene, 
and other coal-tar dyes, n. s. p. f.: 
Germany 


1, 476, 641 

220 

8,377 

5,512 

23,148 


426, 596 

64 

2,420 


1,092,600 

441 

95> 4S7 


1, 363, 930 

534 

17,669 

1,721 

319 


726, 467 
8,620 
1,604 
2,406 


578, 796 
5 379 


Austria-Hungary 


France 


3 123 


Italy 


1, 592 ' 441 
6, 687 441 


l'735 


Belgium 


'l73 


Spain 




173 


Netherlands 


441 
24, 912 


127 1 441 


302 






Great Britain 


7,197 


9,480 

3,748 
10, 362 


12,359 

907 

25,183 


1,002 

3,207 

200 


868 




521 


United States 






173 










Total 


1,539,251 


444,683 


1, 140, 441 


1, 422, 924 


743, 506 


590 941 






Indigo, natural and artificial: 

Germany 


152, 558 

882 


24, 040 
139 


155, 865 


61,329 


46, 297 


15 268 


France 




Italy 






1,102 


521 














Total 


153,440 


24, 179 


155, 865 


61,329 


47,399 


15 789 




' 



Table 



25a. — Dyes — Imports into and exports from Switzerland, 1922. 





Imports. 


Exports. 




Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Alizarin, artificial: 

Germany 


132,496 
22,266 


$23, 830 
4,957 






Czechoslovakia 












Total 


154, 763 


28, 787 












Aniline colors and not otherwise named coal-tar dyes: 
Germany 


993,393 
13, 007 
38,801 


568, 298 
11,057 
30, 121 


18,078 

2,155,437 

356, 484 

723, 550 

1,734,138 

163, 802 

235, 451 

183,643 

228,617 

1, 568, 132 

1, 170, 643 


$22,305 


France 


Italy 




Belgium 




Great Britain 


14,771 


8,769 


9 4Q4' V>i 


Spain 


94s 'IQ'i 


Sweden 






226 671 


Czechoslovakia 






154 609 


Japan 






259' 842 


United States 






2 490 747 


Other countries 


20,944 


8,198 


1 1Q9 S'^a 






Total 


1,080,915 


626,443 


S "vi? Q7^ 








Indigo, indigo solution: 

Germany 


53,285 
1,764 


16, 394 
763 






France 


9,480 
51, 588 
64, 595 
136,465 
52, 469 
6, 822, 796 
363, 759 
128, 528 


10, 104 
10 866 


Belgium 


Egypt 






35, 268 
37 175 


British India 






East Indies 






15' 632 


China 






1 SQfi' 487 


Japan 






4'?n S4fi 


Other countries 


66 


382 








Total 


55, 115 


17,539 


7,629,680 


2,508,441 





134 united states tariff commission. 

The French Dye Industry. 

The manufacture of dyes in France prior to the war was not exten- 
sively developed. About 10 to 15 per cent of the consumption was 
made in French-owned and operated dye factories.^ 

The three principal sources of dyes consumed in that period were 
(1) imports from Germany, (2) dye-assembling factories in France 
controlled by German dye manufacturers, (3) French-owned and 
operated factories. Official figures for 1913 show that France 
imported 4,706,601 pounds of dyes with a value of $1,416,316. Of 
this total quantity about 86 per cent came from Germany and about 
9 per cent from Switzerland. The total value of dyes produced in 
the German-controlled factories located in France was about 
$2,000,000 and the value of the dyes made in French-owned and 
operated factories was about $600,000.^ 

In 1913 only one French firm was capable of manufacturing 
intermediates used in the preparation of dyes, namely, the Societe 
Anonyme des Matieres Colorantes et Produits Chimiques de St. 
Denis, formerly Poirrier. The other dye factories of France, as 
was the case in the United States, depended upon intermediates 
imported ahnost entirely from Germany. Imported crudes came 
largely from Germany and Great Britain (see Table 26). Crudes 
from the French gas works were purchased by the German dye 
manufacturers and returned to France in the form of interme- 
diates. German dye firms operated six branch plants in France. 
Leopold Cassella, of Frankfort on the Main, and Die Aktien Gesell- 
schaft fiir Anilin Fabrikation, of Berlin, had factories at Lyon; 
Die Badische Anilin und Soda Fabrik had a branch plant at Neuville- 
sur-Saone, the Bayer Co. and Weiler-ter-Meer had factories near 
Lille; and Meister Lucius and Briining, of Hochst, had a plant at 
Creil. In these branch plants the final steps of dye preparation were 
carried out, utilizing intermediates produced in and imported from 
Germany. In addition to the German plants, the Swiss firm. Society 
of Chemical Industr}^ of Basel, had a branch at St. Fous, and the 
Geigy Co., of Basel, operated a branch at Maromme, near Rouen. 
These branch plants enabled the foreign dye manufacturers to meet 
the French patent requirements on patents taken out by foreign 
chemical firms in France. To illustrate the method of operation of 
these branch plants: In the case of indigo, the phenyl-glycine com- 
pound was manufactured in Germany and converted to indigo in a 
branch plant in France. Thus the trade secrets were kept in posses- 
sion of the German dye manufacturers and the complex and funda- 
mental operations involved in the preparation of the intermediates 
were centralized in the big German dye plants. Another fact®r 
favoring the operation of branch plants was the French tariff, which 
favored the unportation of intermediates rather than dyes, as the 
specific duty on the former was considerably lower than the specific 
d\ity on dyes. The Germans were also able to ship these dyes, whose 
manufacture had been completed in their French plants, to French 
colonies, free of duty. 

• Eaquete Production Fran^aise et la Concurrence Etrangfere, Vol. Ill, p. 145. 

* France Ministfere du Commerce L'Industrie Frangaise, Vol. II, 1919, p. 206. 



INTERXATIOXAL DYE TEADE. 135 

To reduce further the duty paid on dyes entering France, the 
Germans imported highly concentrated dyes to their branch plants, 
where they were diluted with salt or dextrin, in some cases up to 500 
per cent of their original weight, before shipment to the textile mills 
or other dye consumers. That these German-controlled branch plants 
were a precarious asset in an emergency became evident within a 
few weeks after the outbreak of the war, when they ceased operations 
and were no longer able to supply the French textile industry. 

Early consideration of the problem of dye production in France 
emphasized the necessity of intermediate manufacture and of techni- 
cally experienced men for supervision and research. Many of the old 
dye plants were used during the war for the manufacture of explo- 
sives. Advancement was made, however, in French dye making 
during the war. It was far less rapid than the progress made in both 
the United States and Great Britain. The simpler types of dyes, 
such as azo colors and sulphur dyes, were made to meet the bulk 
requirements for military and other uses. Technical information was 
exchanged with the dyemakers of Great Britain. The dye shortage 
was partly met by increased imports from Switzerland. Toward the 
end of the war, and particularly after the signing of the armistice, 
the manufacture of dyes progressed more rapidly in both the old and 
the newly organized dye-making plants. 

The production in 1919^ is estimated at 3,000 metric tons (about 
6,600,000 pounds), made up of about 21 per cent indigo, 36 per cent 
sulphur dyes, and the remainder principally of azo colors. In 1920, 
the year of great business activity, the French production was about 
7,400 metric tons, or 16,280,000 pounds. Indigo constituted 40 per 
cent of the total output of that year; the azo colors made up 35 per 
cent; the sulphur dj-es, 21 per cent; and the di- and tri-phenyl- 
methane dyes constituted 1 per cent of the total production. These 
were of particular importance to the silk industry. The vat and 
alizarin dyes had not appeared. The output in 1921 represented 
a better balance on the basis of domestic requirements. The total 
approximated 5,900 metric tons, or about 13,000,000 pounds, of 
which 45 per cent was indigo and 32 per cent azo dyes. Di- and tri- 
phenylmethane dyes increased to 3 per cent, and alizarin appeared 
lor the first time, constituting 1.4 per cent of the total output. 
The vat dyes, however, were not reported. The average monthly 
production in the early part of 1922 was estimated at 670 metric 
tons; the di- and tri-phenylmethane colors made up 5 per cent, 
alizarin dyes 4 per cent. Imports were estimated at about 15 per 
cent of the consumption, indicating that France produced most of 
her domestic requirements. 

Imports.— As previously stated, the French imports of dyes in 
1913 totaled 4,706,601 pounds valued at $1,416,316, made up of 
ahzarin, 771,169 pounds valued at $270,046; other dyes derived 
from coal tar, 3,847,247 pounds valued at $1,084,510; and indigo, 
88,185 pounds valued at $61,760. 

The post-war imports consisted of reparation dyes from Germany 
in large amounts and the imports of dyes from Germany and Switzer- 
land through commercial channels. In 1920 the imports of coal-tar 

• The figures on production in France are taken from Chimie et Industrie, 1923 (January), p. 180. 



136 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 



dyes, dry, were 10,331,638 pounds valued at $12,202,319, and 
2,649,708 pounds in paste form, valued at $1,091,909. Full details 
of these imports by country of origin and chemical class may be 
found in Table 26. Germany was the chief source and Switzerland 
was the next largest. In 1921 the imports declined to 2,104,071 
pounds, valued at $1,279,905, in dry form and 427,249 pounds, valued 
at $260,002, in paste form. 

Exports of dyes in 1913 totaled 1,152,134 pounds valued at 
$275,716, made up of ''coal-tar dyes other than alizarin," 916,902 
pounds, valued at $207,896, of which 63 per cent was shipped to 
Indo-China; "indigo paste," 164,023 pounds valued at $17,949, 
81 per cent of which went to French colonies; and lastly, ''indigo," 
71,209 pounds, valued at $49,871. The Germans operated and owned 
branch plants in France and were able to ship, duty free to the 
French colonies, dyes made in France. This undoubtedly accounts 
for a considerable part of this export trade. 

|: In 1920 and 1921 exports of indigo constituted the greater 
part of the total dyes exported. China was the chief consumer. 
For 1920, the exports of coal-tar dyes, dry, were 2,019,413 pounds 
valued at $3,138,898. Of this quantity 73 per cent was indigo. The 
exports of coal-tar dyes in paste form were 4,053,818 pounds valued 
at $1,612, 610; of this quantity 98 per cent was indigo. In 1921 the 
exports of coal-tar dyes, dry, were 5,567,275 pounds valued at 
$1,505,571; of this quantity 4,725,340 pounds was indigo. The fig- 
ures for paste dyes were relatively small — 379,856 pounds valued 
at $102,737. 

Table 26. — Imports of coal-tar crudes and intermediates into France, 1913. 





Pounds. 


Value. 




Pounds. 


Value. 


Crudes: 

Great Britain. . . 


65, 167, 535 

84,665,017 

467,816 

36,267,875 

768, 083 

1,080,474 

1,653,891 

27,116 




Intermediates: 

Great Britain 


150,354 

7,790,615 

198, 414 

237, 215 

15, 432 

25,794 








G ermany 




Holland . 




Belgium 








Switzerland 

Austria-Hungary 

Other countries 

Total' 










Spain 














8,422,233 

8,417,824 


$1,544,681 






Corrected total 




Total 


190,097,807 


$3,744,442 









1 Published total incorrect. 



INTERNATIONAL DYE TRADE, 137 

Table 26a. — Coal-tar dyes — Imports into and exports from France, 1913. 



Dye. 


Imports. 


Exports. 


Poimds. 


Value. 


Poimds. 


Value. 


Alizarin, artificial: 

Great Britain 


8, 598 
762, 571 








Germany 
















Total 


771, 169 


$270,046 












Other dyes derived from coal tar: 

Great Britain 


87, 082 

3,263,249 

30, 864 

46,076 

410, 276 

1,323 




40,345 
35,053 




Germany 






Netherlands 






B elgium 




48,943 
19,621 
40,565 
17, 196 

3,307 
22,487 

3,086 
15,873 
32, 188 
17,857 
580,036 
22,267 
18,078 




Switzerland 












Italy 






British India 






Japan 






China 1 




United States 




Algeria 










Indo-China 












Other foreign countries 


8,377 












Total 


3,847,247 


1,084,510 


916, 902 


$207,896 


Indigo: 

Great Britain 


3,968 
1,323 

76,280 








Germany 




11,243 




British India 






Belgium 




7,496 
2,425 
1,764 
8,157 
6,173 
10,803 
23, 148 












Greece 
















Turkey 
















Other countries 


6,614 












Total 


88, 185 


61,760 


71,209 


49, 871 






Indigo paste; indigo in baUs of blue: 






2,205 

2,866 

22,487 

133,819 

2,646 




Switzerland 
















Other British colonies 






























164, 023 


17,949 









52805—23- 



-10 



138 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 






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140 united states takiff commission. 

Dye Industry of Great Britain. 

Great Britain occupies a peculiar position in regard to the syn- 
th3tic dye industry. This very important branch of organic chem- 
istry was initiated with the discovery of Mauveine, in 1856, by W. H. 
Perkin, and this color was soon produced on a commercial scale. 
Researches were subsequently conducted by the Royal College of 
Chemistry, and up to about 1875 the manufacture of artificial dyes 
prospered in England. 

Professor Hofmann and other German chemists, who had familiar- 
ized themselves with the research and industrial methods pursued in 
England, returned to Germany, where the significance and promise 
of this field was fully appreciated. The reasons for the gradual loss 
of the dye industry by England and the commercial success of 
Germany were many; the chief, however, was the eleborate and ex- 
tensive chemical research conducted by German chemists. Other 
factors were: (1) The patent laws of both countries were unfavorable 
to the British firms, and favored the German manufacturers; (2) tax- 
free alcohol in Germany at a critical period enabled the Germans to 
produce certain dyes at a lower cost; (3) later, the highly organized 
German corporations tnade possible joint action on purchase, ex- 
change of materials, patent protection, research, and merchandising 
of finished articles. 

The position of the British dye industry immediately prior to the 
war is indicated by its production, according to estimates, of about 
10 per cent of the consumption of Great Britain, whereas about 90 ■ 
per cent of the dyes used were imported, largely from Germany. The 
pre-war consumption of Great Britain is estimated at about 20,000 
tons per year and the consumption for 1920 at 25,000 tons. In 1913 
the total imports of coal-tar dyes were 41,203,008 pounds, with a 
value of S9,207, 684. There were about 6 firms in England manu- 
facturing dyes in 1913. Production in 1907 as reported by ''First 
Census of Production of the United Kingdom, 1907" (printed 1913), 
was 139,000 hundredweight (15,568,000 pounds), valued at £373,000 
($1,815,204). The program of the British dyemakers included a 
limited variety of acid, direct, basic, sulphur, and certain other 
dyes of the simpler types. The position of the British dye manu- 
facturers of alizarin, however, was a noteworthy exception. Owing 
to the competition oft'ered by English manufacturers, German manu- 
facturers were compelled to admit the British to the alizarin con- 
vention. In 1882 the British Alizarine Co. (Ltd.) was established 
to specialize in the manufacture of alizarin. This concern was 
practically owned by the United Turkey Red Co., the Calico Printers 
Association, and other consumers of dyes. The British producers of 
aniline oil and sulphur black also entered into national conventions 
dominated by German influence. H. acid. Gamma acid, and Cleve's 
acid of English manufacture were exported to Germany over 20 
years ago, showing that the preparation of certain coal-tar products 
was well established in Great Britain. 

The key to a self-contained dye industry is the manufacture of 
intermediates. Any extensive developments in the intermediate 
program of the British dye manufacturers were vigorously discouraged 
by the Germans who sold such products in England at or below cost. 
The sales methods and organization of the foreign dyemakers made 



INTERNATIONAL DYE TRADE. 141 

it extremely difficult for the British manufacturer to introduce new 
dyes. 

German firms owned two dye plants in England. The Ellesmere 
Port Works, where final stages of indigo manufacture were carried 
out, was operated by Meister, Lucius & Briining, and the Mersey 
Chemical Works, where the preparation of certain other dyes was 
completed, was owned jointly by three German firms. These fac- 
tories were primarily operated in order to comply with the British 
patent act of 1907. The essential intermediates were produced in 
Germany; hence these dye factories in England in no sense repre- 
sented a self-contained dye industry. In the early part of the war 
the large textile industry of Great Britain was threatened with a dye 
famine. Fortunately the Swiss dyemakers were able to supply 
considerable quantities of dyes to Great Britain. Prior to the war 
the Swiss dye industry had relied almost entirely upon Germany for 
raw materials. Demand was made upon the Swiss by Germany to 
cease exportation of dyes to the countries at war with Germany 
under threat of stopping shipments of intermediates and chemicals. 
The Swiss manufacturers refused to comply with this demand. 
Later, the Board of Trade, an English governmental department, 
furnished crudes and certain other products to the Swiss, in return 
for which England received manufactured dyes. This supply was of 
paramount importance to the British textile industry. 

Enormous war demands for munitions restricted the supply of 
benzene, toluene, phenol, ''mixed acid," and certain chemicals re- 
C[uired in the preparation of colors. The early realization of the 
importance of the domestic dye industry in the event of a protracted 
war led to the organization of the British Dyes (Ltd.) in 1915. 

Accordingly, in 1915 ^ British Dyes (Ltd.) was formed, the Government under- 
taking to advance on debenture to the company a sum of £1 for every £1 of ordinary 
share capital subscribed up to £1,000,000, and thereafter a further pound sterling 
for each £4 of additional share capital subscribed up to a maximum of £500,000. 
Thus, if the amount originally contemplated was eventually subscribed, the com- 
pany would have a capital of £4,500,000 made up of £3,000,000 ordinary capital 
held by dye users and £1,500,000 Government debentures. The loan of £200,000 
originally promised by the Government to Read Holliday & Sons (Ltd.) for develop- 
ment purposes was ultimately confirmed to British Dyes (Ltd.), and consequently 
the amount due from the Government on debenture security was raised to £1,700,000. 
The latter was to bear interest at 4 per cent per annum and to be repayable in 25 
years, the interest for the first 5 years being payable only out of profits and non- 
cumulative. The dividend payable by the company was limited to 6 per cent per 
annum so long as any portion of the Government advance was outstanding. The 
Government also granted to the company the sum of £100,000 for research purposes, 
to be paid as and when required over a period of 10 years. There were to be two 
Government directors on the board and provision was made in the articles of associa- 
tion to secure the permanent British character of the company and to give the Goa- 
ernment the right of intervention if the prices charged by the company were unreason- 
able or if there were any unreasonable differentiation in the distribution of its products. 
The new company acquired, at the outset, the undertaking of Jilessrs. Read Holliday 
& Sons (Ltd.), of Huddersfield, and negotiations were entered into for the acquisition 
of Messrs. Levinstein (Ltd.), of Manchester, but these negotiations were unsuccessful. 

The progress of this new corporation was considerably hindered 
by the fact that its capacity to a large extent was utilized for the 
manufacture of explosives. 

6 Report on dyes and dyestiifls prepared by subcommittee appointed by the standing committee on 
trusts. 



142 UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 

Messrs. Levinstein (Ltd.), of Manchester, acquired the works of 
Messrs. Claus & Co., of Manchester, in 1916, and later, under the 
Trading with the Enemy Act, the Ellesmere Port Works, formerly 
owned by the German firm of Meister, Lucius & Briining, where the 
manufacture of synthetic indigo was finally developed. Levinstein 
produced a limited variety of dyes of great importance to the textile 
industry. The activities of the British Alizarine Co. were greatly 
hindered by the Silvertown explosion in 1917 at an adjoining plant. 
Scottish Dyes (Ltd.), of Carlisle, and other firms made notable 
progress in the preparation of dyes. In 1918 Great Britain was 
producing many of the bulk colors satisfactory for military and 
certain other requirements. Very little development had been made, 
however, in the production of the more complex and special dyes. 
The British Dyestuffs Corporation (Ltd.), formed in July, 1919, con- 
trolled both the British Dyes (Ltd.) and Levinstein (Ltd.). 

* * * The corporation was formed with an authorized share capital of £10,000,000, 
divided into 4,500,000 preference shares of £1 each, 4,500,000 preferred ordinary 
shares of £1 each, and 1,000,000 deferred ordinary shares of £1. The Government 
subscribed for 850,000 preference and 850,000 preferred ordinary shares in substi- 
tution for the loan on debentures to British Dyes (Ltd.) of £1,700,000, to which they 
were committed. The vendor companies — (British Dyes, (Ltd.) and Levinstein 
(Ltd.) — received 75fi, 481 preference, 727,281 preferred ordinary, and 980,044 deferred 
ordinary shares, these latter being in payment for the good will, patent, and other 
rights of the two concerns, whilst 2,500,000 preference and 2,500,000 preferred ordinary 
shares were offered for public subscription. The new corporation acquired practically 
all the shares of British Dyes (Ltd.) and Levinstein (Ltd.).^ 

This company is reported to have produced about 75 per cent of 
the annual output of dyes in the United Kingdom. In 1920 the out-' 
put of the concern was about 16,000 tons.^ Brotherton & Co. (Ltd.), 
who purchased under the Trading with the Enemy Act the Mersey 
Chemical Works, formerly owned by three German dye producers, 
developed a variety of wool and cotton dyes. The Clayton Aniline 
Co. (Ltd.), jointly owned by three Swiss dye concerns, the Society 
of Chemical Industry, theSandoz Chemical Works, and J. & R. Geigy, 
developed the production of certain intermediates and dyes. The 
developments up to the signing of the armistice in England were not 
on so extensive a scale as in the United States. England, however, 
developed a number of vat, alizarin, and similar colors with a good 
degree of success. The output of the vat colors, however, was not 
sufficient to supply the total needs of the textile industry of England. 

On May 15, 1918, the President of the Board of Trade stated in the 
House of Commons: "In order to safeguard this particular industry, 
* * * unportation of all foreign dyestuffs shall be controlled by 
a system of licenses for a period of not less than 10 years after the 
war." This policy was, in fact, put into effect during February, 1919, 
by royal proclamation, but came to an end in December, 1919, when 
a decision was rendered in a test case by Justice Sankey to the effect 
that there was no adequate legal basis for such control. During the 
following year large quantities of German and foreign-made dyes 
were imported. These were so great that the existence of the do- 
mestic dye industry was seriously menaced, resulting in the 

' Report on dyes and dj'estulfs prepared by subcommittee appointed by the standing committee on 
trusts. 
« Ibid. 



INTERNATIONAL DYE TRADE. 



143 



passing in December, 1920, of the ''Dyestuffs Import Regulations 
Act," under the terms of which importation of synthetic organic 
dyes, colors, and coloring matters and of organic intermediates used 
in the manufacture of any such dyes, colors, or coloring matters was 
prohibited except under license. The licensing committee was com- 
posed of five representatives of the dye consumers, three representa- 
tives of the dye manufacturers, and three neutral members, of whom 
one was chairman. The act also provided for the appointment of a 
committee to advise with the Board of Trade on the efficient and 
economical development of the dye-making industry. 

Table 29. — Imports of coal-tar dyes into the United Kingdom, 1913, 1920, and 1921. 





1913 


1920 


1921 




Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Alizarine and anthracene dye- 
stuffs: 
Germany 


6,755,280 
55,776 


$1,319,400 
5,480 










Other foreign countries 




















Total 


6,811,056 


1,324,880 




















Aniline and naphthalene: 

Germany 


28,966,448 

71,008 

144,032 

2,479,792 

37,744 


6,727,829 
19,685 
39,399 

711,861 
8,020 










Netiierlands 










Belgium 










Switzerland 










Other foreign countries 




















Total 


31,699,024 


7,506,794 




















Synthetic indigo: 


2,675,456 


373,168 


1,185,072 

49, 504 

352,016 

3,696 

12,544 


$627,932 

83,158 

338,412 

3,473 

22,300 


776,272 

2, 128 

19,152 

112 

2,464 


$401,370 
1 156 


Netherlands... 


Belgium 






8 031 


Switzerland 






135 


Other foreign countries 


112 


6S 


2,454 


Total 


2,675,568 


373,236 


1,602,832 


1,075,275 


800, 128 


413,146 




Other coal-tar dyes: 

Germany 


16,464 


2,643 


7,550,480 
2,113,440 
1,080,240 
6,474,832 
1,730,624 
94,976 


10,753,5-30 
3,353,550 
1,116,415 
7,239,226 
1,931,920 
57,982 


2,544,416 
41,440 

17,248 

1,862,112 

67,424 

25,536 


2,058,609 
37 522 


Netherlands 


Belgium 






26 144 


Switzerland 






2,688,238 
57 429 


United States 






Other foreign countries 


896 


131 


21,344 


Total foreign countries. . 
Total British possessions. . 


17,360 


2,774 


19, 044, 592 
33,488 


24,452,623 
39, 524 


4,558,176 
10,192 


4,889,286 
2,053 








Total 






19,078 080 


24,492,147 


4,568,368 


4,891,339 














1920 


1921 




Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Alizarine dyes: 

Germany 


1,151,584 
159,600 
19,824 
13,216 


$1,614,278 

360,287 

17,081 

14,465 


1,240,736 

7,056 

68,320 

1,680 


$532,956 

9,256 

79 043 




United States 


Other foreign countries 


4 314 










Total foreign countries . . 


1,344,224 
560 


2,006,111 
1,061 






Total British possessions 
















Total 


1,344,784 


2,007,173 


1,317,792 


625,569 





144 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 



Table 30. — Total coal-tar dyes — Imports into and exports from the United Kingdom 

1920-1922. 





1920 


1921 


1922 




Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Imports: 

Alizarine 


1,344,784 

1,602,832 

19,078,080 

13,791,680 


$2,007,174 
1,075,274 

24,492,149 
9,385,429 


1,317,792 

800, 128 

4,568,368 

7,621,600 


$625,569 

413, 146 

4,891,339 

5,033,828 


1,275,344 

572,768 

4,602,080 


$268,407 
13,321 


Indigo synthetic 


Other sorts 


5,591,432 


Exports 









Table 31. — Exports of coal-tar dyes from the United Kingdom, WIS, 1920, and 1921. 



1913 



Pounds. 



A^alue. 



Dyestuffs, products of coal tar: 

Russia 

Germany 

Netherlands 

Belgium 

France 

Switzerland 

Spain 

Italy 

Japan i 

United States 

Brazil 

Other foreign countries 

Total to foreign countries. 
Total to British possessions 

Grand total 



68,768 


$4,900 


400, 288 


98,951 


132,272 


13,008 


153,328 


25,364 


88,480 


28,566 


50,288 


10,857 


53,424 


14,152 


620, 032 


80,919 


236,880 


35,832 


1,778,336 


286,170 


59,6% 


22,639 


312,368 


46,314 


3,954,160 


667,702 


1,497,216 


194,864 



5,451,376 



862,566 





1920 


1921 




Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Alizarin s; 

France 


24,752 
19,712 
40,656 
60,928 
37,184 


$9,071 
8,570 
22,629 
13,799 
24,367 


17,808 


$8,582 


Turkey ' 


United States 


48,720 
26,544 
68,880 


27,380 


Brazil 


5,847 
31,629 


Other foreign countries 






Total foreign countries 


183,232 
570,080 
68,656 


78,436 
189,896 
25,106 


161,952 
1,913,632 

17,808 


73,438 


British India 


622, 145 


Other Britisli possessions 


11,082 






Total 


821,968 


293,438 


2,093,392 


706,665 




Indigo synthetic: ^ 

Netherlands 


17,248 

36,400 

1,112,048 

50,400 


14,765 

23,610 

697, 470 

20,177 


21,168 

56, 000 

1,955,744 

9,408 


11,417 


Spain 


32, 292 


China 


1,247,420 
5,774 


Other foreign countries 






Total foreign countries 


1,216,096 
145,712 
112,112 


750, 022 
94,377 
74,646 


2,042,320 
22, 288 
22, 288 
61,936 
55,216 


1,296,903 

14,483 

9,580 

28,917 


Egypt 


Canada 


Australia 


Other British possessions 


73,696 


41,163 


37, 592 






Total 


1,547,616 


966,209 


2,204,048 


1,387,475 





' Including Formosa and Japanese leased territories in China. 

2 Alizarin and indigo were included in "Dyestuffs and products of coal tar'' prior to 1920. 

» Exported to ports or places in territory formerly Turkish but now occupied by other powers. 



INTERNATIONAL DYE TRADE. 145 

Table 31. — Exports of coal-tar dyes from the United Kingdom — Continued.^ ". 



1920 



Pounds. 



Value. 



1921 



Pounds. 



Value. 



Other dyestuffs obtained from coal tar: 

Russia 

Sweden 

Norway 

Denmarlf 

Germany 

Netiierlands 

Belgium 

France 

Switzerland 

Portugal 

Spain 

Italy 

China< 

J apan 5 

United States 

Brazil 

Otherforeign countries 

Total foreign countries 

India 

Australia 

Canada 

Other British possessions 

Total 



43,456 

86,240 

35, 168 

48,608 

13,552 

506,688 

1,420,048 

606, 032 

718,032 

458,416 

398, 832 

809,760 

562,576 

307,888 

348, 096 

140,672 

274,624 



6,778,688 
2,411,360 

955, 920 
1,006,208 

269,920 



11,422,096 



J18,322 
1 13,438 
40,351 
33,248 
11,739 
322,414 
759,275 
401,670 
249, 945 
291,079 
284,646 
506,308 
541,064 
253, 048 
341,896 
165,576 
183,459 



3,808 

5,152 

10,416 

9,072 

44,352 

157, 584 

151,200 

174,384 

17,920 

25,312 

28,896 

103,824 

57,568 

354,480 

48,832 

49, 056 



4,517,478 

1,930,478 

1,000,661 

474,630 

202,535 



1,241,856 
964,544 
540,512 
302,064 
275, 184 



8,125,782 



3,324,160 



1,375 

4,807 

4,738 

1,132 

19,780 

81,217 

53, 165 

93,419 

24, 121 

22,792 

20,843 

142,609 

94,778 

390, 716 

41,120 

34,032 



1,030,733 
868,561 
628,512 
187, 230 
224,652 



2,939,688 



* Exclusive of Hongkong, Macao, and leased territories. 

6 Including Formosa and Japanese leased territories in China. 

Table 32. — Imports of coal-tar dyes into Argentina, 1913, 1919, and 1920. 





1913 


1919 


1920 




Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Aniline color: 

Brazil 






243 
51 


$112 
23 


11,254 

266,909 

6,850 

64 

328 

702,419 

5,192 

88,572 

6,839 

107,813 


$4 546 


Germany 


466,425 j $174,728 
7,776 3.130 


103,393 


Belgium 


2,603 


Bolivia 

Spain 

United States 


417 
231 
996 


151 

101 

327 

15,104 

4,407 

1,383 

10,392 


18 

24 

507,748 

23,128 

27,099 

18, 591 

57,611 

1,365 


8 

11 

198,716 

10,718 

11,973 

8,456 

26,298 

486 


28 

135 

354 565 


France 

Italy 

United Kingdom 


38,215 
10,262 
3,677 
30,185 


2,189 

37,227 

2,726 


Switzerland 


46 009 


Other countries 














Total 


558, 184 


"jm 70-^ 


635,877 


256,801 


1,205,780 


461 818 








Indigo: 

Germany , . 


2,599 
90 


1,677 
59 






4 
64 


4 


Bolivia 


88 
24 


61 

17 
92 

144 


44 


United States 




France 


583 
112 


357 


474 
62 


243 


United Kingdom 


73 208 


36 






Total 


3,354 


2 166 1 5.s;5! 


314 


604 


327 











146 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 



Table 33. — Coal-tar dyes — Imports into and exports from Austria, 1920, 1921. 



Coal tar or aniline colors: Pounds. 

Germany 1, 626, 113 

Switzerland 7, 716 



Imports. 



1920 



Czechoslavakia. 

Hungary 

France 

Great Britain . . 
Italy. 



Turkey , 

Netherlands 

Poland 

Yugoslavia 

Rumania 

Other countries . 



Total - - - 1, 676, 598 



25, 794 
10, 582 



6,393 



1921 



Pounds. 

3, 405, 8S6 

18, 298 

6,393 

1,323 



3,732 



Exports. 



1920 



Pounds . 

5,291 

4,850 

109,348 

65,036 

20, 723 

33, 290 

88,625 

2,425 

3,527 

8,818 

188, 934 

50, 706 

5,071 



3, 437, 632 



586, 644 



1921 



Pounds. 

6,834 

220 

46,297 

120, 592 



3,527 



88, 404 
20, 723 



75, 177 
9,039 



370, 813 



Table 34. — Coal-tar dyes — Imports into and exports from, Austria-Hungary, 1913. 





Imports. 


Exports. 




Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Alizarin, alizarin colors, synthetic indigo: 






1,102 

1,320,114 

246,695 

882 

1,102 

5,291 

221 

882 

1,543 

1,543 

1, 323 

6,173 


$193 




4,176,835 
1,102 


$1,074,769 
284 


230, 502 




43, 075 




154 


Italy 


4,6.30 


1,191 


192 




924 








39 








154 








269 








269 








231 








1,078 




1, 323 


340 










Total 


4, 183, 890 


1,076,584 


1,586,871 


277, 080 






Azo and sulphur colors: 


221 

9, 747, 859 

17,857 

24,912 

1,984 

8,378 

441 

488,980 


38 

1,702,051 

3,118 

4,350 

346 

1,463 

77 

85, 380 








41, 446 


7,046 








882 


150 


Italy 












1,543 
4,409 

882 


262 




750 




150 










Total . .' 


10,290,632 


1,796,823 


49, 162 


8,358 






All other coal-tar dyes: 


2, 546, 533 

441 

10, 141 

4,630 

441 

129, 631 

2,425 


702, 070 

121 

2,796 

1,276 

121 

35, 739 

669 


425, 047 

3,527 

11,905 

39, 903 

2,425 

8,377 

661 

3,748 

13,669 

221 

7,275 

661 

661 

33, 289 

5,060 

1,323 

32,408 

1,543 

5,291 

2,425 

2,646 

221 


98, 825 




820 




2,768 


Italy 


9,278 




564 




1,948 




154 




871 








3,178 








51 








1,691 


Montenegro 






154 








154 








7,740 








1,025 








308 








7,535 








359 


Turkey in Europe 






1,230 








564 








615 








51 












2, 694, 242 


742,792 


601,635 


139, 883 







INTERNATIONAL DYE TRADE. 



147 



Table 35. — Indigo, natural or artificial — Imports into and exports from Belgium, 1913, 

1920, and 1921. 





1913 


1920 


1921 




Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Imports: 

Germany 


28, 171, 067 

19,090 

589 


$4,932,428 

3,342 

721 


382, 708 
213, 165 


$35, 120 
25,673 






France 


1,268 
15, 433 
13,521 


$112 


Netherlands 


747 


Great Britain 


107,655 

48,964 

34,235 

2 


52, 838 

17,977 

807 

1 


10,964 


Switzerland 


60,633 
1,252 


i2,739 
1,072 


Italy 


1,583 


149 


Other countries 














Total 


28,252,631 


4,950,302 


786,729 


132,416 


31,805 


11 972 






Exports: 

Great Britain 






46,641 


18,335 


32, 145 


22 559 


Argentina 


54,6.54 


9,569 
34,612 
4, 132, 756 
35, 165 
20, 033 
18S, 876 




Australia 


197, 6S2 

23,603,821 

200, 839 

114,419 

1,078,748 










China 


209,986 


33,397 






Eg>-pt 






United States 










British India 










Japan 


5,434 


3,156 


397 


75 




64,088 


11, 221 




Netherlands 






2,132 

2,994 

66 


1 419 










2 092 


Other countries 


115, 499 20. 223 






' 78 






' 








Total 


25,429,750 


4, 452, 455 


278,024 


64,078 


37, 734 


26 223 







Table 36. — Imports of coal-tar dyes into Brazil, 1913, 1920, and 1921. 





1913 


1920 


1921 




Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Aniline or fuchsine dj'es: 

Germany 


869, 787 

26 

154 

992 

3, 503 

35,038 

55 

40,860 

13 


$517,700 
43 











Argentina 


1 






Austria-Himgary 


101 

630 

2,6.59 

17,942 

6 

33, 158 

57 

1 










Belgium 










France 










Great Britain 










Italy 










Switzerland 










Uruguay 










United States 






















Total 


950,428 


572,297 


1,387,017 


$2, 099, 488 


1, 134, 575 


$1, 010, 550 




Indigo and ultramarine blue: 

Germany 


36.5,690 
3,968 

46,474 
137, 646 
228, 077 

14, 912 


37,967 
171 

3,792 
16, 168 
30, 571 

1,337. 










Austria-Hungary 










Belgium 










France 










Great Britain 










Other countries 




















Total 


796,767 


90,006 


1,282,153 


320, 229 


501, 516 


95 036 







148 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 



Table 37. — Imports of coal-tar dyes into Canada , fiscal years ended March 31, 1913, 

1920-1922. 





1913 j 1920 


1921 


1922 




Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Aniline and other 
coal-tar dyes solu- 
ble in water (in- 
cludinfj alizarin and 
artificial alizarin); 
United Kingdom 
United States 


439, 673 

665, 560 

600 

46, 267 

1,141,792 

2,665 

114,863 


$77, 230 

209, 457 

188 

10,611 

228,468 

743 

28,378 


843, 567 
2,065,706 


$497,397 
2, 030, 026 


307,686 
1,383,611 


$221,040 
1, 267, 849 


249,063 
1,451,891 


$131,281 
915, 443 
















Germany 


2,262 


13,223 


98,089 


480,731 


130, 190 


244,866 


Switzerland 

Othercountries. . 


8i,5oi 

21 


143, 536 

208 


117,903 
58,698 


i48, 418 
78,689 


115,629 
317,835 


105, 167 

247,388 










Total 


2,411,420 


555, 075 


2,993,057 


2,684,390 


1,965,987 


2, 196, 727 


2,264,608 


1, 644, 145 






Indigo: 

United States 

Germany 


32,013 

81, 187 


6,728 
16,770 


332 


296 


7,915 


4,212 


339 


514 














Total 


113,200 


23, 498 


332 


296 


7,915 


4,212 


339 


514 






Indigo paste and ex- 
tract: 
United Kingdom 

United States 

Germany 

Other countries . . 






79,335 
197,563 
44,800 


64, 883 

122,991 

17,914 


6,708 

45,272 

200 


3, 645 
14, 590 
2,749 






34,464 
74,432 


3,969 
11,872 


54, 450 
11,431 
36,027 


11,972 

28,604 

7,638 


















. Total 


108,896 


15,841 


321, 698 


205,788 


52, 180 


20,984 


101,908 


48,214 



Table 38. — Imports of coal-tar dyes into China, 1913, 1919-1921. 

SYNTHETIC INDIGO. 



From— 


1913 


1919 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 




40, 000 
13, 634, 796 


$6, 156 
2, 557, 003 


300,800 


$178, 205 




Netherlands 






Belgium ■ 


24, 681, 060 
2, 358, 399 


3, 656, 631 
423,393 


4,000 
1, 246, 400 


11,632 


France 


895, 028 


S witzerland 




Japan 


1,733 


266 


263, 867 

635, 467 

61, 867 


213, 255 


United States 


474, 497 


Another 


1, 930, 286 


394,687 


56, 308 








42, 646, 256 
36, 267 


7, 038, 137 
5,932 


2, 512, 399 
6,400 


1, 82S, 925 


Reexported abroad 


4,871 






Total net imports ^ 


42,609,989 


7, 032, 205 


2,505,999 


1, 824, 054 







Hongkong 

Fr ench Indo-China 

Siam 

Great Britain 

Norway 

Germany 

Netherlands 

Belgium 

France 

Switzerland 

Italy 

Austria-Hungary 

Korea 

Japan ("including Formosa) 

Canada 

United States 



Gross Imports. 
Reexported , 



Net imports. 



1920 



Pounds. 



524, 000 

2,400 

45, 600 

1, 476, 800 

5,333 

2, 876, 666 

1, 602, 666 

1, 765, 866 

2,917,199 

3, 334, 533 



41, 733 

533 

198, 267 

42, 400 

5, 979, 332 



Value. 



257, 436 

1,885 

10, 368 

1,147,238 

5,166 

3, 242, 122 

1, 406, 532 

1,455,312 

2, 292, 991 

3, 460, 210 



36, 858 

744 

139, 706 

22,117 

5, 543, 398 



20, 813, 328 
61, 200 



19, 028, 083 
48, 055 



20, 752, 128 ! 18, 980, 028 



1921 



Pounds. 



1, 715, 200 
14, 400 



2,643.066 



2, 376, 133 
2, 395, 733 
2, 146, 799 
5, 165, 999 
1, 521, 200 
66, 133 



35, 333 



3, 347, 732 



21, 427, 728 
394, 667 



Value. 



80, 771 
6,731 



1,470,180 



1,411,414 
1, 448, 734 
1, 071, 372 
2, 687, 056 
979, 923 
48, 932 



10, 934 



1, 989, 055 



11, 805, 102 
207, 443 



11, 597, 659 



INTERNATIONAL DYE TRADE. 



149 



Table 3S.— Imports of coal-tar— China, 1913, i9?0-i9fi— Continued. 

ANILINE. 



Hongkong 

Dutch Indies. 
Great Britain. 

Germany 

Netherlands.. 

Belgium 

France 

Switzerland... 

Japan 

Canada 

United States. 
All other , 



From — 



Direct gross imports. 
Reexported abroad 



Total net imports. 



1913 



$398, 084 



191, 126 
1,596,693 

175, 829 

1, 502, 975 

47, 560 



11, 493 



479 
37,723 



3, 961, 962 
18,633 



3, 943, 329 



1919 



$321, 029 



51, 441 



50, 040 
439, 613 



1, 145, 646 

182, 328 

2, 318, 090 

40, 214 



4, 548, 401 
318, 746 



4, 229, 655 



1920 



$1, 



002, 843 
408, 611 
402, 482 
519, 967 
022, 234 
039, 256 

43, 579 
482, 542 
352, 793 

61, 143 
543,185 

21,964 



, 900, 599 
315, 038 



9, 585, 561 



UNCLASSIFIED DYES. 



1920 



Pounds. 



Value. 



1921 



Pounds. 



Value. 



Hongkong 

Macao 

French Indo-China 

Siam 

Singapore Straits, etc. 

Dutch Indies 

British India 

Great Britain 

Sweden 

Denmark 

Germany 

Netherlands 

Belgium 

France 

Italy 

Russia, Amur ports .. . 
Russia, Pacific ports . . 

Korea 

Japan 

Philippine Islands 

Canada 

United States 



Direct gross imports. 
Reexported 



Net imports. 



9, 468, 131 
111,600 

1, 505, 333 

45, 333 

441, 600 



590, 512 

4,303 

30, 012 

3,329 

22, 734 



49, 333 

134, 667 

8,000 



131, 867 
18, 800 
13, 867 

185, 333 



9,991 
42, 920 

3,720 

16 

57, 886 

9,149 

3,210 
37, 233 



13, 249, 863 
144, 133 
1, 312, 933 
1,867 
717, 066 
25, 867 
113, 600 
75, 600 
66, 667 



933 

2,800 

1, 328, 533 

4, 935, 035 



140 

1,114 

25, 439 

854, 747 



292, 400 



168, 277 



18, 673, 595 
271, 867 



500, 667 

15, 333 

67,200 

241, 200 

8,533 

12, 933 

272, 533 

1, 848, 666 

7, 688, 265 



2,000 
125, 467 



1, 864, 732 26, 490, 393 
94, 176 584, 267 



18, 401, 728 



1, 770, 556 25, 906, 126 



$503, 871 

3,261 

17,083 

426 

32, 811 

1,340 

5,584 

16, 009 

12, 464 

21 

99, 384 

2,865 

14, 146 

50, 469 

2,931 

2,105 

17, 557 

38, 625 

815, 295 

3 

869 

58, 189 



1, 695, 308 
73, 618 



1, 621, 690 



Table 39. — Imports of coal-tar dyes into the Dutch East Indies, 1913, 1920, and 1921. 





1913 


1920 


1921 




Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Alizarin dyes, dry: 

Netherlands 


272,985 

3,307 

104,785 


$85,618 

1,037 

32,864 


19,489 


$16,626 


34,337 


$31,941 


Great Britain 


G ermany 


20,004 


17,066 


32,409 
2,756 


30 149 


Other countries 


2,564 












Total 


381,077 


119,519 


39,493 


33,692 


69, 502 


64 654 






Alizarin dyes, wet: 

Netherlands 


425,311 

2,535 

530, 846 


93, 065 

555 

116,157 


270,152 

1,168 

318,873 

37,037 


109,962 

476 

129,794 

15,076 


192,858 
59,260 

302,650 
39,683 


78 066 


Great Britain 


23 987 


Germany 


122' 507 
16,063 


Japan 








Total 


958,692 


209,777 


627,230 


255,308 


594,451 


240 623 







150 



UNITED STATES TAPJEF COMMISSION. 



Table 39. — Imports of coal-tar dyes into the Dutch East Indies, 191S, 1920. and 1921 — 

Continued. 





1913 


1920 


1921 




Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Synthetic indigo, wet: 

United States 






661 
33, 069 

302,288 
329, 870 


$452 

22,602 

206,610 

225,462 






Switzerland 










Netherlands ; 




$162,227 

264,375 

688 


461,515 
514,234 


$408,873 
455 579 


Germany 




France 






Great Britain 




35,256 


24,097 


25,979 
24,471 


23,016 
21 680 


Singapore 


















Total 




427,290 


701, 144 


479,223 


1,026,199 


909 148 








Synthetic indigo, dry: i 

Netherlands 






21,632 
19,480 


30,340 
27, 322 


10,483 

21,934 

13,344 

1,001 


12,650 
26 467 


Germany 






Great Britain 






16 103 


Other countries 










1^208 












Total 






41,112 


57,662 


46,762 


56 428 










Aniline colors, wet and dry: 

Netherlands 


317,989 
4,418 

233,529 
25, 124 

141,421 
8,768 
2,416 


57,984 

806 

42,583 

4,581 

25,787 

1,599 

440 


271,338 

3,869 

157, 093 

29,894 

9,050 

35, 108 

7,269 


308.916 

4,613 

187,300 

35,643 

10,790 

41,699 

8,666 


192, 845 


64 940 


Great Britain 




Germany 


216,575 
5,055 
10,702 


72 931 




1702 


Singapore 


3 604 






Other countries 


3,962 


1 334 






Tot>d 


733, 665 


133,780 


513,621 


697,627 


429, 139 


114,511 





' 1913 dry indigo included in wet figures. 

Table 40. — Coal-tar dyes — Imports into and reexports of dyes from Egypt, 1913, 1921, 

and 1922. 





1913 


1921 


1922 




Pounds. 


Value. 


Poonds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


IMPORTS. 

Synthetic indigo: 

United Kingdom 






75, 521 

27,028 

30, 412 

496,934 

56,365 

1,131 

4,619 

56 


$34, 850 

10,768 

13,530 

385, 769 

18,308 

603 

2,402 

4 






Belgium 






12, 831 

11,649 

558, 740 

27,419 

110 


83,824 
3,334 


France , 






Germany 


1,108,801 


$338, 048 


407, 425 
9,266 


Switzerland 


Syria 






94 


United States 








Other Countries 






20 


67 










Total 


1, 108, 801 


338, 048 


692, 066 


466,234 


610,769 


424, 010 






Other coal-tar dyes: 

United Kingdom 


161,641 


15, 889 


12,657 
2 

2,736 

5,373 

98,296 

16, 177 

752 

2,950 

531 


13,237 

4 

3,248 

3,126 

76,090 

19,880 

1,557 

5, 282 

936 


8,635 

2 

12,686 

844 

183,469 

28,007 

459 

1,658 

4,925 


6,666 


Australia and New Zealand 




Belgium 


32,474 

11,980 

333,421 

16,920 


4,326 

1,488 

54,296 

2,393 


3,716 


France 


634 


Germany 


111,873 


Switzerland 


25,658 


Syria 


652 


United States 






2,182 


Other countries 


87, 212 


11,311 


2,501 






Total 


643,648 


89, 703 


139, 474 

1,105 
3,283 


123,360 

4,324 
12,846 


240,685 

359 
2,666 


153, 882 


RE-EXPOKTS. 

Synthetic indigo 


180 


Other coal tar dyes 






603 











interim ati01s7al dye teade. 151 

Monthly Production of Dyes in Germany, February, 1920, to 

March, 1923. 

Beginning with February, 1920, detailed statements of one-quarter 
of the monthly production (this portion is required by the peace 
treaty [Annex VI, Part II] to be reserved for optional purchases of the 
allied and associated governments) of dyes in Germany were made 
to the Reparations Commission. Copies of these monthly state- 
ments from February, 1920, to March, 1923, inclusive, have been 
received by the Department of State, which has given permission for 
their publication by the Tariff Commission. A summary of these 
reserved stocks, showing the monthly reserve for each class of dyes, 
according to application, is shown in Table 43. 

Production of dyes in Germany during the first year after the sign- 
ing of the armistice was practically negligible compared with the 
pre-war output, when her exports (in 1913) were nearly 240,000,000 
pounds. During February, 1920, the quantity of dyes reserved by 
German plants for the Allies totaled 876,449 pounds, indicating a 
total output of over three and one-half million pounds for that 
month. A progressive increase is shown for each following month, 
reaching a maxunum reservation of 3,026,247 pounds in August, 1920, 
corresponding to a total output of 12,000,000 pounds monthly. 
During the remainder of 1920 the fluctuations with amount re- 
served varied from a minimum of 2,674,710 pounds in December to a 
maximum of 2,978,806 pounds in November. The total quantity of 
dyes reserved by the German plants from February to December, 
1920, inclusive, was 25,842,201 pounds, corresponding to a produc- 
tion of 103,368,804 pounds. 

The production reserve during 1921 amounted to 29,110,554 
pounds, corresponding to a total production of 116,442,216 pounds 
for that year by the German dye plants. During 1921 the monthly 
reservation for the allied and associated governments varied from 
a minimum of 1,976,094 pounds in February to a maximum of 
3,494,165 pounds in December. 

The reservation for 1922 totaled 48,201,641 pounds. This is 
equivalent to a total output of 192,806,564 pounds for the year, an 
increase of 76,364,388 pounds over that of 1921. The month of 
maximum output in 1922 was November, with a total reservation of 
4,726,548 pounds; the minimum output was in April, with a reserva- 
tion of 3,317,420 pounds. 

The reservation of the first three months of 1923 was 12,298,043 

?ounds, equivalent to a total output of 196,768,688 pounds per year, 
n 1913 the total exports of dyes from Germany were 239,598,133 
pounds and the annual consumption of that country is variously 
estimated from thirty-three to fifty-five million pounds. Using 
maximum consumption figures, the production of that year approxi- 
mates 295,000,000 pounds; consequently, the 1922 output is about 
65 per cent of the pre-war output. 

As previously stated, Germany, before the war, dominated the 
world's markets, producing three-fourths of the total dyes made. 
Over one-half of the dyes made outside of Germany were made from 
primary or intermediate products of German origin. Switzerland, 
which held second place, was entirely dependent upon Germany for 



152 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 



all materials. In England and France the dye factories were to a 
large extent owned and operated by German dye manufacturers. 

Since the outbreak of the war large developments in the manufac- 
ture of dyes have been made in the United States, Great Britain, 
and France, and as a result these countries now produce from 80 
to 90 per cent of their consumption, and have, in addition, ex- 
ported dyes in significant quantities. Italy also has developed a 
dye industry. Each of these countries has adopted new tariff 
protective measures. Great Britain has adopted a license system 
of imports for dyes and fine chemicals. This industrial development 
has resulted in the loss of a large part of the German dye export 
trade, and Germany no longer possesses a monopoly of the world's 
trade in dyes. 

The dye industry of that country, however, has the advantage of 
years of experience, low production costs, and a larger variety of 
dyes than is made by any other country. In addition, it has a 
unified organization ifor both production and merchandizing. The 
extensive developments since the war have resulted in an ap- 
proximate doubling of the world's pre-war capacity to manufac- 
ture synthetic dyes, and it is highly probable that a period of 
severe competition will follow and that Germany will make special 
efforts for reclaiming some of her past trade in the world's markets. 
China is the largest consumer of dyes, followed by the United States, 
and it is to be expected that Germany will make particular effort to 
reclaim a portion of these two important markets. In China and 
the Far East she has already regained since 1920 a large part 
of her export trade. The Ruhr occupation in 1923 has hindered to a 
certain extent Germany's exports of dyes, consequently the other 
dye-producing nations have ootained a portion of that trade. 

Table 41. — One-quarter production in German dye plants ^ reserved for purchase of 
allied and associated governments, February, 1920, to March, 1923. 

[Pounds.] 



Group. 


Classification of colors. 


1920 


February. 


March. 


April. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


I 


Alizarin red 


28,629 
33, 203 

15,346 
3,135 

17, 240 
262, 123 

63,402 
149, 827 

61,313 

19,912 
163, 822 

56, 958 
1,539 


100, 347 
124, 258 

9,361 


79,070 
306, 371 

19, 577 
3,307 

40,622 
400, 221 

54,586 
265, 094 

95,605 

72, 2S9 
235, 423 
156, 163 

85, 527 


124,401 
338,318 

62,183 
9,489 

54,643 
451, 138 

44,687 
360, 192 
132, 287 
106, 555 
190, 515 
150,085 

89,672 


241, 194 
291,294 

41,786 
11,329 

92,022 
541,534 

88, 131 
419, 842 
182,647 
124,035 
305,979 
170, 742 


206,251 


II 




543,747 


III 

IV 


Vat colors, except Indan- 

threne blue GCD 

Indanthrene blue GCD 

Alizarin colors other than 
red 


72, 595 
14,420 


V 


22, 862 
346,301 

51,495 
202, 819 

91, 257 

44, 374 
149, 452 
164,229 

12, 599 


63,411 


VI 
VII 


Direct colors for cotton 

Direct colors for diazotiza- 
tion 


694,700 
126,983 


VIII 

IX 

X 


Acid colors for wool 

Chrome colors for wool 

Basic colors 


512, 594 
195,246 
126,723 


XI 


Sulphur colors 


323,170 


XII 


Lake colors 


136,196 


XIII 


Intermediate products 

Total 






1 




876,449 


1,319,354 


1,813,855 


2, 114, 165 


2,510,535 


3,016,045 









' Peace Treaty, Annex VI, Part II. 



INTERNATIONAL, DYE TRADE. 



153 



Table 41, — One-quarter production in German dye plants reserved for purchase of 
allied and associated governments, February, 1920, to March, 1923 — Continued. 





Classification of colors. 


1920 


Total 


Group. 


August. 


Septem- 
ber. 


October. 


Novem- 
ber. 


Decem- 
ber. 


for 11 

months, 

1920. 


I 


Alizarin red 


210,328 

777,774 

54,828 
9,370 

69,612 
573,004 

113,973 
469,589 
200,504 
144, 595 
291, 832 
110,838 


198,632 
642,729 

62,608 
16,043 

88,658 
593,694 

95,439 
492,647 
208,760 
163,661 
285, 804 

73,565 


215,028 
426,599 

84,366 
1,131 

58,440 
666, 239 

117,562 
487,131 
216, 057 
151, 145 
262, 744 
92,690 


235,775 
635,419 

88,440 
3,554 

59,698 
648,946 

117,653 
518,041 
163,304 
139,805 
276,510 
91,661 


191,066 
373,803 

66, 938 
21, 867 

42,306 
600, 257 

103,409 
486,258 
221,272 
164,207 
320,659 
79,668 


1 830 721 


II 


Indigo paste 


4' 493' 515 


ni 

IV 
V 


Vat colors, except Indan- 

threne blue GCD 

Indantlirene blue GCD 

Alizarin colors other than 
red 


578,028 
93,645 

609,514 
5,778,166 

977,320 
4,364,034 
1,771,252 
1, 257, 301 


VI 
VII 


Direct colors for cotton 

Direct colors for diazotiza- 
tion 


VIII 

IX 

X 


Acid colors for wool 

Chrome colors for wool 

Basic colors 


XI 


Sulphur colors 


2,805,910 


XII 


Lake colors 


1,282,795 




Total 


3,026,247 


2, 922, 240 


2,779,132 


2, 978, 806 


2, 674, 710 


25, 842, 201 









Group. 


Classification of colors. 


1921 


January. 


February, 


March. 


I 




137,999 
630, 621 

50, 150 
1,7.59 

43,563 
512,056 
132,239 
479,602 
154,342 
128, %2 
285,498 
112,305 


35,077 
529,970 

69,754 
2,811 

12,560 
350, 355 

52,589 
358, 821 

98,764 
1.59,426 
207,532 

98,435 


74, 103 


II 




608, 849 


III 




53,797 


IV 


Tndanthrenc blue GCD 


2,917 


V 




22, 090 


VI 




421,938 


VII 




52, 128 


VIII 




390, 547 


IX 




106,751 


X 


Basic colors . . 


153,423 


XI 




204,609 


XII 


Lake colors 


91,936 




Total 


2,669,096 


1,976,094 


2,183.088 









Group. 


Classification of colors. 


1921 


April. 


May. 


June. 


luly. 


August. 


September. 


I 


Alizarin red 


88,063 
366,405 

86,919 
2,370 

18,322 
423,063 

63,268 
430, 140 
131,205 
155,415 
252,771 

76,773 


91,797 
556,210 

110,001 
2,037 

16,698 
410,545 

47,668 
390,589 
120,986 
1.36,478 
255,745 

71,431 


124,953 
474, 174 

97,483 
9,793 

32,491 
366, 588 

72,426 
401,991 

95,631 
124,919 
277,676 

93.435 


120,744 
552,056 

86,550 
8,415 

35,904 
379, 143 

48,618 
365,609 
100,351 
101,180 
331,292 

63,5.34 


200, 817 
526, 110 

95,547 
11,424 

25,335 
472, 106 

61,705 
3.53,545 
110,658 
100,968 
308,794 

45,543 


166,077 


II 


Indigo paste 


411.325 


III 

IV 
V 


Vat colors, except Indan- 

threne blue GCD 

Indanthrene blue GCD 

Alizarin colors other than 
red ... 


84,802 
4,575 

23,325 


VI 

VII 


Direct colors for cotton 

Direct colors for diazotiza- 
tion 


466,577 
83.819 


VIII 

IX 

X 


Acid colors for wool 

Chrome colors for wool 

Basic colors 


381,451 
153,046 
76,960 


XI 


Sulphur colors 


389,989 


XII 


Lake colors 


62,071 




Total 


2,094,744 


2,210,185 


2,171,463 


2,193,396 


2,312,552 


2,304,017 









Group. 


Classification of colors. 


1921 


Total. 


October. 


November. 


December. 




1 




141,773 
425,475 

89,985 
8,212 

16,219 
455,951 
105,589 
404,546 
148,6% 
106,634 
480,305 

65,739 


266,741 
394,235 

74,088 
4.685 

26,524 
643, 525 
114,454 
.538, 526 
207,312 
133,217 
534, 970 
114,353 


281,104 
671,856 

93,473 
2,205 

26,978 
624,43? 
128, 356 
.573,456 
245,473 
148,028 
573,8.53 
124.950 


1,729,148 


II 


Indieo paste 


6,147,286 


III 
IV 


Vat colors, except Indantbrone blue GCD 

Indanthrene blue GCD 


992,579 
61,203 


V 


Alizarin colors other than red 


300,009 


VI 


Direct colors for cotton 


5,526,280 


VII 




%2, 859 


VIII 


Acid colors for wool 


5.068,823 


IX 


Chrome colors for wool 


1,673,215 


X 


Basic colors 


1.525,610 


XI 


Sulphur colors 


4,103,034 


XII 


Lake colors 


1,020,508 




Total 






2,449,124 


3,052,630 


3,494,165 


29,110,55 









52805—23- 



-11 



164 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 



Table 41. — One-quarter production in German dye plants reserved for purchase oj 
allied and associated governments, February, 1920, to March, 1923 — Continued. 



Classification of colors. 



Alizarin red 

Indigo paste 

Vat colors, except Indanthrene blue GCD 

Indanthrene blue GCD 

Alizarin colors other than red 

Direct colors for cotton 

Direct colors for diazotization 

Acid colors for wool 

Chrome colors for wool 

Basic colors 

Sulphur colors 

Lake colors 

Total 



1922 



January. February. March 



332,734 
634,808 

76,340 
2,205 

33,336 
596,269 
132,655 
601,208 
238,073 
135, 757 
525,361 
133,063 



3,441,i 



254, 168 
703,808 
103,274 



32,388 
581,133 
105,777 
570, 828 
232,484 
144,952 
573,325 
125,005 



3,427,142 



209, 823 
822,046 
119,073 
1,508 
25, &31 
729, 861 
113,116 
666,860 
292,206 
189,797 
706,887 
124,151 



4,001,159 



Classification of colors. 



1922 



April. 



May. 



June. 



July. 



August. 



Alizarin red 

Indigo paste 

Vat colors, except indanthrene blue GCD 

Indanthrene blue GCD 

Alizarin colors other than red 

Direct colors for cotton 

Direct colors for diazotization 

Acid colors for wool 

Chrome colors for wool 

Basic colors 

Sulphur colors 

Lake colors 

Total 



135, 160 
686, 030 

62,754 
3,115 

28, 693 
654,984 
106, 312 
555, 680 
232, 169 
174, 734 
543, 890 
133, 899 



139, 690 

823, 568 

93,237 



194,397 

936, 772 

69, 577 



130, 726 

861, 664 

96,367 



199, 358 

1,135,649 

142, 100 



60, 075 
869, 232 
126, 577 
736, 861 
339, 755 
218, 882 
752, 456 
156, 449 



53, 029 
805, 594 
159, 981 
679, 960 
252, 700 
191,216 
692, 288 
130, 473 



44, 308 
820, 821 

99, 388 
570, 835 
194, 183 
184,904 
710, 602 
131, 108 



43,446 
884,411 
112, 349 
692, 262 
246, 410 
203, 659 
750, 805 
142. 691 ■ 



3, 317, 420 



4, 316, 782 



3, 844, 906 



4, 553. 140 



Classification of colors. 



1922 



Septem- 
ber. 



October. 



Novem- 
ber. 



Decem- 
ber. 



Total. 



Alizarin red 

Indigo paste 

Vat colors, except indanthrene blue GCD . 

Indanthrene blue GCD 

Alizarin colors other than red 

Direct colors for cotton 

Direct colors for diazotization 

Colors for wool 

Chrome colors for wool 

Basic colors j 

Sulphur colors 

Lake colors 



200, 224 

1,011,931 

93, 995 



200, 511 

899, 4% 

88, 146 



45, 706 
854, 069 
127, 673 
725, 181 
318,077 
226, 234 
671,420 
145, 859 



43, 739 
842, 340 
110,955 
669, 742 
330, 585 
230, 868 
566, 366 
162, 830 



172, 574 

1, 073, 550 

103, 290 

157 

45, 862 

1, 037, 796 

138, 905 

717,042 

240, 822 

227,711 

790, 499 

178, 341 



75, 289 

754, 641 

80, 759 



36, 517 
933, 106 

90,783 
568, 075 
237, 241 
160, 843 
764, 050 
139, 496 



2, 244, 654 

10, 343, 963 

1,128,912 

6,985 

492, 930 

9, 609, 616 

1, 424, 471 

7, 754, 534 

3, 154, 705 

2, 289, 557 

8, 047, 949 

1, 703, 365 



Total. 



4, 420, 369 



4, 145, 578 j4, 726, 549 



3, 840, 800 



48,201,641 



Classification of colors. 



1923 



January. 



February. 



March. 



Alizarin red 

Indigo paste 

Vat colors, except Indanthrene blue GCD. 

Indanthrene blue GCD 

Alizarin colors other than red 

Direct colors for cotton 

Direct colors for diazotization 

Acid colors for wool 

Chrome colors for wool 

Ba<lc colors 

Sulphur colors 

Lake colors 



316, 898 

1, 448, 125 

89, 359 



Total . 



71,478 
9S2, 504 

93,0% 
663, 860 
250, 090 
240, 753 
730, 809 
144, 185 

5, 031, 157 



256, 600 
623, 329 

85, 305 
716 

.54,061 
923, 5S0 

76, 643 
666, 371 
186, 154 
210, 495 
724, 751 
157, 768 



218,313 
268, 015 

91, 674 
2,672 

43, 159 
831, 895 
132, 062 
564,543 
197, 510 
192, 726 
638, 729 
119,818 

3,301,113 



INTERNATIONAL DYE TRADE. 155 

Table 42. — Exports of coal-tar dyes from Germany, 1913, 1920-1922. 



Pounds. Value, 



1920 



Pounds. 



Value. 



1921 (May to 
December). 



Pounds. Value, 



Alizarin, alizarin red, variegated colors 
from anthracene: 

Alsace-Lorraine 

France 

Great Britain 

Italy 

Netherlands 

Austria-Hungary 

Austria 

Czechoslovakia 

Russia 

Sweden 

Switzerland 

Spain 

British India, etc 

Japan 

East Indies, etc 

United States 



489, 421 

5,857,622 

416,669 

716,495 

1,192,689 



$190, 560 
976,620 
119,100 
119,100 
333,480 



169, 754 
425,488 
698,858 
388,010 
685,631 



889,033 
231,393 
792,212 
247,112 
405, 191 



2,205 

2,205 

17,637 

35,274 

156,527 



$817 
16,340 
31,863 
89,870 



33,069 
130,071 



21,804 
105,386 



52,910 
257,938 



18,791 
94,772- 



725,313 

127,867 

661,380 

50,706 

5,866,441 

205,028 

1,298,509 

5,855,418 



428, 760 
47,640 
95,280 
23,820 

905, 160 
95, 280 

238,200 
1,310,100 



110, 230 
326,281 
74,956 
2,627,883 
171,959 
601,. S56 
438, 715 



139,909 
181,700 
170,798 
1, 592, 509 
292,537 
505, 126 
937,572 



33,069 
121,253 

26,455 
1,990,751 

57,320 
456,352 
138, 890 



22,059? 
38,399" 
26, 144 

610,299' 
40,033: 
54,739- 

103, 75» 



Total. 



24,338,784 



5, 145, 120 



7, 330, 295 



6,001,551 



3,461,222 



1,222,232 





1922,' 




Pounds. 


Value. 


Alizarin and alizarin red: 

British India 


1,559,100 
224,400 
397,000 




Dutch Indies 




Other countries 








Total 


2,180,500 


$1,337,048 




Alizarin colors, variegated, from anthracene: 

Great Britain 


230,200 
124,600 
190,300 
71,200 
100, 100 
2, 184, .500 
1,017,200 




Italy 








Sweden 




Switzerland 




British India 




Other countries 








Total 


3,918,000 


$4,465,015 









1913 


1920 


1921 (May to Dec.) 


1922 




Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


AniUne and other 
coal-tar dyes not 
specifically men- 
tioned: 
Belgium. 


5,531,341 
384,393 


$1,405,380 
71,460 


1,911,3.88 

48.5,012 

330,690 

1,521,174 

3,514,132 

3,708,137 

2, 555, 131 

555,559 


$1,529,914 

179,88;? 

243,478 

1,697,078 

4,764,174 

2,936,272 

2,91,8,102 

528,747 


405,616 
174, 163 

19,841 

6,614 

94,798 

570,991 

l,9iO,048 

127,867 


$172,387 
113,563 
4,085 
4,0.'« 
104,576 
249, LSo 
856, 21o 
75,981 


314,200 




Bulgaria 




Alsace-Lorraine. 






Prance 


3, 853, 64 i 
24,285,874 
9,032,246 
3,009,279 
595,242 
12,740,383 


1,021,260 
5,259,500 
2,167,620 
666,960 
142.920 
2,977,500 







Great Britain... 
Italy 


1,0.30,700 

2,951,30r 

2,226,900 

353,, 800 





Netherlands 




Norway 




Auitria-Hungry. 
Austria 




1,942,253 
61,7i9 

6,203,744 
103,616 
86.s,612 
260,143 
229, 278 
533,513 


1, 166, 514 

56,327 

3,283,319 

72,680 

516,917 

230,759 

194,419 

523,296 


1,765,885 

92,593 

6,865,124 

330,690 

11,023 

246,915 

429,897 

141,094 


564, 547 

54,739 

2,075,997 

110,295 

3,268 

103,759 

271,244 

107,844 


2,631,50C 




Yugoslavia 








^ Czechoslovakia. . 






6, 690, IOC 




Hungary 








East Poland 










Portugal 


921,523 

496,035 

806,884 

2,420,651 


238, 200 
119, 100 
142,920 
833,700 






Rumania 






Denmark 


384, 70( 




Russia 





156 UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 

Table 42. — Exports of coal-tar dyes from Germany , 1913, 1920-1922 — Continued. 





1913 


1820 


1921 (May to Dee.) 


1922 




Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Aniline and other 
coal-tar dyes not 
specifically men- 
tioned— Contd. 
South Russia . . . 






72,752 

317,462 

522, 490 

2,147,280 

1.144.187 


$47,242 

227, 125 

401,557 

2,300,322 

1,142,893 

94,484 

1,789,745 

288,903 

1,391,822 

2,620,114 

1,150,161 

474,237 
606,878 
939,389 
5,407 
238,027 
534, 198 
1,677,091 


379, 101 

1,578,494 

321,872 

498,240 

405,646 

63,933 

537,922 

116,844 

1,527,788 

6,305,156 

3,955,052 

255,734 
279,984 
542,332 
70,547 
72,752 
502,649 
313,053 


$138,890 

589,874 

126,635 

276, 146 

195,263 

32,680 

295,754 

80,883 

778,601 

1,366,024 

1,519,620 

103,759 
109,478 
202,616 
52,288 
71,079 
154,413 
305,558 












5,078,300 

830,300 

1,378,300 

1,111,600 






520,286 
1,986,345 
1,728,406 

211,642 
1,446,218 

963,410 
8, 428, 185 
18,653,121 
7,729,328 

531,309 
350,531 

1,382,284 
976,638 
123,458 

1,197,098 
30,544,733 


$142,920 
476,400 
500,220 




Sweden 




Switzerland 




Serbia 


47,640 235,892 

428,760 1,406,535 

214,380 480,603 

1,953,240 1.062.617 




Spain . . 


2,071,900 




Turkey 




British India, etc 


5,750,500 
19,673,900 
8,372,900 

416,700 

795,900 

1,545,000 




China 


4,549,610 
2,000,880 

119,100 
119,100 
404,940 
190,560 
47,640 
285,840 
6,717,240 


2,458,129 
1,069,231 

365,964 
476, 194 
749,564 
2,205 
145,504 
586,424 
886,249 




Japan 




Dutch East In- 




Argentina 




Brazil. 




Canada 




Chili . . 






Mexico. 


i,i64,566 

453,900 

14,221,400 








Other countries. 




















Total 


141,729,325 


33,848,220 39,460,135 


37,421,115 


31,543,417 


11,625,09379,391,000 


$61,032,947 




Indigo: 

Alsace-Lorraine . 






2,205 


1,817 










France 


712,086 
2,601,428 
1,459,445 
1,347,011 
3,000,461 


309,660 
381, 120 
238,200 
214, 380 










Great Britain . . 


1,135,369 

626, 106 

1,097,891 


655,937 
163,530 
516,028 










Italy 


97,002 
410,056 


20,425 
71,079 








6,179 




Austria-Hungary 


476, 400 








251,324 

231,483 

2,205 


76,314 

107,203 

1,817 


608,470 
895,068 
149,913 


102,942 
152,779 
29,412 
















Hungary. 










Russia. . 


956,796 

147,708 

976,638 

714,290 

47,090,266 

1,809,977 

2, 103, 188 

7,630,121 


666,960 

119,100 

214,380 

309,660 

6, 407, 580 

1,357,740 

357,300 

1,000,440 








279,984 
332,895 
273,370 
7,927,742 
520, 286 
844,362 
6,614 


408,825 
254,380 
241,661 
5,431,013 
719,532 
570,538 
7,268 


101,412 

291,007 

207, 232 

8, 439, 209 

1,067,026 

588,628 

6,614 


39,276 
192,812 
152,779 
1,343,148 
665,038 
138,890 
3,268 












British India, etc 






23,614,400 
1,204,400 












United States... 






Dutch Indies... 


1,068,600 
3,980,200 




Other countries. 
































Total 


73,530,024 


12,696,060 


14,349,741 


9,579,741 


13,300,352 


3,088,260 


30,485,400 


13,946,882 





1922 



Pounds. 



Value. 



Indigo carmine and color lakes of indigo; 

Italy 

Czechoslovakia 

Egypt 

ther countnes 

Total 



18,700 
142,200 

88,600 
169,300 



418,900 



$381,774 



INTERNATIONAL, DYE TRAEfE. 157 

Table 43. — Imports of coal-tar dyes into Germany, 1913, 1920-1922. 





1913 


1920 


May to December, 
1921. 


1922 




Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Alizarin, alizarin red, 
variegated, from 
anthracene : 
Great Britain 


74, 956 
1,227,962 


$10,234 
165,648 














Austria-Hungary 




























Total 


1,328,933 


179, 452 


2,205 


$1,817 


2,205 


$817 


9,700 


$6,679 




Indigo, natural and 
artificial: 
British East In- 
dies 


51,357 
5,732 

13,448 
22, 928 


38,794 
2,856 

12,376 
12,376 














China 














Dutch East In- 
dies 














Salvador 




























Total 


128,308 


92,582 






2,205 




21, 800 


2 290 












AniUne and other 
coal-tar dyes not 
specified: 
Belgium 


239, 199 
179,454 
491,405 
434,968 
434,306 
3, 802, 935 


59,500 
44,506 
122,094 
108,052 
107, 814 
944,384 














France 














Great Britain 














Netherlands 










137, 100 




Austria-Hungary 












Switzerland 














United States 










730,800 
133,700 




Other countries. . 
































Total 


5,680,372 


1,410,388 


44,092 


16,353 


287,047 


32,680 


1,001,800 


102,937 





GERMANY. 

Note. — Conversion of the mark made at following values: 



1913. 
1920. 



$0.2382 I 1921 $0.00817 

.01817 I 1922 00233 



Table 44. — Imports of coal-tar dyes into British India, fiscal years ended March 31, 

1914, 1920-1922. 





1914. 


1920. 


1921. 


1922. 




Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Alizarin dyes: 

United Kingdom 

Other British 

possessions 


963, 698 

54 

4, 637, 450 

64, 294 

804,243 


$114,660 

19 

631, 497 

8,847 

160,332 


1,932,372 


$876,749 


825,964 


$457, 165 


1, 862, 589 


$1,034,577 


Germany 


89,600 


31, 080 


2,061,993 

572, 662 

262, 166 

20,908 

4,442 

5,952 

74, 174 

54,469 


1, 520, 061 

453, 823 

188, 955 

15, 567 

3,685 

3,983 

37, 971 

44,883 


2 861 467 1 364 650 


Holland 


'427J79 '2891536 
252 031! 119 717 


Belgium 




Switzerland 


1 


57 452 24 812 


France 







\ 




Italy 










Austria-Himgary 










United States.... 






5,608 


5,703 




Other countries. . 






261 760' 129 532 
















Total 


6,469,739 


915,355 


2,027,580 


913, 532 


3,882,730 


2,726,093 


5,723,078 2,962,322 




Synthetic indigo: 
United Kingdom 
and other Brit- 
ish possessions . 
Switzerland 


3,248 


657 


2,240 
9,072 


1,250 
5,558 


137, 200 
66, 528 


113,764 
125,576 


224 298 


Germany 


602,336 

1,680 

68, 096 


268, 675 

808 

30,552 


\\2 784 i83 208 


Holland 




1 






Belgium 




:::::::::: 






United States 


2,912 


2,992 


6,720 
1,456 


7,772 
3,034 


112, 118 


Other countries. . 


2,352 


1,032 


3,584 6,426 









Total 


677, 712 


301, 724 


14, 224 


9,800 


211,904 


250, 146 


116 704 lofi "''I 






' 



158 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 



Table 44. — Imports of coal-tar dyes into British India, fiscal years ended March 31, 
1914, 1920-1922— Continued. 





1914 


1920 


1921 


1922 




Pounds. 


Value. 


Poimds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


• Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


AniKne dyes: 

United ICingdom 
and other Brit- 
ish possessions . 

Germany 


102, 869 

7,553,830 

26, 077 

916, 422 

672 

822, 507 

252, 232 

27, 666 

147 

200 

500 


. .?37,409 

1, 987, 002 

5,815 

223, 163 

195 

174, 041 

55, 921 

6,983 

73 

49 

131 


1,619, 795 $1,336, 140 
8301 2,057 


2,642,407 83,043,911 

1,591,108 2,833,802 

43,360 118,704 

129, 553 305, 847 

14,773 30,340 

296, 855 545, 049 

53, 692 118, 179 

200 372 

6, 726 IS, 157 

1,958,682 2,778,671 

866 1439 


1,093,865 

2, 988, 691 

86, 341 

120, 133 


$2,069,741 

4,127,023 

160 103 


Holland.. 


Belgium 


40, 977 

1,914 

516, 073 

120 


62,777 

4,312 

1, 139, 615 

108 


163, 166 


France 




Switzerland 

Italy 


639,325 
183,666 


849, 431 
198, 655 


Austria-Hungary 
Japan 




5.400 
1, 912', 140 

721 


12, 577 

2, 255, 776 

12,053 






United States 

Other countries. . 


723, 173 
34, 855 


1,028,971 
40,915 


Total 


9, 703, 122 


2, 490, 782 


4.097.970 4.81.5.415' 6. 7.3S. 222 


9,793,471 


5, 870, 049 


8, 637, 905 






■* ' 


Other dyes obtained 
from coal tar: 
United Kingdom 

Germany 

Belgium 


1,232 
30,436 
41,366 


560 
13,373 
19, 237 






8,249 


4,894 


3,956 
4,955 


3,353 






2,375 


1 


80 

924 

82 


506 

4,482 
48 




HoiTand 








Other countries . . 








12,495 


2,256 












Total 


73,034 


33, 170 


1 


9,335 


9,931 


21,406 


7,984 




1 



» Duty was collected on £1,162,599 in 1919-20, and £2,630,138 in 1920-21. 

Conversion note.— Value is stated in "Annual Statement of Sea-borne Trade of India" in pounds ster- 
ling converted from rupees at rates of 15 rupees to 1 pound sterling in 1913, and 10 rupees to 1 poimd sterling ' 
in 1920, 1921, and 1922 (fiscal years ending Mar. 31). Conversion to dollars made at rates of $4.8665 to 1 pound 
sterling in 1913, $4.1385 to 1 pound sterling in 1920, $3.7223 to 1 pound sterling in 1921, and $3.9719 to 1 poimd 
Sterling in 1922, the last two being averages for respective 12 months ending Mar. 31 , based on Federal Reserve 
Board daily rates. Violent fluctuations in the dollar value of the rupee make conversions of no practical 
significance. 

Table 45. — Exports of indigo from British India, 1920-1922. 



Exported to- 



1920 



Pounds. 



Value. 



1921 



Pounds. 



Value. 



1922 



Pounds. 



Value. 



United Kingdom. 

Egypt 

France 

Italy 

Greece 

Persia 

China 

Japan 

United States 

Other countries . . 



Total. 



137,088 
627, 200 
■ 1,344 



$250,586 

946,686 

3,253 



126,448 
153,552 



$217,900 
177,010 



1,120 

68,432 

25,312 

2,389,856 

9,296 

401,296 

3,660,944 



3,439 

118,171 

567, 706 

3,314,032 

20,639 

780, 769 

5,494,281 



2,128 
5,600 
85,456 
20,272 
652, 960 
3,136 
98,448 

1,148,000 



2,349 

12, 526 

123,513 

39,899 

782, 182 

6,049 

172,651 

1,534,079 



72,464 

218, 064 

1,680 

4,592 

30,240 

158,816 

4,928 

801,360 



92,400 
1,384,544 



$129,262 

283,661 

1,942 

5,473 

67,975 

248,788 

7,753 

1,122,757 



172,698 
2,040,309 



INTERNATIONAL DYE TRADE. 
Table 46. — Imports of coal-tar dyes into Japan, 1913, 1919-1921 . 



159 



Imported from— 


19131 


1919 


1920 


1921 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Great Britain 

France 


178,674 


$36,624 


123,615 
61,990 

47,781 

454,368 

2, 070, 173 

16,903 


$274,672 

116,760 

110,265 

769,787 

4,140,875 

51,022 


252,247 
182,951 
779,980 
129,091 
2,973,361 
134,237 


$384,801 
345,016 

1,327,186 
273,499 

5,153,858 
278,854 


93,721 

88, 154 

3,990,232 

173,991 

872,845 
368,938 


$144,211 
116,968 


Germany 

Switzerland 


8,600,252 
663,977 


1,8.54,528 
146,723 


4,636,871 
234,561 


United States 


874,087 


Other countries 


312,357 


62,380 


481,983 


Total 


9, 755, 260 


2, 100, 255 


2,774,830 


5,463,381 


4,451,867 


7,763,214 


5,587,881 


6,488,681 







1 Aniline dyes. 

Table 47. — Imports of coal-tar dyes into Italy, 1913, 1920, and 1921. 





1913 


1920 


1921 (first 6 months). 




Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Indigo, synthetic: 






57,540 
451,502 










1,248,465 

1,102 

98,546 

882 


$273,240 

241 

21,568 

193 




6,173 












110,009 




3,086 












10,141 




















Total 


1,348,995 


295,242 


629, 192 
566,582 


$139,862 


9,259 
1,006,841 


$2,991 
















Total 






1,195,774 




1,016,100 














Colors derived from tar or 
other bituminous substances: 
In dry state— 

Austria-Hungary 


72,090 

80,688 

59, 745 

10 403,948 

612,879 

17,637 

1,221,348 


18,302 

20,485 

15,168 

2,641,336 

155,597 

4,478 

310, 074 






























4,185,212 
910,500 




2,063,064 
84,657 




Great Britain and Ire- 






Holland 








1,789,694 

704,810 
289,684 




516,097 
111,112 
37,478 






























Total 


12,468,335 


3,165,440 


7,879,900 
772,933 


5,307,836 


2,812,408 
2,376,118 


1,751,280 


Germany (repara- 














Total 






8,652,853 




5,188,526 














In paste or liquid- 
















1,440,706 
284,393 


126,126 
24,897 


313,494 




38,360 












49,824 




3,086 














Total 


1,725,099 


151,023 


363,318 

48,501 


163,152 


41,446 
113,316 


8,630 


Germany (repara- 














Total 






411,819 




154,762 















160 UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 

Table 48. — Exports of coal-tar dyes from Italy, 1913, 1920, and 1921. 





1913 


1920 


January to June, 
1921. 




Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Synthetic indigo: 


Pounds. 

7,275 

220 

220 

220 


$1,592 
48 
48 
48 


Pounds. 




Pounds. 












































Total 


7,935 


1,736 






11,023 


$2,124 










Colors derived from tar and other bitumin- 
ous substances: 
In dry state — 


441 

220 

1,102 


112 

56 

280 






















134,041 
113,317 




27,337 
7,275 












34,613 
9,480 
1,323 
4,630 


8,787 

2,407 

336 

1,175 






































61,950 




31,526 






5,071 

1,323 
220 
441 
441 

1,102 
441 
661 
220 

2,645 
441 

1,543 
441 


1,287 
336 

56 
112 
112 
280 
112 
168 

56 
672 
112 
392 
112 


































































Chile 










Peru . 






























Tripoli 












102,956 




200,400 










Total 


66, 799 


16,960 


412,264 


$277,695 


266,538 


165,971 






In paste or liquid- 


5,071 
1,984 
6,173 
7,055 
6,173 
1,764 
220 
1,764 
5,512 
2,866 
4,409 


444 
173 
540 
618 
540 
154 
19 
154 
483 
251 
386 
















































































Tripoli 








































Total 


42,991 


3,762 


358,030 


80,388 


104,940 


15,315 







Table 49. — Synthetic organic colors — Imports into and exportsfrom Italy, July-Decem,ber, 

1921. 



Colors. 



Imports. 



Pounds. 



Value. 



Exports. 



Pounds. 



Value 



Sulphur. . . 
Other: 

Dry... 

Paste. 



69,004 

895, 509 
126, 764 



$38, 578 

658, 020 
97, 158 



29, 542 

81,350 
114.419 



$22, 463 

40, 868 
27, 387 



Table 50. — Imports of coal-tar dyes into Mexico 


, 1919-1921. 






Fiscal year 1919. 


April, 1920. 


April, 1921. 




Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Aniline, alizarine (natural and artificial), 
and anthracene colors: 
United States 


153, 764 


$47, 758 


19,901 
2,394 


$7, 874 
1,029 


8,408 

165 

16, 727 


$2, 723 




74 








5,582 
















153, 764 


47,758 


22, 295 


8,903 


25,300 


8,379 



INTERNATIONAL DYE TRADE. 161 

Table 51. — Imports of coal-tar dyes into the Netherlands, 1920 and 1921. 





1920 


1921 




Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Aniline and other coal-tar dyes: 


3, 190, 101 

26, 391 

361, 734 

14, 012 

186, 260 

1,554 

15,785 

240,249 


$3,513,158 
12, 143 
227, 503 
4,382 
73,817 
4,327 
24,083 
301,890 


1,879,959 
27,857 
52,827 
75,893 
16,462 


$1,569,456 
16,572 






32, 798 




37, 191 


United States 


7,118 














157,790 
12,588 


119, 773 




4,983 








Total 


4,036,086 


4,161,303 


2, 223, 376 


1, 787, 891 






Synthetic indigo: 

Great Britain 






21,182 
421,515 


7,132 




1,137,867 

5,126 

60,276 

3,365 


491, 655 

8,449 

24,465 

5,985 


141,924 


> Belgium 










T Finland 














1,207,591 


530,994 


443, 142 


149, 206 







Table 52. — Exports of coal-tar dyes from the Netherlands, 1920 and 1921. 





1920 


1921 




Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Aniline and ottier coal-tar dyes: 

Germany 


24,220 

22,178 

108,502 

40, 179 

21,923 

53,731 

3,258 

6,490 

4,200 

12,086 

1,739 

4,614 

4,533 

1,054 

13,924 

5,694 

5,747 

1,497 

9,925 


$18,644 

16,250 

153, 719 

58, 159 

26,740 

48,640 

2,896 

3,039 

4,500 

5,948 

1,780 

2,658 

5, 803 

6,219 

6,832 

7,542 

7,326 

2,106 

11,664 


68,049 
17,630 
38,362 
6,499 
19, 270 
11,226 


$30,546 
9,541 


Belgium 


Great Britain 


31,734 


France 


7,108 


United States 


17, 739 


East Indies 


11,577 






Denmark 






Greece 






Italy 


7,231 


1,704 


Portugal 






5,097 
5,935 
5,033 


6,323 




5,779 


British India 


1,700 


Siam 




Argentina 


2,182 
450 


2,387 


Braiil 


1,869 


Cuba 




Mexico 






Bulgaria 


5,569 
3,170 
8,175 


2,931 


Rumania 






1,945 


Serbia 






6,300 










Total 


351,248 


3%, 053 


220,092 


149 696 






Synthetic indigo: 

Great Britain 


20,425 
15, 130 


9,172 
. 3,506 


3,935 


4,162 


China 




Switzerland 


8,056 


8,609 










Total 


35,556 


12,678 


12,213 


13 on 







162 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSIOlSr. 
Table 53. — Imports of coal-tar dyes into Russia, 1913. 





Pounds. 


Value. 




Pounds. 


Value. 


Indigo extract in paste 
or liquid (indigo car- 
mine) Germany 


1,300 


$787 


Indigo (except extract and 
indigotine): 

Austria-Himgary 

United Kingdom 

Germany... 


23, 871 

16, 756 

1, 019, 067 

113,611 

1,733 

36 

205, 265 

469 

108 

29,685 

11,051 

2, 203 

12,314 


$17, 045 

11,937 

726, 650 


Alizarin, alizarin cake, 


15,.131 

20, 404 

3, 238, 451 

3,756 

361 

36 

253 


11,699 

15, 780 

2, 553, 208 

2,765 

241 

3 

T9I-, 


and other synthetic 


Netherlands 


81, 016 


organic dyes, their bases 


Italy 


1 236 


and combinations: 


China 


26 


Austria-Hungary 


East Indies 


146,331 


Great Britain 


Persia 


309 


Germany 


Turkey, 


66 


Netherlands 


France. . 


21 173 


China and Mongolia... 


Switzerland 


7, 873 


Norway 


Sweden... 


1 570 


Turkey 


Other countries 

Total 


8,786 


France 


30,407 i 5,466 
87,176 1 85.415 


Switzerland 


1, 436, 169 


1 024 018 


Japan 


108 
181 


50 
142 






Other countries 




Total 


3,396,264 


2, 674, 894 








Indigotine (indigo extract) 
(dried): 
Germany 


1,806 
108 


1,378 
109 




Other countries 




Total 


1,914 


1,487 









Table 54. — Imports of coal-tar dyes into Spain, 1914, 1920, and 1921. 





1914 


1920 


1921 




Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Colors derived from coal and 
other artificial colors, in 
powder or crystal: 
Germany 


1,026,823 

163 

15, 889 

249,627 

79 

51, 504 

588, 145 

1,702 

34,438 

882 

48, 109 


$485,419 

77 

7,511 

118,008 

37 

24,348 

278,039 

805 

16, 280 

417 

22, 743 










Austria-Hungary 










Belgium 


39,341 




27,708 




Chile 






United States 


712,996 
40,064 
577,334 




67,425 
115, 885 
22, 141 




France 






Great Britain 






Holland 






Italy 


121,945 




156, 028 




Portugal 






Switzerland 


362, 249 
1,061,385 




95, 391 
1,179,111 




Other countries 
















Total 


2, 017, 361 


953,684 


2,915,314 


$1,210,373 


1,664,689 


$550, 71 1 






Thio carbon: 

Germany 


563,639 
4,431 
7,454 

28, 761 
4,676 

65, 854 


61,679 

485 

816 

' 3, 147 

512 

7,206 










Belgium 










France 










Great Britain 


53,166 




99 


8 


Italy 






Switzerland 


1,323 
12,478 
25,937 








United States 








Other countries. ...'. 
























Total 


674, 815 


73,845 


92,904 


8,929 


99 


8 






Colors derived from coal in 
paste or liquid: 
Germany 


66, 881 
187,475 
207 
14, 881 
4,277 
1,779 
1,900 
8,948 


15, 809 

44,313 

49 

3,517 

1,011 

421 

449 

2,115 


175, 530 




18,779 




Cuba 






Denmark 










France 


8,706 
3,763 




20,628 
324 




Great Britain 






Holland 






Italy 










Switzerland 


20, 587 
54,465 




3,327 
5,157 




















Total 


286, 348 


67,684 


263, 051 


54,606 


48,215 


7,975 







INTERNATIONAL DYE TRADE. 163 

Table 55. — Exports of coal-tar dyes from Siveden, 1913, 1920, and 1921. 





1913 


1920 


1921 (preliminary). 


• 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Aniline and other tar colors, 
n. s. p. f.: 
Norway 






4,899 
14,063 
46, 155 
3,768 
2,233 


$9, 907 
24, 229 

87, 855 
8,272 
4,367 






Denmark 










Finland 






1 


Great Britain 






1 ■ ■ 


Other countries 














1 


Total 


7,315 


$2, 223 


71,118 


134,630 


64 921 '^^^ s'l 






979 


Alizarin colors 






192 
5,456 


583 
2,999 


82 


Indigo (synthetic) 

















Table 56. — Imports of coal-tar dyes into Sweden, 1913, 1920, and 1921. 





1913 


1920 


1921 (preliminary) .1 




Poimds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Alizarin colors: 

United States 






3,774 

88,098 

1,305 


$4, 150 

96,865 

1,435 






Germany 


128,938 
7,656 


$45, 455 
2,699 






Other countries 












Total 


136, 594 


48, 154 


93, 177 


102,450 


42,531 


«34,710 




Aniline and other tar colors: 
United States 






67, 703 
22,846 
59, 081 
2,171,042 
22,057 
93, 155 


62,034 
20, 933 
54,133 
1,989,251 
20, 210 
85,355 






Norway 










Denmark 


20, 740 

1,873,500 

50, 115 


6,303 

569,375 

15,230 






Germany 






Netherlands 






Great Britain 






Belgium 


12,983 

87,095 

5,084 


3,947 

26,469 

1,545 






Switzerland 


456,976 
3,918 


418, 711 
3,589 






Other countries 












Total 


2,049,517 


622,869 


2,896,778 


2,654,216 


914, 475 


653,024 






Indigo (synthetic): 

Germany 


110, 104 


18,739 


76, 105 
55 


72,015 
56 






Swit 'crland 






Others 


5,272 


897 
















Total 


115,376 


19,636 


76, 160 


72,071 


23,713 


14 133 






Other indigo colors, Germany . 


74,679 


9,078 


25, 648 


4,699 


3,309 


675 



1 Not given by countries. 



164 



UN'ITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 



Table 57. — Coal-tar dyes — Imports into and exports from Turkey, fiscal year March, 

191S-March, 1914. 





Imports. 


Exports. 




Pounds. 


Value. 


Poimds. 


Value. 


Colors of aniline and alizarine: 

England 


38, 146 

709,694 

195,912 

1,819 

463 

19,930 

115 

76,266 


$4,857 

161,041 

44,229 

449 

89 

3,438 

20 

12,857 






Germany 






Austria-Hungary ; 


2,405 


$339 


Italy 




Sweden 






Switzerland 






United States 


18 


11 


Belgium 




Bulgaria 


2,560 

238 

1,587 

2,813 

11 

31 


282 


Russia 


1,653 


526 


67 


Rumania 


369 


HoUand 


22,848 
17,322 
4,098 
7,751 
3,181 
6,510 


4,829 
3,532 
1,057 
1,705 
486 
1,237 


561 


France 


1 


Greece 


8 


India 




Egypt 


14,328 
1,060 


3,711 


Other countries 


177 






Total 


1,105,708 


240, 352 


25,051 1 5,525 






England 


424, 703 

240, 420 

179,693 

31 

22 

110 

142,907 


63,790 

103,930 

21,907 

5 

13 

6 

12,017 












Austria-Hungary 












Persia 


611 


346 






Belgium 








35 


44 


Holland 


7,685 

227,689 

44 

291, 126 

11,380 

86 

99 


1,427 

15,557 

18 

176,992 

5,260 

42 

5 










Greece 


198 


18 


India 




Egypt 


699 
392 


347 




85 


Indeterminate 










TotaH 


1,525,995 
1,525,995 


401,019 
400,969 


1,936 
1,935 


840 




840 







OfiBciaUy published total incorrect. 



PART VI. 

APPENDIX. 

STATISTICS OF DOMESTIC IMPORTS 
AND EXPORTS. 



165 



STATISTICS OF IMPORTS AND EXPORTS. 



Table 58. — Imports of coal-tar products entered for consumption, calendar years 

1917 to 1922. 

[Act of Sept. 8, 1916.] 

GROUP I, CRUDE (FREE). 



Years. 



1917 



Quantity. 



Value. 



1918 



Quantity. 



Value. 



Acids, carbolic, which on being subjected to distillation 
yield in the portion distilling below 200° C. a quantity of 
tar acids less than 5 per cent of original distillate, .pounds. . 

Anthracene oil gallons . . 

Benzol pounds . . 

Cresol do 

Dead or creosote oil • gallons.. 

Naphthalene having a soUdifying point less than 79° C. 
pounds . . 

Pyridine and quinoline : do 

Coal tar, crude barrels. . 

Pitch, coal tar do 

Metacresol, orthocresol, and paracresol — purity less than 90 
per cent pounds.. 

Xylol do. . . . 

All other products found naturally in coal tar whether pro- 
duced or obtained from coal tar or other sources, n. s. p. f. 
pounds. . 

All other distillates, which on being subjected to distillation 
yield in the portion distilling below 200° C. a quantity of 
tar acids less than 5 per cent of the original distillate 
pounds. . 

Anthracene, purity less than 25 per cent do 

Acenapht hene, cumol fluorene, methylanthracene, and 
methylnaphthalene pounds. . 

Carbazol, purity less than 25 per cent do 



151,254 

61, 200 

3, 598, 733 

7,665,442 

9,817,085 

5,206,980 
12, 247 
6,780 
5,926 

20, 70S 
9,332 



(1) 

G) 
0) 



$9, 894 

3,105 

341,700 

532, 529 

786,638 

175, 554 

1,480 

10, 745 

12,039 

1,404 
2,928 



10,448 



1,502 
0) 



155, 236 



$17,260 



2,673,855 
8, 873, 271 
1, 545, 247 

3,902,731 
9,237 
13, 087 
14,029 



87, 570 
779,045 
162,869 

130,098 

1,036 

21,200 

29,095 



2,756 



10, 473 
5 



G) 
0) 



Years. 



1919 



Quantity. Value 



1920 



Quantity. Value, 



Acids, carbolic, which on being subjected to distillation 
yield in the portion distilling below 200° C. a quantity of 
tar acids less than 5 per cent of original distillate. pounds. . 

Anthracene oil gallons. . 

Benzol pounds. . 

Cresol do 

Dead or creosote oil gallons.. 

Naphthalene having a soUdifying point less than 79° C. 
pounds . . 

Pyridine and quinoline do 

Joal lar, crude barrels. . 

Pitch, coal tar do 

Metacresol, orthocresol, and paracresol— purity less than 90 
per cent pounds . . 

Toluol do. . . . 

All other products found naturally in coal tar whether pro- 
duced or obtained from coal tar "or other sources, n. s. p. f. 
pounds. . 

All other distillates, which on being subjected to distillation 
yield in the portion distilling below 200° C. a quantify of 
tar acids less than 5 per cent of the original distillate 
pounds.. 

Anthracene, purity less than 25 per cent pounds.. 

Acenapht hcne, cumol fluorene, methylanthracene, and 
met hylnajjh I halene pounds. . 

Carbazol, purity less than 25 per cent pounds.. 



1,965,289 

18,699 

217, 865 

6,435,650 

11,268,379 

3, 239, 256 

165,064 

22, 339 

3,364 

11,200 
1,195,706 



380.525 



104, 568 
82,669 



15,759 
112 



$187,788 

3,994 

5,617 

557, 214 

1,374,217 

92, 265 

20, 543 

38, 476 

8,598 

1,221 
30,768 



6,334 



10, 548 
2,022 

946 
82 



192,692 
15,054 

486, 619 
10,318,070 
18, 427, 152 

15, 012, 096 

863, 456 

11,901 

8,780 



$19, 848 

3,945 

10, 868 

901, 3S1 

3,796,399 

530,219 
168,800 
24, 140 
26.022 



240,096 



14,046 



202, 569 



16,590 



' Imports not available by calendar year. 



167 



168 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 



Table 58. — Imports of coal-tar products entered for consumption, calendar years, 
1917 to 19:2^— Continued. 

GROUP I, CRUDE (FREE)— Continued. 



Acids, carbolic, which on being subjected to distillation 
yield in the portion distilling below 200° C. a quantity of 
tar acids less than 5 per cent of original distillate, .pounds. . 

Anthracene oil gallons . . 

Benzol pounds. . 

Crosol do — 

Dead or creosote oil gallons . . 

Naphthalene having a solidifying point less than 79° C. 
pounds . . 

Pyridine and quinoline do — 

Coal tar, crude barrels. . 

Pitch, coal tar do — 

Metacresol, orthocresol, and paracresol— purity less than 90 
per cent pounds. . 

Toluol do.... 

All other products found naturally in coal tar whether pro- 
duced or obtained from coal tar or other sources, n. s. p. f. 
pounds . . 

All other distillates, which on being subjected to distillation 
yield in the portion distilling below 200° C. a quantitv of 
tar acids less than 5 per cent of the original distillate 
pounds. . 

Anthracene, purity less than 25 per cent poimds. . 

Acenaphthene, cumol fluorene, methylanthracene and 
methylnaphthalene pounds. . 

Carbazol, purity less than 25 per cent pounds. . 



Years. 



1921 



Quantity, Value, 



214, 185 

12,776 

1,722,085 

3,353,882 

33, 239, 432 

4,495,806 

72, 515 

21,551 

417 



40,707 



7,310 
58, 111 



100 



$22, 849 

5,019 

442,370 

253,886 

4,756,618 

135,943 

11,367 

46,784 

1,264 



3,111 



959 
1,198 



64 



1922 



Quantity. Value 



311,914 

13,368 

172,528 

3,756,651 

41,566,767 

3,144,332 

119,973 

23,431 

1,422 

3,962 
144,237 



424,530 



459,727 
33,600 

66 



*$33, 781 

3,242 

1,223 

258, 536 

4,239,949 

54,029 

21,113 

64,324 

4,193 

352 
6,061 



.049 



50,652 
400 

17 



GROUP II (DUTIABLE AT 15 PER CENT PLUS 2J CENTS 
55 PER CENT PLUS 7 CENTS PER POUND AFTER 


PER POUND; DUTIABLE AT 
SEPTEMBER 21, 1922). 


Article and year. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Duty. 


Actual 
and com- 
puted ad 
valorem 
rate. 


Not colors, dyes, or status, photographic chemicals, medic- 
inals, flavors, or explosives, and n. s. p. f.: 
Acids— 

Amidosalicylic— 

1917 










1918 










1919 










1920 


11, 199 


$8,182 


$1,507 


18.42 


1921 




1922 










Benzoic— 

1917 


4,653 

1,791 

63 

250 

11,263 

100 

30,676 
148, 261 


20,539 

14,060 

374 

1,087 

3,012 

365 

4,954 
47,085 


3,190 

2,154 

58 

169 

733 


15.53 


1918 


15.32 


1919 '. 


15.42 


1920 


15.58 


1921 


24.35 


1922 a 




Carbolic (phenol) which on being subjected to dis- 
tillation yields in the portion distilling below 
200° C. a quantity of tar acids equal to or more 
than 5 per cent of the original distillate- 
Crystal— 

1917 


1,510 
10, 769 


30.48 


1918 


22.87 


1919 




1920 










1921 


250 

280,224 

69,310 

314,585 

134,406 

2,061 

1,040 


142 
30,414 
16, 102 

24,246 

15, 186 

264 

244 


28 


19.40 


1922 o. 




1922 6 ... 






Liquid— 

1917 


11,502 

5,638 

91 

63 


47.44 


1918 


37.13 


1919 


34.52 


1920 


25.66 


1921 




1922 a 


1,702 
145, 375 

26,273 
117 


1,801 
18,488 

23,575 
112 






1922 b 






Salicylic— 

1917 


4,193 
20 


17.79 


1918 


17.62 



* First nine months. 



a Act of 1916. 



6 Act of 1922. 



STATISTICS OF DOMESTIC IMPORTS AND EXPORTS. 



169 



Table 58. — Imports of coal-tar products entered for consumption, calendar years 
1917 to 1922— Continued. 

GROUP II (DUTIABLE AT 15 PER CENT PLUS 2i CENTS PER POUND; DUTIABLE AT 
55 PER CENT PLUS 7 CENTS PER POUND AFTER SEPTEMBER 21, 1922)— Contd. 



Article and year. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Duty. 


Actual 
and com- 
puted ad 
valorem 
rate. - 


Not colors, dyes, or stains, photographic chemicals, 
medicinals, flavors, or explosives, and n. s- p. f.— Con. 
Acids— Continued. 

1919 










1920 










1921 










1922 o 


2,276 


$1,881 






Amidonaphthol— 

1917 






1918 










1919 


150 


72 


$15 


20.21 


1920 




1921 


11,025 


9,990 


1,774 


17.76 


1922 




Amidophenol — 

1917 










1918 










1919. . 


1,028 


2,417 


388 


16.06 


1920 




1921 


14,623 


11, 699 


2.120 


18.12 


1922 






Aniline oil— 

1917 










1918 










1919 










1920 


220 
11,243 


72 
1,799 


16 
551 


22.64 


1921 


30.62 


1922 o 




1922 6 c 


55 


11 






1917 








21, 273 


3,250 


1,019 


31.38 


1919 




1920 


4 
18, 316 


1 
12,109 


.25 
2,274 


25.00 


1921 


18.78 


1922 (included in aniline oil) 




Anthracene, purity of 25 per cent or more— 

1917 










1918 










1919 


51, 895 

648, 095 

261,645 

2 


8,011 

87, 413 

12,639 

2 


2,499 

29, 314 

8,437 


31.19 


1920 


33.54 


1921 


66.75 


19226 




Anthraquinone— 

1917.. 
















1919 


3,147 
13,053 
127, 427 


2,643 
5,612 
78, 255 


375 
1,168 
14, 924 


14.20 




20.82 


1921 


19.07 


1922 




BenzaJdehyde— 










1918 












24,472 

9,479 

1,056 

20 

5 


17,790 

5,928 

465 

11 

7 


3,280 

1,126 

96 


18.44 


1920 


19.00 


1921 


20.68 


19226 




1917 


1 


16.86 






1919 


1,000 
150 


430 
22 


90 

7 


20.81 




32.05 


1921 . . .. 




1922 a.. 










1922 6 


29 

61,632 

22,635 

6,896 

4,692 

1,164 




10 

3,111 

1,066 

372 

300 

52 




1917 


10, 471 

3,333 

1,331 

1,216 

155 




29.71 




31.98 


1919 


27.95 




24.64 


1921 


33.77 


1922 





o Act of 1916. 



i Act of 1922. 



e Includes aniline salts. 



52805—23- 



-12 



170 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 



Table 58. — Imports of coal-tar products entered for consumption, calendar years 
1917 to J9^^— Continued. 

GROUP II (DUTIABLE AT 15 PER CENT PLUS 2i CENTS PER POUND; DUTIABLE AT 
55 PER CENT PLUS 7 CENTS PER POUND AFTER SEPTEMBER 21, 1922)— Contd. 



Article and year. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Duty. 


Actual 
and com- 
puted ad 
valorem 
rate. 


Not colors, dyes, or stains, photographic chemicals, 
medicinals, flavors, or explosives, and n. s- p. f.— Con. 
Binitrobenzol— 

1921 


5 


83 


$0.58 


19 33 


1922 




Carbazol, purity of 25 per cent or more— 

1917 :. 










1918 










1919 










1920 


157 


27 


8 


29 56 


1921 




1922 a 


8,820 


3,865 






1922 6 






Dimethylaniline— 

1917 










1918 










1919 


1,120 
22, 400 


427 
15,968 


92 
2,955 


21.56 


1920 


18.51 


1921 




1922 a 


23,565 


3,828 






1922 6 






Metacresol, orthocresol, and paracresol, purity of 90 
per cent or more— 
1917 










1918 










1919 












2,444 

556 

2,224 

1,008 


2,230 
341 
107 
167 


396 
65 


17.74 


1921 


19.08 






19226 






Methylanthra q uinone — 

1917 
















1919 


3,147 
13,053 


2,643 
5,612 


375 
1,168 


14 20 




20.82 


1921 














Napthalene solidifying at 79° C. or above— 

1917 : 


267, 057 

2,795 

7,650 

3, 697, 562 

441, 685 

75, 680 


12, 125 

171 

384 

416, 172 

31, 458 

7,684 


8,497 

96 

249 

154,865 

15, 761 


70.02 


1918 


55 87 


1919 


64.80 


1920 


37.21 


1921 


50.10 


1922 a 




1922 6 






Naphthol— 

1917 


1,027 


1,069 


186 


17.40 


1918 














1920 












333,356 
658 


112, 922 
799 


25,272 


22 38 


1922a 




1922 6 , 






Naphthylamine— 










1918 


11,761 


5,985 


1,192 


19.91 






1920 


69, 695 


7,208 


2,824 


39.18 






1922... . 










1917 










1918 . . ' . 










1919 


21, 513 
45, 891 


4,oo;j 

6,009 


1,138 
2,049 


28. 44 


1920 


34.09 


1921 














Nitronaphthalene— 


18, 102 


7,758 


1,616 


20.83 


1918 














1920 




















1922 










1921 


1,132 


6,590 


1,017 


15.43 











o Act Of 1916. 



6 Act Of 1922. 



STATISTICS OF DOMESTIC IMPORTS AND EXPORTS. 



171 



Table 58. — Imports of coal-tar products entered for consumption, calendar years 
1917 to 1922— Continued. 

GROUP II (DUTIABLE AT 15 PER CENT PLUS 2^ CENTS PER POUND; DUTIABLE AT 
55 PER CENT PLUS 7 CENTS PER POUND AFTER SEPTEMBER 21, 1922)— Continued. 



Article and year. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Duty. 


Actual 
and com- 
puted ad 
valorem 
rate. 


Not colors, dyes, or stains, photographic chemicals, 
medicinals, flavors, or explosives, and n. s. p. f.— Con. 
Nitrotoluol— 

1917 










191S 










1919 


542 
684 


S452 
359 


$81 
71 


18. 00 


1920 


19.76 


1921 




1922 










Phenvlenediamine — 

1917 










1918 










1919. 


2,746 
2,429 


1,769 

1,887 


334 
344 


18.88 


1920 


18.22 


1921 




1922 o 


6 


16 






1922 b . . .... 






Phthalic anhvdride— 

1917 


98 


1,853 


2S0 


15.13 


191S 




1919 










1920 










1921. 










1922 a . . 


3,374 


2,517 






1922 6 . . . . 






Resorcin — 

1917 


134 


672 


104 


15.50 


1918 




1919 










1920 


51, 529 
109, 658 


39,932 
75,022 


7,278 
13,995 


18.23 


1921 


18.65 


1922 




1921 


175 


238 


40 


16.48 


1922. 




Xylidine— 

1917 










1918 










1919 










1920 


56,047 


41,237 


7,587 


18.40 


1921 




1922 










portion distilling below 200° C. a quantity of tar acid 

equal to or more than 5 per cent of the oi-iginal distillate: 

1917 










1918 


1,550 
3,170 
85,474 
16, 240 
328, 601 
22,163 

18, 257 

193, 021 
13,445 
51, 214 
87,911 
87,207 
389,708 
187,377 


2,008 
4,587 
36,041 
11,811 
33, 784 
9,128 

4,102 

17, 595 
8,640 
39,861 
74, 514 
41,965 
153,6-25 
61, 967 


340 

767 

7,543 

2,178 


16.93 


1919 


16. 73 


1920 


20 93 


1921 


18.43 


1922 a 




1922 6 c 






gas tar which on being subject to distillation below 
215° C. a quantity of tar acids equal to or more than 
75 per cent of the original distillate: 
1922 






All similar products, obtained, derived, or manufactured 
in whole or in part from the products provided for in 
Group 1 (free): 
1917 


7,465 

1,632 

7,260 

13, 375 

8,475 


42.43 


1918 


18.89 


1919 . . .. 


18.21 


1920 


17.95 


1921 


20.19 


1922a 




1922 b 






AU sulfoacids or sulfoacid salts of Group II: 

1917 : 






1918 










1919 










1920 


100 
6,789 
11,374 


87 
2,944 
12,058 


16 
611 


17.88 


1921 


20.76 


1922 a 











a Act Of 1916. 



6 Act of 1922. 



c At 190° C. instead of 200° C. 



172 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 



Table 58.- 



-Imports of coal-tar products entered for consumption, calendar years 
1917 to .?9ff— Continued. 



GROUP III (DUTIABLE AT 30 PER CENT AD VALOREM; DUTIABLE AT 60 PER CENT 
AD VALOREM PLUS 7 CENTS PER POUND AFTER SEPTEMBER 21, 1922). 



Article and year. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Duty. 


Actual 
and com- 
puted ad 
valorem 
rate. 


When obtained, derived, or manufactured in whole or in 
part from any of the products provided for in Group I 
(free) or II, including natural indigo and their deriva- 
tives: 
Alizarin, natural— 

1917 


6,899 
108, 711 

6,684 
58, 583 
59,306 
28,399 

1,547 

19, 180 


$12, 216 

158, 816 

8,612 

41,381 

81,816 

63, 304 

3,094 

55, 179 


$3, 665. 00 
47,644.80 
2, 583. 60 
12,414.30 
24, 544. 80 


30.00 


1918 


30.00 


1919 


30.00 


1920 


30.00 


1921 


30.00 


1922 a 




1922 ft 






Alizarin, svnthetic — 

1917. . ; 


16, 554. 00 


30.00 


1918 




1919 










1920 


73, 232 

136, 283 

21,614 

34 
6,446 
1,920 
29,436 
246, 837 
293, 005 
56, 294 

23, 146 

12, 827 

7,162 

216, 508 

226,956 

330, 129 

17,697 

129,983 
3,376 
34,049 
86,439 
76, 123 

184, 886 

872 

35 
160 


24, 072 
49, 707 
22, 190 

75 

13, 399 

3,864 

25, 4S9 

356,658 

468,134 

82,981 

11,326 

20,087 

7,772 

208,754 

422,941 

605, 187 

26,002 

140, 932 
13.744 
82, 779 

196,783 
72, 154 

267,059 

1,482 

408 
816 


7,221.60 
14,912.10 


30.00 


1921 


30.00 


1922 a . 




Dyes obtained, derived, or manufactured from aliza- 
rin— 

1917 


22.50 

4,019.70 

1,159.20 

7,646.70 

106,997.40 


30.00 


1918 


30.00 


1919 


30.00 


1920 


30.00 


1921 


30.00 


1922 a 




1922 6 






Dyes obtained, derived, or manufactured from an- 
thracene and carbazol— 


3, 398. 00 

6, 026. 10 

2, 331. 60 

62,626.20 

126,882.30 


30.00- 


1918 


30.00 




30.00 


1920 


30.00 


1921 


30.00 


1922 a 










Indigrids, whether or not obtained from indigo — 

1917.. . 


42,280.00 
4, 123. 20 
24, 833. 70 
59,034.90 
21, 646. 20 


30.00 


1918 


30.00 


1919 


30.00 


1920 ... 


30.00 




30.00 


1922 a . . 




Colors, dyes, stains, etc., derived from indigo — 

1922 6 






1917 


122.00 
244.80 


30.00 




30.00 


1919. . 




1920 ■ 


14 


27 


8.10 


30.00 


1921 .. 














Indigo, natural— 


2, 261, 122 

1,637,914 

234, 991 

36, 537 

77, 121 

14,461 


4, 230, 510 

2, 007, 958 

285, 925 

69, 528 

154, 538 

19,074 


1,269,153.00 

602, 387. 40 

85,777.50 

20, 858. 40 

46,361.40 


30.00 


1918 


30.00 


1919 


30.00 


1920 


30.00 


1921 


30.00 


1922 a 




1922 b 






Indigo, synthetic— 


1, 379, 349 

690,414 

637,697 

171,101 

70,975 

86,585 


871, 267 
342, 589 
327, 133 
207, 299 
84,901 
123, 702 


261, 380. 00 
102,776.70 
98, 139. 90 
62, 189. 70 
25,470.30 


30.00 


1918. . 


30.00 




30.00 


1920 


30.00 




30.00 


1922 a 




1922 6 






Medicinals— 

1917 




284,346 
301,074 
168,466 
165, 055 
280, 299 
154,620 
24,410 


85,304.00 
90,322.20 
50, 539. 80 
49, 516. 50 
84, 089. 70 


30.00 


1918 . 




30.00 






30.00 






30.00 






30.00 


1922 a 






1922 be 


7,937 







<i Act of 1916. 



6 Act of 1922. 



e Other coal-tar medicinals. 



STATISTICS OF DOMESTIC IMPORTS AND EXPORTS. 



173 



Table 58. — Imports of coal-tar products entered for consumption, calendar years 

1917 to ^9^^— Continued. 

GROUP III rDUTIABLE AT .30 PER CENT AD VALOREM: DUTIABLE AT 60 PER CENT 
AD VALOREM PLUS 7 CENTS PER POUND AFTER SEPTEMBER 21, 1922.)— Continued. 



Article and year. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Duty. 


Actual 
and com- 
puted ad 
valorem 
rate. 


When obtained, derived, or manufactured in whole or in 
part from any of the products provided for in Group I 
(free) or II, including natural indigo and their deriva- 
tives: 
Colors, or color lakes obtained, derived, or manufac- 
tured from alizarin — 
1917 


7,062 
1,499 
15, 358 
98, 735 
59,290 
79,542 


$18,680 
4,490 
14,405 

172, 841 
66, 171 
62, 986 


$5,9.57.00 

1, 421. 95 

5, 089. 40 

56, 789. 05 

22,815.80 


31.89 


1918 


3L67 


1919 


35. 33 


1920 . 


32.88 


1921 


34.48 


1922 a 




1922 b 






Colors, or color lakes obtained, derived, or manufac- 
tured from anthracene and carbazol— 

1917 


53, 205 
27, 900 
38, 073 
260, 080 
62, 748 
27, 535 


49, 729 
22, 546 
55, 475 
529, 966 
65, 635 
63, 102 


17, 579. 00 

8, 158. 80 

18, 546. 15 

171, 992. 80 

22, 827. 90 


35.35 


1918 


36.19 


1919 


33.43 


1920 


32.45 


1921 


34.78 


1922 a 




1922 b 






All other colors, dyes, or stains, whether soluble or 

not in water, color acids, color bases, or color lakes— 

1917 


2, 257, 476 

1, 799, 467 
1,991,687 
2, 807, 807 

2, 751, 535 
2,077,712 

677,849 

134,702 


2,574,363 
2, 161, 799 
2, 848, 294 
4, 093, 389 
3,968,319 
2,941,773 
894,844 

11,596 


885, 183. 00 
738, 513. 05 
954, 072. 55 
1,368,407.05 
1,.328, 072.45 


34.38 


1918 c 


34.16 


1919 


33.50 


1920 


33.43 


1921 


33.47 


1922 a 




1922 b . . 






Phenolic resin, synthetic— 

1917 •. 


10, 214. 00 


88.08 


1918 






1,114 

2,479 

1,420 

762 

1,7.56 

12,632 

14, 550 

12,059 

21,808 

29, 281 

3,287 

8,183 

124 

3,280 


2,860 
2,681 
2, .366 
1,404 
2,094 

101,406 

108, 537 

77, 876 

67,640 

6.5,906 

4,465 

8,208 

50 

40,352 


913.70 
928. 25 
780.80 


31.95 


1920 


34.63 




33.00 


1922 a 










Resinlike products prepared from articles provided for in 
pars. 2o and 1.549: 
Photographic chemicals— 


31,053.00 
33,288.60 
23,985.75 
21,382.40 
21,23.5.85 


30.62 


1918 


30.67 




30.77 


1920 


31.61 




32.22 


19220 




1922 b ... 








12.00 
10,088.00 


25.00 


Acetphenetidin (25 per cent): 

1917 


25.00 






1919 


















1921 










Acetylsalicylic acid (25 per cent): 

1917 


1,474 


4,670 


1,168.00 


25.00 






1919 


26 


76 


19.00 


25.00 






1921 . 1 
















Antipyrene (25 per cent): 


21,842 
9,416 

13. 736 

14. 737 


62,411 
106,643 
135, .565 

53,293 


15,603.00 
26,661.00 
3.3,891.00 
13, .323. 00 


25.00 


1918 


25.00 


1919 


2.5.00 


1920 


25.00 


1921 . 




1922 a 1 








1922') 


913 


1,740 







o Act of 1916. 
6 Act of 1922. 
cDoes not include 110 pounds, valued at $322, duty $81.6 



from Cuba. 



174 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 



Table 58. — Imports of coal-tar products entered for consumption, calendar yean 
■ 1917 to i9fg— Continued. 



GROUP III (DUTIABLE AT 30 PER CENT AD VALOREM: DUTIABLE AT 60 PER CENT 
AD VALOREM PLUS 7 CENTS PER POUND AFTER SEPTEMBER 21, 1922.)— Continued. 



Article and year. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Duty. 


Actual 
and com- 
puted ad 
valorem 
rate. 


Benzaldehvde, 1922 6 


571 


$914 






Phenolphthalein (23 per cent): 

1917 






1918 


100 


1,200 


S300.00 


25.00 


1919 




1920 


200 
5,055 
1,487 

554 


726 
2,385 
8,877 

6,544 


181.00 
596.25 


25.66 


1921 


25.00 


1922 6 




Saccharin (65 cents per pound): 

1917 


360.00 


5.50 


1918 




1919 










1920 


40 
46 

1 


39 

103 

14 


26.00 
29.90 


66.67 


1921 


29.03 


1922 6 











6 Act of 1922. 



STATISTICS OF DOMESTIC IMPORTS AND EXPORTS. 



175 



t^ 05 CC Oi 

CO^t^ 00 



i-« in 



»-i 03 »o t- 

• oC' 1-H -^t; 00 
S OS ococ t-- 



O lO Tt< t^ 



O" 



C l>CO(M 
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78,704 
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413,274 
2,959,976 
381,740 
98,695 
494,644 
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STATISTICS OF DOMESTIC IMPORTS AND EXPORTS. 



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27,269 
10,214 
50,066 
4,346 
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152,204 


















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180 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 



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285,007 

110 

44,026 

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$197, 562 

81,393 

18, 898 

1,806 


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141, 213 

222, 417 

25,196 

297 


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STATISTICS OF DOMESTIC IMPORTS AND EXPORTS. 



181 



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182 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 



?3 


D 
> 




















1 

d 






















a 
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$1,394 

185, 063 

3,125 

1,857 


5 




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212 

91,716 

457 

17 


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CO 
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81,441 

208, 561 

23, 656 

65 

995 

49 


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243 

74, 374 

3,725 

10 

81 

17 


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158, 205 

20, 166 

3,174 

301 

15, 757 


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230 

71,749 

2,759 

475 

45 

1,334 




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812, 297 
139, 456 
6,288 
1, 505 
1,739 
7,435 


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2,069 

54, 149 

808 

198 

154 

1,176 


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STATISTICS OF DOMESTIC IMPORTS AND EXPORTS. 



183 



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184 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION. 



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