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Full text of "Synthetic organic chemicals : United States production and sales"

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UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 
WASHINGTON 



Tariff Information Series— No. 32 



Census of Dyes 

and other 

Synthetic Organic Chemicals 

1923 





WASHINGTON 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
1924 



BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY 



3 9999 06317 179 5 



II 



U. S. SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS 



-J&jt-r, 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 

Office: Eighth and E Streets N\V„ Washington, D. < 

COMMISSIONERS 

Thomas O. Marvin, Chairman. 
William S. Culbertson, Vice Chairman. 
David J. Lewis. 
Edward P. Costigan. 
William Burgess. 
Henry H. Glassie. 

John F. Bethtjne, Secretary 



ADDITIONAL copies 

OF THIS PUBLICATION MAY BE PROCURED FROM 

THE SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON, D. C. 

AT 

25 CENTS PER COPY 



CONTENTS 



Page 

Introduction vn 

Part I 

Summary of census of dyes and other synthetic organic chemicals, 1923: 

Introductory 3 

Summary of domestic production, 1923 — 

Crudes.., 4 

Intermediates 4 

Dyes — 

Record production in 1923 5 

Further reduction in prices ' 5 

Continued advance in the production of new dyes 5 

Relation of production to consumption 5 

Production of dyes by classes 5 

Imports of dyes decline 6 

Exports of dyes increase 6 

Other finished coal-tar products — 

Color lakes 6 

Photographic chemicals 6 

Medicinals 7 

Perfumes and flavors 7 

Synthetic phenolic resins 7 

Synthetic tanning materials 7 

Statistics of production 7 

Synthetic organic chemicals not derived from coal tar : 8 

International dye trade — 

Pre-war 9 

Developments since 1914 , 9 

Part II 

Production of dyes and coal-tar chemicals, 1923: 
Coal-tar crudes — 

Record output of by-product coke 15 

Production of tars 16 

Total commercial production of crudes 17 

Imports 21 

Intermediates — 

Description 21 

Production — 

Aniline 22 

Naphthalene derivatives 22 

Fumaric and malic acid 23 

Anthraquinone 23 

Special intermediates register large increase 23 

New intermediates 23 

Investigation of phenol and cresvlic acid under section 315 — 

Phenol . 24 

Cresvlic acid 25 

Statistics of production 26 

Dyes and other finished coal-tar products — 

Introductory • 32 

Summary of dye production in 1923 — - 

Large increase in output 32 

Further price reduction in dyes 33 

Relation of production to consumption 35 

Effect of the Ruhr occupation on domestic exports 35 

Continued production of new dyes 37 

Reduction in duty 37 

ni 



IV CONTENTS 

Production of dyes and coal-tar chemicals, 1923 — Continued 

Dyes and other finished coal-tar products — Continued Page 

Production of dyes by classes 39 

Acid 40 

Basic 43 

Direct cotton , 44 

Mordant and chrome 45 

Sulphur 46 

Vat 47 

Color-lake and spirit-soluble 48 

Food 48 

Dyes exported from the United States — 

Large increase in 1923 49 

Other finished coal-tar products — 

Color lakes 52 

Photographic chemicals 52 

Medicinals 52 

Flavors and perfume materials 53 

Synthetic phenolic resins 54 

Synthetic tanning materials 54 

Statistics of production 55 

Employees and rates of pay 67 

Research work 68 

Part III 

Dyes imported for consumption in the United States, 1923: 

Introductory 71 

Summary of imports 72 

Swiss dyes 72 

Dyes imported from Italy 74 

Import statistics 75 

Index to table of imports 103 

Part IV 

Census of synthetic organic chemicals other than those of coal-tar origin, 
1923: 

Introductory 113 

Developments in the industry — 

Synthetic aromatic chemicals 113 

Esters . 114 

Chloroform and carbon tetrachloride 114 

Pharmaceuticals 114 

Acetylene derivatives 114 

Ethylene and propylene derivatives 114 

Gallic and pyrogallic acids 115 

Dihydroxytartaric acid 115 

Furfural 115 

Lactic acid 115 

Oxalic acid 115 

Tetraethyl lead 115 

Statistics of production and imports 115 

Part V 
International dye trade: 

Introductory 123 

General developments during 1923 — 

The occupation of the Ruhr 123 

Seizure of German dyes by French and Belgian authorities 124 

. Increased post-war capacity to produce dyes 124 

Germany's position in the world's dye trade — 

Pre-war trade 127 

Exports since the world war 128 

Efforts to regain export trade — 
Affiliations with— 

Italy 129 

France 130 

Great Britain 130 

The United States 130 






CONTENTS V 

International dye trade — Continued 

Germany's position in the world's dye trade — Continued 
Efforts to regain export trade — Continued 

Attack on export trade of the United States, Great Britain, Page 

and France 130 

Commercial warfare 130 

Effect of the occupation of the Ruhr 131 

Statistics of exports and imports 132 

The British dye industry — 

Great Britain's pre-war position 133 

Developments since the war 134 

Conditions in 1923.-_._ 134 

Anglo-German negotiations 135 

Statistics of imports and exports 137 

The Swiss dye industry 138 

Statistics of imports and exports 139 

The French dye industry — 

Merger of Kuhlmann and Compagnie Nationale _" 140 

Statistics of production, imports, and exports 141 

The Italian dye industry — 

Pre-war production 142 

Post-war developments 143 

Production, 1918-1922 144 

Statistics of production , imports, and exports 144 

The Japanese dye industry — 

War developments 145 

Production, 1918-1923 145 

Imports, 1920-1923 145 

The dye trade of other countries — 

Argentina 146 

Austria 147 

Belgium 147 

Brazil 148 

Canada 148 

China 148 

Czechoslovakia 149 

Dutch East Indies 151 

Egypt 152 

India 152 

Mexico 154 

The Netherlands 154 

Persia 154 

Spain 155 

Sweden 155 

Reparation dyes — 

Text of Annex VI, Part XVIII, Treaty of Versailles 156 

Dyes — 

Stocks of dyestuffs on hand in German factories on August 

15, 1919 157 

Percentage of distribution of dyestuffs — 

Remainder of stock on hand, August 15, 1919 157 

Percentage distribution of the 25 per cent of the daily 

production of dyes 158 

Existing percentage distribution of the 25 per cent of 

the daily production of dyestuffs 158 

Agreement supplementary to the dyestuffs protocol of 

May 31, 1920 160 

Provisional amendment to the supplementary agreement of 

August 19, 1921, relative to dyestuffs 162 

Pharmaceutical products — 

Protocol for the delivery of pharmaceutical products 165 

Percentage distribution of the 25 per cent of the daily production 

of pharmaceutical products since July, 1920 166 

Deliveries of pharmaceutical products up to December 31, 1923_ 167 



VI CONTENTS 

Part VI 

APPENDIX 

Page 

Statistics of domestic exports and imports of coal-tar products 171 

Directory of manufacturers of dyes and other synthetic organic chemicals, 

1923 195 

Statistical Tables 

1. Summary of the production of dyes and coal-tar chemicals, 1918-1923. 7 

2. Production of bee-hive and bv-product coke, 1913-1923 15 

3. Production and sales of tar/1918-1923 16 

4. Production and disposition of coke-oven tars, 1918-1923 16 

5. By-products obtained from coke-oven operations, 1921-1923 17 

6. Total commercial production of crudes, 1918-1923 19 

7. Production of coal-tar crudes, 1923, by firms not primarily engaged in 

the operation of coke-oven plants and gas houses 20 

8. Production and sales of coal-tar intermediates, 1923 26 

9. Domestic sales price of 100 dyes, 1917-1923, with invoice value, 1914__ . 34 
9a. Duty on dyes (act of 1922) 38 

10. Comparison of imports of dyes by classes, 1914, with production, 

1917-1923 39 

10a. Production of dyes, by groups, according to value, 1921-1923 40 

11. Domestic exports of dyes, by months, 1919-1924 (April) 50 

12. Production and sales of dyes and other finished coal-tar products, 1923_ 55 

13. Employees and rates of pay, dye and coal-tar chemical industry, 1923- 67 

14. Summarv of dves imported for consumption, classified by method of 

application, 1920-1923 75 

15. Dyes of each class imported in largest quantity in 1923, com- 

pared with imports in 1922, 1921, and 1914 76 

16. Dyes imported into the United States, 1923 78 

17. Production and sales of synthetic organic chemicals, 1923 115 

18. Comparison of production of svnthetic organic chemicals, 1922 and 

1923 I 119 

19. Imports and production of synthetic organic chemicals (except those of 

coal-tar origin), 1922 and 1923 120 

20. World's estimated annual capacity to produce dyes 124 

21. Exports of coal-tar dves from chief producing countries, 1913, 1921- 

1923 1 125 

22. Imports of dyes into chief consuming countries, 1913, 1921-1923 125 

23. Exports of coal-tar dyes from Germany to leading countries, 1913 127 

24. Exports of principal classes of coal-tar dyes from Germany, 1913 127 

25. Exports of coal-tar dyes from Germany, 1913, 1920-1923 128 

26. Development of the German export trade in coal-tar dyes, 1880-1913. 132 

27. Imports of coal-tar dyes from Germany, by groups, 1923 132 

28. Imports of coal-tar dyes into Germany by countries, 1923 133 

29. Imports of coal-tar dyes into the United Kingdom, 1922 137 

30. Exports of coal-tar dyes from the United Kingdom, 1922 138 

31. Imports and exports, United Kingdom, 1923 138 

32. Imports and exports of coal-tar dyes, Switzerland, 1923 139 

33. Production of dyes in France, 1920-1923 141 

34. Imports and exports of coal-tar dves, France, 1922 and 1923 142 

35. Production of dyes in Italy, 1918 1 1922 144 

36. Imports and exports of coal-tar dves, Italy, 1922 and 1923 144 

37. Production of dyes in Japan, 1918-1923 145 

38. Imports of coal-tar dyes into Japan by classes, 1920-1923 146 

89. Imports of coal-tar dyes into Japan, 1922 and 1923, by countries of 

origin 146 

40. Imports of coal-tar dyes into Argentina, 1921 and 1922 146 

41. Imports and exports of coal-tar dyes, Austria, 1921-1923 147 

42. Imports and exports of indigo, Belgium, 1922 and 1923 147 

43. Imports of coal-tar dyes into Brazil, 1922 148 

44. Imports of coal-tar dyes into Canada, 1922 and 1923 148 

45. Imports of coal-tar dyes into China, 1921 148 

46. Imports of coal-tar dyes into China, 1922 149 

47. Imports of coal-tar dyes into Czechoslovakia, 1920-1922 149 

48. Exports of coal-tar dyes from Czechoslovakia, 1920-1922 150 



CONTENTS VII 

Page 

49. Imports and exports of coal-tar dyes, Czechoslovakia, 1923 150 

50. Imports of coal-tar dyes, Dutch East Indies, 1922 and 1923 151 

51. Exports of natural indigo, Dutch East Indies, 1920-1923 151 

52. Imports into and reexports from Egypt, coal-tar dyes, 1923 152 

53. Imports of coal-tar dyes and exports of natural indigo from India, 

year ended March, 1923 153 

54. Imports of coal-tar dyes for May, 1920, and May, 1921, Mexico 154 

55. Imports and exports of coal-tar dyes, the Netherlands, 1922 154 

56. Imports and exports of coal-tar dyes, Persia, 1922 and 1923 154 

57. Imports of coal-tar dyes into Spain 1922 and 1923 (6 mos.) 155 

58. Imports and exports of coal-tar dyes, Sweden, 1921 155 

59. Stocks of German factories on August 15, 1919 157 

60. Percentage distribution of reparations dvestuffs, balance of stock 

August 15, 1919 1 157 

61. Percentage distribution of the 25 per cent of the daily production of 

dyes 158 

62. Existing percentage distribution of the 25 per cent of the daily pro- 

duction of dyes 158 

63. Reparation dyes delivered up to December 31, 1923 164 

64. Pharmaceuticals delivered up to December 31, 1922 166 

65. Pharmaceuticals delivered up to December 31, 1923 167 



INTRODUCTION 

This report is a survey of the domestic dye and synthetic organic 
chemical industry in 1923. It presents the results of a special 
investigation made by the United States Tariff Commission as to 
the production in the United States of coal-tar dyes and synthetic 
organic chemicals, both of coal-tar and of noncoal-tar origin. It 
includes a detailed census of dye imports and official pre and post 
war statistics for the imports and exports of coal-tar dyes by the 
large consuming and producing nations of the world. 

The survey is divided into six parts, as shown in Table of Contents 
(pp. in to vi). 

In the preparation of this report the Tariff Commission had the 
services of Warren N. Watson, Frank Talbot, and C. R. De Long, 
of the chemical division of the commission's staff, and of others. 



PART I 

SUMMARY OF THE CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER 
SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1923 









Part I 

SUMMARY OF THE CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC 
ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1923 



Introductory 



The United States Tariff Commission has reported annually, 
beginning with 1917, the progress of the American dye and coal-tar 
chemical industry. Since 1919, the production figures on dyes and 
other coal-tar chemicals have been supplemented by a detailed 
census of dye imports. Since 1921 the annual census of the industry 
has included a census of synthetic organic chemicals other than those 
derived from coal tar. A discussion of the international dye trade 
is also included, developments in the foreign dye-producing coun- 
tries are considered, and information is given on the production of 
dyes in France, Italy, and Japan. Official statistics as to exports 
and imports of the more important dye-consuming and producing 
countries of the world in post-war years are compared with those of 
pre-war years. A new feature of the present report is the account 
of the deliveries and the percentage distribution of reparation dyes, 
together with the agreements and protocols concerning the German 
deliveries of both dyes and pharmaceuticals to the allied and associ- 
ated Governments.' 

Other reports prepared by the Tariff Commission relating to con- 
ditions in the dye industry include (1) Costs of Production in the 
Dye Industry, 1918 and 1919, and (2) Dyes and Other Coal-Tar 
Chemicals, December 12, 1918. 

The general grouping of coal-tar chemicals adopted in the present 
report follows that of the tariff act of 1922, which conforms in gen- 
eral, although not in every detail, with common practice. Crudes, 
paragraph 1549, free, are contained in and separated from crude 
coal tar; intermediates, dutiable under paragraph 27 at 55 per cent 
and 7 cents per pound, are produced from the crudes by chemical 
processes; with some exceptions, the} 7 are used only for the manu- 
facture of dyes and other finished products by further chemical 
treatment; dyes and other finished products are dutiable under para- 
graph 28 at 60 per cent and 7 cents per pound. The term "other 
finished products" includes color lakes, photographic chemicals, 
medicinals, flavors, perfume materials, synthetic resins, and synthetic 
tanning materials. Explosives, derived from coal-tar materials, 
although dutiable under paragraph 28, are not included in this 
census. A summary of the production of coal-tar products in 1923 
according to the classes given above, is contained in Table 1. The 
figures of production of dyes and coal-tar chemicals in the United 
States are compiled from the returns of 206 companies, and are 
believed to form a complete record of the manufacture of such 
products in that year. In presenting the figures the quantity and 
value of each product are given in as great detail as is possible with- 
out revealing the operations of individual manufacturers. 



4 united states tariff commission 

Summary of Domestic Production,* 1923 

CRUDES 

A new record for the output of by-product coke was established in 
1923, when the total production was 37,604,743 tons, an increase 
of 6,770,792 tons over the 1920 output, hitherto the maximum. The 
total production of coke in 1923 was 55,565,000 tons; of this quantity 
67.7 per cent was from by-product ovens and 32.3 per cent from 
beehive ovens. In 1913 only 27.5 per cent of this country's coke was 
produced by the by-product ovens and 72.5 per cent by the beehive. 
The increase in the production of by-product coke has resulted in (1) 
an increased yield of valuable by-products, including ammonium 
compounds, for fertilizer and other uses, (2) the supply of gas used 
for industrial heating and municipal lighting, and (3) a delivery of 
coal tar far in excess of the needs of the domestic coal-tar chemical 
industry. The tar is converted by distillation into crudes, whicn 
serve as the basic materials for the domestic coal-tar chemical indus- 
try. The production of tar in 1923 established a record, reaching 
440,000,000 gallons, about one-half of which was used as fuel. Only 
a part of the remainder was distilled into refined products, owing to 
the large demand for such partly refined products as motor fuel, 
solvents, arid pitches. In general, there was an increased output of 
crudes during 1923, conspicuous among them being "motor benzol" 
and naphthalene. For the first time, the total domestic production 
of crudes from all sources has been combined, as shown in Table 6. 
The Geological Survey collects information on by-products obtained 
from coke-oven operations, the data being in Table 5. The United 
States Tariff Commission collects data as to the output of crudes by 
firms primarily engaged in tar distillation, and the results are sum- 
marized in Table 7. 

INTERMEDIATES 

The total production of intermediates by 103 firms in 1923 was 
231,393,871 pounds compared with 165,048,155 pounds for 1922. 
The sales during 1923 totaled 83, 582, SOS pounds, valued at 
$18,916,058. The average sales price of intermediates in 1.923 was 
$0,226 as compared with $0.22 for 1922 and $0.33 in 1917. Although 
the average price of intermediates changed but slightly during 1922 
and 1923, it should be borne in mind that in 1923 there was an in- 
creased output of the more costly products, tending to increase the 
average price of intermediates. The average sales price of aniline, 
the most important of all intermediates, was $0.16 for 1923 as com- 
pared with $0.15 for 1922. The sales price of H acid decreased from 
$0.73 in 1922 to $0.68 in 1923, b-naphthol (tech) receded from $0.24 
to $0.22, and anthraquinone, required for the manufacture of alizarin, 
alizarin dyes and vat dyes (anthraquinone derivatives) fell from $1.34 
to $0.95 per pound. The total number of intermediates reported 
during 1923 was 311, of which over 80 were not reported during the 
previous year. Many of these additions to the country's manufac- 
turing program are essential materials for the manufacture of the 
faster types of dyes and are also used in the production of other 
important coal-tar derivatives. The manufacture of these in the 
United States constitutes a noteworthy advance in the domestic 
industry. Coal-tar intermediates are required not only for the manu- 



SUMMARY OF THE CENSUS OF DYES, 1923 5 

facture of dyes but also in the production of explosives, medicinals, 
flavors, perfume materials, photographic chemicals, synthetic resins, 
synthetic tanning materials and accelerators for the vulcanization 
of rubber. 

DYES 

Record 'production during 1923. — The domestic output of coal-tar 
dyes in 1923 by 88 firms was 93,667,524 pounds, compared with 
64,632,187 pounds in 1922. The sales for the year 1923 totaled 
86,567,446 pounds, valued at $47,223,161. The present dye industry 
is largely a development of the war and post-war period. The pre- 
war production in 1914 of seven firms was 6,619,729 pounds, valued 
at $2,470,096. Production in that year was dependent upon for- 
eign countries, as most of the intermediates were imported, chiefly 
from Germany. Among the more important factors responsible for 
the large output of dyes during 1923 may be mentioned (1) the 
activity of the domestic textile and dye-consuming industries, (2) the 
occupation of the Ruhr, which caused a reduction in the output of 
the German dye factories and consequently enabled domestic pro- 
ducers to increase their exports of indigo, sulphur black, and certain 
other dyes, principally to the markets of the Far East, (3) the rela- 
tively high foreign price level of dyes as compared with those of the 
pre-war period, and (4) the effect of the tariff act of 1922. 

Further reduction in prices.— The average selling price of all dyes 
in 1923 was 10 per cent below that of 1922. The average sales price 
for 1923 was $0,545 per pound, compared with $0.60 in 1922, $0.83 
in 1921, and $1.26 in 1917, the first year for which a census of dyes 
of coal-tar chemicals was compiled by the Tariff Commission. 

Continued advancement in the production of new dyes. — During 1923 
nearly 100 new dyes were produced for which no production had 
been shown in 1922. In addition, other colors, heretofore reported in 
small quantities, were manufactured on a substantial commercial 
scale. These comprise for the most part special dyes of greater com- 
plexity, and more difficult and costly to manufacture. In most 
cases they do not individually represent a large tonnage. Their pro- 
duction, however, affords a better balance to the country's manu- 
facturing program and reduces the number of dyes previously im- 
ported for special uses. The additions include colors for use on silk, 
cotton, wool, color lakes and for other purposes, and are representa- 
tive of the different classes of dyes by chemical classification. Their 
production has, in many cases, already been reflected in a decline 
in the corresponding imports. The domestic industry, although to 
some extent deficient in the production of certain vat dyes and other 
colors, supplies over 95 per cent of the domestic requirements. 

Relation of production to consumption. — Imports of dyes in 1923 
were 3.3 per cent of the total production by quantity and 6.2 per cent 
by value. They were, by quantity, 3.9 per cent of the apparent 
consumption, assuming this to equal production plus imports minus 
exports. Dyes produced in the United States accordingly supplied 
about 96 per cent of the apparent consumption of coal-tar dyes and 
there was, in addition, an exportable surplus of certain coal-tar dyes 
amounting to about 18,000,000 pounds. 

Production of dyes by classes. — The output of dyes in 1923, grouped 
by classes according to the method of application, was as follows: 



6 UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 

Acid dyes, 12,498,817 pounds, or 13.34 per cent of the total output; 
basic dyes, 4,157,373 pounds, or 4.44 per cent; direct cotton dyes, 
16,858,387 pounds, or 18 per cent; mordant and chrome dyes, 
4,078,504 pounds, or 4.35 per cent; sulphur dyes, 21,558,469 pounds, 
or 23.02 per cent; vat dyes, including indigo, 30,113,642 pounds, or 
32.15 per cent; indigo, 28,347,259 pounds, or 30.26 per cent; other 
vat dyes, 1,766,383 pounds, or 1.89 per cent; lake and spirit-soluble 
dyes, 1,171,854 pounds, or 1.25 per cent; unclassified and specialty 
dyes, 3,230,47S pounds, or 3.45 per cent of the total. 

Imports of dyes decline. — The total imports of coal-tar dyes for 
1923 were 3,098,193 pounds, valued at S3, 151, 363, compared with 
3,982,631 pounds, valued at $5,243,257, for the year 1922. Total 
imports during 1913, prior to the extensive development of the 
domestic dye industry, were 45,950,895 pounds. Of the total 
imports during the year 1923, 47 per cent came from Germany, 28 
per cent from Switzerland, 12 per cent from Italy, 6 per cent from 
France, 4 per cent from England, and 3 per cent from all other 
countries. Dye imports in 1923, classified by method of application, 
were as follows: Acid dyes, 544,048 pounds; vat dyes, 1,207,554 
pounds; mordant and chrome dyes, 453,415 pounds; direct dyes, 
527,014 pounds; sulphur dyes, 114,023 pounds; basic dyes, 210,896 
pounds; spirit-soluble and color lake dyes, 23,213 pounds; and 
unidentified, unclassified and special dyes 18,030 pounds. The Swiss 
dye manufacturers have a much larger share of the domestic import 
trade — 28 per cent in 1923, 39 per cent in 1922, and about 20 per 
cent in 1914 — than the size of the Swiss industry, compared with 
that of Germany, would imply. The Ruhr occupation undoubt- 
edly favored Swiss dye exports. Swiss dyes are for the most part 
of the Higher-cost specialty type, to which most of the dyes imported 
into this country belong. Dyes shipped from Italy appear to be of 
German manufacture and are doubtless dyes delivered to Italy by 
Germany in reparation payment and later sold to the United States. 
Italy received up to December 31, 1923, 6,274,601 kilos (13,832,985 
pounds) out of a total delivery by Germany in reparation payment 
of 25,583,390 kilos (56,401,142 pounds) of coal-tar dyes. 

Exports of dyes increase. — The exports of coal-tar dyes during 1923 
totaled 17,924,200 pounds, with a value of $5,565,267, compared 
with a total of 8,344,187 pounds, with a value of $3,996,443, during 
1922. This increase in the domestic exports of coal-tar dyes may 
be largely accounted for by the effect of the occupation of the Ruhr 
by the French, which resulted in a decreased production of dyes in 
the German factories and consequently gave domestic manufacturers 
an opportunity to increase their exports to Far Eastern markets. 

OTHER FINISHED COAL-TAR PRODUCTS 

Color lakes. — The total output of this class of pigments in 1923 
was 13,079,115 pounds, compared with 10,578,664 pounds in 1922. 
The total sales of color lakes in 1923 amounted to 12,627,359 pounds, 
valued at $5,124,732. 

Photographic chemicals. — The 1923 production of coal-tar chemicals 
used as photographic developers totaled 343,289 pounds, compared 
with 345,798 pounds in 1922. Sales in 1923 amounted to 321,083 
pounds, valued at $443,697. 



SUMMARY OF THE CENSUS OF DYES, 1923 7 

Medicinals. — This class of coal-tar products may be considered 
as essential to the national welfare. The highest technical skill and 
the most exhaustive research are required in the development and 
commercial production of these chemicals. The total production 
in 1923 was 3,273,085 pounds, and sales amounted to 2,995,448 
pounds, valued at $4, 720, 253. The 1922 production amounted to 
2,946,347 pounds, with sales of 3,092,915 pounds, valued at $4,233,443. 

Perfumes and flavors. — These coal-tar product^ are closely related, 
certain members of the class being used both as flavors and as per- 
fumes. The total output of flavors in 1923 was 1,458,024 pounds, 
compared with 1,215,668 pounds in 1922. Sales amounted to 
1,442,387 pounds, valued at $1,780,313. The production of per- 
fumes in 1923 was 1,365,449 pounds, compared with 793,148 pounds 
in 1922. Sales in 1923 amounted to 1,275,432 pounds, valued at 
$789,431. 

Synthetic 'phenolic resins. — These products are used as substitutes 
for amber in making pipe stems and a great variety of other articles, 
also for electrical insulators, varnishes, and lacquers. The 1922 
production was 5,944,133 pounds; the figures for 1923 can not be 
published without revealing the output of individual companies. 

Synthetic tanning materials. — The output of these products 
amounted to 1,910,519 pounds in 1922, but here, again, the 1923 
production figures can not be published without revealing the output 
of individual companies. 

The total output of synthetic phenolic resins and synthetic tanning 
materials in 1923 was 9,763,685 pounds. Each of these classes of 
coal-tar products shows an increase in production for the past year. 
The total sales of synthetic phenolic resins and synthetic tanning 
materials for 1923 was 10,068,431 pounds, valued at $5,816,590. 

STATISTICS OF PRODUCTION 



Table 1. — Summary of the production 


of dyes and 


coal-tar chemicals, 


1918-1923 




1918 


1919 




Number 
of manu- 
factur- 
ers 


Production 


Number 
of manu- 
factur- 
ers. 


Production 




Pounds 


Value 


Pounds 


Value 


Group II— Intermediates .. 
Group III — Finished prod- 
ucts _. 


128 


357, 662, 251 

76, 802, 959 
58, 464, 446 
9, 590, 537 

316, 749 

3, 623, 352 

458, 256 

116, 263 

\ 4, 233, 356 


$124, 382, 892 

83, 815, 746 

62, 026, 390 

5, 020, 023 

823, 915 
7, 792, 984 
4, 926, 627 

584, 695 

2, 642, 120 


116 

155 
90 
34 

10 

31 

9 

6 

1 

5 


177, 362, 426 

82, 532, 390 
63, 402, 194 
7, 569, 921 

335, 509 

6, 777, 988 

610, 825 

41,419 

I 3, 794, 534 


$63, 210, 079 
84, 585, 544 


Dyes 


78 
29 

6 

31 

7 

6 

1 

5 


67, 598, 855 




4, 179, 964 


Photographic chemi- 
cals 


1, 059, 340 
7, 883, 071 




1, 318. 654 




164, 302 


Tanning materials 

Synthetic phenolic 


2, 381, 358 







8 UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 

Table 1. — Summary of the production of dyes and coal-tar chemicals, 1918-1923 — 

Continued 



Group II— Intermedi- 
ates 

Group III — Finished 

products 

Dyes 

Color lakes 

Photographic chem- 
icals 

Medicinals 

Flavors 

Perfumes 

Tanning materials . . 

Synthetic phenolic 

resins 



Number 
of manu- 
factur- 
ers 



161 
82 
43 



Production 



Pounds 



257, 726, 911 

112, 942, 227 
88, 263, 776 
10, 983, 538 

440, 759 
5, 184, 989 

166, 884 

.39, 740 

3, 142, 861 

4, 659, 680 



Value 



$95, 291, 686 

112, 731, 547 

95, 613, 749 

5,871,820 

1,015,848 

5, 726, 776 

527, 493 

332, 008 

233, 674 

3, 410, 179 



Number 
of manu- 
factur- 
ers 



147 
74 
43 

5 
34 
17 
15 

4 



Produc- 
tion 



Pounds 



70, 899, 912 

51, 457, 565 

39, 008, 690 

6, 152, 187 

183, 798 

1, 545, 917 

901, 245 

119,335 

1, 902, 597 

1, 643, 796 



Sales 



Pounds 



33, 637, 326 

60, 434, 009 

47, 513, 762 

6, 424, 612 

170, 221 

1,876,246 

933, 662 

119,691 

1, 721, 359 

1, 674, 456 



Value 



$8, 483, 463 

47, 996, 514 
39, 283, 956 
2, 863, 189 

248, 041 

2, 930, 324 

1, 002, 018 

175, 815 

141, 005 

1, 352, 166 



Group II— Intermediates 

Group Hi— Finished products 

Dyes 

Color lakes 

Photographic chemicals -.- 

Medicinals.. . — 

Flavors 

Perfumes 

Tanning materials 

Synthetic phenolic resins.. 
Research chemicals 



1922 



Number 
of manu- 
factur- 
ers 



106 

164 

87 

43 

7 

35 

20 

17 

4 

5 

4 



Production 



Pounds 



165, 048, 155 

88, 368, 131 

64, 632, 187 

10, 578, 664 

345, 798 

2, 946, 347 

1, 215, 668 

793, 148 

1,910.519 

5, 944, 133 

1, 667 



Pounds 



58, 004, 435 

93, 370, 065 

69, 107, 105 

10, 366, 676 

347, 647 

3, 092, 915 

1, 278, 857 

778, 696 

1, 981, 588 

6, 415, 931 

650 



Value 



$12, 

57, 

41, 

4, 

4, 
1, 



910, 486 
067, 326 
463, 790 
551, 572 
483, 269 
233, 443. 
260, 588 
643, 436 
103, 598 
315, 196 
12, 434 



1923 



Number 
of manu- 
factur- 
ers 



Production 



Pounds 



Sales 



Pounds 



Value 



Group II— Intermediates 

Group III— Finished products 

Dyes 

Color lakes 

Photographic chemicals... 

Medicinals 

Flavors 

Perfumes 

Tanning materials 

Synthetic phenolic resins.. 



103 

164 

88 

43 

5 

32 

16 

20 

3 

2 



231, 393, 871 

122, 950, 171 

93, 667, 524 

13,079,115 

343, 289 

3, 273, 085 

1, 458, 024 

1, 365, 449 

9, 763, 685 



83, 582, 808 

115,297,586 

86, 567, 446 

12, 627, 359 

321, 083 

2, 995, 448 

1, 442, 387 

1, 275, 432 

10, 068, 431 



$18,916,058 

65, 898, 177 

47, 223, 161 

5, 124, 732 

443, 697 

4, 720, 253 

1, 780, 313 

789, 431 

5, 816, 590 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS NOT DERIVED FROM COAL TAR 

The Tariff Commission in 1921 compiled for the first time a 
census of organic chemicals other than those derived from coal tar 
or directly from natural sources. These included acids, alcohols, 
esters, ketones, aldehydes, derivatives of alkaloids, carbocyclic com- 
pounds, etc., used as perfume and flavoring ingredients, solvents, 
medicinals, also in industrial and other processes. 



SUMMARY OF THE CENSUS OF DYES, 1923 9 

The development in the production of organic chemicals of non- 
coal-tar origin has been comparatively unnoticed during past years, 
because of the greater interest in the progress made in coal-tar chem- 
icals. The rapid development in the past few years in these non- 
coal-tar organic chemicals indicates the probability of further expan- 
sion in this field, with the result that new products of great economic 
value will continue to be placed on the market by domestic manu- 
facturers. 

The production in 1923 of synthetic organic chemicals other than 
those derived from coal tar was'90,597,712 pounds, with sales amount- 
ing to 67,727,067 pounds, valued at $13,875,521. Production in 1922 
totaled 79,202,155 pounds. 

Part IV of this report contains a detailed census of this group of 
organic chemicals, showing production and sales in so far as the 
publication of such figures does not disclose the output of individual 
manufacturers. 

International Dye Trade 

Pre-war. — Prior to the war, Germany, with an output totaling 
three-fourths of all synthetic dyes produced, dominated the world's 
dye markets. Of the remaining one-fourth, one-half was made 
from German intermediates, and its production was accordingly 
dependent upon Germany. Switzerland, although without a domes- 
tic source of raw materials, ranked second, with about 7 per cent of 
the world's production. Great Britain produced about one-tenth 
of her requirements, and France produced in French-owned and 
operated plants from 10 to 15 per cent of her consumption. In order 
to meet the patent requirements of France and Great Britain, 
German manufacturers operated plants in those countries where the 
final assembling operations were completed. The small dye industry 
of the United States was almost entirely dependent upon interme- 
diates from Germany. 

Developments since 191 4-— -The acute shortage of dyes arising in the 
various dye-consuming markets, due to the disappearance of German 
dyes shortly after the beginning of the war, was soon followed by 
prices of unprecedented levels, while certain dyes were not to be had 
at any price. This dye famine threatened the activities of the vast 
textile industries as well as other industries dependent upon dyes 
for their operation. The manufacture of dyes was soon entered upon 
in the United States, Great Britain, France, and Italy, and each of 
these countries has developed a dye industry capable of supplying 
from 80 to over 90 per cent of its requirements and has, in addition, 
exported significant quantities of dyes since the war. As a result of 
this remarkable period of expansion and development, the world's 
present capacity to produce dyes is nearly double that of the pre- 
war period. The estimated annual capacity to produce dyes by the 
seven leading producers — Germany, United States, Great Britain, 
Switzerland, France, Japan, and Italy — is considerably in excess of 
600,000,000 pounds. The maximum estimated or officially reported 
output of the seven leading dye producers is as follows: Germany 
(1913), 280,000,000 pounds; United States (1923), 94,000,000 pounds; 
Great Britain (1920), 43,000,000 pounds; Switzerland (1920), 24,000,000 
pounds; France (1923), 24,000,000 pounds; Japan (1919), 16,000,000 

1760— 24t 2 






10 UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 

pounds; and Italy (1922), 10,000,000 pounds. This existing capacity 
to produce over and above normal requirements is resulting in an era 
of severe competition in the world's markets, which may eliminate 
many of the plants now in operation. Owing to the position of su- 
premacy held by the German industry prior to the war, the future 
position of Germany's industry in the world's trade is of peculiar 
interest. Her export trade has suffered severely as a result of de- 
velopments during and since the war. In 1913 the German export 
of synthetic dyes amounted to about 240.000,000 pounds, with a 
value of about $52,000,000, while in 1922 it amounted to about 
114,000,000 pounds, with a value of about $80,000,000. For the year 
1923 exports from Germany totaled about 74.000,000 pounds, with 
a value of about $17,000,000 (1913 basis) or $42,000,000 (1923 
basis) . 

Table 22, page 126, shows the imports of dj-es into the chief con- 
suming countries for the years 1913, 1921, 1922, and 1923, and Table 
21, page 125, shows the exports of coal-tar dyes from the chief pro- 
ducing countries for the same years. These two tables indicate the 
remarkable readjustment in the international dye trade due to 
developments during and since the war. 

On account of the commanding position in the welfare of the 
German nation held by the chemical industry, it is highly probable 
that Germany will make every effort to regain her lost export trade, 
amounting to about nine-tenths of her total trade. One of the first 
steps in this direction has been to form affiliations in the new 
producing countries. Thus, in Italy it is reported that one of the 
largest dye producers, the Bianchi Co., has a working agreement 
under whose terms the Germans are to supply technical assistance 
and in return for which Germany shares profits; exports of dyes by 
this firm are restricted to the Italian colonies. In France, the Com- 
pagnie Nationale is reported to have effected a similar arrange- 
ment with the German "Interessen Gemeinschaft," * but the con- 
ditions arising from the occupation of the Ruhr by the French are 
reported to have affected the operation of this agreement. Negotia- 
tions have been conducted for some time between the British Dye- 
stuffs Corporation and the I. G., although no final agreement had 
been made up to June, 1924. 

In the establishment of branch plants in the new producing 
countries, the Swiss appear to have been much more successful to 
date than the Germans. Three large Swiss manufacturers now 
operate, either collectively or individually, plants in the United 
States, Great Britain, Italy, and France. It has been reported that 
the Swiss and the German dye makers have concluded a working 
agreement. The German industry has certain advantages over the 
industries of the new producing countries, including cumulative 
experience, unified organization for buying and selling, and lower 
manufacturing costs. The high post-war price levels of dyes ex- 
ported from Germany would appear to indicate a strong probability 
of price reductions during the next few years. The commercial 
warfare which is likely to follow may involve the utilization of 
such methods as full-line forcing and dumping, such as were prac- 
ticed by the German chemical industry prior to the war. The 

i This body is universally known as "I. G.," and will be so referred to throughout the remainder of 
this report. 



STTMMAKY OF THE CENSUS OF DYES, 1923 11 

retention of a tariff and other protective measures by the new'pro- 
ducing countries will doubtless lead the German industry to form 
affiliations or to establish branch plants in those countries along 
the lines successfully followed by the Swiss manufacturers. In the 
case of tariff reductions in the new producing countries, it seems 
likely that Germany will attempt to recover these markets, and at 
the same time retain the domestic centralization of dye production. 
The war made clear the relationship of the coal-tar dye industry 
to the production of munitions, war gases, medicinals and other 
essential products, and demonstrated the desirability of home dye 
production as a means to prevent shortage in times of war. This 
will probably result in an effort by the large industrial nations]»to 
retain dye industries of sufficient size to meet peace requirements 
and to "provide for war emergencies. Reduced production costs 
and constructive research will be vital factors in the maintenance of 
their competitive place in the world's trade. 

The occupation of the Ruhr in 1923 resulted in a reduced pro- 
duction of dyes in Germany. The total output in 1923 was about 
145,000,000 pounds, as compared with 193,000,000 pounds in 1922. 
This stimulated the export trade of the United States and Great 
Britain to meet the requirements of China, India, and other con- 
suming nations, nonmanufacturers of dyes. The effects of the 
occupation had largely disappeared in the early part of 1924 and 
German dyes were again offered in sharp competition in the markets 
of the Far East. In the spring of 1923 the French and Belgian 
authorities seized about 6,500 tons of dyes, a large part consisting 
of indigo and alizarin red. The British Alizarin Co. purchased a 
large quantity of alizarin in order to prevent the demoralization 
of prices by the dumping of this dye on the market, and nearly 
1,500,000 pounds of alizarin were imported into the United Kingdom 
in January, 1924. 






PART II 

PRODUCTION OF DYES AND COAL-TAR 
CHEMICALS, 1923 



13 






Part II 
PRODUCTION OF DYES AND COAL-TAR CHEMICALS, 1923 



Coal-Tar Crudes 

Record output of by-product coke. — The preliminary figures for the 
domestic production of coke in 1923, as reported by the United States 
Geological Survey, show a total of 55,565,000 tons, an amount almost 
equal to that of 1917 and only 1.6 per cent less than the record set in 
the war year 1918. A new record in the output of by-product coke 
was established in 1923, the year's output of 37,604,743 net tons being 
an increase of 6,770,792 tons over the 1920 output, hitherto, the 
maximum. 

Since November, 1918, when the production of coke from by- 
product ovens passed the production of beehive ovens, the by-product 
coke has been continuously in the lead. In 1923, 67.7 per cent of the 
total was contributed by by-product ovens and 32.3 per cent by 
beehive ovens. These figures are especially significant when it is 
remembered that the year was one of heavy consumption and favor- 
able prices, conditions which should call forth maximum activity in 
the beehive industry under the present ratio of capacity to demand. 

Table 2. — Production of beehive and by-product coke in the United States, 1913- 

1923 



Year 


Net tons produced 


Per cent of total output 


Beehive 


By-product 


Total 


Beehive 


By-product 


1913 


33, 584, 830 
27, 508, 255 
33, 167, 548 
30, 480, 792 

19, 042, 936 

20, 511, 092 
5, 538, 042 
8, 573, 467 

17, 900, 000 


12, 714, 700 
14, 072, 895 
22, 439, 280 
25, 997, 580 
25, 137, 621 
30, 833, 951 
19, 749, 580 
28, 550, 545 
37, 604, 743 


46, 299, 530 
41, 581, 150 
55, 606, 828 
56, 478, 372 
44, 180, 557 
51, 345, 043 
25, 287, 622 
37, 124, 012 
55, 565, 000 


72.5 
66.2 
59.6 
54.0 
43.1 
40.0 
21.9 
23.1 
32.3 


27.5 


1915 


33.8 


1917 


40.4 


1918 


46.0 


1919 - 


56.9 


1920 


60.0 


1921 


78.1 


1922 . 


76.9 


1923 


67.7 










The recovery in coke production was associated with great activity 
in the iron industry and with a shortage of household fuel. As stated 
in the census of 1921, the replacement of beehive ovens by the by- 
product variety, which recovers the tar, ammonia, and gas products 
entirely wasted by the old beehive type, is for the following reasons 
of great economic significance in the conservation of national re- 
sources: (1) The b} T -product ovens increase production of am- 
monium compounds for fertilizer and other uses; (2) the gas pro- 
duced in these ovens is used for municipal lighting and industrial 
heating; and (3) the output of tar insures an abundant supply of coal 
tar for the preparation of crudes serving as a basis of the domestic 
coal-tar dye and chemical industry. 

15 



16 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 



Production of tars. — The output of coal tar in 1923 was about 440,- 
000,000 gallons, compared with 328,000,000 gallons in 1922. Accord- 
ing to the preliminary figures sales of coal tar during 1923 were about 
211,000,000 gallons, valued at $9,200,000. The domestic supply of 
tar is far in excess of the requirements of the domestic coal-tar 
chemical industry. Of the total production during 1923, 48 per 
cent was sold and 52 per cent consumed, largely as boiler fuel, in 
metallurgical plants. This indicates that about one-half of the total 
production of tar is used as a fuel. That a similar condition existed 
in 1921 and 1922, is indicated by the production and disposition of 
coke-oven tar in the United States during the years 1918-1923, as 
given in Table 4. 

In times of fuel shortage the value of tar as fuel increases; in any 
case, the tar distiller must pay somewhat more than the fuel value 
of the tar. Of the total tar sold by the coke-oven operators only 
part is distilled into refined benzene, toluene, naphthalene, and 
anthracene; this is accounted for by the demand for such partly 
refined products as motor fuel, solvents, and soft pitches. 

Table 3. — Production and sales of coke-oven, coal-gas, water-gas, and oil-gas tar 
in the United States, 1918-1928 

[Compiled by the United States Geological Survey from reports of producers. The difference between 
production and sales is accounted for by tar used by the producer, and by changes in stock] 





Coke-oven 
tar 


Coal-gas tar 


Total coal 
tar 


Water and 
oil-gas tar 


Production (gallons): 

1918 .- 


263, 299, 470 
288, 901, 739 
360, 664, 124 
253, 051, 649 
327, 779, 734 
440, 389, 905 

200, 233, 002 
217, 707, 157 
174, 363, 696 
135, 293, 047 
162, 204, 417 
210, 746, 216 

$6, 364, 972 
6, 918, 549 
6, 378, 040 

5, 645, 309 

6, 419, 743 
9, 225, 925 


52, 694, 826 

(') 
51, 264, 956 

(') 
48, 082, 228 

(') 

47, 727, 839 

0) 
46, 604, 133 

0) 
41, 266, 074 

(>) 

$1, 863, 580 

CO 

2, 010, 186 

(0 
1, 955, 950 

0) 


315, 994, 296 
340, 900, 000 
411,929,080 
303, 000, 000 
375, 861, 962 
488, 389, 905 

247, 960, 841 
264, 900, 000 
220, 967, 829 
179, 200, 000 
203, 470, 491 
251, 946, 216 

$8, 228, 552 
8, 800, 000 
8, 388, 226 
7, 760, 000 
8, 375, 693 

11, 203, 925 


100, 985, 156 
( 2 ) 


1919. 


1920 


116, 073, 907 


1921... 


( 2 ) 


1922. 


104, 555, 028 


1923 3 _ 


( 2 ) 


Sales (gallons) : 

1918 


55, 283, 484 


1919 


( 2 ) 


1920 


59, 238, 730 


1921 


( 2 ) 


1922 


47, 338, 489 


1923 3 


( 2 ) 


Value of sales: 

1918 


$1,805,865 


1919 i 


( 2 ) 


1920 


2, 109, 388 


1921... 


( 2 ) 


1922 


1, 879, 490 


1923 3 


( 2 ) 







1 No report. Estimate included in total. 

2 No report. 

3 Preliminary figures, subject to revision. 

Table 4. — Production and disposition of coke-oven tar in the United States, 

1918-1928 
[Compiled by United States Geological Survey from reports of operators] 





Coke-oven tar 


Year 


Gallons 
produced 


Per cent 
soldi 


Per cent 
used i 


1918. 


263, 299, 470 
288, 901, 739 
360, 664, 124 
253, 051, 649 
327, 779, 734 
440, 389, 905 


76.0 
75.4 
48.3 
53.5 
49.5 
47.9 


24.0 


1919. 


24.6 


1920 ._ 


51.7 


1921 


46.5 


1922. . _ 


50.5 


1923 2 


52.1 







1 No account is here taken of changes in stocks. 



2 Preliminary figures, subject to revision. 



PRODUCTION OF DYES AND COAL-- TAB CHEMICALS, 1923 



17 



Total commercial production of crudes. — The data on domestic pro- 
duction of crudes are collected either by the Tariff Commission or 
by the Geological Survey, according to the producer. Crudes dis- 
tilled from tar at the by-product coke-oven plants are reported to 
the Geological Survey and the output by firms primarily engaged 
in the distillation of tar is reported to the Tariff Commission. For 
the first time, the total commercial production of benzene, "motor 
benzol," toluene, solvent naphtha, and naphthalene from all sources 
has been combined into a single compilation. This covers the period 
1918-1923 and the production data shown in Table 6. An examina- 
tion of this table shows that there was, in general, an increase in the 
output of these items in 1923. The production of " motor benzol" 
ana naphthalene recorded notable increases over the figures for 1922. 

The production of by-products obtained from coke-oven operations 
for the years 1921-1923, together with quantity and value of the 
sales, is given in Table 5. The production of crudes by firms engaged 
primarily in the distillation of coal tar is shown in Table 7. Note- 
worthy increases in the 1923 production are shown for naphthalene, 
cresylic acid, dead oil, anthracene oil, and other distillates. 



Table 5. 



-By-products obtained from coke-oven operations, 1921-1928 
[United States Geological Survey] 



Product 



Production 



Sales 



Quantity 



Value 



Total 



Average 



1921 
Tar gallons. 

Ammonia: 

Sulphate pounds. 

Ammonia liquor (NHj content) do... 

Other forms (NH3 content) do... 

Sulphate equivalent of all forms do. . . 

Gas: 

Used under boilers, etc M cubic feet. 

Used in steel or affiliated plants . do... 

Distributed through city mains do. . . 



Light oil and derivatives: 

Crude light oil gallons. 

Benzol — 

Crude do... 

Refined do... 

Motor benzol do . . . 

Toluol— 

Crude ....do... 

Refined do... 

Solvent naphtha .do... 

Other miscellaneous products do... 



Naphthalene: 

Crude pounds. 

Refined do... 



Other products 

Value of all by-products sold 

1922 
Tar gallons,. 

Ammonia: 

Sulphate ...pounds.. 

Ammonia liquor (NHj content) do 

Other forms (NH3 content) do 



253, 051, 649 



135,293,047 



$5, 645, 309 



.042 



528, 638, 763 

31, 899, 398 

191, 162 



(657, 001, 003) 



'310,188,713 



1 310, 188, 713 



530, 041, 716 

35, 102, 561 

53, 993 



13, 100, 703 

3,515,416 

10, 135 



.025 
.100 
.188 



(670, 667, 932) 



16, 626, 254 



12,122,777 
98, 352, 049 
43, 826, 172 



1, 120, 087 
10, 593, 204 
14, 249, 961 



.092 
.108 
.325 



154, 300, 998 



25, 963, 252 



2 76, 917, 269 

1, 494, 329 

4,912,131 

48, 052, 882 

26, 529 

942, 982 

3, 822, 776 

590, 173 



59. 841, 802 



2, 827, 756 
115,229 



2. 942, 985 



327, 779, 734 



2, 433, 078 

1,536,312 

5, 302, 709 

50, 022, 573 

26, 529 

808, 964 

2, 881, 656 

291, 635 



240,111 

343, 463 
1, 268, 258 
8, 966, 686 

4,410 

228, 968 

510, 509 

12,310 



63, 303, 456 



11,574,715 



.099 

.224 
.239 
.179 

.166 
.283 
.177 
.042 



1, 652, 466 
331,057 



40, 659 
18, 676 



.025 
.056 



59, 335 



162,204,417 



Sulphate equivalent of all forms do. 



695, 543, 349 

50, 036, 646 

693, 782 



898. 465, 061 



714,752,882 

48, 523, 937 

192, 549 



909, 618, 826 



121,813 



59, 990, 678 
6, 419, 743 



17, 818, 236 

4, 559, 535 

12, 041 



22,389,812 



.0249 
.0940 
.0625 



1 Includes gas wasted and gas used for heating retorts. 

2 Of this amount 75,760,334 gallons were refined on the premises to make the derived products listed. 



18 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 



Table 5. — By-products obtained from coke-oven 


operations, 1921-1928 — 


Contd. 






Production 


Sales 


Product 


Quantity 


Value 




Total 


Average 


1922 
Gas: 

Used under boilers, etc M c 

Used in steel or affiliated plants.. 
Distributed through city mains.. 
Sold for industrial use 


ubicfeet.. 

....do.... 

..._do.... 

do.... 

gallons.. 

do.... 
do.... 

do.... 

do_-.. 
do._._ 
do.... 
do.... 

pounds. - 
do_... 


I 3 442,671,114 


f 19,123,814 

144, 976, 030 

1 56, 930, 253 

1 10, 352, 921 


$1, 251, 325 

15, 942, 446 

20, 326, 648 

1, 104, 096 


$0. 0654 
.1100 
.3570 
.1066 






231,383,018 


38, 624, 515 


. 1669 








Light oil and derivatives: 

Crude light oil ■_ 


< 101, 437, 555 


5, 138, 095 


630, 768 


.1228 


Benzol — 

Crude 

Refined ... 

Motor benzol 

Toluol- 
Crude 

Refined 

Solvent naphtha . 

Other light oil products 


2, 666, 177 
10, 419, 504 
57, 025, 699 

38, 159 

1,955,119 

2, 983, 858 

580, 058 


2, 665, 889 
9, 590, 459 
54, 930, 203 

3,938 

1, 906, 122 

2, 861, 482 

212,712 


698, 437 
2, 736 944 
10, 491, 309 

652 

556, 363 

538, 512 

14, 949 


.2620 
.2854 
.1910 

.1656 

2919 

.1882 

.0703 




75, 668, 574 


77, 308, 900 


15, 667, 934 


.2027 


Naphthalene: 

Crude 

Refined 


6, 107, 742 
1, 810, 972 


3, 298, 851 
1, 589, 084 


52, 103 
79, 149 


.0158 
.0498 




7, 918, 714 


4, 887, 935 


131, 252 


.0269 








154, 507 














Value of all by-products sold.. 






83, 387, 763 






gallons.. 

pounds. _ 
).__do-._. 

....do.... 

ubic feet.. 

....do.... 

....do.... 

do.... 

gallons.. 

....do.... 
do.... 








1923 6 
Tar 


440, 390, 000 


210, 746, 000 


9, 226, 000 


.044 


Ammonia: 

Sulphate 

Ammonia liquor 6 (NH3 content 


904, 465, 000 
60, 659, 000 


875, 163, 000 
59, 573, 000 


25, 595, 000 
5, 771, 000 


.029 
.097 








31, 366, 000 






1, 147, 101, 000 


1, 113, 455, 000 










Gas: 

Used under boilers, etc .M c 

Used in steel or affiliated plants.. 
Distributed through city mains. . 
Sold for industrial use 


\ '598,412,000 


f 34, 382, 000 

197, 149, 000 

1 68, 902, 000 

1 17, 709, 000 


1, 813, 000 
22, 402, 000 
24, 348, 000 

3, 594, 000 


.053 
.114 
.353 
.203 






318, 142, 000 


52, 157, 000 


.164 




._- 




Light oil and derivatives: 

Crude light oil 


135, 166, 000 


8, 990, 000 


941, 000 


.105 


Benzol — 

Crude.. 

Refined 

Motor benzol 


| 16, 252, 000 
77, 418, 000 

51, 000 

2, 793, 000 

4, 413, 000 

441, 000 


16, 279, 000 
77, 453, 000 

6,000 

2, 676, 000 

3, 727, 000 

200, 000 


3, 596, 000 
12, 533, 000 

1,000 

765, 000 

641, 000 

16,000 


.221 
.162 


Toluol — 

Crude 

Refined 

Solvent naphtha 

Other light oil products 


do.... 
do.... 
do.... 
do.... 

pounds -. 
do.... 


.167 
.286 
.172 
.080 




101, 368, 000 


109, 331, 000 


18, 493, 000 


.169 


Naphthalene: 

Crude. 

Refined 


11, 541, 000 
1, 180, 000 


9, 698, 000 
1, 238, 000 


206, 000 
68, 000 


.021 
.055 




12, 721, 000 


10. 936, 000 


274, 000 


.025 








200, 000 




















111,716,000 













3 Includes gas wasted and gas used for heating retorts. 

* 98,432,100 gallons, including 4,200,000 gallons of purchased oil, was refined on the premises to make the 
derived products listed. 

5 Preliminary figures, subject to revision. 

6 Includes a small amount of other forms of ammonia. 

7 Includes gas wasted and gas used for heating retorts. 



PRODUCTION OF DYES AND COAL-TAR CHEMICALS, 1923 



19 



Table 6. — Total commercial production of benzene, toluene, solvent naphtha, and 
naphthalene from all sources in the United States, 1918-1923 

[Data for coke ovens and gas works from reports to United States Geological Survey; for tar refineries and 
others to United States Tariff Commission] 



By-product 

coke 

plants 

(sales) 1 



Gas works 
(sales) 1 



Tar 
refineries 
and all 
other estab- 
lishments 
(production) 



Total 
commercial 
production 2 



Benzene (all grades except motor benzol) : 
Gallons — 

1918 

1919 3 

1920 

1921 

1922 

1923 

Value — 

1918 

1919 3 

1920 

1921 

1922 

1923 

Motor benzol: 
Gallons — 

1918 

1919 



1920. 
1921. 
1922. 
1923. 
Value — 
1918. 
1919. 



1920 

1921 

1922 

1923 

Toluene, all grades: 

Gallons — 

1918 l 

1919 

1920 

1921 

1922 

1923 

Value — 

1918 

1919 

1920 

1921 

1922 

1923 

Solvent naphtha, crude and refined, including 
xylene: 

Gallons — 

1918 

1919 

1920 

1921 

1922 

1923 

Value— 

1918 

1919.... 

1920 

1921 

1922. 

1923 •___. 

Naphthalene, all grades: 

Pounds — 

1918 

1919. 

1920 

1921 

1922 

1923 



43, 441, 980 
63, 077, 463 
17, 230, 776 
6, 839, 021 
12, 256, 348 
16, 279, 000 

$11,966,367 
11,643,645 
4, 497, 823 
1, 611, 721 
3, 435, 381 
3, 596, 000 



2, 177, 168 
( 4 ) 

(0 

( 4 ) 
( 4 ) 
( 4 ) 

$572, 950 
( 4 ) 
( 4 ) 
( 4 ) 
( 4 ) 
( 4 ) 



Included under benzene 
above 

* 55, 764, 265 467, 126 

50, 022, 573 8 350, 000 

54, 930, 203 (») 

77, 453, 000 (*) 



Included under benzene 
above 

M2,644,931 112,849 

8, 966, 686 * 70, 000 

10, 491, 309 (•>) 

12, 533, 000 («) 



8, 541, 366 

1, 353, 827 

2, 470, 364 

835, 493 

1, 910, 060 

2, 682, 000 

$12, 249, 702 
355, 990 
740, 722 
233, 378 
557, 015 
766, 000 



" 3, 284, 037 
■3 3, 649, 066 
4, 695, 464 
2, 881, 656 
2, 861, 482 
3, 927, 000 

11 $458, 689 
■3 557, 416 
851, 048 
510, 509 
538, 512 
657, 000 



15, 890, 447 
6, 702, 040 

14, 448, 762 
1, 983, 523 
4, 887, 935 

10, 936, 000 



3, 965, 518 
( 4 ) 

8 2, 000 
» 1, 000 

(10) 

8 2,000 

$5, 597, 353 
( 4 ) 
8 300 
8 270 

(10) 

8 570 



1, 442, 267 
( 4 ) 
( 4 ) 
( 4 ) 
( 9 ) 
( 4 ) 

$191,475 
( 4 ) 

h 

( 4 ) 
m 
( 4 ) 



896, 080 
( 4 ) 
1, 760, 293 
( 4 ) 
(«) 
( 4 ) 



3, 015, 848 
1, 826, 373 

875, 561 
2, 171, 631 
5 774, 940 

394, 906 

$994, 161 
560, 547 
287, 586 
463, 205 

s 215, 136 
118,505 



1, 596, 353 
510, 957 

(10) 
(10) 

(10) 

(10) 

$3, 044, 890 
235, 321 

(10) 
(10) 
(10) 
(10) 



12 965, 458 
( 9 ) 
(») 
( 9 ) 
( 5 ) ( 9 ) 
( 9 ) 

12 $232, 003 
( 9 ) 
( 9 ) 
( 9 ) 
( 5 ) ( 9 ) 
(») 



40, 138, 092 
12, 612, 203 
26,393,411 
16, 949, 464 
19, 323, 393 
41, 453, 002 



48, 634, 996 
3 65, 403, 836 
18, 141, 337 
9, 045, 642 
13, 071, 288 
16, 708, 906 

$13, 533, 478 
12, 296, 192 
4, 794, 409 

2, 082, 926 

3, 664, 517 
3, 725, 505 



( 6 ) 

( 6 ) 

( 6 ) 
55, 622, 482 
80, 637, 520 



( 6 ) 

( 6 ) 

( 6 ) 
10, 657, 074 
13, 238, 871 



14, 103, 237 
1, 884, 784 

(10( 
(10) 
(10) 
(10) 

$20, 891, 945 
596, 511 

(10) 
(10) 
(10) 
(10) 



5, 691, 762 
4, 128, 747 
5, 384, 560 
3, 627, 488 
3, 680, 811 
4, 568, 593 

$882, 167 
672, 685 
994, 205 
644, 548 
773, 336 
849, 614 



56, 924, 619 
20, 114, 243 
42, 602, 466 
19, 432, 987 
25, 411, 328 
54, 189, 002 



[For footnotes see page 20.] 



20 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 



Table 6. — Total commercial production of benzene, toluene, solvent naphtha, and 
naphthalene from all souces in the United States, 1 91 8-1 923— Continued. 



By-product 

coke 

plants 

(sales) 



Gas works 

(sales) 



Tar 
refineries 
and all 
other estab- 
lishments 
(production) 



Total 
commercial 
production 



Naphthalene, all grades— Continued 
Value— 

1918 

1919 

1920. 

1921 

1922 

1923 ... 



$650, 229 
191, 364 
487, 974 
59, 335 
131, 252 
274, 000 



$14, 282 
0) 
63, 449 
0) 

(<) 



$1, 281, 440 
327, 201 
791, 403 
380, 167 
352, 957 
652, 148 



$1, 945, 951 
542, 565 

1, 342, 826 
462, 502 
536, 209 

1, 006, 148 



1 Sales instead of production are here given to avoid double counting between production of crude and 
pure grades, and because such of the product as is used in the coke plant or gas works is not available for 
commercial use. 

2 Totals include estimates for firms not reporting, or actual figures for items that can not be shown sepa- 
rately without disclosing individual returns. 

3 Includes motor benzol and 13,000 gallons of gasoline used in blending. 

4 Reports incomplete. Estimate included in total. 

5 Revised figure, to eliminate duplication through certain plants reporting both to the Tariff Commission 
and to the Geological Survey. 

6 Data not collected from tar refiners prior to 1922. 

7 Includes 1,333,000 gallons of gasoline used in blending. 

8 Estimate. 

9 Included in total, but can not be shown separately without disclosing individual returns. 

10 A certain quantity of toluene was produced both at gas works and at tar refineries, but the figures can 
not be given without disclosing individual returns. 

11 Includes 52,847 gallons of xylene, valued at $9,937, and 107,375 gallons of crude heavy solvent, valued 
at $8,769. 

12 Includes 192,969 gallons of xylene, valued at $67,935. 

13 Includes 23,088 gallons of xylene, valued at $4,563. 

Table 7. — Production of coal-tar crudes, 1923, by firms not primarily engaged in 
the operation of coke-oven plants and gas houses 

[The numbers in the second column refer to the numbered alphabetical list of manufacturers given on 
page 195. An X indicates that the corresponding product was made by a manufacturer who did not 
consent to the publication of his name in connection therewith. A blank in the third and fourth columns 
indicates that there was actual production of the corresponding article, but that the figures can not be 
published without revealing the output of individual firms.] 





Manufacturers' identification num- 
bers according to list on page 195 


Unit of 
quantity 


1923 


Name 


Quantity 


Value 


Value 
per unit 


Total crudes L— 








$25, 067, 086 






16, 21, 49, 152, X, X 


Gallons . 
...do 


394, 906 


118,505 


$0. 300 




16, X 






16 


...do 








Naphthalene(crude) . 


8, 15, 16, 34, 49, 53, 97, 114, 134, 152, 

158, 167, 181, X. 
158, 167 


Pounds . 
...do 


41,453,002 


652, 148 


.016 


less than 30 per 
cent). 


158, 185.. , 


_..do 








less than 65 per 
cent). 
Cresol or cresylic 
acid (crude). 


13, 16, 42, 49, 114, 158 


Gallons . 
...do 








16, 130 








Solvent naphtha.. .. 
Dead or creosote oil.. 


13, 16, 49, 97, 167, X. 


...do 


501, 754 
38, 636, 974 


142, 122 
4, 266, 785 


.283 


8, 13, 16, 21, 34, 42, 49, 53, 97, 101, 114, 

134, 158, 167, 181, 201, X. 
8, 158, 167 


...do 

..do... 


.110 


Pitch of tar 


8, 13, 16, 21, 34, 42, 49, 53, 97, 101, 114, 

134, 158, 167, 181, X, X. 
8, 16, 34, 42, 49, 101, 114,158, 181, X, X. 
8, 16, 21, 34, 42, 53, 97, 101, 114, 134, 

167, 181, X, X. 
49, 152, X 


Tons 

Gallons . 
Barrels.. 

Gallons . 


675, 628 

14,801,569 
1, 675, 213 


9, 684, 547 

1,941,495 
5, 944, 085 


14. 334 


Other distillates 

Refined tar 


.131 
3.548 















1 The instructions sent to manufacturers were as follows: Include under dead or creosote oil only prod- 
ucts which may be used for creosoting. Include under other distillates shingle stain oils, disinfectant 
oils, and flotation oils which do not contain over 5 per cent of phenol. Include under refined tars those 
tars which are used for road treatment, saturating felt, and for protective coatings. Phenol and all dis- 
tillates which, on being subjected to distillation, yield in the portion distilling below 190° C. a quantity 
of tar acids equal to or more than 5 per cent of the original distillate, or which, on being subjected to dis- 
tillation, yield in the portion distilling below 215° C. a quantity of tar acids equal to or more than 75 per 
cent of the original distillate, are not to be included here but are to be placed under intermediates. 



PRODUCTION OF DYES AND COAL-TAR CHEMICALS, 1923 21 

Imports.- — Domestic imports for consumption are given in the 
Appendix in Part VI of this publication. In general, imports of 
crudes in 1923 registered an increase over those of 1922. One of the 
principal reasons for this was the large raw material requirements of 
the timber preserving and chemical industries. Dead or creosote oil, 
used largely as a timber preservative, led this group both in quantity 
and value, with a total of 64,199,636 gallons, valued at $10,071,393. 
This was approximately a 54 per cent increase over the figures for 
1922. 

The imports of naphthalene ranked second, totaling 20,992,439 
pounds, valued at $575,702, compared with 3,144,332 pounds, valued 
at $54,029, for 1922. Owing to the demand for this product, im- 
ports were large during the first seven months of 1923. The in- 
crease in price stimulated production and during the latter part of 
the year the price receded to the January level. Imports of crude 
cresylic acid totaled 5,761,011 pounds, with a value of $489,824. 
Other coal-tar crudes showing an increased importation during 1923 
include anthracene (purity less than 30 per cent), 869,780 pounds, 
valued at $23,925; pyridine, 764,918 pounds, valued at $266,184; and 
benzene, 701,857 pounds, valued at $21,903. 

Intermediates 

description 

This class of coal-tar chemicals does not occur as such in coal tar, 
but is prepared from the crudes (benzene, toluene, naphthalene, and 
anthracene) by chemical treatment with sulphuric acid, nitric acid, 
alkalies, chlorine, or other chemicals. From fewer than 10 coal-tar 
crudes 200 to 300 intermediates are prepared for use in the pro- 
duction of hundreds of dyes. The various chemical stages in the 
conversion of crudes to intermediates are (1) nitration, (2) reduction, 
(3) sulphonation, (4) caustic fusion, (5) chlorination, (6) alkylation, 
(7) liming, (8) condensation, (9) carboxylation, (10) oxidation, and 
(11) diazotization. 

Intermediates are therefore the raw materials which are converted 
by complex chemical processes into dyes, medicinals, perfumes, 
flavors, photographic chemicals, and synthetic resins and tanning 
materials. They are also used as accelerators in the vulcanization 
of rubber, as camphor substitutes, in the direct production of dyes 
on the fiber, and for increasing the fastness of dyed colors, in which 
case they are known as "developers." After purification, many 
intermediates are used directly as drugs, perfumes, and flavors. 

PRODUCTION 

The production of intermediates in the United States in 1923 is 
given in Table 8 in as great detail as is possible without revealing 
the output of individual manufacturers. The total output in 1923 
was 231,393,871 pounds, compared with 165,048,155 pounds in 
1922. Sales in 1923 totaled 83,582,808 pounds, with a value of 
$18,916,058. The average price of intermediates sold in 1923 was 



22 UNITED STATES TAEIFF COMMISSION 

$0,226, as compared with $0,223 for 1922. Although the average 
price of the total sales for 1923 and 1922 shows practically no change, 
there were marked decreases in the average sales prices of certain 
basic intermediates. As an offset to these declines there were in- 
creased quantities of the special and more costly intermediates enter- 
ing into the production of the faster types of dyes. The average 
sales price of aniline showed little change, being $0,158 for 1923, as 
compared with $0,151 for 1922. It is of interest to note, in this con- 
nection, that aniline oil was quoted at $0.10^ in 1913 and that the 
invoice value of imports in the fiscal year 1913-14 was $0,071. During 
the war it was quoted as high as 40 to 50 cents per pound. H acid 
decreased from $0.73 in 1922 to $0,675 in 1923, while b-naphthol, 
tech., declined from $0.24 to $0.22. Naphthalene, refined, declined 
from $0.06 to $0,058 per pound, and anthraquinone (100 per cent), 
required for the manufacture of synthetic alizarin and anthraquinone 
vat dyes, receded from $1.34 to $0,947 per pound. 

The total number of intermediates reported was 311, of which 
over 80 were not reported during 1922. Many of these new products 
comprised intermediates of great complexity, and their production 
represents notable progress in the dye industry. They are almost 
entirely required for the manufacture of the fast and special types 
of colors, in which field the industry made a conspicuous expansion 
during 1923. 

Aniline. — Aniline manufactured from benzene, through the inter- 
mediate product nitrobenzene, is the most important of all finished 
intermediates. It ranked, in 1923, first in value and quantity. 
Aniline is used in the production of dyes of almost every class, 
whether the classification be based on the method of application or 
on the chemical constitution. Three of the leading domestic dyes by 
quantity of output, namely, Indigo, Direct black EW, and Agalma 
black 10B, require aniline in their manufacture. The output of 
aniline in 1923 was 26,671,961 pounds, compared with 21,401,864 
pounds in 1922. The largest output was in 1920, when the total was 
39,234,186 pounds, valued at $10,923,648. 

Naphthalene derivatives. — The most important intermediate derived 
from naphthalene is b-naphthol. The output in 1923 was 5,741,355 
pounds, compared with a production of 3,255,901 pounds in 1922. 
Sales in 1923 were 4,528,238 pounds, valued at $994,635, or 22 cents 
per pound, a decrease of 2 cents per pound from that of the previous 
year. 

H acid (l-amino-8-naphthol-3:6-disulphonic acid) ranks second 
among naphthalene derivatives and is one of the most important 
intermediates required for the production of direct cotton and acid 
dyes of the azo class. Production of H acid in 1923 was 3,462,664 
pounds, with sales amounting to 1,392,506 pounds, valued at $940,272. 

Phthalic anhydride is another intermediate derived from naphtha- 
lene. It is essential to the preparation of synthetic anthraquinone, 
which, in turn, is the intermediate used in the production of synthetic 
alizarin and the anthraquinone vat dyes, including the indanthrenes 
and most of the algols. In addition, phthalic anhydride is used in 
the preparation of fluorescein, the eosine dyes, and the rhodamines. 



PRODUCTION OF DYES AND COAL-TAR CHEMICALS, 1923 23 

The domestic production of phthalic anhydride in 1923 established a 
new record, 2,343,802 pounds, compared with 1,629,182 pounds in 
1922. 

Fumaric and mdleic acid. — In 1923 production was reported for the 
first time of these two acids by a synthetic process — the direct oxida- 
tion of benzene with air in the presence of a catalyst. This is a 
notable discovery of the domestic chemical industry. These two acids 
appear to hold "considerable promise of application in the chemical 
and associated industries. Maleic acid may serve as the base for 
the manufacture of many hitherto rare compounds. It is now con- 
verted into malic acid, which is used as a food acidulant. Fumaric 
acid is used in the textile industry. 

Anthraquinone. — The large increase in the production of anthra- 
quinone in 1923 represents one of the significant stages of progress 
in that year. Anthraquinone is used in the manufacture of certain 
vat dyes" (including indanthrenes and most of the algol dyes, synthetic 
alizarin, and other alizarin derivatives.) Anthraquinone is produced 
in the United States by the oxidation of anthracene, the latter being 
derived from coal tar, and by synthesis from phthalic anhydride and 
benzene. There has been a marked tendency to increase the propor- 
tion of the total domestic output by the synthetic process. The total 
production of anthraquinone in 1923 was 857,190 pounds, compared 
with 395,107 pounds in 1922. Approximately one-half of the total 
1923 output was produced by the synthetic process, this representing 
a very large increase in the proportion produced by this process over 
that of 1922. 

Special intermediates register large increase. — -An examination of the 
intermediates used in the preparation of fast and special dyes, these 
being consumed in relatively small quantities as compared with bulk 
colors, shows a greatly increased output of these special products in 
1923. Among these may be mentioned Chicago acid (l-amino-8- 
naphthol-2:4-disulphonic acid), J-acid urea, diethyl-m-aminophenol, 
ethyl benzyl aniline, xylidine, Broenner's acid, 2-chloro-5-toluidine-4- 
sulphonic acid, J-acid (2-amino-5-naphthol-7-sulphonic acid), pyraz- 
olone, Michler's ketone, benzoyl chloride, and the anthraquinone 
derivatives. 

New intermediates. — In 1923 production of 311 coal-tar interme- 
diates was reported, of which over 80 were new products not reported 
during the year 1922. These new products comprise for the most 
part intermediates used in the manufacture of the more complex dyes 
and other coal-tar products and several used in the vulcanization of 
rubber. The developments of the year are indicated by the pro- 
duction of these more complex products, presenting many technical 
problems in their production on a commercial scale. Among these 
recent additions are included chloropyrazolone, dehydrothio-m- 
xylidine, dibenzylsulphoxide, dimethyltetra aminodiphenylmethane, 
ethyl carbazole. fumaric acid, maleic acid, methyl anthraquinone, 
phenazine, quinaldine, tetraaminoditolylmethane. and several anthra- 
quinone derivatives. 



24 UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 

INVESTIGATION OF PHENOL AND CRESYLIC ACID UNDER SECTION 315 

Phenol. — An investigation under the provisions of section 315, 
Title III of the act of 1922, was ordered by the Tariff Commission 
on May 4, 1923, in response to a request for a decrease in the duty 
on phenol. 

The foreign (Great Britain) and domestic costs investigations were 
completed during the period from June to November, 1923, and on 
December 13, 1923, after giving due notice as required by law, the 
commission ordered a public hearing for January 24, 1924. The 
hearing was completed on that date and further oral argument was 
waived. Interested parties were given until March 15, 1924, for the 
filing of briefs. 

The present annual consumption of phenol is estimated to be about 
11,000,000 pounds. The production of natural phenol from coal tar 
is only a fraction of this, and the production from this source in the 
United States is supplemented by synthetic phenol. 

The cost of manufacture of synthetic phenol is higher than that of 
natural phenol. A comparison of the cost of manufacture of phenol 
(natural) in England, obtained by the Tariff Commission, with a 
weighted average of the cost of the domestic natural and synthetic 
phenol show that if the total English cost is taken as 100 the domestic 
weighted average is 142.5. 

The manufacturer in Great Britain has the advantage of cheaper 
raw materials (tar acids) than the American manufacturer, and 
furthermore the percentage of phenols is higher in the British tar 
than in the American tar. 

The lower-cost natural phenol at the time of the investigation 
supplied a greater part of consumption than the synthetic product. 
The output of synthetic phenol is increasing and in future will be 
a factor of increasing importance in supplying requirements. 

Large increase in output of phenol: The large output of phenol 
in 1923 represents one of the notable expansions in the industry 
during that year. The production for 1923 was 3,310,911 pounds, 
compared with 1,285,978 pounds in 1922. Total sales during 1923 
were 2,180,244 pounds, valued at $589,822 ($0.27 per pound), as 
against a total sales of 1,266,552 pounds, valued at $268,311, in 1922 
($0.21 per pound). 

The Government war stock carry-over of phenol, which amounted 
to approximately 35,000,000 pounds, was believed to be 'sufficient 
for a four years' normal supply based upon pre-war consumption 
of about 9,000,000 pounds a year. Owing to the increased demand 
for phenol in the manufacture of synthetic phenolic resins, the war 
stocks were exhausted sooner than was anticipated. 

Several manufacturers started producing synthetic phenol in 1923. 
One of the large manufacturers of phenolic resins has built a synthetic 
phenol plant and estimates that its production will be at the rate 
of 7,000,000 pounds a year by the end of 1924. . The Barrett Co. 
estimates its production of phenol for the year 1924 at from 
2,000,000 to 2,500,000 pounds. 

The synthetic phenol will probably be a factor of increasing 
importance in supplying domestic requirements. 



PRODUCTION OF DYES AND COAXrTAR CHEMICALS, 1923 25 

Cresylic acid.— -On May 4, 1923, the commission ordered an in- 
vestigation of cresylic acid for the purposes of section 315 of the 
tariff act of 1922, in response to requests for a decrease in the duty 
on cresol or cresylic acid. 

The foreign and domestic costs investigations were completed 
during the period from June to November, 1923, and on December 
13, 1923, the commission ordered a public hearing for January 24, 
1924, which was postponed at that time to February 14, 1924. The 
hearing was completed on that date and further oral argument was 
waived. Interested parties were given until March 15, 1924, for 
the filing of briefs. As a result of the cost investigation conducted 
by the Tariff Commission, it was found that, taking the domestic cost 
of manufacture of cresylic acid as 100, the cost of manufacture in 
the United Kingdom was 50.46 in 1923. 

It is difficult accurately to estimate domestic consumption of 
cresylic acid. In the period from 1917 to 1920, inclusive, when 
imports were fairly uniform and when there was little domestic 
production, the total imports indicate an annual consumption of 
cresylic acid of between 8,000,000 and 10,000,000 pounds. Although 
the total potential capacity of domestic producers of cresylic acids 
is estimated at approximately 9,500,000 pounds, domestic produc- 
tion has been about one-half of the maximum capacity. 

Taking into consideration the expansion of the consuming indus- 
tries, it seems likely that the present consumption of cresol and 
cresylic acid is between 10,000,000 and 12,000,000 pounds per year. 

In the manufacture of cresols and cresylic acid from coal-tar distil- 
lates as carried on both in the United States and abroad phenol is 
one of the by-products obtained. The crude tar acids, after removal 
of the crude phenol fraction, yield various grades of cresols and 
cresylic acids. In American practice the fractions usually obtained, 
in their order after the crude phenol fraction, are (1) ortho cresol, 
(2) meta and para cresol, (3) cresol U. S. P., (4) refined cresylic acid, 
(5) crude cresylic acid 97-99 per cent straw color, and (6) crude 
cresylic acid 95 per cent dark. Both in the United Kingdom and in 
this country the companies consider that the production cost of 
cresylic acid and the production cost of crude carbolic acid are the 
same, because they are produced simultaneously in the same plant. 

Cresylic acid records large increase in production: As in the case of 

Ehenol, the production of cresylic acid registered a notable increase, 
eing about double that of the previous year. 

The production of cresylic acid has shown a large increase since 
the passage of the tariff act of 1922. During recent months the im- 
ports of duty-free cresylic acid have increased greatly. These imports 
comprised in large part a grade of cresylic acid just below the speci- 
fications of the dutiable grades of paragraph 27 of the act, a grade 
which is readily converted into a refined cresylic acid by a simple 
distillation. 

1760— 24t 3 



26 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 



Table 8. 



STATISTICS OF PRODUCTION. 

-Production and sales of coal-tar intermediates, 1923 



[The numbers in the second column refer to the numbered alphabetical list of manufacturers printed on 
page 195. An X signifies that the manufacturer did not consent to the publication of his identification 
number in connection with the designated product. A blank in the third and fourth columns indicates 
that sales figures can not be published without revealing information in regard to the output of individ- 
ual firms. A blank in the sixth column indicates that the production of the corresponding product 
in the United States can not be published without revealing information in regard to the output of indi- 
vidual firms. The figures thus concealed are, however, included in the total] 





Manufacturers' iden- 
tification numbers 
according to list on 
page 195 


Sales 




Name 


Quantity 


Value 


Average 

price per 

pound 


Total 
production 






Pounds 
83, 582, 808 


$18, 916, 058 


$0.23 


Pounds 
231,393,871 




7, 80, 122, 128, 166, 

167. 
6, 7, 63, 82, 88, 131, 

167. 
63 






249,099 


65,306 


.26 




Acetyl-p-phenylenediamine (p- 


133, 214 


amino acetanilide) . 












39,63, 167 








237, 927 




151 










Aldehyde aniline derivatives 


X . 










63, 137 












7, 32, 36, 64, 74, 88, 91, 

131, 133. 
63, 133 








122,370 














131,133 












32, 63, 64, 88, 91, 131, 

133, 155. 
133 








95, 202 














63 












131 












63, 126, 166 








18,241 




85 










Aminodiphenylamine sulfonic acid 


202 










l-Amino-2-naphthol-4-sulfonic acid 


6, 19, 32, 39, 63, 88, 

133, 167, X, X. 
39, 63, 131, 137 






.60 


792, 639 


l-Amino-8-naphthol-4-sulfonic acid 






143, 945 


l-Amino-8-naphthol-2:4 - disulfonic 


39, 63, 131, 137 








101, 570 


acid (Chicago acid). 
l-Amino-8-naphthol-3:6-disulfonic 

acid (H acid). 
2-Amino-5-naphthol-7-sulfonic acid 


25, 63, 88, 125, 131, 

137. 
39, 63, 131, 137, X... 


1, 392, 506 


940, 272 


.68 


3, 462, 664 
145, 540 


(J acid). 
2-Amino-8-naphthol-6-sulfonic acid 


25, 32, 39, 63, 131, 

137, X. 
137 






1.51 


306, 605 


(gamma acid). 
2-Amino-8-naphthol-3:6-disulfonic 








acid. 


82, 195, 202 


14, 483 
60, 859 


33, 812 
68, 646 


2.33 
1.13 




p-Aminophenol and hydrochloride. 


9, 57, 63, 68, 82, 137, 

195, 202. 
7, 25, 63, 131, 202.. . 


135, 564 
30, 119 




6, 39, 52, 63, 88, 131, 

137. 
63 








62, 136 














63 












131, X 












•27, 87, 131 


775, 571 
14, 506, 027 

13, 279 


174, 850 | .23 
2,293,639 .16 

3,958 .30 


800, 350 




27, 63, 87, 122, 124, 

128, 131, 132. 
63,91, 131, 132, 151... 
131 


26,671,961 












63, 137, 202 . ... 


3,717 


9,628 , 2.59 


15, 418 




8, 63, 185 . . 




tent 86 per cent) . 
Anthranilic acid (o-aminobenzoic 
acid) . 


62, 63, 128, 190 






1.03 

.95 


45, 312 


18, 63, 107, 131, 163, 






857, 190 




185. 
88, 131. 










137 










18, 63, 131, 137 








450, 701 


(silver salt) . 


131 


227, 521 








Benzaldehyde 

Benzanthrone 

Benzidine, base. 

Benzidine sulfate and hydrochlo- 
ride. 


44, 78, 142, 180, 192, X 
63,122,137 .. 


165, 431 


.73 


263, 007 


32,39,63,78,88,131...! 
3, 88, 131, 137, X . 


202, 590 162, 775 


.80 


768, 880 




1 









PRODUCTION OF DYES AND COAL-TAR CHEMICALS, 1923 27 

Table 8. — Production and sales of coal-tar intermediates, 192S — Continued 





Manufacturers' iden- 
tification numbers 
according to list on 
page 195 


Sales 




Name 


Quantity 


Value 


Average 

price per 

pound 


Total 
production 




44,95, 166, X 


Pounds 
749, 645 


$450, 889 


$0.60 
.59 

.68 


Pounds 
749, 885 




44,63,95,137,166 


118, 058 




44, 166, X 


38, 381 


25,911 


62, 822 




142 .. 






131 












17, 95, X 












131,142,192 










132 












62 










Broenner's acid. (See 2-naphthy- 
lamine-6-sulfonic acid. 


63,185... 










95 per cent) . 


68 . 












202. . 












202 












202 .. 










p-Chloroaniline sulfonic acid 


202 










131 






::::;::::: 






63,137 












62,95, 107, X 


5, 293, 974 


390, 940 


.07 


7, 024, 604 




137 






80,133 












X 












63 .. 












202 










Chloro-m-phenylenediamine 


133 










63 












131 












63.. 












63, 121, 167,202 










Chromotropic acid. (See l:8-di- 
hydroxy naphthalene-3:6-disulfo- 

nic acid.) 
Cresol, ortho, metaand para 


118 










93 










Cresylic acid, refined (distillates 
yielding below 215° C. tar acids 
equal to or more than 75 per cent 
of the original distillate.) 

Dehydrothio-p-toluidine sulfonic 
acid. 


13, 16 










19, 70,80, 137, 147, X.. 








62, 011 


137 












133 












6,63,70,80,131, 137 








129, 625 




39, 63, 131, 137 






3.69 


89, 929 




131 








l-Diazo-2-naphthol-4-sulfonic acid. . 


32, 39, 88, 131, 133, X.. 








249, 714 


137 












132 












137 










none. 


137 












62 












39, 202 












151 












62, 107, X 












62. 95, 107, 138, X 
151 


1, 315, 546 


200, 434 


.15 


1, 419, 879 


Dichlorophenylhydrazine sulfonic 

acid. 
Dichlorophthalic anhydride 




56 










63 












63, 131, 180,205 .. 






.48 


125, 713 




63 








Dihydroxyanthraquinone sulfonic 

acid. 
5:5-Dihydroxy-7:7-disulfonic-2:2- 

dinaphthyl urea (J acid urea). 

1 :5-Dihydroxynaphthalene 

l:8-Dihydroxynaphthalene-3:6-di- 

sulfonicacid (chromotropic acid). 


190 










131, 137, X . 










6,88 










125, 131, 137 








151,303 


7, 27, 63, 85, 87, 131.. 
63 


1, 502, 265 


562. 992 


.38 


2, 681, 751 






Dimethylphenazine (tolazine) 

Dimethyltetraaminodiphenylme- 

thane. 
Dinitroanthraquinone 


131 










151 . 










84,131 











28 UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 

Table 8. — Production and sales of coal-tar intermediates, 1923 — Continued 





Manufacturers' iden 
tification numbers 
according to list on 
page 195 


Sales 




Name 


Quantity 


Value 


Average 

price per 

pound 


Total 
production 




137 


Pounds 






Pounds 




27,63,131,195 

12 


575, 089 


$107, 258 


$0.19 


2, 064, 150 






12,63,88,107,131.... 
133. 


1, 039, 333 


166, 277 


.16 


7, 445, 467 


Dinitrochlorobenzene-p-sulfonic 


acid. 
2:6-Dinitrochlorobenzene-4-sul- 


202 










fonic acid. 


12,88 












133 












12,63,64,81,91,131.. 
63 


1, 243, 945 


183, 016 


.15 


4, 304, 198 








12, 61, 63, 131, 149, X. 
131 


846, 431 


914, 618 


1.09 


867, 019 








132 












131 










Dithiobenzoyldisulfide 


132 












63 












131 










p-Ditolylsulfoxide 


132 












X 












63,85,132 












131 












131 












126 












36, 63, 131, 205... 












36, 63, 131, 180, 205 .. 






1.14 


213, 034 




36,63 










36,80, 131 .. 












63 












132 












X 












7, 56, 63, 91 








61, 636 


Formaldehyde-p-amino aniline 


85 












63, 132, 167, X... 












131. 










Gamma acid. (See 2-amino-8- 
naphthol-6-sulfonic acid.) 

H acid. (See l-amino-8-naphthol- 
3:6-disulfonic acid.) 


132 












39, 63 












63, 131 










(naphthol AS). 


108, 120 










and sodium salt. 


X. 












137.. 












X 












137 










J acid. (See 2-amino-o-naphthol- 

7-sulfonic acid.) 
Laurent's acid. (See 1-naphthyl- 

amine-5-sulfonic acid.) 


X 












131 












131 












X 










tives. 


6, 39, 63, 64, 88, 91, 

131, 133. 
205 








412, 791 














X.. 












163, X 












132 .. 












131 










acid. 


63. 












137, X... 








:::::::::::: 


Michler's hydrol. (See Tetrame- 
thyldiamino benzhydrol.) 

Michler's ketone. (See Tetrame- 
thyldiamino benzophenone.) 

Naphthalene, solidifying 79° C. or 
above (refined, flake). 


13,16,27,34,35, 114, 

137, 182, 201, X. 
63, 131, 137. 


21, 871, 196 


1, 270, 722 


.06 


28, 183, 784 
85, 502 


2:7-Naphthalene disulfonic acid 


63, 167 












PEODUCTION OF DYES AND COAL-TAR CHEMICALS, 1923 29 

Table 8. — Production and sales of coal-tar intermediates, 1923 — Continued 





Manufacturers' iden- 
tification numbers 
according to list on 
page 195 


Sales 




Name 


Quantity 


Value 


Average 

price per 

pound 


Total 
production 


1:3:6-Naphthalene trisulfonic acid.. 
1 :8-Naphthasulfone-3-sulfonic acid . 


167 


Pounds 






Pounds 


137 










7, 32, 39, 91, 96, 131, 

171, 184. 
27,32,39,91,167,171 
27. 


57, 274 
4, 528, 236 


$35, 674 
994, 635 


$0.62 
.22 


233, 578 




5, 741, 355 


b-Naphthol, U.S.P 




l-Naphthol-8-chloro-3:6-disulfonic 

acid (chloro H acid) . 
l-Naphthol-4-sulfonic acid (Nevile 

& Winther's acid). 


131 










7, 32, 52, 63, 88, 131, 

137. 
6, 39, 63, 88, 125, 131, 

133, 137. 
167 








285, 317 








166, 191 


l-Naphthol-3 :6-disulfonic acid 

l-Naphthol-3:8-disulfonic acid 

l-Naphthol-3:6:8-trisulfonic acid. . . 

2-Naphthol-l-sulfonic acid 

2-Naphthol-6-sulfonic acid (Schaef- 
fer's acid). 










63 










32, 131, 137 










63 










6, 32, 39, 63, 64, 88, 

131, 137, X. 
39, 63, 167 








146, 755 












63, X 










2-Naphthol-3:6-disulfonic acid. ... 

2-Naphthol-6 :8-disulfonic acid 

Naphtho - 1:8 - sultam - 2:4 - disul- 

fonic acid. 
Naphtho - 1:3 - sulton - 8 - sulfonic 

acid. 


3, 25, 27, 32, 39, 63, 
88, 131, 137, 167, 
190, 198, X. 

25, 27, 32, 39, 131, X.. 


150, 149 


75, 911 


.51 


613, 777 


63. 










39 










16,63,137 


862, 518 


260, 218 


.30 
.75 

.40 






6,39,63,131 


505, 819 


l-Naphthylamine-4-sulfonic acid 


7, 32, 39, 52, 63, 91, 
131, 137, X. 


121,694 


49, 054 


1,491,963 


l-Naphthylamine-5-sulfonic acid 


6, 32, 63, 88, 91, 131, 
133, X 


277, 288 


l-Naphthylamine-6-sulfonic acid.. 


131 










39, 131,137, X 








341, 295 


acid. 


6,63, 131, 133 












6 










acid (Freund's acid). 
l-Naphthylamine-3:8-d i su 1 f o n i c 

acid. 
l-Naphthylamine-4:8-di sulfonic 

acid. 
l-Naphthylamine-3:6:8-trisulfonic 

acid. 


39,63,137 








55, 577 


39, 63, 131, 137 








595, 493 


63,131,137 








3, 524, 246 


28,39,66,167 


169, 018 


159, 567 


.94 


281, 738 


2-Naphthylamine-6-sulfonic acid 

(Broenner's acid). 
2-Naphthylamine-4:8-disulfonic 

acid. 
2-Naphthylamine-5:7-d i s u 1 f o n i c 

acid. 
2-Naphthylamine-6:8-disulfonic 

acid. 
2-Naphthylamine-3:6:8-trisulfonic 

acid. 
Nevile & Winther's acid. (See 1- 

naphthol-4-sulfonic acid.) 


6, 39, 63, 131 


28, 884 


39, 63, 137 










39, 63, 131, 137, X . 








247, 501 


32,39, 63, 131, 137, X.. 








552, 010 


137 










25,39,63,167. 








104, 496 




64, 88, 133 








25, 138 




133 












63, 195 












7, 25, 166, 167, X 

63, 80, 88, 167, 202 
202 


1, 530, 837 
8,217 


1, 054, 881 
8,203 


.69 

1.00 


2, 008, 003 


p-Nitroaniline-o-sulfonic acid 


22, 260 




63, 137 












63 












126 










Nitrobenzene (oil of mirbane) 


27, 63, 87, 131, 132, 

137. 
1, 63, 166 


2, 523, 592 


261, 780 


.10 


45, 068, 881 
40, 162 




X 












63 












63, 128 










p.-Nitrochlorobenzene 


63,128.. 











30 UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 

Table 8. — Production and sales of coal-tar intermediates, 1923 — Continued 





Manufacturers' iden- 
tification numbers 
according to list on 
page 195 


Sales 




Name 


Quantity 


Value 


Average 

price per 

pound 


Total 
production 


o- Ni trochlorobenzene-p-s u 1 f o n i c 

acid, 
p- Nitrochlorobenzene-o-s u 1 f o n i c 

acid. 


133,202 ... 


Pounds 






Pounds 


131,202 










39,63 










fonic acid. 


202 










3-Nitro-4-hydroxyphenyl arsonic 
acid. 


108,120,126... _ 










16,63,137 












195,202 












46, 63, 128, 137, 195, 

202. 
X 








133, 989 












Nitrosodimethylaniline and hydro- 
chloride. 


27, 46, 63, 88, 107, 
131, 132, 137, 204, 
205, X. 

6, 9, 12, 18, 68, 88, 131, 
X, X. 

131 


23, 279 


$27, 327 


$1.17 


284, 873 
399, 308 














63,64,81,91,131, 137. 
12, 63, 81, 131, 137, X. 
12,63.. 








7, 005, 352 










3, 764, 647 












12, 63, 81, 131, 137, X. 
80 


220, 784 


112,982 


.51 


2, 285, 120 






p-Nitrotoluene-o-sulfonic acid 


6, 39, 63, 80, 131, 137, 

202. 
39,63,167 








891, 537 


158, 350 


317, 308 


2.00 


160, 016 




39,63,131,190 








27,39,63, 131, 137 








648, 192 




126 


' 










63 










Oxalyl-m-phenylenediamine 

Oxalvl-p-phenvlenediamine 


63 










63 










107 












16, 62, 93, 118, 128, 

148, 171, X. 
62, 63, 131 


2, 180, 244 


589, 822 


.27 


3, 310, 911 


Phenylglycine, and sodium salt 

Phenylhydrazine, base and hydro- 
chloride. 
Phenyl hydrazine-o-sulfonic acid.- 
Phenyl hydrazine-p-sulfonic acid.. 
Phenyl-1 : 8-dihydroxnaphthalene- 
disulfonic acid (phenyl I acid). 


11,166,650 


179 










88 










27, 63, 151, 183 








200, 632 


131 










63. 










Phenyl-l-naphthylamine-8-sulfonic 
acid. 


6, 63, 88, 131, 133 








328, 836 


63 












133 
























132 












132 












6, 27, 32, 39, 52, 63, 
88,91,131,137,140, 
195, X. 

X 








900, 412 














74,82, 167, X 


282, 204 


372, 124 


1.32 


280, 656 








Phthalic acid and anhydride - 


63, 128, 131, X 

25,27, 131, X 


2, 091, 100 


596, 508 


.29 


2, 343, 802 
149, 310 




19,63,80,131,147 








166, 580 




133,151 
























148 X 








Resorcinol, U.S.P 




1. 








62, 63, 93, 124, 128, X. 




.31 
.32 
.17 


2, 857, 281 


Salicylic acid, U.S.P .... 


93, 124, 128, X . 

27, 32, 39, 63, 87, SS, 

91, 118, 131, 151, 

183, 195. 


1,244,028 1 393,343 
186,480 31,104 


1, 330, 048 
1, 861, 884 
























salt. 










Tetraaminoditolylmethane 

Tetrachlorophthalic anhydride 



















PRODUCTION OF DYES AND COAL-TAR CHEMICALS, 1923 



31 



Table 8. — Production and sales of coal-tar intermediates, 1923 — Continued 





Manufacturers' iden- 
tification numbers 
according to list on 
page 195 


Sales 




Name 


Quantity 


Value 


Average 

price per 

pound 


Total 
production 


Tetraethyldiaminobenzhydrol 


131 


Pounds 






Pounds 


(ethylhydrol) . 
Tetraethvldiaminodiphenvlme- 


131. 










thane (ethylmethane) . 
Tetramethyldiaminobenzliydrol 


63,80 










(Michler's hydrol) . 
Tetramethyldiaminobenzophe- 


63 










none (Michler's ketone) . 
Tetramethyldiaminodiphenylme- 


63, 80, 88, 131 










thane. 
Tetramethylthiouramdisulflde 


132 










Thioaniline 


6 












12, 85, 131, 132, X, X. 
39, 63, 131, 137 


2, 113, 059 


$517, 748 


$6.25 


3, 309, 414 


Tolidine and salts 


166, 121 


Tolidine disulfonic acid 


X 










o-Toluene sulfamide 


X 










p-Toluene sulfamide. 


X 










p-Toluene sulfochloride 


128 










Toluenesulfonyl ethyl ester 


131 











Toluidine.-. 


63,81,131.. 












12,39,63,81,131,137, 

X. 
12,39,63,81,131,137, 

202, X. 
39, 63, 88, 91, 133, 202. 
137. 


807, 795 
293, 212 


107, 936 
253, 399 


.13 

.86 


1, 440, 884 


p-Toluidine 


1, 060, 848 
101, 348 


Toluidine sulfonic acid 


p-Tolyl-o-benzoic acid 










m-Tolylenediamine 


6, 12, 32, 39, 52, 63, 64, 
88, 91, 107, 131, 137, 
X. 

12 


351, 172 


326, 326 


.93 


1, 179, 457 


p-Tol vlenediamine. . 




Tolylenediamine, meta and para... 


137 










m-Tolylenediamine sulfate 


131 










m-Tolylenediamine sulfonic acid . . . 


131 










o-Tolylthiourea 


132 










Tolyl-l-naphthylamine-8-sulfonic 


131 










acid (tolyl-peri acid). 
Tribromophenol 


62 










Trichlorofluorescein. 


63... 










Tricresyl phosphate 


31... 












131, 132 












27,39,63,131,137 

131 


168, 752 


72, 726 


.43 


363, 029 


m-Xvlidine acetate 




Zinc dimethyl dithiocarbamate 


132 










Zinc dithiobenzoate 


X 










All other intermediates . 


137. - 























Table 8a. — Production of intermediates, by groups, according to unit values, 1921, 

1922, and 1923 



Group 



1923 



Pounds 



Per cent 
of total 



1922 



Pounds 



Per cent 
of total 



Pounds 



Per cent 
of total 



0-15 cents . . 
16-25 cents. 
26-50 cents . 
51-75 cents . 

$0.74-$l 

$1.01-$1.50.. 

$1.51-$2 

$2.01-$3 

$3.01-$4 

Over $4 

Total 



104, 419, 258 

50, 233, 638 

42, 556, 640 

16, 486, 159 

9, 664, 153 

5, 587, 436 

914, 837 

951, 521 

136, 302 

443,927 



45. 127 
21. 709 
18. 391 
7.125 
4.176 
2.415 
.395 
.411 
.059 
.192 



231,393,871 



100.00 



94, 688, 278 

26, 233, 604 

24, 399, 085 

8, 289, 387 

5, 918, 904 

3, 957, 355 

568, 339 

721, 637 

197,071 

74, 495 



57. 372 
15. 894 
14. 783 
5.022 
3. 58G 
2.398 
.344 
.437 
.119 
.045 



28,682,310 

16, 986, 701 

11,457,74! 

4, 329, 047 

4, 689, 343 

2, 517, 764 

1,204,584 

731, 758 

110.316 

190, 348 



165, 048, 155 



40. 455 
23.959 
16. 160 
6.106 
6.614 
3. 551 
1.699 
1. 032 
.156 



100.00 70,899,912 ! 100.00 



32 united states tariff commission 

Dyes and Other Finished Coal- Tar Products 

introductory 

Finished coal-tar products are divided into the following eight 
classes: (1) Dyes, (2) color lakes, (3) photographic chemicals (de- 
velopers), (4) medicinals, (5) flavors, (6) perfume materials, (7) syn- 
thetic phenolic resins, (8) synthetic tanning materials. In previous 
reports the Tariff Commission has emphasized the close relationship 
existing between the manufacture of explosives, poisonous gases, and 
dyes, also the fact that many explosive plants since the signing of the 
armistice have been converted into dye factories. During the war 
the dye plants of Germany supplied the army of that country with 
poisonous gases and explosives. The dye industry is also closely 
connected with the manufacture of flavors, perfume materials, 
photographic chemicals, medicinals, and other coal-tar products, 
which, although produced in smaller quantities than dyes, use as raw 
materials many of the by-products obtained in the manufacture of 
coal-tar dyes. 

The production of dyes and other finished products in 1923 is 
shown in Table 12 in as great detail as is possible without revealing 
the output of individual manufacturers. 

The total production of dyes and other finished coal-tar chemicals in 
1923, by 164 firms, was 122,950,171 pounds, compared with a 1922 
production, by 164 firms, of 88,368,131 pounds. Total sales in 1923 
amounted to 115,297,586 pounds, with a value of $65,898,177. Pro- 
duction during 1923 represented a 39 per cent increase in quantity 
compared with that of 1922. 

SUMMARY OF DYE PRODUCTION IN 1923 

Large increase in output. — The output of dyes by 88 firms was 
93,667,524 pounds, compared with 64,632,187 pounds in 1922. 
Sales for the year 1923 totaled 86,567,446 pounds, with a value of 
$47,223,161. In this connection it is of interest to compare the size 
of the industry in 1923 with that existing prior to the war, the out- 
put in 1914, by 7 firms, being 6,619,729 pounds, with a value of 
$2,470,096. This production was almost entirely from imported 
intermediates, chiefly from Germany. 

Among the more important factors responsible for the large output 
of dyes in 1923 may be included (1) the activity of the domestic 
textile and dye-consuming industries, (2) the occupation of the 
Ruhr, which caused a reduction in the output of the German dye 
factories and consequently enabled the domestic producers to in- 
crease their exports to Far East markets, (3) the relatively high 
foreign price levels of dyes compared with those of the pre-war 
period, and (4) the effect of the tariff act of 1922, giving special 
protection to coal-tar products. 

In contrast with other ad valorem rates in that act, the rates under 
paragraphs 27 and 28, on imported coal-tar products competitive- 
with the same or similar domestic products, are assessed on the- 
American selling price of the domestic articles. As against this f 
products noncompetitive with domestic products are assessed on the 
"United States value," being the selling price of the imported dyes 
in the domestic markets. In determining the dutiable value, cer- 



PRODUCTION OF DYES AND COAL-TAR CHEMICALS, 1923 33' 

tain statutory deductions are made from the selling price to cover 
transportation, duty, importer's expenses, and profits. 

Another new feature was the basing of the specific duty on dyes 
upon standards of strength in ordinary commercial use. 

Further price reduction in dyes. — -The average selling price of dyes 
during 1923 was $0,545 per pound, compared with $0.60 in 1922 and 
$1.26 in 1917. The 1923 selling price is a 10 per cent decline from 
that of 1922. 

The average selling price of Indigo, which led in quantity of pro- 
duction, was $0.23 for 1923 as against $0.24 for 1922. The average 
price of Sulphur black for 1923 was $0.20 compared with $0.21 for 
1922. This dye was second in quantity of production. The third 
dye — Direct deep black EW — showed little change; the averager 
price for 1923 was $0,428 compared with $0.42 in 1922. In the case 
of Agalma black 10B, the average price receded from $0.79 in 1922 
to $0.71 in 1923. Reductions were also recorded in the average 
prices of many of the so-called special colors, which do not comprise 
a large proportion of the total output, as is shown in the following 
table. 

Table 9 presents a comparison of the domestic sales prices of 100 
dyes for the years 1917-1923, together with the invoice prices of the 
same dyes imported during the year 1914. The colors for which 
statistics are given in this table represent about 90 per cent of the 
domestic production. It should be noted that the domestic sales 
price is not directly comparable with the invoice prices in 1914, 
Invoice prices do not represent the cost to the consumer, as they do 
not include the importer's profit, or, in most cases, " charges for con- 
tainers and packing, freight, and insurance to seaport, consular 
certification, minor shipping charges at point of departure and at 
seaport." 

The Schultz number as indicated in column 1 is that of "Farb- 
stoff-Tabellen " (Dyestuff Tables), by Gustav Schultz, 1914 edition. 
Column 2 gives the common name of the dye as adopted by the 
Tariff Commission for designating all dyes reported under a given 
Schultz number (column 1). The invoice price (1914), shown in 
column 3, represents the weighted average of all dyes classified 
under a given Schultz number in "Artificial Dyestuffs Used in the 
United States," Department of Commerce, Special Agents Series 
No. 121. This weighted average price for all types is usually higher 
than the invoice price per pound for dyes representing the bulk of 
the importation under a given Schultz number. The individual dyes 
imported under given Schultz numbers in the Norton Census show 
a wide variation in price, frequently amounting to several hundred 
per cent. This is due chiefly to the great divergence in concentration 
of the different dyes and also to the variation in prices of special 
and pure brands, which are more costly than the ordinary brands, 
Column 4 gives the domestic sales price as reported to the Tariff 
Commission, representing the weighted average price of all manu- 
facturers for the dyes reported under a given Schultz number. 
Most of these prices were published in the " Census of Dyes and 
Coal-Tar Chemicals, for the years 1917-1922." 



34 



UNITED STATES TAKIFF COMMISSION 



Table 9. — Domestic sales prices of 100 dyes, 1917-1923, compared with invoice 
values of the same dyes imported, 1914 





Name 


1914 

invoice 

value 

imported 

dyes 

(weighted 

average 

of all 

types) 


Average price per pound 


Schultz 
No. 


1917 


1918 


1919 


1920 


1921 


1922 


1923 


9 


Direct yellow R 


$0. 178 
.162 
.239 
.200 
.136 
.165 
.133 
.148 
.150 
.077 
.154 
.604 
.095 
.159 
.411 
.164 
.176 
.249 
.081 
.256 
.130 
.118 
.198 
.188 
.138 
.127 
.083 
.149 
.156 
.252 
.134 
.165 
.143 
.166 
.110 
.144 
.172 
.186 
.183 
.270 
.179 
.255 
.133 
.041 
.231 
.189 
.362 
.194 
.133 
.209 
.234 
.267 
.222 
.275 
.440 
.144 
.139 
.174 
.230 


$2.55 


$2.61 


$1.74 


$1.49 
1.53 
1.88 
1.86 

.87 

.79 
1.04 
1.22 
1.78 

.63 

.86 
1.51 

.80 

.93 
5.33 
1.64 

.43 
2.08 

.62 
1.55 
1.65 
1.04 
1.43 
2.28 
2.11 
1.26 
1.52 

.81 
1.10 
1.95 
1.29 
2.23 
2.64 
2.26 
1.80 

.87 
1.55 

.84 

.91 
2.81 

.86 
2.97 
2.49 

.88 
1.07 
1.08 
2.59 
1.99 
1.46 
1.67 
2.47 
1.98 
1.88 
2.11 
2.43 
1.03 

.99 
1.51 
1.20 
1.60 
1.58 
1.39 
2.48 
3.32 
4.23 
5.22 
4.67 
2.39 
6.82 
5.20 
5.90 


$1.07 

1.22 

1.60 

1.80 

.77 

.78 

.86 

.96 

1.46 

.53 

.69 

1.25 

.73 

.84 

3.89 

1.20 

1.04 

1.85 

.51 

1.53 

1.25 

.96 

1.26 

1.96 

3.23 

.99 

1.63 

.98 

.75 

1.67 

1.09 

1.56 

1.41 

1.74 

1.48 

.94 

1.25 

.78 

.85 

2.03 

.89 

2.17 

1.48 

.69 

.86 

.99 

2.09 

1.65 

1.20 

1.03 

2.33 

1.53 

1.67 

1.90 

1.39 

.79 

.71 

1.21 

1.03 

1.15 

1.45 

1.06 

2.02 

1.97 

3.68 

3.94 

3.28 

1.66 

2.91 

3.64 

3.42 


$0.88 

1.32 

1.08 
.63 
.63 

' .77 
.58 
.83 
.50 
.61 
.66 
.61 
.75 

3.01 
.92 

1.03 

1.30 
.38 

1.34 


$0.81 


10 


Stilbene yellow 


1.00 


11 


Chloramine orange G 


3.32 
1.50 
1.09 
1.22 
1.13 
1.25 
3.04 
.59 
.83 

1.15 
1.46 

2.24 
1.32 
2.04 
.98 
1.90 


2.86 
1.91 
.77 
1.22 
.89 
.92 
1.16 
.68 
.91 
.88 
.79 
1.02 
5.50 
1.61 
.85 
2.02 
.68 
2.00 


1.99 
2.04 
1.04 
1.12 
.88 
1.04 
.97 
.72 
.84 
.81 
.80 
.91 
5.15 
1.65 

1.95 
.63 
1.68 


1.22 


23 


Tartrazine 


.87 


33 


Chrysoidine Y 


58 


34 


Chrysoidine R 


.57 


37 


Croceine orange 


.58 


38 


Orange G 


.59 


42 


Amido naphthol red G 


.71 


48 


Alizarin yellow G 


.52 


58 


Alizarin yellow R 


.61 


66 


Amido naphthol red 6 B 


.78 


82 


Ponceau 2 R 


.58 


112 


Bordeaux B 


.73 


119 


Diamine rose 


2.46 


134 


Metanil yellow. ,1 


.80 


137 


Acid yellow G.. 


.87 


141 


Azo yellow 


1.06 


145 


Orange II 


.37 


154 


Palatine chrome brown... 


1.09 


157 


Diamond black P. V 




161 


Fast red A. 


1.19 
2.71 
2.25 
1.31 
1.44 
1.25 
.74 
2.92 
2.25 
1.08 
1.35 
2.50 
2.25 
2.25 
1.89 
2.50 
1.17 
1.48 
12.64 
2.47 


1.03 
1.51 
1.25 

.88 
1.16 
2.38 
1.35 
1.62 
2.25 
1.26 
1.92 
2.10 
2.25 
2.10 

.84 
1.40 

.81 

.97 
5.71 
2.01 


1.05 
1.43 
2.20 
2.98 
1.32 

.39 
1.89 
1.25 
2.02 
1.47 
2.41 
2.67 
2.21 
1.91 
1.01 
1.48 
1.01 
1.04 
2.53 
1.12 
3.32 
2.72 
1.00 

.88 
1.36 
2.72 
2.20 
1.80 
1.69 
2.07 
3.18 
2.40 
3.08 
1.97 
1.04 
1.04 
1.85 
2.14 
1.65 
1.83 
1.23 
3.08 
3.26 
4.66 
5.12 
4.57 
2.44 
4.86 
4.93 
6.35 


.83 
.92 
1.50 
.86 
.76 
1.25 
.76 
.55 
.91 
.79 
1.09 
1.02 
1.21 
1.14 
.66 
.94 
.66 
.63 
1.70 
.65 
1.44 
.91 
.48 
.89 
.93 
1.39 
1.10 
.90 
.78 
1.64 
1.28 
1.45 
1.52 
1.22 
.42 
.61 
.92 
.98 
.73 
.88 
.93 
1.66 
1.22 


.78 


163 


Azo rubine 


.85 


164 


Fast red V. R 


1.27 


168 


Amaranth. 


.71 


169 


Cochineal red 


.73 


173 


Lithol red R... 


1.15 


177 


Mordant yellow 


.65 


181 


Salicine black U 


.53 


188 


Sulphon acid blue R 


.85 


217 


Agalma black 10 B._ 


.71 


227 


Brilliant croceine 




236 


Wool red B... 


1.16 


257 


Sulphon cyanine G 


.91 


265 


Sulphon cyanine black 




266 


Naphthylamine black D 


.86 


275 


Diamond black 


.87 


283 


Bismark brown 


.60 


284 


Bismark brown 2 R 


.58 


304 


Chrysophenine G 


1.03 


307 


Congo red 


.59 


327 


Diamine violet N 


1.39 


333 


Oxamine black B H N 


2.50 
2.00 
2.00 
1.97 


3.25 
1.37 
1.56 
1.53 


.73 


337 


Benzo blue 2 B .. 


.41 


340 


Benzo orange R 


.80 


342 


Chrysamine G 


1.15 


343 


Diamine fast red F 


1.20 


344 


Diamine brown 


2.82 
2.32 


2.60 
2.46 
2.23 
4.73 
3.00 


.95 


363 


Benzo purpurine 4B 


.89 


391 


Benzo blue 3 B 


.54 


405 
410 


Benzo purpurine 10 B 

Benzazurine G ' 


1.67 


419 


Chicago blue R W 


1.51 


424 


Chicago blue 6 B. 






1.40 


426 


Benzamine pure blue. 


5.00 

.75 


4.40 
.85 


.97 


462 


Direct deep black E W_ 


.43 


463 




.52 


474 


Oxamine green B... 


2.30 
2.16 
1.80 
2.00 
1.80 
3.08 
6.28 

8.50 
9.10 
3.84 
4.85 
8.50 
4.71 
10.78 
11.91 


2.20 
2.09 
1.70 
2.25 
1.50 
3.76 
5.60 
5.63 
8.10 
7.72 
2.78 
5.56 
7.00 
8.33 
8.68 
8.46 


.82 


475 


Oxamine green G 


.83 


476 




.64 


477 


Congo brown G 


.194 
.170 
.240 
.241 
.221 
.255 
.294 
.248 
.368 
.281 
.409 
.305 
.312 


.94 


485 


Benzo brown G 


.78 


493 


Auramine.. 


1.72 


495 


Malachite green 


1.60 


499 






502 


Guinea green 


1.77 
2.26 
1.29 
4.56 
1.86 
2.42 


1.72 


512 


Magenta 


2.08 


515 


Methyl violet 


1.25 


521 


Aniline blue 




530 


Acid violet 


1.86 


536 


Alkali blue 


2.39 


543 






559 


Victoria blue B 


3.65 


5.14 


3.86 







PRODUCTION OF DYES AND COAL-TAR CHEMICALS, 1923 



35 



Table 9. — Domestic sales prices of 100 dyes, 1917-1928, compared with invoice 
values of the same dyes imported, 1914 — Continued 



Schultz 
No. 



Name 



1914 

invoice 

value 

imported 

dyes 

(weighted 

average 

of all 

types) 



Average price per pound 



1920 



1921 



1922 



1923 



566 
573 
587 
606 
616 
617 
626 
659 
679 
697 



700 



725 

739 

763 I 

778 

779 ' 

782 

842 

849 

874 

877 



Wool green S— .. 

Rhodamine B 

Eosine 

Phosphine ._ 

Primuline 

Columbia yellow 

Gallocyanine 

Methylene blue 

Safranine 

Induline (spirit-soluble) 

Nigrosine (spirit-soluble) .. . 

Induline (water-soluble) 

Nigrosine (water-soluble) ... 

Sulphur yellow 

Sulphur black 

Sulphur blue 

Sulphur brown 

Sulphur tan 

Sulphur maroon 

Indanthrene dark blue B O. 

Alizarin.. 

Alizarin orange 

Alizarin brown 

Indanthrene blue G C D... 

Indanthrene yellow 

Indigo synthetic 

Indigo extract 



$0. 353 
.415 
.418 
.352 
.144 
.136 
.347 
.390 
.359 
.198 
.126 
.258 
.149 



100 



107 



.186 
.227 
.100 
.224 
.290 
.354 
.334 
.128 
.340 



10.00 
8.58 
6.00 
4.43 
3.00 
5.96 
3.09 
5.93 
5.41 
1.11 
1.51 
.80 
.99 
.60 
1.63 
.55 
.90 



$15. 92 
7.81 
6.00 
3.04 
3.56 
5.12 
2.80 
5.85 
1.46 
.71 
.70 
.63 
1.09 
.29 
1.45 
.48 
.65 



3.38 



1.95 

"Via 



1.42 
.38 



.62 



$5.95 
6.90 
6.30 
3.86 
1.71 
2.66 
3.03 
3.03 
4.02 
.53 
.71 
.67 
.59 
.83 
.37 
1. 11 
.47 
.34 
1.23 



1.58 
1.45 
1.58 
6.96 
17.62 
.59 
.64 



$4.99 

6.72 

4.19 

4.17 

1.59 

2.36 

3.06 

2.94 

3.88 

1.21 

.88 

1.03 

.72 

.71 

.25 

.98 

.35 

.47 

1.62 

2.12 

1.45 

1.46 

1.68 

2.40 

4.68 

.74 

1.00 



$1.88 



2.51 
3.70 
1.37 
1.59 
2.44 
1.94 
2.60 
.75 
.70 
.96 
.68 
.73 
.23 
.64 
.38 
.59 
.95 
2.31 
.65 



1.32 
2.41 
3.76 
.45 
.65 



$1. 10 $0. 83 



1.90 
2.05 
1.07 
1.29 
1.92 
1.40 
1.69 
.94 
.54 
.82 
.53 
.78 
.21 
.60 
.40 
.56 
.79 
1.65 



1.84 
1.93 
.70 
1.17 
1.93 
1.47 
1.45 
.93 
.52 
.83 
.46 
.73 
.20 
.50 
.39 



2.00 

.55 



1.24 
1.63 
1.24 
.23 
.58 



Relation of production to consumption. — Imports of synthetic dyes 
in 1923 were 3,098,193 pounds, 1 valued at $3,151,363. Production 
in that year amounted to 93,667,524 pounds, valued at $51,517,138. 
Imports were accordingly 3.3 per cent of the total output by quan- 
tity and 6.2 per cent by value. As the cost of the imported dyes to 
the consumer is greater than the invoice value, the true ratio of sales 
value of imports to the value of production is greater than the esti- 
mate of 6.2 per cent given. 

The domestic exports of "color lakes and other colors, dyes, and 
stains" derived from coal tar for 1923 were 17,924,200 pounds, val- 
ued at $5,565,267. The domestic consumption of dyes is assumed 
to equal domestic production plus imports minus exports, or 78,- 
841,517 pounds per year. This does not, however, take into con- 
sideration any stocks carried over. Imports constituted by quantity 
3.9 per cent of the apparent consumption, and dyes produced in this 
coimtry supplied the remaining 96.1 per cent. In 1914 imports were 
about nine-tenths of the domestic consumption. 

Effect of the Ruhr occupation on domestic exports. — The general 
effect of the occupation of the Ruhr by the French, together with 
the export restrictions, the conflict between the French and German 
authorities, difficulties of transportation, and other conditions, resulted 

i This total poundage is in excess of the quantity actually imported, most of the vat dyes having been 
reduced to a single-strength basis in order to facilitate comparison of imports and production of vat dyes 
on a uniform-strength basis. 



36 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 




PRODUCTION OF DYES AND COAL-TAR CHEMICALS, 1923 37 

in a large decrease in the total production of dyes in Germany, 
which amounted in 1923 to 25 per cent less than for the previous year. 
The occupation of the Ruhr had little effect on the supply of dyes for 
the domestic textile and other industries, as over nine-tenths of the 
domestic consumption is manufactured in this country. 

The reduced production in Germany materially curtailed exports 
from that country, and important consuming countries in Far East 
markets, such as China, looked to the United States to supply a part 
of their requirements. As a result exports from the United States 
during 1923 were about double in quantity those of 1922 and they 
increased in value from S3, 996,443 to $5,565,267. During the latter 
part of 1923 the output of dyes by Germany steadily increased, and 
the economic effect of the occupation of the Ruhr was being grad- 
ually overcome. Early in 1924 German dyes were again offering 
sharp competition to both domestic and British dyes in the markets 
of the Far East. 

Continued production of new dyes. — An examination of the dyes for 
which production was recorded in 1923 shows the addition of nearly 
100 new dyes to the United States manufacturing program. These 
were not restricted to any one class either by chemical derivation 
or by application on the fiber; they include dyes for silks, cotton, 
wool, color lakes, and for other purposes. The additions are almost 
entirely dyes of the special types consumed in relatively small quan- 
tities and are mostly colors of great complexity and difficult to manu- 
facture, representing a creditable advance in the industry. The 
industry is still deficient to some extent in the production of certain 
vat dyes and certain other products, as shown by the analysis of 
imports, Table 15. 

Reduction in duty. — Under the provisions of the tariff act of 1922 
the ad valorem rates on the coal-tar products covered by paragraphs 
27 and 28 will be reduced 15 per cent on September 22, 1924. The 
ad valorem rate on dyes and other finished products, paragraph 28, 
will be reduced from 60 per cent to 45 per cent, and that on inter- 
mediates, paragraph 27, from 55 per cent to 40 per cent. The spe- 
cific duty will remain at 7 cents per pound. 

In considering the effect of this reduction it should be borne in 
mind that the specific duty is more effective on the lower-priced 
dyes, while the ad valorem rate is more effective on the higher-priced 
products; the reduction in the ad valorem rate will therefore more 
directly affect the higher-priced dyes. The reduction will probably 
not greatly affect the larger tonnage of color produced in the United 
States, nor is it probable that it will seriously restrict the develop- 
ment of the dye industry, as the 15 per cent reduction is a minor 
factor when compared with the protection afforded by other provi- 
sions of the act. 

The following table shows the actual and the equivalent ad valorem 
duty on seven groups of dyes ranging from $0.25 to $3 per pound 
under the tariff act of 1922, both for competitive and noncompeti- 
tive products. The duties resulting from the 60 per cent ad valorem 
rate (September 22, 1922, to September 22, 1924) and the 45 per 
cent ad valorem rate (beginning September 22, 1924) are separately 
tabulated. 



38 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION' 



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PRODUCTION OF DYES AND COAL-TAR CHEMICALS, 1923 



39 



PRODUCTION OF DYES BY CLASSES 

The dyes produced in the United States in 1923 are classified 
according to method of application as follows: (1) Acid dyes, (2) 
basic dyes, (3) direct dyes, (4) lake and spirit-soluble dyes, (5) mor- 
dant or chrome dyes, (6) sulphur dyes, (7) vat dyes, subdivided into 
indigo and other vats, and (8) unclassified dyes. While in certain 
cases the classification of a color is arbitrary, because a dye may have 
properties which permit of its application by more than one method, 
it is believed that the above classifications facilitate the comparison 
of production and import figures. 

The production of dyes in the United States from 1917 to 1923, 
inclusive, as compared with imports during the fiscal year 1914 and 
the calendar years 1920 to 1923, inclusive, are arranged according to 
the classes given in Table 10. 

Table 10. — Comparison of imports of dyes, by classes, fiscal year 1914, with 
domestic production, calendar years 1917-1923 



Class 



1914 



Imports 



Per cent 
of total 



1917 



United ( 
States 
production 



Per cent 
of total 



1918 



United 

States 

production 



Per cent 
of total 



Acid 

Basic 

Direct 

Lake and spirit-soluble 
Mordant and chrome.. 

Sulphur 

Vats (including indigo) 

(o) Indigo 

(6) Other vats 

Unclassified 

Total 



Pounds 
9, 286, 501 
3, 002, 480 

10, 264, 757 
1, 512, 605 
4, 450, 442 
7, 053, 879 

10, 352, 663 

8, 407, 359 

1, 945, 304 

27,568 



45, 950, 895 



20.2 

6.5 

22.3 

3.3 

9.7 

15.4 

22.5 

18.3 

4.2 

.1 



Pounds 

9, 372, 121 

2, 073, 043 

11, 181, 761 

934, 360 

4, 164, 902 

15, 588, 222 

289, 296 

274, 771 

14, 525 

2, 368, 541 



100.0 45,977,246 



20.4 

4.5 

24.3 

2.2 

9.1 

33.9 

.6 

.55 

.05 

5.0 



Pounds 
9, 799, 071 

2, 879, 639 
12, 285, 683 

1, 068, 466 

5, 447, 192 

23, 698, 826 

3, 281, 337 
3, 083, 888 

197, 449 
4,232 



16.8 
4.9" 

21.1 
1.8 
9.3 

40.5 
5.6 
5.3 
.3 



100.0 j 58,464,446 



100.0. 



Class 



1919 



United 

States 

production 



Per cent 
of total 



1920 



United 

States 

production 



Per cent 
of total 



**«* i^f 



Acid .- 

Basic 

Direct 

Lake and spirit-soluble 
Mordant and chrome.. 

Sulphur.. 

Vats (including indigo) 

(a) Indigo .. 

(b) Other vats 

Unclassified 

Total 



Pounds 

12, 195, 968 

4, 036, 532 

14, 444, 934 

1,813,199 

3, 985, 050 

17, 624, 418 

9, 252, 982 

8, 863, 824 

389, 158 

49, 111 



19.2 

6.4 
22.8 

2.8 I 

6.3 

27.8 

14.6 

14.0 

.6 

.1 



Pounds 
17, 741, 538 

4, 993, 001 
19, 882, 631 

2, 205, 281 

3, 900, 209 
20, 034, 500 
19, 338, 099 
18, 178, 231 

1, 159, 868 
168, 517 



20.1 

5.7 

22.5 

2.5 

4.4 

22.7 

21.9 

20.6 

1.3 

.2 



Pounds 
733, 405 
192, 163 
571, 581 

17, 527 
709, 482 
229,140 
932, 464 
171, 101 
761, 363 

16,820 



21.5 
5.7 

16.8 
.5- 

20.9 
6.7 

27.4 
5. a 

22.4 
.5 



63, 402, 194 



100.0 I 88,263,776 



100.0 



3,402.582 



100.0. 



40 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 



Table 10. — Comparison of imports of dyes, by classes, fiscal year 1914, with 
domestic production, calendar years 1917-1923 — Continued. 



Class 



Acid... 

Basic 

Direct 

Lake and spirit-solu- 
ble 

Mordant and chrome 

Sulphur 

Vats (including indi- 
go) 

(a) Indigo 

(ft) Other vats.. 
Unclassifled 

Total 



1921 



United 

States 

production 



Pounds 
7, 843, 009 
1, 853, 094 
7, 053, 761 

720, 406 
3, 997, 442 
10, 239, 255 

7, 019, 120 

6, 673, 968 

345, 152 

282, 603 



39, 008, 690 



Per 

cent of 
total 



20.11 
4.75 
18.08 

1.85 
10.25 
26.25 

17.99 
17.11 



100.00 



Imports 



Pounds 
1, 455, 823 
163, 527 
537, 664 

43, 553 
695, 961 
220, 938 

1,116,345 
70, 975 

1, 045, 370 
19, 100 



4, 252, 911 



Per 

cent of 
total 



34.24 
3.84 

12.64 

1.02 
16.36 
5.20 

26.25 
1.66 

24.59 
.45 



100.00 



1922 



United 

States 

production 



Pounds 
9, 880, 014 

2, 937, 585 
11,931,737 

1,009,512 

3, 749, 701 
16, 913, 767 

16, 926, 744 

15, 850, 752 

1, 075, 992 

1. 283, 127 



64, 632, 187 



Per 

cent of 

total 



15.29 
4.54 
18.46 

1.56 

5.80 

26.17 

26.19 

24.52 

1.67 

1.99 



100.00 



Per 

Imports ! cent of 
total 



Pounds 
601, 395 
155, 084 
671, 621 

76, 853 
716, 790 
194, 883 

1, 549, 024 

505 

1,548,519 

16, 981 



15.10 
3.89 
16.86 

1.93 

18.00 
4.89 

38.90 
.01 

38.89 
.43 



3, 982, 631 



100.00 



Class 



1923 



United 
States pro- 
duction 



Per cent 
of total 



Imports 



Per cent 
of total 



Acid 

Basic 

Direct 

Lake and spirit-soluble. 
Mordant and chrome.. 
Sulphur 

Vats (including indigo) 

(o) Indigo 

(6) Other vats 

Unclassified and special 

Total 



13.34 

4.44 

18.00 

1.25 

4.35 

23.02 

32.15 

30.26 

1.89 

3.45 



544, 048 
210, 896 
527, 014 
23, 213 
453, 415 
114,023 
1, 207, 554 



17.56 
6.81 

17.01 
.75 

14.63 
3.68 

38.98 



1, 207, 554 
18, 030 



93, 667, 524 



100.00 



3, 098, 193 



Table 10a. — Production of dyes, by groups, according to unit value 





1923 


1922 


1921 


Group 


Pounds 


Per cent 
of total 


Pounds 


Per cent 
of total 


Pounds 


Per cent 
of total 


0-25 cents 


44, 651, 483 
15,205,298 
12, 717, 546 
8, 604, 351 
8, 207, 420 
2, 318, 343 
1, 244, 493 
718, 590 


47. 670 
16. 234 
13. 577 
9.186 
8.762 
2.475 
1.329 
.767 


28, 728, 401 
10, 237, 825 
8, 418, 271 
6, 992, 018 
6, 833, 577 
2, 010, 413 
838, 849 
572, 833 


44.449 
15. 840 
13.025 
10. 818 
10. 573 
3.111 
1.298 
.886 


7, 832, 696 
7, 941, 977 
6, 843, 004 
4, 762, 791 
6, 329, 421 
3, 321, 581 
1, 220, 966 
756, 254 


20. 079 


26-50 cents 


20.360 


51-75 cents .'. 


17. 542 


$0.76-$l 


12. 209 


$1.01-$1.50 


16. 226 


$1.51-$2 


8.515 


$2.01-$3. 


3.130 


Over $3 


1.939 






Total.. 


93, 667, 524 


100.00 


64, 632, 187 


100. 00 


39, 008, 690 


100.00 







Acid Dyes 

Description. — The acid dyes are commonly applied in an acid bath; 
they have acid properties and are usually sodium salts of a color acid. 
They constitute the most important group used in wool dyeing, being 
especially adapted to the dyeing of hosiery and carpet yarns, suitings, 
.dress goods, and hat materials; they have, in addition, considerable 



PRODUCTION" OF DYES AND COAL-TAR CHEMICALS, 1923 



41 



90 



TOTAL OF ALL DYES 



75 



60 




IN MILLIONS OF 
POUNDS 

V^IM PORTS 191 k 

FISCAL YEAR 



1 PRODUCTION 



19/7-23 CALENDAR YRS 

MM IMPORTS I9Z0Z3 
CALENDAR YEARS. 



i * 5 2 a « a 

Q\ CD C\ CT> O C» O 






O — CM 

N C4 (VI 

0> 0> 0> 



NO 
(M 

cr> 



1760— 24t- 



42 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 



PRODUCTION a IMPORTS OF DYES BY CUSSES. 



VZZZl IMPORTS I9I4- FISCAL YEAR. 



PRODUCTION 1317-23 CA $iZ%? 



MB IMPORTS 1920-23 CALENDAR YEARS. 

MILLIONS OF POUNDS 5 IO 15 



1916 
191 9 
1920 
192-1 
1922 
1923 
I 'JZO 
1921 
19 22 
I 923 



-OZZ&ZZZZZSZ&ZZZSZ&ZZZZE L 



\ ACID 



F 



19: i4 
1917 
1916 
1919 
19 20 
1921 
1922 
1323 
1920 
1921 
1922 
I92J 



V////////A 



BASIC 



192,163 
I63.SZ7 
135,084 

ZIO.S56 



I9lt 
1917 
1916 
1919 
19 20 
1921 
1922 
1923 
1920 
1921 
1922 
1923 



sz^ggsgzggggggggi . DIRECT 



r 



I9IH 
1917 
19 I S 
1913 
1920 
1911 
1321 
1923 
19 20 
19 21 



LAKE & SPIRIT SOLUBLE 



e 



17,327 ) 
*3,553 I 
76,8*3 I 
23,2/J / 



tHM \ IMPORTS 



\9lt 

19 17 
19 IS 
19 19 
19 20 
1921 
1922 
1923 
13 20 
19 21 
19 22 
19 23 



w,M,„//„A | mordant a chrome: 



ZZZZZZZSZZZZZZZZZttl 



nSULPHUR 



izo.Jja / la ,L.. 
uu.oza ) 



I9lt 
1917 
I9IB 
19 13 
19 20 
19 21 
1922 
1923 
l»20 
1921 
19 22 
1923 



VZZZZZZESZZZZZZZZZZZZZZm 



VATS (lNDI6o) 



IMPORT! 




'/////A I 

/«,5*5 PRODUCTION 



VATS (OTHER) 



PRODUCTION OF DYES AND COAL-TAR CHEMICALS, 1923 43 

application on silk. They are little used on cotton or linen because 
of their lack of affinity for vegetable fibers, but are of value in the 
dyeing of jute. In general they are used on goods not requiring 
repeated washings. 

Acid dyes yield clear, bright shades. They are superior to the 
direct and mordant dyes in purity of shade, but are not equal to 
basic dyes in this respect. They have a wide color range, and in 
fastness they show great individual variation; as a rule they are 
fairly fast to light and acids, and have a tendency to bleed in washing. 
They yield faster shades on wool than on silk. Some of the more 
complex acid dyes produce shades of good general fastness. A con- 
siderable part of this group is of the lowest-priced dyes produced. 
Their method of application in an acid bath is simple and of low 
labor cost. 

The line of demarcation between acid dyes and certain colors of the 
direct and mordant groups is arbitrary. Certain acid dyes when 
r af tertreated " with sodium or potassium dichromate yield shades of 
good fastness to milling, light, washing, and other agents. These 
dyes, known as acid chrome colors, are used chiefly on wool, especially 
on loose wool yarns and piece goods, such as men's suitings. Most 
of the acid dyes are chemically included in one of the following 
groups: (1) Nitro compounds, (2) azo compounds, (3) sulphonated 
basic dyes (mostly triphenylmethane derivatives). 

Production and imports. — Acid dyes ranked fourth in 1923 in order 
of quantity produced, with a total of 12,498,817 pounds, or 13.34 per 
cent of all dyes manufactured. Imports of this group amounted to 
544,048 pounds, or 17.56 per cent of the total imoprts and 0.6 per cent 
of the total production. In the pre-war year 1914 they amounted to 
9,286,501 pounds, or one-fifth of the total imports of that year. 

Agalma black 10B was first in quantity of production of the acid 
dyes, with a total of 2,568,458 pounds. This dye ranked fourth of all 
dyes manufactured during that year. Sales amounted to 2,377,290 
pounds, with a value of $1,694,148. Orange II ranked second in 
this group in quantity of production, with a total of 1,617,668 
pounds, followed by Nigrosine (Water soluble), with a total of 1,389,- 
106 pounds, by Tartrazine with a total of 735,608 pounds, and by 
Azo rubine with an output of 526,596 pounds. Among the new acid 
dyes reported during 1923 are Naphthalene green V, Eosine BN, 
and Azo acid violet. Notable increases were reported in the output 
of Sulphon acid blue R, Eriocyanine, and Fast light yellow. 

The eight leading acid dyes imported in 1923 were Patent blue, 
66,279 pounds; Alizarin rubinol 3G, 5G, GW, R, 48,826 pounds; 
Xylene light yellow, 46,886 pounds; Erioglaucine, 38,254 pounds; 
Palatine black, 33,500 pounds; Cyanol, 19,979 pounds; Eriocyanine 
19,202 pounds; and Fast green, 17,190 pounds. 

Basic Dyes 

Description. — The basic dyes surpass all others in depth, brilliancy 
of shade, and purity of tone. They possess high tinctorial power, but 
as a class lack fastness, especially to fight and washing. 

Basic colors are used on cotton in dyeing and printing where 
bright shades or color tints are desired without special requirements 



44 UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 

for fastness. They are also employed in the dyeing of paper and 
jute and for lithographic inks, typewriter ribbons, copy paper, and 
pencils. With the exception of Rhodamine B and a few others they 
have little application on wool. Dyes of this class are chemically 
basic in character and are fixed on vegetable fibers with an acid 
mordant, namely, tannic acid. 

They are historically the oldest of the coal-tar dyes. Mauve 
or Perkin violet, discovered by W. H. Perkin in 1856, was the first 
aniline dyestuff produced on a commercial scale. Basic dyes are not 
as important as formerly; for cotton dyeing they have been super- 
seded by direct and sulphur dyes, which possess advantages in econ- 
omy of application and in many cases excel in fastness. In wool 
dyeing the acid dyes have almost entirely displaced the basic colors. 
Chemically the basic dyes include a large number of the triphenyl- 
methane derivatives and, in addition, members of the following 
classes: (1) Azines, (2) azos, (3) thioazines, (4) thioazols, and (5) 
acridines. 

Production and imports. — Basic dyes in 1923 ranked fifth in quan- 
tity of production, with an output of 4,157,373 pounds, or 4.44 per 
cent of the total. Imports in that year amounted to 210,896 pounds, 
or one-fourth of 1 per cent of production. The production of this 
group of dyes is well developed in this country. Bismarck brown 
2R leads this group, with an output of 672,544 pounds, followed by 
Methyl violet, with an output of 578,183 pounds, and Chrysoidine 
Y, with an output of 545,836 pounds. The output of Auramine, 
471,359 pounds, showed a conspicuous increase over that of 1922, 
when the production was only 344,827 pounds. Large increases in 
the production of Phosphine and Rhodamine B constitute the out- 
standing development in the production of this group of dyes during- 
1923. 

The five leading basic dyes (by quantity) imported in 1923 were 
Phosphine, 42,176 pounds; Rhodamine 6G, 31,242 pounds; Rhoda- 
mine B, 29,083 pounds; Thioflavine T, 20,283 pounds; and Euchry- 
sine, 9,483 pounds. 

Direct Cotton Dyes 

Description. — The direct or substantive dyes have been introduced 
within the past 25 years. Their method of application is simple, as 
they dye vegetable fibers full shades in a neutral or alkaline bath, 
"directly," without the use of mordants. Although their principal 
application is on cotton, they are of special value in dyeing fabrics 
containing both cotton and wool, or silk and cotton (union goods). 
They are also used on linen, silk, and paper and to an increasing 
extent on wool, especially for knitting yarns, worsted and shoddy 
yarns, and loose wool. 

In fastness, individual dyes of this group show a wide variation. 
On account of their high solubility they have a tendency to run 
when washed. Many direct dyes, particularly those first introduced, 
are sensitive to acids and fade on exposure to sunlight; others, espe- 
cially the newer direct dyes, have good fastness to both acids and light 
as well as to other agents. Certain direct colors are of good fastness, 
particularly to washing, after a treatment of the dyed fiber by u coup- 
lino:" with certain intermediates. An aftertreatment with metallic 



PRODUCTION OF DYES AND COAL-TAR CHEMICALS, 1923 45 

salts or formaldelryde also improves the fastness of certain direct 
dyes. These " developed" direct dyes were not available in the early 
part of the war; the ordinary direct dyes then used for hosiery were 
unsatisfactory to consumers. Developed blacks, such as Zambesi 
black V, are now manufactured in this country for hosiery. 

With a few exceptions the direct dyes are chemically "azo" com- 
pounds and are nearly all derivatives of benzidine, tolidine, diamino 
stilbene, or a group closely approximating one of these. A small but 
valuable group of direct colors belongs in the thiazol class. 

Production and imports. — The direct cotton dyes, with a production 
of 16,858,387 pounds, ranked third in quantity of production, com- 
prising 18 per cent of all dyes produced. Imports of this group in 
1923 were 527,014 pounds, which may be contrasted with 10,264,757 
pounds in 1914. The first direct cotton dye by quantity of produc- 
tion was Direct black EW, with an output of 6,957,581 pounds. This 
ranked third, or 7.4 per cent, of all dyes produced in that year. 
Sales of this color in 1923 were 6,720,905 pounds, with a value of 
$2,875,928. 

Benzo blue 2B ranked second in this group, with an output of 
1,065,539 pounds, followed by Benzamine brown 3GO, with a pro- 
duction of 999,554 pounds, and Oxamine black BHN, with a total of 
905,491 pounds. Congo red ranked fifth, with a production of 
590,548 pounds. 

One of the more important developments in the production of this 
group of dyes consists in the continued addition to the range of 
" developed" direct dyes capable of producing shades of good fast- 
ness on cotton and silk. Production of Zambesi blacks recorded a 
notable increase, and among the new direct colors are Erica B, Terra 
cotta F, Neutral gray B, Diaminogene B, Congo rubine, Benzo fast 
red, Chicago blue 2R, Diazo indigo blue M, and Direct black V. 

The eight leading direct dyes, by quantity, imported in 1923, were 
Diaminogene blue, 88,778 pounds; Diaminogene B, 32,903 pounds; 
Trisulphon brown B, 26,980 pounds; Diphenyl red, 21,160 pounds; 
Diamine fast orange EG, ER, R, 17,793 pounds; Diphenyl brown BN, 
17,534 pounds; Benzo fast blue, 17,036 pounds; and Trisulphon 
brown GG, 16,150 pounds. 

Mordant and Chrome Dyes 

Description. — These colors, in conjunction with metallic mordants, 
such as salts of chromium, aluminum, iron, and tin, dye both vege- 
table and animal fibers. The resulting shades are, in general, of 
exceptional fastness to color-destroying agents. The mordant dyes 
yield on wool the fastest shades to light, washing, and other agents. 
They are also important in textile printing, particularly on cotton 
piece goods, but are little used on silk. 

The mordant dyes are frequently designated as chrome colors. As 
many of these colors are derived from alizarin, they were formerly 
called alizarin dyes. Certain dyes may be acid, acid chrome, or 
chrome, according to the method of application. The true alizarins 
are generally used with a mordant; some of the new alizarins, known 
as acid alizarins, can be used either with or without. In the applica- 
tion of chrome dyes on wool, the mordant may be applied before, 
during, or after tne dyeing operation. The labor cost of dyeing with 
mordant and chrome dyes is higher than for other groups. 



46 UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 

The most important dye of this class, alizarin, is used in the produc- 
tion of the well-known Turkey red on cotton. This is one of the 
shades produced in ancient times from madder root. Alizarin has 
been prepared synthetically from anthracene for about 50 years. 

Chemically, the mordant dyes are members of the following 
classes: (1) Anthracene, (2) azo, (3) oxazine, (4) triphenylmethane, 
(5) nitroso, (6) oxyquinone, and (7) xanthone. 

Production and imports. — The output of mordant and chrome dyes 
was 4,078,504 pounds, or 4.35 per cent of all dyes manufactured in 
1923. Imports of this class in that year were 453,415 pounds, or one- 
half of 1 per cent of production and 14.6 per cent of the total import. 
Imports in the pre-war year 1914 amounted to 4,450,442 pounds. 

Salicine black II ranked first in quantity among the mordant and 
chrome dyes, with a production by 14 firms of 1,242,283 pounds and 
sales of 1,290,536 pounds, valued at $686,266. Other leading dyes of 
this group include Alizarin yellow G, with an output of 395,361 
pounds; Alizarin saphirol B, 309,124 pounds; and Metachrome 
brown B, 308,559 pounds. 

The rapid increase in the production of Eriochrome black T and A 
during the last two years is reflected in a decrease in the imports of 
these two dyes. Notable increases were recorded in the output of 
Alizarin brown, Alizarin GI, Palatine chrome red B, and Alizarin. 
Among the new mordant and chrome dyes produced in 1923, not 
reported in 1922, are Anthracene blue, Acid alizarin black R, and 
several unidentified chrome browns. 

The five leading mordant and chrome dyes, by quantity, imported 
in 1923 were Alizarin blue black, 70,917 pounds; Gallamine blue, 
29,244 pounds; Alizarin, 27,716 pounds; Alizarin saphirol B, 26,615 
pounds; and Alizarin red, 25,017 pounds. 

Sulphur Dyes 

Description. — This group of dyes produces heavy deep shades of 
blue, green, brown, and black. They are used almost entirely in 
cotton dyeing, being especially adapted to uniform cloths, hosiery, 
gingham yarns, and cotton warps to be woven with wool and later 
dyed with acid dyes. Their greatly extended use during the war 
served to increase permanently their application in cotton dyeing. 
Sulphur colors are also used in the dyeing of linen and artificial silk. 

The sulphur dyes possess excellent fastness to washing, fulling, 
alkalies, and acids in cross dyeing. With some exceptions, their fast- 
ness to light is good. As they are not fast to chlorine, they do not 
withstand the repeated bleaching action of hypochlorites in the mod- 
ern laundry treatment. They are applied in a sodium sulphide 
solution with, in certain cases, aftertreatment with metallic salts to 
improve their fastness. The first dye discovered in this group, 
" Cachou de Laval," was made in 1867 by the fusion of sawdust 
with sodium sulphide and sulphur. Sulphur dyes are now prepared 
by the fusion of various intermediates (containing the nitro, amino, 
or imino groups) with sodium sulphide and sulphur. These dyes are 
not pure, distinct compounds, and the presence of other substances 
renders them of comparatively low color value. Recent develop- 
ments, however, have greatly increased the tinctorial value and shade 
range of many of them. 



PRODUCTION OF DYES AND COAL-TAR CHEMICALS, 1923 47 

Production and imports.— This group of dyes ranked second in 
quantity of production, with a total of 21,558,469 pounds, equivalent 
to 23.02 per cent of all dyes produced in 1923. The domestic pro- 
duction of sulphur dyes has been well developed both in quantity 
and variety for several years. This is indicated by the relatively 
small quantity of sulphur colors imported, constituting in 1923 only 
one-tenth of 1 per cent of the total production. Sulphur black 
ranked second among all dyes manufactured in 1923, with an output 
of 16,276,409 pounds, or 17.4 per cent of the total. Sales during 
1923 were 15,212,142 pounds, valued at $3,017,207. The production 
of sulphur browns totaled 2,203,893 pounds; of sulphur blues, 
1,349,864 pounds; of sulphur yellow, 670,023 pounds; and of sulphur 
maroon, 373,899 pounds. 

The five leading sulphur dyes imported in 1923 were: 

Pounds 

Thionol brown 28, 802 

Cross dyegreenB 26, 242 

Eclipse brown 10, 000 

Thional brown G 9, 228 

Pyrogene blue 8, 929 

Vat Dyes 

Description. — Because of their exceptional fastness, variety, and 
beauty of shade, vat dyes are of special importance for cotton goods 
where laundry-fast dyes are desired. They are used on both dyed 
and printed shirtings, on blouse material, dress goods, ginghams, 
muslin curtains, and other cotton wash goods, and have a limited 
application on silk and wool. Because of their high cost, they have 
a comparatively limited use in solid or heavy shades, but they are 
used for color stripes or for small printed patterns on a white back- 
ground. They possess technical advantages in application over the 
alizarin mordant dyes. 

Vat dyes as a class possess exceptional fastness to light , washing, 
acids, alkalies, and to chlorine. Some of them are not fast to 
all of these agents. With a gradual increase in demand by the 
ultimate consumer of textiles for fast-dyed fabrics, the consumption 
of vat dyes is increasing. As cotton goods dyed with these colors 
withstand the severe treatment of the modern laundry, the relatively 
high cost of dye per yard is a minor factor compared with the increased 
life of a fabric dyed with fast colors. 

With the exception of indigo, one of the oldest dyes known, vat 
dyes are of recent origin. They are among the most complex of 
dyes, difficult to manufacture, and relatively high in cost. Chemi- 
cally divided, they consist of indigoids (including thioindigoids) , 
anthraquinone derivatives, and the carbazole derivatives. 

Production and imports. — -The production of vat dyes, including 
indigo, again led by quantity, in 1923 totaling 30,1 13,642 pounds 
(32.15 per cent of the total output), compared with 16,926,744 pounds 
for the previous year. 

The indigo Output of 28,347,259 pounds was greater than that of 
any other single dye, comprising 30.26 per cent of the total domestic 
output. This represents a very large increase over the 1922 output 
of 15,850,752 pounds. This increase may be accounted for in large 
part by the exports of this dye' to China, as a result of the reduced 
exports of Germany following the occupation of the Ruhr district. 



48 UNITED STATES TABIFF COMMISSION 

The output of vat dyes (other than indigo) in 1923 was 1,766,383 
pounds — the largest in the history of the domestic industry and an 
increase of 690,391 pounds over that of 1922. 

Among the vat dyes other than indigo, Indanthrene yellow led in 
quantity of production, with an increase in output of 170 per cent 
over that of 1922. Indanthrene blue GCD, second in quantity of 
output, showed an increase over the 1922 production. Among the 
new vat dyes reported as produced during 1923 are, Indanthrene 
violet B, Indanthrene blue 3G, Hydron pink FF, and Indanthrene 
golden orange R. 

In 1914 imports of vat dyes other than indigo were 1,945,304 
pounds, and none of these dyes were produced in this country in that 
year; in 1920, a year of great business activity, domestic production 
plus imports was 1,921,231 pounds. In 1921, a year of business 
reaction, the corresponding total was 1,390,522 pounds, and for 1922, 
2,624,511 pounds, increasing to a maximum of 2,973,937 pounds in 1923. 

The nine leading vat dyes, by quantity, imported in 1923 were: 

Pounds 

Indanthrene yellow (single strength) 87, 946 

Indanthrene golden orange R (single strength) 79, 717 

Indanthrene blue GCD (single strength) 70, 546 

Indanthrene golden orange G (single strength) 67, 265 

Ciba violet B (single strength) 64, 517 

Hydron pink FB, FF (single strength) 55, 428 

Algol brown B (single strength) 55, 081 

Helindone pink B, R, RN (single strength) 47, 771 

Indanthrene green B (single strength) - 40, 420 

Color-lake and Spirit-soluble dyes 

These dyes constitute one of the smaller groups. The color lake 
dyes are used in the preparation of a class of pigments known as 
color lakes, discussed in detail under that heading. 

The spirit-soluble dyes are insoluble in water, but dissolve in 
either oils, fats, or various organic solvents; they consequently find 
application for coloring varnishes (both spirit and oil), fats, oils, 
waxes, and similar products. As many of the spirit-soluble dyes are 
converted by chemical treatment, such as sulphonation, into water- 
soluble dyes for use in textile dyeing, they may be considered as 
partly completed dyes. 

The output of lake and spirit-soluble dyes in 1923 was 1,171,854 
pounds, or 1.25 per cent of the total dye production. Of these, 57 
per cent were lake dyes and 43 per cent spirit-soluble dyes. In 

1922 the output was 1,009,512 pounds. Imports of this group in 

1923 amounted to 23,213 pounds, or 0.75 per cent of the total im- 
ports of coal-tar dyes. 

Food Dyes 

Dyes classified under this group include a limited number of 
selected dyes which meet the specifications of the Bureau of Chem- 
istry, Department of Agriculture. There are also included the 
figures for a highly refined grade of methyl violet, used for marking 
meats and certain other food products. The total production of 
food dyes in 1923 was 230,343 pounds, with sales of 228,686 pounds, 
valued at $860,077. Production in 1922 was 186,600 pounds, and 
in 1921, the first year in which they were separately compiled, 50,709 
pounds. The average value of the sales was $3.76 per pound in 
1923, $3.82 in 1922, and $5.80 in 1921. 



PRODUCTION OF DYES AND COAL-TAR CHEMICALS, 1923 49 

DYES EXPORTED FROM THE UNITED STATES 

Large increase in 1923. — The total exports of "color lakes" and 
" other colors, dyes, and stains" in 1923 amounted to 17,924,200 
pounds, valued at $5,565,267. This is slightly more than double 
the quantity exported in 1922 and a 40 per cent increase by value. 

Prior to 1922 the Department of Commerce reported only the 
value of exports of domestic dyes and dyestuffs, using the following 
groups: (1) Aniline dyes, (2) logwood extracts, (3) all other dyes and 
dyestuffs. The third classification covers both coal-tar dyes and 
natural dyes, other than logwood extract. Since logwood extract is 
by far the most important natural dye exported from the United 
States it is reasonable to assume that a large part of the figures re- 
turned for all other dyes and dyestuffs covers coal-tar dyes. The 
most important natural dye included in Group 3 is derived from 
the bark of the black oak {Q,uercus velutina) in two forms, viz., 
quercitron and flavine. These were exported in considerable 
amounts during the war and in smaller amounts previously. In 
1922 the Department of Commerce adopted a new classification, 
grouping coal-tar dyes under (1) color lakes and (2) other colors, 
dyes, and stains. For the first time the quantity as well as the 
value of the exports was published. Table 11 shows by months the 
total exports of dyes from the United States from 1919 to April, 
1924, inclusive. 

The countries to which dyes are exported are shown in detail in 
Part VI, Appendix. 

The combined value of exports of " aniline dyes" and "all other 
dyes" was $15,728,499 in 1919, compared with $29,823,591 for 1920, 
the highest in the history of the industry. This was during a year 
of world-wide business activity, prior to the reappearance of German 
dyes in international trade. 

Exports of "color lakes" in 1922 were 28,228 pounds, with a value 
of $19,928, and the total exports of "other colors, dyes, and stains" 
were 8,315,959 pounds, with a value of $3,976,515, making a total of 
8,344,187 pounds and a value of $3,996,443. The total export of 
"coal-tar colors, dyes, and stains" for 1923, as reported in the 
Monthly Summary of Foreign Commerce, was 17,924,200 pounds, 
with a value of $5,565,267. No exports of color lakes were reported 
in that year. In January, 1924, exports of "other colors, dyes, and 
stains" were 1,432,721 pounds, valued at $494,666, and for the 
month of February 1,739,400 pounds, valued at $571,776. The large 
increase in exports of dyes in 1923, compared with 1922, was largely 
due to the effect of the occupation of the Ruhr by the French in 1923, 
as a result of which German production was greatly reduced and 
the export trade of that country in dyes and chemicals was severely 
affected. The monthly production of the German dye plants in- 
creased rapidly in the later months of 1923 and in the early 
months of 1924, indicating that interference with Germany's dye pro- 
duction had practically disappeared. In fact, there have been, in 
1924, unceasing efforts by German manufacturers in the Far East 
and other large dye markets to recapture those lost markets by 
the initiation of a price-cutting campaign. 



50 UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 

Table 11. — Domestic exports of dyes, by months, 1919-1924 (Jour months) 



Month 



January 

February.. 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September . 

October 

November . 
December.. 

Total 



1919 



Aniline 
dyes 



$1, 405, 017 

1, 231, 355 

492, 291 

777, 123 

585, 970 

858, 661 

574, 274 

761, 009 

785, 497 

1, 037, 708 

887, 710 

1, 327, 456 



10, 724, 071 



All other 

dyes i 



$755, 382 
617, 050 
278, 591 
359, 512 
239, 744 
475, 571 
267, 425 
350, 491 
557, 005 
453, 390 
300, 041 
350, 226 



5, 004, 428 



Total 



$2, 160, 399 
1, 848, 405 

770, 882 
1, 136, 635 

825, 714 
1, 334, 232 

841, 699 
1,111,500 
1, 342, 502 
1,491,098 J 
1,187,751 
1,677,682 I 



Aniline 
dyes 



$917, 574 
1, 850, 662 
2, 648, 615 

1, 829, 771 
2, 180, 606 

2, 389, 515 
1, 770, 780 
1, 151, 196 
2,114,915 
1, 802, 142 
2, 006, 534 
1, 788, 170 



15, 728, 499 22, 450, 480 



All other 
dyes ' 



' $372, 468 
379, 825 
850, 695 
891, 467 
817,713 

1, 239, 191 
947,411 
623, 181 
551, 113 
334, 167 
211,465 
154, 415 



7, 373, 111 



Total 



$1, 290, 042 
2, 230, 487 
3, 499, 310 
2, 721, 238 

2, 998, 319 

3, 628, 706 
2, 718, 191 

1, 774, 377 

2, 666, 028 
2, 136, 309 
2, 217, 999 
1, 942, 585 



29, 823, 591 



Month 



Aniline 

dyes 



All other 

dyes i 



Total 



January. .. 
February.. 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September. 

October 

November. 
December. 

Total 



$943, 595 
397, 123 
574, 969 
305, 760 
278, 331 
444, 273 
310, 357 
513, 012 
322, 477 
349, 981 
372, 244 
254, 878 



349, 114 

72, 641 
95, 322 
59, 250 
91, 753 
81, 477 
65, 626 
70, 663 
70, 228 

73, 706 
78, 703 
94, 656 



5, 067, 000 



1, 203, 139 



$1, 292, 709 
469, 764 
670, 291 
365, 010 
370, 084 
525, 750 
375, 983 
583, 675 
392, 705 
423, 687 
450, 947 
349, 534 



6, 270, 139 



Month 



January 

February.. 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September. 

October 

November . 
December.. 

Total 



1922 



Color lakes 



Pounds 



5,059 

6,796 

3,612 

8,446 

401 

282 

356 

593 

341 

576 

1,702 



8,228 



Value 



$4,188 

5,124 

3,162 

2,105 

500 

361 

249 

411 

607 

890 

2,228 

103 



19, 928 



Other colors, etc. 



Pounds 



364, 971 

298, 364 

708, 792 

• 581,367 

328, 733 

398, 975 

726, 624 

896, 701 

664, 348 

954, 922 

1,084,890 

1, 307, 272 



Value 



$325, 048 
230, 544 
405, 250 
271, 571 
227, 898 
222, 370 
364, 737 
383, 692 
304, 022 
399, 439 
395, 579 
446, 365 



8, 315, 959 3, 976, 515 



Total 



Pounds 



370, 030 
305, 160 
712, 404 
589, 813 
329, 134 
399, 257 
726, 980 
897, 294 
664, 689 
955, 498 
1, 086, 592 
1, 307, 336 



8, 344, 187 



Value 



$329, 236 
235, 668 
408, 412 
273, 676 
228, 398 
222, 731 
364, 986 
384, 103 
304, 629 
400, 329 
397, 807 
446, 468 



3, 996, 443 



1 Commerce and Navigation reports under domestic exports of "dyes and dyestuffs" — "aniline 
■dyes," "logwood extract," and "all other dyes and dyestuffs." Under this last-named designation may 
be included both natural and coal-tar dyes. However, since logwood extract — shown separately— is the 
most important natural dye exported from the United States, it may be assumed that a considerable 
portion of the exports under "all other dyes and dyestuffs" are coal-tar dyes. 



PBODUCTION OF DYES AND COAL-TAR CHEMICALS, 1923 



51 



Table 11. — Domestic exports of dyes, by months, 1919—1924- {four months'* 

Continued 



Month 



January . 
February 
March. ... 

April 

May 

June 

July 



1923 



Other colors, dyes, and 
stains 



Pounds 



S21, 847 
1, 338, 395 
1, 606, 168 
1, 690, 402 
1, 830, 068 
1, 002, 256 
2,915,531 



Value 



Month 



$332, 008 
443, 505 
513, 129 
498, 421 
539, 358 
383. 321 
778, 168 



August 

September. 
October . . . 
November. 
December . 

Total 



1923 



Other colors, dyes, and 
stains 



Pounds 



1, 008, 878 
1, 514. 228 
1, 543, 869 
1, 390, 927 
1,261,631 



Value 



$388, 815 
402, 751 
474, 215 
433. 892 
377, 684 



17,924,200 5,565,267 





1924 


Month 


1924 


Month 


Other colors, dyes, and 
stains 


Other colors, dyes, and 
stains 




Pounds 


Value 


Pounds 


Value 


January 


1,432,721 ; $494,666 
1, 739, 400 


March J 1,244,264 

April 


$408, 029 
344, 605 


February 















value or domest/c dyes Exported Br months. 




itOO 

tOOO 
'600 

.IOO 
OOC 




i i 








. 




3*00 
MOO 
HOC 

l*cc 
looo 

HOC 

HOC 

Soo 

■300 






warn Aniline Dye 5' 


czn All Other Dyzs' 
















tr 

o 
Q 

s 

is 

i 




















i 




















| 

* 




































- t 
5 






r 












































!fJ-8-ioO- 




ll ■ 




1 












lili 


iiyujii 


llllll 


illlf 


III 


\ 1917 


1918 


1919 


1920 


I9Z\ 


I9ZZ"- 


192} 


I3Z1 


July 1917 To ArniL 1324 Inclusive 









1 The domestic exports of dyes, as shown by the Commerce Department, are divided into 3 groups — 
(1) aniline dyes, (2) logwood extract, and (3) all other dyestufls. 

The third classification may include both natural dyes (other than logwood extracts, shown separately) 
as well as coal-tar dyes. Since logwood extract, however, is the most important natural dye exported from 
the United States, it is reasonable to assume that a considerable portion of "all other dyes and dyestuffs" 
represents coal-tar dyes. 

In 1922, however, the Commerce Department adopted a new classification. Coal-tar dyes were grouped 
under coal-tar finished products and were divided into (1) color lakes and (2) other colors, dyes and 
stains. 



52 united states taeiff commission 

Other Finished Coal-Tar Products 
color lakes 

Description.— A color lake is an insoluble color pigment consisting 
of a precipitating agent, the coloring matter (a coal-tar dye), and a 
carrier (the base). The desired properties of a color lake are good 
coloring power, easy workability, brightness, and fastness to weather, 
light, alkali, and acids. The precipitating agents used for coal-tar 
colors include barium chloride, lead salts, aluminium hydroxide, and 
tannin or tannin tartar-emetic. Among the more important car- 
riers are aluminium hydroxide, zinc white, lithopone, barytes, whit- 
ing, China clay and certain native clays, and ocher. The principal 
requirements of a carrier are (1) ready reduction to a finely divided 
state and (2) absence of any deleterious effect on the shade of the 
finished lake. The coloring matter includes those coal-tar dyes 
known as acid dyes, basic dyes, and mordant dyes, as well as certain 
azo dyes produced directly on the carrier. An example of the latter 
is the preparation of Para red from the intermediates p-nitroaniline 
and b-naphthol. Another group of color lakes is made by the pre- 
cipitation of a water-soluble acid dye, with the aid of the mineral 
salt to form an insoluble product. 

After precipitation the soluble lake is filtered, dried, and ground 
with or without oil; it is then ready for use as a pigment in paints, 
lithographic inks, artists' colors, wall paper, rubber products, and 
for similar coloring purposes. 

Production. — The total production of color lakes in 1923 amounted 
to 13,079,115 pounds, and sales to 12,627,359 pounds valued at 
$5,124,732, with an average value per pound of 40.6 cents. This is 
an increase over 1922, when the output was 10,578,664 pounds. 
Sales in that year amounted to 10,366,676 pounds, valued at $4,551,- 
572, or an average value per pound of 44 cents. 

PHOTOGRAPHIC CHEMICALS 

Owing to their strong reducing properties, coal-tar chemicals of 
this class are used for developing photographic films, plates, and 
prints. They are popularly known as "developers," and are sold 
under various trade names. 

The total output of photographic chemicals in 1923 was 343,289 
pounds, a slight decrease from the 1922 figure of 345,798 pounds. 
Sales for 1923 were 321,083 pounds, valued at $443,697, with an 
average value per pound of $1.38. The quantity of each photo- 
graphic chemical made in 1923 can not be published without dis- 
closing the output of individual manufacturers. The developer pro- 
duced in largest quantity was hydroquinol, followed by p-hydroxy- 
phenylglycine. The 1923 production of the latter shows a large in- 
crease, while that of rnetol (methyl-p-aminophenol sulphate) shows a 
decrease. 

MEDICINALS 

Description. — From the standpoint of national welfare this class of 
coal-tar derivatives is of high importance. Chemically, it includes a 
variety of products used for a diversity of purposes. The develop- 



PRODUCTION" OP DYES AND COAL-TAR CHEMICALS, 1923 53 

ment of medicinals constitutes one of the most creditable accom- 
plishments of the coal-tar industry, as the highest technical skill is 
required in their manufacture. 

Production. — The total production of medicinals in 1923 was 
3,273,085 pounds; sales were 2,995,448 pounds, valued at $4,720,253, 
an average price of SI. 58 per pound. Production in 1922 was 
2,946,347 pounds, with sales of 3,092,915 pounds valued at $4,233,443. 

Arsphenamine, known also as salvarsan and as u 606," the hydro- 
chloride of 3-diamino-4-dihydroxy-l-arsenobenzene, used for com- 
bating syphilis and other protozoan infections, is one of the most 
important medicinals of this group. Its production by 7 manu- 
facturers in 1923 was 616 pounds; sales were 576 pounds, valued at 
$173,381, or $301.01 per pound, as compared with 917 pounds, 
valued at $257,022— $280.28 per pound— in 1922. Neoarsphenamine 
(3-diamino-4-dilwdroxy-l-arsenobenzene methanol sulphoxylate) had 
a total production, by 6 manufacturers, of 3,365 pounds. Total 
sales were 3,035 pounds, valued at $1,029,121, an average price of 
$339.08 per pound. 

Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) led all coal-tar medicioals in quantity 
produced with an output, bv 4 firms, of 1,525,795 pounds, compared 
with 1,482,998 pounds in 1922. Sales in 1923 were 1,337,998 pounds, 
valued at $1,088,977. This shows an increase in the price per pound 
from 74 cents in 1922 to 81.3 cents in 1923. Acetanilide, of which 
564,498 pounds were produced by 4 firms, ranked second in quantity 
manufactured; total sales were 520,390 pounds, valued at $156,111, 
or 30 cents per pound. This shows a large increase in production 
over 1922, when 222,517 pounds were recorded. 

Sodium salicylate, of which 416,382 pounds were produced, ranked 
third, with sales of 410,840 pounds, valued at $165,759. Phenol 
sulphonates (calcium, sodium, zinc, etc.) , with a production of 208,902 
pounds, ranked fifth. Other medicinals showing a relatively large 
production were phenolphthalein, salol, acetphenetidin, chloramine 
T, and cincophen. 

Some of the medicinals reported in 1923 but not in 1922 are: 
sulphoarsphenamine, with a production by 4 firms of 164 pounds; 
peralga (l-diethylbarbituric-2-amidopyrene) and dihydroxy-dihy- 
droxy-mercury benzophenone sodium sulphonate. 

FLAVORS AND PERFUME MATERIALS 

Description. — There is no sharp line of demarcation between these 
two classes of coal-tar chemicals, many of them being used both as 
flavors and perfumes; a separate classification is, therefore, in certain 
cases arbitrary. They serve as perfume materials for soaps and 
other toilet articles, and for other similar products, and as flavors for 
food and food products. 

Production.— The total production of flavors in 1923 was 1,458,024 
pounds; sales amounted to 1,442,387 pounds, valued at $1,780,313. 
In 1922, production amounted to 1,215,668 pounds. 

Some of these products show a large increase in production, 
notably saccharin, used as a sugar substitute, and methyl salicylate, 
used largely as an artificial wintergreen flavor. The total 1923 
production of methyl salicylate was 967,505 pounds. 

The output of perfume materials in 1923 was 1,365,449 pounds, 
this being a large increase over 1922, when 793,148 pounds were 



54 UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 

produced. Sales of these products in 1923 totaled 1,275,432 pounds, 
valued at $789,431. 

Diethylphthalate ranked first in quantity of production and value 
of sales. The production in 1923 was 1,250,280 pounds; sales 
were 1,170,939 pounds, valued at $592,039. Production in 1922 was 
725,984 pounds. Diethylphthalate is used under a special formula 
as an ethyl alcohol denaturant. The production of benzyl benzoate 
for 1923 was 29,185 pounds, an increase over that of 1922. Two 
other benzyl compounds showing increases in production for 1923 
are benzyl alcohol and benzyl acetate, with a production of 12,080 
and 21,937 pounds respectively. 

Other products of this group made in quantity are amyl salicylate, 
diphenyl oxide, benzylidene acetone, methyl anthranilate, and phenyl 
acetic acid. The production of phenyl ethyl alcohol shows a large 
increase over the 1922 figure, but the quantity produced is still far 
below the domestic consumption. Production of phenylacetic 
aldehyde and cinnamyl alcohol is also below the domestic demand; 
artificial musks are not reported at all, although large quantities 
are imported. 

Among products reported in 1923 but not in 1922 were benzyl 
propionate, para cresyl acetate, para cresyl phenyl acetate, dibenzyl 
ketone, ethyl fumarate, and phenyl glycol acetate. 

SYNTHETIC PHENOLIC RESINS 

The manufacture of synthetic resins is distinctly an American 
development and has resulted only from the most careful research 
and engineering skill. These were first made by the condensation of 
phenol with formaldehyde and ammonia and later with hexamethy- 
lenetetramine, but in recent years para-cumarone, as well as cresol, 
has been used as a base. Synthetic resins are used as a substitute 
for amber in the manufacture of pipe stems, cigarette holders, and 
similar articles. There is also a large consumption for electric in- 
sulating materials and for varnishes and lacquers. The consumption 
for radio equipment has shown a rapid increase. With a total produc- 
tion for 1922 of 5,944,133 pounds, sales were 6,415,931 pounds, valued 
at $4,315,196. Production for 1923 shows an increase, but figures 
cannot be published without disclosing the operations of individual 
concerns. 

SYNTHETIC TANNING MATERIALS 

The synthetic tanning materials known as "syntans" are of very 
recent development, having come into commercial use in Germany 
and England since 1912. They give considerable promise for use in 
the tanning of leather in conjunction with natural tanning extracts. 

Synthetic tans are made by condensation of certain coal-tar 
derivatives, such as the sulphonated phenols, cresols, and naphthols, 
with formaldehyde in the presence of an acid. They are commonly 
used in conjunction with the natural tanning extracts. Their use is 
reported to result in (1) an economy of the time required for tanning, 
(2) a satisfactory leather of light color, and (3) a reduction in the 
amount of natural extract required. 

The total production in 1922 was 1,910,519 pounds, with sales 
amounting to 1,981,588 pounds, valued at $103,598. Production 
for 1923 shows an increase. 



PRODUCTION OF DYES AND COAL-TAR CHEMICALS, 1923 



55 



The combined production of synthetic ph enolic resins and synthetic 
tanning materials in 1923 was 9,763,685 pounds, with sales amounting 
to 10,068,431 pounds and valued at $5,816,590. 

STATISTICS OF PRODUCTION 

Table 12. — Production and sales of dyes and other finished coal-tar products, 1923 

[The number in the first column identifies the dyes according to the 1914 edition of the Schultz tables. 
The second column gives the common name of the product. The numbers in the third column refer 
to the numbered alphabetical list of manufacturers printed on page 195. An X signifies that a manufac- 
turer did not consent to the publication of his identification number in connection therewith. A blank 
in the fourth and fifth columns indicates that the sales figures can not be published without revealing 
information in regard to the output of individual firms. A blank in the seventh column indicates that 
the production of the corresponding dye in the United States can not be published without revealing 
information in regard to the output of individual firms. The figures thus concealed are, however, in- 
cluded in the total.] 



Common name 



Manufacturers' 
identification 
number accord- 
ing to list on p. 
195 



Sales 



Quantity 



Value 



Average 

price per 

pound 



Produc- 
tion 



Total finished coal 
tar products. 

NITROSO DYES 

Naphthol green 

NITRO DYES 

Naphthol yellow S.,_ 

Pigment chlorine 

STTLBENE DYES 

Direct yellow R 

Stilbene yellow 

Chloramine orange G 

PYRAZOLONE DYES 

Fast light yellow 

Xylene yellow 

Tartrazine 

Eriochrome red B 

Azo Dyes 

MONOAZO DYES 

Butter yellow 

Chrysoidine Y 

Chrysoidine R 

Sudan G 

Sudan I... 

Croceine orange 

Orange G 

Cbromotrope 2R._ 

Fast acid fuchsine B 

Amino naphthol red G 

Brilliant lake red R 

Alizarin yellow G 

Paranitraniline red 

Chromotrope 2B 

Alizarin yellow R 

Victoria violet 

Lanafuchsine 

Azo coralline 



Pounds 
115,297,586 



$65, 898, 177 



6,64. 



32, 91, 96, 184. 
190 



6, 7, 32, 39, 70, 80, 

131, 137, 146, 147. 

63,70,80 ... 

6,7,70,80,131,137. 



7, 63, 88, 131, 133, 

151. 
39,151 

27,88,131,151,183, 

184, 205. 
63,133 



7,32,45,91,137, X.. 
6, 7, 12, 27, 32, 45, 63, 

88,91,131. 
6, 12, 32, 45, 63, 64, 

88,91,131. 

45 

32,91, 131, 137, X... 

6,39,107,131 

27,32,63,131,167... 

131, 133, 137, X 

7, 32, 36, 46, 131, 137. 

6, 7, 32, 39, 63, 80, 88, 
131, 146. 

121 

7, 27, 39, 46, 63, 88, 
131, 140, X, X, X. 

X 

137 

6, 7, 27, 39, 46, 63, 88, 

137, 167, X,X. 
6, 39, 80, 131, 137, 

146, X. 

137.167. 

80,88 



47, 578 



45, 135 



506, 785 



412, 343 



144, 421 



175, 494 



712, 329 



618, 163 



96, 191 
569, 596 



167, 524 



48,259 
332, 768 

95, 767 



32,115 
38, 819 

123, 950 
10, 736 
20, 879 

145, 149 



27,899 
22, 521 
73, 178 
13, 238 
13, 474 
102, 913 



348, 043 



182, 499 



175,417 
136, 155 



106, 387 
142, 766 



.81 



.87 



.50 
.58 



.87 
.58 
.59 
1.23 
.65 
.71 



.61 
1.05 



Pounds 
122, 950, 171 



44,508 



569, 910 



147, 422 



112, 752 



735, 608 



101, 249 
545,836 

152, 370 



36, 668 



119,639 
29,444 
22, 082 

159, 889 



395, 361 



168, 777 

W 

172, 925 



56 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 



Table 12. — Production and sales of dyes and other finished coal-tar products, 

1928 — Continued 





Common name 


Manufacturers' 
identification 
number accord- 
ing to list on p. 
195 


Sales 




Schultz 
No. 


Quantity 


Value 


Average 

price per 

pound 


Produc- 
tion 


66 
67 


Azo Dyes— Continued 
monoazo dyes— continued 

Amino naphthol red 6B 

Chromotrope 6B _•___ 


6, 7, 32, 63, 80, 88, 
131, 137. 

131,137,146 

32,45, 131, X 

190 


Pounds 
112,915 

97, 299 
46, 735 


$88, 402 

78, 336 
44,298 


$0.78 

.81 
.95 


Pounds 
126, 503 

108, 408 


68 


Spirit yellow R 


43,926 


72 


Pigment orange R 




73 


Helio fast red 


X._ 










76 


Sudan II 


7,32,45,63,91,131.. 
6, 7, 27, 32, 39, 63, 

131, 137, 167. 
63 


41,915 
419, 573 


44, 768 
241, 334 


1.07 

.58 


43, 817 


82 


Ponceau 2R 


342, 140 


88 


Acid anthracene brown R_. 

Metachrome brown B 

Sudan R 




89 
93 


6, 27, 63, 131, X 

137 


323, 871 


223, 353 


.69 


308, 559 


94 


Azo eosine C 


137 










102 
105 


Diamond flavine G 

Sudan brown. 


25,88, 133, X 

7 


14, 890 


12, 021 


.81 


26,003 


106 


Autolred RLP 


32 










112 


Bordeaux B 


6, 7, 27, 32, 39, 45, 

88, 131, 137, 167. 
7,137.. 


215, 552 


156,208 


.73 


223, 714 


114 


Chromotrope 10B 




117 


Erica 2 GN. 


70,147 










119 


Diamine rose 


19, 70, 131, 147 










121 


EricaB 


70, 137 










134 


Metanil yellow 


7, 39, 63, 64, 88, 91, 
131. 

7, 63, 64, 131 

184 


412, 255 
4,453 


330, 349 
3,875 


.80 

.87 


405, 563 


137 


Acid yellow G 


4,614 


139 


Orange IV 




141 


Azo yellow 


7, 32, 63, 64, 88, 131, 

184. 
91 


137, 892 


145, 779 


1.06 


138, 012 


143 


Tropaeoline 




144 


Orange I 


32 










145 


Orange II- ... 


6, 7, 27. 32, 39, 45, 
63, 91, 131, 135, 
146, 167. 

63 . 


1, 442, 413 


526, 736 


.37 


1, 617, 668 


147 


Azo fuchsine 6B .. 




151 


Orange R 


7,63,91, 131 

39,63,121 


77, 157 
48, 233 
143, 932 
35, 411 


32, 436 
126, 039 
196, 583 

38, 581 


.42 
2.61 
1.37 
1.09 


88, 781 


152 


Permanent red 4B .. 


68,435 


153 


Lake red C 


121, 167, 170 

25, 46, 107, 131, 133. 
6, 25, 131 . . 


160, 791 


154 
155 


Palatine chrome brown 

Acid alizarin garnet R 

Palatine chrome violet 

Diamond black PV 


38,254 


156 
157 


25, 63, 88, 131, 133. . 
88,131 .• 


7,801 


8,502 


1.09 


4,289 


158 


Chrome brown RR 

Acid alizarin black R 

Fast brown N 


46 










159 


25 










160 


88 










161 


Fast red A 


7, 27, 32, 39, 63, 91, 
131, 137, 140, 167, 

6, 7, 32, 39, 45, 63, 
88, 107, 131, 137, 

6, 39, 131, 133, 137_ . 

6 


221, 263 
518, 908 
155, 405 


171,915 
440, 008 
197, 888 


.78 
.85 
1.27 


225, 461 


163 


Azo rubine 


526, 596 


164 


Fast red VR 


205, 646 


166 


Fast red E 




167 


Croceine scarlet 3 BX 


39 










168 


32, 39, 63, 131, 137, 

167. 
27, 32, 63, 131, 167. 


50, 863 


36, 263 


.71 


45, 246 


169 






173 


Lithol red R 


28, 39, 66, 167, 170, 

190, X. 
6,39, 131 

131 


273, 570 
60, 728 


315, 614 
39, 208 


1.15 

.65 


265, 787 


177 


Mordant yellow 


38, 722 


178 






179 




190 










180 


Eriochrome blueblack B... 
Salicine black U 


39, 96, 107, 131, 133 
6, 7, 19, 25, 32, 39, 
45, 63, 88, 131, 
133, 137, 167, X 
25, 39, 63, 96, 133 










181 


1, 290, 536 


686, 266 


.53 


1, 242, 283 


183 


Eriochrome black T 

Eriochrome black A 




184 
186 


39, 63, 88, 131, 133.. 
63 


118, 143 


92, 374 


.78 


162, 962 


188 
189 


Sulphon acid blue R 

Sulphon acid blue B 


6,39,63,88,131,133. 
131 


282, 023 


240, 261 


.85 


362, 736 


190 


147 










193 




147 










194 




70, 137 










195 


RosoDhenine SG 


70, 147, X __ 


11, 869 


21, 636 


1.82 


13, 715 



PRODUCTION OF DYES AND COAL-TAR CHEMICALS, 1923 



57 



Table 12. — Production and sales of dyes and other finished coal-tar products, 

1923— Continued 





Common name 


Manufacturers' 
identification 
number accord- 
ing to list on p. 
195 


Sales 




Schultz 
No. 


Quantity 


Value 


Average 

price per 

pound 


Produc- 
tion 


197 


Azo Dyes— (Continued) 
monoazo dyes— continued 
Thiazinered G 


80,88, 147 


Pounds 
1,076 
706 


$1,575 
1,234 


$1.46 
1.75 


Pounds 


198 


Mimosa C 


19, 137, 147 

190 


2,183 


200 


Lakered D 


"202 
209 


Palatine chrome red B. 

DISAZO DYES 

Terracotta F 


7, 32, 39, 63, 131, 
137, 190, X. 

88 


91, 816 


. 90, 677 


.99 


106,833 


211 




6, 7, 63, 80, 91, 131, 
140, 146, X, X. 

7, 32, 131, X 


160, 944 


128, 076 


.80 


169, 340 

25, 116 
2, 568, 458 


213 


Fast brown 


217 


Agalma black 10B 


6, 7, 25, 32, 39, 46, 
63, 88, 107, 131, 
137, 140, 146, 167, 
X. 

39 


2, 377, 290 


1, 694, 148 


.71 


220 


Palatine black 


221 


Anthracene acid brown 

Sudan III. 


63. 










223 


32 










227 


Brilliant croceine 


32,63,88,131,167... 










228 


Ponceau 5R 


32 










229 


Azo acid violet ..i 


64 










230 


Cloth red 3G 


63 










232 


Sudan IV 


7, 32, 39, 45, 91, 

131, 137, X 
7,88.. 


37, 253 


34, 576 


.93 


41,421 


233 


Cloth red B. 




234 


Cloth red G... 


39,64 










236 


Wool red B 


6,39,64,131,133.... 
137 


45, 183 


52, 551 


1.16 


51, 845 


241 


Neutral gray G 




246 


Cloth scarlet G 


64,91 










247 


Scarlet EC 


7,64,131,133 

64,133 


33, 701 


44, 781 


1.33 


54, 730 


250 


Milling orange G 




257 


Sulphoncyanine G 


6,63,88,131,133 

6, 131,133 


426, 779 
28, 657 


388, 284 
26, 600 


.91 
.93 


481, 141 


261 


Buffalo black 10B 


23,325 


264 


Fast sulphon black F 

Sulphoncyanine black 

Naphthylamine black D... 

Brilliant Croceine 9B 

Diaminogen.. 


25,88... 




265 


63,88,131.. 










266 
270 


6,63,88,137 

32 


11,673 1 10,026 


.86 




274 


63 








275 


Diamond black 


6,52,63,107,131 

6,63,88 


176, 662 
13, 184 


152, 800 
14, 748 


.87 
1.12 




276 




12, 122 


279 


Benzofast scarlet. 


63,131,137 




283 


Bismarck brown 


7, 12 32, 52, 63, 70, 

88, 91, 131 
6, 7, 12, 32, 39, 45, 

52,63,64, 88, 91, 

131, X 
133 


200, 677 
698, 317 


120, 457 
405, 241 


.60 

.58 


177, 419 
672, 544 


284 
288 


Bismarck brown 2R 

Palatine chrome black 

Acid alizarin black SN 

Fast mordant yellow 

Benzo fast vellow 


289 


133.. 










294 


6 


..:::::::::::::::::::::: 






296 


63 


i 






297 


Benzo fast pink 2BL 

Paper yellow 


63 











303 


6, 7, 63, 131, 137 
7,63,70, 131, 137... 

7, 63, 107. 131, 137, 
140 

131 


71, 654 
413, 494 
504, 068 


97, 078 
423, 892 
297, 725 


1.36 
1.03 
.59 


54, 347 


304 


Chrysophenine G 


447, 963 


307 


Congo red 


590, 548 


311 


Orange TA 


312 


Congo corinth G 


6, 7, 32, 52, 88, 131, 

137, 140 
39, X 


157, 659 


168, 633 


1.07 


144, 321 


313 


Congo rubine.. 




319 


Diamine scarlet 


63, 131, X. 


32, 184 
42, 694 


51, 684 
50,282 


1.61 
1.18 


36, 095 


322 


Trisulphon violet B 

Dianil blue R 


39,131,137 


39,605 


323 


147 




327 


Diamine violet N 


7, 25, 32, 39, 63, 107, 

131, 137, 140, X 
7... 


41, 269 


57, 477 


1.39 


41, 177 


328 


Diamine black R 

Benzo fast red 




332 


63 










333 
336 


Oxamine black BHN 

Benzo cyanine R 


6, 7, 25, 32, 39, 63, 
107, 131, 137, 140, 
146 

131 


866, 800 


634, 140 


.73 


905, 491 



58 



UNITED STATES TAEIFF COMMISSION 



Table 12. — Production and sales of dyes and other finished coal-tar products, 

1923 — Continued 





Common name 


Manufacturers' 
identification 
number accord- 
ing to list on p. 
195 


Sales 




Schultz 
No. 


Quantity 


Value 


Average 
price per 
. pound 


Produc- 
tion 


337 


disazo dyes — continued 
Benzo blue 2B 


6, 7, 25, 32, 39, 45, 
46, 131, 137, 140, 
146, X, X 

39,46,63,88,137 

X ..... 


Pounds 
883, 882 

82, 891 


$360, 164 
66, 235 


$0.41 
.80 


Pound* 
1, 065, 539 

96,484 


340 




341 


Crumpsall direct fast red R. 


342 


7,39,46,63, 131, X.. 
6, 7, 25, 32, 39, 63, 

70, 107, 131, 137, 

140 
6, 7, 25, 32, 39, 63, 

70, 80, 107, 131, 

137, 140 
140.X 


19, 184 
75, 967 

169, 148 


21, 996 
90,945 

160, 209 


1.15 
1.20 

.95 


27, 455 


343 




63, 383 


344 


Diamine brown 


127, 868 


349 






351 




52,131 








355 




137 










362 


Oxydiamine orange.. 

Benzopurpurine 4B 


64, 131 










363 
365 


7, 32, 39, 63, 107, 

131, 137. 
6, 52 


413, 250 


368. 923 


.89 


470, 51 


378 




137 










382 




131... 










384 




63... 










385 




131... 










386 
391 


Benzo blue BX 

Benzo blue 3B 


39, 131, 137 

7, 12, 32, 39, 45, 

107, 131, 137. 
131, 137 


41, 249 
174, 141 


35, 373 

94, 072 


.86 

.54 


35, 216 
215, 587 


392 


Toluylene orange G 

Diphenvl brown 3 GN 

Acid anthracene red 

Benzopurpurine 10B 




393 


45 










400 


X.. 










405 
410 


7, 63, 131, 137. 

63, 131, 137 


25, 964 


43, 280 


1.67 


33, 837 


415 


Dianil blue G 


137 










419 




7, 39, 63, 131, 137... 
131 


95, 427 


143, 970 


1.51 


111,517 


421 






424 




7, 63, 131, 137 










426 
436 


Benzamine pure blue 

TRIAZO DYES 

Columbia black. . 


6, 7, 39, 63, 131, 
137, 146. 

6, 7, 39, 46, 63, 131.. 
131, 137 


225, 615 
169, 970 


218, 222 
161, 005 


.97 
.95 


221, 905 
177, 185 


441 


Diazo blue black RS 




442 


137 










456 




63... 










462 

463 

464 
470 


Direct deep black EW 

Erie direct black RX 

Erie direct green ET__ 

Chloramine green B__ 

Chloramine blue 3G... 

Diamine black HW 

Oxamine green B _. 

Oxamine green G. 


6, 7, 32, 39, 46, 63, 
131, 137, 140, X. 

6, 7, 39, 46, 63, 131, 
137. 

7, 46, 52, 131 

137 


6, 720, 905 

349, 659 

51, 495. 


2, 875, 928 
180, 559 
43, 755 


.43 

.52 

.85 


6, 957, 581 
455, 768 
37, 040 


471 


137 . 








473 


7, 140, 147 

6, 7. 32, 39, 52, 63, 

70, 131, 137. 
6, 12, 32, 39, 63, 

137, 140, X, X. 

6, 7, 32, 39, 45, 52, 
70, 88, 131, 133, 
137, 140, X. 

7, 63, 88, 131, 137, 
147, X. 

63 


4.098 
306, 023 

84, 896 

931, 242 

207, 793 


5.002 
250, 980 

70, 526 

596, 366 

194, 688 


1.22 

.82 

.83 
.64 

.94 




474 
475 


312,511 
99, 869 


476 
477 


Benzamine brown 3 GO 

Congo brown G 


999, 554 
245, 198 


480 






485 


TETRAKISAZO DYES 

Benzo brown G 


32, 52, 63,17 1' 40.. 
70, 13T 


154, 208 


120, 914 


78 


138, 437 


487 










1, 948, 206 


2, 287, 417 


1.17 


2, 372, 765 












30, 292, 072 


21, 597, 247 


.71 


32, 348, 948 




DIPHENYLM ETHANE DYES 

Auramine 


63, 77, 106, 131 




493 


393, 189 


677, 192 


1.72 


471, 359 






= 



PRODUCTION OF DYES AND COAL-TAR CHEMICALS, 1923 



59 



Table 12. — Production and sales of dyes and other finished coal-tar products, 

1923 — Continued 





Common name 


Manufacturers' 
identification 
number accord- 
ing to list on p. 
195 


Sales 




Schultz 
No. 


Quantity 


Value 


Average 

price per 

pound 


Produc- 
tion 


495 


TRIPHENYLM ETHANE DYES 


63, 106, 131 

106, 131 


Pounds 
178, 271 


$285, 585 


$1. 60 


Pounds 
183 684) 


499 


Brilliant green 




502 


Guinea green 


36, 63, 131 










503 


Brilliant milling green B__. 
Light green 


131 










505 


63 










506 


Erioglaucine 


131 










511 


Para fuchsine 


131 










512 
513 


Magenta (or fuchsine) 

New fuchsine 


39, 55, 91, 98, 131, 

157, X. 
131 


75, 051 


156, 081 


2.08 


87, 717 


515 


Methyl violet 


32, 55, 63, 91, 104, 

131, 135, X. 
25, 63 


563, 579 


702, 515 


1.25 


578 183 


516 


Crvstal violet 




517 


Methvl violet 5B 


131 








521 


Aniline blue 


39, 91, 98 








524 


Acid magenta _ 


39,98 








528 


Fast violet 10B 


36, 63, 137 

36. 39, 63, 80, 131, 146 
131 


21, 413 
137, 887 


46, 063 
255, 733 


2.15 
1.86 


15. 541 
148, 258 


530 


Acid violet 


531 


Eriocvanine 


536 




39. 55, 98. 131, 135, 

157, 167, X. 
91 


157, 877 


377, 527 


2.39 


154, 845 


537 


Methvl blue for silk 

Methvl blue for cotton 

Soluble blue ... 


538 


98 








539 


39.55,98,131 

131 


10. 694 


36, 907 


3.45 


15, 366 


543 


Patent blue V 


545 


Patent blue A 

Acid violet 6 BN 

Aurine 


36,131 








548 


63 








555 


63,155 










558 


Victoria blue R 


63 












Total triphenylme- 
thane dyes. 

DIPHEXYL-NAPHTFYLME- 
THANE DYES 

Victoria blue B 














1, 539, 140 


2, 677, 418 


1.74 


1, 608, 653 




25,63 


559 










562 


Fast acid blue 


63.. 








564 


Naphthalene green V 

Wool green S 


131 










566 


25, 63, 80, 88, 131, 
146 

63 


382, 427 


317, 370 


.83 


375, 858 




XANTHONE DYES 

Rhodamine 6G 


571 










573 


Rhodamine B 


63 










580 


Fast acid violet B 


63.. 








582 


Fast acid violet A 2R 


63 








585 


7,56,91,135 

7,56,91,135 


957 
100. 745 


2,978 
185, 814 


3.11 

1.84 


2,398 
80,648 


587 




590 


Eosine BN 


592 


Ervthrosine B 


7. 56, 63,91, 135.... 
56 


8,506 


41, 973 


4.94 


7 250 


593 


Phloxine P 




596 


Phloxine. 


63,91... 










597 


Rose bengale B 


63.91 








599 


Gallein 


208 








600 


C oerulein 


208 










Total xanthone dyes. 

ACRIDINE DYES 

Phosphine 












267, 511 


555, 071 


2.08 


254, 639 




63, 91, 131, 151 
26,131,137... 


606 


86, 500 '. 


166, 667 


1.93 


122, 853 


613 


QVINOLINE DYES 

Quinoline yellow 


615 


THIOBENZENYL DYES 

Thioflavine S 


147 _ 








616 


Primuline... 


19, 70, 80, 131, 137, 

147, X. 
19, 70, 80, 131, 137, 

147. 


224,784 
215, 810 


157,912 
252, 347 


.70 
1.17 


227, 824 
188, 595 


C17 


Columbia yellow. 



60 



UNITED STATES TAEIFF COMMISSION 



Table 12. 



-Production and sales of dyes and other finished coal-tar products, 
1923— Continued 







Manufacturers' 
identification 
number accord- 
ing to list on p. 
195 


Sales 


Produc- 
tion 


Schultz 
No. 


Common name 


Quantity 


Value 


Average 

price per 

pound 


622 


OXAZINE AND THIAZINE 
DYES 

Delphineblue B 


7,46,131 


Pounds 






Pounds 


626 


Gallocyanine 


7,27,46,131,208... 
131 


82, 512 


$159, 279 


$1.93 


52, 577 


631 


Chromocyanine V 


636 


Prune pure ... 


7 










649 
659 


Cotton blue or Meldola's 

blue. 
Methylene blue... 


7,46,107,131 

27,46,131,204. 

131 „■ 


56, 116 
410, 003 


93, 787 
601, 118 


1.67 
1.47 


58, 307 
424, 174 


660 


Methylene green 


667 


Brilliant alizarin blue 

AZINE DYES 

Azo carmine 


80,88. 










672 


63 










679 




63, 131, 155 

27, 137. 


126, 151 


183. 3fi5 


1.45 


99. 414 


681 


New fast gray 




683 


Safranine MN 


131 











687 


Rosolane O 


63 










697 
698 

699 

700 


Induline (spirit-soluble) 

Nigrosine (spirit-soluble)... 

Induline (soluble in water) . 
Nigrosine (soluble in 
water) . 

SULPHUR DYES 


19,32,39.88,91,131. 
19, 27, 32, 88, 91, 

131, 133. 
19, 39, 88, 91, 131... 
19, 27, 88, 91, 131, 

133. 

12, 46, 63, 88, 94, 

107, 131. 
12, 18, 46, 63, 88, 

107, 131, 137, X, 

X X. 
7, 12, 39", 46, 47, 56, 

63, 88, 107, 131, 

165, 173, 187, 206, 

X X. 
6, 12, 46, 63, 107, 

131, 137, 165, 206 
6, 12, 46, 63, 107, 206. 
19, 46, 47, 63, 70, 88, 

137, 173, 206. 
46, 88, 173, 206 
6, 39, 47, 88, 165, 

206, X. 
12, 46, 63, 87, 88, 

131, 137, 165, 173, 

X, X. 


20, 929 

284, 235 

89, 500 
1, 374, 363 


19, 435 
148, 006 

74, 130 
633, 742 


.93 

.52 

.83 
.46 


12,086 
342, 739 

113,817 
1, 389, 106 


720 


15, 212, 142 
1, 213, 085 

2, 049, 475 

164, 344 

387, 158 
168, 356 

47, 083 
202, 824 

561, 461 


3, 017, 207 
610, 171 

806, 684 

140, 651 

297, 104 
85. 687 

23, 107 
97, 997 

408, 771 


.20 
.50 

.39 

.86 

.77 
.51 

.49 

.48 

.73 


16, 276, 409 

1, 349, 864 

2, 203, 893 


















373, 899 
220,093 














255, 877 
670,023 












20, 005, 928 


5, 487, 379 


.27 


21, 558, 469 




CARBAZOLE DYES 

HydronblueR, G 


63, 107 


748 












ANTHRAQUINONE DYES 

Indanthrene golden orange 

R. 
Indanthrene dark blue BO. 
Indanthrene black and 

green B. 

Indanthrene violet RR 

Indanthrene violet B 


63 










761 










763 


63, 122, 137. 

63, 122, 137 

63 


25, 130 
20, 673 


50, 167 
42, 805 


2.00 
2.07 




765 

767 


25,001 


768 


63.. 










778 


18, 131 











779 




18, 131 










780 




18 










782 




46, 63, 65, 131, 184, 

190, 208, X. 
131 


134, 941 


167, 294 


1.24 


157, 416 


784 




785 




18, 137 . 










789 
800 


Anthracene blue WR 


65, 84, 102, 131, 135. 
84 


54, 505 


117, 198 


2.15 


44, 150 


838 


Indanthrene blue RS 

Indanthrene blue 3G 


63, 137 . 










840 


63 











PRODUCTION OF DYES AND COAL-TAR CHEMICALS, 1923 



61 



Table 12. — Production and sales of dyes and other finished coal-tar products, 

1923— Continued 





Common name 


Manufacturers' 
identification 
number accord- 
ing to list on p. 
195 


Sales 




Schultz 
No. 


Quantity 


Value 


Average 

price per 

pound 


Produc- 
tion 


842 


ANTHRAQUINONE DYES— 

continued 

Indanthrene blue GCD 

Indanthrene blue GC 

Indanthrene yellow 


63, 137 


Pounds 






Pounds 


843 


137 








849 


63, 137 








858 


88, 102, 131 

36, 65 


272, 471 


$952, 216 


$3.50 


309, 124 


862 






865 


Alizarin cyanine green 

Indanthrene brown B 

Total anthraquinone 
dyes. 

INDIGO AND ITS DERIVATIVES 

Indigo, synthetic (20 per 

cent). 
Indigo, white 


36 










867 


137 
























1, 952, 601 


3, 438, 677 


1.76 


2, 123, 966 




62, 63, 131 




874 


25, 492, 201 


5, 884, 712 


.23 


28, 347, 259 


876 


46 




877 


Indigo extract 


7, 14, 63, 113, 131, 

X, X. 
62. 


328, 440 


190, 493 


.58 


330, 810 


880 






881 


Ciba blue 2B, 2BD 


62 








882 


Ciba blue G 


62 








883 


Indigo 6B 


62 










923 


ANILINE BLACK GROUP 

Ursol 


82, 167, X 












FOOD DYES 

Naphthol yellow S 


X.. 










7 








23 


Tartrazine 


7, 27, 131, 198, X... 
7, 131, X 


53, 801 
17, 694 
38, 739 
89, 821 


188, 608 
96, 068 
116,593 
279, 847 


3.51 
5.43 
3.01 
3.12 


58, 117 


83 




16, 098 


144 




7, 27, 131, X 

7, 27, 107, 131, 198, 

X. 
131, 198 




168 




82, 45» 


502 


Guinea green B 




505 


Light green SF (yellowish). 
Methyl violet 


131, 198 


1 






515 


131 








592 




7, 131, X 








877 


Indigo disulfonic acid 

Yellow AB 


7, 131, X 






6,498 




7, 66, 91, 131, 175— 
7, 66, 91, 131, 175 


7,168 
9,108 


18, 852 
24, 682 


2.63 
2.71 


6, 523 




Yellow OB 


7,586 










228, 686 


860, 077 


3.76 


230, 343 




PHOTOCHEMICAL DYES 


68 


















68 












All other dves 


63, 147 




















Bacteriological, biological 
stains and indicators, and 
research chemicals. 

Total dyes... 


41, 54, 68, 86, 99, 
111, 131, 154, 172, 
179, X. 






















86, 567, 446 


47, 223, 161 


.55 


93. 667, 524 




• 







DYES NOT CLASSIFIED BY SCHULTZ NUMBER 



Manufacturers were requested to report separately, in terms of 
their familiar pre-war designations, the production of dyes not 
classified by Schultz. The following table is a list of such dyes r 



62 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 



together with certain new dyes of American development for which 
th ere are no foreign equivalents : 



Name of dye 



Manu- 
facturers' 
identifi- 
cation 
number 
according 
to list on 
page 195 



Acid anthracene brown A, B, RH 

Acid anthracene orange GR 

Acid anthracene yellow GR 

Acid chrome brown R. 

Acid black BA 

Acid brown 

Acid claret B ■_ 

Acid naphthol blue black 

Acid navy blue 

Acid red OTH 

Acid yellow HM 

Alizarin black 

Alizarin black GS paste 

Alizarin blue IS.. 

Alizarin brown 3R 

Alizarin Drown 5R 

A lizarin green 

Alizarin serge blue GS 

Alizarin yellow 4G 

Anthracene chrome black DNN 

Anthranol chrome brown FB 

Anthranol chrome green 3G ., 

Anthranol chrome yellow DF extra 

Anthranol chrome yellow SS 

Anthrene blue GX 

Anthrene jade green 

Artificial silk black G 

Atlantamine blue 

Atlantamine green 

Atlantamine red 

Atlantamine yellow 

Atlantole wood blue 

Azo dark green 

Azo eosine 2B 

Azo fast violet 2R 

Azo violet BS, 2B 

Azo wool blue G, R 

Benzo black LM 

Benzo chrome brown G, R, 2R 

Benzo chrome dark brown 

Benzo fast black L, LM ' 

Benzo fast orange S 

Benzo fast pink 2B 

Benzo fast scarlet 4BA 

Benzo rhoduline red B 

Brilliant crocein FL 

Bromo fluorescein. _ 

Chloramine fast orange GR, GG, G3G. 

Chrome black 

Chrome black special 

Chrome black A, T, BC, RX.. 

Chrome green 

Chrome green B__ 

Chrome green G_ „__ 

Chrome green SW 

Chrome green SE, SW 

Chrome red SW 

Chrome yellow , 

Chrome yellow SS 

Cindiazo blue B 

Copper blue2RX 

Cotton brown R 

Developed black 2BN, G 

Diamine bordeaux B 

Diamine catechine 

Diamine catechine 3G 

D iamond green _ - 

Diamond red BHA 

Dianol dark blue B 

Diazo bordeaux 7B 

Diazo fast red 5BL 

Diazo fast red 7BL... 

Diazo indigo blue M 

Diazo seal brown 



80 

80 

6 

X 

167 

39 

140 

137 

91 

208 

65 

208 

167 

208 

X 

65 

7 

36 

133 

133 

133 

133 

137 

137 

63 

12 

12 

12 

12 

12 

137 

137 

131 

6 

80 

133 



6, 63, 80 

63 

80 

63 

63 

63 

56, 135 

80 

27,46 

25 

X 

6 

39,70 

39 

25, X 

25 

X 

6, 27, 137 

88 

39 

6 

6 

137 

63, 131 

63 

131 

80 

88 

63 

63 

63 

63 

63 

X 



Name of dye 



Manu- 
facturers' 
identifi- 
cation 
number 
according 
to list on 
page 195 



Direct black GX 

Direct blue 3RX 

Direct blue 4R... 

Direct brown R 

Direct brown GR, G2R, G3R 

Direct dark brown B 

Direct dark green 

Direct fast blue B, R 

Direct fast light blue FF 

Direct fast orange R 

Direct fast orange RCL, 2R 

Direct fast yellow 6GL extra 

Direct fast yellow 2R, 2RCL... 

Direct navy R 

Direct salmon red 

Direct violet B cone, extra 

Direct violet R cone 

Dyelene chromate brown EBN... 

Empire coralline 

Empire fast violet AA 

Fast acid violet ERR extra 

Fast chrome brown R 

FurolDB 

Helio bordeaux BL 

Hydron pink FF 

Indanthrene black BCS 

Indanthrene blue BCS, 20 per cent paste. 

Indomine navy blue 2BM 

Jet black APX 

Marine blue SW 

Midland vat cadet blue 

Midland vat blue MB 

Naphthanil red for printing 

Navy blue T... 

Nerol black 2B 

Oil brown 1-2494 

Oil brown 

Oil brown R 

Oil brown H-8808 

Oil orange 

Oil orange Y-293... 

Oil red....' 

Oil red C, S 

Oil scarlet T 

Oil yellow PHW, OB — 

Oil soluble yellow 

Oxamine copper blue RRX 

Oxydiamiogen OB 

Pacco direct fast gray BL 

Palachrome maroon... 

Palaside brown B... 

Paranol direct orange 9L 

Permanent red R 

Pluto orange G 

Pontachrome brown R, SW 

Pontachrome yellow SW 

Pontamine diazo black H 

Rosanthrene A, R 

Rosanthrene orange 

Scarlet 2RG 

Silk black 4BF.._ 

Solamine blue FF 

Sudan orange 

Sudan AT, AX, T... 

Sulphon acid black N2 

Victoria fast violet 2R 

Wool black B... 

Wool blue black 

Wool blue G.... 

Wool fast violet 2R 

Zambesi black A 

Zambesi black D 

Zambesi black PC 

Zambesi black V, VX * 



39 
39 
39 

140 
39 
80 
6 
39 
39 
39, 137 
39 
80 
39 

140 
X 
X 
X 
64 
X 
X 
63 

137 
X 
63 
63 

137 
63 

133 
63 
25 
62 
62 
63 
27 

137 
91 
X 
7,45 
91 
X 
91 
19, X 

203 

203 
91 

203 
63 

131 
X 
X 
X 

133 

190 
88 
63 
63 
63 
63 
63 

167 

39 

63, 137 

203 
32 
80 
88 

137 
39 
36 
80 
6 

131 

39 

39, 63. 

131, 137 



1 Sales of Benzo fast black LM and L are 102,872 pounds, valued at $192,452. 

2 Sales of Zambezi black V and VX are 361,326 pounds valued at $470,320 and the production was 452,352 
pounds. 



PKODUCTION OF DYES AND COAL-TAB, CHEMICALS, 1923 63 

Production and sales of dyes and other coal-tar products, 1923 



Common name 



Manufacturers' 
identification 
number accord- 
ing to list on 
page 195 



Sales 



Quantity- 



Value 



Unit 
value 



Production 



COLOR LAKES 

Black lakes 

Blue lakes 



Brown lakes. 



Eosine lakes. 



Green lakes . 



Lithol red lakes. 



Maroon lakes . 



Orange lakes. 



Para red lakes. 



Red lakes . 



Scarlet lakes . 



Violet lakes. 



6, 37, 46, 50, 67, 92 

167, 168, 203, X. 

11,22,28,37,46,59 

63, 67, 73, 90, 92 

100, 109, 112, 119 

162. 167. 168. 169 

170. 177. 188. 189 
190, X,X,X,X 

x,x. 

28, 37, 46, 59, 73 
100,112,168,169 
177, 188, 189, 203 
X. 

11,22,28,59,67,73 
92. 100, 119, 162 

167. 168. 169. 170 

177. 188. 189. 190 
203, X,X, X,X 
X, X, X, X, X. 

11,22,28,37,59,63 
67, 73, 85, 90, 92 
100, 109, 119, 162 
167,168,169,170 
177, 189, X, X 
X, X, X, X, X 
X. 

11 ; 22, 28, 37, 46, 59 
63, 73, 90, 92, 100 
105,112,119,162 
167, 168, 169, 170 
177, 188, 189, 190 
203, X,X,X, X 

x,x. 

11,22,28,37,59,63 
67, 92, 100, 105 
115,116,119,123 
162, 167, 168, 169 
170,177,188,189 
190, 199, 203, X 
X, X, X. 

11,22,28,37,59,63 
67, 73, 92, 100 
109,112,119,162 
167, 168, 169, 170 
177, 188, 189, 203 
X, X, X, X, X 
XXX 

11,22,28,46,50,59 
63,67,92,100,105 
112,115,116,119, 
167,168,170,177 
188, 189, 190, 199 
203,X,X,X, X 
X. 

11,22,28,37,46,50 
59, 63, 67, 73, 90 
92, 100, 105, 109 
112,116,119,123 

162. 167. 168. 169 

170. 177. 188. 189 
190, 199, 203, X 
X,X,X, X, X 
X. 

11,22,28,37,59,63 
67, 73, 90, 92, 100 
105,115,116,119 
123, 162, 167, 168 
169, 170, 177, 188 
190, 199, X, X 
X, X, X, X, x 
X. 
11,22,28,37,46,59 
63, 67, 73, 90, 92 
100,109,119,162 

167. 168. 169. 170 

177. 188. 189. 190 
203.X, X,X,X 
X,X. 



Pou nds 
565, 097 



766, 492 



222, 950 



486, 864 



626, 403 



706, 479 



1, 229, 610 



585, 292. 



3, 196, 651 



1, 644, 597 



1,047,206 



387, 176 



$61, 271 
377, 572 



20, 502 
335, 093 

181, 481 
495, 101 
392, 308 
150, 548 
1, 018, 090 
992, 224 

393, 442 
378, 876 



.09 



.•J 1 1 



.70 



.32 



Pounds 
587, 344 

770, 751 



214,012 
529, 962 

666, 180 

741, 556 

1, 266, 216 



26 602, 331 



. 32 



. r,n 



3, 379, 767 



1,689,027 



1,076,419 



388,001 



64 UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 

Production and sales of dyes and other coal-tar products — Continued 





Common name 


Manufacturers' 
identification 
number accord- 
ing to list on 
page 195 


Sales 






Quantity 


Value 


Unit 
value 


Production 




color lakes— continued 


11,28,37,59,63,73, 
92, 100, 109, 119, 
167, 168, 169, 170, 
177, 189, 203, X, 

x,x,x,x,x,x. 


Pounds 
1, 162, 542 


$328, 224 


$0.28 


Pounds 
1, 167, 549' 




Total color lakes 






12, 627, 359 


5, 124, 732 


.41 


13,079,115- 




PHOTOGRAPHIC CHEMICALS 

Diaminophenol hydrochlo- 
ride. 


202 
















124, 208, X 


214, 099 


217, 706 


1.02 


230, 079 




Methyl p-aminophenol sul- 
fate (Metol). 
p-Hydroxyphenylglycine 

Total photographic 
chemicals. 

MEDICINALS 


68, X .. 






68 
























321, 083 


443, 697 


1.38 


343, 289' 




122,124,136,153.... 
X... 






520, 390 


156,111 


.30 


564, 498- 










Acriflavine (3:6-diamino-10- 
methyl acridiue chloride) . 


1, 131 












131 












Ammonium salicylate 

Anesthesin. (See Benzo- 

caine.) 
Apothesine (hydrochloride of 

diethylaminopropyl-cinna- 

mate). 


93 












X 












I, 60, 108, 120, 126, 

153, 174. 
17, 62, 124, 128 

1, 126, 166 


576 

1, 337, 998 

2,014 


173, 381 

1,088,977 

32, 219 


301.01 

.81 
16.00 


616- 




Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid). 

Atophan. (See Cincophen.) 

Benzocaine or Anesthesin 
(Ethyl p-amino benzoate.) 

Benzyl benzoate. (See Per- 
fumes.) 


1, 525, 795 
2,243 




166, 175 


' 




Bismuth betanaphthol 

Bismuth tribromophenol 

Butyn (p-amino benzoyl- 

gamma di normal butyl 

amino propanol sulfate). 
Chloramine T (sodium p- 

toluene sulfochloramide. 
Cincophen (phenyl cincho- 

ninic acid) (Atophan). 


124, 136, 153 

75, 124, 136 


1,039 


3,403 


3.28 










1 












108, X 












1, 5, 27 


31,911 


299, 010 


9.37 


32, 710 




166 . 








63, 142 












Dibromohydroxy mercury 
fluorescein, sodium salt of. 

Dichloramine T (p-toluene 
sulfone dichloramide) . 

Dihydroxy-dihydroxy mer- 
cury benzophenone sodium 
sulfonate. 

Formidine (methylene disali- 
cylic acid derivative) . 


99 












108, 12S 












99 












X 












63 














63, 137 














63, 122, 142 

122 


5,710 


12, 591 


2.21 


5,795 










Luminal (phenylethyl barbi- 
turic acid and sodium salt. 

Magnesium salicylate 

Methyl salicylate. (See Fla- 
vors.) 

Methylhydroxymethylester 
of salicylic acid. 

Monoglycol ester of salicylic 
acid. 

b-Naphthol benzoate 


17 












93 . 












17 












17 























PRODUCTION OF DYES AND COAL-TAR CHEMICALS, 1923 65 

Production and sales of dyes and other coal-tar products — Continued 



Common name 



Manufac turers' 
identification 
number accord- 
ing to list on 
page 195 



Sales 



Quantity 



Value 



Unit 
value 



Production 



medicinals— continued 
Neoarsphenamine 



Neocinchophen. (See Toly- 

sin.) 
Novaspirin (Methyleneci- 

trylsalicylic acid) . 
Peralga (1-diethylbarbarturic- 

2-amidopyrene) . 
Phenacaine (ethenyl-p-die- 
thoxy-diphenyl amidine hy- 
drochloride. 

Phenolphthalein 

Phenolsulfonates (calcium, 
sodium, zinc, etc.). 

Pbenolsulf onephthalein 

Phenylthiocarbamide 

Procaine (p-amino benzoyl- 
diethyl aminoethanol). 
Proflavine (3:6 diamino acri- 

dine sulfate) . 
Proposote (creosote deriva- 
tive). 

Resorcinol monoacetate - 

Salicaine (salicyl alcohol) 

Salicylates, miscellaneous 

Salol (phenyl salicylate) 

Salophen (Acetylparamino- 
phenol salicylate) . 

Scarlet red 

Silver arsphenamine 

Sodium salicylate.. 

Strontium salicylate. 

Sulfoarsphenamine 

Tolysin- neocincophen (p- 
methylphenyl- cinchoninic 
ethyl ester) . 
Trypan blue. 



Total medicinals. 

FLAVORS 

Coumarin (synthetic). - 
Ethyl benzoate 



Ethyl cinnamate. 
Ethyl salicylate.. 



Methyl cinnamate. 
Methyl salicylate- . 



Saccharin 

Vanillin (see Part IV). 



Total flavors.. 

PERFUME MATERIALS 



Acetophenone... 
Amyl benzoate.. 
Amyl salicylate . 



1, 60, 108, 126, 153, 
174. 



Pounds 
3,035 



$1, 029, 121 



$339. 08 



17.. 
5— 
120. 



150, X -. 

1, 118, 124, 153. 



196, 173 



X.-. 

1, 126. 



1, 131. 
X._- 



61,914 



.32 



27 

153 

93, 124, 128. 
17 



131. 

126 

62, 93, 124, 128, X 

93 

1267126, ~153,~174~I 

1-27 



62, 75, 103, 128, X, 

X. 
44, 75, 79, 141, 178, 

191, 194, X. 
75, 79, 103, 178, 194. 
75,79,178,191,194, 

X. 
75, 79, 103, 178, X, 

X. 
62, 79, 93, 103, 124, 

178, X, X. 

93, X, X 

X 



89, 206 



410, 840 
119 



2, 995, 448 



71, 467 



165, 759 
"~65,"676 



.40 
'550."97" 



4, 720, 253 



1.58 



104, 200 
1,041 



389, 799 
1,611 



3.74 
1.55 



815 
940, 795 
363, 048 



1, 442, 387 



Aubepine (Anisic aldehyde) . 

Benzophenone 

Benzyl acetate 



Benzyl alcohol... 
Benzyl benzoate. 



75, 79, 103, 178, 192. 
79 

75, 79, 93, 103, 129, 

178, 192, X. 
75, 78, 103, 178, 192. 
75 



Benzyl butyrate 

Benzyl cinnamate... 

Benzyl formate 

Benzyl propionate.. 

Benzyl salicylate 

Benzylidine acetone. 



75, 79, 103, 129, 178, 

192, X. 
103, 129, 178, 192, X 
75, 79, 103, 124, 129, 

178, 192. 

79, 103—. 

75, 79, 103, 178, 192. 

178, X... 

79, 178, X 

178... 

129, 178 



238 



11, 562 
2,742 



21, 179 



4,101 
26, 372 



3,725 

544, 426 
661,913 



4.57 

.58 
1.82 



1, 780, 313 



1.23 



16, 569 
9,566 



1.43 
3.49 



27,635 



4,976 
37,545 



1.31 



1.21 
1.42 



Pounds 
3,365 



208, 902 



98, 597 



416, 382 



164 



3, 273, 085 



114, 682 



796 
967, 505 
340, 944 



1, 458, 024 



277 

"9,"2l7 
3,045 



21, 937 



12,080 
29,185 



66 UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 

Production and sales of dyes and other coal-tar products — Continued 





Common name 


M a n u f a c turers' 
identification 
number accord- 
ing to list on 
page 195 


Sales 






Quantity 


Value 


Unit 
value 


Production 




PERFUME MATERIALS— COn. 

Benzylphenyl acetate 

Bromstvrol 


178 


Pounds 






Pounds 




75, 79, 103, 178, 192. 
79 


148 


$718 


$4.85 


154 




Butyl salicylate 






Cinnamic acid 


79, 103, 178, 192 








1,595 




Cinnamic alcohol 


178 












Cinnamic aldehyde 


75, 78, 103, 178, 192. 
75, 129 


1,536 


5,000 


3.26 


1,422 




p-Cresyl acetate ,. 






p-Cresylphenyl acetate 

Dibenzyl ketone 


75.. 










75. 












Diethyl phthalate 


20, 75, 79, 103, 129, 

178, 191, 192, X,X. 

178.. 


1, 170, 939 


592, 039 


.51 


1, 250, 280 




Dimethyl acetophenone 

Dimethvl anthranilate 

Diniethylbenzyl carbinol 

Dimethvl hvdroquinone 

Dimethyl resorcinol.. 




75, 178. 












75.. 












75 












178 












Diphenvlmethane 


79, 178,192 








393 




Diphenyloxide.. 


178, X ! 










Ethyl fumarate 


191 










Ethylphenyl acetate 


178 1 










Ethvlphenvl ether... 


79 1. 










Hydratropic aldehyde 

Indol 


178. 










75 












Isobutyl anthranilate 

Isobutyl indol 


75 












75. 












Isobutylphenyl acetate 

Isobutyl salicylate 


75, 129 












178. 












Methyl acetophenone 

Methyl anisate 


178 












178 . 












Methyl anthranilate 


20, 62, 75, 103, 178, 

186, 192. 
44, 75, 79, 141, 

178, X. 
75.. 


1,564 

172 


5,247 
254 


3.36 

1.48 


2,554 




Methyl benzoate 


24 




p-Methylbenzyl acetate 

p-Methylbenzyl anthranilate 
Methyl p-cresol 






75 












178 












Methyl p-cresyl ether 

Methyl guaiacol 


79. 












178 












Methylphenyl acetate 

Methylphenyl ether. 


75, 79, 103,129, 178, 

192, X. 
79 


1,014 


5,120 


5.05 


1,285 




Methylphenyl glycidate 

Methyl-p-tolyl ketone 

b-Naphthyl anthranilate 

Nerolin (b-naphthol ethyl 
ether). 


75 












75 












75 












75, 79, 178 












75 












Phenylacetic acid 


79 












Phenylacetic aldehyde 


75, 103, 178, 192.... 
75, 103, 178, 194 . 


453 


4,615 


10.19 


457 




Phenylethyl alcohol 


62, 75, 103, 178, 

192, X. 
178 


799 


5,167 


6.47 


1,238 




Phenylethyl benzoate 






178 












Phenylethyl phenyl acetate.. 
Phenylethyl propionate 


178 












178 












75 












Phenylpropyl alcohol 

Phenylvinylethylenemethyl 
ketone. 

Santalylphenyl acetate 

Skatol (methyl indol) 


194 . 












178 .. 












75. 












75, 178 












79... 












Tetrahydroparamethyl qui- 

noline. 
Yara yara (b-naphthol methyl 

ether) . 


75 












79, 178... . 












X 


























1, 275. 432 


789, 431 


.62 


1, 365, 449 




Synthetic tanning materials.. 
Synthetic phenolic resins 


107, 207, X 

16, X 






}l0, 068, 431 


5, 816, 590 


.58 


9, 763, 685 

















PRODUCTION OF DYES AND COAL-TAR CHEMICALS, 1923 



67 



Employees and Rates of Pay 

The number of employees receiving specified rates of pay on 
December 18, 1923, or on the nearest representative date for which 
this information could be obtained, as reported by 181 of the 206 
firms manufacturing coal-tar products in 1923, is contained in 
Table 13. The 25 firms not reporting either conducted a business 
in which coal-tar products were not the primary articles of manu- 
facture or they did not have separately organized departments deal- 
ing therewith. 

According to the Bureau of the Census, the number of firms en- 
gaged in the manufacture of coal-tar colors and other products in 
1914 was 7, with 528 employees, divided as follows: Salaried em- 
ployees, 130; wage earners (average number) , 398. In 1923 there were 
181 firms reporting 14,841 employees. This represents a decrease 
of 1,418 from 1922, which in turn is an increase of 2,967 over 1921. 

The chemists and technically trained men in 1923 constituted 12.7 
per cent of all employees, as compared with 10.8 per cent in 1922. 
Of the 1,882 men of this class in 1923, 28.27 per cent received $50 or 
more but under $75 per week, 23.32 per cent received $75 per week 
and over, 9.83 per cent received $45 or more but under $50 per week. 
Of those without technical training, 21.99 per cent received $30 but 
under $35 per week, 19.97 per cent received $25 but under $30, 
16.39 per cent received $35 but under $40, 15.58 per cent received 
$20 but under $25. In general, the wages of 1923 for chemists and 
technically trained men showed a small decrease from those of 1922, 
while for all men without technical training there was a large increase 
during the same period. Table 13 compares specified rates of pay of 
technically trained men with those of men not having such training. 
Among the technically trained men there was an increase of 0.51 
per cent in the pay of the group receiving $75 per week and over and 
a small decrease in the groups receiving $35 to $40, $40 to $45, $45 to 
$50, and $50 to $75. Of men without technical training there was 
an average increase of about 25 per cent in the weekly wages of the 
three classes receiving $25 to $30, $30 to $35, and $35 to $40 per week. 

As previously stated, the dye and coal-tar chemical industry has 
probably a larger proportion of technically trained men than will be 
found in any other manufacturing industry in the United States. 

Table 13. — Employees and rates of pay, dye and coal-tar chemical industry, 1923 



Wages per week 



Number of employees at each 
specified wage engaged in 
manufacturing operations 



Under $10. 

$10 but under $15 

$15 but under $20 

$20 but under $25 

$25 but under $30 

$30 but under $35 

$35 but under $40 

$40 but under $45 

$45 but under $50 

$50 but under $75 

$75 and over 



Chemists 
and tech- 
nically 
trained 
men 



2 
16 
37 

74 
110 
173 
178 
136 
185 
532 
439 



Total. 



Men 
without 
technical 
training 



74 

348 

773 

2,018 

2,588 

2, 850 

2. 123 

1,108 

643 

414 

20 



12,959 



All em- 
ployees 



76 

364 

810 

2,092 

2, 698 

3,023 

2,301 

1, 244 

828 

946 

459 



14,841 



Percentage receiv- 
ing each specified 
wage 



Chemists 
and tech- 
nically 
trained 
men 



0.11 
0.85 
1.97 
3.93 
5.84 
9.19 
9.46 
7.23 
9.83 
28.27 
23.32 



Men 
without 
technical 
training 



0.57 
2.69 
5.96 
15.58 
19.97 
21.99 
16.39 
8.55 
4.96 
3.19 
0.15 



100. 00 i 100. 00 



Percentage receiv- 
ing each specified 
wage or more 



Chemists 
and tech- 
nically 
trained 
men 



100.00 
99.89 
99.04 
97.07 
93.14 
87.30 
78.11 
68.65 
61.42 
51.59 
23.32 



Men 
without 
technical 
training 



100.00 

99.43 

96.74 

90.78 

75.20 

55.23 

33.24 

16.85 

8.30 

3.34 

0.15 



68 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 



Table 13. — Employees and rates of pay, dye and coal-tar chemical industry y 

1923 — Continued 



Wages per week 



Percentage receiving each specified wage 



Chemists and technically 
trained men 



1923 



1922 



Increased 
percent- 



Men without technical 
training 



1923 



1922 



Increased 
percent- 



Under$10 

$10 but under $15 
$15 but under $20 
$20 but under $25 
$25 but under $30 
$30 but under $35 
$35 but under $40 
$40 but under $45 
$45 but under $50 
$50 but under $75 
$75 and over 



100. 00 
99.89 
99.04 
97.07 
93.14 
87.30 
78.11 
68.65 
61.42 
51.59 
23.32 



100. 00 
99.83 
99.09 
97. 10 
92.94 
84.22 
78.41 
71.86 
62.01 
52.74 
22.81 



0.06 
1.05 
1.03 
.20 
3.08 
1.30 

■3.21 
1.59 

1 1.15 
.51 



100. 00 

99.43 

96.74 

90.78 

75.20 

55.23 

33.24 

16.85 

8.30 

3.34 

0.15 



100. 00 

99.33 

95.92 

75.89 

46.73 

24.60 

11.62 

5.61 

2.29 

.96 

.06 



0.10 

.82 

14. 89 

28. 47 

30.63 

21. 62 

11.24- 

6.01 

2.38 

.09' 



1 Decrease. 



Research Work 



Of the 206 firms engaged in 1923 in the manufacture of dyes and 
other coal-tar chemicals, 65 had separately organized research 
laboratories for the solution of technical problems and for the devel- 
opment or discovery of new products. The total cost of the research 
work carried on in these laboratories, together with that done in 
laboratories not separately organized for research, was $2,085,901. 
This figure is about the same as the amount ($2,172,508), expended 
in 1922 for this purpose. For the first time the Tariff Commission's 
census of 1923 has obtained not only the total cost of the research 
work carried on by the companies, but the net cost of that work 
chargeable to coal-tar products alone, amounting in 1923 to $1,- 
900,281. The cited figures are doubtless an understatement of the 
real cost of experimental work, since they do not include, in all cases, 
the cost of research forming a part of manufacturing operations and 
not charged against research on the books of the companies. 

The value of the finished coal-tar products produced in 1923 was 
about $65,000,000, not including crudes or intermediates. The fore- 
going figures give some indication of the large expenditure for re- 
search work considered necessary if the industry is to be self-contained 
and kept on a stable, efficient basis of operation. The coal-tar chem- 
ical industry must not only keep in view, as in the past, the develop- 
ment of products already known but must always be alert to the 
discovery of new products if it is to maintain a competitive position 
in the world's markets. 



PART III 

DYES IMPORTED FOR CONSUMPTION IN THE 
UNITED STATES, 1923 



69 



PART III 

DYES IMPORTED FOR CONSUMPTION IN THE UNITED 

STATES, 1923 



Introductory 



Since 1919 the United States Tariff Commission has compiled a 
detailed census of dye imports similar to that published by the 
Department of Commerce under the title "Artificial Dyestuffs used 
in the United States (fiscal }^ear 1913 and 1914)," commonly known 
as the ''Norton import census." 

The commission first compiled such statistics for use in the admin • 
istration of section 501, title 5, of the tariff act of September 8, 1916, 
which made the continuance of specific duties on coal-tar products, 
after September 8, 1921, dependent upon the production in the 
United States of" as much as 60 per cent in value of the consumption of 
these products. As the information was found to be of direct value 
to manufacturers, consumers, and importers, as well as to the com- 
mission itself, in considering the tariff aspects of the coal-tar chemical 
industry, the annual census of imports has been continued. 

Through cooperation with the Treasury Department the invoices 
covering dye importations through the various ports of the United 
States, with the exception of New York, have been sent to the com- 
mission for tabulation. In the year 1923, the monthly import sta- 
tistics for the port of New York were compiled and published under a 
cooperative arrangement between the respective Chemical Divisions 
of the Department of Commerce and the Tariff Commission. In 
obtaining the final 1923 figures shown in this report, the monthly 
data previously available for the port of New York were rechecked 
and the statistics for the warehouse withdrawals completed for that 
year. Data were also obtained for imports through ports other than 
New York. 

In tabulating the statistics the commission has followed in the main 
the "Schultz Farbstoff Tabellqn," which are based upon the 
chemical composition of the dye. Certain types were also identified 
according to the "Colour Index" issued by the British Society of 
Dyers and Colourists, the Norton census, and other sources of 
information in the files of the Tariff Commission. Dyes identified 
by Norton as "a, b, and c" classes under a given Schultz number 
are listed under that number (without subdivision) except in a few 
instances in which they had been incorrectly designated. Dyes 
included under these ''a, b, and c" classes are not always chemically 
identical with the original Schultz types. Such dyes as could not be 
identified by Schultz numbers are classified by the ordinary method 
of application, as follows; Acid, basic, direct, lake and spirit-soluble, 

71 



72 UNITED STATES TAEIFF COMMISSION 

mordant and chrome, sulphur, and vat. 1 In many cases the classi- 
fication of a dye by its method of application is arbitrary, as certain 
colors may be applied by either of two methods. A few dyes could 
not be classified either by the Schultz tables or by the method of 
application, and are therefore listed under the heading " Unclassified 
and unidentified dyes." 

The rate of exchange used in converting foreign invoice values to 
United States currency was either the rate given on the invoice or, 
in comparatively few cases, the exchange value published by the 
Treasury Department for the month in which consular certification 
occurred. 

Summary of Imports of Dyes in 1923 

The total imports of coal-tar dyes during the year 1923 were 
3,C98,193 pounds, valued at $3,151,363, as compared with 3,982,631 
pounds, valued at $5,243,257, for 1922. 

Of the total imports in 1923, 47 per cent came from Germany, 28 
per cent from Switzerland, 12 per cent from Italy, 6 per cent from 
France, 4 per cent from England, and 3 per cent from other countries. 

Table 16 shows the quantity and the value (when publishable) of 
individual dyes imported in 1923. Table 14 is a summary of dyes 
imported from 1920 to 1923, inclusive, classified according to their 
method of application. Table 15 gives the quantity of each of the 
leading dyes imported in 1923, compared with corresponding imports 
for the years 1922, 1921, and 1914. 

Swiss dyes. — The coal-tar dyes imported into this country from 
Europe fall largely into two groups, (1) dyes shipped directly from 
foreign factories, chiefly German and Swiss products, and (2) repara- 
tion dyes delivered by Germany in payment to the Allies and sub- 
sequently resold and shipped to the United States and other countries. 
In addition, there is a small percentage of dye imports originating 
with jobbers in the different foreign countries. Swiss dyes constitute 
28 per cent, or 867,494 pounds, of total imports during 1923. 

The prominent position maintained in the United States by Swiss 
dyes calls for a brief review of Switzerland's export trade. In 1913 
the total quantity of Swiss dyes exported was 19,458,902 pounds, 
valued at $5,549,752 ; in 1920, the year of maximum export, 23,739,794 
pounds, valued at $35,411,115, were exported. 

Prior to the war the value of Swiss exports of dyes was slightly 
more than 10 per cent of the total value of Germany's dye exports. 
The proportion of Swiss exports to Germany at that time is significant, 
averaging approximately one-fifth of the total. Since the war, 
however, exports of Swiss dyes to Germany have been small. 

From a broad economic viewpoint the Swiss dye industry is not 
self-contained or economically independent, on account of lack of 
coal and coke and their products, as well as other raw materials. 
Prior to the war many of its essential raw materials were imported 
from Germany. Since the war the situation has been materially 
changed, raw materials having become available from Great Britain, 
France, the United States, Czechoslovakia, and, more recently, again 
from Germany. Dye producers in Switzerland to-day enjoy an open 
competitive market wherein to purchase their raw materials. 

1 In nearly every case vat dyes have been reduced to a single strength. 



DYES IMPORTED FOR CONSUMPTION IN UNITED STATES, 1&23 73 

In 1922 domestic imports of dyes were larger than in 1923, totaling 
for the former year 3,982,631 pounds, with an invoice value of 
$5,243,257. Of these, Swiss dyes constitute 39 per cent by quantity 
and 41 per cent by value. Most of the remainder were of German 
manufacture. In 1923 Swiss dyes, amounting to about one-half of 
the above quantity, represented 28 per cent of the total imports. 
Notwithstanding this decrease, the Swiss dye manufacturers secured 
a much greater share of the domestic import trade than would have 
been anticipated from the size of the Swiss industry, as compared 
with that of Germany. The recent increases reported in the sell- 
ing prices of German dyes should favor increased exports of Swiss 
dyes. The reduction in the ad valorem duty on September 22, 1924, 
from 60 to 45 per cent will also tend to increase domestic imports of 
the higher-cost special types, such as are manufactured by the Swiss 
industry. 

The prominence of Swiss dyes in the domestic market is not 
entirely a recent development, as the United States received about 
one-fifth of the total Swiss exports in 1914. 

During the period of licensed control of dye imports under the 
Trading With the Enemy Act and up to the passage of the Dye and 
Chemical Control Act on May 27, 1921, licenses were refused for the 
importation of competitive types of enemy origin, but were granted for 
competitive types of nonenemy origin. This resulted in an extensive 
use of Swiss dyes in many of the textile mills of this country. Buyers 
consequently became well acquainted with Swiss products, and 
their use continued to a considerable extent even after the German 
dyes were placed on equal terms with respect to import facilities. 

The Swiss have an excellent variety of dyes, consisting mainly of 
those of relatively high cost and special type, for which the demand 
is Comparatively small. Indigo, however, is an important bulk 
color produced in Switzerland. An efficient manufacturing and 
distributing organization and the advantage of long experience favor 
the development of the Swiss industry. 

An examination by class of application of the 66 leading dyes 
imported into the United States in 1923 shows that 23 of them were 
wholly or largely of Swiss manufacture. These include both com- 
petitive and noncompetitive products, as regards American manu- 
facturers. The leading Swiss dyes imported in 1923 are as follows: 

Acid: Vat: 

Xylene light yellow. Ciba violet B. 

Erioglaucine. Ciba scarlet. 

Eriocyanine. Ciba bordeaux B. 

Polar red. Basic: 

Polar yellow. Phosphine. 

Mordant and chrome: Rhodamine B. 

Gallamine blue. Rhodamine 6G. 

Alizarin light blue B. Sulphur: 

Omega chrome brown. Eclipse brown. 

Erio chrome flavine A. Thional brown G. 

Direct: Pyrogene blue. 

Trisulphon browns. Thional yellow. 

Diazamine blue. 

Diphenyl brown BN. 

Chlorantine fast brown. 

Chlorantine fast orange. 

1760— 24t 6 



74 UNITED STATES TAEIFF COMMISSION 

Dyes imported from Italy. — In addition to the imports of dyes 
originating in plants of foreign manufacturers, a significant portion 
of domestic imports was made up of German reparation dyes resold 
by the countries receiving them and purchased by American importers. 
In 1923, 12 per cent, by quantity, of total domestic imports of dyes 
came from Italy, and examination of the individual imports shows 
that they include the faster and special types, apparently of German 
origin. They furthermore include many types, such as the anthra- 
quinone vat dyes, which are not produced in Italy. It may be 
assumed, therefore, that these dyes were delivered to Italy in payment 
for reparation and later resold to consumers in the United States and 
other countries. Official Italian statistics of imports for 1922 show 
that 1,634,270 pounds of German reparation dyes were received in 
that year and 2,156,760 pounds in the first nine months of 1923. 

From the 50 per cent stocks of dyes 2 on hand in the German plants 
as of August 15, 1919, (totaling 10,353,057 kilos, or 22,824,349 
pounds), subject to the Reparation Commission's option, 5,200 tons 
were withdrawn for immediate delivery. Of these Italy received 700 
tons, the United States and Great Britain each 1,500 tons, France 
1,000 tons, and Belgium 500 tons. The remainder of the stock was 
distributed on the basis of the pre-war consumption, taking into 
account new conditions and home production. In this way Italy 
received 7 per cent of the Indanthrene blue GCD compared with the 
United States 55 per cent, and 13 per cent of the other vat dyes, as 
against 39 per cent for the United States. The total dye deliveries 
from the stocks on hand to the allied and associated Governments 
were 9,889,650 kilos (21,802,722 pounds). 

During the period of United States participation the option for 
the delivery of 25 per cent of the German daily production gave no 
GCD blue to Italy and only 9 per cent of the other vat dyes, while 
the United States received 60 per cent of GCD blue and 42 per cent 
of other vats. 

After the cessation of deliveries to the United States, the percent- 
ages accorded to Italy, France, and Belgium showed a conspicuous 
increase of GCD blue; Italy received 25 per cent, and of other vat 
dyes Italy and France each received 20 per cent, Belgium 10 per cent, 
and Great Britain 50 per cent. 

According to the report of the Reparation Commission, Italy had 
received up to December 31, 1923, 6,274,601 kilos (13,832,985 
pounds) of all dyes out of a total delivery by Germany of 25,583,390 
kilos (56,401,142 pounds). Italy ranked second to Great Britain, the 
latter receiving 7,664,993 kilos (16.898,244 pounds) of all dyes. 
These reparation figures are of interest in any consideration of the 
possible imports of reparation dyes from Italy and France in 1924, 
especially in view of the renewed deliveries of the I. G. to the different 
allied countries. 

2 "Report on the Works of the Reparation Commission from 1920-1922, printed and published by 
His Majesty's Stationery Offices." 



DYES IMPORTED FOE COXSTJMPTIOX IN" UNITED STATES, 1923 
IMPORT STATISTICS. 



75 



Table 14. — Summary of dyes imported for consumption, classified by method of 

application, 1920-1923. 



Class 



Acid. 
Vat: 



1923 



Pounds 



544, 048 



(o) Indigo 

(b) Vat (other than indigo) - - 1,207,554 



Total I 1,207,554 



Mordant and chrome: 

(a) Alizarin 

(b) Mordant and chrome- 
Total 



Direct 

Sulphur 

Basic 

Spirit-soluble and color-lake 

Unidentified, unclassified special . 



27, 716 
425, 699 



453,415 



Total 3, 098, 193 



527, 014 

114,023 

210, 896 

23,213 

18, 030 



Per 
cent of 

total 



17.56 



38.98 



13.74 



14.63 



17.01 
3.68 
6.81 



100.00 



1922 



Pounds 



601, 395 



505 
1, 548, 519 



Per 

cent of 
total 



15.10 



.01 
38.89 



27, 086 
689, 704 



716, 790 



.68 
17.32 



18.00 



671,621 
194, 883 
155, 084 
76, 853 
16, 981 



3, 982, 631 



16.86 

4.89 

3.89 

1.93 

.43 



100. 00 





1921 


1920 


Class 


Pounds 


Per 

cent of 

total 


Pounds 


Per 

cent of 

total 


Acid 


1, 455, 823 

70, 975 
1, 045, 370 


34.24 

1.66 
24.59 


733, 405 

171, 101 
761, 363 


21.55 


Vat: 

(a) Indigo 


5.04 


(b) Vat (other than indigo) 


22.37 






Total 


1,116,345 


26.25 


932, 464 


27.41 






Mordant and chrome: 

(a) Alizarin. 


136, 283 
559, 678 


3.58 
12.78 


73, 252 
636, 230 


2.16 


(6) Mordant and chrome 


18.71 






Total 


695, 961 


16.36 


709, 482 


20.87 






Direct 


537, 664 

220, 938 

163, 527 

43, 553 

19, 100 


12.64 
5.20 
3.84 
1.02 
.45 


571, 581 

229, 140 

192, 163 

17, 527 

16, 820 


16.80 


Sulphur 


6.73 


Basic 


5.64 


Spirit-soluble and color-lake 


.51 


Unindentified, unclassified special 


.49 






Total 


4, 252, 911 


100.00 


3, 402, 582 


100. 00 







76 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 



Table 15. — Dyes of each class according to method of application, imported in 
largest quantity during the calendar year 192S, compared with imports in 1922, 
1921, and fiscal year 191 4 



Class and name of dye 



ACID DYES 

Patent blue.. 

Alizarin rubinol 3G, 5G, GW, R. 

Xylene light yellow 

Erioglaucine. 

Palatine black... 

Cyanol 

Eriocyanine < 

Fast green .^ 

Sulphoncy anine black 

Polar red 3B, G. R. RS_. 

Polar yellow, 2G, 5G 

Naphthalene green 

Patent blue A 

Neptune green 

Brilliant milling blue. 



VAT DYES 



Indanthrene yellow (single strength) 

Indanthrene golden orange R (single strength). 

Indanthrene blue GCD (single strength) 

Indanthrene golden orange G (single strength) . 

C iba violet B (single strength) 

Hydron pink FB, FF (single strength) 

Algol brown B (single strength) 

Helindone pink B, R, RN (single strength) 

Indanthrene green B (single strength) 

Indanthrene blue RS (single strength)... 

Ciba scarlet (single strength) 

Ciba bordeaux B (single strength) 

Indanthrene. blue 3G (single strength) 

Anthraflavone G (single strength) 

Algol red FF, R (single strength) 



MORDANT AND CHROME DYES 



Alizarin blue black 

Gallamine blue 

Alizarin (synthetic) _. 

Alizarin saphirol B 

Alizarin red. _ 

Alizarin viridine 

Alizarin direct green G 

Alizarin brown 

Acid alizarin gray G 

Alizarin GL, RG 

Alizarin astrol 

Omega chrome brown G, PB. 

Eriochrome flavine A 

Alizarin black 

Alizarin orange 



DIRECT DYES 



1923 



Pounds 
66, 279 
48, 826 
46, 886 
38, 254 
33, 500 
19, 979 
19, 202 
17, 190 
15, 543 
15,031 
13, 453 
13, 328 
11,872 
8,825 
8,540 



87, 946 
79, 717 
70, 546 
67, 265 
64,517 
55, 428 
55,081 
47, 771 
40, 420 
38. 235 
37, 524 
35, 714 
31, 748 
27, 721 
25, 228 



70, 917 
29, 244 
27,716 
26, 615 
25, 017 
17,217 
16, 241 
14, 531 
13, 526 
12, 528 
11,224 
11,511 
10, 713 
10, 521 
8,444 



Diaminogene blue.. I 88, 778 

Diaminogene B .- j 32,903 

Trisulphon brown B I 26,980 

Diphenyl red.. i 21, 160 

Diamine fast orange EG, ER, R ' 17,793 

Diphenyl brown BN 1 i 17,534 

Benzo fast blue 17,036 

Trisulphon brown GG 16, 150 



Toluylene orange. 

Chlorantine fast brown 3GL, RL. 

Zambesi black D, V 

Diphenyl fast brown GNC 

Diamine scarlet 

Diazo pure blue B, 3G, 3GL 



SULPHUR DYES 



14, 382 
13, 558 
13,000 
10, 126 
9,950 
9,026 



Thionol brown 28,802 

Cross dye green B 26,242 

Eclipse brown | 10,000 

Thional brown G.... > 9, 228 

Pyrogene blue ' 8,929 

Thional yellow I 7, 306 



1922 



Pounds 

49, 136 

26, 457 

12, 937 

25, 852 

11,436 

20, 658 

14, 808 

52, 498 

14, 858 

14, 926 

2,998 

19, 298 

3,436 

1,661 

872 



15,507 
78, 145 
16, 802 
73, 305 

131, 661 
20, 250 
16, 778 
40, 668 

« 57, 344 
39, 999 
33, 246 
33. 621 
24, 992 
20, 594 
14, 825 



22, 277 

29, 237 

27, 086 

46, 596 

25, 872 

25, 910 

11,669 

4,596 

7,555 

6,500 

8,155 

8,570 

12, 293 

7,343 

15, 523 



22, 420 

8,527 

45, 697 

33, 945 

8,719 

2,598 

6,997 

37,648 

36, 920 

7,715 

3,000 

9,797 

14, 137 

14, 067 



48, 750 
27, 834 
35, 991 



24, 251 



1921 



Pounds 
42, 708 

(') 

60, 422 
16,004 
14, 850 
14, 271 
16, 808 
22, 619 
615 

2,579 



23, 928 
16, 170 
7,462 
2,175 



49, 609 
56, 390 
201, 835 
33, 423 
21, 987 



6,640 



3 6. 932 
28, 908 

10, 695 
4,625 
19, 715 
10, 594 
14, 489 



43, 277 
15,179 
4 136, 283 
28, 606 
15, 565 

9,499 
36, 534 
20, 700 

2,818 
18, 266 
24, 657 

5,486 

110 

26, 524 

5,854 



19, 182 
7,864 

38, 558 
4,036 
6,261 



3,768 

22, 872 

523 

4,589 

1,752 

969 

12, 399 

6,892 



20, 632 
51,074 
21, 248 



11,718 
17, 704 



1 Included in Schultz No. 856. 
' Figures for Indanthrene black included. 



2 Figures incomplete 

4 Figures from Department of Commerce. 



DYES IMPORTED FOR CONSUMPTION IN UNITED STATES, 1923 77 

Table 15. — Dyes of each class according to method of application, imported in 
largest quantity during the calendar year 1923, compared with imports in 1922, 
1921, and fiscal year 1914 — Continued 



Schultz 
No. 



Class and name of dye 



1923 



1922 


1921 


Pounds 


Pounds 


51,711 


21, 325 


13, 545 


10, 069 


5,077 


10, 890 


6,765 


7,297 


3,476 


872 


711 


1,613 


2,060 


4,329 


2,746 


421 


2,824 









1914 



571 
573 
618 
608 
603 
663 
661 
500 



BASIC DYES 

Phosphine.. 

Rhodamine 6G 

Rhodamine B 

Thioflavine T 

Euchrysine 

Acridine orange 

New methylene blue 

Thionine blue. 

Setopaline 



Pounds 

42, 176 

31, 242 

29, 083 

20, 283 

9,483 

9,349 

6,343 

6,129 

5,853 



Pounds' 
168, 225" 
37,515 
59, 354 
35,224- 
15, 403: 
2,33& 
30, 392 
18, 618 
923 



Key to Abbreviations Used in Table 16 



1. THE SIX LEADING GERMAN COMPANIES 

A Actien-Gesellschaft fur Anilin-Fabrikation, Berlin. Founded 1873. 

B Badische Anilin-und-Soda-Fabrik, Ludwigshafen - on -the- Rhine. 

Founded 1865. 
Bv Farbenfabriken, vormals Friedr. Bayer & Co., Leverkusen-on-the- 

Rhine. Founded 1862. 

C Leopold Cassella & Co., Frankfort-on -the- Main. Founded 1870. 

K Kalle & Co., A. G., Biebrich on the Rhine. Founded 1870. 

M Farbwerke, vormals Meister Lucius & B riming, Hochst-on-the-Main. 

Founded 1862. 

2. THE SMALLER GERMAN COMPANIES 

BK Leipziger Anilinfabrik Bever & Kegel, Fiirstenberg, near Leipzig. 

Founded 1882. 
CG Chemikalienwerk Griesheim G. m. b. H., Griesheim-on-the-Main. 

Founded 1881. 
CJ Carl Jager G. m. b. H., Anilinfarbenfabrik, Diisseldorf. Founded 

1823. 
GrE Chemis,che Fabrik Griesheim-Electron, Offenbach -on -the -Main. 

Founded 1842. 
L Farbwerk Muhlheim, vormals A. Leonhardt & Co., Miihlheim-on-the- 

Main. Founded 1879. 
tM Chemische Fabriken, formals Weiler ter Meer, Uerdingen-on-the- 

Rhine. Founded 1877. 

WD Wiilfing, Dahl & Co., A. G., Barmen. Founded 1842. 

A-S Co Arzberger & Schopff & Co., Eisenach. 

3. DUTCH, BELGIAN, AND FRENCH COMPANIES 

FA Farbwerk Ammersfoort, Ammersfoort, Netherlands. Founded 1888. 

NF Niederlandische Farben-und-Chemikalienfabrik Delft, Delft, Nether- 
lands. Founded 1897. 

LG Lazard Godchaux, of Brussels. (These products are probably com- 
pounded largely from the dyes made by A. Wiescher & Co., of 
Haeren, Belgium.) 

P Societe Anonyme des Matieres colorantes et produits chimiques 

St. Denis (formerly A. Poirrier), St. Denis, near Paris, France. 
Founded 1830. 

4. SWISS COMPANIES, ALL AT BASEL 

DH Farbwerke vormals L. Durand, Huguenin & Co. Founded 1871. 

G Anilinfarben-und-Extract-Fabriken, vormals Joh. Rud. Geigy, 

Founded 1764. 

I Gesellschaft fur chemische Industrie. Founded 1885. 

S Chemische Fabrik, vormals Sandoz & Co. Founded 1887. 



78 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 



5. ENGLISH COMPANIES 

Bro Brotherton and Co. (Ltd.), City Chambers, Leeds. 

B. A. C British Alizarine Co. (Ltd.), Manchester. 

B. D British Dyestuffs Corporation (Ltd.), London. 

CI. Co The Clavton Aniline Co. (Ltd.), Clayton, Manchester. 

C. V The Colne Vale Dye and Chemical Co. (Ltd.), Milnsbridge, Hudders- 

field. 

Hoi L. B. Holliday and Co. (Ltd.), Huddersfield. 

Scot Scottish Dyes (Ltd.), Grangemouth. 

Table 16. — Dyes imported into the United States, 1923 



Name of dye 



Total- 



Mart ius yellow 

Aniline yellow 

Direct yellow 

Sun yellow G 

Chloramine orange 

Chloramine orange G 

Diphenyl chrysoine 

Diphenyl chrysoine GC 

Fast light yellow 

Fast light yellow 

Fast light yellow 2G 

Fast light yellow 2G 

Fast light yellow 3G 

Fast light yellow 3G 

Fast light yellow R_. 

Pigment chrome yellow 

Pigment chrome yellow L paste 

Xylene light yellow 

Xylene light yellow 2G cone. 75 per cent.. 

Xylene light yellow 2G cone. 100 per cent. 

Xylene light yellow R cone. 

Dianil yellow 3G 

Hansa yellow G— 

Hansa yellow G paste 

Hansa yellow G pdr. 

Chrysoidine R 

Chrysoidine RL 

Orange G 

Orange 2G 

Orange 2G 

Alizarin yellow G... 

Alizarin yellow 2G 

Alizarin yellow 2G 

Alizarin yellow 5G... 

Alizarin yellow GD 

Autol red 

Nitrosamine red paste 

Alizarin yellow R . 

Alizarin yellow R paste 

Ultra orange R._ 

Victoria violet 

Azo wool blue SE 

Victoria violet 4BS cone 

Azo acid blue. 

Azo acid blue B cone 

Azo coralline - ». 

Azo coralline L 

Helio fast red 

Sitara fast red RL 

Tannin orange R 

Tannin orange R pdr.. 

Brilliant cochineal.. 

Palatine scarlet A 

Azo chromine - 

Azo chromine NR paste 

Acid anthracene brown.. 

Acid anthracene brown PG 

Acid anthracene brown R 

Acid anthracene brown RH 

Sudan R 

Pigment purple A pdr.. 



Manu- 
fac- 
turer 



S.._ 
By". 



G. 



WD. 
By.. 
WD. 
By.. 
WD. 
WD. 



M. 



M. 



C- 
WD. 



S— . 
WD. 



tM. 
C." 



By. 
By. 
By. 



M. 



Imports 



Quantity 



Pounds 
3, 098, 193 



2,102 
""55 



4,409 
"6,211 



100 



100 

4,081 

1,900 

55 



254 



1,589 



994 



210 
.... 



551 
"466 



101 
"""55 
~7,"8l6 



DYES IMPOETED FOR CONSUMPTION IN UNITED STATES, 1923 79 
Table 16. — Dyes imported into the United States, 1923 — Continued 





Name of dye 


Manu- 
fac- 
turer 


Imports 


Schultz 
No. 


Quantity 


Invoice 
value 


100 




A 

A 


Pounds 
7,501 
260 
447 




117 


Erica 2GN 














By 








By 






119 






400 








C 




121 






3,298 


$5, 866 






Q 








B 










A 












345 








B 










10 








M 










80 






Black JD... ..... 


B 










M 












10 








C 










1,323 








G 




140 






5,991 


5,843 




DH 








DH 










DH 










G 












100 








C - 










2,240 








A 




154 






1,459 


1,419 




B 








B 










B 










B 






158 






1,054 






G 








G 












3,920 








M 




160 




B 


6 
170 












Fast red AV 


B 






Fast red AVX 


B 






168 






500 








C 








C 






175 






220 








G 




177 






700 


588 






A 








A 










C 






180 






2,205 








G 




182 






7,414 


7,438 






S 








s_. 










s 






184 






4,409 








G 




193 




CICo... 


300 
25 




198 








Thiazol yellow 3G 


By 




206 






750 








G 




207 






10, 126 








G 




217 






150 








By 




220 






33,500 


18, 425 






A 






Wool black ORF 


A 








Wool jet black 3B 


A 






221 




C 


453 





80 UNITED STATES TAKIFF COMMISSION 

Table 16. — Dyes imported into the United States, 1923 — Continued 



Schultz 
No. 



222 



236 
240 



250 
256 



260 
265 



266 
273 



274 



276 
277 



279 



283 



293 
294 



296 



297 
303 



306 
308 
313 
319 



322 



Name of dye 



Janus yellow 

Janus yellow G . 

Yellow IG 

Yellow JG 

Wool red B 

Fast bordeaux B 

Janus red B 

Janus red B 

Bed IB 

Red JB. 

Milling orange , 

Sulphon black 3B 

Azo cyanine GR — 

Sulphon cvanine 

Cloth fast blue R 

Eriochrome verdon 8.. 

Sulphonyanine black. 

Acid milling black 

Acid milling black B 50 per cent,. 
Acid milling black B 100 per cent. 

Naphthylamine black 

Naphthylamine black 6B 

Diaminogene blue. 

Diaminogene blue NA.. 

Diaminogene blue NBB 

Diazamine blue NA 

Diazamine blue BR.. 

Diazamine blue RR 

Naphthogene blue RR 

Diaminogene B 

Black extra 

Diaminogene extra 

Diaminogene black extra 

Diazo indigo blue BR 

Diazo indigo blue 2RL 

Zambesi pure blue 4BG 

Diamond green 

Diamond green B 

Anthracene acid black 

Anthracene acid black ST 

Acid chrome black STC 

Benzo fast scarlet 

Benzo fast scarlet 5BS 

Benzo fast scarlet 8BS 

Benzo fast scarlet GS 

Direct fast scarlet SE 

Bismark brown 

Bismark brown 

Excelsior brown 

Leather brown A.. 

Vesuvine extra 

Vesuvine 3R 

Palatine chrome black 

Acid alizarin black SE pdr. 

Milling red 

Milling red G . — 

Fast mordant yellow ' 

Fast mordant yellow G pdr 

Cotton yellow 

Benzo fast yellow RL 

Cotton yellow — 

Cotton yellow GI. 

Cotton yellow GX 

Diamine fast yellow 3G 

Benzo fast pink 2BL 

Paper yellow 

Brilliant yellow 

Brilliant yellow cone 

Pyramine orange 3G 

Diazo black OT.... 

Congo rubine. 

Diamine scarlet... 

Chloramine red 3B 

Diamine brilliant bordeaux R 

Diamine scarlet B 

Diamine scarlet 3B 

Triazol red 3B 

Trisulphon violet B 



Manu- 
fac- 
turer 



BK 



M... 
M... 
M... 
WD. 



K. 



By. 



C... 
C . 

CN 
S— . 

s.... 

A .. 



C. 
C. 

c 

Bv. 
By. 
A 



By. 



C._ 

By. 



By. 
By. 
By. 
I... 



WD. 
WD. 
C... 
B... 
M... 



By. 
B.. 
B.. 
B__ 
C. 
By. 



By. 
S... 
B.. 
By. 
A.. 



S 

c.__. 
c... 
c... 

GrE. 

S..... 



Imports 



Quantity 



Pounds 
760 



115 
"766' 



551 
200 



333 



2,205 
15, 543 



798 

S~778' 



119 



5,196 



2,429 



179 
"I60 



11 
"3,"329 



121 
1,501 



♦,500 
501 
100 

9,950 



Invoice 
value 



$1, 292 



8,111 



93, 814 



26, 917 



7,078 



1,225 



3,456 



9,910 



DYES IMPORTED FOR CONSUMPTION IN UNITED STATES, 1923 81 
Table 16. — Dyes imported into the United States, 1928 — Continued 



Name of dye 



Manu- 
fac- 
turer 



Imports 



Quantity 



Invoice 
value 



Columbia blue R, 

Qxydiamine violet - 

Benzo violet O 

Naphthamine violet BE — 

Zambesi brown 

Zambesi brown 4R . 

Benzo fast red 

Benzo fast red 8BL 

Diamine black 

Oxamine black BHN extra. 

Naphthamine blue 

Naphthamine blue JEF . 

Brilliant orange -- 

Diamine orange B 

Benzo orange R 

Benzo fast orange WS 

Chrysamine --- 

Chrysamine K 

Chrysamine KS . 

Diamine fast red 

Diamine fast red 8BL 

Oxamine red 

Oxamine red X ... 

Oxamine red 3BX ... 

Diphenyl brown 

Diphenyl brown BBNC 

Diphenyl brown GS 

Diamine brown B - 

Direct gray R paste 

Diphenyl red 

Aceto purpurine 8B___ 

Chloramine red 8BS 

Toluvlene red - 

Toluylene red 00__ 

Pyramine orange R 

Ignamine (Pyramine) orange R 

Diazo brilliant black 

Diazo brilliant black B ... 

Delta purpurine 

Delta purpurine 5B 

Brilliant congo ... - 

Brilliant congo R 

Congo orange 

Congo orange R --- 

Congo orange R - 

Benzo blue 

Chloramine blue BXR cone 

Columbia blue G.. 

Toluylene orange. _ 

Direct fast orange K 

Pyrazol orange G cone 

Toluylene fast orange GL__ 

Benzopurpurine 10B 

Benzoazurine 3G.._ 

Chicago blue 6B 

Brilliant benzo blue 6B 

Chloramine sky blue FF cone 

Benzo pure blue cone 

Janus brown 

Janus brown B. 

Columbia black 

Patent dianil black FF cone 

Diamine bronze 

Diamine bronze G 

Trisulphon brown 

Diphenyl brown TB cone. 

Trisulphon brown B 

Trisulphon brown B cone 

Benzo fast blue 

Benzo fast blue 2GL 

Benzo fast blue. 4GL 

Benzo light blue 2GE 

Benzo light blue 4GL 

Trisulphon brown GG 

Trisulphon brown GG. 

Trisulphon brown GG cone. 50 per cent. 

Trisulphon brown GG cone. 70 per cent. 
Chloramine blue HW__ 

Chloramine blue H\V 



By. 



A.. 
By! 



C. 

By! 



A.... 

By... 
GrE. 
GrE. 



B._ 

By". 



By. 
By". 



A.. 
By. 



I... 
S... 
By. 
S... 
By. 



By. 
S— 
By. 



M. 



By. 
By. 
By. 
By. 



Pounds 
10 
, 633 



50 
"I,"042~ 



5 
"I,"98l" 



3,821 
"""56" 
"5,"002" 



200 
"966" 



17, 534 



451 

2,172 

21, 160 



6,895 
""782" 

""'iii' 
"""336" 

"2,"020" 



900 



25 

14, 382 



100 

22 

7,431 



50 
"""800" 
"26,"980" 



17, 036 



16,150 



100 



$1, 335 



2,656 



13, 101 



39, 210 



31,338 



19, 49S 



82 UNITED STATES TAKIFF COMMISSION 

Table 16. — Dyes imported into the United States, 1923 — Continued 



Name of dye 



Oxamine green G__ .. 

Naphthamine green AN.. 

Benzamine brown 3GO 

Dianil chrome brown O 

Benzo brown D3G 

Auramine 

Auramine N conc._ 

Auramine 00 

Auramine G 

Auramine G . 

Auramine G 

Setoglaueine 

Setoglaucine 753 

Setoglaueine 753, 55 per cent 

Setoglaucine 753, 100 per cent 

Victoria green 

Turquoise blue BB, G 

Setopaline 

Setopaline cone. 707 

Brilliant glacier blue 

Neptune green 

Brilliant acid green 6B 

Brilliant milling green B 

Erioviridine B supra 

Guinea fast green B 

Night green A 

Patent green AGL 

Light green (yellowish) 

Acid green GG extra 

Light green SF yellowish 

Light green SF yellowish XX 

Erioglaucine 

Brilliant acid blue EG 

Erioglaucine. 

Erioglaucine A 

Erioglaucine AB 

Erioglaucine AP 

Erioglaucine EP 

Erioglaucine supra cone 

Xylene blue VS 

Xylene blue VS cone .. 

Magenta 

Diamond magenta I, small crystals. 

Magenta, small crystals 

Bed violet 

Violet 4RN 

Methyl violet 

Methyl violet crystals 

Methyl violet NFB.. 

Methyl violet 300 XE 

Crystal violet 

Crystal violet crystals 

Crystal violet extra cone 

Crystal violet extra.. 

Crystal violet pdr 

Crystal violet O 

Crystal violet 5BO 

Ethyl purple 

Ethvl violet. 

Ethyl violet 6B 

Victoria blue 4R__ 

Victoria blue 4R 

Victoria blue 4R highly cone 

Fast green 

Fast green bluish 

Fast green extra bluish 

Fast green extra bluish cone 

Acid magenta 

Acid fuchsine S cone. 

Acid magenta 

Acid violet 4BN.. 

Acid violet 4BNS cone 

Acid violet 6BNOO 

Acid violet 7BN. 

Fast acid violet 10B 

Fast acid violet 10 B 

Kiton fast violet 10 B 

Kiton fast violet 10 B cone 



Manu- 
fac- 
turer 



M.. 
By. 



G._ 
G.. 
G.. 
B.. 

By. 



By. 
C._ 
G._ 
A.. 

tM. 
M.. 



By. 
B._ 
B_. 



By. 
G.. 
G.. 
G_. 
G._ 
G_. 
G.. 



tM.. 
K... 
B... 
WD. 

M... 

S— .. 



B___. 
GrE. 



By. 

By. 
By. 



S... 
By. 



By. 
I... 
I— 



Imports 



Quantity 



Pounds 
250 



100 



6 
3,944 



3,637 
~3.~498 



5 

4 

5,853 



110 

8,825 



Invoice 
value 



38, 254 



6,104 
~""l48 



220 
"690 



3,738 



3,852 
"I~350 

~l7,"l90' 



577 



6,305 



5,862 



DYES IMPORTED FOE CONSUMPTION IN UNITED STATES, 1923 83 
Table 16. — Dyes imported into the United States, 1923 — Continued 



Name of dye 



Manu- 
fac- 
turer 



Imports 



530 



531 



532 



534 
535 



536 
537 



539 



541 



543 



544 
545 



546 



548 



550 

553 
►- 

554 



555 
557 



558 



Acid violet - " "i»" 

Acid violet 3BNO %- 

Acid violet 6BNG I £- 

Acid violet C 10B.. 1 °- 

Formyl violet S 4B ^- 



Acid violet 4 BS._ ."".'— 1 WD - 



B. 



Acid violet 10B... | c 

Erioeyanine - -|-jj 

Eriocyanine A - - --- i J* 

Erioeyanine AC --- - " 

Alkali violet 

Alkali violet CA 

Alkali violet 4BNOO 

Alkali violet 6BOO 

Acid violet 7B 

Acid violet 7B cone 

Methyl alkali blue 

Methyl alkali blue 

Methyl alkali blue pdr 

Alkali blue 

Alkali blue 3R cone 

Methyl blue for silk 

Methyl Lyons blue 

Methyl silk blue new 

Pure blue 2G - 

Soluble blue 

Cotton blue No. 2 cone — 

Silk blue BSIC 

Soluble blue T.... 

Water blue.. 

Brilliant dianil blue 6G 

Brilliant cotton blue 6B... 
Direct brilliant blue 8B... 

Patent blue - - 

Brilliant acid blue V 

Carmine blue V 

Neptune blue BGX 

Patent blue V 

Patent blue V 

Patent marine blue LE... 

Tetra eyanol V 

Cyanine B -. 

Cyanine B 

Patent blue A 

Brilliant acid blue A 

Brilliant acid blue F 

Brilliant acid blue FF 

Neptune blue BXX 

Patent blue A 

Patent blue A 

Tetracyanol A 

Cyanol 

Cyanol extra. 

Cyanol extra 

Cyanol extra A 

Cyanol FF 

Glaucol FF 

Acid violet 6BN._ 

Acid violet 6BNOO 

Acid violet 6BS 

Acid violet GENG 

Chrome bordeaux.. 

Chrome bordeaux B i 

Eriochrome cyanine 

Eriochrome cyanine RC. 

Chrome azurol - 

Chrome azurol S cone 

Chrome azurol SXT 

Aurine 

Aurine 100 per cent 

Chrome violet 

Chrome violet CG 

Victoria blue R 

Cornflower blue B 



Quantity 



M.... 
GrE. 



tM. 



G.. 
G_. 

tM. 



M.._. 
GrE. 
B... 
A... 



By. 

I... 

1',.. 
A.. 
M- 
M.. 
C. 



M. 



By. 
By. 
By. 
B.. 

A.. 

M.. 
C. 



B... 
WD. 
G... 



DH. 



G. 



Q- 



Pounds 
197 



Invoice 
value 



19,202 



142 



195 



100 



$420 



7,058 



20, 523 



1,165 



440 



66, 279 



440 



2,392 



50,586 



11,872 



19, 979 



999 



1,601 



10,646 



23, 576 



4,836 



DH. 



WD. 



550 



84 UNITED STATES TAKIFE COMMISSION 

Table 16. — Dyes imported into the United States, 1923 — Continued 



Schultz 
No. 


Name of dye 


Manu- 
fac- 
turer 


Imports 


Quantity 


Invoice 
value 


659 






Pounds 
1,722 


$3, 322 






Q 






Q 








Victoria blue B highly cone 


B 










B 










B 






560 






28 






Night blue. 


B 








G 






562 






2,103 


2,966 




Acid blue RBF 


I.. 








By 










G 










By 








Wool blue N 


By 






564 






13, 328 


20, 967 






G .. 








I 










M 










M 

S 






565 






500 






Wool blue 2B .. . 


A 






Wool blue 5B 


A 






666 






105 








C. 








B 






568 






55 








L 




569 






55 








L 




571 






31,242 


97, 991 






B 








By 










I... 










M 










G 










M 








Rhodamine 6GDN 


BD 










B... 










M 








Rhodamine 6GH .. 


I.. 






572 






412 








B 








G 






573 






29, 083 


50, 058 






G 








B 










By.. 










I_ 










Q - 










M 






574 






110 








I 




679 






941 








M .. 








M... 






580 






251 


771 






M 








M 










M 






582 






232 






Acid violet 4RNOO 


B... 








G 






584 




M 


25 
5 




587 










Q 




597 






59 








Q 








M 






601 






50 








Q 




602 






440 








L . 




603 






9,349 


26, 623 






DH 








BD... 










DH 










By 










By...... 







DYES IMPORTED FOR CONSUMPTION IN UNITED STATES, 1923 85 
Table 16. — Dyes imported into the United States, 1923 — Continued 



Schultz 
No. 



606 



Name of dye 



007 



609 



612 



613 



615 
617 



618 



620 
622 
624 
625 
626 

627 

631 
633 



Phosphine 

Acid phosphine R — 

C anelle AL 

Coriphosphine OX extra 

Leather phosphine G 

Leather phosphine 2G 

Patent phosphine G - 

Patent phosphine G 

Patent phosphine G 

Patent phosphine 2G -.- 

Patent phosphine R 

Philadelphia yellow 2G 

Phosphine O 

Phosphine 3R 

Phosphine 3R 

Rheonine -- 

Runic (Rheonine) AL cone 

Runic (Rheonine) GD 

Euchrvsine - 

Euchrysine GRNTN 

Euchrysine RRX 

Euchrysine RRDX 

Patent phosphine R -- 

Patent phosphine 2R 

Patent phosphine GRNTN.... 

Patent phosphine RRDX. 

Homophosphine 

Auracine G cone 

Corioflavine GOOO 

Flavophosphine G cone 

Quinoline yellow, spirit-soluble 

Quinoline yellow... 

Quinoline yeliow 

Quinoline yellow cone 

Quinoline yellow 

Quinoline yellow cone. 

Quinoline yellow cone -- 

Quinoline yellow extra 

Quinoline yellow KT extra cone 

Quinoline yellow N 

Quinoline yellow O.- 

Thioflavine S 

Direct yellow S. 

Columbia yellow 

Chloramine yellow GG_. 

Diamine fast yellow AGG.. 

Diphenyl chlorine yellow FF supra. 
Thioflavine T 

Basic yellow T .- 

Basic yellow TON.. 

Methylene yellow H. 

Rhoduline yellow 6G 

Rhoduline yellow 6GT 

Tannoflavine T - 

Thioflavine T... 

Thioflavine TON 

Yellow T -- 

Capri blue 

Capri blue GON cone — 

Delphine blue B - 

Brilliant delphine blue B.. 

Modern violet N 

Modern violet N pdr 

Chrome heliotrope 

Modern heliotrope 

Gallocyanine... • 

Brilliant chrome blue P 

Gallocyanine paste. - 

Anthracy anine - 

Anthracyanine S pdr 

Chromaoetine blue S pdr.. 

Modern cyanine V pdr 

Modern royal blue pdr 

Chromocyanine 

Chromocyanine B paste 

Indalizarin 

Indalizarin J paste 



Manu- 
fac- 
turer 



B.__. 
B.... 

By... 
G.... 
G.„. 
G.._. 
By... 

I 

G.__. 

I 

A.... 
M... 
A.... 
GrE. 



By... 
GrE. 
M._, 



By. 

S... 



By. 

S... 
B.. 
By. 
By. 
M. 



By. 

C. 

a.. 



c__ 
c. 

M„ 
By. 
By. 
s... 
c. 
c. 
c. 



s.... 
dh! 



DH. 



DH. 
DH. 
DH. 
DH. 



DH. 



Imports 



Quantity 



Pounds 
42, 176 



Invoice 
value 



565 



9,483 



$70, 475 



15, 537 



2,520 



1,320 
~7,~l68 



35 



1,652 
"20,"283 



4,432 



2,104 

"io'on 



1,307 



37,527 



110 
~2,~66T 



440 

"116" 



2,202 
"3,"082 



432 
"33p 



8,001 



86 UNITED STATES TAEIFF COMMISSION 

Table 16. — Dyes imported into the United States, 1923 — Continued 





Name of dye 


Manu- 
fac- 
turer 


Imports 


Schultz 
No. 


Quantity 


Invoice 
value 


635 






Pounds 
990 


$2, 34» 




Blue 1900 dbl. pdr 


dh 




Gallo violet DF 


Bv 








Modern violet pdr 


DH 






636 






330 








1__ 






Violet PDH pdr 


DH 






637 






29, 244 








G 




644 






200 








S 




645 






712 








DH 








DH 






649 






1,404 


979 






B 








S 










s . 






650 


Cotton blue BB 


B 


5 
3,435 




653 








Danubia (Nile) blue BX 


B. 








B 






658 






1,163 








By 








By 






660 






505 


50 






M 








By 










M 






661 






6,129 


11, 639 




Thionine blue G - 


I 








M 










M 






663 






6,443 


10, 889 




Methylene blue NNX 


B 








C 










C 










C 






667 






201 








By 




672 






7,218 


7,147 






B 








B 










B. 






673 ' 






2,209 


2,131 






B 








B 










B 










K 






679 






110 








G 




681 






3,144 


1,872 






P 








P 










By 






685 




C 

B 


50 
30 
49 




686 






687 


Rosolane O, T, R 








M 








M 






688 






125 








P 




695 






500 








A 




699 






155 








B... 








B_._ ... 






700 






3,079 


1,752 






B 








WD 










B 










A 






705 






3,500 








A 








A 






712 






10 








B 





DYES IMPORTED FOR CONSUMPTION IN UNITED STATES, 1923 87 
Table 16. — Dyes imported into the United States, 1923 — Continued 



Name of dye 



Sulphur black - 

Thiogene black MA highly cone. 

Immedial black... • 

Immedial direct blue B.. 

Pyrogene blue - ■ 

Pyrogene direct blue RL 

Immedial indone ■ 

Immedial indogene GLC cone 

Pyrogene yellow ■ 

Pyrogene yellow M 

Pyrogene indigo - ■ 

Pyrogene indigo -■ 

Pyrogene indigo cone -- ■ 

Katigene green ■ 

Immedial green GG extra 

Pyrogene green 3G cone. 

Thional brown 

Thional brown G 

Hydron blue (single strength) 

Hydron blue G paste 

Hydron blue G pdr -- 

Hydron blue R paste - 

Hydron blue R pdr - 

Kryogene violet - 

Kryogene violet 3 RX 

Anthraflavone G (single strength) 

Anthraflavone G paste 

Anthraflavone GC paste 

Anthraflavone GC paste, fine 

Anthraflavone GC pdr 

Anthra yellow G paste 

Anthra yellow GC paste -- 

Anthra yellow GC paste, fine 

Anthra yellow GC pdr 

Indanthrene" golden orange G (single strength).. 

Duranthrene golden orange Y paste 

Helindone golden orange IG paste 

Helindone golden orange IG dbl. paste 

Indanthrene golden orange G paste 

Indanthrene golden orange G dbl. paste 

Indanthrene golden orange G pdr. 

Vat golden orange G dbl. paste 

Indanthrene golden orange R (single strength).. 

Helindone golden orange IRRT paste 

Helindone golden orange IRRT paste, fine.. 

Helindone golden orange IRRT pdr 

Indanthrene golden orange RRT paste 

Indanthrene golden orange RRT paste, fine. 

Indanthrene golden orange RRT pdr 

Indanthrene golden orange RRTS pdr 

Vat orange RRT paste 

Vat orange RRT paste... 

Indanthrene scarlet GS pdr 

Indanthrene scarlet GS pdr 

Vat orange 4R pdr.. 

Indanthrene dark blue BO (single strength) 

Helindone dark blue IBOA paste 

Indanthrene dark blue BO extra paste 

Indanthrene dark blue BO pdr 

Indanthrene green B (single strength) 

Helindone black IBB pdr 

Helindone blue green IB dbl. paste 

Indanthrene black 

Indanthrene black 2B extra paste 

Indanthrene black 2B dbl. paste 

Indanthrene blue green B dbl. paste.- 

Vat black BB dbl. paste 

Vat blue green B dbl. paste 

Indanthrene violet RR (single strength) 

Helindone violet IRR extra paste 

Helindone violet IRR extra pdr 

Helindone violet DIRR extra paste 

Indanthrene violet RR extra paste 

Indanthrene violet RR dbl. paste 

Indanthrene violet RR pdr.. 

Indanthrene violet RR extra pdr 

Vat brilliant violet RR paste 

Vat brilliant violet RR pdr 

Vat brilliant violet RRP pdr.... 

Indanthrene violet B paste 



Manu- 
fac- 
turer 



M. 



BD. 
M._ 
M_. 
B... 
B... 
B... 
B .. 



M.. 
M.. 
M_. 
B.. 
B._ 
B._ 
B._ 
B._ 
By. 



Imports 



Quantity 



Pounds 
500 



940 

"8,~929" 



570 
"*"55l' 
"2,"314" 



4,283 



9,228 

"'2S6' 



Invoice 
value 



$116 



1,110 

"27," 72l' 



25, 537 



67, 265 



63, 342 



79, 717 



566 



5,051 
~46~420 



2,944 
'187607 



24,506 



15, 752 



53 



88 UNITED STATES TAEIFF COMMISSION 

Table 16. — Dyes imported into the United States, 1923 — Continued 



Name of dye 



Alizarin black 25 per cent paste 

Alizarin black S paste 25 per cent 

Alizarin black S paste 25 per cent 

Alizarin black S pdr 

Alizarin, black WE pdr 

Alizarin black WX extra S paste 40 per cent. 
Alizarin, synthetic— 20 per cent paste 

Alizarin _ 

Alizarin pdr 

Alizarin VI extra pure 20 per cent 

Alizarin red IB extra paste 20 per cent 

Alizarin red DIB extra paste 20 per cent 

Alizarin orange 20 per cent paste 

Alizarin orange 20 per cent 

Alizarin orange AO 20 per cent 

Alizarin orange A 20 per cent 

Alizarin orange pdr. 80 per cent. 

Alizarin red powder 

Alizarin carmine pdr 

Alizarin red IWS pdr. 

Alizarin red S pdr 

Alizarin red S pdr 

Alizarin red W pdr 

Alizarin brown t. 

Anthracene brown R pdr. 

Anthracene brown RD paste 

Alizarin SX, GD paste 

Alizarin SX 20 per cent paste. 

Alizarin red SX extra paste... 

Alizarin red SX 20 per cent paste 

Alizarin RQ, GI 

Alizarin SDG 20 per cent paste 

Alizarin red XGP 20 per cent paste 

Alizarin red YCA 20 per cent paste 

Alizarin cyanine 

Alizarin cyanine NS pdr 

Acid alizarin blue BB 

Anthracene blue SWB pdr.. 

Anthracene blue SWGG extra pdr 

Anthracene blue SWR pdr 

Cibanone orange R (single strength) 

Cibanone orange R pdr 

Cibanone black (single strength) 

Cibanone black B paste 10 per cent 

Cibanone black 2G pdr. 100 per cent 

Cibanone yellow R (single strength) 

Cibanone yellow R paste 10 per cent... 

Cibanone yellow R pdr. 

Alizarin maroon W 

Alizarin maroon,. 

Alizarin cyanine G 

Alizarin cyanine G pdr 

Alizarin cyanine NSG pdr 

Anthracene blue 

Anthracene blue WG paste. 

Anthracene blue WBU paste 

Anthracene blue WGU paste 

Alizarin blue WX, A.. 

Alizarin blue B pdr , 

Alizarin blue S 

Alizarin blue S extra paste 

Alizarin blue S pdr.. 

Alizarin blue SB pdr 

Alizarin black S 

Alizarin black S paste 

Alizarin green S paste 

Alizarin green S paste 

Alizarin green S paste 

Helindone yellow (single strength) 

Vat yellow RK paste 

Vat yellow RK pdr , 

Algol yellow 3G (single strength) , 

Algol yellow 3G paste.. 

Algol yellow 3G pdr 

Indanthrene copper R paste 



1 5,815 pounds of paste, 2,133 pounds of pdr. 



Manu- 
fac- 
turer 



A-S Co. 
A-S Co. 

B 

By 

By 



BAC. 
BAC. 
B..._ 

M_-. 



BAC. 
M... 
B_... 
BAC. 
By.._ 



By. 
G.. 



B 

By... 
BAC. 



M... 
By... 
BAC. 



By. 



By. 
By. 



By. 
By. 

M. 



M. 



B.... 
BAC. 



By. 
By. 
B.. 



Imports 



Quantity 



Pounds 
10, 521 



27,716 



Invoice 
value 



8,444 



25, 017 



14, 531 



8, 206 



12, 528 



442 
"912' 



5,060 
"57175' 



8,373 



500 
"2, _ 607' 



3,379 



441 



1,876 
"3,~898' 



1,471 

""494' 



DYES IMPORTED FOE CONSUMPTION IN UNITED STATES, 1923 89 
Table 16. — Dyes imported into the United States, 1923 — Continued 



Name of dye 



Manu- 
fac- 
turer 



Imports 



Quantity- 



Invoice 
value 



Algol yellow WF (single strength) 

Algol yellow WF pdr 

Algol red 5G (single strength) 

Algol red 5G pdr... 

Algol red 5GK paste 

Algol red 5GK pdr 

Algol yellow R (single strength) 

Algol yellow R pdr 

Vat yellow GK paste 

Vat yellow GK pdr 

Algol pink R, (single strength) 

Algol pink R paste 

Algol pink R pdr 

Algol red FF, R (single strength) 

Algol brilliant red 2B paste. 

Algol brilliant red 2B pdr 

Algol brilliant red 2B extra pdr 

Algol red FF extra paste 

Algol red FF pdr 

Algol red R paste 

Algol red R pdr 

Algol brilliant violet R (single strength) 

Algol brilliant violet R paste 

Algol brilliant violet R pdr 

Duranthrene brilliant violet R paste 

Duranthrene brilliant violet R pdr 

Vat brilliant violet RK paste 

Vat brilliant violet RK pdr.. 

Algol brilliant violet 2B (single strength) 

Algol brilliant viofft 2B pdr 

Indanthrene brilliant violet 2BK paste.. 
Indanthrene brilliant violet 2BK pdr 

Algol brilliant orange FR (single strength).. 

Algol brilliant orange FR paste 

Algol brilliant orange FR pdr 

Indanthrene orange RRK pdr 

Algol orange R (single strength) 

Algol orange R paste 

Algol orange R pdr 

Indanthrene orange 6RTK pdr 

Algol red B (single s-trength) * 

Algol red B pdr 

Indanthrene claret B extra (single strength). 

Anthra bordeaux R paste 

Anthra claret R paste fine 

Anthra bordeaux R pdr 

Indanthrene bordeaux B extra paste 

Indanthrene claret B (single strength) 

Indanthrene bordeaux B pdr 

Vat heliotrope R dbl. paste 

Indanthriene red R (single strength).. 

Indanthrene red R paste 

Indanthrene red BN (single strength).. 

Caledon red BN paste 

Duranthrene red BN paste 

Helindone red BIDN paste 

Indanthrene red BN pdr 

Indanthrene red BN extra paste 

Indanthrene red BN extra pdr 

Indanthrene red RK paste 

Indanthrene red R K paste fine 

Indanthrene red RKP pdr 

Indanthrene violet RN (single strength) 

Helindone violet IBN extra paste 

Indanthrene violet BN paste.. 

Indanthrene violet BN extra paste 

Indanthrene violet BN paste fine 

Indanthrene violet BN pdr 

833 Algol olive R (single strength) 

Algol olive R paste 

Algol olive R pdr 

Vat olive R paste 

834 : Algol gray (single strength) ^.. 

Algol gray 2B paste 

Vat grav K pdr 

836 I Helindone brown 3GN paste 

1760— 24t 7 



By. 



By. 
By. 
By. 



By. 
By. 
By. 



By. 

By. 



By. 
By. 
By. 
By. 
By. 
By. 
By. 



By.. 
By.. 
BD. 
BD. 
By.. 
By- 



By. 
By. 
By. 



By. 
By. 



By. 

By. 
By. 



By. 



a. 



Scot. 
BD. 
M... 
B... 
B... 
B... 
B... 
B_... 
B.... 



By. 
By. 
By. 



Bv. 
By. 
M. 



Pounds 
792 



793 



$381 



3,517 



1,070 



1,636 



25,228 



12,809 



15, 381 



5,591 



4,634 



12, 763 



4,496 



3,989 



4,222 



160 



13,306 



1,777 



13, 361 



7,180 



1,317 
"l6,~825~ I6,~590 



20, 435 26, 381 



1,050 



1,557 



583 



90 UNITED STATES TAEIFF COMMISSION 

Table 16. — Dyes imported into the United States, 1928 — Continued 



Schultz 
No. 



Name of dye 



Manu- 
fac- 
turer 



Imports 



Quantity 



Invoice 
value 



837 
838 



841 
842 



844 



847 
848 

849 



850 

851 
852 



853 



854 
855 



858 



s59 



861 



B. 



Indanthrene blue R powder 

Indanthrene blue RS (single strength) _ 

Indanthrene blue RS paste 

Indanthrene blue RS pdr _. 

Indanthrene blue RS triple pdr 

Indanthrene blue RSP dbl. paste 

Indanthrene blue RSP triple pdr 

Indanthrene blue 3Q (single strength). 

Indanthrene blue 3G paste 

Indanthrene blue 3G pdr 

Indanthrene blue 30 dbl. paste 

Indanthrene blue 3G paste fine 

Indanthrene blue GGS (single strength) 

Indanthrene blue GGSP dbl. paste 

Indanthrene blue GGSNP quintuple pdr 

Indanthrene blue GCD (single strength) 

Helindone blue IGCD dbl. paste 

Indanthrene blue GCD paste 

Indanthrene blue GCD dbl. paste 

Indanthrene blue GCD dbl. paste fine. , 

Indanthrene blue GCD pdr 

Algol blue 3G (single strength) 

Algol blue 3G paste I By. 

By. 
B.. 
B_. 
By. 



Algol blue 3G pdr. 

Indanthrene blue 5G paste 

Indanthrene blue 5G pdr 

Algol green B paste 

Indanthrene gray (single strength) 

Indanthrene gray B dbl. paste 

Indanthrene yellow (single strength) 

Helindone yellow IG dbl. paste 

Helindone yellow DIG dbl. paste 

Indanthrene yellow G paste 

Indanthrene yellow G dbl. paste 

Indanthrene yellow G pdr 

Indanthrene yellow G P pdr 

Indanthrene blue WB powder 

Alizarin direct blue B 

Alizarin irisol D, R 

Alizarin blue JR pdr 

Alizarin direct violet R pdr 

Alizarin irisol R pdr 

Anthraquinone violet powder 

Anthraquinone violet 

Anthraquinone violet, standard strength. 
Anthraquinone violet pdr 

Alizarin viridine 

Alizarin viridine FF paste 

Alizarin pure blue 

Alizarin pure blue B pdr 

Alizarin sky blue B pdr 

Alizarin sky blue B 65 per cent pdr. 

Alizarin astrol 

Alizarin astrol B 

Alizarin astrol B pdr.. 

Alizarin blue AS pdr 

Alizarin sapbirol B. ' 

Alizarin blue SAP pdr 

Alizarin light blue B 

Alizarin light blue B cone 

Alizarin saphirol B pdr.. 

Alizarin saphirol SE pdr 

Alizarin saphirol SAK pdr 

Alizarin saphirol WSA pdr 

Alizarin saphirol SAWSA pdr 

Helio fast blue BL pdr -. 

Helio fast blue SL cone 

Cyananthrol R , 

Alizarin direct blue RXO 

Cyananthrol R 

Cyananthrol RXO 

C yananthrol G 

Alizarin direct blue BGAOO 

Cyananthrol BGA 

Cyananthrol BGAO 

Cyananthrol BGAOO 

Anthraquinone blue SR 

Anthraquinone blue SR extra pdr 



By. 
M.. 
By. 



By. 



By. 
By. 
By. 



By. 
By. 
By. 



By. 

S... 
S... 
By. 
By. 
By. 
By. 
By. 
By. 
By. 



Pounds 
176 
38,235 



$15, 270 



31, 748 



19,644 



2,200 



70, 546 



42, 166 



5,516 



4,032 



201 
50 



87, 946 



28, 551 



2,434 

240 

2,987 



7,298 



1,610 



2,611 



17,217 



9.132 



21, 710 



11,224 



26, 615 



58, 162 



2,941 



14, 652 



4,618 



10, 044 



1,250 



DYES IMPOETED FOR CONSUMPTION IN UNITED STATES, 1923 91 
Table 16. — Dyes imported into the United States, 1923 — Continued 



Name of dye 



Alizarin blue black 

Alizarin blue black B pdr 

Alizarin blue black B pdr 

Alirarin blue black 3B pdr 

Alizarin blue black 3B pdr 

Alizarin blue black BT pdr 

Anthraquinone blue green 

Anthraquinone blue green BXO pdr.. 

Anthraquinone green GX 

Anthraquinone green GXNO pdr 

Alizarin direct green G 

Alizarin brilliant green G 

Alizarin cyanine green G extra pdr 

Alizarin cyanine green 3G pdr 

Alizarin cyanine green E pdr 

Alizarin cyanine green EF pdr.. 

Alizarin direct green G pdr 

Indanthrene brown (single strength) 

Duranthrene brown B paste 

Anthra brown B dbl. paste 

Indanthrene brown B dbl. paste 

Cibanone brown (single strength) 

Cibanone brown B pdr 

Algol brown B (single strength) 

Algol brown R paste 

Algol brown R pdr 

Indanthrene brown R paste 

Indanthrene brown R pdr 

Algol corinth R (single strength) 

Algol corinth R pdr 

Indanthrene corinth RK paste... 

Indanthrene corinth RK pdr 

Helindone brown AN (single strength) 

Helindone brown AN paste 

Indanthrene brown GR paste 

Indanthrene brown GR pdr 

Indanthrene red brown R extra paste . 
Indanthrene red brown R pdr 

Indigo, white 

Indigosol DH 

Indigo RB (single strength) 

Helindone blue BB paste 

Indigo MLB/2B pdr 

Indigo RB dbl. paste 

Ciba blue 2BD paste 

Ciba blue G (single strength) 

Indigo MLB/5B pdr.. 

Indigo KG (single strength) 

Durindone blue 6B pdr 

Indigo MLB/6B pdr 

Brilliant indigo BD (single strength) 

Brilliant indigo B paste 

Brilliant indigo B paste 

Brilliant indigo G paste 

Brilliant indigo 4G (single strength) 

Brilliant indigo 4G paste 

Brilliant indigo 4G pdr 

Brilliant indigo BASF/4G paste 

Ciba yellow G paste 10 per cent- 

Helindone green G (single strength) 

Helindone green G paste 

Helindone green G pdr 

Alizarin indigo G paste 10 per cent. 

Alizarin indigo G paste 

Alizarin indigo G pdr 

Alizarin indigo B paste 

Alizarin indigo green B paste 

Alizarin indigo 3R paste 

Helindone blue 3GN (single strength) 

Helindone blue 3GN pdr.. 

Ciba heliotrope B paste 

Ciba gray paste 

Ciba gray G paste 20 per cent 



Manu- 
fac- 
turer 



By. 
M.. 
By. 
M.. 
B.. 



C. 
By. 
By. 
Bv. 
I... 
M.. 



BD. 
B... 
B... 



By. 
By. 
By. 
By. 



By. 
By. 
By. 



DH. 



M. 



.BD. 
M... 



B.. 
By. 
B.. 



By. 
By. 



By. 

By. 



Imports 



Quantity 



Pounds 
70, 917 



179 

""i.'oso" 

"i6,~24T 



2,007 
~55,"681 



836 



110 



6,417 
11 



4,855 



14,835 



2,565 
2,917 



2,204 
2,202 



17, 289 



1,362 
7,360 



110 

882 



Invoice 
value 



$49, 153 



28, 764 



2,541 



54,242 



1,444 



348 



2,794 



92 UNITED STATES TAEIFF COMMISSION 

Table 16. — Dyes imported into the United States, 1923 — Continued 



Sehultz 
No. 



Name of dye 



Manu- 
fac- 
turer 



Imports 



Quantity 



Invoice 
value 



901 



902 



906 
907 



908 
910 



911 
912 



913 



915 



917 

918 



919 



920 
921 



923 



Ciba violet B (single strength) 

Ciba violet B paste 10 per cent... 

Ciba violet B paste 20 per cent. 

Ciba violet B pdr 

Ciba violet R paste 20 per cent 

Ciba violet R pdr 

Helindone brown 2R (single strength) 

Helindone brown 2R paste 

Thioindigo brown R pdr 

Helindone brown G (single strength) . 

Helindone brown Q paste 

Thioindigo brown G pdr 

Ciba red G paste 

Ciba scarlet (single strength) 

Ciba scarlet G extra paste 

Ciba scarlet G pdr 

Helindone fast scarlet C paste 

Thioindigo scarlet 2G paste 

Thioindigo scarlet 2G pdr 

Ciba red R paste 20 per cent. _ 

Helindone pink (single strength) 

Helindone pink AN paste 

Helindone pink Bn paste 

Thioindigo pink AN paste 

Thioindigo pink BN extra paste . 

Ciba orange G paste 10 per cent 

Thioindigo red B (single strength) 

Ciba pink B paste. 

Ciba pink BG paste 

Ciba pink BG pdr 

Durindone red B paste 

Helindone orange R (single strength) 

Helindone orange R paste 10 per cent 

Helindone orange R pdr 

Thioindigo orange R pdr 

Thioindigo orange RY paste 20 per cent 

Thioindigo yellow 3GN paste 20 per cent 

Helindone fast scarlet R (single strength) 

Helindone fast scarlet R paste 

Helindone fast scarlet R pdr 

Helindone red B paste 

Helindone red 3B (single strength) 

Durindone red 3B paste 

Helindone red 3B paste 20 per cent 

Helindone red 3B pdr. 

Thioindigo red 3B paste 

Thioindigo red 3B pdr 

Vat red violet RH paste 20 per cent 

Vat red violet RH pdr 

Ciba bordeaux B (single strength) 

Ciba bordeaux B paste 10 per cent 

Ciba bordeaux B pdr.. 

Helindone violet (single strength) 

Helindone violet R pdr 

Helindone gray BB (single strength).. 

Vat gray 6B paste .' 

Vat gray 6B pdr 

Ursol 

Fur black DB, DG 

Fur blue black A, SA 

Fur blue gray 

Fur brown NZ, NZD, P, PR, PY, 2R, 4R, SK, SKG, 
SP, SO. 

Fur gray AL, ALA, B, G, R 

Fur gray brown SLA 

Fur olive DA, 3G 

Fur red brown 6R 

Fur yellow 2G, 4G 

Fur yellow brown A, 4GL 

Fur dye DF, 2G, SB, SC 

Nako DR, 3GA, PS, RH 

Nako black DD, D2B, O 

Nako yellow SEL 

Ursol D lumps 

Ursol SG 



I.... 
I.... 
I.... 
BD. 



BD. 
M... 
M„. 
K... 
K... 
B... 
B... 



M. 



Pounds 
64, 517 



1,570 
(745) 
(825) 
1,741 
(661) 

(1, 080) 
551 

37, 524 

(22, 145) 

(7, 678) 

(7,701) 

7,388 
10, 378 

} (8, 666) 

(1, 712) 
330 



22, 571 
(16, 791) 

(5, 780) 



50 
21, 916 



35, 714 



2,255 



14, 071 



DYES IMPORTED FOR CONSUMPTION IN UNITED STATES, 1923 93 



Table 16. — Byes imported into the United States, 1923 — Continued 

UNIDENTIFIED ACID DYES 



Name of dye 



Acid black SR._ 

Acid milling red R cone. 

Acid milling yellow G cone 

Acid pure blue R supra 

Acid rhodamine 

Acid rhodamine BG 

Acid rhodamine G. 

Acid rhodamine 3R 

Acid rhodamine R 

Acid rhodamine RG 

Acid red violet 

Acid silver gray 

Acid violet 7B purple 

Alizarin direct violet ER pdr 

Alizarin emeraldole G pdr 

Alizarin emeraldole green G. 

Alizarin rubinol- 

Alizarin rubinol 3G pdr 

Alizarin rubinol 5G pdr 

Alizarin rubinol GW pdr. 

Alizarin rubinol R pdr 

Alizarin uranole 

Alizarin uranole 2B 

Alizarin uranole R - 

Alphanol brown 

Alphanol brown B.. 

Alphanol brown R._ 

Anthosine 

Onis (Anthosine) 3B 

Onis (Anthosine) 5B 

Anthracyanine brown GL 

Anthrarubine B pdr 

Azo blue B cone 

Azo orseille BB 

Azo rhodine 2G cone., 2GN cone 

Azo wool violet 7R. 

Brilliant milling blue B 

Brilliant milling red R 

Brilliant naphthol blue R 

Brilliant pure yellow 6G extra 

Cashmere black TN 

Cloth fast black 

Cloth fast black BN.... 

Cloth fast black 2BN. 

Cloth fast black 4BN 

Cloth fast red GR cone 

Eosine BG 

Erio blue AB 

Erio fast cyanine. 

Erio fast cyanine S . 

Erio fast cyanine S cone 

Erio fast cyanine SE 

Erio fast violet 

Erio fast violet BMS cone 

Erio fast violet RMS cone 

Erythrosine TB pdr 

Fast acid blue A pdr._ 

Fast acid green 8B pdr 

Fast acid marine blue 

Fast acid marine blue HBBX. 

Fast acid marine blue HBTA. 

Fast acid red RH 

Fast light red BL 

Fast sulphon green 2G cone 

Guinea brown 

Guinea brown GL... 

Guinea brown 2GL 

Guinea brown R 

Guinea brown RD_. 

Guinea brown 2R 

Guinea brown 2RD 

Guinea fast red 

Guinea fast red BL 

Guinea fast red 2BL 

Guinea fast red 2R.. 

Guinea rubine 4R 



Manu- 
facturer 



Q-- 
B_. 
Bv. 



By. 
By. 
By. 
By. 



By. 
By. 



B.. 
B_. 
By. 
K.. 

S... 
C._ 

s... 
c._ 
c_. 
c. 
c. 

Bv. 
By. 



I 

I 

I 

I 

GrE. 
G.._. 



G... 
G.... 
DH. 

GrE. 
GrE. 



B... 
B... 
BD. 
By- 



Imports 



Quan- 
tity 



Pounds 

220 

110 

2,202 

5,201 

3,568 



11 
22 
22 
355 
126 
30 
48,826 



550 



965 



105 

110 

201 

202 

700 

1,000 

8,540 

1,100 

220 

396 

55 

330 



661 

100 

7,804 

2,315 



275 



55 

4,480 

1,792 

800 



500 



110 
250 



8,325 



Invoice 
value 



$4, 478 



110,212 



7,574 



503 



5,931 



188 



7,129 



94 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 



Table 16. — Dyes imported into the United States, 1923 — Continued 
UNIDENTIFIED ACID DYES— Continued 



Name of dye 



Manu- 
facturer 



Imports 



Quan- 
tity 



Havana brown 

Havana brown 5G 

Havana brown S 

Ink blue 

Ink blue BITN 

Ink blue BJTNO... 

Ink blue BJTBNOO 

Kiton fast green A cone 

Kiton fast red 4BL. 

Kiton pure blue AFL 

Kiton yellow O 

Milling brown 

Milling brown 3G 

Milling brown R 

Naphthalene blue black 

Neolan black 2G 

Neolan blue 

Neolan blue B 

Neolan blue 2G__ 

Neolan green B 

Neolan gray B new 

Neolan navy blue 

Neolan navy blue 2G 

Neolan navy blue R 

Neolan pink 

Neolan pink B 

Neolan pink G 

Neolan red R 

Oxamine acid brown 

Minaxo acid brown G 

Oxamine acid brown G.._ 

Palatine light yellow 

Palatine light yellow RX. 
Pilatus light yellow RX.. 

Polar maroon VC 

Polar orange R cone 

Polar red 

Polar red 3B cone 

Polar red G cone 

Polar red R cone 

Polar red RS cone 

Polar yellow. 

Polar yellow 2G cone 

Polar yellow 5G cone 

Radio brown B 

Radio red G 

Radio yellow R 

Scarlet 2R 

Silk blue BIC 

Special blue G 

Sulphon acid brown 2R 

Sulphon orange G 

Sulphon yellow 5G cone 

Supramine black BR 

Supramine brown R 

Supramine red 

Supramine red B 

Supramine red 2G 

Spruce red B _ 

Supramine yellow 

Supramine yellow G 

Supramine yellow R 

Spruce yellow R 

Wool black N for printing 

Wool fast blue 

Wool fast blue BL 

Wool fast blue BL 

Wool fast blue GL 

Wool fast orange G.. 

Wool fast red BL 

Wool fast yellow 3G 

Wool printing black CUI 

Wool red G 

Wool violet RC. 

Xylene fast blue AE cone 

Xylene milling red B cone 



GrE. 
GrE. 
GrE. 

I 

I 

I 

I 



G._ 
C. 
C. 

c. 

8— 
A.. 
B__ 
By. 
By. 
By- 
By. 
By. 



By. 
By. 
B.. 



By. 
By. 
B_. 
I... 



B.. 

By. 
By. 
B_. 
By. 
B.. 
I... 
B.. 
G.. 
S... 



Pounds 
40 



992 
2,454 
441 
331 
235 



45 
110 
991 



220 
110 
66 



661 



110 
2,700 



3,961 



2, 205 
6,908 
15, 031 



13, 453 



200 

100 

20 

500 

500 

125 

33 

20 

11 

1, 030 

656 

745 



1,106 



441 
2,154 



50 
134 
660 
441 
50 
55 
110 
110 



DYES IMPORTED FOE CONSUMPTION IN UNITED STATES, 1923 95 
Table 16. — Dyes imported into the United States, 192S — Continued 

UNIDENTIFIED VAT DYES 



Name of dye 



Manu- 
facturer 



Imports 



Quan- 
tity 



Invoice 
value 



Algol brilliant pink (single strength) 

Algol brilliant pink FB paste 

Algol brilliant pink FF paste 

Vat brilliant pink FF paste 

Algol brilliant red B (single strength) 

IJIAlgol brilliant red B pdr . 

Algol brown G (single strength) 

Algol brown G paste 

Algol brown G pdr 

Vat brown G paste . _ . 

Vat brown G pdr... 

Alizarin indigo brown R paste. 

Alizarin indigo 5R paste 

C iba printing black 20 per cent paste 

Ciba printing black B 

Ciba printing black G 

Cibanone brown R paste 

Grelanone yellow G paste.. 

Helindone black 

Helindone black paste 

Helindone black T 

Helindone bordeaux B extra paste 

Helindone brown JG paste 

Helindone fast scarlet 

Helindone fast scarlet G paste ^. 

Helindone fast scarlet G G paste 

Helindone golden orange DJG (single strength). 

Helindone golden orange DJG paste 

Helindone golden orange DJG pdr _. 

Helindone pink 

Helindone pink B extra paste 

Helindone pink R extra paste. 

Helindone pink RN extra paste 

Helindone violet 2R paste 

Helindone yellow 

Helindone yellow AGO paste. 

Helindone yellow DAGG paste 

Hydron bordeaux (single paste; 

Hydron bordeaux B dbl. paste 

Hydron bordeaux R dbl. paste 

Hydron brown (single strength) 

Hydron brown CG._. _ 

Hydron brown G paste 

Hydron brown OG pdr 

Hydron brown R paste 

Hydron dark blue (single strength) 

Hydron dark blue G paste 

Hydron dark blue G pdr 

Hydron dark blue OG paste 

Hydron dark blue GG pdr 

Hydron green 

Hydron green B paste 

Hydron green G paste 

Hydron navy blue (single strength). 

Hydron navy blue C paste 

Hydron navy blue C pdr 

Hydron navy blue G paste 

Hydron olive 

Hydron olive GN paste 

Hydron olive R paste 

Hydron orange 

Hydron orange FB paste 

Hydron orange R paste 

Hydron orange RE paste 

Hydron pink (single strength) 

Hydron pink FB paste 

Hydron pink FF paste _ 

Hydron pink FF pdr 

Hydron scarlet (single strength) 

Hydron scarlet 2B paste 

Hydron scarlet 2B pdr. ._ 

Hydron scarlet 3B paste 

Hydron violet (single strength) 

Hydron violet B paste 

Hydron violet R paste. _ 

Hydron violet R pdr 



By. 
By. 
By. 



By. 



By. 
By. 
By. 
By. 
By. 
By. 



I... . 

I 

I.... 
GrE. 



Pounds 
3,452 



936 



10 
399 
220 



560 

52S 



220 
300 
992 



881 
~47~77i 



209 
150 



1,208 
4,"065 



SO 



3,521 



$3, 995 



16, 556 



44, 643 



3,439 



32 



3,916 



55, 428 62, 364 



17,354 19,012 

"i,"232 1 I,"l38 



96 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 



Table 16. — Dyes imported into the United States, 1923 — Continued 
UNIDENTIFIED VAT DYES— Continued 



Name of dye 



Manu- 
facturer 



Imports 



Quan- 
tity 



Hydron wool brown D, G.. 

Hydron wool olive B 

Hydron wool red BB 

Hydron wool yellow G 

Hydron yellow NF paste ..- 

Indanthrene blue BCD (single strength) 

Indanthrene blue BCD dbl. paste fine 

Indanthrene blue BCS (single strength) 

K Indanthrene blue BCS pdr 

Indanthrene blue RC (single strength) 

Indanthrene blue RC paste 

Indanthrene blue RC pdr 

Indanthrene blue RO paste 

Indanthrene blue RZ (single strength) 

Indanthrene blue RZ dbl. paste 

Indanthrene blue RZ pdr. 

Indanthrene blue REZ pdr.. 

Indanthrene blue 3GT paste 

Indanthrene brilliant red 2B paste 

Indanthrene brown 3R paste 

Indanthrene golden orange 3R (single strength). 

Helindone golden orange I3R paste 

Indanthrene golden orange 3R paste 

Indanthrene orange 3R paste. 

Indanthrene gray 3B (single strength) 

Indanthrene gray 3B dbl. paste 

Indanthrene pink (single strength) 

Anthra pink B extra paste 

Anthra pink R extra paste 

Indanthrene pink B dbl. paste 

Indanthrene red violet (single strength) 

Indanthrene red violet RRN paste 

Vat red violet RRK paste.. 

Vat red violet RRK paste fine 

Thioindigo pink RN_. 

Thioindigo pink RN paste 

Thioindigo pink RN extra paste 

Thioindigo rose RN extra paste... 

Thioindigo violet 2R (single strength).. 

Thioindigo violet 2R paste 

Thioindigo violet 2R pdr 

Vat orange R paste 

Vat violet BR paste. 

Vat yellow 3RT (single strength) 

Vat yellow 3RT pdr 



B.. 
B.. 
B.. 
By. 
By. 
Q-- 



K... 
K... 

GrE. 
GrE. 



B. 



Pounds 
10 
5 
5 
5 
700 
800 



12,240 
"§,"336 



5,430 



10 

1,001 

716 

1,974 



200 
"l3,"348' 



3,682 



6,487 



4,280 



336 

112 

6 



UNIDENTIFIED MORDANT AND CHROME DYES 



Acid alizarin gray G 

Acid chrome blue 

Acid chrome blue BH 

Acid chrome blue 2R__ 

Alizarin bordeaux 2G paste 

Alizarin cyclamine R paste 

Alizarin fast black SP paste 

Alizarin fast gray 2BL pdr 

Alizarin geranole B pdr.. 

Alizarin light green EF pdr. 

Alliance fast brown 5G 

Anthracene chromate brown EB. 

Anthracene chrome blue R 

Brilliant chrome blue 

Brilliant chrome blue 2B 

Brilliant chrome blue S 

Chromanol black RVI 

Chromanol blue NR pdr.. 

Chrome azurine 

Chrome azurine G. 

Chrome azurine P 

Chrome fast cyanine GN 

Chrome fast green B 

Chrome fast phosphine R 



M. 



By... 
By... 
By... 
By... 
By... 
By... 
By.. 
GrE. 
BD. 
C... 
C... 



DH. 
DH. 
DH. 
DH. 

DH. 
DH. 
DH. 
I.... 

S.... 
DH. 



13, 526 
12 



155 
797 
418 

5,257 
991 

2,240 
25 

8,420 

50 

440 



110 
881 
396 



110 

220 

55 



DYES IMPORTED FOR CONSUMPTION IN UNITED STATES, 1923 97 



Table 16. — Dyes imported into the United States, 1923 — Continued 

UNIDENTIFIED MORDANT AND CHROME DYES— Continued 





Manu- 
facturer 


Imports 


Name of dye 


Quan- 
tity 


Invoice 
value 






Pounds 
200 




Chrome fast printing red BD paste..'. 


By 






By 






Chrome printing azurine G pdr . 


I 

I 

I 

I 


5 
5 
5 
5 
10 




Chrome printing bordeaux B pdr 








Chrome printing green B pdr 










I 




Chrome printing orange 2R pdr. 


I 










555 


$1, 267 




DH 


Chrome printing red B pdr 


I 








DH 








DH... 








I 


661 
340 




Chrome violet 


1,053 


Chrome violet CBD. 


DH... 


Chrome violet C3BD 


DH 








M .. 








DH 


no 

2,917 




Chromorhodine... 


9,256 


Chromorhodine BN pdr 


DH 


Chromorhodine BR pdr 


DH 






Chromorhodine 6GN extra pdr... 


DH 






Chromoxane brilliant blue G 


By 

By. 

GrE.... 

G 

G. 

G. 


2, 505 
99 
100 
220 
110 
10, 713 
771 


3,012 


Chromoxane violet R 


Cloth yellow R pdr 




Eiiochrome black DF cone 




Eriochrome brilliant green G supra 




Eriochrome flavine A cone 




Eriochrome green 






G.„ 






G... 






Eriochrome red 


G 

I 

I 

A 

A 

A 

A 

A 


3,085 
881 

1,102 
5 

7,000 
5 
5 
5 

2,505 




Lanaso) blue B 




Lanasol brown 2R 




Metachrome black AG 




Metachrome blue black 2BX 




Metachrome brilliant blue BL 




Metachrome brown 6G 




Metachrome green 3G 




Metachrome olive 


1,404 


Metachrome olive B 


A . 




Metachrome olive D 


A 






Metachrome olive 2G 


A... 






Metachrome olive brown.. 




5,800 




Metachrome olive brown G 


Bro 




Metachrome olive brown G 


A 






Metachrome violet 




470 




Metachrome violet B 


A . 




Metachrome violet 2R 


A 






Modern green N pdr 


DH 
DH 
DH 

By 

I 

I 

I 

I 

DH 


220 
220 
165 
500 

no 

110 
110 
110 
55 
11,511 




Modern gray RCN... 




Modern olive IN pdr 




Monochrome brown EF 




Naphthochrome blue BN 




Naphthochrome cyanine R 




Naphthochrome green G 




Naphthochrome violet 4B 




Nitrosine pdr 




Omega chrome brown 




Omega chrome brown G cone 


s 




Omega chrome brown PB cone 


S 




Oxychrome blue black BG pdr 


GrE.... 
I. 

S 

S 


1,344 


Printing violet BD paste 


132 ' 


Ultra brown R 


55 


Ultra cyanol B cone 


600 









98 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION" 



Table 16. — Dyes imported into the United States, 1923 — Continued 

UNIDENTIFIED DIRECT DYES 



Name of dye 



Manu- 
facturer 



Imports 



Quan- 
tity 



Benzo bordeaux 6B___ 

Benzo chrome blue black B 

Benzo chrome brown. 

Benzo chrome brown B 

Benzo chrome brown 5G 

Benzo chrome brown R 

Benzo copper blue 2B 

Benzo dark brown extra 

Benzo fast black 

Benzo fast black 

Benzo fast black L 

Benzo fast black NL 

Benzo fast blue FFL__ 

Benzo fast bordeaux 

Benzo fast bordeaux 6BL 

Benzo light bordeaux 6BL.. 

Benzo fast brown 

Benzo fast brown 3GL 

Benzo fast brown RL 

Benzo light brown 3GL 

Benzo fast eosine BL 

Benzo fast gray BL 

Benzo fast gray BL 

Benzo light gray BL 

Benzo fast heliotrope 

Benzo fast heliotrope BL 

Benzo fast heliotrope 4BL 

Benzo fast heliotrope 5RH 

Benzo fast orange_._ 

Benzo fast orange 2R 

Benzo fast orange 2RL 

Benzo light orange 2RL 

Benzo fast orange S 

Benzo fast rubine 

Benzo fast rubine BL.. 

Benzo light rubine BL 

Benzo fast scarlet 5BL, 2GL 

Benzo fast violet BL 

Benzo red 12B 

Benzo rhoduline red.. 

Benzo rhoduline red B 

Benzo rhoduline red 3B._ 

Benzo scarlet BC 

Brilliant benzo fast violet 2RL 

Brilliant benzo fast yellow GL 

Brilliant benzo green B 

Brilliant benzo violet B, 2BH, 2BR.. 

Brilliant congo blue 5R 

Brilliant congo violet R 

Brilliant cotton blue R cone 

Brilliant fast blue B, 2G 

Brilliant sky blue 

Brilliant sky blue 8G extra 

Brilliant sky blue 2RM 

Brilliant sky blue 2RN 

Carbazol yellow W pdr 

Chicago red 111 

Chloramine brown 2R cone 

Chloramine light blue BS 

Chloramine light violet R cone 

Chloramine sky blue RF cone 

Chloramine violet FFB 

Chlorantine black Y 

Chlorantine brown Y 

Chlorantine fast brown 

Chlorantine fast brown 3GL 

Chlorantine fast brown 3GL conc. 

Chlorantine fast brown RL 

Chlorantine fast gray B 

Chlorantine fast orange TRL 

Chlorantine fast violet 2RL 

Chlorantine fast yellow 4GL 

Chlorazol fast black 

Chlorazol fast black N... 

Chlorazol fast black No. 1 

Chlorazol fast brown RK 



By. 
By. 



By. 
By. 
By. 
By. 
By. 



Q-- 
By. 
Q-- 
By. 



By. 
By. 



By. 
By. 
By. 
By. 



By. 
By. 



By. 
By. 
By. 



By. 
By. 
By. 
By. 



Bv. 
By. 
By. 
By. 
By. 



By. 
By. 
By. 
By. 
By. 
By. 
By. 
A.. 
A.. 
K.. 
By. 



Bv. 

By. 
By. 
B__ 
G.. 

S... 
S.._ 

s... 
s... 
Q-- 



BD. 
BD. 
BD. 



Pounds 
220 
110 
327 



110 

551 
4,539 



220 
2, 202 



5,903 



153 
2,854 



3,289 



1,537 



1,421 
132 



22 

564 

3,722 

1,862 



110 

218 

11 

10 

3,179 

5 

5 

200 

176 

8,458 



11 

1, 550 

500 

200 

200 

55 

100 

4,409 

2,205 

13, 558 



991 
8,708 
1,102 
2,205 

325 



1,100 



DYES IMPORTED FOR CONSUMPTION IN UNITED STATES, 1923 99 



Table 16. — Dyes imported into the United States, 1923 — Continued 

UNIDENTIFIED DIRECT DYES— Continued 





Manu- 
facturer 


Imports 


Name of dye 


Quan- 
tity 


Invoice 
value 




BD 


Pounds 

2,000 

700 










A 






A 








DH 

B. 


220 

130 

1,600 










$1, 190 




A 






A 








A 








C 

c 

c. 


52 

2,508 
3,000 
6,643 














6,326 




c 






c 








I 










3,808 


5,696 




c 






c 








c 








A 










4,066 


5,117 




C 






C 










2,789 


2,772 




c 






c 








c 








c 








c 










2,268 






c 






c 










17, 793 


15, 443 




c. 




Diamine fast orange ER . 

Diamine fast orange R -. 


c 






c 







. 


800 


1,128 


Diamine fast pink B. 


c 




c. 








c 






c 


270 
155 










c 






c 










663 






c 






c 






Diamine fast yellow 4G 


c 

c 


50 
518 
425 














c 






c 










2,261 


2,172 




c 






c 








c 










210 






M 






M 






Dianil fast gray RL 


M 

M 




25 
100 
225 




Dianil fast orange RR M 




271 


Dianil fast scarlet 8BS 


M J 






M 






M 




Dianil fast violet BL 


M 
M 
CN 

M 

M 


220 
600 
2,205 
1,170 
100 
750 




Dianil light red 8BL 








Diazanil black V 










M 





100 



UNITED STATES TAEIFF COMMISSION 



Table 16. — Dyes imported into the United States, 1923 — Continued 

UNIDENTIFIED DIRECT DYES— Continued 



Name of dye 



Manu- 
facturer 



Imports 



Quan- 
tity 



Diazanil scarlet 

Diazanil scarlet 3BA 

Diazanil scarlet 4BA 

Diazanil scarlet 6BA 

Diazo blue NA 

Diazo bordeaux 7B... . 

Diazo brilliant blue 2BL „. 

Diazo brilliant green.. 

Diazo brilliant green BL 

Diazo brilliant green 3G 

Diazo brilliant scarlet 

Diazo brilliant scarlet B extra 

Diazo brilliant scarlet 2BL extra. 

Diazo brilliant scarlet 5BL extra. 

Diazo brilliant scarlet 3B extra... 

Diazo brilliant scarlet 3BA extra. 

Diazo brilliant scarlet 6B extra... 

Diazo brilliant scarlet O extra 

Diazo brown 

Diazo brown G 

Diazo brown 3G 

Diazo brown 3RB 

Diazo brilliant orange OR, SG ... 

Diazo dark blue 3B 

Diazo fast blue 

Diazo fast blue BR 

Diazo fast blue 4RW 

Diazo fast blue 6GW 

Diazo fast bordeaux BL 

Diazo fast green 

Diazo fast green BL 

Diazo fast green BL 

Diazo fast red 5BL, 7BL 

Diazo fast violet 

Diazo fast violet BL 

Diazo fast violet 3RL 

Diazo fast yellow 

Diazo fast yellow G. 

Diazo fast yellow 2G 

Diazo geranine B extra 

Diazo indigo blue 4GL extra 

Diazo light green 2RL... 

Diazo olive G 

Diazo pure blue. 

Diazo sky blue B. 

Diazo sky blue 3G 

Diazo sky blue 3GL 

Diazo rubine B 

Diazo violet R 

Diazo yellow R 

Diazogene red B 

Diazol pink NR 

Diazophenyl black V 

Diphenyl fast bordeaux G cone 

Direct black RMW. 

Direct brown 5G 

East cotton blue 

Fast cotton blue FF 

Fast cotton blue FFG... 

Fast cotton blue 4GL... 

Fast cotton gray VL 

Formal fast black G cone 

Ionamine t 

Ionamine B 

Ionamine H 

Naphthamine fast black KS 

Naphthamine green AG extra.. 

Naphthamine light blue 4B 

Naphthamine light brown 2G 

Naphthamine light green G 

Naphthamine light red R 

Naphthamine light violet 2B__ 

Naphthamine pink 2B cone 

Naphthogene blue B 



M._ 
M.. 
M.. 
L_. 
By. 
By. 



By. 
By. 



By. 
By. 
By. 
By. 
By. 
By. 
By. 



By. 
•By. 
By. 
By. 
By. 



I... 
I— 

I... 
By. 



By. 
A.. 
By. 



By. 

By. 



By. 
By. 
By. 
By. 
By. 
By. 



By. 
By. 
By. 
By. 
By. 
By. 
CJ. 
P.. 
G.. 
G.. 
C. 
I... 



"♦■ 



BD. 
BD. 
K... 
K... 
K... 
K._. 
K... 
K... 
K... 
K... 
By.. 



Pounds 
2,552 



2,205 

7 

10 

325 



7,032 



502 



322 

284 

1,983 



442 
26 



961 



553 



738 

2,482 

11 

50 

9,026 



2,930 
137 
199 
850 

2,204 

5,407 
110 
50 

2,205 
510 



305 
110 
20 



250 
250 I 
100 | 
500 
1,000 
500 
500 
110 
249 



DYES IMPORTED FOE CONSUMPTION IN UNITED STATES, 1923 101 

Table 16. — Dyes imported into the United States, 1928 — Continued 
UNIDENTIFIED DIRECT DYES— Continued 



Name of dye 



Manu- 
facturer 



Imports 



Quan- 
tity 



Invoice 
value 



Nitranil brown . 

Nitranil brown B 

Nitranil brown R 

Nitranil brown S 

Nitranil green B 

'Oxamine black 

Oxamine black BBN 

Oxamine black BBNX 

Oxamine fast blue 

Oxamine fast blue 6B 

Oxamine fast blue RR_. 

Oxamine fast blue RRX 

Oxamine fast pink BX. 

Oxamine light red E8B 

Oxvdiaminogene 

Para blue 2BX__ 

Paranil black 2B t 

Parasulphon brown 

Parasulphon brown B 

Parasulphon brown V 

Pluto brown 2G 

Plutoform black. 

Plutoform BL__ 

Plutoform black 3GL 

Pyrazol orange -- 

Pyrazol orange R cone 

Pyrazol orange RR cone 

Rosanthrene orange R cone 

Rosanthrene pink 

Toluylene fast brown 2R 

Triazol light blue 4GL 

Triazol pure blue 6B 

Zambesi black 

Zambesi black D 

Zambesi black D 60 per cent. 

Zambesi black V 

Zambesi black V 77 per cent.. 



B._ 
B.. 
B.. 
B__ 
B.. 
C. 
By. 
A.. 



S... 
S„_ 
By. 



By. 
By. 



I 

I:-.. 
By... 
GrE. 
GrE. 



Pounds 
330 



110 



130 

200 

50 

10 

5 

1,200 



209 
50 



400 



1,604 

661 

11 

280 

2,240 

13, 000 



$2, 657 



5,705 



UNIDENTIFIED SULPHUR DYES 



Cross dye green B 

Eclipse brown BK 

Immedial violet C 

Katigene yellow brown GR extra. 

Pyrogene brown DTB new 

Pyrogene cutch brown 2R extra.. 

Pyrogene indigo blue 

Pyrogene violet brown X 

Sulphide (thiogene) violet V 

Sulphur brilliant blue CLB 

Thiogene new blue 2RL 

Thional yellow GG 

Thionol black XXN cone 

Thionol brown 

Thionol brown O 

Thionol brown R 

Thionol purple B cone 



BD. 
G... 
C... 
By.. 
I... . 
I.... 
S.... 
I— . 
M_. 
A... 
M.. 
S.... 
BD. 



BD. 
BD. 
BD. 



26,242 

10,000 

850 

10 

1,102 

2,205 

220 

5,070 

300 

800 

81 

7,306 

100 

28,802 



2,500 



102 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 



Table 16. — Dyes imported into the United States, 192S — Continued 
UNIDENTIFIED BASIC DYES 



Name of dye 



Acridine scarlet I 

Brilliant acridine orange 

Brilliant acridine orange 3R. 

Brilliant acridine orange 5R. 

Brilliant cresyl blue 2BS cone... 

Brilliant rhodamine red B 

Corvoline BT cone 

Dahlia violet 

Flavophosphine GO 

Indoine A extra pure 

Leather black TBO 

Leather brown 5GX 

Methylene blue 3G 

New ethyl blue BS . 

Phosphine brown L 

Phosphine orange 

Rhodamine 4G . _ 

Rhodamine 4GD 

Rhodamine 4GD extra 

Rhodamine 4GDN extra. . . 

Rhoduline blue 

Rhoduline blue GO 

Rhoduline blue 3GO 

Rhoduline sky blue 3G 



Manu- 
facturer 



DH. 



DH. 
DH. 
L... 
By.. 
B... 
Q— 
M... 
G... 
C... 
B... 
B... 
M... 
G... 
G... 



By. 
By. 
By. 



Imports 



Quan- 
tity 



Pounds 

77 

770 



110 

24 
100 

11 
765 
110 

50 

5 

105 

11 
110 
110 
552 



UNIDENTIFIED SPIRIT-SOLUBLE AND COLOR-LAKE DYES 



Alizarin green C (soluble in oil) 

Azonine G, RR, S 

Brilliant lake blue G extra 

Hansa green G pdr 

Hansa yellow 5G lumps 

Helio bordeaux BL paste 

Helio fast violet AL 

Helio red RM, RMT pdr 

Japan black 

Japan black extra 

Japan black MBG 

Japan black MGB 

Oil blue Z 

Oil brown AN 

Oil green ALB, ALG- 

Paper fast bordeaux B 

Pigment black extra pdr 

Printing red.. .;. 

Stone (lithol) fast orange R pdr 

Stone (lithol) fast yellow 

Stone fast yellow 2G extra pdr. 

Stone fast yellow 5G lumps 

Stone fast yellow GN lumps... 

Stone fast yellow GR lumps... 

Tero (typophor) black FB 

Tero (typophor) brown FR 

Tero (typophor) carmine FB 

Tero (typophor) red FG 

Tero (typophor) yellow FR 

Yellow II 

Zapon blue R 

Zapon violet R 



By. 
C. 
By. 
M.. 
M_. 
By. 
By. 
By. 



B 

B 

B 

K 

K 

K 

By 

B 

A-S Co 
B 



198 
30 

127 
25 

300 

2,455 

31 

769 

779 



10 

10 

20 

3,015 

100 

110 

2,610 

650 



12 

25 

205 

38 

5 

5 



UNIDENTIFIED, UNCLASSIFIED DYES 







3,151 

22 

11 

220 

500 

55 


$3, 455 • 




Q 

M 

P 

SMS!.. 
DH 








Red violet HR 

















2 The Sugar Manufacturers' Supply Co., Ltd., Great Britain. 



DYES IMPOKTED FOR CONSUMPTION IN UNITED STATES, 1923 103 
Index to table of imports 



Name of dye 



Aceto purpurine 8B 

Acid alizarin black R 

Acid alizarin black SE 

Acid alizarin gray G... 

Acd anthracene brown PO, R, RH. 

Acid black SR.. - 

Acid blue RBF..._ - 

Acid chrome black STC 

Acid chrome blue BH, 2R 

Acid cyanine BF - 

Acid fuebsine S 

Acid green 2G 

Acid magenta 

Acid milling black, B — 

Acid milling red R --. 

Acid milling yellow G 

Acid phosphine R 

Acid ponceau E 

Acid pure blue R 

Acid red violet 

Acid rhodamine BG -. 

Acid rhodamine R, RG 

Acid rhodamine 3R 

Acid silver gray 

Acid violet 3BNO 

Acid violet 4BN 

Acid violet 4BS 

Acid violet 4BNS 

Acid violet 6BNG 

Acid violet 6BS 

Acid violet 6BNOO (B) 

Acid violet 6BNOO (By) 

Acid violet 7BN 

Acid violet 7B 

Acid violet 7B purple --- 

Acid violet 10B 

Acid violet C 10B 

Acid violet 4RNOO 

Acid violet GENG... 

Acridine golden yellow 2G 

Acridine orange DHE, LP 

Acridine red 3B — 

Acridine scarlet J 

Algol blue 3G_ 

Algol brilliant orange FR 

Algol brilliant pink FB, FF 

Algol brilliant red B 

Algol brilliant-red 2B 

Algol brilliant violet 2B 

Algol brilliant violet R 

Algol brown G 

Algol brown R 

Algol corinth R 

Algol gray 2B 

Algol green B 

Algol olive R 

Algol orange R._ 

Algol pink R 

Algol red B 

Algol red FF 

Algol red 5G ._.. 

Algol red R 

Algol yellow 3G - 

Algol yellow R 

Algol yellow WF _ 

Alizarin, synthetic - 

Alizarin, SX 

Alizarin SDG .1 

Alizarin VI . . 

Alizarin astrol B 

Alizarin black S (M) 

Alizarin black S, WX _-. 

Alizarin blue AS ■. 

Alizarin blue B. 

Alizarin blue JR. 

Alizarin blue S, SB ... 

Alizarin blue SAP 

Alizarin blue black B, BT, 3B 

Alizarin bordeaux 2G . 

Alizarin brilliant green G 

Alizarin carmine 

Alizarin cyanine GG 



Schultz 
No. 



358 
159 

288 



562 
277 



705 
524 
505 
524 
265 



606 
175 



530 
527 
530 
527 
530 
548 
548 
527 
527 
534 



530 
530 
582 
548 
602 
603 
569 



844 
822 



819 
821 

820 



870 
834 
847 
833 
824 
818 
825 
819 
S16 
819 
811 
817 
814 
778 
784 
785 
778 
856 
807 
774 
856 
803 
852 
804 
858 
862 



865 
780 
799 



81 
79 
80 
90 
78 
93 
84 
8U 
9d 
86 
S2 
82 
S2 
SU 
93 
93 
85 
79 
93 
93 
93 
93 
93 
93 
S3 
82 
83 
b2 
83 
83 
83 
82 
82 
83 
93 
S3 
83 
S4 
83 
S4 
84 
84 
102 
90 
89 
95 
95 
i9 
S9 

89 

95 

91 

91 

89 

90 

89 I 

89 ' 

89 

89 

89 

89 

89 

88 

89 

89 

88 

88 

88 

88 

90 

88 

88 

90 

88 

90 

88 

90 

91 



Name of dye 



Alizarin cyanine NS 

Alizarin cyanine NSG 

Alizarin cyanine green E, EF 

Alizarin cyanine green G, 3G 

Alizarin cyclamine R 

Alizarin direct blue B 

Alizarin direct blue BGAOO 

Alizarin direct blue RXO 

Alizarin direct green G 

Alizarin direct violet R 

Alizarin direct violet ER 

Alizarin emeraldole G 

Alizarin emeraldole green G 

Alizarin fast black SP 

Alizarin fast gray 2BL 

Alizarin geranole B 

Alizarin green C 

Alizarin green S 

Alizarin indigo G... 

Alizarin indigo 3R 

Alizarin indigo 5R 

Alizarin indigo brown R 

Alizarin indigo green B 

Alizarin irisol R 

Alizarin light blue B 

Alizarin light green EF 

Alizarin maroon 

Alizarin orange, A, AO 

Alizarin pure blue B 

Alizarin red IB, DIB 

Alizarin red IWS, S 

Alizarin red SX 

Alizarin red W 

Alizarin red XGP, YCA 

Alizarin rubinol 3G, 5G, GW, R_ 

Alizarin saphirol B i__ '. - 

Alizarin saphirol SE, SAE 

Alizarin saphirol WSA, SAWSA. 

Alizarin sky blue B 

Alizarin uranol 2B, R 

Alizarin viridine FF 

Alizarin yellow 2G, 5G, GD 

Alizarin yellow R 

Alkali blue 3R._ 

Alkali violet CA 

Alkali violet 4BNOO 

Alkali violet 6BOO 

Alliance fast brown 5G 

Alphanol brown B, R 

Amaranth B 

Aniline yellow 

Anthosine 3B, 5B... 

Anthra bordeaux R 

Anthra claret R 

Anthra pink B, R 

Anthra rubine B 

Anthra yellow G, GC 

Anthracene acid black ST 

Anthracene acid brown G 

Anthracene blue WBU 

Anthracene blue WO, WGU 

Anthracene blue SWB, SWR 

Anthracene blue SWGG 

Anthracene brown R, RD 

Anthracene chromate brown EB. 

Anthracene chrome blue R 

Anthracyanine S 

Anthracyanine brown GL 

Anthraflavone G, GC 

Anthraquinone blue SR 

Anthraquinone blue green BXO. 

Anthraquinone green GXNO 

Anthraquinone violet. 

Anthrarubine B. 

Auracine G 

Auramine G 

Auramine N, O 

Aurine 

Azo acid blue B 

Azo blue B 

Azo carmine BX, BXH 

Azo carmine GX 



Schultz 
No 



799 

865 
865 



851 
860 
859 
865 
852 



894 
852 
858 



779 
855 
778 
780 
784 
780 
785 



858 
858 
858 
855 



854 
48 
58 
536 
532 
532 
532 



168 



827 
827 



759 
277 
221 
800 
800 
790 
790 
782 



759 
861 
863 
864 
853 



494 

493 

555 

63 



Page 



673 
672 



104 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 
Index to table of imports — Continued 



Name of dye 



Azo chromine NR - 

Azo coralline L_. 

Azo cyanine OR... 

Azo orseille BB 

Azo rhodine 2G 

Azo wool blue SE 

Azo wool violet 7R 

Azonine G, RR, S 

Basic yellow T, TCN 1 

Beaver reddish brown 

Benzoazurine 3G 

Benzo bordeaux 6B 

Benzo brown D 3G 

Benzo chrome black blue B... 

Benzo chrome brown B, R... 

Benzo chrome brown 5G 

Benzo copper blue 2B 

Benzo dark brown 

Benzo fast black L, NL 

Benzo fast blue FFL... 

Benzo fast blue 2GL, 4GL 

Benzo fast bordeaux 6BL 

Benzo fast brown 3GL, RL 

Benzo fast eosine BL 

Benzo fast gray BL 

Benzo fast heliotrope BL. 

Benzo fast heliotrope 4BL, 5RH... 

Benzo fast orange 2R, 2RL 

Benzo fast orange S. 

Benzo fast orange WS 

Benzo fast pink 2BL 

Benzo fast red 8BL 

Benzo fast rubine BL 

Benzo fast scarlet 5BS, 8BS, GS... 

Benzo fast scarlet 2GL, 5BL 

Benzo fast yellow RL 

Benzo light blue 2GL, 4GL 

Benzo light bordeaux 6BL 

Benzo light brown 3GL 

Benzo light gray BL 

Benzo light orange 2RL. 

Benzo light rubine BL 

Benzo pure blue. 

Benzo red 12B 

Benzo rhoduline red B, 3B 

Benzo scarlet BC 

Benzo violet 0__ 

Benzopurpurine 10B 

Bismark brown 

Black extra 

Black JD.. 

Blue 1900. 

Brilliant acid blue A, F, FF 

Brilliant acid blue EG. 

Brilliant acid blue V 

Brilliant acid green 6B 

Brilliant acridine orange A.. 

Brilliant acridine orange 3R, 5R... 

Brilliant alizarin blue R 

Brilliant benzo blue 6B 

Brilliant benzo fast violet 2RL 

Brilliant benzo fast yellow GL 

Brilliant benzo green B 

Brilliant benzo violet B, 2BH, 2R. 

Brilliant chrome blue P 

Brilliant chrome blue 2B, S 

Brilliant congo R 

Brilliant congo blue 5R 

Brilliant congo violet R 

Brilliant cotton blue 6B 

Brilliant cotton blue R 

Brilliant delphine blue B... 

Brilliant fast blue B, 2G 

Brilliant geranine B 

Brilliant glacier blue 

Brilliant indigo B 

Brilliant indigo G. 

Brilliant indigo 4G 

Brilliant lake blue G 

Brilliant milling blue B 

Brilliant milling green B 

Brilliant milling red R j 



Schultz 
No. 



84 

65 

256 



618 

"iii' 

"485' 



456 



340 
297 
332 



296 
456 



426 



326 
405 
283 
274 
125 
635 
545 
506 
543 
503 
603 



667 
424 



626 
"370' 



541 
"622" 



118 
501 

885 



887 
"563' 



78 
78 
80 
93 
93 
78 
93 

102 
85 

102 
81 
98 
82 



98 
98 
81 
80 
81 
98 
80 
98 
80 
81 
98 
98 
98 
98 
98 
81 
98 
98 
98 
81 
81 
80 
80 
79 
86 
83 
82 
83 
82 
84 
102 
86 
81 



79 
82 
91 
91 
91 
102 
93 
82 
93 



Name of dye 



Schultz 
No. 



Brilliant naphthol blue R ,... 

Brilliant pure yellow 6G... 

Brilliant rhodamine red B. 

Brilliant sky blue 8G, 2RM, 2RN. 

Brilliant sulphon red B, 5B 

Brilliant wool blue FFR, G 

Brilliant yellow 

Caledon red BN 

Cannelle AL. , 

Capri blue GON 

Carbazol yellow W 

Carmine blue V. 

Cashmere black TN... 

Chicago red III 

Chloramine blue BXR 

Chloramine blue HW.. 

Chloramine brown 2R_._ 

Chloramine light blue BS 

Chloramine light violet R 

Chloramine orange G_. 

Chloramine red 3B. 

Chloramine red 8B, 8BS 

Chloramine sky blue FF.. 

Chloramine sky blue RF 

Chloramine violet FFB 

Chloramine yellow GG 

Chlorantine black Y 

Chlorantine brown Y 

Chlorantine fast brown 3G, L, RL. 

Chlorantine fast gray B. 

Chlorantine fast orange TRL 

Chlorantine fast violet 2RL 

Chlorantine fast yellow 4GL 

Chlorazol fast black N 

Chlorazol fast brown RK 

Chlorazol violet R 

Chromacetin blue S 

Chromanil black BF, FF 

Chromanol black RVI 

Chromanol blue NR 

Chromazone red new cone 

Chromazurine G, P 

Chromazurol S, SXT 

Chrome bordeaux B 

Chrome brown R, RVV 

Chrome fast cyanine GN 

Chrome fast green B 

Chrome fast phosphine R 

Chrome fast printing red BD, GD. 

Chrome printing azurine G 

Chrome printing bordeaux B 

Chrome printing brown 5G. 

Chrome printing green B 

Chrome printing orange G, 2R 

Chrome printing red B, RY, Y 

Chrome printing violet N — 

Chrome violet CBD, C 3BD 

Chrome violet CG. 

Chrome violet VM 

Chromochlorine G 

Chromocitronine R, 3R, V.. 

Chromocyanine B 

Chromopurpurine JJ.. 

Chromorhodine BN, BR, 6GN.... 

Chromoxane brilliant blue G 

Chromoxane violet R 

Chrysamine K, KS 

Chrysoidine RL... 

Ciba blue 2BD.. 

Ciba bordeaux B 

Ciba gray G 

Ciba heliotrope B_ 

Ciba orange G... 

Ciba pink B, BG 

Ciba printing black B, G 

Ciba red G 

Ciba red R 

Ciba rose BG 

Ciba scarlet G 

Ciba violet B. R._ 

Ciba yellow G 

Cibanone black B, 2G 



DYES IMPORTED FOR CONSUMPTION IN UNITED STATES, 1923 105 
Index to table of imports — Continued 



Name of dye 



Cibanone brown B 

Cibanone brown R 

Cibanone orange R 

Cibanone yellow R_. 

Cloth fastblack BN.2BN, 4BN. 

Cloth fast blue R... - 

Cloth fast red GR - 

Cloth yellow R. 

Coerulein S - 

Columbia blue G 

Columbia blue R... --- 

Congo orange R 

Congo rubine - 

Corioflavine GOOO 

Coriphosphine OX - 

Cornflower blue B ... -- 

Corvoline BT 

Cotton blue No. 2 - - 

Cotton blue R 

Cotton blue BB 

Cotton pink B, BN - 

Cotton pink GN 

Cotton pink RN - 

Cotton yellow, GI, GX. 

Cross dye green B 

Crystal violet, O, 5BO 

Cyananthrol BGA, BGAO, 

BGAOO - 

Cyananthrol R, RXO 

Cyanin B.. -- 

Cyanol extra. - 

Cyanol extra A. --- 

Cyanol FF - 

Cyanol fast green G. 

Dahlia violet 

Danubiablue BBX 

Delta purpurine 5B -- 

Developing blue B, 2R, 4R 

Diamine azo fast green G 

Diamine brillant bordeaux R 

Diamine brillant scarlet S 

Diamine brillant violet B — 

Diamine brown B 

Diamine bronze G 

Diamine catechine B, G 

Diamine catechine GR 

Diamine fast blue FFB, FFG, F 3G 

Diamine fast Bordeaux, 6BS 

Diamine fast brown G, 3G- - 

Diamine fast brown GB, G2B 

Diamine fast brown R 

Diamine fast gray BN, NBN 

Diamine fast orange EG, R, ER 

Diamine fast pink B, C, G 

Diamine fast red 8BL 

Diamine fast red violet FR 

Diamine fast scarlet 6BS, GS 

Diamine fast violet FFBN, FFRN. 

Diamine fast yellow AGG 

Diamine fast yellow 3G — 

Diamine fast yellow 4G 

Diamine nitrazol green GF 

Diamine orange B 

Diamine orange F, G 

Diamine rose GD 

Diamine scarlet B, 3B 

Diaminogene extra 

Diaminogene black extra .. 

Diaminogene blue NA, NBB 

Diaminogene sky blue N, 3B 

Diamond green B 

Diamond magenta 

Dianil chrome brown G 

Dianil fast blue GL, RL 

Dianil fast gray RL 

Dianil fast orange RR 

Dianil fast scarlet 8BS, 4BSN, GS.. 

Dianil fast violet BL 

Dianil light red 8BL. 

Dianil yellow 3G 

1760— 24f 8 



Schultz 
No. 



792 
795 



601 
387 
325 
373 
313 
609 
606 
558 



539 
649 
650 
121 
122 



296 



516 

860 
859 
544 
546 
546 
546 
566 



653 
366 



319 



349 

448 



343 



617 
296 



339 



119 
319 
274 
274 
273 



276 
512 
476 



25 



93 
80 
93 
97 
84 
81 
81 
81 
80 
85 
85 
83 
102 
83 



79 
79 
99 
80 
101 
82 

90 

90 
83 
83 
83 
83 
84 
102 



99 

81 

99 

99 

99 

8.i 
80 
99 
99 

81 

99 

79 
SO 

811 
811 
81) 

99 

811 

82 
82 
99 
99 
99 
99 
99 
99 



Name of dye 



Diazamine black N extra 

Diazamine blue BR, NA, RR 

Diazanil black V 

Diazanil blue 2R 

Diazanil pink B 

Diazanil scarlet 3BA, 4BA, 6BA 

Diazo black OT 

Diazo blue NA 

Diazo Bordeaux 7B 

Diazo brillant black B 

Diazo brillant blue 2BL 

Diazo brillant green BL, 3G 

Diazo brillant orange GR, 5G 

Diazo brillant scarlet B 

Diazo brilliant scarlet G... 

Diazo brilliant scarlet 6B 

Diazo brilliant scarlet 2BL, 3BA, 
5BL. 

Diazo brown 3G, 3RB 

Diazo dark blue 3B 

Diazo fast blue BR, 4RW, 6GW.... 

Diazo fast Bordeaux BL 

Diazo fast green BL 

Diazo fast red 5BL, 7BL 

Diazo fast violet BL, 3RL 

Diazo fast yellow G, 2G 

Diazo geranine B 

Diazo indigo blue BR, 2RL 

Diazo indigo blue 4GL 

Diazo light green 2RL 

Diazo olive G 

Diazo rubine B 

Diazo sky blue B, 3G, 3GL__ 

Diazo violet R_. 

Diazo yellow R . 

Diazogene red B 

Diazol pink NR 

Diazophenyl black V.' 

Diphene blue B 

Diphenyl brown BBNC, GS 

Diphenyl brown TB 

Diphenyl catechine G 

Diphenyl chlorine yellow FF supra. 

Diphenyl chrysoine GC 

Diphenyl fast Bordeaux G 

Diphenyl fast brown GNC 

Direct black RMW 

Direct brilliant blue 8B... 

Direct brown 5G 

Direct fast orange K 

Direct fast scarlet SE 

Direct gray R.. 

Direct yellow S 

Duranthrene brilliant violet R 

Duranthrene red BN 

Duranthrene brown B 

Duranthrene golden orange Y 

Durindone blue 6B 

Durindone red B 

Durindone red 3B 

Eclipse brown BK 

Eosamine B 

Eosine A 

Eosine BG 

Erica B 

Erica 2GN 

Erio blue AB_ 

Eriochrome black B— 

Eriochrome black DF... 

Eriochrome blue black G 

Eriochrome brilliant green G 

Eriochrome cyanine RC 

Eriochrome flavine A cone 

Eriochrome green L, O 

Eriochrome red 

Eriochrome verdon S 

Eriocyanine A, AC 

Erio fast cyanine S, SE 

Erio fast fuchsine BL 

Erio fast violet BMS, RMS 



Schultz 
No. 



308 



Page 



364 



274 



695 
348 
449 
206 
617 
14 



541 



392 
279 
354 
615 
820 
831 
867 
760 
883 
912 
918 



100 
587 



121 
117 



184 



180 



260 
531 



106 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 
Index to table of imports — Continued 



Name of dye 



Erioglaucine A, AB, AP, EP._.. 

Erio green BB supra 

Erio viridine B 

Ervthrosine TB 

Ethyl violet, 6B 

Euchrysine GRNTN 

Euchrysine RRX, RRDX 

Excelsior brown 

Fast acid blue A 

Fast acid blue B 

Fast acid blue R 

Fast acid green 8B 

Fast acid marine blue HBBX-.. 

Fast acid marine blue HBTA 

Fast acid red RH 

Fast acid violet B, R 

Fast acid violet 10B 

Fast blue R 

Fast bordeaux B 

Fast cotton blue FF, FFG, 4GL. 

Fast cotton gray VL 

Fast green bluish. 

Fast green extra bluish 

Fast light red BL 

Fast light yellow, 2G 

Fast light yellow 3G, R 

Fast mordant yellow G 

Fast red AV, AVX 

Fast sulphon green 2G 

Fast sulphon violet 5BS 

Flavophosphine G 

Flavophosphine GO 

Formal fast black G 

Formyl violet S4B 

Fur black DB, DG 

Fur blue black A, SA 

Fur blue gray 

Fur brown NZ, NZD _; 

Fur brown P, PR, PY 

Fur brown 2R, 4R paste 

Fur brown SK, SKG, SP, SO... 

Fur gray AL, ALa 

Fur gray, B, G, R 

Fur gray brown SLA 

Fur olive DA, 3G 

Fur red brown 6R 

Fur yellow 2G, 4G 

Fur yellow brown A, 4GL 

Fur dye DF, 2G, SB, SC 

Gallamine blue 

Gallazine A 

Gallazine #90 

Gallocyanine 

Gallophenine P, VS 

Gallo violet DF 

Geranine G 

Glaucol FF _ 

Grelanone yellow G 

Guinea brown GL, 2GL_ 

Guinea brown RG, 2R, 3RD.... 

Guinea fast green B 

Guinea fast red BL, 2BL 

Guinea fast red 2R 

Guinea rubine 4R 

Hansa green G 

Hansa yellow G 

Hansa yellow 5G 

Havana brown 5G, S 

Helindone black IBB 

Helindone black T ... 

Helindone blue BB 

Helindone blue IGCD 

Helindone blue 3GN 

Helindone blue green IB 

Helindone bordeaux B 

Helindone brown AN 

Helindone brown G 

Helindone brown 3GN 

Helindone brown JG 

Helindone brown 2R 

Helindone dark blue IBOA 

Helindone fast scarlet C 



Schultz 
No. 



506 
564 
503 



518 
608 
608 
283 



562 
584 



580 
528 
699 
236 



523 
523 



19 

19 

294 

161 



182 
609 



530 
923 
923 
923 
923 
923 
923 
923 
923 
923 
923 
923 
923 
923 
923 
923 
637 
645 
645 
626 
658 
635 
118 
546 



503 



28 



7(15 



842 
896 

7(15 



S73 
(1(11 
S3(i 



902 
763 
907 



82 
84 
82 
93 
82 
85 
85 
80 
93 
84 
84 
93 
93 
93 
93 
84 
82 
86 
80 
100 
100 
82 
82 
93 
78 
78 
80 
79 
93 
79 
85 
102 
100 
83 
92 
92 
92 
92 
92 
92 
92 
92 
92 
92 
92 
92 
92 
92 
92 
86 



86 
79 
83 
95 
93 
93 
82 
93 
93 
93 
102 
78 
102 
94 
87 
95 
91 
90 
91 
87 
95 
91 
92 
89 
95 
92 
87 
92 



Name of dye 



Helindone fast scarlet G, GG 

Helindone fast scarlet R 

Helindone golden orange DJG 

Helindone golden orange IG 

Helindone golden orange IRRT 

Helindone golden orange I3R 

Helindone gray BB 

Helindone green G 

Helindone orange R 

Helindone pink AN, BN 

Helindone pink B, R, RN 

Helindone red B 

Helindone red DIBN 

Helindone red 3B 

Helindone violet R 

Helindone violet 2R 

Helindone violet I2R, DI2R 

Helindone violet IBN 

Helindone yellow AG, DAGC 

Helindone yellow IG, DIG 

Helindone yellow 3GN 

Helio bordeaux BL 

Helio fast blue BL, SL 

Helio fast violet AL 

Helio red RM, RMT..__ 

Hydron blue G, R 

Hydron bordeaux B, R 

Hydron brown G, CG, OG, R 

Hydron dark blue G, GG 

Hydron green B, G 

Hydron navy blue C, G 

Hydron olive GN, R 

Hydron orange FR, R, RE 

Hydron pink FB, FF 

Hydron scarlet 2B, 3B 

Hydron violet B, R 

Hydron wool brown D, G 

Hydron wool olive B 

Hydron wool red BB 

Hydron wool yellow G__ 

Hydron yellow NF 

Immedial direct blue B 

Immedial green GG 

Immedial indogene GCL 

Immedial violet C 

Indalizarin J 

Indanthrene black BB 

Indanthrene blue BCD 

Indanthrene blue BCS 

Indanthrene blue GCD 

Indanthrene blue GGSP 

Indanthrene blue GGSNP 

Indanthrene blue 3G 

Indanthrene blue 5G 

Indanthrene blue R 

Indanthrene blue RC, RO 

Indanthrene blue RS, RSP 

Indanthrene blue WB 

Indanthrene blue RZ, REZ 

Indanthrene blue 3GT 

Indanthrene blue green B 

Indanthrene bordeaux B extra 

Indanthrene brilliant red 2B 

Indanthrene brilliant violet BBK.__ 

Indanthrene bordeaux B 

Indanthrene brown B 

Indanthrene brown GR 

Indanthrene brown R 

Indanthrene claret B 

Indanthrene copper R 

Indanthrene corinth RK 

Indanthrene dark blue BO 

Indanthrene golden orange G_ 

Indanthrene golden orange RET... 
Indanthrene golden orange RRTS._ 

Indanthrene golden orange 3R 

Indanthrene gray B._ 

Indanthrene gray 3B 

Indanthrene orange RRK 

Indanthrene orange 6RTK 

Indanthrene pink B 

Indanthrene red BN... 



DYES IMPORTED FOE CONSUMPTION IN UNITED STATES, 1923 107 
Index to table of imports — Continued 



Name of dye 



Indanthrene red RK, RKP 

Indanthrene red R 

Indanthrene red brown R 

Indanthrene red violet RRN 

Indanthrene scarlet GS 

Indanthrene violet B 

Indanthrene violet BN 

Indanthrene violet RR 

Indanthrene yellow G 

Indanthrene yellow GP- 

Indian yellow FF 

Indigo 2B 

Indigo RB „ 

Indigo 5B 

Indigo 6B 

Indigosol DH 

Indochromine 

Indocyanine B 

Indoine A _ _ - 

Induline NN 

Ink blue BITN 

Ink blue BJTNO, BJTNOO 

Ionamine B, H 

Iris violet 

Janus black I 

Janus brown B 

Janus green B 

Janus red B 

Janus vellow G 

Japan black, MBG, MGB 

Jasmine, highly cone 

Katigene yellow brown GR 

Kiton fast green A 

Kiton fast green VX 

Kiton fast red 4BL 

Kiton fast violet 10B 

Kiton pure blue AFL 

Kiton yellow G 

Kryogene violet 3RX 

Lanasol blue B 

Lanasol brown 2R 

Leather black TBO 

Leather brown A 

Leather brown 5GX 

Leather phosphine G, 2G_ 

Light green SF yellowish 

Light green SF yellowish XX 

Lithol fast orange R 

Lithol fast yellow 2G, 5G 

Lithol fast yellow GN, GR 

M agenta 

Malta gray, B, J 

Meldola's blue 3R cone 

Metaehrome black AG-_ 

Metachrome blue black 2BX 

Metaehrome brilliant blue BL 

Metachrome brown 0G 

Metachrome green 3G 

Metachrome olive, B, D, 2G 

Metachrome olive brown G 

Metachrome violet B2R 

Methyl alkali blue 

Methyl Lyons blue 

Methvl silk blue new 

Methvl violet NFB 

Methvl violet 300XE 

Methvlene blue 3G 

Methylene blue NNX 

Methylene green extra yellowish. 

Methylene green B 

Methylene green A 

M ethylene hel iotrope. . 

Methylene yellow H 

Milling brown 3G, R 

Milling orange 

Milling red G 

Milling yellow GA, O, 3G 

Minaxo acid brown G 

Modern cyanine V 

Modern gray RCN 

Modern green N 

Modern heliotrope 



Schultz 
No. 



831 
830 

873 



762 
768 
832 
767 
849 
849 
141 



SS2 
883 
876 
667 

7 or. 



699 



686 
125 

4 Xt 
124 
240 
222 



f,2S 



754 



606 

505 
505 



512 
681 



535 
537 

537 
515 
515 



663 
660 
660 



687 
618 



250 

293 

177 



627 



625 



Page 



Name of dye 



102 
86 
94 
94 

100 
86 
79 
81 
79 
80 
80 

102 
79 

101 
94 
84 
94 
82 
94 
94 
87 
97 
97 

102 
80 

102 
85 
82 
82 

102 

102 

102 
82 
86 
86 
97 
97 
97 
97 
97 
97 
97 
97 
83 
83 
83 
82 
82 

102 
86 
86 
86 

102 
86 
85 
94 
80 
80 
79 
94 
85 



Modern olive IN 

Modern royal blue 

Modern violet 

Modern violet N 

Monochrome brown EF 

Nako DR, 3GA, PS, RH 

Nako DD, D2B, O black 

Nako yellow SEL 

Naphthalene blue black 

Naphthalene green, V 

Naphthamine blue JEF 

Naphthamine fast black KS 

Naphthamine green AG 

Naphthamine green AN 

Naphthamine light blue 4B ... 

Naphthamine light brown 2G 

Naphthamine light green G 

Naphthamine light red R 

Naphthamine light violet 2B 

Naphthamine pink 2B 

Naphthamine violet BE 

Naphthindone BB 

Naphthochrome blue BN 

Naphthochrome cyanine R 

Naphthochrome green G 

Naphthochrome violet 4B 

Naphthochrome violet 2R 

Naphthogene blue B 

Naphthylamine black 4B I 

Naphthylamine black 6B 

Naphthylamine brown 

Neolan black, 2G 

Neolan blue B, 2G - 

Neolan green B 

Neolan gray B new 

Neolan navy blue 2G, R 

Neolan pink B, G 

Neolan red R 

Neptune blue BGX 

Neptune blue BXX 

New ethyl blue BS 

New fast gray 

New methylene blue N, NX 

New methylene blue NNX, NSS_. 

Night blue 

Night blue greenish D_ 

Night green A 

NigrosineT, W, WLG 

Nile blue BX 

Nitranil brown B, R, S 

Nitranil green B_ 

Nitrosamine red 

Nitrosine pdr 

Oil blueZ 

Oil brown AN 

Oi! green ALB 

Omega chrome brown G, PB 

Onis 3B, 5B 

Orange 2G 

Oxamine acid brown G 

Oxamine black BBN, BBNX 

Oxamine black BHN. 

Oxamine fast blue 6B, RR, RRX. 

Oxamine fast pink BX 

Oxamine light red E8B 

Oxamine red 3BX, X 

Oxychrorne blue black BG 

O xydi aminogene 

Palatine chrome brown GGX 

Palatine chrome brown RX, W... 
Palatine chrome brown WENTX. 

Palatine light yellow RX 

Palatine scarlet A 

Paper fast bordeaux B 

Prim blue 2BX 

Paranil black 2B 

Parasulphon brown B, V 

Patent blue A 

Patent blue V 

Patent dianil black FF... 

Patent green AGL 

Patent marine blue LE... 



Schultz 
No 



627 
635 
624 



923 
923 
923 



564 
338 



326 

126 



217 
266 

160 



543 
545 



681 
663 
663 
560 
560 
503 
700 
653 



38 
"333 



154 

1.-.4 

If.) 



545 
543 
436 
503 
543 



108 



UNITED STATES TAEIFF COMMISSION" 
Index to table of imports — Continued 



Name of dye 



Patent phosphine G 

Patent phosphine 2G 

Patent phosphine R (I) 

Patent phosphine R (B) 

Patent phosphine 2R___ 

Patent phosphine GRNTN. 

Patent phosphine RRDX 

Permanent red 4B 

Philadelphia yellow 2G 

Phosphine O, 3R 

Phosphine brown L 

Phosphine orange 

Pigment black extra 

Pigment chrome yellow L 

Pigment purple A 

Pilatus light yellow RX 

Pinatype complement red D 

Pluto brown 2G 

Plutoform black BL, 3GL 

Polar maroon VC 

Polar orange R 

Polar red G, R, RS, 3B 

Polar yellow 2G, 5G 

Pure blue 2G 

Printing violet BD 

Printing red 

Pyramine orange 3G 

Pyramine orange R 

Pyrazol orange G 

Pyrazol orange R, RR 

Pyrogene brown DTB. 

Pyrogene cutch brown 2R 

Pyrogene direct blue RL 

Pyrogene green 3G 

Pyrogene indigo 

Pyrogene indigo blue 

Pyrogene violet brown X 

Pyrogene yellow M 

Pyronine G 

Quinoline yellow 

Quinoline yellow (spirit-soluble).. 

Quinoline yellow KT, N, O 

Radio brown B 

Radio red G 

Radio yellow R 

Red IB, JB 

Red violet HR__ 

Rheonine AL, GD 

Rhodamine B 

Rhodamine 3B 

Rhodamine G, 3R. 

Rhodamine 4GD, 4GDN 

Rhodamine 6G, 6GD 

Rhodamine 6GDN, 6GH 

Rhoduline blue GO, 3GO._._ 

Rhoduline orange N, NO 

Rhoduline sky blue 3G 

Rhoduline yellow 6G, 6GT 

Rosanthrene orange R 

Rosanthrene pink 

Rosazeine B extra. 

Rose bengale B 

Rosinduline 2B bluish 

Rosolane 

Rosolane O 

Safranine 

Scarlet RR 

Setoglaucine 

Setopaline. 

Silk blue BIC (A) 

Silk blue BSIC 

Silver gray P 

Sitara fast red RL 

Solamine blue FF 

Soluble blue T 

Special blue G 

Spruce red B 

Stanley red 

Stone fast orange R 

Stone fast yellow 2G.5G. 

Stone fast yellow GN, GR 

Sulphide violet V 



Schultz 
No 



606 
606 
606 



60S 
608 
152 
606 
606 



Page 



537 



306 
360 

392 



726 
746 
735 



734 
568 
613 
612 
613 



607 
573 
574 
572 



571 
571 



603 

"618 



573 
597 
673 
688 
687 
679 



496 
500 



539 
700 
73 



539 



193 



85 

85 

85 

85 

85 

85 

85 

79 

85 

85 

102 

102 

102 

78 

7S 

94 

102 

101 

101 

94 

94 

91 

94 

83 

97 

102 

80 

81 

81 

101 

101 

101 

87 

87 

87 

101 

101 

87 

84 

85 

85 

85 

94 

94 

94 

80 

102 

85 

84 

84 

84 

102 

84 

84 

102 

84 

102 

85 

101 

101 

84 



99 
83 
94 
94 

79 
102 
102 ! 
102 

101 



Name of dye 



Sulpho rhodamine B 

Sulpho rosazeine BG— 

Sulphon acid brown 2R 

Sulphon orange G. 

Sulphon yellow 5 G 

Sulphur brilliant blue CLB... 

Sulphur yellow G 

Sumazine blue 

Sun yellow G 

Supramine black BR 

Supramine brown R 

Supramine red B, 2G_. 

Supramine yellow G, R 

Tannin heliotrope... 

Tannin orange R 

Tannoflavine T 

Tero black FB... 

Tero brown, FR 

Tero carmine FB _. 

Tero red FG 

Tero yellow FR. 

Tetra cyanol A 

Tetracyanol V 

Thiazol yellow 3G... 

Thioflavine T, TCN 

Thiogene black MA ... 

Thiogene new blue 2RL 

Thiogene violet V 

Thioindigo brown R 

Thioindigo brown G 

Thioindigo orange R.. 

Thioindigo orange RY 

Thioindigo pink AN, BN 

Thioindigo pink RN 

Thioindigo red 3B 

Thioindigo rose RN 

Thioindigo scarlet 2G 

Thioindigo violet 2R.__ 

Thioindigo violet 5R 

Thioindigo yellow 3GN 

Thional brown G 

Thional yellow GG... 

Thionine blue G, GO. 

Thionine blue GO old 

Thionol black XXN 

Thionol brown O, R._ 

Thionol purple B 

Toluylene fast brown 2R 

Toluylene fast orange GL 

Toluylene red, OO... 

Trfizol light blue 4GL 

Trizaol pure blue 6B. 

Trizaol red 3B 

Trisulphon brown B. 

Trisulphon brown GG 

Trisulphon violet B 

Turquoise blue BB, G... 

Typophor black FB.. 

Typophor brown FR 

Typophor carmine FB 

Typophor red FG 

Typophor yellow FR 

Ultra brown R 

Ultra cyanine RB 

Ultra cyanol B 

Ultra orange R 

Ursol D, SG 

Vat black BB 

Vat blue green B 

Vat brilliant violet RR, RRP. 

Vat brilliant violet RK 

Vat brown G._ 

Vat golden orange G 

Vat gray K 

Vat gray 6B 

Vat heliotrope R 

Vat olive R 

Vat orange R 

Vat orange RRT 

Vat orange 4R 

Vat red 5GK 

Vat red violet RH 



Schultz 
No. 



761 
762 
816 
918 



DYES IMPORTED FOE CONSUMPTION IN UNITED STATES, 1923 109 
Index to table of imports — Continued 



Name of dye 



Vat red violet RRK— 

Vat violet BR 

Vat yellow GK 

Vat vellow BK__ 

Vat yellow 3RT 

Vesuvine extra 

Vesuvine 3R 

Victoria blue B 

Victoria blue 4R 

Victoria green 

Victoria pure blue BO. 

Victoria violet 4BS 

Violamine B 

Violet PDH 

Violet 4RN 

Water blue 

Wool black GRF 

Wool black 6B 

Wool black N 

Wool blue2B,5B 

Wool blue N 

Wool fast blue BL 

Woo! fast blue GL 



Schultz 
No. 



817 
810 



283 
283 
559 
522 
497 
559 
61 
580 
636 
514 
539 
220 
220 



565 

562 



Page 



Name of dve 



Wool fast orange G 

Wool fast red BL.__ 

Wool fast yellow 3G 

Wool green S_ 

Wool jet black 3B 

Wool printing black CUI- 

Woolred G 

Wool violet RC 

Xylene blue VS 

Xylene fast blue AE 

Xylene fast green B 

Xylene light yellow 2G___ 

Xylene light yellow R 

Xylene milling red B 

Yellow IG, JG 

Yellow II 

Yellow T 

Zambesi black, D, V 

Zambesi brown 4R 

Zambesi pure blue 4BG . . 

Zapon blue R 

Zapon violet R 



Schultz 
No. 



566 
220 



507 



564 
22 
22 



222 

618 



330 
274 



Page 



94 
94 
94 
84 
79 
94 
94 
94 
82 
94 
84 
78 
78 
94 
80 

102 
So 

101 
81 
80 

102 

102 



PART IV 

CENSUS OF SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS 

OTHER THAN THOSE OF COAL-TAR 

ORIGIN, 1923 



in 



Part IV 

CENSUS OF SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS OTHER THAN 
THOSE OF COAL-TAR ORIGIN, 1923 

Introductory 

The United States Tariff Commission has compiled a census of 
the production of synthetic organic chemicals for the year 1923. 
A similar census, made for the first time in 1921, has been repeated 
each year. The quantity of production and the amount and value 
of the sales have been given in all cases where the figures could 
be published without disclosing the operations of the individual 
producer. 

The products included in this census are synthetic organic com- 
pounds derived from sources other than coal tar. Aliphatic com- 
pounds derived from natural sources by isolation, distillation, ex- 
traction, hydrolysis, or purification, as for example, alkaloids, con- 
stituents of essential oils, sugars, and acids, such as stearic and 
tartaric, are not included, nor are cyanides, cyanamides, or carbides 
of metals or inorganic radicals. Statistics for products obtainable 
from other sources have been excluded in most cases. 

As the Bureau of the Census collects data for the more important 
non-coal-tar organic compounds, the Tariff Commission has not 
attempted to collect statistics on such, except in a few instances 
where the importance of the industry or other conditions appeared 
to warrant this departure. 

The production in 1923 of synthetic organic chemicals other than 
those derived from coal tar was 90,597,712 pounds, compared with 
79,202,155 pounds in 1922. Sales in 1923 amounted to 67,727,067 
pounds, valued at $13,S75,521. This total includes the production 
of research chemicals, sales of which amounted to 437 pounds, 
valued at $7,930, or $1.81 per pound. 

Developments in the Industry 

Previous to the World War the United States produced a few 
synthetic organic chemicals other than those of coal-tar origin. 
Among these were acetone, chloroform, ether, acetic acid, formal- 
dehyde, acetaldehyde, amyl acetate, and vanillin. Although few in 
number, the chemicals of this group required large scale production. 

Shortly after the outbreak of the war the manufacturers of finished 
perfumes, flavors, pharmaceuticals, and other products, who had been 
dependent upon imports of fine chemicals from Germany, were con- 
fronted with a serious situation. The American manufacturers who 
then undertook to supply these products have since developed an 
industry not only of considerable size but the source of most of the 
synthetic organic chemicals consumed in the United States. 

Synthetic aromatic chemicals. — The synthetic aromatic chemical 
industry is a source of supply of raw materials for the flavor and 
perfume industries. The past year (1923) was probably one of the 

113 



114 UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 

most successful that American manufacturers of these products have 
enjoyed. Progress has been made in overcoming the former prejudice 
against synthetic aromatic chemicals, and the most important factor 
in this result has been the successful and systematic development of 
quality products. American manufacturers of these products have 
not neglected that essential unit of their business, namely, the re- 
search laboratory, and the industry has consequently been placed 
upon a stable and scientific basis. Workers in the field of perfumes 
and flavors know it to be one of the most extensive and difficult 
branches of organic chemistry and, although much important work 
has been accomplished, further developments may be expected. 

Heliotropin, ionone, isoeugenol, rhodinol, terpineol and vanillin 
show conspicuous increases in production. Several of the esters 
used in perfumery, as well as nerol, an alcohol similar to geraniol, 
were reported in 1923, but not in 1922. Among the products show- 
ing a decrease in production are linalyl acetate and citronellol. 

Esters. — Several of the esters show a large increase in production. 
The production of amyl acetate in 1923 reached 3,207,022 pounds 
and of ethyl acetate (85 per cent), 25,887,720 pounds, as compared 
with 16,114,458 pounds in 1922. Ethyl chloride shows an increase in 
production, and butyl acetate a decrease. 

Chloroform and carbon tetrachloride. — The production of chloro- 
form and carbon tetrachloride was greatly increased in 1923, the 
output of chloroform in that year amounting to 1,585,250 pounds, 
and that of carbon tetrachloride to 13,513,644 pounds. 

Pharmaceuticals. — Manufacturers of synthetic medicinals have in- 
creased production in chloral hydrate, glycerophosphoric acid and 
salts, iodoform, and formaldehyde. Formaldehyde is used as a dis- 
infectant and antiseptic, and in the manufacture of hexamethylene- 
tetramine. The latter, which serves not only in medicine but in 
greater amounts as an accelerator in the vulcanization of rubber and 
in the manufacture of synthetic resins, shows a decrease in produc- 
tion for 1923. 

Some medicinals of special interest, reported in 1923 but not in 
the previous year, are alphozone (succinic dioxide) and dibromin 
(dibromomalonylureide) . 

Acetylene derivatives. — Aldol and paracetaldehyde each show an 
increased production for the year 1923; on the other hand, the pro- 
duction of acetaldehyde shows a decrease. These products are im- 
ported from Canada, where during the war a large plant was erected 
at Shawinigan Falls to produce acetic acid and acetone fron acetylene. 
The production of aldehyde-ammonia, used as an accelerator in the 
vulcanization of rubber, shows a decrease in production for the year 
1923. Acetylene derivatives reported in 1923 but not in 1922 include 
acetylene tetrabromide and acetylene tetrachloride. 

Ethylene and propylene derivatives. — Ethylene shows a considerable 
increase in production for 1923, being used as an anesthetic in place 
of ether or nitrous oxide. Several derivatives of ethylene and pro- 
pylene were made in commercial quantities in 1923. Probably the 
most important of these is ethylene chlorohydrin, which shows a 
large increase in production. These derivatives are manufactured 
by at least two companies. The process used is based upon the re- 
covery of ethylene and propylene from the waste gases of petroleum- 
cracking and from other hydrocarbon gases. Other products from 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS. NOT OF COAL-TAR ORIGIN, 1923 115 



these sources are diethyl sulphate, used as an ethylating agent, 
particularly in dye manufacturing, and isopropyl alcohol, used in 
organic synthesis, particularly for the perfumery and flavoring 
industries. 

Gallic and pyrogallic acids are important products of this group. 
Gallic acid is a white crystalline substance made from nutgalls, used 
in the manufacture of dyes, pyrogallic acid, ink, and in medicine. 
Pyrogallic acid is one of the oldest of photographic developers. 
Both of these products showed an increased production in 1923. 

Dihydroxytartaric acid. — A large increase in the manufacture of 
this product is noted for 1923. It finds application in the manu- 
facture of a dye known as tartrazine. 

Furfural, first reported in commercial quantities in 1922, shows a 
large increase in production in 1923. This synthetic is made from 
corncobs, a waste material available in practically unlimited quan- 
tities. Furfural may have valuable uses in the synthetic resin and 
varnish industry. 

Lactic acid, used in the leather, textile, and dye industries, shows a 
decreased production for 1923. The manufacture of this product by 
a controlled fermentation process is an American development. 

Oxalic acid, one of the most important chemicals of this group of 
synthetics, showed a decrease in production in 1923. 

Tetraethyl lead is one of the synthetics reported for the first time 
in 1923. It is finding use as an anti-knock compound in gasoline 
engines. 

Statistics of Production and Imports 

Table 17. — Production and sales of synthetic organic chemicals, 1923 

(Not derived from coal tar) 

[The numbers in the second column refer to the numbered alphabetical list of manufacturers printed on 
page 195. An X indicates that the manufacturer did not consent to the publication of his name in con- 
nection with the particular product. A blank in the third and fourth columns indicates that these sales 
can not be published without revealing information in regard to the sales of individual firms. A blank 
in the sixth column indicates that the production can not be published without revealing information 
in regard to the output of individual firms. The details thus withheld are, however, included in the 
totals] 





Manufacturer's 
identification 
number ac- 
cording to list 
on p. 195 


Sales 




Name 


Quantity 


1 
Average 
Value j price per 
pound 


Total 
production 


Total .- 




Pounds 
67,727,067 |$13,875,521 \ $0.20 


Pounds 
90, 597, 712 




29, 75, 118, 149, X_. 
54, 68 






1,003 


614 . 61 














191 












62. . 












29 












149 












29 












179 . 












144 












33. 












X 












197 










Amyl acetate and sec. amyl acetate. _ 
Amyl alcohol and sec. amyl alcohol. . 


10, 63, 72, 75, 117, 
127, 129, 141, 191, 
193, X, X. 

X, X, X. 


1, 858, 176 


1, 017, 627 


.55 


3, 207, 022 


191 










Amyl oenanthate 


75 


i 





116 UNITED STATES TABIFF COMMISSION 

Table 17. — Production and sales of synthetic organic chemicals, 1923 — Continued 





Manufacturer's 
identification 
number ac- 
cording to list 
on p. 195 




Sales 






Name 


Quantity 


Value 


Average 

price per 

pound 


Total 
production 




75, 79, X 


Povnds 
573 


$636 


$1.11 


Pounds 

305 




79.. 






24, 75 












1, 17, X... 


9,116 


176, 960 


19.41 




turie acid). 


17 






69, 137 












X 










alcohol) . 
Bromodiethylacetylcarbamide 


17 












62, 118 












62 












29,43 












X 












10, 63, 75, 79", 117, 
127, 141, 191, 193, 
X. 

68 


351,041 


151,673 


.43 


1, 816, 086 








79 












68 












79 












29, 43 












72, 79, 141 








23, 569 




X 












118 












75, 141 












62, 139, 200, X 

17 


11,007,361 


874. 281 


.08 


13, 513, 644 








62 












124, X 










Chloretone (trichlorotertiary butyl 


X 










alcohol) . 


62, 63... 












62, 139, 160, X 

17 


1, 442, 479 


355,319 


.25 


1, 585, 250 








17 












75 












75 












75 












75, 103, 194 












75, 178. X 








99 




29 












29 












17 












75 












75 












X._ .. 












17 












1 












62 












29 












62 












17 












17 












1,205 












205... 












17 












1, 17 












29 












75 












75 












27, 88, 151, 205 








100, 029 




17 












205 












68, 111 












17 










1 : 3-Dimethylxanthine sodium ace- 
tate. 


17 










X 












75 










75 . 


1 








17 










10, 63, 72, 75, 117, 
127, 129, 191, 193, 
194, X. 


10, 970, 972 


1,936,217 .11 


25, 887, 720 







SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, NOT OF COAL-TAR ORIGIN, 1923 117 
Table 17. — Production and sales of synthetic organic chemicals, 1928 — Continued 





Manufacturer's 
identification 
number ac- 
cording to list 
on p. 195 


Sales 




Name 


Quantity 


Value 


Average 

price per 

pound 


Total 
production 




191 


Pounds 






Pounds 




79 ..J 










79 _.l 










17, 62, 118, 194, 205. 
24, 72, 75, 79, 141, 

191, 194, X, X. 
141 






$0.39 
1.27 


124, 842 


Ethyl butyrate. 


40, 791 


$51,581 


40, 477 








75, 191 










48, 62, 78, 83, 118, 

160. 191, X, X. 
62, 191 


219, 594 


68, 505 


.31 


270,180 








194 












X 










Ethyl ether 


48, 63, 118, 153, 

174, 191. 
75,79,118,141,191, 

X. 
17 


4, 666, 832 
2,016 


554, 203 
1,220 


.12 
.61 


5, 104, 157 




1,958 






Ethyl iodide 


68, 118, 124, 153, 

179. 
75, 141, 191.- 


226 


1,234 


5.46 


261 








75,191 .- J 








75 1 








1, 75 i 






Ethyl nitrite - 


118, 153, X 

75, 79, 141, 194, X. 
17, 75, 191, 194 


29,946 
3,965 


15,428 
6,942 


.52 
1.75 


35.140 




3,476 








24, 75, 79, 129 . 






823 




72, 75, 194, X... 


1.81 


1,869 




72, 75, 194, X i - 






191 ' 








62, 118. i 








29,62 








29, X 








62 L -- 








29, 62 1 - 








29 










29 










58, 93, 127, 142, 

149, X. 
196 


18, 854, 535 


2, 474, 506 


.13 


24, 081, 188 






Furfural 


156 






■Gallic acid .. 


68,118, 208.... 

75, 79, 129, 178, X.. 


161, 399 


88, 342 


.55 


469, 941 








75, 103, 178, X 

75 


20 
22 


125 
129 


6.25 
5.86 












75 . i 








68 ! 








142, X ! : 








29 








75 i ..: - 








75 








24, 75, 78, 192, X... 

75 


12,914 


24,572 


1.90 


11,696 








75, 79, X 








X 








79 








75 








X 








118, 136, 153 

29, 62 


1,000 


118,433 


118.43 








Hexadecvl alcohol ( . _ 












75 








Hexadecvl ketone 


75 












93, 142, 149, X 
17 


1, 155. 083 


974, 877 


.84 


1, 381, 073 


Hexamethylenetetramineanhy- 
d roraeth vlene citrate 






186, X . 










17 








17 






Iodobehcnic acid _ 


17... . 








Iodoform 


118, 124, 136, 153... 
7.5. 103. 129, 192, 
194, X 


12, 179 

23, 47(3 


r.3, 758 
98, 478 


5.24 
4.20 


13,231 











118 UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 

Table 17. — Production and sales of synthetic organic chemicals, 1923 — Continued 





Manufacturer's 
identification 
number ac- 
cording to list 
on p. 195 


Sales 




Name 


Quantity 


Value 


Average 

price per 

pound 


Total 
production 


Isoamyl acetate 


141 


Pounds 






. Pounds 


Isoamyl butyrate 


24, 75, 79, 141, 
191, X, X. 

75, 79, 141, 191 


9,362 


$13, 189 


9 733 


Isoamyl formate 




1.20 


84 


Isoamyl nitrite 


68 








Isoamyl n-valerate 


72 








Isoamyl isovalerate 


75, 79, 141, 191, 

X. 
75, 79, 141, 191 
103 


399 

83 


1,196 3.00 
274 | 3.30 


430 


Isobutyl acetate . .. 


111 


Isobutyl alcohol 




Isobutyl butyrate 


75, 141, 191 

75, 191 


12 


34 2. 83 




Isobutyl formate. 








Isobutyl isobutyrate 


79 










Isobutvlpropionate 


75_ 










Iso butyraldehyde 


75 










Iso butyric acid 


79, 141 










Isoeugenol 


24, 75, 103, 192, 

195, X. 
75 


2,063 


9,502 


4.61 




Isopropyl acetate 




Isopropyl alcohol (Isopropanol) 


29, 144, X 










Isopropyl chloride -- _ . 


144 










Isopropyl oxalate _ . _ - . ... 


191 










Isovaleric acid 


79, 141, 176 










Jasmone ketone 


75 










Lactic acid 


197 










Limonene alcohol 


194 










Linalyl acetate 

Linaly 1 butyrate 


75, 103, 178, 192... 
75 


453 


3,570 


7.88 


238 


Linalyl formate 


75, 178, 192 








Linalyl propionate 


75 










Linalyl valerate __ 


75 .... 










M ethaform (chlorobutanol) 


X 










Methyl acetate 


79, 127, 191 










Methylamine _ 


205__._ _.__ 










Methyl anisate 


79 










Methyl bromide 


62 










Methyl n-butyrate 


75, 141, 191 










Methyl chloride... 


X 












75, 178 










Metiiyl foi.mte 


191 










Methyl iodide . 


179... 




"""• "" 






178 




1 




Methylnonvlacetic aldehyde ... ._ 


75_ 










Methyl oxalate 


75, 191 










Methvl propionate 


75 








"• 


p-Methyl quinoline 


75 










Methyl sulfate 


X 










Methyl xanthic acid, ethyl ester of- . 


X 












17 . 












194 












75.. 












75 










Octadecyl alcohol 


75 








Octadecyl aldehyde 


75 










Octadecyl ketone .. 


• 75 










Octoic alcohol 


178 












75, 192 










n-Octyl alcohol and sec-octyl alcohol 


75, 179, 192_ __ 








45 


(capryl alcohol). 


75, 103. 












178... 












143, 196 












29, 110 












29, 62 










Paraformaldehyde 


93, 142, 149 

75 


117, 506 


57, 670 


.49 


112,846 




75 












X. . 












X 












75 












72. 












75 












144... 












191 












191.. 












75 










n-Propyl propionate 


75-... 











SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, NOT OF COAL-TAE ORIGIN, 1&23 119 
Table 17. — Production and sales of synthetic organic chemicals, 1923 — Continued 





Manufacturer's 
identification 
number accord- 
ing to list on p. 
195 


Sales 




Name 


Quantity 


Average 
Value i price per 
pound 


Total 
production 


Propylene chlorohvdrin 


29. 


Pounds 




! Pounds 


Propylenedichloride 


29 












29 












29 










Pyrogallol (pvrogallic acid) 


68, 118, 208 

27 


222, 929 


$218, 066 


$0.98 


235, 389 


Rhodinol 


75, 103, 129, 178, 

186, 192, 194. 
75, 178 


2,985 


43, 558 


14.69 


5.729 


Rhodinvl acetate . 




Rhodinyl butyrate 












Rhodinyl formate _ .'. 


178 










Succinic anhydride ... 


X 












17 










Terpineol... 


137, 192, X, X 

X. 


260, 318 


129, 430 


.50 


322, 337 


Terpineoline 




Terpin hvdrate 


153, 195 








Terpinyl acetate 


75, 79. 103, 129, 

178, 192, X. 
75 


7,655 


11,250 


1.47 


13, 638 


Terpinyl butyrate 




Tetrachloroethylene 


62 










sym-Tetrachloroethane 


62 


.... 


£ 






Tetradecyl alcohol _ 


75 




r 






Tetradecy 1 aldehyde 


75 










Tetradecvl ketone 


75 










Tetraethyllead 


63 










Tetramethyldiaminopentanol 


17 










Triacetin 


79, 129, 191 










Trichloroethylene 


29. 62 










Triethvltrimethylenetriamine. 


X 










Trimethvlene bromide . 


1 










n-Valeric acid 


72 










Vanillic acid 


75 










Vanillic alcohol 


75 '. 










Vanillin ' 


78, 79, 122, 195, X, 

X. 
75 








269, 941 


Vanillvl vanillate.. 








Zinc butyl xanthate 


X 










All otber synthetic organic chemicals 


111 










Research chemicals . 


54, 68, 172 


437 


7,930 


1.81 











1 Includes vanillin reported by one firm unler coal-tar flavor. 
Table 18. — Comparison of production of synthetic organic chemicals, 1922 and 1923 



Name 



1923 



1922 



Amyl acetate 

Butyl acetate (n. and sec.) 

Carbon tetrachloride 

C i tronell vl acetate 

Ethyl acetate (85 percent) 

Ethyl bromide 

Ethyl butyrate 

Ethyl chloride 

Ethyl ether 

Ethvl formate 

Ethyl iodide 

Ethyl oenant hate _ 

Ethyl pelargonate 

Formaldehyde 

Gallic acid 

Heliotropin 

Hexamethylenetetramine 

Iodoform 

Isoamyl butyrate 

Isoamy 1 forma te 

Isobut yl acetate. 

Linalyl acetate 

n-Octyl alcohol and sec. octyl alcohol 

Pyrogallol 

Rhodinol.. 

Terpinyl acetate 

Vanillin 



Pounds 


Pounds 


3, 207, 022 


1, 692, 074 


1,816,086 


2, 467, 506 


13,513,644 


11,166,318 


99 


105 


25, 887, 720 


16,114,458 


124,842 


155, 162 


40, 477 


22,958 


270, 180 


164. 198 


5, 104, 157 


4,017,043 


1,958 


1,627 


261 


238 


3,476 


4,731 


823 


971 


24, 081, 188 


23,958,1.52 


469,941 


411,768 


11,696 


6.794 


1,381.073 


2,015, 161 


13.231 


11,811 


9,733 


5, 576 


84 


155 


111 


510 


238 


736 


45 


106 


235, 389 


187, 536 


5,729 


777 


13. 638 


13,802 


269, 941 


221, 046 



120 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 



Table 19. — Imports and 'production of synthetic organic chemicals (except those of 
coal-tar origin), 1922, 1923 



Name 



Imports, 1922 



Pounds 



Value 



Production 
1922 



Imports, 1923 



Pounds , Pounds 



Value 



Production 
1923 



Pounds 



Acetaldehyde. 

Acetic or pyroligneous acid 

Containing by weight not 
more than 65 per cent 

acetic acid 

Containing more than 65 

per cent acetic acid . 

Formic acid 

Gallic acid 

Glycerophosphoric, and salts 

and compounds 

Lactic acid 

Containing by weight 55 
per cent or more of lactic 

acid 

Oxalic acid... 

Pyrogallic acid 

Methanol 

Carbon tetrachloride. 

Chloroform 

Chloral hydrate. 

Cocaine, etc 

Ethers and esters: 

Containing not more than 
10 per cent alcohol — 

Ethyl ether 

Ethyl chloride.. 

Amyl acetate. 

Amyl nitrite 

Ethyl acetate 

Nitrous, spirits of 

Other, n. s. p. f 

Containing more than 50 

per cent alcohol 

Formaldehyde solution (not 

more than 40 per cent) 

Formaldehyde solution (form- 
alin) 

Hexameth ylenetetramine 

Urea.. 

Thymol 

Vanillin 



82,390 
18, 706 



43 



278, 141 
4,490 

12, 481 
380, 840 



5,000 

1, 290, 075 

1 

127 

66, 131 

15 

k 1, 354 

\> 3 7,518 



906 

17, 096 

200 

6 

200 

1,998 

4,374 

1,616 

407 

300 

16,010 

260, 636 

11,403 

2 3,514 



$13, 192 
1,318 



19 



71, 537 163, 913 



$26,338 



20, 481 
2,387 

8, 659 
37, 913 



411,768 



758 

106, 486 

3 



37, 052 

664, 034 

1, 282, 004 

6,048 

28, 265 



4,758 

79, 553 

96, 174 

2,743 

38,100 



3, 978, 807 
187, 536 
43 j 16,808,911 
1, 854 , 11, 166, 318 

3 '.... 

1, 18(6 i 

18, 572 



158 

10, 906 

258 

17 

276 

1,365 

1,781 

1,442 



50 

7,765 

61,561 

34, 426 

1,448 



3 4, 017, 043 

3 164, 198 

3 1, 692, 074 



16,114,458 



23, 958, 152 



2, 015, 161 
" "221," 046' 



66,648 

2, 621, 302 

342 

1 15, 786 

1,429 

381 

6, 135 

MOO 



3 103 

3 9, 519 

3 26. 418 

56 

3 27, 202 



16, 056 

206, 100 

417 

12, 573 

130 

133 

1,819 

238 



75 

11,899 

9,612 

114 

11,664 



11,448 



6,458 
1,436 



166 
47, 373 
47,711 
12, 136 



67 

24, 722 

5,898 

27, 067 



469, 941 



235, 389 

1 8, 593, 727 

13, 513, 644 

1, 585, 250 



5, 104, 157 

270, 180 

3, 207, 022 



25, 887, 720 



24, 081, 188 
"I,~38i,~673 
""269," 941 



1 Gallons. 



2 Ounces. 



3 Alcohol content unknown. 



PART V 
INTERNATIONAL DYE TRADE 

1760— 24 f 9 121 



Part V 
INTERNATIONAL DYE TRADE 



Introductory 



In the census of 1922 the world's trade in synthetic dyes was 
the subject of discussion. This included a review of the conditions 
existing before the war, when Germany dominated the world trade, 
and a consideration of manufacturing developments during and 
since the war, as a result of which the United States, Great Britain, 
France, and Italy have established home dye industries producing 
a great part of the requirements of each country and which have 
to some extent developed an export trade in dyes. The dye indus- 
tries of Great Britain, Switzerland, and France were considered 
in detail. Available statistical information from official sources 
on production, consumption, imports and exports of dyes by differ- 
ent nations was also included in Part V, International Dye Irade. 

General Developments During 1923 

The occupation of the Ruhr.— The occupation of the Ruhr by the 
French during 1923 had a pronounced effect on the international 
dye trade through the partial elimination, for some months of that 
year, of active competition by German dye manufacturers. The 
total output of dyes in the German factories in January, 1923, was 
at the rate of 240,000,000 pounds per year or approximately 85 per 
cent of the output in 1913. The monthly production figures of the 
German dye plants declined from January to May, when they 
reached a minimum output for that year, being at the rate of about 
35 per cent of the 1913 output. Then, from June until December, 
each month registered a gain in production, the rate in the latter 
month being equivalent to nearly 185,000,000 pounds per year. 
The total production of 1923 (144,859,572 pounds) was smaller by 
47,946,992 pounds than the 1922 output, which had amounted to 
192,806,564 pounds. This decrease represents a significant portion 
of the world's total annual consumption. The requirements of 
China, India, and other large nonmanufacturing consumers were 
in part met by the United States, Great Britain, France, and Switzer- 
land, as is apparent from the official dye statistics of those countries. 
The exports of the United States increased in 1923 to 17,924,200 
pounds, valued at $5,565,267, from a 1922 total of 8,344,187 pounds, 
with a value of S3, 996,443. The exports of dyes similarly increased 
in the United Kingdom, totaling in 1923, 14,132,944 pounds, valued 
at $4,719,924, compared with 5,299,504 pounds, valued at $2,714,612, 
in 1922. The exports during 1923 of both the United Kingdom 
and the United States fell below those of 1920, a year of world-wide 
business activity, before German dyes had reappeared in the world's 
markets. Germany's monthly production figures for January and 
February, 1924, show an output at the rate of nearly 190,000,000 

123 



124 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 



pounds per year. This expansion in production is obviously a factor 
in the world's large dye markets, such as the Far East countries, and 
will probably affect exports of dyes from the United States and Great 
Britain. The output of the early months of 1924 indicates that the 
effects of the Ruhr occupation, which extended from the early part 
of 1923 to the latter part of the year, have very largely disappeared. 

Seizure of German dyes by French and Belgian authorities. — Accord- 
ing to reports from France, 6,560 tons of dyes were seized in' 
May, 1923, in the dye plants at Hochst, Ludwigshafen, and Bie- 
brich. Of this total, 2,100 tons were sold in order to pay sums due 
the German Coal Syndicate by the German dye concerns from 
which the dyes were taken. It is understood that the remaining 
4,460 tons were to be divided between France and Belgium. A por- 
tion of the first dye seizure was resold for exportation. Later 
seizures were reported to consist of pharmaceuticals and chemicals. 

Indigo and alizarin red comprised a large portion of the seized 
stocks. The British Alizarin Company purchased alizarin in quantity 
in order to prevent the demoralization of price levels by the dumping 
of this dye on the market. The official import figures for the United 
Kingdom show a total of 1,445,024 pounds of alizarin, valued at 
$391,535, for the month of January. 1924. This amount exceeded 
by 503,216 pounds the total imports of alizarin during the entire 
year 1923. 

Increased, post-war capacity to produce dyes. — The combined capacity 
of the world's synthetic dye plants in 1924 is estimated to exceed 
600,000,000 pounds per year, or nearly double the pre-war capacity. 
In arriving at this estimate the capacity of the seven leading dye- 
producing nations has been used. In addition, there is probably 
productive plant capacity in Austria, Czechoslovakia, Belgium, 
Holland, Sweden, Russia, and possibly other countries, but the aggre- 
gate of these minor producers will, it is believed, not seriously affect 
this estimate. The estimated capacity for the first seven countries 
given in the following table was obtained by adding 25 per cent to 
the maximum reported or estimated output. 

The existing capacity to produce in excess of normal requirements 
can not fail to result in an era of severe competition in the world's 
markets, and will finally eliminate many of the plants now producing 
dyes. 

Table 20. — World's estimated annual capacity to produce dyes 



Country 


Maximum 

reported or 

estimated 

output 


Estimated 
annual 
capacity 




Pounds 
280, 000, 000 
94, 000, 000 
43, 000, 000 
24, 000, 000 
24, 000, 000 
10, 000, 000 
16, 000, 000 


Pounds 
350, 000, 000 


United States 2 - 


117, 500, 000 




54, 000, 000 




30, 000, 000 




30, 000, 000 


Italy 6 - 


12, 500, 000 




20, 000, 000 








Total 


491, 000, 000 


614, 000, 000 







J For the year 1913, exports totaled 239,598,133 pounds and home consumption is estimated at 40,000,000 
pounds. 



> For 1923. 



3 For 1920. 



* For 1923. 



6 For 1922. 



6 For 1919 



HSTTEEISTATIONAL DYE TRADE 



125 



The following tables show exports from the principal dye-produc- 
ing countries and imports into the chief dye-consummg countries : 

Table 21. — Exports of coal-tar dyes from chief producing countries, 1913, 1921-1923 



Exported from— 



1913 



Pounds 



Value 



1921 



Pounds 



Value 



Germany 

United States. 
Great Britain. 
Switzerland. .. 

France 

Italy 



239, 598, 133 



$51, 689, 400 i 48, 304. 991 



5,451,376 

19, 458, 902 

1, 152, 134 

117,725 



862, 566 

5, 549, 752 

275, 716 

22, 458 



7, 621, 600 

10, 779, 612 

5, 947, 131 

607, 812 



1 $15, 935, 585 

* 6, 270, 139 

5, 033, 828 

11, 654, 516 

1, 608, 308 

274, 128 



Exported from— 



Germany 

United States 
Great Britain 
Switzerland.. 

France. 

Italy 



1923 



Pounds 



114, 213, 300 

« 8, 344, 187 
3, 860, 416 

16,167,655 

1,251,551 

372, 578 



Value 



Pounds 



$79, 826, 618 

s 3, 996, 443 
2, 300, 298 

13, 042, 635 
1, 094, 420 

254, 250 



73, 974, 473 

« 17, 924, 200 

14, 132, 944 

18, 282, 967 

4, 650, 382 

6 432, 983 



Value 



2 $41, 580, 742 

» 17, 125, 528 

» 5, 565, 267 

4, 719, 924 

12,253,711 

3, 749, 442 

e 417, 906 



1 May to December, 1921. 

2 1923 basis. 

3 1913 basis. 

* Includes natural and coal-tar dyes, with exception of logwood extract. 

5 New classification for coal-tar colors adopted in 1922 was " Color Lakes" and "Other colors, dyes, and 
stains." 

6 First nine months. 

Table 22. — Imports of dyes into chief consuming countries, 1913, 1921-1923 



Imported into — 



China 

United States 

Great Britain 

Austria-Hungary... 

British India 3 

Italy 

Japan 

Germany 

Russia. 

France.. 

Canada 3 

Turkey 

Sweden 

Spain.. ._ 

Switzerland 

Dutch East Indies . 

Czechoslovakia 

Netherlands 



1913 



Pounds 



i 60, 696, 
2 45,950, 
41,203, 
17, 168, 
16, 923, 
15, 542, 

5 9,755, 
7, 138, 
4, 835, 
4, 706, 
2, 633, 
2, 631, 
2, 376, 

i 2, 303, 
2,201, 

6 2,073, 



Value 



533 

895 
008 i 
764 I 
607 
429 I 
260 I 
495 ! 
647 
601 | 
516 
703 ! 
166 
709 I 
292 
434 



$11, 673, 779 

7, 537, 870 

9, 207, 684 

3, 616, 199 

3, 741, 031 

3,611,705 

2, 100, 255 

1, 682, 422 

3, 701, 186 

1,416,316 

594, 414 

641, 321 

699, 737 

1, 021, 368 

431, 197 

890, 366 



1921 



Pounds 



46, 939, 187 
4,252,911 
6, 686, 288 
3, 439, 837 
11,731,237 
• 7, 450, 665 
7, 752, 896 
6 291,457 



2, 531, 320 
2, 366, 855 



984, 028 
3, 178, 365 
1, 084, 337 
2, 166, 053 
10, 854, 128 
2, 666, 518 



Value 



$19, 283, 019 
5, 156, 779 
5, 930, 054 
931,610 
11, 798, 262 
2, 556, 457 
9, 858, 807 
33, 497 



1. 539, 907 
1, 692, 873 



851, 265 
1, 264, 929 

668, 843 
1, 385, 364 
6, 901, 737 
1,937,097 



[For footnotes see next page.] 



126 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 



Table 22. — Imports of dyes into chief consuming countries, 1913, 1921-1923 — 

Continued 



Imported into — 


1922 1923 


Pounds 


Value 


Pounds 


Value 


China 


56,300,385 

3, 982, 631 

6, 450, 192 

2, 760, 380 

14, 119, 822 

9 5, 484, 383 

12, 526, 817 

1, 003, 300 


$17, 788, 624 

5, 243, 257 

5, 873, 160 

817, 737 






United States 


3, 098, 193 
6, 289, 584 


$3, 151, 363 


Great Britain 


4, 591, 038 












Italy 


2, 751, 374 
9, 025, 223 

111,906 












Germany 


466, 494 


123, 522 








3, 279, 786 
3, 290, 349 


2, 778, 480 
2, 287, 159 


3, 022, 505 


2, 986, 200 




















Spain 2.115.627 


1, 777, 938 
672, 769 






Switzerland 


1, 290, 793 
2, 091, 102 

7, 826, 320 
3, 816, 162 


1, 980, 171 
2, 238, 238 
5,118,341 


974, 518 


Czechoslovakia. 


5, 765, 175 
2, 124, 263 


2, 688, 556 









'Exports to China, 1913, from France, Germany, and Switzerland amounted to 69,181,230 pounds, 
valued at $11,516,567. Chinese statistics show value but not quantity of aniline dyes, and include "un- 
classified dyes," which may contain other than coal-tar dyes. 

2 Fiscal year 1914— Quantity from Special Agents Series No. 121; value from Commerce and Navigation 
Reports. 

3 Years ended March 31, 1914, and 1922 and 1923. 

4 Figures include 3,496,275 pounds of reparation dyes for which no value is shown. 

5 Aniline only, in 1913. 

6 1921 imports, May to December. 
' 1914. 

8 Quantity of synthetic indigo not shown, 1913. 

' Figures include 1,666,237 pounds of reparation dyes for which no value is shown. 

Germany's Position in the World's Dye Trade 

Of primary importance in a consideration of international dye 
trade is the pre-war supremacy of Germany and her recent efforts 
to regain her lost trade. 

The chemical industry is one of the leading industries of Germany. 
Its vital place in the welfare of the country is fully appreciated and 
the severe loss of trade in dyes and chemicals as a result of the war 
can not be considered as permanent. 

The organization and growth of the dye industry in Germany up 
to the outbreak of the war has been described in great detail in 
many technical publications. Accordingly, mention is made here 
only of the more important influences which have favored the ex- 
pansion of the German industry, together with statistics of the ex- 
ports of dyes from 1880 to 1913, demonstrating the remarkable rate 
of their growth. 

The coal-tar dye industry was established in England and France 
several years before it was started in Germany. Professor Hoffman 
and other German chemists who had resided in England were thor- 
oughly familiar with the initial work on these dyes carried out in the 
Royal College of Chemistry and in other English institutions. They 
returned to Germany, to find the significance and promise of the coal- 
tar dye and chemical industry fully appreciated. The value of 
research was, from the start, recognized by the German universities, 
the Government, and the industrial firms. This probably more than 
any other factor favored the rapid growth and development of the 



INTERNATIONAL DYE TRADE 



127 



industry. Other vital factors in the growth of this chemical branch 
were (1) the heavy capital investment; (2) the availability of raw 
material; (3) the concentration within a small area; (4) the fact that 
foreign patent laws in consuming countries, such as France, Great 
Britain, and the United States, were unfavorable to the establish- 
ment of domestic dye industries, but favorable to German ownership 
of patents; and (5) the intimate relationship between different con- 
cerns which resulted, in recent years, in the formation of a powerful 
trust. 

PRE-WAR TRADE 

Prior to the war German dye manufacturers succeeded in eliminat- 
ing any serious foreign competition, using to that end such methods 
as price cutting, full-line forcing, and dumping. 

In 1913, the total exports of dyes reached a maximum, 239,598,133 
pounds; adding 40,000,000 pounds as the estimated home consump- 
tion, total production during that year approximated 280,000,000 
pounds. As Germany then dominated the world's market an 
analysis of official dye-export figures throws much light on the world's 
dye trade at that time. Table 23 shows total exports of dyes from 
Germany in 1913 for the first 10 importing countries both by quantity 
and value. 

Table 23. — Exports of coal-tar dyes from Germany to leading countries, 1913 



Exported to — 



China 

United States 

Great Britain 

Austria-Hungary 

British India 

Italy 

Japan 

Belgium 

Netherlands 

France... 



Pounds 



Exported to — 



China 

United States 

Great Britain 

Austria-Hungary. 

Japan 

j British India 

Italy 

Russia _.- 

France 

Belgium 



Value 



$10, 
9, 
6, 
3, 
3, 
3, 
2, 
1, 
1, 
1, 



957, 190 
027, 780 
617, 240 
787, 380 
453, 900 
168, 060 
524, 920 
929, 420 
524, 480 
405, 380 



Table 24 shows exports by countries for the year 1913, giving value 
and quantity for the three following classes of synthetic dyes, u ani- 
line and other coal-tar dyes, not elsewhere mentioned," "alizarin, 
alizarin dyes and anthracene dyes," and " synthetic indigo." 

Table 24. — Exports of coal-tar dyes from Germany, 1913 





1913 




1913 




Pounds 


Value 


Pounds 


Value 


Alizarin, alizarin red, vari- | 
egated colors from anth- 
racene: 


' 


Alizarin, alizarin red.vari- 
ega ted colors from anth- 
racene — Continued. 


127, 867 

661, 380 

50, 706 

5, 866, 441 

205, 028 

1, 298, 509 

5, 855, 418 


$47, 640 


France 

Great Britain 


489, 421 

5, 857, 622 

416, 669 

716, 495 

1, 192, 689 


$190, 560 
976, 620 
119, 100 
119, 100 
333, 480 


Switzerland.. .- 

Spain 

British India, etc 

Japan.. 

United States 


95,280 
23, 820 


Italy 

Netherlands 

Austria-Hungary. 

Austria 


905, 160 

95, 280 

238, 200 

1, 310, 100 






Total 










428, 760 




Russia 725,313 







128 UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION" 

Table 24. — Exports of coal-tar dyes from Germany, 1913 — Continued 





1913 




1913 




Pounds 


Value 


Pounds 


Value 


Aniline and other coal-tar 
dyes not specifically 
mentioned: 
Belgium 


5, 531, 341 
384, 393 


$1, 405, 38 
71, 460 


Aniline and other coal-tar 
dyes not specifically 
mentioned— Continued. 


1, 382, 284 
976, 638 
123, 458 

1, 197, 098 
30, 544, 733 


$404, 940 

190, 560 

47, 640 

285, 840 

6, 717, 240 


Bulgaria 




Alsace-Lorraine 


Chile... 


France 


3, 853, 641 

24, 285, 874 

9, 032, 246 

3 009 279 


1, 024, 260 




Great Britain 


5, 259, 500 
2, 167, 620 




Italy. 


Other countries. 










Norway.. 


595,242 142.920 


Total 


141, 729, 325 


33, 835, 604 


A ustria-Hungary 


12, 740, 383 


2,977,500 


Indigo: 

Alsace-Lorraine. 


Austria 














Czechoslovakia 






France 


712, 086 

2, 601, 428 
1, 459, 445 
1, 347, 011 

3, 000, 461 


309, 660 


Great Britain.. 










381, 120 


East Poland.. 






Italy 


238, 200 




Netherlands 






921,523 i 238,200 
496, 035 119. 100 


214, 380 


Rumania 


Austria-Hungary 

Austria... 


476,400 




806, 884 
2, 420, 651 


142, 920 
833, 700 






Czechoslovakia 








Hungary.. 












Russia 


956,796 

147, 708 

976, 638 

714, 290 

47, 090, 256 

1, 809, 977 

2, 103, 188 

7, 630, 121 


666, 960 




Spain 




Finland 


520, 286 
1, 986, 345 
1, 728, 406 

211, 642 
1, 446, 218 

963, 410 
8, 428, 185 
18, 653, 121 
7, 729, 328 

531, 309 

350, 531 


142, 920 

476, 400 

500, 220 

47, 640 

428, 760 

214, 380 

1, 953, 240 

4, 536, 994 

2, 000, 880 

119, 100 

119, 100 


119, 100 


Egypt 






214, 380 




British India, etc 

China 




Switzerland.. 


309, 660 




6, 396, 964 


Spain 


Japan 


1, 357, 740 


East Indies, etc 

United States 




Turkey 


357, 300 


British India, etc 

China 


1, 000, 440 


Dutch Indies 




Other countries 


_, 








Dutch East Indies 


Total i 


73, 530, 014 


12, 685, 444 


Argentina 











Officially published totals do not check with items shown. 



EXPORTS SINCE THE WORLD "WAR 



The establishment of dye industries in the United States, Great 
Britain, France, and Italy, able to supply most of the home require- 
ments and, in addition, to enter the export trade to "some extent, 
has resulted in the loss of a large part of Germany's export trade in 
dyes, as shown in the following taole: 

Table 25. — Exports of coal-tar dyes from Germany, 1913, 1920-1923 



Year 


Pounds 


Value 


1913... 


239, 598, 133 
61,140,171 
48, 304, 991 

115,974,900 

73, 974, 473 


$51, 666, 168 


1920 


53, 002, 407 


1921 i 


15, 935, 585 


1922 


80, 781, 892 


1923 


/ 2 41,580,742 
\ 3 17, 125, 528 





1 May to December. 



2 1923 basis. 



3 1913 basis. 



Of the leading consuming countries which are now dye producers, 
the United States ranks first (rating second by quantity of the 
world's consumers and first by value). The recovery of this market 
is of great importance to Germany, as the United States now possesses 
a dye industry ranking second to that of Germany and not only 
supplies more than 90 per cent of its domestic requirements, but has 



INTERNATIONAL DYE TRADE 129 

exported significant amounts of indigo, sulphur black, and other 
dyes to Far East markets, a feature tending to prevent German 
domination in these markets. It is accordingly a logical move on 
the part of Germany to seek to regain the United States market, 
even at very great cost and over a prolonged period of effort. 

EFFORTS TO REGAIN EXPORT TRADE 

No doubt is possible as to the determination of the "I. G. " to 
regain for Germany her former supremacy in the world's dye trade. 
Of the various methods open to her in the effort to accomplish this 
purpose, the following appear to be of leading importance : 

(a) Affiliation with concerns in the new dye-producing countries to 
establish a foothold in them. 

(6) The exercising of influence in competing countries, either di- 
rectly or indirectly through consumers, to bring about tariff changes 
facilitating a freer entrance of dyes into those countries. 

(c) By attacking the export trade of the United States, Great 
Britain, and France, to weaken the industry of those nations to the 
extent to which the export trade serves as a source of revenue and a 
balance of production, and thus to admit of more continuous opera- 
tion at lower manufacturing costs. 

(d) .The use of propaganda directed against the new foreign in- 
dustries and their products and favorable to the German organiza- 
tion and its dyes. 

0) Commercial warfare, by such well-known methods as price 
cutting, full-line forcing, and dumping. 

Affiliations. — -The new dye-producing nations, the United States, 
Great Britain, France, Italy, and Japan, have adopted tariff measures 
or import restrictions calculated to protect and stimulate the pro- 
duction of dyes in those countries. Germany has consequently not had 
free access to the markets of these countries, which before the war 
were dominated by German dyes. 

One method open to Germany for establishing a foothold and 
sharing the profits is to enter into an affiliation with one or more of 
the large dye producers, and to obtain control by purchase of the 
major portion of the stock carrying voting rights. In the event of 
high protective measures being" continued in those countries, Ger- 
many might find it advantageous to purchase outright an existing 
American plant, or to establish new plants in the United States, 
where their processes could be conducted and their trade secrets 
retained exclusively in the hands of German agents. A price-cutting 
campaign might be resorted to for the purpose of forcing some of the 
existing concerns out of business. 

Italy. — The Germans have established themselves in Italy by 
affiliation. The Bianchi Co., one of the largest Italian producers, is 
reported to have an agreement with the Cassella Co. of Germany, 
under which the Germans agree to supply technical assistance and 
personnel, and the Italians in turn agree not to sell any products so 
produced outside of Italy or its colonies. The profits are divided on 
the basis of the relative German and Italian stock ownership. The 
effect of this affiliation is (1) to diminish the volume of Italian dyes in 
the export market; (2) to effect a sharing of profits in the Italian 
home market by the "I. G.," and (3) to enable the exercise of Ger- 
man influence in Italy. 



130 UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 

France.— An arrangement between the French dye concern Mate- 
ries Colorantes, and the "I. G." was reported in 1922. The Ger- 
mans are understood to have agreed to furnish technical aid in 
return for the French undertaking to restrict exports to their colonies. 
The complications of the Ruhr occupation are reported to have 
unfavorably affected the operation of this agreement. 

Great Britain. — Negotiations were conducted in 1923 between the 
British Dye Corporation and the "I. G.," but no working agree- 
ment had been reached to June, 1924. 

The United States. — In 1923 and 1924 it was reported that 
endeavors were being made by German manufacturers to secure 
affiliations with certain firms in the United States. Up to June, 1924, 
however, no authoritative statement in regard to the conclusion of 
such agreements had been published. 

Attack on the export trade of the United States, Great Britain, and 
France. — The export trade comprises nearly nine-tenths of Germany's 
dye business. In the case of the new dye-producing nations it has 
been a minor part of the total trade, as the home market demands 
made up the bulk of the business. Nevertheless, the dye export 
trade for the new industries in the United States and Great Britain 
constitutes an important balance for stabilizing production by 
offsetting the fluctuations of home consumption. Furthermore, as 
the output increases, the unit cost of production declines. 

The destruction by Germany of the dye export trade of the United 
States, Great Britain, France, and Italy would be an important step 
in a program to weaken the new industries. The existence of 
competition in the Far East and in other dye markets prevents 
German domination and the arbitrary fixing of prices. 

In 1921, Germany regained a large part of her trade in Far 
East markets, lost during the war. The occupation of the Ruhr in 
1923 diminished the German export trade and stimulated that of 
the United States and other new dye-producing nations. In 1924, 
Germany returned with renewed energy to the Far East markets and 
began to regain her former supremacy in them. 

Commercial warfare. — The well-known methods employed by the 
Germans prior to 1914 may be revived or extended at any time, the 
first being price cutting or destructive underselling. In the past, when 
a, German firm encountered competition in a dye or other chemical 
product, it sold the goods at or below cost until the rival concerns were 
forced out of business. Such losses as may result from this price cut- 
ting designed to be, and usually are, made up by a higher selling price 
in countries where no competition is encountered or by a subsequent 
increase in price when competition has been eliminated. In this 
connection it should be borne in mind that the export-price levels of 
dyes in Germany since the war are far above those of pre-war years. 

Full-line forcing has also been an effective weapon of commercial 
warfare. Germany produced certain products not duplicated else- 
where; the sale of these products can be and was made contingent 
upon the acceptance of a full line or by a refusal to sell any dyes 
whatever to consumers who attempted to divide their orders. Dump- 
ing, 1 and dishonest and deceptive labeling, are among measures which 
may be utilized. 

i United States Tariff Commission report on Dyes and Related Coal-Tar Chemicals, 1918; see p. 26 



INTERNATIONAL DYE TRADE 131 

EFFECT OF THE OCCUPATION OF THE RUHR. 

In the month of January, 1923, just before the occupation of the 
Ruhr by the French, the production of dyes in German plants, based 
on the monthly reparation lists, totaled slightly over 20,000,000 
pounds, or at the rate of 240,000,000 pounds per year — approximately 
85 per cent of the pre-war production (1913). In the month of Feb- 
ruary, the total production receded to nearly 16,000,000 pounds and 
the output declined from that month until May, when it reached 
a minimum of 7,431,962 pounds, or 37 per cent of the January out- 
put. During the months of July, August, and September the out- 
put registered a slight increase; the average production being about 
9,000,000 pounds per month. From October to December, how- 
ever, the increase was more rapid, reaching an output of 15,390,586 
pounds in December, or at the rate of nearly 185,000,000 pounds 
per year. 

The effect of the occupation of the Ruhr was most pronounced in 
the Hochst and the Badische plants. These are two of the largest 
dye producers in the occupied zone. The equivalent quarterly out- 
put of the Hochst plant in January was 1,225,010 pounds, rapidly 
declining to 57,181 pounds in March, and during April and May 
production ceased. From June until November the average monthly 
production was about 15 per cent of the January figure. The 
November output showed a large increase, and the December pro- 
duction was over 70 per cent of the January figure. In the case of 
the Badische plant at Ludwigshafen, the January output was 
5,304,426 pounds. After a slight drop in February an abrupt decline 
was registered, reaching in June the minimum of 131,385 pounds. 
Then, starting from an output of 419,641 pounds in July, the upward 
movement continued until it reached 5,506,835 pounds in December. 

An examination of the monthly output figures of the other dye 
plants shows that the occupation had less effect on their output. 
The total monthly output of all plants in December had reached 76 
per cent of the January figure, showing that the effect of the occu- 
pation had been overcome in the latter part of the year. The total 
output of 1923 was 75 per cent of the total 1922 production, and 
about 13 per cent of the production of the pre-war year 1913. 

The production in January, 1924, was 14,153,841 pounds and that 
of February, 1924 increased to 15,750,430 pounds, equivalent to 
about 189,000,000 pounds per year. 



132 



UNITED STATES TAEIFF COMMISSION 



STATISTICS OF EXPORTS AND IMPORTS. 

The following tables show the development of Germany's trade 
in dyes since 1880: 

Table 26. — Development of the German export trade in coal-tar dyes, 1880—191 3 



Year 





Tons 


1880 . . 


2,140 

4,646 
7,280 
15, 789 
23, 781 
36, 570 
49, 997 
52, 480 
59, 696 
64, 288 


1885 


1890 


1895 


1900 


1905. 


1910 


1911 _. 


1912 


1913 i. 





Aniline and other coal-tar dyes 



Quantity 



Pounds 



4, 717, 844 
10, 242, 572 
16, 049, 488 
34, 808, 429 
52, 427, 593 
80, 622, 222 
110,223,386 
115, 697, 408 
131, 605, 802 
141, 729, 325 



Value 



1,000 
marks 



31. 307 
34,846 
37, 854 
63. 156 
77, 289 
100, 654 
125, 790 
119, 507 
133, 764 
142, 079 



Dollars 



Alizarin and Alizarin dyes 



Quantity 



Tons i Pounds 



457, 327 
300, 317 
016, 823 
043, 759 
410, 240 
975, 783 
963, 178 
466, 567 
862, 585 
843, 218 



5,888 | 12, 

4.284 ! 9, 

7,905 ! 17, 

8,928 I 19, 

8,591 I 18, 

9,339 I 20, 

9, 220 20, 

9,624 21. 

11,589 25, 

11,040 24, 



980, 685 
444, 506 
427, 363 
682, 669 
939, 719 
588, 759 
326, 412 
217, 070 
549, 109 
337, 902 



Value 



1,000 
marks 



20, 607 
9,510 
12, 649 
11,606 
11, 167 
15, 532 
21, 279 
19,647 
23,639 
21, 573 



Dollars 



4, 908, 587 
2, 265, 282 
3, 012, 992 
2, 764, 549 
2, 659, 979 
3, 699, 722 
5, 068, 658 
4, 679, 915 
5, 630, 810 
5, 138, 689> 





Indigo 


Year 


Quantity 


Value 




Tons Pounds 


1,000 
marks 


Dollars 


1880 










1885 . 










1890 . 










1895 . 










1900 


1,873 
11, 165 
17, 564 
21.618 
24,827 
33, 353 


4, 129, 216 
24, 614, 359 
38, 721, 594 
47, 659, 043 
54, 733, 604 
73, 530, 024 


9,364 
25, 721 
39, 613 
41,830 
45, 216 
53,323 


2, 230, 505 


1905 


6, 126, 742 


1910 


9, 435, 817 


1911 


9, 963, 906 


1912. 


10, 770, 451 


1913 


12, 701, 539 







Ullmann Enzyklopadie der technischen Chemie, vol. 5, p. 299. 

Table 27. — Germany: Imports of coal-tar dyes, by groups, 1928 





Pounds 


Value 
(1913 
basis) 


' 


Pounds 


Value 
(1913 

basis) 


Aniline and other not spe- 
cially mentioned coal-tar 
dyes, sulphur colors: 


183, 864 
255, 954 




Alizarin (red) and alizarine 
colors (variegated) from 


8,598 
18, 078 


1,190 


Indigo, natural and synthetic. 

Indigo carmine, color lakes 

and blues of indigo and in- 


13, 090 














Total 


439, 818 


$109, 242 













INTERNATIONAL DYE TRADE 133 

Table 28. — Germany: Exports of coal-tar dyes, by countries, 1923 



Exported to — 


Aniline and 
other not 
specially 
mentioned 
coal-tar 
dyes, sul- 
phur colors 


Alizarin; 

alizarine 

red 


Alizarin 
dyes, varie- 
gated, from 
anthracene 


Indigo, 
natural 

and 
artificial 


Indigo, 
carmine 
color 
lakes, and 
new blue 
of indigo 




Pounds 

37, 699 

513, 892 

598, 990 

26, 014 

242, 506 

959, 883 

2, 699, 974 

2, 053, 585 

333, 336 

1, 313, 721 

445, 109 

3, 195, 127 

533,954 

2, 491, 198 

253, 529 

539, 466 

827, 607 

2, 619, 065 

156, 527 

187,611 

532, 190 

169, 754 

566, 582 

1, 586, 430 

2, 457, 027 

1, 014, 336 

253, 749 

123, 237 

6, 379, 451 

16,916,116 

8, 668, 046 

496, 917 

537, 702 

964, 513 

751, 107 

192, 462 

98, 546 

623, 461 

76, 059 

824, 300 

263, 670 


Pounds 


Pounds 


Pounds 


Pounds 














































59, 304 
65, 918 
78, 925 






Iralv 












472, 887 
















80,247 
















13, 669 


162, 038 
43, 872 


17, 857 
















West Poland 


















































































































16, 755 












Egypt... . 






69, 445 

234, 349 

6, 146, 645 

329, 367 

147, 047 


28, 659 




344, 359 


572, 755 












26, 014 
96, 561 






46, 076 




























Chile 












































83,334 
388, 671 






Other countries 


199, 516 


492, 508 


56, 879 






Total... 


63, 700, 815 


589, 951 


1, 385, 151 


8, 195, 160 


103, 395 






Value, 1923 basis 


$34, 223, 210 
15, 197, 966 


$258, 230 
96, 866 


$813, 008 
373, 898 


$6, 199, 900 
1, 415, 624 


$86, 394 


Value, 1913 basis 


41, 174 







The British Dye Industry 

Great Britain's pre-war position. — As stated in the Census of 1922, 
the consumption of dyes in Great Britain prior to the war has been 
estimated at about 20,000 tons. In 1913 the total imports of 
coal-tar dyes were 41,203,008 pounds, with a value of $9,207,684. 
In 1907, as reported by the First Census of Production of the United 
Kingdom, the production was 139,000 hundredweight (15,568,000 
pounds), valued at £373,000 ($1,855,204). It is estimated that the 



134 UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 

British production of dyes before the war was somewhat over 
one-tenth of the consumption. In the manufacture of alizarin and 
sulphur black, British dye producers before the war held a notable 
position, as they entered into national conventions in regard to these 
products dominated by German influence. A limited variety of acid, 
direct, basic, sulphur, and some other of the simpler dyes were pro- 
duced in that period. In 1913 the exports of dyes totaled 5,451,376 
pounds, with a value of $862,566. The United States was the prin- 
cipal consumer, taking 33 per cent by weight and value, followed by 
Italy with 11.4 per cent by weight and 9.4 per cent by value, while 
Germany took 7.3 per cent by quantity and 11.5 per cent by value. 
Of the total British exports 27 per cent by weight and 23 per cent by 
value was shipped to British possessions. British India was the 
principal consumer among the dominions, taking in the fiscal year 
ended March, 1914, a total of 1,070,047 pounds, valued at $153,286, 
subdivided as follows: Alizarin dyes, 963,698 pounds, value $114,660; 
aniline dyes, 102,869 pounds, value $37,409; all other, 4,480 pounds, 
value $1,217. 

Developments since the war. — Expansion in the dye industry of Great 
Britain from 1916 to 1920 resulted in the production of many colors 
in excess of the home requirements. In 1920, a year of world-wide 
business boom, before the reappearance of German dyes in the world 
markets, exports reached a total of 13,791,680 pounds, with a 
value of $9,385,429. This is 153 per cent greater by quantity and 
nearly 100 per cent greater by value than the 1913 export figures. 
Since 1920 exports have shown an annual decline, the total for 1921 
being 7,621,600 pounds, valued at $5,033,828, and for 1922, 3,860,416 
pounds, valued at $2,300,298. In 1923, however, as the result of the 
Ruhr occupation, exports rose sharply to 14,132,944 pounds, valued 
at $4,719,924. 

The year 1920 was probably the year of maximum production. 
The production of the British Dyestuffs Corporation was reported at 
about 16,000 2 tons. As this concern is stated to have produced 
about three-fourths of the total output, it would appear that the 
total production during that year was nearly 45,000,000 pounds. More 
recently, it has been reported that this concern produces about one- 
half of the total production. The total production of Great Britain 3 
in 1922 is reported to have approximated 21,000,000 pounds, of which 
vat dyes exceeded 180,000 pounds and indigo 1,000,000 pounds. As 
the result of post-war developments in particular, the British dye 
industry (19 producers) is able to supply approximately eight-tenths 
of the home requirements, including an excellent variety of the vat 
dyes, with production fairly well balanced in the other classes. 

Conditions in 1923. 4 — Although the continued trade depression 
in Great Britain has affected the demand for dyes, the year 1923 
was a better year for the industry than 1922. In certain groups of 
dyes there was a decided improvement. The increased repair work 
by the railroads stimulated the consumption of paints and allied 
products and consequently increased the demand for color-lake dyes. 

> Report on Dyes and Dyestuffs, subcommittee appointed by the Standing Committee on Trusts,, 
printed and published by His Majesty's stationery office, London, 1921. 
3 U. S. Department of Commerce, Trade Information Bulletin No. 231. 
* The Dyestuffs Industry in 1923, Sir William Alexander, The Chemical Age, Dec. 29, 1923. 



INTERNATIONAL DYE TEADE 135 

The high price of cotton, however, has been an adverse factor in the 
improvement of the cotton manufacturing industry, and normal 
conditions in the dye industry can not be looked for until the cotton 
trade is itself in a more active state. The political situation in 
Germany and the occupation of the Ruhr by the French seriously 
interfered with the export of British dyes. On the other hand, the 
reduction in the available supply of German dyes for the world's 
markets was reflected in an increased demand for dyes of British 
manufacture. The official figures of exports of coal-tar dyes in Great 
Britain show that in 1923 they totaled 14,132,914 pounds, with a 
value of $4, 719, 924, as against 1922 figures of 3,860,416 pounds, 
valued at $2,300,298. 

British dye firms have devoted much attention to quality and 
standard of production. It has been stated that " the general level of 
quality of British makers' production is equal to that of the best 
continental manufacturers." 

The more important gaps in the range of British-made dyes are being 
rapidly reduced, about a score of dyes not previously manufactured 
in Great Britain being placed on the market in 1923. Among Great 
Britain's contributions to the range of existing dyes are the Caledon 
Jade-greens of the Scottish Dyes, Limited, and the Cettutyl series of 
the British Dyestuffs Corporation, used for Celanese silk. Owing to 
the general business depression in Great Britain, with consequent 
intermittent production, the maximum reduction in the costs of 
producing coal-tar dyes is not yet attainable. The great importance 
of reduced production costs is fully realized by. the dye makers. 
It is reported that the 1923 trading* 5 profits of the British Dyestuffs 
Corporation amounted to £251,423, as compared with £102,657 
for 1922. The debit balance of £700,699 was reduced to £449,276. 

Anglo-German negotiations. — Negotiations for a working ar- 
rangement between the British Dyes Corporation and the I. G. 
were carried on during 1922 and 1923. Up to July, 1924, no agree- 
ment had been concluded. Details of the proposals were not officially 
announced until April 8, 1924, when Sir William Alexander, Chair- 
man and Managing Director of the British Dyes Corporation, speak- 
ing at the fifth annual meeting of the concern, summarized the 
negotiations and the replies to some of the principal criticisms of 
the proposed arrangement. The statement of Sir William Alexander 
is, in part, as follows: 

"I now pass to a subject which has caused discussion and criticism 
in many quarters recently — namely, the negotiations which have 
been proceeding for the conclusion of a working agreement between 
your corporation and the Association of German Dyestuffs Manu- 
facturers, generally known as the Interessen Gemeinschaft, or I. G. 
At the ordinary general meeting held in 1922 I told you that in- 
formal negotiations between ourselves and the I. G. had been pro- 
ceeding, and that whilst we would welcome an arrangement it must 
leave inviolate the principles upon which your undertaking was 
founded; namely, the establishment of a dye-making industry in this 
country adequate to our needs both in peace and in war. 

"At that time the I. G. did not see their way clear to make or accept 
proposals consistent with this principle, chiefly, in my opinion, 

6 Chemical Trade Journal and Chemical Engineer, Apr. 4, 1924, p. 419. 



136 UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 

because they were not convinced that this country was really deter- 
mined to maintain the Dyestuffs (Import Regulations) Act, and 
also because at that time they had not sufficient proof that we could 
manufacture quality for quality as regularly and as well as them- 
selves. At the end of last year negotiations were reopened, and it 
was found possible to agree on certain heads which, if incorporated 
in a document in legal form, might form the basis of a contract which 
your directors could recommend their shareholders to accept. 

"During the extended negotiations modifications have been made 
from time to time in the form of the proposals, following suggestions 
which have been made to us and criticisms which have reached us 
from many directions. 

"I would remind the shareholders that in a matter of such national 
and international importance as the conclusion of an agreement 
between your undertaking and the great German combine, the 
Government, under the articles of association, has the final and 
decisive voice. Until the Government has indicated at least its 
general approval of the lines on which we have proceeded, it is im- 
possible to enter into details. In any event, the board would not 
venture to submit a scheme for the approval of shareholders which 
did not safeguard the interests of the undertaking both from a 
national and from a shareholders' point of view. 

"Reply to Criticisms. — It is said that pressure would be exerted on 
the score of cost of production to concentrate production in Germany 
as far as possible, with diminution of the output of the corporation's 
factories. We are sure that with our natural resources in raw mate- 
rials we should be able to manufacture with the assistance of the I. G. 
as cheaply and efficiently as they themselves, and the whole spirit 
of the negotiations is against any diminution in the output of the 
corporation's factories, and is even in favor of an increased produc- 
tion. 

"We have taken our stand on the principles enunciated two years 
ago with regard to the objects for which the corporation was formed, 
namely, to "concentrate, extend, and expedite the manufacture of 
synthetic dyestuffs and colors in this country." 

"There are those who think that acceptance of the contract would 
curtail or eliminate research from our activities, since it may be 
cheaper and easier to take the results of research ready-made from 
the I. G. I wish to declare categorically that there is not the slightest 
intention of diminishing the activities of our research department, 
and in the preamble to the agreement we propose to state that it is 
essential that research in organic chemistry and its application to 
industry must be continued and developed in this country. The 
establishment and development of the industry in this country is a 
fundamental condition of any arrangement. In the past the efforts 
of the research department have been mainly expended in improving 
existing processes, in cheapening costs, and in developing manufactur- 
ing recipes for dyestuffs already known to the I. G. Continuous 
pressure from consumers for lower prices and a wider range of dye- 
stuffs has forced us in that direction, but with all further technical 
information readily forthcoming from the I. G. on dyestuffs which 
are already known, our research department should be free to enter 
upon entirely new fields of investigation. Our works chemists 
would have the freest access to German plants and methods. 






INTERNATIONAL DYE TRADE 



137 



"There was a fear that a contract might be concluded which would 
close the free access of dyestuff consumers in this country to German 
sources of supply with the advantages which that access confers in 
the way of technical assistance in dyeing problems, information 
regarding new developments, and in other ways. The proposals, 
as originally drafted, provided that the I. G. should retire so far as 
selling is concerned from the British market. To meet the views 
of users, the proposed arrangement has been modified to permit their 
obtaining German dyestuffs in any way they please, subject, of course, 
to any legislative restrictions. 

"Anticipated benefits. — We believe that, if we are able to bring our 
negotiations to a satisfactory conclusion, they will result in an expan- 
sion of our range of dyestuffs to a point where the quality, quantity, 
variety, and price would guarantee the British consumer all the secur- 
ity he could reasonably ask for. We are also of opinion that not 
only would the arrangement secure a national industry for peace- 
time requirements, but would provide the nation with an equipped 
and trained personnel as a most valuable contribution to our defenses 
in time of peril. Increased output by securing a greater share of 
British and overseas requirements will mean more employment for 
workmen and chemists and a reasonable return on their investments 
to the shareholders who have invested capital, many from patriotic 
motives, in this young industry." 

The general terms of the proposed agreement are understood to be 
as follows : 6 

1. The British Dyestuffs Corporation shall have a monopoly of 
the British market and a percentage share of foreign and colonial 
markets. 

2. It shall be able to draw upon the I. G. for personnel and infor- 
mation as to manufacturing and technical processes on lines similar 
to those adopted between the I. G. and a corresponding French firm. 

3. In return the I. G. shall receive one-half of the profits of the 
British Dyestuffs Corporation. 

4. The British Dyestuffs Corporation shall offer users of dyes a 
guaranty that such dyes as it continues to import into this country 
shall not be sold at a higher price than is obtained abroad. 

5. There will be no more reparation deliveries of dyestuffs. 
Statistics of imports and exports. — The following tables show the 

trade of the United Kingdom in coal-tar dyes, 1922 and 1923: 



Table 29. — The United Kingdom: Imports of coal-tar 


dyes, 1922 




1922 


Imported from — 


1922 


Imported from — 


Pounds Value 


Pounds Value 


Alizarin: 

Germany 


1 274,224 


$265, 994 

2,205 

208 


Other coal-tar dyes— Con. 


1,680 ' $1,634 


1,120 




27,325 1 49,880 




Switzerland 


1,894.369 ! 3,546,746 
16, 800 6, 187 

7, 729 i 10, 150 
25, 648 18, 565 


Total.. 

Synthetic indigo: 

Germany 

Other coal-tar dyes: 

Germany 




1, 275, 344 
572, 768 


268, 407 
13, 321 


Other foreign coun- 


British possessions... . 


2, 628, 529 


1, 958, 269 


Total. 


4,602,080 5,591,431 







6 United States Department of Commerce, Chemical Division, Trade Information Bulletin No. 231. 
1760— 24f 10 



138 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 



Table 30. — The United Kingdom: Exports of coal-tar dyes, 1922 



Exported to— 



Alizarin: 

Java 

France . 

United States ... 

Brazil 

Other foreign countries 

Total to foreign countries. 



Pounds Value 



33, 936 

47, 264 

33,824 

448 

6,160 



$10, 536 

27, 068 

19, 672 

877 

939 



British India. - | 698,208 

Other British possessions . 

Total British possessions 



Indigo, synthetic: 

Spain.... 

China 1 

Other foreign countries 

Total foreign countries... 

Australia 

Other British possessions.. 

Total British possessions- 
Total 



Other sorts: 

Russia.. 

Sweden 

Norway 

Denmark 

Germany 

Netherlands. 

Belgium 

France 

Switzerland.. 
Portugal 



121, 632 


59, 092 


698, 208 
9,520 


184, 272 
7,352 


707, 728 


191, 624 


829, 360 


250, 716 


560 
9,408 
1,680 


$159 

5,169 

850 


11, 648 


6,178 


52, 416 

448 


22, 502 
266 


52, 864 


22, 768 


64, 512 


28, 946 



560 

50,624 

49, 168 

32, 368 

13,328 

208, 208 

137, 648 

106, 624 

310, 128 

18, 032 



979 
40, 602 
44,038 
15, 336 
10, 956 

133, 378 
89, 999 
67, 896 

125, 672 
9,832 



Exported to — 



Other sorts— Continued. 

Spain 

Italy 

China a 

Japan '.. 

United States 

Brazil. 

Other foreign countries. 

Total foreign coun- 
tries 



Egypt. 

Union of South Africa . 
British India- 
Bombay (includ- 
ing Karachi) 

Madras 

Bengal, Assam, Bihar, 

and Orissa 

Burmah 

Hongkong. 

Australia — 

Western Australia. 
South Australia 
(including north- 
ern territory) 

Victoria 

New South Wales. 

Queensland 

Tasmania 

New Zealand 

Canada.. 

Other British posses- 
sions. 



Total British posses- 
sions 



Total. 



Pounds Value 



77, 056 
22, 064 
70,000 
3,696 
180, 656 
83, 552 
50,400 



1,414,112 



8,512 
127, 456 



261, 408 
46,144 

28,672 
3,696 
9,072 

2,912 



17, 136 
389, 424 
204,512 

27,552 

224 

125, 664 

255, 920 

44,128 



1, 552, 432 



2, 966, 544 



$39. 264 
7,002 
43,312 
4,960 
126, 651 
31,917 
33, 910 



825,704 



7,657 
101, 638 



$132, 992 
24,765 

23,237 
3,481 
11,444 

3, 118 



9,818 

394, 008 

190, 459 

12, 595 

323 

99, 476 

146, 730 

33, 193 



1,194,934 



2, 020, 638 



1 Exclusive of Hongkong, Macao, and leased territories. 

2 Including Formosa and Japanese leased territories in China. 

Table 31. — The United Kingdom: Imports and exports of coal-tar dyes, 1922, 1923 



1922 



Pounds 



Value 



1923 



Pounds 



Value 



Imports: 

Alizarin 

Indigo, synthetic 
Others 

Exports.. _ 



1, 275, 344 

572, 768 

4, 602, 080 

3, 860, 416 



$268, 407 

13, 321 

5, 591, 432 

2, 300, 298 



941, 808 

926, 688 

4, 421, 088 

14, 132, 944 



$332, 809 

60, 573 

4, 197, 656 

4, 719, 924 



Exchange values: £, year, 1922 =$4. 42865; £, year, 1923=$4.5740. 

The Swiss Dye Industry 

Prior to the war the Swiss dye industry, notwithstanding the 
absence of raw materials, ranked second to that of Germany, produc- 
ing about 7 per cent of the total world's output, the value of dye ex- 
ports in 1913 from Switzerland exceeding one-tenth of the total 
value of the products exported from Germany. The raw materials 
were formerly imported almost entirely from Germany. During and 
since the war these materials have been imported from Great Britain, 
the United States, France, Italy, Poland, and more recently from 
Germany. 



INTERNATIONAL DYE TRADE 



139 



The absence of German dyes from the world's markets during 
and immediately after the war resulted in a period of unprecedented 
prosperity for Swiss dye manufacturers. In 1920 the exports of 
Swiss dyes totaled 23,739,793 pounds, with a value of $35,411,115 — 
over six times that of the pre-war year 1913. 

The three leading dye producers of Switzerland located in Basel, 
namely, Die Gesellschaf t f iir Chemische Industrie (known as " Ciba"), 
Die Chemische Fabrik, vormals Sandoz, and the J. R. Geigy Co., 
formed a union of interests ("Interessen Gemeinschaft") similar to 
that of the German dye producers. A significant development among 
the Swiss dye manufacturers is the establishment and operation of 
their branch plants in foreign countries. In the United States, 
the branch plants are the Cincinnati Chemical Works, at Norwood 
and St. Bernard, Ohio; in Great Britain, the Clayton Aniline Co. 
(Ltd.), at Clayton, near Manchester; in Italy, the Fabbrica Lom- 
barda Colori D'Anilina and the Felli Co. (successors of Fisher and 
Hunold) are understood to be connected with the Swiss manufac- 
turers; in France, the Swiss manufacturers are similarly reported 
to have branch plants. Prior to the war, the Society of the Chemi- 
cal Industry of Basel had a branch plant at St. Fous, and the J. R. 
Geigy Co., of Basel, operated a branch at Maronne, near Rouen. 
Although the new dye-producing nations — Great Britain, the United 
States, France, and Italy — have adopted tariff and other protective 
measures which have resulted in a diminution of dye exports from 
Switzerland, the Swiss industry has been able, through the branch 
plants operated in those countries, to cater to their dye require- 
ments to an extent beyond that indicated merely by the imports 
originating directly in Switzerland. 

Statistics of imports and exports. — The following tables show the 
extent of Switzerland's trade in coal-tar dyes in 1923: 



Table 32. — Switzerland: Imports and 


exports of coal-tar dyes, 1923 




Aniline and other coal- 
tar dyes 


Indigo, indigo solution 


Alizarin, synthetic 




Pounds 


Value 


Pounds Value 


Pounds 


Value 


IMPORTS 


1, 456, 579 

882 

17, 416 

23, 148 

9,700 

2,205 


$792, 834 
903 
18, 241 
18, 782 
4,696 
2,348 


22, 046 

441 

201, 280 


$9, 030 
181 

84, 882 


243, 167 


$40, 093 








3,307 


2,528 


Italy 


































Total 


1, 509, 930 


837, 804 


223, 767 


94, 093 


246, 474 


42.621 






EXPORTS 


49,824 
116, 182 


38, 829 
105. 832 












121,253 

6,393 

128, 528 


34, 856 

6, 502 

38. 107 








1,925,498 1.936.574 






Italy 


537, 481 
953, 269 
258, 820 
1,308,871 
104, 498 
108, 246 
176, 368 

36, 155 
517, 640 

94, 798 
114, 198 
681, 883 

15,873 

15, 432 


568, 168 
521, 392 
234, 780 
1,713,352 
167,416 

85. 604 
175, 543 

39,371 
469,741- 

77, 658 
131.116 
515, 794 

23, 839 

13, 364 








73, 854 22. 214 






Holland 


90, 830 


23, 117 














13, 669 


16, 796 














7,937 


10, 114 






















Finland.. 
































1 


Greece 


' 



140 UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 

Table 32. — Switzerland: Imports and exports of coal-tar dyes, 1923 — Contd. 





Aniline and other coal- 
tar dyes 


Indigo, indigo solution 


Alizarin, synthetic 




Pounds 


Value 


Pounds 


Value 


Pounds 


Value 


exports— continued 


29, 983 

22, 707 
11,464 


$19,866 
19, 686 
27. 090 












22, 487 


tpOj OJtt 












Egypt 


20,282 1 18,421 

2,646 1 3,973 

219, 578 J 155, 677 

65,036 | 63,932 
100,971 i 82,895 
654,546 j 653,591 
189,816 i 161,456 
837, 968 1, 063, 734 

93, 696 93, 190 

150,133 . 210,941 

7,937 1 6,682 

103, 175 i 87, 952 

18, 739 19, 144 


268, 079 

8,157 

33, 510 

214,948 

7, 085, 364 

573, 857 


95, 718 

6,682 

14, 448 

57, 250 

1,806,903 

558, 596 






































1 








1 1 1 












1 








1 




Chile „i_ 


4,409 

62, 831 








3, 070 
21, 130 




Other 


23, 148 26, 006 








Total -. 


9, 566, 861* , 9, 532, 609 


8, 716, 106 


2,721,102 







Converted from francs to dollars on the basis of 1 franc =$0. 1806— the annual average for 1923. 

The French Dye Industry 

In the commission's report in 1922 7 the French dye industry 
for the following periods was considered: 

Dye production in France, immediately prior to the war. 

Developments during and after the war, together with the pro- 
duction figures for the years 1919, 1920, 1921, and part of 1922. 

Merger of Kuhlmann and Compagnie Nationale. — The merger of 
"Etablissements Kuhlmann" and the "Compagnie Nationale de 
Matieres Colorantes et de Produits Chimiques'' on December 27, 
1923, is probably the most significant event of that year in the 
French chemical industry, involving as it did a consolidation of 
organic and inorganic chemical undertakings. The new firm is 
known as " Compagnie Nationale de Matieres Colorantes et Manu- 
factures de Produits Chimiques du Nord Reunies." 

The merger is expected to result in administrative and sales 
economy, reduction of overhead, the avoidance of duplication in 
manufacture, and the union of technical staffs. The new firm will 
produce a diversity of organic and inorganic products, affording 
added stability and security in times of crisis. 

The financial advantages are conspicuous, as the Compagnie 
Nationale, while possessing an excellent technical staff, had not 
established itself on a solid financial basis. The Kuhlmann is in a 
strong financial position and has a century-long tradition of good 
administration. The nominal capital of the Etablissements Kuhl- 
mann will be increased to 150,000,000 francs by an issue of 50,000,000 
francs of new shares having a par value of 250 francs each. The 
shares of the Compagnie Nationale de Matieres Colorantes will be 
exchanged share for share for the new Kuhlmann stock, dated as of 

t U. S. Tariff Commission, Census of Byes and Other Synthetic Organic Chemicals, p. 134. 



INTERNATIONAL DYE TRADE 



141 



January 1, 1924, and will receive an exchange settlement of 25 
francs per share. This settlement will largely cover the tax applying 
to the operation of fusing the two companies. 

The new concern produces a variety of products, including mineral 
acids, phosphate, nitrogen fertilizer, raw materials for the glass 
industry, ice plants, and the tanning industry; fungicides, dyes, 
pharmaceutical and other organic chemicals. 

The Etablissements Kuhlmann manufactures mineral acids and 
has already produced certain intermediates at La Madeleine-lez- 
Lille plant. Intermediates will continue to be made at Oissel, with 
the exception of a few products consuming a large amount of acid 
to be drawn from La Madeleine plant. Dye manufacture will 
remain centralized in large works developed by the Compagnie 
Nationale at Villers-Saint-Paul. 

The Compagnie Nationale de Matieres Colorantes et de Produits 
Chimiques was formed in 1916 with the support of the Government 
and the cooperation of many French industrial and financial interests. 
It had originally a capital of 40,000,000 francs, increased in 1919 
to 71,000,000 on its fusion with the Societe de Produits CLimiques 
et Colorantes Francais. In 1921 the capital was inerea-ed to 
100,000,000 francs. The rapid development of this concern enabled 
it to supply a large part of French dye requirements, attention being 
first given to the bulk colors and later to some of the specialties. 

Statistics of production, imports, and exports. — The following table, 
taken from an advertisement of the Compagnie Nationale of France, 
shows for the years 1918-1922 its production of 20-per cent indigo 
paste and of other coal-tar colors. 



Indigo paste, 20-per cent, pounds . 
Other dyes, pounds 



1918 



33, 415 
16, 627 



1920 



1,119,381 
695, 364 



6, 537, 521 
3, 440, 931 



5, 812, 428 
2, 667, 204 



3, 039, 041 
5, 986, 624 



Table 33. — France: Dye production 1 (pounds), 1920-1923 



Year 


Azo dyes 


Indigo 
and sul- 
phonated 
deriva- 
tives 


Sulphur 
dyes 


Diphenyl 1 Alizarin 
and j and other 
triphenyl j oxyke- 
methane . tone 


Indo- 

and nea 
thiazines 


Total 


1920 


4, 975, 782 
4, 204, 172 
7, 881, 445 
11,296,370 


6,571,913 
5, 839, 985 
3,075,417 
4, 700, 207 


3, 452, 404 
1, 814, 386 
3, 769, 866 
5, 024, 283 


141,094 19,841 

403,442 i 211,642 

1,234,576 ! 731,927 

1,483,696 570,991 


19,841 
136, 685 
191,800 
145, 504 


374, 782 
328, 485 
897, 272 
959, 001 


15, 555, 657 


1921 


12, 938, 797 


1922 


17, 782, 303 


1923 


24, 180, 052 











I L'Industrie Chimique, April, 1924. Does not include data for Swiss plant at St. Fous. 



142 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 



Table 34. — France: Imports and exports of coal-tar dyes, 1922 and 1923 

IMPORTS 





1922 


1923 


Class 


Dry 


Paste 


Dry 


Paste 




Pounds 


Value 


Pounds 


Value 


Pounds 


Value 


Pounds 


Value 




4,189 

2,646 

121,694 

58, 201 

784, 838 

1, 165, 352 

34, 612 
172, 841 
550, 930 

86, 200 

35, 935 
12, 566 

406, 087 
44, 753 
57, 320 
19, 841 

38, 581 
12, 566 


$2, 458 

2,704 

165, 744 

50, 223 
■568, 676 
916, 961 

40,064 
133, 382 
241, 530 

92, 253 
• 82,585 

27, 856 
603, 169 

86, 764 

83, 241 

22, 695 

34, 820 
12, 044 


441 


$328 


4,630 
1,984 

133, 819 
41, 887 

447, 313 

517, 199 
22, 707 

118, 607 

304, 896 
76, 720 
24, 030 
24,912 

425, 047 
54, 013 

130, 512 
6,834 

168, 652 
28, 219 


$4, 188 

1,093 

118,729 

34, 296 
287, 293 
438, 558 

31, 868 

84, 677 
390, 908 

46, 375 

55, 176 

49, 895 

456, 343 

85, 587 
188, 109 

6,616 

279, 402 
38, 787 






Nitro 








220 


82 














27, 998 
20, 062 


9,258 
4,015 


12, 125 

2,425 

441 

9,039 

104, 719 

5,291 

661 

441 

441 


$6, 374 




2,064 




364 








2,125 




91, 270 

14, 991 


35, 803 

3,277 

82 

246 

574 


92, 810 




1,275 




304 




441 
220 


61 


Diphenylmetbane 


243 


Hydroquinones 


68, 343 
7,275 

98, 766 
25, 573 


27, 938 
5,080 

40, 228 
28, 594 


75, 838 
1,323 

236, 554 
41, 226 


33, 749 
1,093 


Insoluble vat colors 
other than indigo 


221, 069 
26, 769 






Total 


3, 609, 152 


3, 167, 169 


355, 600 


155, 505 


2, 531. 981 


2, 597, 900 


490, 524 


388, 300 







EXPORTS 





1922 


1923 


Class 


Dry 


Paste 


Dry 


Paste 




Pounds 


Value 


Pounds 


Value 


Pounds 


Value 


Pounds 


Value 




39, 903 

441 

882 

220 

4,850 

1,102 


$19, 581 
328 
655 
164 
1,884 
492 


9,480 

441 

2,866 


$1, 639 
164 
819 


120, 151 

18, 078 

661 

19,400 

34, 392 

326, 060 

1,984 

8,157 

9,480 

8,818 

658, 294 

18, 960 

1, 990, 313 


$47, 164 

8, 984 

304 

8,377 

10, 805 

128, 016 

1,578 

1,700 

8,255 

6,313 

1, 346, 690 

29, 075 

1, 526, 726 


2,425 


$364 














220 
882 


61 




1,323 
220 


328 

82 


243 














12, 787 

7,496 

2.646 

48, 060 

882 

655, 648 


3,359 
8,111 
2,294 

122, 567 
1,475 

628, 731 


1,323 


246 








1,323 


486 




441 


246 














1,984 

27, 337 

220 

798, 065 

268, 079 

2,425 
661 


668 


Diphenylmethane 


69, 665 


31, 133 


9,773 




3,086 
188, 714 

18, 078 


4,916 
150, .751 

26, 381 


5,952 
143, 299 

31, 746 


1,966 
76, 686 

9,422 


4,409 
185, 848 

141, 756 


5,645 
118, 790 

164, 801 


208, 747 




114, 784 


Insoluble vat colors 
other than indigo 


607 

486 
















Total 


984, 795 


971, 689 


266, 756 


122, 731 


3, 546, 761 


3, 413, 223 


1, 103, 621 


336, 219 







Exchange rate, 1922, 1, 000 francs= 
Exchange rate, 1923, 1,000 francs = 



$81.93. 
$60.70. 



The Italian Dye Industry 

Pre-war production.— Prior to the war the production of dyes in 
Italy was practically negligible, the country's requirements being 
mostly imported from Germany. On account of the lack of coal, 
Italy, like Switzerland, is very largely dependent upon imported raw 
materials although having a limited output of crudes, together with 
sulphur and salt and the advantage of electrolytic development for 



INTERNATIONAL DYE TRADE 143 

the manufacture of chlorine and caustic soda. The sulphur dye 
named Italian Green was manufactured by Lepetit & Dollgus be- 
fore the war, and some dyes, including sulphur Mack, were made 
from imported intermediates. The sulphur black was made in small 
quantities in 1908 by Rinalso Ghisotti, at Turro; this plant was 
later acquired by A. Bonneti, who produced aniline. The company 
which is now known as Societa Chimica Lombarda, A. E. Bianchi 
Company of Rho (Milan), began to manufacture sulphur black in 
1913. 

Post-war developments. — The Bianchi firm, on the outbreak of the 
war, began the manufacture of explosives and particularly of dinitro- 
phenol; they increased their output of sulphur black and started 
the production of certain azo dyes. In 1923 the output of dyes by 
this firm was about 5 tons per day and they are to-day one of the 
larger producers. The concern has an agreement with the Cassella 
Works, of Frankfort, and imports some of its intermediates from 
Germany. In 1914, Dellapiane & Co. began the production of sulphur 
black and in 1915 produced other sulphur dyes. The plant was 
moved to Rho in 1916, and in 1918 was reorganized under the name 
Societa Italica Colori Artificiali (Italica). It now produces many 
azo dyes, including direct dyes for cotton and a number of basic 
dyes, together with a wide range of sulphur colors. All these dyes 
are said to be produced from intermediates manufactured at the 
plant. In 1916 this firm had only four chemists, but in 1923 had 
28, and its daily output of dyes in the latter year was about 5,000 
kilos (11,000 pounds). 

The Botelli Company, of Madonna di Campagna (Turin), began 
the production of sulphur black during the war. In 1919 the firm 
amalgamated with the Fabrique de Produits Chimiques, the Rohner 
Company, of Isvizzera, and the new concern is now producing 
intermediates for azo dyes, chrome colors, etc. The Schiapparelli 
concern, of Turin, produces aniline oil and sulphur black, and the 
Ledogia firm at Garessio manufactures sulphur colors. 

The plant of the Societa Italiana Prodotti Esplodente (known as 
"S. I. P. E."), more particularly designed for the manufacture of 
explosives, was later diverted to the manufacture of synthetic dyes. 
The company produces at its Cengio (Liguria) works large quantities 
of aniline oil and other intermediates and is reported to be connected 
with the Societa Italica Colori Artificiali. 

During the war, the Industria Nazionali Colori de Anilina (known 
as "I. N. C. A.") produced dinitrophenol, and in 1916 acquired 
licenses for operating a number of patents owned by Levinstein's 
Limited, of Great Britain; in 1919 it began the production of sul- 
phur dyes, direct cotton dyes, and acid dyes. In 1923 it produced 
1,600 tons of sulphur black and 200 tons of other colors. 

The Fabbriche Italiane Materie Coloranti Bonelli, organized dur- 
ing the war for the manufacture of munitions, especially dinitro- 
phenol, erected in the immediate post-war period a large electrolytic 
alkali plant and began the production of dyes. At present it is one 
of the largest dye producers in Italy. Among other firms may be 
mentioned the Fabbrica Lombarda Colori Anilina ("I. P. C. A."), 
which, following a commercial agreement with the Swiss manufac- 
turers, Sandoz & Co.. began the production of sulphur black and a 
few direct cotton colors at its Bovisa (Milan) works. 



144 



UNITED STATES TAEIFF COMMISSION 



The Industria Piedmontese Colori di Anilina produces sulphur 
blacks and direct cotton dyes, but does not manufacture intermediates. 

Felli & Co. (successors of Fisher & Hunold) began, during the 
war, the production of aniline oil, dinitrophenol, betanaphthol, and 
sulphur black. They ceased operations after the war, but have since 
resumed activities with the help of the Ciba Co., of Switzerland. 

Production,* 1918-1922. — In 1918 the total Italian production of 
synthetic dyes was about 10,000 quintals (2,204,600 pounds), almost 
entirely sulphur dyes. In 1922 the production was about 50,000 
quintals (11,023,000 pounds), of which about 39,000 quintals 
(8,597,940 pounds) were sulphur dyes. 

According to Professor Poma, 9 in his paper of June, 1923, the 
present production in Italy of dyes is about 2,000,000 kilograms 
(4,409,200 pounds) of sulphur black and 200,000 kilograms (440,921 
pounds) of other sulphur colors. The production of azo and basic 
dyes totals about 2,000,000 kilos (4,409,200 pounds), making a 
total of 4,200,000 kilos (9,259,300 pounds). Among the basic dyes 
produced in Italy are: Methyl violet, Methylene blue, Vesuvine, 
Chrysoidine, and Malachite green. 

In 1922 the Cesana Maderno works began the construction of a 
large indigo plant, but the work was suspended. No attempt has 
been made to manufacture anthraquinone vat dyes in Italy. 

Table 35. — Italy: Production of coal-tar dyes, 1918-1922 
[Department of Commerce: Trade Information Bulletin No. 234] 



Dyes 


1918 


1919 


1920 


1921 


1922 




Pounds 
2, 190, 776 
16, 530 


Pounds 
8, 139, 372 
606, 100 


Pounds 
3, 438, 240 
1, 020, 452 


Pounds 
6, 362, 948 
1, 556, 024 


Pou nds 
8, 485, 40ft 




2, 327, 424 











Table 36. — Italy: Imports and exports of coal-tar dyes, 1922, and first nine months 

of 1928 



1922 



First 9 months, 1923 



Pounds Value Pounds Value 



IMPORTS 

Sulphur dyes 

German reparation '.. 

Other colors: 

In dry state or with less than 50 per cent water 

German reparation 

In paste or liquid with 50 per cent or more of water. 
German reparation. 

EXPORTS 

Sulphur dyes 

Other colors: 

In dry state or with less than 50 per cent of water.. 
In paste or liquid with 50 per cent or more of water 



274, 032 
31, 967 

3, 214, 968 

1, 389, 559 

329, 147 

244, 711 



38, 801 



318, 565 
15,212 



$160, 089 



2, 429, 087 



162, 198 



12, 163 

231, 529 
10, 558 



413, 583 



2, 162, 051 

1, 764, 562 

132, 937 

392, 198 



30,4^3 



379, 853 
22, 707 



$216, 402' 



1, 573, 672' 



58. 43® 



21, 660' 



383, 713 
12, 533 



One quintal = 220.46 pounds. . 

One lire, year 1922 = $0.04752. 

One lire, January-September, inclusive, 1923 = $0.0466. 

8 "The Italian DyestufTs Industry," Chemical Trade Journal, May 2, 1924, p. 530. 

9 L'industria delle materie coloranti in Italia ed i nouori processi per la fabbricazione di taluni dei grandi 
prodotti. Conferenza tenuta al Congresso Nazionale di Chimica; Rome, June, 1923. 



INTERNATIONAL DYE TRADE 



145 



The Japanese Dye Industry 

^Yar developments. — Previous to the outbreak of the World War, 
Japan was largely dependent upon imports of synthetic coal-tar 
colors from Germany. The exports of coal-tar dves from Germany 
to Japan in 1913 were 9,744,333 pounds, valued at $3,453,900. In 
view of the importance of her textile industries, Japan was seriously 
affected by the shortage of dyes when German imports were cut on 
at the beginning of the war. Although Japan has in its coal-gas 
industry a domestic source of crude coal-tar materials, it is reported 
that the Japanese production of coal tar is insufficient to supply 
crudes for all the dyestuffs required. The nine gas and other 
companies producing coal-tar products in 1918 are credited with an 
output for that year of 5,415 tons of crudes, including 3,100 tons of 
benzene; 590 tons of toluene; 40 tons of xylene; 125 tons of phenol; 
1,400 tons of refined naphthalene, and 160 tons of crude anthracene. 
With the encouragement of the Government, the dye industry devel- 
oped so that more than 100 factories were engaged in that industry 
during the war. There were large post-war imports of foreign dyes 
and the manufacturers who have remained in business have had 
to receive considerable aid from the Japanese Government. 

Production. — Figures for 1918-1923 are given in the following table: 

Table 37. — Japan: Production of coal-tar dyes, 1918-1923 

[From "Chemical Trade Bulletin No. 24-B," and "Trade Information Bulletin No. 217," U. S. Depart- 
ment of Commerce] 



Class 


1918 


1919 


1920 


1921 


1923 




Pounds 

923, 848 

141, 685 

409, 994 

153. 478 

53. 182 

106 

7, 353, 034 

2, 746, 897 


Pounds 
557, 575 
205, 474 
324, 231 


Pounds 

276, 861 

144, 632 

364, 360 

86, 003 

13, 508 

265 

6, 659, 532 

471,718 


Pounds 

396, 660 

119,113 

463, 227 

170, 034 

9, 205 

96, 442 

10, 585, 063 

766, 708 


Pounds 
628, 026 


Acid 


242. 204 


Basic... . _ 


264, 377 




13,546 






4,802 


Vat. 




3,144 


Sulphur 


14, 130, 935 
1, 250, 063 


11, 296, 931 


Miscellaneous 


1, 004, 705 






Total 


11,782,224 


16, 468, 278 


8, 016, 879 


12, 606, 452 


13, 457, 735 



The tendency in Japan to-day is to import the more expensive 
dyes and to manufacture the cheaper colors. As may be seen from 
the above table, sulphur colors form the bulk of the requirements 
of the domestic market. Sulphur black in large quantities, as well 
as smaller amounts of the other sulphur colors, are used for dyeing 
cotton fabrics to be made into garments. In addition to the manu- 
facture of sulphur colors the Japanese manufacturers have success- 
fully produced direct colors, among which may be mentioned Benzo 
fast red A; Congo red; Benzo purpurine; Chrysophenine yellow; 
Direct black and Direct blue; basic dyes, such as Methylene blue; 
Methyl violet, and Rhodamine B ; also some acid dyes and alizarines. 
It is reported that only two dye factories are now operating on a 
large scale in Japan — the Japan Dye Manufacturing Co., Osaka, 
and the Mitsui Mining Co. 

Imports, 1920-1923. — Since 1918 there has been a steady increase 
in the quantity of foreign dyes imported. The present duty (May, 
1924) on natural indigo dry is $12.69 per 100 pounds; on natural 



146 



UNITED STATES TAKIFF COMMISSION 



indigo paste 20 per cent ad valorem. The duty on artificial indigo 
is 20 per cent ad valorem, and on other coal-tar dyes 35 per cent 
ad valorem. Germany has made a strong effort to capture this 
market and in 1921 was the leading exporter; on the other hand, 
imports of dyes from the United States have more or less steadily 
declined until, in 1923, they amounted to less than 4 per cent of the 
total. 

Table 38. — Japan: Imports of coal-tar dyes, by classes, 1920, 1921, 1922, and 

first six months of 1923 



Class 



1920 



Pounds I Value 



Pounds Value 



1922 



Pounds Value 



1923 (6 months) 



Pounds Value 



Indigo, dry natural 

Indigo, artificial 

Aniline dyes 

Other coal-tar dyes. 



1, 915, 515 $3,940,086 1, 186, 765 $1,611,763 
480, 864 1, 237, 374 2, 174, 319 3, 374, 973 

4, 330, 2997, 457, 798 5, 461, 901 6, 262, 283 
114,074 273,911 116,576 221,551 



375, 115 
3, 175, 726 
8, 999, 886 

351, 205 



$392, 258 49, 851 

2, 498, 463 1, 537, 131 

6, 198, 386' 5, 745, 564 

328, 374| 51, 720 



$34, 164 

992, 115 

2, 807, 693 

48, 720 



Table 39. — Japan: Imports of coal-tar dyes, 1922 and first six months of 1923 



Imports from — 


1922 


1923 (6 months) 


Pounds 


Value 


Pounds 


Value 




39, 551 
73, 401 
8, 264, 733 
154, 518 
796, 093 
22, 795 


$26, 201 

59, 413 

5, 946, 265 

126, 839 

353, 203 

14, 837 


32, 032 

74, 098 

4, 983, 203 

336, 726 

338, 428 
32, 798 


$21, 087 




52, 330 


Germany 


2, 416, 377 
237, 560 




107, 133 




21, 925 






Total 


9, 351, 091 


6, 526, 760 


5, 797, 284 


2, 856, 413 



One kin. = 1.32277 pounds avoidupois. 
Exchange rate for yen, 1920=$0.50066. 
Exchange rate for yen, 1921=$0.48154. 
Exchange rate for yen, 1922=$0.47808. 
Exchange rate for yen, 1923=$0.48745 first six months. 



The Dye Trade of Other Countries 

Table 40. — Argentina: Imports of coal-tar dyes i 1921 and 1922 





1921 


1922 




Pounds 


Value 


Pounds 


Value 




919, 556 
985 


$322, 435 
402 


1, 043, 799 
741 


$401, 574 




468 







One gold peso, average, 1921 =$0.7290. 
One gold peso, average, 1922=$0.81814. 



INTERNATIONAL DYE TRADE 



147 



Table 41. — Austria: Imports and exports of coal-tar dyes, 1921, 1922, and first six 

months of 1923 



Germany 

Switzerland 

Czechoslovakia. 

Hungary.. 

France 

Great Britain... 

Italy 

Turkey 

Netherlands 

Poland 

Jugoslavia 

Rumania... 

Other countries. 



Imports 



1921 



Pounds 

3, 405, 886 

18, 298 

6,393 

1,323 

441 



220 



1922 



Pounds 



Exports 



1921 



Pounds 

6,834 

220 

46, 297 

120, 592 



220 
3,527 



Pounds 



5.071 



20, 723 

88,404 

75, 177 

8,818 



Total I 3,437,632 



2, 760, 380 



370, 812 



179, 895 



1923 (6 months) 





Alizarin colors 


Synthetic indigo 


Other coal-tar colors 


Country 


Imports 


Exports 


Imports 


Exports 


Imports 


Exports 




Pounds 
41,887 


Pounds 


Pounds 
22,046 


Pounds 
5,512 


Pounds 
382, 939 


Pounds 
3,086 


Italy 


661 

441 














20, 062 




4,189 


15, 653 




33, 510 

220 

7,055 






1,323 


661 


14, 109 






10, 803 


2,866 










3,307 














20, 282 






661 






3,968 


3,086 












Total 


46,076 | 3,086 


48, 501 


6, 173 I 427, 692 


66, 799 








$18, 639 


$1,418 


$10, 535 


$1,621 ! $176,870 


$23, 907 











Table 42. — Belgium: Imports and exports of indigo, natural and artificial, 1922 

and 1928 





1922 


1923 




Pounds 


Value 


Pounds 


Value 


Imported from— 


5,922 
3,053 


$3, 239 
5,689 


8,285 


$1, 699 


















185, 012 


33, 403 




2,317 


699 








Total 


11,292 


9,627 


193. 297 | 35, 102 






Exported to- 












31, 753 


25, 331 














3,655 


641 


33, 737 


7,531 






Total 


35, 408 


25, 972 


33,.737 


7,531 







One franc, average of year, 1922=$0.07676. 
One franc, average of year, 1923=$0.0519. 



148 UNITED STATES TAEIFF COMMISSION 

Table 43. — Brazil: Imports of coal-tar dyes, 1922 



Aniline or fuchsine dyes 

Indigo and ultramarine blue. 



1922 



Pounds 



1, 541, 952 
1, 142, 025 



Value 



$702. 835 
248, 145 



One milreis, paper, average of year, 1922=10.12935. 

Table 44. — Canada: Imports of coal-tar dyes, fiscal year ended March 31, 1923 
and 9 months ended December 31, 1923 





Fiscal year ended 
March 31, 1923 


Nine, months ended 
December 31, 1923 




Pounds Value 


Pounds 


Value 


Aniline and coal-tar dyes soluble in water, including 
alizarin and artificial alizarin: 


326,393 [ $166,179 
1,974,555 ! 1,214,598 
254,533 ; 358,288 
338,251 1 238.508 
202,786 : 183,026 


207, 366 


$100. 841 




1,347,474 j 7S6.462 


Germany . 


509,964 1 354,245 
193,158 | 155.046 




142,930 1 115,195 




142,270 i 67,050 




88,043 76,667 


4, 947 i 2, 139 






Total .. 


3,184,561 ; 2.237,265 


2, 548, 109 ! 1, 580, 978 






Indigo: 


639 


933 


322 371 














Total... - 


639 


933 


322 


371 


Indigo, paste and extract: 










54,691 ' 11,998 
11,431 28,576 
39,027 ; 8,387 


85, 371 


Germany... 






43, 935 


7,136 






Total - 


105, 149 


48, 961 


129, 306 


23, 633- 



Canadian dollar, average for year ended March 31. 1923=$0. 99137. 
Canadian dollar, average April-December, inclusive. 1923=$0. 97791. 



Table 45. — China: Imports of "dyes, colors, and paints" {aniline), 1921 



Imported from— 



Value 



Hong Kong I $1,062,621 



Macao . 

French Indo-China. .. 

Siam 

Singapore, Straits, etc. 

British India.. 

Great Britain 

Sweden 

Germany — 

Netherlands 

Belgium. 

France. 

Italy 



21.777 

1.132 

225 

129 

4,847 

190. 534 

62. 668 

2.576,611 

791.310 

570, 097 

7.362 

28, 907 



Imported from— 



Value 



Switzerland 

Austria and Hungary 

Russia. Pacific Ports 

Korea 

Japan (including Formosa) 

Philippine Islands 

Canada 

United States (including Hawaii) 

Direct gross import 

Reexported abroad 

Total net import 



$103,456 
319 

4*2 

531, 951 

281 

881 

520, 029 

6, 476, 397 

412. 726 



6, 063, 671 



Haikwan tael) 1921 =$0.76. 

The 1921 Chinese impirts of synthetic indigo and unclassified dyes were published in the Census of 
Dyes and other Synthetic Organic Chemicals, 1922," pp. 148, 149. 



INTERNATIONAL DYE TRADE 



149 



Table 46. — China: Imports of dyes, colors, and paints, 1922 
(Foreign Trade of China, 1922) 



Imported from — 



Hongkong 

Macao 

French Indo-China 

Siam - 

Singapore, Straits, etc 

Dutch Indies 

British India 

Great Britain . 

Norway 

Sweden -- 

Denmark . 

Germany . 

Netherlands 

Belgium 

France .. 

Switzerland . 

Italy 

Austria and Hungary 

Russia and Siberia by land frontier- 
Russia and Amur ports . 

Russia and Pacific ports 

Korea 

Japan (including Formosa) .. 

Canada 

United States (including Hawaii) . . 
Turkey, Persia, Egypt, etc 



Total. 
Reexport 



Net total. 



Aniline 



Value 



$1, 058, 423 



6,242 

235 

138 

10, 397 

12, 087 

93, 854 

1,892 

13, 140 

10, 269 

574, 609 

431, 709 

322, 164 

5,726 

33, 848 

447 



Indigo, artificial 



Pounds 



Value 



1, 790, 800 
""~22"533' 



1,610 



310 

6,661 

308, 600 

274 
150, 607 



6, 043, 242 
358, 649 



5, 684, 593 



1,333 
"235,~333' 



13, 374, 263 
8, 030, 665 
1, 130, 400 

932, 133 
5, 234, 265 

479, 867 



1,733 



267 

13, 200 

33, 333 

2, 137, 200 



33, 417, 325 
3,117,733 



30, 299, 592 



$709, 624 



15, 764 



Dyes and colors, 
unclassed * 



Pounds 



664 



162, 658 



4, 397, 183 

2, 768, 004 

418, 003 

360, 633 

1, 604, 105 

133, 739 



962 



108 

5,234 

11,970 

795, 500 



11,384,151 
1, 174, 150 



10. 210, 001 



12, 186, 264 

94, 000 

198, 533 

400 

683, 867 

123, 200 

103, 867 

183, 733 

10, 533 



1,067 

1, 282, 800 

610/667 

277, 733 

173, 200 



45, 600 



70, 267 

61, 867 

643, 866 

1, 942, 133 

7, 385, 198 

8,933 

43, 467 



26, 131, 194 
130, 400 



26, 000, 793 



Value 



$508, 195 

2,653 

3,682 

105 

36, 631 

7,622 

14, 321 

44, 376 

7,282 



104 
241, 229 
90,550 
38, 258 
23,378 
92 
4,362 



5,693 

7,320 

41,311 

30, 090 

779, 238 

5,094 

27,915 

7 



1, 919, 505 
25, 475 



1, 894, 030 



Equivalent of the "haikwan tael," 1922,=$0.83. 

Converted from "piculs" to pounds= 133.3333 pounds to picul. 



1 Probably includes colors 
other than coal-tar dyes. 



Table 47. — Czechoslovakia: Imports of coal-tar dyes, 1920, 


1921, and 1922 




1920 


1921 


1922 




1 
Pounds Value 


Pounds 


Value 


Pounds 


Value 


Indigo, natural: 




24, 057 

2,817 


$60, 996 
7.144 


1,545 

44 

14, 112 


$2, 013 






45 






351 889 


18, 636 












Total 


7, 906 $6, 653 


27, 225 


69, 029 


15, 701 


20, 694 






Alizarin, alizarin colors, indigo, 
synthetic: 




1. 649, 041 

4,189 

441 


1,412,570 

3,588 

378 


401, 678 
661 


82, 340 








145 




















Total 


425, 267 


148, 533 


1, 653, 670 


1,416,536 


402, 339 


82, 485 






Azo and sulphur dyes: 

Germany 






1, 509, 269 
22, 707 


951, 531 
14, 316 


299, 826 
38, 581 


150, 259 








18, 345 










Total... 


1,558,873 i 1,088,934 


1, 531, 976 


965, 847 


338, 407 


168,604 






Coal-tar dyes, other: 




7, 353, 443 

250, 443 

39, 903 

23. 589 

882 

220 


4, 333, 689 

147, 596 

23,517 

13,902 

520 

130 


6, 684, 127 

364,641 

20, 503 

8,157 

441 


5, 198, 925 


Switzerland 




285, 798 






16, 836 


France 




5,959 


Hu ngary 




289 


China 






Italy ■_ 




5, 291 
1,323 
1,102 


4,426 


Poland 






1,128 


Baar Basin 


:::::::::::: :::::::::-:-::l:::::"::~: 




723 












Total 


4, 223, 352 


3, 097, 686 


7, 668, 481 


4, 519, 354 


7, 085, 584 


5, 514, 084 







150 UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 

Table 48. — Czechoslovakia: Exports of coal-tar dyes, 1920, 1921, and 1922 





1920 


1921 


1922 




Pounds 


Value 


Pounds 


Value 


Pounds 


Value 


Indigo, natural: 






35 
2 


$89 
6 


11 


$15 


































Total 






37 


95 


11 


15 








Alizarin, alizarin colors and indigo, syn- 
thetic: 






359, 791 

139, 772 

93, 475 

12, 566 

8,157 

5,732 

3,527 

1,323 

1,102 


320, 525 

124, 518 

83, 274 

11,195 

7,267 

5,106 

3,142 

1,178 

982 


112,876 


24, 686 















31, 746 

79. 145 

661 


6,943 








17. 309 








145 
















4,850 
3,086 


1,061 








675 


Italy 














1,102 
5,071 


241 












1,109 














Total - 


697, 756 


$194, 964 


625, 445 


557, 187 


238, 537 


52, 169 






Azo and sulphur dyes: 






4,850 
16,094 


3,158 
10, 477 


14, 550 
5,512 
4,409 


7,377 








2,290 








1,929 








4,189 


2,727 










2,425 
220 


92& 


Italy 










84 








9,700 


6,315 














Total 


11,905 


9,148 


34, 833 


22, 677 


27, 116 


12, 608 






Coal-tar dyes, other: 






54,454 
33, 069 
21, 385 
19, 180 
11, 905 
4,850 
3,036 


31, 719 

19, 262 
12, 456 
11,172 
6,934 
2,825 
1,798 


59,304 

23, 589 

67, 020 

8,157 

14, 109 

4,189 

14, 330 

3,086 

3,527 

1,543 

3,086 

2,205 


47, 472 








18, 447 








51, 068 








6, 625 


Italy 






11, 147 








3,404 








9, 517 








2,141 












2, 739' 












1,051 












2,411 








7,937 


4,623 


1,639- 










Total 


227, 294 


166, 713 


155, 866 


90, 789 


204, 145 


157, 661 







One crown, average 1920=$0.0154. 
One crown, average 1921=$0.0151077. 



One crown, average 1922=$0.024107. 
One quintal =$220. 46 pounds 



Table 49. — Czechoslovakia: Imports and exports of coal-tar dyes, 1928 







1923 




Pounds 


Value 




IMPORTS 


4, 348, 847 

2,983 

573, 024 

193, 487 


$2, 253, 434 






1, 095 






362, 722 






71, 305 


Total -- - - 


5, 118, 341 


2, 688, 556 




EXPORTS — OUT OF FREE TRAFFIC 






124, 511 
226, 095 

23, 946 
8,139 

55,552 
167, 371 
180, 233 


27, 195 




55, 336 






7,058 






3,502 




25, 723 




30, 377 




85, 860 




785, 847 


235, 051 







Exchange rate for Czecho crowns, 1923 =.029465 average. 



INTERNATIONAL DYE TRADE 151 

Table 50. — Dutch East Indies: Imports of coal-tar dyes, 1922 and 1923 





1922 


1923 




Wet 


Dry 


Wet and 

dry 




Pounds 


Value 


Pounds 


Value 


Pounds 


Alizarin dyes: 


250, 398 
56, 416 
180, 006 


$134,613 
24, 526 

85, 584 


21,054 


$21,211 


20fi 836 




110 88 246,430 




33, 962 36, 055 250 471 






7,936 
45, 770 


















Total 


486, 820 


244, 723 


55, 126 57. 354 ! 757. 443 








Aniline dyes: 


4,674 




125, 742 




98, 579 








2, 130 




2,888 




196, 176 
14, 037 




373, 153 








11,072 


Italy 








6,107 








7,793 
4, 852 




49, 625 


Singapore 








260 










244 




110 




10, 723 




440 










Total 


7,672 




359, 323 




541,611 










Synthetic indigo: 


591, 505 


357, 507 


5,558 




214,012 






30, 093 




499, 322 


282, 527 


1,462 




194,911 






142, 285 


Belgium 


6,614 
51, 632 
19, 841 


2,887 
19, 012 
7,044 








Italy 


4, 189 




71, 947 


Switzerland 




153, 79i 


Hongkong 






43, 651 


China 










86,112 












2,248 


Other countries... 






2,039 




132- 












Total 


1, 168, 914 


668, 977 


13,248 




939,184 









One gulden, average 1922 =$0.3849. 

Table 51. — Dutch East Indies: Exports of natural indigo, 1920-1923 



Java and Madura 


1920 


1921 


1922 


1923 


Indigo, dry: 


Pounds 
586 
58, 510 


Pounds 
2,363 
97, 399 


Pounds 
7,394 
11,023 


Pounds 








441 




9,963 


54, 068 


10, 582 


8,457" 






Total 


69, 059 


153, 830 


28, 999 


8,898- 






Indigo, wet: 






5,445 
4,409 






346, 299 
127 


13, 779 


2,646 














Total 


346, 426 


13, 779 


9,854 


2,646- 







152 UNITED STATES TAB IFF COMMISSION 

Table 52. — Egypt: Imports and reexports of coal-iar dyes, 1923 



Synthetic indigo: 
United Kingdom. 

Belgium 

France 

Germany 

Switzerland 

United States 



Total. 



Other coal-tar dyes: 
United Kingdom. 

Belgium 

France 

Germany 

Switzerland 

Syria.. 

United States 

Other countries .. 



Total. 



Synthetic indigo... 
Other coal-tar dyes. 



REEXPORTS 



Pounds 



4,478 

•5,884 

68, 261 

230, 537 

267, 259 



6.920 

24, 830 

5,088 

224, 918 

36, 565 

578 



1,411 



300, 310 



Value 



$1,431 
2,267 

21, 423 
177, 282 
101, 269 



1,766 
4,200 



303, 672 



2,922 
4,623 
2,709 
115,597 
32, 104 
1,333 



1,222 



160, 510 



1, 134 
4,126 



£ E. Par = $4.943; applying the percentage of the fluctuation of the pound sterling for 1923, or 93.99 per 
cent = $4,646. 

INDIA 



India, with its large population, ranks among the world's leading 
consumers of dyes. An analysis of the German dye export figures 
for 1913, the year of maximum exportation for that country, shows 
that British India was fifth among the world's nations receiving 
German dyes by quantity (15,008,916 pounds) and sixth by value 
($3,168,060). As it is primarily a cotton-consuming country, cotton 
dyes constitute the great majority of imports, and with continued ex- 
pansion in cotton manufacturing it promises to become an increasingly 
large market for synthetic dyes. A few natural dyes are extensively 
used, particularly natural indigo. In 1907 and 1908, 405,900 acres of 
indigo were under cultivation, the exports in that year amounting to 
3,249,000 pounds, valued at $2,665,766. This product is now, how- 
ever, relatively unimportant as an export item, being unable to com- 
pete with synthetic indigo in the world's market. Synthetic indigo 
is even imported into the country. 

As an indication of the position occupied by India among the dye- 
consuming nations, imports for the pre-war year, 1913, totaled 
16,923,607 pounds, valued at $3,741,031, of which " alizarin dyes made 
up nearlv 25 per cent by value and 38 per cent by weight." Imports 
in 1922 were 11,731,237 pounds, valued at $11,798,262, with red as 
the prevailing color, led by alizarin paste, used for the production of 
turkey red. In 1914, 72' per cent of the alizarin dyes came from 
Germany and 15 per cent from the United Kingdom. 

Estimates for the imports of the individual leading dves for 1922 
are as follows: Alizarin, 3,600,000 pounds; Congo red, 2,100,000 
pounds; and Sulphur black, 1,000,000 pounds. The imports of Congo 
red are reported to exceed all other direct cotton dyes, while the 
imports of sulphur black similarly exceed all other Sulphur colors 



INTERNATIONAL DYE TRADE 



153 



Basic dyes have a less extensive consumption; they find applica- 
tion for cotton, silk, jute, and coir. The principal members of that 
class used in India include Magenta, Auramine, Methyl violet, and 
Malachite green; in the case of the latter two dyes, the trade is accus- 
tomed to large crystals. 

Acid dyes are imported for wall paper and ceremonial powders, 
while chrome dyes are in small demand. As to methods 01 dyeing, 
yarn dyeing leads, followed by piece and raw stock dyeing. Consid- 
erable hand printing with wooden blocks is also carried on. Bombay, 
on account of the large number of cotton mills in that Province, is 
probably the leading Indian port for the importation of coal-tar dyes. 
It is a distributing dye center for coastwise and country shipments. 

Recovery of import trade by Germany. — An examination of the import 
figures of British India shows that Germany in 1921 and 1922 regained 
a large share of the import trade which had been taken over by Great 
Britain, the United States, and Switzerland during the war. Accord- 
ing to Indian official figures, more than three-fourths of the dye im- 
ports of 1914, both by weight and value, originated in Germany. In 
1920, the year before Germany reentered the world's markets, imports 
of German dyes into India were insignificant. In 1921, however, 
they reappeared in the world's markets and comprised slightly over 
one-third of that year's imports into India, increasing to about one- 
half of the imports in 1922. The increase in Germany's share in the 
import trade is reflected in a conspicuous drop in the 1922 dye im- 
ports, as compared with 1921, from the United Kingdom and even 
more so from the United States. Imports from the United Kingdom 
in 1921 totaled 3,613,820 pounds, valued at $3,619,734; thev declined 
in 1922 to 2,960,634 pounds, valued at $3,107,969. The decrease in 
the imports of dyes from the United States is still more striking; in 
1921 they amounted to 2,019,871 pounds, valued at $2,831,326, as 
compared with 1922 figures of 723,285 pounds and $1,029,090. 
respectively. 

Table 53. — India: Imports of coal-tar dyes and exports of natural indigo, British 

India, 1923 



Imports of coal-tar dyes year ended 
Mar. 31, 1923 



Pounds 



Exports of natural indigo year ended 
Mar. 31, 1923 



Pounds 



Alizarin dyes.. 

Aniline dyes 

Other coal-tar dyes.. 

Prom — 

United Kingdom 

Germany 

Belgium 

Switzerland 

United States 

Other countries.. 

Total 



5, 285, 661 

8, 741, 929 

92, 232 



14,119,822 



1, 326, 261 
9, 922, 018 
1, 002, 955 
53, 259 
726, 391 
1, 088, 938 



14, 119, 822 



To- 
United Kingdom. 
Asiatic Turkey... 

Persia. 

Japan 

Egypt 

Other countries . . 



Total. 



86,128 
12'.'. Mis 

63, 72S 

«;216 
129. 136 

57.904 



507. 920 



1760— 24t 11 



154 UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 

Table 54. — Mexico: Imports of coal-tar, May, 1920, and May, 1921 





May, 1920 


May, 1921 




Pounds 


Value 


Pounds 


Value 


Aniline, alizarin (natural and artificial) and anthracene colors: 


14, 198 
5,244 


$5, 507 
2,423 


130 
4,980 
6,265 


$67 




647 




2. 101 










Total 


19,442 


7,930 


11, 375 


2,815 







One peso, average, May, 1920, $0.49352. 
One peso, average, May, 1921, $0,48983. 



Table 55. — The Netherlands: Imports 


and exports of coal 


-tar dyes, 


1922 






1922 




Pounds 


Value 


IMPORTS 

Aniline and other coal-tar dyes: 


3, 035, 734 
48, 501 
191, 800 
171, 959 


$1, 778, 238 




36, 950 




153, 960 




61, 969 










3, 447, 994 
368, 168 


2,031,117 
93, 146 








EXPORTS 

Aniline and other coal-tar dyes: 


121, 253 
154, 322 
35, 274 
57, 320 
33, 069 
194, 004 


60, 044 




68, 897 




37, 720 




42,724 




12, 702 




97, 765 










595, 242 
2,205 


319, 852 
385 







One ton, 2,204.6 pounds; 1,000 gulden, average for 1922, $384.90. 

1 Computed on difference between given total and individual countries. 

Table 56. — Persia: Imports and exports of indigo, years ended March 20, 

and March 20, 1923 





Year ended Mar. 
20, 1922 


Year ended Mar. 
20, 1923 




Pounds 


Value 


Pounds 


Value 


IMPORTS 

Natural indigo: 






62 

105 

215, 947 


$55 




937 

290, 218 

21 


$955 

308, 174 

32 


59 




154, 419 








72 

514 


64 








369 




128 


205 










Total 


291, 304 


309, 366 


216, 700 


154,966 








94, 210 
111 
524 


134, 015 
251 

655 


114, 596 

56 

94, 425 

15 

7 

2,744 


98, 309 




33 




63,045 




19 




1,928 


2,579 


4 




1,972 










Total 


96, 774 


137, 500 


211,843 


163, 382 














INTERNATIONAL DYE TRADE 



155 



Table 56. — -Persia: Imports and exports of indigo, years ended March 20, 1922 r 
and March 20, 1928 — Continued 





Year ended Mar. 
20, 1922 


Year ended Mar. 
20, 1923 




Pounds t Value 


Pounds Value 


EXPORTS 

Natural indigo: 




963 

28, 145 

98 

1,408 


$577 




888 $873 


26, 331 








38 








553 










Total 


888 


873 


30, 614 


27, 499 






Synthetic indigo: 






295 
7,709 

7 


607 








7,525 








9 










Total 






8,011 


8,141 











One kran approximately equivalent to French franc. 
Average exchange franc 1922, $0.08193. 
Average exchange franc, 1923, $0.0607. 
One Batman— 2.970 kilos — 6.55 pounds. 

Table 57. — Spain: Imports of coal-tar dyes, 1922, and first six months of 192S 



1922 



1923 (6 months) 



Pounds 



Value 



Pounds 



Value 



Colors derived from coal and other artificial colors in powder 

or crystal, including thio carbon 

Indigo, synthetic -- 

Colors derived from coal in paste or solid containing 50 per 
cent water -.- 



1, 725, 320 
325, 258 

65,049 



$1, 574, 904 
171,061 

31,973 



983, 618 
105, 226 

26,881 



$892, 064 
54, 983 

13, 127 



One peseta, average of 1922, $0.1548. 

One peseta, average, January to June, 1923, $0.1538. 

Table 58. — Sweden: Imports and exports of coal-tar dyes, 1921 







1921 




Pounds 


Value 




IMPORTS 


42, 531 
914, 475 

23,713 

22 

3,309 

82 
64, 921 


$43,393 




793, 064 


Indigo: 


14, 133 




47 




675 




EXPORTS 


272 




60, 819 







One krona, average of 1921, $0,225. 



156 united states tariff commission 

Reparation Dyes 10 

1. Under the terms of the treaty of Versailles provision was made 
for deliveries in kind by German} 7 . Annex VI to Part VIII of the 
treaty dealt with the delivery of dyes and pharmaceutical products. 
The full text of Annex VI follows: 

I 

Germany accords to the Reparation Commission an option to require as part 
of reparation the delivery by Germany of such quantities and kinds of dyestuffs 
and chemical drugs as the commission may designate, not exceeding 50 per 
cent of the total stock of each and every kind of dyestuff and chemical drug 
in Germany or under German control at the date of the coming into force of 
the present treaty. 

This option shall be exercised within 60 days of the receipt by the commis- 
sion of such particulars as to stocks as may be considered necessary by the com- 
mission. 

II 

Germany further accords to the Reparation Commission an option to require 
delivery during the period from the date of the coming into force of the present 
treaty until 1st June, 1920, and during each period of six months thereafter until 
1st January, 1925, of any specified kind of dyestuff and chemical drug up to an 
amount not exceeding 25 per cent of the German production of such dyestuffs 
and chemical drugs during the previous six months' period. If in any case the 
production during such previous six months was, in the opinion of the commis- 
sion, less than normal, the amount required may be 25 per cent of the normal 
production. 

Such option shall be exercised within four weeks after the receipt of such 
particulars as to production and in such form as may be considered necessary 
by the Commission; these particulars shall be furnished by the German Govern- 
ment immediately after the expiration of each six months' period. 

Ill 

For dyestuffs and chemical drugs delivered under paragraph 1, the price shall 
be fixed by the commission, having regard to pre-war net export prices and to 
subsequent increases of cost. 

For dyestuffs and chemical drugs delivered under paragraph 2, the price shall 
be fixed by the commission, having regard to pre-war net export prices and sub- 
sequent variations of cost, or the lowest net selling price of similar dyestuffs 
and chemical drugs to any other purchaser. 

IV 

All details, including mode and times of exercising the options, and making 
delivery, and all other questions arising under this arrangement shall be deter- 
mined by the Reparation Commission; the German Government will furnish 
to the commission all necessary information and other assistance which it may 
require. 

V 

The above expression "dyestuffs and chemical drugs" includes all synthetic 
dyes and drugs and intermediate or other products used in connection with 
dyeing, so far as they are manufactured for sale. The present arrangement 
shall also apply to cinchona bark and salts of quinine* 

DYES 

As regards dyestuffs the intention of the Reparation Commission 
was as follows: 

1. To place at the disposal of the Allied and Associated Powers 
the dyes immediately necessary for their industries. 

2. To furnish a continuous supply up to January 1, 1925. 
Following the signing of the treaty, consideration was given to 

Annex VI in view of the urgent needs of dyes by the Allied countries. 

10 The information on reparation dyes is taken from "Report on the Works of the Reparation Commis- 
sion from 1920-1922, printed and published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, 23 Imperial House, King's 
Way, London, WC2. 



INTERNATIONAL DYE TRADE 



157 



The subcommittee, composed of dye experts from the United States, 
Great Britain, Italy, and Belgium, was appointed, as was also a 
German expert committee, comprising representatives of the lead- 
ing German dye firms and presided over by Herr Carl von Weinberg. 
Agreement was made at the first meeting on August 8, 1919, at 
Versailles, to take an inventory of stocks on hand in the German fac- 
tories as on August 15. The inventory of dyes on hand sub- 
mitted by Germany totaled 20,706,114 kilos (20,380 tons 11 ) and in 
addition 816,610 kilos (804 tons) of intermediates. The following 
table shows the stocks of dyes and intermediates on hand in each of 
the German factories on August 15, 1919: 

Table 59. — Stock of dyestuffs in German factories, August 15, 1919 



Factory 



Dyestuffs 



Interme- 
diates 



Total dyestuffs 
and inter- 
mediates 



50 per cent of 

the total of 

dyestuffs and 

intermediates 



A. G. F. A. (Berlin). 

Badische 

Bayer 

Cassella 

Griesheim 

Grunau 

Jager 

Kalle 

Meister L. & B 

Muehlheim 

Weiler-ter-Meer 

Wulfing Dahl 

Grand total 



Kilograms 
1, 077, 759. 000 
7, 984, 435. 000 
5, 444, 805. 000 
2, 235, 683. 000 
506, 330. 500 



22, 540. 000 
339, 855. 300 
2, 566, 721. 158 
80, 306. 000 
423, 004. 000 
24, 675. 000 



Kilograms 
47, 963. 000 

143, 494. 000 
27, 433. 000 
45, 536. 000 
49, 167. 400 
1, 992. 000 



25, 325. 000 

473,601.200 

300. 000 

798. 000 

1, 000. 000 



20,706,113.958 



816, 609. 600 



Kilograms 

1, 125, 722. 000 

8, 127, 929. 000 

5, 472, 238. 000 

2, 281, 219. 000 

555, 497. 900 

1, 992. 000 

22, 540. 000 

365, 180. 300 

3, 040, 322. 358 

80, 606. 000 

423, 802. 000 

25, 675. 000 



21, 522, 723. 558 



Kilograms 

562, 861. 000 

4, 063, 964. 500 

2,736,119.000 

1, 140, 609. 500 

277, 748. 950 

996. 000 

11, 270. 000 

182, 590. 150 

1, 520, 161. 179 

40, 303. 000 

211,901.000 

12, 837. 500 



10,761,361.779 



In theory the option on these stocks could not be exercised until the treaty 
entered into force. None the less, in view of the urgent needs of France, Italy, 
and Belgium, it was decided, with the consent of Germany, in the course of a 
meeting of the Allies held in London for that purpose on September 15, 
1919, to authorize the immediate withdrawal of 5,200 tons from the stocks of 
August 15. This agreement was ratified by the organization committee on 
September 17, the details governing the deliveries were arranged with the 
German experts at the beginning of October, and a protocol finally signed on 
November 3. 

Deliveries on the 5,200-ton account began on November 22, 1919. 
After a prolonged consideration of the distribution of the remainder 
of the stocks on hand (August 15, 1919) it was decided to divide the 
dyes into groups and to base the percentage of distribution on the 
German export statistics of 1913. These figures were modified to 
allow for new conditions and for home consumption. The following 
table shows the percentage distribution: 

Table 60. — Percentages of distribution of dyestuffs — Balance of the stock of August 

15, 1919 



Group 

I. Alizarine red... 

II. Indigo 

III. Vat dyes other than indanthrene blue G. C. D 

IV. Indanthrene blue G. C. D 

V. Alizarine dyes other than red 

VI. Direct cotton colors -. 

VII. Developed cotton colors 

VIII. Acid wool colors 

IX. Chrome colors 

X. Basic colors 

XI. Sulphur colors 

XII. Lake colors 

Intermediates 

11 Except where otherwise stated, the "ton' ' is the long ton. 



United 

States 


Great 
Britain 


France 


Italy 


25 


35 


16 


16 


5 


29 


28 


18 


39 


30 


13 


13 


OO 


30 


8 


7 


37 


30 


14 


14 


15 


25 


23 


20 


20 


25 


26 


20 


15 


25 


28 


20 


20 


30 


23 


18 


15 


25 


25 


23 


10 


35 


17 


17 


25 


25 


25 


15 


20 


30 


21 


19 



Bel- 
gium 



5 
17 
9 

12 
9 

12 
21 
10 
in 



158 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 



Orders for deliveries from the stocks on hand continued to be 
forwarded up to September 1, 1920, and the total deliveries of dyes 
amounted to 9,889,650 kilos (9,733 tons). 

Paragraph 2 of Annex VI gave the commission an option for each six monthly 
period for delivery "of any specific kind of dyestuff and chemical drug up to an 
amount not exceeding 25 per cent of the German production of such dyestuffs 
and chemical drugs during the previous six months' period." The option came 
into force with the treaty, that is, on January 10, 1920. 

At a meeting held in January, 1920, the German experts proposed that the 
Allies should establish a program, to be carried out by Germany, of their real 
needs for three months and that the Reparation Commission should exercise its 
option on the monthly production. This proposal was accepted and a provisional 
protocol for its execution was signed on January 30, 1920. Since that date 
Germany has had to inform the commission each month of the production of the 
preceding month of all dyestuffs, as well as of the lowest prices at which they have 
been supplied to other purchasers. In practice the prices quoted are always 
those of the German internal market. . The monthly lists of production are 
communicated to the interested Governments and they are given a certain time 
to pass orders up to the amount of the percentages attributed to them. These 
percentages were drawn up on the basis employed for the distribution of the 
balance of the stocks of August 15; they have been modified on more 
than one occasion, owing to unforeseen demands from Japan, and again owing 
to the provisional abandonment of deliveries by Japan and subsequently by the 
United States. 

The two following tables show the percentage distribution by coun- 
tries of 25 per cent of the daily production of dyes, (1) when the United 
States received them, and (2) after withdrawal of the United States: 

Table 61. — Percentages of distribution of the 25 per cent of the daily production 

of dyestuffs 
[United States included] 



Group 


United 

States 


Great 
Britain 


France 


Italy 


Bel- 
gium 




25 
5 
42 
60 
45 
15 
28 
15 
25 
20 
10 
30 
20 


35 
35 
35 
35 
35 
25 
30 
33 
33 
30 
35 
30 
30 


16 
23 
9 
5 
8 
25 
18 
26 
18 
20 
17 
15 
21 


16 
23 
9 


8 




14 


III. Vat dyes other than indanthrene blue G. C. D 

IV. Indanthrene blue G. C. D 


5 




8 
18 
15 
15 
15 
20 
17 
15 
19 


4 




17 




9 


VIII. Acid wood colors.. ... . 


11 




9 




10 




21 




10 




10 







Table 62. — Existing percentages of distribution of the 25 per cent of the daily 

production of dyestuffs 



Group 



I. Alizarin red - 

II. Indigo 

III. Vat dyes other than indanthrene blue G. C. D 

IV. Indanthrene blue G. C. D___ 

V. Alizarin dyes other than red 

VI. Direct cotton colors 

VII. Developed cotton colors 

VIII. Acid wool colors 

IX. Chrome colors . . 

X . Basic colors 

XI. Sulphur colors 

XII. Lake colors 

Intermediates. 



Great 
Britain 



France 



Italy 



Bel- 
gium 



INTERNATIONAL DYE TRADE 159 

After the expiration of the time limit the remaining dyes were 
offered to the different countries without regard to the percentages, 
and withdrawals were also made for deliveries to countries having 
no percentage (the Serb- Croat-Slovene State and Greece) : 

The drawing up of the quarterly program of the needs of the Allied countries 
for the purpose of the agreement, which was to replace the provisional agree- 
ment of January 30, 1920, presented serious difficulties, and the protocol 
of that date was first renewed on Apjjil 28, 1920, and a second time in a 
slightly different form on May 31. 

The protocol for the delivery of dyes of May 31, 1920, follows: 

Pending the final execution of the agreement outlined at the meeting of th e 
dyestuff sub-commission of the Reparation Commission, January 28, 1920, or 
of a similar agreement, the German Government undertakes to deliver to the 
Reparation Commission from June 1, 1920, forward, 25 per cent of the Ger- 
man daily production of dyestuff s. 

It will likewise deliver intermediate products used in dyeing and printing in 
such quantities as shall equal the quantities of those same products delivered 
to the various countries before the war for the same uses. 

The prices at which these dyestuffs and intermediate products will be deliv- 
ered shall be the lowest price at which these same dyestuffs and intermediate 
products have been offered 12 during the same month to any buyer, German or 
other. 

These deliveries will be credited to Germany in the reparation account. 

It is understood that the present agreement in no way constitutes a renuncia- 
tion by the Reparation Commission of any of the rights conferred upon it by 
the treaty of Versailles, particularly as regards the paragraphs above concern- 
ing intermediate products and prices. 

(Signed) Dubois. 

D'Amelio. 
Bergmann. 

N. B. — This protocol and all the other protocols and agreements concerning 
Annex VI having been prepared in the French language, and the French text 
being the only one signed by the Germans, the French text alone is authentic. 

The German factories continued to turn out large quantities of the simpler 
dyestuffs, which were also being produced in United States, British, French, and 
Italian factories, with the result that a proportion of them remained at the 
disposal of the commission. In order not to disturb the markets by putting 
these dyestuffs on sale, the commission negotiated the sale of the untaken bal- 
ances to the Association of German Dyestuff Manufacturers (Interessengemein- 
schaft) and on February 3, 1921, an agreement was signed under which 
this association bought them back at 75 per cent of the value shown on the 
monthly lists of production. This contract dealt with all the balances of the 
25 per cent of production from February to May, 1920, and the sum paid to the 
commission amounted to 44,384,420 paper marks (3,026,100 gold marks). 

In the case of many types of dyestuffs 25 per cent of the German production 
was not sufficient to satisfy the needs of the Allied countries, and, indeed, many 
of the products for which there was a demand were not even manufactured. 
The commission sought to fill this gap. The chief requirements were to enable 
the Allied distributing organizations to satisfy their own clients, whatever might 
be the quantity called for, and to provide the materials at a reasonable price. 
Several conferences were held with the German experts in July, 1921. It ap- 
peared desirable, in order to interest the German factories in the smooth working 
of the agreement which was under negotiation, to make a concession on the 
price of the quantities in excess of those the delivery of which was provided fcr 
in the earlier protocols, and it was in this spirit that the supplementaryagreement 
of the 19th August, 1921, was signed after long negotiations. 

u In the French text "tarifes." 



160 UNITED STATES TAEIPF COMMISSION 

This agreement follows : 

APPENDIX XXVIII 

AGREEMENT SUPPLEMENTARY TO THE DYESTUFFS PROTOCOL OF MAY 

31, 1920 

Paris, 19th August, 1921. 

The following clauses shall be applied to the protocol of 31st May, 1920, which 
governs, in so far as dyestuffs are concerned, the execution of paragraph 2, Annex 
VI to Part VIII of the treaty of Versailles. 

Article 1 

The I. G. of the German dye factories, whilst continuing to hold at the disposal 
of the Reparation Commission 25 per cent of the amount of dyestuffs manufac- 
tured each month, agrees to deliver, as far as possible, on reparation account, 
dyestuffs asked for in quantities superior to 25 per cent of the production of such 
dyes. 

However, the total value of the dyes delivered on reparation account out of the 
production of any one month shall not exceed 25 per cent of the total value of the 
total production for that month. 

ffa Article 2 

Those quantities superior to 25 per cent of the production of each dyestuff 
shall be debited in reparation account at the lowest price that the I. G. of the 
German dye factories shall have sold at 13 in each of the receiving countries during 
the month preceding the month of delivery or during the month of delivery, but 
always at the lower of these two prices. 

However, the prices fixed by the protocol of 31st May, 1920, shall be applied 
to a minimum quantity of each dyestuff to be delivered in accordance with 
articles 1 and 2, such minimum quantity to be agreed upon jointly by the Repara- 
tion Commission and the I. G. on the basis of the production of each dyestuff 
during the 15 months from 1st February, 1920, to 30th April, 1921 (see letter 
from I. G. attached). 

Article 3 

For such dyestuffs as the amount asked for is liable to exceed 25 per cent of 
the production, firm orders shall be given by each Allied and Associated Power 
within one month of the signing of the present agreement for the first three 
months' period and for the succeeding three-monthly periods during the last 
month of the preceding period. The quantities thus ordered shall not exceed 
the needs of the consuming industries of each country. 

Article 4 

The Reparation Commission recognizes that dyestuffs delivered on reparation 
account should not be reexported, and will therefore ask the Governments of the 
Allied and Associated Powers receiving dyestuffs to give to their respective dis- 
tributing organizations the instructions necessary to prevent, as far as possible, 
this reexportation. 

Article 5 

As to dyestuffs of which deliveries are not to exceed 25 per cent of the produc- 
tion and of which 25 per cent of the production is held at the disposal of the Repa- 
ration Commission, the commission agrees that firm orders for these shall be 
given within 60 days after receipt of the monthly lists of production. Quantities 
for which firm orders are not given within this period shall automatically remain 
at the free disposal of the I. G. 

13 In the French text "au plus bas prix quel'I. G. * * * aura pratique," which is less restrictive 
than the term "sold." 



INTERNATIONAL DTE TRADE 161 

Article 6 

There shall be left at the free disposal of the I. G. — 

(a) On the signing of this agreement the reliquats of the seven months from 1st 
June to 31st December, 1920; 

(6) Within 30 days of the date of signature of this agreement, the reliquats of 
the months of January and February, 1921; 

(c) Within 60 days of the date of signature of this agreement, the reliquats of 
the three months from 1st March to 31st May, 1921. 

Article 7 

The Reparation Commission will forward to the "Centrale des Usines de 
Matieres Colorantes" at Frankfort within 30 days of the date of this agreement 
a provisional list of specified dyestuffs, which in future will no longer have to be 
held at the disposal of the Reparation Commission. This list will be subject to 
change as the Reparation Commission may direct. 

It is, moreover, understood that the monthly lists of production handed over to 
the Reparation Commission by the "Centrale" of Frankfort shall continue to 
show the production of all dyestuffs manufactured, whether or not they are to 
be held at the disposal of the commission. 

Article 8 

The present agreement will remain in force until revoked by the Reparation 
Commission. Notice of such revocation must be given at the beginning of a 
three-monthly period to take effect for the next period. 

Article 9 

The I. G. will do the necessary to be assured that the German Government will 
not oppose the present agreement. 

For the I. G. of German synthetic dyestuff factories. 

(Signed) Salvago Raggi. 

B. A. Kemball-Cook. 

C. von Weinberg. 

ANNEX TO AN AGREEMENT SUPPLEMENTARY TO THE PROTOCOL OF 

MAY 31, 1920 

Letter from the I. G. of German synthetic dyestuff factories to the 
bureau for dyestuffs and pharmaceutical products of the Reparation 
Commission : 

Paris, 12th July, 1921. 

The I. G. declares that it will carry out article 2 of the supplementary agree- 
ment to the protocol of 31st May, 1920, concerning dyestuffs, as follows: 

When a product is concerned which has not been manufactured during the 
15 months taken as a basis, and such manufacture is undertaken to fill an order 
from the Allies, during the first three-montlfly period 50 per cent of the amount 
delivered will be priced at the price prevailing on the German interior market. 
This, however, does not apply to products never manufactured before the coming 
into effect of the treaty. 

When a product is concerned which was manufactured during the 15 months 
taken as a basis, but in quantity considered insufficient, the lower price will be 
applied to a quantity to be determined by common agreement, which quantity 
will be between the 25 per cent of the average monthly production of the 15 
months and 50 per cent of the amount ordered. 

However, the lower price will always be applied to a quantity equal at least 
to 25 per cent of the actual production. 

For the I. G. of German synthetic dyestuff factories. 

(Signed) C. von Weinberg. 



162 UNITED STATES TAEIFF COMMISSION 

This agreement enabled the Allied distributing agencies to place 
quarterly orders for their requirements and to provide for reserves. 
It only binds Germany to deliver "as far as possible," and does not 
fix the price in advance. However, in nearly all cases the syndicate 
manufactured the desired products, and with few exceptions prices 
were reasonable. 

The quarterly orders under this agreement up to December, 1922, 
are indicated below: 

Tons ordered 

July-September, 1921 496 

October-December, 1921 1, 178 

Januarv-Mareh, 1922 1, 198 

April-June, 1922 1, 549 

July-September, 1922 i 2, 061 

October-December, 1922 2, 433 

The agreement of August 19, 1921, was modified on June 12, 1922, 
to facilitate the calculation of prices. 

This amendment, given below, was extended "sine die" on De- 
cember 15, 1922. 

Paris, June 12, 1922. 

PROVISIONAL AMENDMENT TO THE SUPPLEMENTARY AGREEMENT OF 
AUGUST 19, 1921, RELATIVE TO DYESTUFFS 

I. To facilitate the application of the supplementary agreement of August 19, 
1921, it is decided that the following rules will apply to the quarterly orders 
July-September, and October-December, 1922. In so far as these two periods 
are concerned, the text which follows shall constitute a provisional amendment 
to such clauses of the supplementary agreement as might be contradictory to 
the present text. 

II. All quarterly orders for July-September and October-December, 1922, will 
be invoiced as follows: 50 per cent at the price fixed by the protocol of May 31, 
1920; 50 per cent at the lowest price that the I. G. shall have sold at in each of 
the receiving countries during the month preceding the month of delivery or during 
the month of delivery, but always at the lower of these two prices. 

III. Upon receipt of the quarterly orders, the Centrale will furnish, for infor- 
mation, the export prices quoted for the countries interested at the time the 
orders are placed. 

IV. To obtain the 25 per cent of the daily production, the quantities ordered 
in the quarterly orders will be deducted from the total actual production of the 
factories during the corresponding quarter. The 25 per cent of the difference 
between the actual production and the quarterly orders will appear in the pro- 
duction lists of the months from July to December, 1922. This entire 25 per cent 
will be at the disposal of the Reparation Commission in accordance with the 
Protocol of May 31, 1920. 

(Signed) Leon Delacroix. 

John Bradbury, 
von Weinberg. 

Two other agreements of minor importance included: (1) An agree- 
ment between the German factories and the French holders of pre- 
war contracts of dyes; (2) a Belgian-German agreement under which 
Belgium could order on reparation account, at open market prices, 
any dyes not obtainable within its share of the 25 per cent of daily 
production or within the quarterly orders. 

A question of interpretation arose on the intermediates in paragraph 
5 of Annex VI, as the French and English texts were not identical. 
The question was whether the commission's option extended to in- 
termediates used in making dyes or was limited to those products 
used in dyeing and printing. The Reparation Commission provision- 
ally limited its option to the intermediates used in dyeing and printing. 
The Allied experts considered it desirable to encourage the dye makers 



INTERNATIONAL DYE TRADE 163 

in their respective countries to produce their own intermediates and, 
in order to avoid their use in dye making, the option was restricted 
to the pre-war consumption by the Allied countries. In order to 
provide for new products and such products as naphthol A. S., the 
provision was further modified. Group I includes intermediates used 
in dye making. Orders were passed without restriction at the lowest 
price of the German factories, provided that the products be used 
only for dyeing and printing and not reexported. Group II includes 
products specially employed in dyeing or printing. Option is ac- 
corded at prices provided for by the treaty up to 25 per cent of 
production, and quantities in excess can be ordered at the lowest 
price quoted by Germany in the country placing the order. 

Shortly after the treaty came into force the Reparation Commission organized 
a bureau for dyestuffs and pharmaceutical products which works in liaison with 
the Allied expert committee, while Germany created at Frankfort a service 
(Zentrale der Farbstoff Fabriken, under the direction of Herr Muehlen), in touch 
with the German expert committee. Since the Reparation Commission allots 
dyes as a general rule only to Allied Governments or to agencies specifically 
appointed for this purpose by the Governments, France and Italy each set up a 
"Union des Producteurs et Consommateurs de Matieres Colorantes" for the receipt 
and distribution of reparation dyes. Great Britain appointed first of all the 
Central Importing Agency and later the British Dyestuffs Corporation. The 
Belgian Government itself receives and distributes its dyestuffs. The United 
States gave a mandate to the Textile Alliance (Inc.) of New York, but withdrew 
the mandate on the 14th December, 1921, without replacing the Textile Alliance. 
Nevertheless, the commission at that time decided, in consideration of the require- 
ments of the United States industry and in the absence of objection from the 
United States Government, to continue to deliver to the Textile Alliance the 
portion previously assigned to the United States. On the 29th November, 1922, 
the Textile Alliance informed the commission that it renounced any right to order 
reparation dyes, and the share of the United States was then distributed between 
Great Britain, France, Italy, and Belgium. 

The Frankfort Zentrale draws up every month lists indicating, in the case of each 
product manufactured in Germany during the preceding month, 25 per cent of 
the production and the lowest current price. These lists are immediately com- 
municated by the dyestuffs bureau to the different Governments, which have 
30 days in which to forward their orders up to the amount of their percentages 
to the Zentrale at Frankfort. After 30 clays the dyestuffs bureau draws up a 
new list indicating the quantities still available. This list is immediately com- 
municated to the Allied Governments, who have a further period of 30 days within 
which to forward to the bureau their orders for these balances. The balances are 
distributed a first time in proportion to the orders received on the tenth day and 
then later distributed in accordance with the orders without regard to percentages. 
Quantities not ordered within the total period of 60 days remain at the disposal 
of Germany. Orders for the 25 per cent of the daily German production must be 
carried out by Germany within three weeks except in the case of "force majeure." 
An invoice accompanies each consignment, and the amount, after conversion into 
gold marks, is then credited to Germany and debited to the receiving country on 
reparation account. As regards the United States, which has no reparation 
account, payments were made in dollars to the commission by the receiving 
agency. The same method was adopted for the dyes sold directly to the Textile 
Alliance. 

Certain Allied countries were put to inconvenience through the reexportation 
of dyestuffs made by other Allied countries, and requested the commission to 
take steps to prevent such reexports. The attitude of the commission was defined 
in a letter addressed to the delegations of all the interested countries, the gist of 
which is contained in the two following extracts : 

Dyes received subsequent to August 9, 1921: 

It is definitely understood that such dyes are ordered for domestic consumption 
and are not to be reexported to countries receiving dyes through the medium of 
the Reparation Commission. In distributing these dyes to domestic consumers 
the receiving countries are expected to bring home this understanding to purchasers 
in such a way as to make it practically effective. 



164 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 



Dyes delivered before August, 1921: 

If practicable, the commission would be desirous of having the'same restric- 
tions as to reexportation of these dyes as are adopted for the dyes delivered since 
August. As regards dyes ordered under the supplementary agreement of the 
19th August, 1921, or its amendment, the question of reexportation was regulated 
by article 4 of the former. 

The deliveries of the dyes by the commission to the various coun- 
tries up to December 31, 1922, are given below: 





Quantity 
(kilos) 


Value (gold 
marks) 




Quantity 
(kilos) 


Value (gold 
marks) 


United States Textile 
Alliance: 


1, 948, 958 
280, 734 

161, 823 


2, 102, 913. 21 
1, 499, 291. 13 

1, 281, 132. 53 


Italy: 

Stock 


1, 566, 214 
3, 180, 866 

403, 804 


1,811,728.18 


Stock 


Daily production... 

Supplementary. 

agreement... 


11, 106, 367. 33 
1, 787, 400. 49 


Daily production .. 

Supplementary 

agreement 


5, 150, 884 


14, 705, 496. 00 




2, 391, 515 


4, 883, 336. 87 






Japan: 

Stock 




Great Britain: 


2, 923, 453 
2, 280, 452 

955, 678 


3, 806, 101. 03 
5, 774, 614. 66 

4, 653, 776. 82 


88, 001 64. 487. 61 


Stock 


Daily production... 
Total 


591, 312 


2, 565, 227. 76 


Daily production... 
Supplementary 


679, 313 

10, 140 
63,004 


2, 629, 715. 37 


agreement 


Serb-Croat Slovene 
State: Daily produc- 
tion 




Total 


6, 159, 583 


14, 234, 492. 51 


22, 623. 61 




Greece: Daily produc- 
tion 




France: 






251, 084. 79 


Stock 








Daily production... 
Supplementary 


1, 826) 247 8.' 687,' 467! 25 

127,207 796,465.34 
28,549 86,419.32 


Total: 

Stock 


9, 889, 650 
9, 965, 036 

2, 806, 540 
28, 549 


11,859,118.43 


agreement.. 

Pre-war contracts... 


Daily production... 
Supplement ary 

agreement 

Pre-war contracts... 

Grand total 


33, 947, 022. 67 

12, 764, 750. 81 
86, 419. 32 


Total 


4,241,832 12,442,024.07 






Belgium: 

Stock 


1, 103, 195 1. 202. 216. 24 


22, 689, 775 


58,657,311.23 


Daily production... 

Supplementary 

agreement 


1, 732, 281 
1, 158, 028 


4, 040, 346. 14 
4, 245, 975. 63 




Total 


3, 993, 504 


9, 488, 538. 01 









Table 63. — Reparation dyes delivered to December 31, 1928 



United States 
Great Britain 

France. 

Italy 

Belgium 



Kilos 



2, 391, 589 
7, 664, 993 
4, 276, 533 
6, 274, 601 
4, 219, 215 



Gold marks 



4, 875, 568 
19,197,311 
12, 515, 487 
18, 722, 218 i 

9,913,905 



Japan 

Greece 

Serbia 

Total 



Kilos 



679, 313 
67, 006 
10, 140 



25, 583, 390 



Gold marks 



2, 629, 705 

256,200 

22, 624 



68, 133, 019 



PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTS 

The questions involved in the case of pharmaceutical products 
were intrusted to a subcommittee of experts. At the first meeting, 
held September 12, 1919, the United States, Great Britain, France, 
Italy, and Belgium were represented. The German experts suggested 
September 20, 1919, as the date on which inventories should be taken 
of stocks on hand, and this date was agreed upon. The French and 
Belgian experts desired prompt exercise of the option, in view of the 
needs of pharmaceuticals in their countries. The United States and 
British experts stood for a compliance with legal limitation of the 
treaty, whereby the option could be exercised only by the commis- 
sion itself, i. e., after .the treaty came into force. 



INTERNATIONAL DYE TRADE 165 

On December 9, 1919, Germany reported the inventories of pharma- 
ceuticals, and the experts met on January 5 to 10 for their examina- 
tion. It was found that the quantities were too low for certain 
products and that other products covered by the treaty were not 
listed. 

As a result of a discussion on January 30, 1920, and the explanations 
offered, the German inventories were accepted "en bloc," to which 
stocks of certain products were to be added. In the case of codeine 
and cocaine, only half of their stocks were declared, as it was not 
proved that the patents covering their synthesis were being operated. 
Synthetic pharmaceuticals were defined as "all organic products 
which are not natural or which are not obtained by simple extraction 
from a natural product and which are employed in therapeutics." 

After the treaty came into force pharmaceuticals were dealt with 
in the same manner as dyes. A distribution organization for phar- 
maceutical products was maintained at Frankfort, Germany. 

Agreement was made on April 9, 1920, for the distribution of phar- 
maceuticals on the basis of pre-war imports, and on April 12 the 
Allied and German experts signed a protocol governing the delivery 
of 50 per cent of the stocks. 

The deliveries were modified as a result of the abandonment of their 
respective shares by the United States and Great Britain and of a 
request of Japan to participate. Percentages were allotted to France, 
Italy, and Belgium, and Japan received a small fixed amount. On 
August 28, 1920, the option on stocks was exercised, the total deliv- 
eries amounting to 93,776 kilos (92 tons). 

It was decided, in agreement with Germany, to exercise the option on the 
daily production in a manner which differed slightly from that stipulated in the 
treaty; it was agreed that Germany should forward monthly to the commission 
a list of the quantities manufactured in the course of the preceding month and 
that orders for 25 per cent of this production should be forwarded immediately. 
The protocol of October 19, 1920, governs these deliveries: 

Paris, October 19, 1920. 

PROTOCOL FOR THE DELIVERY OF PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTS 

The German Government, in execution of paragraph 2, Annex VI, Part VIII of 
the treaty of Versailles, undertakes to deliver to the Reparation Commission 
any synthetic pharmaceutical products and salts of quinine up to an amount not 
exceeding 25 per cent of the German production manufactured from July 1, 1920, 
onward. 

The production of cocaine and codeine, however, will be delivered only up to 
an amount of 12.5 per cent of the total production of these products. 

The prices at which these products shall be delivered shall in principle be the 
lowest net selling price at which these products have been quoted 14 during the 
month of their production to any other purchaser (German or otherwise). The 
Reparation Commission, however, reserves the right to fix the prices, accord- 
ing to the provisions of paragraph 3, Annex VI, Part VIII of the treaty of Ver- 
sailles, if it considers that the prices charged by Germany are excessive. 

These deliveries will be credited to Germany in the reparation account. 

The present agreement, until revoked or modified by the Reparation Com- 
mission, will govern all future deliveries of pharmaceutical products under the 
provisions of the treaty above quoted. 

It is understood that in making the present agreement the Reparation Com- 
mission reserves all the rights conferred upon it by the treaty of Versailles. 

(Signed) Dubois. 

Theunis. 
Bergmann. 



14 In the French text "ies prix les plus bas auxquels ces memes produits ont ete tarifes." 



166 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 



The distribution of these quantities among the different Allies gave 
rise to long discussions and was subjected to modifications when the 
United States and Great Britain provisionally renounced their light 
to participate. For a few months Japan received fixed quantities, 
the balance bein^ distributed between France, Italy, and Belgium in 
proportions which will be found in the following table: 

PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF THE 25 PER CENT OF THE DAILY PRO- 
DUCTION OF PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTS SINCE JULY, 1920 

Titles of the groups: 

I. Quinine and its salts (No. 380 A of the German customs tariff of 
1913). 

II. Salicylic and benzoic acids and their salts (No. 317 N). 

III. Alkaloids other than quinine and the glucosides (No. 380 B). 

IV. Ethyl ether and the esters (No. 382). 

V. Chloroform and chloral hydrate (No. 382). 

VI. General svnthetic products (Nos. 346 F, 346 G, 278, 317 G t 
350, 351, 383, 390). 



France.. 
Italy.... 
Belgium 



Groups 



33.0 

60.5 

6.5 



II III IV V VI 



42. 5 I 42. 5 

43. 42. 5 
14.5 I 15.0 



57.5 
17.0 
25.5 



40.0 
40.0 
20.0 



51.5 
33.0- 
15.5- 



Rumania, the Serb- Croat-Slovene State, and Greece receive phar- 
maceutical products drawn from the quantities of which the other 
countries do not avail themselves, quantities which are relatively 
important in the aggregate owing to the development of the phar- 
maceutical industry in France and in Italy. 

Rumania, the Serb- Croat-Slovene State, and Greece, in particular,, 
urgently requested the delivery of salts of quinine and, the German 
manufacture of this product having greatly declined since the war, 
several special agreements were made for the delivery of a total 
quantity of over 56 tons. 

The table below shows the deliveries of pharmaceutical products 
made to the different countries up to December 31, 1922: 



Table 64 


. — Pharmaceuticals delivered to December 


31, 1922 






Quantity 
(kilos.) 


Value 

(gold 

marks) 




Quantity 
(kilos.) 


Value 

(gold 

marks) 


France: 

Stock 


29,879 
26,431 


176, 148. 67 
189, 527. 48 


Japan: 

Stock 


1,401 
16, 108 


5, 696. 1£ 


Daily production 


Daily production 

Total 


132, 688. 57 


Total . 


56, 310 


365, 676. 15 


17,509 


138, 384. 70 




Serb-Croat-Slovene State : 

Daily production 

Greece: Daily production 
Rumania: Daily produc- 
tion 




Italy: 

Stock 


49, 507 
268,797 


481, 731. 93 
2, 073, 392. 82 


123, 445 
201, 194 
80, 790 


1, 570, 828. 89 


Daily production 


1, 769, 134. 18 
5, 608, 020. 59< 


Total 


318, 304 


2, 555, 124. 75 




12, 989 
203, 306 


145, 241. 00 
1, 398, 533. 93 


Grand total 


1, 013, 847 


13, 550, 944. 19 


Stock 






Daily production 




Total 


216, 295 


1, 543, 774. 93 









INTERNATIONAL DYE TRADE 167 

Table 65. — Pharmaceuticals delivered to December 31, 1928. 



Kilos 



Gold marks 



France-. 
Italy. , . 
Belgium 
Japan.. 
Greece.. 



57,525 
417, 180 
248, 892 

17,509 
301, 560 



394, 399 
3, 528, 279 
1, 617, 427 

138, 385 
3,041,596 



Serbia 

Rumania.. 

Total 



Kilos. 



176, 093 
80, 790 



1, 299, 549 



Gold marks 



2, 563, 340 
5, 608, 020 



16, 891, 446 



In December, 1923, it was reported that the I. G. agreed to resume 
normal reparation deliveries in kind under Annex VI of the Ver- 
sailles treaty and later agreements with the Reparation Commission. 



PART VI 

APPENDIX 

STATISTICS OF DOMESTIC IMPORTS 
AND EXPORTS 



1760— 24t 12 169 



STATISTICS OF IMPORTS AND EXPORTS 



Table 66. — Imports of coal-tar products entered for consumption, calendar years 

1917 to 1928 
[Act of Sept. 8, 1916] 
GROUP I, CRUDE (FREE) 



Years 



1917 



Quantity Value 



1918 



Quantity Value 



Acids, carbolic, which on being subjected to distillation 
yield in the portion distilling below 200° C. a quantity of 
tar acids less than 5 per cent of original distillate - . pounds. . 

Anthracene oil gallons.. 

Benzene pounds.. 

Cresol do — 

Dead or creosote oil gallons.. 

Naphthalene having a solidifying point less than 79° C. 
pounds.. 

Pyridine and quinoline do 

Coal tar, crude barrels.. 

Pitch, coal tar. do — 

Metacresol, orthocresol, and paracresol — purity less than 90 
per cent .. pounds.. 

Xylene. do — 

All other products found naturally in coal tar whether pro- 
duced or obtained from coal tar or other sources, n. s. p. f. 
_. .pounds . . 

All other distillates, which on being subjected to distillation 
yield in the portion distilling below 200° C. a quantity of 
tar acids less than 5 per cent of the original distillate 
pounds.. 

Anthracene, purity less than 25 per cent do — 

Acenaphthene, cumol fluorene, methylanthracene, and 
methylnaphthalene pounds _ 

Carbazole, purity less than 25 per cent do — 



151, 254 

61, 200 

3, 598, 733 

7, 665, 442 

9, 817, 085 

5, 206, 980 
12,247 
6,780 
5,926 

20,708 
9,332 



(') 



3,105 
341, 700 
532, 529 
786, 638 

175, 554 

1,480 

10, 745 

12, 039 

1,404 
2,928 



10, 448 



1,502 
(') 



155, 236 



$17, 260" 



2, 673, 855 
8, 873, 271 
1, 545, 247 

3, 902, 731 
9,237 

13, 087 

14, 029 



87, 570 
779, 045 
162, 869 

130, 098 

1,036 

21, 200 

29, 095 



2,756 



10, 473 
5 



Years 



Quantity Value 



1920 



Quantity Value 



Acids, carbolic, which on being subjected to distillation 
yield in the portion distilling below 200° C. a quantity of 
far acids less than 5 per cent of original distillate . . pounds _ . 

Anthracene oil gallons.. 

Benzene pounds.. 

Cresol do — 

Dead or creosote oil gallons.. 

Naphthalene having a solidifying point less than 79° C. 
pounds.. 

Pyridine and quinoline do — 

Coal tar, crude barrels.. 

Pitch, coal tar do — 

Metacresol, orthocresol, and paracresol — purity less than 90 
per cent pounds.. 

Toluene .• do — 

All other products found naturally in coal tar whether pro- 
duced or obtained from coal tar or other sources, n. s. p. f. 
pounds.. 

All other distillates, which on being subjected to distillation 
yield in the portion distilling below 200° C. a quantity of 
tar acids less than 5 per cent of the original distillate 
pounds.. 

Anthracene, purity less than 25 per cent pounds . 

Acenaphthene, cumol fluorene, methylanthracene, and 
methylnaphthalene pounds . . 

Carbazole, purity less than 25 per cent... ..pounds.. 



1, 965, 289 

18, 699 

217, 865 

6, 435, 650 

11,268,379 

3, 239, 256 

165, 064 

22, 339 

3,364 

11,200 
1, 195, 706 



380, 525 



104, 568 
82, 669 



15, 759 
112 



•$187,788 

3,994 

5, 617 

557, 214 

1, 374, 217 

92, 265 

20, 543 

38, 476 

8,598 

1,221 

30, 768 



6,334 



10, 548 
2,022 



192, 692 
15, 054 

486, 619 
10, 318, 070 
18, 427, 152 

15, 012, 096 

863, 456 

11,901 

8,780 



3,945 

10, 868 

901,381 

3, 796, 399 

530, 219 
168, 800 
24, 140 
26, 022 



240, 096 



14,046 



202, 569 



16, 590 



946 
82 



1 Imports not available by calendar year. 



171 



172 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 



Table 66.— Imports of coal-tar products entered for consumption, calendar years 

1917 to 1 928— Continued 

GROUP I, CRUDE FREE— Continued 



Years 



1921 



Quantity Value 



1922 



Quantity Value 



Acids, carbolic, which on being subjected to distillation 
yield in the portion distilling below 200° C. a quantity of 
tar acids less than 5 per cent of original distillate.. pounds.. 

A nthracene oil .. gallons . . 

Benzene .pounds . . 

Cresol do r ._. 

Dead or creosote oil gallons.. 

Naphthalene having a solidifying point less than 79° C. 
.' pounds.. 

Pyridine and quinoline do 

Coal tar, crude _ barrels.. 

Pitch, coal tar do 

Metacresol, orthocresol, and paracresol— purity less than 90 
per cent.. pounds.. 

Toluene „ do 

All other products found naturally in coal tar whether pro- 
duced or obtained from coal tar or other sources, n. s. p. f. 
pounds.. 

All other distillates which on being subjected to distillation 
yield in the portion distilling below 200° C. a quantity of 
tar acids less than 5 per cent of the original distillate 
pounds.. 

Anthracene, purity less than 25 per cent do 

Acenaphthene cumol fluorene, methylanthracene and 
methylnaphthalene pounds . . 

Carbazole, purity less than 25 per cent do 



214, 185 $22, 849 

12,776 i 5,019 

1, 722, 085 I 442, 370 

3,353,882 \ 253,886 

33, 239, 432 4, 756, 618 

4,495,806 ! 135,943 

72,515 11,367 

21, 551 46, 784 

417 1, 264 



40, 707 



7,310 

58, 111 

100 



3,111 



959 
1,198 



64 



311,914 

13, 368 

172, 528 

3, 756, 651 

41, 566, 767 

3, 144, 332 

119,973 

23,431 

1,422 

3,962 
144, 237 



424, 530 



459, 727 
33, 600 



66 



2 $33, 781 

3,242 

1, 223 

258, 536 

4, 239, 949 

54, 029 

21, 113 

54, 324 

4,193 

352 
6,061 



8,049 



50, 652 
400 



Quantity 



Value 



Benzene pounds. 

Dead or creosote oil gallons.. 

Napthalene, solidifying at less than 79° C pounds.. 

Coal tar, crude barrels.. 

Pitch, coal tar do 

Toluene pounds . . 

Acenaphthene, fluorene, methylanthracene, and methylnaphthalene do 

Anthracene, purity less than 30 per cent do 

Anthracene oil gallons.. 

Cumene, cymene pounds.. 

Metacresol, orthocresol, and paracresol, purity less than 90° do 

Pyridine ..do 

Xylene , do 

All other distillates n. s. p. f., which on being subjected to distillation yield in 
the portion distilling below 190° C. a quantity of tar acids less than 5 per cent 

of the original distillate . pounds.. 

All other products found naturally in 'coal tar, whether produced or obtained 
from coal tar or other sources, n. s. p. f pounds.. 



701, 857 


$21, 902 


64, 199, 636 

20, 992, 439 

10, 131 


10, 071, 393 
575, 702 
31,671 


4, 644 


15, 154 


194, 660 


7,928 


23, 673 

869, 780 

31, 198 

2 


2,826 

23, 925 

7,078 

24 


3,805 
764, 918 
136, 488 


2,846 

266, 184 

8,179 


5, 761, 011 


489, 824 


1, 635, 025 


69, 373 



2 First 9 months. 



STATISTICS OF DOMESTIC IMPOETS AND EXPOETS 



173 



Table 66.— Imports of coal-tar products entered for consumption, calendar years 

1917 to 1923 

GROUP II (DUTIABLE AT 15 PER CENT AD VALOREM PLUS 2H CENTS PER POUND; 
DUTIABLE AT 55 PER CENT PLUS 7 CENTS PER POUND AFTER SEPTEMBER 21, 

1922) 



Article and year 


Pounds 


Value 


Duty 


Actual 
and com- 
puted ad 
valorem 
rate 


Not colors, dyes, or stains, photographic chemicals, medic- 
inals flavors, or explosives, n. s. p. f.: 
Acids— 

Amidosalicvlic — 

1917 






1918 






1919 : 






1920 

1921 


11, 199 


$8, 182 


$1, 507 


18. 42 


1922 






1923. 






Arsanilic — 

1923 


223 

4,653 
1,791 
63 
250 
11, 263 
100 
100 

30, 676 
148, 261 


3,345 

20, 539 

14, 060 

374 

1,087 

3,012 

365 

410 

4,954 
47, 085 


1,855 

3,190 

2,154 

58 

169 

733 

57 

233 

1,510 
10, 769 


55 47 


Benzoic — 

1917 


15 53 


1918 

1919 

1920.... 

1921 


15.32 
15.42 
15.58 
24.35 


19221 


15.68 


1923 


56 71 


Carbolic (phenol) which on being subjected to 
distillation yields in the portion distilling be- 
low 200° C. a quantity of tar acids equal to or 
more than 5 per cent of the original distillate — 
Crystal — 

1917 


30.48 


1918 


22.87 


1919 „ 




1920... 










1921 


250 
280, 224 
69, 310 
126, 618 

314, 585 

134, 406 

2,061 

1,040 


142 
30, 414 
16. 102 
21, 389 

24,246 

15, 186 

264 

244 


28 
11,568 
13, 708 
20,627 

11, 502 

5,638 

91 

63 


19.40 


1922 i 


38.03 


1922 2 


85. 13 


1923 


96.44 


Liquid — 

1917. 

1918 

1919... 

1920. 

1921 


47.44 
37.13 
34.52 
25.66 


1922 i 

1922 2 


1,702 

145, 375 

2,815 

112 

10 

17, 376 

26, 273 
117 


1,801 

18,488 

257 

389 

8 

74, 492 

23,575 
112 


313 

20,345 

338 

222 

5 

42, 187 

4,193 
20 


17.36 
UO. 04 


1923 


131. 67 


Cinnamic — 

1923 


57.02 


Dichlorophthalic— 

1923 


63.75 


Phenylglycine orthocarboxylic — 

1923 


56.63 


Salicylic — 

1917 


17.79 


1918 


17. 62- 


1919 




1920 










1921 










1922 1 


2,276 
1,107 

16 


1,881 

854 

19 


339 

547 
12 


18.02 


Salicylic and salts of, not medicinal— 

1923 


64.07 


Sulphanilic— 

1923 


60.89 


Amidonaphthol — 

1917 




1918 








1919 


150 


72 


15 


20.21 


1920 




1921 


11, 025 


9,990 


1,774 


17. 76- 


1922. 




1923 







i Act of 1916. 



2 Act of 1922. 



J 



174 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 



Table 66. — Imports of coal-tar products entered for consumption, calendar years 

1917 to 1923 — Continued 

GROUP II (DUTIABLE AT 15 PER CENT AD VALOREM PLUS 2V 2 CENTS PER POUND; 
DUTIABLE AT 55 PER CENT PLUS 7 CENTS PER POUND AFTER SEPTEMBER 21, 
1922)— Continued 



Article and year 


Pounds 


Value 


Duty 


Actual 
and com- 
puted ad 
valorem 
rate 


Not colors, dyes, or stains, photographic chemicals, medic- 
inals flavors, or explosives, n. s. p. f. — Continued. 
Amidophenol — 

1917 , 










1918 











1919 


1,028 


$2,417 


$388 


16.06 


1920 




1921 


14, 623 


11,699 


2,120 


18.12 


1922. „ 




1923... 








Aniline oil — 

1917 








1918 








1919.... 










1920. 


220 
11, 243 


72 
1,799 


16 

551 


22.64 


1921 


30.62 


1922 (included in aniline oil and salts) i 




Aniline salt — 

1917 










•1918 


21, 273 


3,250 


1,019 


31.36 


1919 




1920 


4 
18. 316 


1 
12, 109 




25.00 


1921 


2,274 


18.78 


1922 (included in aniline oil and salts) 




Aniline oil and salts— 

19222 


55 
30 


11 
■ 220 


10 
123 


90.00 


1923 


55.95 


Anthracene, purity of 25 per cent or more — 

1917 




1918 










1919 


51, 895 

648, 095 

261, 645 

2 


8,011 

87, 413 

12, 639 

2 


2,499 

29, 314 

8,437 

1 


31.19 


. 1920. 


33.54 


1921. 


66.75 


19222 


62.00 


1923 




Anthraquinone— 

1917 '. 










1918 . 










1919 


3,147 

13, 053 

127, 427 


2,643 

5,612 

78, 255 


375 

1,168 

14, 924 


14.20 


1920. 


20.82 


1921 


19.07 


1922... 




1923 










Benzaldehyde — 

1917 










1918 










1919 


24, 472 

9,479 

1,056 

20 

200 


17, 790 

5, 928 

465 

11 

240 


3,280 

1,126 

96 

7 

146 


18.44 


1920 


19.00 


1921. 


20.68 


19222 


67.73 


Benzaldehyde, not medicinal — 

Nitrobenzaldehyde ..." 


60.83 


1923 




Benzidine, bensidine sulphate— 

1923 


7 
5 


23 

7 


13 

1 


57.13 


Benzylchloride — 

1917 


16.86 


1918.. 




1919 


1,000 
150 


430 
22 


90 

7 


20.81 


1920 


32.05 


1921 .. 




1922 ' . . 










Benzylchloride, benzalchloride, and benzoylchloride — 
19222 _ 


29 
10 

61, 632 

22, 635 

6,896 

4,692 

1,164 


10 
22 

10, 471 

3, 333 

1,331 

1,216 

155 


8 
13 

3,111 

-1,066 

372 

300 

52 


75.30 


1923 


58.18 


Binitrotoluol — 

1917 


29.71 


1918 


31.98 


1919 


27. 95 


1920... 


24.64 


1921 


33.77 


1922 















i Act of 1916. 



2 Act of 1922. 



STATISTICS OF DOMESTIC IMPORTS AND EXPORTS 



175 



Table 66. 



-Imports of coal-tar products entered for consumption, calendar years 
1917 to 1923— Continued 



GROUP II (DUTIABLE AT 15 PER CENT AD VALOREM PLUS 2K CENTS PER POUND: 
DUTIABLE AT 55 PER CENT PLUS 7 CENTS PER POUND AFTER SEPTEMBER 21, 
1922)— Continued 



Article and year 


Pounds 


Value 


Duty 


Actual 
and com- 
puted ad 
valorem 
rate 


Not colors, dyes, or stains, photographic chemicals, medic- 
inals flavors, or explosives, n. s. p. f. — Continued 
Binitrobenzol — 

1921 


5 


$3 




19.33 


1922... 






1923 










Carbazole, purity of 25 per cent or more— 

1917 










1918 










1919 










1920... 


157 


27 


$8 


29.56 


1921... 




1922' 


8,820 


3,865 


800 


20.70 


1922 2 




1923.. 










Dimethylaniline — 

1917 










1918 










1919 


1,120 
22, 400 


427 
15, 968 


92 
2,955 


21.56 


1920 


18.51 


1921 




19221 


23, 565 


3,828 


1,163 


30.39 


19222. . 




Dimethylaniline and benzylethylaniline — 

1923... 

Metacresol, orthocresol, and paracresol, purity of 90 
per cent or more — 
1917... 


1 


2 


1 


58.50 


1918 










1919... 










1920 


2,444 
556 
2,224 
1,008 
8,754 


2,230 
341 
107 
167 

5,410 


396 
65 

72 

162 

3,588 


17.74 


1921 .. 


19.08 


1922 1 


66.96 


19222 _ 


97.24 


1923 


66.33 


Methylanthraquinone — 

1917 




1918 










1919 


3,147 
13, 053 


2,643 

5,612 


375 
1,168 


14.20 


1920 


20.82 


1921 




1922 










1923 


977 

267, 057 

2,795 

7,650 

3, 697, 562 

441, 685 

75, 680 


1,221 

12, 125 

171 

384 

416, 172 

31, 458 

7,684 


740 

8,497 

96 

249 

154, 865 

15, 761 

3,045 


60.60 


Napthalene solidifying at 79° C. or above— 

1917 


70.02 


1918 


55.87 


1919 


64.80 


1920 


37.21 


1921 


50.10 


19221 


39.61 


1922 2 .. 




1923 


9,605 
1,027 


194 
1,069 


779 
186 


401. 57 


Naphthol— 

1917 


17.40 


1918... 




1919 










1920 










1921. 


333, 356 
658 


112,922 
799 


25,272 
136 


22.38 


1922 i 


17.06 


1922 2 




Naphthol, alpha and beta not medicinal— 

1923 


13, 376 


29, 569 


17, 199 


58.17 


Naphthylamine— 

1917 




1918 


11, 761 


5,985 


1,192 


19.91 


1919 




1920 


69, 695 


7,208 


2,824 


39.18 


1921.... 




1922... 










1923 










Naphthylenediamine— 

1923 


5 


6 


4 


60.83 



i Act Of 1916. 



a Act of 1922. 



176 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 



Table 66. — Imports of coal-tar products entered for consumption, calendar years 

1917 to 1923— Continued 

GROUP II (DUTIABLE AT 15 PER CENT AD VALOREM PLUS 2% CENTS PER POUND; 
DUTIABLE AT 55 PER CENT PLUS 7 CENTS PER POUND AFTER SEPTEMBER 21, 
1922)— Continued 



Article and year 


Pounds 


Value 


Duty 


Actual 
and com- 
puted ad 
valorem 
rate 


Not colors, dyes, or stains, photographic chemicals, medic- 
inals flavors, or explosives, n. s. p. f— Continued 
Nitrobenzol — 

1917 










1918... : 










1919 


21, 513 
45, 891 


$4,003 
6,009 


$1, 138 
2,049 


28.44 


1920. 


34.09 


1921 




1922 










1923 










Nitronaphthalene— 

1917 


18, 102 


7,758 


1,616 


20.83 


1918 




1919... 










1920 










1921. 










1922 . 










1923 . 










Nitrophenylenediamine — 

1921 


1,132 


6, 590 


1,017 


15.43 


1922 




1923 










Nitrotoluol — 

1917 










1918 










1919. . 


542 
684 


452 
359 


81 

71 


18.00 


1920 


19.76 


1921 




1922 










1923 










Phenylenediamine — 

1917 










1918... 










1919 


2,746 
2,429 


1,769 

1,887 


334 
344 


18.88 


1920 


18.22 


1921 




19221 


6 


16 


9 


57.62 


1922 * 




1923 










Phenylhydrazine — 

1923 


18 
98 


39 
1,853 


23 
280 


58.23 


Phthalic anhydride— 

1917 


15.13 


1918 




1919 










1920 










1921 










1922' 


3,374 


2,517 


1,621 


64.38 


1922* 




1923 










Resorcin — 

1917 .. 


134 


672 


104 


15.50 


1918 




1919 










1920 


51, 529 
109, 658 


39, 932 
75, 022 


7,278 
13, 995 


18.23 


1921 


18.65 


1922 . 




1923 


12, 520 

5 

60 

175 


16, 976 

6 

31 

238 


10, 213 

4 

21 

40 


60.16 


Tolidine— 

1923 


60.83 


Toluidine— 

1923 


68.55 


Tolylendiamine— 

1921 


16.48 


1922 




1923 










Xylidine— 
1917 










1918 










1919 










1920 


56, 047 


41, 237 


7,587 


18.40 


1921 




1922 










1923 


150 


60 


44 


72.50 



i Act of 1916. 



2 Act of 1922. 



STATISTICS OF DOMESTIC 1MPOETS AND EXPORTS 



177 



Table 66. — Imports of coal-tar products entered for consumption, calendar years 

1917 to 1923— Continued 

GROUP II (DUTIABLE AT 15 PER CENT AD VALOREM PLUS 2M CENTS PER POUND; 
DUTIABLE AT 55 PER CENT PLUS 7 CENTS PER POUND AFTER SEPTEMBER 21, 
1922)— Continued. 



Article and year 


Pounds 


Value 


Duty 


Actual 
and com- 
puted ad 
valorem 

rate 


All distillates n. s. p. f., which on distillation, yield in the 

portion distilling below 200° C. a quantity of tar acid 

equal to or more than 5 per cent of the original distillate: 

1917 








1918 . 


1,550 

3,170 

85, 474 

16, 240 

328, 601 

22, 163 

245, 119 

18, 257 
195, 757 

193, 021 
13,445 
51,214 
87,911 
87, 207 
389, 708 
187, 377 
1, 436, 982 


$2,008 
4,587 
36, 041 
11,811 
33,784 
9,128 
30, 328 

4,102 
36, 382 

17, 595 
8,640 
39, 861 
74, 514 
41, 965 

153, 625 
61,967 

330, 514 


$340 
767 
7,543 
2,178 
13,283 
6,572 
33, 839 

3,534 
33, 713 

7,465 

1,632 

7,260 

13, 375 

8,475 

32, 786 

47, 198 

282, 371 


16.93 


1919 


16.73 


1920 


20.93 


1921 


18.43 


1922 i 


39.32 


1922V .. 


72.00 


1923 3 -- .-- 


111. 58 


All distillates of coal, blast-furnaces, oil-gas, and water- 
gas tar which on being subject to distillation below 
215° C. a quantity of tar acids equal to or more than 
75 per cent of the original distillate: 

1922 2 _ 


86.16 


1923 


92.66 


All similar products, obtained, derived, or manufactured 
in whole or in part from the products provided for in 
Group I (free): 

1917 .. 


42.43 


1918... 


18.89 


1919 


18.21 


1920 . - 


17.95 


1921 


20.19 


1922 1 


21.34 


19222 


76.17 


1923 


85.43 


All sulfoacids or sulfoacid salts of Group II: 

1917 




1918 . 










1919 










1920 


100 
6,789 
11,374 


87 
2,944 
12, 058 


16 

611 

2, 093 


17.88 


1921 


20.76 


19221 


17.36 


1923 















1 Act Of 1916. 



' Act of 1922. 



At 190° C. instead of 200° C. 



GROUP III (DUTIABLE AT 30 PER CENT AD VALOREM; DUTIABLE AT 60 PER CENT 
AD VALOREM PLUS 7 CENTS PER POUND AFTER SEPTEMBER 21, 1922) 











Actual 










and com- 


Article and year 


Pounds 


Value 


Duty 


puted ad 

valorem 

rate 


When obtained, derived, or manufactured in whole or in 










part from any of the products provided for in Group I 










(free) or II, including natural indigo and their deriva- 










tives: 










Alizarin, natural — 










1917 


6,899 


$12, 216 


$3,665 


30.00 


1918 


108,711 


158, 816 


47,645 


30.90 


1919.. 


6,684 


8,612 


2,584 


30.00 


1920. 


58, 583 


41,381 


12, 414 


30.00 


1921.. 


59,306 


81,816 


24,545 


30.00 


1922 1 


28,399 


63,304 


18,991 


30.00 


1922 2.... 


1,547 


3,094 


1,965 


63.50 


1923 


9,283 


18,600 


11,810 


63.49 


Alizarin, synthetic; — 










1917 


19, 180 


55, 179 


16,554 


30.00 


1918 










1919 








1920 


73,232 


24, 072 


7,222 


30.00 


1921 


136,283 


49, 707 


14,912 


30.00 


19221 


21, 614 


22,190 


666 


30.00 


1923 


1,836 


3,699 


2,348 


63.47 



178 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 



Table 66. — Imports of coal-tar products entered for consumption, calendar years 

1917 to 1 923— Continued 

GROUP III (DUTIABLE AT 30 PER CENT AD VALOREM; DUTIABLE AT 60 PER CENT 
AD VALOREM PLUS 7 CENTS PER POUND AFTER SEPTEMBER 21, 1922)— Continued 



Article and year 


Pounds 


Value 


Duty 


Actual 
and com- 
puted ad 
valorem 
rate 


When obtained, derived, or manufactured in whole or in 
part from any of the products provided for in Group I 
(free) or II, including natural indigo, and their deriva- 
tives—Continued 
Dyes obtained, derived, or manufactured from aliza- 
rin — 

1917 


34 

6,446 

1,920 

29, 436 

246, 837 

293, 005 

56, 294 
274, 799 

23,146 

12, 827 

7,162 

216, 508 

226, 956 

330, 129 

17, 697 
7,319 

129, 983 
3,376 
34,049 
86, 439 
76, 123 

184, 886 


$75 

13, 399 

3,864 

25, 498 

356, 658 

468, 134 

82, 981 
379, 673 

11, 326 

20, 087 

7,772 

208, 754 

422, 941 

605, 187 

26,002 
8,126 

140, 932 
13,744 
82, 779 

196, 783 
72,154 

267, 059 


$23 

4,020 

1,159 

7,647 

106, 997 

140, 440 

53, 729 
247, 040 

3,398 

6,026 

2,332 

62, 626 

126, 882 

181, 556 

16,840 
5,388 

42,280 
4,123 
24, 834 
59, 035 
21, 646 
80, 118 


30.00 


1918 


30.00 


1919 


30.00 


1920 ; 


30.00 


1921 


30.00 


19221 


30.00 


Colors, dyes, stains, etc., obtained, derived, or manu- 
factured from alizarin— 
1922 2 


64 75 


1923 


65.07 


Dyes obtained, derived, or manufactured from an- 
thracene and carbazole — 

1917 


30.00 


1918 


30.00 


1919 


30.00 


1920 — 


30.00 


1921 


30.00 


1922 1 __ 


30.00 


Colors, dyes, obtained, derived, or manufactured 
from anthracene or carbazol — 
1922 2 


64.76 


1923... 


66.30 


ndigoids, whether or not obtained from indigo — 
1917 


30.00 


1918 


30.00 


1919 


30.00 


1920 


30.00 


1921 


30.00 


19221 


30.00 


1923 




Indigo, natural — 

1917 


2, 261, 122 

1, 637, 914 

234, 991 

36, 537 

77, 121 

14, 461 


4, 230, 510 

2, 007, 958 

285, 925 


1,269,153 

602, 387 

85. 778 


30.00 


1918 


30.00 


1919 


30.00 


1920 


69, 528 20. 858 


30.00 


1921 


154, 538 
19, 074 


46, 361 
5,722 


30.00 


19221... 


30.00 


1922 2 . 




1923. 


9,102 

1, 379, 349 
690, 414 
537, 697 
171, 101 
70, 975 
86, 585 


4,149 

871, 267 
342, 589 
327, 133 
207, 299 
84, 901 
123, 702 


3,427 

261, 380 
102, 777 
98,140 
62, 190 
25, 470 
37, 111 


73.70 


Indigo, synthetic— 

1917. 


30.00 


1918... 


30.00 


1919. 


30.00 


1920.. 


30.00 


1921 


30.00 


1922 1 


30.00 


1922 2 




1923 


356 

872 

13, 864 

7,062 
1,499 
15, 358 
98, 735 
59, 290 
79, 542 


117 

1,482 
18, 636 

18, 680 
4,490 
14, 405 
172, 841 
66, 171 
62, 986 


95 

950 
12, 152 

5,957 

1,422 

5,089 

56, 789 

22, 816 

27, 077 


81.30 


Colors, dyes, stains, etc., derived from indigo — 

1922 2 


64.11 


1923 


65.21 


Colors, or color lakes obtained, derived, or manufac- 
tured from alizarin — 

1917 


31.89 


1918 


31.67 


1919 


35.33 


1920 


32.86 


1921 ;_. 


34.48 


19221 _ 


35.05 


1922 2 ' 




1923 (see, "Dyes, etc., from alizarin"). 











i Act of 1916. 



2 Act of 1922. 



STATISTICS OF DOMESTIC IMPORTS AND EXPORTS 



179 



Table 66. — Imports of coal-tar products entered for consumption, calendar years 

1917 to 1928— Continued 

GROUP III (DUTIABLE AT 30 PER CENT AD VALOREM; DUTIABLE AT 60 PER CENT 
AD VALOREM PLUS 7 CENTS PER POUND AFTER SEPTEMBER 21, 1922)— Continued 



Article and year 


Pounds 


Value 


Duty 


Actual 
and com- 
puted ad 
valorem 
rate 


When obtained, derived, or manufactured in whole or in 
part from any of the products provided for in Group 
I (free) or II, including natural indigo and their deriva- 
tives—Continued 
Colors, or color lakes obtained, derived, or manufac- 
tured from anthracene and carbazols — 
1917..- 


53, 205 
27, 900 
38, 073 
260, 060 
62, 748 
27, 535 


$49, 729 
22, 546 
55, 475 

529, 966 
65, 635 
63, 102 


$17, 579 
8,159 
18,546 

171, 993 
22,828 
20, 032 


35 35 


1918 


36 19 


1919. .,.._ 


33.43 


1920 


32.45 


1921 


34.78 


19221 r _ _ __ 


31.75 


1922 2 




1923 (see, "Dyes, etc., from anthracene and car- 

bazole"). 

All other color, dyes, or stains, whether soluble or 

not in water, color acids, color bases, or color lakes — 

1917 


2, 257, 476 

1, 799, 467 
1, 991, 687 

2, 807, 807 
2, 751, 535 
2, 077, 712 

677, 849 
3, 059, 361 

134, 702 


2, 574, 363 
2, 161, 799 
2, 848, 294 
4, 093, 389 
3, 968, 319 
2, 941, 773 
894, 844 
4, 154, 091 

11,596 


885, 183 

738, 513 

954, 073 

1,368,407 

1,328,072 

965, 640 

584, 356 

2,706,610 

10, 214 


34.38 


1918 3 


34. 16 


1919 


33.50 


1920 


33.43 


1921 


33.47 


19221 


32.83 


1922 2 


65.30 


1923 


65.16 


Phenolic resin, synthetic — 

1917 


88.08 


1918 




1919 


1,114 

2,479 

1,420 

762 


2,860 
2,681 
2,366 
1,404 


914 
928 
781 
452 


31.95 


1920 


34.63 


1921 


33.00 


19221 


32.17 


1923 




Resinlike products prepared from articles provided for in 
pars. 27 and 1549: 
1922 2 


1,756 
3, 183 

12, 632 
14, 550 
12, 059 
21, 808 
29, 281 
3,287 
8,183 
10, 182 

15 


2,094 
10, 512 

101, 406 
108, 537 
77, 876 
67, 640 
65, 906 
4,465 
8,208 
28, 504 

22 


1,379 
6,530 

31, 053 
33, 289 
23, 966 
21, 382 
21, 236 
1,471 
5,498 
17,815 

6 


65.87 


1923 


62.12 


Photographic chemicals — 
1917 


30.62 


1918... 


30.67 


1919 


30.77 


1920 


31.61 


1921 


32.22 


19221 


32.94 


1922 2 


66.98 


1923 


62.50 


Coal tar medicinals: 
Acetanilid — 

1917 


25.00 


1918 




1919 


124 


50 


13 


25.00 


1920 




1921 










1922 










1923 


58 
3,280 


82 
40, 352 


53 
10, 088 


64.95 


Acetphenetidin— 

1917.... 


25.00 


1918 




1919 










1920 










1921 _.. 










1922 










1923 


25 
1,474 


238 
4,670 


145 

1,168 


60.74 


Acetylsalicylic acid— 

1917... 


25.00 


1918 




1919 


26 


76 


19 


25.00 


1920. 




1921 










1922 










1923 


1 


7 


4 


61.00 



i Act of 1916. 

2 Act of 1922. 

3 Does not include 110 pounds, valued at $322, duty $81.08, from Cuba. 



180 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 



Table 66. 



-Imports of coal-tar products entered for consumption, calendar yean 
1917 to 1923— Continued 



GROUP III (DUTIABLE AT 30 PER CENT AD VALOREM; DUTIABLE AT 60 PER CENT 
AD VALOREM PLUS 7 CENTS PER POUND AFTER SEPTEMBER 21, 1922)— Continued 



Article and year 


Pounds 


Value 


Duty 


Actual 
and com- 
puted ad 
valorem 
rate 


Coal tar medicinals — Continued 
Antipyrene— 

1917 


21, 842 
9,416 
13, 736 

14,737 


$62,411 
106, 643 
135, 565 
53, 293 


$15, 603 
26,661 
33, 891 
13, 323 


25.00 


1918 


25.00 


1919 


25.00 


1920 . 


25.00 


1921 




1922 i 


12, 604 

913 

14, 250 

5 

571 
2,780 

5 


18, 468 

1,740 

20, 602 

211 

914 
4,059 

210 


4,617 

1,108 

• 13, 359 

127 

588 
2,630 

126 


25.00 


1922 * 


63.68 


1923 


64.89 


Arsphenamine (salvarsan) and neo-arsphenamine— 
1923 - -. 


60.17 


Benzaldehyde— 

1922 


64.38 


1923 


64.80 


Novocain or procaine — 

1923 


60.17 


Phenolphthalein (25 per cent)— 

1917 




1918 -.. 


100 


1,200 


300 


25.00 


1919 




1920 


200 

5,055 

64 

1,487 

2,931 

40 


726 

2,385 

36 

8,877 
10, 891 

81 

284, 346 
301, 074 
168, 466 
165, 055 
280, 299 
154,620 
24, 410 
164, 238 

408 
816 


181 

596 

9 

5,430 

6,740 

51 

85,304 
90,322 
50,540 
49, 517 
84,090 
46, 386 
15,202 
101, 576 

122 
245 


25.00 


1921 - 


25.00 


1922 i - 


25.00 


1922 2 __ 


61.17 


1923 


61.88 


Salicylic acid and its salts, medicinal— 

1923 . 


63.46 


Medicinals — 

1917 


30.00 


1918 . 


30.00 


1919. -. - - 


30.00 


1920 -- 


30.00 


1921 j 


30.00 


1922 L. 


30.00 


1922 ',> 


7,937 
43, 325 

35 
160 


62.27 


1923 

Flavors— 

1917 

1918 

1919 


61.85 

30.00 
30.00 


1920 

1921 


14 


27 


8 


30.00 


1922 










1923 


31 

554 


90 
6,544 


56 
360 


62.41 


Saccharin — 

1917 


5.50 


1918 




1919 










1920 .. 


40 

46 

1 

1 

1,980 

261 

1,412 


39 

103 

15 

14 

3,929 

308 
2,162 


26 

30 

1 

8 

2,496 

203 

1,396 


66.67 


1921 


29.03 


1922 i 


4.33 


1922 2.. 


60.50 


Explosives: Picric acid — 

1923 


63.53 


Ink powder— 

1923 


65.93 


Synthetic tanning material— 

1923 


64.57 







i Act of 1916. 



2 Act Of 1922. 



3 Other coal-tar medicinals. 



STATISTICS OF DOMESTIC IMPORTS AND EXPORTS 



181 



Table 67. — General imports of coal-tar products, by countries, calendar years 

19 18-1 928 






DEAD OR CREOSOTE OIL (FREE) 



Imported from- 



England 

Scotland 

Canada 

All other countries . 

Total 



1918 



Quantity 



Gallons 



1,125 

1, 543, 660 

462 



1, 545, 247 



Value 



161, 693 
314 



162, 869 



Quantity 



Gallons 
8, 934, 045 
60, 756 
2, 273, 578 



11,268,379 



Value Quantity Value 



Gallons 

$1, 085, 617 12, 514, 150 $2, 568, 235 

10, 462 147, 377 21, 096 

278,138 1,619,903! 227,624 

'4,145,722 979,444 



1, 374, 217 18, 427, 152! 3, 796, 399 



Quantity 



Gallons 

19, 465, 981 

819 

374, 845 

13, 397, 787 



33, 239, 432 



Value 



$3, 114, 867 

189 

64, 713 

1, 576, 849 



4, 756, 618 



Imported from— 



United Kingdom.. 

Netherlands 

Germany 

Belgium 

Canada 

All other countries . 

Total 



Quantity Value 



Gallons 

22, 383, 535 

14, 471, 820 

2, 406, 364 

1, 537, 376 

768, 442 



41, 567, 537 



$2, 235, 686 

1, 528, 941 

193, 804 

184, 485 

97, 533 



4, 240, 449 



1923 



Quantity Value 



Gallons 



64, 199, 636 



$10,071,393 



BENZOL OR BENZENE 



Imported from— 


1918 


1919 


1920 


1921 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Canada 


Pounds 
1, 315, 696 


$33, 303 


Pounds 
217, 865 


$5, 617 


Pounds 
486, 619 


$10, 868 


Pounds 

1,562,951 

159, 134 


$39, 020 




3,350 


















Total 


1, 315, 696 


33, 303 


217, 865 


5,617 


486, 619 


10, 868 


1, 722, 085 


42, 370 








ported from — 


1922 


1923 


In 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 




Pounds 
172, 108 
420 


$1, 167 
56 


Pounds 
















Total 


172, 528 


1.223 


701,901 




$21,937 





















1 All from the Netherlands, except 6 gallons from Japan. 



182 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 



Table 67. — General imports of coal-tar products, by countries, calendar years 

1918-1 923— Continued 

CRESOL i 



Imported from— 


1918 


1919 


1920 


1921 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


England 


Pounds 
3, 051, 833 
1, 676, 354 


$256, 917 
196,116 


Pounds 

4, 935, 748 

1, 516, 610 

800 


$408, 407 

149, 373 

1,028 


Pounds 

6, 037, 223 

4, 198, 397 

16, 400 

66, 050 


$509, 710 

382, 637 

1,360 

7,674 


Pounds 
1, 708, 992 

934, 842 
4,600 

705, 448 


$139, 737 

86,380 

501 


Scotland 


Canada 


Germany 






27,268 












Total 


4, 728, 187 


453, 033 


6, 453, 158 


558, 808 


10,318,070 


901, 381 


3, 353, 882 


253,886 



1 No imports in 1922 and 1923. 



NAPHTHALENE 



Imported from — 


1918 


1919 


1920 


1921 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


United Kingdom. 
Belgium 


Pounds 
424, 147 


$13, 253 


Pounds 
1, 342, 091 


$47, 076 


Pounds 

10, 155, 579 

413, 274 

2, 959, 976 

381, 740 

98, 695 

494, 644 

168, 923 

339,340 


$357, 954 
16, 972 
78, 704 
34, 135 

7,653 
17, 077 

3,528 

14, 198 


Pounds 

2, 644, 997 

96, 928 

1, 708, 868 

42,683 

2,320 


$83, 353 
5,412 


Canada 


1, 328, 496 


44,540 


1,836,478 


43, 795 


44,541 


Germany 


2,383 


Japan 






612 


42 


252 


Italy 








Australia 






60, 075 


1,352 






All other coun- 










tries 


















Total 


1, 752, 643 


57, 793 


3, 239, 256 


92, 265 


15,012,171 


530, 221 


4, 495, 796 


135, 941 



Imported from— 


1922 


1923 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


United Kingdom... 


Pounds 

2, 488, 716 

532, 935 

110, 365 

11,316 

1,000 


$38, 619 

12, 823 

2,047 

446 

94 


Pounds 




Canada 






Netherlands 












Japan 












Total 


3, 144, 332 


54, 029 


21, 036, 458 


$578, 563 







TAR AND PITCH OF COAL 



Imported from — 


1918 


1919 


1920 


1921 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 




Barrels 
51 


$686 


Barrels 

600 

100 

25, 003 


$2, 725 

256 

44, 093 


Barrels 

1,127 

580 

18, 824 
150 


$4, 166 

3,706 

41, 940 

350 


Barrels 

7 


$82 








26, 499 


49, 069 


21, 948 
13 


47, 913 


All other countries. _ 


53 














Total... 


26, 550 


49, 755 


25, 703 


47, 074 


20, 681 


50, 162 


21, 968 


48,048 



STATISTICS OP DOMESTIC IMPORTS AXD EXPORTS 



183 



Table^67. — General imports of coal-tar products, by countries, calendar years 

191 8-1 923— Continued 

TAR AND PITCH OF COAL— Continued 



Imported from— 


1922 


1923 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 




Barrels 
162 
100 
24,563 

28 


$1, 241 

956 

56,229 

91 


Barrels 




























Total.. -.- 


24,853 


58, 517 


14, 775 


$46, 825 











TOLUOL OR 


TOLUENE 








Imported from — 


1918 


1919 


1920 


1921 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 1 Value 




Pounds 




Pounds 
1, 195, 706 


$30, 768 


Pounds 




Pounds 


















Total 






1, 195, 706 


30, 768 























Imported from — 


1922 


1923 




Quantity Value 


Quantity 


Value 






Pounds 
143, 900 $6, 044 
337 17 


Pounds 
















Total 


144,237 ' 6,061 


194, 660 


$7,928 



ALL OTHER CRUDES: VALUE 



Imported from— 


1918 


1819 


1820 


1821 


1922 


1923 




$823 

57,364 

825 

104, 765 


$54 

42, 875 

870 

1,891 


$10, 903 
178, 866 

1,581 
876 

9,179 


$1, 507 
19, 015 


$308, 895 

54,943 

1,570 

8,199 

6,373 

142 














840 
352 






















2,886 


4 














Total -.' 


163, 777 


45,690 


204, 381 


21,718 


380, 122 


$807, 641 







CARBOLIC ACID 





1918 


1919 


Imported from — 


Carbolic acid, free 


Carbolic acid, 
dutiable (phenol) 


Carbolic acid, free 


Carbolic acid, 
dutiable (phenol) 




Quan- 
tity 


Value 


Quan- 
tity 


Value 


Quan- 
tity 


Value 


Quan- 
tity 


Value 


England 


Pounds 
155, 236 


$17, 260 


Pounds 

208, 037 

75,300 


$54, 884 
7,613 


Pounds 
1,619,823 $158,820 


Pounds ' 

2, 061 $264 












345, 466 28, 968 














Total 


155, 236 


17, 260 283. 337 


62, 497 


1,965,289 187.788 


2, 061 264 

















184 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 



Table 67. — General imports of coal-tar products, by countries, calendar years 

1918-1923— Continued 

CARBOLIC ACID— Continued 



1920 



1921 



Imported from- 



Parholir acid frpe Carbolic acid, Carbolic acid free Carbolic acid 

carDonc acia, iree Hntiahio Cnhonnn ^arDonc acia, iree Hntiohio Cnhon 



dutiable (phenol) 



dutiable (phenol) 



Quan- 
tity 



Pounds 

England 178,652 

Scotland 14,040 

Canada 



Total 192,692 



Value 



$18, 258 
1,590 



Quan- 
tity 



Value Q t ™- 



Pounds 
1,040 



Pounds 
$244 205, 113 



9,072 



19,848 



1,040 



244 214, 185 



Value 



$21, 841 
"~i,~608' 



Q ti?y n - Value 



Pounds 
250 






$142 



22,849 



250 



142 



Imported from— 



1922 i 



1923' 



Quantity Value Quantity Value 



England 

Netherlands 

Germany.- 

All other countries. 



Total. 



Pounds Pounds 

610,789 $87,325 

62,715 12,258 

11,098 898 

1,702 1,801 



686,304 



102, 282 



61,561 



$14, 762 



i Dutiable 



ALL OTHER ACIDS 



Imported 
from — 



England 

Japan 

France... 

Germany 

All other coun- 
tries 



Total. 



1918 



1919 



1920 



1922 



1923 



Quan- v , Quan- 
tity vame tity 



Lbs. 

125 $1,114 
2 



Lbs. 



63 



Value Rvalue ^ Value <g»- Value <§»" 



$374 



Lbs. I Lbs. 
250 $1,087 



11, 199 8, 182 . 



309 



500 11,263 



$3,012 



Lbs. 
60,471 
5 



4,445 



5,228 
3 



Lbs. 



2,394. 



8,938 9,936. 



Value 



130 1,116 63 374 11,758: 9,769 11,263 3,012 73,859 17,561 18, 944 $79, 517 

I I __^_ 



ANILINE OIL 



Imported 
from— 



France. 



1918 



1919 



1920 



Lbs 

220 $72 



1921 



1922 



1923 







ANILINE 


SALT 


S 






1918 


1919 1920 


1921 1922 1923 


Imported 
from — 


'<g«- Value 


^T Value Q?- 


Value 


Quan- v ^ Quan- ,-^ Quan- 
tity vame tity vame tity 


Value 


England. 


' Lbs. ' 
21,273 $3,250 


Lbs. Lbs. 




Lbs. Lbs. Lbs. 




-. i\ $i 


15 80 


Total 


. 21,273 3,250 


4 


1 











STATISTICS OF DOMESTIC IMPORTS AND EXPORTS 



185 



Table 67. — General imports of coal-tar products, by countries, calendar years. 

1918-1923— Continued 

ALL OTHER INTERMEDIATES 



Imported from— 


1918 


1919 


1920 


1921 








$41, 291 

140, 095 

191, 732 

17,491 

302, 235 

41, 237 

68, 323 


$18, 774 

62, 028 

80,306 

740 






$26,611 






Italv. .- 








$15 


48, 722 


98, 502 






4,348 


82 
20,788 


15 


Canada 


40, 587 
40, 650 






29,264 








Total - 


4,363 


96, 203 


831, 668 


341 602 







Imported from — 


1922 


1923 












45, 666 

514, 437 

83, 998 

669, 475 

62, 261 

400 

329 


31, 180 

83, 397 

18, 898 

124, 632 

43, 856 

39 

308 






























Japan 












All other countries 














Total- 


1, 376, 566 


302, 310 


2, 598, 281 


513, 692 



ALIZARIN AND DERIVATIVES 



Imported from — 


1918 


1919 


1920 


1921 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 




Pounds 




Pounds 




Pounds 

141,213 

222, 417 

25, 196 

297 


$197, 562 

81, 393 

18, 898 

1,806 


Pounds 

285, 007 

110 

44, 026 

2 


$393, 374 




440 

4,310 

1 

15, 141 


$572 

3,739 

• 2 

58, 948 


220 

23, 417 

215 


$2, 517 

21, 084 

414 


374 


United Kingdom 


54,869 
5 












46,283 

5.906 

444 


32, 857 

10, 314 

689 


13, 280 9, 964 












12,483 ! 21,582 


All other countries... 


500 


7,629 


23 


265 


20,204 ' 29,870 


Total 


20, 392 


70,890 


23, 875 


24, 280 


441, 756 


343, 519 


375, 112 510. 038 









Imported from- 



1922 



Quantity 



Value 



1923 



Quantity Value 



Belgium 

Denmark 

France 

Germany 

Italy 

Netherlands 

Switzerland 

United Kingdom... 
Canada 

All other countries . 

Total 



Pounds 

1,232 

1,560 

7,379 

323, 239 

46, 340 

47, 791 

28, 672 

22,758 



$2, 359 

2,240 

10, 137 

498, 548 

57, 686 

61,043 

41, 670 

28,002 

249 



Pounds 



479, 858 



701, 934 



290, 130 $403, 612 



1760— 24t 13 



186 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION" 



Table 67. — General imports of coal-tar products, by countries, calendar years 

1918-1 923— Continued 



'■ 





ANTHRACENE 


AND CARBAZOLE COLORS AND 


DYES 






Imported from — 




19221 


1923 




Pounds 


Value 


Pounds 


Value 


Germany 


11,900 
5,797 


$23, 128 
2,874 






England - - - 
















Total... 


17, 697 


26, 002 


8,319 


$8, 976 









COLOR LAKES 










16 
223 


23 
239 




















Total 


239 


262 


4,263 


$3, 635 





i Beginning Sept. 22, 1922. 



INDIGO 





1918 


1919 


Imported from— 


Indigo, natural 
(dutiable) 


Indigo, synthetic 
(dutiable) 


Indigo, natural 
(dutiable) 


Indigo, synthetic 
(dutiable) 




Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


S witzerland 

England 


Pounds 

25, 762 

264, 975 

1, 138, 176 

234, 452 

83, 709 


$38, 719 
463, 510 
1, 284, 434 
299, 554 
108, 150 


pounds 

770, 212 

6,817 


$410, 421 
5,587 


Pounds 
15, 796 
10, 584 
99, 597 
60, 940 
40, 557 


$29, 857 
16, 647 
99, 901 
67, 262 
46,448 


Pounds 

726, 440 

1,468 


$388, 067 
1,970 












8,400 
87, 570 


5,729 








36, 607 










Total.. 


1, 747, 074 


2, 194, 367 


777, 029 


416, 008 


227, 474 


260, 115 


823,878 


432, 373 





1920 


1921 


1922 


Imported 
from — 


Indigo, 

natural 

(dutiable) 


Indigo, 
synthetic 
(dutiable) 


Indigo, 

natural 

(dutiable) 


Indigo, 

synthetic 
(dutiable) 


Indigo, 

natural 

(dutiable) 


Indigo, 
synthetic 
(dutiable) 




Quan- 
tity 


Value 


Quan- 
tity 


Value 


Quan- 
tity 


Value 


Quan- 
tity 


Value 


Quan- 
tity 


Value 


Quan- 
tity 


Value 


Switzerland. 
England 


Lbs. 
57, 411 
27, 269 
10, 214 
50, 066 
4,346 
2,850 


$150, 957 

51,556 

20, 296 

70, 008 

5,171 

7,392 


Lbs. 
285, 153 
1,229 


$252, 708 
361 


Lbs. 
27, 366 

9,245 
13, 158 


$55, 142 
9,857 
11,112 


Lbs. 
59, 873 
6,895 


$101,073 
5,045 


Lbs. 

6,501 

4,413 


$9, 482 
2,904 


Lbs. 
63, 355 
2,000 


$84, 553 
818 




400, 589 
25, 029 


172, 692 
18, 220 


331, 320 
2,829 


87, 407 
2,288 






5,324 I; 


Germany... 


882 


2,382 


1,536 


1,462 


610 


1,756 


Italy 


54,422 


37,311 






532 
6,813 


128 
4,962 






929 


401 


All other 


48 


48 


1,838 


7,202 
























Total.. 


152, 204 1 305,428 


766, 422 


481, 292 


52, 489 


85, 695 


408, 262 


200, 903 


12, 450 


13, 848 


72, 218 


101, 448 




1923 


Imported from— 


Indigo, natural 
(dutiable) 


Indigo, synthetic 
(dutiable) 




Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Total.. - 


Pounds 
10. 473 


$5, 216 


Pounds 
631 


$45S 























STATISTICS OF DOMESTIC IMPORTS AND EXPORTS 



187 



Table 67. — General imports of coal-tar products, by countries, calendar years 

1918-1928 — Continued 



INDIGO, DYES, COLORS, STAINS, ETC. 


(DUTIABLE) i 






Imported from — 


1922 


1923 




Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Germany 


Pounds 
100 

772 


$752 
730 


Pounds 




Italy 


! 


All other countries 












Total :. 


872 


1,482 


13, 809 


$18, 174 













i Sept. 22 to Dec. 31. 



COAL-TAR COLORS OR DYES (DUTIABLE) 



Imported from — 



1918, value 



1919 



Quantity 



Value 



1920 



Quantity 



Value 



Quantity 



Value 



Belgium 

France. 

Germany 

Switzerland 

England 

All other countries- 
Total 



$76, 506 



1, 762, 688 
561, 699 
68, 546 



Pounds 

36, 968 

11, 746 

143, 031 

1, 284, 199 

609, 703 

165, 750 



$63,119 

20, 853 

83, 563 

, 176, 463 

664, 548 

160, 730 



Pounds 

190, 414 

70, 821 

1, 155, 501 

1, 372, 490 

345, 889 

351, 758 



$153,020 

100, 884 

1, 565, 300 

2, 693, 653 

394, 668 

351, 277 



Pounds 

31,813 

62, 468 

1, 050, 028 

1, 504, 970 

287, 377 

169, 699 



2, 469, 439 



2, 215, 397 3, 169, 276 3, 486, 873 



5, 258, 802 



3, 106, 355 



$56, 481 

90,328 

1, 718, 776 

2, 005, 265 

358, 463 

216, 035 



4, 445, 348 



Imported from — 



Belgium. 

France 

Germanv 

Italy 

Netherlands 

Switzerland 

England 

All other countries. 

Total 



1922 1 



Quantity Value 



Pounds 

1,941 

36, 163 

1, 138, 951 

49, 657 

48, 266 

1, 109, 301 

165, 683 

3,614 



2, 553, 576 



16, 038 

662, 608 

51,584 

75, 911 

809, 778 

139, 577 

6,496 



3, 762, 841 



1922 2 3 



Quantity 



Pounds 



15,111 
266, 255 

48, 248 

73, 244 
295, 470 

31, 374 
8,657 



738, 359 



Value 



$17,523 
344, 569 
64,608 
149, 538 
390, 457 
27, 812 
12, 417 



1, 006, 924 





1923 




Quantity 


Value 


Germany 


Pounds 

1, 580, 403 

857, 466 

108, 410 

706, 103 


$1, 945, 814 


Switzerland 


1,331,075 


United Kingdom 


111,969 


All other countries 


1, 035, 453 






Total 


3, 252, 382 


4,424,311 









ALL OTHER COAL-TAR PRODUCTS 




Imported from — 


1918 i 


1919 


1920 


1921 1922 


1923 


France 


$11,900 

50 

3,045 

47, 548 

32 










Netherlands 










Switzerland 










England 










Mexico 




















Total 


62, 575 














'" " ■ 





i Jan. 1 to Sept. 21. 

2 Title changed to: Colors, dyes, stains, color acids and color bases, n. e. s. 

3 Sept. 22 to Dec. 31. 
* July 1 to Dec 31. 



188 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 



Table 67. — General imports of coal-tar products, by countries, calendar years 

1918-1923— Continued 

MEDICINAL PREPARATIONS (VALUE) 



Imported from — 


1918 


1919 


1920 


1921 


1922' 


1923 


France - 


$32, 129 


$58, 749 


$21, 724 

59, 133 

8 

21, 203 

523 

18, 571 

40, 339 

87 


$45, 378 

124, 862 

60 

11,680 

268 

39, 151 

59,681 


$20, 089 
. 74, 983 
16, 953 
25, 462 
11 
35, 473 
31, 701 








Italy 




1,329 

12, 257 

94 

1,761 

20, 302 

137 

77, 162 


















154 
7,499 








Scotland 






53, 324 

114 


1 


16 




Peru... 






Venezuela... ^ 


69 

351 


162 
3,816 










6,142 
10 


299 
227 


35 

3,947 














Total 


99, 372 


172,211 


165, 573 


281, 607 


208, 670 


$212, 255 







1 Sept. 22, to Dec. 31. Jan. 1 to Sept. 21, included in medicinal preparations (n. e. s.),a total value of 
$372,674. 

EXPLOSIVES 





Quantity 


Value 


Italy 


Pounds 
5,470 


$6, 843 






Total 


5,470 


6,843 









ALL OTHER FINISHED PRODUCTS 








Imported from — 


1918 


1919 


1920 


1921 




$4, 162 


$25,955 


$37, 192 
21,406 
6,715 
10, 307 


$39, 314 




6,518 




2,901 

54, 502 

816 


1,447 
57,166 


15,011 




2,657 










29 


302 












Total.. 


62, 381 


' 84,568 


75, 649 


63, 802 







Imported from — 


1922 


1923 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 






$430 

16, 658 

715 

2,157 

1 


Pounds 






















































Total 




19, 961 


14, 885 


$51, 303 









Table 68.- 



-Domestic exports of coal tar and of dyes and dyestuffs, calendar years 
1918-1923. 









COAL TAR 










Exported to — 


1918 


1919 


1920 


1921 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 




Barrels 

2,069 

54, 149 

808 

198 

154 

1,176 


$12, 297 
139, 456 
6,288 
1,505 
1,739 
7,435 


Barrels 

230 

71, 749 

2,759 

475 

45 

1,334 


$900 

158, 205 

20,166 

3,174 

301 

15, 757 


Barrels 

243 

74, 374 

3,725 

10 

81 

17 


$1, 441 

208, 561 

23, 656 

65 

995 

49 


Barrels 
212 

91, 716 

457 

17 


$1, 394 


North America 

South America 


185, 063 
3,125 
1,857 








4 


43 






Total 


58, 554 


168, 720 


76, 592 


198, 503 


88,350 


234, 767 


92, 406 


191,482 







I 

STATISTICS OF DOMESTIC IMPORTS AND EXPORTS 



189 



Table 68. — Domestic exports of coal tar and of dyes and dyestuffs, calendar years 

191S-1923— Continued 
COAL TAR— Continued 



Exported to — 


1922 


1923 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Europe.— 


Barrels 
46 
101, 396 
580 
63 
57 
8 


$392 

209, 631 

3,142 

545 

245 

100 


Barrels 










South America 


























Total 


102, 150 


214, 055 


513, 834 SI. 694. 494 









COAL-TAR DISTILLATES, n. 
Benzol 



1918 



Quantity 



Pounds 

France 32, 599, 682 

Chile—. i 

England 

Germany 

Canada 

Belgium 

Argentina 

Japan 

Italy 

All other countries 



Total. 



136, 571 



Value 



$1, 854, 216 



7,389 



75, 442 
136, 480 
299, 659 

46, 743 



33, 294, 577 



7,329 

8,680 

22, 704 

4,042 



1, 904, 360 



1919 



Quantity 



Value 



Pounds 
12, 319, 900 $407, 622 



113, 300 



335, 799 



973, 978 
280, 442 



215, 000 



14, 238, 419 



10, 197 



21,313 



60, 563 
18, 590 



16, 847 



535, 132 



1920 



Quantity 



Poiinds 
2, 528, 494 

229, 079 
57, 500 

669, 494 

389, 783 
3, 150, 240 

353, 522 

67, 200 

4, 961, 878 

767, 078 



13, 174, 268 



Value Quantity 



I Pounds 
$138,850 24,344,624 

16,760 

4, 970 46, 073, 896 

36, 902 

23, 904 

238, 617 

23, 907 

6,720 

357, 956 

79, 354 



44, 725 



549, 896 

900 

348, 880 

667, 479 



927, 940 72, 030, 400 



Value 



$1, 095, 063 



1, 797, 780 
287 



37, 571 

81 

22, 030 

54, 355 



3, 007, 086 





1922 


1923 


• 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


France 


Pounds 

20, 158, 912 

44, 697 

39, 649, 410 

448, 728 

2, 045, 994 

13, 405 

445, 136 

156, 251 

48, 216 

86, 350 

17,312 

1, 529, 483 

96, 508 


$738, 078 

8,045 

1, 390, 924 

27, 400 

69, 984 

1,048 

27,464 

9,521 

2,550 

7,067 

1,500 

68, 935 

10, 305 


Pounds 


Spain.. 


1 


England 




Ireland 










Mexico 






Argentina 






Chile 






Java and Maderia. 






Australia 






British South Africa 












All other countries 














Total 


64, 740, 402 


2, 362, 821 


111,336,768 


$3, 647, 660 





ALL OTHER COAL-TAR DISTILLATES (VALUE) 



Exported to — 


1918 


1919 


1920 


1921 


France 


$2, 188, 439 


$33, 387 


$445, 520 

474, 793 

290, 449 

1, 632, 599 

314, 641 

615, 284 

136, 063 

193, 089 

1, 158, 196 

1, 632, 599 

69, 016 


$10, 347 


Belgium 




Italy 


345, 407 

927, 295 
1, 477, 984 
96, 798 
78, 160 
72, 162 

475, 377 
46,831 

159, 377 


14, 674 

127, 583 

105, 335 

64,917 

61,441 

101,305 

250, 061 

8,144 

336, 903 




England. , 


28, 498 


Canada 


156, 917 


Spain 


26, 334 


Mexico 


14, 090 


Brazil 


32, 550 


Japan. 


79, 746 


Switzerland... 


44, 833 




116, 193 






Total. 


5, 867, 830 


1, 103, 750 


6, 962, 249 


509, 508 







190 



i 

UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 



Table 68. — Domestic exports of coal tar and of dyes and dyestuffs, calendar years 

1918-1923 — Continued 

ALL OTHER COAL-TAR DISTILLATES (VALUE)— Continued 



Exported to — 


19221 


1923 » 


France. 


$995 

12, 849 

51,718 

1,444 

15,454 

13, 691 

29, 738 

2,561 

3,644 

22, 889 




Belgium.. 




Canada. 




Norway 




Honduras. 




Mexico 




Brazil 




Cuba. 




Japan.. 




All other countries 










Total. 


154, 983 


$300, 257 







1 Includes toluol and solvent naphtha. 



CARBOLIC ACID 



Exported to— 


1922 


1923 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 




Pounds 
15, 306 
50, 096 
7,009 
91, 073 
44,211 
15, 451 


$1, 143 
4,040 
694 
9,100 
4,563 
3,683 


Pounds 




Mexico _ 






Cuba.. 






Japan 






Kwangtung (leased territory) 






All other countries 












Total 


223, 146 


23, 223 


232, 830 


$34, 389 







ANILINE OILS AND SALTS 



Spain 


10, 000 

211,010 

26, 895 

29, 302 

30, 600 

17, 597 

9,012 

6,804 


$1, 450 
40, 919 
3,575 
7,000 
6,120 
2,993 
1,610 
1,945 






Canada 






Mexico.. „ 






British India 






Japan.. 






Philippines 












All other countries 












Total 


341, 220 


65, 602 


497, 457 


$95, 023 



NAPHTHALENE 





6,000 

17, 542 
11,558 
21, 127 
11,853 
14,610 

8,388 

18, 426 


$1, 600 
297 

1,044 

1,204 
770 

4,329 
739 

2,674 






















































Total 


109, 514 


12, 657 


95, 164 


$10, 386 







NITROBENZOL' 



Norway 

Canada 

Cuba 

Dominican Republic 
Australia 

All other countries.. 

Total 



42, 980 



26, 880 
5,682 
3,203 
3,040 


$2, 957 
683 
399 
608 


2,147 


312 


2,028 


337 



5,296 



1 Included in other intermediates for 1923. 



STATISTICS OF DOMESTIC IMPORTS AXD EXPOETS 



191 



Table 6S. — Domestic exports of coal tar and of dyes and dyestuffs, calendar years 

1 91 8-1 923— Continued 

OTHER INTERMEDIATES 





1922 


1923 


Exported to — 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


• Pounds 
Greece... 28,463 


$7,280 

13, 834 

1,500 

33, 695 

3,481 

1,636 

8,275 

1,823 

65.047 

12.910 

11,844 

6,277 


Ponnds 














172, 186 

77, 642 












Cuba 


10,199 
42, 618 
12, 192 
314, 774 
54, 888 
20, 050 
31, 630 












Chile 






China 






























Total 


S35. 134' 


167, 602 


1, 218, 183 


$243, 060 







COLOR LAKES i 



Canada 

Cuba 

Peru 

China 

HongKong 

Japan 

All other countries. 



16, 900 
7,616 

100 
1,000 

135 
2,440 



Total. 



$14, 627 

1,028 

30 

800 

86 

3,298 



19.92S 



1 Figures for 1923 included in other colors, dyes, and stains. 

DYES AXD DYESTUFFS (VALUE) 



Exported tc 



1918 



Aniline 
dyes 



Logwood 

extracts 



All other 



1919 



Aniline 
dyes 



Logwood 
extracts 



All other 



Portugal... 

Belgium 

France 

Germany 

Italy.. 

Netherlands 

Russia 

Switzerland 

United Kingdom... 

Canada 

Mexico 

Central America. .. 

"West Indies 

South America 

Asia 

Oceania 

Africa 

Denmark 

Spain 

Sweden.. 

Norway 

A1J other countries. 



$176, 769 
"*"~6,"345" 
" "274," 903 ~ 



$10, 541 
"263,"6l6" 
""70," 237" 



22, 500 
380, 181 
S3K. 44." 
289, 327 

5.617 

23, 447 
1, 719, 408 
4, 248, 367 

100, 490 
3.993 



7.728 

345. 458 

82,292 

5,666 

400 

742 

128.645 

504,542 

20, 194 

715 



518, 895 



104, 748 



22, 924 



985 

4,877 



$131, 280 
""496."875" 



234, 238 



12, 825 

5,000 

524, 576 

724, 522 

181, 029 

5,498 

35, 473 

931, 600 

2, 720, 399 

133. 493 

15, 534 

1, 055 

472, 222 



4.529 
6.761 



$70, 296 

90 

127. 059 

150 

269, 130 

26,284 

8.570 

193 

413, 700 

1, 015, 334 

467. 806 

5.941 

34, 307 

1, 651, 872 

5. 565. 053 

177, 9ti4 

45, 566 

5,334 

535, 383 

22,694 

13, 663 

267,682 



$2,319 
34. 787 
596, 042 
290 
58, 716 
21, 735 



$36,063 

19, 193 

229, 689 

"i80,"359 
9,104 



22, 824 

304, 686 

119.871 

17, 438 

892 

137 

66,099 

48,063 

14,041 

1,508 

9,671 

18, 349 

8,584 

1,300 

S. 584 



423, 719 

1, 007, 892 

230, 359 

14,544 

40,900 

585, 127 

1. 921. 202 

143. 223 

8,281 

2,438 

84,544 

15. 708 

7.303 

44, 780 



Total 8,629,6111 1,551,380' 6, 636. 099 ; 10, 724. 071 1, 355, 936 \ 5, 004, 42S 



192 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 



Table 68. — Domestic exports of coal tar and of dyes and dyestuffs, calendar years 

1918-1923 — Continued 
DYES AND DYESTUFFS (VALUE)— Continued 



Exported to— 



Aniline 
dyes 



Logwood 
extracts 



All other 



1921 



Aniline 
dyes 



Logwood 
extracts 



All other 



Portugal 

Belgium 

France .. 

Germany.. 

Italy 

Netherlands 

Russia (European) 

Switzerland 

United Kingdom.. 

Canada 

Mexico 

Central America. . 

West Indies 

South America 

Asia 

Oceania 

Africa 

Denmark 

Spain 

Sweden 

Norway 

All other countries 

Total 



$66, 752 

507, 371 

807,241 

454 

582, 236 

39, 682 

100 

182, 359 

318, 468 

547, 109 

091, 603 

13, 159 

52, 745 

282, 210 

783, 303 

277, 660 

65, 077 

26, 463 

682, 998 

67, 921 

4,568 

100, 971 



$5, 970 

118,339 

607, 017 

1,456 

404, 367 

73, 472 



$20, 688 
41,523 

391. 060 
7,745 

275, 149 
56, 057 



$1, 432 
100, 821 
67, 535 
653 
45, 068 
1,938 



$6, 843 

66, 762 

13, 885 

8,723 

2,535 



$45 

8,334 

6,352 

70 

6,590 



60, 157 
729, 026 
183, 061 

11,092 
1,852 

18, 144 

45, 586 
195, 493 

41,283 
1,248 
2,903 

77, 183 
1,250 
1,110 

25, 051 



92,017 

1, 079, 871 

982, 665 

210, 145 

13, 730 

97, 922 

497, 029 

3, 208, 107 

134, 196 

28, 251 
2,794 

149, 365 

29, 802 
15. 998 
38, 997 



20, 374 

165, 711 

584, 664 

149, 009 

7,982 

1,585 

432, 881 

3,131,071 

. 207, 473 

61, 699 

1,305 

36, 844 

2,786 

1,800 

44, 369 



21, 096 

71,331 

3,560 

975 

91 

16, 466 

347, 610 

13, 190 

486 



535 



22, 450. 480 



2, 605, 060 



7, 373, 111 



5, 067, 000 



15, 868 



19 

58, 630 

423, 914 

132, 075 

5.680 

2,057 

89, 156 

333, 709 

51, 743 

13, 179 

3,849 

12, 040 

8,976 

1,304 

45, 433 



589, 756 



1, 203, 155 



OTHER COLORS, DYES, AND STAINS 





1922 


1923" 


Exported to — 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 




Pounds 

107, 712 

12, 100 

16, 830 

25, 702 

16,915 

24, 973 

87, 566 

16, 139 

1, 861, 255 

159, 857 

39, 344 

425, 551 

753, 425 

3, 588, 563 

959, 409 

33, 584 

58, 665 

36, 680 

28, 542 

71, 397 


$76, 342 

11,975 

8,434 

51,469 

2,792 

10, 787 

42> 426 

5,342 

1, 108, 518 

87, 920 

27, 335 

323, 922 

311,504 

924, 026 

844, 458 

8,618 

31, 265 

21, 439 

31, 976 

50, 669 


Pounds 
















Italy 












































































































Total .' 


8, 324, 209 


3, 981, 217 


17, 924, 536 


i $5, 565, 371 







MEDICINALS 



Belgium 

Greece 

Turkey in Europe 

England 

Canada 

Honduras 

Mexico 

Cuba 

Venezuela 

British India 

Australia 

British South Africa 
All other countries... 

Total 



3,040 

3,300 

297, 223 

80, 540 

55, 874 

5,916 

37, 829 

11,375 

3,148 

3, 330 

27, 575 

4,848 

20, 168 



554, 166 



$450 

850 

80, 954 

31,709 

13, 001 

3,091 
30, 476 
16, 122 

1,796 

3,107 
21. 135 

3,863 
17, 992 



224, 546 



237, 975 



$164, 160 



1 Includes color lakes. 



STATISTICS OF DOMESTIC IMPORTS AND EXPORTS 



193 



Table 68.- — Domestic exports of coal tar and of dyes and dyestuffs, calendar years 

1 91 8-1 923— Continued 

SYNTHETIC PHENOLIC RESINS * 





1922 


1923 




Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 




Pounds 

500 

121, 183 

250 

1,600 

4,620 


$69 

7,786 

43 

1,762 

3,523 


Pouuds 





































128, 153 


13, 183 











2 Included in total " Other coal-tar finished products, n. e. s," for 1923. 
PHOTOGRAPHIC CHEMICALS 



England. 

Canada 

Mexico 

Cuba 

Argentina 

Japan 

Philippines 

Australia 

New Zealand 

All other countries 

Total - 



11,274 


$4, 896 


65,411 


15, 971 


15,019 , 


7,228 


16,738 


6,306 


24, .526 


9,124 


39,815 


26, 809 


11,709 


5, 509 


10,806 


9,018 


13,094 


4,302 


39,727 


14, 690 



248, 119 



103, 853 



214, 160 



,317 



OTHER COAL-TAR FINISHED PRODUCTS, N. E. S. 





37, 226 
80, 800 
48, 767 

264, 009 

2, 797, 967 

28, 262 

67, 434 

470, 344 
95,545 

984, 063 

107, 043 
39, 692 
78, 574 
80, 661 
80, 470 
67,948 
21, .533 

194, 752 


$1,540 

2,560 

1,275 

33,285 

63, 908 

2,655 

2,079 

26, 902 

5,401 

43, 497 

8,831 

2,598 

4,664 

13, 442 

13,415 

17, 550 

4,533 

24, 707 
















































Cuba 
















Chile 








































Total 


5, 545, 090 


272, 842 


4, 527, 146 


$480, li 







194 



UNITED STATES TAEIFF COMMISSION 



Table 69. — Imports and exports of inks, 1918- 
IMPORTS FOR CONSUMPTION 



Calendar 
year 


Ink and ink 
powders l 


Printers' ink 2 


Writing and copying 
inks 


All other, including 
ink powders 


Quan- 
tity 


Value 


Rate of 
duty 


Value 


Duty 
col- 
lected 


Rate of 
duty 


Value 


Duty 
col- 
lected 


Rate of 
duty 


Value 


Duty 
col- 
lected 








1918 


Pounds 




Per cent 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
20 
20 


$4, 154 
199 

15, 228 
5,554 
9,259 
7,070 
5,613 


$623 
30 
2,284 
833 
1,389 
1,414 
1,123 


Per cent 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
20 
20 


$13, 363 
15, 116 
15, 505 
4,625 
6,279 
3,125 
4,979 


$2, 004 
2,267 
2,326 
694 
942 
625 
996 


Per cent 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
20 
20 


$6, 343 
8,143 

10, 657 

10, 813 
7,907 
2,877 

13, 265 


$951 


1919^ 






1,221 


1920 






1,599 


1921 






1,622 


1922 3 






1,186 


1922< 

1923 


33, 783 
101, 993 


13, 132 
23, 730 


r >75 
2,653 



DOMESTIC EXPORTS 



Exported to— 



Calendar year 



1918 



Printers' 
ink 



All 
other 
inks 



1919 



Printers' 
ink 



All 
other 
inks 



1920 



Printers' 
ink 



All 
other 
inks 



1921 



Print- 
ers' ink 



All 
other 
inks 



1922 



Print- 
ers' ink 



All 
other 
inks 



Europe $48,394 

North America... 256, 507 



South America.. 

Asia 

Oceania. 
Africa... 



Total. 



353, 023 
224, 345 
116, 424 
42, 189 



$25, 371 
206, 360 
100, 833 
67, 736 
42, 452 
5,429 



$210,482 $68,382 

320,008 297,959 

603, 758 210,212 

435,664 155,420 

113,2881 109,962 

29, 726! 14, 282 



$224, 129 
366, 784 
535, 265 
579, 843 
171, 640 
15,091 



$96, 699 
328, 889 
208, 272 
187, 988 
105, 984 



$101,914 
321, 389 
140, 612 
291, 719 
108, 453 
6,743 



$71, 818 

200, 361 

49, 336 

75, 867 

45, 017 

6,700 



1, 040, 882 



448, 181 



1,712,926! 856,217 



1, 892, 752 



936, 719 



970, 830 



449, 099 



$993,352 



$328,978 





Calendar year 


Exported to- 


1922 


* 1923 




Writing 
ink 


Printers' 
and litho- 
graphic ink 


Other ink 


Writing 
ink 


Printers' 
and litho- 
graphic ink 


Other ink 




$30, 722 

76, 003 

25, 023 

62, 790 

7,992 

1,417 


$103, 790 
288, 293 
193, 371 
255, 151 
140, 653 
12, 094 


$17,447 

69, 595 

7,556 

20, 191 

8,474 

1,768 
























































Total 


203, 947 


993,352 


125, 031 


$257, 909 


$1,273,813 


$200, 744 







1 General import figures. 

2 Beginning Sept. 22, 1922, heading changed to "Printers' and lithographic ink. 

3 Jan. 1 to Sept. 21. 

* Sept. 22 to Dec. 31. 



STATISTICS OF DOMESTIC IMPOETS AND EXPORTS 195 

Directory of manufacturers of dyes and other synthetic organic chemicals, 1928 



Name of company 



Abbott Laboratories 

Acids Manufacturing Corporation 

Agawam Chemical Works (Inc.) -- 

Althouse Chemical Co 

Alyco Manufacturing Co. (Inc.) 

Amalgamated Dyestuff & Chemical Works 

(Inc.). 
American Aniline Products (Inc.) 

American Tar Products Co. (Inc.) 

Amido Products Co 

Anderson Chemical Co.. - ... 

Ansbacher & Co., A. B._ 

Atlantic Dyestuff Co.. . -.- 

Atlantic Tar & Chemical Works (Ltd.) 

Atlas Color Works 

Baird & McQuire (Inc.) 

Barrett Co. - 

Bayer Co. (Inc.) 

Beaver Chemical Corporation .. 

Beaver Manufacturing Co. 

Berghausen Chemical Co., E_. 

Berkheimer Manufacturing Co., J. E_ 

Brooklyn Color Works (Inc.) 

Brown Co.. 

Bush Co. (Inc.), W. J. 

Butterworth-Judson Corporation. 

Cable Chemical Works 

Calco Chemical Co.. 

California Ink Co 

Carbide & Carbon Chemicals Corporation 

Carey Manufacturing Co., Philip 

Celluloid Co 

Central Dyestuff & Chemical Co 

Central Specialty Co 

Certain-teed Products Corporation 

Chatfield Manufacturing Co., The.. 

Chemical Company of America (Inc.), The 

Childs & Co. (Inc.), Charles M 

Chiris & Co., Antoine 

Cincinnati Chemical Works (Inc.) 

Citizens Gas Co 

Coleman & Bell Co., The 



Office address (location of plant given in paren- 
theses if not in same city as office) 



4753 Ravenswood Avenue, Chicago, 111. 

50 East Forty-Second Street, New York, N. Y. 

(Packer, Conn.) 
10 Weybosset Street, Providence, R. I. (North 

Attleboro, Mass.) 
500-540 Pear Street, Reading, Pa. 
86-90 Orange Street, Bloomfield, N.J. 
Plum Point Lane, Newark, N. J. 

80 Fifth Avenue, New York, N. Y. (Lock 
Haven, Pa.) 

208 South La Salle Street, Chicago, 111. (Youngs- 
town, Ohio; St. Louis, Mo.; Woodward, Ala ; 
Carrollville, Wis.; Follansbee, W. Va.; Chicago, 
111.) 

126 Maiden Lane, New York, N. Y. (228 Em- 
met Street, Newark, N. J.) 

P. O. Box 307, Passaic, N. J. (266 Main Avenue, 
Wallington, N. J.) 

527 Fifth Avenue, New York, N. Y. (Brooklyn, 
N. Y.) 

Box 89, Portsmouth, N. H. (Newington, N. H.) 

P. O. Box 234, Bayway, Elizabeth, N. J. 

322 Ninth Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Holbrook, Mass. 

40 Rector Street, New York, N. Y. (Plants dis- 
tributed throughout United States.) 

117 Hudson Street, New York, N. Y. (Rensse- 
laer, N. Y.) 

Damascus, Va. 

Ballardvale, Mass. 

915 Carr Street, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

2928 South M Street, Tacoma, Wash. 

Stewart Avenue and Cherry Street, Brooklyn, 
N. Y. 

404 Commercial Street, Portland, Me. (Berlin, 
N. H.) 

370 Seventh Avenue, New York, N. Y. (Lin- 
den, N. J.) 

30 Church Street, New York, N. Y. (Newark, 
N.J.) 

1700 Elston Avenue, Chicago, 111. (Cable, Wis.) 

Boundbrook, N. J. 

Station A, West Berkeley, Calif. 

30 East Forty-second Street, New York, N. Y. 
(Clendenin, W. Va.) 

Lockland, Ohio. 

36 Washington Place, New York, N. Y. (290 
Ferry Street, Newark, N. J.) 

Plum Point Lane, Newark, N. J. 

524 Delaware Street, Kansas City, Mo. 

100 East Forty-second Street, New York, N. Y. 
(East St. Louis, 111.) 

Seventy-fourth and Lebanon Streets, Cincinnati, 
Ohio. 

46 Murray Street, New York, N. Y. (Spring- 
field, N. J.). 

43 Summit Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

147-153 Waverly Place, New York, N. Y. (Dela- 
wanna, N. J.) 

Evanston Station, Box 20, Cincinnati, Ohio. 
(Norwood and St. Bernard, Ohio.) 

Majestic Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 

Norwood, Ohio. 



196 UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 

Directory of manufacturers of dyes and other synthetic organic chemicals, 1923 — Con. 



Name of company 



Office address (location of plant given in paren- 
theses if not in same city as office) 



Combustion Utilities Corporation 

Commercial Solvents Corporation 

Commonwealth Chemical Corporation. 
Commonwealth Color & Chemical Co.. 

Consolidated Color & Chemical Co 

Cooks Falls Dye Works (Inc.)... 



Cooper & Co. (Inc.), Charles 

Coopers Creek Chemical Co 

Corona Chemical Division (Pittsburgh Plate 

Glass Co.). 
Crescent Color & Chemical Works 



Croton Color & Chemical Co. (Inc.) . 



Crown Tar Works 

Crystal Chemical Co. 

David Chemical Co., Albert. 



Debrook Co. (Inc.) 

Dehls & Stein 

Delta Chemical & Iron Co 

Devoe & Reynolds Co. (Inc.). 



Diarsenol Laboratories (Inc.). 
Do van Chemical Corporation. 



Dow Chemical Co 

duPont de Nemours & Co., E.I. 



Dye Products & Chemical Co 

Dyes & Chemicals of New Jersey (Inc.) . 

Dyestuffs & Chemicals (Inc.) 

Eakins (Inc.), J. S. & W. R 

Eastman Kodak Co 

Essential Oil Co 



Essex Aniline Works (Inc.) 

Federal Color Laboratories (Inc.) . 
Finch Chemical Co., L. S 



Fine Colors Co. (Inc.) 

Fletcher Chemical Co 

Florasynth Laboratories (Inc). 



Foster-Heaton Co 

Franken Color Works, A. 



Fries Bros. 



Fries & Fries Co 

Garfield Aniline Works. 

Gary Chemical Co... 

Gaskill Chemical Corporation. 

Gebauer Chemical Co 

General Synthesis Co 

Goodrich Co., The B. F _. 

Grahame Chemical Co 

Granton Chemical Co 



Grasselli Chemical Co 

Harmer Laboratories Co. 



Harmon Color Works (Inc.). 

Heller & Merz Co 

Hermann Co., Morris 



Heyden Co. of America (Inc.) 

nind & Harrison Plush Co., The. 
Hooker Electrochemical Co 



Hord Color Products Co., The. 
Huggins & Son, James 



8-10 Bridge Street, New York, N. Y. (Toledo, 

Ohio.) 
17 East Forty-second Street, New York, N. Y. 

(Terre Haute, Ind.; Peoria, 111.) 
25 West Forty-third Street, New York, N. Y 

(Newark, N. Y.) 
Nevins, Butler, and Baltic Streets, Brooklyn, 

N. Y. 
122 Hudson Street, New York, N. Y. (Newark, 

N.J.) 
68 Williams Street, New York, N. Y. (Cooks 

Falls, N. Y.) 
Van Buren and Clifford Streets, Newark, N. J. 
West Conshohocken, Pa. 
213-215 Lake Street, Milwaukee, Wis. 

Fifty-ninth Street and Eleventh Avenue, New 

York, N. Y. (Dunnellen, N. J.) 
293 Broadway, New York, N. Y. (Croton-on- 

Hudson, N. Y.) 
900 Fifteenth Street, Denver, Colo. 
3414 North Karlov Avenue, Chicago, 111. 
44 Watts Street, New York, N. Y. (Chicago 

Heights, 111.) 
1105 Metropolitan Avenue, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
237 South Street, Newark, N. J. 
Wells, Delta County, Mich. 
101 Fulton Street, New York, N. Y. (New York 

N. Y., and Chicago, 111.) 
454 Ellicott Square, Buffalo, N. Y. 
30 Church Street. New York, N. Y. (441 River- 
side Avenue, Newark, N. J.) 

Midland, Mich 

Wilmington, Del. (Deepwater Point and Lodi, 

N.J.) 
200 Fifth Avenue, New York, N. Y. (202 

Vanderpool St., Newark, N. J.) 
702 Court Street. Brooklyn, N. Y. 
11th and Monroe Streets, St. Louis, Mo. 

24 Wallabout Street, New York, N. Y. 
343 State Street, Rochester, N. Y. 

Mulberry and New York Avenues, Trenton, 

N.J. 
88 Broad Street. Boston, Mass. (So. Middleton 

Mass.) 
Norwood, Ohio. 
R. F. D. No. 2, Box 143, Los Angeles, Calif. 

(Vernon. Calif.) 
2129 McBride Avenue, Paterson, N. J. 
South River, N. J. 
Olmstead and Starling Avenues, Unionport, 

N. Y. 
2731 Badger Avenue, Newark, N. J. 
116 West Thirty-second Street, New York, N, 

Y. (Chatham, N. J.) 
92 Reade Street, New York, N. Y. (Bloomfield , 

N.J.) 
1501 West Sixth Street, Cincinnati, Ohio. 
Midland Avenue, Garfield, N. J. 
749 Broadway, Gary, Ind. (Chesterton, Ind.) 
157 Spencer Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
619 Bangor Building, Cleveland, Ohio. 
53 Canal Street, Providence, R. I. 
Akron, Ohio. 

P. O. Box 88, Trenton, N. J. 
350 Madison Avenue, New York, N. Y. (New 

Brunswick, N. J.) 
Cleveland, Ohio. (Rensselaer, N. Y.; Grasselli, 

N.J.) 
2 South Twenty-first Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 

(Lansdowne, Pa.) 
361-371 Harman Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
338 Wilson Avenue, Newark, N.J. 
200 Fifth Avenue, New York, N. Y. (878 Mt. 

Prospect Ave., Newark, N. J.) 
80 Fifth Avenue, New York, N. Y. (Garfield, 

N.J.) 
Clark Mills, N. Y. 

25 Pine Street, New York, N. Y. (Niagara Falls, 
N. Y.) 

1636 Columbus Avenue, Sandusky, Ohio. 
239 Medford Street, Maiden, Mass. 



STATISTICS OF DOMESTIC IMPOSTS AND EXPORTS 197 

Directory of manufacturers of dyes and other synthetic organic chemicals, 1923— Con. 



Name of company 



Office address (location of plant given in paren- 
theses if not in same city as office) 



Hydrocarbon Chemical Co 

Hynson, Westcott & Dunning 

Imperial Color Works (Inc.)- -- ■ 

Independent Coal Tar Co 

Interstate Chemical Co .. 

Ising Corporation, The C. E ., 

Kent Color Corporation . . 

Kentucky Color & Chemical Co .. 

Kerin Manufacturing Co., The 

Klipstein & Sons Co., E. C ._ 

Kober Chemical Co 

Kohnstann & Co. (Inc.), H 

Lakeview Laboratories 

LaMotte Chemical Products Co 

Lasher & Co. (Inc.), F. G 

Lee Co., A 

Lewis Mfg. Co., F. J 

Lucas Paint Co., Alston. 

Lucas & Co. (Inc.), John 

Maas & Waldstein Co. 

Mallinckrodt Chemical Works... 

Marx Color & Chemical Co., Max 

Massachusetts Department of Public Health 

May Chemical Works 

Maywood Chemical Works 

Mepham & Co., George S 

Merck & Co 

Merrimac Chemical Co 

Metz Laboratories (Inc.), H. A 

Miner-Edgar Co., The 

Monsanto Chemical Works 

Morana (Inc.) 

National Ammonia Co. of Pennsylvania 

National Aniline & Chemical Co. (Inc.) 

Naugatuck Chemical Co 

New England Aniline Works (Inc.) 

New Haven Gas Light Co 

New York Color & Chemical Co 

New York Quinine & Chemical Works (Inc.) 

Newport Company, The 

Niagara Alkali Co 

Niagara Smelting Corporation 

Noil Chemical & Color Works (Inc.) 

Northwestern Chemical Co 

Norvell Chemical Corporation 

Oldbury Electrochemical Co 

Organo-C hemico Co 

Palatine Aniline & Chemical Corporation 

Passaic Color Corporation 

Peerless Color Co 

Pennsylvania Coal Products Co — _. 

Perth Amboy Chemical Works 

Pfizer & Co., Charles 

Pharma Chemical Corporation 

Portland Gas & Coke Co.. 

Powers- Weight man-Rosengarten Co 

Providence Chemical Laboratories 

Puritan Dye Az Chemical Co 

Quaker Oats Co 

Radiant Dye & Color Works 

Republic Creosoting Co 



951 East Orange Street, Lancaster, Pa. 

Charles and Chase Streets, Baltimore, Md. 

Glens Falls, N. Y. 

88 Broad Street, Boston, Mass. (Taunton, Mass.) 

667 Garfield Avenue, Jersey City, N. J. 

Flushing, N. Y. 

2 South Ninth Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Thirty-fourth Street south of Bank Street. 

(Louisville, Ky.) 
Central National Bank, Marietta, Ohio. 
644 Greenwich Street, New York, N. Y. (Car- 
teret, N. J.; South Charleston, W. Va.) 
Nepera Park, N. Y. 
87 Park Place, New York, N. Y. (Brooklyn, 

N. Y.) 
2 Jersey Street, Buffalo, N. Y. 
13 West Saratoga Street, Baltimore, Md. 
Maspeth and Gardner Avenues, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Lawrence, Mass. (Methuen, Mass.) 
2513 South Robey Street, Chicago, 111. 
1031 Currier Street, Chicago, 111. 
322 Race Street, Philadelphia, Pa. (Gibbsboro, 

Camden County, Pa.) 
45 John Street, New York, N. Y. (Newark, 

N.J.) 
3600 North Second Street, St. Louis, Mo. 
192 Coit Street, Irvington. N. J. 
Room 540, State House, Boston, Mass. 
204 Niagara Street, Newark, N. J. 
Maywood, N. J. 

Twentieth and Lynch Avenues, E. St. Louis, 111. 
45 Park Place, New York. N. Y. (Rahway, N. J.) 
148 State Street, Boston, Mass. (Woburn, Mass.) 
122 Hudson Street, New York, N. Y. (Brooklyn, 

N. Y.) 
110 William Street, New York, N. Y. (Newark, 

N.J.) 
1724 South Second Street, St. Louis, Mo. 
118 East Twenty-seventh Street, New York, 

N. Y. (Elizabeth, N. J.) 
Delaware Avenue and Kirk Street, Philadelphia, 

Pa. 
40* Rector Street, New York, N. Y. (Buffalo, 

N. Y.; Marcus Hook, Pa.) 
Naugatuck, Conn. 
95 Broad Street, Boston, Mass. (Ashland, Mass.) 

80 Crown Street, New Haven, Conn. 
Belleville, N.J. (Belleville, N.J. ; Philadelphia, 

Pa.) 

152-154 William Street, New York, N. Y. 
(Brooklyn, N. Y.) 

P. O. Box, 1582, Milwaukee, Wis. (Carrollville, 
Wis.; Passaic, N. J.) 

Buffalo Avenue, Niagara Falls, N. Y. 

Bridge Station, Niagara Falls, N. Y. 

152 West One hundred and eighth Street, New 
York, N. Y. 

137 Sixth Avenue, Wauwatosa, Wis. 

99 John Street, New York, N. Y. (Perth Am- 
boy, N.J.) 

Niagara Falls, N. Y. 

Columbus Avenue, Sandusky, Ohio. 

81 North Water Street, Poughkeepsie, N. Y. 
50-60 Eighth Street, Passaic, N. J. 
521-535 North Avenue, Plainfield, N. J. 
Reiber Building, Butler, Pa. 

709-717 Sixth Avenue, New York, N. Y. (Perth 
Amboy, N. J.) 

81 Maiden Lane, New York, N. Y. 

233 Broadway, New York, N. Y. (Bayonne, 
N.J.) 

Gasco Building, Portland, Oreg. 

916 Parrish Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 

51 Empire Street, Providence, R. I. 

Northborough, Mass. 

80 East Jackson Street, Chicago, 111. (Cedar 
Rapids, Iowa.) 

2837 West Twenty-first Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

1614 Merchants Bank Building, Indianapolis, 
Ind. (Norfolk, Va.; Seattle, Wash.; St. 
Louis Park, Minn.; Mobile, Ala.; Indian- 
apolis, Ind.) 



198 UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 

Directory of manufacturers of dyes and other synthetic organic chemicals, 192S — Con. 



Name of company 



Office address (location of plant given in paren- 
theses if not in same city as office) 



Rhodia Chemical Co 

Roessler & Hasslacher Chemical Co 

Rossville Co., The 

Ruxton (Inc.), Philip 

Sanborn Chemical Works 

Selden Co - 

Sepoy Color & Chemical Co 

Seydel Chemical Co 

Sherwin-Williams Co .... 

Siegle Corporation of America, G— . 

Siemon & Elting (Inc.) ... 

Sinclair & Valentine Co 

Southern Dyestufis Co 

Special Chemicals Co - 

Springdale Finishing Co. (Inc.) 

Squibb & Sons, E. R 

Stearns & Co., Frederick 

Sterling Chemical Works (Inc.) 

Sun Chemical & Color Co 

Synfleur Scientific Laboratories (Inc.) 

Synthetical Laboratories of Chicago 

T. M. & Q. Chemical Co 

Tar Products Corporation 

Terpene Chemical Co 

Texdel Chemical Co 

Textile Chemical Co. (Inc.) 

Thatcher Process Co. (Inc.) 

Todd Co., A. M 

Trico Chemical Co 

Uhlich & Co. (Inc.), Paul 

Ullman Co., Sigmund 

Ultro Chemical Corporation 

U. S. Industrial Chemical Co 

Van Dyk & Co 

Van Schaack Bros. Chemical Works 

Vernon Synthetic Chemical Corp. (Inc.). 

Verona Chemical Co 

Victor Chemical Works 

Wamesit Chemical Co 

Warner-Jenkinson Co 

Western Dry Color Co .. 

Westvaco Chlorine Products (Inc.) 

White Tar Company of N. J. (Inc.)', The 

White Chemical Co., Wilbur 

Wilhelrn Co., The A 

Williamsburg Chemical Co. (Inc.) 

Wolff-Alport Chemical Corporation 

Wyoming Dyestuff & Chemical Corp 

Yocum Laboratories (Inc.) 

Zinsser & Co 



89 Fulton Street, New York, N. Y. (New 
Brunswick, N. J.) 

709-717 Sixth Avenue, New York, N. Y. (Niag- 
ara Falls, N. Y.) 

Lawrenceburg, Ind. 

220 West Forty-second Street, New York, N. Y. 
(Brooklyn, N. Y.) 

Putnam, Conn. 

339 Second Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

371 Durham Avenue, Metuchen, N. J. 

86 Forrest Street, Jersey City, N. J. (Nitro, 
W. Va.) 

601 Canal Road, Cleveland, Ohio. (Kensington, 
111.) 

Chestnut & Tompkins Avenue, Rosebank, 

. Staten Island, N. Y. 

93 Nassau Street, New York, N. Y. (Irvington, 
N. J.) 

11 St. Clair Place, New York, N. Y. 

Nitro, W. Va. 

Highland Park, 111. 

Pine Street, Canton, Mass. 

80 Beekman Street, New York, N. Y. (Brook- 
lyn, N. Y.; New Brunswick, N. J.) 

6533 East Jefferson Avenue, Detroit, Mich. 

344 Thomas Street, Newark, N. J. 

309 Sussex Street, Harrison, N. J. 

Monticello, N. Y. 

1326 W. Congress Street, Chicago, HI. 

Elizabeth, N. J. 

1404 Turk's Head Building, Providence, R. I. 
(East Providence, R. I.) 

409 W. Washington Street, Sandusky, Ohio. 

120 Maiden Lane, New York, N. Y. (Jersey 
City and Nutley, N. J.) 

Public Street and Aliens Avenues, Providence, 
R.I. 

523 Tracy Street, Syracuse, N. Y. 

North Rose Street, Kalamazoo, Mich. 

502 Iroquois Building, Buffalo, N. Y. 

11 Cliff Street, New York, N. Y. (Brooklyn, 
N. Y.) 

Park Avenue and One-hundred and Forty-sixth 
Street, New York, N. Y. 

41 Union Square, New York, N. Y. (Brooklyn, 
N. Y.) 

110 East Forty-second Street, New York, N. Y. 
(Baltimore, Md.) 

4-6 Piatt Street, New York, N. Y. (Jersey City, 
N.J.) 

3358 Avondale Avenue, Chicago, 111. 

166 Vernon Avenue, Long Island City, N. Y. 

26 Verona Avenue, Newark, N. J. 

343 South Dearborn Street, Chicago, 111. (Chi- 
cago Heights, 111.) 

Lowell, Mass. (Wamesit, Mass.) 

2526 Baldwin Street, St. Louis, Mo . 

Fifty-second and Wallace Streets, Chicago, 111. 

52 Vanderbilt Avenue, New York, N. Y. (South 
Charleston, W. Va.) 

56 Vesey Street, New York, N. Y. (Kearney, 
N. J.; Cincinnati, Ohio.) 

Owego, N. Y. 

Third and Bern Streets, Reading, Pa. 

230 Morgan Avenue, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

593 Irving Avenue, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

1 Carbon Street, Scranton, Pa. 

168 Coit Street, Irving, N. J. 

Hastings-on-Hudson, N. Y. 



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