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Full text of "Synthetic organic chemicals : United States production and sales"

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.U. S. SUPT, OF DOCUJVlENT-b 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 
WASHINGTON 



Tariff Information Series— No. 33 



CENSUS OF DYES 

AND 

OTHER SYNTHETIC ORGANIC 
CHEMICALS 



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1924 




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WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

1925 



BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY 



3 9999 06317 180 3 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 
WASHINGTON 



Tariff Information Series — No. 33 



CENSUS OF DYES 

AND OTHER SYNTHETIC ORGANIC 
CHEMICALS 



1924 




WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

1925 



I/.- S. SUPERiNrENDENT Of DOCUMENT^, 

OCT 8 192S 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 

Office: Eighth and E Streets NW., Washington, D. C. 

COMMISSIONERS 

Thomas O. Marvin, Chairman. 
Alfred P. Dennis, Vice Chairman. 
Edward P. Costigan. 
Henry H. Glassie. 
A. H. Baldwin. 
Edgar B. Brossard. 

John F. Bethune, Secretary. 
II 



ADDITIONAL COPIES 

OF THIS PUBLICATION MAY BE PROCURED FROM 

THE SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON, D. C. 

AT 

25 CENTS PER COPY 



CONTENTS 

Page 

Introduction ix 

Part I 

Summar}- of census of dyes and other sjmthetic organic chemicals, 1924: 

Introduction 1 

Summary of domestic production 1924 — 

Crudes 2 

Intermediates 2 

Dyes 3 

Production declines 27 per cent 3 

Dye prices record further reduction 4 

New dyes 4 

Relation of production to consumption 4 

Expenditures for research 4 

Record output of vat dyes 4 

Production of dyes by classes 5 

Effect of tariff reduction on dye imports 5 

Imports 5 

Exports 5 

Other finished coal-tar products — 

Color lakes 6 

Photographic chemicals 6 

Medicinals 6 

Perfumes and flavors 6 

Synthetic phenolic resins 6 

Synthetic tanning materials 6 

Statistics of production 7 

International dye trade 8 

Synthetic organic chemicals not derived from coal tar 11 

Part II 

Production of dyes and coal-tar chemicals, 1924: 

Coal-tar crudes 15 

Output of by-product coke exceeds 33,000,000 tons 15 

Production of tars 16 

Total commercial production of crudes 17 

Creosote oil 22 

Other crudes 22 

Exports 23 

Coal-tar intermediates — 

Description 23 

Production 23 

Rubber accelerators 24 

Large increase in phenol output - 24 

Aniline and its derivatives ' 24 

Sodium benzoate 25 

Naphthalene intermediates 25 

Record production of phthalic anhydride 26 

Anthraquinone 26 

New intermediates 27 

Prices of intermediates 28 

Statistics of production 29 

III 



TV 



CONTENTS 



Production of dyes and coal-tar chemicals, 1924 — Continued. 

Dyes and other finished coal-tar products — Page 

Introduction 35 

Summary of dye production- 
Decline in production 36 

Stocks on hand 36 

Decline in price 37 

Relation of production to consumption 40 

New dyes produced 41 

Tariff considerations — 

American selling prices applied to coal-tar products 41 

Effect of tariff reduction on imports 43 

Production of dyes by classes 46 

Acid 48 

Basic 50 

Direct cotton 51 

Mordant and chrome 52 

Sulphur 53 

Vat 54 

Description 54 

Production and imports 55 

German production of vat dyes 56 

Color-lake and spirit soluble 56 

Food dyes 57 

Dyes exported from the United States 57 

Other finished coal-tar products 61 

Color lakes 61 

Photographic chemicals 61 

Medicinals 61 

Flavors and perfume materials 62 

Synthetic phenolic resins 64 

Synthetic tanning materials 64 

Statistics of production 65 

Dyes not classified by Schultz number 72 

Employees and rates of pay 77 

Research work ... 79 

Part III 

Dyes imported for consumption in the United States, 1924: 

Introduction 83 

Summary of imports of dyes in 1924 84 

Import statistics 84 

Index to table of dye imports . 112 

Part IV 

Census of synthetic organic chemicals other than those of coal-tar origin, 
1924: 

Introduction 121 

Developments in the industry 121 

Synthetic aromatic chemicals 121 

Acetylene derivatives 122 

Butanol 123 

Chlorine derivatives 123 

Petroleum derivatives 124 

Esters 124 

Formaldehyde and hexamethylenetetramine 124 

Pharmaceuticals 124 

Tetraethy 1 lead - - - 124 

Investigation of oxalic acid and barbital (diethylbarbituric acid) 

under section 315 125 

Oxalic acid 125 

Barbital 125 

Foreign developments 126 

Methanol 126 

Butyl alcohol 126 

Glass substitute 126 

Statistics of production and sales 127 



CONTENTS V 

Part V 
International dye trade: 

Summary of world's production and trade — P=^ge 

Pre-war situation 135 

Increase in productive capacity 135 

Germany's export trade 136 

Exports from producing countries 137 

Imports into consuming countries 138 

Competition in export markets ^ 139 

Price reductions 141 

Protective measures adopted by dye producing countries 141 

Affiliations and branch plants 142 

Trend in dye manufacture 143 

New dyes for acetate silk 143 

New water-soluble vat dyes 143 

Other developments 144 

Research 145 

German dye industrj^ 145 

German dye output in 1924 increases 145 

' Consolidations within I. G 146 

New products made by I. G 147 

Agreements with foreign industries 147 

German-Russian dyestuflf agreement 147 

Other agreements 147 

American loans to German dye industry 148 

Balance sheets of I. G. companies 148 

Germany's foreign trade in dyes 149 

Dye trade of Great Britain — 

Imports ISC^ 

Exports 150 

Dj'e industry of France — 

Production 1^2 

Imports and exports 1^2 

Dye industry of Japan — 

Subsidy to dye industry 158 

Consolidation of German dye agencies in Japan 158 

Imports and exports 159 

Dye industry of Poland — 

Introduction 159 

Pre-war production 159 

Post-war developments 16" 

Tar production 1^0 

Crudes 160 

Intermediates production 161 

Consumption of dyes 161 

Dye-consuming industries 161 

Dye industry of Spain 162 

Dye trade of other countries 16^ 

Argentina 163 

Austria 163 

Belgium 164 

Brazil 164 

Canada 164 

China 165 

Czechoslovakia 165 

Dutch East Indies 167 

Egypt ;68 

India 169 

Italy 169 

Netherlands :|'y 

Sweden j^l 

Switzerland J^^ 

Earnings of Swiss dye manufacturers in 1924 173 



VI CONTENTS 

International dye trade — Continued. 

Import tariff rates and regulations of the world's chief dye producing 

and consuming nations — Page 

Introduction 173 

Argentina 174 

Australia 174 

Belgium .._ 175 

Bolivia 175 

Brazil 175 

Bulgaria _.- 176 

Chile 176 

China 176 

Columbia 177 

Czechoslovakia 177 

Ecuador 177 

Egypt 177 

France 178 

Germany 178 

India 179 

Italy 180' 

Japan 180 

Mexico 182 

Persia 182 

Poland 182 

Rumania 182 

Russia 183 

Spain 183 

Switzerland 183 

United Kingdom 183 

Venezuela 184 

United States 184 

Part VI. Appendix 

Statistics of domestic imports and exports of coal-tar products 189 

Directory of manufacturers of dyes and other synthetic organic chemicals, 

1924 211 

Statistical Tables 

1. Summary of the production of dyes and coal-tar chemicals, 1918- 

1924 7 

2. Production and sales of synthetic organic chemicals of noncoal-tar 

origin, 1921-1924 11 

3. Production of by-product and beehive coke in the United States, 

1913-1924 15 

4. Production and sales of coke-oven, coal-gas, water-gas, and oil-gas tar 

in the United States, 1918-1924 16 

5. Production and disposition of coke-oven tar in the United States, 

1918-1924 17 

6. By-products obtained from coke-oven operations, 1922-1924 18 

7. Production of coal-tar crudes, 1924, by firms not primarily engaged in 

the operation of coke-oven plants and gas houses 20 

8. Total commercial production of benzene, toluene, solvent naphtha, and 

naphthalene from all sources in the United States, 1918-1924 21 

9. Domestic prices of phthalic anhydride, 1917-May, 1925 26 

10. Domestic sale price of coal-tar intermediates, 1917-1924, compared 

with invoice price in 1914 29 

11. Production and sales of coal-tar intermediates, 1924 29 

12. Production of intermediates, by groups, according to unit values, 

1921-1924 35 

13. Domestic production and sales of coal-tar dyes, 1914 and 1917-1924. 36 

14. Stocks of domestic dyes on hand, January 1, 1924 and 1925 37 

15. Weighted average sales price of domestic dyes, 1917-1924 37 

16. Domestic sales prices of 100 dyes, 1917-1924, compared with invoice 

values of the same dyes imported, 1914 38 

17. Duty on dyes under the tariff act of 1922 44 



CONTENTS VII 

Page 

18. Imports of coal-tar dyes into the United States 45 

19. Comparison of imports of dyes, by classes, fiscal year 1914, with do- 

mestic production, calendar j^ears 1917-1924 1 46 

20. Production, imports, and consumption of vat dyes other than indigo 

in the United States, 1914 and 1920-1924 55 

21. Production of vat dyes (other than indigo) in Germany, 1920-1924. _ 56 

22. Domestic exports of dyes, by months, 1919-1925 (three months) 28 

23. Imports of synthetic aromatic chemicals of coal-tar origin, 1924 63 

24. Production and sales of dyes and other finished coal-tar products, 

1924 65 

25. Production of dyes, by groups, according to unit values 77 

26. Employees and rates of pay, dye and coal-tar chemical industry, 1924_ 78 

27. Imports of dyes into the United States, bv country of shipment, 1920- 

1924 1 84 

28. Dyes imported into the United States, classified by method of appli- 

cation, 1921-1924 84 

29. Dyes of each class according to method of application, imported in 

largest quantity, 1924, compared with corresponding imports, 1923, 

1922, 1921, and 1914 85 

30. Imports of d3'es, calendar year, 1924 88 

31. Production of butanol and other solvents 123 

32. Production and sales of synthetic organic chemicals, 1924. (Not de- 

rived from coal tar.) 127 

33. Comparison of production of synthetic organic chemicals, 1923, 1924. 131 

34. Imports and production of certain svnthetic organic chemicals (non- 

coal tar), 1923, 1924 _' 131 

35. Production of dves by the chief producing countries, 1920-1924 136 

36. Exports of coal-tar dyes from Germany, 1913 and 1920-1924 137 

37. Exports of coal-tar dves from chief producing countries, 1913, 1921- 

1924 .' 138 

38. Imports of dyes into chief consuming countries, 1913, 1921-1924 139 

39. Production of coal-tar dyes in Germany, 1913 and 1920-1924 145 

40. One-quarter of production in German dye plants reserved for purchase 

of allied and associated governments, 1920 to 1924 146 

41. Balance sheets of the constituent concerns of the Interessen Gemein- 

schaf t, as of January 1 , 1924 148 

42. Germany: Imports and exports of coal-tar dyes, 1924 149 

43. The United Kingdom: Imports of coal-tar dyes, 1923 150 

44. The United Kingdom: Exports of coal-tar dyes, 1923 151 

45. The United Kingdom: Imports and exports of coal-tar dyes, 1924 151 

46. Weight of dyestuffs imported into the United Kingdom, by countries, 

1924 152 

47. France: Production of coal-tar dyes, 1920-1924 152 

48. France: Imports of coal-tar dyes, 1922 153 

49. France: Exports of coal-tar dyes, 1922 155 

50. France: Imports and exports of indigo, 1922 157 

51. France: Imports and exports of coal-tar dyes, 1924 157 

52. France: Imports and exports of indigo, 1922, 1923, and 1924 157 

53. Japan: Imports and exports of coal-tar dyes, by classes, 1923, and 

1924 (first 9 months) --- 159 

54. Japan: Imports of coal-tar dyes (exclusive of indigo), by countries, 

1923 and 1924 (first 9 months) 159 

55. Spain: Imports of coal-tar dyes, 1923 and 1924 (first 6 months) 162 

56. Argentina: Imports of coal-tar dyes, 1922 and 1923 163 

57. Austria: Imports and exports of coal-tar dyes, 1923 and 1924 163 

58. Belgium: Imports and exports of indigo, natural and artificial, 1924_ 164 

59. Brazil: Imports of coal-tar dyes, 1922 and 1923 164 

60. Canada: Imports of coal-tar dyes, 12 months ended March, 1924 164 

61. China: Imports of dyes, colors, and paints, 1923 165 

62. Czechoslovakia: Imports and exports of coal-tar dyes, calendar year 

1923 165 

63. Dutch East Indies: Imports of coal-tar dyes, 1922, 1923, and 1924. _ 167 

64. Dutch East Indies: Exports of natural indigo, 1920-1924.. 167 

65. Egypt: Imports of coal-tar dyes, 1924 168 

66. Egypt: Reexports of coal-tar dyes, 1924 168 



Vlll CONTENTS 

Faee 

67. India: Imports of coal-tar dyes and exports of natural indigo, 1923 

and 1924 169 

68. Italy: Imports and exports of synthetic organic dyes, 1923 and 1924_ 169 

69. Netherlands: Imports and exports of synthetic organic dyes, calendar 

year 1923 170 

70. Sweden: Imports of coal-tar dyes, 1922 and 1923 171 

71. Sweden: Exports of coal-tar dyes, 1922 and 1923 171 

72. Switzerland: Imports and exports of coal-tar dyes, 1924 172 

73. United States: Imports of coal-tar products entered for consumption, 

calendar years 1920-1924 189 

74. United States: General imports of coal-tar products, by countries, 

calendar years 1920-1924 190 

75. United States: Exports of coal tar and of coal-tar dyes and dyestufifs, 

calendar years 1920-1924 206 



INTRODUCTION 



This report is a survey of the domestic dye and synthetic organic 
chemical industry in 1924. It presents the results of a special inves- 
tigation made by the United States Tariff Commission as to the 
production in the United States of coal-tar dyes and synthetic 
organic chemicals, both of coal-tar and of noncoal-tar origin. It 
includes a detailed census of dye imports and official statistics for 
the imports and exports of coal-tar dyes by the large consuming 
and producing nations of the world. There is also included the 
tariff rates imposed on dyes by 26 of the principal dye-consmning 
and producing countries. 

The survey is divided into six parts, as shown in Table of Con- 
tents (pp. Ill to vin). 



In the preparation of this report the Tariff Commission had the 
services of Warren N. Watson, Frank Talbot, and C. R. De Long, 
of the chemical division of the commission's staff, and of others. 

47285— 25t 2 ix 



PART I 

SUMMARY OF THE CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER 
SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1924 



XI 



I 



Part 1 

SUMMARY OF THE CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC 
ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1924 



Introduction 



The United States Tariff Commission has reported annually, 
beginning with 1917, the progress of the American dye and coal-tar 
chemical industry. In 1921 the annual census was extended to 
include synthetic organic chemicals other than those derived from 
coal tar. 

In addition to production figures for the domestic industry the 
present report contains a detailed census of dye imports; a discussion 
of the international dye trade; developments in the foreign dye- 
producing countries, especially Germany, France, Poland, and Japan; 
and official statistics of exports and imports of the more important 
dye-consuming and producing countries of the world in post-war 
years. A new feature of the report is a compilation of tariff rates for 
26 of the world's chief dye-producing and consuming countries, 
together with information concerning the hcense import control of 
dyes in Great Britain, Germany, Australia, Japan, and Persia. 

The general grouping of coal-tar chemicals adopted in the present 
report foUows that of the tariff act of 1922, which conforms in general, 
although not in every detail, with common practice. Crudes, para- 
graph 1549, free, are contained in and separated from crude coal 
tar; intermediates, dutiable under paragraph 27 at 40 per cent and 
7 cents per pound, are produced from the crudes by chemical proc- 
esses; with certain exceptions, they are used only for the manu- 
facture of dyes and other finished products by further chemical 
treatment; dyes and other finished products are dutiable under para- 
graph 28 at 45 per cent and 7 cents per pound. The term ''other 
finished products" includes color lakes, photographic chemicals, 
medicinals, flavors, perfume materials, synthetic resins, and synthetic 
tanning materials. Explosives, derived from coal-tar materials, 
although dutiable under paragraph 28, are not included in this census, 

A siunmary of the production of coal-tar products in 1924 according 
to the classes given above, is contained in Table 1. The figures are 
compiled from the returns of 193 companies, and are beUeved to form 
a complete record of the manufacture of such products in that year. 
The quantity and value of each product are given in as great detail 
as is possible without revealing the operations of individual manu- 
facturers. It has been the policy of the commission not to pubhsh 
either production or sales figures unless at least three firrns report a 
given product and then only when production, or sales, is well dis- 
tributed among the different firms. In many instances neither 
production nor sales figures are pubhshed, even where there are more 
than three producers, because of the fact that one firm either produced 
or sold a large part of the total output. 

1 



2 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

Other reports prepared by the Tariff Commission relating to con- 
ditions in the dye industry include: (1) Costs of Production in the 
Dye Industry, 1918 and 1919, and (2) Dyes and Other Coal-Tar 
Chemicals, December 12, 1918. 

Summary of Domestic Production, 1924 

CRUDES 

The total production of coke in 1924 as reported by the United 
States Geological Survey was 43,451,000 short tons. Of this total 
33,983,000 tons (77.8 per cent) were from by-product ovens and 
9,668,000 tons (22.2 per cent) from beehive ovens. In 1913 only 
27.5 per cent of the total was produced by by-product ovens and 
72.5 per cent by beehive. The increase in the production of by- 
product coke has resulted in (1) an increased yield of valuable by- 
products, including ammonium compounds for fertilizer and other 
uses, (2) a supply of gas used for industrial heating and municipal 
lighting, and (3) a production of coal tar far in excess of the needs of 
the domestic coal-tar chemical industry. The tar is converted by 
distillation into crudes, which serve as the basic materials for the 
domestic coal-tar chemical industry. 

The production of coal tar in 1924 was 470,000,000 gallons. For 
the first time, the Tariff Commission this year obtained returns from 
coal-tar distillers who reported 193,000,000 gallons distilled, or about 
42 per cent of the total coal-tar produced in 1924. Only a part of 
the 193,000,000 gallons, however, was distilled into refined products, 
because of the large demand for partly refined products, such as motor 
fuel, solvents, and pitches. The production of benzene, toluene and 
solvent naphtha, increased in 1924 and that of ''motor benzol" and 
naphthalene decreased. 

INTERMEDIATES 

Intermediates are prepared from the coal-tar crudes by chemical 
treatment. They are further converted by complex chemical proc- 
esses into finished coal-tar products, such as dyes, medicinals, per- 
fumes, flavors, photographic chemicals, synthetic resins, and tanning 
materials. Intermediates are also used as accelerators in the vul- 
canization of rubber, as camphor substitutes, insecticides, germicides, 
and in the flotation process for concentrating ores. 

The total production of intermediates by 94 fii-ms was 186,596,562 
in 1924 compared with 231,393,871 pounds by 103 firms in 1923. 
Sales in 1924 totaled 76,897,521 pounds, with a value of $18,164,334. 
In general, there were marked declines in the output of intermediates 
normally consumed in large amounts. In the production of inter- 
mediates used for fast and specialty dyes there were, however, only 
small decreases and in many cases notable increases. Inter- 
mediates used as rubber accelerators showed conspicuous increases. 
The consumption by the rubber industry of intermediates is a develop- 
ment of importance to the chemical manufacturer, as it furnishes 
him an auxiliary market for his products. The use of these accele- 
rators has resulted in great economy in the time required for vulcan- 
ization of rubber manufactures. It has been estimated that a saving 



SUMMARY OF DOMESTIC PRODUCTION, 1924 3 

of about $80,000,000 capital investment has been effected in the 
rubber industrj^ by the use of organic accelerators.^ 

Among individual intermediates showing conspicuous increases 
in production in 1924 is phthalic anhydride, with a record output of 
2,787,308 pounds. This intermediate, made by the catalytic 
oxidation of naphthalene, is used in the preparation of synthetic 
anthraquinone, which in turn is used in alizarin and certain vat dyes. 
Phthalic anhydride is also directly used in the preparation of such 
dyes as fluorescein, the rhodamines, and the eosine group. The 
decline in the price of this product in recent years is one of tlie most 
phenomenal in the entire field of intermediates. From $4.23 per 
pound in 1917 the price dropped to 24 cents in 1924 and to 18 cents 
in April, 1925. The average sales price of 24 cents in 1924 is less than 
the pre-war selling price, when the total consumption was imported. 

Anthraquinone, the production of which amounted to 638,755 
poimds in 1924, was made largely by the synthetic process, three- 
lourths of the output being synthetic as compared with about one- 
half of the output in 1923. This product is used in certain vat dyes 
and also in certain alizarin derivatives, and in consequence is a key 
intermediate. In 1919 one of the principal problems of the domestic 
dye industry was how to obtain an adequate supply of anthracene 
from coal tar. The difficulty was not the natural lack of anthracene 
in the tar, but the fact that the removal of anthracene oil leaves a 
hard pitch, which has only a limited market in this country. The 
extensive development of synthetic anthraquinone, which has an 
advantage in being of greater purity than anthraquinone produced 
from anthracene, has solved the problem. 

Another intermediate showing increased production in 1924 is 
phenol, the output of which was 10,521,944 pounds, an increase 
of more than 200 per cent over that in 1923. rhenol may be classi- 
fied according to source and method of manufacture as: (1) Natural 
phenol, obtained directly from coal tar by extraction and purification, 
and (2) synthetic phenol, made by the chemical processing of benzene. 
The increased output in 1924 occurred largely in the manufacture 
of the synthetic product. With a continuation of the growing 
demand for phenolic resins in the manufacture of automobile and 
radio parts, synthetic phenol should be a factor of increasing impor- 
tance in supplying the requirements of this country. 

Of the 312 intermediates reported in 1924, over 60 were new prod- 
ucts not reported in previous years, and most of these were manu- 
factured for the first time in this country. These new intermediates 
were used largely in the manufacture of dyes produced for the first 
time in 1924 as accelerators for the vulcamzation of rubber, in 
synthetic medicinals, and in other finished coal-tar products. 

DYES 

Production declines 27 'per cent from peak year of 1923. — The produc- 
tion of coal-tar dyes by 78 firms was 68,679,000 pounds compared 
with the peak of 93,667,524 pounds by 88 firms in 1923. Sales in 
1924 totaled 64,961,433 pounds, valued at $35,012,400. The pre- 

1 Industrial and Engineerng Chemistry, vol. 17, No. 4, April, 1925, p. 396. History of Organic Accelerators 
intheJiubber Iridustry, W. C. Oeer and C. W. Bedford. 



4 CElSrSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

war output in 1914 by seven firms was 6.619,729 pounds, valued at 
$2,470,096. _ ' 

The principal reason for the 1924 decline in output was the reduced 
activity of the textile industry. Other contributing factors were 
(1) stocks carried over from 1923, (2) increased imports following the 
15 per cent reduction in the tariff effective September 22, 1922, and 
(3) a reduction in exports amounting to 2,210,772 pounds. 

Dye prices record further reduction. — -The average selling price of 
dyes sold in 1924 was $0.54 per pound, nearly 2 per cent below that of 
the previous year. The average sales price in 1922 was $0.60, in 1920, 
$1.08, and in 1917, $1.26. 

Indigo, the dye produced in largest quantity in 1924, averaged 
$0.22 per pound. The price in April, 1925, was $0.14, a figure below 
that of 1913, when our entire requirements were imported. From 
available foreign price data it appears that the domestic price in the 
early part of 1925 was the lowest in the world. 

New dyes. — Over 60 dyes for which no production w^as reported in 
1923 were manufactured in 1924. Most of these had not heretofore 
been made on a commercial scale in the United States. Among them 
were a number of dyes previously imported in largest quantity. That 
the industry made marked progress in 1924 is attested by production 
of many complex types, such as dyes of liigh fastness for cotton, wool, 
and silk, and special dyes requirecl in smaller amounts but neverthe- 
less of great value to the textile industry. Work now under way may 
be expected to A'ield results which will give a more complete line of 
dyes of American origin. 

Relation of production to consumption. — Imports of dyes in 1923 
were 4.4 per cent of the total production by quantity, and 7.8 per 
cent by value. They were 5.4 per cent by quantity of the apparent 
consumption, assuming the latter to equal production plus imports 
minus exports. The domestic industry supplied the remaining 94.6 
per cent of the apparent consumption and had an exportable surplus 
of certain dyes, chieflv Indigo and Sulphur black, amounting to 
16,000,000 pounds. 

Expenditures for research. — Over $2,000,000 was expended for 
research in coal-tar products in 1924. When the total value of the 
finished coal-tar products sold in the same year — $56,000,000 — is 
considered, it is probable that expenditures for investigation in this 
industry have been greater than in any other industrial field. The 
total research costs reported to the Tariff Commission have exceeded 
$25,000,000 for the period 1917 to 1924. The remarkable accomplish- 
ments of the domestic dye and coal-tar chemical industry in these 
years must be attributed in no small part to the large expenditures for 
research. 

Record output of vat dyes. — The production of vat dyes other than 
indigo was 1,821,319 pounds in 1924, as compared with 1,766,383 
pounds in 1923. Because of their exceptional fastness, these dyes 
are in increasing demand for cotton goods which are subjected to the 
severe treatment of the modern laundry. That they were among the 
last dyes to be developed in this country may be explained by the fact 
that they are exceedingly complex, difficult and costly to manufacture, 
and that the patents were largely in the hands of the Germans. 
Intensive research has resulted in conspicuous increased production 
since 1920. Although a considerable part of our consumption is still 



SUMMARY OF DOMESTIC PRODUCTION, 1924 5 

imported, the domestic industry now supplies about 55 per cent of 
the total requirements. 

Production of dyes hy classes. — The 1924 output of dyes, grouped 
by classes according to the method of application, was as follows: 
Acid dyes, 9,187,256 pounds, or 13.38 per cent of the total output; 
basic dyes, 3,676,999 pounds, or 5.35 per cent; direct dyes, 14,662,577 
pounds, or 21.35 per cent; lake and spirit-soluble dyes, 967,550 
pounds, or 1.41 per cent; mordant and chrome dyes, 2,953,987 
pounds, or 4.3 per cent; sulphur dyes. 14,561,257 pounds, or 21.2 
per cent; vat dyes, including Indigo, 21,818,022 pounds, or 31.77 
per cent; indigo, 19,996,703 pounds, or 29.12 per cent; other vat 
dyes, 1,821,319 pounds, or 2.65 per cent; unclassified and special 
dyes, 851,354 pounds, or 1.24 per cent. 

Effect of tariff' reduction on dye imports. — Under the provisions of 
the tariff act of 1922, the ad valorem rate on coal-tar dyes and 
products covered by paragraph 28 was reduced from 60 to 45 per 
cent on September 22, 1924, and the ad valorem rate on intermediates, 
paragraph 27, from 55 to 40 per cent. The specific duty remained 
at 7 cents per pound. 

A rapid increase in the monthly imports after the reduction in 
duty indicates increased competition from foreign-made dyes. 
The imported dyes are almost entirely of German and Swiss manu- 
facture and consist largely of the higher-cost products. The average 
monthly imports of dyes from October, 1924, to April, 1925, inclu- 
sive, was 452,403 pounds. This is an increase of 152 per cent over 
the monthly average of the first nine months of 1924 preceding the 
tariff reduction on dyes. 

Dye imports. — The total imports of coal-tar dyes in 1924 were 
3,022,539 pounds, valued at $2,908,778, which was shghtly less than 
the previous year's imports of 3,098,193 pounds, valued at $3,151,363. 
Imports in the first five months of 1925 were 2,126,483 pounds, 
valued at $1,987,190, a conspicuous increase over the corresponding 
period of 1924 when they amounted to 1,062,940 pounds, valued at 
$1,087,027. 

Of the total dye imports in 1924, 50 percent came from Germany, 
30 per cent from Switzerland, 5 per cent from Italy, 3 per cent from 
France, 4 per cent from England, and 8 per cent from all other 
countries. 

Dye imports in 1924, classified by method of application, were 
acid dyes, 324,538 pounds; basic dyes, 249,068 pounds; direct 
dyes, 421,538 pounds; lake and spirit-soluble dyes, 17,334 pounds; 
mordant and chrome, 413,902 pounds; sulphur dyes, 87,764 pounds; 
vat dyes, 1,499,322 pounds; unclassifiecl and special dyes, 9,073 
pounds. Vat dyes represented 49.6 per cent of all dyes imported. 

Dye exports. — Dye exports in 1924 declined 12 per cent by quan- 
tity as compared with 1923, but the value remained practically the 
same. Total exports were 15,713,428 pounds, a decrease of 2,210,772 
pounds from the previous year. The value of exports was $5,636,244, 
an increase of $70,977 over 1923. The decline in quantity in the 
face of a slight increase in value is probably due to larger exports of 
indigo in the form of powder instead of paste. Otherwise exports 
show little change from the previous year. 



6 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

In recent years our export trade in dyes has consisted very largely 
of Indigo and Sulphur black shipped mostly to the markets of the 
Far East. Other dyes have comprised a relatively small part of 
the total. But since the disappearance of the effect of the occupa- 
tion of the Ruhr, American manufacturers have encountered keen 
competition in the world's markets from the Germans and the 
Swiss, particularly the former. 

OTHER FINISHED COAL-TAR PRODUCTS 

Color lakes. — -The total output of this class of pigments in 1924 
was 9,343,147 pounds, as compared with 13,079,115 pounds in 1923. 
Sales of color lakes in 1924 amounted to 9,281,673 pounds, valued 
at S4,045,799. 

Photographic chemicals. — The 1924 production of coal-tar chemicals 
used as photographic developers totaled 316,183 pounds, as compared 
with 343,289 pounds in 1923. Sales in 1924 amounted to 321,865 
pounds, valued at $461,379. 

Medicinals. — This class of coal-tar products may be considered 
essential to the national welfare. The highest technical skill and 
the most exhaustive research are required in their development and 
commercial production. The total output in 1924 was 2,967,944 
pounds, with sales amounting to 2,688,329 pounds, valued at 
$5,178,099. Production in 1923 amounted to 3,273,085 pounds, 
with sales of 2,995,448 pounds, valued at $4,720,253. 

Perfumes and flavors. — These coal-tar products are closely related, 
certain members of the class being used both as flavors and as per- 
fumes. The total output of flavors in 1924 was 1,750,555 pounds, 
as compared with 1,458,024 pounds in 1923. Sales in 1924 amounted 
to 1,691,863 pounds, valued at $1,471,089. The production of 
perfumes in 1924 was 1,895,267 pounds, as compared with 1,365,449 
pounds in 1923. Sales in 1924 amounted to 1,945,488 pounds, 
valued at $945,773. 

Synthetic phenolic resins .—These products are used for automobile 
and radio parts, as substitutes for amber in making pipe stems, 
for electrical insulators, varnishes, and lacquers, and for a great 
variety of other articles. The 1922 production was 5,944,133 pounds; 
the figures for 1923 and 1924 can not be published without revealing 
the output of individual companies. 

Synthetic tanning materials. — The output of this group amounted 
to 1,910,519 pounds in 1922, but here again, and for the same reason, 
the 1923 and 1924 production figures must be withheld. 

The combined output of syntTietic phenolic resins and synthetic 
tanning materials in 1924 was 12,778,115 pounds, as compared 
with 9,763,685 pounds in 1923. The total sales of the two products 
in 1924 amounted to 12,745,458 pounds, valued at $8,818,041. as 
compared with 10,068,431 pounds in 1923, valued at $5,816,590. 



SUMMARY OF DOMESTIC PRODUCTION, 1924 7 

STATISTICS or PRODUCTION 

Table 1. — Summary of the -production of dyes and coal-tar chemicals, 1918-1924 



Number 
of manu- 
facturers 



Production 



Pounds 



Value 



1919 



Number 
of manu- 
facturers 



Production 



Pounds 



Value 



Group II — Intermediates _ . 
Group III— Finished 

products 

Dyes 

Color lakes. 

Photographic chemi- 
cals 

Medicinals 

Flavors 

Perfumes 

Tanning materials 

Synthetic phenolic 
resins 



128 



357, 662, 251 

76, 802, 959 
58, 464, 446 
9, 590, 537 

316, 749 

3, 623, 352 

458, 256 

116,263 

4, 233, 356 



$124, 382, 892 

83, 815, 746 

62, 026, 390 

5, 020, 023 

823, 915 
7, 792, 984 
4, 925, 627 

584, 695 

2, 642, 120 



116 

155 
90 
34 

10 
31 
9 
6 
1 



177, 362, 426 

82, 532, 390 
63, 402, 194 
7, 569, 921 

335, 509 

6, 777, 988 

610, 825 

41,419 

3, 794, 534 



$63, 210, 079 

84, 585, 544 
67, 598, 855 
4, 179, 964 

1, 059, 340 

7, 883, 071 

1, 318, 654 

164, 302 

2, 381, 358 



Group II — Interme- 
diates 

Group III— Finished 

products 

Dyes 

Color lakes , 

Photographic 

chemicals 

Medicinals 

Flavors 

Perfumes... 

Tanning materials. 

Synthetic phenolic 

resins 



1920 



1921 



Number 
of manu- 
facturers 



119 

161 
82 
43 



Production 



Pounds 



257, 726, 911 

112, 942, 227 
88, 263, 776 
10, 983, 538 

440, 759 
5, 184, 989 

166, 884 

99, 740 

3, 142, 861 

4, 659, 680 



Value 



$95, 291, 686 

112, 731, 547 

95, 613, 749 

5, 871, 820 

1,015,848 

5, 726, 776 

527, 493 

332, 008 

233, 674 

3, 410, 179 



Number 
of manu- 
facturers 



108 

147 
74 
43 

5 
34 
17 
15 

4 



Production 



Pounds 



70, 899, 912 

51, 457, 565 

39, 008, 690 

6, 152, 187 

183, 798 

1, 545, 917 

901, 245 

119,335 

1, 902, 597 

1,643,796 



Sales 



Pounds 



33, 637, 326 

60, 434, 009 

47, 513, 762 

6, 424, 612 

170, 221 

1, 876, 246 

933, 662 

119,691 

1, 721, 359 

1, 674, 456 



Value 



$8, 483, 463 

47, 996, 514 
39, 283, 956 
2, 863, 189 

248,041 

2, 930, 324 

1, 002, 018 

175, 815 

141, 005 

1, 352, 166 





1922 




Number 

of 
manu- 
factures 


Production 


Sales 




Pounds 

165, 048, 155 

88, 368, 131 

64, 632, 187 

10, 578, 664 

345, 798 

2, 946, 347 

1, 215, 668 

793, 148 

1, 910, 519 

5, 944, 133 

1,667 


Pounds 


Value 


Group II— Intermediates 


106 
164 
87 
43 
7 
35 
20 
17 
4 
5 
4 


58, 004, 435 

93, 370, 065 

69, 107, 105 

10, 366, 676 

347, 647 

3, 092, 915 

1, 278, 857 

778, 696 

1, 981, 588 

6, 415, 931 

650 


$12, 910, 486 


Group III— Finished products... 


57, 067, 326 


Dyes 


41, 463, 790 


Color lakes 


4, 551, 572 


Photographic chemicals 


483, 269 


Medicinals 


4, 233, 443 


Flavors 


1, 260, 588 


Perfumes... 


643, 430 


Tanning materials 


103, 598 


Synthetic phenolic resins 


4, 315, 196 


Research chemicals. 


12, 434 







5 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

Table 1. — Summary of the 'production of dyes and coal-tar cJiemicals. 

1918-1924 — Continued 



1923 



Number i Production 

of [ 

manu- 
factures ! Pounds 



Group II — Intermediates 

Group III— Finished products. 

Dyes 

Color lakes -.. 

Photographic chemicals 

Medicinals 

Flavors 

Perfumes 

Tanning materials 

Synthetic phenolic resins... 



Sales 



Pounds 



Value 




5, 816, 590 



Number Production 

of ! 

manu- 
factures Pounds 



Sales 




Pounds 



Value 



Group II — Intermediates 

Group III— Finished products 

Dyes 

Color lakes 

Photographic chemicals... 

Medicinals 

Flavors 

Perfumes. 

Tanning materials 

Synthetic phenolic resins.. 



76, 897, 521 
93, 636, 109 

64. 961. 433 
9.281,673 
321, 865 
2, 688, 329 
1, 691, 863 
1, 945, 488 

12, 745, 458 



$18, 164, 334 
55, 932, 580 
35, 012, 400 

4, 045, 799 
461, 379 

5, 178, 099 
1,471,089 

945, 773 

8, 818, 041 



International Dye Trade 



Prior to the war Germany almost completely dominated the 
world's dye trade, but since the war has come a realignment of pro- 
ducers. Since 1914 the manufacture of intermediates and dyes has 
been established on a large scale in the United States, Great Britain, 
and France, and to a smaller extent in Italy and Japan, while in 
Switzerland the industry has expanded. This has resulted in nearly 
doubling the world's capacity to produce dyes. In consequence of 
this enlarged capacity an era of competition has set in which may 
eliminate many of the existing plants. 

These new dye industries have greatly affected Germany's export 
trade, which in 1924 had dropped to 25 per cent by quantity and 60 
per cent by value of the 1913 trade. But there is little doubt of 
Germany's determination to recover as large a portion as possible 
of her lost markets, even at a high cost and over a long period of 
time. The large dye-consuming markets of the Far East, including 
China and Japan, as well as India, South x4.merica, and Russia, are 
again largely dominated by German products. In consuming coun- 
tries which have no dye industries, Germany, consequently, has a 
large part of the world's trade. The new producing countries have, 
however, adopted protective measures for the purpose of stimulating 
dye production. These measures have been partly responsible for 
Germany's effort to establish branch plants or to affiliate with estab- 



SUMMARY OF DOMESTIC PRODUCTION, 1924 9 

lished producers. Although German manufacturers have been less 
successful than the Swiss in establishing branch plants, they have 
firmly intrenched themselves in Italy and the I. G.- has discussed 
negotiations with British dye producers, although no agreement has 
yet been announced. It appears possible that affiliations, if not al- 
ready effected, ma}' be made in the near future, affecting one or more 
individual firms in the United States. 

One development of significance by the German I. G. in 1924 is 
the reported consolidation of interests for the purpose of reducing 
personnel and eliminating the duplication of production, selling, and 
purchasing forces. It is hoped thereby to reduce costs of manufac- 
ture. Amalgamation of the selling agencies of the German dye plants 
in Japan is only one of the results of such a movement. As the Ger- 
man export trade constituted nearly nine-tenths of the total trade 
before the war, the dye industry has been, almost from its inception, 
organized on an international basis. 

The German dye industr}^ possesses several advantages over the 
industries of other countries, among which are (1) cumulative ex- 
perience, (2) lower manufacturing costs in plants built before the 
war and paid for by pre-war profits, (3) the established reputation 
of its products among consumers. (4) a highly developed selling organ- 
ization in all of the world markets, (5) availability of raw materials, 

(6) a unified front efl'ected by the I. G. for meeting competition, and 

(7) the wide diversity of products manufactured. The struggle for 
the international market promises to be a long and severe one and 
in the end must result in the elimination, from an export basis, of 
those dyes which can not be produced at a cost sufficiently low to 
compete with German and Swiss products. 

Sudtzerland ranks second to Germany in the international dye trade. 
They produce largely the higher cost types. Indigo, the one excep- 
tion, is produced in quantity and exported by a single Swiss firm. 
Based on the 1913 figures for each country, the post-war export 
trade of Switzerland shows a smaller decline than that of Germany. 
This is probably due to the fact that the new producing countries 
have made the higher cost colors only after manufacturing the bulk 
types. Great Britain and the United States are, however, each 
year making more of the high cost dyes. In the long run it is prob- 
able that the Swiss will find their lack of raw materials an increasing 
handicap in maintaining their industiy on an international basis. 
They operate branch plants in the United States, Great Britain, 
France, and Italy, and consequently share the trade of those markets 
beyond the extent indicated by their actual exports. 

In the event that German firms do not establish branch plants in 
Great Britain and the United States, two methods are open for their 
pursuance of commercial warfare against the dye industry of these 
two countries, (1) an attack on their export trade and (2) a direct 
attack by price cutting in the world markets on certain lines of key 
products. Both methods of procedure are reported to have been 
employed in 1925. Evidence of the effectiveness of such procedure 
has been manifest in the United States since the tariff reduction of 

'' The Interessen Gemeinschaft is universally known as "I. G.," and will be so referred to throughout the 
remainder of this report. 



10 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

15 per cent ad valorem on September 22, 1924, resulting in a sharp 
increase in tlie imports of the higher price dyes. 

In addition to the special measures which Great Britain, the 
United States, France, Italy, Japan, and Spain have adopted to 
encourage and stimulate dye production, Great Britain and Japan 
have rendered financial aid to their dye industries, and Great Britain, 
Japan, and Germany have put in force a license system of dye-import 
control. Protective measures will play an important part in the 
maintenance and development of the dye industries in the new 
producing countries within the next five to ten years. In the long 
run, however, such fundamentals as (1) cost of production, (2) 
availability of raw materials, (3) cost and efficiency of labor and the 
maintenance of technical staffs, (4) efficiency of selling organization, 
(5) sufficient capital without excessive capitalization, and (6) ability 
to give prompt and efficient technical service to consumers, will become 
decisive factors in determining what countries will survive this 
competitive era. The German and the Swiss have an advantage 
in a consolidation of companies not possessed by any other country. 
Such a consolidation in the United States would be in violation of 
antitrust laws. In sharp contrast to the close cooperation in Ger- 
many between dye firms is the sharp competition between the 
different firms in gome of the new dye-producing countries, particu- 
larly in the United States. 

Among the world's dye producers there is manifest a distinct 
trend toward (1) the production of dyes of superior fastness, (2) the 
manufacture of dyes adapted to special purposes, (3) the development 
of dyes of lower application costs, (4) increase in the number of 
identical dyes produced by different firms, and (5) elimination of 
many types either in small demand or for which satisfactory sub- 
stitutes are available. 

The manufacturers of Germany, Switzerland, and Great Britain 
made many new dyes in 1924. Two conspicuous advances in Great 
Britain were the development of dyes adapted to artificial silk, 
particularly acetate silk, and the manufacture of stable water-soluble 
derivatives of vat dyes. The first water-soluble vat dye was Indi- 
gosol, manufactured by a Swiss firm and later by a German company. 
The second one was Soledon jade green, a derivative of Caledon jade 
green produced by the Scottish Dyes (Ltd.), of Great Britain. These 
new vat dyes have the advantage of being simple to apply and of 
being suitable for animal fibers as well as vegetable fibers. Their 
extensive substitution for the original vat dyes will probably depend 
upon their cost. 

The maintenance of research for the development of new dyes 
and allied products and for the improvement of existing methods of 
manufacture are important factors not to be overlooked by any 
nation striving to retain its international position in the dye trade. 
Marked advantages will result to those firms able to produce new 
dyes of exceptional fastness adapted to special use, and economical 
to apply. 



SUMMARY OP DOMESTIC PRODUCTION, 1924 



11 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS NOT DERIVED FROM COAL TAR 

The Tariff Commission in 1921 compiled for the first time a census 
of organic chemicals other than those derived from coal tar or ob- 
tained directly from natm'al som-ces. These included acids, alcohols, 
esters, ketones, aldehydes, derivatives of alkaloids, carbocyclic com- 
pounds, etc., used as perfume and flavoring ingredients, solvents, 
medicinals, and also in industrial and other processes. 

The production of organic chemicals of noncoal-tar origin in the 
United States has developed rapidly during the past few years. 
Statistics of production and sales for this whole group of products 
are available only for 1921 and subsequent years. 

Table 2. — Production and sales of synthetic organic chemicals of noncoal-tar 

origin, 1921-1924 



Year 


Production 


Sales 




Pounds 


Pounds 


Value. 


1921 


21, 545, 186 
79, 202, 155 
90, 597, 712 
115,817,865 


16, 761, 096 
60, 494, 494 
67, 727, 067 
85, 933, 461 


$7, 226, 068 
11,964,074 


1922 


1923 


13, 875, 521 


1924... 


20, 604, 717 



Development in this field of organic chemistry has been due in 
part to the increased production of solvents such as ethyl acetate, 
butanol, butyl acetate, and amyl acetate, used in the new nitrocel- 
lulose plastic and varnish industries. Likewise the increase in the 
production of phenolic resins has caused a larger output of formalde- 
hyde, a synthetic made in great quantity. Carbon tetrachloride 
used in fire extinguishers and as a solvent, chloroform uesd largely as 
an anesthetic, ethyl ether, oxalic acid, and tetraethyl lead are also 
among the synthetics of large production. 

Part IV of this report contains a detailed census of this group of 
organic chemicals, in so far as figures may be published without 
disclosing the operations of individual manufacturers. 



PART II 

PRODUCTION OF DYES AND COAL-TAR 
CHEMICALS, 1924 



13 



Part II 
PRODUCTION OF DYES AND COAL-TAR CHEMICALS, 1924 



Coal- Tar Crudes 

Output of by-product coJce exceeds 33,000,000 tons. — ^Preliminary fig- 
ures for the domestic production of coke in 1924, as reported by the 
United States Geological Survey, show a total of 43,451,000 short 
tons. This is 23 per cent less than the 1923 production, a decline 
largely due to the depression in the iron and steel industry. By- 
product coke declined 10 per cent while beehive coke declined about 
50 per cent. 

The significant feature of the 1924 production is the high per- 
centage of the total output obtained from by-product ovens — 77.8 per 
cent as compared with 27.5 per cent in 1913. The beehive coke 
industry of to-day may be looked upon largely as an auxiliary source 
of coke when the output of the by-product ovens is insufficient to meet 
the demand. 

The following table shows the production of by-product and 
beehive coke from 1913 to 1924, inclusive. The figures for 1924 are 
not final; those for by-product coke are taken from prehminary 
reports and those for beehive coke are estimates based upon the 
statements of producers as to the number of cars loaded for shipment 
by the railroads. 

Table 3. — Production of by-product and beehive coke in the United States, 1913-1924 



Year 


Net tons produced 


Per cent of total 
output 




By-product 


Beehive 


Total 


By- 
product 


Bee- 
hive 


1913 .' 


12, 714, 700 
14, 072, 895 
22, 439, 280 
25, 997, 580 
25, 137, 621 
30, 833, 951 
19, 749, 580 
28, 550, 545 
37, 597, 664 
33,983,000 


33,584,830 

27, 508, 255 

33, 167, 548 

30, 480, 792 

19, 042, 936 

20,511,092 

5, 538, 042 

8, 573, 467" 

19, 379, 870 

9,668,000 


46, 299, 530 
41,581,150 
55, 606, 828 
56, 478, 372 
44, 180, 557 
51, 345, 043 
25, 287, 622 
37, 124, 012 
56, 977, 534 
43,451,000 


27.5 
33.8 
40.4 
46.0 
56.9 
60.0 
78.1 
76.9 
66.0 
77.8 


72.5 


1915- - 


66.2 


1917 


59.6 


1918 


54.0 


1919 


43.1 


1920 


40.0 


1921 


21.9 


1922 


23.1 


1923 


34.0 


1924 1 


22.2 







1 Preliminary figures. 

In the conservation of national resources, the replacement of 
beehive ovens by the by-product variety, which recover the tar, 
ammonia, and gas products entirely wasted by the old beehive type, 
is of great economic significance for the following reasons: (1) The 
by-product ovens increase production of ammonia for fertilizer and 
other use; (2) the gas produced in these ovens is used for municipal 
lighting and industrial heating; and (3) the output of tar insures an 
abundant supply of coal tar for the preparation of crudes which serve 
as a basis of the domestic coal-tar dye and chemical industry, 

15 



16 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Production of tars. — The total output of coal tar in 1924 was about 
470,000,000 gallons, as compared with 488,900,000 gallons in 1923. 
According to preliminary figures, sales of coal tar in 1924 were 
about 253,000,000 gallons, valued at $11,810,000. Tlie domestic 
supply of tar is far in excess of the requirements of the domestic coal- 
tar chemical industry. Of the total production in 1924, 54 per cent 
was sold to other plants. Total sales as reported to the Tariff Com- 
mission by firms not primarily engaged in the operation of coke 
ovens indicate that approximately 184,000,000 gallons were distilled 
in 1924. It is estimated that in addition to this amount about 
9,000,000 gallons were distilled, making a total of about 193,000,000 
gallons. Including about 00,000,000 gallons of coal tar sold but not 
distilled, approximately 58 per cent of the total production of coal 
tar in 1924 was used for fuel. 

Table 4 shows the production and sales of coke-oven, coal-gas. 
water-gas, and oil-gas tar in the United States from 1918 to 1924. 
inclusive. Table 5 shows the production and disposition of coke-oven 
tar in the same period. 

In times of fuel shortage the value of tar as a fuel is enhanced: in 
any event the tar distiller must pay somewhat more than fuel value 
of the tar. Of the total tar sold by the coke-oven operator, only part 
is distilled into refined phenol, cresylic acid, naphthalene, and 
anthracene. 

This is accounted for by the demand for such partly refined prod- 
ucts as solvents and soft pitches. A similar condition exists in light 
oil obtained from coke-oven gas, as only a portion is separated into 
benzene, toluene, and xylene, owing to the demand for such partly 
refined products as motor fuel and solvents. 



Table 4. — Production and sales of coke-oven, coal-gas, water-gas, and oil-ga-- 
in the United States, 1918-1924 



tar 



[Compiled by the United States Geological Survey from reports of producers. The dittereuce between 
production and sales is accounted for by tar used by the producer and by changes in stock] 





Coke-oven 
tar 


Coal-gas 
tar 


Total coal 
tar 


Water and 
oil gas tar 


Production (gallons) : 

1918 


263, 299, 470 
288,901,739 
360, 664, 124 
2S3, 051, 649 
327, 779, 734 
440, 907, 109 
422, 074, 000 

200, 233, 002 
217,707,157 
174, 363, 696 
135, 293, 047 
162,204,417 
211,739,469 
209, 980, 000 

$6, 364, 972 
6, 918, 549 
6,378,040 
5, 645, 309 
6, 419, 743 
9, 250, 552 
9, 662, 000 


52, 694, 826 

(') 
51, 264, 956 

(') 
48, 082, 228 

(') 

(') 

47, 727, 839 

(') 
46, 604, 133 

« 
41, 266, 074 

(') 

(') 

$1, 863, 580 

(') 
2,010,186 

(') 
1,955,950 

(•) 

(') 


315, 994, 296 
340, 900, 000 
411,929,080 
303, 000, 000 
375, 861, 962 
488, 900, 000 
470, 000, 000 

247, 960, 841 
264, 900, 000 
220, 967, 829 
179, 200, 000 
203, 470, 491 
254, 700, 000 
25:5,000,000 

$8, 228, 552 
8,800,000 
8,388,226 
7, 760, 000 
8, 375, 693 
11, 400, 000 
11,810,000 


100,ys,"j, 156 


1919 


(-) 


1920-- - 


110,073,907 


1921. 


(-) 


1922 . . 


104, 555, 028 


19233 . . . 


(-) 


1924*. 


(-) . 


Sales (gallons) : 

1918 . . 


55, 283, 484 


1919 - 


(■) 


1920 


59, 238, 730 


1921 . . . 


(-) 


1922 


47, 338, 489 


19233 


5 49, 990, 840 


1924 < 


f-'' 


Value of sales: 

1918 


$1, 805, 865 


1919 


m 


1920 -- 


2, 109, 388 


1921 


I'J 


1922 -.-. 


1, 879, 490 


19233 . 


s 2, 001, 363 


1924* -.- 


(') 







' No report. Estimate included in total. 

2 No report. 

3 Revised since last report. 



< Preliminary figures. 

5 As reported by Census of Manufactures. 



COAL-TAR CRUDES 



17 



Table 5. — Production and disposition of coke-oven tar in the United States, 

191S-19.24 

[Compiled by United States Geological Survey from reports of operators] 





Year 


Coke 


-oven tar 




Gallons pro- 
duced 


Per cent 
soldi 


Per cent 
used 1 


1918 --. - 


263, 299, 470 
288,901,739 
360,664,124 
253, 051, 649 
327, 779, 734 
440, 907, 109 
422,074,000 


76.0 
75.4 
48.3 
53. 5 
49.5 
48.0 
49.6 


24 


1919 


24.6 


1920 


51.7 


1921 


46.5 


1922 


50 5 


1923' 


52.0 


19243. 


50.4 







' Xo account is taken of changes in stocks. 
2 Revised since last report. 
5 Preliminary figures. 

Total production of crvdes. — The data on domestic production of 
crudes are collected either by the Tariff Commission or by the Geo- 
logical Survey, according to the producer. Crudes distilled from tar 
at the by-product coke-oven plants are reported to the Geological 
Survey, while the output by firms primarily engaged in the distilla- 
tion of tar is reported to the Tariff Commission. 

Table 6 gives the production of by-products obtained from coke- 
oven operations in the years 1922 to 1924, together with the quantity 
and value of the sales. 

Table? (p. 20) shows production of crudes by firms engaged primarily 
in the distillation of coal tar. Increases in the 1924 production by 
firms prmiarily engaged in tar distillation are shown for benzene, 
solvent naphtha, and dead oil: decreases are shown for naphthalene, 
pitch, and refined tars. 

Table 8 (p. 21) gives total commercial production from 1918 to 1924 
of benzene, "motor benzol," toluene, solvent naphtha, and naph- 
thalene from all sources. Benzene, toluene, and solvent naphtha were 
made in larger quantities in 1924 than in 1923, while motor benzol 
and naphthalene were produced in smaller amounts. 



18 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Table Q.— By-products obtained from coke-oven operations, 1922-1924 
[United States Geological Survey! 





Production 


Sales 


Product 


Quantity 


Value 




Total 


Average 


1922 
Tar - --- gallons- 


327, 779, 734 


162, 204, 417 


$6, 419, 743 


$0.0396 


Ammonia: 

Sulphate pounds-- 

Ammonia liquor (NHj content) ..do 

Other forms (NH3 content) do 


695, 543, 349 

50, 036, 646 

693, 782 


714,752,882 

48, 523, 937 

192, 549 


17, 818, 236 

4, 559, 535 

12,041 


.0249 
.0940 
.0625 








22, 389, 812 




Sulphate equivalent of all forms do 


898, 465, 061 


909, 618, 826 










Gas: 

Used under boilers, etc -.M cubic feet.. 

Used in steel or afiiliated plants do 

Distributed through city mains do 

Sold for industrial use do 


[■442,671,114 


f 19,123,814 
1 144,976,030 
1 56, 930, 253 
I 10,352,921 


1, 251, 325 
15, 942, 446 
20, 326, 648 

1, 104, 096 


.0654 
.1100 
.3570 
.1066 






231,383,018 


38, 624, 515 


1669 








Light oil and derivatives: 

Crude light oil. gallons. - 


» 101, 437, 555 


5,138,095 


630,768 


.1228 


Benzol— 

Crude - do 

Refined do 

Toluol- 
Crude - do 

Refined do 

Solvent naphtha do 

Other light oil products do 


2,666,177 
10,419,504 
57, 025, 699 

38, 159 

1,955,119 

2, 983, 858 

580, 058 


2, 665, 889 

9, 590, 459 

54,930,203 

3,938 

1, 906, 122 

2, 861, 482 

212,712 


698, 437 
2,736,944 
10, 491, 309 

652 

556, 363 

538, 512 

14, 949 


.2620 
.2854 
.1910 

.1656 
.2919 
.1882 
.0703 




75, 668, 574 


77. 308. 900 


15. 667, 934 


.2027 


Naphthalene: 

Crude pounds-- 

Refined ; do 


6, 107, 742 
1, 810, 972 


3, 298, 851 
1,589,084 


52, 103 
79, 149 


.0158 
.0498 




7,918,714 


4, 887, 935 


131, 252 


.0269 


Other products 






154, 507 


















83, 387, 763 
9, 250, 552 




1923 
Tar -gallons-- 


440,907,109 


211, 739, 469 


.044 


Ammonia: 

Sulphate pounds-. 

Ammonia liquor (NH3 content) ' do 


915, 926, 762 
58, 699, 902 


884,952,912 
57, 859, 699 


25,954,413 
5, 754, 463 


.029 
.099 








31,708,876 




Sulphate equivalent of all forms do 


1, 150. 726, 370 


1,116,391,708 






Gas: 

Used under boilers, etc M cubic feet.. 

Used in steel or affiliated plants -do 

Distributed through city mains do 


■>601,155,293 


f 33,740,758 

200, 099, 200 

65,143,515 

19, 458, 781 


1, 820, 808 
22, 640. 134 
23,116,578 

4,025,700 


.054 
.113 
.355 
.207 


Sold for industrial use - do 


318, 442, 254 


51, 609, 220 


.162 



* Includes gas wasted and gas used for heating retorts. 

' 98,432,100 gallons, including 4,200,000 gallons of purchased oil, was refined on the premises to make the 
derived products listed. 
3 Includes an unknown amount of sulphate sold on the basis of pounds of NHi content. 



COAIi-TAE CRUDES 19 

Table 6. — By-products obtained from coke-oven operations, 1922-1924 — Con. 



Product 



Light oil and derivatives: 

Crude liglit oil gallons- 
Benzol — 

Crude do... 

Refined do... 

Motor benzol do... 

Toluol- 
Crude do... 

Refined do... 

Solvent naphtha do... 

Other light oil products do... 



Naphthalene: 

Crude pounds. 

Refined do... 



Production 



Other products 

Value of all by-products sold 

Tar gallons.. 

Ammonia: 

Sulphate pounds.. 

Ammonia liquor (NHs content) do 



« 135, 647, 175 

4, 503, 428 
12, 364, 043 

80, 467, 883 

37, 777 

2, 847, 517 

4, 162, 178 

439, 253 



Sales 



Quantity 



104, 822, 079 



11,872,007 
1, 139, 922 



13,011,929 



422, 074, 326 



893, 127, 071 
49, 029, 524 



Gas: 



Sulphate equivalent of all forms do ;1,089, 245, 167 

1924 

Used under boilers, etc M cubic feet. 

Used in steel or afliliated plants do... 

Distributed through city mains do... 

Sold for industrial use. do... 



'541,101,050 



Light oil and derivatives: 

Crude light oil.. gallons. 

Benzol, crude and refined '.. do... 

Motor benzol ' do... 

Toluol- 
Crude do... 

Refined ..do... 

Solvent naphtha do 

Other light oil products do... 



.v'^aphthalene: 

Crude pounds. 

Refined do... 



« 128, 956, 955 
20, 429, 515 
71, 474, 321 

234, 244 
2, 951, 187 
4, 474, 220 
1, 364, 528 



6, 539, 368 

4, 348, 400 
12, 375, 782 
80, 480, 326 

6,097 

2, 628, 686 

3, 399, 904 

198, 098 



109, 976, 661 



10, 047, 427 
1, 198, 206 



11, 245, 633 



209, 979, 999 



Value 



Total 



$683, 545 

768.486 
3, 070, 751 
13, 145, 833 

978 

765, 052 

608, 084 

10, 605 



19, 053, 334 



174, 216 
65, 493 



239, 709 



214, 264 
' 112, 075, 955 



9, 661, 563 



931, 329, 570 
47, 665, 811 



1, 121, 992, 814 



29, 794, 046 
187, 171, 883 
65, 676, 867 
18, 561, 057 



301, 203, 853 



Other products 

Value of all by-products sold. 



7, 840, 582 
20, 024, 902 
70, 636, 930 

245, 079 
2, 986, 423 
3, 884, 585 
1, 077, 842 



« 100, 928, 015 [ 106, 696, 343 



8, 378, 666 
13, 302 



8, 391, 968 



7, 891, 116 
327, 957 



8, 219, 073 



22, 522, 248 
4, 656, 428 



27, 178, 676 



1, 729, 013 
21, 007, 607 
23, 486, 416 

3,561,911 



49, 784, 947 



652, 467 
4, 071, 221 
10, 732, 087 

51,041 
718,641 

724, 874 
78, 934 



17,029,265 



116, 305 
11, 903 



128, 208 



57, 891 



• 103, 840, 550 



Average 



.105 

.177 
.248 
.163 

.160 
.291 
.179 
.054 



,173 



.017 
.055 



.021 



.046 
.024 



.058 
.112 
,358 
,192 



,165 



.083 
.203 
.152 

.208 
.241 
,187 
.073 



160 



.015 
.036 



.016 



1 Includes gas wasted and gas used for heating retorts. 

< Refined on the premises to make the derived products shown, 132,517,389 gaUons. 
' Exclusive of the value of coke breeze produced, which in 1923 amounted to $9,048,000. 
' Refined on the premises to make the derived products shown, 125,580,743 gallons. 
' Included under refined benzol are the sales of two plants amounting to 2,284,000 gallons, with a value 
of $301,565, that were reported as "refined benzol," but were probably used as motor benzol. 
' Total gallons of derived products. 
' Exclusive of the value of coke breeze produced, which in 1924 amounted to $6,179,000. 



20 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Table 7. — Production of coal-tar crudes, 1924, by firms not -primarily engaged in 
the operation of coke-oven plants and gas houses 

[The numbers in the second column refer to the numbered alphabetical list of manufacturers given on 
page 211. An X indicates that the corresponding product was made by a manufacturer who did not 
consent to the publication of his name in connection therewith. A blank in the third and fourth columns 
indicates that there was actual production of the corresponding article, but that the figures can not be 
published without revealing the output of individual firms]. 





Manufacturers' identification 
numbers according to list on 
page 211 


1924 


Name 


Quantity 


Value 


Unit 
value 


Total Grades 






$17,353,541 




Anthracene (crude, less than 30 
per cent) pounds.. 


157 






Anthracene oil gallons. . 


148, 157, X 


693, 518 
629, 934 


116,289 
155, 973 


$0.17 


Benzene do 


16, 23, 47, 142, X 


.25 


Carbazole (crude) pounds.. 


171 




Carbolic or middle oil... gallons.. 


36,50 








Cresol or cresylic acid (crude) 
gallons.. 


16, 47, 104, X 








Cumene do 


16 






Dead or creosote oil do 

Light oil do 


16, 23, 36, 42, 47, 50, 104, 127, 148, 

157, 168, 187, X, X, X. 
36, 50, 127, X, X 


41,041,278 

83, 754 


4, 789, 590 
13,461 


.12 
.16 


Motor fuel do 


47, 142, X 




Naphthalene (crude)..-.pounds.. 

Other distillates gallons.. 

Pitch of tar tons.. 

Pyridine gallons.. 


14, 16, 36, 47, 50, 104, 127, 157, 168, 

XXX 
16, 36, 42, 47, 104, 148, 168, X, 
X X. 
16, 23, 36, 42, 47, 50, 104, 127, 148, 

157, 168, X, X, X, X. 
16, 123 -. 


34, 683, 803 

9, 648, 282 

421, 580 


441,333 
1, 388, 331 
6, 439, 161 


.01 
.14 

15.27 


Refined tars barrels.. 

Solvent naphtha.- gallons 


16, 23, 36. 50, 104, 127, 157, 168, 

X, X, X, X, X. 
16, 47, 157, X, X 


625, 792 
770, 491 


2, 785, 460 
130, 903 


4.45 

.17 


Toluene do .. 


16 




Xylene do _ . 


16 



















The instructions sent to manufacturers were as follows: Include under dead or creosote oil only products 
which may be used for creosoting. Include under "other distillates" shingle stain oils, disinfectant oils, 
and flotation oils which do not contain over 5 per cent of phenol. Include under refined tars those tars 
which are used for road treatment, saturating felt, and for protective coatings. Phenol and all distillates 
which, on being subjected to distillation, yield in the portion distilling below 190° C. a quantity of tar 
acids equal to or more than 5 per cent of the original distillate, or which, on being subjected to distillation, 
yield in the portion distilling below 215° C. a quantity of tar acids equal to or more than 75 per cent of the 
original distillate are not to be included here but are to be placed under intermediates. 



COAL-TAR CRUDES 



21 



Table S. — Total commercial production of benzene, toluene, solvent naphtha, and 
naphthalene from all sources in the United States, 1918-1934 

[Data for coke ovens and gas works from reports to United States Geolopieal Survey; for tar refineries 
and others to United States Tariff Commission] 



By-product 

coke plants 

(sales) • 



Qas works 
(sales) 1 



Tar refiner- 
ies and all 
other estab- 
lishments 
(produc- 
tion) 



Total com- 
mercial pro- 
duction ' 



Benzene (all grades except motor benzol) : 

Gallons— 

1918 

1919.. 

1920 - 

1921 

1922 

1923 

1924 

Value— 

1918- 

1919 

1920 

1921 

1922 

1923 - 

1924 

Motor benzol: 

Gallons — 

1918 

1919 (included under benzene above) - 

1920 

1921... 

1922 

1923 

1924.. _ 

Value— 

1918 

1919 (included under benzene above) - 

1920 

1921 

1922 

1923- 

1924 

Toluene, all grades: 

Gallons — 

1918 

1919 

1920 

1921_ 

1922 

1923 

1924... 

Value — 

1918 

1919... 

1920 

1921 : 

1922 

1923 

1924 



43, 
3 63, 

17, 

6, 

12, 

8 16, 

'S20, 

$11, 

3 11, 

4, 

], 

3, 

«3, 

7S 4 



441,980 
077, 463 
230, 776 
839, 021 
256, 348 
724, 182 
024, 902 

966, 367 
643, 645 
497, 823 
611,721 
435, 381 
839, 237 
071, 221 



2, 177, 168 
(*) 
(') 
(*) 
(*) 
(*) 
(*) 

$572, 950 
(') 
i*) 
(0 
(*) 
(') 
(*) 



1° 55, 

50, 

54, 

6 80, 

'8 70, 



764, 265 
022, 573 
930, 203 
480, 326 
636, 930 



467, 126 
II 350, 000 

(U) 



3, 015, 848 

1, 826, 373 

875, 561 

2,171,631 

« 774, 940 

394, 906 

629, 934 

$994, 161 
560, 547 
287, 586 
463, 205 
» 215, 136 
118,505 
155, 973 



10$ 12, 

8, 

10, 

« 13, 

'8 10, 



644, 931 
966, 686 
491,309 
145,833 
732, 087 



541,366 
353,827 
470,364 I 
835,493 
910,060 
634, 783 
231,502 j 

,249,702 I 
355,990 
740,722 
233,378 
557,015 I 
' 766, 030 1 
■ 709, 682 i 



$112,849 
" 70, 000 

(12) 

(<) 
(*) 



3, 965, 518 
(.*) 

" 2, 000 
11 1,000 

(13) 

11 2, 000 
11 2, 000 

$5, 597, 353 

m 

11 300 
"270 

(13) 

11570 
11 500 



(«) 
(») 
(») 

(12) 
(12) 
(12) 



(«) 
(•) 
« 

(12) 
(12) 
(12) 



1,596,353 
510, 957 

(13) 
(13) 
(13) 
(13) 
(13) 

$8, 044, 890 
235, 321 

(13) 
(13) 
(13) 
(13) 
(13) 



48, 634, 996 
« 65, 403, 836 
18,141,337 
9, 045, 642 
13,071,288 
17,154,088 
20, 701, 836 

$13, 533, 478 
12, 296, 192 
4, 794, 409 
2, 082, 926 

3, 664, 517 
3, 968, 742 

4, 236, 194 



(•) 

(') 

(») 
55. 622, 482 
83, 664, 846 
73, 788, 457 



(•) 

(») 

(») 
$10, 657, 074 
13,851,704 
11, 344, 100 



14, 103, 237 
1, 884, 784 

(13) 
(13) 

(13) 
(13) 
(13) 

$20, 891, 945 
596, 511 

(13) 
(13) 
(13) 
(13) 
(13) 



'Sales instead of production are here given to avoid double counting between production of crude and 
pure grades, and because such of the product as used in the coke plant or gas works is not available for 
commercial use. 

2 Totals include estimates for firms not reporting, or actual figures for items that can not be shown sepa- 
rately without disclosing individual returns. 

3 Includes motor benzol and 13,000 gallons of gasoline used in blending. 
* Reports incomplete. Estimate included in total. 

' Revised figure, to eliminate duplication through certain plants reporting both to the Tariff Commis- 
sion and to the Geological Survey. 

8 Final figures, revised since last report. 

' Subject to slight revision. 

8 Included under refined benzol are the sales of two plants, amounting to 2,284,000 gallons, with a value 
of $301,565, that were reported as "refined benzol" but were probably used as motor benzol. 

' Data not collected from tar refiners prior to 1922. 

18 Includes 1,333,000 gallons of gasoline used in blending. 

11 Estimate. 

12 Included in total, but can not be shown separately without disclosing individual returns. 

■3 A certain quantity of toluene was produced both at gas works and at tar refineries, but the figures can 
not be given without disclosing individual returns. 

47285— 25t 3 



22 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Table 8.- — Total commercial production of benzene, toluene, solvent naphtha, and 
naphthalene from all sources in the United States, 1918-1924 — Continued 



Solvent naphtha, crude and refined, including 
xylene: 
Gallons— 

1918 

1919 

1920 

1921 

1922 

1923 

1924 

Value— 

1918 

1919 .- 

1920 

1921 _. 

1922 

1923 - 

1924 

Naphthalene, all grades: 
Pounds— 

1918 

1919 

1920 

1921 

1922 

1923. 

1924 

Value— 

1918 

1919... 

1920 

1921 

1922 

1923 

1924 



By-product 

coke plants 

(sales) 



» 3, 284, 037 

i« 3, 649, 066 

4, 695, 464 

2,881,656 

2,861,482 

« 3, 399, 904 

' 3, 884, 585 

» $458, 689 

16 557,416 

851,048 

510, 509 

538, 512 

« 608, 084 

' 724, 874 



15, 890, 447 
6, 702, 040 
14, 448, 762 
1, 983, 523 
4,887,935 
611,246,633 
' 8,219,073 

$650, 229 

191,364 

487, 974 

59, 335 

131,252 

6 239, 709 

' 128, 208 



Gas works 
(sales) 



1, 442, 267 

(}) 
(*) 

(12) 
« 

$191, 475 
(0 
{') 
{') 

(.2) 

(<) 



896, 080 

0) 
1, 760, 293 

(<) 

C) 
1, 452, 463 

(') 

$14, 282 
(0 

63, 449 
{*) 
(*) 
" 45, 981 
(*) 



Tar refiner- 
ies and all 
other estab- 
lishments 
(produc- 
tion) 



15 965, 458 

(12) 
(12) 
(12) 

(12) 

812, 378 
i« $232, 003 

(12) 
(12) 
(12) 

(5) (") 

(12) 

153, 941 



40, 138, 092 
12,612,203 
26,393,411 
.16,949,464 
19, 323, 393 
41, 453, 002 
34. 683, 803 

$1,281,440 
327, 201 
791, 403 
380, 167 
352, 957 
652, 148 
441, 333 



Total com- 
mercial pro- 
duction 



5, 691, 762 
4, 128, 747 
5, 384, 560 
3, 627, 48 8 
3,680,811 
4,041,497 
4,781,963 

$882, 167 
672, 685 
994, 205 
644, 548 
773, 336 
800, 698 
896, 815 



56, 924, 619 
20,114,243 
42, 602, 466 
19, 432, 987 
25,411,328 
64, 151, 098 
44,102,876 

$1, 945, 951 
542, 565 
1,342,826 
462, 502 
536, 209 
937, 838 
602, 541 



* Reports incomplete Estimate included in total. 

* Revised figure, to eliminate duplication th;ough certain plants reporting both to the Tariff Commis- 
sion and to the Geological Survey. 

. « Final flgu es, ;evised since last report. 
'Subje. t to slight levision. 

1^ Includes 52,847 gallons of xylene, valued at $9,937, and 107,375 gallons of crude heavy solvent, valued 
at $8,769 
i» Includes 192,969 gallons of xylene, valued at $67,935. 
" Includes 23,088 gallons of xylene, valued at $4,503. 
" Census of Manufactures, 1923. 

Creosote oil. — Creosote (or dead) oil is used in treating railway ties, 
and otiier timbers. In 1923 about 127,000,000 gallons "were used in 
the wood-treating plants of the United States, of which 51 per cent 
was domestic oil.^ Imports of creosote oil increased rapidly from 
1919 to 1924, inclusive, amounting in 1924 to 89,687,784 gallons, 
valued at $13,463,689. Great Britain is the chief source of imports. 
It is estimated that Great Britain exports about 90 per cent of her 
total production of creosote oil and ships nine-tenths of her exports 
to the United Scates. As the economic advantages of creosoted 
wood are becoming better known, the demand for creosote oil is 
increasing each year. 

Other crudes. — Import data for other coal-tar crudes will befound 
in Part VI. 



> Quantity of Wood Treated and Preservatives Used in the United States in 1923. Forest Service, Dept. 
of Agriculture. 



COAL-TAR INTERMEDIATES 23 

Exports of crudes. — Exports of benzene in 1924 were 57,882,171 
pounds, valued at SI, 734, 837. This is a decrease of nearly 50 per 
cent from 1923 (a year of large production) when 111,336,768 pounds, 
valued at $3,647,660 were exported. Exports of crude tar and pitch 
in 1924 were 269,015 barrels, valued at $1,076,203, about 50 per cent 
of the exports hi 1923. Shipments of other crude distillates amounted 
to 14,535,160 pounds, valued at $454,386, or about 5H milhon 
pounds more than in 1923. 

Coal-Tar Intermediates 

description 

Intermediates do not occur as such in coal tar, but are prepared 
from the crudes (benzene, toluene, naphthalene, and anthracene) by 
chemical treatment with sulphuric acid, nitric acid, alkalies, chlorine, 
or other chemicals. From fewer than 10 coal-tar crudes, 200 to 300 
intermediates are prepared for use in the production of hundreds of 
dyes. The various chemical stages in the conversion of crudes to 
intermediates are (1) nitration, (2) reduction, (3) sulphonation, (4) 
caustic fusion, (5) chlorination, (6) alkylation, (7) liming, (8) conden- 
sation, (9) carboxylation, (10) oxidation, and (11) diazotization. 

Intermediates are in turn the raw materials which are converted 
by complex chemical processes into dyes, medicinals, perfumes, 
flavors, photographic chemicals, synthetic resins, and tanning 
materials. They are also used as accelerators in the vulcanization of 
rubber, as camphor substitutes, insecticides, germicides, in the flota- 
tion process for concentrating ores and for other uses. Certain 
inteniiediates are used in the direct production of dyes on the fiber 
and for increasing the fastness of dyes on the fiber. When used for 
the latter purpose, they are known as "developers." After purifica- 
tion many intermediates are used directly as drugs, perfumes, and 
flavors. 

Tile relation between the heavy chemical industry and the inter- 
mediate and dye industry is an intimate one, as the latter industry 
is an important consumer of heavy chemicals and other products. 
The m inufacture of intermediates and dyes requires large quantities 
of acids, alkalies, and other heavy chemicals, such as sodium nitrite 
and sulphide, salt, chlorine, bromine, sulphur, and in addition 
noncoal-tar organic compounds, such as methanol, formaldehyde, 
and acetic anhydride. 

The coal-tar chemical industry plays a conspicuous part in the 
industrial life of the Nation, (1) as consumer of raw materials in the 
chemical industry (2) as a producer of essential products for textile, 
leather, paper, and paint factories, and as a producer of medicinals, 
synthetic tanning materials, and a wide variety of other products. 

PRODUCTION 

The production of intermediates in the United States is given in 
Table 11, page 29, in as great detail as is possible without disclosing the 
output of individual manufacturers. The total production in 1 924 was 
186,596,562 pounds, as compared with 231,393,871 pounds in 1923. 
Sales in 1924 totaled 76,897,521 pounds, valued at $18,164,334. In 



24 CENSUS OP DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

general there were marked declines in the output of those inter- 
mediates normally consumed in large amounts in dye manufacture. 
There were, however, notable increases in the output of phenol, in 
intermediates used in the production of the fast and specialty dyes 
and in those used for rubber accelerators. 

Rubber accelerators. — The increased consumption in recent years 
of intermediates as accelerators in the vulcanization of rubber is a 
development of importance to both the intermediate and the rubber 
manufacturer. To the former it furnishes an auxiliary market for 
his products, and for the latter it effects great economy in time. 

As certain rubber accelerators serve also as intermediates in dye 
manufacture, production and sales figures do not accurately reflect 
consumption by the rubber industry. 

Among the accelerators showing increased production are thio- 
carbanilide, the output of which was 3,397,397 pounds in 1924, as 
compared with 3,309,414 pounds in 1923. Sales in 1924 were 2,739,- 
404 pounds, valued at $642,626. Others showing increases are 
triphenyl guanidine with a total output of 429,808 pounds for 1924; 
diphenyl guanidine which increased from 867,019 pounds in 1923 to 
1,034,099 pounds in 1924; o-ditolylguanidine, ethylidine aniline, and 
methylene dianilide. The output of formanilide was 88,736 pounds 
in 1924, a decrease from the previous year. 

The production of other accelerators was reported but no figures 
can be published without revealing the confidential operations of 
the individual manufacturer. Accelerators of noncoal-tar origin 
will be found in Part IV, page 127. 

Large increase in output of phenol. — The production of phenol in 
1924 was 10,521,944 pounds, an increase of more than 200 per cent 
over 1923, when the output was 3,310,911 pounds. In three years 
production has increased to eight times the 1922 output of 1,285,978 
pounds. The largest use of phenol is in the manufacture of synthetic 
phenolic resins for electrical insulators and in the making of molded 
parts for automobiles and radios. It is also used in intermediates, 
dyes, and pharmaceuticals. 

Phenol may be classified according to source and method of manu- 
facture as (1) natural phenol, obtained from coal tar by extraction 
and purification, (2) synthetic phenol, made by treating benzene with 
sulphuric acid and converting the resulting benzene sulfonate into 
phenol by fusion with caustic soda. 

The present consumption of phenol is estimated at about 11,000,- 
000 pounds per year. The trend is toward an increased consumption. 
A continued expansion of the demand for phenolic-resin products 
will further increase the consumption of either phenol or cresylic 
acid. The establishment of the manufacture of hexahydrophenol 
will result in a further increase in the domestic consumption of phenol. 

Synthetic phenol entails a higher manufacturing cost than natural 
phenol. Except during the war, when large quantities of synthetic 
phenol were made for the manufacture of explosives, production was 
in large part formerly of the natural product. But the marked 
increase occurring in 1924 was largely in synthetic phenol, and it is 
probable that this form will continue to be a factor of increasing 
importance in supplying domestic requirements. 

Aniline and its derivatives. — Among the important intermediates 
aniline ranked first in quantity; in value it was second only to phenol. 



COALr-TAK INTERMEDIATES 25 

Aniline is used in the preparation of dyes of almost every class, 
whether the classification is based on the method of application or 
on chemical constitution. Three of the domestic dyes produced in 
largest quantity, namely, Indigo, Direct deep black EW and 
Agalma black 10 B, require aniline in their manufacture. Indigo 
is the leading dye exported from the United States. A variety of 
other products, including medicinals and rubber accelerators, also 
require aniline. 

The production of aniline oil in 1924, as reported by 9 firms, was 
22,257,354 pounds, a decline of nearly 17 per cent from 1923. The 
total sales of aniline in 1924 were 12,522,044 pounds, valued at 
$1,995,440. The average sales price was therefore 16 cents per 
pound. 

Aniline salt (aniline hydrochloride) is used in the direct production 
of "aniline black" on cotton and is consequently a raw material 
for the textile industry as well as for the dye manufacturer. Pro- 
duction in 1924 amounted to 846,898 pounds. 

Dimethyl aniline (prepared from aniline and methanol), one of 
the leading intermediates derived from aniline, is used in the pro- 
duction of such important basic dyes as Methyl violet, Methylene 
blue B, Malachite green. The output in 1924 was 2,830,798 pounds, 
an increase over the previous year when production was 2,681,751 
pounds. The price receded from 38 cents per pound in 1923 to 
34 cents in 1924. 

p-Nitroaniline shows decreased production in 1924, the output 
being 964,344 pounds, as compared with 2,008,003 pounds in 1923. 
Sales in 1924 amounted to 722,943 pounds, with a value of $459,936, 
or 64 cents per pound as compared with 69 cents in 1923. This 
intermediate is of importance in the preparation of Para red on the 
fiber and in making color lakes. Diamine green B, and G, Alizarin 
yellow R, and certain sulphur dyes. 

Sodium henzoate. — This product is used largely as a food preser- 
vative. Production in 1924 was 860,810 pounds, as compared with 
749,885 pounds in the previous year. Sales were 754,462 pounds, 
valued at $464,480. The average sales price per pound was 63 
cents, an increase of 3 cents over 1923. 

Naphthalene intermediates. — The leading intermediate derived 
from naphthalene, measured quantitatively, is b-naphthol. It is 
consumed in large amounts in the manufacture of other intermediates, 
dyes, color lakes, and also in conjunction with p-nitroaniline in the 
direct production of Para red on the cotton fiber. The production 
of b-naphthol in 1924 was 3,745,690 pounds as compared with 
5,741,355 pounds in 1923. Sales in 1924 amounted to 2,961,514 
pounds, with a value of $656,830. The unit price of 22 cents per 
pound was the same as in the previous year. 

H-acid (l-amino-8-naphthol-3 : 6-disulfonic acid) ranked second 
among the naphthalene intermediates in quantity of output with a 
total of 2,219,858 pounds. This is a reduction of 1,242,806 pounds 
from the previous year. 

Gamma acid, used in the manufacture of direct cotton dyes, 
including Diamine black B, Diamine brown M, and Diamine fast 
red F, showed a total production of 338,811 pounds, as compared 
with 306,605 pounds in 1923. 



26 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Record 'production of yhthalic anhydride. — Phthalic anhydride is an 
intermediate of great importance because it serves as a basic raw 
material for otlier intermediates used in vat dyes. It is made by 
the catalytic oxidation of naphthalene and is one of the raw materials 
of synthetic anthraquinone, which in 1924 made up about tiiree- 
quarters of the total output of anthraquinone. Anthraquinone is 
used for the production of certain vat dyes, including the indanthrene 
and most of the algol dyes, alizarin and alizarin derivatives, and the 
fluoresceins, cosines, and rhodamines. 

The production of phthalic anhydride in 1924 was 2,787,308 
pounds, as compared with 2,343,802 pounds in 1923. Sales in 1924 
amounted to 2,277,073 pounds, valued at $556,265. The average 
sales value per pound, 24 cents, represents a decline of 5 cents from 1923. 

The price recession of phthalic anhydride since 1917, one of the 
most marked in the entire field of intermediates, is shown in the 
following table: 

Table 9. — Domestic prices of ■phthalic anhydride, 1917-May, 1925 



Year 


Average 

price 

per 

pound 


Year 


Average 

price 

per 

pound 


1917 


$4.23 

2.85 

.99 

.46 

.39 


1922 


$0.35 


1918 


1923.. 


.29 


1919 


1924 


.24 


1920 


1925 (Jan.-May) 


.18 


1921 











The average price in 1924 of 24 cents per pound is below that of 
1914, when the domestic supply was imported; the invoice price of 
24 cents in 1914 did not include the importers' profit and certain 
other costs. The current price (May, 1925) is 18 cents. 

Domestic phthalic anhydride has been exported in significant quan- 
ties to European countries, which indicates tliat this intermediate is 
being produced on an international basis in the United States. It is 
one of the few coal-tar intermediates or finished products selling 
below the 1914 price; among the other products in the same class 
are indigo and salvarsan (arsphenamine). 

Anthraquinone . — This intermediate is of increasing interest because 
of the trend toward greater consumption of vat dyes, largely used on 
cotton, and ce:'tain aliza^n derivatives, including the acid alizarins 
used in wool dyeing. The 1924 British production of new anthra- 
quinone dyes for celanese silk indicates that this intermediate will 
occupy a position of greater importance in the world trade of dyes 
than heretofore. 

Anthraquinone is produced in the United States by two methods: 
(1) By the oxidation of anthracene obtained directly from coal tar. 
This oxidation was the method first used for the preparation of 
anthraquinone and is tiie principal commercial metliod used in Ger- 
many and Great Britain. (2) Synthetically from phthalic anhy- 
dride and benzene (with aluminum chloride). Phthalic anhydride is 
made by the catalytic oxidation of naphthalene. 

The output of anthraquinone in 1924 was 638,755 pounds, as 
compared with 857,190 pounds in 1923, the peak year of production. 



COALr-TAR INTERMEDIATES 27 

A feature of the 1924 output was the increased percentage of the 
total made up by the synthetic product, the proportion increasing 
from about 50 per cent in 1923 to more than 75 per cent in 1924. 
The manufacture of anthraquinone by the synthetic process prom- 
ises to supply the entire domestic requirements. It is of interest to 
recall that in 1919 the problem was to obtain an ample supply of 
antlr'acene for the manufacture of anthraquinone and vat dyes. 
There is no inherent lack of anthracene in domestic coal tar, nor are 
there technical difficulties in its recovery, but in recovering anthra- 
cene oil there is left a hard pitch which has only a limited market in 
this country. The extensive development of synthetic anthraqui- 
none, which has an advantage of greater purity than that made from 
anthracene, has solved the problem confronting manufacturers in 
1919. In other words, the vat dyes which fonnerly required anthra- 
cene are now being made from naphthalene, the supply of which is 
abundant, as it constitutes from 5 to 10 per cent of coal tar. 

Closely related to anthraquinone is the intermediate methyl anthra- 
quinone, used in the manufacture of several valuable yellow and 
orange vat dyes and in Cyananthrol E, and G. As only small amounts 
are available from coal tar, it is made synthetically from toluene, 
phthalic anhydride, and aluminum chloride. An increased output of 
methyl anthraquinone in 1924 is reflected in the production of dyes 
derived from this intermediate. 

New intermediates. — Of the 312 intermediates reported in 1924, 
more than 60 were not reported in the previous year and most of 
them were manufactured lor the first time in this country. They 
were for the most part used in the manufacture of new dyes, first 
reported in 1924, as accelerators for the vulcanization of rubber, and 
in medicinals and other finished coal-tar products. 

Hydrogenated naphthalenes and phenols were first produced on a 
commercial scale in Germany. The production of certain of these 
derivatives — ^hexahydrophenol and tetrahydronaphthalene — in the 
United States has been announced in 1925. Their development is 
of importance because of the variety of ways in which they may be 
applied. 

Hexahydrophenol (cyclohexanol) known in the trade as "Hexalin" 
is made by the catalytic reduction of phenol with hydrogen. It is a 
high-boiling solvent (160°C) for fats, oils, waxes, rubber, and other 
products. Although insoluble in water it readily dissolves in aqueous 
soap solutions. These colloidal solutions possess powerful emulsify- 
ing and detergent properties and hence are of value for removing oils 
and fats from textiles. Hexalin also finds use in the preparation of 
polishes for fiuniture and lacquers, especially those derived from 
nitrocellulose. In the manufacture of plastics and in certain other 
uses the esters of hexahydrophenol are said to possess special ad- 
vantages. The cresols, by reduction, yield similar products. Tetra- 
hydronaphthol, known as ''Tetralol," is used as a disinfectant in 
soaps. 

Tetrahydronaphthalene, known as ''Tetralin," niade by the 
hydrogenation of naphthalene, is another high-boiling solvent. 
It evaporates slowly, is said to be nontoxic, and has promise as a 
solvent for the oil, "paint, and varnish industry. With hexalin it is 
added to soaps. Decahydronaphthalene, known as "Dekalin, " is 
similar in some of its properties to tetrahydronaphthalene. 



28 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

Prices of intermediates. — The weighted average selling price of in- 
termediates marketed in 1924 was 24 cents per pound, as compared 
with 23 cents in 1923. The average price for the period 1921 to 1924 
ranged between 22 and 25 cents per pound. ^ However, the average 
sales figure is not the average for all intermediates manufactured, as 
only a portion of the total production is sold. Dyes, however, taking 
the figures quantitatively, show a relatively small spread between 
production and sales. The sales of intermediates in 1924 amounted 
to 41 per cent of production, by quantity; in 1923, 36 per cent; and 
in 1922, 35 per cent. These comprised a wide variety of products, 
from aniline oil at 16 cents a pound to specialties selling at over $3 
per pound. To the smaller dye manufacturer, producing only a part 
or none of his intermediate requirements, the availability of inter- 
mediates is a matter of great importance. The larger dye producers 
buy their entire requirements of certain intermediates from firms 
specializing exclusively in the manufacture of these products. In 
general, a wide variety of intermediates is available under com- 
petitive conditions to the consumer. 

In comparing the annual average price of intermediates, two 
trends should be noted: (1) The trend toward increased production 
of the higher-priced intermediates and toward a greater variety of the 
high-priced specialty dyes, and (2) the trend toward lower prices of 
individual intermediates as production costs are reduced. This 
latter is especially conspicuous on the bulk products which are 
produced in large quantities and sold by many firms. 

Table 10 gives the domestic sales prices of 20 intermediates from 
1917 to 1924, and with the invoice prices of the same intermediates 
imported in the fiscal year 1914. The invoice prices are not directly 
comparable with the domestic sales prices in the same year for the 
reason that the former do not include the importer's profit, nor, in 
most transactions, the cost of containers, charges for packing, freight, 
or insurance. 

'See chart, p. 40. 



COAL-T.\R INTERMEDIATES 



29 



Table 10. — Domestic sales, price per pound of coal-tar intermediates, 1917-1924,'^ 
and invoice price of same intermediates imported, 1914 



Name of intermediate 


Invoice 
price 


Domestic sales price 




1914 


1917 


1918 
$0.53 


1919 


1920 


1921 


1922 


1923 


1924 


Acetanilide, technical.. 


2 $0. 15 
2.23 


$0.46 


$0.41 


$0.42 

1.23 

3.10 
1.81 

.28 
1.66 
1.15 

.10 


$0.23 

.95 

2.10 
1.39 
.22 
1.59 
.85 
.08 


$0.21 

.73 

1.72 
1.10 
.15 
1.34 
.83 
.07 


$0.26 

.68 

1.51 
1.13 
.16 
.95 
.80 
.07 
3.69 
.15 
.48 
.38 

.06 
.22 

.40 

.69 
.27 
1.32 
.29 
.17 
.25 
.13 
.93 
.43 


$0.23 
.65 


l-Amino-8-naphthol-3:6-disulfonic acid (H 
acid) . 


2-Amino-8-naphthol-6-su]fonic acid (gamma 
acid) 








1.18 


p-Aminophenol and hydrochloride . .. 


2.16 

2.08 

2.19 

2. 313 . 55 
2.09 
2.40 
3.09 








1.11 


Aniline oil-. 


.23 


.27 


.24 
1.86 
1.26 
.15 
4.54 
.07 
.88 
.55 

.07 
.49 

1.83 

.62 


.16 


Anthraquinone 


.95 


Benzidine 


1.65 

.20 

15.09 


1.01 
.18 


.74 


Chlorobenzene (mono) 


.06 


Dianisidine 


3.34 


p-Dichlorobenzene. 


.09 
1.36 

.71 

.08 
.47 

1.41 

.42 
1.17 

"Me" 

.36 
.41 
.29 
1.20 
.47 


.16 
.97 
.54 

.06 
.39 

1.22 

.44 
.85 
.14 

1.70 
.39 
.24 
.42 
.25 

1.14 
.49 


.16 

""."32" 

.06 
.24 

.96 

.39 
.68 
.21 
1.39 
.35 
.19 
.27 
.18 
.94 
.33 


.16 


Diethylaniline . . 


3.20 

.59 

.07 
.67 


Z55 
.57 

.08 
.59 


.40 


Dimethylaniline 


3.15 

'.018 
2.07 8.09 


.34 


Naphthalene, solidifying 79" or above 
(refined, flake) 


.05 


b-Naphthol, technical 


.22 


l-Naphthol-4-sulfonic acid (Nevile & Win- 
ther's) 


1.00 


l-Naphthylamine-4-sulfonic acid (naphthi- 
onic acid)... 








.43 


p-Nitroaniline 


2. 13 3. 14 

.06 

3. 31 3. 44 

2.25 

2. 06 3. 16 






.64 


Phenol. _ 


.37 
2.81 
4.23 

.30 


.35 
3.68 
2.85 
.29 
.47 
.96 
1.41 
.54 


.10 
2.43 
.99 
.24 
.35 
.50 
1.15 
.54 


.30 


p-Phenvlenediamine 


1.27 


Phthalic acid and anhydride - 


.24 


Sulfanilic acid 


.17 


Thiocarbanilide. 


.23 


o-Toluidine 


2. 09 3. 10 

2.19 
3.12 


.96 
1.39 
.65 


.13 


m-Tolylenediamine 


.86 


Xylidine and salt 


.39 







1 For the years 1917 to 1920 the value represents the weighted average of the total production; and for 
the years 1S20-1924 the weighted average of the total sales. 

2 Artificial Dyestuffs Used in the United States, Special Agents Series 121, Department of Commerce. 

3 Chemicals and Allied Products Used in the United States, Miscellaneous Series No. 82, Department 
of Commerce. 



Table 11. — Production and sales of coal-tar intermediates, 1924 

[The numbers in the second column refer to the numbered alphabetical list of manufacturers printed on 
p. 211. An X signifies that the manufacturer did not consent to the publication of his identification 
number in connection with the designated product. A blank in the third and fourth columns indicates 
that sales figures can not be published without revealing information in regard to the output of individual 
firms. A blank in the sixth column indicates that the production of the corresponding product in the 
United States can not be published without revealing information in regard to the output of individual 
firms. The figures thus concealed are, however, included in the total] 







Manufacturers' identi- 
fication numbers ac- 
cording to list on 
p. 211 


Sales 




Product 


Quantity 


Value 


Average 

price per 

pound 


Total 
production 


Total intermediates 




Pminds 

76, 897, 521 


$18, 164, 334 


$0.24 


Pounds 
186, 596, 562 


Acetaldehvde anUine 


X 




AcetanOide, tech 


9, 60, 114, 156, 157 

8, 60, 81, 124, 157 


61,820 


13, 925 


.23 




Acetyl-p-phenylenediamine 


(P- 


52, 747 


amino-acetanilide) . 
Acetyl-p-toluidine 


39, 60, 157 - 








226, 785 


X 












195 










b-Amino anthraquinone 


cid.. 
acid 


28, 60, 129 










9,34,61,81,84,124,157. 
60 126 








86,882 














124 










Aminoazotoluene 


8, 19, 34, 60, 61, 81, 84, 

124, 126, 145, X. 
124 


8,104 


6,909 


.85 


77, 178 


p-Aminobenzoic acid 


60, 118, 156, X 


4,376 


8,469 


1.94 


13,325 




60 - - 




47285— 25t 


-4 













30 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

Table 11. — Production and sales of coal-tar intermediates, 1924 — Continued 





Manufacturers' identi- 
fication numbers ac- 
cording to list on 
p. 211 


Sales 




Product 


Quantity 


Value 


Average 

price per 

pound 


Total 
production 


0- Amino-m-cresol - - 


181 


Pounds 






Pounds 


m-Aminocresol methvl ether.. 


39 










p-AminodimethylanUine 


79 ' . 










l-Amino-2-naphthol-4-sulfonic 

acid. 
l-Amino-8-naphthol-4-sulfonic 


8. 9, 19, 34, 39, 60, 81, 

124, 126, 157, X. 
39, 124, 129 


3,877 


$2, 249 


$0.58 


505, 741 
54,296 


acid. 
l-Amino-8-naphthol-2:4-disul- 


39, 60, 124, 129. 








87, 156 


fonic acid (Ctiicago acid). 
l-Amino-8-naphtliol-3:6-d {sul- 


60, 117, 124, 129 








2, 219, 858 


fonic acid (H-aeid). 
2-Aniino-5-naphthol-7-sulfoiiic 


39, 60, 124, 129, X 








141,228 


acid (J acid). 
2-Amino-8-naphthol-6-sulfonic 

acid (gamma acid). 
2:Amino-8-naphthol-3:6-disul- 

fonic acid. 
o-Aminoplienol . 


39, 60, 124, 129, X . 








338, 811 


129, X 










10, 77, 85, 181, 188 

10, 54, 60, 66, 77, 181, 

188, 194. 
9, 60, 81, 124, 188 


9,007 
91,018 


20,639 
101, 135 


2.29 
1.11 


8,240 


p-Aminophenol and hydro- 
chloride. 

o-Aminophenol-p-sulfonic acid 

o-Aminophenol4:6-disulfonic 
acid. 

p-Aminophenyl-p-tolylamine 
sulfonic acid. 


153, 892 
13,904 


126 










39 










8, 9, 39, 60, 81, 124 








69,024 


p- Aminosalicylic acid 


129 










Anhydroformaldehyde aniline... 
Anhvdroformaldehyde - p - tol- 


60 










60 










uidine. 
Aniline-3:6-disulfonic acid 


124 










Aniline hydrochloride. 


29, 80,84, 124 








846, 898 


Aniline oil. . . 


26, 29, 60, 80, 114, 116, 

124, 125, X. 
84, 124, 141... 


12,522.044 


1,995,440 


.16 


22, 257, 354 


Aniline sulfate 




o-Anisdine... 


60, 129, 188... 


4,780 


12,504 


2.62 


7,736 


Anthracene, refined (av. content 


60, 171.. 




86 per cent). 


59, 60, X - . 


49,282 


44,160 


.90 




zoic acid). 

Anthraquinone (100 per cent) 

Anthraquinone - 1:5 - disulfonic 

acid. 
Anthraquinone - 2 - sodium sul- 


18,60,99, 124,171 


638, 755 


81, 124.. 










18, 60, 124, 129. 








375, 350 


fonate (silver salt). 


124 










Benzaliehyde . . 


43, 73, 114, 132, 155, X. 
9, 60, 114, 129 


215,078 


140, 598 


.65 


363, 298 






Benzidine base and salt. 


3, 4, 8, 34, 39, 60, 73, 

124, 129, X. 
75 


236, 704 


176, 038 


.74 


1, 351, 814 


Benzidine disulfonic acid 






43, 60, 73, 88, 132, 156, 

X. 
73, 114, 156 


754, 462 


464, 480 


.63 


860, 810 






Benzoic acid, U. S. P 


43,60,88, 156, X, X... 
132 


77, 615 


49, 889 


.64 


148, 467 








99,124" 












17,88 










Benzyl chloride ... 


114, 132, 155 


304, 117 


87, 728 


.29 


607, 701 




74 






125 










Broennei's acid. (See 2-naph- 

thylamine-6-sulfonic acid). 
Carhazole, refined (100 per cent). 












60 










66 












188 












X 












124 












60 










Chlorohonz.cr.o (mono) 


59,88,155... 


5,367,275 


319, 283 


.06 


8,288,459 




X 






X 












124, 126 












126 










l-Chloro-2-methyl anthraquinone 


X.. 











COAL-TAR INTERMEDIATES 31 

Table 11. — Production and sales of coal-tar intermediates, 1924 — Continued 





Manufacturers' identi- 
fication numbers ac- 
cording to list on 
p. 211 


Sales 




Product 


Quantity 


Value 


Average 

price per 

pound 


Total 
production 


6-Chloro-4-methoxy-3-hydroxy 

thionaphthaleDe. 
Chromotropic acid. (See 1:8- 

dihydroxy naphthalene-3:6-di- 

sulfomc acid). 


X 


Pounds 






Pounds 












X 












60 












45 










Chlorophenylhydrazine sulfonic 
acid. 

Chloro-m-phenylenediamine 

Chloropyrazolone-p-sulfonic acid 


60 










126 










60 








124 












60, 113, 159 










acid. 


87 . 










Cresylic acid, refined (distillates 
yielding below 215° C. tar acids 
equal to or more than 76 per 
cent of Jhe original distillate) 


16 








9, 124, X.. 










129 








Dehydrothio-p-toluidine sulfon- 
ic acid. 


19, 67, 75, 129 








27, 670 


129 












126 









acid. 
Diaminodimethyl acridine ... 


141 










60, 67, 124, 129 








141, 274 




39, 60, 129 








60,180 


Dianisidine hydrochloride 

l-piazo-2-naphthol-4-sulfonicacid 


129 . . 










8, 34, 39, 60, 126, X 








98, 468 


129 












60 










Dichloroaniline 


39, 181, 188 


35, 595 


$25, 796 


$0.72 


52,951 




126, 141 






99,155. 










p-Dichlorobenzene 


4,59,60,88,99,130,155.. 
141 


1,481,890 


231, 971 


.16 


1,038,812 


Dichlorophenylbydrazine sul- 
fonic acid. 

Dichlorophthalic anhydride 

Dichlorosulfophenylpyrazolone . . 

Dichlorosulfophenylmethylpyra- 
zolone. 




53 










39 










141 










1, 192, X 








3,773 


b-piethylaminoethyl alcohol 


192, X 










53,60 












192, X 










DiethylanUine-rn-sulfonic acid... 


eo 










192 










Diformyl-m-tolylenediamine 

l:5-Dihydroxyanthraquinone 

Dihydroxyanthraquinone sul- 
fonic acid. 
5:5-Dihydroxy-7:7-disulfonic-2:2- 
dinaphthylamine (Rhoduline 
acid). 
5:5-Dihydroxy-7:7-disulfonic-2:2- 
dinaplithyl urea (J acid urea) . 

1 :5-Dihydroxynaphtha!ene 

1 :8-Dihydroxynaphthalene-3 :6- 
disulfonic acid (Chromotropic 
acid). 


39 










81 










X 


. 








60 










60 124 129 










60 










8 60,117,124,129 








63, 391 


192 










Dimethylaniline 

2:2-Dimethyl-l :l-dianthraquin- 

onyl. 
Dimethylphenazine (tolazine)... 
2:2-Dinaphthylamino-5:5-dihy- 

droxy-7:7-disulfonic acid. 


9,29,60,79,80,124 

60 129 


1,396,984 


470, 366 


.34 


2,830,798 


12^ 










^ 










113 










Dinitroanthraquinone 


124 










29,60,124,181 








1,465,566 




4,81 












4,60,81,99,124 


1, 199, 629 


177, 189 


.15 


6,024,092 


Dinitrohydroxydiphenylamine... 


39,81... 





32 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHEE SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

Table 11. — Production and sales of coal-tar intermediates, 1924 — Continued 





Manufacturers' identi- 
fication numbers ac- 
cording to list on 
p. 211 


Sales 




Product 


Quantity 


Value 


Average 

price per 

pound 


Total 
production 


Dinitrophenol, and sodium salt 


4,81,99 


Pounds 






Pounds 
62, 581 


p-Dinitrostilbene disulfonic acid. 


75. 










Dinitrotoluene 

Dinitrotoluene sulfonic acid- 


4, 60, 61, 76,.84, 124 

39. 


1,720,458 


$199,053 


$0.12 


2,461,565 


Dipheiivlamine ... 


60. 










Diphenylguauidine.. 


58, 60, 160, X 

124 


1,018,609 


1,056,911 


1.04 


1,034,099 


Diphenylmethane sulfonate. . 




Diinethylphenylbenzylammon- 


X 










ium disulfonic acid calcium 
salt (Leukotrope W). 
Distilbenediphenol 


124 










o-Ditolylguanidine 


60-. 










Ditolylmethane . 


124 










o-Ditolvlthiourea 


60,79 










6-Ethoxy-3-hydroxv thionaph- 


X 










thalene. 
m-Ethoxy phenyl-p-toluidine 


X 










124 










Ethyl-p-aminoaeetanilide 

Ethyl-p-amino benzoate. . . . 


124 . 










118 










Ethylaniline (mono) . 


37, 60, 124, 192 








71,137 


Ethylbenzylaniline 


37, 60, 124, 192, X 








109, 353 


Ethylbenzylaniline disulfonic 


60 










acid. 
Ethylbenzylaniline sulfonic acid. 


37,39,124 








76, 618 


Ethyl ester of p-toluene sulfonic 

acid. 
Ethvlidene aniline 


181 










125 










Fluorescein . 


9,53,84,X 


[ 




58, 076 


Fcrmaldehyde-p-amino aniline. 


79 










Formanilide (anhydroformalde- 

hyde aniline). 
Fumaricacid. 


60, 125, 150, 157, X 

124 


65, 186 


26, 891 


.41 


88,736 


Gamma acid. (See 2-amino-8- 
naphthol-6-sulfonic acid.) 


39 










H acid. (See l-amino-8-naph- 
thol-3:6-disulfonic acid.) 


125 - - 












39,60,81 










b-Hydroxy naphthoic anilide 


60, 81, 124 










(naphthol AS). 
p-Hydroxy phenyl arsonic acid 

and sodium salt. 
m-Hvdroxvphenyl-o-toluidine . 


112 










X 










Indophenol 


8 .... 












i§s : : ::: 










J acid. (See 2-amino-5-naphthol- 

7-sulfonic acid.) 
Laurent's acid. (See 1-naphthyl- 

amine-5-sulfonic acid ) 
Maleic acid 


124 












124 












X 










Metanilic acid 


60, 81, 84, 124, 126 . 








294,838 




81 . 










Methyl aniline sulfonic acid _ 


75 










m-Methylaniline sulfonic acid 


X 












99 












195 






i 


Methylene dianilide 


60 












129 










Miehler'shydrol. (Seetetrame- 

thyldiaminobenzbydrol.) 
Michler's ketone. (See tetrame- 

thyldiaminobenzophenone.) 
Naphthalene, solidifying 79° C. 

or above (refined, flake). 
1:5 Naphthalene disulfonic acid. 
2:7-Naphthalene disulfonic acid.. 
1:3: 6- Naphthalene trisulfonic 

acid 
a-Naphthol 


16, 29, 60, 104, 129, 155, 

187. 
60, 124 


11,961,480 


602, 580 


.05 


15, 323, 577 


60, 157 










157 










34,39, 84, 129, 170, X... 








119,796 


b-Naphthol, tech 


29,34,39,84,157. 

3,9,34,39,60,124,129... 


2, 961, 514 
19, 038 

, 


656. 830 
18, 975 


.22 
1.00 


3, 745, 690 


l-Naphtho!-4-sulfonie acid (Ne- 
vile & Winther's acid). 


230, 077 



COAL-TAR INTERMEDIATES 33 

Table 11. — Production and sales of coal-tar intermediates, 1924 — Continued 



Product 



l-Naphthol-5-sulfonic acid 

l-Naphthol-3:6-disulfonic acid 

l-Naphthol-8-chloro-3:6-disul- 

fonic acid (chloro H acid). 

l-Naphthol-3:8-disiLlfonicacid 

l-Naphthol-3:6:8-trisulfonic acid.. 

2-Naphthol-l-sulfonicacid 

2-Naphthol-6-sulfoDic acid 

(Schaeffer's acid). 

2-N aptiihol-7-sulfooic acid 

2-Naphthol-8-sulfonic acid 

2-Naplilliol-3: 6-disulfonic acid... 

2-N aphthol-6 : 8-disulfonic acid - - . 
Naphtho-l:8-sultam-2:4-disnl- 

fonic acid. 
Naphtlio-l:3-sultoii-8-sulfonic 

acid. 

a-Naphtiiylamine 

b-Naphthylamine 

l-Naphthyianiine-4-sulfonic 

acid (napiilhionic acid). 
1-N aplithy lamirie-5-sulfonic 

acid (Laurent's acid). 
1-Naplilhylamme-C-sulfonic acid. 
l-Naphtliylamine-7-sulfonic acid, 
l-Naphthylamine-6- and-7-sul- 

fonic acia ((_ leve's acrds). 
1-N apiUliylamine-8-sulfonic acid. 
1-N aphthylamme-3: 6-disulfonic 

acia (Freund's acid). 
1-N aphthylamine-3: 8-disulfonic 

acid. 
1-N aphthylamine-4: 8-disulfonic 

acid. 
1-N aphthylamine-3 : 6 : 8-t r i s u 1 - 

fonic acid. 
2-Naphthylamine-l-sulfonic acid. 
2-Naphthylamine-6-sulfonic acid 

(Broenner's acid). 
2-Naphthylamine-4:S-disulfonic 

acid. 
2-Naphthylamine-5 : 7-disulfonic 

acid. 
2-Naphthylamine-6: 8-disulfonic 

acid. 
2-N aphthylamine-3 -.6: 8-t r i su 1 - 

fonic acid. 
Nevilc 6i VVinthers acid. (See 

l-naphihol-4-sulfonic acid.) 

p-N itroacetaniJide 

N itroaminophenol 

4-Nitro-2-aiuinophenol-6-sulfonic 

acid. 

m-Nitroaniline 

p-Nitroaniline 

p-Nitroaniline-o-sulfonic acid 

o-Nitroanisole _ 

p-Nitro-o-anisidine 

Nitroarsanilic acid 

Nitrobenzene (oil of mirbane) . - . 

m-Nitrobenzoic acid 

p-Ni trobenzoic acid 

Nitrobenzene sulfonic acid 

o-Nitrochlorobenzene 

o-Nitrochlorobenzene sulfonic 

acid. 
o-N itrochlorobenzene-p-sul fonic 

acid. 

p-N itrochlorobenzene 

p-Nitrochlorobenzene-o-sulfonic 

acid. 

m-Nitro-p-cresol 

o-Nitro-p-cresol-.- 

8-Nitro-l-diazo-2-naphthol-4-sul- 

fonic acid. 



Manufacturers' identi- 
fication numbers ac- 
cording to list on 
p. 211 



8, 39, 60, 81, 117, 124, 
126, 129. 

157 

124 



34, 124, 129. 
60. 



8,9,39,60,61,81,124,157. 



39, 60, 157. 
39, X. 



Sales 



Quantity 



Pounds 



3, 29, 34, 39, 60, 81, 124, ! 148, 192 

126, 157, 176, 184, X 
29, 34, 39, 60, 124, X. . . 8, 276 
60 --. 



Value 



Average 

price per 

pound 



$70, 349 
3,529 



39. 



16, 129 

39, 60, 124, 129 

9, 34, 39, 49, 60, 84, 124, 

129, X. 
9, 34, 60, 81, 124, 126, 

129. 
X.. 



X.... 

39, 60, 124, 129... 

8, 60, 81, 124, 126. 



81. 



39, 129 

39,60, 124, 129.. 
60, 117, 124, 129. 



8, 30, 39, 60, 63, 157. 
8,39,60, 124 



39, 129 

39, 60, 124, 129.-.. 
39, 60, 124, 129, X. 
129, X 



157 

39, 61, 81, 126, 188. 
188... 



9,60, 181 

9, 60, 156, 157, X. 
8, 60, 75, 157, 188- 

39, 60, 129 

60. 



118 

29, 60, 80, 124, 125, 129. 
60.. 



1, 60, 156, X- 

75 

60, X 

124- 



126- 



60, X- 

39, 75. 



39 

181 

34, 39, 60, 81. 



164, 736 



722, 943 
4,626 



4, 357, 239 



147, 707 



459, 936 
6,184 



396, 237 



$0.47 
.43 



LOO 



.64 
L34 



Total 
production 



Pounds 
106, 696 



83, 161 
27, 876 



537, 786 
339, 579 



441, 895 
1,311,795 



110,874 



100, 029 
236, 490 



259, 968 
2, 840, 135 



306, 159 
16, 321 



269, 063 
590, 462 



16, 033 



44, 831 

964, 344 

7,086 

178, 243 



40, 012, 976 
40,"379 



34 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

Table 11. — Production and sales of coal-tar intermediates, 1924 — Continued 



Product 



3-Nitro-4-hydroxyphenyl arsonic 
acid. 

Nitronaphthalene. 

o-NitrophcDol -- 

p-Nitrophenol...- 

Nitrosalicylic acid.. -- 

Nitrosobetanaphthol — 

o-Nitroso-m-cresol 

Nitrosodiinethylaniline - - . 



Nitrosophenol . 



Nitrosulfoanthrarufln - 

Ni ti otoluene - 

o-Nitrotolucne sulfonic acid... 

o-Nitrotoluene - 

m-Nitrotoluene 

m-Nitrotoluene sulfonic acid.. 

p-Niti'otoluene 

p-Nitrotoluene sulfonic acid.. 
p-Nitrotoluene-o-sulfonic acid. 

m-Nitro-p-toluidine 

p-Nitro-o-t oluidine 

Nitroxylene 

Oxalylarsanilic acid 

Oxalyl-m-phenylenediamine. . 
Oxalyl-p-pheny lenediamine. . . 
Phenol.. - — 



Manufacturer's identi- 
fication numbers ac- 
cording to list on 
p. 211 



112, 118. 



16, 129 

85, 181, 188 

45, 60, 129, 181, X. 

126- 

X.-- 



Phenyl - 2 - amino - 5- naphthol - 
7-sulfonic acid (phenyl J 
acid) . 

Phenyl-a-naphthylamine 

Phenyl-1-naphthylamine - 8 - sul- 
fonic acid. 

m-Phenylenediamine 



m-Phenylenediamlne sulfonic 

acid. 

p-Phenylenediamine 

Phenylglycine, sodium salt 

Phenylhydrazine 

Phenyl hydrazine-p-sulfonic acid 

Phenylmethylpyrazolone 

Phenylmethylpyrazolone p-sul- 

fonic acid. 

Phenyl pyrazolone 

Phthalic acid and anhydride 

Picramic acid 

Primuline, base 

Pyrazolone 

Quinaldine - 

Quinazarin 

Resorcinol, tech 

Resorcinol, U. S. P. 

Rosaniline --- 

Salicylic acid, tech 

Salicylic acid, U. S. P.. , 

Sulfanilic acid.- - • 



o-Sulf o-beuzoic acid 

o-Sulfo-benzoic acid, chloride 

o-Sulfo-benzoic acid, ammonium 

salt. 

Tetraaminoditolylmethane 

Tetrachlorophthalic anhydride. - 
Tetramrthyldiaminobenzhydrol 

(Michler's hydrol). 
Tetramethyldiaminobenzophe- 

none (Michler's ketone). 
Tetramethyldiaminodiphenyl- 

methane. 
Tetramethylthiouramdisulfide... 

Tetiamethylthiouramsulfide 

Thioaniline 

Thiocarbanilido - 



181 

29, 45, 60, 81, 99, 124. 

129 192. 
8, 10,'l8, 19, 39, 66, 81, 

99, X. 

124--- -- 

60,61,76,84,124,129... 
39. 



4,60,80,124,129. 
60,129 

75. 



4,60,76,124,129 

75 - 

39, 60, 75, 124, 129, 188. 

39,60,157,176 

39,60,124 

60,124,129 -. 

118.-- -- 

60 - - 

60. 



15, 16, 59, 108, 139, 

160, X. 
60,124...- 



60 

8, 60, 81, 124, 126. 



29, 34, 39, 49, 60, 81, 84, 

124, 126, 129, 181, X. 
39,60 - 



77, 109, 157, X. 

59,60,124 

141 

29,60,75,141.. 

75,141 

60 



126 

60, 124,X,X.- 
29, 124 

19, 75, 124, 138. 

126.-.- 

124 

9, X-.- 

139, X 

139, X.- 

84 



59,87,116 - 

59,87, 116, 155, X- 

9, 29, 34, 39, 60, 84, 108, 
124, 141, 181. 

90 -- -.- 

90 - 

90...- 



60,141. 

53 

60 



40, 60 -- 

40, 60, 81, 124. 



125 

126 - 

8- - 

60, 79, 124, 125, 129, 
150, X. 



Sales 



Quantity 



Pounds 



31, 936 



Value 



$14, 728 



165, 762 328, 222 



8, 273, 598 



20, 761 



302, 158 



2, 505, 533 



18, 781 



382, 642 



2, 277, 073 



556, 265 



1, 104, 512 
147, 517 



2, 739, 404 



353, 058 
25, 504 



642. 626 



Average 

price per 

pound 



$0.46 



.90 



.23 



Total 
production 



Pounds 



138, 819 
165, 262 



5, 151, 589 
"2,'656,'36i 



1, 351, 631 



722, 654 
194, 644 



684, 056 



10, 521, 944 



181, 558 
744, 752 



301, 280 
'120,721 



2, 787, 308 
'162,019 



1, 757, 581 
2, 196, 292 
1, 385, 441 



3,397,397 



DYES AND OTHER FINISHED COAL-TAR PRODUCTS 35 

Table 11. — Production and sales of coal-tar intermediates, 1924 — Continued 





Manufacturer's identi- 
. ficatiori numbers ac- 
cording to list on 
p. 211 


Sales 




Product 


Quantity 


Value 


Average 

price per 

pound 


Total 
production 


Tolidine and salts 


39,60,124,129 


Pounds 






Pounds 
153, 793 


Tolidine disulfonic acid 


X - 








o-Toluene sulfamide 


X 










p-Toluene sulfamide 


X 










p-Toluene sullochloride. 


X 










p-Toluenesulfonyl ethyl ester 


124 










Toluidine 


39,76,80,124 


112, 250 


$23, 899 


$0.20 




m-Toluidine 


60 






4,60,76,124,129 

4,60,76,124,129 

60. 


1,135,819 
118, 754 


150, 907 
86, 639 


.13 

.73 


1, 184, 550 
566, 528 


p-Toluidine 


p-Toluidine-m-sulfonic acid 


o-Toluidine sulfonic acid 


84 










p-Toluidine-o-sulfonic acid 


39,126 










4,8,9,34,39,49,60,61, 1S4. a.'iS 


157, 580 


.86 


870, 794 


m-Tolylenediamine sulfate 


81, 84, 124, 129, X. 
124 




p-Tol y lenediamine 


4,61 












9 










m-Tolylenediamine sulfonic acid . 


39,61,124 










Tolyl - 1 - naphthylamine - 8- sul- 


124 










fonic acid (tolyl-peri acid). 
Tricresyl phosphate.. 


33 










Triphenylguanadine 


60, 124, 125, 150, X i 340,829 

29,60,124,129 222,932 

125 


237, 842 
87, 318 


.70 
.39 


429, 808 


Xylidine and salt 


372, 411 


Zinc dimethyl dithiocarbamate.. 













Table 12. 



-Production of intermediates, by groups, according to unit values, 
1921-1924 





1924 


1923 


1922 


1921 


Group 


Pounds 


Per cent 
of total 


Pounds 


Percent 
of total 


Pounds 


Per cent 
of total 


Pounds 


Per cent 
of total 


0-15 cents 

16-25 cents 

26-50 cents 

61-75 cemts 

$0.76-$l 


88, 160, 641 

37, 359, 904 

37, 179, 993 

10, 588, 270 

6, 246, 565 

4, 112, 585 

968, 676 

1,407,047 

303, 938 

268, 943 


47.247 

20. 022 

19. 925 

5.674 

3.348 

2.204 

.519 

.754 

.163 

.144 


104,419,268 

50, 233, 638 

42, 556, 640 

16, 486, 159 

9, 664, 153 

5,587,436 

914,837 

951,521 

136, 302 

443, 927 


46. 127 

21, 709 

18. 391 

7.125 

4.176 

2.415 

.395 

.411 

.059 

.192 


94, 688, 278 

26, 233, 604 

24, 399, 085 

8, 289, 387 

6, 918, 904 

3,957,355 

568, 339 

721, 637 

197, 071 

74, 495 


67. 372 

15. 894 

14. 783 

5.022 

3.586 

2.398 

.344 

.437 

.119 

.045 


28, 682, 310 

16, 986, 701 

11,457,741 

4, 329, 047 

4, 689, 343 

2, 517, 764 

1,204,584 

731, 758 

110,316 

190,348 


40. 455 

23. 969 

16. 160 

6.106 

6.614 


$1.01-$1.50.. 

$1.51-$2 


3.551 
1.699 


$2.01-$3 


1.032 


$3.01-$4 


.156 


Over $4 


.268 






Total 


186, 596, 562 


100 


231, 393, 871 


100 


165,048,165 


100 


70, 899, 912 


100 



Dyes and Other Finished Coal- Tar Products 



INTRODUCTION 

Finished coal-tar products may be divided into eight classes as 
follows: (1) Dyes, (2) color lakes, (3) photographic chemicals (de- 
velopers), (4) medicinals, (5) flavors, (6) perfume materials, (7) 
synthetic phenolic resins, (8) synthetic tanning materials. In 
previous reports the Tariff Commission has emphasized the close 
relationship existing between the manufacture of explosives, poison- 
ous gases, and dyes. This was clearly demonstrated in Germany 
where during the war the dye plants supplied the army with poisonous 



36 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



gases and explosives. In the United States many plants, formerly 
manufacturing explosives, have since the signing of the armistice been 
converted into d^^e factories. The dye industry is now considered 
a key industry by the industrial nations of the world. Closely 
connected also with dyes is the manufacture of flavors, perfume 
materials, photographic chemicals, medicinals, and other coal-tar 
products, which, although produced in smaller quantities, use as 
raw materials many of the by-products obtained in the manufacture 
of coal-tar dyes. 

The total production of dyes and other finished coal-tar products 
in 1924 by 153 firms was 97,730,211 pounds, as compared with 
122,950,171 pounds by 164 firms in 1923. Sales in 1924 amounted 
to 93,636,109 pounds, valued at $55,932,580, a decrease from the 
previous year when they totaled 115,297,586 pounds with a value of 
$65,898,177. 

Table 12 shows the 1924 production of dyes and other finished 
products in as great detail as is possible without revealing the output 
of individual manufacturers. 

SUMMARY OF PRODUCTION OF DYES 



DECLINE IN PRODUCTION 



The output of coal-tar dyes in 1924 by 78 firms was 68,679,000 
pounds. This is a 27 per cent dechne from 1923, the peak year, 
when production totaled 93,667,524 pounds. Sales in 1924 totaled 
64,961,433 pounds, valued at $35,012,400. Sales in 1923 totaled 
86,567,446 pounds, with a value of $47,223,161. The decline in 
dye production may be explained largely by the reduced activity 
of the textile industry. Other factors contributing were (1) stocks 
carried over from 1923, when j)roduction exceeded sales by over 
7,000,000 pounds; (2) increased imports, following the 15 per cent 
reduction in the tariff efi'ective September 22, 1924; (3) a reduction 
in exports amounting to 2,210,772 pounds. The following table 
shows the production of dyes in 1914 and from 1917 to 1924, inclusive: 

Table 13. — Domestic production and sales of coal-tar dyes, 1914, and 1917-1924 



Year 



Production 



Sales 



Pounds 



Value 



1924. 
1923. 
1922. 
1921. 
1920. 
1919. 
1918. 
1917- 
1914. 



Pounds 
68, 679, 000 
93, 667, 524 
64, 632, 187 
39, 008, 690 
88, 263, 776 
63, 402, 194 
58, 464, 446 
45, 977, 246 

6, 619, 729 



64, 961, 433 
86, 567, 446 
69, 107, 105 
47, 513, 762 



$35, 

47. 

41, 

39, 

195, 

'67, 

'62, 

'57, 

'2. 



012, 400 
223, Ifil 
463, 790 
283, 956 
613. 749 
598, 855 
026, 390 
796, 228 
470,096 



» For the years 1914 and 1917 to 1920, value of production is given. 

Stoclis on hand. — The Tariff Commission has for the first time 
compiled data concerning the total stocks on hand of domestic dyes. 
The following table gives the total stocks of all dyes on hand and the 



DYES AND OTHER FINISHED COAL-TAR PRODUCTS 



37 



same information for a selected list of leading dyes produced in the 
United States: 

Table 14. — Stocks of domestic dyes on hand January 1, 1924 and 1925 



Schultz 
No. 



Name of dye 



January 1, 
1924 



January 1, 
1925 



23 
145 
333 
181 
217 
337 
476 
515 
462 
700 
874 



Total all dyes 

Tartrazine 

Orange II 

examine black BHN 

I Salieine black U 

Agalraa black 10B._ 

1 Benzo blue 2B 

1 Benzamine brown 3G0 

Methyl violet ' 

Direct deep black EW 

Nigrosine (water soluble)... 

Indigo (20 per cent paste). -- 

Sulphur black 

Sulphur brown 

Total of 13 dyes listed 



Pounds 
26, 834, 625 



170, 581 

399, 786 

155, 972 

341,053 

456, 159 

344, 944 

295, 605 

133, 908 

1, 238, 433 

436, 074 

8,421,414 

3, 592, 506 

822, 777 



Pounds 
30, 337, 484 



176,370 
338, 101 
238, 128 
201,015 
549, 370 
355, 421 
289, 144 
138, 387 
755, 310 
434, 746 
440, 997. 
130, 861 
815, 219 



16, 809, 212 19, 863, 059 



DECLINE IN PRICE 



The weighted average price of all domestic dyes sold in 1924 was 
nearly 2 per cent less than the average of those sold in 1923. The 
following tabulation shows the trend of price in recent years : 

Table 15. — Weighted average sales prices of domestic dyes, 1917-1924 



Year 


Weighted 
average 

sales 

price of 

domestic 

dyes 


Year 


Weighted 
average 

sales 

price of 

domestic 

dyes 


1924 


$0.54 
.55 
.60 


1921 


$0.83 


1923 


1920 


1.08 


1922 


1917 


1 1.26 









» Unit value of production. 

Indigo, the leading dye from the standpoint of quantity produc- 
tion, showed an average sales price of 22 cents per pound in 1924 as 
compared with 23 cents in 1923. In April, 1925, it sold for 14 cents 
per pound or below the price in 1913, \vhen our entire supply was 
imported from Germany and Switzerland. The average sales price 
of Direct deep black EW was 38 cents in 1924, as compared with 
43 cents in 1923. Agahna black lOB averaged 64 cents in 1924, a 
decline of 7 cents from the previous year. Benzamine brown 3 GO 
declined 15 cents per pound. Recessions were recorded in the 
average price of many of the higher cost dyes. 

Table 16 affords a comparison of the domestic sales prices of 100 
dyes for the period 1917 to 1924, inclusive, with the invoice prices 
of the same dyes imported in 1914. The colors for w^hich statistics 
are given in this table represent about 90 per cent of the domestic 
production. It should be noted that the domestic sales price is not 



38 



CENSUS OP DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



directly comparable with the invoice price in 1914. Invoice prices 
do not represent the cost to the consumer, as they do not include 
the importer's profit, or, in most cases, ''charges for containers and 
picking, freight, and insurance to seaport, consular certification, 
minor shipping charges at point of departure and at seaport." 

TheSchultz number as indicated in column 1 is that of " Farbstoff- 
Tabellen" (Dyestuff Tables), by Gustav Schultz, 1914 edition. 
Column 2 gives the common name of the dye as adopted by the 
Tariff Commission for designating all dyes reported under a given 
Schultz number (column 1). The invoice price (1914), shown in 
column 3, represents the weighted average of all dyes classified under 
a given Schultz number in "Artificial Dyestuffs Used in the United 
States," Department of Commerce, Special Agents' Series No. 121. 
This weighted average price for all types is frequently higher than 
the invoice price per pound of the bulk of dyes imported under a 
given Schultz number. The individual dyes imported under given 
Schultz numbers in the Norton census show a wide variation in 
price, frequently amounting to several hundred per cent. This is 
due chiefly to the great divergence in concentration of the different 
dyes and also to the variation in prices of special and pure brands 
which are more costly than the ordinary brands. The figures of 
column 4, the domestic sales price as reported to the Tariff Commis- 
sion, represent the weighted average price of all dyes reported under 
a given Schultz number. 

Table 16. — Domestic sales prices of 100 dyes, 1917-1924, compared with invoice 
values of the same dyes imported, 1914 



Schultz 
No. 



10 

11 

23 

33 

34 

37 

38 

42 

48 

58 

66 

82 

112 

119 

134 

137 

141 

145 

154 

157 

161 

163 

164 

168 

169 

173 

177 

181 

188 

217 



Name 



Direct yellow R 

Stilbene yellow 

Chloraraine orange G . . . 

Tartrazine 

Chrysoidine Y 

Chrysoidine R 

Croceine orange 

Orange Q.. - 

Amide naphthol red Q-. 

Alizarin yellow G 

Alizarin yellow R 

Amido naphthol red 6 B 

Ponceau 2 R- 

Bordeaux B 

Diamine rose 

Metanil yellow.. 

Acid yellow G.. 

Azo yellow 

Orange II.. 

Palatine chrome brown. 

Diamond black P V 

Fast red A 

Azo rubine 

Fast red VR.. 

Amaranth 

Cochineal red 

Litholred R 

Mordant yellow. 

Salicine black U.. 

Snlphon acid blue R 

Agalma black 10 B 



1914 

invoice 

value 

imported 

dyes 

(weighted 

average 

of all 

types) 



$0,178 
.162 
.239 
.200 
.136 
.165 
.133 
.148 
.150 
.077 
.154 
.604 
.095 
.159 
.411 
.164 
.176 
.249 
.081 
.256 
.130 
.118 
.198 
.188 
.138 
.127 
.083 
.149 
.156 
.252 
.134 



Average price per pound 



1917 



$2.55 



1918 



$2.61 



3.32 

1.50 , 
1.09 I 
1.22 
1.13 
1.25 
3.04 
.59 
.83 

I'lh' 
1.46 



2.24 
1.32 
2.04 
.98 
1.90 



1.19 
2.71 
2.25 
1.31 
1.44 
1.25 
.74 
2.92 
2.25 
1.08 



2.86 
1.91 
.77 
1.22 
.89 
.92 
1.16 
.68 
.91 
.88 
.79 
1.02 
5.50 
1.61 
.85 
2.02 
.68 
2.00 



1.03 
1.51 
1.25 
.88 
1.16 
2.38 
1.35 
1.62 
2.25 
1.26 



1919 



$1.74 



1.99 
2.04 
1.04 
1.12 
.88 
1.04 
.97 
.72 
.84 
.81 
.80 
.91 
5.15 
1.65 



1.95 
.63 
1.68 



1.05 
1.43 
2.20 
2.98 
1.32 
.39 
1.89 
1.25 
2.02 
1.47 



1920 



$1.49 

1.53 

1.88 

1.86 

.87 

.79 

1.04 

1.22 

1.78 

.63 

.86 

1.51 

.80 

.93 

5.33 

1.64 

.43 

2.08 

.62 

1.55 

1.65 

1.04 

1.43 

2.28 

2.11 

1.26 

1.52 

.81 

1.10 

1.95 

1.29 



$1.07 
1.22 
1.60 
1.80 

.77 



1.46 

.53 

.69 

1.25 

.73 

.84 

3.89 

1.20 

1.04 

1.85 

.51 

1.53 

1.25 

.96 

1.26 

1.96 

3.23 

.99 

1.63 

.98 

.75 

1.67 

1.09 



1922 



$0.88 



1.32 
1.08 
.63 
.63 
.77 
.58 
.83 
.50 
.61 
.66 
.61 
.75 
3.01 
.92 
1.03 
1.30 
.38 
1.34 



.83 
.92 

1.50 
.86 
.76 

1.25 
.76 
.55 
.91 
.79 



$0.81 
1.00 
1.22 
.87 
.58 
.57 
.58 
.59 
.71 
.52 
.61 
.78 
.58 
.73 
2.46 
.80 
.87 
1.06 
.37 
1.09 



.78 
.85 

1.27 
.71 
.73 

1.15 
.65 
.53 
.85 
.71 



$0.66 



1.07 



.72 



.33 
1.11 
.77 
.71 
.79 
1.17 
.49 



.91 
.54 
.48 
.76 
.46 



DYES AND OTHER FINISHED COAL-TAR PRODUCTS 



39 



Table 16.- 



-Domestic sales prices of 100 dyes, 1917-1924, compared with invoice 
values of the same dyes imported, 1914 — Continued 





Name 


1914 
invoice 

value 
imported 

dyes 

(weighted 

average 

of all 
types) 


Average price per pound 


Schultz 
No, 


1917 


1918 


1919 


1920 


1921 


1922 


1923 


1924 


227 




$0. 165 
.143 
. 166 
.110 
.144 
.172 
.186 
.183 
.270 
.179 
.255 
.133 
.041 
. .231 
.189 
.362 
.194 
.133 
.209 
.234 
.267 
.222 
.275 
.440 
.144 
.139 
.174 
.230 


$1.35 
2.50 
2.25 
2.25 
1.89 
2.50 
1.17 
1.48 

12.64 
2.47 


$1.92 

2.10 

2.25 

2.10 

.84 

1.40 

.81 

.97 

5.71 

2.01 


$2.41 
2.67 
2.21 
1.91 
1.01 
1.48 
1.01 
1.04 
2.53 
1.12 
3.32 
2.72 
1.00 
.88 
1.36 
2.72 
2.20 
1.80 
1.69 
2.07 
3.18 
2.40 
3.08 
1.97 
1.04 
1.04 
1.85 
2.14 
1.65 
1.83 
1.23 
3.08 
3.26 
4.66 
5.12 
4,57 
2.44 
4.86 
4.93 
6.35 


$2.23 
2.64 
2.26 
1.80 

.87 
1.55 

.84 

.91 
2.81 

.86 
2.97 
2.49 

.88 
1.07 
1.08 
2.59 
1.99 
1.46 
1.67 
2.47 
1.98 
1.88 
2.11 
2.43 
1.03 

.99 
1.51 
1.20 
1.60 
1.58 
1.39 
2.48 
3. .32 
4.23 
5.22 
4.67 
2.39 
6.82 
5.20 
5.90 


$1.50 

1.41 

1.74 

1.48 

.94 

1.25 

.78 

.85 

2.03 

.89 

2.17 

1.48 

.69 

.86 

.99 

2.09 

1.65 

1.20 

1.03 

2.33 

1.53 

1.67 

1.90 

1.39 

.79 

.71 

1.21 

1.03 

1.15 

1.45 

1.06 

2.02 

1.97 

3.68 

3.94 

3.28 

1.66 

2.91 

3.64 

3.42 


$1.09 
1.02 
1.21 
1.14 
.66 
.94 
.66 
.63 
1.70 
.65 
1.44 
.91 
.48 
.89 
.93 
1.39 
1.10 
.90 
.78 
1.64 
1.28 
1.45 
1.52 
1.22 
.42 
.61 
.92 
.98 
.73 
.88 
.93 
1.66 
1.22 






236 




.$1. 16 
.91 

'Me" 

.87 
.60 
.58 

1.03 
.59 

1.39 
.73 
.41 
.80 

1.15 

1.20 
.95 
.89 
.54 

1.67 


$1.06 


257 




.89 


265 




.91 


26G 
275 


Naphthylamine black D.. 


.67 
.86 


283 




.53 


284 




.51 


304 




.84 


307 






327 




1.28 


333 
337 


Oxamine black B H N 


2.50 
2.00 
2.00 
1.97 


3.25 
1.37 
1.56 
1.53 


.65 
.37 


340 
342 


Benzo orange R - 


.72 

.81 


343 




1.06 


344 




'2.' 82' 
2.32 


2.60 
2.46 
2.23 
4.73 
3.00 


.83 


363 
391 


Benzo purpurine 4 B 


.73 

.51 


405 
410 


Benzo purpurine 10 B 


1.42 


419 


Chicago blue R W 


1.51 
1.40 
.97 
.43 
.52 
.82 
.83 
.64 
.94 
.78 
1.72 
1.60 


1.19 


424 


Chicago blue 6 B 






1.26 


426 


Benzamine pure blue.- 


5.00 
.75 


4.40 
.85 


.79 


462 


Direct deep black E W.. 


.38 


463 


Erie direct black R X . 


.49 


474 
475 


Oxamine green B 


2.30 
2.16 
1.80 
2.00 
1.80 
3.08 
6.28 

"8." 56" 
9.10 
3.84 
4.85 
8.50 
4.71 

10.78 

11.91 
6.98 

10.00 

8.58 

6.00 

4.43 

3.00 

5.96 

3.09 

5.93 

5.41 

1.11 

1.51 

.80 

.60 

1.63 

..'15 

.90 


2.20 
2.09 
1.70 
2.25 
1.50 
3.76 
5.60 
5.63 
8.10 
7.72 
2.78 
5.56 
7.00 
8.33 
8.68 
8.46 

15^92" 

7.81 

6.00 

3.04 

3.56 

.5.12 

2.80 

5.85 

1.46 

.71 

.70 

.63 

.29 

1.45 

.48 

.65 


.68 
.79 


476 


Benzamine brown 3 Q O 


.49 


477 


Congo brown G . - 


.194 
.170 
.240 
.241 
.221 
.255 
.294 
.248 
.368 
.281 
.409 
.305 
.312 
.353 
.415 
.418 
.352 
.144 
.136 
.347 
.390 

.198 
.126 
.258 
.149 
.100 




485 


Benzo brown Q ... 


.72 


493 


Auramine 


1.52 


495 


Malachite green ... 


1.70 


499 


Brilliant green . . . . 




502 


Guinea green . 


1.77 
2.26 
1.29 
4.56 
1.86 
2.42 


1.72 
2.08 
1.25 


1.61 


512 


Magenta . .. 


1.72 


515 


Methyl violet . . ,. 


1.13 


521 


Aniline blue . 




530 


Acid violet ._ 


1.86 
2.39 


1.72 


536 


Alkali blue 


2.56 


543 


Patent blue 




559 


Victoria blue B.- 


3.65 

5.95 

6.90 

6.30 

3.86 

1.71 

2.66 

3.03 

3.03 

4.02 

..^3 

.71 

.67 

.59 

.37 

1.11 

.47 

.34 

1.23 

.83 


5.14 

4.99 

6.72 

4.19 

4.17 

1.59 

2.36 

3.06 

2.94 

3.88 

1.21 

.88 

1.03 

.72 

.25 

.98 

.35 

.47 

1.62 

.71 

2.12 

1.45 

1.46 

1.68 

2.40 

4.68 

.74 

1.00 


3.86 
1.88 








566 


Wool green S 


1.10 


.83 


.75 


573 


Rhodamine B 




587 


Eosine. 


2.51 

3.70 

1.37 

1.59 

2.44 

1.94 

2.60 

.75 

.70 

.96 

.68 

.23 

.64 

.38 

.59 

.95 

.73 

2.31 

.65 


1.90 

2.05 

1.07 

1.29 

1.92 

1.40 

1.69 

.94 

.54 

.82 

.53 

.21 

.60 

.40 

.56 

.79 

.78 

1.65 


1.84 
1.93 
.70 
1.17 
1.93 
1.47 
1.45 
.93 
.52 
.83 
.46 
.20 
.50 
.39 
.48 
.77 
.73 
2.00 
.65 


1.85 


606 


Phosphine 


1.86 


616 


Primuline. 


.79 


617 


Columbia yellow 


1.09 


626 


Gallocvanine 


1.86 


659 


Methylene blue . . . 


1.26 


679 


Safranine 


1.45 


697 
698 
699 


Induline (spirit-soluble) 

Nigrosine (spirit-soluble) 

Induline (water-soluble)-. . .. 


.78 
.48 
.74 


700 
720 


Nigrosine (water-soluble) 

Sulphur black 


.48 
.19 




Sulphur blue 


.55 




Sulphur brown 


.107 


38 




Sulphur tan 


37 




Sulphur maroon 


.186 






Sulphur yellow 


.99 


1.09 


.53 


763 


Indanthrene dark blue B 

Alizarin 


.227 
.100 
.224 
.290 
.354 
.334 
.128 
.340 


2 23 


778 


3.38 


1.95 


1.58 

1.45 

1.58 

6.96 

17.62 

.59 

.64 




779 


Alizarin orange 




782 


Alizarin brown 


.88 


.80 


1.32 

2.41 

3.76 

.45 

.65 


1.86 

'".'25" 
.45 


1.24 
1.63 
1.24 
.23 
.58 


2 08 


842 


Indanthrene blue G C D 




849 


Indanthrene vellow 








874 


Indigo synthetic 


1.42 
.38 


.88 
.62 


?5I 


877 


Indigo extract 


,5R 









40 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



^INTERMEDIATES ^DYES 
AVERAGE PRICE 
(U.S. PRODUCTION) 
1917-1924 




1917 i9\a 1919 (920 1921 1922 1923 1924 



Relation of production to coiisiim-pfiort,— Imports of coal-tar dyes 
in 1924 we-e 3,022,539 ' pounds, with an invoice value of $2,908,778. 
Production in that year was 68,679,000 pounds, valued at $37,086,660. 
Imports were accordingly 4.4 per cent of the total output by quantity 
and 7.8 per cent by value. As the pnce paid by the consumer for 



' This total poundage is in excess of the actual quantity imported because most of the vat dyes have been 
reduced to a single strength basis in order to facilitate comparison of imports and production. 



DYES AND OTHER FINISHED COAL-TAR PRODUCTS 41 

imported dyes is greater than the invoice value, it follows that the 
true ratio of the sales value of imports to the value of production is 
greater than the estimate of 7.8 per cent. 

The domestic exports of dyes, colors, and stains derived from coal 
tar in 1924 totaled 15,713,428 pounds, valued at $5,636,244. Assum- 
ing domestic consumption to equal domestic production plus imports 
minus exports, 55,988,111 pounds were consumed in 1924. This does 
not, however, take into consideration stocks carried over. Imports 
constituted only 5.4 per cent by quantity of the apparent consump- 
tion. 

NEW DYES PRODUCED 

The commercial production of over 60 dyes not made in 1923, and 
many of which had never before been made in the United States, was 
reported in 1924. These additions include dyes previously imported, 
some of them being the leading dyes imported into this country. 
These dyes are complex t3^pes of high fastness, and their manufacture 
is a step m.arking progress toward a self-contained domestic industry. 
Conspicuous among these additions are the vat dyes, such as Indan- 
threne golden orange R.RT and G. Others include representatives 
of each class of dyes applied to cotton, silk, wool, and leather. Among 
the new direct colors for cotton are specialties of higher fastness and 
types for coupling with certain intermediates. A variety of acid and 
chrome dyes for wool first produced in 1924 include Cyananthrol RXO 
and several alizarin derivatives, such as Alizarin emeraldole G and 
Alizarin rubinol E, GH. 

The Gallopont dyes, which are very brilliant in color, represent a 
development of interest to the textile printing industry. They are 
related to the basic dyes, but are said to have better fastness than 
the basic colors. They have the advantage of being easy to apply, 
as no mordants are required and steaming is unnecessary. 

Work now under way in this country may be expected to result in 
the production of a number of other valuable dyes not heretofore 
produced in the United States and tending to give a more complete 
line of colors. 

TARIFF CONSIDERATIONS 

AMERICAN SELLING PRICE APPLIED TO COAL-TAR PRODUCTS 

The act of 1922 provides that the ad valorem rate of duty on 
any imported coal-tar products coming within paragraph 27 or 28 
shall be based upon the American selling price (as defined in sub- 
division (f) of section 402, Title IV) of any similar competitive article 
manufactured in the United States. A product is defined by the 
act as similar or competitive wdth any imported coal-tar product 
when it accomplishes results substantially equal to those accomplished 
by the domestic product used in substantially the same manner. 

In the event of a similar competitive article not being manufactured 
in the United States, the ad valorem rate is based upon the United 
States value (as defined in subdivision (d) of section 402, Title IV) 
which is the selling price in the United States of the imported article 
less certain statutory deductions, including profit, general expense, 
cost of insurance, transportation, and duty. 



42 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

For the administration of these new provisions the Department of 
the Treasury made additions to its corps of experts and assistants 
and installed new laboratory equipment for testing dyes and allied 
coal-tar products. It collected and tested many thousands of dye 
samples of both foreign and domestic manufacture, in order to 
establish lists of competitive and noncompetitive dyes and standards 
of strength for the assessment of specified duties. 

Difficulties arising in the early administration of paragraphs 27 
and 28 were largely met by regulations issued by the Treasury Depart- 
ment on March 3, 1923.' (T. D. 39485, art. 709, Customs Regula- 
tions, 21923.) The major regulations may be summarized as follows: 

The importer shall be permitted, under proper supervision, to take samples 
from his importations prior to entry. 

Importers seeking information from the appraiser shall furnish such relevant 
information as the appraiser may request. 

In the determination of a similar competitive article, the use requiring the 
major portion of the total consumption shall be the basis for deciding whether 
the article accomplishes substanially the same results. 

An imported article used for the same purpose as a domestic article not freely 
ofifered. for sale, but used to produce a domestic article freely offered for sale, 
shall be considered competitive. 

The appraiser shall be required to issue lists of competitive and noncom- 
petitive dyes, such lists to be for advisory purposes only. 

The appraiser may furnish the importer under certain conditions, information 
as to the American selling price or the United States value of imported articles.' 

If any imported article is not listed, either as competitive or noncompetitive, 
the appraiser shall be required to ascertain whether it is competitive or noncom- 
petitive, and advise the importer of his decision, pending which the importer 
may withhold formal entry. 

When an imported similar competitive article is of diflPerent strength from the 
domestic, the price is to be adjusted in proportion to the difference in strength 
between the two. 

The value of an imported article competitive with a domestic article not freely 
offered for sale but used in the manufacture of other articles shall be the American 
selling price of the article freely offered for sale, adjusted according to the relation 
that it bears to the domestic article not freely offered for sale. 

When the price of the domestic article is found to be unreasonable, it shall not 
be used, but instead the price the producer would have received within the mean- 
ing of section 402 (f) . 

In case two or more domestic articles are considered similar to and competitive 
with the imported article, the American selling price of that article which accom- 
plishes results most nearly equal to the imported article shall be taken. 

Articles of noncoal-tar origin may be considered in determining a similar 
comi^etitive article. 

Tests on articles are to be made imder conditions approximating those obtaining 
in the trade. 

Appraisers at ports other than New York shall when in doubt consult the 
appraiser at New York and if dissatisfied with his advice may submit the matter 
to the Treasury Department. 

The method of calculating the United States value has been fixed by the Treas- 
ury Department. 

The first lists of competitive and noncompetitive dyes were issued 
by the Treasury Department in the early part of April, 1923; and 
supplementary lists were subsequently issued, so that they now 
cover most of the products imported. 

A tentative list of standards of strength for use as a basis in levying 
specific duties was issued and distributed among importers, manu- 

' The regulations as issued on Mar. 3, 1923, allowed the appraiser to furnish information only as to the 
American selling price of competitive products. On July 18, 1924, this regulation was amended (T. D. 
40332) to permit the appraiser also to furnish information as to the United States value of noncompetitive 
articles. 



DYES AND OTHER FINISHED COAL-TAE PRODUCTS 43 

facturers, and other dye interests with a request that criticism be 
offered prior to May 27, 1923; on August 14, 1924, the standards 
adopted were set forth in T. D. 39765, wliich was superseded by T. D. 
40192. 

With the development of an organization by the Treasury De- 
partment for tlie administration of paragraphs 27 and 28, and a better 
understanding by importers of tlie operation of the law, the most 
difficult problems have been solved. 

The constitutionality of the American selling price provisions was 
sustained by the Court of Customs Appeals (T. D, 40313 of June 
28, 1924). 

The sole statutory test or criterion as to what constitutes a com- 
petitive product is whether the foreign substantially equals the do- 
mestic product in results accomplished and in manner of use. The 
law does not similarly require that the domestic shall substantially 
equal the foreign product in the particulars mentioned. (G. A. 
8839, T. D. 40365, of 1924.) In determining whether the one ac- 
com})lishes the same result as the other no exact formula is pre- 
scribed. If by a slight change the imported article accomplishes 
substantially equal results to those accomplished by the domestic 
article, it is competitive. (G. A. 8897, T. D. 40517, of 1924; appeal 
pending in Court of Customs Appeals.) 

Delivery is not essential to establish the existence of similar com- 
petitive articles manufactured and produced in the United States if 
other necessary conditions exist, including ability to deliver, packed 
ready for delivery in the ordinary course of trade and in the usual 
wholesale quantities. (G. A. 8981, T. D. 40832, of 1925; ai)peal 
pending in Court of Customs Appeals.) 

The provisions of section 402, subdivision (f), have reference to 
the American product. Hence tlie determination of the principal 
market is governed entirely by the sale of the American product, 
and the determination of the usual wholesale quantities must be 
confined to a consideration of the sales which occur in such market. 
(G. A. 9004, T. D. 40926, of 1925.) 

Effect of reduction in duty on imports. — On September 22, 1924, 
under the provisions of the tariff act of 1922, the ad valorem rate on 
dyes and other finished coal-tar products, paragraph 28, was reduced 
from 60 per cent to 45 per cent, and that on intermediates, para- 
graph 27, from 55 per cent to 40 per cent. The specific duty re- 
mained at 7 cents per pound. 

In the commission's report for 1923 it was pointed out that the 
specific duty is more effective on the low-priced dyes and that the 
ad valorem rate is more effective on the high-priced dyes, and con- 
sequently a reduction in the ad valorem rate would more directly 
affect the higher-priced dyes. This is borne out by the figures of 
Table No. 17, showing the actual and the equivalent ad valorem 
duties under the act of 1922 on seven groups of dyes ranging from 
25 cents to $3 per pound for both competitive and noncompetitive 
products. 



44 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHEK SYNTHETIC CHEMICAF^S 









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DYES AND OTHEE FINISHED COAL-TAR PRODUCTS 



45 



The rapid increase in monthly imports indicates increased competi- 
tion from foreign-made dyes. Imports are almost entirely of German 
and S^dss manufacture and consist largely of the higher cost dyes,* 

The average monthly imports of dyes from October, 1924, to April, 
1925, inclusive, was 452,403 pounds. This is an increase of 152 per 
cent over the monthly average of the first nine months of 1924, 
preceding the tariff reduction on dyes. Further details of monthly 
imports are given in Table 18 and in the graph below. 



TH0U5flNOt 
POUNOi 



600 



500 



-100 



30O 



Zoo 





1 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 








CURVE SHOWING IMPORTS OF COAL TAR DYES, BY MONTHS, 
THROUGH THE PORT OF NEW fORK. 






















1 

1 
1 






1 














1 

1 


\ 


A 




K 












1 


V 


\l 




P 


^ 


/ 


\ 


\^ 




1 








^ 


\ 


4 




v ^ 




^ / ^ 


[ADVA 

K.OH s 


LOREM DC 

neouctD ■ 
;pr. 22 /« 


rr OP 

Z4- 




















m 



APR JULY 

1923 



I9Z5 



Table 18. — Imports of coal-tar dyes into the United States 



Period 


Pounds 


Invoice 
value 


Monthly average] 




Pounds 

338, 850 

258, 153 


Value 


1922 -. 


3, 982, 631 
3, 098, 193 


$5, 243, 257 
3,151,363 


$436, 838 


1923 


262, 614 






First 9 months. 


1,611,931 
1, 410, 608 


1, 642, 632 
1, 266, 146 


179, 103 1 182, 515 


Last 3 months 


470, 203 


422, 049 






Total 12 months 


3, 022, 539 


2, 908, 778 


251,878 


242, 398 


1925: 


403, 984 
373, 259 
527, 964 
451, 005 


359, 376 
365, 268 
488, 501 
426, 141 






























Total 4 months . . - 


1,756,212 


1, 639, 286 


439, 053 


409,821 







* See detailed monthly dye import lists, published jointly by the chemical divisions of the Department of 
Commerce and the Tarifl Commission. 



46 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



PRODUCTION OF DYES BY CLASSES 

The dyes produced in the United States in 1924 are classified 
according to method of apphcation as follows: (1) Acid dyes, (2) 
basic dyes, (3) direct dyes, (4) lake and spirit-soluble dyes, (5) mor- 
dant or chrome dyes, (6) sulphur dyes, (7) vat dyes, subdivided into 
indigo and other vats, and (8) unclassified dyes. Wliile in certain 
instances the classification is arbitrary, because a dye may have 
properties which permit of its application by more than one method, 
it is believed that the above classification facilitates a comparison 
of production and import figures. 

Comparative data for dyes produced in the United States from 
1917 to 1924, inclusive, and those imported in the fiscal year 1914 
and in the calendar years 1920 to 1924, inclusive, are arranged 
according to the classes given in Table 19. 

Table 19. — Comparison of imports of dyes, hy classes, fiscal year 1914 and calendar 
year 1920-1924, with domestic production, calendar years 1917-1924 



Class 



Acid 

Basic 

Direct—- - -. 

Lake and spirit-soluble. 
Mordant and chrome -. 
Sulphur 

Vats (including indigo) 

(a) Indigo.. 

(b) Other vats 

Unclassified 

Total 



1914 



Imports 



Pounds 
9, 286, 501 
3, 002, 480 

10, 264, 757 
1, 512, 605 
4, 450, 442 
7, 053, 879 

10, 352, 663 

8, 407, 359 

1, 945, 304 

27, 568 



45, 950, 895 



Per cent 
of total 



1917 



United 

States 

production 



Pounds 
20. 2 9, 372, 121 
6.5 I 2,073,043 
22.3 11,181,761 
934,360 
4, 164, 902 
15, 588, 222 
289, 296 
274, 771 
14, 525 
2, 368, 541 



3.3 
9.7 
15.4 
22.5 
18.3 
4.2 
.1 



100 45,977,246 



Per cent 
of total 



20.4 

4.5 

24.3 

2.2 

9.1 

33.9 

.6 

.55 

.05 

5.0 



100 



1918 



United 

States 

production 



Pounds 
9, 799, 071 
2, 879, 639 

12, 285, 683 
1, 068, 466 
5, 447, 192 

23, 698, 826 

3, 281, 337 

3, 083, 888 

197, 449 

4,232 



58, 464, 446 



Per cent 
of total 



16.8 
4.9 

21.1 
1.8 
9.3 

40.5 

5.6 

5.3 

.3 



100 





1919 


1920 


Class 


United 

States 

production 


Per cent 
of total 


United 

States 

production 


Per cent 
of total 


Imports 


Per cent 
of total 


Acid 


Pounds 

12, 195, 968 

4, 036, 532 

14, 444, 934 

1,813,199 

3, 985, 050 

17, 624, 418 

9, 252, 982 

8, 863, 824 

389, 158 

49, 111 


19.2 

6.4 

22.8 

2.8 

6.3 

27.8 

14.6 

14.0 

.6 

.1 


Pounds 
17, 741, 538 

4, 993, 001 
19, 882, 631 

2, 205, 281 

3, 900, 209 
20, 034, 500 
19, 338, 099 
18, 178, 231 

1, 159, 868 
168, 517 


20.1 

5.7 

22.5 

2.5 

4.4 

22.7 

21.9 

20.6 

1.3 

.2 


Pounds 
733, 405 
192, 163 
571, 581 

17,527 
709, 482 
229, 140 
932, 464 
171, 101 
761, 363 

16, 820 


21.5 


Basic 


5.7 


Direct 


16.8 


Lake and spirit-soluble 


.5 


Mordant and chrome 


20.9 


Sulphur 


■ 6.7 


Vats (including indigo).. . 


27.4 


(a) Indigo 


5.0 


(6) Other vats 


22.4 


Unclassified .... 


.5 






Total . 


63, 402, 194 


100 


88,263,776 1 100 


3, 402, 582 


100 













DYES AND OTHER FINISHED COAL-TAR PRODUCTS 



47 



Table 19. — Com-parison of imports of dyes, by classes, fiscal year 1914 and calendar 
year 1920-1924, with dotnestic production, calendar years, 1917-1924 — Con. 





1921 


1922 


Class 


United 

States 

production 


Per 

cent of 

total 


Imports 


Per 

cent of 

total 


United 

States 

production 


Per 

cent of 
total 


Imports 


Per 

cent of 

total 




Pounds 
7, 843, 009 
1, 853, 094 
7, 053, 761 

720, 406 
3, 997, 442 
10, 239, 255 

7, 019, 120 

6, 673, 968 

345, 152 

282, 603 


20.11 

4.75 
18.08 

1.85 
10.25 
26.25 

17.99 

17.11 

.88 

.72 


Pounds 
1, 455, 823 
163, 527 
537, 664 

43, 553 
695, 961 
220, 938 

1,116,345 
70. 975 

1, 045, 370 
19, 100 


34.24 
3.84 
12.64 

1.02 
16.36 
5.20 

26.25 

1.66 

24.59 

.45 


Pounds 
9, 880, 014 

2, 937, 585 
11,931,737 

1, 009, 512 

3, 749, 701 
16, 913, 767 

16, 926, 744 

15, 850, 752 

1, 075, 992 

1, 283, 127 


15.29 
4.54 
18.46 

1.56 

5.80 

26.17 

26.19 

24.52 

1.67 

1.99 


Pounds 
601, 395 
155, 084 
671,621 

76, 853 
716, 790 
194, 883 


15.10 




3.89 


Direct 


16.86 


Lake and spirit-solu- 
ble 


1.93 


Mordant and chrome- 


18.00 
4.89 


Vats (including indi- 
go) 


1, 549, 024 38. 90 


(a) Indigo 

(6) Other vats... 
Unclassified 


505 . 01 

1, 548, 519 38. 89 

16,981 .43 






Total 


39, 008, 690 


100 


4, 252, 911 


100 


64, 632, 187 


100 


3, 982, 631 


100 







Class 



1923 



United 
States pro- 
duction 



Per cent 
of total 



Imports 



Per cent 
of total 



Acid 

Basic 

Direct 

Lake and spirit-soluble.. 

Mordant and chrome 

Sulphur 

Vats (including indigo) . 

(a) Indigo. 

(6) Other vats 

Unclassified and special. 



12, 498, 817 

4, 157, 373 

16, 858, 387 

1,171,854 

4, 078, 504 

21. 558, 469 

30,113,642 

28, 347, 259 

1, 766, 383 

3, 230, 478 



13.34 

4.44 

18.00 

1.25 

4.35 

23.02 

32.15 

30.26 

1.89 

3.45 



544,048 
210, 896 
527, 014 
23,213 
453,415 
114,023 
1, 207, 554 



17.56 
6.81 

17.01 
.75 

14.63 
3.68 

38.98 



1, 207, 554 
18, 030 



.58 



Total 93, 667, 524 



100 



3, 098, 193 



100 







1924 






Class 


United States 
production 


Per cent 
of total 


Imports 


Per cent 
of total 


Acid 


Pounds 

9, 187, 256 

3, 676, 997 

14, 662. 577 

967, 550 

2, 953, 987 

14,561,257 

21,818,022 

19, 996, 703 

1,821,319 

851, 354 


13.38 

5.35 

21. 35 

1.41 

4.30 

21.20 

31.77 

29.12 

2.65 

1.24 


Pounds 

324, 538 

249, 068 

421,538 

17, 334 

413,902 

87, 764 

1,499,322 

5,471 

1,493,851 

9,073 


10.74 


Basic... 


8.24 


Direct 


13.95 


Lake and spirit soluble 


.57 


Mordant and chrome 


13.69 


Sulphur... . . .... 


2.90 


Vats (including indigo) 


49.61 


(a) Indigo 


.18 


(6) Other vats 


49.43 


Unclassified and special 


.30 






Total 


68, 679, 000 


100 


3, 022, 539 


100 







48 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHEK SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 




ACID DYES 



Description. — The acid dyes are commonly applied in an acid bath; 
they have acid properties and are usually sodium salts of a color acid. 
They constitute the most important group used in wool dyeing, being 
especially adapted to the dyeing of hosiery and carpet yarns, suitings, 
dress goods, and hat materials; they have, in addition, considerable 
application on silk. They are little used on cotton or linen because 
of their lack of affinity for vegetable fibers, but are of value in the 



DYES AND OTHER FINISHED COAL-TAR PRODUCTS 



49 



PRODUCTION a IMPORTS OF DYES BY CLASSES. 



IMPORTS I9lit FISCAL YEAR. 



PRODUCTION 13/7-2'^ '"''^li'S'/ 



m^ IMPORTS 1920- Z'^ CALINOAR YEARS. 

MILLIONS Of POUNDS 5 lO IS 



$S- 



-^ 



/3 It 
ISl 7 
I9IS 
191 3 

19^1 
I9Z2 
1929 

I 320 
13Z1 



/////////////////////////////■////A , 



ACID 



p 



BASIC 



/92,/63 1 

I63,5zy ( , 

ISS.oe'r I 

ZIO,e36 I 



1917 
1916 
1919 
t9iO 



'//////'//// /M //^/////'/////W//'//^X , DIRECT 

=^ — 1 1 




19m 

1917 
1918 



LAKE &SPIRIT SOLUBLE 



19 17 

19 la 

19 19 

19 ao 

t9^l 
19ZZ 
1913 
i^lA 

18 Zl 

19 47. 
1913 

19i1 



MORDANT a CHROME 



y/////////// w///////m 



SULPHUR 



220,9JS ( ,„o„„-, 
;9'.,883 j'MPO«Ti 
ll't.OZS ) 



y///////////////^//////////7A 



VATS (iNDieo) 




VATS (OTHER) 



50 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

dyeing of jute. In general they are used on goods not requiring 
repeated washings. ■Sf^ 

Acid dyes yield clear, bright shades. They are superior to the 
direct and mordant dyes in purity of shade, but are not equal to 
basic dyes in this respect. They have a wide color range, and in 
fastness show great individual variation; as a rule they are fairly 
fast to light and acids, and have a tendency to bleed in washing. 
They yield faster shades on wool than on silk. Some of the more 
complex acid dyes produce shades of good general fastness. A con- 
siderable part of this group is of the lowest-priced dyes produced. 
Their method of application in an acid bath is simple and of low 
labor cost. 

The line of demarcation between acid dyes and certain colors of the 
direct and mordant groups is arbitrary. Certain acid dyes when 
''aftertreated" with sodium or potassium dichromate yield shades of 

food fastness to milling, light, washing, and other agents. These 
nown as acid chrome colors are used chiefly on wool, especially on 
loose wool yarns and piece goods, such as men's suitings. 

Most of the acid dyes are chemically included in one of the following 
groups: (1) Nitro compounds, (2) azo compounds, (3) sulphonated 
basic dyes (mostly triphenylmethane derivatives)-(4) alizarin deriva- 
tives. 

Production and imports. — Measured quantitatively, acid dyes 
ranked fourth in production in 1924, with a total of 9,187,256 
pounds. Agalma black 10 B, the first of the acid dyes, was fifth 
of all dyes manufactured in 1924, with an output of 1,271,980 
pounds, and sales of 1,178,769 pounds, valued at $757,920 Ni- 
grosine (water soluble), second in quantity of all acid dyes, had an 
output of 1,241,330 pounds. Orange II w^as third, with an output 
of 1,163,021 pounds. The next largest were Tartrazine, with an 
output of 551,235 pounds; metanil yellow, 333,369 pounds; and 
Ponceau 2 R, 322,999 pounds. Among the new acid dyes reported 
in 1924 are Fast acid blue BGA, Brilliant fast red G, Brilhant sulphon 
red, Azo acid blue and the Acid alizarin dyes, Alizarin emeraldole G, 
Alizarin rubinol R and GW. 

Imports of acid dyes amounted to 324,538 pounds, or nearly 11 

§er cent of the total imports and 3.5 per cent of the domestic pro- 
uction of this group. The eight leading acid dyes imported in 
1924 were: Fast green, 30,721 pounds; Erioglaucine, 28,655 pounds; 
patent blue, 23,606 pounds; Xylene light yellow, 23,247 pounds; 
ralatine black, 12,050 pounds; Alizarin rubinol, 11,514 pounds; 
Brilhant sulphon red, 11,373 pounds; Patent blue A, 10,715 pounds. 

BASIC DYES 

Description —The basic dyes surpass all others in depth, bril- 
liancy of shade, and purity of tone. They possess high tinctorial 
power, but as a class lack fastness, especially to light and washing. 

Basic colors are used on cotton in dyeing and printing where 
bright shades or color tints are desired without special requirements 
for fastness. They are also employed in the dyeing of paper and 
jute and for lithographic inks, typewriter ribbons, copy paper, and 

Eencils. With the exception of Khodamine B and a few others they 
ave little application on wool. Dyes of this class are chemically 



DYES AND OTHER FINISHED COAL-TAR PRODUCTS 51 

basic in character and are fixed on vegetable fibers with an acid 
mordant, namely, tannic acid. 

They are historically the oldest of the coal-tar dyes. Mauve 
or Perkin violet, discovered by W. H. Perkin in 1856, was the first 
aniline dyestiiff produced on a commercial scale. Basic dyes are 
not as important as formerly; for cotton dyeing they have been 
superseded by direct and sulphur dyes, which cost less to apply and 
many of which excel in fastness. In wool dyeing the acid dyes 
have almost entirely displaced the basic colors. Chemically, basic 
dyes include a large number of the triphenyl-methane derivatives 
and, in addition, members of the following classes: (1) Azines, (2) 
azos, (3) thioazines, (4) thioazols, and (5) acridines. 

Production and imports. — In volume of output basic dyes ranked 
fifth among dyes produced in 1924, production amounting to 3,676,- 
997 pounds, or 5.3 per cent of the total. Chrysoidine Y, with a 
production of 563,858 pounds, led this group. Dyes produced in 
next largest quantity were Bismarck brown 2 R, with an output 
of 559,670 pounds; Methylene blue, 413,075 pounds; Auramine, 
390,192 pounds; and Malachite green, 183,536 pounds. 

Imports in 1924 amounted to 249,068 pounds, or 8.2 per cent of 
the total dye imports and 6.8 per cent of the production of basic 
dyes. The six leading basic dyes imported were Rhodamine B 
(single strength), 97,254 pounds; Rhodamine 6 G (single strength), 
57,375 pounds; Phosphine, 24,300 pounds; Indamine 6 R, 7,900 
pounds; Thioflavine T, 6,842 pounds; and Homophosphine, 4,860 
pounds. 

DIRECT COTTON DYES 

Description. — The direct or substantive dyes have been introduced 
within the past 25 years. Their method of application is simple, as 
they dye vegetable fibers full shades in a neutral or alkaline bath, 
"directly," without the use of mordants. Although their principal 
application is on cotton, they are of special value in dyeing fabrics 
containing both cotton and wool, or silk and cotton (union goods). 
They are also used on linen, silk, and paper and to an increasing 
extent on wool, e-pecially for knitting yarns, worsted and shoddy 
yarns, and loose wool. 

In fastne-is, individual dyes of this group show a wide variation. 
On account of their hi^h solubility they have a tendency to run 
when wa-hed. Many direct dye., particularly tho>e first introduced, 
are sensitive to acids and fade on exposure to sunlight; others, espe- 
cially the newer ones, have good fastness to both acids and light as 
well as to other agents. Certain direct colors are of good fastness, 
particularly to washing, after a treatment of the dyed fiber by " coup- 
ling" with certain intermediates. An aftertreatment with metallic 
salts or formaldehyde al-o improve-; the fastness of certain direct 
dyes. These " developed " direct dj-es were not available in the early 
years of the war; the ordinary direct dyes then used for hosiery were 
unsatisfactory to consumers. Developed blacks, such as Zambesi 
black V, are now manufactured in this country for hosiery. 

With a few exception the direct dyes are chemically ''azo" com- 
pounds and are nearly all derivatives of benzidine, tolidine, diamino 



52 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

stilbene, or a group closely similar to one of these. A small but 
valuable group of direct colors belongs in the thiazol class. 

Production and imports. — The direct cotton or substantive dyes, 
with a production of 14,662,577 pounds, ranked second in quantity, 
comprising 21.4 per cent of the output of all dyes. Direct deep 
black EW, with an output of 5,466,392 pounds, ranked first among 
the direct dyes and third among all dyes. Its production was 8 per 
cent of all dyes produced. Sales in 1924 were4, 947, 568 pounds, valued 
at $1,877,534. Benzamine brown 3 GO ranked second, with an 
output of 816,179 pounds, and Oxamine black BHN fourth, with an 
output of 769,929 pounds. Other direct cotton dyes with a large 
output include Chrysophenine G, the production of which was 507,720 
pounds, and Direct yellow R, with an output of 453,424 pounds. 

There was in general a decline in the production of the bulk dyes 
of this group. Conspicuous increases occurred, however, in the 
output of many of the faster and special types, among which may 
be mentioned Columbia black and yellow. Diamine fast red F, Benzo 
fast black and orange, and Chloramine fast orange. Progress in the 
group lies in the production of a number of specialties of greater 
fastness, giving an increased range of direct dyes for cotton and silk. 
These, although, for the most part, consumed in relatively small 
amounts, are essential for certain uses in the textile industry. 

Among the new direct dyes reported in 1924 are Trisulphon brown 
B and 2G, Diamine catechine B, Chlorantine violet, Benzoazurine3G, 
Direct fast blue, gray, and black. The first two mentioned are 
among the leading direct colors imported during the last four years. 

The six leading direct dyes measured by volume of imports in 1924 
were: Chlorantine fast brown, 30,202 pounds; Trisulphon brown B, 
24,020 pounds; Diaminogene blue, 23,970 pounds; Chlorantine fast 
blue, 17,268 pounds; Toluylene orange, 16,818 pounds; Trisulphon 
brown GG, 14,754 pounds; Diaminogene B, 13,951 pounds. Imports 
of this group in 1924 amounted to 421,538 pounds, or 13.95 per cent 
of the total imports for that year and 2.9 per cent of all direct cotton 
dyes produced. 

MORDANT AND CHROME DYES 

Description. — These colors are used in conjunction with metallic 
mordants, such as salts of chromium, aluminum, iron, and tin, to 
dye both vegetable and animal libers. The resulting shades are, in 
general, of exceptional fastness to color-destroying agents. The 
mordant dyes yield on wool fast shades to hght, washing, and other 
agents. They are also important in textile printing, particularly on 
cotton piece goods, but are little used on silk. 

The mordant dyes are frequently designated as chrome colors. 
As many of them are derived from alizarin, they were formerly 
called alizarin dyes. Certain dyes may be acid, acid chrome, or 
chrome, according to the method of application. The true alizarins 
are generally used with a mordant; the new acid alizarins can be 
used either with or without a mordant. In the application of chrome 
dyes on wool, the mordant may be applied before, during, or after the 
dyeing operation. The labor cost of dyeing with mordant and 
chrome dyes is higher than for other groups. 



DYES AND OTHER FINISHED COAL-TAR PRODUCTS 53 

Formerly tlie most important dye of this class was alizarin, used 
on cotton to produce the well-known Turkey red, one of the shades 
made in ancient times from madder root. Alizarin has for about 50 
years been prepared synthetically from anthracene. In the United 
States it has been replaced in part by certain of the so-called ''ice" 
dyes, such as Para red and Naphthol AS red. 

Chemically, the mordant dyes are members of the following 
classes: (1) Anthracene, (2) azo, (3) oxazine, (4) triphenylmethane, 
(5) nitroso, (6) oxyquinone, and (7) xanthone. 

Production and imports. — The output of mordant and chrome 
dyes was 2,953,987 pounds, or 4.3 per cent of all dyes manufactured 
in 1924. Salicine black U with an output of 765,708 pounds ranked 
first among the mordant and chrome dyes. Total sales were 884,634 
pounds valued at S420,004. Alizarin saphirol B, second in produc- 
tion, was followed by fast red VR, Diamond black, Alizarin yellow G 
and Eriochrome black A. Among the new dyes of tliis group reported 
in 1924 are Mordant yellow GRO, Anthracyl chrome green, Anthranol 
chrome violet ECB and Yellow HSW, Chromate brown EBN, Erie 
chrome brown R, Fast chrome brown R, and Green 6 B, Fast mordant 
blue B and Chrome blue, orange, and yellow. 

Imports of this class were 413,902 pounds, or 13.69 per cent of the 
total dye imports, or 14 per cent ot the production of this group. 
The eight loading mordant and chrome dyes imported are — 

Pounds 

Alizarin blue black 78, 195 

Alizarin 42, 645 

Alizarin saphirol B 40, 600 

Alizarin pure blue B 20, 729 

Alizarin astrol 16, 117 

Alizarin orange 15, 202 

Eriochrome azurol BC 12, 664 

Alizarin brown 10, 996 

SULPHUR DYES 

Description. — This group of dyes produces heavy deep shades of 
blue, green, brown, and black. They are used almost entirely in 
cotton dyeing, being* especially adapted to uniform cloths, hosiery, 
gingham yarns, and cotton warps to be woven with wool and later 
dyed w^ith acid dyes. Their greatly extended use during the war 
served to increase permanently their application on cotton. They 
are also used in the dj^eing of linen and artificial silk. 

The sulphur dyes possess excellent fastness to washing, fulling, 
alkalies, and acids in cross-dyeing. With some exceptions, their fast- 
ness to light is good. As they are not fast to clilorine, they do not 
withstand the repeated bleaching action of hypoclilorites in the mod- 
ern laundry treatment. They are applied in a sodium sulphide 
solution with, in certain cases, aftertreatment with metallic salts to 
improve their fastness. "Cacliou de Laval," the first of this group 
to be discovered, was made in 1867 by the fusion of sawdust with 
sodium sulphide and sulphur. Sulphur dyes are now prepared by 
the fusion of various intermediates (containing the nitro, amino, or 
imino groups) with sodium sulphide and sulphur. These dyes are 
not pure, distinct compounds, and the presence of other substances 
renders them of comparatively low color value. Recent develop- 

47285— 25t 5 



54 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

ments, however, have greatly increased the tinctorial value and shade 
range of many of them. 

Production and imports. — Sulphur dyes, with an output of 
14,561,257 pounds, rauKed third in quantity of output, constituting 
21.2 per cent of all dyes manufactured in 1924. Sulphur black was 
second among all dyes manufactured in 1924, the output being 
11,728,790 pounds, or 17 per cent of the total production. Sales of 
this dye were 11,190,445 pounds with a value of $2,131,299, or a 
unit value of 19 cents per pound. The production of sulphur brown 
amounted to 1,401,334 pounds; sulphur blues, 515,666 pounds. 
Conspicuous reductions in price occurred in many of the sulphur 
dyes. Sulphur purple was one of the dyes first reported in 1924. 

Imports of sulphur dyes amounted to 87,764 pounds, or 2.9 per 
cent of the total dye imports, and 0.6 per cent of the domestic produc- 
tion of this group. 

The five leading sulphur dyes imported were : 

Pounds 

Cross dve green s. 35, 246 

Thionof brown 16, 060 

Thional brilliant blue 6, 001 

Pyrogene green 2G 4, 630 

Katigene green 4, 409 

VAT DYES 

Description- -V Sit dyes as a class possess exceptional fastness to 
light, washing, acids, alkalies, and clilorine. Some of them are not 
fast to all of these agents. The consumption of vat dyes is increasing 
as a result of the increased demand by the ultimate consumer of 
textiles for fast-dyed fabrics. As cotton goods dyed with these 
colors withstand the severe treatment of the modern laundry, the 
increased cost of dye per yard is a minor factor compared with the 
increased life of a fabric dyed. Their superior fastness and the variety 
and beauty of shades which they yield have been largely responsible 
for a steady increase in their use. They are applied on dyed and 
printed shirtings, blouse material, dress goods, ginghams, muslin 
curtains, and other cotton wash goods, and have a limited applica- 
tion on silk and wool. Because of their high cost they have a com- 
paratively limited use in solid or heavy shades, but they are exten- 
sively used for color stripes or for small printed patterns on a white 
background. They possess technical advantages in application over 
the alizarin mordant dyes. 

With the exception of indigo, one of the oldest dyes known, vat 
dyes are of recent origin, having been developed since 1904. The 
Badische Co. of Germany manufactured the first members of this 
class, known in the trade as the indanthrenes. This group was 
followed by the ciba dyes of the Society of Chemical Industry at 
Basle, Switzerland, and later by other series produced by several 
different German concerns, including the algols, helindones, thio- 
indigoes and hydrous. Prior to the war vat dyes other than indigo 
were made exclusively in Germany and Switzerland. 

Following the outbreak of the war, the United States and Great 
Britain, two of the leading consumers of these dyes, began their 
manufacture on an extensive scale. 

Vat dyes are among the most complex of dyes, difficult to manu- 
facture, and relatively high in cost. Chemically, they consist of 



DYES AND OTHER FINISHED COAL-TAB PRODUCTS 



55 



indigoids (including thioindigoids) , anthraquinone derivatives, and 
the carbazole derivatives. 

In 1924. a water soluble leuco derivative of indigo, under the name 
of indigosol, was y)laced upon the market by Swiss and German firras. 
A similar derivative of Caledon jade green, known as Soledon jade 
green, was manufactured by the Scottish Dyes (Ltd.). The com- 
mercial production of water soluble leuco derivatives is a noteworthy 
advance not only in this group, but in the entire realm of dye manu- 
facture. They can be used on animal as well as vegetable fibers. 
Their apphcation by the ''direct method" with subsequent oxidation 
is less complex than by the alkali hydrosulphite process generally 
used for the vat dyes. 

Extended use of these new derivatives will depend in part upon their 
selling prices. 

Production and imports. — The total production of vat dyes in 1924, 
including indigo, was 21,818,022 pounds, or 31.77 per cent of all dyes 
manufactured. The total for this group in 1923 was 30,113,642 
pounds. 

The 1924 production of indigo (20 per cent paste) was 19,996,703 
pounds, a decline of 8,350,556 pounds from 1923, the peak year. 
Sales of indigo in 1924 amounted to 17,977,120 pounds, valued at 
$3,916,569. The average price per pound was 21.8 cents as com- 
pared with 23 cents in 1923. In April, 1925, the price had declined 
to 14 cents per pound, a figure below the level of 1913, when our entire 
requirements were imported. If allowances were made for the differ- 
ence between the present purchasing power of the dollar as compared 
with its 1913 value, the 1925 figure for this dye would be further 
reduced. A comparison of the 1925 domestic selling price with prices 
in foreign countries, for which data are obtainable, indicates that the 
United States consumer is paying less for domestic indigo than con- 
sumers in other countries are paying for their indigo. 

The production of vat dyes other than indigo in 1924 was 1,821,319 
pounds as compared with 1,766,383 pounds in 1923. This is a record 
output and marks a distinct advance in the progress of the domestic 
dye industry. The increasing consumption of vat dyes is shown in 
the following table: 

Table 20. — Production, imports, and consumption of vat dyes other than indigo, 
in the United States, 1914 and 1920-1924 



Year 


Production 


Imports 


Consump- 
tion 


1924 


Pounds 
1,821,319 
1, 766, 383 
1, 075, 992 
345, 152 
1, 159, 868 


Pounds 
1, 493, 851 
1, 207, 554 
1,548,519 
1, 045, 370 
761,363 
1, 945, 304 


Pounds 
3, 315, 170 


1923. 


2, 973, 937 


1922- 


2,624,511 


1921.. 


1, 390, 522, 


1920 


1,921,231 


1914 


1, 945, 304 









Among vat dyes other than Indigo, Indanthrene blue GCD led 
in quantity of production and value of sales. Indanthrene yellow 
ranked second. Conspicuous increases were recorded in the output 
of Indanthrene green, black, and brown, and in Hydron pink FF. 

The commercial production of Indanthrene golden orange RRT 
and G is one of the notable achievements of the domestic dye industry 



56 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

in 1924. Other vat dyes recently added to the domestic manu- 
facturing program include Hydron scarlet BB, Hydron orange R, 
Anthrene golden orange 4R, Ponsol brown G and R for printing, 
Sulfanthrene blue GR, Indanthrene red BN, and Indanthrene violet R. 
Imports of vat dyes in 1924 totaled 1,493,851 pounds. The nine 
leading vat dyes (single strength) imported in largest quantity were : 

Pounds 

Indanthrene golden orange R 112, 339 

Ciba violet B 82, 598 

Indanthrene golden orange G 76, 046 

Algol brown B 71, 313 

Indanthrene blue GCD 68, 450 

Indanthrene red BN 58, 520 

Hydron pink FF 50,460 

Hydron brown 42,681 

Ciba scarlet 40,200 

German 'production of vat dyes. — Table 21 shows the German pro- 
duction of vat dyes other than indigo from 1920 to 1924, inclusive. 
(1) As a total of the different powder and paste types shown in the 
monthly lists of the Reparation Commission; (2) as converted to a 
single strength basis. This latter figure is comparable with both 
imports into and production in the United States. During this five- 
year period the imports into the United States comprised about 13 
per cent of the total German production. By individual years they 
were as follows: 1920, 15 per cent; 1921, 14 per cent; 1922, 16 per 
cent; 1923, 12 per cent; 1924, 9 per cent. 

A comparison of the German output of individual vat dyes with 
their corresponding imports into the United States shows that this 
country imported during the period 1920 to 1924 from one-quarter 
to over one-half of the German output of many vat dyes. Among the 
vat dyes which have found a large market in the United States are 
Indanthrene golden orange R and G, Algol brown R, Indanthrene red 
BN, Indanthrene yellow G, Indanthrene blue GCD, and BCS, and 
the Hydron and Helindone pinks. 

Table 21.— Production of vat dyes {other than indigo) in Germany, 1920-1924 * 



Year 


Total ot ToWf" 


1920' 


Pounds 
2, 603, 712 
4.215,125 
4, 543. 716 
4, 549, 166 
8,323,767 


Pounis 
5. 094, 205 


1921 . 


7, 480, 468 


1922 - - 


9, 640, 002 


1923 


10, 237, 852 


1924 


16, 879, 308 







' From monthly reports to the Reparation Commission, Matieres Colorantes Fabriques par les Usinet 
Allemandei. 
' 11 months, February-December. 

COLOR-LAKE AND SPIRIT-SOLUBLE DYES 

These dyes, constituting one of the smaller groups, are used in the 
preparation of a class of pigments known as color lakes, discussed in 
detail on page 61. The spirit-soluble dyes are insoluble in water, but 
dissolve in oils, fats, or various organic solvents; consequently they 



DYES AND OTHER FINISHED COAL-TAR PRODUCTS 57 

find application for coloring varnishes, fats, oils, waxes, and similar 
products. As many of the spirit-soluble dyes are converted by 
chemical treatment, such as sulphonation, into water-soluble dyes 
for use in textile dyeing, they may be considered as partly completed 
dyes. 

The output of color-lake and spirit-soluble djes in 1924 was 967,550 
pounds, or 1.4 per cent of the total output of all dyes produced. 
Imports of this group were 17,334 pounds, or 0.57 per cent of all dyes 
imported. 

FOOD DYES 

Dyes classified under this group include a limited number of 
selected dyes which meet the specifications of the Bureau of Chem- 
istry, Department of Agriculture. They also include a highly refined 
grade of Methjd violet, used for marking meats and certain other 
food products. The total production of food dyes in 1924 was 264,178 
pounds, with sales of 246,125 pounds, valued at S855,920. Produc- 
tion in 1923 was 230,343 pounds, and in 1921, the first year in which 
they were separatelv compiled, 50,709 pounds. The average value 
of the sales was $3.48 per pound in 1924, $3.76 in 1923, and $5.80 
in 1921. 

DYES EXPORTED FROM THE UNITED STATES 

Exports in 1924 declined 12 per cent in quantity, but increased 1 
per cent in value. The total exports of "colors, dyes, and stains" in 
1924 amounted to 15,713,428 pounds, a decrease oif 2,210,772 pounds 
from the previous vear. The value of the exports in 1924 was 
$5,636,244, an increase of $70,977 over 1923. The decline in quan- 
tity in face of a slight increase in value is probably due to increased 
exports of indigo in the form of powder (100 per cent) instead of 
paste (20 per cent). Otherwise, exports in 1924 show little change 
from the previous year. 

Our export trade in dyes of domestic manufacture consists very 
largely of Indigo and Sulphur black shipped mostly to the markets of 
the Far East. Other dyes constitute a relatively small part of the 
total by both value and quantity. The domestic dye producers 
have exported Indigo and Sulphur black for several years. The peak 
year for exports was 1920, a year of world-wide business activity, 
prior to the reappearance of German dyes in internationrd trade. 
Dyes other than Indigo and Sulphiu' black were also exported in con- 
siderable quantity in 1920. 

Keen competition has been encountered in foreign markets from 
German and Swiss manufacturers, particularly from Germany since 
the withdrawal of the French from the Ruhr. The price of German 
indigo in China was reduced from 33 cents in January to 24 cents in 
December, 1925. The principal markets for American dyes in 1923 
were China, Japan, and Canada, followed by British India and 
Central and South American countries. Details as to quantity and 
value of exports to the various countries are shown in Part VI, 
Appendix. 

Prior to 1922 the Department of Commerce reported only the value 
of exports of domestic dyes and d3^estuffs, under the following groups: 
(1) Aniline dyes, (2) logwood extracts, (3) all other dyes and dye- 
stuffs. The third classification covers both coal-tar dyes and natural 



58 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



dyes other than logwood extract. Since logwood extract is by far the 
most important natural dye exported from the United States it is 
reasonable to assume that the figures returned for all other dyes and 
dyestuffs are largely coal-tar dyes. The most important natural dye 
included in the third group is derived from the bark of the black oak 
(Quercus velutina) in two forms, viz, quercitron and flavine. These 
were exported in considerable amounts diu-ing the war and in smaller 
amounts previously. In 1922 the Department of Commerce adopted 
a new classification, grouping coal-tar dyes under (1) color lakes and 
(2) other colors, dyes, and stains. For the fh^st time the quantity as 
well as the value of the exports was published. 

Table 22 shows by months the total exports of dyes from the 
United States from 1919 to March, 1925, inclusive. 

Table 22. — Domestic exports of dyes, by months, 1919-1925 {three months) 



Month 



January 

February.. 

March 

April.. 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September. 

October 

November. 
December.. 

Total 



January.. 
February. 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July. 



August 

September. 
October... 
November. 
December. 



1919 



Aniline 
dyes 



All other 
dyes 1 



$1,405,017 

1,231,355 

492, 291 

777, 123 

585, 970 

858, G61 

574, 274 

761, 009 

785, 497 

1, 037, 708 

887, 710 

1, 327, 456 



$755, 382 
617, 050 
278, 591 
359, 512 
239, 744 
475, 571 
267, 425 
350, 491 
557, 005 
453, 390 
300, 041 
350, 226 



10,724,071 I 6,004,428 



Total 



$2, 160, 399 
1,848,405 

770, 882 
1, 136, 635 

825, 714 
1, 334, 232 

841, 699 
1,111,500 
1,342,502 
1,491,098 
1, 187, 751 
1, 677, 682 



1920 



Aniline 
dyes 



$917, 574 
1, 850, 662 
2, 648, 615 
1, 829, 771 
2, 180, 606 
2, 389, 515 
1, 770, 780 
1, 151, 196 
2,114,915 

1, 802, 142 

2, 006, 534 
1, 788, 170 



All other 
dyes ' 



$372, 468 
379, 825 
850, 695 
891,467 
817,713 
1, 239, 191 
947,411 
623, 181 
551, 113 
334, 167 
211,465 
154,415 



15,728,499 22,450,480 



Month 



1921 



Aniline 1 All other 
dyes dyes i 



$943, 
397, 
574, 
305, 
278, 
444, 
310, 
513, 
322, 
349, 
372, 
254, 



595 
123 
969 
760 
331 
273 
357 
012 
477 
981 
244 
878 



$349,114 
72,641 
95, 322 
59, 250 
91, 753 
81,477 
66, 626 
70, 663 
70, 228 
73, 706 
78, 703 
94, 656 



Total 5,067,000 1,203,139 



Total 



$1, 290, 042 
2, 230, 487 
3,499,310 
2, 721, 238 

2, 998, 319 

3, 628, 706 
2,718,191 

1, 774, 377 

2, 666, 028 
2, 136, 309 
2, 217, 999 
1, 942, 585 



7,373,111 I 29,823,691 



Total 



$1, 292, 709 
469, 764 
670, 291 
365, 010 
370, 084 
525, 750 
376, 983 
583, 675 
3^2,705 
423, 687 
450, 947 
349, 534 



6, 270, 139 



> Commerce and Navigation reports under domestic exports of "dyes and dyestuffs" — "aniline dyes," 
"logwood extract," and "all other dyes and dyestuffs." Under this last-named designation may be in- 
cluded both natural and coal-tar dyes. However, since logwood e.vtract — shown separately — is the most 
important natural dye exported from the United States, it may be assumed that a considerable portion 
of the exports under "all other dyes and dyestulfs" are coal-tar dyes. 



DYES AND OTHER FINISHED COAL-TAR PRODUCTS 59 

Table 22. — Domestic exports of dyes, by months, 1919-1925 {three months) — Con. 



1922 



Month 



Color lakes 



Pounds 



January 

February.. 

March 

April. 

May 

June 

July... 

August 

September. 

October 

November. 
December.. 



5,059 

6,796 

3,612 

8,446 

401 

282 

356 

593 

341 

576 

1,702 

64 



Value 



K188 

5,124 

3,162 

2,105 

500 

361 

249 

411 

607 

890 

2,228 

103 



Other colors, etc. 



Pounds 



364, 971 
298, 364 
708, 792 
581, 367 
328, 733 
398, 975 
726, 624 
896, 701 
664, 348 
954, 922 
1, 084, 890 
1, 307, 272 



Total. 



28, 228 19, 928 I 8, 315, 959 



Value 



$325, 048 
230, 544 
405, 250 
271, 671 
227, 898 
222, 370 
364, 737 
383, 692 
304, 022 
399, 439 
395, 579 
446, 365 



Total 



Pounds 



370, 030 
305, 160 
712, 404 
589, 813 
329, 134 
399, 257 
726, 980 
897, 294 
664, 689 
955, 498 
1, 086, 592 
1, 307, 336 



3, 976, 515 



8, 344, 187 



Value 



$329, 236 
235, 668 
408, 412 
273, 676 
228, 398 
222, 731 
364, 986 
384, 103 
304, 629 
400, 329 
397, 807 
446, 468 



3, 996, 443 



Month 



January 

February... 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September. 

October 

November., 
December. 

Total 



1923 



Colors, dyes, and stains 



Pounds Value 



821, 847 
1, 338, 395 
1,606,168 
1. 690, 402 
1, 830, 068 
1, 002, 256 
2,915,531 
1, 008, 878 
1, 514, 228 
1, 543, 869 
1, 390, 927 
1, 261, 631 



17, 924, 200 



$332, 
443, 
513, 
498, 
539, 
383, 
778, 
388, 
402, 
474, 
433, 
377, 



5, 565, 267 



Month 



January 

February.. 

Alarch 

April 

May 

June , 

July 

August 

September. 

October 

November. 
December. 



1924 



Colors, dyes, and stains 



Pounds Value 



1, 432, 721 
1, 739, 400 
1, 244, 264. 
1, 014, 824 

751, 152 
1,288,177 
1,818,873 
2, 083, 628 

970, 880 
1, 079, 935 
1, 267, 978 
1,021.596 



Total 15,713,428 5,636,244 



$494, 666 

571, 776 
408, 029 
344, 605 
323,917 
410,314 
555, 615 
667, 696 
437, 352 
538, 099 
505, 546 
378, 629 





Month 


1925 (3 months) 




Colors, dyes, and stains 




Pounds 


Value 


January 


2, 006, 681 
2, 067, 046 
1, 990, 398 


$657, 919 


February 


602, 316 


March . ... 


554, HI 









60 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 




1 The domestic exports of dyes, as shown by the Commerce Department, arc divided into 3 groups- 
CD aniline dyos, (2) logwood extract, and (3) all other dycstuffs. , . , .h^ .^ =.„^, „t„i„\ 

The third classification mav include both natural dyes (other than logwood extracts shown separately) 
as well as coal-tar dyes. Since logwood extract, however, is the most important natural dye exjortcd from 
the United States, it is reasonable to assume that a considerable portion ol "all other dyes and dyestulTs 

'^''?n^'S^wwevcr,'^thf Commerce Department adopted a new classification Coal-tar dyes were grouped 
under coal-tar finished products and were divided into (1) color lakes and (2) other colors, dyes, and stains. 
Since 1923 color lakes have not been separately listed. 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 61 

OTHER FINISHED COAL-TAR PRODUCTS 

COLOR LAKES 

Description. — A color lake is an insoluble color pigment. It is 
commonly made by precipitating a coloring matter (a coal-tar dye) 
on a carrier (the base). The desired properties of a color lake are 
good coloring power, easy workability, brightness, and fastness to 
weather, light, alkali, and acids. The precipitating agents used for 
coal-tar colors are barium chloride, lead salts, aluminium hydroxide, 
and tannin or tannin tartar-emetic. Among the more important 
carriers are aluminium hydroxide, zinc white, lithopone, barytes, 
whiting, China clay and certain native clays, and ocher. The 
principal requirements of a carrier are (1) ready reduction to a finely 
divided state and (2) absence of any deleterious effect on the shade 
of the finished lake. The coloring matter includes those coal-tar 
dyes known as acid dyes, basic dyes, and mordant dyes, as well as 
certain azo dyes produced directly on the carrier. An example of 
the latter is Para red produced from the intermediates p-nitroaniline 
and b-naphthol. Another group of color lakes is made by the 
precipitation of a water-soluble acid dye, with the aid of a mineral 
salt to form an insoluble product. 

After precipitation the insoluble lake is filtered, dried, and ground 
with or without oil; it is then ready for use as a pigment in paints, 
lithographic inks, artists' colors, wall paper, rubber products, and for 
other coloring purposes. 

Production.— The total production of color lakes in 1924 amounted 
to 9,343,147 pounds, with sales of 9,281,673 pounds, valued at 
$4,045,799. The average value of 44 cents per pound is an increase 
over 1923, when the average price was 41 cents. Production in 1923 
was 13,079,115 pounds, with sales of 12,627,359 pounds, valued at 
$5,124,732. 

PHOTOGRAPHIC CHEMICALS 

Because of their strong reducing properties, coal-tar chemicals of 
this class are used for developing photographic films, plates, and 
prints. They are popularly known as ''developers," and are sold 
under various trade names. 

The total output of photographic chemicals in 1924 was 316,183 
pounds, a decrease of 343,289 pounds from 1923. Sales in 1924 were 
321,865 pounds, valued at $461,379, the average value per pound 
being $1.43. 

The developer produced in largest quantity in 1924 was hydro- 
quinol, the production of which was 203,464 pounds, as compared 
with 230,079 pounds in 1923. Metol (methyl p-aminophenol sul- 
fate) also showed an increase over the 1923 production. 

MEDICINALS 

Description. — -Coal-tar products of this group include many com- 
pounds of the utmost importance from the standpoint of national 
welfare. The development in recent years of the manufacture of 
many of the coal-tar medicinals is a notable feature of the history 
of our coal-tar chemical industry. The coal-tar medicinals are 

47285— 2.5t 6 



()2 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

essential to the treatment of many grave types of disease and a short- 
age in the United States at a time when imports from other countries 
might be shut off woukl cause a serious situation. 

Production. — The total production of medicinals in 1924 was 
2,967,944 pounds; sales were 2,688,329 pounds, valued at S5, 178,099, 
an average price of $1,93 per pound. Production in 1923 was 3,273,- 
085 pounds, with sales of 2,995,448 pounds, valued at $4,720,253. 

Arsphenamine, known also as salvarsan and as ''606," the hydro- 
chloride of 3-diamino-4-dihydroxy-l-arsenobenzene, used for com- 
bating syphilis and other protozoan infections, is one of the most 
important of this group. Its production by 7 manufacturers in 1924 
was 555 pounds; sales were 387 pounds, valued at $109,154, or 
$282.05 per pound, as compared with 576 pounds, valued at $173,- 
381— $301.01 per pound— in 1923. 

Neoarsphenamine (3-diamino-4-dihydroxy-l-arsenobenzene me- 
thanol sulphoxjdate) was reported by 6 manufacturers whose total 
production was 3,220 pounds. Sales were 2,981 pounds, valued at 
$959,473, an average price of $321.86 per pound. 

Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) led all coal-tar medicinals in 1924 in 
quantity produced, the output by 4 firms being 1,366,530 pounds, 
as compared with 1,525,795 pounds in 1923. Sales in 1924 were 
1,264,254 pounds, valued at $934,780, a decrease in the price per 
pound from 81 cents to 74 cents. 

Acetanilide, of which 425,950 pounds were produced by 3 firms, 
ranked second in quantity manufactured; total sales were 330,988 
pounds, valued at $99,449, or 30 cents per pound. This is a large 
decrease from the 1923 production of 564,498 pounds. 

Sodium salicjdate, of which 412,707 pounds were produced, ranked 
third, with sales of 375,825 pounds, valued at $143,196. Phenol 
sulphonates (calcium, sodium, zinc, etc.), with a production of 
197,644 pounds, ranked fifth. Other medicinals showing a relatively 
large production were phenolphthalein, salol, acetphenetidin, chlor- 
amine T, and cinchophen. 

Among medicinals reported in 1924 but not in 1923 are: Luminal 
and luminal sodium which are useful hypnotics in nervous insomnia 
and important in the treatment of epilepsy. Two coal-tar dyes 
reported as medicinals for the first time in 1924 are methylene blue, 
said to be of value as an antiseptic, and methyl violet. 

FLAVORS AND PERFUME MATERIALS 

Bescriftion.—Th.eTQ, is no sharp line of demarcation between these 
two classes of coal-tar chemicals, many of them being used both as 
flavors and perfumes; a separate classification is, therefore, in cer- 
tain cases arbitrary. They serve as perfume materials for soaps and 
other toilet articles and as flavors for food products. 

Production of flavors. — The total production of flavors in 1924 was 
1,750,555 pounds; sales amounted to 1,691,863 pounds, valued at 
$1,471,089. The 1923 production was 1,458,024 pounds. 

Methyl salicylate, a flavor used largely as an artificial wintergreen, 
showed a substantial increase in 1924, production amounting to 
1,282,505 pounds as compared with 967,505 pounds in 1923. The 
1924 sales of this product amounted to 1,260,765 pounds, valued at 
$531,324. 



DYES AND OTHER FINISHED COAL-TAR PRODUCTS 



63 



Coumarin is another flavor for which an increased output was re- 
ported. Production in 1924 amounted to 129,111 pounds as com- 
pared with 114,682 pounds in 1923. Sales in 1924 were 109,378 
pounds, valued at $362,340, or S3. 32 per pound. 

Production of perfumes. — The output of perfume materials in 1924 
was 1,895,267 pounds, this being a large increase over 1923 when 
1,365,449 pounds were produced. Sales in 1924 totaled 1,945,488 
pounds, valued at $945,773. 

Diethylphthalate ranked first in quantity of production and in 
value of sales. Production in 1924 was 1,676,911 pounds, with sales 
of 1,750,510 pounds, valued at $673,517. Production in 1923 was 
1,250,280 pounds. Diethylphthalate is used under a special formula 
as an ethyl alcohol denaturant. 

Table 23. — Imports of synthetic aromatic chemicals of coal-tar origin, 1924 ^ 



Name 



Acetophenone 

Acetyl toluene 

Amyl phenyl acetate 

Ainyl salicylate . . . 

Anisic aldehyde 

Benzaldehyde 

Benzoic acid natural 

Benzoph'^none 

Benzylint-ne acetone 

Benzyl acetate 

Benzyl alcohol 

Benzyl benzoate.. 

Benzyl butyrate. 

Benzyl cinnamate 

Benzyl formate 

Benzyl propionate 

Benzyl valerianate 

Benzyl phenyl acetate.. 

Bromstyrol 

Buty phenyl acetate 

Butyl salicylate 

Cetone D 

Cinnamie acid 

CinnanMC aldehyde 

Coumarin 

Craetaegon 

Cyclohexanol 

Cyclohexanol acetate... 

Curnaric aldehyde 

Diethyl phthalate .. 

Dimethyl hydroouinol. 
Dimethyl acetophenone 

Diphenyl oxide. 

Ethyl anthranilate 

Ethyl cinnamate 

Ethyl pbenvl acetate... 

Ethyl salicylate. 

Gardenal... 

HeliotroDine 

Hvacinth absolute 

Hyacinth compound... 

Indol 

Isobutvl phenvl acetate 

Isobut yl salicylate 

Jacinth 

Jacinth absolute 



Pounds 



757 

16 

2 

1,192 

552 

992 

100 

257 

34 

11,427 

3,642 

4,053 

37 

3 

1 

5fi 

1 

1 

246 

2 

26 

66 

12 

l,3f2 

313 

200 

444 

22 

1 

5,900 

137 

10 

103 

3 

105 

7 

1 

419 

3,180 

495 

370 

18 

3 

1 

91 

411 



Name 



Pounds 



Linalvl benzoate 

Melilot. 

Methyl acetophenone 

Methyl anthranilate 

Methyl methyl anthranilate 

Methyl benzoate 

Methyl benzyl acetate 

Methyl cinnamate 

Methyl coumarin 

Methyl nonyl acetaldehyde 

Methyl para tolyl ketone 

Methyl para cresol 

Methyl phenyl acetate,... 

Methyl phenyl glycidic ethyl ester. 

Musk ambrctte 

Musk ambreine pure 

Musk ketone 

Musk xvlol 

Musk P. C 

Musk residue 

Musk ambrette residue 

Musk xylol residue 

Napthyl methyl ketone 

Neroline 

Ocre rose. 

Oleo musk 

Paracresol methyl ester.. 

Paracresol phenyl acetate 

Paramethyl quinoline 

Phenylacetic acid 

Phenyl acetic aldehyde 

Phenyl ethyl ac-etp.le 

Phenyl ethyl alcohol 

Phenyl ethyl benzoate 

Phenvl ethyl cinnamate... 

Phenyl ethyl butyrate 

Phenyl ethyl phenyl acetate 

Phenyl ethyl propionate 

Phenyl propyl alcohol. 

Phenyl propyl aldehyde. 

Phthalic ether. 

SkatoL 

Toncarine. 

Vanillin. 

Vertena D. 

Yara yara. 




1 

14 

333 

2,689 

38 

76 

1 

113 

2 

3 

1 

14 

144 

1 

8.722 

50 

3,973 

S,948 

3,402 

736 

2,362 

268 

44 

875 

33 

160 

10 

7 

1 

443 

1,645 

86 

5,584 

1 

1 

5 

1 

75 

16 

64 

325 

5 

42 

187 

5 

640 



> Compiled from monthly import list of products within 'paragraphs 27 and 28 of the Act of 1922, a Jomt 
publication of the respective chemical divisions of the Department of Commerce and the United States 
Tariff Commission. 

Diphenyl oxide also showed a large increase over 1923, production 
in 1924 being 95,080 pounds. Sales in 1924 were 83,040 pounds, 
valued at $55,853. Other perfumes produced in larger quantities in 
1924 than in 1923 are phenyl ethyl alcohol and method anthranilate. 



64 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

Some of the products showing a decrease in production in 1924 from 
1923 are amyl salicylate, benzylidene acetone, phenyl propyl alcohol, 
and phenyl acetic aldehyde. 

The imported phenyl acetic aldehyde supplies a large part of our 
domestic consumption. Domestic production of the artificial musks 
has not yet been reported. 

Products reported in 1924 but not in 1923 include dibutyl phthalate, 
diamyl phthalate, ethyl benzoate and methyl acetophenone. 

SYNTHETIC PHENOLIC RESINS 

The manufacture of synthetic resins is disitnctly an American 
development and has resulted only from the most careful research 
and engineering skill. These were first made by the condensation of 
phenol witii formaldehyde and ammonia and later with hexamethyl- 
ene-tetramine, but in recent years paracumarone, as well as cresol, 
has been used as a base. Synthetic resins are used in large quantities 
by practically all American automobile manufacturers in the construc- 
tion of many different parts of the automobile. The increase in the 
demand for radio equipment in the United States during the past few 
years has led to a large increase in the use of the synthetic resins for 
constructing panels and other parts of receiving sets. Synthetic 
resins are also used as a substitutes for amber in the manufacture of 
pipe stems, cigarette holders, jewelry, and similar articles. There 
is a large consumption for electric insulating materials and for var- 
nishes and lacquers. Production in 1924 shows an increase over 1923, 
but figures can not be published without disclosing the operations of 
individual concerns. 

SYNTHETIC TANNING MATERIALS 

The synthetic tanning materials known as "syntans" are of very 
recent development, having come into commercial use in German}^ 
and England since 1912. They give considerable promise for use in 
the tanning of leather in conjunction with natm'al tanning extracts. 

Synthetic tans are made by the condensation of certain coal-tar 
derivatives, such as the sulfonated phenols, cresols, and naphthols, 
with formaldehyde in the presence of an acid. They are commonly 
used in conjunction' with the natural tanning extracts. Their use is 
reported to result in (1) an economy of the time required for tanning, 
(2) a satisfactory leather of light color, and (3) a reduction in the 
amount of natural extract required. 

Production figures for synthetic tanning materials can not be pub- 
lished without disclosing the operations of individual concerns. The 
combined production of synthetic phenolic resins and synthetic 
tanning materials in 1924 was 12,778,115 pounds, with sales of 
12,745,458 pounds, valued at $8,818,041. 



DYES AND OTHER FINISHED COAL-TAR PRODUCTS 



65 



STATISTICS OF PRODUCTION 

Table 24. — Production and sales of dyes and other finished coal-tar products, 1924 

[The number in the first column idenf ifies the dyes according to the 1914 edition of the Schultz tables."*' The 
second column gives the common uame of the product. The numbers in the third column refer to the 
numbered alphabetical list of manufacturers printed on page 211. An X signifies that a manufacturer 
did not consent to the publication of his identification number in connection therewith. A blank in 
the fourth and fifth colunms indicates that the sales figures can not be published without revealing in- 
formation in regard to the output of individual firms. A blank in the seventh column indicates that the 
production of the corresponding dye in the United States can not be published without revealing infor- 
mation in regard to the output of individual firms. The figures thus concealed are, however, included 
in the total] 



Schultz 
No. 



Common name 



Total finished 
coal-tar products. 

NITEOSO DYES 

Naphthol green 

NITRO DYES 

Naphthol yellow S 

Pigment chlorine 

STILEENE DYES 

Direct yellow R. 

Stilbene yellow 

Chloramine orange G 

PYRAZOLONE DYES 

Fast light yellow 

Xylene yellow 

Tartrazine 

Eriochrome red B.. 

Azo Dyes 

MONOAZO DYES 



32 Butter yellow.. 

33 Chrysoidine Y. 



Chrysoidine R. 



Sudan G 

Sudan I 

Croceine orange 

Orange O 

Chromotrope 2R 

Fast acid fuchsine B 

Amido naphthol red G. 

Brilliant lake red R 

Alizarin yellow G 



Chromotrope 2B.. 
Alizarin yellow R . 



Victoria violet 

Azo acid blue 

Lanafuchsine 

Azo coralline 

Amido naphthol red 6B. 

Chromotrope 6B 

Spirit yellow R.. 

Pigment orange R 

Sudan II 



Manufacturers' iden- 
tification number 
(according to list 
on p. 211) 



8,61. 



34, 84, 170. 
176 



Sales 



Quantity [ Value 



Pounds 
93,636,109 $55,932,580 



Average 

price per 

pound 



$0.60 



8, 34, 39, 67, 75, 124, I 440, 160 
129, 136. I 

60,67,75,1.38 I 

8,67,124,129,136 i 122,895 



9,60,124,126,141 

39,141.... 

29,81,124,141,169 

60,126 



8,511 



545, 446 



9,34,44,84, 129, X.... 
8, 9, 29, 34, 60, 61, 81, 

84, 124. 
8, 9, 34, 44, 60, 61, 81, 

84, 124. 
34,44 



25, 049 
562, 594 

147, 536 



34,44,84, 124, 129, X.. 

9 124 157 

29, 34^ 60, 94," 124,157" 

44,124,129 

9,34,45,124,129 

8, 9, 34, 39, 44, 60, 75, 

81, 124, 136, X. 
113 



8, 9, 29, 39, 44, 45, 51, 
60, 81, 124, 126, X, 
X. 

129 



8,467 



128,246 

7,352 

19, 076 

202, 183 



289, 422 



131, 384 



233, 645 



416, 648 



20, 034 
276, 724 

73, 516 



30, 469 



70, 107 

8,627 

10, 858 

114,428 



176, 979 



86, 967 



8, 9, 29, 39, 44, 45, 60, i 109, 468 '• 59, 061 

81, 126, 129, 157, X, I 

X. I I 

8, 39, 124, 129, 136 38, 378 | 32, 410 

45...- -. 



126,129,157... 

75,81 

8, 34, 39, 44, 60, 75, 
81, 124, 129, 136. 

44,124,129 

34,44, 124, X 

176. 



104,233 



72, 915 



Xyli dine orange 2R . 



34, 44, 60, 84, 124, 
X. 



46, 921 



42, 715 



39, 377 



40, 437 



,66 



1.07 



Production 



Pounds 
97,730,211 



.76 



.80 
.49 



.50 



.79 



.49 



.70 



.91 
"i."63' 



453, 421 



138, 234 



85, 306 



551, 235 



563, 858 
181, 167 



46, 752 

I 10,979 

.55 i 92,549 

1.17 
.57 
.57 



218, 173 



135, 934 



103, 347 



112, 334 



48,066 
'64,'426 



66 



CEXSUS OF DYES AXD OTHEE 5YXTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Tabli; 24. — Production and sales of dyes and other finished coal-tar products, 1924- 

Continued 



Sehnltt 
Xo. 



89 
91 

93 
94 
102 
103 
105 
106 
107 
109 
112 

114 
117 
119 
121 
134 
137 
141 

143 
144 
145 

147 
151 
152 
153 
154 
155 
156 
157 
161 

162 

163 



166 
167 
16S 
169 
173 

177 
178 
179 
USO 
181 



182 
183 
184 
18« 
188 
189 
193 
194 
195 
197 
198 
200 
202 



Common Tia.mp 



Azo Dyes — Continaed 



MOSOAZO DTES — COn. 



82 Ponceau 2R. 



Add anthracene brown 

R. 
Metachrome brown B.. 
Anthracyl chrome green 

D. 

Sudan R 

Azo eosine C 

Diamond flaviae G 

Mordant yellow GRO-. 

Sudan brown 

Autol red ELP 

Sulfanine brown A 

Palatine red A 

Bordeaux B 



Chromotrope lOB 

Eriea2GX 

Diamine rose 

Erica B 

Metanil yeUow 

Acid yellow G 

Azo yellow 



Tropaeoline. 

Orange I 

Orange 11... 



AtofuchsiQe eB 

Orange R 

Permanent red 4B 

Lake red C 

Palatine chrome brown.. 
Acid alizarin garnet R-. 
Palatine chrome violet . . 

Diamond black PV 

Fast red A 



Brilliant fast red G. 
Azo rabine 



164 Fast red VR. 



Fast red E 

Croceine scarlet 3BX... 

-Amaranth 

Cochineal red 

LitholredR 



Mordant yellow 

Crura psall yeUow 

Lake Bordeaux B 

Eriochrome blue black B 
Salicine black U 



Manufacturers' iden- 
tification number 
(aec-ordiag to list 
on p. 211) I 



?ales 



Quantity Value 



Average 

price per 

pound 



Production 



Brilliant sulphon red 

Eriochrome black T 

Eriochrome black A 

Lanacyl violet B... ', 

Sulphon acid blue R ' 

Sulphon acid blue B \ 

Stanley red 

Thiazine red R 

Rosophenine SG 

Thiazine red G 

Mimosa C ' 

Lake red D ..I 

Palatine chrome red B. .1 



8,9,29,34,39,44,124, 

129,157. 
60,81 


Pounds 
316,166 


S173, 498 


[ $0.55 


Pounds 
322,999 


8,29,60,124,X 






214.409 


X 








129 








129 








81,126 








81.-- 




i 




9— 










34 










157 


















8,9.29,34,39,60,124, 

129, 157. 
129 


88,270 


34,363 


.62 


111, 129 


129, 138 











19, 67, 124, 138 










67,129 











9,33,60.81,84, 124.. 
60, 61, 124 


390.294 


282.872 


.72 


333,369 


9, 34, 60, 61, 81, 124, 

170. 
84, 170 - 


112,504 


108,468 


.96 


123,936 


34.. — 










9, 29, 34, 39, 44, 60, 

84, 124. 
60 


1,224,706 


398,377 


.33 




1,163,021 


60, 84, 124 

39,60,113 

60, 113, 157, 159 


89.995 
45,307 


34.646 
91.540 


.39 
2.02 


71,868 
37,692 


45, 124, 126 


18.805 


20,867 


Lll 




8, 124-.. 




60, 81, 124, 126 .- 








60,81,124 26,088 


20.087 
123, 749 


.77 

.71 




29,34. 39, 60, 81, 84, 175,581 
124, 129, 157, X. 

44 : 


233,729 


8, 34, 39, 44, 60. 81, 297, 497 

99, 124, 129. 
8, 9, 39, 44, 124, 126, 142, 501 

129, 1.36, X. 
8 


233,516 
166,084 


.79 
1.17 


294,254 
154,024 


39 








34, 39, 60, 124, 129, 1 57 35, 736 
29, 34, 44. 124, 157, X.- 


17,570 


.49 


25,639 


8, 30. 39, 63, 157, 159, 
176, X. 

8, 9, 39, 124 

124 


205,562 
27,765 


187,380 
15,066 


.91 
.54 


205,685 
41,494 


176 











39, 124, 126 










8, 9, 19, 34, 39, 44, 60, 
81, 124, 126, 129, 
157, X. 

126 


884,634 


420,004 


.48 


765,708 


34, 39, 60, 81, 126 

9.39,60,81,124,126... 


229,765 


149, 114 




.65 


127,977 


60 - 










8, 60, 81, 124, 126 

124 


203,555 


154,590 


.76 


158,069 


138 










67, 129 










19, 138, X 


13,467 


21, 391 


1.59 


12,404 


75, 138 




19, 129, 138 — 










176 










8,9,34,39,44,60,81, 
124, 126, 129, 176. 


47,733 


39,035 


.83 i 


99,509 



DYES AND OTHER FINISHED COAL-TAR PRODUCTS 



67 



Table 24. — Production and sales of dyes and other finished coal-tar products, 1924 — 

Continued 



Common name 



Manufacturers' iden- 
tiflcation number 
(according to list 
on p. 211) 



Azo Dyes — Continued 

DISAZO DTES 

Resorcin brown 

Fast brown. 

Agalma black lOB 

Anthracene acid brown . 
Brilliant croceine 

Ponceau 5R 

Cloth red 3G 

Sudan IV 

Wool red B.._ 

Neutral gray G 

Cloth scarlet Q 

Scarlet EC 

Milling orange G 

Sulphoncyanine G 

Buffalo black lOB 

Fast sulphon black F... 
Sulphoncyanine black... 
Naphthylamine black D 

Brilliant croceine 9B 

Diaminogen. 

Diamond black 

Diamond green 

Benzo fast scarlet -. 

Bismarck brown 

Bismarck brown 2R 

Palatine chrome black.. 

Fast mordant yellow 

Benzo fast yellow 

Benzo fast pink 2BL 

Paper yellow 

Chrysophenine G 

Congo red 

Orange TA 

Congo corinth G 

Congo rubine 

Diamine scarlet 

Trisulphon violet B 

Diamine violet N 

Benzo fast red 

Oxamine black BHN... 

Benzo cyanine R. 

Benzo blue 2B 

Benzo orange R 

Crumpsall direct fast 
red R. 

Chrysamine G , 

Diamine fast red F 

Diamine brown 

Diamine brown B 

Cresotine yellow G 

Anthracene red 

Oxydiamine orange 

Benzopurpurine 4B 

Benzopurpurine B 

Trisulphon blue R 

Azo mauve B 

Oxamine blue 4R 

Benzo blue BX 

Columbia blue Q 



8, 39, 44, 60, 84, 124, 
136, X, X. 

9, 34, 44, 81, 124, X, X 
8, 9, 34, 39, 44, 45, 60, 

81, 124, 129, 136, 
157, X. 
60 



9, 34, 44, 60, 81, 124, 

157. 
34.... 

60. 



9, 34, 39,44,84,124, X. 
8, 39, 81, 124, 126, X. 

129 .-. 

61,84 

61, 124, 126 

19,126 

60,81, 124, 126. 

8,124,126 

81 



60, 81, 124, 126. 

8,60, 129 

34 



8, 60, 124, 129 

8,60,81 

39,60, 124, 129 

4, 34, 39, 60, 81, 84, 

124. 
8,34,39,44,60,61,81, 

84, 124, X. 

126. 

8,81 



60... 

60, 124, 129 

9, 60, 67, 124, 129 

60, 124, 129 

124 

8, 9, 34, 49, 81, 124, 
129. 

39, X... 

8,60, 124, X 

39, 124, 129 

9, 34, 39, 60, 99, 124, 
129, 136. 

60. 



8, 9, 34, 39, 51, 60, 124, 

129, 136. 
124... 

8, 9, 34, 39, 44, 45, 51, 
60, 124, 129, 136, X. 

9, 39, 44, 45, 60, 81, 
129. 

X... 



39, 45, 60, 124, X 

8, 9, 34, 39, 44, 60, 67, 
124, 129, 136, X. 

8, 9, 34, 39, 44, 60, 67, 
75, 124, 129, 136, X. 

X 

124 

129 

9, 124 

34, 39, 60, 99, 124, 129. 

8,49.. 

129 

124. 

124.. 

39,124,129 

60 



Quantity 



Pounds 
166, 630 



31,214 
1, 178, 769 



26, 036 
31,719 



17, 130 
"266,"833' 



133, 490 
7,480 



129, 955 

13, 466 

166, 431 

140, 548 

535, 862 



61,754 
446, 809 



107, 410 



53, 254 
38, 123 
42, 514 



687, 773 



691, 238 
71, 485 



11,008 
81, 140 

142, 741 



403, 555 



Value 



$125, 013 

33, 071 

757, 920 



22, 409 
33, 664 



21, 019 
'236,212 



122, 003 
4,978 



111,638 
12, 950 

318, 043 
74, 137 

272, 502 



88, 975 
375, 068 



108, 622 



79, 797 
41,727 
54,311 



449, 528 



257, 542 
51, 770 



8,923 
85, 792 

118, 046 



295, 149 



29, 689 



25, 256 



Average 

price per 

pound 



$0.75 



1.06 
.64 



1.06 
"i.'23' 



.91 
.67 



1.91 
.53 



1.44 

.84 



1.50 
1.10 
1.28 



.65 



.81 
1.06 



.83 



.85 



Production 



Pounds 
159, 204 



36,631 
1, 271, 980 



37, 162 
34, 056 



272, 836 
' 133,147 



144, 572 



187, 625 
119,687 

559, 670 



50, 839 
507, 720 



111,862 



45,709 



769, 929 



701, 715 
65, 943 



138, 737 
195, 547 



449, 391 



68 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Table 24. — Production and sales of dyes and other finished coal-tar products, 1924 — 

Continued 





Common name 


Manufacturers' iden- 
tification number 
(according to list 
on p. 211) 


Sales 




Schultz 
No. 


Quantity 


Value 


Average 

price per 

pound 


Production 


391 


Azo Dyes— Continued 
DisAZO DYES— contd. 


8,34,39,99, 124, 129. 
124,129 


Pounds 
111,873 


$56. 442 


$0. 51 


Pounds 
131, 593. 


392 


Toluylene orange O 

Acid anthracene red 

Benzopurpurine lOB 






400 


X 


1 






405 
410 


9,39,60, 124,129 

9, 60, 124, 129 -.- 


30,351 1 43,208 


1.42 


32, 530 


411 




129 


( 






415 




129 








419 
421 


Chicago blue RW 


9,39,60,124,129 

124 


77,604 92,071 


1.19 


94, 957 


424 
426 

436 


Chicago blue 6B - - 

Benzamine pure blue 

TRISAZO DYES 

Columbia black 


9,39,60,124,129 

8, 39, 60, 124, 129, 136, 
X. 

8,39,45,60,124 

124.129 


269, 149 
180, 398 

163, 271 


339, 196 
141, 543 

126, 218 


1.26 
.79 

.77 


244, 837 
203, 560 

185, 156 


441 


Diazo blue black RS 

Trisulphon brown B 




449 


8,129 










456 


60,124 










457 


Trisulphon brown 2G... 
Direct deep black EW.. 

Erie direct black RX.... 

Erie direct green ET 

Chloramine black N 

Chloramine green B 

C'hloramine blue 3G 

Oxamine green B 

Oxamine green G 

Benzamine brown 3G0. 


8 










462 
463 


8, 9, 34, 39, 44, 60, 124, 

129, X. 
8, 9, 39, 45, 60, 124, 129. 
45,49,124 


4, 947, 568 

436, 029 
53, 667 


1, 877, 534 

213, 530 

41, 444 


.38 

.49 

.77 


5, 466, 392- 


464 




469 


129 




470 


9,129 










471 


9,129... .- 










474 

475 
476 

477 


8, 9, 39, 49, 60, 67, 

124, 129, X. 
8, 39, 49, 60, X 

8, 9, 34, 39, 49, 67, 81, 

124, 129, X. 
44, 60, 81, 124, 128, 

129, 138, X. 
60 


274, 490 

60, 960 
825, 640 


187, 445 

47, 847 
400, 655 


.68 

.79 
.49 


263, 528 

51, 566 
816, 179 


480 












485 


TETRAKISAZO DYES 

Benzo brown G 


34,44,49,60,67,129... 
67,129 


109, 629 


79, 258 


.72 


126, 033 


487 








All other azo dyes 




1, 951, 285 


2, 045, 634 


1.05 


2, 069, 763 




Total azo dyes 








23, 378, 002 


15. 334. 277 


.66 


24, 170, 181 




DIPHENYLMETHANE DYES 

Auramine .. 


13,40,60,97,124. 

60,97,124,190 

97,190 ... . 






493 


398, 729 
162, 134 


604, 513 
274, 931 


1.52 
1.70 


390, 192^ 


495 


TRIPHENYLMETHANE 
DYES 

Malachite green 


183, 536 


499 






502 




37,39,60,124. 


54, 666 


87, 983 


1.61 


38, 389 


503 


Bralliai it milling green B. 


124 




505 


60 










506 




124 










512 
513 


Magenta (or Fuchsine).. 


39, 52, 84, 89, 124, 147, 

157, X. 
124 


87, 032 


149, 843 


1.72 


71, 199 


515 


Methyl violet . 


34, 52, CO, 84, 94, 95, 

124, X. 
60 


538, 533 


607, 391 


1.13 


543, 031 


516 






517 


Methyl violet 5B 


124 










521 


84,89 ..^.. 










528 


Fast acid violet lOB 

Acid violet 


37 60 










530 


37,39,60,75,124,136.. 
124 . .. 


109,291 


188, 230 


1.72 


113, 792 


531 






536 


Alkali blue 


39, 52, 84, 89, 94, 124, 

147, 157. 
89 


127, 258 


325, 486 


2.56 


115, 164 


538 


Methyl blue for cotton.. 
Soluble blue... 




539 


39,52,84,89,124 

37,124 


61, 688 


157, 883 


2.56 


38, 433. 


543 


Patent blue V 





DYES AND OTHER FINISHED COAL-TAR PRODUCTS 



69 



Table 24. — Production and sales of dyes and other finished coal-tar products, 1924- 

Continued 





Common name 


Manufacturers' iden- 
tification number 
(according to list 
on p. 211) 


Sales 




Schultz 
No. 


Quantity 


Value 


Average 

price per 

pound 


Production 


545 


Azo Dyes— Continued 

TRIPHT'-NYLMETHANE 

DYES— continued 
Patent blue A 


37,124 


Pounds 






Pounds 


548 


Acid violet 6 BN..- 

Aurine -- - 


60 










555 


60 










558 


Victoria blue R 


60. 












Total triphenyl- 
methane dyes. 

diphenyl-naphthyl- 
methjVne dyes 

Victoria blue B . . 














1,419,973 


$2,372,150 


$1.67 


1,358,547 


559 


60 




562 


Fast acid blue 


60 


j 






564 


Naphthalene green V 

Wool green S 


124 


1 






566 


60,81, 124, 136. 

53, 60 . . 


162, 357 


121, 644 


.75 


170, 537 




XANTHONE DYES 

Rhodamine B .. 




573 








582 


Fast acid violet A2R 

Uranine 


60-. . . 








585 


9, 84... 








587 


Eosine.- . 


9, 53, 84, 94 


152, 615 


282,404 


1.85 


131, 634 


592 


Erythrosine B 


53,60,84 




596 


Phloxine.-- 


53,60,84 


3,426 


12,881 


3.76 


4,021 


597 




60, 84.... 




599 




194. 


":::;:::::::::::::: 






600 


Coerulein 


194 










Total xanthone 
dyes. 

ACRIDINE DYES 

Phosphine 












271, 120 


504,671 


1.86 


240, 647 




60,84, 124, 141 

28, 124, 170 




606 




74, 862 

36, 612 


139, 102 
62, 133 


1.86 
1.70 


100, 753 


613 


fcUINOUNE DYES 

Quinoline yeUow 

TmOBENZENYL DYES 

ThioflavineS 


61, 151 


615 


138. 




616 


Primuline 


19, 67, 75, 124, 129, 

138 
19, 67, 75, 124, 129, 

138. 
129 


189,576 
197,098 


150,431 
214, 239 


.79 
1.09 


178,071 


617 
618 


Columbia yellow 

Thioflavine T 


210, 531 


622 


OXAZINE AND TmAZINE 
DYES 

Delphine blue B 

Gallocyanine.. 


45, 124 










626 


9, 29, 45, 124, 194 

9, 124 


63,928 


118, 598 


1.86 


53, 085 


631 


Chromocyanine V 




636 


g 










649 


Cotton blue or Mel- 

dola's blue. 
Methylene blue . 


9,45, 99, 124 


37,834 
359,483 


68,360 
451,355 


1.81 
1.26 


33,973 


659 


29, 124, 190 


413,075 


660 


Methylene green 

Brilliant alizarin blue... 

AZINE DYES 

Azo carmine 

Safranine 

New fast gray 

Safranine MN 

Rosolane 

Induline (spirit-soluble). 


124 




667 


75, 81 


::::::::: 






672 


60 










679 


60 124 145 


121,092 


175,847 


1.45 




681 


29 129 




683 


124 










687 


60 










697 


19, 34' 39V8i,"84,"l24" 


37, 308 


28,967 


.78 


32,833 



70 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Table 24. — Production and sales of dyes and other finished coal-tar ■products, 1924 — 

Contiuued 





Common name 


Manufacturers' iden- 
tiflcation number 
(according to list 
on p. 211) 


Sales 




Schultz 
No. 


Quantity 


Value 


Average 

price per 

pound 


Production 


698 
699 
700 

720 


Azo Dyes— Continued 
AZiNE DYE-s— continued 

Nigrosine (spirit-solu- 
ble). 

Induline (water-solu- 
ble). 

Nigrosine (water-solu- 
ble). 

SULPHUR DYES 

Sulphur black 


19, 29, 34, 81, 84, 124. 

19, 39, 81, 84, 124 

19, 29, 81, 84, 124, 126. 

4,60,81,99, 124 

18, 39, 45, 60, 99, 124, 

129, X. 
4, 18, 39, 44, 45, 46, 

53, 60, 81, 99, 124, 

162, 173, X. 
8, 45, 60, 99, 124. 129. 
8, 9, 45, 60, 61,99, X.. 


Pounds 
411,326 

89, 935 

1, 232, 658 

11,190,445 
390,833 

1,408,892 


.$197, 237 

66, 121 

588,802 

2,131,299 
214, 020 

541, 320 


$0.48 
.74 
.48 

.19 
.55 

.38 


Pounds 
360, 166 

74, 439 

1,241,330 

11,728,790 
515, 666 

1 401 334 




Sulphur blue 




Sulphur brown 




Sulphur green 






Sulphur maroon 












Sulphur olive 


19, 45, 46, 60, 81, 129, 

162, 173. 
4, 39, 45, 162 


166, 321 


62, 722 


.38 


168, 485 




Sulphur orange 




Sulphur purple 


45, X 












Sulphur tan 


4, 8, 39, 45, 46, 81, 

173 X 
4, 39,' 45^ 60, 80, 81, 

124, 129, 162, X. 


142, 382 
423, 256 


52, 995 
224, 558 


.37 
.53 


156, 925 
329,866 




Sulphur yellow. .. 




Total sulphur dyes. 




14, 000, 372 


3, 438, 920 


.25 


14,561 257 




CARBAZOLE DYES 

Hydron blue 


60,99 




748 










760 


ANTHRAQUINONE DYES 

Indanthrene golden 

orange O. 
Indanthrene golden 

orange R. 
Indanthrene dark blue 

BO. 
Indanthrene green B 

and black. 

Indanthrene violet R 

Indanthrene violet RR.. 

Indanthrene violet B 

Alizarin 


129 










761 


60 










763 


60, 114, 129 


14, 432 
33, 800 


32, 161 
48, 440 


2.23 
1.43 


21,883 


765 


00, 114, 129 


72,523 


766 


129 


767 


60 










768 


60.... 










778 


18, 124 










779 


Alizarin orange 


18, 124 










780 


Alizarin red S 


18 










782 


Alizarin brown 


45, 60, 62, 124, 176, 

194, X. 
124_ 


41, 759 


86, 634 


2.08 


37, 350 


784 


Alizarin SX 


785 


Alizarin GI 


18, 129 










789 


Anthracene blue WR... 

Indanthrene red BN 

Indanthrene blue RS 

Indanthrene blue 3Q 

Indanthrene blue QCD. 
Indanthrene blue GC... 

Indanthrene yellow 

Alizarin saphirol B 

Cyananthrol R 


62, 92, 124 








56, 487 


831 


]29 










838 


60, 129 










840 


60.... 










842 


60, 129 










843 


129 










849 


60, 129 










858 


81,92, 124, 129 

129 


250, 473 


826, 119 


3.30 




859 




862 


Alizarin blue black 

Alizarin cyanine green... 
Indanthrene brown B... 

Total anthraqui- 
none dyes. 


37, 176 










865 


37, 176 










867 


129 
























1, 685, 439 


3, 053, 899 


2.04 


1, 970, 769 









DYES AND OTHER FINISHED COAL-TAR PRODUCTS 



71 



Table 24. — Production and sales of dyes and other finished coal-tar products, 

1934— Continued 





Common name 


Manufacturers' iden- 
tification number 
(according to list 
on p. 211) 




Sales 




, 


Schultz 
No. 


Quantity 


Value 


Average 

price per 

pound 


Production 


874 


Azo Dyes— Continued 

INDIGO AND ITS DERIVA- 
TIVES 

Indigo, 20 per cent paste. 
Indigo, white .. 


59, 60, 124 


Pounds 
17,977, 120 


$3,916,569 


$0.22 


Pounds 
19, 996, 703 


876 


45 


877 


Indigo extract 


9, 60, 103, 124, X 

59 


84, 667 


47, 697 


.56 


75, 211 


881 


Ciba blue 2B, 2BD 

Indigo 6B 




883 


59 










923 


ANILINE DLACK GROUP 

Ursol 


77, 109, 157, X 

X 


9,186 


31,549 


3.43 


10, 087 




FOOD DYES 

Naphthol yellow S 

Tartrazine 


7 










23 


9, 29, 124, 184, X 

124, X 


60, 256 


196,837 


3.27 


66, 650 


83 


Ponceau 3R 




144 


Orange I 


9, 124, 184, X 










168 


Amaranth 


9, 99, 124, 184, X 

124, 184 


97, 033 


269,200 


2.77 


104, 790 


602 


Guinea green B 




505 


Light green SF (yellow- 
ish). 
Methyl violet .. 


124, 184 










515 


124... 










692 


Erythrosino 


66, 124, X 










877 


Indigo disulfonic acid... 
Yellow AB 


124, X 












9, 84, 124, 164 

9,84, 124, 164 


6,981 
8,450 


9,788 
16,382 


1.40 
1.94 


12, 106 




Yellow OB 


7,824 




Total food dyes.. 






246, 125 


855, 920 


3.48 


264, 178 




PHOTOCHEMICAL DYES 

Orthochrome T 


66 
















Pinacyanole 


66 












All other dves. 


60 . . . 






















Bacteriological stains 

and indicators. 
Research chemicals 

Total dyes 


41,66,84,90,102,124, 

144, 161, 167. 
66, 82 


































64, 961, 433 


35, 012, 400 


.54 


68. 679, 000 











72 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



DYES NOT CLASSIFIED BY SCHULTZ NUMBER 

Manufacturers were requested to report separately, in terms of 
their familiar pre-war designations, the production of dyes not 
classified by Schultz. The following table is a list of such dyes, 
together with certain new dyes of American development for which 
there are no foreign equivalents : 



Name of dye 



Acid anthracene brown B -. 

Acid anthracene yellow GR - 

Acid black BA,. 

Acid blue QG, R 

Acid naphthol blue black 

Acid red OTH - -.-. 

Acid yellow HM, PHW 

Alizarin black -- 

Alizarin blue IS 

Alizarin brown 5R - 

Alizarin emeraldole G,- 

Alizarin rubinol R, GW 

Alizarin serge blue GS -- 

Alizarol black 3G -. 

Alizarol brown B 

Alizarol gray DG 

Alizarol yellow 3G. - -. 

Amacid red 3B - 

Amanil black FIG 

Amanil fast black L 

Amanil fast orange PRZ 

Amanil sky blue 

Anthracene chrome black DNW 

Anthranol chrome brown EB. 

Anthranol chrome violet ECB 

Anthranol chrome yellow DF ex, HSW. 

Anthrene jade green - 

Artificial silk black G 

Azanol brown N, RY. 

Azanol dark brown RR 

Azanol red brown R 

Azo acid violet 

Azo dark green 

Azo eosine 2B 

Azo fast blue B high cone 

Azo fast blue G high cone 

Azo fast blue 2R high cone 

Azo fast violet 2R 

Azo violet 2B, BS 

Benzo chrome brown G.. 

Benzo fast black L ' 



Benzo fast black LM 

Benzo fast orange S 

Benzo fast pink 2BLU 

Benzo fast scarlet 4BA 

Benzo rhoduline red B.. 

Hi'nzol brown R 

Brilliant croceine FL 

Brilliant wool blue N 

Brorao fluorescein 

Buffalo black AR. RB, 8B, 3G 

Buffalo chrome black NS 

Chloramine fast orange GG, G30, OR.. 

Chlorantine violet 

Chromate brilliant brown R 

Chromate brown , 

Chromate brown EBN ■ 

Chromaven brown orange 2R 

Chrome black 

Chrome blue ATX... 

Chrome green 

Chrome green B 

Chrome green CB _.. 



Manufac- 
turers' 
identifi- 
cation 
number 
(accord- 
ing to list 
on p. 211) 



81 
75 
8 
129 
39 
129 
84 
194 
194 
194 
81 
81 
62 
,124 
124 
124 
124 



9 

9 

37 

126 

126 

126 

129 

60 

X 

X 

X 

61 

129 

129 

124 

124 

124 

124 

8 

9 

8,60.81, 

124, 129 

75 

60 

75 

60 

60 

44 

60 

124 

53 

124 

124 

75 

124 

37 

8 

61 

9 

29,45 

60 

8 

39 
124 




Chrome green SW. 

Chrome orange RB. 

Chrome red SW 

Chrome wool blue G 

Chrome yellow 

Chrome yellow CLU 

Chrome yellow 5G.. 

Chrome yellow DS 

Chrome yellow SS. 

Cindiazo blue B 

Cloth red, R2R 

Cotton brown R 

Developed black 2B... 

Diamine bordeaux B.. 

Diamine catechine 

Diamine catechine B, 3G 

Diamond green WLU 

Dianol dark blue B. 

Diazine beta black N 

Diazine black DM... 

Diazine black V extra 

Diazine black VN extra 

Diazine black VZ 

Diazo Bordeaux 7B 

Diazo fast red 5BL, 7BL 

Diazo indigo blue M 

Diazo seal brown 

Direct black EV 

Direct black GX, GXR... 

Direct blue 3RX, 4R 

Direct brown G2R, G3R 

Direct dark green 

Direct fast black B.. 

Direct fast blue B, R 

Direct fast blue 2B.. 

Direct fast gray BL 

Direct fast light blue FF 

Direct fast orange R, 2R, RCL 

Direct violet R cone 

Erie brown GB 

Erie fast gray, M, R 

Eriochrome brown R.. 

Fast acid violet ERR ex 

Fast brown R 

Fast chrome brown R 

Fast crimson R 

Fast green 6B : 

Fast mordant blue B 

Fast wool violet B 

Furamine B 

Furol DB 

Gloss flux basic blue V 

Gloss flux basic orange... 

Gloss flux basic yellow.. 

Gloss flux Persian rose 

Gloss flux red O 

Guinea fast red BL 

Ilelio bordeaux BL 

Hydron pink FF 

Indanthrene blue BCS 

Indanthrene blue BSP, GFC, GX. 

Indomine navy blue 2BM 

Jet black APX 

Lake scarlet O 



' Sales of Benzo fast black L were 107,964 pounds, valued at $178,569, with a production of 134,730 pounds. 



DYES AND OTHER FINISHED COAL-TAR PRODUCTS 



73 



Name of dye 



Leather yellow 

Litjiol fast orange 

Midland vat blue MB 

Midland vat cadet blue 

Naphthol green black B .1 

Navy blue T i 

Nerol 2B 

Niagara blue NR I 

Niagara fast blue RL ..j 

Nigrosine base B, N, NB, R, 2R 

Oil brown 

Oil brown IT, I.. 

Oil brown M | 

Oil maroon O i 

Oil orange 3 O ...| 

Oil orange RR 

Oil orange cone j 

Oil orange Y 293 ..I 

Oil red I 

Oil red C | 

Oil red PN cone | 

Oil red O.. 

Oil scarlet j 

Oil soluble yellow ! 

Oil yellow AB, OB.... ..i 

Oil yellow F, 2625 • 

Oxamino copper blue RRX I 

Oxydiaminogen OB... i 

Palachrome maroon I 

Palaside blue R I 

Palaside brown B cone... .i 

Palaside green... ' 

Paranol direct brown B ..; 

Paranol direct orange GL j 



Manufac- 
turers' 
identifi- 
cation 
number 
(accord- 
ing to list 
on p. 211) 



124 

113 

59 

69 

39 

29 

39, 129 

124 

124 

124 

X 

84 

124 

124 

X 

44 

9 

84 

19, X 

189 

44 

124 

189 

189 

84 

124 

GO 

124 

X 

X 

X 

X 

126 

126 



Name of dye 



Paranol direct violet R 

Permanent red R 

Pluto black 

Pontachrome brown R, SW. 

Pontaehrome yellow SW 

Pontamine blue GH cone... 

Pontamine diazo black H 

Radiant violet ink toner 

Red for lake P 

Rosantlirene A, R 

Rosanthreue orange 

Safranine 8B 

Serichrome black WSE 

Serichrome green B 

Silk black 4BF 

Solamine blue FF 

Solantine red 8BLN.. 

Sudan AT, AX, T 

Sulfanthrene orange R paste 

Sulfanthrene scarlet 2B 

Toluidine red 

Trisulphon brown R... 

Victoria fast violet 2RL ex.. 

Violet 4B.. 

Violet 100 

Violine 

Wool black B, 2B.. 

Wool blue BM, CB, CG.... 

Wool fast violet 2R 

Wool green B 

Wool navy B.. 

Zambezi black BG, D, PC. 

Zambezi black D 

Zambezi black V '.. 



Manufac- 
turers' 
identifi- 
cation 
number 
(accord- 
ing to list 
on p. 211) 



126 

176 

8 

60 

60 

60 

60 

147 

X 

60 

60 

124 

124 

124 

39 

, 60, 129 

124 

34 

60 

60 

X 

8 

81 

138 

37 

37 

129 

124 

75 

124 

124 

39 

124 

, 60, 124 



» Sales of Zambezi black V were 223,823 pounds, valued at $249,682, with a production of 180,317 pounds. 
Production and sales of dyes and other coal-tar products, 1924 





Manufacturers' iden- 
tification numljer ac- 
cording to list on 
p. 211 


Sales 




Common name 

.1 


Quantity 


Value 


Unit 
value 


Production 


COtOa LAKES 


45, X 


Pounds 






Pounds 


Blue lakes 

Brown lakes .. 


12, 24, 30, 38, 45, 56, 60, 
64, 69, 83, 86, 91, 94, 
100,110,119,153,158, 
159, 165, 174, 175, 176, 
X, X, X, X, X, X, 
X X 

30, 38, 45, 69, 100, 158, 
159, 174, X 

12, 24, 30, 38, 56, 04, 69, 
83,86,91,94,100,110, 
153, 157, 158, 159, 165, 
174, 175, 176, X, X, 
X, X, X, X, X, X, 
X, X. 

12, 24, 30, 38, 60, 64, 69, 
79, 83, 86, 91, 94, 100, 
110, 153, 158, 159, 165, 
X, X, X, X, X, X, 
XXX 

12, 24, 30, 60, 63, 69, 83, 
86.91,94,96,100,110, 
153, 157, 158, 159, 165, 
174, 176, 189, X, X, 
X, X, X, X. 


510, 899 

67, 591 
625, 459 

366, 801 
699, 017 


$258, 077 

5,499 
417, 550 

142, 596 
395, 774 


$0.51 

.08 
.67 

.39 
.66 


535, 817 
69, 921 


Kosine lakes ... 


648, 077 


Green lakes 


384, 434 


Uthol red lakes .. .. 


637, 961 







74 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

Production and sales of dyes and other coal-tar products, 19^4 — Continued 





Manufacturers' iden- 
tification number ac- 
cording to list on 
p. 211 


Sales 




Common name 


Quantity 


Value 


Unit 
value 


Production 


COLOR LAKES— continued 
Maroon lakes -.- 


5, 12, 24, 30, 38, 56, (iO, 
64,83,86,91,96, 100, 
106,110,115,157,158, 
l,'-)9, 165, 174, 176, 189, 
X, X, X, X, X, X, X. 

12, 24, 30, 38, 64, 69, 83, 
86, 91, 94, 100, 110, 
153, 157, 158, 159, 165, 
174, 175, 176, X, X, 
X, X, X, X, X. 

5, 12, 24, 30, 45, 48, 56, 
60, 64, 86, 91, 94, 96, 
100,106,110,157,159, 
165, 174, 175, 189, X, 
X, X, X. X, X, X, X. 

12, 24, 30, 38, 45, 48, 56, 
60, 64, 69, 83, 86, 91, 
94, 96, 100, 106, 110, 
115, 153, 157, 158, 159, 
174, 176, 189, X, X, 
X, X, X, X, X, X, 
X X 

5, 12, 24, 30, 38, 56, 64, 
69,83,86,91,96, 100, 
106, 110, 115, 153, 157, 
158,159,165,174,176, 
X, X, X, X, X, X, 
X, X, X, X, X. 

12, 24, 30, 38, 45, 64, 69, 
83,84,86,91,94, 100, 
110, 153, 158, 159, 165, 
174, 176, 189, X, X, 
X, X, X, X, X, X, X. 

12, 30, 45, 60, 69, 83, 86, 
91, 94, 100, 110, 158, 
159, 165, 176, 189, X, 
X, X, X, X, X, X, X. 

X - 


Pounds 

1, 022, 504 

486. 190 

2, 673, 993 
981, 903 

824, 760 

440, 156 
356, 232 


$298, 998 
132, 321 
952, 427 
604, 427 

255, 038 

329, 335 
164, 634 


$0.29 
.27 
.36 
.62 

.31 

. 75 
.46 


Pounds 
1, 013, 466 


Orange lakes .. 


497, 306 


Para red lakes 


2, 619, 770 


Red lakes 


1,000,902 


Scarlet lakes . . 


774, 721 


Violet lakes 


463,772 


Yellow lakes 


370, 485 


All other color lakes 
















Total color lakes 


9, 281, 673 


4, 045, 799 


.44 


9, 343, 147 




188 




PHOTOGRAPHIC CHEMICALS 

Diaminophenol hydrochloride ..- 






• 




p-IIy droxy phenylglycine 

Hydroquinol 


66 










116, 194, X 


206,387 


230, 374 


1.12 


203,464 


Methyl p-aminophenol sulfate 


66, 194, X 




(metol). 






1 




Total photographic chem- 


321, 865 


461, 379 


1.43 


316, 183 


icals. 

MEDICINALS 

Acetanilido 

Acetphenetidin 


114, 116, 128 




330, 988 


99, 449 


.30 


425,950 


X 




Acriflavine and neutral acrifla- 


1, 124 .- 










vine (3;6-diamiuo-10-met,hyl 
acrid ne chloride) . 
Aminopv-rine . 


118 . . 












87 










Anesthesia. {See Benzocaine.) 
Apothesine (hydrochloride ofdi- 


X 










ethylaminopropyl-ginnamate) . 
Arsphenamiue 


1, 57, 108, 112, 118, 143, 

163. 
17, 59, 116, X 


387 

1, 264, 254 

2,234 


109, 154 
934, 780 


282.05 
.74 


655 


Aspirin (acetyl salicylic acid) 


1, 366, 530 


Atophan. (See Cinchophen.) 
Benzocaine (ethyl p-amino beu- 


1, 118, X 


32, 335 14. 47 


2,080 


zoate or anesthesine) . 


156, 164 










156 - 










B isniuth betanaphthol 


116, 128, 143 


1,020 


3, 226 3. 16 1 






70, 116, 128 








Butyn (p-amino benzoyl gamma 


1 










di normal butyl amino|propanol 
sulfate) . 













DYES AND OTHER FINISHED COAL-TAR PRODUCTS 75 

Production and sales of dyes and other coal-tar products, 1924 — Continued 





Manufacturers' iden- 
tification number ac- 
cording to list on 
p. 211 


Sales 




Common name 


Quantity 


Value 


Unit 
value 


Production 


MEDiciNALs— continued 
Calcium-cresol sulfonate 


17. 


Pounds 






Pounds 


Chloramino T (sodium p-tolueue 


X 










sulfocliloramide) . 
Cinchophen (atophan) (phenyl 


1, 7; 29, 105, X 


50, 324 


$398, 167 


$7.91 


56, 003 


ciuclioniuic acid). 
Creosote benzoate 


156 




Creosote carbonate 


132 










Dichloramine T (p-toluene sul- 


X 










fone dicliloramide). 
Formidine (methylene disali- 


X 










cyclic acid derivative). 
Guaiacol benzoate 


156. 










Guaiacol crystals 


129 










Lithium benzoate. . _ 


114, 156. 










Luminal (phenylethyl barbituric 


17 










acid). 
Luminal sodium (phenylethyl 


17 










barbituric sodium salt). 
Magnesium sahcylate 


87 ... 










Meth yl salicylate. (See Flavors.) 
Methylene blue .. 


X 










Methyl violet. . . 


124 








Methvlhydroxymethyl ester of 


17 








salicylic acid. 
Methylene citryl salicylate . . . 


17.. 












143 










Monoglycol ester of salicylic acid. 
b-Naphthol benzoate 


17 










70 










Neoarsphenamine .-. 


1,57,108,118,143,163.. 
7... 


2,981 


959, 473 


321. 86 


3,220 


Neocinchophen. (See Tolysin.) 




amidopyrene). 

Phenacaine (ethenyl-p-diethoxy- 
diphenylamidine hydrochlo- 
ride). 

Phenol phthalein 


118 










140, X . .... 










Phenolsulphonates (calcium, so- 


1, 108, 116, 143 


188, 743 64. 398 


3.41 

31.37 


197, 644 


dium, zinc, etc.). 

Procaine (p-amino benzoyl die- 
thyl aminoethanol). 

Proflavine (3:6-diamino acridine 
sulfate). 

Proposote (creosote derivative) . . 


1, 118, X 


4,147 


130, 082 


3,790 


1, 124. 




X 










66 












29 












87, 116. 










Salophen (acetylparaminophenyl 
salicylate). 


17 










124 












118 










Sodium salicylate . . . . 


59, 87, 116, 155, X 

87 


375, 825 


143, 196 


.38 


412, 707 






Sulfoarsphenamine .. 


1, 112, 118, 143, 163- — 
1, 29 


577 


290, 918 


504. 19 


743 


Tolysin (p-methylphenyl cin- 
choninic ethyl ester) (neocin- 
chophen). 














Total medicinals 


2, 688, 329 


5, 178, 099 


1.93 


2, 967, 944 


FLAVORS 

Coumarin 


26, 59, 70, X, X 

43, 70, 73, 74, 131, 166, 

180, X. 
26, 70, 74, 166, 180 


109, 378 


362, 340 


3.32 


129, 111 


















70, 74, 166, 180, X, X 










26, 70, 74, 166, X 1 1,333 

59, 74, 87, 116, 155, 166, | 1, 260, 765 

X, X. ; 

X, X 


6,324 
531, 324 


4.74 
.42 




Methyl salicylate 


1, 282, 505 


















Total flavors 


1, 691, 863 


1, 471, 089 


.87 


1, 750, 555 



76 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

Production and sales of dyes and other coal-tar products, 1924 — Continued 





Manufacturers' iden- 
tification number ac- 
cording to Ust on 
p. 2U 


Sales 




Common name 


Quantity 


Value 


Unit 
value 


Production 


PERFUME MATERIALS 

Acetophenone 

Amyl benzoate.. 

Amyl cinnamate.- 

Amyl salicylate 

Anisole (methylphenyl ether) 

Aubepine (anisic aldehyde) (see 
Part IV). 

Benzophenone 

Benzyl acetate... 

Benzyl alcohol 

Benzyl benzoate. 

Benzyl butyrate 

Benzyl cinnamate 

Benzyl formate... 

Benzyl isoeugenol 

Benzylphenyl acetate 

Benzyl propionate 

Benzylidinc acetone 

Bromstyrol 


70, 74, 93, 166, 178 


Pounds 






Pounds 


74 










74 










70, 73, 74, 87, 93, 166, 

178. X. 
74 


9,141 


$12, 363 


$1.35 


8,692 


70, 73, 166 










70, 74 










26, 70, 74, 93, 114, 166, 

178, X. 
26, 70, 93, 114, 166, 178, 

X. 
70, 74, 93, 116, 166, 178, 

X. 
74 


28,674 
14, 865 
25, 318 


37, 327 
20, 504 
34, 985 


1.30 
1.38 
1.38 


28,390 
14, 773 




70,74,93, 166, 178 

74, 166 


133 


631 


4.74 


126 


166 










166 










74, 166 










114, 166, X. 
74, 166, 178 










74 










Butyl salicylate 

Cinnamic acid 

Cinnamic alcohol.. 

Cinnamic aldehyde 


74 










70, 73, 74, 178 


1,212 


4,160 


3.43 


1,625 


166 




26, 70, 73, 166. 


7,739 


24,727 


3.20 


9,284 


70, 74, X 




p-Cresylphenyl acetate 

Diamyl phthalate 

Dibenzyl ketone 


70, 74 










74 










70 










98 










Diethyl phthalate 

Dimethylbenzyl carbinol 

Dimethyl hydroquinone 

Dimethyl resorcinol 

Diphenylmethane 

Diphenyl oxide... 

Ethyl benzoate 

Ethyl fumarate 

Ethylphenyl acetate 

Ethyl salicylate 

Guaiacol phenyl acetate 

Hydratropic aldehyde 

Indol 

Isobutyl benzoate 


22,26,70,74,93,98,114, 
137, 166, 177, 178, 180, 
192, X, X. 

70 


1, 750, 510 


673, 517 


.38 


1, 676, 911 


70 










166 










74, 166, 178 










26, 59, 166, 178 


83, 040 


55, 853 


.67 


95,080 


177 




177 










166, 180 










177 











70 








166 










70 










74 










166 












70.. 












70 












70,74 












74, 166... 












166.. 










Methyl anthranilate 


22 59 70 93 166 178 










70i 74^ 166, X 












70 










p-Methyl benzyl aathranilate 

Methyl-p-cresol (p-cresyl methyl 
ether) . 


70 










74,166 










166 












166 










2-Methyl-5-isopropyl acetophe- 
none. 

Meth\l methyl anthranilate 

Methylphenyl acetate 


74 










70 74 166 










70,74, 166, 178, X, X.. 
70 -. 


805 


4,606 


5.72 


724 




70 












70 










b-Naph Ihyl anthranilate. - 

b-Naphthyl isobutyl ether 

Nerolin (b-naphthol ethyl ether). 

Nonyl anthranilate 

Phenetole (ethylphenyl ether)... 
Phenyl acetate 


70 










74 










74 166 










70 










74 








59," 70 









EMPLOYEES AND RATES OF PAY 77 

Production and sales of dyes and other coal-tar products, 1924 — Continued 



Common name 


Manufacturers' iden- 
tification number ac- 
cording to list on 
p. 211 


Sales 


Unit 
value 


Production 


Quantity 


Value 


Phenylacetlc acid 


74 


Pounds 






Pounds 


Phenylacetic aldehyde 


93, 166, 178.. i... 








Phenvlacetic ketone 


70 i 








Phenyleth vl acetate 


70, 93, 166, 178 


33 


$389 


$11.79 


28 


Phenyleth vl alcohol 


26, 59, 70, 93, 166, 178.. 




Phenylethvl benzoate - 


166 


] 






Phenvlethvl formate . 


166 










Phenvl propyl alcohol 


180 










Phenvlvinylethylenemethyl ke- 


166 










tone. 
Phenvlethvl phenyl acetate 


166 











Phenvlglvcol acetate 


70 








Santalylphenvl acetate 


70 








Skatol (methyl indol) 


70 


1 






Tetrahydroparamethyl quino- 


70 








line. 
Vara yara (b-naphthol methyl 


74, 166 










ether). 

Total perfume materials... 












1, 945, 488 
}l2,745,458 


945, 773 
8,818,041 


.49 
.69 


1, 895, 267 


Synthetic tanning materials 


99, 193, X 




Synthetic piienolic resins 


15, 16 - 











Table 25. — Production of dyes, by groups, according to unit value 



Group 



0-25 cents.. 
26-50 cents H 
51-75 cents. 

$0.76-$l 

$1.01-$1.50.. 

$1.51-$2 

$2.01-$3 

Over $3 

Total. 



1924 



Pounds 



31, 725, 493 
13, 853, 508 
9, 105, 018 
4, 259, 988 
6, 283, 687 
1, 774, 660 
1,118,953 
557, 693 



68, 679, 000 



Per 

cent of 

total 



46. 194 
20. 172 
13. 257 
6.203 
9.149 
2.584 
1.629 
.812 



100 



1923 



1922 



Pounds 



44,651,483 
15,205,298 
12,717,546 
8, 604, 351 
8, 207, 420 
2, 318, 343 
1, 244, 493 
718, 590 



Per I 
cent of I 
total 



47. 670 
16. 234 
13. 577 
9.186 
8.762 
2.475 
1. 329 
.767 



Pounds 



28, 728, 401 
10, 237, 825 
8,418,271 
6, 992, 018 
6, 833, 577 
2,010,413 
838, 849 
572, 833 



Per 

i cent of 
total 



93, 667, 624 



100 64, 632, 187 



44. 449 
15. 840 
13. 025 
10. 818 
10. 573 
3. Ill 
1. 298 



100 



1921 



Pounds 



7, 832, 
7,941, 
6, 843, 
4, 762, 
6, 329, 
3, 321, 
1, 220, 
756, 



39, 008, 690 



Per 

cent of 

total 



20. 079 
20. 300 
17. 542 
12. 209 
16. 226 
8.515 
3. 130 
1.939 



100 



Employees axd Rates of Pay 



The number of employees receiving specified rates of pay on De- 
cember IS, 1924, or on the nearest representative date for which this 
information could be obtained, as reported by 158 of the 193 firms 
manufacturing coal-tar products in 1924, is contained in Table 26. 
The 35 firms not reporting either conducted a business in which coal- 
tar products were not the primary articles of manufacture or they 
did not have separately organized departments dealing therewith. 

According to the Bureau of the Census, the number of firms en- 
gaged in the manufacture of coal-tar colors and other products in 
1914 was 7, with 528 employees, distributed as follows: Salaried em- 
ployees, 130; wage earners (average number), 398. In 1924 there 
were 158 firms reporting 12,569 employees engaged in manufacturing 
operations. This represents a decrease of 2,272 employees from 1923, 
which in turn showed a decrease of 1,418 from 1922. 



78 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Chemists and teclmically trained men in 1924 constituted 13.4 
per cent of all employees as compared with 12.7 per cent in 1923 
and 10.8 per cent in 1922. Of the 1,684 men of this group in 1924, 
30.82 per cent received between S50 and $75 per week, 24.23 per 
cent $75 and over, 9.32 per cent -"between $45 and $50, and 9.62 
per cent between $40 and $45. For men without technical training 
the scale of compensation was as follows: 26.56 per cent received 
between $25 and $30 per week. 22.52 per cent between $30 and $35, 
19.93 per cent between $20 and $25. In general, chemists and tech- 
nically trained men received higher rates of pay in 1924 than in 
1923, while men without technical training received lower rates. 
Table 26 compares specified rates of pay of teclmically trained men 
with those of men not having such training. Among the technically 
trained men the increase in terms of percentages in the pay of each 
group was as follows: 5.35 per cent in the group receiving between 
$40 and $45 and 3.46 per cent in the group receiving between $50 
and $75. Of men without technical training there was an average 
decrease of about 9 per cent distributed between the two groups 
receiving, respectively, $30 but under $35, and $35 but under $40 
per week. These two groups in 1923 showed about a 25 per cent 
increase in weekly wages over 1922. 

As stated in previous reports, the dye and coal-tar chemical in- 
dustry has probably a larger proportion of technically trained men 
than any other manufacturing industry in the United States. 



Table 26. — Employees and rates of pay, dye and coal-tar chemical industry, 1924 



Wages per week 



Number of employees at each 
specified wage engaged in 
manufacturing operations 



Chemists 
and tech- 
nically 
trained 
men 



Men 
without 
technical 
training 



All em- 
ployees 



Percentage receiv- 
ing each specified 
wage 



Chemists 
and tech- 
nically 
trained 
men 



Men 
without 
technical 
training 



Percentage receiv- 
ing each specified 
wage or more 



I 

Chemists 
and tech- 
nically 
trained 
men 



Men 
without 
technical 
training 



Under $10 

$10 but under $15. 
$15 but under $20. 
$20 but under $25. 
$25 but under $30. 
$30 but under $35. 
$35 but under $40. 
$40 but under $45. 
$45 but under $50. 
$50 but under $75. 
$75 and over. 



Total. 



23 
55 
94 
130 
130 
162 
157 
519 
408 



42 

227 

641 

2,170 

2,891 

2,452 

1,433 

554 

336 

215 

24 



42 

233 

564 

2,225 

2. 985 

2, 582 

1,563 

716 

493 

734 

432 



1, 684 10, 885 12, 569 



0.35 
1.37 
3.27 
5.58 
7.72 
7.72 
9.62 
9.32 
30.82 
24.23 



0.39 

2.09 

4.97 

19.93 

26.56 

22. 52 

13.17 

5.09 

3.09 

1.97 

.22 



100 



100 



100.00 
99.64 
98.28 
95. 02 
89.44 
81.72 
74.00 
64.38 
55.05 
24.23 



100. 00 

99.62 

97.52 

92.55 

72.62 

46.06 

23.53 

10.37 

5.28 

2.20 

.22 



RESEAKCn WORK 



79 



Table 26. — Employees and rates of pay, dye and coal-tar chemical industry, 1924- 

Continued 





Percentage receiving each specified wage 


Wages per week 


Chemists and technically 
trained men 


Men without technical training 




1924 


1923 


Increase 


1924 


1923 


Increase 


Under $10 




100.00 
99.89 




100. 00 

99.62 

97.52 

92.55 

72.62 

46.06 

23.53 

10.37 

5.28 

2.20 

.22 


100. 00 

99.43 

96.74 

90.78 

75.20 

55.23 

33.24 

16.85 

8.30 

3.34 

.15 




$10 but under $15 


100.00 


0.11 


0.19 


$15ii)Ut under $20 


99.64 1 99.04 1 .60 
98.28 97.07 1 1.21 
95. 02 93. 14 1 1. 88 
89. 44 87. 30 ! 2. 14 
81.72 ! 78.11 i 3.61 
74. 00 ! 68. 65 i 5. 35 
64. 38 i 61. 42 2. 96 


.78 


$20 but under $25 


1.77 


$25 but under $30.. 


»2.58 


$30 but under $35 - 


19.17 


$35 but under $40 


19.71 


$40 but under $45 


16.48 


$45 but under $50 - 


■3.02 


$50 but under $75 -.- 


55.05 1 51.59 
24.23 23.32 


3.46 
.91 


» 1.14 


$75 and over . 


.07 











' Decrease. 



Research Work 



Of the 193 firms engaged in the manufacture of dyes and other 
coal-tar chemicals in 1924, 54 had separately organized research 
laboratories for the solution of technical problems and for the devel- 
opment or discovery of new products. The total cost of the research 
work carried on in these laboratories, together wdth that done in 
laboratories not separately organized for research, was $2,148,924. 
This figure is about the same as the amount ($2,085,901), expended 
in 1923. The Tariff Commission's census includes in 1924, as in 1923, 
not only the total cost of the research work carried on by the com- 
panies reporting, but the net cost of such work chargeable to coal-tar 
products alone. The $2,006,628 reported as the net cost in 1924 is 
doubtless an understatement of the real cost of experimental work, 
since the figures do not include, in all cases, the cost of research 
forming a part of manufacturing operations but not charged against 
research on the books of the companies. 



PART III 

DYES IMPORTED FOR CONSUMPTION IN THE 
UNITED STATES, 1924 



81 



I 



Part III 

DYES IMPORTED FOR CONSUMPTION IN THE UNITED 

STATES, 1924 

Introduction 

Since 1919 the United States Tariff Commission has compiled a 
detailed census of dye imports similar to that published by the 
Department of Commerce under the title "Artificial Dyestuffs Used 
in the United States (fiscal year 1913-14)," commonly known as the 
"Norton Import Census." 

The commission first compiled such statistics for use in the admin- 
istration of section 501, title 5, of the tariff act of September 8, 1916, 
which made the continuance of specific duties on coal,tar products, 
after September 8, 1921, dependent upon the production in the 
United States of as much as 60 per cent in value of the consumption 
of* these products. As the information was found to be of direct 
value to manufacturers, consumers, and importers, as well as to the 
commission itself, in considering the tariff aspects of the coal-tar 
chemical industry, the annual census of imports has been continued. 

Imports for consumption, including warehouse withdrawals for 
dyes and other products within paragraphs 27 and 28 for the 3^ear 
1924, have been compiled and published each month under a cooper- 
ative arrangement between the respective Chemical Divisions of the 
Department of Commerce and the Tariff Commission. The dye 
import figures obtained and published under this arrangement were 
rechecked and verified before they were tabulated in final figures for 
the year 1924, and for this reason do not agree in certain cases with 
the preliminary figures as published in the monthly reports. 

In tabulating the dye statistics the commission has followed in the 
main "Schultz Farbstoff Tabellen" and the "Colour Index," issued 
by the British Society of Dyers and Colourists, as well as the Norton 
census and other sources of information in the files of the Tariff 
Commission. 

Dyes identified by Norton as "a," "b," and "c," classes under a 
given Schultz number are listed under that number (without sub- 
division) except in a few instances where they had been incorrectly 
designated. Dyes included under these "a," "b," and "c" classes 
are not always chemically identical with the original Schultz types. 
Such dyes as could not be identified by Schultz numbers are classified 
by the ordinary method of application, as follows: Acid, basic, direct, 
lake and spirit-soluble, mordant and chrome, sulphur, and vat. In 
many cases the classification of a dye by its method of application 
is arbitrary, as certain colors may be applied by either of two methods. 

The rate of exchange used in converting foreign invoice values to 
United States currency was either the rate given on the invoice, or, 
in comparatively few cases, the exchange value published by the 
Treasury Department for the month in which consular certification 
occurred. 

83 



84 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



SUMMARY OF IMPORTS OF DYES IX 1924 

The total imports of coal-tar dyes in 1924 was 3,022,539 pounds' 
with an invoice value of $2,908 ,"778, as compared with 3,098,193 
pounds in 1923, with an invoice value of $3,151,363. (For compari- 
son of imports with domestic production and effe(;t of change in duty 
on imports, see pp. 41-43.) 

The following table shows the country of shipment of coal-tar 
dyes imported for consumption in recent years. 



Table 27. 



-Imports of dyes into the United States, by country of shipment, 
19W-1924 



Country of shipment 



Germany 

Switzerland 

Italy 

England 

Canada 

France. - 

Belgium. 

Holland.. 

All other countries. 



Percentage of total quantity 



1924 



1923 



1921 



(■) 
(') 



1 Included in "all other countries." 



IMPORT STATISTICS 

Table 30, page 88, shows the quantity and the value (when publish- 
able) of individual dyes imported in 1924. Table 28 is a summary 
of dyes imported from 1921 to 1924, inclusive, classified according to 
method of application. Table 29 compares the volume of the 1924 
imports of the leading dyes in each class by application with cor- 
responding imports in the period 1921 to 1923 and in the fiscal year 
1914. 

Table 28. — Dyes imported into the United States, classified by method of applica- 
tion, 1921-1924 





1924 


1923 


Class 


Pounds 


Per 

cent of 
total 


Pounds 


Per 
cent of 
total. 


Acid 


324, 538 

5,471 
1, 493, 851 


10.74 

.18 
49.43 


544, 048 


17.56 


Vat: 




(6) Vat f other than indigo) - 


1, 207, 554 


38.08 






Total 


1, 499, 322 


49.61 


1, 207, 554 


38.98 






Mordant and chrome: 


42, 695 
371, 207 




27, 716 
425, 699 


.89 




13.74 






Total 


413, 902 


13.69 


453, 415 


14.63 






Direct. 


421, 538 
87, 764 

249, 068 
17, 334 
9,073 


13.95 

2.90 

8.24 

.57 

.30 


527, 014 

114,023 

210, 896 

23,213 

18, 030 


17.01 


Sulphur ... 


3.68 


Basic . - - 


6.81 




.75 




.58 






Total 


3, 022, 539 


100. 00 


3,098,193 


100.00 







DYES IMPORTED FOR CONSUMPTION 



85 



Table 28. — Dyes imported into the United States, classified by method of applica- 
tion, 1921 to 1924 — Continued 





1922 


1921 


Class 


Pounds 


Per 
cent of 
total 


Pounds 


Per 

cent of 

total 




601, 395 

505 
1,548,519 


15.10 

.01 
38.89 


1,455,823 

70,975 
1, 045, 370 


34.24 


Vat: 


1.66 




24.59 






Total - 


1, 549, 024 


38.90 


1, 116, 345 


26.25 


Mordant and chrome: 


27, 086 
689, 704 


.68 
17.32 


136, 283 
559, 678 


3.58 




12.78 






Total 


716, 790 


18.00 


695, 961 


16.36 






Direct - - 


671, 621 

194, 883 

155, 084 

76, 853 

16, 981 


16.86 
4.89 
3.89 
1.93 
.43 


537, 664 

220, 938 

163, 527 

43, 553 

19, 100 


12.64 


Sulphur - 


5.20 


Basic - 


3.84 




1.02 




.45 






Total 


3, 982, 631 


100. 00 


4,252,911 


100. 00 







Table 29. — Dyes of each class, according to method of application, imported 
in largest quantity in the calendar year 1924, compared with corresponding 
■imports in 1923, 1922, 1921, and in the fiscal year 1914 



Schultz 
No. 



523 
506 
543 
22 
220 

182 
545 
19 
265 
860 

531 
613 

672 



761 
901 
760 
869 

842 
831 



907 



913 

759 
844 
832 
833 
918 
919 
838 



Class and name of dye 



Fast green 

Erioglaucine 

Patent blue 

Xylene light yellow 

Palatine black 

Alizarin rubinol 

Brilliant sulphon red 

Patent blue A 

Fast light yellow. __ 

Sulphon cyanine black.. 

Cyananthrol O 

Polar red 

Eriocyanine 

Quinoline yellow 

Brilliant milling blue B. 
Azo carmine 



1924 



Pounds 
30, 721 
28, 655 
23, 606 
23, 247 
12, 050 
11,514 
11,373 
10, 715 
9, 625 
9,484 
7,817 
7,756 
7,716 
6,063 
6,200 
6,200 



VAT DYES 2 



Indanthrene golden orange R | 112,339 



Ciba violet B. 

Indanthrene golden orange G. 

Algol brown B 

Indanthrene blue GCD 

Indanthrene red BN. 

Hydron pink FF 

Hydron brown 

Ciba scarlet 

Indanthrene yellow 

Indanthrene blue BCS 

Indanthrene pink B 

Helindone orange R 

Anthraflavone G. 



82, 598 
76. 046 
71,313 
68, 450 
58, 520 
50, 460 
42, 681 
40, 200 
39, 771 
39, 350 
39, 131 
37, 077 
35 936 
Algol blue 3G i 32^396 



Indanthrene violet RN. 

.\lgol olive R 

Helindone red 3B 

Ciba bordeaux B 

Indanthrene blue RS. 



31, 925 
30, 665 
29, 038 
29, 000 
28, 814 



1923 



Pounds 
17, 190 
38, 254 
66, 279 
46, 886 
33, 500 
48, 826 
7,414 
11,872 
6,211 
15,543 
4,618 
15, 031 
19, 202 
7,168 
8, .540 
7,218 



79, 717 
64,517 
67, 265 
55, 081 
70, 546 
16, 825 
3 55, 428 
4,065 

37, 524 
87, 946 
12, 240 
13, 348 
22, 571 
27, 721 

5,516 
20, 436 

1,050 
21,916 
35,714 

38, 235 



Pounds 
52, 498 
25, 852 
49, 136 
12, 937 
11,436 
26, 457 

9,557 

3,436 
25, 555 
14, 858 
20, 648 
14, 926 
14, 808 

6,955 
872 

9,327 



78, 145 

131,661 

73, 305 

16, 778 

16, 802 

27,383 

a 20, 250 

754 

33, 246 

15, 507 

239, 085 

18, 680 

9,240 

20, 594 

5, 315 

1,000 

1,464 

32, 819 

33, 621 

39, 999 



Pounds 
22, 619 
16, 004 
42, 708 
60, 422 
14,850 

(') 

7,235 

16, 170 

23, 315 

615 

12, 713 

2,579 
16, 808 
23,000 

2,175 

8,684 



56, 390 
21, 987 
33, 423 
6,640 
201, 835 
21,331 



1914 



10, 695 
49, 609 



919 
10, 594 
4,623 
1,680 
337 
17, 566 
4,625 
28, 908 



1 Included in Schultz No. 856. 
' Single strength. 



> Includes Hydron pink FB. 
« Included in Schultz No. 873. 



Pounds 

14, 347 

66, 526 

196, 228 

23, 074 

299, 274 

10, 91V 

4,871 

63, 744 

38, 908 

69, 590 



2,821 
25,091 
15, 354 

9,966 
17,500 



50, 496 
20, 836 
20, 092 
1,596 
478, 980 
6,056 



1,600 
22, 265 
12, 683 



602 

14, 511 

7,143 

9,191 

11,667 

13, 334 

27, 874 

899 

187, 379 



47285— 25t- 



86 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Table 29. — Dyes of each class, according to method of application, imported 
in largest quantity in the calendar year 1924, compared with corresponding 
imports in 1923, 1922, 1921, and in the fiscal year 1914 — Continued 



Schultz 
No. 



Class and name of dye 



1924 



1923 



1922 



862 

778 
858 
855 
850 
779 
551 
782 
784 

785 
804 



864 
622 



449 
273 

392 

457 
274 
207 

358 
339 
348 



681 



573 
571 
606 
705 
618 
609 
559 
608 
516 
603 



709 
746 



MORDANT AND CHROME DYES 



Alizarine blue black 

Alizarin (synthetic) 

Alizarin sapliirol B 

Alizarin pure blue B 

Alizarin astrol 

Alizarin orange 

Eriochrome azurol BC 

A lizarin brown 

Alizarin SX, GD_ 

Metachrome blue black 

Alizarin EG, GI 

Alizarin blue S 

Omega chrome brown 

Alizarin direct green G 

Anthracene chromate brown EB. 

Eriochrome flavine A 

Alizarin viridine DG, FF 

Delphine blue B. 



DIRECT DYES 



Chlorantine fast brown 

Trisulphon brown B 

Diaminogene blue 

Chlorantine fast blue 

Toluylene orange 

Trisulphon brown GG 

Diaminogene B .._ 

Diphenyl fast brown GNC_ 

Diamine fast orange 

Diphenyl red 

Brilliant orange 

Diphenyl brown BN 

Beuzo fast black L 

Diazo indigo blue 4GL 

Chlorantine fast yellow 

Direct gray R 

Diazophenyl black 

Diamine catechine 

Diamine brilliant scarlet S. 



BASIC DYES 

Rhodamine B (single strength).. 
Rhodamine 6G (single strength). 

Phosphine 

Indaroine 6R 

Thiollavine T 

Homophosphine 

Victoria blue B 

Euchrysine 

Crystal violet 

Acridine orange 



SULFHUR DYES 



Cross dye green 

Thionol brown 

Thional brilliant blue. 

Pyrogene green 2G 

Katigene green.. 



Pounds 

78, 195 

42, 695 

40, 600 

20, 729 

16,117 

15, 202 

12, 664 

10, 996 

11,773 

9,500 

9,385 

8,152 

8,003 

7,636 

6,669 

6,614 

5,778 

5,597 



30, 202 

24, 020 

23, 970 

17, 268 

16,818 

14, 754 

13, 951 

13, 781 

11,763 

11,608 

11,300 

10, 471 

7,848 

7,758 

7,602 

6,801 

6,614 

6,282 

6,000 



97, 254 
57, 375 
24, 300 
7,900 
6,842 
4,860 
4,533 
4,525 
4,239 
4,031 



35, 246 
16, 060 
6,001 
4,630 
4,409 



Poimds 
70,917 
27,716 
26, 615 

9,132 
11, 224 

8,444 



14,531 
8,206 
7,000 
12, 528 
7,948 
11,511 
16, 241 
8,420 
10, 713 
17, 217 
2,001 



13, 558 
26, 980 

88, 778 

" 14,182' 

16, 150 

32, 903 

10, 126 

17, 793 

21, 160 

3,821 

17, 534 

4,539 

2,482 

2,205 

2,172 

5,407 

6,643 

2,508 



29, 083 

31, 242 

42, 176 

3,500 

20, 283 

2,520 

1,722 

9,483 

3,738 

9,349 



26, 242 
28, 802 



Pounds 

22, 277 

27, 086 

46, 596 

14, 993 

8,155 

15,523 

43, 191 

4,596 

7,795 

3,251 

6,500 

32,916 

8,570 

11,669 

12, 326 

12, 293 

25, 910 

19, 323 



7,715 
45, 697 
22, 420 
12, 898 

36, 920 

37, 648 
8,527 
9,797 
8,719 

33, 945 



4,283 



2,598 
2,989 
841 
9,808 
12, 608 
6,172 
9,418 
4,152 



5,077 

13, 545 

51,711 

2,800 

6,765 

955 

3,442 

3,476 

4,331 

711 



27, 834 

48, 750 

3,757 

6,503 

11,397 



Pounds 
43, 277 

« 136, 283 

28, 606 

12, 796 

24, 657 

5,854 

19, 344 

20, 700 
12, 205 

725 

18, 266 

21,521 

5,486 

36, 534 

12, 694 
110 

9,499 

13, 842 



4,589 

38, 558 

19, 182 

5,070 

523 

22, 872 

7,864 

969 

6,261 

4,036 

160 



277 




3,637 




11, 155 




1,415 


441 


7,545 


66, 876 


972 


5,409 


10, 890 


59, 354 


10,069 


37, 515 


21, 325 


168, 225 


9,946 


66, 170 


7,297 


35, 224 


918 


78, 127 


12, 342 


127, 709 


872 


15, 403 


1,450 


51,872 


1,613 


2,330 


51, 074 


100 


20, 632 




1,884 




1,947 


298 


6,543 


63,929 



' Figures from the Department of Commerce. 



The following table gives the stocks of coal-tar dyes and intermedi- 
ates remaining in bonded warehouse for each month since August 31, 
1924, as published in the Monthly Summary of Foreign Commerce 
by the Department of Commerce. 



DYES IMPORTED FOR CONSUMPTION 87 

Dyes remaining in bonded customs warehouse, August 31, 1924-March 31, 1926 



Aug. 31, 1924. 
Sept. 30, 1924. 
Oct. 31, 1924.. 
Nov. 30, 1924. 
Dec. 31, 1924. 
Jan. 31, 1925.. 
Feb. 28, 1925. 
Mar. 31, 1925. 



Date 



Coal-tar 

dyes and 

colors 



Pounds 
507, 338 
559, 661 

552, 556 

553, 760 
575, 051 
571,371 
566, 038 
653. 020 



Coal-tar 
interme- 
diates 



Pounds 
1,081,287 
1,111,656 
1, 050, 037 
1,031,460 
1,086,108 
952, 202 
961, 406 
1, 050, 539 



Key to Abbreviations Used in Table 30 

1. the six leading german companies 

A Actien-Gesellschaft fiir Anilin-Fabrikation, Berlin. Founded 1873. 

B Badische Anilin-und-Soda-Fabrik, Ludwigshafen- on -the -Rhine. 

Founded 1865. 
By Farbenfabrilven, vormals Fricdr. Bayer & Co., Leverkusen-on-the- 

Rhine. Founded 1862. 

C Leopold Cassella & Co., Frankfort-on-the-Main. Founded 1870. 

K Kalle & Co., A. G., Biebrich on the Rhine. Founded 1870. 

M Farbwerke, vormals Meister Lucius & Briining, H6chst-on-the~Main, 

Founded 1862. 

2. THE SMALLER GERMAN COMPANIES 

BK Leipziger Anilinfabrik Bever & Kegel, Fiirstenberg, near Leipzig. 

Founded 1882. 
CG Chemikalienwerk Griesheim G. m. b. H., Griesheim-on-the-Main 

Founded 1881. 
CJ Carl Jager G. m. b. H.. Anilinfarbenfabrik, Diisseldorf. Founded 

1823. 
GrE Chemische Fabrik Griesheim-Electron, Offenbach-on-the-Main, 

Founded 1842. 
L Farbwerk Mlihlheim, vormals A. Leonhardt & Co., Miihlheim-on-the- 

Main. Founded 1879. 
tM Chemische Fabriken, formals Weiler ter Meer, Uerdingen-on-the- 

Rhine. Founded 1877. 

WD Wiilfing, Dahl & Co., A. G., Barmen. Founded 1842. 

A-S Co Arzberger & Schopflf & Co., Eisenach. 

3. DUTCH, BELGIAN, AND FRENCH COMPANIES 

CN Compagnie Nationale de Matieres Colorantes et Produits Chimiques- 

Founded 1917. 

FA Farbwerk Ammersfoort, Ammersfoort, Netherlands. Founded 1888. 

NF Niederlandische Farben-und-Chemikalienfabrik Delft, Delft, Nether- 
lands. Founded 1897. 

LG Lazard Godchaux, of Brussels. (These products are probably com- 
pounded largely from the dyes made by A. Wiescher & Co., of 
Haeren, Belgium.) 

P Societe Anonyme des Matieres colorantes et produits chimiques 

St. Denis (formerlv A. Poirrier), St. Denis, near Paris, France. 
Founded 1830. 

4. SWISS COMPANIES, ALL AT BASEL 

DH Farbwerke vormals L. Durand, Huguenin & Co. Founded 1871. 

G Anilinfarben-und-Extract-Fabriken, vormals Joh. Rud. Geigy. 

Founded 1764. 

I Gesellschaft fiir chemische Industrie. Founded 1885. 

S Chemische Fabrik, vormals Sandoz & Co. Founded 1887. 



88 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



5. ENGLISH COMPANIES 

Bro Brotherton and Co. (Ltd.), City Chambers, Leeds. 

B. A. C--- British Alizarine Co. (Ltd.), Manchester. 

B. C British Celanese (Ltd.), London. 

B. D British Dyestuffs Corporation (Ltd.), London. 

CL Co The Clayton Aniline Co. (Ltd.), Clayton, Manchester. 

C V - The Colne Vale Dye and Chemical Co. (Ltd.), Milnsbridge, Hudders- 
field. 

Hoi L. B. Holliday and Co. (Ltd.), Huddersfield. 

Scot Scottish Dyes (Ltd.), Grangemouth. 

Q Importations of unknown source, through dealers in colors. 

Table 30. — Imports of dyes, calendar year 1924 





Name of dye 


Manu- 
facturer 


Imports 


Schultz 
No. 


Quantity 


Invoice 
value 




Total - 




Pounds 
3, 022, 539 


$2, 908, 778 










6 


100 




M artius yellow crystals (water soluble) 


A 




10 






325 






A 






Stilbene yellow 3GX 


B 






19 






9,625 


9,429 


Fast light yellow 2G - . . 


By 






Fast light yellow 3G 


By 








Kiton fast yellow 3G 


I... 






22 






23,247 


21,160 






S 








S 










By 






26 






100 








GrE 




38 




By 


110 
500 




48 










M 




52 






11 








P 




68 






1,500 






Ultra orange R ... 


S 




61 






4 








Q.. 




63 






500 






Azo acid blue B cone . . - - 


S. 




64 


Sorbin red _ . 




500 








B 




66 






24 






Amidonaphthol red N2B . .... 


ON 




73 


Helio fast red . . 




20 






Stone fast scarlet RN pdr 


B 




74 






130 






Tannin orange R . _. ..-..--- 







81 






132 








K 








C 






82 


Ponceau 2R ....... . 




800 






Scarlet 2R ... 


S 




88 






2,827 






Acid anthracene brown PG . . 


Bv 






Acid anthracene brown WSQ . . . . 


By 






94 






2,500 






Guinea fast red 2R 


A. 




118 






1,018 








By 






Gcranine G 


By.. .. 






120 


Salmon red . 


A 


10 
1,180 




121 


Erica B . 


1,778 




Cotton pink BN 


B 








S 










A.. 






122 


Erica G 




100 






Cotton pink GN . ...... 


B 




124 


Diazine green S 




50 






1 Janus green B.. 


M 




125 


1 Diazine black . .. 




200 






1 Diazine black Q 


K 





DYES IMPORTED FOR CONSUMPTION 89 

Table 30. — Imports of dyes, calendar year 1924 — -Continued 



Schultz 
No. 


Name of dye 


Manu- 
facturer 


Imports 


Quantity 


Invoice 

value 


126 


Indoine blue R 




Pounds 
330 






Indoine A extra.. 


G 




139 


Orange IV 




10 






New vellow extra cone. 


By 




140 


Cureumeine 




5,395 


$5,968 




Chromocitronine R 


DH .. 




Chromocitronine V 


DH 








Jasmine, high cone 


G 






141 


Azo yellow 




200 






Indian yellow FF 


C 




143 


Tropaeoline 




11 






Mandarin yellow 


Q 




158 


Chrome brown RR_ 




2,204 






Chrome brown RVV 


G. 




160 


Fast brown N 




22 






Reddish brown castor 


Q 




166 


Naphthol red GR 


B 


10 
1,100 




175 


Acid ponceau 






Acid ponceau E 


G 




177 


Mordant vellow 




2,903 


2,322 




Mordant yellow G 


B 




Milling yellow 


C 








Milling yellow 0. 


M 








Milling yellow 03G.... 


A 








Milling vellow GA 


A 






180 


Eriochrome blue black B 




1,663 






Eriochrome blue black BC 


G 






Eriochrome blue black G 


G 






182 


Brilliant sulphon red 




11,373 


11, 253 




Brilliant sulphon red B 


s 






Brilliant sulphon red lOB 


s 








Fast sulphon violet 5BS 


s 






183 


Eriochrome black T 


G 


200 
2,305 




194 


Thiazine red R 






Chicago red III 


G 






Trident red RXX 


B. 






205 


Diphenyl chrysoine RR 




498 






Diphenvl chrvsoine RRC 


G 




206 


Diphenyl catechine 




4,250 






Diphenvl catechine G supra 


G 




207 


Diphenvlfast brown G ... .. .. . . 




13, 781 






Diphenvl fast brown GF ... 


G 






Diphenvl fast brown GNC 


G 






211 


Resorcin brown . . 




335 








K 




217 


Agalma black lOB 




92 






Agalma black lOBX 


B 






Fancv black ... . . 


Q 






220 






12,050 


6,341 




Pilatus black SF 


B 






Wool black GRF 

Wool black 6B 


A 








A 






221 




C 


10 
400 




222 


Janus vellow G 






Yellow JG 


M 




224 


Cloth red G .. 


By 


50 
225 




227 








Brilliant croceine 3BX extra 

Sudan IV "II'^^I"^II'""I"I^^I''I""".M]^"" 


K 






B 






232 




100 






Biebrich scarlet R medicinal 

Scarlet 


K 




247 




20 






Imperial scarlet 3B. 

Sulphoncyanine G 

Fast sulphon black F 

Sulphoncvanine black 


By 




257 


By 

s 


100 

25 

9,484 




264 




265 






Acid milling black B 

Sulphoninc black B 


G 






S__ _ _ 






266 




50 






Naphthylamine black D 

Brilliant black .... 


c 




272 




25 






Naphthol black BGN cone 

Diaminogene blue 


c... 




273 




23,970 


18,645 




Blue NA 

Developing blue 2R.. 

Diaminogene blue N.\ 

Diazanil blue BB, RR 

Diazo blue 2R 


c... 






A 








c 








M 








L 







90 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

Table 30. — Imports of dyes, calendar year 1924 — Continued 



Schultz 
No. 


Name of dye 


Manu- 
facturer 


Imports 


Quantity 


Invoice 
value 


274 


Diaminogene . . . . 




Pounds' 
13, 951 


$11,146 




Black extra 


C. 






Black BR 


By 








Developing black B ... - 


C 










C _. 








Diazo fast black MG 


By. [ 






Diazo indigo blue 2RL, 3RL 


By 




279 


Benzo fast scarlet . .. 




3,923 


2,447 




Benzo fast scarlet 4BS, 5BS..- . . ..- 


Bv 






Benzo fast scarlet OS . . - 


Bv 








Direct fast scarlet SE 


I 






283 


Bismark brown . . . 




25 






Leather brown A - - -. 


C 




284 


Bismark brown 2R .. 




53 






, Vesuvine BL . 


B 






Vesuvine BLX .. - 


B... .. 






293 


Milling red .. . 




1,543 






Acid milling red Q cone . . 


G 




296 


Cotton vpllow _ .. 




5,875 






Benzo fast yellow RL. -.- 


By 






Fast cotton yellow RL 

Chrvsophenine G ....--..- 


A. 






304 




1,794 








Q 






Pyramine yellow GX -.- 


B 






308 






350 






Developing black OB . . 


C 






Developing black OT 


C 






313 


Congo rubine ... 




302 






Congo rubine 


By . 






Congo rubine B .. 


K 






315 


Congo orange. . .... 




50 






Congo orange G 


A 




319 


Diamine scai'let 




3,550 


3,472 




Benzo scarlet BC . 


By 








c: - - - - 






Diamine scarlet 3B 


C 








Universal Bordeaux C 


C 






320 


Bordeaux . . .. ... 




50 






New Bordeaux RX 


B. 




325 


Columbia blue R , 


A 


25 
502 




326 


Oxydiamine violet 






Benzo violet O . . .... .. . 


By 






Oxydiamine violet BF 


C 






327 


Diamine violet N ...- 




40 






Universal violet C .... . 


C 




330 


Zambesi brown ..... . 




70 






Zambesi brown 2G 


A 






Zambesi brown 4R . ._ . 


A 






332 






1,600 






Benzo fast red 8BL 


By 






Fast cotton red 8BL . . 


A 






339 


Brilliant orange G . ..,. .. . 




11, 300 








C 




343 


Diamine fast red 




916 






Diainine fast red 8BL . ... . 


C 




344 


Diamine brown.. 




630 








's"".:::?: 






Universal dark brown C . ... 


C 






348 


Diphenvl brown BN 




10, 471 






Diphenvl brown BBNC 


G 








G 






349 


Diamine brown B 




40 






Universal olive brown C . .... . . 


C 




358 


Diphenvl red . ..... 




11,608 


9,359 




.\.cetopurpurine 8B 


A 






Chloramine red 8BS .... . 


By 










Gr-E . 






362 


Toluylene orange R cone . . . 


S 


50 
1,460 




363 








Cotton red 4BX 


B. 






Universal scarlet C .. . . 


G 






364 


Diazo brilliant black 




331 






Diazo brilliant black B pdr -. ... . 


By 




866 






1,322 






Deltapurpurine 5B 


By 




368 




200 






Brilliant purpurine lOB 


A 





DYES IMPORTED FOR CONSUMPTION" 
Table 30. — Imports of dyes, calendar year i 9^4— Continued 



91 



Name of dye 



Manu- 
facturer 



Imports 



Quantity 



Invoice 
value 



A.. 
By. 
C. 



B. 



I... 

S... 
By. 



By. 
G.- 
G-. 
C-. 



Brilliant Congo R 

Brilliant Congo R 

Brilliant Congo R 

Congo orange R 

Congo orange R 

Congo orange R... 

Diamine orange F 

Oxamine blue 

Minaxo blue 4RX 

Columbia blue 

Columbia blue Q 

Toluylene orange 

Direct fast orange K. 

Pyrazol orange G cone 

Toluylene fast orange GL 

Acid anthracene red 

Acid anthracene red 3B 

Acid anthracene red 5BL 

Acid milling red R cone 

Brilliant milling red R 

Dianil blue Q 

Universal light blue C 

Diamine brilliant blue G 

Chicago blue B.. 

Universal steel blue C 

Chicago blue fiB 

Diamine sky blue FF 

Dianil pure blue PH 

Minaxo pure blue 6B high cone 

Janus brown 

Janus brown B 

Diamine bronze G 

Trisulphon brown 

Trisulphon brown B cone 

Benzo fast blue.. 

Benzo fast blue 4GL 

Benzo light blue 4GL 

Trisulphon brown GG 

Trisulphon brown GG cone... 

Benzo black blue G 

Universal dark blue C. 

Direct deep black EW 

Cotton black RW extra 

Union black S 

Cotton black E extra 

Chloramine blue 3G 

Polyphenyl blue GC 

Oxamine green B 

Minaxo green BX 

Universal dark green C 

Benzamine brown 3G0 

Benzochrome brown G. | By, 

Cupranil brown G ' I... 

Oxydiamine brown KRS .| C. 

Congo brown G , A.. 

Auramirffe 

Auramine N cone ..- S... 

Auramine G 

Auramine G i By. 

I... 
C. 



s. 



By- 
By- 



G. 



Auramine G. 

Malachite green cone 

Setoglaucine 

Setoglaucine 753 

Setoglaucine 

Turquoise blue 

Turquoise blue BB 

Turquoise blue G 

Setocyanine ___ 

Setopaline cone 

Brilliant glacier blue 

Guinea green B 

New acid green 3BX 

Neptune green 

Brilliant acid green 6B... 

Brilliant milling green B. 

Erioviridine B supra 

Guinea fast green B 

Poseidon green SGX 



G... 
BD. 



By. 
By. 



By- 



By. 
C. 
G.. 
A.. 
B.. 



Pounds 
150 



3,299 



100 

""""ioo' 

"i6,"8i8 



3,002 



135 
30 



50 



675 
24,020 



6,471 



14, 754 

30" 

""'"325" 



25 
1,631 



130 



1,326 



25 
1,500 



25 
3,867 



330 
110 



4,796 



$2,888 



16, 651 
"2," 387 



186 



461 



6,219 



92 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

Table 30. — Imports of dyes, calendar year 19^4 — Continued 



Schultz 
No. 



505 

506 

507 
508 

509 

512 

515 
516 



518 
521 

523 

524 
526 
527 

528 

530 



531 



534 
537 



Name of dye 



543 



545 



Light green (yellowish) 

Acid green G 

Acid green GG 

Acid green cone 

Acid green extra cone 

Erioglaucine 

Erioglaucine AP 

Erioglaucine EP 

Xylene blue VS.- ..- 

Xylene blue VS cone 

Xylene blue AS 

Xylene blue AS 

Xylene blue AS cone 

Chrome green 

Chrome green BD 

Chrome green GD 

Magenta 

Fuchsine N 

Magenta AB 

Magenta lA. 

Magenta S 

Methyl violet 

Methyl violet base 

Methyl violet NFB 

Crystal violet 

Crystal violet extra pdr.. 

Crystal violet P 

Crystal violet 

Ethyl violet 

Aniline blue 

O pal blue — blue shade 

Fast green 

Fast green extra bluish... 

Acid magenta 

Acid violet, red 

Acid violet 4BN 

Acid violet 8B extra 

Fast acid violet lOB 

Kiton fast violet lOB 

Acid violet. ...u 

Acid violet 4 BLO 

Acid violet 4 BLO 

Acid violet 6B 

Acid violet C 10B__ 

Acid violet blue 

Eriocyanine 

Erioeyanine AC ... 

Acid violet 7B cone 

Methyl blue for silk 

Methyl blue MBS 

Methyl lyvons blue 

Methyl silk blue new 

Soluble blue 

Cone, cotton blue Ho. 2... 

Soluble blue T 

Water blue, large lumps.. 

Brilliant dianil blue 6G 

Brilliant dianil blue 6G... 

Brilliant sky blue 5G 

Direct brilliant blue 8B.., 

Patent blue... 

Brilliant acid blue V 

Kiton pure blue V 

Neptune blue BGX cone. 

Patent blue V 

Poseidon blue BOX conc. 

Patcnt blue A 

Brilhant acid blue A 

Brilhant acid blue FF 

Kiton blue A 

Neptune blue BR 

Patent blue A 

Poseidon blue BR, BXX. 

Cyanol. 



Blue extra 

Cyanol extra. 
Cyanol FF... 



Manu- 
facturer 



GrE. 
By... 
M.... 
C... 



By. 
By. 



CN. 
B... 
C... 
B... 



By. 
B.. 



B... 
By.. 

CN. 
B._. 



M. 



By. 



B... 

M... 
t-M. 
B... 
Q-- 



Gr-E 
G.___ 
G.... 



M.. 
Bv. 
I... 



By. 
I... 
B.. 

M.. 
B.. 



By. 
By. 
I... 

M.. 
M.. 
B.. 



Imports 



Quantity 



Pounds 

1,712 



28, 655 



6,005 
'2,"600" 



31 
'355' 



703 
'4,"239" 



2,000 
50 



30, 721 



500 
11 

99 



2, 2C4 
"i,'93i' 



7,716 



25 
3,970 



23, 606 



10, 715 



3,688 



DYES IMPORTED FOR CONSUMPTION 93 

Table 30. — Imports of dyes, calendar year 1924 — Continued 



i ehultz 
No. 


Name of dye 


Manu- 
facturer 


Imports 


Quantity 


Invoice 
value 


548 


Acid violet 6BN 




Pounds 
700 






Acid violet GBNOO 


B 




549 


Chrome violet 




. 110 






Brilliant chrome violet 4B 


DH 




551 


Eriochrome azurol B . . 




12, 664 


$23, 464 




Eriochrome azurol BC . 


G 




Eriochrome azurol BX. 


G 








Ohronioxaiie brilliant blue G 


By 






552 


Chromal blue GC for printing 


g: 

G 

G 

§::;:::: 

I 


1,985 

2,204 
551 

1,120 
220 
660 

4,533 




553 


Eriochrome cvanine RC . 




554 


Chromazurol S cone - - 




555 


Aurine . 




557 


Chrome violet 




558 


Victoria blue R - . 




559 


Victoria blue B 


8,468 




Victoria blue B base .... 


B 




Victoria blue B base . . 


CN 








Victoria blue B base 


I 








Victoria blue B highly cone 


B 








Victoria pure blue BO - 


B -. 






560 


Night blue ... 


B 


640 
3,141 




562 


Fast acid blue .- 


4,009 




Acid blue RBF 


I 






Brilliant wool blue B extra 


By 








Brilliant wool blue FFR extra... 


By 






564 


Naphthalene green 




4,357 


5,582 




Erio green B supra . 


G 






Naphthalene green V . . 


M . .. 








Xylene fast green B 


S. 






565 


Acid blue B 




1,100 


1,218 




Wool blue 2B 


A 






Wool blue 5B 


A 








Wool blue G extra. 


A 






566 


Wool green S 


I 

Q 


550 
5 
55 




568 


Pyronine G 




569 


Acridine red 






Acridine red 3B ,. 


L 




570 


Rhodamine S 




25 






Rosazeine S 


M 




571 


Rhodamine 6G (single strength) 




57, 375 


35, 035 




Rhodamine 6Q extra 


B 








I 








Rhodamine 6GDN 


B 








Rhodamine 6GDN 


By .. . 










M. . .. 








Rosazeine 6GD extra 


M 






572 


Rhodamine G 




25 






Rosazeine O 


M. . .. 




573 


Rhodamine B (single strength) 




97, 254 


34, 868 




Rhodamine B extra 


B 






Rhodamine B extra 


I 










Q 










B 








Rosazeine B extra 


M 








Rosazeine B base 


M 






576 


Rhodamine 3G . 




200 






Rhodamine scarlet G 


By .... 




579 


Xylene red . 




30 








M 




580 






1,000 






Fast acid violet B ..... 


M. 






Fast acid violet R 


M 






581 




M 


5 
25 




582 


Fast acid violet A 2R 






Fast acid violet RGE. 


M 




587 


Eosine.- 




68 






Eosine A.. 


CN 






Eosine NDA 


CN 






592 


Erythrosine bluish . . 




30 






Erythrosine 

Erythrosine extra 

Rose bengale B . 


M 






M 






597 


M 

B 


10 

149 

4,031 




601 






603 




8,872 






DH 








DH 


1 






Rhoduline orange NO 


By 


1 





47285— 25t 8 



94 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

Table 30. — Imports of dyes, calendar year 1924 — Continued 



Schultz 
No. 



606 



607 



609 



612 
613 



Name of dye 



618 



021 
622 



624 
625 



644 
645 
649 

658 

659 

660 
661 



Manu- 
facturer 



By- 
M. 
B.. 
B.. 



O- 

S... 
B.. 
By. 



By. 
G-. 
K.. 
C. 



Phosphine 

Acid phosphine R... BD. 

Coriophosphine OX extra By. 

Leather vellow A Qr-E 

Patent phosphine G., GO, M, R I. 

Philadelphia yellow 2G A.. 

Phosphine O M. 

Phosphine 3R _ A. 

Rheonine 

Runic AL cone 

Neophosphine G cone 

Euchrysine — 

Euchrvsine G extra 

Euchrvsine GRNTN 

Patent piiosphine GRNTN 

Patent phosphine RRDX 

Homophosphine 

Corioflavine GOOO, RROOO Gr-E . 

Dianiond phosphine R C. 

Flavophosphine G cone... M. 

Quinoline yellow (spirit soluble) By. 

Quinoline yellow (water soluble) 

Quinoline yellow cone 

Quinoline yellow cone 

Quinoline yellow KT ex. cone 

Quinoline yellow N ex. cone 

Columbia yellow 

Chloramine yellow GG 

Piphenyl chlorine yellow FF 

Naphthamine yellow BNF 

Universal yellow C 

Thioflavine T 

Basic yellow T 

Basic yellow TON 

Methylene yellow H 

Rhoduline yellow 6G 

Rhoduline yellow T 

Thioflavine T 

Thioflavine TON 

Cresyl blue BBS 

Brilliant cresvl blue 

Brilliant cresyl blue BB 

Delphine blue B 

Brilliant delphine blue B S. 

Delphine blue B I. 

Modern violet N extra DH. 

Chrome helicivope 

Modern heliotrope DH 

Anthracyanine 

Anthracyanine S DH. 

Chromacetine blue S DH. 

Chromacetine blue S extra DH. 

Modern royal blue DH. 

Modern violet 

Blue 1900 TCD_- I DH. 

Gallo violet DF | By.. 

Modern violet _ DH. 

Ultra cyanine R, B /. 

Ultra cyanine RB 

Gallazine 

Gallazine #90. 

Cotion blue 

Cotton blue R extra cone 

Meldola's blue 3R cone 

Fast black 

Gallophenine D 

Gallophcnine P 

Methvlene blue _. 

Methylene blue BG 

Methylene blue NB _. 

Methylene blue zinc free 

Methylene green _ 

Methylene green G extra 

Thionine blue 

Thionine blue G old 

Thionine blue G... I I 

Thionine blue GO ' M 



C. 
C. 
M.. 
By. 
By- 
C. 
C-. 



DH. 



DH. 



By- 
By. 



B... 

CN. 
CN. 



S. 



M. 



Imports 



Quantity 



Pounds 
24, 300 



622 



Invoice 
valUf 



$37, 363 



8,510 



4,860 



22 
6,663 



10, 421 



6,070 



3,057 



6,842 



2,984 



13,427 



5,597 



220 
440 



3,636 



1,925 



2,000 



1,432 



1,050 



100 



1,306 



8,665 



4,599 



128 



2,270 



DYES IMPORTED FOll CONSUMPTION 95 

rABLE 30. — Imports of dyes, calendar year 19^4 — Continued 



Schultz 

No. 


Name of dye 


Manu- 
facturer 


Imports 


Quantity 


Invoice 
value 


663 


New methylene blue. 




Pounds 
3,245 


$5, 947 




New methylene blue N _ . . 


C 






New methylene blue N .. 


M 








New methylene blue NS cone. .. . 


S .. 








New methylene blue NSS 


C 






667 


IndochroTiiine- 




1,771 


2,409 




Brilliant alizarin blue R -.- 


By 




Indochromine BR cone 


S 








Indochromine RR cone . - ._ 


S 






672 






6,200 








B . 






Rosinduline GXF 


K 






673 


Azo carmine B... 




2,326 






Azo carmine B extra 


B.. 






Rosinduline 2B bluish ... 


K 






679 


Safranine ... ... 




25 






Safranine B cone. pure... 

New fast gray 


S 




681 










Direct gray R paste 


G 

P 

C. 


6,801 

3,524 

50 

1,240 






Malta gray J 




685 


Tannin heliotrope.. ... 




687 


Rosolane 0, T, R 






Methylene heliotrope ex. strong 


M 






Rosolane 


M 






690 


Metaphenylene blue R .. .. ' 


2,500 






Diphene blue R 

Paraphenylene yiolet . . 


A 




695 




1,500 






Diphene blue B 


A.. 




698 


Nigrosine (spirit soluble) 




9 






Black blue G 


Q 






Nigrosine wax D.. 


M 






699 


Induline (water soluble) . . 




100 






Induline NN 


B 




700 


Nigrosine (water soluble) 




1,361 


800 




Silyer gray 


Q 






Silvery gray P.. 


A 








Nigrosine T 


B 






705 


Indamine 6R 




7,900 






Acid eyanine BF 


A 






Indocyanine B 


A.. 






720 


Sulphur black 




10 






Sulphur black AWL 


A 




724 


Immedial black _ 




1,320 






Immedial diiect blue B- . 


c 




725 


Immedial brown _ 




440 






Immedial brown RR 

Pyrogene blue 


c. 




726 




20 






Pyrogcne direct blue 


I 




733 


Immedial indone 




2,480 






Immedial indogene CCL 


c. 




734 


Pyrogene yellow 




220 






Pyrogene yellow M 


I 




746 


Katigene green 




9,039 






Pyrogene preen GK . 


I 






Pyrogene green 3G 


I 


... 

706" 




748 


Hydron blue (single strength) 


19 




Hydron blue G paste 


By 

By 

By 






Hydron blue G pdr 






Hydron blue R pdr... 




754 


Kryogene direct blue 3B 






Kurgan violet 3RX 

.\nthraflavone G (single strength). 


B.. 




759 




35, 936 


38,297 




Anthra yellow GO paste 

Anthra i'dlow GC paste fine... 

-'^nthra yellow GC pdr 

Anthraflavone GC paste 


B 






B 








B.. 








B 








B - 








Ilelindone yellow .\GC paste "... 


M 








Helindone yellow AG C pdr 


M 








Vat yellow GC paste 


B 






760 


Indanthrene golden orange G (single strength) 




76, 046 


81, 731 




Duranthrene golden orange Y paste 


BD . 






Helindone golden orange IG dbl. paste 


M 








Helindone golden orange IG pdr 


M 








Helindone golden orange DIG dbl. paste 

Indanthrene golden orange G paste 


M 








B 








Indanthrene golden orange G dbl. paste... 1 


B 







96 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

Table 30.— Imports of dyes, calendar year 1924 — Continued 



Schultz 
No. 



Name of dye 



Manu- 
facturer 



Imports 



Quantity 



Invoice 
value 



760 Indanthrene golden orange G (single strength)— Continued 

Vat golden orange G paste - --- 

Vat golden orange G dbl. paste -- 

Vat golden orange G pdr... 

761 Indanthrene golden orange R (single strength) — - 

Helindone golden orange IRRT paste 

Helindone golden orange IRRT pdr - 

Indanthrene golden orange RRT paste, 

Vat orange RRT paste 

Vat golden orange RRT paste 

Vat'golden orange RRT pdr 

762 Indanthrene scarlet GS (pdr.) 

Helindone orange I 4R pdr^ 

Indanthrene scarlet GS pdr 

Vat orange 4R pdr 

Vat orange IRR pdr 

763 Indanthrene dark blue BO (paste)... 

Helindone dark blue IBO paste.. 

Indanthrene dark blue BO paste 

Vat dark blue BO paste fine 

765 Indanthrene green B (single strength) 

Helindone black IBB dbl. paste 

Indanthrene black BB dbl. paste 

Indanthrene black BB extra pdr 

Vat black BB dbl. paste 

766 Indanthrene violet R (single strength) 

Vat violet R paste 

Vat violet R pdr 

767 Indanthrene violet RR (single strength) 

Indanthrene violet RR ex. dbl. paste 

Indanthrene violet RR pdr 

Vat violet RR paste 

Vat violet RR dbl. paste 

Vat RRT pdr 

768 Indanthrene violet B (single strength) 

Anthra violet B paste... 

Anthra violet B pdr. 

Helindone violet IB paste 

Vat violet B paste 

774 I Alizarin black 

I Alizarin black S paste... 

Alizarin black WR paste 

Alizarin black WR pdr 

Alizarin black WX paste 

778 Alizarin, synthetic 

Alizarin VI extra pure paste 

Alizarin red 2.\B paste 

Alizarin red IB paste 

Alizarin red DIB paste 

779 Alizarin orange _ 

Alizarin orange paste 

Alizarin orange AO paste... 

Alizarin orange R paste.. 

Alizarin orange R pdr 

Alizarin orange RCJ pdr.. 

Alizarin orange RP paste 

Alizarin orange SW pdr 

780 Alizarin red S 

Alizarin carmine 

Alizarin red S pdr 

Alizarin red SW 

Alizarin red W pdr 

782 Alizarin brown _ 

Anthracene brown RD paste 

Anthracene brown SW pdr. (single strength) 

783 Purpurine... 

784 Alizarin SX 

785 Alizarin QI .^ 

Alizarin GI paste 

.■Vlizarin GI ex. new 

Alizarin red SDG paste. 

Alizarin red YGA paste. 

Alizarin red XQP paste 

787 Alizarin Bordeaux 

Alizarin Bordeaux BP paste 

788 Alizarin cyanine 

Alizarin cyanine NS paste 

Alizarin cyanine WRB paste 



M. 



M. 



B.. 
Q-- 

By. 

M.. 



BAG. 
BAG. 
M_... 
By... 
Q..- 
By... 
B 



By. 

gI- 



By. 
B.. 



B.... 
B.... 
M... 
BAG. 
By... 



By. 



By. 
By. 



Pounds 



112, 339 



$146, 282 



1,385 



8,319 



2,943 



1,760 



16, 739 



9,968 



443 



19, 027 



1,115 



2,111 



42, 695 



15, 202 



3,611 



271 
11,773 
9,385 



1,361 



14,590 



840 



6,530 



5,168 



2,926 



3,003 



DYES IMPORTED FOR CONSUMPTION 97 

Table 30. — Imports of dyes, calendar year 1924 — Continued 



Name of dye 



Manu- 
facturer 



Acid alizarin blue BB, GR... - 

Acid alizarin blue BBN I M. 

Anthracene blue SWGG pdr B. 

Anthracene blue SWR pdr.. B. 

Cibanone orange R (single strength) I... 

Cibanone black (single strength) ' 



Cibanone black B paste. 

Cibanone black 2B paste 

Cibanone black 2G pdr.. 

Cibanone yellow R (single strength) 

Cibanone yellow R paste 

Cibanone yellow R pdr 

Alizarin garnet 

Alizarin claret R paste 

Alizarin rcaroon paste 

Anthracene blue 

Anthracene blue WB paste 

Anthracene blue WQ paste 

Alizarin blue G, R pastes.. 

Alizarin blue S 

Alizarin blue S pdr.. 

Alizarin blue S pdr 

Alizarin blue SB pdr 

Alizarin blue SR pdr 

Alizarin black S paste 

Alizarin green S paste. __ 

Helindone yellow 3GN , 

Helindone yellow 3GN paste 

Helindone yellow IRK paste 

Vat yellow RK paste 

Algol yellow 3G (single strength) 

Algol yellow 3G pdr 

Vat yellow 5G paste 

Indanthrene copper R paste 

Algol yellow WF pdr. (single strength) 

Algol scarlet G (single strength) 

Algol scarlet Q pdr 

Vat scarlet G paste 

Algol red 5G (single strength) 

Algol red 2G pdr_ 

Algol red 5G pdr 

Vat red 5G pdr 

Vat red 5GK pdr 

Algol yellow R (single strength) 

Algol yellow R paste. 

nelindone yellow IGK paste 

Vat yellow GK paste 

Vat yellow GK pdr 

Algol red FF, R (single strength) 

Algol brilliant red 2B pdr 

Algol red FF extra pdr 

Algol red R extra paste. 

Algol red R extra pdr 

Vat red FF extra paste. 

Vat red FF extra pdr 

Vat red R extra pdr 

Algol brilliant violet R (single strength) 

Algol brilliant violet R pdr. 

Algol brilliant violet RK pdr 

Duranthrene brilliant violet R paste... 
Helindone brilliant violet IRK paste... 

Vat brilliant violet RK paste 

Vat brilliant violet RK pdr. 

Vat brilliant violet BR paste 

Vat brilliant violet R paste 

-■Vlgol brilliant violet 2B (single strength)... 

Algol blue 3R Ddr 

Algol blue 3RP pdr 

Algol brilliant violet 2B pdr 

Helindone brilliant violet IBBK paste. 

Vat brilliant violet BBK paste 

Vat brilliant violet BBK pdr 

Algol brilliant orange FR (single strength). 

Algol brilliant orange FR pdr. 

Vat brilliant orange FR paste 

Vat brilliant orange FR pdr 



I 

I... 



B.. 
By- 
M.. 
Q-- 
M.. 
B.. 



By... 
Gr-E. 

B 

By... 



By. 
By- 



By. 
By- 

By. 
By. 



By. 
M.. 
By. 
By- 



By. 
By. 
By. 
By. 
By. 
By. 
By. 



By... 
By... 
BD.. 
M... 
By... 
By... 
Or-E. 
By... 



By- 
By. 
By. 
M.. 
By. 
By. 



By. 
By. 
B.. 



Imports 



Quantity 



Pounds 
1,493 



9,704 
10, 935 



21, 035 



1,050 



630 
829 



36 
8,152 



Invoice 
value 



650 
329 
735 



137 



2,930 



16, 325 



19, 342 



14, 832 



$2, 666 



6,758 



10, 168 



822 



1,770 



5, 867 



8,602 



11,275 



6,968 



15, 917 



4,291 



14, 510 



98 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

Table 30. — Imports of dyes, calendar year 1924 — Continued 



Schultz 
No. 



822 



824 



825 
827 



828 



829 
830 



831 



832 



833 



834 



838 



839 
840 



841 



Name of dye 



Algol brilliant orange FR (single strength)— Continued. 

Vat orange R paste - 

Vat brilliant orange RRK pdr 

Vat brilliant orange RRK pdr.. 

Algol orange R (single strength;... 

Vat orange 6RTK pdr.. 

Algol red B pdr. (single strength) 

Indanthrene claret B e.xtra (single strength). 

Anthra claret R paste 

.\nthra Bordeaux R paste fine 

Anthra Bordeaux R pdr 

A.nthra Bordeaux B extra. 

Indanthrene claret B (single strength). 

Indanthrene Bordeaux B paste.. 

Indanthrene Bordeaux B pdr 

Algol Bordeaux SB pdr. (single strength) 

Indanthrene red R (single strength) 

Anthra red RT paste 

Anthra rod RT dbl. paste 

Anthra red RT pdr 

Vat red R paste 

Vat red R ex. pdr 

Indanthrene red BN (single strength) 

.Duranthrene red BN paste 

Helindone red IBN paste 

Helindonered IBN extra paste 

Helindone red IBN extra pdr 

Helindone red DIBN extra paste 

Helindone red IRK paste 

Indanthrene red BN extra paste 

Indanthrene red BN extra pdr 

Vat red BN extra paste 

Vat red RK paste 

Vat red RK pdr 

VatredRKP 

Indanthrene violet BN (single strength) 

Helindone violet IBN ex. paste 

Indanthrene violet BN paste 

Indanthrene violet BN extra paste 

Indanthrene violet BN extra pdr. 

Vat violet BN paste fine - 

Vat violet BN extra paste 

Vat violet BN pdr 

Algol olive R (single strength) 

Algol olive R paste 

Ala;ol olive R pdr 

Helindone olive IR paste 

Vat olive R paste 

Vat olive R pdr 

Vat oliveRpIr 

Algol gray (single strength) 

Al?ol gray 2B paste.. 

Vat gray GK paste 

Vat gray GK pdr 

Vat gray K pir 

Vat '.;ray BR pa'^te. 

Indanthrene blue RS (single strength) 

Helindone l)lue IR?! dbl. paste 

Indanthrene blue R.S paste 

Indanthrene blue RS triple pdr.. 

Vat blue RS dbl. paste... 

Vat blue RSP dbl. paste 

Vat blue RSP triple pdr 

Algol blue K (single strength) 

Vat blue RK pdr 

Indanthrene blue 3Q (single strength) 

Helindone blue I 30 paste 

Indanthrene blue 3G pdr... 

Vat blue :iQ paste 

Vat blue3G paste fine 

Vat blue30 pdr _ 

Indanthrene blue OGS (single strength) 

Vat blue QGSLpdr. 

Vat blue QGSP dbl. paste 

Vat blue QQSZ dbl. paste. 



Manu- 
facturer 



Qr-E. 

B 

By... 



By. 
By. 



B.. 
B.. 

By. 



BD. 
M... 
M... 
M... 
M... 
M... 
B... 
B... 
B... 
B... 
B... 
B... 



By. 

By. 
M.. 
By- 
B.. 
By. 



By... 
By... 
By... 
By... 
Qr-E. 



By. 



Imports 



Quantity 



Pounds 



16 
6,642 



3,641 



18 
10, 042 



58, 520 



31, 925 



30, 665 



4,380 



28, 814 



816 
'6,"669 



11, 824 



Invoice 
value 



6,164 



7,131 



76, 543 



56, 231 



19,017 



1,652 



10,043 



3,881 



8,337 



DYES IMPORTED FOR CONSUMPTION 99 

Table 30. — Imports of dyes, calendar year 1924 — Continued 



Name of dye 



Imports 



Manu- 
facturer 



Quantity 



Invoice 
value 



Indanthrene blue GCD (-Jingle strength).. 

Helindone bluelGCD dDl. paste 

Heliudoae blue IGCD dbl. paste fine. 

Indaothrene blue GCD dbl. paste 

Indanthrene blue GOD pdr 

Vat blue GCD dbl. paste 

Vat blue GOD dbl. paste fine 

Indanthrene blue GO (single strength) 

Indanthrene blue GO paste 

Indanthrene blue GCN pdr 

Cibanone blue G pdr 

Algol blue3G (single strength).. 

Algol blue 3G paste 

Algol blue 3Q pdr 

Vat blue 3G paste fine 

Vat blue 3QP paste 

Vat blue oG paste 

Vat blue 5G pdr.. 

Algol green B (single strength) 

Vat green BB paste 

Vat green BB pdr 

Vat green BB pdr 

Indanthrene yellow (single strength) 

Helindone yellow IG dol. paste 

Indanthrene yellow O paste 

Indanthrene yellow G dbl. paste 

Indanthrene yellow G pdr 

Vat yellow G dbl. paste. 

Vat yellow G pdr 

Vat yellow G pdr 

Indanthrene blue WB (pdr) 

Alizarin direct blue B 

Alizarin di:ect blue B 

Alizarin leveling blue B 

Alizarin level'.T; blue BBS 

Alizarin irisol D, .1 

Alizarin blue J R 

Alizarin direct violet R 

Alizarin irisol B 

Alizarin irisol R.. 

A nthraquinone violet 

Anthraquinone violet pdr 

Anthraquinone violet pdr 

Alizarin viridine FF paste 

Alizarin pure blue B 

Alizarin blue SKY 

Alizarin sky blue B 

Alizarin astrol 

Alizarin astrol B. 

Alizarin blue AS 

Alizarin saphirol B 

Alizarin blue SAP 

Alizarin blue SAWS.A..... 

Alizarin light blue B 

Alizarin light blue SE 

Alizarin saphire blue SE 

Alizarin saphirol SE 

.Alizarin saphirol WS 

Alizarin saphirol WSA 

Alizarin saphirol WSA 

Guinea light blue SE 

Cyananthrol Q-.. 

Alizarin direct blue BGAOO.. 

Cyananthrol BGAOO 

Anthraquinone blue SR 

Anthraquinone blue SR extra 

Anthraquinone blue SR extra 

Alizarin blue black 

Alizarin blue black B pdr_ 

Alizarin blue black B pdr 

Alizarin blue black SB pdr... 

Anthraquinone blue green BXO 

Anthraquinone green GXNO 

Alizarin direct green G 

Alizarin brilliant green Q 

Alizarin cyanine green G.. 

Alizarin cyanine green 3Q_. 



B.. 

By. 
I... 



By. 
By. 
B.. 
By. 
By. 
By. 



By. 
B.. 

By. 



B.. 
B.. 
B.. 
B.. 
B.. 
By. 
B.. 



By. 
M.. 
By- 
By. 



B.. 

By. 
By- 



By. 
By. 



By. 
By. 



By- 
By. 



S... 
I... 
By. 
By. 
B.. 
By- 
A.. 



B.. 
By. 



By. 
M.. 
By. 
B.. 
B.. 



C. 
By. 
By. 



Pounds 
68, 450 



$30,918 



1,379 



1,025 

275 
32, 396 



21, 837 



2,518 



2,179 



39, 771 



27, 681 



200 
3,310 



9,843 



3,946 



11, 394 



1,486 



5,778 
20, 729 



16, 117 
'ib'm 81,640 



7,817 18,035 



58 
"78,"i95" 



700 
1,041 
7,636 



72, 927 



16, 536 



100 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

Table 30. — Imports of dyes, calendar year 192 4 — Continued 



Schultz 
No. 



Name of dye 



Manu- 
facturer 



Imports 



Q--tity !-£« 



867 
868 
869 



870 

871 

873 

874 
876 



883 

885 
886 
892 



893 



895 



897 



Indanthrene brown B (single strength) 

Anthra brown B dbl paste 

Indanthrene brown B dbl paste. 

Cibanone brown B, V (single strength) 

Cibanone brown B paste 

Cibanone brown B pdr 

Algol brown B (single strength) 

Algol brown R paste 

Algol brown R pdr 

Helindone brown IR paste.. 

Helindone brown IR pdr 

Helindone brown IRT paste 

Indanthrene brown R paste 

Vat brown IR paste 

Vat brown R paste 

Vat brown R paste 

Vat brown R pdr 

Vat brown R pdi 

Algol eorinth R (single strength) 

Algol eorinth R pdr 

Helindone eorinth IRK pdr 

Vat eorinth R paste 

Vat eorinth RK paste 

Vat Corinth RK pdr 

Vat eorinth RK pdr 

Indanthrene red violet (single strength) 

Indanthrene red violet RRK paste 

Indanthrene red violet RRN ex. paste. 

Vat red violet RRK paste 

Vat red violet RRK paste fine 

Vat red violet RRK pdr 

Helindone brown AN (single strength) 

Helindone brown AN paste 

Helindone reddish brown IR paste 

Indanthrene reddish brown IR paste... 

Indigo, synthetic 

Indigo 

Indigo MLB paste.. 

Indigo, white 

Indigosol DH.. 

Indigosol O 

Indigosol O 

Indigosol O 

Indigosol 04B 

Ciba blue 2B (single strength) 

Brilliant indigo 4B paste 

Brilliant indigo 4B pdr 

Brom-indigo FB pdr.. 

Brom-indigo FBP paste 

Brom-indigo FBP i)dr 

Ciba blue 2BD paste... 

Indigo MLB/4B paste.. 

Indigo MLB/4B pdr 

Indigo KG (single strength) 

Indigo MLB/OB pdr 

Brilliant indigo B paste 

Brilliant indigo O pdr (single strength) 

Helindone green Q (single strength) 

Helindone green G paste 

Helindone green O pdr 

Alizarin indigo G (single strength) 

Alizarin indigo G paste 

Alizarin indigo O pdr 

Alizarin indigo B (single strength) 

Alizarin indigo B pdr 

Alizarin in<ligo green B pdr 

Alizarin indigo green B paste.. 

Alizarin indigo violet B paste 

Alizarin indigo violet B pdr 

Alizarin indigo 3R (single strength) 

-Alizarin indigo 3R paste 

Alizarin indigo 3R pdr 

Helindone blue 3GN 

Helindone blue 3R paste 

Ciba heliotrope li (single strength) 

Ciba heliotrope B paste 

Ciba heliotrope B pdr 



By. 

By- 
M.. 
M.. 
M.. 
B.. 
M.- 
By. 
B.. 
B.. 
By. 



By. 
M-. 
B.. 
By. 
By. 
B.. 



DH. 
B... 
DH. 

M... 
DH. 



B.. 
B.. 
Bv. 

By. 
By. 
I... 
M.. 
M.. 



By. 
By. 



By. 
By. 
By- 
By. 
By. 



By. 
By. 



M. 



Pounds 
10, 350 



1,832 
"7i,'3i3" 



$62, 785 



10, 333 10, 137 



10,932 I 11,005 



300 22 



5,471 



975 I ],38S 



5,783 I 1,805 



4,500 



11,218 
250 
350 



3,506 
"i,'447' 



4,144 



175 



10,016 
I i 



2,653 



DYES IMPORTED FOR CONSUMPTION 101 

Table 30. — Imports af dyes, calendar year i 5^4— Continued 



Schultz 
No. 



901 



902 
904 



905 
906 



907 



908 
910 



911 
912 



913 

915 
917 

918 



Name of dye 



919 
920 



923 



Ciba gray (single strength) 

Ciba gray B pdr 

Ciba violet B (single strength) 

Ciba violet B paste 

Ciba violet B pdr.. - 

Ciba violet R paste 

Ciba violet R pdr 

Helindone brown 2R (single strength) 

Helindone brown 2R pdr 

Helindone brown G (single strength) 

Helindone brown G paste. 

Helindone brown G pdr 

Thioindigo brown G pdr 

Thioindigo scarlet R paste 

Thioindigo scarlet G (single strength) 

Ciba red G paste — 

Ciba red G pdr 

Ciba scarlet (single strength) 

Ciba scarlet G extra paste 

Ciba scarlet G extra pdr , 

Helindone fast scarlet C paste 

Thioindigo scarlet GG paste 

Ciba red R paste 

Helindone pink (single strength) 

Anthra pink AN paste 

Anthra pink BN paste 

Helindone pink AN paste - 

Helindone pink AN pdr. 

Helindone pink BN paste.! 

Vat pink AN paste 

Vat pink BN paste ..-. 

Ciba orange G paste 

Thioindigo red B._ ' 

Anthra red B paste 

Ciba pink B paste 

Thioindigo red B paste 

Helindone orange R (single strength) 

Helindone orange R paste 

Hydron orange RF paste 

Hydron orange RF pdr 

Thioindigo orange R paste 

Helindone fast scarlet R (single strength) . 
Helindone fast scarlet R pdr 

Helindone red B (single strength) 

Helindone red B paste 

Helindone red B pdr 

Helindone red 3B (single strength) 

Ciba red 3B paste 

Durindone red 3B paste 

Durindone red 3B pdr 

Helindone red 3B paste 

Helindone red 3B pdr 

Helindone reddish violet IRH pdr 

Thioindigo red 3B paste 

Vat red 3B paste 

Vat red violet RH paste 

Ciba Bordeaux B (single strength) 

Ciba Bordeaux B paste 

Ciba Bordeaux B pdr 

Helindone violet (single strength) 

Helindone violet B paste 

Helindone violet B pdr 

Helindone violet 2B pdr 

Helindone violet R paste 

Helindone violet R pdr 



Ursol . 



Fur black DG 

Fur blue black A, B, SB, SDF. 
Fur brown O, P, NZ, PY, 2R.. 

Fur brown 4R, SK, SKG 

Fur gray ALA, B 

Fur gray brown SLA 

P'ur red brown 6R 

Fur yellow 2G, 4G... 

Furrol yellow brown G 

Nako B, DR, PS, RH 

Nako black DBB. 

Nako gray B 



Manu- 
facturer 



M. 



I.... 
BD. 
BD. 
M- 
M-- 
M.. 
K... 
M.. 
B... 



Imports 



Quantity 



Pounds 
550 



82, 598 



700 



2,455 

385 

661 

6,063 



28, 217 

8,478 
3, 505 
17, 635 
17, 808 



2,204 
2,682 



37, 077 



29, 038 



29,000 



6,179 



Invoice 
value 



$25, 145 



2,72» 



32, 922- 



12, 958- 



1,850 



37, 26a 



25, 312 



4, 69ft 



8, 310 



102 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Table SO.— Imports of dyes, calendar year 1924 — Continued 
UNIDENTIFIED ACID DYES 





Manu- 
facturer 


Imports 


Name of dye 


Quantity 


Invoice 
value 


Acid black . .. ... 


Q 

B 

G. 

I. 

C 


Pounds 

11 

10 

550 

220 

5 

1,606 




Acid blue BBX -.. 




Acid pure blue R supra _ .. . 








Acid violet JOB 




Alizarin direct blue 


$4, 205 


Alizarin direct blue A ...... 


M 




Alizarin levelling blue BBS - ... ..... 


C 








By 








M 

By 

By 

C. ...... 


1,500 
530 

1,874 

25 

11,514 




Alizarin emeraldole G pdr . 












Alizarin rubinol 


23, 666 


Alizarin rubinol 3G pdr . _ . . . . 


By 




Alizarin rubinol 5G pdr .... . . 


By 








By 








By 






Alizarin rubine 30 pdr .... 


By 






Alizarin rubine GW pdr . 


Bv 






Alizarin rubine R pdr 


By 








By 

C 


206 

100 
1,082 




Alphanol blue BRN cone .-.-.. . 








Onis (Anthosine) 3B . .... 


B 








By 

M 

B 

C 

C 

Q 

By 

C 

K 

Bv. 

By 

I 

I 

G 

G 

M 

By 

S 

Q - 

A 

A 


100 1 


Azo acid black B .. J. 

Azo flavine FFNX .». 


300 




100 

5 

25 

22 

106 

6,200 

198 

699 

100 

110 

2,755 

992 

493 

1,000 

1, 556 

2,204 

11 

10 

4,700 

710 

1,430 

100 

130 

105 

220 

25 

2,204 

7,756 





Azo orseille BB ... . 




Azo wool violet 7R 




Black for ostrich feathers . . . 








Urilliant milling blue B, FG . 








Oashrrei-e black TN . 




Cashm-^ra blue TG extra 




Cloth fast red GRG... 








Erio fast fuchsine BBL . 




Erio navy blue . 




Fast aci'l green BB extra 




Fast light red BL, GL 




Fast sulphon green 2G cone . . . . . . 




French blue... . 




Guinea brown 2R 




Guinea fast red BL, 2BL 




Ink blue BITN.- . 


Gr-E... 

T 

B 

A 

A 

I 








Mars red ATX . 




Milling orange G . 




Milling yellow F 3G, R 




Neolan blue 2G cone. ....... 




Onis violet BB 


B 

G 












Polar red G cone . . . 


G 






G 






Radio black SB.. 


C 

C 

C. 

C 

Gr-E... 
M 

By. 


200 

5 

25 

1,020 

250 

100 

300 

802 








Radio red VB 




Radio vellow R ... 




Silk blue BT'iB extra cone . . 




Sulpho rosazeine G pdr . . 








Sulphon yellow . . 


712 




By 




Sulphon vellow 5G . 


By 








By 








By 

By 

By 

By 


462 
292 
446 
419 
1,188 


















1,268 




By 






By 








By. 







DYES IMPORTED FOR CONSUMPTION 



103 



Table 30. — Imports of dyes, calendar year 1924 — Continued 
UNIDENTIFIED ACID DYES— Continued. 



Name of dye 



Manu- 
facturer 



Imports 



Quantity 



Invoice 
value 



Supramine yellow 

Supramine yellow G 

Supramine yellow R 

Wool black BR 

Wool brown AF... 

Wool fast blue 

Wool fast blue BL 

Wool fast blue BL 

Wool fast scarlet cone 

Wool fast vellow G 

Wool violet R C 

Xylene milling blue AE conc-. 
Xylene milling orange R conc. 
Xylene milling red B conc 



By. 
By. 
By. 
Q-- 



B.. 

By. 
G.. 
B.. 
G.. 

S... 
S... 

s... 



Pouvds 
1,083 



1,103 

249 

4,440 



55 
330 

55 

500 

6C0 

1,500 



UNIDENTIFIED VAT DYES 



^.Igol black (single strength) 

Algol black CL pdr 

Algol black RO pdr 

.\lgol blue (single strength) 

Algol blue FB paste 

.A.lgol blue FB pdr 

Vat blue 3 GT pdr. 

Algol brown (single strength) 

Algol brown G paste 

Algol brown G pdr 

Vat brown G paste 

Vat brown G pdr 

Vat brown GO pdr \. 

Algol pink TR pdr. (single strength) 

Alizarin indigo 5R, 7R, 7G 

Alizarin indigo black B._ 

Alizarin indigo brown R paste 

.\lizarin indigo gray B (single strength). 

Alizarin indigo green G, BB paste 

Alizarin indigo red B (single strength).. 
Anthra wool black.. 

Anthra wool black 3B 

Anthra wool black T 

jVnthra wool brown CM 

Anthra wool red CB, CR 

Brilliant indigo 

Brilliant indigo N 

Brilliant indigo 4 BG 

Ciba pink (single strength) 

Ciba pink BG paste 

Ciba pink BG pdr 

Ciba printing black 

Ciba printing black B paste. 

Ciba printing black G paste. 

Cibanone blue 2G pdr 

Cibanone brown R paste 

Cibanone green G paste 

Cibanone orange 

Cibanone orange 3R pdr... 

Cibanone orange 6R pdr... 

Cibanone red... 

Cibanone red C pdr 

Cibanone red G pdr 

Qrelanone brown RR paste 

Grelanone orange RB paste 

Grelanone red 2B paste 

Grelanone scarlet G paste 

Grelanone violet BR, SB paste 

Grelanone yellow G paste 

Helindone black B in grains 

Helindone brown vat in grains.. 

Helindone claret red B paste 

Helindone fast scarlet 

Helindone fast scarlet B paste 

Helindone fast scarlet G paste 

Vat fast scarlet G paste 



By. 

By. 



By- 
By. 
By. 



By- 
By. 
By. 
By. 
By. 
By. 
By. 
By. 
By. 
By. 
By. 
By. 



Gr-E. 
Gr-E. 
Gr-E. 
Gr-E. 
Gr-E. 
Gr-E. 

M 

M 

M 



18, 155 



16 

9 

123 

4,967 

16 

563 

21 

200 



25 

6 

2,202 



21, 653 



10, 799 



385 
1,322 
2,204 

330 



606 



112 

112 
56 
56 
56 

560 
25 
50 

200 
1,105 



$24 



14,728 



104 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Table 30. — Imports of dyes, calendar year 1924 — Continued 
UNIDENTIFIED VAT DYES— Continued 



Name of dye 



By. 
By. 
B_. 
M. 

M. 
C 

c. 



Helindone khaki C in grains. 

Helinilone printing black RD paste 

Helindone red 

Helindone red BB vat... 

Helindone red CR vat. 

Helindone red 15 OK paste 

Helindone yellow CA paste.. 

Hydron black B pdr. (single strength) 

Hydron Bordeaux B (single strength) 

Hydron Bordeaux B dbl. paste. 

Hydron Bordeaux R dbl. paste 

Hydron brown (single strength) 

Hydron brown G paste.. 

Hydron brown G pdr 

Hydron brown R paste 

Hydron brown R pdr 

Hydron green 

Hydron green B paste 

Hydron green G paste 

Hydron navy blue C paste 

Hydron olive _. 

Hydron olive GN paste 

Hydron olive R paste 

Hydron pink FB (single strength) 

Algol brilliant pink FB paste 

Algol brilliant pink FB pdr 

Anthra pink B extra paste .- 

Helindone pink B extra paste — 

Helindore pink B extra pdr - 

Hydron pink FB paste 

Hydron pink FB pdr 

Hydron pink FF (single strength) 

Algol brilliant pink FF paste 

Algol brilliant pink FF pdr 

Anthra pink R extra paste 

Antlira pink R extra pdr 

Helindone pink R extra paste. 

Helindone pink R extra pdr. 

Hydron pink FF paste 

Hydron pink FF pdr 

Thioindigo rose RN ex. paste 

H ydron scarlet (single strength) 

Hydron scarlet 2B paste 

Hydron scarlet 2B pdr .- 

Hydron scarlet 3B paste.. 

Hydron scarlet 3B pdr 

Hydron sky blue FK paste... 

Hydron violet (single strength) 

Hydron violet B pdr 

Hydron violet R pdr 

Hydron wool brown D paste 

Hydron wool olive B paste 

Hydron wool yellow O pdr — 

Hydron yellow NF paste 

Indanthrene black (single strength) 

Vat black BGA dbl. paste... 

Indanthrene blue BCS (single strength) 

Helindone blue IBCS pdr 

Indanthrene blue BCD dbl. paste .- 

Indanthrene blue BCD dbl. paste fine.. 

Indanthrene blue BCS pdr .- 

Vat blue BCD dbl. paste 

Vat blue BCS pdr 

Indanthrene blue BGCS pdr 

Indanthrene blue (single strength). j 

Indanthrene blue RC paste B. 

Indanthrene blue RC dbl. paste B. 

Indanthrene blue RHZ pdr B. 

Indanthrene blue RZ dbl. paste B. 

Indanthrene brilliant blue R (single strength) 

Helindone brilliant blue IR paste M 

Vat t)rilliant blue R paste --- B. 

Vat brilliant blue R paste fine M 

Vat brilliant blue R pdr -'---i B. 



Manu- 
facturer 



By. 
By. 
B.. 
B.. 

M.. 
M.. 
C. 
C. 
K.. 



B. 



Imports 



Q--tity l-ojce 



Pounds 

10 

8,300 

60 



200 

25 

6 

100 



42, 681 



2,300 



250 
250 



11,837 I 



50, 460 



8,668 



3,195 
625 



25 

25 

50 

6,050 

1,086 



39, 350 



10 
10, 963 



1,782 



DYES IMPORTED EOil CONSUMPTION 



105 



Table 30. — Imports of dyes, calendar year 1924 — Continued 
UNIDENTIFIED VAT DYES— Continued 



Name of dye 



By. 
By. 



Indanthrene brown G (single strength) 

Helindone brown IQ paste.. 

Helindone brown IG pdr.. 

Vat brown G paste 

Vat brown O pdr - 

Vat brown GG paste 

Indanthrene brown 

Hehndone brown I 3R paste - -.- - 

Indanthrene brown 3R paste - 

Vat brown 3R paste - - — 

Indanthrene golden orange 3Q (single strength)... 

Vat golden orange 3G paste 

Vat golden orange 3G pdr. 

Indanthrene golden orange 3R (single strength) 

Helindone golden orange I 3R paste 

Indanthrene golden orange 3R paste 

Vat orange 3R paste.. 

Vat orange 3R paste fine 

Indanthrene gray (single strength) 

Vat gray 3B dbl. paste 

Vat gray BTR paste 

Vat gray RRH 

Indanthrene green (single strength). 

Helindone green IG dbl. paste 

Helindone green IQG dbl. paste 

Vat green G dbl. paste 

Vat green GG dbl. paste... 

Indanthrene pink B (single strength) 

Helindone pink IB dbl. paste 

Helindone pink IB dbl. paste fine 

Helindone pink IB pdr 

Indanthrene pink B dbl. paste 

V^at pink B dbl. paste 

Vat pink B dbl. paste fine 

Vat pink B extra paste 

Indanthrene red (single strength).. 

Helindone red IGG paste 

Helindone red IGG pdr.. ! M 

Vat red GG paste _ ..I B. 

Vat red GG paste fine I B. 

Vat red GG pdr... ' B. 

Indanthrene vellow I 

•Helindone vellow I 3RT. | M 

Vat yellow 3 RT pdr ..I B. 

Vat yellow 3 RT cone, pdr B. 

Vat blue IggSNL, IRL.. | M 

Vat printing black BR paste \ B. 

Vat violet No. 162 for lakes. i Q. 

Vat yellow OP pdr | B. 

Vat yellow 6G, 6GD pdr A. 



Manu- 
facturer 



M. 



Imports 



Quantity 



Pounds 
16, 130 



Invoice 
value 



$11,856 



4,123 



9,168 



1,102 



3,800 



39, 131 



4,620 



117 



15 
11 
2,695 
50 
10 



2,663 



9,609 



1,384 



2,131 



36, 553 



4,095 



UNIDENTIFIED MORDANT AND CHROME DYES 



Acid alizarin blue black R cone 

Acid alizarin gray G._ 

Acid alizarin red G 

Acid chrome blue 3RX, 3G 

Acid anthracene brown KE pdr... 
Acid chrome yellow 

Acid chrome yellow GL. 

Acid chrome yellow RL extra. 

Alizarin blue WS 

Alizarin Bordeaux GP paste 

Alizarin cyclamine R paste 

Alizarin fast blue BHG 

Alizarin fast brown GL pdr 

Alizarin fast gray 2 BL 

Alizarin fast light red 5G pdr 

Alizarin heli3trope R paste 

Alizarin light green GS cone. 

Alizarin red PS pdr 

Alliance fast brown 5G paste 

Anthracene chromate brown EB.. 



M. 
M. 
M. 
By. 
By. 



By.. 
By.. 
By.. 
By- 
By.. 
By.. 
By.. 
By.. 
By.. 
By.. 
S.... 
M.. 
BD. 
C... 



10 

7,025 

50 

226 

6 

204 



465 

441 

796 

106 

6 

4,456 

6 

11 

2,000 

500 

50 

6,669 



106 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Table 30. — Imports of dyes, calendar year 1924 — Continued. 
UNIDENTIFIED MORDANT AND CHROME DYES— Continued 



Name of dye 



Anthracene chrome brown DWN 

Autochrome olive brown G 

Brilliant chrome blue 

Brilliant chrome blue 2B 

Brilliant chrome blue R pdr 

Brilliant chrome violet 3R, RO 

Chromanol black RVI 

Chromazurine 

Chromazurine DN 

Chromazurine G 

Chromazurine E 

Chrome brilliant blue G 

Chrome brilliant yellow 3G -.. 

Chrome fast blue 

Chrome fast blue FB 

Chrome fast blue BX.. 

Chrome fast garnet BL 

Chrome fast phosphine R 

Chrome fast yellow 5RP 

Chrome gnrnet B 

Chrome olive JCSB pdr 

Chrome printing blue G pdr 

Chrome printing red -. 

Chrome printing red Y 

Chrome printing red B 

Chrome skv blue B pdr 

Chrome yellow CR 

Chromocitronine 3R 

Chromorhodine 

Chromorhodine BN 

Chromorhodine 6 GN extra 

Chromorhodine BR 

Chromorhodine BB 

Chromorosaniine 2B 

Chromovesuvine RA 

Chromoxane azurol bD pdr 

Chromoxane brilliant violet SB 

Diamond black P2 B cone 

Diamond bordeaux R 

Eriochromal gray 50 cone 

Erioehrome flavine A cone 

Eriochrome green L 

Erioehrome red G 

Fast chrome green B 

Metachrome blue black 2BX. 

Metachrome brilliant blue BL, 8RL, 

Metachrome brown 6G 

Metachrome green G, 3G 

Metachrome olive 

Metachrome olive B 

Metachrome olive D 

Metachrome olive 2G 

Metachrome olive brown 

Metachrome olive brown G pdr. 

Metachrome olive brown G 

Metaclirome red G 

Metachrome violet 

Metachrome violet B 

MetachromiC violet 2R 

Modern gray RON 

Modern green N .-. 

Omega chrome brown 

Omega chrome brown G conc- 
Omega chrome brown PB cone. 

Omega chrome claret cone 

Palatine chrome brilliant violet B... 

Pilatus chromate black B ; 

Solochrome brown MO paste 

Dltra corinth B 

Ultra cyanol B. 



Manu- 
facturer 



DH. 
By.. 
DH. 
DH. 



DH. 
I.... 
DH. 
G... 

By.. 



A... 
B... 
A... 
DH. 
A.._ 
DH. 
DH. 
By.. 



DH. 
DH. 
By_. 
G... 
DH. 



DH. 

DH. 
DH. 
DH. 
DH. 
DH. 
By.. 
By.. 
By.. 
By.. 
G... 
G... 
G... 
G_.. 
DH. 
A... 
X... 
A... 
A... 



Bro. 
A... 
A... 



A... 

A... 
DH. 
DH. 



S.... 
S.... 

s.... 

B... 
B... 
BD. 

S..- 
S.... 



Imports 



C^iantity 



Pounds 

10 

20 

991 



330 

55 

1,465 



276 

6 

355 



5 
385 
5 
110 
110 
93 
1,541 



666 
1,102 

440 
4,621 



22 

110 

12 

5 

16 

519 

110 

6,614 

2,864 

2,204 

55 

9,500 

310 

2,000 

70 

6,120 



5,100 



300 
950 



550 
220 
,003 



200 
ICO 
101 
50 
300 
1,000 



DYES IMPORTED FOR CONSUMPTION 



107 



Table 30. — Imports of dyes, calendar year 1924 — Continued 
UNIDENTIFIED DIRECT DYES 



Name of dye 



Manu- 
facturer 



Imports 



Quantity 



Invoice 
value 



Azonine B, G, R, RR, S, SF 

Azonine direct blue B paste 

Azonine direct red G paste 

Azonine direct yellow RR paste... 

Benzo bronze E 

Benzo dark brown extra 

Benzo fast black L 

Benzo fast black L 

Direct fast black B 

Oxamine light black EB 

Benzo fast Bordeaux 6 BL 

Benzo fast brown 

Benzo fast brown 3 QL 

Benzo fast brown RL_ 

Benzo light brown 3GL 

Benzo fast gray 

Benzo fast gray BL 

Benzo light gray BL 

Diamine fast gray BN 

Oxamine light gray EB 

Benzo fast heliotrope 

Benzo fast heliotrope BL 

Benzo fast heliotrope 4BL 

Benzo fast heliotrope 2RL 

Benzo fast heliotrope 5RH 

Brilliant benzo fast violet BL. 

Benzo fast light scarlet 4BL 

Benzo fast orange 

Benzo fast orange 2RL 

Dianil fast orange 2R 

Benzo fast rubine 

Benzo fast rubine BL... 

Diamine fast rubine FB 

Diamine fast rubine RF 

Benzo fast scarlet 

Benzo fast scarlet oBL 

Beu2o fast scarlet 6BSL 

Benzo fast yellow 4GrL extra 

Benzo green O 

Benzo red 12 B 

Benzo red 12B 

Direct safranine RW 

Benzo rhoduline red 

Benzo rhoduline red 3B 

Benzo rhodamine red 3B 

Columbia red 03B 

Benzo rubine SC 

Benzo sky blue 

Benzoform blue G extra. 

Benzoform green FFL 

Benzoform violet 2BF 

Blue 

Blue, I. II, III, IV, V 

Blue dve No. 1 

Blue dye No. 2 

Brilliant benzo fast yellow GL 

Brilliant benzo green B 

Brilliant benzo violet B 

Brilliant benzo violet B 

Diamine brilliant violet B 

Brilliant benzo violet 2R 

Brilliant Congo blue 5R 

Brilliant Congo violet R. 

Brilliant cotton blue R cone 

Brilliant fast blue 

Brilliant fast blue 2G 

Brilliant fast blue 3BX 

Brilliant pure yellow 6G extra 

Brilliant sky blue 

BriDiant sky blue 8G extra 

Brilliant sky blue 2RM 

Gelatine blue.. 

Gelatine orange. 

Gelatine red 

Gelatine red violet 



C.. 

c.. 

G.. 
C.. 
By. 
By. 



By. 
I... 
B.- 

By- 



By. 
By. 
By. 



By. 
By. 
G-. 
B.. 



By. 
By. 
By. 
By. 
By. 
By. 



By. 

M. 



By. 
G.. 
G.. 



By. 
By. 
By. 
By- 



By. 
I... 



By. 
By. 
A.. 
By. 
By. 
By. 
By- 
By. 



BG. 
Q.. 
Q... 
By-. 
By. 



By. 
G.. 
By. 
A.. 
A.. 
K.. 



By. 
By. 
By. 



By. 
Bv. 
SD. 
SD. 
SD. 
SD. 



3,567 



6 
], 426 



1,111 



10 

6 

1,841 



1,785 



50 
17 
6 
6 
6 
1,844 



82 

248 

2,648 



1,193 
100 
310 
220 



1, 533 
4,735 



586 
20 
150 
150 



$97 



Pounds 
165 
230 
330 
230 

200 ! 

651 ' 

7,848 ! 6,042 



1,990 I _. 

5,976 ! 6,457 



2,476 2,238 



5,995 



1,711 



1,174 



1,629 



108 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Table 30. — Imports of dyes, calendar year 1924 — Continued 
UNIDENTIFIED DIRECT DYES— Continued 



Name of dye 



Manu- 
facturer 



Imports 
Quantity ^^l 



Celatine yellow 

Chloramine fast yellow B 

Chloramine light gray - 

Chloramine light gray B cone 

Chloramine light gray R cone 

Chloramine light violet R cone 

Chloramine violet FFB 

Chlorantine fast blue 2GH 

Chlorantine fast brown 

Chlorantine fast brown 3QH 

Chlorantine fast brown 2RL... 

Chlorantine fast gray B 

Chlorantine fast green B 

Chlorantine fast violet 

Chlorantine fast violet 4BL 

Chlorantine fast violet 2RL 

Chlorantine fast yellow 

Chlorantine fast yellow 4GL 

Chlorantine fast yellow RL 

Chlorazol brown RD 

Chlorazol fast brown RK 

Chlorazol fast orange K, AK 

Chlorazol violet R 

Columbia fast leather brown 

Cotonerol 

Cotonerol A 

Cotonerol AV. 

Cupranil brown R 

Developing pure blue GL 

Diamine azo Bordeaux.. 

Diamine azo Bordeaux BL 

Diamine azo fast Bordeaux B 

Diamine azo fast green G 

Diamine azo fast violet R 

Diamine brilliant scarlet S 

D iamine catechine 

Diamine catechine B 

Diamine catechine B 

Diamine catechine G 

Diamine catechine R 

Diamine catechine GR. 

Direct cutch brown GR 

Diamine fast blue 

Diamine fast blue FFB 

Diamine fast blue F3G 

Diamine fast Bordeaux 6BS 

Diamine fast brown 

Diamine fast brown G 

Diamine fast brown GB 

Diamine fast brown GR 

Diamine fast orange 

Diamine fast orange EG 

Diamine fast orange ER 

Diamine fast red violet FR 

Diamine fast rose B, Q 

Diamine fast scarlet GG 

Diamine steel blae L 

Diaminogene sky blue N , 

Dianil fast violet BL. 

Dianil light rod 12BL 

Diazauil pink B 

Diazo brilliant blue 2BL extra 

Diazo brilliant green 

Developed brilliant green 3G 

Diazo brilliant green 3G 

Diazo brilliant orange OR, 5G extra 

Diazo brilliant scarlet___ 

Diazo brilliant scarlet G extra 

Diazo brilliant scarlet 2BL extra cone. 
Diazo brown. 

Diazo brown G 

Diazo brown 3G 

Diazo brown 6G 

Diazo brown 3R... 

Diazo brown 3RB 



SD. 
By. 



S... 
S... 

s... 

By. 
I... 



BD. 
BD. 
BD. 
BD. 

A... 



C. 
C. 

c. 

C- 

c. 

C-. 

c. 

M.. 

M.. 
M.. 
By- 



Bv. 
Bv. 
By. 



By. 
By. 



By. 
By. 
By. 
By. 



Pounds 

50 

6 

901 



830 

911 

17, 268 

30, 202 



771 
991 



7,602 



200 
2,486 

150 

1,000 

20 

640 



110 
105 
320 



100 

100 

6,000 

11,352 



2,400 



520 
2,069 



11,763 



100 
600 
100 
50 
650 
100 
100 j 

1,162 
6 

5,132 



935 
4,601 



1,700 



DYES IMPORTED FOR CONSUMPTION 



109 



Table 30.^ — Imports of dyes, calendar year, 1924 — Continued 
UNIDENTIFIED DIRECT DYES— Continued 



Name of dye 



Manu- 
facturer 



Imports 



Quantity 



Invoice 
value 



Diazo fast blue -- 

Diazamine blue 4R 

Diazo fast blue 6GW 

Diazo fast blue 4R\V 

Diazo fast bordeaux BL 

Diazo fast green BL - 

Diazo fast red SB... 

Diazo fast violet 

Developed light violet BL 

Diazo fast violet BL 

Diazo fast violet 3RL 

Diazo light violet BL 

Diazo fast yellow ..- 

Developed fast yellow 2G 

Developed light yellow 2G 

Developed yellow 2G 

Diazo yellow G 

Diazo yellow 2G 

Diazo geranine 

Diazo geranine B extra -. 

Zambesi pink B extra 

Diazo indigo blue 

Developed indigo blue 4GL extra. 

Diazo indigo blue 4GL 

Diazo rubine B 

Diazo sky blue 

Diazo sky blue 3G 

Diazo sky blue 3GL 

Diazo solamine I, II, III 

Diazo yellow R 

Diazophenyl black V 

Diphenyl catechine R supra 

Diphenyl fast bronze B 

Diphenyl fast gray BC 

Direct black RMW 

Direct brown _.. 

Direct brown 

Direct brown 3GL 

Direct fast orange R 

Duranol blue G paste 

Duranol orange G paste.. 

Duranol red BB, G, GG 

Fast cotton gray 

Fast cotton gray BL 

Fast cotton gray GL.. 

Fast cotton gray VL 

Fast cotton green B, G 

Fast cotton orange 2RL 

Fast cotton rose 2B _ 

Fast cotton rubine B, 3B 

Fast cotton violet 4R 

Formal fast black G cone 

Foulard discharge blue B 

Golden orange I 

Golden yellow VIII 

Half-wool blue 3R 

lonamine A, B, H, L, GA, VLA, MA.. 

lonaraine red GA, KA 

Minaxo (oxamine) claret BXX 

Minaxo (oxamine) light blue G 

Minaxo (examine) light pink 

Naphthamine fast brown... 

Naphthamine fast brown BL 

Naphthamine light brown 2G 

Naphthogene blue 

Developing blue B.. 

Naphthogene blue B 

Orange I 

Oxydiamine brown G, 3GN, RN 

Parasulphon brown 

Parasulphon brown G 

Parasulphon brown V 

Polyphenyl blue GS 

Pure yellow I 

Pyrazol orange R cone. 

Red I, III, V 



S... 
I... 
I... 
By. 
By. 
By. 



By. 
By. 
By. 
By. 



By. 
By. 
By. 
By. 
By. 



By. 
A.- 



By. 
By. 
By. 



By. 
By.. 
BC. 
By.. 
G... 
G... 
G... 
G.. 
C... 



Q... 
By.. 
I.... 
BD. 
BD. 
BD. 



A... 
A... 
A... 
A... 
A... 
A... 
A... 
A... 
G... 
By.. 
BC- 
BC- 
By.. 
BD. 
BD. 
B... 
B... 
B... 



A... 
A... 
BC. 
C... 



S.... 
S..-. 
G... 
BC. 
S.... 
BC. 



Pounds 
1,642 



220 

55 

55 

2,946 



559 



7,758 



202 

4, 785 



39 
100 

6,614 
551 

1,102 
330 
300 
353 



110 
125 
125 
358 
1,410 



20 

100 

5 

10 

5 

100 

6 

193 

463 

97 

130 

70 

300 

200 

300 

1,100 



1,2G2 



466 

42 

1,330 



4,982 
395 
300 

1,119 



$4,132 



4,253 



2,290 I 3,111 



18, 677 



544 
1,341 



34 



110 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Table 30. — Imports of dyes, calendar year 1924 — Continued 
UNIDENTIFIED DIRECT DYES— Continued 



Name of dye 



Manu- 
facturer 



Imports 



Quantity 



Invoice 
value 



Rosanthrene orange R 

Rosanthrene violet 5R 

Solamine I, II, III 

Toluylene fast brown 3G, 2R 

Universal blue C 

Universal brown C 

Universal gray C 

Universal heliotrope C 

Universal leather brown 

Zambesi black 

Developing black FFN.. 

Diazo fast black SD 

Diazophenvi black 3B. 

Oxamine black BBNX 

Zambesi black D 

Zambesi black F 

Zambesi black V 

Zambesi red B pdr 

Rapid fast dyes- 
Rapid fast Bordeaux B paste.. 
Rapid fast orange RG paste.. 

Rapid fast red 

Rapid fast red B paste 

Rapid fast red BB paste.. 
Rapid fast red GL paste.. 
Rapid fast red GZ paste.. 
Rapid fast red 3GL paste. 
Rapid fast yellow G paste 



I... 
I... 
EC. 
By.. 
C... 
C... 
C... 
C... 

c... 



By. 
By. 
G.. 
B.. 
A.. 
A.. 
A-- 
A.. 



Gr-E. 
Gr-E. 



Gr-E- 
Gr-E. 
Gr-E. 
Gr-E.. 
Gr-E. 
Gr-E. 



Pounds 

4,959 

135 

1,087 

230 

5 

5 

5 

10 

5 

7,913 



220 

100 
100 

425 



100 



$272 



4, 575 



UNIDENTIFIED SULPHUR DYES 



Cross dye green 

Cross dye green B. 

Cross dye green 2G cone 

Immedial purple G 

Immedial violet C 

Katigene bronze LX extra. 

Katigenc brown VR extra 

Katigene deep black BN, FGC, TN ex 

Katigene indigo 

Katigene indigo CLOG ex... _ 

Katigene indigo FR ex 

Katigene orange O 

Katigene yellow brown RLX extra, 3RLX extra 

Pyrogene brilliant blue 6B 

Pyrogene brown G 

Pyrogene cutch brown RR extra 

Pyrogene violet brown X .' 

Sulphide black BL extra strong 

Sulphide brown S_ 

Sulphide direct blue R cone, G cone 

Sulphide green BL extra cone., GL extra cone 

Sulphide new blue BL cone., CL cone, JL ex. cone. 
Sulphide violet V__ 

Sulphur black TBF 

Sulphur black brown QL ex. cone. 

Sulphur brilliant blue.. 

Sulphur brilliant blue CLB 

Sulphur brilhant blue CL2R 

Sulphur brown 

Sulphur brown, CLG 

Sulphur brown CL4R , 

Sulphur catechu G 

Sulphur corinth CLB 

Sulphur olive brown A extra 

Sulphur yellow G extra 

Thional brilliant blue 6BS cone 

Thionol brown 

Thionol brown 6. 

Thionol brown R 



BD. 
BD. 

C... 

c... 

By.. 
By.. 
By- 



By. 
By. 
By. 
By- 
I... 
I... 
I... 
I... 
M.. 
M.. 
M.. 
M-. 
M.. 
M.. 
A.. 
A.. 



BD. 
BD. 



35, 246 



500 

500 

6 

6 

17 

1,686 



6 

11 

441 

2,204 

2,205 

661 

25 

100 

20 

20 

50 

700 

3,000 

10 

2,010 



1,110 



200 
25 

5 

710 

6, 001 

16, 060 



39 



DYES IMPOKTED FOR CONSUMPTION 



111 



Table 30. — Imports of dyes, calendar year 1924 — Continued 

UNIDENTIFIED BASIC DYES 



Name of dye 



Acridine brown O cone 

Acridine scarlet J 

Acridine yellow AO 

Brilliant acridine orange 

Brilliant acridine orange R cone. 

Brilliant acridine orange 3R 

Brilliant acridine orange 5R 

Brilliant rhodamine blue E 

Chrysoidine BL base 

Chrvsophosphine 2Q cone 

CorvolineBT 

Leather black TBO 

Methyl violet 5R 

Methylene blue 3G 

Methylene gray B new 

Rhodamine blue GG extra, 3G0 

Rhodamine sky blue 

Rhodamine sky blue 3G 

Rhodamine sky blue BB 

Rhoduline sky blue 3G 

Tannocyanine B 



Imports 



Manu- 
facturer 



Quantity 



Q... 
DH. 

M.. 



DH. 
DH. 
By.. 
B... 
Q-.- 
B... 
C... 
M.. 
B... 
B... 
By- 



Pounds 

55 

55 

20 

1,045 



By. 
By- 
By- 
M.. 



890 

25 

55 

061 

300 

150 

200 

100 

57 

385 



Invoice 
value 



$2, 340 



UNIDENTIFIED SPIRIT-SOLUBLE AND COLOR-LAKE DYES 



By. 
By- 

By. 



Brilliant helio blue FFR 

Brilliant helio green GG ex 

Brillianton orange R 

Hansa green G pdr 

Hansa orange R pdr 

Hansa red B pdr 

Hansa yellow G — 

Hansa yellow G paste 

Hansa yellow G pdr 

Hansa yellow 

Hansa yellow lOG paste 

Hansa yellow lOOT paste 

Hansa yellow lOG pdr 

Hansa yellow 5G pdr 

Hansa yellow R pdr 

Hansa yellow lOG lumps 

Helio Bordeaux — 

Helio Bordeaux BL paste 

Helio Bordeaux BL pdr 

Helio fast rubine LBK pdr 

Helio fast violet 

Helio fast violet AL 

Helio fast violet 2RL 

Helio fast yellow H lOG pdr 

Helio fast yellow H 5G 

Helio marine RL pdr 

Helio red RMT extra pdr 

Japan black extra 

Stone (Lithol) fast yellow 

Stone fast yellow 5G , 

Stone fast vellow lOG 

Stone fast yellow lOGL 

Stone (Lithol) fast orange R pdr... 

Oil red G paste 

Paper fast Bordeaux B.. _ 

Permanent red F6R e.xtra, F3R extra ! A 

Sph-it fast red 5B j B 

Sudan AB, OB. ■. A 

Tero (Typophor) black FB B 

Tero (Typophor) carmine FB ..i B 

Tero (Typophor) red FG I B 

Tero (Typophor) vellow FR ! B 



By. 
By. 
A.. 

M.. 
M.. 

M.. 



By. 
By. 
By- 
By. 
By. 
By. 
B.. 



By. 



130 

30 

10 

10 

5 

5 

3,000 
4,480 



20 

430 

5 

1.399 

1,690 

6 

226 



7 
39 
110 
106 
500 
317 



500 

11 

1,819 

10 

10 

6 

400 

125 

7 

600 



$385 



470 



UNIDENTIFIED, UNCLASSIFIED DYES 



All other aniline dyes. 



$1,038 



112 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

INDEX TO TABLE OF DYE IMPORTS 



Name of dye 



Aceto purpurine 8B 

Acid alizarin blue black R 

Acid alizarin blue BBN 

Acid alizarin gray Q 

Acid anthracene brown KE-- 

Acid anthracene brown PG, WSG- 

Acid anthracene red 3B, 5BL 

Acid black 

Acid blue BBX-. - - 

Acid blue RBF -.. 

Acid chrome blueSG, 3RX 

Acid chrome yellow GL, RL 

Acid cyauinc BF 

Acid green extra cone 

Acid green G, 2G -.. 

Acid magenta 

Acid milling black B - 

Acid milling red G cone 

Acid milling red R 

Acid phosphine R.__ 

Acid ponceau E 

Acid pure blue R., 

Acid rhodamine 3R 

Acid violet 4BL0 

Acid violet r.R 

Acid violet 6BN00 

Acid violet 7B 

Acid violet SB extra 

Acid violet lOB 

Acid violet C lOB 

Acid violet blue 

Acid violet red 

Acridine brown O 

Acridine orange DHE... 

Acridine red 3B 

Acridine scarlet J 

Acridine yellow AO 

Agalma black 10 BX 

Algol black CL, RO. 

Algol blue FB 

Algol blue 3G 

Algol blue 3R, 3RP.. 

Algol Bordeaux 3B 

Algol brilliant orange FR... 

Algol brilliant pink FB 

Algol brilliant pink FF... 

Algol brilliant red 2B... 

Algol brilliant violet 2B... 

Algol brilliant violet R 

Algol brilliant violet RRK 

Algol brown G 

Algol brown R 

Algol corinth R 

Algol gray 2B _ 

Algol green B 

Algol olive R 

Algol pink TR 

Algol red B 

Algol red FF, R 

Algol red 2G, 5G 

Algol scarlet G.. 

Algol vellow 30 

Algol yellow WF 

Algol yellow R 

Alizarin, synthetic 

Alizarin GI 

Alizarin SX 

Alizarin VI 

Alizarin astrol B 

Alizarin black S 

Alizarin black WR, WX 

Alizarin blue AS 

Alizarin blue G, R 

Alizarin blue JR 

Alizarin blue S, SB, SR 

Alizarin blue SAP 

Alizarin blue SKY 

Alizarin blue WS 



Schultz 
No. 



358 
790 



Page 



705 
505 

505 
524 
265 
293 
400 
606 
175 



530 
530 
548 
534 
527 



530 
530 
526 



603 
569 



217 



844 
821 
829 
822 



819 
821 
820 
820 




825 

819 
816 
815 
811 
814 
8i7 
778 
785 
784 
778 
S56 
807 
774 
856 
803 
852 
804 
858 
855 



90 
105 

97 
105 
105 

88 

91 
102 
102 

93 
105 
105 

95 

92 

92 

92 

89 

90 

91 

94 

89 
102 
102 

92 

92 

93 

92 

92 
102 

92 

92 

92 
111 

93 

93 

111 I 
111 

89 
103 
103 



103 
103 

97 

97 

97 

97 
103 
100 
100 

98 

99 

38 
103 

98 

97 

97 

97 

97 

97 

97 1 

96 

96 

96 

96 



97 
99 
97 
99 
99 
105 



Name of dye 



Alizarin blue black B, 3B 

Alizarin Bordeaux BP 

Alizarin Bordeaux GP 

Alizarin brilliant green G... 

Alizarin brown RD, SW. 

Alizarin carmine 

Alizarin claret R 

Alizarin cyanine NS, WRB 

Alizarin cyanine green G, 3G 

Alizarin cyclamine R 

Alizarin direct blue A 

Alizarin direct blue B.. 

Alizarin direct blue BGAOO. 

Alizarin direct violet R 

Alizarin direct violet E 2B 

Alizarin emeraldole G 

Alizarin emeraldole green G 

Alizarin fast blue BHG 

Alizarin fast brown GL 

Alizarin fast gray 2 BL 

Alizarin fast light red 5G 

A lizarin geranole B 

Alizarin green S 

Alizarin heliotrope R. 

Alizarin indigo B 

Alizarin indigo G._.^ ' 

Alizarin indigo 3R 

Alizarin indigo 3G, 5R. 7R 

Alizarin indigo black B 

.Alizarin indigo brown R 

Alizarin indigo gray B 

Alizarin indigo green B 

Alizarin indigo green BB, G 

Alizarin indigo red B 

Alizarin indigo violet B 

Alizarin irisol B, R 

Alizarin levelling blue B 

Alizarin levelling blue BBS 

Alizarin levelling green blue B 

Alizarin light blue B, SE 

Alizarin light green GS 

Alizarin maroon 

Alizarin orange AO, R, RQ, RP, 

SW 

Alizarin pure blue B 

Alizarin red 2 .\B 

Alizarin red IB, DIB 

Alizarin red PS... 

Alizarin red S, W, SW 

Alizarin red GI, SDG, XGP, YCA. 
Alizarin rubinol 3G, 5G, GW, R_... 

Alizarin saphire blue SE 

Alizarin saphirol SE, WS, WSA, 

SAWSA 

Alizarin sky blue B 

Alizarin supra blue A 

Alizarin viridine FF " 

Alizarin vellow 2G 

Alkali fas! green 3G, lOG 

Alliance fast brown 5G 

Alphanol blue BRN 

Amidonaphthol red N2B 

Anthosine 3B 

Anthra Bordeaux R 

Anthra brown B _.. 

Anthra claret R_ 

Anthra pink AN, BN 

Anthra pink B 

Anthra pink R 

Anthra red B 

Anthra red RT 

Anthra \iolet B 

Anthra wool black 3B, T 

Anthra wool brown CM 

Anthra wool red CB, CR.. 

Anthra yellow GC 

Anthracene acid brown G 

Anthracene blue WB, WO 

Anthracene blue SWR, SWGG 



Schultz 
No. 



66 



827 
867 
827 
910 



912 
830 

768 



759 
221 
800 
790 



INDEX TO TABLE OF DYE IMPORTS 



113 



Name of dye 



Anthracene chromate brown EB... 
Anthracene chrome brown DWN.. 

Anthracyani ue 3FL 

Anthracyanine S 

Anthraflavone GC 

Anthraquinone blue SR 

Anthraquinone blue green BXO 

Anthraquinone green GXNO 

Anthraquinone violet 

Auramine G 

Auramine N 

Aurine 

Autochrome olive brown G 

Azo acid black B 

Azo acid blue B 

Azo carmine B 

Azo carmine GX 

Azo flavine FFNX 

Azo orseille BB 

Azo wool violet 7R 

Azonine B, G, R, RR, S, SF 

Azonine direct blue B 

Azonine direct red G 

Azonine direct yellow RR_ 

Basic yellow T, TON 

Benzo bronze E 

Benzo chrome brown G 

Benzo dark brown extra 

Benzo fast black L 

Benzo fast blue 4GL __. 

Benzo fast Bordeaux 6BL 

Benzo fast brown 3GL, RL 

Beuzo fast gray BL 

Benzo fast heliotrope BL, 2RL 

Benzo fast heliotrope 4BL, 5RH 

Benzo fast light scarlet 4BL 

Benzo fast orange 2RL 

Benzo fast red 8BL 

Benzo fast rubine BL 

Benzo fast scarlet 4BS, 5BS, GS 

Benzo fast scarlet 5BL, 6BSL 

Benzo fast yellow 4GL 

Benzo fast yellow RL 

Benzo green O 

Benzo light blue 4QL 

Benzo light brown 3GL 

Benzo light gray BL 

Benzo red 12B._ 

Benzo rhodamine red SB 

Benzo rhoduline red 3B_ 

Benzo rulJne SC. 

Benzo scarlet BC 

Benzo sky blue 

Benzo violet O 

Benzoform blue G 

Benzoform green FFL .,. 

Benzoform violet 2BF _. 

Biebrich scarlet R 

Black._ _.. 

Black, extra, RR 

Black blue G 

Blue 1900 TCD 

Blue extra 

Blue I, 11, III, IV, V 

Blue No. 1, No. 2 

Blue NA 

Brilliant acid blue A, FF 

BriUiant acid blue CB, EG 

Brilliant acid blue V 

Brilliant acid green 6B 

Brilliant acridine orange A 

Brilliant acridine orange R, 3R, 5R. 

Brilliant alizarian blue R 

Brilliant benzo fast violet BL 

Brilliant benzo fast yellow GL 

Brilhant benzo green B 

Brilliant benzo violet B 

Brilliant blue G 

BriUiant chrome blue 2B, R. 

Brilliant chrome violet 4B.. 

Brilliant chrome violet RG, 3R 



Schultz 
No. 



627 
759 
861 
863 
864 
853 
494 
493 
555 



63 
673 
672 



Page 



618 



476 



279 



635 
546 



273 
545 



543 
503 
603 



667 



105 
106 
102 
94 
95 
99 
99 
99 
99 
91 
91 
93 
106 
102 
88 
95 
95 
102 
102 
102 
107 
107 
107 
107 
94 
107 
91 
107 
107 
91 
107 
,107 
107 
107 
107 
107 
107 
90 
107 
90 
107 
107 
90 
107 
91 
107 
107 
107 
107 
107 
107 
90 
107 
90 
107 
107 
107 
89 
102 
90 
95 
94 
92 
107 
107 
89 
92 
102 
92 
91 
93 
111 
95 
107 
107 
107 
107 
93 
106 
93 
106 



Name of dye 



Brilliant cochineal 4R 

Brilliant congo R.- 

Brilliant congo blue 5R 

Brilliant congo violet R.- 

Brilliant cotton blue R.. 

Brilliant cresyl blue, BB 

Brilliant croceine 3BX extra... 

Brilliant delphine blue B.. 

Brilhant dianil blue 6G 

BriUiant fast blue 2G, 3BX 

BriUiant geranine B 

Brilliant glacier blue 

BriUiant helio blue FFR 

Brilliant helio green GG 

Brilliant indigo B 

Brilliant indigo 4B 

Brilliant indigo G 

BriUiant indigo N, 4BG 

BriUiant milling blue B, FG 

Brilliant milling green B 

BriUiant milling red R_.. 

BriUiant pure yeUow 6G..- 

BrilUant purpurine lOB 

Brilliant rhodamine blue R 

Brilliant sky blue 5G 

BriUiant sky blue 8G, 2RM.. 

BriUiant sulphon red B, lOB 

BriUiant wool blue B, FFR 

Brilliant wool scarlet PG 

Brilliant wool scarlet P 3R 

Brillianton orange R 

Brom-indigo FB 

Brom-indigo FBP 

Cashmere black TN 

Cashmere blue TG 

Gelatine blue 

Gelatine orange 

Gelatine red 

Gelatine red violet 

Gelatine yellow 

Chicago red III 

Chloramine fast yellow B 

Chloramine light gray B, R 

Chloramine light violet R 

Chloramine red SBS 

Chloramine violet FFB 

Chloramine yellow GG 

Chlorantine fast blue 2GL 

Chlorantine fast brown 3GL, RL... 

Chlorantine fast gray B 

Chlorantine fast green B... 

Chlorantine fast violet 2RL, 4BLN. 
Chlorantine fast yellow 4GL, RL... 

Chlorazol brown RD 

Chlorazol fast brown RK 

Chlorazol fast orange K, AK 

Chlorazol violet R 

Chromacetine blue S 

Chromal blue GC 

Chromanol black RVI 

Chromazurine DN, E, G 

Chromazurol S l 

Chrome brilliant blue G 

Chrome brilliant yellow 3Q 

Chrome brown RVV 

Chrome fast blue FB, BX. 

Chrome fast garnet BL 

Chrome fast phosphine R 

Chrome fast yellow 5RP 

Chrome garnet B 

r'hrome green BD, GD 

Chrome oHve .TCSB 

Chrome printing blue G 

Chrome printing red B, Y 

Chrome sky blue B 

Chrome violet 

Chrome yelloe CR 

Chromocitronine R. V 

Chromocitronine 3R 

Chromorhodine BB, BN, BR, 6GN. 
Chromorosamine 2B 



Schultz 
No. 



81 
370 



368 
"541" 



182 

562 

81 



881 
881 



358 
"617" 



627 
552 



554 

"iss" 



557 
"140' 



621 
227 
622 
541 



118 
501 



885 
881 



503 
400 



91 

107 

107 

107 

94 

89 

94 

92 

107 

88 

91 

111 

111 

100 

100 

100 

103 

102 

91 

91 

107 

90 

111 

92 

107 

89 

93 

88 

102 

111 

100 

100 

102 

102 

107 

107 

107 

107 

107 

89 

108 

108 

108 

90 

108 

94 

108 

108 

108 

108 

108 

108 

108 

108 

108 

108 

94 

93 

106 

106 

93 

106 

106 

89 

106 

106 

106 

106 

106 

92 

106 

106 

106 

106 

93 

106 

89 

106 

106 

106 



114 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Name of dye 



Chrornovesuvine RA 

Chromoxane azurol BD 

Chromoxane brilliant blue Q 

Chromoxane brilliant violet SB... 

Chrysoidine BL base... 

Chrysophosphine 2G 

Ciba blue 2BD 

Ciba Bordeaux B 

Ciba gray B 

Ciba heliotrope B 

Ciba orange G 

Ciba pink B 

Ciba pink BG 

Ciba printing black B, G 

Ciba red G 

Ciba red 3B 

Ciba red R 

Ciba scarlet G extra 

Ciba violet B, R ' 

Cibanone black B, 2G ^.. 

Cibanone blue G 

Cibanone blue 2G_ 

Cibanone brown B 

Cibanone brown R 

Cibanone green G 

Cibanone orange R 

Cibanone orange 3R, 6R 

Cibanone red C, O 

Cibanone yellow R 

Cloth fast red GRG 

Cloth fast yellow G 

Cloth red G 

C oerulein S 

Columbia blue G 

Columbia blue R. 

Columbia fast leather brown BX. 
Columbia fast leather brown QX_ 
Columbia fast leatlier brown RX. 
Columbia fast leather brown 3R-- 

Columbia red O 3B 

Congo brown G 

Congo orange G 

Congo orange R 

Congo rubine B 

Corioflavine GOOO 

Corioflavine RROt)0-_ 

Coriophosphine OX 

Corvoline BT 

Cotonerol A, AV 

Cotton black E 

Cotton black RW 

Cotton blue No. 2... 

Cotton blue R 

Cotton pink BN 

Cotton |)ink GN 

Cotton red 4BX 

Cotton scarlet extra 

Cross dye green B 

Cross dye green 2G 

Crystal violet, P 

Cupranil brown G 

Cupranil brown R 

Cutchbrown 2R cone. 

Cyananthrol BGAOO. 

Cyanol extra 

Cyanol FF 

Dahlia violet 

Delphine blue B 

Deltapurpurine5B... 

Developed brilliant green 3G 

Developed green 3Q 

Developed fast yellow 2G... 

Developed indigo blue 40L 

Developed light violet BL_.. 

Developed light yellow 2G 

Developed yellow 20 

Developing black B 

Developing black OB, OT 

Developing black FFN 

Developing blue B 

Developing blue 2R 

Developing pure blue GI/ 



Schultz 
No. 



881 
919 
899 
897 
911 
912 



Page 



906 
918 
908 
907 
901 
794 
843 



795 



224 
601 
387 
325 



477 
315 
373 
313 
609 
609 
606 



463 
462 
539 
649 
121 
122 
363 
227 



516 
476 



344 
860 
546 
546 
61 
022 
366 



274 
308 



106 
106 
93 
106 
106 
106 
100 
101 
101 
100 
101 
101 
103 
103 
101 
101 
101 
101 
101 
97 
99 
103 
100 
103 
103 
97 
103 
103 
97 
102 
102 
89 
93 
91 
90 
108 
108 
108 
108 
107 
91 
90 
91 
90 
94 
94 
94 
111 
108 
91 
91 
92 
94 



90 
89 

no 

110 
92 
91 
108 
90 
99 
92 
92 
88 
94 
90 
108 
108 
109 
109 
;09 
109 
109 
90 
90 

no 

109 
89 
108 



Name of dye 



Diamine azo Bordeaux BL 

Diamine azo fast Bordeaux BL-__ 

Diamine azo fast green G 

Diamine azo fast violet R 

Diamine brilliant blue G 

Diamine brilliant Bordeaux R 

Diamine brilliant scarlet S 

Diamine brilliant violet B 

Diamine bronze G 

Diamine brown B 

Diamine catechine B, G, GR 

Diamine fast blue FFB, F3G 

Diamine fast Bordeaux 6BS 

Diamine fast brown G, GB, R 

Diamine fast gray BN 

Diamine fast orange EG, ER 

Diamine fast pink B, G 

Diamine fast red 8BL 

Diamine fast red violet FR 

Diamine fast rubine FB, RF 

Diamine fast scarlet GG 

Diamine orange B 

Diamine oiange F 

Diamine scarlet 3B 

Diamine sky blue FV 

Diamine steel blue L 

Diaminogene extra 

Diaminogene blue NA 

Diaminogene sky blue N 

Diamond black P 2B 

Diamond Bordeaux R 

DiEynond phosphinc R 

Dianil fast orange RR 

Dianil fast violet BL 

Dianil light red 12 BL 

Dianil pure blue PH 

Diazamine blue 4R 

Diazanil blue BB.. 

Diazanil pink B 

Diazine black G 

Diazo blue 2R 

Diazo brilliant black B 

Diazo brilliant blue 2BL 

Diazo brilliant green 3G 

Diazo brilliant orange GR, 5G 

Diazo brilliant scarlet 2BL, G 

Diazo brown G, 3G, 6G, 3R, 3RB. 

Diazo fast black SD 

Diazo fast black MG 

Diazo fast blue 4RW, 6GW 

Diazo fast Bordeaux BL 

Diazo fast green BL. _ 

Diazo fast red 3B 

Diazo fast violet BL, 3RL 

Diazo fast yellow G, 2Q 

Diazo geraniue B 

Diazo indigo blue 2RL, 3RL 

Diazo indigo blue 4GL 

Diazo light green BL _ 

Diazo rubine B 

Diazo sky blue 3Q, 3GL 

Diazo solamine 1, II, III 

Diazo yellow R 

Diazophenyl black 3B 

Diazophenyl balck V 

Diphene blue B 

Diphene blue R 

Diphenyl brown BBNC, GS 

Diphenyl catechine G 

Diphenyl catechine R supra 

Diphenyl chlorine yellow FF 

Diphenyl chrysoine RRC 

Diphenvl fast bronze B 

Diphenyl fast brown GNC, OF... 

Diphenvl fast grav BC _.. 

Direct lilack KMW 

Direct brilliant blue 8B 

Direct brown, 3GL 

Direct cutch brown GR 

Direct fast black B 

Direct fast orange K 

Direct fr.st orange R 



Schultz 
No. 



418 
319 



448 
349 



339 ! 
373 I 
319 1 
424 



274 
273 



609 



424 
273 
273 



125 
273 
364 



274 



695 
690 
348 
206 



617 
205 



392 



INDEX TO TABLE OF DYE IMPORTS 



115 



Name of dye 



Direct fast scarlet SE 

Direct gray R 

Direct safranine RW 

Direct yellow CH 

Duranol blue G-- 

Duranol orange G 

Duranol red BB, G, GG 

Duranthrene brilliant violet R 

Duranthrone red BN... _. 

Duranthrene golden orange Y 

Durindone red 3B 

Eosiue A, NDA 

Erica B 

Erio fast fuchsine BBL 

Erio green B supra 

Erio navy blue. 

Erio viridine B 

Eriochromal gray 5G 

Eriochrome azurol BC, BX 

Eriochrome black T 

Eriochrome blue black G, BC 

Eriochrome cyanine RC 

Eriochrome flavine A cone 

Eriochrome green L -. 

Eriochrome red G 

Eriocyanine AC 

Erioglaucine AP, EP 

Erythrosine extra 

Ethvl violet 

Euchrysine G, GRNTN., 

Excelsior brown 

Fancy black . 

Fast acid cosine G 

Fast acid green BB 

Fast acid violet B, R 

Fast acid violet RGE 

Fast chrome green B 

Fast cotton gray BL, GL, VL 

Fast cotton green B, G 

Fast cotton orange 2RL 

Fast cotton pink 2B 

Fast cotton red 8BL 

Fast cotton rubine B, 3B... 

Fast cotton violet 4R 

Fast cotton yellow RL 

Fast green extra bluish 

Fast light red BL, GL 

Fast light yellow, 2G, 3G 

Fast sulphon black F 

Fast sulphon green 2G 

Fast sulphon violet 5BS 

Flavophosphine G 

Formal fast black G . 

Foulard discharge blue B 

French blue 

Fuchsine N 

Fur black DG 

Fur blue black A, B, SB, SDF 

Fur brown NZ, OP, P, FY, 2R, 4R 

Fur brown SK, SKG 

Fur gray ALA, B 

Fur gray brown SLA 

Fur red brown 6R . 

Fur yellow 2G, 4G 

Furrol yellow brown G 

Gallazine#90 

Gallo violet DF 

Gallophenine D, P 

Qeranine G 

Golden orange I 

Golden yellow VIII 

Grelanone brown RR 

Grelanone orange RB 

Grelanone red 2B 

Grelanone scarletO... 

Grelanone violet BR, 3B 

Grelanone yellow G 

Guinea brown 2R 

Guinea fast green B._ 

Guinea fast red BL, 2BL 

Guinea fast red 2R 



Schultz 
No. 



279 
681 



820 
831 
760 
918 
587 
121 



Page 



503 



551 
183 
180 
553 



531 
506 
592 
518 
608 
283 
217 
581 



580 

582 



296 
523 



19 
264 



182 
609 



512 

923 i 

923 

923 

923 

923 

923 

923 

923 

923 

645 

635 

658 

118 



503 



94 



90 
95 
107 
90 
109 
109 
109 



96 
101 
93 
88 
102 
93 
102 
91 
100 
93 
89 
89 
93 
106 
106 
106 
92 
92 
93 
92 
94 
90 
89 
93 
102 
93 
93 
106 
109 
109 
109 
109 
90 
109 
109 
90 
92 
102 
88 
89 
102 
89 
94 
109 
109 
102 
92 
101 
101 
101 
101 
101 
101 
101 
101 
101 
94 
94 
94 
88 
109 
109 
103 
103 
103 
103 
103 
103 
102 
91 
102 



Name of dye 



Guiaea light blue SE. 

Half wool blue 3R. 

Hansa green G 

Hansa orange R 

Hansa red B 

Hansa yellow G 

Hansa yellow 5G 

Hansa yellow lOG, R 

Helindone black B 

Helindone black IBB, IBR 

Helindone blue IBCS 

Helindone blue IGCD 

Helindone blue I 3G 

Helindone blue I RS 

Helindone blue 3R.. 

Helindone brilliant blue IR 

Helindone brilliant violet IBBK__ 

Helindone brilliant violet IRK 

Helindone brown AN 

Helindone brown CM, C 3R 

Helindone brown G 

Helindone brown IG, IGG 

Helindone brown IR, IRT 

Helindone brown I 3R 

Helindone brown 2R 

Helindone claret red B 

Helindone corinth IRK 

Helindone dark blue IBO 

Helindone fast scarlet C 

Helindone fast scarlet B, G 

Helindone fast scarlet R... 

Helindone golden orange IG, DIG. 
Helindone golden orange IRRT... 

Helindone golden orange I 3R 

Helindone green G 

Helindone green IG, IGG.. 

Helindone olive IR 

Helindone orange I 4R 

Helindone orange R 

Helindone pink AN, BN... 

Helindone pink B 

Helindone pink R 

Helindone pink IB 

Helindone printing black RD 

Helindone red B 

Helindone red BB, CR 

Helindone red IBN 

Helindone red DIBN.IRK.. 

Helindone red 3B 

Helindone red lOG 

Helindone red 15 GK 

Helindone reddish brown IR 

Helindone reddish violet IRH 

Helindone violet B, 2B, R 

Helindone violet IB 

Helindone violet IBN 

Helindone yellow AGC 

Helindone yellow CA 

Helindone yellow IG 

Helindone vellow IGK 

Helindone yellow I 3RT 

Helindone yellow 3GN, IRK 

Helio bordeaux BL 

Helio fast rubine LBK 

Helio fast violet AL, 2RL 

Helio fast yellow H 5G, H lOG 

Helio marine RL 

Helio red RMT.._ 

Hvdron black B 

Hydron blue G, R 

Ilydvon Bordeaux B, R 

Hydron brown G, R 

Hydron green, B, G 

Hvdron navy blue C 

Hydron olive GN. R 

Hydron orange RF 

Hydron pink FB 

Hvdron pink FF 

Hydron scarlet 2B. 3B 

Hvdron skv blue FK 

Hydron violet B, R 



Schultz 
No. 



858 



842 
840 



821 
820 
873 



904 



902 



870 
763 
907 



915 
760 
761 



892 



833 
762 
913 
910 



917 



831 
831 

918 



873 
918 
920 
768 
832 
759 



849 
817 



810 



913 



Page 



109 
111 
HI 
111 
111 
111 
111 
103 
96 
104 



100 
104 
97 
97 
100 
103 
101 
105 
100 
105 
101 
103 
100 
96 
101 
103. 
101 
96 
96 
105 

loa 

105 
98 
96 
101 
101 
104 
104 
105 
104 
101 
104 
9s 
98 
101 
104 
104 
100 
101 
101 
96 
98 
95- 
104 
99 
97 
104 
97 
111 
111 
111 
111 
111 
111 
104 
95 
104 
104 
101 
104 
104 
101 
104 
104 
104 
104 
104 



116 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Name of dye 



Hydron wool brown D 

Hydron wool olive B 

Hydron wool yellow G 

Hydron yellow NF 

Immedial brown RR 

Immedial direot blue B 

Immedial indogene GCL 

Immedial purple C 

Immedial violet C 

Imperial scarlet 3B 

Indanthrene black BB 

Indanthrene black BOA 

Indanthrene blue BCD 

Indanthrene blue BCS 

Indanthrene blue BGCS 

Indanthrene blue GCD 

Indanthrene blue GGSP 

Indanthrene blue GGSZ 

Indanthrene blue 3Q 

Indanthrene blue RS. RSP 

Indanthrene blue WB 

Indanthrene blue RC, RHZ, RZ... 

Indanthrene blue green B 

Indanthrene Bordeaux B 

Indanthrene brilliant blue R 

Indanthrene brown B 

Indanthrene brown R 

Indanthrene brown 3R 

Indanthrene copper R 

Indanthrene curinth RK 

Indanthrene dark blue BO 

Indanthrene golden orange G 

Indanthrene golden orange RRT 

Indanthrene golden orange 3R 

Indanthrene pink B... 

Indanthrene red BN 

Indanthrene red brown R 

Indanthrene red violet RRK, RRN. 

Indanthrene scarlet GS 

Indanthrene violet BN 

Indanthrene violet RR.. 

Indanthrene yellow G 

Indian yellow FF -.. 

Indigo, synthetic 

Indigo 4B 

Indigo 6B. 

Indigosol DH 

Indigosol O, OIB 

Indochromine BR, RR 

Indocyanine B 

Indoine A_.- 

Induline NN -.- 

Ink blue BITN -- 

lonamiue A, B, H, L, GA, KA,MA 

lonamine red GA, KA 

Janus brown B 

Janus green B 

Japan black , 

Jasmine, high, cone 

Katigene bronze LX 

Katigene brown VR 

Katigene deep black BN, FGC.TN. 

Katigene indigo CLGG, FR.. 

Kitisene orange O 

Katigene yellow brown RLX, 3 RLX 

Kiton blue A 

Kiton fast red 4BL_ 

Kiton fast violet lOB 

Kiton fast yellow 3G 

Kiton pure blue V. 

Kryo?ene violet 3RX 

Leather black TBO 

Leather brown A 

Leather yellow A 

Lithol fast orange R. 

Lithol fast yellow 5G 

Lithol fast yellow lOQ... 

Lithol fast vellow lOGL 

Magenta AB, lA, S 

Malachite green 

Malta gray J 



Schultz 
No 



725 
724 
733 



247 
765 



842 
841 



840 
838 
850 



765 
828 



813 
870 
763 
760 

761 



831 
873 
871 
762 
832 
767 
849 
141 
874 
881 
883 
876 
876 
667 
705 
126 
699 



435 
124 



528 

19 

543 

754 



283 
606 



512 
495 
681 



104 

104 

104 

104 

95 

95 

95 

110 

110 

89 

96 

104 

104 

104 

104 

99 



99 
104 
96 
98 
104 
100 
100 
105 
97 
100 
96 
96 
96 
105 
105 
98 
100 
100 
96 
98 
96 
99 
89 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
95 
95 
89 
95 
102 
109 
109 
91 
88 
111 
89 
110 
110 
110 
110 
111 
110 
92 
102 
92 
88 
92 
95 
111 
90 
94 
111 
111 
111 
111 
92 
91 
95 



Name of dye 



ISchultz p 
I No. l^^^^ 



Mandarin yellow 

Mars red ATX 

Martius yellow 

Meldola's blue 3R cone 

Metachrome blue black 2BK.-. 
Metachrome brilliant blue 2BL- 
Metachrome brilliant blue 8RL. 

Metachrome brown 6G 

Metachrome green G, 3Q 

Metachrome olive B, D, 2G 

Metachrome olive brown G 

Metachrome red G 

Metachrome violet B, 2R 

Methyl blue MBS 

Methyl Lyons blue 

Methyl silk blue new 

Methyl violet base 

Methyl violet NFB 

Methyl violet 5R 

Methylene blue BG, NB 

Methylene blue 3G 

Methylene gray B 

Methylene green G 

^Methylene heliotrope 

Methylene yellow II 

Milling orange G 

Mining yellow O, 03G 

Milling yellow F 3G, R 

Mikado yellow 

Minaxo black BBNX 

Minaxo blue4RX 

Minaxo claret BXX 

Minaxo green BX 

Minaxo light black EB 

Minaxo light blue G 

Minaxo light gray EB 

Minaxo light pink BBX 

Minaxo pure blue 6B 

Modern gray RCN 

Modern green N 

Modern heliotrope DH 

Modern royal blue 

Modern violet. .- 

Modern violet N 

Mordant vellow G 

Nako B, DR, PS, RH 

Nako black DBB 

Naivo gray B 

Naphthalene green V. 

Naphthamine fast brown BL 

Naphthamine light brown 2G 

Naphthamine yellow BNF 

Naphthogene V)lue B 

Naphthol black BGN 

Naphtholred GR 

Naphthylamine black D 

Neolan blue 2G 

Neophosphi ne G 

Neptune blue BGX. 

Neptune blue BR 

New acid green 3BX 

New Bordeaux RX 

New methylene blue N, NS 

New methylene NSS.. 

New yellow extra cone 

Night blue 

Nigrosine T 

Nigrosine wax D 

Oil red G _ 

Omega chrome brown G... 

Omega chrome brown PB 

Omega chrome claret.. 

Onis3B 

Onis violet BB 

Opal blue 

Orange G 

Orange I 

Orseille red V 

Oxamine black BBNX 

Oxamine claret BBX 

Oxamine light blue G 



INDEX TO TABLE OF DYE IMPORTS 



117 



Name of dye 


Schultz 
No. 


Page 

109 

109 

109 

91 

109 

90 

106 

106 

111 

109 

92 

92 

94 

94 

94 

94 

94 

94 

111 

94 

94 

89 

102 

102 

91 

109 

92 

92 

91 

109 

96 

90 

91 

109 

110 

110 

110 

95 

95 

110 

95 

93 

94 

94 

94 

102 

102 

102 

102 

110 

110 

110 

110 

110 

110 

109 

89 

89 

94 

93 

93 

93 

93 

93 

HI 

93 

111 

93 

111 

111 

94 

110 

110 

93 

93 

93 

93 

93 

93 

95 

95 


Name of dye 


Schult2 
No. 


Page 


Oxamine light pink BBX 




Rosolane 


687 
607 
679 
120 
82 
496 
500 


95 


Oxydiamine brown G... 




Runic AL. 


94 


Oxydiamine brown 3QN- 




Safranine B cone 


95 


Oxydiamine brown KRS 


476 


Salmon red 


88 


Oxydiamine brown RN 


Scarlet RR 


88 


Oxydiamine violet BF... 


326 


Setoglaucine . 


91 


Palatine chroinate black B . _ ... 


Setopaline 


91 


Palatine chrome brilliant violet B.. 




Silk blue BT5B 


102 


Paper fast Bordeaux B 


Silver gray P... . . . 


700 


95 


Parasulphon brown Q, V 




Solamine I, II, III 


110 


Patent blue A 


545 
543 
606 
606 
606 
606 
608 
608 


Solochrome brown MO ... 




106 


Patent blue V 


Soluble blue T 


539 

64 


92 


Patent phosphine G. . 


Sorrel red X 


88 


Patent phosphine 2G 


Spirit fast red 5B 


111 


Patent phosphine M 


Stilbene yellow 3 G X . . 


10 


88 


Patent phosphine R (I) 


Stone fast orange R 


111 


Patent phosphine GRNTN 


Stone fast scarlet RN 


73 


88 


Patent phosphine RRDX 


Stone fast yellow 5G._ 


111 


Permanent red F 3R, F 6R 


Stone fast yellow lOG 




111 


Philadelphia yellow 2G 


606 
606 
220 


Stone fast vellow lOGL . 




111 


Phosphine 0, 3R.. 


Sudan AB, OB 




111 


Pilatus black SF 


1 Sulphide black BL 




110 


Polar orange R-- 


Sulphide brown S 




110 


Polar red G, 3B 




Sulphide direct blue GR 




110 


Polyphenyl blue GC... 


471 


Sulphide green BL, GL 




110 


Polyphenyl blue GS 


Sulphide new blue BL, CL, JL 




110 


Poseidon blue BGX 


543 
545 
503 


Sulphide violet V 




110 


Poseidon blue BRX, BXX 


Sulpho rosazeine B 


579 


93 


Poseidon green SGX-. 


Sulpho rosazeine G 


102 


Pure yellow I.. 


Sulphon cvanine G 


257 


89 


Purpurine.. 


783 
304 
392 


Sulphon orange G 


102 


Pyramine yellow GX . 


Sulphon yellow G, 5G, R 




102 


Pvrazol orange G 


Sulphonine black B. 


265 
720 


89 


Pvrazol orange R . 


Sulphur black AWL 


95 


Pvrogene brilliant blue 6B 




Sulphur black TBF 


HO 


Pvrogene brown G _ _ 




Sulphur black brown GL 




HO 


Pvrogene cutch brown 2R 




Sulphur brilliant blue CLB.. 




110 


Pyrogene direct blue 


726 
746 


Sulphur brilliant blue CL2R 




110 


Pvrogene green 3G, GK 


Sulphur brown CLG... 




110 


Pvrogene violet brown X 


Sulphur brown CL4R 




110 


Pvrogene vellow M 


734 
568 
612 
613 
613 


Sulphur catechu G 




110 


Pvronine Q 


Sulphur corinth CLB 




110 


Quinoline yellow 


Sulphur olive brown A 




110 


Quinoline vellow cone . . 


Sulphur vellow G 




110 


Quinoline yellow N, KT 


Supra light vellow 2GL 


22 


88 


Radio black SB... . 


Supraminc black BR_ 


102 


Radio brown B.__ 




Supramine Bordeaux B 




102 


Radio red VB.__ 




Supramine brown G, R 




102 


Radio yellow R... 




Supramine green G 




102 


Rapid fast Bordeaux B 




Supramine red B, 2G, 3B_. 




102 


Rapid fast orange RG 




Supramine yellow G 




103 


Rapid fast red B, BB 




Supramine yellow R 




103 


Rapid fast red GL, GZ 




Tannin heliotrope 


685 

74 


95 


Rapid fast red 3GL 




Tannin orange R 


88 


Rapid fast vellow G 




Tannocvanine B 


111 


Red I, HI, V 




Tero black FB 




111 


Reddish brown castor 


160 
211 
607 
573 
572 
570 
571 
571 


Tero carmine FB 




111 


Resorcin brown F . 


Tero red FG 




111 


Rheonine AL . 


Tero yellow FR 




111 


Rhodamine B extra 


Thioflavine T, TCN 


618 
904 
913 


94 


Rhodamine G . 


Thloindigo brown G 


101 


Rhodamine S 


Thioindigo orange R 


101 


Rhodamine 6G 


Thloindigo pink RN 


104 


Rhodamine 6GDN 


Thioindigo red B 


912 
918 
907 
905 


101 


Rhodamine blue GG, 3G0 


Thioindigo red 3B 


101 


Rhodamine scarlet G 


576 


Thioindigo scarlet 2G 


101 


Rhodamine sky blue 3G 


Thioindigo scarlet R 


101 


Rhoduline orange NO . 


603 


Thional brilliant blue 6BS 


110 


Rhoduline sky blue BB 


Thionine blue Q, GO 


661 
661 


94 


Rhoduline sky blue 3G 




Thionine blue Q old 


94 


Rhoduline vellow T, 6G 


618 


Thionol brown O, R.. 


HO 


Rosanthrene orange R . 


Toluylene fast brown 2R 




110 


Rosanthrene violet 5R 




Toluylene fast brown 3G 




110 


Rosazeine B extra . . 


573 
572 
571 
571 
570 
597 
673 
672 




392 
362 
358 
26 
194 
449 
457 
498 


91 


Rosazeine G extra 


Toluylene orange R 


90 


Rosazeine 6G 




90 


Rosazeine 6GD 




88 
89 


Rosazeine S 


Trident red RXX 


Rose bengale B . 




91 


Rosinduline 2B bluish 


Trisulphon brown GG... . 


91 


Rosinduline GXF 1 


Turquoise blue, BB, Q 


91 



47285— 25t 9 



118 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Name of dye 



Schultz 
No. 



Typophor black FB_.. 

Typophor carmine FB 

Typophor red FQ 

Typophor yellow FR 

Ultra corinth B 

Ultra cyanine RB 

Ultra cyanol B 

Ultra orange R 

Union black S 

Universal blue C 

Universal Bordeaux C 

Universal brovs^n C. 

Universal dark blue C 

Universal dark brown C 

Universal dark green C 

Universal gray C 

Universal heliotrope C 

Universal leather brown C 

Universal light blue C 

Universal olive blue C 

Universal olive brown C. 

Universal scarlet C 

Universal steel blue C 

Universal violet C 

Universal yellow C 

Vat black BB... 

vat blue BCD, BCS 

Vat blue GC, GCN 

Vat blue GCD, GCDN 

vat blue GGSL, GGSP, GGSZ.... 

Vat blueSG (B) 

Vat blue 3G, 3QP, 5Q 

vat blue IQGSNL, IRL 

Vat blue RK 

Vat blue RS, RSP 

vat blue SOT 

Vat Bordeaux B 

Vat Bordeaux B extra 

Vat brilliant orange FR 

Vat brilliant violet BBK 

Vat brilliant violet BR 

Vat brilliant violet R, RK 

vat brilliant violet RR 

Vat brilliant violet RRT.. 

Vat brown G, QG 

Vat brown 3R 

Vat brown R, RT, IR 

Vat corinth R, RK 

Vat dark blue BO 

Vat fast scarlet G 

Vat golden orange G 

Vat golden orange RRT 

Vat golden orange 3G 

Vat golden orange 3R 

Vat gray 3B, BTR, RRH 

Vat gray K, GK, BR 

Vat green BB 

Vat green G, OG _ 

Vat khaki C 



Page 



644 



58 
462 



319 



459 
344 
474 



415 
349 
349 
363 
423 
327 
617 
765 



843 
842 
841 
840 
844 



839 



827 
822 
821 
820 
820 
767 
767 



870 
763 



760 

761 



834 
847 



111 
111 
111 
HI 
106 
94 
106 
88 
91 

no 

90 
110 
91 
90 
91 
110 
110 
110 
91 
90 
90 
90 
91 
90 
94 
96 
104 
99 



98 
99 
105 



103 



97 
97 
97 
96 
96 
105 
105 
100 
100 
96 
103 



105 
105 
105 



105 
104 



Name of dye 



Vat olive R 

Vat orange FR 

Vat orange I 4R, 4R 

Vat orange R, RRK 

Vat orange 6RTK 

Vat orange RRT 

Vat pink AN, BN 

Vat pink B 

Vat printing black BR... 

Vat red FF, R. 

Vat red GG 

Vat red 5G, 5GK 

Vat red R (B)_-_ 

Vat red BN, RK, RKP.. 

VatredSB 

Vat red violet RH 

Vat red violet RRK 

Vat scarlet G... 

Vat violet B 

Vat violet BN 

Vat violet R 

Vat violet for lakes 

Vat yellow G 

Vat yellow GC 

Vat yellow GK 

Vat yellow GP 

Vat yellow 5G 

Vat vellow 6G, 6GD 

Vat yellow RK 

Vat yellow 3RT 

Vesuvine BL, BLX 

Victoria blue B 

Victoria blue R 

Victoria pure blue BO 

Water blue 

Wool black GRF 

Wool black 6B 

Wool black BR 

Wool blue 2B, 5B, G 

Wool brown AF 

Wool fast blue BL 

Wool fast scarlet cone 

W ool fast yellow G 

Wool green S 

Wool violet RC 

Xvlene blue AE, AS 

Xylene blue VS 

Xylene fast green B 

Xylene light yellow 2G.. 

Xylene light yellow R 

Xylene milling blue AE. 
Xylene niilling orange R. 

Xvlene milling red B 

Yellow JG__. 

Zambesi black D, F, V.. 
Zambesi brown 2G, 4R... 

Zambesi pink B extra 

Zambesi red B 



PART IV 

CENSUS OF SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS 

OTHER THAN THOSE OF COAL-TAR 

ORIGIN, 1924 



119 



Part IV 

CENSUS OF SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS OTHER THAN 
THOSE OF COAL-TAR ORIGIN, 1924 

Introduction 

Beginning with 1921 the Tariff Commission has compiled an 
annual census of synthetic organic chemicals other than those of 
coal-tar origin. This census has shown, in all cases where the 
figures could be published without disclosing the operations of the 
individual producer, tiie quantity of production and the amount 
and value of sales. 

As the Bureau of the Census collects data for the more important 
noncoal-tar organic compounds the commission has not attempted 
to collect statistics on such, except on a few compounds where the 
importance of the industry or the conditions appeared to warrant 
a departure from this pfactice. 

The production in 1924 of synthetic organic chemicals other than 
those derived from coal tar was 115,817,865 pounds, compared with 
90,597,712 pounds in 1923. Sales in 1924 amounted to 85,933,461 
pounds, valued at $20,604,717. 

The present report follows the precedent established in 1921 of 
omitting certain types of compounds classifiable in three groups: 
(1) Aliphatic compounds derived from natural sources by isolation, 
distillation, extraction, hydrolysis, or purification. Examples of these 
are alkaloids, constituents of essential oils, sugars, and acids such 
as stearic and tartaric. (2) Cyanides, cyanamides, or carbides of 
metals or of inorganic radicals. (3) Products obtainable from other 
sources. 

Developments in the Industry 

Before the World War the United States produced only a few 
synthetic organic chemicals of noncoal-tar origin. Among those 
manufactured and used in comparatively large quantities were ace- 
tone, chloroform, ether, acetic acid, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, 
amyl acetate, and vanillin. 

During the period from 1914-1924, inclusive, there was a remark- 
able expansion in this branch of the chemical industry. At present 
it supplies our entire requirements of many materials used as pharma- 
ceuticals, disinfectants, perfumes, flavors, rubber accelerators, photo- 
graphic developers, solvents, varnishes, as well as other kinds of 
products. 

Synthetic aromatic chemicals. — The synthetic organic chemicals 
furnish the basic materials for a large number of perfumes and flavors. 
Products of this group made on a comparatively large scale show, 
in general, increased production in 1924. Those made in small 
amounts, and therefore at a higher cost, show a decrease. By con- 
tinued research leading to lower costs of production and to the 
development of new products American manufacturers should be 
able to make further progress in this field of organic chemistry. As 

121 



122 



CENSUS OP DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



in the coal-tar industry, some American producers are gaining 
technical advice and knowledge through their business connections 
with foreign manufacturers. 

Among the S3aithetic aromatic chemicals showing increased pro- 
duction is vanillin, the output of which in 1924 was 320,242 pounds, 
as compared with 269,941 pounds in 1923. wSales in 1924 amounted 
to 301,221 pounds, valued at $1,964,367. Heliotropin also showed 
increased production and sales in 1924, tlie output being 34,436 
pounds, and sales 26,703 pounds, valued at $51,129. Other products 
produced in relatively large amounts and showing increases over 
1923 are aubepine, butyl propionate, ethyl propionate, heptalde- 
hyde, terpinyl acetate, and triacetin. 

Terpineol was produced in smaller quantity in 1924 than in 1923, 
the output in the two years being 295,532 pounds and 322,337 pounds, 
respectively. 

Some of the compounds reported in 1924 but not in 1923 are 
amyl heptoate, ethyl maleate, ethyl myristate, ethyl ricinoleate, 
furyl acetate, and propyl furoate. 

Acetylene derivatives. — Products in this group showing increased 
production in 1924 are aldehyde-ammonia, ifeed as an accelerator in 
the vulcanization of rubber, and acetaldehydes. The production of 
acetylene derivatives is dependent upon a large supply of cheap 
electric power for the manufacture of calcium carbide from limestone 
and coke. From the carbide is generated acetylene, which in turn 
is converted into acetaldehyde in the presence of sulfuric acid and 
mercury salt. Acetaldehyde may be converted into acetic acid by 
oxidation in the presence of a catalyst. Acetaldehyde was formerly 
largely imported, but in 1924 was made in commercial quantities by 
an American company using methods similar to those developed 
during the war at Shawinigan Falls, Canada. 

Acetylene derivatives sliowing decreased production in 1924 are 
aldol and paracetaldehyde. 

The following chart modeled on a chart published in '' Drug and 
Chemical Markets," May 6, 1925, shows some of the derivatives 
that may be made starting with acetylene as the raw material. 



I iiijnthetic j^rndLucte ■made^rcm acetijleng" 

Acefylene 



Acetylene blatl< 



Acefaldehijde Culirens Hydrogen 



A IdehydjB resins 



ParaldLeViyde 



Aoe+io acidL 



Methyl acetate FormaldehydLe 



Aldol 



E+hyl acetate 



AlcLehyde ammonia. 



Metald.ehijde 



Fumol Cro+onaidehijde 



ET-thylidene cLiacetate 



Acetone 



Acetic anhydride Vinyl acetate 



Crotonicacid Butyraldehijd£ 

Ethyl crotonate Butyric acid. 



NONCOAL TAR SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS 



123 



Butanol. — The domestic manufacture of butanol by the fermenta- 
tion of corn is the direct result of a war shortage of acetone needed as 
a solvent for both nitrocellulose and cellulose acetate. From one 
bushel of corn approximately 10-14 pounds of combined solvents 
are obtained in the proportion of 60 per cent butanol, 30 per cent 
acetone, and 10 per cent ethyl alcohol. Butanol is used as a solvent 
and vehicle in the varnish, paint, and pyroxylin industries. Butyl 
acetate, manufactured from butanol, is used in large amounts as a 
solvent for pyroxylin plastics. 

Butanol is reported to be manufactured in the United States 
by a process using acetylene as the raw material. The production 
of butanol, acetone, and ethyl alcohol in 1923 and 1924 by the 
Commercial Solvents Corporation is shown in the following table: 

Table 31. — Production of butanol and other solverits by the Commercial Solvents 

Corporation 

[From Boston News Bureau, February 14, 1925] 



Butanol 



Acetone 



Ethyl 
alcohol 



1923 

First quarter -.. 

Second quarter 

Third quarter - - 

Fourth quarter 

Total 

1924 

First quarter 

Second quarter 

Third quarter 

Fourth quarter 

Total 



Pounds 
1,056,025 
1, 293, 434 
1,031,705 
1, 232, 232 



Pounds 
385, 146 
527, 533 
366, 640 
691, 061 



Pounds 
304, 616 
306, 624 
385, 658 
202, 762 



4,613,396 ' 1,970,380 



1, 199, 650 



3, 924, 491 
2, 490, 517 
1,764,903 
6, 070, 151 



14, 250, 062 



1, 775, 954 
1, 129, 375 
1,017,555 
3, 206, 695 



436, 179 

420, 043 

561,272 

1, 105, 032 



7, 129, 579 



2, 522, 526 



Chlorine derivatives. — A chlorine compound showing increased 
production in 1924 was carbon tetrachloride, the output of which 
was 14,275,057 pounds, with sales of 11,698,694 pounds, valued at 
$757,007. The production of this compound in 1923 was 13,513,644 
pounds. The output of chloroform was 1,301,492 pounds, with sales 
of 1,171,699 pounds, valued at $316,297. Both sales and production 
of chloroform declined from the 1923 figures. The production of 
ethyl chloride was 851,303 pounds with sales of 826,737 pounds, 
valued at $181,161. 

The following chlorine compounds were also produced in 1924, 
but neither production nor sales figures are publishable. 

Trichloroethylene . 
Dichloromethane. 
s-Tetrachloroethane. 
Chlorodimethyl ether. 
Ethyl chorocarbonate. 
Ethylene chloride. 
Dichloroacetic acid. 
Ethyl chloroacetate. 
Trichloroethane . 
Pentachloroethane. 
Propylene chlorohydrin. 



1. 


Chloracetic acid. 


11. 


2. 


Chloral hydrate. 


12. 


3. 


Methyl chloride. 


13. 


4. 


Hexachloroethane. 


14. 


5. 


Ethylene chlorohvdrin. 


15. 


6. 


Chloretone (trichlorotertiarybutyl 


16. 




alcohol). 


17. 


7. 


Ethylene dichloride. 


18. 


8. 


Tetrachloroethylene. 


19. 


9. 


Ethyl monochloracetate. 


20. 


10. 


Trichloroacetic acid. 


21. 



124 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

Compounds of the above list for which production was reported 
in 1924 but not in 1923 are trichloroacetic acid, ethyl chlorocarbonate, 
and trichloroethane. 

Petroleum derivatives. — By cracking methods carried out under very 
exacting conditions, and in the presence of a catalyzer, it is possible 
to obtain unsaturated hydrocarbons from which secondary propyl, 
butyl, amyl, and hex}'! alcohols can be prepared. In addition to the 
alcohols, the higher molecular weight ketones are also obtained. The 
synthetic alcohols produced by the cracking of petroleum are second- 
ary and tertiary alcohols, in contradistinction to the fermented 
alcohols which are primarj'. Increased commercial production of 
these products is expected within the year. 

Esters. — Synthetics of this chemical classification showing large 
production, are: (1) Ethyl acetate the output of which in 1924 was 
27,222,761 pounds, with "'sales of 19,304,384 pounds, valued at $2,- 
399,943. (2) Butyl acetate the production of which was 7,095,662 
pounds in 1924, as"^ compared with 1,816,086 pounds in 1923. The 
unit sales price of butyl acetate declined from 43 cents in 1923 to 31 
cents in 1924. (3) Amyl acetate with a production of 1,514,123 
pounds in 1924, as compared with 3,207,022 pounds in 1923. The 
unit sales price of amyl acetate declined from 55 cents in 1923 to 
42 cents in 1924. Butyl acetate and other esters are important 
solvents in the production of pyroxylyn plastics and in the varnish 
industry. These plastic materials and solvent varnishes are used in 
very large quantities hj automobile manufacturers. 

Formaldehyde and Jiexamethylenetetramine.- — -The production of 
formaldehyde in 1924 was 26,155,175 pounds and the sales 20,- 
542,428 pounds, valued at $1,971,053. The largest use of formalde- 
hyde is probably in the manufacture of synthetic phenolic resins. 
The production of hexamethvlenetetramine in 1924 was 1,288,034 
pounds, and sales were 1,274,601 pounds, valued at S932,217. The 
largest use of hexamethylenetetramine is as an accelerator in rubber 
manufacture. Small quantities are used in medicinals. 

Pharmaceuticals. — ^ Chief among the chemicals in this group show- 
ing large production in 1924 is ethyl ether, with a production of 
5,314,928 pounds, and sales amounting to 4,678,474 pounds, valued 
at $1,226,794. Its largest use is probably as a solvent, but consider- 
able quantities are used as an anaesthetic. Other medicinals show- 
ing an increase in production in 1924 over 1923 are chloral hydrate, 
glycerophosphoric acid and salts, terpin hj'drate, iodobehenic acid 
and its calcimn and uon basic compounds. 

Medicinals showing a decrease in production from 1923 are chaul- 
moogric ester and heroin. The latter compound, however, showed 
an increase in sales, the total sales in 1924 amounting to 1,046 
pounds, valued at $181,087, as compared with 1,000 pounds, valued 
at $118,433 in 1923. 

Medicinals reported in 1924 but not in 1923 are amytal (isoamyl- 
ethylbarbituric acid) and isomenthol. The production of isomenthol 
is one of the achievements of the year, for in the past this country has 
been dependent upon imports of natural menthol from Japan, 
American peppermint oil being too high priced to use in menthol 
manufacture. 

Tetraethyl lead. — This product, reported for the first time in 1923, 
shows a large increase in output in 1924. From July, 1924, up to 



NONCOAL TAK SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS 125 

the time its manufacture was discontinued in May, 1925, the pro- 
duction of tetraethyl lead was reported to be one and three-fourths 
million pounds.^ 

This compound decreases the reaction velocity of gasoline combus- 
tion, which in turn reduces the "knock" of the engine in operation 
and thereby makes it possible to use engines of a higher compression 
ratio with a consequent increase in the mileage per gallon of gaso- 
line consumed. Ethyl gasoline is ordinary gasoline which contains 
about 0.06 per cent of tetraethyl lead and 0.04 per cent of ethylene 
dibromide (a halogen carrier) by volume. 

The use of compounds which reduce the consumption of motor 
fuel per mile and permit the design and operation of more efficient 
engines will undoubtedly increase in the future. The general distribu- 
tion of ethyl gasoline to the public was discontinued early in May, 
1925, until a time when the question of the health hazard involved in 
its use is determined. A conference called for this purpose in Wash- 
ington, May 20, 1925, under the direction of the Surgeon General of 
the Public Health Service, adopted a resolution authorizing the Sur- 
geon General to appoint a committee to investigate and report upon 
its findings as to the health hazard involved in the use oi this lead 
compound. 

Investigation of Oxalic Acid and Barbital (Diethylbarbi- 
TURic Acid) Under Section 315 

Oxalic acid.— The investigation by the Tariff Commission of the 
foreign and domestic costs of production of oxalic acid was com- 
pleted in 1924 and the President issued a proclamation December 
29, 1924, under the provisions of section 315 of the tariff act of 1922 
increasing the duty on oxalic acid from 4 cents per pound to 6 cents 
per pound, the maximum increase permissible within the limits of 
section 315 of the tariff act of 1922. It had been found that the 
differences in costs of production in the United States and Germany, 
the principal competing country, were greater than the duty of 4 
cents a pound and slightly greater than the maximum duty permis- 
sible under section 315, namely, 6 cents a pound. 

Oxalic acid is used chiefly in laundries as an acid rinse, and to a 
lesser extent in the dyeing and printing of textiles. Prior to the 
war it was produced by only one domestic concern, the maximum 
output being 2,000,000 pounds a year manufactured by the sawdust 
and caustic potash process. During the war the synthetic process 
(sodium formate process), which had been previously developed in 
Germany, was adopted and commercial production is now carried on 
by this process in the United States as well as in foreign countries. 

The production of oxalic acid in 1924 shows a small increase over 
1923. Sales increased in quantity in 1924 but decreased in value 
from 1923 because of the decline in the price per pound. 

Barbital (diethylharhituric acid). — The investigation by the Tariff 
Commission of the foreign and domestic costs of production of 
diethylbarbituric acid and its salts and compounds was completed 
in 1924, and the President issued a proclamation November 14, 1924, 
under the provisions of section 315 of the tariff act of 1922 changing 

> statement made at a conference in Washington, May 20, 1925, under the direction of the Surgeon 
General of the United States. 

47285— 25t 10 



126 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

the basis of assessment from the foreign market value to the American 
selhng price. The investigation had disclosed the fact that the 
differences in costs of production in the United States and Switzerland, 
the principal competing country, could not be equalized by increasing 
the duty 50 per cent of the existing ad valorem rate of 25 per cent 
based upon the foreign valuation, in which case the law provides that 
the duty shall be based upon the American selling price. 

Barbital and its salts and compounds are widely used hypnotics. 
Barbital was not produced in the United States prior to the World 
War. The 1924 production and sales of diethylbarbituric acid showed 
a decline from 1923. 

Foreign Developments 

Methanol. — One of the outstanding developments in the field of 
synthetic organic chemistry in recent years is Germany's commercial 
production of methanol in 1924. The United States with its large 
wood-distillation industry has in the past produced and exported 
large quantities of methanol, but in February, 1925, 62,971 gallons, 
valued at $29,420; in March, 59,894 gallons, valued at $26,976; and 
in April, 9,012 gallons, valued at $5,201, were imported into this 
country. It has been predicted that increased imports will force 
many wood distillation plants to close and others to operate on a 
reduced scale. In 1923 the wood-distillation industry oi the United 
States employed 4,685 persons, and its production was valued at 
$29,695,423. In 1919 the capital investment in the wood-distillation 
industry, as reported by the Bureau of the Census, was $42,334,503. 
Synthetic methanol is made in Germany from carbon monoxide and 
hydrogen under pressure, using zinc oxide as a catalyst. The 
quality of the product is equal to the best grades produced by wood 
distillation. 

Butyl alcohol. — Considerable amounts of normal butyl alcohol are 
now being made in Germany by a catalytic process. In January 
and February, 1925, imports totaled 365,737 pounds, valued at 
$76,770. The imported butyl alcohol competes with domestic butyl 
alcohol made by fermentation. 

Glass substitute.'^ — This material under the trade name ''PoUopas," 
is a condensation product of urea and formaldehyde. It was de- 
scribed by its inventor, before the Union of Austrian Chemists, as 
being colorless, transparent, capable of being cut and polished, more 
resistant than glass against breakage, and suitable for lenses, auto- 
mobile shields, lamp shades, and many other objects. 

1 Cliemiker Zeitung, August 14 and 20, 1924. 



NONCOAL TAR SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS 



127 



Table 32. — Production and sales of synthetic organic chemicals, 192^ 

(Not derived from coal tar) 

[The numbers in the second column refer to the numbered alphabetical list of manufacturers printed on 
page 211. An X indicates that the manufacturer did not consent to the publication of his nrme in con- 
nection with the particular product. A blank in the third and fourth columns indicates that these sales 
can not he published without revealing information in regard to the sales of individual firms. A blank 
in the sixth column indicates that the production can not be published without revealing information 
in regard to the output of individual firms. The details thus withheld are, however, included in the 
totals] 





Manufacturers' iden- 
tification number 
according to list on 
p. 211 


Sales 




Name 


Quantity 


Value 


Average ' 

price per 

pound 


Total 
production 


Total 




Pounds 
85, 933, 461 


$20, 604, 717 


$0.24 


Pounds 

115,817,865 




31,70, 108, 150 


278, 967 




66 












177 












150 










Aldol " (Acetaldol) (b-Hydrosy- 


31 










butyraldehyde) . 
Allvl alcohol -- - 


195 


_ 










195 - - - -- 










195 












195 . 












195 












35 












195 










Alphozone (disuccinyl peroxide) 


164 










183 










Amyl acetate and sec. amyl 
acetate. 

Amyl alcohol and sec. amyl 
alcohol. 


11, 60, 70, 74, 98, 107, 
131, 177, 179, 191, X, 
X X. 

74, 98, 151, 177, X, X 


954, 589 


399,411 


.42 


1, 514, 123 
149, 654 


74 










146 












74 












70 










Amytal Cisoamylethylbarbituric 
acid). 


105 










70 












74 . 










Aubepine (anisaldehyde) 

Barbital (veronal) (diethylbar- 
bituric acid). 


26. 27, 70, 73, 93, 166, 178. 
1,17 


8,676 


28,599 


3.30 


9,878 


17 












129 










Bronietone (tribromotertiarybu- 


X 










tyl alcohol). 


108 












17 . 










Butanol (n-butyl alcohol) 

Butyl acetate (n and sec.).. 


X 




1 




11, 60, 66, 70, 74, 98, 
107,120,177,179,191, 
X, X. 

X 


2, 171, 354 


674, 378 


.31 


7, 095, 662 




31 












66 . 












146 












66 












188 X 












X 












131, X 












108 












66,70,108,131 


675 
11, 698, 694 


2,344 
757, 007 


3.47 
.07 


902 




59, 130a, 186 


14, 275, 057 




17 




Chloral hvdrate 


116, X 










Chloretone (trichlorotertiarybu- 

tyl alcohol) . 
Chloroacetic acid (mono) 


X 










59 60 - ... 










20, 25, 59, X 


1, 171, 669 


316, 297 


.27 


1, 301, 492 




17 






70 












70 












70 












172 










Citronellol 


70, 93, 180 


536 


3,526 


6.58 


766 




26, 70, 166 


95 


Crotonicacid 


31 






:::::::::: 





128 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

Table 32. — Production and sales of synthetic organic chemicals, 1924 — Continued 





Manufacturers' iden- 
tification number 
according to list on 
p. 211 


Sales 




Name 


Quantity 


Value 


Average 

price per 

pound 


Total 
production 


Cyanacetic acid sodium salt. . 


17.... 


Pounds 






Pounds 


Decyl alcohol.. 


70 .. 










Decyl aldehyde •_. 


70 










Dibromin (dibromomalonylure- 


X.. 










ide). 
Dibromobehenate of calcium .. 


17 










n-Dibutyl:imine 


1 










Dichloroacetic acid. 


59 










Dichloroethvlether. . 


31 










Dichlorornethane. . 


59 










Dichloropentanole.. 


17 










Diethanolamine... 


31 










Diethylacetic acid 


17 










Diethylamine. (See Interme- 
diates.) 

b-Diethylaminoethyl alcohol. 
(See Intermediates.) 

Diethylbromoacetvl bromide . 


17 










Diethyl malonate (malonic ester). 

Diethyl sulfate. . 


1, 17, 167 




1 " 


41,477 


31.... 










Dihydrovanillone.. 


70 










Dihydroxycitronnellic ketone 


70.. 










Diiodohydroxypropane 


17 . 










Dihydroxytartaric acid 


29, 141... 










Dimethylamine. (See interme- 
diates.) 
Dimethylelyoxime 


66 










1:3-Diinethylxanthine sodium 


17 










acetate. 
Duodecvl alcohol 


70... 










Duodecyl aldehyde 


70 










Erucic acid 


17 










Ethanolamine... 


31 










Ethhydroxy acetic acid 


17 




[ 




Ethyl acetate (85 per cent) 

Ethyl acetoacetate 


11, 60, 70, 71, 107, 120, 
177, 179, 180, 191, X, 
X. 

177 


19, 304, 384 


$2, 399, 943 


$0.12 


27, 222, 761 


Ethyl bromide- 


17, 59, 60, 108, 192 










Ethyl butyrate.. 


27, 74, 131, 177, 180, X, 

X, X. 
177 










Ethyl carbonate... . 










Ethyl chloride. 


59, 73, 78, 108, 150, 177, 

X, X, X. 
59 


826, 737 


181, 161 


.22 


851, 303 


Ethyl chloroacetate 




Ethyl chlorocarbonate 


177... 










Ethyl ether (U. S. P. and tech- 
nical). 
Ethyl formate. 


60, 108, 111, 143, 163, 
177, 191, X. 

70. 108, 131, 177, X 

146 


4,678,474 
1,767 


1, 226, 794 
1,231 


.26 
.70 


5,314,928 
1,664 


Ethyl furoate.. 




Ethyl glvcolic acid ester of 


17. 










menthol. 
Ethvl iodide... 


66, 108, 116, 143, 167...- 
74 


163 


932 


5.72 


371 


Ethyl isobutyrate.. 




Ethyl iso valerate 


70, 74, 131, X 








392 


Ethyl lactate.. 


70, 74, 177 .. .. 








Ethyl laurate... 


70, 74 L. 








Ethyl maleate 


177. 1 








Ethyl malonate (mono) 


1, 70... !. 








Ethyl monoehloroacetate 


59, 177 ...| 








Ethvl mvristate 


74. . ! 








Ethyl nitrite . . 


108, 143, 191, X 

70, 131, 180, X 


34, 325 
4, 220 


26, 322 
7,176 


.77 
1.70 


31,877 


Ethyl oenanthate 


4,508 


Ethyl oxalate... 


70,177 




Ethvl pelargonate 


27,70,X . . .. 








561 


Ethyl propionate 


70, 180,X,X 


725 


1,450 


2.00 




Ethvl ricinoleate 


74 




Ethyl n-valerate 


70,X 








Ethylene. 


177 








Ethylene bromide 


108 1 








Ethylene chloride 


59' . 1 








Ethylene chlorohydrin 


31, 59 








Ethylene diamine 


31 








Ethylene dibromide 


59 










Ethylene dichloride 


31,59 










Ethyleneglycol 


31 










Ethylene oxide 


31 1 









XONCOAL TAR SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS 129 

Table 32. — Production and sales of synthetic organic chemicals, 1924 — Continued 





Manufacturers' iden- 
tification number 
according to list on 
p. 211 


Sales 




Name 


Quantity 


Value 


Average 

price per 

pound 


Total 
production 


Eugenol 


74 -- -. 


Pounds 






Pounds 


Formaldehyde 


55, 87, 132, 150, X 

182... 


20,542,428 


$1,971,053 


$0.10 


26 155, 175 


Formic acid (65 per cent) 




Furfural 


146 








Furfuramide - 


146 










Furfuran (furan) 


146 










Furfurin 


146 










Furoic acid- 


146 










Furyl acetate 


146 








Furyl alcohol 


146 i 








Gallic acid 


66,108,194 








550, 378 


Geranyl acetate 


26, 70, 93, 166, X 

70,93 


325 


1,775 


5.46 


Geranyl butyrate. 




Geranyl formate 


70,93,166. 










Geranyl propionate 


70 










Glycerol acetate 


98 










Glycerol diacetate - 


73 










Qlycerophosphoric acid and salts 


132, X 










Glycol diacetate 


31 










Quaiacol acetate. 


70 — 










Guanidine sulfate 


17 












26,70,73 


26, 703 


51, 129 


1.92 


34, 43& 


Heptadecvl aldehyde 


70 - 


Heptaldehyde 


70,74,125 










Heptaldehyde ammonia 


X 










Heptoic acid.. 


74 












66,70 










Hepty lideneeth vlamine 


X - 










Heroin (diacetylmorphine) 


108,128,143... 


1,046 


181,087 


i73. 12 


848 


Hexachloroethane 


59 




Hexadecyl alcohol 


70.. 










Hexadecyl aldehyde 


70 












70 .- 










Hexamethylenete tramine 


87,132,150 


1, 274, 601 


932, 217 


.73 


1, 288, 034 


Hexamethylenetetramineanhy- 


17 




dromethylenecitrate. 
Hydroxy citronellal . 


172 












17 










lodobehenate of iron basic 


17 










lodobehenic acid 


17 












108,116,128,143 

70, 114, 180, X.. 


12,500 


68,658 


5.49 




louone 


17, 995 




27, 70, 74, 131, 177, X, X 
70 


7,411 


9,913 


1.34 


7,284 


Isoamvl formate 




Isoam vl isovalerate 


70, 74, 131, X 


620 


1,510 


2.44 


764 


Isoamyl nitrite . .... 


108 .... 






70, 74, 131, 177 


98 


185 


1.89 


113 


Isobutyl alcohol 


177 




Isobutvl butyrate 


70, 74 .. 










Isobutyl n-butyrate.. . . . . . 


177 .... 












70 










Isobutyl isobutyrate.. 


74 










Isobutyl propionate . . 


70, 177..- . . 










Iso butyraldehvde . . . 


70 








Isobutyric acid 


74 










Isoeugenol 


27, 70, 74, 93, 181 .. . 










Isomenthol . . . . . . 


128 












70,177 










Isopropanol (isopropyl alcohol).. 


31, 177, 195, X.. .' 










Isovaleric acid 


74, 131 










Jasmone ketone ..... 


70 










Lactic acid 


183 










Linalyl acetate 


70, 93, 166, 178 


463 


3,661 


7.91 


461 




70 




Linalyl formate . 


70, 166, 178 


11 


126 


11.45 


19 




70 






70 










Methyl acetate 


74, 177, 191. ..... 












70, 177 










Methyl chloride 


150 












70, 166 












177 










Methvl furoate 


146 ... 












166 












70 










Methyl oxalate 


70 








-•••>-•••••* 



130 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

Table 32. — Production and sales of synthetic organic chemicals, 1924 — Continued 





Manufacturers' iden- 
tification number 
according to list on 
p. 211 


Sales 




Name 


Quantity 


Value 


Average 

price per 

pound 


Total 
production 




70 


Pounds 






Pounds 


Methyl sulfate 


X 












17. . 












180 1 










70 












70.. 












70 












70 












70 












70, 178 












166 . - 







n-Octvl alcohol (capryl alcohol). - 


70 










70 










70, 93... 












166 












134, 182 ." 












31, 101 .. 












87, 150 -. 




,• 








31 












35 










Piperonone (plperinic ketone)... 


70 










70 












70 












X 




:::::::::::: 






70, 177 












177, 195 












146 












70 . 












70 












31 












31 










Pyrogallol (pyrogallic acid) 


66, 108, 194. 








238, 587 


29 












66,161 










Rhodinol . 


70,93, 166, 178, 180, X. 
70, 166 


1,869 


$34,443 


$18. 43 


3,779 






Rhodinyl butyrate 


70 










Rhodinvl formate.- . 


166 










74 . 










108, X 








Tannigen (tannyl acetate) (ace- 


17 










tic acid ester of tannic acid) . 


26, 129, 178, X 








295, 532 




143, 181 










Terpinvl acetate 


26,70,74,93, 166, 178, X. 
70 


12, 905 


16, 964 


1.32 


15,068 








59 












31, 59 












70 












70. 












70 










Tetraethyl lead 


60, 163 












74,98, 177, X 












59 












59 












31, 59 












31 










ride. 


X 










Triniethylene bromide 


1 












66, X 












70 












70 










Vanillin 


26,73,74, 114, 181, X.. 
70 


301, 221 


1,964,367 


6.52 


320, 242 








X 























NONCOAL TAR SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS 



131 



Table 33. — -Comparison of production of synthetic organic chemicals, 1923 and 

1934 



Name 



Amyl acetate 

Butyl acetate 

Carbon tetrachloride 

Chloroform 

Citronellyl acetate - 

Ethyl acetate (85 per cent) 

Ethyl chloride 

Ethyl ether 

Ethyl formate.- 

Ethyl nitrate 

Ethyl oenanthate 

Ethyl pelargonate 



1923 



Pounds 

3, 207, 022 

1, 816, 086 

13, 513, 644 

1, 585, 250 

99 

25, 887, 720 

270, 180 

5, 104, 157 

1,958 

35, 140 

3,476 

823 



1924 



Pounds 

1, 514, 123 

7, 095, 662 

14, 275, 057 

1, 301, 492 

95 

27, 222, 761 

851, 303 

5, 314, 928 

1,664 

31, 877 

4,508 

561 



Name 



Formaldehyde 

Gallic acid 

Heliotropin 

lonone. 

Isoamyl butyrate. 

Linalyl acetate 

Pyrogallol 

Rhodinol 

Terpineol... 

Terpinyl acetate.. 
I Vanillin. 



1923 



Pounds 


Pounds 


4, 081, 188 


26, 155, 175 


469, 941 


550, 378 


11,696 


34, 436 


23, 255 


17, 995 


9,733 


7,284 


238 


451 


235, 389 


238, 587 


5,729 


3,779 


322, 337 


295, 532 


13, 638 


15, 068 


269, 941 


320, 242 



Table 34. — Imports and production of certain synthetic organic chemicals (non- 
coal tar) 1923 and 1924 



Name 



Acetaldehyde 

Paracetaldehyde 

Aldehyde ammonia 

Chloral hydrate 

Formaldehyde solution (not more than 

40 per cent) 

Hexamethylenetetramine 

Acetic or pyroligenous acid, containing 
by weight not more than 65 per cent 

acetic acid 

More than 65 per cent acetic acid.. . 

Formic acid 

Gallic acid 

Lactic acid, containing by weight 55 

per cent or more of lactic acid 

Oxalic acid 

Pyrogallic acid.. 

Butyl alcohol 

Methanol. 

Carbon tetrachloride 

Chloroform 

Glycerophosphoric, and salts and com- 
pounds 

Ethers and esters: 

Containing not more than 10 per 
cent alcohol — 

Ethyl ether 

Ethyl chloride.. 

Amyl acetate 

Amyl nitrite 

Ethyl acetate 

Other, n. s. p. f 

Containing more than 50 per cent 

alcohol 

Tetrachloroethane 

Trichloroethylene 

Urea 

Thymol-... 

Vanillin 



Imports 



Pounds 



163, 913 

363, 752 

25 

6,135 

166 
47,373 



37, 052 
664, 034 

1, 282, 004 

6,048 

66, 648 

2, 621, 302 

342 

969, 112 

3 15, 786 

1,429 

381 

28, 265 



103 
9,519 
26, 418 
56 
27, 202 
11,448 

668 

429, 303 

198, 522 

47,711 

12, 136 



Value 



Produc- 
tion 



Pounds 



$26, 338 

63, 593 

13 

1,819 

67 
24, 722 



4,758 
79, 553 
96, 174 

2,743 

16, 056 

206, 100 

417 

186, 352 

12, 573 

130 

133 

38,100 



75 
11,899 
9,612 
114 
11, 664 
6,458 

1,436 



24, 081, 188 
1, 381, 073 



184,888,000 
225, 972, 000 



469, 941 



235, 389 



3 8, 593, 727 

13, 513, 644 

1, 585, 250 



5, 104, 157 

270, 180 

3, 207, 022 



1924 



Imports 



Pounds 



132, 344 

680, 870 

20 

1 



3,826 



371, 732 
1, 202, 525 
1, 532, 798 



75, 018 

3, 135, 664 

11 

404, 882 

3 448 



5,898 
27,067 



25, 887, 720 



20, 130 
9,701 



269,941 



45,280 



73 
13, 016 



253 
15, 892 

22 

216, 585 

254, 743 

94, 307 

13, 695 



Produc- 
tion 



Value Pounds 



$22,493 I 278,967 

120,346 

8 ■ 

5 i 



26,155,175 

3, 998 1, 288, 034 



27, 080 
143,904 
121, 431 



17, 523 
177, 641 

21 
97, 861 

29 



550,-378 



238, 587 



101 
57, 440 



109 
16, 626 



3 6, 897, 589 

14, 275, 057 

1,301,492 



39 
8,438 

103 
7,079 
9,958 
12, 891 
34, 424 



5, 314, 928 

851, 303 

1,514,123 



27, 222, 761 



320, 242 



' Dilute acetic acid. 

2 Glacial and anhydride. 

3 Gallons. 

' Imports from January-April, 1925: 

January 40 gallons. 

February 62,971 do... 

March 59,894 do... 

April 9,012 do... 

May 115,120 do.. 



29, 420. 

26, 976 

5,201. 

52, 917. 



PART V 
INTERNATIONAL DYE TRADE 



133 



. 



Part V 
INTERNATIONAL DYE TRADE 

Summary of World's Production and Trade J 

PRE-WAR SITUATION 

Before the war Germany dominated the world's dye trade, for she 
produced not only three-fourths of all synthetic dyes made but also 
the intermediates from which more than half the d^^es in other coun- 
tries were manufactured. It may therefore be said that nearly 
nine-tenths of the world's dye production was controlled by Germany. 
Switzerland, although without raw materials, ranked second as a dye 
producer, the value of her exports in 1913 being about one-tenth those 
of Germany. Great Britain, while possessing an abundant supply of 
coal-tar crudes and heavy chemicals, produced only one-tenth of her 
requirements. In the manufacture of alizarin and sulphur black, 
however, British dye makers before the war held a position that 
enabled them to enter into national conventions with the Germans. 

French-owned and operated dye plants produced about one-tenth 
of the consumption of France. In order to meet the patent require- 
ments of France and Great Britain, German dye concerns operated 
plants in those two countries for the final assembling of intermediates 
produced in Germany, gaining in France thereby the advantage of 
the tariff preferential for products made in France and exported to 
the French colonies. In the United States the pre-war dye industry 
was far from self-contained. Dyes were assembled almost entirely 
from imported intermediates originating chiefly in Germany. 

INCREASE IN PRODUCTIVE CAPACITY • 

During the war and following the exhaustion of the German stocks 
on hand in the various dye-consuming countries, there arose an acute 
d3^e shortage, threatening the operations of the textile industries and 
other domestic industries dependent upon dyes. This situation soon 
resulted in unprecedented dye prices, and many colors were not 
obtainable at any price. Ultimately it led to the establishment of the 
manufacture of intermediates and dyes on a large scale in the United 
States, Great Britain, and France, and on a smaller scale in Italy and 
Japan, and to the expansion of the established industry in wSwitzer- 
land. Poland, Czechoslovakia, Holland, Sweden, and Spain manu- 
facture dyes, but their output can hardly be considered important in 
the international dye trade. 

The following table shows the production of coal-tar dyes in the 
principal producing countries from 1920 to 1924, inclusive. 

135 



136 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

Table 35. — Production of dyes by the chief producing countries, 1920-1924 



Country 



Germany i 

United States 2. 
Great Britain '. 
Switzerland *... 

France ' 

Italy 6 

Japan ' 



1924 



Pounds 
159,549.096 
68, 679, 000 



21, 000, 000 
33, 020, 499 



1923 



Pounds 
144, 859, 572 
93, 667, 524 



20, 000, 000 
24. 180, 052 



13, 457, 735 



Pounds 
192, 806, 564 
64, 632. 187 
21, 000. 000 
18, 000, 000 
17, 782, 303 
10, 812, 824 



Pounds 
116,442,116 
39, 008, 690 



12, 000, 000 
12, 938, 797 
7, 918, 972 
12, 606, 452 



1920 



Pounds 

103, 368, 804 

88, 263, 776 

45. 000, 000 

26, 000, 000 

15, 555, 657 

4, 458, 692 

8, 016, 879 



1 From the monthly reports containing the one-quarter monthly German production of dyes made to the 
Reparation Commission. These reports covered the period February, 1920, to December, 1924, inclusive. 

2 From annual Census of Dyes and Other Synthetic Organic Chemicals, by United States Tariff Commis- 
sion. 

2 Estimates for year 1920, Report on Dyes and Dyestufls subcommittee appointed by the Standing 
Committee on Trusts, printed and published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1921. 

* Production figures are calculated on the basis that the home market consumes 10 per cent of the output 
of Swiss dyes; exports consequently equal 90 per cent of the production. 

5 L' Industrie Chimique April, 1924. Does not include output of Swiss plant at St. Fous. 

6 Trade Information Bulletin No. HSi, Department of Commerce. 
' Trade Information Bulletin No. 217, Department of Commerce. 

As a result of this phenomenal development during and shortly 
after the war, the existing capacity of the world's synthetic dye plants 
is estimated to exceed 600,000,000 pounds per year, or nearly double 
the pre-war capacity.^ In consequence of this excess capacity an era 
of competition has set in in the international markets as well as in 
certain of the home markets, and this abihty to produce beyond 
normal requirements can not fail to eliminate many of the plants 
now manufacturing dyes. The finding of a market for its output 
is a problem of vital interest to every nation possessing a dye industry. 

The dye industries of all countries operated in 1924 far below their 
capacity. This means not only higher costs of production but that 
many firms will cease to compete in the international dye trade and 
that many of the higher-cost firms operating exclusively within the 
home markets of the new producing nations will entirely cease pro- 
duction. It is therefore probable that within the next 5 or 10 years 
there will be a gradual reduction in potential world production, wliich 
is now nearly double the pre-war figure, to proportions nearer meeting 
normal requirements. It is not probable, however, that there will 
be a return to pre-war capacity because of the sentiment for a home 
industry of sufficient size to insure national security. 

Germany's export trade 

To what extent has Germany's dominant place in the world's 
dye trade been affected by remarkable expansion of dye production 
in other countries? A comparison of exports of German dyes in post- 
war years with those in 1913 may throw some light on this question. 
In 1924, when the effect of the Ruhr occupation may be said to have 
disappeared, total exports were 25 per cent by quantity and 60 per 
cent by value of the 1913 figure. The disproportionate value in 1924 
may be largely accounted for by the fact that Germany is supplying 
many of the higher-cost specialties not produced in most of the other 
countries. The price levels for such products are generally far 
above the 1913 levels. 



I The Census of Dyes, 1923, p. 124, contained a tabulation of the estimated capacity of each of the prin- 
cipal dye-producing nations. 



WORLD S PRODUCTION AND TRADE 137 

Table 36. — Exports of coal-tar dyes from Germany, 1913 and 1920-1924 



Year 


Pounds 


Value 


1913 


239, 598, 133 
61, 140, 171 
48, 304, 991 

115,974,900 
73, 974, 473 
61,033,911 


$51, 666, 168 


1920 - 


53, 002, 407 


1921 1 .- 


15, 935, 585 


1922 


80, 781, 892 


1923 


41, 580, 742 


1924 - - --- 


30, 933, 368 









1 May to December. 

The 1924 export of synthetic dyes from Germany— 61,033,911 
pounds — represents a 17 per cent decrease in quantity from the 
previous year. The reduction may be attributed to the estabhsh- 
ment of industries in United States, Great Britain, France, Italy, and 
Japan. These countries have not only supplied a large part of their 
own requirements, but several of them have exported indigo, sulphur 
black, and other dyes to Far East markets with the net result that 
Germany has lost a part of her dye trade in nonproducing countries 
where her former supremacy was unquestioned. 

The decline in the German export trade in dyes has been in part 
offset by the development of several noncoal-tar products, chief of 
which are synthetic nitrogen derivatives. Progress in this phase of 
the industry tends to make up for a temporary loss in her export 
trade. 

There is little likelihood that Germany will ever regain her former 
position of almost complete control of the world's dye trade. Espe- 
ciall}^ hard will it be for her to recover the markets of Great Britain, 
the United States^ and France, 

The declared policy of the new dye-producing countries to retain 
at least the nucleus of a dye industry in order to supply the bulk 
dyes in time of peace as well as in time of emergency and the relation 
of the dye industry to national security in the event of war are obsta- 
cles to a return to the pre-war status. 

There is no doubt, however, of Germany's determination to recover 
as large a part of her former markets as is possible, even at a high 
cost and over a lon^ period of time. To-day the vast markets of 
the Far East, namely, China and Japan, as well as India, South 
America, and Russia, are again very largely dominated by German 
products. In addition there are many countries which, although 
consuming small quantities individually, are in the aggregate an 
important factor in maintaining the German dye industry. As a net 
result Germany has to-day a large share of the consuming markets 
which are not producers of dyes. 

EXPORTS FROM PRODUCING COUNTRIES 

Comparing exports of coal-tar dyes from the principal producing 
countries, as sho^^^l in Table 37, it will be seen that in 1924 Germany 
was by far the largest exporting nation. Switzerland ranked second; 
the United States was a close third; Great Britain and France, 
with about equal quantities, ranked next. 



138 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

Table 37. — Exports of coal-tar dyes from chief producing countries, 1913, 1921-1024 



Exported from — 



1913 



Pounds 



Value 



1921 



Pounds 



Value 



Germany 

United States. 
Great Britain. 
Switzerland... 

France 

Italy.... 



239, 598, 133 



$51, 689, 400 



1 48, 304, 991 



5, 451, 376 

19, 458, 902 

1, 152, 134 

117, 725 



862, 566 

5, 549, 752 

275,716 

22, 458 



7, 621, 600 

10, 779, 612 

5,947,131 

607, 812 



1 $15, 935, 585 

2 6,270,139 

5, 033, 828 

11,054,516 

1,608,308 

274, 128 



Exported from- 



Germany 

United States. 
Great Britain. 
Switzerland... 

France 

Italy 

Japan 



1922 



Pounds 



114,213,300 

5 8,344,187 
3,860,416 

16,167,655 

1,502,431 

372, 578 



Value 



$79, 826, 618 

5 3, 996, 443 
2, 300. 298 

13, 042, 635 

1,586,492 

254, 250 



Pounds 



73, 974, 473 

5 17, 924, 200 
9, 247,-504 
18, 282, 967 
4, 650, 382 
647,712 
2, 296, 327 



Value 



f3$41,580,742 

l * 17, 125, 528 

5 5, 565, 267 

3, 635, 058 

12,253,711 

3, 749, 442 

548, 481 

396, 397 



Exported from- 



Germany 

United States 
Great Britain 
Switzerland. - 



Pounds 



61,033,911 
15, 713, 428 

(«) 
19,015,998 



Value 



$30, 933, 368 
5, 636, 244 

(«) 
12,138,346 



Exported from — 



France 
Italy. - 
Japan. 



Pounds 



10, 793, 282 

541, 009 

' 1, 664, 672 



Value 



$7, 675, 181 

276, 793 

7 253, 020 



' May to December, 1921. 

'' Includes natural and coal-tar dyes, with exception of logwood extract. 

3 1923 basis. 

* 1913 basis. 

5 New classification adopted in 1922 for coal-tar colors was "Color lakes and other colors, dyes, Jand 
stains." 

8 Accounts Relating to the Trade and Navigation of the United Kingdom, give the 1924 exports of 
"Dyes and dyestufls (except dyewoods and raw dyeing substances) and extracts for dyeing and tan- 
ning — Products of coal tar," as 11,811,072 pounds, valued at $4,156,367. 

' First nine months. 



IMPORTS INTO CONSUMING COUNTRIES 

Imports of coal-tar dyes into the important consuming countries 
are summarized in Table 38. Imports into China are three times as 
great as those into any other country. British India ranks second 
in importance and Japan third. With the exception of Japan these 
countries have no dye industry. Of the important dye-producing 
countries, Great Britain imported the largest quantity in 1924. 



W0RIJ)'S PRODUCTION AND TEADE 139 

Table 38. — Imports of dyes into chief consuming countries, 1913, 1921-1924 



Imported into- 



China 

United States 

Great Britain 

Austria-Hungary... 

British India ^ 

Italy 

Japan. 

Germany 

Russia 

France 

Canada 3 

Turkey 

Sweden 

Spain 

Switzerland 

Dutch East Indies. 

Czechoslovakia 

Netherlands 



1913 



Pounds 



1 60, 696, 533 

2 45, 950, 895 
41,203,008 
17, 168, 764 
16, 923, 607 
15, 542, 429 
5 9, 755, 260 

7, 138, 495 
4, 835, 647 
4, 706, 601 
2, 633, 516 
2, 631, 703 
2, 376, 166 

' 2, 303, 709 
2, 201, 292 

s 2, 073, 434 



Value 



$11,673,779 

7, 537, 870 

9, 207, 684 

3, 616, 199 

3, 741, 031 

3,611,705 

2, 100, 255 

1, 682, 422 

3, 701, 186 

1,416,316 

594, 414 

641,321 

699, 737 

1, 021, 368 

431, 197 

890, 366 



Pounds 



46, 939, 187 
4, 252, 911 
6, 686, 288 
3, 439, 837 
11,731,237 
4 7, 450, 665 
7, 752, 896 
6 291,457 



2, 531, 320 
2, 366, 855 



984, 028 
3, 178, 365 
1, 084, 337 
2, 166, 053 
10, 854, 128 
2, 666, 518 



Value 



$19, 283, 019 
5, 156, 779 
5, 930, 054 
931, 610 
11,798,262 
2, 556, 457 
9, 858, 807 
33, 497 



1, 539, 907 
1. 692, 873 



851, 265 
1, 264, 929 

668, 843 
1,385,364 
6, 901, 737 
1, 937, 097 



Imported into- 



China 

United States 

Great Britain 

Austria 

British India 

Italy 

Japan 

Germany 

Russia 

France 

Canada 

Turkey 

Sweden 

Spain 

Switzerland 

Dutch East Indies. 

Czechoslovakia 

Netherlands 



1922 



Pounds 



300, 385 
982, 631 
450, 192 
760, 380 
119, 822 
484,383 
526, 817 
003, 300 



Value 



$17, 788, 624 

5, 243, 257 

5, 873, 160 

817, 737 



2, 751, 374 

9, 025, 223 

111,906 



1923 



Pounds 



61, 099, 581 
3, 098, 193 
6, 289, 696 
1, 975, 101 

14, 119, 822 
7,150,620 

13, 953, 137 
466, 494 



Value 



$17, 713, 420 

3, 151, 363 

4, 594, 501 

803, 713 



Pounds Value 



3, 022, 539 
7, 966, 784 
2, 784, 851 
' 20, 718, 450 
6, 033, 770 
6,689,322 i" 15,088,902 
123, 522 786, 160 



2, 737, 288 



$2, 908, 778 

5, 919, 057 

2, 752, 321 

• 9, 169, 688 

2, 373, 288 

" 5, 643, 117 

429, 713 



983, 044 
290, 349 



3,131,613 
2, 287, 159 



3, 056, 235 
3, 290, 349 



3, 013, 818 
2, 287, 149 



5, 399, 725 
3, 502, 621 



5, 438, 154 
2, 121, 705 



905, 469 
115, 627 
290, 793 
091, 102 
826, 320 
816, 162 



1, 514, 892 

1, 777, 938 

672, 769 



5, 765, 175 
2, 124, 263 



2, 854, 382 
1,444,401 
1, 980, 171 
2, 238, 238 
5,118,676 
5, 130, 124 



2, 025, 349 

1, 170, 600 

974, 518 



2, 688, 780 
2, 234, 565 



" 509, 483 
1, 938, 725 
3, 008, 426 



(12) 

1, 155, 876 



1 Exports to China, 1913, from France, Germany, and Switzerland amounted to 69,181,230 pounds, valued 
at $11,516,567. Chinese statistics show value but not quantity of aniline &yes, and include "unclassified 
dyes," which may contain other than coal-tar dyes. 

2 Fiscal year 1914— quantity from Special Agents Series No. 121, value from Commerce and Navigation 
Reports. 

3 Years ended Mar. 31, 1914, and 1922 and 1923. 

* Figures include 3,493,275 pounds of reparation dyes for which no value is shown. 

' Aniline only, in 1913. 

' 1921 imports. May to December. 

' 1914. 

' Quantity of synthetic indigo not shown, 1913. 

« Calendar year. 

1" Figures include 1,666, 237 pounds of reparation dyes for which no value is shown. 

11 First nine months. 

•2 First six months. 

COMPETITION IN EXPORT MARKETS 



The attempts of Great Britain and the United States and other 
new dye-producing countries to place certain dyes on an export basis 
will be met with strong and continued resistance from the German 
dye cartel. In international markets, such as China, Japan, and 
India, Germany has already lost a part of the trade in indigo and 
sulphur black, and a smaller part of her trade in other dyes. Competi- 
tion from the United States, Great Britain, and to a lesser extent 



140 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

from France, has tended to prevent complete German domination 
in those markets and arbitrary price fixing. The export trade of a 
country is an important balance in stabilizing production by off- 
setting the fluctuations of the home market and results in lower 
production costs by permitting operation on a larger scale. Exports 
comprise the greater part of the dye trade of both Germany and 
Switzerland, whereas home markets represent the bulk of it in the 
United States, Great Britain, France, Italy, and Japan. The problem 
of placing these newly created dye industries, or at least certain of 
their products, on an international basis is an important one. 

The struggle between the dye-producing nations for export markets 
promises to be a long and severe one and in the end can only result 
in the elimination from an export basis of those dyes which can not 
be produced by other countries at a cost sufficiently low to compete 
with the German and Swiss products. This will in turn depend upon 
such fundamental factors as (1) production costs; (2) raw materials; 

(3) capital; (4) selling organization; (5) technical service offered to 
the consumer; and (6) adequate capital without excessive capitali- 
zation. The strongest of the new producing nations in this competitive 
field promise to be the United States, Great Britain, and to a less 
extent, France. Italy and Japan do not bid fair to be important in 
export markets. 

In lack of raw materials the Swiss suffer the greatest disadvantage. 
The United States, Great Britain, Germany, and France are well 
situated in this respect. Japan and Spain are less favorably placed. 

In the cost of labor and of technicians the United States is probably 
at the greatest disadvantage. The Germans and Swiss possess an 
experienced executive selling and technical staff, but the United 
States and Great Britain are making rapid gains in this respect. 
Through the service of German and Swiss chemists some of the 
United States firms have effected economy in production. The 
building up of a complete and well-trained organization for dye 
making and selling requires a long time, and it can not be expected 
that tlie disadvantages of the new producing countries will be over- 
come within a few years. 

The German dye industry with its close-knit organization possesses 
several advantages over the industries in other countries, among 
which are: (1) Cumulative experience; (2) lower manufacturing costs 
in plants built before the war and paid for by pre-war profits; (3) 
the established reputation of German products among consumers; 

(4) highly developed selling organization in all the world's markets; 

(5) availability of raw materials; and (6) a wide diversity of products. 
One significant development by the I. G. in 1924 has been a further 
consolidation of companies. This is discussed in more detail in later 
pages. Amalgamation of the selling agencies of the German dye 
firms in Japan and Czechoslovakia is only one of the results of such 
a movement, and will tend to increase tlie competitive strength of 
the I. G. in the export markets. As exports comprised nearly nine- 
tenths of the total dye output in Germany before the war, the in- 
dustry has almost from its infancy been organized on an inter- 
national basis. 

Switzerland occupies a position of greater prominence in the world 
trade than the relative size of her industry would indicate, its capacity 
being only about 9 per cent of that of the German industry. Because 



world's production and trade 141 

of the lack of raw materials, the S\\dss industry is not economically 
independent, but it enjoys an open competitive market on coal-tar 
crudes and other raw materials. 

The Swiss firms produce an excellent variety of the higher cost 
dyes and also indigo, an important low-price bulk color. In pro- 
portion to their normal pre-war trade they have suffered less than 
Germany in the loss of markets to the newly created dye industries, 
as the markets for the specialties have declined less in the big indus- 
trial countries than the markets for the bulk dyes, formerly a large 
factor in the German export trade. The new producing nations, 
Great Britain and the United States, are, however, each year in- 
creasing their output of high-cost dyes such as are produced by the 
Swiss. This is being reflected by their reduced imports of many 
Swiss types. Factors which are favorable to the Swiss dye interests 
in the maintenance of their position in the world trade are their 
progressive and experienced manufacturing personnel, their technical 
service, and their distributing organization for sales. Although the 
production and development of new special products will help them 
to maintain their trade, in the long run they are likely to find the 
lack of raw materials a serious handicap in maintaining their industry 
on an international basis. 

Price reductions. — The United States and Great Britain, were, 
before the war, among the largest consumers of German dyes. The 
loss of a large part of the trade in these markets has been a severe 
blow to Germany. Reports from Great Britain show reduced prices 
of German dyes in 1925, some of them to 25 per cent below the cur- 
rent rates and others even more markedly. As the export prices 
of most of the German dyes are far above the pre-war levels, it is 
probable that they will be further reduced. 

In the United States, price reductions have been made on many 
of the higher-priced German dyes, increasing the competition with 
the American producer of these products. If the German firms do 
not establish branch plants in Great Britain and the United States, 
they may adopt two methods of commercial warfare against the 
dye industries of these two countries: (1) By an attack on the 
export trade, and (2) by price cutting in the home markets on certain 
lines of products such as the vat dyes, alizarin, and other specialty 
dyes. Both methods of procedure are reported to have been adopted 
in 1925. Since the tariff reduction of 15 per cent on September 
22, 1924, in the United States, imports of the higher class dyes 
have recorded a sharp increase. 

PROTECTIVE MEASURES ADOPTED BY DYE-PRODUCING COUNTRIES 

For the encouragement and stimulation of dye production. Great 
Britain, the United States, France, Italy, Japan, and Spain, have 
adopted special tariff^ measures, and in Great Britain and Japan 
financial aid has been granted by the Government to the domestic 
industries. A license system of dye-import control is in force in 
Great Britain, Germany, and Japan. Preferential tariff treatment 
for the imports of dyes from Great Britain has been granted by her 
colonies; this tends to increase the export market of dyes produced 
by the mother country.^ 

1 For detailed information on rates of duty on coal-tar dyes when imported into 26 different countries 
see pp. 173-186. 



142 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

These protective measures tend to retain a large part of the home 
market for the domestic dye industry and have enabled the industries 
to organize on a more efficient and permanent basis than existed 
during the latter part of the war and shortly after. In the next 
5 to 10 years protective measures will play an important part 
in the maintenance of dye production in countries other than Ger- 
many and Switzerland and will in turn affect the export trade of 
these two countries. 

Affiliations and branch plants. — These tariff measures will probably 
result in the German producers affiliating with producers in other 
countries or in establishing branch factories, which last will in part 
compensate the Germans and Swiss for the loss of their export trade. 

One of the first steps of the German Cartel toward recovering such 
markets has been to gain foothold therein by affiliating with the new 
dye-producing industries in order to share in the dye trade and to 
exercise influence favorable to German interests. 

Negotiations between the British dye corporations and the I. G. 
were discussed during 1923, although no working agreement has yet 
been announced. In the United States reports have been frequent 
of affiliations with certain existing firms; but no authoritative state- 
ment concerning details has been available. It appears possible, 
however, that such arrangements, if not already effected, will be made 
in the near future, affecting one or more individual finns. 

The establishment of branch factories has been a natural conse- 
quence of the tariff measures adopted by the new producing countries. 
Although the Germans appear to have been less successful than the 
Swiss in the establishment of branch plants, they have firmly 
established themselves in Italy. 

The Swiss now operate branch factories in the United States, Great 
Britain, France, and Italy, and are consequently enabled to share in 
the trade of those markets farther than is indicated by actual exports 
to them. In the production of dyes in foreign countries the Swiss 
have been far more successful than the Germans. 

In Switzerland the three principal dye makers have formed a union 
of interests similar to that of the German firms. Such consolidation 
gives to the Germans and Swiss an advantage lacking in many other 
countries. In the United States it would be a violation of the anti- 
trust laws. In sharp contrast to the German situation is the severe 
competition between the different firms in some of the new dye- 
producing countries, particularly in the United States. This com- 
petitive situation is likely to result in the amalgamation of some of 
the small firms. 

The effect of this competition on the price of bulk dyes is of interest. 
The price of indigo in the United States, April, 1925, was 14 cents 
per pound, less than the selling price of German indigo in this country 
in 1913, and probably the lowest selling price in the world for this 
dye in the spring of 1925. The price of indigo (20 per cent paste) in 
Great Britain in March, 1925, was 29.8 cents per pound, according 
to a statement of the President of the British Board of Trade, com- 
pared with 28 cents in France, 18.5 cents in Italy, 26 cents in India, 
and 21.6 cents in Germany. Later reports state that the export 
price of German indigo was subsequently reduced to 16 cents per 
pound. 



WOELD'S PIIODUCTION AND TEADE 143 

TREND IN DYE MANUFACTURE 

A review of the developments by tlie world's dye producers shows 
a distinct trend toward the production of dyes, (1) of superior fast- 
ness, (2) adapted for special uses, (3) of lower cost of application, and 
(4) of identical character produced by an increasing number of different 
firms. On the other hand many types which are in small demand or 
for which satisfactory substitutes are available are being eliminated. 

New dyes for acetate silk. — Manufacturers of Germany, Switzer- 
land, and Great Britain added many new dyes to their manufacturing 
lists in 1924. One conspicuous advance was in the development by 
British dye firms of special dyes for dyeing artificial silks, more 
particularly acetate silks. 

The S. R. A. dyes manufactured by the British Celanese Co. are 
made in a fair range of colors and possess good fastness to light. 
They are insoluble in water and have good resistance to washing. 
They are dyed in a partly colloidal and partly fine suspension by the 
use of sulphonated castor oil (sulpho ricinoleic acid). 

Dyes for use on acetate silk have also been produced by the British 
Dyes (Ltd.) ^ (known as the duranol dyes); and by the Scottish 
Dyes (Ltd.) (known as Celatene dyes). Those produced by the 
Scottish Dyes are anthraquinone derivatives. This group consists of 
8 dyes and is said to possess excellent fastness to light and can be 
applied by simple methods not requiring saponification nor special 
preliminary treatment of the silk fiber. 

New witer-soluhle vat dyes. — -In 1924 stable water-soluble deriva- 
tives of vat dyes (the leuco forms of enolic ethereal salts) were placed 
on the market. The leuco derivative of indigo, known as indigosol, 
was first produced by Durand & Huguenm & Co. of Switzerland, 
and more recently by a German company. The leuco derivative of 
Caledon jade green manufactured by the Scottish Dyes (Ltd.) of 
Great Britain is known as Soledon jade green. 

The vat dyes, characterized by their high fastness, are of very great 
importance for the production of fast shades on cotton. Formerly 
all vat d^^es were insoluble in water and their application involved a 
reduction to a soluble form with sodium hydrosulphite in an alkaline 
solution. The application of these insoluble vat dyes requires more 
skill and supervision than many other classes of dyes. Consequently 
the water-soluble vat dyes, which can be applied "directly" on the 
fiber, with a subsequent oxidation treatment to yield the insoluble 
color, represents marked progress in the production and application 
of dyes. These new water-soluble derivatives do not require the addi- 
tion of caustic alkali, commonly used in the application of vat dyes, 
and for that reason can be used on animal fibers, such as wool and 
silk, without injury to the fiber. There are, however, certain insoluble 
vat dyes which can be successfully used on animal fibers. German 
dye producers have developed a number of new vat dyes adapted to 
wool dyeing. 

These water-soluble vat-dye derivatives, because of their simplicity 
of application and their suitability for animal fibers as well as vege- 
table fibers have great promise. Their extensive substitution for the 
original vat dyes will probably depend upon costs. When the original 

2 Some notes on dyestuffs progress in 192Jf, Chemical Age, Jan. 3, 1925, Sir E. A. Brotherton. 



144 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

vat dyes were introduced their high cost was beheved by many to be 
unfavorable to their extensive use; their consumption, however, has 
steadily increased year by year. 

Other developments. — In connection with the manufacture of new 
dyes a review of the progress of dye-m.aking since the discovery of 
the first coal-tar dye in 1856 brings out a point of interest in the trend 
in this field. Eighty years ago coal-tar dyes were not in use, and the 
dyer had available only a small variety of vegetable and mineral 
dyes, the application of which was difficult and surrounded with much 
secrecy and empirical methods; furthermore, the resultant shades 
were of wide variation in fastness. This is in sharp contrast to present 
times, when the number of synthetic dyes on the market exceeds 
1,500, and when there are dyes of practically any degree of fastness 
desired for any particular purpose. Manufacturers of to-day uni- 
versally supply technical assistance to the dyer to facilitate the 
correct and proper application of their products. From the com- 
mercial manufacture of mauvine in 1856 to the manufacture of vat 
dyes after 1900 the outstanding feature was the continuous addition 
annually to the number of dyes and dye patents. 

During this era of discovery and development the general progress, 
by class of application, was first the basic dyes, then the mordant 
acid, and direct azo dyes, sulphur dyes, and finally vat dyes. The 
dyes of the last group have been, since their discovery, of constantly 
increasing value on account of their high fastness and variety of 
shade. Each year has witnessed the addition of faster members to 
each of these groups as well as colors of greater purity of shade. 
The trend has been definitely toward fast dyes and dyes of simpler 
application, together with dyes possessing properties which adapt 
them to special uses. As an illustration of this trend may be men- 
tioned the new direct dyes and acid dyes of far greater fastness than 
the early members of these groups. The range of sulphur dyes has 
been extended and the purity of shade and strength greatly increased. 
With such intermediates as naphthol AS and the different bases for 
use with this product, the direct production of dyes on the cotton 
fiber becomes of greater importance; some of the resulting shades 
are of sufficient fastness to oft'er competition with the vat dyes. 
Closely related to the above group are the "rapid fast dyes." 

It is of interest to note that the German firms have since the war 
reduced the number of types on their production program by elim- 
inating those for which the demand was small and for which there 
were already available satisfactory or better substitutes. The trend 
in world production has been to lay greater emphasis on the output of 
dyes in greater demand and of greater fastness, it appears that a point 
has now been reached where the number of new dyes annually placed 
upon the market will be far below the additions m.ade from 1880 to 
1905. The fact that many of the dye patents are running out in- 
creases the number of dyes which can bo made by any concern and 
reduces the number of products which can be sold at very high prices, 
while other colors not covered by patents are frequently sold at 
prices below their cost of production. 

The dye manufacturers of the various countries are making an 
increasing number of identical dyes, the demand for which is general. 
This is resulting in an era of keen competition on these products in 
both the export and home markets. 



world's production and trade 



145 



Research.. — The maintenance of research for the progressive devel- 
opment of new dyes and alHed products and for improvement in the 
existing methods of manufactm^e is a factor not to be overlooked by 
any nation seeking to retain its position in the international dye 
trade. Merely to copy and produce the products already on the 
market is a policy which will ultimately end in an industry being 
distanced by those able to produce new and special products with 
marked advantages as to fastness, special use, and economy of 
application. 

The German Dye Industry 

The position of supremacy in the world's trade held by the German 
dye and synthetic organic chemical industry has been altered by 
developments during and since the World War. Both production 
and exports for the post-war years have recorded conspicuous de- 
clines. In former reports detailed statistics on the pre-war dye 
trade were published, and the important developments oi the German 
industry up to and including 1923 were discussed. The present dis- 
cussion deals particularly with changes occurring in 1924 and the 
first half of 1925, and their relation to previous years. 

German d>/e out'put in. 192Jf. increases. — The production of coal-tar 
dyes in Germany in 1924, on the basis of monthly reparation lists, 
was 159,549,096 pounds, an increase of 14,689,524 pounds as com- 
pared with 1923. In the latter year the occupation of the Ruhr by 
the French reduced the production of dyes in Germany, especially 
in the Hochst and the Badische plants, the two largest producers in 
the occupied zone. The output in 1924 was about 57 per cent of 
that in the pre-war vear 1913. The maximum post-war output was 
in 1922, totaling 192,806,564 pounds, or about 68 per cent of the 
pre-war. Exports since the war reached a maximum in 1922. 

Table 39 shows the production of coal-tar dyes in Germanv for 
1913 and 1920 to 1924. inclusive, and Table 40 one-fourth of the 
German production from 1920 to 1924, reserved under the Treaty of 
Versailles for purchases of the allied and associated governments. 

Table 39. — Production of coal-tar dyes in Germany, WIS and 1920-1924 ' 



Year 


Pounds 


Year 


Pounds 


1913 2 


280,000,000 
112,766,0Q0 
116,442,116 


1922 


192. 806, 564 


1920 3 


1923 


144,859,572 


1921. - - . 


1924 . . 


159, 549, 096 









' From monthly reports to the Reparation Commission, showing one-quarter production in German 
plants of dyes reserved for the purchase of allied and associated Governments, 1920 to 1924. 

2 For the year 1913 exports totalled 239,598,133 pounds and home consumption is estimated at 40,000,000 
pounds. 

3 Estimated from the actual production for eleven months. 



146 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Table 40. — One-quarter of production in German dye -plants^ reserved for purchase 
of allied and associated Governments, 1920-1924 



Group 



Classification of colors 



192P 

(11 months) 



1923 



I 
II 
III 

IV 

V 

VI 

VII 

VIII 

IX 

X 

XI 

XII 



Alizarin red 

Indigo paste 

Vat colors, except indanthrene 

blue GCD- 

Indanthrene blue GCD 

Alizarin colors other than red 

Direct colors for cotton 

Direct colors for diazotization 

Acid colors for wool 

Chrome colors for wool 

Basic colors 

Sulphur colors 

Lake colors 

Total 



Pounds ! Pounds 
1,830,721 I 1,729,148 
4,493,515 , 6,147,286 



578, 028 
93,645 

609, 514 
5, 778, 166 

977, 320 
4, 364, 034 
1,771,252 
1, 257, 301 
2, 805, 910 
1, 282, 795 



992, 579 
61, 203 

300, 009 
5, 526, 280 

962, 859 
5, 008, 823 
1,673,215 
1, 525, 610 
4, 103, 034 
1, 020, 508 



Pounds 
2, 244, 654 
10, 343, 963 

1,128,912 

6,985 

192, 930 

9,609,616 

1,424,471 

7, 754, 534 
3, 154, 705 
2, 289, 557 

8, 047, 949 
1, 703, 365 



25,842,201 29,110,554 



48, 201, 641 36, 214, 893 



Pounds 
2, 151, 520 
5, 926, 123 

1,080,121 
39, 794 

568, 569 
8, 086, 063 

916,212 
5,161,691 
2, 068, 071 
1, 713, 854 
7,261,348 
1,241,527 



Pounds 
3, 550, 912 
14, 809, 980 

1, 954, 208 

92,913 
654, 151 

2, 998, 349 
630,317 

3, 071, 874 
824, 551 

1, 848, 099 
8, 405, 355 
1, 046, 565 



39, 887, 274 



1 Peace Treaty, Annex VI, Part II. 



CONSOLIDATIONS WITHIN THE I. G. 



The decline in the German export trade due to the development 
of dye production in other comitries has reduced the operation of the 
German factories far below capacity, which, in turn, tends to in- 
crease production costs. In order to offset the unfavorable develop- 
ments since the war, the German Cartel (I. G.) has adopted a pro- 
gram designed to reduce costs. 

The highest salaried members of the directors' boards, the attor- 
neys, and the superfluous specialists are being removed, and even 
a reduction in the number of laborers is reported. Of greater signifi- 
cance in its effect on foreign competition, however, is the merger of 
the constituent firms of the I. G. now under consideration. This 
step is in line with other consolidations already effected in other 
branches of German industry. In place of the separate sales depart- 
ments maintained by each concern in the I. G. a consolidated sales 
agency for the home and foreign markets is planned. Competition 
between the same d3^es and pharmaceuticals produced by different 
firms of the I. G. is being eliminated, and it is intended to assign the 
manufacture of each product to the firm best fitted for its production. 
The elimination of duplication, the centralization of the directorate for 
research, for production, and purchases, can only result in greater 
efficiency in certain departments and reduce production and sales 
costs. 

The proposed amalgamation involves certain difficulties as the 
8 associated concerns have 8 managing directors and 84 full-time 
directors, few of whom can be entirely dropped without loss. In 
addition, there are such problems as to the allocation of manufacture 
and the redistribution of profits. The future, however, of these 
firms is intimately bound together, and it is probable that the obsta- 
cles to such a merger will ultimately be overcome. One of the prin- 
cipal difficulties is the high Government tax attending such a con- 
solidation. Negotiations have been conducted between the I. G. 
and the German Government to obtain a reduction in the rate of 
taxation. If these negotiations are not successful, it is possible that 
a reduction in the capitalization might take place in order to lower 



world's production and trade 147 

the reorganization tax, and that there will be an increase in capitali- 
zation after the amalgamation has been effected. 

The Chemische Fabrik Greisheim-Elektron of Frankfort-on-Main 
and the Aktien Gesellschaft Fiir Anilin Fabrikation of Berlin were 
consolidated in the spring of 1925. The dye plants of the Berhn 
company as well as the main offices are to be moved to the Griesheim 
plants near Frankfort. The new arrangement gives the two com- 
panies concerned 14.146 per cent of the total earnings of the cartel, as 
compared with slightly more than 25 per cent, for the Bayer, Hochst, 
and Badische. 

In 1924 the^I. G. acquired the Rhienstahl of Dusseldorf, which 
controls a number of mines, the coal of which yields a tar suitable for 
distillation into crudes for dyes and other coal-tar derivatives. This 
acquisition is in addition to the Auguste Victoria mines bought by the 
Badische, the Bayer, and the Berlin dye concerns in 1907. 

NEW PRODUCTS MADE BY THE I. G. 

Extensive developments have been made by the plants of the I. G. 
in the manufacture of noncoal-tar products. Conspicuous among 
these new items are synthetic ammonia, nitrogenous fertilizer mate- 
rials, and synthetic methanol. The manufacture of the last is closely 
associated with work on other synthetic organic chemicals such as 
butyl and propyl alcohol and also synthetic motor fuel. 

AGREEMENTS WITH FOREIGN INDUSTRIES 

German-Russian dyestuff agreement. — The Berliner Tageblatt ^ 
states that under the contract which the German-Russian Trading 
Co. ("Russgertorg") concluded in the autumn of 1924 with the Ger- 
man Aniline Dye Concern for the delivery of dyestuffs for the Soviet 
industry and for the holding of up to 500,000 kilograms of goods in 
the consignment warehouses of the "Russgertorg," 200,000 kilograms 
of dyestuffs for the Russian Textile Syndicate have, so far, been im- 
ported. The total quantity of dyestuffs to be imported in the course 
of one year amounts to about 2,000,000 kilograms. Eight chemists 
have been sent by the German chemical works to Russian factories. 
The German dye concern has granted Russian chemists the right to 
improve their technical knowledge in German aniline-dye factories, 
and chemists who are working in the Russian textile industry will 
soon be sent to Germany for this purpose. 

Other agreements . — -The Farwerke, vormals Meister Lucius & 
Brunig,'* Hochst-on-the-Main, made an arrangement with the Philana 
A. G., Basle, Switzerland, presumably for exploiting one of its new 
processes to impart a wool finish to cotton fibers. 

In the spring of 1924 the Badische Co. was negotiating with the 
Norsk Hydro of Norway for the joint operation of a nitrate plant, 
utilizing the cheap water power of that concern. 

The Franco-German potash pact concluded August 19, 1924, 
divided the American potash market between German and Alsatian 

3 The Chemical Age, Feb. 28, 1925, p. 202. 
* Commerce Reports, Mar. 9, 1925. 



148 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



producers in the ratio of 623^ and 37 }4, with certain preferences for 
sulphate of potash of German origin. This agreement covers a 
period of three years. 

AMERICAN LOANS TO GERMAN DYE INDUSTRY 

During 1924 loans aggregating $6,500,000 were made by American 
bankers to German dye companies, according to information collected 
by the Tariff Commission. These included the following: 

Badische Anilin und Soda-Fabrik $1,000,000 

Actien-Gesellschaft fur Anilin-Fabrikation ^ 3, 000, 000 

I. G. loan 2, 500,000 

For joint use of — 

(a) Actien-Gesellschaft ftir Anilin-Fabrikation. 

(b) Farben fabrikriken vorm. Friedr. Bayer & Cie. 

(c) Chemische Fabrik Griesheim-Elektron, Frankfurt. 

Negotiations for other loans were under consideration, but no an- 
nouncements were made as to their completion up to May, 1925. In 
addition to these, loans were made to other branches of the chemical 
industry, including one of $6,000,000 to the potash syndicate. 

BALANCE SHEETS OF I. G. COMPANIES 

The following table presents a summary of the assets and liabilities 
of the I. G. companies as shown by their balance sheets for the 
pre-war year 1913 and as of January 1, 1924.^ 

Table 41. — Balance sheets of constituent concerns of the Interessen Gemeinschaft 
as of January 1, 1924^ 

(Millions of gold marks) 



Company 



Assets 



Year 



Real 
estate 

and 
plant 



Stock 
on hand 



Owned 
in other 
concerns 



Debts 

due plus 

cash 



Total 
assets 



Badische Anilin 

Hoechst Farbw 

Bayer Leverk. 

Berlin Anilinf 

Griesheim Elektron 
Weiler-ter-Meer 

Total 



1924 
1913 
1924 
1913 
1924 
1913 
1924 
1913 
1924 
1913 
1924 
1913 

1924 
1913 



127. 86 

54.14 
58. 66 
29.28 
64.28 
49.52 
32.54 
14.84 
28.59 
25.31 
5.41 
7.61 



317. 34 
180. 70 



55.93 
25.42 
44.25 
29.75 
64.63 
22.00 
23.27 
9.61 
18.04 
12.53 
8.56 
3.66 



48.52 

11.53 

74.14 

6.99 

64.64 

13.03 

8.03 

.75 

4.05 

.40 

.67 

.43 



69.13 
35.17 
49.51 
34.90 
49.30 
42.97 
18.03 
19.32 
16.28 
12.48 
3.98 
4.49 



214,68 
102. 97 



200.05 
33.13 



197. 40 
149. 33 



301.61 

126. 26 
226. 56 
114. 32 
244.04 

127. 52 
82.19 
44.64 
67.20 
51.34 
18.77 
16. 43 



940. 37 
480. 51 



» From the Frankfurter Zeitung. 



WOELD S PRODUCTION AND TRADE 



149 



Table 41. — Balance sheets of constituent concerns of the Interessen Gemeinschaf 
as of January 1, 1924 — Continued 



Company 



Liabilities 



Year 



Bills 
payable 



Bonds 

and 

mortgages 



To Preferred 
balance stock 



Common 
stock 



Badiscbe Anilin. 
Hoechst Farbw.. 



{ 
{ 

Bayer Leverk I-! 

{ 



Berlin AnilLnf.. 



Qriesheim Elektron. 
Weiler-ter-Meer 



1924 i 
1913 
1924 
1913 
1924 
1913 i 
1924 ! 
1913 
1924 
1913 i 
1924 I 
1913 I 



52.62 
11.52 
19.80 

5.19 
34.08 
18.91 
11.90 

4.95 
13.71 
12.61 

4.59 

4.86 



4.32 

21.67 

1.84 

7.05 

1.35 

25.00 

.69 
8.83 

.77 
5.12 

.26 
2.81 



67.47 

53.09 

27.72 

49.69 

28.07 

34.74 

11.60 

12.82 

8.40 

14.11 

1.81 

1.89 



1.20 

00 

1.20 

00 

1.20 

00 

.40 

00 

.32 

00 

.08 

GO 



176. 00 
36.00 

176. 00 
36.00 

176.00 
36.00 
57.60 
14.00 
44.00 
16.00 
12.00 
6.00 



GERMANY S FOREIGN TRADE IN DYES 



The following table presents the coal-tar dye imports and exports 
of Germany during 1924. This table shows that Germany is pre- 
dominantly an exporting country. 

Table 42. — Germany: Imports and exports of coal-tar dyes, 1924 ' 



Class and country 


Imports 


Exports 


Pounds 

1 


Value 


Pounds 


Value 


Aniline and other coal-tar dyes not elsewhere men- 
tioned, sulphur dyes: 
Italy 




1,099,434 
1, 107, 591 
5, 888, 266 
525, 356 
3,116,423 
1,027,344 
1,607,815 
4, 324, 764 

15, 136, 783 
3, 389, 132 

11,342,005 




Netherlands . 






Czechoslovakia . . . . . ! 






East Poland L.. 












Sweden ■ 






Switzerland ... . '< 






British India 






China... 












other countries .. 














Total 


728, 179 


$391, 839 


48,564,913 


$25, 446, 430 






Alizarin (alizarin red) . . 




1, 364, 427 
1, 569, 896 


401,367 


Alizarin colors, variegated, from anthracene 


j 


1, 486, 130 




i 




Total alizarin dyes 


17,857 


9,290 


2,934,323 


1, 887, 497 






Indigo, natural and synthetic: 


1 


307, 762 

547, 182 

6, 536, 639 

1,992,738 










China 






other countries 








1 




Total... 


32,408 


25,249 


9, 384, 321 


3, 454, 615 






Indigo carmine, color lakes and new blues, from indigo 
and indigo carmine. 


7,716 


3,335 


150,354 


144,826 







1 German foreign trade. oflBcial monthly report; issue of December, 1924. 1,000 Reiehs marks=$238.20. 
47285— 25t 11 



150 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Dye Trade of Great Britain 

Imports. — The total imports of dyes into Great Britain in 1924 
were 7,966,784 pounds, valued at $5,919,057; of this amount ahzarin 
made up 3,377,472 pounds, valued at $999,741. In 1923 imports 
of alizarin amounted to 941,808 pounds, valued at $332,809. 

Alizarin has been manufactured in Great Britain since about 
1882 and has been for many years on an export basis. The heavy 
imports originated largely, if not entirely, from the dyes, alizarin 
and indigo, seized by the French and Belgian authorities in the spring 
of 1923 during the occupation of the Ruhr. Large amounts were 
purchased by the British Alizarin Co. to prevent the demoralization 
of prices by preventing the dumping of dyes on the market. 

In 1923 imports of indigo, probably from the same source, were 
926,088 pounds, valued at $64,004. The imports of other coal-tar 
dyes were 4,421,200 pounds, valued at $4,197,688, of which 64 per 
cent by weight was from Germany and 33 per cent from Switzerland. 

Exports. — -The post-war exports of dyes from Great Britain have 
recorded wide fluctuations, as shown in Table 43. In 1923, as a 
result of the Ruhr occupation, exports reached 9,247,504 pounds, 
valued at $3,635,058. Of this total, 2,480,800 pounds, valued at 
$674,102, was alizarin, of which ne^irly 88 per cent by quantity was 
shipped to India. Exports of indigo amounted to 2,195,648 pounds, 
valued at $604,335, over 88 per cent of which was exported to 
China. "Other coal-tar dyes," totaling 4,571,056 pouncls, valued 
at $2,356,621, were shipped chiefly to Switzerland, Victoria, Belgium, 
China, and New South Wales. 

Table 43. — The United Kingdom: Imports of coal-tar dyes, 1923 ' 



Imported from— 


1923 


Pounds 2 


Value 


Alizarin: 

Germany . .. 


918, 176 

784 

22, 848 


$319, 581 




1,894 


other foreign countries 


11,334 








941,808 


332, 809 






Total imported ------- . 


941, 808 


332, 809 






Synthetic indigo: 

Germany - - --- -. 


926, 688 


64,004 






Total imported - --- - 


926, 688 


64,004 






other coal-tar dyes: 


2, 820, 160 
6,720 
22, 960 

1, 464, 624 
4,368 

69, 216 


2, 038, 238 


Netherlands -. - -.-- 


9,153 


Belgium . - - . - -. 


25, 180 


Switzerland-- - - - 


2, 006, 829 


United States - 


5,100 


other foreign countries - -- 


73, 156 








4, 388, 048 


4, 157, 656 








28, 784 
4,368 


37, 365 




2,667 








33, 152 

4, 421, 200 


40, 032 


Total imported - -- 


4, 197, 688 






Grand total . - - 


6, 289, 696 


4, 594, 501 







1 Annual statement of the trade of the United Kingdom with foreign countries and British possessions 
converted at average exchange rate, 1923, £l=$4.574. 
» British cwt. =112 lbs. 



WORLD S PRODUCTION AND TRADE 151 

Table 44. — The United Kingdom: Exports of coal-tar dyes, 192S ^ 



Exported to — 



Alizarin: 

Java 

France _.. 

United States 

Brazil.. 

Other foreign countries.. 

Total to foreign coun- 
tries 



1923 



Pounds 



196, 
59, 
22, 
3, 
11, 



294, 112 



British India. j 

Other British possessions.] 



2, 177, 



Total British 
sions 



posses- 



2, 186, 688 557, 973 



Value 



$68, 596 

30, 888 

9,294 

3,613 

3,737 



116, 129 



5.49, 571 
8,402 



Total exported ■ 2, 480, 800 | 674, 102 



Indigo, synthetic: 

Netherlands 

China... 

Other foreign countries. . 



Total to foreign coun- 
tries... 

H on gkong. 

Australia 

Canada 

Other British possessions - 

Total to British posses- 
sions 




13, 440 
42, 672 



3,449 
14,060 

I 18 

63,392 17,340 



119,504 



34, 868 



Total exported 2,195,648 604,335 



Other coal-tar dyes: 

Sweden 

Norway 

Denmark 

Germany 

Netherlands 



119,616 

77,616 

29,792 

121, 968 

122, 640 



92, 312 
49, 568 
23,702 
33, 537 
67, 938 



Kxported to — 



Pounds Value 



-Con. 



Other coal-tar dyes- 
Belgium 

France. 

Switzerland 

Portugal 

Spain 

Italy 

Egypt 

China 

Japan 

United States.. 

Brazil 

Other foreign countries. . . 

Total to foreign coun- 
tries 



412, 944 

183, 008 

970, 256 

22, 288 

55, 552 
11, 088 
15, 680 

247, 408 

56, 448 
141, 120 

19, 824 
83, 216 



.$96, 005 
99, 480 

241, 713 

14, 705 

38, 019 

5,667 

8,590 

107, 782 
27, 476 
69, 058 
20, 542 
48,379 



2,690,464 |l, 044, 473 



Irish Free State 

Union of S. Africa 

Bombay 

Madras 

Bengal, Assam, Bihar, 

and Orissa 

Buimah- 

Hongkong 

West Australia 

South .\ustralia 

Victoria 

New South Wales 

Queerisl and 

Tasmania. 

New Zealand 

Canada 

Other British possessions. 

Total to British posses- 
sions... 



203, 280 
101, 136 
220, 080 
53, 984 

31, 808 

4,144 

2,576 

1,120 

12, 320 

529, 424 

255, 136 

12, 992 

3,696 

148, 400 

261, 744 

38, 752 



80, 859 
77, 721 
147, 557 
50, 826 

26, 076 

3,243 

2,406 

974 

9,697 

440, 418 

193, 028 

10, 250 

2,292 

107, 155 

125, 076 

34, 570 



Total exported. 
Grand total 



1,880,592 1,312,148 
4,571,056 2,356,621 



9,247,504 3,635,058 



' Annual statement of the trade of the United Kingdom with foreign countries and British possessions; 
converted at average exchange rate, 1923, £l = $4.574. 

Table 45. — The United Kingdom: Imports and exports of coal-tar dyes, 1924 ' 



Pounds 



Value 



Imports and consumption:^ | 

Alizarin : ; 3,377,472 

Indigo, svnthetic i 

Other coal-tar dyes 4,589,312 

Total... ; 7,966,784 



Exports: I 

Dyes and dyestufis (except dyewoods and raw dyeing substances) and ex- 
tracts for dyeing and tanning — 
Products of coal tar 11,811,072 



9,741 



4,919,316 
5, 919, 057 



4, 156, 367 



Average exchange rate, 1924, £l = $4.4181. 
British cwt.=112 lbs. 

' Accounts relating to the trade and navigation of the United Kingdom, issue for December, 1924. 
' An account of the imports of the principal and other articles of foreign and colonial merchandise, show- 
ing the consumption of certain dutiable articles, in the year ended Dec. 31, 1924. 



152 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Table 46. — Weight of dyestuffs imported into the United Kingdom, by countries, 



Description 



Intermediate coal tar products 

Finished dyestuffs obtained from coal 
tar— 

Alizarin^ _ - 

Indigo 

Other sorts— .--.! 4,589,312 3,125,360 



Total 
imports 



Pounds 
72, 576 



3, 377, 472 



Consigned from — 



Germany 



Pounds 
51, 072 



1, 888, 096 



Total I 8,039,360 i 5,064,528 



France 



Pounds 
18, 928 



1, 464, 288 



Switzer- 
land 



Pounds 
2,576 



20,384 



41,104 I 1,174,320 



1,524,320 1,197,280 



United 
States 



Pounds 



Other 
coun- 
tries 



Pounds 



4,704 



250, 544 



I The Chemical Trade Journal and Chemical Engineer, March 13, 1925, p. 337. The quantity of dye- 
stuffs received from Germany during 1924 on reparation account and included in the above table was 
3,796,352 pounds. 

Dye Industry of France 

Production. — The total output of dyes in France in 1924 was 
33,020,499 pounds as compared with 24,180,052 pounds in 1923, an 
increase of 36 per cent. This does not include the output of the 
Swiss-owned plant at St. Fons, France, which is reported to have pro- 
duced approximately 3,300,000 pounds in 1924. The outstanding 
feature in 1924 was an increase of over 100 per cent in the ton- 
nage of indigo and its sulfonic derivatives (10,326,346 pounds), 
while the production of sulphur colors (5,105,854 pounds) was prac- 
tically the same as in 1923. As in the past two years the azo group 
of dyes showed the largest production with a total of 12,744,793 
pounds. The following table gives the output of coal-tar dyes in 
France from 1920 to 1924, inclusive. 



Table 4:7.— France: Production of coal-tar dyes, 1920-1924 ^ 
[Report of Trade Commissioner, Apr. 25, 1925, Paris, France] 



Year 



1920 
1921. 
1922 
1923 
1924 



Azo dyes 



Pounds 
4, 975, 782 
4,204,172 
7, 8S1, 445 
11,296,370 
12, 744, 793 



Indigo 

deriva- ^^^ 

tives 



Pounds 
6, 571, 913 
5, 839, 985 
3,075,417 
4, 700, 207 
10. 326, 346 



Pounds 
3, 452, 404 
1, 814, 386 
3, 769, 866 
5, 024, 283 
5, 105, 854 



Diphenyl 

and 
triphenyl 
methane 



Pounds 
141, 094 
403, 442 
1, 234, 576 
1, 483, 696 
2, 072, 324 



Alizarin 


Indo- 


and 


phenols. 


other 


oxazines. 


oxyke- 


and 


tone 


thiazines 


Pounds 


Pounds 


19, 841 


19, 841 


211,642 


136, 685 


731, 927 


191, 800 


570, 991 


145, 504 


804, 679 


174, 163 



Unspeci- 
fied 



Pounds 
374, 782 
328, 485 
897, 272 
959, 001 

1, 792, 340 



Total 



Pounds 
15, 555, 657 
12, 938, 797 I 
17,782,303' 
24, 180, 052 
33, 020, 499 



1 Does not include data for Swiss plant at St. Fons, France. 

Imports and ex'ports. — According to preliminary data, imports ofS 
dyes into France m 1924 amounted to 5,396,861 pounds. The prin- 
cipal sources of imports were Switzerland with 2,665,361 pounds and 
Germany with 2,123,030 pounds. The imports of dyes from Switzer- 
land were especially heavy during the last few months of the year, 
owing to the proposal at that time of an early increase in the French 
tariff on these products. A large part of the imports from Switzer-j. 



WORLD S PEODUCTION AND TRADE 



153 



land are in highly concentrated form and are converted into commer- 
cial products in the French branches of the Swiss manufacturers. 

Reports of an agreement between the French and German dye man- 
ufacturers have not only been denied, but it is reported that the 
French dye manufacturers will endeavor to have their Government 
control all dye imports from Germany under the Dawes plan, by 
which France is to receive dyestuffs from Germany until 1928. The 
Compagnie Nationale des Matieres Colorantes had an agreement 
with the German dye manufacturers whereby they made use of 
German patents, but when the Compagnie Nationale was taken over 
by Kuhlmann in July, 1924, this agreement was abruptly terminated. 
It is not likely that German manufacturers could conclude any satis- 
factory agreement in France without the participation of the large 
Kuhlmann interests. 

The exports of dyestuffs from France in 1924 amounted to 8,761,080 
pounds, of which 4,911,849 pounds were indigo. French statistics 
do not give the countries of destination for these products. 

Tables 48 to 52 show the coal-tar dye imports and exports of 
France for 1922 by countries and for 1924 by classes. 

Table 48. — France: Imports of coal-tar dyes, 1922 ' 



Dry 


Paste 


Class and country 


Pounds 


Value 


Class and country 


Pounds 


Value 


Nitroso: 


2,646 
220 
220 

1,102 




Nitroso: 

United States 


441 


$164 






Nitro - 




Belgium 




















Total 


4,188 


$2,376 








Nitro' 


220 
441 
441 
220 
1,323 






Great Britain 


Pyrazolone; 

Germany 


220 










Netherlands . . 


















Total 






2,645 


2,622 




Pyrazolone: 




2,646 

118,828 

220 




82 


















^ Total 






121, 694 


162, 795 


1 




Stilbene: 










1,323 

55, 556 

1,323 




Stilbene - 




Monoazo: 

Great Britain.. 


5,070 

16,314 

.5,732 

882 










Other countries . . .. 






Total 






58, 202 


49. 732 




Monoazo: 

Great Britain . 






14, 109 

45, 194 

3,527 


















Switzerland . 






716, 495 
3,748 
1,764 








Italy 




Total 




Other countries 












Total-. 


784, 837 


568, 758 


27, 998 


8,848 















' General tables ofthe foreign commerce and navigation of France, official; converted at average exchange 
rate, 1922, 1,000 francs=$81.93. 



154 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

Table 48. — -France: Imports of coal-tar dyes, 1922 — Continued 



Dry 



Paste 



Class and country 



Polyazo: 

Great Britain.. 

Germany. 

Switzerland 

United States.. 
Other countries 

Total 

Thiobenzenyl: 

Great Britain. . 

Germany 

Switzerland 

Other countries 

Total 

Sulphur: 

Germany.- 

Switzerland 

Italy- — . 

Other countries 

Total..- 

Indophenols: 

Germany 

Switzerland 

Other countries 

Total --. 

Azines: 

Great Britain... 

Germany 

Switzerland 

United States.. 
Other countries 

Total.... 

Pyronines: 

Germany 

Switzerland 

Other countries 

Total 

Eosines: 

Great Britain.. 

Switzerland 

Other countries 

Total 

Diphenylmethane: 

Germany. 

Netherlands 

Switzerland 

Other countries 

Total 

Acridines: 

Germany 

Switzerland 

Other countries 

Total 

Hydroquinones: 
Great Britain... 

Germany 

Switzerland 

Total 



Pounds Value 



Class and country 



16, 975 
700, 401 
380, 073 
40, 124 
27, 778 



Polyazo: 

Germany 

Switzerland. 



1,165,351 ! $866,164 



Total - 



10, 803 
5,732 

16, 975 
1,102 



Thiobenzenyl. 



34,612 1 38,589 



11,023 

141,315 

17,416 

3,086 



172,840 1 


128,466 


1 

504,853 
42, 108 , 
3,968 








550,929 


245, 708 



35, 494 

6,173 

30, 865 

10, 141 

3, 527 



86,200 ; 


89, 713 


12,787 L 

20,723 . 

2,425 . 










35,935 ; 


80, 128 


1 

882 .- 

10,802 . 

882 '. 










12,566 


28, 020 



11,023 

7,275 

377, 648 

10, 141 



406, 087 


452, 745 


7,716 

35, 714 

1,323 










44,753 


90,533 


9,921 
27, 337 
20, 062 










57, 320 


80,947 



Sulphur. 



Indophenols: 

Great Britain. 

Germany 

Switzerland... 



Total. 



Azines: 

Great Britain. 

Germany 

United States. 



Total. 
Pyronines... 



Eosines: 

Great Britain. 



Diphenylmethane: 
United States. 



Acridines - 



Hydroquinones: 
Great Britain. 

Germany 

Switzerland... 



Total. 



Pounds 



18, 078 
1,984 



3,086 
71, 870 
16,314 



1,102 
11,243 
2,646 



14,991 



220 



48, 722 

18,519 

1,102 



68, 343 



20, 062 $3, 769 



world's production and trade 155 

Table 48. — France: Imports of coal-tar dyes, 1922 — Continued 



Dry 


Paste 


Class and country 


Pounds 


1 
Value 1 Class and country 

1 


Poimds 


Value 


Indigotines: 


5,732 

9,480 

4,409 

220 


Indigotines: 
. ' Oermanv - -_ 


4,409 

2,646 

220 








Switzerland 




Italy - 


China 








Total 










Total 


19,841 


$22, 121 


7,275 


$4, 834 




Insoluble vat dyes other than 
indigo: 

Orpat. Tlritain - - 




Insoluble vat dyes other than 
indigo: 


34, 612 

3,748 

220 




441 
70, 988 
27,337 






1 Ofirmanv - 














Total 




Total 


38, 580 


34,411 


98, 766 


36, 705 




Cibanones: 




Cibanones: 


10, 803 
1,763 




25, 573 


28,512 
















Total 


12,566 23,350 










3, 609, 146 


2, 967, 178 


Grand total . 


355,600 


148,960 







Table 49. — France: Exports of coal-tar dyes, 1922 ' 



Dry 


Paste 


Class and country 


Pounds 


Value 


Class and country 


Pounds 


Value 


Nitroso: 


4,409 

1,323 

24,250 

4,189 
882 




Nitroso: 


441 








Belgium .. 


661 








Luxemburg 


2,866 


Other foreign 




Other foreign 


441 








3,086 








Total 




Total 


35, 053 


$19, 581 


7,495 


$1,639 




Nitro: 

Italy - 


Nitro: 

Belgium . 


220 
221 




441 
2,205 


164 


Argentina 




Pyrazolone: 

Netherlands 










Total 


441 


328 








Pyrazolone: 

Switzerland 


220 




819 


Portugal 


221 








Guadeloupe ; 441 
















Total 


882 


655 






Stilbene 






Stilbene: 


220 

1,984 
882 
441 

882 




164 






Switzerland 


Monoazo: 

Switzerland . . 


1,102 




Monoazo: 

Belgium 


328 


Switzerland 




Polyazo: 




Egypt 






French colonies 












Total - 


4, 189 1, 884 








Polyazo: 

Belgium 


441 
220 


- 


220 


82 






Thiobenzenyl 




Portugal 

Total 

Thiobenzenyl 


221 










882 492 




1 







' General tables of the foreign commerce and navigation of France, official; converted at average ex- 
change rate, 1922, 1,000 francs=$81.93. 



156 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

Table 49. — France: Exports of coal-tar dyes, 1922 — Continued 



Dry 


Paste 


Class and country 


Pounds 


Value 


Class and country Pounds 


Value 


Sulphur: 


220 
3,748 

220 
7,055 




Sulphur: 

Switzerland 1, 102 


$246 


















Indo-China 












Total 


11,243 


$3, 359 








Indophenols: 


441 
2,425 
3,527 




Indophenols .. 






Germany. . . 






Belgium. . . 


















Total.. 


6,393 


$8, 111 






Azines: 

Luxemburg 


441 




Azines: 

Belgium 


1,102 
441 
441 
220 




246 


Switzerland 




Pyronines . 




Brazil 






Morocco.. .. . . 












Total 


2,204 


2,294 








Pyronines: 


1,323 

36, 817 

2,425 

661 








Netherlands. 


Eosines 






Belgium... 






Switzerland 






Other foreign 












Total 


41, 226 


122, 567 








Eosines: 


661 


1,475 




Brazil 


Diphenylmethane: 
Germany 


3,307 
4,630 
1,102 
2,205 
661 
43, 871 








Diphenylmethane: 

Belgium... 


66, 358 
22,046 

4,189 
11,243 

4,630 
14, 330 
11,464 
14,771 
35, 274 
55, 556 
321,431 

2,645 






Switzerland 




Belgium.. 




Portugal 




Italy. 




Spain 




United States 




Turkey 








China 




Indo-China.. . 




Japan 




Total 




Other foreign 






Tunis 






Morocco 






Indo-China . 






Other French colonies 












Total 


563, 937 


628, 731 


55, 776 


31, 133 




Hydroquinones: 

Great Britain 




Acridine 






220 
4,630 




Hydroquinones: 

Spain 


2,645 


4,916 






Belgium 






Total 






4,850 


1,966 




Indigotines: 

Belgium 




Indigotines: 

Siam 


661 

156, 968 

1,543 

661 
2,205 

220 




7,275 
6,614 
91, 050 
661 
6,173 
2,866 




Japan 




Egypt 




Other foreign 




Japan 




Algeria.. 








Tunis 




Tunis 




Morocco 




Indo-China 








Total 




Total 


162, 258 


150, 751 


114,639 


76, 686 




Insoluble vat dyes other than 
indigo: 




Insoluble vat dyes other than 
indigo: 
United States 


7,275 
1,984 
6,173 




16, 975 
8,378 




Other foreign 




Spain 




Algeria... 




Total 










Total 


15, 432 


26, 381 


25, 353 


9,422 




Cibanones 




Cibanones 
















Grand total 






Grand total 


847, 666 


971, 689 


213, 624 


122, 731 









WORLD S PRODUCTION AND TRADE 
Table 50. — -France: Imports and exports of indigo, 1922 ' 



157 



Imports 



Country 



Great Britain 

Greece 

British India 

San Salvador 

Other foreign countries 
French India 

Total.... 



Pounds Value 



4,189 
1,984 
3,086 
4,409 
441 
1,543 



15, 652 



$14, 584 



Exports 



Country 



Italy 

Japan 

United States. 

Other foreign countries 

Algeria 

Tunis. , 

Morocco-- 

Indo-China-- 

Total 



Pounds 



2,645 

97, 664 

308, 203 

882 

5,071 

1,543 

882 

24, 471 



441, 361 



Value 



$492, 072 



1 From general tables of the foreign commerce and navigation of France, official; converted at average 
exchange rate for 1922, 1,000 francs=$81.93. 

Table 51. — France: Imports and exports of coal-tar dyes, 1924 ' 



Class 



Nitrozo-- 

Nitro.- , 

Pyrazolone 

Stilbene , 

Monoazo. , 

Polyazo , 

Thiobenzenyl 

Sulphur , 

Indophenol 

Azines 

Pyionines , 

Eosines 

Diphenylmethane 

Acridines 

Hydroquinones 

Indigotines 

Insoluble vat colors 
other than indigo.. 

Cibanones.- 

Indigo 2 

Total 



Imports 



Dry 



Pounds Value 



4,850 

9,921 

148,811 

51, 367 

752, 650 

1, 254, 418 

35, 935 

99, 427 

1, 346, 790 

89. 286 

88, 404 

11,243 

613, 981 

69, 665 

101,412 

82, 673 

102, 734 
31. 305 
10, 141 



4, 905, 013 



$3, 033 

10, 303 
133, 313 

39,643 

495, 333 

1. 552, 526 

49, 790 

82, 216 
1, 180, 620 

81, 954 
196, 805 

17, 677 
659, 712 
106, 640 
165, 686 

73, 952 

169, 034 

40, 271 

7,636 



5, 066, 144 



Paste 



Pounds Value 



Exports 



Dry 



Pounds Value 



$52 



441 

23, 589 

36, 817 

441 

2,866 

92,373 

1,102 

4,189 

220 

1,543 



90, 168 
7,276 



262 

11.297 

24,006 

262 

680 

55, 856 

366 

1,569 

262 

1,045 

52 

38, 859 

4,550 



185,627 199,002 
48,060 i 33,890 



494,712 372,010 



226, 412 

5,512 

441 

2,425 

35, 715 

801, 372 

3,086 

22,046 

6,173 

441 

1, 198, 641 

15, 212 

876, 549 

1,323 

12, 125 

1, 994, 061 

253, 749 

2,205 

2, 030, 437 



$92. 623 

2,563 

314 

1,308 

10. 251 

293, 560 

1,360 

4,602 

5,438 

314 

2, 235, 773 

23,169 

710, 339 

1,569 

14, 434 

1. 568, 634 

402, 919 

2,458 

1, 647, 345 



7,487,925 7,018,973 



Paste 



Pounds Value 



8,157 $1,046 



11,905 2,615 

441 105 

1,543 209 

882 523 



661 



209 



441 
143, 519 



210, 980 
2, 918. 449 



7,055 
1,324 



l.'^7 
47, 802 



50, 574 
546, 744 

5,387 
837 



3,305,357 1 656,208 



1 From December, 1924, issue of monthly foreign commerce statistics of France, official, converted at 
average exchange rate for 1924, 1,000 francs=$52.30. 
s Does not state whether dry or paste. 

Table 52. — France: Imports and exports of indigo, 1922, 1923, and 1924 * 





Imports 


Exports 




Pounds 


Value 


Pounds 


Value 


1922 


18, 298 
33, 730 
10, 141 


$15,485 
27, 618 
7,636 


519, 183 
1, 223, 994 
2, 030, 437 


$492, 072 


1923 


1, 185, 896 


1924 


1, 647, 345 







' From December, 1924, issue of monthly foreign commerce statistics of France, official. Weights ar» 
gross. 



I 



47285— 25t 12 



158 census of dyes and othee synthetic chemicals 
Dye Industry of Japan 

Subsidy to dye industry. — The Japanese Diet, before its adjourn- 
ment on March 31, 1925, passed an act subsidizing the Japanese 
dye industry to the extent of 4,000,000 yen to be distributed over a 
period of six years, the maximum amount to be paid out in one year 
not to exceed 1,000,000 yen. The principal manufacturers are the 
Nippon Senryo Seiyo Kaisha (Japan Dye Manufacturing Co.), and 
the Mitsui Koyan Kabrechiki (Mitsui Mining Co.) of Tokyo. On 
the stock of the former concern the Government has been guarantee- 
ing an 8 per cent dividend, which may now have to be reduced. It is 
reported that both firms ^ are quahfied by capacity and personnel to 
receive this protection, and that the amount paid will be in proportion 
to the dye production, the Nippon Senryo Kaisha receiving 80 per 
cent and the Mitsui 20 per cent. The Nippon allotment will total 
3,200,000 yen, or a little over 530,000 yen per year, as against about 
2,000,000 yen per year, which it has received under the former law. 
To maintain the 8 per cent dividend dye prices must be increased or 
funds must be found elsewhere. 

Consolidation of the German dye agencies in Japan. — -Shortly after 
the adoption of the license-control system of regulating imports of 
dyes into Japan, a merger of all German dye-sales agencies in Japan 
was reported to be in progress, the plan being to consolidate the 
present offices and laboratories under the direction of one head to 
be assisted by five commercial directors, two technical directors, and 
two directors specializing on indigo sales. It is further reported that 
technical laboratories will be established in the different textile dis- 
tricts for furnishing technical aid to the dyers and mills. The fol- 
lowing firms with about 100 Germans on the staff have offices or 
selling agencies in Japan, and are probably included in the merger: 
Badische, Bayer, Casella, Berlin, A. Leonhardt, Meister Lucius and 
Brunig, and Kalle. 

Certain of the chemical side lines handled by German firms will 
not be controlled by the merger, as for example, the Badische's busi- 
ness in ammonium sulfate and compressed ammonia. The new 
consolidation should effect considerable economy and with a uniform 
sales policy and should be a powerful factor in the dye trade of 
Japan. Many Japanese distributors connected with the firms to be 
merged are said to be seriously concerned about their future status. 

• World Trade Notes on Coil-Tar Products, No. 61- B, No. 2, Department of Commerce. 



WORLD S PEODUCTION AND TRADE 



159 



IMPORTS AND EXPORTS 

Table 53. — Japan: Imjyorts and exports of coal-tar dyes, by classes, 1923 and 

1924 (first 9 months) i 



1923 

Aniline dyes 

Indigo, artificial 

Other coal-tar dyes 

Indigo, natural, dry 

Coal-tar dyes 

1924 (first 9 months) 

Aniline dyes 

Indigo, artificial 

Other coal-tar dyes 

Indigo, natural, dry 

Coal-tar dyes 



Imports 



Pounds Value 



Exports 



Pounds Value 



10,554,189 $4,754,203 

«, 169,517 1,724,843 

94,073 95,071 

135,359 i 115,205 



13,953,137 6,689,322 



12, 497, 675 

2, 340, 947 

146, 391 

103, 889 



4, 288, 894 

1, 120, 698 

141, 060 

92, 465 



2,296,327 $396,397 



15,088,902 5,643,117 1,664,672 253,020 



• From October,' November, and December, 1923, and September, 1924, issues of monthly returns of the 
foreign trade of the Empire of Japan; converted at average exchange rate, 1923, one yen=$0.4858; and 
for first 9 months of 1924, one yen=$0.4207. 



Table 5-1. 



'Japan: Imports of coal-tar dyes (exclusive of indigo), by countries, 
1923 and 1924 {first 9 months)^ 



Country- 


1923 


1924 (first 9 months) 


Pounds 


Value 


Pounds 


Value 


Great Britain 


48, 150 
114,208 
9, 093, 770 
641,461 
540,230 
210,442 


$37,300 
70,946 
4, 082, 452 
409,528 
179, 385 
69,664 


10,164 


$6,098 


France 


81,131 1 30,468 


Germany 


11,268,565 3,927,688 


Switzerland 


577,674 ; 274,503 


United States.. 


682,659 1 178,784 


Other.. 


23,873 12,414 






Total. 


10, 648, 261 


4, 849, 275 


12, 644, 066 4. 429. QMi 









' From the October, November, and December, 1923, issue and the December, 1924, issue, respectively, 
of monthly returns of the foreign trade of the Empire of Japan. Values converted at average exchange 
rate for 1923, 1 yen=$0.4858 and for first 9 months of 1924, 1 yen=$0.4207. 

Dye Industry of Poland * 

Introduction. — Under the treaty of Ver.-5ailles, Poland was restored 
as an independent State composed of Provinces that it formerly 
comprised but that had been partitioned by conquest by Russia, 
Austria, and Germany; and in 1921 Polish Upper Silesia was added 
to the new Poland by a decision of the League Council. Two of 
these four Provinces, Russian Poland and Upper Silesia, had coal-tar 
chemical industries prior to 1914. At present (1924) most of the 
production of coal-tar crudes is in Upper Silesia and the manufac- 
ture of the dyes is carried out in Russian Poland. 

Owing to the extensive development of the textile and tanning 
industries, Poland was a large consumer of dyes before the war ana 
an exporter of finished textiles. 

Pre-war production. — Most of the pre-war dye requirements were 
furnished by Germany, a significant part being supplied by the 



• Prom American Consulate General, Warsaw, Poland, Oct. 6, 1924. 



160 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

Polish dye industry only during the period immediately before the 
war. Two of the four existing dye plants began dye making in 1899: 
the Polish Chemical Industry of Zgierz in a small plant at Lodz, 
and the Pab Janice Chemical Industry Corporation with a capital 
stock of 3,000,000 rubles at Pabjanice. Both of these sites were 
near Lodz, the Polish textile center. A third plant was established 
later at Wola Krzysztoporska. 

The dye production consisted of a few simple dyes, many of the 
azo type, produced from imported German intermediates. The 
Polish coal of Dombrowa basin was noncoking, and coking plants 
were not operated in Russian Poland. The products of the coke 
and gas plants were collected and utilized only to a small extent and 
at best were recovered in a crude fonn and not refined. The four 
tar distilleries were operated for the production of certain basic tar 
derivatives. The tar products of the Upper Silesian plants were 
largely sold to Germany. 

Post-war developments. — The great World War completely changed 
the industrial situation in Poland on account of (1) the loss of Russian 
export markets; (2) the destruction of the dye plants by the Germans; 
and (3) the addition of Upper Silesia to the new Poland. After the 
war the production of dyes ceased, not entirely because of the lack 
of demand but largely owing to the thorough destruction of the 
plants by the Germans, who either carried off or destroyed the 
apparatus. The Zgierz plant (Polish Chemical Industry) was re- 
organized with expanded investment. This firm produces dves, 
drugs, and intermediates and employs 213 men. A new plant 
established at Zawiercie in 1920 (Zaglebie Chemical Plants Corpor- 
ation) produces intermediates and dyes. The other two plants 
include the Pabjanice Chemical Industry Corporation, producing 
dves and drugs and employing 300 men, and the Chemical Plant 
Wola Krzysztoporska, producing dyes and employing 35 men. The 
production of dyes and intermediates developed and soon resulted 
in an increased quantity and variety of products. 

T(ir production.- — The Upper Silesian coal mines give a supply of 
coking coal. Eleven coking plants were in operation, and four tar- 
distilling plants; these insure a home supply of crudes. The reported 
production of the 11 coking plants in lois was as follows: 

Metric tons 

Consumption of coal 1, 600, 000 

Production of: 

Tar 75, 000 

Raw benzene 12, 000 

Ammonium sulfate 25, 000 

Crudes. — The postwar annual production of three tar-distilling 

plants in Upper Silesia is reported as follows : 

Metric tons 

Benzene 5, 500 

Toluene 1, 400 

Phenol 750 

Naphthalene 2, 250 

Heavy oils 11, 000 

Hard pitch 19, 000 



world's production and trade 161 

The production of by-products at 93 coal-gas works in 1923 was 
as follows: 

Metric tons 

Crude tar 25, 200 

Refined tar 3, 652 

Pitch 2, 879 

Tar oils 2, 237 

Naphthalene • 142 

Phenol and carbolic acid 157 

Benzene 453 

Toluene 38 

Xylene 127 

Ammonium sulfate 767 

Ammonia 24° 1, 132 

Liquid ammonia 27 

Intermediates production. — The Zgierz and Zaglebie plants are pro- 
ducers of intermediates, which include derivatives from benzene^ 
toluene, and naphthalene. It is reported that they supply 65 per- 
cent of their requirements. 

Most of the dyes produced are direct cotton, acid, and sulphur 
dyes with a smaller proportion of the basic and chrome dyes. The 
home market production is estimated to supply about 35 per cent 
of the consumption and is reported to be on the increase. 

The Chemical Industry of Poland placed upon the market over 30 
direct dyes for cotton, 6 sulphur dyes, 12 acid dyes, about 10 basic 
dyes, and nearly a dozen wool-chrome dyes, and in addition a variety 
of dyes for union goods. 

Coal-tar dyes: Pounds 

1922 2, 142,871 

1923 4,303,379 

Consuwption of dyes. — The pre-war consumption of dyes by the 
textile industry of Poland is estimated at 12,037,116 pounds, divided 
by classes of application as follows: 

Pounds 

Acid dyes 5, 952, 420 

Direct dyes 4, 100, 556 

Sulphur dyes 1, 763, 680 

Special dyes, mostly of the alizarin and indigo group 220, 460 

Total 12, 037, 116 

Dye-consuming industries. — The cotton industry consumes about 
300,000 bales of cotton per year, operating in 1923 more than 2,000,000 
spindles and 45,000 looms. The woolen mills used 25,000 tons of 
wool and operated 800,000 spindles and about 15,000 looms. The 
jute and the linen industry have a combined total of about 1,000 
looms. The output of cotton piece goods in 1923 is estimated to be 
79,000 tons and of woolen goods 27,000 tons. 

The tanning industry is a heavy dye consumer. In 1922, the 
production by 153 tanneries was sole leather, 6,012 tons; belting 
harness, and Russia leather, 1,904 tons; all other leather about 5,300 
tons. 

The paper industry comprises 19 mills producing about 48,000 
tons of paper per year. 



k 



162 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Dye Industry of Spain 

Before the war the firm of Vero Vidal, Barcelona, was the only- 
important dye manufacturer in Spain. The import duties then in 
effect did not afford sufficient protection, and little advancement in 
the industry was made until the war shut off imports of dye-stuffs. 
The shortage of raw materials during the war prevented the Spanish 
dye industry from expanding as much as it might have done, but after 
the war an increase in the import duty to 1.20 gold pesetas per kilo 
enabled manufacturers to expand their business. The increased 
duty was so effective in restricting imports that on petition the 
Government levied 4 gold pesetas per kilo on aniUne powders and 2 
gold pesetas per kilo on paste. These new duties with the gold sur- 
charge at present in force amount to a dut}^ of 6 and 3 paper pesetas 
per kilo, respectively, on aniline powders and pastes. 

A combination of Spanish dye manufacturers known as the ''Fabri- 
cacion Nacional de Colorantes y Explosivos," formed two years ago, 
manufactures Sulphur black. Aniline oil, Acid black, Orange II, Benzo 
blue 4 B, Direct blue 2 B, Chrome black (F type only), Chrysoidine, 
Bismarck brown. Acid red, and a few other direct and acid colors. 
This company purchases a large part of its raw materials, such as 
dinitrochlorobenzol, H acid, paranitranihne, and beta naphthol. 

The Fabricacion Nacional de Colorantes y Explosivos is important 
only to that part of the Spanish dye business using Sulphur black, 
Acid black, and Aniline oil. German, British, and Swiss manufacturers 
are all represented by selUng agencies in Spain. 

Table 55. — Spain: Imports of coal-tar dyes 1923 and first six months of 1924^ 



Class 


1923 


1924 (first 6 months) 


Pounds 


Value 


Pounds 


Value 


Coal-tar dyes: 


1, 282, 268 
52, 320 
109, 813 


$1, 092, 598 
24,005 
53, 997 


425, 267 
27, 558 
56, 658 




Paste --- 




Indigo, synthetic. 








Total 


i, 444, 401 


1, 170, 600 


509, 483 









1 From December, 1923, and June, 1924, issues of monthly Review of Foreign Trade Statistics of Spain, 
official; values converted at average exchange rate, 1923, 1 peseta=$0.1445. 

Dye Trade of Other Countries 



Tables 56 to 72 show the coal-tar trade of other foreign countries 
in recent years. Similar data for earlier years have been published 
in the Census of Dves and Other Synthetic Organic Chemicals for 
1922 and 1923. 



WORLD S PRODUCTIOX AND TRADE 163 

Table 56. — Argentina: Imports of coal-tar dyes, 1922 and 192S ^ 



Dyes 


1922 


1923 


Pounds 


Value 


Pounds 


Value 


Analine dves. _.. 


1, 043, 799 
741 


$401, 574 
468 


1, 151, 262 
1,351 


$27, 169 


Indigo . . - 


860 






Total 


1, 044, 540 


402, 042 


1, 152, 613 


28,029 





1 From the foreign commerce of Argentina, official; value converted at average exchange rate, 1923, one 
gold peso=$0.7S55. 

Table 57. — Austria: Imports and exports of coal-tar dyes, 1923 and 1924 ' 



Class and country- 



Alizarin dyes: 

Germany.- 

Italy 

Rumania.. 

Switzerland 

Serbia, etc. 

Trieste... 

Czechoslovakia., 

Hungary 

Other countries. 



rp„,„, /pounds.. 114,418 

^'"'^' - \value..-.l $49,434 



1923 



Imports Exports 



Pounds 
105, 159 



8,377 
"""882" 



Pounds 



661 
441 



883 

220 

1,102 

1,543 



4,850 
$2, 431 



1924 



Imports 



Pounds 
104, 498 


Pounds 










3,748 


1,102 
441 






1,984 









110,230 
$111,430 



Indigo, synthetic: 

Belgium.. 

Germany 

France 

Switzerland 

Serbia, etc. 

Czechoslovakia. 

Hungary 

Other countries. 



102, 955 



5,512 



182, 982 



13,228 



5,071 



7,055 

415, 667 

3,968 

80, 468 



3,086 



Total /pounds. 

^°'^^' - - lvalue... 



299, 165 
$79, 824 



13, 669 
$4,052 



882 
"882' 



508, 822 
$252, 440 



3,968 



w 



other coal-tar dyes: 

Bulgaria... 

Denmark 

Germany... | 1,391,544 

Italy t 

Netherlands ' 

Poland .j 

Rumania i 

Switzerland 147,267 

Serbia, etc I 

Czechoslovakia ! 16,535 

Hungary .' 1,543 

Other countries 661 



4,189 



19, 621 

4,409 

1,764 

3,968 

31,306 

661 

52,690 

17,416 

36, 376 

8,818 



1, 902, 129 
4,409 



Exports 



220 



1,763 
$1,823 



3,086 
1,764 



5,732 



10, 582 
$6, 078 



1,323 



51, 367 
1,764 



229, 719 



18, 078 
1,543 
9,921 



5,070 
25, 132 

882 

48,281 

36, 596 

50,706 

3,307 



rr,„t„, /pounds.. 1,561,518 

^"^^^ - Value.. ..j $674,455 



181,218 
$57, 336 



2, 165, 799 
$2, 388, 451 



Grand total \^^:j ^'^fn 



199, 737 
$63, 819 



2, 784. 851 
$2, 742, 321 



224, 428 
$268, 040 



236, 773 
$275, 941 



' From official statistics of Austrian foreign trade; value converted at exchange rate o f 1 gold crown= 

$0.2026. 



164 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

Table 58. — Belgium: Imports and exports of indigo, natural and artificial, 1924 ^ 





Country 


Imports 


Exports 




Pounds 


Value 


Pounds 


Value 


France - 


49,414 

1,926 

23, 250 


$8,370 

494 

5,352 






Great Britain 






Other countries 


12,019 


$2, 327 








Total 


74, 590 


14, 216 


12, 019 


2,327 







1 From official bulletins of the foreign trade of Belgium; value converted at average exchange rate 
1924, 1 Belgian franc= $0.0464. 

Table 59. — Brazil: Imports of coal-tar dyes, 1922, and 192S ^ 





1922 


1923 


Class 


Pounds 


Value 


Pounds 


Value 


Aniline or fuchsine dyes 

Indigo and ultramarine blue.- .- .. - . 


1, 541. 952 
1, 142, 025 


$702, 835 
248, 145 


1, 224, 743 
1,108,211 


$833, 674 
213, 108 






Total- 


2, 683, 977 


950, 980 


2, 332, 954 


1, 046, 782 



' From Foreign Trade of Brazil; values converted at average exchange; 1922, 1 milreis, paper, =$0.12935 
and 1923= $0.1023. 

Table 60. — Canada: Imports of coal-tar dyes, 12 months ended March, 1924 ' 



Class and country 


Pounds 


Value 


Aniline and coal-tar dyes, 
alizarin: 
United Kingdom... 


soluble 


in 


water, 


including alizarin and artificial 


272, 968 
1, 803, 020 
617, .501 
245, .532 
180, 970 
223, 352 
4,956 


$130 206 


United States 


1 079 129 


Germany- 


430. 276 


Netherlands,. 


195, 496 


Sweden . . . 


96 807 


Switzerland 


151,505 


Other countries 


2 159 














Total 


3, 348, 299 


2, 085. 578 




. 0. p.: 










Aniline and coal-tar dyes, n 
United Kingdom 


2,352 

20, 930 

1.242 


856 


United States 


10, 152 


Other countries _ . _ _ _ __ 


1,102 














Total- 


24, 624 


12, 110 














Indigo: 

United Kingdom - 


347 




United States 


400 


Other countries _ _ _ __ 
















Total: 


347 


400 














Indigo paste and extract: 
United States 


85, 516 
43, 935 


16,494 


Other countries _ . _ _ 


7, 123 














Total 


129, 451 


23, 617 














Grand total 


3, 502, 621 


2, 121, 705 







' From March, 1924, issue of Monthly Report of the Trade of Canada, value converted at average exchange 
rate, year ended March, 1924, one Canadian dollar=$0.9761. 



WORLD \S PRODUCTION AND TRADE 
Table 61. — China: Imports of dyes, colors, and paints, 192S ' 



165 



Imported from— 


Analine 


Indigo, 


irtiflcial 


Dyes and colors, 
unclassed ' 




Value 


Pounds 


Value 


Pounds 


Value 


Hongkong 


$1,016,638 

22, 686 

363 

78 

3,457 

0, 305 

90, 986 

22, 425 

27, 426 

24,718 

3, 844, 278 

1,115,352 

110,010 

43, 622 

41,865 

2,263 

8,253 

166,310 

1,902 

2,400 

276, 530 


1,579,729 


$573, 196 


11,051,172 
81,333 
11,467 

916, 665 
27,200 
21,333 

293, 866 


$436, 229 


French Indo-China 


2,478 


Siam 


267 


72 


1,030 


Singapore, Straits, etc 


44, 858 




... 


1,358 


British India 






2,895 


Great Britain 


1,829,062 


614, 962 


54, 818 


Norway 




Sweden 






133 

13,333 

1, 622, 929 

469, 599 

478, 132 

853, 732 


52 


Denmark 






1,760 


Germany . . ... 


10, 938, 239 

389, 006 

45,600 

1,461,196 

6, 239, 584 


3, 523, 870 

109, 407 

10, 308 

466, 242 

1,777,092 


549, 488 


Netherlands 


67,062 


Belgium... 


52, 510 


Franco 


84, 443 


Switzerland 


2,442 


Italy 




5, 170 


Korea 


8, 267 
14, 933 
2,667 


996 
9,684 
1,066 


3, 335, 592 
7, 501, 048 


56, 126 


Japan and Formosa 


520, 151 


Philippine Islands.. 




Canada 


4,133 
337, 599 


2,188 


United States of America and Hawaii 

Russia, Pacific ports 


12, 021, 037 
2,733 


2, 648, 023 
2,554 


43, 612 


Macao. 




84,800 
1,333 
3,600 

10, 933 


2,455 


Turkey, Persia, Egypt, Aden, etc 








141 


Russia and Siberia, by land frontier 








648 


Russia and Siberia, by Pacific ports 








2,450 












Total 


6, 827, 768 
473, 111 


34, 535, 380 
388, 532 


9, 597, 473 
143, 938 


27, 179, 932 
227, 199 


1, 934, 365 


Reexports 


29, 136 






Total net imports 


6, 354, 657 


34, 146, 848 


9, 453, 534 


26, 952, 733 


1, 905, 229 







' From Foreign Trade of China. Value converted at average exchange in 1923, "haikwan tael"=$0.80. 
2 Probably includes colors other than coal-tar dyes. 

Table 62. — -Czechoslovakia: Imports and exports of coal-tar dyes, calendar year 

1923 1 



Class and country 



Alizarin, alizarin colors and syn- 
thetic indigo: 

Germany 

France 

Switzerland 

Poland 

Austria- 

Belgium 



Total. 



Imports 



Pounds Value 



96, 162 

30, 628 

14, 098 

3, 527 

522 

450 



$33, 720 
9,401 
3,457 
2,412 
314 
1,310 



145,387 50,614 



Exports 



Class and country 




Alizarin, alizarin colors and 
synthetic indigo: 
British India and Ceylon. 

Netherlands 

Germany 

Switzerland 

France. 

Japan 

Denmark 

Austria 

Hungary 

Poland 

Italy 

Persia , 

Danzig. , 

Dutch East Indies.. 

Norway 

Other countries 



Total 473, 



167,371 


$30, 378 


110,525 


17, 940 


73, 173 


25, 990 


54, 105 


24,057 


50,241 


22, 230 


4,171 


3,480 


4,017 


1,251 


2,928 


864 


2,491 


668 


2,480 


1,824 


526 


275 


478 


209 


408 


326 


406 


72 


313 


237 


64 


59 



129,860 



I From foreign commerce of the Republic of Czechoslovakia, official. Value converted at average ex- 
change rate, 1923, one crown =$0.02946. 



,0 



166 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Table 62. — Czechoslovakia: Imports and exports of coal-tar dyes, calendar year 

1923 — Continued 



Class and country 


Imports 


Class and country 


Exports 


Pounds 


Value 


Pounds 


Value 


Azo and sulphur dyes: 

Germany 


552,034 

85,444 

3,137 

388 

77 


$239, 920 

55, 901 

1,342 

121 

32 


Azo and sulphur dyes: 

Germany 


52,646 

12, 522 

3,300 

2,945 

2,562 

1,565 

1,210 

7&3 

392 

284 

243 

124 

68 

29 


$4,375 


Switzerland 


Austria . 


4,918 


Austria . . 


Netherlands 


2,626 


Netherlands 


Hungary 


1,638 


Hungary 


Jugoslavia 


922 




Italy 


594 




Sweden 


1,343 




Finland 


414 




Poland,. 


476 




Norway 


220 




Belgium 


156 




Rumania 


35 




Great Britain and Ireland. 
Denmarli 


62 
44 




Total 




Total- 


641, 080 


297, 316 


78, 673 


17,823 




All other coal-tar dyes: 

Germany 




All other coal-tar dyes: 

Germany 


3, 700, 650 

473, 482 

90, 556 

26, 288 

21, 962 

10,245 

2,906 

2,313 

2,105 

1,543 

159 


1, 979, 833 

303, 371 

32, 630 

2,708 

12, 562 

4,989 

1,063 

750 

1,010 

1,890 

44 


100, 276 

51,019 

21,074 

14, 930 

10, 695 

7,185 

6,717 

6,468 

5,560 

3,082 

1,863 

1,446 

752 

661 

489 

456 

408 

375 

328 

234 

492 


24, 973 


Switzerland -. . .. 


Austria 


23, 341 


France 


Poland- 


4,758 


United States . 


Hungary.. 


5,681 


Austria 


Netherlands 


6,640 


Poland.- 


Sweden 


3,840 


Hungary 


Rumania 


3,726 


Italy 


Italy... 


3,871 


Netherlands 


Jugoslavia 


2,548 


Great Britain and Ireland... 


France 


2,478 


Other countries 


Finland 


1,258 




Switzerland.. 


1,666 




Norway 


634 




Canada 


608 




Belgium . . 


233 




Trieste 


389 




Latvia 


39 




Great Britain and Ireland. 
French possessions in Africa 
Denmark 


322 
79 
223 




Other countries 


563 




Total. -. . 




Total 


4, 332, 209 


2, 340, 850 


234, 510 


87, 870 




Grand total 




Grand total 


5, 118, 676 


2, 688, 780 


786,879 


235, 553 









world's production and trade 167 

Table 63. — Dutch East Indies: Imports of coal-tar dyes, 1922, 192S, and 1924 ' 





1922 


1923 


1924 




Wet 


Dry 


Wet and dry 




Pounds 


Value 


Pounds 


Value 


Pounds 


Pounds 


Alizarin dyes: 

Netherlands. 


250, 398 
56, 416 
180, 006 


$134, 613 
24, 526 
85, 584 


21, 054 

110 

33, 962 


$21, 211 

88 

36. 055 


206, 836 
246, 430 
250,471 




291, 062 




106, 348 




637, 524 




8,598 












298 












7,936 












45, 770 


4,017 




























Total 


486, 820 


244, 723 


55,126 


57,354 


757,443 


1,047,847 






Aniline dyes: 


4,674 




125, 742 




98, 579 

2,130 

373. 153 


131, 194 








4,400 




2,888 




196, 176 




531, 209 










631 








14, 037 




11,072 

6,107 

49, 626 

260 


5,595 


Italy 








562 








7,793 

4,852 




46, 429 










320 


China 








734 


Hongkong 










244 






110 




10, 723 




440 ! 7 










Total 


7,672 




359, 323 




541,611 1 721,081 










Synthetic indigo: 
Netherlands 


591, 505 


357, 507 


5,558 




214, 012 485, 814 


Great Britain 




30, 093 6, 614 




499, 322 


282, 527 


1,462 




194,911 1 554, aSl 






142, 285 1 109. 525 


Belgium 


6,614 
51, 632 
19, 841 


2,887 
19, 012 
7,044 








29, 762 


Italy 


4,189 




71,947 
153, 793 


5,952 






47, 730 








4 












43, 651 

86, 112 

2,248 

132 
















Japan 






1 


66 








2,039 
















Total 


1, 168, 914 


fifiS. 977 


13, 248 




939, 184 


1, 239, 498 










Grand total 


1, 663, 406 


913, 700 


427, 697 


57, 354 


2, 238, 238 


3, 008, 426 







1 From imports and exports of the principal articles of commerce entering into the free traffic of Java 
and Madura; value converted at average exchange rate, 1922, one gulden=$0.3849; 1923=$0.3910; 1924= 
$0.3822. 

Table 64. — Dutch East Indies: Exports of natural indigo, 1920-1924 ' 



Java and Madura 


1920 


1921 


1922 


1923 


1924 


Indigo, dry: 


Pounds 

586 

58,510 


Pound:s 

2,363 

97,399 


Pounds 

7,394 
11,023 


Povjids 


Pounds 


Singapore- .. .. ... 




5,952 






3,267 


China. 


1 




441 

8,457 




Japan 


9,963 


54.068 


10, 582 


15, 644 






Total 


69, 059 


153, 830 


28, 999 


8,898 


24,863 






Indigo, wet: 

British India 


1 
1 


5,445 
4,409 


1 




346, 299 
127 


13, 779 


2,646 














1 


Total 


346, 426 


13, 779 


9,854 


2,646 








Grand total 


415, 485 


167, 609 


38,853 


11,544 


24,863 







1 From imports and exports of the principal articles of commerce entering into the free traflBc of Java and 
Madura, value converted at average exchange rate 1920, one gulden =$0.3407; 1921=$0.3367; 1922=$0.3849, 
1923 = $0.3910; 1924=$0.3822. 



168 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

Table 65. — Egypt: Imports of coal-tar dyes, 1924 * 



Class and country 


Pounds 


Value 


Indigo, synthetic: 

United Kingdom . . ....... 








24,703 

147, 821 

560, 627 

214, 572 

26 


$16, 896 




42, 991 




347, 295 


Switzerland 


77, 178 


Other countries . . 


27 






Total 


947, 749 


484, 387 






Other coal-tar dyes: 

United Kingdom 


3,510 
9,374 
7,423 
562, 091 
17, 769 


2,939 


Belgium 


2,585 


France 


2,675 


Germany 


223,523 


Switzerland 


13, 014 


Syria .. .. . . . .. .. 




Other countries . . . 


7,712 


2,352 






Total 


607, 879 


247, 088 






Indigo, natural: 

British India. 


109, 893 


87, 943 






Total 


109, 893 


87, 943 






Other dyes: 

United Kingdom 


5,531 
2,967 
5,860 
4,398 
1.653 
1,581 


4,564 


France 


1. '" 


Germany 


2 


Italy 


1 


United States 


1 


Other countries 


633 






Total ... 


21, 990 


12. 381 






Grand total 


1,687,511 


831, 799 







• From annual statement of the foreign trade of Egypt, value converted at average exchange rate, 1924 , 
one Egyptian pound =$4.4876. 

Table 66. — Egypt: Reexports of coal-tar dyes, 1924^ 



Class and country 


Pounds 


Value 


Indigo, synthetic 


5,732 

172 
1,623 


$3, 442 


Other coal-tar dyes: 


99 


Other countries , - ----- 


1,095 








Total 


1,795 


1,194 








Indigo, natural .. 


29 


22 







1 From annual statement of the foreign trade of Egypt; value converted at average exchange rate, 1924, 
one Egyptian pound =$4.4876. 



WORLD S PRODUCTION AND TRADE 



169 



T.\BLE 67. — India: Imponts of coal-tar dyes and exports of natural indigo, 192S 

and 1924 ' 



Imports of coal-tar dyes 


Exports of natural indigo 




Year 

ended 

Mar. 31, 

1923 


Calendar year 
1924 




Year 
ended 

Mar. 
31, 1923 


Calendar year 
1924 




Pounds 


1 
Pounds 1 Value 

1 


Pounds 


Pounds 


Value 


Alizarin dj'es 


5, 285, 661 
8, 741, 929 


9,269,626 :.$2,102,031 

11,301,298 6,926,897 

145,936 : 139,418 

1,590 i 1.342 










Aniline dyes 










Indigo, synthetic 










Other coal tar dyes 


92,232 




















Total 


14, 119, 822 


20, 718, 450 ;9, 169, 688 










To- 
United Kingdom. 
Asiatic Turkey... 
Persia 








From— 

United Kingdom.. 
Germany 


1, 326, 261 
9. 922. 018 


1, 513, 106 ! 443, 281 
14,810,512 '6,787,968 

1, 402, 175 522, 222 
253,642 1 192,352 
405,084 ! 198,238 

2,056,417 ; 807,828 
131,578 78,381 


86.128 
129, 808 
63,728 
41,216 
129, 136 


68,096 


$65, 973 


Belgium ! 1,002,955 


31. 360 
99. 680 


28, 452 


Switzerland 53. 259 


Japan 


S5. 370 


United States 

Netherlands 


726, 391 


Egypt 

Mesopotamia 


88, 704 1 66; 811 
87,136 t 95,066 


Other countries 


1, 088, 938 


Other countries . 
Total 


57,904 


60, 032 1 62, 749 


Total 


14,119,822 


20,572,614 


9, 030. 270 


507,920 


435, 008 


398, 421 









• ' From accounts relating to the sea-borne trade and navigation of British India, value converted at 
average exchange rate, 1924, one rupee=$0.3179. 

Table 68. — Italy: Imports and exports of synthetic organic dyes, 192S and 1924 ^ 





1923 


1924 


Class 


Imports 


Exports 


Imports 


Exports 




Pounds 


Value 


Pounds 


Value 


Pounds 


Value 


Pounds 


Value 


Sulphur black 


10, 141 


$3. 517 


27, 558 


$4,569 


48, 501 

1,323 
200, 839 

7,716 

2, 546, 533 

867, 290 

1, 138, 455 

1,223,112 


$9, 019 


161,818 


$25. 626 


Account of German repa- 
rations 


Other sulphur dyes .. . 


464, 950 


239,864 


34,833 


22, 396 


104,188 


28,660 


15, 434 


Account of German repa- 
% rations 




Other synthetic organic dyes 
dry or containing less than 

50 per cent of water 

Account of German repa- 
rations 


3. 187, 851 

2, 299, 839 

571,653 

616, 186 


2, 321, 541 


480, 823 


485, 345 


1, 932, 237 


327, 163 


313, 639 


In paste or containing 50 per 

cent or more of water 

Account of German repa- 
rations. 


172, 366 


104, 498 


36, 171 


327,844 


23, 368 


22, 094 
















Total 


7.150.620 2.7,37.288 


647, 712 


548, 481 


6, 033, 770 


2, 373, 288 


541,009 


376, 793 











' From official statistics of domestic exports and imports for consumption, Jan. 1 to Dec. 31, 1923 and 
1924, respectively; value converted at average exchange rate, 1923, one lira=$0.0460, and 1924. one lira— 
$0.0436. 



170 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

Table 68a.- — Italy: Imports of synthetic organic dyes by countries, 1923 and 1924 



Imported from— 


1923 


1924 




Pounds 


Pounds 
964, 733 




3, 329, 387 

2, 916, 024 

662, 482 

242, 506 


2, 025, 366 




2, 099, 440 


Switzerland 


771, 390 


Other countries - - 


172, 841 








Total. -. 


7,150,399 


6, 033, 770 







Table 69. — Netherlands: Imports and exports of synthetic organic dyes, calendar (i 

year 1923 ' ' .| 



Class and country 



Anilin and other coal-tar dyes: 

Germany 

Belgium 

France-- 

Switzerland- 

Great Britain 

United States-. 

Sweden - 

Denmark and Iceland 

Italy and Fiume 

Czechoslovakia 

Other countries 



Total 4,559,133 



Imports 



Pounds Value 



3,428,153 $1,563,609 



94,798 

608, 470 

354, 941 

30, 864 

4,409 

6,614 

6,614 

8,818 

6,614 

8,838 



35, 581 
242, 811 
251, 413 
15, 640 
3,910 
4,692 
3,910 
6,083 
3,128 
7,038 



2, 136, 815 



Indigo, synthetic: 

Germany 361,554 

France- 57,320 

Switzerland- -. 24,251 



Other countries- 



2,204 



76, 636 

10, 166 

4,692 

1,173 



Total-- 445,329 



92, 667 



Other synthetic organic dyes: 

Germany 1 123,458 

Other countries i 2,204 



4,692 
391 



Total.- 

Grand total - 



125, 662 



5,083 



5, 130, 124 2, 234, 565 



Class and country 



Anilin and other coal-tar dyes: 

Germany 

Belgium... 

Great Britain 

United States 

Dutch East Indies 

Sweden 

Denmark and Iceland 

Italy and Fiume 

Portugal 

France. 

Norway 

Serbia 

Spain - 

Switzerland 

Egypt. 

Luxemburg 

Hongkong-- 

Japan and Korea 

India Empire 

Mexico 

Esthonia 

China.- 

Other countries 



Total. 



Indigo, synthetic: 

Belgium-. 

Greece 

Czechoslovakia- 
China 

Mexico 

Other countries - 

Total 



Exports 



Pounds Value 



52, 910 

310, 849 

37, 478 

33, 069 

15, 432 

28, 660 

108, 025 

24,251 

35, 274 

4,409 

17, 637 

6,614 

4,409 

6,614 

6,614 

8,818 

13, 228 

6,614 

41,887 

4,409 

6, 6M 

57, 320 

26, 454 



857, 589 



26, 455 
39, 683 
26, 455 
114, 639 
6,614 
6,614 



220, 460 



Grand total 1,078,049 



$39, 491 
73, 899 
24, 633 
28,543 
7,429 

r ' " 

4 

1 
1., 

4,692 
8,211 
3,128 
2,346 
3,519 
2,346 
5,082 
2,346 
4,301 
9,775 
2,346 
3,519 
12,.512 
13, 295 



335, 478 



5,083 
26, 197 

4,692 
21, 114 

1,955 

1,955 



60,996 



396,474 



' From annual statistics of the foreign trade of the Netherlands, value converted at average exchange rate, 
1923, 1,000 florin=$391. 



WOELD's PKODUCTION AND TKADE 171 

Table 70. — Sweden: Imports of coal-tar dyes, 1922 and 1923 ^ 



Class and country 


1922 


1923 


Pounds Value 


Pounds 


Value 


Alizarin dyes: 

Denmark 


377 $537 


672 

337 

1,003 

15D, 255 

15, 657 

9,810 

450 

146 


$729 


Finland. 






366 


Danzig.. 






1,087 


Germany 


95, 539 


136, 092 


162, 869 


Belgium 


16, 971 


France 


1 


10, 634 


Switzerland 




487 


Other countries 


154 [ 220 


158 






Total 


96,070 j 136,849 


178, 330 


193, 301 






Anilin and other coal-tar dyes: 

Norway. 


11,067 8,539 
21,757 16,788 


17, 524 

22, 917 

4,866 

1,543 

1,845 

99, 388 

127,911 

59, 002 

40, 629 

318,814 

7,127 

1, 891, 262 


12, 136 


Denmark ... 


15, 870 


Finland 


3,369 


Latvia 


1 


1,069 


Danrig 




1,278 


Netherlands 


3,931 ! 3,033 

10, 064 7, 765 

22,308 17,213 

4, 083 3, 150 

151,681 117,036 

1, 129 ; 871 

1,523,603 1,175,599 

1,065 822 

434 335 


68, 829 


Belgium.- 


88, 581 


Great Britain. .... 


40, 860 


France 


28, 136 


Switzerland 


220, 787 


United States 


4,936 


Germany .... 


1, 309, 746 


Austria 




Other countries 


439 


304 






Total 


1, 751, 122 i 1, 351, 151 


2, 593, 267 


1,795,901 


Indigo, synthetic: 

Germany 


42, 110 22, 737 


81,859 

11 

761 


34, 758 


Great Britain 


5 


Switzerland 


331 366 


1,241 






Total 


42,441 23,103 


82, 631 


36,004 


Other indigo dyes: 

Germany 


15,825 i 3,757 












Total 


15,825 1 3,757 


110 


17 






Indigo, natural: 

Total 


11 32 


44 


126 






Grand total 


1,905,469 1 1,514,892 

1 


2,854,382 


2, 025, 349 







1 From official trade statistics of the Swedish Department of Commerce; value converted at average 
exchange rate of one kronor=$0.2617 in 1922 and $0.2655 in 1923. 

Table 71. — Sweden: Exports of coal-tar dyes, 1922 and 1923 ' 



Class and country 


1922 


1923 


Pounds 


Value 


Pounds 


Value 


Alizarin dyes: 

Denmark 


220 
24 


$366 
SO 






Other countries 














Total.- 


244 


455 


194 


$347 






Anilin and other coaHar dyes: 

Norway 


8,993 
19, 068 
1,622 
7,165 
11 
1,830 


1 
11,905 1 29.815 


31,932 
20, 530 


Denmark 


14, 259 

2,477 

2,979 

26 

811 


27, 105 
15, 461 
14, 330 


Finland.. 


16, 107 


Russia 


4,779 


Esthonia 


Latvia 






Netherlands 


961 fi.'^fi 


2,436 
10, 053 


2,777 


Great Britain 







6,240 



' From ofTicial trade statistics of the Swedish Department of Commerce; value converted at average 
exchange rate of one kronor= $0.2617 in 1922 and $0.2655 in 1923. 



172 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

Table 71. — Sweden: Exports of coal-tar dyes, 1922 and 1923 — Continued 



Class and country- 


1922 


1923 


Pounds 


Value 


Pounds 


Value 


British East India 






1,378 
62 


$1, 487 


Other countries .... ... 






172 










Total.. 


39, 650 


33,093 


100, 700 


84, 026 






Indigo, synthetic: 

Norway 


220 


290 


377 
463 


603 


Netherlands . 


265 










Total 


220 


290 


840 


768 






Grand total 


40, 114 


33, 838 


101, 734 


85, 141 







Table 72. — Switzerland: Imports and exports of coal-tar dyes, 1924 ' 



Germany 

Austria. 

France 

Italy.- 

Great Britain... 
Other countries. 

Total 



EXPORTS 

Germany 

Austria 

France 

Italy.... 

Belgium 

Holland 

Great Britain 

Spain 

Portugal.. 

Denmark 

Norway 

Sweden.. 

Finland 

Latvia, Esthonia 

Poland 

Czechoslovakia 

Hungary 

Jugoslavia 

Greece 

Bulgaria 

Rumania 

Russia 

Egypt 

British India 

Indo-China 

Dutch East Indies.. 

China 

Japan 

Canada 

United States 

Mexico 

Brazil 

Argentina 

Chile 

Australia 

Other countries 



Total 10,271,452 9,601,576 



Aniline and other coal- 
tar dyes 



Pounds 



1, 309, 973 



30, 423 

19. 401 

32, 628 

1,764 



1, 394, 189 



139, 992 

175, 707 

,714,744 

493, 169 

699, 961 

277, 780 

, 082, 679 

115,080 

70, 988 

135,583 

36, 155 

314,817 

35, 935 

65, 036 

87. 302 

, 095, 025 

35, 494 

24,471 

20, 723 

81,791 

55, 997 

32, 849 

11,905 

290, 346 

9,700 

61,288 

103, 396 

819, 890 

139, 772 

551,370 

121,032 

207, 232 

110,010 

24, 692 

11,243 

18, 298 



Value 



$969, 304 



22, 411 
7,834 

19, 860 
1,822 



1. 021, 231 



Indigo, indigo solution 



Pounds 



105, 600 



129, 190 



234, 790 



Value 



$37, 351 



40, 448 



77, 799 



107, 

143, 
2, 737, 

534, 

406, 

236, 
1, 246, 

158, 
52, 

122, 
35, 

284, 
41, 
79, 
95, 

799, 
41, 
14, 
15, 
51, 
38, 
43, 
9, 

208, 
9, 
46, 
75, 

691, 
88, 

687, 
96, 

282. 

72, 

22, 

7, 

17, 



72, 752 

10, 362 

181, 439 

16, 975 



26, 455 



17, 491 
7,106 

49, 741 
4,919 



32, 796 



14, 771 9, 657 

'4,189 2,733 



204, 587 
43, 431 



88, 404 

7, 690, 527 

253, 309 

99, 647 



77,617 
30, 427 



30, 063 

1,971,222 

256, 355 

21,317 



37, 698 



25, 326 



8,744,546 2,536,770 



Alizarin, synthetic 



Pounds 



307, 321 

882 

1,102 



Value 



$55, 935 
182 
729 



441 



309, 746 



56, 846 



1 From official statistics of the foreign trade of Switzerland, value converted at average exchange rate, 
1924, 1 franc =$0.1822. 



world's production and trade 173 

earnings of swiss dye manufacturers in 1924* 

The combined net earnings of the four firms engaged in the manu- 
facture of aniline dyes in Basel were approximately 10,500,000 francs 
for the year 1924. 

The largest firm, Gesellschaft fuer Chemische Industrie, has a 
capital stock of 20,000,000 francs and total assets of 66,143,553 
francs. The net earnings of this firm for 1924 were 3,558,522 francs 
which was a decrease from 1923, said to be caused by the sharp com- 
petition in the Chinese market, particularly in indigo. The directors 
were able, however, to declare a 15 per cent dividend after making 
liberal allowances for the amortization and pension funds. 

The financial statement of the Chemische Fabrik vormals Sandoz 
shows the largest profit of any dye firm in Basel during 1924. This 
firm is capitalized at 7,500,000 francs, and its net earnings in 1924, 
3,360,582 francs, were equivalent to 44 per cent of its capital stock. 
Its board of directors declared a dividend of 25 per cent and in addi- 
tion recommended to the stockholders the issuance of one bond of 
1,000 francs, bearing 5^ per cent interest, for every three shares 
of stock held. The total Assets of the company, according to its 
annual statement as of December 31, 1924, amounted to 26,284,611 
francs. 

The firm of J. R. Geigy, S. A., has a capital of 7,500,000 francs 
and assets of approximately 16,000,000 francs. As this firm is owned 
exclusively by the Geigy family, it does not publish its statement, 
but it is known that its earnings for 1924 were very lai^e, approxi- 
mating 3,000,000 francs, or about 40 per cent of its capital stock. 

The firm of Durand & Huguenin, S. A., has recuperated to a very 
large extent from the effects of the war, and its net earnings were 
larger in 1924 than in the preceding year. This firm, which is cap- 
italized at 2,000,000 francs, showed net earnings of 567,809 francs, 
and declared a dividend of 10 per cent. 

Import Tariff Rates and Regulations of the World's Chief 
Dye Producing and Consuming Nations 

Introduction 

A compilation of the tariff rates of 26 of the world's principal dye 
consuming and producing countries, together with information on the 
license control of the imports of dyes into Great Britain, Germany, 
Australia, Japan, and Persia, is given on pages 174-186. This compila- 
tion has been checked by the foreign tariffs division of the Bureau 
of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, with the official text of foreign 
tariff laws on file in that division as of May, 1925. In addition to 
the current rates for foreign countries the tariff rates on coal-tar dyes 
for the United States have been compiled for this period, 1864 to 
1922. 

In view of the frequent changes in tariff rates, the compilation 
should not be relied on in making actual shipments. Precise infor- 
mation as to rates in force at any given date may be obtained on 
application to the foreign tariffs division of the Department of 
Commerce. 

' World Trade Notes on Coal-Tar Products, No. 65-B. Department of Commerce. 



174 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Argentina 

(Law No. 11281 of November 29, 1923; Boletin Oficial, December 3, 1923) 

9. Aniline dyes. Ad valorem 5 per cent. 

Art. 8. All goods or products subject to import duties are to pay a surtax of 
2 per cent when the duty amounts to from 10 to 20 per cent and a surtax of 7 
per cent when the duty exceeds 20 per cent. These surtaxes are to be calcu- 
lated on the values laid down by the valuation tariff, or on the actual value of 
goods or products not enumerated in the tariff. 

Art. 11. The valuations laid down in the valuation tariff and the laws amend- 
ing it are to be increased by 60 per cent, and the specific duties fixed by this 
law are to be increased by 25 per cent. 

Art. 12. * * * products of any kind whatsoever which are imported or 
exported, whether dutiable or not, and those in transit for other countries are 
to pay the statistical service tax of 3 per cent of the values stated in the customs 
papers. The customs of the Republic are to include the amount of the statis- 
tical tax in the liquidation of the documents for the various operations of the 
Customs, and are to collect it in conjunction with them. 

Art. 76. Minimum tariff equals import duties established. 

Maximum tariff: (a) Minimum tariff plus surtax of 50 per cent, (h) Ad 
valorem rate of 15 per cent is imposed on free goods. 

The following tabulation shows the oficial valuation and percent- 
age to be applied against these valuations to obtain the actual rate 
on dyes imported into Argentina. 



Tariff 
number 



487 

2849 

2850 

2851 

2853 

2854 

2902 

2978. 

N. O. S... 



Kind of dye 



Special dyes for leather (gross) 
Aniline, liquid, and its salts... 

Aniline, black 

Aniline of other colors 

Indigo of all kinds 

Purple, liquid, or in paste 

Bronze powder 

Coloring for butter and cheese 
Package dyes. 



Valuation 
(pesos per 
gross kilo)' 



0.128 
.64 
1.20 
1.60 
2.40 
1.20 
1.60 
1.60 
Ad valorem 



Rate (per 
cent of 
valua- 
tion) 



1 These valuations include the 60 per cent increase of 1923. 



Australia 



Under authority of the customs act of 1901-1916, the governor 
general of Australia issued a proclamation ^ prohibiting the importa- 
tion of dyes, other than those of British origin, except with the writ- 
ten consent of the minister of state for trade ana customs. This 
action had for its object the fostering of the newly expanded British 
dyestuffs industry. 

Representations by Australian importers that dyes of a quality 
possessed by certain of those made in America were not obtainable in 
adequate quantities from British sources led to the granting, for the 
time being, of licenses for the importation of certain American dyes. 
By the end of 1923, however, the Australian officials had decided on a 
more stringent enforcement of the 1919 proclamation and had pro- 
hibited the import of any dye obtainable in Great Britian. The 
sentiment for establishing closer trade relations among the various 
countries of the British Empire, aroused by the Imperial Economic 



1 Australian Oovernment Gazette of Feb. 27, 1919. 



WORLD S PRODUCTION AND TRADE 



175 



Conference in London in 1923, is believed to have been the reason for 
stricter enforcement of measures for the control of dye importations 
into Australia. 

Australian tariff of December 16, 1921 



231 Paints and colors: 

(ft) * * * Dyes.i dry or in paste form for manufac- 
turing purposes - ad valorem.. 



British prefer- 
ential 



Free. 



Intermediate 



5 per cent. 



General 



10 per cent. 



1 Licensing system, similar to that of United Kingdom. 

Belgium 

(Law of May 8, 1924, which became effective November 10, 1924) 



396 (^ tar dyes, dry or in paste: 

A.lizarin 

Alizarin dyes. 

.niline dyes 

yfi) Indigo, artificial 

(e) Others 



Maximum 


Minimum 


Ad valorem 




15 per cent 


Free. 


15 per cent 


Do. 


15 per cent 


Do. 


15 per cent 


Do. 


15 per cent 


Do. 



The minimum rates apply to imports from the United States. 
The ad valorem duties are levied on the c. i. f. value at the port of 
entry. 

Bolivia 

Bolivianos 
per gross kilo 

166 Indigo 1. 00 

1919 Alizarin, aniline, fuchsine and their imitations . 85 

1943 Coal-tar colors . 15 

There is a surtax of 10 per cent of the import duty. Duties on all goods except 
sugar, flour, and rice, imported into Bolivia, were increased by 10 per cent for 
one year from January 8, 1925; ■ 

Brazil 

(January 1, 1924) 



146 Aniline or fuschine colors of all kinds, etc., solid or liquid 

154 Pastes or extracts for dyeing, liquid or solid, not specially mentioned.. .. — 

156 Coloring materials, alizarin, anschuchine, bixine, garancine, curcumine, 

indigotine, hematine, braziline, carthamine (safflower carmine) and 

others not specially mentioned 

328 Amino-naphthalene .net weight. 

Anthracene, in paste or in powder for the manufacture of dyestulIs...do — 

Benzidine and homologous acids, for the manufacture of aniline do... 

Dimethylaminobenzol .do... 

Dinitrochlorobenzene do... 

Dinitrophenol... do... 

Metaphenylenediamine do — 

Perchlorate of ammonia, nitronaphthalene, and trinitrotoluol gross. 



Duty, reis 
per kOo 



2,000 
1,000 



1,800 
1,500 
1,500 
1,500 
1,500 
1,500 
1,500 
1,500 
40 



Tare allow- 
ance 



(') 



I ' See footnotes on p. 176. 



176 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

The actual rates at present (May, 1925) paid by the importer are 
about four times those given above, due to the payment of 60 per 
cent of the duty in gold plus 2 per cent gold surtax. 

Bulgaria 

1923 

Gold leva 
per 100 kilos 

178 (c) Indigo, natural and synthetic 200 

180 Artificial organic colors, not prepared 160 

181 Colors of all kinds, cakes, tablets, balls or other shapes: (c) Other than 

stove polish, ultramarine blues and other mineral blues (including 
charges for immediate packing) 250 

182 Colors of all kinds, prepared with oil, spirit, water, glue, etc. (including 

charges for immediate packing) : 

(a) In tubes or receptacles containing less than 500 grams 200 

(b) In receptacles containing 500 grams or more 60 

If payment is made in paper currency, the duties are multiplied by 15. 

Chile 

(Law No. 3066, March 1, 1916, amended by Law No. 3734 of February 23, 1921, 
and by Law No. 3852 of February 10, 1922, levying taxes) 

Pesos per kilo 
1399 Anthracene (net weight) 2. 25 

1100 Alizarin and imitations thereof ; fuschine 1.80 

Aniline and other colors from coal, not specified, legal weight 1. 20 

1101 Indigo, natural or synthetic, gross weight 2. 70 

Article I. Goods shipped into the ports of the Republic for foreign countries 
as well as those exported overland shall pay a tax of 10 centavos per metric quintal 
gross weight or fraction. 

The same tax shall be payable on foreign goods landed in large or small trading 
ports or imported overland. 

China 

342 Aniline dyes not otherwise enumerated 5 per cent ad valorem. 

356 Dyes and colors unclassed 5 per cent ad valorem. 

360 Indigo, artificial, containing not more than 20 

per cent indigotin (higher strengths in 

proportion) 2.20 Haikwan taels per picul. 

363 Indoine 5 per cent ad valorem. 

> Tare: Glass receptacles capable of containing water— Per cent 

Up to 15 grams... 80 

More than 15 grams and up to 125 grams. -. 70 

More than 125 grams and up to 500 grams - 50 

More than 500 grams and up to 2 kilos 40 

More than 2 kilos and up to 4 kilos. 20 

More than 4 kilos _ 10 

Pots (botijas) or other receptacles of earthenware or faience, 30 per cent; hogsheads or cases, 10 per cent; 

tins, 5 per cent; iron barrels or receptacles, 12i^ per cent; small cases of cardboard or wood, gross weight. 

8 TTaro: Glass receptacles containing water — Per cent 

Up to 125 grams _ 60 

More than 125 grams and up to 250 grams 50 

More than 250 grams and up to 500 grams 40 

More than 500 grams and up to 2 kilos 30 

More than 2 kilos 20 

Other receptacles of earthenware or faience. 40 

Hogsheads _ 10 

Tins or cases of tin or zinc... 5 

Small eases or boxes of cardboard or wood, gross weight. 



world's peoduction and trade 177 

Colombia 

Pesos per 
gross kilo 

177 Alizarin, natural or artificial 0. 08 

178 Anilines ■ . 03 

179 Indigo, archil, and vegetable dyes not specified . 03 

There is a surtax of 17.7 per cent of the duty. 

Czechoslovakia 

(December, 1921) 

Derivatives of dry distillation of coal tar used in the manufacture of coal-tar 
dyes by permission and under control (Free) . 

(January 1. 1922) 

Crowns per 100 kilos 



625 Tar dyes... 

626 Colors, not elsewhere specified 

627 All colors in cakes, small bags, paste, tubes, bladders, cups, glasses, shells, and 

boxes 

These duties include the coefficients of increase. Conventional rates, where 
provided, apply to products of the United States. 

Tare deductions from gross weight are as follows: 
12 per cent in cases and barrels. 

6 per cent in baskets, paper barrels, and barrels lined with paper. 
3 per cent in bales. 
9 per cent in double barrels. 

Ecuador 

S acres 
17 Indigo, per gross kilo 0. 225 

25 Chemical products, not specified, per net kilo .45 

27 Aniline and cochineal per gross kilo . 565 

27 Vegetable dyes, not specified, per gross kilo . 565 

Surtax: 4 per cent ad valorem. At Guayaquil, 10 per cent of import duty. 

Egypt 

The import duty on general merchandise is (with few exceptions) 8 
per cent ad valorem, based on the value of the article in the country 
where it was purchased at the date of its clearance for consumption 
in Egypt, plus all charges for freight, insurance, packing, etc., to the 
Egyptian port of landing. The values of certain articles are, by 
agreement between the customs administration and importers, fixed 
for a period not to exceed one year, and the ad valorem duty is 
collected on these values, which are regularly published in the Journal 
Officiel. 

Import qua}' dues, excepting tobacco — 

0.45 per cent ad valorem in Alexandria and Suez. 

0.7 per cent ad valorem at Port Said. 
Import municipal or paving dues, excepting tobacco — 

0. 5 per cent ad valorem at Alexandria. 

1 per cent ad valorem at Port Said (this tax is optional). 

2 per cent ad valorem at Damietta. 



178 census of dyes and other synthetic chemicals 

France 
(Decrees of March 28, 1921, and (April 3, 1921)) 



294 Dyes derived from coal tar; Dry — 

Nitrosated coloring materials 

Nitrated coloring materials except picric acid 

Coloring materials derived from pyrazolone 

Coloring materials derived from stilbene 

Monoazoic coloring materials- __ ----^ 

Polyazoic coloring materials primary, secondary and tertiary 

Thiobenzenylic coloring materials 

Sulphur coloring materials 

Indophenols, oxazines and thiazines 

Azines, safraninos, indulines- 

Pyronines and phthaleines 

Eosines, orythrosines, phloxines, cyanozines 

Coloring materials derived from diphenylmethane, and 

triphenylmethane and their homologues 

Coloring materials derived from acridine and quinoline 

Oxyquinonic coloring materials or alizarin colors 

Indigotine and its sulphonic derivatives 

Insoluble coloring materials, capable of vat dyeing, except 

itidigo - - - 

Cibanones 

Dyes derived from coal tar, in paste containing at least 50 per 
cent of water: 

N itrosated coloring materials-- ..- 

Nitrated coloring materials, except picric acid 

Coloring materials derived from pyrazolone - 

Coloring materials derived from stilbene -.. 

Monoazoic coloring materials 

Polyazoic coloring materials, primary, secondary and tertiary. 

Thiobenzenylic coloring materials 

Sulphur colors 

Indophenols, oxazines, and thiazines. 

Azines, safranines, indulines..- 

Pyronines and phthaleines 

Eosines, ery t hrosines, phloxines, cyanozines 

Coloring materials derived from diphenylmethane and 

from triphenylmethane and their homologues 

Coloring materials derived from acridine and quinolino 

Oxyquinonic coloring materials, or alizarin colors 

indigotine and its sulphonic derivatives.. ..- 

Insoluble coloring materials, capable of dyeing in the vat, 

except indigo 

Cibanones 



General 



400 
400 
400 
400 
400 
400 
400 
600 
600 
600 
600 
800 

600 
600 
600 
600 

800 
1,000 



220 
220 
220 
220 
220 
220 
220 
330 
330 
330 
330 
440 

330 
330 
330 
330 

440 
550 



Francs per 100 kilos 

{gross loeiqht) 



Inter- 


Mini- 


mediate 


mum 


200 


100 


200 


100 


200 


100 


200 


100 


200 


100 


200 


100 


200 


100 


300 


150 


300 


150 


300 


150 


300 


150 


400 


200 


300 


150 


300 


150 


300 


150 


300 


150 


400 


200 


500 


250 


110 


55 


110 


55 


110 


55 


110 


55 


110 


55 


110 


55 


110 


55 


165 


82.5 


165 


82.5 


165 


82.5 


165 


82.5 


220 


110 


165 


82.5 


165 


82.5 


165 


82.5 


165 


82.5 


220 


110 


275 


137.5 



Coeffi- 
cient of 
increase 



The general tariff applies to GeiTnany and to certain other coun- 
tries not having the most-favored-nation status. The intermediate 
tariff applies to the United States and certain other countries. The 
minimum tariff applies to England and other countries having most- 
favored-nation treatment. 

Germany 

On January 16, 1917, the German Government enacted a law 
subjecting the shipment of goods into and out of Germany to license 
control. The regulation of foreign commerce under the provisions 
of this law is vested in a Government official known as the commis- 
sioner for import and export licenses. The actual granting of 
licenses was at first carried on through committees made up of 
business men representing the various industries and was subject 
to the commissioner's approval. Within the past year or two, how- 



WOELD S PRODUCTION AND TRADE 



179 



ever, most of these committees have been dispensed with, and 
Hcenses are now issued direct by the commissioner. 

While the hiw of 1917 has had different classes of commodities 
exempted from its provisions and the rules governing its enforce- 
ment have been somewhat modified from time to tine, the importa- 
tion of coal-tar dyes remains subject to license control. This group 
comprises the following: 

Alizarin dyes, dry or in the form of paste: 

Indigo, natural or artificial, including indigo carmine, pure or 
admixed with mineral matter, starch, etc., either dry or in the form 
of paste; 

Aniline, and other coal-tar dyes not otherwise mentioned, 

India 

SERIAL NO. 81; STATUTORY SCHEDULE 92 

(Effective January 1, 1925) 



Dyeing and tanning substances: 
Alizarin dye — 
Dry- 
Not exceeding 40 per cent -. 

Over 40 per cent but not exceeding 50 per cent. 

Over 50 per cent but not exceeding 60 per cent. 

Over 60 per cent but not exceeding 70 per cent. 

Over 70 per cent but not exceeding 80 per cent. 

Over 80 per cent - - 

Moist — 

Not exceeding 10 per cent 

Over 10 per cent but not exceeding 16 per cent. 

Over 16 per cent but not exceeding 20 per cent. 

Exceeding 20 per cent. - 

Aniline dyes — 

Moist 

Black, of sulphur series 

Congo red. 

All other dry 

Aniline salts 



Tariff valuation 
per pound 



Rupees Annas 



Duty 
(percent- 
age of 
valua- 
tion) 



180 census of dyes and other synthetic chemicals 

Italy 

(Law of July 27, 1923) 



Benzol, toluol, and xylol: 

Crude gross weight-. 

Refined - do 

(Refined benzol, toluol, and xylol, destined for use in the manufacture of 
synthetic organic colors, etc., are admitted at 4 lire per quintal, in accord- 
ance with the conditions established by ministerial decree of Mar. 10, 1923.) 

Aniline and toluidine, crude and hydrochloride.- legal weight-. 

Other aniline salts net weight.. 

Nitrobenzol - -- legal weight.. 

Derivatives of aniline, not elsewhere mentioned-. -- -net weight.. 

Naphthalene: 

Crude -gross weight.. 

Refined .-- - - do 

Derivatives -.- - --net weight.. 

Anthracene gross weight.. 

Benzidine net weight.. 

Tolidine, dianisidine, ortho, and para toluidine do 

Xylidine do — 

Phenylenediamine, phenetidine, and anisidine ...do 

Derivatives of benzidine, toluidine, and similar products, not elsewhere men- 
tioned -net weight-. 

Anthraquinone ---do 

Resorcine - - do 

Alpha and beta naphthol - do 

Darivatives of naahthol and naphthyl-amine, Hot elswhere mentioned do 

Benzaldehyde and derivatives- _ do 

Derivatives of benzol, toluol, and xylol, not elsewhere mentioned- do 

Synthetic colors: 
Sulphur colors — 

Black -.- - do 

Other - do 

Other- 
All dry or with less than 50 per cent water ...do 

Indigo vat colors and gallo-cyanine colors - 

Other net weight- 
In paste with 50 percent or more of water ...do 

Indigo vat colors and gallo-cyanine colors 

Other --- - net weight.. 



Gold lire per 
quintal 



General 



40 
240 



240 
10 
240 
240 
240 
240 

240 
75 
240 
240 
240 
240 
240 



140 
300 



150 



Conven- 
tional 



30 f 

:::::: i 

[ 

i 

Free, i 

300 t 

Free' 
ISO 



Coefficients of increase are included in above rates. Duties paid in paper lire are multiplied by a i 
variable exchange factor (fixed weekly by the Government), recently about 4.75. Where provided, 
conventional rates apply to United States products. 

Japan 



General 
tariff 



215 Coal-tar derivatives (except carbolic acid, salicylic acid, bakelite, and medicines and 
essences other than benzaldehyde, nitrobenzol, and nitrotoluol)..per cent ad valorem.. 

237 Artificial indigo.. - do 

243 Coal-tar dyestufls, n. o. p. f do 



DYE LICENSE CONTROL 



On June 7, 1924, the Japanese Government adopted a license 
system for the importation of dye and coal-tar derivatives, except 
carbolic acid and medicinals, in order to stop the flooding of the 
markets with German dyes. Licenses are issued by the minister of 
agriculture and commerce. 



WORLD *S PRODUCTION AND TRADE 181 

According to the terms of article 2 (below) the provisions of 
article 1 do not apply if they conflict with any treaty of commerce 
and navigation. Nor do they apply to consignments originating in 
the United States, Great Britain, France, Italy, and in countries 
enjoying the most favored nation treatment. The importation of 
colors produced in Japan is prohibited, but that of other dyes may 
bo licensed. Imports of synthetic indigo arc not interfered with. 

HEGULATIONS RESTRICTING THE IMPORTATION OF DYES 
(Department of Commerce Ordinance No. 8) 

Article 1. In accordance with procedure elsewhere prescriV)ed those desiring 
to import articles (o) and (6), specified below, shall, for the present, first secure 
the consent of the minister of agriculture and commerce. 

These regulations, however, shall not be applicable to commodities received 
from Germany in accordance with the terms of the treaty of Versailles. 

(a) Coal-tar dyes. 

(6) Articles chemically derived from coal-tar derivatives (exclusive of medicinal 
chemicals and carbolic acid). 

Art. 2. The provisions of the foregoing article shall be void if they conflict with 
any treaty of commerce and navigation. 

In cases referred to in the foregoing })aragraph the importer shall submit to the 
customhouse through which the shipment is being passed a document setting 
forth the name and address of the manufacturer, the country of manufacture, 
the name of the article, the quantity of the shipment. 

Documents referred to in the foregoing paragraph shall be authenticated by 
the Japanese consular officer stationed in the country of manufacture or at the 
point of shipment; should there be no such consular officer, they may be authenti- 
cated by a customs or other Government officer or by the chamber of commerce. 

Ai{T. 'A. Those making importations under license, as provided for by article 1, 
shall, without delay, so notify the minister of agriculture and commerce. 

Art. 4. Those making importations in accorrlance with the provisions of 
paragraph 2 of article 2 shall immediately notify the minister of agriculture and 
commerce in regard to the commercial, or the usual name of the article imported, 
its scientific name, specific gravity, quantity, date of importation and customs 
clearance, value, and the name of the manufacturer. 

Art. 5. Those receiving licenses referred to in article 1 shall import the articles 
described not later than three months after the date of the issuance of the license. 

Under certain circumstances, to be determined by the minister of agriculture 
and commerce, the period specified in the foregoing paragraph may be extenrled. 

Should importations not be made within the periods referred to in the two 
preceding paragraphs, licenses issued under the terms specified in article 1 shall 
become invalid. 

Art. 6. Importers violating the provisions of article 1 shall be condemned to 
penal servitude for not more than three months or subjected to a fine of not 
more than 100 yen. 

Supjdementary provisions. — This provision shall become effective on the date 
of its promulgation. 

Licenses shall be regarded as having been granted on the date of the promulga- 
tion of this ordinance to those who dispatched orders for commodities requiring 
a license before the date on which this ordinance is promulgated: Provided, how- 
ever, That such persons so notify the minister of agriculture and commerce in 
accordance with procedure elsewhere prescribed. 

Certificates, issued by the minister of agriculture and commerce, of the receipt 
of notification may t)e substituted for documents prescribed by article 2 only 
when those who have dispatched orders for commodities requiring a license before 
the date on which this ordinance is issued have, not more than two weeks after 
such date, nf)tified the minister of agriculture and commerce in regard to the 
commercial, or usual, name of the article to be imported, its scientific name, 
specific gravity, quantity, probable date of importation and customs clearance, 
value, and the name of the manufacturer: Provided, however, That such certifica- 
tion shall be applicable only to shipments imported within three months after 
the date of the promulgation of this ordinance. 

47285— 25t 13 



182 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

The provisions of the two preceding paragraphs shall be applicable to com- 
modities referred to in paragraphs 1 or 2 of article 1 that are stored in customs 
areas on the date of the promulgation of this ordinance, and to articles that are, 
on such date, en route to Japan. 

Mexico 

(Tariff of April 6, 1922, revised to March 1, 1923) 

Centavos 
per gross kilo 

537 Colors, in powder or crystals 10 

538 Prepared colors 18 

510 Aniline oil, natural or artificial alizarin and airthracene 10 

Surcharge, 12 per cent of the duties. 

Persia 

Rate of duty — Coal-tar dyes — 15 per cent ad valorem 

In contrast to the primary purpose of the license control adopted 
by other countries for the protection of the dye-producing industry, 
Persia adopted a control system for excluding fugitive dyes in order 
to preserve the reputation of the Persian rugs, a leading industry of 
that country. The Persian customs regulations of 1906 prohibitf 
the importation of aniline dyes. When synthetic dyes of high fa 
ness were perfected, the Government appointed a chemical expert .. 
prepare and keep up to date a list of the dyes permitted for entry 
as suitable for the dyeing of rug materials, all other dyes remaining 
on the prohibited list. The Persian customs reserves the right to 
authorize the importation of small quantities of dyes to be utilized 
exclusively in special industries, such as candy, soap, leather, and 
ink manufacture, or pharmaceutical products. 

The dyes ^ permitted entry into Persia are the mordant dyes — ■ 
derivatives of alizarin, anthracene, and anthrac[uinone — vat dyes, 
and certain sulphur dyes for cotton. According to reports from 
Persia, the rug manufacturers are rapidly substituting coal-tar dyes | 
for natural dyes. 

Poland 

(Decree of the President of the Republic, dated June 26, 1924) 

Zlotys 
per 100 kilos 

112 Benzol, toluol, xylol, anthracene 9. 00 

135 Synthetic organic coloring combinations purified and their bases; 
combinations of leuco acid; pigments; pigment lakes; mixtures of 

naphthol with nitrosoamine 400. 00 

Pigment lakes for the manufacture of artists' colors, under permit 

from the minister of finance 60. 00 

Rumania 

Gold lei 
per 100 kilo 

835 Synthetic indigo 12.00 j 

837 Aniline colors and other colors derived from coal tar, even when bear- 

ing the name of vegetable or mineral coloi-s 8. 50 

838 Colors of all kinds, finely prepared, in tin tubes, bottles, shells, 

tablets, or pastilles 43. 50 

Rumanian Government (official valuation of April 4, 1925, 1 gold leu equals 
40 paper lei) . 

' See Special Circular 29, Chemical Division, TTnited States Department of Commerce. 



world s production and trade 
Russia 



183 



UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 



(TarifT of March 4, 1924) 

Gold rubles 

per 100 
kilos (gross) 
135. Indigo, natural and artificial, artificial organic dyes, their leuco 
compounds and bases: 

(1) Sulphur dyes 244 

(2) Alizarin and alizarin lake 213 

(3) Indigo, natural and artificial, in any form, and its leuco com- 

pounds, indoxyl, thioindoxyl (oxythio naphthene) 152 

(4) Azo dyes, and all artificial organic dyes not* otherwise men- 

tioned; their leuco compounds and bases 274 

Note. — Coloring matters included in this section (135), when the cus- 
toms declaration on the accompanying documents, invoices, or specifica- 
tions fails to give definite information as to which class of organic dye- 
stuffs they belong, are dutiable at 305 

All importation into Russia is controlled by the Soviet Government. 

Spain 



(Royal decree of February 12, 1922, modified by royal decrees of March 24, 
May 12 and 13, 1922.) 



Artificial coloring materials derived from coal and the like: ' 

795 In powder or crystals * _.. 

795 In paste or solid form, containing at least 50 per cent of water 2. 
797 Synthetic indigo. 



Pesetas per 100 kilos net 



First 
tariff 



8.00 
4.00 
2.00 



Second 
tariff 



4.00 
2.00 
1.00 



Conven- 
tional 3 



0.75 



' A certificate of origin is required on all of the products listed below. 

' Artificial coloring materials which in neutral, acid, or alkaline bath, dye textile fibers, with or without 
the addition of mordant, are included. All are destroyed by the action of heat. Duties established by the 
royal decree of Feb. 14, 1920. 

' Conventional rate when given applies to United Slates goods; otherwise second tariff applies. Con- 
ventional rate established on item 797 in treaty with Switzerland, May 15, 1922. 



Switzerland 

(1921) 



Colors derived from coal tar: 

1097 Artificial alizarin, dry or in paste 

1098 Colors from aniline, anthracene, naphthalene and coal-tar colors- 

1099 Indigo, natural or artificial: Solution of indigo Ad. 1099; dry 

indigo and indigo in paste ,. 

United Kingdom 



Francs per 
100 kilos > 

2 
20 



10 



The importation of coal-tar dyes into Great Britain is regulated 
by the British dyestiiffs (import regulations) act of 1920, which pro- 
hibits the entry of all synthetic organic dyestuffs, colors, and color- 
ing matters, and all organic intermediate products used in the manu- 
facture of any such dyestuffs, colors, and coloring matters. The 
board of trade, however, has authority to license the importation of 
any of these goods. 

' These duties arc levied on the net weight increased by 20 per cent. 



184 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHEE SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



It has been the poHcy of the British dyes tuffs advisory licensing 
committee to recommend the granting of hcenses for the importa- 
tion of certain synthetic organic dyestuffs, provided sufficient quan- 
tities of the particuhxr kinds which it was desired to import were 
not available from British sources. 

No import duties are levied on coal-tar dyestuffs imported into 
Great Britain. 

Venezuela 



(Tariff law of 1924 (July 4), with modifications made by the Federal executive 
in exercise of the powers vested in him) 

Bolivares, i)er 
gross kilo 

140 Indigo . 10.00 

553 Anilines and chemical products not specified 1. 25 

726 All dyes not elsewhere specified 1. 25 

In addition to the customs duties proper, the following surtaxes are levied: ■ 

Contribution tax, 30 per cent of the customs duty, fl 

Territorial tax, 12^^ per cent of the customs duty. ■ 

National tax, 123^ per cent of the customs duty. 9 

Sanitary tax, 1 per cent of the total duties. ■ 

The total of these surtaxes amounts to 56.55 per cent of the customs duty 
proper. ^asi^k.kli^^i&k,^^ 

United States g 

The following tabulation presents a summary of the rat* o; 
duties on coal-tar dyes when imported into the United States unaerj 
the tariff acts of 1864 to 1922, inclusive: 



Summary of rates of duly on coal-tar dyes under the tariff acts of 1S64 to 1922 





Duty 


Dyes 


Free list ^ ■ 


Act of— 


Specific, 
per pound 


Ad va- 
lorera 


June 30, 1864 

July 14, 1870 

Feb 8 1875 


$1.00 
.60 
.50 


Per cent 
35 
35 
35 
35 

35 


Aniline dyes 


Alizarin. 

Alizarin, natural and artificial; in- 
digo and artificial indigo. 

Alizarin, natural and artificial. 

Alizarin, yellow, orange, green, { 
blue, brown, and black. 

Indigo. 

Alizarin and indigo; alizarin dyes, i 

Alizarin, alizarin dyes, and anthra- 
cene dyes; indigo. ' 

Alizarin and dyes derived from 
alizarin or from anthracene and 
carbazol; indigo and dyes de- ' 
rived therefrom. ' 

i 


-do . . 


.do 


Mar. 3, 1883 


Coal-tar dyes 


Oct 1 1890 




do 




.0075 
.10 


Indigo, extracts or 
pastes. 

Indigo, carmined 

Coal-tar dyes 






Aug. 27, 1894 


25 
30 

(') 
30 

30 
30 

30 

30 
30 

45 


July 24, 1897 




do...... 


Aug. 5,1909 

Oct. 3, 1913 


(') 


Coal-tar dyes 


Sept. 8,1916 


.05 
.07 


do 

Indigo and indigoid 

dyes. 
Alizarin and alizarin 

dyes. 

Anthracene dyes 

Carbazol dyes 


Sept. 22,1922'.... 







« Same as 1897. 

• For two years after Sept. 22, 1922, 60 per cent. 



woeld's productto^^ and trade 185 

TARIFF RATES ON COAL-TAR DYES, 1864-1922 

Ad of June SO, 1864: 

On analine dyes, one dollar per pound and thirty-five per centum ad valorem. 
Act of July 14, 1870: 

On analine dyes and colors, by whatever name known, fifty cents per 
pound and thirty-five per centum ad valorem. 
Act of February 8, 1875: 

Same as act of July 14, 1870, with exception of alizarine which was trans- 
ferred to the free list in act of February 8, 1875. 
Act of March 3, 1883: 

AH coal-tar colors or dyes, by whatever name known and not specially 
enumerated or provided for in this act, thirty-five per centum ad valorem. 
Alizarine, natural or artificial. (Free.) 
Indigo and artificial indigo. (Free.) 
Act of October 1, 1890: 

Par. 18. All coal-tar colors or dyes, by whatever name known and not 

specially provided for in this act, thirty-five per centum ad valorem. 
Par. 29. Indigo, extracts or pastes of, three-fourths of one cent per pound; 

carmined, ten cents per pound. 
Par. 478. Alizarine, natural or artificial, and dyes commercially known as 
Alizarine yellow, Alizarine orange, Alizarine green, Alizarine blue, Alizarine 
brown. Alizarine black. (Free.) 
Par. 614. Indigo. (Free.) 
Act of August 27, 1894: 

Par. 14. All coal-tar colors or dyes, by whatqver name known and not 

specially provided for in this act, twenty-five per centum ad valorem. 
Par. 368. Alizarin and alizarin colors or dyes, natural or artificial. (Free.) 
Par. 514. Indigo and extracts or pastes of and carmines. (Free.) 
Act of July 24, 1897: 

Par. 15. Coal-tar dyes or colors, not speciallj^ provided for in this act, 

thirty per centum ad valorem. * * * 
Par. 25. Indigo, extracts or pastes of, three-fourths of one cent per pound; 

carmined, ten cents per pound. 
Par. 469. Alizarin, natural or artificial, and dyes derived from alizarine or 

from anthracin. (Free.) 
Par. 580. Indigo. (Free.) 
Act of August 5, 1909: Same as 1897. 
Act of October 3, 1913: 

Par. 20. Coal-tar dyes or colors, not specially provided for in this section, 

30 per centum ad valorem. 
Par. 394. Alizarin, natural or synthetic, and dyes obtained from alizarin, 

anthracene, and carbazol. (Free.) 
Par. 514. Indigo, natural or synthetic, dry or suspended in water, and 
dves obtained from indigo. (Free.) 
Act of September 8, 1916: 

Title V, sec. 500, Gr. Ill- 
All colors, dyes, or stains, whether soluble or not in water, * * ♦ 
thirty per centum ad valorem. 

(Sec. 501 imposed additional duty of 5 cents per pound.) 
Sec. 501— 

The following dyes were exempt from this specific duty: 

* * * natural and synthetic alizarin, and dyes obtained from 
alizarin, anthracene, and carbazol; natural and synthetic indigo 
and all indigoids, whether or not obtained from indigo; and 
medicinals and flavors. 
Under the trading with the enemy act (October, 1917) the President, on 
February 14, 1918, issued a proclamation declaring that certain articles of com- 
merce should not be imported on and after February 16, 1918^ from certain 
specified countries, except by license granted in accordance with prescribed 
regulations. Dyes and chemicals were included in this proclamation. 

In the spring of 1919 (February) Swiss dyes (nonenemy origin) were imported 
under license, and in the fall of 1919 licenses were granted for the importation 
of German dyes. 



186 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHEB SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

Dye and chemical control act of 1921 : 

Under Title V, Dyes and Chemicals, of the emergency tariff the iraportatioa 
of dyes and other synthetic organic chemicals was placed under license control. 
This continued until the date of the passage of the tariff act of September 
21, 1922. 
Act of Seplernber 21, 1922: 

Par. 28. Coal-tar products: All colors, dyes, or stains, whether soluble or 
not in water, * * * 45 pgj. centum ad valorem based upon the 
American selling price (as defined in subdivision (f) of section 402, Title 
IV) of any similar competitive article manufactured or produced in the 
United States, and 7 cents per pound: Provided, That for a period of 
two years beginning on the day following the passage of this act the ad 
valorem rate of duty shall be 60 per centum instead of 45 per centum: 

* * * Provided, That the specific duty of 7 cents per pound herein pro- 
vided for on colors, dyes, or stains, whether soluble or not in water, 

* * * shall be based on standards of strength which shall be estab- 
lished by the Secretary of the Treasury, and that upon all importations of 
such articles which exceed such standards of strength the specific duty 
of 7 cents per pound shall be computed on the weight which the article 
would have if it were diluted to the standard strength, but in no case 
shall any such articles of whatever strength pay a specific duty of less 

. than 7 cents per pound; * * *_ 



PART VI 

APPENDIX 

STATISTICS OF DOMESTIC IMPORTS 
AND EXPORTS 



187 



Table 73. 



STATISTICS OF IMPORTS AND EXPORTS 

Statistical Tables 

-Imports of coal-tar products entered for consumption, calendar years 
1920-1924 





OROUP I. 


CRUDE (FREE) 










Year 




1920 


1921 


1922 




Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Acids, carbolic, which on being sub- 
jected to distillation jield in the 
portion distilling below 200° C. a 
quantity of tar acids less than 5 per 
cent of original distillate. . pounds. . 

Anthracene oil gallons.. 

Benzene pounds.. 

Cresol do 

Dead or creosote oil gallons.. 

Naphthalene having a solidifying 
point less than 79° C pounds.. 

Pyridine and quinoline do 

lal tar, crude barrels.. 

'ch, coal tar do 

tacresol, orthocresol, and para- 

esol— purity less than 90 per 

cent pounds.. 


192, 692 
15,054 

486, 619 
10, 318, 070 
18, 427, 152 

15, 012, 096 

863, 456 

11,901 

8,780 


$19, 848 

3,945 

10. 868 

901, 381 

3, 796, 399 

530, 219 
168, 800 
24, 140 
26, 022 


214, 185 

12, 776 

1, 722, 085 

3, 353, 882 

33, 239, 432 

4, 495, 806 

72, 515 

21,551 

417 


$22, 849 

5,019 

442, 370 

253, 886 

4, 756, 618 

135, 943 

11,367 

46, 784 

1,264 


311,914 

13,368 

172, 528 

3, 756, 651 

41, 566, 767 

3, 144, 332 

119,973 

23,431 

1,422 

3,962 
144,237 

424, 530 

459, 727 
33,600 

66 


> $33, 781 

3,242 

1,223 

258, 536 

4, 239, 949 

54,029 
21,113 
54,324 
4,193 

352 


Toluene do 










6,061 


All other products found naturally 
in coal tar whether produced or 
obtained from coal tar or other 
sources, n. s. p. f pounds.. 

All other distillates, which on being 
subjected to distillation yield in 
the portion distilling below 200° C. 
a quantity of tar acids less than 5 
per cent of the original distillate 

..pounds.. 


240, 096 


14,046 


40, 707 

7,310 
58,111 

100 


3,111 

959 
1,198 

64 


8,049 
50,652 


Anthracene, purity less than 25 per 
cent pounds.. 

Acenaphthene, cumol fiuorene, 
methylanthracene, and methyl- 
naphthalene pounds. . 


202, 569 


16, 590 


400 
17 











Benzene pounds.. 

Dead or creosote oil gallons.. 

Naphthalene, solidifying at less than 79° C pounds.. 

Coal tar, crude barrels.. 

Pitch, coal tar ..do 

Toluene pounds.. 

Acenaphthene, fiuorene, methylanthracene, and 
methylnaphthalene ..do 

Anthracene, purity less than 30 per cent do 

Anthracene oil gallons.. 

Cumene, cymene pounds.. 

Metacresol, orthocresol, and paracresol, purity less 
than 90° pounds.. 

Pyridine do 

Xylene ...do 

All other distillates n. s. p. f., which on being subjected 
to distillation yield in the portion distilling below 
190° C. a quantity of tar acids less than 5 per cent of 
the original distillate pounds.. 

Ml other products found naturally in coal tar, whether 
produced or obtained from coal tar or other sources, 
n. s. p. f pounds.. 

Cresylic acid. 



Quantity 



701, 857 

64, 199, 636 

20, 992, 439 

10, 131 

4,644 

194, 660 

23,673 

869, 780 

31, 198 

2 

3,805 
764, 918 
136, 488 



Value 



$21, 902 

10,071,393 

575, 702 

31,671 

15,154 

7,928 

2,826 

23,925 

7,078 

24 

2,846 

266, 184 

8,179 



1924 



Quantity 



363, 742 

89, 687, 632 

5, 266, 708 

14, 579 

2,630 



Value 



298,022 
18, 259 




5,761,011 489,824 2,440,358 



1,635,025 



69,373 2,865,954 
2,327,528 



$12, 632 

13, 463, 689 

96, 491 

44, 586 

7,765 



8,759 
3,863 



454 
268, 782 



151, 850 



151, 083 
157, 643 



> First 9 months. 

47285—251- 



189 



-14 



190 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Table 74. — Imports of coal-tar products entered for consumption, calendar years 

1920 to 1934 

GROUP II (DUTIABLE AT 15 PER CENT AD VALOREM PLUS 2}^ CENTS PER POUND; 
DUTIABLE AT 55 PER CENT PLUS 7 CENTS PER POUND AFTER SEPTEMBER 21, 
1922) 



Article and year 


Pounds 


Value 


Duty 


Actual 
and com- 
puted ad 
valorem 
rate 


Not colors, dyes, or stains, photographic chemicals, 
medieinals. flavors, or explosives, n. s. p. f.: 
Acids— 

Amidosalieylic— 

1920 


11, 199 


$8,182 


$1, 507 


18.42 


1921 




1922 










1923 










1924.. 










Arsanilie— 

1923. 


223 


3,345 


1, 855 


55.47 


1924.. 




Benzoic— 

1920 


250 

11,263 

100 

100 


1,087 

3,012 

365 

410 


169 

733 

57 

233 


15.58 


1921 


24.35 


1922' 


15.68 


1923... . . 


56.71 


1924 




Carbolic (phenol) which on being subjected to 
distillation yields in the portion distilling be- 
low 200° C. a quantity of tar acids equal to or 
more than 5 per cent of the original distillate — 
Crystal— 
1920 










1921 


250 
280, 224 
69,310 
126, 618 
176, 081 

1,040 


142 
30,414 
16, 102 
21, 389 
46, 786 

244 


28 
11,568 
13, 708 
20, 627 
38, 058 

63 


19.40 


1922 1 


38.03 


1922 2 


85.13 


1923.. . ... 


96.44 


1924 . . 


81.34 


Liquid— 

1920 


25. 6f 


1921 




1922 1 .. _ 


1,702 

145, 375 

2,815 

62, 869 

378, 777 

112 


1,801 

18, 488 

257 

15, 169 

29, 066 

389 


313 
20, 345 

338 
12, 744 
38, 141 

222 


17.36 


1922' 


110.04 


1923. 


131.67 


1924 » 


84.01 


1924 « 


131.22 


Cinnamic — 

1923. . 


57.02 


1924 




1923 


10 


8 


5 


63.75 


1924 




Phenylglycine orthocarboxylic — 

1923 


17,376 


74, 492 


42, 187 


56.63 


1924 




1920 










1921 










1922 1 


2,276 
1,107 


1,881 
854 


339 

547 


18.02 


Salicylic and salts of, not medicinal— 

1923 


64.07 


1924 




Sulphanilic— 

1923 


16 


19 


12 


60.89 


1924 




Amidonaphthol— 
1920 










1921 


11, 025 


9,990 


1,774 


17.76 


1922 




1923 










1924 










Amidophenol— 
1920 










1921 


14, 623 


11,699 


2,120 


18.12 


1922 




1923 










1924 











• Act of 1916. 2 Act of 1922. « Jan. 1 to Sept, 21, 1924. 



* Sept. 22 to Dec. 31, 1924. 



STATISTICAL TABLES 



191 



Table 



74. — Imports of coal-tar products entered for consumption, calendar years 
1920 to 1924 — Continued 

GROUP II (DUTIABLE AT 15 PER CENT AD VALOREM PLUS 2J^ CENTS PER POUND; 
DUTIABLE AT 55 PER CENT PLUS 7 CENTS PER POUND AFTER SEPTEMBER 21, 
1922)— Continued 



Article and year 


Pounds 


Value 


Duty 


Actual 
and com- 
puted ad 
valorem 
rate 


Not colors, dj'BS, or stains, photographic chemicals, 
medicinals, flavors, or explosives, n. s. p. f. — Contd. 
Aniline oil—' 

1920 


220 
11,243 


$72 
1,799 


$16 
551 


22.64 


1921 


30.62 


1922 (included in aniline oil and salts) 




Aniline salt— 

1920 


4 
13, 316 


1 
12, 109 




25.00 


1921 . . -- 


2,274 


18.78 


1922 (included in aniline oU and salts) 




Aniline oil and salts— 

19222 


55 
30 


11 
220 


10 
123 


90.00 


1923 


55.95 


1924 . 




Anthracene, purity of 25 per cent or more — 

1920 . - 


648, 095 

261, 645 

2 


87, 413 

12, 639 

2 


29, 314 

8,437 

1 


33.54 


1921 


66.76 


1922 2 __. 


62.00 


1923 . - . 




1924 




1 




Anthraquinone — 

1920 


13, 053 
127, 427 


5,612 

78, 255 


1,168 
14, 924 


20.82 


1921 - 


19.07 


1922 




1923 -. -. 


1 i 




1924 


1 1 




Benzaldehyde — 

1920 


9,479 
1,056 

20 
200 


5,928 
465 

11 
240 


1,126 
96 

7 
146 


19.00 


1921 


20.68 


Benzaldehyde (not medicinal) and nitrobenzalde- 
hyde— 
19222 - - 


67.73 


1923 --- - 


60.83 


1924 




Benzidine, benzidine sulfate — 

19222 


72 

7 


56 
23 


36 
13 


64.00 


1923 


57.13 


1924 




Benzvlchloride— 

1920 - 


150 


22 


7 


32.05 


1921 - 




1922 -. 










Benzylchloride, benzalchloride, and benzoylchlo- 
ride— 
1922* 


29 
10 


10 
22 


8 
13 


75.30 


1923 


58. 18 


1924 




Binitrotoluol— 

1920 - 


4,692 
1,164 


1,216 
155 


300 
52 


24.64 


1921 ... - --- - 


33.77 


1922 . 




1923 










1924 ..- 










1921 


5 


3 




19.33 


1922 - 






1923 . 










1924 










Carbazole, purity of 25 per cent or more— 

1920 


157 


27 


8 


29.56 


1921 




19221 


8,820 


3,865 


800 


20.70 


1922 8 . .... 




1923 „. 










1924 . 










Dimethylaniline — 

1920 


22,400 


15,968 


2,955 


18.51 


1921. 




19221 


23,565 


3,828 


1,163 


30.39 


Dimethylaniline and benzylethylaniline— 

1922« 




1923 


1 


2 


1 


58.50 


1924 





1 Act of 1916. 



« Act of 1922. 



192 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Table 74. — Imports of coal-tar products entered for consumption, calendar years I 

1920 to i 5^4— Continued i 

GROUP II (DUTIABLE AT 15 PER CENT AD VALOREM PLUS 2^ CENTS PER POUND: | 

DUTIABLE AT 55 PER CENT PLUS 7 CENTS PER POUND AFTER SEPTEMBER 21. ' 

1922)— Continued 1 



Article and year 


Pounds 


Value 


Duty 


Actual 
and com- 
puted ad 
valorem 
rate 


Not colors, dyes, or stains, photographic chemicals, 
mcdicinais, flavors, or explosives, n. s. p. f. — Contd 
Diphenylamine— 

1924 3 


11 
23,576 

2,444 
556 
2,224 
1,008 
8,754 
15, 326 
1,000 

13, 053 


$16 
8,134 

2, 230 
341 
107 
167 
5,410 
1, 995 
663 

5,612 


$10 
4,904 

396 

65 

72 

162 

3,588 

2,170 

335 

1,168 


59. 81 


1924 < 


60 29 


Metacresol, orthocresol, and paracresol, purity of 90 
per cent or more — 
1920... 


17.74 


1921__ 


19.08 


1922'-. .- 


66.96 


1922 2. 


97 24 


1923 


66 33 


1924 3 


108 78 


1924* 


50 56 


Methylanthraquinone— 

1920. 


20.82 


1921... 




1922 , 










1923 . . 


977 


1,221 


740 


A' 


1924_. 




Naphthalene solidifying at 79° C. or above— 

1920 


3, 697, 562 

441,685 

75,680 


416, 172 
31, 458 

7,684 


154, 865 
15, 761 
3,045 




1921. _ 


50.10 


1922 1 ___ 


39.61 


1922 2 _ _ __ 




1923 - 


9,605 
4,549 


194 
1,147 


779 
949 


401. 57 


1924 


82.76 


Naphthol— 

1920 




1921 


333, 356 
658 


112,922 
799 


25, 272 
136 


22.38 


19221 


17.06 


1922! 




1923 


13, 376 
10, 976 

69, 695 


29, 569 
24, 202 

7,208 


17, 199 
14, 079 

2,824 


58.17 


1924 


58.17 


Naphthylamine— 

1920 


39.18 


1921 




1922 










1923-. 










1924 










Naphthylenediamlne — 

1923 


5 


6 


4 


60.83 


1924..... 




Nitrobenzol— 

1920-. 


45, 891 


6,009 


2,049 


34.09 


1921 




1922 






1 


1923 . 








1924 










Nitronaphthalene — 
1920 










1921 . . 










1922.. 










1923 










1924 










Nitrophenylenediamine— 

1921,. 


1, 132 


6,590 


1,017 


15.43 


1922 




1923 . . 










1924 










Nitrotoluol— 

1920 


684 


359 


71 


19.76 


1921 




1922 




• 






1923 




1 






1924 




.-.-1 







1 Act of 1916. 

2 Act of 1922. 



» From Jan. 1 to Sept. 21, 1924. 
* From Sept. 22 to Dec. 31, 1924. 



STATISTICAL TABLES 



193 



Table 74. — Imports of coal-tar products entered for consumption, calendar years 

1920 to 1924 — Continued 



OROUP II (DUTIABLE AT 15 PER CENT AD VALOREM PLUS 2J4 CENTS PER POUND; 
DUTIABLE AT 55 PER CENT PLUS 7 CENTS PER POUND AFTER SEPTEMBER 21, 
1922)— Continued 



Article and year 


Pounds 


Value 


Duty 


Actual 
^nd com- 
puted 3<i 
valorem 
rat^i 


1 

Not colors, dyes, or stains, photographic chemicals, | 

medicinals, flavors, or explosives, n. s. p. f.— Contd. ! 

Phenylenediamine— . , 

1920 -i 2,429 

1921 ' 


$1,887 


$344 


18.22 


19221 ! 6 

19222 


16 


9 


57.62 


1923 








1924 








Phenylhydrazine— 

1923 . .. 


18 


39 


23 


58.23 


1924 




Phthalie anhydride— 

1920 










1921_ 










19221 


3,374 


2,517 


1,621 


64.38 


1922 2.... __ 




1923 










1924. 










Kesorcinol, not medicinal — 

1920 


51, 529 
109, 658 


39, 932 

75, 022 


7,278 
13,995 


18.23 


1921 __ 


18.65 


1922 




1923 . .... 


12, 5^ 
2,240 

396 
1,100 

5 


16, 976 
3,360 

935 
1,575 

6 


10,213 
2,005 

542 
707 

4 


60. 16 


1924... 


59. 67 


Thiocarbanilide- 
1924 * 


67 96 


1924 5 


44.80 


Tolidine— 

1923 


60.83 


1924 




Toluidine — 

1923 


60 


31 


21 


68.56 


1924 




Tolylenediamine— 

19gl . . . 


175 


•238 


40 


16.48 


;922 




1923 










1924 




* 






Xylidine— 

1920 


56,047 


41, 237 


7, 587 


ia40 


1921 




1922- 










1923.. 


150 


60 


44 


72.60 


1924 




All distillates n. s. p. f., which on distillation yield in the 
portion distilling below 200° C. a quantity of tar acids 
equal to or more than 5 per cent of the original dis- 
tUlate: 
1920 . . 


85, 474 
16, 240 

328, 601 
22, 163 

245,119 
901 

662, 037 

18,257 
195, 757 
144,971 
233, 495 


36,041 
11,811 
33, 784 

9,128 
30, 328 

1,491 
47, 889 

4,102 
36, 382 
21,046 
17, 798 


7,543 
2,178 

13,283 
6,572 

33, 839 
883 

65, 498 

3,534 
33, 713 
21,723 
23, 464 


20.93 


1921 


18.43 


1922 1 


39.3a 


1922 2,3. _ 


72.00 


1923 3 


111.58 


1924 3 < 


59.28 


1924 3£ 


136. 77 


All distillates of coal, blast-furnaces, oil-gas, and water- 
gas tar which on being subject to distillation below 
215° C. a quantity of tar acids equal to or more than 
75 per cent of the original distillate: 
19222 


86.16 


1923. 


92.66 


1924* 


103.22 


1924'..-. 


131.83 



» Act of 1916. 

2 Act of 1922. 

3 At 190° C. instead of 200° 



< From Jan. 1 to Sept. 21, 1924. 
» From Sept. 22 to Dec. 31, 1924. 



194 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Table 74. — Imports of coal-tar products entered for consumption, calendar years 

1920 to 1924— Continned 

GROUP II (DUTIABLE AT 15 PER CENT AD VALOREM PLUS 2)^ CENTS PER POUND- 
DUTIABLE AT 55 PER CENT PLUS 7 CENTS PER POUND AFTER SEPTEMBER 21 
1922)— Continued 



Article and year 


Pounds 


Value 


Duty 


Actual 
and com- 
puted ad 
valorem 
rate 


All similar products, obtained, derived, or manufac- 
tured in whole or in part from the products provided 
for in Group I (free): 
. 1920 .- 


87,9ir 

87, 207 

389, 708 

187, 377 

1, 436, 982 

2,104,299 

158, 766 

100 
6,789 
11,374 


$74, 514 
41,965 

153, 625 
61, 967 

330, 514 

475, 136 
73, 973 

87 
2,944 
12, 058 


$13, 375 

8,475 

32, 786 

47, 198 

282, 371 

408, 626 

40, 703 

16 

611 

2,093 


17.95 


1921 


20.19 


19221 


21.34 


1922* - - 


76.17 


1923 


85.43 


1924* 


86.00 


1924 « 


55.02 


All sulfoacids or sulfoacid salts of Group II: 

1920 


17.88 


1921 


20.76 


19221 


17.36 


1923 




1924 - - 





















GROUP III (DUTIABLE AT 30 PER CENT AD VALOREM; DUTIABLE AT 60 PER CENT 
AD VALOREM PLUS 7 CENTS PER POUND AFTER SEPTEMBER 21, 1922) 



When obtained, derived, or manufactured in whole or in 
part from any of the products provided for in Group I 
(free) or II, including natural indigo and their deriva- 
tives: 
Alizarin, natural— 

1920 


58, 583 

59, 306 

28, 399 

1,547 

9,283 

6,665 

73, 232 

136, 283 

21,614 

1,836 

3,002 

29, 436 
246, 837 
293, 005 

56,294 

274, 799 

68,762 

4,671 

216, 508 
226, 956 
330, 129 

17,697 

7,319 

1,043 

55 

86, 439 
76, 123 
184, 886 


$41,381 
81,816 
63, 304 

3,094 
18, 600 

9,335 

24, 072 
49, 707 
22, 190 
3,699 
12,008 

25, 498 
356, 658 
468, 134 

82, 981 

379, 673 

98, 693 

4,830 

208, 754 
422,941 
605, 187 

26,002 

8,126 

863 

490 

196, 783 

72, 154 

267, 059 


$12,414 
24, 545 
18, 991 

1,965 
11,810 

6,068 

7,222 
14,912 
666 
2,348 
5,614 

7,647 
106, 997 
140, 440 

53, 729 

247, 040 

64, 029 

2,500 

62, 626 
126, 882 
181, 556 

16, 840 

5,388 

591 

•224 

59, 035 
21,646 
80,118 


30.00 


1921 


30.00 


19221 


30.00 


19222 


63.50 


1923 


63.49 


1924 


65.00 


Alizarin, synthetic— 

1920 - -.- 


30.00 


1921 


30.00 


19221 - - 


30.00 


1923 -. 


^ 63. 47 


1924 


46.75 


Dyes obtained, derived, or manufactured from 
alizarin— 
1920 


30.00 


1^1 


30.00 


19221 _. 


30.00 


Colors, dyes, stains, etc., obtained, derived, or 
manufactured from alizarin — 
1922* . - . 


64. 75 


1923 - 


65.07 


1924' 


64.88 


1924* 


51.77 


Dyes obtained, derived, or manufactured from an- 
thracene and carbazole— 
1920 .- 


30.00 


1921 


30.00 


19221 


30.00 


Colors, dyes, obtained, derived, or manufactured 
from anthracene or carbazole— 

19222 


64.76 


1923 


66.30 


1924' 


68.46 


1924* 


45.79 


Indigoids, whether or not obtained from indigo— 
1920 


30.00 


1921 


30.00 


1922 1 


30.00 


1923 




1924, 











1 Act of 1916. 
« Act of 1922. 



« From Jan. 1 to Sept. 21, 1924. 
* From Sept. 22 to Dec. 31, 1924. 



STATISTICAL TABLES 



195 



Table 74. — Imports of coal-tar products entered for consumption, calendar years 

1920 to iS;24— Continued 

GROUP III (DUTIABLE AT 30 PER CENT AD VALOREM; DUTIABLE AT 60 PER CENT 
AD VALOREM PLUS 7 CENTS PER POUND AFTER SEPTEMBER 21, 1922— Contd. 



Article and year 


Pounds 


Value 


Duty 


Actual 
and com- 
puted ad 
valorem 
rate 


When obtained, derived, or manufactured in whole or 
in part from any of the products provided for in 
Group I (free) or II, including natural indigo and 
their derivatives— Continued. 
Indigo, natural— 

1920 


36, 537 
77, 121 
14,461 


$69, 528 

154, 538 

19,074 


$20, 858 

46, 361 

5, 722 


30.00 
30.00 
30.00 


1921 . . . 


1922 1 __ 


1922 2 __ __ 


1923 


9,102 
3,863 

171, 101 
70, 975 

86, 585 


4,149 
741 

207, 299 
84, 901 
123, 702 


3,427 
715 

62, 190 
25, 470 
37, 111 


73.70 
96.49 

30.00 
30.00 
30.00 


1924 


Indigo, synthetic— 

1920_ 


1921 


1922'..., 


1922 2._.. . 


1923 


356 
1,076 

872 

13, 864 

220 

98, 735 
59,290 
79, 542 


117 
482 

1,482 

18, 636 

544 

172,841 
66, 171 
62, 986 


95 
292 

950 

12, 152 

342 

56, 789 
22, 816 
27, 077 


81.30 
60.63 

64.11 
65.21 
62.83 

32.86 
34.48 
35.05 


1924 


Colors, dyes, stains, etc., derived from indigo— 
1922 2 


1923 


1924 


Colors, or color lakes obtained, derived, or manufac- 
tured from alizarin- 
1920 


1921 


19221.. __ 


1922 2.... _ 


1923 (see "Dyes, etc., from alizarin"). 
Colors, or color lakes obtained, derived, or manufac- 
tured from anthracene and carbazols — 
1920 . .... 


260, 060 
62, 748 
27, 535 


529, 966 
65, 635 
63, 102 


171,993 
22, 828 
20,032 


32.45 
34.78 
31.75 


192! 


1922 1 


1922 2.... 


1923 (see "Dyes, etc.. from anthracene and car- 
bazole"). 
All other colors, dyes, or stains, whether soluble or 
not in water, color acids, color bases, or color 
lakes— 
1920.. 


2, 807, 807 
2,751,535 
2, 077, 712 
677, 849 
3, 059, 361 
1,905,219 
1, 357, 133 

239 
4,263 
1,124 
2,906 

2,479 

1,420 

762 

1,756 

.3.183 

8>169 

587 

21,808 
29,281 
3,287 
8, 183 
10, 182 
2,868 
781 


4, 093, 389 
3, 968, 319 
2,941,773 
894, 844 
4,154,091 
2,320,712 
1, 865, 036 

262 
3,635 
2,270 
1,521 

2,681 
2,366 
1,404 

2,094 

10,512 

2,568 

1,615 

67. 640 
65, 906 
4, 465 
8,208 
28,504 
9,612 
2,272 


1,368,407 

1, 328, 072 

965, 640 

584, 350 

2, 70*5, 610 

1, .^25. 793 

934, 266 

174 
2,479 
1,441 

888 

928 

781 
452 

1,379 

6,530 

2,113 

768 

21, 382 
21, 236 
1,471 
5.498 
17,815 
.5,968 
1,077 


33.43 
33.47 
32.83 
65. 30 
6.5. 16 
05. 75 
50.09 

66.38 
68.21 
63.47 
58.37 

34.63 
33.00 
32.17 

65 87 


1921 


1922 I....:.. 


19222 


1923-. 


1924'.. . 


1924* 


Color lakes— 

19222 


1923- 


1924'. 


1924 < 


Phenolic resin, synthetic— 


1921 


19221... 


Resinlike products prepared from articles provided 
19222 


1923 




1924 3 




1924 < . 


47.54 

31.61 
32.22 
32 94 


Photographic chemicals— 

1920 


1921 


1922 1 


1922 2 


66. 98 
62.50 
62 09 


1923.... 


1924 3 


1924*.... 


47.41 



« Act of 1916. 
> Act of 1922. 



« From Jan. 1 to Sept. 21, 1924. 
« From Sept. 22 to Dec. 31, 1924. 



196 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Table 74. — Imports of coal-tar products entered for consumption, calendar years 

1920 to i 5^4— Continued 

GROUP III (DUTIABLE AT 30 PER CENT AD VALOREM; DUTIABLE AT 60 PER CENT 
AD VALOREM PLUS 7 CENTS PER POUND AFTER SEPTEMBER 21, 1922)— Contd. 



Article and year 


Pounds 


Value 


Duty 


Actual 
and com- 
puted ad 
valorem 
rate 


Coal-tar medicinals: 
Acetanilid— 

1920 










1921 










1922 










1923 


58 
13 


$82 
26 


$53 
17 


64.95 


1924... 


63.50 


Acetphenetidin— 

1920 - 




1921 




1 




1922 










1923 


25 
200 


238 
720 


145 
338 


60.74 


1924 


46.94 


Acetylsalicylic acid— 

1920 




1921 










1922. 










1923. 


1 


7 


4 


00 


1924 




Antipyrene — 

1920 


14, 737 


53,293 


13, 323 




1921... 




19221 


12, 604 
913 

14, 250 
3,080 
3.920 

5 

85 

571 
2,780 


18, 468 
1,740 

20, 602 
3,650 
4,715 

211 
7,136 

914 
4,059 


4,617 
1,108 
13,359 
2.406 
2,396 

127 
3,217 

588 
2,630 


26.00 


19222 


63.68 


1923 


64.89 


1924'. 


65.91 


1924 < 


50.82 


Arsphenamine (salvarsan) and neo-arspbenamine— 
1923 


60.17 


1924 


45.08 


Benzaldehyde— 

1922 


64.38 


1923. 


64.80 


1924 




Benzoic acid, medicinal— 

1924 < 


111 
100 

1,102 

5 


168 
72 

992 

210 


109 
39 

672 

126 


64.63 




34.72 


b. Naphtbol, medicinal— 

1924 


67.78 


Novocain or procaine — 

1923 


60. 17 


1924 




Phenolphtbalein (25 per cent)— 

1920 


200 

5,055 

64 

1,487 

2,931 

220 

7,840 

40 

4 

330 


726 
2,385 
36 
8,877 
10, 891 
2,646 

9,800 

81 

55 

324 

165. 055 
280. 299 
154. 620 

24. 410 
164. 238 
115. 937 

89, 953 

27 


181 

596 

9 

5,430 

6,740 

1,206 

4,959 

61 

, 33 

169 

49. 517 
84,090 
46, 386 
15, 202 
101, 576 
71, 190 
43, 652 

8 


25.00 


1921 


25.00 


19221 


25.00 




fil. 17 


1923 


61.88 


1924 


45.58 


Resorcinol, medicinal— 

1924 


50.60 


Salicylic acid and its salts, medicinal— 

1923. 


63.46 


1924 3 


60.61 




52.13 


Medicinals— 

1920 


30.00 


1921., 




30.00 






30.00 


1922 *,3 


7,937 
43, 325 
23, 257 
45, 333 

14 


62.27 


1923 3. 


61.85 


1924 3,4 


61.40 


1924 3,« 


48.53 


Flavors— 

1920 


30.00 


1921 




1922 








1923 


31 
11 


90 
13 


56 
9 


62.41 


1924 


65.92 



» Act of 1916. 
« Act of 1922. 
' Other coal-tar medicinals. 



4 From Jan. 1 to Sept. 21, 1924. 
s From Sept. 22 to Dec. 31, 1924. 



STATISTICAL TABLES 



197 



Table 74. 



-Imports of coal-tar products entered for consumption, calendar years 
1920 to 1924 — Continued 



GROUP III (DUTIABLE AT 30 PER CENT AD VALOREM: DUTIABLE AT 60 PER CENT 
AD VALOREM PLUS 7 CENTS PER POUND AFTER SEPTEMBER 21, 1922)— ConUi. 



Article and year 


Pounds 


Value 


Duty 


Actua 1 
and com- 
puted ad 

valorem 
rate 


Coal-tar medicinals— Continued. 
Saccharin— 

1920 


40 

46 

1 

1 
51 

1,980 



$39 
103 
15 
14 
17 

3,929 


$26 

30 

1 

8 

11 

2,496 


66 67 


1921 


29 03 


19221 _ 


4.33 


1922 » 


60. .^0 


1924.. 


66 CO 


Explosives: Picric acid— 

1923 


63 53 


1924 




Ink powder &— 

1923 


261 
18 

1,412 
1,643 


308 
6 

2,162 
3,926 


203 

5 

1,396 
2,471 


66 9S 


1924 


81 CO 


Synthetic tanning material— 

1923 


64 57 


1924. 


62 93 







." 1916. 
... of 1922. 
imports for coal-tar ink powder first separately reported for 1923. 



In the Commission's Census of 1923 , 
on page 194, were published the imports from 1918 to 1923, of "Ink and ink powders;" "Printers' ink ," 
"Writing and copying inks," and "All other, including ink powders," and also exports of "Punters' ink ," 



and "All other inks ' 



Table 74. — General imports of coal-tar products, by countries, calendar yeuts 

1 920-1 92 J^ 



DEAD OR CREOSOTE OIL (FREE) 



Imported from— 


1920 


1921 


1922 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


United Kingdom 


Oallom 
12, 661, 527 
4, 145, 712 


$2, 589, 331 
979, 438 


Oallons 
19, 466, 800 
10, 403, 414 
■2,993,469 


$3,115,056 

1,295,749 

280, 948 


Gallons 

22, 333, 535 

14, 471, 820 

2, 406, 364 

1, 537, 376 

768,442 


$2, 235, 686 

1,528,941 

193, 8C4 

184, 486 

97, 533 


Netherlands 

Germany .. 


Belgium 






Canada 


1, 619, 903 
10 


227, 624 
6 


374, 845 
904 


64, 713 
162 


All other countries 








Total 


18, 427, 152 


3, 796, 399 


33, 239, 432 


4,756,618 


41, 567, 537 


4,240, 449 





Imported from- 



United Kingdom . . . 

Netherlands 

Germany 

Belgium 

Canada 

All other countries. 



Total 64,199,636 



1923 



Quantity Value 



Gallons 
42, 352, 723 
9, 277, 700 
3, 094, 709 
8, 478, 364 
996, 140 



$6, 897, 368 
1, 422, 521 

470, 337 
1, 153, 750 

127, 417 



Quantity Value 



Gallons 
59, 594, 877 
10, 324, 675 

6, 634, 494 
11,064,665 

2, 069, 073 



10, 071, 393 89, 687, 784 

I 



$8, 992, 571 
1,611,622 

828, 528 
1, 744, 817 

286, 151 



13, 463, 688 



198 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Table 74. — General imports of coal-tar products, by countries, calendar years 

1 920-1 5:^4— Continued 



BENZOL OR BENZENE 



Imported from— 


1920 


1921 


1922 


Quantity 

i 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


■Canada 


Pounds 1 
486.619 1 


$10, 868 


Pounds 
1, 562, 951 


$39, 020 


Pounds 
172, 108 
420 


$1, 167 


■Oermany 


56 


All other countries 


I 


159, 134 


3,350 






! 






Total . 


486, 619 


10, 868 


1, 722, 085 


42, 370 


172, 528 


1,223 







Imported from— 


1923 




1924 1 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


■Canada - 


Pounds 
700, 157 
944 




$21, 732 
185 
20 


Pounds 
362, 640 


$12.4.32 




1, 102 200 


All other countries 2 


800 








Total -- 


701, 901 


21, 937 


363, 742 


12, 632 











' Includes toluene. 



' From New Zealand. 



CRESOLi 



Imported from — 



England-. 
Scotland.. 
Canada. -. 
Oermany. 



Total. 



1920 



Quantity Value 



Pounds 

6, 037, 223 

4, 198, 397 

16, 400 

66, 050 



10, 318, 070 



$509, 710 

382, 637 

1,360 

7,674 



901, 381 



Quantity 



Pounds 
1, 708, 992 

934, 842 
4,600 

705, 448 



3, 353, 882 



Value 



$139, 737 

86, 380 

501 

27, 268 



253, 886 



« No imports in 1922, 1923, and 1924. 



NAPHTHALENE 



Imported from— 


1920 1921 


1922 


Quantity 


Value Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


United Kingdom 


Pounds 

10, 155, 579 

413,274 

2, 959, 976 

381, 740 

98, 695 

494, 644 

168, 923 

61, 879 

277, 461 


$357, 954 
16, 972 
78, 704 
34, 135 
7,653 
17, 077 
3,528 
5,400 
8.708 


Pounds 
2, 644, 997 

96, 928 
1,708,868 

42, 683 
2,320 


$83, 353 

5,412 

44,541 

2,383 

252 


Pounds 
2, 488, 716 


$38, 619 


Belgium 




Canada 


532, 935 
11,316 
1,000 


12,823 


Germany 


446 


Japan 


94 


Italy 










1 








110,365 1 2,047 


All other 


















Total 


15, 012, 171 1 .1.30. 221 


4, 495, 796 


135, 941 


3,144,332 1 54.029 













STATISTICAL TABLES 



199 



Table 74. — General imports of coal-tar products, by countries, calendar years 

1920-1924— Continued 



NA PHTHALENE— Continued 



Imported from— 


1923 


1924 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


United Kingdom 


Pounds 

16, 991, 359 

501, 508 

395, 107 

1,872,457 

1, 276, 027 


$408, 584 

9,789 

6,591 

122,831 

30, 768 


Pounds 
2,707,419 
281, 834 


$56, 963 
5 238 


Belgium 


■Canada 




Oermany 


2,112,049 
165, 406 


31 146 


Netherlands 


3 144 






Total 


21,036,458 


578, 563 


5, 266, 708 


96, 491 





PYRIDINE (FREE) 



Imported from— 



19241 



Quantity 



Value 



Belgium 

France 

Oermany. 

Netherlands.. 

England 

Scotland 

■Canada 

Panama 

Total 

' Included in "all other crudes" prior to 1924. 

TAR AND PITCH OF COAL 



Pounds 




24,075 


$9,410 


14, 215 


7,018 


87, 269 


33,382 


22, 576 


10, 279 


452,611 


203,743 


4,841 


3,2C8 


1,148 


447 


2,245 


1,295 



608,980 



268, 782 



Imported from — 


1920 


1921 


1922 




Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


England 


Barrels 

1,127 

580 

18, 824 

150 


$4,166 

3,706 

41,940 

350 


Barrels 

7 


$82 


Barrels 

162 

100 

24, 563 

28 


$1 241 


Scotland 


956 


Canada... 


21, 948 
13 


47, 913 
53 


56 229 


All other countries 


91 








Total 


20, 681 


50, 162 


21,968 


48,048 


24, 853 


58, 517 





Imported from— 


1923 


1924 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


England 


Barrels 
72 


$365 


Barrels 

21 

282 

16, 563 

343 


197 


Scotland 


1 295 


Canada 


14,406 
297 


44, 184 
2,276 


48, 427 
2 432 


All other countries 






Total 


14, 775 


46, 825 


17, 209 


52, 351 





200 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Iakle 74. — General imports of coal-tar products, by countries, calendar years- 

1920-1924 — Continued 

TOLUOL OR TOLUENE » 



Imported from— 


1920 


1921 


1922 


1923 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 

Pounds 
194, 660 


Value 


Canada 


Pounds 




Pounds 




Pounds 

143, 900 

337 


$6,044 
17 


$7,928 


Sweden 


























Total 










144, 237 


6,061 


194, 660 


7,928 















« Included with benzol in 1924. 



ALL OTHER CRUDES 



Imported from— 


1930 


1921 


1922 j 

1 


1923 ! 


1924 




$10,903 

178, 866 

1,581 

876 

9,179 


$1, 507 
19, 015 


$308, 895 1 

54,943 1 

1, 570 1 

8, 199 ] 

6,373 

142 1 

1 


$929 !. 
684,774 
65, 102 
14,010 
18,873 i 
6,370 . 
17,583 




England 


$373, 262 




73, 720 


Canada 


840 
352 


7,326 


German y 


2.840 








2,886 


4 










Total — 


204, 381 


21, 718 


380, 122 


807,641 









CARBOLIC ACID 





1920 


1921 


Imported from— 


Carbolic acid, free 


Carbolic acid, 
dutiable (phenol) 


CarboHc acid, free 


Carbolic acid, 
dutiable (phenol) 




Quan- 
tity 


Value 


Quan- 
tity 


Value 


Quan- 
tity 


Value 


Quan- 
tity 


Value 


England . .. 


Pounds 

178, 652 

14,040 


$18, 258 
1,590 


Pounds 
1,040 


$244 


Pounds 
205. 113 


$21,841 


Pounds 
250 


$142 














9,072 


1,008 


1 












! 


Total 


192, 692 


19, 848 


1,040 


244 ■ 214. 185 


22,849 


250 1 142 















1922 > 


1923 1 


1924* 


Imported from— 


Quan- 
tity 


Value 


Quan- 
tity 


Value 


Quan- 
tity 


Value 




Pounds 

610, 789 

62,715 

11,098 

1,702 


$87,325 

12, 258 

898 

1,801 


Pounds 
61,541 


$14,715 


Pounds 




Netherlands 






Germany 


20 


37 






















Total .-- 


686,304 


102, 282 


61, 561 


14, 762 








i 



I Dutiable. 



2 Not reported separately in 1924. 



STATISTICAL TABLES 



201 



TabIvE 74. — General imports of coal-tar products, by countries, calendar years 

19£0-1924— Continued 

ALL OTHER ACIDS 





1920 


1921 


1922 


1923 


1924' 


Imported from - 


Quan- 
tity 


Value 


Quan- 
tity 


Value 


Quan- 
tity 


Value 


Quan- 
tity 


Value 


Quan- 
tity 


Value 


England 


Pounds 
250 


$1,087 


Pounds 




Pounds 

60,471 

5 


$5,228 
3 


Pounds 

100 

10 

223 

1,125 

17,48(j 


$410 

8 

3,345 

877 
1 74, 877 


rounds 
250, 257 


$64. 817 








1 




11,199 


8,182 
500 






" 1 




309 


11, 263 


$3, 012 


4,445 
8,938 


2,394 
9, 936 








2 45, 024 12, 606 














Total - 


11,758 


9,769 


11,263 


3,012 


73,859 


17, 561 


18,944 


79, 517 


295, 281 


77,423 











' All other composed of 17,376 pounds, valued at $74,492, from Switzerland and 110 pounds, valued at 
•$385, from Canada. 
'' All from Scotland. 
' 1924 includes carbolic acid. 

ANILINE OIL 



T-iported 
om— 






1920 


1921 


1922 


1923 


1924 










Lbs. 
220 $72 






















1 1 




1 













ANILINE SALTS 





1920 


1921 


1922 


1923 


1924 


Imported from— 


Quan- 
tity 


Value 


Quan- 
tity 


Value 


Quan- 
tity 


Value 


Quan- 
tity 


Value 


Quan- 
tity 


Value 


England 


Lbs. 




Lbs. 
18, 301 


$12, 029 
80 


Lbs. 1 Lbs. 




Lbs. 




Germany 


4 


$1 


























Total 


4 


1 


18,316 


12, 109 





















ALL OTHER INTERMEDIATES 





1920 


1921 


1922 


Imported from — 


Quantity 


Value 


Belgium.. 


$41, 291 
140, 095 
191,732 

13,427 

302, 235 

2,435 

68, 323 


$18, 774 

62, 028 

80, 306 

2,761 

98, 502 

36, 090 

15 

40. 587 

2,539 


Pounds 






45. 666 
514,437 
83. 998 
669, 475 
62, 261 
400 
329 


$31, 180 


Germany. 


83, 397 


Netherlands. 


18, 898 


England 


124,632 


Switzerland 


43, 8.'i6 


Japan 


39 


Canada ... 


308 


All other countries 


72, 130 






' 


Total 


831, 668 


341, 602 


1, 376, 566 


302, 310 



202 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS- 



Table 74. — General imports of coal-tar products, by countries, calendar years: 

1920-1924— Continued 

ALL OTHER INTERMEDIATES— Continued 



Imported from— 


1923 


1924 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Belgium.- .- ... 


Pounds 




Pounds 




France 


30, 174 

128, 707 

295, 939 

1, 700, 550 

284 

60 

48, 022 

394, 545 


$45, 070 

115,513 

59, 276 

236, 069 

1,758 

31 

8,166 

' 47, 809 


7, 227 

1, 964, 349 

373, 004 

1, 421, 393 

5,490 


$8, 937 
507, 224 


Germany _ , 


Netherlands 


93, 359' 


England 


102, 682- 


Switzerland ... 


7,437 


Japan_. '.. 




Canada 


40, 356 


9,97« 


All other countries 










Total . . 


2, 598, 281 


513, 692 


3, 811, 819 


759,617 







> All other includes 394,487 lbs., valued at $47,752, from Scotland. 

ALIZARIN AND DERIVATIVES 



Imported from— 


1920 


1921 


1922 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Belgium _ 


Pounds 
46, 283 


$32, 857 


Pounds 
13, 280 


$9,964 


Pounds 
1,232 
1,560 

7,379 
323, 239 
46, 340 
47, 791 
28, 672 
22, 758 
887 


$2, 359 


Denmark 


2, 240' 


France 


444 
141,213 


689 
197, 562 


6, 256 

285, 007 

13, 948 

12, 483 

110 

44, 026 

2 


3,406 

393, 374 

26,464 

21, 582 

374 

54, 869 

5 


10, 137 


Germany 


498, 548. 


Italy 


57, 686 


Netherlands 


5, 906 

222,417 

25, 196 

297 


10, 314 

81, 393 

IS, 898 
1,806 


61,043 


Switzerland - 


41, 670' 


United Kingdom 


28,002 


Canada 


249> 


All other countries 
















Total . . . 


441, 756 


343, 519 


375,112 


510, 038 


479, 858 


701, 934 







Imported from— 


1923 


1924 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Belgium ... 


Pounds 
275 


$457 


Pounds 
5,958 


$8, 802 


Denmark. . 




France . 


13, 206 
139, 144 
24,046 
11,219 
73, 561 
17, 792 
2,813 
8,074 


24,630 

167, 728 

38, 190 

16,024 

124, 831 

18, 165 

4,422 

9,165 


1,927 
90, 619 
4,189 
3,172 
30, 126 
15, 593 
25 


2,750' 


Germany 


117,816 


Italy. __ . . 


7,405 


Netherlands 


5,994 


Switzerland 


58, 343 


United Kingdom 


13, 086. 


Canada ... 


198- 


All other countries. 










Total. 


290, 130 


403, 612 


151,609 


214, 394 







STATISTICAL TABLES 



2oa 



Table 74. — General imports of coal-tar products, by countries, calendar years 

1920-1 93 ^—Continued 

ANTHRACENE AND CARBAZOLE COLORS AND DYES 



Imported from— 


1922 1 


1923 


1924 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value Quantity 


Value 


Germany 


Pounds 

11,900 

5,797 


$23, 128 
2,874 


Pounds 
4,434 


$4,692 


1 
Pounds 






Italy 


3,885 


4,284 












Total 


17, 697 


26,002 


8,319 


8,976 


1 




1 



COLOR LAKES 



France 


16 
223 


$23 
239 


88 
2,175 
2,000 


$162 

2,710 

763 






Germany 






England 














Total- . 


239 


262 


4,263 


3,635 













» Beginning Sept. 22, 1922. 



INDIGO (DUTIABLE) 





1920 


1921 


Imported from— 


Natural 


Synthetic ! Natural 


Synthetic 




Pounds 


Value 


Pounds Value 


Pounds 


Value 


Pounds 


Value 


Switzerland 


57,411 
27, 269 
10, 214 
50.066 
4,346 
2,850 


$150, 957 

51, 556 

20, 296 

70,008 

5,171 

7,392 


285, 153 $252, 708 
1, 229 361 


27, 366 
9,245 


$55, 142 
9,857 
11,112 


59,873 
6,895 


$101, 073 


England 


5, 045 


Salvador 




13, 158 




France. 


400,589 172,692 
25, 029 18, 220 


331, 320 
2,829 


87, 407 


Germany. 


882 


2,382 


2, 288 


India . 






Italy 


54,422 37,311 






532 
6,813 


128 


All other countries 


48 


48 


1,838 


7,202 


4,962- 








Total 


152, 204 


305, 428 


766,422 481,292 i 52.489 


85, 695 


408, 262 


200, 903 








,— 







1922 


1923 


1924 


Imported from— 


Natural 


Synthetic 


Natural 


Synthetic 


Indigo and 
derivatives 




Pounds 


Value 


Pounds 1 Value 


Pounds 


Value 


Pounds 


Value 


Pounds 


Value 


Switzerland 


6,501 
4,413 


$9, 482 
2,904 


63,355 $84,553 
2,000 ! 818 














England 


9,378 
900 


$4,624 
450 






5,979 


$1, 689 


Salvador 








France 






5, 324 i3, 920 
610 1, 756 






220 
220 


167 


Germany 


1,536 


1,462 










544 


India 












Italy 






929 401 






275 
1356 


$341 
1117 






All other countries 






195 


i42 


















Total 


12,450 13.848 


72,218 


101,448 10.473 


5,216 


631 


458 


6,419 


2,400' 















From China. 



204 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Table 74. — General importti of coal-tar products, by countries, calendar years 

1920-19^4 — Continued 

INDIGO, DYES, COLORS, STAINS, ETC. (DUTIABLE) i 



Imported from— 


1922 


1923 1924 a 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


France.- - 


Pounds 




Pounds 
2, .522 

1,860 
5.411 
2,206 
1,810 


.*2. 614 
2.676 
7, 035 


Pounds 




Germany . . .. 


100 

772 


.$752 

730 








Italy . 






Switzerland . . 


2.548 
3,301 






All other countries 


















Total .. 


872 


1,482 


13,809 


18, 174 













' Sept. 22 to Dec. 31. 2 xtq report. 

COAL-TAR COLORS OR DYES (DUTIABLE) 



« 



Imported from- 



Belgium..: 

France 

Germany 

Switzerland 

England 

All other countries 

Total 



1920 



Quantity 1 Value 



Pounds 

190,414 I- 

70,821 { 

1,155,501 I 

1,372,490 i 

345,889 I 

351,758 



$153, 020 

100, 884 

1, 565, 300 

2, 693, 653 

394, 668 

351,277 



3,486,873 5,258,802 



Quantity i Value 



Pounds 
31,813 

62, 468 

1,050,028 

1,504,970 

287, 377 

169,699 



$56, 481 

90, 328 

1,718,776 

2, 005, 265 

358, 463 

216,035 



3,106,355 I 4,445,348 



19221 



Quantity Value 



Pounds 

1,941 

36,163 

1,138,951 

1, 109, 3C1 

165,683 

101,537 



2, 553, 576 



■-K49 
16,U.i»' 
662, 608 
809, 778 
1.39, 577 
133, 991 



3,762,841 



Imported from— 


1922 2 » 


1923 


1924 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value . 


Belgium 


Pounds 




Pounds 
17.269 
209, 865 

1, .580, 403 
857, 466 
106, 704 

< 480, 733 


$33, 607 

347, 596 

1,945,814 

1,331,075 

104, 965 

< 661, 194 


Pounds 

45, 063 
124,958 
1,652.784 
1,118,215 
104, 113 
38S, 813 


$.=55,488 


France 


15,111 
266, 255 
295, 470 

31,374 
130, 149 


$17, 523 
344. 569 
390. 457 
27.812 
226, 563 


183, 526 


Germany. 


2.079,059 


Switzerland. ... 


1,523,829 


England 


98,427 


All other countries 


519, 127 






Total 


738.359 


1, 006, 924 


3, 252, 440 


4,424,311 


3, 433, 946 


4,459,456 







> Jan. 1 to Sept. 21. 

■ Title changed to: Colors, dyes, stains, color acids, and color bases, n. e. 

3 Sept. 22 to Dec. 31. 

* Includes 346,526 lbs. valued at $490,717 from Italy. 



i 



STATISTICAL TABLES 



205 



Table 74. — General imports of coal-tar products,^by countries, calendar years 
1920-1924— Coniinned 

COAL-TAR MEDICINALS 



Imported from— 


1920 1 


1921 1 


1922 1 


1922 2 


France . 


$21,724 
59, 133 
8 
21,203 
18, 571 
40, 339 
4,595 


$45., 378 
124, 862 
60 
11,680 
39, 151 
59, 681 
795 


$43, 544 
92, 991 
17,530 
20, 760 
19, 521 
49, 810 

128,518 


$20, 089 
74 983 




Italv 


16, 95a 
25, 462 
35, 473 
31 701 


Netherlands . . 


Switzerland . 


England . 


All other countries 


4,009 




Total 


165, 573 


281,607 


372, 674 


208,670 





Imported from- 



France 

Germany. 

Italy 

Netherlands 

Switzerland 

England 

ill „»v,^- --juntrieg 



1923 



Pounds 



23,117 
22, 087 
310 
3,611 
12,802 
4,707 
1,494 



68, 128 



Value 



■ "Medicinal preparations, n. e. s." to and including Sept. 21, 1922. 
2 Sept. 22 to Dec. 31, 1922. 

EXPLOSIVES, 1922 > 



$59, 600 
52, 766 
1,593 
46, 024 
36, 113 
13, 579 
2,580 



212, 255 



Pounds 



31,868 

10, 092 

271 

1,652 

41,351 

3,112 

3,857 



92, 203 



Value 



$63, 310 
33,416 

1,214 
78, 755 
60, 477 
11,473 

7,330 



255, 975 



Quantity 



Value 



Italy. 



Total. 



Pounds 
5,470 



5, 470 



1 None reported for 192:? and 1924. 

ALL OTHER FINISHED COAL-TAR PRODUCTS 



6,843 



6,84a 



Imported from— 


j 1920 


1921 


1922 

• 


1923 


1924 


France. 

Germany 

Switzerland , 

Engh.nd 


Value 

... $37,192 

...I 21,406 

...j 6,715 

i 10, 307 


Value 
$39, 314 

6, 518 
15,011 

2,657 
302 


Value 

$430 

16, 658 

715 

2,157 

1 


Pounds 
1,110 
9,821 
2, 372 
383 
3,241 


Value 

$11, 459 

27, 856 

8,778 
973 

5,731 


Pounds 

394 

9,871 

928 

178 
709 


Valuey ' 

$1,506 

7,971 

2,411 

217 


All other countries . . 


. 1 29 


1,979 








Total 


... 75,649 


63,802 


19. 961 


16, 927 


54.797 


12,080 


14,084 



208 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Table 75. — Domestic exports of coal tar and of dyes and dyestuffs, calendar years 

1920-1924 



COAL TAR 



Exported to- 



Europp 

North America 
South America. 

Asia 

'Oceania 

Africa 

Total 



Quantity Value 



Barrels 
243 

74, 374 

3. 725 

10 

81 
17 



88, 350 



$1,441 

208, 561 

23, 656 

65 

995 

49 



234, 767 



Quantity Value 



Barrels 

212 

91,716 

457 

17 



92, 406 



$1,394 

185.063 

3,125 

1,857 



43 



191,482 



Quantity Value 



Barrels 
46 

101,396 

580 

63 

57 



102,150 



$392 

209, 631 

3,142 

545 

245 

100 



214, 055 



Exported to— 


1923 1 j 

1 


1924 1 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value CJ 


Europe . . . 


Barrels 

348, 105 

149, 161 

844 

28 

13 

15,683 


$1, 299, 531 
337, 501 
5,677 
278 1 
161 j 
51,346 ! 


Barrels 

163,825 

79, 767 

986 

88 

108 

24,241 


$606, 106 


North America . 


236, 117 


South America ..- - 


8,374 


Asia 


1,016 


Oce£inla.--i.-- _ 


2.247 


Africa 


162, 343 






Total 


513, 834 


1,694,494 


269,015 


1, 076, 203 







' Crude tar and pitch. 



COAL-TAR DISTILLATES— BENZOL 



Exported to— 



France 

Si)ain-._ - -. 

England 

Ireland 

Canada 

Mexico 

Argentina 

Chile 

Java and Madeira 

Australia 

British South Africa. 

Algeria and Tunis 

Italy- 

Belgium 

All other countries... 



Total... 13,174,268 



Quantity ' Value 



Pounds 
2, 528, 494 
129, 378 
57, 500 



$138, 850 
19,056 
4,970 



389, 783 

2,729 

353, .522 

229, 079 



23,904 

219 

23,007 

16, 760 



Quantity 



Pounds 
24, 344, 624 
19,100 
46, 073, 896 



44, 725 

1,443 

.549, 896 

160, 107 



49, 889 



4,961,878 
3, 150. 240 
1,321,776 



4,776 



15, 700 
4,208 



357, 956 

238,617 

98, 925 



348, 880 
'467,"82i 



927,940 72,030,400 



Value 



$1,09.5,063 

5,278 

1,797,780 



2,876 

94 

37, 575 

10, 120 



1,001 
440 



22, 030 
"34,'829 



3, 007, 086 



Quantity | Value 



Pounds 

20,158,912 

44, 697 

39,649,410 

448, 728 

2, 045, 994 

13, 405 

445, 136 

156,251 

48,216 

86, 350 

17,312 

1, 529, 483 



96, 508 



64, 740, 402 



$738, 078 

8,045 

1, 390, 924 

27,400 

69, 984 
1,048 

27, 464 
9,521 
2, 550 
7,067 
1,500 

08, 935 



10, 305 



2, 362, 821 



Exported to — 



France 

England 

Canada 

Mexico 

Argentina 

Chile 

Australia 

British South Africa. 

Algeria and Tunis 

Italy 

All other countries... 



Total - 111,336,768 3,647,660 



1923 



Quantity 



Pounds 

25, 932, 540 

80,899,171 

80, 725 

14, 137 

740, 496 

92, 006 

23, 240 

749 

44, 777 

7,010 

3.501,917 



Value 



$975, 152 

2, 415. 199 

3, 586 

1,021 

52, 230 

4,928 

2,066 

80 

1,629 

810 

190,959 



1934 



Quantity 



Pounds 

25. 160, 724 

31,206,248 

33, 221 

51, 993 

759,301 

171,956 



2.418 



496, 310 



57, 882, 171 



Value 



$690, 683 

936, 044 

1,730 

5,527 

51, 254 

9,903 



260 



44, 436 



1,739,837 



STATISTICAL TABLES 



207 



Table 75. — Domestic imports of coal tar and of dyes and dyestiiffs, calendar years 

1920-1924— Continued 

OTHER CRUDE DISTILLATES 



Exported to— 



1920 



Value 

France - - $445, .520 

474, 793 
314, 641 

287 
136, 063 
193,089 
32, 654 



Belgium 
Canada.. - 
Honduras 
Mexico.. - 

Brazil 

Cuba 

Japan 1 1,158,196 

England 1,632,599 

Switzerland ] 1,313.431 

All other countries 1,260,976 



Total... [ 6.962,249 



1921 



Value 
$10, 347 



156,917 



14,090 
32, 550 
1,785 
79, 746 
28, 498 
44, 833 
140, 742 



1922 ' 



Value 

$995 

12.849 

51,718 

15, 454 

13,691 

29, 738 

2.561 

3,644 



24,333 



509, 508 



154, 983 



1923 • 



Value 



109, 770 
20, 797 
19, 102 
16, 569 
37, 675 
10.316 
8,027 



79, 355 



1924 



Value 



$163,559 
16,794 
37, 383 

3,820 
66, 544 
10, 083 

8,498 



147, 705 



301,702 



454, 386 



' Includes toluol and solvent naphtha. 



CARBOLIC ACID 










Exported to— 


1922 


1923 


1924 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Canada '. 


Pounds 
15, 306 
50, 096 
7,009 
91,073 
44,211 
15, 451 


$1, 143 
4,040 
694 
9,100 
4.563 
3,083 


Pounds 

2,808 

9,545 

8, 195 

67,250 


$344 

1,099 

1,461 

17, 226 


Pounds 
1,461 
17, 706 
7,539 


$93 


M esico - 


l,71fi 


Cuba 


711 












All other countries 


145, 032 


1 14, 259 


' 24, 658 


5.496 






Total 


223,146 


23,223 


232, 830 


34,389 


51,364 


8,016 



ANILINE OILS AND SALTS 



Spain . .. 


10,000 

211,010 

2.1. 895 

29, 302 

30, 603 
17,597 

9,012 
6,804 

341, 220 


$1, 450 
40,919 
3. 575 
7,000 
6,123 
2.993 
1,610 
1,945 

65, 602 










Canada 


2S8, 043 
22. 19S 
27, 885 

110.777 

2.122 

33, 134 

13. 300 

497, 457 


$57, 307 
5,675 
4,693 
17,384 
321 
6.279 
3, 364 


160, 750 
5,538 


$41,838 


Mexico 


2,117 


British India 




Japan . ...... 


165, 242 


40, 280 


Philippines. ... ... 




Australia 


36, 900 
7,023 


9,403 


All other countries 


7,799 






Total .... 


95, 023 


375; 459 


101,437 







NAPHTHALENE 



Switzerland 


6,000 1 
17, 542 1 
11,5.58 1 
21, 127 i 
11.8.53 i 
14.610 

8,388 ! 
18,429 


$1,600 
297 

1,044 

1,204 
770 

4, .329 
739 

2.674 










Canada . 


10,554 
7,247 
25,500 
10, 294 
12. 529 
3,220 
25, 820 


$798 
1,322 
1,907 

672 
3,045 

406 
2,236 


25.004 

7,686 

1,464 

274 

10, 058 
1,860 

65, 850 


$855 


Mexico ..... 


596 


Cuba. 


128 


British India . _ 


21 


Japan. . . . 


3 520 


Philippines 


72 


All other coiinfTie.'! 


3 8, 025 






Total 


109,514 1 


12, 657 


95, 164 


10, 386 


112, 196 


13,217 







NITROBENZOL 



Norway 


26, 880 
5,682 
3,203 


$2, 957 
683 
.^09 










Canada 










Cuba. 










Dominican Republic . 


3, 040 1 608 
2. 147 1 312 
2,028 337 








Australia, 








All other countries . 




1 












Total 


42.980 \ 5. 29fi 




1 












1 





' All other includes 130,049 pounds valued at $11,106 to Panama. 

' Includes 8,563 pounds ($2,116) to Panama. 

' All other includes 44,8.50 pounds ($6,279) to Spain. 

« Included in other intermediates for 1923 and 1924. 



208 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Table 75. — Domestic exports of coal tar and of dyes and dyestuffs, calendar years 

1920-1924 — Continued 



OTHER INTERMEDIATES 



Exported to— 



Greece 

Spain 

Switzerland... 

Canada 

Mexico 

Cuba 

Brazil 

Chile 

China 

Japan... 

Australia 

All other countries. 

Total 



1922 



Quantity Value 



Pounds 
28, 463 
65, 438 
5,054 

172, 186 
77, 642 
10, 199 
42, 618 
12, 192 

314, 774 
54,888 
20, 050 
31, 630 



835, 134 



$7, 280 

13, 834 

1,500 

33, 695 

3,481 

1,636 

8,275 

1,823 

65, 047 

12, 910 

11,844 

6,277 



1923 



Quantity Value 



Pounds 

9,503 

88,868 

9,384 

149, 740 

130, 564 

8,684 

181,361 

100 

89, 336 

256, 373 

17,600 

276, 670 



167,602 1,218,183 



$2, 225 
15, 088 

4,311 
22, 578 
13, 258 

1,007 

34, 457 

9 

18, 802 

51, 407 

8,103 
71,815 



243,060 



1924 



Quantity Value 



Pounds 

23, 065 

45, 818 

2,024 

58, 971 

177, 290 

21,949 

200, 526 

200 

15,200 

505,914 

26, 170 

1 480, 302 



1,557,429 



COLOR LAKES, 1922 s 



Canada . 


16,900 
7,616 

100 
1,000 

135 
2,440 


*14, 


Cuba . . 


1, -■-■ 


Peru . . 




China 


800 


Hongkong 


86 


Japan I 


3,298 


All other countries . . 










Total - 


28,228 


19,928 







' Includes 409,880 pounds, $28,550, to Russia in Europe. 

! Figures for 1923 and 1924 included in other colors, dyes, and stains. 

DYES AND DYESTUFFS (VALUE) 







1920 




1921 


Exported to — 


.A.niline 
dyes 


Logwood 
extracts 


All other 


Aniline 
dyes 


Logwood 
extracts 


All other 




,$66, 752 

.507, 371 

807,241 

454 

582, 236 

39, 682 

100 

132, 3,59 

1,318,498 

1, 547, 109 

1,091,603 

13, 159 

52, 745 

2, 282, 210 

12, 783. 303 

277, 6C0 

65, 077 

26, 463 

682, 998 

67, 921 

4, 568 

100,971 


$5,970 

118, 339 

607,017 

1,456 

404, 367 

73, 472 


$20,688 
41,523 

391,060 
7,745 

275, 149 
56,057 


$1,4.32 
100, 821 
67, 535 
653 
45, 068 
1,938 






Belgium. 


$6, 843 
66,762 
13, 885 
8,723 
2, 535 


.$45 


Fr&rrce. 


8,334 


Germany 


6, 352 


Italv 


70 


Netherlands . . .... 


6, 590^ 






Switzerland 


60. 157 
729, 026 
183, 001 

11.092 
1.852 

18,144 

45, 586 
195, 493 

41, 283 
1,248 
2,903 

77, 183 
1,250 
1,110 

25, 051 


92,017 
1,079,871 

982, 665 

210, 145 
13, 730 
97. 922 

497, 029 
3, 208, 107 

134. 196 

28, 251 

2,794 

149, 365 
29.802 
15,998 
38, 997 


20,374 

165,711 

684, 664 

149, 009 

7,982 

1,585 

432, 881 

3,131,071 

207. 473 

61,699 

1,305 

36, 844 

2,786 

1,800 

44,369 




19 


United Kingdom. _ 


21,096 

71,331 

3, 560 

975 

91 

16,466 

347, 610 

13, 190 

486 


58,630 


Canada 


423,914 


Mexico - . . 


132, 075 




5,680 


West Indies 


2,057 


South America.- 


89. 156- 


Asia 


333, 709- 


Oceania 


51. 743 


Africa 


13, 179 




3, 84»- 




535 


12, 040 




8.97&- 






1,304 


All other countries 


15,868 


46,433: 






Total . - 


22, 450, 480 


2, 605, 060 


7,373,111 


5,067,000 


589, 756 


1, 203, 155' 







STATISTICAL TABLES 



209 



Table 75. — Domestic exports of coal tar and of dyes and dyestuffs, calendar yeavs 

19£0-19£4—CoQtmued 

OTHER COLORS, DYES, AND STAINS 



Exported to — 



Belgium 

France 

Greece 

Italy 

Netherlands 

Portugal 

Spain 

United Kingdom 

Canada 

Mexico 

Cuba 

South America 

British India 

China -. 

-Japan 

Philippine Islands... 

Australia 

New Zealand 

Bri^'sh South Africa, 
ther countries... 



Total. 



1922 



Quantity Value 



Pounds 
107, 712 
12, 100 
16, 830 
25, 702 
16, 915 
24,973 
87, 566 
16, 139 
1,861,255 
159, 857 
39, 344 
425, 551 
753, 425 
3, 588, 563 
959, 409 
33,584 I 
58, 665 I 
36, 680 I 
28,542 I 
71,397 



8, 324, 209 



$76, 342 

11,975 

8,434 

51,469 

2,792 

10, 787 

42, 426 

5, 342 

1,108,518 

87, 920 

27, 335 

323, 922 

311,504 

924, 026 

844, 458 

8.618 

31,265 

21,439 

31,976 

50, 669 



1923 1 



Quantity . 



3, 981, 217 



Pounds 

321.888 

15, 068 

2, 895 

104 

6,667 

1,155 

11,598 

32, 492 

1,616,949 

155, 302 

63, 832 

490, 619 

899, 989 

11.448,849 

2, 463. 083 

63, 906 

37, 227 

55, 147 

23, 538 

214, 228 



17, 924, 536 



Value 



$111,727 

6,340 

1,608 

129 

5,855 

497 

12,500 

16, 687 

927, 420 

78, 536 

38, 365 

352, 265 

349, 614 

2,431.421 

1, 035, 865 

23, 234 

29, 597 

26, 313 

18. 335 

99, 063 



5, 565, 371 



Quantity 



Pounds 

166, 988 

1,137 

3,294 

2,344 

10, 945 

4,209 

10. 329 

' 10,616 

1, 256, 284 

193. 394 
39,711 

508, 623 

408. 395 
9, 604, 760 
3,217,514 

56, 205 
50. 823 
27, 036 
17, 106 
123, 378 



15,713,091 



Value 



$80, 322 

704 

1,96-1 

2, 069 

4,647 

1,650 

7,643 

7,738 

740, 903 

87, 376 

37, 305 

345, 838 

216,320 

2. 227, 943 

1,703,831 

.33, 185 

42, 862 

15, 982 

10, 052 

66, 730 



5, 635, 064 



MEDICINALS 



Belgium 


Pounds 

3,040 

3,300 

297, 223 

80, 540 

55, 874 

5,916 

37, 829 

11,375 

3,148 

3,330 

27, 575 

4,848 

20, 168 


$450 

850 

80,954 

31,709 

13,001 

3,091 
30, 476 
16, 122 

1,796 

3,107 
21, 135 

3,863 
17, 992 


Pounds 


Pounds 
965 


$1, 320 


•Greece.. 




Turkey in Europe 


1 






England 


74, 169 

10, 926 
5, 515 

33, 999 
3,147 
5,141 
2,667 

11,346 
931 

90, 134 


$49, 301 
8,617 
5, 039 

30,840 
3,681 
3,355 
1,458 
5, 653 
988 

55, 228 


31, 641 
48, 119 

9,378 
92, 097 

5, 938 

1,768 

24 

16, 787 

2,064 
79, 624 


25, 275 
31 553 


•Canada 


Honduras 


8,728 
133 541 


Mexico 


•Cuba 


7 825 


Venezuela. 


4,956 
121 


British India 


.Australia 


13 861 


British South Africa 


1 426 


.All other countries.. 


93, 160 






Total 


554, 166 


224,546 


237,975 


164, 160 


288,405 


321, 766 



' Includes color lakes. » England. 

SYNTHETIC PHENOLIC RESINS > 





1922 




Quantity 


Value 


England 


Pounds 

500 

121, 183 

250 

1,600 

4,620 


$69 


•Canada 


7 786 


Mexico 


43 


•China. 


1 762 


•Japan 


3,523 






Total exports 


128, 153 


13 183 







' Included in total "Other coal-tar finished products, n. e. s." for 1923 and 1924. 



210 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



T.\BLE 75. — Domestic exports of coal-tar anl of dyes and dyi'sluffs, calnnd-ir years 

1920-1924 — Continued 

PHOTOQRAPHIC CHEMICALS 





1922 


1923 


1924 


• Exported to— 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 




Pounds 
11,274 
6.5,411 
1.5, 019 
16, 738 
24,52ti 
39, 815 
11,709 
10,806 
13, 094 
39, 727 


$4, 896 

1.5,971 
7,228 
6,306 
9, 124 

26, 809 
5, .509 
9,018 
4,302 

14,690 


Pounds 

2,205 

23, 427 

10, 349 

16, 223 

34, 344 

35, 894 
8,862 

12,716 
22, 101 
48, 039 


$1,054 
5, 775 
5,079 
5,406 
9,834 

28, 309 
5,051 

12,030 
5,363 

18,416 


Pounds 
1,992 
20, 679 
14, 721 
18, 788 
5, 3.30 
16,845 
10, 545 
13, 688 
14,883 
56, 524 


$1, 872 




6, 583 




5,863 


Cuba 


7,261 




2,329 




1.5,455 




4,063 




12,731 




3,230 


V 11 other countries - 


21, 364 






Total 


248,119 


103, 853 


214, 100 


96, 317 


173,995 


80,751 







OTHER FINISHED COAL-TAR PRODUCTS, N. E. S. 





37,226 
80,800 
48, 767 

264,009 

2, 797, 967 

2S, 262 

67, 434 

470. 344 
95, 545 

984, 063 

107, 043 
39, 692 
78, 574 
80,661 
80, 470 
67,948 
21, 533 

194, 752 


$1, 540 

2,560 

1,275 

33, 285 

63, 908 

2,655 

2 079 

26, 902 

5 401 

43, 497 

8,831 

2, 598 

4, 664 

13, 442 

13,415 

17, 550 

4,533 

24, 707 


4,174 
30, 893 


$3, 193 
6,576 


1,000 


$680 














167, 822 

1,128,624 

6,017 

24. 809 

334, 479 

21, 8.54 

868, 690 

207, 900 

1,510 

4,742 

103,833 

202, 251 

154,606 

26. 785 

' 1,212,257 


37, 292 

57,663 

709 

2, 920 
20, 560 

3,460 
38, 382 

9,200 
381 

1,155 
18,951 
27,707 
38, 981 

5,166 
206, 808 


74, 137 

209, 457 

8,257 

11,420 
150,729 

12,769 
279, 141 
201, 125 

22,052 

1,134 

134,398 

214,821 

387, 275 

18, 038 
M21.615 


23, 539 


Canada 


41,520 




928 




1,485 




13,724 




2.006 


("aba 


26, 670 




9,051 


Brazil 


3,004 


(3hile -- 


136 




22, 625 


Peru - 


30, 975 




58, 253 


Australia 


2,948 




67, 418 






Total 


5,545,090 


272,842 


4, 501, 146 


479, 104 


2, 147, 368 


304,962 







1 All other countries includes 768,236 pounds valued at $140,077 to China. 
» Includes 217,369 pounds valued at $34,212 to China. 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



211 



Directory of Manufacturers of Dyes and Other Synthetic 
Organic Chemicals, 1924 



Name of company 



Abbott Laboratories, The , 

Acids Manufacturing Corporation. 

Agawam Chemical Works (Inc.).- 



Algon Color & Chemical Corporation. 



Office address (location of plant given in parentheses 
if not in same city as office) 



Alston-Lucas Paint Co 

Alehouse Chemical Co., The 

Alyco Manufacturing Co. (Inc.). 

Amalgamated Dyestuff and Chemical Works 

(Inc.) 
American .\uilinc Products (Inc.) 



10 Amido Products Co. 



11 Anderson Chemical Co 

12 Ansbachcr & Co. (Inc.), A. B 



Auramine Corporation of America 

Baird & McGuire (Inc.) 

^akelite Corporation of West Virginia. 



rett Co., The 

17 Bayer Co. (Inc.), The. 



Beavor Chemical Corporation 

Beaver Manufacturing Co 

Belle Alkali Co 

Benzol Products Co. (Inc.)... 

Berghausen Chemical Co., The E 

Berkhpimer Manufacturing Co., J. E. 

Brooklyn Color Works (Inc.) 

Brown Co 



Bush (Inc.), Burton T. 
Bush& Co., W. J 



Cable Chemical Works.. 

Ca'co Chemical Co., The 

California Ink Co. (Inc.) 

Carbide & Carbon Chemical CorDcatinn. 

Carey M i"ufnrturing Co., The Philip 

Celluloid Co.. The 



Central Dyestuff & Chemical Co... 
Central Specialty Co 

Certain-teed Products Corporation. 



Chemical Co. of America (Inc.), The. 



Childs & Co. (Inc.), Charles M... 
Cincinnati Chemical Works (Inc.) . 



Coal Tar Dyes (Inc.) 

Coleman & Bell Co 

Combustion Utilities Corporation. 



Commonwealth Chemical Corporation. 

Commonwealth Color & Chemical Co. 
Consolidated Color & Chemical Co 



Cooks Falls Dye Works (Inc.) 



Coopers Creek Chemical Co 

Corona Chemical Division, Pittsburgh Plate 

Glass Co. 
Croton Color & Chemical Co. (Inc.) 

Crown Tar Works 

Crystal Color & Chemical Works 

David Chemical Co., Albert 

Debrook Co. (Inc.) 

Dehls & Stein 

Delta Chemical & Iron Co 



4753 Ravenswood Avenue, Chicago, 111. 

50 East Forty-second Street, New York, N. Y. 

(Packer, Conn.) 
10 Weybosset Street, Providence, R. I. (North 

Attleboro, Mass.) 
132 Front Street, New York, N. Y. (Elizabeth, 

N. J.) 
1031 Currier Street, Chicago, 111. 
540 Pear Street, Reading, Pa. 
86 Orange Street, Bloomfield, N. J. 
Plum Point Lane, Newark N.J. 

45 East Seventeenth Street, New York, N . Y. (Lock 

Haven, Pa.) 
132 Front Street, New York, N. Y. (228 Emmett 

Street, Newark, N. J.) 
P. O. Box 307, Passaic, N. J. (Wallington, N. J.) 
527 Fifth Avenue, New York, N. Y. (310 North 

Seventh Street, Brooklvn, N. Y.) 
22 Seventh Street, Long Island City, N. Y. 
Holbrook, Mass. 
247 Park Avenue, New York, N. Y. (Bloomfield, 

N. J.; Chicago, 111.; Painesville, Ohio; Perth 

Amboy, N. J.) 
40 Rector Street, New York, N. Y. (Plants dis- 

tril)uted throughout the United States.) 
117 Hudson Street, New York, N. Y. (Rensselaer, 

N.Y.) 
Damascus, Va. 
Ballardvale, Mass. 
Belle, W. Va. 

13 Margaretta Street, Newark, N.J. 
915 Carr Street, Cincinnati, Ohio. 
2928 South M Street, Tacoma, Wash. 
Stewart Avenue and Cherry Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
404 Commercial Street, Portland, Me. (Berlin, 

N. 11.) 

45 John Street, New York, N. Y. (Delawanna, N. J.) 
370 Seventh Avenue, New York, N. Y. (Linden, 

N. J.) 
1700 Elston Avenue, Chicago, 111. (Cable, Wis.) 
Bound Brook. N. J. 
West Berkeley, Calif. 

30 Fast Forty-second Street, New York, N. Y. 
Lockland, Ohio. 
36 Washington Place, New York, N. Y. (Newark, 

N.J.) 
Foundry Street and Roanoke Avenue, Newark, N. J. 
524 Delaware Street, Kansas Citv, Mo. 
100 East Forty-second Street, New York, N. Y. 

(East St. Louis, 111.) 

46 Murray Street, New York, N. Y. (Springfield, 
N.J.) 

43 Summit Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Evanston Station, Box 20, Cincinnati, Ohio. (Nor- 
wood & St. Bernard, Ohio.) 

132 Front Street, New York, N. Y. (Newark, N. J.) 

Norwood, Ohio. 

8-10 Bridge Street, New York, N. Y. (Toledo, 
Ohio.) 

25 West Forty-third Street, New York, N. Y. (New- 
ark, N. Y.) 

Nevins, Bufler, and Baltic Streets, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

122 Hudson Street, New York, N. Y. (Newark, 
N.J.) 

68 William Street, New York, N. Y. (Cooks Falls,, 
N. Y.) 

West Conshohocken, Pa. 

205 Lake Street, Milwaukee, Wis. 

293 Broadway, New York, N. Y. (Croton-on- 

Hudson, N.Y.) 
418 Gas & Electric Building, Denver, Colo. 
Saugus, Mass. 

44 Watts Street, New York, N. Y. (Chicago Heights, 
111.) 

1105 Metropolitan Avenue, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
237 South Street, Newark, N. J. 
Wells, Delta County, Mich. 



212 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



No. 



Name of company 



Office address (location of plant given in parentheses 
if not in same city as ofiBce) 



56 Devoe & Raynolds Co. (Inc.) . 



87 



100 
101 
102 

103 
104 
105 
106 

107 
108 
109 
110 
111 

112 

113 
114 
115 

116 
117 
118 

119 
120 

121 
122 



Diarsenol Laboratories (Inc.) 

Dovan Chemical Corporation 

Dow Chemical Co., The 

Dupont De Nemours & Co., E. I 

Dye Products & Chemical Co. (Inc.) 

Dyes & Chemicals of New Jersey (Inc.). 

Dyostuils & Chemicals (Inc.) 

Eakins, (Inc.), J. S. & W. R 

Eastern Color Co 

Eastman Kodak Co - 

Essex Aniline Works (Inc.) 



Federal Color Laboratories (Inc.) . 

Fine Colors Co 

Florasynth Laboratories (Inc.) 

Ford Motor Co.. , 

Foster- Heaton Co 

Fries Bros. 



Fries & Fries Co., The. 

Garfield Aniline Works (Inc.). 

Gary Chemical Co 

Gaskill Chemical Corporation, The. 
Qebauer Chemical Co., The. 



Goodrich Co., The B. F 

Qranton Chemical Co. (Inc.). 



Grasselli Dyestufl Corporation. 



Harmer Laboratories Co 

Harmon Color Works (Inc.) 

Heller & Merz Co., The 

Henke Chemical Co 

Herrmann & Co. (Inc.), Morris. 



Heyden Chemical Co. of America (Inc.). 
Hooker Electrochemical Co 



Hydrocarbon Chemical Co 

Hynson, Westcott & Dunning 

Imperial Color Works (Inc.) 

Interstate Chemical Co 

Ising Corporation, The C. E 

Johnson & Co., Charles Eneu 

Kent Color Corporation 

Kentucky Color and Chemical Co. 

Kerin Manufacturing Co., The 

Kessler Chemical Co., The 

Klipstein & Sons Co., E. C 



Kohnstamm & Co. (Inc.), H 

Lakeview Laboratories 

LaMotte Chemical Products Co., The, 



Lee Co., A 

Lewis Mfg. Co., F. J 

Lilly and Co., Eli 

Lucas & Co. (Inc.), John . 



Maas & Waldstein Co . 

Mallinckrodt Chemical Works 

Maple Chemical Cc. (Inc.) _ 

Marx Color & Chemical Co., Max. 
Mason By-Products Co 



Massachusetts Department of Public Health.! 



May Chemical Works 

Maywood Chemical Works. 
Mepham & Co., Geo. S 



Merck & Co 

Merrimac Chemical Co 

Metz Laboratories (Inc.), H. 



Mever, Alexander 

Miner-Edgar Co., The. 



Monsanto Chemical Works. 
Morana (Inc) 



101 Fulton Street, New York, N. Y. (Chicago, HI., 

and Brooklyn, N. Y.) 
454 Ellicott Square, Buffalo, N. Y. 
30 Church Street, New York, N. Y. (Newark, N. J.) 
Midland, Mich. 

Wilmington, Del. (Deep Water Point, N. J.) 
200 Fifth Avenue, New York, N. Y. (Newark, N. J.) 
702 Court Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
11th and Monroe Streets, St. Louis, Mo. 

24 Wallahout Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

16 East Forty-third Street, New York, N. Y. 

343 State Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. (Rochester, N. Y.) 

88 Broad Street, Boston, Mass. (South Middleton, 
Mass.) 

Forest Street, Norwood, Ohio. 

21 McBride Avenue, Paterson, N. J. 

Olmstead and Starling Avenues, Unionport, N. Y. 

Iron Mountain, Mich. 

833-839 Magnolia Avenue, Elizabeth, N. J. 

92 Reade Street, New York, N. Y. (Bloomfleld, 
N.J.) 

1501 West Sixth Street, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Midland Avenue, Garfield, N. J. 

749 Broadway, Gary, Ind. (Chesterton, Ind.) 

157 Spencer Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

669 Erie Building, Cleveland, Ohio. (9408 St. Cather- 
ine Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio.) 

Akron, Ohio. 

350 Madison Avenue, New York, N. Y. (New 
Brunswick, N. J.) 

117 Hudson Street, New York, N. Y. (Grasselli, 
N^ J ' RciissGltiGr N^ Y ^ 

2 South Twenty-first Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 

361-371 Harmon Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

338 Wilson Avenue, Newark, N. J. 

222 North Dunn Street, Bloomington, Ind. 

200 Fifth Avenue, New York, N. Y. (878 Mount 
Prospect Avenue, Newark, N. J.) 

45 East Seventeenth Street, New York, N. Y. (Gar- 
field, N. J.) 

25 Pine Street, New York, N. Y. (Niagara Falls, 
N. Y.) 

951 East Orange Street, Lancaster, Pa. 

Charles and Chase Streets, Baltimore, Md. 

Glens Falls, N. Y. 

667 Garfield Avenue, Jersey City, N. J. 

Flushing, N. Y. 

509 South Tenth Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 

2 South Ninth Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Thirty-fourth and Bank Streets, Louisville, Ky. 

Central National Bank Building, Marietta, Ohio 

575 Nassau Street, Orange, N. J. 

644 Greenwich Street, New York, N. Y. (Carteret, 

N. J.; South Charleston, W. Va.). 
87 Park Place. New York, N. Y. (Brooklyn, N. Y.) 
2 Jersey Street, Buffalo, N. Y. (Roulette, Pa.) 
McCormick Building, 400 Light Street, Baltimore, 

Md. 
Lawrence, Mass. (Methuen, Mass.) 
2513 South Robey Street, Chicago, 111. 
Indianapolis, Ind. 
322 Race Street, Philadelphia, Pa. (Oibbsboro, 

Camden City, N. J.) 
45 John Street, New York, N. Y. (Newark, N. J.) 
3(00 North Second Street, St. Louis, Mo. 
122 Maple Avenue, Rosebank, Staten Island, N. Y. 
192 Coit Street, Irvington, N. J. 
2 Pine Street, San Francisco, Calif. (Waldo, Marin 

Countv, Calif.) 
Room 540, State House, Boston, Mass. (83 Wash- 

infiton Street, Brookline, Mass.) 
204 Niagara Street, Newark, N. J. 
100 West Hunter Avenue, Maywood, N. J. 
Twentieth Street and Lvnch Avenue, East St. Louis, 

111. 
45 Park Place, New York, N. Y. (Rahway, N. J.) 
148 State Street, Boston, Mass. (Woburn, Mass.) 
122 Hudson Street, New York, N. Y. (Brooklyn, 

N. Y.) 
96 East Tenth Street, New York, N. Y. 
110 William Street, New York, N. Y. (Newark, N. 

J.; St. Marvs, Pa.) 
1724 South Second Street, St. Louis, Mo. 

118 East Twenty-seventh Street, New York, N. Y. 
(Elizabeth, N. J.) 



DIRECTORY OF MANUFACTURERS OF DYES 



213 



Name of company 



Office address (location of plant given in parentheses 
if not in same city as office) 



National Ammonia Co. of Pa., The 

National AnUine & Chemical Co. (Inc.). 



Naugatuck Chemical Co., The 

New England Aniline Works (Inc.) 

New Haven Gas Light Co 

New York Quinine & Chemical Works (Inc.) 

The. 
Newport Co., The 



Niagara Alkali Co 

Niagara Smelting Corporation. 

Northwestern Chemical Co 

Norvell Chemical Corporation, The. 



Novocol Chemical Manufacturing Co. (Inc.). 

Oldbury Electro Chemical Co 

Palatine Aniline & Chemical Corporation.... 

Passaic Color Corporation 

Peek Chemical Works (Inc.) 

Peerless Color Co 

Pennsylvania Coal Products Co 

Pfizer & Co. (Inc.), Chas 

Pharma-Chemical Corporation 

Portland Gas & Coke Co 

Powers- Weightman-Rosengarten Co 

Providence Chemical Laboratories 

Puritan Dye & Chemical Co 

Quaker Oats Co., The... 



Radiant Dye & Color Works. 
Republic Creosoting Co 



Rhodia Chemical Co. 



Roessler & Hasslacher Chemical Co., The... 



Rossville Co., The 

Rubber Service Laboratories Co., The. 



Ruston (Inc.), Philip. 

Selden Co., The. 

Semet-Solvay Co 

Seydel Chemical Co... 



Sherwin-Williams Co., The 

Siemon & Elting (Inc.) 

Sinclair & Valentine Co.. 

Southern DyestufTs Co 

Special Chemicals Co 

Springdale Finishing Co. (Inc.), The. 
Squibb & Sons, E. R 



Stearns & Co., Frederick 

Sun Chemical & Color Co 

Synfleur Scientific Laboratories (Inc.). 
Synthetical Laboratories of Chicago... 
Tar Products Corporation 



Texdel Chemical Co 

Te-xtile Chemacal Co. (Inc.).. 
Thatcher Process Co. (Inc.). 



Todd Co., A. M . 

Trico Chemical Co. (Inc). 
Uhlich & Co. (Inc.), PauL 
Ullman Co., Sigmund 



Ultro Chemical Corporation 

United States Industrial Chemical Co. (Inc.) . 
VanDyk & Co. (Inc.) 



Van Schaack Bros. Chemical Works (Inc.) 

Vernon Synthetic Chemical Corporation 

(Inc.). 
Verona Chemical Co 



Delaware Avenue and Van Kirk Street, Philadel- 
phia, Pa. 

40 Rector Street, New York, N. Y. (Buffalo, N. Y.; 
Marcus Hook, Pa.) 

Naugatuck, Conn. 

Ashland, Mass. 

80 Crown Street, New Haven, Conn. 

99 North Eleventh Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

P. O. Bo.x 1582, Milwaukee, Wis. (Carrollville, Wis.; 

Passaic, N. J.) 
4205 Bult'alo Avenue, Niagara Falls, N. Y. 
Bridge Station, Niagara Falls, N. Y. 
137 Sixth Avenue, Wauwatosa, Wis. 
99 John Street, New York, N. Y. (Perth Amboy^ 

N. J.) 
2923 Atlantic Avenue, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Niagara Falls, N. Y. 

81 North Wider Street, Poughkeepsie, N. Y. 
60 Eighth Street, Passaic, N.J. 

380 WUliamson Street, Elizabeth, N. J. 

521 North Avenue, Plainfleld. N. J. 

Reiber Building, Butler, Pa. (Petrolia, Pa.) 

81 Maiden Lane, New York, N. Y. 

233 Broadway, New York, N. Y. (Bayonne, N. J.) 

Gasco Building, Portland, Oreg. 

916 Parrish Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 

51 Empire Street, Providence, R. I. 

Northborough, Mass. 

1600 Railway Exchange, Chicago, 111. (Cedar 
Rapids, Iowa.) 

2837 West Twenty-first Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

1614 Merchants Bank Building, Indianapolis, Ind.. 
(MobQe, Ala.; Irouton, Utah; St. Louis Park, 
Minn.; Norfolk, Va.; Indianapolis, Ind.) 

89 Fulton Street, New York, N. Y. (New Bruns- 
wick,. N.J.) 

709 Sixth Avenue, New York, N. Y. (Perth Amboy,, 
N. J.; Niagara Falls, N. Y.) 

Lawrenceburg, Ind. 

611 Peoples Savings & Trust Building, Akron, Ohio. 
(Nitro, W. Va.) 

220 West Fortv-second Street, New York, N. Y". 
(247-255 Water Street, Brooklyn, N. Y.) 

339 Second Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Syracuse, N. Y. 

86 Forrest Street, Jersey City, N. J. (Nitro, West 
Va.) 

601 Canal Road, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Linden, N. J. (Irvington, N. J.) 

11 St. Clair Place, New York, N. Y. 

Nitro, W. Va. 

Highland Park, 111. 

57 Pine Street, Canton, Mass. 

80 Beekman Street, New York, N. Y. (Brooklyn, 
N. Y.; New Brunswick, N. J.) 

Bellevue Street and Jefferson Avenue, Detroit, Mich. 

309 Sussex Street, Harrison, N. J. 

Monticello, N. Y. 

1326 West Congress Street, Chicago, 111. 

99 Empire Street, Providence, R. I. (East Provi- 
dence, R. I.) 

136 Water Street, New York, N. Y. (Nutley, N. J.) 

90 Smithfield Avenue, Providence, R. I. 

203 Richmond Avenue, Syracuse, N. Y. (523 Tracy 

Street, Syracuse, N. Y.) 
Kalamazoo, Mich. 

502 Iroquois Building, Buffalo, N. Y. 
11 Cliff Street, New York, N. Y. (Brooklyn, N. Y.) 
Park Avenue and One Hundred and Forty-sixth 

Street, New York, N. Y. 
1 Hudson Street, New York, N. Y. (Brooklyn, 

N. Y.) 
110 East Forty-second Street, New York, N. Y. 

(Curtis Bay, Md.) 
4-6 Piatt Street, New York, N. Y. (Jersey City 

N.J.) 
3358 Avondale Avenue, Chicago, 111. 
166 Vernon Avenue, Long Island City, N. Y. 

26 Verona Avenue, Newark, N. J 



47285— 25t- 



-15 



214 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



No. 


Name of company 


Office address (location of plant given in parentheses 
if not in same city as office) 


18? 


Victor Chemical Works . -- 


343 South Dearborn Street, Chicago, 111. (Chicago 


183 
184 


Wamesit Chemical Co 

Warner-Jenkinson Manufacturing Co 

Western Drv Color Co 


Heights, 111.) 
Lowell, Mass. (Wamesit, Mass.) 
2526 Baldwin Street, St. Louis, Mo. 
Fifty-second and Wallace Streets, Chicago, 111. 


18fi 


Westvaco Chlorine Products (Inc.) 


415 Lexington Avenue, New York, N. Y. (South 


187 

188 


White Tar Co. of New Jersey (Inc.), The. 

White Chemical Co., Wilbur 


Charleston, W. Va.) 
56 Vesey Street, New York, N. Y. (Kearney, N. J.; 

Cincinnati, Ohio.) 
66 Temple Street, Owego, N. Y. 


ISt 


Wilhelm Co., The A 


Third and Bern Streets, Reading, Pa. 


IW 


Williamsburg Chemical Co. (Inc.)- --- 


230 Morgan Avenue, Brooklyn, N, Y. 


191 
19'' 


Witbeck Chemical Corporation. 

WoltT-Alport Chemical Corporation 


1-24 Broadway, Albany, N. Y. 

593 Irving Avenue, Brooklyn, N. Y. 


193 


Yocum Laboratories, The 


168 Coit Street, Irvington, N. J. 


194 




Hastings-on-Hudson, N. Y. 


195 


Organo Chemico Co 


1636 Columbus Avenue, Sandusky, Ohio. 









o