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Full text of "Synthetic organic chemicals : United States production and sales"

UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 
WASHINGTON 



Tariff Information Series — No. 35 



CENSUS OF DYES 

AND 

OTHER SYNTHETIC ORGANIC 
CHEMICALS 



$ 



1926 




UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON 

1927 



BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY 



3 9999 06317 182 9 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 
WASHINGTON 



Tariff Information Series — No. 35 



CENSUS OF DYES 

AND OTHER SYNTHETIC ORGANIC 
CHEMICALS 

1926 




UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON 

1927 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 

Office: Eighth and E Streets NW., Washington, D. C. 

COMMISSIONERS 

Thomas O. Marvin, Chairman. 
Alfred P. Dennis, Vice Chairman. 
Edward P. Costigan. 
Edgar H. Brossard. 
Sherman J. Lowell. 
Lincoln Dixon. 



John F. Bethune, Secretary. 



additional copies 

OF THIS PUBLICATION MAY BE PROCURED FROM 

THE SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS 

U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON, D. C. 

AT 

30 CENTS PER COPY 



CONTENTS 



Page 

Introduction ix 

Part I 

Summary of census of dyes and other synthetic organic chemicals, 1926: 

Introduction 3 

Summary of domestic production, 1926 — 

Crudes 4 

Intermediates 4 

Dyes 5 

Statistics of production 6 

International dye trade in 1 926 8 

S3'nthetic organic chemicals not derived from coal tar 8 

Part II 

Production of dyes and coal-tar chemicals, 1926: 
Coal-tar crudes — 

Output of by-]:)roduct coke 13 

Production of tars 14 

Production of crudes 16 

Coal-tar creosote 16 

Imports of crudes 17 

Exports of crudes 17 

Statistics of production 17 

Coal-tar intermediates — 

Description 22 

Production 22 

Decreased production of synthetic phenol 22 

Benzoic acid 23 

Rubber accelerators 23 

Phthalic anhydride 23 

Anthraquinone 24 

Aniline and its derivatives . 24 

p-Nitroaniline 24 

Cresylic acid 24 

Naphthalene derivatives 24 

Halogenated products 25 

Malic and maleic acids 25 

New intermediates 25 

Other intermediates 25 

Statistics of production and sales 25 

Dyes and other finished coal-tar products- 
Introduction 32 

Summary of production of d3'es — 

Increase in production 32 

Stocks on hand 33 

Further decline in domestic dye prices 34 

Unit value of dyes produced, 1922-1926 36- 

Progress in dye manufacture 37 

Relation of production to consumption 37 

Reduction in number of dye manufacturers 38 

Tariff considerations 38 

Court and Treasury decisions 3& 

Effect of reduction in duty on dje imports 40 

III 



IV 



CONTENTS 



Production of dyes and coal-tar chemicals, 1926 — Continued. 

Dyes and other finished coal-tar products — Continued. Page 

Production of dyes by classes 41 

Acid dyes 42 

Basic dyes 43 

Direct cotton dyes 44 

S R A dyes 45 

Mordant and chrome dyes 46 

Sulphur dyes 47 

Vat dyes . 48 

Color-lake and spirit-soluble dyes 50 

Food dyes 51 

Export trade in dyes 51 

Other finished coal-tar products — 

Color lakes 52 

Photographic chemicals 52 

Medicinals 53 

Flavors and perfume materials 54 

Synthetic phenolic resins 54 

Synthetic tanning materials 55 

Statistics of production, imports, and sales 56 

Dj^es not classified by Colour Index 66 

Employees and rates of pay 72 

Research work 74 

Part III 

Production of coal-tar products and of synthetic organic chemicals other 
than those of coal-tar origin, by States, 1923: 

Introduction ^^ 77 

Intermediates 77 

Dyes 77 

Medicinals 81 

Coal-tar flavors and perfumes 81 

Synthetic organic chemicals other than those of coal-tar origin 81 

Part IV 

Dyes imported for consumption in the United States, 1926: 

Introduction 87 

Summary of imports of dyes in 1926 87 

Import statistics 88 

Index to table of dye imports 118 

Part V 



Census of synthetic organic chemicals other than those of coal-tar origin, 
1926: 

Introduction 131 

Large increase in production .__■ 131 

Organic solvents — - 132 

Ethyl acetate 133 

Butanol 133 

Butyl acetate 133 

Amyl acetate 134 

Butvl propionate and ethvl lactate 134 

Tetraetlivl lead . - - 134 

Xanthates 134 

Methanol — 

Investigation under section 315 135 

Synthetic methanol produced in the United States 135 

Other products 136 

Statistics of imports, production, and sales 137 



CONTENTS V 

Part VI 
International dye trade: 

Introduction — Page 

Developments in 1926 145 

World production of dyes 145 

Exports from producing countries 146 

Imports into consuming countries 147 

Competitive conditions 148 

International agreements 149 

• The dye industry of Germany — 

Organization of the I. G. Farbenindustrie A. G 150 

Developments in 1926 150 

Increase in capital stock 151 

Dividend and wage data 151 

Expansion of the dye trust 151 

International agreements 152 

Reparation dyes — 

Payments in kind 152 

Receipts and payments under the Dawes plan 153 

Imports and exports 154 

The dye industrj^ of Great Britain — 

Developments in 1926 156 

Formation of Imperial Chemical Industries (Ltd.) 156 

Import licenses 157 

Reorganization of I. G. selling agency 158 

Anglo-German chemical negotiations 158 

Imports and exports 158 

The dye industry of France 160 

Proposed new French import tariff 161 

The dye industry of Italy 162 

The dye industry of Japan 164 

The dye industry of Poland 166 

The dye industry of Russia 167 

The dye industry of Spain 168 

The dye industry of Switzerland 169 

Exports in 1926 170 

The dye trade of other countries — 

Argentina 171 

Austria 171 

Belgium 172 

Brazil 172 

Canada 173 

China 173 

Czechoslovakia 175 

Egypt. 176 

India 177 

Netherlands 179 

Sweden 180 

Dutch East Indies .._ 181 

Part VII 

APPENDIX 

Statistics of domestic imports and exports of coal-tar products 185 

Directory of manufacturers of dyes and other svnthetic organic chemicals, 

1926 1 204 

STATISTICAL TABLES 

1. Dyes and coal-tar chemicals: Summary of the production, 1918-1926. 6 

2. Synthetic organic chemicals of noncoal-tar origin: Production and 

sales, 1921-1926 9 

3. By-product and beehive coke: Production in the United States, 

1913-1926 14 

4. Coke-oven, coal-gas, water-gas, and oil-gas tar: Production and sales 

in the United States, 1918-1926 .-- 15 



/VI CONTENTS 



5. Coke-oven tar: Production in the United States and percentage used 

and sold, 1918-1926 15 

6. Coal-tar by-products obtained from coke-oven operations, 1923-1926_- 17 

7. Coal-tar crudes: Production 1926, by firms not primarily engaged in 

the operation of coke-oven plants and gas houses 19 

8. Total commercial production of benzene, toluene, solvent naphtha, 

and naphthalene from all sources in the United States, 1918-1926.- 19 

9. Phenol: Production and sales in the United States, 1917-1926 23 

10. Coal-tar intermediates: Domestic sales price per pound, 1920-1926, 

and invoice price of same intermediates imported, 1914 26 

11. Coal-tar intermediates: Production and sales, 1926 26 

12. Intermediates: Production bv groups, according to unit values, 1922- 

1926 '_ 32 

13. Dyes: Domestic production and sales, 1914 and 1917-1926 33 

14. Dyes: Stocks on hand January 1, 1926 and 1927 33 

15. Dyes: Weighted average sales price per pound, 1917 and 1920-1926- 34 

16. Domestic sales prices of certain dyes, 1922-1926, compared with in- 

voice values of dyes of the same kind imported in 1914 35 

17. Dyes: Production by groups, according to unit value, 1922-1926 36 

18. Coal-tar dyes : Imports into the United States, 1920-1927 (3 months) _ 40 

19. Comparison of imports of dyes, by classes, fiscal year 1914, and calen- 

dar vears 1922-1926, with domestic production, calendar vears 
1922-1926 ; 41 

20. Vat dves other than indigo: Production, imports, and consumption 

in the United States, 1914 and 1920-1926 49 

21. Coal-tar dyes: Exports from the United States, 1920-1926 51 

22. Dyes: Domestic exports by months, 1924-1927 (4 months) 52 

23. Medicinals and pharmaceuticals of coal-tar origin: Imports into the 

United States, 1926 56 

24. Synthetic aromatic chemicals of coal-tar origin: Imports into the 

United States, 1926 57 

25. Photographic chemicals, intermediates, and other coal-tar products: 

Imports into the United States, 1926 58 

26. Dyes and other finished coal-tar products: Production and sales, 1926- 59 

27. Emplovees and rates of pay in the coal-tar dve and chemical industry, 

1926 _" :. 73 

28. Employees and rates of pay in the coal-tar dye and chemical industry, 

1926, percentages receiving specified wages 74 

29. Coal-tar products and synthetic organic chemicals other than those of 

coal-tar origin — total production in 1923 77 

30. Imports of dyes into the United States, by country of shipment, 

1924-1926 88 

31. Dyes imported into the United States, classified by method of appli- 

cation, 1921-1926 88 

32. Dyes of each class, according to method of application, imported in 

largest quantity in the calendar year 1926, compared with corre- 
sponding imports in 1925, 1924, 1923, and in the fiscal year 1914.. 89 

33. Dyes remaining in bonded customs warehouse January 31, 1926, to 

April 30, 1927 90 

34. Imports of dyes, calendar year 1926 91 

35. Organic solvents of noncoal-tar origin: Production in the United 

States, 1923-1926 132 

36. Pyroxylin (nitrocellulose) varnishes or lacquers: Production and sales, 

'1926 132 

37. Certain synthetic organic chemicals of noncoal-tar origin: Imports 

and production, 1925-1926 137 

38. Synthetic organic chemicals of noncoal-tar origin: Production and 

' sales, 1926 138 

39. Dyes: Production by chief producing covmtries, 1922-1926 146 

•40. Coal-tar dves: Exports from chJef producing countries, 1913 and 

1922-1926 147 

41. Coal-tar dves: Imports into chief consuming countries, 1913, 1925, 

and 1926 148 

42. Coal-tar dyes: Exports from Germany, 1913 and 1920-1926 149 

43. Germany: Imports of coal-tar dyes, 1926 155 

44. Germany: Exports of coal-tar dyes, 1926 155 



CONTENTS VII 

Page 

45. United Kingdom: Imports of dyes under licenses granted by the 

DyestufTs Advisory Licensing Committee, 1921-1926 158 

46. United Kingdom: Imports of coal-tar dyes, 1925 159 

47. United Kingdom: Imports and exports of coal-tar dyes, 1924-1926. _ 159 

48. United Kingdom: Imports and exports of coal-tar dyes, 1926 159 

49. United Kingdom: Exports of coal-tar dyes, 1925 160 

50. France: Proposed new import tariff 161 

51. France : Imports of coal-tar dyes, 1926 162 

52. France: Exports of coal-tar dyes, 1926 162 

53. Italy: Imports of synthetic organic dyes by countries, 1926 163 

54. Italy: Imports and exports of S5'nthetic organic dyes, 1926 163 

55. Japan: Imports of coal-tar dyes, 1923-1925 165 

56. Japan : Exports of coal-tar dyes, 1923-1925 166 

57. Poland: Imports and exports of synthetic dyes, calendar year 1925__ 167 

58. Spain: Imports of synthetic organic dyes, 1925 168 

59. Spain: Imports of synthetic organic dyes, 1926 169 

60. Switzerland: Imports and exports of coal-tar dyes, 1926 170 

61. Argentina: Imports of coal-tar dyes, 1925 171 

62. Austria: Imports and exports of coal-tar dyes, October-December, 

1926 - 171 

63. Austria: Imports and exports of coal tar dyes, year 1926 172 

64. Belgium: Imports and exports of coal-tar dyes, dry and paste, 1926.. 172 

65. Brazil: Imports of coal-tar dyes, 1925 172 

66. Canada: Imports of coal-tar dyes, year ended March 31, 1926 173 

67. China: Imports of dves, colors, and paints, 1925 173 

68. China: Exports of indigo, 1925 174 

69. Czechoslovakia: Imports and exports of coal-tar dyes, calendar year 

1925 175 

70. Egypt: Imports and exports of coal-tar dyes, 1926 176 

71. India: Imports of coal-tar dyes and exports of natural indigo, year 

ended March 31, 1926 177 

72. India: Imports of coal-tar dyes, calendar year 1926 178 

73. India: Exports of indigo, calendar year 1926 178 

74. Netherlands: Imports and exports of coal-tar dyes, 1925 179 

75. Sweden: Imports and exports of coal-tar dyes, 1925 180 

76. Dutch East Indies: Imports of coal-tar dyes, 1925 181 

77. Coal-tar products: Imports entered for consumption, calendar vears 

1924-1926 185 

78. Coal-tar products: General imports, 1922-1926 192 

79. Coal-tar products: Domestic exports, 1922-1926 198 



INTRODUCTION 



This report is a survey of the domestic dye and synthetic organic 
chemical industry in 1926. It presents the results of a special 
investigation made by the United States Tariff Commission with 
respect to the production in the United States of coal-tar dyes and 
synthetic organic chemicals, both of coal-tar and of noncoal-tar 
origin. It includes a detailed tabulation of coal-tar dyes imported 
into the United States and official statistics of imports and exports 
of coal-tar dyes by the large consuming and producting nations of the 
world. There is also included a chapter on the production of coal- 
tar products and of synthetic organic chemicals other than those of 
coal-tar origin, by States, 1923. 

The survey is divided into seven parts, as shown in Table of Con- 
tents (pp. Ill to vii). 



In the preparation of this report the Tariff Commission had the 
services of Frank Talbot and Warren N. Watson, of the chemical 
division of the commission's staff, and of others. 

IX 



PART I 

SUMMARY OF THE CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER 
SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1926 



Part I 

SUMMARY OF THE CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER 
SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1926 



Introduction 



The United States Tariff Commission has reported annually 
beginning with 1917, the progress of the American dye and coal- 
tar chemical industry. In 1921 this annual census was extended to 
include synthetic organic chemicals other than those derived from 
coal tar.^ 

In addition to production and sales figures for the domestic indus- 
try, the present report contains a detailed tabulation of coal-tar 
dyes imported into the United States, a discussion of the inter- 
national dye trade, developments in the foreign dye-producing 
countries, and official statistics of exports and imports of the more 
important dye consuming and producing countries of the world in 
postwar years. A new feature of the present report is a section 
showing the 1923 production by States of coal-tar products and 
synthetic organic chemicals not of coal-tar origin. 

The general grouping of coal-tar chemicals adopted in the present 
report follows that of the tariff act of 1922, which conforms in general 
although not in every detail, to common practice. Crudes, para- 
graph 1549, free, are contained in and separated from crude coal 
tar; intermediates, dutiable under paragraph 27 at 40 per cent and 
7 cents per pound, are produced from the crudes by chemical proc- 
esses; with certain exceptions, they are used only for the manu- 
facture of dyes and other finished products by further chemical 
treatment; dyes and other finished products are duitable under 
paragraph 28 at 45 per cent and 7 cents per pound. The term 
"other finished products" includes color lakes, photographic chem- 
icals, medicinals, flavors, perfume materials, synthetic resins, and 
synthetic tanning materials. Explosives derived from . coal-tar 
materials, although dutiable under paragraph 28, are not included 
in this census. 

The domestic production of coal-tar products from 1918 to 1926, 
according to the classes given above, is summarized in Table 1, 
page 6. The figures for 1926 were compiled from the returns of 
172 companies^ and are believed to form a complete record of the 
manufacture of such products in that year. The quantity and value 
of each product are given in as great detail as is possible without 
revealing the operations of individual manufacturers. It has been 
the policy of the commission not to publish either production or 
sales figures unless at least three firms report a given product, and 

1 Other reports prepared by the Tariff Commission relating to conditions in the dye industry include 
(1) Costs of production in the dye industry, 1918 and 1919, and (2) dyes and other coal-tar chemicals, Dec. 
12, 1918. 

2 This census includes production returns of 200 flnns, of which 28 made synthetic organic chemicals 
of noncoal-tar origin only, and 172 made synthetic organic chemicals of coal-tar origin or of both coal-tar 
and also noncoal-tar origin. Of the 200 firms, 171 granted permission for the publication of their names and 
29 did not grant such permission. The names of the 171 firms are listed in the directory of manufacturers 
of dyes and other synthetic organic chemicals, p. 204. 



4 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

then only whten production (or sales) is well distributed among 
the different firms. In many instances neither production nor 
sales figures are published, even where there are more than three 
producers, because of the fact that one firm either produced or sold 
a large part of the total output. 

Summary of Domestic Production, 1926 

CRUDES 

The production of by-product coke in 1926 was 44,416,703 tons.^ 
This is the highest production on record and an 1 1 per cent increase 
over 1925. The output of beehive coke in 1926 was 11,486,000 tons 
which is a decrease of 6.7 per cent from the 1925 output. The trend 
of the industry is toward an increased use of the by-product oven. 
In 1913 only 27.5 per cent of the total production of coke was from 
by-product ovens; by 1926 the proportion had risen to 79.5 per cent. 
By-product ovens are supplying an increasing quantity of gas for 
city consumption and of coke for domestic fuel. 

Coal-tar production in 1926 totaled 583,000,000 gallons, which 
was an increase of 9 per cent over 1925. As this production was 
greatly in excess of the requirements of the tar distilling and chemi- 
cal industry, approximately 57 per cent was used as fuel. Because 
of the demand for partly refined products, such as motor fuel, sol- 
vents, and pitches, only a part of the 248,000,000 gallons distilled 
was converted into refined products, such as benzene, toluene, and 
napthalene. 

Creosote or dead oil, of great value as a wood preservative, is 
made in increasing but insufficient quantities. The 1926 production 
was 75,495,540 gallons. Imports of creosote oil in 1926 were 
87,518,544 gallons, valued at $11,720,397. Measured either by 
value or quantity, this was the largest single import of coal-tar 
products in 1926. 

INTERMEDIATES 

Intermediates are prepared from the coal-tar crudes by chemical 
treatment. They are further converted by complex chemical pro- 
cesses into finished coal-tar products, such as dyes, medicinals, per- 
fumes, flavors, photographic chemicals, synthetic resins, and tanning 
materials. Other uses for intermediates are as accelerators in the 
vulcanization of rubber, as camphor substitutes, insecticides, germi- 
cides, and in the flotation process of concentrating ores. 

The total production of intermediates in 1926 by 78 firms was 
229,653,802 pounds, as compared with 210,699,779 pounds in 1925. 
Sales in 1926 amounted to 86,916,836 pounds, valued at $18,990,042. 
The production of intermediates for dye manufacture was about the 
same in 1926 as in 1925. Specialty intermediates for fast and spe- 
cialty dyes showed large increases in production in 1926. 

Conspicuous among the intermediates showing expansion in manu- 
facture in 1926 were anthraquinone, cresylic acid, and phthalic 
anhydride. The production of phthalic anhydride was the highest yet 
reported. Progress in the manufacture of rubber accelerators was 
notable. Phenol was one of the intermediates showing a marked 
decrease in production and sales. 

' Preliminary figures of the Bureau of Mines. 



SUMMAEY OF DOMESTIC PRODUCTION, 1926 5 

COAL-TAR DYES 

Production.— The output of dyes by 61 firms in 1926 was 87,978,624 
pounds, an increase of 2 per cent over 1925. Sales amounted to 
86,255,836 pounds, valued at $36,312,648, as compared with 79,303,- 
451 pounds, valued at $37,468,332 in 1925. While there was an 
increase in the volume of sales, due largely to greater activity in the 
textile industry, the lower price of dyes in 1926 caused a decrease in 
the value of production. 

Progress in dye manufacture. — Significant progress was made during 
1926 in the manufacture of vat dyes, alizarin derivatives, direct devel- 
oped dyes, and a variety of special products for the dyeing of mixed fibers 
and artificial silk. The increasing demand for fast dyes has greatly 
stimulated research and has resulted in the commercial production 
of a large number of dyes for the first time in the United States. 

Many patents were granted to American dye firms on dyes and 
intermediates. The development of new and original dyes by re- 
search laboratories and their production on a commercial scale are of 
vital importance to the future of dye manufacture in this country. 

Decline in domestic dye prices. — The weighted average price of all 
domestic dyes sold in 1926 was 10 per cent less than the weighted aver- 
age of those sold in 1925. There has been a steady decline in prices 
since 1917, when the average was $1.26 per pound. Prices in recent 
years have run as follows: 1922, 60 cents; 1924, 54 cents; 1925, 47 
cents; 1926, 42 cents. The decline in price since 1922 has caused 
an average annual decrease in revenue from sales of over $6,000,000. 

Relation of production to consumption. — Assuming consumption 
to equal total sales plus imports minus exports, 93 per cent of the 
total quantity of dyes consumed in the United States in 1926 was 
supplied by the domestic industry. In terms of value, however, the 
proportion was considerably less, for the reason that the average 
price of imported dyes is much greater than that of domestic dyes. 

Reduction in number of dye manufacturers. — In 1926, 53 firms 
reported the production of dyes (exclusive of 8 firms producing stains 
and indicators.) This is a decline of 16 producers since 1925 and of 
37 since 1919. The United States has more dye manufacturers than 
the rest of the world combined. The capacity of domestic plants, 
estimated at about one-fifth of the world's total capacity, is far in 
excess of the quantity that can be marketed. Increased competition 
will doubtless continue to eliminate plants and will thus reduce the 
productive capacity until it more nearly conforms to the demands 
of the home and export markets. 

Increased production of vat dyes. — An outstanding feature of the 
domestic dye industry is the increase in the production of vat dyes 
other than indigo. The output of 4,030,421 pounds in 1926 is a 54 
per cent gain over 1925, which in turn was a gain of 43 per cent over 
1924. Vat dyes are exceptionally fast to light and washing, and are 
extensively applied to cotton and linen fabrics. Textile manufac- 
turers have placed upon the market a variety of fast-dyed fabrics 
or made up garments, marked with a trade name and bearing a state- 
ment or guarantee as to their fastness to washing and light. The 
buyer is thus enabled to purchase goods for whose fastness of color 
the retailer through the manufacturer assumes full responsibility. 



6 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Dye imports. — Imports of coal-tar dyes in 1926 totaled 4,673,196 
pounds, valued at $4,103,301. This is a decline of 10 per cent in 
quantity and 11.5 per cent in value from the 1925 import. Germany 
supplied 50 per cent of the total imports; Switzerland, 33 per cent; 
England and France, 4 per cent each; and Italy, 2 per cent. Clas- 
sified by method of application, 40 per cent of our imports were vat 
dyes, 17 per cent direct dyes, 16 per cent acid dyes, 10 per cent mor- 
dant dyes, and the remainder, basic, sulphur, and spirit soluble dyes. 

Dye exports. — Exports in 1926 amounted to 25,811,941 pounds, 
valued at $5,950,159. This was a slight increase in quantity but a 
decline of 11 per cent in value. The average price per pound of dyes 
exported in 1926 was 23 cents as compared with 26 cents in 1925. 
The principal foreign markets were China, Japan, British India, and 
Canada. Exports to China showed a 43 per cent decrease in value; 
those to Japan and Canada an increase. The low-price bulk dyes, 
such as indigo and sulphur black, are the principal colors exported 
from the United States. Severe competition on this class of dyes in 
the international markets has reduced prices in every consuming 
country. 

STATISTICS OF PRODUCTION 
Table 1. — Dyes and coal-tar chemicals: Summary of the production, 1918-1926 



1918 



Number 
of manu- 
facturers 



Production 



Pounds 



Value 



Number 
of manu- 
facturers 



Production 



Pounds 



Value 



Intermediates (total).. 

Finished products (total) 

Dyes... 

Color lakes 

Photographic chemicals... 

Medicinals.. 

Flavors 

Perfumes - 

Tanning materials 

Synthetic phenolic resins.. 



357, 

76, 
58, 



3, 



662, 251 
802, 959 
464, 446 
590, 537 
316,749 
623. 352 
458, 256 
116,263 

233, 356 



$124, 382, 892 
83, 815, 746 
62, 026, 390 
5,020,023 
823,915 
7, 792, 984 
4, 925, 627 
584, 695 

2, 642, 120 



116 

155 

90 

34 

10 

31 

9 

6 

1 

5 



177, 362, 426 

82, 532, 390 

63, 402, 194 

7, 569, 921 

335, 509 

6, 777, 988 

610, 825 

41,419 

3, 794, 534 



210, 079 
585, 544 
598, 855 
179, 964 
059, 340 
883,071 
318,654 
164, 302 

381,358 



Number 
of manu- 
facturers 



Intermediates (total) j 119 
Finished products ' 

(total) I 161 

Dyes ! 82 

Color lakes i 43 

Photographic 

chemicals , 8 

Medicinals ] 35 

Flavors j 15 

Perfumes : 12 

Tanning materials. . . ' 4 
Synthetic phenolic ! 

resins i 4 



Production 



Pounds 



257,726,911 

112,942,227 
88. 263, 776 
10,983,538 

440, 759 
5, 184, 989 

166, 884 

99, 740 

3, 142, 861 

4, 659, 680 



Value 



I Number 
I of manu- 
I factm-ers 



$95, 291, 686 

112,731,547 

95. 613, 749 

5, 871, 820 

1, 015, 848 

5, 726, 776 

527, 493 

332, 008 

233, 674 

3,410,179 



108 

147 
74 
43 

5 
34 

17 
15 
4 



Production 



Pounds 



70,899,912 

51,457,565 

39, 008, 690 

6, 152, 187 

183, 798 

1,545,917 

901,245 

119,335 

1, 902, 597 

1,643,796 



Sales 



Pounds 



33, 637, 326 

60, 434, 009 

47,513,762 

6, 424, 612 

170, 221 

1, 876, 246 

933, 662 

119,691 

1,721,359 

1,674,456 



Value 



$8, 483, 463 

47, 996, 514 

39. 283, 956 

2, 863, 189 

248, 041 

2, 930, 324 

1,002,018 

175, 815 

141,005 

1,352,166 



SUMMARY OF DOMESTIC PRODUCTION, 1926 7 

Table. 1. — Dyes and coal-tar chemicals: Summary of the production, 1918-1926 — 

Continued 



Intermediates (total) _ 
Finished products 

(total) 

Dyes... 

Color lakes 

Photographic chem- 
icals -- 

Medicinals 

Flavors 

Perfumes 

Tanning materials. 
Synthetic phenolic 

resins 

Research chemicals. 



Num- 
ber of 
manu- 
fac- 
turers 



Produc- 
tion 



Pounds 



Sales 



Pounds 



Value 



165, 048, 155 58, 004, 435 $12, 910, 486 

88, 368, 131 93, 370, 065; 57, 067, 326 

64,632,187 69,107,105141,463,790 

10,578,664 10,366,676, 4,551,572 



345, 798 
2. 946, 347 
1, 215, 668 

793, 148 
1,910,519 

5,944,133 
1,667 



Num- 
ber of 
manu- 
fac- 
turers 



Produc- 
tion 



Pounds 



103 231,393,871 



83, 582, 808 

115,297,586 

86, 567, 446 

43i 13,079,1151 12,627,359 



164122,950,171 
93,667,524 



Sales 



Pounds 



347, 647 
3, 092, 915 
1,278,857 

778, 696 
1,981,588 

6, 415, 931 
650 



483, 269 

4, 233, 443 

1, 260, 588 

643, 436 

103, 598 

4,315,196 
12, 434 



343, 289 
3, 273, 085 
1, 458, 024 
1, 365, 449 

9, 763, 685 



321,083 
2, 995, 448 
1, 442, 387 
1, 275, 432 

10, 068, 431 



Value 



$18,916,058 

65, 898, 177 

47, 223, 161 

5, 124, 732 

443, 697 
4, 720, 253 
1,780,313 

789, 431 

5, 816, 590 



Intermediates (total) . 
Finished products 

(total).. 

Dyes 

Color lakes 

Photogi-aphic chem- 
icals 

Medicinals.. 

Flavors 

Perfumes 

Tanning materials.. 

Synthetic phenolic 

resins. 



1924 



Num- 
ber of 
manu- 
fac- 
turers 



Produc- 
tion 



Pounds 



186, 596, 562 



Sales 



Pounds 



Value 



76, 897, 521 



97,730,211 93,636,109 

68,679,000 64,961,433 

9,343,1471 9,281,673 



316, 183 
2, 967, 944 
1, 750, 555 
1, 895, 267 

12, 778, 115 



321, 865 
2, 688, 329 
1, 691, 863 
1, 945, 488 



Num- 
ber of 
manu- 
fac- 
turers 



$18,164,334 

55,932,580; 

35,012,400; 

4, 045, 799 

461,379 
5,178,099, 
1,471,089' 

945,773 



12, 745, 458' 8, 818, 041 



Produc- 
tion 



Sales 



Pounds Pounds 



210, 699, 779 

120, 554, 228 
86, 345, 438 
11,414.753 

327,041 
3, 237, 796 
2, 207, 102 
2, 335, 024 

il4, 687, 074 



Value 



86, 066, 651 $19, 756, 200 

112,671,779 60,811,400 
79,303, 451 1 37,468,332 
11,308,4441 5,544,371 



348, 842 
3, 294, 827 
2, 148, 904 
2, 370, 728 

13, 896, 583 



475, 095 
6,331,918 
1,409,311 

883,617 

8, 698, 756 





Number 
of manu- 
facturers 




1926 






Production 


Sales 




Pounds 


Pounds 


Value 


Intermediates (total) 


78 
134 
61 
43 

5 

26 
15 
17 

2 


229, 653, 802 

122, 752, 021 

87, 978, 624 

11, 796, 203 

393, 426 

3, 696. 196 

2,857,913 

1, 922. 666 

1 14, 106, 993 


86,916,836 

120.348.636 

86. 255, 836 

11, 425, 139 

387, 698 

3. 593, 226 

2, 629, 126 

1,731,887 

14, 325, 724 


$18,990,042 


Finished products (total) 

Dyes . 


59, .533, 445 
36,312,648 


Color lakes... ... . . 


6,023,011 


Photographic chemicals 

Medicinals 


504,941 
6, 742, 128 


Flavors .. ... 


1, 482, 697 


Perfuires 


820, 264 


Tanning materials 

Synthetic phenolic resins .. 


7,647,756 







49113—27- 



8 census of dyes and other synthetic chemicals 

International Dye Trade in 1926 

Earlier issues of this publication have discussed pre-war conditions 
in the international dye trade and have reviewed changes that occur- 
red during the period 1922-1925. 

Competition among the dye-producing nations of the world has 
been severe, particularly in the sale of the cheaper bulk colors to 
China, British India, and other nonproducing nations. The trend 
toward an increased use of fast dyes, including vat dyes and other 
high-priced colors, continues and promises to increase. 

Germany continues to make organized efforts to regain her former 
dominance of the world's dye markets. In 1926 the I. G. greatly 
expanded its operations by gaining control of several German chem- 
ical companies occupjdng important positions in related branches of 
the chemical industry. It is reported that the capital increase of the 
I. G. from 646 million reichmarks in 1925 to 1,100 million reichmarks 
in 1926 will be used in extending its nitrogen plants and in erecting 
new plants to utilize the Bergius process of liquefying coal. 

A number of international agreements were negotiated in 1926 
between important groups of the producing nations for the purpose 
of stabilizing prices and reducing competition, possibly by a division 
of world markets. 

Germany has been successful in extending her export trade, partic- 
ularly in the higher-priced dyes; her pre-war trade in the cheap 
bulk colors, such as indigo and sulphur black, has not yet been fully 
recovered. In 1926 the total export of dyes from Germany was 
81,883,253 pounds, valued at $47,134,156, an increase of 8 per cent 
in quantity and 6 per cent in value over the 1925 export. In value 
the 1926 export ($47,134,156) was 91 per cent of the 1913 exports. 

In Great Britain the chemical industry, as well as other indus- 
tries, was seriously affected by the coal strike of 1926. The British, 
like the Germans, have formed mergers which make it possible to 
conclude trade agreements with similar large groups in other coun- 
tries. The Imperial Chemical Industries (Ltd.), formed in 1926, is 
a fusion of Brunner Mond and Co. (Ltd.), Nobel Industries (Ltd.), 
British Dvestuffs Corporation (Ltd.), and the United Alkali Co. 
(Ltd.). 

In Switzerland the dye industry has suffered from the effect of 
increased competition on indigo. Exports of indigo were smaller in 
1926 than in 1925, but dyes other than indigo, which are of the high- 
price class, were exported in increased quantity and at a higher value. 

Italy has increased her production of dyes in recent years; an 
output of 13,860,000 pounds is reported for 1925. The Italians 
have begun the manufacture of synthetic indigo, for which they have a 
modern plant with an annual capacity of over 3,000,000 pounds. 

Japan is reported to have concluded an agreement with the I. G. 
which permits the entry of German dyes under the same conditions 
that govern dye imports from other countries. 

Synthetic Organic Chemicals not Derived from Coal Tar 

The manufacture of synthetic organic chemicals of noncoal-tar 
origin is increasing so rapidly that in value of products it bids fair 
soon to rival coal-tar chemicals. The production of 214,842,513 
pounds in 1926 is a 37 per cent increase over the 1925 production. 



SYNTHETIC OEGANIC CHEMICALS NOT DERIVED FEOM COAL TAR 9 

Sales in 1926 were 168,712,158 pounds, valued at $29,719,270. 
Several of these products, made on a commercial scale in 1926, were 
laboratory curiosities a few years ago. 

The 1926 production of solvents of noncoal-tar origin has assumed 
a large tonnage and shows a gain each year. Butanol, butyl acetate, 
ethyl acetate, and amyl acetate were each made in much larger 
quantity in 1926 than in 1925. Ethylene glycol produced in large 
quantit}^ in 1926 is expected to show a greatly increased production 
in 1927. This product is used in manufacturing low-freezing dyna- 
mite in which it partially replaces glycerin. Table 2 shows the 
production and sales of synthetic organic chemicals of noncoal-tar 
origin in the years 1921-1926. 



Table 2.- 



-Synthetic organic chemicals of noncoal-tar origin: Production and sales, 
1921-1926 



Year 


Production 


Sales 


1921 - . - 


Pounds 
21, .')45, 186 
79, 202, 155 
90, 597, 712 
115,817,865 
156, 878, 013 
214,842,513 


Pounds 
16, 761, 096 
60, 494, 494 
67, 727, 067 
85, 933, 461 
114,626,209 
168, 712, 158 


Value 
$7, 226, 068 
11 964 074 


1922-.- 


1923 -■ 


13 875 521 


1924 


20, 604, 717 
23, 632, 779 
29, 719, 270 


1925 


1926 -- 





PART II 

PRODUCTION OF DYES AND COAL-TAR 
CHEMICALS, 1926 



11 



Part II 
PRODUCTION OF DYES AND COAL-TAR CHEMICALS, 1926 



Coal-Tar Crudes 

Output of hy-product coke exceeds 44,000,000 tons.- — The total 
domestic production of coke in 1926 was 55,902,703 ^ net tons, of which 
44,416,703 tons were obtained from by-product ovens. Since 1913 
the trend has been steadily toward an increased output of by-prod- 
uct coke until in 1926 the production was 79.5 per cent by-product 
as against 20.5 per cent beehive. The 1926 production of by-product 
coke is an increase of 11 per cent over the 1925 output, and is about 
18 per cent in excess of production in 1923, formerly the peak year. 



TONS 



50 



AO 



30 



20 



10 



E 


iY-PR 


ODUC" 


r AN 

UN 


DBEt 
ITEO 


:HIVE 
5TA1 


COK 

rEsj 


E: PF 
913- 


iODUC 
926. 


TION 


IN T 


HE 


— 


\ 




/ 
/ 


•*^^ 


'"--^^ 




/ 






/ 


\ 


/ 




\ 

\ 




/ 






\ 


/ 

- f 


N 


4 

7 










^^ 


^ 


^ 


.'^^^ 








\ 

\ 




/ 


\ 
\ 




















\ 




V 






-M- 



J9I3 1914 1915 I9»<> 1917 I9ie 19)9 I9ZO 1921 1921 



»9Z4 \915 nib 



The beejiive-coke industry serves largely as an auxiliary source of 
coke when the output of by-product ovens is insufficient to meet the 
demand of the steel industry. The anthracite coal strike ending in 
February, 1926, increased the consumption and has tended to create a 
permanent demand for coke as a house fuel. By-product coke ovens 
are supplying an increasing quantity of gas for city consumption, the 
coke having a local market for domestic fuel. 

In the conservation of national resources the replacement of the 
beehive oven by the by-product oven, which recovers the tar, ammo- 
nia, and gas products entirely wasted by the old beehive type, is of 



• U. S. Geol. Survey preliminary figures. 



13 



14 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



great economic significance for the following reasons: (1) The by- 
product ovens increase the production of ammonia for fertilizer and 
other uses; (2) the gas produced in them is used for municipal light- 
ing and industrial heating; and (3) the output of tar insures an 
abundant supply of coal tar for the preparation of crudes, which are 
basic materials for the domestic coal-tar dye and chemical industries. 
Table 3 and Chart I show the production of by-product and bee- 
hive coke from 1913 to 1926, inclusive. The figures for 1926 are not 
final; those for by-product coke are taken from preliminary reports 
of the Geological Survey, and those for beehive coke are estimates 
based upon the statements of producers as to the number of cars 
loaded for shipment by the railroads. 

Table 3. — By-product and beehive coke: Production in the United States, 1913-1926 



Year 


Net tons produced 


Per cent of total 
output 














By-product 


Beehive 


Total 


By- 
product 


Beehive 


1913 . . .. 


12, 714, 700 
11,220,000 
14, 072, 895 
19, 069, 000 
22,439,280 
25, 997, 580 
25, 137, 621 
30, 833, 951 
19, 749, 580 
28, 550, 545 
37, 597, 664 
33, 983, 568 
39,912,159 
44, 416, 703 


33, 584, 830 
23, 336, 000 
27, 508, 255 
35, 464, 000 
33, 167, 548 
30, 480, 792 
19, 042, 936 
20,511,092 
5, 538, 042 
8, 573, 467 
19, 379, 870 
10, 286, 037 
11,354,784 
11,486,000 


46, 299, 530 
34, 556, 000 
41, 581, 150 

54, 533, 000 

55, 606, 828 

56, 478, 372 
44, 180, 557 
51, 345, 043 
25, 287, 622 
37,124,012 
56, 977, 534 
44, 269, 605 
51, 266, 943 
55, 902, 703 


27.6 
32.5 
33.8 
34.9 
40.4 
46.0 
56.9 
60.0 
78.1 


72.5 


1914 


67.5 


1915. . 


66.2 


1916 ... 


65.1 


1917 


59.6 


1918 


54.0 


1919 


43.1 


1920 


40.0 


1921 


21.9 


1922 


76.9 23.1 


1923 


66.0 34.0 


1924 . . . 


76.8 23.2 


1925' . . .. 


77. 9 22. 1 


1926 2 


79. 5 20. 5 









1 Revised since last report. 



' Preliminary. 



Production of tars. — The output of tars in 1926, according to pre- 
liminary figures, was 583,000,000 gallons, a 9 per cent increase over 
1925. Sales in 1926 amounted to 349,000,000 gallons, valued at 
$17,694,000, as compared with 289,000,000 gallons in 1925, valued 
at $14,654,000. Nearly 60 per cent of the combined production of 
coke-oven and coal-gas tar was sold and nearly 57 per cent of the 
coke-oven tar. Reports submitted to the Tariff Commission by 
firms not primarily engaged in the operation of coke ovens indicate 
that approximately 248,000,000 gallons of tar were distilled in 1926. 
Taking into account the 100,000,000 gallons of tar sold but not dis- 
tilled, approximately 57 per cent of the total production of coal tar 
in 1926 was used as fuel. The use of tar as a fuel tends to increase 
as the price of crude oil or of coal advances. 

Aside from its use as a fuel, there is a demand for tar for partly 
refined products, such as solvents and soft pitches; only a part of 
the tar is distilled into refined phenol, cresylic acid, naphthalene, 
and anthracene. The light oil obtained from the coke-oven gas is 
in part used for motor fuels and solvents and is separated into ben- 
zene, toluene, and xylene. 

Table 4 shows the production and sales of coke-oven, coal-gas, 
water-gas, and oil-gas tar in the United States from 1918 to 1926, 
inclusive. Table 5 shows the production of coke-oven tar in the 
same period and the percentage used and sold each year. 



COAL-TAK CRUDES 



15 



Table 4. — Coke-oven, coal-gas, water-gas, and oil-gas tar: Production and sales 
in the United States, 1918-1926 

[Compiled by the Bureau of Mines from reports of producers. The difference between production and 
sales is accounted for by tar used by the producer and by changes in stools] 



Coke-oven 
tar 1 



Coal-gas 
tar 2 



Total coal 
tar 3 



Water and oil 
gas tar 



Production (gallons): 

1918 

1919 

1920 

1921 

1922 

1923 

1924 

1925 8 

1926 «.__ 

Sales (gallons): 

1918 

1919 

1920 

1921 

1922 

1923 

1924 

1925 8 

19269 

V^alue of sales: 

1918- 

1919 

1920 

1921.. 

1922 

1923 

1924 

1925 8 

1926 9 



263, 
288, 
360, 
253, 
327, 
440, 
422, 
480, 
529, 

200, 
217, 
174, 
135, 
162, 
211. 
209, 
240, 
300, 



299, 470 
901, 739 
664, 124 
051, 649 
779, 734 
907, 109 
074, 326 
848, 814 
000,000 

233, 002 
707, 157 
363, 696 
293,047 
204, 417 
739, 469 
979,999 
160, 986 
000,000 

364, 972 
918, 549 
378, 040 
645, 309 
419, 743 
2.50, 552 
623,520 
903, 196 
994,000 



52, 694, 826 
53, 146, 421 
51, 264, 956 

(') 
48, 082, 228 

('.) 
(■) 

(•) 

47, 727, 839 
49, 307, 852 
46, 604, 133 
51.976.307 
41.266.074 
47,840,512 

(') 
49,175,979 

(') 

$1, 863, 580 
2.156.471 
2. 010, 186 
2,811.728 
1, 955, 9.'i0 
2,461,691 

(') 
2, 750, 719 

(■) 



315.994.296 
342, 048, 160 
411,929,080 
309, 051, 649 
375, 861, 962 
493,407,109 
475. 074, 326 
534, 848, 814 
583, 000. 000 

247, 960, 841 
267.015,009 
220, 967, 829 
187.269.354 
203. 470, 491 
259,579,981 
258, 479, 999 
289, 336, 965 
349, 000, 000 

$8, 228, 552 
9, 075, 020 
8, 388, 226 
8, 457, 037 
8, 375, 693 
11,712,243 
12, 293, 520 
14, 653, 915 
17, 694, 000 



100, 985, 156 

' 105, 318, 339 

116,073,907 

(«) 
104, 555, 028 

(«) 

(«) 

(«) 

(«) 

55, 283, 484 

* 58, 557, 947 
59, 238, 730 

* 53, 432. 945 
47, 338, 489 

< 49, 990, 820 

(«) 

< 61,471,124 

(«) 

$1,805,865 

* 2,012.723 
2. 109. 388 

< 2,192,015 
1,879,490 

* 2,001,363 

(«) 

* 2, 594, 025 

(«) 



> Includes tar produced in by-product coke ovens operated by city gas companies. 

' The figures here given for coal-gas tar include only the operations of coal-gas retorts. For 1918, 1920, 
and 1922 they are taken from special studies by the U. S. Geological Survey. For 1919, 1921, 1923, and 
1925 revised census figures are used. The census figures include the tar produced in by-product ovens 
operated by city gas companies, A special retabulation has recently been made of the reports made to the 
Bureau of Mines for coke ovens operated in conjunction with city gas plants, and the totals for this group 
have been subtracted from the census figures. The more accurate statistics for 1919, 1921, 1923, and 1925 
are here substituted for the estimates used in preceding issues of this publication. 

3 Figures for 1919, 1921, 1923, and 1925 revised, as explained in Note 2. 

< As reported by the Bureau of the Census, 

• Estimate included in total, based upon reported sales as given below, 

• No data. 

' Estimate included in total. 

• Revised since last report. 

• Preliminary figures. 



Table 5. — Coke-oven tar: 



Production in the United States and percentage used 
and sold, 1918-1926 



[Compiled by United States Geological Survey and Bureau of Mines from reports of operators] 





Coke-oven tar 


Year 


Gallons pro- 
duced 


Per cent 
soldi 


Per cent 
used ' 


1918 


263, 299, 470 
288, 901, 739 
360, 664, 124 
253,051,649 
327, 779, 734 
440, 907, 109 
422, 074, 326 
480, 848, 814 


76.0 
75,4 
48,3 
53.5 
49.5 
48.0 
49.6 
49.9 


24.0 


1919 


24.6 


1920 . . 


51.7 


1921... 


46.5 


1922 


50.5 


1923 


52,0 


1924 


.50, 4 


1925 2 


,50.1 


1926 3 


528,919,000 56.8 


43.2 











* No account is taken of changes in stocks. ^ Revised since last report. ' Preliminary figures. 



16 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHEK SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

Production of coal-tar crudes. — Data on the domestic production 
of crudes are collected both by the Tariff Commission and by the 
Geological Survey. Crudes distilled from tar at by-product coke- 
oven plants are reported to the Geological Survey; those made by 
firms primarily engaged in the distillation of tar are reported to the 
Tariff Commission. 

Firms engaged primarily in distilling coal tar produced 248,391,- 
308 gallons of tar in 1926. This is about 35 per cent more than the 
quantity reported as distilled in 1925. The 1926 figure is believed 
to be fairly accurate, but it is estimated that the 1925 figure (182,- 
749,066 gallons) was from ten to twenty million gallons short of the 
actual quantity produced. 

Among the crudes made by tar distillation those showing rela- 
tively large increases were light oil, naphthalene (crude), creosote 
oil, and solvent naphtha. The output of crude naphthalene was 
45,165,957 pounds in 1926, as compared with 34,135,175 pounds in 
1925. Refined tar and anthracene oil were also made in increased 
quantity. Crudes showing a decreased production in 1926 include 
anthracene, benzene, carbolic oil, motor fuel, pyridine, toluene, and 
xylene. Anthracene used formerly in the manufacture of anthra- 
quinone has now been replaced by naphthalene, which is converted 
into phthalic anhydride and then into anthraquinone. 

Table 6 (p. 17) gives the quantit}^ of by-products obtained in coke- 
oven operations from 1923 to 1926, inclusive, together with the quan- 
tity and value of sales. 

Table 7 (p. 19) shows the production of crudes by firms engaged 
primarily in the distillation of coal tar in 1926. 

Table 8 (p. 19) gives the total production from all sources of ben- 
zene, motor benzol, toluene, solvent naphtha, and naphthalene in 
the United States from 1918 to 1926, inclusive. Motor benzol, 
naphthalene, and toluene were made in greatly increased quantities 
in 1926; solvent naphtha and benzene were made in slightly decreased 
quantities. 

Coal-tar creosote.— Coal-tar creosote is the most effective of all 
wood preservatives. It is used in increasing quantities for railway 
ties, telegraph poles, and for mine and construction timber. The 
Department of Agriculture reports that 167,642,790 gallons were 
used in 1925, as compared with the following quantities of other pre- 
servatives: 13,048,539 gallons of petroleum; 2,080,287 gallons of pav- 
ing oil; 26,378,658 pounds of zinc chloride; 331,591 gallons of mis- 
cellaneous preservatives. 

Some of the advantages of coal-tar creosote are (1) high toxicity, 
which makes it poisonous to wood-destroying fungi; (2) relative in- 
solubility in water and low volatility, which cause it to remain in the 
wood almost indefinitely; (3) ease of application; (4) ease with which 
its depth of penetration can be determined; (5) general availability 
and relatively low cost.^ 

The wood-preserving industry reported five more treating plants 
in operation in 1925 than in 1924, and a total of 274,474,538 cubic 
feet of wood treated in 1925.^ At the close of 1925 there were 177 
treating plants, of which 112 were pressure plants, 58 nonpressure 
or open-tank plants, and 7 both pressure and nonpressure plants. 

' Hunt, Geo. M.: " Wood Preservatives," Forest Service, Dept. of Agr. 

3 "Quantity of Wood Treated and Preservatives Used in the United States in 1925," Forest Service, Dept. 
of Agr. 



COAL-TAK CRUDES 



17 



The 1926 output of creosote oil, as reported to the Tariff Commis- 
sion, by 16 manufacturers, was 75,495,540 gallons, valued at $9,767,- 
537, or 12.9 cents per gallon. In 1925, 14 manufacturers reported 
a production of 43,667,848 gallons, valued at $5,751,875, or 13.2 
cents per gallon. Imports in 1926 totaled 87,518,544 gallons, valued 
at $11,720,397, or 13.4 cents per gallon. 

Imports oj crudes. — Imports are given in Table 77, page 185. 

Exports oj crudes. — In 1926 the United States shipped abroad 
143,527,826 pounds of benzene, valued at $5,513,173. Shipments in 
1925 had been 58,890,162 pounds, valued at $1,748,034. Practically 
the entire export in 1926 went to Germany, the United Kingdom, and 
France, in approximately the following proportions: 42 per cent of 
the total quantity to Germany; 32 per cent to the United Kingdom; 
and 18 percent to France. In 1925 no exports had gone to Germany. 

Exports of crude coal tar in 1926 amounted to 215,583 barrels, 
valued at $883,169. Measured in terms of either quantity or value, 
this was more than double the 1925 export. 

STATISTICS OF PRODUCTION 

Table 6. — Coal-tar by-products obtained from coke-oven operations, 1923-1926 

[United States Geological Survey and Bureau of Mines] 



Product 



1923 
Tar -gallons.. 

Light oil and derivatives: 

Crude light oil do 

Benzol — 

Crude.. do 

Refined do 

Motor benzol ...do 

Toluol- 
Crude do 

Refined do 

Solvent naphtha do 

Other light oil products do 



Naphthalene: 

Crude pounds.. 

Refined do 



1924 
Tar gallons. 

Light oU and derivatives: 

Crude light oil do... 

Benzol * — 

Crude do... 

Refined do... 

Motor benzol do... 

Toluol- 
Crude. do... 

Refined do... 



Production 



440, 907, 109 



1 135, 647, 175 

4, 503, 428 
12,364,043 
80, 467, 883 

37, 777 

2,847,517 

4, 162, 178 

439, 253 



2 104, 822, 079 



11, 872, 007 
1, 139, 922 



Sales 



Quantity 



211,739,469 



6, 539, 368 

4, 348, 400 
12, 375, 782 
80, 480, 326 

6,097 

2, 628, 686 

3, 399, 904 
198, 098 



109, 976, 661 



10, 047, 427 
■ 1, 198, 206 



Value 



Total Average 



9, 250, 552 



683, 545 

768, 486 
, 070, 751 
, 145, 833 

978 

765, 052 

608, 084 

10, 605 



19, 053, 334 



174, 216 
65, 483 



13, Oil, 929 



422, 074, 326 



3 128, 956, 955 

3, 856, 908 
14, 278, 117 
73,768,811 

234, 244 
2, 951, 187 



11, 245, 633 



239, 699 



209, 979, 999 



7, 840, 582 

3, 860, 408 
13, 880, 200 
72, 921, 244 

245, 079 
2, 986, 423 



9, 623, 530 



652, 467 

831,419 
2, 905, 237 
11,066,652 

51, 041 
718, 641 



1 Refined on the premises to make the derived products shown, 132,517,389 gallons. 
' Total gallons of derived products. 

3 Refined on the premises to make the derived products shown, 125,580,743 gallons. 
•Revised since last report. 



$0.04A 



.105 

.177 
.248 
.163 

.160 
.291 
.179 
.054 



.173 



.017 
.055 



.083 

.215 
.209 
.152 

.208 
.241 



18 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHEE SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Table 6. — Coal-tar by-products obtained from coke-oven operations, 1923-1926- 

Continued 







Production 




Sales 




Product 


Quantity 


Value 




















Total 


Average 


1924 












Light oil and derivatives— Continued. 












Solvent naphtha... 


...gallons.. 


4, 474, 220 


3, 884, 585 


$724, 874 


$0,187 


Other light oils 


do.-.. 


1, 364, 528 


1, 077, 842 


78, 934 


.073 




2 100, 928, 015 


106, 696, 363 


17, 029, 265 


.160 


Naphthalene: 










Crude 


do.... 


8, 378, 666 


7,891,116 


116,305 


.015 


Refined 


do.... 


13, 302 


327, 957 


11,903 


.036 




8, 391, 968 


8, 219, 073 


128, 208 


.016 


192.5 < 










Tar 


...gallons.. 


480,848,814 


240, 160, 986 


$11,903,196 


$0,049 


Light oil and derivatives: 










Crude light oil 


do.... 


5 146, 443, 106 


10, 201, 900 


1, 052, 585 


.103 


Benzol- 












Crude. 


do.... 


6, 119, 160 


5, 907, 106 


1, 321, 597 


.224 


Refined 


do.... 


16, 231, 714 


15, 909, 280 


3, 566, 64o 


.224 


Motor benzol 


do.... 


81,469,925 


80,957,983 


13, 441, 422 


.166 


Toluol- 












Crude 


do 


127, 584 


46, 789 


10,052 


.215 


Refined ... 


do.... 


5, 329, 560 


4,991,358 


1, 300. 734 


.261 


Solvent naphtha 


do.... 


4, 744, 431 


3. 993. 735 


805,251 


.202 


Other light oil products 


do.... 


2,366,246 


1,252,451 


96, 073 


.077 




2 116,388,620 


123, 260, 602 


21, 594, 357 


.175 


Naphthalene: 










Crude 


..pounds.. 


9,238,890 


9, 692, 185 


92,369 


.010 


Refined 


do-... 


1,018 


208,332 


5,124 


.025 




9, 239, 908 


9, 900, 517 


97, 493 


.010 


1926 « 










Tar 


...gallons.. 


528,918,639 


300, 129, 112 


14, 994, 132 


.050 


Light oil and derivatives: 










Crude light oil 


do.... 


'160,053,992 


10, 783, 508 


1,330,208 


.123 


Benzol- 












Crude 


do.... 


4,753,334 


4,660,621 


1, 109, 974 


.238 


Refined 


do.... 


17, 582, 399 


17, 224, 800 


3, 938, 475 


.229 


Motor benzol 


ao 


94,980,793 


93, 539, 155 


17, 595, 665 


.188 


Toluol: 












Crude 


do.... 


432, 317 


400, 308 


127, 298 


.318 


Refined-- 


do.... 


8,313,516 


8, 204, 678 


2, 777, 987 


.339 


Solvent naphtha 


do.... 


4,683,576 


3, 527, 047 


1,041,936 


.295 


Other light oil products 


do.... 


2, 397, 730 


1,331,193 


117, 652 


.088 




» 132,843,665 


139, 671, 370 


28, 039, 195 


.201 


Naphthalene: 










Crude 


..pounds.. 


7, 746, 821 


7, 5.56. 372 


96, 210 


.013 


Refined.. 


do.... 


139, 701 


166, 851 


1,100 


.007 




7,886,522 


7, 723, 223 


97,310 


.013 



' Total gallons of derived products. 

• Revised since last report. 

• Refined on the premises to make the derived products shown, 143,296,567 gallons. 

• Preliminary figures. 

' Refined on the premises to make the derived products shown, 143,836,611 gallons. 



COAL-TAR CEUDES 



19 



Table 7. — Coal-tar crudes: Production, 1926, by firms not primarily engaged in 
the operation of coke-oven plants and gas houses 

[The numbers in the second column refer to the numbered alphabetical list of manufacturers given on 
page 204. An X indicates that the corresponding product was made by a manufacturer who did not con- 
sent to the publication of his name in connection therewith. A blank in the third and fourth columns 
indicates that there was actual production of the corresponding article but that figures can not be pub- 
lished without revealing the output of individunl firms] 





Manufacturers' identification 
numbers (according to list 
on page 204) 


1926 


Name 


Quantity 


Value 


Unit 
value 


Total crudes - 






$28, 937, 755 




Anthracene (crude, less than 30 per cent) 
...lbs.. 


139 






Anthracene oil. .. galls.. 


139, X 










17,22, 126, X, X 


377, 048 


105,513 


$0,280 


Carbolic oil or middle oil do 


32,40.... 




Cresol or cresvlic acid (crude) -do 


17,86 








Dead or creosote oil do 

Extracted crude tar acids... . . go 


17, 22, 32, 39, 40, 81, 86, 107. 139, 

151, 164, 167,X, X,X,X 

17 


75. 495, 540 


9, 767, 537 


.129 




32, 39. 40, 107, X, X, X 


5, 732, 237 


357, 589 


.062 




39, 126 




Naphthalene (crude) lbs.. 


16, 17, 32, 39, 40, 86, 107, 139, 151, 
X,X,X 


45, 165, 957 
7,897,993 

498, 827 


494, 986 
1, 150, 671 

9,302,819 


.011 


Other distillates galls.. 

Pitch of tar tons.. 


17, 22, 32, 39, 86, 151, X, X 

17, 22, 32, 39, 40, 81, 86, 107, 139, 
151, 164, X, X, X, X 


.146 
18. 649 




17... 




Pyridine . - . . do.. 


17, 103 








Refined tars bbls.. 

Solvent naphtha .galls. . 


17, 22, 32, 39, 40, 81, 86, 107, 126, 

139, 151, 164, X, X, X, X 

17,22, 139, X, X 


1,026,358 
995, 723 


5, 368, 414 
113.453 


5.231 
. 114 


Toluene ..do _.. 


17 




Xylene do 


17 



















The instructions sent to manufacturers were as follows: Include under dead or creosote oil only products 
which may be used for creosoting. Include under "other distillates" shingle stain oil, disinfectant oils, 
and flotation oils which do not contain over 5 per cent of phenol. Include under refined tars those tars 
which are used for road treatment, saturating felt, and for protective coatings. Phenol and all distillates 
which, on being subjected to distillation, yield in the portion distilling below 190° C. a quantity of tar acids 
equal to or more than .5 per cent of the original distillate, or which, on being subjected to distillation, yield 
in the portion distilling below 215°C . a quantity of tar acids equal to or more than 75 per cent of the original 
distillate are not to be included here but are to be placed under intermediates. 

Table 8. — Total commercial production of benzene, toluene, solvent naphtha, and 
naphthalene from, all sources in the United States, 1918-1926 

[Data for coke ovens and gas works from reports to United States Geological Survey and Bureau of Mines; 
for tar refineries and others to United States Tariff Commission] 





By-product 

coke plants 

(sales) 1 


Gas works 

not elsewhere 

included 

(sales) 1 2 


Tar refiner- 
ies and all 
other estab- 
lishments 5 
(produc- 
tion) 


Total com- 
mercial pro- 
duction ♦ 


Benzene (all grades except motor benzol): 
Gallons— 

1918 


43. 441, 980 
5 63, 077. 463 
17, 230, 776 
6, 839, 021 
12, 256, 348 
16, 724. 182 
17, 740, 608 

7 21, 816, 386 

8 21, 885, 000 


2, 177, 168 
(6) 
(«) 


3, 015, 848 

1, 826, 373 

87."; ."ifii 


48, 634, 996 
65, 403, 836 
18 141 337 


1919 


1920 


1921 


(6) 2 171 fiai 


9, 045, 642 
13 071 288 


1922 


C) 
(») 

(«) 
(«) 


774, 940 
394, 906 
629, 934 
741, 576 
377,048 


1923 


17 154 088 


1924 


18 417 542 


1925 


22, 607, 962 
22, 272, 048 


1926 



' Sales instead of production are here given to avoid double counting between production of crude and 
pure grades, and because such of the product as is used in the coke plant or gas works is not available for 
commercial use. 

' In order to eliminate duplication, the figures for gas works are exclusive of by-products coke ovens ojjer- 
ated by city gas companies, which are included in the preceding column, and exclusive of recoveries from 
such tar-refiuing operations conducted by the city gas companies as are included in the following column 
headed "tar refineries." From time to time plants formerly included in the column headed "gas works" 
have been transferred to the column "tar refineries," hence the figures in the "gas works" column are not 
strictly comparable from year to year. The total commercial production shown in the last column con- 
tains no duplication and is comparable from year to year. 

' See note 2. 

* Totals include estimates for firms not reporting, or actual figures for items that can not be shown sep- 
arately without disclosing individual returns. 

' Includes motor benzol and 13,000 gallons of gasoline used in blending. 

' Reports incomplete. Estimate included in total. 

" Final figures, revised since last report. ^ Subject to revision. 



20 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Table 8. — Total commercial production oj benzene, toluene, solvent naphtha, and 
naphthalene from all sources in the United States, 1918-1926 — Continued 



Benzene — Continued. 

Value — 

1918 

1919 

1920.... 

1921 

1922 

1923 

1924 

1925 

1926 

Motor benzol: 

Gallons — 

1918 

1919 (included under benzene above) . 

1920 

1921 

1922 

1923 

1924 

1925 

1926 

Value — 

1918 

1919 (included under benzene above) - 

1920 

1921 

1922 

1923 

1924 

1925 

1926... 

Toluene, all grades: 

Gallons — 

1918 

1919 

1920 

1921 

1922 

1923 

1924 

1925 

1926 

Value— 

1918 

1919 

1920 

1921.... 

1922 

1923 

1924 

1925 

1926 



By-product 

coke plants 

(sales) I 



$11, 
5 $11, 
$4, 
$1, 
$3, 



$3, 7i 
'$4, 
'$5, 



966, 367 
643, 645 
497, 823 
611,721 
435, 381 
839, 237 
736, 656 
888, 240 
048, 000 



Gas works 

not elsewhere 

Included 

(sales) 1 ' 



$572, 950 



'"55, 
50, 
54, 
80, 
72, 
'80, 
8 93, 



764, 265 
022, 573 
930, 203 
480, 326 
921, 244 
957, 983 
539, 000 



10 $12, 

$8, 

$10, 

$13, 

$11, 

'$13, 

«$17, 



$12, 



644, 931 
966, 686 
491, 309 
145, 833 
0C6, 652 
441, 422 
596, 000 



541, 366 
353, 827 
470, 364 
835, 493 
910, 060 
634, 783 
231, 502 
038, 147 
605, 000 

249, 702 
355, 990 
740, 722 
233, 378 
557, 015 
766, 030 
769, 682 
310, 786 
905, 000 



Tar refiner- 
ies and all 
other estab- 
lishments ' 
(produc- 
tion) 



467, 126 
11 350, 000 

(12) 
(«) 
(«) 
(«) 
(«) 



$994, 161 
$560, 547 
$287, 586 
$463, 205 
$215, 136 
$118, 505 
$155, 973 
$171, 005 
$105, 513 



$112,849 
11 $70, 000 

(12) 
(«) 
C) 
(•) 



3, 965, 518 
(«) 

11 2, 000 
11 1, 000 

(13) 

11 2, 000 

11 2, 000 

II 2, 000 

II 200 

$5, 597, 353 
(«) 
"300 
11270 

(U) 

"570 
11500 
II 500 
11 170 



(«) 
(«) 
(») 

(U) 
(U) 
(12) 
(12) 
(12) 



(•) 
(») 

(9) 
(12) 
(12) 
(12) 
(12) 
(12) 



1, 596, 353 
510, 957 

(13) 

(13) 
(13) 
(13) 
(13) 
(13) 

^8, 044, 890 
235, 321 

(13) 
(13) 
(13) 
(13) 
(13) 
(13) 
(13) 



Total com- 
mercial pro- 
duction* 



$13,533,478 
$12, 296, 192 
$4, 794, 409 
$2, 082, 926 
$3, 664, 517 
$3, 968, 742 
$3, 901, 629 
$5, 070, 245 
$5, 155, 513 



(') 
(«) 
(») 
55, 622, 482 

83, 664, 846 
76, 072, 771 

84, 789, 206 
96, 929, 783 



(») 

(») 
$10, 657, 074 
$13, 851, 704 
$11,678,665 
$14, 270, 746 
$18,311,146 



14, 103, 237 

1, 884. 784 

(13) 
(13) 
(13) 
(13) 
(13) 
(13) 
(13) 

$20, 891, 945 
596,511 

(13) 
(13) 
(13) 
(13) 
(13) 
(13) 
(13) 



See notes 1 to 4 on p. 19. 

5 Includes motor benzol and 13,000 gallons of gasoline used in blending. 

6 Reports incomplete. Estimate included in total. 
' Final figures, revised since last report. 

' Subject to revision. 

» Data not collected from tar refiners prior to 1922. 
1" Includes 1,333,000 gallons of gasoline used in blending. 
11 Estimate. 

" Included in total, but can not be shown separately without disclosing individual returns. 
13 A certain quantity of toluene was produced at gas works and at tar refineries, but the figures can not 
be given without disclosing individual returns. 



COAL-TAK CEUDES 



21 



Table 8. — Total commercial production of benzene, toluene, solvent naphtha, and 
naphthalene from all sources in the United States 1918-1926 — Continued 



Solvent naphtha, crude and refined, 
xylene: 
" Gallons— 

1918... .- 

1919 

1920 -- 

1921 

1922 

1923 

1924 

1925 

1926 

Value — 

1918 

1919 

1920 

1921 

1922 

1923. 

1924... 

1925 

1926 

Naphthalene, all grades: 
Pounds— 

1918 

1919 

1920 

1921 

1922 

1923.. 

1924 

1925... 

1926 

Value— 

1918 

1919 

1920 

1921 

1922 

1923 

1924 

1925 

1926 



including 



By-product 

coke plants 

(sales) 1 



n 3, 284,037 

IS 3. 649, 066 

4, 695, 464 

2,881,656 

2,861,482 

3, 399, 904 

3, 884. 585 

' 3. 993, 735 

« 3, 527, 000 

» $458, 689 

16 $557, 41 6 

$851,048 

$510, 509 

$538,512 

$608, 084 

$724, 874 

^ $805, 251 

« $1, 042, 000 



15,890,447 
6. 702. 040 

14. 448, 702 
1. 983, 523 
4. 887, 935 

11,245,6.33 
8,219,073 

7 9,900,517 

8 7, 723, 000 

$650, 229 
191,364 
487, 974 
59, 335 
131, 252 
239, 709 
12S. 208 
^ 97, 483 

8 897, 310 



Gas works 

not elsewhere 

included 

(sales)' 2 



1,442,267 

(") 
(«) 

(6) 
(.2) 

(«) 
(«) 
(«) 
(6) 

$191, 475 

(«) 

(8) 
(«) 
(12) 

(«) 
{') 
(6) 
(6) 



Tar refiner- 
ies and all 
other estab- 
lishments ' 
(produc- 
tion) 



IS 965, 458 

(12) 
(12) 
(12) 
(12) 
(12) 

812,378 
530, 833 

(12) 

15 $232, 003 

(12) 
(12) 
(12) 
(12-1 
(12) 

$153,941 
$148, 801 

(12) 



896, 080 


40, 138, 092 


(«) 


12,612,203 


1, 760, 293 


26,393,411 


(«) 


16, 948, 464 


« 


19,323,393 


•1.115,563 


41,45.3,002 


(») 


34, 683, 803 


1, 266, 037 


34, 135, 175 


(«) 


45, 16.5, 957 


$14,282 


$1,281,440 


(«) 


327, 201 


63,449 


791, 403 


C) 


380, 167 


(9) 


352, 957 


1' 42, 247 


652, 148 


(«) 


441,333 


34, 751 


519, 773 


(«) 


494. 986 



Total com- 
mercial pro- 
duction ■• 



5, 691, 762 
4, 128, 747 
5, 384, 560 

3, 627, 488 
3.680,811 
4,041,497 
4,781,963 

4, 609, 568 
4, 569, 727 

$882. 167 
$672, 685 
$994, 205 
$644, 548 
$773, 336 
$800, 698 
$896,815 
$972, 052 
$1, 180, 427 



56, 924, 619 
20,114,243 
42, 602, 466 
19,432,987 
25,411,328 
53,814,198 
44, 102, 876 
45,301,729 
53, 058, 957 

$1, 945, 951 
542, 565 
1, 342, 826 
462, 502 
536, 209 
934, 104 
602, 541 
652, 017 
594, 296 



See notes 1 to 4 on p. 19. , , ^ 

6 Reports incomplete. Estimate included in total. 
' Final figures, revised since last report. 
s Subject to revision. 

12 Included in total, but can not be shown separately without disclosing individual returns. 
1' Includes 52,847 gallons of xylene, valued at $9,937, and 107,375 gallons of crude heavy solvent, valued 
at $8,769. 

15 Includes 192,969 gallons of xylene, valued at $67,935. 

16 Includes 2:'.,088 gillnns of xylene, valued at $4, .563. 

17 Revised figure, to eliminate duplication through certain plants reporting both to the Census Bureau 
and to the Geological Survey. 



22 census of dyes and other synthetic chemicals 

Coal-Tar Intermediates 
description 

Intermediates do not occur as such in coal tar, but are made from 
the crudes (benzene, toluene, naphthalene, and anthracene) by chem- 
ical treatment with sulphuric acid, nitric acid, alkalies, chlorine, or 
other chemicals. From fewer than 10 coal-tar crudes, 200 to 300 
intermediates are prepared for use in the production of hundreds of 
dyes. The various chemical stages in the conversion of crudes to 
intermediates are (1) nitration, (2) reduction, (3) sulphonation, (4) 
caustic fusion, (5) chlorination, (6) alkylation, (7) liming, (8) con- 
densation, (9) carboxylation, (10) oxidation, and (11) diazotization. 

Intermediates are in turn the raw materials which are converted by 
complex chemical processes into dyes, medicinals, perfumes, flavors, 
photographic chemicals, synthetic resins, and tanning materials. 
They are also used as accelerators in the vulcanization of rubber, 
as camphor substitutes, insecticides, germicides, fungicides, in the 
flotation process for concentrating ores and for other purposes. 
Certain intermediates are used in the direct production of dyes on 
the fiber and also for increasing the fastness of dyes on the fiber. 
When used for the latter purpose they are known as developers. 
After purification many intermediates are used directly a's drugs, 
perfumes, and flavors. 

The relation between the heavy chemical industry and the inter- 
mediate and dye industry is an intimate one, as the latter industry 
is an important consumer of heavy chemicals and other products. 
The manufacture of intermediates and dyes requires large quantities 
of acids, alkalies, and other heavy chemicals, such as sodium nitrite 
and sulphide, salt, chlorine, bromine, sulphur, and in addition non- 
coal-tar organic compounds, such as methanol, formaldehyde, and 
acetic anhydride. 

The coal-tar chemical industry plays a conspicuous part in the 
industrial life of the Nation, (1) as consumer of raw materials in the 
chemical industry, (2) as a producer of essential products for textile, 
leather, paper, and paint factories, and as a producer of medicinals, 
synthetic tanning materials, and a wide variety of other products. 

PRODUCTION 

Statistics of the production of intermediates are given in Table 11 
(p. 26) in as great detail as is possible without disclosing the output 
of individual manufacturers. The total production in 1926 was 
229,653,802 pounds, as compared with 210,699,779 pounds in 1925. 
Sales in 1926 amounted to 86,916,836 pounds, valued at $18,990,042, 
or a unit value of 21.8 cents, as compared with 23 cents in the previous 
year. 

Most of the intermediates normally consumed in large quantity 
in dye manufacture were made in about the same amounts in 1926 as 
in 1925. Anthraquinone and its derivatives, together with many 
specialty intermediates required in the production of fast and specialty 
dyes, showed a large increase. There was also a notable increase in 
the output of intermediates used as accelerators in the vulcanization 
of rubber. 

Decreased production oj synthetic phenol. — The combined production 
of natural and synthetic phenol by sLx firms in 1926 was 8,691,181 



COAL-TAE INTEEMEDIATES 



23 



pounds, a 41 per cent decrease from 1925. More than three-fourths 
of this production was synthetic phenol. Sales in 1926 totaled 
5,479,727 pounds, valued at $987,631. Table 9 shows production 
and sales figures from 1917 to 1926, inclusive. 

Table 9. — Phenol: Production and sales in the United States, 1917-1926 



Year 


Production 
(pounds) 


Sales 
Pounds Value 


Unit 
value 


1917 - 


64, 146, 499 

106, 794, 277 

1, 543, 659 




I $23, 715, 805 

1 37, 270, 284 

1 155, 624 


$0.37 


1918 




.35 


1919 




.10 


1920 






1921 --- t 


292,645 
1, 266, 552 
2, 180, 244 
8, 273, 598 
8, 524, 178 
5, 479, 727 


41,617 
268,311 
589,822 
2. 505, 533 
1,771,332 
987, 631 


.14 


1922 

1923 

1924 

1925 

1926 


1, 285, 978 
3,310,911 
10,521,944 
14, 734, 065 
8, 691, 181 


.21 
.27 
.30 
.21 
.18 







I Values of production. 

Benzoic acid. — The production of benzoic acid, USP, in 1926 was 
216,345 pounds, as compared with 183,906 pounds in 1925. The unit 
sales price of benzoic acid declined from 58 cents in 1925 to 54.8 
cents in 1926. Benzoate of soda, used chiefly as a food preservative, 
showed an increase in production from 800,841 pounds in 1925 to 
897,848 pounds in 1926. 

Rubber accelerators. — Coal-tar chemicals for the rubber industry are 
an important branch of intermediate manufacture. The total con- 
sumption of these products in the manufacture of rubber products 
can not be measured accurately, as some of the production reported 
goes into dyes and other products. 

Among the accelerators that have replaced to some extent such 
accelerators as hexamethylenetetramine, are diphenylguanidine and 
its related compound o-ditolylguanidine. These compounds are non- 
pcdsonous, have no objectionable odor in the cured stock, and can 
be used with low percentages of sulphur to produce rubber products 
with satisfactory ageing qualities. The output of each of them was 
larger in 1926 than in 1925 ; the unit value was smaller. Other rubber 
chemicals showing an increase in production in 1926 over 1925 were 
mercapto-benzo-thiazol, nitroso-dimethylaniline, methylene dianilide, 
heptylidine aniline, and ethylidine aniline and derivatives. Those 
reported in 1926 but not in 1925 include crotilidine aniline, p-ditolyl- 
thiourea, thiocarbtoluide, and dimethylamine, made from dimethyl 
aniline. The following chemicals of this group show a decreased 
production in 1926: Thiocarbanilide, anhydroformaldehyde-p-tolui- 
dine, p-toluidine triphenylguanidine, formanilide, and o-ditolyl- 
thiourea. 

Statistics of production of organic rubber accelerators of iioncoal- 
tar origin are given in Table 38, page 138. 

Phthalic anhydride is made by the catalytic oxidation of naphtha- 
lene. The output in 1926 was the highest on record — 4,379,108 
pounds, as compared with 3,900,332 pounds in 1925. The unit 
value of sales dropped from $4.23 per pound in 1917 to 20 cents 
49113—27 3 



24 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHEK SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

in 1925 and to 17.6 cents in 1926. In 1914, when our entire con- 
sumption was imported, the invoice value was 24 cents per pound. 

Phthalic anhydride is the raw material for diethyl phthalate, 
and other esters, and for anthraquinone required in the manufacture 
of many vat dyes and in alizarin and alizarin derivatives. It is 
used directly in the preparation of fluoresceins, cosines, and rhodamine 
dyes. 

Anthraquinone is the basis for a variety of fast dyes known as the 
vat and the alizarin colors. It is made from phthalic anhydride 
and benzene. Production was much larger in 1926 than in 1925. 

Aniline and its derivatives. — The 1926 production of aniline was 
26,028,939 pounds, an increase of 1,039,638 pounds over 1925. 
In 1926 the value of sales was 14.9 cents per pound, as compared 
with 16 cents in the period 1923-1925. Aniline hydrochloride showed 
a decreased production from the previous year. 

An important intermediate derived from aniline is dimethylani- 
line, made by using methanol aS the methylating agent in the presence 
of a catalyst. Production increased in 1926 as compared with 
1925. The unit sales value in recent years has been as follows: 
28.4 cents per pound in 1926, 30 cents in 1925, and 38 cents in 1923. 

p-Nitroaniline, another aniline derivative, is used in the production 
of color lakes, Direct green B and G, and Chrome yellow R, certain 
sulphur dyes, and in producing Para red directly on the fiber. There 
was a large decrease in the production of this intermediate in 1926. 
The unit value of sales also declined. 

Cresylic acid. — Cresylic acid, together with phenol, is extracted 
from the crude tar acid fraction obtained in the distillation of coal 
tar. The acid is separated from the phenol by extraction w4th 
caustic soda solution and fractional distillation. The production 
of cresylic acid by two firms in 1926 shows a large increase over the 
previous year. o-Cresol also recorded a large increase. 

The 1925 issue of this publication called attention to a possible 
new source of tar acids from the low and medium temperature 
distillation of coal. A recent report of the Bureau of Mines states 
that in the opinion of fuel technologists the low temperature carboni- 
zation of coal is not likely to be commercially developed in the near 
future for the reason that the main product, semicoke, must be 
sold in competition with gas and by-product oven coke. Most 
of the low-temperature coke is too friable and porous to be used 
as a domestic fuel without first being briquetted, an operation which 
adds to its cost. It is the marketing of the coke at an adequate 
price, rather than of the liquid and gaseous products, that will 
insure the success of the process. 

Naphthalene derivatives. — Among the intermediates showing a 
large increase in production in 1926 is naphthol AS (b-hydroxide 
naphthoic anilide), used in conjunction with certain other coal-tar 
intermediates for the direct production of bright, fast shades on 
cotton. Dyes of this group compete with alizarin and vat dyes. 
The large increase in consumption of naphthalene derivatives for 
the so-called "ice" dyes was a feature of the year. Imports of 
intermediates of the naphthol AS types totaled over 29,000 pounds 
and of special intermediates for coupling with them over 166,000 
pounds. 



COAL-TAR INTEEMEDIATES 25 

Halogenated products. — Conspicuous gains occurred in the output 
of the chlorinated intermediates, foremost of which are monochloro- 
benzene, p-dichlorobenzene, o-dichlorobenzene, o-chloro toluene, and 
o-nitrochlorobenzene . 

Malic and rnaJeic acids. — These intermediates, made synthetically 
by the "cracking" of benzene, are used as substitutes for certain 
organic acids. Both of them were produced in larger quantity in 
1926 than in 1925. 

New intermediates. — Of the 319 intermediates made in 1926, 48 
were not made in 1925. Many of the 48 w^ere made for the first 
tiiiie in 1926. These intermediates are used in the preparation of 
new dyes, rubber chemicals, medicinals, and other finished coal-tar 
products. 

Other intermediates. — Among the many intermediates used in the 
preparation of the specialty dyes, the following showed increased 
production in 1926: l-amino-2-naphthol-4-sulfonic acid; 2-chloro-5- 
toluidine-4-sulfonic acid; dianisidine; tolyl-peri acid; 1-naphthylam- 
ine-5-sulfonic acid; phenyl- l-naphthylamine-8-sulfonic acid, chromo- 
tropic acid, and xylidine. Halowax, a synthetic wax, reported for 
the first time in 1925, also showed an increased production in 1926, 
as did tricresyl phosphate, a substitute for triphenyl phosphate, 
in the manufacture of pyroxylin plastics. Diphenylamine, a stabi- 
lizer, used in the manufacture of smokeless powder, showed a decrease 
in production in 1926. 

STATISTICS OF PRODUCTION AND SALES 

Table 10 gives the weighted average sales price of a list of domestic 
coal-tar intermediates for the period 1920 to 1926, together with the 
invoice price of imports of the same intermediates in 1914. The 
invoice price is below the cost to the consumer, as it does not include 
the profit to the importer and certain other charges. 

Table 11 is a detailed record of the production and sales of coal-tar 
intermediates in 1926. 

Table 12 is an arrangement of intermediates in ten groups of unit 
values and shows the quantity and percentage of total production 
falling within each group, for the years 1923 to 1926, inclusive. 



26 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHEE SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Table 10. 



-Coal-tar intermediates: Domestic sales price per pound, 1920-1926,^ 
and invoice price of same intermediates imported, 1914 



Intermediate 



Acetanilide, technical 

l-Amino-8-naphthol-3:6-disulfonic acid (H acid).. 
2-Aniino-8-naphthol-6-sulfonic acid (gamma acid) 

p-Aminophenol and hydrochloride 

Aniline oil 

Ant hraquinone 

Benzidine --- 

Chlorobenzene (mono) ._- 

Dianisidine 

p-Dichlorobenzene 

Diet hylaniline 

Dimethylanliine 

Naphthalene, solidifying 79° or above (refined, 

flake) 

b-Napthol , technical 

l-Naphthol-4-sulfonic acid (Nevile & Winther's). 
l-Naphthylamine-4-sulfonic acid (napthionic 

acid) 

p-Nitroaniline 

Phenol- - 

p-Phenylenediamine - . 

Phthalic acid and anhydride 

Sulfanilic acid 

Thiocar banilide 

o-Toluidine 

m-Tolylenediamine 

Xylidine and salt . 



Invoice 
price 



1914 



s$0. 15 
2.23 

"Vie 

2.08 

2.19 

. 31 3. 55 
2.09 
2.40 
'.09 



Domestic sales price 



1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 



,15 



3.018 
2. 07 3. 09 



$0.42 
1.23 
3.10 
1.81 

.28 
1.66 
1.15 

.10 



2. 13 3. 14 

.06 

2. 31 3. 44 

2.25 

2. 06 3. 16 



.09 
1.36 
.71 

.08 
.47 
1.41 

.42 
1.17 



2. 09 3. 10 

2.19 

3.12 



.46 
.36 
.41 
.29 
1.20 
.47 



50.23 
.95 
2.10 
1.39 
.22 
1.59 
.85 



$0.21 
.73 
1.72 
1.10 
.15 
1.34 
.83 
.07 



.16 
.97 
.54 

.06 
.39 
1.22 

.44 
.85 
.14 

1.70. 
.39 
.24 
.42 
.25 

1.14 
.49 



.16 
.32 



.06 

.24 



.39 
.68 
.21 
1.39 
.35 
.19 
.27 
.18 
.94 
.33 



$0.26 
.68 
1.51 
1.13 
.16 
.95 
.80 
.07 
3.69 
.15 
.48 
.38 

.06 
.22 



.40 
.69 
.27 
1.32 
.29 
.17 
.25 
.13 
.93 
.43 



.05 
.22 
1.00 

.43 
.64 
.30 

1.27 
.24 
.17 
.23 
.13 
.86 
.39 



1.30 
1.12 
.16 



$0.23 $0.22 

.65 I 

1.18 
1.11 

.16 

.95 

.74 

.06 
3.34 

.16 

.40 

.34 



.72 
.06 



$1.02 
1.05 
.15 



.30 



.21 
1.16 
.20 
.16 
.23 
.17 
.81 



1 For the year 1920 the value represents the weighted average of the total production; and for the years 
1921-1926 the weighted average of the total sales. For 1917 to 1919, see Census of Dyes and Other Syn- 
thetic Organic Chemicals, 1924. 

2 Artificial Dyestuffs Used in the United States, Special Agents Series 121, Department of Commerce. 

3 Chemicals and Allied Products Used in the United States, Miscellaneous Series No. 82, Department 
of Commerce. 

Table 11. — Coal-tar intermediates, production and sales, 1926. 

[For 1917 to 1919, see Census and Dyes and other Synthetic Organic Chemicals, 1924] 

[The numbers in the second column refer to the numbered alphabetical list of manufacture's printed on 
page 204. An X signifies that the manufacturer did not consent to the publication of his identification 
number in connection with the designated product. A blank in the third and fourth colun.ns indicates 
that the sales figures can not be publishcil v\ itliout reveaiiig inlorn at ion in regard to the output of indi- 
vidual firms. A blank in the sixth column indicates that the production of the corresponding product 
In the United States can not be published without revealing information in regard to the output of individ- 
ual firms. The figures thus concealed are, however, included in the total] 





Manufacturers' identifi- 
cation numbers (according 
to list on p. 204J 


Sales 




Intermediate 


Quantity 


Value 


Aver- 
age 

price 

per 

pound 


Produc- 
tion 
(quan- 
tity) 


Total 




Pounds 
86, 916, 836 


$18,990,042 


$0.22 


Pounds 
229,653,802 


Acetaldehyde aniline and derivatives 


X 




9,49,95,139 












9 










Acetyl-p-plit'iiylenediamine (p-ami- 
no-acetanilide'' 


9 49 70 104 139, 166 










35,49, 121, 139 








308, 459 




X 












104 . 












49,X 












35, 49, 50, 72, 104 








107, 738 


Aminoazobenzene sulfonic acid 

Aminoazobenzene disulfonic acid 


49 104 106 










104 










8, 35, 49, 50, 70, 72, 104, 106.. 
104 - 


14,731 


10, 942 


.74 


97, 606 








49, 138 












49 










m-.\minocresol methyl ether 


35 











COAL-TAE INTEEMEDIATES 27 

Table 11. — Coal-tar intermediates, production and sales, 1926 — Continued 



Intermediate 



Manufacturers' identifi- 
cation numbers (according 
to list on p. 204J 



p-Aminodimet hylaniline 

Aminodiphenylaniine sulfonic acid.. 
l-Amino-'2-naphthol-4-sulfonic acid__. 
l-Amino-8-naphthol-4-sulfonic acid... 
1 - Amino - 8-napht hoi - 2: 4-disulfonic 
acid (Chicago acid). 

1 - Amino - 8 - naphthol - 3: 6-disulfonic 

acid (H acid). 
2-Amino-5-naphthol-7-sulfonic acid 

(J acid) . 
2-Amino-8-naphthol-6-sulfonic acid 

(gamma acid) . 

2 -A mino - 8 - naphthol - 3: 6-disulfonic 

acid. 

o-Aminophenol 

o-Aminophenol-p-sulfonic acid 

p-Aminophenol and hydrochloride.. 
p-Aminophcnyl-p-tolylamine sul- 
fonic acid. 

p-Aminophonylarsonic acid 

A minosaiicy lie acid 

Anhydroformaldehyde-p-toluidine... 

Aniline hydrochloride 

Aniline oil 

l-Aniline-2-methylanthraquinone — 

Aniline sulfate 

Aniline sulfonic acid 

.\niline disulfonic acid 

o-Anisidine 

Anthranilic acid (o-aminobenzoic acid) 

Anthratiuinone (100 per cent) 

Anthra'4uinnne-2; I-acridone 

Anthra(iuinnne-l;5-dihydroxy (an.- 

thrarufln). 
Anthra(juinone-l:5-disulfonic acid — 
Anthraquinone-2-sodium sulfonate 

(silver salt). 

Benzaldehyde 

Benzanthrone 

Benzidine base and salt 

Benzidine disulfonic acid 

Benzoate of soda 

Benzoic acid, tech 

Benzoic acid, USP 

Benzotrichloride 

Benzoyl chloride 

Benzoyl peroxide 

Benzyl chloride 

Benzylamine 

Broenner's acid. (See 2-naphthyla- 

mine-6-sulfonic acid) . 

Carbazole, refined 

C hloroacetophenone 

p-Chloro-o-aminophenol 

p-C hloroaniline 

o-C hlorobenzaldehyde 

C hlorobenzanthrone 

C hlorobenzene (mono) 

l-Chloro-2:6-dinitrobenzene - 4 - s u 1 - 

fonic acid. 

C hlorometanilic acid 

6-Chloro-4-methoxy-3-hydroxy thio- 

naphthalene. 

o-Chloro-p-nitroaniline 

p-Chloro-o-nitrophenol 

C hlorophenol 

Chloro-m-phenylenediamine 

o-C hlorotoluene 

o-Chlorotoluene-p-sulfonic acid 

2-C hloro-5-toluidine-4-sulfonic acid . . 
Chromotropic acid. (See 1: 8-dihy- 

droxy naphthalene-3:6-disulfonic 

acid) . 

Cresidine 

o-Cresol, purity of 90 per cent or more. 



9, 35, 49, 70, 104, 106, 118, 139 

35,49,104.. 

35,49,104,109 



49,98,104,109.. 

35,49,104, 106, 109, X. 

35,49, 104, 109 

109,X 



Sales 



Quantity 



Pounds 



3,404 
59, 605 



66,161,166 

49, 104, 166 

11,49,54,66, 161, 166, 171... 160,949 
35 



X 

9, 35, 49, 70, 109. 
49 



27,48.49,69,95,101,104,105 
49 



14, 672, 947 



72,105,124 

104. 

104,109, X 

49,109,166 

48,101 

19,70,83. 104, X. 

X 

104 



49, 70. 104. 
19,49, X.. 



62,74,93,95,137 

49,109.. 

3,35,49,62,70, 104, X.. 

9,64, 106 

49,62.74,75,93, 138, X. 

74,95. 

49, 75, 93, 138, X 

74 



18, 74, 75, 
X,X ... 

74,137... 
105 



49.. 
54-. 
166- 



104 

49 

48, 75, 101, 137. 
166 



70, 104, 106. 
49 



49, 94, 139, 140. 

166. ---. 

49, X 

106 

104 

49 

8,49,94,139... 



238,502 



247,393 
"834,"365 



100, 186 
"35." 908 



4, 844, 602 



Value 



$8, 072 
61,071 



2,185,314 



154, 565 



180,600 
396,623' 



54,905 
'25," 136 



276, 730 



Aver- 
age 

price 

per 

pound 



$2.37 
1.02 



26, 028, 939 



.06 



Produc- 
tion 
(quan- 
tity) 



Pounds 



638, 772 

"168,156 

2, 270, 696 

171, 898 

314,020 



241, 937 



19,509 



13, 166 



209,258 



1, 516, 301 
"897," 848 



216,345 
"41,' 966 



10, 400, 260 



18, 585 



146, 799 



28 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHEE SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

Table 11. — Coal-tar intermediates, production and sales, 1926 — Continued 



Intermediate 



C resoti ni c aci d 

Cresylic acid, refined (distillates 

yielding below 215° C. tar acids 

equal to more than 75 per cent of 

the original distillate) . 

C rotilidine aniline — 

Cumidine 

Dehydrothio-p-toluidine, base 

Dehydrothio-p-toluidine sulfonic acid 

Dehydrothio-m-xylidine __ 

Diaminochlorobenzene-p-sulfonic 

acid. 

Diaminodimethyl acridine 

Diaminostilbene disulfonie acid 

Dianisidine 

l-Diazo-2-naphthol-4-sulfonic acid 

Diazo salicylic acid 

Di beiizanthrone 

Dibenzy laniline - 

Dibromisatin 

Dichloroaniline 

Dichloroaniliue sulfonic acid 

2:5-Dichloroaniline-4-sulfonic acid 

o-Dichlorobenzene 

p-Dichlorohenzene 

2:4-Dichlorophenol 

Dichlorophenylhydrazine s u 1 fo n i c 
acid. 

Diehlorosulfophenylpyrazolone 

Dichlorosulfophenylmethylpyrazo- 

lone. 

Diethylamine 

b-Dicthylamino ethyl alcohol _- 

D:ethyl-m-aminophenol 

Diethylaniline _ . _ 

DiethylaniHne-m-sulfonic acid 

Diformyl-m-toly]enediamine 

6:5-Dihydroxy-7:7-disulfonic-2:2-di- 

naphthylamine (Rhoduline acid). 
5 :P-D i h y "d )■ X y-7 :7-disulfonic-2:2-di- 

naphthylurea (J acid urea). 

1 :5-Dihydroxynaphthalene-- 

l:8-Dihydroxynaphthalene-3:6-disul- 

fonic acid (chromotropic acid). 

Dimethylamine 

Dimeth ylaniline - 

2:2-Dimethyl-l : 1 -dianthraquinonyl. . , 

Dimethylphenazine (tolazine) 

Dimeth ylphenylbenzylammonium 

disulfonie acid, calcium salt (Leu- 

ko trope W), 

2'A - Di ni troaniline 

Dini troanthraqui none 

Dini trobenzene 

m-Dinitrobenzeno sulfonic acid 

Dinitrochlorobenzene 

Dinitrohydroxydiphenylamine 

Dinitronaphthalene 

Dinitrophenol and sodium salt 

Dini trostilhene -• 

Dinitrostilbcne disulfonie acid. 

p-Dinitrostilbene disulfonie acid 

Dini trotoluene 

Dipheny iamine 

Diiihpnylgn.midine. 

Di phen y hnci hane sulfonate _ . 

Distilhrnedi phenol 

Dithidtifiiziiatt' sodium salt 

o-Ditolylk'uanidine --- 

Di toly liiictha no (crystals) 

o-Di tul yl thiourea . _ _ 

p-Di tolylthiourea 

6-Ethoxy-3-hydroxy thionaphthalene 



Manufacturers' identifi- 
cation numbers (accor.ling 
to list on p. 204) 



Sales 



74._.. 

17, X. 



X 

104, X___, 

109 

35, 64, 109. 

109 

106 



124 

49,104,109.- 

35,49, 104, 109, X. - 
35,70,104,106,118. 

104.. 

109 

49 



49 

161,166,X - 

124 

106 

48,101,137 

48,49,75,101,111,137. 

X 

124 



35, 106. 
124.-.. 



1,115,170. 

115 

49 

48,170.-.. 

49 

49 

49 



49, 104, 109. 



49,70,104-- 
104, 109, X. 



49,170 - 

9,27,49,69,104. 

49 

104 

X 



9,49,94... 

106 

27,49,104- 



49,70, 104, X- 
35,70 



49,70,83. 

49- 

35,104... 



27, 49, 50, 65, 69, 72, 104, 

109, X 
49. 



47,49, 104, 132, X,X,X-.. 

104- - - 

104..-- 

105 

49,X 

104 

49,68 

49 -. 

49 



Quantity 



Pounds 



2, 186, 034 



1,146,020 



4,474,514 



1,419,336 



Value 



$352, 254 



325, 681 



1, 106, 399 



Aver- 
age 

price 

per 

pound 



$2.19 



.28 



Produc- 
tion 
(quan- 
tity) 



Pounds 



146,374 
92,529 
157, 222 



2, 474, 044 



8,475 



76, 851 
3,232 



2,831.911 



1, 340, 392 



6, 498, 194 



.12 i 6,176,322 
.'78Ti,'.m863 



COAL-TAE INTERMEDIATES 29 

Table 11. — Coal-tar intermediates, production and sales, 1926 — Continued 





Manufacturers' identifi- 
cation numbers (according 
to list on p. 204) 


Sales 




Intermediate 


Quantity 


Value 


Aver- 
age 

price 
per 

pound 


Produc- 
tion 
(quan- 
tity) 




104 


Pounds 






Pounds 




X 












49 












49 104 170 












33 49,104,170 . ..- 


55, 772 


$56, 214 


$1.01 


179, 123 




33,35, 104 - - 






49 70 








^ 




49 












X ... 












49 . 










Ethyl-o-toluidine-p-suJfonicacid 

Ethylidene aniline and derivatives.. 


49 










105 132 










43 49 72 










Formaldehyde-p-aminoaniline 


68 . . - 










49 132, 139, X ....... 


72,049 


24, 321 


..34 


110,952 


aniline.) 

Formyl-m-plienylenediamine 

Gamma acid. (See 2-amino-8-naph- 

thol-6-sulfonic acid.) 


35 




35 










H acid. (See l-amino-S-naphthol-3: 
6-disulfonic acid.) 


X ... 










105 . - 










X 










35 49 -. - 








b-IIydro.xy naphthoic anilide (naph- 

thol AS). 
p-Hydroxy phenyl arsonic acid and 

sodium salt. 


9 49 








92 -- 








8 












8 ... 










J acifl. (See 2-amino-5-naphthol-7- 

sulfonic acid.) 
Laurent's acid. (See 1-naphthyla- 

niine-.5-sulfonic acid.) 


105 -. ... 












104 












104 












X 












X - --- 












8,9,49,70,72,104,106,109. 
64 








463,638 














83,109 








Methylamine anthraquinone 

1-Methylamine - 4 - bromoanthraqui- 
none. 


70 . 








70 ... 










49 












X 












X ... 










Michler's hydrol (See tetramethyl- 

diamino-henzhydrol) . 
Michler's ketone. (See tetramethyl- 

diamino benzophenone.) 
Naphthalene, solidifying 79° C. or 

above (refined, flake). 


17, 27,49,86, 109, 167 

49 . 


12, 455, 739 


575,711 


.05 


18, 071, 619 


1:5-Naphthalene disulfonic acid 

2:7-Naphthalene disulfonic acid 

2:,5:7-Naphthalene benzoyl hydroxy 

sulfonic acid. 
2:8:6-Naphthalene dimethylhydroxy 

sulfonic acid. 
1-Naphthalido anthraquinone-2-car- 

boxylic acid. 


49 104 










49 139 










106 










106 










49 










166 - - 










Naphtho-1 ;8-sultam-2;4-d i s ul f o n 1 c 
acid (sultam acid) . 


49 










35,49,72, 104, 153, X 








257, 777 




27, 35,72, 139 










l-Naphthol-8-chloro-3:6- d i s ul f o n ic 

acid (chloro H acid). 
l-Naphthol-4-sulfonic acid (Nevile & 

Winther's acid). 


104 










35, 49, 104, 109 . . 








130,010 


8, 35, 49, 70, 98, 104, 109... 








122, 547 


l-Naphthol-3;8-disultomc acid 


109.... 











30 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

Table 11. — Coal-tar intermediates, production and sales, 1926 — Continued 





Manufacturers' identifi- 
cation numbers (according 
to list on p. 204j 


Sales 




Intermediate 


Quantity 


Value 


Aver- 
age 

price 

per 

pound 


Produc- 
tion 
(quan- 
tity) 


l-Naphthol-3:6:8-trisulfonicacid 


104, 109 _ 


Pounds 






Pounds 


2-Naphthol-l-sulfonic acid 


49 










2-Naphthol-6-sulfonic acid (Schaef- 


8,9,35, 49,50,70, 104 








101, 630 


fer'sacid). 
2-Naphthol-7-sulfonic acid 


35,49, 139.. 










2-Naphthol-8-sulfonic acid - 


35, X 






1 


2-Naphthol-3 :6-disulfonic acid 

2-Naphthol-6:8-disulfonic acid 


3, 27, 35, 49, 70, 104, 139, 

140, 163. 
9,35,49,70, 104, 139. 


72, 389 


$28,764 


$0. 40 569, 711 


a-Naphthylamine 


104, 109 








b-Naphthylamine 


35, 49, 104 






.59 


433, 139 


l-Naphtiiylamine-4-sulfonic acid 


9,35,72, 104, 109, X 






1, 313, 931 


(naphthionic acid) . 
1-Napht hylamine-5-s u 1 f o n i c acid 


8,49,70, 104,106, 109 








165, 117 


(Laurent's acid). 
l-Naphthylamine-6-sulfonic acid 


104, X 








l-Naphthylamine-6 and 7-sulfonic 


8,35,49, 70, 104, 109 








150, 797 
395. 253 


acid. 
l-Naphthylamine-8-sulfonic acid 


49.70, 104, 106, 109. X 








l-Naphthylamine-3:8-disulfonic acid. 


35,49, 109. 








l-Naphthvlamine-4:8-disulfonic acid. 


35,49, 104, 109 






.70 211,633 


l-Naphthylamine-3:6:8-trisulfonic 


49, 104, 109 








acid. 
2-Naphthylamine-l-sulfonic acid. ... 


8, 28, 35, 49, 139 . 


212, 970 


168, 393 


.79 342,804 


2-Naphthylamine-6-sulfonic acid 


35,49,104 


(Broenner's acid). 
2-Naphthylamine-4:8-disulfonic acid. 


35,49, 109 _ 








26,761 
292,890 
569,835 


2-Naphthylamine-5:7-disulfonic acid. 


35,49, 104, 106, 109 








2-Naphthylamine-6:8-disulfonic acid. 


35,49, 104, 106, 109 








2-Naphthylamine-3:6;8-trisulfonic 


X 








acid. 
Nevile & Winther's acid. (See 1- 

naphlhol-4-sulfonic acid) . 
p-Nitroacetanilide.- . 


139 










Nitroaminophenol . . 


49, 50, 70, 106 








16, 265 


m-Nitroaniline ... 


49,161 








p-Nitroaniline 


9, 101, X, X . 


240,451 


108,063 


.45 1 6.3.3.048 


p-Nitroaniline sulfonic acid. ... 


8, 35, 49, 64, 70, 166... ... 




33,218 


p-Nitro-o-anisidine . . . 


49 








o-Nitroanisole 


49, 101, 109,X 








276,682 
42,934,570 


Nitrobenzene (oil of mirbane) 

Nitrobenzene sulfonic acid . . . 


27,49,69, 104, 105, 109 

49, 64, 106 . 


2,566,151 


222,390 


.09 


p-Nitro benzoic acid 


1, 49, 138... 








41, 203 


o-Nitrochlorobenzene 


49, 101 „. 








o-Nitrochlorobenzene sulfonic acid... 


104, 166 








p-Nitrochlorobenzene . 


49, 101 








p-Nitrochlorobenzene-o-sulfonic acid. 


35, 49, 64, 166 








56, 421 


o-Nitro-p-chlorophenol 


X 








Nitrocreso) .. . ... 


49 






■ 


m-Nitro-p-cresol.. . . 


35 








Nitrocresol methyl ether 


49 








Nitrocumene 


104 








8-Nitro-l-diazo-2-naphthol-4-sulfonic 


35,49, 70 








acid. 
Nitrodichlorobenzene . 


109, 166 






1 


3-Nitro-4-hvdroxyphenyl arsonic acid 


92, X 






1 


Nitronapht halene 


17, 109 






' 


o-Nitrophenol and sodium salt 


161, 166 










49, 101, 161 










p-N it ropheni'tole 


49 










Nitro.sobelanaphthol ._ 


118 










Nitrosodimethylaniline. . 


27, 70, 83, 104, 170, 171 

11,19,35, 49,54,70, 104, X. 
104 


75. 276 


73,236 


.97 


155, 605 


Nitrosophenol 


287,641 


Nitrosulfoanthrarufln 










Nitrotoluene . 


27, 49, 50, 72, 104, 109, X.. 








7, 009, 377 


m-Nitrotoluene 


49, 109 










o-Nitrotolume 


49,65,69, 104, 109, X 

64, 106 


101, 273 


16, 701 


.16 


3, 828, 677 


o-Nitr(it>ilu('iie sulfonic acid ... 




p-Nitrotolui-ne . .. 


49,65,69, 104, 109, X 

8, 35, 49, 65, 104, 106, 109, 

166 
35,49, 121, 139, 


75, 054 


20, 368 


.27 


2, 046, 810 


p-Niirotolueui'-o-sulfonic acid 


716,427 


m-Nitro-p-toluidine 






1.70 


251,184 


p-Nitro-o-toluidine 


35,49 . 








Nitroxylene . .-. 


49, 104, 109 . . 








342, 740 


Oxalylarsanilie acid 


X 










Oxalyl-p-nitroaniline 


49 










Oxalylphenylenediamine 


49 











COAL-TAR INTERMEDIATES 



31 



Table 11. — Coal-tar intermediates, production and sales, 


1926 — Continued 




Manufacturers' identi- 
cation numbers (accord- 
ing to list on p. 204) 

i 


Sales 




Intermediate 


Quantity 


Value 


Aver- 
age 

price 
per 

30und 


Produc- 
tion 
(quan- 
tity) 




8 


Pounds 






Pounds 


Phenol -- - -- 


17,48,49, 101, 144, X 

49, 104, 109, 

49 


5,479,727 


$987, 631 


$0.18 


8,691,181 


Phenyl-2-amino-5-naphthol-7 -sulfon- 
ic acid (phenyl J acid) 

Phenyl-2-aiiiino-8-naphthol-6-sulfon- 
ic acid (phenyl gamma acid) 


16, 289 










49 — 










Phenyl-l-naphthylamine-8-sulfonic 
acid 


49 70, 104, 106, 109, X 






.89 


281,619 


106 










8, 9, 27, 35, 49, 70, 72, 104, 

106, 109, 118, 161 
35 104 








710, 190 


m-Phenylenediamine sulfonic acid... 










66 161 X 










p-Phenylenediamine sulfonic acid 


35 










48, 49 104 








8,756,452 


Phenylhydrazine and hydrochloride . 
Phenylhydrazine-p-sulfonic acid 


49 64 124 150 










27 104 124 








.. 121,706 


64, 124 — - 










Phenylmethylpyrazolone sulfonic 


49 124 










49, 101, 104, 136 


3,446,175 


604,949 


.18 


4, 379, 108 




27 49 104 -- 


54, 166 




49 „ 












35 104 109 








164, 900 




104 - 












9, X 












43, 121 - - 










Resorcinol USP 


121, X 












72 . - 












48, 74,97, 101, 137 


305,686 
1,440,878 


72, 980 
383, 288 


.24 
.27 


4,083,341 


Salicylic acid, USP 


48, 74, 97, 101 


2, 966, 757 




90 — - 






9, 27, 35, 49, 72, 90, 104, 

124, 152 
X 






.15 


1,546,120 












76 - 












76 . 










p-Sulfodichlorophenvlmethylpyra- 
zolone 


X 










106 












49 124 












72 - - 










Tetrachlorophthalic anhydride 

Tetramcthyldiami nohenzhydrol 

(Michler's hydrol) 
Tetramethyldiaminobenzophenone 

(Michler's ketone) 
Tetramethyldiaminodiphehylmeth- 

oane 


43 --- -- 










49 










49 70 - - 










27 49 69, 104 








451,492 


8 












49, 68, 104, 105, X 


1,266,383 


276,419 


.22 


1,493,396 




104 -. 






35,49, 104, 109 — 








196, 105 




9 












X 












X 










p-Toluene sulfochlofide 

p-Toluenesulfonyl ethyl ester 

Toluidine 

o-Toluidine 


1 101 




















27 35 69 










27* 49^ 65,' 69, 104, 109, X.. 
i 49 70, 72 - - 


979, 585 


228,937 


.23 


2, 430, 166 
62,427 


p-Toluidine - 

p-Toluidine sulfonic acid 

Toluidine disulfonic acid 

m-Tolylenediamine 

m-Tolylenediamine sulfonic acid 

p-Tolylenediamine 

Tolyl-I-naphthylamine-8-sulfonic 
acid (tolyl-peri acid) 


i 49,65,69, 104, 109, X_ ... 


250, 548 


107,622 


.43 


505,362 


106 










8, 9, 35, 49, 50, 70, 72, 104, 

109 
9 49 104 


186,373 


136, 401 


.73 


688, 303 


1 50 




















30 












49, 104, 105, 132 












27,49, 104, 109 


. 127. 898 


45,906 


.36 


221, 920 




40 109 ^ ^ -1 













32 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHEK SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Table 12.- 



-Intermediates: Production by groups, according to unit values, 
1922-1926 





1922 


1923 


1924 


1925 ' 1926 


Group 




Per 


Per 




Per 


1 Per 


i Per 


Pounds 


cent 
of 


Pounds 


cent 
of 


Pounds 


cent 
of 


Pounds 1 ^^' 


Pounds 


cent 
of 






total 




total 




total 


total 




total 


0-15 cts... 


94, 688, 278 


.57.372 


104, 419, 258 


45. 127 


88, 160, 641 


47. 247 


89.686,885 42.566 


135, 324, 911 


58.93 


16-25 cts _ 


2t), 233,6041 15.894 


50. 233, 638 


21.709 


37, 359, 904 


20. 022 


62,801,070 29.806 


47, 228, 385 


20.57 


26-50 cts. _ 


24, 399, 085 


14. 783 


42, 556, 640 


18. 391 


37, 179, 993 


19. 925 


32,081,452 


15. 226 


24, 130, 013 


10.51 


51-75 cts _. 


8, 289, 387 


5.022 


16, 486, 1.59 


7.125 


10, 588, 270 


5. 674 


13, 442, 218 


6.380 


10, .571, 635 


4.60 


$0.76-$!.. . 


5, 918, 904 


3.586 


9, 664, 153 


4.176 


6, 246, 565 


3.348 


5, 787, 1 65 


2.747 


7, 097, 246 


3.09 


$1. 01-$1. 50 


3, 957, 355 


2.398 


5, 587, 436 


2.415 


4,112,585 


2.204 


3, 632, 570 


1.724 


2,621,011 


1.14 


$1.51-$2... 


.568, 339 


.344 


914,837 


.395 


968, 676 


.519 


1,614,041 


.766 


1, 434, 404 


.62 


$2.01-$3-.- 


721, 637 


.437 


951, 521 


.411 


1, 407, 047 


.754 


994, 224 


.472 


916, 665 


.40 


$3.01-$4-.. 


197, 071 


.119 


136, 302 


.059 


303, 938 


.163 


111,432 


.053 


144, 587 


.06 


Over$4_.. 


74, 495 


.045 


443, 927 


.192 


268, 943 


.144 


548, 722 


.260 


184, 945 


.08 


Total.-. 


165, 048, 155 


100 


231, 393, 871 


100 


186, 596, 562 


100 


210, 699, 779 


100 |229, 653, 802 


100 



Dyes and Other Finished Coal-Tar Products 
introduction 

Finished coal-tar products may be divided into eight classes: 
(1) Dyes, (2) color lakes, (3) photographic chemicals (developers), 
(4) medicinals, (5) flavors, (6) perfume materials, (7) synthetic 
phenolic resins, (8) sjmthetic tanning materials. In previous reports 
the Tarift" Commission has emphasized the close relationship existing 
between the manufacture of explosives, poisonous gases, and dyes. 
The dye industry is now considered a key industry by the industrial 
nations of the world. Closely connected also with dyes is the manu- 
facture of flavors, perfume materials, photographic chemicals, 
medicinals, and other coal-tar products, which, although produced 
in smaller quantities, use as raw materials many of the by-products 
obtained in the manufacture of coal-tar dyes. 

The total production of dyes and other finished coal-tar products 
in 1926 by 134 firms was 122,752,021 pounds, as compared with 
120,554,228 pounds by 151 firms in 1925. Sales in 1926 amounted to 
120,348,636 pounds, valued at $59,533,445. This is an increase in 
quantity but a decline in value from 1925, when sales totaled 112,671,- 
779 pounds, valued at $60,811,400. Table 26, page 59, shows the 1926 
production of dyes and other finished coal-tar products in as great 
detail as is possible without disclosing the output of individual 
manufacturers. 

SUMMARY OF PRODUCTION OF DYES 

INCREASE IN PRODUCTION 

The output of dyes in 1926 by 61 firms was 87,978,624 pounds, 
an increase of 1.9' per cent over 1925. Sales totaled 86,255,836 
pounds, valued at $36,312,648, as compared with 79,303,451 pounds,, 
valued at $37,468,332 in 1925. 

While there was an increase in volume of sales, due largely to 
greater activity in the textile industry, the lower price of dyes in 
1926 caused a decrease in the value of production. Exports were 
slightly larger in quantit}' than in 1925. 

The outstanding features for the year were (1) continued price 
recessions resulting from severe competition among domestic manu- 
facturers, (2) a large increase in the production of vat and other fast 
dves, (3) a reduction in the number of domestic manufacturers, 
(4) a decline in the dye imports, and (5) a decline in the value of 
exports with practically no change in quantity. 



DYES AND OTHER FINISHED COAL-TAR PRODUCTS 33 

Table 13. — Coal-tar dyes: Domestic -production and sales, 1914 c-nd 1917-1926 



Year 


Production 


Sales 


Quantity 


Value 


1914 . 


Pounds 
6, 619, 729 
45, 977, 246 
58, 464, 446 

63, 402, 194 
88, 263, 776 
39, 008, 690 

64, 632, 187 
93, 667, 524 
68, 679, 000 
86, 345, 438 
87, 978, 624 


Pounds 


1 $2, 470, 096 


1917 . 




1 57, 796, 228 


1918 . . 




' 62, 026, 390 
'67,598,855 
1 95, 613, 749 
39. 283. 956 


1919 - . . 




1920 -. .- . 




1921 ... 


47, 513, 762 


1922 - 


69, 107, 105 41. 463. 790 


1923. 


86, 567, 446 
64, 961, 433 
79, 303, 451 
86, 255, 836 


47, 223, 161 


1924 


35, 012, 400 


1925 


37, 468, 332 


1926 


36, 312, 648 







1 Value of production. 

Stocks on hand. — Commencing with 1924 the commission has pub- 
Hshed annually figures as to the quantity of dyes on hand at the be- 
ginning of the year. Table 14 gives current data for the same 36 
dyes reported in the Census of Dyes for 1925. For this selected 
Hst the total stocks on hand January 1, 1927, was a small decline 
from January 1, 1926, but an increase of more than b}/2 million 
pounds over January 1, 1925. 

Table 14. — Domestic dyes: Stocks on hand January 1, 1926 and 1927 



Colour 

Index 

No. 



Schultz 
No. 



Name of dye 



Jan. 1, 1926 



Jan. 1, 1927 



20 
31 
79 
138 
151 
179 
189 
202 
208 
246 
289 
326 
332 
365 
401 
406 
448 
518 
520 
581 
582 
693 
596 
620 
640 
680 
737 
812 
814 
865 



33 
42 
82 
134 
145 
163 
173 
181 
188 
217 
257 
279 
284 
304 
333 
337 
363 
424 
426 
462 
463 
474 
476 
9 
23 
515 
566 
616 
617 
700 



Total of all dyes. 



fhrysoidine Y ... 

Amide naphthol red G 

Ponceau 2R 

Metanil yellow 

Orange II 

Azo rubine 

Lake red R 

Chrome blue black U 

Fast acid blue R 

Acid black lOB 

Fast cyanine 5R 

Direct fast scarlet 

Bismarck brown 2R 

Chrvsophenine G 

Developed black BHN... 

Direct blue 2B. 

Benzopurpurine 4B 

Direct pure blue 6B 

Direct pure blue 

Direct black EW 

Direct black RX 

Direct green B.._ 

Direct brown 3G0 

Direct yellow R 

Tartrazine 

Methyl violet 

Wool green S 

Primuline 

Direct fast yellow 

Nigrosine (water-soluble). 

Sulphur black 

Sulphur blue_^ 

Sulphur brown 

Sulphur yellow 

Indigo, 20 per cent paste.. 
Zambesi black 



37,382,913 | 39,015,391 



252. 971 


301, 526 


83, 419 


65, 069 


76,817 


122, 814 


179, 376 


134,364 


295, 236 


220,419 


59, 281 


116,494 


102, 298 


108, 399 


211,604 


1(5, 364 


57, 760 


103, 331 


462, 757 


511,445 


127, 920 


19.5, 923 


112.081 


121, 668 


187, 278 


161,665 


170, 929 


233, 365 


177. 492 


224, 713 


396, 828 


573, 349 


142. 370 


187, 957 


56, 105 


221,992 


74, 518 


159, 065 


1, 451, 954 


2, 180, 105 


152, 038 


331, 998 


72.010 


147, 794 


275, 088 


329, 094 


171, 554 


146, 461 


214, 852 


161,223 


118,439 


199, 039 


59, 142 


66, 053 


60,848 


104, 736 


38,780 


f8, 109 


35->. 263 


426, 518 


6, 267, 917 


6, 654, 510 


356.071 


379, 746 


792, 649 


606, 833 


297, 019 


236, 692 


15,112,876 


12, 376, 020 


131, 868 


120,878 



Total of 36 dyes listed above ! 29,155,408 28,464,731 



34 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



PUaXHER DECLINE IN DOMESTIC DYE PRICES 

The weighted average price of all domestic dyes sold in 1926 was 
10 per cent less than the weighted average of those sold in 1925. 
Price recessions occurred in both the low and the high priced dyes. 
Indigo, the leading color manufactured in this country, sold at an 
average of 12.8 cents per pound in 1926 as compared with 16 cents 
in 1925. In 1917, when it was first produced in the United States, 
the average price per pound was $1.42. 

Table 15 shows the steady decline in prices since 1917. The 1926 
average price was about one-half the 1921 price and one-third the 
1917 price. The effect of this decline on the income from sales has 
been very great. At the 1921 price, the total quantity of dyes sold 
in 1926 would have been double the value aetiialiv received — that 
is, nearly $72,000,000 instead of $36,000,000. In the period 1922 to 
1926 the decline in the weighted average selling price caused an aver- 
age annual decrease in revenue from sales of over $6,000,000. 

Table 15. — Domestic dyes: Weighted average sales price per pound,^ 1917 and 

1920-1926 



Year 


Weighted 
average 
sales price 
of domes- 
tic dyes 


Year 


Weighted 
average 
sales price 
of domes- 
tic dyes 


1917.. 


2. $1.26 
1.08 
.83 
.60 


1923 


$0 55 


1920. 


1924 


54 


1921. 


1925 


.47 


1922 


1926 .. . 


.42 









' The total value of all dyes divided by the total quantity. 2 Unit value of production. 

Table 16 affords a comparison of the domestic sales prices of nearly 
100 dyes for the years 1920 to 1926, inclusive, with the invoice prices 
of the same types of dyes imported in 1914. The dyes for which 
statistics are given in this table constitute about 90 per cent of do- 
mestic production. Strictly speaking, domestic sales prices can not, 
of course, be compared with invoice prices, for the reason that the 
latter do not represent the cost to the consumer, since they do not 
include the importer's profit and the usual charges for containers, 
packing, freight, insurance to seaport, consular certification, and 
minor shipping charges at point of departure and at seaport. 

The Colour Index number in Table 16 is indicated in the first col- 
umn and the Schultz number (Farbstoff Tabellen (dyestuff tables) 
by Gustav Schultz, 1914 edition) in the second column. The third 
column gives the type name of the dye adopted by the Tariff Com- 
mission for designating all dyes reported under a given Colour Index 
or Schultz number. 

The invoice price (1914) shown in column 4 represents the weight- 
ed average of all dyes classified under a given Schultz number in 
''Artificial dyestuffs used in the United States," Department of Com- 
merce, Special Agents' Series No. 121. This weighted average price 
for all types is frequently higher than the invoice price per pound of 
the bulk of dyes imported under a given Schultz number. The indi- 
vidual dyes imported under given Schultz numbers in the Norton 



DYES AND OTHER FINISHED COAL-TAR PRODUCTS 



35 



census show wide variation in price, frequently amounting to several 
hundred per cent. This is due chiefly to the great difference in con- 
centration of the different dyes and also to variation in the prices of 
special and pure brands which are more costly than the ordinary 
brands. The figures in column 5, the domestic-sales price as reported 
to the Tariff Commission, represent the weighted average price of 
all dyes reported under a given Colour Index or Schultz number. 

Table 16. — Domestic sales prices of certain dyes, 1922-1926, corn-pared with invoice 
values of dyes of the same kind imported in 1914 





Schultz 
No. 


Common name 


1914 

invoice 

value 

imported 

dyes 
(weight- 
ed aver- 
age of all 
types) 


Average price per pound 


Colour 

Index 

No. 


1922 


1923 


1924 


1925 


1926 


20 


33 
34 
38 
42 
48 
58 
66 
82 
112 
134 
141 
145 
154 
161 
163 
164 
168 
173 
177 
181 
188 
217 
227 
236 
257 
275 
265 
266 
283 
284 
304 
327 
333 
337 
342 
340 
343 
344 
363 
391 
405 
419 
424 
426 
462 
463 
474 
475 
476 
477 
485 
9 
11 
23 
493 
495 
502 
512 
515 
530 


Chrysoidine Y 


$0. 136 
.165 
.148 
.150 
.077 
.154 
.604 
.095 
.159 
.164 
.249 
.081 
.256 
.118 
.198 
.188 
.138 
.083 
.149 
.156 
.252 
.134 
.165 
.143 
.166 
.172 
.110 
.144 
.186 
.183 
.270 
.255 
.133 
.041 
.189 
231 
.362 
.194 
.133 
.209 
.234 
.222 
.275 
.440 
.144 
.139 
.174 
.230 


$0.63 

.63 

.58 

.83 

.50 

.61 

.66 

.61 

.75 

.92 

1.30 

.38 

1.34 

.83 

.92 

1.50 

.86 

1.25 

.76 

.55 

.91 

.79 

1.09 

1.02 

1.21 

.94 

1.14 

.66 

.66 

.63 

1.70 

1.44 

.91 

.48 

.93 

.89 

1.39 

1.10 

90 

.78 

1.64 

1.45 

1.52 

1.22 

.42 

.61 

.92 

.98 

.73 

.88 

.93 

.88 

1.32 

1.08 

1.66 

1.22 

1.77 

2.26 

1.29 

1.86 


$0.58 
.57 
.59 
.71 
.52 
.61 
.78 
.58 
.73 
.80 

1.06 
.37 

1.09 
.78 
.85 

1.27 
.71 

1.15 
.65 
.53 
.85 
.71 


$0.49 
.50 
.55 
.57 
.49 
.54 
.70 
.55 
.62 
.72 
.96 
.33 

1.11 
.71 
.79 

1.17 
.49 
.91 
.54 
.48 
.76 
.46 


$0.43 
.45 
.52 
.53 
.42 
.45 
.55 
.51 
.56 
.69 
.88 
.29 
.99 
.69 
.76 
.87 
.63 
.86 
.57 
.44 
.65 
.55 
.95 
.96 
.83 
.81 
.84 
.72 
.47 
.45 
.78 
1.22 
.58 
.34 
.83 
.69 
.95 
.77 
.66 
.46 
1.32 
.97 
.97 
.67 
.34 
.45 
.61 
.70 
.44 
.80 
.72 
.61 
.94 
.67 
2.00 
1.54 
1.30 
1.81 
.99 
1.49 


$0.34 


21 


Chrysoidine R.- ._ 


.36 


27 


Orange G _ _ 


.44 


31 


Amido naphthol red G . . 


.46 


36 


Chrome vcllow 2G . ... 


.50 


40 


Chrome vellow R 


.58 


57 


Amido naphthol red 6B -.. 


.54 


79 


Ponceau 2R 


.48 


88 


Bordeaux B 


.56 


138 


Metanil vellow 


.64 


146 


Azo vellow... 


.78 


151 


Orange II 


.27 


167 


Acid chrome brown B. . 


.92 


176 


Fast red A 


.62 


179 


Azo rubine ... 


.71 


180 


Fast red VR 


.66 


184 


Amaranth 


.58 


189 


Lake red R 


.85 


195 


Mordant yellow . 


.55 


202 


Chrome blue black U. 


.37 


208 


Fast acid blue R. . . 


.63 


246 


Acid black lOB.. 


.46 


252 


Brilliant croceine 


.84 


262 


Cloth red 2B 


1.16 
.91 
.87 

""."86' 

.60 

.58 

1.03 

1.39 

.73 

.41 

1.15 

.80 

1.20 

.95 

.89 

.54 

1.67 

1.51 

1.40 

.97 

.43 

.52 

.82 

.83 

.64 

.94 

.78 

.81 

1.22 

.87 

1.72 

1.60 

1.72 

2.08 

1.25 

1.86 


1.06 

.89 
.86 
.91 
.67 
.53 
.51 
.84 
1.28 
.65 
.37 
.81 
.72 
1.06 
.83 
.73 
.51 
1.42 
1.19 
1.26 
.79 
.38 
.49 
.68 
.79 
.49 

"""."72' 
.66 
1.07 
.76 
1.52 
1.70 
1.61 
1.72 
1.13 
1.72 


.98 


289 


Fast cyanine 5R . 


.74 


299 


Chrome black F .... 


.73 


307 


Fast cyanine black B . 


.80 


308 


Naphthvlamine black D 


.61 


331 


Bismarck brown. 


.44 


332 


Bismarck brown 2R- 


.42 


365 


Chrysophenine G 


.55 


394 


Direct violet N _ 


1.21 


401 


Developed black BHN 


.50 


406 


Direct blue 2B . 


.31 


410 


Chrysamine G _ 


.55 


415 


Direct orange R ... _ 


.62 


419 


Direct fast red F 


.82 


420 


Direct brown M _ 


.70 


448 


Benzopurpurine 4B 


.58 


477 


Direct blue3B. 


.39 


495 


Benzopurpurine lOB 


1.27 


512 


Direct blue RW.. . . 


.87 


518 


Direct pure blue 6B 


.77 


520 


Direct pure blue 


.59 


581 


Direct black EW . 


.31 


582 


Direct black RX 


.35 


593 


Direct green B 


.51 


594 


Direct green G 


.66 


596 


Direct brown 3G0 . . 


.39 


598 


Congo brown G 


.194 
.170 
.178 
.239 
.200 
.240 
.241 
.255 
.294 
.248 
.281 1 


.68 


606 


Direct brown G 


.74 


620 


Direct yellow R.. . 


.49 


621 


Chloramine orange Q 


.81 


640 


Tartrazine 


.58 


655 


Auramine.. 


.90 


657 


Malachite green 


1.31 


666 


Acid green B . 


1.13 


677 




1.81 


680 


Methyl violet 


.93 


698 


Acid violet 


1.36 



36 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Table 16. — Domestic sales prices of certain dyes, 1922-1926, compared with invoice 
values of dyes of the same kind imported in 1914 — Continued 



Colour 
Index 
No. 



Schultz 
No. 



Common name 



704 
737 
768 
793 
812 
814 
860 
861 
864 
865 
883 
922 
978 



1035 
1099 
1177 
1180 



536 
566 
587 
606 
616 
617 
697 
699 
698 
700 
626 
659 
720 



782 
763 

874 



Alkali blue _ - - 

Wool green S _ 

Eosine 

Phosphine 

Primuline 

Direct fast yellow 

Induline (spirit -soluble) 

Induline (water-soluble) - - 

Nigrosine (spirit-sol uble) 

Nigrosine (water-soluble) . _ 

Gallocyanine _ _ 

Methylene blue. 

Sulphur black __. 

Sulphur blue _ _ . 

Sulphur brown 

Sulphur tan 

Sulphur maroon 

Sulphur yellow 

Alizarin brown 

Anthraquinone vat dark blue BO. 

Indigo, synthetic 

Indigo e-\ tract 



1914 
invoice 
I value 
imported 
! dyes 
I (weigh t- 
! ed aver- 
I age of all 
i types) 



Average price per pound 



$0,409 
.353 
.418 
.352 ! 
.144 ' 
.136 
.198 
.258 I 
.126 
.149 I 
.347 I 
.390 
.100 



,107 



.186 



.290 
.227 
.128 
.340 



$2.42 
1.10 
1.90 
2.05 
1.07 
1.29 
.94 
.82 
.54 
.53 
1.92 
1.40 
.21 
.60 
.40 
.56 
.79 
.78 
1.86 
1.65 
.25 
.45 



$2.39 
.83 
1.84 
1.93 
.70 
1.17 
.93 
.83 
.52 
.46 
1.93 
1.47 
.20 
.50 
.39 
.48 
.77 
.73 
1.24 
2.00 
.23 
.58 



$2.56 
.75 
1.85 
1.86 
.79 
1.09 
.78 
.74 
.48 
.48 
1.86 
1.26 
.19 
.55 
.38 
.37 



.53 
2.08 
2.23 

.22 

.56 



$2.24 


$2.59 


.57 


.59 




1.80 


1.56 


1.52 


.64 


.54 


1.06 


1.05 




.56 



.69 
.45 
..42 
1.79 
1.11 
.17 
.55 
.35 
.35 
.56 
.46 
2.16 



1926 



.47 
.39 
1.85 
.94 
•15 
.54 
.35 
.30 
.53 
•40 
2.18 
1.68 
•13 
•57 



UNIT VALUE OF DYES PRODUCED, 1922-1926 

Table 17 shows the domestic production of dyes in the years 1922 
to 1926, inclusive, arranged according to eight value groups. The 
actual quantity is given for each group and the relation of each 
group to the total production. 

Table 17. — Dyes: Production by groups, according to unit value, 1922-1926 



1 

1922 


1923 


1924 


1925 


1926 


Unit value 

Pounds 


Per 

cent of 
total 

44.449 

15. 840 
13. 025 
10.818 
10. 573 
3.111 
1.298 
.886 


Pounds 


Per 
cent of 
total 


Pounds 


Per 
cent of 
total 


Pounds 


Per 

cent of 
total 


Pounds 


Per 
cent of 
total 


0-25 cents 28,728,401 

26-50 cents '10, 237, 825 

51-75 cents 8,418,271 

$0.76-$l 1 6,992,018 

$1.01-$1.50 6.833,577 

$1.51-$2 ; 2,010,413 

$2.0i-.$3 .-■ 838,849 

Over .$3 .572,833 


44,651.483 47.670 

15,205,298 16.234 

12,717,5461 13. .577 

8, 604, 351 1 9.186 

8, 207, 420t 8. 762 

2,318,343! 2.475 

1. 244, 493 1. 329 

718, 5901 . 767 


31,725,493 
13, 853, ,503 
9,105,018 
4, 259, 988 
6, 283, 687 
1,774.660 
1,118,953 
557. 693 


46. 194 
20. 172 
13. 257 
6.203 
9.149 
2.584 
1.629 
.812 


45,815,114 
16, 1.34, 929 
9, 598, 483 
4, 851, 7.50 
5,027,117 
2, 578, 233 
1, 568, 4.58 
771, 354 


53. 060 

18. 687 

11. 116 

5.619 

5. 822 

2.986 

1.817 

.893 


43, 747, 263 
20, 666, 640 
8, 794, 368 
8, 045, 922 
2. 808, 457 
2.241,741 
1, 402, 063 
272,170 


49.72 

23. 49 

10. 00 

9. 15 

3.19 

2. .55 

1..59 

.31 


Total 64,632,187 


100 193,667,524 100 

1 1 


68, 679, 000 


100 


86, 345, 438 


100 


87,978,6241 100 



DYES AND OTHER FINISHED COAL-TAR PRODUCTS 



37 



PROGRESS IN DYE MANUFACTURE 



Significant progress was made during 1926 in the manufacture of 
vat dyes, alizarin derivatives, direct developed dyes, and a variety 
of special colors for the dyeing of mixed fibers. Manufacturers have 
continued to concentrate on the more complex dyes and on those 
ordinarily termed ''specialties." The increasing demand for fast dyes 
has greatly stimulated research and has resulted in a number of new 
dyes being put on the market. The domestic industry now supplies 



7-10- 



AVERAGE PRICE 

(U.S. PRODUCTION) 
1917-1926 



DYES 



g INTERMEDIATES 




1917 1918 1919 1920 1921 |921 1923 1924 1925 1926 Ijl 



more than 90 per cent of the domestic requirements and in addition 
has an export trade in certain dyes amounting in value to 16 per 
cent of our total production. Imports are largely the higher priced 
dyes bought for special requirements of the textile trade. 

Relation of production to consumption. — Imports of coal-tar dyes 
in 1926 were 4,673,196 * pounds, with an invoice value of $4,103,301. 
Domestic production in 1926 was 87,978,624 pounds, and sales 
amounted to 86,255,836 pounds, valued at $36,312,648. Imports 



* This total poundage is in excess of the actual quantity imported, because nearly all of the vat dyes, 
as well as the rhodamines, were reduced to a single strength basis in order to compare imports and pro- 
duction. The invoice value is below the actual selling price to the consumer. 



38 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHEE SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

constituted 5.3 per cent of the total production by quantity and 11 
per cent by value. Assuming consumption to equal total sales plus 
imports minus exports, 65,117,091 pounds of dyes were consumed 
in 1926. Of this quantity only about 7 per cent was imported, the 
remaining 93 per cent being supplied by the domestic industry. In 
terms of value, however, imports were considerably more than 7 per 
cent for the reason that imported dyes are much higher priced than 
domestic dyes. 

Reduction in number of dye manufacturers. — Of the 61 firms report- 
ing the production of dyes in 1926, 8 made only bacteriological stains 
and indicators. The 53 producers of dyes, exclusive of stains and 
indicators, is a decline of 16 since 1925 and of 37 since 1919, when the 
largest number of manufacturers operated in the United States. 

This steady decline in the number of manufacturers is due to com- 
petition arising from a productive capacity far in excess of con- 
sumptive requirements, which leads to efforts on the part of some 
producers to retain a portion of their trade at prices at or below cost 
of production. Elimmation of plants will doubtless continue until 
productive capacity more nearly conforms to the demands of the 
home and export markets. Certain plants are likely to amalgamate 
in the near future for the purpose of effecting economy in purchases 
and sales and for the elimination of duplication in manufacture. 
Such a fusion might well include producers of intermediates and heavy 
chemicals. 

The United States has more dye manufacturers than the rest of the 
world combined. The capacity of its plants, estimated at about 
one-fifth of the world's total capacity, is far in excess of domestic and 
foreign demands. 

As pointed out in the census of 1925, the number of dye producers 
in the United States is in striking contrast to the number in Germany 
and Switzerland. In Germany six firms have been taken over by 
the Badische, now known as I. G. Teerfarben Industrie, leaving two 
other large producers and several others of minor importance. In 
Switzerland three of the four manufacturers have a close affiliation 
of business interests. In the United States there is relatively little 
cooperation among the producers such as exists in foreign dye manu- 
facturing nations. 

TARIFF CONSIDERATIONS 

The act of 1922 provides that the ad valorem rate of duty on any 
imported coal-tar product coming within paragraph 27 or 28 shall be 
based upon the American selling price (as defined in subdivision (f) 
of sec. 402, Title IV) of any similar competitive article manufac- 
tured in the United States. A product is defined by the act as similar 
or competitive with any imported coal-tar product when it accom- 
plishes results substantially equal to those accomplished by the 
domestic product when used in substantially the same manner. 

If a similar competitive article is not manufactured in the United 
States, the ad valorem rate is based upon the United States value (as 
defined in subdivision (d) of sec. 402, Title IV), which is the selling 
price in the United States of the imported article less certain statutory 
deductions, including profit, general expense, cost of insurance, 
transportation, and duty. 



DYES AND OTHER FINISHED COAE-TAR PRODUCTS 39 

The commission's Dye Census of 1924 (pp. 41-45) discussed the 
American selling price as applied to coal-tar products, reviewed the 
principal features of the administration of these provisions by the 
Treasury Department, summarized the major regulations issued by 
that department, and gave important Treasury Decisions up to 
G. A. 9004, T. D. 40925, of 1925. The Dye Census of 1925, con- 
tinuing this feature of the report, gave an abstract of decisions up 
to May, 1926. Decisions up to May, 1927 follow: 

COURT AND TREASURY DECISIONS 

Where the invoices or the immediate containers of dyes do not 
bear the descriptive statements required by paragraph 28 of the 
tariff act of 1922 the dyes should be seized as illegal importations 
under section 593 (b) of that act. The importer may file a petition 
for remission or mitigation of the forefeiture under section 618, T. D. 
41525 of 1926, citing T. D. 39566 and 39744. 

The general expressions in paragraph 27 and 28 of the act of 1922 
have been held not to include a chemical (bromhydrate d'homatro- 
phine was there in issue) not manufactured from coal tar where 
one of the minor vegetable substances used in the course of such 
manufacture consists of an article which can also be produced from 
coal tar. To include such a substance, the court said, would unduly 
expand the coal-tar provisions beyond the reasonable congressional 
intent. {McKesson v. United States, 14 Ct. Cust. Appls. — ; T. D. 
.41795 of 1926.) 

The specific duty under paragraph 28 of the act of 1922 falls on 
the actual weight until the Secretary of the Treasury has exercised 
his power to apportion strengths from a commerical standard. (Ab. 
(N) 602, 615, and 694, of 1926.) 

Prior to the tariff act of 1922, it was the duty of the collector to 
ascertain dutiable costs and charges and add them to the value 
found by the appraiser. By sections 402 and 500 of this act such 
duty devolved upon the appraiser. Section 503 provides that duty 
shall be assessed upon the appraised value. Section 489 (upon the 
subject of additional duties) forbids the assessment of duty on less 
than the entered value except as therein specified. Paragraph 28 
levies duty on coal-tar products, basing it on the American selling 
price of any similar competitive domestic product. All these pro- 
visions must be construed together and every part of each effectuated. 
This can not be done by holding that the injunction of section 503 
to assess duty on the appraised value overcomes that of section 489 
to assess on the entered value if higher than the appraised value, 
leaving that of section 489 to operate only in cases of additional 
duty for, in such case, that of section 489 would have no meaning, 
since no additional duties are assessed unless the entered is lower than 
the appraised value. That of section 503 is an order to the collector 
to carry out the new policy taking away from him the ascertainment 
of dutiable costs and charges; and that of section 489 remains an order 
to him never to assess on less than the entered value, except as therein 
directed. Coal-tar color entered under paragraph 28 at a higher 
value than that found by the appraiser on the basis of American 
selling price was correctly assessed on the entered value. {Ciba v. 
United States, 14 Ct. Cust. Appls. — ; T. D. 41913, of 1926.) 

Method to be used in distillation of cresylic acid as a substitute for 
the regulations promulgated in T. D. 41735. (T. D. 41868 of 1926.) 

49113—27 4 



40 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



EFFECT OF REDUCTION IN DUTY ON DYE IMPORTS 

On September 22, 1924, under the provisions of the tariff act of 
1922, the ad valorem rate on dyes and other finished coal-tar products, 
paragraph 28, was reduced from 60 per cent to 45 per cent, while 
the specific duty remained at 7 cents per pound. In the commis- 
sion's Census of Dyes for 1923 it was pointed out that the specific 
duty is more effective on the low-priced dyes, and that consequently 
a reduction in the ad valorem rate would more directly affect the 
higher priced dyes. 

Since this reduction in the rate of duty became effective, imports 
have greatly increased. Table 18 shows the quantity and the invoice 
value of imports and the monthly average for each year since 1919. 

Pronounced competition from German and Swiss dyes continued 
in 1926, particularly from the high-cost types. 



rovtas 

■J) 



DYE5:iMP0RT5 BYM0NTH5 THR0U6H 
THE PORT Of NEW YORK. 



500 




MR APR. JUlt OCT. JAN. APR. /OOf OCT. JAN. A(K. JWtY OCT. JAN. Afd. XUW OCT, JHH. «<* 

1923 I 1924 I 1925 I I926> 1 1927 



Table 18. — Coal-tar dyes: Imports into the United States, 1920-1927 (3 months) 



Period 



1020. 
1921. 
1922. 
1923. 



lf'24 (first 9 months).,.. 

1924 (last 3 months) 

Total. 3.022,539 

1925 5,315,158 

1926 _ I 4.67.3,196 

1927 (3 months) i 913^ 611 



Quantity 




Invoice 
value 




1, 642, 632 
1, 266, 146 



2, 908. 778 

4, 791, 908 

4, 103, :mi 

801, 165 



Monthly average 



Quantity Value 




179, 103 
470, 203 



251, 878 
442, 930 
389, 433 
304, 537 




242, 398 
399, 326 
341,941 
267, 055 



DYES AND OTHER FINISHED COAL-TAR PRODUCTS 



41 



PRODUCTION OF DYES BY CLASSES 

The dyes produced in the United States in 1925 are classified 
according to method of appHcation as follows: (1) Acid dyes, (2) 
basic dyes, (3) direct dyes, (4) lake and spirit-soluble dyes, (5) mor- 
dant or chrome dyes, (6) sulphur dyes, (7) vat dyes, subdivided into 
indigo and other vats, and (8) unclassified dyes. While in certain 
instances the classification is arbitrary, because a dye may have 
properties which permit of its application by more than one method, 
it is believed that the above classification facilitates a comparison 
of production and import figures. 

Comparative data for dyes produced in the United States from 
1917 to 1925, inclusive, and those imported in the fiscal year 1914 
and in the calendar years 1920 to 1925, inclusive, are arranged 
according to the classes given in Table 19. 

Table 19. — Comparison of imports of dyes, by classes, fiscal year 1914 O'^d calendar 
years 1922-1926, with domestic production, calendar years 1922-1926 



Class of dye 



Acid 

Basic 

Direct 

Lake and spirit soluble- 
Mordant and chrome. _ 

Sulphur 

Vats (including indigo) . 

(a) Indigo 

(h) Other vats 

Unclassified 



Total ...,. 45,950,895 



Imports 



Pounds 
9, 28e, 501 
3, 002, 480 

10, 264, 757 
1, 512, 605 
4, 450, 442 
7, 053, 879 

10, 352, 663 

8, 407, 359 

1, 945, 304 

27, 568 



Per cent 
of total 



20.2 

6.5 

22.3 

3.3 

9.7 

15.4 

22.5 

18.3 

4.2 

.1 



100 



1922 



Domestic 
production 



Pounds 

9, 880, 014 

2, 937, 585 

11,931,737 

1, 009, 512 

3, 749, 701 

16, 913, 767 

16, 926, 744 

15, 850, 752 

1, 075, 992 

1, 283, 127 



64, 632, 187 



Per 

cent of 

total 



15.29 

4.54 

18.46 

1.56 

5.80 

26.17 

26.19 

24.52 

1.67 

1.99 



Per 
Imports cent of 
total 



100 



Pounds 

601,395 

155, 084 

671, 621 

76, 853 

716, 790 

194, 883 

1, 549, 024 

505 

1, 548, 519 

16, 981 



3, 982, 631 



15.10 
3.89 

16.86 
1.93 

18.00 
4.89 

38.90 
.01 

38.89 
.43 



100 



Class of dye 



Acid .- 

Basic 

Direct 

Lake and spirit soluble. 

Mordant and chrome 

Sulphur 

Vats (including indigo) . 

(a) Indigo 

(b) Other vats 

Unclassified and special. 

Total 



Per 

production j««°'/ 



Domestic 



Pounds 

12, 498, 817 

4, 157, 373 

16, 858, 387 

1, 171, 854 

4, 078, 504 

21, 558, 469 

30, 113, 642 

28, 347, 259 

1, 766, 383 

3, 230, 478 



13.34 
4.44 
18.00 
1.25 
4.35 
23.02 
32. 15 
30.26 
1.89 
3.45 



93,667,524 100 



Imports 



Pounds 
544, 048 
210, 896 
527, 014 
23, 213 
453, 415 
1 14, 023 

1, 207, 554 



1, 207, 554 
18. 030 



3, 098, 193 



Per 
cent of 
total 



17.56 
6.81 

17.01 
.75 

14.63 
3.08 

38.98 



1924 



Domestic 
production 



Pounds 

9, 187, 256 

3, 676, 997 

14, 662, 577 

967, 550 

2, 953, 987 

14, 561, 257 

21, 818, 022 

19, 996, 703 

1,821,319 

851, 354 



68, 679, 000 



Per 
cent of ' Imports 
total 1 



13.38 

5.35 

21.35 

1.41 

4.30 

21.20 

31.77 

29.12 

2.65 

1.24 



Pounds 

324, 538 

I 249, 068 

421, 538 

17, 334 

I 413, 902 

! 87, 764 

i 1,499,322 

i 5, 471 

1,493,851 

I 9, 073 



Per 

cent of 

total 



10.74 
8.24 
13.95 
.57 
13.69 

2. yo 

49.61 
.18 

49.43 
.30 



100 



3,022,539 1 100 



42 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHEE SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Table 19. — Comparison of imports of dyes, by classes, fiscal year 1914 and calendar 
years 1922-1926, with dornestic production, calendar years 1922—1926 — Contd. 





1925 




Domestic 


Imports 


Class of dye 


Sales 


Production 




Pounds 


Value 


Pounds 


Per cent 
of total 


Pounds 


Per cent 
of total 




10, 356, 726 
3, 973, 526 
15, 058, 071 

1, 532, 793 

2, 694, 876 
18, 453, 834 
26, 702, 741 
24, 449, 938 

2,252,803 
530, 884 


$8, 376, 020 
3, 720, 581 
9, 309, 345 
1, 468, 976 
1, 990, 468 
4, 171, 590 
7, 105, 849 
3, 805, 518 
3, 300, 331 
1, 325, 503 


10, 214, 024 
4,121,735 
14, 787, 840 

1, 606, 795 

2, 543, 292 
20, 760, 512 
31, 730, 178 
29,121,817 

2, 608, 361 
581, 162 


11.8 
4.8 

17.1 
1.9 
2.9 

24. 1 


589, 959 
607,637 
759,024 
57,540 
642, 098 
122. 230 


11.32 


Basic 


11.66 


Direct ... . 


14.57 


Lake and spirit soluble . - 


1.10 


Mordant and chrome 


12.33 
2.35 


Vats (including indigo) 


36.7 ; 2.418.842 


46.43 




33.7 
3.0 

.7 


1,952 

2, 416, 890 

12, 271 


.04 


(b) Other vats 


46.39 


Unclassified and special . 


.24 






Total 


79, 303, 451 


37, 468, 332 


86, 345, 438 


100 


5, 209, 601 


100 







Class of dye 



Acid 

Basic 

Direct 

Lake and spirit soluble. 
Mordant and chrome _. 
Sulphur 

Vats (including indigo). 

(a) Indigo 

(b) Other vats 

Unclassified and special 

Total 



1926 



Domestic 



Sales 



Pounds 



10, 045, 601 

4, 180, 231 

15,493,144 

1,380,567 

3, 276, 969 

19, 979, 140 

31,253,627 

28, 438, 386 

2,815,241 

646, 557 



8, 255, 836 



Value 



$7, 992, 701 
3, 755, 244 
8, 603, 291 
1,115,867 
2,716,407 
4, 054, 027 
7, 336, 959 
3, 652, 786 
3,684,173 
738, 152 



36,312,648 



Production 



Pounds 



10,441,443 
4, 406, 073 
18,039,705 
1,428,100 
3,134,934 
20, 023, 242 
29,731,951 
25,701,530 
4,030,421 
773, 176 



87, 978, 624 



Per cent 
of total 



11.87 

5.01 

20. 51 

1.62 

3.56 

22.76 

33.79 

29.21 

4.58 



Import? 



Pounds 



793, 855 

406, 732 

805, 848 

86, 106 

500,004 

149, 723 

1,848,014 

2,806 

1, 845. 208 

82, 914 



4,673.196 



Per cent 
of total 



16.99 

8.70 
17.24 

1.84 
10.70 

3.20 

39.55 

.06 

39.49 

1.78 



100 



ACID DYES 



Description. — The acid dyes are commonly applied in an acid bath; 
they have acid properties and are usually sodium salts of a color acid. 
They constitute the most important group used in wool dyeing, 
being especially adapted to the dyeing of hosiery and carpet yarns^ 
suitings, dress goods, and hat materials; they have, in addition, 
considerable application on silk. Because of their lack of affinity 
for vegetable fibers, they are little used on cotton or linen, but are of 
value in the dyeing of jute. In general they are used on goods not 
requiring repeated washings. 

Acid dyes yield clear, bright shades. They are superior to the direct 
and mordant dyes in purity of shade, but are not equal to basic dyes 
in this respect. They have a wide color range, and in fastness show 
great individual variation; as a rule they are fairly fast to light and 
acids, but have a tendency to bleed in washing. They yield faster 



DYES AND OTHER FINISHED COAL-TAR PRODUCTS 43 

shades on wool than on silk. Some of the more complex acid dyes, 
many of which are of recent origin, produce shades of good general 
fastness. 

Their method of application in an acid bath is simple and of low 
labor cost. A considerable part of this group is of the lowest priced 
dyes produced. 

The line of demarcation between acid dyes and certain coloi*s of 
the direct and mordant groups is arbitrary. Certain acid dyes when 
" af tertreated " with sodium or potassium dichromate yield shades 
of good fastness to milling, light, washing, and other agents. Those 
known as acid chrome colors are used chiefly on wool, especially on 
loose wool yarns, and on piece goods such as men's suitings. 

Most of the acid dyes are chemically included in one of the follow- 
ing groups: (1) Nitro compounds, (2) azo compounds, (3) sulpho- 
nated basic dyes (mostly triphenylmethane derivatives), and (4) 
alizarin derivatives. 

Production and imports. — Acid dyes ranked fourth in quantity 
produced in 1926, with a total of 10,441,443 pounds, or 11.87 per 
cent of all dyes manufactured. This output is a 2 per cent increase 
■over 1925. Sales amounted to 10,045,601 pounds, valued at 
$7,992,701. In value of sales this group ranks second — namely, 
22 per cent of total sales — the direct dyes holding first place. The 
leading acid dyes showed relatively small changes in production. 
Progress in this group was in the manufacture of the fast and spe- 
cialty types. 

Three acid dyes — namely, Acid black 10 B, Orange II, and Nigro- 
sine (w^ater-soluble) were each produced in a quantity exceeding 
1,000,000 pounds. The ranking dye of this group is Acid black 10 B, 
with a production of 1,234,258 pounds, and sales of 1,185,514 
pounds, valued at $546,497. Orange II was second, w4th a produc- 
tion of 1,194,535 pounds. In volume of production, the next 
largest were Nigrosine (water-soluble), Tartrazine, Ponceau 2 R, 
Fast cyanine 5 R, and Metanil yellow^ In value of sales Acid 
alizarin blue B is one of the leading colors. 

Among the acid dyes showing increases were Fast light yellow 2 G, 
Patent blue, Fast red VR, x\lizarin cyanine green E, Acid glaucine 
blue, and Eosine. 

More than 25 acid dyes not made in 1925 were produced in 1926. 

Imports of the acid dyes, the total of which was 793,855 pounds, 
comprised 16.99 per cent by quantity of all dyes imported. The 15 
imported in largest quantities were as follows: 

Pounds , Pounds 

Erioglaucine 71,502 Naphthalene green 18,539 

Indocyanine B 51,295 Patent blue V 16,857 

Alizarin saphirol B 41,945 Neolan blue 16,090 

Patent blue A 29,899 Erioviridine B 14,977 

Wool fast blue BL, GL 29,468 Neolan pink 14,548 

Polar red 26,145 ] Cyanol 13,614 

Fast green 23,993 Alizarin rubinol 12,940 

Brilliant milling blue 19, 308 I 

BASIC DYES 

Description. — The basic dyes surpass all others in depth, brilliancy 
of shade, and purity of tone. They possess high tinctorial power, 
but as a class lack fastness, especially to light and washing. 



44 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Basic colors are used on cotton in dyeing and in printing where 
bright shades Or color tints are desired without special requirements 
for fastness. They also are used in the dyeing of paper and jute, 
and for lithographic inks, typewriter ribbons, copy paper, and pencils. 
With the exception of Rhodamine B and a few others, they have 
little application on wool. They are chemically basic in character 
and are fixed on vegetable fibers with an acid mordant — namely, 
tannic acid — or more recently a synthetic substitute. 

Dyes of this class are historically the oldest of the coal-tar dyes. 
Mauve or Perkin violet, discovered by W. H. Perkin in 1856, was 
the first aniline dyestuff produced on a commercial scale. Basic 
dyes are not as important as formerly: for cotton dyeing they have 
been superseded by direct and sulphur dyes, which cost less to apply 
and many of which excel in fastness. The vat dyes are now being 
used on cotton for many applications where basic dyes were formerly 
used exclusively. In wool dyeing the acid dyes have almost entirely 
displaced the basic colors. Chemically, basic dyes include a large 
number of the triphenylmethane derivatives, and, in addition, mem- 
bers of the following classes: (1) Azines, (2) azos, (3) thioazines, (4) 
thioazols, and (5) acridines. 

Production and imports. — -The 1926 output of basic dyes was 
4,406,073 pounds, or 5.01 per cent of all dyes produced; this is a 
7 per cent increase over 1925. Sales amounted to 4,180,231 pounds, 
valued at $3,755,244. By value, basic dyes made up over 10 per 
cent of all dyes sold. Chrysoidine Y, with a production of 813,527 
pounds, and Methyl violet, with 753,231 pounds, both of which 
were made in substantially larger quantities in 1926 than in 1925, 
were the leading dyes in this group produced in 1926. Methylene 
blue. Malachite green, Safranine, and Chrysoidine R showed an 
increase in production over 1925 while Auramine, Phosphine, and 
Rhodamine B showed a decline. 

Imports of basic dyes in 1926 were 406,732 pounds, or 8.70 per 
cent of all dyes imported. The Rhodamines (B and 6GDN) made 
up 48 per cent of the imports of basic dyes, as compared with 70 
per cent last year. 

The nine basic dyes imported in largest quantity are as follows: 



Pounds 

Rhodamine B i 133, 945 

Rhodamine 6GDN ' 61, 050 

Methylene green 2 1 , 328 

Euchrvsine . 18,080 

Victoria blue B 18, 057 



Pounds 

Patent phosphine 17,787 

Acridine orange 15, 621 

Magenta 12, 777 

Phosphine 10, 250 



DIRECT COTTON DYES 



Description. — The direct or substantive dyes have been intro- 
duced within the last 25 j'^ears. Their method of application is 
simple, as they dye vegetable fibers full shades in a neutral or alka- 
line bath "directly," without the use of mordants. Although their 
principal application is on cotton, they are of special value m dyemg 
fabrics containing both cotton and wool, or silk and cotton (union 
goods). They are also used on silk, linen, and paper, and to some 
extent on wool, especially for knitting yarns, worsted and shoddy 
yarns, and loose wool. 



' Single strength. 



DYES AND OTHEB FINISHED COAL-TAR PRODUCTS 45 

On account of their high sohibility, dyes of this group when washed 
have a tendency to run. Many of them, particularly those first 
introduced, are sensitive to acids and fade on exposure to sunlight; 
others, especially the newer ones, have good fastness to both acids 
and light, as well as to other agents. Certain direct colors are of 
good fastness, particularly to w^ashing, after a treatment of the dyed 
fiber by "coupling" with certain intermediates. The developed 
direct dyes are now^ manufactured in the United States on a large 
scale and in a good variety of types. They are becoming of greater 
importance each year for cotton and silk dyeing, in response to the 
growing demand of the public for wash goods. It is probable that 
the direct dyes whose fastness can not be developed or increased by 
an aftertreatment with metallic salts or formaldehyde will in years 
to come show a distinct trend toward a reduced consumption, while 
the use of the so-called developed direct dyes will increase. 

With a few" exceptions, the direct dyes are chemically "azo" com- 
pounds and are nearly all derivatives of benzidine, tolidine, diamino, 
stilbene, or a group closely similar to one of these. A small but 
valuable group of direct colors belongs in the thiazol class. 

Production and imports. — The direct or substantive dyes, ranking 
third in quantity, constituted 20.5 per cent of all dyes produced in 
1926. The total output of this group in 1926 was 18,039,705 pounds, 
which is an increase of 22 per cent over 1925. Particularly conspic- 
uous was the gain in the production of the faster types of direct 
dyes, including the developed direct dyes. More than 20 direct 
dyes not reported in 1925 were produced in 1926. In value of sales 
($8,603,291) this group exceeded all others. 

Direct black EW,the ranking dye of this class, with an output of 
6,191,917 pounds, comprised 7 per cent of all dyes manufactured. 
Sales were 5,465,339 pounds, valued at $1,680,906. The average 
sales value per pound of 30.8 is a decline of 2.9 cents from 1925. 
Direct blue 2B ranked second with a production of 1,074,619 pounds 
and Developed black BHN w4th 933,123 pounds ranked third. 
Others made in large quantity are Direct brown 3G0, 734,652 
pounds, and Congo red, the figures for which can not be published. 

Imports of direct dyes in 1926 amounted to 805,848 pounds, or 
17.24 per cent of all dj^es imported. The 12 leading direct dyes 
imported in 1926 were: 

Pounds I Pounds 

Chlorantine fast blue 40, 446 | Diaminogene blue GG 21, 602 

Chlorantine fast violet 37,576 [ Brilliant sky blue 20,939 

Diamine scarlet 3B 34,599 Trisulphoii brown B 18,509 

Diaminogene blue 28,395 Diazo brilliant green 3G 17,935 

Diazo sky blue 22,599 Benzo fast brown 17,496 

Chlorantine red 8BN 21,930 Chlorantine fast brown 15,431 

S R A dyes. — These dyes were developed after exhaustive research 
work by the British Celanese Co. (Ltd.) (manufacturers of celanese 
silk), especially for the dyeing of acetate cellulose, known as "acetate 
silk." They are sold in the form of a 10 per cent paste, consisting of 
a dispersion of the dye with a highly sulfonated castor oil; that is, 
sulforicinoleic acid. When mixed with water the dispersed colloidal 
solution is capable of dyeing cellulose acetate. In mixed fabrics 
colored with these dyes, the cotton, as well as any artificial silk other 
than acetate, is left unstained. 



46 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

S R A dyes offer a good range of colors, are of easy application, and 
possess good general fastness. Twenty-four of these special dyes 
were manufactured in the United States in 1926. Their production 
on a large scale is a development of great interest in view of the 
remarkable expansion of the domestic Rayon industry, and the rapid 
increase in the use of celanese or acetate silk. Measured in terms 
of value, sales increased in 1926 but production decreased. 

MORDANT AND CHROME DYES 

Description. — These colors are used in conjunction with metallic 
mordants, such as salts of chromium, aluminum, iron, and tin, to dye 
both vegetable and animal fibers. The resulting shades are, in gen- 
eral, of exceptional fastness to color-destroying agents. On wool 
the mordant dyes yield shades fast to light, washing and other 
agents. They are also important in printing on cotton piece goods, 
but are little used on silk. 

The mordant dyes are frequently designated as chrome colors. 
As many of them are derived from alizarin, they were formerly called 
alizarin dyes. Certain dyes may be acid, acid chrome, or chrome, 
according to the method of application. The true alizarins are gen- 
erally used with a mordant ; the new acid alizarins can be used either 
with or without a mordant, and constitute a valuable group in the 
dyeing of wool. When used on wool, the mordant may be applied 
before, during, or after the dyeing operation. The labor cost of 
dyeing with mordant and chrome dyes is higher than for many other 
groups. 

Formerly the most important dye of this class was alizarin, used on 
cotton to produce the well-known Turkey red, one of the shades made 
in ancient times from madder root. Alizarin has for about 50 years 
been prepared synthetically from anthracene. In the United States 
it has been replaced to a large extent for cotton by certain of the 
so-called "ice" dyes, such as Para red and more recently by 
Naphthol AS red. ^ 

Chemically, the mordant dyes are members of the following 
classes: (1) Anthraquinone, (2) azo, (3) oxazine, (4) triphenyl- 
methane, (5) nitroso, (6) oxyquinone, and (7) xanthone. 

Production and imports. — The output of mordant and chrome 
colors in 1926 was 3,134,934 pounds, or 3.5 per cent of all dyes manu- 
factured. This production is an increase of 23 per cent over 1925. 
Sales in 1926 were 3,276,969 pounds, valued at $2,716,407. 

Progress in this branch of manufacture in 1926 was marked by the 
production of more than 20 dyes not reported in the previous year. 
This increased output has resulted in an actual and relative decline 
in the imports of mordant and chrome dyes. 

Chrome blue black U, with a production of 896,271 pounds, 
ranked first among the mordant and chrome colors. Sales were 
975,308 pounds, valued at $363,007. Other important dyes in this 
group include Alizarin, Chrome blue black U and B, and the chrome 
black types. Notable increases in the production of the following 
dyes were recorded: Chromate brown B, Anthraquinone blue black 
B, Chrome blue black B, Chrome black T and A, and Chrome red B, 
while there was a decline in the output of Anthracene blue WR, 
Chrome yellow R, and Alizarin; the latter is being replaced in cotton 
dyeing by the naphthol AS types. 



DYES AND OTHEE FINISHED COAL-TAR PEODUCTS 47 

Imports of mordant and chrome dyes totaled 500,004 pounds, 
which was 10.7 per cent in quantity of all dyes brought into this 
country in 1926 and 15 per cent of the domestic production of 
mordant and chrome dyes. 

The 13 leading mordant and chrome dyes imported are: 

Pounds I Pounds 

Alizarin, synthetic 86,606 ! Metachrome blue black 15.353 



Alizarin pure blue B 31,612 

Purpurine 19, 948 

Eriochrome azurol B 19, 886 

Gallamine blue 18, 197 

Alizarin viridine FF 17, 634 

Anthracene blue 16, 294 



Acid anthracene brown 13, 295 

Alizarin cvanine green 11, 105 

Alizarin red S 11, 119 

AUzarin light gray BS 10, 998 

Eriochrome blue black G 9, 921 



SULPHUR DYES 

Description. — These dyes are used largely on cotton, especially for 
dyeing uniform cloths, hosiery, gingham yarns, and cotton warps to 
be woven with wool and later dyed with acid dyes. They produce 
largely heavy shades of blue, green, brown, and black. Their greatly 
extended use during the war served to increase permanently their 
application on cotton. Minor uses are in the dyeing of linen and 
artificial silk. 

The sulphur dyes possess excellent fastness to washing, fulling, 
alkalies, and acids in cross dyeing. With some exceptions, their 
fastness to light is good. As they are not fast to chlorine, they do 
not withstand the repeated bleaching action of hypochlorites in the 
modern laundry treatment. They are applied in a sodium sulphide 
solution and sometimes aftertreatment is given with metallic salts 
or other agents to improve their fastness. ''Cachou de Laval, " the 
first of this group to be discovered, was made in 1867 by the fusion 
of sawdust with sodium sulphide and sulphur. Sulphur dyes are now 
prepared by the fusion of various intermediates (containing the nitro, 
amino, or imino groups) with sodium sulphide and sulphur. These 
dyes are not pure, distinct compounds, and the presence of other 
substances renders them of comparatively low color value. Recent 
developments, however, have greatly increased the tinctorial value 
and shade range of many of them. 

Production and imports. — This group, with an output of 20,023,242 
pounds, ranked second in quantity, constituting 22.76 per cent of 
all dyes manufactured. The 1926 production was a slight decrease 
from 1925. Sales in 1926 were 19,979,140 pounds, valued at $4,054,- 
027. The sulphur dyes ranked fourth in value of sales. 

In 1926, as in 1924 and 1925, sulphur black ranked second among 
all dyes in quantity produced. The output of 16,704,636 pounds 
was a slight increase over 1925. Sales in 1926 were 16,358,043 
pounds, valued at $2,476,217. The average sales price per pound 
was 15 cents, a decline of nearly 12 per cent from 1925. Sulphur 
black is an important item in our export trade, ranking second to 
indigo. 

Sulphur brown, with a production of 1,389,423 pounds, ranked 
second among the sulphur dyes; Sulphur blue, with a production 
of 899,596 pounds, and Sulphur yellow, with a total of 395,802 
pounds, were produced in the next largest quantities. 

Imports of sulphur dyes were relatively small, amounting to 149,- 
723 pounds, or 3.2 per cent of all dyes imported. Thionol green. 



48 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

with a total of 41,304 pounds, led this class, and Cross dye green 
B and G, with 41,246 pounds, and Thionol brown O and R, with 
18,110 pounds, were second and third, respectively. 

VAT DYES 

Description. — Vat dyes as a class possess exceptional fastness to 
light, washing, acids, alkalies, and chlorine. Some of them are not 
fast to all of these agents. The consumption of vat dyes is increasing 
as a result of the increased demand for fast-dyed fabrics by the 
ultimate consumer of textiles. As cotton goods dyed with these 
colors withstand the severe treatment of the modern laundry, the 
increased cost of dye per yard is a minor factor as compared with 
the increased life of the fabric. A European colorist, referring to the 
vat dyes, has said that Europe is too poor to afford anything but 
fast dyes — that the loose or fugitive colors are an extravagance. 
Their superior fastness and the variety and beauty of shades which 
they yield have been largely responsible for a steady increase in their 
use. They are applied on dyed and printed shirtings, blouse material, 
dress goods, ginghams, muslin curtains, and other cotton wash goods 
and have a limited application on silk and a still smaller one on 
wool. Because of their higher cost they are used chiefly for color 
stripes and small printed patterns on a white background rather 
than for solid or fleavy shades. They possess technical advantages 
in application over the alizarin mordant dyes. 

With the exception of indigo, one of the oldest dyes known, vat 
dyes are of recent origin, having been developed since 1904. The 
Badische Co., of Germany, manufactured the first members of this 
class, known in the trade as the indanthrenes. This group was 
followed by the ciba dyes of the Society of Chemical Industry at 
Basle, Switzerland, and later by other series, including the algols, 
helindones, thioindigoes, and hydrous, produced by different German 
concerns. Prior to the war vat dyes other than indigo were made 
exclusively in Germany and Switzerland. 

Vat dyes are among the most complex of dyes, difficult to manu- 
facture and relatively high in cost. Chemicall}^ they consist of 
indigoids (including thioindigoids), anthraquinone derivatives, and 
the carbazole derivatives. 

Following the outbreak of the war, the United States and Great 
Britain, two of the leading consumers of these dyes, began their 
manufacture on an extensive scale. 

In 1924 a water-soluble leuco derivative of indigo, under the name 
of indigosol, was placed on the market by Swiss and German firms. 
Since then other indigosol types, including indigosol red, orange, 
yellow, scarlet, pink, violet, and black have been made in commer- 
cial quantity. A similar derivative of Caledon jade green, known as 
Soledon jade green, was manufactured by the Scottish Dyes (Ltd.). 
The commercial production of water-soluble leuco derivatives, which 
can be used on animal as well as vegetable fibers, marks an advance 
not only m this group but in the whole realm of dye manufacture. 
Their application by the ''direct method" with subsequent oxidation 
is less complex than by the alkali hydrosulphite process generally 
used for the vat dyes. Extended use of these new derivatives will 
depend in large part on their selling prices. 



DYES AND OTHER FINISHED COAL-TAE PEODUCTS 



49 



Production and imports. — The total production in 1926 of vat dyes, 
including indigo, was 29,731,951 pounds, or 33.79 per cent of all dyes 
produced. Sales in 1926 were 31,253,627 pounds, valued at $7,336,- 
959. The production of indigo (20 per cent paste) was 25,701,530 
pounds or 29.21 per cent of all dyes produced. This was a decrease 
of 12 per cent from the 1925 production. Sales in 1926 were 28,438,- 
386 pounds, valued at $3,652,786, or 12.8 cents per pound, as com- 
pared with 15.6 cents in 1925 and 21.8 cents in 1924. The 1926 
selHng price is much below the pre-war price in 1913, when our 
entire supply was imported. 

Expansion in the manufacture of vat dyes, many of which were 
made for the first time in this country in 1926, is an outstanding 
feature of the domestic dye industry. The total production of vat 
dyes other than indigo was 4,030,421 pounds, an increase of 54 per 
cent over 1925, which in turn was a 43 per cent gain over 1924. The 
increasing importance of this group of dyes to the textile industry 
for the dyeing and printing of "fast-dyed fabrics" is indicated by the 
production and consumption figures in Table 20. 

Table 20. — Vat dyes other than indigo: Production, imports, and consumption in 
the United States, 1914 and 1920-1926 



Year 


Produc- 
tion 


Imports 


Consump- 
tion 


1914 


Pounds 


Pounds 

1, 945, 304 
716, 363 
1, 045, 370 
1,548,519 
1, 207, 554 
1, 493, 851 
2, 418, 842 
1, 845, 208 


Pounds 
1, 945, 304 


1920 


1, 159, 868 
345, 152 
1,075,992 
1,766,383 
1.821,319 
2,608,361 
4, 030, 421 


1,921,231 


1921 - - 


1, 390, 522 


1922 - .- - - --. 


2,624,511 


1923 - 


2, 973, 937 


1924 


3,315,170 


1925.- 


5, 027, 203 


1926 


5, 875, 629 







The ultimate consumer is rapidily coming to a realization of the 
economy of fast-dyed fabrics. Many domestic textile manufactur- 
ers have in recent years put on the market a variety of fast-dyed 
fabrics of cotton and linen, marked with a trade name and bearing a 
statement or guaranty as to their fastness to washing and light. 
These fabrics are often made up into garments such as dresses, men's 
shirts, and children's clothing, similarly guaranteed. The buyer is 
thus enabled to purchase fabrics or garments for whose fastness of 
<;olor the retailer through the manufacturer assumes full responsibility. 

The Joint Committee of the Textile Industry, the ximerican Asso- 
ciation of Textile Chemists and Colorists, the Bureau of Standards, 
and a number of retail and selling organizations are all cooperating 
in an effort to establish the practice of correct labeling and marking 
of dyed fabrics. It is probable that colored textiles of cotton, linen, 
and silk will soon be marked according to their fastness to light and 
washing. A large variety of products or commodities are now graded 
and sold according to definite standards, and it is logical that the same 
policy should be adopted by the textile industry. 

Credit is due domestic manufacturers of the vat dyes who, with no 
experience prior to the war, have produced vat dyes on a commercial 
scale and have each year increased the quantity produced and the 
variety and number of types. They have overcome tremendous dif- 



50 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



ficulties in developing one of the most complex of the whole group of 
synthetic organic dyes. The buyer of a vat dye is assured of definite 
properties of fastness in the fabric on which he uses it, and the ulti- 
mate consumer is assured of the longer life of the garment made of a 
fast-dyed fabric. The public at large is thus coming to a realization 
that although the fast dye is more expensive, the cost of dj^e per yard 
of fabric or per garment is in general a very small fraction of the total 
cost, and that it is more economical in the long run to invest in the 
fast-dyed fabrics or garment. The increased consumption of the vat 
dj^es is proof of the demand for them. 

Of the vat dyes other than indigo, Anthraquinone vat blue G C D 
again led in quantity of production and in value of sales. Anthra- 
quinone vat yellow G ranked second. Anthraquinone vat golden 
orange R, Anthraquinone blue black B, Anthrene jade green, Anthra- 
quinone vat green B, and black, and violet 2 R, and the brominated 
indigoes showed notable increases in production. 

The following vat dyes where manufactured in the United States on 
a commercial scale for the first time in 1926. Several of them have 
have been among the leading vat dyes imported, and their addition 
to the domestic producing list is a significant step in the progress of 
the domestic dye industry. 

Ciba violet B, R. 

Ciba scarlet G. 

Ciba red R. 

Indanthrene orange R. 

Indanthrene brillant red 3 B. 

Brom indigo 6 B. 

Anthraquinone vat golden orange 4 R, pink B, red B N, red 
violet R R N and B N X. 

Sulphanthrene violet B. 
Imports of vat dyes other than indigo totaled 1,845,208 pounds, 
which was 39.49 per cent of all dyes imported into tke United States 
in 1926. The 1925 import was 2,416,890 pounds. The following tab- 
ulation shows the leading vat dyes imported and the quantity (single 
strength) brought in during 1926. 

Pounds 

Indanthrene brown G 54, 420 

Indanthrene golden orange R_ 53, 82& 

Anthra flavone GC 41,002 

Indanthrene brown R 37, 111 

Cibanone vellow R 34, 830 

Brilliant indigo B 32, 920 

Indanthrene pink B 32, 548 

Indanthrene dark blue BO-.- 27, 932 

Ciba pink BG 27, 326 

Hydron brown G, R 23, 690 



Pounds 

Ciba scarlet 142, 785 

Indanthrene blue GCD 134, 832 

Indanthrene red violet RH-.- Ill, 779 

Ciba red R 111, 320 

Hehndone printing black RD- 75, 000 

Brilliant indigo 4B 65, 71 1 

Indanthrene yellow G 63, 326 

Indanthrene golden orange G- 60, 094 

Indanthrene ohve R 56, 114 

Ciba violet R 55,104 



COLOE-LAKE AND SPIRIT-SOLUBLE DYES 



These dyes, constituting one of the smaller groups, are used in the 
preparation of a class of pigments known as color lakes, discussed in 
detail on page 52. The spirit-soluble dyes are insoluble in water, but 
dissolve in oils, fats, and various organic solvents; consequently 
they find application for coloring varnishes, fats, oils, waxes, and 
similar products. As many of them are converted by chemical treat- 
ment, such as sulphonation, into water-soluble dyes for use in textile 
dyeing, they may be considered as partly completed dyes. 



DYES AND OTHER FINISHED COAL-TAE PEODUCTS 



51 



The output of color-lake and spirit-soluble dyes in 1926 was 
1,428,100 pounds, or 1.6 percent of the total output of all dyes pro- 
duced. This production is an 11 per cent decrease from 1925. Im- 
ports of this group were 86,106 pounds, or 1.8 per cent of all dyes 
imported. 



FOOD DYES 



Dyes classified under this group include a limited number of selected 
dyes which meet the specifications of the Bureau of Chemistry, 
Department of Agriculture. The total production of food dyes in 
1926 was 288,454 pounds, with sales of 282,347 pounds, valued at 
$1,115,578. Production in 1925 was 263,005 pounds; in 1921, the 
first year in which they were separately compiled, production was 
50,709 pounds. The average value of the sales was $3.95 per pound 
in 1926, as compared with $3.65 in 1925, and $5.30 in 1921. 



EXPORT TRADE IN DYES 

Exports of coal-tar dyes in 1926 amounted to 25,811,941 pounds, 
valued at $5,950,159, a slight increase in quantity, but a decrease of 
11 per cent in value from the 1925 export. The average value per 
pound in 1926 was 23 cents, as compared with 25.9 cents in 1925. 

The principal markets for United States dyes in 1926 were China, 
Japan, Canada, British India, and the Central and South American 
countries. The Central and South American countries were the 
smallest purchasers. Exports to China declined 43 per cent by value, 
that is from $3,299,798 in 1925 to $1,877,030 in 1926; those to British 
India decreased nearly 6 per cent. Exports to Japan increased 27 per 
cent and to Canada 31 per cent. 

Indigo and sulphur black made up the bulk of the dyes exported. 
The remainder were largely the tonnage direct dyes. Indigo was the 
leading dye exported during 1926. Of the 28,000,000 pounds of this 
dye sold in 1926, only about 9,000,000 pounds were consumed in the 
United States. Competition continues to be severe in the world 
markets and the trend in prices is steadily downward. 

Table 21 shows the total exports of dyes from the United States 
in the years 1920 to 1926: 

Table 21. — Coal-tar dyes: Exports from the United States, 1920-1926 



Year 


Pounds 


V^alue 


1920 - 




$29,823,591 


1921 




6, 270, 139 


1922 -- 


8, 344, 187 
17, 924, 200 
15, 713, 428 
25, 799, 889 
25,811,941 


3, 996, 443 


1923- . . 


5, 565, 267 


1924 


5, 636, 244 


1925 


6, 694, 360 


19261. ... . 


5, 950, 159 







' Preliminary. 

Details as to the quantity and value of exports to the various 
countries are shown in Part VII. The Dye Census of 1924, Table 
22, page 58, gives monthly exports from 1919 to 1924, inclusive, and 
the Dye Census of 1918 gives exports back to 1909. 

Table 22 shows, by months, the total exports of dyes from the 
United States from January, 1924, to April, 1927, inclusive. 



52 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHEE SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

Table 22. — Dyes: Domestic exports, by months, 1924-1927 (4 months) 





1924 


1925 


19261 


1927' 


Month 


Colors, dyes, and 
stains 


Colors, dyes, and 
stains 


Colors, dyes, and 
stains 


Colors, dyes, and 
stains 




Pounds 


Value 


Pounds 


Value 


Pounds 


Value 


Pounds 


Value 


January 

February 

March 

April 

May 


1, 432, 721 
1; 739, 400 
1, 244, 264 
1, 014, 824 
751, 152 
1,288,177 

1, 818, 873 

2. 083. 628 


$494, 666 
571, 776 
408, 029 
344, 605 
323, 917 
410, 314 
555, 615 
667, 696 
437, 352 
538, 099 
505, 546 
378, 629 


2, 006, 681 
2, 067, 046 

1, 990, 407 
2,172,425 

2, 076, 516 
2, 126, 107 
2, 080, 588 

2, 205, 476 
2,511,898 
1, 717, 766 
1, 840, 426 

3, 004, 553 


$6.57,919 
602, 316 
554,111 
674, 799 
491,578 
528, 087 
488,416 
535, 093 
612, 867 
466, 910 
401, 575 
680, 689 


1, ,552, 335 
1,610,625 

2, 924, 695 
1, 666, 344 
2, 325, 763 

1, 660, 995 

2, 742, 622 
2, 448, 664 

1, 882, 936 

2, 220, 377 
2, 672, 216 
2, 104, 369 


.$416, 975 
403, 949 
696, 538 
425, 792 
496, 251 
417,693 
579, 664 
472, 378 
461, 233 
521, 069 
611.539 
447, 078 


1. 865. 021 
2,951,050 
3, 595, 342 
1, 226, 538 


$404. 655 
586, 145 
701, 201 
375, 720 


June 






July __. . 






August 






September 1 970. 880 




October 


1, 079, 935 

1, 267, 978 
1,021,596 






November 


















Total 


15, 713, 428 


5, 636, 244 


25, 799, 889 


6, 694, 360 


25, 811, 941 


5, 950, 159 













J Preliminary figures. 

OTHER FINISHED COAL-TAR PRODUCTS 
COLOR LAKES 

Description. — A color lake is an insoluble color pigment. It is 
commonly made by precipitating a coloring matter (a coal-tar dye) 
on a carrier (the base). The desired properties of a color lake are 
good coloring power; easy workability; brightness; and fastness to 
weather, light, alkali, and acids. The precipitating agents used for 
coal-tar colors are barium chloride, lead salts, aluminium hydroxide, 
and tannin or tannin tartar-emetic. Among the more important 
carriers are aluminium hydroxide, zinc white, lithopone, barytes, 
whiting, China clay and certain native clays, and ocher. The prin- 
cipal requirements of a carrier are (1) ready reduction to a finely 
divided state and (2) absence of any deleterious effect on the shade of 
the finished lake. The coloring matter includes groups of coal-tar 
dyes known as acid dyes, basic dyes, and mordant dyes, as well as 
certain azo dyes produced directly on the carrier. An example of the 
last named is Para red, produced from the intermediate p-nitroaniline 
and b-naphthol. Another group of color lakes is made by the precipi- 
tation of a water-soluble acid dye, with the aid of a mineral salt to 
form an insoluble product. 

After precipitation the insoluble lake is filtered, dried, and ground 
with or without oil; it is then ready for use as a pigment in paints, 
lithographic inks, artists' colors, wall paper, rubber products, and for 
other coloring purposes. 

Production.— The total production of color lakes in 1926 was 
11,796,203 pounds. Sales in 1926 amounted to 11,425,139 pounds, 
valued at S6,023,011. Production in 1925 was 11,414,753 pounds. 
The average unit value of sales of color lakes increased from 49 cents 
a pound in 1925 to 52.7 cents in 1926. 

PHOTOGRAPHIC CHEMICALS 

Because of their strong reducing properties, coal-tar chemicals of 
this class are used for developing photographic films, plates, and 
prints. They are popularly known as developers, but are sold under 
a variety of trade names. 



DYES AND OTHER FINISHED COAL-TAR PRODUCTS 53 

The total output of photographic chemicals in 1926 was 393,426 
pounds, as compared with 327,041 pounds in 1925. Hydroquinol, 
with an output of 257,038 pounds, continued to lead this group. 
Metol was produced in next largest quantity. p-Hydroxy phenyl- 
glycine and diaminophenol hydrochloride showed decreases in 
production. The average selling price of each of the two last men- 
tioned was higher in 1926 than in 1925. 

MEDICINALS 

Description. — Many of the coal-tar medicinals are of prime impor" 
tance in the prevention and cure of disease. The clinical and labora- 
tory work that has been under way in this field of science have resulted 
in discoveries that have been of inestimable value to mankind. 
Continued research will probably give the world many new synthetic 
products in place of those now obtained from natural sources. 

Production. — The total production of coal-tar medicinals in 1926 
was 3,696,196 pounds. Sales in 1926 were 3,593,220 pounds, valued 
at $6,742,128. 

Among the important synthetic medicinals made in the United 
States are the arsenicals neoarsphenamine, arsphenamine, and 
sulfoarsphenamine, used in combating syphilis and other protogean 
infections. Six firms reported a total production of neoarsphenamine 
(3-diamino-4-dihydroxy-l-arseno benzene methanol sulfoxylate) in 
1926 of 4,113 pounds. Sales amounted to 3,607 pounds, valued 
at $1,157,225. Arsphenamine, which had declined each year during 
the period 1921-1925, showed an increase in production in 1926 
over 1925. Production in 1926 was 444 pounds as compared with 
278 pounds in 1925. Sales in 1926 were 305 pounds, valued at 
$90,406. Sulfoarsphenamine, with a production of 847 pounds 
in 1926, showed an increase. Sales in 1926 were 736 pounds, valued 
at $287,865. 

Aspirin, the leading medicinal in quantity of output, with a total 
of 1,823,748 pounds, showed an increase of nearly 22 per cent. Sales 
were 1,796,155 pounds, valued at $1,079,477 — a unit value of 60.1 
cents. 

Sodium salicylate, with a production of 469,345 pounds, recorded 
an increase. Sale? amounted to 444,847 pounds, valued at $158,978. 

Acetanilide, with an output of 458,927 pounds, showed a large 
increase in 1926. Sales for 1926 amounted to 379,173 pounds, 
valued at $123,737. 

Increases occurred in the production of amidopyrene, benzocaine, 
bismuth betanaphthol, chloramine T, cincophen, iodeikon, luminal, 
magnesium salicylate, tolysin, and others. 

Medicinals showing a lower production in 1926 than in 192 5 
include benzyl succinate, creosote carbonate, luminal sodium, 
b-naphthol benzoate, phenolphthalein, phenolsulfonates, procaine, 
salol, and others. 

Among medicinals that were either reported for the first time in 
1926 or were not reported in 1925 are calcium sulfocarbonate, copper 
sulfocarbonate, cyclohexenylethylbarbituric acid, iron benzoate, and 
tetraiodo phenolphthalein sodium salt. 



54 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



FLAVORS AND PERFUME MATERIALS 



Description. — There is no sharp line of demarcation between these 
two classes of coal-tar chemicals, many of them being used both as 
flavors for food products and as perfumes for soaps and other toilet 
articles. Separate classification is therefore in certain cases purely 
arbitrary. 

Production of flavors. — The total production of flavors in 1926 was 
2,857,913 pounds, a 29 per cent increase over the previous year. 
Sales in 1926 were 2,629,126 pounds, valued at $1,482,697— a value 
of 56.4 cents a pound as compared with 66 cents in 1925. 

Methylsalicylate, a flavor used largely as an artificial wintergreen, 
again led this group in quantity and value. The output was 2,456,684 
pounds, which was a 35 per cent increase over 1925. Sales amounted 
to 2,242,983 pounds, valued at $743,140. 

Coumarin was reported by six firms in 1926. Production was 
146,640 pounds, an increase of 45 per cent over 1925. Sales in 1926 
were 138,925 pounds, valued at $355,915, or $2.56 per pound. 

Production of perfumes. — The output of perfume materials of 
coal-tar origin in 1926 was 1,922,666 pounds, an 18 per cent decrease 
from the previous year. Sales were 1,731,887 pounds, valued at 
$820,264 — an average value of 47.4 cents a pound as compared 
with 37 cents in 1925. 

Diethylphthalate dropped 50 per cent in production in 1926 as 
compared with 1925. Of the 1,044,218 pounds made in 1926, 
980,847 pounds were sold. The average sales value per pound was 
29.7 cents. 

Perfume materials showing increased production in 1926 include 
benzyl alcohol, benzyl acetate, and benzyl benzoate. Benzyl 
alcohol is finding a new use in the manufacture of lacquers, benzyl 
acetate is used in many perfume mixtures, and benzyl benzoate 
largely as a fixative and solvent, particularly for musk. Dibutyl 
phthalate, diphenyloxide, phenylacetic aldehyde, and phenylethyl 
alcohol also showed large increases in production in 1926. 

Products showing a decreased production in 1926 include cinnamic 
acid, cinnamic aldehyde, and methyl anthranilate. 

Among the perfume materials reported in 1926 but not in 1925 are 
benzyl succinate, musk ambrette, musk ketone, and musk xylene. 
In the production of synthetic musks the domestic industry has 
solved some technical problems that have in recent years engaged 
the attention of chemists. 

Imports. — Table 24 shows imports of synthetic aromatic chemicals 
of coal-tar origin provided for in paragraph 28 of the tariff act of 
1922. 

SYNTHETIC PHENOLIC RESINS 

Synthetic phenolic resins are made by condensing phenol or cresol 
with formaldehyde in the presence of an alkali, such as ammonia, or 
with hexamethylenetetramine. Their largest use is as a binder in 
the production of molded insulation products, such as laminated 
sheets and panels for automobile and radio parts. Their high dielec- 
tric constant renders them especially valuable insulating material. 
The clear or transparent phenolic resins are used as substitutes for 
amber in the manufacture of cigarette and cigar holders, pipe bits, 
and sockets, and in the manufacture of beads and other articles of 



DYES AND OTHEK FINISHED COAL-TAR PRODUCTS 55 

personal adornment, mechanical pencils, fountain pens, and many 
other articles. Other uses are in the manufacture of varnishes and 
lacquers for insulating purposes and in the production of cements. 

The production of synthetic phenolic resins in 1926 was smaller 
than in 1925. The publication of figures, however, would be a virtual 
disclosure of the production of an individual company. The com- 
bined output of synthetic resins and synthetic tanning materials in 
1926 was 14,106,993 pounds, as compared with 14,687,074 pounds in 
1925. 

This industry is the principal consumer of phenol and is also one of 
the largest users of cresylic acid and formaldehyde. Its large con- 
sumption of phenol since the World War has resulted in a greatly 
increased output of phenol in this country. 

SYNTHETIC TANNING MATERIALS 

The synthetic tanning materials known as syntans have come into 
commercial use in Germany and England since 1912. They have 
not yet been used extensively in this country, but it is possible that 
in the tanning of leather they will be used in conjunction with natural 
tanning extracts. Production figures can not be published without 
disclosing the operations of individual concerns. The output in 1926 
increased greatly over 1925. 

Synthetic tans are made by the condensation of certain coal-tar 
derivatives, such as the sulfonated phenols, cresols, and naphthols, 
with formaldehyde in the presence of an acid. They are commonly 
used in conjunction with the natural tanning extracts. Their use is 
reported to result in (1) an economy of the time required for tanning, 
(2) a satisfactory leather of light color, and (3) a reduction in the 
amount of natural extract required. 

49113—27 5 



56 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHEK SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



STATISTICS OF IMPORTS, PRODUCTION, AND SALES 

Table 23. — Medicinals and pharmaceuticals of coal-tar origin: Imports into the 

United States, 1926 



Name 



Aceto-p-aminosalol. 

Acetphenetidin 

Acriflavine - 

Allylphenylcinchoninic ester 

p-Aminobenzoyldimethylamino-methyl 

butanol __ 

Ami nophenyl salicylate 

Aminopyrine 

Antipyrine crystals 

Asuntol 

Attritin _ 

Benzoic acid 

Beta eucaine hydrochloride 

Biebrich scarlet R, med_ 

Bismuth guaiacol carbonate. 

Bismuth suhsalic yhite 

Cardiazol ampoules 

Cardiazol powder 

Chinofene tablets 

Chinosol (Oxyquinoline sulfate) powder. 

Chinosol tablets 

Colchicine salicylate 

Compral tablets 

Cresol USP.. 

Cryogenine 

Cyclohexenylethylcyanacetic acid 

ethylester 

Dimet hylaminoantipyrine 

Dimol 

Dormalgin tablets 

Elbon tablets 

Enesol 

Epinine 

Eupthalmin 

E upt halmin hydrochloride 

Eupinina 

Europhen 

Fluorescein, ophthalmic 

G uaiaeol ampoules 

Guaiacol benzoate 

Guaiacol carbonate 

Guaiacol crystals. 

Guajamar _. 

Hexamethylenetetramine and methyl- 
ene blue 

Hexamethylenetetramine salicylic sul- 

phonic acid tablets.. 

Homatropine hydrobromide 

lodei kon tablets 

Iodine ester 

p lodoethoxybenzoic acid benzylester.. 

lodorthoxyquinoline sulphonic acid 

Iron benzoate 

Mercurychlorophenol barbituric acid.. 

Mercury salicylate 

Mercury succinimide 

Mesurol (emulsion of the basic bismuth 
salt of dioxy benzoic acid monomethyl 
ester) 



Quantity 



Pounds 

144 

551 

21 

110 

104 

1, 533 

1,212 

11,225 

3 

42 

5.5 

3.4 

50 

66 

8 

14 

77 

5 

110 

220 

5 

62 

501 

5 

1,432 

441 

80 

754 

22 

58 

356 

1 

8 

64 

12 

135 

5 

3,942 

2,822 

25 



14 
6 
6 

55 
55 
24 
353 



Name 



Methenamine and methylene blue 

Methylaminoacetobenzocatechine hy 

drochloride 

Methylphenylquinoline carboxylic acid 

ethyl ester 

Methylisopropylcyclohexanon 

b-Naphthol benzoate 

b-Naphthol compound 

Neocaine.. 

Neobios 

Neumol 

Neosalvarsan 

Norolina 

o-Oxvquinoline 

Pellidol 

Phenazone caffeine citrate 

Phenol phthalein 

Phenylcinchoninic acid 

Phenylethylbarbituric acid 

Phenylquinoline carboxylic acid 

Phlorogluci nol 

Physostigmine salicylate 

Plasmochi n tablets 

Plasmochin compound tablets 

Potassium sulfoguaiacolate 

Pyoktanin blue 

Quinine salicylate... 

Resorcinol 

Salol _ _ _ 

Scilvarsan 

Santal salol 

Sandalwood oil and salol 

Saponine. 

Sodium-p-aminophenyl arsenate 

Sodium mercury salicylallylamino-o- 

acetate 

Sodium phenate, dry 

Sodium salicylallylamino acetate 

Sodium salicylate 

Sodium salicylate and iodide 

Sodium salicylate and potassium bi- 
carbonate 

Staphylasse, simple 

Staph ylasse, iodised 

Sulfarsenol 

Treparsol 

Uraseptine 

Yatren , 

Yatren, pure 

Yatren casein 

Zinc sulphanilate 

Ail other medicinals, etc 



Quantity 



Total. 



Pounds 

84 

11 

220 

22 

231 

62 

53 

94 

30 

1 12, 075 

1,996 

22 

40 

22 

1,984 

200 

86 

44 

10 

186 

9 

16 

29, 990 

25 

7 

5,070 

20 

1 1,000 

10 

10 

88 

75 

33 

220 

22 

591 



43 

198 

132 

1 1,503 

24 

40 

11 

21. 

57 

150 

636 



69, 693 
$110,539 



1 Grams. 



DYES AND OTHEK FINISHED COAL-TAE PRODUCTS 



57 



Table 24. — Synthetic aromatic chemicals of coal-tar origin: Imports into the 

United States, 1926 



Name 



Quantity 



Acetophenone 

Aldehydine 

Ambrogene 

Amyl salicylate . 

Anisic aldehyde 

Benzaldehyde f. f. c 

Benzarine 

Benzoic acid, natural 

Benzophenone.. 

Benzyl acetate 

Benzyl alcohol 

Benzyl benzoate - 

Benzyl butyrate 

Benzyl cinnamate 

Benzyl formate 

Benzyl isoeugenol 

Benzyl propionate 

Benzyl salicylate 

Benzyl valerianate..- 

Benzylidene acetone 

Bromsiy rol ._ 

Bromstyrol compound 

Butyl ketone. 

Butyl xylene 

Centaurea crystals.. 

Cetone D... 

Cinnamic acid 

Cinnamic acid ethylester 

Cinnamic aldehyde... 

Coumarin 

p-Cresol acetate 

p-Cresol methylester 

p-Cresol phenylacetate 

Diethyl phthalate 

Diphenyl methane 

Diphenyl oxide 

Ethyl anthranilate 

Ethyl cinnamate 

Ethyl niethylphenyl glycidate 

Ethyl phenylacetate 

Ethyl vanillin 

Heliotropine 

Hyacinth absolute 

Hyacinth compound 

Hydrocinnamic aldehyde 

Indol. 

Isobutyl benzoate 



Pounds 
1,113 



,458 
,898 
.4&1 
,559 

4.5 

225 

547 

,400 

,032 

,408 

135 

38 

70 

23 

168 

169 

7 

50 

373 

60 

,407 

,285 

10 

202 

165 

25 

,674 

,440 

46 

140 

50 

,600 

125 

,500 

135 

193 

25 

40 

6.5 

,811 

66 

225 

22 

99 

440 



Name 



Isobutyl phenylacetate 

Isobutyl salicylate 

Jacinthe. 

Jacinthe absolute 

Methyl acetophenone 

Methyl anthranilate 

Methyl ben-zoate 

Methyl cinnamate 

Methyl p-cresol 

Methyl methyl anthranilate 

Methyl phenylacetate 

Methyl vanillin 

Musk 

Musk ambrette 

Musk ambrette residue 

Musk C 

Musk ketone 

Musk oleo 

Musk residue. 

Musk xylene 

Nerolia 

Nerolin... 

Neronia 

Phenylacet ic acid 

Phenylacetic acid methylester.. . 

Phenylacetic aldehyde 

Phenylethyl acetate 

Pheny lethy 1 alcohol 

Phenylethyl alcohol terpenes 

Phenylethyl cinnamate 

Phenylethyl propionate 

Phenylethyl valerianate 

Phenylglycol methylene acetal.. 

Phenylpropyl acetate 

Phenylpropy 1 alcohol _ 

Phenylpropyl aldehyde 

Phenylpropyl formate 

Tetrahydroparamethylquinoline 

Vanillin 

Vertena 

Vertena D.. 

Yara yara 

Another 

Total 



Quantity 



Pounds 
415 
25 
38 
56 
559 
8, 222 

no 

632 



10, 



13, 



13, 



257 

132 

121 

Gbj 

10 

55 

844 

100 

110 

895 

5 

910 

50 

081 

25 

436 

108. 

178 

24 

10 

71 

5 

6 

54 

162 

5 

20 

57 

305 

22 

44 

,069 

78 



152,212 
$191, 232 



58 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Table 25. — Photographic chemicals, intermediates, and other coal-tar products: 
Imports into the United States, 1926 



Name 



Abalak 

Acenaphthene 

Acetoacetic anilide -- 

Activol 

Aktivin (Sodium-p-toluenesulphochlor- 

amid) 

Amidol (Diaminophenol hydrochloride) . 

Aminoazobenzeue. ._ 

Aminoazotoluene 

Aminonaphthol sulfouic acid 

p-Amiriophenol acid salts 

p-Aminophpnol hydrochloride 

Aminopyrazolone 

Aniline sulfonic acid 

Anthracene, refined 

Anthra pyridone 

Anthraquinone 

Bakelite molding powder 

Benzaldehyde, tech 

Benzidine base 

Benzoyl chloride 

Benzoyl peroxide 

p-B r m o-a-monomethylaminoanthra- 

quinone 

Carbazole -_- 

o-Chlorobenzaldehyde 

p-Chlorometacresol 

o-Chlorophenol 

p-ClilorophenoL- 

Chlorotoluidine 

Chlorotoluidine sulfonic acid 

Coal-tar distillate 

m-Cresol 

o-Cresol - 

p-Cresol 

Cresylic acid 

Cyclohexanon 

Dekorit 

Dental plastic 

Desensitiser 

Diarlin 

Diazodiphenyl ether 

Dibronio-a-amino anthraquinone 

Diethylaminoethanol hydrochloride 

Dihydroxyphenyl indolinon 

Diniethylaminoazobenzene 

Dimethylaminopyrazolone 

Dimethyl glyoxime 

Diniethylhydroxyquinizine 

Dinitroacetanilid 

Diphenyl black base I 

Dissolving salt B 

Eikonogen 

Ethylbenzeiie sulfonate 

Ethylbenzylaniline 

Ethvl-b-naphthylamine -. 

Eulan BL --.. 

Fast black LB base... - 

Fast black salt B 

Fast blue salt B 

Fast garnet OBU base 

Fast orange salt OC 

Fast orange salt R 

Fast orange salt GR... 

Fast red B base 

Fast red OL base... 

Fast red 3 OL base 

Fast red KB base 

Fast red RL base 

Fast red TR base 

Fast red salt B ..- 

Fast red salt (JL _ 

Fast red salt GLA 

Fast red salt 3 GL 

Fast red salt 2 G .-. - 

Fast scarlet TR base 

Fast scarlet salt GG. -.- 

Fast scarlet salt R ^ 

Gamma acid 

Glycin - -- 

Hettolan 



Quantity 



Pounds 

551 

3,337 

1,001 

37.5 

220 

1,430 

6,786 

485 

1,100 

110 

105 

3,343 

572 

313 

5,736 

996.5 

234 

4, 579 

2,259 

107, 289 

5,565 

4.388 

2,157 

397 

410 

7,878 

300 

400 

3,644 

4,520 

1,000 

104, 029 

410 

86, 259 

4,000 

260 

249 

1 

88 

771 

4,843 

11 

242 

10 

441 

110 

9,000 

2,667 

2,300 

2,500 

81 

319 

2,302 

300 

1,930 

1,350 

300 

8,275 

300 

1,800 

100 

200 

300 

200 

400 

4,338 

2,200 

500 

2,100 

96,220 

250 

21,000 

100 

600 

4,500 

21,100 

9,722 

2,085 

850 



Name 



Hexachloronaphthalene 

Hexalin 

Hydroquinone 

b-Hydroxynaphthoic acid 

b-Hydroxynaphthoic arylide 

b-Hydroxynaphthoic arylide chlorin- 
ated - 

Katanol O 

Katanol W..._ 

Kopan 

Lacnoid 

Lucidol 

Ludigol 

Methyl-p-aminophenol 

Methlcyclohexanon 

Methyldipheny lamine 

Methylphenylpvrazolone 

Metol 

Metoquinone 

Mianin, technical 

Monomethyl-p-aminophenol 

Monomethyl-p-aminophenol sulfate 

Naphthol AS-BG 

Naphthol AS-BO 

Naphthol AS-BS 

Naphthol AS-D 

Naphthol AS-RL 

Naphthol AS-SW 

Naphthol AS-TR 

a-Naphthol 

b-Naphthol aluminum disulfonate 

b-Naphthol monosulfonic acid F 

a-Naphthylamine 

Naphthylamine sulphonic acid 

Nekal A, dry 

Nekal S paste .- 

Nevileand Winther's acid 

Niketol 

Novadelox 

Oleocarnit 

Ortol .- 

Panamol cone 

Paradichlorobenzene 

Paraphenylenediamine 

Pararosaniline .- 

Paratol 

Peramyl 

Perlano KB 

Phenol 

Phenyldimothylaminopyrazolone 

Phenyldiniethylpyrazolonaminome- 

lh;in(> soiiinm sulfonate 

PhL^nylhydiuzine 

Phenylhydrazine hydrochloride 

Piperidine piperidvl dithiocarbamate... 

Plastol VB 

Potassium-o-hydroxyquinoline sulfuric 

acid 

Pyridine 

Quinazarine 

Resorcinol, tech 

Rodinal 

Rubinic acid 

Savonade 

Sodium naphthionate 

Solvenol ■ 

Succinic acid 

Tamparino 

Tar oil 

Tetrachloroph thalic acid 

Tobias acid 

Toluene sulfomonomethylaminodime- 

thylphenylpyrazolone 

Tricresol 

Triphenylphosphate 

Xylidine 

Yellow developer C- 

All other .- 



Total. 



DYES AND OTHEE FINISHED COAL-TAR PRODUCTS 



59 



Table 26. — Dyes and other finished coal-tar products: Production and sales. 1926 

The number in the first column identifies the dyes according to the Colour Index number, and the number 
in the second column according to the 1914 edition of the Schultz tables. Th^ third column gives the 
common name of the product. The numbers in the fourth column refer to he numbered alphabetical 
list of manufacturers printed on page 204. An X signifies that a manuf;'"t;irer did not consent to the 
publicaiion of his identification number in connection tiierewith. A blank in the fifth and si.vth columns 
indicates that the sales figures can not he published without revealing information in regard to the output 
of individual firms. A blank in the eighth column indicates that the production of the corresponding 
dye in the United States can not be published without revealing information in regard to the output of 
individual firms. The figures thus concealed are, however, included in the total] 



Colour 

Index I Schultz 
No. No 



Common name 



Total finished coal- 
tar products. 

Dyes 

nitroso coloring m.\tters 



Naphthol green 

NITRO COLORING MATTERS 



137 
68 

149 
32 
33 



Naphthol yellow S 

AZO COLORING MATTERS 

Monoazo coloring matters 



Acid yellow G_. 
Spirit yellow R. 
Acid yellow R.. 
Butter yellow . _ 
Chrysoidine Y. 



Chrvsoidine R. . 
Oil yellow AB... 

Sudan I --. 

Croceine orange- 
Orange G 



32 


182 


34 


44 


3S 


45 


36 


48 


40 


58 


S3 


61 


54 


64 


,55 


65 


56 


67 


57 


66 


59 


63 


61 


' 


63 


70 ! 


69 


73 1 


73 


76 1 


79 


82 


80 


83 


81 


105 


83 


107 


85 


109 


88 


112 


90 


114 


101 


89 


105 


88 


110 


102 


113 


93 


114 


94 



C hromotrope 2 R 

Fast acid fuchsine B — 
Amido naphthol red G . 



Brilliant acid red B. 

Azo archil red 

Brilliant lake red R. 
Chrome yellow 2G., 



Chrome yellow R. 



Victoria violet 

Lana fuchsine 

Azo coralline 

Chromotrope 6B 

Amido naphthol red 6B__ 



Acid blue B._ 

Oil yellow OB 

Brilliant orange O. 
Toluidine red RL- 

Sudan II 

Ponceau 2R 



Manufacturers' 
identification num- 
bers (according to 
list on p. 204) 



8,50- 



72, 153- 



49,104 

9,37, 104, X- 
72 



9,37,72, X.. 
8, 9. 27. 49, 

104, 118. 
8, 49, 70, 72, 104 
;2 



0, 72, 



37,72, 104,109, X.. 

9,104.139 

27, 49, 70, 79, 104, 

139. 

104.109 

9, 104. 109, 113, X-.. 
8, 9, 35, 37, 49, 70, 

104, 118, U9. 

106,113.. 

106-.- 

94. 



8, 9, 27, 35, 41, 70, 

104. 118, X. 

8, 9, 27, 35, 37, 49, 
70,109,118, 139, X 

8,35,104,109 

106,109,139 

70,106 

8,104.109 

8, 9, 35, 49, 70, 104, 

109. 119. 

X 



72.. 
139. 
X. 



Ponceau 3R 

Oil brown 

Chrome brown A. 

Acid claret B 

Bordeaux B 



9, 37, 49, 72, 104, X 
8, 9, 27, 35, 49, 70, 

104, 109, 139. 
70 



Sales 



Quantity 



Pounds 
120, 348, 636 



42, 638 



21,790 
763, 952 



187, 340 



49, 937 
149, 804 



17, 624 
152, 437 



90,928 

73, 974 

30,928 
301 



Value 



Aver- 
age 

price 
per 

pound 



$59, 533, 445 



38, 454 



15, 723 
261,853 



67,617 



37, 371 
"66,600 



8,961 
70, 866 



45, 213 
42, 695 



28, 283 
302 



Produc- 
tion 
(quan- 
tity) 



Pounds 
.495122,752,021 



.902 



.722 
.343 



.361 



.748 
.'445 



.508 
.465 



.497 

.577 



.914 
1.003 



112, 162 



61,012 



Chromotrope lOB 

Chromate brown B 

Acid chrome brown R. 

Chrome flavine G 

Oil red S 

Azo eosine G 



139 

139- 

8, 9, 27, 35, 37. 49, 

72, 104, 109, 139. 
109 

27,49,104,118 



106,118. 

109 

109 



20. 593 
446, 499 



19,684 i .956 
216,468 .485 



119,083 66,341 .,5.57 



9,1>14 , .050 



40, 656 



31, 181 
813, 527 

176, 217 



55, 555 
'i3i,'324 



127,840 



99,345 
75,658 
14, 155 



148, 016 



8,754 
492, 121 



113, 156 



60 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Table 26. — Dyes and other finished coal-tar products: Production and sales, 

1926 — Continued 



Colour 
Index 

No. 


Schultz 
No. 


119 


100 


122 




126 


117 


12S 


119 


130 


121 


138 


134 


116 


141 


148 


143 


1.50 


144 


151 


145 


158 


132 


161 


151 


163 


152 


165 


153 


167 


154 


168 


155 


169 


156 


170 


157 


176 


161 


177 


162 


179 


163 


180 


164 


182 


166 


183 


167 


184 


168 


185 


169 


189 


173 


195 


177 


197 


178 


201 


180 


202 


181 


203 


183 


204 


184 


207 


186 


208 


188 


209 


189 


216 


202 


224 


193 


225 


194 


227 


195 


228 


197 


234 


211 


235 


213 


238 


221 


241 


220 


246 


217 


247 




252 


227 


253 




256 


230 


258 


232 



Common name 



Dyes— Continued 

AZO COLORING MATTEKS— 

continued 

Monoazo coloring matters — 
Continued 



Eosamine G 

Chrome yellow 5G- 
Direct pink E2GN. 

Direct pink 

Direct pink EBN.. 
Metanil yellow 



Azo yellow 

Resorcin yellow. 

Orange I 

Orange II 



Lake red P 

Orange R 

Lake red 4B 

Lake red C 

Acid chrome brown B. 
Acid chrome garnet R . 

Chrome violet B 

Chrome black PV 

Fast red A 



Brilliant fast red G- 
Azo rubine 



Manufacturers' 
identification num- 
bers (according to 
list on p. 204) 



109 

50 

109,120 

104 

109 

8, 9, 35, 49, 70, 72, 
104. 

9, 49, 50, 70, 104, 
153. 

37,72 

152 

9, 27, 33, 35, 37, 72, 

104. 
139 
^^J2,\q\'.'.'.\'.'.'.'.'. 

9,35,49 

8,9,49,94,139 

70, 104, 106, X 

104 

49,104,106- 

49,70,104 

8, 27, 33, 35, 49, 70, 

72, 104, 109, 113, 

X. 
37 



Sales 



Quantity 



Pounds 



Fast red VR. 



Fast red E 

Croceine scarlet 3BX. 
Amaranth 

Cochineal red 

Lake red R. 

Mordant yellow 

Chrome yellow RN.. 
Chrome blue black B_ 
Chrome blue black U. 



8, 9, 35, 49, 70, 104, 

109. 
8, 9, 35, 70, 104, 106, 

109, 119. 
8 



Chrome black T. 
Chrome black A. 

Acid violet B 

Fast acid blue R . 
Fast acid blue B. 
Chrome red B 



35-.. 

9,35,72,104,109.... 

27,70,104,139 

28,35, 139,143, X... 

8,9,35,104 

104. 

35,49,70,104,106.-. 
8, 9, 35, 49, 70, 104, 

106, 118, 139. 
35,49,70,104,106... 
35,49,70,104,106... 
49 



Cloth red 

Direct pink R 

Direct scarlet SG. 
Direct scarlet G.. 



Disazo coloring matters 
Resorcin brown B 



Resorcin dark brown _. 
Acid chrome brown G. 

Wool black 4B 

Acid black lOB. 



Acid dark green A. 
Brilliant croceine.. 



Ponceau SS... 
Cloth red 3G. 
Sudan IV 



8,49,70,104,109.... 

104 

35, 37, 49, 70, 104, 
109,118,171. 

120 

64,109,120.-. 

64,106 

64,120 



8, 35. 49, 64, 70, 72, 

104,113,118. 
8,9,72, 104,113,118. 



8, 9, 33, 35, 37, 49, 
70. 104, 109, 113, 
118, 119, 139, X. 



33, 35, 49, 70, 72, 

104, 139. 

64,104 

49,50 

9, 35. 37, 49, 72, 104, 

109, X. 



512, 371 
117,428 



1, 226, 431 



102, 490 
30, 832 

303, 042 
28, 432 



37, 868 
125, 852 



210, 300 
201, 592 



12, 172 



346, 305 
22, 041 



975, 308 



186, 669 
"2i5,'778' 
""67," 697' 



169, 746 



Value 



$326, 105 
91, 831 



328, 782 



37,741 

59, 770 

265, 209 

26, 172 



23, 895 

78, 708 



148, 554 
132, 691 



7,049 



293, 529 
12,110 



363, 007 



78, 708 
'i36,"292' 
'"48," 320 



104, 129 



1, 185, 514 546, 497 



181, 938 
"37,"457' 



153, 280 



39, 322 



price 

per 

pound 



.636 

.782 



.268 



.368 
1.939 
.875 
.921 



.631 
.625 



.706 
.658 



.579 



,549 



.372 



.422 
.'632 
.'714' 



.613 

.867 



.461 



1.050 



DYES AND OTHER FINISHED COAL-TAE PEODUCTS 



61 



Table 26. — Dyes and other finished coal-tar products: Production and sales, 

1926 — Continued 





Schultz 
No. 


Common name 


Manufacturers' 
identification num- 
bers (according to 
list on p. 204) 


Sales 




Colour 
Index 
No. 


Quantity 


Value 


.Aver- 
age 

price 

per 

pound 


Produc- 

ticn 
(quan- 
tity) 


259 


233 
236 

241 
250 
246 

247" 
256 
257 

261 
275 
276 

"""265" 
266 
272 
274 
279 
283 
284 

288 
294 
296 
297 
303 
304 
307 
311 
312 
313 
319 
320 
322 
323 
326 
327 

332 
333 

336 
337 

342 
351 
340 
341 
343 

344 

349 
355 

362' 
363 
365 
378 
382 
385 
386 
387 
391 
392 
400 


Dtes— Continued 

AZO COLORING MATTERS— 

continued 

Disazo coloring matters — 

Continued 
Cloth red B 


70 - 


Pounds 






Pounds 


262 


Cloth red 2B. 


8, 35, 50, 104, 106, 

118. 
109 


$28,431 


$27,795 


$0. 978 


42,639 


267 


Neutral grav G 




274 


Milling orange G 


106 










275 


Cloth scarlet G 


50, 70, 72 






1.286 


6,267 


278 


Direct fast red 8BL 

Scarlet EC 


106... 








280 


9,50,104 


24, 514 


23, 417 


.955 




288 


Fast cyanine G 


g 




289 


Fast cyanine 5R 


8, 49, 70, 104, 106, 

109. 
8, 104,106 


423, 831 

15, 281 
124, 326 


312, 663 

14, 528 
90, 340 


.738 

.951 
.727 


491, 834 


294 


Acid black B 




299 


Chrome black F 


8,35,49,104,109.... 

8, 49 


116. 552 


302 


Chrome blue green B 

Fast acid black N2B 

Fast cyanine black B 

Naphthylamine black D .. 

Naphthol black 2B 

Developed blue B 




304 


35, 109 . 










307 
308 


8,49,70,104,106.-.. 
49,70 109 


125, 125 
5,128 


100, 285 
3,146 


.801 
.613 


141, 593 


315 


37. 




317 


49.. 










326 


Direct fast scarlet. . 


35,49,104,109 

35,49,50.70,72,104. 
8, 9, 35, 37, 49, 70, 

72, 104. 
106 


262, 360 
145,731 
404, 120 


381, 706 
64,039 
170, 516 


1.455 
.439 
.422 


272, 843 


331 


Bismarck brown 


159, 432 


332 
336 


Bismarck brown 2R.. 

Acid chrome black F 

Chrome fast yellow C 

Direct fast yellow 5GL 

Direct fast pink 2BL 

Paper yellow. 

Chrysophenine G 


382, 443 


343 


8 










346 


49, 104 


1 






353 


8,49,104 








364 
365 


49,104,109 

49,104,109 


90, 532 
560, 876 


104,645 
310, 418 


1.156 
.553 


104, 699 
623, 937 


370 




49, 104, 109 




374 


Direct orange TA 


104 










375 


Congo corinth G 


8,9,70,104,109,113. 
35, X 










376 












382 


Direct scarlet B . 


8, 104, 113, X 

8,35 


90, 541 


128,822 


1.423 


85, 447 


385 


Bordeaux . 




387 


Direct violet B . 


35,104,109 


30, 060 


30, 580 


1.017 


33, 353 


390 


Direct brilliant blue R 

Direct violet 


113 




393 


109... 










394 


Direct violet N. . . 


9, 35, 49, 104, 109, 

113. 
49 


49, 706 


60,049 


1.208 


57, 759 


400 


Direct fast red 9BL_.. 

Developed black BHN 




401 
405 


8, 9, 35, 37, 41, 49, 

104, 109, 113. 
37, 104 


874, 526 


441, 185 


.504 


933. 123 


406 


Direct blue 2B... 


9, 35, 41, 49, 104, 

109, 113, 119, X. 
9,35,49,104, X,X.. 
104 


858, 244 
23, 030 


262, 758 
12, 626 


.306 
.548 


1, 074, 619 


410 


Chrysamine G . . . 


8,756 


411 


Cresotine yellow G 

Direct orange R 




415 


35, 49, 70, 109, X 

X 


48, 307 


29, 745 


.616 


39, 911 


417 


Direct fast red R 




419 


Direct fast red F 


8,9,35,49,70, 101, 
106, 109, 113,118, 
119. 

8, 9, 35, 37, 49, 104, 
lO'j, 109, 113. 

113 


191, 953 
123, 614 


156, 507 
85, 977 


.815 
.696 


184, 304 


420 


Direct brown M 


138, 867 


423 


Direct fast brown B 




431 


109 










443 


Milling red ''G 


9, 106 










446 


Direct orange RT 


9, 104 










448 
450 


Benzopurpurine 4B 

Benzopurpurine B 


9,35,49,104,109 

8 


426, 410 


246,388 


.578 


460,448 


464 


Direct blue R 


109 










468 




104 










471 


Direct blue 3R 


104 










472 


Direct blue BX. 


35, 104,109 


36, 491 


20, 814 


.570 


58,960 


473 


Direct blue O 


49 




477 


Direct blue 3B 


8,9,35,37,104,109.. 
9, 104, 109 


125, 624 


48, 795 


.388 


158,303 


478 






487 


Acid milling red B 


9, 106, X 


12, 533 


20, 870 


1.665 


13, 070 



62 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Table 26. — Dyes and other finished coal-tar products: Production and sales, 

1926— Continued 





Schultz 
No. 


Common name 


IManufacturers' 
identification num- 
bers (according to 
list on p. 204) 




Sales 






Colour 
Index 

No. 


Quantity 


Value 


Aver- 
age 
price 
per 

pound 


Produc- 
tion 

(quan- 
tity) 


495 
502 


405 
410 
415 
419 
421 
424 
426 

436 
441 
449 
456 
457 
462 

463 
464 
469 
470 
471 
473 
474 

475 
476 

477 

480 

485 
487 

9 

11 

10 

206 

19 

20 
21 
22 
23 

29^ 


Dyes— Continued 

AZO COLORING MATTERS— 

continued 

Disazo coloring matters — 
Continued 

Benzopurpurine lOB 

Direct azurine G 

Direct brilliant blue G 

Direct blue RW 


9,35,49,104,109 

9, 49, 104, 109 


Pounds 
28, 739 


$36, 568 


$1. 272 


Pounds 
50, 635 


508 


103 










512 


9,35,49,104,109 

104 . 


101, 300 


88,497 


.874 


114, 627 


515 


Direct blue B... . 




518 
520 


Direct pure blue 6B 

Direct pure blue. 


9,35,49,104,109 

9, 33, 35, 37, 49, 104, 
109,118. 

8, 35, 49, 104, X 

104,109 

8,109 


425, 697 
149, 787 

153, 751 


328, 426 
88,332 

93, 479 


-- - 
.772 
.590 

.608 




585, 461 
233, 218 




539 
552 


Trhazo coloring matters 

Direct fast black FF 

Diazo black RS... 


561 


Direct brown BT 




576 


Direct fast blue B 


49, 104 1 i 






577 


Direct brown T2G 


8 ! i 






581 


Direct black EW . 


9, 35, 49, 104, 109, 

113,118. 
9,35,49,104,109 


5, 465, 339 


1, 680, 906 


.308 


6, 191, 917 


582 


Direct black RX 




583 


Direct green ET.. 


8, 9, 104, 113, X 

109 . 


82,442 


52, 389 


.635 




588 


Direct black N_ 




589 
590 


Chloramine green B 

Direct steel blue G 

Direct fast black HW 

Direct green B 


8,9, 109 I 1 ..; 

9,109 . 1 .. L. . l-_ 


592 


9.113 ' ' ! - 




593 


8, 9, 35, 37, 49, 104, 

109,113,118. 
8,35,49, 109, 113, X. 
8, 9, 35, 37, 49, 70, 

104, 109, 113, X. 
35, 49, 70, 104, 109, 

120, X. 
8,49 


425, 470 

86, 731 
680, S18 

130, 454 


216, 007 

57, 517 
265, 061 

88, 674 


.508 

.663 
.389 

.680 


502, 313 


594 


Direct green G 


88, 195 


596 


Direct brown 3G0„. 


734, 652 


598 


Congo brown G 




601 


Congo brown R 




606 


Tetrakisazo coloring matters 
Direct brown G. 


37, 70, 113 










608 


Direct brown BT.. 


109 












All other azo coloring 
matters 




2, 183, 034 


2, 051, 876 


.940 


2, 436, 445 




Total azo coloring 
matters. 

STILBENE COLORING 
MATTERS 

Direct yellow R 








26, 347, 358 


14, 561, 735 


.553 


29,091,752 




8, 35, 37, 65, 104, 

109, 119, 120 
8, 65, 104, 109, 119 
35, 49, 64, 65 


620 


412, 730 
88,045 


203, 346 
71,381 


.493 
.811 


405, 941 


621 
62'' 


Chloramine orange G 


111,334 


628 


Direct catechine G 

Total stilbene color- 
ing matters. 

PyRA.:OLONE COLORING 
MATTERS 

Fast light yellow 2G 


106 


..... 
















653, 973 


398, 370 


.609 


732. 233 




9, 49, 70, 104, 106, 

124, 153 
124 




636 
637 


92, 821 


182, 307 


1.964 


86, 812 


638 


Pigment chrome yellow L. 
Fast light yellow.^ 


124 










639 


9, 35, 124, X 










640 


27, 70, 104, 134, 152. 
124 


541,833 


• 312, 167 


.576 


493,204 


645 


Fast vellow 3G 




652 


Chrome red B 

Direct orange GR.^ 

Total pyrazolone 
coloring matters. 


49 106 ! 






653 


9 1 1 '__ 


















700, 721 


588, 861 


.840 


663, 666 









DYES AND OTHEE FINISHED COAL-TAK PEODUCTS 



63 



Table 26. — Dyes and other finished coal-tar -products: Production and sales, 

1926— Continued 





Schultz 

No. 1 

1 


Common name 


Manufacturers' 
identification num- 
bers (according to 
list on p. 204) 


Sales 1 

1 




Colour 
Index 

No. 


Quantity 


Value 


Aver- 
age 

price 

per 

pound 


Produc- 
tion 

(quan- 
tity) 


655 


493 

495 
499 
502 
503 
505 
506 
512 

513 
515 
516 
517 
521 
527 
528 
529 
530 
531 
536 

537 
538 
539 
543 
544 
545 
548 
555 
558 
559 
562 
564 
565 
566 

573 
571 
582 
585 
587 
692 
596 
597 
559 


Dyes -Continued 

KETONIMINE COLORING 
MATTER 


27, 49, 104 










657 


TRIPHENYLMETHANE AND 
DIPHENYLNAPHTHYL- 
METHANE COLORING 
MATTERS 

Malachite green. . 


49, 104, 169 

169 


Pounds 
202, 169 


$265, 596 


$1,314 


Pounds 
202, 618 


662 






666 


Acid green B 


9,33,35,49,104,119. 
33, 104 


73, 308 


82, 997 


1.132 


74,901 


667 






670 




49 










671 




104 










677 




35, 72, 104, 130, 

139, X 
104 . -.- 










678 












680 


Methyl violet - 


49, 72, 79, 80, 104.X- 
49 


667, 161 


620, 125 


.929 


753, 231 


681 


Crystal violet 




683 


Methvl violet 5B 


104 










689 




72 










695 




33 -. 










696 


Fast acid violet lOB 

Acid violet 6B 


33, 49 










697 


33... 










698 


Acid violet 


33,35,49, 104,119.. 
104 


136, 322 


185, 932 


1.364 


123,890 


699 
704 


Acid fast violet BQ 




35. 42, 72, 79, 104; 

130, 139, 171 
42 










705 


Methvl blue 










706 


Methyl cotton blue 


72 










707 


42, 72, 104, 130 










712 




33, 104 










713 




33 










714 




33, 104 










717 


Acid violet 6BN 


49 










724 


Aurine 


49 










728 


Victoria blue R 


49 




1 




729 


Victoria blue B 


49 




1 




733 




49 










735 


Naphthalene green V 


49 104 










736 


33 










737 




49, 70, 119 


134, 535 
132,091 


79, 626 
186, 892 


.592 
1.415 


137, 003 




All other triphenyl- 
methane and diphenyl- 
naphthylmethane color- 
ing matters. 

Total triphenyl- 
methane and diphe- 
nylnaphthyl m e t h- 
ane coloring matters. 

XANTHENE COLORING 
MATTERS 




137, 195 










2,052,964 


2,963,975 1.444 


2, 128, 902 




49 




749 










752 




49 










758 


Fast acid violet A2R 


49 










768 


72, 79.. 










768 




43,72,79 










773 


Erythrosine B 


9,43,49,72,79 

49, 72 


3,026 


15, 299 


5.056 


3,456 


778 






779 




49, 72... 










781 




171 












Total xanthene color- 
ing matters. 














341, 450 


633, 997 


1 1.857 


351,120 




1 














• 



64 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Table 26. — Dyes and other finished coal-tar products: Production and sales, 

1926~Contmued 



Colour 
Index 

No. 



787 
788 
789 
793 



812 
813 
814 
815 
816 



841 
843 
845 
860 
861 
864 
865 



873 
875 



878 



922 
924 
926 
931 



971 



Schultz 
No. 



603 
'606 



613 



616 
198 
617 
618 
615 



679 
683 
687 
697 
699 
698 
700 



681 
923 



622 
626 
631 
649 



659 
660 
661 
667 



748 
748 



Common name 



Dyes— Continued 

ACRIDINE COLORING 
MATTERS 

Coriphosphine O 

Acridine orange A _. 

Brilliant phosphine G.. 
Phosphine 

QUINOLINE COLORING 
MATTERS 

Quinoline yellow.. , 



35, 104, 109, 120- 

109, 120 

64, 104, 109, 120. 

109 

120 



TKIAZOLE COLORING 

MATTERS 

Primuline 

Direct pure yellow M 

Direct fast yellow 

Thioflavine T 

Direct brilliant flavine S. 



AZINE COLORING MATTERS 

Safranine 49, 104. 

SafranineMN 104. 

RosolaueO.. 49. 

Induline (spirit-soluble) ... 70, 72, 104 . 

Induline (water-soluble)... 70, 72, 104. 

Nigrosine (spirit-soluble).. 27, 70, 72, 104. 

Nigrosine (water-soluble).. | 27, 70, 72, 104. 

ANILINE BLACK AND ALUED 
COLORING MATTERS 



Manufacturers' 

identification num- 

ers (according to 

list on p. 204) 



124 

124 

124 

49, 72, 104, ]24. 



New fast gray 27, 109. 

Fur black.. 66, X.. 



OXAZINE COLORING 
MATTERS 

Delphine blue B 

Gallocyanine 

Gallo chrome blue V... 
Cotton blue 



THIAZINE COLORING 
MATTERS 

Methylene blue 

Methylene green B 

Thionine blue 

Brilliant chrome blue... 

SULPHIDE COLORING 
MATTERS 

Carbazole vat blue R... 
Carbazole vat blue G... 

Sulphur black 

Sulphur blue 



104, X._ 

9, 27, 104, 171. 
104 

9, 83, 104, X.. 



27, 104, 169. 
104, 169, X. 

X 

64, 70 



49. 



49, 70, 83, 104, X... 
19, 35, 49, 70, 104, 
1 109, X, X. 

Sulphur brown I 4, 9, 19, 35, 38, 49, 

i 70,83, 104, 155, 
i X, X, X. 

Sulphur green i 9, 38,49, 70, 109.... 

Sulphur maroon. i 8, 49, 70, X, X 

Sulphur olive 38, 49, 70, 155, X... 

Sulphur orange _ 35, 70, X 

Sulphur purple X 

Sulphurtan 8,19,35, 38, 70, 

155, X. 

Sulphur vellow i 4, 19, 35, 49, 70, 

104, 109, X, X, 
I X. 

Total sulphide color- 

ing matters. 

' Totals not included under sulphide coloring matters. In the dy 
these two dyes are included in the vat dyes. 



Produc- 
tion 

(quan- 
tity) 




Pounds 



Pounds 



135, 154 i $205, 494 |$1. 520 142, 678 



187, 039 100, 542 
168, 876 176, 804 



.538 
1.047 



232, 562 
202, 000 



'-. .-.[ .662 

134,295 1 91,035 1 .678 

378, 942 I 176, 139 . 465 

1, 106, 596 ; 430, 762 . 389 



81,287 I 150,657 



23, 893 



35, 597 



1.853 



1.490 



40, 285 

111,851 

336, 857 

1, 176, 851 



78, 074 



29, 183 



(') 
(') 
6,358,043 
871, 383 

1, 528, 905 



152, 291 
132,395' 



2, 476, 217 
472, 407 



540, 677 



.151 
.542 



157,846 
463, 981 



141,477 .929 
.527 
39, 497 . 298 



47, 055 
186, 690 



.298 
.402 



16, 704, 636 
899, 596 



1,389,423 



91, 588 
156, 284 
140, 155 



106, 180 
395, 802 



979,140 j 4,054,027 1 .203 20,023,242 
cs classified by method of application 



DYES AND OTHEE FINISHED COAL-TAK PEODUCTS 



65 



Table 26. — Dyes and other finished coal-tar products: Production and sales, 

1926 — Continued 



Schultz 
No. 



779 
780 
782 
785 



858 



789 

856 
865 



760 
761 
763 
765 
767 
a38 
840 
842 



843 
849 
867 
871 
831 



874 

876 
877 
880 
881 

883 



Common name 



Manufacturers' 
identifiedtion num- 
bers (according to 
list on p. 204J 



Dyes— Continued 

HYDROXYKETONE, HY- 
DROXTQUINONE AND 
HY^DEOXYLACTONE 
COLORING MATTERS 

774 1 Brilliant Alizarin black — 



ANTHEAQVINONE COLORING 
MATTERS 



Alizarin 

Alizarin orange 

Alizarin red S (pdr.) 

Alizarin brown 

Alizarin GI 

Acid alizarin blue SE 

Acid alizarin blue B 

Acid alizarin green G — 

Anthracene blue WR 

Alizarin astrol B 

Alizarin cyanine green E 
Anthraquinone blue black 
B. 
Acid alizarin rubine 



ANTHRAQUINONE VAT 
COLOR-MATTERS (SINGLE 
STRENGTH) 

Anthraquinone vat golden 

orange G . 
Anthraquinone vat golden 

orange R 
Anthraquinone vat dark 

blue BO. 
Anthraquinone vat green 

B and black. 
Anthraquinone vat violet 

RR. 
Anthraquinone vat blue 

RS. 
Anthraquinone vat blue 

3G. 
Anthraquinone vat blue 

GCD. 
Anthraquinone vat blue 

BOS. 
Anthraquinone vat blue 

GC. 
Anthraquinone vat yellow 

G. 
Anthraquinone vat brown 

B, 
Anthraquinone vat red 

violet RRN. 
Anthraquinone vat red BN 

Total anthraquinone 
vat coloring matters 
(single strength). 

INDIGOID COLORING 
MATTERS 

Indigo, synthetic, 20 per 

cent paste. 
Indigo vat 

Indigo extract 

Tribromindigo RB 

Bromindigo blue 2B, 2BD, 

20 per cent paste. 
Bromindigo 6B, 20 per cent 

paste. 



9, 104._.. 
9, 104.... 



19, 

19, 

19 

49, 

19 

70, 

70, 

70 

51, 70, 104, 106 

70 - 



Sales 



Quantity 



Pounds 



, 51, 104, 118, 171 

,109 

, 109.... 

, 104, 109 



33,70, 171 

5, 51, 70, 109, 171-. 



70. 



32, 528 



16, 616 



23,804 
72,983 



109 

49, 109 

49, 95, 109.. 
49, 95, 109. 

9,49 

49,109 

49, 109 

49, 109 



Value 



$70,774 



22, 685 



79.495 
123, 602 



Aver- 
age 
price 
per 
pound 



$2. 176 



1.365 



3.340 
1.694 



109 

49, 109. 

J.09 

109 

49, 109.' 



2, 084, 152 



48,49, 104 ,28,438,386 



104, X. 
49, X_- 



3,290,443 



3, 652, 786 



Produc- 
tion 

(quan- 
tity) 



Pounds 



17,117 



41.099 
144, 914 



1.579 



.128 



2,220,805 



25, 701, 530 



66 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Table 26. — Dyes and other finished coal-tar products: Production and sales, * 

1926— Continued 





Schultz 
No. 


Common name 


Manufacturers' 
identification num- 
bers (according to 
list on p. 204) 


Sales 




Colour 
Index 

No. 


Quantity 


Value 


Aver- 
age 
price 
per 
pound 


Produc- 
tion 

(quan- 
tity) 


1207 


912 
919 
913 
901 
907 
908 

7 

83" 
144 
168 

23 
502 
505 
592 
877 


Dyes— Continued 

INDOGOID COLORING 
MATTERS— COntd. 

Vat red B 


9 


Pounds 






Pounds 


1208 


Vat Bordeaux B 


9 










1217 


Thianthrene orange R 

Ciba violet B, R 


109 










1222 


48 










1228 


Cii:)a scarlet O 


48 










1229 


Ciba red R 


48. 












PHOTOCHEMICAL COLORING 
MATTERS 

Dicvanine A 


54. 












Kry ptoc vanine 


54 












Neocyonine 


54 












Orthochrome T 


54.. 






1 




Pinacyanole 


54 










10 


FOOD COLORING MATTERS 

Naphthol vellowS 

Yellow A B 


X.. 










22 


9, 52, 72, 104 










61 


Yellow OB 


9, 52, 72, 104 

9, 104, X 


8,725 


.$16, 975 


$1. 946 




80 


Ponceau 3R 




150 


Orange I-.. 


9, 104, 163, X. 






2.830 
2.965 
3.001 


36, 525 


184 


Amaranth. . 


9, 104, 163, X 

9, 27, 104, 163, X... 
104, 163, X 


94, 143 
74, 062 


279, 178 
222, 251 


105,993 


640 


Tartrazine 


69,143 


666 


Guinea green B 


670 


Light green SF (yellowish). 
Ervthrosine 


104, 163.- 










773 


9, 104, X 










1180 


Indigo disulfonic acid 

Total food coloring 
matters. 

Bacteriological stains and 
indicators. 

Research chemicals 

All other 


9, 104, X 
























282, 347 


1,115,578 


3.951 


288,454 




36, 54, 55, 72, 76, 85, 

104, 128, 145, 150. 

54, 150 


























49 












Total dyes... . 














86, 255, 836 


36,312,648 


.421 


87, 978, 624 









DYES NOT CLASSIFIED BY SCHULTZ OR COLOUR INDEX NUMBER 

Manufacturers were requested to report separately, in terms of 
their familiar pre-war designations, the production of dyes not clas- 
sified by Schultz or Colour Index number. The following table is a 
list of such dyes, together with some new dyes of American develop- 
ment for which there are no foreign equivalents. 



DYES AND OTHER FINISHED COAL-TAR PRODUCTS 



67 



Common name 



Manufac- 
turers' 
identifica- 
tion num- 
bers (ac- 
cording to 
list on 
p. 204) 



Acetyl celanese colors - 

Acid alizarin blue B -. 

Acid anthracene brown B, RH ex 

Acid anthracene orange GR 

Acid anthracene red GM 

Acid anthracene yellow GR 

Acid black J cone -.. .-. 

Acid blue N 

Acid blue R 

Acid brown 

Acid cherry 

Acid dark green B 

Acid naphthol blue black 

Acid navy blue_ .-- 

Acid parrot green 

Acid red 

Acid red OTH 

Acid yellow G 

Acid yellow HM 

Alizarin blue {indigo shade).. 

Alizarin brown 5R 

Alizarin serge blue GS 

Alizarol black 3G 

Alizarol brown B, G 

Alizarol brown RH cone 

Alizarol gray DG 

Alizarol orange 3R 

Alizarol yellow 3G 

Alkali blue for ink 

Amacid brilliant red 5B... 

.\macid fast orange LW 

Amanil black FTC 

Amanil developed black OB 

Amanil discharge black 

Amido naphthol red 2B 

Amido naphthol red X cone. 

Anthracene blue RL__ 

Anthracene brown 2BL, RL 

Anthracene chromate brown EB 

Anthracene chrome black DNW 

Anthranol chromate brown EBS 

Anthranol chrome brown EB 

Anthranol chrome violet ECB 

Anthranol chrome yellow LSW 

Anthraquinone vat blue GFC 

Anthraquinone vat golden orange 4R. 

Anthraquinone vat pink B 

Anthraquinone vat red violet RRN... 

Anlhrafjuinone vat violet BNX 

Anthrene jade green, paste 

Azanol brown N, RY , 

.\zanol red brown R 

Azo dark green 

Azo eosine 2B 

Azo fast blue B, G, 2R 

Azo fast violet 

Azo violet 

Azo violet 2B, BS, 2RL 



Basic fuchsine SW... 
Benzanol art black.. _ 
Benzanol brown FW. 
Benzo chrome brown_ 
Benzo fast black L i.. 



Common name 



33 

171 

70 

64 

X 

64, 106 

37 

33 

8 

104 

104 

104 

35 

113 

104 

8, 104 

109 

104 

72 

171 

171 

51 

8 

104 

104 

104 

104 

104 

139 

9 

9 

9 

9 

9 

106 

37 

33 

171 I 
9, 49, 109 1 
33 
106 
106 
106 
106 
109 
109 
49 
49 
109 
109 
X 
X 
109 
109 
104 
104 
33 



Brown mordant CSO, CSW... 

Buffalo black AR, 8B, 3G, NBJ, RB. 

Buffalo black green B 

Buffalo black high cone 

Buffalo chrome black NS 

Bulletin red 



Manufac- 
turers' 
identiiica- 
tion num- 
bers (ac- 
cording to 
list on 
p. 204) 



33 
104 
104 
104 

104 
139 

64 
109 
64 
104 
49 
33 
171 
33 
9 
27, 113, X 
49 
33 
113 
33 
35 
27 
35 
104 
41 
109 
41 
70 
8,27 
35 
113 
8,35 
70 
35 
35 
35 
171 
109 
113 
104 
33 

109 

33 

49,104 

49 

104 

49 

70 

49 

104 

101 

104 

49 

35 

49 

49 

X 

35 

35 

113 

35 

X 

35 

35 

35 

35 

35 

8 

37 

113 

113 

51 

60 

> Sales of Benzo fast black L were 130,951 pounds, valued at $145,517, with a production of 167,692 
pounds. 



Benzo fast blue FFL 

Benzo fast blue 4GL 

Benzo fast orange S 

Benzo rhoduline red B 

Brilliant croceine FL 

Brilliant developed scarlet B. 

Brilliant milling blue B 

Brilliant orange G 

Brilliant wool blue N 

Bromo fluorescein 



33 
X 
X 

8 

, 9, 49, 70, 

104, 109 

70 

109 

49 

49 

49 

106 

33 

35 

104 

43 



Chloramine fa.st orange EG, E3G, ER. 

Chloramine green G 

Chloramine yellow 4G 

Chlorantine violet 

Chlorazol fast brown RK 

Chromate brilliant brown R 

Chromate brown R 

Chromate deep brown E 

Chromaven brilliant orange 2R 

Chrome black 

Chrome blue ATX 

Chrome blue BSW 

Chrome blue F4B 

Chrome Bordeaux SR 

Chrome brown B, O 

Chrome green 

Chrome green B.. 

Chrome green CB 

Chrome green SW 

Chrome orange RB 

Chrome red SW 

Chrome red brown II- 

Chrome yellow 

Chrome yellow DS, 3G... 

Chrome yellow G. 

Chrome yellow 5G 

Chrome yellow SS 

Cindiazo black G 

Cindiazo blue B.. 

Cindiazo red 2B 

Coerulein 

Columbia vellow__ 

Cotton black O, 3G 

Croceine scarlet FP cone 

Cyanine blue 6B.. 



Developed black 2B, G 

Diamid blue 

Diamine Bordeaux B 

Diamine catechine 

Diamine catechine B, 3G- 

Diamine fast orange EG 

Diamond green 3GA... ., 

Dianol dark blue B 

Diazine beta black N 

Diazine black VJ, VX, VZ 

Diazine black VN extra 

Diazo Bordeaux 7B-- 

Diazo fast blue 2RW 

Diazo iast red 5BL, 7BL 

Diazo indigo blue M 

Diazo seal brown 

Direct black GX, GXR 

Direct blue 3RX 

Direct brown AHP. R 

Direct brown G2R, G3R 

Direct dark blue 

Direct fast black B: 

Direct fast blue B, R 

Direct fast light blue FF 

Direct fast orange R, 2R, RCL_ 

Direct fast scarlet 4BA 

Direct fast violet 

Direct gray G cone 

Direct navy blue R 

Direct scarlet S-- 

Dyco milling yellow 2G_ 

Dylene chromate brown EBN.. 



68 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Common name 



Empire fast violet AA 

Erie brown GB 

Erie catechine G cone. 

Erie fast gray M, R, ZP 

Erie fast rubine B cone 

Erie chrome brown K 

Erio violet RL 

Fast acid blue RX_ 

Fast acid light red B 

Fast acid violet ERR extra 

Fast acid violet RM 

Fast blue 2B 

Fast brilliant blue EA 

Fast chrome brown R 

Fast crimson R 

Fast mordant blue 

Fast mordant blue B 

Fast wool red BI>, OL 

Fuchsine azo b-naphthol 

Furol DB 

Guinea fast red BL 

Helio Bordeaux BL 

Hydron orange R... 

Hydron pink FF 

Indamine navy blue 2BM, 2GM 

Jet black APX 

Lake scarlet Q 

Laundry blue No. 44 

Leather yellow 

Light fast brown R, 3YL 

Lithol fast orange 

Metamine fast light red BL 

Monochrome brown BC 

Mordant green SN 

Nerol black 

Neutral gray B 

Niagara blue NR 

Niagara fast blue RL 

Nigrosine base B, N, NB, R, 2R 

Oil brow n 

Oil brown 11,1 

Oil brown M 

Oil orange '-iQ 

Oil orange Y 

Oil pink B 

Oil red C 

Oil red I 

OilredO.RO 

Oil red 322 

Oil yellow Pinv.... 

Oxaniine cojiper blue RRX 

Oxydiaminogen OB 

Palaside black G 

PalF.side brown B cone... 

Palaside grecti 

Palaside yell(;w :',G. 

Paranol direct orange GI, 

Paranol direct viol( t R 

Penetrating benzene brown R... 

Pentaway mordant dyes 

Permanent Bordeaux 2BL. 

Permanent red R extra.. 

Permanent scarlet O 



Manufac- 
turers' 
identifica- 
tion num- 
bers (ac- 
cording to 
list on 
p. 204) 



118 
104 
104 
104 
104 
35 
35 
104 
35 
49 
109 
109 
8 
109 
104 
X 
33 
104 
72 
X 



49 

104 
33 
104 
109 
94 

106 
70 



fi4 
104 
104 
104 

X 

72 

104 

X 

72 

104 

168 

72 

104 

X 

72 

49 

104 

118 
118 
118 
118 
106 
106 
37 
33 
9 
94 



Common name 



Pluto black 

Pontachrome black SW 

Pontachrome brown R, SW.. 

Pontachrome yellow SW 

Pontacyl rubine BR_ 

Pontamine blue GH cone 

Pontamine brilliant violet B.. 

Pontamine diazo black II 

Pontamine diazo blue 3G 

Pontamine diazo green 20L.. 
Pontamine diazo orange RR.. 
Pontamine diazo scarlet 2BL. 
Pontamine diazo violet BL__. 
Pontamine diazo yellow 2GL. 

Pontamine fast orange ER 

Pontamine fast scarlet 4BA.. 
Pontamine light gray GG 



Resorcin brown D, YX cone. 

Rosanthrene A, R 

Rosanthrene orange 

Rubber blue 5R 

Rubber orange R R 



Safranine SB... 

Scarlet 3B cone 

Serichrome black WSE 

Serichromo green B, G 

Silk black 4BF, G 

Silk brown O 

Silk red brown R 

Solamine blue FF 

Solantine blue FF 

Solantine brown R 

Solantine orange G 

Solantine red 8BLN 

S R A black III, IV, IV Hy spl 

S R A blue III, IV, V. 

S R A golden orange I, III 

S R A golden veilow VIII, IX, X, XI. 

S R A heliotrope I 

S R A orange I, II, III 

S R A pink II 

S R A pure veilow I, II 

S R A red I, III, V, VII 

S R \ violet II 

Sudan orange 

Sulphanthrene violet B 

Sulphon acid black N2BM 

Sulphon lyanine 2B 

Supcrchrome yellow 2G... 



Thianthrene brilliant red 3B. 
Thianthrene pink FB, FF... 



Victoria fiist violet 2R extra. 

Victoria fast violet 2RC 

Violet CSW 



Wool black B, GRF . 

Wool black 6BG 

Wool fast violet 2R.. 

i Wool green B 

Wool navy B . _ 



Yellow TX. 



Zambezi black BG, PC. 

Zambezi black D 

Zambezi black V._ 



Zambezi black VX. 



Manufac- 
turers' 
identifica- 
tion num- 
bers (ac- 
cording to 
list on 
p. 204) 



' Sales of Zambezi black V were 210,650 pounds, valued at $146,196, with a production of 245,696 
Pounds. 



DYES AND OTHER FINISHED COAL-TAK PRODUCTS 69 

Dyes and other finished coal-tar products: Production and sales, 1926 



Common name 



COLOR LAKES 



Black lakes- 
Blue lakes.. 



Brown lakes. 
Eosine lakes. 



Green lakes. 



Lithol red lakes . 



Maroon lakes. 



Orange lakes. 



Para red lakes. 



Red lakes. 



Scarlet lakes. 



Violet lakes. 



Yellow lakes. 



Total color lakes 

PHOTOGRAPHIC CHEMICALS 

Diaminophenol hydrochloride 

(amidol) . 

Hydroquinol _. 

p-Hydroxy phenylglycine 

Methyl p-aminophenol sulfate 

(metol) . 
Quinone 



Total photographic chemicals. 



Manufacturers' identi- 
fication numbers (ac- 
cording to list on p. 204) 



73,140, X, X 

13, 15, 23, 28, 34, 45, 49, 53 
57, 71, 73, 77, 79, 84, 9i: 
135, 140, 141, 143, 148 
171, X, X, X, X, X, X 
X. 

28, 34, 57, 84, 140, 143, 157 
X. 

13, 15, 23, 28, 34. 45, 53, 57 
71, 73, 77, 79, 84, 88, 91 
135, 139, 140, 141, 143 
148, 171, X, X, X, X 
X, X, X. 

13, 23, 28, 34, 49, 53, 57, 68 
73, 77, 79, 84, 91, 135 
140,141, 143,148, X, X 
X,X,X, X, X,X. 

5, 13, 23, 28, 49, 52, 57, 71 
73, 77, 79, 81, 84, 88, 91 
135, 139, 140, 143, 148 
168, 171, X, X, X, X 
X, X. 

5, 13, 23, 28, 34, 45, 49, 53 
71, 73, 77, 81, 84, 91, 96 
125, 139, 140, 141, 143 
148, 157, 165, 168, X, X 
X. X, X. 

13,23,28,34,53,57,71,77 
79, 84, 91, 135, 139, 140 
141, 143, 148, 157, 171 
X, X, X, X, X, X 
X, X. 

5, 13, 23, 28, 45, 49, 52, 53 

71, 73, 77, 79, 81, 84, 88 
91,125,139,140,143,165 

168, X, X, X, X, X, x: 
x,x. 

13. 23, 28, 34, 45, 49, 53, 57 
71,73, 77, 81,84, 88, 91 
96, 125, 135, 139, 140, 141 
143, 148, 165, 168, 171 
X, X, X, X, X, X, X 
X. 

5, 13, 23, 28, 45, 53, 57, 71 
77, 81, 84, 88, 91, 125 
135, 139, 140, 141, 143 
148, 165, 168, 171, X, X 
X, X.X, X. x,x. 

13. 23, 28, 34, 45, 53, 57, 71 

72, 73, 77, 79, 84. 91, 96 
135, 140, 141, 143, 148 
168, X, X, X, X, X, X 
X X. 

13, 28, 49, .57,71,73,77, 79 
84,91,140, 141, 143, 148, 
168,171,X,X, X,X, X 
X, X. 



Sales 



Quantity 



Value 



Pounds 

I 

'"847,"649V"$552,"i9i 



58, 448 
770, 038 

433, 432 
828, 371 

764, 569 

472, 489 

2, 871, 550 

1, 839, 142 

635, 929 
457, 206 



8,206 
641, 274 

196, 154 

568, 871 

273, 353 

134, 829 

1, 072, 161 

1, 159, 438 

206,128 
441, 789 
318,987 



11, 425, 139 



166. 



97, 171, X. 
54 



54, 171, X. 
X 



387, 698 



6, 02.% on 



Aver- 
age 

price 

per 

pound 



Produc- 
tion 
(quan- 
tity) 



Pounds 



.140 
.833 



.453 



.687 



.358 



.373 



.630 



.324 



.966 



.480 



858, 234 

64,288 
771, 010 

435, 007 
873, 773 

790, 469 

4.59, 272 

3, 005, 179 

1, 866, 085 

635, 113 
475, 773 
684, 398 



.527 111,796,203 



504,941 



1.025 



257, 038 



1. 302 393, 426 



70 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHEE SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

Dyes and other finished coal-tar products: Production and sales, 1926 — Continued 





Manufacturers' identi- 
fication numbers (ac- 
cording to list on p. 204) 


Sales 




Common name 


Quantity 


Value 


Aver- 
age 
price 
per 

pound 


Produc- 
tion 
(quan- 
tity) 


MEDICI NALS 

Acetanilide, USP - - 


95, 97, 108 


Founds 
379, 173 


$123, 737 


$0. 326 


Founds 
458, 927 




X 






1, 104 










(3:6-diamino-10-methy) acridine 
chloride) . 


X - 












138 












74,90 . -- 










Anesthesine. (See Benzocaine.) 
Apothesine (hydrochloride of diethy- 
laminopropyl-cinnamate) . 


X - 










1,46,90,92, 127, 146, X 

18, 48, 97, 101 


305 
1, 796, 155 

2,874 


90,406 
1, 079, 477 

30, 714 


296.413 
.601 

10. 687 


444 


Aspirin (acetyl salicylic acid) 

Atophan. (See Cincophen.) 
Benzocaine (anesthesine) (ethyl p- 
amino benzoate). 


1, 823, 748 


1, 115, 138, X 


2,768 


138 . . 




Benzocaine picrate --- 


X 










138 












138 










Benzyl succinate, sodium salt 


138 










97, 108, 127... . 


1,061 


3,563 


3.358 




Bismuth salicylate and subsalicylate 


90 






97, 108 












104 








Bromeikon (tetrabromophenolph- 

thalein sodium salt). 
Butyn (p-amino benzoyl gamma di 

normal butyl amino propanol 

sulfate). 


90 










1 










90 












90 












138 













18 










Calcium guaiacol sulfonic acid 


18 - 












90 - 










Chloramine T (sodium p-toluene 


X -- 










sulfochloramide) . 
Chloroxyl (phenylcinchoninic acid, 

hydrochloride). 
Cinchophen (atophan) (phenyl cin- 

choninic acid) (2-phenylquinoline- 

4-carboxylic acid) . 


87 










1,7,27,87,123, X 

90 


74, 405 


395, 233 


5.312 


79, 632 




74 











Cyclohexenylethylbarbituric acid — 
Dichloramine T (p-toluene sulfone 
dichloramide) . 


18 










101 










X 










acid derivative) . 


74 . 










lodeikon (tetraiodophenolphthalein 
sodium salt). 


90 










138 












95,138 


1" 






Luminal (phenylethylmalonyl urea) 
(phenylethyl barbituric acid). 

Luminal sodium (phenylethyl bar- 
bituric sodium salt) (phenylethyl- 
malonylurea sodium salt). 


18 










18 










74,90 . 












X 










curisalicyloxy acetate^ 


90 












18 












X 












18 










salicylic acid. 


104 ..- . 












127 










Monoglyeol ester of salicylic acid 


18 










138 -.- 










Neocinchophen. (See Tolysin). 
Neoarsphenamine 


1, 46, 90, 127, 146, X 


3,607 


1, 157, 225 


320. 828 


4,113 



DYES AND OTHER FINISHED COAL-TAR PRODUCTS 71 

Dyes and other finished coal-tar products: Production and sales, 1926 — Continued 





Manufacturers' identi- 
fication numbers (ac- 
cording to list on p. 204) 


Sales 




Common name 


Quantity 


Value 


Aver- 
age 

price 

per 

pound 


Produc- 
tion 

(quan- 
tity) 


MEDiciNALS— continued 
Parafuchsine 


104 


Founds 






Pounds 


Peralga (l-diethylbarbituric acid-2- 


7 










amidopyrene) . 
Phenacaine (ethenyl-p-diethoxy- 


X 










diphenylamidinehydrochloride) . 
Phenolphthalein 


123, X 










Phenolsulfonates (calcium, sodium 


97, 127 










zinc, etc.). 
Potassium acid phthalate 


90. 










Potassium salicylate 


90 










Potassium sulfocarbonate 


90 










Procaine (p-amino benzoyl diethyl 


1, 115, X 


6,749 


$183,478 


$27. 186 


6 702 


aminoethanol). 
Proflayine (3:6-diamino acridine sul- 


1, 104 




fate) . 
Resorcinol monoacetate 


54 










Salicaine (salicvl alcohol) 


27 










Salol (phenyl salicylate) 


48,74,97 


88, 686 


66, 163 


.746 


84, 182 


Salophen (acetylparaminophenyl 


18 




salicylate;; . 
Scarlet red 


55,104 












X 










Sodium salicylate . 


48, 74, 97, 101 


444,847 


158,978 


.357 


469, 345 


Stoyarsol 


127 


Strontium salicylate 


74, 90. . 










Sulfoarsphenamine 


1,90,92, 127, 146, X 

90 


736 


287, 865 


391. 121 


847 


Sulfocarbonate sodium 




Tetraiodophenolphthalein ( n o s o - 


54 










phen. 
Tetraiodophenolphthalein sodium .. 


54 










salt (antinosin). 
Tolysin (p-methylphenyl cincho- 

ninic ethyl ester) (neocinchophen) . 
Triphenylstilbene sulphide 


1, 27 










150 










Trypan blue 


104 










Tryparsamide 


127 












90 
























3, 593, 226 


6, 742, 128 


1.876 


3, 696, 196 




25,48, 58, 93,95, 101 

54 




FLAVORS 

Coumarin.. 


138, 925 


355, 915 


2.562 


146,640 


Dulcin 




Ethvl benzoate 


58, 62. 63, 78. 149, X 












25. 58. 63. 78. X 










Ethvl salicylate 1 .W. 63. 78. 149. X 










Methvl cinnamate 


25, 58, 63, 78, 149 










Methyl salicylate 


48, 74, 78,97, 101, 149, X.. 
X. 


2, 242, 983 


743, 140 


.331 


2, 456, 684 


Saccharin 




Vanillin (see Part II) 


93 





















Total flavors 


2, 629, 126 


1,482,697 


.564 


2, 857, 913 




25, 58, 63, 149, X 




PERFtTME M.VTERIALS 

Acetophenone 


1,343 
12, 353 


3,606 
14, 930 


2.685 
1. 200 


1,362 


Amyl salicylate 


25,62,78, 142, 149, X,X,X. 
25, 58, 62, 78, 149, X 


13, 789 


Aubepine (anisic aldehyde) (see Part 
11). 




58,63 










Benzvl acetate 


25, 63,78,95,142, 149, X,X- 


41,351 

32, 086 

29,190 

266 


45. 574 

45, 231 

35, 381 

2,134 


1.102 
1.410 
1.212 
8.023 


39, 473 


Benzyl alcohol 

Benzyl benzoate 

Benzvl cmnamate 

Benzyl formate 

Benzyl phenylaeetate 

Benzyl propionate 

Benzyl salicylate 

Benzyl succinate 

Benzylidene acetone.. .. 

Bromstyrol 

Cinnamic acid 


25,78,95, 142, 149, X.X... 
58,63,78,142, 149, X. X... 
58, 63, 78, 149, X 


35, 441 

28,009 

266 


149 




149 










149 










149 










X 










95 149 










25, 149, X 






4.246 


186 


62, 63 









49113—27- 



72 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHEE SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

Dyes and other finished coal-tar products: Production and sales, 1926 — Continued 





Manufacturers' identi- 
fication numbers (ac- 
cording to list on p. 204) 


Sales 




Common name 


Quantity 


Value 


Aver- 
age 
price 
per 

pound 


Produc- 

tion- 

(quan- 

tity) 


PERFUME MATERIALS— continued 


149 . ... 


Pounds 






Pounds 




25, 62, 63, 149 












149 ... 










p-Cresylphenyl acetate 


58 












X.. 




1 






160, X 




1 




Diethyl phthalate 


21, 25, 58, 63, 78, 149, 158, 

X, X, X. 
149 


980, 847 


$291,066 $0,297 


1, 044, 218 


Dimethyl acetophenone 






58 












63, 149 










25, 48, 78, 149 


54,847 


33,723 


.615 


58, 042 




58 




Hydratropic aldehyde 


149 - 










Indol 


58 












58 












63 - 












58 












58,63 












149 










Methyl acetophenone 


25, 63, 149 . 


356 


1,277 


3.587 




Methyl anthranilate 


48, 58, 78, 149, X 




Methyl benzoate 


63, 78, 149, X, X 


512 


789 


1.541 


785 




149 






58 . 










p-Methylbenzyl anthranilate 


58 










58 












58 










Methyl-p-cresol (p-eresyl methyl 
ether) . 


149 










58, 149 


" 




1 


Mcthvlphenyl acetate 


25,58,63,78, 149, X 

58 


608 


3,309 


5.442 


577 


Methylphenv glvcidate 






58 . 












58 












25 






1 




25 






1 


Musk xylene 


25 






:.::.:: 




b-Naphthyl anthranilate 


58 










Nerolin (b-naphthol ethyl ether) 


63, 78, 149 










58 












25, 63 












25, 58, 78, 149, X 


-- . . 










58 










PhenvJthevl acetate 


58, 78, 149 












25, 48, 58, 78, 149 












149 












149 










Phenylglycol acetate 


58 










Phenylyinylethylencmethyl ketone. 
Skatol (methyl indol) 

Tetrahvdroparamethvl quinoline 

Yara yara (b-naphthol methyl ether) . 


149 










58 149 










58 


1 








63, 149 


1 










1 








Total Derfume materials 


1,731,887 820,264 


.474 


1, 922, 666 




17, X 




Synthetic tanning materials 


k4, 325, 724 7,647,756 

1 


.534 


14, 106, 993 


Synthetic phenolic resins 


17, X 









Employees and Rates of Pay 

The number of employees receiving specified rates of pay on Decem- 
ber 18, 1926, or on the nearest representative date for which tliis 
information could be obtained, as reported by 139 firms manufac- 
turino- coal-tar products in 1926, is shown in Table 21. The 33 firms 
for which data are omitted either conducted a business in which 
coal-tar products were not the primary articles of manufacture or did 
not have separately organized departments dealing therewith. 



EMPLOYEES AND RATES OF PAY 



73 



In 1914 there were but seven firms in the United States manufac- 
turing coal-tar colors and other products.^ These gave employment 
to 528 persons. The 139 firms reporting in 1926 gave employment to 
10,142 persons. In recent years there has been a steady integration 
of plants and a decrease in employees. Comparative figures are as 
follows: 1925, 154 firms, with 10,971 employees; 1924, 158 firms, with 
12,569 employees; 1923, 181 firms, with 14,841 employees. 

Chemists and technically trained men in 1926 constituted 13.4 per 
cent of ail employees, as compared with 14.6 per cent in 1925 and 13.4 
per cent in 1924. Of the 1,358 men of this group in 1926, 32.70 per 
cent received $75 and over per week, 29.23 per cent received between 
$50 and $75, 8.02 per cent between $35 and $40, 6.48 per cent between 
$40 and $45, and 6.48 per cent between $45 and $50. For men with- 
out technical training the scale of compensation was as follows: 23.43 
per cent received between $25 and $30 per week, 23.47 per cent 
between $30 and $35, 16.08 per cent between $20 and $25. In 
general, rates of pay were higher in 1926 than in 1925. Table 28 
compares specified rates of pay of technically trained men wdth those 
of men not having such training. 

Among the technically trained men the increase in terms of per- 
centages in the pay of each group was as follows: 5.46 per cent in the 
group receiving $75 and over and 0.29 per cent in the group receiving 
$50 and under $75. Of men without technical training the increase 
was 3.8 per cent in the group receiving $30 but under $35, 2.89 per 
cent m the group receiving $40 but under $45, and 1.19 per cent in 
the group receiving $45 but under $50. 

As stated in previous reports, the dye and coal-tar chemical in- 
dustry has probably a larger propoi-tion of technically trained men 
than any other manufacturing industry in the United States. 



Table 27. — Employees and rates of pay in the coal-tar dye and chemical industry, 

1926 





Number of employees at each 
specified wage engaged in 
manufacturing operations 


Percentage receiv- 
ing each speci- 
fied wage 


Percentage receiv- 
ing each speci- 
fied wage or more 


Wages per week 


Chemists 
and tech- 
nically 
trained 
men 


Men 
without 
technical 
training 


All em- 
ployees 


Chemists 
and tech- 
nically 
trained 
men 


Men 

without 
technical 
training 


Chemists 
and tech- 
nically 
trained 
men 


Men 
without 
technical 
training 


Under $10 




22 

191 

548 

1,412 

2,058 

2,062 

1,106 

694 

392 

266 

33 


22 

194 

566 

1,454 

2,134 

2,155 

1,215 

782 

480 

663 

477 




0.25 

2.17 

6.24 

16.08 

23.43 

23.47 

12.59 

7.90 

4.46 

3.03 

.38 




100. 00 


$10 but under $15 


3 

18 
42 
76 
93 
109 
88 
88 
397 
444 


0.22 
1.33 
3.09 
5.60 
6.85 
8.02 
6.48 
6.48 
29.23 
32.70 


100.00 
99.78 
98.45 
95.36 
89.76 
82.91 
74.89 
68.41 
61.93 
32.70 


99.75 


$15 but under $20 ... . 


97.58 


$20 but under $25 - 


91. 34 


$25 but under $30. 


75. 26 


$30 but under $35. 


51.83 


$35 but under $40 


28.36 


$40 but under $45 


15.77 


$45 but under $50 


7.87 


$50 but under $75 


3.41 


$75andover 


.38 






Total 


1,358 


8,784 


10, 142 


100. 00 


100.00 













« Bureau of the Census, Dept. of Com, 



74 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHEE SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Table 28. — Employees and rates of pay in the coal-tar dye and chemical industry, 

1926 





Percentage receiving each specified wage 


Wages per week 


Chemists and technically 1 Men without technical 
trained men training 




1926 


1925 


Increase 


1926 


1925 


Increase 


Under $10 








100. 00 
99.75 
97.58 
91.34 
75.26 
51.83 
28.36 
15.77 
7.87 
3.41 
.38 


100.00 

99.71 

97.57 

92.34 

74.98 

48.03 

27.73 

12.88 

6.68 

2.84 

.27 




$10 but under $15 


100.00 
99.78 
98.45 
95.36 
89.76 
82.91 
74.89 
68.41 
61.93 
32.70 


iodoo 

99.63 
97.90 
95.36 
89.91 
84.16 
74.51 
68.14 
61.64 
27.54 




0.04 


$15 but under $20 


0.15 
.55 


.01 


$20 but under $25. 


1 1.00 


$25 but under $30.... 


.28 


$30 but under $35 


1.15 

11.25 

.38 

.27 

.29 

5.46 


3 80 


$35 but under $40 


.63 


$40 but under $45... 


2.89 


$45 but under $50 


1.19 


$50 but under $75 


.57 


$75 and over 


.11 







'Decrease. 



Research Work 



Of the 172 firms engaged in the manufacture of dyes and other 
coal-tar chemicals in 1926, 44 had separately organized research 
laboratories. The total cost of the research work carried on in these 
laboratories, together with that done in laboratories not separately 
organized for research, was $2,011,830. This figure is a decrease of 
$426,405 from expenditures in 1925. The Tariff Commission's cen- 
sus includes in 1926, as in 1925, not only the total cost of the research 
work carried on by the companies reporting, but the net cost of such 
work chargeable to coal-tar products alone. The $1,953,914 reported 
as the net cost in 1926 is doubtless an understatement of the real 
cost of experimental work, since the figures do not include in all 
cases the cost of research forming a part of manufacturing operations 
but not charged against research on the books of the companies. 

The total sales of the finished coal-tar products in 1926 was nearly 
$60,000,000. The high research expenditure, amounting to nearly 
33^ per cent of the total sales, gives some indication of the large 
amount considered necessary for such work in this industry. 



PART III 

PRODUCTION OF COAL-TAR PRODUCTS AND OF 

SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS OTHER 

THAN THOSE OF COAL-TAR ORIGIN, 

BY STATES, 1923 



75 



Part III 

PRODUCTION OF COAL-TAR PRODUCTS AND OF SYN- 
THETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS OTHER THAN THOSE OF 
COAL-TAR ORIGIN, BY STATES, 1923 



Introduction 

In this detailed study of finished coal-tar products and synthetic 
organic chemicals other than those of coal-tar origin, the commission 
has selected the year 1923 because production was then at its peak. 
Table 29 shows the number of plants producing m 1923 and the quan- 
tity and value of their production of coal-tar intermediates, dyes, 
medicinals, and perfumes and flavors, and other synthetic organic 
chemicals of noncoal-tar origin. 



Table 29.- 



-Coal-tar products and synthetic organic chemicals other than those of 
coal-tar origin: Total 'production in 1923 



Group 



Coal-tar intermediates 

Coal-tar dyes 

Coal-tar medicinals 

Coal-tar flavors and perfumes 

Synthetic organic chemicals (noncoal-tar) 



Number 
of plants 



104 
90 
32 
22 
74 



Production 



Pounds 
231, 393, 871 

93, 667, 524 
3, 273. 085 
2, 823, 473 

90. 597, 712 



Value 



.$68, 962, 492 

51.323,473 

5, 468, 284 

2. 780, 158 

21, 70", 299 



The value of production was obtained by applying the average 
sales value per pound of each group of products of each individual 
plant to the total production of that group. Alany plants manufac- 
ture more than one group. 

Production by States of each of the groups of products for which 
total figures are given in Table 29 is shown in Charts 1 to 5. 

Intermediates 

From 200 to 300 intermediates are made from coal-tar crudes. 
These are used in manufacturing finished coal-tar products, in vul- 
canizing rubber, as camphor substitutes, as insecticides, and, after 
purification, as drugs, perfumes, and flavors. Domestic producers 
sell approximately one-third of the total production of intermediates 
and consume the remainder in manufacturing finished coal-tar prod- 
ucts. Sales in 1923 were 83,582,808 pounds, valued at $18,916,058. 

New Jersey, with 35 plants, produced more than 40 per cent, 
measured either by quantity or value, of the total output of the coun- 
try. Pennsjdvania and New York produced more than half of the 
remainder. Chart 1 shows the localization of the industr}^ in 1923. 

Dyes 

The manufacture of coal-tar products is intimately related to 
several branches of the chemical industry. Heavy chemicals, includ- 
ing acids, alkalies, salt, sulphur, and chlorine, and several noncoal-tar 

77 



78 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 




DYES 79 

organic chemicals, such as methanol, acetic anhydride, and formalde- 
hyde, are used in large quantities in the manufacture of dyes and other 
finished coal-tar products. Coal-tar dyes are essential raw materials 
for the textile, paper, leather, ink, fur, varnish, food, and other 
important industries. 

A well-developed chemical industry is essential to an industrial 
country not only in times of peace but in a national emergency, 
when explosives, gases, medicinals, and countless other chemicals 
are needed by the military and civilian population. The World 
War proved conclusively that an organic chemical industr}^ is the 
basis of an}' scheme of national defense. That there was an intimate 
relation between the German dye industry and German military oper- 
ations is a matter of common knowledge. After the battle of the Alarne 
it was found that the large stocks of ammunition accumulated before 
the war were nearly exhausted, and at a meeting between the I. G. 
and the General Staff it was decided to mobilize the dye producers 
Within six weeks dye plants were delivering millions of pounds of 
T.N.T. and picric acid. From then on throughout the entire period of 
the war they played a vital part in all military plans; they were the 
source of supply of poison gas, explosives, and other needed chemicals. 

The domestic production of coal-tar dyes reached its peak in 1923, 
when 93,667,524 pounds were produced. In 1924 production de- 
clined to 69,000,000 pounds, but by 1925 had increased to 86,000,000 
pounds, and by 1926 to 88,000,000 pounds. The large increase in 
1923 was partly due to market conditions abroad. During the 
occupation of the Ruhr, German3''s output of dyes was greatly 
reduced and she was unable to supply her Far Eastern markets. 
China and Japan then turned to the United States and Great Britain 
for a part of their requirements and thus helped to expand the export 
trade of these two countries. 

In 1923 the sales of the 88 firms (90 plants) manufacturing dyes 
totaled 86,567,446 pounds, with a value of $47,223,161. 

Dye manufacture is concentrated in the East. New Jersey and New 
York, with 49 of the 90 domestic plants, produced about two-thirds 
of the quantity of all the coal-tar dyes made in this country in 1923. 
Their combined output was 60,769,711 pounds, valued at $35,336,- 
101. Proximity to consuming markets is a factor of importance in 
the location of dye plants. The textile industry, including cotton, 
woolen and silk mills, located largely along the Atlantic coast, is the 
chief consumer of domestic dyes. 

Before the war, the German coal-tar dye and coke-oven industries 
were even more concentrated than are ours today. They were com- 
pressed within an area described by a square of 300 miles^ The 
advantageous location of the German plants with cheap water routes 
and short rail hauls of materials from one factor}^ to another or to sea- 
port has been of great importance in the growth of the dye industry. 

Chart 2 shows the number of dye plants and the quantity and value 
of dyes produced in each state, or group of states, in 1923. 

'Hesse, Bernhard C: The Industry of the Coal-tar Dyes, an Outline Sketch, in Journal of Industrial and 
Engineering Chemistry, vol. 6, No. 12, 1013, December, 1914. 



80 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 




census of dyes and other synthetic chemicals 81 

Medicinals 

Coal-tar medicinals include such important products as neoars- 
phenamine, of great value in the treatment of syphillis; aspirin, 
used in the treatment of colds; acetanilide, for reducing fever; and 
luminal, in the treatment of epilepsy. During the World War the 
shortage of some of these products in this and other countries was of 
grave concern to military and civilian health officers. 

The vStates of New York and New Jersey produced more than 70 
per cent of the cpiantity of coal-tar medicinals manufactured in the 
United States in 1923. Chart 3 shows the geographical location of 
plants and the size of the industry in 1923. 

Coal-Tar Fla\ors and Perfumes 

This group of products includes chemicals for flavoring foods and 
food products and for perfuming soaps and other toilet articles. 
New Jersey, the principal producing State, had 8 of the 22 plants 
operating in 1923, and produced more than a third of the total 
output. Chart 4 shows the combined production of these two groups. 

Synthetic Organic Chemicals Other than Those of Coal-Tar 

Origin 

Products of this group show a steady increase in output. In 1923 
the production amounted to more than 90,000,000 pounds, valued 
at nearly $22,000,000. In 1924 this had risen to 116,000,000 pounds, 
in 1925 to 157,000,000 pounds, and in 1926 to 215,000,000 pounds. 
Sales in 1925 were valued at more than $23,000,000, and in 1926 at 
about $30,000,000. 

A large part of the increase in production is due to the growth of 
the lacquer and pyroxylin plastic industries which are heavy con- 
sumers of ethyl acetate, butanol, butyl acetate, and other solvents. 
Another cause of increased production is the continued demand for 
xanthates, used in sulfide ores containing copper, lead, zinc, silver, 
and gold. Rapid developments in flotation processes have lowered 
the cost of treating certain ores. It is estimated that over 45,000,000 
tons of ore were treated by flotation methods in this country during 
1926. The quantity of* flotation agent used per ton of ore has 
decreased from more than 4 pounds per ton of ore treated in 1923 to 
less than 2 pounds in 1926. 

Other products included in this group are carbon tetrachlori'de, 
ether, ethylene and its derivatives, formaldehyde, vanillin, and 
tetraethyl lead. 

Production centers in the East but is rather widely disseminated. 
New Jersey had 27 of the 74 plants manufacturing in 1923 and pro- 
duced nearly half of the 90,000,000 pounds made by the whole 
industry. The Middle Western States produced a substantial part 
of the remainder. Chart 5 shows the geographical distribution of 
the industry in 1923. 



82 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 




MEDICINALS 



83 




84 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 




PART IV 

DYES IMPORTED FOR CONSUMPTION 
IN THE UNITED STATES, 1926 



85 



Part IV 

DYES IMPORTED FOR CONSUMPTION IN THE UNITED 

STATES, 1926 



Introduction 



Beginning with 1919 the United States Tariff Commission has 
annually compiled a detailed census of dye imports similar to that 
published by the Department of Commerce under the title "Artificial 
Dyestuffs Used in the United States (fiscal year 1913-14)/' commonly 
known as the "Norton Import Census." 

The commission first compiled such statistics for use in the admin- 
istration of section 501, Title 5, of the tariff act of September 8, 1916, 
which made the continuance of specific duties on coal-tar products, 
after September 8, 1921, dependent upon the production in the United 
States of as much as 60 per cent in value of the consumption of these 
products. As the information was found to be of direct value to 
manufacturers, consumers, and unporters, as well as to the commission 
itself, in considering tarift' aspects of the coal-tar chemical industry, 
the annual census of imports has been continued. 

Imports for consumption for the year 1926, including warehouse 
withdrawals for dyes and other products within paragraphs 27 and 28, 
have been compiled and published each month under a cooperative 
arrangement between the chemical divisions of the Department of 
Commerce and the Tariff' Commission. Certain discrepancies will be 
found to exist between the final figures published under this arrange- 
ment for the year 1926 and the preliminary figures published in the 
monthly reports for the reason that in checking the preliminary 
figures, minor errors were corrected and a few additions made. 

In tabulating the dye statistics the commission has followed in the 
main the "Colour Index," issued by the British Society of Dyers and 
Colourists, and the "Schultz Farbstoft'tabellen," and other sources of 
information in the files. 

Such dyes as could not be identified by Colour Index numbers are 
classified by the ordinary method of application, as follows: Acid, 
basic, direct, lake and spirit soluble, mordant and chrome, sulphur, 
and vat. The classification of a dye by its method of application is 
often purely arbitrary, as certain colors may be applied by either of 
two methods. 

The rate of exchange used in converting foreign invoice values to 
United States currency is either the rate given on the invoice, or, in 
comparatively few cases, the exchange value published by the 
Treasury Department for the month in which consular certification 
occurred. 

Summary of Imports of Dyes 

The total imports of coal-tar dyes in 1926 was 4,673,196 pounds, 
valued at S4, 103,301, as compared with 5,209,601 pounds in 1925, 
with an invoice value of $4,637,240. (For comparison of imports 
with domestic production and effect of change of duty on imports, 
see pp. 40-42.) 

49113—27 7 87 



88 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Table 30. — Imports of dyes into the United States, by country of shipment, 1924- 

1926 



Country of shipment 


Percentage of total 
quantity 


Country of shipment 


Percentage of total 
quantity 




1924 


1925 1926 


1924 


1925 


1926 




50 

30 

5 

4 


53 50 

32 33 

4 2 

4 4 


Canada 


4 
3 
2 
2 


2 
2 
2 

1 


3 


Switzerland - -. 


France 

Belgium 

Netherlands 


4 


Italy. __. 

England 


4 







IMPORT STATISTICS 

Table 34, page 91, shows the quantity and the value (when pub- 
iishable) of individual dyes imported in 1926. Table 31 is a summary 
of dyes imported from 1921 to 1926, inclusive, classified according 
to method of application. Table 32 compares the volume of the 1926 
imports of the leading dyes in each class by application with corre- 
sponding imports in the period 1923 to 1925 and in the fiscal year 1914. 



Table 31. 



-Dyes imported into the United States, classified by tnethod of application, 
1921-1926 





1921 


1922 


1923 


Class of dye 


Pounds 


Per cent 
of total 


Pounds 


Per cent 
of total 


Pounds 


Per cent 
of total 


Acid-. 


1, 455, 823 


34.24 


601, 395 


15.10 


544, 048 


17.56 






Vat: 

{(i) Indigo 


70, 975 
1,045,370 


1.66 
24.59 


505 
1, 548, 519 


.01 
38.89 






(6) Vat (other than indigo) 


1, 207, 554 


38.98 


Total 


1,116,345 


26. 25 


1, 549, 024 


38.90 


1. 207, 554 


38.98 






Mordant and chrome: 

(n) Alizarin 


136, 283 
559, 678 


3.58 
12.78 


27, 086 

689, 704 


.68 
17.32 


27, 716 
425, 699 


.89 


(ft) Mordant and chi-ome 


13.74 


Total 


695, 961 


16.36 


716, 790 


18.00 


453, 415 


14.63 






Direct 


537, 664 
220, 938 
163, 527 
43, 553 
19, 100 


12.64 

5.20 

3.84 

1.02 

.45 


671, 621 
194, 883 
155, 084 
76, 853 
16, 981 


16.86 

4.89 

3,89 

1.93 

.43 


527, 014 
114, 023 
210, 896 
23, 213 
18, 030 


17.01 


Sulphur 


3.68 


Basic 


6.81 


Spirit-soluble and color-lake 


.75 


Unidentified, unclassified special 


.58 


Total 


4.252,911 


100. 00 


3, 982, 631 


100. 00 


3,098,193 100.00 









Class of dye 

Acid 

Vat: 

(a) Indigo 

(6) Vat (other than indigo) - . 

Total - 

Mordant and chrome: 
• (a) Alizarin 

(b) Mordant and chrome 

Total.- - -- 

Direct. 

Sulphur 

Basic -- 

Spirit-soluble and color-lake 

Unidentified, unclassified special. 

Total 



1924 



Pounds 



324, 538 



Per cent 
of total 



5,471 
1, 493, 851 



1, 499. 322 



42, 695 
371, 207 



413, 902 



421, 538 
87,764 

249, 068 
17, 334 
9,073 



3, 022, 539 



Pounds 



.18 
49.43 



49.61 



1,952 
2, 416, 890 



2, 418, 842 



13.69 



75, 174 
566, 924 



642, 098 



13.95 

2.90 

8.24 

.57 

.30 



759, 024 

122, 230 

607, 637 

57, 540 

12, 271 



100. 00 5, 209, 601 



Per cent 
of total 



.04 
46.39 



46.43 



1.45 
10.88 



12.33 



14.57 
2.35 

11.66 
1.10 
.24 



100.00 



Pounds 



Per cent 
of total 



2,806 
1, 845, 208 



1, 848, 014 



.06 
39.49 



39.55 



86,606 
413, 398 



500, 004 



1.85 
8.85 



10.70 



805, 848 
149, 723 
406, 732 
86, 106 
82, 914 



4, 673, 196 



17.24 
3.20 
8.70 
1.84 
1.78 



100.00 



DYES IMPOETED FOR CONSUMPTION 



89 



Table 32. — Dyes of each class, according to method of application, imported in 
largest quantity in the calendar year 1926, compared with corresponding imports 
in 1925, 1924, 1923, and in the fiscal year 1914 



Schultz 
No. 



Class and type name of dye • 



1926 



1925 



1923 



1914 



858 
545 



564 
543 

503 

546 

'257' 



265 



907 
842 
918 
908 

881 
849 
760 
833 
901 



761 
759 



795 

885 



778 
855 
783 
551 
637 
854 
790 



865 

780 



622 

784 



635 
804 
862 



ACID DYES 



Erioglancine 

Indocyanine B 

Alizarin saphirol B 

Patent blue A 

Wool fast blue BL, GL. 

Polar red 

Fast green 

Brilliant milling blue,., 

Naphthalene green 

Patent blue V 

Neolan blue 

Erioviridine B 

Neolan pink 

Cyanol 

Alizarin rubinol 

Sulphoneyanine G 

Alizarin saphirol SE 

Neolan yellow 

Alizarin supra blue 

Acid milling black B . _ . 



VAT DYES * 



Ciba scarlet 

Indanthrene blue GCD 

Indanthrene red violet RH 

Ciba red R 

Helindone printing black RD. 

Brilliant indigo 4B 

Indi.nthrene yellow G 

Indanthrene golden orange G. 

Indanthrene olive R 

Ciba violet R 

Indanthrene brown G 

Indanthrene golden orange R. 

Anthraflavone GC 

Indanthrene brown R 

Cihanone yellow R 

Brilliant indigo B 

Indanthrene pink B 

Indanthrene dark blue BO 

Ciba pink BG 

Hydron brown G, R 



MORDANT AND CHROME DYES 



Alizarin, sjTithetic 

Alizarin pure blue B 

Purpurine 

Eriochrome azurol B 

Gallamine blue 

Alizarin viridine FF 

Anthracene blue 

Metachronie blue black.. 
Acid anthracene brown. .. 

Alizarin cyanine green 

Alizarin red S 

Alizarin light gray BS 

Eriochrome blue black G_ 

Delphine blue B 

Acid alizarin gray G. 

Alizarin SX 

Alizarin cyclamine R 

Modern violet 

Alizarin blue S 

Alizarin blue black __ 



Pounds 
71,502 
51, 295 
41,945 
29 899 
29,468 
26, 145 
23,993 
19, 308 
18, 539 
16, 857 
16,090 
14, 977 
14, 548 
13,614 
12, 940 
12, 582 
12, 497 
12,235 
11,188 
11, 022 



142. 785 
134, 832 
111,779 
111,320 
75, 000 
65,711 
63, 326 
60, 094 
56, 114 
55, 104 
54, 420 
53, 826 
41,002 
37.111 
34, 830 
32,920 
32,548 
27. 932 
27, 326 
23, 690 



86,606 

31,612 

19,948 

19, 886 

18, 197 

17, 634 

16,294 

15, 353 

13, 295 

11, 105 

11,119 

10, 998 

9,921 

9,003 

8,875 

8,580 

8,372 

8,315 

7,180 

7,147 



' The type name represents in most cases the prin- 
cipal color imported in 1926 
2 Included in Indamine 6R. 
^ Included in Schultz No. 858. 
' Included in Schultz No. 804. 



Pounds 

35, 295 

16. 521 

30, 425 

31, 097 

30,248 

28,584 

18, 967 

8,400 

15, 299 

24.892 

8,813 

13,946 

1,100 

8,995 

7,734 

3,264 

24,382 I 

1,872 

2,000 

17,635 



123, 473 

139, 876 
69, 107 
85, 084 
68, 000 
92, 300 

111,713 
46, 646 
22, 772 

276, 858 
51,813 
90, 730 
73,816 
59, 033 
34. 815 
12,455 
27,429 
27, 961 
22, 971 
36, 076 



75, 174 

34, 352 

28, 281 

28, 093 

36, 021 

21, 798 

500 

15,000 

5, 515 

11,276 

14, 402 

9,503 

2,204 

3,481 

8,705 

12,506 

15 

7,983 

16, 359 

51,066 



Pounds 
28. 655 

40.600 

10, 715 
4.940 
7,756 

30. 721 
6,200 
4,357 

23,606 

220 

4.796 



3,688 

11,514 

100 



9,484 



40, 200 
68, 450 
29. 038 
17, 635 
8.300 
5,783 
39, 771 
76, 046 
30, 665 
82, 598 
18, 155 
112,339 
35, 936 
71,313 
21,035 
11.218 
39, 131 
2,943 
21, 653 
42, 681 



42, 695 

20, 729 

271 

12,664 



5,778 
1,493 
9,500 
86 
7,636 
3,611 



5,597 
7,025 

11,773 

796 

1,925 

8,152 

78, 195 



Pounds 
38, 254 
0) 

26, 615 

11,872 

2,264 

15, 031 

17, 190 

8,540 

13, 328 

66, 279 

991 

8,825 

661 

19, 979 

48, 826 

333 



15, 543 



37, 524 

70, 546 

21,916 

7,388 



6,417 
87, 946 
67, 265 

1.050 
64, 517 
18, 07 1 
79, 717 
27, 721 
55, 081 

8 373 
14,835 
13, 348 

5. 051 
(0 

4,065 



27, 716 
9,132 



29,244 

17,217 

912 

7,000 

(«) 

16, 241 
25,017 



2,205 
2,001 
13, 526 
8,206 
797 
990 
7,948 
70, 917 



Pounds 

66, 526 

23, 138 

77, 148 

63, 744 

19.238 

2,821 

14, 347 

9,966 

22, 144 

196, 228 



40, 868 



40,015 
10, 917 
86,911 

i*) 



69, 590 



22, 265 

478, 980 

27, 874 

1,001 



16, 880 
12, 683 
20, 092 
13, 334 
20,836 



50,496 
7.143 
1,596 
298 
8,175 
602 
11,096 



1,600 



202, 392- 
19,471 



21,060 
2, 756 



22,444 
399 

30, 555 
2,000 
53,154 



13, 120; 



21,231 
51„706 



' Included in Alizarin direct blue.. 

6 Single strength. 

' Included in Schultz No. 912. 

* Partlv included in Schultz No. 88.. 

« Included in Schultz No. 180. 



90 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Table 32. — Dyes of each class, according to method of application, imported in 
largest quantity in the calendar year 1926, compared with corresponding imports 
in 1925, 1924, 1923, and in the fiscal year 1914 — Continued 



382 
316 



561 



70 
628 



409 
317 
577 
631 



749 



Schultz 
No. 



319 
273 



358 
449 



Class and type name of dye 



339 

274 

457 

14 



S24 


660 


797 


608 


729 


559 


789 




788 


603 


677 


512 


793 


606 


680 


515 


70fi 


538 


851 


690 


926 


661 


927 


663 


658 


496 



DIRECT DYES 

Chlorantine fast blue 

Chlorantine fast violet.-. 

Diamine scarlet 3B 

Diaminogene blue 

Diazo sky blue 

Chlorantine red 8BN 

Diaminogene blue QQ 

Brilliant sky blue 

Trisulphon brown B 

Diazo brilliant green 3G-. 

Benzo fast brown 

Chlorantine fast brown... 

Rapid fast red GL 

Diphenyl catechine G 

Zambesi blacks 

Diamine fast orange 

Diamine orange B 

Diaminogene B_ 

Trisulphon brown 2G 

Diphenyl chrysoine GC. 

BASIC DYES 

Rhodamine B— 

Rhodamine 6G DN. , 

Methylene green 

Euchrysiue 

Victoria blue B 

Patent phosphine 

Acridine orange 

Magenta 

Phosphine 

Methyl violet 

Methyl Lyons blue 

Diphene blue B, R 

Thionine blue GO 

New methylene blue 

Setoglaucine 

SULPHUR DYES 

Thionol green 

Cross dye green B, G 

Thionol brown O, R 

Thionol yellow 

Indo carbon 

Pyrogene green GK 



Pounds 
40, 446 
37, 576 
34, 599 
28, 395 
22, 599 
21,930 
21,602 
20,939 
18,509 
17,935 
17,496 
15, 431 
14,500 
13, 227 
12,864 
11,938 
11,803 
11.108 
11,015 
9,336 



11 133, 
II 61, 
21, 
18, 
18, 
17, 
15, 
12, 
10, 
9, 



41,304 
41,246 
18,110 
10, 960 
9. 9;-0 
5,511 




'" Separate figures not obtainable. 

11 Single strength basis. 

12 Included in Schultz 571. 



li Included in Schultz 606. 

» Included in Schultz No. 748. 

1' Included in Schultz No. 746. 



The following table gives the stocks of coal-tar dyes and interme- 
diates remaining in bonded warehouse each month since January 31, 
1926, as published in the Monthly Summary of Foreign Commerce 
by the Department of Commerce: 



Table 33.- 



-Dyes remaining in bonded customs warehouse January 31, 1926, to 
April 30, 1927 



Date 



Coal-tar 

I dyes and 

colors 



.Tan. 31, 1926. 
Feb. 28, 1926. 
Mar. 31, 1926 
Apr. 30, 1926. 
May 31, 1926. 
June 30, 1926. 
July 31, 1926. 
Aug. 31, 1926. 



Pounds 
703, 159 
596,154 
447, 588 
359, 164 
535i 226 
671, 396 
512, 186 
557, 852 



Coal-tar 
interme- 
diates 



Pounds 
763, 409 
855, 170 
896, 530 
928, 593 
946, 120 
772, 475 
781,796 
690, 031 



Date 



Sept, 30, 1926 
Oct. 31, 1926. 
Nov. 30, 1926 
Dec. 31, 1926. 
Jan. 31, 1927. 
Feb. 28, 1927. 
Mar. 31, 1927 
Apr. 30, 1927. 



Coal-tar 

dyes and 

colors 



Pounds 
395, 535 

281. 320 

303. 321 
360,488 
615, 542 
896, 059 
869, 963 

1, 125, 983 



Coal-tar 
interme- 
diates 



Pounds 
590, 520 
557, 257 
539, 561 
562, 536 
647, 692 
719, 055 
712, 617 
827, 260 



DYES IMPORTED FOE CONSUMPTION 



91 



Key to Abbreviations Used in Table 



1. THE LEADING GERMAN COMPANIES 



10 Interessen Gemeinschaft Teerfarben Industrie A. G. 

A — Actien-Gesellschaft fur Anilin-Fabrikation, Berlin. Founded 1873. 

B Badicche Anilin-und-Soda-Fabrik, Ludwigshafen-on-the-Rhine. Founded 1865. 

By Farb^nfabriken, vormals Friedr. Bayer & Co., Leverkusen-on-tbe-Rhine. Founded 1862. 

C - Leopold Cassella & Co., Frankfort-on-the-Main. Founded 1870. 

K Kalle & Co., A. G. Biebrich-on-the-Rhine. Founded 1870. 

M Farbwerke, vormals Meister-Lncius & Bruning, Hochst-on-t he-Main. Founded 1862. 

AG Actien-Gesellschaft fur Anilin-Fabrikation, Berlin and Chemische Fabrik Griesheim-Electron, 

Oflenbach-on-the-Main. 

2. THE SMALLER GERMAN COMPANIES 

rj Carl Jager, G. m. b. H., Anilinfarbenfabrik, Dusseldorf. Founded 1823. 

GrE Chemische Fabrik Griesheim-Electron, Offenbach-on-the-Main. Founded 1842. 

tM Chemische Fabriken, vormals Weiler ter Meer, Uerdingen-on-the-Rhine. Founded 1877. 

Sg G. Siegle & Co., G. m. b. H., Stuttgart. 



CN. 
StD. 



3. FRENCH COMPANIE.S 

Compagnie Nationale de Matieres Colorantes et Produits Chimiyues. Founded 1917. 
Societe Anonyme des Matieres colorantes et produits chimiques St. Denis (formerly A. 
Poirrier), St. Denis, near Paris, France. Founded 1830. 

4. SWISS COMPANIES, ALL AT BASEL 

DH Farbwerke, vormals L. Durand, Huguenin & Co. Founded 1871. 

G Anilinfarben-und-Extract-Fabriken, vormals Joh. Rud. Geigy. Founded 1764. 

I Gesellschaft fiir chemische Industrie. Founded 1885. 

S Chemische Fabrik, vormals Sandoz & Co. Founded 1887. 

5. ENGUSH COMPANIES 

Bro Brotherton & Co. (Ltd.), City Chambers, Leeds. 

B. A. C... British .\li7,arine Co. (Ltd.), Manchester. 

B. C British Celanese (Ltd.), London 

B. D. C_. British Dyestuffs Corporation (Ltd.), London. 

L. B. H... L. B. Holliday & Co. (Ltd.), Huddersfield. 

Lo Charles Lowe & Co., Manchester. 

N. B. C-. North British Chemical Co., Fairfield Road Works, Droylsden, Manchester. 

SD Scottish Dyes (Ltd.), Grangemouth. 

Q Importations of unknown source, through dealers in colors. 

Table 34. — Imports of dyes, calendar year 1926 



Col- 
our 
Index 
No. 



40 



Schultz 
No. 



137 



42 
182 



Name of dye 



Total. 



Naphthol yellow SXX 

Fast yellow 

Fast yellow extra 



Manufac- 
turer 



IG. 



IG. 

Fast yellow S - IG- 

IG. 



Chrysoidine RL base. 

Moti orange 

Moti orange. 

Moti orange R 

Erio floxine 2G 

BrOliant sulphon red 

Brilliant sulphon red B... 

Brilliant sulphon red lOB. 

Fast sulphon violet 5BS-- 
Metachrome orange R 

Chrome orange R 

Metachrome orange R 

Nitrosamine red paste 

Victoria violet 4BS 

Sorrel red X 

Helio fast red RL 

Rapid fast red GL paste 

Ponceau 3R 

Ponceau 

Ponceau 3R. 



Sg.. 

IG. 

Scarlet 3R .1 IG. 



tM. 
IG. 
G.. 



DH. 
IG.. 
IG.. 

S.... 
IG.. 
By-. 
IG.- 



Imports 



Quantity 



Pounds 
4, 673, 196 



220 
900 



25 
300 



110 
6,500 



2,000 

10 

5,500 

100 

14, 500 
225 



Invoice 
value 



$4, 103, 301 



5,712 



92 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

Table 34. — Imports of dyes, calendar year 1926 — Continued 



Col- 


Schultz 
No. 


Name of dye 


Manufac- 
turer 


1 Imports 

1 


Index 
No. 


Quantity 


Invoice 
value 


104 


88 
94 
100 
129 

118 

119 
121 

122 

125 
126 

140 
144 
145 
133 
153 
154 
159 

175 

iss' 

'""'194' 
217 
227 
230 
231 
233 
240 
248 

256 

257 

259 
275 
264 
265 
273 

274 


Metachrome olive brown G 




Pounds 
6,500 






Metaclarome olive brown G 


Bro... 






Metachrome olive brown G 


AG 






105 


Acid anthracene brown R 


IG 

IG 

IG 

G_.. 


1,242 

1,200 

25 

440 

600 




114 


Guinea fast red 2R 




119 


Eosamine G. 




124 


Chromazone red new cone 




127 


Geranine 




$801 




Benzo brilliant pink G 


By 






Brilliant geranine B . . 


By 








Geranine G 


By 






128 


Diamine rose GD 


IG 


300 

755 




130 


ErikaB A.... 






Erika B cone ^ .__ 


s 






Erika B extra ... 


V 






131 


Erika GN 




300 






Cotton pink GN 


IG. 






Erika GN 


IG. 






134 


Black JI (Janus black I) 


IG 


300 
150 




135 


Janus blue 






Blue JG 


IG 






Indoine blue BB 


IG 






145 


Jasmine high cone. ... 


G 


2,297 
200 
31 
1,102 
1,134 
2,000 
4,400 




150 


Orange S . 


ig:::::::: 

IG 

G. 




151 


Orange IIP 




157 


Eriochrome phosphine RR 




165 


Lake red C 


Q 




167 


Pilatus chrome brown RX 


IG.. 




172 


Acid alizarin black R... _ 






Acid alizarin black R 


IG 






Acid alizarin black. 


S . 






173 


Metachrome violet B 


IG. 

Sg 


2,100 

25 

1,331 




184 






196 


Acid ponceau E.. 








Acid ponceau E . 


G 






Ponceau S._ 


I 






200 


Helio purpurine 7BL. 


IG 

IG 

G 


100 

50 

4,408 

800 
25 

100 
25 
25 
50 

150 

55 

6,776 




203 


Chromogene black ET 




219 


Eriochrome flavine A . 




225 


Thiazine red RXX.. 

Alaska black lOBX 


IG 

IG 

IG 

IG 

IG 

IG 

IG 

G 




246 




252 


Cotton scarlet extra 




256 


Cloth red 3G extra . . 




257 


Cloth red3B extra ... 




259 


ClothredB _ 




266 


Red JB (Janus red B) 




276 


Wool fast scarlet R conc- 




278 


Benzo fast red 8BL 




9, 402 




Benzo fast red 8BL 


By 






Benzo fast rubine BL 


By 








Chlorantine fast red 7BL 


I.. . 








Chlorazol fast red K-- . . .. 


BDC 








Direct fast red 8BL 


By 








Fast cotton red 8BL 


A 






■288 


Sulphoncyanine G . 


IG 


12, 582 
600 




289 








Coomassie navy blue GNX 


BDC 






Sulphoncvanine 5R 


IG 






291 


Croceine scarlet lOB .. 


By 

IG 

s 


100 
50 

600 
11,022 
28,395 




299 


Diamond black F 




306 


Fast sulphon black F 




307 


Acid milling black B 


G 




316 


Diaminogen blue 




25, 066 




Blue NA. 


IG 






Diaminogen blue NA 


C. 










S 






:317 


Diarninogen 




11, 108 


6,681 




Black extra 


c 








IG. 








Diamine neron BBG 


IG 








Diaminogen extra 


C-. 








Diazo fast black MO 


By 






■319 


Benzo fast heliotrope 




4,613 








By 






Benzo fast heliotrope 2RL 


By 






321 


Diamine fast scarlet GO... 


IQ 


50 1 
3,603 I 




324 


Diazo brilliant orange - . . 








IQ 






Diazo brilliant scarlet ROA 


IG 








DYES IMPOKTED FOR CONSUMPTION 93 

Table 34. — Imports of dyes, calendar year 1926 — Continued 



Col- 


Schultz 
No. 


Name of dye 


Manufac- 
turer 


Imports 


Index 

No. 


Quantity 


Invoice 
value 


325 


279 

279 

283 

284 
291 
296 

300 
303 
306 
314 
308 
313 
319 

322 

327 

'"""339" 
344 

349 

358 
360 

363 

364 
366 
373 

380 

387 


Diamine fast violet 




Pounds 
6,025 


$8, 070 




Brilliant benzo violet B. 


By 




Diamine brilliant violet B 


C 








Diamine fast violet FFBN 


c 








Diamine fast violet FFRN 


c 






326 


Benzo fast orange S 




3,270 


2,910 






By 






By 










By 








Benzo fast scarlet 8BS- — 


By 








Direct fast scarlet 5BL 


By 






327 


Benzo fast scarlet 4BS 




1,697 






Benzo fast scarlet 4BS 


By 






Diamine fast scarlet 4BS ... _ __ 


G... 






331 


Bismarck brown S 


s 


10 

27 

5 

1,440 




332 




IG 

DH 




341 






346 










IG 








IG 






349 






6,403 






Benzo fast yellow 4GL. 


IG 






Chlorantine fast vellow 4GL ._ 


I...- 






357 




IG 

s 


800 
100 
750 
125 
180 
200 
34, 599 




364 






368 


Ignamine (Pyramine) orange 3G 


B 




369 




IG 

IG 

IG 




371 






376 






382 




18, 279 




Chloramine red B, 3B 


S 






IG 








Universal Bordeaux C- 


IG 






387 




s 


10 
525 




388 












IG 






Chlorazol violet R 


BDC 






394 




IG 

G 


75 

1,655 

11,863 

35 




403 






409 




10.. 




420 










c 






Universal dark brown C . . 


IG 






423 






475 






Diamine brown B 


IG 






Universal olive brown C 


IG 






430 






26, 145 


17, 512 






G 






G 








Polar red G cone . 


G 








Polar red R cone . .. 


Q 








Polar red RS cone - 


G 






436 


Chlorantine red SB 




21,930 


17,188 




Acetopurpurine SB . . 


A... 






Chloramine brilliant red 8B 


S 








Chloramine red 8BS 


By 








Chlorantine red 8BN 

Diazol fast purpurine N8B 

Toluylene red powder.. 

Ignamine (PjTamine) orange R 

Chromocitronine R.. . _. 


I . . 








CN 








AG 






440 


IG 


1,800 
1,983 




441 






Chrome fast yellow RD 

Chromocitronine R 

.\cid milling red G 


IG.. 






DH 






443 




1,174 






Acid anthracene red G ... . . 


10.. 






Acid milling red G . 


G. 






448 


Cotton red 4BX 




1,575 






Cotton red 4BX 


IG.. . 






Universal scarlet C 


10 






449 


Diazo brilliant black B 


IG 

IG. 


5,309 
2,050 
8,282 




451 


Deltapurpurine 5B 




459 


Congo orange R-. 






Congo orange R 

Diamine orange F 

Benzo new blue 5B.. 

Columbia blue G 


IG.. 






IG 






466 


By. 

IG 1 


10 
100 




473 





94 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHEK SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

Table 34. — Imports of dyes, calendar year 1926 — Continued 



Col- 


Schultz 
No. 


Name of dye 


Manufac- 
turer 


Imports 


Index 

No. 


Quantity 


Invoice 
value 


487 


400 

404 
415 
423 

424 

""'lis' 

449 

454 
457 
459 
471 

472 
474 

475 
476 

477 
205 
206 
207 
14 
18 

19 

22 

23 

26" 

29 

"'"493' 
494 
496 

498 
499 
500 

501 
503 

505 


Acid anthracene red 3B 




Pounds 
10,911 


$7,404 




Acid anthracene red 3B 


By- 






Acid milling red R . . 


G .. : . 








Brilliant milling red R 


IG 








Milling scarlet 4R 


IG 






488 


Diamine yellow N 

Universal light blue C 

Diaminogen blue NBB_-. 


IG 

IG.. 


487 

125 

3,075 




608 




616 


3,947 




Blue NBB 

Diaminogen blue NBB. . . 


IG.. 






IG 








Universal steel blue C 


IG.. .... 






518 


Diamine sky blue FF . . . . . . ... 




210 






Chloramine skv blue FF. 


S 






Diamine skv blue FF 


IG.. 






632 


Diazo fast green BL. . 


IG... 

IG 

IG 


25 

250 

225 

18, 509 




543 


Diamine brilliant Bordeaux R . . . . 




559 


Diamine bronze G__ 




561 


Trisulphon brown B 






Chlorazol brown LF 


BDC 






Trisulphon brown B.. . 


S 






570 


Trisulphon Brown GS cone 


s 


5,004 

11,015 

325 

4,856 




577 


Trisulphon brown 2G cone 


s .. 




578 


Universal dark blue C 


IG.. 




590 


Chloramine blue 30 






Chloramine blue 30 cone 


S 






PoJyphenvl blue OC 


Q. 






591 


Chloramine blue IIW.. 


S 


4,000 
40 




593 


Diamine green B._ 








Diamine green B 


IG 






Universal dark green C 


IG 






594 


Diamine green G... 


IG 


55 
750 




596 


Benzo chrome brown Q 






Benzo chrome brown G 


By 






Dianil chrome brown G 


M 






598 


Diphenvl brown GS 


G 


1,653 

110 

13, 227 

992 

9,336 
165 




627 


Diphenvl chrysoine RRC 


G 




628 


Diphenyl catechine G supra 


G 




629 


Diphenvl fast brown GF 


G 




631 


Diphenvl chrysoine GC 


G 




632 


Diphenvl fast vellow.. _ . . 








Diphenyl fast veUow GL supra 


G 






Diphenvl fast yellow RL supra 


G 






636 


Fast light yellow 3G '. 




6,750 


7,082 




Fast acid vellow 3G 


C. 






Fast light yellow 2G . 


By 








Fast light vellow 3G 


By 






639 


Xylene light vellow. 




4,908 






Supra light yellow 2QL 


By . 






Xylene light vellow 2G 


S 






640 




Se 


50 

6,060 

500 

200 

5,806 




645 


Kiton fast vellow 3G 


i^":: — 




649 


Triazogcne orange R powder 


IG... 

S 




652 


Omega chrome red B cone 




653 


Pyrazol orange R 








Direct fast orange K 


I 






Pyrazol orange R cone 


s 






654 


Diazo fast vellow 2G 


By.. 

Q - - 


1,273 

11 

1,102 

5, 750 




655 


Auramine . . 




656 


Auramine G_ . 


I 




658 


Setoglaucine 




7,076 




Basic blue 6G.. . 


By 






Rhoduline blue 6Q... 


IG 








Setoelaucine 753 


G 






661 


Turquoise blue G 


IG 

IG 


387 

20 

880 




662 


Brilliant green powder, cone 




663 


Setocyanine. - . 






Brilliant silk blue B 


I 






Setocyanine 396 


G 






664 


Acronol brilliant blue 


BDC 


190 
14, 977 




667 


Erioviridine B_._ 


16, 805 




Benzyl green B 


I. 






Brilliant acid green 6B 


By 








Erioviridine B supra.. 

Guinea fast green 3B 


G 








IG 










IG 






670 


Light green SF yellowish 




2,110 


2,280 




Acid green cone, powder 


M 








IG 








Light green SF yellowish „„ 


Sg 







DYES IMPORTED FOR CONSUMPTION 95 

Table 34. — Imports of dyes, calendar year 1926 — Continued 



Schultz 
No. 



715 



506 



507 
508 



512 



516 



518 
522 
523 



528 
529 
531 
532 
533 
535 



536 



537 



538 
539 



543 



Name of dye 



546 



E rioglaucine 

Eriogiaucine AP 

Erioglaucine EP 

Eriogiaucine supra 

Erioglaucine X high cone 

Kiton blue L 

Xylene blue VS cone. --_ 

Xylene blue AS 

Brilliant acid blue NAS 

Xylene blue AS cone -.- 

Magenta 

Fuchsine N 

Magenta AB 

Methyl violet 

Methyl violet 

Methyl violet base.. ._. 

Methyl violet 4B 

Methyl violet NFB 

Violet extra fine 

Violet BB.. 

Crystal violet 

Crystal violet extra powder. 

Crystal violet C cone 

Ethyl violot 

Victoria blue 4R 

Fast green extra bluish 

Fast acid green extra bluish. 

Fast green extra bluish 

Acid magenta 

.\cid magenta 

Acid magenta II 

Fast acid violet lOB powder 

Acid violet 6B 

Eriocyanine AC__ 

Alkali violet A extra cone _ 

Acid violet 7BN 

Alkali blue GB 

-Alkali blue 6B 

Methyl alkaline blue 

.Alkali blue 

Alkali blue 4R 

Alkaline blue 3R 

Alkaline blue IIR 

Methyl silk blue 

Methyl silk blue new 

Reflex blue K 

Methyl Lyons blue 

Soluble blue 

Opal blue, bluish 

Soluble blue, I old 

Soluble blue T 

Water blue... _. 

Brilliant dianil blue _ 

Betamine blue 8BL extra... 

Brilliant dianil blue 6Q 

Brilliant sky blue 5G 

Direct brilliant blue 8B 

Patent blue V 

Brilliant acid blue V 

Carmine blue V 

Guinea blue V 

Kiton pure blue V 

Patent blue V 

Poseidon blue BGX cone... 

Patent blue A 

Brilliant acid blue A. 

Guinea blue A 

Kiton blue A 

Neptune blue BR cone 

Patent blue A 

Poseidon blue BR extra 

Poseidon blue BXX 

Cyanol.- - - 

Blue extra 

Blue FF 

Cyanol blue powder 

Cyanol FF 

Xylene cyanol FF conc.,„, 



Manufac- 
turer 



CN. 

S._.. 



CN. 
IG.. 



StD. 
IG.. 
IG.- 
IG.. 
IG.. 
IG.. 



IG. 
G.. 
B.. 
I... 



GrE. 
By.. 



C... 
BD. 
By.. 
IG.. 
G... 
IG.. 
IG.. 
IG.. 
IG.. 
IG. 



IG.. 
C... 
AG. 



G.. 
By. 
G.. 



IG. 
IG. 
IG. 
IG. 



IG. 
IG. 
IG. 
I... 



By.. 
M.. 
AG. 
I— . 
IG.. 
B.. 



IG.. 
AG. 
I.-.. 
IG.. 
M.. 
IG.. 
IG.. 



IG. 
IG. 
C. 
IQ- 

S.- 



Imports 



Quantity 



Pounds 
71, 502 



4,000 
4,905 



12, 777 



9,047 



4,190 



3,000 

1,102 

23, 993 



578 



11 

1,000 

8,818 

50 

50 

120 



1,439 



760 



7,716 
3,220 



2,332 



16, 857 



29, 899 



13, 614 



Invoice 
value 



96 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

Table 34. — Imports of dyes, calendar year 1926 — Continued 



Schultz 
No. 



Name of dye 



Manufac- 
turer 



Imports 



Quantity 



549 
551 



552 
553 
554 
555 
557 



558 



559 



560 



562 
564 



565 
571 



673 



572 

574 



581 
580 
582 



584 



585 
592 



596 



Acid violet 6BN 

Acid violet 6BN 

Acid violet 6BN00.- 

Acid violet 6BNO 

Brilliant chrome violet 4B 

Eriochrome azurol B 

Brilliant blue O 

Chromoxane brilliant blue G 

Eriochrome azurol BC 

Oxychrome brilliant blue PB 

Chromal blue GC — . 

Eriochrome cyanine RC 

Chrome azurol S cone 

Aurine 

Chrome violet 

Chrome violet 

Chrome violet CG 

Victoria blue R 

New victoria blue B.. 

Victoria blue R base 

Victoria blue B 

Basic pure blue BO 

Victoria blue B 

Victoria blue B base 

Victoria pure blue BO 

Night blue 

Night blue 

Night blue 

Intensive blue B 

Erio green B 

Alkali fast green 3G 

Erio green B supra 

Kiton fast green V 

Naphthalene green cone 

Naphthalene green V 

Poseidon green V^GGX 

Xylene fast green B cone 

Wool blue G extra 

Rhodamine S 

Rhodamine S 

Rhodamine S... 

Sulpho rhodamine B 

Sulpho rhodamine B 

Sulpho rosazeine B 

Rhodamine B (single strength) 

Rhodamine B cone 

Rhodamine B extra 

Rhodamine B extra 

Rhodamine B extra base 

Rhodamine G extra (single strength).. 

Rhodamine 3B extra (single strength) . 

Rhodamine 3B extra... 

Rhodamine 3B extra 

Rhodamine 6G extra (single strength) . 
Rosazeine 6G extra 

Fast acid eosine Q. , 

Fast acid violet B 

Erio fast fuchsine. 

Erio fast fuchsine BBL... 

Fast acid violet R 

Violamine3B--. 

Chromorhodine B 

Chromorhodine BN 

Chromorhodine BR... 

Fluorescein 

E r y throsine -\ - - 

Ery throsine A 

Ery throsine A extra 

Ery throsine A extra 

Phloxine 

Auracine G — 

Auracine G. 

Auracine G 

Aurazine G 

Coriphosphine OX extra 



I 

IQ- 
G„- 
DH. 



By. 
By. 
G.. 
A.. 
G.. 
G.. 
G.. 
Lo. 



G... 



By. 
I... 



B.. 
I.__ 
IG. 
IG. 



IG. 
IG. 



IG. 
G.. 
I... 
IG. 

M. 
B.. 

S... 
IG. 



M. 
IG. 



G- 
I... 
IG. 
IG. 
I... 



I... 
IG. 



IG. 
IG. 
IG. 



G.. 
IG- 
IG- 



DH. 
DH. 

M... 



IG. 
IG. 

Sg.. 
M.. 



G.. 
IG. 
G.. 
IG. 



Pounds 
3,324 



110 
19,886 



993 
3,306 
4,408 
1.232 

715 



1,742 

"isi'os?" 



675 



300 
18, 539 



300 
160 



1,242 
' 133," 945' 



1,650 
950 



5,000 



25 

700 

2,704 



50 
3,087 



40 
140 



75 
685 



600 



DYES IMPOETED FOE CONSUMPTION 97 

Table 34. — Im-porta of dyes, calendar year 1926 — Continued 



Col- 


Schultz 
No. 


Name of dye 


Manufac- 
turer 


Imports 


Index 

No. 


Quantity 


Invoice 
value 


788 


603 

606 

""607" 
608 

613 

"'"198" 
617 

618 

671 
672 

673 

680 
687 
688 
686 
690 

"""699" 
698 
700 

681 


Acridine orange . 




Pounds 
15, 621 


$32 120 




\cridine orange DlIE . ._ 


DH 






Brilliant acridine orange A ..j.. 


DH 








Phosphine orange _ _ 


G 








Rhoduline orange NO.. 


By 






789 






17, 787 


22, 472 




Brilliant phosphine 5G-- 


I 




Patent phosphine Q 


I 








Patent phosphine 2G - . 


I 








Patent phosphine M 


I 








Patent phosphine R - 


I 








Xantho phosphine G. .-. . 


DH - 






793 


Phosphine . 




10, 250 


10 327 




Philadelphia yellow 2G 


IG. . . 






Phosphine 


IG 








Phosphine 3R 


IG... 






794 


Flavophosphine G cone -- 


M 


100 
2,520 




795 










Rheonine AL cone 


B 






Runic AL cone 


IG 






797 






18, 080 


23 253 




Euchrysine RRDX. 


B 






Patent phosphine GRNTN.... .._ 


IG... 








Patent phosphine RRDX 


IG 






SOI 


Quinoline yellow . 




6.629 


5 112 




Quiuoline vellow . 


G 






Quinoline vellow cone 


S 








Quinoline vellow extra 


I 










IG 






802 




IG 

G... 


1,000 

1,102 

776 




813 






814 


Chloraniine vellow FF - . 




954 




Chloramine vellow FF cone . 


S - - 






Diphenvl chloramie yellow FF supra 


G 








Universal yellow C 


IG 






815 


Thioflavine T - 




4,500 


7,514 




Basic j'ellow T 


IG 




Rhoduline vellow 6G. 


By... 








Tannoflavine T 


S 






827 




M - - 


150 

5,811 




828 


Azo carmine GX 








Azo carmine GX 


B 






Rosinduline GXF - 


K 






829 


Azo carmine B - 




6,626 


8,017 




Azo carmine B extra .. . . . 


IG 




Azo orseille BB 


IG . . 








Rosinduline 2B bluish 


IG 






833 


Wool fast blue 




29, 468 


53,229 




Acid blue AM 


By 




Benzvl fast blue BL. 


I.... 








Benzyl fast blue GL • . 


I . - 








Wool fast blue BL 


IG 








Wool fast blue GL 


IG 








Wool fast violet B... _ 

Xvlene milling blue AE cone . 


By -. 








S 








Xylene milling blue BL cone . . 


S 










s 






842 


Methvlene violet 3R.\ extra 


IG 

IG 

StD 

IG... 


750 
1. 3.50 

100 

15 

7, .341 




845 


Methylene heliotrope extra strong 




846 


Rosolane paste 




847 




851 


Diphene blue -._ _-. -.. 






Diphene blue B. 


IG 






Diphene blue R . . 


A 




853 


Acid evanine BF 


IG 

IG 

Q 


500 

50 

11 

2,105 




861 


Induline N'N 




864 


Nigrosiuc O (spirit soluble) 




865 


Nigrosine (water soluble) 


1,087 




Nigrosine T 


IG 






Nigrosine GF _ 


IG - 






Silver gray P . .. 


IG 




873 


Direct gray 




1,161 




Direct gray R paste 




Q.. 

StD 

By 


3,868 

],322 

100 






Malta gray J 






New fast gray 





98 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

Table 34. — hnports of dyes, calendar year 1926 — Continued 



Col- 


Schultz 
No. 


Name of dye 


Manufac- 
turer 


Imports 


Index 

No. 


Quantity 


Invoice 
value 


875 


923 

620 
622 

625 
627 

635 

637 

""640' 
645 
653 
654 
659 
660 

661 
663 

667 

""748" 
748 

746 

774 
778 

779 


Ursol - - 




Fomids 
10, 692 


$9, 837 




Fur black DB, SC 


AG 




Fur blue black A, B, D, SA, SB 


AG 








Fur blue black SDF 


AG 








Fur blue gray . _. . - -. 


AG 








Fur brown NZ, NZD, 0, P, PR, PY 


AG 








Fur brown 2R, 4R, SK, SKG, SO, SP 


AG 








Fur gray AL, ALA, B, G, B 


AG 








Fur gray brown SLA 


AG 








Fur olive DA, 3G, 6G 

Fur red brown 6R... 

Fur yellow 2G, 4G, 6G, 6B 

Fur yellow brown A, 2GA, 4GL 

Fuscamine G 

Nako ER, PS, RH, 3GA 

Nako black ST, D, B... 

Capri blue GON_. 

Brilliant delphine blue B 

Chromazurine . 


XQ 








AG 








AG 








AG 








IG 








IG 








IG... 






876 


IG 

S 


50 
9,003 
6,062 




878 




879 




14, 555 




Chromazurine E 


i3H 






Chromazurine G.. 


DH 








Chromazurine G _ 


I 






882 


Modern heliotrope . . ' 




871 






Gallo heliotrope BD. 


IG 






Modern heliotrope DH.. . .. 


DH. 






S84 


Chromacetine blue S 




4,545 


11,419 




Anthracvanine S 


DH 






Chromacetine blue S extra. 


DH 








Gallo navy blue S powder 


By ... . 








Modern cyanine V . ..... 


DH 






892 






8,315 


16,876 




Blue 1900 TCD 


DH 




Gallo violet DF powder 


By _. 








Modern violet DH 


DH 








Ultra violet MO . 


S 






894 


Gallamine blue extra paste . .. . 


G 


18, 197 

100 

11 

2,646 

2,750 

100 

31 

21,328 




898 


Fast green G 


IG 

DH 

DH 

IG 

IG 

IG 




899 


Modern azurine 2G 




905 


Gallazine No. 90 




913 


Danubia (Nile) blue BX 




914 


Danubia blue 2BX. .. 




922 






S24 








Methylene green G 


S 






Methylene green W 


Q 






926 


Thionine blue . . ... 




6,841 


9,525 




Basic blue GO 


M 






Thionine blue G 


I 








Thionine blue GO _ 


IG 






927 






6,300 


8,596 






IG 






New methylene blue NS . . . . 


S 










c 






931 




S 


1,000 

50 

2,332 




937 


Eclipse brown 30K 


G 




969 


Hydron blue R (single strength) .. . . . 










IG 




971 






2,834 








IG . . 








IG 






1006 







4,779 


3,480 






I 








S 










S 


1 


1019 




IG.- 


3,727 
86,606 




1027 


Mizarin, synthetic 


13,205 






I 








IG 










IG 










G 










By 






1033 






7,098 


2,780 






IG 








BDC. 










IG 






Alizarin orange SVV powder (single strength)... 


IG 





DYES IMPORTED FOE CONSUMPTION 99 

Table 34. — Imports of dyes, calendar year 1926 — Continued 



Col- 
our 
Index 
No. 



1035 



1037 



1038 
1039 



lOiO 



1045 
1050 
1051 
1053 



1054 



JOS') 
1059 
1060 
1063 



1064 
1067 
1071 



1073 



Schultz 
No. 



782 



783 



Name of dye 



785 
784 



788 
799 



858 



800 
801 
790 



804 



1075 


856 


1076 


859 


1077 


860 


1078 


865 


1080 
1081 
1082 
1084 


853 
864 
863 

854 



862 



Alizarin red S 

Alizarin carmine 

Alizarin red S 

Alizarin red S 

Alizarin red SW 

Alizarin red AV 

Anthracene brown --. 

Anthracene brown R powder 

Anthracene brown SW powder 

Anthracene brown RD paste 

Purpurine 

Al izari n purpurine 

Purpurine 

Brilliant alizarin Bordeaux R paste 

Alizarin red GI _-. 

Alizarin red GI paste 

Alizarin red XGP paste 

Alizarin SX paste 

Alizarin SX paste 

Alizarin red SX paste 

Alizarin Bordeaux BP paste 

Alizarin cyanine WRR powder. _ 

Alizarin cyanine GG powder 

Alizarin saphirol SE 

Alizarin blue WS - , 

Alizarin light blue SE cone 

Alizarin saphire blue SE.. 

Alizarin saphirol WSA powder 

Erio fast cyanine SE 

Alizarin saphirol B .._ -. 

Alizarin light blue B 

Alizarin light blue B cone 

Alizarin saphire blue B 

Alizarin saphirol B powder... 

Alizarin emeraldole G 

Anthracene blue WB paste 

Anthracene blue SWGG extra powder 

Anthracene blue SWR 

.\nthracene blue BBN cone 

Anthracene blue SWR powder 

Alizarin cyclamine R paste 

Alizarin blue S powder 

Alizarin green S paste 

Alizarin green S paste 

Alizarin green S paste 

Alizarin irisol R 

Alizarin blue JR powder 

Alizarin direct violet ER 

Alizarin irisol R powder 

Alizarin astrol 

Alizarin astrol B powder 

.\lizarin blue AS powder 

Alizarin light blue R.. 

Alizarin direct blue RXO powder 

Alizarin light blue R cone 

C yananthrol G 

Alizarin direct blue BGAOO 

Cyananthrol BGAOO 

Alizarin cyanine green 

Alizarin cyanine green G extra powder.. 
Alizarin cyanine green 3G extra powder. 

Alizarin light green GS cons... 

Anthraquinone violet 

Anthraquinone green GXNO powder. 

Anthraquinone blue green BXO 

.\lizarin viridine (single strength) 

.\lizarin viridine FF paste- 

Alizarin viridine FF powder..- 

Alizarin viridine FF powder 

Alizarin blue black 

Alizarin blue black B powder... 

.\lizarin blue black 3B powder 

Chrome blue black B powder 

Alizarin direct blue B . _ 

Alizarin direct blue B._ 

Alizarin leveling blue B 



Manufac- 
turer 



BAG. 
IG.... 
BDC. 

I 

By.... 



IG- 
IG. 
G.. 



IG. 
IG. 
Bv. 



IG- 
By. 



B-- 
IG. 
Bv. 
By. 
By. 



By- 

S... 
I... 
By. 
G-. 



S.. 
S... 
I... 
IG. 
By. 
IG. 
IG. 



M_ 
IG. 
IG. 
IG. 



BDC. 
IG... 



By. 
M. 
IG. 



By. 
By. 



IG- 

S__ 



IG- 
IG. 



IG. 
By. 
S_. 
IG. 
IG- 
IG. 



IG-. 
IG_. 
DH. 



IG. 
By. 

I... 



IG. 
IG. 



Imports 



Quantity 



Founds 
11,119 



1,000 

2,625 
19,948 



100 
2,043 



399 
100 
500 

12, 497 



41, 945 



10 

445 

300 

16,294 



8,372 
7,180 
5,164 



8,504 



10, 374 



4,100 



6,750 

ii,"io5' 



4,464 

1,135 

600 

17, 634 



7,147 



Invoice 
value 



2,015 



29, 788 



51,658 



24, 500' 



22, 665. 



8,708 
'6,167; 



100 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 
Table 34. — Imports of dyes, calendar year 1926 — Continued 



Col- 
our 
Index 

No. 



1089 
1091 



1092 
1093 
1095 



1096 



1097 



1098 
1099 



1102 



1103 

1104 



1106 

1108 
1109 
1110 



nil 

1113 



1115 



Schultz 
No. 



861 



850 
759 



760 



761 



762 
763 



765 



766 

767 



838 



839 



841 



844 
842 



Name of dye 



843 



Alizarin pure blue B _.- 

Alizarin blue SKY powder. 

Alizarin sky blue B powder.. 

Chrome pure blue B powder _.. 

Anthraquiuone blue SR extra powder 

Alizarin rubinol 

Alizarin rubine QW powder.. 

Alizarin rubinol 3G powder 

Alizarin rubinol 5G powder 

Alizarin rubinol R powder 

Anthra rubine B powder 

Alizarin geranol B 

Indanthrene blue WB powder 

Anthraflavone O (single strength) 

Anthra yellow GC paste 

Anthra yellow GC paste, fine 

Anthra yellow GC powder 

Vat yellow GC paste 

Vat yellow GC powder 

Indanthrene golden orange G (single strength) 

Cibanone golden orange G powder 

Vat golden orange G double paste 

Vat golden orange G double paste, fine.. 

Vat golden orange G powder 

Indanthrene golden orange R (single strength) 

Vat orange RRT paste 

Vat orange RRT paste, fine 

Vat orange RRTS powder... 

Indanthrene scarlet G paste, fine 

Indanthrene dark blue BO (single strength) 

Vat dark blue BOA paste 

Vat dark blue BOA paste, fine 

Vat dark blue BOA powder 

Vat dark blue BGO paste, fine 

Indanthrene black (single strength) 

Anthra green B powder 

Helindone black IBB double paste 

Vat black BB double paste 

Vat black BB powder 

Indanthrene violet R paste 

Indanthrene brilliant violet RR (single strength) . 

Cibanone violet R powder. 

Vat violet RR paste 

Vat violet Rli extra pa«te 

Vat violet RR paste, fine 

Vat violet RR powder 

Vat violgt RRP powder 

Indanthrene blue R8 (single strength) 

Vat blue RS double paste, fine 

Vat blue RS triple powder 

Vat blue RSP powder 

Vat blue RSP triple powder 

Indanthrene blue RK (single strength) 

Vat blue RK paste 

Vat blue RK powder 

Indanthrene blue 3G (single strength) 

Vat blue 3G paste 

Vat blue 3G powder 

Indanthrene blue 2 GS (single strength) 

Vat blue GGSNL double paste 

Vat blue GGSZ double paste 

Indanthrene blue oQ (single strength) 

Indanthrene blue GCD (single strength) 

Cibanone blue GCD double paste... 

Indanthrene blue GCD double paste 

Indanthrene blue GCD powder 

Sandothrene blue NGCD 

Vat blue GCD double paste, fine. 

Vat blue GCD powder 

Vat blue GCDN powder... _ 

Indanthrene blue BCS, BCD (single strength)... 

Paradone blue FC paste 

Vat blue BCD paste, fine .._ 

Vat blue B C S powder 

Vat blue BCSO powder 

Cibanone blue G (single strength)... 

Cibanone blue G paste 

Cibanone blue G powder 



Imports 



Manufac- 
turer 



By. 
By. 
By. 
By. 



By. 
By. 
By. 
By. 
K.. 
By. 
B.. 



B-. 
lO. 
B.. 
B.. 
B.. 



I... 
IG. 
IG. 
B.. 



IG. 
IG. 
IG. 
IG. 



IG. 
IG. 
IG. 
IG. 



IG. 
M. 
IG. 
B.. 
B.. 



By. 
By. 



IG. 
IG. 



IG. 
B.. 

By. 



LBH. 
B.... 
B.... 
lO... 



Quantity 



Pounds 
31,612 



750 
12, 940 



1,455 

1,421 

41,002 



60,094 



53, 826 



500 
27, 932 



800 
13, 746 



441 
23. 403 



2,399 



10, 878 



"2,934 L 



2,400 
134, 832 



15,957 



2,646 



DYES IMPORTED FOR CONSUMPTION 
Table 34. — Imports of dyes, calendar year 1926 — Continued 



101 



Col- 
our 
Index 
No. 



Schultz 
No. 



Name of dye 



Manufac- 
turer 



Imports 



Quantity 



Invoice 
value 



1116 
1118 



847 
849 



1120 


867 


1123 


848 


1129 
1131 


815 
816 


1132 


817 


1133 


819 


1134 


821 


1135 


820 


1136 


822 


1137 


824 



1139 
1142 



1143 



1144 
1145 



1146 
1149 



810 



811 
830 



827 



870 

834 



873 



833 



1151 



Vat (Algol) green BB powder (single strength) 

Indanthrene yellow G (single strength) 

Indanthrene yellow O double paste 

Sandothrene yellow NO 

Vat yellow G double paste 

Vat yellow G double paste, fine 

Vat yellow O powder _ 

Indanthrene brown B _ 

Anthra brown B paste 

Indanthrene gray B (single strength) 

Anthra gray B powder 

Algol scarlet G powder (single strength) 

Indanthrene red 5GK (single strength) 

Vat red 5GK powder -. 

Indanthrene yellow GK (single strength).. 

V'at yellow GK paste 

Vat yellow GK powder... 

Algol red FF, R (single strength).. 

Algol red R paste 

Algol red R powder 

Vat red FF extra paste 

Vat red R paste 

Indanthrene brilliant violet BBK (single strength). 

Vat brilliant violet BBK powder 

Vat violet 3B powder 

Indanthrene brilliant violet RK (single strength)... 

Grelanone violet BR powdei 

Vat brilliant violet RK paste.. 

Vat brilliant % iolet RK powder 

Indanthrene orange RRK (single strength) 

Vat brilliant orange FR powder 

Vat orange RRK powder 

.■\.lgol orange R (single strength) 

Vat orange R paste 

Vat orange 6RTK paste 

Vat orange 6RTK' powder 

Helindone yellow 3GN (single strength) 

Ilelindone yellow 3GN paste 

Vat yellow 3GN powder .._ 

Algol yellow 3G paste. 

Indanthrene red R (single strength) 

Anthra red RT paste 

Anthra red RT paste, fine 

Anthra red RT double paste 

Anthra red RT double paste, fine 

Indanthrene Bordeaux B extra (single strength) 

Anthra Bordeaux R paste 

Anthra Bordeaux R paste, fine 

.\nthra Bordeaux R powder 

Vat Bordeaux R powder 

Indanthrene corinth RK (single strength) 

Vat corinth BB powder.. 

Indanthrene gray (single strength) 

Helindone gray IGK powder 

Vat gray GK paste , 

Vat gray GK powder.. 

Vat gray K paste 

Indanthrene Bordeaux B (single strength) 

Vat Bordeaux B powder 

Indanthrene brown GR (single strength) 

Helindone brown IGR powder 

Vat brown GR paste 

Vat brown GR powder 

Indanthrene olive R (single strength) 

Grelanone olive B powder 

Hydron olive R paste 

Vat olive B paste 

Vat olive B powder 

Vat olive R paste 

Vat olive R powder 

Indanthrene brown R (single strength) 

Indanthrene brown R paste 

Vat brown IR paste 

Vat brown R paste 

Vat brown R powder.. 



By. 



B.. 

S... 
B.. 
B.. 
IQ. 



B.. 
By. 



By. 



By. 
By. 



By- 
By. 
By. 
By. 



By.. 
GrE. 



GrE. 
IG.. 
IG.. 



By. 
By- 



By. 
IG. 
IQ. 



IG. 
M.. 
IQ. 



IG. 
B.. 
IG. 
B.. 



GrE. 



M.. 
By. 
IG. 
IQ. 



M. 
IQ. 
IQ. 



GrE. 
IQ.. 
GrE. 
GrE. 
IQ.. 
IG.. 



By. 
M-. 
lO. 
By. 



Pounds 
1,600 
63,326 



3,456 



400 



104 
1,600 



9,850 



19,944 



1,832 



9,924 



3,088 



400 
264 



1,760 
"6,'775' 



.$52,067 



8,416 



6,924 



597 



6,490 



3,767 



1,352 

'4,"856"| i,'894 



56, 114 34, 880 



33, 276 



102 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 
Table 34. — Imports of dyes, calendar year 1926 — Continued 



Schultz 
No. 



825 
871 
831 



832 

869 
792 

795 

794 

793 



876 



881 



883 
884 



890 
891 



895 
893 
912 



919 
917 



Name of dye 



Indanthrene brown G (single strength).. 

Grelanone brown B powder.. 

Helindone brown IG powder 

Vat brown B paste 

Vat brown B powder 

Vat brown G paste... 

Vat brown G powder 

Algol red B (single strength). 

-\lgol red B paste 

Algol red B powder 

Indanthrene red violet (single strength). 

Vat red violet RRK paste 

Vat red violet RRK powder 

Indanthrene red BN (single strength) 

Helindone red IBN extra paste 

Vat red BN paste 

Vat red BN extra paste 

Vat red BK paste 

Vat red BK paste, fine 

Vat red RK powder. 

Vat red RKP powder.. 

Indanthrene violet BN (single strength). 

Vat violet BN paste 

Vat violet BN paste, fine 

Vat violet BN extra paste 

Vat violet BN powder 

Vat violet BN extra powder. 

Vat (Algol) brown B paste 

Cibanone orange R (single strength) 

Cibanone orange R paste 

Cibanone orange R powder 

Cibanone yellow R (single strength) 

Cibanone yellow R paste 

Cibanone yellow R powder 

Cibanone black B (single strength) 

Cibanone black B paste 

Cibanone black B powder 

Cibanone blue 3G (single strength) 

Cibanone blue 3G paste 

Cibanone blue 3G powder 

Cibanone green ._ 

Cibanone green B paste 

Cibanone green G paste 

Indigosol 

Indigosol O 

Indigosol O 

Indigo BASF/pure RB paste 

Brilliant indigo 4B (single strength) 

Brilliant indigo 4B paste 

Brilliant indigo 4B paste, fine 

Brilliant indigo 4B powder. 

Brilliant indigo 4BC paste 

Durindone blue 4B paste 

Indigo MLB/6B (single strength) 

Indigo MLB/6B powder 

Brilliant indigo BB (single strength) 

Brilliant indigo BB paste 

Brilliant indigo BB powder 

Brilliant indigo B 

Brilliant indigo B paste 

Brilliant indigo B paste, fine 

Ciba yellow O paste 

Ciba green G (single strength) 

Ciba green G powder 

Helindone green Q (single strength) 

Helindone green G paste 

Vat green Q powder 

Alizarin indigo 3R paste.. ._ 

Alizarin indigo G paste 

Anthra red B paste... 

Authra red B paste.. 

Anthra red B paste, fine 

Ciba Bordeaux B paste 

Helindone red B (single strength).. 

Helindone red B paste.. 

Helindone red B powder.. 



Manufac- 
turer 



GrE. 
IG.. 
GrE. 
GrE. 
IG... 
IG.. 



By. 

IG. 



B.. 
IG. 



M. 
B.. 
B.. 
B.. 
B.. 
IG. 
IG. 



IG. 
B.- 
B.. 
B-. 
B.. 
By. 



By-. 
DH. 
IG.. 



B 

IG... 

B 

IG... 
BDC- 



IQ. 



B.. 
IG. 



IG- 
lO. 
I... 



M., 
M. 
By. 
By. 



B.. 
IG. 
I... 



IG. 
IG. 



Imports 



Quantity 



Pounds 
54, 420 



2,196 



4,693 
'26," 584' 



18, 383 



425 
15, 650 



34,830 



5,066 



18, 266 



1,212 



200 
65,711 



14,490 
""5,' 988' 



32,920 



2,863 
4,400 



1,580 



399 
1,199 
5,034 



551 
850 



DYES IMPORTED FOE CONSUMPTION 103 

Table 34. — Imports of dyes, calendar year 1926 — Continued 



Col- 
our 
Index 

No. 



1211 



Schultz 
No. 



1212 



1213 
1215 
1217 



1218 
1222 



1223 
1226 
1227 

1228 



910 



Name of dye 



1229 
1230 

1247 



921 
914 
913 



915 
901 



902 
906 
904 



Manufac- 
turer 



911 
874 



IG. 
B._ 
IG. 
IG. 
M. 
IG. 
K.. 
M. 
M. 



I... 
I... 
M. 
K._ 
K._ 
IG. 
IG. 
IG. 



IG. 



lO- 



Helindone pink (single strength) 

Anthra pink AN paste 

Anthra pink BN paste 

Helindone pink .A-N paste 

Helindont' pink AN powder 

Helindone pink BN paste 

Helindone pink BN powder 

Thioindigo rose BN extra paste 

Vat rose AN paste -_- 

Vat rose BN paste 

Indanthrene red violet RH (single strength)... 

Ciba red SB paste 

Ciba red 3B powder 

Helindone red violet IRH powder 

Thioindigo red 3B paste 

Thioindigo red 3B powder.. 

Vat red violet RH paste • 

Vat red violet RH paste, fine... 

Vat red violet RH powder 

Indanthrene gray 6B (single strength) 

Vat gray 6B powder 

Helindone orange D (single strength) 

Helindone orange D powder 

Helindone orange R (single strength) 

Helindone orange R paste 

Helindone orange R powder 

Hydron orange RF paste 

Thioindigo orange R paste 

Vat orange R paste. _ 

Vat orange R powder 

Vat orange F H powder 

Vat (Helindone) scarlet R paste 

Ciba violet (single strength) 

Ciba violet R paste 

Ciba violet R powder 

Thioindigo brown R (single strength) 

Thioindigo brown R powder 

Ciba red G (single strength) 

Ciba red G powder 

Helindone brown G (single strength) _. 

Helindone brown G paste.. 

Helindone brown G powder j M. 

Thioindigo brown G paste K. 

Ciba scarlets (single strength) i 

Anthra scarlet 2G paste 1 B. 

Anthra scarlet 2G paste, fine 1 IG 

Anthra scarlet 2G powder I IG 

Ciba scarlet G extra paste .1 I.. 

Ciba scarlet G extra powder . 1 I.. 

Helindone fast scarlet C paste i M. 

Thioindigo scarlet 2G paste , IG 

Vat scarlet G paste ' S. 

Vat scarlet G powder ..] S.. 

Vat scarlet 2G paste 1 K. 

Vat scarlet 2G powder ! K. 

Ciba red R (single strength) ] I-- 

Ciba orange G paste . . : I-- 

Indigo, natural ■ 



IG. 



M. 



Imports 



Quantity 



21, 741 



111,779 



350 



22, 740 



500 
55, 104 



375 



2,200 



3,400 
2,392 



36, 531 

73, 825 
11,500 

20, 929 



111,320 

991 

2,806 



Invoice 
value 



$17,404 



84,964 



15,712 



5, 300 



113,870 



49113—27- 



104 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Table 34. — Imports of dyes, calendar year 79:26— Continued 
UNIDENTIFIED ACID DYES 



Name of dye 



Manufac- 
turer 



Imports 



Quantity 



Acid black 2R 

Acid blue RBF 

Acid brown RN_. 

Acid magenta LLS.. 

Acid milling yellow G cone. 

Acid navy blue MB.. 

Acid pure blue R supra 

Acid rhodamine — 

Acid rhodamine B 

Acid rhodamine BG 

Acid rhodamine 3R 

Acid violet 

Acid violet 8B extra 

Acid violet lOB 

Acid violet CBB. 

Acid violet IR extra 

Acid violet 3R 

Agalma black 4BT 

Alizarin astrol violet B powder 

Alizarin brilliant sky blue R 

Alizarin direct blue 

Alizarin direct blue A 

Alizarin direct blue A2G 

Alizarin direct blue BB 

Alizarin direct red 3Q — 

Alizarin direct violet ERC 

Alizarin irisol B powder 

Alizarin levelling blue CjV 

Alizarin light blue 

Alizarin light blue AR cone 

Alizarin light blue LR cone 

Alizarin light violet RS cone 

Alizarin supra blue. 

Alizarin supra blue A 

Alizarin supra blue SES 

Alkali blue 6R extra... 

Alkali fast green 

Alkali fast green 2BF.. 

Alkali fast green lOG 

Alphanol blue BRN cone 

Alphanol brown B 

.\.mido fast red GG 

Amido fast yellow SR... 

Anthosine - 

Anthosine 3B 

OnisB 

Onis3B 

Onis5B.. 

Azo acid black B 

Azo brilliant red B 

Azo fast blue BR couc 

Azo wool blue SK 

Benzyl fast blue L 

Brilliant acid blue _ 

Brilliant acid blue EG 

Brilliant acid blue FF.. 

Brilliant acid blue G 

Brilliant milling blue 

Brilliant milling blue B 

Brilliant milling blue B_ 

Brilliant milling blue FG 

Brilliant scarlet N 

Brilliant wool blue 

Brilliant wool blue B extra 

Brilliant wool blue FFB extra. 

Brilliant wool blue FFR extra. 

Cashmire black TN 

Chrysoline A, AG 

Cloth fast brown 5R 

Cloth fast orange G.. 

Cloth fast orange R 

Cloth fast red _ 

Cloth fast red B 

Cloth fast red 3B 

Cloth fast red R 

Cloth fast yellow G.... 

Discharge blue B 



IQ... 

I 

O 

BDC. 

S 

Q.... 
O 



IQ. 
IG. 
IG. 
IG. 
IG. 
Q- 
IG. 
IG. 



Q-- 
IG. 
IG. 
Q-- 

M.. 
By. 
C. 



IG. 

By. 
IG. 



By. 
IG. 
IG. 
IG. 
M.. 
M.. 



B.. 
B_. 

IG. 
IQ. 
IG. 
IG. 
IG. 
IG. 
I... 



By. 
By. 
I... 



By- 
C. 
IG. 
IG- 



By. 
IG_ 
IG. 
By- 
IG. 
I... 
I... 
I... 



Pounds 

4,210 

2.204 

110 

25 

2,000 

10 

5,510 

5, 479 



22 
350 
200 
520 



110 

53 

50 

200 

678 



1.500 
11,188 



50 
2, 483 



200 

5 

671 

100 



1,000 
200 
100 
120 
331 

8,036 



19, 308 



2,600 
8,681 



706 
75 
220 
440 
331 
1,871 



2,091 
100 



DYES IMPORTED FOR CONSUMPTION 



105 



Table 34. — Imports of dyes, calendar year 1926 — Continued 
UNIDENTIFIED ACID DYES— Continued 



Name of dye 



Manufac- 
turer 



Imports 



Quantity 



Invoice 
value 



Eric carmine 2BC 

Eric fast yellow AE _. 

Eriocyanine CR 

Erioglaucine XFF pure.. 

Fast acid green BB extra 

Fast acid marine blue HBBX. 

Fast black O cone 

Fast cyanino blue B 

Fast cyanine violet B 

Fast light red B 

Formyl blue B 

Guinea brown 2GL, 2R 

Guinea fast green B 

Guinea fast red. — 

Guinea fast red BL 

Guinea fast red 4BL 

Guinea light blue A, A2G 

Guinea rubine 4R 

Indian yellow GAM 

Indocyaniue. — 

Indocyanine B.. 

Indocyaniue BF 

Indocyanine FF 

Ink blue 

Ink blue BITBN powder- 
Ink blue BITBNOO 

Ink fast black A extra 

Kiton fast green A 

Kiton fast red 

Kiton fast red BL 

Kiton fast red 4BL 

Kiton fast red GL 

Kiton fast red R 

Lanasol blue R -. 

Lanasol orange 2R 

Levelling silk blue B 

Metanil red 3B extra 

Milling brown R 

Milling orange G 

Milling red --, 

Milling red 4BA 

Milling red 6BA 

Milling red GA 

Milling red NJ 

Milling yellow 

Milling yellow GA 

Milling yellow HG 

Milling yellow H3G 

Milling yellow 3G 

Milling yellow 3G 

Milling yellow F3G 

Milling yellow 03G 

Milling yellow O _-. 

Naphthol black BGN 

Neolan black 

Neolan black GG 

Neolan black RR 

Neolan blue 

Neolan blue B 

Neolan blue BR 

Neolan blue G 

Neolan blue 2G 

Neolan blue GR 

Neolan blue RR 

Neolan green 

Neolan green B 

Neolan green LBN 

Neolan orange R 

Neolan pink 

Neolan pink B 

Neolan pink G 

Neolan violet R 

Neolan yellow 

Neolan yellow O 

Neloan yellow G R 

Neotolyl black TL extra 

Novazol blue B 



G.- 
G-. 
G.. 
G-- 
IG. 
IG. 
G.. 
I... 
I... 
By. 
IG. 
IG. 
IG. 



A-. 

IG. 
IG. 
A-. 
IG. 



IG. 
IG. 
IG. 



IG. 
I... 
IG. 
I— 



I— 
I— 
I... 
I... 
I— 
I— 
IG. 
By- 
IG. 
IG. 



IG.. 
CN. 



iV.. 
IG. 
IG. 



IG.. 
AG. 
A. 



IG. 
C. 



I-. 
I... 
IG. 
G.. 



Pounds 

551 

55 

110 

110 

3,400 

300 

110 

110 

110 

200 

10 

212 

2,100 

4,623 



600 

750 

100 

51, 295 



9,904 



25 
110 

,824 



220 
110 
1,000 
1,000 
200 
2,400 
1,861 



290 



1,350 



7,000 
435 
661 



16,090 



2,314 



1,873 
14, 548 



220 
12,235 



525 
2,425 



106 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Table 34. — Imports of dyes, calendar year 1926 — Continued 
UNIDENTIFIED ACID DYES— Continued 



Name of dye 



Novazol violet B 

Orthocyanine B 

Oxamine acid brown G 

Pilatus (Palatine) fast black GG... 

Palatine fast blue -. 

Pilatus fast blue B 

Pilatus fast blue BR -. 

Pilatus fast blue G. -. 

Pilatus fast blue GG --. 

Pilatus fast blue GR 

Pilatus fast gray B 

Pilatus fast green BL 

Palatine fast pink 

Pilatus fast pink B 

Pilatus fast pink G 

Palatine fast violet R 

Palatine fast yellow,. _ 

Pilatus fast yellow G 

Pilatus fast yellow GR 

Polar gray 

Polar orange R cone 

Polar red B cone 

Polar yellow 2G cone 

Radio navy blue B 

Radio yellow R 

Resorcin brown B.. 

Selan printing brown 3R 

Silk blue BSIC powder 

Silk yellow R 

Soluble blue 2B extra cone 

Sulpho rhodamine 

Sulpho rhodamine G 

Sulpho rosazeine G -. 

Sulphon orange G... -. 

Sulphon yellov/ 

Sulphon yellow 5G 

Sulphon yellow R 

Supramine black BR 

Supramine blue 

Supramine blue FB 

Supramine blue R 

Supramine Bordeaux B 

Supramine brown 

Supramine brown G 

Supramine brown R 

Supramine green BL 

Supram ine red 

Supramine red B. 

Supramine red 3B.- 

Supramine red 2G 

Supramine yellow 

Supramine yellow 3G 

Supramine yellow R 

Tropaeolin RNP 

Wool black 

Wool black BR 

Wool black GRF 

Wool blue - - 

Wool blue 5B...- 

Wool blue 5B 

Wool blue N extra 

Wool blue R 

Wool blue RR 

Wool blue RRT. 

Wool fast orange G powder 

Wool fast yellow. 

Wool fast yellow G. 

Wool fast yellow 5G 

Wool fast yellow R 

Wool violet RC 

Xylene briUi;int blue FFRX cone. 

Xylene fast blue FF cone 

Xylene milling orange R cone 

Xylene milling red B cone 

Xylene milling violet B cone 

All other acid dyes.. 



Manufac- 
turer 



G.. 
IG. 
B_. 
IG. 



IG. 
IG. 
IG. 
IG. 
IG. 
IG. 
IG. 



IG. 
IG. 
IG. 



IG. 
IG.. 
G... 
G... 
G... 
G... 
C... 
IG.. 
Q-- 
IG.. 
AG. 
IG.. 
IG.. 



IG. 
M.. 
By. 



IG. 
IG. 

By- 



By. 
By. 
By. 



IG. 
IG. 
By. 



IG. 
By. 

IG. 



By. 
By. 
IG. 



By. 
IG. 



A.. 
M.. 
IG- 
By. 
By. 
By. 
By. 



By. 
By. 
By. 
G.. 

S... 
S... 

s... 
s... 



Imports 



Quantity 



Various . . . 



Pounds 
1,101 

500 
1,300 

100 
1,000 



500 
200 
700 



100 
300 



606 

11,021 

1,102 

6,614 

50 

500 

10 

60 

500 

900 

480 

579 



3, 709 
2,294 



2,200 
900 



400 
1.100 



10, 200 



1,470 



100 
,861 



3,406 



1,839 
1,132 



220 
596 
6,001 
1,500 
1,100 
1,000 
14 



DYES IMPORTED FOR CONSUMPTION 



107 



Table 34. — Imports of dyes, calendar year 1926 — Continued 
UNIDENTIFIED VAT DYES 



Name of dye 



Algol blue 3RP powder 

Algol red 2B powder (single strength) 

Alizarin indigo 5R paste 

Alizarin indigo brown R paste. - 

Alizarin indigo gray B paste 

Alizarin indigo violet B paste 

Anthra Bordeaux B paste 

Anthra brillianr green 5G paste 

Anthra orange RH paste, fine. .-. 

Anthra scarlet B (single strength) .-- --. 

Anthra scarlet B paste 

Anthra scarlet B powder . 

Caledon printing black BR double paste (single strength) . 

Ciba black G powder, R powder 

Ciba blue. __ 

Ciha blue L'BL powder 

Ciba blue 2RH 

Ciba pink (single strength) -. 

Ciba pink BG paste 

Ciba pink BG powder 

Ciba red. 



Ciba red 3BL 

Ciba red RL 

Ciba scarlet 2GL 

Cibanone blue RSNL 

Cibanone Bordeaux B powder 

Cibanone brown R powder (single strength). 

Cibanone green GC paste 

Cibanone olive 2G powder 

Cibanone orange 6R (single strength) 

Cibanone orange 6R paste 

Cibanone orange 6R powder 

Cibanone red B (single strength) 

Cibanone red B paste 

Cibanone red B powder 

Cibanone red 4B powder 

Cibanone red G (single strength).. 

Cibanone red G powder. 

Eridan brilliant scarlet B paste 

Grelanone red 2B paste 

Grelanone red 3BR (single strength) 

Grelanone red 3BR paste 

Grelanone red 3BR powder 

Grelanone yellow O powder 

Helindone biue B powder 

Helindone blue 3G (single strength) 

Helindone blue 3G paste. 

Helindone blue 3G powder 

Helindone blue 3R paste 

Helindone fast scarlet B paste 

Helindone fast scarlet G (single strength) 

Helindone fast scArlet G paste 

Helindone fast scarlet G powder 

Helindone printing black RD paste 

Helindone yellow RN (single strength) 

Vat yellow RK paste 

Vat yellow RK powder 

Hydron blue BBF paste 

Hydron brown (single strength) 

Hydron brown G paste 

Hydron brown G powder 

Hydron brown R paste 

Hydron brown R powder 

Hydron green G paste 

Hydron navy blue C paste 

Hydron olive GN paste 

Hydron orange 

Hydron orange GL paste 

Hydron orange RP paste 

Hydron pink FB (single strength) 

Algol brilliant pink FB paste. 

.\uthra pink B extra paste 

.\nthra pink B extra powder 

Helindone pink B extra paste 

Hydron pink FB paste... 

Vat pink FB jiaste 

Vat pink FB powder 



Manufac- 
turer 



By. 
By. 
IG- 
By. 
By. 
By- 
IG. 
B-. 
IG. 



IG. 
IG. 
SD. 
I... 



I... 
IG. 
IG. 



GrE. 
GrE. 
IG.. 
IG.. 



IG. 
M. 
IG. 
IG. 



IG. 
M. 
IG. 



IG. 
IG. 
IG. 



C 
C. 
IG. 
IG. 
IG. 
IG. 
IG. 



IG. 
C. 



IG. 
B.. 
B.. 

M. 
C. 
C. 
C. 



Imports 



Quantity 



Pounds 

1,256 

880 

3,400 

6,408 

100 

100 

800 

1,542 

2,000 

3,800 



40 
198 
330 



27, 326 



110 

220 

1,110 

1,102 

110 

3,520 



660 



220 
4,165 



3,000 

250 

1,805 



25 

50 

1,850 



110 

500 

2,100 



75, 000 
1,200 



100 
23,690 



200 

500 

1,200 

2,560 



400 
9,100 



108 



CENSUS OP DYES AND OTHEE SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Table 34. — Imports oj dyes, calendar year 1926 — Continued 
UNIDENTIFIED VAT DYES— Continued 



Name of dye 



IG. 



Hydron pink FF (single strength). 

Anthra pink R extra paste 

Antlira pink R extra paste flne_. 

Antlira pink R extra powder 

Helindone pink R extra paste. 

Hydron pink FF paste 

Thioindigo rose RN extra paste 

Hydron scarlet (single strength) , 

Hydron scarlet 2n powder 

Hydron scarlet 3B paste 

Hydron scarlet 3B powder 

Vat scarlet 2B paste .._ 

Vat scarlet 3B paste _ _ 

Hydron sky blue FK paste. 

Hydron violet (single strength) 

Hydron violet BF paste high cone 

Hydron violet BBF paste high cone 

Hydron violet RF paste high cone _.. 

Hydron violet R powder 

Hydron wool red BB vat 

Hydron yellow GG (single strength) 

Hydron yellow OG powder 

Hydron yellow NF paste. 

Hydron yellow brown G paste 

Indanthrene blue 8 GK (single strength) 

Vat blue SGK paste 

Vat blue SGK powder 

Indanthrene blue RSN powder 

Indanthrene blue RZ double paste (single strength) 

Indanthrene blue green B (single strength) 

Vat blue green B double paste, flne... 

Indanthrene brilliant blue (single strength) 

Vat brilliant blue 3G powder 

Vat brilliant blue R paste 

Vat brilliant blue R paste, flne 

Vat brilliant blue R powder 

Indanthrene brilliant violet 

Vat brilliant violet 3B paste, flne 

Vat brilliant violet 4R paste 

Indanthrene brown 2G (single strength) 

Indanthrene brown 2G powder 

Vat brown 2G paste 

Vat brown 2G powder 

Vat brown IGO powder. 

Indanthrene brown RT paste 

Indanthrene brown 3R 

Vat brown 3R paste.. 

Indanthrene golden orange 3G (single strength) 

Vat golden orange 3G paste 

Vat golden orange 3G powder 

Indanthrene golden orange 3R 

Vat orange 3R paste, fine 

Indanthrene golden yellow GK 

Vat golden yellow GK double paste, fine 

Indanthrene grav 3B (single strength) 

Vat gray 3B paste.. ' IG 

Vat gray 3B powder IG. 

Indanthrene gray RRH (single strength) 

Vat gray RRH paste, flne 

Vat gray RRH powder 

Indanthrene green (single strength) _ 

Vat green G double paste 

Vat green G powder 

Vat green 2G double paste 

Vat green 2G powder 

Indanthrene khaki (single strength) 

Helindone khaki IGG paste 

Helindone khaki IGG powder. 

Vat khaki OG paste 

Indanthrene orange 4R (single strength) 

Vat orange 4R powder 

Indanthrene pink B (single strength) 

Helindone pink IB double paste... 

Vat pink B paste 

Vat pink B double paste 

Vat pink B double paste, fine 

Vat pink B powder 



Manufac- 
turer 



B. 



By. 
By. 



B. 



IG. 



IG. 
IG. 



IQ. 
IG. 
IQ. 
IG. 



M.. 
B.. 
IG. 
IQ. 
IG. 



Imports 



Quantity 



Pounds 



20,441 



600 
16,297 



1,400 
1,050 



25 
3,600 



220 

1,000 

300 



350 
13, 474 
5,996 



8,730 



430 



16,298 



794 

2,878 



7,255 



1,764 



1,000 



2,928 



3,184 



14, 148 



9,280 



4,460 



32, 548 



DYES IMPORTED FOR CONSUMPTION 



109 



Table 34. — Imports of dyes, calendar year 1926 — Continued 
UNIDENTIFIED VAT DYES— Continued 



Name of dye 



IQ. 
IG. 



B.. 
IG. 



B.. 
IG. 
B.. 



IG. 
IG. 
IG. 



IG. 
IG. 



IG. 
IG. 



IG. 
IG. 



Indanthrene red BK (single strength) 

Vat red BK paste, fine 

Vat red BK powder ..- 

Indanthrene red GO (single strength) 

Vat red GO paste 

Vat red GO powder 

Indanthrene red brown (single strength) 

Vat red brown R paste _ 

Vat red brown R paste, fine _ - 

Vat red brown R powder 

Indanthrene yellow FFRK (single strength) 

Helindone yellow IFFRK paste 

Vat yellow FFRK paste. 

Vat yellow FFRK powder .._ 

Indanthrene yellow GF (single strength) 

Vat yellow GF paste 

Vat yellow GF powder.. 

Indanthrene yellow 3GF (single strength) 

Vat yellow 3GF double paste - 

Vat yellow 3GF double paste, fine 

Indanthrene yellow GGK (single strength) 

Vat yellow GGK paste... 

Vat yellow GGK powder 

Indanthrene yellow 3RT (single strength) 

Helindone yellow I 3RT powder 

Vat yellow 3RT double paste. 

Vat yellow 3RT powder 

Vat yellow 3RT cone, powder 

Indigosol AZG 

Indigosol 04B_ 

Indigosol 04B._ 

Indigosol OR.. 

Indigosol black 

Indigosol black TB 

Indigosol black TB 

Indigosol orange ._ 

Indigosol orange HR 

Indigosol orange HR 

Indigosol pink 

Indigosol pink HR extra 

Indigosol pink HR extra 

Indigosol red HR 

Indigosol scarlet HB 

Indigosol violet 

Indigosol violet AZB -.| DH.., 

Indigosol violet .\ZB IG 

Indigosol yellow HCG I By 

Paradone gray B paste _.. -.1 LBH. 



Manufac- 
turer 



IG.. 
IG.. 
IG.. 
IG.. 
DH. 
By.. 
DH. 
DH. 



DH. 
IG.. 



DH. 
IG.. 



DH. 
IG.. 
DH. 
DH. 



Sandothrene blue NG. 

Soledon brilliant purple RR 

Soledon jade green paste 

Soledon yeUow G 

Thioindigo black B.. 

Thioindigo black B paste 

Vat black B paste. 

Thioindigo brown GT paste 

Thioindigo violet R paste 

Vat blue RC paste. 

Vat printing brown R (single strengt.h)... 

Vat printing brown R paste 

Vat printing brown R powder 

Vat printing red 

Vat printing red B paste.. 

Vat printing red G paste 

Vat printing violet 

Vat printing violet BF paste 

Vat printing violet RF paste 

Vat yellow 6G powder (single strength)... 

Vat yellow 6GD powder (single strength). 

Vat yellow GP powder 

Vat yellow brown 3G paste 

Wool vat brown 3R paste 

All other vat dyes 



S. 
SD. 
SD. 
SD. 



IG. 
K-. 
K.. 
K.. 
SD. 



By. 
By. 



IG. 
IG. 



IG 

IG 

IG...... 

IG 

IG 

IG 

By 

Various. 



Imports 



Quantity 



Pounds 
180 



4,185 



2,677 



1,341 



700 



2,000 



290 



5,600 



2,702 

330 
410 



149 



138 



77 
595 



120 
226 
100 

20 
122 

25 
7,679 



200 

110 

224 

14. 822 



3,700 



400 

400 

1,000 

4,300 

200 

7 



Invoice 
value 



110 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

Table 34. — Imports of dyes, calendar year 7 5^^— Continued 
UNIDENTIFIED MORDANT AND CHROME DYES 



Name of dye 



Acid alizarin gray G 

Acid anthracene brown 

Acid anthracene brown PG 

Acid anthracene brown WSG 

Acid anthracene red 

Acid anthracene red 3BL 

Acid anthracene red 5BL 

Acid chrome red B 

Acid chrome yellow 3GL 

Alizarin blue green BBS cone 

Alizarin brown HD paste 

Alizarin cyanine green 5G powder... 

Alizarin fast gray 2BL powder 

Alizarin fast light brown GL 

Alizarin light gray BS cone. 

Alizarin sky blue G 

Anthracene chromate brown EB 

Anthracene chrome blue R 

Azol printing Bordeaux B extra 

Azol printing brown 3RL paste 

Azol printing violet 2R extra 

Brilliant chrome blue S powder 

Brilliant chrome printing red B 

Brilliant chrome violet 

BrOliant chrome violet 3R-. 

Brilliant chrome violet 3RA 

BrOliant chrome violet 3RN 

Chromanol black RVI 

Chromanol blue NR 

Chromanol violet RI 

Chroniazurine DN 

Chrome azurol B 

Chrome brilliant scarlet GD 

Chrome brown G 

Chrome fast printing red G 

Chrome fast yellow 2G powder 

Chrome gray HI 

Chrome orange 2R 

Chrome printing Bordeaux B 

Chrome printing claret R 

Chrome printing orange 

Chrome printing orange BW 

Chrome printing orange 2R 

Chrome printing red 

Chrome printing red B 

Chrome printing red Y 

Chromocitronine 3R 

Chromogene indigo B, R 

Chromogene red B cone 

Chromogene violet 3R 

Chromophenine FKN 

Chromorhodine 60N. 

C hromovesuvine RA. 

Chromoxane brilliant violet 

Chromoxane brilliant violet 5B.. 
Chromoxane brilliant violet BD. 
Chromoxane brilliant violet SB.. 
Chromoxane brilliant violet SR. 

Chromoxane pure blue. 

Chromoxane pure blue B 

Chromoxane pure blue BLD 

Chromoxane violet RD-. 

Colonial blue R.. 

Erio anthracene brown R 

Eriochromal brown.. 

Eriochramal brown AEB 

Eriochromal brown G 

Eriochromal gray 5G cone 

Eriochrome black E 

Eriochromc blue S _ 

Eriochrome blue black G 

Eriochrome brilliant green G supra.. 
Eriochrome brilliant violet B supra.. 

Eriochrome brown SWN supra 

Eriochrome geranol R cone 

Eriochrome red G 



Manufac- 
turer 



M. 



IG. 
IG. 



By.- 
By.. 
IG.. 
IG- 
S.... 
IG.. 
IG.. 
By.. 
By-. 
S— . 
By„ 
IG.. 
C... 
IG-. 
By.. 
IG.. 
DH. 
G... 



DH. 
DH. 
DH. 
DH. 
DH. 
DH. 
DH. 
G... 
By- 
By.. 
G... 
IG.. 
DH. 
DH. 
I.... 
DH. 



DH. 
I.... 



DH. 
DH. 
DH. 
IG.. 
IG-. 
IG.. 
DH. 
DH. 
DH. 



By. 
IG. 
By. 
By. 



IG.. 
IG.. 
IG.. 
DH. 
O... 



Imports 



Quantity 



Pounds 
8,875 
13, 295 



1,941 



375 

100 

1,000 

100 

125 

2,203 

100 

10, 998 

10 

5, 000 

100 

10 

10 

10 

770 

55 

1,543 



220 
220 
331 
880 
650 
5 
220 

55 
100 

11 

55 
110 

25 
243 



2,865 



440 

60 

45 

50 

220 

1,872 

330 

2,460 



150 
110 
220 
605 



440 I 
1,653 
2,204 
9,921 

110 
1,763 

110 
1,432 
4,959 



DYES IMPORTED FOR CONSUMPTION 



111 



Table 34. — Imports of dyes, calendar year 1926- — Continued 
UNIDENTIFIED MOIlDANT AND CHROME DYES-Continued 



Name of dye 



Manufac- 
turer 



G.. 
G.. 
G.. 
M. 
By. 
IG. 
By. 



Eriochrome violet 

Eriochrome violet B 

Eriochrome violet 3B 

Eriochrome yellow G paste.. 

Fast mordant blue B 

Qallo fast black cone paste... 
Gallo navy blue DA powder. 

Gallophenine P... 

Metachrome blue black 2BX ..I IG.. 

Metachrome brilliant blue.. . 

Metachrome brilliant t)lue BL IG.. 

Metachrome brilliant blue BLO... IG.. 

Metachrome brilliant blue 8RL IG.. 

Metachrome brown • 

Metachrome brown BL IG.. 

Metachrome brown 6G IG.. 

Metachrome olive __ 

Metachrome olive B A 

Metachrome olive 2G ! A... 

Metachrome red G ...j IG.. 

Metachrome violet 2R M.. 

Modern blue CVI I DH. 

Modern gray. 



Modern gray CVX. 

Modern gray PS 

Modern green N 

Modern olive JN 

Naphthochrome violet R. 



DH. 
DH. 
DH. 
DH- 
I.... 

New gallophenine 5G ...I IG.. 

S... 
IG.. 
K... 



Omega chrome brown EB. 

Radio chrome blue B 

Salicine orange 2R cone. _ , 

Shoddy chrome black 

Shoddy chrome black BA 

Shoddy chrome black R.\ 

Shoddy chrome black TA. 

Ultra corinth B 

Ultra orange R 

All other chrome and mordant dyes. 



A.. 

A.. 
A.. 
S... 
S... 
IG. 



Imports 



Quantity 



Pounds 
5,286 



4,916 
300 

5 

99 

841 

15,353 

800 



704 



7,002 



2,996 
600 
715 
132 



220 

110 

3,636 

50 

500 

4,500 

150 

15 



200 

1,000 

6 



Invoice 
value 



$564 



UNIDENTIFIED DIRECT DYES 



Azophor black DP 


IG 

By 

IG 

IG 

IG 

IG 

By 

IG 


300 

100 

25 

200 

700 

100 

1,091 

7,273 

6,799 
























Benzo fast black L.. 


$9,810 




io 






Bv 






Benzo fast blue 8GL 


IG -. 








By.- 


1,430 
17, 496 






19, 162 


Benzo fast brown GL 


IG 






IG 








IG 








By 








IG 

By 

By... 

Bv 


100 

10 

75 

300 

5,607 

1,961 

600 

4,382 

235 








Benzo fast copper violet B 




Benzo fast eosine BL . . . 




Benzo fast gray BL 


IG 

By 

By 

By 








Benzo fast light scarlet 4BL 








Benzo fast scarlet 




Benzo fast scarlet 5B 


By. 






IG 






Benzo fast violet BL 




1,069 






By 




Developed fast violet BL.. 


By 







112 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHEE SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Table 34. — Imports of dyes, calendar year 1926 — Continued 
UNIDENTIFIED DIRECT DYES— Continued 



Name of dye 



Benzo fast yellow RL 

Benzo green G 

Benzo red 12B 

Direct red 12B 

Benzo rhoduline red 

Benzo rhoduline red B 

Benzo rhoduline red 3B 

Benzo rubine _ 

Benzo rubine HW 

Benzo rubine SC. 

Benzo violet RL extra.. 

Benzoforni blue G extra 

Benzoform brown 4R 

Benzoform yellow GL 

Brilliant azurine 5R 

Brilliant benzo fast yellow GL 

Brilliant benzo green B 

Brilliant benzo violet 2R powder 

Brilliant congo blue 5R 

Brilliant congo violet R 

Brilliant copper blue GW 

Brilliant diazol orange 

Brilliant diazol orange NJN 

Brilliant diazol orange NRN 

Brilliant fast blue 3BX 

Brilliant pure blue B 

Brilliant pure yellow 6G extra... 

Brilliant sky blue... 

Brilliant sky blue 8G extra.. 

Brilliant sky blue R_.. 

Brilliant sky blue 2RM 

Direct sky blue 8G extra 

Brilliant triazol fast violet BL powder. 

Chicago red III.. ., 

Chloramine fast orange R cone 

Chloramine light gray 

Chloramine light gray B cone 

Chloramine light gray R cone 

Chloramine light violet R cone 

Chloramine violet 

Chloramine violet FEB... 

Chloramine violet R 

Chlorantine fast blue 

Chlorantine fast blue 2GL 

Chlorantine fast blue 4GL 

Chlorantine fast blue 8GL 

Chlorantine fast Bordeaux 2BL_ _ 

Chlorantine fast brown 

Chlorantine fast brown BRL 

Chlorantine fast brown 5GL .^ 

Chlorantine fast brown 3RL 

Chlorantine fast gray B 

Chlorantine fast green B 

Chlorantine fast orange 2RL 

Chlorantine fast red 5BL.__ 

Chlorantine fast violet _ 

Chlorantine fast violet SIBL... 

Chlorantine fast violet RL 

Chlorantine fast violet 2RL 

Chlorantine fa~t vellow RL 

Chlorazol drab RU 

Chlorazol fast brown RK 

Chlorazol fast orange AG 

Columbia catechine 

Columbia catechine 

Columbia catechine A 

Columbia catechine 3B 

Columbia catechine O 

Columbia red OB 

Cotonerol 

Cotoncrol A extra 

Cotonerol G extra. 

Cotonerol 2G extra 

Cotton black AC 

Developing blue B 

Diamine azo brown 

Diamine azo brown O 

Diamine azo brown 3Q 



Manufac- 
turer 



IG. 
IG- 



By. 



By- 
IG. 



By.. 
By.. 
IG.. 
By.. 
IG.. 
IG.. 
IG.. 
By.. 
IG.. 
By.. 
A... 
AG. 
IG.. 



CN. 
CN. 
IG.. 
By.. 
By.. 



By.. 
By.. 

By.. 
By.. 
AG. 
G... 

S.... 



By- 
By. 



I 

I 

I 

I 

BDC. 
BDC. 
BDC. 



IG. 
IG.. 

A... 
IG.. 
AG. 



Imports 



Quantity 



Pounds 
6,667 
200 
1,061 



4,350 



25 

5 

25 

200 

100 

1,825 

2,745 

331 

400 

2,300 

66 

991 



1,800 

2,086 

2,942 

20, 939 



224 
7,716 
2,200 
1,614 



1,510 
1,135 



40,446 



8,044 
15, 431 



5,510 
6,061 



1,984 
37, 576 



2,204 
400 
3,500 
5,500 
3.375 



100 
1,020 



700 
1,900 
3,274 



DYES IMPORTED FOR CONSUMPTION 



113 



Table 34. — Imports of dyes, calendar year 1926 — Continued 
UNIDENTIFIED DIRECT DYES— Continued 



Name of dye 



Diamine azo fast green G 

Diaimine azo fast violet R 

Diamine azo yellow 2Q --- 

Diamine brilliant scarlet S -.. 

Diamine bronze brown PE 

Diamine catcchine_ 

Diamine catechine B - 

Diamine catechine G 

Diamine catechine 3G - 

Diamine dark blue B 

Diamine dark green N - 

Diamine fast black C 

Diamine fast blue --- 

Diamine fast blue FFB 

Diamine fast blue F3G 

Diamine fast Bordeaux 6BS -- 

Diamine fast brown 

Diamine fast brown G 

Diamine fast brown GB- - 

Diamine fast brown GBB 

Diamine fast brown GHB. 

Diamine fast brown R 

Diamine fast gray BN .-. - 

Diamine fast orange 

Diamine fast orange EG 

Diamine fast orange ER 

Diamine fast rose B - 

Diamine gray G. --. 

Diamine steel blue L 

Diamineral blue BF 

Diaminogene BW.. -.. 

Diaminogene blue GG --. 

Dianil fast violet BL .- 

Diazanil pink B... 

Diazo black VG 

Diazo Bordeaux 7B 

Diazo brilliant blue 2BL extra 

Diazo brilliant green 

Developed brilliant green 3G 

Develojjed brilliant green 6G. 

Diazo brilliant green 3G_ 

Diazo green 3G 

Diazo brilliant orange 

Developed brilliant orange 5G extra. 

Diazo brilliant orange 5G extra 

Diazo brilliant scarlet 

Developed brilliant scarlet 2BL 

Diazo brilliant scarlet B extra 

Diazo brilliant scarlet 6B extra 

Diazo brilliant scarlet S4B 

Diazo brown ._ 

Diazo brown BW 

'^iazo brown 3G- 

jjiazo brown 6G 

Diazo brown 2G\V 

Diazo brown 3R 

Diazo brown RW 

Diazo brown 3RW 

Diazo brown SW 

Diazo fast black extra -.. 

Diazo fast blue _. 

Diazo fast blue 2B\V 

Diazo fast blue 20L 

Diazo fast blue 6QW -. 

Diazo fast Bordeaux BL 

Diazo fast green GF 

Diazo fast violet 

Developed fast violet BL 

Diazo fast violet 3RL 

Diazo light violet BL 

Diazo geranine B extra 

Diazo indigo blue.. 

Diazo indigo blue 4GL 

Diazo indigo blue 2RL 

Diazo indigo blue 3RL 

Diazo light yellow 3GL 

Diazo red N8B 



Manufac- 
turer 



C. 
C. 
C 
IG. 
IG- 



IG. 
IG- 
IG. 
IG. 
IG_ 



IG. 

C. 

c. 



IG. 
IG. 
IG. 
IG. 
IG. 



IG. 
IG. 
C. 
IG. 
IG. 
IG. 
C. 
C . 
IG. 
IG. 
I... 
By. 
IG. 



By. 
By- 
IG. 
IG. 



By. 
IG- 



By. 
By. 
By- 
By. 



By- 
By. 



By. 
IG- 



By- 
By- 
By. 
By. 



By- 
By. 
By- 
IG. 
I... 



Imports 



Quantity 



Pounds 
5,019 
1,787 
1,488 
4,182 
200 
1,910 



60 

5 

100 

1,725 



550 
5,250 



1,000 
11, 938 



100 

200 

150 

500 

743 

21, 602 

1,600 

1,350 

551 

661 

2,300 

17, 935 



2,551 



9,136 



4,815 



Invoice 
value 



50 
6,172 



1,492 
1,300 
4,076 



480 
5,218 



441 
2,212 



114 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHEE SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Table 34.^ — Imports of dyes, calendar year 1926 — Continued 
UNIDENTIFIED DIRECT DYES— Continued 



Name of dye 



Diazo rubine B 

Diazo sky blue 

Developed pure blue B _. 

Developed sky blue 3GL 

Diazo sky blue B 

Diazo sky blue 3G.. .-. 

Diazo sky blue 3GL 

Diazoeene orange Q 

Diazol light red N8B 

Diazol scarlet N3B 

Diazophenyl black V 

Diphenyl brown BBNC 

Diphenyl dark green BC 

Diphenyl fast Bordeaux Q cone... 

Diphenyl fast bronze B 

Diphenyl fast brown ONC 

Direct brilliant yellow KG 

Direct brown G cone 

Direct cutch brown GR 

Direct saf ranine R W 

Fast cotton brown 

Fast cotton brown QB 

Fast cotton brown 4RL- 

Fast cotton gray _ 

Fast cotton gray BL 

Fast cotton gray VL 

Fast cotton orange 4RL 

Fast cotton rubine B 

Fast cotton scarlet 4BL 

Fast cotton violet 4R 

Formal fast black G cone 

Half-wool blue 

Half-wool blue G. 

Half-wool blue 3R 

Neutral gray NY 

Neutral orange G powder 

New Bordeaux RX. 

Oxamine light brown G 

Oxamine light pink 

Minaxo light pink BX 

Minaxo light pink BBX 

Oxydiamine blue PG 

Paper red A extra. 

Paper yellow GGX 

Para black V 

Para brilliant orange G 

Para brown 

Para brown GK 

Para brown RK 

Para brown V 

Para orange G 

Parasulfon brown 

Parasulfon brown G 

Parasulfon brown GS cone ... 

Pluto black Vi extra 

Pluto brown GG_._ 

Plutoform black BL 

Rosanthrene 

Rosanthrene B 

Rosanthrene R 

Rosanthrene RN 

Rosanthrene fast red "BL 

Rosanthrene orange R 

Rosanthrene pink 

Rosanthrene violet 5R 

Sky blue N 

Toluylene fast brown 2R 

Triazol fast brown 

Triazol fast brown G 

Triazol fast brown 3GL 

Triazol light, orange 2RL 

Triazol light yellow RL 

Trisulphon bronze BG, BG conc. 

Trisulphon brown MB 

Universal blue C 

Uni versa 1 blue black C 

Universal brown C 



Manufac- 
turer 



By. 



By-. 
By.. 
lO.. 
By.. 
IG.. 
CJ.- 
CN- 
CN. 
G... 
G... 
G... 
G... 
G... 
G... 
I-... 



AG. 
IG.. 



IG. 
IG- 
IG. 
IG. 
IG. 
IG. 
G.. 



IG- 
IG. 
IG. 
By. 
IG. 
IG- 



IG. 
IG. 
IG- 
IG. 
IG. 
IG. 
IG. 



IG. 
IG. 
IG. 
IG. 



GrE. 
GrE. 
GrE. 
GrE. 

S 



IG. 
IG. 
IG. 



Imports 



Quantity 



Poum 

2, 

22, 



150 
816 
220 
614 
612 
551 
110 
613 
818 
110 
336 
637 
110 
325 



3,750 



100 
500 
50 
200 
990 
,823 



100 

558 
150 
200 
,203 



50 
,300 
,500 
350 
350 
,450 



50 
,200 



,470 
400 
100 

,619 



440 
,511 
992 

no 

769 
200 
452 



123 

254 

400 

10 

75 

225 

75 



DYES IMPORTED FOR CONSUMPTION 



115 



Table 34. — Imports of dyes, calendar year 1926 — Continued 
UNIDENTIFIED DIRECT DYES— Continued 





Manufac- 
turer 


Imports 


Name of dye 


Quantity 


Invoice 
value 


Universal gray C _ 


IG 

lO 

lO 

IG 

lO 


Pounds 
25 
25 
75 
175 
75 
12,864 




Universal green C 




Universal heliotrope C 




Universal jet black C . 




Universal leather brown C 




Zambesi black _..^ 


$5,888 


Developing black ED .... 


IG 




Diazo fast black extra 


IG 






Diazo fast black SD 


IG 






Minaxo black BBNX 


B 






Zambesi black D.. 


IG 






Zambesi black F 


IG 






Zambesi black V . ... 


IG 















DYES FOR ARTIFICIAL SILK 



Artificial silk black R 

Artisil carmine B cone 

Art isil purple cone 

.\zonine direct blue B paste 

Azonine direct violet R cone 

Blue extra paste 

Celatene black 

Celatene red paste 

Cellit fast blue R.- 

Cellit fast brown G 

Cellit fast orange G 

Cellit red B._ 

Cellit fast yellow 2 GN 

Cibacete diazo black B paste.. 

Cibacete navy blue 3R powder 

Cibacete orange 3G, 2R paste 

Cibacete red O R paste 

Cibacete scarlet G paste --- 

Cibacete turquoise blue paste. 

Cibacete violet 2R paste 

Cibacete yellow 

Cibacete yellow 3G paste... __ 

Cibacete yellow R paste 

Ci bacete yellow 2R - 

Dispersol yellow 3G paste -'- 

Duranol tilack paste 

Duranoi blue G paste. _ 

Durauol orange G paste. xc... 

Duranol red 

Duranol red 2B piste .- BDC. 

Duranol red G paste I BDC. 

Duranol violet 2R j BDC. 

lonamine I 

lonamine \ • BDC. 

lonamine B ' BDC. 

lonamine H .i BDC. 

lonamine L BDC. 

BDC. 
BDC. 
BDC- 



lO. 

s... 

s... 

IG. 
IG. 
IG. 
SD. 
SD. 
IG. 
IG. 
IQ- 
IG. 
IG. 
I... 
I... 
I... 
I... 
I... 
I... 
I... 



I 

I 

I 

BDC. 
BDC. 
BDC. 
BDC. 



lonamine MA 

lonamine blue B 

lonamine orange CB 

lonamine red.-- 

lonamine red GA ' BDC 

lonamine red KA BDC 

Orange extra paste- IG... 

Pink R extra paste 1 IG 

Rose B extra paste ! IG 



IG. 



G. 



Red R extra paste . 

Setacyl direct blue 

Setacyl direct blue G powder- ^ 

Setacyl direct blue R powder i G. 

•^etacyl direct orange 2R powder. _ I O 

t^etacyl direct red B powder G 

Setacyl direct violet R powder G 

Setacyl direct yellow R powder G 

SRA red I, III BCC. 

Yellow- 



Yellow 3G paste , -- IG- 

Yellow R paste ..^.-.. IG. 



1.000 

100 

100 

1.500 

100 

500 

50 

50 

100 

50 

50 

150 

100 

110 

486 

352 

110 

352 

110 

110 

330 



l.OCO 
998 

1,852 
726 

2.756 



318 



205 

50 

230 



100 
100 
100 
100 
6.907 



3,084 
2,315 

827 
2.093 
3,431 

200 



116 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Table 34.— 7 mporis oj dyes, calendar year 1926 — Continued 

RAPID FAST DYES 



Name of dye 



Rapid fast orange RG paste. 

Rapid fast pink LB paste 

Rapid fast red - 

Rapid fast red B paste... 
Rapid fast red GZ paste . 



Manufac- 
turer 



By. 
IG. 



IG. 
IG. 



Imports 



Quantity 



Pounds 
700 
900 
2,850 



UNIDENTIFIED SULPHUR DYES 



Cross dye green , 

Cross dye green B 

Cross dye green 2G cone 

Immedial brilliant green G extra. 

Immedial brown W cone 

Immedial direct blue B extra 

Indo carbon 

Indo carbon CL.. 

Indo carbon SN 

Katigene chrome blue 5G 

Katigene indigo CLOG extra 

Kurgan (Kryogene) violet 3RX.. 

Pyrogene brown G 

Pyrogene cutch 2R extra 

Pyrogene green GK 

Pyrogene pure blue SOL 

Sulphide new blue _ 

Sulphide new blue BL._ 

Sulphide new blue BLX 

Sulphur black MBWJ 

Thiogene new blue BL cone 

Thional brilliant blue 6BS cone. 

Thionol black XXN cone 

Thionol brown 

Thionol brown O 

Thionol brown R 

Thionol green 

Thionol green B 

Thionol green 2G 

Thionol yellow GR 



BDC. 
BDC. 
IG..., 
IG.... 
IG..., 



IG. 
IG. 
By. 
By. 
IG- 
I... 
I... 
I... 
I... 



M— .. 
M...., 

A 

M.-.., 

S 

BDC. 



BDC. 
BDC. 



BDC. 
BDC. 
BDC. 



41, 246 



100 
4,000 

100 
9,950 



1,752 

1,439 

500 I 

992 

1, 102 ! 

5,511 

4,408 

765 



5 

550 

1,500 

600 

18, 110 



41,304 
' 10,960" 



UNIDENTIFIED BASIC DYES 



Acridine flavine R 

Acridine red PS--_ 

Acridine scarlet J 

Acridine yellow AO 

Astra phloxine FF 

Astra violet FF extra 

Basic pink G powder 

Brilliant acridine orange 

Brilliant acridine orange R 

Brilliant acridine orange 3R 

Brilliant rhoduline blue 

Brilliant rhodamine blue R... 

Brilliant rhoduline blue R... 

Diazine black G.. 

Diazine red B , 

Excelsior yellow 12G , 

Methylene blue 3G 

Phosphine G 

Rhodamine 6GDN extra (single strength). 

Rhodamine 6QDN extra 

Rhodamine 6GDN extra. 

Rhodamine blue 6B cone. ...^ 

Rhodamine sky blue 3G 

Rhodamine sky blue 3G 

Rhoduline sky blue 3G 

Taunastrol GO. 

Tannoflavine F 

Thio violet 5R 

Xantho acridine MO... 



DH- 
DH. 
DH. 
IG.. 
IG.. 
IG.. 
Q — 



DH. 
DH. 



By. 
By- 
IG. 
IG. 
IG. 
lO. 
IG. 



B.. 
By. 
By. 



By.. 
IG.. 

S.... 
S-... 
DH. 
DH. 



576 

121 

385 

50 

5,044 
100 
220 

1,320 



250 

50 

5 

100 

500 

61, 050 



55 
1,908 



2,000 

499 

55 

661 



DYES IMPOKTED FOE CONSUMPTION 



117 



Table 34. — Imports of dyes, calendar year 1926 — Continued 
UNIDENTIFIED COLOR-LAKE AND SPIRIT-SOLUBLE DYES 



Name of dye 



Alizarin astrol B (oil soluble) 

Alizarin cj'anine green G extra (oil soluble) . 

Alizarin irisol (oil soluble) 

Alizarin sky blue (oil soluble) 

Alizarin viridine (oil soluble) 

Autol orange powder 

Brilliant helio blue FFR extra 

Ceres blue I powder 

Ceres red V ... 

Ceres yellow 

Ceres yellow I 

Ceres yellow III « 

Claret red BN paste 

Fast Lake yellow G powder 

Hansa green GS 

Hansa orange R paste 

Hansa red B powder 

Hansa yellow G 

Hansa yellow G paste 

Hansa yellow G powder 

Hansa yellow G lumps.. __ 

Hansa yellow 5G: 

Hansa yellow 5G paste 

Hansa yellow 5G powder 

Hansa yellow GR paste 

Hansa yellow GSA powder 

Heli o black 1.. 

Helio Bordeaux BL (single strength) 

Helio Bordeaux BL paste 

Helio Bordeaux BL powder 

Helio fast carmine CL powder 

Helio fast green HGS powder 

Helio fast pink R L paste 

Helio fast rubine 2BL, LBK powder 

Helio fast violet AL._ 

Helio fast yellow 

Helio fast yellow powder 

Helio fast yellow 5G powder 

Helio fast yellow H5G powder... 

Helio fast yellow HlOO powder 

Helio fast yellow GL paste 

Helio red RMT extra powder 

Lake yellow RF cone 

Lithol fast orange 

Stone fast orange RN powder 

Lithol fast rubine 

Stone fast rubine G powder 

Lithol fast scarlet 1 

Stone fast scarlet Q powder .. 

Lithol fast yellow. 

Stone fast yellow GN lumps. ., 

Stone fast yellow GN powder 

Stone fast yellow GR paste 

Moti orange G 

Oil green .\LB lumps 

Paper fast Bordeaux B 

Permanent orange 2R extra lumps 

Typophor black FB 

Typophor brown . 

Tero brown FR.--- . 

Typophor yellow 

Tero yellow FR 

Zapon green G powder 



Manufac- 
turer 



IG. 
IG. 
IG. 
IG. 
IG. 
IG. 
By. 
IG. 
By- 



IG. 
IG. 
IG. 
Q-- 
IG. 
IG. 
IG. 



IG. 
IG. 
IG. 

IG. 
IG. 
IG. 
IG. 
IG. 



IG. 
IG. 
IG. 
By- 
By. 
IG. 
By. 



By. 
By- 
By. 
Bv. 
By. 
By. 
IG. 



IG. 

ig! 



B.. 
IG. 
IG. 
IG- 
K.. 
IG. 
IG. 
IG. 



IG. 



IG. 
IG. 



Imports 



Q-"tity I I^' 



400 

100 

25 

75 

10 

20 

500 

100 

3 

45 



100 
220 
400 
100 
50 



000 
545 
900 

000 
500 
810 
000 
135 
976 



100 
25 
200 
700 
500 
828 



5 
,356 



200 



200 
"26" 



700 

,000 

500 

50 

125 

,201 

25 

400 

75 



,100 

"ioo" 



$11,366 



1,090 



1,977 



118 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Table 34. — Imports of dyes, calendar year 1926 — Continued, 
UNIDENTIFIED UNCLASSIFIED DYES 





Manufac- 
turer 


Imports 


Name of dye 


Quantity 


Invoice 
value 


Orasol blue R . 


G 


22 
22 
22 
55 
10 
11 
22 

250 
11 
11 
71,600 
10 
10 

166 




Qrasol red Q . 


G 

O 




Orasol scarlet G 


... 


Ink blue H 


G 

§h::::::; 

DH 

lO 

DH 

DH __ 

EJVIC >_..- 

NBC 

NBC 

Various... 




Kipper brown 




Luxine orange R 




Luxine violet 5RN 




Navy blue KWSR 




Poly trop orange 2R 




Purple DH 




Whites washing blue 




Utopia brilliant green B cone. 




Utopia brilliant green 6G cone 




All other dyes 









1 Eze Manufacturing Co., Canada. 

Index to table of dye imports 



Name of dye 


Colour 

Index 

No. 


Page 


Name of dye 


Colour 

Index 

No. 


Page 


Aceto purpurine 8B 


436 

172 


93 

92 
110 
110 

92 
110 

94 
110 

93 
110 
104 

97 
104 
104 
110 
110 

97 

94 

95 

95 
104 

92 

93 

94 
104 
104 . 

92 
104 

93 

93 1 
104 ! 
104 i 
104 1 

95 ; 

96 1 
96 

96 [ 
95 

104 1 

104 

104 

104 

104 

116 1 

97 1 
116 1 
116 
116 


Acronol brilliant blue 


664 


94 


Acid alizirin black R 


Agalma black 4BT. . 


104 


Acid alizarin gray G 


Alaska black lOBX 


246 


92 


Acid anthracene brown PG 




.Mgol blue3RP . 


107 


Acid anthracene brown R. 


105 


Algol brilliant pink FB . 




107 


Acid anthracene brown WSG 


Algol green BB 


1116 
1137 
1155 


101 


Acid anthracene red 3B 


487 


Algol orange R 


101 


Acid anthracene red 3BL 


.^Igol red B 


102 


Acid anthracene red G 


443 


Algol red 2B 


107 


Acid anthracene red 5BL.._ 


.\lgol red FF 


1133 
1133 
1129 
1139 
1040 
1027 
1075 


101 


Acid black 2R 




.4,lgol red R . 


101 


Acid blue AM 


833 


Algol scarlet G 


101 


Acid blue RBF _ 


Algol vellow 30 


101 


Acid brown RN__ _. . 





Alizarin SX n:iste- 


99 


Acid chrome red B 




.Alizarin VI extra pure 


98 


Acid chrome vellow 3GL 






99 


Acid cyanine BF 


853 
670 
692 
692 


Alizarin astrol B (oil soluble) 

Alizarin astrol violet B 


117 


Acid green cone, pdr 


104 


Aci i magenta 




1019 
1075 
1073 
1067 
1088 
1053 
1085 
1085 


98 


A cid magenta II 


Alizarin blue AS 


99 


Acid magenta LLS 


Alizarin blue JR 


99 


Acid milling black B 


307 
443 

487 


Alizarin blue S.. 


99 


Acid milling red G 


Alizarin blue SKY 


100 


A fill milliag red R. 


Alizarin blue WS.. 


99 


Acid miiling vellow G . . 


Alizarin blue black B 


99 


Acid navy bl:i: .MB ._ __ . 


.\liz:irin blue black 3B.. . 


99 


Acid ponceau E 


196 


.\lizarin blue green BBS 


110 


Acid pure blue R supra 


.\lizarin Bordeaux BP. 


1045 


99 


Acid red G 


430 
430 


.\lizariii lirilliimt sky blue R 


104 


Acid red RS._ 


Alizarin brown HD 




110 


Acid rhodamine B 


.\lizarin carmine 


1034 
1051 
1050 
1078 

""i078' 


99 


Acid rhodamine BG 






99 


Acid rhodamine 3R 


Alizarin cvanine WRR 


99 


Acid violet 6B (IG) 


697 
717 
717 
717 
701 


.\lizarin cviinine green G 


99 


Acid violet 6BN 


-Alizarin cyanine green G (oil soluble) . 
.Vlizarin cvanine green 3G 


117 


Acid violet 6BNG 


99 


Acid violet 6BN00. 


-Alizarin cvanine green 5G 


110 


Acid violet 7BN _ 




1064 


99 


Acid violet 8B 


Alizarin direct blui^ A. 


104 


Acid violet JOB.. 








104 


Acid violet CBB 






1087 


99 


Acid violet 3R 




.'Vlizarin diri'ct blue BB 


104 


Acid violet IR 




Alizarin direct blue BGAOO 

Alizarin direct blue RXO 

Alizirin direct red 3G 


1077 
1076 


99 


Acridine flavine R 




99 


Acridine orange DHE 


788 


104 


Acridine red PS. . _ 




1073 


99 


Acridine scarlet J 




Alizarin direct violet ERC 


104 


Acridine yallow .\0 




.\lizarin emeraldole G 


1056 


99 



INDEX TO TABLE OF DYE IMPORTS 
Index to table of dye imports — Continued 



119 



Name of dye 


Colour 

Index 

No. 


I 
Page 


Name of dye 


Colour 

Index 

No. 


Page 


Alizarin fast gray 2BL 




110 
110 ! 
100 

99 
102 
102 
107 
107 
107 
107 
117 ' 
104 

99 

99 
104 
104 

99 
104 

99 

99 
110 

99 
104 

98 

98 

98 

98 

98 
100 

99 

98 

99 

98 

99 

99 

99 

98 

99 

99 
100 
100 
100 
100 

99 

99 

99 

99 

99 
117 
100 
110 
104 
104 
117 

99 

95 

95 
104 
104 

96 
104 

95 

95 

95 
104 
104 

92 
104 
104 
104 
107 
101 
107 
101 
101 
100 
107 
103 
107 


Anthra pink BN 


1211 




Alizarin fast light brown GL 




Anthra pink R 




Alizarin geranol B 


1092 
1071 
1202 
1200 


Anthra red B. 


1207 
1142 
1091 




Alizarin green S 


Anthra red RT 




Alizarin indigo G 


Anthra rubine B . 




Alizarin indigo 3R 


Anthra scarlet B... 




Alizarin indigo 5R 


Anthra scarlet G. 


1098 
1228 
1095 
1063 
1060 
1063 
1059 
1035 
1035 
1035 




Alizarin indigo brown R. .. 




Anthra scarlet GG 




Alizarin indigo gray B 




Anthra yellow GC... 




Alizarin indigo violet B 




Anthracene blue BBN . 




Alizarin irisol (oil soluble) 




Anthracene blue SWGG... 




Alizarin irisol B 




Anthracene blue SWR.. 




Alizarin irisol R - 


1073 
1087 


Anthracene blue WB 




Alizarin leveling blue B - 


Anthracene brown R . 




Alizarin leveling blue CA - . . 


Anthracene brown RD _ 




Alizarin light blue AR. 




Anthracene brown SW 




Alizarin light blue B 


1054 


Anthracene chromate brown EB 




Alizarin light blue LR 


.\nthracene chrome blue R. 






Alizarin light blue R 


1076 
1053 


Ant hrac vanine S 


884 
1095 
1089 
1082 
1081 
1080 




Alizarin light blue SE 


Anthraflavone G 




Alizarin light gray BS 


Anthraquinone blue SR 




Alizarin light green GS 


1078 


Anthraquinone blue green BXO 

Anthraquinone green GXNO 

Anthraquinone violet.. 




Alizarin light violet RS 




Alizarin orange A.. . . 


1033 
1033 
1033 
1033 
1027 
1088 
1037 
1027 
1039 
1027 
1034 
1034 
1040 
1027 
1034 
1039 
1091 
1091 
1091 
1091 
1054 
1053 
1054 
1053 
1053 




Alizarin orange AO 


Artificial silk black R 




Alizarin orange RP 


Artisil carmine B 






Alizarin orange SW 


Artisil purple . 




115 


Alizarin paste bluish 


Astra phloxine FF 


. 


Alizarin pure blue B 


Astra violet FF.. .. 








Auracine G. 


786 
656 
655 
786 
724 




Alizarin red paste (Q) .. 


Auramine G.. 




Alizarin red GI paste 


Auramine 




Alizarin red IB paste 


Aurazine G 




Alizarin red S 


Aurine 


96 


Alizarin red SW 


Autol orange powder... 


117 


Alizarin red SX extra paste 


.\zo acid black B . . 




104 


Alizarin red VI old paste 


Azo alizarin Bordeaux W 


341 


93 


Alizarin red W . . .... 


Azo brilliant red B 


104 


Alizarin red XGP 


Azo carmine B 


829 

828 


97 


Alizarin rubine GW 


Azo carmine GX. 


97 


Alizarin rubine 3G 


.\zo fast blue BR .. .... 


104 


Alizarin rubine 5G 


Azo orseille BB 


829 


97 


Alizarin rubine R . 


Azo wool blue SE 


104 


Alizarin saphire blue B 


Azol printing Bordeaux B 




110 


Alizarin saphire blue SE 


Azol printing brown 3RL 




110 


Alizarin saphirol B 


Azol printing violet 2R . . 




110 


Alizarin saphirol SE 


.\zonine direct blue B 




115 


Alizarin saphirol WSA 


Azonine direct violet R 




115 


Alizarin skv blue (oil soluble) 


Azophor black DP 




111 


Alizarin skv blue B 


1088 


Basic blue GO... 


926 
658 


98 


Alizarin sky blue G . 


Basic blue6G--- . .... 


94 


Alizarin supra blue A 




Basic pink G 


116 


Alizarin supra blue SES .. . . 




Basic pure blue BO 


729 
815 
127 


96 


Alizarin viridine (oU soluble) 




Basic yellow T 


97 


Alizarin viridine FF 


1084 
703 
704 


Benzo brilliant pink G.. 


92 


Alkali blue 6B 


Benzo bronze E ... 


111 


Alkali blue4R. 


Benzo chrome black B 




111 


Alkali blue 6R 


Benzo chrome black blue B 




111 


Alkali fast green 2BF 




Benzo chrome brown B . 




111 


Alkali fast green 3G 


735 


Benzo chrome brown G . . 


596 


94 


Alkali fast green lOG 


Benzo chrome brown 5G 


111 


Alkali violet A extra 


700 
704 
704 


Benzo dark brown extra 




111 


Alkaline blue HR 


Benzo fast black L ... 




111 


Alkaline blue 3R 


Benzo fast blue G, . 




111 


Alphanol blue BRN. 


Benzo fast blue 4GL 




111 


Alphanol brown B 




Benzo fast blue 8GL i 


111 


Amaranth 


184 


Benzo fast Bordeaux 6BL. 




111 


Amido fast red GG . . 


Benzo fast brown GL 




111 


Amido fast yellow SR 




Benzo fast brown 3GL. 




111 


Anthosine 3B 




Benzo fast brown RL . 




111 


Anthra Bordeaux B 




Benzo fast copper blue B . 




111 


iVnthra Bordeaux R 


1143 


Benzo fast copper brown 3GL 




111 


Anthra brilliant green 5G 


Benzo fast copper violet B 




111 


Anthra brown B.. 


1120 
1123 
1102 


Benzo fast eosine BL 




111 


Anthra gray B 


Benzo fast gray BL 




111 


Anthra green B 


Benzo fast heliotrope BL 


319 
319 


92 


Anthra orange RH. 


Benzo fast heliotrope 2RL 


92 


Anthra pink AN . 


1211 


Benzo fast heliotrope 5RH 


111 


Anthra pink B 


Benzo fast light scarlet 4BL 




111 


49113—27 9 











120 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 
Index to table of dye imports — Continued 



Name of dye 



Benzo fast orange 2RL 

Benzo fast orange S 

Benzo fast orange WS 

Benzo fast red 8BL 

Benzo fast rubine BL 

Benzo fast scarlet 4BS 

Benzo fast scarlet 5B 

Benzo fast scarlet 5BS 

Benzo fast scarlet 8BS 

Benzo fast scarlet 2GL 

Benzo fast violet BL.. 

Benzo fast yellow 4GL 

Benzo fast yellow 5GL 

Benzo fast yellow RL. 

Benzo green G 

Benzo new blue 5B 

Benzo red 12B 

Benzo rhoduline red B 

Benzo rhoduline red 3B 

Benzo rubine HW.. 

Benzo rubine SC 

Benzo violet R 

Benzo violet RL 

Benzoform blue G 

Benzoform brown 4R 

Benzoform yellow GL 

Benzyl fast blue BL 

Benzyl fast blue GL 

Benzyl fast blue L 

Benzyl green B 

Betamine blue 8BL 

Bismarck brown S 

Black extra 

Black JI 

Blue extra.. 

Blue extra paste 

Blue JO 

Blue FF 

Blue NA 

Blue NBB 

Blue 1900 TOD.. 

Brilliant acid blue A 

Brilliant acid blue EG 

Brilliant acid blue FF 

Brilliant acid blue G 

Brilliant acid blue NAS 

Brilliant acid blue V 

Brilliant acid green 6B 

Brilliant acridine orange A 

Brilliant acridine orange R 

Brilliant acridine orange 3R 

Brilliant alizarin Bordeaux R... 

Brilliant azurine 5R 

Brilliant benzo fast yellow GL.. 

Brilliant benzo green B 

Brilliant benzo violet B 

Brilliant benzo violet 2R 

Brilliant blue G 

Brilliant carmine L cone 

Brilliant chrome blue S 

Brilliant chrome printing red B. 

Brilliant chrome violet 4B 

Brilliant chrome violet 3R 

Brilliant chrome violet 3RA 

Brilliant chrome violet 3RN 

Brilliant congo blue 5R 

Brilliant congo violet R 

Brilliant copper blue GW 

Brilliant delphine blue B 

Brilliant dianil blue fiG... 

Brilliant diazol orange N.TN 

Brilliant diazol orange NRN 

Brilliant fast blue 3BX 

Brilliant geranine B 

Brilliant green 

Brilliant helio blue FFR 

Brilliant indigo B 

Brilliant indigo BB 

Brilliant indigo 415.. 

Brilliant indigo 4BC 

Brilliant milling blue B 

Brilliant milling blue FQ 




326 
326 

278 
278 
327 



326 
326 



349 
346 



466 



833 
833 



667 
710 
331 
317 
134 
715 



135 
715 
316 
516 
892 
714 



673 
712 
667 

788 



1038 



325 



720 
357 



127 
662 



1190 
1188 
1184 
1184 



111 

93 

93 

92 

92 

93 

111 

93 

93 

111 

111 

93 

93 

112 

112 

93 

112 

112 

112 

112 

112 

93 

112 

112 

112 

112 

97 

97 

104 

94 

95 

93 

92 

92 

95 

115 

92 

95 

92 

94 

98 

95 

104 

104 

104 

95 

95 

94 

97 

116 

116 

99 

112 

112 

112 

93 

112 

96 

93 

110 

110 

96 

110 

110 

110 

112 

112 

112 

98 

95 

112 

112 

112 

92 

94 

117 

102 

102 

102 

102 

104 

104 



Name of dye 



Brilliant milling red R 

Brilliant phosphine 5G 

Brilliant pure blue B... 

Brilliant pure yellow 6G.. 

Brilliant rhodamine blue R 

Brilliant rhoduline blue R 

Brilliant scarlet N 

Brilliant silk blue B 

Brilliant sky blue 5G 

Brilliant sky blue 8G 

Brilliant sky blue R. 

Brilliant sky blue 2RM... 

Brilliant sulphon red B 

Brilliant sulphon red lOB 

Brilliant triazol fast violet BL.. 

Brilliant wool blue B 

BriUiant wool blue FFB 

Brilhant wool blue FFR 

Brilliant yellow cone 

Caledon printing black BR 

Capri blue GON 

Carmine blue V 

Cashmire black TN.. 

Celatene black 

Celatene red 

Cellit fast blue R 

Cellit fast brown G 

Cellit fast orange G 

Cellit fast red B 

Cellit fast yellow 2GN.... 

Ceres blue I.. 

Ceres red V.. 

Ceres yellow I.. 

Ceres yellow HI 

Chicago red III.. 

Chloramine blue 3G cone 

Chloramine blue HW 

Chloramine brilliant red SB 

Chloramine fast orange R 

Chloramine light gray B 

Chloramine light gray R.. 

Chloramine light violet R 

Chloramine red B 

Chloramine red 3B 

Chloramine red 8BS 

Chloramine sky blue FF 

Chloramine violet FFB. 

Chloramine violet R 

Chloramine yellow FF 

Chlorantine fast blue 2GL 

Chlorantine fast blue 4GL 

Chlorantine fast blue 8GL 

Chlorantine fast Bordeaux 2BL. 

Chlorantine fast brown BRL 

Chlorantine fast brown 5GL 

Chlorantine fast brown 3RL 

Chlorantine fast gray B 

Chlorantine fast green B 

Chlorantine fast orange 2RL 

Chlorantine fast red 5BL.. 

Chlorantine fast red 7 BL 

Chlorantine fast violet 5BL 

Chlorantine fast violet RL 

Chlorantine fast violet 2RL 

Chlorantine fast yellow 4GL 

Chlorantine fast vellow RL 

Chlorantine red 8BN 

Chlorazol brown LF , 

Chlorazol drab RII 

Chlorazol fast brown RK 

Chlorazol fast orange .\G 

Chlorazol fast red K 

Chlorazol violet R 

Chromacetine blue S 

Chromal blue QC 

Chromanol black RVI 

Chromanol blue NR 

Chromanol violet RI 

Chromazone red new cone , 

Chromazurine DN 

Chromazurine E 

Chromazurine G.. 



INDEX TO TABLE OF DYE IMPORTS 
Index to table of dye imports — Continued 



121 



Name of dye 


Colour 
Index 
No. 


Page 


Name of dye 


Colour 

Index 

No. 


Page 


Chrome azurol B 




110 
96 
99 
110 
110 
110 
110 
93 
110 
91 
110 
110 1 
110 
110 
110 
110 
110 
100 
96 
96 
93 
110 
92 
110 
110 
110 
110 
110 
96 
96 
110 
110 
96 
110 
110 
110 
110 
110 
110 
110 
91 
104 
104 
107 
107 
107 
107 
102 
102 
103 
107 
103 
107 
103 
103 
107 
103 
107 
103 
102 
115 
115 
115 
115 
115 
115 
115 
115 
115 
115 
115 
102 
100 
100 
102 
107 
107 
107 
100 
102 
102 


Cibanone green GC 




107 


Chrome azurol S 


723 
1085 


Cibanone olive 2G .. 




107 


Chrome blue black B 


Cibanone orange R 


1169 


102 


Chrome brilliant scarlet GD. 


Cibanone orange 6R . . 


107 


Chrome brown G 




Cibanone red B 




107 


Chrome fast ])rinting red G 




Cibanone red 4B . . 




107 


Chrome fast yellow 2G. .•.. 




Cibanone red G- . 




107 


Chrome fast yellow RD. 


441 


Cibanone violet R . . 


1104 
1170 


100 


Chrome gray III _ .. 


Cibanone yellow R 


102 


Chrome orange R. - 


40 


Claret red for lake BN 


117 


Chrome orange 2R. 


Cloth fast brown 5R 




104 


Chrome printing Bordeaux B... 




Cloth fast orange G . 




104 


Chrome printing claret R.. 




Cloth fast orange R 




104 


Chrome printing orange BW. 




Cloth fast red B 




lOi 


Chrome printing orange 2R 




Cloth fast red3B 




104 


Chrome printing red B 




Cloth fast red R 




104 


Chrome printing red Y 




Cloth fast yellow G . 




104 


Chrome pure blue B ... 


1088 
727 
727 
441 


Cloth red B 


259 
257 
256 


92 


Chrome violet . . . 


Cloth red 3B extra 


92 


Chrome violet CG . 


Cloth red 3G.. 


92 


Chromocitronine R 


Colonial blue R . . 


11 


Chromocitronine 3R 


Columbia blue G 


473 


93 


Chromogene black ET.- -. ... 


203 


Columbia catechine .\^.. . 


112 


Chromogeno indigo B 


Columbia catechine 3B 




112 


Chromogene indigo R 




Columbia catechine G 




112 


Chromogene red B 




Columbia red OB . 




112 


Chromogene violet 3R 




Congo orange R . 


459 
376 
289 

787 


93 


Chromophenine FKN 




Congo rubine B . 


93 


Chromorhodine BN. 




762 
762 


Coomassie navy blue GNX. 


92 


Chromorhodine BR .... 


Coriphosphine OX extra 


96 


Chromorhodine 6GN 


Cotonerol A 


112 


Chromovesuvine RA 




Cotonerol G 




112 


Chromoxane brilliant blue G _. 


720 


Cotonerol 2G . 




112 


Chromoxane brilliant violet 5B 


Cotton black AC 




112 


Chromoxane brilliant violet BD 




Cotton pink GN . 


131 
448 
252 
346 
291 


92 






Cotton red 4BX 


93 


Chromoxane brilliant violet SR.. .. 




Cotton scarlet extra . 


92 


Chromoxane pure blue B 




Cotton yellow G extra 


93 


Chromoxane pure blue BLD 




Croceine scarlet lOB . . 


92 


Chromoxane violet RD . 




Cross dye green B 


116 


Chrysoidine RL base 


21 


Cross dye green 2G . 




116 


Chrysoline A 


Crystal violet extra pdr 


681 
681 
1077 
715 
715 
913 
914 
451 


95 


Chrvsoline AG . 




Crystal violet C cone 


95 


Ciba black G . . 




Cyananthrol BGAOO. 


99 


Ciba black R 




Cyanol extra 


95 


Ciba blue 2BL 




Cyanol FF 


95 


Ciba blue 2RH 




Danubia blue BX . 


98 




1208 
1198 
1230 


Danubia blue BBX 


98 




Deltapurpurine 5B 


93 


Ciba orange G . . 


Developed brilliant green 3G 


112 


Ciba pink BG . 


Developed brilliant green 6G.. 




112 


Ciba red 3B . . 


1212 


Developed brilliant orange 5G... 




112 


Ciba red 3BL 


Developed brilliant scarlet 2BL 




112 


Ciba red O 


1226 
1229 


Developed fast violet BL... 




112 


Ciba red R 


Developed lieht yellow 2G 


654 


94 


Ciba red RU . 


Developed pure blue B 


112 


Ciba scarlet G 


1228 


Developed sky blue 3GL. . 




112 


Ciba scarlet 2GL-. . _ . . 


Developing black B 


317 


92 


Ciba violet R.- 


1222 
1196 


Developing black ED 


112 


Ciba yellow G 


Developing black OT 


371 


93 


Cibacete diazo black B.- . _ 


Developing blue B 


112 


Cibacete navy blue 3R 




Diamine azo brown Q . 




112 


Cibacete orange 3G ._. 


Diamine azo brown 3G... 




112 


Cibacete orange 2R.. 


Diamine azo fast green G.. 




113 


Cibacete red GR . 


Diamine azo fast violet R 




113 


Cibacete scarlet G. 


Diamine azo yellow 2G . 




113 


Cibacete turquoise blue . i 


Diamine brilliant Bordeaux R 

Diamine brilliant scarlet S 


543 


94 


Cibacete violet 2R ' . .. 


113 


Cibacete yellow 3G . . . 


Diamine brilliant violet B 


325 
559 


93 


Cibacete yellow R '. 


Diamine bronze G._. 


94 


Cibacete yellow 2R 


Diamine bronze brown PE 


113 


Cibanone black B 


1172 
1115 
1113 
1173 


Diamme brown B.. . 


423 
420 


93 


Cibanone blue G .. . 


Diamine brown R 


93 


Cibanone blue GCD 


Diamine catechine B. 


113 


Cibanone blue 3G . 


Diamine catechine Q 




113 


Cibanone blue RSNL... 


Diamine catechine 3G 




113 


Cibanone Bordeaux B.. . . 


Diamine dark blue B . 




113 


Cibanone brown R 


Diamine dark green N 




113 


Cibanone golden orange G... 


1096 
1174 
1174 


Diamine fast black C 




113 


Cibanone green B 


Diamine fast blue FFB 




113 


Cibanone green G 


Diamine fast blue F3G 




113 



122 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 
Index to table of dye imports — Continued 



Name of dye 


Colour 

Index 

No. 


Page 


Name of dye 


Colour 

Index 

No. 


Page 


Diamine fast Bordeaux 6BS 




113 

113 

113 

113 

113 

113 

113 

113 

113 

113 

93 

92 

93 

93 

113 

94 

94 

92 

93 

93 

92 

93 

93 

94 

113 

94 

113 

113 

113 

92 

94 

92 

92 

94 

113 

92 

113 

113 

113 

113 

113 

93 

113 

113 

113 

92 

113 

113 

113 

113 

92 

113 

113 

113 

113 

113 

113 

113 

113 

113 

92 

113 

113 

113 

113 

113 

94 

113 

113 

113 

94 

113 

113 

113 

113 

113 

113 

113 

113 

114 

114 


Diazo sky blue 3G 




114 


Diamine fast brown G 




Diazo sky blue 3GL 




114 


Diamine fast brown GB _ 




Diazogene orange G 




114 


Diamine fast brown GBB 




Diazol fast purpurine N8B 


436 


93 


Diamine fast brown GHB . . 




Diazol light red N8B. 


114 


Diamine fast brown R 




Diazol scarlet N3B 




114 


Diamine fast gray BN 




Diazo phenyl black V 




114 


Diamine fast orange EG- _-. 




Diphene blue B 


851 
851 


97 


Diamine fast orange ER 




Diphene blue R 


97 


Diamine fast rose B 




Diphenyl brown BBNC 


114 


Diamine fast scarlet 4BS 


327 
321 
325 
325 


Diphenyl brown GS 


598 
628 

814 
631 

627 


94 


Diamine fast scarlet GG 


Diphenyl catechine G . 


94 


Diamine fast violet FFBN. 


Diphenyl chloramine yellow FF 
supra.. 




Diamine fast violet FFRN 


114 


Diamine gray Q . . 


Diphenyl chrysoine GC. 


94 




593 
594 
317 
409 
459 
128 
382 
382 
518 


Diphenyl chrysoine RRC 


94 


Diamine green Q 


Diphenyl dark green BC . 


114 


Diamine neron BBG.. 


Diphenyl fast Bordeaux G 




114 


Diamine orange B 


Diphenyl fast bronze B 




114 


Diamine orange F . . 


Diphenyl fast brown GF . 


629 


94 


Diamine rose GD 


Diphenyl fast brown GNC 


114 


Diamine scarlet B _ 


Diphenyl fast gray BC 


403 
632 
632 
710 


93 


Diamine scarlet 3B... 


Diphenyl fast yellow GL supra 

Diphenyl fast yellow RL supra 

Direct brilliant blue SB... 


94 


Diamine sky blue FF 


94 


Diamine steel blue L 


95 


Diamine vellow N- 


488 


Direct brilliant yellow KG 


114 


Diamineral blue BF... 


Direct brown G . 




114 


Diaminogen BW 




Direct cutch brown GR 




114 


Diaminogen blue GG . 




Direct fast brown 3GL 




114 


Diaminogen blue N A .. 


316 
516 
317 
299 
596 


Direct fast heliotrope 2RL 


319 
653 
326 
278 
326 


92 


Diaminogen blue NBB 


Direct fast orange K 


94 


Diaminogen extra 


Direct fast orange S 


93 


Diamond black F 


Direct fast red 8BL 


92 


Dianil chrome brown G 


Direct fast scarlet 5BL 

Direct fast violet BL 


93 


Dianil fast violet BL 


114 


Diazamine blue BR 


316 


Direct fast yellow GL i 


114 


Diazanil pink B 


Direct gray R 

Direct red 12B 


873 


97 


Diazine black G 




114 


Diazine red B 




Direct safranine RW 




114 


Diazo black VG 




Direct sky bliie 8G . 




114 


Diazo Bordeaux 7B 




Discharge blue B 




104 


Diazo brilliant black B. 


449 


Dispersol yellow 3G 




115 


Diazo brilliant blue2BL 


Duranol black.. 




115 


Diazo brilliant green 3G 




Duranol blue G . 


"■ ■ 


115 


Diazo brilliant orange 5G 




Duranol orange G 




115 


Diazo brilliant orange GR 


324 


Duranol red 2B , 




115 


Diazo brilliant scarlet B . . 


Duranol red G 




115 


Diazo brilliant scarlet 6B 




Duranol violet 2R 




115 


Diazo brilliant scarlet 2BL 




Durindone blue 4B 


1184 
937 
119 


102 


Diazo brilliant scarlet S4B 




Eclipse brown 3GK . 


98 


Diazo brilliant scarlet ROA . 


324 


Eosamine G . 


92 


Diazo brown BW 


Eridan brilliant scarlet B 


107 


Diazo brown 3G 




Erika B cone 


130 
130 
131 


92 


Diazo brown GG... 




Erika B extra.. . 


92 


Diazo brown 2GW 




Erika GN 


92 


Diazo brown 3R 




Erio anthracene brown R 


111 


Diazo brown R W 




Erio carmine 2BC 




105 


Diazo brown 3R\V 




Erio fast cyanine SE ... 


1053 

758 


99 


Diazo brown SW 




Erio fast fuchsine BBL 


96 


Diazo fast black extra 




Erio fast yellow AE 


105 


Diazo fast black MG . 


317 


Eriofloxine2G 


31 
735 


91 


Diazo fast black SD 


Erio green B supra . 


96 


Diazo fast blue 2BW 




Eriochromal brown AEB 


110 


Diazo fast blue 2GL 




Eriochromal brown G 




110 


Diazo fast blueCGW 




Eriochromal gray 5G 




110 


Diazo fast Bordeaux BL 




Eriochrome azurol BC 


720 


96 


Diazo fast green BL. 


532 


Eriochrome black E 


110 


Diazo fast green GF . 


Eriochrome blue S... 




110 


Diazo fast violet BL . 




Eriochrome blue black G 




110 


Diazo fast violet 3RL 




Eriochrome brilliant green G supra.. 
Eriochrome brilliant violet B supra 




110 


Diazo fast yellow 2G. 


6.54 


110 


Diazo geranine B extra 


Eriochrome brown SWN 




110 


Diazo green 3G 




Eriochrome cyanine RC... .. 


722 
. 219 


96 


Diazo indigo blue 4GL 




Eriochrome flavine A 


92 


Diazo indigo blue 2RL 






110 


Diazo indigo blue 3RL 




Eriochrome phosphine RR 


157 


92 


Diazo light violet BL 




Eriochrome red G. 


110 


Diazo light yellow 3GL 








111 


Diazo red N8B 




Eriochrome violet 3B 




111 


Diazo rubine B.. 








111 


Diazo sky blue B 




Eriocyanine AC 


699 


95 



INDEX TO TABLE OF DYE IMPOSTS 
Index to table of dye imports — Continued 



123 



Name of dye 



Eriocyanine CR 

Erioglaucine AP 

Erioglaucine EP 

Erioglaucine supra — 

Erioglaucine X high cone. 

Erioglaucine XFF 

Erioviridine B supra.. 

Erythrosine A... 

Ethyl violet 

Euchrysine RRDX — 

Excelsior yellow 12G 

Fast acid eosin G 

Fast acid green extra bluish — 

Fast acid green BB 

Fast acid marine blue HBBX. 

Fast acid violet B 

Fast acid violet lOB 

Fast acid violet R 

Fast acid yellow 3Q 

Fast black G__ 

Fast cotton brown GB 

Fast cotton brown 4RL 

Fast cotton gray BL 

Fast cotton gray VL_. 

Fast cotton orange 4RL 

Fast cotton red 8BL 

Fast cotton rubine B 

Fast cotton scarlet 4BL 

Fast cotton violet 4R 

Fast cyanine blue B 

Fast cyanine violet B 

Fast green extra bluish 

Fast green G 

Fast lake yellow Q 

Fast light red B 

Fast light yellow 2G 

Fast light yellow 3G 

Fast mordant blue B 

Fast sulphon black F 

Fast sulphon violet 5 BS 

Fast yellow extra 

Fast yellow S 

Flavophosphine G 

Fluorescein 

Formal fast black G 

Formyl blue B 

Fuchsine N 

Fur black DB 

Fur black SC 

Fur blue black A 

Fur blue black B 

Fur l)lue black D 

Fur blue black SA 

Fur blue black SB 

Fur blue black SDF 

Fur blue gray 

Fur brown _.. 

Fur brown NZ 

Fur brown NZD 

Fur brown O 

Fur brown P... 

Fur brown PR 

Fur brown PY.. 

Fur brown 2R 

Fur brown 4R 

Fur brown SK 

Fur brown SKG 

Fur brown SO 

Fur brown SP 

Fur gray AL 

Fur gray ALA.. 

Fur gray B 

Fur gray G 

Fur gray R 

Fur gray brown SLA 

Fur olive DA 

Fur olive 3G.. 

Fur olive 6G.. 

Fur red brown 6R 

Fur yellow 6B 



Colour 

Index 

No. 



671 
671 
671 
671 



773 

682 
797 



756 
691 



696 
758 
636 



636 
636 



306 

32 

16 

16 

794 

766 



677 

875 
875 
875 
875 
875 
875 
875 
875 
875 
875 
875 
875 
875 
875 
875 
875 
875 
875 
875 
875 
875 
875 
875 
875 
875 
875 
875 
875 
875 
875 
875 
875 
875 



Page 



105 

95 

95 

95 

95 

105 

94 

96 

95 

97 

116 

96 

95 

105 

105 

96 

95 

96 

94 

105 

114 

114 

114 

114 

114 

92 

114 

114 

114 

105 

105 

95 

98 

117 

105 

94 

94 

111 

92 

91 

91 

91 

97 

96 

114 

105 

95 



Name of dye 



Fur yellow 2G 

Fur yellow 4G 

Fur yellow 6G._. 

Fur yellow brown A 

Fur yellow brown 2GA 

Fur yellow brown 4GL 

Fuscamine G. 

Gallamine blue extra 

Qallazine No. 90 

Gallo fast black 

Gallo heliotrope BD 

Gallo navy blue DA 

Gallo navy blue S 

Gallo violet DF 

Gallophenine P 

Oeranine G 

Grasol blue R 

Grasol red G... 

Grasol scarlet G 

Grelanone brown B 

Grelanone olive B 

Grelanone red 2B 

Grelanone red 3BR 

Grelanone violet BR 

Grelanone yellow Q 

Guinea blue A 

Guinea blue V 

Guinea brown 2GL 

Guinea brown 2R.. 

Guinea fast green B 

Guinea fast green 3B 

Guinea fast red BL 

Guinea fast red 4BL 

Guinea fast red 2R 

Guinea light blue A 

Guinea light blue A2G 

Guinea rubine 4R 

Half-wool blue G 

Half-wool blue 3R 

Hansa green GS 

Hansa orange R 

Hansa red B 

Hansa yellow G 

Hansa yellow 5G 

Harisa yellow GR 

Hansa vellow GSA 

Helindone black IBB 

Helindone blue B__ 

Helindone blue 3G 

Helindone blue 3R- 

Helindone brown G 

Helindone brown IG 

Helindone brown IGR 

Helindone fast scarlet B. 

Helindone fast scarlet C 

Helindone fast scarlet G 

Helindone gray IQK 

Helindone green G 

Helindone khaki IGO 

Helindone orange D 

Helindone orange R 

Helindone pink AN 

Helindone pink B 

Helindone pink BN 

Helindone pink IB 

Helindone pink R 

Helindone printing black RD. 

Helindone red B 

Helindone red IBN 

Helindone red violet IRH 

Helindone yellow 3GN 

Helindone yellow IFFRK 

Helindone yellow RN. 

Helindone yellow I 3RT 

Helio black 

Helio Bordeaux BL 

Helio fast carmine CL.. 

Helio fast green HGS 

Helio fast pink RL 

Helio fast red RL.. 



Colour 

Index 

No. 



875 
875 
875 
875 
875 
875 
875 
894 
905 



892 



127 



1152 
1150 



1135 



714 
712 



667 



1227 
1152 
1149 



1228 



1145 
1199 



1215 
1217 
1211 



1209 
1162 
1212 
1138 



124 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 
Index to table of dye imports — Continued 



Name of dye 


Colour 
Index 

No. 


Page 


Name of dye 


Colour 

Index 

No. 


1 
Page 


Helio fast rubine 2BL.. 




117 
117 
117 
117 
117 
117 
117 
92 
117 
98 
107 
98 
98 
107 
107 
107 
107 
107 
101 
107 
103 
107 
107 
108 
108 
108 
108 
108 
108 
108 
108 
108 
108 
108 
108 
93 
93 
93 
116 
116 
116 

100 

100 

100 

100 

100 1 

100 

108 

101 

101 

100 

101 

108 

101 

108 

101 

100 

100 

100 

101 

102 

103 

100 

102 

100 : 

101 

105 

103 , 

102 

102 , 

109 

102 

109 

109 1 

109 i 

109 

109 

109 

109 

109 

109 


1 Indo carbon CL 




116 
116 
98 
105 
105 


Helio fast rubine LBK 




' Indo carbon SN 




Helio fast violet AL.. 




i Indochromine RR 


931 


Helio fast yellow GL. 




t Indocyanine B 


Helio fast yellow SO. 




Indocyanine BF... 




Helio fast yellow H5G 




Indocyanine FF 




105 


Helio fast yellow HIOQ 




Indoine blue BB. 


135 

861 
827 


92 
97 
97 
105 
105 
118 
105 
96 
115 
115 


Helio purpurine 7BL 


200 


Induline NN 


Helio red RMT.. 


Induline scarlet 


Hydron blue B... 


971 


Ink blue BITBN 


Hydron blue BBF 


Ink blue BITBNOO 




Hydron blue O 


971 
969 


! Ink blue H._ 




Hydron blue R 


' Ink fast black A extra 




Hydron brown G 


Intensive blue B. 


733 


Hydron brown R... 




lonamineA.. 


Hydron green G 




lonamine B 




Hydron navy blue C... 




1 lonamine H 




115 


Hydron olive GN. 




lonamine L 




115 


Hydron olive R 


1150 


lonamine MA 




115 


Hydron orange GL. 


lonamine blue B 




115 


Hydron orange RF 


1217 


lonamine orange CB 




115 


Hydron orange RP 


1 lonamine red GA 




115 


Hydron pink FB . 




lonamine red KA . . 




115 


Hydron pink FF 




Iris violet extra 


847 
134 
135 
266 
145 


97 
92 


Hydron scarlet 2B 




lanus black I 


Hydron scarlet 3B 




1 Janus blue... 


92 
92 


Hydron sky blue FK 




i lanus red B . 


Hydron violet BF.. 




1 Tasmine, high cone . 


92 
116 


Hydron violet BBF.. 




Katigene chrome blue 5G 


Hydron violet R 




Katigene indigo CLGG .. 




116 


Hydron violet RF 




Kipper brown 




118 


Hydron wool red BB vat... 




Kiton blue A 


714 
671 


95 


Hydron yellow GG.. 




Kiton blue L . 


95 


Hydron yellow NF 




! Kiton fast green A 


105 


Hydron yellow brown G 




Kiton fast green V... 


735 


96 


Ignamine orange 3G 


368 
440 
369 


Kiton fast red BL 


105 


Ignamine orange R 


Kiton fast red 4BL 




105 


Ignamine orange RR 


Kiton fast red GL.. 




105 


Immedial brilliant green G 


Kiton fast red R 




105 


Immedial brown W 




Kiton fast vellow 3G. 


645 

712 


94 


Immedial direct blue B. . 




Kiton pure blue V.. 


95 


Indanthrene black 


1102 
1113 
1111 
1108 
1106 
1093 


Krvogene violet 3RX. 


116 


Indanthrene blue GCD 


Kurgan violet 3RX... 




116 


Indanthrene blue 5G... 


Lake red C 


165 


92 


Indanthrene blue RK... 


Lake vellow RF. 


117 


Indanthrene blue RS 


Lanasol blue R 




105 


Indanthrene blue WB pdj . 


Lanasol orange 2R... 




105 


Indanthrene blue RZ 


Leveling silk blue B 




105 


Indanthrene Bordeaux B 


1146 
1143 
1104 
1120 


Light green SF vellow shade 


670 
670 


94 


Indanthrene Bordeaux B extra 

Indanthrene brUliant violet RR 


Light green SF yellowish XX 

Ivithol fast orange 


94 
117 


Indanthrene brown B 


Lithol fast rubme 




117 


Indanthrene brown 2G 


Lithol fast scarlet . 




117 


Indanthrene brown R . . 


1151 


Lithol fast vellow 




117 


Indanthrene brown RT.. . 


Luxine orange R 




118 


Indanthrene corinth RK 


1144 
1099 
1096 
1097 
1123 
1162 
1212 
1098 
1163 
1103 
1118 


Luxine violet 5RN. 




118 


Indanthrene dark blue BO 


Magenta AB 


677 
873 


95 


Indanthrene golden orange G 


Malta grav J 


97 


Indanthrene golden orange R 


Metachrome blue black 2BX 


111 


Indanthrene gray B 


Metachrome brilliant blue BL... 




111 


Indanthrene red BN. 


Metachrome brilliant blue BLO 




111 


Indanthrene red violet RH 


Metachrome brilliant blue 8RL 




111 


Indanthrene scarlet G 


Metachrome brown BL 




111 


Indanthrene violet BN 


Metachrome brown 6G 




111 


Indanthrene violet R... . 


Metachrome olive B... 




111 


Indanthrene yellow G 


Metachrome olive 20 




111 


Indian yellow GAM... 




104 
40 


92 


Indigo (natural) 


1247 
1186 
1183 


Metachrome orange R 

Metachrome red Q 


91 


Indigo MLB/6B 


111 


Indigo pure BArfF/RB 




173 


92 


Indigosol AZG 


Metachrome violet 2R 


111 


Indigosol 0. 


1178 


Metanil red 3B i 




105 


Indigosol 04B 




703 
706 
705 
680 
680 


95 


Indigosol OR 




Methyl Lyons blue... 


95 


Indigosol black TB . . 




95 


Indigosol orange HR 






95 


Indigosol pink HR 




Methv! violet base i 


95 


Indigosol red HR 




Methvl violet 4B I 


116 


Indigosol scarlet HB 




Methvl violet NFB 


680 
922 


95 


Indigosol violet AZB 




Methylene blue B. ..| 

Methylene blue 3G 1 


98 


Indigosol yellow HOG 




116 



INDEX TO TABLE OF DYE IMPOKTS 
Index to table of dye imports — Continued 



125 



Name of dye 



Methylene green G... 

Methylene green W 

Methylene hehotrope extra strong... 

Methylene violet 3RA extra 

MUling brown R 

Milling orange Q.. 

Milling red 4BA.- 

Milling red 6BA 

Milling red GA... 

Milling red NJ. - 

Milling scarlet 4R... .- 

MUling yellow F3G 

Milling yellow GA 

Milling yellow SG... 

Milling yellow H3G 

Milling yellow O... 

MiUing yellow 03G 

Mimosa Z cone 

Minaxo black BBNX - 

Minaxo light brown G. 

Minaxo light pink BX 

Minaxo light pink BBX... 

Modern azurine 5G - - 

Modern blue CVI 

Modern cyanine V. - 

Modern gray CVX 

Modern gray PS - -.- 

Modern green N 

Modern heliotrope DH 

Modern olive JN... - 

Modern violet DH 

Moti orange 

Moti orange G 

Moti orange R -- 

Nako ER 

NakoSGA 

Nako PS - 

NakoRH -. - 

Nako black B 

Nako black D... 

Nako black ST. .-. 

Naphthalene green cone 

Naphthalene green V... 

Naphthochrome violet R.. 

Naphthol black BGN. 

Naphthol yellow SXX 

Navy blue KWSR 

Neolan black OG 

Neolan black RR 

Neolan blue B... 

Neolan blue BR 

Neolan blue G... 

Neolan blue 2G 

Neolan blue GR 

Neolan blue RR... 

Neolan green B 

Neolan green LBN 

Neolan orange R 

Neolan pink B 

Neolan pink G 

Neolan violet R 

Neolan yellow O 

Neolan yellow GR 

Neotolyl black TL 

Neptune blue BR cone 

Neutral gray NY 

Neutral orange G 

New Bordeaux RX— 

New fast gray 

New gallophenine 5G 

New methylene blue N.. 

New methylene blue NS 

New methylene blue NSS — 

New Victoria blue B 

Night blue 

Nigrosine G (spirit soluble) 

Nigrosine GF.. , 

Nigrosine T 

Nile blue BX. 

Nile blue BBX 

Nitrosamine red paste 



Colour 

Index 

No. 



924 
924 
845 
842 



487 



882 



892 
24 



24 
875 
875 
875 
875 
875 
875 
875 
735 
735 



873 



927 
927 
927 
728 
731 
864 
865 
865 
913 
914 
44 



97 
105 
105 
105 
105 
105 
105 

94 
105 
105 
105 
105 
105 
105 

97 
114 
114 
114 
114 

97 
111 

98 
111 
111 
111 



91 
117 
91 



98 
96 
96 
111 
105 
91 
118 
105 
105 
105 
105 
105 
105 
105 
105 
105 
105 
105 
105 
105 
105 
105 
105 
105 
95 
114 
114 
114 
97 
111 



Name of dye 



Novazol blue B... 

Novazol violet B. 

Oil green ALB 

Omega chrome brown EB 

Omega chrome red B cone 

Onis B 

Onis 3B 

Onis 5B 

Opal blue, bluish 

Orange extra paste 

Orange IIP... 

Orange S 

Orthocyanine B.. 

Oxamine acid brown G 

Oxamine light brown G 

Oxychrome brilliant blue PB. 

Oxydiamine blue PG 

Palatine chrome brown RX.. 

Palatine fast black GG 

Palatine fast blue 

Palatine fast blue GR 

Palatine fast gray B 

Palatine fast violet R 

Paper fast Bordeaux B 

Paper red A 

Paper yellow GQX 

Para black V 

Para brilliant orange G 

Para brown GK 

Para brown RK 

Para brown V 

Para orange G 

Paradone blue FC 

Paradone gray B 

Parasulfon brown G 

Parasulfon brown GS 

Patent blue A 

Patent blue V 

Patent phosphine G 

Patent phosphine 2G 

Patent phosphine GRNTN.. 

Patent phosphine M 

Patent phosphine R 

Patent phosphine RRDX 

Permanent orange 2R 

Philadelphia yellow 2G 

Phloxine 

Phosphine G 

Phosphine O 

Phosphine 3R 

Phosphine orange 

Pilatus chrome brown RX 

Pilatus fast blue B 

Pilatus fast blue BR 

Pilatus fast blue G 

Pilatus fast blue GG.... 

Pilatus fast blue GR — 

Pilatus fast gray G 

Pilatus fast green BL 

Pilatus fast pink B 

Pilatus fast pink G 

Pilatus fast violet R 

Pilatus fast yellow G 

Pilatus fast yellow GR 

Pink R extra 

Pluto black G. 

Pluto brown GG... 

Plutoform black BL 

Polar gray 

Polar orange R 

Polar red B 

Polar red G 

Polar red R 

Polar red RS 

Polar yellow 2G 

Polyphenyl blue GC 

Polytrop orange 2R 

Ponceau 

Ponceau 3R 

Ponceau S 

Poseidon blue BGX 



Colour 

Index 

No. 



652 



707 



151 
150 



720 



167 



714 
712 
789 
789 
797 
789 
789 
797 



793 

778 



793 
793 
788 
167 



430 
430 
430 



590 



80 
80 
196 
712 



126 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 
Index to table of dye imports — Continued 



Name of dye 



Poseidon blue BR extra 

Poseidon blue BXX 

Poseidon green SGX 

Poseidon green VQGX 

Purple DH 

Purpurine 

Pyramine orange 3G 

Pyramine orange R 

Pyramine orange RR 

Pyrazol orange cone 

Pyrogene brown G 

Pyrogene cutch 2R... 

Pyrogene green GK 

Pyrogene green 3G 

Pyrogene pure blue 3GL 

Quinoline yellow 

Quinoline yellow cone 

Quinoline yellow extra 

Quinoline yellow KT extra conc. 

Radio chrome blue B.. 

Radio navy blue B 

Radio yellow R 

Rapid fast orange RG 

Rapid fast pink LB 

Rapid fast red B 

Rapid fast red GL paste 

Rapid fast red GZ. 

Red JB 

Red R 

Reflex blue K 

Resorcin brown B.. 

Rheonine AL 

Rhodamine B cone 

Rhodamine Bextra.. 

Rhodamine B extra base 

Rhodamine 3B extra 

Rhodamine G extra 

Rhodamine 6G extra 

Rhodamine 6GDN... 

Rhodamine S 

Rhodamine blue 6B 

Rhodamine sky blue 3G 

Rhoduline blue 6G 

Rhoduline orange NO 

Rhoduline sky blue 3G 

Rhoduline yellow 6G 

Rosanthrene B 

Rosanthrene R 

Rosanthrene RN 

Rosanthrene fast red 7BL_. 

Rosanthrene orange R.. 

Rosenthrene pink 

Rosanthrene violet 5R 

Rosazeine 6G 

Rose B extra 

Rosinduline 2B bluish. 

Rosinduline GXF 

Rosolane paste 

Runic AL cone 

Salicine orange 2R-. 

Sandothrene blue NG... 

Sandothrene blue NGCD 

Sandothrene yellow NO 

Scarlet 3R.-- 

Selan printing brown 3R 

Setacyl direct blue G 

Setacyl direct blue R 

Setacyl direct orange 2R 

Setacyl direct red B 

Setacyl direct violet R 

Setacyl direct yellow R 

Setocyanine 

Setoglaucine 

Shoddy chrome black BA , 

Shoddy chrome black RA 

Shoddy chrome black TA , 

Silk blue BSIC 

Silk yellow R 

Silver gray P 

Sky blue N 

Soledon brilliant purple RR 



Colour 

Index 

No. 



714 
714 
667 
735 



1037 
368 
440 
369 
653 



801 
801 
801 
802 



70 



266 



705 



795 
749 
749 
749 
751 
750 
752 



743 



658 

788 



815 



752 



829 
828 



795 



1113 

1118 

80 



663 
658 



Page 



95 
95 
94 
96 
118 
99 
93 
93 
93 
94 
116 
116 
116 
98 
116 
97 
97 
97 
97 
111 
106 
106 
116 
116 
116 
91 
116 
92 
115 
95 
106 
97 



116 

96 

116 

116 

94 

97 

116 

97 

114 

114 

114 

114 

114 

114 

114 

96 

115 

97 

97 

97 

97 

111 

109 

100 

101 

91 

106 

115 

115 

115 

115 

115 

115 

94 

94 

111 

111 

111 

106 

106 

97 

114 

109 



Name of dye 



Colour 

Index 

No. 



Soledon jade green 

Soledon yellow Q 

Soluble blue 2B. 

Soluble blue I old. 

Soluble blue T 

Sorrel red X 

S R A red I 

S R A red III 

Stone fast orange RN 

Stone fast rubine G. 

Stone fast scarlet Q 

Stone fast yellow GN 

Stone fast yellow GR 

Sulphide new blue BL 

Sulphide new blue BLX 

Sulpho rhodamine B extra.. 

Sulpho rhodamine G. 

Sulpho rosazeine B extra 

Sulpho rosazeine G 

Sulphon orange G 

Sulphon yellow 5G 

Sulphon yellow R 

Sulphoncyanine G 

Sulphoncvanine 5R 

Sulphur black MBWJ 

Supra light yellow 2GL 

Supramine black BR 

Supramine blue FB 

Supramine blue R 

Supramine Bordeaux B 

Supramine brown Q 

Supramine brown R 

Supramine green BL 

Supramine red B 

Supramine red 3B 

Supramine red 2G 

Supramine yellow 3G 

Supramine yellow R 

Tannastrol GO 

Tannoflavine F 

Tannoflavine T 

Tartrazine 

Tero brown FR 

Tero vellow FR 

Thiazine red RXX 

Thio violet 5R_ ._ 

Thioflavine T__ 

Thiogene new blue BL 

Thioindigo black B 

Thioindigo brown G 

Thioindigo brown GT 

Thioindigo orange R 

Thioindigo red 3B 

Thioindigo rose BN 

Thioindigo rose RN 

Thioindigo scarlet 2G_ 

Thioindigo violet R 

Thional brilliant blue 6BS.. 
Thional brilliant green QG. 

Thional green B 

Thioniue blue O 

Thionine blue GO 

Thionol black XXN 

Thionol brown O 

Thionol brown R 

Thionol green B 

Thionol green 2G 

Thionol yellow GR 

Toluyene fast brown 2R 

Toluyene red 

Triazogene orange R_ _. 

Triazol fast brown G.. 

Triazol fast brown SOL 

Triazol light orange 2RL 

Triazol light yellow RL 

Trisulphon bronze BG 

Trisulphon brown B_.. 

Trisulphon brown 20 

Trisulphon brown GS 

Trisulphon brown MB 

Trisulphon violet B 



707 

707 

54 



748 
'748" 



639 



815 
640 



225 

"sis" 



1217 
1212 
1211 



1228 



1006 
1006 
926 
926 



436 
649 



561 
577 
570 



387 



INDEX TO TABLE OF DYE IMPORTS 
Index to table of dye imports — Continued 



127 



Name of dye 


Colour 
Index 

No. 


Page 


Name of dye 


Colour 
Index 
No. 


Page 


Tropaeolin RNP 




106 
94 
117 
117 
117 
111 
111 
98 
114 
114 
93 
114 
94 
93 
94 
115 
115 
115 
115 
115 
94 
93 
93 
94 
93 
97 
98 
118 
118 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
108 
108 
100 
100 
108 
100 
108 
108 
101 
108 
108 
101 
101 
108 
101 
100 
100 
108 
102 
102 
102 
108 
101 
108 
101 
101 
108 
101 
100 
100 
100 
108 
108 
108 
108 
103 
101 
101 
108 
101 
102 
108 


Vat green 2G . 




108 


Turquoise blue O 


661 


Vat khaki GG 




108 


Typophor black FB 


Vat olive B... 


1150 
1150 
1217 
1137 
1217 
1136 
1097 
1097 


101 


Typophor brown_ _. 




Vat olive R 


101 


Typophor yellow 




Vat orange FR.. 


103 


Ultra Corinth B _ 




Vat orange R (By) 


101 


Ultra orange R. 




Vat orange R (M) 


103 


Ultra violet MO 


892 


Vat orange RRK 


101 


Universal blue C 


Vat orange RRT . 


100 


Universal blue black C ... 




Vat orange RRTS 


100 


Universal Bordeaux C 


382 


Vat orange 4R_ 


108 


Universal brown C 


Vat orange 6RTK 


1137 


101 


Universal dark blue C 


578 
420 
593 


Vat pink B 


108 


Universal dark brown C 


Vat pink FB 




108 


Universal dark green C 


Vat printing brown R. 




108 


Universal gray C 


Vat printing red B . 




108 


Universal green C 




Vat printing red G 




108 


Universal heliotrope C 




Vat printing violet BF. 




108 


Universal jet black C 




Vat printing violet RF 




108 


Universal leather brown C 




Vat red BK . 




109 


Universal light blue C... 


508 
423 
448 
516 
394 
814 
875 


Vat red BN.. 


1162 
1133 


102 


Universal olive brown C .. . . 


Vat red FF 


101 


Universal scarlet C 


Vat red GG 


109 


Universal steel blue C 


Vatred5GK 


1131 
1133 
1162 
1162 


101 


Universal violet C . 


Vat red R 


101 


Universal yellow C . 


Vat red RK 


102 


UrsoL. 


VatredRKP 


102 


Utopia brilliant green B_ 


Vat red brown R 


109 


Utopia brilliant green 6Q.. 




Vat red violet RH 


1212 
1161 
1211 
1211 


103 


Vat black BB 


1102 
1114 
1114 
1114 
1113 
1113 
1110 
1110 
1109 

nil 


Vat red violet RRK 


102 


Vat blue BCD 


Vat rose AN . . 


103 


Vat blue BCS 


Vat rose BN _ 


103 


Vat blue BCSO . 


Vat (Hvdron) scarlet 2B 


109 


Vat blue GCD . 


Vat (Hydron) scarlet 3B 




109 


Vat blue QCDN 


Vat scarlet Q (S) 


1228 
1228 
1218 
1134 
1163 
1103 
1104 
1104 


103 


Vat blue OGSNL 


Vat scarlet 2G (K) 


103 


Vat blue OGSZ 


Vat (Helindone) scarlet R . 


103 


Vat blue 3G. 


Vat (Grelanone) violet 3B 


101 


Vat blue 5G- 


Vat violet BN 


102 


Vat blue 8GK 


Vat violet R 


100 


Vat blue RC (SD) 




Vat violet RR 


100 


Vat blue RK 


1108 
1106 


Vat violet RRP 


100 


Vat blue RS 


Vat yellow FFRK 


109 


Vat blue RSN.--. 


Vat yellow G 


1118 


101 


Vat blue RSP 


1106 


Vat yellow 6G 


109 


Vat blue RZ..._ 


Vat yellow 6GD 




109 






Vat yellow GC 


1095 


100 


Vat Bordeaux B extra . 


1143 


Vat yellow GF 


109 


Vat brilliant blue 3Q 


Vat yellow 3GF 




109 


Vat brilliant blue R .... 




Vat yellow GK.. 


1132 


101 


Vat brilliant orange FR . . . . 


1136 
1134 


Vat yellow GGK... 


109 


Vat brilliant violet BBK.. 


Vat yellow 3GN 


1138 


99 


Vat brilhant violet 3B 


Vat yellow GP 


109 


Vat brilliant violet RK 


1135 
1104 
1104 


Vat yellow RK (Helindone yellow 
RN) 






Vat brilliant violet RR 


107 


Vat brilliant violet RRP 


Vat yellow 3RT 




109 


Vat brilliant violet 4R 


Vat yellow I 3RT 




109 


Vat brown B (GrE) 


1152 
1166 

1152 


Vat yellow brown 30 




109 


Vat brown B (By) . . 


Vesuvine B . _ 


332 
729 
729 
728 
690 
729 
53 
760 
680 
680 
707 


93 


Vat brown G.. 


Victoria blue B.. 


96 


Vat brown 2G 


Victoria blue B base.. 


96 


Vat brown GR . 


1149 


Victoria blue R base 


96 


Vat brown IGQ 


Victoria blue 4R.. 


95 


Vat brown IR.. 


1151 
1151 


Victoria pure blue BO. 


96 


Vat brown R 


Victoria violet 4BS 


91 


Vat brown 3R 


Violamine 3B 


96 


Vat Corinth BB 


1144 
1099 
1099 
1096 


Violet extra fine 


95 


Vat dark blue BOO 


Violet (for ink pencil) BB..,. 

Water blue 


95 


Vat dark blue BOA 


95 


Vat golden orange G 


Whitex washing blue 


106 


Vat golden orange 3G 


Wool black BR 




106 


Vat golden orange 3R 




Wool black GRF 




106 


Vat golden yellow GK 




Wool blue 5B 




106 


Vat grav 3B 




Wool blue G extra. ... 


736 


96 


Vat gray 6B 


1213 
1145 
1145 


Wool blue N 


106 


Vat gray GK 


Wool blue R 




106 


Vat gray K 


Wool blue RR 




106 


Vat gray RRH 


Wool blue RRT 




106 


Vat green BB 


1116 
1199 


Wool fast blue BL... 


833 
833 


97 


Vat (Helindone) green G 


Wool fast blue GL 


97 


Vat (Indanthrene) green G 


Wool fast orange O 


106 



128 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 
Index to table of dye imports — Continued 



Name of dye 



Wool fast scarlet R 

Wool fast violet B 

Wool fast yellow G. 

Wool fast yellow 5G 

Wool fast yellow R 

Wool vat brown 3R.. 

Wool violet RC 

Xantho acridine MO 

Xantho phosphine O 

Xylene blue AS cone 

Xylene blue VS cone 

Xylene brilliant blue FFRX. 

Xylene cyanol FF cone 

Xylene fast blue FF 



Colour 

Index 

No. 



276 
833 



673 
672 



715 



Page 



92 
97 
106 
106 
106 
106 
106 
116 
97 
95 
95 
106 
95 
106 



Name of dye 



Colour 

Index 

No. 



Xylene fast green B cone j 735 

Xylene light yellow 2G i 639 



Xylene milling blue AE. 
Xylene milling blue BL. 
Xylene milling blue GL. 
Xylene milling orange R. 

Xylene milling red B 

Xylene milling violet B.. 

Yellow 3G 

Yellow R 

Zambesi black D 

Zambesi black F 

Zambesi black V.. 

Zapon green G 



833 
833 
833 



Page 



94 
97 
97 
97 
106- 
106 
106 
115 
115 
115 
115 
115 
117 



PART V 

CENSUS OF SYNTHETIC ORGA.NIC CHEMICALS 
OTHER THAN THOSE OF COAL-TAR ORIGIN 



129 



Part V 

CENSUS OF SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS OTHER 
THAN THOSE OF COAL-TAR ORIGIN, 1926 



Introduction 



Beginning with 1921 the Tariff Commission has compiled an annual 
census of synthetic organic chemicals other than those of coal-tar 
origin. This census has shown, wherever the figures could be pub- 
lished without disclosing operations of the individual producer, the 
quantity of production and the quantity and value of sales. 

As the Bureau of the Census collects data for the more important 
noncoal-tar organic compounds, the commission has not attempted 
to gather statistics on such, except on a few compounds where the 
importance of the chemical or conditions in the industry appeared 
to warrant a departure from this practice. The present report 
follows the precedent established in 1921 of omitting certain types of 
compounds classifiable in three groups: (1) Aliphatic compounds 
derived from natural sources by isolation, distillation, extraction, 
hydrolysis, or purification. Examples of these are alkaloids, con- 
stituents of essential oils, sugars, and acids such as stearic and tar- 
taric. (2) Cyanides, cyanamides, or carbides of metals or of inor- 
ganic radicals. (3) Products obtainable from other sources. 

Large Increase in Production 

The production in 1926 of sjmthetic organic chemicals other than 
those derived from coal tar was 214,842,513 pounds, an increase of 
37 per cent over the output of 156,878,013 pounds in 1925. Sales in 
1926 amounted to 168,712,158 pounds, valued at $29,719,270. 

Progress in the manufacture of synthetic organic chemicals of 
noncoal-tar origin is the outstanding feature of the American chemical 
industry in 1926. Many of these products now^ produced on a large 
commercial scale were, only a few years ago, scientific or laboratory 
curiosities. The pioneer work done in developing commercial proc- 
esses for their production and in finding new uses and markets for 
them has been distinctly an American achievement. 

Expansion in this field promises to continue until the organic chem- 
icals of noncoal-tar origin rival in importance those of coal-tar 
origin. Indeed, if artificial silk be included in synthetic organic 
products of noncoal-tar origin, the value of the annual output of 
these two groups is even now not far apart. 

From such raw materials as natural gas, petroleum, corn, molasses, 
coke, cellulose, sulphur, chlorine, and carbide are made a variety of 
finished products which find extended use as solvents, medicinals, 
perfumes, flavors, rubber accelerators, flotation agents, photographic 
developers, and explosives. Many of these products have wide 
application — from the tanning of leather to the dyeing of textile 
fabrics. One of their principal uses is for solvents in the manufacture 
of nitrocellulose lacquers. The consumption of lacquers for painting 
automobiles and furniture is steadily increasing. 

131 



132 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Among the chemicals in this group showing increased production 
in 1926 are (1) solvents, such as butanol; (2) acetaldehyde, used in 
the preparation of rubber accelerators; (3) ethylene glycol, which in 
the nitrated form serves to lower the freezing point of dynamite; 
(4) methyl chloride, used as a refrigerant; and (5) lactic acid. 

ORGANIC SOLVENTS 

The production of esters and solvents for the pyroxylin plastic and 
lacquer industry has assumed a large tonnage and shows a conspic- 
uous gain each year. Table 35 shows the production of organic 
solvents of noncoal-tar origin (including denatured alcohol and metha- 
nol) for the period 1923-1926. In 1926 the production of solvents of 
noncoal-tar origin (not including ethyl alcohol and methanol) was 
well over 125,000,000 pounds. Many automobile manufacturers are 
using nitrocellulose lacquers exclusively for finishing their cars. 
Another use for these lacquers is for furniture and inside house 
painting. For automobiles the lacquer is applied by the spray 
method and for furniture by the brush. Table 36 shows the pro- 
duction and sales of various classes of pyroxylin varnishes and lac- 
quers in 1926. 



Table 35. 



-Organic solvents of noncoal-tar origin: Production in the United States, 
1923-1926 



Solvent 



1923 



1924 



1925 



1926 



Denatured alcohol ' proof gallons.. 

Methanol, refinied ' gallons.. 

Acetone ^ pounds.. 

Methyl acetone ^ do 

Chloroform do 

Ether USP do.... 

Ethyl acetate do 

Amyl acetate do 

Butyl acetate do 

Butyl alcohol do 

Amyl alcohol do 

Isopropyl alcohol do 

Carbon tetrachloride do 



121, 314, 403 
5, 175, 880 

10, 927, 841 
6, 602, 336 
1, 585, 250 
5, 104, 157 

25, 887, 720 
3, 207, 022 
1, 816, 086 

« 4, 613, 396 



134, 736, 222 



13, 513, 644 



1, 301, 492 

5, 314, 928 

27, 222, 761 

1, 514, 123 

7, 095, 662 

' 14, 250, 062 

149, 654 



163, 603, 131 
5, 870, 658 

(') 
3, 644, 272 
1, 305, 868 
5, 355, 050 
26, 678, 737 
1, 338, 456 
16, 472, 914 



199, 905, 7.50 
3 7, 402, 715 



14, 275, 057 



154, 990 
"16^163,164" 



1, 909, 660 

5, 896, 016 

43, 661, 465 

2, 702, 015 

27,240,117 

6 43, 800, 000 

565, 010 



18, 998, 848 



1 Annual report of Commissioner of Internal Revenue. 

2 Bureau of the Census. 

3 Department of Commerce. 
< Not publishable. 

s Production as reported in the Boston News Bureau, Feb. 14, 1925. 

' Estimated production, Journal of Industrial and Enginetring Chemistry, vol. 19, No. 1. 



Table 36. 



-Pyroxylin {nitrocellulose) varnishes or lacquers: Production and sales, 
1926^ 



Production 



Clear lacquers 

Lacquer enamels 

Thinners for nitrocellulose lacquers 
Other 

Total nitrocellulose products. 



Gallons 
5, 756, 200 
7, 905, 600 
7, 705, 300 
1, 613, 300 



22, 980, 400 



Gallons 
4, 621, 500 
7, 073, 900 
6, 864, 600 
1, 529, 800 



20, 089, 800 



' Department of Commerce. 



NONCOAL-TAK SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS 133 

The production of pyroxylin lacquers and enamels, as reported 
by the Department of Commerce, for 1925, was 4,930,982 gallons, 
valued at $12,318,821; and of pyroxylin thinners and solutions, 
2,456,524 gallons, valued at $3,573,330. 

Ethyl acetate. — This ester leads in quantity of production and in 
value of sales. The output in 1926 by 13 firms was 43,661,465 
pounds, an increase of 64 per cent over production in 1925. Sales 
in 1926 were 32,180,589 pounds, valued at $2,966,850, or 9.2 cents 
per pound. 

Butanol. — Butanol (butyl alcohol) is among the synthetic organic 
chemicals showing each year the largest increase in production. 
The continued demand for it and its derivative, butyl acetate, is 
due to its consumption by the rapidly expanding pyroxylin lacquer 
industry. For such use, a large part of the production of butanol 
is converted to butyl acetate. In the manufacture of pyroxylin 
products, butanol is tending to displace amyl alcohol and butyl 
acetate to displace amyl acetate because of the higher price of amyl 
alcohol and the uncertainty of obtaining supplies of it. 

In this country butanol is made from corn by the Weizmann fer- 
mentation process — a method that produces butanol, acetone, and 
ethyl alcohol in the ratio of 6:3:1. During the war butanol was 
made as a by-product of acetone which the British used in the manu- 
facture of smokeless powder. At that time there was no demand 
for butanol; large quantities, however, were saved for any uses that 
might develop. Later, when low viscosity pyroxylins were made 
available and the advantages of butanol and its derivatives for lac- 
quer solvents were demonstrated, butanol became the main product 
and acetone and ethyl alcohol the by-products. 

The plant originally established at Terre Haute, Ind., and owned 
and operated jointly by the United States and British Governments, 
was closed following the armistice. In 1919, when the Commercial 
Solvents Corporation was organized, it purchased the plant at 
Terre Haute and started operations the following year. Later 
this corporation acquired another plant at Peoria, 111. This com- 
pany produced 4,613,396 pounds of butanol in 1923 and 14,250,062 
pounds in 1924.^ It was reported in January, 1927,^ that this 
company was producing more than 100 tons of solvents per day, 
and that its productive capacity, which had already been more than 
doubled during the past 12 months, is to be increased. A produc- 
tion of 100 tons of solvents per day on a 6:3:1 ratio would permit the 
output of 60 tons of butanol per day, or 18,000 tons (36,000,000 
pounds) per year of 300 days, or 21,900 tons (43,800,000 pounds) 
per year of 365 days. The increased production of butanol will 
probably follow the expansion of the pyroxylin lacquer industry. 

Imports of butyl alcohol dechned from 2,152,000 pounds, valued 
at $393,000 in 1925, to 205,000 pounds, valued at $33,000 in 1926. 
During the first three months of 1927, imports were 16,504 pounds, 
valued at $2,477. 

Butyl acetate. — The 1926 output of butyl acetate was 27,240,117 
pounds. Sales amounted to 14,196,315 pounds, valued at $2,857,769. 
The average sales value per pound declined from 27 cents in 1925 
to 20.1 cents in 1926. 

1 Boston News Bureau, Feb. 14, 1925. 

' Journal of Industrial and Engineering ChemistrVt vol. 19, No. 1. 



134 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHEE SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

Amyl acetate. — The production of amyl acetate in 1926 was 2,702,- 
015 pounds, which was an increase of more than 100 per cent over 
the 1925 production of 1,338,456 pounds. This solvent is said to 
produce durable, brilliant, smooth, and adherent films. A restricted 
supply of fusel oil limits the production of amyl alcohol and amyl 
acetate. Although nitrocellulose lacquers have been made in greatly 
increased quantity, the price of amyl acetate has declined because of 
the tendency to substitute butanol and butyl acetate, which sell at 
a lower price. A synthetic process for amyl alcohol is being watched 
with much interest. 

Butyl propionate and ethyl lactate. — The production of each of 
these esters showed a conspicuous increase in 1926. Figures can 
not be published, however, without disclosing the output of individual 
concerns. 

TETRAETHYL LEAD 

A small quantity of tetraethyl lead in the gasoline used in an engine 
will decrease the reaction velocity of combustion and so reduce the 
"knock" that it is possible to use an engine of a higher compression 
ratio and thus obtain a greater mileage per gallon of gasoline con- 
sumed. Leaded gasoline is widely marketed in the United States 
and its consumption promises to increase. 

Tetraethyl lead production in 1926 was smaller than in 1925. Its 
manufacture was discontinued from May, 1924, to May, 1925, 
but was resumed following a favorable report of the Public Health 
Service as to the health hazard involved in its use. 

XANTHATES 

The production of xanthates, used for the flotation of ores, shows 
a small increase in 1926. Potassium xanthate is the leading salt 
manufactured. Greater progress was made in the development of 
flotation agents in 1925 than ever before, and their manufacture 
was on a more scientific basis. In the past, the word "flotation" 
has usually had the connotation "oil flotation"; to-day it means 
"chemical flotation," as it has been found that certain chemicals 
alone will float minerals. The use of potassium xanthate has 
resulted in a marked decrease in the quantity of flotation reagent 
required per ton of treated ore. The average number of pounds 
of reagent used per ton of ore dropped from 3.96 in 1924 to 1.795 
in 1925. 

Of the 45,490,331 ^ tons of ore treated by flotation in 1925, by 
far the larger part (40,576,067 tons) was copper ore. In the treat- 
ment of this copper ore, 69,826,995 pounds of reagents were consumed. 
Included in this total were 39,868,154 pounds of sulphuric acid — 
the largest quantity of all "reagents" used — and 3,696,951 pounds 
of xanthate. Other ores in which xanthates were used in 1925 
were as follows: Gold-silver ores, with a consumption of 32,186 
pounds of xanthate; silver-lead ores, with 100,906 pounds; lead 
ores, with 38,980 pounds; lead-zinc-iron ores, with 128,900 pounds; 
zinc and lead-zinc ores, with 31,923 pounds, and other miscellaneous 
ores, 

2 Consumption of Reagents used in Flotation, 1925. Bureau of Mines. 



NONCOAL-TAE SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS 135 

METHANOL 

Investigation under section 315. — On November 27, 1926, the Presi- 
dent issued a proclamation increasing the duty on methanol from 12 
cents per gallon to 18 cents per gallon. This increase in duty fol- 
lowed an investigation of the costs of production by the Tariff Com- 
mission. Cost data were obtained from domestic manufacturers but 
not from foreign. The one manufacturer of synthetic methanol in 
Germany, the principal competing country, refused to submit cost 
data to representatives of the Tariff Commission. 

A preliminary statement of the information secured by the com- 
mission in its mvestigation was issued on May 15, 1926, and a public 
hearing was held on June 17, 1926, in the offices of the commission at 
Washington. 

The chief uses of refined methanol are in the manufacture of 
formaldehyde and of dimethylaniline, both used for making coal-tar 
dyes. Methanol from the distillation of wood is used extensively in 
denaturing ethyl alcohol, over 1,000,000 gallons having been con- 
sumed for that purpose in the fiscal year ended June 30, 1925. The 
regulations of the Internal Revenue Bureau specify that for denaturi- 
zation of ethyl alcohol, methanol made by the wood distillation 
process must be used. 

Domestic costs of production of methanol, including transportation 
to New York, for the 18 months' period covered by the investigation 
(1924 and first six months of 1925) allocated on the basis of relative 
sales returns for the same period are 75.61 cents per gallon; allocated 
on the relative sales returns for a period of 33^ years, they are 72.9 
cents per gallon. The costs of production of methanol in Germany, 
including transportation to New York, when based on invoice prices 
of methanol imported into the United States from that country, are 
48.12 cents per gallon. 

Imports of methanol during the first 11 months of 1926 were 
553,000 gallons, valued at $252,000. In December, 1926, imports 
increased considerably, amounting to 202,000 gallons, valued at 
$93,000 in that month. The increase in December was largely due 
to eft'orts on the part of importers to bring in as much methanol as 
possible before the higher duty proclaimed by the President on 
November 27, 1926, should become effective 30 days thereafter. All 
imports in 1926 were from Germany, with a valuation of 45.7 cents 
per gallon. 

Foreign competition from German synthetic methanol has resulted 
in a decrease in exports of methanol from the United States. In 1926 
exports from the United States were 417,000 gallons, valued at 75 
cents per gallon, as compared with 641,000 gallons, valued at $1.07 
per gallon, in 1924. The average annual export of wood alcohol in 
the period 1914 to 1924 was over a million gallons. 

The wood chemical industry in this country is encountering com- 
petition not only from synthetic methanol, but from acetone (from 
the fermentation process) and synthetic acetic acid. 

Synthetic methanol produced in the United States. — The domestic 

production of synthetic methanol on a commercial scale was reported 

by one firm in the latter part of 1926. This is a development of great 

importance to the American chemical industry. During the early 

49113—27 10 



136 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

part of 1927 a second firm began the commercial production of syn- 
thetic methanol, using the hydrogen and carbon dioxide evolved as 
by-products in the manufacture of butanol by the fermentation of 
corn. 

OTHER PRODUCTS 

Carbon tetrachloride. — This chemical is used in dry cleaning, as a 
filler for fire extinguishers, and as a solvent. The 1926 production 
was 18,998,848 pounds, which was a gain of 18 per cent over 1925. 
Sales amounted to 16,010,293 pounds, valued at $967,103 — a sales 
value of 6 cents per pound as compared with 5.75 cents in 1925. 

EtJier.— The output of ether, USP. in 1926 was 5,896,016 pounds, 
of which 4,760,957 pounds were sold for $1,391,999. The production 
of ether for technical purposes increased considerably in 1926. 

Etliylene glycol. — Ethylene glycol in the form of the dinitrate has 
recently been introduced as a ''freeze resistant" in dynamite. It is 
reported that the sensitivity of the explosive is not decreased and 
that the lowering of the freezing point reduces or eliminates the 
troublesome hazard of thawing out the dynamite in cold weather. 
The ethylene glycol and glycerin are mixed before nitrating. 

Another use for ethylene glycol is as an "antifreeze" for automo- 
bile radiators, in which use it competes with glycerin. Whether 
ethylene glycol or glycerin will be used by the automobile trade 
will depend upon the prices of these two products. 

The production of ethylene glycol mono ethyl ether as a solvent 
for the manufacture of lacquers was reported in the early part of 
1927. 

The raw material for the manufacture of ethylene glycol is ethylene, 
obtained from natural gas and from still gases produced by the 
cracking of petroleum. Ethylene is converted into ethylene chlorohy- 
drin by treatment with hypochlorous acid. The ethylene chlorohy- 
drin is then converted into ethylene glycol by treatment with alkali. 

Formaldehyde. — The production of formaldehyde in 1926 was 
31,953,204 pounds. Sales amounted to 22,552,239 pounds, valued at 
$2,050,967^ — -an average value of 9.1 cents as compared with 8.1 cents 
in 1925. 

Vanillin. — In value of production and sales this flavor ranks first 
among synthetic flavors. Production in 1926 was 357,300 pounds, 
an increase from 1925. Sales amounted to 333,389 pounds, valued at 
$2,123,962. 

Other products. — Increased production was also reported for iso- 
propyl alcohol, propionic acid, bromocamphor, acetaldehyde, butyl 
aldehyde, isopropyl acetate, and lactic acid. 



NONCOAL-TAR SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS 



137 



STATISTICS OF IMPORTS, PRODUCTION, AND SALES 

Table 37. — Certain synthetic organic chemicals oj noncoal-tar origin: Lmports and 

inoduction, 1925-1926 



Acetaldehyde 

Paracetaldehyde.- 

Aldehyde ammoni a -. 

Chloral hydrate 

Formaldehyde solution (not more 

than 40 per cent) ._ 

Hexamet hylenetet ramine _ . 

Acetic or pyrohgneous acid, con- 
taining by weight not more than 

65 per cent acetic acid 

More than 65 per cent acetic 

acid 

Formic acid 

Gallic acid 

Lactic acid, containing by weight 
65 per cent or more of lactic acid.. 

Oxalic acid.. 

Pyrogallic acid 

Butyl alcohol 

Methanol _ 

Carbon tetrachloride 

Chloroform 

Glycerophosphoric acid, and salts 

and compounds 

Ethers and esters: 

Containing not more than 10 
per cent alcohol- 
Ethyl ether 

Ethyl chloride 

Amyl acetate 

Amyl nitrite 

Ethyl acetate 

Other, n. s. p. f 

Containing more than 50 per 

cent alcohol 

Tetrachloroethane 

Trichloroethylene 

Urea 

Thymol 

Vanillin 



Imports 



1926 



Pounds 



267, 023 

808, 049 

2,694 

3,097 



20, 771 



362, 214 

2, 059, 185 
1, 487, 149 



130. 855 
2, 569, 275 



2,152,092 
1 508, 409 



15 
49, 528 



23 

9,174 

20, 534 

15 

12, 759 

56, 271 

7,069 

375, 129 

77, 602 

146, 438 

33, 039 

584 



Value 



$41,790 

124,363 

1,032 

3,147 

16 
10, 453 



29, 130 

232, 950 
105, 155 



41. 335 
117,639 



392, 770 

231,086 

2 

14 

M, 576 



43 
9,847 
7. 160 

99 

2,150 

28, 148 

14, 122 
13, 740 

3, 519 
15,886 
88, 490 

1,274 



Produc- 
tion 
(pounds) 



31, 455, 716 
1, 657, 993 



550, 604 



174, 251 



I 7, 651, 125 

16, 163, 104 

1, 305, 868 



5, 355, 050 



1, 338, 456 
"26,'678,"737 



Imports 



Pounds 



Value 



Produc- 
tion 
(pounds) 



94,724 I $12,950 

60,645 10,859 

363 125 



396 
23, 481 



6, 026, 859 



1, 995, 982 
2, 315, 308 



191, 462 
1,583,011 



205, 317 

I 754,917 

100 

6 

61,506 



5,412 



855 
283,965 



315,344 



33,444 

22 

377, 729 

18, 765 

2,221 



431 
10, 237 



289, 282 

232, 855 
164, 045 



31,953,204 
1, 495, 220 



57, 465 
71, 685 



33, 237 

rB45, 530 

36 

11 

49,604 



2,564 



77,832 



1,772 

3 

30, 346 

46, 740 

1,021 



573, 842 



189, 847 



18, 998, 848 
1, 909, 660 



5, 896, 016 



2, 702, 015 
43,'66i,"465 



357, 300 



1 Gallons. 



138 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Table 38. — Synthetic organic chemicals of noncoal-tar origin: Production and 

sales, 1926 

[The numbers in the second column refer to the numbered alphabetical list of manufacturers printed on 
p. 204. An X indicates that the manufacturer did not consent to the publication of his name in con- 
nection with the particular product. A blank in the third and fourth columns indicates that these 
sales can not be published without revealing information in regard to the sales of individual firms. A 
blank in the sixth column indicates that the production can not be published without revealing informa- 
tion in regard to the output of individual firms. The details thus withheld are, however, included in 
the totals! 





Manufacturers' identifi- 
cation numbers (ac- 
cording to list on p. 204) 


Sales 


Produc- 
tion 


Name of chemical 


Quantity 


' Value 


Aver- 
age 

price 

per 

pound 


Quantity- 


Total 




Pounds 
168,712,158 


$29,719,270 


$0. 177 


Pounds 
214,842 513 




90,110, 132, X 




Acetaldehyde 










Acetamide 


63 










Acetin (mono)... 


X,X 










Acetvlbromodiethylacetyl carba- 


18 










mide. 
Aldehvde ammonia. 


132 










Aldol (acetaldol) 


110 










AUyl bromide . - 


117. - . 


i 






Allvl isosulfocvanate 


117 










Allylisothiocyanate.. 


31 










p-Aminobenzovldimethylaminome- 


18... 










thylbutanol hydrochloride. 
Amyl acetate and sec amyl acetate-.. 

.\myl alcohol and sec amyl alcohol... 

.\mvl, butyl, hexvl, and higher ace- 


10,12,49,61,78,89,100,114, 
158, 160, 166, X, X, X. 

10, 15,61, 100,133,158,160, 
X, X. 

122. . 


1, 873, 138 
456, 227 


535, 823 
155, 907 


.286 
.342 


2, 702, 015 
565,010 


tates (mixed secondary). 
Amyl, butyl, hexyl, and higher alco- 


122 










hols (mixed secondary). 
Amyl nitrite.- 


90 










Am vl oenanthate 


58 


::::::::::::::::::::: 






Amvl propionate 


166, X 










Amvtal (isoamvlethyi barbituric 


87 










acid). 
Anethol. ... ._ 


58 










Aubepine (anisic aldehvde) . 


25, 58, 62, 78, 149, X 

1,18 


5,434 


17, 855 


3.286 


5,415 


Barbital (veronal) (diethylbarbituric 




acid) . 
Barbital sodium (diethylbarbituric 


18 










acid sodium salt) . 
Brometone (tribromotertiarybutyl 


X 










alcohol) . 
Bromocamphor . 


48, 90. 










Bromodiethylacetylcarbamide. 


18 










Butanol. (See butyl alcohol.) 
Butyl acetate (n and sec) _.- 


10, 12,49, 61, 89, 100. 158, 

160, X. 
x,x 


14,196,315 2,857,769 


.201 


27,240,117 


But vl alcohol (butanol) (n and sec). 




Butyl aldehyde 


X 










Butyl butyrate 


166. 










Butyl furoate.. 


129. 










Butvl propionate.. . 


61, 166, X 










Butylxanthic disulfide. 


105. 










n-Butyric acid- 


58,78,114,166. 










d-Camphoric acid 


90 










n-Caproic acid 


90,114 










Carbon tetrachloride 


24,48,54, 112, X,X 

18 


16, 010, 293 


967, 103 


.060 


18, 998, 848 


Chaulmoogric ester . 




Chloral hydrate 


97,101 - 










Chloretone (trichlorotertiarybutyl 


X 










alcohol) . 
Chloroacetic acid (mono) 


48, 101 










Chloroarsenobehenolate of strontium 


18 










(tannin yeast combination). 
Chloroform 


24,48,112. 


1, 871, 224 


383, 179 


.205 


1, 909, 660 




58 






58 










Cinnamvl valerate 


58 










Citral 


25.. 










Cltronellol... 


58,78 








Citronellyl acetate 


58, 149 








Crotonaldehyde 


110 









NONCOAL-TAR SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS 



139 



Table 38. — Synthetic organic chemicals of noncoal-tar origin: Production and 

sales, 1926 — Continued 





Manufacturers' identifi- 
cation numbers (ac- 
cording to list on p. 204) 


Sales 


Produc- 
tion 


Name of chemical 


Quantity 


Value 


Aver- 
age 

price 
per 

pound 


Quantity 


Cyanacetic acid sodium salt 


18 


Pounds 






Pounds 


Decyl alcohol... 


58 










Decvl aldehyde.. 


58,78,X 








Diallyl ether 


117.. 










Dibromin (dibromomalonylureide) . . 


X 










Dibromobehenate of calcium 


18 










n-Dibutvlamine . , 


1. 










Dibutyl tartrate 


X 










Diethylacetic acid 


18 - 










Diethvlbarbituric acid (veronal). 

(See Barbital.) 
Diethvlbromoacetyl bromide (bromo 


18 










acid). 
Diethyl malonate (malonic ester) 


1,18 










Diethyl malonic ethyl ester.. 


18 










Diethyl sulfate . .. . 


29 










Dihvdro vanillone 


58 










Dihydroxvcitronellic ketone 


58 


. 








Dihydroxvtartaric acid 


27,124 










Diiodohvdroxypropane . 


18 










1:3 Dimethylxanthine sodium acetate 


18 










Duodecvl alcohol. . 


58 










Duodecyl aldehvde 


58 










Erucicacid 


18 










Ethoxyacetic acid__ 


18 










Ethyl acetate (85 per cent) 

Ethyl acetoacetate... 


10,12,15,49,58,59,61,89, 

100, 158, 160, X, X. 
158. . ... 


32,180,589 


$2, 966, 850 


$0,092 


43, 661, 465 


Ethyl bromide 


18,48,170 










Ethvlbutvrate.. 


26,61,63,114, 158, X,X 










Ethyl n-caproate 


114.. 










Ethyl carbonate 


158 










Ethyl chloride 


48, 61, 62, 90, 132, X, X 










Ethvl chloride, USP 


67 










Ethvl ether, tech 


X 










Ethvl ether, USP 


10,90,127,146,158- 


4, 760, 957 
2,680 


1,391,999 
1,953 


.292 
.729 


5, 896, 016 
3,665 


Ethyl formate 


58, 90, 114, 158, X 


Ethyl furcate. 


129 




Ethvl glvcolic acid ester of menthol.. 


18. 










Ethyl iodide 


90,97,127... 


97 
443 


674 
1,291 


6.948 
2.914 




Ethvl isovalerate . 


58, 114, X. . 


391 


Ethvl lactate -- 


63,158 




Ethvl laurate 


58,63 










Ethvl malonate (mono) .. . 


1. 










Ethyl nitrite 


10, 61, 90, 127 


30, 721 
5,405 


22,831 
8,929 


.743 
1.652 


36,190 


Ethyl oenanthate 


58, 63, 78, 114, X 


6,788 


Ethyl oxalate 


58, 158... 




Ethyl pelareonate 


26, 58, 78, X . 


210 


513 


2.443 


240 


Ethyl propionate 


58, 61,63, X.- 




Ethyl n-valerate., 


58, 61, 63 






1.675 


633 


Ethylene 


158- 








Ethylene chlorohydrin 


29 










Ethylene dibromide 


48.. 










Ethylene dichloride 

Ethylene glycol 

Ethylene oxide 


29 ::. 










29... 










29 










Eugenol 


63 . . . 










Eugenol methyl ether. (See methyl 

eugenol.) 
Formaldehvde 


44, 74, 132, X 


22, 552, 239 


2, 050, 967 


.091 


31 953 204 


Formic acid 


X 




Furac I (dithiofuroic acid) 


129 








Furac II (zinc dithiofuroate) 


129 








Furac III (lead dithiofuroate) 


129 








Furfural 


129 








Furoic acid-. 


129 








Furyl acetate 


129 


"■ [ " " 






Furyl alcohol (furan carbinol) 


129 


! 






Galactonic lactone 


145 








Gallic acid 


54, 90, 171 


1 


.695 
4.664 


573,842 


Geranyl acetate 


25, 58, 63, 78, 149, X, X 




2,995 


Geranyl butyrate 


58 






Geranyl formate.. 


58, 63,78, 149 


5 


33 


6.600 


26 



140 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

Table 38. — Synthetic organic chemicals of noncoal-tar origin: Production and 

sales, 1926 — Continued 





Manufacturers' identifi- 
cation numbers (ac- 
cording to list on p. 204) 


Sales 


Produc- 
tion 


Name of chemical 


Quantity 


Value 


-Aver- 
age 

price 

per 

pound 


Quantity 


Geranyl propionate 


58 


Pounds 






Pounds 


Glycerol diacetate 


62.- .- 








Qlycero phosphoric acid and salts of.. 


74,101 








Guanidine 


18 






1 


Heliotropin 


25, 62, 78 


18, 930 


$29, 293 


$1,547 


22, 764 


Heptadecyl aldehyde. 


58 




Heptaldehyde 


58, 78, 105, X 










n-Heptyl alcohol 


78 










Hexachloroethane 


48 










Hexadecyl aldehyde _-. 


58 








Hexamethvlenetetramine. ... . .. . 


74, 132, X 






.642 


1, 495, 220 


Hexamethylenetetramineanhydrome- 


18 






thylene citrate. 
Hydrofuramide 


129 










Hydroxy citronellal 


X 1 








lodobehenate of calcium 


18 -. 










lodobehenate of iron, basic... 


18 .. . 










lodobehenic acid 


18 










Iodoform . . 


90, 97, 108, 127 


14, 637 

19, 242 

10, 685 

1,241 


85, 215 

95, 108 

13,001 

623 


5.822 


in 7QT 


lonone . 


25,78,95, X, X 

26, 58,61, 63, 114, X 

58,61,114 


4.943 20 .11 7 


Isoamyl butyrate 


1.217 

.502 

2.234 

3.139 


11,086 


Isoamylformate 


1,483 


Isoamyl iso valerate 


58, 114, X 


l,55r 


Isobutyl acetate . 


58,78,114 






5& 


Isobutyl alcohol . 


158 








Isobutyl butyrate 


58, 114... 










Isobutyl formate 


63,114 










Isobutyl propionate 


63 










Isobutyraldehyde. 


58 . . 










IsoeugenoL- 


25, 58, 78, 161 


2,839 


10, 760 


3.790 




IsomenthoL 


108 




Isopropanol (isopropyl alcohol). 


29, 122, X 










Isopropyl acetate 


X- 










Isovaleric acid 


63, 114 






' 




Jasmin aldehyde 


58 










Jasmone..- 


58 










Lactic acid 


14, 49 










Linalyl acetate 


58, 78, 149, X, X 










Linalyl butyrate 


58 










Linalyl formate 


58, 149... 










Linalyl propionate 


58 










Linalyl valerate 


58 - - 










Menthyl isovalerate 


115 .- 










Methanol (methyl alcohol) 


49 










Methyl chloride. 


48,132 










Methyl eugenol. 


149 










Methyl isoeugenol 


149 










Methyl oxalate.. 


58 










Methyl sulfate 


X - 










Methvlene citric acid. 


18 










Methylnonylacetic aldehyde 


58 . 










Neonal (butvl ethyl barbituric acid). 


1 










Nonyl alcohol 


58, 78 - 










Nonyl aldehvde 


58 










Octodecyl aldehvde 


58-. 










Octodecyl ketone . 


58 










Octyl alcohol 


149 










n-Octyl alcohol (capryl alcohol) 


58 


*" 








Octyl aldehyde.. 


58, 78 










Oxalic acid . ■. 


116,162 










Paracetaldehvde . 


110 










Paraformaldehyde 


132 










Phosgene... 


35 










Piperonone (piperinic ketone) 


58 










Propionaldehyde 


58 










Propionic acid 


166 . . 










Propionic ketone 


58 










n-Propvl acetate 


X 










n-Propyl alcohol... 


117, 158 










n-Propyl propionate i . 


58 ... 










Propvlene chlorohydrin 


29,117 










Pyrogallol (pyrogallic acid) 


54,90,171 - 







1.234 


189, 847 



NONCOAL-TAK SYNTHETIC OKGANIC CHEMICALS 



141 



Table 38. — Synthetic organic chemicals of noncoal-tar origin: Production and 

sales, 1926 — Continued 





Manufacturers' identifi- 
cation numbers (ac- 
cording to list on p. 204) 


Sales 


Produc- 
tion 


Name of chemical 


Quantity 


Value 


Aver- 
age 

price 
per 

pound 


Quantity 


Pyruvic acid .. -... ... 


27 


Pounds 






Pounds 




54,145,150 












78, X 












25, 58, 149, X 











58, 149 










149 










101 








Succinic peroxide 


X 








Tannigen (tannyl acetate) (acetic 


18 - 








acid ester of tannic acid) . 
Terpin hydrate .... 


127, 161 . - 








Terpineol -. .. .. .. 


25, 78, 109, X 


218,137 $477,183 
15,208 ; 15,884 


$2,188 
1.044 


235, 331 


Terpinyl acetate . 


25,58,78, 149, X,X 

122 


1.5.262 








122 










132 








Tetradecyl aldehyde 


58 


! 






Tetraethyl lead 


49 








Tetramethylthiouramsulflde 


105 . 








Tetramethylthiouramdisulflde 


105 








Triacetin 


158, X 


i 








X . ... 












48,132 












105 












1 












166 -- 












58 










Vanillic alcohol 


58 










Vanillin 


25,62,93,95, 101, 161 

58 


333,389 


2,123,962 


6.371 


357, 300 


Vanillyl vanillate 




Xanthates 


68, 105, X, X . 










Zinc dimethyldithiocarbamate 


105 























PART VI 
INTERNATIONAL DYE TRADE 



143 



Pakt VI 

INTERNATIONAL DYE TRADE 

Introduction 

Earlier issues of the dye census, published annually by the com- 
mission, have discussed in detail the international trade in dyes in 
pre-war years, changes that took place while the war was in progress 
(1914-1918), and post-war developments through the year 1925. 
This issue brings the situation up to date. 

DEVELOPMENTS IN 1926 

The principal developments in the international dye trade in 1926 
were: (1) The expansion in size and increased activity of the I. G.; 
(2) the trend toward international dye agreements; (3) the forma- 
tion of the Imperial Chemical Industries (Ltd.), in Great Britain; 
(4) keen competition and low prices throughout the world, partic- 
ularly in the cheaper dyes and bulk colors; (5) a decrease in the 
value of dye exports from producing nations other than Germany; 
(6) the world-wide trend toward the use of fast dyes; (7) the manu- 
facture of new types of fast dyes and specialty colors for mixed fibers 
and acetate silk. 

WORLD PRODUCTION OF DYES 

The world capacity to produce dyes has been estimated at more 
than 600,000,000 pounds, which is nearly double the pre-war capac- 
ity. Production figures for 1925 indicate that, as a whole, the pro- 
ducing nations were operating at not more than 60 per cent of their 
capacity.^ The competition resulting from this excess capacity has 
led to a continued drop in prices and to the elimination of some 
producers. 

The United States is the only country that compiles and pub- 
lishes official statistics of dyes production. The estimated produc- 
tion of Germany — 165,000,000 pounds — is probably high, as the Ger- 
mans could hardly have consumed 91,000,000 pounds, which would 
be the estimate for consumption calculated as production plus im- 
ports minus exports. On the same basis, the United States in 1926 
consumed about 67,000,000 pounds. 

Table 39 shows the production of coal-tar dyes by the chief pro- 
ducing countries in recent years. 

> See Census of Dyes, 1923, Table 20, p. 124. 

145 



146 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHEK SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

Table 39. — Dyes: Production by chief producing countries, 1922-1926 



Country 



1926 



1925 



1924 



1923 



1922 



Germany' 

United States 2_ 
Great Britain '- 
Switzerland ■"... 

France' 

Italy6 

Japan' 



Pounds 
165, 000, 000 
87, 979, 000 



19, 200, 000 



Pounds 
165, 000, 000 
86, 343, 348 
32, 693, 402 
18, 000, 000 
35, 000, 000 
13, 860, 000 



Pounds 
159, 549, 096 
68, 689, 000 
33, 242, 704 
21, 000, 000 
33, 020, 499 
11,880,000 
18, 631, 000 



Pounds 
144, 859, 572 
93, 667, 524 



20, 000, 000 
24, 180, 152 



Pounds 
192, 806, 564 
64, 632, 187 
21, 000, 000 
18.000,000 
17, 782, 303 
10. 780, 000 



13, 457, 735 



1 From the monthly reports containing the one-quarter monthly German production of dyes made to the 
Reparation Commission. These reports covered the period, February, 1920, to December, 1924, inclusive. 
The figures for 1925 and 1926 are estimates from German Chemical Developments, Dept. of Com. 

* From annual Census of Dyes and Other Synthetic Organic Chemicals, U. S. Tariff Commission. 

3 Estimate for 1922 is from Trade Information Bulletin, No. 231, Dept^ Com. Estimates for 1924 and 1925 
were prepared by DyestulTs Industry Development Committee from voluntary returns of British dye 
firms. 

* Calculated on the basis that the home market consumes 10 per cent of the output of Swiss dyes; exports 
consequently equal 90 per cent of production. 

' L' Industrie Chimique, April, 1924. Does not include output of Swiss plant at St. Fous, except in 1925 
estimates. 

' Compiled by Hon. Ernesto Belloni for International Economic Conference, Geneva, Switzerland, May, 
1927. 

' Estimate for 1923 is from Chemical Trade Bulletin No. 24B, Dept. of Com. Estimate for 1924 is for the 
fiscal year (August, 1923, to September, 1924) and is from Japan Advertiser, issue of Mar. 26, 1925. 



EXPORTS FROM PRODUCING COUNTRIES 

Table 40 gives comparative figures for dye exports from the chief 
producing countries in the pre-war year 1913 and in the post-war 
period, 1922 to 1926. 

Exports from Germany in 1926 show an increase of 6 per cent by 
value and 8 per cent by quantity over 1925. A comparison with 
pre-war years, however, shows a marked decrease in German ship- 
ments to foreign markets. Exports in 1926 were only about a third 
as large as in 1913, although in value the decline was slight — about 
9 per cent. The decrease in volume of exports is accounted for by 
the loss of trade in the low-priced bulk colors; the decline in value 
is due to heavy shipments of high-priced dyes, in which there is 
relatively little competition. 

The United States increased its foreign sales of dyes in 1926 by 
only 12,000 pounds as compared with the 1925 export. In value 
there was a decrease of 11 per cent, attributable to the fact that in 
1926 exports consisted largely of indigo and certain other low-priced 
bulk colors. 

Among the other countries producing dyes on an export basis, 
Switzerland and Great Britain did little more than maintain their 
1925 volume of trade. Swiss exports on the whole showed a small 
increase in 1926 over 1925, but in the exports of indigo there was a 
large drop; in other dyes there was a gain of over 1,000,000 pounds 
and of about $1,000,000. Italy substantially increased her exports 
both in quantity and value. 



INTEKNATIONAL DYE TRADE 



147 



Table 40. — Coal-tar dyes: Exports from chief producing countries, 1913 and 

1922-1926 



Exported from — 



1913 



Pounds 



Value 



1922 



Pounds 



Value 



Germany 

United States- 
Great Britain. 
Switzerland... 

France 

Italy 



239, 598, 133 



$51,689,400 



5, 451, 376 

19, 458, 902 

1, 152, 134 

117,725 



862, 566 

5, 549, 752 

275, 716 

22, 458 



114,213,300 

8, 344, 187 

3, 860, 416 

16, 167, 655 

1, 502, 431 

372, 578 



$79, 826, 618 

3, 996, 443 

2, 300, 298 

13,042,635 

1,586,492 

254, 250 



Exported from- 



1923 



1924 



Pounds 



Value 



Pounds 



Value 



Germany 

United States 
Great Britain 
Switzerland.. 

France 

Italy 

Japan 



73,974,473 
17,924,200 

9, 247, 504 
18, 282, 967 

4, 650, 382 
647, 712 

2, 296, 327 



$41, 580, 742 
5, 565, 267 
3, 635, 058 
12,253,711 
3, 749, 442 
548,481 
396, 397 



61,033,911 
15,713,428 

6, 622, 896 

19, 015, 998 

10, 604, 126 

541,009 

1,899,495 



B30, 936, 462 
5, 636, 244 
3,052,911 
12, 138, 346 
7, 508, 787 
276, 793 
283, 179 



Exported from- 



1925 



1926 



Pounds 



Value 



Pounds 



Value 



Germany 

United States . 
Great Britain i 
Switzerland-.. 

France 

Italy 

Japan. 



75, 879, 025 
25, 799, 889 

7, 314, 608 

16,161,041 

10, 784, 463 

426, 810 

1, 685, 606 



$44,311,155 
6, 694, 360 
3, 122, 149 
11,979,718 
7, 469, 903 
295, 702 
214,209 



81,883,253 
25,811,941 
8, 481, 424 
17,287,793 
10, 335, 827 
681,221 



$47, 134, 156 

5,950,159 

2, 983, 500 

11,971,452 

5,902,946 

453,235 



1 "Dyes and dyestuffs (except dyewoods and raw dyeing substances) and extracts for dyeing and tan- 
ning—products of coal tar." 



IMPORTS INTO CONSUMING COUNTRIES 

Table 41 shows that the new dye-producing nations imported 
only a fraction of the dyes they consumed in 1925 and 1926, as 
compared with 1913 when they were largely dependent upon Germany 
and Switzerland. The United States, Great Britain, and Italy each 
imported a smaller quantity of dyes in 1926 than in 1925. Great 
Britain and Italy apparently bought higher-priced dyes, as their 
imports increased in value. 

Austria, Canada, and Germany each imported more in 1926 than 
in 1925. Germany more than doubled her purchases, measured 
either by quantity or value. 

British India, one of the large consuming nations without a dye 
industry, imported fewer dyes in 1926 than in any year during the 
period 1921 to 1925, inclusive. 



148 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Table 41. — Coal-tar dyes: Imports into chief consuming countries, 1913, 1925, 

and 1926 



Imported into- 



1913 



Pounds 



Value 



1925 



Pounds 



Value 



1926 



Pounds 



Value 



China 

British India 3 

Czechoslovakia 

Japan 

United States 

Italy..-. 

Belgium _. 

Great Britain 

Netherlands 

Dutch East Indies - 

Germany 

France.-- 

Canada 3 

Austria.. 

Switzerland 

Brazil- 

Sweden- 

Spain 

Russia 

Turkey. 



696, 533 
923, 607 



$11,673,779 
3,741,031 



755, 260 
950, 895 
542,429 



2, 100, 255 
7, 537, 870 
3,611,705 



41,203,008 



9, 207, 684 



073, 434 
138, 495 
706, 601 
633,516 
168, 764 
201,292 



890, 366 
1,682,422 
1,416,316 

594, 4;i4 
3, 616, 199 

431, 197 



376, 166 
303, 709 
835, 647 
631, 703 



699, 737 
1,021,368 
3, 701, 186 

641, 321 



259,044.879 
18, 460, 831 
7, 569, 272 
6, 786, 471 
5, 209, 601 
4,856,955 
4,740,218 
4, 438, 224 
4,131,692 
3, 746, 731 
3, 689, 177 
3,201,519 
2, 343, 047 
1, 954, 818 
1, 804, 906 
1, 783, 753 
1, 701, 548 
1, 105, 774 



$13, 235, 322 
8, 359, 488 
4, 157, 745 
3,432,268 
4,637,240 
6 1, 985, 695 
1, 568, 733 
3,123,859 
1,919,778 
2, 056, 693 
1. 918, 939 
2,885,144 
1,492,909 

949, 131 
1,218.941 
1, 104, 049 
1,012,155 

849, 893 



10,048,499 



$5,028,848 



4, 673, 196 
3, 374, 140 
6, 189, 545 
4, 237, 296 



4, 103, 301 
2,010,003 
1, 571, 249 
4, 258, 384 



7,937,221 
3,204,165 
2, 656, 264 
2, 089, 960 
1.801,297 



4,132,562 
2. 546, 881 
1,563,496 
1, 209, 801 
1,273,916 



895, 969 



659, 357 



1 Exports to China, 1913, from France, Germany, and Switzerland amounted to 69,181,230 pounds, valued 
at $11,516,567. Chinese statistics show value but not quantity of aniline dyes, and include "unclassified 
dyes" which may contain other than coal-tar dyes. 

2 Exclusive of aniline dyes and "dyes and QOlors unclassed" amounting in value to $3,501,114. 

3 Years ended Mar. 31. Imports of British India for calendar year 1926 were 13,072,172 pounds, valued 
at $5,779,712. 

< Fiscal year 1914— quantity from Special Agents Series No. 121, value from Commerce and Navigation 
Reports. 
' Aniline dyes only in 1913. 

8 Does not include the value of 2,288, 154 pounds of reparation dyes. 
' Does not include the value of 987,890 pounds of reparation dyes. 
' Quantity of synthetic indigo not shown for 1913. 
« 1914. 

COMPETITIVE CONDITIONS 

As a result of the war-time stimulus to dye making, the world 
capacity to produce is greater by far than the power of industrial 
nations to consume. This excess capacity to produce has precipitated 
a struggle for foreign markets and has led each producing nation to 
adopt special measures for the protection of its home market. 

The struggle for export markets is most severe in the nonproducing 
nations, China and British India. There the United States, Great 
Britain, and France have established a trade in the bulk dyes and are 
resisting the efforts of Germany and Switzerland to regain their former 
control of the entire trade. 

As before the war, Germany and Switzerland are to-day the domi- 
nating countries in the international dye trade. In Germany the 
I. G. has so centralized and coordinated its organization of dye manu- 
facture as to have the advantage of low manufacturing cost. Long 
experience in the business, the sales agencies, and branch plants that 
have been established throughout the world, and the international 
agreements that have been negotiated are also factors of German 
supremacy. The recent activities of the I. G. in extending its manu- 
facturing interests to include a wide diversity of chemicals and allied 
products other than dyes is also enhancing the prestige of Germany. 
In the high-priced dyes Germany still dominates the world markets^ 
but in the bulk dyes she has lost a part of her trade to the new produc- 
ing nations. The I. G., by steadily increasing its influence, is seeking 
to recover this lost trade. 



INTEENATIONAL DYE TEADE 149 

Table 42 shows the exports of dyes from Germany in 1913 and the 
trend of the export trade since 1920. 

Table 42. — Coal-tar dyes: Exports from Germany, 1913 and 1920-1926 





Year 


Pounds 


Value 


1913 




239, 598, 133 
61. 140, 171 
48, 304, 991 

115, 974, 900 
73, 974, 473 
61,033,911 
75, 879, 025 
81, 883, 253 


$51, 666, 168 


1920 




53, 002, 407 


1921 1 




15, 935, 585 


1922 




80, 781, 892 


1923 -- . - 




41, 580, 742 


1924 


30, 933, 368 


1925 - 


44,311,155 


1926 


47, 134, 156 







' May to December. 

The 81,883,253 pounds of coal-tar dyes, valued at $47,134,156, that 
Germany exported in 1926 was an increase of about 8 per cent in 
quantity and 6 per cent in vakie over 1925. As compared with pre- 
war years, Germany's export trade, measured in quantity, has greatly 
declined. In value, however, the 1926 export was 91 per cent of the 
1913 figure. Further details of the exports for this country are given 
in Table 44. 

Export figures, taken alone, do not disclose the actual participation 
of Germany in the international trade, for the I. G. controls or has an 
interest in dye plants in Japan, Spain, the United States, and Russia, 
and its extension subagencies handle products not of their own manu- 
facture. 

Switzerland has now, as was the case before the war, a larger share 
of the world's trade than the relative size of her industry would indi- 
cate. The Swiss specialize in high-priced dyes, in the manufacture 
and marketing of which they have the advantage of long experience, 
a well-organized selling force throughout the world, and a variety of 
products. Furthermore, they operate, or have an interest in, plants 
in the United States, France, Great Britain, and Italy. Their dis- 
advantage—the lack of raw materials — is not serious, as crudes and 
intermediates are readih^ available from several nations. 

The world-wide trend toward the use of the fast dyes and the higher 
priced specialty colors will favor the nations that are doing pioneer 
work in the manufacture of new products; nations restricting their 
output to the old types will be at a marked disadvantage in competi- 
tive markets. 

In the United States competition has been so keen in the home 
market that many of the weaker producers have been eliminated. 
Sixteen firms discontinued dye manufacture in 1926, and it is probable 
that the number will continue to dwindle until the productive capacity 
of the country more nearly conforms to its requirements. The trade 
of the United States has been fully discussed elsewhere in this report. 
The status of other countries in dye manufacture and trade will be set 
forth in pages 150-181. 

INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS 

Outside of the United States a large part of the output of the 
producing nations of the world is under the control of dye cartels or 
consolidations. 



150 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHEK SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

Agreements made among individual nations promise to be of 
increasing importance in the international trade. The purpose of 
these agreements is (1) to protect domestic markets, (2) to divide 
the export markets, and (3) to stabilize prices. It is reported that 
in 1926 the I. G. concluded agreements with the Russian, Spanish, 
and Japanese dye and chemical industries, and entered into negotia- 
tions with the French and British industries. An agreement is 
also said to have been concluded between the French and Swiss 
industries. The I. G. has further extended its influence by estab- 
lishing plants, or by obtaining a working interest in plants in the 
United States, Italy, Russia, and Japan. 

The dye industry of the United States will probably be more 
seriously affected by the I. G.'s new agreements as to export markets 
than is the dye industry of any other country. 

The Dye Industry of Germany 

organization of the i. g. farbenindustrie a. g. 

The amalgamation of the six largest dye companies at the end of 
December, 1925, is one of the greatest consolidations in the history 
of German finance. The purpose of this merger was to strengthen 
the competitive resistance of the German dye industry by effecting 
certain economies in manufacture, i. e., to allocate production among 
the various units of the I. G. with a view to eliminating duplication 
in manufacture, research work, overhead, and in buying and selling. 
In carrying out its new policies the following changes were inaugur- 
ated in 1926: The separate plants were formed into a production 
association and the separate markets joined into a sales union. 
Production was in four districts — (1) the upper Rhine, (2) the central 
Rhine, (3) the lower Rhine, and (4) central Germany; in addition 
there was one mining administration. Sales agencies were estab- 
lished for five groups of products: (1) Dyestufts and auxiliary dye 
products, the headquarters for which were Frankfort on the Main, 
Hochst on the Main, Leverkusen, and Ludwigshafen on the Rhine; 
the markets are divided according to countries. (2) Nitrogen 
products, such as the nitrogen fertilizers are sold through the Sticks- 
toffsyndikat G. m. b. H., with which the I. G. is associated. Head- 
quarters for the sales agencies are in Berlin. (3) Inorganic products 
and organic intermediates, the seat of which is at Frankfort on the 
Main, with branch plants at Berlin, Hochst, Ludwigshafen, Lever- 
kusen, and Uerdingen. The sales union for pharmaceutical and 
veterinary products is at Leverkusen and Hochst, divided between 
these two according to countries. (4) Insecticides, the headquarters 
for which are Hochst and Leverkusen. (5) Photographic products, 
artificial silk, and perfumes, the sales union for which is at Berlin 
(Agfa). 

DEVELOPMENTS IN 1926 

The German dye industry was consolidated in 1926 by the I. G- 
obtaining control over related branches of the chemical industry. 
Expansion was chiefly in the oil, fertilizer, and rayon branches of the 
chemical industrv. 



INTEENATIONAL DYE TEADE 151 

INCREASE IN CAPITAL STOCK 

On September 1, 1926, at a general meeting of the stockholders 
the I. G. at Frankfort on the Main voted to increase its capital stock 
from 646 million to 1,100 milHon reichmarks, of which 258.4 million 
was to be new common shares. Series A, amounting to 35.6 million, 
with simple voting powers, was to be in 3 per cent preferred shares, 
and series B, with tenfold voting powers, was to be controlled by 
the cartel. This increase in capital, it is reported, will be used for 

(1) extending the nitrogen plants and financing the fertiUzer business, 

(2) erecting plants for the liquefying of coal by the Bergius process, 
and (3) the acquisition of a group of plants known as Koln Rottweil, 
manufacturing explosives. 

The expansion of nitrogen production will enable the I. G. to 
increase its export trade in the new fertilizers. 

The Bergius process of liquefying coal is a new source of motor 
fuels and other oils. By its use two short tons of pulverized bitu- 
minous coal yields 45 gallons of gasoline. This quantity of gasoline 
could probably be doubled by cracking the tars. 

DIVIDEND AND WAGE DATA 

At its annual meeting, held June 2, 1927, the I. G. approved a 
dividend of 10 per cent for 1926 — the same rate that stockholders 
received in 1925. More than 80 per cent of the capital stock of 
1,100 milHon reichmarks was represented at this meeting. On 
January 1, 1926, the I. G. gave employment to 65,392 laborers and 
to 19,814 other employees; by January 1, 1927, its pay roll carried a 
total of 88,152 employees — an increase of 2,900. According to Dr. 
Karl Bosch, chairman of the I. G. board of directors, wages paid in 
1926 to laborers amounted to 134,000,000 marks and to other 
employees, 99,000,000. This was an average per capita of 2,167 
marks for laborers as compared with 1,400 marks in pre-war times, 
and an average per capita of 4,940 marks to other employees, as 
against 2,845 marks before the war. The I. G. appropriated 
11,790,000 marks to workmen's benefits in 1926, or 143 marks per 
capita. 

EXPANSION OF THE DYE TRUST 

The I. G. is the largest industrial organization in Germany. It is 
affiliated with 81 of the 620 stock companies in the chemical industr3^ 
These 81 companies represent 62 per cent of the total capitalization. 
Among the concerns taken over in 1926 are the Farbwerke Muhlheim, 
vorm. A. Leonhardt & Co., A. G., Muhlheim on the Main, and Koln- 
Rottweil, A. G. The acquisition of these two companies did away 
with duplication in manufacture, as they made the same products. 
For the same reason agreements were concluded with the Dynamit 
Aktiengesellschaft vorm. Alfred Nobel, the Aktiengesellschaft 
Siegener Dynamitfabrik, and the Rheinische Westphalische Spreng- 
stoff Aktiengesellschaft. Another agreement closed on October 14, 
1926, with the A. Riebecksche Montanwerke Aktiengesellschaft, 
was considered necessary because of the interests of the I. G. in the 
oil industry and the advantages of extending its coal holdings for 
the production of oil by coal distillation. 
49113—27 11 



152 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHEK SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 
INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS 

The I. G. is reported to have concluded several international agree- 
ments in 1926 and to have made some progress in the negotiation 
of others. The special commission sent to Russia succeeded in 
negotiating an agreement extending over three years, by the terms 
of which the I. G. will provide 70 per cent of Russia's dyes and 
pharmaceutical products and a substantial but unstated quantity 
of hea\'y chemicals. Russian chemical engineers, it seems, are to 
be trained under the supervision of the 1. G. Offices and ware- 
houses are to be maintained at Moscow, Leningrad, Charkow, and 
other places. The indications are that a general reorganization of 
the Russian chemical industry wiU be effected under the technical 
direction of the I. G. 

An important acquisition of the I. G. is its 50 per cent interest in 
the Spanish dyes and explosives industry through an agreement 
with the Fabricacion Xacional de Colorantes y Explosives S. A. of 
Barcelona, an organization formed four years ago by the amalga- 
mation of four of the principal Spanish manufacturers of dyes and 
colors. Technical assistance will be provided by the 1. G. and 50 
per cent of the stock will pass into its hands. 

Evidence of growing cooperation between the German and Japa- 
nese chemical industries was apparent during the last year. With 
the assistance of German chemists synthetic nitrogen will be pro- 
duced under the Haber-Bosch process and sold in Japan. The 
Vereinigte Glanzstoff Fabriken are credited with having a large 
interest in one of Japan's artificial silk plants, and in exchange for 
export aid and the use of patented processes, negotiations are said 
to be pending whereby Germany will share in the profits of the 
Japanese dye industry. 

REPARATION DYES 

Under the terms of the treaty of Versailles provision was made 
for deliveries in kind by Germany. A detailed account of the 
agreements and of the deliveries of dj'es and pharmaceuticals to the 
allied and associated powers under these agreements is given in the 
Census of Dyes and Other Synthetic Organic Chemicals, 1923, 
pages 156 to 167. The one-quarter production of the German dye 
plants reserved for purchase of the allied and associated Govern- 
ments, 1920 to 1924, was published in the Dye Census of 1924, 
page 146. 

Germany's receipts and her payments of the second annuity under 
the Dawes plan for the year ended August 31, 1926, and the cumu- 
lative total for the third year up to May 31, 1927, follows: 

PAYMENTS IX KIND 

In the first year deliveries of dye stuffs and pharmaceutical products 
amounted to 26.2 million marks, distributed as follows: Italy, 9; 
France, 5.2; England, 4.5; Japan, 3.8; and Belgium, 3.7. France 
received chemical fertilizers valued at 19.7 million marks, and 
Belgium obtained similar material to the value of 0.3 million marks. 

In the second year deliveries of dyes and pharmaceutical products 
declined to 11.2 million marks, of which Belgium obtained 4.8, 
Italy 3.9, France 2.4, and the Serb-Croat-Slovene State 0.14. Chemi_ 



INTERN ATION\\L DYE TRADE 153 

cal fertilizers and nitrogenous products delivered during this period, 
valued at 50.8 million marks, were charged to France (47.9) and 
Belgium (2.9). France obtained an additional 3 million marks worth 
of coal by-products; Belgium, 2.5. 

In the first 10 months of the third year (September 1, 1926, to 
June 30, 1927) deliveries of dyes and pharmaceutical products 
amounted to 10.1 million marks, a slight decrease from the preceding 
year. Of this amount Belgium received 4.9; Italy, 2.7; France, 
2.4; and the Serb-Croat-Slovene State, 0.1. Chemical fertilizers 
and nitrogenous products delivered during this 3'ear amounted to 
45.1 million marks, of which France received 34.3; Belgium, 8.1; 
and Japan, 2.7. Coal by-products to the amount of 7.8 million 
marks were distributed as follows: France, 3.9; Italy, 3.6; and 
Belgium, 0.3. 

RECEIPTS AND PAYMEXTS OF GERMAXY UXDER THE DAWES PLAN 

The second year, September 1, 1925, to August SI, 1926 

A. Receipts in second annuity year: Gold marks 

1 . Budgetarv contribution 250, 000, 000. 00 

2. Transport tax 241,904,574.39 

3. Interest on railway reparation bonds 550, 000, 000. 00 

4. Interest on industrial debentures 125, 000, 000. 00 

5. Interest received 2, 738, 757. 28 

6. Exchange differences 166,255.59 

Total receipts 1, 169, 809, 587. 26 

B. Balance of cash at August 31, 1925 107, 013, 270. 89 

Total cash available 1, 276, 822, 858. 15 

C. Payments in second annuity year: 

1. Pavmeuts to or for the account of — • 

France 565,630,271.47 

British Empire 226. 687, 732. 71 

Italy 77, 054, 447. 55 

Belgium 116, 376. 026. 81 

Serb-Croat-Slovene State 38, 185, 212. 56 

United States of America 14, 844, 038. 20 

Rumania 8, 976. 875. 30 

Japan 2, 817, 457. 82 

Portugal 6, 279, 581. 64 

Greece 3, 159. 367. 06 

Poland 153, 052. 85 

Total payments to powers 1, 060, 164, 063. 97 

2. For service of German external loan, 1924 97, 213, 009. 36 

3. For expenses of — 

Reparation Commission 3, 255, 522. 90 

Office for Reparation Payments 3, 700. 000. 00 

Interallied Rhineland High Commission 6, 933, 790. 48 

Mihtary InteralUed Commission of Control. _ 4, 507, 261. 69 

4. Costs of arbitral bodies 38,372.14 

5. Discount on amounts received from Deutsche 

Reichsbahn Gesellschaft in advance of due date-. 7, 410, 406. 98 

123, 058, 363. 55 
Total payments 1, 183, 222, 427. 52 



154 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

The third year, cumulative total to June SO, 1927 

A. Receipts in third annuity year: 

1. In completion of second annuity — Gold marks 

(a) Transport tax 8,095,425.61 

(6) Interest on railway reparation bonds 45,000,000,00 

2. On account of third annuity — 

(a) Normal budgetary contribution 91,666,666.67 

(6) Supplementary budgetary contribution... 195, 600, 000. 00 

(c) Transport tax 225,000,000.00 

(d) Interest on railway reparation bonds 405,000,000.00 

(e) Interest on industrial debentures 125,000,000.00 

3. Interest received 2,000,943.52 

Total receipts 1, 097, 363, 035. 80 

B. Balance of cash at Aug. 31, 1926 93, 626, 074. 81 

Total cash available 1, 190, 989, 110. 61 

C. Payments in third annuity year: 

1. Payments to or for the account of — 

France 463, 626, 105. 53 

British Empire 225, 919, 472. 59 

Italy 70, 331, 431. 40 

Belgium 53, 114, 683. 36 

Serb-Croat-Slovene State 35, 304, 059. 48 

United States of America 74, 747, 570. 81 

Rumania 8, 430, 403. 59 

Japan 6, 156, 496. 39 

Portugal 5, 831, 098. 14 

Greece 3, 120, 664. 80 

Poland 237, 310. 97 

Total payments to powers 946, 819, 297. 06 

2. For service of German external loan, 1924 74, 239, 014. 09 

3. For expenses of — 

Reparation Commission 2, 268, 572. 41 

Office for Reparation payments 2, 938, 953. 99 

Interallied Rhineland High Commission 2, 383, 484. 79 

MiUtary Interalhed Commission of Control, _ 1, 233, 279. 66 

4. Costs of arbitral bodies 66, 729. 14 

5. Discount on amounts received from Deutsche 

Reichsbahn Gesellschaft in advance of due date. 5, 798, 485. 79 

6. Exchange differences 712,970.80 

Total payments 1, 036, 460, 787. 73 

IMPORTS AND EXPORTS 

In 1926 Germany exported 27,408,249 pounds of indigo, valued at 
$9,487,711, as compared with 31,897,035 pounds, valued at $9,515,614 
in 1925. Exports to China dropped more than 7,000,000 pounds in 
the year, but to British India and Japan they increased substantially. 

German shipments of alizarin in 1926 were 1,100,095 pounds, 
valued at $302,255, as compared with 1,655,875 pounds, valued at 
$596,529 in 1925. Exports of alizarin colors (from anthracene) in 
1926 were 5,516,791 pounds, valued at $5,266,851, which was a sub- 
stantial increase over the 1925 export. British India received 
2,796,977 pounds of alizarin colors from Germany in 1926, as com- 
pared with 911,823 pounds in 1925 and 504,633 pounds in 1924. 

Of aniline and other coal-tar dyes, Germany exported in 1926, 
46,666,311 pounds, valued at $31,502,103. Exports of this group in 
1925 were 38,281,997 pounds, valued at $30,099,190. The nations 



INTERNATIONAL DYE TEADE 



155 



receiving the largest quantities were China, to whom went 8,534,448 
pounds; British India, 4,823,003 pounds; Czechoslovakia, 4,071,896 
pounds; Russia, 3,808,887 pounds; and Japan, 3,175,285 pounds. 

Germany imported in 1926, 7,937,221 pounds of dyes, valued at 
$4,132,562", as compared with the 1925 import of 3,689,177 pounds, 
valued at $1,918,939. The principal source of imports in 1926 was 
Switzerland, which furnished 2,340,182 pounds. 

Table 43. — Germany: Imports of coal-tar dyes, 1926 ' 



Class of dye and country of origin 



Pounds 



Value 



Aniline and other coal-tar dyes not elsewhere mentioned; sulphur dyes: 

Latvia 150,133 

Netherlands 539,025 

Austria.-.. 240,522 

East Poland ' 368,830 

Russia... 159,393 

Sweden , 138,008 

Switzerland 2,340,182 

Czechoslovakia 806,442 

Other countries 2,518,315 

TotaL. 7,260,850 

Alizarin (alizarin red); alizarin colors, variegated, from anthracene, total 352,075 

Indigo, natural and synthetic, total 323,635 

Indigo carmine, color lakes, and new blue from indigo and indigo carmine, total. 661 

Aggregate ! 7,937,221 



$3, 722, 971 

171,357 

237, 996 

238 



4, 132, 562 



1 From monthly review of the foreign commerce of Germany, issue of December, 1926. Values converted 
on basis of 1,000 reichsmarks ($237,996). 

Table 44. — Germany: Exports of coal-tar dyes, 1926 ^ 



Class of dye and country 
of destination 


Pounds 


Value 


Class of dye and country 
of destination 


Pounds 


Value 


Aniline and other coal-tar 
dyes not elsewhere men- 
tioned; sulphur dyes: 
Belgiimi... 


.^57. 366 




Aniline and other coal-tar 
dyes not elsewhere men- 
tioned; sulphur dyes — 
Continued. 
Bolivia 


51,367 
351, 854 
567, 244 
119,048 
208, 114 

41,887 
795, 420 
133, 158 
1,656,448 
193, 564 
384, 923 




Bulgaria 247,356 

Denmark 1 308,864 








Brazil 




Estonia i 104.498 




Canada 




Finland 


375, 223 
106, 703 
2,017,650 
1,181,445 
539, 686 
1 80. 99S 




Chile 




Greece 




Colombia 




Great Britain... 








Italy 


" " 1 


Mexico 




Yugoslavia. . 




Peru 




Latvia 




United States 




Lithuania. ! 75. 61S 


1 


Union of Australia 

other countries 

Total 




Netherlands 


2, 343, 490 

319, 667 

1,213,412 

503, 751 

435, 629 

906, 972 

3,808,887 

1,119,716 

1, 532, 638 

571, 653 

4, 071, 896 

747, 800 

194, 887 

4, 823, 003 

8, 534, 448 

3, 175, 285 

1,450,627 

288, 362 

252, 206 

197, 532 
276, 016 












-Austria. ... . 


' 


46,666,311 


$31, 502, 103 


East Poland 




Alizarin (alizarin red): 


Portugal 




27,117 
24,030 
519, 623 
244,711 
284, 614 




Rumania 






Russia 




Czechoslovakia 

British India . . 




Sweden... 






Switzerland 




Dutch East Indies 

other countries 

Total 




Spain 












Hungary 




1, 100, 095 j 302, 255 






Alizarin colors, variegated, 
from anthracene: 
Denmark 


British India 






China 




1 


Japan 




27, 998 
317,021 
108,025 
250, 663 
53, 572 
17, 196 
135, 583 




Dutch East Indies 




Great Britain. . . 




Siam 




Italy 




Turkey 




Netherlands 




Other Asiatic coun- 




Austria 




tries -. 




Argentina 




Russia 





' From monthly review of the foreign commerce of Germany, issue of December, 1926. Values converted 
on basis of 1,000 reichsmarks ($237,996). 



156 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 
Table 44. — Germany: Exports of coal-tar dyes, 1926 — Continued 



Class of dye and country 
of destination 


Pounds 


Value 


Class of dye and country 
of destination 


Pounds 


Value 


Alizarin colors, variegated, 
from anthracene— Con. 
Sweden 


139, 992 
89, 286 
106, 482 
145, 283 
2, 796, 977 
21,605 
122, 576 
339, 288 
40, 344 
610, 234 
194, 666 




Indigo, natural and syn- 
thetic—Continued. 

Straits Settlements 

China 

Japan 


172,620 

19, 077, 947 

2,047,412 

1,096,127 

209, 217 

164,904 

128, 749 

131,615 
77, 381 
92, 593 

332, 233 




Switzerland 






Spain 




C zechoslovakia - . 




Dutch East Indies 

Persia . 




British India 






China 




Siam . 




Japan 




Turkey . . 




Dutch East Indies 




Other Asiatic coun- 
tries 




Canada ... 






United States 




Mexico 




Other countries 




United States . 








Other countries 

Total 




Total 


5, 516, 791 


$5, 266, 851 






27, 408, 249 


$9,487,711 


Indigo, natural and syn- 
thetic: 
Italv__ 


265, 654 
49,824 
543, 875 
157, 188 
101, 632 
260, 143 
113,096 
503, 972 
296. 519 
367, 286 
1,218,262 




Indigo carmine, color lakes 






Yugoslavia 




and indigo carmine: 
China.. . 1 751.989 




Netherlands 






A ustria 




Dutch East Indies 

Other Asiatic coun- 
tries 

Other countries 

Total . 


64, 374 

145, 504 
229, 940 




Portugal. 






Russia 




Spain... 












Hungary 




1, 191, 807 


575, 236 






Grand total- 




British India 




81, 883, 253 


47, 134, 156 











The Dye Industry of Great Britain 
developments in 1926 

The British dye industry was seriously affected in 1926 by the pro- 
longed coal strike. The formation of the Imperial Chemical Indus- 
tries (Ltd.), and the consolidation of the selling agencies of the I. G. 
in Great Britain under one firm, which became effective in Jul}^, 1926, 
were the outstanding events of the .year. 

Formation of Imperial Chemical Industries {Ltd.). — The companies 
included in this merger are Brunner Mond & Co. (Ltd.), Nobel 
Industries (Ltd.), British Dyestuft's Corporation (Ltd.), and the 
L'nited Alkali Co. (Ltd.). These were incorporated with an initial 
capital of £65,000,000 ($316,322,500). In a report of its directors, the 
former British Dyestuffs Corporation (Ltd.), showed that for the nine 
months' period ended December 31, 1926, its profit, including interest 
and dividend but not depreciation on plant and buildings, was 
£82,934 ($403,598), as against £253,517 ($1,233,721) for the preced- 
ing 12 months. A dividend of 23^^ per cent was paid to shareholders 
for the fiscal year ended March, 1926. 

The position of the individual companies forming the Imperial 
Chemical Industries (Ltd.), is as follows: ^ 

Brunner IVfond and Co. (Ltd.), manufacturers of alkali, was 
registered in February, 1881, to take over the business of the firm of 
this name. Its authorized share capital was increased in June, 1914, 
to £15,000,000, of which £13,749,302 has been issued and paid up. 
Annual dividends for the six years to 1914 were 273^ per cent; 1915, 
25 per cent; 1916 and 1917,^273^ per cent; 1918, 11 per cent plus 
bonus; 1919, 10 per cent; 1920, \\}^ per cent; 1921 and 1922, 8 per 

' The Chemical Age, Oct. 30, 1926, p. 416. 



INTEENATIONAL DYE TRADE 157 

cent; 1923, 11 percent; 1924 and 1925, 103/^ per cent. The company 
announced an interim dividend of 7 per cent less the tax for the half 
year ended September 30, 1926. 

The British Dyestuffs Corporation was registered in 1919 to manu- 
facture dyes and colors in Great Britain. Under a reorganization 
scheme, effected in 1926, its issued capital of £9,197,116 in three classes 
was reduced to £4,775,580 in ordinary shares of £l. The Govern- 
ment, which had been the holder of £850,000 in preference shares, 
£850,000 in ordinary shares, and one extra share known as the 
Government share, received £600,000 in cash in consideration of its 
surrender of these shares and its relinciuishment of all rights to control 
over the company. A short time ago the British Dyestuffs Corpora- 
tion acquired a controlling interest in Scottish Dyes (Ltd.). 

The United Alkali Company (Ltd.) was registered in 1890 to acquire 
various chemical works in the United Kingdom. Recently it has 
taken over salt mines and works, Durham County, England, and 
mining and railway properties in Spain. Its authorized capital is 
£4,500,000 in shares of £l-£3,000,000 in 7 per cent preference, and 
£1,500,000 in ordinary. Of this total, £2,825,240 of the preference 
and £900,000 of the ordinary have been subscribed and paid up. 
Dividends in recent years have been as follows: Four years to 1919, 
15 per cent annually; 1920, 5 per cent (after transferring £100,000 
from special reserve) ; 1921 to 1923, inclusive, 10 per cent annually plus 
bonus; 1924, 12}/^ per cent; 1925, 10 per cent. 

In 1918 the Explosives Trade (Ltd.) was registered to acquire 
interests in companies manufacturing explosives and allied chemicals, 
and in 1920 it was renamed the Nobel Industries (Ltd.). Its 
authorized capital is £18,000,000 in shares of £1. Dividends have 
been as follows: 1918, 9 per cent on ordinary; 1919, 10 per cent on 
ordinary and 5 per cent on deferred; 1920, preference only; 1921, 5 per 
cent on ordinary; 1922, 7 per cent; 1923, 8 per cent; 1924, 9 per cent; 
1925, 10 per cent on ordinary and 5 per cent on deferred. The general 
reserve was £1,000,000, of which £230,527 was carried forward from 
1925. The company holds an interest in many British powder manu- 
facturing companies, British Celanese (Ltd.), the General Motors 
Corporation of the United States, and in various German explosives 
companies now associated with the I. G. and other concerns. The 
acquisition of these interests will, it is expected, be in the interests of 
economy, in that it will make for greater efficiency both commerciall}^ 
and technically, in saving unnecessary expense caused by duplication 
and overlapping. It is not intended to destroy the identity of indivi- 
dual units composing the new compan}^. The boards of the several 
companies continue to operate the industries of which they have the 
most intimate knowledge, and the board of the new company is a 
supervising body that forms a connecting link in finance and policy. 
Through the exchange of information among men of special and 
technical knowledge, the British Chemical Industry will be able to 
deal with similar groups in other countries. 

IMPORT LICENSES^ 

Table 45 is a summary showing the quantity and value of imports 
under licenses granted by the Dyestuffs Advisory Licensing Com- 
mittee in the years 1921 to 1926. 

3 The Chemical Age, July 31, 1926, p. 112. 



158 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Table 45. — Imports of dyes under licenses granted by the Dyestuffs Advisory 
Licensing Committee, 1921-1926 



Year 


For importation 
from Germany 


For importation 
from Switzerland 


For importation 
from other sources 


Total 




Pounds 


Value 


Pounds 


Value 


Pounds 


Value 


Pounds 


Value 


1921 


671, 032 
1, 325, 671 
1,817.571 
1, 805, 145 
2, 175, 262 


$760, 058 

1, 663, 927 

2, 257, 672 
1, 758, 990 
1. 616, 484 


1, 796, 754 
1, 638, 235 
1,412,616 
1, 191, 931 
1, 157, 270 


$2, 937, 981 
3,077,118 
2, 103, 784 
1, 605, 660 
1, 486, 127 


209, 719 
270, 987 
461, 253 
39, 158 
66, 522 


$315, 838 
147, 952 
165, 503 
40, 655 
43, 852 


2,677,505 $4,013,877 
3,234,893 1 4,888,997 
3, 691, 440 : 4, 526, 959 
3,036,234 ! 3,405,305 
3,399,054 3,146,463 
4 256 000 i "^Sfi 17S 


1922 


1923 


1924 


1925 


1926'.. 

















' The Chemical Trade Journal and Chemical Engineer, July 1, 1927, p. 7. 

The figures in Table 45 are less than the actual quantity of dye- 
stuffs imported previous to 1925, as they are exclusive of reparation 
dyes imported from Germany. The total quantity of reparation 
dyes received in all years is about 8,000 tons. Since December 31, 
1924, the date of the expiration of the reparation agreement under 
the treaty of Versailles, no reparation colors have been requisitioned 
by the United Kingdom. The import of 3,400,000 pounds in 1925 
and of 4,256,000 pounds in 1926 was under license. 

REORGANIZATION OF I. G. SELLING AGENCY 

The I. G. after reorganizing its selling agencies in Great Britain, 
started business on July 1, 1926. The new concern will apparently 
limit its activities to the distribution of dyestuffs and auxiliary 
products; the other products of the German combine, such as photo- 
graphic chemicals and material, will continue to be marketed by 
the concerns that have handled them in the past. 

ANGLO-GERMAN CHEMICAL NEGOTIATIONS * 

Repeated references in the press to negotiations between the 
English and German dye manufacturers have evoked the following 
reply from the directors of Imperial Chemical Industries (Ltd.): 
"The statements which have appeared in the press regarding alleged 
negotiations between Imperial Chemical Industries (Ltd.) and the 
Interessen Gemeinschaft Farbenindustries, A. G., purporting to 
give the scope of such negotiations, and intimating that an agree- 
ment is likely to be reached within a short time, are inaccurate and 
entirely unauthorized. The facts are that only preliminary dis- 
cussions have taken place between the two companies, with a view 
to examining the question of closer cooperation in the various fields 
of chemical activity." 

IMPORTS AND EXPORTS 

In 1925 Great Britain imported 4,438,224 pounds of coal-tar 
dyes, valued at $3,123,859; in 1926, imports were smaller (4,237,296 
pounds) but their value had increased ($4,258,384). Exports of 
coal-tar dyes in 1925 amounted to 7,314,608 pounds, valued at 
$3,122,149, and in 1926, to 8,481,424 pounds, valued at $2,983,500. 

The following table shows the British foreign trade in dyes and 
dyestuffs in the years 1924-1926. 

• ' Chemical Trade Journal, May 20, 1927, p. 510. 



INTERNATIONAL. DYE TRADE 
Table 46. — United Kingdom: Imports of coal-tar dyes, 1925 ^ 



159 



Name of dye and country of origin 



Alizarin: 

Germany 

France -- 

Switzerland... 
United States. 

Total 



Indigo, synthetic 

Other coal-tar dyes: 

Germany 

Netherlands.. 

Belgium 

France.. - 

Switzerland... .i 1,045,856 

United States.. 7,280 

Other foreign countries 6,048 



Pounds 



1, 179, 136 
3,248 
57, 232 
3,696 



1, 243, 312 



1, 980, 272 
31, 920 
63, 952 
33,712 



Total from foreign countries. 



Canada 

Other British countries . 



Total from British countries. 
Total imported 



Aggregate. 



3,169,040 



25, 536 
336 



25, 872 
3,194,912 



4,438,224 



Value 



$323, 753 

840 

33,300 

1,149 



359,042 



1,291,409 
20.933 
60, 434 
28, 573 
1, 329, 177 
5,177 
4,018 



2, 739, 721 



24, 768 
328 



25, 096 
2, 764, 817 



3, 123, 859 



1 From annual statement of the trade of the United Kingdom with foreign countries and British countries. 
Values converted at average rate, 1925, 1£ = $4.828946. 

Table 47. — United Kingdom: Imports and exports of coal-tar dyes, 1924-1926 ' 



1924 



1925 



1926 



IMPORTS 

Coal-tar products: 

Intermediates 

Finished coal-tar dyestuffs — 

Alizarin 

Other sorts 

Extracts for dyeing, natural: 

Cutch.. 

Other sorts 

Natural indigo 

Extracts for tanning 



Coal-tar products. 
Other dyestuffs... 



EXPORTS 



Extracts for dyeing: 

Cutch.. 

Other 

Natural indigo 

Tanning extracts 



REEXPORTS 



Pounds 
72, 576 

3, 377, 472 

4, 554, 256 

8, 757, 616 

8, 128, 400 

93,184 

129, 689, 504 

11,692,352 
7, 478, 352 



3, 077, 984 

914, 928 

36,064 

5,131,616 



Pounds 
147, 728 

1,243,312 
3, 194, 912 

7, 829, 136 

5, 950, 448 

25, 536 

138, 511, 072 

11,666,032 

5, 787, 264 



2, 430, 176 

495, 600 

14,784 

11,511,920 



Pounds 
38, 640 

179,424 
4, 057, 872 

6,711,712 

3, 788, 064 

51,968 

125, 706, 224 

8,481,424 
7, 579, 824 



1, 977, 920 

311,808 

7,392 

6,361,488 



1 Trade Information Bulletin, No. 465, Dept. of Com. 

Table 48. — United Kingdom: Imports and exports of coal-tar dyes, 1926 * 



Pounds 



Imports for consumption: ' 

Alizarin 

Indigo, synthetic 

Other coal-tar dyes 



Total. 



179, 424 
'4,'057."872" 



4, 237, 296 



Natural indigo 51,968 

Experts: 1 

Dyes and dyestuffs (except dyewoods and raw dyeing substances) and ex- i 
tracts for dyeing and tanning products of coal tar 8,481,424 



Value 



$322, 674 



3, 935, 710 



4, 258, 384 



55, 821 
2, 983, 500 



' From accounts relating to trade and navigation of the United Kingdom, issue of December, 1926. Values 
converted at average exchange rate, 1926, £l = $4.858235. 

2 An account of the principal and other articles of imported merchandise showing the consumption of 
certain dutiable articles in the year ended Dec. 31, 1925. 

49113—27 12 



160 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHEK SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 
Table 49. — United Kingdom: Ex-ports of coal-tar dyes, 1925 ' 



Name of dye and country of 
destination 


Pounds 


Value 


Name of dye and country of -p^.i^ Jc 
destination I'ounds 


Value 


Alizarin: 

British India , 


285, 376 
9,968 


$70, 691 
5,017 


Other coal-tar dyes— Contd. 
Spain ... . - 


36, 512 
76,384 
823, 760 
115,472 
174, 832 
57, 456 
116, 144 


$38, 689 


Other British countries.. 


Italy. 


47, 575 




China 


308, 183 
38, 733 


Total to British coun- 


295, 344 
115,248 


75, 708 
32, 272 


Japan . 


tries- 


United States 


140, 146 


Total to foreign coun- 


Brazil 


31, 862 


tries 


Other foreign countries.. 
Total to foreign coun- 


67, 117 






Tot al exported 


410, 692 


107, 980 


2, 529, 968 






1, 221, 143 


Indigo, synthetic: 

China. 


2, 099, 888 
79, 520 


559, 728 
28, 442 


Irish Free State 


162, 064 
97, 552 


103, 692 


Other foreign countries.. 


Union of South Africa... 
British India- 
Bombay 


82, 705 


Total to foreign coun- 


2,179,408 
123, 088 


588, 170 
39, 013 


590,016 1 271,242 


tries 


Madras 


17,360 ' lfi-298 


Total to British coun- 
tries. 


Bengal, Assam, Bi- 
har, and Orlssa 


27, 664 

14, 896 

741, 104 

137, 760 

216, 496 

66,640 


20, 996 




8,093 
466, 800 


Total exported. 


2, 302, 496 


627, 183 


Australia.. . 






59,039 
92,904 


Other coal-tar dyes: 


39, 312 

91, 056 
58, 240 
24, 416 
165, 088 
150, 976 
344, 400 
255, 920 


55, 093 
57, 455 
39, 752 
20,711 
64,215 
43, 012 
205, 925 
62, 675 


Canada.. . 


Russia.. . _ 


Other British countries.. 

Total to British coun- 
tries 


44, 074 






Norway 


2, 071, 552 
4, 601, 520 




Denmark 


1, 165, 843 


Netherlands . 


Total exported 


2, 386, 986 




Grand total . 




France 


7, 314, 608 


3, 122, 149 


Switzerland.. ... . . .. 











' From annual statement of the trade of the United Kingdom with foreign countries and British coun- 
tries. Values converted at average rate, 1925, £1 =$4.828946. 

The Dye Industry of France 

Detailed statistics of the production of dyes in France are not 
available. It is estimated that the 1926 production was slightly in 
excess of the 1924 output. France has now for several years been 
manufacturing on a scale that is making her almost independent of 
dye imports. Indigo and sulphur dyes are produced in greater 
quantity than can be marketed, and of certain other dyes the output 
is said to be rapidly approaching domestic consumption. Vat dyes 
and specialties are not yet made in sufficient quantity to meet the 
demand for them. In 1926 France had an exportable surplus of 
dyes which, in the dry and paste form, were valued at $5,902,946. 

Imports of dyes into France in 1926 were valued at $2,546,881, as 
compared with $2,885,144 in 1925. Imports are obtained largely 
from Switzerland, Germany, and Great Britain. Germany supplies 
principally reparation dyes of the classes not made in France in 
sufficient quantity to supply the demand; Great Britain largely 
specialties, such as celanese dyes. The improvement in the exchange 
value of the French franc in 1926 favored the export of Swiss dyes to 
France. It is reported that Swiss and French dye manufacturers are 
attempting to reduce competition through an informal agreement not 
to cut prices. 

Negotiations for an international cartel are said to be in progress 
between French and German dye manufacturers, and several of the 
largest French chemical companies are attempting to combine. 

Tables 51 and 52, on page 162, show the foreign trade of France in 
coal-tar dyes. 



INTERNATIONAL DYE TRADE 



161 



PROPOSED NEW J'RENCH IMPORT TARIFF 

Table 50 shows the minimum rates of duty on coal-tar dyes in 
the proposed French import tariff. The new duties are not to be 
subject to any "coefficients," as are the present duties/ but provision 
is made in Article 2 for periodical re^dsions (up or down) in accordance 
with the rise or fall of the wholesale price index number. 

Only the proposed "minimum tariff" rates of duty are quoted. 
Unless otherwise indicated, "general tariff" rates are to be three 
times the "minimum tariff" rates. 

Table 50. — France: Proposed new import tariff » 



0^ o 



Classification 



Proposed 

rate of duty 

(minimum 

tariff) 



865 



Coal-tar dyes, dry or classed as dry: 

Nitroso coloring matters 

Nitro coloring matters, except picric acid.. 

Pyrazolone coloring matters 

Stilbene coloring matters 

Monoazo coloring matters except those mentioned in the following paragraph 

Reds for laices and monoazo safranine colors.. 

Mono-, di-, and tri-, azo colors — 

Blacks - 

Other colors 

Reds, diazotisable and fast to light 

Thiazol coloring matters, except thioflavine 

Thioflavine 

Sulphur colors: 

Blacks... 

Other colors 

Carbazole derivatives 

Indophenols, oxazines, thiazines, except new methylene blue 

New methylene blue 

Indulines, nigrosines 

Other azines, safranines, eurhodines, and rosinduHnes 

Pyronines 

Phthaleines 

Rosines, erythrosines, phloxines, cyanosines, galleines, coeruleines 

Derivatives of di- and tri- phenylmethane and their homologues 

Coloring matters derived from acridine and quinoline 

Oxyquinone coloring matters or alizarine colors other than alizarine direct and 

anthraquinone direct colors 

Sulphonic derivatives of indigotine 

Vat dyestufFs— 

.\nthraquinone derivatives, and anthraquinone derivatives containing sulphur. 

Thio-indigo colors and their derivatives 

Chlorinated, brominated. and iodinated derivatives of indigo. 

other 

Synthetic indigo 

Alizarin 

Coal-tar dyes, in past§, containing at least 50 per cent of water— half the duties specified 

in No. 8fi3, according to kind 

Coal-tar dyes, dry, in grains or compressed — duties specified in No. 863, according to 
kind, increased by 30 per cent 



Francs per 
kilo 

9 
12-50 
16 
15 
16 
24 

17-50 
20 

37-50 
19 
40 

14 

20 

22-50 

22-50 

32 

15 

27 

25 

44 

49-50 

25 

30 

37-50 
17 

75 
46 
29 
75 
17 
23 



Board of Trade Journal, Mar. 17, 1927, P. XXIII. 



» See Census of Dyes and Other Synthetic Organic Chemicals, 1924, p. 178. U. S. Tariff Commission. 



162 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 
Table 51. — France: Imports of coal-tar dyes, 1926'^ 



Class of dye 



Nitroso - - 

Nitro 

Pyrazolone - 

Monoazo... 

Polyazo 

Thiobenzenyl 

Sulphur 

Indophenol- 

Azines- _ 

Pyronines 

Eosines 

Diphenylmethanes 

Acridines 

Hydroquinones 

Indigotines 

Insoluble vat dyes other than indigo 

Cibanones 

Indigo 2._ 

Stilbene 3 

Total 



Dry 



Pounds Value 



1,764 



136, 

425, 

450, 

26, 

125, 

993, 

65, 

64, 

5, 

273, 

32, 

82. 

29, 

90, 

11, 

2, 



2, 872, 373 



$649 

2,270 

121,309 

261, 264 

294, 761 

34, 891 

47, 506 

780, 032 

67, 999 

101,626 

6,226 

253, 644 

35,313 

128, 638 

22, 310 

150, 656 

16, 019 

1,686 

38,880 



2, 365, 679 



Paste 



Pounds Value 



331, 792 



12,566 


$2,627 


882 
25, 353 
3,968 


162 

8,204 

2,043 

32 






76, 279 
14,771 


44,717 

3.859 


220 
661 


97 
649 


134, 922 

882 
35,715 
25, 573 


71,112 

908 

33, 854 

12. 938 







181. 202 



' From December, 1926, issue of monthly foreign commerce statistics of France official, 
verted at average exchange rate for 1926, 1,6C0 francs = $32,427. 
2 Does not say whether dry or paste; probably natural indigo, 
s First 11 months. 



Values con- 



Table 52. — France: Exports of coal-tar dyes, 1926 



Class of dye 



Nitroso 

Nitro 

Pyrazolone 

Stilbene ■ 

Monoazo 

Polyazo 

Thiobenzenyl 

Sulphur 

Indophenol 

Azines 

Pyronines 

Eosines 

Diphenylmethanes 

iVcridines 

Hydroquinones 

Indigotines.- 

Insoluble vat dyes other than indigo. 

Cibanones 

Indigo 2... 



Total 7,124,165 5,504,451 



Dry 



Pounds 



197, 

892, 

2, 

568, 

8, 

23, 

,077, 

12, 

,945, 

38, 
,626, 
678, 



Value 



$13, 684 

2,497 

2,529 

97 

51, 137 

269,112 

1,135 

101, 626 

5,675 

4,669 

, 379, 510 

14, 268 

, 408, 857 

259 

34, 535 

930, 849 

, 284, 012 



Paste 



Pounds 



7,275 



5, 952 

10, 362 

14, 991 

441 

9,259 



5,291 
5,732 



65, 036 



10, 582 

3, 062, 190 

13, 228 



1,323 



3,211,662 



Value 



$876 



778 

2,270 

1,978 

65 

811 



1,103 
1,070 



13. 198 



3,729 

365, 613 

6,842 



162 



398, 495 



1 From December, 1926, Issue of monthly foreign commerce statistics of France, official. Values con- 
verted at average exchange rate for 1926, 1,000 francs = $32,427. 

2 Does not say whether dry or paste. 

The Dye Industry of Italy 

After the war the Itahan manufacturers of explosives began to 
make intermediates and dyes. The following tabular statement 
shows the steady expansion of their output of intermediates.'' 

Year Pounds 

1918 1, 764, 000 

1922 3,748,000 

1924 5, 292, 000 

1925 : 7, 938, 000 



» BeUoni, Ernesto: Statistics and other information regarding the Italian Chemical Industry. 



INTERNATIONAL DYE TEADE 



163 



Among the intermediates made in large quantities are aniline oil, 
chlorobenzene, H-acid, beta naphthol, para nitroaniline, and benzi- 
dine. Of the 7,938,000 pounds of intermediates made in 1925, 22.2 
per cent was exported. 

Italy has also increased her dye production, which in 1925 reached 
13,860,000 pounds. As production expands, fewer dyes are imported. 
In 1926 imports were 3,374,140 pounds, valued at $2,010,003 (not 
including 987,890 pounds of reparation dyes), as compared with 
1925, when they were 4,856,955 pounds, valued at $1,985,695 (not 
including 2,288,154 pounds of reparation dyes). 

It is reported ^ that the Societa Italiana Prodotti Esplodenti of 
Cengio, the Fabriche Italiane Materie Coloranti Bonnelli, and 
Societa Italica Colori Artificiali are affiliated and that the Schiap- 
parelli Co., which, at its Settimo factory, specializes in the manufac- 
ture of pharmaceutical chemicals, will be closely associated with this 
group. This cartel will have a wide range of chemicals, including 
explosives, dyes, and pharmaceutical products, under its control. 

At Cesarno Maderno there are extensive works, including a modern 
plant for the manufacture of synthetic indigo. This plant has a 
productive capacity of over 3,000,000 pounds annually. Its manu- 
facture of sulphur black and other sulphur dyes is well developed. It 
also makes azo colors, direct cotton colors, acid wool colors, and a 
complete series of chrome colors for wool. 

Table 53. — Italy: Imports of synthetic organic dyes by countries, 1926 * 



Imported from— 



Pounds 



France 

Germany 

Germany, account of reparations 

Switzerland 

Other countries 

Total 



138, 228 



987, 881 
628, 531 



3, 374, 140 



' From official statistics of domestic exports and imports for consumption, Jan. 1 to Dec. 31, 1926. Values 
converted at average rate, 1926, 1 lire=$0.038894. 

Table 54. — Italy: Imports and exports of synthetic organic dyes, 1926 " 



Class of dye 



Sulphur black 

Account of German reparations 

Other sulphur dyes 

Account of German reparations. 

Other synthetic organic dyes, dry, or containing less than 
50 per cent of water 

Account of German reparations.- 

In paste, or containing 50 per cent, or more, of water 

.\ccount of German reparations 

Total 

Natural indigo 



Imports 



Pounds Value 



38,580 

882 

149, 692 

16, 534 

1, 936, 962 
776, 240 
261, 025 
194, 225 



3, 374, 140 
13,448 



$8, 593 



106, 594 



1, 801, 825 



92, 991 



2, 010, 003 
13, 107 



Exports 



Pounds Value 



188,493 $37,241 



14, 550 



443, 125 



35, 053 



81,221 
1,102 



6,242 



385, 593 



24, 160 



453, 236 
1,012 



" From ofiQcial statistics of domestic exports and imports for consumption, Jan. 1 to Dec. 31, 1926. Values 
converted at average exchange rate, 1926, 1 lire=$0.038894. 



' Chemical Trade Journal and Chemical Engineer, June 3, 1927, p. 552. 



164 census of dyes and other synthetic chemicals 
The Dye Industry of Japan 

Until October, 1925, the manufacture of dyes in Japan was pro- 
moted by a Government subsidy to the dye companies sufficient to 
bring their dividends up to 8 per cent of the paid-up capital. Under 
a new law which went into effect at that time the supplement to 
dividends was discarded in favor of a payment to companies producing 
certain specified varieties of dyes. The amount of this subsidy is 
limited to a total of 4,000,000 yen, spread over a period of six years. 

This new and reduced subsidy has been unfavorable to the Japan 
Dye Manufacturing Co. (Nippon Senryo), established for the purpose 
of developing the dj^e industry in Japan. Under the old law this 
company had, in the course of 10 years, received approximately 
14,000,000 yen in Government subsidies. The company's accounts 
show a profit for the term ended March 31, 1926. 

Besides the Japan Dye Manufacturing Co., three other companies 
produce the varieties of dyes for which subsidies are paid under the 
new law. These are the Mitsui Dyestuffs Industrial Co.; the Yura 
Industrial Co., at Wakayama; and the Fuji Industrial Co. 

The Japanese dye industry is further protected by a system of 
licenses, dating from June, 1924, for the importation of coal-tar 
dyes and chemical products derived from coal-tar distillates (other 
than medicinal products and carbolic acid). Since the restriction of 
imports by this license system does not apply when it conflicts with 
the provisions of any treaty, imports from Germany — the principal 
source of supply — are the only ones materially affected.^ 

Germany's position in the Japanese dye market is said to be 
improving as the result of an agreement between the Japanese 
Government and the German chemical industry, permitting the entry 
of German dyes under the same conditions imposed on imports from 
other countries. The Daido Dyestuft's Co. has been given the sole 
agency of the I. G. in Japan, and an agreement will probably be 
concluded with the Mitsui Co. It is reported that the Vereinigte 
Glanzstoff Fabriken, which has a strong interest in a large artificial 
silk company in Japan, will, with the aid of German chemists, 
produce synthetic nitrogen according to the Haber-Bosch process. 

The total imports of coal-tar dyes into Japan in 1925 were 6,740,306 
pounds, valued at $3,400,670, as compared with 17,564,004 pounds, 
valued at $6,689,382, in 1924. Imports from Germany in 1925 show 
a decrease of more than 9,000,000 pounds from 1924. 

The exports of dyes in 1925 (largely to China) were 1,685,606 
pounds, valued at $214,209, as compared with 1,899,498 pounds, 
valued at $282,946 in 1924. 

8 The Chemical Trade Journal and Chemical Engineer, Oct. 29, 1926 ,i>. 500. 



INTERNATIONAL DYE TRADE 165 

Table 55. — Japan: Imports of coal-tar dyes, 1923-1926 ' 



Class of dye and country of 


1923 


1924 


1925 


origin 


Pounds 


Value 


Pounds 


Value 


Pounds 


Value 


Indigo, artificial: 

Great Britain 


37, 302 

312, 967 

1, 007, 554 

117,727 
303, 576 


$14, 575 
179, 763 
639, 372 
60, 245 
207,942 










France 


123, 679 

1, 716, 030 

40, 344 

258, 337 

15, 741 

1, 140, 228 

661 


$81, 548 

1, 009, 050 

22,240 

154, 858 

8,237 

319, 601 

1,236 


234, 792 
1,111,920 


$121, 057 
591 332 


Germany 


Belgium - 




Switzerland -.. 


228, 442 


113 260 


Holland 




United States . 


872, 235 
518, 128 


303, 167 
319, 686 


572, 892 
132 


248, 269 


Other countries 


410 






Total 


2 3, 169, 489 


1, 724, 750 


3, 295, 020 


1, 596, 770 


2, 148, 178 


1, 074, 328 




Aniline dyes: 

China..,. 


5,688 

30, 688 

114, 155 

8, 190, 592 


1,943 

29, 151 

70, 933 

3, 535, 494 










Great Britain . . ... 


13,095 

111,510 

11, 832, 310 

11,243 

19,048 

759, 535 

1, 349, 490 

132 


7,825 

42, 009 

4, 096, 330 

5,766 

10, 296 

358, 316 

402, 384 

1,648 


46, 694 

198, 019 

2, 459, 823 


14, 773 

90, 690 

1, 473, 610 


France 


Germany 


Belgium 


Italy 


29, 101 

640, 750 

477, 520 

1, 065, 756 


15, 547 
408, 596 
165, 187 
527, 628 


2,116 

440, 086 

1, 347, 770 

529 


821 


Switzerland. . . 


239, 651 
392 716 


United States . 


Other countries. 


1,642 






Total 


2 10, 554, 250 


4, 754, 479 


14, 096, 363 


4, 924, 574 


4, 495, 037 


2,213,903 




Other coal-tar dyes: 

Great Britain 


9,524 

77, 514 

661 

661 


972 

87, 452 
486 
486 






529 
91, 139 




Germany . . 


171,960 


167, 214 


109, 567 


Italy 


Switzerland 






5,159 


2,052 


United States. 


. 




410 


Other countries 


5,689 


5,344 


661 


824 


264 


410 






Total 


3 94, 049 


94, 740 


172, 621 


168, 038 


97, 091 


112, 439 




.\ggregate 


13, 817, 788 


6, 573, 969 


17,564,004 


6, 689, 382 


6, 740, 306 


3, 400, 670 




Dry indigo, natural: 

China 










4,233 

10, 714 

10, 714 

46, 165 

265 


2,873 


British India 


85, 980 
6,217 
8,333 

34, 789 


80, 650 
4,373 
5,344 

24, 778 


99,869 
6,085 


86,490 
5,766 


10, 259 


Dutch East Indies.. 


12,311 


United States. 


31, 598 


Other countries 


132 ! 


820 






Total 


135, 319 


115, 145 


106,086 


92,256 


72,091 


57, 861 





■ From 1925 annual return of the foreign trade of the Empire of Japan. Values converted at exchange 
rates of 1 yen=$0.485845 in 1923, $0.411857 in 1924, and $0.410362 in 1925. 

■ Does not include imports through Yokohama during August, 1923, the returns for which were lost 
during the great earthquake. 

3 Does not include imports through Yokohama during July and August, 1923, the returns for which were 
lost during the great earthquake. 



166 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 
Table 56. — Japan: Exports of coal-tar dyes, 1923-1925 ^ 



Country of destination 


1923 


1924 


1925 


Pounds 


Value 


Pounds 


Value 


Pounds 


Value 


China 


2,049,500 

114, 949 

22, 884 

2,513 


$347, 865 

18, 462 

3,887 

486 


1, 756, 374 
93, 784 
30, 821 
16,270 


$251,233 
13, 179 
6,178 
11, 532 


1, 550, 816 

32, 143 

71,430 

19, 974 

8,333 

2,646 

264 


$189, 177 
4,514 
8,618 
9,849 


Kwantung Province 


Hong Kong 


British India 


Straits Settlements 


821 


Dutch Indies . . 


93,917 
12, 566 


16, 519 
8,745 






410 


Other countries 


2,249 


824 


820 








Total 


2 2,296,329 


395,964 


1,899,498 


282,946 


1, 685, 606 


214,209 





1 From 1925 annual return of the foreign trade of the Empire of Japan. Values converted at exchange 
rates of 1 yen=$0.485845 in 1923, $0.411857 in 1924, and $0.410362 in 1925. 

2 Does not include imports through Yokohama during July, the returns for which were lost during the 
great earthquake. 

The Dye Industry of Poland 

Coal-tar distillation has prospects of development in Poland.^ 
Coking coal and gas coal are distilled mainly in Upper Silesia. 
There, it is reported, one coke plant treats 70,000 tons of coal tar 
annually. Large quantities of benzene, toluene, xylene, naphtha- 
lene, phenol, pyridine, and other coal-tar products were produced 
in 1925. 

Efforts are being made to develop the manufacture of intermediates, 
largely centered at Zgiery and Zaglebie. The shortage of capital 
available for investment in their manufacture, however, makes it 
necessary to import a portion of the requirements for the production 
of organic compounds. 

Dyes are manufactured chiefly in Russian Poland. The capacity 
of the Polish dye factories is reported to be 6,600,000 pounds a year. 
The present production is considerabl}^ below capacity, partly because 
of industrial depression and its effect on the textile industry. Pro- 
duction in recent years has been as follows: 

Year Pounds 

1922 2, 142, 871 

1923 4,303,379 

1924 1 4,400,000 

1925 1,320,000 

All of the important plants belong to the Union of Chemical 
Industries, the sections of which correspond to the various branches 
of the chemical industry. 

In 1924 Poland imported a total of 997,802 pounds of dyes, valued 
at $798,441, and in 1925, 545,881 pounds, valued at $359,495. 
Germany furnishes the bulk of dye imports. 

Exports of dyes in 1924 from Poland, totaling 330,690 pounds, 
valued at $198,983, went largely to Russia. Of the 378,971 pounds, 
valued at $306,070, exported in 1925, only a small part went to 
Russia. 

1 Estimated on the basis of statement made by Dept. of Com. in World Trade Notes on Coal- Tar Products, 
to the effect that the 1925 production was only about 30 per cent of the 1924 production. 
• Chemical Trade Journal and Chemical Engineer, Jan. 14, 1927, p. 32. 



INTERNATIONAL DYE TRADE 167 

Table 57. — Poland: Imports and exports of synthetic dyes, calendar year 1925 ' 



Class of dye and country of origin 


Imports 


Exports 


Pounds 


Value 


Pounds 


Value 


Alizarin dyes, in powder: 


1,543 












4,409 




Other countries 


2,205 














Total - 


3,748 


$1, 952 


4,409 


$4, 436 






Alizarin dyes, in paste: 


220 








Other countries 


















Total --- - --- 


220 


18 












Sulphur dyes: 

Total- - -- 


















Azo dyes: 

Germany . 


22 








Other countries . 


















Total 


22 
















Other dyes: 


488, 981 








Russia - . 




42, 769 
331, 792 






52, 910 












Total -- 


541,891 


357, 525 


374, 562 


301, 634 


Grand total 


545,881 


359, 495 


378, 971 


306, 070 







1 From Foreign Commerce of the Polish Republic. Values converted at average exchange rate, 1925, 
1 zloty=.$0.177432. 

The Dye Industry of Russia 

At a meeting of the Council of Labor and Defense in Moscow, on 
June 17, 1926, a representative of the Supreme Council of National 
Economy stated that all industries in the year 1924-25 had been 
brought back to 70 per cent of the pre-war level. But the chemical 
industry considered alone was only 24 per cent of the 1913 level, and 
a plan was being considered by the council for the development of 
aniline dyes as part of the chemical industry. 

The plan as worked out provided for a gross production in 1925-26 
of 31,740 tons of aniline dyes, with an estimated value of 21,858,000 
roubles, or 75 per cent more than in 1924-25. The development of 
production of the major intermediates within Russia was also a part 
of the program. ^° The Supreme Council was intrusted with a five- 
year supervision of the program, and, with the National Commis- 
sariat for Foreign Trade, was commissioned to attend to the granting 
of licenses for the importation of intermediates. 

The actual output of intermediates and dyes in 1925-26 fell short 
of the quantity it was planned to make. Instead of the 6,306 tons 
of intermediates planned for only 3,405 tons were made, and instead 
of the 7,900 tons of sulphur black, the output was not over 5,500 tons, 
as textile manufacturers had on hand large stocks carried over from 
the preceding year. Three companies — The Aniline Trust, the 
"Chimugolj," and the Moscow Heavy Chemical Trust — are engaged 
in the manufacture of sulphur black. 

'0 The Chemical Age, Aug. 21, 1926, p. 177. 



168 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



The Dye Industry op Spain 

A Spanish royal order of March 9, 1926, prohibited, temporarily, 
imports into Spain of the intermediate products and the synthetic 
organic coloring materials included in tariff Nos. 793-796 of a kind 
manufactured in that country. A royal order dated May 29, 1926, 
prescribed new regulations regarding imports. Licenses for the im- 
portation of any colors considered as made in Spain are to be granted 
only by the central commission in Madrid. Permission to import 
any products not specified in the list may be given by the provincial 
committee at Barcelona, which is also authorized to permit the clear- 
ance of postal packages containing up to 5 kilograms of one color.^^ 

It is reported that the I. G. has acquired the Spanish dye company, 
Compania Nacional de Colorantes y Explosivos, which has bought 
the Flix dye plant, whose annual production is approximately 300 
tons of azo dyes and 400 tons of sulphur black. The Compania 
Nacional has a factory in Barcelona which produces intermediates in 
larger quantities than are required for the domestic market. 

Spain imported 895,969 pounds of dyes, valued at $659,357, in 
1926, as compared with 1,105,774 pounds, valued at $849,893, in 
1925. Germany furnished the largest quantity, and France and 
Switzerland the next largest. Only a small fraction came from the 
United States. 

Table 58. — Spain: Imports of synthetic organic dyes, 1925^ 



Class of dye and country of origin 



Synthetic organic dyes derived from coal tar: 
In powder or crystals — 

German y 

Austria 

Belgium 

Czechoslovakia .- 

United States _ 

France 

Great Britain 

Holland 

Italy 

Peru 

Sweden 

Switzerland 



Total. 



As liquid or paste containing at least 50 per cent of water- 
Germany __ 

Austria 

France 

Great Britain 

Italy.. _ 

Switzerland 



Total - 



Poimds 



589, 338 

185 

5,146 

633 

6,978 

178, 098 

33, 596 

30, 406 

12, 660 

22 

1,907 

93, 912 



952, 881 



30, 064 

29 

5, 527 

11,865 

992 

14,647 



63, 124 



Synthetic indigo: 

Germany 

France- 



Great Britain. 
Switzerland... 



52, 401 

34, 345 

179 

2,844 



Total. 



89, 769 



Aggregate 1,105,774 



Value 



$498, 491 

157 

4,352 

535 

5,902 

150, 645 

28, 417 

25,719 

10, 709 

19 

1,613 

79, 435 



805, 994 



9,781 
9 
1,798 
3,800 
323 
4,765 



20,536 



13, 638 

8, 9.38 

47 

740 



23,363 
849, 893 



" From foreign commerce statistics of Spain for the year 1925, official. Values converted at average 
exchange rate, 1925, 1 peseta= $0.143443. 



" Chemical Trade Journal and Chemical Engineer, July 16, 1926, p. 74. 



INTERNATIONAL DYE TRADE 169 

Table 59. — Spain: Imports of synthetic organic dyes, 1926 ' 



Class of dye and country of origin 


Pounds 


Value 


Synthetic organic dyes derived from coal tar: 
In powder or crystals- 
Germany 


381, 043 

915 

1,281 

8,913 

180, 446 

23, 706 

5,589 

1,574 

10,280 

66,116 


$334, 698 
804 


Belgium 


Czechoslovakia - .. -- 


1,125 


I'nited States. . . - 


7,829 




158, 500 

20, 823 

4,909 


Great Britain 


Holland 


Italy 


1,383 


Sweden .. .... 


9,030 


Switzerland . .... 


58, 074 






Total-- - 


679, 863 


597, 175 


.\s liquid or paste containing at least 50 per cent of water- 
Germany 


17, 705 

4,641 

359 

14, 546 


6,579 


France . . .. 


1,724 


Great Britain.. . 


134 


Switzerland .. 


5,406 






Total 


37, 251 


13, 843 


Synthetic indigo: 


149, 368 

26, 859 

119 

304 

2,205 


40, 370 




7,259 


Great Britain 


32 


Salvador . ... 


82 


Switzerland . _ 


596 






Total- 


178, 855 


48,339 


.\ggregate 


895, 969 


659, 357 







1 From foreign commerce statistics of Spain for the year 1926, oflScial. Values converted at average 
exchange rate, 1926, 1 peseta=.$0. 148959. 

The Dye Industry of Switzerland 

The chemical industry of Switzerland centers chiefly at Basel, 
where about 90 per cent of the total output is produced. The 
manufacture of aniline dyes at Basel is an important branch of the 
Swiss industry. 

Before the war the dye industry of Switzerland was second to that 
of Germany and supplied about 10 per cent of the exports to all 
countries. The Polytechnic Institute at Zurich, with its staff of 
trained chemists, has been a factor in the success of the Swiss dye 
industry. Salt, which is mined in large quantity near Basel, is the only 
raw material that Switzerland possesses, but her cheap and plentiful 
supply of electricity is an economic advantage. The Swiss industry 
will probably always be dependent on other countries for coal-tar 
crudes. 

During the war chemical plants at Basel began the production of 
sulphuric acid, hydrochloric acid, and caustic soda, products in 
which the Swiss are now independent of foreign countries. 

Only about 10 per cent of the aniline dyes produced in Switzer- 
land is required for the domestic market; the remainder goes to 
France, the Netherlands, Italy, Belgium, England, Sweden, Japan, 
Czechoslovakia, China, Canada, and the United States. 

The Swiss chemical industry seems to be on a stable financial 
footing. Its capital investment steadily increases and a greater 
number of workmen are employed each year. The Sandoz Chemical 
Works declared a net dividend of 25 per cent for 1925; J. R. Geigy 
S. A., a dividend of 18 per cent, and the Society of Chemical Industry 
a dividend of 15 per cent. Stock quotations of the Swiss dye com- 
panies showed marked increases in 1926, indicating a profitable 
business year. 



170 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



EXPORTS IN 1926 

Switzerland exports about 90 per cent of her production of dyes. 
The rapid increase in the export trade, therefore, reflects the progress 
of the Swiss industry. In 1885 exports of aniline dyes amounted to 
854 tons; by 1920 they had grown to 10,768 tons; and in 1926 they 
totaled 8,600 tons, valued at nearly $12,000,000. 

Table 60. — Switzerland: Imports and exports of coal-tar dyes, 1926 ' 



Imports from — 

Germany 

France 

Italy 

Belgium 

Holland 

Great Britain. 

Jugoslavia 

British India 

Dutch East Indies . 
United States 



Total - 



Exports to— 

Germany 

Austria 

France. 

Italy 

Belgium ..- 

Holland -.. 

Great Britain 

Ireland - 

Spain... 

Portugal 

Denmark 

Norway 

Sweden 

Finland 

Latvia and Estonia 

Lithuania 

Poland 

Czechoslovakia 

Hungary. 

Yugoslavia 

Greece 

Bulgaria 

Rumania 

Turkey 

Egypt 

Algiers 

Morocco 

South Africa 

Mesopotamia 

Syria 

British India 

Straits Settlements 

Indo-C hina 

Dutch East Indies 

China 

Japan 

Canada _.. 

United States 

Mexico .._ 

Central America . 

Colombia ..." 

Venezuela 

Brazil 

Uruguay 

Argentina 

Chile. 

Peru 

Ecuador 

Union of Australia.. 

New Zealand and South Sea Islands.. 
Other countries 



Total 13,087,714 



Aniline and other 
coal-tar dyes 



Pounds 



1, 329, 774 

178, 943 

19, 725 

5, 029 

3.790 

29, 200 

9 

44 

157 

9.351 



1, 576, 022 



2, 297, 976 

195. 272 

1, 540, 006 

538, 028 

585, 712 

330, 212 

1, 129, %il 

5,020 

205, 852 

137, 920 

121,531 

54, 934 

468, 120 

80, 371 

52, 196 

551 

331, 843 

855, 621 

64,/ 40 

69, 178 

7,150 

97. 252 

156. 286 

97 

27, 379 

1,019 

55 

128 

1,435 

3,873 

555, 471 

423 

24, 270 

110, 186 

204. 067 

791, 828 

287, 718 

1, 260, 806 

11.5,384 

306 

i,<;fi4 

110 

169, 681 

9,365 

138, 619 

1.5. 029 

2,704 

2,119 

30, 186 

7,825 



Value 



$1, 082, 761 

95, 416 

11,905 

2,696 

3,726 

23, 506 

8 

44 

67 

6,448 



1. 226, 577 



1, 479 

132, 

1,510, 

604 

332 

219, 

1,329 

3 

351 

89 

105 

51 

371 

85, 

43 

334 

557, 

41 

35 

5, 

67 

105 



1 

2, 

334 

18 
62, 
126 
623, 
235, 
1, 328, 
92, 

1, 

171 

5, 

93 

11 

1 

1 

21 



Indigo, indigo 
solution 



Alizarin 



11,016,179 



Pounds Value Pounds Value 



64,751 
18, 228 



82, 979 



10, 192 

23, 023 

5,364 

3,172 



77 
1,078 



1,803 
220 

3,759 
134 
607 



1,984 
496 
778 

3,530 



15, 324 
1,433 



57, 906 
220 



632 

3,904 

125, 252 



772 

41,669 

3, 738, 620 

151, 824 



1,102 
442 



220 



897 



60 



4, 196, 494 



$24, 458 
2,938 



141, 698 
598 



$19, 834 
109 



27, 396 142. 296 19, 943 



3,156 
3,755 
4,204 
3,277 



114 
1,160 



2,169 
255 

3,769 
230 
657 



2,309 

588 

737 

1,404 



6.690 
740 



18, 652 
135 



878 

17, 767 

722, 042 

91, 973 



1,490 
1,738 



348 



24 



954, 645 



325 

1 979 , 

6l!308 3,585 



62J> 



3, 5S5 



62>> 



' From official statistics of the foreign trade of Switzerland. Values converted at average exchange rate, 
1926, 1 franc=$0.193130. 



INTERNATIONAL DYE TRADE 



171 



Exports of indigo have steadily declined since 1924, because of the 
loss of trade in China, the world 's largest consumer of indigo. Ger- 
many and the United States have in recent years been strong com- 
petitors of Switzerland in far eastern markets. 

Of dyes other than indigo, the Swiss exports have increased both 
in quantity and value. The United States and France, two of the 
largest purchasers, decreased their orders in 1926, but Germany 
took a much larger quantity than usual. The dyes exported to the 
United States and France include high-cost products, which these 
two countries made in increased quantity in 1926. 

The Dye Trade of Other Countries 



Table 61. — Argentina: Imports of coal-tar dyes, 1925^ 



Imported from— 


Aniline dyes 


Indigo 


Pounds 


Value 


Pounds 


Value 


Germany 


442, 174 

46 

84 

188,083 

3, 799 

12, 705 


$268,311 

26 

54 

105, 860 

1,849 

7. 565 


31 
42 


$20 


Bolivia. __ .... 


42 


Chile 




United States 






France _. 


55 


34 


Italv___ 




Netherlands . .. 


6,259 ! 4.255 






United Kingdom 


134 

93,742 

406 


90 

57, 859 

239 


218 


217 


Switzerland 




Uruguay 












Total. 


747, 432 


446, 106 


346 


313 







I From 1925 yearbook of the foreign commerce of Argentina. Values converted at average exchange 
rate, 1925, l oro=$0.913822. 

Table 62. — Austria: Imports and exports of coal-tar dyes, October- December, 1926 ^ 



Class of dye and country of origin 


Imports 


Exports 


Pounds 


Value 


Pounds 


Value 


Coal-tar dyes other than indigo: 

Germany 


356, 263 
441 


$286, 448 
141 


39, 462 


$12, 956 


Italy 




Rumania 


3,527 


1,972 


Switzerland 


86, 641 
220 

38. 140 
3,307 

28, 660 

10. 141 
661 


51,121 




Serbia 


8,157 
12, 566 
6,834 


4,084 


Czechoslovakia. 


12, 393 

1,549 

6,056 

4,225 

282 


11,266 


Hungary. 


3,098 


France 




Netherlands 






Other countries 


2,647 


1,268 






Total 


524, 474 


362, 215 


73, 193 


34,644 






Indigo, synthetic and natural: 

Germany • ... 


112,655 


19, 998 






Serbia 


882 


563 


Czechoslovakia 


10, 803 


845 




Hungary 


441 


282 


Other countries 


661 


140 










Total ... 


124, 119 


20, 983 


1,322 


845 






Aggregate. 


648. 593 


383, 198 


74, 515 


35, 489 







172 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHEE SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

Table 63. — Austria: Imports and exports of coal-tar dyes, year 1926 ' 



Class of dye and country of origin 



Coal-tar dyes other than indigo. 
Indigo, natural and synthetic... 



Imports 



Pounds Value 



1, 869, 280 
220, 680 



$1, 165, 890 
43,911 



Exports 



Pounds Value 



185, 186 
8,157 



86, 555 
3,518 



1 From statistics of the foreign commerce of Austria during the fourth quarter, 1926, official. Values 
converted at average exchange rate, October-December, 1926, 1 S. =$0.14083; for year 1926, 1 S. =$0.14074 

Table 64. — Belgium: Imports and exports of coal-tar dyes, dry and paste, 1926^ 



Imports 


Exports 


Class of dye and country 
of origin 


Pounds 


Value 


Class of dye and country 
of origin 


Pounds 


Value 


Alizarin: 


55, 550 
1,931 


$18, 529 
554 


Alizarin 


28, 340 


$1, 495 


Germany 


Total. 




Other countries 








Total 


57, 481 


19, 083 


28, 340 






1,495 


Alizarin dyes: 

Germany.. 


49,317 
6.830 


29, 662 

898 


Aniline dyes: 
Germany 




222, 167 
51, 422 
20, 626 
37, 079 




Other countries 


83, 664 




Denmark 




Total 


56, 147 


30, 560 


10, 908 




Egypt 


3,523 


Aniline dves: 


2, 067, 165 
1, 910, 200 
856, 730 
323, 554 
354, 650 
121,312 


688, 548 
271, 300 
247, 099 

53, 557 
182, 242 

32, 454 


United States 


2fi. 702 


Germany 


Great Britain 


26,949 i 13,220 


United States 




47, 198 ."iO. 295 


France 




4, 151 

98, 981 
18, 018 
49, 575 
74, 381 


4, 395 


Netherlands 


Netherlands 


36, 236 


Switzerland. 


Poland 


15, 235 


Other countries 




27, 132 




Other countries 




Total 


5,633,611 


1, 475, 200 


30, 107 


Total- _ 




Indigo, artificial: 




40, 643 
225 
751 


650, 547 


281,414 




Indigo, artificial: 
Total 




France 


2,632 
3,360 






Other countries 








Total 


413, 955 


41,619 








Other coal-tar dyes: 


5, 655 
16 585 


1,682 

1,782 

42 

1,281 




Germany 


4,795 


366 




Other coal-tar dyes: 
Belgian Congo 




Netherlands 

Other countries ... 


447 
5, 664 


10, 545 
3,664 
6, 131 
18, 864 
12, 542 


704 




Chili.... 




28, 351 


4,787 


261 




France 


2,869 


Aggregate 


6, 189, 545 


1, 571, 249 


Netherlands 


3,941 


Other countries 


1,493 






6,217 

2,970 

1,395 

6 


Total 




Germany 66,101 


51, 746 


9,268 




Aggregate ... 




Great Britain 


5,150 
29 


735, 428 


292, 543 


Netherlands 

Total 




88, 266 


10, 588 





' From monthly bulletin of the foreign commerce of the economic union of Belgium and Luxemburg 
issue of December, 1926. Values converted at average exchange rate, 1926, 1 franc =$0.032649. 

Table 65. — Brazil: Imports of coal-tar dyes, 1925 ' 



Class of dye 


Pounds 


Value 


Aniline or fuchsine dyes 


929, 929 
853, 824 


$944, 427 


Indigo and ultramarine blue 


159, 622 








Total... 


1, 783, 753 


1 104,049 







' From foreign trade of Brazil, official. Values converted at average exchange rate, 1925, 1 milreis, 
paper =$0.121962. 



INTEKNATIONAL DYE TEADE 173 

Table 66. — Canada: Imports of coal-tar dyes, year ended March SI , 1926 ^ 



Class of dye and country of origin 



Aniline and coal-tar dyes, soluble in water, in bulk or packages of not less than 
1 pound weight, including alizarin and artificial alizarin 

United EZingdom 

Belgium 

France,- .-- 

Germany 

Italy - 

Mexico 

Netherlands 

Sweden 

Switzerland -.- 

United States 

Total 

Aniline and coal-tar dyes, n. o. p.: 

United Kingdom - - 

Germany 

United States - 

Total - .- 

Indigo: 

United Kingdom 

Belgium 

United States - 

Total... 

Indigo paste, and extract of: 

Netherlands 

United States 

Total 

Aggregate 



Pounds 



135, 180 

3,425 

70,835 

519, 797 

162 

1,543 

111,467 

16, 863 

213,488 

1, 422, 419 



4,209 

484 

13, 152 



17, 845 



274 
990 
303 



1,567 



56,000 
85, 673 



141, 673 



2, 656, 264 



Value 



$84, 022 

3,173 

26, 929 

375, 576 

125 

489 

82, 784 

10, 301 

150, 634 

800, 834 



2,495,179 1 1,534,867 



1,722 

627 

8,131 



10, 480 



233 

1,748 
380 



2,361 



5,764 
10, 024 



15, 788 



1, 563, 496 



' From Trade of Canada, fiscal vear ended Mir. 31, 1926. Values converted at average exchange rate, 
year ended Mar. 31, 1926, 1 Canadian dollar =$0.99933. 

Table 67. — China: Imports of dyes, colors, and paints, 1925 ' 



Class of dye and country of 
origin 


Value 


Class of dye and 
country of origin 


Pounds Value 

1 


Pounds 


Value 


Aniline: 

Hong Kong . . .. 


$494, 783 

799 

2,227 

1,497 

423 

6,480 

96, 499 

6,871 

948, 417 

1, 258, 282 

1,659 

66, 716 

71, 634 

3,028 

55 

503 

12,083 


Indigo, artificial: 
Hong Kong 


1 

Dried 

64,665 1 $65,355 


Liquid c 

1, 832, 754 

400 

8,800 
6,666 

2, 863, 262 
13, 713, 524 
14, 075, 915 

666, 650 

2, 833, 396 

3, 322, 717 

24,533 

34, 666 
133 

14, 947, 760 


r paste 
$633, 983 




115 


French Indo-China 

Siam 


French Indo- 
China 

Siam . 


4,267 4,906 


6,350 


Singapore, Straits, etc 


1,931 


British India. 


Great Britain - 

Germany 

Netherlands... 
Belgium. - 


- 


705, 037 


Great Britain 


377, 857 228, 439 
548, 253 336, 395 


3, 223, 624 


Sweden. 


3, 499, 488 


Germany 


131, 603 


Netherlands 


France 

Switzerland... 


i2, 800 6, 89i 


537, 513 


Belgium 


766, 452 


France 


Korea 




6,695 


Switzerland 


Japan (includ- 
ing Formo- 
sa) 


133 170 




Italy-- 




Russia and Siberia — 


7,963 






26 


By Pacific ports 

Korea 


United States 
(including 
Hawaii) 


1 




Japan (including For- 








2, 647, 893 


mosa) - 


84,764 

1,974 

615 

226, 487 


Total 

Reexports 

Total net im- 
ports 








Philippine Islands 

Canada 

United States (includ- 
ing Hawaii) . .. 








Total . .. 


3, 285, 796 
224, 741 


1, 007, 975 
76, 798 


642, 156 
47, 674 


54,331,175 
127, 597 


12, 168, 673 


Reexports 


28, 396 






Total net imports 


3,061,055 


931, 177 


594, 482 


54, 203, 578 


12, 140, 277 



174 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 
Table 67. — China: Imports of dyes, colors, and paints, 1925 ^ — Continued 



Class of dye and country of origin 



Dyes and colors unelassed: 

Hong Kong 

Macao 

French Indo-China 

Siam 

Singapore, Straits, etc 

Dutch Indies 

British India. 

Turkey, Persia, Egypt, Aden, 

etc 

Great Britain 

Germany 

Netherlands 

Belgium. 

France . 

Italy 

Russia and Siberia— By Pa- 
cific ports 

Korea. 

Japan (including Formosa)... 

Philippine Islands 

United States (including 

Hawaii) 



Total.-.. 
Reexports . 



Total net imports. 



Value 



$214, 189 
187 
1,638 
2,918 
44, 863 
3,358 
5,174 



16, 142 
41, 535 
2,592 
3,420 
8,327 
34 

759 

8,039 

86, 421 

146 

11,217 



451, 925 
11,866 



440, 059 



Class of dye and country of origin 



Sulphur, black: 

Hong Kong. 

French Indo-China.. 

Singapore, Straits, etc 

Germany.. 

Netherlands 

Italy 

Korea.. 

Japan (including Formosa)... 

United States (including 

Hawaii) 



Pounds 



Total... 
Reexports . 



Total net imports. 
Aggregate 



Indigo, natural, liquid or dried: 

Hong Kong 

Macao 

Japan (including Formosa).. 

Total.- 



241, 732 

267 

667 

139, 866 

93,600 

22,000 

13, 600 

2, 477, 327 

940, 798 



3, 929, 857 
19, 733 



3, 910, 124 



59, 044, 879 



365, 724 

13, 733 

533 



379, 990 



Value 



$32, 982 

51 

72 

19, 113 

12, 634 

4,170 

2,377 

322, 408 

109, 831 



503, 638 
3,075 



500, 563 



» 13, 235, 322 



23,640 
737 
406 



24, 783 



' From Foreign Trade of China. Values converted at average exchange rate, 1925, haikwan tael= 
$0.8518. 
2 Exclusive of aniline dyes and "dyes and colors, unelassed" amouting to a value of $3,501,114. 

Table 68. — China: Exports of indigo, 1925 



To— 


Pounds 


Value 


Hong Kong 


575, 998 
18,400 
4,933 

165, 200 
2,000 
7,867 


$19, 640 


Macao. 


1,049 


French Indo-China.. ... 


158 


Singapore, Straits, etc 


4,823 


British India - 


230 


Japan (including Formosa) - - - - - - - 


230 








Total 


774, 398 


26, 130 







INTERNATIONAL DYE TEADE 



175 



Table 69. — Czechoslovakia: Imports and exports of coal-tar dyes, calendar year 

1925^ 



Imports 


Exports 


Class of dye and country of 
origin 


Pounds 


Value 


Class of dye and country of 
destination 


Pounds 


Value 


Anthraquinone dyes: 


242, 823 
17, 172 
5,534 
2,194 
2,048 
1,340 


$65, 207 
2,246 
7,257 

305 
1,369 

377 


Anthraquinone dyes: 

Russia 


47, 224 

14, 848 

7,802 

3,078 

2,676 

1,750 

1,045 

897 

419 

309 

265 

9 


$18, 271 


British India 


Germany 


2,838 




Hungary 


1,211 




Netherlands 


1,513 




Rumania 


400 




Sweden 


865 




Austria 


306 




Poland 


1,229 






312 






82 






157 






3 




Total.. 




Total 


271, 111 


76, 761 


80, 322 


27, 187 


Sulphur and azo dyes: 
Germany 


991, 175 
80, 706 


321, 270 
40. 273 


Sulphur and azo dyes: 

Germany 


341, 995 

15, 514 

9,603 

2,952 

247 

187 

121 

104 

64 


53, 678 


Switzerland 


Netherlands 


3,126 


Netherlands 


30,044 ' 6,879 
4,123 ; 467 

816 ! 188 

1 

i 


Austria 


2,089 


France 


Hungary 


1,216 


Other countries 


Italy 


128 






59 




Switzerland 


25 






219 




Rumania 


48 




Total 




Total... 


1,106,864 369,077 


370,787 


60, 588 


All other coal-tar dyes: 
Germany 


4,886,115 i 3,031,936 

861,433 ! 449,764 

313,334 ! 161,854 

74,956 39,827 

32, 178 ' 17, 193 

5,974 2,834 

5, 516 2, 040 

5,004 3,015 

3,016 1,244 

2, 599 1, 408 

791 679 

382 1 114 


All other coal-tar dyes: 

Germany 


610, 762 

117, 265 

55, 115 

21, 673 

18, 179 

13,369 

13,029 

11, 279 

9,791 

8,796 

3,386 

1,396 

1,356 

1,246 

710 

584 

445 

267 

258 

249 

214 

196 

174 

428 


364, 418 


Switzerland 


Hungary 


54, 297 




Austria 


24, 790 




Netherlands 


6,008 




Rumania 


6,895 


Hungary 


Yugoslavia 


6,480 


Italy 


Russia - 


13,067 


Poland 


Poland 


5,672 


Great Britain 


Sweden 


4,414 


Belgium 


Switzerland 


6,469 


Hamburg 


Italy 


2,272 




France 


804 




Belgium 


923 










454 






412 




Norway 


383 




United States 


272 




Trieste . 


269 




EEVDt 


334 




Turkey 


216 




Fiume.. 


212 




French Morocco 

Denmark 


88 
259 






321 






Total 




Total 


6,191,297 3,711,907 


890, 167 


499, 729 


Aggregate 


7, 569, 272 


4, 157, 745 


Grand total 


1, 341, 276 


587,504 









1 From foreign commerce of the Republic of Czechoslovakia, ofiScial. 
exchange rate, 1925, 1,000 crowns=$29.656. 



Values converted at average 



176 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 
Table 70. — Egypt: Imports and exports of coal-tar dyes, 1926 ' 



Imports 


Reexports 


Class of dye and country of 
origin 


Pounds Value 


Class of dye and country of 
destination 


Pounds 


Value 


Synthetic indigo: 


136, 824 $35, 681 
524, 146 146. 123 


Synthetic indigo. 


891 
8,329 


$449 


France 


Other coal-tar dyes 


3,016 


Germany 


Total 




Switzerland 


59, 712 


14, 695 








Total 


720, 682 


196,499 


9,220 


3,465 








Other coal-tar dyes: 
Germany 


183, 943 
20, 838 
34, 321 


79,731 
10,184 
13,000 






Switzerland. . . 




Other countries.. 








Total 


239, 102 


102, 915 








Other dyes: 

United Kingdom 

Germany 

Other countries 


5,055 
6,473 
9,810 


4,955 
4,232 
4,740 




Total 

Grand total 






21, 338 


13, 927 




981, 122 
36,806 


313, 341 
32, 660 




Natural indigo: 

British India 




Total 




36,806 


32,'660 





' From monthly summary of the foreign trade of Egypt, issue of December, 1926. Values converted at 
average exchange rate, 1926, 1 Egyptian pound=$4.98476. 



INTEENATIONAL DYE TRADE 



177 



Talbe 71. — India: 



Imports of coal-tar dyes and exports of natural indigo, year 
elided March 31, 1926 ' 



Imports of coal-tar dyes 



Class of dye and country of 
origin 



Alizarin: 

United Kingdom. 

Gibraltar 

Ceylon 

Germany 

Netherlands 

Belgium 

France 

Switzerland 

Java.. 

Japan 



Pounds 



585, 289 

18, 390 

123 

649, 544 

329, 274 

239, 396 

2,270 

28,232 

1,680 

300 



Value 



$141, 434 

5,242 

27 

191, 524 

103, 292 

54, 588 

378 

5,523 

383 

61 



Total .1 1,854,498 



Aniline: 

United Kingdom 

Aden and dependencies. 

Ceylon 

Other British possessions. 

Germany 

Netherlands 

Belgium 

France. 

Switzerland 

Italy 

.\ustria 

Czechoslovakia 

China 

Portuguese East Africa.. 

Japan 

Sweden 

United States 



Total. 



Indigo, synthetic: 

France 

Switzerland... 
China 



Total. 



Other coal-tar dyes: 
United Kingdom. 

Germany.. 

Netherlands 



Total - 



470, 295 

300 

1,551 

121 

4, 862, 499 

497, 286 

231, 933 

100, 103 

577, 850 

109, 244 

1,223 

220 

2,668 

4,193 

24,127 

458 

1,571,110 



2,935 



502, 452 



270, 511 

146 

1,316 

110 

2, 796, 008 

335, 374 

144, 284 

56, 376 

409, 586 

80, 181 

1,267 

138 

2,230 

3,077 

19, 897 

376 

602, 630 



8, 455, 181 


4, 723, 509 


1,344 

224 

2,128 


755 
173 
783 


3,696 


1,711 


20 

2,691 

224 


331 

2,257 
127 



2,715 



Imports of coal-tar dyes 



Class of dye and country of p„„„h= 
origin rouuub 



Re-exports: 

Alizarin 

Aniline 

Total exports 

Total net imports 



34, 352 
233, 459 



67,811 



IQ, 048, 499 



Exports of natural indigo 



Class of dye and country of 
destination 



United Kingdom 

Cyprus 

Palestine... 

Aden and dependencies 

Mesopotamia 

Ceylon 

France 

Italy 

Georgia 

Greece 

Turkey in Europe , 

Turkey in Asia 

Syria , 

Maskat Territory and Tru- 

cial Oman 

Other native States in .Vrabia 

Persia 

Japan 

Egypt 

Total 



Pounds 



38, 304 

3,696 

1,008 

560 

41, 664 

336 

1,568 

1,568 

1,456 

26, 096 
6,160 
1,120 
2,240 

560 
672 

34, 944 
3,696 

60, 256 



225, 904 



Value 



$8,833 
192, 706 



201, 539 



5, 028, 848 



Value 



$31, 079 

4,442 

1,014 

569 

41,729 

445 

949 

1,998 

2,073 

27, 180 

4,968 

1,050 

2,873 

475 

585 

34, 587 

1,688 

46, 435 



204, 139 



' From annual statement of the sea-borne trade of British India with the British Empire and foreign 
countries. Values converted at average exchange rate, 1925, 1 rupee =$0.36505. 



178 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 
Table 72. — India: Imports of coal-tar dyes, calendar year 1926 ^ 



Class of dye and country of origin 



Alizarin: 

United Kingdom. 

Germany 

Netherlands 

Belgium 

Switzerland 

Other countries.. 



Total. 



Aniline: 

United Kingdom. 

Germany 

Netherlands 

Belgium.- 

Switzerland 

United States 

Other countries.. 



Total. 



Other coal-tar dyes: 
Total 



Total of dyes obtained from coal tar. 
Synthetic indigo 



Pounds 



565, 824 

2, 243, 927 

951,819 

133, 866 

80, 836 

52, 991 



4, 029, 263 



349, 353 
5, 396, 122 
468, 900 
314,810 
464, 568 
1, 729, 549 
314, 438 



3,041 



13, 070, 044 

2,128 



Value 



$109, 669 

537, 377 

253, 786 

35, 250 

15, 414 

11,796 



963, 292 



216, 209 
2, 895, 108 
318, 323 
231, 014 
317, 973 
630, 155 
205, 191 



9,037,740 I 4,813,973 



1,196 



5, 778, 461 
1,251 



' From accounts relating to the sea-borne trade and navigation of British India for the calendar year 1926. 
Values converted at average exchange rate, 1923, 1 rupee =$0.363267. 

Table 73. — India: Exports of indigo, calendar year 1926 ^ 



Exported to— 



Pounds 



Value 



United Kingdom 52, ( 



Mesopotamia. 
Persia 

Egypt 

Other countries. 



Total. 



46, 928 
28, 672 
42, 336 
54,544 



224, 560 



$43, 892 
47, 853 
23, 386 
32, 193 
57, 742 



205, 066 



' From accounts relating to the sea-borne trade and navigation of British India for the calendar year 1926. 
Value converted at average exchange rate, 1926, 1 rupee=$0.363267. 



INTEENATIONAIi DYE TRADE 179 

Table 74. — Netherlands: Imports and exports of coal-tar dyes, 1925 ' 



Country of origin or destination 


Imports 


Exports 


Pounds 


Value 


Pounds 


Value 


Germany 


2, 849, 277 

187,190 

36, 771 

611,585 

864 

26 

4, 561 

4,414 

2,092 


$1, 425, 086 

76, 355 

18, 373 

147, 030 

701 

8 

1,506 

1,466 

1,375 


484, 381 
462, 322 
85, 962 
13, 177 
24. 138 
48, 305 
10, 862 
19,445 
50, 790 
13, 982 
49, 196 

4,374 
19, 352 

8,391 
24, 575 

4,630 

836 

18, 867 

3,871 
15, 168 

4,440 

7,011 
113,470 

8,776 


$248,336 


Belgium -. 


85, 320 


Great Britain . . 


37. 618 


France . . . . . 


10, 686 


United States.. .. 


12, 408 


Dutch East Indies 


12, 622 


European Kussia 


4,819 


Norway -.. 


8,144 


Sweden .. 


19, 554 




3,080 


Denmarli; and Iceland 


1,254 

1,660 

24, 976 


559 
2,450 
9,555 


14, 835 


Greece 


4,921 


Italy and Fiume 


10,359 


Hungary. . .... . . 


2,309 


\ustria 


403 


341 


7,936 


Portugal ... 


1,591 


Rumania 


6,598 


2,369 


789 




7,143 


Spain __ 


454 
384, 467 


361 
223, 333 


3,212 




16, 532 


British West Africa.. 


2,746 








1,414 


Czechoslovakia 


8,437 


3,927 


48, 720 


Egypt 


1,050 




4,158 


3,478 






7,145 

2,222 

6,900 

5,529 

15, 392 

24, 015 

35, 858 

743 

1,320 

500 

29, 672 

6,795 


3,528 


Hong Kong._ 






706 








3,117 


India Empire 


1,565 


1,045 


2,941 




7,042 








11,799 


Chile...- . 






18, 678 


Colombia 






808 








592 








689 


Uruguay. 






14,558 


Other countries 


940 


460 


405, 477 






Total .. 


4, 131, 692 


1, 919, 778 


1, 632, 412 


1, 036, 079 







1 From annual statistics of the foreign trade of the Netherlands, 
rate, 1925, 1 gulden = $0.401601. 



Values converted at average exchange 



180 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 
Table 75. — Sweden: Imports and exports of coal-tar dyes, 1925 ^ 



Imports 


Exports 


Class of dye and country of 
origin 


Pounds 


Value 


Class of dye and country of 
origin 


Pounds 


Value 


Alizarin dyes: 

Denmark . 


1,160 

112,754 

776 

152 


$1, 059 

102, 985 

709 

139 


Alizarin dyes: 
Norway .. 


381 

172 

4 


$860 
576 


Germany 


Denmark 


Czechoslovakia 


Finland- 


46 


Other countries 


Total . . 








Total 


114,842 


104, 892 


557 


1 482 




Aniline and other coal-tar 
dyes: 
Norway 




Aniline and other coal-tar 
dyes: 
Norway... ... 


12,187 
28, 649 

7, 568 
1,076,649 

34, 297 
30. 207 
60, 203 

8, 521 
2, 366 

269, 810 

9,072 

14, 233 

117 


7,050 

16,572 

4,378 

622, 800 

19, 840 

17,474 

34, 825 

4, 929 

1,368 

156,075 

5,248 

8,233 

67 


63, 261 

14,240 

10,401 

459 

661 

459 

3,944 

2,800 

658 


59, 084 

8,573 

8,339 

453 


Denmark 


Denmark- - 


Finland 


Finland 


Germany _ . .. 


Netherlands 


Netherlands 


Belgium- .. 


438 


Belgium . . 


British East Indies 

Mexico... 


3,304 
8,501 


Great Britain 


France 


Chile--- 


3,412 


Italy 


Other countries 


611 


Switzerland. 


Total . 




Czechoslovakia. 




United States 




Other countries. . 








Total ... 


1, 553, 879 


898, 859 


96, 883 


92 715 




Indigo, synthetic: 

Norway.. 




Indigo, synthetic: 

Denmark 


6. 845 

22, 236 

11 


1,334 

6,498 

3 


359 

111 


481 


Germany--- .. 


Denmark 


185 


Switzerland. 


Total. 








Total 


29, 092 


7,835 


470 


666 




.\ggregate. 




Other indigo dyes: 

Germany 


3, 506 
229 


534 
35 


97, 910 




Switzerland. 








Total 


3,735 


569 








Grand total 


1. 701, 548 


1, 012, 155 


94, 863 








Indigo, natural: 

Total... 


55 


125 











• From official trade statistics of the Swedish Department of Commerce. Values converted at average 
exchange rate, 1925, 1 kroner=$0.26847y. 



INTEKNATIONAL DYE TRADE 181 

Table 76. — Dutch East Indies: Imports of coal-tar dyes, 1925 ' 



Class of dye and country of 


Dry 


Class of dye and country of 
origin 


In paste 


origin 


Pounds 


Value 


Pounds 


Value 


Alizarin: 


11,574 
57, 258 


$5, 798 
28, 684 


Alizarin: 

Netherlands 


147, 931 
100, 530 
553, 797 
13, 558 
10,582 
7,937 


$49,315 




Great Britain 


33. 513 




Germany 


184, 614 




France... 


4,520 




British India . . 


3,528 




Japan. .. . 


2,646 




Total 




Total 


68, 832 


34, 482 


834, 335 


278, 136 




Indigo, synthetic: 

Netherlands 




Indigo, synthetic: 


7,760 
3,845 
1,323 


5,277 

2,493 

804 


190, 345 
781, 002 
278, 443 
3,342 
106, 482 

814 
54, 057 


75, 243 




Germany 


308, 728 




France 


110, 068 




Italy 


1,322 




Switzerland. 


42, 092 




Other European coun- 
tries 


322 




United States 


21, 368 




Total 




Total 


12, 928 


8,574 


1, 414, 485 


559, 143 




Aggregate. 




Aniline dyes: 

Netherlands 


225, 524 
6,184 
1, 082, 272 
27, 163 
3,347 
50, 856 
18, 878 
1,927 


187, 336 

5,137 

899,015 

22,564 

2,780 

42,244 

15, 681 

1,601 






Great Britain 




Germany 




Belgium, 




Italy . -. 




Switzerland. . 




Singapore 




Other countries 








Total 


1, 416, 161 


1,176,358 


3, 746, 731 


2, 056, 693 









1 From annual review of the foreign trade of the Dutch East Indies during the year 1925, oflBcial, vols 
A and 2B. Values converted at average exchange rate, 1925, 1 gulden = $0.401601. 



PART VII 
APPENDIX 



STATISTICS OF DOMESTIC IMPORTS AND EXPORTS 



DIRECTORY OF MANUFACTURERS OF DYES AND OTHER 
SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1926 



49113—27 13 183 



STATISTICS OF IMPORTS AND EXPORTS 

Statistical Tables 

Table 77. — Coal-tar products: Imports entered for consumption, calendar years 

1924-1926 

GROUP I. CRUDE (FREE) 



Benzene, pounds 

Dead or creosote oil, gallons 

Naphthalene, solidifying at less than 79° 
C ., pounds 

Coal tar, crude, barrels.. 

Pitch, coal tar, barrels 

Toluene, pounds 

Acenaphthene, fluorene, methylanthra- 
cene, and methylnaphthalene, pounds.. 

Anthracene, purity less than 30 per cent, 
pounds 

Anthracene oil, gallons 

Cresylic acid, pounds 

Cumene, cymene, pounds. 

Metacresol, orthocresol, and paracresol, 
purity less than 90 per cent, pounds 

Pyridine, pounds 

Xylene, pounds 

All other distillates n. s. p. f., which on 
being subjected to distillation yield in 
the portion distilling below 190° C. a 
quantity of tar acids less than 5 per cent 
of the original distillate, pounds 

All other products found naturally in coal 
tar, whether produced or obtained fro.Ti 
coal tar or other sources, n. s. p. f., 
pounds 



Year 



1924 



Quantity 



Value 



363, 742: $12, 632 
9,687,632 13,463,689 



5, 266, 708 
14, 579 
2, 630 



96, 491 

44,586 

7,765 



298, 022 

18, 259 

2, 327, 528 



1, 
604,235 



2, 440, 358 



2, 865, 954 



8,759 

3,863 

157, 643 



1925 



Quantity 



Value 



1926 



Quantity 



1,573,250 $44,313 8,315.966 
84, 868, 568 10, 973, 491 87, 518, 544 



1, 979, 612 

13, 452 

1,948 

73,400 



26, 593 

49, 877 

8,361 

2,642 



470, 571 

13, 156 

2, 163, 557 

499 



454 

268, 782 788, 979 
110, 177 



151, 850 



5, 994, 803 



151,083 1,480,792 



7,582 
1, 

122, 742 
135 



6, 962, 719 

18, 663 

5,141 

29,064 

27, 782 

444, 170 

16, 213 

5, 702, 740 



394, 337 
5,697 



743, 283 
298,113 



367,672 3,136, 



21,029 



194, 172 



Value 



$215, 314 
11,720,397 

126, 088 

57, 603 

18, 508 

1,797 

4,175 

8,165 

2,483 

331, 550 



366, 161 
15, 201 



197, 009 



4,374 



GROUP II (DUTIABLE AT 15 PER CENT AD VALOREM PLUS 214 CENTS PER POUND; 
DUTIABLE AT 55 PER CENT PLUS 7 CENTS PER POUND AFTER SEPTEMBER 21, 
1922: DUTIABLE AT 40 PER CENT PLUS 7 CENTS PER POUND AFTER SEPTEMBER 
21, 1924) 



Article and year 


Pounds 


Value 


Duty 


Actual 
and com- 
puted ad 
valorem 
rate 


Not colors, dyes, or stains, photographic chemicals, 
medicinals, flavors, or explosives, n. s. p. f.: 
Acids— 

Arsanillic— 

1923 


223 


$3,345 


$1, 855 


55.47 


1924 




1925 


1,092 


10,920 


4,444 


40.70 


1926 ' 




Benzoic— 

1922 


100 
100 


365 
410 


57 
233 


15.68 


1923 . - - 


56.71 


1924 




1925 










1926' - 











• Included in other coal-tar acids. 



185 



186 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Table 77. — Coal-tar products: Imports entered for consumption, calendar years 

1 92 Jr- 1926 — Continued 

GROUP n (DUTIABLE AT 15 PER CENT AD VALOREM PLUS 2% CENTS PER POUND 
DUTIABLE AT 55 PER CENT PLUS 7 CENTS PER POUND AFTER SEPTEMBER 21, 
1922; DUTIABLE AT 40 PER CENT PLUS 7 CENTS PER POUND AFTER SEPTEMBER 
21. 1924)— Continued 



Article and year 


Pounds 


Value 


Duty 


Actual 
and com- 
puted ad 
valorem 
rate 


Not colors, dyes, or stains, photographic chemicals, 
medicinals, flavors, or explosives, n. s. p. f.— Contd. 
Acids — Continued. 

Carbolic (phenol) which on being subjected to 
distillation yields in the portion distilling be- 
low 200° C. a quantity of tar acids equal to or 
more than 5 per cent of the original distillate- 
Crystal— 

19221 


280, 224 
69, 310 
126, 618 
176,081 
256, 126 
218, 437 

1,702 
145, 375 
2,815 
62, 869 
378, 777 
98, 672 
25, 932 

2,276 
1,107 


$30, 414 
16, 102 
21, 389 

46, 786 
58, 958 

47, 351 

1,801 

18,488 
257 
15, 169 
29,066 
23,618 
4,748 

1,881 
854 


$11,568 
13, 708 
20, 627 
38, 058 
41,512 
34, 231 

313 
20, 345 

338 
12 744 


38 03 


19222 -• 


85. 13 


1923 


96 44 


1924 


81 34 


1925 - 


70 41 


1926 


72 29 


Liquid— 

1922 L 


17 36 


19222... 


110 04 


1923 


131 67 


19243 


Hi ni 


1924< 


38 141 1 1S1 99 


1925 


16, 354 
3,714 

339 
547 


69 24 


1926 -. 

Salicylic and salts of, not medicinal— 

19221 _.. . 


78.23 
18 02 


1923 . . - 


64 07 


1924 




1925 


1,757 


521 


331 


63 61 


19265 




Other coal-tar acids— 

1925 . 


4,921 
38, 078 

2,267 

400 

65 
30 


5,707 
49, 405 

817 

497 

11 
220 


2,627 
22, 427 

485 

227 

10 
123 


46 03 


1926 


45 40 


Acetanilide, not medicinal— 

1926 . . 


59 42 


Aminonaphthol, aminophenol, and aminophe- 
netol— 

1926 


45 63 


Aniline oil and salts— 

19222 

1923 

1924 


90.00 
55.95 


1925... 










1926 . 


700 
2 


350 
2 


189 

1 


54 00 


Anthracene, purity of 30 per cent or more- 

19222 


62 00 


1923 




1924 










1925 


10 
313 

6,686 

20 
200 


4 
122 

8,116 

11 
240 


2 
71 

3,714 

7 
146 


57 50 


1926 


57 96 


Anthraquinone, aminoanthraquinone, and nitro- 
anthraquinone— 
1926 .- 


45 77 


Benzaldehyde (not medicinal) and nitrobenzalde- 
hyde— 
19222 


67 73 


1923 


60 83 


1924 




1925 


2,204 

3,852 

72 

7 


1,212 
4,151 

56 
23 


639 
1,930 

36 
13 


52 73 


1926 


46 50 


Benzidine, benzidine sulphate— 
19222. . . 


64 00 


1923... 


57 13 


1924 




1925 








192fi6 _. . 


137, 684 

29 
10 


83, 841 43, 174 

10 8 
22 13 


51 50 


Benzyichloride, benzalchloride, and benzoylchlo- 
ride— 
19222.. 


75 30 


1923... 


58 18 


1924 




1925.. 








1926' 




1 



1 Act of 1916. 

2 Act of 1922. 

8 Jan. 1-Sept. 21, 1924. 
* Sept. 22-Dec. 31, 1924. 



' Included in "other coal-tar acids." 
6 Includes benzanthrone, benoquinone, and benzyl, 
benzal, and benzoylchloride. 
' Included in benzidine and benzidine sulphate. 



STATISTICAL TABLES 



187 



Table 77. — Coal-tar products: Imports entered for consumption, calendar years 

i5^4-i5^(5— Continued 

GROUP II (DUTIABLE AT 15 PER CENT AD VALOREM PLUS 2H CENTS PER POUND; 
DUTIABLE AT 55 PER CENT PLUS 7 CENTS PER POUND AFTER SEPTEMBER 21, 
1922; DUTIABLE AT 40 PER CENT PLUS 7 CENTS PER POUND AFTER SEPTEMBER 

21, 1924)— Continued - 



t 
Article and year | Pounds 

1 


Value 


Duty 


Actual 
and com- 
puted ad 
valorem 
rate 


Not colors, dyes, or stains, photographic chemicals, 
medicinals, flavors, or explosives, n. s. p. f.— Con. 
Carbazole, purity of 65 per cent or more— 

1922 1 


8,820 


$3,865 


$800 


20 70 


1922 2 




1923 










1924 










1925 


2,073 
2,157 

1,000 

11 

23, 576 

33 

10 

2,224 
1,008 
8, 754 

15, 326 
1,000 

34, 874 
105, 238 

977 


828 
324 

540 

16 

8,134 

106 

12 

107 

167 

5,410 

1,995 

663 

5,741 

15, 040 

1,221 


476 
281 

286 

10 

4,904 

45 

6 

72 
162 
3,588 
2,170 
335 
4,738 
13,383 

740 


57 53 


1926 


86 60 


Dihydroxy naphthalene and dianisidine— 

1926 


52.96 


Diphenylamine— 

1924 3 


59 81 


1924 i 


60.29 


1925. 


42.18 


1926 


45 83 


Metacresol, orthocresol, and paracresol, purity of 90 
per cent or more — 
1922 1 


66.96 


1922 2... 


97.24 


1923. 


66.33 


1924 3 


108. 78 


1924 < 


50.56 


1925 


82.52 


1926 


88 98 


Methvlanthraquinone— 

1923 


60.60 


1924.... 




1925... 










1926 


4,989 
75,680 


1,147 
7,684 


808 
3,045 


70.45 


Naphthalene soldifying at 79° C. or above — 
1922 1 


39 61 


1922 2 




1923... 


9,605 
4,549 


194 
1,147 


779 
949 


401. 57 


1924 


82.76 


1925 




1926 


424 
658 


125 
799 


80 
136 


63 74 


1922 1 


17 06 


1922 2 




1923 


13,376 

10, 976 

4,310 

23,765 

29,300 


29, 569 

24, 202 

1,435 

33, 284 

9,617 


17, 199 
14, 079 

876 
14, 977 

5,898 


58.17 


1924 


58.17 


1925 


61.02 


1926.- 


45.00 


Nitroaniline, para and meta, nitrobenzene, nitro- 
naphthalene nitrophenylenediamine, nitroso- 
dimethylaniline, nitrotoluene, and nitrotolylene- 
dia mine— 

1926 


61.33 


Phenylhydrazine— 

1924 




1925 


50 
10, 237 


475 
11,875 


194 
5,467 


40 74 


1926 5 


46.03 


1922 




1923 


12, 520 
2,240 
16, 590 
15,484 

5 


16, 976 

3,360 

22,392 

20, 907 

6 


10, 213 
2,005 

10,118 
9,447 

4 


60. 16 


1924 


59.67 


1925 


45.19 


1926 


45.18 


Tolidine— 

1923 


60.83 


1924 






1925 

1926 6 


11,223 
23,041 


2,071 
8,414 


1,614 
4,978 


77.93 
59.17 



1 Act of 1916. 
" Act of 1922. 
'From Jan. 1 to Sept. 21, 1924. 

* From Sept. 22 to Dec. 31, 1924. 

• Includes phenylenediamine, phenylglycine and phenylnaphthylamine. 

« Includes toluene sulfochloride, toluene sulfonamide, toluidine and tolylenediamine. 



188 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Table 77. — Coal-tar products: Imports entered for consumption, calendar years 

1924-1926— Continued 

GROUP II (DUTIABLE AT 15 PER CENT AD VALOREM PLUS 2V^ CENTS PER POUND; 
DUTIABLE AT 55 PER CENT PLUS 7 CENTS PER POUND AFTER SEPTEMBER 21, 
1922; DUTIABLE AT 40 PER CENT PLUS 7 CENTS PER POUND AFTER SEPTEMBER 
21, 1924)— Continued 



Article and yeir 


Pounds 


Value 


Duty 


Actual 
and com- 
puted ad 
valorem 
rate 


Not colors, dyes, or stains, photographic chemicals, 
medicinals, flavors, or explosives, n. s. p. f.— Con. 
All distillates n. s. p. f., which on distillation yield 
In the portion distilling below 190° C. a quantity 
of tar acids equal to or more than 5 per cent of 
the original distillate: 
1922 ' 


328, 601 

22, 163 

245, 119 

901 

662, 037 

252, 382 

5,784 

18, 2.57 
195, 757 
144, 971 
233, 495 
135, 833 
7,042 

389, 708 

187, 377 
1, 436, 982 
2, 104, 299 

158, 766 
1, 901, 203 

582, 859 


$33, 784 
9,128 
30,328 
1,491 
47, 889 
15, 441 
10, 662 

$4, 102 
36, 382 
21, 046 
17, 798 
29, 014 
3,379 

153, 625 
61, 967 
330, 514 
475, 136 
73, 973 
963, 925 
436. 074 


$13, 283 

6,572 

33,839 

883 

65, 498 

23, 843 

4,670 

$3, 534 
33, 713 
21, 723 
23, 464 
21.114 
1,845 

32, 786 
47, 198 
282, 371 
408, 626 
40, 703 
518, 654 
215, 230 


39 32 


1922 2, 8 __ 


72 00 


1923 - - 


111.58 


1924 * 


59. 23 


1924 5 


136. 77 


1925 


154,41 


1926 


43.80 


All di.stillates of coal, blast-furnaces, oil-gas, and 
water-gas tar which on being subject to distilla- 
tion below 215° C. yield a quantity of tar acids 
equal to or more than 75 per cent of the original 
distillate: 
19222 


86.16 


1923 


92.66 


1924 3 


103. 22 


1924 <_ 


131.83 


1925 - . 


72.77 


1926 . 


54.59 


All similar products, obtained, derived, or manu- 
factured in whole or in part from the products 
provided for in Group I (free): 
1922 1. _ 


21.34 


1922 2 _ 


76.17 


1923 


85. 43 


1924 3 

1924<..._ 

1925 

1926. 


86.00 
55.02 
53.81 
49.36 



8 At 190° C. instead of 200° C, act of 1922. 

GROUP III (DUTIABLE AT 30 PER CENT AD VALOREM; DUTIABLE AT 60 PER CENT 
AD VALOREM PLUS 7 CENTS PER POUND AFTER SEPTEMBER 21, 1922; DUTIABLE 
AT 45 PER CENT AD VALOREM PLUS 7 CENTS PER POUND AFTER SEPTEMBER 
21, 1924) 



Article and year 


Pounds 


Value 


Duty 


Actual 
and com- 
puted ad 
valorem 
rate 


When obtained, derived, or manufactured in whole or in 
part from any of the products provided for in Group I 
(free) or 11, including natural indigo and their deriva- 
tives: 
Alizarin, natural — 

1922' 


28,399 
1,547 
9,283 
6,665 
5,137 
1,755 

21,614 
1,836 
3,002 


$63, 304 
3, 094 

18, 600 
9,335 

13,243 
1,521 

22, 190 
3,699 
12, 008 


$18,991 

1.965 

11,810 

6,068 

6,319 

807 

666 
2,348 
5,614 


30 00 


19222. 


63.50 


1923 


63. 49 


1924 


65 00 


1925 ... 


47.72 


1926-- 


53.08 


Alizarin, synthetic — 

1922' 


30.00 


1923 


03.47 


1924 


46.75 


1925 




1926 


1,496 

293, 005 

79, 542 


711 

468, 134 

62. 986 


425 
140, 440 
27, 077 


59.73 


Dyes obtained, derived, or manufactured from 
alizarin — 
1922" 


30.00 


Colors, or color lakes obtained, derived, or manufac- 
tured, from alizarin— 
1922' 


35.05 



1 Act of 1916. 

2 Act of 1922. 



3 From Jan. 1 to Sept. 21, 1924. 
« From Sept. 22 to Dec. 31, 1924. 



STATISTICAL TABLES 



189 



Table 77 — Coal-tar products: Imports entered for consumption, calendar years 

1924-1926— Continued 

GROUP HI (DUTIABLE AT 30 PER CENT AD VALOREM; DUTL\BLE AT fiO PER CENT 
AD VALOREM PLUS 7 CENTS PER POUND AFTER SEPTEMBER 21, 1922; DUTIABLE 
AT 45 PER CENT AD VALOREM PLUS 7 CENTS PER POUND AFTER SEPTEMBER 
21, 1924)— Continued 



Article and year 


Pounds 


Value 


Duty 


-Actual 
and com- 
puted ad 
valorem 
rate 


When obtained, derived, or manufactured in whole or in 
part from any of the products provided for in Group I 
(free) or 11, including natural indigo and their deriva- 
tives — Continued. 
Colors, dyes, stains, etc., obtained, derived or 
manufactured from alizarin— 

1922 2 


56, 294 
274, 799 
68, 762 
4,671 
27, 391 
18, 796 

330, 129 

27, 535 

17, 697 

7,319 

1,043 

55 


$82, 981 
379,673 
98, 693 
4,830 
52, 769 
31,944 

605, 187 

63,102 

26,002 

8,126 

863 

490 


$53. 729 

247, 040 

64,029 

2,500 

25, 663 

15, 691 

181. 556 

20,032 

16, 840 

■5,388 

591 

224 


64.75 


1923 


65.07 


1924 8 


64.88 


1924 < 


51.77 


1925 


48.63 


1926 


49.12 


Dyes obtained, derived, or manufactured from an- 
thracene and carbazole — 
1922 1 


30 00 


Colors, or color lakes obtained, derived, or manufac- 
tured fro:u anthracene and carbazole— 

1922' 


31.75 


Colors and dyes, obtained, derived, or manufac- 
tured from anthracene or carbazole— 

1922 2... 


64.76 


1923 


66.30 


1924 3 


68.46 


1924 < 


45.79 


1925 




1926 










Indigo, natural- 

1922' 


14, 461 


19, 074 


5,722 


30.00 


19222 




1923 


9,102 
3,863 


4,149 
741 


3,427 
715 


73.70 


1924 


96.49 


1925_. 




1926... 


275 
86,585 


270 
123, 702 


141 
37,111 


52.13 


Indigo, synthetic — 

19221 


30.00 


1922 2 




1923 


356 
1,076 
1,040 
1,589 

872 
13, 864 

220 
4,641 
14,834 

2, 077, 712 
677, 849 
3, 059, 361 
1, 905. 219 
1. 357. 133 
5, 606, 827 
5, 101, 759 

239 

4,263 

1,124 

2,906 

900 

500 


117 
482 
466 
280 

1,482 

18. 636 

544 

5. 079 
23,667 

2,941,773 
894, 844 
4, 154, 091 
2,320,712 
1, 865. 036 
6, 762. 764 
5, 613, 847 

262 

3.635 

2,270 

1,521 

881 

835 


95 81.30 


1924 


292 
282 
237 

950 
12, 152 

342 
2,610 
11,689 

96.5. 640 

584, 356 

2, 706, 610 

1, 525, 793 


60.63 


192.5 - 


60.62 


1926 


84.73 


Colors, dyes, stains, etc., derived from indigo — 

1922 2.. . 


64. 11 


1923 


65.21 


1924 


62. 83 


1925 


51.40 


1926 


49.39 


All other colors, dyes, or stains, whether soluble or 
not in water, color acids, color bases, or color 
lakes— 

1922' 


32.83 


1922 2. . 


65.30 


1923 


6,5. 16 


1924 3 


65. 75 


1924 * 


934, 266 50. 09 


■1925... 


3, 435, 722 
2, 883, 354 

174 
2,479 
1,441 

888 
459 


50.80 


1926 


51.36 


Color lakes— 
1922 2. 


66.38 


1923.. 


68.21 


19243 _ 


63.47 


1924 < 


.58. 37 


1925... _ 


,52. 15 


1926 


411 i 49.19 



' Act of 1916. 
'Act of 1922. 



3 From Jan. 1 to Sept. 21, 1924. 
* From Sept. 22 to Dec. 31, 1924. 



190 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

Table 77. — Coal-tar -products: Imports entered for consumption, calendar years 

1924-1936— Continued 

GROUP III (DUTIABLE AT 30 PER CENT AD VALOREM; DUTIABLE AT 60 PER CENT 
AD VALOREM PLUS 7 CENTS PER POUND AFTER SEPTEMBER 21, 1922; DUTIABLE 
AT 45 PER CENT AD VALOREM PLUS 7 CENTS PER POUND AFTER SEPTEMBER 
21, 1924)— Continued 



Article and year 



When obtained, derived, or manufactured in whole or in 
i part from any of the products provided for in Group I 
i (free) or II, including natural indigo and their deriva- 
tives — Continued . 
Resinlike products prepared from articles provided 
for in pars. 27 and 1549 — 

1922' 

1922 2 

1923... 

1924 3 _ __ 

1924 < 

1925 

1926 

Photographic chemicals — 

1922'.... 

1922 2 _. 

1923 

1924' 

1924<..-. 

1925 

1926 : 

Coal-tar medicinals— 
Acetanilid — 

1923... 

1924 

1925 

1926' 

Acetphenetidin — 

1923 

1924 

1925._ 

1926 8 

Antipyrine — 

1922' 

1922 2 

1923 

1924 3 _ _ _ 

1924 < 

1925 

1926 

Arsphenamine (salvarsan) and neo-arsphena- 
mine — 

1923 

1924 

1925 

1926 5 

Benzaldehyde — 

1922... 

1923 

1924 

1925... 

1926 

Benzoic acid, medicinal— 

1924 3 

1924* 

1925 

1926 

b-Naphthol, medicinal — 

1924 

1925... 

1926' 

Novocain or procaine— 

1923... 

1924 

1925 

1926 



Pounds 



762 
1,756 
3,183 
8,169 

5S7 
1.537 
1,649 

3,287 

8,183 
10, 182 

2,868 
781 

9,889 
23,846 



58 

13 

50 

721 

25 
200 
100 



Value 



12, 604 
913 

14, 250 
3,080 
3,920 

12, 540 

15,710 



5 
85 
77 
165 

571 
2,780 



1,924 
1,450 

111 
100 
551 
235 

1,102 
269 



1,404 
2,094 
10, 512 
2,568 
1.615 
889 
1,298 

4,465 
8,208 
28,504 
9,612 
2,272 
31.623 
61, 586 



$82 

26 

112 

1,524 

238 
720 
300 



18, 468 
1,740 

20, 602 
3,650 
4,715 

12, 107 

14, 929 



211 

7,136 

6,790 

20, 992 

914 
4,059 



2, 308 
2,243 

168 

72 

364 

190 

992 
470 



210 



610 



Duty 



452 

1, 379 

6,530 

2,113 

768 

508 

700 

1,471 

5,498 

17,815 

5,968 

1,077 

14, 923 

29. 383 



$53 
17 
54 

736 

145 
b38 
142 



4,617 
1,108 
3,359 
2,406 
2,396 
6,326 
7,818 



127 
3,217 
3,061 

9,458 

588 
2, 630 



1,173 
1,111 

109 

39 

202 

102 

672 
230 



126 



275 



1 Act of 1916. 

2 Act of 1922. 

3 From Jan. 1 to Sept. 21, 1924. 
« From Sept. 22 to Dec. 31, 1924. 



« Includes other similar arsenical 

medicinal compounds. 
« Includes beta-uaph'aol. 
' Included with benzaldehyde. 



STATISTICAL TABLES 



191 



Table 77. — Coal-tar products: Imports entered for consumption, calendar years 

1 924-1 5^6'— Continued 

GROUP III (DUTIABLE AT 30 PER CENT AD VALOREM; DUTIABLE AT 60 PER CENT 
AD VALOREM PLUS 7 CENTS PER POUND AFTER SEPTEMBER 21, 1922; DUTIABLE 
AT 45 PER CENT AD VALOREM PLUS 7 CENTS PER POUND AFTER SEPTEIMBER 
21, 1924)— Continued 



Article and year 


Pounds 


Value 


Duty 


Actual 
and com- 
puted ad 
valorem 
rate 


AVhen obtained, derived, or manufactured in whole or in 
part from any of the products provided for in Group I 
Uree) or II, including natural indigo and their deriva- 
tives — Continued. 
Coal-tar medicinals— Continued. 
Phenolphthalein— 
1922 I 


64 
1,487 
2,931 
220 
1,146 
1,488 

7,840 
6,701 
12, 136 

40 

4 
330 
237 

131 

7,937 
43, 325 
23, 257 
45, 333 
47, 238 
51,513 

31 
11 
2 


$36 
8,877 
10, 891 
2,646 
1,763 
1,935 

9,800 
9,124 
19,758 

81 
55 

324 
1,620 
2,039 

24,410 
164, 238 
1)5,937 

89. 953 
169, 365 
207, 577 

90 
13 
33 


$9 

5,430 

6,740 

1,206 

874 

975 

4,959 

4, 575 
9,741 

51 

33 

169 

746 

927 

15,202 
101,576 
71,190 
43. 652 
79, 521 
97, 016 

56 
9 
15 


25.00 


1922 2 


61.17 


1923. - 


61.88 


1924 

1925 

1926 - 


45. .58 
49.55 
50.38 


Resorcinol, medicinal — 

1924 

1925 

1926 


50. eo 

50.14 
49. 30 


Salicylic acid and its salts, medicinal— 

1923 


63.46 


1924 3. 


60.51 


1924*.. 


52.13 


1925 


46.02 


1926 . . 


45.45 


Other coal-tar medicinals — 
1922 2 


62.27 


1923 

1924 3 


61.85 
61. 40 


1924 < 


48. 53 


1925 


46.95 


1926 


46. 74 


Flavors— 

1923 

1924... 


62.41 
65.92 


]925... 


45.42 


1926 




Saccharin— 

19221 


1 
1 


15 
14 


1 

8 


4.33 




60.50 


1923 




1924... 


51 


17 


11 


66.00 


1925 










j 


Explosives— 

1923 - 


1,980 


3,929 


2,496 


63. 53 


1924 




1925 






[ 


1926 








Ink powder «— 

1923 


261 

18 

100 


308 
6 

172 


203 

5 

84 


65.93 


1924 


81.00 


1925 


49.07 


1926 




Synthetic tanning materials— 

1923 


1,412 
1,643 
1,010 


2,162 
3,926 
2,079 


1, 396 
2.471 
1,006 


64.57 


1924 


62. 93 


1925 


48.40 


1926 . 











1 



1 Act of 1916. 2 From Jan. 1 to Sept. 21, 1924. 

3 Act of 1922. « From Sept. 22 to Dec. 31, 1924. 

' Imports for coal-tar ink powder first separately reported for 1923. In the Commission's Census of 
1923, on page 194, were published the imports from 1918 to 1923, of "Ink and ink powders," "Printers' 
ink," " Writing and copying inks," and "All other, including ink powders," and also exports of " Printers' 
ink," and ".'^il other inks." 



192 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

Table 78. — Coal-tar products: general imports, 1922-1926 
DEAD OR CREOSOTE OIL (FREE) 



Imported from— 


1922 


1923 


1924 


Quantity 


. Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


V^alue 


United Kingdom . ... 


Gallons 

22, 383, 535 

14,471,820 

2, 406, 364 

1, 537, 376 

768, 442 


$2, 235, 686 

1, 528, 941 

193, 804 

184, 485 

97, 533 


Gallons 
42, 352. 723 
9, 277, 700 
3, 094, 709 
8, 478, 364 
996, 140 


$6, 897, 368 
1, 422, 521 

470, 337 
1, 153, 750 

127,417 


Gallons 
59, 594, 877 
10. 324, 675 

6, 634, 494 
11,064,665 

2, 069, 073 


$8, 992, 571 


Netherlands 


1,611,622 


Germany 


828, 528 


Belgium 


1,744,817 


Canada. 


286, 151 






Total 


41,567,537 


4, 240, 449 


64, 199, 636 


10, 071, 393 


89, 687, 784 


13, 463, 688 





Imported from — 



United Kingdom... 

Netherlands 

Germany 

Belgium 

France 

Mexico _ 

Canada 

All other countries- 
Total 



Quantity 



Gallons 

36, 549, 854 

30, 325, 455 

4, 200, 382 

10,017,631 

2, 505, 192 

355, 557 

914,497 



84, 868, 568 



Value 



$4, 692, 650 

3, 973, 994 

512, 835 

1,317,161 

303, 843 

55, 794 

117,214 



10, 973, 491 



Quantity 



Gallons 
38, 982, 648 
23, 454, 374 
2,550 
21, 724, 079 



Value 



$5, 053, 401 

3, 158, 693 

890 

3, 007, 472 



990, 926 

2, 363, 905 

62 



139, 309 

360, 607 

25 



87,518,544 11,720,397 



BENZOL OR BENZENE 





1922 


1923 


1924 1 


1925 1 1926 ' 

1 


Imported from— 


Quan- 
tity 


Value 


Quan- 
tity 


Value 


Quan- 
tity 


Value 


Quan- 
tity 


Value ! Q-f- 


Value 


Canada 


Pounds 

172, 108 

420 


$1, 167 
56 


Pounds 
700, 157 
944 


$21, 732 
185 


Pounds 

362, 640 

1,102 


$12,432 
200 


Pounds 
735, 403 

44 
911,123 

80 


Pounds 
$23, 636 




Germany 


13 1 


Mexico. . 


23, 298 1 


All other countries 2 






800 


20 






8 ' 1 




.- . . . 










Total 


172, 528 


1,223 701.901 


21,937 36,3.742 


12, 632 


1, 646, 650 


46, 955 















' Includes toluene. ^ From New Zealand. 

NAPHTHALENE 





1922 


1923 


1924 


1925 


1926 3 


Imported from — 


Quan- 
tity 


Value 


Quan- 
tity 


Value 


Quan- 
tity 


Value 


Quan- 
tity 


Value 


Quan- 
tity 


Value 


United Kingdom... 


Pounds 

2, 488, 716 


$38, 619 


Pounds 
16,991.359 


$408. .584 


Pounds 

2.707.419 


$56, 963 
5,238 


Pounds 
28, 104 


$478 


Pounds 




Belgium 




501,508' 9!789| 28l!834 






Canada 


532, 935 

11,316 

110,365 

1,000 


12, 823 


395. IO7I 6. 591 




102, 840 


7.5.5 






Germany 


446 1,872,457' 122,831 


2. 11 2 (149 


31, 146 
3,144 


1, 848, 668 25, 360 






Netherlands 


2, 047 1 . 276. n27i 30. 768 ' 165! 406 


1 


All other countries. 


94 


1 


L. .. 












1 


Total 


3, 144, 332 


54, 029 21. 036. 4581 578. 563 5. 266. 708 


96, 491 


1, 97^ 612 26. 593 


1 
















1 



' Included in " All other crudes." 



STATISTICAL TABLES 



193 



Table 78. — Coal-tar products: general imports, 1922-19^6— Continued 
PYRIDINE (FREE) 



Imported from — 



Quantity Value 



Belgium 

France 

Germany _ 

Netherlands 

United Kingdom... 

Canada 

Panama 

All other countries. 



Total. 



Pounds 
24, 075 


.$9, 410 


14,215 


7,018 


87, 269 


33, 382 


22, 576 


10, 279 


452,611 


203. 743 


4,841 


3,208 


1,148 


447 


2,245 


1,295 



608, 980 268, 782 



1925 



Quantity Value 



Pounds 

24, 551 

25, 077 
90, 347 
19,009 

626,313 



$11,216 
11,435 
47, 571 
11, 484 

310, 290 



3,780 



2,341 



789, 077 



394, 337 



1926 



Quantity Value 



Pounds 
4,734 



194, 666 
34, 359 

509, 524 



743, 283 



$2, 227 



90, 169 
25, 031 

248, 734 



366, 161 



• Included in "all other crudes" prior to 1924. 

TAR AND PITCH OF COAL 





1922 1923 


1924 


1925 


1926 > 


Imported from— 


Quan- 
tity 


Value 1 *3uan- 
^^'"® j tity 

1 


Value 


Quan- 
tity 


Value 


Quan- 
tity 


Value 


Quan- 
tity 


Value 




Barrels 
( 162 


: Barrels 

$1,241 |\ „ 

956 / "^ 

56,229 14,406 


$365 
44, 184 


Barrels 
1 21 
\ 282 
16, 563 


$197 

1, 295 

48, 427 


Barrels 

1 770 

9,875 

4,453 

302 


$3, 654 

29,739 

23, 167 

1,678 


Pounds 




Canada ' 24 563 














91 j 297 


2,276 


343 


2,432 






Total 








24,853 


58, 517 14, 775 


46,825 


17,209 


52, 351 


15,400 


58, 238 











2 Included in "all other crudes." 



TOLUOL OR TOLUENE i 





Imported from— 


1922 




1923 






Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Canada. 


Pounds 
143, 900 
337 


$6,044 
17 


Pounds 
194, 660 


$7,928 


Sweden ___ _ _ __ .... 








Total... 


144, 237 


6,061 


194, 660 


7,928 











> Included with benzol in 1924 and 1925, and with "all other crudes" in 1926. 

ALL OTHER CRUDES 



Imported from— 


1922 


1923 


1924 


1925 


1926 


France 


$308, 895 

/ 54, 943 

\ 1, 570 

8,199 

6,373 

142 


$929 
684, 774 
65. 102 
14,010 
18, 873 
6,370 




$2, 160 
\ 472 .S.'i? 




United Kingdom 


$373. 252 


445, 909 


Canada 


73,720 ) -■-'—■ 
7,326 16,362 
2, 840 23, 595 


227, 929 


Germany 


210, 122 


Netherlands 


3,749 


Mexico 




11,482 
5 


74, 067 


All other countries i ... _ . 


17, 583 


14, 592 


23, 254 


Total 








380, 122 


807,641 


471, 730 1 526, 141 


985, 030 



194 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Table 78. — Coal-tar products: general imports, 1922-1926 — Continued 

CARBOLIC ACID 



Imported from— 


1922 1 


1923 1 » 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


England 


Pounds 

610, 789 

62, 715 

11,098 

1,702 


$87, 325 

12, 258 

898 

1,801 


Pounds 
61,541 


$14, 715 


Netherlands 




Germany 


20 


37 


All other countries 








Total 


686,304 


102, 282 


61, 561 


14, 762 







> Dutiable. 



» Not reported separately in 1924, 1925, or 1926. 
ALL OTHER ACIDS 



Imported from— 


1922 


1923 


1924 3 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


England 

France... 


Pounds 
60, 471 


$5, 228 


Pounds 

100 

223 

1,125 

17, 496 


$410 
3,345 

877 
• 74, 885 


Pounds 
250,257 


$64, 817 


Germany . . . . 


4,445 
8,943 


2,394 
9,939 




All other countries 


M5,024 1 


12, 606 






Total 


73, 859 


17, 561 


18,944 


79, 517 


295,281 ' 


77,423 



1 All other composed of 17,376 pounds, valued at $74,492, from Switzerland, and 110 pounds, valued at 
385, from Canada. 
3 All from Scotland. 
3 1924 includes carbolic acid. 

COAL-TAR ACIDS 



Imported from — 


1925 


1926 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


United Kingdom .. . . 


Pounds 
199, 743 
40, 098 

1,533 
93, 678 

1,757 


$46, 708 

8,709 

11, 520 

25, 622 

521 


Pounds 
231, 551 
122, 990 


$31, 204 


Netherlands .. 


27, 446 


France 




Germany 


156, 773 


74, 294 


All other countries 










Total 


336,809 


93, 080 


511,314 


132, 944 







ALL OTHER INTERMEDIATES 



Imported from— 



France 

Germany. 

Netherlands 

England 

Switzerland 

■Tapan 

Canada .. 

All other countries. 



Quantity Value 



''ounds 
45, 666 


$31, 180 


514, 437 


83, 397 


83, 998 


18, 898 


669, 475 


124, 632 


62, 261 


43, 856 


400 


39 


329 


308 



Total 1,376,566 302,310 2,598,281 513,692 1 3,811,819 



1923 



Quantity Value 



Pounds 

30, 174 

128, 707 

295, 939 

1, 700, 550 

284 

60 

48, 022 

1 394, 545 



$45, 070 

115,513 

59, 276 

236, 069 

1,758 

31 

8,166 

1 47, 809 



1924 



Quantity Value 



Pounds 




7,227 


$8,937 


1, 964, 349 


507, 224 


373, 004 


93, 359 


1, 421, 393 


102, 682 


5,490 


7,437 


40, 356 


9,978 



729, 617 



> All other includes 394,487 pounds, valued at $47,752, from Scotland. 



STATISTICAL TABLES 



195 



Table 78. — Coal-tar products: general imports, 1922-1926 — Continued 
OTHER COAL-TAR INTERMEDIATES 



Imported from— 


1925 


1926 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


France .. 


Pourtds 

48,976 

480, 600 

1, 165, 293 

523, 335 

21, 494 

141 

725 


$45, 382 

465, 690 

414, 259 

40,447 

37, 391 

54 

1,569 


Pounds 
23,544 
687, 872 
125, 672 
99,035 
36, 777 
22,604 
2,786 


$29,445 
492 751 


German V 




48,048 
13, 422 
43 720 


United Kingdom 

Switzerland- 


Canada.. . 


13 445 


All other countries .. . 


1 381 






Total.. — 


2, 210, 564 


1, 004, 792 


998,290 


642, 212 





ALIZARIN AND DERIVATIVES 





1922 


1923 


1924 


1925 


1926 


Imported from— 


Quan- 
tity 


value Q-- 


Value 


Quan- 
tity 


Value 


Quan- 
tity 


Value 


Quan- 
tity 


Value 




Pounds 

1,232 

1.560 

7,379 

323, 239 

46. 340 

47, 791 

28,672 

22, 758 

887 


$2, 359 

2,240 

10. 137 

498, 548 

57, 686 

61,043 

41,670 

28,002 

249 


Pounds 
275 


$457 


Pounds 
5,958 


$8,802 


Pounds 
9,246 


$19, 437 


Pounds 
4,031 


$8,886 


Denmark 


France 


13,206 
139, 144 
24, 046 
11,219 
73. 561 
17, 792 
2,813 
8,074 


24, 630 

167, 728 
38, 190 
16.024 
124,831 
18, 165 
4,422 
9,165 


1,927 

90, 619 

4,189 

3,172 

30, 126 

15, 593 

25 


2,750 

117,816 

7,405 

5,994 

58, 343 

13, 086 

198 


220 

11,304 

864 


233 

852 

2 133 






Germany.- 

Italy 


7,545 


5,494 
96 


Netherlands 







Switzerland 

United Kingdom 

Canada 


13,069 

11,996 

880 

4 


40,620 

9,101 

2,250 

209 


9,018 
805 


22,916 
£94 


X\\ other countries.. 




















Total 


479, 858 


701, 934 


290, 130 


403, 612 


151, 609 


214, 394 


47,583 


74,635 


21,454 


37 986 







ANTHRACENE AND CARBAZOLE COLORS AND DYES 



Imported from— 


1922 > 


1923* 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Germany.. 


Pounds 
11, 900 
5,797 


$23,128 
2,874 


Pounds 
4,434 


$4, 692 


England 


Italy 


3,885 


4,284 








Total 


17, 697 


26, 002 


8,319 


8,976 





COLOR LAKES 



France 

Germany. 

England . . . . . . . . . 


16 
223 


$23 
239 


88 
2,175 
2,000 


$162 

2,710 

763 










Total 


239 


262 


4,263 


3,635 



1 Beginning Sept. 22, 1922. 



> No report since 1923. 



196 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Table 78. — Coal-tar products: general imports, 1922-1926 — Continued 

INDIGO (DUTIABLE) 





1922 


1923 


1924 


1925 


1926' 


Imported 
from— 


Natural 


Synthetic 


Natural Synthetic 


Indigo and 
derivatives 


Indigo and 
derivatives 


Indigo and 
derivatives 




Quan-'y J 
tity \^^^^^ 

1 


Quan- 
tity 


Value 


Quan- 
tity 


valued" 


Value 


Quan- 
tity 


Value 


^t^y'Value 


Quan- 
tity 


Value 




I 
Lbs. 
6 fOl $9 482 


Lbs. 
fia ass 


$84,553 
818 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 




Lbs. 




Lbs. ' 

1, 465 $1, 657 


Lbs. 




England 


4^413 2^9041 2,000 


9,378 

too 


$4 624 




5,979 


$i, 689 






450 














■ 


5,324 
610 
929 


13, 920 

1, 756 

401 






220 
220 


167 439 391 






Germany 

Italy 


1,536^ 1,462 








544 










, 275 


$341 


1,232 1,610 






All other 


1 


195 


142 1 356 




- - . 




















12 450 13 848 ''' 9is "11 44« 


10, 473 


5, 216 631 

1 


458 6.419 


2,400 3.136 3.658 








1 



















1 From China. ' Included in " Colors, dyes, stains, color acids, and color bases, n. e. s." 

INDIGO, DYES, COLORS, STAINS, ETC. (DUTIABLE) i 





1922 » 


1923 




Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 




Pounds 




Pounds 
2,522 
1,860 
5,411 
2,206 
1,810 


$2, 614 




ioo 

772 


$752 
730 


2,676 


Italy - - 


7,035 




2,548 








3,301 










Total 


872 


1,482 


13, 809 


18, 174 







No report for 1924, 1925, or 1926. " Sept. 22 to Dec. 31. 

COAL-TAR COLORS OR DYES (DUTIABLE) 



Imported from- 



1922 1 



Quantity 



Value i Quantity 



Value 



Belgium 

France.- 

Germany 

Switzerland 

England- 

All other countries 

Total. 



Pounds 

1,941 

36, 103 

1, 138, 951 

1,109,301 

165, Ga3 

101,537 



2, 553, 576 



$849 

16, 038 

1,662,608 

1,809,778 

139, 577 

133, 991 



Pounds 



3, 762, 841 



15, HI 
266, 255 
295, 470 

31,374 
130, 149 



738, 359 



$17, 523 
344, 569 
390, 457 
27, 812 
226, 563 



1,006,924 



Imported from— 



Belgium 

France 

Germany 

Switzerland 

England 

All other countries 

Total 



1924 



Quantity 

Pounds 
17, 269 
209, 865 

1, 580, 403 
857, 406 
106, 704 

« 480, 733 



3, 252, 440 



Value Quantity Value 



$33, 667 

347, 596 

1,945,814 

1,331,075 

104, 965 

* 661, 194 



Pounds 

45,063 

124, 958 

1, 652, 784 

1, 118,215 

104,113 

388, 813 



$55, 488 

183, 526 

2, 079, 059 

1, 523, 829 

98, 427 

519, 127 



4,424,311 



3,433,946 | 4,459,456 

I 



I Jan. 1 to Sept. 21. 

* Title changed to: Colors, dyes, stains, color acids, and color bases, u. e. s. in act of 1922. 
» Sept. 22 to Dec. 31. 

* Inclu -es 346,520 lbs. valued at $490,717 from Italy. 



STATISTICAL TABLES 



197 



Table 78. — Coal-tar products: general imports, 1922-1926 — Continued 
COLORS, DYES, STAINS, COLOR ACIDS, AND COLOR BASES, N. E. S. 



Imported from- 



Belgium 

France, _ 

Germany _- 

Switzerland 

United Kingdom.. 

Italy 

Netherlands 

Canada 

All other countries 

Total 



1925 



Quantity 



Pounds 

109. 610 

118,321 

2, 932, 216 

1,970,951 

170,443 

202, 752 

166, 065 

111,845 

96 



5, 782, 329 



Value 



$180, 416 

166. 275 

3, 757, 846 

2, 260. 165 

144. 621 

245. 859 

241.552 

165, 659 

284 



7, 162. 677 



Quantity Value 



Pounds 

236, 340 

178, 181 

2.179.374 

1,864,891 

200,912 

92,446 

9,152 

206.298 

5,355 



4, 972, 949 



$366, 594 

240, 731 

2, 323. 272 

2. 171.317 

202, 642 

111,183 

16, 835 

158,310 

9,771 



5, 600. 655 



COAL-TAR MEDICINALS i 





1922,2 
value 


1923 


1924 


1925 


1926 


Imported from — 


Quan- 
tity 


Value 


Quan- 
tity 


Value 


Quan- 
tity 


Value 


Quan- 
tity 


Value 


France.- . . . 


$20,089 
74,983 
16, 953 
25, 462 
35, 473 
31,701 
4,009 


Pounds 
23,117 
22, 087 
310 
3,611 
12,802 
4.707 
1.494 


$59, 600 
52, 766 
1, 593 
46, 024 
36,113 
13, 579 
2.580 


Pounds 

31,868 

10,092 

271 

1,652 

41.351 

3,112 

3,857 


$63,310 
33,416 
1,214 
78. 755 
60. 477 
11.473 
7.330 


Pounds 

67. .545 

26, 867 

84 

1,310 

8,095 

3,681 

307 


$106, 786 

58, 618 

1,406 

67. 674 

9,779 

8. 532 

,554 


Pounds 
20. 229 
24,190 
2,721 
3.679 
14. 320 
2, 379 
2. 576 


$48, 350 
77, 965 
6 125 


Germany.. 

Italy - 


Netherlands 

Switzerland. 


91,473 
15 131 


United Kingdom.. 


14. 422 


All other countries 


3.883 


Total . 


208. 670 


68.128 


212. 255 


92, 203 


255, 975 


107,889 


253. 349 


70. 094 


257, 349 





I "Medieiaal preparations, n. e. s.," to and including Sept. 21. 1922. 

EXPLOSIVES, 1922 i 



Sept. 22 to Dec. 31. 



Imported from— 


Quantity 


Value 


Italy 


Pounds 
5,470 


$6,843 







1 None reported for 1923, 1924, 1925, or 1926. 

ALL OTHER FINISHED COAL-TAR PRODUCTS 





1922, 
value 


1923 


1924 


1925 


1926 


Imported from— 


Quan- 
tity 


Value 


Quan- 
tity 


Value 


Quan- 
tity 


Value 


Quan- 
tity 


Value 


France 


$430 

16, 658 

715 

2, 157 

1 


Pounds 
1,110 
9.821 
2. 372 
383 
3,241 


$11,459 

27, 856 

8,778 

973 

5,731 


Pounds 
394 
9,871 
928 
178 
709 


$1,506 

7,971 

2,411 

217 

1,979 


Pounds 

619 

11, 145 


$1, 993 
34, 786 


Pounds 

1,507 

18, 358 

441 

2,671 

49 


$5, 162 


Germany... 


47,512 


Switzerland. 


959 


United Kingdom 


1,815 
20 


2,130 
13 


9,47C 


.\11 other countries... 


388 






Total 


19, 961 


16, 927 


54,797 


12, 080 


14,084 1 13. ,599 


38,922 23.026 


63, 491 















198 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Table 79. — Coal-tar products: Domestic exports, 1922-1926 

COAL TAR 





1922 


1923 1 


1924 1 


1925 1 


1926 « 


Exported to — 


Quan- 
tity 


Value 


Quan- 
tity 


Value 


Quan- 
tity 


Value 


Quan- 
tity 


Value 


Quan- 
tity 


Value 




Barrels 

46 

101, 396 

580 
63 
57 
8 


$392 

209, 631 

3,142 

545 

245 

100 


Barrels 

348, 105 

149, 161 

844 

28 

13 

15, 683 


$1, 299, 531 

337, 501 

5,677 

278 

161 

51, 346 


Barrels 

163, 825 

79, 767 

986 

88 

108 

24, 241 


$666, 106 

236, 117 

8,374 

1,016 

2,247 

162, 343 


Barrels 

697 

105, 908 

1,961 

48 

169 

12 


$7, 480 

299, 893 

16, 249 

543 

2,650 

110 


Barrels 
131,342 


$591. 724 


North America . 
South America.. 


82.408 275,926 

1, 672 13, 881 

50 382 




103 1, 184 


Africa. 


81 72 






Total 


102, 150 


214, 055 


513, 834 


1, 694, 494 


269, 015 


1, 076, 203 


2 108, 795 


326, 925 


215, 583 883, 169 



1 Crude tar and pitch. 



2 The bulk of this trade is crude coal tar exported to North America. 
COAL-TAR DISTILLATES— BENZOL 



Exported to — 



Germany 

France 

United Kingdom 

Canada 

Mexico 

Argentina 

Chile 

Australia 

British South Africa. 
Algeria and Tunis... 
All other countries... 



Total. 



1922 



Quantity Value 



Pounds 



20, 158, 912 

39, 649, 410 

2, 045, 994 

13, 405 

445, 136 

156, 251 

86, 350 

17,312 

1, 529, 483 

638, 149 



64, 740, 402 



$738, 

1, 390, 

69, 

1, 
27, 

9, 

7. 

1, 
68, 
48, 



2, 362, 821 



1923 



Quantity 



Pounds 

3, 024, 701 

25, 932, 540 

80, 899, 171 

80, 725 

14, 137 

740, 496 

92, 006 

23,240 

749 

44, 777 

484, 226 



111,336,768 



Value 



$152, 407 

975, 152 

2, 415, 199 

3,586 

1,021 

52, 230 

4, 928 

2,066 

80 

1.629 

39, 362 



Quantity 



3, 647, 660 



Pounds 

76, 554 

25, 160. 724 

31. 206, 248 

33, 221 

51, 993 

759, 301 

171, 956 



2,418 



419, 756 



57, 882, 171 



Value 



$5, 788 

690, 683 

936, 044 

1,730 

5,527 

51, 254 

9,903 



260 



38, 648 



1, 739, 837 



Exported to— 


1925 


1926 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 




Pounds 




Pounds 

60, 179, 632 

25. 647. 969 

56, 153, 321 

125, 469 

5. 622 

902, 448 

138, 060 

13, 785 


$2, 041. 839 




24, 982, 548 

32, 887, 985 

120. 817 

22, 379 

475. 212 

179, 875 

13, 424 


$834, 180 

852, 628 

6,734 

1,574 

29, 616 

9,605 

788 


1.041.891 




2,340,211 


Canada. . . 


6,412 




603 




49, 269 


Chile 


7, 465 




1.254 
















207, 922 


12, 909 


360, 620 


24, 229 






Total. 


58, 890, 162 


1, 748, 034 


143, 527, 826 


5, 513, 173 







STATISTICAL TABLES 



199 



Table 79. — Coal-tar products: Domestic exports, 1922-1926 — Continued 

OTHER CRUDE DISTILLATES 



Exported to— 



19221 



1923 1 



1925 



1926 



France - 

Belgium 

Canada 

Honduras 

Mexico 

Brazil 

Cuba 

Japan 

United Kingdom - 
Chile- 



Nicaragua 

All other countries . 



Total. 



Value 
$995 

12, 849 
51, 718 
15, 454 

13, 691 
29,738 

2,561 
3,644 



Value 
$91 



Value 



Value 
$5, 183 



109, 770 
20, 797 
19, 102 
16, 569 
37, 675 
10,316 
8,027 



$163, 559 
16, 794 
37, 383 
3,820 
66, 544 
10, 083 
8,498 



24, 333 



79, 355 



147, 705 



233,040 

948 
58, 045 

619 
60, 082 
9,638 
77, 996 
75, 938 
47, 848 
71, 260 



154, 983 



301, 702 



454, 386 



640, 597 



Value 
$9, 750 



281, 785 
262 

42, 303 
1,198 

18, 168 

6,168 

106, 792 

135, 427 

17, 702 

43, 796 



663, 351 



1 Includes toluol and solvent naphtha. 



CARBOLIC ACID 





1922 


1923 


1924 


1925 3 


1926' 


Exported to— 


Quan- 
tity 


Value 


Quan- 
tity 


Value 


Quan- 
tity 


Value 


Quan- 
tity 


Value 


Quan- 
tity 


Value 


Canada 


Pounds 
15, 306 
50, 096 
7,009 
91,073 

44, 211 
15, 451 


$1, 143 

4,040 

694 

9,100 

4,563 
3,683 


Pounds 
2,808 
9,545 
8,195 

67, 250 


$344 

1,099 

1,461 

17, 226 


Pounds 

1,461 

17, 706 

7,539 


$93 

1,716 

711 


Pounds 




Pounds 




Mexico 


\ 






Cuba 


t 






Japan 


j 






Kwantung (leased 
territory) ... 














All other countries. _ 


145, 032 


114, 259 


224, 658 


5,496 




















Total... 


223, 146 


23,223 


232, 830 


34,389 


51,364 


8,016 





















1 Includes 130,049 pounds, valued at $11,106, to Panama. 
' Includes 8,563 pounds, valued at $2,116, to Panama. 



3 Included in " Other intermediates " in 
1925 and 1926. 



ANILINE OIL AND SALTS 





1922 


1923 


1924 


1925 


1926 


Exported to— 


Q-- value 


Quan- 
tity 


Value 


Quan- 
tity 


Value 


Quan- 
tity 


Value 


Quan- 
tity 


Value 


Spain 


Pounds 
10,000 $1,450 


Pounds 




Pounds 




Pounds 




Pounds 




Canada . 


211,010 40.919 


28S.043 $.^7,307 


160,756 .^41.838 


229, 230 
114,747 


$46, 836 
21,236 


124, 453 
15 


$25, 664 


Mexico. . 


26, 895 
29,302 
30, 600 
17, 597 


3, 575 22, 196 5, 675 
7, 000 27, 885 4, 693 
6,120 110,777 17,384 
2.993 2.122 321 


5,538 


2,117 


36 


British India 




Japan 


165, 242 


40, 280 


312, 609 

18, 449 

99, 587 

22,000 

7,109 


49, 591 
3,761 

19, 195 
9,900 
3,103 


220, 486 
12, 635 
6,251 


33, 761 


Philippines 


1,895 


Australia 


9,012 1 1,610 33,134 6,279 


36, 900 


9,403 


1,073 


France 




All other countries.. 


6,804 1 1,945 


13,300 1 3,364 


7,023 


7,799 


15,302 


3,497 


Total 


341, 220 


65, 602 


497, 457 


95,023 


375, 459 


101, 437 


803,731 


153, 622 


379, 142 


65,926 







49113—27- 



-14 



200 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHEK SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Table 79.— Coal-tar products: Domestic exports, 1922-1926 — Continued 

NAPHTHALENE J 



Exported to— 


1922 


1923 


1924 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Switzerland 


Pounds 
6,000 
17, 542 
11,558 
21, 127 
11,853 
14,610 
8,388 
18, 426 


$1, 600 
297 

1,044 

1,204 
770 

4,329 
739 

2,674 


Pounds 




Pounds 




Canada 


10, 554 
7,247 
25, 500 
10,294 
12, 529 
3,220 
25, 820 


$798 
1,322 
1,907 

672 
3,045 

406 
2,236 


25,004 

7,686 

1,464 

274 

10,058 
1,860 

65, 850 


$855 


Mexico 


596 


Cuba 


128 


British India 


21 


Japan 


3,520 
72 


Philippines 


All other countries 


18,025 




Total 


109,514 


12, 657 


95, 164 


10,386 


112,196 


13, 217 







1 Includes 44,850 pounds, valued at $6,279, to Spain. 
' Included in " Other intermediates" in 1925 and 1926. 

NITROBENZOL i 





Exported to— 


1922 




Quantity 


Value 


Norway . 


Pounds 

26, 880 

5,682 

3,203 

3,040 

• 2,147 
2,028 


$2, 957 


Canada 


683 


Cuba 


399 


Dominican Republic.- 


608 


Australia . 


312 


All other countries _ _ ___ _ _ _ 


337 








Total 


42,980 


5,296 







1 Included in "Other intermediates" tor 1923, 1924, 1925, and 1926. 

OTHER INTERMEDIATES 





1922 


1923 


1924 


1925 


1926 


Exported to— 


Quan- 
tity 


Value 


Quan- 
tity 


Value 


Quan- 
tity 


Value 


Quan- 
tity 


Value 


Quan- 
tity 


Value 




Lbs. 
28, 463 
65, 438 
5, 054 

172, 186 
77, 642 
10, 199 
42, 618 
12. 192 

314, 774 
54, 888 
20, 050 


$7, 280 

13, 834 

1,500 

33, 695 

3,481 

1,636 

8,275 

1,823 

65,047 

12,910 

11,844 


Lbs. 

9, 503 

88,868 

9,384 

149, 740 

130, 564 

8,684 

181,361 

100 

89, 336 

256, 373 

17,600 


$2, 225 
15, 088 

4,311 
22, 578 
13, 2.58 

1,007 

34, 457 

9 

18,802 

51. 407 

8,103 


Lhs. 
23, 065 
45, 818 
2,024 
.58, 971 
177, 290 
21. 949 


$4, 060 
7,423 
1.814 
23, 641 
14, 395 
4.546 


Lbs. 

2,925 

7,730 

1,100 

125, 385 

271.871 

46, 886 

340, 667 

400 

380 

594, 061 

38, 467 

43, 111 

157, 840 

96,644 


$760 

2,101 

990 

44,035 

33, 383 

5,407 

45, 708 

160 

22 

97, 934 

6,102 

30, 000 

24, 356 

26, 564 


Lbs. 
2,500 


$401 






Switzerland .. 


10, 921 

155, 787 

16. 642 

36, 876 

74, 149 

400 

32, 507 

645, 248 

68, 939 

188, 462 

43, 895 

94, 366 


2,762 


Canada.- . 


40, 605 


Mexico 


3,805 


Cuba 


3,743 


Brazil 


200, 526, 35. 847 
200l 32 


8,862 


Chile. 


36 


China 


15, 200 

50.5, 914 

26, 170 


4.634 

74, 071 

5,821 


10, 792 


Japan .. . .. . 


85, 039 




13, 771 




82, 716 
















6,028 


All other countries 


31, 630 


6,277 


276, 670 


71,815 


' 480, 302 


64, 129 


15, 093 


Total 


835, 134 


167, 602 


1, 218, 183 


243, 060 


1, 557, 429 


240, 413 


1, 727, 467 


317, 522 


1, 370, 692 


273, 653 











I Includes 409,880 pounds, valued at $28,550, to Russia in Europe. 



STATISTICAL TABLES 



201 



Table 79. — -Coal-tar products: Domestic exports, 1922-1926 — Continued 
OTHER COLORS, DYES, AND STAINS 



Exported tc 



Belgium.. 

France 

Greece 

Italy 

Netherlands 

Portugal 

Spain 

United Kingdom 

Canada 

Mexico 

Cuba 

South America 

British India 

China 

Japan 

Philippine Islands... 

Australia 

New Zealand 

British South Africa- 
Russia in Europe 

All other countries... 



Total. 



Quantity Value Quantity Value 



Pounds 

107, 712 

12, 100 

16, 830 

25, 702 

16,915 

24, 973 

87. 566 

16, 139 

1, 861, 2.55 

1.59. 857 

39, 344 

425, 551 

753, 425 

3, 588, 563 

959. 409 

33, 584 

58, 665 

36. 680 

28, 542 



71, 397 



8, 324, 209 



19231 



$76, 342 

11,975 

8,434 

51, 469 

2,792 

10, 787 

42. 426 

5,342 

1,108,518 

87, 920 

27, 335 

323, 922 

311,504 

924, 026 

844, 458 

8,618 

31, 265 

21, 439 

31, 976 



50, 669 



3, 981, 217 



Pounds 

321, 888 

15, 068 

2,895 

104 

6,667 

1,155 

11, 598 

32, 492 

1, 616, 949 
155. 302 

63, 832 

490, 619 

899. 989 

11.448.849 

2, 463, 083 

63, 906 
37, 227 
55, 147 
23, 538 



214, 228 



17, 924, 536 



$111,727 

6,340 

1,608 

129 

5,855 

497 

12,500 

16, 687 

927, 420 

78, 536 

38. 365 

352, 265 

349, 614 

2.431.421 

1, 035, 865 

23, 234 

29, 597 

26, 313 

18, 335 



Quantity Value 



99,063 



5, 565, 371 



Pounds 

166, 988 

1,137 

3,294 

2,344 

10, 945 

4,209 

10, 329 

2 10, 616 

1, 256, 284 

193. 394 

39,711 

508, 623 

408, 395 

9. 604, 760 

3, 217, 514 

56, 205 

50, 823 

27, 036 

17, 106 



123, 378 



15, 713, 091 



$80. 322 

704 

1,964 

2,069 

4,647 

1, 650 

7,643 

7,738 

740. 903 

87, 376 

37, 305 

345, 838 

216. 320 

2, 227, 943 

1, 703. 831 

33. 185 

42. 862 

15, 982 

10, 052 



66, 730 



5, 635, 064 



Exported to — 



Belgium.. 

France 

Greece 

Italy.. 

Netherlands 

Portugal 

Spain 

United Kingdom 

Canada 

Mexico 

Cuba 

South America 

British India.. 

China 

Japan 

Philippine Islands. . 

Australia 

New Zealand 

British South Africa 

Russia in Europe 

AU other countries.. 

Total A 



1925 1 



Quantity Value 



Pounds 

680, 670 

1,909 

1, 577 

11,607 

32, 646 

4,825 

17, 888 
6,943 

1, 475, 856 

304, 850 

65, 321 

434, 122 

1, 886, 165 

18, 303, 513 

2, 126, 971 

101, 003 

33, 356 

18, 582 
24,255 
72. 861 

194, 969 



25, 799, 889 



$200, 116 

3,057 

725 

7,255 

4,795 

2,048 

9,194 

10, 087 

726, 935 

150, 104 

57, 943 

266, 265 

667, 483 

3, 299, 798 

1, 062, 613 

3.5, 681 

30, 112 

11,117 

15, 945 

57, 895 

75, 192 



6, 694, 360 



19261 



Quantity Value 



Pounds 

1, 905, 611 

2,953 
2,517 
4,062 
8,240 
2,990 
13, 130 
19, 574 

2, 113, 587 
321,635 

61,390 

483, 447 

2, 136, 998 

14, 922, 287 

2, 984, 074 

49, 441 

49, 093 

15, 869 

13, 922 

41,051 

660, 070 



26, 811, 941 



$399, 446 
2,729 
1,013 
3,621 

8,057 

1,754 

9,791 

8,662 

956, 565 

148, 547 

52, 219 

250, 888 

628, 369 

1, 877, 030 

1, 350, 523 

23, 923 

34, 191 

13, 090 

7,093 

27, 400 

145, 248 



5, 950, 159 



1 Includes color lakes. 

COLOR LAKES, 1922 1 



2 England. 



Exported to— 


Quantity 


Value 


Canada 


• Pounds 

16, 900 

7,616 

100 

1,000 

135 

2,440 

37 


$14, 627 


Cuba. 


1,028 


Peru 


30 


China 


800 


Hong Kong 


86 


Japan 


3,298 


All other countries 


59 








Total 


28,228 


19, 928 







1 Figures for 1923, 1924, 1925, and 1926 included in "Other colors, dyes, and stains." 



202 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Table 79. — Coal-tar products: Domestic exports, 1922-1926 — Continued 

MEDICINALS 





1922 


1923 


1924 


1925 


1926 


Exported to— 


Quan- 
tity 


Value 


Quan- 
tity 


Value 


Quan- 
tity 


Value 


Quan- 
tity 


Value 


Quan- 
tity 


Value 


Belgium .. . 


Lbs. 
3,040 
3,300 
297, 223 

80, 540 

55, 874 
5,916 

37, S29 

11,375 
3,148 
3, 330 

27, 575 
4,848 

20. 168 


$450 

850 

80, 9M 

31.709 

13,001 

3,091 
30, 476 
16, 122 

1,796 

3,107 
21, 135 

3.863 
17, 992 


Lbs. 




Lbs. 
965 


$1, 320 


Lbs. 
765 
100 


$1, 090 
139 


Lbs. 














Turkey in Europe 










96 

221, 669 

27, 397 

2,593 

44, 606 

21, 427 

930 

895 

110,348 

2,116 

301,331 


$342 


United Kingdom -. . 


il, 169 

10, 926 
5,515 

33, 999 
3,147 
5,141 
2, 667 

11,346 
931 

90, 134 


$49, 301 
8,617 
5, 039 

30, 840 
3,681 
3,355 
1,458 
5,653 
988 

55, 228 


31, 641 

48, 119 
9.378 

92, 097 

5,938 

1,768 

24 

16, 787 
2,064 

79, 624 


25, 275 
31, 553 

8,728 
133, 541 

7,825 

4,956 

121 

13, 861 

1,426 
93, 160 


409, 492 

22, 512 

3,345 

78, 195 

13, 258 

3,779 

13,617 

80, 948 

579 

101, 500 


139, 162 

26, 127 

3,863 

105, 478 

12, 480 

6,742 

7,835 

29, 421 

715 

114, 091 


68, 314 


Canada 


14, 816 


Honduras 


3,627 


Mexico 


66,600 


Cuba.. 


17, 375 


Venezuela _ 


5,976 


British India 


541 


Australia 


47, 553 


British South Africa . 


1,211 


All other countries ' 


160, 182 






Total 


554, 166 


224, 546 


237, 975 


164, 160 


288,405 


321, 766 


728,090 


447, 143 


733, 408 


386, 537 







All other countries include shipments to China, New Zealand, Philippine Islands, Chile, Japan, etc. 
SYNTHETIC PHENOLIC RESINS i 





Exported to— 


1922 




Quantity 


Value 


England 


Pounds 

500 

121, 183 

250 

1,600 

4,620 


$69 


Canada _. 


7,786 


Mexico ........ . .. .. 


43 


China _ 


1,762 


Japan ^ - - 


3,523 








Total exports 


128, 153 


13,183 







> Included in total "Other coal-tar finished products n. e. s." for 1923, 1924, 1925, and 1926. 
PHOTOGRAPHIC CHEMICALS 





1922 


1928 


1924 


1925 


1926 


Exported to- 


Quan- 
tity 


Value 


Quan- 
tity 


Value 


Quan- 
tity 


Value 


Quan- 
tity 


Value 


Quan- 
tity 


Value 


United Kingdom 

Canada.. 


Pounds 

11,274 

65,411 

15, 019 

16, 738 
24, 526 
39,815 
11,709 
10, 806 
13,094 


$4, 896 
15,971 
7,228 
6,306 
9,124 
26, 809 
5,509 
9,018 
4,302 


Pounds 
2, 205 
23,427 
10,349 
10,223 
34, 344 
35, 894 
8,862 
12,716 
22, 101 


$1,054 
5,775 
5, 079 
5, 406 
9, 834 

28, 309 
5,051 

12, 030 
5,363 


Pounds 
1,992 
20, 679 
14, 721 
18, 788 
5,330 
16, 845 
10, 545 
13.688 
14, 883 


$1,872 
6,583 
5,863 
7,261 
2,329 

15, 455 
4,063 

12,731 
3,230 


Pounds 

1,351 

34, 019 

40, 948 

35, 626 

41,773 

7,694 

26, 136 

5,067 

18, 906 

29, 626 

73, 345 


$1, 700 
6,787 

13, 599 
8,258 

1 1, 363 
3,339 
8,005 
2,478 
4,183 
8,879 

26, 858 


Pounds 
2,892 
38, 921 
46, 177 
30, 527 
33, 651 
60, 677 
42, 991 
10, 067 
21,735 
38, 021 

111,722 


$1, 305 
11,882 


Mexico 


14, 501 


Cuba 


7,213 


Argentina 


13,413 


Japan. 


12, 661 


Philippines.. 


9,490 


Australia .. 


5, 602 


New Zeaand 

China. _ 


3,442 
16, 904 


All other countries. . 


39, 727 


14, 690 


48, 039 


18,416 ! 56,524 


21, 364 


34, 853 


Total. 


248, 119 


103,853 214. 160 


96,317 173.995 


80, 751 


314, 491 


95, 449 


437, 381 


131, 266 















STATISTICAL TABLES 



203 



Table 79. — Coal-tar products: Domestic exports, 1922-1926 — Continued 
OTHER FINISHED COAL-TAR PRODUCTS, N. E. S. 



Exported to— 


1922 


1923 


1924 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Denmark 


Pounds 
37, 226 
80, 800 
48, 767 

264, 009 

2, 797, 967 

28, 262 

67, 434 

470, 344 
95, 545 

984, 063 

107, 043 
39, 692 
78, 574 
80, 661 
80,470 
67, 948 
21,«33 


$1, 540 

2,560 

1, 275 

33, 285 

63,908 

2,655 

2,079 

26,902 

5,401 

43, 497 

8,831 

2,598 

4,664 

13, 442 

13,415 

17, 550 

4,533 


Pounds 
4,174 
30, 893 


$3,193 
6,576 


Pounds 
1,000 


$680 












United Kingdom 


167, 822 

1, 128, 524 

6,017 

24, 809 

334, 479 

21, 854 

868, 690 

207, 900 

1,510 

4,742 

103, 833 

202, 251 

154, 606 

26, 785 


37, 292 
57,663 

709 

2,920 

20,560 

3,460 

38, 382 
9,200 

381 

1,155 

18, 951 

27, 707 

38, 981 

5,166 


74, 137 

209, 457 

8,257 

11, 420 
150, 729 

12, 769 
279, 141 
201, 125 

22, 052 

1,134 

134, 398 

214, 821 

387, 275 

18,038 


23, 539 


Canada ._ 


41, 520 


Costa Rica 


928 


Panama 


1,485 


Mexico 


13. 724 


British West Indies 


2,006 


Cuba. 


26, 670 


Argentina 


9.051 


Brazil 


3,004 


Chile 


136 


Colombia ... 


22, 625 


Peru 


30, 975 


Japan 


58, 253 


Australia 


2,948 




































194, 752 


24, 707 


11,212,257 


206,808 2421,615 


67, 418 






Total 


5, 545, 090 


272, 842 


4,501,146 


479, 104 


2,147,368 


304, 962 









1925 


1926 




Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Denmark 


Pounds 

8,036 

2,178 

2,807 

570, 456 

171,904 

11,994 

11,522 

194, 460 

14, 971 

1, 342, 935 

28, 332 

36, 502 

3,227 

128.777 

127, 484 

95, 697 

7,430 

143, 300 

44,771 

17,272 

138, 582 


$2, 102 

1,150 

1,150 

101, 279 

31, 380 
1,677 
1,806 

25, 620 
1,967 

38, 131 

5,234 

5,625 

886 

23, 721 

20, 542 

26, 124 
2,513 

10, 280 
6,084 
7,101 

22, 878 


Pounds 




France 


24, 192 

58, 574 

486, 655 

83, 759 

1,572 

2,709 

60, 345 

6,218 

137,575 

22, 053 

345 

no 

44, 772 

56, 197 

18, 051 

19, 369 

2,528 

655 

110 

' 283, 091 


$10, 440 


Norway. 


876 


United Kingdom 


102, 684 


Canada 


25, 080 


Costa Rica 


179 


Panama. . ...._ 


266 


Mexico 


6,362 


British West Indies 


861 


Cuba . . 


5, 567 


Argentina . 


1,250 


Brazil .. . 


80 


Chile 


69 


Colombia 


6,736 


Peru. 


6,672 


Japan . . . 


6,066 


Australia.. .... ... 


13, 593 


Philippine Islands.. 


3,403 


Labrador 


111 


British India 


17 


All other countries . . . . .. 


35, 468 






Total 


3, 102, 637 


337, 250 


1,308,880 


225, 771 







1 Includes 768,236 pounds, valued at $140,077, to China. 
' Includes 217,369 pounds, valued at $34,212, to China. 
3 Includes 205,638 pounds, valued at $24,423, to China. 



204 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

Directory of manufacturers of dyes and other synthetic organic chemicals, 1926 



Name of company 



Office address (location of plant given in parentheses 
if not in same city as office) 



Abbott Laboratories, The. 

Acids Manufacturing Corporation. 

Agawam Chemical Works 

Algon Color & Chemical Corporation 

Alston-Lucas Paint Co 

Althouse Chemical Co., The 

Alyco Manufacturing Co. (Inc.) 

Amalgamated Dyestuff & Chemical Works 

(Inc.). 
American .\niline Products (Inc.). 

American Solvents & Chemical Co 

Amido Products Co 

Anderson Chemical Co 

Ansbacher & Co., A. B. (Inc.). 

Apex Chemical Co 

Atom Chemical Corporation... 

Baird & McGuire (Inc.) 

Barrett Co., The 

Bayer Co., The (Inc.). 

Beaver Chemical Corporation 

Benzol Products Co. (Inc.) 

Berghausen Chemical Co., The E... ., 

Berkheimer Manufacturing Co., J. E 

Brooklyn Color Works (Inc.) 

Brown Co 

Bush, Burton T. (Inc.) 

Bush & Co., W. J. (Inc.) 

Calco Chemical Co., The 

California Ink Co. (Inc.) 

Carbide & Carbon Chemical Corporation.. 

CeUuloid Co., The , 

Central Specialty Co 

Certain-teed Products Corporation 

Chemical Co. of America, The (Inc.) 

Childs Pulp Colors (Inc.) 

Cincinnati Chemical Works (Inc.) 

Coleman & Bell Co., The 

Commonwealth Color & Chemical Co 

Cooks Falls Dye Works (Inc.) 

Coopers Creek Chemical Co 

Crown Tar Works 

Crystal Color & Chemical Works 

David Chemical Co., Albert 

Debrook Co. (Inc.) _ 

Delta Chemical & Iron Co.. 

Devoe & Raynolds Co. (Inc.) 

Diarsenol Co. (Inc.) 

Dovan Chemical Corporation 

Dow Chemical Co., The 

Du Pont de Nemours & Co., E. I 

Dye Products & Chemical Co. (Inc.) 

Dyes & Chemicals (Inc.) 

DyestuSs & Chemicals (Inc.) 

Eakins, J. S. & W. R. (Inc.) 

Eastman Kodak Co 

Empire Biochemical Co 

Federal Color Laboratories (Inc.) 

Fine Colors Co. (Inc.) 

Florasynth Laboratories (Inc.) 

Ford Motor Co 

Foster-Heaton Co , 

Franco-American Chemical Works 

Fries Bros 



4753 East Ravenswood Avenue, Chicago, 111. (North 
Chicago, 111.) 

17 East Forty-second Street, New York, N. Y. (Pack- 
er, Conn.) 

531 Grosvenor Building, Providence, R. I. (North 
Attleboro, Mass.) 

132 Front Street, New York, N. Y. (Elizabeth, N. J.) 

1031 Currier Street, Chicago, 111. 

540 Pear Street, Reading, Pa. 

86 Orange Street, Bloomfleld, N. J. 

Plum Point Lane, Newark, N. J. 

45 East Seventeenth Street, New York, N. Y. (Lock 

Haven, Pa.) 
285 Madison Avenue, New York, N. Y. (Albany, 

N. Y.) 
132 Front Street, New York, N. Y. (228 Emmett 

Street, Newark, N. J.) 
148 State Street, Boston, Mass. (Everett, Mass.) 
527 Fifth Avenue, New York, N. Y. (Brooklyn, 

N. Y.) 
461 Eighth Avenue, New York, N. Y. 
96 East Tenth Street, New York, N. Y. 
Holhrook, Mass. 

40 Rector Street, New York, N. Y. (Plants distrib- 
uted throughout the United States.) 
117 Hudson Street, New York, N. Y. (Rensselaer, 

N. Y.) 
Damascus, Va. 

13 Margaretta Street, Newark, N. J. 
915 Carr Street, Cincinnati, Ohio. 
2928 South M Street, Tacoma, Wash. 
129 Cherry Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
404 Commercial Street, Portland, Me. (Berlin, N. H.) 
101 Fifth Avenue, New York, N. Y. (Delawanna, 

N. J.) 
370 Seventh Avenue, New York, N. Y. (Linden, N. J.) 
Boundbrook, N. J. 
Station A, Berkeley, Calif. 
30 East Forty-second Street, New York, N. Y. 

(Charleston, W. Va.) 
290 Ferry Street, Newark, N. J. 
524 Delaware Street, Kansas City, Mo. 
100 East Forty-second Street, New York, N. Y. (East 

St. Louis, 111.) 
Springfield, N. J. 

43 Summit Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Evanston Station, Box 20, Cincinnati, Ohio. (Nor- 
wood & St. Bernard, Ohio.) 
Main and Waverly Avenues, Norwood, Ohio. 
Nevins, Butler, and Baltic Streets, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
68 William Street, New York, N. Y. (Cooks Falls, 

N. Y.) 
West Conshohocken, Pa. 
418 Gas & Electric Building, Denver, Colo. 
Saugus, Ma.ss. 
43 Summit Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. (Chicago Heights, 

111.) 
1105 Metropolitan Avenue, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Wells. Delta County, Mich. 
1 West Forty-seventh Street, New York, N. Y. 

(Chicago, 111.) 
771 Ellicott Square, Buffalo, N. Y. 
30 Church Street, New York, N. Y. (Newark, N. J.) 
Midland, Mich. 

Wilmington, Del. (Deep Water Point, N. J.) 
200 Fifth Avenue, New York, N. Y. (Newark, N. J.) 
702 Court Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Eleventh and Monroe Streets, St. Louis, Mo. 
24 Wallabout Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
343 State Street, Rochester, N. Y. (Kodak Park 

Works, Rochester, N. Y.) 
502 East One hundred and eighty-seventh Street, New 

York, N. Y. 
4633 Forest Avenue, Norwood, Ohio. 
21 McBride Avenue, Paterson, N. J. 
Olmstead and StarUng Avenues, Unionport, N. Y. 

(Bronx, N. Y.) 
Iron Mountain, Mich. (Kingsford, Mich.) 
833 Magnolia Avenue, Ehzabeth, N. J. 
Carlstadt, N. J. 
92 Reade Street, New York, N. Y. (Bloomfleld, N. J.) 



STATISTICAL TABLES 



205 



Directory of manufacturers of dyes and other synthetic organic chemicals, 1926 — 

Continued 



No. 



Name of company 



63 Fries & Fries Co 

64 ! Garfield Aniline Works (Inc.) 

65 j Gary it Chesterton Chemical Co. 

66 I Gaskill Chemical Corporation 

Gebauer Chemical Co., The 

Goodrich Co., The B. F 

Granton Chemical Co. (Inc) 



Grasselli Dyestufls Corporation. 



Harmon Color Works. 

Heller & Merz Co., The 

Herrmann & Co., Morris (Inc). 
Heyden Chemical Corporation.. 

Hooker Electrochemical Co 



Hynson, W^estcott & Dunning... 

Imperial Color Works (Inc.) 

Ising Corporation, The C. E 

Johnson & Co., Charles Eneu 

Kent Color Corporation 

Kentucky Color & Chemical Co. 

Kessler Chemical Co., The.. 

Klipstein & Sons Co., E. C. 



Kohnstamm & Co., H. (Inc.) 

LaMotte Chemical Products Co.. 

Lewis ^Manufacturing Co., F. J 

Lilly & Co., EU 

Lucas Co.. J. Spencer 

Maas & Waldstein Co 

Mallinckrodt Chemical Works 

Marx Color & Chemical Co., Max.. , 

Massachusetts Department of Public 
Health. 

Mathieson Alkali Works, The (Inc.) 

May Chemical Works (Inc.) 

May wood Chemical Works 

Mepham & Co., George S 



Merck & Co 

Merrimac Chemical Co. 



Metz Laboratories, H. A. (Inc.). 



Miner Edgar Co., The. 

Monsanto Chemical Works 

Morana (Inc.) 

National Ammonia Co. of Pennsylvania, 

The. 
National Aniline & Chemical Co. (Inc.)... 

Naugatuck Chemical Co., The 

New England .\niline Works (Inc.) 

New Haven Gas Light Co 

New York Quinine & Chemical Works, 

The (Inc.). 
Newport Co., The... 



Niacet Chemical Co. 



Niagara Alkali Co. 

Niagara Smelting Corporation 

Noil Chemical & Color Works (Inc.). 



Office address (location of plant given in parentheses 
if not in same city as office) 



Northwestern Chemical Co 

Novocol Chemical ^Manufacturing Co. (Inc.). 

Oldbury Electro Chemical Co 

Organo Chemical Co 

Palatine Aniline & Chemical Corporation... 

Passaic Color Corporation 

Peerless Color Co 

Pennsylvania Coal Products Co 

Petroleum Chemical Corporation 

Pfizer & Company, Charles (Inc.) 

Pharma-Chemical Corporation 

Pittsburgh Plate Glass Co. (Corona Chem- 
ical Division). 

Portland Gas & Coke Co 

Powers- Weightman-Rosengarten Co 



1501 West Sixth Street, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Midland Avenue, Garfield, N. J. 

Chesterton, Ind. 

3.55 Van Buren Street, Newark, N. J. 

669 Erie Building, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Akron, Ohio. 

350 Madison Avenue, New York, N. Y. (New Bruns- 
wick, N. J.) 

1150 Broadway, New York, N. Y. (Grasselli, N. J.; 
Kensselaer, N. Y.) 

361 Harmon Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

338 Wilson Avenue, Newark, N. J. 

200 Fifth Avenue, New York, N. Y. (Newark, N. J.) 

45 East Seventeenth Street, New York, N. Y. (Gar- 
field, N. J.) 

25 Pine Street, New York, N. Y. (Niagara Falls, 
N. Y.) 

Charles and Chase Streets, Baltimore, Md. 

Glens Falls, N. Y. 

Flushing, N. Y. 

509 South Tenth Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 

2 South Ninth Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Thirty-fourth and Bank Streets, Louisville, Ky. 

575 Nassau Street, Orange, N. J. 

644 Greenwch Street, New York, N. Y. (South 
Charleston, W. Va.) 

87 Park Place, New York, N. Y. (Brooklyn, N. Y.) 

McCormick Building, Baltimore, Md. 

2513 South Robey Street, Chicago, 111. 

Indianapolis, Ind. 

1126 Pine Street. Camden, N. J. 

45 .John Street, New York, N. Y. (Newark, N. J.) 

3^00 North Second Street, St. Louis, Mo. 

192 Coit Street, Irvington, N. J. 

Room 540, State House, Boston, Mass. (Brookline, 
Mass.) 

250 Park Avenue, New York, N. Y. (Newark, N. J.) 

210 Niagara Street, Newark, N. J. 

100 West Hunter Avenue, Maywood, N. J. 

Twentieth Street and Lynch Avenue, East St. Louis, 
111. 

64 Park Place, New York, N. Y. (Rahway, N. J.) 

148 State Street, Boston, Mass. (Woburn and Everett, 
Mass.) 

122 Hudson Street, New York, N. Y. (Brooklyn, N. 
Y.; Newark, N. J.) 

110 William Street, New York, N. Y. (Newark, N. J.) 

1724 South Second Street, St. Louis, Mo. 

61 Vandam Street, New York, N. Y. (Elizabeth, N. J.) 

Delaware Avenue and Vankirk Street, Philadelphia, 
Pa. 

40 Rector Street, New York, N. Y. (Buffalo, N. Y.) 

Naugatuck, Conn. 

."Ashland, Mass. 

80 Crown Street, New Haven, Conn. 

99 North Eleventh Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

P. O. Box 1582, Milwaukee, Wis. (Carrollville, Wis.; 

Passaic, N. J.) 
709 Sixth Avenue, New York, N. Y. (Niagara Falls, 

N. Y.) 
4133 Buflalo Avenue, Niagara Falls, N. Y. 
Niagara Falls, N. Y. 
152 West One Hundred and Eighth Street, New York, 

N. Y. 
Wauwatosa, Wis. 

2923 Atlantic Avenue, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Niagara Falls, N. Y. 
South Columbus -\ venue, Sandusky, Ohio. 

81 North Water Street, Poughkeepsie, N. Y. 
50 Eighth Street, Passaic, N. J. 

521 North Avenue, Plainfleld, N. J. 

Reiber Building, Butler, Pa. (Petrolia, Pa.) 

30 Broad Street, New York, N. Y. (Tiverton, R. I.) 

81 Maiden Lane, New York, N. Y. (Brooklyn, N. Y.) 

233 Broadway, New York, N. Y. (Bayonne, N. J.) 

205 Lake Street, Milwaukee, Wis. 

310 Gasco Building, Portland, Oreg. 
916 Parrish Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 



206 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Directory of manufacturers of dyes and other synthetic organic chemicals, 1926 — 

Continued 



No. 



Name of company 



Office address (location of plant given in parentheses 
if not in same city as office) 



128 
129 



130 
131 



133 
134 

135 

136 
137 
138 
139 
140 
141 
142 
143 
144 
145 
146 

147 
148 
149 
150 
151 

152 
153 
154 
155 
156 
157 



159 
ICO 
161 
162 

163 
164 
165 
166 
167 

168 
169 
170 
171 



Providence Chemical Laboratories- 
Quaker Oats Co., The 



Radiant Dye & Color Works (Inc.). 
Rhodia Chemical Co 



132 Roessler & Hasslacher Chemical Co., The.. 



Rossville Co., The .-- 

Rubber Service Laboratories Co., The. 

Ruxton, Philip (Inc.) 



Selden Co., The 

Semet-Solvay Co — 

Seydel Chemical Co 

Sherwin-Williams Co., The 

Siegle Corporation of America, G_ 

Siemon &. Elting (Inc.) 

Simons, Harold L. (Inc.)..- 

Sinclair & Valentine Co 

Southern Dyestufls Co... 

Special Chemicals Co 

Squibb & Sons, E. R 



Stearns & Co., Frederick 

Sun Chemical & Color Co 

Synfleur Scientific Laboratories (Inc). 

Synthetical Laboratories, The 

Tar Products Corporation 



Texdel Chemical Co 

Textile Chemical Co 

Tower Manufacturing Co. (Inc.). 

Trico Chemical Co. (Inc.) 

Uhlich & Co., Paul (Inc.)..- 

Ullman Co., Sigmund 



United States Industrial Chemical Co. 
(Inc.). 

Van Dyk & Co. (Inc.) 

Van Schaack Bros. Chemical Works (Inc.). 

Verona Chemical Co 

Victor Chemical Works.- - 



Warner-Jenkinson Manufacturing Co 

Watson Co., H. F 

Western Dry Color Co 

White Chemical Co., The Wilbur 

White Tar Co. of New Jersey, The (Inc.). 



Wilhelm Co., The A 

Williamsburg Chemical Co. (Inc.).- 
Wolff-Alport Chemical Corporation. 
Zinsser & Co. (Inc.) 



51 Empire Street, Providence, R. I. 

1600 Railway Exchange, Chicago, 111. (Cedar Rapids, 
Iowa.) 

Neptune Avenue and West Twentieth Street, Brook- 
lyn, N. Y. 

21 Spruce Street, New York, N. Y. (New Brunswick, 
N. J.) 

709 Sixth Avenue, New York, N. Y. (Perth Amboy, 
N. J.; Niagara Falls, N.Y.) 

Lawrenceburg, Ind. 

611 Peoples Bank Building, Akron, Ohio. (Nitro, 
W. Va.) 

220 West Forty-second Street, New York, N. Y. 
(Brooklyn, N. Y.) 

339 Second .\ venue, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

61 Broadway, New York, N. Y. (Syracuse, N. Y.) 

86 Forrest Street, Jersey City, N. J. (Nitro, W. Va.) 

601 Canal Road, Cleveland, Ohio. (Chicago, 111.) 

Rosebank, Staten Island, N. Y. 

Linden, N. J. (Irvington, N. J.) 

11 Fortv-fourth Road, Long Island City, N. Y. 

11 St. Clair Place, New York, N. Y. 

Nitro, W. Va. 

Waukegan, 111. (Highland Park, 111.) 

80 Beekman Street, New York, N. Y. (Brooklyn, 
N. Y.; New Brunswick, N. J.) 

Jefferson and Bellevue Avenues, Detroit, Mich. 

309 Sussex Street, Harrison, N. J. 

Monticello, N. Y. 

5558 Ardmore Avenue, Chicago, 111. 

99 Empire Street, Providence, R. I. (East Providence, 
R. I.) 

136 Water Street, New York, N. Y. (Nutley, N. J.) 

90 Smithfield Avenue, Providence, R. I. 

85 Doremus Avenue, Newark, N. J. 

502 Iroquois Building, Buffalo, N. Y. 

11 Clill Street, New York, N. Y. (Brooklyn, N. Y.) 

Park Avenue and One Hundred and Forty-sixth 
Street, New York, N. Y. 

110 East Forty-second Street, New York, N. Y. (Balti- 
more,. Md.) 

4 Piatt Street, New York, N. Y. (Jersey City, N. J.) 

3358 .\vondale Avenue, Chicago, 111. 

26 Verona Avenue, Newark, N. J. 

343 South Dearborn Street, Chicago, 111. (Chicago 
Heights, 111.) 

2526 Baldwin Street, St. Louis, Mo. 

Erie, Pa. 

Fifty-second and Wallace Streets, Chicago, 111. 

Owego, Tioga County, N. Y. 

Belleville Turnpike, Kearney, N. J. (Kearney, N. J.; 
Cincinnati, Ohio.) 

Third and Bern Streets, Reading, Pa. 

230 Morgan Avenue, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

593 Irving .\ venue, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Hastings-on-Hudson, N. Y. 



o 



% 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 
WASHINGTON 



Tariff Information Series — No. 36 



LAKE FISH 




UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON 

1927 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 

WASHINGTON 



Tariff Information Series — No. 36 



LAKE FISH 

A STUDY OF THE TRADE BETWEEN 

THE UNITED STATES AND CANADA 

IN FRESH-WATER FISH 

WITH COST OF PRODUCTION 

DATA 




UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON 

1927 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 

Office: Seventh and E Streets NW., Washington, D C. 



COMMISSIONERS 

Thomas O. Marvin, Chairman 
Alfred P. Dennis, Vice Chairman. 
Edward P. Costigan. 
Edgar B. Brossard. 
Sherman J. Lowell. 
Lincoln Dixon. 



'UiWLNrS 



John F. Bethune, Secretary. 



1927 



ADDITIONAL COPIES 

OF THIS PUBLICATION MAT BE PROCURED FROM 

THE SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS 

V. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON, D. C. 

AT 

30 cents per copy 



CONTENTS 



Page 

General considerations 1 

Part I. Summary 9 

Tariff considerations 17 

Tariff history 18 

Court and Treasury decisions 19 

Part II. Surveys of the individual species: 

General discussion 23 

Whitefish 23 

Lake trout 29 

Ciscoes 34 

Blue pike 44 

Yellow pike 51 

Yellow perch 56 

Lake herring 61 

Chubs -66 

TuUibees 70 

Jacks 74 

Mullets 79 

Saugers 85 

Sheepshead 88 

Part III. Details of methods, catch, and production costs: 

GiU-net fishing 93 

Vessel fishing 94 

Pound and trap net fishing 101 

Line fishing 102 

Fishing costs — ■ 

Cost period and scope of investigation 105 

Method of obtaining costs 106 

Adjustment and treatment of data — 

(1) Allocation of costs to the several species 106 

(2) Weighting of costs by lakes 106 

(3) Exchange rate used in computing costs 107 

Comparison of cost items 107 

Boxing and icing methods and costs — 

Preparing fresh fish for shipment 110 

Boxing and icing costs 111 

Freezing methods and costs — 

Freezing methods 113 

(1) Natural freezing 113 

(2) Salt and ice freezing _^ 113 

Panning 114 

Freezing 114 

Removal of fish from pans 115 

Glazing 115 

Cold storage 115 

Packing for shipment 116 

(3) Mechanical freezing 116 

(4) Brine freezing 116 

The Peterson system 117 

Cake freezing 117 

Individual freezing 118 

Ice making 118 

The Kolbe system • 118 

Fish panning 119 

Quantities of lake fish frozen 119 

Freezing costs 120 

III 



IV CONTENTS 

Part III. Details of methods, etc. — Continued. Pag 

Salting 12: 

Localization of the industry 12. 

Preparation of fresh lake herring ^ 12^ 

Methods of applying salt 12. 

Repacking 12J 

Salting costs 12i 

Smoking — 

Species selected for smoking 12' 

Methods employed 12' 

Smoking costs 12J 

Filleting 13(| 

Transportation costs 13]i 

Rates of duty on lake fish . 13;; 

Species of fish planted in Great Lakes: 

Fish propagation statistics 13Sj 

Laws governing fishing in international waters 13£] 

Common and scientific names of lake fish 13£i 

Production statistics: { 

Jources of data 141 , 

Detailed statistics of catch and costs — ! 

Whitefish 1411 

Lake trout 144| 

Ciscoes 147 

Blue pike 148 

Yellow pike 150 

Yellow perch 1531 

Lake herring l56i 

Chubs 158' 

Tullibees l60i 

Jacks 162 

Mullets 165 

Saugers 168 

Sheepshead I69j 

Catch of minor species — ! 

Carp 170 

Catfish 171 

Goldeyes 171 

Sturgeon 172 

White bass 173 

Miscellaneous 173 

Summary of catch, all species 174 



V 



Acknowledgment 

In the preparation of this report the 
commission had the services of Lawrence 
T. Hopkinson, Frederick H. Meisnest, 
and John Easton Brown, of the agricul- 
tural division of the commission's staff, 
and of others. 



LAKE FISH 



GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS 

The object of this report is to present factual data that may be 
useful in constructing a tariff schedule for fresh-water fish. With 
this end in view the commission restricts its study to whitefish, 
lake trout, ciscoes, blue pike, yellow pike, yellow perch, lake herring 
chubs, tullibees, jacks, mullets or suckers, saugers, and sheepshead. 
Three other species — catfish, buffalo, and carp — ^are taken in large 
quantities, but they may be disregarded for tariff purposes because 
imports are negligible. 

The domestic production of the 13 species selected for study centers 
in the Great Lakes. The competing foreign production also centers 
in the Great Lakes and in the large northern lakes of Canada. 

Fish caught in these waters are commonly referred to as fresh-water 
fish, or more specifically as "lake fish," to distinguish them from fish 
caught in the sea, but in the trade each variety is bought and sold 
under its specific name and is regarded as a distinct article of com- 
merce. It is this trade distinction and the difference in the com- 
petitive status of the several species considered that determines the 
form of the present report, which is in outline as follows: Part I, a 
summary of the factual data given in the body of the report; Part 
II, a series of 13 individual fish surveys; Part III, detailed descrip- 
tions and statistics upon which the individual fish surveys are based. 

The necessity of treating separately the individual species does not, 
however, preclude some consideration of the lake-fish industry as a 
whole. In fact, some broad generalizations are needed to a clear 
understanding of the competitive problems of each species. 

Summary oj trade. — The total United States trade in lake fish in 
1924 may be summarized, thus: pounds 

Catch 78,500,000 

Imports (aUfrom Canada) 41,600,000 

Consumption 120, 100, 000 

The above figures include all grades and kinds of lake fish — fresh, 
frozen, salted, and smoked. Fresh fish, the most important of the 
four, are shipped by express, packed in crushed ice in wooden boxes 
having a capacity of 100 pounds of fish. When the fresh-fish market 
is glutted, the coastal buyer usually preserves the surplus catch by 
freezing. In the lake herring fishery, however, the bulk of the catch 
is salted, either by the fishermen or by the coastal buyers. In 
freezing, the fish is subjected to a low temperature, produced by 
artificial means, except in the winter fishery of the northern Canadian 
lakes where advantage is taken of the naturally low temperature. 
In the summer most of the surplus is frozen to be sold in the winter, 

1 



Z TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS 

when no fishing of consequence is done on the Great Lakes. Some 
producers smoke part of their catch, but smoking is, for the most 
part, done in the large consuming centers. By the "hot smoke" 
process, the method generally used, the fish is both cooked and 
smoked, and is thereby rendered so very delicate and perishable that 
it can not be transported long distances. Both fresh and frozen 
fish are used for smoking. 

Maintaining the fish swp^^Z?/.— Perhaps the outstanding problem of 
the whole lake fishery is the maintenance of a breeding stock. The 
border States have for years realized that any confined body of water 
may readily be depleted by net fishing and have enacted legislation 
designed to control fishing. The regulations that they have pro- 
mulgated have not, however, completely checked depletion of the 
fisheries. Notwithstanding the progress made in fish propagation, 
the annual hauls are so large that inroads are still being made on the 
breedinp; stock. 



Juf^jspicTiowAL Boundaries Governing (Commercial T'ishing 




Illinois 

jlNDlANA 



The problem of conserving a breeding stock is not purely a do- 
mestic one. It has international complications. On the two sides 
of the international boundary running between the Great Lakes of 
the United States and Canada, fishing regulations differ. Many 
attempts have been made to coordinate the regulations of the two 
countries, but as yet complete agreement has not been reached. 
Both countries have, however, been active in replenishing fish life 
in the Great Lakes. Each year the several government agencies 
plant there about one and one-half billion fry (young fish). During 
the spawning season the milt and roe are stripped from part of the 
catch, incubated in shore stations, and the fry released into the 
Lakes. Of the 30 fish hatcheries on the Great Lakes, 5 are owned by 
the United States, 16 by border States, 5 by Canada, and 4 by the 
Province of Ontario. 

Pollution. — Depletion of the Great Lakes fisheries is traceable not 
only to exhaustion of the supply by net fishing, but to pollution of 



TAEIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS 6 

the feeding and spawning grounds by industrial waste and sewage. 
Some fishing grounds once very productive have been made almost 
barren. The area most affected is the United States half of Lake 
Erie, particularly from Erie, Pa., westward. On the south shore of 
Lake Erie representatives of 95 per cent of the fishing companies 
stated to the commission's experts that pollution affected their sup- 
ply of fish, w^hile on the Canadian side only 12 per cent admitted 
pollution to any degree. The testimony of the companies is sub- 
stantiated by the findings of the International Joint Commission 
(United States and Canada) in its report of January 16, 1914, on 
the "Pollution of boundary waters." This commission, composed 
of eminent ichthyologists and other scientists, made some 19,000 bac- 
teriological tests, covering a period of two years (1912-1914) in waters 



Zones Of Pollution 

found By The International Joint Commission, 1913. 

LEGEND 




of the Great Lakes from the St. Lawrence River at the one end to 
Rainy River at the other. The tests showed that the area most 
aft'ected w^as the western half of Lake Erie on the United States side, 
the Canadian side being comparatively free from contamination. 
The joint commission attributes pollution on the United States side 
to the unrestricted discharge of sewage into the lake by cities and 
by chemical and other industrial plants situated along the boundary 
waters.^ Freedom from pollution on the Canadian side is explained 

1 The following excerpt from a bulletin issued from the department of public utilities, city of Cleveland, 
Ohio, on "Cleveland's water supply" (March 10, 1925), to the city council further bears out statements 
made concerning Lake Erie water contamination: 

"In 1924, Mr. Ellms conducted a * * * study over a 36 square mile lake area opposite Collinwood 
and Nottingham. The purpose of this study was to determine a proper location for a new water intake 
for the Nottingham plant which should be available by 1930. Results showed dangerous pollution of the 
lake along certain lines, » * * 

"The best location for the new intake would be between two highly polluted areas, about 5 miles ofl 
shore. In other words, the best possible location at this time would be merely in an area somewhat less 
polluted than those around it. This presents an unthinkable situation." 

'i 4003— 27 2 



4 TAEIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS 

by the absence of large cities and large industries. Another reason 
assigned by the joint commission for the pollution of Lake Erie fishing 
areas is the dumping of sewage by vessels. Fishermen themselves 
empty their clmkers mto the lake and use preservatives on their nets 
which are deleterious to aquatic life. The amount of kerosene used 
runs into thousands of gallons a year. 

Variations in regional supply. — While pollution on the United States 
side of Lake Erie doubtless adversely affects competition with Cana- 
dian fishing on the same lake, a more potent factor is the much larger 
amount of fishing gear employed on the United States half of the lake. 
Fishermen contend that this tends to drive the fish into Canadian 
waters. Winds and currents also have a decided effect upon the 
movement of fish, but it is difficult to ascertain which country is 
favored in this particular respect. The sum of all of these advantages 
and disadvantages in competition, however, may be definitely meas- 
ured by the bookkeeping records of the fishing companies in the two 
countries. The records for 1924 ^ show that in the Lake Erie fishery 
the Canadian catch of cisco, the most important single species, aver- 
aged 110 pounds per 1,000 square yards of netting per fishing day, 
while the United States catch averaged only 70 pounds. Obviously 
this difference in size of catch has its effect on cost of production and 
consequently on competition, since fishing is done by the same meth- 
ods and during the same season on both sides of the lake. In fact, 
during a considerable portion of the season the boats of the two 
countries fish side by side along the international boundary. 

To a lesser extent the same situation as that outlined above exists 
with respect to certain varieties taken in other international waters. 
While nearly all important species are found in each of the lakes under 
consideration, some are more abundant in one than in another and 
there is often a considerable difference in the supply of a species in 
different parts of a single lake. For instance, in 1924 the Canadian 
half of Lake Ontario yielded 2,653,810 pounds of whitefish and the 
United States half only 136,922 pounds. On the other hand, most 
of the saugers taken in Lake Erie come from the United States side. 
The difference in the available supply of a species in one lake as com- 
pared with another may be due to one or more causes, such as inade- 
quate food supply, unproper water depths, abundance of predatory 
fishes, industrial pollution, intensity of fishing, and law^s governing 
commercial fishing. Variation in supply in the different parts of a 
single lake is usually caused by the factors cited above, and by the 
migratory habits of fish. 

The northern Canadian laJces. — The United States industry com- 
petes not only with the Canadian Great Lakes fisheries but with the 
northern Canadian lakes — Lake Winnipeg, Lake Manitoba, Lake 
Winnipegosis, Lesser Slave Lake, Buffalo Lake, and Lake Nipagon. 
The exploitation of these newer centers of lake fish production, while 
hampered by high transportation costs, is nevertheless extensive 
because of low fishing costs. The northern Canadian lakes producers 
have an advantage in their large supply of such fish as tullibees, 
jacks, and j^-ellow pike, found only in relatively small quantities in 
the Great Lakes. In the frozen fish business they also have the ad- 
vantage of long cold winters which freeze the fish naturally and 
thereby effect a saving. Expense is involved at times, however, in 

2 For full discussion and for statistics see p. 42 . 



TAEIFF INFOKMATION SUKVEYS O 

preventing a portion of the catch from freezing. When high prices 
are paid in the United* States for fresh wmter-caught fish, Canadian 
producers resort to heated sleighs and heated express cars to keep 
their fish from freezing. 

History of the Tariff Commission's investigations. — This investiga- 
tion of the lake fisheries is made mider the general powers conferred 
upon the Tariff Commission by section 318 of the tariff act of 1922. 

The investigation was ordered on April 30, 1925, and plans for 
field work were approved on June 16 of the same year. Field work 
was not begun, however, until September 3, 1925, the intervening 
period being occupied with preparing for a halibut hearing at Seattle, 
Wash., on August 10 and 11. By January 2, 1926, field work had 
been completed. The area covered by the investigation includes 
all of the important domestic and foreign fishing ports and centers 
where lake fish are landed— in all, 65 centers, of which 40 are in the 
United States and 25 in Canada — and the two principal consuming 
centers — New York City and Chicago. On the Great Lakes, the 
centers selected were in the ^States of New York, Pennsylvania, 
Michigan, Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin, and Minnesota, and in the 
Province of Ontario. In addition to the Great Lakes centers, points 
on the United States and Canadian shores of Lake of the Woods 
were also included, as well as on the principal northern lakes of 
Canada — Lake Manitoba, Lake Winnipeg, Lake Winnipegosis, 
Lesser Slave Lake, Buffalo Lake, and Lake Nipagon. These areas 
were selected for the following reasons: 

1. The domestic catch of fresh-water fish, except that of carp 
and catfish, comes principally from the Great Lakes and the Lake 
of the Woods; 

2. Imports of carp and catfish are too small to affect the domestic 
market — less than 1 per cent of domestic production; 

3. The Canadian Great Lakes and large northern lakes yield more 
than 80 per cent of the total Canadian lake-fish catch. 

Field work began on September 3, 1925, at Erie, Pa., the center 
of largest production in the United States, with a conference between 
the commission's fisheries experts and accountants and fishermen 
and representatives of the wholesale fish business of Ohio, New 
York, and Pennsylvania, and the Province of Ontario. A confer- 
ence was also held at Port Dover, Ontario, November 3, 1925, with 
Canadian fishermen and wholesalers. 

Price data and information bearing on marketing problems were 
obtained from jobbers in Chicago in December, 1925. Concur- 
rently, data were being collected at other production centers from 
fishermen, producers, and distributors. By June 1, 1926, the data 
collected in the lakes region had been tabulated at Washington. To 
complete the study the fisheries experts then proceeded to New York 
City, the largest lake fish consuming center, to obtain price data 
and marketing information. The figures obtained in the investiga- 
tion were taken on prescribed cost schedules from the bookkeeping 
records of the various companies and fishermen. 

In the areas investigated, the 126 records taken in the two coun- 
tries represent 28.7 per cent of the domestic production and 15.3 
per cent of the Canadian. The year 1924, being a fairly normal 
year, in the opinion of fishermen and producers, was selected for 



6 



TAEIFF INFORMATION SUJRVEYS 



cost study. To understand fully the cost problems, it is especially 
desirable to know something of the fishing mtthods, the customary 
practice of dividing profits, and the way in which the commission 
calculated its cost data. 




Fishing methods and cost problems. — Among the various devices for 
catching fish in interior waters, the ones most used are gill, pound, 
and trap nets. Gill nets, the most used in both countries, are 
usually carried to the fishing grounds in vessels and there set in the 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS 7 

water and allowed to remain overnight. The vessel returns each 
day to remove the catch and to set the nets. When set the gill net 
resembles a huge tennis-court net. The mesh is of fine cotton or 
linen thread, and a fish swimming against it passes through one of 
the openings until the thickness of its body impedes further progress 
and the protrusion of its gills and fins prevents egress. Pound and 
trap nets are constructed on an entirely different principle. In 
them the fish does not become enmeshed, as in the gill net, but swims 
along a wall of netting and in attempting to pass around the walls 
follows other walls leading into an inclosure or pound. The nets 
are allowed to remain in the water about 60 days. By this time 
they are covered with an aquatic growth and must be withdrawn 
for cleaning. The fish are removed when there is a sufficient catch 
to warrant lifting the pot or crib of the pound. Trap nets are fixed 
by means of anchors, and pound nets are fastened to piles driven 
into the ground. Hook and line fishing is confined almost entirely 
to lake trout fishing. 

Whether gill or fixed nets are used, more than one kind of fish is 
usually taken in a single haul or during a season's operations. A 
trap net on Lake Erie in 1924 caught 13 different kinds, 9 of which 
were important species. Since the nets are set to catch any kind 
of fish, none of the items of operating costs can be directly charged 
to any single species. In conseciuence, fishermen or net owners do 
not prorate their expenses against the several species, but consider 
their profits or losses as a whole on a seasonal basis. The price 
realized for the several special varies widely, that of the trap-net 
catch ranging from 2 to 8 cents per pound. The trade makes a 
clear distinction between the several species, which are not directly 
interchangeable, although to a limited extent one species may at 
times be substituted for another. 

When the fish are removed from the fishing gear they are imme- 
diately carried ashore. In the vessel fisheries of some localities it 
is customary to remove the entrails of the fish before port is reached, 
and in the winter fishery of the northern Canadian lakes, where most 
of the fish are frozen by exposure to the air, the same practice is 
followed. If the fishermen own the equipment, the catch is imme- 
diately sold to a coastal buyer at the "going price," usually the 
price prevailing in the locality for fish caught by company-owned 
boats. If they are working on shares, they receive a percentage of 
the total sales value of the catch. On most of the company-owned 
boats the fishermen are also paid shares based upon the sales value 
of the catch, a rather peculiar system whereby the company buys 
the catch of its own boats. The price paid to the fishermen, how- 
ever, is determined by individual agreement or by agreement between 
a group of companies and a union of fishermen. 

Charging of costs to the several species.— In allocating costs it is pat- 
ent from the foregoing statements that to charge to each species of 
fish a portion of the expense in proportion to the price received by 
the fishermen would be to ignore the fact that the price paid the 
fishe'rmen is often artificial and does not always reflect the true mar- 
ket value. The Tariff Commission has therefore selected the ''sales 
value method" of charging costs — i. e., from the Chicago price is 
deducted freight to the fishing center, 10 per cent commission, and 
the 1 cent customs duty. By this method each species has been 



8 TAEIFF INFORMATION SUEVEYS 

charged a share of the expense in the direct proportion that the ratio 
of its sales value bears to the sales value of the total catch. Thus, 
for the haul of a vessel catching two kinds of fish, one of which sold 
for $700 and the other for $300, one was charged 70 per cent of the 
expense and the other 30 per cent. When the expense chargeable to 
a given species was ascertained for each of the lakes, the average cost 
per pound of that species caught on each lake was determined sim- 
ply by dividing the expense by the pounds caught. Weighting of 
costs on each of the several lakes to determine the average cost for 
a group of lakes was on the basis of the relative production. For 
example, if the catch of a certain species on one of the lakes amounted 
to 70 per cent of the catch on all lakes, the cost per pound on that 
particular lake was given a weight of 70 per cent, as against a weight 
of 30 per cent divided among the other fishing centers. 

Reflection of tariff in fishermen's shares.— In considering the indi- 
vidual items of fishing cost it should be noted that m many of the 
fisheries the fishermen are paid a percentage of the amount realized 
for the catch. There is no uniform method of apportioning the fish- 
ermen's shares. In fact, it often differs between ports on the same 
lake. In some localities the fishermen work for wages during a part 
of the year and on shares the rest of the year. In the vessel fisheries 
the captains and engineers usually receive wages in addition to a 
small percentage of the gross sales value of the catch. The fishing 
cost statements given in this report include all wages, shares, and 
bonuses paid to those employed in fishing. Obviously, if the cus- 
toms duty of 1 cent per pound (which applied during the period for 
which costs were gathered) is reflected in the price realized for the 
catches of the foreign and domestic industries, it is also reflected in 
the fishermen's shares, since they are based on the sales value of the 
catch. 



PART I 



SUMMARY 



Part I 
SUMMARY 

The tariff act of 1922, paragraph 717, levies a duty of 1 cent per 
pound on all fresh and frozen lake fish. Each species is, however, a 
distinct article of commerce, with its own peculiar competitive prob- 
lems. None of them can be used interchangeably, but to a limited 
extent certain ones serve as substitutes for others. This report, 
therefore, treats separately the 13 varieties of lake fish considered 
important, namely: Whitefish, lake trout, ciscoes, blue pike, yellow 
pike, yellow perch, lake herring, chubs, tullibees, jacks, mullets, 
saugers, and sheepshead. 

Imports come entirely from Canada. Exports of domestic fresh- 
water fish are small and consist only of mullets and carp. Production 
in the United States centers on the Great Lakes, one of which. Lake 
Michigan, is owned entirely by the United States. Canada, in 
addition to its share of the Great Lakes as defined by the international 
boundary, has extensive sources of supply to the north — Lake Nipagon, 
Lake Winnipeg, Lake Winnipegosis, Lake Manitoba, Lesser Slave 
Lake, Buffalo Lake, and many less important lakes. 

In the summaries of competitive conditions with respect to indi- 
vidual species, the production costs of the foreign product, f. o. b. 
United States markets, do not include the 1 cent per pound customs 
duty. 

WHITEFISH 

The Great Lakes have become seriously depleted of whitefish by 
intensive fishing — particularl}^, the United States portion. In 1924 
domestic waters supplied only 26.7 per cent of domestic consumption, 
the bulk of imports coming from the northern Canadian lakes. 
Many of these, however, also show signs of depletion so that any 
substantial increase in foreign production must come from unex- 
ploited lakes. 

In near-by markets the domestic product of some localities has 
an advantage in competition, but in the principal consmiiing centers 
it is at a disadvantage. The cost of placing domestic fresh wiiitefish 
in New York Citj^- in 1924 exceeded that of the foreign (excluding 
duty) by 2.9 cents per pound and in Chicago the domestic cost 
exceeded the foreign by 1.7 cents per pound. The cost of placing 
the domestic frozen fish in these markets exceeded that of the foreign 
by 7.2 cents per pound in New York City and by 7.2 cents per pound 
in Chicago, about 65 per cent of the Canadian frozen product being 
caught in the winter fishery at a comparatively low cost. 

LAKE TROUT 

Production of lake trout has probably reached its peak in the 
waters of both the United States and Canada. Lake Michigan, 
owned entirely by the United States, supplies 66 per cent of the 

11 



12 TAKIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS 

domestic catch. The fishery of the other Great Lakes is divided 
between the two countries by an international boundary. It is 
probable that the lake trout of the other Great Lakes, except Lake 
Erie, do not migrate from the waters of one country to those of the 
other. If this theory is correct, imports which constitute 26 per 
cent of domestic consmiiption come mostly from sources that are 
available to Canadian fishermen only. 

The principal market for lake trout is the mid western part of the 
United States, and the largest single market is Chicago. In 1924, 
the cost of the fresh domestic trout laid down in Chicago was 0.9 
cent per pound more than that of the foreign product. The frozen 
domestic lake trout in the same market cost 2.3 cents per pound 
more than the foreign. 

CISCOES 

Ciscoes, as known to the trade in large con3u;iiing centers, are 
caught in Lake Erie only. Scientifically they are the same as the 
"herring" taken in the other Great Lakes. The two are so different 
in appearance, price, and competitive status, however, that for 
purposes of this study they must be considered separately. 

In 1924, the latest year for which statistics are available, the 
domestic catch of ciscoes was approximately 21,000,000 pounds. 
The Canadian catch in the same year was 11,000,000 pounds, of 
which about 90 per cent was exported to the United States. As the 
fleets of both countries draw upon Lake Erie, and at times fish side 
by side on opposite sides of the international boundary, the season 
of largest production is the same for the one as for the other, and the 
rise and fall from year to year in the annual catches coincides. 

In these circumstances the differences in the cost of placing the 
ciscoes caught in waters of the two countries in the principal com- 
petitive markets, namely, New York City and Chicago, may be 
taken as a measure of the extent to which their fisheries compete. 
In 1924 the average cost of domestic fresh ciscoes laid down in New 
York City exceeded the foreign cost, excluding duty, by 2.3 cents per 
pound and in Chicago by 2.1 cents per pound. Frozen domestic 
ciscoes cost 3 cents per pound more than the foreign f. o. b. New 
York City and 3.2 cents per pound more f. o. b. Chicago. The 
principal factors that cause this difference are: (1) The smaller 
domestic catch per unit of fishing gear and (2) the higher wages in 
the domestic fishery. 

Inasmuch as United States fishermen are paid upon a share basis 
instead of straight wages, it is probable that the duty of 1 cent per 
pound causes the fishermen's shares, or income, to be higher than 
they would otherwise be. The 1924 labor costs were, however, 1.6 
cents per pound higher in the domestic fisheries than in the Canadian, 
which, assimiing the duty to have been fully realized by the fisher- 
men, would still leave a difference of 0.6 cent per pound. But to 
measure definitely the eft"ect of the customs duty upon the share 
income and therefore upon the cost of production is not feasil)le. 

vSmoked ciscoes are important in the domestic trade, but imports 
are small, largely because such fish are very perishable and the cost 
of their transportation is comparatively high. In 1919 imports were 
116,700 pounds; in 1924 they had dwindled to nothing. Smoked 
ciscoes are dutiable, under paragraph 720 of the tariff act of 1922, at 
1}4 cents per pound. 



TARIFF INFOSMATION SUKVEYS 13 

BLUE PIKE 

More than 98 per cent of the United States and Canadian catch of 
blue pike comes from Lake Erie. All but about 10 per cent of the 
Canadian catch is exported to the United States. In 1924, 24 per 
cent of the domestic consumption of blue pike was imported from 
Canada. 

As the fleets of both countries draw upon the same source of supply, 
the difference between their costs of production may be taken to be 
a fair measure of the competitive strength of the Canadian and United 
States industries. 

Costs of production vary, however, as between blue pike caught in 
gill nets and those caught in pound nets, and this difference is reflected 
in the sales price of the two grades. When taken from gill nets, the 
fish are usually dead and consequently less valuable than the live 
fish taken from pound nets. In New York City the pound-net fish 
sells for from 2 to 5 cents per pound more than the gill-net fish, for 
the reason that they are fresher. The distinction between gill-net 
and pound-net fish, however, is probably too fine to warrant a separate 
classification in the tariff law. 

The bulk of the catch m the two countries is taken in gill nets — 
in 1924, 71 per cent of the United States catch and 62 per cent of the 
Canadian. Although a somewhat higher proportion of the United 
States than of the Canadian is taken by this type of gear, fishing is 
done under practically the same conditions on both sides of the inter- 
national boundary. The gill-net fisheries may therefore be taken as 
a basis on which to compare costs of blue-pike fishing in Canada and 
the United States. 

In 1924, the cost of the United States Lake Erie gill-net catch of 
blue pike laid down fresh in New York City and in Chicago exceeded 
the cost of the Canadian Lake Erie gill-net catch in the two markets 
(excluding duty) by 1.7 cents per pound and by 1.5 cents per pound, 
respectively. Domestic frozen blue pike, the product of gill nets, 
cost 2.4 cents per pound more than the foreign f. o. b. New York City 
and 2.6 cents per pound more f. o. b. Chicago. 

YELLOW PIKE 

The supply of yellow pike in domestic waters is relatively small. 
In 1924 only 22 per cent of the domestic consumption came from 
United States waters. Imports consist principally of fish taken in the 
northern lakes of Canada, where the annual catch is larger than the 
combined Great Lakes catch of the United States and Canada. 

Like the domestic whitefish, the domestic yellow pike taken in 
some localities has an advantage in near-by markets, but m the large 
consuming centers it is at a cost disadvantage. Laid down in New 
York City in 1924 the fresh domestic fish cost 0.2 cent per pound 
more than the foreign product in the same market and in Chicago 
0.3 cent per pound less. Domestic frozen yellow pike laid down in 
New York City in 1924 cost 4.5 cents per pound more than the foreign 
and laid down in Chicago 5 cents per pound more. 



14 



TAEIFF INF0R:\IATI0N SURVEYS 



YELLOW PERCH 

Competition between the domestic and foreign yellow perch is 
practically confined to the catch of Lake Erie, and centers chieflT 
on the gill-net catches of the two countries. The Lake Michigan 
catch consists principally of small cheap fish in a class by themselves, 
not taken extensively in other lakes. The pound-net catch of Lake 
Erie, because of its freshness, is also considered by the trade to be in 
a class by itself. A tariff classification recognizing these two grades 
woidd, however, probably lead to administrative difhcidties. 

Since the bidk of imports consists of Lake Erie gill-net fish, competi- 
tive with the domestic gill-net product of the same lake, both drawn 
from the same basic source of supply, comparison should be made of 
their production costs as measuring more accurately the competitive 
status of the domestic industry. 

The differences in costs of production of yellow perch in 1924, as 
calculated on three bases according to source of supply, are sho^^^l 
in the following tabular statement: 

Differences in cost of production of yellow perch as calculated on three bases, 1934^ 

[la cents per pound] 



Amount by which United States costs are more (+) or less (— ) than 
Canadian 



Source 


Fresh 


Frozen 




F. 0. b. F n h 

New York ^-^^^ 


1 
Simple 
average 


F. 0. b. IT n h 


Simple 
average 


\U lake^ 


-1.10 -1.98 

+.24 +.05 

+1. 93 +1. 73 


-1.54 

+.14 

+1.83 


-0.82 
+.90 

+2.58 


-0.82 

+i.n 

+2.80 


—0 82 


Lake Erie only 

Lake Erie gill-net catch only.. 


+L01 
+2.69 



I Does not include the customs duty of 1 cent per pound. 

LAKE HERRING 

Lake herring is plentiful in L'nited States waters. Canada also 
has a large supply and under favorable conditions, as, for example, 
during the World \Yar period, exports large quantities to the United 
States. Cost of production, which is taken to be a fair index of the 
competitive strength of the lake-herring industrj' of the two countries, 
must be considered separately for the three forms in which lake 
herring is marketed, i. e., fresh, frozen, and salted. 

(1) Fresh. — In 1924, excluding the customs duty of 1 cent per 
pound, the fresh domestic lake herring, as compared with the foreign, 
cost 1.8 cents per pound less than the foreign in the Chicago market, 
and 0.8 cent per pound more in the New York City market. This 
wide margin between the costs laid down in the two markets is due, 
of course, to the higher express charges to Chicago — the foreign 
catch being for the most part landed on the north shore of Lake 
Superior. 

(2) Frozen. — The domestic frozen lake herring has a less favorable 
status than the fresh. In 1924 the cost of the domestic frozen lake 



TAEIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS 15 

herring laid down in Chicago was 0.4 cent per pound more than that 
of the foreign product, and laid do^^^l in New York City 0.9 cent 
more. Transportation costs on frozen fish shipped by freight are 
not so significant as on fresh fish shipped by express. 

(3) Salted. — The Tarift' Commission did not obtain any Canadian 
cost data for lake herring salting. The absence of imports into the 
United States in 1924, indicates that the duty oi \}/2 cents per pound 
under the tariff act of 1922 was prohibitive. Even under free trade, 
imports had declined from 1,571,100 pounds in 1919 to 278,900 
pounds in 1921. There is, however, a large potential lake herring 
supply in Canadian waters which under favorable market conditions 
could be salted and exported. 

CHUBS 

The taking of chubs is largely confined to the United States 
waters, about 88 per cent of the quantity consumed in the United 
States coming from Lake Michigan. Imports since 1919 have never 
exceeded 10 per cent of domestic consumption. Fishing gear records 
show onlj^ a small catch of chubs in the other Great Lakes, indicating 
a relatively limited supply in those waters. In years when there is 
a shortage of ciscoes, chubs are substituted, but at no time has there 
been a supply of chubs sufficient to replace ciscoes. Fresh domestic 
chubs laid down in New York City in 1924 cost 2.1 cents per pound 
more than the foreign, but laid down in Chicago the cost was the 
same for the products of the two countries because of the higher 
foreign transportation cost. Frozen domestic chubs in the same 
year cost 1.4 cents per pound more than the foreign f. o. b. Xew 
York City and 0.7 cent more f. o. b. Chicago. 

TULLIBEES 

The United States draws upon Canada for 90 per cent of its 
tullibee supply. On the Lake of the Woods, the only domestic source, 
the catch can not be greatly increased because of the limited avail- 
able supply. In years of cisco shortage, the tidlibee serves to some 
extent as a substitute, but at no time are the two fishes interchange- 
able. Ordinarily the tullibee has a well-defined market of its own. 
The cost of the fresh domestic tullibee laid down in Xew York City 
in 1924 was 1 cent per pound more than the foreign and laid down in 
Chicago 0.7 cent per pound more. Frozen domestic tullibees f. o. b. 
Xew York City cost 4.7 cents per pound more than the foreign and 
f. 0. b. Chicago 4.6 cents per pound more. 

JACKS 

Domestic waters contain only a small supply of jacks. In 1924 
Canadian jacks supplied 92 per cent of domestic consumption. 
Fresh domestic jacks laid down in Xew York City m 1924 cost 2.2 
cents per pound more than the foreign and laid down in Chicago 0.8 
cent per pound more than the foreign. Frozen domestic jacks 
f. o. b. X"ew York City in the same year cost 5 cents per pound more 
than the foreign and f. o. b. Chicago 4.9 cents per pound more. 



16 TARIFF INFOEMATION SURVEYS 

MULLETS 

Mullets or suckers are plentiful in United States waters. In the 
Chicago market they sell for less than any other important lake 
fish. At times small quantities are exported to eastern Canada, 
but when market conditions are favorable in the United States, as 
they were during the World War, large quantities are imported — 
indicating that Canada has a large supply. 

The average cost of placing the catches of the two countries in the 
principal United States markets in 1924 shows that the domestic 
fresh mullets have a cost of 1.5 cents per pound less than the foreign 
f. o. b. New York City and 2.5 cents less f. o. b. Chicago. The 
domestic frozen mullets, on the other hand, cost 0.3 cent more laid 
down in New York City and 0.9 cent more in Chicago. If these 
data were used as the sole basis on which to determine the United 
States customs duty, the fresh fish would be admitted free of duty 
and the frozen would be dutiable. 

It should be noted, however, that some of the northern Canadian 
lake mullets are used for "car filling" ^ and some are shipped fresh 
in winter when there is little or no domestic production. Moreover, 
in 1924 the naturally frozen fish of the northern Canadian lakes 
was placed in Chicago (excluding duty) for a cost of 1.3 cents per 
pound less than the domestic artificially frozen in the same market. 

If the factors just cited could be measured in cost, it would probably 
be found that even though the domestic frozen fish was protected 
by a 1 cent per pound customs duty in 1924, it was still at a dis- 
advantage in competition. That this was true is shown by the 
increase in imports from 395,000 pounds in 1921, under free entry, 
to 1,016,000 pounds in 1924 when the 1 cent duty was in force. 

SAUCERS 

Saugers are abundant only in the United States half of Lake Erie. 
The small quantities taken in the other Great Lakes and in northern 
Canadian lakes are incidental to the catch of other fish. Imports 
are less than 1 per cent of domestic consumption. Laid down in 
New York City the fresh domestic product costs 2.6 cents per pound 
less than the foreign, and laid down in Chicago 1.1 cents per pound 
less. The cost of domestic frozen saugers exceeds the foreign by 
3 cents per pound f. o. b. New York City and by 4.2 cents per pound 
f. o. b. Chicago. 

SHEEPSHEAD 

Practically all domestic sheepshead comes from the United States 
half of Lake- Erie. There is, however, a supply in the Canadian half 
of this lake, but producers apparently do not find it profitable to 
export. The small quantities landed by Canadian fishermen are 
not separately recorded in statistics but are classified with other 
species as "rough fish." Production cost data for the Canadian 
catch, therefore, are unavailable. 

' When a shipment of choice fish is made weighing slightly less than the mdnimum carload weight for 
which the shipper must pay, the difference is made up in cheap fish. 



TABIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS 17 

TARIFF CONSIDERATIONS 

In constructing a tariff schedule for fresh-water fish, regard should 
be had for (1) the desu^ability and practicability of differentiating 
between the several species of fish; (2) the determination of com- 
pensatory duties to allow for shrinkage in processing; and (3) the 
comparative effect of specific and ad valorem duties. 

(1) Differentiation of species. — A single specific customs duty on 
all fresh-water fish obviously causes a wide range of ad valorem 
equivalents, since there is a wide range in the market price of the 
diiferent species. In 1924, the Chicago market price of mullets was 
7 cents and of whitefish 22 cents, yet both species were dutiable at 
1 cent per pound. Moreover, the trade regards each species sepa- 
rately and none of them are interchangeable, although at times and 
to a limited extent a few species serve as substitutes for others. The 
cisco may sometimes be substituted for the whitefish and the chub 
and tullibee for the cisco, but none of the other varieties serve as 
substitutes. Some of them are sold almost exclusively to a single 
class of trade or in one particular section of the country. It is also 
significant that the domestic supply of all species is not the same. 
For example, the supply of herring appears to be adequate whereas 
the supply of jacks is inadequate. 

If, however, separate tariffs for the several species or groups of 
species, are made, the phrasing of the law calls for the utmost pre- 
cision for the reason that some species bear dift"erent names in differ- 
ent parts of the industry, and many varieties separately distinguished 
by the trade are the same species scientifically. 

(2) Compensatory duties. — In the processes of salting, smoking, and 
filleting the fresh or frozen fish, there is considerable loss in weight — 
an average of 32 per cent in salting, 40 per cent in smoking, and 50 
per cent in filleting. 

Assuming that full compensatory duties for physical equivalents 
are justified, these percentages would require the duty on salted 
fish to be about 47 per cent higher than on fresh and frozen fish, that 
on smoked fish 67 per cent higher, and that on filleted fish 100 per 
cent higher. 

(3) Specific versus ad valorem duties.- — With respect to many species 
the peak of the domestic production occurs simultaneously with the 
peak of the competing foreign production and of domestic imports. 
This coincidence makes the specific form of duty the more desirable 
from the standpoint of domestic producers. Unless, however, the 
amount of the specific duty varies among the separate species or 
groups of species there will be a wide variation in the equivalent ad 
valorem rate. For example, in 1924 the 1 cent per pound customs 
duty was equivalent to 22 per cent ad valorem on ciscoes and on lake 
herring to 70 per cent. On the same basis an increase of 1 cent per 
pound in the price of these species would make the ad valorem equiva- 
lent 18 per cent on ciscoes and 45 per cent on herring. 

From an administrative standpoint a specific duty would seem to be 
the simpler form for fresh fish, for the reason that a considerable 
portion of the imported product is sold on commission, and its foreign 
value at the time of importation could not be determined with any 
reasonable degree of accuracy. 



18 



TAEIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS 



Iq framing a tariff for frozen, salted, and smoked fish, tiiis difficulty 
would not arise, but the adoption of a specific duty on fresh fish would 
necessitate levying the same form of duty on the salted and smoked 
to allow for a physical compensatory duty. 

Table 1 gives the estimated ad valorem equivalents of the 1 cent 
per pound duty paid on the various species of fresh-water fish 
imported in 1924. 

Table 1. — -Estimated ad valorem equivalent of the dutij of 1 cent per pound on the 
several species of fish imported in 1924 





Fresh 


Frozen 


Species 


Price 1 


Ad valo- 
rem 

equiva- 
lent 


Ad valo- 

Price 1 ' ^^^ 
^^^^^ equiva- 
lent 




Cents 
5.68 
5.50 
4.57 
5.85 
1.43 
12.23 


Per cent 

17 
18 
22 
17 
70 
8 


Cents \ Per cent 


Chub --- 


7.26 14 




8.77 ; 11 




5. 29 19 




3.30 
14.68 

2.86 

6.26 
12.14 
12.07 

9.79 


30 








35 


Tullibee - 


5.22 
14.49 
9.09 

10.44 


19 
7 
11 
10 


16 


Whitefish 


8 


Yellow perch -- 


8 




10 







> Chicago price, less 10 per cent commission, duty, and transportation. 

TARIFF HISTORY 

Under the various tariff acts since 1883 fresh and frozen lake fish 
have either been on the free list or dutiable at not more than 1 cent 
per poimd. The act of 1883 admitted them free, while that of 1890 
made them dutiable at three-fourths cent per pound. Under the act 
of 1897 the duty was reduced to one-fourth cent per pound and 
remained at that rate until 1913 when it was removed. The act of 
1922 levies a duty of 1 cent per pound. 

The less important salted and smoked fish have been dutiable in 
all tariff acts since 1883 except that of 1913. The duty on these 
prepared products has ranged from 50 cents per 100 pounds (act of 
1883) to 13^ cents per pound (act of 1922). 

From 1919 to 1924 imports of fresh and frozen cisco, blue pike, 
lake trout, and yellow pike increased, notwithstanding the change in 
their tariff status. The most notable decrease during this period 
was in the imports of tullibee and suckers. In Table 2 miports 
from 1920 to 1924, inclusive, are compared with those of 1919. In 
September, 1922, all of the fish for which the table gives figures were 
removed from the free list and made dutiable at 1 cent per pound. 



TAEIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS 



19 



Table 2. — Comparison on percentage basis of imports of fresh and frozen lake fish 
from 1920 to 1924, inclusive, with those of 1919 ^ 



Species 



Blue pike 

Cisco and lake herring 

Jack 

Lake trout 

Sucker 

Tullibee and chubs 2.. 

Whiteflsh 

Yellow perch 

Yellow pike 



1919 



Per cent 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 



1920 



Per cent 
141. 30 
107.44 
75. 12 
93.62 
90. 12 
103. 45 
87.06 
115.00 
100.25 



Per cent 
267.84 

75.76 

69.74 
102. 79 

20.01 
130. 37 

91.63 
153. 50 
105. 07 



1922 


1923 


Per cent 


Per cent 


265.86 


136. 08 


71.23 


105. 29 


67.61 


75.09 


98.43 


107.04 


28.49 


32.61 


85.45 


45.01 


91.45 


78.67 


153. 07 


177. 79 


134. 70 


168. 27 



1924 



Per cent 
127. 95 
130. 76 
92.83 
114.78 
50.92 
69.71 
87.34 
170. 24 
164.61 



' For figures on which these percentages are based see "Imports" under the several specie headings. 
2 Not separately shown in "Trade of Canada. ". 

The provisions of the several acts from 1883 to 1922 for lake fish 
may be found on p. 133. 

COURT AND TREASURY DECISIONS 

Under the act of 1890 fresh-water fish known as "cisco" or "lake 
herring" were held not to be the herring of commerce, which is a 
salt-water fish, and to be dutiable at three-fourths cent per pound as 
fresh or frozen fish under paragraph 293 rather than at one-fourth 
cent per pound as fresh herring under paragraph 294 of that act. 
G. A. 2115, T. D. 14064. 

Paragraph 259 of the act of 1897 was held to provide for all dis- 
tinctly fresh-water fish, frozen or packed in ice, while the other 
paragraphs of the fish schedule provided for salt-water and migra- 
tory fish not distinctly fresh-water fish. Certain fresh-water fish 
packed in ice were held to be dutiable at one-fourth cent per pound, 
paragraph 259. G. A. 3954, T. D. 18313; Abstract 30705. 

The eastern brook trout, brook trout, or speckled trout is non- 
migratory or migratory in its habits according as it lives in small 
streams at the headwaters of the Atlantic coastal rivers or in the 
larger rivers near the sea; the burden was held to be upon importers 
seeking to have this species classified as "fresh-water fish" under 
paragraph 259 of the act of 1897 to show the habitat of the fish 
imported. G. A. 5138, T. D. 23722. 

Under the act of 1909 fresh-water fish imported in packages of less 
than 100 pounds were held dutiable at one-fourth cent per pound 
under paragraph 271, unless the fish were skinned or boned, in 
which case they were held to be properly dutiable at 13^ cents per 
pound under the last clause of paragraph 273 of that act. T. D. 
32308. 

Under the act of 1913 fresh-water fish skinned or boned were held 
to be properly dutiable at three-fourths cent per pound under para- 
graph 216. T. D. 34836. Under that act fresh-water fish packed 
in tins were held to be dutiable under the provision for fish in tin 
packages, n. s. p. f. in paragraph 216, and not entitled to free entry 
as fresh-water fish under paragraph 483. G. A. 8025, T. D. 37000. 



PART II 



SURVEYS OF THE INDIVIDUAL SPECIES 

WHITEFISH, LAKE TROUT, CISCOES, BLUE PIKE, YELLOW PIKE 

YELLOW PERCH, LAKE HERRING, CHUBS, TULLIBEES 

JACKS, MULLETS, SAUCERS, SHEEPSHEAD 



21 



Part II 
GENERAL DISCUSSION 

All pertinent data with respect to the 13 important species of lake 
fish have been brought together in this part of the report. Each 
species, however, is treated separately. The arrangement of subject 
matter is the same for all species, i. e., the first topic under each 
species is, "Description and uses," followed by "Production — domes- 
tic and foreign"; "Imports"; "Prices"; "Cost of production"; and 
"Competitive conditions." Throughout this report the cost of the 
foreign product laid down in United States markets does not include 
the 1 cent per pound customs duty. 

WHITEFISH 

DESCRIPTION AND USES 

The whitefish, a member of the salmon family, is probably the 
most widely known and one of the most highly prized of the fresh- 
water fishes. It is distinguished by its large body, small short head, 
and thick upper lip. The average size is about 33/^ pounds; the very 
large variety, called the "Jumbo," usually weighs over 4 pounds. 
Whitefish from Lake Superior, Lake Huron, and Lake Michigan are 
all known as "Lake Superior whitefish." Those from Lake Superior 
are considered the best, although in the region of Lake Erie, the local 
light-colored^ fish are preferred. The "Selkirk" from Lake Winni- 
peg, also light colored, sells in the Erie district as Lake Erie whitefish. 
The "Slave Lake" whitefish, which is dark in color, is superior to the 
type classified simply as "whitefish." Species other than those 
named above are called "whitefish" without any qualifying phrase 
as to source. 

The larger sizes of whitefish are preferred by the restaurant trade 
and the smaller sizes by the family trade. About 90 per cent of the 
catch is sold "dressed" (entrails removed). 

Whitefish are taken primarily for the fresh-fish trade, except in the 
winter fishing of the northern Canadian lakes, where weather condi- 
tions usually make the cost of keeping the fish from freezing pro- 
hibitive. Of the United States catch over 85 per cent is sold fresh, 
and of the Canadian catch probably about half. 

The method of freezing whitefish is determined by the fishing season 
and the location of fishing centers. In the Great Lakes region and in 
the summer fishery of the northern Canadian lakes artificial means 
are used while in the winter fishery of the northern Canadian lakes 
the natural method obtains. Some of the fresh Canadian product 
exported to the United States is subsequently frozen in transit or at 
destination. 

A few thousand pounds of the true whitefish are smoked. The 
term "smoked whitefish," however, is usually applied to smoked 
ciscoes, chubs, and tullibees. 

1 The terms "light" and "dark colored" refer to the outer surface of the whitefish, not to the flesh, which 
is^always white. 

23" 



24 



TAEIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS 



PRODUCTION, DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN 

Since the inception of the lake fish industry the whitefish has been 
one of the most highly prized species and, in consequence, the United 
States waters have become seriously depleted. Production statistics 
collected by the United States Bureau of Fisheries show that in 1880 
the Great Lakes catch was 21,463,900 pounds. By 1900 it had 
declined to 5,094,014 pounds, and by 1924 to 3,790,146 pounds. As 
the price has increased the practice of salting part of the catch has 
been discontinued. Lake Erie fishermen received 4.9 cents per pound 
in 1890 and 18.8 cents in 1922. 

The Canadian Great Lakes catch, it also appears from available 
data, has reached the peak of production. The largest supply is 
now obtamed from the less depleted northern Canadian lakes. 
While the 1924 catch of the northern Canadian lakes— 10,022,800 
pounds — approximates the average annual catch in that area for the 
period 1913 to 1924, many of the once important producing lakes 
show signs of depletion. It is only because of the extension of fishing 
operations to new bodies of water that large quantities continue to 
be taken. - , 

The following table shows the domestic and foreign catches of 
whitefish from 1913 to 1924. 

Table 3. — United States and Canadian catch of whitefish, 1913-1924 



Year i 


United 

States 2 


Canada 


Great 
Lakes 


Great 
Lakes 3 


Northern 
lakes < 


Total 


1913 


Pounds 
3, 803, 505 
5, 452, 174 
4, 382, 269 

4, 952, 103 

5, 773, 242 
5, 695, 272 
4, 444, 359 
3, 633, 674 
3, 532, 344 
4, 324, 710 
3, 675, 916 
3, 790, 146 


Pounds 
4, 994, 933 
5, 035, 067 
5, 934, 208 
4, 607, 049 

4, 576, 495 

5, 710, 084 

6, 487, 758 
6, 375, 458 
6, 289, 141 
6, 025, 181 
6, 487, 947 
5, 728, 043 


Pounds 
7, 960, 700 
8, 324, 800 
10, 046, 200 

8, 533, 200 
5, 643, 700 

14,123,400 
13, 029, 500 
11, 150, 500 
11,913,300 

9, 715, 100 
9, 174, 700 

10, 022, 800 


Pounds 
12,955,033 


1914 


13, 359, 867 
15, 980, 408 
13, 139, 249 


1915 


1916- - - 


1917 -.. 


10, 220, 195 


1918 .- 


19, 833. 484 


1919 


19,517,258 


1920 


17, 525, 958 


1921 


18, 202, 441 


1922 


15, 740, 281 


1923 


15,662,647 
15,750.843 


1924 






1 2-year average 


4, 454, 976 


5,687,614 


9, 969, 825 


15,657,355 





1 United States, calendar year; Canada, calendar years 1917 to 1924, inclusive, and fiscal years ended Apr. 
1, 1913 to 1916, inclusive. 

2 From State fish commissions. 

3 From game and fish department of Ontario. 

* From department of marine and fisheries of Canada. 



IMPORTS 

In 1924 the United States imported 10,490,800 pounds of fresh 
and frozen whitefish, and its waters yielded a catch of 3,790,145 
pounds, or 26.53 per cent of domestic consumption. This ratio 
between imports and domestic catch was practically the same during 
the six preceding years from 1919 to 1924, when the quantity taken 
averaged 26.65 per cent of consumption. 

Table 4 gives the imports into the United States of Canadian- 
caught whitefish from 1919 to 1924, inclusive. 



TAEIFF INFOKMATION SURVEYS 25 

Table 4. — Imports into the United States of fresh and frozen whitefish, 1919-1924 > 



Calendar year 


Pounds Calendar year 


Pounds 


1919 


12,011,800 i 1923 


9, 449, 900 


1920 


10,457,900 1 1924 

11,006,000 

10,985,300 i| 6-year average 


10, 490, 800 


1921... 




1922 


10, 733, 616 




i 




1 From 


' Trade of Canada," 


"Exports to United States goods the produce of Canada." 
PRICES 





Whitefish prices in the various producing centers illustrate by their 
extreme variation the effect of trade grades and transportation costs 
on values. The United States Lake Erie whitefish catch in 1924 was 
sold at the lake shore by coastal buyers for 22.04 cents per pound, 
while the comparable "Selkirk" whitefish brought on Lake Winnipeg 
only n.41 cents per pound. To reach a competitive center such as 
New York City, however, the Selkirk must pay 3.4 cents per pound 
more in transportation charges and the 1 cent per pound customs 
duty. Between the domestic and foreign "Lake Superior whitefish" 
(including fish from Michigan and Huron) the price difference is not 
so great — about 5 cents per pound in favor of the domestic fish. 
The lower grade fish taken in largest quantities in the shallow Cana- 
dian northern lakes bring the coastal buyers from 6 to 8 cents per 
pound. 

Throughout the whole lake region the seasons of production are 
important in determining prices. The available supply of whitefish 
from all sources rather than from a single locality is the basis of price 
fixing from day to day. During June, July, and August there is a 
large catch in ail of the important centers. In consequence the 
areas that produce during other than the three summer months are 
favorably situated with respect to prices. For example, the fresh 
fish shipped in winter from Lake Winnipegosis and Lake Manitoba 
although of a lower grade sells for a higher price than the summer 
catch of Lake Winnipeg. 

Frozen fish, like the fresh, is graded according to the source of 
supply. Since frozen fish are carried by freight, the price at the 
point of production is not so materially affected by transportation 
costs. In fact, the difference in transportation costs between fresh 
and frozen fish is so large in some fishing centers that the price of 
the preserved fish is generally the higher, although when the two 
finally reach the large consuming centers the price of the fresh is 
generally the higher. On Lake Winnipeg in 1924 the wholesale 
price of fresh whitefish was only 13 per cent higher than that of the 
frozen, whereas in Chicago the price of the fresh was 36 per cent 
higher than that of the frozen. The price of the preserved fish is not 
affected by the daily fluctuation in supph", as is that of the fresh fish, 
but is governed more by the stocks on hand and the prospects of future 
catches. The stabilizing effect of freezing on price quotations is 
shown in the Chicago prices which in 1924 ranged between 14 and 19 
cents per pound for frozen whitefish, as compared with 18 to 37 cents 
per pound for the fresh. 

Tables 5, 6, and 7 give the prices realized by fishermen, coastal or 
lakeside buyers and inland jobbers in 1924. 



26 



TAKIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS 



Table 5. — Average price per pound realized for whitefish by fishermen and by 

coastal buyers, 1924 





Price reaUzed by- 


Country and lake 


Fisher- 
men 
(fresh) 


Coastal buyers 




Fresh 


Frozen 


United States: 


Cents 
17. 77 
17.18 


Cents 
20. 85 
21.07 


Cents 
19.90 




20.05 


Erie - 


1 23. 75 1 22. 04 


19.50 




1 18. 93 

9.33 
23.80 

9.32 

5.00 
2 4.65 

3.77 


18.08 

14.00 
25.80 
13.22 
11.41 
2 7.53 


16.76 


Canada: 

Huron . - 




Erie . 






14.21 




10.18 




7.24 













1 Includes some fish sold direct to retailers. 



■ Includes some fresh winter caught. 



Table 6. — Price per pound realized for fresh whitefish by coastal buyers and 

inland jobbers, 1924 









Price 


realized by — 














Coastal bu> 


ers 






Inland jobbers 


Month 


United States 


Canada 


Chicago 


New 
York 
City 




Mich- 
igan 


Huron 


Erie 


Supe- 
rior 


Winni- 
peg 


Winni- 
pegosis 


Mani- 
toba 




Cents 


Cents 


Cents 


Cents 


Cents 


Cents 
14.96 
16.54 
11.50 


Cents 
19.25 
21.94 
24.35 


Cents 
30.32 
30.37 
35.40 
37.34 
23.88 
18.25 
20.06 
19.66 
23.12 
24.16 
21.70 
27.16 


Cents 
28.88 


February - 










22.00 


Alarch - 












55. 00 




27.00 
26.66 
19.00 
19.18 


"23.' 07" 
20.05 
18.14 
24.98 
28.56 
24.25 
17.94 


15.96 
28.00 
21.31 
24.36 
25.00 

""26.'66" 
17.80 
25.00 


15.66 
15. 15 
11.91 
11.47 
11.97 
15.99 
19.64 
13.14 
12.20 




53.51 


May 








36.30 


June . 


9.00 
10.26 
12.75 
10.51 
11.82 
11.68 






26.62 


July 






21.81 




7.24 
7.35 
7.40 
9.00 
15.01 


""ii.'fo" 

18.13 


27.88 


September - -- 


23.05 
21.00 
22.00 
20.43 


34.57 


October 


26.75 


November 


26.80 


December. . -- 


32.16 






Annual average 


20.85 


21.07 


22.04 


13.22 


11.46 


7.53 


18.85 


22.22 


30.05 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS 



27 



Table 7. — Price per pound realized for frozen ivhitefish hy coastal buyers and 

Chicago jobbers, 192 J/. 





Price realized by — 




Coastal buyers 




Month 


United States 


Canada 


Chicago 
jobbers 




Erie 


Superior 


Superior 


Winni- 
peg 


Winni- 
pegosis 


Mani- 
toba 






Cents 
25.00 
22.11 
17.70 


Cents 
18.00 
17.55 
18.00 


Cents 
14.82 
13.95 
15.82 


Cents 


Cents 
7.62 
4.35 
4.35 


Cents 
8.19 
6.96 
7.01 


Cents 
17.22 




9.28 
13.00 


17.18 




16.98 




15.44 














15.28 














15.32 


July 












19.03 










10.00 




17.65 










10.00 
10.00 
10.00 




15.95 










1 


15.25 


November - - - 




15.90 
16.54 


10.66 


8.86 
8.62 i 




13.91 






14. 00 10. 00 


9.26 


16.24 








Annual average 


19.50 


16.76 


14.21 


10.18 


7.24 


8.14 


16.31 







COST OF PRODUCTION 

The domestic cost of catching whitefish in 1924 ranged from 10.3 
cents per pound on Lake Michigan to 19.6 cents on Lake Superior, and 
the foreign cost from 3.4 cents on Lesser Slave Lake to 14.9 cents on 
Lake Erie. The fishing cost in the various producing areas is gov- 
erned not only by the distance from market but also by the grade of 
fish caught. Some localities, although more distant than others from 
the large consuming centers, may produce a superior grade of fish, and 
in consequence be able to incur additional expense. The average 
cost of fishing is 4.5 cents per pound more in the United States than 
in Canada. 

When the fresh products of the two countries are placed on the 
United States market, the foreign must pay more on the average for 
boxing and icing and transportation, so that laid down in Chicago 
(excluding customs duty) it cost only 1.7 cents per pound less than 
the domestic, but laid down in New York City the foreign cost is 
2.9 cents per pound less. 

The artificially frozen whitefish of Canada in 1924 cost 3.2 cents 
less than the domestic when laid down in New York City and 3.3 
cents less w^hen laid down in Chicago. The naturally frozen fish of 
the northern Canadian lakes cost less than half that of the frozen 
domestic fish in these markets, the difference being 9.3 cents per 
pound in New York City and 9.3 cents in Chicago. When the cost 
of the foreign artifically and naturally frozen products are averaged 
and compared with domestic costs they are found to be less than 
the domestic by 7.2 cents per pound f. o. b. New York City and 7.2 
cents per pound f. o. b. Chicago. 

Tables 8 and 9 give the cost of production of fresh and frozen 
whitefish in Canada and in the United States in 1924. 

54003—27 3 



28 TAEIFF INFOKMATION SURVEYS 

Table 8. — Cost of fresh whitefish, f. o. h. New York City and Chicago, 1924 * 

[In cents per pound] 



Item of cost 



United 
States 



Canada 



Amount 
by which 
United 
States costs 
are more 
(+) or less 
(-) than 
Canadian 



Fishing cost: 

Excluding interest. 

Including interest.. 

Boxing and icing cost: 

Excluding interest.. - 

Including interest. 

Total, fishing, and boxing, and icing cost: 

Excluding interest 

Including interest.. 

Transportation cost: 

To New York City 

To Chicago 

Total, fishing, boxing and icing, and transportation cost: 

F. o. b. New York City — 

Excluding interest 

Including interest.. 

F. o. b. Chicago- 
Excluding interest 

Including interest.. 



11.7000 
12. 1781 



1. 7328 
1. 9166 



7. 4302 
7. 7972 



2. 2150 
2. 2789 



+4. 2698 
+4. 3809 



-. 4822 
-.3623 



13. 4328 

14. 0947 



9. 6452 
10. 0761 



+3. 7876 
+4. 0186 



3. 5910 
2. 1562 



4.7483 
4. 5095 



-1. 1573 
-2. 3533 



17. 0238 
17. 6857 



15. 5890 
16. 2509 



14. 3935 
14. 8244 



14. 1547 
14. 5856 



+2. 6303 
+2. 8613 



+1. 4343 
+1. 6653 



» Does not include the customs duty of 1 cent per pound. For detailed statistics of cost see pp. 142-144. 

Table 9. — Cost of frozen whitefish, f. o. b., New York City and Chicago, 192^ ^ 

[In cents per pound] 



Item of cost 



United 
States, 
artifi- 
cially 
frozen 



Canada 



Artifi- 
cially 
frozen 



Naturally 
frozen 
(winter 
caught) 



Weighted 
aver- 



Amount 
by which 
United 
States 
costs are 
more (-f) 

or less 
(— ) than 
Canadian 



Fishing cost: 

Excluding interest 

Including interest 

Freezing and storing cost: 

Excluding interest 

Including interest 

Boxing cost: 

Excluding interest 

Including interest.- 

Total, fishing, freezing, and storing, and boxing cost: 

Excluding interest 

Including interest 

Transportation cost: 

To New York City 

To Chicago 

Total, fishing, freezing and storing, boxing, and 
transportation cost: 
F. o. b. New York City — 

Excluding interest 

Including interest. 

F. 0. b. Chicago- 
Excluding interest 

Including interest-- - 



11. 7000 
12. 1781 



1. 8893 
1. 8991 



1. 2159 
1. 2902 



7. 4302 
7. 7972 



2. 0207 
2. 0976 



1. 3082 
1. 3516 



3. 8800 
3. 8800 



1.3082 
1. 3516 



5. 1226 
5. 2510 



.7072 
.7342 



1. 3082 
1.3516 



14. 8052 

15. 3674 



10. 7591 
11.2464 



5. 1882 
6. 2316 



7. 1380 
7. 3368 



1. 1840 
.7198 



15. 9892 

16. 5514 



15. 5250 
IC. 0872 



2. 0626 
1. 5356 



2. 0626 
1. 5356 



2. 0626 
1. 5356 



12. 8217 
13. 3090 



12. 2947 
12. 7820 



7. 2508 
7. 2942 



6. 7238 
6. 7672 



9.2006 
9. 3994 



8. 6736 
8. 8724 



+6. 5774 
-f 0. 9271 



-f 1. 1821 
-t-1. 1649 



-. 0923 
-. 0614 



-f 7. 6672 
-f8. 0306 



-. 8786 
-.8158 



-f 6. 7886 
+7. 1520 



+6. 8514 
-f7. 2148 



1 Does not include the customs duty of 1 cent per pound. For detailed statistics of cost see pp. 142-144. 
' Weighted on basis of estimate that of total quantity frozen 35 per cent is preserved by artificial means. 



TARIFF INFOHMATION SURVEYS 



29 



COMPETITIVE CONDITIONS 

In competition with imports, the domestic whitefish industry is at 
a cost disadvantage in the large consuming centers. The domestic 
cost of placing the fresh fish in New York and Chicago in 1924 ex- 
ceeded that of the foreign product by 2.3 cents per pound. The cost 
of the domestic frozen fish in these markets exceeded that of the for- 
eign by 7.2 cents per pound. In certain small markets adjacent to 
the fishing ports the domestic fresh fish industry, however, enjoys 
some advantages. 

The supply in domestic waters is small despite efforts on the part 
of the Federal and State Governments to propagate whitefish. From 
1890 to 1924 the catch declined about 60 per cent and prices increased 
about 300 per cent. Domestic consumption in 1924 was supplied to 
the extent of only 26.7 per cent from domestic sources. The volume 
of imports can not be materially increased unless it is found prac- 
ticable to exploit new sources of supply in northern Canada. Most 
of the large lakes now being fished in that region show signs of 
depletion. 

The following table summarizes the cost of production: 

Table 10. — Summary of the cost of production of whitefish, 1924 
[In cents per pound] 









Amount 








by which 






Canada 


United 


Class and market 


United 
States 


(exclud- 
ing 


States 
costs are 






duty) 


more 

than 

Canadian 


Fresh: 








F. 0. b. New York City.. 


17.69 


14.82 


2.86 


F. 0. b. Chicago 


16.25 


14.59 


1.67 






Simple average . . . .. . 


16.97 


14.70 


2.27 






Frozen: 








F. 0. b. New York City... 


16.55 


9.40 


7.15 


F. 0. b. Chicago .. . . . 


16.09 


8.87 


7.22 






Simple average 


16.32 


9.14 


7.18 







LAKE TROUT 



DESCRIPTION AND USES 

Lake trout ranks with the whitefish as a choice fish. It is the 
largest of the important commercial species, its average weight being 
about 10 pounds. Classifications for trade purposes are No. 1, the 
weight of which is from 13/^ to 43/^ pounds; medium, from 4^ to 
8 pounds; and large, over 8 pounds. There is a decided preference 
for the large fish by restaurants and for the small fish by private 
families. Practically all lake trout are sold dressed and those over 
8 pounds in weight are usually beheaded. 

In all grades pink-flesh trout are preferred to white, but when a 
shortage in the supply of pink trout occurs, certain localities will buy 
the pink sea salmon. The pink lake trout are taken in all localities, 
but in varying quantities; lake trout from the west shore of Lake 
Michigan and from the south shore of Lake Superior is largely white 
fleshed. 



30 



TARIFF INFOEMATION SURVEYS 



Of the total United States catch, about 90 per cent is sold fresh 
and of the Canadian about 75 per cent. The remainder is preserved 
by freezing. Only rarely is there an oversupply of frozen lake trout, 
for ordinarily the quantity frozen during a fishing season is entirely 
disposed of within a few months after being placed in storage. 

A very limited quantity is smoked, only the fat "half breed" being 
used for this purpose. 

PRODUCTION, DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN 

The annual catch of lake trout in the United States and Canada is 
fairly constant. From 1913 to 1923 the United States catch ranged 
between 10,000,000 and 12,000,000 pounds annuall}^ and the Canadian 
between 5,000,000 and 7,000,000 pounds a year. The center of lake- 
trout fishing in the United States is Lake Michigan, where 66 per 
cent of the catch for 1924 was taken. Lake Huron in the same year 
yielded 53 per cent of the Canadian catch and 14 per cent of the 
United ^States. Lake Superior, the only other important lake-trout 
fishing center, yielded 20 per cent of the total United States catch in 
1924 and 24 per cent of the total Canadian catch. 

Scientific investigation ^ and general observation ^ point to the 
conclusion that neither the domestic nor the foreign catch will increase 
materially. 

Table 11 shows the catch of lake trout in the United States and 
Canada from 1913 to 1924. 

Table 11. — United States and Canadian catch of lake trout, 1913-1924 , 



Year • 


United 
States <> 


Canada 


Great Lakes 


Great Lakes ' 


Northern 
lakes <* 


Total 


1913 


Pounds 
10, 871, 350 

9, 899, 705 
10, 891, 974 

9, 934, 745 
10, 732, 765 

9, 785, 318 
12, 277, 208 
10, 065, 868 
10, 239, 310 
11,102,202 

9, 939, 794 
10, 143, 685 


Pounds 
5, 365, 342 
5,212,471 
6, 192, 321 
5, 656, 806 

5, 728, 739 

6, 619, 599 
5, 927, 507 

4, 785, 464 

5, 299, 485 
6, 450, 760 
6, 175, 581 

6, 526, 666 


Pounds 
208, 300 
432, 100 
444, 000 
379, 200 
368, 400 
754, 500 
665, 800 
330, 500 
418, 400 
412,400 
444, 500 
667, 800 


Pounds 
5, 573, 642 


1914 


5, 644, 571 


1915 - 


6, 636, 321 


1916 - 


6, 036, 006 


1917 


6, 097, 139 


1918 


7, 374, 099 


1919 


6, 593, 307 


1920 -- - 


5,115,964 


1921 . - 


5,717,885 


1922 . .. 


6, 863, 160 


1923 - 


6, 620, 081 


1924 


7, 194, 466 








10,490,327 1 5.828.395 


459, 658 


6, 288, 053 











° United States, calendar years; Canada, calendar years 1917 to 1924, inclusive, and fiscal years ended 
Apr. 1, 1913 to 1916, inclusive. 
' From Slate fish commission. 
"= From game and fish department of Ontario. 
^ From department of marine and fisheries of Canada. 



IMPORTS 

Imports of lake trout have remained about the same since 1919 and 
probably were no smaller prior thereto. In 1924 they amounted to 
3,594,100 pounds, or 26.2 per cent of domestic consumption. 

In Canada, as well as in the United States, the lake trout is a 
favorite article of diet, the Canadian exports in 1924 representing 

'U. S. Bureau of Fisheries reports. 

' Biennial Report, Michigan Department of Conservation, 1923-24: "Only the lake trout appears to hold 
its own and this appearance is illusory for the efficiency in taking has greatly increased. Improved equip- 
ment and a better knowledge of its habits have been factors in the catch of recent years. An urge to effl- 
tieacy in taking has been the marked increase in the value of the catch." 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS 



31 



only 50 per cent of the Canadian catch in contrast to much larger 
proportion of exports of other fish. The foregoing facts, together with 
the relatively high price of lake trout and the intensiveness of fishing 
operations, indicate that imports can not be greatly increased. 
Table 12 shows the imports of lake trout from 1919 to 1924: 

Table 12. — Imports into the United States of fresh and frozen lake trout, 1919-1924^ 



Calendar year 


Pounds 


\ Calendar year 


Pounds 


1919 


3, 131, 400 
2, 931, 500 
3, 218, 800 
3,082,100 


1 1923 

1924 

6-year average 


3, 351, 700 
3, 594 100 


1920 


1921 




1922 


3, 218, 266 







1 From Trade of Canada. Exports to United States, goods the produce of Canada. 

PRICES 

Most of the United States trout-fishing centers are so situated 
geographically as to supply a substantial local market where relatively 
high prices obtain. In Canada there is also a local market for lake 
trout but there the exportable surplus is about half of the total catch. 
Competition is therefore greatest in the large United States markets 
between the local domestic seasonal surplus of fresh lake trout 
and the Canadian exportable surplus. Even in these markets the 
demand is sufficient to cause high prices throughout the year. In 
Chicago the lowest average monthly price received by the jobbers for 
fresh lake trout in 1924 was 17 cents per pound compared with an 
annual average of 19.6 cents. 

In both the United States and Canada about 85 per cent of the 
catch is taken from May to November, inclusive, and it is during 
this period that the small seasonal surplus of lake trout is frozen, 
for use in winter when the fresh-fish supply is small. The price 
received by the coastal or lakeside buyer for frozen lake trout is 
somewhat less than for the fresh fish, but in Chicago the annual 
average price approximates that of the fresh fish. As with whitefish, 
the cost of transportation influences the price realized by the fisher- 
men and coastal buyers. This is well illustrated on Lake Superior 
where the United States coastal buyers in 1924 received for fresh lake 
trout an average of 3.26 cents per pound more than the Canadian 
buyers, while for frozen lake trout they received only 1.15 cents more. 
This difference is partly due to the more nearly equal cost of trans- 
porting the frozen fish. 

Tables 13, 14, and 15 give the average prices received by fishermen, 
coastal buyers, and Chicago jobbers in 1924. 



Table 13. 



Superior . . 

Huron 

Michigan . 
Ontario.-. 



-Price per pound received for fresh lake trout by United States and 
Canadian fishermen, 1924 



Lake 




Canada 

Cents 
7.25 
8.93 

'""'ia05 



32 



TAEIFF INFOEMATION SURVEYS 



Table 14. — Price per pound received for fresh lake trout by coastal buyers and 

Chicago jobbers, 1924 





Coastal buyers in- 




Month 


United States 


Canada 


Chicago 
jobbers 




Michigan 


Superior Huron 


Huron 


Superior 




January 


Cents 


Cents 


Cents 


Cents 


Cents 


Cents 
26.97 


February . . 




22.00 








27.58 


March . . . . 


21.49 
20.61 
18.54 
17.55 
19.00 
22.15 
20.96 
17.49 
16.22 
20.50 








26.66 


April _ .. .. 




17.00 
15.40 
16.52 
19.02 
19.98 
23.65 
17.06 
16.69 


16.00 
12.71 
13.16 
14.22 
16.10 
17.76 
16.01 
14.12 


15.38 
14.82 
14.23 
13.09 
15.36 
15.12 
21.72 
16.30 
13.85 


23.58 


May. - -. 


18.68 
15.09 
17.12 
21.50 
20.88 
19.25 
18. 55 
20.00 


17.32 


June... 


18.14 


July 


18.80 


August 

September . .... 


22.30 
22.05 


October. . ... 


16.86 


November . .. . 


18.30 




22.05 










Annual average 


19.56 


18.24 


18.51 


15.96 


15.25 


19.58 







Table 15. — Prices per pound received for fro zen lake trout by Lake Superior buyers 
and by Chicago jobbers, 1924 



Month 



January... 
February. 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 



Lake Superior 
buyers in- 



United 

States 



Cents 
13.48 
23.41 
15.08 
28.00 



Canada 



Cents 
13.24 
14.46 
19.73 



Chicago 
jobbers 



Cents 
19.05 
18.14 
18.40 
18.46 
15.20 



Month 



August 

September . 

October 

November. 
December.. 



Annual average 



Lake Superior 
buyers in- 



United 
States 



Cents 



15.61 
15.54 



Canada 



Cents 



13.66 



14.32 



Chi- 
cago 
jobbers 



Cents 
18.53 
17.68 
18.48 
19.26 
20.24 



18.70 



COST OF PRODUCTION 

The fishing costs of lake trout in 1924 averaged 3.4 cents per pound 
more in the United States than in Canada. Between the principal 
producing areas of the two countries, Lake Michigan in the United 
States and Lake Huron in Canada, there is a difference in favor of 
Canada of 2.5 cents per pound. 

When boxed, iced, and shipped fresh to Chicago, the domestic 
product cost 0.9 cent per pound more than the foreign product in 
the same market. Unlike other lake fish, the lake trout finds only 
a limited market in New York City. There is, however, a substan- 
tial market in Ohio and adjoining territory, where the foreign product 
of Lake Huron has a slight advantage in transportation costs. 

Since transportation costs are less significant in the handling of 
frozen lake trout than fresh, the cost of the foreign frozen product, 
f. o. b., Chicago in 1924 was 2.3 cents per pound less than the domes- 
tic. The quantities frozen in both countries, however, are relatively 
small, probably not more than 15 per cent of the total catch. 

Tables 16 and 17 give the cost of production in the United States 
and Canada in 1924. 



k^ 



TAEIFF INFOEMATION SURVEYS 



33 



Table 16. — Cost of fresh lake trout, f. o. b. New York City and Chicago, 1924^ 

[In cents per pound] 



Item of cost 



United 
States 



Canada 



Amount 
by which 

United 
States costs 
are more 
(+) or less 
(-) than 
Canadian 



Fishing cost: 

Excluding interest 

Including interest 

Boxing and icing cost: 

Excluding interest... 

Including interest 

Total, fishing and boxing and icing cost: 

Excluding interest.. 

Including interest 

Transportation cost: 

To New York City 

To Chicago 

Total, fishing, boxing and icing, and transportation cost: 
F. 0. b.. New York City- 
Excluding interest 

Including interest .' 

F. 0. b., Chicago — 

Excluding interest.. 

Including interest 



10. 7120 
11. 1086 

1, 6059 
1. 7602 



7.4841 
7. 7408 



1. 9699 
2. 0334 



+3. 2279 
+3. 3678 



-. 3640 
-. 2732 



12.3179 
12. 8688 



9. 4540 
9. 7742 



+2. 8639 
+3. 0946 



4. 2535 
2. 1926 



4. 0632 
4. 3946 



+.1903 
-2. 2021 



16. 5714 
17. 1223 



14. 5104 
15. 0613 



13. 5172 
13. 8374 



13. 8486 
14. 1688 



+3. 0542 
+3. 2849 



+. 6618 
+. 8925 



> Does not include the customs duty of 1 cent per pound. For detailed statistics of cost see pp. 145-147. 

Table 17. — Cost of frozen lake trout f. o. b. New York City and Chicago, 1924 * 

[In cents per pound] 



Item of cost 



Fishing cost: 

Excluding interest 

Including interest 

Freezing and storing costs: 

Excluding interest 

Including interest , 

Boxing cost: 

Excluding interest 

Including interest 



Total, fishing, freezing and storing, and boxing cost: 

Excluding interest 

Including interest 

Transportation cost: 

To New York City 

To Chicago.. - 



Total, fishing, freezing and storing, boxing, and transportation cost: 

F. 0. b.. New York City- 
Excluding interest 

Including interest 

F. o. b., Chicago — 

Excluding interest 

Including interest 



United 
States 



10. 7120 
11. 1086 



1.9025 
1.9119 



1.2159 
1.2902 



13. 8304 
14.3107 



1. 3387 
.6250 



15. 1691 
15. 6494 



14. 4554 
14. 9357 



Canada 



7.4841 
7. 7408 



2. 2136 
2.4019 



1. 2244 
1.3167 



10. 9221 
11. 4594 



1. 2679 
1. 1469 



12. 1900 
12. 7273 



12. 0690 
12. 6063 



Amount 
by which 

United 
States costs 
are more 
(+) or less 
(-) than 
Canadian 



+3. 2279 
+3. 3678 



-.3111 
-.4900 



-. 0265 



+2. 9083 
+2. 8513 



+. 0708 
-.5219 



+2. 9791 
+2. 9221 



+2. 3864 
+2. 3294 



> Does not include the customs duty of 1 cent i)er pound. For detailed statistics of cost see pp. 145-147. 



34 TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS 

COMPETITIVE CONDITIONS 

Lake Michigan, which suppHes 66 per cent of the domestic lake- 
trout catch, is entirely in United States territory. On the other 
lakes there is an international boundary, but even there both coun- 
tries appear to be drawing upon different sources of supply for most 
of their catch.'* If this theory be true, the supply in the waters of 
both countries is practically a natural monopoly. 

Much of the catch of each coimtry is sold in markets adjacent to 
the producing centers, the principal competitive center for the 
surplus being Chicago. Laid down in Chicago, the domestic fresh 
fish cost 0.9 cent per pound more than the foreign, and the frozen 
2.3 cents per pound more. In the less unportant Ohio and eastern 
United States markets the foreign product has a slight cost advantage. 

CISCOES 

DESCRIPTION AND USES 

In the trade usage the term "cisco" applies only to the fish of 
that name taken in Lake Erie, although scientifically it is the same 
fish as the so-called "herring" taken in the other Great Lakes. In 
this report the trade designation is followed. The cisco, like the 
whitefish, is a member of the salmon family. In appearance it 
closely resembles the whitefish, but is smaller (about 12 inches in 
length) and has a thin upper lip. The large, or "jumbo" cisco, of 
which the supply is comparatively limited, approximates the smaller 
whitefish in size. Ciscoes can not be distinguished from whitefish 
by the average consumer. Practically all ciscoes are "dressed" 
(entrails removed) before leaving the centers of production. In 
Canada dressing is done by the fishermen, and in the United States 
by the coastal buyer. Ciscoes are taken chiefly for the fresh-fish 
trade, but when the market for the fresh fish is glutted they are 
preserved 'by freezing. Ordinarily about half of the domestic catch 
is so preserved. During years of short supply, however, the frozen 
product may represent only about 25 per cent of the catch. Until 
1925 Canadian ciscoes imported for the frozen -fish trade were prac- 
tically all processed in the United States. 

Some fresh and practically all frozen ciscoes are prepared for 
market by smoking. The fresh ones when obtainable at reasonable 
prices are preferred for this purpose. The "hot-smoke" method is 
universally employed, a process whereby the fish is both smoked and 
cooked in one operation. As the cooking of the fish makes it highly 
perishable, the smoker endeavors to dispose of it the same day it is 
processed. Smoking is done almost entirely in the consuming 
centers because the transportation rate is lower on the frozen fish 
than on the fresh or smoked fish and because advantage can be taken 
of surplus fresh fish. Smoked ciscoes are usually marketed as 
"smoked whitefish." The one-half-pound size is preferred by both 
the restaurant and small-family trade. 

< According to a letter from Dr. Walter Koelz, associate aquatic biologist, U. S. Bureau of Fisheries, 
"Without marking fish, nothing can be stated positively about their migrations, but the study of body 
structures and the life history of fish yield circumstantial evidence on this subject. * * * In the ease 
of lalie trout it is reasonably certain that there are several schools in each of the Lakes excepting Erie which 
are more or less local in habit. It is (luite improbable that any lake trout undertake such extensive 
migrations as would be involved in a wandering from one side of the lake to the other, particularly since it 
would require the transversing of the deep-water central basins into which the species does not normally 
venture. * * *." 



TAEIFF INFOEMATION SURVEYS 



35 



PRODUCTION, DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN 

Ciscoes as defined by the trade are taken in commercial quantities 
in Lake Erie only. The United States catch in 1924 was 21,292,733 
pounds, and the Canadian 10,907,928 pounds. The ratio of 2 to 1 
in favor of the domestic catch of 1924 also obtaius with respect to 
the average annual catches for the period 1913 to 1924. Within 
that period, however, there were fluctuations in the catches of both 
countries — a general increase from 1913 to 1918, a sharp decline 
in 1919 and 1920, and subsequently a gradual increase. The catch 
in 1925 is estimated to have been about one-fourth that of the 
preceding year, and available statistics indicate that every seven or 
eight years the fishery is subject to a sharp depression. On this 
assumption, there should be a general increase in the catches of both 
countries from 1926 to about 1930 or 1931, unless new trade condi- 
tions, legislation, or other factors interfere. 

While available production statistics show periodic changes in the 
annual catch, they do not indicate either a general decline or increase 
during the last 20 years. According to the fishermen, however, 
there has been an increase in the amount of gear used and more 
efficient fishing methods have been developed. Most of the fisher- 
men have therefore concluded that the available supply in Lake 
Erie has been reduced. 

Table 18 and the chart on page 36 show the catches of the United 
States and Canada from 1913 to 1924. 

Table 18. — United States and Canadian catch of cisco in Lake Erie, 1913-19S4 



Year> 


United 
States 2 


Canada 3 


Year I 


United 
States * 


Canada ' 


1913-- 


Pounds 
12, 513, 180 
14, 107, 982 
15, 978, 219 
8, 336, 954 
19, 453, 146 
35, 290, 527 
17, 846, 290 


Pou nds 
11,608,428 
5, 981, 542 
5, 573, 688 
5, 210, 531 
14, 157, 839 
13, 531, 993 
7, 425, 713 


1920 - 


Pounds 
12,893,192 
14, 964, 135 
14.021,882 

20, 930, 284 

21, 292, 733 

17, 302, 377 


Pounds 

9, 651, 284 


1914__ 


1921 


5, 225, 300 


1915 


1922 


6, 306, 318 


1916-. 


1923 - 


9, 241, 118 


1917.- 


1924-- 


10, 907, 928 


1918.- 


1 2-year average. 




1919 


8, 735, 140 







1 United States, calendar years; Canada, calendar years 1917 to 1924, inclusive, and fiscal years ended 
Apr. 1, 1913 to 1916, inclusive. 
* From State fish commissions. 
3 From game and fish department of Ontario. 



IMPORTS 

Imports of ciscoes into the United States in 1924 amounted to 
9,679,600 pounds, which, added to the domestic production of 
21,292,733 pounds, shows total consumption to have been 30,972,333 
pounds, none of the domestic product being exported. During the 
six-year period, 1919 to 1924, imports averaged 6,572,367 pounds, 
domestic production 16,991,419 pounds, and domestic consumption 
23,563,786 pounds. Within this period, however, imports ranged 
from about 5,000,000 pounds to 10,000,000 pounds; production from 
about 13,000,000 pounds to 21,000,000 pounds, and consumption 
from about 20,000,000 to 3 1 ,000,000 pounds. This range is accounted 
for in a large measure by variation in the runs of fish, which in the 
two countries rise and fall simultaneously. This synchronism of 
54003—27 4 



36 



TAKIFF INFOKMATION SURVEYS 



movement in the waters of the two countries is particularly significant 
in that imports are largest during years of largest domestic production. 
Even in 1923 and 1924, when the specific duty of 1 cent per pound 




applied, this was true. It is also noteworthy that imports of fresh 
ciscoes are received in largest quantities in months of heaviest 
domestic production. 



TAEIFF INFOEMATION SURVEYS 



37 



Only small quantities of smoked ciscoes are imported, largely 
because of the very perishable nature of the fish and the comparatively 
high transportation cost. In 1919 imports were 116,700 pounds; in 
1924 they had dwindled to nothing. 

Tables 19 and 20 give statistics of imports of fresh and frozen 
and of smoked ciscoes from 1919 to 1924, and the relative quantities 
of imports and sales of domestic-caught ciscoes by months in 1924. 

Table 19. — Imports into the United States of fresh and frozen and smoked ciscoes 

1919-1924 ^ 



Calendar year 


Fresh and 
frozen 


Smoked • 


Calendar year 


Fresh and 
frozen 


Smoked 


1919- ■- 


Pounds 
5,912,200 
7, 136, 100 
4, 546, 200 
4, 762, 000 


Pounds 

116, 700 

14, 700 

35,200 

2,900 


1923 


Pounds 
7, 398, 100 
9, 679, 600 


Pounds 
1,400 


1920 


1924 




1921 


6-year average 




1922 


6, 572, 367 


28,483 







1 From Trade of Canada. Exports to the United States, goods the produce of Canada. 

Table 20. — Imports of fresh and jrozen cisco compared with United States Lake 
Erie sales of domestic-caught ciscoes, 1924 



Month 



January. 
February 
March... 

April 

May 

June 

July 



Per cent of total for 


year 




Sales of 


Imports 


domestic 




catch 


4 


2 


2 


2 


1 


1 


2 


3 


1 


1 


1 


1 


3 


8 



Month 



Per cent of total for 
year 



August 

September - 

October 

November. 
December., 

Total 




PRICES 

Fresh ciscoes. — As with blue pike, the price paid United States 
fishermen for their cisco catch is fixed by agreement between the 
vessel owners and the Fishermen's Union, a rather peculiar system 
whereby the vessel owner buys the catch from his employees. The 
vessel owners pay this fixed price to the fishermen and sell on the 
open market at fluctuating prices. In general, the established price 
paid to the fishermen reflects actual market values, but since each 
fisherman receives one-twelfth of the sales value of the catch the 
established price is primarily a means of determining his share. 
In 1924 the price fixed was 7 cents per pound for April, May, and 
June, and 5 cents per pound for the rest of the year. But as a 
quantity of low-grade fish is occasionally brought in, the average 
price realized during a given month does not always equal the fixed 
price. 

The average price paid to Canadian fishermen in 1924 was 3.07 
cents per pound, as compared with 5.02 cents to United States 
fishermen — a difference in favor of the United States of approxi- 



38 



TAEITF INFOEMATION SUBVEYS 



mately 2 cents per pound. In Canada the price is made by the 
wholesaler, and, as in the United States, the fixed price determines 
the fisherman's share. 

A contributing factor to the lower price paid to Canadian fisher- 
men for ciscoes is the higher price paid to them for blue pike, a 
species taken in conjunction with ciscoes. This, hovrever, can 
affect the price spread only slightly, since blue pike represent less 
than 5 per cent of the Canadian gill-net catch, and the price paid 
the Canadian fishermen for blue pike is only 0.51 cent per pound 
greater than that paid United States fishermen. 

In 1924 the United States coastal buyer who purchased the fisher- 
men's catch received an average of 8.03 cents per pound for fresh 
ciscoes, while the Canadian coastal buyer received 6.61 cents — a 
dift'erence in favor of the United States buyer of 1.42 cents per 
pound. Demand from the Canadian market, although limited, 
tends to increase the price realized by the Canadian buj^er. On 
the other hand, the United States price may be enhanced by the 
effect of the 1 cent per pound customs duty and by the advantage 
of lower transportation costs to domestic points in the vicinity of 
Lake Erie. In the more important eastern markets, however, the 
two industries are on practically the same footing with respect to 
transportation costs. When the catches of the two countries reach 
a competitive market, no price distinction is made between them. 
In 1924 the average price realized by Chicago jobbers for the fresh 
fish of both countries was 9.39 cents per pound. 

Table 21 shows the average monthly price received for ciscoes by 
United States and Canadian fishermen and by inland jobbers during 
1924. In order to get the price data of the two coim tries on a 
comparable basis, the value for that portion of the Canadian catch 
which is sold dressed has been converted to round fish by deducting 
15 per cent, because the United States catch is all landed round. 

Table 21. — Weighted average price per pound of fresh ciscoes, 1924 





Price realized by- 




Fishermen 


Inland jobbers 


Month , 


United 

States 


Canada ' 


Excess 
United 
States 
over 
Canada 


Chicago 


New 
York 
City 


March _ _ 


Cents 


Cents 
8.00 
5.81 
5.76 
5.00 
2.G9 
2.50 
2.55 
2.70 
3.15 
3.21 


Cents 


CenU 


CenU 


April 


7.00 
7.00 
6.91 
5.04 
4.96 
4.94 
4.98 
4.99 
5.00 


1.19 
1.24 
1.91 
2.35 
2.46 
2.39 
2.28 
1.84 
1.79 


15.50 
11.04 
11.98 
10.04 
8.30 


17.60 


May 


15.89 


June 


6.50 


July 


13.52 


August. 


in .■?« 


September 


9.70 i 9.77 


October 


9.00 15.85 


November 


9. 19 12. 50 


December 


9. .^0 l.'J. M 




1 


Annual average 


5.02 


3.07 


1.95 


9.39 


13.12 



1 Dressed-flsh prices converted to round-fish prices by deducting 15 per cent. 



TAEIFF INFOR]\IATION SURVEYS 



39 



Frozen and smoked ciscoes. — Most frozen ciscoes and large quantities 
of the fresh are eventually smoked. In the United States freezing 
and smoking are both long-established industries, the former prin- 
cipally at the point of production and the latter in the large con- 
summg centers. In Canada very little smoking is done, and it is 
only since 1924 that the freezing industry has been of any consequence. 

In the United States, Lake Erie freezers received an average of 
7.28 cents per pound in 1924 for fresh, dressed ciscoes and 8.28 cents 
for frozen ciscoes. In the same year smokers in Chicago received 
20.68 cents per pound for their product. The spread between the 
price received by the freezer and the smoker is accounted for in the 
main by the expenses borne by the smoker which are (1) transporta- 
tion from the fishing area; (2) storage charges if the catch is frozen; 
(3) handling charges at destination; (4) cleaning, smoking, packing, 
and selling costs; and (5) shrinkage of from 28 to 35 per cent of the 
original weight of the fish. 

The following table gives the average price realized in 1924 by United 
States coastal buyers for fresh and frozen ciscoes; by Chicago and 
New York City jobbers for frozen ciscoes; and by Chicago jobbers for 
smoked ciscoes. The prices quoted for smoked ciscoes are for fish 
known as ''smoked whitefish," consisting principally of ciscoes but 
including small quantities of chubs and tullibees. 

Table 22. — Price per pound of fresh, frozen, and smoked ciscoes, in the United 

States, 1924 





Price realized by- 


Month 


Lake Erie buyers Inland jobbers 


Fresh Frozen Chicago 


New 

York 

City 

(frozen) 


Chicago 
(smoked) 


January 


Cents < Cents 
9.16 


Cents 
9.33 
13.38 
13.18 
12.01 
11.99 
12.00 


Cents 
11.84 
11.33 
7.18 
9.10 
8.66 
8.74 
9.00 


Cents 

21 78 


February 


8. 16 


21 83 


March... ..' 


8.33 


21 17 


April 


6.32 , 8.00 
6.30 1 


19 19 


May 


19 14 


June. - 


12.44 

6.44 


20 21 


July 


20 83 


August.. 


6.64 


20 76 


September. 


6.84 ' 8.50 

6.12 8.46 

7. 70 1 7. 91 

11. 17 1 8.21 






19 92 


October 


14.00 




20 49 


November 


9.00 
9.00 


20 74 


December 


^•>. nn 


20 46 








Annual average. 


7.28 ' 8.28 11-77 


9.10 


20.68 











COST OF PRODUCTION 



Cisco fishing costs in 1924 were 2.3 cents per pound higher in the 
United States than in Canada. The higher domestic costs are 
probably due to the lower catch per unit of fishing gear (see p. 42) 
and to the higher labor costs (see p. 12). 



40 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS 



When to the fishmg costs there are added boxing and icing costs 
and express charges to Chicago or New York City, the total difference 
approximates the fishing-cost difference, because the small domestic 
transportation cost advantage is almost offset by the boxing and 
icing costs disadvantage. The domestic cost laid down in Chicago 
in 1924 was 2.1 cents per pound higher than the foreign and laid 
down in New York City, 2.3 cents higher. 

Since 1922 the Canadian cisco freezing industry has materially 
expanded, while the domestic industry has remained about stationary. 
In 1924 the domestic disadvantage in the production cost of frozen 
cisco was even greater than the cost of the fresh because the domestic 
cost of freezing, storing, and boxing exceeded the foreign cost by 0.9 
cent per pound. Laid down in Chicago the domestic frozen cisco 
costs exceeded the foreign by 3.2 cents per pound and laid down in 
New York City by 3 cents per pound. 

Cisco smoking costs in the United States in 1924 averaged 5.1 cents 
per pound (see p. 128). No data relative to smoking costs in Canada 
were obtained by the commission, exports to the United States being 
too small to be considered. 

Tables 23 and 24 give the cost of production of fresh and frozen 
ciscoes in the United States and Canada in 1924. 

Table 23. — Cost of fresh cisco, f. o. b. New York City and Chicago, 1924 ^ 

[In cents per pound] 



Item of cost 



United 
States 



Canada 



Amount 
by which 

United 
States costs 
are more 
(+) or less 
(-) than 
Canadian 



Fishing cost: 

Excluding interest 

Including interest 

Boxing and icing cost; 

Excluding interest 

Including interest , 

Total fishing and boxing and icing cost: 

Excluding interest... 

Including interest.. 

Transportation cost: 

To New York City 

To Chicago 

Total fishing, boxing and icing, and transportation cost 

F. 0. b., New York City — 

Excluding interest 

Including interest 

F. o. b., Chicago — 

Excluding interest 

Including interest 



4. 6970 
4.8034 



1. 6670 
1. 7365 



6.3640 
6. 5399 



2. 3125 
2. 3750 



8. 6765 
8. 8524 



8. 7390 
8. 9149 



2. 3980 
2. 4630 



1. 4001 
1. 4418 



3. 7981 
3.9048 



2. 6250 
2. 8750 



6. 4231 
6. 5298 



6. 6731 
6. 7798 



+2. 2990 
+2. 3404 



+. 2669 
+.2947 



+2. 5659 
+2. 6351 



-. 3125 
-.5000 



+2. 2534 
+2. 3226 



+2. 0659 
+2. 1351 



I Does not include the customs duty of 1 cent per pound. For detailed statistics of cost, see p. 148. 



TARIFF INFOEMATION SURVEYS 



41 



Table 24. — Cost of frozen cisco, f. o. b. New York City and Chicago, 1924 ^ 

[In cents per pound] 



Item of cost 



United 
States 



Canada 



Amount 
by which 

United 
States costs 
are more 
(+) or less 
(-) than 
Canadian 



Fishing cost: 

Excluding interest , 

Including interest 

Freezing and storing costs: 

Excluding interest 

Including intereist 

Boxing cost: 

Excluding interest 

Including interest 



4. 6970 
4. 8034 



1. 8374 
1. 9119 



1. 2159 
1. 2902 



2. 3980 
2. 4630 



1. 3174 
1. 3701 



.9220 
.9749 



Total fishing, freezing and storing, and boxing cost: 

Excluding interest 

Including interest 



Transportation cost: 
To New York City. 
To Chicago 



7.7503 
8.0055 



4. 6374 
4.8080 



.7157 
.8297 



.9310 
.8297 



Total fishing, freezing and storing, boxing, and transportation cost: 
F. o. b., New York City- 
Excluding interest - - 

Including interest 

F. 0. b., Chicago — 

Excluding interest 

Including interest 



8. 4660 
8. 7212 



8.5800 
8. 8352 



5.5684 
5.7390 



5. 4671 
5. 6377 



+2. 2990 
+2. 3404 

+.5200 
+.5418 

+. 2939 
+.3153 



+3. 1129 
+3. 1975 



-.2153 



+2.8976 
+2. 9822 



+3. 1129 
+3. 1975 



> Does not include the customs duty of 1 cent per pound. For detaUed statistics of cost, see p. 148. 
COMPETITIVE CONDITIONS 

Cisco fishing is" commercially important in Lake Erie only, and the 
fishermen of the United States and Canada confine their operations 
to the waters owned by their respective Governments. As in blue- 
pike fishing, the fishermen of the two countries probably draw upon 
a common source of supply. The theory that there is extensive fish 
migration is supported by the fact that at times the Canadian and 
United States fleets fish side by side at the international boundary. 
There seems, however, to be a smaller available supply in the United 
States waters. Data collected by the Tariff Commission for the 
year 1924 from records of vessels producing 39 per cent of the domestic 
catch and 34 per cent of the Canadian catch show that per day of 
fishing the catch per 1,000 square yards of netting is 58 per cent 
greater in Canada than in the United States.^ This smaller domestic 
supply may be due to a more limited fish food supply in the United 
States waters; to pollution of domestic waters by industrial or other 
waste; or to the scaring away of fish by the large amount of fishing 
gear employed in the United States. 

From 1919 to 1924 domestic production increased from about 
18,000,000 to 21,000,000 pounds and imports from 6,000,000 to 
10,000,000 pounds. It will be noted that imports increased after 
1922 when ciscoes were made dutiable at 1 cent per pound. 

Considering New York City and Chicago as competitive markets, 
the United States production cost of fresh ciscoes in 1924 exceeded 



For detailed statistics, see pp. 42-44. 



42 



TAKIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS 



the Canadian by 2.2 cents per pound and of frozen ciscoes by 3.1 
cents per pound. It may be objected, however, that the year 1924 
was abnormal and should not be selected for cost of production com- 
parison, since United States fishermen were on strike from July 27 
to August 19, during which period only a few independent boats were 
operated, whereas the whole Canadian fleet was in full operation. 
But it so happens that a year without a strike has come to be abnor- 
mal, for in at least six years of the last decade strikes have occurred 
in the United States' industry, while the Canadian industry has suf- 
fered no such interruption. 

Table 25 summarizes the cost of the domestic and foreign products 
laid down in New York City and Chicago: 

Table 25. — Summary of the cost of -production of ciscoes, 1924 
[In cents per pound] 



Class and market 



Fresh: 

F. 0. b. New York City. 

F. 0. b. Chicago 

Simple average 

Frozen: 

F. 0. b. New York City 
F. o.b. Chicago 

Simple average 



United 
States 



8.85 
8.91 



■8.78 



Canada 
(exclud- 
ing duty) 



6.53 

6.78 



6.65 



5.74 
5.64 



5.69 



Amount 
by which 
United 

States 
costs are 

more 

than 
Canadian 



2.32 
2.13 



2.98 
3.20 



3.09 



KELATIVE SUPPLY IN DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN WATERS 

The fish producers of New York, Pennsylvania, and Ohio in their 
applications for an increase in the tariff on ciscoes stated that the 
supply in the Canadian half of Lake Erie is greater than in the United 
States half. Obviously, if the Canadian waters are more densely 
populated with ciscoes, the Canadian fishermen have a natural advan- 
tage in competition. The applicants, however, presented no statis- 
tical data to confirm this statement. The commission finding no 
such data available has, therefore, made a detailed analysis of gill- 
net fishing records for the 1924 season. At least 90 per cent of the 
cisco catch is taken in this type of gear, and fishing methods and sea- 
sons are the same in the two countries. The data obtained from 
these records cover the size of the catch of each fishing tug, the amount 
of gear used, and the period of employment. From these the catch 
per unit of fishing gear per day of fishing was computed. A copy of 
the schedule used in obtaining information of this character is shown 
on the following page. 



TAEIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS 



43 



1 


Kind of gUl nets 




Bull 
nets 


Shallow 
nets 


White- 
fish nets 


1 Length of each net . . yards.. 








2 Depth of each net .. do 








3 Area of each net (line 1 by line 2).. square yards.. 








4 Nets used per set number.. 









5 Area of netting per set (line 3 by line 4) square yards.. 








6 Days flshed number,. 








7. Area of netting per year (line 5 by 6 divided by 1,000) 
1,000 square yards.. 
















9 Catchofciscoes per 1,000 square yards (line 8 divided by line 7). do 








10 Catch of blue pike . do 








11. Catch of blue pike per 1,000 square yards (line 10 divided by line 7) 
pounds.. 








12 Catch of perch do 








13 Catch of perch per 1,000 square yards (line 12 divided by line 7).. do 








14 Catch of other flsli (specify) . - do 


1 




line 7) pounds 

















Data were obtained in the United States for 27 vessels taking 
8,316,530 pounds of ciscoes, or 39 per cent of the total United States 
cisco catch; in Canada, for 8 vessels taking 3,690,944 pounds, or 34 
per cent of the total Canadian cisco catch. 

Average catch. — The average catch of ciscoes per thousand square 
yards of netting per day of fishing in 1924 was 69.9 pounds in the 
United States and 110.2 pounds in Canada, a difference in favor of 
Canada of 40.3 pounds. The smaller size of the domestic catch may 
be due to such disadvantages as a smaller food supply in United 
States waters, industrial pollution, or scaring away of some of the 
fish by the large amount of fishing gear employed. 

In the cisco fishery several species of minor importance such as 
blue pike and perch, are taken. These, however, represent only 
18 per cent of the total United States gill-net catch and 13 per cent 
of the total Canadian gill-net catch. Tables 26 and 27 give the results 
of the commission's study: Table 26 is a smnmary of Table 27. 

Table 26. — Summary of Lake Erie gill-net catch per thousand square yards of 
netting in the United States and Canada, 1924 





United States 


Canada 


Species 


Average 
catch per 
thousand 
square 
yards of 
netting 


Per cent 
distribu- 
tion of 
gill-net 
catch 


Average 
catch per 
thousand 
square 
yards of 
netting 


Per cent 
distribu- 
tion of 
gill-net 
catch 


Ciscoes 

Blue pike 


Pounds 
69.9 
12.5 


82 
15 
2 
1 


Pounds 

110.2 

7.6 

7.5 

.7 


87 
6 


Perch 

All other 


2.1 
1.2 


6 
1 


Total 




85.7 


100 


126.0 


100 



44 



TAEIFF INFOKMATION SURVEYS 



Table 27. — Detailed statement — Lake Erie gill-net catch per thousand square 
yards of netting in the United States and Canada, 19S4 

UNITED STATES 



Species 


Average 

catch 

per 

thousand 

square 
yards of 
netting 


Per cent 
distri- 
bution 


Average 

catch 

per 

thousand 
square 

yards of 

netting 


Per cent 
distri- 
bution 


Average 

catch 

per 

thousand 

square 

yards of 

netting 


Per cent 
distri- 
bution 


Average 

catch 

per 

thousand 

square 

yards of 

netting 


Per cent 
distri- 
bution 


Blue pike - 


Pounds 

6.5 

108.8 

.1 


5.6 

94.3 

.1 


Pounds 

29.6 

25.8 

6.9 

2.8 

(') 

.2 

8 


45.2 

39.5 

10.6 

4.3 

(') 

.3 
(') 
(') 


Pounds 




Pounds 

12.5 

69.9 

2.1 

.8 

(') 

.1 
(') 
(0 

.3 
(') 


14.6 


Ciscoes 






8U5 


Perch 






2*5 


Sauger 






1.0 


Sheepshead 










(1) 


Suckers 


6") 


(■) 






.1 


Trout... 






(') 


White bass 










.3 


Whitefish 






4.6 
1.1 


91.9 
8.1 


Yellow pike 






(') 


.1 


(1) 










Total 


115.4 


100.0 


65.3 


100.0 


5.1 


100.0 


85.7 


100.0 


CANADA 


Blue pike 


0.6 
295.1 


0.2 
99.8 


16.6 
44.9 
16.7 
C) 


21.2 

.57.4 
21.4 

(•) 

(') 






7.6 

110.2 

7.5 

(') 
« 
.7 


6.0 


Ciscoes 






87.5 


Perch 






5.9 


Suckers 







0) 
(') 
.6 


Trout 










Whitefish 








3.0 


100.0 














Total 


295.7 


100.0 


78.2 


100.0 


3.0 


100.0 


126.0 


100.0 



1 Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent. 



BLUE PIKE 



DESCRIPTION AND USES 

The blue pike is the young of the yellow pike, but is so different in 
appearance that the trade regards it as a distinct species. Its aver- 
age weight is about 1 pound. In gradmg blue pike, those weighing 
more than 1 pound are known as Jumbo or No. 1 and those under 
1 pound as Medium or No. 2. The distinguishing features of this 
species are an elongated body and a grayish blue back. 

Most blue pike are sold fresh in the round (not dressed). Probably 
about 85 per cent of the total catch is so marketed; the remainder 
are frozen. 

PRODUCTION, DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN 

Blue pike are commercially important only in Lake Erie, where in 
1924 over 98 per cent of both the United States and Canadian catches 
were taken. From 1913 to 1924, the average annual domestic catch 
was 7,181,008 pounds, and the foreign 3,083,960 pounds, but within 
this period there w^as a marked fluctuation in the yearly catch. In 
1915 the United States catch amounted to almost 19,000,000 pounds, 
in 1918 to about 1,000,000 pounds, and in 1922 to about 10,000,000 
pounds. It is significant that a rise or fall in the domestic catch has 
coincided with a like movement in the foreign. That is, a poor year 
in the domestic fishery has synchronized with a poor year in the for- 
eign. Since the amount of fishing gear used does not vary greatly 
from year to year, it is obviously the migration of the fish that gen- 
erally causes the fluctuation in the catch. This is particularly true 
of pound nets, in which at least half of the catch is taken. In them 
reliance is placed on the likelihood of the fish swimming inshore. To 
some extent, however, the size of the cisco catch influences the blue 



TAEIFF ]NF01tMATI0N SURVEYS 



45 



pike catch. During years of cisco scarcity more attention is given 
to the catching of blue pike. 

The following chart and table give the blue-pike catch of the United 
States and Canada from 1913 to 1924: 

Table 28. — United States and Canadian blue-pike catch, 1913-1924 





Great Lakes 


Year' 


Great Lakes 


Yeari 


United 
States 2 


Canada 3 


United 
States « 


Canada ' 


1913 


Pounds 
1,881,184 
11,435,727 
18, 811, 228 
9, 402, 862 
1, 654, 189 
1, 330, 623 
1, 709, 939 


Pounds 
488, 167 
* 2, 967, 571 

4,882,312 

2, 538, 926 
565, 476 
799, 894 

2, 390, 479 


1920. . .. 


Pounds 
3, 982, 987 
8, 945, 993 
10, 361, 079 
9, 686, 282 
8, 969, 997 


Pounds 
3, 364, 365 
6, 389, 588 
6, 341, 295 
3 243,545 


1914 


1921 


1915 


1922. 


1916. 


1923 


1917 


1924 . ... 


3, 035, 898 


1918 


12-year average 


1919 


7, 181, 008 


3, 083, 960 





1 United States, calendar years; Canada, calendar years 1917 to 1924, inclusive, and fiscal years ended 
Apr. 1, 1913 to 1916, inclusive. 
' From State fish commissions. 
' From game and fish department of Ontario. 
• Estimated. 



CATCH OF BLUE PIKE 

IN THE 

UNITED STATES AND CANADA 
)9l3-l92-^ 




46 



TAEIFF INFOJRMATIOlSr SURVEYS 



IMPORTS 

For the six-year period 1919-1924 imports of blue pike averaged 
3,727,560 pounds annually, or 33.88 per cent of domestic consump- 
tion, but within this period varied considerably from year to year. 
From 1919 to 1921 imports increased from 2,152,530 pounds to 
5,765,310 pounds, and then in 1924 declined to 2,754,090 pounds. 
The ratio of imports to domestic production was 39.19 per cent in 
1921 and 23.49 per cent in 1924. 

The wide variation in imports is accounted for in a large measure 
by the variable runs of fish in both countries and by the practice of 
fishing for blue pike when the runs of ciscoes are light. 

Table 29 gives the estimated imports into the United States from 
1919 to 1924. 



Table 29.- 



-Imports of fresh and frozen blue pike into the United States, 
191 9-1 9U 1 



Year 


Pounds 


Year 


Pounds 


1919.. 


2,152,530 
3, 041, 550 
5, 765, 310 
5, 722, 650 


1923 . . 


2, 929, 230 
2, 754, 090 


1920 


1924 .- . . 


1921 . . 


6-year average .. - 


1922 


3, 727, 560 







1 Estimated at 90 per cent of Canadian production. 



PRICES 

The price paid to United States gill-net fishermen for blue pike is 
fixed by agreement between an organization of coastal buyers and 
the fishermen's union. In Canada the price is fixed by individual 
agreement, but a higher price than it would otherwise bring is often 
paid for blue pike in order to get ciscoes, the more important part of 
the catch, at a lower price. During 1924 the weighted average price 
paid to United States fishermen was 5.24 cents per pound and to 
Canadian fishermen 5.75 cents per pound — a difference in favor of 
Canadian fishermen of 0.51 cent per pound. To some extent the 
higher price paid to Canadian fishermen in 1924 was due to their 
proportionately larger catch of blue pike during the early part of the 
season when prices were high. Since some of the blue pike catch is 
taken in pound and trap nets, the weighted average price is slightly 
affected by the proportion so taken for the reason that in some areas 
a premium is paid for pound-net fish because they are usually fresher 
when shipped than gill-net fish. 

Since most of the Canadian catch is sold in the United States the 
price realized by coastal buyers is probably affected by the United 
States customs duty of 1 cent per pound. In 1924 the average price 
realized by Canadian coastal or lake-side buyers was 7.51 cents per 
pound and by United States buyers 8.24 cents per pound. 

Table 30 gives the average price received for fresh blue pike in 1924, 



TARIFF INFOBMATION SURVEYS 47 

Table 30. — Weighted average price per pound of fresh blue pike, 1924 



Month 



Price realized by — 



Lake Erie fishermen 



Lake Erie buyers 



United 
States 



Canada 



Amount 

by which 
United 
States 
prices 

are more 
(+)or 

less (— ) 

than 
Canadian 



United 
States 



Canada 



Amount 
by which 
United 

States 

prices 
are more 

(+)or 
less (— ) 

than 
Canadian 



Inland jobbers 



New 
Chicago York 
City 



January 

February.. 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July.- 

August 

September. 

October 

November. 
December.. 



Cents 



Cents 



Cents 



Cents 



Cents 



Cents 



Cents 



6.21 
5.00 
5.00 
5.00 
5.00 
5.00 
4.98 
4.90 
5.86 



10.00 
7.12 
3.62 
4.50 
6.00 
6.00 
6.00 
4.46 
4.52 
5.48 



-0.91 

+1.38 

+.50 

-1.00 

-1.00 

-1.00 

+.52 

+.38 

+.38 



10.48 
5.84 
6.83 
9.20 
8.57 

10.02 
9.40 
8.98 

10.30 



, Annual average , 5.24 



5.75 



.51 



8.24 



+0. .59 
+ 1.33 

-.17 
+1.02 

-.22 

+.05 
+2.00 
+2.29 

-.85 



16.24 
14.67 
12.66 
12.42 
11.67 
16.66 
15. 12 
14.20 
16.25 
17.14 



7.51 



+.73 



15.27 



Cents 
23.00 
13.00 
11.35 
21.10 
13.91 
15.67 
14.13 
12.53 
22.25 
20.31 
13.61 
15.91 



16.06 



COST OF PRODUCTION 

In 1924 the average cost of catching blue pike was 0.3 cent per 
pound higher in the IJnited States than in Canada. Blue pike, how- 
ever, when taken from gill nets are usually dead and consequently 
less valuable than the live fish taken from pound and trap nets. If, 
therefore, comparison of costs is made according to the fishing gear 
used, the difference is found to diverge materially from the average. 
In the gill-net fishery, where 71 per cent of the domestic catch is taken 
and 62 per cent of the foreign, the Canadian cost is 1.7 cents per 
pound lower than the domestic. In the pound-net fishery, on the 
other hand, the cost is 1.8 cents per pound higher in Canada than in 
the United States; but 38 per cent of the total Canadian catch is taken 
in pound nets, while only 3 per cent of the United States catch is taken 
in them. Trap nets, which are prohibited by law in Canada, yield 
26 per cent of the domestic catch at a cost of 6.3 cents per pound, or 
2.3 cents per pound lower than the Canadian pound-net cost. 

Fresh Canadian blue pike when placed on the New York City 
market averages 0.2 cent per pound less in cost than the domestic, 
but on 'the Chicago market the cost is the same for the products of 
both countries. If, however, the gill-net catch of the two countries is 
compared, the domestic cost is found to exceed that of the foreign 
product by 1.7 cents per pound when the fish is placed on the New 
York City market and by 1.5 cents per pound on the Chicago market. 



48 



TARIFF INFOBMATION SURVEYS 



Between the average cost of the domestic and foreign frozen blue 
pike on the New York City market, the domestic is 0.9 cent per 
pound higher than the foreign and on the Chicago market the domestic 
is 1.1 cents higher than the foreign. The domestic gill-net fish when 
frozen and placed in New York City cost 2.4 cents per pound more 
than the foreign in the same market and in Chicago 2.6 cents per 
pound more. 

Table 31 gives the cost of production of fresh blue pike and Table 32 
the cost of the frozen. Table 33 gives the fishing costs for the various 
kinds of fishing gear. 

Table 31. — Cost of fresh blue pike, f. o. b. New York City and Chicago, 1924^ 

[In cents per pound] 



Item of cost 



Fishing cost: 

Excluding interest 

Including interest. 

Boxing and icing cost: 

Excluding interest 

Including interest. 

Total, fishing, boxing and icing cost: 

Excluding interest 

Including interest 

Transportation cost: 

To New York City 

To Chicago - 

Total, fishing, boxing and icing, and 
transportation cost: 
F. o. b. New York City- 
Excluding interest --. 

Including interest 

F. 0. b. Chicago- 
Excluding interest 

Including interest 



All types of gear 



United 
States 



5.7404 
5. 9382 



1. 6670 
1. 7365 



7. 4074 
7. 6747 



2. 3125 
2.3754 



9. 7199 
9. 9872 



9.7828 
10. 0501 



Canada 



5. 3958 
5. 6750 



1.4001 
1. 4418 



6. 7959 
7. 1168 



Amount 

by which 
United 
States 

costs are 
more 
(+)or 

less (— ) 
than 

Canadian 



+0. 3446 
+.2632 



+. 2669 
+.2947 



+.6115 
+. 5579 



2. 6368 -. 3243 
2. 8927 -. 5173 



9. 4327 +. 2872 
7536 +. 2336 



9.6886 
10. 0095 



-.0942 
+.0406 



Gill nets only 



United 

States 



5. 4595 
5. 5914 



1. 6670 
1. 7365 



7. 1265 
7. 3279 



2. 3125 
2. 3754 



9. 4390 
9.6404 



9. 5019 
9. 7033 



Canada 



3. 7484 
3. 8751 



1.4001 
1.4418 



5. 1485 
5. 3169 



2.6368 
2. 8927 



Amount 

by which 
United 
States 

costs are 
more 
(+)or 

less (— ) 
than 

Canadian 



+1.7111 
+1. 7163 



+. 2669 
+.2947 



+1. 9780 
+2. OHO 



-.3243 

-. 5173 



7. 7853 
7. 9537 



8.0412 
8.2096 



+ 1.6537 
+1. 6867 



+1. 4607 
+1. 4937 



' Does not include the customs duty of 1 cent per pound. For detailed statistics of cost, see pp. 149, 150 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS 



49 



Table 32. — Cost of frozen blue pike, f. o. b. New York City and Chicago, 1924^ 

[In cents per poundl 



' 


All types of gear 


Gill nets only 


Item of cost 


United 
States 


Canada 


Amount 

bywhich 
United 
States 

costs are 
more 
(+)or 

less (-) 
than 

Canadian 


United 

States 


Canada 


Amount 

by which 
United 
States 

costs are 
more 
(+)or 

less (-) 
than 

Canadian 


Fishing cost: 

Excluding interest 


5.7404 
5. 9382 

1.8374 
1.9119 

1.2169 
1. 2902 


5. 3958 
5. 6750 

1. 3174 
1. 3701 

.9220 
.9749 


+0. 3446 
+. 2632 

+.5200 
+. 5418 

+. 2939 
+. 3153 


6. 4595 
5. 5914 

1. 8374 
1.9119 

1.2159 
1.2902 


3. 7484 
3. 8751 

1.3174 
1. 3701 

.9220 
.9749 


+1.7111 


Including interest... 


+1. 7163 


Freezing and storing cost: 

Excluding interest 


+.5200 


Including interest 


+.6418 


Boxing cost: 

Excluding interest 


+.2939 


Including interest . 


+. 3153 






Total, fishing, freezing and storing, and 
boxing cost: 
Excluding interest - 


8.7937 
9.1403 


7. 6352 
8.0200 


+1. 1585 
+1.1203 


8. 5128 
8. 7935 


5. 9878 

6. 2201 


+2. 5250 


Including interest 


+2. 5734 






Transportation cost: 

To New York City 


.7157 
.8297 


.9310 
.8334 


-.2153 
-.0037 


.7157 
.8297 


.9310 
.8334 


-.2153 


To Chicago-- 


-.0037 






Total, fishing, freezing and storing, boxing, 
and transportation cost: 
F. 0. b. New York City- 
Excluding interest-. 


9. 5094 
9.8660 

9.6234 
9.9700 


8.6662 
8. 9510 

8. 4686 
8.8534 


+.9432 
+. 9050 

+1. 1548 
+1. 1166 


9.2285 
9.5092 

9.3425 
9.6232 


6. 9188 
7. 1511 

6. 8212 
7. 0535 


+2. 3097 


Including interest 


+2.3581 


F. 0. b. Chicago — 

Excluding interest-- 


+2. 5213 


Including interest 


+2. 5697 







' Does not include the customs duty of 1 cent per pound. For detailed statistics of cost, see pp. 149, 150. 

Table 33. — Comparison of blue-pike fishing costs according to type of gear used, 
United States and Canada, 1924 

[In cents per pound] 



Type of net and country 


Labor 


Interest 


All other 
costs 


Total 


GiU nets: 

United States .- 


3.2483 
1.9458 


0. 1319 
.1267 


2.2112 
1.8026 


6. 5914 


Canada - 


3. 8751 




(+) or 




Amount by which United States costs are more 
less (— ) than Canadian 


+1.3025 


+.0052 


+. 4086 


+ 1.7163 








Pound nets: 

United States - 


4. 1375 
4.8527 


.3561 
.5299 


2. 3369 
3. 2510 


6.8305 


Canada - 


8. 6336 




(+) or 




Amount by which United States costs are more 


-. 7152 


-. 1738 


-.9141 


-1. 8031 








Trap nets: 

United States 


4. 1936 


.3608 


1. 7596 


6. 3140 








All nets: 

United States 


3. 5110 
3.0453 


.1978 
.2792 


2. 2294 
2. 3505 


5. 9382 


Canada - - - 


5. 6750 




(+) or 




Amount by which United States costs are more 
less (— ) than Canadian 


+. 4657 


-. 0814 


-.1211 


+.2632 







50 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS 



COMPETITIVE CONDITIONS 

Almost the entire domestic and foreign supply of blue pike is taken 
from Lake Erie, the scope of each country's fishing operations being 
defined by the international boundary. Since the fish may -migrate 
from the waters of one country to those of the other, it can be assumed 
that the fishermen of both countries draw upon the same general 
supply. It does not necessarily follow, however, that the fish life 
is evenly distributed in the lake. For example, some areas are 
without fish food and consequently barren of fish. If an equal number 
of nets were fished for the same period in the waters of both coun- 
tries the catch might be larger in one than in the other, even though 
the same basic supply were being drawn upon. 

Since all of the domestic catch and probably 90 per cent of the 
foreign is sold in the United States, it would seem that the cost of 
placing the two catches in the principal United States markets is a 
reasonable measure of competitive strength. 

In such a comparison no distinction is made between gill-net and 
pound or trap net fish; the trade, however, makes a price distinction 
so that the higher value of the pound and trap net fish permits larger 
expenditures than can be made for gill-net fish. If, therefore, one 
country produces more fish in gill nets, which was true of the United 
States in 1924, the weighted average fishing cost is proportionately 
reduced. On the basis of the cost of production of gill-net fish only, 
the catch of which in 1924 was 71 per cent of the total domestic 
catch and 62 per cent of the foreign, the average of the domestic 
cost laid down in New York City and Chicago exceeded the foreign 
cost by 1.6 cents per pound for fresh fish and 2.5 cents for frozen fish. 

The followmg table gives the costs of the gill-net fish laid down in 
New York City and Chicago: 

Table 34. — Summary of the cost of production of blue pike, the product of gill 

nets, 1924 

[In cents per pound] 



Class and market 



United 

States 



Canada 

(excluding 

duty) 



Amount 

by which 

United 

States costs 

are more 

than 
Canadian 



Fresh: 

New York City. 
Chicago 

Simple average 

Frozen: 

New York City. 
Chicago. 

Simple average 



9.67 



9.56 



7.95 
8.21 



7.15 
7.05 



7.10 



1.69 
1.49 



1.59 



2.36 

2.57 



While the foregoing situation points to the desirability of a tariff 
distinction between gill-net fish and pound or trap net fish, the dis- 
tinction is probably too fine to warrant separate classification in 
the tariff law. 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS 51 

YELLOW PIKE 

DESCRIPTION AND USES 

The yellow pike, a member of the perch family, in the group of pike 
perches, is a large yellow fish, averaging about 8 pounds in weight. 
Those weighing less than 4 pounds are classed as "No. 1 " and those 
4 pounds and over as "large." The trade makes a distinction 
between Great Lakes yellow pike and pike taken in other lakes. 
The Great Lakes yellow pike on reaching market are usually fresher, 
firmer of flesh, and of a better flavor than those of the other inland 
lakes. Moreover, they do not "slime at the gills" so readily. The 
lower grade of the yellow pike taken in lakes other than the Great 
Lakes is probably due to the fact that they are taken in compara- 
tively shallow water and are transported a longer distance. About 
90 per cent of the catch is sold round (not dressed). 

Of the domestic catch, probably 90 per cent is sold fresh, and of 
the Canadian about 70 per cent. The demand for fresh yellow pike, 
principally from the Jewish trade, has given rise to the "winter 
fishery" of Lake Manitoba. From there the fish are transported 
in heated sleighs and express cars to prevent freezing. 

Frozen yellow pike are in the main the product of the fall and 
winter fisheries of the northern Canadian lakes. The comparatively 
small domestic catch, consisting principally of the smaller sizes, is 
taken close to centers of consumption, and there is therefore no 
necessity for extensive freezing. 

During the winter season on all the northern Canadian lakes except 
Manitoba, and to some extent there, the catch is frozen naturally by 
exposure to the cold air. Artificial freezing is also resorted to at 
times during the fall, when the fresh-fish market is glutted, and espe- 
cially when there is an abundance of large fish, which are best suited 
to this method of preservation. 

PRODUCTION, DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN 

The total catch of yellow pike in the Great Lakes and in the north- 
ern Canadian lakes in 1924 approximated 12,000,000 pounds, of which 
about 21 per cent were taken in the United States Great Lakes, 22 
per cent in the Canadian Great Lakes, and 57 per cent in the north- 
em Canadian lakes. In the United States the bulk of the catch is 
taken from Lake Erie, Lake Huron, and Lake of the Woods, and in 
Canada the principal fishing areas are Lake Winnipeg, Lake Mani- 
toba, Lake of the Woods, and Lake Winnipegosis. Since 1913 the 
Great Lakes catch has been comparatively constant in both coun- 
tries, the United States catch averaging about 2,800,000 pounds 
annually and the Canadian about 2,200,000 pounds. In the northern 
Canadian lakes fisheries, however, there has been an increase in the 
annual catch from about 3,600,000 pounds in 1913 to 7,000,000 
pounds in 1924. 

The relatively constant catch on the Great Lakes may be accounted 
for by the lack of additional supplies, the increase in the Canadian 
northern lakes industry, the increased demand in the United States, 
and the development of the winter fishing for the fresh-fish trade. 

Available scientific data indicate that domestic production can not 
be greatly increased.^ This conclusion is substantiated by the fact 

• Reports of United States Bureau of Fisheries. 



52 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS 



that United States production has not increased despite a price 
increase of from 5.4 cents per pound in 1903 to 11.5 cents in 1917 
and 12.7 cents in 1924. 

Table 35 gives the United States and Canadian production of 
yellow pike from 1913 to 1924. 

Table 35. — United States and Canadian catch of yellow pike, 1913-1924 



Year i 


United 
States » 


Canada 


Great 
Lakes 


Great 

Lakes ' 


Northern 
Lakes < 


Total 


1913 


Pounds 
1, 497, 860 
2, 925, 693 
3, 750, 190 
3, 493, 200 
3, 456, 028 
3, 263, 194 
2, 539, 451 
2, 256, 483 
2, 295, 510 
2, 906, 400 
2, 762, 401 
2,529,685 


Pounds 
2, 578, 626 
3, 869, 837 
2, 623, 334 
1, 909, 368 
1, 813, 684 
1, 525, 797 
1,647,602 
1,419,331 
1, 880, 204 
2, 273, 296 
2, 564, 079 
2, 718, 484 


Pounds 
3, 573, 200 
3, 327, 700 
5, 660, 800 
2,782,000 
6,079,800 
4, 406, 000 
4, 153, 200 
4, 517, 700 
4, 284, 800 
5, 775, 100 
7,351,500 
6,997,800 


Pounds 
6, 151, 826 


1914 


7, 197, 537 


1915 - 


8, 284, 134 


1916 . . 


4, 691, 368 


1917 


7, 893, 484 


1918 


5, 931, 797 


1919 


5, 800, 802 


1920 


5, 937, 031 


1921 


6, 165, 004 


1922 - - 


8, 048, 396 


1923 


9. 915, 579 


1924 -- 


9, 716, 284 






12-year average 


2,806,341 


2, 235, 303 


4,825,800 


7, 061, 103 







J United States, calendar years; Canada, calendar years 1917 to 1924, inclusive, and fiscal years ended 
Apr. 1, 1913 to 1916, inclusive. 

2 From State fish commissions. 

3 From game and fish department of Ontario. 

* From department of marine and fisheries of Canada. 



IMPORTS 

The average import of yellow pike is large compared with the 
domestic catch. During the period 1919-1924 the catch was only 
26.26 per cent of the total domestic consumption, and in 1924, 21.67 
per cent. The United States production for the period 1919 to 1924, 
inclusive, averaged 2,548,322 pounds annually, and imports averaged 
7,156,395 pounds annually. In 1924 imports were 9,144,900 pounds 
and domestic production 2,529,685 pounds. 

Table 36 gives imports estimated on the assumption that 85 per 
cent of the total Canadian catch is exported. Since there is a rela- 
tively large demand for frozen yellow pike in the interior of Canada, 
it is probable that not more than 70 per cent of the frozen product 
is exported, but of the fresh product about 90 per cent is exported. 

Table 36. — Imports of fresh and frozen yellow pike into the United States, 

1919-1924 1 



Year 


Pounds 


Year 


Pounds 


1919 


5, 555, 430 
5, 569, 470 
5, 836, 950 
7, 483, 410 


1923 


9, 348, 210 


1920 


1924 -. 


9, 144, 900 


1921 






1922 -.- 


7, 156, 396 









1 Estimated at 85 per cent of Canadian production. 



TAKIFF INFOKMATION SUEVEYS 



53 



PRICES 

The bulk of the yellow-pike catch is sold to the Jewish people, 
who in general are averse to eating frozen fish. To this trade more 
than to any other freshness is of primary consideration. In winter, 
when prime frozen yellow pike are available, the trade continues to 
buy the imported fresh product, despite its high price. There is of 
course a price limit, and consumption decreases as the price increases. 
During February and March, 1924, the price realized for fresh yellow 
pike by Chicago jobbers averaged about 28 cents per pound, as 
compared with about 14 cents for the frozen. In the summer months 
the Chicago jobbers' price averages about 16 cents per pound, while 
that realized by the various lakeside buyers ranges from 18 cents 
on the United States side of Lake Erie to 6 cents on Lake Winnipeg, 
Canada. The lower price on Lake Winnipeg is largely due to the 
long haul of the fish to the principal consuming centers, and to the 
1 cent per pound customs duty. The longer haul of the northern 
Canadian lakes product is significant both as to the added express 
charges and its depreciating effect on the quality of the fish. On the 
lower Canadian Great Lakes, however, the transportation costs 
approximate those of the domestic industry and prices in general 
are only slightly lower than in the United States. 

Table 37 shows the prices realized for fresh yellow pike by fisher- 
men and coastal buyers in 1924. 

Table 37. — -Average price per pound realized for fresh yellow pike by fishermen 

and coastal buyers, 1924 





Country and lake 


Fishermen 


Coastal buy- 
ers 


United States: 

Erie 




Cents 
12.73 
12.72 
12.50 


Cents 

18.30 


Michigan 




14.22 


Lake of the Woods 




13.71 








Average 


12.65 


16.39 








Canada: 

Erie -.. - 


10.15 
11.00 
11.44 


16.00 


Superior 




12.64 


Lake of the Woods.. 





12.41 








Average 


11.04 


13.47 








Manitoba 


18.72 

4.36 

3 5.07 


2 18. 33 


Winnipeg 




6.29 


Winnipegosis 




3 7.47 









1 Principally fresh winter-caught fish, but includes some frozen winter caught. 

' Fresh winter caught. 

3 Includes some fresh winter caught. 

Tables 38 and 39 show the price realized for fresh and frozen 
yellow pike by coastal buyers and inland jobbers. 



54 



TAEIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS 



Table 38. — Price -per pound realized for fresh yellow pike by coastal buyers and 

inland jobbers, 1924 





Price realized by — 




Coastal buyers 


Inland jobbers 


Month 


United States 


Canada 


Chicago 


New 




Erie 


Woods 


Woods 


Winni- 
peg 


Mani- 
toba 


Winni- 
pegosis 


York 
City 


January- 


Cents 


Cents 


Cents 


CenU 


Cents 
18.49 
22.22 
22.76 


Cents 
15.05 
13.39 
11.12 


Cents 
18.95 
27.50 
27.89 
23.98 
17.08 
15.46 
19. 68 
17.32 
16.93 
17.56 
19.23 
23.65 


Cents 
28.87 


February . 










34.15 


March . 










30.46 


April 


15.00 
18.78 
18.00 
18.00 








34.53 




15.00 


14.00 
10.51 
9.00 
12.58 
12.74 








29.40 


June 


6.00 
6.74 
6.53 
6.00 
6.23 
6.39 






28.63 


July 


12.76 
16.03 
10.38 
12.09 
15. ,00 






31.23 


August 




6.51 
6.32 
6.22 


29.22 


September 




28.88 


October 






27.48 


November 






10.39 
17.12 


34.24 


December 






15.03 


31.69 














Annual average.. 


18.30 


13.71 


12.41 


6.29 


18.33 


7.47 


18.83 


30.30 



Table 39. — Price per pound realized for frozen yellow pike by coastal buyers and 

Chicago jobbers, 1924 





Price realized by — 




Coastal buyers 




Month 


United States 


Canada 


Chicago 
jobbers 




Erie 


Woods 


Winnipeg 


Manitoba 


Winne- 
pegosis 




January 


CenU 
15.36 
15.12 
16.12 
15.00 


Cents 
11.00 
H.OO 
11.02 
11.00 


Cents 
7.59 


Cents 

10.38 


Cents 
9.74 
9.29 
9.29 


Cents 
11.73 


February 


10. 12 11. 34 
9.25 11.80 


13.02 


March... 


14.44 


April 




^ 


15.42 


May 








11.97 


August. 






6.66 








September 










12.19 


October 






7.00 
6.52 
7.14 






14.00 


November 


i 




8.29 
8.54 


14.00 


December 


16.00 




8.94 


14.26 








Annual average 


15.94 


11.01 


7.90 


9.88 


9.00 


13.60 







COST OF PRODUCTION 

Yellow pike fishing costs in 1924 were 3.1 cents per pound higher 
in the United States than in Canada, but the foreign product when 
boxed and iced and exported fresh to the United States cost about 
the same as the domestic. Laid-down in New York City the foreign 
cost 0.2 cent per pound less and in Chicago 0.3 cent more per pound. 
This reversal of cost advantages may be attributed to the fact that 
more than half of the foreign production comes from the northern 
Canadian lakes at a relatively high transportation cost. Despite 
the 1 cent per pound customs duty, however, large importations of 



Ti^EIFF INFOKMATION SURVEYS 



55 



the foreign come in, because much of the foreign catch is taken when 
there is httle or no domestic production. 

In the production of frozen yellow pike the domestic industry 
relies almost entirely on fresh fish gluts in the centers of consumption 
since the foreign may be placed in the United States at a much 
lower average cost than the average domestic cost. In 1924 the 
average cost of placing the foreign product in New York City (exclud- 
ing duty) was 4.5 cents per pound less than the domestic, and in 
Chicago 5 cents less. This lower average foreign cost is principally 
due to the weight of the large northern Canadian catch taken in 
winter at a low cost and frozen naturally. The cost of placing it on 
the New York City market in 1924 was 6.9 cents less than the cost of 
the domestic frozen fish, and on the Chicago market, 7.5 cents less. 

Tables 40 and 41 give the United States and Canadian production 
costs of yellow pike in 1924. 

Table 40. — Cost of fresh yellow pike, f. o. b. New York City and Chicago, 1924 * 

[In cents per pound] 



Item of cost 



Fishing cost: 

Excluding interest 

Including interest 

Boxing and icing cost: 

Excluding interest 

Including interest.. 

Total, fishing and boxing and icing cost: 

Excluding interest 

Including interest. 

Transportation cost: 

To New York City 

To Chicago 

Total, fishing, boxing, and icing, and transportation cost 
F. 0. b. New York City — 

Excluding interest 

Including interest 

F. 0. b. Chicago — 

Excluding interest .' 

Including interest 



United 
States 



9. 9955 
10. 4564 



1. 7825 
1. 9355 



11.7780 
12. 3919 



3. 3364 
2. 5687 



15. 1144 
15. 7283 



14. 3467 
14. 9606 



Canada 



Amount 
by which 
United 
States costs 
are more 
(+) or less 
(— ) than 
Canadian 



7. 1616 
7. 3677 



2. 3190 
2. 4007 



9. 4806 
9. 7684 



5. 7503 
5. 5074 



15. 2309 
15. 5187 



14.9880 
15. 2758 



+2. 8339 
+3. 0887 



-, 5365 
-. 4662 



+2. 2974 
+2. 6235 



-2. 4139 
-2. 9387 



-. 1165 
+.2096 



-. 6413 
-. 3152 



• Does not include the customs duty of 1 cent per pound. For detailed statistics of cost see pp. 151-153. 



56 



TAKIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS 



Table 41. — Cost of frozen yellow -pike, f. o. b. New York City and Chicago, 1924-^ 

[In cents per pound] 



Item of cost 



United 
States, 
artifi- 
cially 
frozen 



Canada 



Artifi- 
cially 
frozen 



Naturally 
frozen 
(winter 
caught) 



Aver- 
age 2 



Amount 

by which 

United 

States 

costs are 

more (-J-) 

or less 
(— ) than 
Canadian 



Fishing cost: 

Excluding interest 

Including interest- 

Freezing and storing cost: 

Excluding interest 

Including interest.. 

Boxing cost: 

Excluding interest 

Including interest 

Total, fishing, freezing, and storing, and boxing cost: 

Excluding interest.. 

Including interest 

Transportation cost: 

To New York City 

To Chicago 

Total, fishing, freezing, and storing, boxing, and 
transportation cost: 
F. 0. b. New York City- 
Excluding interest 

Including interest- 

F. o. b. Chicago- 
Excluding interest 

Including interest.- 



9. 9955 
10. 4564 



1. 8334 
1. 8448 



1.2159 
1. 2920 



7. 1616 
7. 3677 



1. 9866 
2. 0231 



1. 6560 
1. 6907 



3. 9051 
3. 9051 



13. 0448 
13. 5932 



10. 8042 
11.0815 



1. 2787 
.9354 



2. 3392 
1. 4485 



14. 3235 
14.8719 



13. 9802 

14. 5286 



13. 1434 
14. 2207 



12. 2527 
12. 5300 



1.6560 
1. 6907 



5. 3705 
5. 4633 



.9104 



1. 6560 
1. 6907 



-f-4. 6250 
-f4. 9931 



+. 9394 
+. 9344 



-. 4401 
-. 3987 



5.5611 
5. 5958 



7. 9205 

8. 0644 



-t-5. 1243 
+5. 5288 



2. 3392 
1. 4485 



2. 3392 
1. 4485 



-1. 0605 
-. 5131 



7. 9003 
7. 9350 



7. 0096 
7. 0443 



10. 2597 
10. 4036 



9. 3690 
9. 5129 



-f 4. 0638 
+4. 4683 



-t-4. 6112 
+5. 0157 



I Does not include the customs duty of 1 cent per pound. For detailed statistics of cost see pp. 151-153. 
* Weighted on basis of estimate that of total quantity frozen 45 per cent is preserved by artificial means. 

COMPETITIVE CONDITIONS 

Most of the imports of fresh yellow pike come in times of high 
prices when there is little or no United States catch. The average cost 
of the foreign product, excluding duty f. o. b. New York City, is 
0.2 cent per pound less than the domestic cost in the same market 
and f. o. b. Chicago 0.3 cent per pound more. 

The lower production cost of the northern Canadian lake frozen 
yellow pike virtually prohibits freezing of the domestic catch at the 
points of production. In 1924 the average cost of placing the foreign 
product in New York was 4.5 cents per pound less than that of the 
domestic, and in Chicago 5 cents less. 

The principal domestic disadvantage in the production of yellow 
pike lies in the relatively small supply in United States waters.'' In 
1924 only 22 per centof the domestic consumption came from domestic 

waters. 

YELLOW PERCH 



DESCRIPTION AND USES 

The yellow perch is a small fish, averaging about one-half pound in 
weight, and having very distinctive coloring. Its sides are golden 
yellow, marked with 6 or 8 broad dark bars, and its belly is white. 
The small sizes are known simply as "lake" perch and the larger as 

^ Scientific investigations of the United States Bureau of Fisheries. 



TAEIFF INFOEMATION SURVEYS 



57 



" Lake Erie " perch. The very large ones from the northern Canadian 
lakes are called "Jumbo" or "English" perch. All perch are sold 
romid. Probably about 80 per cent of the catch is sold fresh and 20 
per cent frozen. 

PRODUCTION, DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN 

In volume of catch, yellow perch is one of the less important lake 
fish. The United States catch in 1924 was 3,345,562 pounds, of 
which 58 per cent was taken on Lake Erie, 31 per cent on Lake 
Michigan, and 11 per cent on the other lakes. During the same 
year the Canadian catch was 2,614,189 pounds, of which 80 per cent 
was taken on Lake Erie. The Lake Michigan catch — the less desir- 
able perch— declined from about 3,000,000 pounds m 1913 to 1,000,000 
pounds in 1924; the Lake Erie catch for these years has averaged 
about 2,000,000 pounds. The Canadian Lake Erie catch, on the other 
hand, mcreased from about 1,000,000 pounds in 1912 to 2,000,000 
pounds in 1924. 

Table 42 gives the domestic and foreign catch of yellow perch from 
1913 to 1924: 

Table 42. — United States and Canadian yellow-perch catch, 1913-1924 



Year 



Pounds 
6, 025, 528 
5, 770, 313 
6, 123, 694 
5, 707, 560 
4, 085, 020 
3, 978, 269 
6, 614, 669 
4, 590, 870 

1921 I 5,268,648 

1922 : 3,554,358 

1923 ' 3,524,780 

1924 ! 3,345,562 



1913. 
1914. 
1915. 
1916. 
1917. 
1918. 
1919. 
1920. 



United 
States, 
Great 
Lakes 2 



12-year average ! 4,882,438 



Canada 



Great 
Lakes ' 



Pounds 
1, 140, 760 
1, 651, 000 
1, 358, 534 
1,113,720 
1, 356, 778 
2, 249, 514 
1, 350, 579 
1,533,511 
2, 203, 469 
2, 346, 125 
2, 626, 612 
2, 389, 989 



1, 777, 549 



Northern 
Lakes * 



Pounds 

42,500 

24, 300 

122, 000 

64,200 

862, 500 

92,000 

100,500 

67, 100 

116,400 

2C2, 900 

417,800 

224,200 



199,700 



Total 



Pounds 
1,183,260 
1, 675, 300 
1, 480, 534 
1,177,920 
2, 219, 278 
2, 341, 514 
1,451,079 
1,600,611 
2, 319, 869 
2, 609, 025 
3, 044, 412 
2, 614, 189 



1,977,249 



1 United States, calendar years; Canada, calendar years 1917 to 1924, inclusive, and fiscal- years ended 
Apr. 1, 1913 to 1916, inclusive. 

2 From State fish commissions. 

' From game and flsh department of Ontario. 

* From department of marine and fisheries of Canada. 



IMPORTS 

In 1924 the United States imports of yellow perch equaled 38.47 
per cent of the domestic consumption. Included, however, in the 
statistics on which this percentage is based is the Lake Michigan catch 
of small perch which are not as directly competitive with the bulk of 
the foreign catch as are the Lake Erie perch. Imports of perch caught 
on the Canadian half of Lake Erie in 1924 amounted to about 1,753,- 
000 pounds, which almost equaled the United States catch on Lake 
Erie, 1,940,000 pounds. The Lake Erie perch is a much-sought fish, 
but is available only in limited quantities and there is little promise 
of a material increase in the catch. The Lake Michigan perch is more 
abundant and a large catch is not uncommon, but there is a relatively 
limited market for the small fish. 

Table 43 gives imports of perch (estimated) into the United States 
from 1919 to 1924: 



58 



TAEIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS 



Table 43. — Imports into the United States of fresh and frozen yellow perch, 

1919-1924'- 



Year 


Pounds 


1919 


1 
1, 160, 863 ] 
1, 280, 489 
1,855,895 
2,087,220 


1920 


1921 


1922 







Year 



1923 

1924 

Six-year average 



Pounds 



2, 435, 530 
2, 091, 351 



1,818,558 



> Estimated at 80 per cent of Canadian production. 



PRICES 

On Lake Erie, the competitive center of the yellow-perch fishing, 
the average annual price realized by Canadian fishermen and coastal 
buyers is higher than that realized in the domestic fishery. In 1924 
the Canadian fishermen received 1.22 cents more than the United 
States fishermen and the coastal buyers 0.79 cent more than United 
States buyers. This difference in the average annual price is due to 
the relatively larger Canadian catch at the beginning and end of the 
season when prices are high. The fact that there is a price premium 
on large yellow perch also influences the average price on Lake Erie. 
On Lake Michigan, the other large center, the fish are small, and 
brought in 1924 an average of only 3.17 cents per pound. On the 
northern Canadian lakes the fish are on the average larger than on 
Lake Erie, but the catch is small, a considerable portion of it being 
taken in winter and sold fresh at high prices. During the winter 
fishing of 1924 the price realized by the Lake Manitoba coastal buyer 
for fresh yellow perch ranged from 11 to 20 cents per pound and 
averaged 17 cents per pound. 

Table 44 gives the average price realized for yellow perch by Lake 
Erie fishermen and coastal buyers and by inland jobbers: 



Table 44.- 



-Price per pound received by Lake Erie fishermen and coastal buyers 
for fresh yellow perch, 1924 





Price realized by- 


Month 


Lake Erie fisher- 
men 


Lake Erie coastal 
buyers 


Inland jobbers 




United 
States 


Canada 


United 
States 


Canada 


Chicago 


New 
York 
City 


January 


Cents 


Cents 


Cents 


Cents 


Cents 
1 19. 75 
1 13.61 
22.62 
12.67 
11.86 
14.36 
17.15 
14.46 
16.35 
15.72 
14.24 
19.28 


Cents 
1 27. 36 












1 15. 82 






10.00 
7.47 
6.71 
5.00 
6.00 




15.00 
13.22 

6.94 
13.12 
11.12 

8.00 
10.83 

7.87 

7.02 
13.00 


13. 10 


April 


7.00 
7.00 
7.00 
7.00 


9.27 
8.04 
11.11 
12.00 
10.50 
9.95 
8.11 
8.97 
12.60 


14.56 




17.99 




16.00 


July 


20.87 




16.71 


September 


5.00 
5.00 
5.00 
6.00 


5.50 
5.00 
4.00 
6.77 


25.00 




15.55 


November 


15.06 


December 


22.24 










Annual average - - .... 


5.98 


7.20 


8.88 i 9.67 


14.64 


17.30 











• Perch from northern Canadian lakes. 



TAEIFF INFORMATION SUEVEYS 



59 



COST OF PRODUCTION 

If the weighted average cost of catching yellow perch in all im- 
portant domestic lakes is compared with the foreign costs for the 
year 1924, the foreign costs are fomid to exceed the domestic by 1.4 
cents per pound. The reason for this difference despite the relatively 
large exports over a 1-cent customs duty lies largely in the fact that 
31 per cent of the United States catch consists of the small Lake 
Michigan perch, which are produced at about half the cost of the 
Lake Erie perch. As between the Lake Erie perch of the two coun- 
tries, the cost of catching the domestic is 0.3 cent per pound higher 
than the foreign. There is, however, a distinction between pound- 
net and gill-net fish on Lake Erie — the pound-net fish, because they 
are fresher, usually sell for a higher price. Since the gill-net fisheries 
are comparable in the two countries with respect to season of opera- 
tion and size of catch (64 per cent of the domestic Lake Erie catch and 
68 per cent of the foreign), the difference in cost between these two 
fisheries might be considered a fair measure of their competitive 
strength. In 1924 the cost of catching the domestic product in gill 
nets exceeded the foreign cost for the same kind of gear by 1 .94 cents 
per pound. 

Tables 45 and 46 give the domestic and foreign production costs 
of yellow perch for all lakes combined, for Lake Erie only, and for 
the gill-net catch of Lake Erie only in 1924. 

Table 45. — Cost of fresh yellow perch, f. a. b. New York City and Chicago, 1924 ^ 

[In cents per pound] 





All lakes combined 


Lake Erie only 












All nets 


Gill nets only 








J3 «" a 
Urn S a 






■s^^g 






.a w ^ c 


Item of cost 






whi 

es CO 
)orl 
anadi 






•3 Si! "-3 










S 




>>a+a 


M 




>.d+0 


M 




>."S+o 




(U 




■^M^a 


03 




■^S^a 


"S 




■°S^c 
























M 




+^■0 OX! 


M 




♦jTS OJ3 


w 




■^V. °J3 




^ 


2 


§sa^ 


1 i 


3--§s:t 






aS^X 




a 


S 


at>sl 


•3 I § 


a!=«^ 


a 


c3 


e^u-l 




t) 


O 


< 


& o 


< 


& 


O 


■< 


Fishing cost: 


















Excluding interest 


6. 9519 


8.1429 


-1. 1910 


8. 70791 8.2742 


+0. 4337 


8. 5038 


6. 5257 


+1. 9781 


Including interest. 


7.1908 


8.5500 


-1.3592 


8.9653: 8.7098 


+. 2555 


8. 7177 


6.7790 


+1. 9387 


Boxing and icing cost: 








t 










Excluding interest . . 


1. 6536 


1.4944 


+. 1592 


1.6670 1.4001 


+. 2669 


1. 6670 


1.4001 


+. 2669 


Including interest 


1. 7620 


1. 5381 


+.2239 


1.7365; 1.4418 


+. 2947 


1. 7365 


1.4418 


+. 2947 


Total fishing and boxing and 


















icing cost: 


















Excluding interest 


8.6055 


9.6373 


-1.0318 


10.37491 9.6743 


+.7006 


10. 1708 


7. 9258 


+2. 2450 


Including interest. 


8. 9528 


10. 0881 


-1. 1353 


10. 7018 10. 1516 


+. 5502 


10. 4542 


8. 2208 


+2. 2334 


Transportation cost: 


















To New York City 


3. 0262 


2. 9913 


+.0349 


2.3125 2.6250 


-.3125 


2.3125 


2.6250 


-.3125 


To Chicago 


2.2458 


3. 0876 


-.8418 


2.3750J 2.8750 


-.5000 


2. 3750 


2.8750 


-.5000 


Total fishing, boxing and icing, 








■ 










and transportation cost: 


















F. 0. b. New York City- 


















Excluding interest 


11.6317 


12. 6286 


-.9969 


12.687412.2993 


+.3881 


12. 4833 


10. 5508 


+1. 9325 


Including interest 


11.979C 


13. 0794 


-1.1004 


13.0143 12.7766 


+. 2377 


12. 7667 


10. 8458 


+1. 9290 


F. 0. b. Chicago- 








1 










Excluding interest 


10. 8513 


12. 724S 


-1. 8736 


12.7499 12.5493 


+. 2006 


12. 5458 


10. 8008 


+1. 7450 


Including interest 


11. 1986 


13. 1757 


-1.9771 


13.076813.0266 


+. 0502 


12. 8292 


11.0958 


+1. 7334 



' Does not include the customs duty of 1 cent per pound. For detailed statistics of cost see pp. 154-156, 
54003—27 5 



60 



TAKIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS 



Table 46. — Cost of frozen yellow perch, f. o. b. New York City and Chicago, 1924 ' 

[In cents per poimdl 











Lake Erie only 








All nets 


Gill nets only 


Item of cost 


m 

•a 
1 


% 
O 


Amount by which 
United States costs 
are more (+) or less 
(-) than Canadian 


» 

So 

3 


C8 

a 

C3 

o 


Amount by which 
United States costs 
are more (+) or less 
(— ) than Canadian 


1 
.2 

•a 
a 


ca 

03 

a 
o 


Amount by which 
United States costs 
are more (+) or less 
(— ) than Canadian 


Fishing cost: 

Excluding interest 


6. 9519 
7. 1908 

1. 8526 
1.8635 

1. 2159 
1. 2902 


8. 1429 
8.5500 

1. 4016 
1. 4538 

.9510 
1.0047 


-1. 1910 
-1. 3592 

+. 4510 
+.4097 

+. 2649 
+. 2855 


8. 7079 
8. 9653 

1.8374 
1.9119 

1. 2159 
1. 2902 


8. 2742 
8. 7098 

1. 3174 
1. 3701 

.9220 
.9749 


-0. 4337 
+. 2555 

+. 5200 
+.5418 

+. 2939 
+. 3153 


8. 5038 
8. 7177 

1. 8374 
1.9119 

1. 2159 
1. 2902 


6. 5257 
6. 7790 

1. 3174 
1. 3701 

.9220 
.9749 


+1. 9781 


Including interest- 


+1. 9387 


Freezing and storing cost: 

E.\cluding interest 


+.5200 


Including interest-- . . 


+.5418 


Boxing cost: 

Excluding interest 


+. 2939 


Including interest 


+. 3153 






Total, fishing, freezing and stor- 
ing, and boxing cost: 
Excluding interest 


10. 0204 
10. 3445 


10. 4955 
11.00S.'; 


-. 4751 
-. 6640 


11. 7612 
12. 1674 


10. 5136 
11. 0548 


+1. 2476 
+1.1126 


11. 5571 
11.9198 


8. 7651 
9.1240 


+2. 7920 


Including interest 


+2. 7958 








Transportation cost: 
To New York City. 


.9303 
.7491 


1. 0891 
.9093 


-. 1588 
-. 1602 


.7157 
.8297 


.9310 
.8297 


-. 2153 


.7157 
.8297 


.9310 

.8297 


— . 2153 


To Chicago - 










Total, fishing, freezing and stor- 
ing, boxing, and transporta- 
tion cost: 
F. 0. b.. New York City- 
Excluding interest 

Including interest 

F. 0. b., Chicago- 
Excluding interest 

Including interest 


10. 9507 

11. 2748 

10. 7695 
11. 0936 


11. 5846 

12. 0976 

11. 4048 
11. 9178 


-. 6339 

-.8228 

-. 6353 
-. 8242 


12. 4769 
12. 8831 

12. 5909 
12. 9971 


11.4446 
11.9858 

11. 3433 
11. 8845 


+1. 0323 
+. 8973 

+1. 2476 
+1. 1126 


12. 2728 
12. 6355 

12. 3868 
12. 7495 


9. 6961 
10. 0550 

9.5948 
9.9537 


+2. 5767 
+2. 5805 

+2. 7920 
+2. 7958 



1 Does not include the customs duty of 1 per cent per pound. For detailed statistics of cost, see pp. 154-156 , 



COMPETITIVE CONDITIONS 

Competition between domestic and foreign yellow perch seems to 
center on the Lake Erie catch. The catch of Lake Michigan, the 
only other important source, consists mostly of small fish in a class 
by themselves, not taken extensively in other waters. In 1924, the 
United States Lake Erie fishermen received an average of 6 cents per 
pound, while the Lake Michigan fishermen received only 3.2 cents 
per pound. 

On Lake Erie, however, there are two grades of yellow perch — those 
caught in pound nets and those caught in gill nets. The pound net 
fish, because they are fresher, sell for more than the gill net fish and 
in both countries the cost of pound net fishing is more. This distinc- 
tion indicates the desirability of separate consideration for tariff 
purposes yet the administration of a separate tariff for the two grades 
would probably be impracticable since only an expert can distinguish 
the one grade from the other. On the other hand if the fishing costs 
of the two grades are compared for 1924 it will be found that the do- 
mestic gill net costs exceed the foreign by 1.94 cents per pound and 
that the foreign pound net costs exceed the domestic by 3.83 cents 



TAEIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS 



61 



per pound. The reasons for the higher domestic gill net costs are 
given in the discussion of ciscoes which are the major product of 
gill net fishing. The higher foreign pound net fishing cost is due, in a 
measure at least, to the longer fishing season at the beginning and 
end of which the catches are light and prices are high. 

Since the bulk of the catch is taken in gill nets — 64 per cent of the 
domestic and 68 per cent of the foreign — and gill net fishing is done 
during the same season and under like conditions in both countries 
it would seem that the difference in cost of production is a fair 
measure of competition between the bulk of the domestic production 
and the bulk of imports. 

Table 47 gives the cost of production on the various bases in 1924. 
The foreign cost does not include that 1 cent per pound customs duty. 

Table 47. — Cost of production of yelloio perch calculated on various bases, United 

States and Canada, 1924 

[In cents per pound] 



■ 


Fresh 


Frozen 


Bases and country 


F. 0. b. 

New 
York 
City 


F. 0. b. 
Chicago 


Simple 
average 


F. 0. b. 

New 
York 
City 


F. 0. b. 
Chicago 


Simple 
average 


All lakes: 

United States -- 


11.98 
13.08 


11.20 
13.18 


11.59 
13.13 


11.27 
12.10 


11.09 
11.92 


11.18 


Canada (excluding duty) 


12.01 






Amount by which United States 
costs are more (+) or less (— ) than 
Canadian . . 


-1.10 


-L98 


-1.54 


-.83 


-.83 


-.83 






Lake Erie only: 

United States . 


13.01 
12.77 


13.08 
13.03 


13.04 
12.90 


12.88 
11.98 


12.99 
11.88 


12.94 


Canada (excluding duty) 


11.93 






Amount by which United States 
costs are more (+) or less (— ) than 


+.24 

12.77 
10.85 


+.05 

12.83 
11.10 


+.14 

12.80 
10.98 


+.90 

12.64 
10.06 


+1.11 

12.75 
9.95 


+1.01 


Lake Erie gill net catch only: 

United States 


12.69 


Canada (excluding duty) 


10.00 






Amount by which United States 
costs are more (+) or less (— ) than 


+1.92 


+1.73 


+1.82 


+2.58 


+2.80 


+2.69 







LAKE HERRING 

DESCRIPTION AND USES 

^'The lake herring is a dark silvery fish, weighing about a half pound, 
found in all the Great Lakes except Lake Erie. In the trade it is 
regarded as a distinct species from ciscoes, chubs, bluefins, tullibees, 
blackfins, and other fish of the same genus. Fully 95 per cent of the 
catch is dressed (entrails removed) before leaving the fishing centers. 
Lake herring is a comparatively cheap fish and is the only lake fish 
that is salted in large quantities. For salting the fish are beheaded, 
eviscerated, and split down the back. The water is then extracted 
from them by the application of salt.* When they have been through 
one salting process they are graded as "slime" fish, and when re- 
packed in new brine as "inspected" fish. Salted lake herring are 

8 For details of the salting process, see p. 123. 



62 



TAllIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS 



sold mostly in the cotton and coal districts of the United States. The 
lake herring meets some competition from the salt-water whiting, but 
none from the sea herring. 

PRODUCTION, DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN 

The United States catch of lake herring in 1924 was 12,816,082 
pounds, as compared with the Canadian catch of 1,567,843 pounds, 
a ratio that has been fairly constant since 1913. Unlike most of the 
other important lake fishes, the catch of lake herring is more directly 
affected by market conditions than by the effectiveness of the fishing 
gear employed. Ordinarily the relatively large supply of lake herring 
in the waters of both countries easily satisfies the market. 

The most important fishing area is Lake Superior, which yields 
about 42 per cent of the domestic catch, and 67 per cent of the 
Canadian. Large quantities are taken on Lake Michigan and 
Lake Huron. 

Table 48 gives the domestic and Canadian catch from 1913 to 1924, 
inclusive. 

Table 48. — United States and Canadian catch of lake herring, 1913-1924 





Great Lakes 


Year ' 


Great Lakes 


Year! 


United 

States 2 


Canada 3 


United 
States 2 


Canada ' 


1913 -. ... 


Pounds 
14,099,567 
14,411,902 
14, 922, 882 
16, 980, 391 
20,340,293 
20, 726, 390 
22, 293, 861 


Pounds 
1, 201, 989 
1, 984, 014 
4,843.611 
5, 028, 323 
4,879,126 
5, 808, 928 
3, 449, 962 


1920 


Pounds 
16, 802, 527 
10, 884, 563 
11,730,160 
11, 159, 654 
12, 816, 082 


Pounds 
2, 820, 618 


1914 


1921 


1, 627, 872 


1915 - - 


1922 


1, 188, 881 


1916 


1923.- 


1, 557, 872 


1917 


1924 


1, 567, 843 


1918 


12-year average... 




1919 


15, 597, 356 


2, 996, 587 







1 United States, calendar years; Canada, calendar years 1917 to 1924 inclusive and fiscal years ended 
Apr. 1, 1913 to 1916, inclusive. 

2 From State fish commissions. 

' From game and fish department of Ontario. 



IMPORTS 

Imports of fresh and frozen lake herring are small; 1,600,717 
pounds in 1924 as compared with a domestic production of 12,816,082 
pounds. There is, however, a large potential supply in Canada, 
particularly in Lake Superior, where at present the bulk of the 
Canadian catch is taken. This w^as demonstrated during the World 
War demand for cheap fish in the United States when imports from 
Canada were greatly increased. 

An obstacle to the Canadian export of fresh herring is the high 
transportation cost for so cheap a fish; with frozen and salted lake 
herring the transportation cost is of no special significance. Never- 
theless the domestic salt lake-herring producer has the advantage over 
the foreign lake-herring producer of a slightly lower transportation 
cost, mass production, and established markets. Because of these 
advantages imports of salted lake herring are smaller than of fresh 
lake herring and have declined from 1,571,100 pounds in 1919 to 
nothing in 1924. Most of the imports are of the frozen product. 

Table 49 gives the United States imports of fresh and frozen, and 
salted lake herring from 1919 to 1924: 



TARIFF INFOBMATION SURVEYS 



63 



Table 49. 



-Im-ports into the United States of fresh and frozen and salted lake 
herring, 1919-1924 



Calendar year 


Fresh and 
frozen i 


! 

Salted » i 


Calendar year 


Fresh and 
frozen i 


Salted > 


1919. 


Pounds 
2, 603, 100 


Pounds 
1,571,100 
491,300 


1923_. 


Pounds 
1, 558, 400 
1, 443, 800 


Pounds 
118,400 


1920-- 


2. n03. 400 


1924.. 




278,000 
47,600 


6-year average 




1922 - 


1, 297, 300 


1, 600, 717 


417, 883 



1 Computed from Trade of Canada statistics. 

' From Trade of Canada. May include some salted ciscoes. 



PRICES 



An exception to the general rule that the fresh-fish price trend in 
the large consuming centers is reflected in the fisherman's price 
obtains with respect to most of the lake herring catch. Since the 
bulk of the catch is finally salted, it is largely the price of the salted 
product that influences the price realized by the fishermen. 

Some of the catch, however, is finally sold fresh and lesser quanti- 
ties are sold frozen, the proportions so marketed usually depending 
upon the distance from market and the prevailing market price. 
For example, on Lake Superior, the United States fishermen received 
an average of 3 cents per pound for their fresh lake herring catch in 
1924, whereas the Canadian fishermen received only 0.85 cent per 
pound. Of the domestic Lake Superior catch that was not salted, 
a considerable portion was later sold fresh, whereas most of the 
Canadian catch was frozen and probably exported. 

The price of salted lake herring remains comparatively constant. 
In 1924 the average price realized by the Green Bay packers for 
inspected fish in 100-pound half barrels was 4.5 cents per pound. 
In purchasing the fishermen 's catch the coastal packers usually supply 
the salt and barrels and collect the salted product, paj^ing for the 
fresh round fish in 1924 on the basis of 1.5 cents per pound. Since 
it requires 160 pounds of round fish to make 100 pounds of salt fish, 
the raw product actually costs the packers 2.4 cents per pound. In 
Chicago, salted lake herring sold in 1924 at an average of 5.58 cents 
per pound in job lots and 7.18 cents per pounds in small lots to the 
local retail trade. 

The following tables give the average prices realized for lake herring 
by the fishermen, coastal buyers, and Chicago jobbers. 

Table 50. — Price per pound received for fresh lake herring by fishermen, 1924 



Lake 




Canada 



Ontario 

Huron 

Superior 

Michigan 

J Pound-net fish sold direct to jobbers. 



Cents 
4.11 
14.25 

.85 



64 



TAKIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS 



Table 51. — Price per pound received for lake herring by coastal buyers and Chicago 

jobbers, 1924 





Fresh lake herring 


Frozen lake herring 




Price realized by- 


Price realized by — 


Month 


United 

States 

Lake 

Superior 

buyers 


Chicago 
jobbers 


Lake Superior 
buyers 


Chicago 




United 
States 


Canada 


jobbers 


January . 


Cents 
4.72 
10.00 
4.48 
5.46 
3.42 
2.75 
2.87 
2.81 
2.95 
3.06 
2.91 
2.67 


Cents 
9.83 
10.42 
11.70 
13.40 
11.34 
8.44 
8.97 
8.67 
8.39 
8.87 
7.26 
6.04 


Cents 
2.65 
3.07 
6.84 
7.22 


Cents 
1.85 
2.02 
1.55 


Cents 

7.44 


February 


6.84 


March 


6.75 


April 


5.89 


May 




5.74 


June 








July. 








August-..- - 








Seotember -. 






4.00 


Octooer 






4.16 


November 


2.53 
2.68 


2.09 
1.93 


4.03 


December 


4.68 






Annual average 


3.20 


9.12 


2.74 


1.98 


6.18 







COST OF PRODUCTION 

The weighted average cost of fishmg for lake herring in the United 
States in 1924 was more than double the cost in Canada, the domestic 
product costing 1.7 cents per pound more than the foreign product. 
In transportation costs, however, the foreign lake herring, particu- 
larly when shipped fresh, is at a disadvantage. When placed in the 
Chicago market the cost of the fresh fish is 1 .8 cents per pound more 
for the foreign than for the domestic, but when laid down in New 
York City the foreign has a cost advantage of 0.8 cent per pound. 
This difference is largely a matter of transportation costs, the trans- 
portation cost of the foreign to Chicago being 3.4 cents per pound 
more than that of the domestic. 

In the lake herring trade of Canada, the frozen-fish industry is 
more favorably situated than is the fresh-fish industry because the 
transportation costs of the frozen are more nearly parallel with do- 
mestic transportation costs. This is particularly true when shipment 
is made to New York City where the cost of the foreign product is 
0.9 cent per pound less than the domestic. Laid down in Chicago, 
the cost of the foreign product is 0.4 cent per pound less than the 
domestic. 

Salting, the most important branch of the domestic industry, in 
1924 cost 3.7 cents per pound of fish prepared. (See p. 125.) No 
data were obtained to show the cost of salting in Canada. Produc- 
tion there amounted to only 29,900 pounds in 1923 and to nothing 
in 1924. 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS 



65 



Tables 52 and 53 give the cost of production of fresh and frozen 
lake herring; in the United States and Canada in 1924: 



Table 52. — Cost of fresh lake herring, f. o. h. New York City and Chicago, 1924 * 

[In cents per pound] 



Item of cost 



United 
States 



Canada 



Amount by 

which 

United 

States 

costs are 

more (+) 

or less (— ) 

than 
Canadian 



Fishing cost: 

Excluding interest 

Including interest 

Boxing and icing cost: 

Excluding interest... 

Including interest 

Total fishing and boxing and icing cost: 

Excluding interest 

Including interest 

Transportation cost: 

To New York City 

To Chicago 

Total fishing, boxing and icing, and transportation cost: 

F. 0. b. New York City- 
Excluding interest 

Including interest 

F. o. b. Chicago- 
Excluding interest 

Including interest 



3. 0689 
3. 1963 



1. 7482 
1. 9471 



4. 8171 
5. 1434 



4. 1306 
2. 3726 



8. 9477 
9.2740 



7. 1897 
7. 5160 



1. 4093 
1. 4633 



2.0389 
2. 0688 



+1. 6596 
+1. 7330 



-.2907 
-. 1217 



3. 4482 
3. 5321 



+1. 3689 
+1.6113 



4.9083 
5. 7813 



8. 3565 
8.4404 



9.2295 
9. 3134 



-. 7777 
-3. 4087 



+. 5912 
+.8336 



-2. 0398 
-1.7974 



1 Does not include the customs duty of 1 cent per poimd. For detailed statistics of cost see pp. 157, 158- 

Table 53. — Cost of frozen lake herring f. o. b. New York City and Chicago, 1924 * 

[In cents per pound] 









Amount by 








which 








United 


Item of cost 


United 
States 


Canada 


States 
costs are 
more (+) 
or less (— ) 

than 








Canadian 


Fishing cost: 










3.0689 
3. 1963 


1. 4093 
1. 4633 


+1. 6596 




+ 1.7330 


Freezing and storing costs: 










1. 8257 
1.9025 


2. 2918 
2.6292 


-. 4661 


Including interest . . . - - . . 


-. 7267 


Boxing cost: 






1. 2159 


1.2280 


-.0121 


Including interest 


1.2902 


L3223 


-. 0321 


Total fishing, freezing and storing, and boxing cost: 








Excluding interest 


6. 1105 


4.9291 


+1. 1814 


Including interest 


6.3890 


5. 4148 


+. 9742 


Transportation cost: 









To New York City 


1. 3997 
.6989 


1. 4795 
1. 2688 


-. 0798 


To Chicago... 


-.5699 


Total fishing, freezing and storing, boxing, and transportation cost: 








F. 0. b. New York City- 








Excluding interest 


7. 5102 


6. 4086 


+1. 1016 




7. 7887 


6. 8943 


+.8944 


F. 0. b. Chicago- 








Excluding interest 


6.8094 


6. 1979 


+.6115 




7.0879 


6. 6836 


+.4043 







» Does not include the customs duty of 1 cent per pound. For detaUed statistics of cost see pp. 157, 158. 



66 TAEIFF INFOEMATION SURVEYS 

COMPETITIVE CONDITIONS 

The competitive resistance of the fresh and salted lake herring 
industry of the United States seems to be strong, imports since 1920 
of the two products having amounted to less than 6 per cent of 
domestic consumption. The frozen domestic lake herring industry, 
however, is less favorably situated. The cost of placing the domestic 
product in New York City in 1924 was 0.9 cent per pound more 
than the Canadian, and in Chicago 0.4 cent per pound more, indi- 
cating that without the tariff of 1 cent per pound the foreign product 
probably would have an advantage in these markets. That Canada 
has a large potential supply in its waters is shown by its large export 
during the World War. 

CHUBS 

DESCRIPTION AND USES 

Scientifically the chub and the tullibee are the same fish. In the 
trade, a distinction is made on the basis of the shape of the body, 
the chub being long and narrow, and the tullibee short and com- 
pressed. In some localities the varieties known as bluefins and 
blackfins are distinguished from the chubs, but as there is no general 
agreement as to this classification and as practically the entire catch 
is finally smoked as a substitute for ciscoes, they have, in this report, 
been grouped with chubs. 

The chub is the only lake fish that is better suited to smoking 
than to use as a fresh fish, but before being smoked at least 95 per 
cent is frozen. Fresh fish must be shipped by express; the catch is 
therefore frozen and shipped by freight to reduce the cost of trans- 
portation and to permit storage without the hazard of spoilage. A 
superior grade for smoking is taken in Georgian Bay on Lake Huron. 
All other than these "Georgian Bay" chubs are known simply as 
''chubs." Smoked chubs, like ciscoes, are usually classified as 
"smoked whitefish." Chubs are always dressed before they are 
shipped to market. 

PRODUCTION, DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN 

The bulk of the chub catch comes from Lake Michigan. Of the 
3,041,149 pounds caught in the United States in 1924, 88 per cent 
was taken from Lake Michigan. The Canadian catch is small — ■ 
241,975 pounds in 1924 — and comes almost entirely from Lake 
Huron. The domestic catch on Lake Huron in 1924 exceeded the 
Canadian catch by 14,122 pounds. In the important Lake Michigan 
fishery, the freezing of the bulk of the catch permits a measure of 
regulation of fishing operations in accordance with market demands. 
Since the chub serves as a substitute for the cisco in the smoked 
fish trade, production is usual increased during the periods of short 
cisco supply. 

Table 54 gives the domestic and foreign chub catch from 1913 to 
1924. 



TAEIFF INFOEMATION SUKVEYS 67 

Table 54. — United States and Canadian catch of chubs, 1913-1924 





Great Lakes 


Yeari 


Great Lakes 


Year' 


United 

States » 


Canada ' 


United 
States 2 


Canada ' 


1913 


Pounds 
5, 161, 524 
3, 938, 382 
3, 865, 040 
3,246,411 
5,099,658 
7, 709, 983 
6, 349, 552 


Pounds 
329, 511 
486. 422 
374, 171 
651, 532 
819, 159 
383, 854 
250, 785 


1920 


Pounds 
3, 846, 544 
2, 437, 603 
2,364,832 
1, 954, 801 
3, 041, 149 


Pounds 
303, 065 


1914 


1921 


253, 829 


1915 


1922 


206, 613 


1916 


1923 


203, 172 


1917 


1924 


241, 975 


1918 


12-year average 




1919 


4,084,623 


375, 340 







1 United States, calendar years; Canada, calendar years 1917 to 1924, inclusive, and fiscal years ended 
Apr. 1, 1913 to 1916, inclusive. 
s From State fish commissions. 
3 From game and fish department of Ontario. 

IMPORTS 

Imports of chubs have never been large because of the Imiited 
supply in foreign waters. As compared with a domestic catch of 
3,041,149 pounds in 1924, imports were 184,900 pounds. Since 
Lake Michigan is owned entirely by the United States and yields 88 
per cent of the domestic catch, it seems likely that it will continue 
to be the chief source of domestic supply. 

Table 55 gives an estimate of the quantity of chubs imported from 
1919 to 1924: 

Table 55. — Imports of fresh and frozen chubs, 1919-1924 ' 



Year 


Pounds 


Year 


Pounds 


1919 


244,200 
372, 500 
244, 300 
178, 100 


1923 


176, 300 


1920 


1924 


184, 900 


1921.. 

1922 


6-year average 




233,383 









1 Estimated by prorating tuUibee exports to chubs in proportion to relative Canadian production of 
chubs to tullibees. 

PRICES 

Because of the comparatively small import of chubs the principal 
foreign product competing with the Lake Michigan chub is the Lake 
Erie cisco. To a limited extent the Lake Winnipeg tullibee also 
competes. The price realized for chubs by Lake Michigan fisher- 
men approximates that paid to United States Lake Erie fishermen 
for ciscoes, but is higher than that paid for the Canadian-caught 
ciscoes. In 1924, the average ex-vessel price of United States chubs 
was 5.01 cents a pound and of ciscoes 5.02 cents; Canadian ciscoes 
in that year sold ex-vessel for 3.07 cents per pound. In the same 
year, Lake Winnipeg fishermen realized 2.35 cents per pound for 
tullibees. 

54003—27 6 



68 



TAKIFF INFORMATION SUEVEYS 



The following table shows the comparative value of fresh chubs and 
ciscoes in the Chicago market in 1924: 

Table 56. — Weighted average price per pound of fresh chubs and ciscoes, 1924 





Weighted average price 


Month 


Chubs 


Ciscoes 


Excess 

ciscoes 

over 

chubs 


January 


Cents 


Cents 


Cents 


February.. 








March.. 








April.. 


12.00 
11.00 
8.11 
8.83 
8.22 
8.00 
7.00 
6.90 
5.50 


15.50 
11.04 
11.98 
10.04 
8.30 
9.70 
9.00 
9.19 
9.30 


3.50 


May 


.04 


June 


3.87 


July. 


1.21 


August 


.08 


September 


1.70 


October 


2.00 


November 


2.29 


December 


3.80 






Annual average 


8.34 


9.36 


1.02 







COST OF PRODUCTION 

Chub-fishing costs in 1924 were 1.6 cents per pound higher in the 
United States than in Canada. When boxed and iced and shipped 
fresh to New York City, however, the domestic product cost 2.1 
cents per pound more than the foreign, excluding the duty. Laid 
down in Chicago, the situation was reversed, the higher transportation 
cost on the foreign product bringing its cost to the same amount as 
the domestic. 

For the more important frozen chub the domestic cost in 1924 f. o. b. 
New York City exceeded the foreign by 1.4 cents per pound, but f. o. b. 
Chicago the domestic cost was only 0.7 cent per pound more than 
the foreign. 

Smoked chubs, which are prepared in conjunction with ciscoes, 
cost 5.1 cents per pound for processing in the United States. (See 
p. 128.) Comparative cost data were not obtained from Canada for 
the reason that no smoked chubs are imported. 

Tables 57 and 58 give the cost of production of fresh and frozen 
chubs in the United States and Canada in 1924. 



TARIFF INFOEMATION SUBVEYS 



69 



Table 57. — Cost oj fresh chub, f. o. b. New York City and Chicago, 1924 * 

[In cents per pound] 



Item of cost 



United 
States 



Canada 



Amount 
by which 

United 
States costs 
are more 
(+) or less 
(— ) than 
Canadian 



Fishing cost: 

Excluding interest 

Including interest 

Boxing and icing cost: 

Excluding interest , 

Including interest 

Total fishing and boxing and icing cost: 

Excluding interest , 

Including interest. 

Transportation cost: 

To New York City 

To Chicago 

Total fishing, boxing and icing, and transportation cost 

F. o. b. New York City- 
Excluding interest 

Including interest 

F. 0. b. Chicago — 

Excluding interest , 

Including interest. 



5. 2086 
5. 4759 



1.5648 
1. 7063 



3. 8484 
3. 9000 



1.9178 
2. 0032 



+1. 3602 
+1. 5759 



-. 3530 
-. 2969 



6. 7734 
7. 1822 



5. 7662 
5. 9032 



+1. 0072 
+1. 2790 



4. 2568 
2. 0770 



3.4464 
3.3888 



+.8094 
-1.3118 



11.0292 

11. 4380 



8. 8504 

9. 2592 



9. 2126 
9. 3496 



9. 1550 
9. 2920 



+1. 8166 
+2. 0884 



-. 3046 
-. 0328 



' Does not include the customs duty of 1 cent per pound. For detailed statistics of cost see pp. 159, 160. 

Table 58. — Cost of frozen chub, f. o. b. New York City and Chicago, 1924 ^ 

[In cents per pound] 



Item of cost 



United 
States 



Canada 



Amount 
by which 

United 
States costs 
are more 
(+) or less 
(-) than 
Canadian 



Fishing cost: 

Excluding interest.- , 

Including interest 

Freezing and storing costs: 

Excluding interest , 

Including interest 

Boxing cost: 

Excluding interest 

Including interest 

Total fishing, freezing and storing, and boxing cost: 

Excluding interest 

Including interest 

Transportation cost: 

To New York City 

To Chicago 

Total fishing, freezing and storing, boxing, and transportation cost 

F. o. b. New York City — 

Excluding interest 

Including interest 

F. 0. b. Chicago- 
Excluding interest... 

Including interest 



5. 2086 
5. 4759 



1. 8257 
1. 9025 



1.2159 
1. 2902 



8. 2502 
8. 6686 



1. 2788 
.5894 



9. 5290 
9. 9474 



8.8396 
9. 2580 



3. 8484 
3. 9000 



2. 1650 
2. 2666 



1. 2280 
1. 3223 



7. 2414 
7.4889 



1. 0729 
1.0211 



8. 3143 
8. 5618 



8. 2625 
8. 5100 



+1. 3602 
+1. 5759 



-. 3393 
-. 3641 



-.0121 
-. 0321 



+1. 0088 
+ 1. 1797 



+. 2059 
-.4317 



+1.2147 
+1. 3856 



+. 5771 
+. 7480 



' Does not include the customs duty of 1 cent per pound. For detailed statistics of cost see pp. 159, 160. 



70 TAKIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS 

COMPETITIVE CONDITIONS 

Foreign competition with domestic chubs, as such, is negHgible. 
Imports in 1924 were only 5 per cent of domestic consumption. As 
shown in the catch records of Canadian fishing gear, the quantity 
of chubs taken with the other fish is small, indicating that the 
available supply in Canadian waters is likewise small. 

The domestic chub is usually frozen and later smoked in competi- 
tion with smoked ciscoes. The proper comparison is therefore 
between the domestic frozen chub and the foreign frozen cisco. 
Laid down in New York City the cost of domestic caught frozen 
chubs exceeds the cost of Canadian frozen ciscoes by 4.2 cents per 
pound and in Chicago by 3.6 cents per pound. Fishing gear records 
and scientific investigation indicate a relatively limited domestic 
supply of chubs, however. 

TULLIBEES 

DESCRIPTION AND USES 

The tullibee is considered in the trade a distinct variety of fish, 
but scientifically it is the same as the chub. In appearance, it more 
closely resembles the cisco than the chub. Its body, however, is 
shorter and thicker than that of the cisco. The average weight of the 
tullibee is about 2}/^ pounds. 

On the basis of the trade designation tullibees are caught in large 
quantities only in Lake Manitoba and Lake Winnipeg. Between the 
fish of these two areas the trade again distinguishes. The "Manitoba 
tullibee" is "dry" (lacking oil) and is therefore a "nonsmoking" 
fish, while the "Winnipeg tullibee" is well suited to smoking. 

Practically none of the Lake Winnipeg tullibee are sold fresh, and 
ordinarily ^ only about 5 per cent of the Manitoba tullibee are so 
marketed. The limited sale of fresh tullibees is attributed to the high 
cost of transporting them to market in competition with choicer 
varieties. 

Tullibees caught in winter are frozen by exposure to the air and 
those caught in the fall by artificial means. After being transported 
to the centers of consumption, the Manitoba tullibees are held for the 
fresh-fish trade. About 98 per cent of the Winnipeg catch is finally 
smoked. 

The smoked tullibee fills the demand for a low-priced fish. Its sale, 
however, is very materially affected by the abundance or scarcity of 
ciscoes and chubs. During years of short production of ciscoes and 
chubs the tullibee, prepared by the "hot smoke" method, is sub- 
stituted. As with other lake fish, the smoking is done in the larger 
centers of population, where the final product is immediately disposed 
of to the retail trade. Put up in 10 and 20 pound baskets, such fish 
are sold either as "smoked tullibees" or "smoked whitefish." A dis- 
advantage in the sale of smoked tullibees is their excessive weight, as 
a fish weighing one-half pound is preferred. 

• In 1925 the unusually short supply of ciscoes made possible the sale of additional quantities of tullibees 
as a substitute. 



TARIFF INFOEMATION SURVEYS 



71 



PRODUCTION, DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN 

Tullibees are caught in commercial quantity only in Lake of the 
Woods and in the northern Canadian lakes, principally Lake Winni- 
peg and Lake Winnipegosis. The catch in the United States portion 
of Lake of the Woods amounted to only 300,680 pounds in 1924 and 
in the Canadian portion to 255,373 pounds, whereas the northern 
Canadian lake production during the same year was 3,734,200 
pounds. The smallness of domestic catch is accounted for by the 
relatively limited supply in domestic waters. As with the Great 
Lakes catch of herring the northern Canadian lakes catch of tullibeec 
is restricted primarily by the limited market for the product, the 
tullibee being generally considered one of the less desirable lake fishes. 
As a cheap fish, however, it found a comparatively large sale during 
the World War, as may be noted in the following table of production: 

Table 59. — United States and Canadian tullibee catch, 1913-1924 ' 





United 

States 2 

(Lake of the 

Woods) 


Canada 


Year ^ 


Lake of the 
Woods * 


Northern 
lakes s 


Total 


1913 


Pounds 


Pounds 
177,379 
127, 133 
262,110 
138, 566 
174, 445 
240, 418 
241, 263 
129, 430 
116,654 
130, 774 
HI, 692 
255, 373 


Pounds 

914, 400 
1,441,900 
4,224,500 
4, 915, 700 
12, 573, 900 
6,741,500 
4, 440, 700 
3, 426, 100 
5,867,900 
4, 204, 900 
2, 063, 400 
3,734,200 


Pounds 
1,091,779 


1914 




1,569,033 


1915 




4, 486, 610 


1916 




5, 054, 266 


1917 ..| 


12, 748, 345 


1918 1 


6,981,918 


1919. 


4, 681, 963 


1920- .- 


3, 555, 530 


1921 


5, 984, 554 


1922 


4, 335, 674 


1923 . 1 


2, 175, 092 


1924 


300, 680 


3, 989, 573 


12-year average... 




175,436 


4, 545, 758 


4, 721, 194 











1 Not separately enumerated in the United States prior to 1924. 

2 From State fish commissions. 

3 United States, calendar years; Canada, calendar years 1917 to 1924, inclusive, and fiscal years ended 
Apr. 1, 1913 to 1916, inclusive. 

* From game and fish department of Ontario. 

' From department of marine and fisheries of Canada. 



IMPORTS 

Almost the entire quantity of tullibees consumed in the United 
States is in the frozen form and is imported from the northern Cana- 
dian lakes; imports in 1924 represented 91 per cent of domestic con- 
sumption. Of the small quantity imported fresh, a considerable 
quantity comes from Lake Manitoba in winter when there is no 
domestic production. Since tullibees serve to some extent as a sub- 
stitute for ciscoes, imports are least during years of large cisco pro- 
duction, but even during years of short cisco production the com- 
paratively high transportation and handling costs for so cheap a 
fish as tuUibees is a material deterrent to shipment from the northern 
Canadian lakes to the United States. There is, however, a small 
but constant demand for tullibees in some localities. Imports in 
1917 under the stimulus of World War demands rose to about 
10,000,000 pounds, but they have since declined. In 1924 they 
amounted to only 3,194,100 pounds. 



72 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS 



The following table gives the imports of tullibees from 1919 to 
1924: 

Table 60. — Imports into the United States of fresh and frozen tullibees,^ 1919-1924 * 



Calendar year 


Pounds 


Calendar year 


Pounds 


1919 


4,581,700 
4, 739, 700 
5, 973, 200 
3, 914, 900 


1923 


2, 062, 300 
3 194 100 


1920 - . . - - 


1924 


1921 


Average . - . 




1922 


4,077,650 







1 May include a small quantity of chubs, not over 5 per cent. 

' From Trade of Canada. Exports to United States, goods tbe produce of Canada. 



PRICES 

The difference between the Lake Winnipeg and the Lake Manitoba 
tullibee is reflected in prices. During the winter season 1924-25, 
the average price realized by the coastal buyers on Lake Winnipeg 
was 3.67 cents per pound and on Lake Manitoba only 2.31 cents 
per pound. Between the fishermen's prices in these localities there 
is also a decided difference, the price on Lake Winnipeg being about 
double that on Lake Manitoba. When the fish reach the inland 
centers the distinction is also maintained, although the price data at 
hand does not show such distinction. The weighted average price 
realized by Chicago jobbers during the 1924-25 season for both 
grades was 9.70 cents per pound. Before the fish reach the inland 
jobber, there must be added to the fishermen's price the cost of 
handling, boxing, freight, customs duty, and profit, if any, to the 
coastal buyer. 

Upon reaching the inland centers the Lake Winnipeg fish is smoked. 
During 1924 the smoked product sold in Chicago for about 18 cents 
per pound wholesale. To the cost of the frozen fish laid down in 
Chicago, the smoker must add the cost of cold storage, shrinkage in 
smoking (about 30 per cent of the gutted weight), smoking, and 
packing. 

Table 61 gives the average price of tullibees during the winter 
season 1924-25. 

Table 61. — Price per pound of frozen tullibees, 1924-25 season 





Price realized by- 


Month 


Fishermen 


Coastal buyers 


Chicago 
jobbers 


Lake 
Winnipeg 


Lake 
Manitoba 


Lake 
Winnipeg 


Lake 
Manitoba 


(Lakes 
Winnipeg 

and 
Manitoba 
combined) 




Cents 
3.00 
2.90 
3.71 
2.04 
2.60 


Cents 
1.50 
1.49 
1.45 
1.50 
1.80 


Cents 
4.00 
4.12 
4.91 
3.03 
3.44 


Cents 
2.35 
2.63 
2.50 
1.71 
1.09 


Cents 
10.00 




9.62 




10.00 




10.52 




9.84 






6 months' average 


3.02 


1.49 


3.67 


2.31 


9.70 







TAEIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS 



73 



COST OF PRODUCTION 

On the United States side of Lake of the Woods, the only im- 
portant domestic production center, the cost of fishing for tullibees 
was 6.8 cents per pound in 1924 as compared with 3.3 cents per pound 
on the Canadian side. Boxing and icing costs and express charges, 
however, so increased the cost of the foreign fish that by the time 
they reached the Chicago market their cost was only 1.3 cents per 
pound less than that of tullibees taken on the United States side of 
Lake of the Woods, and by the time they reached the New York 
market 2 cents per pound less. If the cost of fishing for tullibees 
on the Canadian side of the Lake of the Woods be averaged with the 
cost of fishing on the more important northern lakes and the cost of 
transportation and boxing and icing be added, the resulting figure 
is less by 1 cent per pound than the cost of domestic tullibees on the 
New York City market and by 0.7 cent per pound on the Chicago 
market. 

Since imports constitute 91 per cent of domestic consumption and 
the bulk of imports consist of frozen winter-caught fish from the 
northern lakes, it is the production cost of the latter that is most 
significant. Laid down in New York the frozen winter-caught prod- 
uct in 1924 cost 7.3 cents per pound and laid down in Chicago 6.2 
cents per pound, whereas if the domestic catch had been frozen and 
placed in either of these markets it would have cost 5.1 cents per 
pound more. 

The following tables give the cost of production of fresh and frozen 
tullibees : 

Table 62. — Cost of fresh tullibee, f. o. b. New York City and Chicago, 1924^ 

[In cents per pound] 



Item of cost 



Fishing cost: 

Excluding interest 

Including interest 

Boxing and icing cost: 

Excluding interest 

Including interest 

Total, fishing and boxing and icing cost: 

Excluding interest 

Including interest 

Transportation cost: 

To New York City 

To Chicago 

Total, fishing, boxing and icing, and transportation cost: 
F. 0. b. New York City- 
Excluding interest 

Including interest 

F. 0. b. Chicago- 
Excluding interest 

Including interest 



United 
States 



6. 4324 
6. 7740 



1. 6721 
1. 7847 



8.1045 
8. 5587 



5.3500 
3. 6250 



13. 4545 
13. 9087 



11. 7295 
12. 1837 



Canada 



3. 9590 
3. 9929 



2. 5511 
2.6004 



6. 5101 
6. 5933 



Amount 
by which 

United 
States cost! 
are more 
(+) or less 
(-) than 
Canadian 



12. 7822 
12. 8654 



11.3977 
11.4809 



+2. 4734 
+2. 7811 



-. 8790 
-. 8157 



+1.5944 
+1. 9654 



-. 9221 
-1.2626 



+.6723 
+1. 0433 



+. 3318 
+.7028 



' Does not include the customs duty of 1 cent per pound. For detailed statistics of cost see pp. 161, 162. 



74 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS 



Table 63. — Cost of frozen tullibee, f, o. b. New York City and Chicago, 1924 ' 

[In cents per pound] 



Item of cost 



United 
States, 
artifi- 
cially 
frozen 



Canada 



Artifi- 
cially 
frozen 



Naturally 
frozen 
(winter 
caught) 



Weighted 
average ^ 



Amount 
by which 
United 
States 
costs are 
more (-f ) 

or less 
(— ) than 
Canadian 



Fishing cost: 

Excluding interest 

Including interest 

Freezing and storing cost: 

Excluding interest 

Including interest 

Boxing cost: 

Excluding interest 

Including interest.. 

Total, fishing, freezing and storing, and boxing cost: 

Excluding interest 

Including interest 

Transportation cost: 

To New York City 

To Chicago 

Total, fishing, freezing and storing, boxing, and 
transportation cost: 
F. 0. b., New York City — 

Excluding interest 

Including interest 

F. 0. b. Chicago- 
Excluding interest 

Including interest 



6.4324 
6. 7740 



1. 8338 
1. 9090 



1. 2159 
1. 2902 



3. 9590 
3. 9929 



2. 0903 
2. 1029 



1. 5861 
1. 5933 



3. 1122 
3. 1122 



1. 5861 
1. 5933 



3. 2392 
3. 2443 



.3135 
.3154 



1. 5861 
1. 5933 



-f3. 1932 
-1-3. 5297 



-t-1. 5203 
-1-1. 5936 



-. 3702 
-. 3031 



9. 4821 
9. 9732 



7. 6354 
7. 6891 



4. 6983 
4. 7056 



5. 1388 
5. 1530 



4-4. 3433 
-f 4. 8202 



2. 4004 
1. 2920 



2. 5539 
1. 4668 



2. 5539 
1. 4668 



2. 5539 
1. 4668 



-. 1535 
-. 1748 



11. 8825 
12. 3736 



10. 7741 
11. 2652 



10. 1893 
10. 2430 



9. 1022 
9. 1559 



7. 2522 
7. 2594 



6. 1651 
6. 1723 



7. 6927 
7. 7069 



6. 6056 
6. 6198 



-1-4. 1898 
-f4. 6667 



+4. 1685 
-1-4. 6454 



1 Does not include the customs duty of 1 cent per pound. For detailed statistics of cost see pp. 161, 162. 

2 Weighted on basis of estimate that of the total quantity frozen, 15 per cent is preserved by artificial 
means. 

COMPETITIVE CONDITIONS 

The United States tullibee fishery is confined to the Lake of the 
Woods. From this source about 10 per cent of the domestic con- 
sumption is obtained, the remainder coming mostly from the north- 
ern lakes of Canada. More intensive fishing on the Lake of the 
Woods would probably result in a slightly larger domestic catch, 
but the data at hand indicate that the domestic production could 
not be materially increased. 

In years of short cisco supply, the tullibee is substituted to a limited 
extent for ciscoes. Ordinarily, however, the tullibee has its own 
market which is not influenced greatly by the trade in other fish. 
In 1924, when the domestic catch of cisco was slightly above the 
average, the cost of the domestic frozen cisco laid down in Chicago 
exceeded that of the foreign frozen tullibee in the same market by 
2.2 cents per pound. Laid down in New York City, however, the 
cost of the domestic cisco was only 1 cent per pound more than that 
of the foreign tullibee. 

JACKS 



DESCRIPTION AND USES 



"Jack" is a name only recently applied to the fish formerly known 
to the trade as pike, pickerel, or grass pike. It is now almost uni- 
versally used to distinguish this fish from the yellow pike. The 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS 



75 



marked features of the jack are its comparatively large size (average 
about 8 pounds), its long slender body and slender jaws, and its 
bluish or greenish gray color, with small white or yellow spots. Jacks 
weighing from 2 to 4 pounds are graded as ''No. 1" and those over 
4 pounds as "Large." Substitution of jacks for yellow pike is some- 
times possible by removing entrails, heads, and fins, in which condi- 
tion it is difficult to distinguish them from similarly prepared yellow 
pike. No. 1 jacks from deep water are preferred. Jacks are sold 
both round and dressed; some of the dressed fish have the heads 
removed also. Thirty per cent of the catch is dressed. 

Most of the domestic catch and about 60 per cent of the Canadian 
are sold fresh. Frozen jacks come largely from the winter fishery 
of the northern Canadian lakes where they are naturally frozen. 
In the fall fishery of the northern Canadian lakes and in the fishery 
of the Rainey River region, the surplus is frozen by artificial means. 



PRODUCTION, DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN 

The domestic catch of jacks by commercial fishermen is small, 
375,426 pounds in 1924, as compared with a Canadian catch of 
5,146,637 pounds. Of the domestic catch, 56 per cent is taken in 
the Lake of the Woods. The bulk of the Canadian catch is taken 
in the northern lake region, the Lake of the Woods furnishing only 
12 per cent. 

The smallness of the domestic catch of jacks is due to the limited 
supply in United States waters. Since the jack is essentially a 
shallow-water fish the northern Canadian lakes are naturally well 
suited to its development. In this region the principal fishing centers 
are Lake Winnipegosis and Lake Manitoba. 

Table 64 gives the domestic and foreign catch of jacks from 1913 
to 1924, inclusive. 

Table 64. — United States and Canadian catch of jacks, 1913-1924 





United 
States 
(Great 

Lakes) 2 


Canada 


Yeari 


Great 
Lakes 3 


Northern 
lakes < 


Total 


1913 


Pounds 
426, 647 
493, 040 
606, 984 
322, 365 
461, 655 
416, 890 
473,317 
6Q6, 631 
466, 219 
401, 690 
343, 931 
375, 426 


Pounds 
3, 365, 826 
4,337,863 
2, 440, 684 
1, 378, 992 
1,423,136 
1, 234, 291 
1, 819, 829 
1,009,078 
1, 063, 566 
1, 129, 523 
1,085,443 
1,144,837 


Pounds 
3, 671, IQO 
2, 944, 100 
5, 259, 300 
4, 142, 300 
5, 913, 100 
4, 349, 100 
3, 776, 500 
3, 088, 500 
2, 719, 300 
2, 571, 200 
3, 071, 500 
4,001,800 


Pounds 
7, 036, 926 
7, 281, 963 
7, 699, 984 
5, 521, 292 
7, 336, 236 
5,583,391 
5, 596, 329 
4,097,578 
3, 782, 866 
3, 700, 723 
4,156,943 
5, 146, 637 


1914 


1915 


1916. 


1917 


1918 


1919 


1920 


1921. 


1922 


1923 


1924 




12-year average 


449,566 


1,786,089 


3,792,317 


5,578,406 





1 United States, calendar years; Canada, calendar years 1917 to 1924, inclusive, and fiscal years ended 
Apr. 1, 1913, to 1916, inclusive. 

2 From State fish commissions. 

3 From game and fish department of Ontario. 

* From department of marine and fisheries of Canada. 



76 



TAEIFF INFORMATION SUEVEYS 



IMPORTS 

Imports supplied 89 per cent of the domestic consumption of jacks 
in the six-year period 1919-1924, production averaging 444,536 pounds 
as compared with an annual import of 3,530,810 pounds during those 
years. Domestic waters have become depleted of jacks, as of white- 
fish, and there is little prospect of materially increasing production. 
It is probable that larger imports would be received from Canada 
were it not for the relatively limited market for such fish and the high 
transportation costs from the northern Canadian lakes. 

Table 65 gives the estimated United States imports of jacks from 
1919 to 1924. 

Table 65. — Imports of fresh and frozen jacks into the United States, 1919-1924^ 



Year 


Pounds 


Year 


Potinds 


1919 


4,477,063 
3, 278, 062 
3,026,293 
2,960,578 


1923- 
1924. 




3, 325, 554 
4, 117, 310 


1920 




1921 






1922 - - 


3, 530, 810 







1 Estimated at 80 per cent of Canadian production. 



PRICES 

On the United States side of the Lake of the Woods, where 56 per 
cent of the domestic catch is taken, the average price paid to the 
fishermen for jacks in 1924 was 4.86 cents per pound, as compared 
with 3.56 cents on the Canadian side. The Lake of the Woods 
supplies only 12 per cent of the Canadian catch, however, the remain- 
ing 88 per cent being obtained largely from the northern lakes. On 
Lake Winnipegosis, the Canadian center of production, the average 
price paid to the fishermen in 1924 was 1.50 cents per pound for fresh 
summer-caught jacks, and 3.35 cents per pound for fresh winter- 
caught jacks, the weighted average price for summer and winter 
caught being 1.72 cents. As no jacks are caught in winter in the 
United States, and as only a limited quantity of the domestic catch 
is frozen, the principal competition is with the summer-caught 
jacks of Lake Winnipegosis and Lake Winnipeg. In 1924, coastal 
buyers on these two lakes received 4 cents per pound for summer- 
caught jacks, while buyers on the United States side of Lake of the 
Woods received 4.27 cents per pound. 

Table 66 shows the prices received in 1924 for jacks by fishermen 
and Tables 67 and 68 show those received by coastal buyers and 
inland jobbers. 



TAEIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS 77 

Table 66. — Price per pound received for jacks by fishermen, 1924 





United 
States 

fishermen 
(Lake of 

the Woods) 
(fresh) 


Canadian fishermen 


Month 


Lake of 

the Woods 

(fresh) 


Winnipeg 
(fresh) 


Winnipegosis 


Manitoba 

(fresh and 

frozen) 




Fresh 


Frozen 




Cents 


Cents 


CenU 


Cents 
3.38 
3.38 
2.87 


Cents 
2.04 
1.15 
L83 


Cents 
1 69 


February .. 








1 52 










1 69 


April 












5.00 
4.00 
5.50 
5.50 
4.00 
4.00 
4.00 


4.00 
3.51 
3.55 
3.00 
4.00 












2.00 
2.00 








July - 








August 


2.00 


1 ."^n 






September 


2.00 1 ."iO 






October 


2.00 
2.00 


1.50 






November . 




1.62 
L97 








3.57 


1.74 












Annual average . . 


4.86 


3.56 


2.00 


1.72 


1.92 


1 67 







Table 67. — Price per pound received for fresh jacks by coastal buyers and inland 

jobbers, 1924 







Coastal buyers 


in— 




Inland jobbers 




United 
States 
(Lake 
of the 

Woods) 


Canada 


Chicago 






Lake 
of the 
Woods 


Winnipeg 


Winni- 
pegosis 


Manitoba 


New York 
City 


January 


Cents 


Cents 


Cents 


Cents 
4.61 
3.26 

• 2.70 
L61 


Cents 
5.16 
5.97 
6.50 


Cents 
14.28 
15.04 
15.06 
22.38 
14. 37 
11.21 
14.58 
13.22 
12.87 
12.97 
14.12 
14.60 


Cents 
20 31 


February 








17 69 










18.80 


April -. . .. 








16 25 


May 


6.03 
4.65 
7.00 
7.38 
5.48 
5.68 
5.43 


5.00 
3.30 
3.50 

4.82 
5.13 






15 82 


June 


4.00 
4.00 
4.00 
4.00 
4.01 
4.00 






21. 16 


July 






14.84 


August- - 


4.00 
4.01 
4.00 




18.67 


September 




24 14 


October 




12.58 


November 




4.43 
2.49 


17.57 


December 






19 16 














Annual average 


5.78 


4.27 


4.00 


3.63 


5.82 


13.45 


18.93 







Table 68.- 



-Price per pound received by coastal buyers and Chicago jobbers for 
frozen jacks, 1924 





Coastal buyers in- 




Month 


United 

States 

(Lake of the 

Woods) 


Canada 


Chicago 
jobbers 




Winnipeg 


Winni- 
pegosis 


Manitoba 


January 


CenU 


Cents 
4.00 
4.00 
3.50 


Cents 
3.64 
3.09 
3.09 


CenU 
2.83 
2.34 
2.38 


CenU 
9.70 


February. - . 


5.00 
5.67 


9.80 


March . 


8.71 


April — - 


7.58 


May 








7.39 


June ... . 








7.35 


July 










August 








9.00 


September — 


1 








October . .. 










8.00 


November 




5.50 
4.84 


5.97 
3.84 


2.36 
3.01 


9.86 


December 




9.11 








Annual average 


5.20 


4.46 


3.64 


2.84 


8.73 







78 



TAEIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS 



COST OF PRODUCTION 

The cost of catching jacks in the United States in 1924 exceeded 
the cost in Canada by 3.8 cents a pound. Because of the higher for- 
eign express charges and boxing and iciug costs the spread in cost 
when jacks are laid down in the United States (excluding duty) is 
reduced, the difference in favor of fresh jacks from Canada being 2.2 
cents per pound in New York City, and 0.8 cent in Chicago. It is 
probably due to this cost difference, as well as to the inadequate 
supply, that the domestic catch is sold in the vicinity of the pro- 
ducing centers. 

Frozen jacks, the product of Canada, f. o. b., New York City, cost 
5 cents per pound less than the domestic, and f. o. b. Chicago, 4.9 
cents less. The Canadian costs used to determine this average 
difference include the catch taken in winter and frozen by exposure 
to the cold air. This naturally frozen fish, constituting the bulk of 
the Canadian frozen product, costs about 50 per cent less than the 
domestic product when laid down in New York City or Chicago. 

Tables 69 and 70 give the cost of production of fresh and frozen 
jacks in the United States and Canada in 1924. 

Table 69. — Cost of fresh jacks, f. o. b. New York City and Chicago, 1924 ' 

[In cents per pound] 



Item of cost 



United 

States 



Canada 



Amount 
by which 

United 
States costs 
are more 
(+) or less 
(-) than 
Canadian 



Fishing cost: 

Excluding interest 

Including interest 

Boxing and icing cost: 

Excluding interest 

Including interest 

Total fishing and boxing and icing cost: 

Excluding interest 

Including interest 

Transportation cost: 

To New Yorlj: City. 

To Chicago 

Total fishing, boxing, and icing, and transportation cost 

F. 0. b. New York City- 
Excluding interest 

Including interest 

F. o. b. Chicago — 

Excluding interest 

Including interest 



6. 7609 
7. 1803 



1.7547 
1.9473 



8. 5156 
9. 1276 



4. 8564 
3. 0943 



13. 3720 
13. 9840 



11. 6099 
12. 2219 



3. 3795 
3. 4160 



2.3547 

2.4867 



5. 7342 
5. 9027 



5. 9140 
5. 5195 



11.6482 
11.8167 



11.2537 
11. 4222 



+3.3814 
+3. 7643 



-.6000 
-.5394 



+2. 7814 
+3. 2249 



-1.0576 
-2. 4252 



+1.7238 
+2. 1673 



+. 3562 
+.7997 



1 Does not include the customs duty of 1 cent per pound. For detailed statistics of cost see pp. 163-165. 



TAKIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS 



79 



Table 70. — Cost of frozen jacks, f. o. b. New York City and Chicago, 192 Jf ^ 

[In cents per pound] 



Item of cost 



Fishing cost: 

Excluding interest 

Including interest 

Freezing and storing cost: 

Excluding interest.. 

Including interest 

Boxing cost: 

Excluding interest 

Including interest. 

Total fishing, freezing and storing, and boxing cost: 

Excluding interest 

Including interest 

Transportation cost: 

To New York City 

To Chicago 

Total fishing, freezing and storing, boxing, and trans 
portation cost: 
F. 0. b.. New York City- 
Excluding interest 

Including interest 

F. o. b., Chicago — 

Excluding interest 

Including interest ..- 



United 
States, 
(artifi- 
cially 
frozen) 



6. 7609 
7. 1803 



1.8906 
1.9004 



1. 2159 
1.2902 



9.8674 
10. 3709 



1. 9807 
1.0297 



11.8481 
12. 3516 



10. 8971 
11.4006 



Canada 



Artifi- 
cially 
frozen 



3. 3795 
3. 4160 



2. 0511 
2.0920 



1. 9194 
1. 9554 



7. 3500 
7. 4634 



2.4900 
1. 5923 



9.8400 
9.9534 



8.9423 
9. 0557 



Naturally 
frozen 
(winter 
caught) 



2. 0799 
2. 0799 



1. 9194 
1. 9554 



3. 9993 
4. 0353 



2.4900 
1.5923 



6. 4893 
6.5253 



5. 5916 
5.6276 



Weighted 
average 2 



2.4048 
2. 4139 



,5128 
.5230 



1. 9194 
1. 9554 



Amount 
by which 
United 
States 
costs are 
more (-f) 

or less 
(— ) than 
Canadian 



-f 4. 3561 

+4. 7664 



+1. 3778 
-t-1. 3774 



-. 7035 
-. 6652 



4.8370 
4. 8923 



-f-5. 0304 
+5. 4786 



2.4900 
1.5923 



7. 3270 
7. 3823 



6.4293 
6. 4846 



-. 5093 
-.5626 



-1-4. 5211 
-1-4. 9693 



-1-4. 4678 
4-4. 9160 



1 Does not include the customs duty of 1 cent per pound. For detailed statistics of cost see pp. 163-165. 

2 Weighted on the assumption that of the total quantity frozen 25 per cent was preserved by artificial 
means. 

COMPETITIVE CONDITIONS 

The proportion of jacks taken by United States fishermen is almost 
neghgible as compared with other varieties, except on the Lake of 
the Woods. Even there the catch of jacks in 1924 represented only 
5.3 per cent of the total pound-net catch. Since only 12 per cent of 
the domestic consmnption comes from domestic sources despite 
intensive fishing, production probably can not be increased. 

To some extent the jack competes with the yellow pike, the domes- 
tic supply of which is also inadequate. 

MULLETS 



DESCRIPTION AND USES 

The mullet or sucker has a slender body, a long snout overhanging 
its mouth, thick lips, small eyes, and small scales. About 95 per 
cent of the catch is sold fresh, and the remainder is frozen. Only a 
small quantity is salted. In both the fresh and frozen trade about 
98 per cent is sold dressed. In some localities the dressed fish is 
known as "mullet" and the round as ''sucker." The fresh-w^ater 
mullet, however, is not related to the salt-water mullet. 



80 



TAEIFF INFORMATION SUBVEYS 



PRODUCTION, DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN 

Mullets are found in varying quantities in most of the inland 
waters of the United States and Canada. The United States catch 
on the Great Lakes in 1924 was 2,722,683 pounds, of which about 43 
per cent was taken on Lake Huron, 25 per cent on Lake Erie, 23 per 
cent on Lake Michigan, and 9 per cent on the other lakes. The 
Canadian catch in 1924 was 1,354,400 pounds, of which about 52 per 
cent was taken on Lake Winnipegosis, 12 per cent on Lake Manitoba, 
and 36 per cent on other lakes. In both countries the catch has 
fluctuated materially from year to year. The World War demand 
stimulated fishing in Canada, and to some extent in the United 
States. Ordinarily, the limited demand for this cheap, coarse fish, 
is responsible for the comparatively small catch. 

Table 71 gives the United States and Canadian catch from 1913 to 
1924. 

Table 71. — United States and Canadian catch of mullets, 191S-1924 



Year i 



1913- 
1914- 
1915. 



United 
States * 
(Great 
Lakes) 



Pounds 
2, 995, 025 
6, 184, 830 
4, 516, 606 

1916 I 4,800,003 

1917 -.1 5,699,145 

1918.- 3.549,230 

1919 I 5,008,383 



Canada 3 

(northern 

lakes) 



Pounds 

* 508, 855 

< 1, 050. 803 

915, 800 

667, 300 

1, 101, 300 

2, 455, 100 

2, 783, 300 



Year I 



1920- 
1921. 
1922. 
1923- 
1924- 



United 
States s 
(Great 
Lakes) 



Pounds 
4, 079, 629 
4, 040, 973 
3,787,117 
3, 186, 686 
2, 722, 683 



12-year average 4, 214, 192 



Canada ' 

(northern 

lakes) 



Pound* 

3, 138, 300 

527,000 

764,500 

874,900 

1, 354, 400 



1, 345, 130 



1 United States, calendar years; Canada, calendar years 1917 to 1924, inclusive, and fiscal years ended 
Apr. ], 1913 to 1916, inclusive. 

2 From State fish commissions. 

*• From department of marine and fisheries of Canada. 
* Estimated. 

IMPORTS AND EXPORTS 

No special fishery is conducted for mullets, as the catch taken with 
other rough fish bring in normal times a comparatively low price. 
Following the war demand for cheap fish, imports of mullets feU 
from about 2,087,000 pounds in 1919 to 395,000 pounds in 1921, but 
since 1921 they have increased, amounting in 1924 to 1,015,800 
pounds, or 27 per cent of domestic consmnption. During periods 
of short Canadian supply small quantities of the domestic product 
are exported to eastern Canada. 

Table 72 gives an estimate of imports from 1919 to 1924. 

Table 72. — Imports of fresh and frozen mullets into the United States, 1919-1924 ^ 



Year 


Pounds 


1 

Year 


Pounds 


1919 




2, 087, 475 

2, 353, 725 

395,250 

573, 375 


] 1923 


656, 175 


1920 


' 1924 - 


1, 015, 800 


1921 

1922 


6-year average 




1, 180, 300 









' Estimated at 75 per cent of Canadian production. 



TAHIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS 



81 



PRICES 

Mullets are one of the cheapest of lake fishes. In 1924, the price 
paid to United States fishermen on Lake Huron, where 43 per cent of 
the domestic catch was taken, averaged 2.15 cents per pound, while 
on Lake Winnipegosis, where 52 per cent of the Canadian catch was 
taken, the average price realized by the fishermen was only 1 cent 
per pound. Of the Winnipegosis catch, however, a much larger 
proportion was subsequently frozen. 

Mullets are among the most widely distributed of fresh-water fish, 
but are found in large quantities in only a few areas. Owing to the 
dispersed sources of supply they are available throughout the year; 
but because of a limited winter catch the prices are higher at that 
time, ranging in the Chicago market from 13.07 cents per pound in 
February, 1924, to 5.17 cents in May of the same year. 

Since transportation costs are a considerable item in the marketing 
of cheap fish the proximity to market of a fishing center regulates 
in a large measure the price received by the coastal buyers. For 
example, United States buyers on Lake Erie and Lake Huron being 
favorably situated with respect to desirable consmning centers 
receive slightly more for their fish than do Chicago jobbers. On 
Lake Winnipegosis, the reverse is true, coastal buyers there receive 
only 3.46 cents per pound for their fresh fish. Likewise, the Lake 
Manitoba catch even though shipped fresh in winter brings only 
5.52 cents per pound. 

Relatively small quantities of the mullet catch are sold frozen and 
these are in large part taken from the northern Canadian lakes. 
In 1924, the Lake Winnipegosis fishermen received only 0.63 cent 
per pound for their frozen catch, which was disposed of by the coastal 
buyers at 1.09 cents per pound. 

Tables 73, 74, and 75 give the prices paid for mullets in 1924. 

Table 73. — Price per pound received for fresh mullets by United States and Canadian 

fishermen, 1924 



Lake 



United 
States 



Canada 



Ontario 

Erie 

Huron 

Michigan 

Superior 

Winnipegosis - 
Manitoba 



Cents 
5.00 
2.80 
2.15 
4.06 
2.00 



Cents 



2.39 
14.88 



'1.00 
'.63 
<1.79 



' Includes some pound-net fish sold direct to retailers. 
» Fresh. 
• Frozen. 
Fresh and frozen. 



82 



TARIFF INFOEMATION SURVEYS 



Table 74. — Price per pound received for fresh mullets by coastal buyers and Chicago 

jobbers, 1924 





Price realized by- 




Coastal buyers 


Inland jobbers 


Month 


United States 


Canada 


Chicago 


New York 
City 




Huron 


Erie 


Winnipe- 
gosis 


Manitoba 


January 


Cents 


Cents 


Cents 


Cents 
5.63 
5.07 
3.69 


Cents 
12.10 
13.07 
10.62 
7.65 
6.17 
6.85 
5.63 
6.97 
11.25 
8.74 
7.76 
8.26 


Cents 
19.96 


February 








16.00 


March 








15.90 


April 


5.00 
7.00 
7.51 
9.26 
11.25 
11.00 
11.19 


8.00 
6.72 
7.70 
8.00 
10.05 
9.11 
8.00 
8.21 




9.79 


May 






13.07 


June 






10.01 


July . . 






9.37 


August... 


3.60 
3.45 
3.50 




12.38 


September 




15.38 


October 




10.86 


November 


5.66 
6.13 


13.09 


December 






17.98 










Annual average.. . 


8.37 


7.91 


3.46 


6.52 


7.18 


13.40 







Table 75. — Price per pound received for frozen mullets by coastal buyers and 

Chicago jobbers, 1924 





Price realized by — 




Coastal buyers 




Month 


United 
States 
(Erie) 


Canada 


Chicago 
jobbers 




Winnipe- 
gosis 


Manitoba 




January. 


CenU 
8.00 
8.00 
7.50 
7.00 
7.00 


Cents 
1.75 
1.00 
1.00 
1.97 
1.75 


Cents 
2.50 
3.18 
L29 


Cents 
8.00 


February 


7.87 


March.. 


8.00 


November 


5.00 


December 


2.30 


5.50 






Annual average 


7.91 


1.09 


2.44 


6.25 







COST OF PRODUCTION 

The average fishing cost of the mullet catch in 1924 was 2.7 cents 
per pound in the United States and 0.5 cent per pound in Canada, 
a difference in favor of Canada of 2.2 cents per pound. To reach 
the important United States markets, however, the bulk of the 
Canadian product must pay more than twice as much in express 
charges as the domestic, the average foreign transportation cost 
being 3 cents per pound more to New York City and 4.1 cents per 
pound more to Chicago. Moreover, the cost of boxing and icing is 
0.6 cent per pound more for the foreign than for the domestic, so 
that laid down in New York the average cost of fresh Canadian 
mullets, excluding the 1 cent per pound customs duty, exceeds the 



TAEIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS 



83 



average of the domestic by 1.5 cents per pound, and laid down in 
Chicago by 2.5 cents per pound. It is obvious, therefore, that the 
bulk of the Canadian fresh fish can be placed in the United States 
markets at a profit only when there is a shortage in the domestic 
supply — for example, in the winter, when there is no domestic pro- 
duction and when prices are twice as much as in summer. 

The naturally frozen winter-caught mullet of the northern Canadian 
lakes, while costing more to box and to transport to the principal 
United States markets, have a smaller fishing cost and are frozen 
without expense, so that when placed in Chicago their total cost is 
1.3 cents per pound less than the domestic product in the same 
market; in the New York City market, however, the foreign cost is 
only 0.6 cents per pound less than the domestic. 

Tables 76 and 77 give the cost of production of fresh and frozen 
mullets in the United States and in Canada in 1924. 

Table 76.— Cos< of fresh mullet, f. o. b. New York City and Chicago, 1924- * 

lln cents per pound] 



Item of cost 



United 
States 



Canada 



Amount 
by which 

United 
States costs 
are more 
(+) or less 
(-) than 
Canadian 



Fishing cost: 

Excluding interest 

Including interest -.- 

Boxing and icing cost: 

Excluding interest , 

Including interest 

Total fishing and boxing and icing cost: 

Excluding interest.. 

Including interest 

Transportation cost: 

To New York City 

To Chicago 

Total fishing, boxing and icing, and transportation cost 

F. 0. b. New York City- 
Excluding interest.. 

Including interest 

F. 0. b. Chicago — 

Excluding interest 

Including interest 



2.5424 
2. 6863 



1.9613 
1. 7808 



4. 3232 
4.6476 



3. 1570 
2. 1760 



7. 4802 
7. 8046 



6. 4992 
6. 8236 



0. 5342 
.5430 



2.3750 
2. 5571 



2.9092 
3. 1001 



6. 1715 
6. 2355 



9. 0807 
9. 2716 



9. 1447 
9. 3356 



+2.0082 
+2. 1433 



-.5942 

-. 5958 



+1.4140 
+1. 5475 



-3. 0145 
-4.0595 



-1. 6005 
-1.4670 



-2. 6455 
-2. 5120 



1 Does not include the customs duty of 1 cent per pound. For detailed statistics of cost see pp. 166, 167. 



84 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS 



Table 77. — Cost of frozen mullet, f. o. b. New York City and Chicago, 1924^ 

[In cents per pound] 



Item of cost 



Fishing cost: 

Excluding interest 

Including interest 

Freezing and storing cost: 

Excluding interest 

Including interest 

Boxing cost: 

Excluding interest 

Including interest 

Total fishing, freezing and storing, and boxing cost: 

Excluding interest - -. 

Including interest-. 

Transportation cost: 

To New York City 

To Chicago - 

Total fishing, freezing and storing, boxing, and 
transportation cost: 
F. o. b. New York City- 
Excluding interest - 

Including interest. -. 

F. o. b. Chicago- 
Excluding interest 

Including interest 



United 
States, 
artifi- 
cially 
frozen 



2.5424 
2. 6863 



1. 8622 
1. 8728 



1. 2159 
1.2902 



5. 6205 
5. 8493 



1. 0673 
.7706 



6. 6878 
6. 9166 



6. 3911 
6. 6199 



Canada 



Artifi- 
cially 
frozen 



0. 5342 
.5430 



2.0903 
2. 1029 



2. 1497 
2. 1872 



4.7742 
4. 8331 



2.6803 
1. 7031 



7. 4545 
7. 5134 



6. 4773 
6. 5362 



Naturally 
frozen 
(winter 
caught) 



1.4416 
1.4416 



2. 1497 
2. 1872 



Weighted 
average 



1. 1693 
1.1720 



.6271 
.6309 



2. 1497 
2. 1872 



3. 5913 
3. 6288 



2.6803 
1. 7031 



6. 2716 
6. 3091 



5. 2944 
5. 3319 



3. 9461 
3.9901 



2. 6803 
1. 7031 



6.6264 
6. 6704 



5.6492 
5. 6932 



Amount 
by which 
ffnited 
States 
costs are 
more (-f-) 

or less 
(— ) than 
Canadian 



+1. 3731 
+1. 5143 



-f 1.2351 
-M.2419 



.9338 
.8970 



+1.6850 
-t-1. 8486 



-1. 6130 
-. 9325 



+.0614 
+.2462 



+. 7419 
+. 9267 



1 Doas not include the customs duty of 1 cent per pound. For detailed statistics of cost see pp. 166, 167. 

2 Weighted on the assumption that of the total quantity frozen, 30 per cent is preserved by artificial 
means. 

COMPETITIVE CONDITIONS 

There is an abundant supply of mullets in United States waters; 
in 1921, when they were free of duty, the domestic fishery supplied 
90 per cent of domestic consumption and had an exportable surplus. 
When market conditions are favorable, as they were, notably, during 
the World War, foreign mullets are imported in large quantities. It 
is significant that from 1921 to 1924 imports almost trebled notwith- 
standing the change in the tariff status of such fish from free entry 
under the act of 1913 to a duty of 1 cent per pound under the act 
of 1922. 

Cost of production data for 1924 show that in the Chicago and 
New York City markets the fresh domestic mullet costs 4 cents per 
pound more than the foreign product. On the other hand, the 
naturally frozen Canadian fish was laid down in Chicago at 1 .3 cents 
per pound less than the domestic frozen fish; in New York City the 
foreign cost was 0.6 cent per pound less than the domestic. In 
connection with the cost of production, it should be noted that 
mullets are sometimes used as "car fillers" in shipments from the 
northern Canadian lakes; that is, when a shipment of choice fish — 
e. g., whitefish — is made weighing slightly less than the minimum 
carload weight for which the shipper must pay, the remainder is 
made up of cheaper fish. 



TAKIFF INFOEMATION SUKVEYS 85 

The following table summarizes the cost of production of mullets: 

Table 78. — Summary of the cost of production of mullets, 1924 
[In cents per pound] 



Class and market 



Fresh: 

F. 0. b. New York City 
F. o. b. Chicago 

Simple average 

Frozen: 

F. 0. b. New York City 
F. 0. b. Chicago.- 

Simple average 



United 
States 



7.80 
6.82 



7.31 



6.92 
6.62 



6.77 



Canada 

(excluding 

duty) 



9.27 
9.34 



9.30 



6.67 
5.69 



6.18 



Amount 
by which 
United 
States costs 
are more 
(+) or less 
(— ) than 
Canadian 



-1.47 
-2.52 



-1.99 



+.25 
+.93 



+.59 



SAUCERS 

DESCRIPTION AND USES 

The Sanger is of the same genus as the blue pike and in some aspects 
is similar. Its body is elongated and dark and its average weight is 
about 1^ pounds. Like the blue pike, it is a soft fish with com- 
paratively poor keeping qualities. Large saugers are graded "Jas 
" Sanger pike," and small ones as ''No. 1 sauger." About 95 per cent 
of the catch is sold fresh without being eviscerated. 



PRODUCTION, DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN 

While saugers are found in several of the Great Lakes and northern 
Canadian lakes, ahiiost the entire United States catch is taken on 
Lake Erie. The small quantity taken on the Canadian half of Lake 
Erie is usually included with the blue pike shipments. The northern 
Canadian lakes yield a small quantity in winter when there is no 
domestic catch. 

Table 79 gives the domestic catch of saugers from 1913 to 1924. 

Table 79. — United States catch of sauger 1913-1924 ^ 



Calendar year 


Pounds 


Calendar year 


Pounds 


1913 


1,248,042 
4, 568, 641 
4,533,271 
6, 187, 172 
4,336,055 
2,101,222 
2,654,650 


1920. 
1921. 
1922. 
1923. 
1924. 




2, 931, 942 


1914 




5,009,882 


1915 




4,622,873 


1916 




3, 320, 922 


1917 




1,847,065 


1918 


12-year average 






1919.. 


3,613,478 









' From State fish commissions. 



86 



TAEIFF INFOEMATION SUEVEYS 



IMPORTS 

Domestic imports of saugers probably amount to not more than 
1 per cent of domestic production. Statistics showing the actual im- 
ports are not available. 

PRICES 

On Lake Erie, where practically all of the domestic sauger catch is 
taken, United States fishermen receive between 5 and 7 cents per 
pound for their catches — the average price in 1924 being 5.19 cents. 
Canadian fishermen on Lake Erie occasionally catch saugers, but in 
quantities too small to warrant their segregation from blue pike in the 
sales records. On Lake Manitoba the fishermen realized 2 cents per 
pound in 1924. 

Table 80 gives the prices received in 1924 for saugers by fishermen 
and coastal buyers. 

Table 80. — Prices per pound received for fresh sauger, 1924 





By fishermen in- 


By coastal buyers in- 


Month 


United 
States 
(Lake 
Erie) 


Canada 

(Lake 

Manitoba) 


United 
States 
(Lake 
Erie) 


Canada 

(Lake 

Manitoba) 


January 


Cents 


Cents 
2.00 
2.00 
2.00 


Cents 


Cents 
6.17 


February . .. 






9.47 


March 






9.00 


April 








May 


7.00 
6.00 
5.00 
5.00 
5.12 
5.00 
5.57 




8.00 




June 




11.50 
9.45 

10.00 
9.21 




July 




August . . . ...... 






September 






October.- -. 




9.00 ( 


November 




11.00 '... 


December... 




13.18 










Annual average 


5.19 


2.00 


10.41 8.22 









COST OF PRODUCTION 

Comparison of fresh sauger production costs in the United States 
with those of Canada show that there is little foreign competition 
except when the domestic supply is short and prices are abnormally 
high. Laid down in New York City the foreign fish cost 2.6 cents 
per pound more than the domestic, and in Chicago 1.1 cents per 
pound more. 

The small quantities of frozen winter-caught saugers shipped from 
the northern Canadian lakes cost less than the artificially frozen 
domestic product; 3.3 cents per pound less in New York City and 
4.5 cents less in Chicago. 

Tables 81 and 82 give the cost of production of fresh and frozen 
saugers in the United States and Canada in 1924. 



TAEIFF INFORMATION SUEVEYS 



87 



Table 81.- — Cost of fresh saugers, f. o. b. New York City and Chicago, 1924 * 

[In cents per pound] 



Item of cost 



Fishing cost: 

Excluding interest 

Including interest 

Boxing and icing cost: 

Excluding interest - 

Including interest - 

Total fishing and boxing and icing cost: 

Excluding interest 

Including interest 

Transportation cost: 

To New York City.. 

To Chicago 

Total fishing, boxing and icing, and transportation cost: 

F. 0. b. New York City — 

Excluding interest 

Including interest 

F. 0. b. Chicago- 
Excluding interest 

Including interest. 



United 
States 



5.1038 
5. 2625 



1. 6670 
1. 7365 



6.7708 
6. 9990 



2. 3125 
2. 3750 



9.0833 
9.3115 



9. 1458 
9.3740 



Canada 



2. 8977 
2. 8977 



2. 5721 
2. 6135 



5. 4698 
5.5112 



6.3800 
4. 9450 



11.8498 
11.8912 



10. 4148 
10. 4562 



Amount 
by which 
United 
States costs 
are more 
(+) or less 
(-) than 
Canadian 



+2. 2061 
+2. 3648 



-. 9051 
-. 8770 



+1.3010 

+1. 4878 



-4. 0675 
-2. 5700 



-2. 7665 
-2. 5797 



-1.2690 
-1.0822 



' Does not include the customs duty of 1 cent per pound. For detailed statistics of cost, see p. 168. 

Table 82. — Cost of frozen saugers, f. o. b. New York City and Chicago, 1924 ' 

[In cents per pound] 



Item of cost 



United 

States 
(artifi- 
cially 
frozen) 



Canada 



Artifi- 
cially 
frozen 



Naturally 
frozen 
(winter 
caught) 



Aver- 
age 2 



Amount 
by which 
United 
States 
costs are 
more (+) 

or less 
(— ) than 
Canadian 



Fishing cost: 

Excluding interest 

Including interest 

Freezing and storing cost: 

E.\cluding interest 

Including interest 

Boxing cost: 

Excluding interest 

Including interest 

Total fishing, freezing and storing, and boxing costs: 

Excluding interest 

Including interest 

Transportation cost: 

To New York City 

To Chicago 

Total fishing, freezing and storing, boxing, and tranS' 
portation costs: 
F. o. b. New York City- 
Excluding interest 

Including interest 

F. 0. b. Chicago — 

Excluding interest. 

Including interest 



5. 1038 
5. 2625 



1. 8374 
1.9119 



1. 2159 
1. 2902 



2. 8977 
2. 8977 



2. 0903 
2.1029 



1. 5710 
1. 5765 



1.7511 
1. 7511 



1. 5710 
1. 5765 



1. 8658 
1. 8658 



.2090 
.2103 



1.5710 
1. 5765 



.1571 
.4646 



6. 5590 
6. 5771 



3. 3221 
3. 3276 



3.6458 
3. 6526 



.7157 
.8297 



2.5498 
1. 4314 



2.5498 
1.4314 



8.8728 
9. 1803 



9.2943 



9.1088 
9. 1269 



7. 9904 
8.0085 



5. 8719 
5. 8774 



4. 7535 
4. 7590 



6. 1956 
6. 2024 



5. 0772 
5. 0840 



-f 3. 2380 
-j-3.3967 



+1. 6284 
-i-1. 7016 



-. 3.551 
-.2863 



-f 4. 5113 
+4. 8120 



2.5498 I -1.8341 
1.4314 I -.6017 



-f 2. 6772 
+2. 9779 



-f 3. 9096 
+4. 2103 



1 Does not Include the customs duty of 1 cent per pound. For detailed statistics of cost see p. 168. 

' Weighted on the assumption that of the total quantity frozen, 10 per cent is prepared by artificial means. 



88 



TAEIFF INFOKMATION SURVEYS 
COMPETITIVE CONDITIONS 



Imports of saugers are less than 1 per cent of domestic consump- 
tion, and the Canadian fishing-gear records indicate that there is 
little likelihood of an increase. The quantity taken on the Canadian 
Great Lakes is too small to be segregated from blue pike, and the 
quantity taken on the northern lakes, incidenta-1 to the catch of other 
fish, is almost negligible. 

SHEEPSHEAD 

DESCRIPTION AND USES 

The sheepshead, in the Lake Erie region called "gray bass," is a 
coarse, bony fish weighing about a pound and a half. It has a short, 
stout body, silvery gray in color, with oblique dusty streaks along its 
elevated back. Practically the entire catch is sold fresh without 
being dressed. 

PRODUCTION, DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN 

Sheepsheads are taken almost entirely in the United States portion 
of Lake Erie, less than 2 per cent being taken in other waters. While 
no data are available to show the foreign catch, it is known to be of 
no commercial importance. In the Lake Erie fishery pound nets are 
used in taking the bulk of the catch. The irregularity of the supply 
during the fishing season prevents the establishment of a satisfactory 
market. 

Table 83 gives the United States catch of sheepshead from 1913 
to 1924. 

Table 83. — United States catch of sheepshead, 1913-1924 * 



Calendar year 


Pounds 


Calendar year 


Pounds 


1913 


596, 178 
2,282,369 
2, 211, 8J7 
2, 384, 254 
3,013,492 
2,982,365 
2, 150, 598 


1920. 
1921. 
1922. 
1923. 
1924. 




l,98t,243 


1914 




2, 904, 603 


1915 - 




1, 415, 574 


1916 




1,521,617 


1917 




2, 333, 155 


1918 


12-year average .. . . 




1919 


2,148,355 






I From State fish commissions. 


IMP( 


)RTS 







No data are available respecting imports of sheepshead, but they 
are probably less than 2 per cent of domestic consumption. 

PRICES 

On the United States side of Lake Erie the fishermen received in 
1924 an average of 3.21 cents per pound. No data are avilable to 
show the price Canadian fishermen received since their catch is small, 
and, in sales, figures are included with mixed fish. 

The L^nited States buj^crs on Lake Erie received in 1924 an average 
of 6.27 cents per pound, ranging from about 3 cents at the beginning 
of the season to 7 cents at the close. 



TAEIFr INFOEMATION SURVEYS 



89 



Table 84 gives the average price of sheepshead in the United 
States in 1924: 

Table 84. — Price realized for sheepshead in the United States on Lake Erie and 

in Chicago, 1924 





Lake Erie 


Chicago 
jobbers 


Month 


Fisher- 
men 


Coastal 
buyers 




Cents 
1.64 
3.00 
3.00 
3.00 
4.00 
4.00 
4.00 
4.00 
4.00 


Cents 


Cents 
12.73 




3.24 
5.53 
6.50 
6.50 
6.35 
6.25 
7.67 
7.16 


5.99 




6.40 


July - 


10.36 


August -- 


12.73 


September 


12.46 


October 


12.46 




10.39 




14.00 








3.21 


6.27 


n.32 







COST OF PRODUCTION 

Table 85 gives the cost of production of fresh and frozen sheeps- 
head in the United States in 1924: 

Table 85. — Cost of production of fresh and frozen sheepshead, United States, 1924 * 

[In cents per pound] 



Item of cost 



Fishing cost: 

Excludiug interest 

Including interest 

Boxing and icing cost: 

Excluding interest 

Including interest 

Freezing and storing cost: 

Excluding interest 

Including interest 

Boxing cost: 

Excluding interest 

Including interest 

Transportation cost: 

To New York City... 
To Chicago 



Total cost: 

F. o. b. New York City- 
Excluding interest 

Including interest 

F. 0. b. Chicago- 
Excluding interest 

Including interest 



Fresh 



6.5474 
6. 7678 



1. 6722 
1. 7453 



2. 3262 
2. 3672 



10. 5458 
10. 8393 



10. 5868 
10. 8803 



Frozen 



6.5474 
6. 7678 



1.8259 
1. 8375 



1.2159 
1.2902 



.7235 
.8292 



10. 3127 
10. 6190 



10. 4184 
10. 7247 



1 For detailed statistics,, see pp. 169, 170. 



COMPETITIVE CONDITIONS 



The sheepshead fishery centers in the United States half of Lake 
Erie, principally at the western end of the lake. There is a potential 
supply in the Canadian half of the lake, but apparently producers 
find it unprofitable to export. To a limited extent the sheepshead 
is substituted for the salt-water croaker. 



PART III 

DETAILS OF METHODS, CATCH, AND 
PRODUCTION COSTS 



54003—27 7 91 



Part III 
DETAILS OF METHODS, CATCH, AND PRODUCTION COSTS 

FISHING METHODS 

The entire catch of fish on the Great Lakes and the northern 
Canadian lakes is taken with gill nets; pound, crib, and trap nets; 
lines, seines, and fyke nets. The gill nets and lines, when used in 
open water, are set and lifted from vessels and boats, and in the 
winter fishing of some localities are lowered through holes in the ice. 
All other forms of gear are operated inshore and are usually set and 
lifted from small power and row boats. 

Gill Net Fishing 

Gill nets are the type of fishing apparatus most widely used. 
Practically all of the northern Canadian lakes catch and more than 
half of the Great Lakes catch are taken in this type of nets. 

In appearance the gill net closely resembles the ordinary tennis- 
court net. It is made of much finer material, however, in order to 
reduce its visibility in the water so that the fish will swim against it 
and become enmeshed by the protrusion of their gills and fins. Once 
the fish's head and gills have passed through one of the diamond- 
shaped openings in the net its forward movement is impeded by its 
large body, and egress is prevented by its projecting gills and fins. 
Several types of gill nets, all constructed on the same principle, 
are employed in the inland-water fisheries. The special names given 
to some of these are bull nets, shallow nets, whitefish nets, pickerel 
nets, tullibee nets, trout nets, and chub nets. In general, gill nets 
consist of a netting of fine linen or cotton thread, a cork line on 
which the upper edge of the net is hung, and a lead line similar to 
the cork line but to which pieces of lead instead of corks are fastened. 
The net is thus held suspended in the water by the buoyancy of the 
corks above and the weight of the leads below. In the length and 
depth the nets vary according to the fishing area, the season, and 
the species sought. The bull net, the one most generally in use on 
Lake Erie, averages about 215 feet in length and 18 feet in depth. 
The diamond-shaped openings in this net measure 13^ inches on 
each side, the circumference being, therefore, 6 inches. In fishing 
terminology, one-half of the circumference of the opening — in bull 
nets of 3 inches — is known as the "stretched mesh." It is custo- 
mary to give the length of the net in fathoms and the depth in number 
of meshes. Thus the whitefish net of the northern Canadian lakes 
is usually described as being from 75 to 80 fathoms long by 18 to^6(> 
meshes deep, with a stretched mesh of from 5 to 6 inches. 

93 



94 TAEIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS 

VESSEL FISHING 

A description of the Lake Erie gill-net fishery will suffice to show 
how the industry is conducted from large vessels. Three types of 
gill nets — bull, shallow, and whitefish nets — are used. The bull net 
is the one in most general use and the one in which the greater part 
of the catch is taken. It is essentially a deep gill net, with more than 
the usual proportion of corks to leads, enabling it to be floated off 
the bottom of the lake at varying depths. As a rule, the cork line 
of a 200-foot bull net is equipped with 40 corks spaced 5 feet apart, 
and the lead line with 20 leads spaced 10 feet apart. The holding 
of this net at the desired depth is effected by means of anchors that 
are fastened to the nets by ropes which may be lengthened or short- 
ened as required. By reason of its adjustability to various water 
depths, the bull net may be used for a long period, usually June 10 
to December 1, when the fish are swimming at varying distances 
from the lake bottom. This gives it a decided advantage over the 
shallow net, which rests on the bottom at all times. Late in No- 
vember and in December, when the ciscoes, the most unportant 
species of Lake Erie, go to the bottom for spawning, the bull net is 
valueless, and resort is then had to the shallow net. 

In the several States bordering on Lake Erie the required mesh for 
bull nets has varied. For several years prior to 1925 a 3-inch mesh 
was allowed, but since then several States have increased the mini- 
mum stretched mesh to 3i^ inches. 

The shallow net, also called "narrow" and "shoal" net, functions 
the same as the bull net, and its mesh being the same as the bull 
net, it catches the same size fish. However, it averages only 22 
meshes deep, as compared with 100 meshes in the bull net. It is 
usually longer than the bull net, ranging between 240 and 300 feet, 
with corks and leads at intervals of about 12 feet. The shallow net 
is used on the bottom at all times and is fished only in the spring, 
from March 15 to May 15 or 20, and in the fall from the latter part 
of November to the middle of December. 

The whitefish net is used only for catchmg the highly prized white- 
fish and is designed especially for this purpose. It is only 16 meshes 
deep, but is necessarily a large mesh — 4^ inches stretched — because 
of the size of the whitefish. It ranges from 240 to 400 feet in length, 
averaging 360 feet, with corks and leads about 12 feet apart. Like 
the narrow net, it is used on the bottom because the whitefish is a 
bottom-feeding fish. On Lake Erie it is used for the spring and fall 
runs. Each run lasts a month or less. 

The assembling of the various parts of the nets is usually done at 
the fishing center. The twine and supply companies furnish the 
netting, maitre cord, seaming twine, corks, leads, anchors, buoys, 
and fiags. The netting usually sells by the pound, and there is 
about 1 pound of twine in shallow and whitefish nets and a little less 
than 3 pounds in bull nets. Cotton netting, which is used in the 
construction of practically all bull and shallow nets, sold in 1924 at 
an average price per pound of S3. 68 at Erie, Pa., and $3.67 per pound 
at Port Dover, Ontario, the principal Lake Erie fishing ports. In the 
same year the average price per pound at Erie was $4.14 for linen 
whitefish netting, S5.19 for 16-thread seaming twine, and $5.14 for 
168 maitre cord. At Port Dover the average price for the same grade 



TAEIFF INFORMATIOX SURVEYS 



95 



of material was $4.18 for linen whitefish netting, $5.48 for seaming 
twine, and $5.43 for maitre cord. 

The following table shows the average cost of material and labor 
used in the construction of a cotton bull net and a cotton shallow 
net at Erie, Pa., in 1924: 

Table 86. — Average cost of gill nets at Erie, Pa., 1924 



Item of cost 


Cost per net 


Item of cost 


Cost per net 


Shallow net 


Bull net 


Shallow net 


Bull net 




$2.97 
1.01 
.66 
1.10 
1.20 


$12.84 

3.14 

.41 

2 25 


Leads ._ 


$1.46 
.70 
.05 


$1.95 




Corking 


1.00 


Seaming twine .-_ 


Express charges 


.18 








Floats - . 


L60 


Total 


9.15 


23.37 









The assembling of new nets requires workmen experienced in the 
handling of fishing gear, and there is an increasing tendency in the 
large centers to employ specialists known as "sluggers" for this and 
all subsequent repair work. All of the net parts are received at the 
fishing center ready to assemble, except the corks, which must first 
be treated with preservatives to retard water-logging. The corks 
consist of oval-shaped pieces of untreated turned cedar 6 inches long 
and 3 inches in diameter with a lengthwise hole about three-fourths 
inch in diameter. They are treated with preservatives by several 
methods, the most common of which is to immerse them in boiling 
Imseed oil for two or three minutes, drain for 24 hours, repeat the 
immersion process, bake in brick ovens or kilns for 24 hours at 160° 
F., repeat the oil immersion process, and then bake at a temperature 
of 180° F. for three days or until the color is mahogany. x\ second 
method utilizes a mixture in the proportion of 20 gallons of boiled 
linseed oil to 4 pounds of litharge and 2 gallons of oxaline, combined 
by boiling the linseed oil and litharge together and adding the oxaline. 
The corks are immersed in the mixture for three minutes, drained 
for 24 hours, rubbed by hand to smooth off, allowed to dry for 48 
hours, and then baked in a kiln for two weeks at a temperature of 
120° F. A third method employs a mixture in the proportions of 10 
gallons of boiled linseed oil to 5 pounds of litharge, 5 pounds of red 
lead, 1 pint of shellac, combined by heating the litharge and red 
lead for one hour in 2 gallons of the linseed oil, allowing this mixture 
to cool and adding the remaining 9 gallons of linseed oil and the shellac. 
The corks are dipped into the liquid, drained for 12 hours and dried 
for one week in a kiln at a steady temperature of 200° F. 

When the parts of a single net have been assembled, the ends are 
usually attached with ropes called ''bridles" in sets of four nets, 
each set being placed in a box with sloping flanged sides. The boxes 
most commonly used are open and run in size as follows: Bottom 
26 by 173/^ inches, flange 12 inches, top 34 by 27 inches, all of seven- 
eighths-inch stock. The use of these boxes has given rise to the 
term ''box of nets" meaning four nets. In some localities a box of 
four nets is referred to as a "gang," in others two boxes or eight 
nets constitute a gang. To preserve the netting, each box is sprinkled 
with kerosene or a solution of slacked lime before being placed on 
the fishing vessel. • 



96 TAEIFF INFOEMATION SUKVEYS 

The fishing gear of an average Lake Erie vessel consists of 48 bull 
nets, or 12 boxes of nets, 320 shallow nets, and 140 whitefish nets. 
The average vessel usually has in reserve on shore 60 bull nets, 160 
shallow nets, and 90 whitefish nets; but the fishing gear held in 
reserve on board varies according to the size and need of the vessel. 

In the Lake Erie gill net fishery, steam tugs and gasoline or Diesel 
tugs are chiefly used. These range in size from 30 to 75 feet in 
length, the gasoline tugs averaging 40 to 50 feet in length with a 13 
or 14 foot beam drawing 4 feet of water and the steam tugs averaging 
70 feet in length with a 17-foot beam drawing 6]^ feet of water. 
Most steam tugs have 12 by 14 high-pressure engines, with Scotch 
boilers 63^ by 9 feet, of 150 pounds pressure. These have seventy- 
eight 3-inch tubes and develop 100 horsepower. Externally, steam 
tugs resemble small freight boats. They are almost entirely inclosed, 
to prevent a heavy sea from sweeping the decks, and to protect the 
fishermen in the cold weather. A characteristic feature is the turtle 
deck in the bow, over which the waves break without any damage to 
the boat or fishing gear. Many gasoline tugs are constructed in the 
same way except that the smaller ones are not mclosed. The steam 
tugs carr}^ four fishermen, the captain, and an engineer; on the 
gasoline boats the captain takes care of the engine and the crew is 
thereby reduced to five men. 

When the fishing season opens the vessels proceed to various 
parts of the lake, from 1 to 25 miles from port and upon reaching 
the desired location lower their nets into the water a half a mile or 
more apart. The purpose in dividmg the nets between the two 
fishing areas is to increase the prospect of catching fish should the 
run occur only in one part of the lake. On the following day the 
vessels return to the fishing grounds, lift the nets from the water, 
remove the fish, and substitute four boxes of dry nets for four boxes 
of wet nets. They then carry the wet nets to port and place them 
on drying reels or racks, where they are dried for two days before 
being used for replacement. Thus, a tug that keeps 12 boxes of bull 
nets in the water must at the same time have four boxes aboard 
and four boxes on the drying reels. While the purpose of keeping 
a net exposed to the water only three days is to prevent marine 
growth, such a practice incidentally permits the repair of damaged nets. 

Once the season is under way the daily routine of the fishermen is 
as follows: The tug leaves about 5 o'clock in the morning and on 
the way out to where the nets have been set the day before, the 
fishermen "clear" the four boxes of dry nets which are being taken 
out as replacements. Clearing consists of stretching the nets over 
a 2-inch galvanized pipe, or over a smooth wooden pole, which is 
hung on a line or chain about 4 feet above the deck and 6 feet from 
the stern. At the stern stands a man feeding the net over this pipe 
or pole at the two ends of which stand a second and third man 
stretching and straightening the net. A fourth man gathers it in, 
the lead and cork lines together, and folds it mto another net box. 
This clearing greatly facilitates setting the nets. 

When the captain sights the flag marking the previous day's set of 
nets, he signals to the fishermen, who thereupon test the winch or net- 
lifting machine. After making sure that it is working correctly they 
get the fish boxes ready. As the vessel comes up to the fishing-gear 
marker — a flag on the end of a bamboo pole with a float in the middle 



TARIFF INFOEMATION SURVEYS 97 

of it and a lead at the bottom to hold it upright — it is pulled in and 
the line fastened around the drum of the net-lifting machine. This 
machine, which is the chief part of the equipment of the gill-net tug, 
consists of a horizontally revolving drum driven by a small steam 
engine or, if the vessel is not steam propelled, by power from the 
gasoline motor. In the center of the drum is a groove into which the 
cork and lead lines of the nets fit. As the lines are fed into the groove, 
flat teeth close down on them, holding them fast for half a revolution, 
until the net is dropped into a net box on the deck of the boat. A 
tray of sheet metal fits into a semicircle under and outside the drum, 
so that the netting and fish coming in slide around without injury. 
As the drum of the net-pulling machine revolves, the first anchor is 
brought up, and the net follows it and is folded into a net box, fish 
and all, leaving the spreader and bridle ropes outside. By inserting 
a "picking hook" into the mouth of the fish it can be pulled through 
the netting. As the fish are pulled out they are thrown into boxes, 
according to the species. Deep-water fish when brought up have 
the air bladder protruding into the mouth. This is due to the 
decrease in pressure. When the air bladder is broken, the fish may 
be slipped through the mesh of the net. One of the crew stands by the 
pulling machine to catch the "can line" and the three air-tight 
sheet-iron cans, about 16 by 10 inch cylinders, attached to each box 
of nets, one to the spreader of each net. Upon drawing a can in he 
coils the line on top and takes it aft on the port side. When not 
engaged in this work, he stands by with a dip net to catch any fish 
that may fall out as the net is brought up. Another of the crew 
helps lift in the anchors, coils the lines on them, and drags them aft 
starboard. He also takes the boxes of the nets and fish to the aft 
deck, and ties the markers to the ceiling of the stern, by means of 
slings of small line. The men trade jobs from day to day. The tying 
of the markers is called the "monkey's job," and it is the least 
deshed part of the work. During the lifting of the nets, the captain 
keeps the boat in position, and operates the pulling machine, the 
control of which is in the pilot house. The engineer stands by await- 
ing his signals. 

When all the nets have been lifted, the captain turns the boat 
toward the next setting place and the crew proceeds to separate the 
fish from the nets. The men sit among the boxes of nets and fish 
with empty boxes close at hand, and drawing the net across their 
knees extract the fish with a picking hook and throw them into 
boxes according to species. 

When the setting ground is reached a marker is thrown overboard 
at the stern, and its line, the end of which is attached to the anchor, 
is payed out. The anchor is then thrown out, and its line is fastened 
to the bridle of the first net in a box of nets. To the spreader of the 
net a can is fixed as a float. The box of nets is placed amidships 
about 10 feet forward of the stern, and a flsherman standing over it 
feeds the net out over a piece of rubber inner tube. He keeps the 
cork line to the starboard side of the boat and the lead line to the 
port side. At the stern stands a man at each side pulling and stretch- 
ing the net and paying it out over the stern. Where the spreaders 
of the nets are connected, a can is attached, the man feeding the net 
holding it while the attachment is made. At various intervals, 
window weights, or iron rings are attached to the lead line, the number 



98 TARIFF INFOEMATION SUEVEYS 

depending on the depth to be fished. The length of the rope from 
the cans to the spreaders regulates the depth. To avoid tearing the 
webbing, the men at the stern must be skillful in paying out the nets. 
They work rapidly, paying it out hand over hand, one hand under 
the line, and the other over it. A flag and an anchor are put out, 
then a box of nets, then another anchor and box of nets, and finally 
a third anchor and a marker. Three cans are attached to each box 
of nets, making six in all. This number of nets is usually considered a 
gang. The set is repeated, until 10 or sometimes 12 boxes are set out. 

Four boxes of nets are substituted for the dry nets that have been 
taken out, and on the way home these are washed. They are payed 
out into the water from the side of the boat and are taken in over the 
stern and folded into a net box. If shallow nets are used, they must 
be spread out in washing, as in clearing; bull nets are too wide to 
make this possible. Shallow nets are also spread out on the reels 
when drying. When the boat gets to port, the fish are emptied 
into hand-carrying crates, and taken into the fish house to be weighed. 
The crates measure 24 by 32 by 12 inches of seven-eighths-inch stock 
and are painted once a year with weather-resisting paint. After the 
fish have been weighed, the fishermen remove their dry nets from the 
four drying reels and reel on the wet ones. 

In the Lake Erie fisheries of both Canada and the United States 
the fishing method just described is in common use. In the Canadian 
fisheries, however, the fishermen remove the entrails of the cisco 
catch either aboard the vessel or in the fish house. In all essentials 
the methods in the gill net vessel fisheries of all of the Great Lakes 
and northern Canadian lakes are the same as those of Lake Erie, 
different types of gill-nets of course being employed according to the 
season, depth of water, and species sought. The same is true of the 
small-boat fishery of the northern Canadian lakes where rowboats 
and sailboats are used. These are usually towed to the fishing grounds 
by a power boat. 

An entirely different method of gill-net fishing is followed in the 
large winter fishery of the northern Canadian lakes. Here no boats 
are used in the actual fishing operation, all of the work being done 
on the frozen surface of the lake. The industry is conducted by 
large companies for whom the fishermen work on shares or for wages. 
These companies either furnish orsell the fishermen all of their supplies. 
As a rule they have established bases on the lakes from which both 
the winter and summer fishery is conducted. If fishing is done at a 
considerable distance from base, the fishermen, with supplies enough 
for the winter, are transported to various points along the lake 
either by boat or after the ice forms by horse-drawn sleighs. 

Before a net is set, it is necessary to establish a line under the ice 
between two holes 240 to 300 feet apart, the distance depending on 
the length of net to be used. If the ice is thin, the line is attached 
to a 20-foot pole which is slid along under the ice from the first hole 
toward the second. The pole is reached and moved forward through 
a series of small holes cut in the ice at intervals of 20 feet or more. 
If the ice is thick, a device known as a "jigger" or "go-devil " is used to 
lay the line. The jigger consists of a 14-foot board slotted in the 
center through which a spiked rocker arm projects. When lowered 
into the water the rocker arm is jerked by a rope and the whole device 
moves forward. Continued jerking of the rope finally carries the 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS 



99 



jigger the desired distance. About 45 minutes are required for two 
men to establish a Une by means of a jigger; when a pole is used the 
same result is attained in about 15 minutes. When a line has been 
established between the two extreme holes known as "fishing" or 
"anchoring" holes the net to which it is attached is lowered into one 



z 
r 

E- 

CO 

V 

2 

-J 

o 



CL 




hole and drawn toward the other until it hangs in the water. From 
time to time during the day the net is drawn from the water, cleared 
of fish, and returned, the contact between the two ice holes being 
maintained at all times. This is done as rapidly as possible to pre- 
vent the net and its contents from freezing. 

Preparation of winter-caught fish depends on the species caught, the 
demands of the trade, and the location of the fishery. For example, 
54003—27 8 



100 



TAEIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS 



on the northern Canadian lakes, where a low temperature prevails, 
none of the yellow-pike catch is dressed but a considerable percentage 
of the more important whitefish catch is so prepared. Obviously if 
dressing is to be done it must be done as soon as the fish are taken 
from the nets before they freeze. Usually the fishermen pack the 



u 



T166ER OR NET Setter 

used In Ice Fishing 



,-^ 




Note— The Ji66ER'is inserted Ihrou^h a hole in the Iceland fhe line i& 
jerked, causing the spiKeto dig into the ice and the ji^^er to 
jump ohead. The rocker below the spike releases it from 
the ice at the proper Time. E;ccept for the iron bar and 
5pike the jigger is made, of wood. 



^ 



catch in wooden boxes which are later collected by horse-drawn 
sleighs and carried to a rail head. If the catch is intended for the 
fresh fish market, it is boxed in crushed ice and carried to the rail 
head in a heated sleigh or "caboose." The production of fresh 
winter-caught fish, or "green fish," has developed since 1920 and is 
carried on principally on Lake Manitoba. 



tariff infoel] ation surveys 101 

Pound and Trap Net Fishing 

In the United States Great Lakes fishery, pound and trap nets 
catch about 35 per cent of the total production. In Canada, where 
the trap net is prohibited by law, the catch in pound nets as com- 
pared with other gear is less than in the United States. No pound 
nets are used in the northern Canadian lakes and on the Great Lakes 
they are used most extensively on Lake Erie. Of the domestic 
pound and trap net catch, about 60 per cent is taken on Lake Erie; 
the methods there employed are essentially the same as on all of the 
other lakes. 

Both the pound and trap nets operate on the principle that a fish 
striking an extended obstruction will ordinarily follow the obstruc- 
tion in an effort to pass around it and unless frightened will not turn 
back. The two nets differ in one respect only — the pound net is 
fastened to piling inshore in relatively shallow water and the trap is 
floated in relatively deep water. Both types consist of a lead, heart, 
and pot; a fish striking the lead swims along it into the heart and 
finally into the the pot. 

The pound net, the older of the two devices, is made stationary by 
stakes or piles driven into the lake bottom, much in the same manner 
that a wire-netting fence is constructed. The lead is merely a 60 
or 70 rod fence of coarse cotton netting with a 5 to 7 inch mesh 
extending in a straight line to the heart of the net, usually from shal- 
low to deeper water. The base of the heart-shaped inclosure is 
toward the lead, with an opening at the V of the heart. From the 
apex of the heart is a completely inclosed tunnel or apron, which 
narrows as it extends from the heart, like a truncated cone, and 
leads into the pot or crib — a basket or box having four sides and 
a bottom with netting inside. The mesh is usually 5 inches in 
the heart and 3 or 4 inches in the crib. All of the netting except 
the tunnel extends above the surface of the water. It is set in 
water from shallow depths to 60 or 80 feet, the maximum depth 
being regulated, of course, by the bottom conditions, and the length 
of the stakes available. The netting itself is heavily tarred. The 
stakes, too, are often tarred or creosoted to protect them from 
decay. They are driven about June 1 and left for 60 days or more, 
the time depending on the fishing. The webbing is removed about 
every 30 days for cleaning and retarring. The net is lifted every 
day while in use, as the fish often escape if left longer. With good 
handling and constant repairing, a net will ordinarily last about four 
years, but a storm may ruin it overnight. The "coarse fish" are 
mostly taken in pound, trap, and crib nets. In the opinion of some 
operators the best catches are obtained in poor gill-net years, but 
statistics show that this is not always true. Prevailing northeast 
winds bring good catches, especially in the west end of the lake, 
possibly because the polluted inshore water is driven back toward 
the west, a^d the fish follow the pure water in. 

The trap net is now (1926) the stationary net most generally irt 
use on the United States side of Lake Erie. At the west end of the 
lake it is called a crib net, but it lacks the special features of the true 
crib net. Like the pound net, the trap net consists of a lead, heart, 
and pot or crib, but its position is maintained by corks, leads, and 
anchors instead of stakes. The heart as well as the crib is completely 



102 TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS 

inclosed, and the whole net is submerged when in use. The mesh of 
the lead is 6 to 7 inches, that of the heart and the tunnel 4 to 5 inches, 
and the crib 2 to 23^ inches except one-third of the back which is 2 J^ 
inches. Five specially made iron mud anchors weighing 25 to 50 
pounds are used to each net. One is set at the outer end of the lead, 
unless it is attached to the crib end of another net, 2 are at the base 
of the heart — 1 on each side, and 2 at the outer end of the tunnel. 
At the end of the crib or attached to the lead of another net there is 
also an anchor. Trap nets are usually fished six months a year, and 
will last about four years. Fishing is done in shallow water of 12 feet, 
one-half mile from shore, to a depth of 60 feet near the Canadian 
line, the size of the net used depending on the depth of the water. 
Standard sizes are 12 to 30 feet, the average being about 25 feet. ■ 
The webbing of these nets, like that of pound nets, is tarred. One 
tarring is sufficient for several months, when the water is cold, but 
in the summer they must be retarred every three or four weeks. 
Trap nets do not have to be lifted every day to keep the fish, as 
pound nets do, and both the setting and lifting are easier and require 
less time. Moreover, trap nets must be taken out for cleaning only 
every GO days. 

The boats for tending pound and trap nets are very much the same. 
As a rule, boats 30 to 35 feet long, by 9 or 10 feet beam, drawing 
about 2}/2 feet of water are used. Most of these are entirely open, 
although some have small cabins forward to shelter the crew and the 
engine. 

Most boats are equipped with gasoline engines, capable of a speed 
ranging from 8 to 13 miles per hour. For open boats they are very 
seaworthy, particularly some special 35-foot models used at San- 
dusky. These boats have no special equipment except a small 
detachable hand winch standing upright at the stern of the boat for 
lifting the nets. When the winch is not in use, it folds down flush 
with the deck. The boat runner is the nominal captain; two other 
men lift the nets and sort the fish when they are brought into port. 
The men are paid straight wages at all times. In trap-net setting, 
small barges carry the nets, and tugs about 50 feet long tow them. 
Barges are also used in pound-net setting, and in addition, pile 
drivers for driving the stakes. 

Line Fishing 

Hook-and-line fishing is commercially important only in the trout 
fisheries of Lake Michigan and Lake Huron. A few lines are used 
on Lake Superior and Lake Ontario, but none on Lake Erie. This 
type of apparatus consists of a long line of No. 72 maitre cord, 
from which hooks are suspended on short lengths of finer twine, or 
gangeons. The gangeons are double, of linen thread, 4 feet long, and 
the hooks are bqnt on with linen thread. They are placed at inter- 
vals of 16 feet, and there are 350 to 400 of them to each box of line. 
Thus the average length of a box of line is 6,400 feet, or more than 
a mile. The hooks are of steel. No. 6-0 and No. 5-0 being used 
exclusively. 

Either six or eight boxes of hooks comprise a gang — the number 
differing with the locality. As a rule, lines are set in one string, but 



TAKIFF INFOEMATION SURVEYS 



103 



3 II : 



z 

£ 

Ul 



a. 
I- 






© ®®®®®©®® 




104 



TARIFF TNFOEMATION SURVEYS 



Box Or 


Trout Line 


Set For Fishing 


Jj J* 

1 ^ fcoo F^f^omy IS 




tooo /V^f 




®/ 






/\c!°"-«.. 








;s^ ®_ _^^__ 





£ El 2.^12.11 2. 5. 

plsMng gear porpoaa 

(1) Buoys SMpport b\ioyllnas 

(2) Jfcrk*uoy» De8l«n8t9 gear location 

(3) Buoyllnes Supports grounUlne 

(4) CroundHne . . . Supports ganging 

(5) G«nglngs Supports hooks 

(6) Hooks Baited with bloaters 

(7) Beckats Jol" C»nslns to jroundllne and hook 

|8) Anchors K'^op gear from aHiftlnf 



Lp 



TAEIFF INFOKMATION SUKVEYS 105 

where it is advantageous two strings are set. Only rarely are more 
than two gangs set at one time. They are sometimes used in con- 
junction with gill nets, but from November 5 to April 1 lines are used 
almost exclusively. In the spring, when trout are plentiful, the lines 
are also used, but only as a subsidiary to .the gill nets. 

Before setting the lines the heavy maitre cord is coiled in the bot- 
tom of the box, and as each hook and gangeon is taken up, the hook 
is placed on a slender pole, or rack, which is fastened inside the box, 
close to one side. By this means tangles are avoided in setting. 
When the settiiig ground is reached, a line is attached near the first 
hook, a trifle longer than the distance to the bottom of the water. 
A 40-pound anchor is also attached at this point, and at the other end 
of this line a float and a flag are fastened. As the line is payed out the 
fishermen bait the hooks. Small fish called bloaters, 3 to 6 inches 
long, serve as bait, and these are hooked through the back from the 
dorsal fin into the mouth. Every 50 hooks, a stone weighing several 
pounds is attached, to keep the hooks near the bottom. An anchor 
is fastened to the end of the gang and another line with a float and 
flag. 

As a rule, a gang of hooks is lifted at the front of the boat while 
one is set at the rear. The line is pulled up with the regular net- 
pulling machine, and line, hooks, and fish are piled in boxes on the 
deck. About 35 minutes are required to lift one box of hooks. On 
the homeward trip the fish are taken from the hooks. When the shore 
is reached the lines are dried and arranged in the boxes for the next 
day's set. 

As often as necessary, the bait nets are set to catch an adequate 
supply of bloaters. The nets used are the regular gill nets, 13^-inch 
stretched mesh, 40 meshes deep. They are set on the bottom, as are 
the trout nets. 

While hooks and lines are used primarily for trout, other species 
are sometimes taken. 

Fishing Costs 

Included in fishing costs are all of the expenses contingent on catch- 
ing fish and landing them ashore. 

COST PERIOD AND SCOPE OF INVESTIGATION 

Fishing costs were obtained on the United States and Canadian 
Great Lakes, including Lake of the Woods, for the calendar year 
1924 and on the important northern Canadian lakes for the smnmer 
and fall of 1924 and the winter of 1924-25. 

United States costs were obtained for 28.65 per cent of the total 
Great Lakes catch. Of the important fishes, the catch of which 
represented 91.89 per cent of the total domestic Great Lakes catch 
in 1924, costs were obtained for the following percentages of the 
total: Blue pike, 32.70; chubs, 23.94; ciscoes, 58.10; herring, 9.23; 
trout, 15.34; saugers, 46.43; sheepshead, 24.38; suckers, 11.07; 
whitefish, 17.07; yellow perch, 30.26; and yellow pike, 13.32. In the 
offshore fisheries, costs were obtained for 59 vessels having a net 
tonnage of 1,287 tons and crews numbering 317 men. In the inshore 



106 TAEIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS 

fisheries, costs were obtained for 11 pound and trap net fishing 
companies, operating 63 boats with crews numbering 132 men. 

Canadian costs were obtained for 15.29 per cent of the total Great 
Lakes and northern lakes catch. Of the miportant fishes, the catch 
of which represented 92.34 per cent of the total catch in 1924, costs 
were obtained for the following percentages of the total: Blue pike, 
13.40; ciscoes, 35.24; jacks, 7.77; herring, 20.91; trout, 18.80; suckers, 
7.28; tuUibees, 22.82; whitefish, 8.71; yellow perch, 5.70; and yellow 
pike, 11,81. In the floating-craft fisheries, costs were obtained for 
39 vessels totaling 854 net tons, 34 sailboats and 25 rowboats with 
crews numbering 299 men. In the inshore fisheries, costs were 
obtained for four pound-net fishing companies, operating 14 boats with 
crews numbering 46 men. Winter fishing costs were obtained for 
the catches of 137 fishermen. 

METHOD OF OBTAINING COSTS 

Fishing costs were obtained by representatives of the Tariff Com- 
mission from the fishing-gear owners or from their agents. Of the 
126 fishing-cost records obtained in the field investigation, 122 were 
copied directly from books of record and 4 consisted wholly or in 
part of fishermen's estimates. The margin of error is small in such 
estimates because the major items of expense, such as wages, fishing 
gear, and fuel, can be calculated with comparative accuracy. 

ADJUSTMENT AND TREATMENT OF DATA 

In computing the fishing costs, certain adjustments were necessary 
in order (1) to segregate the data for the catches of the several 
species; (2) to weight the cost of catching the individual species ac- 
cording to the size of the catch in each lake; and (3) to allow for the 
discount in Canadian currency. 

(1) Allocation oj costs to the several species. — During the course of 
a year's fishing operations more than one kind of fish is taken. Even 
in a day's haul this is usual. The fishermen's cost records, however, 
make no segregation of the cost of catching the individual species. 
The sales records, on the other hand, show separately the quantity 
and value of each species marketed. While the fishermen have no 
absolute control over the species that swim into their nets, they 
usually endeavor to place their gear in areas where the choice varieties 
are most abundant. This practice, in a measure, is the principle on 
which the higher-priced fish are charged with more of the expense 
than the cheaper. In computing fishing costs, therefore, the expenses 
on each schedule were prorated to the several species in proportion 
to their sales value in the Chicago market, not including transporta- 
tion, 10 per cent commission, and customs duty,^ as shown in the 
following example: 

• The Chicago price less transportation, 10 per cent commission, and customs duty was used in determi- 
ning the. relative amounts chargeable to each species in preference to the fishermen's prices, because the 
latter does not always reQect prices in the wholesale market. For example, the price paid to fishermen 
on the south shore of Lake Erie serves primarily as a wage-flxing basis. 



TAEIFr INFOEMATION SURVEYS 



107 



Species caught 



Ciscoes 

Blue pike. 
Whiteflsh. 
Suckers... 



Total. 



Per cent 
of total 
value 




4,000 



100 



Cost of catching all fish $2, 000 



Cost of catching: 

Ciscoes (50 per cent of $2,000) 1, 000 

Blue pike (25 per cent of $2,000) 500 

Whitefish (15 per cent of $2,000) 300 

Suckers (10 per cent of $2,000) 200 



Total 2,000 

When the expenses for the individual fishing enterprise had been 
allocated to the several species, all of the expenses chargeable to a 
given species taken on a given lake were totaled. The total cost of 
catching each species thus derived was then divided by the number 
of pounds of fish caught to determine the average cost per pound on 
the lake under consideration. The resulting unit costs for the several 
lakes were then weighted, each in proportion to the total catch on 
the lake whose average fishing cost it represented, to determine the 
average cost for all lakes. 

(2) Weighting of costs by lakes. — In the field investigation cost data 
were obtained on each lake for at least 10 per cent of the total catch. 
On certain lakes, however, cost data were obtained for considerably 
more than 10 per cent of the total catch because the information was 
readily available. To determine the average cost for all lakes, there- 
fore, the costs obtained for the various lakes were not combined 
directly but were weighted according to the ratio of the quantity 
taken in each lake to the total catch. For example, of the United 
States catch of lake trout in 1924 (the cost period), 66 per cent was 
taken in Lake Michigan. The trout costs of that lake when com- 
bined with the costs on other lakes, were given a weight of 66 per 
cent regardless of the percentage of total production represented by 
the costs obtained in the field study. 

(3) Exchange rate used in computing costs. — During the period for 
which costs were obtained, Canadian currency was at a discount of 
1.27 per cent. Since all of the cost data collected in Canada were 
expressed in Canadian currency, it was necessary, in order to get 
them on a comparable basis with United States costs, to deduct the 
difference in exchange. 



COMPARISON OF COST ITEMS 



The principal items of fishing costs are labor and fishing gear. 
Other expenses vary considerably with the kind of fishing that is 
being done. In the gill-net vessel fisheries the cost of fuel and vessel 
maintenance is important, while in the pound-net fisheries these items 
are relatively unimportant. When, therefore, the gill-net and pound- 



108 



TAKIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS 



net fishing costs are averaged for a given lake, the individual items 
of cost are obviously not representative of either fishery. Moreover, 
direct comparison of the averages of individual cost items on the 
several lakes do not show the competitive situation, since the propor- 
tion of pound nets to gill nets is not the same on all lakes. In the 
detailed cost tables that follow the various items of cost are so 
segregated as to give a general view of the proportion of the whole 
chargeable to each item. 

Table 87 gives the proportion in the United States fishery and 
Tables 88 and 89 give it for Canada. Table 88 is for the catch landed 
fresh and Table 89 for that landed naturally frozen. 



Table 87. — Ratio of fishing cost items to total fishing cost, United States, 1924 



Item of cost 


Lake 
Erie 


Lake 
Michi- 
gan 


Lake 
Huron 


Lake 
Superior 


Lake 
of the 
Woods 


Average 1 


Labor: 

Crew's wages. 


Per cent 

17.63 

6.21 

5.22 

1.52 

2.22 

1.98 

22.80 

.06 


Per cent 

25.47 

6.35 

7.06 

11.28 


Per cent 

39.39 

5.85 

4.01 


Per cent 

30.65 

5.50 

5.21 

12.53 

.03 


Per cent 


Per cent 
22.90 


Captain's wages . . . . 




5.95 


Engineer's wages . . 




5.37 


Shore labor. 




4.77 


Captain's bonus 






1.15 


Engineer's bonus 


1 




1.03 


Fishermen's share 






66.66 


13.64 




.86 




1.44 


.39 










Total labor cost 


57.64 


51.02 


49.25 


55.36 


66.66 


55.20 






All other: 

Fuel... 


6.63 
14.29 

9.96 
.95 
.20 
.74 

2.28 
.37 

3.03 

1.34 


9.43 
20.82 

8.46 
.22 
.71 
.66 

2.13 
.60 

1.95 
.39 


6.26 

2L55 

4.43 

.16 
1.95 

.90 
4.34 

.65 
2.65 
2.35 


9.64 
21.98 

2.49 
.27 
.56 

1.09 

2.80 
.31 




7.37 


Fishing gear. 

Vessel repairs and replacements 


14.69 


17.46 

7.82 


License fees . 


1.72 


.64 


Taxes 


.55 


Insurance 




.76 




3.22 


2.49 


Rentals, land and buildings. 


.43 


Plant overhead.. 


8.66 


2.55 


Miscellaneous 


1.54 


1.22 








Total other cost 


39.77 


45.37 


45.15 


40.68 


28.29 


41.39 






Interest 


2.59 


3.61 


5.60 


3.96 


5.05 


3.41 


Grand total 


100.00 


100.00 


100. 00 


100.00 


100.00 


100.00 







1 Weighted on basis of relative production: Erie, 51.48 per cent; Michigan, 22. C 
per cent; Superior, 11.43 per cent; and Lake of the Woods, 2.85 per cent. 



per cent; Huron, 11.60 



TAEirF INFOEMATION SURVEYS 



109 



Table 88. — Ratio of fishing cost items to total fishing cost for the catch landed 

fresh, Canada, 1924 



Item of cost 


Lake 
Erie 


Lake 
Huron 


Lake 
Supe- 
rior 


Lake 
of the 
Woods 


Lake 
Onta- 
rio 


Lake 
Win- 
nepeg 


I,ake 

Win- 

nepeg- 

osis 


Lake Lesser 
Man- Slave 
itoba Lake 


Aver- 
age' 


Labor: 

Crew's wages 


Per ct. 

23.18 

7.40 

6.54 

1.25 

.49 

.76 

14.62 

.43 


Per ct. 

23.44 
7.67 
4.80 
6.03 


Per ct. 

23. 28 

7.55 

6.38 


Per ct. 
44.91 


PCT ct. 
21.94 
24.91 


Per Ct. 

41.19 

3.05 

2.69 


Per Ct. 

48.85 


Perct. Per Ct. 
43.33 ! 48.13 


Per ct. 
31.61 




6.59 


Engineer's wages 




j 


3.40 


Shore labor 


4.95 


.35 






1.61 


1.58 


Captain's bonus 








.15 


















.23 




3.57 
.02 












8.50 j 


5.68 






4.95 








.42 
















Total labor cost 


54.67 


45.53 


37.21 


54.81 


47.20 


46.93 


48.85 


51.83 


49.74 


49.66 






All other: 

Fishing gear 


16.20 
9.48 

5.49 

.22 

2.35 

.03 

1.46 

3.29 

.52 

1.73 

1.13 


23.14 
9.85 

8.43 


34.15 
14.10 

10.79 


24.75 
3.71 

2.47 
7.42 


26.27 
11.10 

2.43 

"l'.h9 

.15 

1.34 

3.04 

.28 


22.71 
7.72 

1.96 
3.63 
1.29 


"43.'29' 


37.08 
.30 


26.63 
7.23 


21.44 


Fuel 


11.39 


Vessel repairs and replace- 
ments 


4.15 




1.00 


License fees. 


3.10 


1.87 


4.96 


.81 


3.34 


2.17 


Taxes 


.02 


Insurance 


.92 

3.81 

.05 


.38 
1.30 


.89 
5.15 


.11 
5.61 
2.32 


2.90 






1.04 


Depreciation 


.04 


"s.'oo' 


2.96 


Rentals 


.66 












.52 


Miscellaneous 


.87 


.12 




.19 ; 4.98 




9.94 


8.C6 


2.31 






Total other costs 


41.90 


50.17 


62.71 


44.39 


46.39 t 50.33 


51.15 


48.17 


50.26 


47.66 


Interest 


3.43 


4.30 


.08 


.80 


6.41 1 2.74 








2.68 












Grand total 


100.00 


100.00 


100.00 


100.00 


100.00 [100.00 


100.00 


100.00 


100.00 


100.00 











"Weighted on basis of relative production: Erie, 30.22 per cent; Huron, 13.72 per cent; Superior, 6.08 per 
cent; Lake of the Woods, 5.86 per cent; Ontario, 9.71 per cent; Winnipeg, 13.73 per cent; Winnepegosis 
8.66 per cent; Manitoba, 9.18 per cent; and Lesser Slave 2.84 per cent. 

Table 89. — -Ratio of fishing cost items to total fishing cost for the catch landed 
naturally frozen, Canada, 1934 



Item of cost 


Lake 
Mani- 
toba 


Lake 
Winni- 
peg 


Buffalo 
Lake 


Weighted 
average » 


Labor: 

Crew's wages 


Per cent 
41.51 


Per cent 
60.69 


Per cent 
35.30 
2.46 


Per cent 
41.58 


Captain's wages _ . 


.76 


Fishermen's share . ..-. 


10.41 




6.13 




12.43 




1.28 










Total labor cost .- 


51.92 


73.12 


37.76 


49.75 






All other: 

Fishing gear 


37.12 

.37 

9.72 

.82 

.05 


14.07 
4.05 
7.20 
L44 


2.60 


24.11 


Repairs and replacements 


.64 


Teaming- 


57.83 
.82 


24.27 


License fees.. . . 


.88 




.03 


Rentals 




.72 
.27 


.23 


Miscellaneous .. .. . 




.12 


.09 








Total other cost 


48.08 


26.88 


62.24 


50.25 






Grand total . 


100.00 


100.00 


100.00 


100.00 







I Weighted on basis of relative production: Manitoba, 58.90 per cent; Winnipeg, 10.31 per cent; and 
Buffalo, 30.79 per cent. 



no 



tariff information surveys 
Boxing and Icing Methods and Costs 



PREPARING FRESH FISH FOR SHIPMENT 

When landed from the fishing vessels, the fish are either round 
(just as they come from the water) or dressed. Whether they are 
further processed before being packed for shipment depends on the 
requirements of the purchaser. If shipped fresh, it is often necessary 
to eviscerate them. When this is done the fish are dumped on a 
dressing table where they are split with one stroke of the knife along 
the belly as far as the vent and with a second stroke the viscera are 
scraped out. The relative quantity of the important species sold 
round and dressed are shown in Table 90. 

Table 90. — Percentage of total catch of fish sold round and dressed, 1924 ^ 



Species 


Round 


Dressed 


Species 


Round 


Dressed 


Blue pike.- . . . .. 


Per cent 
80 


Per cent 
20 
100 
90 
30 
100 
100 
20 


Sheepshead 


Per cent 

100 

2 

80 

10 

100 

85 


Per cent 


Chub .. 


Sucker.. 


98 


Cisco - . 


io 

70 


Tullibee 


20 




Whiteflsh 


90 




Yellow perch 








Yellow pike 


15 


Sauger 


80 











I Percentages are based on estimates supplied by lake flsh distributers. 

Either round or dressed fish, when shipped fresh, are packed in 
boxes in the following manner: The box is lined with brown wrapping 
paper and the bottom covered with about 2 inches of crushed ice. 
Alternate layers of fish and ice are then packed in to the capacity 
of the box. The fish are laid in fairly even double rows with their 
heads to the sides of the box. When filled and the cover nailed on 
'the box holds 100 pounds of fish and from 85 to 100 pounds of ice. 
Throughout the packing process the soft fish are set aside to be dressed 
and packed as second or third grade. This grading is particularly 
necessary during the hot summer months. Usually only one species 
and sometimes only one grade of a single species is packed in a box. 
Thus jumbo ciscoes are separated from medium ciscoes. Blue pike, 
lake trout, whitefish, and jacks are also graded by size. 

When not engaged in handling fish, the fish house labor is usually 
diverted to assembling boxes from ready-cut shooks. These boxes 
are usually 28 inches long, 20 inches wide, and 11 inches deep. Dur- 
ing the summer one company uses a box 30 inches long, 20 inches wide, 
and only 10 inches deep. These dimensions allow for more ice and 
reduce the pressure on the fish near the bottom of the box. On all 
boxes the top piece protrudes on each side about 4 inches. This not 
only facilitates handling the boxes but prevents them from being 
placed on end while in transit. 



TAEIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS 111 

The following table gives the size, weight, and capacity of boxes 
used in packing fresh fish. 

Table 91. — Size, weight, and capacity of fresh fish boxes 

Capacity : 

Fisii pounds. _ 100 

Ice -• do 70 to 100 

Weight (dry) do.-... 29 

Dimensions: 

Sides — 

Length inches. . 28 

Depth do 11 

Thickness do 5^ 

Top and bottom — 

Length do 28 

Depth do 20 

Thickness do % 

Ends- 
Length do 20 

Depth do 11 

Thickness do ^ 

Gleets — 

Width do 2}4 

Thickness do M 

BOXING AND ICING COSTS 

In the boxing and icing process the principal items of expense are 
labor, boxes, and ice. In both the United States and Canada 
certain companies are engaged in both the fresh and frozen fish 
business and their cost records do not segregate labor expenses. 
The cost data for this item collected for the Tariff Commission's 
study were, therefore, where necessary, charged to the several 
operations in accordance with estimates made by the companies 
furnishing costs. Included also in total labor costs of some of these 
companies is the cost of fish dressing, an item of not more than 0.2 
cents per pound of fish so prepared. Because of the relative un- 
importance of dressing costs, and the difficulties involved in 
segregating them, no attempt was made to show such detail. 

In the following tables the costs of boxing and icing fresh fish are 
for nine companies in the United States and for 11 companies in 
Canada: 



112 TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS 

Table 92. — Cost per pound of boxing and icing fresh fish in the United States, 1934^ 





Lake 
Erie 


Lake 
Huron 


Lake 
Michigan 


Weighted average 


Item of cost 


Based on 
produc- 
tion for 
which 
costs were 
obtained 


Based on 

relative 

catch in 

each 

lake 1 


Direct expense: 


Cents 
0. 4808 
.0835 
.5690 
.0064 
.0193 
.0738 
.0069 
.0580 
.0739 


Cents 
0. 4949 
.2500 
.2687 


Cents 
0. 5637 


Cents 
0. 4819 
.0922 
. 5513 
.0060 
.0184 
. 0695 
. 0065 
.0718 
.0714 


Cents 
0. 5046 




.0840 


Labor - - - .. - 


.2165 


.4353 




.0038 


Heat light, and power 




.0601 


.0275 




.0003 


.0444 


Superintendence . . 




.0041 




.3169 




.0777 




.4449 


.1619 








Total 


1. .3716 


1. 3308 


1. 2852 


. 1.3690 


1. 3433 






Overhead expense: 


.0687 
.0297 
.0670 
.1263 
.0037 


.0482 
.1347 
.2704 
.1963 


.1727 


.0681 
.0352 
.0780 
.1296 
.0034 


.0934 


Taxes 


. 0361 


Depreciation -- . . . . 


.0677 


.0947 




.1024 






. 0022 










Total 


.2954 


.6496 


.2404 


.3143 


.3288 






Total expense (excluding interest) ..... 


1. 6670 
. 0695 


1. 9804 
.2715 


1. 5256 
.1292 


1. 6833 
.0807 


1. 6721 


Imputed interest 


.1126 








1. 7365 


2. 2519 


1. 6548 


1. 7640 


1.7847 







> Weight basis: Erie, 60.07 per cent; Huron, 13.53 per cent; Michigan, 26.40 per cent. 

Table 93. — Cost per pound of boxing and icing fresh fish in Canada, 192-+ 





Weighted average 


Item of cost 


Lake 
Erie 


Lake 
Supe- 
rior 


Lake 
Huron 


Lake 

Winni- 
peg 


Buffalo 
Lake 
and 
Lesser 
Slave 
Lake 


Lake 

Winni- 

pego- 

sis 


Based 
on pro- 
duc- 
tion 
for 
which 
costs 
were 
ob- 
tained 


Based 
on 
rela- 
tive 

catch 
in each 

lakei 


Direct expense: 

Boxes and shooks.. 


Cents 
0. 5783 
.0878 
.3797 
.0008 
.0121 
.0978 


Cents 

0.9900 

.0651 

.4009 


Cents 
0. 9876 
.0494 
. 4358 
.0010 
.0386 
.0632 


Cents 

0. 7212 
.2921 

1. 0264 


Cents 
0. 4160 

.1590 
1. 5122 


Cents 

0. 7164 

.1206 

.6341 


Cents 
0.6820 
.1045 
.5129 
.0006 
.0141 
.0737 
. 0039 
.0190 
.0518 


Cents 
0. 7124 


Ice 


.123& 


Labor 


.6114 


Packing paper 


.0005 










.0115 




.0019 
.0400 




.0813 


.0586 


Superintendence 


. 0072 




.0297 
.0612 




.0009 
.0154 

1. 5919 




.0257 
.0298 


.0146 


Miscellaneous 


.1152 




.0502 


Total 

Overhead expense: 

Insurance . . 


1. 2474 


1. 4560 


2. 1968 


2. 0872 


1. 6079 


1. 4625 


1. 5899 


. 0476 
.0072 
. 0468 
.0503 
.0008 


""."0250" 
.5875 


.0258 
.0346 
.0995 


".'oiss' 


.0124 
.0036 
.0074 
.1846 
.0343 


.0088 
.0292 
.1723 
.2045 
.3486 


. 0338 
.0122 
. 0575 
.0702 
.0842 


.0249 


Taxes 


.0124 


Depreciation 


.0607 


Salaries . .... 


• . 1009 


M iscellaneous 


.1654 


.3568 


.1338 






Total 


.1527 


. 6125 


.3253 


.3753 


.2423 


.7634 


. 2579 


.3327 


Total expense (excluding inter- 
est) 


L4001 
.0417 


2. 0685 
.0163 


1. 9172 
.0857 


2. 5721 
.0414 


2. 3295 
.0281 


2. 3713 
.1980 


1. 7204 
. 0561 


1. 9226 


Imputed interest 


.0639 






Total expense (including inter- 
est) 


1. 4418 


2.0848 


2.0029 


2. 6135 


2. 3576 


2. 5693 


1. 7765 


1. 9865 







I Weight basis: Erie, 38.87 per cent; Superior, 7.82 per cent; Huron, 17.65 per cent; Winnipeg, 17.66 per 
cent; Buffalo and Lesser Slave, 6.85 per cent; Winnipegosis, 11.15 per cent. 



TAEirr INFORMATION SUEVEYS 113 

Freezing Methods and Costs 
freezing methods 

Freezing is generally resorted to as a means of conserving surpluses 
for use in times of shortage. In the winter fisheries of the northern 
Canadian lakes, however, economy in transportation costs is the 
primary consideration. Strictly fresh fish, free from bruises and 
blood marks, are preferred for freezing since the average consumer 
can not distinguish them from the fresh product. Both round and 
dressed fish are preserved. To save weight in shipping certain 
varieties, such as large trout, are sometimes beheaded as well as 
dressed. 

Fresh-water fish are frozen by four methods: (1) Natural freezing, 
(2) salt and ice freezing, (3) mechanical freezing, and (4) brine freezing. 

(1) Natural freezing . — Natural freezing consists simply of exposing 
the fish to the air when the temperature is below freezing. On the 
Canadian northern lakes about 50 per cent of the catch is preserved by 
this method; on the Great Lakes the proportion so frozen is of little 
commercial importance as compared with the quantity frozen by 
other methods. In the winter fishery of the northern Canadian lakes, 
the fish are caught under the ice by means of gill nets. As the nets 
are drawn from the water the fish are removed and laid out on the 
frozen surface of the lake, and there exposed to the low temperature 
of the air they soon freeze. This method has the advantage of being 
economical and of preventing the fish from deteriorating before it is 
preserved. At the beginning and end of the winter season, however, 
losses sometimes occur if mild weather happens to cause slow freezing 
or actual thawing of some of the frozen fish. 

For shipment the fish are usually packed in wooden boxes and con- 
veyed by horse or tractor drawn sleighs to a railhead collecting 
station. Naturally frozen fish are generally known as " wintercaught." 

(2) Salt and ice freezing. — The salt and ice method, the most com- 
mon process of artificial freezing, has been used since 1861. It 
requires only a low initial investment for equipment and is particu- 
larly well adapted to the lake region where there is an abundance of 
natural ice. In areas where the fishing season is short or the supply 
irregular, the salt and ice plants may be closed down and economy 
thereby effected, whereas mechanical freezing systems must be oper- 
ated continuously. 

Preparatory to freezing, the fish, whether round or dressed, are first 
washed by dumping them into a bin (about 10 feet long, 4 feet wide, 
23^ feet deep) of fresh cold water frequently renewed. The fish are 
stirred around with a paddle to remove the blood and slime, and then 
are lifted out by a dip net and deposited in trays set on a pan filling 
bench. The bench is usually about 12 to 15 feet long and 2 feet wide. 
The trays, set at intervals of about 3 feet, are square, 3 or 4 inches 
deep, and have lattice bottoms for drainage. On each side of the 
tray there is room for a metal pan beside which stands an operative who 
fills it with fish. The pans vary in size according to the dimensions 
of the fish handled. They are usually about 22 to 26 inches long, 8 
to 16 inches wide, and 2 to 3 inches deep, and their capacit^^ is from 
12 to 60 pounds of fish. They are usually made of No. 24-gauge 
galvanized iron and have their corners turned down, riveted, and 
soldered. 



114 



TAEIFF INFORMATION SUEVEYS 



Panning. — The panning of fish is an important part of their pre- 
servation. The usual process is to pack them so compactly in the pan 
that the cover will come in contact with their upper surfaces. Better 
protection in handling is afforded if the fish are laid with their backs 
to the sides of the pans and with their heads to the ends. Since the 
upper contents of the pan freeze first, the fish that are placed in the 
center are usually laid belly side up to permit rapid freezing of the 
bellies which decompose more readily than the backs. This arrange- 
ment also lessens the pressure on the bellies. Small fish, such as 
herring, chubs, and perch, however, are placed on their sides to a 
depth of two layers in three transverse rows, the end rows with the 
heads to the edge of the pan and the top row filling in the depressions 
of the bottom row. Large fish, such as trout and whitefish, of which 
there are only 3 or 4 to the pan, are also laid on their sides with their 
backs out. Medium-sized fish that have been split and dressed are 
placed with their backs up, to allow the moisture to drain from the 
stomach cavity. In filling the pan no effort is made to count the 
fish packed because of the wide variation in size. 

The following table gives, for certain species, the size of pans used, 
the estimated number of fish per pan, and the average weight of the 
cake of frozen fish. 

Table 94. — Dimensions and capacity of freezing pans used for certain species of 

Great Lakes fish 



Species 



Blue pike 

Chubs (Lake Michigan) 
Chubs (Lake Huron)... 

Ciscoes (Lake Erie) 

Trout (Lake Huron) 



Dimensions of pans 



Length 



Width 



Inches 
22 
24 
25 
22 
25 



Inches 



Depth 



Inches 
2 
2 



Capacity of pans 



Number 
offish 



120 
60-70 
175 
123 
4-7 



Pounds 
of fish 



45-60 

125 

12H-13 

128 



1 Average 



When filled, the pans are covered to protect the fish from the freez- 
ing materials. The covers, which are of the same material as the 
pans, are made one-half inch longer and wider and 1 inch shallower. 

Freezing. — From the panning table the covered pans of fish are 
conveyed to temporary stalls or bins, set up on the fish-house floor, 
and there laid on a 3 or 4 inch layer of crushed ice and salt (usually 
20 pounds of salt to 100 pounds of ice). This layer of ice and salt is 
covered with pans to within 3 inches of the sides of the bin and 
another 2 or 3 inch layer of ice is added, and successively followed by 
layers of pans and ice, the surface of each layer of the freezing mixture 
being smoothed oft" by means of a straightedge. Sideboards are then 
placed against the bins as the height of the pile requires, and a wide 
board is put on top to furnish a walk for the workman who places the 
freezing mixture and the pans. The pile is built up as high as con- 
venience in handling the pans and the freezing mixture will permit, 
usually not more than 6 feet. When the piling operation is completed, 
a double layer of the freezing mixture is put on top. To complete 
the freezing process the fish are generally left in the bin overnight. 



TAKIFr INFOEMATION SURVEYS 115 

but if more rapid freezing is desired the salt is increased. By in- 
creasing the salt, the ice melts more rapidly and a larger amount of 
it is consequently required per pound of fish frozen. Using the ordi- 
nary coarse salt for freezing, an average of about 1 J/2 tons of ice is 
required to freeze 1 ton of fish, but the amount varies greatly accord- 
ing to the temperature of the fish and of the room. Larger quantities 
of ice and salt are used in warm weather and more is necessary when 
the atmosphere is moist than when it is dry. Some of the ice and salt 
generally remains unmelted and may be used over again with fresh 
materials and more salt. As this mixture is weaker than new ice it is 
used mainly at or near the bottom of the pile, the top of the pile 
taking care of the bottom, on the principle that cold descends. 

Removal of fish from pajis. — Because of the moisture inherent in 
their bodies, the fish freeze solidly to each other and to the surface 
of the pans. By passing the pans for a moment through cold w^ater, 
the frost is drawn from the iron and the fish may be removed in a 
block without breaking apart. For this purpose most plants use a 
trough or tank about 3 by 10 feet on the inside of which are two paral- 
lel iron bearings fastened to a series of inclined scantling 6 or 8 inches 
apart to permit the pans to slide from one end of the trough to the 
other. The trough is equipped with two water sprinklers, one 
mounted at each end for spraying the pans as they pass along the iron 
bearings. The spraying device usually consists of a box about 36 
inches long, 18 inches wide, and 3 inches deep, the bottom of which 
is perforated. 

Efficient operation of the pan-removing trough requires the serv- 
ices of three men. One operator standing at the end of the trough 
places the pan under the first sprinlding box, where the water falling 
through thaws the top sufficiently to allow a worlvinan standing at 
the middle of the trough to remove the cover. Turning the pan over 
permits it to slide under the second sprinkling box, where the descend- 
ing stream of water thaws the bottom sufficiently to permit a workman 
at the end of the trough to lift it from the block of fish. 

Glazing. — In the process of removing the pan, the block of fish is 
exposed to water vapor, a considerable amount of which adheres to 
it and is frozen by the surplus cold, forming a thin coating of ice or 
"glaze" over the entire surface of the block. This film of ice serves 
to protect the fish from direct contact with the air and to retard loss 
in weight through evaporation. To make the ice coating thicker, 
it is customary to pass the blocks through a second trough nearly 
filled with cold water into which is suspended a box with a perforated 
bottom and nearly filled with crushed ice. The passage of the fish 
from one end of the trough to the other is effected by making the floor 
of the trough in the shape of a semicircle and by starting the fish at 
one end with sufficient force to carry it underneath the ice box and 
out at the other end. The glaze resulting from the pan-removing 
process is about one-fiftieth of an inch thick and from the water- 
dipping process about one thirty-second of an inch. 

Cold storage. — From the glazing trough the blocks of frozen fish 
are immediately piled on edge in cold-storage rooms, care being taken 
in the piling to prevent the blocks from sagging and tumbling down. 
In some plants the fish are boxed before being stored. If individual 
fish, such as whitefish and trout, are stored they are piled in the same 
manner as cord wood. 



116 TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS 

The rooms used for the storage of fish are similar to those used for 
most other frozen food products, being simply insulated chambers in 
which the air is chilled by a medium such as melting ice. Where salt 
and ice are used to produce the necessary low temperature (12° to 
18° F.), the freezing mixture in galvanized-iron hoppers, usually three 
in number, is placed within 5 inches of the walls of the room. In 
some plants a hopper is placed close to each of the four walls. Usually 
the hoppers are about 10 inches wide at the top, narrow to 4 mches at 
the bottom, and extend from within a few inches of the floor to the 
top of the storage room. The crushed ice and salt are put into the 
hopper through the top by means of a trapdoor in the insulated roof 
of the storage room. The water collecting at the bottom of the hop- 
per is carried out by slanting gutters and drainpipes. 

If the fish are kept in storage for more than three or four months, 
each block is given another thin coat of ice by the same process used 
to produce the first glaze. Reglazing is necessary because of the 
evaporation of the original ice film. 

Packing j or shipment. — Fish to be shipped are packed in blocks in 
wooden boxes having, as a rule, a capacity for about 160 pounds, 
although at times smaller purchases require boxes with less capacity. 
The packing boxes measure 28 inches in length, 18 inches in width, 
and 15 inches in depth. 

(3) Mechanical freezing.— Yish are prepared for freezing in much 
the same way by the mechanical as by the salt and ice method. The 
essential difference between the two processes lies in the way the 
refrigerant is produced and in the method of exposing the pans of 
fish to the refrigerant. In mechanical freezing, the panned fish are 
placed in insulated ''sharp" freezing rooms, provided with horizontal 
layers of pipes containing ammonia gas which produces a sufficiently 
low temperature to freeze them. The horizontal layers of pipes are 
5 to 10 inches apart and run from the floor to the ceiling. The 
"sharp" freezing rooms are constructed in a similar manner to the 
salt and ice storage rooms. ^ The fish that have previously been 
washed and panned are laid between the' coils for about 12 hours. 
By that time they are generally frozen and are then removed from the 
pans and glazed in much the same manner as by the salt and ice 
method. They are then ready for storage. 

In the storage rooms the pipes are run along the sides of the wall or 
on the ceiling in order to give the maximum space for storage. The 
average capacity of the storage rooms is about 250 tons, although some 
will accommodate 400 tons. When the freezers are filled to capacity 
the excess fish are again put through the glazing process after which 
they are packed in boxes lined with brown paper. They are then 
ready to be taken to the public storage warehouses to await the 
readiness of the market. On the south shore of Lake Erie the charge 
(1924-25) of the public warehouses for storing fish was 30 cents per 
100 pounds for the first month and 15 cents for each month thereafter. 

(4) Brine freezing. — Brine freezing is a comparatively new process, 
the patents covering the various systems having been issued since 
1915. At present the only plants on the Great Lakes using it are the 
one at Bay City, Mich., known as the "Peterson System of Rapid 
Freezing" ^ and another on the Canadian shore of Lake Erie, known 

• For description, see p. 117. ^ Covered by United States patents. 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS 117 

as the "Kolbe Brine Freezing System."^ The principles of the two 
systems are similar. Both use a solution of cold brine into which 
the panned fish are immersed. Instead of sodium chloride, the salt 
used is calcium chloride, which permits a Iowtt temperature. With 
calcium chloride a temperature of —25° F. can be maintained while 
with the sodium chloride (common salt) a temperature below 0° F, 
can not be economically maintained. 

As in the mechanical freezers, a machinery room is necessary to 
house compressor, pumps, and driving motors. A "sharp freezer" 
room is, however, not needed. 

THE PETERSON SYSTEM 

The Peterson system uses a brine tank 12 feet 9 inches square, 
divided into a center space for a 20-ton brine cooler, an agitator, a 
head house, and a stream divider. At each end of the tank, a space 
9 inches to 12 inches is shut off to permit easy circulation; the remain- 
der is divided into 16 equal spaces. The tank serves three purposes, 
namely, (1) cake freezing of fish; (2) individual freezing of fish; 
(3) manufacture of ice. Any two of these may be operated at the 
same time, but with a reduction in the capacity of each. 

Cake freezing of fisli. — When the fish are to be frozen in cakes or 
blocks they are washed and packed in one layer into rectangular 
metal scoops. Each scoop is then inserted into a metal container or 
can which is just large enough to admit the scoop. The cans are made 
of 16-gauge galvanized sheet metal and are of various sizes according 
to the kind of fish to be frozen. The largest cans measure 28 inches 
long, 3^ inches deep and 18 inches wide, and the smallest ones are 
the same length and width but are only 2 mches deep. From five 
to eight cans, according to their size, form a frame, a device made of 
angle iron to which the cans are riveted. During the can filling 
process the frame of cans rests on a bench about 15 inches off the 
floor. 

When the cans of fish in a frame have been filled, the frame is 
tilted to an upright position, lowered into a tank of brine and the 
scoops withdrawn. The fish are left tightly packed in the cans in 
approximately the same formation as when they were in the scoop, 
and only one w^all of the galvanized metal is left on either side of the 
cake. The weight of the fish tends to keep them packed tight. A 
frame of five cans will hold approximately 250 pounds of fish. Eight 
of the smaller cans will fit one frame instead of five larger ones. 
With the smaller cans only 200 pounds of fish are in the frame and 
each cake weighs about 25 pounds. Whether the fish are "round" or 
"dressed," the capacity of the cans does not greatly vary. 

The tank into which the frames are lowered is provided with string- 
ers to prevent the frame from going too deep into the brine. When 
full of fish the cans will not float, so no additional weight is needed, 
but if any are empty, enough water is poured into them to make the 
frame sink to the proper depth. 

The length of time required for freezing depends on the species and 
size of the fish and the temperature of the brine. If the temperature 
of the calcium chloride brine is between —20° and —25° F., freezing 
will take only about two and one-half to three hours, for cans 3^ 

'Covered by United States patents. 



118 TAETFF INFOEMATION SURVEYS 

inches thick. If smaller cans are used, the time may be shortened to 
one hour or even less. Freezing may be slowed up by allowing the 
temperature of the brine to rise. 

After freezing the frames containing the fish are put into a thawing 
well to allow the solid block of frozen fish to slide out. The well is 
arranged with a false bottom to permit a considerable quantity of 
water under the cans. Were it not for this, ice would form around the 
cans. Water enters from the bottom and overflows along the top 
sides. Since it is not advantageous to thaw the frozen fish more than 
necessary, the cans are locked in the well at an angle of 160 to 170 
degrees, or nearly upside down. After a few minutes the can is 
struck on a bumper and the shock and inertia of the block of fish 
cause the cakes to slide out. The fish having been dipped or glazed 
after freezing, easily slide direct into the tank, the water therein 
acting as a cushion to prevent them from breaking. The cakes when 
removed from the water are ready for storage. 

Individual freezing of iish. — This method is very similar to the pan 
freezing, the difference being in the number and shape of the cans in 
the frame. Instead of 5 to 8 cans, 15 cans are assembled in one frame. 
To make the cans, an oblong sheet of 30-gauge galvanized steel is 
bent lengthwise but not creased, and the two edges are crimped and 
soldered together to form a metal tube. One end is then crimped 
and soldered to make the can water-tight. 

By sliding the fish into the can tail first they fit compactly. The 
size of the can used depends on the size of the fish. The freezing 
takes two hours or less, the time varying according to the width of 
the broadest part of the fish. After the fish are frozen the cans are 
put into the thawing well and the fish slide out into the water, which 
glazes them. This system is best for fish that have been dressed, as 
the shape of the can prevents them from being deformed in any way. 
If frozen round, fish are liable to be somewhat compressed around 
the belly. The frozen fish are wrapped in parchment or transparent 
paper to keep them from drying out. Usually only high-priced fish, 
such as trout and whitefish, are frozen by this method, because it 
requires more space in storage and double the number of boxes, is 
more costly, and transportation charges are greater. 

Ice making.- — Ice can be made by the Peterson system by using a 
standard 300-pound ice can, which occupies about the same space 
as one frame of fish. The tank heretofore described will freeze about 
5 tons of ice per day. If the ice is to be used in shipping fish, no 
air-circulating system is required, as opaque ice can be used for such 
purpose. If frozen at a low temperature ( — 10° to —20° F.), the ice 
is very brittle and will easily break. 

The manufacture of ice is incidental to the fish freezing and is 
usually done when the runs of fish are light. 

THE KOLBE SYSTEM 

This system is somewhat similar to the Peterson method in that 
both have a machinery room, brine tank, and pans. The main differ- 
ence between the two is in the construction of the pans for freezing 
the fish in cakes or individually. The Peterson system uses a riveted 
and soldered can which is lowered into the brine, while the Kolbe 
system utilizes a pan similar to the one used in the salt and ice 



TAEIFF INFORMATION SUEVEYS 119 

method except that it has on the bottom pan two V-shaped projec- 
tions ^ and the cover is about 1 inch longer and wider than the bottom 
pan. When the pans are immersed in brine the diving-bell principle 
serves to keep the liquid out of them. 

Fish panning. — The boxes of fish to be frozen come into the fish 
house on rollers through a trap door cut through the wall, where they 
are emptied into a wash trough containing water. After being stirred 
around the fish are removed by means of a dip net and deposited in 
square trays 3 or 4 inches deep, on the pan-filling bench. This bench 
is about 12 feet long and 2 feet wide, and the trays are placed at 
intervals of about 3 feet. On each side of the tray there is room for 
a fish pan and the operative engaged in filling it. The pan is 22^ 
inches long, 103^ inches wide, and 2}4 inches deep; the cover is 233^ 
inches long, 1134 inches wide, and 33^ inches deep. The two parts 
are made of number 22-gauge galvanized sheet metal. 

If the fish are small they are panned in three transverse rows, two 
layers deep, as in the salt and ice method.^ If whitefish or lake trout 
are to be frozen, only three or four are laid in the pan, so that they 
will readily come apart after freezing. After being filled the pans are 
put in angle-iron frames sufficiently wide for two pans to be set 
side by side and high enough to hold 10 pans in a row. The sides of 
the pans are held in position by the frame and the covers are held 
down tight by a clamp which fastens each stack of pans in place. 

The 20 pans hold about 15 pounds of fish each, a total of 300 
pounds per frame. When the fish are frozen individually the weight 
is much less, as there are only three or four fish per pan. 

Each frame is lifted up by an overhead electric crane which oper- 
ates on tracks, carried along and lowered in the brine in the desired 
space. The brine tank is so constructed that it has a head space 
and a propeller driven by a motor to allow for circulation of the brine. 
The brine must be constantly agitated to keep it at a low tempera- 
ture. At 0° F it requires about two and one-half hours to freeze the 
fish. If the brine is not kept circulating the temperature will rise and a 
longer time will be required. 

After the fish are frozen the frames are lifted out of the brine by 
the electric crane, are sprayed by running water, and removed from 
the pans. They are then glazed, and if ''single frozen" are wrapped 
in parchment paper prior to storage in boxes lined with brown wrap- 
ping paper. On the parchment paper is printed the brand of the 
fish, a picture of a fish, and the name and location of the producer. 
The boxes in which the fish are packed are 2134 inches wide, 23^ 
inches long, and 103<^ inches deep (inside measurements), and hold 
about 120 pounds of ciscoes and blue pike. Usually the boxes are 
made of pine with paneled ends, and on the sides, printed in 4-inch 
type, is the name of the company and its location. 

Ice is made by a process similar to the Peterson system and is used 
in the packing of fresh fish. It can be made during spare time when 
no fish are brought in. 

Quantities of Lake Fish Frozen 

The following table shows the quantity of certain lake fishes frozen 
and held in storage in the United States in 1924. 

* Patented. , » For description see p. 113. 



120 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS 



Table 95.- 



-Quantities of certain fresh-water fishes, frozen and held in cold storage 
in the United States, 1924 ^ 



FROZEN 



Month « 



January... 
February.. 

March 

April 

May - 

June 

July 

August 

September. 
October... 
November- 
December. 



Cat- 
fish 



Pounda 

7,772 

14, 533 

3,769 

5,197 

90, 641 

17, 072 

81, 646 

29, 366 

8,866 

17, 573 

90, 068 

37, 116 



Ciscoes ' 



Pounds 

702, 719 

2,621 

34, 938 

11, 032 

76,512 

149,217 

329, 288 

1, 058, 895 

2, 561, 597 

4,195,606 

1, 292, 577 

2, 608, 061 



Tullibees 



Pounds 
38, 686 
52, 976 
55, 652 
32, 996 

101, 292 
16, 257 
75, 577 

325, 258 
39, 955 
64,755 

102, 847 
99, 557 



Total 403,61913,023,063 1,005,808 2,307,621 3,182,482 766,123 



Trout 



Pounds 

72,642 

64, 400 

38, 786 

4,341 

70, 663 

151, 799 

258, 541 

68, 097 

159, 227 

304,111 

870, 734 

244, 280 



Pike 

perch and 

pike * or 

pickerel 



Pounds 
115. 403 
229, 968 
149, 241 

69, 677 
412, 025 
208, 507 
251, 928 

65, 507 
154, 192 
168, 433 
449, 029 
908, 572 



Spoon- 
bill, cat, 
and 
stur- 
geon 



Pounds 
5,000 



7,320 
8,151 
132, 492 
127, 239 
125, 387 
167, 084 
109, 404 
43, 134 
21, 356 
19, 556 



Suckers 



Pounds 
21, 495 
12, 103 
3, 496 



White- 
fish 



20, 465: 

8, 515 

1,509 

483 

662 

1, 798' 

2, 7631 
5, 879! 



Pounds 

41, 006 

292, 884 

246, 950 

96, 201 

49, 352 

6,355 

111,062 

141, 691 

114, 176 

84, 010 

328, 092 

263, 481 



79, 1681 1, 775, 260 22, 543, 144 



Total 



Pounds 

1, 004, 723 

669, 485 

540, 152 

227, 595 

953, 442 

684, 961 

1, 234, 938 

1,856,381 

3, 148, 079 

4, 879, 420 

3, 157, 466 

4, 186, 502 



IN STOEAGE* 



January 

February.. 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September. 
October. -. 
November. 
December. 



234, 652 


10, 299, 860 


648, 081 


1, 231, 044 


2, 463, 629 


299, 269 


31, 979 


1,381,416 


16 


170, 388 


8, 233, 801 


783, 064 


907, 271 


2, 462, 587 


187, 481 


32, 077 


1, 469, 809 


14 


111,494 


5, 385, 608 


763, 121 


422, 400 


1, 542, 009 


134, 217 


22, 058 


1,554,411 


9 


86, 557 


3. 963, 579 


726, 296 


282, 200 


543,112 


54, 367 


16,748 


1, 440, 949 


V 


163, 677 


3,117,908 


770, 802 


269, 522 


886, 843 


153, 083 


35, 434 


1, 072, 581 


6 


161,441 


2, 697, 414 


751, 270 


406, 299 


886, 224 


258, 902 


40,200 


1, 024, 014 


6 


227, 198 


2, 533, 406 


810,073 


690, 523 


992, 344 


369, 353 


50, 491 


1, 149, 463 


6 


219, 699 


3, 057, 694 


1,114,941 


653. 072 


790, 151 


506, 172 


43, 784 


1, 306, 126 


V 


215, 984 


5, 006, 502 


731, 768 


687,011 


855, 024 


548,383 


34, 028 


1, 351, 768 


9 


167, 556 


7, 745, 327 


785, 414 


928,113 


905, 983 


557, 151 


38, 435 


1,410,453 12 


297, 163 


8, 093, 188 


858, 980 


1, 804, 524 


1,239,416 


530. 432 


37, 582 


1, 818, 403 14, 


244, 358 


9, 608, 580 


712,911 


1, 952, 914 


1, 897, 949 


554, 786 


39, 024 


2, 121, 170 17, 

i 



, 589, 930 
, 246, 478 
, 935, 318 
,113,808 
, 469, 850 
, 225, 764 
, 822, 851 
, 691, 639 
, 430, 468 
, 538, 432 
, 679, 688 
, 131, 692 



1 FroTi U. S. Bureau of Fisheries repDrts on Cold Storage HDldings of Fish. 

2 Quantities listed are those frozen from the 15th of the preceding month to the 15th of the month shown. 
5 Includes bluefins, blackfins, chub, and lake herring. 

* Includes blue pike, yellow pike, sauger, and jacks. 

• Quantities listed are those held on the 15th of each month shown. 

The chart on page 121 shows the usual arrangement of the lake-side 
fish buyers' establishments used for boxing and icing fresh fish and 
for freezing and storing the surplus catch. 

Freezing Costs 

The principal items of expense in freezing and storing are labor, 
boxes, and ice, since most plants use the ice and salt method of freez- 
ing. As noted in the boxing and icing cost discussion, the companies 
that engage in freezing usually handle fresh fish and do not keep 
the costs of the two operations separate in their bookkeeping records. 
Where necessary, therefore, the costs have been charged to the several 
operations in accordance with estimates of the companies furnishing 
costs. Frozen fish boxing costs were segregated by charging the 
actual cost of boxes plus a portion of the other expenses as estimated 
by the companies. The costs of freezing and storing given in Tables 
96 and 97 are for 8 companies in the United States and for 1 1 companies 
in Canada and the boxing costs given in Tables 98 and 99 are for 7 
companies in each of the two countries. 



TAEIFF INFOKMATION SURVEYS 



121 



Typical Sreat Lakes Tisn House 



(Second Floon uiiad-for Si-orat)eJ 




1 1 1 1 1 1 1 




1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 




1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


F>SH Met 


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


Oonna Ricu 


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 




1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 




1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 




1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 







/- 


-LEGEND- 


5hippin9 Room 


z- 


Cl«an'n9 ani Frgeyn^ Room 


3- 


lea Sierage 


^- 


Main Office 


5- 


5alf Storage 


fc- 


Crushed let Bin 


1- 


Nef Storage 


8- 


BaKe Hou»i(llMta>rK>) 


9- 


Ice Koem 


10- 


V'«u(+ 




Teilei- 




Monaqenf Oif ice 




- S+ora<)e (frceynt^ Pant) 




- freeyn'j Koom 




rr.vy 


\h 


- Cold 5fora<^e ^ocms 



122 



TAEIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS 



Table 96. — Cost per pound for freezing and storing frozen fish in the United 

States, 1924 





Lake 
Erie 


Lake 
Michigan 


Weighted average 


Item of cost 


Based on 
production 

for which 
costs were 

obtained 


Based on 
relative 
catch in 

each lake ' 


Direct expense: 

Salt 


Cents 
0. 1779 
.2298 
.9337 
.0156 
.0687 
.0166 
.0025 
.0283 
.0477 


Cents 

0. 2260 

.4182 

.8745 

.3070 


Cents 
0. 1786 
.2326 
. 9328 
.0201 
.0676 
.0163 
.0025 
.0279 
.0470 


Cents 
0. 1926 




.2873 


Labor - - -. 

Superintendence 

Repairs _ - 

Heat, light, and power 

Water . . 


.9156 
.1046 
.0477 




.0115 




.0017 


Cartage --- - 

Miscellaneous . 




.0197 




.0332 








Total 


1. 5208 


1. 8257 


1. 5254 


1. 6139 






Overhead expense: 


.0687 
.0013 
.0311 
.0671 
.0978 
.0506 




.0676 
.0013 
.0307 
.0660 
.0963 
.0499 


.0477 






.0009 


Taxes - 




.0216 






.0466 






.0679 






.0352 








Total 


.3166 




.3118 


.2199 








Total expense (excluding interest) 


1. 8374 
.0745 


1. 8257 
.0768 


1. 8372 
.0745 


1. 8338 




.0762 






Total expense (including interest) 


1.9119 


1. 9025 


1.9117 


1.9090 



» Weight basis: Erie, 69.47 per cent; Michigan, 30.53 per cent. 
Table 97. — Cost per pound for freezing and storing frozen fish in Canada, 1924 





Lake 
Erie 


Lake 
Superior 


Lake 
Huron 


Lake 
Winnipeg 


Weighted average 


Item of cost 


Based on 
produc- 
tion for 

which 

costs 

were 
obtained 


Based on 
relative 
catch in 

each 

lake! 


Direct expense: 

Salt 


Cents 
0. 0721 


Cents 
0. 5357 


Cents 
0.2996 
1. 1736 
.3378 
.0392 
.0128 
.0168 


Cents 
0. 3176 

.0928 
1. 4950 

.0022 


Cents 
0. 1610 
.1282 
.9151 
.0365 
.0164 
.0594 


Cents 
0. 2181 


Ice ... 


.2727 




.7668 
.0506 
.0239 
.0558 


.6250 


.8178 


Repairs . . 


.0329 




.7500 
.0550 


.0855 


Miscellaneous . . . . . 


.0515 


.0464 






Total 


.9692 


1. 9657 


1. 8798 


1. 9591 


1. 3166 


1. 4734 






Overhead expense: 

Insurance 


.0545 
.0074 
.2187 
.0618 
.0058 




.0167 
.0390 
.0736 
.1553 


.0370 
.0935 
.0007 


.0460 
. 03-23 
. 1513 
.0534 
.0037 


.0374 


Taxes . 




.0320 


Depreciation.. .... 


.3571 


.1537 




.0627 


Miscellaneous . 






.0028 













Total 


.3482 


.3571 


.2846 


.1312 


.2867 


.2886 






Total expense (excluding interest)... 
Imputed interest. - .. . 


1.3174 
.0527 


2.3228 
.3964 


2. 1644 
.0944 


2.0903 
.0126 


1. 6033 
.0500 


1.7620 
.0858 






Total expense (including interest)... 


1. 3701 


2. 7192 


2. 2588 


2.1029 


1. 6533 


1. 8478 



« Weight basis: Erie, 47.40 per cent; Superior, 9.53 per cent; Huron, 21.53 per cent; Winnipeg, 21.54 
per cent. 



TAEIFF INFOBMATION SUEVEYS 123 

Table 98. — Cost per pound of boxing frozen fish in the United States, 1934 



Item of cost 


Lake Erie 


Item of cost 


Lake Erie 


Direct expense: 

Boxes or shooks 


Cents 
0.2995 
.3877 
.0391 
.0024 
.0173 
.0160 
.0722 
.0190 
.0483 


Overhead expense: 

Insurance . 


Cents 
0. 0695 


Labor - 


1 Taxes 


.0306 


Cartage on supplies . . . 


Depreciation . . 


.0690 


Packing paper . . 


Salaries . . . 


.1170 


Light, heat, and power.- 


Miscellaneous ...... 


.0283 




Total 






.3144 




Total expense (excluding inter- 
est) 










1 2159 


Total . 


.9015 


Imputed interest 


.0743 




Total expense (including inter- 
est) 






1. 2902 









Table 99. — Cost per pound of boxing frozen fish in Canada, 1924 





Lake 
Erie 


Lake 
Huron 


Lake 

Mani- 
toba 


Buffalo 
Lake 
and 

Lesser 
Slave 
Lake 


Lake 
Winni- 
pegosis 


Weighted average 


Item of cost 


Based on 
produc- 
tion for 

which 

costs 

were 
obtained 


Based on 
relative 

catch 
in each 

lake' 


Direct expense: 

Boxes or shooks 


Cents 
0. 5140 
.1812 


Cents 
0. 7694 
.1053 


Cents 

0.5049 

.5991 

.0109 

.0067 


Cents 
0. 4737 
.3128 


Cents 
0. 6026 
1.0023 


Cents 
0. 5210 
.4256 
.0038 
.0024 
.0076 
.0286 
.0439 


Cents 
0. 5732 


Labor .-. 


.3394 


Cartage on supplies 


. 0015 


Packing paper 










.0009 


Light, heat, and power 


.0237 
.0505 
.0389 


.0128 
.0392 
.0168 






.0133 


Repairs . . 


.0339 
.0902 






.0353 


Miscellaneous 






.0333 










Total. 


.8083 


.9435 


1. 2457 


.7865 


1. 6049 


1. 0329 


.9969 






Overhead expense: 

Insurance 


.0148 
.0074 
.0225 
.0632 
.0058 


.0167 
.0390 
.0735 


.0006 


.0123 
.0036 
.0450 
.1847 
.0343 




.0081 
.0047 
.0395 
.0942 
.1415 


.0111 


Taxes 




.0116 


D epreciation 


.0482 
.0988 
.1777 


.0307 


.0393 


Salaries 


.0566 


Miscellaneous 


.1553 


.7203 


.1545 






Total 


.1137 


.2845 


.3253 


.2799 


.7510 


.2880 


.2731 






Total expense (excluding 
interest) 


.9220 
.0529 


1. 2280 
.0943 


1.5710 
.0055 


1. 0664 
.0080 


2. 3559 
.0468 


1. 3209 
.0276 


1. 2701 


Imputed interest 


.0505 






Total expense (including 
interest) 


.9749 


1.3223 


1. 5765 


1. 0744 


2.4027 


1. 3485 


1. 3206 







'iWeight basis: Erie, 45.03 per cent; Huron, 20.45 per cent; Manitoba, 13.6 
Slave, 7.92 per cent; Winnipegosis, 12.92 per cent. 

Salting 



I per cent; Buffalo and Lesser 



Lake herring are the only Great Lakes fish preserved in large quan- 
tities by salting. The United States production of salted lake herring 
in 1924 represented over half (probably about 60 per cent) of the 
total catch and about 99 per cent of all lake fish salted in 1924. Of 
the Great Lakes salted lake herring production in 1924 about 99 per 
cent was prepared in the United States. 

54003—27 9 



124 TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS 



LOCALIZATION OF THE INDUSTRY 



Lake herring are salted along the shores of Lake Michigan, Lake 
Huron, and Lake Superior. On Lake Michigan and Lake Superior 
the bulk of it is prepared by the fishermen. "The~salt' fish companies 
as a rule furnish the fishermen the barrels and salt, and purchase from 
them the salted fish for further processing. On Lake Huron the salt- 
fish companies usually do their own salting and to some extent the 
same practice is followed on Lake Michigan. 

On Lake Huron lake herring are caught mainly in trap and pound 
nets and on Lake Michigan in gill nets. The smallest size net allowed 
by the Michigan State laws is the 2^-inch mesh, whereas the mini- 
mum requirement of the Wisconsin State laws is a 23^-inch mesh. 
In the knportant Green Bay lake-herring fisheries of Wisconsin the 
■smaller meshed and more efficient nets are used. 

Fish to be salted are carried directly from the fishmg grounds to 
the fish houses where they are immediately salted. During June, 
July, and August the fish are comparatively soft when taken from 
the water and ice must be used aboard the vessels to preserve them. 

PREPARATION OF FRESH LAKE HERRING FOR SALTING 

When unloaded from the fishing vessel the fish are first beheaded 
and eviscerated. The loss in weight in beheading averages 6 per 
cent of the original weight; in removing the viscera, 12 per cent. 

As the fish are dressed they are thrown into a box, from which they 
are later emptied into a "wash trough" of fresh water, where the 
slime and any blood that may remain after the dressing are rinsed 
off. From the wash trough they are lifted out with a dip net and 
placed in the center of a salting table so arranged that the water will 
drain from the central pile of fresh fish without dissolving the salt 
;that surrounds it. 

METHODS OF APPLYING SALT 

The purpose of salting herring is to effect their preservation by 
the extraction of the body water. Of the several methods of apply- 
ing the salt to the body of the fish the most common is as follows: 

Five fish are picked up, their bellies rubbed in salt, and placed 
together back to belly. These are set aside and the process is 
repeated until 25 fish are accumulated. The 25 are then placed belly 
side up in a half barrel (capacity 125 pounds of fish). As the fish 
settle considerably upon standing packing is continued until the top 
layer rises about 4 inches above the barrel. The top layer is turned 
belly side down to protect the fish from subsequent contact with the 
barrel head. After standing all night sufficient water has been 
extracted from the fish to allow heading of the barrel. In this, the 
first salting process, which produces what is known as "slime" fish, 
the loss in weight is about 9 per cent. Allowing 18 per cent loss in 
weight in dressing the fresh fish the loss at the conclusion of the first 
salting is 27 per cent. All slime fish are eventually repacked, "in- 
spected." If they are to be held a week or more before being re- 
packed the barrels are filled with 100° brine and placed in cool 
storage. 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS 



125 



REPACKING 

The final process in preparing salted herring consists simply of 
removing slimed fish from the original container and placing them in 
new brine in assorted sizes of barrels for the retail trade. 

Repacking usually proceeds as folio w^s: The slimed fish upon 
removal from cool storage are emptied onto a draining table 6 feet 
square and wdth a capacity of 5 barrels of fish. After the old brine 
has drained off the fish are transferred to a weighing table in the 
quantities desired for the final package. The weighmg table and 
the draining table, the surfaces of which are on a level, are placed 
side by side. Rapid handling of the fish is facilitated by having the 
weigher concentrate his attention on the one operation. The 
weighed fish are passed from the "weigher" to the "packer" by a 
revolving table, fitted with compartments. As a batch of fish is 
weighed it is throwm into one of the compartments from which the 
packer on the opposite side removes it as the rotating table brings it 
within his reach. In packing, all of the fish except the top layer are 
placed pkin side down. Before the containers are sealed a solution 
of 100° (saturated solution) of brine is added and also a small quan- 
tity of salt to protect the fish in the event that a leak develops in 
the container. Fish put up in 5 to 25 pound packages are packed in 
pails; from 30 to 100 pounds in barrels. Salt added is in the propor- 
tion of 3 pounds to 100 pounds of fish. The loss in weight in repack- 
ing averages 5 per cent; it is less in winter and more in summer. In 
the entire dressing and salting process the loss averages 32 per cent 
of the original w^ eight of the fish. 

Table 100 gives the dimensions of packages of salted herring put 
up for shipment and the quantity of 100° brine used in the various 
sizes of containers. 

Table 100. — Size and weight of packages of salted herring packed on the Great 

Lakes 



Depth 


Diameter 


Thickness 


Weight 
of empty 
contain- 
ers 


Quantity 
of fish 
packed 


Quantity 

of brine 

used 


Top Bottom 


Staves 


Top 


Bottom 


Inches 
6 

6M 
9 

15 

18 
22 


Inches Inches 

91% 1 7K2 

WA 1 SVs 
\2% \ lOH 

10 1 10 

11 1 11 

12 ! 12 
13H 13H 


Inches 

Yi 
Vi 
Vi 
Vi 
% 


Inches 

y% 

v» 

% 

Vi 
Yi 
Yi 


Inches 
% 
% 
% 
Vi 

Y2 

Yi 
Yi 


Pounds 

2Y2 

3 

3H 
4^ 
6M 
7M 

12 


Pounds 

5-6 

8orl0 

15 

25 

30-40 

50-60 

70 

100 


Quarts 
2 
3 
2 
2 
7 
10 
15 
20 



SALTING COSTS 

The cost of salting lake fish includes all expenses incurred from the 
time the fresh fish is received at the salting plant until the finished 
product is packed for shipment. The principal items of cost are 
packages and labor which together constitute 65 per cent of the 
total cost. Table 101 gives the cost of salting lake fish in the United 
States in 1924. 



126 



TAKIFF INFOBMATION SUEVEYS 



TrpiCAL FLOOR Plan 

OP- 

Gi^EAT Lakes Salt Fish House 

3uii.oiN«-rKnnE coNSTKucrioN 

SECOND FLOOR U5E0 FOR STO«*M OF SALT (»N0 rMfTT eAOSeU 



Stord^ l^om 




Table 101. — Cost per pound of salting lake fish, United States, 192 J^ 



Item of cost 



Direct expense: 

Salt. 

Packages and containers. 
Heat, light, and power... 

Labor 

Repairs 

Cartage on supplies 

Miscellaneous 



Total direct expense. 



Amount 



Cents 
0. 1740 
1. 7529 
.0008 
.5525 
.0043 
.0020 
.3031 



2. 7896 



Item of cost 



.\ mount 



Overhead expense: 

Insurance 


Cents 
0. 0510 


Taxes.. 


.1297 


Depreciation 


.2591 


Salaries ... 


.1420 


M iscellaneous. 


.0554 






Total overhead 


. 6372 






Total expense, excluding interest.. 
Imputed interest 


3. 4288 
.2600 



Total expense, including interest. 



3. 6868 



tariff infoemation surveys 127 

Smoking 

species selected for smoking 

Because of the perishable nature of smoked fish, smoking is generally 
done in the large consuming centers. The "hot smoke" method, 
the one most commonly used, cooks and smokes the fish. The 
varieties used for smoking are ciscoes, tullibees, chubs, trout, white- 
fish, and sturgeon, the most important of which is the cisco. Smoked 
sturgeon brings a very high price — in 1925 about $1.50 per pound- 
but the quantity smoked at the present time is negligible. Whitefish 
were formerly smoked, but the quantity so treated is now very small. 
The Lake Erie cisco resembles the whitefish and is sold on the market 
as smoked whitefish and the trade accepts it as such. The catch of 
chubs on the Great Lakes has been depleted, and since the runs of 
ciscoes are variable, the cheaper northern Canadian lake tullibee is 
the principal substitute for ciscoes in times of short supply. In 
some localities there is also, however, a regular demand for smoked 
tullibees. 

METHODS EMPLOYED 

The methods of smoking ciscoes, chubs, tullibees, and whitefish 
are similar. Both the fresh and frozen fish are used for smoking and 
the former are preferred when prices are low enough to make smoking 
profitable. The advantage of using the frozen fish lies in its low cost 
and in the fact that it may be held in storage and used as demand 
requires without loss from spoilage. The frozen fish, when taken 
from cold storage are thawed in a bin of cold, fresh running water. 
They are removed from this bin by a dip net and placed on a table, 
where they are split and cleaned, before being dumped into brine. 
They remain in the brine for a number of hours, according to the 
strength and temperature of the brine and the flavor of fish desired. 
If 90° brine is used, the time required is from 6 to 10 hours, and if 
60° brine, from 12 to 24 hours. From the brine they are thrown 
into fresh cold water and thereafter hung head down on sticks, 14 
to 18 on a stick. These sticks, which are 2 inches wide and 30 inches 
long with sharp nails driven about 1 inch apart along the entire 
length, are placed on a rack holding from 250 to 700 pounds. The 
rack, suspended on an overhead trolley, carries the fish into the 
smokehouse. 

The smokehouse is made entirely of brick. It is 4 feet wide, 12 
feet high, and fitted with a door of one-eighth-inch steel plate cut 
in three sections, the upper and lower of which are. 15 inches wide 
and so adjusted as to allow a draft to pass from the lower to the upper 
section. Usually three or four houses adjoin. Over the door of 
each is arranged a sheet-metal hood through which the smoke from 
all the houses is carried off by an electric fan inserted in an opening 
in the smoke hood. The speed of the fan is regulated according to 
the intensity of the fires, the conditions of the fish being smoked, 
and the amount of fish on the racks in the smokehouse. 

After the racks of fish have been run into the smokehouse on the 
overhead trolley, a small fire is started on the floor, but the flames 



128 TAKTFF INFORMATION SURVEYS 

are not allowed to come in contact with the fish. The heat arising 
cooks them while the smoke flavors them. The fire is generally 
started with excelsior, and small pieces of hardwood are added — 
this kind of wood having proved to be the best for cooking. Care is 
taken to keep the lower and upper sections of the door adjusted so 
as to regulate the draft in a way that will give the best results in 
cooking. The middle section of the door is removed entirely or 
left partially open, according to the condition of the particular fish 
being smoked. The doors are at first left open to create a draft 
and carry oft' the steam which would tend to soften the fish and allow 
those that become soft to drop. Toward the end of the cooking, 
the smokehouse doors are closed to create a dense smoke which 
completes the smoking process. The fish are cooked from three to 
six hours, the time depending upon the species and condition of the 
fish and the intensity of the fire. The skill required of the attendant 
is acquired only after long experience. 

When the fish have been put through the final stages of the smoking 
processes, they are carried by trolley outside and allowed to cool, 
after which they are removed from the racks and packed in boxes 
or baskets. The containers used are the common market baskets 
of woven wood splits or of pine or hardwood. A patented oiled 
cardboard container is also used by certain companies. The several 
sizes of boxes or baskets hold 5, 10, 15, or 20 pounds of smoked fish. 

Prior to packing, the fish are weighed, one layer at a time. The 
container is lined with oiled paper, and the fish laid in rows on the 
bottom. Alternate layers of fish are then filled in until the top is 
reached. If baskets are used, a sheet of brown wrapping paper is 
put over the top layer of oiled paper for additional protection. If 
boxes are used the cover is nailed down, and if cardboard containers, 
the cover is fastened down by a wire clip at each corner. Split 
baskets are used for the local trade as they can be collected and used 
a second time; for shipments to points outside the locality, boxes 
are used. 

SMOKING COSTS 

The cost of smoking lake fish like that of salting includes all of the 
expenses incurred from the time the fresh fish is received at the 
plant until the finished product is packed for shipment. Labor 
constitutes 61 per cent of the total cost of smoking. Of the other 
cost items only two are important, namely, storage charges on frozen 
fish held for smoking, which constitutes 13 per cent of the total cost; 
and containers which constitute 11 per cent of the total cost. Table 
102 gives the cost of smoking lake fish in the United States in 1924. 



TARIFF INFOEMATION RUHVf<:YS 



129 



Typical FLOOKPLaN 

For 

Gl^EAT LAKES 5M0KE FI5H HOU-SE 



OUlLDtN&- &RtCK CONSTRUCTION 
COMCRCTV PCOOR OR^iNiH» TO CCnTVK 




Table 102. — Cost per pound of smoking lake fish, United States, 19. 


u 


Item of cost 


Amount 


Item of cost 


Amount 


Direct expense: 

Salt 


Cents 

0.0506 
.5546 
.1741 

2. 5862 
.1260 
.1182 
.0395 
.6417 
.0574 


Overhead expense: 

Insurance. 


Cevif 
0.1504 


Containers 


Salaries 


.5252 


Smoking fuel 


Miscellaneous 


.0506 




Taxes.. 


.0071 


Repairs 


Depreciation 


.0110 


Cartage on supplies 




7443 


Paper 


Total expense, excluding interest.. 




Storage on fish before smoking 

Miscellaneous 


5.0946 
.0362 


Total direct expense 


4. 3503 


Total expense, including interest.. 


5.1308 







130 tariff infoemation surveys 

Filleting 

Fish fillets consist of fish flesh that is free or nearly free from bones, 
and sometimes from skins. The round fish when made into fillets 
are eviscerated, beheaded, and split down both sides of the backbone, 
each fish thus yielding two fillets. 

Filleting of fresh-water fish at the point of production is a compara- 
tively new industry and as yet (1926) only small quantities of a few 
species are so prepared. Plans are being made by some of the 
wholesalers, however, to expand this part of their business. Fillet- 
ing has the advantage of saving transportation and refrigeration costs 
and of retarding spoilage. Then, too, there is a growing demand for 
filleted fish of all lands. 

Fillets are sold either by the pound or by the piece. Whitefish 
and lake trout are generally sold by the pound; ciscoes, blue pike, 
yellow perch, and sheepshead by the piece. The price charged by 
the coastal buyer in 1924 was from 30 to 45 cents per pound for 
whitefish and lake trout and from 3 to 7 cents per piece for the 
smaller fish. 

In preparing fillets, the loss by shrinkage varies with the size of 
the fish's head, fins, and entrails. With ciscoes it is 35 per cent; 
whitefish, 40 per cent; and blue pike and yellow perch, 50 per cent. 

The principal species filleted on the Great Lakes are ciscoes, blue 
pike, whitefish, lake trout, yellow perch, and sheepshead (gray bass). 

Fish to be filleted are first scaled, either by hand, with a knife, or 
with an electric scaler. All fins, except the caudal or tail fin, are 
then cut off, the head is removed and the fish split along one side of 
the backbone so that the two sides are laid open, permitting the 
viscera to be scraped out. The backbone, together with the caudal 
fin, is entirely cut away and the remaining flesh in two lengthwise 
pieces, or fillets, is dropped into a tank of water and cracked ice. 
After being stirred about and washed in the ice water, they are 
lifted out by a dip net onto a table where they are wrapped in parch- 
ment paper. If they are small, four are wrapped in a paper and will 
measure approximately 12 by 18 inches. If large — i. e., made from 
whitefish or trout — only two are wrapped in a paper. The wrapped 
fillets are then packed in rows in tins, each holding approximately 
20 pounds. The tins are about 14 inches long, 8 inches wide, and 4 
inches deep, and have a capacity for about 100 of the smaller fillets. 
When packed and covered the tin is inclosed in a wooden box large 
enough to permit a 2-inch packing of crushed ice on each of the 
surfaces. With the nailing down of the wooden box cover the entire 
packing operation is completed. 

If intended for the frozen-fish trade, the fillets are prepared in the 
same manner as fresh fillets but are frozen immediately on coming 
out of the wasliing tank. Where mechanical freezers are used, the 
fillets are placed on strips of sheet metal resting on refrigerating coils. 
By this method from two to three hours are required for freezing, 
the time depending upon the size of the fillets and the temperature 
of the room. If the salt and ice method is used, a longer time is 
required. Extremely low temperatures can not be produced by the 
salt and ice method. 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS 131 

A new process of fillet freezing is in use at Port Dover, Ontario.'' 
There the fresh fillets are placed one layer deep in water-tisrht circular 
pans floated on a circulating calcium chloride freezing solution. The 
pans measure 18 inches in diameter and have 3-inch sides riveted 
and soldered to make them water-tight. The brine tank, which is 
20 feet square, is insulated on the bottom and sides by 4-inch walls 
packed with sawdust. It is lined with 24-gauge galvanized sheet 
metal and has board partitions so arranged that the circulating brine 
carries the fish pans continuously back and forth. The brine, which 
is about 8 inches deep, is kept in circulation by a small centrifugal 
pump driven by a one-horsepower motor. The tank is usually filled 
with pans which are left there to float on the stream of brine until 
the fillets are frozen. As the frozen fillets are taken out, they are 
replaced by fresh fillets and the freezing process is repeated. About 
20 minutes are required to freeze small fish, such as blue pike; larger 
fish, such as whitefish, require more time. 

Round or dressed fish may also be frozen by this method but they 
require a longer time for freezing than do fillets. As yet this type 
of freezing has not been extensively used for round fish. 

TRANSPORTATION COSTS 

Fresh fish, being highly perishable, are practically all shipped by 
express. Frozen fish are shipped by freight at a lower rate but both 
forms of transportation are high as compared with the value of the 
species usually shipped — in fact the shipping costs from many areas 
exceed the cost of production of the fish. For example, from Winni- 
peg, Manitoba, the gateway for northern lake fish, the express charge 
to New York City is 5 cents per pound on fish that cost 3 cents per 
pound to catch. 

For comparing transportation costs between the domestic and 
foreign centers either New York City or Chicago may be considered 
as a representative competitive market for practically all species of 
fish. These two cities receive over half of the domestic and foreign 
catches. New York City probably about 35 per cent and Chicago 20 
per cent. In arriving at the transportation costs shown in the body 
of this report for fresh fish the carload express rate plus 25 per cent 
icing charge was used and for frozen fish the carload freight rate 
plus 26.67 per cent for the weight of the box. In neither case were 
the refrigerating costs included. 

« Patent applied for by Robert E. Kolbe. 
54003—27 10 



132 



TAEIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS 



Table 103 gives the transportation rates from the important ship- 
ping center on each lake to New York City and Chicago used as a 
basis for cost calculations. 

Table 103. — Carload express and freight rates per 100 pounds on fresh and frozen 

fish, 1924 



Country and lalje 



United States: 

Ontario 

Erie 

Huron 

Michigan 

Superior 

Lake of the Woods. 
Canada: 

Ontario 

Erie 

Huron 

Superior 

Lake of the Woods. 

Winnipeg 

Manitoba 

Winnipegosis 

Lesser Slave Lake.. 

Buffalo Lake 



From— 



Cape Vincent, N. Y. 

Erie, Pa , 

Bayport, Mich 

Green Bay, Wis 

Bayfield, Wis 

Warroad, Minn 



Belleville, Ontario 

Port Dover, Ontario 

Wiarton, Ontario 

Port Arthur, Ontario 

Kenora, Ontario 

Sellkirk, Manitoba 

Portage La Prarie... 

Winnipegosis, Manitoba. 

Edmonton, Alberta 

do 



Fresh ' (by car- 
load express) 



To New 
York 



Cents 
3 184 
« 185 
6 229 
3349 
3394 
428 

270 
210 

275 
8 480 
8 480 
8 480 
8570 
8 520 
8 452 
8 452 



To 
Chicago 



Cents 
3 262 
3 190 
3 157 
3 165 
3 221 
290 

320 
230 
270 
3545 
8 400 
8350 
8410 
8 570 
8395 
8395 



Frozen ^ (by car- 
load freight) 



To New 
York 



Cents 

<56}^ 

* 87 

MOl 

'1893^ 

731-^ 
73^2 
84^ 

135H 

184 

199 

202 

225 

289 

289 



To 
Chicago 



Cents 
* 88H 
<65H 
<65J^ 
M4V$ 
'53 
M02 

84 

65H 

80H 

109 

122 

113 

113 

142 

206 

206 



> Gross weight of shipment will be charged for except that where shipments are iced the net weight of 
fish plus 25 per cent will be charged for not to exceed the actual gross weight of shipment. Minimum 
carload weight 20,000 pounds; shippers must load and unload. Except in New York City, delivery will 
be made at an additional charge of 20 cents per 100 pounds. 

2 Carload minimum gross weight, 24,000 pounds. Refrigeration of carload shipments: The cost of initial 
refrigeration when performed by the carriers at Canadian points is not available; such charge will be in 
addition to the rates shown. The cost for initial refrigeration at United States points when performed 
by the carriers, in addition to the rates shown are given in notes 4 and 7. 

3 Any quantity. Second-class rates; rates include pick up and delivery where express companies main- 
tain this service; icing of shipments must be performed by shipper. 

< $4 per ton of 2,000 pounds for ice and 75 cents per 100 pounds for salt additional if refrigeration is 
performed by carrier. 
<• A charge of .$35 per car covers cost of refrigeration through to destination. 

6 A charge of $40 per car covers refrigeration through to destination. If refrigeration is performed by car- 
rier a charge of $7 per ton (2,000 lbs.) for ice and 75 cents per 100 for salt will be made for initial icing. 

7 $3.50 per ton of 2,000 pounds for ice and 75 cents per 100 pounds for salt; where reicing is necessary at 
intermediate points while en route to destination, additional charge therefor will be made. When ice or 
other preservative is in the bunker or placed in the body of the car for protection of freight, no charge will 
be made for transportation; but if ice is taken by consignee, charges will be made on actual weight of ice at 
destination and at the carload rate applicable on the freight it accompanies; if not taken it becomes the 
property of the carrier. No allowance in weight will be made for ice or other preservative placed in same 
package with the freight whether in carload or less than carload quantities. 

8 If refrigeration is performed by carrier a charge of $5 per ton (2,000 lbs.) for ice and $1.40 per 100 pounds 
for salt will be made to cover initial icing. 



TAKIFF INFORMATION SUEVEYS 

RATES OF DUTY ON LAKE FISH 

Table 104. — Rates of duty on lake fish, 1883-1922 



133 



Act 
of— 


Para- 
graph 


1883 


699 
279 
280 




283 


1890 


292 
293 




571 


1894 


209 


1897 


481 
259 
261 




555 


1909 


271 
273 




567 


1913 


216 
483 


1922 


717 




718 




720 



TariS elassiflcation or description 



Rate 



Fish, fresh, for immediate consumption 

* * * other fish, pickled, in barrels 

Foreign-caught fish, imported otherwise than in barrels or half 

barrels, whether fresh, smoked, dried, salted or pickled, not spe- 
cially enumerated or provided for in this act. 

* • * all other fish, prepared or preserved, * * * not spe- 
cially enumerated or provided for in this act. 

Fish, pickled, in barrels or half barrels, * * * 

Fish, smoked, dried, salted, pickled, frozen, packed in ice, or other- 
wise prepared for preservation, and fresh fish, not specially pro- 
vided for in this act. 
Fish, the product of American fisheries, and fresh or frozen fish 
(except salmon) caught in fresh waters by American vessels, or 
with nets or other devices owned by citizens of the United States. 
Fish, smoked, dried, salted, pickled, or otherwise prepared for 
preservation. 

Fish, frozen or packed in ice fresh 

Fresh-water fish not specially provided for in this Act 

Fish, fresh, smoked, dried, salted, pickled, frozen, packed in ice 
or otherwise prepared for preservation, not specially provided for 
in this Act * * *. 

Fish, skinned or boned 

Fish, fresh, frozen, or packed in ice, caught in the Great Lakes or 
other fresh waters by citizens of the United States. 

Fresh-water fish not specially provided for in this section 

Fish, fresh, smoked, dried, salted, pickled, frozen, packed in ice or 
otherwise prepared for preservation, not specially provided for in 
this section * * *. 

* ' * fish, skinned or boned, * * * 

Fish, fresh, frozen, or packed in ice, caught in the Great Lakes or 

other fresh waters by citizens of the United States * * *. 

* * * fish, skinned or boned, * * * 

Fresh-water fish, and all other fish not otherwise specially pro- 
vided for in this section. 

Fish, fresh, frozen, or packed in ice; * * * other fish, not spe- 
cially provided for. 

* * * all other fish, skinned or boned, in bulk, or in immediate 
containers weighing with their contents more than 15 pounds 
each. 

* * * all fish * * *, pickled, salted, smoked, kippered, or 
otherwise prepared or preserved * * * in immediate con- 
tainers weighing with their contents not more than 15 pounds 
each. 

In bulk or in immediate containers weighing with their contents 
more than 15 pounds each. 



Free. 

1 cent per pound. 

50 cents per 100 pounds. 

25 per cent ad valo- 
rem. 
1 cent per pound. 
% cent per pound. 

Free. 

li cent per pound. 

Free. 

M cent per pound. 

% cent per pound. , 

\]4 cents per pound. 
Free. 

}4, cent per pound. 
% cent per pound. 

1)4, cents per pound. 
Free. 

% cent per pound. 
Free. 

1 cent per pound. 

2J^ cents per pound 
net weight. 

25 per cent ad valo- 
rem. 



1)4 cents per pound net 
weight. 



SPECIES OF FISH PLANTED IN THE GREAT LAKES 

FISH PROPAGATION STATISTICS 

Table 105 gives the number of fry of the important commercial 
species planted in the Great Lakes in 1924. The chart on the 
following page gives the location of the hatcheries. 



134 



TARIFF INFOKMA-TION SURVEYS 



Fish hatcheries on the Great Lakes, 1924 



Cape Vincent, ■. t. 
Glenora, Ont. 
Ihmltlrk, R, T, 
Irl8, Pa. 
ThuTlow, Ont. 
Konnandale , Ont . 
Put-In-Bay, Ohio 
KingSTlUe, Ont. 
Sarnla, Ont. 
Bay City, Mich. 
Bay Port, Mich. 
Southampton, Ont. 
Wiarton, Ont. 
Collingwood, Ont, 



HarrlBTllle, JClch. 

Alpena, Uioh. 
Odon, Bioh. 
Charlevoix, Mloh. 
Benton Harbor, ISleh. 
Shatoygan, Wis. 
Sturgeon Bay, Wis. 
Green Bay, Uia. 
Peshtlgo, *1B. 
Thompoon, Ulch. 
Sault Ste. tarlo 
Marquette, Mich. 
Bayfield, Wis. 
Duluth, Minn. 
French Hlver, Uinn. 
Port Arthur, Ont. 




U— United States hatchery. S— State hatchery. C— Canadian hatchery P— Provincial hatchery 

Table 105. — Number oj fry of certain species planted in the Great Lakes, 1924 

[In millions, i. e., 000,000 omitted] 



Agency of distribution 


Blue 
pikei 


Cisco 


Lake 
herring 


Lake 
trout 


White- 
fish 


Yellow 
perch 


Total 


Lake Ontario: 

New York .. 


123 




80 
128 


1 
1 


20 

72 
78 
173 




230 


United States 


201 




54 
40 




132 






21 





234 






Total 


217 




235 


2 


343 




797 






Lake Erie: 


30 

2 
32 








36 
200 


.. 


66 


Ohio 








206 


United States 








32 










98 
116 




98 


Ontario 


1 


12 






129 


Total 


65 


12 







450 


4 


531 


Lake Huron: 


94 




10 


' i" 


5 

1 

128 

30 


12 


121 


United States . 


2 




34 






162 


Ontario. - 








30 


Total -.. 


128 




10 


] 


164 


12 


315 


Lake Superior: 








9 

2 

10 


3 

7 

6 

30 

55 




12 


Minnesota . . 









9 


United States --- 








16 










30 


Ontario 


' 










55 


Total 








21 


101 




122 


Lake Michigan: 












5 


5 










32 


3 


35 


United States 








15 35 


50 


Total 








47 38 


5 


90 


Grand total . 


410 


12 


245 


71 1. 096 


21 


1,855 











1 Young of the yellow pike. 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS 135 

LAWS GOVERNING FISHING IN INTERNATIONAL WATERS 

Regulation of commercial fishing in the border lakes rests with the 
State governments in the United States and with the Province of 
Ontario in Canada. The laws of the two Governments with respect 
to mesh of nets, size of fish, and seasons when fishing is closed are 
summarized in Table 106. 



136 



TAEIFF INFOEMATION SUllVEYS 



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TAKIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS 139 

COMMON AND SCIENTIFIC NAMES OF LAKE FISH 

In large distributing centers the names of most of the important 
kinds of lake fish have become standardized. For example, the fish 
formerly known as pike, pickerel, or grasspike is now called jack. 
The name jack clearly distinguishes it from the yellow pike, formerly 
known as wall-eyed pil^e, pike perch, or pickerel. By these two 
simple designations the confusion that once existed between the terms 
"pike" and "pickerel" is avoided. There are, however, some locali- 
ties where the vernacular idiom still obtains. On certain of the 
northern Canadian lakes the yellow pike is still called pickerel. On 
Lake Erie the cisco is sometmies called herring, but this designation 
for the true cisco is rapidly disappearing. 

For tariff classification purposes the names used in the large dis- 
tributing centers are preferable to those used in some of the producing 
centers, and a study of fish nomenclature leads to the conclusion that 
they are more likely to be adopted throughout the industry. The 
general adoption of the name mullet for the fish once widely known 
as sucker is a case in point. Another fish, the sheepshead, will in 
time probably be generally known as gray bass, a more desirable 
designation from the sales standpoint. 

Perhaps the most pressing need in establishing uniformity in the 
use of fish names is for cooperation from Federal and State agencies 
that collect lake-fish statistics. No two of the publications issued 
by them agree entirely in their designations. Some use the vernacu- 
lar, while others follow in part the scientific classification and use a 
single name for fish separately designated by the trade. 

Table 107 gives the names of important lake fish as used by the 
various governments, as well as the scientific names. 



140 



TAEIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS 






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TAEIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS 



141 



PRODUCTION STATISTICS 

Sources of Data 

Data relative to the United States catch of lake fish are available 
from both Federal and State sources. The latest Federal censuses 
are for 1908, 1917, and 1922. As State statistics have been collected 
annually and for more recent years, they have been used in this 
report. In combining the data from the several States it was some- 
times necessary to estimate a part of the catch, but in no instance 
was resort had to an estimate for the catch of any species representing 
an appreciable part of the total catch landed in a State. 

Statistics of the Canadian Great Lakes catch were taken from data 
furnished by the Ontario Department of Fish and Game and those 
of the northern lakes by the Canadian Department of Marine and 
Fisheries. 

Detailed Statistics of Catch and Costs 

Tables 108 to 161 give in detail the following kinds of statistics 
with respect to each of the 13 important species of lake fish — (1) the 
domestic and foreign catch from 1913 to 1924"; (2) fishing costs for 
1924; (3) boxing and icing and freezing and storing costs for 1924; 
and (4) transportation costs for 1924. 

Table 108. — Whitefish: Domestic and foreign catch, 1913-1924 

UNITED states 



Lake 



1913 



1914 



1915 



1916 



1917 



1918 



Ontario 

Erie 

Huron 

Michigan.- 

Superior 

Lake of the Woods- 

Total-. - 



Pou nds 

15, 500 

1, 508, 801 

745, 392 

1.355,197 

2 67, 329 

2 111,286 



Pounds 

' 21,386 
2, 083, 347 
1,443,785 
1,438,912 
2 372, 404 
2 92, 340 



Pounds 

27, 272 
1, 145, 435 
871, 045 
1,612,803 
2 600, 469 
2 125, 245 



3, 803, 505 



5,452,174 



4, 382, 269 



Pounds 

37, 707 

930, 475 

1,996,317 

1,693,341 

2 230, 682 

2 63, 581 



Pounds 
116,141 

1, 776, 856 
888, 977 

2, 663, 300 
264, 797 
2 63, 171 



Pounds 
101,112 

1, 600, 453 
1,170,138 

2, 426, 822 
333, 856 
2 62, 891 



4, 952, 103 



5, 773, 242 



5, 695, 272 



Lake 



1919 



Ontario 

Erie 

Huron _ 

Michigan 

Superior 

Lake of the Woods- 

Total 



Pounds 

75, 992 

1,723,121 

785, 297 

1,548,118 

265, 733 

46. 098 



4, 444, 359 



1920 



Pounds 

43, 720 

1,425,980 

691, 646 

3 1,151,486 

3 281,692 

39, 150 



1921 



Pounds 
1 109, 143 
922, 145 
814, 729 
1,397,102 
259, 001 
30, 164 



3,633,674 3,532,344 



1922 



Pounds 
J 106, 089 

791, 053 
1,635,181 
1,434,519 

329, 991 
27, 877 



4,324,710 



1923 



Pounds 

' 129, 726 

488, 577 

1,230,919 

1, 634, 077 

154,102 

38,515 



3, 675, 916 



1924 



Pounds 

136, 922 

330, 791 

1,427,106 

1,600,813 

268,519 

25, 995 



3, 790, 146 



CANADA 



Lake 


1913 


1914 


1915 


1916 


1917 1918 


Great Lakes: 

Ontario 


Pounds 
473, 167 

1, 938, 992 

1, 010, 100 
373, 468 

1. 199. 206 


Pounds 

515. 537 

1. 992, 618 

1, 194, 307 

337, 564 

995,041 


Pounds 
809. 618 

1. 832. 243 

1, 100. 743 
841, 980 

1, 349, 624 


Pounds 
1, 130. 614 
1, 086, 085 
1, 240, 269 
464, 941 
685, 140 


Pounds ] Pounds 
1,140,445 1,273,501 
1,239,521 1,128,256 


Erie 


Huron 


1,069,355 1.113,226 
446,457 1 1,517,395 
680 717 1 677 706 


Superior 


Lake of the Woods 






Total.. 


4. 994. 933 


5. 035. 067 


5. 934. 208 


4. 607. 049 


4, 576, 495 5, 710, 804 


Winnipeg.. 


3. 197, 500 

1, 101, 400 

178, 000 

195. 000 

3. 288, 800 


2, 141, 600 

908. 800 

6,800 

316, 800 

4, 950. 800 


2, 247, 000 
957. 400 
306. 500 
522, 200 

6, 013. 100 


2, 645, 300 
576, 000 
223, 800 
876, 800 

4,211,300 


2, 815, 100 

962. 600 

262, 000 

2,200 

1, 601, 800 


3, 052, 500 
1 718 100 


Winnipegosis 


Manitoba 


625, 000 


Lesser Slave 


1, 834, 200 


All other « 


6, 893, 600 






Total 


7, 960, 700 ! 8. 324. 800 


10. 046, 200 


8. .533, 200 


5. 643, 700 


14. 123, 400 


Grand total 


12,955,633 13. .■^59867 


15, 980, 408 


13, 139, 249 


10, 220, 195 


19, 833, 484 









> New York catch estimated. 2 Minnesota catch estimated. ' Wisconsin catch estimated. 
* Includes the entire whitefish catch of Saskatchewan which during the period, 1913-1924, averaged 
,716,400 pounds annually. 



142 



TAKIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS 



Table 108. — Whitefish: Domefitic and foreign catch, 1913-1924 — Continued 

CANADA— Continued 



Lake 


1919 


1920 


1921 


1922 


1923 


1924 


Great Lakes: 

Ontario -. 


Pounds 
1, 586, 333 
1, 094, 280 

1, 280, 963 

2, 029. 699 
496, 483 


Pouruis 
2, 024, 058 

818, 304 
1. 430, 248 
1, 704, 733 

398, 115 


Pounds 
2, 156. 986 

964, 648 
1, 285, 554 
1, 497, 289 

384, 664 


Pounds 
2, 096, 619 

751. 270 
1, 388, 943 
1, 198. 100 

590, 249 


Pounds 
2, 563, 764 

536, 123 
1, 517, 077 
1, 267, 371 

603, 612 


Pounds 
2, 653, 810 


Erie 


580, 356 


Huron 


1, 475. 691 


Superior 


282, 806 


Lake of the Woods 


735, 380 






Total . . 


6, 487, 758 


6, 37^, 458 


6, 289, 141 


6, 025, 181 


6, 487, 947 


5, 728, 043 






Nortiiern lakes: 

Winnipeg - -. 


2, 975, 500 

1, 240, 400 

471, 900 

1, 768, 800 


2, 903, 000 
941, 300 
53, 000 
1,581,300 
1, 780, 000 
3, 891. 900 


3, 243, 000 
941, 100 
77, 600 
1, 564, 000 
2, 000, 000 
4, 087, 600 


2, 644, 700 
722, 200 
77, 600 
1, 540, 200 
1, 552, 000 
3,178,400 


1,626,400 
638, 000 
78, 000 
1, 478, 500 
1, 143, 000 
4,210,800 


1. 690, 100 


Winnipegosis. 


822, 400 


Manitoba 


99, 000 


Lesser Slave . .. .. 


1, 093, 700 


Buffalo - . 


1, 159, 000 


All other 1 


6, 572, 900 


5, 258, 600 






Total 


13. 029, 500 


11,150,500 


11, 913, 300 


9, 715, 100 


9, 174, 700 


10, 022, 800 






Grand total. . 


19, 517, 258 


17, 525, 958 


18, 202, 441 


15, 740, 281 


15, 662, 647 


15, 750, 843 







* Inslulas the entire whiteQsh catch of Saskatchewan which during the period, 1913-1924, 
2,716,400 pounds annually. 

Table 109.— Whitefish: Fishing cost, 1924 
[In cents per pound] 



Country and lake 


Labor 


Interest 


All other 


Total 


Fresh caught: 

United States- 
Erie - - -- - 


8. 4926 
5. 0292 
12. 5740 
7. 5038 
9. 6342 


0. 4913 
.2464 
.7017 
.6881 
.7291 


5.2448 

5. 0252 

6. 3594 
4. 1725 
4. 0892 


14. 2287 


Michigan. . .. . . . .. 


10. 3008 


Superior ... .... 


19. 6351 




12. 3644 




14. 4525 






Weighted average '-- .. .... . 


6. 8967 


.4781 


4. 8033 


12. 1781 






Canada: 

Erie 


7. 0785 
4. 3794 

1. 7212 
4. 1902 

2. 0972 
2. 9510 
4. 0057 
7. 2266 
2. 8268 


.7391 
.5513 


7. 0870 

3. 2065 

1. 7204 
4. 1463 
2. 1958 
4. 8417 

4. 0563 
6. 7395 

2. 7397 


14. 9046 




8. 1372 


Lesser Slave . ... 


3. 4416 


Lake of the Woods 


.0669 


8. 4034 




4.2930 




.0030 
.5436 


7. 7957 




8. 6056 


Manitoba .. . . 


13. 9661 


Winnipeg- . 


.1878 


5. 7543 








3. 7888 


.3670 


3. 6414 


7. 7972 






Frozen caught: 
Canada- 


2.0872 
L3954 
2. 7927 




2. 2869 
2. 3032 
2. 6391 


4. 3741 


Buffalo 




3. 6986 






5.4318 










1. 5558 




2. 3242 


3.8800 









1 B;\sed on relative production: Erie, 9.05 per cent; Michigan, 43.82 per cent; Superior, 7.35 per cent; 
Huron, 39.07 per cent; Lake of the Woods, 0.71 per cent. 

2 Bised on relative production: Erie, 7.08 per cent; Lesser Slave, 10.69 per cent; Huron, 18 per cent; Lake 
of the Woods, 8.97 per cent; Winnipegosis, 1.60 per cent; Superior, 3.45 per cent; Ontario, 32.37 per cent; 
Manitoba, 0.07 per cent; Winnipeg, 17.77 per cent. 

3 Based on relative production: Winnipeg, 9.63 per cent; Buffalo, 83.66 per cent; Manitoba, 6.71 per 
cent. 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS 



143 



Table 110. — Whitefish: Boxing and icing, freezing and storing, and boxing cost, 

1924- 

[In cents per pound] 
BOXING AND ICING (FRESH FISH) 



Country and lake 



Excluding 
interest 



Including 
interest 



United States: 

Erie 

Huron 

Michigan 

Weighted average i 

Canada: 

Erie. 

Huron. -- 

Superior 

Winnipeg 

Winnipegosis 

Buffalo and Lesser Slave 

Weighted average ^ 



1. 6670 
1. 9804 
1. 5256 



2. 2150 



1. 7365 

2. 2519 
1. 6548 



1. 7328 


1. 9166 


1. 4001 


1.4418 


1. 9172 


2.0029 


2. 0685 


2. 0848 


2. 5721 


2. 6135 


2. 3713 


2. 5693 


2. 3295 


2. 3576 



2. 2789 



FREEZING AND STORING (FROZEN FISH) 



United States: 

Erie. 


1. 8257 
1. 9025 


1.8374 


Michigan ... .... 


1.9119 








1.8893 


1. 8991 






Canada: 

Erie 


1. 3174 
2. 1644 

2. 3228 
2. 0903 


1. 3701 


Huron 


2. 2588 


Superior .. . 


2. 7192 


Winnipeg . . . . . 


2. 1029 






Weighted average * 


2. 0207 


2. 0976 







BOXING (FROZEN FISH) 



United States: Erie ' 


1. 2159 


1. 2902 






Canada: 

Erie 


.9220 
1. 2280 
1.5710 
2. 3559 
1.0664 


.9749 


Huron 


1.3223 


Manitoba 


1. 5765 


Winnipegosis 


2. 4027 


Buffalo and Lesser Slave 


1.0744 






Weighted average ' 


1. 3082 


1. 3516 







' Based on relative production: Erie, 9.85 per cent; Huron, 42.49 per cent; Michigan, 47.66 per cent. 
2 Based on relative production: Erie, 8.29 per cent; Huron, 21.07 per cent; Superior, 4.04 per cent; Winni- 
peg, 22.70 per cent; Winnipegosis, 11.74 per cent; Buffalo and Lesser Slave, 32.16 per cent. 
' Based on relative production: Erie, 17.13 per cent; Michigan, 82.87 per cent. 

* Based on relative production: Erie, 14.77 per cent; Huron, 37.56 per cent; Superior, 7.20 per cent; Winni- 
peg, 40.47 per cent. 

* No data available for other producing centers. 

' Based on relative production: Erie, 11.10 per cent; Huron, 28.22 per cent; Manitoba, 1.89 per cent; 
Winnipegosis, 15.72 per cent; Buffalo and Lesser Slave. 43.07 per cent. 



144 



TAEIFr INFOEMATION SURVEYS 



Table 111. — Whiiefish: Transportation costs, 1924 
[In cents per pound] 



Country and lake 



To New York City 



Fresh Frozen 



To Chicago 



Fresh Frozen 



United States: 

Ontario 

Erie -... 

Huron 

Michigan 

Superior 

Lake of the Woods... 

Weighted average i 

Canada: 

Ontario 

Erie 

Huron 

Superior. 

Lake of the Woods. .. 

Winnipeg 

Winnipegosis 

Manitoba 

Lesser Slave 

Buffalo.. 

Weighted average 2 



2. 3000 
2. 3125 
2. 8625 
4. 3625 
4. 9250 
5. 3500 



0. 7790 
.7157 

1. 1020 

1. 2794 

1. 7164 

2. 4004 



3. 2750 
2. 3750 

1. 9625 
2. 0625 

2. 7625 

3. 6250 



3. 5910 



1. 1840 



2. 1562 



3. 3750 

2. 6250 

3. 4375 

5. 6500 

6. 0000 
6. 0000 
6. 5000 
6. 5000 
5. 6500 
5. 6500 



.9310 
.9310 
1. 0704 

1. 7164 

2. 3307 
2. 5207 
2. 8501 

2. 5587 

3. 6607 
3. 6607 



4. 0000 

2. 8750 

3. 3750 

6. 8125 

5. 0000 
4. 3750 

7. 1250 
5. 1250 

4. 9375 
4. 9375 



4.7483 



2. 0626 



4. 5095 



1. 1210 
.8297 
.8297 
.5637 
.6714 

1. 2920 



.7198 



1. 0640 
.8297 
1. 0197 
1. 3807 
1. 5454 
1. 4314 
1. 7987 

1. 4314 

2. 6094 
2. 6094 



1. 5356 



' Based on relative production: Ontario, 3.61 percent; Erie, 8.73 percent; Huron, 37. 65 percent; Michigan, 
42.21 per cent; Superior, 7.08 per cent; Lake of the Woods, 0.69 per cent. 

2 Based on relative production: Ontario, 25.30 per cent; Erie, 5.25 per cent; Huron, 14.07 percent; Superior, 
2.70 per cent; Lake of the Woods, 7.01 per cent; Winnipeg, 15.15 per cent; Winnipegosis, 7.83 per cent; 
Manitoba, 0.95 per cent; Lesser Slave, 10.42 per cent; Buffalo, 11.05 per cent. 



Table 112. — Lake trout: Domestic and foreign catch, 1913-1924 

UNITED STATES 



Lake 


1913 


1914 


1915 


1916 


1917 


1918 


Ontario 


Pounds 

27, 100 

1,740 

2, 162, 774 

6, 306, 605 

2 2,373,131 


Pounds 

1 29, 298 

8,782 

1,357,114 

6, 837, 189 

2 1, 667, 322 


Pounds 

31,497 

16, 946 

1, 773, 574 

7,703,711 

2 1, 366, 246 


Poxmds 

13, 939 

20, 553 

1,734,491 

5, 999, 467 

2 2, 166, 295 


Pounds 
23, 670 

4,952 
2,111,412 
6,611,576 
1,981,155 


Pounds 
21,971 


Erie . 


33, 457 


Huron 


2, 601, 139 


Michigan 


4, 810, 290 


Superior 


2, 318, 481 






Total 


10, 871, 350 


9, 899, 705 


10, 891, 974 


9, 934, 745 


10, 732, 765 


9, 785, 318 







Lake 


1919 


1920 


1921 


1922 


1923 


1924 


Ontario 


Pounds 
26, 022 
11,061 
2, 315, 525 
6,482,113 
3,441,587 


Pounds 

27, 523 

2,397 

1, 209, 955 

2 6,782,391 

2 2, 043, 602 


Pounds 
1 25, 195 
46, 046 
1,358,240 
6, 688, 926 
2, 120, 903 


Pounds 
» 34, 315 
2,152 
1,827,059 
7,065,427 
2, 173, 249 


Pounds 
1 35, 642 
943 
1,826,699 
6, 176, 578 
1, 899, 932 


Pounds 
44, 735 


Erie . . 


1,118 


Huron 


1,420,960 


Michigan 


6, 627, 951 


Superior . 


2, 048, 921 






Total 


12, 277, 208 


10, 065, 868 


10,239,310 


11,102,202 


9,939,794 


10, 143, 685 







I New York catch estimated. 



2 Minnesota catch estimated. 



TARIFF INFOEMATION SURVEYS 



145 



Table 112. — Lake trout: Domestic and foreign catch, 1913-1924 — Continued 

CANADA 



Lake 


1913 


1914 


1915 


1916 


1917 


1918 


Great Lakes: 

Ontario 


Pounds 

547, 803 

1,769 

3, 324, 035 

1, 401, 677 

90, 058 


Pounds 
600,364 
2,494 
3,009,058 

1, 438, 842 
161, 713 


Pounds 

550, 769 

2,383 

3, 901, 138 

1, 645, 278 

92, 753 


Pounds 

347, 767 

3,714 

3, 728, 990 

1,501,719 

74, 616 


Pounds 

463, 924 

2,344 

3, 489, 710 

1, 660, 957 

111,804 


Pounds 
385, 601 


Erie 


2,446 

3, 478, 290 

2,659,057 

94, 205 


Huron . . 


Superior . 


Lake of the Woods 




Total 


5, 365, 342 


5, 212, 471 


6, 192, 321 


5, 656, 806 


5, 728, 739 


6, 619, 599 




Northern lakes: 
Lesser Slave. - 


12,000 
196, 300 


2,000 
430, 100 


2,500 
441, 500 


10, 200 
369, 000 


10,000 
358, 400 


51,900 


All other 


702, 600 






Total 


208, 300 


432, 100 


444, 000 


379, 200 


368, 400 


754,500 






Grand total 


5, 573, 642 


5, 644, 571 


6, 636, 321 


6,036,006 


6,097,139 


7, 374, 099 




Lake 


1919 


1920 


1921 


1922 


1923 


1924 


Great Lakes: 

Ontario 

Erie 

Huron 

Superior 

Lake of the Woods 


Pounds 

553, 203 

1,528 

'3, 321, 747 

1, 960, 222 

90,807 


Pounds 

458, 663 

1,044 

2, 870, 097 

1, 332, 428 

123, 232 


Pounds 

529, 302 

637 

3,176,262 

1, 512, 942 

80,342 


Pounds 

720, 894 

526 

3, 769, 236 

1,872,321 

87, 783 


Pounds 

748, 781 

239 

3, 397, 306 

1,956,211 

73,044 


Pounds 

938, 994 

511 

3, 789, 782 

1,711,028 

86, 351 






Total 


5, 927, 507 


4, 785, 464 


5, 299, 485 


6, 450, 760 


6, 175, 581 


6, 526, 666 






Northern lakes: 

Lesser Slave 


95,500 
570,300 


86,300 
244, 200 


500 
417, 900 


400 
412, 000 


10, 500 
434,000 


86, 300 


All other. 


581, 500 






Total 


665, 800 


330, 500 


418, 400 


412, 400 


444, 500 


667, 800 






Grand total 


6, 593, 307 


5, 115, 964 


5, 717, 885 


6, 863, 160 


6, 620, 081 


7, 194, 466 







Table 113. — Lake trout: Fishing cost, 1924 
[In cents per pound] 



Country and lake 


Labor 


Interest 


AU other 


Total 


Fresh caught: 

United States- 
Erie 


6. 1489 
5. 3340 
5. 9223 
8. 4383 


1. 0175 
.3605 
.4298 
.5187 


5. 9737 
4.9100 
4. 4272 
4.9655 


13. 1401 


Michigan 


10. 6045 


Superior . . ... 


10. 7793 


Huron . 


13. 9225 






Weighted average ' 


5. 8902 


.3966 


4.8218 


11.1086 






Canada- 
Erie 


3,4624 
3. 7693 
2. 4787 
3. 7939 


.1947 
.3067 
.0043 
.5149 


3. 0732 
4. 1581 
4. 1148 
3.5244 


6. 7303 


Huron 


8. 2341 


Superior 


6. 5978 


Ontario.- _ . 


7. 8332 






Weighted average '. . . . . . 


3.4300 


.2567 


4.0541 


7. 7408 







' Based on relative production: Erie, 0.01 per cent; Michigan, 65.95 per cent; Superior, 19.90 per cent; 
Huron, 14.14 per cent. 

2 Based on relative production: Erie, 0.01 per cent; Huron, 58.84 per cent; Superior, 26.57 per cent; 
Ontario, 14.58 per cent. 



146 



TARIFF INFOEMATION SURVEYS 



Table 114. — Lake trout: Boxing and icing, freezing and storing, and boxing cost, 

1924 

[In cents per pound] 
BOXING AND ICING (FRESH FISH) 



Country and lake 


Excluding 
interest 


Including 
interest 


United States: 

Erie .„ 


1. 6670 
1.9804 
1. 5256 


1. 7365 


Huron .. ...... 


2. 2519 


Michigan . . _ . _ 


1. 6548 






Weighted average J . . 


1. 6059 


1. 7602 






Canada: 

Erie 


1. 4001 
1.9172 
2. 0685 
2. 3295 


1. 4418 


Huron . 


2.0029 


Superior .- . - - 


2. 0848 


Buffalo and Lesser Slave .. . . 


2. 3576 






Weighted average 2 — 


1.9699 


2. 0334 







FREEZING AND STORING (FROZEN FISH) 



United States: 

Erie -„ . . 


1. 8257 
1. 9025 


1. 8374 


Michigan _. _ ._ -... _. . 


1.9119 






Weighted average 3 


1.9025 


1.9119 


Canada: 

Erie . 


1.3174 
2. 1644 
2. 3228 


1. 3701 


Huron ______ _ 


2. 2588 


Superior _ _ . 


2. 7192 






Weighted average < 


2. 2136 


2.4019 



BOXING (FROZEN FISH) 



United States: Erie » „ . 


1. 2159 


1. 2902 






Canada: 

Erie .. 


.9220 
1. 2280 
L0664 


.9749 


Huron ._ 


1. 3223 


Buffalo and Lesser Slave . 


1. 0744 






Weighted average « 


1.2244 


1.3167 



> Based on relative production: Erie, 0.01 per cent; Huron, 17.65 per cent; Michigan, 82.34 per cent. 

'Based on relative production: Erie, 0.01 per cent; Huron, 67.82 per cent; Superior, 30.62 per cent; 
Buffalo and Lesser Slave, 1.55 per cent. 

' No data available for other producing centers. 

* Based on relative production: Erie, 0.01 per cent; Huron, 97.76 per cent; Buffalo and Lesser Slav^ 
2.23 per cent. 

» Based on relative production: Erie, 0.02 per cent; Michigan, 99.98 per cent. 

« Based on relative production: Erie, 0.01 per cent; Huron, 68.89 per cent; Superior, 31.10 per cent. 



TAKIFF INFOEMATION SURVEYS 



147 



Table 115. — Lake trout: Transportation costs, 1924 
[In cents per pound] 



Country and lake 


To New York City 


To Chicago 


Fresh 


Frozen 


Fresh 


Frozen 


United States: 

Ontario . _ 


2.3000 
2. 3125 
2. 8625 
4. 3625 
4. 9250 


0.7790 
.7157 
1. 1020 
1.2794 
1. 7164 


3. 2750 
2. 3750 
1.9625 
2.0625 
2. 7625 


1. 1210 


Erie — 


.8297 


Huron . . . 


.8297 


Michigan .. 


.5637 


Superior . 


.6714 






Weighted average ' — . 


4. 2535 


1.3387 


2. 1925 


.6250 






Canada: 

Ontario 


3. 3750 
2. 6250 
3. 4375 
5. 6500 
6. 0000 
5.6500 


.9310 
.9310 
1.0704 
1.7164 
2. 3307 
3. 6607 


4. 0000 
2. 8750 
3. 3750 
6.8125 
5.0000 
4. 9375 


1. 0640 


Erie 


.8297 


Huron 


1. 0197 


Superior. - 


1. 3807 


Lake of the Woods 


1. 5454 


Lesser Slave 


2.6094 






Weighted average ' . 


4.0632 


1, 2679 


4.3946 


1. 1469 







1 Based on relative production: Ontario, 0.44 per cent; Erie, 0.01 per cent; Huron, 14.08 per cent; Mich- 
igan, 65.66 per cent; Superior, 19.81 per cent. 

2 Based on relative production: Ontario, 14.20 percent; Erie, 0.01 per cent; Huron, 57.31 percent; Supe- 
rior, 25.87 per cent; Lake of the Woods, 1.31 per cent; Lesser Slave, 1.30 per cent. 



Table 116. — Ciscoes: Domestic and foreign catch, 1913-1924 

UNITED STATES 



Lake 



Erie. 



Lake 


1913 


1914 


1915 


1916 


1917 


1918 


Erie 


Pounds 
12, 513, 180 


Pounds 
14, 107, 982 


Pounds 
15,978,219 


Pounds 
8,336,954 


Pounds 
19,453,146 


Pounds 
35, 290, 527 






Lake 


1919 


1920 


1921 


1922 


1923 


1924 


Erie 


Pounds 
17,846,290 


Pounds 
12,893,192 


Pounds 
14,964,135 


Pounds 
14,021,882 


Pounds 
20, 930, 284 


Pounds 
21,292,733 






CANADA 



1913 



Pounds 
11, 608, 428 



1914 



Pounds 
5, 981, 542 



Pounds 
5, 573, 688 



Pounds 
5,210,531 



Pounds 
14, 157, 83' 



1918 



Pounds 
13,531,993 



Lake 


1919 


1920 


1921 


1922 


1923 


1924 


Erie.- 


Pounds 
7,425,713 


Pounds 
9, 651, 284 


Pounds 
5,225,300 


Pounds 
6,306,318 


Pounds 
9,241,118 


Pounds 
10,907.928 











148 



TAEIFF INFORMATION SUEVEYS' 



Table 117.— Ciscoes: Fishing cost, 1924 
[In cents per pound] 



Country and lake 


Labor 


Interest 


All other 


Total 


Fresh caught: 

United States— Erie-.. 


2. 7880 
1. 2190 


0.1064 
.0650 


1.9090 
1. 1790 


4. 8034 


Canada — Erie 


2.4630 







Table IIS. — Ciscoes: Boxing and icing, freezing and storing, and boxing cost, 19S4 

[In cents per pound] 
BOXING AND ICING (FRESH FISH) 



Country and lake 


Excluding 
interest 


Including 
interest 


United States: Erie 


1. 6670 
1. 4001 


1. 7365 


Canada: Erie 


1. 4418 







FREEZING AND STORING (FROZEN FISH) 



United States: Erie- 
Canada: Erie 



1. 8374 
1.3174 



1.9119 
1. 3701 



BOXING (FROZEN FISH) 


United States: Erie 


1.2159 
.9220 


1. 2902 


Canada: Erie 


.9749 







Table 119. — Ciscoes: Transportation costs, 1924 
[In cents per pound] 



Country and lake 


To New York City 


To Chicago 


Fresh 


Frozen 


Fresh 


Frozen 


United States: Erie 


2.3125 
2. 6250 


0. 7157 
.9310 


2. 3750 
2. 8750 


0. 8297 


Canada: Erie 


.8297 







Table 120. — Blue pike: Domestic and foreign catch, 1913-1924 
UNITED STATES 



Lake 


1913 


1914 


1915 


1916 


1917 


1918 


Ontario 


Pounds 

38,500 
1, 842, 684 


Pounds 
I 39, 304 
11,396,423 


Pounds 
50, 379 
18, 760, 849 


Pounds 

22, 126 
9, 380, 736 


Pounds 

49, 517 
1, 604, 672 


Pounds 

108, 177 
1,222,446 


Erie 




Total 


1, 881, 184 


11,435,727 


18,811,228 


9,402,862 


1,654,189 


1,330,623 





Lake 


1919 


1920 


1921 


1922 


1923 


1924 


Ontario 


Potinds 

34,742 
1, 675, 197 


Pounds 

' 18, 130 
3,964,857 


Pounds 

1 1,518 
8,944,475 


Pounds 
1 1, 892 
10,359,187 


Pounds 

13,286 
9, 682, 996 


Pounds 
3,149 


Erie 


8, 966, 848 




Total 


1,709,939 


3,982,987 


8,945,993 


10,361,079 


9, 686, 282 


8,960,947 





' New York catch estimated. 



TAEIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS 



149 



Table 120. — Blue pike: Domestic and foreign catch, 1913-1924 — Continued 

CANADA 



Lake 


1913 


1914 


1915 


1916 


1917 


1918 




Pounds 


Pounds 


Pounds 


Pounds 


Pounds 


Pounds 
14, 941 


Erie - - -.-- 


2 488, 167 


2 2, 967, 571 


4, 882, 312 


2, 538, 926 


565,476 


784, 953 






Total 


488, 167 


2,967,571 


4, 882, 312 


2,538,926 


565,476 


799, 894 







Lake 


1919 


1920 


1921 


1922 


1923 


1924 


Ontario 


Pounds 

2,692 
2, 387, 787 


Pounds 

9,842 
3, 354, 523 


Pounds 

23,034 
6, 306, 554 


Pounds 

28.706 
6, 312, 589 


Pounds 

49, 808 
3, 193, 677 


Pounds 
47, 801 


Erie.- 


2, 988, 097 






Total 


2,390,479 


3,364,305 


6, 389, 588 


6, 341, 295 


3, 243, 545 


3, 035, 898 







2 Estimated. 



Table 121. — Blue pike: Fishing cost, 1924 
[In cents per pound] 



Country and lake 


Labor 


Interest 


All other 


Total 


Fresh caught: 

United States: Erie 


3. 5110 
3. 0453 


0. 1978 
.2792 


2. 2294 
2. 3505 


5. 9382 


Canada: Erie . . . 


5. 6750 







Table 122. — Blue pike: Boxing and icing, freezing and storing, and boxing 

costs, 1924 

[In cents per pound] 
BOXING AND ICING (FRESH FISH) 



United States: Erie. 
Canada: Erie 



Country and lake 



Excluding 
interest 



1. 6670 
1. 4001 



Including 
interest 



1. 7365 
1.4418 



FREEZING AND STORING (FROZEN FISH) 


United States: Erie 


1.8374 
1. 3174 


L 9119 


Canada: Erie 


1. 3701 






BOXING (FROZEN FISH) 


United States: Erie.. 


1. 2159 
.9220 


1.2902 


Canada: Erie 


.9749 







150 



TAEIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS 



Table 123. — Blue pike: Transportation costs, 1924 
[In cents per pound] 



Country and lake 


To New York City 


To Chicago 


Fresh 


Frozen 


Fresh ■ 


Frozen 


United States: 


2. 3000 
2. 3125 


0. 7790 
.7157 


3. 2750 
2. 3750 


1. 1210 


Erie 


.8297 








2. 3125 


.7157 


2. 3754 


.8297 






Canada: 

Ontario .- - 


3. 3750 
2. 6250 


0. 9310 
.9310 


4.0000 
2. 8750 


1. 0640 


Erie , 


.8297 


Weighted average 2 


2. 6368 


.9310 


2. 8927 


.8334 







1 Based on relative production: Ontario, 0.04 per cent; Erie, 99.96 per cent. 
'Based on relative production: Ontario, 1.57 per cent; Erie, 98.43 per cent. 

Table 124. — Yellow pike, domestic and foreign catch, 1913-1934 
UNITED STATES 



Lake 


1913 


1914 


1915 


1916 


1917 


1918 


Ontario 


Pounds 

4,340 

422, 300 

415, 992 

164, 831 

61, 507 

1 428, 890 


Pounds 


Pounds 

4,682 

1, 824, 096 

1,066,772 

216, 026 

71,410 

1 567, 204 


Pounds 

4,723 

2, 025, 392 

845, 799 

274, 956 

29, 718 

1 312, 612 


Pounds 

5,135 

1, 616, 538 

1, 146, 993 

194, 127 

24, 525 

I 468, 710 


Pounds 
11,553 


Erie 


1, 850, 072 

340, 288 

224, 961 

60, 517 

1 449, 855 


813, 679 


Huron - -- 


1, 903, 800 


Michigan . . 


121,481 


Superior 


45, 488 


Lake of the Woods 


1 367, 193 






Total 


1, 497, 860 


2, 925, 693 


3, 750, 190 


3, 493, 200 


3, 456, 028 


3, 263, 194 







Lake 


1919 


1920 


1921 


1922 


1923 


1924 


Ontario 


Pounds 

7,657 

597, 444 

1, 387, 897 

121, 647 

16, 793 

408, 013 


Pounds 
8,907 
883, 734 
844, 404 

3 113, 158 
3 17, 738 
388, 542 


Pounds 
2 22, 886 

1,032,244 
724, 220 
141, 458 
* 22, 401 
352, 301 


Pounds 

2 36, 287 

1, 050, 637 

1, 283, 829 

63, 842 

28, 065 

443, 740 


Pounds 

2 52, 445 

1,127,336 

809, 366 

99, 102 

21,808 

652, 344 


Pounds 
37, 970 


Erie 


1, 002, 132 


Huron 


729, 270 


Michigan - - 


111,393 


Superior 


22, 727 


Lake of the Woods 


626, 193 






Total. 


2,539,451 


2, 256, 483 


2, 295, 510 


2, 906, 400 


2, 762, 401 


2, 529, 685 







CANADA 



Lake 


1913 


1914 


1915 


1916 


1917 


1918 


Great Lakes: 

Ontario - 


Pounds 
26, 748 
963, 670 
604, 185 
104, 068 
879, 955 


Pounds 
64, 251 

2, 085, 829 
667, 482 
129, 307 
922, 968 


Pounds 

85, 965 

607, 710 

585, 963 

179, 961 

1, 163, 735 


Pounds 
40, 003 
599, 152 
539, 094 
89, 733 
641,386 


Pounds 

53, 660 

227, 459 

500, 842 

70, 070 

961, 653 


Pounds 
15, 141 


Erie 


184, 379 


Huron 


465, 625 


Superior 


107, 282 


Lake of the Woods 


753, 370 






Total 


2, 578, 626 


3, 869, 837 


2, 623, 334 


1,909,368 


1, 813, 684 


1, 525, 797 






Northern lakes: 

Winnipeg 


1, 534, 300 

865, 000 

785, 000 

12,600 

376, 300 


1, 667, 200 

1, 131, 100 

62, 900 

5,500 

461, 000 


2, 408, 600 
978, 100 

1,511,800 

16,600 

745, 700 


1, 035, 500 

431,900 

451, 000 

96,400 

767, 200 


1, 860, 100 
1, 292, 000 
1, 245, 000 
367, 700 
1,315,000 


1, 561, 100 




1, 353, 600 




701, 100 


Lesser Slave - 


43, 400 


All other 


746, 800 






Total - -- 


3, 573, 200 


3, 327, 700 


5, 660, 800 


2,782,000 


6, 079, 800 


4, 406, 000 








6, 151, 826 


7, 197, 537 


8, 284, 134 


4, 691, 368 


7, 893, 484 


5,931,797 







• Minnesota catch estimated. 

* New York catch estimated. 



3 Wisconsin catch estimated. 
* Michigan catch estimated. 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS 



151 



Table 124. — Yellow pike, domestic and foreign catch, 1913-1924 — Continued 

CANADA— Continued 



Lake 


1919 


1920 


1921 


1922 


1923 


1924 


Great Lakes: 

Ontario 


Pounds 
40, 459 
144, 323 
484, 805 
140, 966 
837, 049 


Pounds 
36, 551 
166, 013 
448, 944 
118,779 
649, 044 


Pounds 
73, 305 
311,021 
324, 493 
199, 208 
972, 177 


Pounds 
116,230 
505, 070 
446, 203 
164, 192 

1, 041, 601 


Pounds 
167, 985 
602, 564 
483, 077 
158, 705 

1, 151, 748 


Pounds 
121, 604 


Erie.- 


614 821 




502, 448 
81, 167 


Superior 


Lake of the Woods 


1, 398, 444 




Total . - 


1, 647, 602 


1,419,331 


1, 880, 204 


2, 273, 296 


2, 564, 079 


2, 718 484 






Northern lakes: 

Winnipeg 


1, 613, 300 

1, 189, 900 

611, 900 

97, 100 


1, 686, 000 

1, 370, 400 

563, 000 

59, 600 

2,300 

836, 500 


1, 482, 200 

1, 159, 700 

900, OOO- 

145, 400 

10, 000 

587, 500 


2, 142, 800 

1, 832, 800 

1, 200, 000 

74, 700 

6,000 

518, 800 


3, 067, 500 
1, 991, 300 
1, 540, 000 

128, 100 
95, 900 

528, 700 


2, 840, 200 

1, 280, 700 

1, 832, 100 

124 200 


Winnipegosis 


Manitoba 


Lesser Slave . 


Buffalo 


1,500 


All other 


641, 000 


919, 100 




Total 


4, 153, 200 


4, 517, 700 


4, 284, 800 


5, 775, 100 


7,351,500 


6, 997, 800 




Grand total ... . 


5,800,802 


5, 937, 031 


6, 165, 004 


8, 048, 396 


9, 915, 579 


9, 716, 284 





Table 125. — Yellow pike: Fishing cost, 1924 
[In cents per pound] 



Country and lake 


Labor 


Interest 


All other 


Total 


Fresh caught: 

United States- 
Erie 


7. 0394 
6. 0337 
2.2322 
7.8846 


0.3748 
.4356 
.4664 
.5968 


5.2329 
1. 7055 
3.9188 
3. 3465 


12. 6471 


Michigan 


8. 1748 


Huron 


6. 6174 


Lake of the Woods 


11. 8279 






Weighted average i 


5.7883 


.4609 


4. 2072 


10. 4564 






Canada- 
Erie 


10. 2982 
3.3938 
1. 5293 
3.3142 
1.5928 
2. 8205 
5. 5257 
1. 9934 


1. 1431 
.5281 


6. 1231 
5. 0160 
1.6560 
3. 2796 
1. 6675 
5.5824 
5. 1021 
2.5296 


17. 5644 


Huron. 


8. 9379 


Lesser Slave 


3. 1853 


Lake of the Woods 


.0528 


6.6466 


Winnipegosis - . 


3.2603 


Superior . 


.0239 


8.4268 


Manitoba.. 


10. 6278 


Winnipeg 


.0961 


4. 6191 






Weighted average 2.. 


3.6445 


.2061 


3.5171 


7. 3677 






Frozen, winter caught: 
Canada- 
Winnipeg 


2. 5984 
1.1834 
1. 7498 




2. 1283 
1. 8202 
1. 5921 


4. 7267 


Buffalo. 




3.0036 


Manitoba _ 




3.3419 








Weighted average s 


2.0787 




1.8264 


3. 9051 









' Based on relative production: Erie, 40.59 per cent; Michigan, 4.51 per cent; Huron, 29.54 per cent; 
Lake of the Woods, 25.36 per cent. 

2 Based on relative production: Erie, 10.29 per cent; Huron, 8.41 per cent; Lesser Slave, 1.68 per cent; 
Lake of the Woods, 23.40 per cent; Winnipegosis, 10.59 per cent; Superior, 1.36 per cent; Manitoba, 11.57 
per cent; Winnipeg, 32.70 per cent. 

3 Based on relative production: Winnipeg, 41.77 per cenf Buffalo, 4.52 per cent; Manitoba, 53.71 per cent. 



152 



TAEIFF TNFOEMATION SUEVEYS 



Table 126. — -Yelloiv pike: Boxing and icing, freezing and storing, and boxing 

cost, 1924 

[In cents per pound] 
BOXING AND ICING (FRESH FISH) 



Country and lake 



United States: 

Erie 

Huron 

Michigan 

Weighted average' 

Canada: 

Erie 

Huron 

Superior 

Winnipeg 

Winnipegosis 

Buffalo and Lesser Slave 

Weighted average 2 



Excluding 
interest 


Including 
interest 


1. 6670 
1. 9804 
1.5256 


1. 7365 

2. 2519 
1. 6548 


1. 7825 


1. 9355 


1. 4001 
1.9172 
2. 0685 
2. 5721 
2.371.3 
2.3295 


1. 4418 
2. 0029 
2.0848 
2. 6135 
2. 5693 
2. 3576 


2. 3190 


2. 4007 



FREEZING AND STORING (FROZEN FISH) 



United States: 

Erie 


1. 8257 
1. 9025 


1. 8374 


Michigan 


1.9119 






Weighted average ' 


L8334 


1. 8448 






Canada: 

Erie 


1.3174 
2. 1644 
2.3228 
2. 0903 


1. 3701 


Huron ... .... 


2. 2588 


Superior 


2.7192 


Winnipeg 


2. 1029 






Weighted average < .. 


1. 9866 


2.0231 







BOXING (FROZEN FISH) 



United States: Erie s 


1. 2159 


L2902 






Canada: 

Erie 


0. 9220 
1. 2280 
1. 5710 
2. 3559 
1.0664 


0. 9749 


Huron.. . . . 


1.3223 


Manitoba ... 


1. 5765 


Winnipegosis 


2. 4027 


Buffalo and Lesser Slave 


1. 0744 






Weighted average^ 


L6560 


1. 6907 







1 Based on relative production: Erie, 54.38 per cent; Huron, 39.57 per cent; Michigan, 6.05 per cent. 

' Based on relative production: Erie, 11.29 per cent; Huron, 9.23 per cent; Superior, 1.49 per cent; Win- 
nipeg, 52.16 per cent; Winnipegosis, 23.52 per cent; Buffalo and Lesser Slave, 2.31 per cent. 

3 Based on relative production: Erie, 90.00 per cent; Michigan, 10.00 per cent. 

* Based on relative production: Erie, 15.22 per cent; Huron, 12.44 per cent; Superior, 2.01 per cent; Win- 
nipeg, 70.33 per cent. 

« No data available for other producing centers. 

6 Based on relative production: Erie, 14.12 per cent; Huron, 11.54 per cent; Manitoba, 42.06 per cent; 
Winnipegosis, 29.40 per cent; BuCfalo and Lesser Slave, 2.88 per cent. 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS 



153 



Table 127. — Yellow pike: Transportation costs, 1924 
[In cents per pound] 



Country and lake 



United States: 

Ontario r.-.-..^..-.. 

Erie 

Huron 

Michigan 

Superior 

Lake of the Woods... 

Weighted average i 

Canada: 

Ontario 

Erie 

Huron 

Superior 

Lake of the Woods... 

Winnipeg 

Winnipegosis 

Manitoba 

Lesser Slave 

Weighted average 2, 



To New York City 



Fresh Frozen 



2. 3000 
2.3125 
2. 8625 
4. 3625 

4. 9250 

5. 3500 



0. 7790 
. 7157. 

1. 1020 
1.2794 

1. 7164 
2. 4004 



3. 3364 



1. 2787 



To Chicago 



Fresh Frozen 



3. 2750 
2. 3750 

1. 9625 
2. 0625 

2. 7625 
3.6250 I 



2. 5687 



3. 3750 
2. 6250 
3. 4375 

5. 6500 
6. 0000 
6. 0000 

6. 5000 
6. 5000 
5. 6500 



5. 7503 



. 9310. 

. 9310 
1.0704 
1.7164 
2. 3307 
2. 5207 
2. 8501 
2. 5587 
3.6607 



2. 3392 



4. 0000 
2. 8750 

3. 3750 
6. 8125 
5. 0000 
4. 3750 
7. 1250 
5. 1250 

4. 9375 



5. 5074 



1. 1210 
.8297 
.8297 
.5637 
.6714 

1.2920 



.9364 



1. 0640 

.8297 
1.0197 
1.3807 
1.5454 
1.4314 

1. 7987 
1.4314 

2. 6094 



1. 4485 



1 Based on relative production: Ontario, 1.50 per cent; Erie, 39.62 per cent; Huron, 28.83 per cent; Michi- 
gan, 4.40 per cent; Superior, 0.90 per cent; Lake of the Woods, 24.75 per cent. 

2 Based on relative production: Ontario, 1.38 per cent; Erie, 6.99 per cent; Huron, 5.71 per cent; Superior, 
0.92 per cent; Lake of the Woods, 15.90 per cent; Winnipeg, 32.30 per cent; Winnipegosis, 14.56 per cent; 
Manitoba, 20.83 per cent; Lesser Slave, x.41 per cent. 



Table 128. — Yellow perch: Domestic and foreign catch, 1913-1924- 

UNITED STATES 



Lake 


1913 


1914 


1915 


1916 


1917 


1918 


Ontario 


Pounds 

4,265 

756, 043 

2,323,113 

2, 934, 717 

7,390 


Pounds 


Pounds 

6,793 

1,933,161 

1, 370, 912 

2, 789, 637 

17, 130 

16,061 


Pounds 

4,004 

1,637,197 

1, 795, 129 

2, 262, 685 

2,650 

1 5, 895 


Pounds 
5,225 

1,258,796 
890, 572 

1, 926, 708 
3,203 
1516 


Pounds 

3,456 
1,088,419 


Erie. 


2,025,668 

996, 635 

2, 730, 732 

16, 898 

1380 


Huron 


933, 7C6 


Michigan .. 


1,927,8C6 




19,328 
1 5, 524 


Lake of the Woods 








Total 


6, 025, 528 


5, 770, 313 


6,123,694 


5, 707, 560 


4,085,020 


3, 978, 259 





Lake 


1919 


' 1920 


1921 


1922 


1923 


1924 


Ontario 


Pounds 

2,680 

2, 775, 132 

1, 336, 838 

2,489,834 

2,800 

7,385 


Pounds 

3,814 

1,259,489 

1,051,157 

3 2,256,513 

3 13, 024 

6,873 


Pounds 

2 9, 722 

2,192,013 

945, 205 

2, 105, 499 

10, 373 

5,836 


Pounds 

2 8,247 

1, 925, 528 

673, 980 

923, 840 

17,100 

5, 663 


Pounds 

29,213 

1,869,945 

758, 931 

873, 382 

5,579 

7,730 


Pounds 
8,911 


Erie 


1,939,877 

329,620 

1,043,635 


Huron 


Michigan . . 


Superior 


8,722 


Lake of the Woods.- 


14, 797 






Total 


6, 614, 669 


4,590,870 


5,268,648 


3,554,358 


3,524,780 


3,345,562 





> Minnesota catch estimated. 
2 New York catch estimated. 



' Wisconsin catch estimated. 



154 



TABlFF INFOKMATION SURVEYS 



Table 128. — Yellow perch: Domestic and foreign catch, 1913-1924 — Continued 

CANADA 



Lake 


1913 


1914 


1915 


1916 


1917 


1918 


Great Lakes: 


Pounds 
124,909 
954,829 
61,022 


Pounds 

105, 428 

1,407,984 

136, 938 

150 

500 


Pounds 

119,310 

1,042,091 

188,858 

300 

7,975 


Pounds 

166, 838 

769, 156 

169, 714 

255 

7,757 


Pounds 
213,623 
995,413 
147, 063 


Pounds 
108, 469 


Erie - 


2, 056, 214 




77, 663 






Lake of the Woods 




679 


7,268 








Total 


1, 140, 760 


1,651,000 


1, 358, 534 


1, 113, 720 


1, 356, 778 


2, 249, 514 






Northern lakes: 


34,900 


24, 300 


35. 500 

500 

58, 300 




810, 300 
11, 200 
30,000 


49,100 










3,600 




12, 600 












4,000 




27,700 


51, 600 


11,000 


42,900 








Total . — - 


42,500 


24,300 


122, 000 


64,200 


862, 500 


92,000 








1,183,260 


1,675,300 


1,480,534 


1, 177, 920 


2,219,278 


2, 341, 514 






Lake 


1919 


1920 


1921 


1922 


1923 


1924 


Great Lakes: 


Pounds 

158,802 

1,096,935 

85, 125 


Pounds 
107,383 

1,272,181 
141, 670 


Pounds 

87. 272 

1,964,898 

143, 434 


Pounds 

74,032 

2,109,027 

147,684 

162 

15, 220 


Pounds 

82, 703 

2, 396, 778 

142,447 


Pounds 
79,963 


Erie -.- - 


2, 191, 730 




108, 377 




57 




9,717 


12,277 


7.865 


4,684 


9,862 






Total 


1, 350, 579 


1,533,511 


2,203,469 


2, 346, 125 


2,626,612 


2, 389, 989 






Northern lakes: 


41, 500 


6,500 


86,200 


13,800 


182, 000 


148, 200 




500 




56,500 


50,000 




31,000 

4,000 

214, 100 


32,500 


53,000 






900 


All other 


2,500 


10,600 


30, 200 


203, 300 


21,600 






Total - -- 


100, 500 


67, 100 


116,400 


262, 900 


417,800 


224, 200 








1,451,079 


1,600,611 


2,319,869 


2,609,025 


3,044,412 


2, 614, 189 







Table 129. — Yellow perch: Fishing cost, 1924 
[In cents per pound] 



Country and lake 


Labor 


Interest 


All other 


Total 


Fresh caught: 

United States- 
Erie . - 


4. 9634 
2. 3879 
1. 4481 

5. 7472 


0. 2574 
.1685 
.3447 
.4396 


3. 7445 
2. 0820 
2. 9703 
2. 4396 


8.9653 


Michigan 


4.6384 




4. 7631 


Lake of the Woods . .. .. 


8. 6264 








3. 8113 


.2389 


3. 1406 


7. 1908 






Canada — 

Erie - 


4. 5268 
2.4110 
3. 9935 


.4356 
.0305 


3. 7474 
3. 2640 
3. 7701 


8. 7098 




5. 7055 




7. 7636 








Weighted average ' ... . 


4. 4173 


.4071 


3. 7256 


8.5500 







1 Based on relative production: Erie, 58.29 per cent; Michigan, 31.36 per cent; Huron, 9.90 per cent; 
Woods, 0.45 per cent. 

2 Based on relative production: Erie, 93.14 per cent; Huron, 4.61 per cent; Manitoba, 2.25 per cent. 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS 



155 



Table 130. — Yellow perch: Boxing and icing, freezing and storing, and boxing 

costs, 192 If 

[In cents per pound] 
BOXING AND ICING (FRESH FISH) 





Country and lake 


Excluding 
interest 


Including 
interest 


United States: 

Erie 




! 1.6670 


1. 7365 






; 1.9804 


2. 2519 






1 1.5256 


1. 6548 












: 1.6536 


1. 7620 











(/anada: 

Erie 

Huron 

Winnipeg 

Winnipegosis -.. 

Buffalo and Lesser Slave. 

"Weighted average ' 



1. 4001 
1.9172 
2. 5721 
2.3713 
2. 3295 



1. 4944 



1.4418 
2. 0029 
2.6135 
2. 5693 
2. 3576 



1. 5381 



FREEZING AND STORING (FROZEN FISH) 



United States: 

Brie 


1. 8257 
1. 9025 


1 8374 


Mi chigan 


1.9119 






Weighted average ' -. 


1. 8526 


1.8635 






Canada: 

Erie 


1.3174 
2. 1644 
2. 0903 


1.3701 


Huron 


2. 2588 


Winnipeg 


2. 1029 






Weighted average * _■ 


1. 4016 


1. 4538 







BOXING (FROZEN FISH) 



United States: Erie « , 

Canada: 

Erie 

Huron 

Manitoba 

Winnipegosis 

Buffalo and Lesser Slave 

Weighted average « 



1. 2159 



.9510 



1. 2902 



.9220 


.9749 


1. 2280 


1. 3223 


1.5710 


1. 5765 


2. 3559 


2. 4027 


1.0664 


1. 0744 



> Based on relative production: Erie, 58.55 per cent; Huron, 9.95 per cent; Michigan, 31.50 per cent. 

' Based on relative production: Erie, 89.47 per cent; Huron, 4.42 per cent; Winnipeg, 6.05 per cent; Win- 
nipegosis, 0.02 per cent; Buffalo and Lesser Slave, 0.04 per cent. 

' Based on relative production: Erie, 65.02 per cent; Michigan, 34.98 per cent. 

< Based on relative production: Erie, 89.52 per cent; Huron, 4.43 per cent; and Winnipeg, 6.05 per cent. 

• No data available for other producing centers. 

« Based on relative production: Erie, 93.09 per cent; Huron, 4.60 per cent; Manitoba, 2.25 per cent; 
Winnipegosis, 0.02 per cent; Buffalo and Lesser Slave, 0.04 per cent. 



54003—27- 



-11 



156 



TAEIFF INFOEMATION SURVEYS 



Table 131. — Yelloiv perch: Transportation costs, 192 J^ 
[In cents per pound] 



Country and lake 


To New York City 


To Chicago 


Fresh 


Frozen 


Fresh 


Frozen 


United States: 


2. 3000 
2. 3125 
2. 8625 
4. 3625 

4. 9250 

5. 3500 


0. 7790 
.7157 

1. 1020 

1. 2794 
1. 7164 
2. 4004 


3. 2750 
2. 3750 

1. 9625 
2. 0625 

2. 7625 

3. 6250 


1. 1210 


Erie 


.8297 


Huron .. . .- 


.8297 




.5637 




.6714 


Lake of tlie Woods 


1. 2920 






Weighted average i 


3. 0262 


.9303 


2. 2458 


.7491 






Canada: 

Ontario . .. 


3. 3750 

2. 6250 

3. 4375 
6. 0000 
6. 0000 
6. 5000 
6, 5000 
5. 6500 
5. 6500 


.9310 
.9310 

1. 0704 
2.3307 

2. 5207 
2. 8501 

2. 5587 

3. 6607 
3. 6607 


4. 0000 

2. 8750 

3. 3750 
5. 0000 

4. 3750 
7. 1250 
5. 1250 
4. 9375 
4. 9375 


1 0640 


Erie --- 


.8297 




1. 0197 




1 5454 


Winnipeg - .... 


1 4314 


Winnipegosis 


1. 7987 




1. 4314 




2.6094 


ButYalo .... . . 


2 6094 






Weighted average ' 


2. 9913 


1. 0891 


3. 0876 


.9093 







1 Based on relative production: Ontario, 0.27 per cent; Erie, 57.98 per cent; Huron, 9.86 per cent; Michi- 
gan, 31.19 per cent; Superior, 0.26 per cent; Lake of the Woods, 0.44 per cent. 

2 Based on relative production: Ontario, 3.06 per cent; Erie, 83.83 per cent; Huron, 4.15 per cent; Lake 
of the Woods, 0.38 per cent; Winnipeg, 5.67 per cent; Winnipegosis, 0.02 per cent; Manitoba, 2.03 per cent; 
Lesser Slave, 0.03 per cent; Buffalo, 0.83 per cent. 

Table 132. — Lake herring: Domestic and foreign catch, 1913-1924 
UNITED STATES 



Lake 


1913 


1914 


1915 


1916 


1917 


1918 


Ontario 

Huron 

Michigan 


Pounds 

85, 445 

5, 399. 295 

8, 451, 907 

2 3, 162, 920 


Pounds 
1 158, 510 
2,357,440 
7, 476, 345 
2 4, 419, 607 


Pounds 
231,574 

1, 490, 543 
10,071,154 
2 3, 129, 611 


Pounds 

188, 248 

7,673,942 

6, 780, 699 

2 2, 337 502 


Pounds 

380, 877 
4, 410, 812 
8, 540, 009 
7, 008, 595 


Pounds 

205, 763 
5, 043, 539 
7, 335, 205 
8, 141, 883 






Total 


14, 099, 567 


14,411,902 


14, 922, 882 


16, 980, 391 


20, 340, 293 


20, 726, 390 






Lake 


1919 


1920 


1921 


1922 


1923 


1924 




Pounds 

181, 160 
4, 836, 216 
10, 932, 149 
6,344,336 


Pounds 
143, 590 

3,387,057 
3 6,710,143 
3 6,561,737 


Pounds 
1, 520, 614 
2, 164, 233 
2, 471, 620 
4,728,096 


Pounds 

513, 569 
4, 395, 902 
3, 247, 535 
3,573,154 


Pounds 

58, 788 
3, 038, 570 
2, 929, 923 
5,132,373 


Pounds 
394, 442 




3, 090, 303 




3, 223, 178 




6, 108, 159 






Total 


22, 293, 861 


16, 802, 527 


10, 884, 563 


11,730,160 


11,159,654 


12,816,082 







CANADA 





1913 


1914 


1915 


1916 


1917 


1918 


Great I^akos: 

Ontario 


Pounds 
685,812 
217, 177 
299, 000 


Pounds 
991, 406 
210, 673 
781,935 


Pounds 
1,706,391 
360, 320 
2, 776, 900 


Pounds 
1, 610, 490 
290, 818 
3,127,015 


Pounds 
1, 930, 186 
505, 739 
2,443,201 


Poitnds 
1, 795, 052 
332, 267 




3,681,609 






Total 


1, 201, 989 


1,984,014 


4,843,611 


5,028,323 


4, 879, 126 


5,808,928 







1 New York catch estimated. 



2 Minnesota catch estimated. 



Wisconsin catch estimated. 



TARIFF INFOEMATION SUEVEYS 



157 



Table 132. — Lake herring: Domestic and foreign catch, 1913-1924 — Continued 

C AN AD A— Continued 





1919 


1920 


1921 


1922 


1923 


1924 


Great Lakes: 

Ontario.. 


Pounds 
1, 709, 412 
232, 393 
1, 508, 157 


Pounds 
1, 287, 580 
246, 085 
1, 286, 953 


Pounds 
1,014,419 
188, 627 
424, 826 


Pounds 
342, 608 
269, 208 
577, 065 


Pounds 
249, 635 
229, 279 

1,078,958 


Pounds 
263, 135 




255, 135 




1,049,573 






Total 


3, 449, 962 


2, 820, 618 


1, 627, 872 


1, 188, 881 


1,557,872 


1,567,843 







Table 133. — Lake herring: Fishing costs, 192^ 
[In cents per pound] 



Country and lake 


Labor 


Interest 


All other 


Total 


Fresh caught: 

United States- 


1. 3522 
1. 9535 
.8170 


0. 0738 
.1217 
.1945 


1. 1110 
1. 7265 
1. 6758 


2. 5370 




3. 8017 




2. 6873 








1. 5148 


.1274 


1. 5541 


3. 1963 






Canada— 


1. 0020 
.3316 
1. 0326 


.1582 
.0027 
. 1579 


1. 5003 
.6563 
.9982 


2. 6605 




.9906 




2. 1887 








.5583 


.0540 


.8510 


1. 4633 







> Based on relative production: Michigan, 25.95 per cent; Superior, 49.17 per cent; Huron, 24.88 per cent. 
'Based on relative production: Huron, 16.27 per cent; Superior, 66.95 per cent; Ontario, 16.78 per centi 

Table 134. — Lake herring: Boxing and icing, freezing and storing, and boxing 

cost, 1924 

[In cents pe r pound] 
BOXING AND ICING (FRESH FISH) 



Country and lake 


Excluding 
interest 


Including 
interest 


United States: 


1.9804 
1. 5256 


2. 2519 




1.6548 










1.7482 


1. 9471 








Canada: 


1.9172 
2. 0685 


2. 0029 




2.0848 










2. 0389 


2.0688 







FREEZING AND STORING (FROZEN FISH) 



United States: Michigan. 

Canada: 

Huron 

Superior 



Weighted average 2. 



1. 8257 



2. 1644 
2. 3228 



2. 2918 



2. 2588 
2. 7192 



2. 6292 



BOXING (FROZEN FISH) 


United States: Erie ^ 




1.2159 


1. 2902 


Canada" Huron 




_ _ 1.2280 


1. 3223 







' Based on relative production: Huron, 48.95 per cent; Michigan, 51.05 per cent. 
' Based on relative production: Huron, 19.55 per cent; Superior, 80.45 per cent. 
' No data available for principal producing centers. 



158 



TAEIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS 



Table 135. — Lake herring: Transportation costs, 1924 
[In cents per pound] 



Country and lake 


To New York City 


To Chicago 


Fresh 


Frozen 


Fresh 


Frozen 


United States: 

Ontario 


2. 3000 
2. 8625 
4. 3625 
4. 9250 


0. 7790 
1. 1020 
1.2794 

1. 7164 


3. 2750 
1. 9625 
2. 0625 
2. 7625 


1. 1210 


Huron 


.8297 


Michigan. 


.5637 


Superior 


.6714 






Weighted average • 


4. 1306 


1. 3997 


2. 3726 


.6989 






Canada: 

Ontario 


3. 3750 
3. 4375 
5. 6500 


.9310 
1.0704 
1.7164 


4.0000 
3. 3750 
6. 8125 


1. 0640 




1. 0197 


Superior 


1. 3807 






Weighted average ^ _ _ - 


4. 9083 


1. 4795 


5. 7813 


1 2688 







> Based on relative production: Ontario, 3.40 per cent; Huron, 26.62 per cent; Michigan, 27.76 per cent; 
Superior, 42.22 per cent. 
2 Based on relative production: Ontario, 16.78 per cent; Huron, 16.27 per cent; Superior, 66.95 per cent. 

Table 136. — Chuhs: Domestic and foreign catch, 1913-1924 
UNITED STATES 



Lake 


1913 


1914 


1915 


1916 


1917 


1918 


Huron 


Pounds 

918,652 

4, 209, 607 

33, 265 


Pounds 
51,937 

3,863,292 
23, 153 


Pounds 

512,713 

3, 297, 155 

55, 172 


Pounds 
22, 700 

3, 142, 141 
81, 570 


Pounds 
214, 440 

4,697,208 
188,010 


Pounds 
741,901 


Michigan. . 


6, 758, 150 


Superior .- 


209, 932 






Total... 


5,161,524 


3,938,382 


3,865,040 


3,246,411 


5, 099, 658 


7, 709, 983 







Lake 


1919 


1920 


1921 


1922 


1923 


1924 


Huron . 


Pounds 

497, 974 

5,771,869 

79, 709 


Pounds 

243, 155 
3,544,633 

58, 756 


Pounds 

494,311 

1,849,605 

93, 687 


Pounds 
341, 182 

1, 860, 180 
163,470 


Pounds 
368,711 
1, 487, 621 
98, 469 


Pounds 
255, 138 


Michigan _ _ 


2, 702, 990 


Superior . .. .. 


1 83, 021 






Total 


6, 349, 552 


3, 846, 544 


2, 437, 603 


2, 364, 832 


1, 954, 801 


3, 041, 149 







CANADA 



Lake 


1913 


1914 


1915 1 


1916 


1917 


1918 


Great Lakes: 
Huron . . 


Pounds 
328, 638 
873 


Pounds 
478, 969 
7,453 


Pounds 
365, 257 
8,914 


Pounds 
649, 124 
2,408 


Pounds 
819,159 


Pounds 
374, 981 


Superior 


8,873 








Total 


329,511 


486,422 


374,171 


651,532 


819, 159 


383, 854 







Lake 


1919 


1920 


1921 


1922 


1923 


1924 


Great Lakes: 

Huron . 


Pounds 
249, 945 
840 


Pounds 
303, 015 
50 


Pounds 
253, 529 
300 


Pounds 
206, 535 

78 


Pounds 
202, 572 
600 


Pounds 
241, 016 


Superior 


959 






Total 


250, 785 


303,065 


253, 829 


206,613 


203, 172 


241, 975 







> Minnesota catch estimated. 



TAEIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS 



159 



Table 137. — Chubs: Fishing cost, 1924 
[In cents per pound] 



Country and lake 


Labor 


Interest 


All other 


Total 


Fresh caught: 

United States- 
Michigan 


2. 8711 
5.5965- 
4. 0922 


0.2604 
.3105 
.3231 


2. 1752 
2. 7256 
1.6161 


5. 3067 


Superior. . . 


8. 6326 


Huron 


6. 0314 


Weighted average ' 


3. 0621 


.2673 


2. 1465 


5. 4759 






Canada- 
Huron 


1. 5575 
.7405 


.0518 


2. 2988 
1. 1166 


3. 9081 


Superior 


1. 8571 








Weighted average ' 


1.5543 


.0516 


2. 2941 


3. 9000 







1 Based on relative production: Michigan, 88.39 per cent; Superior, 3.27 per cent; Huron, 8.34 per cent. 
' Based on relative production: Huron, 99.60 per cent; Superior, 0.40 per cent. 

Table 138. — Chubs: Boxing and icing, freezing and storing, and boxing cost, 19B4 

BOXING AND ICING (FRESH FISH) 
fin cents per pound] 



Country and lake 


Excluding 
interest 


Including 
Interest 


United States: 

Huron 


1. 9804 
1. 5256 


2. 2519 


Michigan _ - _-. . -__--. -._ 


1. 6548 








Weighted average '.. 


1. 5648 


1. 7063 








Canada: 

Huron 


1.9172 
2. 0685 


2. 0029 


Superior - __- -.- -_ - _-- - -- -- 


2. 0848 








Weighted average '. . 


1.9178 


2. 0032 







FREEZING AND STORING (FROZEN FISH) 



United States: Michigan 


1. 8257 


1. 9025 






Canada: 

Huron 


2.1644 
2. 3228 


2.2588 


Superior ... 


2. 7192 






Weighted average ' 


2.1650 


2. 2666 







BOXING (FROZEN FISH) 



United States: Erie '. 


1.2159 


1.2902 


Canada: Huron . ... . . 


1.2280 


1. 3223 







' Based on relative production: Huron, 8.62 per cent; Michigan, 91.38 per cent. 
' Based on relative production: Huron, 99.60 per cent; Superior, 0.40 per cent. 
' No data available for principal producing centers. 



160 



TARIFF INFORMATIOX SURVEYS 



Table 139. — Chubs: Transportation costs, 1924 
[In cents per pound] 



Country and lake 


To New York City 


To Chicago 


Fresh 


Frozen 


Fresh 


Frozen 


United States: 

Huron 


2. 8625 
4. 3625 
4. 9250 


1. 1020 
1. 2794 
1.7164 


1. 9625 
2. 0625 

2. 7625 


0. 8297 


Michigan - 


.5637 


Superior 


.6714 


Weighted average ' 


4. 2558 


1. 2788 


2. 0770 


.5894 






Canada: 

Huron .... . . 


3. 4375 
5. 6500 


1. 0704 
1. 7164 


3. 3750 
6. 8125 


1 0197 


Superior ... .. ... 


1 3807 






Weighted average ^ ... 


3. 4464 


1. 0729 


3. 3888 


1 0211 







1 Based on relative production: Huron, 8.34 per cent; Michigan, 88.39 per cent; Superior, 3.27 per cent. 
' Based on relative production: Huron, 99.60 per cent; Superior, 0.40 per cent. 

Table 140. — Tullibees: Canadian catch, 1913-1924 



Lake 


1913 


1914 


1915 


1916 


1917 


1918 


Lake of the Woods. 


Pounds 
177,379 


Pounds 
127, 133 


Pounds 
262, 110 


Pounds 
138,566 


Pounds 
174, 445 


Pounds 
240, 418 






Northern lakes: 

Winnipeg 


841,000 


1,351,000 


3,493,900 

23,700 

449, 400 


4, 541, 100 

18, 800 

95, 200 

5,000 

255, 600 


4, 474, 200 

312, 200 

359, 100 

1, 915, 700 

5, 512, 700 


5, 508, 700 
69, 800 


W'innipegosis. 


Manitoba 






691, 800 


Lesser Slave 






86,000 


All other 


73, 400 


90, 800 


257, 500 


385, 200 






Total 


914, 400 


1, 441, 900 


4, 224, 500 


4, 915, 700 


12, 573, 900 


6, 741, 500 






Grand total 


1,091,779 


1, 569, 033 


4, 486, 610 


5, 054, 266 


12,748,345 


6, 981, 918 







Lake 


1919 


1920 


1921 


1922 


1923 


1924 


Lake of the Woods 


Pounds 
241, 263 


Pounds 
129, 430 


Pounds 
116, 654 


Pounds 
130, 774 


Pounds 
111,692 


Pounds 
255, 373 






Northern lakes: 

Winnipeg..- 

W innipegosis 


2, 794, 400 

4,800 

1, 032, 700 

95,500 


2, 702, 000 

15, 600 

565, 000 

28,200 


5, 148, 300 

10. 600 

580,000 

14,000 


3, 788, 500 

10, 600 

290,000 

7,000 


1,441,600 

2,000 

390, 000 


1, 324, 800 
79, 800 


Manitoba 

Lesser Slave 


1, 974, 200 
61,000 


BufTalo 


30,000 
199, 800 




Another 


513,300 


115,300 


109,000 


108,800 


294, 400 






Total. 


4, 440, 700 


3.426.100 


5, 867, 900 


4, 204, 900 


2, 063, 400 


3, 734, 200 








Grand total 


4,681,963 


3, 555, 530 


5, 984, 554 


4,335,674 


2, 175, 092 


3, 989, 573 







TAKIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS 



161 



Table 141. — Tullibees: Fishing cost, 1924 
[In cents per pound] 



Country and lake 


Labor 


Interest 


All Other 


Total 


Fresh caught: 

United States — Lake of the Woods 


4. 5159 


0. 3416 


L9165 


6. 7740 






Canada- 
Lake of the Woods 


1.6376 
2. 8606 
1.6452 


.0261 


1.6206 
2. 6873 
1.5367 


3. 2843 


Manitoba - . 


5. 5479 


Winnipeg . . - - 


.0777 


3. 2596 






Weighted average • 


2. 0270 


.0339 


1. 9320 


3.9929 






Frozen caught: 
Canada- 


2. 6598 
1.2531 




1. 6867 
1. 1604 


4. 3465 






2.4135 








Weighted average ^ .. 


1. 7616 




1. 3506 


3. 1122 









' Based on relative production: Lake of the Woods, 37.21 per cent; Manitoba, 31.64 per cent; Winnipeg, 
31.15 per cent. 
2 Based on relative production: Winnipeg, 36.15 per cent; Manitoba, 63.85 per cent. 

Table 142. — Tullibees: Boxing and icing, freezing and storing, and boxing cost, 

1924 

BOXING AND ICING (FRESH FISH) 
[In cents per pound] 



Country and lake 



Excluding 
interest 



Including 
interest 



United States: All lakes K 



Canada: 

Winnipeg 

Winnipegosis 

Buffalo and Lesser Slave- 
Weighted average 2 



United States: All lakes L 



Canada: 

Manitoba 

Winnipegosis 

Buffalo ■ nd Lesser Slave- 



Weighted average • 



1. 6721 



2. 5721 
2.3713 
2.3295 



2.5511 



1. 2159 



1. 5710 
2. 3559 
1. 0664 



1. 5861 



1. 7847 



2. 6135 
2. 5693 
2. 3576 



2.60O1 





FREEZING AND STORING (FROZEN FISH) 






United Stites: All lakes i 




1. 8338 
2. 0903 


1.9090 


Canada: Winnipeg 




2.1029 






BOXING (FROZEN FISH) 



1.2902 



1. 5765 
2. 4027 
1. 0744 



1.5933 



1 United States average, no data available for Lake of the Woods. 

2 Based on relative production; Winnipeg, 90.39 per cent; Winnipegosis, 5.45 per cent; Buffalo and Lesser 
Slave, 4.16 per cent. 

3 Based on relative production: Manitoba, 93.34 per cent; Winnipegosis, 3.78 per cent; Buffalo and Lesser 
Slave, 2.88 per cent. 



162 



TAEIFF INFOKMATTON SURVEYS 



Table 143. — Tullibees: Transportation costs, 1924 
[In cents per pound] 



Country and lake 


To New York 


To Chicago 


Fresh 


Frozen 


Fresh 


Frozen 


United States: Lake of the Woods 


5. 3500 


2. 4004 


3. 6250 


1.2920 






Canada: 

Lake of the Woods 


6. 0000 
6. 0000 
6. 5000 
6. 5000 
5. 6500 


2. 3307 
2. 5207 
2. 8501 

2. 5587 

3. 6607 


5. 0000 
4. 3750 
7. 1250 
5. 1250 
4. 9375 


1. 5454 


Winnipeg 


1.4314 


Winnipegosis . 


1. 7987 


Manitoba . 


1. 4314 




2.6094 






Weighted average * . . . . 


6. 2721 


2. 6539 


4.8876 


1.4668 







■ Based on relative production: Lake of the Woods, 6.91 per cent; Winnipeg, 35.85 per cent; Winnipe- 
gosis, 2.16 per cent; Manitoba, 53.42 per cent; Lesser Slave, 1.66 per cent. 

Table 144. — Jacks: Domestic and foreign catch, 191S-19S4 
UNITED STATES 



Lake 



Erie 

Huron 

Michigan 

Superior 

Lake of the Woods 

Total 



1913 



Pounds 
> 55, 131 
1 39, 812 

« » 28, 412 
« 5, 573 

3 297. 719 



426, 647 



1914 



Pounds 
1 70, 536 

1 26, 541 
39, 785 

2 29, 368 
3 326, 810 



493,040 



1915 



Pounds 
> 15. 194 
> 5, 223 

2 1 51, 158 
2 10, 341 

3 525, 068 



605, 984 



1916 



Pounds 
1 10, 532 
» 27, 191 

2 1 62. 531 

2 3, 614 

3 218, 497 



322,365 



1917 



Pounds 

»3,415 

1 43, 410 

2 1 73, 904 

^2, 958 

3 338, 328 



461, 655 



1918 



Pounds 
> 5, 522 
1 36, 213 

2 > 85, 277 

363 

3 289, 515 



416, 890 



Lake 



Erie 

Huron.. 

Michigan 

Superior 

Lake of the Woods 

Total 



1919 



Pounds 

17, 550 

83, 297 

96, 649 

2,770 

273, 051 



473, 317 



1920 



Pounds 

28, 967 

69, 488 

2 1 79, 403 

4,059 

424, 714 



605, 631 



1921 



Pounds 
30, 018 
82, 178 
92. 648 
10, 121 
251, 254 



466, 219 



1922 



Pounds 

5,877 

52, 926 

93, 822 

13, 324 

235, 741 



401, 690 



1923 



Pounds 
4,807 
54, 247 
37, 586 
10, 351 
236, 940 



343, 931 



1924 



Pounds 
6,433 
38, 297 
35, 260 
83,997 
211,439 



375, 426 



CANADA 



Lake 


1913 


1914 


1915 


1916 


1917 


1918 


Great Lakes: 


Pounds ■ 
221,331 

2, 287, 602 
125, 838 
38, 201 
692, 854 


Pounds 
248, 023 

2, 926. 797 
201, 202 
201, 287 
760. 554 


Pounds 

336, 988 

630, 450 

180, 428 

70, 876 

1,221,942 


Pounds 
283, 430 
437, 007 
125. 296 
24, 771 
508, 488 


Pounds 
280. 377 
141, 682 
195,912 
17. 806 
787, 359 


Pounds 
212, 800 


Erie 


229, 131 


Huron . . . 


100, 245 


Superior . 


18, 354 


Lake of the Woods 


673,761 






Total 


3,365,826 


4, 337, 863 


2, 440, 684 


1, 378, 992 


1, 423, 136 


1, 234, 291 






Northern lakes: 

Winnipeg . 


438, 800 

1, 301, 400 

1, 152, 000 

34. 000 

23, 000 

721. 900 


254, 000 

1, 276. 300 

50, 400 

26, 500 

59. 000 

1, 277. 900 


434, 300 

1, 479, 200 

1, 298, 900 

56. 000 

14, 400 

1, 976, 500 


260. 300 

1, 233, 500 

1, 288, 000 

95, 000 

17, 300 

1, 248, 200 


401,900 
1, 589, 400 
1, 679, 000 

338, 400 


328, 500 


Winnipegosis 


1, 682, 000 




1, 233, 600 


Lesser Slave 


42, 600 


Buffalo 




All other 


1, 904, 400 


1. 062, 400 






Total 


3, 671, 100 


2, 944, 100 


5,259,300 


4, 142, 300 


5.913,100 


4, 349, 100 






'Grand total 


7, 036, 926 


7, 281, 963 


7, 699, 984 


5, 521, 292 


7, 336, 236 


5, 583, 391 







1 Michigan catch estimated. 2 Wisconsin catch estimated. 



' Minnesota catch estimated. 



TAEIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS 



163 



Table 144. — Jacks: Domestic and foreign catch, 191S-1924 — Continued 
CANADA— Continued 



Lake 


1919 


1920 


1921 


1922 


1923 


1924 


Great Lakes: 

Ontario 


Pounds 
246, 095 
727, 037 
192,313 
18,980 
635,404 


Pounds 
311,432 
115,259 
117.659 
15, 271 
449, 457 


Pounds 
233, 143 

96, 692 
228, 584 

53, 977 
451, 170 


Pounds 
250, 225 
143, 736 
216, 904 
30, 298 
488, 360 


Pounds 
280, 800 
129, 585 
197, 058 
22, 809 
455. 191 


Pounds 
255, 982 


Erie 


71,696 


Huron .. 


194 976 


Superior 


19,480 
602, 703 


Lake of the Woods 




Total 


1, 819, 829 


1,009,078 


1, 063, 566 


1, 129, 523 


1, 085, 443 


1, 144, 837 






Northern lakes: 

Winnipeg 


377, 700 

1, 711, 500 

742, 600 

26, 900 


355, 000 

1, 500, 300 

500. 000 

23, 500 

3,700 

706, 000 


235, 500 

1,332.400 

302. 000 

19,900 

20, 000 

809, 500 


333, 900 

1, 343, 500 

346. 000 

40, 500 

4,000 

503, 300 


619,400 
1, 194, 100 
480, 000 
111,400 
60, 000 
606, 600 


643, 600 




1, 527, 100 




740, 000 
137, 200 


Lesser Slave 


Buffalo 


100, 000 


All other 


917. 800 


853, 900 






Total 


3, 776, 500 


3, 088, 500 


2, 719, 300 


2, 571, 200 


3, 071, 500 


4, 001, 800 




Grand total 


5,596,329 


4, 097, 578 


3, 782, 866 


3, 700, 723 


4, 156, 943 


5, 146, 637 





Table 145. — Jacks: Fishing costs, 1924 
[In cents per pound] 



Country and lake 


Labor 


Interest 


AU other 


Total 


Fresh caught: 

United States- 
Michigan -.- 


2. 5000 
2.1640 
5. 0974 


0. 6875 
.3597 

.3857 


3. 1875 
2. 8241 
2. 1635 


6. 3750 


Huron . 


5. 3478 


Lake of the Woods ..- 


7. 6466 






Weighted average ' 


4. 3819 


.4194 


2. 3790 


7. 1803 






Canada- 
Lesser Slave . . .. 


.8219 
1. 9240 

.7922 
1. 4746 
3. 3913 
1. 2819 




1.0181 
1.9040 
.8293 
2.9119 
3. 1909 
1. 3537 


1.8400 




.0307 


3. 8587 


Winnipegosis 


1.6215 


Superior 


.0124 


4. 3989 


Manitoba -- - . 


6.5822 


Winnipeg - -- .. 


.0697 


2. 7053 






Weighted average ^ 


1. 6752 


.0365 


1. 7043 


3. 4160 






Frozen caught: ■ 
Canada — 

Winnipeg. 


.9447 
. 5530 
1.1386 




1. 0370 
.9535 
1.0630 


1.9817 


Bullalo Lake..- 




l..n065 


Manitoba . .. . . .. 




2. 2016 








Weighted average ' 


1.0341 




1. 0458 


2. 0799 









1 Based on relative production: Michigan, 12.37 per cent; Huron, 13.44 per cent; Lake of the Woods, 
74.19 per cent. 

2 Based on relative production: Lesser Slave, 1.27 per cent; Lake of the Woods, 48.93 per cent; Winni- 
pegosis, 9.46 per cent; Superior, 1.41 per cent; Manitoba, 6.50 per cent; Winnipeg, 30.57 per cent. 

' Based on relative production: Winnipeg, 22.85 per cent; Buffalo, 10.28 per cent; Manitoba, 66.87 per 
cent. 



164 



TAEIFF INFORMATION SUBVEYS 



Table 146. — Jacks: Boxing and icing, freezing and storing, and boxing cost, 1924 

BOXING AND ICING (FRESH FISH) 
[In cents per pound] 



Country and lake 



Excluding 
interest 



Including 

interest 



United States: 

Erie 

Huron 

Michigan _. 

Weiglited average ' - . . 

Canada: 

Erie 

Huron 

Superior. 

Winnipeg 

Winnipegosis 

Buffalo and Lesser Slave 

Weighted average ^... 



1. 6670 
1.9S04 
1. 5256 



2. 3547 



1.7365 
2. 2519 
1. 6548 



1. 7547 


1. 9473 


1. 4001 


1.4418 


1.9172 


2. 0029 


2. 0685 


2. 0848 


2. 5721 


2. 6135 


2.3713 


2. 5693 


2. 3295 


2. 3576 



2. 4867 



FREEZING AND STORING (FROZEN FISH) 



United States: 

Erie 


1. 8257 
1. 9025 


1. 8374 


Michigan 


1.9119 






Weighted average ' _. _ . . 


1.8906 


1. 90C4 






Canada: 

Erie 


1.3174 
2. 1644 
2. 3228 
2.0903 


1. 3701 


Huron .. . . 


2. 2588 


Superior 


2. 7192 


Winnipeg 


2. 1029 






Weighted average < -- _ 


2.0511 


2. 0920 







BOXING (FROZEN FISH) 



United States: Erie' 

Canada: 

Erie 

Huron 

Manitoba 

Winnipegosis 

Buifalo and Lesser Slave 

Weighted average « 



1. 2902 



.9220 


.9749 


1.2280 


1.3223 


1.5710 


1.5765 


2. 3559 


2. 4027 


1.0664 


1.0744 



' Based on relative production: Erie, 8.04 per cent; Huron, 47.88 per cent; Michigan, 44.08 percent. 

' Based on relative production: Erie, 2.66 percent; Huron, 7,24 per cent; Superior, 0.72 percent; Winni- 
peg, 23.89 per cent; Winnipegosis, 56.68 per cent; Buffalo and Lesser Slave, 8.81 per cent. 

' Based on relative production: Erie, 15.43 per cent; Michigan, 84.57 per cent. 

* Ba.sed on relative production: Erie, 7.71 percent; Huron, 20.97 per cent; Superior, 2.10 percent; Winni- 
peg, 69.22 per cent. 

5 No data available for other producing centers. 

6 Based on relative production: Erie, 2.59 per cent; Huron, 7.04 per cent; Manitoba, 26.70 per cent; 
Winnipegosis, 55.11 per cent; Buffalo and Lesser Slave, 8.56 per cent. 



TAEIFr INFOEMATION SUEVEYS 

Table 147. — Jacks: Transportation costs, 1924 
[In cents per pound] 



165 





To New York City 


To Chicago 


Country and lake 


Fresh 


Frozen 


Fresh 


Frozen 


United States: 

Erie - 


2. 3125 
2. 8625 
4. 3625 

4. 9250 

5. 3500 


0. 7157 
1. 1020 

1. 2794 

1. 7164 

2. 4004 


2. 3750 
1.9625 
2. 0625 

2. 7625 

3. 6250 


0. 8297 




.8297 




.5637 




.6714 


Lake of the Woods . - 


1. 2920 






Weighted average ' 


4. 8564 


1. 9807 


3. 0943 


1. 0297 






Canada: 

Ontario - - 


3. 3750 

2. 6250 

3. 4375 
5.6500 
6. 0000 
6. 0000 
6. 5000 
6. 5000 
5. 6500 
5. 6500 


.9310 
.9310 
1. 0704 

1. 7164 

2. 3307 
2. 5207 
2. 8501 

2. 5587 

3. 6607 
3. 6607 


4.0000 

2. 8750 

3. 3750 
6. 8125 
5.0000 

4. 3750 
7. 1250 
5. 1250 
4. 9375 
4. 9375 


1.0640 


Erie 


.8297 




1.0197 




1. 3807 




1. 5454 




1.4314 




1. 7987 




1.4314 


Lesser Slave 


2. 6094 


Buffalo - -- 


2. 6094 








5.9140 


2. 4900 


5.5195 


1.5923 







1 Based on relative production: Erie, 1.71 per cent; Huron, 10.20 per cent; Michigan, 9.39 per cent; Supe- 
rior, 22.38 per cent; Lake of the Woods, 56.32 per cent. 

2 Based on relative production: Ontario, 5.96 per cent; Erie, 1.67 per cent; Huron, 4.54 per cent; Supe- 
rior, 0.45 per cent; Lake of the Woods, 14.04 per cent; Winnipeg, 15 per cent; Winnipegosis, 35.57 per 
cent; Manitoba, 17.24 per cent; Lesser Slave, 3.20 per cent; and Buffalo, 2.33 per cent. 

Table 148. — Mullets: Domestic and foreign catch, 1913-1924 
UNITED STATES 



Lake 


1913 


1914 


1915 


1916 


1917 


1918 


Ontario-. 


Pounds 
9,030 

465, 777 
1,580,450 

699, 569 
2 240, 199 


Pounds 

1 15, 806 
1,316,290 
1,500,564 
3,092,767 
2 259,403 


Pounds 

22, 581 

1,123,858 

2, 306, 150 

824,116 

2 239, 901 


Pounds 

16, 635 

1,320,688 

2,266.478 

962,588 

2 233, 614 


Pounds 

12,990 

1,057,846 

1,465,130 

2,955,497 

207,682 


Pounds 
20, 433 


Erie 


911, 162 


Huron 


1, 778, 576 


Michigan 


663,194 


Superior 


175,865 






Total-.- - 


2,995,025 


6,184,830 


4, 516, 606 


4,800,003 


5,699,145 


3,549,230 







Lake 


1919 


1920 


1921 


1922 


1923 


1924 


Ontario . . . 


Pounds 
39,892 

953, 199 
2, 714, 335 
1,097,409 

203, 548 


Pounds 

17,385 

1,061,448 

1,900,113 

919,259 

181,424 


Pounds 

120,000 

1 1,419,610 

1,803,021 

639,087 

159,255 


Pounds 

120,000 

I 990, 735 

1, 985, 563 

626, 126 

164,693 


Pounds 

23,882 

1,038,082 

1,444,800 

569, 573 

110,349 


Pounds 
92,026 


Erie 


683,637 


Huron.. 


1,181,904 


Michigan 


619,494 


Superior. 


145, 622 






Total 


5,008,383 


4,079,629 


4,040,973 


3,787,117 


3, 186, 686 


2,722,683 







> New York catch estimated. 



2 Minnesota catch estimated. 



166 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS 



Table l-iS.— Mullets: Domestic and foreign catch, 1913-1924 — Continued 

CANADA 



Lake 


1913 


1914 


1915 


1916 


1917 


1918 


Northern lakes: 

Winnipegosis 


Pounds 


Pounds 


Pounds 
794, 800 
68, 900 


Pounds 
435, 200 
145,000 


Pounds 
966, 200 
116,400 


Pounds 
1, 610, 700 
















800 


All other 






52, 100 


87, 100 


18, 700 


843, 600 










Total 


3 508, 865 


3 1,060,803 


915, 800 


667, 300 


1,101,300 


2, 455, 100 







Lake 


1919 


1920 


1921 


1922 


1923 


1924 


Northern lakes; 

Winnipeg 


Pounds 
1,120,000 
1,077,000 
169,400 


Pounds 
1, 010, 000 
1,019,400 
80, 500 


Pounds 
25,000 
267, 600 
36, 000 


Pounds 

40, 700 

383, 600 

39,000 

4,000 


Pounds 
17, 900 
456,400 
45,000 


Pounds 
24,900 


Winnipegosis - 


704, 600 


Manitoba 


157, 500 






Buffalo 










50,000 


All other. 


416,900 


1,028,400 


198,400 


297,200 


355,600 


417, 400 






Total.. 


2, 783, 300 


3, 138, 300 


527, 000 


764, 600 


874, 900 


1,354,400 







3 Estimated. 



Table 149. — Mullets: Fishing cost, 1924 
[In cents per pound] 



Country and lake 


Labor 


Interest 


All other 


Total 


Fresh caught: 

United States — 

Erie 


2.0386 
1. 4689 
1.3714 
.7675 


0. 1146 
.1866 
.0851 
.1458 


1.4867 
1.0988 
1. 1955 
1.1903 


3.6399 


Michigan 


2.7643 


Superior . . .. 


2. 6520 


Huron .. 


2. 1036 






Weighted average ' 


1. 2963 


.1439 


1.2461 


2.6863 






Canada- 
Erie 


.6952 
.6622 
.1637 
.4870 


.0117 
.1029 


.6650 
.9763 
.1610 
.4598 


1. 2619 


Huron 


1. 7314 




.3147 


Manitoba .. .- . 




.9468 








Weighted average ^ 


.2538 


.0088 


.2804 


.5430 






Frozen caught: 


.7416 




.7000 


1.4416 









1 Based on relative production: Erie, 25.99 per cent; Michigan, 23.55 per cent; Superior, 5.53 per cent; 
Huron, 44.93 per cent. 

2 Based on relative production: Erie, 1.06 per cent; Huron, 8.36 per cent; Winnipegosis, 74.04 per cent; 
Manitoba, 16.06 per cent. 



TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS 



167 



Table 150. — Mullets: Boxing and icing, freezing and storing, and boxing cost, 19^4 

[In cents per pound] 
BOXING AND ICING (FRESH FISH) 



Country and lake 


Excluding 
interest 


Including 
interest 


United States: 

Erie - 


1. 6670 
1. 9804 
1. 5256 


1. 7365 


Huron 


2. 2519 


Michigan 


1.6548 






Weighted average ' 


1. 7808 


1. 9613 


Canada: 

Winnipeg 


2. 5721 
2.3713 
2. 3295 


2. 6135 


Wiunipegosis 


2. 5693 


BufEalo and Lesser Slave 


2. 3576 






Weighted average ' 


2.3750 


2. 5571 






FREEZING AND STORING (FROZEN FISH) 


United States: 

Erie.... 


1. 8257 
1. 9025 


1. 8374 


Michigan 


1.9119 






Weighted average' 


1. 8622 


1. 8728 


Canada: Winnipeg 


2. 0903 


2.1029 






BOXING (FROZEN FISH) 


United States: Erie * 


1. 2159 


1. 2902 


Canada: 

Manitoba.. 


1. 5710 

2. 3559 
1. 0664 


1. 5765 


Winnipegosis 


2. 4027 


Butialo and Lesser Slave 


1.0744 






Weighted average '.. 1 


2. 1497 


2. 1872 







1 Based on relative production: Erie 27.51 per cent; Huron, 47.56 per cent; Michigan, 24.93 per cent. 

2 Based on relative production: Winnipeg, 3.19 per cent; Winnipegosis, 90.39 per cent; Buffalo and Lesser 
Slave, 6.42 per cent. 

3 Based on relative production: Erie, 52.46 per cent; Michigan, 47.54 per cent. 
< No data available for principal producing centers. 

« Based on relative production: Manitoba, 17.27 per cent; Winnipegosis, 77.25 per cent; Buffalo and 
Lesser Slave, 5.48 per cent. 

Table 151. — Mullets: Transportation costs, 1924 
[In cents per pound] 



Country and lake 


To New York City 


To Chicago 


Fresh 


Frozen 


Fresh 


Frozen 


United States: 

Ontario 


2. 3000 
2.3125 
2. 8625 
4. 3625 
4. 9250 


0. 7790 
.7157 
1. 1020 
1.2794 
1.7164 


3. 2750 
2. 3750 

1. 9625 

2. 0625 
2. 7625 


1. 1210 


Erie. 


.8297 


Huron. 


.8297 


Michigan . 


.5637 


Superior 


.6714 






Weighted average ' 


3. 1570 


1. 0673 


2. 1760 


.7708 


Canada: 

Erie 


2. 6250 
3. 4375 
6.0000 
6. 5000 
6.5000 
5. 6500 


.9310 

1. 0704 

2. 5207 
2. 8501 

2. 5587 

3. 6607 


2. 8750 
3. 3750 
4. 3750 
7. 1250 
5. 1250 
4. 9375 


.8297 


Huron 


1.0197 


Winnipeg 


1.4314 


Winnipegosis 


1. 7987 


Manitoba 


1.4314 


Buffalo 


2. 6094 






Weighted average ' 


6. 1715 


2. 6803 


6. 2355 


1. 7031 







' Based on relative production: Ontario, 3.38 per cent; Erie, 25.11 per cent; Huron, 43.41 per cent; Michi- 
gan, 22.75 per cent; Superior, 5.35 per cent. 

' Based on relative production: Erie, 0.97 per cent; Huron, 7.75 per cent; Winnipeg, 2.43 per cent; Winni- 
pegosis, 68.64 per cent; Manitoba, 15.34 per cent; Buffalo, 4.87 per cent. 



168 TARIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS 

Table 152. — Saugers: United Slates catch, 1913-1924 



Lake 


1913 


1914 


1915 


1916 


1917 


1918 


Erie 


Pounds 
1, 248, 042 


Pounds 
4, 568, 641 


Pounds 
4, 533, 271 


Pounds 
6, 187, 172 


Pounds 
4, 336, 055 


Pounds 
2 101 222 






Lake 


1919 


1920 


1921 


1922 


1923 


1924 


Erie 


Pounds 
2, 654, 650 


Pounds 
2, 931, 942 


Pounds 
5, 009, 882 


Pounds 
4, 622, 873 


Pounds 
3,320,922 


Pounds 
1, 847, 065 





Table 153. — Saugers: Fishing cost, 1924 
[In cents per pound] 



Country and lake 


Labor 


Interest 


All other 


Total 


Fresh caught: 

United States: Erie 


2. 9080 


0. 1587 


2. 1958 


5. 2625 






Canada: 

Manitoba 


1. 5456 
1.8256 




1. 4436 
.7824 


2. 9892 


Winnipeg.- 




2.6080 








Weighted average ' . 


1.6128 




1. 2849 


2 8977 








Frozen caught: 

Canada: Winnipeg 


.8355 




.9156 


1. 7511 









1 Based on relative production: Manitoba, 76 per cent; Winnipeg, 24 per cent. 

Table 154. — Saugers: Boxing and icing, freezing and storing, and boxing cost, 1924 

[In cents per pound] 
BOXING AND ICING (FRESH FISH) 



Country and lake 



United States: Erie- 
Canada: Winnipeg.. 



Excluding 
interest 



1. 6670 

2. 5721 



Including 
interest 



1. 7365 

2. 6135 



FREEZING AND STORING (FROZEN FISH) 


United States: Erie 


1.8374 
2. 0903 


1. 9119 


Canada: Winnipeg 


2. 1029 






BOXING (FROZEN FISH) 


United States: Erie.. 


1.2159 
1.5710 


1. 2902 


Canada: Manitoba 


1. 5765 







Table 155. — Saugers: Transportation costs, 1924 
[In cents per pound] 



Country and lake 


To New York City 


To Chicago 


Fresh 


Frozen 


Fresh 


Frozen 


United States: Erie.. 


2. 3125 


0. 7157 


2. 3750 


0. 8297 






Canada: 

Manitoba 


6. 5000 
6.0000 


2. 5587 
2. 5207 


5. 1250 
4. 3750 


1.4314 


Winnipeg 


1.4314 






Weighted average ' ... . 


6. 3800 


2. 5498 


4.9450 


1. 4314 







> Based on relative production: Manitoba, 76 per cent; Winnipeg, 24 per cent. 



TARIFF INFOEMATION SURVEYS 169 

Table 156. — Sheepshead: United States catch, 1913-1924 





Lake 


1913 


1914 


1915 


1916 


1917 


1918 


Erie . 


Pounds 
596, 178 


Pounds 
2, 282, 369 


Pounds 
2,211,817 


Pounds 
2,384,254 


Pounds 
3,013,492 


Pounds 
2, 982, 365 







Lake 

Erie 

Huron 

Michigan 

Total 



1919 



Pounds 
2,119,477 
13, 432 
17, 689 



2, 150, 598 



1920 



Pounds 
1,926,257 
41,759 
16, 227 



Pounds 
2, 841, 598 
47, 258 
15, 747 



1, 984, 243 



2, 904, 003 



Pounds 
1,370,389 
42, 100 
3,085 



1,415,574 



Pounds 
1, 455, 866 
58, 466 
7,285 



1,521,617 



1924 



Pounds 
2, 287, 949 
40, 596 
4,610 



2, 333, 155 



Table 157. — Sheepshead: Fishing cost, United States, 1924 
[In cents per pound] 



Lake 


Labor 


Interest 


All other 


Total 


Erie.- - 


3.7988 
1.0619 


0. 2199 
.2527 


2. 8071 
2. 1780 


6. 8258 


Huron 


3. 4926 








3. 7512 


.2204 


2. 7962 


6. 7678 







1 Based on relative production: Erie, 98.26 per cent; Huron, 1.74 per cent. 

Table 158. — Sheepshead: Boxing and icing, freezing and storing, and boxing 

cost, United States, 1924 

[In c^nts per pound] 
BOXING AND ICING (FRESH FISH) 



Lake 


Excluding 
interest 


Including 
interest 


Erie 


1. 6670 
1. 9804 
L5256 


1. 7365 


Huron 


2. 2519 


Michigan _ - - 


1. 6548 










1. 6722 


1. 7453 







FREEZING AND STORING (FROZEN FISH) 



Erie . 


1. 8257 
1. 9025 


1.8374 


Michigan 


1.9119 






Weighted average ' . . . 


1. 8259 


1. 8375 







BOXING (FROZEN FISH) 



Erie- 



1. 2159 



1. 2902 



' Based on relative production: Erie, ' 
" Based on relative production: Erie, 



per cent; Huron, 1.74 per cent; Michigan, 0.20 per cent. 
( per cent; Michigan, 0.20, per cent. 



170 TAEIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS 

Table 159. — -Sheepshead: Transportation costs, United States, 1924 
[In cents per pound] 



Lake 


To New York City 


To Chicago 


Fresh 


Frozen 


Fresh 


Frozen 


Erie 


2. 3125 
2. 8625 
4. 3625 


0. 7157 
1. 1020 

1. 2794 


2.3750 

1. 9625 

2. 0625 


0. 8297 


Huron . 


.8297 


Michigan 


.5637 






Weighted average ' 


2. 3262 


.7235 


2. 3672 


.8292 







1 Based on relative production: Erie, 98.06 per cent; Huron, 1.74 per cent; Michigan, 0.20 per cent. 

Catch of Minor Species 

Tables 160 to 165 give the Great Lakes and the northern Canadian 
lakes catch of minor species excluded from consideration in the main 
body of this report. 

Table 160. — Carp: Domestic and foreign catch, 1913-1924- 
UNITED STATES 



Lake 


1913 


1914 


1915 


1916 


1917 


1918 


Ontario ... 


Pounds 

500 

J 1, 690, 046 

375,442 

6,394 


Pounds 
1514 
112,023,905 
14, 188 


Pounds 

528 

9, 614, 501 

516, 268 

8,572 


Pounds 

730 
5,859,008 


Pounds 

6,531 

4,568,763 

26, 100 


Pounds 

216 


Erie — 


4,172,403 




642, 662 




588 


4,705 










Total 


2,072,382 


12,038,607 


10,139,869 


5,860,326 


4,601,394 


4,819,986 







Lake 


1919 


1920 


1921 


1922 


1923 


1924 


Ontario 


Pounds 

2,602 

2, 960, 692 

1,108,915 

6,946 


Pounds 

50 

4, 102, 263 

1, 720, 965 

4,822 

149 


Pounds 

116,710 

16,542,035 

857, 218 

3,867 


Pounds 

1 32, 163 

1 3, 886, 926 

1, 168, 810 

5,599 


Pounds 
261, 214 

3, 214, 506 

297,466 

7,131 


Pounds 
20.857 


Erie - 


1,256,129 


Huron 


496,045 


Michigan 


6,731 


















Total 


4,079,155 


5,828,249 


7,419,830 


5,093,498 


3,780,317 


1,779,762 







CANADA 



Lake 


1913 


1914 


1915 


1916 


1917 


1918 


Great Lakes: 

Ontario 


Pounds 
47,600 
373,948 
1,600 


Pounds 
81,478 

1,395,118 
13, 922 


Pounds 
112, 518 
904, 880 
26, 569 
1,400 
190, 320 


Pounds 
267, 952 
782,296 
35,437 


Pounds 

391, 249 

666, 773 

16,494 

700 

173 


Pounds 
142, 378 


Erie-. 


711,493 


Huron 


13, 981 




820 


Lake of the Woods 




124,730 


12,000 


12,001 








Total 


423, 148 


1, 615, 248 


1,235,687 


1,097.685 


1,075,389 


880,673 







Lake 


1919 


1920 


1921 


1922 


1923 


1924 


Great Lakes: 

Ontario 


Pounds 
169,471 
378, 380 
62,446 


Pounds 
65, 674 
431,868 
75, 520 


Pounds 

62, 867 

345,427 

83, 062 

5,462 

7,585 


Pounds 

121,004 

233, 926 

69, 941 

7,187 

2,640 


Pounds 

102, 989 

286,319 

68,899 

4,732 

13,814 


Pounds 
78,464 


Erie 


288, 598 


Huron 


50,458 


Superior 


1,974 


Lake of the Woods 


53,232 


9,441 


14,484 






Total 


663,529 


582, 503 


504,403 


434, 698 


466, 753 


433, 978 







1 New York catch estimated. 



> Pennsylvania catch estimated. 



TAEIFF INFOllMATION SURVEYS 

Table 161. — Catfish: Domestic and foreign catch, 1913-1924 
UNITED STATES 



171 



Lake 


1913 


1914 


1915 


1916 


1917 


1918 


Otitario 


Pounds 
1,500 
160, 483 
2 33, 693 


Pounds 
1 1,285 
771, 164 
2 29, 481 


Pounds 
1,070 
591, 615 
2 2, 930 


Pounds 

14, 585 

1,246,549 

2 19,410 


Pounds 

3,483 
2, 190, 899 
2 101,810 


Pounds 
1,676 


Erie— 


420,212 


Huron 


2 91, 556 






Total 


195, 676 


801, 930 


595, 615 


1,280,544 


2, 296, 192 


513,444 







Lake 


1919 


1920 


1921 


1922 


1923 


1924 


Ontario . 


Pounds 

645 

1,090,912 

70, 132 

1,939 


Pounds 

1,490 

730,048 

42, 608 

2,28i 


Pounds 

1 48, 790 
1,422,016 1 
28,329 1 
2,540 


Pounds 

147,235 

704, 556 

48, 689 

3,667 


Pounds 

148,028 

641, 519 

21,821 

3,833 


Pounds 
42, 975 


Erie 


275, 103 


Huron . 


47,812 


Michigan 


251 






Total .. 


1,163,628 


776,427 


1,501,675 


804,147 


715,201 


366, 141 







CANADA 



Lake 


1913 


1914 


1915 


1916 


1917 


1918 


Great Lakes: 


Pounds 
279, 370 
26, 546 
8,680 


Pounds 

268, 613 

49,092 

5,140 

3,460 

66,420 


Pounds 
267, 698 
38,436 
10,087 


Pounds 

301, 993 

22, 880 

6,373 

40 


Pounds 

225,348 

36, 707 

7,618 

75 

8,000 


Pounds 
235, 796 


Erie - - 


47,400 


Huron 


4,840 








17, 006 


118, 630 


207, 524 








Total 


331, 602 


392, 725 


434, 851 


331,286 


277, 748 


495, 560 


Northern lakes: Winnipeg - . 




64.800 


75, 100 


138,600 


40,000 


69,700 








Grand total 


331,602 


457,525 


509, 951 


469,886 


317, 748 


565,260 







Lake 


1919 


1920 


1921 


1922 


1923 


1924 


Great Lakes: 

Ontario.- . 


Pounds 

247,840 

33, 972 

6,442 

76, 754 


Pounds 

170, 215 

42,051 

4,372 

52,992 


Pounds 

183, 629 

45, 582 

18,409 

51,062 


Pounds 
177, 776 
58, 321 
6,704 


Pounds 
180, 761 

57, 765 
7,749 


Pounds 
161, 766 


Erie - 


57, 199 


Huron 


6,770 














Total 


365,008 


269,630 


298, 682 


242, 801 


246,275 


225,735 






Northern lakes: Winnipeg 


43,700 


24,000 


54,500 


77, 800 


79, 100 


139, 800 


Grand total 


408, 708 


293,630 


353, 182 


320, 601 


325, 375 


365, 535 







1 New York catch estimated. * Michigan catch estimated. 

Table 162. — Goldeyes: Canadian catch, 1913-1924 



Lake 


19131 


1914 


1915 


1916 


1917 


1918 


Winnipeg.. 


Pounds 


Pounds 
492, 000 


Pounds 
690, 800 
20, 600 
21,300 


Pounds 
364, 100 
2,300 
39, 100 


Pounds 
756, 900 
36, 000 
20. 200 


Pounds 
421, 600 


Winnipegosis 




70, 700 


All other ... 




16,900 


16, 800 








Total 




508, 900 


732, 700 


405, 500 


813, 100 


509, 100 









Lake 


1919 


1920 


1921 


1922 


1923 


1924 


Winnipeg 


Pounds 
216, 000 
100.000 
12, 400 


Pounds 
410, 000 
19,000 
32, 300 


Pounds 
266,300 
70, 600 
10, 500 


Pounds 
314, 600 
43. 600 
30. 500 


Pounds 
408. 200 
176, 700 
28, 100 


Pounds 
461,900 


Winnipegosis 


170,400 


All other . 


27,400 






Total 


328, 400 


461,300 


347,400 


388, 700 


613,000 


659, 700 







1 Included with miscellaneous flsh. 
54003—27 12 



172 



TAEIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS 



Table 163. — Sturgeon: Domestic and foreign catch, 1913-1924 
UNITED STATES 



Lake 


1913 


1914 


1915 


1916 


1917 


1918 




Pounds 
3,530 
5,586 
7,898 
12, 142 
1,020 
1 35, 793 


Pounds 

1 6, 854 

11,696 

6, 860 

11,139 

1,484 

I 38, 216 


Pounds 
10, 177 
20, 119 
28, 457 
12, 665 
4,468 
2 34, 161 


Pounds 

4,907 

37, 819 

6,863 

6,551 

92 

2 3. 437 


Pounds 

2.870 

27, 726 

4,017 

5,644 


Pounds 
11,813 


Erie.. 


15. 557 


Huron .. . ._ 


3.501 


Michigan . 


25, 821 




167 


Lake of the Woods 


2 8, 161 


' 9. 690 






Total 


65, 969 


76, 249 


110, 047 


59, 669 


48,418 


66, 549 







Lake 


1919 


1920 


1921 


1922 


1923 


1924 


Ontario.- 


Pounds 
3,780 
19, 098 
56.541 
7,148 
3.361 
5,711 


Pounds 

1.682 

9.233 

11,759 

13,400 

338 

3.550 


Pounds 
13.204 
8.031 
3.786 
7.057 
135 
3.295 


Pounds 
1 2, 958 
15, 241 
2,502 
7.595 
599 
2,679 


Pounds 

1 5, 253 

635 

2.394 

6,570 

711 

3.633 


Pounds 
11.656 


Erie... - 


6.867 


Huron . .... 


1.556 


Michigan 


4.568 


Superior 


1.033 


Lake of the Woods 


2.909 






Total 


95, 639 


39, 962 


25, 508 


31,574 


19, 196 


28, 589 







CANADA 



Lake 


1913 


1914 


1915 


1916 


1917 


1918 


Great Lakes: 


Pounds 

89 

47, 976 

51, 052 

2,760 

89, 730 


Pounds 
150 
56, 266 
51,710 
8,502 
95.804 


Pounds 
1,521 
56,315 
46, 209 
16, 048 
85. 639 


Pounds 

3,082 

67,642 

29, 272 

3,307 

8,616 


Pounds 

2,261 

47, 163 

32, 748 

5,082 

20, 460 


Pounds 
1,600 


Erie 


51. 928 




33, 509 


Superior ... 


6.003 


Lake of the Woods . 


24, 291 






Total. 


191, 607 


212, 432 


205, 732 


111,919 


107. 714 


117.331 


Northern lakes: 

Winnipeg . 










85,300 
182, 800 


12, 300 


All other .J 


" 




15, 300 


103. 600 












Total 








15, 300 


268, 100 


115.900 












Grand total - 


191, 607 


212, 432 


205, 732 


127,219 


375, 814 


233, 231 







Lake 


1919 


1920 


1921 


1922 


1923 


i924 


Great Lakes: 

Ontario - 


Pounds 


Pounds 

500 

267 

25, 635 

30, 607 

9.330 


Pounds 
1,798 


Pounds 

1.660 

36, 359 

26. 753 

23,065 

4,169 


Pounds 
2,948 
40. 888 
25. 459 
27, 238 
14, 023 


Pounds 
6,541 


Erie 


42, 709 
26, 395 
21,919 
14, 316 


43, 778 




23, 820 

26, 305 

1,842 


22.183 




3,677 


Lake of the Woods 


43, 100 






Total 


105,339 


66.339 


53, 765 


92, 006 


110,556 


119. 279 






Northern lakes: 

Winnipeg . 


12,400 
72,600 


7,500 
37. 800 


20. 600 
41, 000 


25,100 
67,900 


52. 700 
127, 800 


88,600 


All other 


» 149. 900 






Total 


85,000 


45, 300 


61, 600 


93,000 


180, 500 


238, 500 






Grand total 


190, 339 


111,639 


115,365 


185, 006 


291, 056 


357, 779 







1 New "y ork catch estimated. 
• Minnesota catch estimated. 
> Of this catch, 146,800 pounds (41.03 per cent) were caught in The Pas, Manitoba. 



TAllIFP INFOKMATION SURVEYS 
Table 164. — White bass: United States catch, 191S-1924 



173 



Lake 


1913 


1914 


1915 


1916 


1917 


1918 


Erie — 


Pounds 
511,817 
14, 460 


PoiLnds 
478, 210 
109 


Pounds 
693,537 
514 


Pounds 
342, 780 


Pounds 
332, 778 


Pounds 
128, 972 




334 




50 


















Total 


526, 277 


478, 319 


694,051 


342,830 


332, 778 


129, 306 






Lake 


1919 


1920 


1921 


1922 


1923 


1924 




Pounds 
193, 347 
9,977 
2,025 


Pounds 
504, 444 
'9,682 


Pounds 
840, 671 
11,960 


Pounds 
821.307 
I 10, 000 


Pou nds 
300,200 
1 10, 000 


Pounds 

181,517 


Michigan. .. 


1 10,000 
















Total 


205, 349 


514, 126 


852,631 


831, 307 


310, 200 


191,517 







1 Wisconsin catch estimated. 

Table 165. — Miscellaneous fish: Domestic and foreign catch, 1913-1924 
UNITED STATES 



Lake 


1913 


1914 


1915 


1916 


1917 


1918 


Ontario.. 


Pounds 

18, 610 

342, 082 

182,413 

2,810,015 

465, 294 

2 510, 306 


Pounds 
1 3, 914 
575, 584 
122, 936 
2,480,014 
238, 99 i 
2 338, 535 


Pounds 

8, 0.58 
1,045,584 

299, 523 
5,091,383 

200. 624 
2 168, 338 


Pounds 

8,054 
1,501,931 

758, 377 
1,836,470 

349, 213 
2 682, 626 


Pounds 

48,908 

169, 342 

1,208,833 

1,649.343 

207, 178 

2 1, 224, 390 


Pounds 
36, 763 


Erie - - - ... 


693, 670 


Huron . _ 


17, 301 


Michigan 


2, 516, 960 


Superior. . 


302, 082 


Lake of the Woods . 


2 752, 927 






Total 


4, 328, 720 


3, 759, 977 


6, 813, 510 


5,136,671 


4,507,994 


4, 319, 703 







Lake 


1919 


1920 


1921 


1922 


1923 


1924 


Ontario.- 


Pounds 

95, 283 

517, 105 

33,614 

1,236,118 

135, 774 

537, 094 


Pounds 

47,066 

469, 980 

36, 209 

3 1,451,337 

3 103, 637 

434, 568 


Pounds 

76, 148 

51.5,909 

9,241 

1,590,261 

72,613 

406, 478 


Pounds 

87, 299 

345, 222 

21, 966 

1, 258, 327 

106, 021 

261,102 


Pounds 

83, 142 

300, 065 

7,860 

1,514,055 

151,076 

218, 909 


Pounds 
254, 677 


Erie 


185, 321 


Huron.. ... .... 


14, 735 


Michigan . . . _. 


1. 702, 744 


Superior . .. 


171,706 


Lake of the Woods. ... .. 


* 281, 392 






Total -. 


2, 554, 988 


2, 542, 797 


2,670.650 


2,079,937 


2,275,107 


3, 610, 575 







CANADA 



Lake 


1913 


1914 


1915 


1916 


1917 


1918 


Great Lakes: 
Ontario 


Pounds 
550, 207 
860, 090 
549, 579 
110,531 
247, 002 


Pounds 
650, 678 

1,115,985 

647, 147 

26, 022 

163,860 


Pounds 
658, 387 
969, 658 
.551,839 
157,068 
141,034 


Pounds 
775, 287 

1,105,052 
476, 160 
249, 772 
365, 823 


Pounds 
843, 748 
700, 147 
518,375 
332, 774 
592,638 


Pounds 
846, 584 


Erie ... 


706, 522 


Huron . 


502, 321 


Superior 


755, 241 


Lake of the Woods . - -- 


377,252 






Total 


2,317.409 


2,603,692 


2,477,986 


2,972,094 


2,987,682 


3, 247, 920 






Northern lakes: 

Winnipeg 


1, 306, 000 

977, 200 

975,000 

4,000 

4,500 

3,905,900 


603,000 

420,000 

907, 400 

38, 000 

1,000 

3,302,400 


6.50, 000 

289, 000 

375, 000 

56,000 

1,400 

5, 784, 300 


750,000 

232,200 

300,000 

36,400 


750,000 


3,000,000 




250,000 
65, 000 








Buffalo 




All other 


5, 969, 700 


6,979,600 


4, 100, 000 






Total 


7,172,600 


5,271,800 


7,155,700 


7,288,300 


8, 044, 600 


7,100,000 


Grand total 


9, 490, 009 


7, 875, 492 


9, 633, 686 


10, 260, 394 


11,032,282 


10, 347, 920 







1 New York catch estimated. 

2 Minnesota catch estimated. 

3 Wisconsin catch estimated. 

« Includes 300,680 pounds of tullibees from Lake of the Woods. 



174 



TAKIFF INFORMATION SURVEYS 



Table 165. — Miscellaneous fish: Domestic and foreign catch, 1913-1924- — Contd. 

CANADA— Continued 



Lake 


1919 


1920 


1921 


1922 


1923 


1924 


Great Lakes: 

Ontario-- - _ 


Pounds 

770, 200 
794, 981 
538, 121 
290, 217 
259, 972 


Pounds 

506. 073 
939, 233 
565, 406 
142, 687 
196, 525 


Pounds 

528, 551 

1, 086, 708 

652, 381 

88, 463 

166, 408 


Pounds 

595,474 
1,227,177 
613, 033 
113,622 
152, 114 


Pounds 

501,701 
1, 287, 097 
551, 265 
49, 665 
135, 102 


Pounds 
574, 899 


Erie - 


1,231,194 


Huron 


613, 823 


'^ Superior - - 


65,133 


Lake of the Woods 


211,901 






Total--- 


2,653,491 


2, 349, 924 


2, 522, 511 


2,701,420 


2, 524, 830 


2, 696, 950 






Northern lakes: 

Winnipeg- . . . . 


8,300 
124, 900 


96,000 
179,000 


1 




2,500 


All other 


391, 900 


243, 200 


290,000 


320, 900 






TotaL- 


133,200 


275, 000 


391,900 


243. 200 


290, 000 


329, 400 






Grand total.-. 


2, 786, C91 


2, 624, 924 


2,914,411 


2, 944, 620 


2,814,830 


3, 026, 350 







SUMMARY OF CATCH 

Table 166 summarizes the domestic and foreign catch of all species 
taken in each of the Great Lakes and northern Canadian lakes, and 
Table 167 summarizes the catch by countries. 

Table 166. — Domestic and foreign catch: All species, 1913-1924 
UNITED STATES 



Lake 



Ontario 

Erie 

Hurou 

Michigan 

Superior 

Lake of the Woods 

Total 



1913 



Pounds 

208, 320 

22,119,890 

11,184,926 

26, 993, 856 

6,417,628 

1, 383, 994 



8,308,614 



1914 



Pounds 
276, 871 
53, 570, 669 
8, 247, 769 
28,195.245 
7,089.150 
1,246,136 



98, 625, 840 



1915 



1916 



Pounds 

394,011 

59, 508, 2C2 

10,244,110 

31,678,894 

5, 695, 372 

1,426.077 



Pounds 

315,658 

41, 222, 040 

17,146,697 

23,022,017 

5, 435, 000 

1, 286, 648 



108,947,266 88,428,060 



1917 



Pounds 
655, 347 
41,415,276 
12,512,506 
29,317,316 
9, 887, 743 
2, 103, 276 



95, 891, 464 



1918