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Full text of "Synthetic organic chemicals : United States production and sales"

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y. S. SUPT, OF DOri.lj\I.ENTb 



3^ 






UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 
WASHINGTON 



Tariff Information Series — No. 37 

* 

CENSUS OF DYES 

AND OF 

OTHER SYNTHETIC ORGANIC 
CHEMICALS 



1927 




UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON 

1928 



BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY 



3 9999 06317 183 7 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 
WASHINGTON 



Tariff Information Series — No. 37 



CENSUS OF DYES 

AND OF OTHER SYNTHETIC ORGANIC 
CHEMICALS 

1927 




UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON 

1928 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 

Office: Eighth and E Streets NW., Washington, D. C. 

COMMISSIONERS 

Thomas O. Marvin, Chairman. 
Alfred P. Dennis, Vice Chairman. 
Edgar B. Brossard. 
Sherman J. Lowell. 
Lincoln Dixon. 
Frank Clark. 



John F. Bethune Secretary. 

u. S. SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS 

NOV 17 1928 



additional copies 

OF THIS PUBLICATION MAY BE PEOCURED FROM 

THE SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS 

U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON, D. C. 

AT 

30 CENTS PER COPY 



CONTENTS 



Page 

Introduction ix 

Part I 

Summary of census of dj^es and of other synthetic organic chemicals, 1927: 

Introduction 3 

Summary of domestic production, 1927 — 

Crudes 4 

Intermediates 4 

Dyes 5 

Statistics of production 6 

International dye trade in 1927 8 

Sj-nthetic organic chemicals not derived fromi coal tar 9 

Part II 

Production of dyes and coal-tar chemicals, 1927: 
Coal-tar crudes — 

Output of by-product and of beehive coke declines 13 

Production of tars 14 

Uses of tar 15 

Distillates of tar . 16 

Production in by-product coke ovens ' 18 

Product ion ot her than in coke ovens 20 

Coal-tar creosote 20 

Imports of crudes 21 

Exports of crudes 21 

Coal-tar intermediates — 

Description 22 

Production 22 

Rubber accelerators 22 

Decreased production of synthetic phenol 23 

Investigation of phenol under section 315 23 

p-amino phenol 24 

Cresylic acid 24 

Investigation of cresylic acid under section 315 24 

Benzoic acid 25- 

Halogenated products 25 

Malic and maleic acids 25 

Aniline 25 

Benzoyl peroxide 26 

Naphthalene 26 

New intermediates 26 

Other intermediates 27 

Statistics of production and sales 27 

Dyes and other finished coal-tar products — 

Introduction 34 

Summary of production of dyes — 

Increase in production 34 

Stocks on hand 35 

Further decline in domestic dye prices 35 

Unit value of dyes produced, 1923-1927 38 

Progress in dye manufacture 38 

Relation of production 1 o consumption - 38 

Reduction in number of dj'e manufacturers 38 

III 



rV CONTENTS 

Production of dyes and coal-tar chemicals, 1927 — Continued. 

Dyes and other finished coal-tar products — Continued. Page 

Tariff considerations 39 

Court and Treasury decisions 40 

Effect of reduction in duty on dye imports 42 

Production of dyes by classes 42 

Acid dyes 44 

Basic dyes 45 

Direct dyes 46 

S. R. A. dyes 47 

Mordant and chrome dyes 48 

Sulfur dves 49 

Vat dyes 50 

Color-lake dyes and spirit-soluble dyes 52 

Food dyes 52 

Export trade in dyes 52 

Other finished coal-tar products — 

Color lakes 53 

Medicinals 54 

Flavors and perfume materials 55 

Synthetic resins 56 

Photographic chemicals 56 

Synthetic tanning materials 56 

Statistics of imports, production and sales 57 

Dyes not classified by Colour Index 72 

Employees and rates of pay 74 

Research work 75 

Part III 

Synthetic medicinals 79 

Arsphenamine and other organic arsenic compounds 80 

Anesthetics ' ; 81 

Biological stains 82 

Medicinal dyes 83 

Conclusion 84 

Part IV 

Dyes imported for consumption in the United States, 1927: 

Introduction 87 

Summary of imports of dyes 88 

Import statistics 88 

Index to table of dye imports 116 

Part V 

Census of synthetic organic chemicals other than those of coal-tar origin, 
1927: 

Introduction 129 

Large increase in production 129 

Solvents 130 

Amyl alcohol 131 

Butyl alcohol 131 

Butyl acetate 131 

Synthetic methanol 132 

Acetaldehyde and derivatives 132 

Furfural and derivatives 133 

Ethylene glvcol and its derivatives 133 

Tetraethyl lead 134 

Flavors and perfumes 134 

Xanthates 134 

New products 134 

Statistics of imports, production, and sales 135 



CONTENTS V 

Part VI 
International dye trade: 

Introduction — -Paga 

Developments in 1927 143 

World production of dyes 143 

Exports from producing countries 144 

Imports into consuming countries 145 

Competitive conditions 145 

International agreements 147 

The dj^e industry of Germany — 

Agreements 148 

The new capital of I. G 148 

R6sum6 of proceedings at meeting of directors ofl.G 149 

Reparation dyes 149 

Paj'ments in kind 149 

Receipts and paj'ments under the Dawes plan 150 

Imports and exports 152 

The dye industry of Great Britain — 

Crudes 154 

Dyes 154 

British- American merger 155 

Imports and exports 157 

The dye industry of France 159 

French tariff rates on coal-tar dj^es 161 

The dye industry of Italy 162 

The dye industry of Japan 164 

The dve industry of Switzerland 166 

Exports in 1927 . 166 

The dye trade of other countries — 

Argentina 168 

Belgium 168 

Brazil 169 

Canada 169 

China 169 

Czechoslovakia 170 

Egypt 171 

India 172 

Netherlands 173 

Poland 174 

Sweden 174 

Dutch East Indies 175 

Part VII 

APPENDIX 

Statistics of domestic imports and exports 179 

Directory of manufacturers of dyes and other synthetic organic chemicals, 

1927.-" 1 1 188 

Statistical Tables 

1. Dyes and coal-tar chemicals: Summary of production, 1918-1927 6 

2. Synthetic organic chemicals of noncoal-tar origin: Production and 

sales, 1921-1927 9 

3. By-product and beehive coke: Production in the United States, 

'1913-1927 . 14 

4. Coke-oven, coal-gas, water-gas, and oil-gas tar: Production and sales 

in the United States, 1918-1927 15 

5. Coke-oven tar: Production in the United States and the percentage 

sold and used, 1918-1927 15 

6. Total commercial production of benzene, toluene, solvent naphtha, and 

naphthalene from all sources in the United States, 1918-1927 16 

7. Coal-tar by-products obtained from coke-oven operations, 1925-1927. 19 

8. Coal-tar crudes: Production, 1927, by firms not primarily engaged 

in the operation of coke-oven plants and gas houses 21 



VI CONTENTS 

Page 
9. Phenol, natural and synthetic: Production and sales in the United 

States, 1 9 1 7-1927- . _'- 23 

10. Coal-tar intermediates: Domestic sales price per pound, 1921-1927, 

and invoice price of same intermediates imported, 1914 27 

11. Coal-tar intermediates, production and sales, 1927 28 

12. Intermediates: Production bv groups, according to unit values, 

1923-1927 I 33 

13. Coal-tar dyes: Domestic production and sales, 1914 and 1917-1927.- 34 

14. Domestic dyes: Stocks on hand January 1, 1927, and January 1, 1928- _ 35 

15. Domestic dves: Weighted average sales price per pound, 1917 and 

1920-1927 36 

16. Domestic sales prices of certain dyes, 1923-1927, compared with in- 

voice values of dyes of the same kind imported in 1914 36 

17. Dyes: Production by groups, according to unit value, 1923-1927 38 

18. Coal-tar dyes: Imports into the United States, 1920-1928 42 

19. Comparison of imports of dyes, by classes, fiscal year 1914 and cal- 

endar vears 1922-1927, with domestic production, calendar years 
1922-1927 43 

20. Vat dyes other than indigo: Domestic sales, imports, and apparent 

consumption in the United States, 1914 and 1923-1927 51 

21. Coal-tar dyes: Exports from the United States, 1920-1927 52 

22. Colors, dyes and stains: Domestic exports, by months, 1925-1928 53 

23. Coal-tar medicinals: Production of a selected list, 1921-1927 54 

24. Medicinals and pharmaceuticals: Imports into the United States, 

1927 57 

25. Synthetic aromatic chemicals of coal-tar origin: Imports into the 

United States, 1927 !_ 58 

26. Photographic cliemicals, intermediates, and other coal-tar products: 

Imports into the United States, 1927 59 

27. Dyes and other finished coal-tar products: Production and sales, 1927- 60 

28. Employees and rates of pay in the coal-tar dve and chemical industry, 

1927 : \ -'- 75 

29. Employees and rates of pay in the coal-tar dve and chemical industry, 

1927 as compared with 1926 _' ^ _ 75 

30. Dves: Imports into the United States, by country of shipment, 1925- 

1927 : 88 

31. Dyes imported into the United States, classified by method of appli- 

cation, 1922-1927 88 

32. Dyes of each class, according to method of application, imported in 

largest quantity in the calendar year 1927, compared with corre- 
sponding imports in 1926, 1925, 1924, and in the fiscal year 1914 89 

33. Dyes and intermediates remaining in bonded customs warehouse Jan- 

uary 31, 1927, to April 30, 1928 91 

34. Imports of dyes, calendar year, 1927 92 

35. Pvroxjdin (nitrocellulose) varnishes or lacquers: Production and sales, 

1927 130 

36. Organic solvents of noncoal-tar origin: Production in the United 

States, 1924-1927 131 

37. Certain synthetic organic chemicals of noncoal-tar origin: Imports 

and production, 1926-1927 135 

38. Synthetic organic chemicals of noncoal-tar origin: Production and 

sales, 1927 136 

39. Dyes: Production by chief producing countries, 1923-1927 " 143 

40. Coal-tar dves: Exports from chief producing countries, 1913 and 1923- 

1927--_'_ 144 

41. Coal-tar dyes: Imports into chief consuming countries, 1913, 1926, 

and 1927 145 

42. Germany: Exports of coal-tar dyes, 1913 and 1920-1927 146 

43. Germany: Imports of coal-tar dyes, 1927 152 

44. Germany: Exports of coal-tar dyes, 1927 153 

45. United kingdom: Imports of coal-tar dyes, 1926 158 

46. United Kingdom: Imports and exports of dyeing and tanning mate- 

rials, 1925-1927 158 

47. United Kingdom: Imports and exports of coal-tar dyes, 1927 159 

48. United Kingdom: Exports of coal-tar dyes, 1926 159 

49. France: Tariff rates on coal-tar dyes, March 1, 1928 161 



CONTENTS VII 

Page 

50. France : Imports of coal-tar dves, 1 927 162 

51. France: Exports of coal-tar dyes, 1927 162 

52. Italy: Imports of synthetic organic dyes, by countries, 1927 163 

53. Italy: Imports and exports of synthetic organic dyes, 1927 164 

54. Japan : Imports of coal-tar dves, 1924-1926 165 

55. Japan: Exports of coal-tar dyes, 1924-1926 166 

56. Switzerland: Imports and exports of coal-tar dyes, 1927 167 

57. Argentina : Imports of coal-tar dyes, 1926 168 

58. Belgium: Imports and exports of coal-tar dyes, dry and paste, 1927. _ 168 

59. Brazil: Imports of coal-tar dyes, 1926 169 

60. Canada: Imports of coal-tar dyes, year ended March 31, 1927 169 

61. China: Imports of dves, colors, and paints, 1926 169 

62. China: Exports of indigo, 1926 170 

63. Czechoslovakia: Imports and exports of coal-tar dves, calendar vear 

1926 ■_ I.., 170 

64. Egypt: Imports and exports of coal-tar dyes, 1927 171 

65. India: Imports of coal-tar dves and exports of natural indigo, vear 

ended March 31, 1927 I I__. 172 

66. India: Imports of coal-tar dyes, calendar year, 1927 172 

67. India: Exports of indigo, calendar year, 1927 173 

68. Netherlands: Imports and exports of coal-tar dyes, 1926 173 

69. Poland: Imports and exports of synthetic dyes, calendar year, 1926__ 174 

70. Sweden: Imports and exports of coal-tar dyes, 1926 174 

71. Dutch East Indies: Imports of coal-tar dyes, 1926 175 

72. Coal-tar products: Imports entered for consumption, calendar years 

1925-1927 179 

73. Coal-tar products: General imports, 1925-1927 183 

74. Coal-tar products: Domestic exports, 1925-1927 185 



INTRODUCTION 



This report is a survey of the domestic dye and of the synthetic 
organic chemical industry in 1927. It presents the results of a special 
investigation made by the United States Tariff Commission with 
respect to the production in the United States of coal-tar dyes and of 
synthetic organic chemicals of coal-tar and of noncoal-tar origin. It 
includes a detailed tabulation of coal-tar dyes imported into the 
United States and official statistics of imports and exports of coal- 
tar dyes by the large consuming and producing nations of the world. 
There is also included a chapter on recent developments in synthetic 
medicinals. 

The survey is divided into seven parts, as shown in the Table of 
Contents (pp. iii to vii). 

In the preparation of this report the Tariff Commission had the 
services of Frank Talbot and Warren N. Watson, of the chemical 
division of the commission's staff, and of others. 

IX 



PART I 

SUM^IARY OF THE CENSUS OF DYES AND OF 
OTHER SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1927 



Part I 

SUMMARY OF THE CENSUS OF DYES AND OF OTHER 
SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1927 



Introduction 



The United States Tariff Commission has reported annually, 
beginning with 1917, the progress of the American dye and of the 
coal-tar chemical industry. In 1921 this annual census was extended 
to include synthetic organic chemicals other than those derived fronrt 
coal tar.^ 

In addition to production and sales figures for the domestic indus- 
try, the present report contains a detailed tabulation of coal-tar 
dyes imported into the United States, a discussion of the inter- 
national dye trade and of developments in the foreign dye-producing 
countries, as well as official statistics of exports and imports of the 
more important dye consuming and producing countries of the world 
in post-war years. A new feature of the report is a section on recent 
developments in synthetic medicinals. 

The general grouping of coal-tar chemicals in this report follow? 
that of the tariff act of 1922; it conforms, in general although not in 
every detail, to common practice. Crudes, paragraph 1549, free, are 
contained in and separated from crude coal tar; intermediates, duti- 
able under paragraph 27 at 40 per cent and 7 cents per pound, are 
produced from the crudes by chemical processes; with certain excep- 
tions, they are used only for the manufacture of dyes and other 
finished products by further chemical treatment; dyes and other 
finished products are dutiable under paragraph 28 at 45 per cent and 
7 cents per pound. "Other finished products" includes color lakes, 
photographic chemicals, medicinals, flavoi-s, perfume materials, syn- 
thetic resins, and synthetic tanning materials. Explosives derived 
from coal-tar materials, although dutiable under paragraph 28, are 
not included in this census. 

The domestic production of coal-tar products from 1918 to 1927^ 
according to the classes given above, is summarized in Table 1, 
page 6. The figures for 1927 were compiled from the returns of 
165 companies ^ and are believed to form a complete record of the 
manufacture of such products. The quantity and value of each prod- 
uct are given in as great detail as is possible without revealing the 

' other reports prepared by the Tariff Commission relating to conditions in the dye industry include: 
(1) Costs of production in the dye industry, 1918 and 1919, and (2) dyes and other coal-tar chemicals, Dec. 
12, 1918. 

2 This census includes production returns of 192 firms, of which 27 made synthetic organic chemicals 
of noncoal-tar origin only, and 165 made synthetic organic chemicals of coal-tar origin or of both coal-tar 
and noncoal-tar origin. Of the 192 firms, 166 granted permission for the publication of their names and 26 
did not grant such permission. The names of the 166 firms are listed in the directory of manufacturers of 
dyes and other synthetic organic chemicals, p. 188. 

3 



4 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

operations of individual manufacturers. The policy of the commis- 
sion is not to publish either production or sales figures unless at least 
three firms report a given product, and then only when production 
(or sales) is well distributed among the different firms. In many 
instances neither production nor sales figures are published, even 
where there are more than three producers, because of the fact that 
one firm either produced or sold a large part of the total output. 

Summary of Domestic Production, 1927 

CRUDES 

The production of by-product coke in 1927 was 43,921,000 tons — 
a slight decrease from the peak production in 1926; the output of 
beehive coke was 7,004,000 tons — a decrease of about 53^ million 
tons net. The trend of the industry is steadily toward the use of 
the by-product oven, wfiich recovers ammonia, gas, and tar — valuable 
products heretofore lost in the beehive oven. In 1913 only 27.5 
per cent of the total production of coke was from by-product ovens; 
by 1927, the proportion had risen to 86.2 per cent. By-product ovens 
are supplying an increasing quantity of gas for city consumption and 
of coke for domestic fuel. 

Coal-tar production in 1927 totaled 599,000,000 gallons, a small 
increase over 1926. As this production was greatly in excess of the 
requirements of the tar-distilling and chemical industry, approxi- 
mately 59 per cent of it was used for fuel. Because of the demand 
for partly refined products, such as motor fuel, solvents, and pitches, 
only a part of the 244,500,000 gallons distilled was converted into 
refined products, such as benzene, toluene, and naphthalene. 

Creosote, or dead oil, of great value as a wood preservative, is 
made in increasing but insufficient quantities. The 1927 produc- 
tion of 76,395,325 gallons was supplemented by an import of 95,915- 
221 gallons, valued at $15,436,574. Of the coal-tar products imported 
in 1927, creosote oil is the largest single item both in quantity and 
value. 

INTERMEDIATES 

Intermediates are prepared from coal-tar crudes by chemical 
treatment. They are further converted, by complex chemical proc- 
esses, into finished coal-tar products, such as dyes, medicinals, 
perfumes, flavors, photographic chemicals, synthetic resins, and 
tanning materials. Other uses for intermediates are as accelerators 
in the vulcanization of rubber, as camphor substitutes, insecticides, 
germicides, and in the flotation process of concentrating ores. 

The total production of intermediates in 1927 by 72 firms was 
240,073,184 pounds, as compared with 229,653,802 pounds in 1926. 
Sales amounted to 92,917,439 pounds, valued at $20,127,459. 

There was conspicuous expansion in the production of rubber 
accelerators, and many products were made for the first time in 1927. 
Rubber accelerators, used in the vulcanization of rubber, serve the 
dual purpose of increasing the life and durability of the finished 
product and of reducing the time required for vulcanization. 



SUMMARY OF DOMESTIC PRODUCTION, 1927 5 

Progress was made in the manufacture of intermediates for fast 
and specialty dyes, to which the domestic industry has given special 
attention during the past few years. Among the intermediates 
showing a significant increase in output in 1927 are phthalic anhy- 
dride, chlorobenzene and other halogenated products, naphtha- 
lene, and certain anthraquinone derivatives. Phenol showed a 
decrease in production. 

COAL-TAR DYES 

Production. — The output of dyes by 55 firms in 1927 was 95,167,905 
pounds, an increase of 8.2 per cent over 1926. Sales amounted to 
98,339,204 pomids, valued at $38,532,795, as compared with 86,255,- 
836 pounds, valued at $36,312,648 in 1926. The increase in produc- 
tion is almost entirely due to the increased output of indigo, sulfur 
black, and vat dyes (other than mdigo). Increased sales are largely 
accounted for by the increase of sulfur black, indigo, other vat, direct, 
and acid dyes. 

Progress in manufacture. — Significant progress was made in the 
production of (1) vat dyes, including anthraquinone and the thio- 
indigoid derivatives; (2) alizarin derivatives and acid and mordant 
dyes; (3) fast direct dyes of the azo class; (4) S R A colors; (5) cer- 
tain of the basic dyes of the xanthene group. 

Decline in domestic prices. — The weighted average price of all 
domestic dyes sold in 1927 was 7 per cent less than the weighted aver- 
age of those sold in 1926. There has been a steady decline in prices 
since 1917, when the average was $1.26 per poimd. Prices in recent 
years have run as follows: 1921, 83 cents; 1922, 60 cents; 1925, 47 
cents; 1926, 42 cents; 1927, 39 cents. Using the average price 
received for dyes in 1921 as a basis of valuation, sales in 1927 would 
have totaled $81,621,539 instead of the actual figure— $38,532,795. 

Reduction in numher oj manufacturers . — In 1927, 52 firms reported 
the production of dyes (exclusive of 3 firms producing stains and indi- 
cators). This is a decrease of 17 producers since 1925 and of 38 since 
1919, when the largest number of domestic manufacturers operated. 
The reduction in the number of dye plants is a natural result of severe 
competition and comparatively little cooperation. Many firms pro- 
ducing low-cost colors on a small scale will probably have difficulty 
in surviving the competition ofi'ered by the large-scale manufacturer. 

Increased production oj rat dyes. — The outstanding feature of the 
year 1927 was the expansion in the domestic manufacture of vat dyes. 
The output of vat dyes other than indigo was 5,961,688 poimds, an 
increase of 48 per cent over 1926, which in turn was 54 per cent gain 
over 1925. The superior fastness of vat dyes and the variety and 
beauty of shades that the}^ produce have been largely responsible for 
a steady increase in their use. They are used on dyed and printed 
shirtings, blouse material, dress goods, ginghams, muslin curtains, and 
other cotton wash goods, and have a limited application on silk and 
a still smaller one on wool. 

Imports. — Imports of coal-tar dyes in 1927 were 4,233,046 pounds 
with an invoice value of $3,413,886. This represents a decrease of 10 
per cent in quantity and 16.5 per cent in value over 1926. Imports 



b CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

for the first six months of 1928 show an uj crease of 715,144 pounds 
and 1501,707 over the imports for the same period in 1927. Germany 
and Switzerland supply the larger part of our dye imports. Classified 
by method of application, 41 per cent of our imports in 1927 were vat 
dyes, 17 per cent direct dyes, 15.5 per cent acid dyes, 11.5 per cent 
mordant and chrome dyes, and the remainder basic, sulfur, and spirit 
soluble dyes. 

Exports. — Exportr in 1927 were 26,770,560 pounds, valued at 
$5,495,322. These figures represent an increase in quantity, but a 
decline of 8 per cent in value from 1926. The principal markets for 
United States dyes in 1927 were China, Japan, Canada, and British 
India. Only China was a better market in 1927 than in 1926; sales 
there showed an increase of nearly 20 per cent. The low priced bulk 
dyes, such as indigo and sulfur black, pre the principal colors ex- 
ported by the United States. 



STATISTICS OF PRODUCTION 
Table 1. — Dyes and coal-tar chemicals: Summary of the production, 1918-1927 





1918 


1919 




Number 
of manu- 
facturers 


Production 


Number 
of manu- 
facturers 


Production 




Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Intermediates (total) 

Finished products (total) 


128 


Pounds 

357, 662, 251 

76, 802, 959 

68, 464, 446 

9, 590, 537 

316, 749 

3, 623, 352 

458, 256 

116,203 

} 4, 233, 356 


$124, 382, 892 

83, 815, 746 

62, 026, 390 

5, 020, 023 

823, 915 

7, 792, 984 

4, 925, 627 

584, 695 

2, 642, 120 


116 

155 

90 

34 

10 

31 

9 

6 

{ I 


Pounds 

177, 362, 426 

82, 532, 390 

63, 402, 194 

7, 569, 921 

335, 509 

6, 777, 988 

610, 825 

41,419 

} 3, 794, 534 


$03, 210, 079 
84, 585, 544 


Dyes 


78 

29 

6 

31 

7 
6 
1 
5 


67, 598, 855 


Color lakes 


4,179,964 


Photographic chemicals ..- 
Medicinals.. . _ . 


1, 059, 340 
7, 883, 071 


Flavors 


1, 318, 654 




164, 302 


Tanning materials 

Synthetic phenolic resins.. 


2, 381, 358 





1920 


1921 




Number 
of manu- 
facturers 


Production 


Number 
of manu- 
facturers 


Production 


Sales 




Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Quantity 


Value 


Intermediates (total) . . 

Finished products 

(total) 


119 

161 
82 
43 

8 
35 
15 
12 

4 

4 


Pounds 
257, 726, 911 

112,942,227 
88, 263, 776 
10, 983, 538 

440, 759 
5, 184, 989 

166, 884 

99, 740 

3,142,861 

4, 659, 680 


$95, 291, 686 

112. 731, 547 

95,6)3,749 

5, 871, 820 

1, 015, 848 

5, 726, 776 

527, 493 

332, 008 

233, 674 

3, 410, 179 


108 

147 
74 
43 

5 
34 

17 
15 
4 

3 


Pounds 
70, 899, 912 

51, 457, 565 

39, 008, 690 

6, 152, 187 

183, 798 

1, 545, 917 

901, 245 

119,335 

1, 902, 597 

1, 643, 796 


Pounds 
33, 637, 326 

60. 434, 009 

47, 513, 762 

6, 424, 612 

170, 221 

1, 876, 246 

933, 662 

119,691 

1, 721, 359 

1,674,456 


$8, 483, 463 
47, 996, 514 


Dyes . . 


39, 283, 956 


Color lakes 


2, 863, 189 


Photographic chem- 
icals 


248, 041 


Medicinals 


2, 930, 324 


Flavors 


1, 002, 018 


Perfumes 


175,815 


Tanning materials., . 

Synthetic phenolic 

resins 


141, 005 
1, 352, 166 







SUMMARY OF DOMESTIC PRODUCTION, 1927 

Table 1. — Dyes and coal-tar chemicals: Summary of the production, 1918-1927- 

Continued 



Intermediates (total) . 
Finished products 

(total) 

Dyes 

Color lakes 

Photographic chem- 
icals 

Medicinals 

Flavors 

Perfumes 

Tanning materials. 
Synthetic phenolic 

resins 

Research chemicals. 



1922 



Num- Produc- 
ber of tion 
manu- , 

fac- 
turers Quantity 



Sales 



Quantity Value 



Pounds i Pounds 
165, 048, 155 58, 004. 435 $12, 910, 486 



88, 368, 131 
64, 632, 187 
10, 578, 664 

345, 798 
2, 946, 347 
1,215,668 

793, 148 
1,910,519 



93,370,0651 57,067,326 
69, 107, 105 1 41,463,790 

10,366,6761 4,551,572 



347, 647: 
3,092,915! 
1.278,857; 

778, 696 i 
1, 981, 588' 



5,944,133 6,415,9311 
1,667 650 1 



483, 269 

4, 233, 443 

1, 260, 588 

643, 436 

103, 598 

4,315,196 
12,434 



Num- 
ber of 
manu- 
fac- 
turers 



Produc- 
tion 



Quantity 



Sales 



Quantity Value 



Pounds Pounds 
231,393,871 83,582,808 

122,950, 17llll5, 297, 586 
93,667,5241 86,567,446 
13,079,115 12,627,359 



343, 289! 
3,273.085; 
1,458,0241 
1,365,449| 



821,083 
.2,995,448 
1,442.387 
1, 275, 432 



9,763,685' 10,068,431 



$18,916,058 

65, 898, 177 

47,223,161 

5, 124, 732 

443, 697 
4, 720, 253 
1, 780. 313 

789, 431 

5, 816, 590 



Intermediates (total). 
Finished products 

(total) 

Dyes 

Color lakes 

Photographic ehem 

icals 

Medicinals 

Flavors 

Perfumes 

Tanning materials. 

Synthetic phenolic 

resins 



Num- 
ber of 
manu- 
fac- 
turers 



Produc- 
tion 



Quantity 



Pounds 

186, .596, 562 

97,730,211 

68, 679, 000 

9, 343, 147 

316, 183 
2, 967, 944 
1,750,555 
1, 895, 267 

12,778,115 



Sales 



Quantity Value 



Pounds 
76, 897, 521 $18, 164, 334 



93, 636, 109 

64,961,433 

9,281,673 

321,865 
2, 688, 329 
1,691,863 
1,945,488 

12, 74,5, 458 



55. 932, 580 
35,012,400 
4, 045, 799 

461,379 
5,178,099 
1,471,089 

945, 773 

8,818,041 



1925 



Num- 
ber of 
manu- 
fac- 
turers 



Produc- 
tion 



Quantity 



Pounds 
210, 699, 77 

120, .5.54, 228 
86, 345, 438 
11,414,753 

327,041 
3, 237, 796 
2, 207, 102 
2, 335, 024 



Sales 



Quantity Value 



Pounds 
86, 066, 651 

112,671,779 
79, 303, 451 
11,308,444 

,348, 842 
3, 294, 827 
2,148,904' 
2, 370, 728 



■14,687,074 13,896,583 



$19, 7,56, 200 

60,811,400 

37, 468, 332 

5,544,371 

475, 095 
6,331,918 
1,409,311 

883,617 

8, 698, 756 



Number 
of manu- 
facturers 



Production 



Quantity 



Quantity 



Value 



Intermediates (total) 

Finished products (total) 

Dyes 

Color lakes 

Photographic chemicals.. 

Medicinals 

Flavors 

Perfumes... 

Tanning materials 

Synthetic phenolic resins 



78 

134 

61 

43 

5 

26 

15 

17 

2 

2 



Pounds 

229, 6.53, 802 

122, 752, 021 

87, 978, 624 

11,796,203 

393, 426 

3, 696, 196 

2,857,913 

1, 922, 666 

14, 106, 993 



Pounds 

86. 916, 836 

120, 348, 636 

86, 255, 836 

11,425, 1.39 

387, 698 

3, 593, 226 

2,629,126 

1, 731, 887 

14, 325, 724 



$18, 990, 042 

59, 533, 445 

36, 312, 648 

6,023,011 

504, 941 

6, 742, 128 
1, 482, 697 

820, 264 

7, 647, 756 



7709—28- 



b CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

Table 1. — Dyes and coal-tar chemicals: Stimmary oj the production , 1918-1927 — 

Continued 



Number 
of manu- 
facturers 



Intermediates (total) 

Finished products (total) 

Dyes 

Color lakes 

Medicinals 

Flavors 

Perfumes 

Photographic chemicals.. 

Tanning materials 

Synthetic phenolic resins 



72 
130 
55 
40 
24 
16 
18 
6 
2 
7 



Production 



Quantity 



Pounds 

240, 073, 184 

133, 357, 423 

95, 167, 905 

11,601,507 

3, 598, 839 

2, 205, 472 

1, 998, 987 

5, 332, 483 

13, 452, 230 



Sales 



Quantity Value 



Pounds 
92, 917, 439 
136, 206, 835 
98, 339, 204 
11,620,740 
3, 548, 556 
2, 235, 791 
2, 025, 614 

5, 352, 617 

13, 084, 313 



$20, 

61, 

38, 

6, 

6, 

1, 



127, 459 
272, 645 
532, 795 
446, 508 
819, 487 
435, 445 
991, 922 

951, 832 

6, 094, 656 



International Dye Trade in 1927 



Earlier issues of the Census of Dyes have discussed pre-war condi- 
tions in the international dye trade and have reviewed the changes 
that took place from 1922 to 1926. 

Competition among the dye-producing nations of the world con- 
tinues to be severe, but will in time doubtless be checked by the cartel 
arrangements now being made to divide the world's markets, hmit 
production, and stabilize prices. With these objects in view, Ger- 
many, France, Switzerland, Italy, and to some extent Japan, either 
have negotiated or are about to conclude international agreements 
regulating the trade in dyes. Great Britain and the United States 
are the two dye-producing countries outside this cartel movement. 
Negotiations between the British and the German dye industries 
have failed. The United States has entered into no international 
dye agreements. 

The leading dye-producing nations extended their export trade in 
•1927. The trend of production was toward increased sales of fast 
dyes, especially vat dyes, and other high priced colors. Germany's 
exports of dyes in 1927 were less than half the exports in 1913 by 
quantity, but exceeded in value the 1913 figure. Continued expansion 
and the negotiation of agreements with the dye industries of other 
nations have made the I. G. a dominant dye unit with a strengthened 
position in the markets of the world. 

In Great Britain satisfactory progress has been made by the 
Imperial Chemical Industries (Ltd.), a corporation formed late in 
1926 by the merger of four leading firms and their subsidiary com- 
panies. In 1927 the I. C. I. concluded an agreement with a dye 
manufacturer in Switzerland. This indicates a closer working pro- 
gram between British and Swiss dye manufacturers. 

In Switzerland the prosperous condition of the dye industry is 
reflected by the reported net earnings of the principal dye manufac- 
turing firms. Progress is indicated by an increase in exports of dyes, 
valued in 1926 at $12,000,000 and in'l927 at more than $14,000,000. 
Indigo, however, is not one of the dyes exported in increased quantity, 



INTERNATIONAL DYE TRADE IN 1927 



9 



as keen competition from Germany and the United States has served 
to reduce the exports from Switzerland to the Far East. 

The Japanese Government has since 1925 granted a subsidy to dye 
manufacturers for the production of specified dyes. Restrictions 
were withdrawn on dye imports from Germany at the conchision of a 
treaty between the two countries, with the understanding that Ger- 
many would limit her export of certain dyes. 

Synthetic Organic Chemicals not Derived from Coal Tar 



Chemicals of this group find application as solvents, medicinals, 
perfumes, flavors, rubber accelerators, flotation agents, photographic 
developers, and explosives. Production in 1927 exceeded 280,000,000 
pounds, an increase of 31 per cent over the output in 1926 and more 
than 13 times the quantity produced in 1921. 

Expansion in the domestic production of synthetic chemicals in 
recent years is unparalleled. The United States is developing aliphatic 
organic chemicals as Germany developed coal-tar organic chemicals. 
Raw materials used in the production of aliphatic chemicals are avail- 
able in large quantities in the United States. 

One of the principal uses of the noncoal-tar synthetic organic chem- 
icals is as solvents in the manufacture of nitrocellulose varnishes and 
lacquers. Among the important solvents showing a large increase 
in production are butyl and amyl alchohol. The principal esters of 
these alcohols, butyl and amyl acetate, showed a decHne. The 
increase in production of ethylene glycol and Hke derivatives of ethyl- 
ene was phenomenal. New products of this type are being developed 
and promise extensive and varied uses. 

A feature of the year was the increased output of acetaldehyde and 
of lead tetraethyl, the latter used in the production of antiknock 
gasohne. Xanthates, used for the flotation of ores, showed little change 
in production as compared with the previous year. 



Table 2. 



■Synthetic organic chemicals of noncoal-tar origin: Production and sales, 
1921-1927 



Year 


Production 


Sales 


Year 


Production 


Sales 


1921 

1922, 

1923 

1924 


Pounds 
21,545,186 
79, 202, 155 
90, 597, 712 
115,817,865 


Pounds 
16,701,096 
60, 494, 494 
67, 727, 067 
85, 933, 461 


Value 
$7, 226, 068 
11,964,074 
13,875,521 
20, 604, 717 


1925 

1926 

1927 


Pounds 
156, 878, 013 
214, 842, 513 
280, 992, 825 


Pounds 
114,626,209 
168, 712, 158 
201, 648, 089 


Value 
$23, 632, 779 
29,719,270 
36,600,628 



PART II 

PRODUCTION OF DYES AND OF COAL-TAR 
CHEMICALS, 1927 



11 



Part II 
PRODUCTION OF DYES AND OF COAL-TAR CHEMICALS, 1927 



Coal-Tar Crudes 

Output of hy -product and oj beehive coke declines. — The total 
domestic production of coke in 1927 was 50,925,000 ^ net tons, of 
which 43,921,000 tons were obtained from by-product ovens. Since 
1913 the trend has been steadily toward an increased output of by- 
product coke; in 1927 the ratio was 86.2 per cent by-product as against 
13.8 per cent beehive. Both kinds of coke were produced in smaller 
quantity in 1927 than in 1926; by-product showed a decrease of 
about a half million net tons, and beehive a decrease of about five 
and one-half million net tons. 



TONS 



40 



30 



10 



BY-PRODUCT AND BEEHIVE COKE: PRODUCTION IN THE 


- 


UNITED STATES, l9i3-l9Z7. 
1 1 1 1 1 1 i 1 1 1^^ 








/ 


^ 




















\ 




/ 




'^^ 




y 












\ 
\ 
s 




/ 


^ 




\ 


/ 


\. 


7 














y 


.'^^ 








\ 
\ 




\ 








"^-^ 


^^ 












\ 


</ 


\ 


1 


V 
















\ 










•X, 




















i 




ifs 



IS|3 1914 1915 I9li> 1917 



19)9 \9lO 1921 1921 1923 I9M I9Z5 



The beehive-coke industry serves, with a relatively small invest- 
ment, as an auxiliary source of coke for the steel industry. It is 
estimated^ that 80 per cent of the total production of all coke is used 
in blast furnaces; 11 per cent in domestic and industrial heating; 
6 per cent in foundries; and 3 per cent in heating retorts. The use 
of coke as a household fuel promises to become more prevalent because 
it is one of the best available substitutes for anthracite coal. 



■ U. S. Bureau of Mines, preliminary figures. 

2 Coke and By-Products in 1924, Bureau of Mines. 



13 



14 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Prior to 1918 beehive coke constituted the larger part of the fuel 
used in pig-iron manufacture. Since that time, a gradual change has 
taken place in the industry; in 1927 far more by-product coke than 
beehive coke was consumed in blast furnaces. 

Table 3 and Chart I show the production of by-product and of 
beehive coke from 1913 to 1927, inclusive. The figures for 1927 are 
not final. Those for by-product coke are taken from preliminary 
reports of the Bureau of Mines; those for beehive coke are estimates 
based upon statements of producers as to the number of cars loaded 
for shipments by the railroads. 

Table 3. — By-product and beehive coke: Production in the United States, 1913-1927 



Year 


Net tons produced 


Per cent of total 
output 


By-product 


Beehive 


Total 


By- 
product 


Beehive 


1913 


12,714,700 
11,220,000 
14, 072, 895 
19, 069, 361 
22, 439, 280 
25, 997, 580 
25, 137, 621 
30, 833, 951 
19, 749, 580 
28, 550, 545 
37, 597, 664 
33, 983, 568 
39,912,159 
44, 376, 586 
43, 921, 000 


33, 584, 830 
23.336,000 
27, 508, 255 
35, 464, 224 
33, 167, 548 
30. 480, 792 
19, 042, 936 
20,511,092 
5, 538, 042 
8, 573, 467 
19, 379, 870 
10,286,037 
11,354,784 
12. 488, 951 
7, 004, 000 


46, 299, 530 
34, 556, 000 
41,581,150 
54, 533, 585 
55, 606, 828 
56, 478, 372 
44,180,557 
51,345,043 
25, 287, 622 
37,124,012 
56, 977, 534 
44, 269, 605 
51,266,943 
56, 865, 537 
50, 925, 000 


27.5 
32.5 
33.8 
35.0 
40.4 
46. 
56.9 
60.0 
78.1 
76.9 
66.0 
76.8 
77.9 
78.0 
86.2 


72 5 


1914 . .. 


67.5 


1915... 


66.2 


1916 


65 


1917 


59 6 


1918 


54 


1919 


43. 1 


1920 


40.0 


1921 


21.9 


1922 


23.1 


1923. 


34 


1924 


23.2 


1925 . - 


o") 1 


1926 1 


22.0 


1927 2 


13.8 







' Revised since last report. 



2 Preliminary. 



Production of tars. — The combined output of coke-oven and coal-gas 
tar in 1927 was 599,052,000 ^ gallons, an increase of 2.7 per cent over 
1926. Sales of tar from these two sources amounted in 1927 to 361,- 
723,000 gallons, or to more than 60 per cent of production. 

Table 4 shows the production of coal tar from all sources and the 
quantity and value of sales in the United States, 1918-1927. Table 5 
shows for coke-oven tar, which constitutes 90 per cent of the 599,052- 
000 gallons produced in 1927, the ratio of sales to production during 
the same period for which figures are given in Table 4. 

Preliminary figures. 



COAL-TAR CRUDES 



15 



Table 4. — Coke-oven, coal-gas, water-gas, and oil-gas tar: Production and sales 
in the United States, 1918-1927 

[Compiled by the Bureau of Mines from reports of producers. The difference between production and 
sales is accounted for by tar used by the producer and by changes in stock] 



Coke-oven 
tari 



Coal-gas 
tar 2 



Total coal 
tar 



Water and oil 
gas tar 



Production (gallons): 

1918 

1919 

1920 

1921 

1922 

1923 

1924 

1925 

1926' 

1927 s 

Sales (gallons): 

1918.. 

1919 

1920 

1921 

1922.. 

1923 -. 

1924 

1925. 

1926' 

19278 

Value of sales: 

1918... 

1919 

1920.. 

1921 

1922 

1923 

1924 

1925... 

1926? 

1927 8 



263, 
288. 
360, 
253. 
327, 
440, 
422, 
480, 
529, 
545, 

200, 
217, 
174, 
135, 
162, 
211. 
209, 
240, 
277, 
312, 

$6, 
6, 
fi> 
5, 



299, 470 
901, 739 
664, 124 
051,649 
779, 734 
907, 109 
074, 326 
848, 814 
486, 374 
052, 000 

233, 002 
707, 157 
363, 696 
293, 047 
204, 417 
739, 469 
979, 999 
160, 986 
248, 522 
723, 000 

364, 972 
918,549 
378, 040 
645, 309 
419, 743 
250, 552 
623, 520 
903, 196 
103, 760 
241, 000 



52, 694, 826 
53, 146, 421 
51,264,956 

(') 
48, 082, 228 

(') 

(«) 

(n 

(«) 

(«) 

47, 727, 839 
49, 307, 852 
46, 604, 133 
51, 976, 307 
41, 266, 074 
47, 840, 512 

(«) 
49, 175, 979 

(«) 

(«) 

$1, 863, .580 
2, 156, 471 
2, 010, 186 
2,811,728 
1, 955, 950 
2, 461, 691 

(«) 
2, 750, 719 

(«) 

(«) 



315, 994, 296 
342, 048, 160 
411, 929, 080 
309,051,649 
37.5,861,962 
493, 407, 109 
475, 074, 326 
534, 848, 814 
583, 486, 374 
599, 052, 000 

247, 960, 841 
267,015,009 
220, 967, 829 
187, 269, 354 
203, 470, 491 
259. 579, 981 
258, 479, 999 
289, 336, 965 
326, 248, 522 
361, 72.3, 000 

.$8, 228, 552 
9, 075, 020 
8, 388, 226 
8, 457, 037 
8, 375, 693 
11,712,243 
12, 293, 520 
14,653,915 
16. 803, 760 
18, 941, 000 



100, 985, 156 
1105,318,339 
116,073,907 

(=) 
104, 555, 028 

(«) 

(5) 

(5) 
(5) 
(») 

55, 283, 484 

3 58, 557, 947 

59, 238, 730 

3 53,432,945 

47, 338, 489 

3 49, 990, 820 

(«) 
3 61, 471, 124 
(«) 
(») 

$1. 805, 865 
3 2,012, 723 
2, 109, 388 
3 2, 192, 015 
1, 879, 490 
3 2, 001, 363 

(») 
3 2, 594, 025 

(5) 

(») 



1 Includes tar produced in by-product coke o%'ens operated by city gas companies. 

2 The figures here given for coal-gas tar include only the operations of coal-gas retorts. For 1918, 1920, 
and 1922 they are taken from special studies by the U. S. Geological Survey. For 1919, 1921, 1923, and 
1925 revised census figures are used, obtained by subtracting from the totals for the manufactured gas 
industry, as published by the Bureau of the Census, the tar produced at by-product coke ovens operated 
by city gas companies. 

3 As reported by the Bureau of the Census. 

* Estimate included in total, based upon reported sales as given below. 

' No data. 

' Estimate included in total. 

' Revised since last report. 

' Preliminary figures. 

Table 5. — Coke-oven tar: Production in the United States and percentage sold 

and used, 1918-1927 

[Compiled by United States Geological Survey and Bureau of Mines from reports of operators] 





Coke-oven tar 


Year 


Coke-oven tar 


Year 


Gallons pro- 
duced 


Per cent 
soldi 


Per cent 
used 1 


Gallons pro- 
duced 


Per cent 
sold ' 


Per cent 
used 1 


1918 

1919 


263, 299, 470 
288, 901, 739 
360, 664, 124 
253, 051, 649 
327, 779, 734 


76.0 
75.4 
48.3 
53.5 
49.5 


24 
24.6 
51.7 
46.5 
50.5 


1923 

1924 


440, 907, 109 
422, 074, 326 
480, 848, 814 
529,486,374 
545, 052, 000 


48.0 
49.6 
49.9 
52.4 

.57.4 


52.0 
.50.4 


1920... . 


1925 


50.1 


1921 


1926 2 


47.6 


1922 


1927 3 . 


42.6 









' No account is taken of changes in stocks. 2 Revised since last report. 3 Preliminary figures. 



Uses oj tar. — Tar is used in the raw state or is distilled into a number 
of products having wide commercial uses. 



16 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Raw or dehydrated tar is used chiefly for fuel. Approximately 
59 per cent of the total output of coal tar in 1927 was so used. Open- 
hearth steel manufacture accounts for a large percentage of the tar 
burned. The use of tar as a fuel tends to increase as the price of 
crude oil advances. 

Minor uses of raw tar are: In mixtures with creosote oil as a 
wood preservative, in stone work and road construction material; for 
waterproofing brick, for settling dust, and as a paint. For the last 
named use the specially prepared pitch paints are better, as they have 
more resistance to the weather. 

Modified and refined tars are used in roofing felts and in tar paper. 

Distillates of tar. — Tar upon being distilled yields two groups of 
products: (1) Complex mixtures made by fractional distillation 
appearing in commerce under the names of solvent naphtha, light oil, 
dead oil, creosote oil, and anthracene oil; (2) coal-tar crudes, such 
as toluene, naphthalene, anthracene, and the less important cumene, 
carbazol, the cresols, and pyridine. These crudes, after purification, 
are used in the preparation of coal-tar intermediates, which, in turn, 
are used in the manufacture of dyes and other products. 

Data on the domestic production of crudes distilled from tar at 
by-product coke oven plants are reported to the Bureau of Mines; 
production by firms engaged primarily in distilling tar is reported 
to the Tariff Commission. 

Table 6 shows the domestic production of certain coal-tar crudes 
from all sources, 1918-1927. 

Table 6. — Total commercial production of benzene, toluene, solvent naphtha, and 
naphthalene from all sources in the United States, 1918-1927 

[Data for coke ovens and gas works from reports to United States Geological Survey and Bureau of Mines; 
for tar refineries and others to United States Tariff Commissionj 



By-product 

coke plants 

(sales) 1 



Gas works 

not elsewhere 

included 

(sales) 1 2 



Tar refiner- 
ies and ail 
other estab- 
lishments s 
(produc- 
tion) 



Total com- 
mercial pro- 
duction * 



Benzene (all grades except motor benzol): 
Gallons— 

1918 

1919 

1920-. _ 

1921.. 

1922__ 

1923 

1924_. 

1925 _ _._ 

1926 

1927 



43, 
5 03, 
17, 
6, 
12, 
16, 
17, 
21, 
'21, 

8 21, 



441,980 
077, 463 
230, 776 
839, 021 
256, 348 
724, 182 
740, 608 
816, 380 
987, 790 
548, 000 



2,177 

(«) 
(«) 
(«) 
(6) 

(«) 
(«) 



3, 015, 
1, 826, 
875, 
2, 171, 
774, 
394, 
629, 
741, 
377, 
370, 



21, 



634, 996 
403, 836 
141,337 
045, 042 
071, 288 
154,088 
417, 542 
607, 932 
374, 838 
930, 782 



• Sales instead of production are here given to avoid double counting between production of crude and 
pure grades and because such of the product as is used in the coke plant or gas works is not available for 
commercial use. 

2 In order to eliminate duplication, the figures for gas works are exclusive of by-product coke ovens oper- 
ated by city gas companies, which are included in the preceding column, and exclusive of recoveiics from 
such tar-refining operations conducted by the city gas companies as are included in the column headed 
"tar refineries." From time to time plants formerly included in the column headed "gas works" have 
been transferred to the column "tar refineries," hence the figures in the "gas works" column are not 
strictly comparable from year to year. The total commercial production shown in the last column con- 
tains no duplication and is comparable from year to year. 

3 See note 2. 

< Totals include estimates for firms not reporting, and actual figures for items that can not be shown sep- 
arately without disclosing individual returns. 
6 Includes motor benzol and 13,000 gallons of gasoline used in blending. 
' Reports incomplete. Estimate included in total. 
' Final figures, revised since last report. 
8 Subject to revision. 



COAL-TAR CRUDES 



17 



Table 6. — Total comtnercial production of benzene, toluene, solvent naphtha, and 
naphthalene Jr am all sources in the United States, 1918-1927 — Continued 

(Data for coke ovens and pas works from reports to United States Geological Survey and Bureau of Mines; 
for tar refineries and others to United States Tariff Commission] 



By-product 
coke plants 

(sales) 



Benzene (all grades except motor benzol)— Con. 
Value— 

1918 

1919 

1920 

1921 

1922 

1923 

1924 

1925_. 

1926 

1927 

Motor benzol: 
Gallons- 

1918 

1919 (included under benzene above)... 

1920 

1921 

1922 

1923 

1924. 

1925 

1926 

1927 

Value— 

1918 

1919 (included under benzene above)... 

1920 

1921 

1922 

1923 

1924 

1925 

1926 

1927 

Toluene, all grades: 
Gallons — 

1918 

1919. 

1920 

1921 

1922 

1923 

1924.. ._ 

1925 

1926 

1927 ... 

Value — 

1918 

1919 

1920 

1921 

1922__ 

1923. 

1924 

1925 

1926 

1927 



$11, 
5 11, 
4, 
1. 
3, 
3, 
3, 
4, 



966, 
643, 
497, 
611, 
435, 
839, 
736, 
888, 
,067, 
,458, 



i»55, 
50, 
54, 



"89, 



10 $12, 

8, 

I 10, 

13, 

11, 

13, 

' 16, 

s 14, 



$12, 



Gas works 

not elsewhere 

included 

(sales) 



$572, 950 



467, 126 
1 350, 000 

(12) 
(«) 
(«) 
(«) 
(«) 
(«) 



$112,849 
"70,000 

(12) 
(«) 
(«) 
(«) 
(«) 
(«) 



3, 965, 518 
(«) 

II 2, 000 
11 1,000 

(13) 

11 2, 000 
11 2,000 
1! 2, 000 
11 200 
11 1, 000 

$5, 597, 353 
C) 
II 300 
11270 

(13) 

11570 
11 500 
11500 
11 170 
II 300 



Tar refiner- 
ies and all 
other estab- 
lishments 
(produc- 
tion) 



$994, 161 
560, 547 
287, 586 
403, 205 
215, 136 
118,505 
155, 973 
171,005 
105, 513 
100, 453 



(«) 
(«) 
(») 

(12) 
(U) 
(12) 
(12) 
(12) 
(12) 



Total com- 
mercial pro- 
duction 



1, 596, 353 
510, 957 

(13) 
(13) 
(13) 
(13) 
(13) 
(13) 
(13) 
(13) 

$8, 044, 890 
235, 321 

(13) 
(13) 
(13) 
(13) 
(13) 
(13) 
(13) 
(13) 



$13, 533, 478 
12, 296, 192 

4, 794, 409 
2, 082, 926 
3, 664, 517 
3, 968, 742 

3. 901, 629 

5, 070, 245 
5, 175, 206 

4, 500, 453 



(») 
(") 
(») 
55, 622, 482 

83, 664, 846 
76, 072, 771 

84, 789, 206 
92, 891, 995 
90, 182, 622 



(') 


(«) 


(») 


(») 


(») 


(«) 


(12) 


$10, 657, 074 


(12) 


13, 851, 704 


(12) 


11,678,665 


(12) 


14, 270, 746 


(12) 


17, 578, 255 


(12) 


15, 191, 145 



14, 103, 237 
1, 884, 784 

(13) 
(IS) 
(13) 
(13) 
(13) 
(13) 
(13) 
(13) 

$20, 891, 945 
596,511 

(13) 
(13) 
(13) 
(13) 
(U) 
(13) 
(13) 
(13) 



5 Includes motor benzol and 13,000 gallons of gasoline used in blending. 

6 Reports incomplete. Estimate included in total. 
' Final figures, revised since last report. 

* Subject to revision. 

8 Data not collected from tar refiners prior to 1922. 

If Includes 1,333,000 gallons of gasoline used in blending. 

11 Estimate. 

12 Included in total, but can not be shown separately without disclosing individual returns. 

'3 A certain quantity of toluene was produced at gas works and at tar refineiies, but the figures can not be 
given without disclosing individual returns. 



18 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Table 6. — Total commercial production of benzene, toluene, solvent naphtha, and 
naphthalene from all sources in the United States, 1918-1927 — Continued 

[Data for coke ovens and gas works from reports to United States Geological Survey and Bureau of Mines; 
for tar refineries and others to United States Tariff Commission] 





By-product 

coke plants 

(sales) 


Gas works 

not elsewhere 

included 

(sales) 


Tar refiner- 
ies and all 

other estab- 
lishments 
(produc- 
tion) 


Total com- 
mercial pro- 
duction 


Solvent naphtha, crude and refined, including 
xylene: 
Gallons— 

1918 


" 3, 284, 037 

16 3,649,066 

4, 695, 464 

2, 881, 656 

2,861,482 

3, 399, 904 

3, 884, 585 

3, 993, 735 

'3,546,117 

8 3, 647, 000 

" $458, 689 
16 557, 416 
851, 048 
510, 509 
538, 512 
608, 084 
724, 874 
805, 251 

' 1, 035, 870 
8 923, 000 

15, 890, 447 
6, 702, 040 

14, 448, 762 
1, 983, 523 
4,887,935 

11,245,633 
8. 219, 073 
9, 900. 517 

" 7. 723, 223 

8 8, 256, 000 

$650, 229 

191,364 

487, 974 

59, 335 

131, 2.52 

239, 709 

128, 208 

97, 493 

97, 310 

8 91, 000 


1, 442, 267 

(6) 
(6) 
(6) 
(12) 

(«) 
(6) 
(6) 
(6) 
(«) 

$191, 475 

(6) 
(6) 
(6) 
(12) 

(«) 
(6) 
(«) 
(6) 

896, 080 

(«) 
1, 760, 293 

(6) 

(«) 
1, 115, 563 

(6) 
1, 266, 037 

(6) 
(«) 

$14, 282 
(») 

63,449 
(») 
(8) 

42, 247 

(6) 

34, 751 

w 
(«) 


15 965, 458 

(12) 
(12) 
(12) 
(12) 
(12) 

812,378 
530, 833 

(12) 
(12) 

15 $232, 003 

(12) 
(12) 
(.2) 
(12) 
(12) 

153,941 
148, 801 

(12) 
(12) 

40,138,092 
12, 612, 203 
26,393,411 
16, 949, 464 
19, 323, 393 
41, 453, 002 
34, 683, 803 
34, 135, 175 
45, 165, 957 
45, 298, 441 

$1, 281, 440 
327, 201 
791, 403 
380, 167 
352,957 
652, 148 
441, 333 
519, 773 
494, 986 
470, 806 


5,691,762- 


1919 


4, 128, 747 


1920 -- 


5, 384, 560 


1921 - 


3, 627, 488 


1922 -. 


3, 680, 811 


1923 


4, 041, 497 


1924 


4, 781, 963 


1925 - 


4, 609, 568 


1926 -.- 


4, 588, 844 


1927 - 


4, 521, 997 


V'alue — 

1918 - 


$882, 167 


1919 . 


672, 685 


1920 


994, 205 


1921. 


644, 548 


1922.. 


773, 336 


1923-.-. 


800, 698 


1924 


896, 815 


1925 


972, 052 


1926 


1, 174, 297 


1927 


1, 068, 411 


Naphthalene: 
Pounds— 

1918 


56, 924, 619 


1919 


20,114,243 


1920 


42, 602, 466 


1921 


19, 432, 987 


1922 


25,411,328 


1923 


53, 814, 198 


1924 


44, 102, 876 


1925 


45, 301, 729 


1926 


53, 059, 180 


1927 


53, 754, 441 


Value— 

1918 


$1, 945, 951 


1919 


542, 565 


1920 


1, 342, 826 


1921 


462, 502 


1922 


536, 209 


1923 


934, 104 


1924 . . .. 1-. 


602, 541 


1925 


652, 017 


1926 


594, 296 


1927 


563, 806 







6 Reports incomplete. Estimate included in total. 
' Final figures, revised since last report. 
8 Subject to revision. 

12 Included in total, but can not be shown separately without disclosing individual returns, 
n Includes 52,847 gallons of xvlene, valued at $9,937, and 107,375 gallons of crude heavy solvent, valued at 
$8,769. 

i« Includes 192,969 gallons of xylene, valued at $67,935. 
w Includes 23,088 gallons of xylene, valued at $4,563. 

Production in hy-produd colce ovens. — The output of crude light oil 
amounted to 164,329,000 gallons in 1927, only a little more than the 
1926 output. 

The production of motor benzol, a partly refined light oil, was 
87,234,000 gallons, of which 86,825,000 gallons were sold for $14,620,- 
000. Motor benzol is generally used with gasoline or with gasoline 
and alcohol in blended motor fuels. 

The production of crude and refined toluol appreciably increased 
in 1927, amounting to 12,496,000 gallons, as compared with 
8,801,000 gallons in 1926. 



COAL-TAR CRUDES 



19 



Table 7 shows the production of coal-tar crudes in coke-oven 
operations, 1925-1927. 

Table 7. — Coal-tar by-products obtained from coke-oven operations, 1925-1927 
[United States Geological Survey and Bureau of Mines] 



Product 



Production 



Sales 



Quantity 



Value 



Total i Average 



1925 
Tar gallons. 

Light oil and derivatives: 

Crude light oil do 

Benzol- 
Crude - do 

Refined do 

Motor benzol do 

Toluol- 
Crude do 

Refined do 

Solvent naphtha do 

Other light oil products do 



Naphthalene: 

Crude pounds.. 

Refined ..do 



480, 848, 814 



240, 160, 986 



$11,903 196 



' 146, 443, 106 

6, 119, 160 
16,231,714 
81, 4G9, 923 

127, 584 
5, 329, 560 
4, 744, 431 
2, 366, 246 



10, 201, 900 



2 116, 388, 620 



9, 238, 890 
1,018 



9, 239, 908 



1926 3 



Tar. 



Light oil and derivatives: 

Crude light oil do... 

Benzol- 
Crude ...do... 

Refined do... 

Motor benzol do... 

Toluol- 
Crude-. do... 

Refined do... 

Solvent naphtha. ..do... 

Other light oil products do... 



Naphthalene: 

Crude pounds. 

Refined .do... 



1927 5 
Tar gallons.. 

Light oil and derivatives: 

Crude light oil do 

Benzol, crude and refined do 

Motor benzol .do 

Toluol, crude and refined do 

Solvent naphtha. ...do 

Other light oil products do 



Naphthalene. 

Crude and refined pounds. 



529, 486, 374 



164, 059, 552 



907, 106 
909, 280 
957, 983 

46, 789 
991, 358 
993, 735 
252, 451 



1, 052, 685 

1, 321, 597 
3, 566, 643 
13,441,422 

10, 052 

1, 300, 734 

805, 251 

96, 073 



123, 260, 602 



21,594,357 



9, 692, 185 
208, 332 



92, 369 
5,124 



9, 900, 517 



97, 493 



277, 248, 522 



14, 103, 760 



10, 783, 568 



744, 713 
713, 904 
029, 972 

432, 317 
359, 135 
704, 555 
127, 710 



660, 621 
327, 169 
501,212 

400, 308 
250, 297 
546, 117 
324, 303 



1, 330, 208 

1, 109, 974 
3, 957, 719 
16, 863, 109 

127, 298 

2, 787, 454 

1, 035, 870 

93, 344 



2 130, 112, 306 135, 793, 595 



27, 304, 976 



7, 746, 821 
139, 701 



7, 556, 372 
166, 851 



7, 886, 522 



7, 723, 223 



545, 052, 000 312, 723, 000 



6 164, 329, 000 

21,939,000 I 

87,234,000 

12,496,000 i 

4,941,000 1 

2,709,000 ! 



9, 364, 000 

21, 548, 000 

86, 825, 000 

12, 000, 000 

3, 647, 000 

1, 393, 000 



2 129, 319, 000 ! 134, 777, 000 



96, 210 
1,100 



97, 310 



16, 241, 000 



1, 094, 000 

4, 458, 000 

14, 620, 000 

4, 034, 000 

923, 000 

146, 000 



25, 275, 000 



8, 136, 000 



8,256,000 



91,000 



.049 



.103 

.224 
.224 
.166 

.215 
.261 
.202 
.077 



.175 



.010 
.025 



.010 



.051 



.123 

.238 
.228 
.188 

.318 
.338 
.292 
.070 



.201 



.013 
.007 



.013 



.052 



.117 
.207 
.168 
.336 
.253 
.105 



,188 



.011 



' Refined on the premises to make the derived products shown, 143,296,567 gallons. 

2 Total gallons of derived products. 

■' Revised since last report. 

< Refined on the premises to make the derived products shown, 159,589,756 gallons. 

5 Preliminary figures. 

* Refined on the premises to make the derived products shown, 161,440,000 gallons. 



20 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

Production hy firms not primarily engaged in the operation of coke- 
oven plants. — Returns to the Tariff Commission by firms engaged 
primarily in distilling coal tar show that 244,550,564 gallons of tar, 
amounting to approximately 40 per cent of the total production of 
coal tar, were distilled in 1927. This is slightly less than the quantity 
reported from the same source in 1926. 

Dead or creosote oil and crude naphthalene were the chief distillates 
produced in 1927. 

The output of creosote oil by 17 manufacturers was 76,395,325 
gallons, valued at ^9,847,932, or 12.9 cents per gallon. In 1926, 16 
manufacturers reported a production of 75,495,540 gallons, valued at 
$9,767,537, or 12.9 cents per gallon. Imports of creosote oil in 1927 
amounted to 95,915,221 gallons, valued at $15,436,574, or 16.1 cents 
per gallon. 

The residue from the distillation of crude tar is known as pitch. 
In 1927 the output of pitch was 457,073 tons, valued at $7,794,642. 
Because of its resistance to atmospheric conditions, particularly to 
moisture, pitch is used in composition shingles and in roofing materials. 
Soft pitch is used in large quantities for road making. Metal paints 
are made by dissolving pitch in the light oils obtained in the distilla- 
tion of tar. 

Refined tar is the residue from the distillation of a varying pro- 
portion of the lower boiling products. Production in 1927 was 
1,377,703 barrels, valued at $6,172,825. as compared with 1,026,358 
barrels in 1926, valued at $5 368,414. 

Other distillates showing increased production in 1927 are anthra- 
cene oil, extracted crude tar acids, light oil, toluene and xylene. 
Those showing decreased production are motor fuel, pitch, pyridine, 
and solvent naphtha. 

Table 8 shows the quantity and value of coal-tar crudes distilled 
by firms not primarily engaged in the operation of coke-oven plants 
in 1927. 

Coal-iar creosote. — Coal-tar creosote is the most effective of all 
wood preservatives. It is used in increasing quantities for railway 
ties, telegraph poles, and for mine and construction timber. 

Some of the advantages of coal-tar creosote are (1) high toxicity, 
which makes it poisonous to wood-destroying fungi; (2) relative 
insolubility m water and low volatility, which cause it to remain in the 
wood almost indefinitely; (3) ease of application; (4) ease with which 
its depth of penetration can be determined; (5) general availability 
and relatively low cost. 

In 1926, the last year for which statistics are available, more 
wood preserving plants were in active operation and a greater quantity 
of wood was treated than ever before in the history of the industry. 
Plants operating in 1926 numbered 186, as compared with 167 in 
1925. The increase of 19 included 14 new plants constructed within the 
year. The quantity of wood treated was 289,322,079 cubic feet, or 
14,847,541 cubic feet more than was treated in 1925. For this quan- 
tity of wood a total of 185,733,180 •* gallons of creosote was used. 
This is the largest quantity ever used. It was made up of 32,766,270 
gallons of distillate coal-tar creosote, 54,372,006 gallons of creosote 
coal-tar solution, 1,490,420 gallons of refined water-gas tar, 1,661,370 

« Quantity of ^^■ood Treated and Preservatives Used in the United States in 1926. Forest Service, United 
States Dept. of Agriculture. 



COAL-TAR CRUDES 



21 



Table 8. — Coal-tar crudes: Production, 1927, hy firms not primarily engaged in the 
operation of coke-oven plants and gas houses 

[The numbers in the second column refer to the numbered alphabetical list of manufacturers given on 
page 188. An X indicates that the corresponding product was made by a manufacturer who did not con- 
sent to the publication of his name in connection therewith. A blank in the third and fourth columns 
indicates that there was actual production of the corresponding article but that figures can not be published 
without revealing the output of individual firms] 



Name 



Manufacturers' identification 
numbers (according to list on 
page 188) 



Quantity i Value 



Total crudes 

Anthracene (crude, less than 30 per 

cent pounds-. 

Anthracene oil gallons. 

Benzene do 

Carbolic oil or middle oil do 

Cresol or cresylic acid do 

Dead or creosote oil do 

Extracted crude tar acids do 

Light oil do 

Motor fuel do 

^Naphthalene (crude) pounds. . 

Other distillates gallons. . 

Pitch of tar. tons. . 

Psuedo cumene gallons. . 

Pyridine. do 

Refined tars barrels. . 

Solvent naphtha gallons. . 

Toluene do 

Xylene ..do 



138 

9, 138, X 

12, 17, 127, X 

28, 37, 83 

12,89 

9, 12, 17, 22, 28, 35, 37, 83, 89, 110, 

138, 147, 159, 161, X, X, X. 

12 

22, 28, 35, 37, 110, X, X 

35 127 

9, 11, 12, 2S, 37, 83," 89, iio, 127, 

138, 147, X. 

12, 17, 28, 35, 89, 127, X 

9, 12, 17, 22, 28, 35, 37, 83, 89, 110, 

138, 147, 159, X, X. 

12. 

12, 106... 

9, 12, 17, 22, 28, 37, 83, 89, 110, 

127, 138, 147, 159, X, X. 

12, 17, 138, X, X 

12, 127 

12 



$27,776,355 



Unit 
value 



370, 782 
260, 690 



100, 453 
37, 357 



$0.27 
.14 



76,395,325 I 9,847,932 



.13 



45, 298, 441 



5, 263, 199 
457, 073 



470, 806 



809, 130 
7, 794, 642 



.15 
17. 0.'^ 



1, 377, 703 
820, 701 



5, 172, 825 
118,205 



4.48 



The instructions sent to manufacturers were as follows: Include under dead or creosote oil only products 
which may be used for creosoting. Include under "other distillates" shingle stain oil, disinfectant oils, 
and flotation oils which do not contain over 5 per cent of phenol. Include under refined tars those tars which 
are used for road treatment, saturating felt, and for protective coatings. Phenol and all distillates which 
on being subjected to distillation, yield in the portion distilling below 190° C. a quantity of tar acids equal 
to or more than 5 per cent of the original distillate, or which, on being subjected to distillation, yield in the 
portion distilling below 215° C. a quantity of tar acids equal to or more than 75 per cent of the original 
distillate are not to be included here but are to be placed under intermediates. 

gallons of water-gas tar solution, and 95,443,114 gallons of imported 
coal-tar creosote. 

Other materials used in wood preservatives were as follows: 
Petroleum, 13,317,022 gallons; solid zinc chloride, 24,777,020 pounds; 
paving oil, 2,541,563 gallons; and miscellaneous preservatives, 
259,961 gallons. 

Imports of crudes. — Imports are given in Table 72, p. 179. 

Exports of crudes. — A marked gain in 1927 was noted in the exports 
of benzene, which totaled 25,793,566 gallons, valued at $6,665,105, as 
compared with 19,000,000 gallons in 1926, valued at $5,513,000. 
Exports to Germany in 1927 were 11,900,000 gallons, as compared 
with 8,000,000 in 1926; to the United Kingdom, 8,400,000 and 7,500,- 
000 gallons, in the two j^ears. There were no shipments of benzene to 
the Netherlands in 1926, but approximately four and one-half million 
gallons were exported to that country in 1927. Exports to France 
declined from 3,420,000 gallons in 1926 to 550,000 in 1927. 

Exports of tar and pitch tripled — from 216,000 barrels in 1926, 
valued at $883,000, to 673,000 barrels in 1927, valued at $3,256,000. 
Shipments of tar and pitch to France showed a conspicuous increase. 



22 census of dyes and other synthetic chemicals 
Coal-tar Intermediates 
description 

Intermediates do not occur as such in coal tar, but are manufac- 
tured from the crudes (benzene, tokiene, naphthalene, and anthracene) 
by treatment with sulfuric acid, nitric acid, alkalies, chlorine, or other 
chemicals. From fewer than ten coal-tar crudes, 200 to 300 inter- 
mediates are prepared for use in the production of hundreds of dyes, 
medicinals, flavors, perfumes, resins, and other finished coal-tar prod- 
ucts. The various chemical stages in the conversion of crudes to 
intermediates are (1) nitration, (2) reduction, (3) sulfonation, (4) 
caustic fusion, (5) chlorination, (6) alkylation, (7) liming, (8) conden- 
sation, (9) carboxylation, (10) oxidation, and (11) diazotization. 

Certain intermediates are used as accelerators in the vulcanization 
of rubber, as camphor substitutes, insecticides, germicides, fungicides, 
in the flotation process for concentrating ores; and for other pur- 
poses. Others are used in the direct production of dyes on the fiber 
and also for increasing the fastness of dyes on the fiber. When used 
for the latter purpose they are known as developers. After purifi- 
cation many intermediates are used directly as drugs, perfumes, and 
flavors. 

The relation between the heavy chemical industry and the interme- 
diate and dye industry is an intimate one, as the dye industry is an 
important consumer of heavy chemicals and other products. The 
manufacture of intermediates and dyes requires large quantities of 
acids, alkahes, and other heavy chemicals, such as sodium nitrite and 
sulfide, salt, chlorine, bromine, sulfur, and in addition noncoal-tar 
organic compounds, such as methanol, formaldehyde, and acetic 
anhydride. 

PRODUCTION 

Statistics of the production of intermediates are given in Table 11 
(p. 28) in as great detail as is possible without disclosing the output 
of individual manufacturers. The total production in 1927 was 
240,073,184 pounds, as compared with 229,653,802 pounds in 1926. 
Sales in 1927 amounted to 92,917,439 pounds, valued at $20,127,459, 
or a unit value of 21.7 cents, as compared with 21.8 cents in the previ- 
ous year. 

In general, those intermediates norm ally consumed in large quantity 
in the manufacture of dyes show no significant change in production 
in 1927 as compared with 1926. Notable increases occurred in the 
output of many specialty intermediates used in the fast and specialty 
dyes. 

Rubber accelerators. — Marked progress was made in 1927 in the 
manufacture of intermediates for accelerators in the vulcanization of 
rubber. The total consumption of these intermediates in the manu- 
facture of rubber products can not be measured accurately as some of 
the production reported was used in dyes and other products. 

Accelerators * have reduced the time of vulcanizing tires and other 
rubber goods. By the use of organic accelerators the resistance of 
modern rubber compounds to aging has been lengthened by at least 

< Jour, of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, April, 1925, p. 393. 



COAL-TAR INTERMEDIATES 



23 



one year. It is roughly estimated that without the organic accelerator 
double the capital now invested would be needed for molds, heaters, 
and other apparatus used for vulcanization. 

Among the accelerators showing increased production in 1927 over 
1926 are diphenylguanidine, o-ditolylguanidine, mercapto-benzo- 
thiazol, heptylidine aniline, ethylidine aniline, and derivatives, 
crotilidine aniline, dimethylamine, dimethylaniline, p-toluidine, 
triphenylguanidine, and formanilide. The following chemicals of 
this group show a decreased production in 1927: Nitroso-dimethyl- 
aniUne, methylene dianilide, thiocarbanilide, anhydroformaldehyde- 
p-toluidine. Those reported in 1927, but not in 1926, include dimethyl- 
diphenyurea, and tritolylguanidine. 

Statistics of production of organic rubber accelerators of noncoal- 
tar origin are given in Table 38, page 136. 

Decreased production of synthetic phenol. — The combined production 
of natural and synthetic phenol by four firms in 1927 was 8,041,082 
pounds, a decrease of 7^ per cent from 1926. More than three- 
fourths of this production was synthetic phenol. Sales in 1927 
totaled 4,595,162 pounds, valued at $684,160. The unit value of 
phenol in 1927 was 15 cents a pound, which is the lowest unit value 
since 1921. Table 9 shows production and sales figures from 1917 
to 1927, inclusive. 



Table 9.- 



-Phenol, natural and synthetic: Production and sales in the United States, 
1917-1927 



Year 


Production 


Sales 


Unit 


Quantity 


Value 


value 


1917 


Pounds 
64, 146, 499 
106, 794, 277 
1, 543, 659 


Pounds 


1 $23, 715, 805 

1 37, 270, 284 

1 155, 624 


$0.37 


1918 




.35 


1919 




.10 


1920..- 






1921 




292, 645 
1, 266, 552 
2, 180, 244 
8, 273, 598 
8, 524, 178 
5, 479, 727 
4, 595, 162 


41,617 
268, 311 
589, 822 
2, 505, 533 
1,771,332 
987, 631 
684, 160 


. 14 


1922 


1,285,978 
3,310,911 
10, 521, 944 
14, 734, 065 
8, 691, 181 
8, 041, 082 


.21 


1923 .... 


.27 


1924 


.30 


1925. . 


.21 


Id26 


.18 


1927 


. 15 







1 Value of production. 

Investigation of phenol under section 315. — On October 31, 1927, 
the President proclaimed a decrease in the rate of duty on phenol 
from 7 cents per pound and 40 per cent ad valorem to 33^ cents per 
pound and 20 per cent ad valorem. This decrease followed a cost of 
production investigation by the Tariff Commission undertaken in 
June, 1923. Cost data were obtained from domestic and British 
manufacturers covering the first half of 1923. The commission's 
findings were based upon the difference between foreign and domestic 
costs in 1923, but costs were also obtained for a later period. Analysis 
of domestic costs in 1925 and 1926 and of foreign and domestic prices 
in 1925, 1926, and the last six months of 1927 confirmed the com- 
mission's conclusion as to the necessary equalizing duty within the 
limitation of section 315. 

In 1923 the larger part of the domestic production of phenol was 
in the natural form, but with the growing demand for phenol the 

7709—28 3 



24 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

tendency was toward increased production of the synthetic form. 
In 1926 and 1927 more than 75 per cent of the domestic requirements 
was supplied by synthetic phenol. 

The chief use of phenol is in the manufacture of synthetic resin, 
one of the raw materials of molded plastics and varnishes. Other 
important uses are as an antiseptic and as a disinfectant; in the manu- 
facture of picric acid; in intermediates required in making coal-tar 
dyes; and in pharmaceuticals. 

There are two methods of making phenol: (1) Either (a) from one 
of the fractions in the distillation of coal tar, a by-product resulting 
from the manufacture of coke in by-product ovens; or (b) from the 
manufacture of coal gas; (2) by a synthetic process from benzene, 
a coal-tar derivative. The synthetic process was developed on a 
large scale during the war, and since 1923 has again become increasingly 
important. 

A new process of making synthetic phenol from monochlorbenzene, 
developed by a domestic manufacturer, will probably still further 
reduce the cost of manufacture. 

Taking manufacturing costs in Great Britain as 100, the cost in 
the United States was 139 in the first half of 1923. On the basis of 
1923 cost data the minimum duty permissible under section 315 
is greater than the difference in costs in the United States and Great 
Britain, the principal competing country. 

From 1909 to 1914, a period when phenol was on the free list, 
imports ranged from a minimum in 1911 of 4,371,000 pounds, valued 
at $265,780, to a maximum in 1914 of 8,393,000 pounds, valued at 
$531,535. During the World War they greatly decreased. Official 
statistics show an import of only 256,126 pounds in 1925, valued at 
$58,958. Of this quantity, 138,074 pounds came from Great Britain; 
89,198 pounds from Germany, and 28,854 pounds from the Nether- 
lands. There was a still further decline in 1926 to 218,437 pounds, 
valued at $47,351, and in 1927 to the insignificant amount of 500 
pounds, valued at $100. 

p-amino phenol. — The production of p-amino phenol and hydro- 
chloride showed a large increase in 1927 over 1926. This product 
is used in fur dyeing, in dye manufacture, and as a photographic 
chemical. 

Cresylic acid. — Cresylic acid and phenol are joint products of one 
of the crude tar acid fractions obtained in the distillation of coal tar. 
The two are separated by extraction with caustic soda solution and 
fractional distillation. The production of cresylic acid in 1927 shows 
a small decrease from the previous year; that of o-cresol, a large 
increase. 

Investigation of cresylic acid under section 315. — On July 20, 1927, 
the President issued a proclamation decreasing the rate of duty on 
cresylic acid from 7 cents per pound and 40 per cent ad valorem to 
33^ cents per pound and 20 per cent ad valorem. This decrease in 
duty was proclaimed after the Tarift' Commission had submitted to 
the President the results of its investigation of costs of production 
of cresylic acid. Cost data were obtained from domestic and British 
manufacturers. 

Cresylic acid is manufactured in large quantities from one of the 
fractions obtained in distilling coal tar, a by-product of coke (made 
in by-product ovens) and of the manufacture of coal gas. In both 



COAL-TAR INTERMEDIATES 25 

of these operations, special grades of bituminous coal are heated to 
a high temperature out of contact with air. 

One of the largest uses of refined cresylic acid is in the manufac- 
ture of synthetic resins. Another use is in the making of tricresyl- 
phosphate, a substitute for camphor in the manufacture of celluloid 
and other pyroxylin plastics. Other uses are in the preparation of 
disinfectants, antiseptics, germicides, and similar products. It is 
difficult to arrive at an accurate estimate of the consumption of 
cresylic acid. A rough estimate places domestic consumption in 
1925 at 1,600,000 gallons. 

Great Britain, the leadmg producer, has large supplies of coal-gas 
tar, which is especially rich in cresylic acid. Coke-oven operations 
also contribute to the total output. The widespread use of coal-gas 
as an illuminant throughout the country explains the importance of 
the British mdustry. The United States imports a larger proportion 
of her needs from Great Britain than from any other comitry. 

From 1917 to 1920 miports of cresylic acid of all grades averaged 
1,030,502 gallons a year. In 1921 only 410,963 gallons came in, but 
beginning with 1922 imports steadily increased both in quantity and 
value until in 1926 they reached a total of 1,019,856 gallons, valued 
at $537,536. Less than 1 per cent of the quantity imported in 1920 
was dutiable. 

Foreign manufacturers control distillation so as to produce certain 
grades of cresylic acid, not including cresol USP., which can be 
imported into the United States exempt from duty imder the tariff 
act of 1922. A portion of the cresylic acid miported duty-free com- 
petes with the refined grades produced in the United States. The 
intent of paragraph 27 of the act of 1922 is to make dutiable the 
refined grades of cresylic acid. 

Cresol USP., the refined grade of cresylic acid for use in medici- 
nal preparations, must conform to definite standards of purity and 
strength officially specified by the United States Pharmacopoeia. 

Using the cost data obtamed for the first half of 1923 and taking 
manufacturing costs in Great Britain as 100, the cost of producing 
cresylic acid in the United States was 197. Supplemental cost data 
obtamed by the Tariff Commission for 1924 and 1925 show that costs 
in 1924 were 86.2 percent and in 1925, 81.3 per cent of costs in the first 
half of 1923. 

Benzoic acid. — The production of benzoic acid, USP., in 1927 
was 209,733 pounds, as compared with 216,345 pounds in 1926. The 
unit sales price declined from 54.8 cents in 1926 to 51 cents in 1927. 
Benzoate of soda, used chiefly as a food preservative, showed an 
increase in production from 897,848 pounds in 1926 to 1,025,835 
pounds in 1927. 

Halogenated products. — Conspicuous gains occurred in the output 
of the chlorinated intermediates, the foremost of 'which are mono- 
chlorobenzene, dichloroaniline, p-dichlorobenzene, o-dichlorobenzene, 
chloro phenol (o and p), and o-p-nitrochlorobenzene. 

Malic and maleic acids. — These acids, made synthetically hj the 
"cracking" of benzene, are used as substitutes for certain organic 
acids. Each of them showed a large increase in production in 1927 
over 1926. 

Aniline. — The 1927 production of aniline was 27,084,227 pounds, 
an increase of 1,055,288 pounds over 1926; the value of sales was 14 



26 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

cents per pound, as compared with 14.9 cents in 1926. Aniline hy- 
drochloride showed a decreased production from the previous year. 

An important intermediate derived from anihne is dimethylanihne, 
made by using methanol as the methylating agent in the presence of 
a catalyst. Production increased in 1927 as compared with 1926. In 
recent years the average sales value per pound has been as follows: 
26 cents in 1927, 28.4 cents in 1926, 30 cents in 1925, and 38 cents in 
1923. 

p-Nitroaniline is used in the production of color lakes, direct green 
B and G, and chrome yellow R, certain sulfur dyes, and in producing 
Para red directly on the fiber. There was an increase in the produc- 
tion of this intermediate in 1927. The unit value of sales increased 
from 45 cents in 1926 to 47 cents in 1927. 

AcetaniUde, technical, showed a large increase in production in 
1927 over 1926. Other anihne derivatives produced in larger quan- 
tity in 1927 than in 1926 were: Anihne disulfonic acid, o-chloro-p- 
nitroaniline, dibenzylanihne, dichloroaniline, diethylanihne, 2:4: di- 
nitroaniUne, m-nitroanihne, and thioanihne. Anihne derivatives show- 
ing decreased production in 1927 were: Aniline sulfate, anihne sul- 
fonic acid, diethylanihne-m-sulfonic acid, ethyl-anihne (mono), 
methylene dianilide, and sulfanihc acid. 

Benzoyl yeroxide. — Benzoyl peroxide, used in bleaching flour, and 
benzoyl chloride, one of the component raw materials of benzoyl 
peroxide, both showed increased production in 1927. 

Naphthalene. — The output of refined naphthalene in 1927 was 
21,233,131 pounds, as compared with 18,071,619 pounds in 1926. 
Derivatives of naphthalene for which a larger production was reported 
in 1927 than in 1926 are naphthol A, S., alpha-naphthylamine, 
phthalic anhydride, beta amino anthraquinone, and certain anthra- 
quinone derivatives. 

Naphthol A. S. (b-hydroxy naphthoic anihde) is used in conjunc- 
tion with certain other coal-tar intermediates for the direct produc- 
tion of bright, fast shades on cotton. Dyes of this group compete 
with alizarin and vat dyes. 

Phthalic anhydride is made by the catalytic oxidation of naphtha- 
lene. The output in 1927 was the highest on record — 4,549,820 
pounds. The unit value of sales dropped from $4.23 per pound in 
1917 to 20 cents in 1925 and to 17 cents in 1927. In 1914 when our 
entire consumption was imported, the invoice value was 24 cents per 
pound. 

Phthalic anhydride is the raw material for anthraquinone required 
in the manufacture of many vat dyes and in alizarin and alizarin 
derivatives. It is used directly in the preparation of fluoresceins, 
eosines, and rhodamine dyes. Diethylphthalate and other esters of 
phthalic acid are made from the anhydride. An important new use 
of phthalic anhydride is as a raw material for synthetic resins. For 
this purpose it is combined with glycerine. These synthetic resins 
are of a new type and promise to have many commercial uses. 

Anthraquinone showed a small decrease in production in 1927. 
This intemiediate is the basis for a variety of fast dyes known as the 
vat and the alizarin colors. It is made from phthalic anhydride and 
benzene. 

New intermediates. — Of the 313 intermediates made in 1927, 40 
were not made in 1926. Manv of the 40 were made for the first time 



COAL-TAR INTERMEDIATES 



27 



in 1927. These intermediates are used in the preparation of new dyes, 
rubber chemicals, medicinals, and other finished coal-tar products. 

Other intermediates. — Among the many intermediates used in the 
preparation of the specialty dyes, the following showed increased 
production in 1927: l-amino-2-naphthol-4-sulfonic acid; 2-chloro-5- 
toluidine-4-sulfonic acid; b-aminoanthraqidnone ; methylanthra- 
quinone; l-amino-S-naphthol-4-sulfonic acid; anthranilic acid' 1:5- 
dihydroxynaphthalene ; ethyl-o-toluidine; quinizarin; tetramethyl- 
diaminodiphenyhnethane and pyrazolone derivatives. Among these, 
products showing a decreased production were dianisidine; 1-naph- 
thylamine-5-sulfonic acid ; chromotro pic acid; xyhdine; J acid urea; 
ethylbenzylanihne ; and Michler's ketone. 

Tricresyl phosphate, a substitute for triphenyl phosphate in the 
manufacture of pyroxyhn plastics, showed an increased production 
in 1927. Diphenylamine, a stabilizer used in the manufacture of 
smokeless powder, also showed an increase in production. 

STATISTICS OF PRODUCTION AND SALES 

Table 10 gives the weighted average sales price of a list of domestic 
coal-tar intermediates for the period 1921 to 1927, together with the 
invoice price of imports of the same intermediates in 1914. The 
invoice price is below the cost to the consumer, as it does not include 
the profit to the importer and certain other charges. 

Table 11 is a detailed record of the produetion and sales of coal-tar 
intermediates in 1927. 

Table 12, an arrangement of intei mediates in 10 groups of unit 
values, shows the quantity and percentage of total production falling 
within each group, for the years 1923 to 1927, inclusive. 

Table 10. — Coal-tar intermediates: Domestic sales price per pound, 1921-1937,^ 
and invoice price of same intermediates imported, 1914 



Intermediate 


Invoice 
price 


Domestic sales price 


1914 


1921 


1922 


1923 


1924 


1925 
$0.22 

"i.'3o" 

1.12 
.16 


1926 


1927 




2 $0. 15 
2.23 


$0.23 
.95 
2.10 
1.39 
.22 
1.59 
.85 
.08 


$0. 21 
.73 
1.72 
1.10 
.15 
1.34 
.83 
.07 


$0.26 
.68 
1.51 
1.13 
.16 
.95 
.80 
.07 
3.69 
.15 
.48 
.38 

.06 
.22 

.40 
.69 
.27 
1..32 
.29 
.17 
.25 
.13 
.93 
.43 


$0. 23 
.65 
1.18 
1.11 
.16 
.95 
.74 
.06 
3.34 
.16 
.40 
.34 

.05 
.22 
1.00 

.43 
.64 
.30 
1.27 
.24 
.17 
.23 
.13 
.86 
.39 


$i."62" 
1.05 
.15 


$0.21 


l-Amino-8-naphthol-3:6-di.sulfoiiic acid (H acid)-. 
2-Amiiio-8-nar)hthol-6-sulfciiic acid (gamma acid) 


.41 

.75 


p-Aminophenol and hydrochloride.- 


2.16 

2.08 

2.19 

2.31 3.55 
2.09 
2.40 
3.09 


1.02 


Aniline oil 


.14 


.Anthraquinone 




Benzidine 


.72 
.06 

".'ie' 

'".'36" 

.05 
.20 


.73 
.06 
2.19 
.16 
.49 
.28 

.05 


.65 


Chlorobenzene (mono) .- 


.06 


Dianisidine 


2.17 


p-Dichloro benzene --- 

Diethylaniline 


.16 
.97 
.54 

.06 
.39 
1.22 

.44 
.85 
.14 

1.70 
.39 
.24 
.42 
.25 

1.14 
.49 


.16 

""."32" 

.06 
.24 
.96 

.39 
.68 
.21 
1.39 
.35 
.19 
.27 
.18 
.94 
.33 


.15 


Dimethylaniline 


3.15 

3.018 
2.07 3.09 


.26 


Naphthalene, solidifying 79° or above (refined, 

flake) - - - 


.05 


b-Naphthol, technical- 


.19 


l-Xaphthol-4-suIfonic acid (Nevile & Winther's) 


.83 


l-Naphthyb.mine-4-sulfonic acid (naphthionic 
acid)--- 




"".'21' 
1.16 
.20 
.16 
.23 
.17 
.81 


1- 
.40 

.18 

1.06 

.18 

.15 

.22 

.23 

.73 

.36 


.36 


p-Xitroaniline 


2. 13 3. 14 

.06 

2.313.44 

2.25 

2.06 3.16 


.47 


Phenol _ -. 


.15 


p-Phenylsnediamine - . - .. 




Phthalic acid and anhydride 


.17 


Sulfanilic acid.. - 


.14 


Thiocarbanilide 


.21 


o-Toluidine- 


2.09 3.10 
2.19 
3.12 


.22 


in-Tolylenediamine 


.69 


Xvlidine and salt . . . 


.35 







' Weighted average. For 1917 to 1920 see Census of Dyes and Other Synthetic Organic Chemicals, 1924. 

2 .\rtificial Dyestuffs Used in the United States, Special Agents Series 121, Department of Commerce. 

3 Chemicals and Allied Products Used in the United States, Miscellaneous Series No. 82, Department 
of Commerce. 



28 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Table 11. — Coal-tar infermediates, production and sales, 1927 

[The numbers in the second column refer to the numbered alphabetical list of manufacturers printed on 
page 1S8. An X signifies that the manufacturer did not consent to the publication of his identification 
number with the designated product. A blanlc in the third and fourth columns indicates that the sales 
figures can not be published without revealing information in regard to the output of individual firms. 
A blank in the sixth column indicates that the production of the corresponding product in the United 
States can not be published without revealing information in regard to the output of individual firms. 
The figures thus concealed are, however, included in the total] 



Intermediate 



Total -.- 

Acetaldehyde aniline and deriva- 
tives. 
Acetanilide, tech 

Acetoacetanilide_.. 

Acetyl - p - phenylenediamine 
(p-aminoacetani!ide.) 

Acet yl-p-t oluidine 

a-Aminoanthraquinone 

b-Aminoanthraquinone 

Aminoazobenzene 

Aminoazobenzene sulfonic acid-- 

Aminoazotoluene 

Aminoazoxylene 

p-Aminobenzoic acid 

Aminobenzoyl J acid 

o-Am ino-p-chlorophenol 

p-Aminodimethy!aniline 

1 - Amino - 2 - naphthol - 4 -sulfonic 
Ecid. 

1 - Amino - 8 - naphthol - 4 - sul- 
fonic acid. 

1 - Amino - 8 - naphthol - 2: 4- di- 
sulfonic acid (Chicago acid). 

1-A m i n o-8-naphthol-3: 6-disul- 
fonic acid (H-acid). 

2- A m i n o-5-naphthol-7-sulfonic 
acid (J acid). 

2-A m i n o-8-naphthol-6-sulfonic 
acid (gamma acid). 

2-Amino-8-naphthol-3: 6-disul - 
fonic acid. 

Aminonaphthylamine trisulfon- 
ic acid. 

O-Amiuophenol 

o-Aminophenol-p-sulfonic acid... 

p-Aminophenol and hydrochlo- 
ride. 

p-Aminophenyl arsonic acid 

Aminophenyl tolylamine sulfon- 
ic acid (nerol acid). 

Aminosalicylic acid 

Anhydroformaldehyde - p - tol- 
uidine. 

Aniline hydrochloride 

Aniline oil. 



Manufacturers' identi- 
fication numbers (ac- 
cording to list on p. 188) 



Sales 



Aniline sulfate 

Aniline sulfonic acid. 

Aniline disulfonic acid 

1-A u i 1 i n e-2-methylanthraqui- 
none. 

o-Anisidine 

o-Anisdine sulfonic acid 

Anthranilic acid (o-aminobenzoic 
acid). 

Anthraquinone (100 per cent) 

Anthraquinone-2: 1-acridone 

Antliraqumone-1: 5-dihydroxy 
(anthrarufin). 

Anthraqumone-l: 5-d isulfonic 
acid. 

Anthraquinone-2: 7-disulfonic 
acid 

Anthraquinone-2-sodium sulfon- 
ate (silver salt). 

Benzaldehyde 

Benzanthrone 



Quantity 



Pounds 
92, 917, 439 



7,31,46,98, 138, X 

7, 134. 

6, 7, 46, 70, 107, 138, 162. 



31, 46, 123, 138- 
7 



7, 46, 107, 112 

7,31, 46,47, 73, 107... 

7, 46, 107, 109, 112 

46, 47, 73, 107, 109, X. 

73, 107 

46, 136.... 

46 



62 

6, 69 

31,46, 107, 109, 121. 



31,70, 107, 112 

31, 46, 107, 112 

46, 70, 101, 107, 112. 
6, 31, 46, 107, 112... 
31, 46, 107, 109, 112.. 
6, 107 



70- 



64, 156 

7,70, 107, 162 

7, 46, 51, 64, 70, 131, 
156, 162, 165, X. 

102_ 

31,112 



6, 7, 31, 46, 112- 
46 



23, 46, 107 

23, 45, 46, 98, 103, 107, 
108. 

73,108,125. 

107 

112, X 

46 



46, 103, 112. 

107... 

45, 103 



14, 85, 107, 112. 
46 



70 

70, 112 

107 

14, 46, 107, 112. 

61, 75, 98, 143.. 
107, 112 



220, 473 



13, 557, 874 



Value 



$20, 127, 459 



224, 041 



1,917,780 



Average, 

price per 

pound 



Production 
(quantity) 



Pounds 
240, 073, 184 



1, 990, 242 



104, 168 
384, 266 



96, 522 
43, 987 
85, 612 



684, 134 



98, 550 

2, 404, 168 

168, 730 

354, 653 



24, 302 
356, 928 



....! 37,161 

"h"'" 27,084'2'27 



COAL-TAR INTERMEDIATES 29 

Table 11. — Coal-tar intermediates, production and sales, 1927 — Continued 





Manufacturers' identi- 
fication numbers (ac- 
cording to list on p. 188) 


Sales 




Intermediate 


1 
Quantity 


Value 


Average 

price per 

pound 


Production 
(quantity) 


Benzidine base and salt 


31, 46, 61, 107 


Pounds 






Pounds 
1, 306, 369 


Benzidine disulfonic acid 


7, 63.... 










Benzoate of ammonia 


X 










Benzoate of soda 


46, 75, 77, 96, 136, X 


<)8fi. 044 


.U.'vt. 0.57 


$0.46 


1.02.5.8.3,'i 


Benzoic acid, tech 


75, X ,. ' 1 


1 


Benzoic acid, US P 


46, 77, 96, 136, X 111. 218 i .^fiSOQ 


.51 209,733 


Benzot richloride. 






Benzoyl chloride 


13,75,77,96 I 






Benzoyl J acid 


109,112 






Benzoyl peroxide 


117,136 .. . 




_ . _ J 


Benzylamine 


108 . - - - 


t 


Benzyl chloride 


75, 143. 




j 


Broenner'sacid. ( See 2-naphthy- 








lamine-6-sulfonic acid.) 
Chloroacetophenone -. 


51 


i 


p-C hloro-o-aminophenol 


162 


1. 


p-Chloroaniline and sulfonic acid. 


7 


.1 


o-C hlorobenzaldehyde 


107.. 


1 


Chlorobenzanthrone - 


46 


1 j 1.. 


Chlorobenzene (mono) 


45. 77. 103, 143 


6,351,891 .3,50.915 1 .06 I 13.962.263 


Chlorometanilic acid 


46,70,107,109,112 






24, 396 


6-C h 1 r o-4-methoxy-3-hvdroxy 


46 









thio-naphthalene. 


31. 








o-Chloro-p-nitroaniline 


70,97,139 . 






25, 480 




162 








Chlorophenol (ortho and para).. 


46,52 










109 


1 




rhioropyrazolone-p-sulfonic acid. 


46 


! 






o-Ch!orotoluene-p-sulfonic acid.. 


46 










o-Chloro-m-toluidine-p-sul f onic 


7 










acid. 
2-Chloro-5-to!uidine-4-s ul f o n ic 


46, 97, 138 










acid. 
ChromotroDic acid. (See 1:8- 












dihy droxy napththalene-3:6- 
disulfonic acid.) 
Cresidine 


46 










o-Cresol, purity of 90 per cent or 

more. 
Cresylic acid, refined (distillates 


12 










12, X 










yielding below 215° C. tar acids 
equal to more than 75 per cent 
of the original distillate). 


X 












7, 107, X 












112 










Dehydrothio-p-toluidine sulfonic 
acid. 


31,63, 112 ... 








28, 957 


112 












125 










o-Diaminophenol sulfonic acid... 


109 










46, 107, 112 








150, 231 




31,46, 107, 112 


.... 






83, 437 


l-Diazo-2-n a p h t h 1-4-s u 1 f n i c 
acid. 


31,46 70,107 109, 121 








273, 836 


107 












112 










l:5-Dibenzoyldiaminoanthra- 

quinone. 
Dibenzoyldiaminodlanthraquin- 

onylimide. 


46 










46. 


. 








46 












31,112,156, 162 








76, 667 




' 125 






















2:5-DichloroaniMne-4-sulfonicacid 


109 










45, 103 












45, 77, 103, 143 


2, 856, 560 


440,053 


.15 


2, 770, 699 


p-Dichloronitrobenzene 


112 




52 










Dichlorophenylhydrazine sul- 
fonic acid. 

Dichlorosulfophenylpyrazolone.- 

Dichlorosulfophenylmethylpyra- 
zolone. 

Diethylamine 


125 










! 31, 109 










125 










t 

1 164 











30 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

Table 11. — Coal-tar intermediates, production and sales, 1927 — Continued 





Manufacturers' identi- 
fication numbers (ac- 
cording to list on p. 188) 


Sales 




Intermediate 


Quantity 


Value 


Average 

price per 

pound 


Production 
(quantity) 


Diethyl-m-aminophenol 


46 


Pounis 






Pounds 


Diethylaniline 


45, 164 










Diethylamline-m-sulfonic acid... 


46_. 










Diformyl-m-tolylenediamine 


31.... 










5:5-Dihydroxy-7:7-disulfomc-2:2- 


46 










dinaphthylamine (Rhoduline 
acid) . 
5:5-Dihydroxy-7:7-disulfomc-2:2- 


31, 107, 112 










dinaphthylurea (J acid urea) . 
l:5-Dihvdroxynaphthalene 


46, 70, 107, 109.. 








19, 768 


l:8-Dihydroxynaphthalene-3;6-di- 
sulfonic acid (chromotropic acid) . 

Dimetliylamine 

Dimethylaniline.. 


101, 107, 112. ' .1 






46,164 ' 








23,46,107 ' 






3, 003, 869 


2:2-D methyl-1 :l-dianthraquinonyl 


46. 








Dimethyldiphenylurea _. 


46 ' 








Dimethylphenylbenzylammoni- 


X 








um disulfonic acid, calcium salt 
(Leukotrope W). 
2:4-Dinitroaniline 


7,97 










Dinitroanthraquinone 


109 










Dinitrobenzene 


23, 46, 107 


684, 235 


$95, 542 


$0.14 


1, 587, 411 


m-Dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid. . 


70 


Dinitrochloroanisole 


31... 










Dinitrochlorobenzeno, 


46, 70, 107 








8, 039, 445 


Dinitrohydroxydiphenylamine . _ 


31,70 








Dinitrophenol and sodium salt... 


7, 70, 85 










Dinitrophenyl ester of dimethy- 


X 










dithiocarbonic acid. 
Dinitrostilbene. 


46, 107 










Dinitrostilbene disulfonic acid... 


31,63 










Dinitrotolueue 


23, 46, 47, 73, 107, 112, X. 
46 


3, 164, 076 


399, 327 


.13 


4, 682, 738 


Diphenylamine 


Dlphenylguanidine.. 


44, 46, 107, 132, 134, X, X 
107 


1,571,877 


939, 041 


.60 


1, 552, 216 


Distilbenediphenol 


o-Ditolylguanidine. 

Ditolylmethane 


46, X, Xl... 

107... 


1, 604, 012 


1, 144, 245 


.71 


1, 597, 655 


o-Ditolylthiourea 


46. 69, 134 










6-Ethoxy-3-hydroxy thionaphth- 


46 . 










alene. 
Ethyl- p-amiono benzoate 


102 










E thyl-o-amino-p-cresol 


46 








Ethylaniline (mono) 


46, 107 










Ethylbenzene 


25 










Ethylbenzylaniline 


46, 107 










Ethylbenzylaniline sulfonic acid. 


31, 70, 107 










Ethylbenzylaniline disulfonic 


46 










acid. 
Ethyl-o-toluidine 


46. 










Ethyl-o-toluidine-p-sulfonic acid . 


46... 










Ethvlidine aniline and deriva- 


108, 132. . 










tives. 
Ethylmethylaniline 


23. 










Fluorescein... 


7, 39, 73 










Formalidehyde-p-aminoaniline . . 


69 










Eormanilide (anhydroformalde- 


46,132,134,138 


67, 787 


21, 825 


.32 


146, 720 


hyde aniline). 
Formyl-m-phenylenediamine 


31 




Gamma acid {See 2-amino-8- 












naphthol 6-sulfonic acid) . 
H acid (See l-amino-8-naphthol- 












3:C-disulfonic acid). 
Heptylidine aniline 


108 










p-Hydroxy benzoic acid 


102 










b-Hydroxy naphthoic acid 


31,46 








b-Hydroxy naphthoic anilide 


7,46 








(naphthol AS). 
p-Hydroxy phenyl arsonic acid 


95. 










and sodium salt. 
Indamine 


6 










Indophenol 


6 






'": 1 




J Acid {See 2-amino-5-naphthol 












7-sulfonicacid). 
Laurent's acid {See 1-naphthyl- 


' 










amine-5-sulfonic acid) . 
Lead dithiobenzoate. 


108 






1 




IMaleic acid 


107 !.. .1 




1 





COAL-TAR INTERMEDIATES 31 

Table 11. — Coal-tar intermediates, production and sales, 1927 — -Continued 



Intermediate 



Manufacturers' identi- 
fication numbers (ac- 
cording to list on p. 188) 



dl-Malic acid 

Mercapto-beczo-thiazole 

Mercurichloroplienol 

Metanilic acid 

Methoxyaminoazobenzene sul- 
fonic acid. 

Metliyl aniline sulfonic acid 

Methyl anthraquinone : 

Methylhydroxybenzoate 

Methylhydroxynitrobenzoate 

Metliylene dianilide. 

Metliylene-p-toluidine 

Michler's liydrol {See tetra- 

methyldiaminobenzhydrol) . 
Micliler's Itetone {See tetra- 

methyldiaminobenzophenone). 
Naphthalene, solidifying 79°C. 

or above (refined, fialje). 

b-Naphthalene sulfonic acid 

1:5-Naphthalene disulfonic acid. 
2:7-Naphthalene disulfonic acid. 
1-Naphthalido anthraquinone- 

2-carboxylic acid. 

a-Naphthidin 

Naphtho-l:8-sultam-2:4-disulfon- 

ic acid (sultam acid). 

a-Naphthol 

b-Naph thol, tech 

l-Nap'ithol-4-sulfonic acid (Ne- 

vile &. Winther's acid). 

l-Naphthol-5-sulfonic acid 

l-Naphthol-8chloro-3:(5-disulfonic 

acid (chloro H acid). 
l-Naphthol-3 : 6 : 8-trisulfonic acid. 

2-Naphthol-l-sulfonic acid 

2-Naphthol-6-sulfonic acid (Schaef- 

fer's acid). 

2-Naphthol-7-sulfonic acid 

2-Naphthol-8-sulfonic acid 

2-Naphthol-3 : 6-disulfonic acid . . . 

2-Naphthol-6:8-disulfonic acid... 

a-Naphthylamine 

b-Naphthylamine 

l-Naphthylamine-4-amino-6 and 
7-sulfonic acid. 

l-Naphthylamine-4-sulfonic acid 
(naphthionic acid). 

l-Naphtyhlamine-5-sulfonic acid 
(Laurent's acid). 

l-Naphthylamine-6-sulfonic acid. 

l-Naphthylamine-6- and 7-sul- 
fonic acid. 

l-Naphthylamine-8-sulfonic acid. 

l-Naphthylamine-3 : 8-disulfonic 
acid. 

l-Naphthylamine-4 : 8-disulfonic 
acid. 

l-Naphthylamine-3: 6: 8-trisulfon- 
ic acid. 

2-Naphthylamine-l-sulfonic acid. 

2-Naphthylamine-6-sulfonic acid 
(Brocnuer's acid). 

2-Naphthylamine-4 : 8-disulfonic 
acid. 

2-Naphthylamine-5 : 7-disulfonic 
acid. 

2-Naphthylamine-6 : 8-disulfonic 
acid. 

2-Naphthylamine-3:6:8-trisulfon- 
ic acid. 

p-Nitroacetanilide 

Nitroamino phenol 

m-Nitroaniline 



107.... 
134, X. 
46 



6, 7, 4C, 70, 73, 107, 109, 

112. 
X 



63 

85, 112. 
102.... 

102 

46 

X 



Sales 



Quantity 



Pounds 



Value 



12,23,89,112,161. 
138.. - 



46 

46, 138. 
46 



162. 
46.- 



31, 46, 73, 107, 148, X. 

23,31,73,138 

7,31,46,107,112 



31,46,70,101,107,112. 
107. -_ 



10, 640 



107, 112 

46 

6, 7,31,46,47,70, 107. 



31, 138 

31, X. 

7, 23, 31, 46, 70, 107, 
138, 139, 158. 

31, 46, 107 

12, 70, 107, 112 

31,46, 107, 138 

112 



7, 31, 73, 107, 112, X.. 
6,46, 73, 107, 109, 112. 



107, X 

6, 31, 46, 107, 112. 



85, 209 



34, 085 



6, 46, 107, 109, 112. 
31, 46 



31, 46, 107, 112.. 
46, 101, 107, 112_ 



6, 31, 46, 138. 
31, 46, 107.... 



31,46, 107, 112 

31,46, 107, 112 

31, 46, 107, 109, 112. 



138, X 

7, 31, 47, 70, 107, 109, 

162. 
6, 7,23,46, 156 



1,168 



1,182 



Average 

price per 

pound 



0.83 



Production 
(quantity) 



Pounds 



542, 969 



21,233,131 



230, 774 

6, 143, 613 

78, 024 

159, 343 



108, 735 



671,081 
191, 704 



596,612 



1,007; 708 
96, 425 



148, 098 
212, 692 



191, 107 
2, 806, 239 



24, 290 

51,339 

331,117 

570, 164 



35, 022 



32 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

Table 11. — Coal-tar intermediates, production and sales, 1927 — Continued 





Manufacturers' identi- 
fication numbers (ac- 
cording to list on p. 188) 


Sales 




Intermediate 


Quantity 


Value 


Average 

price per 

pound 


Production 
(quantity) 


p-Nitroaniline 


7, 103. X 


Pounds 


1 


Pounds 
747, 764 


p-Nitroaniline sulfonic acid 

p-Nitro-o-anisidine. ..- 


6, 31,46, 63, 70, 162.... 




...1. 


33, 328 


46.. 




1 


o-Nitroanisole 


31, 46, 103, 112 






146, 827 
41, 774, 036 


Nitrobenzene 


23,46, 107, 108, 112 

63 


2, 219, 109 


$190,010 $0.09 


Nitrobenzene sulfonic acid 


p-Nitrobenzoic acid 


1,46, 136.. 






58, 100 


Nitroehloroanisole - -- 


31 






Nitrochlorobenzene, (ortho and 


46, 103 








para) . 
p-Nitrochlorobenzene-o - sulfonic 


46, 63, 70, 107, 112 






82, 133 


acid. 
Nitrocresol 


46 










Nitrocresol methyl ether 


46 










Nitrocumene.- 


107... 










8-Nitro-l-diazo-2-naphthol-4-sul- 


31, 46, 70 










fonic acid. 
p-Nitrodimethylaniline. 


7 










3-Nitro-4-hydroxyphenvI arsonic 


95, 102.. .- 











acid. 
Nitronaphthalene.- 


12, 46, 70, 112 








p-Nitrophenetole 


46. 








o-Nitrophenol 


156 










p-Nitrophenol 


46, 103, 156 










Nitrosophenol. 


7, 14 ,31, 46, 47, 51, 70 

107, X. 
23, 70, 85, 107, 112 .. 








405, 663 


Nitrosodimethylaniline .. 








98, 730 


Nitrotoluene .. 


23, 46, 73, 107, 112 








5, 731, 718 


o-Nitrotoluene 


46, 107, 112 i .. 






3, 402, 714 


o-Nitrotoluene sulfonic acid 


63, 109 L^_ 








p-Nitrotoluene 


46, 107, 112 








1,808.028 


p-NitrotoIuene-o-sulfonic acid 


6.31,46, 107, 112, 123.- 








693, 948 


p-Nitro-o-toluidine 


31,46 










m-Nitro-p-toluidine . . 


31,46,138.. 


234, 983 


390, 260 


1.66 


256, 104 


Nitroxvlene. _. 


46, 107, 112 


287, 562 


Oxalylarsanilic acid. 


102 










Oxalvl-p-nitroaniline 


46 -. '. 








Oxalvl-m-phenvlenediamine 


46, 107. 











Oxalyl-p-phenylenediamine 


46 










Phenazine 


6.. 










Phenol 


12, 45, 52, 103 


4, 595, 162 


684,160 


.15 


8, 041, 082 


Phenyl - 2 - amino - 6 - naphthol - 


6 




8-sulfonic acid. 
Phenvl - 2 - amino - 5 - naphthol - 


46, 112 










7-sulfonic acid (phenyl J acid) . 
Phenyl - 2 - amino - 8 - naphthol - 


46 










6-sulfonic acid (phenyl gamma 
acid) . 
Phenyl-a-naphthvlamine 


46 










Phenyl - 1 - naphythylamine - 8 - 

sulfonic acid. 
Phenylduncthvlaminopvrazolone 


6,46,70, 107, 109, 112.. 
102 


6,713 


7,276 


1.08 


266, 197 


m-Phenylenediamine .". 


7, 23, 31, 46, 70, 73, 107, 

109, 112, 121, 156. 
31, 46, 107... 


48,098 


43, 432 


.90 


665, 896 


m-Phenvlenediamine sulfonic 


24,069 


acid. 
p-Phenvlenediamine 


64, X 










Phenylglycine, sodium salt 


45, 46, 107 








9, 738, 449 


Phenylhydrazine and hydro- 


46, 63, 125 






31,551 


chloride. 


125 










63, 125 1 








Phenylmethylpyrazolone sul- 
fonic acid. 


7, 46, 125 










109 










Phthalic acid and anhydride 


46,103. 107, 135.. 

23, 46, 107 


4, 064, 476 


686, 946 


.17 


4, 549, 820 


Primuline, base 


31, 107, 112, X 








167,000 




107 












7.107 












107 










Resorcinol, tech 


123, 131 










Resorcinol, USP 


123, 131 












73 . ... 












45, 70, 75, 100, 103 








3, 269. 243 


Salicylic acid, US P 


45, 75, 103 


1, 455, 496 


451,214 


.31 


2, 618, 829 


Succinic acid 


93.. ■. 





COAL-TAR INTERMEDIATES 33 

Table 11. — Coal-tar intermediates, production and sales, 1927 — Continued 





Manufacturers' identi- 
fication numbers (ac- 
cording to list on p. 188) 


Sales 




Intermediate 


Quantity 


Value 


Average 

price per 

pound 


Production 
(quantity) 


Sulfanilic acid . 


7, 23, 31, 40, 73, 93, 107, 

125. 
102 


Pounds 






Pounds 
1, 328, 475 


Sulfoaminobeuzoic acid 








o-Sulfobenzoic acid . 


78 










o-Sulfo benzoic acid, ammonium 


78 










salt. 
o-Sulfobenzoic acid, chloride 


78 . 










Sulfophenylpyrazolone 


109 










Tetraaminoditolylmethane 


46, 125 










Tetrachlorofluorescein 


73._.. 










Tetramethyldiaminobenzhvdrol 


46 








(Michler'shydrol). 
Tetramethvldiaminobenzophe- 


46 











none (Michler's ketone). 
Tetramethyldiaminodiphenyl- 


23, 46, 70, 107 . 








630, 945 


methane. 
Tliioaniline . . 


6 










Thiocarbanilide - 


46, 69, 107, 108, 134 

46, 107, 112 


556, 319 


$114, 985 


$0.21 


930, 808 


Tolidine and salts 


127, 942 


Toluene sulfamide (ortho and 


103. 










para) . 
p-Toluene sulfochloride 


103 










p-Toluene sulfonic acid, ethyl 


156 










ester. 
Toluidine 


23,31,46, 107 










m-ToIuidine sulfonic acid.. 


46 






! 


o-Toluidine .. 


23, 46, 107, 112 . . 


1, 152, 884 


258, 935 


.22 


2, 289, 728 


o-Toluidine sulfonic acid 


7,46,73... 




p-To!uidine 


46, 107, 112, X 








839, 373 




7, 46, 109, 162 










and di). 
m-Tol vlenediamine 


6, 31, 46, 47, 70, 73, 107, 
112. 

7, 46, 107... 


229, 327 


158, 220 


.69 


804, 890 


m-Tolvlenediamine sulfonic acid. 


17, 488 


p-Tolylenediamine sulfate . . 


47 










Tolyl - 1 - naphthylamine - 8 - sul- 


6, 46, 70, 107, 112 








53, 563 


fonic acid (tolyl-peri acid). 
Tricresyl phosphate 


27 












46, 107. 










Tritolylguanidine 


X.. 


j 






Xvlidine and salt 


46, 107, 112 


1 




183, 084 


m-Xvlidine 


46, 112 










m-Xylidine sulfonic acid 


46 










pXvlidine 


112 








" " 


All other. . . 


107 























Table 12. 



-Intermediates: Production, by groups, according to unit values, 
1923-1927 





1923 


1924 


1925 


19% 


1927 




Group 




Per 




Per 




Per 




Per 




Per 




Pounds 


cent 
of 


Pounds 


cent 
of 


Pounds 


cent 
of 


Pounds 


cent 
of 


Pounds 


cent 
of 






total 




total 




total 1 


total 




total 


0-15 cts... 


104, 419, 258 


45. 127 


88, 160, 641 


47.247 


89, 686, 885 


42.566135,324,911 


58.93 


150,641,892 


T52.75 


16-25 cts-. 


50, 233, 638 


21. 709 


37, 3.59, 904 


20.022 62,801,070 


29.806 47,228,385 


20.57 34,353,105 


14.31 


26-50 cts . _ 


42, 556, 640 


18. 391 


37, 179, 993 


19.925 32,081,452 


15.226 24,130,013 


10.51 29,973,693 


12.49 


51-75 cts. . 


16, 486, 159 


7.125 


10, 588, 270 


5.674 13,442,218 


6.380 10,571,635 


4.60; 14,498,391 


6.04 


$0.76-$l... 


9, 664, 153 


4.176 


6, 246, 565 


3. 348 5, 787, 165, 


2. 747| 7, 097, 246 


3.09i 4,797,843 


2.00 


$1.01-$1.50 


5, 587, 436 


2.415 


4, 112, 585 


2. 204 3, 632, 570 


1.724 2,621,011 


1.14! 2,604,940 


1.08 


$1.51-$2... 


914, 837 


..395 


968, 676 


.519 1,614,041' 


.766 1,434,404 


.62 


2, 022, 746 


.84 


$2.01-$3... 


951, 521 


.411 


1,407,047 


. 7541 994, 224 


. 472: 916, 665 


.40 


763, 153 


.31 


$3.01-$4... 


136, 302 


.059 


303,938 


.163 111,432 


. 053, 144, 587 


.06 


281, 366 


.12 


Over $4... 


443, 927 


.192 


268, 943 


. 144] 548, 722 


. 260 184, 945 


.08 


136, 055 


.06" 


Total.. - 


231, 393, 871 


100 


186, 596, 562 


100 


210, 699, 779 100 


229,653,802 


100 


240, 073, 184 


100 



34 census of dyes and other synthetic chemicals 
Dyes and Other Finished Coal-tar Products 



INTRODUCTION 

Finished coal-tar products may be divided into eight classes: 
(1) Dyes, (2) color lakes, (3) photographic chemicals (developers), 
(4) medicinals, (5) flavors, (6) perfume materials, (7) synthetic 
phenolic resins, (8) synthetic tanning materials. In previous reports 
the Tariff Commission has emphasized the close relationship exist- 
ing between the manufacture of dyes and that of explosives and 
poisonous gases. The dye industry is now considered a key industry 
by the industrial nations of the world. Closely connected also with 
dyes is the mp^nufacture of flavors, perfume materials, photographic 
chemicals, medicinals, and other coal-tar products, which, although 
produced in smaller quantities, use as raw materials many of the 
by-products obtained in the manufacture of coal-tar dyes. 

The total production of dyes and other finished coal-tar products 
in 1927 bv 130 firms was 133,357,423 pounds; in 1926, 134 firms 
produced 122,752,021 pounds. Sales in 1927 amounted to 136,206,835 
pounds, valued at $61,272,645. The quantity of production and 
of sales in 1927 was a record in the history of the domestic industry. 

Table 27, page 60, shows the 1927 production of dyes and other 
finished coal-tar products in as great detail as is possible without 
disclosing the output of individual manufacturers. 

SUMMARY OF PRODUCTION OF DYES 
INCREASE IN PRODUCTION 

The output of dyes in 1927 by 55 firms was 95,167,905 pounds, 
an increase of 8.2 per cent over 1926. Sales totaled 98,339,204 pounds, 
valued at $38,532,795, as compared with 86,255,836 pounds, valued 
at $36,312,648 in 1926. 

The increase in the production of all dyes is almost entirely due 
to the increased output of indigo, sulfur black and vat dyes (other 
than indigo). The increase in sales is largely attributable to the 
increase in sales of sulfur black, indigo, other vat, direct and acid dyes. 

Outstanding features of 1927 were (1) a record output of the two 
bulk dyes, indigo a,nd sulfur black, and of vat dyes (not including 
indigo); (2) a further decrease in the number of dye manufacturers; 
(3) a decline in prices; (4) an increase in quantity and a decrease in 
the value of exports. 

Table 13. — Coal-tar dyes: Domestic production and sales, 1914 ond 1917-1927 



Year 


Production 


Sales 


Year 


Production 


Sales 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


1914 


Pounds 
6, 619, 729 
45, 977, 246 
58,464 446 
63, 402, 194 
88, 263, 776 
39, 008, 690 


Pounds 


1 $2,470,096 
I 57, 796, 228 
1 62, 026, 390 
J 67, 598, 855 
1 95, 613, 749 
39, 283, 956 


1922 

1923 

1924 

1925 

1926 

1927 


Pounds 
64, 032, 187 
93, 667, 524 
68, 679, 000 
86, 345, 438 
87, 978, 624 
95, 167, 905 


Pounds 
69, 107, 105 
86, 567, 446 
64,961,433 
79, 303, 451 
86, 255, 836 
98, 339, 204 


$41,463,790 


1917.. 




47, 223, 161 


1918 




35, 012, 400 


1919 




37, 468, 332 


1920 




36,312,648 


1921 


47, 513, 762 


38, 532, 795 



» Value of production. 



DYES AND OTHER FINISHED COAL-TAR PRODUCTS 



35 



Stoclcs on hand. — Commencing with 1924, the commission has pub- 
hshed annually figures as to the quantity of certain dyes on hand at 
the beginning of the year. Table 14 giving stocks on hand January 
1, 1927, and January 1, 1928, for a selected Est of dyes, shows a reduc- 
tion in that period of more than 33^ million pounds. 

Table 14. — Domestic dyes: Stocks on hand, January 1, 1927, and January 1, 1928 




20-. 
31.. 
79-. 
138. 
151. 
179. 
189- 
202. 
208. 
234. 
246- 
289. 
326- 
332. 
365. 
370. 
401. 
406. 
448. 
518- 
520. 
581. 
582. 
593- 
596. 
620. 
640. 
655. 
680. 
812. 
814. 



1177- 



Chrysoidine Y 

Amidonaphtbol red G 

Ponceau 2 R 

Metanil yellow 

Orauge II 

Azo rubine 

Lake red R 

Chrome blue black U 

Fast acid blue R_ 

Resorcin brown B 

Acid black 10 B 

Fast cyanine 5R 

Direct fast scarlet 

I Bismarck brown 2R.. 

I Chrysophenine G 

I Congo red 

I Developed black BHN 

Direct blue 2 B 

I Benzopui-purine 4B 

Direct pure blue 6 B 

I Direct pure blue 

Direct black E W 

I Direct black R X 

I Direct green B._ 

I Direct brown 3 G O 

Direct yellow R 

Tartrazine 

.\uramine 

Methyl violet 

Primuline 

Direct fast yellow 

Nigrosine (spirit soluble) 

Nigrosine (water soluble) 

Sulfur black _. 

Sulfur blue 

Sulfur brown 

Sulfur yellow 

Indigo, 20 per cent paste 

Anthraquinone vat dyes (single strength) 
Zambesi black 



Total. 



Pounds 
301, 526 
65, 069 
122, 814 

134. 364 
220, 419 
116,494 
108, 399 
165,364 

103, 331 
127, 449 
511.445 
195, 923 
121, 668 
161, 665 

233. 365 
781, 545 
224, 713 
573, 349 
187, 957 
221, 992 
159, 065 

2, 180, 105 
331, 998 
147, 794 
329, 094 
146, 461 
161,223 
116,989 
199, 039 

104, 736 
68,109 
93, 339 

426, 518 
6, 654, 510 
379, 746 
606,833 
236, 692 
12, 376, 020 
718, 960 
120, 878 



30. 233, 079 



Pounds 
197, 917 

39, 592 
145, 029 
133,115 
231, 445 

81,774 
103, 992 
189, 252 

68, 465 
106, 233 
401, 365 
149, 881 
162, 524 
121, 502 
234, 902 
642, 462 
228, 474 
379, 782 
174, 164 
192, 579 
129, 472 
1, 503, 979 
255, 392 
157, 447 
228, 895 
164, 669 

91, 697 
137, 706 
189, 685 

85, 027 

42,200 

122,091 

246, 062 

6, 691, 251 

365. 608 

524, 772 

278. 256 

10, 205, 042 

1, 200, 815 

147, 458 



26, 729, 579 



FURTHER DECLINE IN DOMESTIC DYE PRICES 



The weighted average price of all domestic dyes sold in 1927 was 
7 per cent less than the weighted average of those sold in 1926. Com- 
petition among domestic manufacturers has been severe, resulting in 
price concessions in both high and low priced dyes. Since 1917 prices 
have steadily dechned. 

It is doubtful whether in recent years the domestic industry, as a 
whole, has had a reasonable return on its capital investment, as many 
dyes were sold at or near their cost of production. The reduction of 
3 cents per pound in 1926-27 entailed an approximate loss of S3, 000,- 
000 on the income from sales. Had the average price received for dves 
in 1921 prevailed in 1927, sales in 1927 would have totaled $81,621, .539 
instead of the actual figure — $38,532,795. 



36 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Table 15 shows the w^eighted average sales price per pound, of 
domestic dyes for 1917 and for 1920 to 1927. 

Table 15. — Domestic dyes: Weighted average sales 'price per pound,^ 1917 and 

1920-1927 



Year 


Weighted 
average 
sales price 
of domes- 
tic dyes 


Year 


Weighted 
average 
sales price 
of domes- 
tic dyes 


1917 


2 $1. 26 
1.08 
.83 
.60 


1923 


$0.55 


1920 


1924 . . . 


.54 


1921 


1925 


.47 


1922 


1926 


.42 




1927 


.39 









1 The total value of all dyes divided by the total quantity. 



2 Unit value of production. 



Table 16 shows the sales prices of nearly 100 domestic dyes for 
the years 1923 to 1927, inclusive, with the invoice prices of the same 
types of dyes imported in 1914. The dyes for which statistics are 
given in this table constitute about 90 per cent of domestic produc- 
tion. Strictly speaking, domestic sales prices can not, of course, be 
compared with invoice prices, for the reason that the latter do not 
represent the cost to the consumer, since they do not include the 
importer's profit and the usual charges for containers, packing, freight, 
insurance to seaport, consular certification, and minor shipping charges 
at a point of departure and at seaport. 

The colour index nmnber in Table 16 is indicated in the first column. 
The second colmiin gives the type name of the dye adopted by the 
Tariff Commission for designating all dyes reported under a given 
colour index number. 

The invoice price (1914) shown in column 3 represents the weighted 
average of all dyes classified under a given number in "Artificial 
dyestuft's used in the United States," Department of Commerce, 
Special Agents' Series No. 121 . The figures in column 4, the domestic- 
sales price as reported to the Tariff Commission, represent the weighted 
average price of all dyes reported under a given colour index number. 

Table 16. — Domestic sales prices of certain dyes, 1923-1927, compared with invoice 
values of dyes of the same kind im,ported in 1914 



Col- 
our 
Index 

No. 



Common name 



1914 

invoice 

value 

imported 

dyes 
(weight- 
ed aver- 
age of all 
types) 



Average price per pound 



1923 1924 



1925 


1926 


$0. 43 


$0.34 


.45 


.36 


.52 


.44 


.53 


.46 


.42 


.50 


.45 


.58 


.55 


.54 


.51 


.48 


.56 


.56 


.69 


.64 


.88 


.78 : 



1927 



20 
21 
27 
31 
36 
•40 
57 
79 
88 
138 
146 



Chrysoidine V 

Chrysoidine K 

Orange G _ , . 

Amido naphthol red G. 

Chronic yellow 2G 

Chroriu> yellow R. 

Amido naphthol red 6B 

Ponceau 2R 

Bordeaux B 

Metanil yellow -_. 

Azo yellow 



$0. 136 
. 165 
.148 
.150 
.077 
.154 
.604 
.095 
. 159 
. 164 
.249 



$0.58 
.57 
.59 
.71 
.52 
.61 
.78 
.58 
.73 
.80 
1.06 



$0.49 
.50 
.55 
.57 
.49 
.54 
.70 
.55 
.62 
.72 
.96 



$0.33 
.35 
.49 
.43 
.49 
.61 
.&4 
.41 
.53 
.58 



DYES AND OTHER FINISHED COAL-TAR PRODUCTS 



37 



Table 16. — Domestic sales prices of certain dyes, 192S~1927, compared with invoice 
values of dyes of the same kind imported in 1914 — Continued 



Common name 



1914 

invoice 

value 

imported 

dyes 
(weight- 
ed aver- 
age of all 
types) 



Average price per pound 



1923 



1924 



1925 



1926 



Orange II 

Acid chrome brown B... 

Fast red A 

Azo rubine 

Fiistred VR 

Amaranth 

Lake red R 

Mordant yellow 

Chrome blue black U 

Fast acid blue R 

Acid black lOB 

Brilliant croceine 

Cloth red 2B.. 

Fast cyanine 5R 

Chrome black F 

Fast cyanine black B 

Naphthylamine black D. 

Bismarck brown 

Bismarck brown 2R 

Chrysophenine G 

Direct violet N 

Developed black BHN-. 

Direct blue 2B 

Chrysamine Q 

Direct orange R 

Direct fast red F 

Direct brown M 

Benzopurpurine 4B 

Direct blue 3B 

Benzopurpurine lOB 

Direct blue R\V 

Direct pure blue 6B 

Direct pure blue 

Direct black EW 

Direct black RX 

Direct green B 

Direct green Q 

Direct brown 3G0 

Congo brown Q 

Direct brown G 

Direct yellow R 

Chloramine orange G 

Tartrazine 

Auramine 

Malachite green 

Acid green B. 

Magenta 

Methyl violet 

Acid violet 

Alkali blue 

Wool green S 

Eosine. 



Phosphine 

Primuline 

Direct fast yellow 

Induline (spirit-soluble) 

Induline (water-soluble) 

Nigrosine (spirit -soluble) 

Nigrosine (water-soluble) 

Gallocyanine 

Methylene blue 

Sulfur black 

Sulfur blue - 

Sulfur brown 

Sulfur tan 

Sulfur maroon 

Sulfur yellow 

Alizarin brown 

Anthraquinone vat dark blue BO. 

Anthraquinone vat blue GCD 

Indigo, synthetic 

Indigo extract 



$0. 



.194 
.170 
.178 
.2.39 
.200 
.240 
.241 
.255 
.294 
.248 
.281 
.409 
.353 
.418 
.352 
.144 
.136 
.198 
.258 
. 126 
. 149 
.347 
.390 
.100 



186 



.290 

.227 

.35 

.128 

.340 



$0.37 
1.09 

.78 
.85 

1.27 
.71 

1.15 
.65 
.53 
.85 
.71 



1.16 
.91 
.87 

"'sh' 

.60 
.58 
1.03 
1.39 
.73 
.41 
1.15 
.80 
1.20 
.95 
.89 
.54 
1.67 
1.51 
1.40 
.97 
.43 
.52 
.82 
.83 
.64 
.94 
.78 
.81 
1.22 
.87 
1.72 
1.60 
1.72 
2.08 
1.25 
1.86 
2.39 
.83 
1.84 
1.93 
.70 
1.17 
.93 
.83 
.52 
.46 
1.93 
1.47 
.20 
.50 
.39 
.48 
.77 
.73 
1.24 
2.00 
1.63 
.23 
.58 



$0.33 
1.11 
.71 
.79 
1.17 
.49 
.91 
.54 
.48 
.76 
.46 



1.06 
.89 
.86 
.91 
.67 
.53 
.51 
.84 
1.28 
.65 
.37 
.81 
.72 
1.06 
.83 
.73 
.51 
1.42 
1.19 
1.26 
.79 
.38 
.49 
.68 
.79 
.49 



$0.29 
.99 
.69 
.76 
.87 
.63 
.86 
.57 
.44 
.65 
..55 
.95 
.96 
.83 
.81 
.84 
.72 
.47 
.45 
.78 

1.22 
.58 
.34 
.83 
.69 
.95 
.77 
.66 
.46 

1.32 
.97 
.97 
.67 
.34 
.45 
.61 
.70 
.44 
.80 



. /2 

.66 


.61 


1.07 


.94 


.76 


.67 


1.52 


2.00 


1.70 


1.54 


1.01 


1.30 


1.72 


1.81 


1.13 


.99 


1.72 


1.49 


2.56 


2.24 


.75 


.57 


1.85 




1.86 


1.56 


.79 


.64 


1.09 


1.06 


.78 




.74 


.69 


.48 


.45 


.48 


.42 


1.86 


1.79 


1.26 


1.11 


.19 


. 17 


.55 


.55 


.38 


..35 


.37 


.35 




.56 


.53 


.46 


2.08 


2.16 


2.23 




1.41 


1.20 


.22 


.16 


.56 


.65 



0.27 
.92 
.62 
.71 
.66 
.58 
.85 
.55 
.37 
.63 
.46 



.74 
.73 
.80 
.61 
.44 
.42 
.55 

1.21 
.50 
.31 
.55 
.62 
.82 
.70 
.58 
.39 

1.27 
.87 
.77 
.59 
.31 
.35 
.51 
.66 
.39 
.68 
.74 
.49 
.81 
.58 
.90 

1.31 

1.13 

1.81 
.93 

1.36 

2.59 

.59 : 

1.80 [ 
1.52 

.54 ! 
1.05 

.56 1 

.68 

.47 > 

.39 I 
1.85 

.94 ' 

.15 

.54 I 

.35 ! 

.30 ' 

.53 ' 

.40 
2.18 
1.68 ' 
1.08 

. 13 



38 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

UNIT VALUE OF DYES PRODUCED, 1923-1927 

Table 17 shows the domestic production of dyes in the years 1923 
to 1927, inclusive, arranged according to eight value groups. The 
actual quantity is given for each group and the relation of each group 
to the total production. 

Table 17. — Dyes: Production, by groups, according to unit value, 1923-1927 



Unit value 



0-25 cents.. 
26-50 cents. 
51-75 cents. 
$0. 7&-$l.... 
$1.01-$1.50.. 

$1.51-$2 

$2.01-$3.... 
Over $3 

Total 



1923 



Pounds 



44,651,483 
15, 205, 298 
12, 717, 546 
8, 604, 351 
8, 207, 420 
2, 318, 343 
1, 244, 493 
718, 590 



93, 667, 524 



Per 

cent of 
total 



47. 670 

16. 234 

13.577 

9.186 

8.762 

2.475 

1.329 

.767 



100.000 



1924 



Pounds 



725, 493 
853, 508 
105,018 
259, 988 
283, 687 
774, 660 
118,953 
557, 693 



68, 679, 000 



Per 

cent of 
total 



1925 



Pounds 



194 45, 815, 
17216,134, 

2.57| 9,598, 
203, 4,851, 
1491 5,027, 
5841 2,578, 
629, 1,568, 
812 771, 



Per 

cent of 
total 



114 53. 
929 18. 
483 11. 



1926 



Pounds 



060 43, 
687 20, 

116] 8, 
619; 8, 
832, 2, 
986: 2, 
817i 1, 
8931 



747, 263 
666, 640 
794, 368 
045, 922 
808, 457 
241,741 
402, 063 
272, 170 



100. 00086, 345, 438 100. 000,87, 978, 624 



Per 

cent of 

total 



1927 



Pounds 



49. 72 49, 314, 987 

23. 49 23, 450, 835 

10.00 7,470,547 

9.15 7,570,480 

3. 19, 3, 714, 761 

2. 55! 2, 375, 625 

1.59 1,086,666 

.31; 184,004 



100. 00 95, 167, 905 



Per 

cent of 
total 



51.82 
24.64 
7.85 
7.96 
3.90 
2.50 
1.14 
.19 



100.00 



PROGRESS IN DYE MANUFACTURE 



The year 1927 witnessed a large increase in the number and quantity 
of fast dyes made in the United States. Extensive research now under 
way points to further production of dyes possessing high resistance to 
destructive agents. The pronounced trend toward an increased use 
of fast dyes promises to continue, especially as the domestic consumer 
realizes the economy resulting from the use of fabrics dyed with fast 
colors. 

Marked progress was made in the production of the following dyes: 
(1) Vat dyes, including anthraquinone and the thio-indigoid deriva- 
tives; (2) derivatives of alizarin and the acid and mordant types; 
(3) the fast type of direct dyes of the azo class; (4) of the SRA colors; 
(5) certain of the basic dyes of the zanthene group. 

Relation of production to consumption. — Imports of coal-tar dyes in 
1927 were 4,233,046 ^ pounds, with an invoice value of $3,413,886. 
Domestic production in 1927 was 95,167,905 pounds, and sales 
amounted to 98,339,204 pounds, valued at $38,532,795. Imports 
constituted 4.4 per cent of the total production by quantity and 9.2 
per cent by value. Assuming consumption to equal total sales plus 
imports minus exports, 75,800,135 pounds were consumed in 1927. 
Of this quantity only about 6 per cent was imported, the remaining 
94 per cent being supplied by the domestic industry. In terms of 
value, however, imports were more than 6 per cent for the reason 
that the dyes imported are of the higher priced types. 

Reduction in numher of dye manufacturers. — Of the total firms report- 
ing the production of dyes in 1927, three made only bacteriological 
stains and indicators. Producers of dyes exclusive of stains and indi- 

! This total poundage is in excess of the actual quantity imported, because nearly all of the vat dyes, as 
v.ell as the rhodamines, were reduced to a single-strength basis in order to compare imports and production.. 
The invoice value is below the actual selling price to the consumer. 



DYES AND OTHER FINISHED COAL-TAR PRODUCTS 



39 



cators numbered 52, a decline of 17 since 1925 and of 38 since 1919, 
when the largest number operated in the United States. 

The trend toward fewer manufacturers will probably continue until 
productive capacity more nearly conforms to the demands of the 
home and export markets. Elimination or amalgamation of plants is 
the natural result of severe competition. Many firms produce rel- 
atively small quantities of low^-priced dyes; others specialize in a few 
complex colors which are difficult to manufacture. Many of those in 




the latter group will probably continue operations; those producing 
low-cost colors on a small scale will hardly survive the competition 
offered by large-scale manufacturers. 



TARIFF COXSIDERATIONS 



The act of 1922 provides that the ad valorem rate of duty on any 
imported coal-tar product coming within paragraph 27 or 28 shall be 
based upon the American selling price (as defined in subdivision (f) 

7709—28 4 



40 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

of sec. 402, Title IV) of any similar competitive article manufac- 
tured in the United States. A product is defined by the act as similar 
or competitive with any imported coal-tar product when it accom- 
plishes results substantially equal to those accomplished by the 
domestic product when used in substantially the same manner. 

If a similar competitive article is not manufactured in the United 
States, the ad valorem rate is based upon the United States value (as 
defined in subdivision (d) of sec. 402, Title IV), which is the selling 
price in the United States of the imported article less certain statutory 
deductions, including profit, general expense, cost of insurance, 
transportation, and duty. 

The Census of Dyes, 1924 (pp. 41-45), discussed the American selling 
price as applied to coal-tar products, reviewed the principal features 
of the administration of these provisions by the Treasury Depart- 
ment, summarized the major regulations issued by that department, 
and gave important Treasury Decisions up to G. A. 9004, T. D. 40925, 
of 1925. The Census of Dyes, 1925, continuing this feature of the 
report, gave an abstract of decisions up to May, 1926, and the Census 
of 1926, up to May, 1927. Decisions up to May, 1928, follow: 

COURT AND TREASURY DECISIONS 

So-called Yavan glue, found to contain resinlike products prepared 
from phenol and similar to Bakelite varnish in its uses, was held to 
be more specifically provided for in the provisions for synthetic 
phenohc resin and ail resinlike products in paragraph 28 than as a 
chemical mixture containing alcohol in paragraph 24. T. D. 42311 
of 1927; appealed, T. D. 42357. 

The rate of duty upon cresylic acid, which upon being subjected 
to distillation yields in the portion distilling below 215° C. a quantity 
of tar acids equal to or more than 75 per centum of the original 
distillate, was decreased from 40 per cent ad valorem based upon 
the American selhng price and 7 cents per pound, to 20 per cent 
ad valorem based upon the American selling price and 33^ cents 
per pound, by proclamation of the President effective August 19, 
1927, under the provisions of section 315 of the tarift' act of 1922. 
T. D. 42337. 

Certain coal-tar colors, dyes, and products provided for in para- 
graph 28 were appraised upon the export value. Counsel for the 
importer claimed in effect that such appraisement on the export value 
officially admitted that there was no comparable American article 
under which an American selling price of a comparable American 
article could be applied, and also officially admitted that there was 
no United ^States value; that therefore the merchandise must be 
classified under paragraph 5, and that such admitted facts took the 
merchandise out of paragraph 28, under which it would otherwise be 
classified. The court overruled this claim on the ground that those 
peculiar accidental circumstances did not change the classification of 
the article by taking it out of paragraph 28 and placing it under 
paragraph 5 in order that foreign market (or export) value may be 
properly applied to it. The importation was properly held dutiable 
under paragraph 28 on the export value. T. D. 42416 of 1927. 

A mixture of coal-tar pitch and cresylic acid, the cresylic acid 
content when subjected to distillation at 190° C. distilling less than 



DYES AND OTHER FINISHED COAL-TAR PRODUCTS 41 

5 per cent of coal-tar acid, and when subjected to distillation at 215° 
C. distilling more than 75 per cent of coal-tar acid, was held properly 
dutiable under paragraph 27 rather than free under paragraph 1549, 
because consisting in part of cresyHc acid, which the Court of Cus- 
toms Appeals held in T. D. 41458 not to be covered by paragraph 
1549. T. D. 42450 of 1927; appealed. 

Naphthalene marbles or balls, used for making up moth destroyers 
called oxygenos, found to have a solidifying point less than 75° C. 
were held by the Customs Court to be exempt from duty under para- 
graph 1549 rather than dutiable at 7 cents per pound and 40 oer cent 
under paragraph 27. T. D. 42502 of 1927. 

A medicinal preparation composed of a mixture of sandalwood oil, 
oil of resin, chlorophyl, and synthetic methyl salicylate, classified 
under paragraph 28 as a mixture containing methyl sahcylate, was 
claimed dutiable as a medicinal preparation under paragraph 5. 
The methyl salicylate was found not to be a coal-tar product and to 
be used for its flavor only. The court held that paragraph 28 ex- 
cludes synthetic methyl sahcylate if mixed or compounded, as well 
as mixtures containing it or other synthetic odoriferous or aromatic 
chemicals, and that the importation was properly dutiable as a 
medicinal preparation under paragraph 5. United States v. Inter' 
national Trading Co., 15 Ct. Cust. Appls. ; T. D. 42511 of 1927. 

Certain xylene milling blue BL cone was imported for which no 
standards of strength had been expressly set by the Secretary of the 
Treasury at the time of importation. The Government contended 
that the Secretary of the Treasury maj^ establish a list of standards 
and that then each local appraiser, as colors are imported, may 
determine for himself what standard, if any, is applicable to each color, 
and that therefore the specific duty provided by paragraph 28 should 
be assessed upon the importation in question upon the basis of a simi- 
lar competitive coal-tar product. The court, following Tinted States 
V. Sandoz Chemical Co., 14 Ct. Cust. Appls. 21, held that as the mer- 
chandize was imported before standards were established therefor, 
it was subject to dutv onlv on the weight imported. T. D. 42558; 
appealed, T. D. 42668"^. 

Certain coal-tar colors and dyes and other coal-tar products were 
assessed for duty upon the basis of standards of strength published in 
T. D. 40192. It was claimed that such assessment was illegal because 
standards proclaimed in said T. D. 40192 were null and void because 
signed by the Assistant Secretary instead of the Secretary of the Treas- 
ury. Protest overruled, the Customs Court holding that such 
standards were properly fixed in accordance with the sixth proviso 
of paragraph 28. T. D. 42676 of 1928. Rehearing denied. Ab N. 
5915. 

But3d-ketone, butyl-xylene, and ambrogene consisting of coal-tar 
intermediates, not finished products, used in the manufacture of 
artificial musk and not sold in the condition as imported, held dutiable 
at 40 per cent and 7 cents per pound under paragraph 27 rather than 
45 per cent and 7 cents per pound imder paragraph 28. Ab. N. 
4156 of 1927. 

The method to be used in the distillation of cresylic acid published 
in T. D. 41868 was amended in T. D. 42021 of 1927. 



42 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



EFFECT OF REDUCTION IN DUTY ON DYE IMPORTS 

On September 22, 1924, under the proYisions of the tariff act of 

1922, the ad valorem rate on dyes and other finished coal-tar products, 
paragraph 28, was reduced from 60 per cent to 45 per cent, but the 
specific duty remained at 7 cents per pound. In the Census of Dyes, 

1923, it was pointed out that the specific duty is more effective on the 
low-priced dyes, and that consequently a reduction in the ad valorem 
rate would more directly affect the higher priced dyes. 

Since this reduction in the rate of duty became effective, imports 
have greatly increased. For the first six months of 1928 they show 
an increase of 715,144 pounds and $501,707 over the quantity and 
value imported during the corresponding period of 1927. 

Table 18 shows the quantity and the invoice value of imports and 
the monthly average for each year since 1920. 

Table 18. — Coal-tar dyes: Imports into the United States, 1920-1928 {6 months) 





Quantity 


Invoice 
value 


Monthly average 


Period 


Quantity 


Value 


1920 


Pounds 
3, 402, 582 
4,252,911 
3, 982, 631 
3,098,193 


$5, 763, 437 
5, 156, 779 
5, 243, 257 
3,151,363 


Pounds 
283, 548 
354, 409 
338, 850 
258, 153 


.$480, 286 


1921 _ - 


429, 732 


1922 


436, 838 


1923 . - - -. 


262, 614 






1924 (first 9months) 

1924 (last 3 months) _. .. 


1,611,931 
1,410,608 


1, 642, 632 
1,266,146 


179, 103 
470, 203 


182, 515 
422, 049 






Total-..- ---- 

1925 . - 


3, 022, 539 
5, 315. 158 
4, 673, 196 
4,231,491 
2, 699. 464 


2, 908, 778 
4, 791, 908 
4, 103, 301 
3, 413, 886 
2,145,410 


251, 8?8 
442, 930 
389, 433 
352, 624 
449,911 


242, 398 
399, 326 


1926 


341,941 


1927 


284, 490 


1928 (6 months) 


367, 568 







PRODUCTION OF DYES BY CLASSES 

Dyes produced in the United States in 1927, classified according 
to method of application, are: (1) Acid dyes, (2) basic dyes, (3) 
direct dyes, (4) lake and spirit-soluble dyes, (5) mordant or chrome 
dyes, (6) sulfur dyes, (7) vat dyes, subdivided into indigo and other 
vats, and (8) unclassified dyes. Although the classification of a 
dye in any one of these groups must in certain instances necessarily 
be arbitrary, because a dye may have properties which permit of its 
application by more than one method, such classification facilitates 
a comparison of production and import figures. 

Comparative data for dyes produced in the United States from 
1922 to 1927, inclusive, and those imported in the fiscal year 1914 
and in the calendar years 1922 to 1927, inclusive, are arranged accord- 
ing to the classes given in Table 19. 



DYES AND OTHER FINISHED COAL-TAR PRODUCTS 



43 



Table 19. — Coviparison of imports of dyes, by classes, fiscal year 1914 o,nd calendar 
years 1922-1927, with domestic production, calendar years 1922-1927 



Class of dye 



1914 



1 Per 
Imports \ cent of 
i total 



Pounds 

Acid ' 9,286,501 20.2 

Basic I 3,002,480 6.5 

Direct i 10,264,757 1 22.3 

Lake and spirit soluble .- 1,512,605 | 3.3 

Mordant and clirome ! 4,450,442 9.7 

Sulfur. I 7,053,879 •. 15.4 

Vats (including indigo) I 10,352,663 i 22.5 

(a) Indigo... 1 8,407,359 I 18.3 

(6) Other vats ! 1,945,304 i 4.2 

Unclassified ! 27,568 1 .1 



Per 
production ^^J^f 



Domestic 



Pounds 
9, 880, 014 
2, 937, 585 
11,931,737 
1, 009, 512 
3, 749, 701 
16, 913, 767 
16, 926, 744 
15, 850, 752 
1, 075, 992 
1, 283, 127 



15.29 

4.54 

18.46 

1.56 

5.80 

26.17 

26.19 

24.52 

1.67 

1.99 



Total 145,950,895 100 64,632,187 



100 



Per 
Imports cent of 
total 



Pounds 

601, 395 

155, 084 

671, 621 

76, 853 

716, 790 

194, 883 

1, 549, 024 

505 

1, 548, 519 

16, 981 



15.10 
3.89 

16.86 
1.93 

18.00 
4.89 

38.90 
.01 

38.89 
.43 



3,982,631 I 100 



Class of dye 



Acid 

Basic 

Direct 

Lake and spirit soluble.. 

Mordant and chrome 

Sulfur 

Vats (including indigo). 

(a) Indigo 

(6) Other vats. 

Unclassified and special. 

Total 



1923 



Domestic 
production 



Pounds 

12, 498, 817 

4, 157, 373 

16, 858, 387 

1,171,854 

4, 07S, 504 

21,558,469 

30, 113, 642 

28, 347, 259 

1, 766, 383 

3, 230, 478 



Per 
cent of 
total 



13.34 

4.44 

18.00 

1.25 

4.35 

23.02 

32.15 

30.26 

1.89 

3.45 



Imports 



Pounds 
544, 048 
210, 896 
527, 014 
23,213 
453, 415 
114,023 
1, 207, 554 



Per 

cent of 
total 



17.56 
6.81 

17.01 
.75 

14.63 
3.68 

38.98 



1, 207, 554 
IS, 030 



.58 



93, 667, 524 100 3, 098, 193 100 



1924 



Domestic 
production 



Pounds 

9, 187, 256 

3, 676, 997 

14, 662, 577 

967, 550 

2, 953, 987 

14, 561, 257 

21, 818, 022 

19, 996, 703 

1,821,319 

851, 354 



68, 679, 000 100 



Per 

cent of 
total 



13.38 

5.35 

21.35 

1.41 

4.30 

21.20 

31.77 

29.12 

2.65 

1.24 



Imports 



Pounds 

324, 538 

249, 068 

421, 538 

17,334 

413,902 

87, 764 

1, 499, 322 

5,471 

1, 493, 851 

9,073 



3, 022, 539 100 



Per 

cent of 

total 



10.74 
8.24 
13.95 

.57 

13.69 

2.90 

49.61 

.18 
49.43 

.30 





1925 




Domestic 


Imports 


Class of dye 


Sales Production 




Quantity 


Value 


yuantitj of total 


Quantity 


Per cent 
of total 


Acid... 


Pounds 
10, 356, 726 

3, 973, 526 
15,058,071 

1, 532, 793 

2, 694, 876 
18, 453, 834 
26, 702, 741 
24, 449, 938 

2, 252, 803 
530, 884 


$8, 376, 020 
3, 720, 581 
9, 309, 345 
1,468,976 


Pounds 
10,214,024 11.8 

4, 121, 735 4. 8 
14, 787, 840 17. 1 

1.606.795 1.9 


Pounds 

589, 959 

607, 637 

759, 024 

57, 540 

642, 098 

122, 230 

2, 418, 842 

1,952 

2, 416, 890 

12,271 


11.32 


Basic . 


11.66 


Direct 


14.57 


Lake and spirit soluble 


1.10 


Mordant and chrome 


1,990,468 1 2! 543! 292 2.9 


12.33 


Sulfur 

Vats (including indigo)... 

(a) Indigo 

(6) Other vats 


4, 171, 590 
7, 105, 849 
3, 805, 518 
3, 300, 331 
1, 325, 503 


20, 760, 512 24. 1 

31, 730, 178 36. 7 

29, 121, 817 ' 33. 7 

2, 608, 361 3. 

581, 162 . 7 


2.35 

46.43 

.04 

46.39 


Unclassified and special 


.24 


Total 


79,303,451 


37, 468, 332 


86, 345, 438 100 


5, 209, 601 


100 







44 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Table 19. — Comparison of imports of dyes, by classes, fiscal year 1914 o-nd calendar 
years 1922-1927, ■with domestic production, calendar years 1922-1927 — Contd. 



Class of dye 



Acid 

Basic 

Direct 

Lake and spirit soluble- 
Mordant and chrome.-. 

Sulfur...- 

Vats (including indigo). 

Co) Indigo 

(6) Other vats 

Unclassified and special 

Total 



1926 



Domestic 



Sales 



Quantity 



Pounds 
10, 045, 601 

4, 180, 231 
15, 493, 144 

1, 380, 567 
3, 276, 969 

19, 979, 140 
31, 253, 627 
28, 438, 386 

2, 815, 241 
646, 557 



86, 255, 836 



Value 



$7, 992, 701 

3, 755, 244 
8. 603, 291 
1,115,867 

2. 716. 407 

4, 054 027 
7, 336, 959 

3, 652, 786 
3, 684, 173 

738, 152 



36, 312, 648 



Production 



Quantity 



Pounds 
10, 441, 443 

4, 406, 073 
18, 039, 705 

1, 428, 100 

3,134,934 
20, 023, 242 
29,731,951 
25, 701, 530 

4, 030, 421 
773, 176 



87, 978, 624 100 



Per cent 
of total 



11.87 

5.01 

20.61 

1.62 

3.56 

22. 76 

33.79 

29,21 

4.58 



Imports 



Quantity 



Per cent 
of total 



Pounds 

793, 855 

406, 732 

805, 848 

86, 106 

500, 004 

149, 723 

1, 848, 014 

2,806 

1, 845, 208 

82, 914 



16.99 

8.70 
17.24 

1.84 
10.70 

3.20 

39.55 

.06 

39.49 

1.78 



4, 673, 196 



100 



Class of dye 



Acid 

Basic - 

Direct 

Lake and spirit soluble. 
Mordant and chrome.. . 
Sulfur 

Vats (including indigo). 

(a) Indigo 

(6) Other vats 

Unclassified and special 

Total 



1927 



Domestic 



Sales 



Quantity 



Pounds 
11,805,905 

4, 783, 313 
17, 682, 399 

1, 559, 461 

3, 494, 169 
23, 183, 794 
36, 534, 646 
30. 609, 134 

4, 925, 512 
295, 517 



98, 339, 204 



Value 



$9, 137, 

3, 917, 
8, 681, 
1,380, 
2, 100, 

4, 392, 
8,421, 

3, 700, 

4, 721, 
500, 



38, 632, 795 



Production 



Quantity 



Pounds 
11,104,633 

4, 548, 515 
16, 265, 497 

1,540,711 
3, 604, 095 
23, 404, 273 
34, 399, 854 
28, 438, 166 

5, 961, 688 
300, 427 



Per cent 
of total 



11.67 

4.78 

17.09 

1.62 

3.79 

24.59 

36.14 

29.88 

6.26 

.32 



95, 167, 905 



100 



Imports 



Quantity 



Pottnds 
654, 729 
334, 626 
721, 342 
134, 778 
488, 605 
137, 864 

1, 730, 967 
6, 057 

1,724,910 
30, 236 



4, 233, 046 



Per cent 
of total 



15.47 
7.90 

17.04 
3.18 

11.64 
3.26 

40.89 
.14 

40.75 
.72 



100 



ACID DYES 

Description. — The acid dyes are commonly applied in an acid bath; 
they have acid properties and are usnsilly sodium salts of a color acid. 
They constitute the most important group used in wool dyeing, 
especially for hosiery and carpet yarns, suitings, dress goods, and hat 
materials. Because of their lack of affinity for vegetable fibers, they 
are little used on cotton or linen, but are of value in the dyeing of jute. 
Appreciable quantities are also used on silk. In general they are used 
on goods not requiring repeated washings. 

Acid dyes yield clear, bright shades. In purity of shade they are 
superior to the direct and mordant dyes, but are not equal to basic 
dyes. They have a wide color range, and in fastness show great indi- 
vidual variation; as a rule they are fairly fast to light and acids, but 
have a tendency to bleed in washing. Thev vield faster shades on 



DYES AND OTHER FINISHED COAL-TAR PRODUCTS 45 

wool than on silk. Some of the more complex acid dj'^es, several of 
which are of recent origin, produce shades of good general fastness. 

The method of appljdng dyes in an acid bath is simple and one of 
low labor cost. Dyes of this group are for the most part the lowTst 
priced dyes produced. 

The line of demarcation between acid dyes and certain colors of the 
direct and mordant groups is arbitrar3^ Certain acid dyes when 
''aftertreated" with sodium or potassium dichromate yield shades of 
good fastness to milling, hght, washing, and other agents. Those 
known as acid chrome colors are used chiefl}^ on wool, especially on 
loose wool yarns, and on piece goods such as men's suitings. 

Most of the acid dj^es are chemicallj^ included in one of the follow- 
ing groups: (1) Nitro compounds, (2) azo compounds, (3) sulfonated 
basic dyes (mostly triphenylmethane derivatives), and (4) alizarin 
derivatives. 

Production and imports. — Acid dyes in 1927 ranked fourth in quan- 
tity, with a total of 11,104,533 pounds or 11.67 per cent of all dyes 
manufactured. This is a 6 per cent increase over 1926. Sales 
amounted to 11,805,905 pounds, valued at $9,137,790. In value of 
sales this group ranked first; namely, 24 per cent of total sales. 

The production of Acid black lOB, the ranking dye of this group, 
was 1,496,258 pounds, and sales were 1,603,142 pounds, valued at 
$624,360. Orange II was second, with a production of 1,423,969 
pounds. In volume of production, other important dyes were Ni- 
grosine (water soluble). Fast cyanine 5R, Metanil yellow. Ponceau 
2R, and Tartrazine. In value of sales, Acid alizarin blue B was one 
of the leadmg colors. 

Among the acid dyes showing marked increases were Victoria 
violet. Brilliant croceine. Fast acid black N 2B, Wool green S, and 
Quinoline yellow. There was an increase in the output of a number 
of specialties in this group. The returns for 1927 include a number 
of acid dyes reported for the first time. 

Decreases in production were shown in 1927 for the following dyes: 
Azo yellow, Azo rubine. Fast red VR, Fast acid blue R and B, Resor- 
cin brown B, and Acid violet. 

Imports of the acid dyes, the total of which was 654,729 pounds, 
comprised 15.47 per cent by quantity of all dyes imported. The 15 
imported in largest quantities were as follows : 



Pounds 

Erioglaucine 57, 084 

Patent blue A 33, 037 

Alizarin light blue B 31, 056 

Brilliant wool blue FFR 29, 073 

Wool fast blue 22, 041 

Brilliant milling blue 20, 506 

Acid milling black B 19, 844 

Polar red i 19, 843 



Pounds 

Fast green extra bluish 19, 769 

Patent blue V - 17, 210 

Naphthalene green V 17, 137 

Neptune green SGX 16, 111 

Cvanol 14, 782 

Acid black 2R 13, 923 

Indocyanine 13, 574 



BASIC DYES 



Description. — The basic dyes surpass all others in depth, brilliancy 
of shade, and purity of tone. They possess high tinctorial power, but 
as a class lack fastness, especially to light and washing. 

Basic colors are used on cotton m dyeing and m printing where 
bright shades or color tints are desired without special requirements 
for fastness. They are also used m the dyeing of paper and jute, 



46 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

and for lithographic inks, typewriter ribbons, copy paper, and pencils. 
With the exception of Rhodamine B and a few others, they have 
little application on wool. They are chemically basic and are fixed 
on vegetable fibers with an acid mordant — namely, tannic acid — or 
more recently with a synthetic substitute. 

Dyes of this class are historically the oldest of the coal-tar dyes. 
Mauve or Perkin violet, discovered by W. H. Perkin in 1856, was 
the first aniline dyestuff produced on a commercial scale. Basic dyes 
are not as important as formerly; for dyeing cotton they have been 
superseded by direct and sulfur dyes, costing less to apply and, many 
of them, excelling in fastness. The vat dj^es are now being used on 
cotton for many applications where only basic dyes were formerly 
used. For dyeing wool acid dyes have almost entirely displaced 
basic colors. Chemically, basic dyes include a large number of the 
triphenylmethane derivatives, and, in addition, members of the 
following classes: (1) Azines, (2) azos, (3) thioazmes, (4) thioazols, 
and (5) acridines. 

Production and imports. — The production of basic dyes in 1927 
was 4,548,515 pounds, or 4.78 per cent of all dyes produced. Sales 
amounted to 4,783,313 pounds, valued at $3,917,711. In value, 
basic dyes made up more than 10 per cent of all dyes sold. Chrysoi- 
dine Y, with a production of 701,815 pounds, and Methyl violet, 
with 673,832 pounds, were the leading dyes of this group produced 
in 1927. Safranine, Chrysoidine R, Auramine, and Rhodamine B 
and 6G, showed an increase over 1926; Methylene blue, Bismarck 
brown. Magenta and Brilliant green showed a decline from 1926. 

Imports of basic dyes in 1927 v/ere 334,526 pounds, or 7.9 per cent 
of all dyes imported. Rhodamines (B, 6 GDN and 6 GH) made up 
42 per cent of the imports of basic dyes, as compared with 48 per 
cent last year. The 9 basic dyes imported in largest quantity are 
as follows: 

Pounds I Pounds 

Rhodamine B i 102, 945 i New methylene bhie 13, 249 

Rhodamme 6 GDN, 6 GH i_ 36, 500 | PararosaniUne base 11, 500 

Euchrvsme 20,100! Methyl violet 11,251 

Victoria blue B 19, 858 j Magenta 11,190 

Phosphine 17,625 | 

DIRECT DYES 

Description. — The direct or substantive dyes were introduced 
within the last 25 years. Their method of application is simple, as 
they dye vegetable fibers full shades in a neutral or alkaline bath 
"directly," without the use of mordants. Although their principal 
application is on cotton, they are of special value in dyeing fabrics 
containing both cotton and wool, or silk and cotton (union goods). 
They are also used on silk, linen, and paper, and to some extent on 
wool, especially for knitting yarns, worsted and shoddy yarns, and 
loose wool. 

On account of their high solubility, dyes of this group when washed 
have a tendency to run. Many of them, particularly those first 
introduced, are sensitive to acids and fade on exposure to sunlight; 
others, especially the newer ones, have good fastness to both acids 
and light, as well as to other agents. Certain direct colors are of 

1 Single strength. 



DYES AND OTHER FINISHED COAL-TAR PRODUCTS 47 

good fastness, particularly to washing, after a treatment of the dyed 
fiber by "coupling" with certain intermediates. The developed 
direct dj^es are now manufactured in the United States on a large 
scale and in a variety of types. They are becoming of greater im- 
portance each year for cotton and silk dyeing, in response to the 
growing demand of the public for wash goods. Probabty the direct 
dyes whose fastness can not be developed or increased by an after- 
treatment with metallic salts or formaldehyde will in future show a 
distinct trend toward a reduced consumption, and the use of the 
so-called dcA^eloped direct dyes vrill increase. 

With a fevv^ exceptions, the direct dyes are chemicalty "azo" com- 
pounds and are nearly all derivatives of benzidine, tolidine, diamino, 
stilbene, or a group closely similar to one of these. A small but 
valuable group of direct colors belongs in the thiazol class. 

Production and impo7is.— The direct or substantive dyes, ranking 
third in quantitv, constituted 17.09 per cent of all dyes produced in 
1927. The total output of this group in 1927 was 16,265,497 pounds, 
which is a decrease of nearly 10 per cent from the 1926 figure. Par- 
ticularly conspicuous was the gain in the production of the faster 
types of direct dyes, including the developed direct dyes. More 
than 10 direct dyes not reported in 1926 were produced in 1927. In 
value of sales ($8,681,024) this group ranked second. 

Direct black EW, the ranking dye of this class, with an output of 
5,916,562 pounds, comprised 6 per cent of all dyes produced. Sales 
were 6,649,143 pounds, valued at $1,840,335. The average sales 
value per pound of 27.7 is a decline of 3.1 cents from 1926. 
Developed Black BHN ranked second, with a production of 1,062,- 
089 pounds, followed by Direct blue 2B, with 811,803 pounds. 
Others made in large quantities were Chrysophenine G, 617,626 
pounds; Congo red. Direct green B, and Direct brown 3 GO. Many 
of the fast types of direct dyes showed increased production in 1927; 
among these were Fast scarlet. Orange R T, Orange G, Fast blue B, 
Fast pink 2 BL, and Zambesi black V. Decreases occurred in the 
production of Violet N, Blue 2B, Green ET, Fast red F, Blue 3B, 
Azurine G, Blue RW, Pure blue 6B, Congo corinth G, Fast black FF, 
Chloramine orange G, and Primuline. 

Imports of direct dyes in 1927 amounted to 721,342 pounds, or 
17.04 per cent of all dyes imported. The 12 leading direct dyes im- 
ported in 1927 were: 

Pounds ' Pounds 

Rapid fast red GL 41, 525 Trisulfon brown B 21, 022 

Chloramine red 29, 523 Diazo sky blue 19, 996 

Chlorantine fast blue 26,783 Rapid fast orange 19,350 

Diaminogen blue 24,626 Rapid fast red 19,050 

Chlorantine fast violet 23,199 j Diamine fast orange 17,957 

Benzo fast brown 21,308: Trisulfon brown GG 16,002 

SRA dyes. — These dyes were developed after intensive research 
work by the British Celanese Co. (Ltd.), manufacturers of cclanese 
silk, especially for the dyeing of acetate cellulose, known as "acetate 
silk." They are sold in the form of a 10 per cent paste, consisting of 
a dispersion of the dye with a highly sulfonated castor oil; that is, 
sulforicinoleic acid. When mixed with water the dispersed colloidal 
solution is capable of d3^eing cellulose acetate. In mixed fabrics 



48 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

colored with these dyes, the cotton, as well as any artificial silk other 
than acetate, is left unstained. 

SRA dyes offer a good range of colors, are easy to apply, and possess 
good general fastness. Twenty-five of these special dyes were manu- 
factured in the United States in 1927. Their production on a large 
scale is a development of great interest in view of the remarkable 
expansion of the domestic Rayon industry, and the rapid increase in 
the use of celanese or acetate silk. In 1927, a large increase occurred 
n the production of these colors. 

MORDANT AND CHROME DYES 

Description. — These colors are used in conjunction with metallic 
mordants, such as salts of chromium; aluminum, iron, and tin, to dye 
both vegetable and animal fibers. The resulting shades are, in gen- 
eral, of exceptional fastness to color-destroying agents. On wool the 
mordant dyes yield shades fast to light, washing, and other agents. 
They are also important in printing on cotton piece goods, but are 
little used on silk. 

The mordant dyes are frequently designated as chrome colors. 
Because of the derivation of many of them from alizarin, they were 
formerly called alizarin dyes. Certain dyes may be acid, acid chrome, 
or chrome, according to the method of application. The true ali- 
zarins are generally used with a mordant. The new acid alizarins 
can be used either wdth or without a mordant; they constitute a 
valuable group in the dyeing of wool. When used on wool, the 
mordant may be applied before, during, or after the dyeing operation. 
The labor cost of dyeing with mordant and chrome dyes is higher 
than for many other groups. 

Fo-Tmerly the most important dye of this class w^as alizarin, used 
on cotton to produce the well-known Turkey red, one of the shades 
made in ancient times from madder root. For about 50 years, ali- 
zarin has been prepared synthetically from anthracene. In the United 
States it has been replaced, to a large extent, for use on cotton by 
certain of the so-called ice dyes, such as Para red, and more recently 
by Naphthol AS red. 

Chemically, the mordant dyes are members of the following classes: 
(1) Anthraquinone, (2) azo, (3) oxazine, (4) triphenylmethane, (5) 
nitroso, (6) oxyquinone, and (7) xanthone. 

Production and imports. — The output of mordant and chrome colors 
in 1927 was 3,604,095 pounds, or 3.79 per cent of all dyes manu- 
factured. This production is an increase of 15 per cent over 1926. 
Sales in 1927 were 3,494,169 pounds, valued at $2,100,324. 

Chrome blue black U ranked first in this class, with a production 
of 1,134,397 pounds, or a gain of 27 per cent over 1926. wSales were 
1,110,493 pounds, vahied at $398,184. Other important dyes in 
this group include Alizarin, Chrome blue black B and the chrome 
black types. Notable increases occurred in the output of the follow^- 
ing dyes: Chromate brown B, Chrome black A and F, Acid chrome 
black F, and certain of the alizarins; significant decreases w^ere 
recorded for Anthraquinone blue black B, Gallocyanine, and Anthra- 
cene blue WR. 

Imports of mordant and chrome dyes totaled 488,605 pounds, which 
was 11.54 per cent of all dyes brought into the country in 1927, and 



DIES AND OTHER FINISHED COAL-TAR PRODUCTS 49 

14 per cent of the domestic production of mordant and chrome dyes. 
The 10 leading mordant and chrome dyes imported are: 



Pounds 

Alizarin, synthetic 89, 210 

Alizarin viridine FF 31, 188 

Gallamine blue 29, 132 

Eriochrome black A 26, 455 



Pounds 

Eriochrome azurol BC 19, 898 

Alizarin orange A 16, 662 

Alizarin red S 14, 463 

Alizarin pure blue B 13, 198 



Alizarin cyclamine R 20,399 | Alizarin blue black 11,078 

SULFUR DYES 

Description. — These dyes are used largely on cotton, especially for 
dyeing uniform cloths, hosiery, gingham yarns, and cotton warps to be 
woven with wool and later dyed with acid dyes. They produce heavy 
shades of blue, green, brown, and black. Their greatly extended use 
during the war served to increase permanently their application on 
cotton. Minor uses are in the dyeing of linen and artificial silk. 

In cross dyeing, the sulfur dyes possess excellent fastness to wash- 
ing, fulhng, alkalies, and acids. With some exceptions their fastness 
to light is good. As they are not fast to chlorine, they do not with- 
stand the repeated bleaching action of the hypochlorites used in 
modern laundries. They are applied in a sodium sulfide solution 
and sometimes aftertreatment is given with metallic salts or with 
other agents to improve their fastness. "Cachou de Laval," the 
first of this group to be discovered, was made in 1867 by the fusion 
of sawdust with sodium sulfide and sulfur. Sulfur dyes are now pre- 
pared by the fusion of various intermediates (containing the nitro, 
amino, or imino groups) with sodium sulfide and sulfur. These 
dyes are not pure, distinct compounds, and the presence of foreign 
substances renders them of comparatively low color value. Recent 
developments, however, have greatly increased the tinctorial value 
and shade range of many of them. 

Production and imports. — This group, with an output of 23,404,273 
pounds in 1927, ranked second in ciuantity, constituting 24.59 per 
cent of all dyes manufactured. The 1927 production was an increase 
of nearly 3,400,000 pounds over 1926. Sales in 1927 were 23,183,794 
pounds, valued at $4,392,641 . The sulfur dyes ranked fourth in value 
of sales. 

There was an increase in the output of nearly all the individual 
sulfur colors. In 1927, as in the three years preceding, sulfur black 
ranked second among all dyes in quantity produced. The output 
of 19,001,783 pounds was an increase over 1926. Sales in 1927 were 
18,965,042 pounds, valued at $2,557,944. The average sales price 
per pound was 13 cents, a decline of over 2 cents per pound from 1926. 
Sulfur black is an important item in our export trade, ranking second 
to indigo. 

Sulfur brown, with a production of 1,703,172 pounds, ranked 
second among the sulfur dyes. Sulfur blue, with a production of 
961,298 pounds, and sulfur yellow, with a total of 715,438 pounds, 
were produced in the next largest quantities. Sulfur green showed 
a large increase in production. 

Imports of sulfur dyes were relatively small, amounting to 137,864 
pounds, or 3.26 per cent of all dyes imported. Thionol green, with 
a total of 47,109 pounds, led this class. Indocarbon, with 33,901 
pounds, and Thionol yellow, with 14,733 pounds, were second and 
third, respectively. 



50 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



VAT DYES 



Description. — Vat dyes as a class possess exceptional fastness to 
light, washing, acids, alkalies, and chlorine. Some of them are not 
fast to all of these agents. The consumption of vat dyes is increasing 
as a result of the growing demand for fast-dyed fabrics by the ulti- 
mate consumer of textiles. Smce cotton goods dyed with these 
colors withstand the severe treatment of the modern laundrj^, the 
increased cost of dye per yard is a mmor factor, as compared with 
the increased life of the fabric. A European colorist, referring to 
the vat dyes, has said that Europe is too poor to afford anything 
but fast dyes — that the loose or fugitive colors are an extravagance. 
Their superior fastness and the variety and beauty of shades which 
they yield are largely responsible for a steady increase in their use. 
They are applied on dyed and printed shirtings, dress goods, ginghams, 
muslm curtains, and other cotton wash goods, and have a limited 
application on silk and a still smaller one on wool. Because of their 
higher cost they are used chiefly for color stripes and small printed 
patterns on a white background rather than for solid or heavy 
shades. They possess technical advantages in application over the 
alizarin mordant dyes. 

With the exception of indigo, one of the oldest dyes known, vat 
dyes are of recent origin, having been developed since 1904. The 
Badische Co., of Germany, manufactured the first members of this 
class, known in the trade as the Indanthrenes. This group was 
folowed by the Ciba dyes of the Society of Chemical Industry at 
Basle, Switzerland, and later by the Algols, Helindones, Thioindigoes, 
and Hydrous, and other series produced by different German con- 
cerns. Prior to the war vat dyes other than indigo were made exclu- 
sively in Germany and Switzerland. 

Vat dyes are among the most complex of dyes, difficult to manu- 
facture, and relatively high in cost. Chemically they consist of indi- 
goids (including thioindigoids), anthraquinone derivatives, and the 
carbazole derivatives. 

Following the outbreak of the war, the United States and Great 
Britain, two of the leading consumers of these dyes, began their 
manufacture on an extensive scale. 

In 1924 a water-soluble leuco derivative of indigo, under the name 
of Indigosol, was placed on the market by Swiss and German firms. 
Since then other Indigosol types, including Indigosol red, orange, 
yellow, scarlet, pink, violet, and black have been made in commer- 
cial quantity. A similar derivative of Caledon jade green, known 
as Soledon jade green, was manufactured by the Scottish Dyes (Ltd.). 
The commercial production of water-soluble leuco derivatives marks 
an advance not only in this group but in the whole realm of dye 
manufacture. These can be used on animal as well as vegetable 
fibers, and their application by the "direct method," with subsequent 
oxidation, is less complex than by the alkali hydrosulphite process 
generally used for the vat dyes. Extended use of these new deriva- 
tives wil] depend in large part on their selling prices. 

The leucosol dyes — special types for calico printing — are vat dyes 
of the anthraquinone group. They were recently placed on the mar- 
ket by a domestic manufacturer and are now being produced on a 
commercial scale. Members of this group include a black, a light 
blue, and a navy blue. 



DYES AND OTHER FINISHED COAL-TAR PRODUCTS 



51 



Production and imports.— The total production in 1927 of vat 
dyes, including indigo, was 34,399,854 poimds, or 36.14 per cent 
of all dyes produced. Sales in 1927 were 35,534,646 pounds, valued at 
$8,421,616. The output of indigo (20 per cent paste) was 28,438,166 
pounds, or 29.88 per cent of all dyes produced. This was an increase 
of over 10.6 per cent from the 1926 production. Sales in 1927 were 
30,609,134 pounds, valued at $3,700,192, or 12.1 cents per pound, 
as compared with 12.8 cents in 1926 and 15.6 cents in 1925. The 
1927 selling price is much below the pre-war price in 1913, when 
our entire supply was imported. 

The outstanding feature of the year was expansion m the domestic 
manufacture of vat dyes.. With few exceptions there was a marked 
increase in the output of each and, in addition, many new types 
were produced. The total production of vat dyes other than indigo 
was 5,961,688 pounds, an increase of 48 per cent over 1926, which 
in turn was a gain of 54 per cent over 1925. The increasing impor- 
tance of this group to the textile industry for the dyeing and printmg 
of fast-dyed fabrics is indicated by the figures for sales and for appar- 
ent consumption, as shown in Table 20. 

Table 20. — Yai dyes other than indigo: Domestic sales, imports, and apparent 
consumption in the United States, 1914 and 1923-1927 



Year 


Sales of 
domestic 
manufac- 
ture 


Imports 


Apparent 
consump- 
tion 


1914 


Pounds 


Pounds 
1, 945, 304 
1, 207, 554 
1, 493, 851 
2, 418, 842 
1, 845, 208 
1, 724, 910 


Pounds 
1, 945, 304 


1923 


1, 608, 217 

1, 558, 080 

2, 252, 803 
2, 815, 241 
4, 925, 512 


2, 815, 771 


1924 


3,051,931 


1925 - 


4, 671, 645 


1926 


4, 660, 449 


1927 


6, 648, 867 







Of the vat dyes other than indigo, Anthraquinone vat blue GCD 
again led in quantity of production and in value of sales. The average 
price per pound, however, has declined from $1.63 in 1923 to $1.08 
in 1926 and to $0.92 in 1927. Anthraquinone vat green B and black 
showed a production of 164,900 pounds, which was a substantial 
increase over 1926. Anthraquinone vat yellow G is also one of the 
leadmg vat dyes. 

Imports of vat dyes other than indigo totaled 1,724,910 pounds, 
or 40.75 per cent of all dyes imported in 1927. This was a decrease 
from 1926, when 1,845,208 pounds were imported. 

The following tabulation shows the leading vat dyes imported and 
the quantity (single strength) brought in during 1927: 

Pounds Pounds 

Indanthrene yellow G 45, 442 



Helindone printing black R,D 

paste 123, 000 

Brilliant indigo 4B 96, 271 

Indanthrene blue GCD 82, 268 

Indanthrene brown R 81, 096 

Anthraflavone GC 74, 173 

Vat golden vellow GK 65, 880 

Indanthrene red violet RH_.. 62, 988 

Indanthrene olive R 61, 463 

Ciba red R 50,262 

Brilliant indigo B 46, 863 



Indanthrene golden orange 

RRT 45,562 

Hydron pink FF 39, 650 

Indanthrene green 35, 930 

Ciba scarlet 35, 557 

Indanthrene brown G 34, 094 

Helindone orange R 32, 740 

Vat printing brown R 27, 860 

Indanthrene dark blue BO 24, 138 

Indanthrene red RK 23, 452 



52 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



COLOR-LAKE DYES AND SPIRIT-SOLUBLE DYES 

These dyes, constituting one of the smaller groups, are used in 
making a class of pigments known as color lakes, discussed in detail 
on page 53. The spirit-soluble dyes are insoluble in water, but dis- 
solve in oils, fats, and various organic solvents; consequently they 
find application for coloring varnishes, fats, oils, waxes, and similar 
products. As many of them are converted by chemical treatment, 
such as sulfonation, into water-soluble dyes for textile dyeing, they 
may be considered as partly completed dyes. 

The output of color-lake and spirit-soluble dyes in 1927 was 1,540,- 
711 pounds, or 1.62 per cent of the total output of all dyes produced. 
Imports of this group were 134,778 pounds, or 3.18 per cent of all 
dyes imported. 

FOOD DYES 

Dyes classified under this group include a limited number of selected 
dyes which meet the specifications of the Bureau of Chemistry, Depart- 
ment of Agriculture. The total production in 1927 was 209,991 
pounds, with sales of 232,612 pounds, valued at $823,340. Produc- 
tion in 1926 was 288,454 pounds; in 1921, the first year that figures 
for this group were separately compiled, production was 50,709 pounds. 
The average value of the sales was $3.54 per pound in 1927, as com- 
pared with $3.95 in 1926, and $5.80 in 1921. 



EXPORT TRADE IN DYES 

Exports of coal-tar dyes in 1927 amounted to 26,770,560 pounds, 
valued at $5,495,322, an increase of 3.7 per cent in quantity and a 
decrease of 7.6 per cent in value. The average value per pound in 
1925 was 25.9 cents; in 1926, 23 cents, and in 1927, 20.5 cents. 

The principal markets for United States dyes in 1927 were China, 
Japan, Canada, and British India. Some dyes also went to Central 
and South American countries. Exports to the principal countries 
decreased, except those to China, which increased nearly 20 per cent. 

Table 21 shows the total exports of dyes from the United States 
in the years 1920 to 1927. 

Table 21. — Coal-tar dyes: Exports from the United States, 1920-1927 



Year 



1920. 
1921. 
1922 _ 
1923. 



Quantity 



Pound* 



8, 344, 187 
17, 924, 200 



Value 



$29, 823, 591 
6, 270, 139 
3, 996, 443 
5, 565, 267 



Year 



1924. 
1925. 
1926. 
1927' 



Quantity 



Pounds 
15, 713, 428 

25, 799, 889 
25,811,941 

26, 770, 560 



Value 



$5, 636, 244 
6, 694, 360 
5, 950, 159 
5, 495, 322 



> Preliminary. 

Details as to the quantity and value of exports to the various 
countries are shown in Part VII. The Dye Census of 1924, Table 22, 
page 58, gives monthly exports from 1919 to 1924, inclusive, and the 
Dye Census of 1918 gives exports back to 1909. 

Table 22 shows, by months, the total exports of dyes from the 
United States from January, 1925, to March, 1928, inclusive. 



DYES AND OTHER FINISHED COAL-TAR PRODUCTS 



53 



Table 22. — Colors, dyes, and stains: Domestic exports, by months, 1925 to 1927, and 

1928 {6 months) 



Month 



January 

February.. 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September. 

October 

November. 
December - 



1925 



Pounds Value 



2, 006, 681 
2, 067, 046 
1, 990, 407 
2, 172, 425 
2, 076, 516 
2, 126, 107 
2, 080, 588 
2, 205, 476 
2, 511, 898 
1, 717, 766 
1, 840, 426 
3, 004, 553 



$657, 919 
602, 316 
554,111 
674, 799 
491, 578 
528, 087 
488,416 
535, 093 
612,867 
466, 910 
401,575 
680, 689 



1926 



Pounds i Value 



1, 552, 335 

1, 610, 625 

2, 924, 695 

1, 666, 344 

2, 325, 763 

1, 660, 995 

2, 742, 622 
2, 448, 664 

1. 882, 936 

2, 220, 377 
2, 672, 216 
2, 104, 369 



$416, 975 
403, 949 
696, 538 
425, 792 
496,251 
417, 693 
579, 664 
472, 378 
461, 233 
521, 069 
611,539 
447, 078 



Total 25,799,889 6,694, 360 25,811,941 [5,950,159 26,770,560 5,495,322 



19281 



Pounds Value I Pounds Value 



1, 865, 021 

2, 951, 057 

3, 595, 342 
1, 226, 538 
1, 928, 170 

967, 908 

1, 525, 751 

2, 257, 139 

4, 469, 227 
1, 837, 742 

1, 920, 382 

2, 226, 283 



586, 
701, 
375, 
376, 
292, 
331, 
527, 
614, 
399, 
456, 
428, 



655 
167 
201 
720 
521 
187 
387 
784 
925 
594 
734 
447 



1, 703, 415 

2, 310, 109 
1, 684, 397 
1, 775, 382 
1,877,534 
1,681,130 



$438, 497 
470, 406 
444, 789 
43% 245 
448, 478 
398, 380 



1 Preliminary figures. 



OTHER FINISHED COAL-T-A.R PRODUCTS 



COLOR LAKES 



Description. — A color lake is an insoluble color pigment. It is 
commonly made by precipitating* a coloring matter (a coal-tar dye) 
on a carrier (the base). The desired properties of a color lake are 
good coloring power; easy workability; brightness; and fastness to 
weather, light, alkali, and acids. The precipitating agents used for 
coal-tar colors are barium chloride, lead salts, aluminum hydroxide, 
and tannin or tannin tartar emetic. Among the more important car- 
riers are aluminum hydroxide, zinc white, lithopone, barytes, whiting, 
china clay and certain native clays, and ocher. The principal require- 
ments of a carrier are (1) ready reduction to a finely divided state and 
(2) absence of any deleterious effect on the shade of the finished lake. 
The coloring matter includes groups of coal-tar dyes known as acid 
dyes, basic dyes, and mordant dyes, as well as certain azo dyes pro- 
duced directly on the carrier. An example of the last-named is Para 
red, produced from the intermediate p-nitroaniline and b-naphthol. 
Another group of color lakes is made by the precipitation of a water- 
soluble acid dye, with the aid of a mineral salt to form an insoluble 
product. 

After precipitation the insoluble lake is filtered, dried, and ground 
with or without oil; it is then ready for use as a pigment in paints, 
lithographic inks, artists' colors, wall paper, rubber products, and for 
other coloring purposes. 

Production. — The production of color lakes in 1927 was 11,601,507 
pounds. Sales amounted to 11,620,740 pounds, valued at $6,446,508. 
Production in 1926 was 11,796,203 pounds. The average unit value 
of sales increased from 52.7 cents per pound in 1926 to 55 cents in 1927. 



54 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



MEDICINALS 



Description. — Organic medicinals are described in Part III (p. 79) 
of this census. 

Production. — The total production of coal-tar medicinals in 1927 
was 3,598,839 pounds. Sales in 1927 were 3,548,556 pounds, valued 
at $6,819,487. 

Table 23 gives production of certain coal-tar medicinals, and the 
total production of all medicinals for the years 1921-1927, inclusive. 
For many individual medicinals, production and sales figures can not 
be published without disclosing the confidential operations of a single 
firm. The commission obtained production and sales data on 79 
coal-tar medicinals, but as many of these were made by a limited 
number of manufacturers, data can be published for only 9 products. 

Table 23. — Coal-tar medicinals: Production of a selected list, 1921-1927 



Name 


1921 


1922 


1923 


1924 


1925 


1926 


1927 


Acetanilide 


Pounds 

207, 433 

670 

733, 510 


Pounds 

222, 517 

865 

1,482,998 

1,658 

12, 798 


Pounds 

564, 498 

616 

1, 525, 795 

2,243 

29, 185 

32, 710 

3,365 

208, 902 


Pounds 

425, 950 

555 

1, 366, 530 

2,080 


Pounds 

158, 756 

278 


Pounds 

458, 927 

444 


Pounds 
366, 842 




265 




1,499,166 11,823,748 
2,446 2,768 


1, 715, 686 




3,974 












56, 003 

3,220 

197, 644 

3,790 


60, 722 1 79, 632 
3,289 1 4.113 


84, 212 


Neorsphenamin9 




2,904 
300, 993 


3,889 




28, 408 


163, 723 








6,702 




Salol - - 






98, 597 

416, 382 

164 


118, 869 

415,465 

734 


84, 182 

469, 345 

847 


51,504 




319, 350 


467, 264 


412, 707 
743 


492, 558 




800 












Total coal-tar medicinals 


1, 545, 917 


2,946,347 


3,273,085 


2,967,944 


3,237,796 3,696,196 


3, 598, 839 



1 Production and sales since 1923 are included under Flavors and Perfume Materials, p. 69. 

Aspirin is the medicinal showing the largest output during the 
seven-year period covered by the table. There was a slight decrease 
in 1927, but production was substantially above that of any year since 
1921. Sales in 1927 were 1,720,597 pounds, valued at $1,079,346; in 
1926 they were 1,796,155 pounds, valued at $1,079,477. 

Arsphenamine has gradually declined in production in the past few 
years. It is being displaced by neoarsphenamine and other derivatives 
of arsphenamine. The production of arsphenamine in 1927 was 265 
pounds, and sales were 355 pounds, valued at $93,760. The pre-war 
price, when this country was dependent upon Germany for its entire 
supply, was $3.50 per ampoule. The contract price to the Govern- 
ment^in 1928 is 18 cents per ampoule. In 1927 the production of 
neoarsphenamine was 3,889 pounds, and sales were 4,359 pounds, 
valued at $1,118,580; of sulfoarsphenamine, 800 pounds, and sales of 
822 pounds, valued at $286,565. 

Cincophen, i>rescribed for acute gout and articular rheumatism, has 
increased in production each year since 1923. The 1927 production 
was 84,212 pounds, and sales were 85,266 pounds, valued at $405,465, 
or $4.76 a pound. 

Sodium salicylate showed an increase in production in 1927 and 
salol a decline as compared with 1926. 

Ampydin, methaform, and proposote were among the medicinals 
reported in 1927 but not in 1926. 



DYES AND OTHER FINISHED COAL-TAR PRODUCTS 55 



FLAVORS AND PERFUME MATERIALS 



Description. — There is no sharp hne of demarcation between these 
two classes of coal-tar chemicals, many of them being used both as 
flavors for food products and as perfumes for soaps and other toilet 
articles. Separate classification is therefore in certain cases purely 
arbitrary. 

Production of -flavors. — The production of flavors in 1927 was 
2,205,472 pounds, a decrease of 23 per cent from 1926. Sales in 
1927 were 2,235,791 pounds, valued at $1,435,445. 

Methyl salicylate, a flavor used largely as an artificial winter- 
green, showed a decrease of 25 per cent in production as compared 
with the previous year. The output in 1927 was 1,836,397 pounds, 
and sales were 1,818,545 pounds, valued at $637,159. 

Coumarin was reported by five firms in 1927. Production was 
112,571 pounds, a decrease of 23 per cent from 1926. Sales in 1927 
were 125,449 pounds, valued at ^355,501. The selling price in- 
creased from $2.56 a pound in 1926 to $2.83 in 1927. 

Saccharin is used for sweetening chewing tobacco. Other uses 
are for sweetening soft drinks, in the preparation of pharmaceuticals, 
and as a substitute for sugar by diabetics. Production in 1927 
showed a small decline from 1926. 

Production of perfumes. — The output of perfume materials of coal- 
tar origin in 1927 was 1,998,987 pounds, an increase of 76,000 
pounds over the previous year. Sales in 1927 were 2,025,614 pounds, 
valued at $991,922, and in 1926 they were 1,731,887 pounds, valued 
at $820,264. 

Diethylphthalate, one of the perfume materials made in large 
quantity, reached its peak in production in 1925, when 2,099,181 
pounds were produced. In 1926 there was a decline to 1,044,218 
pounds, and in 1927 to 983,894 pounds. Sales in 1927 were 1,004,- 
963 pounds, valued at $278,519. The unit value in 1927 was. 28 
cents, as compared with 29.7 cents in 1926. Butyl phthalate increased 
in production in 1927. Dimethyl and amyl phthalate were reported 
in 1927 but not in 1926. 

Benzyl alcohol, benzyl acetate, and benzyl benzoate are also 
made in large quantities. The production of each increased in 1927 
as compared with 1926; the sales price per pound decreased. 

The production of synthetic musks — ambrette, ketone, and xy- 
lene — reported for the first time in 1926, marks an advance in the 
manufacture of coal-tar perfume materials in the United States. The 
output of musk ambrette and musk xylene was greater in 1927 
than in 1926, but that of musk ketone was smaller. 

Perfume materials showing increased production in 1927 other 
than those mentioned include acetophenone, benzophenone, benzyl 
succinate, cinnamic aldehyde, isobutylphenyl acetate, methyl 
acetophenone, methyl anthranilate, methylphenyl acetate, phenyl- 
ethyl alcohol, and yara-yara. 

Products in this group showing decreased output in 1927, as com- 
pared with 1926, include cinnamic acid, diphenyl oxide, isobutyl 
benzoate, phenyl acetic acid, and phenyl acetic aldehyde. 

Imports. — Table 25 shows imports of synthetic aromatic chemicals 
of coal-tar origin provided for in paragraph 28 of the tariff act of 
1922. 

7709—28 5 



56 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



SYNTHETIC RESINS 



Synthetic resins are each year finding a wider range of industrial 
uses and are being made in increasing quantities. Their largest use 
is as a binder in molded insulation plastics, including laminated 
sheets and panels for automobile and radio parts. Another use 
which promises further expansion is in the manufacture of varnishes 
and lacquers for insulation. The clear resins are a substitute for 
amber in the manufacture of cigarette and cigar holders, pipe bits 
and sockets, fountain pens and pencils, and beads and other articles 
of personal adornment. 

The production of synthetic resins in 1927 was nearly 13,452,230 
pounds, a large increase over 1926. The output in 1922 was nearly 
6,000,000 pounds. 

A new synthetic resin, produced from phthalic anhydride and 
glycerin, and promising wide application, was reported for the first 
time in 1927. It is likely that several hitherto unused raw materials 
may be utilized for synthetic resins. 

The indications are that the downward trend in prices of the raw 
materials for phenolic resins — phenol, formaldehyde, and glycerin — 
will continue, with a resultant decrease in production costs. Lower 
costs will, in turn, permit a wider range of commercial uses which 
may bring about the substitution of synthetic resins for many articles 
now made of wood and other material. 

PHOTOGRAPHIC CHEMICALS 

Because of their strong reducing properties, coal-tar chemicals of 
this class are used for developing photographic films, plates, and 
prints. They are popularly known as developers, but are sold under 
a variety of trade names. 

Photographic chemicals were made in greater quantity in 1927 
thto in 1926. Hydroquinol, the leading product in this group, 
showed a slight decrease in production; metol, the second, and 
p-hydroxy phenylglycine, the third, showed a marked increase in 
output, as compared with 1926. Neither production nor sales figures 
for photographic chemicals can be given without disclosing con- 
fidential information; they are therefore given in combination with 
production and sales figures for synthetic tanning materials. 

SYNTHETIC TANNING MATERIALS 

The synthetic tanning mateiials known as syntans have come into 
commercial use in Germany and England since 1912. They have 
not yet been used extensively in this country, but they probably will 
be used in the tanning of leather, together with natural tanning 
extracts. Production figures can not be pubhshed without disclosing 
the operations of individual concerns. The output in 1927 was a 
large increase over 1926. 

Synthetic tans are made by the condensation of certain coal-tar 
derivatives, such as the sulfonated phenols, cresols, and naphthols, 
with formaldehyde in the presence of an acid. They are commonly 
used in conjunction with the natural tanning extracts. Their use 
is reported to result in an economy of the time required for tanning, 
to produce a satisfactory leather of light color, and to reduce the 
amount of natural extract required. 



DYES AND OTHER FINISHED COAL-TAR PRODUCTS 



57 



The production of photographic chemicals and synthetic tanning 
materials in 1927 was 5,332,483 pounds; sales were 5,352,617 pounds, 
valued at $951,832. 

STATISTICS OF IMPORTS, PRODUCTION, AND SALES 
Table 24. — Medicinals and pharmaceuticals: Imports into the United States, 1927 



Name 



Acet plienetidin 

Acetyl salicylic acid 

Acrifla vine powder _ 

Algoeratine 

p- A min obenzoyldi methyl am- 

ino-methylbutanol - 

Aminophonyl salicylate 

Aminopyrine 

Antipyrine 

Aurothiobenzimidoazolcarboxylic acid 

sodium salt-- - -- 

Benzonaphthol - 

Benzoylmonohydrochloride 1:3 tetra 

inethyldiamino-2-ethylisopropyl alcohol 

Bismuth guaiacol carbonic acid 

Cachet TOT 

Cardiazol powder _ 

Caffeine sodium benzoate 

Ohinosol powder - 

Chinosol tablets - 

Chloronitrophenylarsinic acid 

Cinchophen 

Colchicine salicylate 

Cresol USP _. 

Cyclohexenylethylcyanacetic acid ethyl 

ester 

Dymuth tablets, 

Elbon tablets. _ - 

Epicarin piue 

Epinine 

Epinine hydrochloride 

Eserine salicylate.-- 

Ethyl benzene sulfonate - 

Europhen - 

Fluorescein -- _ 

Fluorescein, ophthalmic - 

Formocarbine naphtholee 

Fuchsine, pure--- -- 

Gairsine ampoules 

Gaiarsol ampoules --- -. 

Qardenal - - - 

Oermanin - 

Qermasan -.- 

Guaiacol 

Guaiacol carbonate - 

Guaiacol crystals 

Homatropine hydrobromide, ophthalmic 

Horaatropine hydrochloride _, 

lodorthohydroxyriuinoline sulfonic acid- 

Kaylene and phenolphthalein 

Kaylene lax -- - 

Leucosalyl 

Leucotropin 

Liantral __ 

Luarsyl 

Mercury salicylate 

Methenamine and methylene blue- 

M ethyl benzene sulfanilid 

Mitigal 

Monomethylarainoaeetopyro- 

catechol hydrochloride 

b-Naphthol aluminum disulfonate 

b-Naphthol benzoate 



Quantity 



Pounds 

1, 585 

100 

14,000 

5 

220 

991 

1,560 

44, 555. 5 

1 
440.5 

12 
63 
30 
33 
4 

191 

385 

165 

245 
1202 

911 

1,101 

22.5 

10 

6 

242.5 

1.5 

I 1, 705 

165 

9 

15 

119 

63 

3 

6 

9 

352 

20 

110 

14 

7,250 

2,464 

4 

1 59 

44 

24 

60 

6 

32.5 
42 
1 3, 714 
56 
22 

no 

220 

35 

44 

216 



Name 



b-Naphthol compound 

Neoarsphenamine ampoules - 

Neocaine.. 

Neosalvarsan ampoules 

Neosilver arsphenamine--. 

Nerve cachets- -._ -.. 

Neumol 

Norolina. 

Noviform 

Orexin powder-. 

Orexin tablets 

Orexin tannate 

Oxy quinoline 

Phenazone callein citrate - 

Phenol, medicinal - --- 

Phenolphthalein _ 

Phenyldimethylpyrazolonam- 
inomethanosodium sulfonate tabletS- 

Phenylethylbarbituric acid - 

Phenylhydrazine hydrochloride 

Physost igmine sahcylate - 

Plasmochin tablets 

Plasmochin compound tablets. 

Potassium sulfocresoate .--- 

Potassium guaiacolsulfonate 

Pyoktanin blue 

Pyoktanin yellow 

Pyrocatechine. _ --- 

Reipar ampoules 

Resorcinol, med 

Rhodine 

Rhofeine -, 

Rivanol tablets 

Salicylic acid ester of borneol 

Salicylic acid mcthyloxymethylester 

Salol 

Sandalwood oil and salol -. 

Saponin -. 

Scatole 

Scurocaine C 

Sodium salicylate 

Sodium salicylate and potassium bicar- 
bonate 

Sodium salicylate iodide.- 

St ibosan 

Sulfarsenol 

Sulfoxysal varsan 

Synt hoi standard -. 

Tetraiodopyrrol 

Theobromine sodium salicylate-- 

Theocyl 

Thyangol pastilles 

Tolamine 

Treparsol - 

Uraseptine -. 

Vioform powder 

Yatren casein strong 

Yatren casein weak 

Another 



Total. 



Quantity 



Pounds 

74 

1 3, 150- 

183- 

2 10, 000 

1290 

1 

90 

100 

11 

5.5 

3. 

15. 

4401 

22' 

12 

618 

22 

22 

50 

169' 

16 

12. 

100- 

25,023 

50 

53 

220 

23 

2, 216 

1605. 

1.605' 

4 

11 

204 

16 

17 

132 

103 

24 

839 

50 

58 
■40 

43 

2 80O 

1 

31 
167 

10 

188 

3 

24 
179 

22 

17 

22 
255 



96,110 
.$142, 997 



1 Grams. 



2 Ampoules. 



58 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Table 25. — Synthetic aromatic chemicals of coal-tar origin: Imports into the United 

States, 1927 



Name 



^cetophenone 

Acfetyltoluene 

Amtmdo] 

Ambrogcnc 

Amy! salicylate 

Anisic aldehyde 

Benzaldehyde f. f. c 

Benzoic acid, natural 

Benzophenone -. 

Benzyl acetate 

Benzyrhlcohol 

Benzyl benzoate, 

Benzyl butyrate. 

Benzyl formate 

Benzvl isoeugenol 

Benzyl propionate 

Benzyl salicylate 

Benzylidene acetone 

Bornyl acetate 

Br omstyrol 

Butyl cinnamic aldehyde 

Butyl ketone 

Butyl xylene 

Buxine 

Cetone D 

Cinnamic aldehyde 

Coumarin - 

Coumarinextra_. 

p-Cresol acetate 

p-Cresol methyl ether 

p-Cresol phenylacetate... 

Diethyl phthalate 

Dimethyl benzylcarbinol 
Dimethyl hydroquinone. 

Diphenyl methane 

Diphenyl oxide 

Ethyl anthranilate.. 

Ethyl cinnamate 

Ethyl phenylacetate 

Ethyl vanillin.. 

Flosal_-_ 

Flosinol 

Heliotropine 

Heliotropine, amorphous. 
Homoquinoline 



Quantity 



Pounds 

536 

31 

55 

9,676 

1,949 

1,666 

1,510 

225 

425 

24, 510 

3,365 

6,239 

62 

65 

32 

564 

592 

472 

25 

928 

833 

•882 

13, 429 

100 

240 

3,666 

2,683 

694 

78 

30.5 

143 

511.5 

8 

26 

810 

2,294 

43 

237. 5 

.30.5 

413 

96 

70 

4,814.5 



Name 



Hyacinth 

Hyacinth compound 

Indol 

Isobutyl benzoate 

Isobuty 1 phenylacetate 

Isobutyl salicylate 

Jasmonal 

p-Methoxyacetophenone 

Methyl acetophenone 

Methyl anthranilate 

Methylanthranilic acid methyl ester 

Methyl benzoate 

Methyl cinnamate 

Methyl-p-cresol 

Methyl methyl anthranilate 

Methyl phenylacetate 

Methyl phenylacetic aldehyde 

Musk, alpha 

Musk ambrette 

Mask ketone 

Musk omega 

Musk xylene 

Musk xylene residue 

Nerolin 

Oleo musk 

Orange ketone 

Phenylacetic acid 

Phenylace'ic aldehyde 

Phenylethyl acetate 

Phenylethyl alcohol 

Phenylethyl butyrate 

Phenylethyl phenylacetate 

Phenylethyl propionate 

Phenylglycol methylene acetal 

Pheny Ipropyl acet ate 

Phenylpropyl alcohol 

Phenylpropyl aldehyde 

Skatol 

Vanillin 

VertenaD 

Yara yara 

Another 

Total... 



Quantity 



Pounds 

55 

300 

118.5 

500 

51 

72 

100 

110 

523.5 

17, 826 

65 

52 

1,352 

180 

230 

1, 502. 5 

5 

6 

1,542 

1,530 

11 

3,847 

220 

582.6 

600 

11 

3,224 

3,563 

182 

31, 302. 5 

32 

12 

50 

4 

35 

111 

76 

2 

3,795 

220 

697.5 

275.5 



160, 042 
$195,452 



DYES AND OTHER FINISHED COAL-TAR PRODUCTS 



59 



Table 26. — Photographic chemicals, intermediates, and other coal-tar products: 
Imports into the United States, 1927 



Name 



Activol 

Amidol (diamiaophenol hydrochloride) . 

Aminoazotoluene base 

p-Aminobenzoic acid 

p-Amini)diphenylamine hydrochloride. . 

Aminonapiit holdisulfonic acid. 

Aminonaphthol sulfonic acid 

p-Aminophenol hydrochloride 

Aminopyrazolon 

p-Anisidine 

Anthranilic acid 

Anthrapyridon 

Benzaldehy de, tech. 

Benzoyl chloride 

Benzoyl peroxide 

Carbazole ._ 

o-Chloro-p-nitraniline 

p-Chloro-m-cresol 

p-C hloro-m-xylenol 

p-Chloro-o-nitranilin.. 

o-Ch iorophenol 

Chlorotoluidine sulfonic acid .. 

Claret developer 

Cresidine 

m-Cresol 

o-Cresol 

p-Cresol 

Cresylie acid 

Cyclohexane 

Cy clohexanon 

Dental plastic 

Developer Z 

Desensit iser 

m-Diamino anisol 

m-Diamino anisol base 

m-Diamino anisol sulfate 

Diaminodiphenylamine hydrochloride.. 

Dianisidine 

Diazodiphenyl ether 

Dihromo-a-amino anthraquinone 

Dihydroxyphenyl-indolinon 

Dibenznylamin' .diant hrimid . - 

Dimethylaminodiphenylamine sulfate... 
Dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine sulfate.. . 

Dinitrostilbene sulfonic acid 

Diphenyl black ba.se I 

Dissolving salt B 

Edinol 

Elastol 

Ethylbenzylaniline 

Ethyl-b-napthylamine 

Fast black LB base 

Fast black salt B. 

Fast black salt K 

Fa.st blue salt B 

Fast blue salt B.\. 

Fast Bordeaux GP base... 

Fast Bordeaux salt QP 

Fast garnet GBC base -_ 

Fast garnet GC base 

Fast orange GC base 

Fast orange salt GC 

Fast orange salt R 

Fast red B base 

Fast red KB base. 

Fast red RI/ base, RC base 

Fast red salt AL 

Fast red salt B.. 

Fast red salt BA 

Fast red salt GG 

Fast red salt GL_ ._ 

Fast red salt GL new 

Fast red salt GI,A 

Fast red salt .3GL... 



Quantity 



Pounds 

200 

1, 030 

8,647 

1,000 

1,100 

1,392 

2,206 

510 

3,024 

2, 155 

6,000 

12, 293 

3,70'i 

295, 800 

4,226 

2,073 

414 

3,499 

224 

4,500 

5, 101 

0, 006 

100 

500 

3, 099 

222, 176 

6,496 

.596, 748 

315 

4, 236 

51 

110 

1.5 

1,000 

500 

214 

62 

55 

110 

13,486 

195.5 

2, 939 

50 

218 

1]9 

4,700 

7,714 

224 

1,350 

2, 383 

300 

750 

22, 6-18 

200 

10. 310 

700 

50 

1,7.50 

300 

100 

100 

4,410 

600 

855 

8.741 

2,825 

200 

25,000 

100 

350 

86.400 

50, fiOO 

2,230 

62,000 



Fast red salt TR 

Fast scarlet G "base 

Fast scarlet RC base 

Fast scarlet salt 2Q 

Fast scarlet salt R 

Fast yellow salt GC 

Feltron C 

Glycin 

Hertolan 

Indaphor A 

J acid 

Katanol O 

Katanol W 

Leonil S 

Ludigol 

Mercerol 

Methylanon 

Methyl-p-aminophenol 

Met hylphenylpyrazolon 

Mianin, tech .. 

Monomethyl-p-aminophenol sulfate 

Mothproofer 

Naphthol AS-BG 

Naphthol AS-BO 

Naphthol AS-BR 

Naphthol AS-BS 

Naphthol AS-D 

Naphthol AS-G 

Naphthol AS-RL 

Naphthol AS-SW 

a-Napht hoi 

b-Naphthol monosulfonic acid F 

Nekal._ ^ 

Nevile & Winther's acid 

Nitrazo) CF 

p-Nit ro-o-anisidine 

Nitroaminophenol 

Nitrobenzene 

Nitrodiam inobenzene base 

Nitrodiaminobenzene hydrochloride 

o-Nitrophenol 

Ortol (methyl-o-aminophenol) 

Paratol, refined 

Perlano KB 

Phenol 

Phenyldimethylaminopyrazolon.. 

p-Phenylenediamine 

Phloroglucin 

Picramic acid 

Piperidine piperidyl dithio carbamate... 

Plastol 

Pyrocatechin 

Quinizarin 

Rapidogene G paste 

Rapidogene G dbl. psiste 

Raschit 

Resorcinol, tech 

Satrapol 

Sodiu mbenz yl sulfanilate 

Solvenol 

o-Sul.fanilic acid 

Synthetic phenolic resin 

Synthetic phenolic resin molding pow- 
der 

Tetrachlorophthalic acid 

Tobias acid 

Tripheny! phosphate 

Vulkacit. 

Xy lidine _.. 

Yellow developer C 

All other 

Total 



Pounds 

300 

305 

200' 

10,20a 

56, 365 

800 

8,20a 

1,325 

900 

600 

2,475 

13,066 

42, 450 

300 

2,300 

7,000 

66, 167 

6,500 

3,126 

520 

4,551 

1,045 

450 

1,440 

1,000 

520 

15,116 

3,900 

7,262 

10,211 

17,523 

4,000 

111 

1,640 

500 

440 

150 

22, 007 

100 

300 

9,520 

90 

6,500 

2,000 

525 

47,000 

4,211 

20 

100 

1.546 

1,990 

165 

1,991 



2, 045, .548 
.$733. 335 



60 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Table 27. — Dyes and other finished coal-tar products: Production and sales, 1927 

The number in the first column identifies the dyes according to the Colour Index number. The second 
column gives the common name of the product. The numbers in the third column refer to the num- 
bered alphabetical list of manufacturers printed on page 188. An X signifies that a manufacturer did not 
«onsent to the publication of his identification number in connection therewith. A blank in the fourth 
;and fifth columns indicates that the sales figures can not be published without revealing information in 
sregard to the output of individual firms. A blank in the seventh column indicates that the produc- 
tion of the corresponding dye in the United States can not be published without revealing information 
lin regard to the output of individual firms. The figures thus concealed are, however, included in the 
total] 



Col- 


Name of dye 


Manufacturers' iden- 
tification numbers 
(according to list on 
p. 188) 


Sales 


' 


»our 
;In- 
dex 
■No. 


Quantity 


Value 


Average 
price 
per 

pound 


Production 

(quantity) 




Total finished coal-tar 
products 

NITEOSO COLORING MATTERS 

Naphthol green... 




Pounds 
136, 206, 835 


$61, 272, 645 


$0.45 


Pounds 
133, 357, 423 


.5 


6,47 


\ 
10 


NITEO COLORING MATTERS 

Naphthol yellow S 


31,70,73,148.. 


91,474 


76, 213 . 83 


84, 173 


16 


AZO COLORING MATTERS 

Monoazo coloring matters 
Acid yellow G_ 


7,47,107 


2,427 


17 


Spirit yellow R. 

Butter yellow 


7, 34, 70, 107, X 


45, 306, 

21, 250 

805, 651 


40,323 ! .89 

10,400 ! .49 

269,029 I .33 


39, 739 


19 


7, 34, 73, X 


12, 845 


20 


Chrysoidine Y 


6,7,23,31,46.70,73,107. 
6,46,70,73,107... 


70J,815 


21 


Chrysoidine R 


22 


Oil vellow AB. 


73 








23 


Sudan G 


34 










24 


Sudan I ..... 


34, 73, 107, 112, X 

7,31,107,138 .. 


45, 155 


32,429 


.72 


40, 307 


26 


Croceine orange 




27 


Orange G.. 


23,46,70,81,107,138.... 
107, 109, 112, 121 


108, 119 


53, 430 


.49 


80, 169 


29 


Chromotrope 2R 




30 


Fast acid fuehsine B 

Amido naphthol red G 

Brilliant acid red B 

Brilliant lake red R 

Chrome yellow 2G 


7,107,112,115 








31 
32 


6,7,31,46,70, 107,121, 

122. 
115 


151, 741 


64, 985 


.43 


127, 242 


35 


97 










36 


6, 7, 23, 31, 34, 38, 70, 

107, 115. 
6, 7, 23, 31, 34, 46, 70, 

112, 121, 138. 
7 


108, 631 

78, 748 


53,075 

48, 275 


.49 
.61 


105, 982 


40 


Chrome yellow R 


73, 946 


52 


Azo yellow 4G 




53 


Victoria violet 


6,31,107,112,122 

112, 138 


45, 654 


35, 989 . 79 


60, 906 


54 


Lanafuchsine 




55 


Azo coralline 


70 








56 


Chromotrope 6B 


6,107,112 










57 
59 


Amido naphthol red 6B 

Wool blue CB... 


6, 7, 31, 46, 63, 70, 107, 

112,121,122. 
107. 


108, 870 


58, 480 


.54 


89, 895 


61 


Oil vellow OB 


73 










63 


Brilliant orange 


138 










69 


Toluidinc red RL 


X 










73 


Sudan II 


7, 34, 70, 73, 107, X 

7, 23, 31, 46, 70, 107, 

112,138. 
7 


28,366 

488, 259 


25, 080 
200, 203 


.88 
.41 


26,023 


79 


Ponceau 2R 


513, 675 


81 


Oil brown 




82 


Oil Bordeaux 


34 










88 


Bordeaux B 


6, 7, 23, 31, 34, 46, 107, 
112,138. 

7, 112 


93, 614 


49, 554 


.53 


113,077 


90 


Chromotrope lOB 




98 


Chrome hro« n RN 

Chromate brown B 

Acid chrome brown R 

Chrome flavine G 


70 










101 


23, 107, 121 










105 


6, 46 










110 


70, 121 










113 


Oil red S 


112 










114 


Azo eosine G 


7, 112 










. 119 


Eosamine G .. 


112 










126 


Direct pink E2GN 


112 










128 


Direct pink 


107 










130 


Direct pink EBN . 


112 




....__ 




138 


ISletanil yellow 


6, 7, 31, 46, 70, 73, 107.. 


565, 902 


330,606 1 


.58 


504, 653 



DYES AND OTHER FINISHED COAL-TAR PRODUCTS 



61 



Table 27. — Dyes and other finished coal-tar products: Production and sales, 1927 — 

Continued 



Col- 


Name of dye 


Manufacturers' iden- 
tification numbers 
(according to list on 
p. 188) 


Sales 




our 
In- 
dex 

No. 


Quantity 


Value 


Average 
price 
per 

pound 


Production 

(quantity) 


143 


AZO COLORING M.^TTEES— 

continued 

Monoazo coloring matters — 
Continued 

Orange IV 


31, 107 


Pounds 






Pounds 


146 




7, 46, 47, 70, 107, 148... 
34,73 


93, 261 


$89, 533 


$0.75 


87, 968 


148 






151 




7, 23, 31, 73, 107... 

70 


1, 412, 943 


368, 257 


.26 


1, 423, 969 


153 




161 


Orange R 


46, 73,107 










163 




7, 31, 46, 138 


38, 478 
265, 622 


73, 703 
324,953 


1.92 
1.22 


36, 174 


165 




7, 46, 70, 97. 138 

107 


281, 630 


167 


Acid chrome brown B^ 

Acid chrome garnet R 

Chrome violet B . 




168 


70, 107 










169 


46, 70, 107, 109 L. 








170 


Chrome blaclc PV 


46, 107 








175 




70 








176 


Fast red A. 


7,23,31,46,73,107,112 119.038 


71,719 


.60 


89, 119 


177 


Brilliant fast red G . . 


115, 138, X. 
34 -- 






179 




6, 7, 31, 46, 107, 112 

6, 7, 31, 34, 70, 107, 112, 

115. 
6 


14,5, 715 
200, 138 


94, 445 
95, 893 


.65 
.48 


122, 690 
188, 740 


180 


Fast red VR. 


182 


Fast red E 


183 


Croceine scarlet 3BX 


31 










184 


7, 31, 70, 107, 138 

70, 107, 115, 138..- 


9,555 


6,122 


.64 




185 


Cochineal red 




189 




31, 46, 70, 138. 142, X.. 
6. 7, 31. 107, 121 

107 


391, 990 
14, 533 


315, 129 
8,464 


.80 

.58 


383, 234 


195 




197 


Chrome yellow RN 

Chrome blue black B 

Chrome blue black U 

Chrome black T 




201 


7, 31, 46, 70, 107, 109.. 










202 
203 


6. 7, 31, 34, 46, 70, 107, 

109,121, 138. 
31, 46, 70, 107, 121 


1,110,493 


398, 184 


.36 


1, 134, 397 


204 


Chrome black A 


7,31,46, 70, 107, 121... 

6, 46, 70, 107, 112 

6, 107, 112 


243, 465 
190, 975 


93, 472 
104, 205 


.38 
.55 


261, 180 


208 


Fast acid blue R 


156, 109 


209 




13, 454 


216 




6, 7, 31, 34, 46, 70, 107, 

112, 138. 
63, 109, 112 


50, 248 


34, 936 


.70 


51,050 


225 


Direct pink R 


227 




X 










228 




63 -. 










234 


Disazo coloring matters 
Resorcin brown B - 


6, 31, 46, 63, 70, 73, 107, 

115, 121, 122. 
6, 7, 34, 73, 107, 115, 121. 
46, 107 


189, 904 
26,600 


119,887 
18, 980 


.63 

.71 


168, 688 


235 
238 


Resorcin dark brown 

Acid chrome brown O 

Acid black lOB 


24, 481 


246 


6,7,31,46,70, 107, 112, 

115, 121, 122, 138. 
34 


1, 603, 142 


624, 360 


.39 


1, 496, 258 


247 


Acid dark green A 




249 


Cbthred G.-. 


31 










252 


31,46,70,73, 107. 

107 


229, 614 


188, 154 


.82 


238, 315 


253 


Cloth red 2R 




254 


iErvthrine 


70 










256 


Cloth redSG 

Sudan IV 


46 










258 


7, 31, 34, 46, 70, 73, 107, 

X. 
6,7,31,70, 107, 109, 121. 
112 


37, 759 
40, 417 


38, 616 
33, 034 


1.02 

.82 


34,001 


262 


Cloth red 2B 


39. 366 


267 


Neutral grav G . 




274 


Milling orange G 


6, 7 










275 


Cloth scarlet G 


47, 73 . 










278 
280 


Direct fast red 8BL 

Scarlet EC 

Fast cvanine G ... 


63, 109, 112, 115. _ 

7, 47, 107, 109 


12, 865 
27, 609 


31,075 
22, 929 


2.42 
.83 


18, 488 


288 


6 




289 


Fast cvanine 5R 


6, 46, 70, 107, 109, 112. 
6, 107. 115.. 


671, 851 


460, 978 


.69 


625, 809 


294 


Acid black B 




299 
302 


Chrome black F 

Chrome blue green B__ 

Fast acid black N2B 

Fast acid black F... 


6, 7, 23, 31, 46, 70, 107. 

112. 
6, 46,70.- 


189, 855 
6,614 


129, 855 
4,907 


.68 
.74 


157,464 
14, 895 


304 


31, 112 




306 


70 . 










307 


Fast cyanine black B. 

Naphthylamine black D... 


6,46,70,107 


i48, 120 
5.341 


118, 419 
3,724 


.80 
.70 


131, 738 


308 


46,70,112 





62 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Table 27. — Dyes and other finished coal-tar products: Production and sales, 1927- 

Continued 



Col- 


Name of dye 


Manufacturers' iden- 
tification numbers 
(according to list on 
p. 188) 


Sales 




our 
In- 
dex 

No. 


Quantity 


Value 


Average 
price 
per 

pound 


Production 
(quantity) 


315 


AZO COLORING MATTERS— 

continued 

Disazo coloring matters — 
Continued 

Naphthol Mack 2B 


34 


Pounds 






Pounds 


316 


Developed blue XA 


70 ' 






317 Developed blue B-. 


46 _. 






319 Direct fast heliotroDe2B__. 


112 J i 






321 


Direct fast scarlet 4BS 

Direct fast scarlet 

Bismarck brown 

Bismarck brown 2R 

Acid chrome black F 

Chrome fast yellow C 

Direct fast yellow 5GL 

Direct fast pink 2BL 

Paper j-ellow 

Chrysophenine G 

Congo red 

Direct orange TA 

Congo corinth G 

Direct rubine 

Direct scarlet B 

Bordeaux 

Direct violet B 

Direct brilliant blue R 

Direct violet 

Direct violet N 


107 




1 "' 


326 
331 
332 
336 


31,46, 107, 112 

31,46,47,70, 73, 107... 

6, 7, 31, 46, 70, 73, 107.. 

7, 70, 109 


284, 558 
129, 649 
454, 592 


$369, 737 
53, 631 
181, 761 


$1.30 
.41 
.40 


302, 772 

74,584 

414, 564 


343 


6, 70. 1 


■ " 






346 


46, 107, 112 '• 








353 


6, 46, 107, 115 








364 
365 
370 


23,46, 107, 112 

23,46. 107, 112 

46, 107, 112 


111,768 
616, 089 


107, 574 
323,541 


.96 
.53 


92,254 
617, 626 


374 


107 




^ 




375 
376 


6,7,70, 107, 112, 115, X- 
31, X 


111,502 


89, 970 


.81 


58, 220 


382 
385 


6,47, 107, 115, X 

31 


105, 124 


151, 523 


1.44 


108, 243 


387 


6, 31, 107, 112 








390 


115 I 








393 


112 








394 


7,31,46.70,107,112,115, 

122. 
7 


45,062 


47,209 


1.05 


35,880 


395 


Direct black ROL 

Direct fast red 9BL 

Developed black BHN 

Direct cyanine R 

Direct blue 2B 

Chrysamine G 

Cresotine yellow G 

Direct orange R 

Direct fast red F 

Direct brown M . . 




400 


46 




:::::::::::::::::: 


401 
405 


6, 7, 31, 38, 46, 70, 107, 

112, 115. 
107... 


1, 058, 739 


449,737 


.42 


1,062,089 


406 
410 


6,7,31,38,46,107,112, 
11,5. 12!, 122, X. 

7. 31, 46, 107, X 

107. 


1, 010, 350 
4,975 


258, 996 
4,220 


.26 
.85 


811, 803 


411 




415 


31,46.112 


42,642 
148, 323 

141, 175 


24, 140 
112,466 

90, 052 


.57 
.76 

.64 


48, 627 


419 
420 


6,7,31,46,70, 107,112, 

115, 122. 
6, 7, 31, 34, 46, 63, 70, 

107,112,115,122. 

6, 115 


128, 343 
135, 591 


423 


Direct fast brown B 

Acid chrome red 

Direct brilliant red R 

Milling red 2G 




431 


112. 








436 


6 








443 


7 








446 


Direct orange RT_ 


7,46,107 I 






30,661 


448 
450 


Benzopurpurine 4B 

Benzopurpurine B 


7,31,46,107,112 

6,107 


490, 512 


240,085 


.49 


476,719 


464 


Direct blue R 


112 ' 








468 


Direct mauve B 


107 








471 


Direct blue 3R 


107 








472 


Direct blue BX 


31,107,112... 

46 


25,128 


13,584 


.54 


49, 256 


473 


Direct blue G... 




477 


Direct blue 3B 


6,7,31.34,107,112 

7,70,107,112.. 


126, 158 


51,058 


.40 


87, 316 


478 


Direct orange G .. 




487 


Acid milling red B 


7,109 








493 


Amanil black BOL 

Benzopurpurine lOB 

Direct azurine G._ 


7 . 








495 
502 


7,31,46,107,112 

7,31,46,107,112 

112 


39,427 
62, 616 


41,862 
44,372 


1.06 
.71 


38,849 
56,623 


508 


Direct brilliant blue G 

Direct blue RW 




512 


7,31,46,107,112. 

107 - . 


100, 439 


82,254 


.82 


86, 661 


515 


Direct blue B 




518 
520 


Direct pure blue 6B 

Direct pure blue 


7,31,46,107,112 

6,7,31,46,107,112,122-.' 

70,112 ' 


381, 572 
207,396 


257, 965 
93,688 


.68 
.45 


352, 159 
175, 326 


533 


Trisazo coloring matters 

Direct fast blue FR 

Direct fast black FF 

Diazo black RS 




539 
552 


6,7,31,46,107. 

107,112 


166, 874 


90,291 


.54 


174,090 


561 


Direct brown BT 


6,112... 1 









DYES AND OTHER FINISHED COAL-TAR PRODUCTS 



63 



Table 27. — Dijes and other finished coal-tar poducts: Production and sales, 1927 — 

Continued 



Col- 
our 
In- 
dex 
No. 



Name of dye 



Manufacturers' iden- 
tification numbers 
(according to list on 
p. 188) 



Sales 



Quantity 



Value 



Average 
I price 

per 
I pound 

I 



Production 
(quantity) 



576 
577 
581 

582 
,583 
588 
589 
.590 
592 
593 

594 
596 

597 
598 

601 



AZO COLORING MATTERS — 

continued 

Trisazo coloring matters — 
Continued 



Direct fast blue B.. 
Direct brown T2G. 
Direct black EW.. 



Pounds 



4fi, 107. 



620 

621 
622 
628 



636 

638 
639 
640 
652 
653 
654 



Direct black RX 

Direct green ET 

Direct black N 

Chloramine green B . . 

Direct steel blue G 

Direct fast black HW. 
Direct green B 



Direct green O 

Direct brown 3G0- 



7, 31, 46, 70, 107, 112, 

115,121. 
7,31,46,70,107,112,115. 

6,7.107,115 

112.__ 

6, 
7, 
7, 



6, 649, 143 



,840,335 i $0.28 



95, 259 



50, 178 



.53 



7, 112. 
112... 



Direct brown R.. 
Congo brown G.. 



Congo brown R 

Tetrakisazo coloring matters 



115 

7,31,46, 70, 107, 112, 
115,121. 

31.46, 115,X 

7, 31, 34, 46, 70, 107, 

112, 115, X. 

115 



578,312 



650, 427 



249. 883 



36,269 
243, 522 



.43 



.53 
.37 



31,34,46, 
X, X. 
46 



70, 107, 112, 



Direct brown G ; 

Direct brown BT | 

All other azo coloring mat- |. 
ters. 1 



70, 115- 
112 



Total azo 
matters. 



coloring 



STILBENE COLORING 
MATTERS 



Direct yellow R 

Chloramine orange G. 

Stilbene yellow _ 

Direct catechine G 



6, 23, 31, 34, 107, 112, 
122. 

6, 23, 107, 112, 122 

23, 31, 46, 63 

109 — 



Total stilbene color- 
ing matters. 



PYRAZOLONE COLORING 
MATTERS 



Fast light yellow 20 

Pigment chrome yellow L. 

Fast light yellow.. 

Tartrazine 

Chrome red B 

Direct orange OR 

Direct fast yellow 2QL 



7, 46, 70, 107, 125, 148.. 

125 

7,31, 109, 112, 125, X. 

23, 107, 125 

31, 46 

7, 125 

46 



Total pyrazolone col- 

oring matters. 

KETONIMINE COLORING I 
MATTERS I 

Auramine and base 23,46, 107. 



2, 097, 973 



29, 926, 814 



2, 045, 485 



15, 054, 459 



.97 



414,747 



696,083 



164,836 



396, 485 



51, 982 



73, 215 



702, 018 



580, 475 



.40 



Pounds 



5, 916, 562 



365, 119 
44, 933 



587, 976 



94,640 
566, 410 



2, 069, 573 



28, 020, 078 



440,930 



698, 587 



63, 899 



131, 872 



653, 210 



64 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Table 27. — Dyes and other finished coal-tar products: Production and sales, 1927 — 

Continued 



Col- 


Name of dye 


Manufacturers' iden- 
tification numbers 
(according to list on 
p. 188) 


Sales 




our 
In- 
dex 

No. 


Quantity 


-'^.verage 
Value Pplf 
pound 


Production 
(quantity) 


657 


TRIPHENYLMETHANE AND 
DIPHENYLNAPHTHTL- 
METHANE COLORING 
MATTERS 

Malachite green . 


23, 46, 107 


Pounds 
206, 442 


$228, 293 


.$1.11 


Pounds 
206, 167 


662 


Brilliant green 


23, 107 .- 






666 


Acid green B.. 


7. 31, 46, 107, 122 77,559 

107 i 


80, 453 


1.04 60,429 


667 


Fast acid green B 




670 


Acid light green 


46 .1 




1 


671 


Acid glaucine blue 


107 .1. 




1 


677 


Magenta _ 


31, 73, 107, 130, 138 1. 


1 


32,444 


678 


New fuchsine O. . . 


107 


1 




680 
681 


Methyl violet and base 

Crystal violet 


46, 73, 76, 81, 82, 107 .. . 687, 467 
46 


603, 516 


.88 


673,832 


683 


Methvl violet 5B 


107 .1 








689 


Spirit blue. 


73, 107... . 1- - 








696 


Fast acid violet lOB 

Acid violet. 


46 










698 


31,46, 70, 107, 122, X.. 
107 


113, 203 


135, 844 


1.20 


99, 726 


699 


Acid fast violet BG 

Alkali blue . 




704 


70, 73, 81, 107, 130, 138, 


l.-il 397 


438, 025 


2.89 


145, 131 


706 


Methyl cotton blue 


165. i 
73 1 . 




707 


Soluble blue 


31, 73, 107, 130. !. 








712 


Patent blue 


107 ..! 








714 


Patent blue A 


107, X ....! 








724 


Aurine. 


46.. 








729 


Victoria blue B and base... 
Fast acid blue B 


46, 107 1 








733 


46!. L... 








735 


Naphthalene green V 

Wool green S 


46, 107 








737 


46, 70, 122 l.sa.SSI 


109, 426 


.69 


156, 340 




Total triphenylme- 
thane and diphenyl- 
naphthylme thane 
coloring matters. 

XANTHENE COLORING 
MATTERS 

Rhodamine B and base 

Rhodamine 6G 










2, 099, 936 


2, 881, 791 


1.37 


2, 021, 422 




46, 112 






749 










752 


46 


::::::::::::::::: 




758 


Fast acid violet A2R 

Uranine 


46 








766 


73, 81 








768 


Eosine. . .. 


39,73,81 








773 


Erythrosine B 


7, 39, 46, 73, 81 








778 


Phloxine 


73 








779 


Rose bengale B 


73 








781 


Gallein 


165 1.- 








782 


Coerulein . .... 


165 ' 










Total xanthene color- 
ing matters. 

ACRIDINE COLORING 
MATTERS 

Coriphosphine .. 
















609,959 


849, 748 


1.39 


630, 678 




125 




787 










788 


Acridine orange A 


125 








789 


Brilliant phosphine O. 

Phosphine 


125 ::.:... ::::::::: 






793 


31, 46, 73, 107, 125 

21, 107 


161, 615 


212, 994 1. 32 


143, 191 


801 


QUINOLINE COLORING 
MATTERS 

Quinoline yellow 








812 


THIAZOLE COLORING 
MATTERS 

Primuline 


23, 31, 63, 107, 112 

112 


176, 501 


84,161 


.48 


161, 181 


813 


Direct pure yellow M 

Direct fast yellow 




814 


23, 31, 63, 107, 112, X..I 213,477 
112 . 


199, 030 


.93 


188, 978 


815 


Thioflaviiie T.. 




816 


Direct brilliant flavine S... 


X 









DYES AND OTHER FINISHED COAL-TAR PRODUCTS 



65 



Table 27. — Dyes and other finished coal-tar products: Production and sales, 1927- 

Continued 



Col- 


Name of dye 


Manufacturers' iden- 
tification numbers 
(according to list on 
p. 188) 


Sales 




our 
In- 
dex 

No. 


Quantity 


Value 


Average 

price 

per 

pound 


Production 
(quantity) 


821 


INDOPHENOL COLORING 
MATTERS 

Indophenol 


73 


Pounds 






Pounds 


841 


AZINE COLORING MATTERS 

Safranine 


23,46, 107____ 










842 


Methylene violet 


76 




^ 






843 


Safranine MN 


107 










860 


Induline (spirit-soluble) 


70,73, 107, X . - 


17, 196 


$12,913 


$0.75 


5,393 


861 


Induline (water-soluble). . . 


70,73, 107, X 


864 


Nigrosine (spirit-soluble)... 
Nigrosine (water-soluble)... 

ANILINE BLACK AND ALLIED 
COLORING MATTERS 

New fast gray... 


23,70,73,107 


390, 681 
1, 400, 253 


175, 610 
554, 080 


.45 
.40 


419, 433 
1, 219, 797 


865 


23,70,73, 107-___ _. 


873 


23,112 


875 


Fur black 


64,138 










878 


OXAZINE COLORING MATTERS 

Delphine blue B 


107 










883 


Qallocyanine 


7, 23, 107, 165 


55, 746 


103, 973 


1.87 


42, 716 


888 


Gallo chrome blue V 

Prune pure 


7 


893 


7 










909 


Cotton blue 


7, 85, 107. . 


50,334 


79, 360 


1.58 




922 


THIAZINE COLORING 
MATTERS 

Methylene blue. . 


23,107. 




924 


Methylene green B 

Thionine blue. 

Brilliant chrome blue 

SULFIDE COLORING MATTERS 

Carbazole vat blue R 

Carbazole vat blue Q. 

Sulfur black. 


23,107 _ 










926 


23 










931 


63,70 










969 


46 


(') 

(') 

18, 965, 042 

913, 931 

1, 736, 070 








971 


46 










46, 70, 85, 107, X 

6, 14,31,46,70, 107, X._. 
2, 7, 14, 31, 46, 70, 76, 85, 

107, 150, X, X. 
6, 7, 14, 46, 70, 76, 107, 

112, 150, X. 
6, 14, 46, 70, X 


2, 557, 944 
504,880 
547, 772 


.is 

.55 
.32 


19, 001, 783 
961,298 




Sulfur blue 






1, 703, 172 




Sulfur green 








334, 660 
222, 610 


177, 783 
58, 116 


.53 
.26 


356, 275 
181, 974 




Sulfur olive 


46, 70, 150, X 

14,31, 70, X 




Sulfur orange 






Sulfur tan 


14,31,70, 150, X.. 

2, 14, 31, 46, 70, 107, X, 
X. 


187, 969 
587, 231 


73, 592 
240, 348 


.39 
.41 


203, 152 






715, 438 




Total sulfide coloring 
matters. 

ANTHRAOUINONE COLORING 
MATTERS 




23, 183, 794 


4, 392, 641 


.19 


23, 404, 273 




14,107 . 




1027 










1033 




14,107 










1034 


Alizarin red S (powder) 

Alizarin brown 


14 










1035 


7, 48, 107, 165 










1039 


Alizarin GI 


14,112 










1040 


Alizarin SX 


14,107 










1053 


Acid alizarin blue SE 

Acid alizarin blue B 

Acid alizarin green G 

Anthracene blue WR 

Alizarin astrol B 


70, 112 










1054 


70,107,112 










1056 


70 










1062 


48, 107, 109 










1075 


70 











• Totals not included under sulfide coloring matters, 
these two dyes are included in the vat dyes. 



In the dyes classified by method of application. 



66 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Table 27. — Dyes and other finished coal-tar products: Production and sales, 1.927 — 

Continued 



Col- 


Name of dye 


Manufacturers' iden- 
tification numbers 
(according to list on 
p. 188) 


Sales 




our 
In- 
dex 

No. 


Quantity 


Value 


Average 

price 

per 

pound 


Production 
(quantity) 


1 

1078 
1085 

1091 


ANTHRAQUINONE COLORING 
MATTERS 

Alizarin cyanine green E_.. 
Anthraquinone blue black 

B. 
Acid alizarin rubine 

Total anthraquinone 
coloring matters. 

ANTHRAQUINONE VAT COL- 
ORING MATTERS (SINGLE 
STRENGTH) 

Anthraquinone vat golden 

orange G. 
Anthraquinone vat golden 

orange R. 
Anthraquinone vat dark 

blue BO. 
Anthraquinone vat green 

B & black. 
Anthraquinone vat violet 

RR. 
Anthraquinone vat blue R. 
Anthraquinone vat blue 

RS. 
Anthraquinone vat blue 3G- 
Anthraquinone vat blue 

GCD. 
Anthraquinone vat blue 

BCS. 
Anthraquinone vat blue 

GC. 
Anthraquinone vat yellow 

G. 
Anthraquinone vat brown 

B. 
Anthraquinone vat yellow 

GK. 
Anthraquinone vat red FF. 
Anthraquinone vat brown 

R. 
Anthraquinone vat red vio- 
let RRN. 
Anthraquinone vat red BN. 
Anthraquinone vat violet 

BNX. 

Total anthraquinone 
vat coloring matters. 

INDIGOID COLORING MATTERS 

Indigo, synthetic, 20 per 

cent paste. 
Indigo vat 


6,70,107, 112, 165, X..._ 
48,70,112, 165, X. 

70 


Pounds 
26.005 
76, 063 


$78, 557 
138, 584 


.$3. 02 
1.82 


Pounds 
38, 523 
31,204 
















627, 635 


1,443,874 j 2.30 

1 


700, 982 




112 __.. 




1096 




1 




1097 


46 








1099 


7,46,98,112 








1102 


46,98,107,112 


139, 042 


133,885 j .96 


164,900 


1104 


7,46 




1106 


112 




[ 




1107 


46_ - 








1109 


46,112 




j 




1113 


46,107,112. __ 




1 


1,052,967 


1114 


46 




r 




1115 


112 








1118 


46,107,112 








1120 


112 








1132 


46 








1133 


46 








1151 


46,70 








1161 


46,112 








1162 


46,112. 








1163 


112 




1 
















2, 423, 900 


3, 440, 432 


1.42 


2, 905, 755 




45,46,107 




1177 


30, 609, 134 


3, 700, 192 


.12 


28, 438, 166 


1178 


107 




1180 


Indigo extract 


46,107 










1183 


Tribromindigo RB 

Bromindigo blue 2B, 2BD, 


45 










1184 


7,45 










1186 


20 per cent paste. 
Bromindigo 6B, 20 per cent 

paste. 
Vat red B 

Vat Bordeaux B. . . 


45 










1207 


7,46 










1208 


7 










1212 


VatredSB... 

Thianthrene orange R 

Ciba violet BR 

Ciba scarlet G 


45,46. . 










1217 


46 










1222 


45,46 










1228 


45 











DYES AND OTHER FINISHED COAL-TAR PRODUCTS 



67 



Tablk 27. — Dyeti and other finished coal-tar -products: Production and sales, 1927- 

Continued 



Col- 


Name of dye 


Manufacturers' iden- 
tification numbers 
(according to list on 
p. 188) 


Sales 




our 
In- 
dex 
No. 


Quantity 


Value 


Average 

price 

per 

pound 


Production 
(quantity) 




PHOTOCHEMICAL COLORING 
MATTERS 

Dicyanine A 


51 


Pminds 






Pounds 




Kryptocvanine 


51 














51 -- 














51 














51.. 










10 


FOOD COLORING MATTERS 

Naphthol yellow S 


X 










22 


Yellow AB_ 


7,49,73,107 _. 










61 


Yellow OB 


7,49,73, X. 










80 


Ponceau 3R 


7, 107, X 










150 


Orange I- - 


7, 107, 158, X 










184 


Amaranth _. 


7, 107, 158, X 


72, 584 
62, 479 


$192, 597 
169, 657 


$2.65 
2.72 


51, 427r 
56 145 


640 


Tartrazine . 


7, 23, 107, 158, X 

107, 158, X 


666 


Guinea green B 




670 


Light green SF (Yellowish). 
Methyl violet (for mark- 
ing meats, etc.). 
Erythrosine 


107, 158 










680 


76,107..,. __ 










773 


7, 107, X 










1180 


Indigo disulfonic acid 

Fast green FCF.... 


7, 107, X 












158 












Total food coloring 
matters. 

Bacteriological stains and 

indicators. 
Research chemicals.. 




1 








232, 612 


823, 340 


3.54 


209, 991i 




33, 51, 53, 73, 78, 87, 

107, 128, X. 
51,128 
























All other dyes 


34,46, 109.115... 












Total dves 






98, 339, 204 


38, 632, 795 


.39 


95, 167, 90& 









Note.— Dyes not classified by Colour Index numbers are shown on page 72. 



68 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Table 27. — Dyes and other finished coal-tar products: Production and sales, 1927 — 

Continued 



Name of product 



COLOR LAKES 



Black lakes. 
Blue lakes.. 



Brown lakes. 
Eosine lakes . 



Green lakes. 



Lithol red lakes. 



Maroon lakes. 



Orange lakes. 



Para red lakes. 



Red lakes- 



Scarlet lakes. 



Violet lakes. 



Yellow lakes. 



All other color lakes. . . 
Total color lakes. 



Manufacturers' iden- 
tification numbers 
(according to list on 
p. 18S) 



PHOTOGRAPHIC CHEMICALS 

Diaminophenol hydrochloride 

f amidol). 

Hydroquinol 

p-Hydroxy phenyglycine. 

Methyl p-aminophenol sulfate 

(metol). 
Phenylglycine 



74, 139, X, X 

10, 18, 24, 30, 46, 50, 56, 
71, 72, 74, 81, 86, 91, 
94, 139, 140, 142, 146, 
165, X, X, X, X, X, 
X, X. 

24, 30, 56, 86, 94, 139, 
140, 142, 152, X, X, X. 

10, 18, 24, 30, 41, 50, 56, 
71,74,81,86,94, 138, 
139, 140, 142, 146, 165, 
X. X, X, X, X, X. 

10, 18, 24, 30, 46, 50, 56, 

71, 72, 74, 86, 94, 139, 
140, 142, 146, 163, X, 
X, X, X, X, X, X. 

3, 10, 18, 24, 41, 46, 

49, 56, 71, 72, 74, 81, 
83,80,91,94,138,139, 
142, 146, 152,163,165, 
X, X, X, X, X, X, 
X. 

3, 10, 18, 24, 30, 41, 46, 

50, 71, 72, 74, 83, 86, 
94, 99, 126, 138, 139, 
140, 142,146,1.52,160, 
163, 165, X, X, X, X, 
X. 

10, 18, 24, 30, 50, 56, 71, 

72, 81, 86, 91, 94, 138, 

139, 140, 142, 146, 163, 
X,X,X,X,X, X,X, 

3, 10, 18, 24, 41, 46, 49, 
50, 72, 74, 81, 83, 86, 
91, 94, 126, 139. 142, 
160, 163, X,X, X, X, 
X X X X 

10^18, 24, 3d,*4i,46, 50, 
56, 71, 72, 74, 83, 86, 
91,94,99,126, 138,139, 

140, 142, 146, 152, 160, 
163, 165, X, X, X, X, 
X X X X 

3, id, 18, 24, 41, 50, 56, 

71, 72, 86, 91, 94, 126, 
138, 139, 140, 142, 146, 
152, 160, 163, X, X, 
X, X, X, X, X. 

10, 18, 24, 30, 50, 56, 71, 

72, 73, 74, 81, 82, 86, 
94, 99, 138, 139, 140, 
142, 146, 152, 163, X, 
X, X, X, X, X, X. 

10, 24, 46, 56, 72, 74, 81, 
86, 94, 139, 140, 142, 
146, 163, 165, X, X, 
X, X, X, X. 

46 



Sales 



Quantity 



162. 



100, 131, 165. 
51, X 

51, 131, 165.. 



Pounds 



749, 312 



849, 567 



329, 718 



887, 494 



Value 



$570, 310 



867, 326 



183, 832 



582, 327 



952, 244 390, 262 



756, 286 



2, 131, 460 



1,966,960 



471, 944 



385, 738 



653, 850 



11, 620, 740 



Aver- 
age 

price 

per 

pound 



$0.76 



1.02 



.56 



236, 746 . 31 



832, 540 I . 39 



1, 159, 925 . 59 



183, 715 . 39 



355, 563 



331, 424 



6, 446, 508 



.92 



.55 



Production 
(quantity) 



Pounds 



747, 421 



853, 837 



340, 756 



850, 918 



920, 611 



781, 325 



2, 103, 795 



1, 988, 569 



473, 924 



398, 283 



645, 606 



11,601,507 



DYES AND OTHER FINISHED COAL-TAR PRODUCTS 



69 



'Table 27. — Dyes and other finished coal-tar products: Production and sales, 1927 — 

Continued 





Manufacturers' iden- 
tification numbers 
(according to list on 
p. 188) 


Sales 




Name of product 


Quantity 


Value 


Aver- 
age 

price 

per 

pound 


Production 
(quantity) 


MEDICINALS 

Acetanilide, USP - 


98, 100, 103, 111 

103 


Pounds 

364, 768 


$111,829 


$0.31 


Pounds 

366, 842 








1, 107 










(3:6-diamino-10-methyl acridine 
chloride). 


102 












1 












75,93 






















Ampydin (4-dimetliylamino anti- 

pyrine) . 
Antinosin (tetraiodophenolphthal- 

ein sodium salt). 
Apothesine (hydrochloride of di- 

ethylaminopropyl-cinuamate) . 


107 










51 










X 










1, 43, 93, 95, 100, 102, 144. 

13,45,75, 100, 103 

1, 102, 118, 136 


355 

1, 720, 597 

2,904 


93, 760 

1, 079, 346 

35, 607 


264.11 

.63 

12.26 


265 


Aspirin (acetyl salicylic acid) 


1, 715. 686 
3,974 


p-amino benzoate). 


136 






136 












100, 111 












93 










late. 


136 












100, 111 












107 










Bromeikou (tetrabromophenol 

phthalein, sodium salt). 
Butesin(n-buty!-p-aminobenzoate) 
Butesin picrate (dinormalbutyl-p- 

aminobenzoate - trinitrophenol). 
Butyn (p-amino benzoyl gamma di 

normal butyl amino propanol 

sulfate) . 


93 










1 










1 










1 










93 










Caffeine sodium salicylate 


93 










136 












13 










Calcium guaiacol sulfonate 


13 










93 










Chloramine T (sodium p-toluene 

sulfochloramide) . 
Cinchophen (phenyl cinchoninic 

acid) (2-phenykiuinoline-4-car- 

boxylic acid). 


103 










1, 5,23,90, 124, X 

93 


85, 266 


405, 465 


4.76 


84, 212 




75 










Cyelohexenylethylbarbituricacid_, 
Dichloramine T (p-toluene sulfo- 

dichloramide). 
Formidine (methylene disalicylie 

acid derivative) . 


13 










103 










X 










75, 103 










lodeikon (tetraiodophenolphtha- 
lein sodium salt). 


93 










98 










Luminal (phenylethylbarbituric 
acid). 

Luminal sodium (phenylethylbar- 
bituric sodium salt). 


13 










13 










75, 93 ..- 










Mercurosal (disodiumhydrosy- 
mercurisalicyloxy acetate). 


X 










93 










Methyl-p-hydroxyamino benzoate. 
Methylhydroxymethyl ester of sal- 
icylic acid. 

Methyl violet 

Methylene-citrylsalicylic acid 


102 










13 










107 










13 - 











70 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Table 27. — Dyes and other finished coal-tar 'products: Production and sales, 1927- 

Continued 







Sales 




Name of product 


tification numbers 
(according to list on 
p. 188) 


Quantity 


Value 


Aver- 
age 

price 
per 

pound 


Production 
(quantity) 


MEDiciNALS— continued 


100 


Pounds 






Pounds 


Monoglycol ester of salicylic acid.. 
b-Naphthol benzoate 


13 










136 










1,43, 93, 100, 102, 144.. 
1 23 


4,359 


$1,118,580 


$256. 61 


3,889 


Neocinchophen (p-methylphenyl 
einchoninic ethyl ester). 

Nosophen (tetraiodophenolphtha- 
lein). 




51 










107 












5 










aminopyrene). 


102 










diphenylamidine hydrochloride). 


103, 124 - . 












100 










zinc, etc.). 


[ 
93 i 










93 1 










93 . :_-__ 










1, 102, 118 










aminoethanol). 


1, 107. 










sulfate). 
Proposote (creosote phenylpropio- 
nate). 


X 










51 










Tutocain (p-aminobenzoyldimeth- 
ylaminoethylbutanol hydrochlo- 
ride). 

Salol (phenyl salicylate) . 


13 










45, 75, 100 


65. 052 


53, 731 


.83 


51,504 


Salophen (acetylparaminophenyl 


13 .. .. 




salicylate). 


107 












102 












45, 75, l66, 103 


446,447 


174, 933 


.39 


492, 558 


Stovarsol - 


100 






75,93 












1, 93, 95, 100, 102, 144.- 822 


286, 565 


348. 62 


80O 


Sulfophenolate sodium 


93 








107 . 












100 . 












93 






















Total medieinals..- 


3, 548, 556 


6. 819. 487 


1.92 


3, 598, 839 




45,80,96,98, 103... 






FLAVORS 

Coumarin . 


125. 449 


355, 501 


2.83 


112,571 


Dulcin . 


.51 i 




Ethyl anthranilate s."; _ _ J 








Ethyl benzoate 

Ethyl cinnamate . - . 


57, 61, 62, 116, X, X 

57,62, X 


4,677 


5,603 


1.20 


5,356 


Ethyl salicylate 


57,62, X .- 








Methvl cinnamate 


57,62 - 










Methyl salicylate . 


45,75,80, 100, 103, X.... 
55 


1,818,545 


637, 159 


.35 


1, 836, 397 


Propyl cinnamate 




Saccharin 


103 










Vanillin (See Part II) 


96 






















Total flavors. - . 


2, 235, 791 


1, 435, 445 


.64 


2, 205, 472 




57, 62, (i8, X 




PERFUME MATERIALS 

Acetophcnone 








2,145 


Amyl phthalate. 


153 










Amyl salicylate 


61,62,68,80, 141, X.X.. 
57,61,68,80 - . 


18, 193 


20, 516 


1.13 


16, 95* 


Aubepine (anisic aldehyde) (see 




Part 2). 
Beuzophenoue 


57,62,68 








Benzyl acetate 


62.68,80,98, 141, X,X.. 

77.80,98, 141, X,X 

57,80, 141, X,X 

.55,62 


57, 625 
46, 653 
32, 616 


56,971 1 .99 
36,035 i .79 
34,648 } 1.06 


60,442 


Benzyl alcohol. 


48,902 


Benzyl benzoate .. 


33,094 


Benzyl butyrate 




Benzvl cinnamate 


55, 57, X 




1 




Benzvl cyanide 


62 




1 




Benzyl formate.. 


55. 




___ 1 





DYES AND OTHER FINISHED COAL-TAR PRODUCTS 



71 



Table 27.- — Dyes and other finished coal-tar products: Production and sales, 1927 — 

Continued 





Manufacturers' iden- 
tification numbers 
(according to list on 
p. 188) 


Sales 




Name of product 


Quantity 


Value 


Aver- 
age 

price 

per 

pound 


Production 
(quantity) 


PERFUME MATERIALS— continued 


55 . 


Pounds 






Pounds 




55 












62 












X 












98 
























61,68 












55 












68 












61,62,80, X 












61,80 - 












55 - - 












55,57 












62 










Dibutvl phthalate 


84,153 










Diethyl i)hthalate .-- 


16,57,62, 68, 80,84,153,X 
X 


1,004,963 


$278, 519 


$0.28 


983. 894 




1 




57 .-- - 






1 


Dimethylhydrorjuinone 


57,131 . 












45,68 












X 












57 












57 












55,62,68 


896 


2,382 


2.66 


848 




62 _ 






57 . 












55, 57, 62, 68 - . 












62 








Methyl acetophenone 


62, '68, 80, X. 


925 


2,651 


2. 87 959 




45, 57, 80, X 






57, 62, 116, X 










Methyl-p-cresol (p-cresyl methyl 

ether). 
p-Methyl cjuinoline 


62 










57 










Methylmethyl anthranilate 


55, 57 










57 












57 










p-Methylbenzyl anthranilate 


57 








57 - 








57, 62, 68, 80, X 

57 


4,457 


13,064 


2. 93 4, 651 






Musk ainbrette 


68 










68 












68... 










b-Napht h yl anthranilate 


57 










Nerolin . .. 


62, 80 












57 .. 












62 










Phenylacetic aldehyde - 


55, 57, 68, 80 










Phenylacetic ketone.- 


57 










Phenylethyl acetate. -. 


57,62,68,80, X, X.... 
57, 68, 80 


767 


5,789 


7.55 


972 


Phenylothvl hfii/oate 


55 










Phenylethvl ciunaniate 


55- .- 












55 -. 










Phenylethyl propionate - 


55, X - 










Phenylethyl yalerate 


55- - -- - 












55- 




















Tetrahydroparamethyl quinoline 


57 










62. .. 








Yara Yara (b-naphthol methyl 


62. . 








ether). 










Total perfume materials 


2, 025, 614 


991,922 


49 1, 998, 987 




12, 32, 42, 66, X, X, X. 
12, X, X - 




Synthetic phenolic resins 

Synthetic tanning materials 


13.084,313 
} 5,352,617 


6, 094, 656 
951,832 


. 47 13, 452, 230 


Photographic chemicals 


51,100. 131, 162, 16.^, X. 




0, 6i^ 4Bit 



7709—28- 



72 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



DYES NOT CLASSIFIED BY COLOUR INDEX NUMBER 

Manufacturers were requested to report separately, in terms of 
their familiar pre-war designations, the production of dyes not classi- 
fied by Colour Index number. The following table is a Ust of such 
dyes, together with some new dyes of American development for 
which there are no foreign equivalents: 



Common name 



Acid alizarin blue B... 

Acid anthracene brown B 

Acid anthracene red B 

Acid anthracene red GM , 

Acid anthracene yellow OH 

Acid black BA 

Acid black J 

Acid fast black 753 

Acid naphthol blue black 

Acid navy blue 

Acid red 

Acid red OTH 

Acid yellow HM 

Alizarin black 

Alizarin blue IS... 

Alizarin brown 5R 

Alizarol black 3Q 

Alizarol brown B, EBR, RH cone 

Alizarol gray DO 

Alizarol orange R, 3R 

Alizarol yellow 3G 

Alkali blue for ink 

Alphazurine B cone 

Amacid brillant red SB 

Amacid fast orange LW 

Amacid navy blue B 

Amanil black FTC 

Amanil chrome brown G, 2R.- 

Amanil chrome dark brown 

Amanil developed black OB 

Amanil discharge black 

Amanil fast black L 

Anthracene chromate brown EB 

Anthracene chromate brown EBS 

Anthracene chrome brown 2 BL, RL.. 

Anthranol chrome brown EB 

Anthranol chorme yellow R_._ 

Anthraquinone vat blue GFC, RCX. 
Anthraquinone vat brilliant blue R.. 
Anthraquinone vat golden orange 4R, 

RRT 

Anthraquinone vat jade green 

Azanol brown N 

Azanolred brown R 

Azo dark green B 

Azo cosine 2B 

Azo fast blue B high cone, Q high 

cone, 2R cone 

Azo fast violet 

Azo violet BS, 2B, 2RL 

Azo wool blue G, R 



Benzanol art black 

Benzanol brown FW. 
Benzo Bordeaux 6B.. 
Benzo chrome brown. 
Benzo fast black L i.. 



Benzo fast yellow "jO... 
Benzo rhoduline red B. 
Brilliant Bordeaux S... 
Brilliant brown R, Y.. 
Brilliant wool blue N.. 



Manufac- 
turers' iden- 
tification 
numbers 
(according 
to list on 
p. 188) 



165 

70 

7 

X 

X 

6 

34 

34 

31 

115 

6 

112 

73 

165 

165 

165 

6,107 

107 

107 

107 

107 

138 

107 

7 

7 

7 

7 

7 

7 

7 

7 

7 

46, 112 

109 

165 

109 

109 

112 

112 

112 

112 

X 

X 

112 
112 

107 

107 

6 

63 

X 
X 

70 

6 

6, 46, 70, 

107,112 

112 

46 

31 

X 

107 



Common name 



Bromofluroescein 

Buffalo black AR, 8B, 3G, H cone, 

NBJ, RB 

Butfalo black green B 

Buffalo chrome black NS 



Chloramine fast orange EG, ESQ, ER. 

Chloramine green G 

Chlorantine violet 

Chlorazol fast brown RK 

Chromate brown EB 

Chromate brown EBN 

Chromate brown R 

Chromaven brilliant orange 2R 

Chromaven brown EB 

Chrome black 

Chrome black DNW.... 

Chrome black SWR 

Chrome blue ATX 

Chrome brown B, O 

Chrome green. _ _ 

Chrome green B, G 

Chrome green CB 

Chrome green SW 

Chrome red SW 

Chrome yel'ow 

Chrome yellow DS. 

Chrome yellow G_ 

Chrome yellow 5G 

Chrome yellow SS 

Cindiazo black G.. 

Cindiazo blue B 

Cindiazo red 2B... 

Cloth red R 

Cotton black G, 3G 

Croceine scarlet FP cone 



Developed black 2 BN 

Diamine Bordeaux B 

Diamine catechine 

Diamine fast orange EG 

Diamond red ECB 

Dianol dark blue B 

Diazine beta black N 

Diazine black VN extra, VZ 

Diazo Bordeaux 7B. 

Diazo fast blue 2RW 

Diazo fast red 5BL, 7BL 

Diazo indigo blue 

Diazo seal brown 

Direct blue 3RX_ 

Direct brown CN 

Direct brown a2R, GSR 

Direct fast black B 

Direct fast blue B, R 

Direct fast blue 2B 

Direct fast light blue FF 

Direct fast orange R, 2R, RCL. 

Direct fast scarlet 4BA 

Direct fast violet 

Direct gray G cone, 512 cone 

Direct navy R... 

i Direct scarlet S 



Manufac- 
turers' iden- 
tification 
numbers 
(according 
to list on 
p. 188) 



' Sales of Benzo fast black L were 149,604 pounds, valued at $147,621, with a production of 138,227 
pounds. 



DYES A.ND OTHER FINISHED COAL-TAR PRODUCTS 



73 



Common name 



Empire fast violet AA 

Erie brown GB... 

Erie catechine G cone 

Erie chrome red B 

Erie fast gray M. R. 

Erie fast rubine B cone 

Erio clirome brown R 

Erio violet RL 

Fast acid green 6B 

Fast acid light red B 

Fast acid violet ERR extra 

Fast brilliant blue EA 

Fast chrome brown R 

Fast crimson R 

Fast wool red BL, GL 

Fast wool violet B_ 

Fiichsine azo b-naphthol 

Guinea fast red BL 

Helio Bordeaux BL 

Hydron pink FJ' 

Indamine navy blue 2 BM 

Indanthrene pink B 

Jet black APX 

Lake orange B. 

Leather yellow 

Light fast brown R, 3YL 

Light fast wool red BL 

Lithol fast orange 

Lithol red LR 

Milling blue B 

Milling orange 

Monochrome blue black 

Monochrome brown BC 

Mordant green SN 

Naphthol green black B 

Neutral gray B 

Niagara blue NR 

Niagara fast blue RL 

Nigrosine base B, N, NB, R, 2R 

Oil brown 

Oil brown D, M, Y 

Oil brown H, I... 

Oil brown R 

Oil brown 2R 

Oil orange 30 

Oil orange RR 

Oil orange Y 

Oil pink B 

Oil red... 

Oil red C 

Oil red I, N, 1700 

Oil red O 

Oil soluble yellow... 

Oil yellow 2625 

Oxamine copper blue RRX 

Oiydiaminogen OB 

Palaside green 

Paranol direct orange GL 

Penetrating benzene brown R... 

Pentaway gray 

Pentaway rubinol. 



Manufac- 
turers' iden- 
tification 
numbers 
(accorc^ing 
to list on 
p. 188) 



121 
107 
107 
109 
107 
107 
31 
31 

X 

31 

46 
6 
112 
107 
107 
107 

73 

46 

46 
46 

109 
46 

46 

138 
107 
112 
112 
97 
138 

X 

109 
31 
70 



31 
63 
107 
107 
107 

X 

107 

73 

7 

70 

X 

34 

70,73 

107 

X 

34, 163 

73 

7,107 

163 

107 

46 

107 

121 
109 
34 
X 
X 



Common name 



Permanent Bordeaux 2BL 

Permanent red GMT 

Permanent red R extra 

Pluto black 

Pontachrome brown R, SW 

Pontachrome yellow SW 

Pontacyl light red 4BL. 

Pontacjd red 4R 

Pontacyl rubine BR 

Pontamine brilliant violet B. 

Pontamine diazo black H 

Pontamine diazo blue 3G 

Pontamine diazo brown R 

Pontamine diazo green 2GL 

Pontamine diazo orange G, RR 

Pontamine diazo scarlet 2BL 

Pontamine diazo violet BL. 

Pontamine fast blue 6GL 

Pontamine fast orange ER 

Pontamine light gray GG 

Resorcin brown YX cone 

Rosanthrene A, R 

Rosanthrene orange 

Rubber blue 5R 

Rubber orange RR. 

Rubber yellow RR 

Scarlet 3B 

Serichrome black WSE 

Serichrome green B, G 

Silk black 4BF, G 

Silk brown G.. 

Silk red brown R 

Solamine blue FF 

Solantine blue FF 

Solantine brown R. 

Solantine gray Gl 

Solantine orange G 

Solantine red 8BLN 

SR Ablacklll, IV, IV Hy spl 

S R A blue III, IV, V.... 

S R A golden orange I, III 

S R A golden yellow VIII, IX, X, XI. 

XII 

S R A heliotrope I 

S R A orange I, II, III 

S R A pink II 

S R A pure yellow I, II.. 

S R A red I, III, V, VIII 

S R A violet II 

Sulphon cyanine 2B 

Superchrome yellow 2G 

Supramine red 3B 

Thianthrene orange R 

Thianthrene pink FB, FF 

Victoria fast violet 

Wool black B, GRF 

Wool blue CG 

Wool fast violet 2R , 

Wool green B... 

Wool navy B 

Zambesi black BG, PC 

Zambesi black D 

Zambesi black V 2 

Zambesi black VX 



Manufac- 
turers' iden- 
. tification 
numbers 
(recording 
to list on 
p. 188) 



31 

31, 70, 107 
31,46,107,112 
112 



2 Sales of Zambesi black V were 308,662 pounds, valued at $199,182, with a production of 316,622 pounds- 



74 CENSrS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

Employees and Rates of Pay 

The nuinber of employees receiving specified rates of pay on^ 
December 18, 1927, or on the nearest representative date for which 
this information could be obtained, as reported by 133 firms manu- 
facturing coal-tar products in 1927, is shown in Table 28. The 32 
firms for which data are omitted either conducted a business in which 
coal-tar products were not the primary articles of manufacture or 
did not have separately organized departments dealing therewith. 

In 1914 only seven firms in the United States manufactured coal- 
tar colors and other products.*^ These gave employment to 528 per- 
sons. The 133 firms reporting in 1927 gave employment to 9,893 
persons. In recent years there has been a steady integration of plants 
and a decrease in employees. Comparative figures are as follows: 
1926, 139 firms, with 10,'l42 employees; 1925, 154 firms, with 10,971 
employees: 1924, 158 firms, with 12,569 employees; 1923, 181 firms, 
with 14,841 employees. 

Chemists and technically trained men in 1927 conslituted 14.2 per 
cent of all employees, as compared with 13.4 per cent in 1926, and 
14.6 per cent in 1925. Of the 1,402 men of this group in 1927, 34.52 
per cent received $75 and over per week, 27.03 per cent received 
between $50 and $75, 7.99 per cent between $35 and $40, 6.78 per 
cent between $40 and $45, and 5.49 per cent between $45 and $50. 
For men without technical training the scale of compensation was as 
follows: 23.87 per cent received between $25 and $30 per week, 
23.25 per cent between $30 and $35, 15.38 per cent between $20 and 
$25. In general, rates of pay were slightly lower in 1927 than in 
1926. Table 28 compares specified rates of pa}'' of technically trained 
men with those of men not having such training. 

Among the technically trained men the increase in terms of per- 
centages in the pay of each group was as follows: 1.82 per cent in 
the group receiving $75 and over. Of men without technical training 
the increase was 0.45 per cent in the group receiving $30 but under $35, 
0.89 per cent in the group receiving $25 but under $30, and 0.67 per 
cent in the group receiving $35 but under $40. 

As stated in previous reports, the dye and coal-tar chemical indus- 
try has probably a larger proportion of technically trained men than 
any other manufacturing industry in the United States. 

' Bureau of the Census, Department of Commerce. 



EMPLOYEES AND RATES OF PAY 



75 



Table 28. — Einployecs and ratea of pay in the coal-tar dye and chemical industry, 

1927 



Wage per week 



Under $10 

$10 but under .$15 

$15 but under .$20 

■$20 but undf-r $25 . . . 

-.$25 but uuder.$30. 

•$30 but under $35 

■$.35 but under !&40 

$40 but under $45 

$45 but under .$.=^0. 

■$50 but under $75 

■$75 and over 



Total. 



Number of employees at each 
specified wage engaged in 
manufacturing operations 



^nd7i^h Men With-' 
'^nilim out tech- : All em- 
trained '^1^'?' i P''^''^''^ 
men '">°»°S - 



I 
20 
46 
79 
109 
112 
95 

379 
484 



22 

219 

478 

1,306 

2,027 

1,974 

1,185 

642 

366 

239 

33 



22 
220 

498 

1.352 

2.106 

2,083 

1.297 

737 

443 

618 

517 



1,402 



8,491 



Percentage receiv- 
ing each specified 
wage 



?n^Tnh''Menwith- 

"J^^lniS^- 



0.07 
1.43 
3.28 
5.63 
7.78 
7.99 
6.78 
5.49 
27. 03 
34. 52 



0.26 

2.5S 
5.63 
15.38 
23.87 
23.25 
13.96 

r.56 

4.31 
2.81 
.39 



100. 00 ; 100. 00 



Percentage receiv- 
ing each specified 
wage or more 



Chemists 
and tech- 
nically 
trained 
men 



100.00 
99.93 
98.50 
95.22 
89.59 
81.81 
73. 82 
67.05 
61. 55 
34.52 



Men 
without 
technical 
training 



100.00 

99.74 
97.16 
91.53 
76.15 
52.28 
29.03 
15.07 
7.51 
3.20 
.39 



Tabi.k 29. — Employees and rates of pay in the coal-tar dye and chemical industry, 
1927 as compared with 1926 



AVage per week 



1 Decrease. 



Percentage receiving each specified wage or more 



Chemists and technically 
trained men 



Men without technical 
training 





1927 


1926 


Increase 


1927 


1926 


Increase 


■Under$10^ 








100.00 

99.74 

97.16 

91.53 

76. 15 

52. 28 

29.03 

i,5.07 

7.51 

.3.20 

.39 


100.00 

99.75 

97. 58 

91.34 

75.26 

51. 83 

28.36 

1.5.77 

7.87 

.3.41 

.38 




$10 but under $15 


ioo.oo 

99.93 
98.50 
95.22 
89.59 
81.81 
73. 82 
67.05 
61.. 55 
34. 52 


100.00 
99.78 
98. 45 
95.36 
89.76 
82.91 
74.89 
68.41 
61.93 
32.70 


"""" ais" 

.05 

1.14 

1.17 

1 1.10 

1 1.07 

1 1.36 

i.,38 

1.82 


•0.01 


$15 but under .$20 

$20 but under $25 .. 


1.42 
.19 


$25 but under .$30 


.89 


$30 but under $35 


.45 


$35 but under $40 ._ 


.67 


$40 but under $45 


'.70 


$45 but under $."'0 .. 


1.36 


$50 but under $75 


I 21 


$75 and over 


.01 







RESEARCH WORK 



Of the 165 firms engaged in the manufacture of dyes and other 
coal-tar chemicals in 1927, 42 had separately organized research 
laboratories. The total cost of the research work carried on in these 
laboratories, together with that done in laboratories not separately 
organized for research, was !S2,584,908. This figure is an increase 
of $573,078 over expenditures in 1926. The data obtained by the 
Tariff Commission inrlude in 1927, as in 1926, not only the total 
cost of the research work rairied on by the companies reporting, but 
the net cost of such work chargeable to coal-tar products alone. 
The $2,327,289 reported as the net cost in 1927 is doubtless an under- 
statement of the real cost of experimental work, since the figures do 



76 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

not include in all cases the cost of research forming a part of manu- 
facturing operations but not charged against research on the books 
of the companies. 

The total sales of the finished coal-tar products in 1927 exceeded 
$61,000,000. The high research expenditure, amounting to 4.2 per 
cent of the total sales, gives some indication of the large amount 
considered necessary for such work in this industry. 



PART III 
SYNTHETIC MEDICINALS 



77 



Part III 
SYNTHETIC MEDICINALS 

A valuable contribution of science to human welfare is the applica- 
tion of chemistry to medicine. Through cooperative work, chemists 
and pharmacologists have placed at the disposal of the physician 
many new drugs for the prevention, alleviation, or cure of disease. 

Most of the older drugs were plant products varying widely in 
strength and in therapeutic value. By chemical methods the active 
principles of many drugs are now extracted for medicinal use in more 
desirable and standardized form. A case in point is the alkaloid, 
ephedrine, used for the treatment of asthma. Chemically, ephedrine 
is alpha-hydroxy-beta-methy^lamino-propanol. It is obtained from 
the Chinese plant, mahuang, used in early times in Chinese medicine 
but untU recently serving no purpose in medicine. Efficacious 
remedies of recent introduction include extracts from the organs 
of animals — ^adrenalin from the suprarenal gland, thyroxin from the 
thyroid gland, pituitrin from the pituitary gland, and insulin from 
the pancreas. Medicinals prepared from plant and animal products 
are of inestimable value in the treatment of disease. 

The following pages of this section are devoted to a discussion of 
recent developments in synthetic medicinals. These occupy a prom- 
inent place in medicine and intensive research promises to reveal 
new products essential for the treatment and prevention of disease. 
Of the large number of synthetic organic chemicals, hardly more 
than 100 have a permanent place in the daily practice of the modern 
physician. Many others, however, have special applications. 

A chemical product becomes a drug only after its therapeutic 
value is demonstrated. Many have been introduced so recently that 
their value in medicine is indeterminate. Occasionally a well-known 
chemical is found to have curative properties. For example, carbon 
tetrachloride — an excellent remedy for hookworm — was familiar as 
a chemical years before its medicinal value was discovered. 

Prior to 1914 Germany was the leading producer of synthetic 
medicinals. The domestic production of synthetic medicinals was 
then limited to salicylic acid and its salts, acetyl-salicylic acid, acet- 
anilide, acetphenetidin, benzoic acid resorcin, salol, phenolphthalein, 
ether, chloroform, chloral hydrate, and a few others. 

As the war progressed there developed in the United States an 
acute shortage of many important synthetic medicinals and several 
domestic manufacturers began their production. The principal 
difficulty encountered in the preparation of these products was the 
lack "of experienced chemists. Then, too, many patents taken out in 
the United States were controlled by foreigners. 

On October 6, 1917, Congress passed the trading with the enemy 
act, authorizing the Federal Trade Commission to issue licenses for 
the manufacture of chemicals controlled by enemy-owned patents. 
In the enforcement of this act the Federal Trade Commission adopted 

79 



80 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

the practice of authorizing at least two manufacturers to make each 
chemical for which it issued a license. 

All patents held in the name of German aliens or corporations 
were seized by the Alien Property Custodian and sold to the Chemical 
Foundation. Patents held in the name of American corporations 
controlled by enemy aliens through stock ownership were not in- 
cluded in this seizure, but remained a part of the assets of the respec- 
tive companies. 

The Chemical Foundation purchased for $250,000 approximately 
4,500 patents on chemical products, processes, and machinery. 
Licenses under its patents are now granted on equal terms to all 
responsible American applicants. The development of the domestic 
industry is no longer hampered by these foreign-owned patents. The 
utilization of processes covered by them, possible only after extensive 
research, has permitted domestic manufacturers to make a variety 
of important synthetic medicinals. In the last decade America has 
given to the world many new and valuable synthetic medicinals. A 
partial list of these is appended here.^ 

General anesthetics. — Ethylene, propylene, butylene. 

Local anesthetics. — Apothesine, butyn, butysin, butesin picrate, tutocaine. 

Benzyl esters. — Benzoate, stearate, fumarate, succinate. 

Chloramines. — Chloramine, dichloramine, halazone. 

Antiseptics. — Dibromin, hexyl resorcinol. 

Hypnotics. — Neonal, amytal, ipral, dial, allonal. 

Arsenic compounds. — Sulfarsphenamine, trj'parsamide. 

Mercury compounds. — Mercurochrome, mercurosal, metaphen. 

Bismuth compounds. — Tartrate, salicylate, and others. 

Dyes. — Tetraiodophenolphthalein, phenolsulfonphthalein, acriflavine. 

A discussion of arsphenamine and other organic arsenic compounds, 
anesthetics, biological stains, and medicinal dyes follows. 

Arsphenamine and other organic arsenic compounds. — Most syn- 
thetic medicinals have been synthesized according to definite chem- 
ical principles. Among the most valuable of the synthetic medicinals 
developed as a result of chemical research are arsphenamine and other 
compounds of arsenic, used for the treatment of venereal diseases. 

Arsphenamine ^ was discovered by Erlich and Bertheim in Germany 
in 1910 as the result of systematic and thorough organic and biological 
research. The treatment of syphilis with arsenic was not new when 
arsphenamin was introduced; arsenic in its inorganic form had been 
used for many years. Antisyphilitic agents containing arsenic may be 
considered in three groups: (a) Cacodylates, (b) arsanilates, (c) arsen- 
obenzols, all of which contain arsenic in the organic form. 

The cacodylates are aliphatic compounds and close derivatives of 
arsenic acid. The effects of cacodylates are due principally to their 
partial chemical reduction in the body. They are generally considered 
as inferior to arsphenamine. 

Arsanilates are aromatic derivatives of arsenic acid made by com- 
bining the acid with aniline in the presence of an alkali. The sodium 
salt of arsanilic acid — sodium arsanilate — was introduced under the 
name "atoxyl," as a nontoxic agent for the treatment of syphilis. 
Although fairly effective, it was found after repeated application to 
be highly toxic — sometimes causing permanent blindness. 

• Me'licinals and Dyes, Ind. and Eng. Chemistry, November, 1926, p. 1330. 

' A Consideration of Arsphenamine and Certain Other Organic Arsenic Compounds Used in the Treat- 
ment of Syphilis. O. B. Roth, Treasury Department, U. S. Public Health Service. 



SYNTHETIC MEDICINALS 81 

Phenyl glycine p-arsenic acid is a representative of the third type, 
the arsenobenzols. On reduction with sodium hydrosulfite, this acid 
yields arseno phen}^ p-glycine, a trivalent compound of therapeutic 
value. The relation of arseno phenyl p-glycine to arsphenamine is 
very close. By varying and changing the position and kind of side 
chains, Erlich found that the best results were obtained on mice 
infected with relapsing fever and on human beings afflicted with 
syphilis, by administering dihydrochloride of 3 :3-diamino, 4 :4-hydroxy- 
arsenobenzene, 606 in Erlich 's series, or salvarsan, now known offi- 
cially as arsphenamine. 

The discovery that arsphenamine is beneficial in certain protozoan 
infections led Erlich to further investigations of derivatives of arse- 
nobenzol. Treating arsphenamine with sodium formaldehyde sul- 
foxahite, he formed the condensation product, sodium 3:3-diamino 
4:4-dihydroxy-arsenobenzene-n-methylene sulfinate. This is 914 in 
Erhch's series, officially known in the United States as neoars- 
phenamine; it is to-day the leading arsenical in the treatment of 
syphiHs. 

Since Erlich's discoveries, considerable research has been directed 
toward improving compoimds of the arsenobenzol type and many new 
compounds have been discovered. None has, however, supplanted or 
even closely rivaled arsphenamine and neoarsphenamine. 

The Treasury Department issues regulations for the control of the 
production, importation, and sale of arsephanamines, recognizing 
officially by license the following compounds: Arsphenamine, neoar- 
sphenamine, sodium arsphenamine, silver arsphenamine, neo silver 
arsphenamine, phospharsphenamine (galayl), sulf arsphenamine, 
bismuth arsphenamine sulfonate, arsphenamine diglucoside, sul- 
fonglarphenamine (a compound of glucose with arsphenamine base). 

Anesthetics. — The newer general anesthetics include ethyl bromide, 
ethyl chloride, meth^^l chloride, ethylene, propjdene, and butjdene. 
An important member of this group is ethylene, a colorless gas with a 
peculiar sweet smell. It has bf en known to chemists for many years, 
but only recently has its value as an anesthetic been demonstrated. 
It acts directly on the nervous system and produces deep, surgical 
anesthesia. When given with oxygen, ethylene is more powerful 
than nitrous oxide and is usually as efficacious as ether. 

Cocaine was for a long time the leading local anesthetic, but it had 
certain undesirable properties which led to the search for new and 
superior substitutes. As a result many local anesthetics have recently 
been introduced; among these are: Allypin, apothesine, a local 
anesthetic of the procaine rather than the cocaine type; benzyl 
alcohol, used either bv injection or by application to the mucous 
membrane; butyn, a surface anesthetic, particularly for the eyes, 
nose, and throat; phenacaine, with the advantage of a quicker effect 
than cocaine; procaine; stovaine; tutocain, used chiefly for surface 
anesthesia and in subcutaneous injection. Tutocain rapidly produces 
a complete and prolonged anesthesia and is effective even in relatively 
low concentration. 

Benzocaine, orthoform, and butesine are anesthetics of slight 
solubility; hence unsuitable for injection. As they are slowly absorbed 
the}' are safer for ulcers, wounds, and mucous surfaces. The an- 
esthesia induced is not so complete, but it is more lasting than that 
induced by soluble local anesthetics. Benzocaine and orthoform are 



82 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

about equally efficacious; butesine is said to be more efficacious than 
benzocaine. As a group these anesthetics are practically nonirritant 
and nontoxic. 

Biological stains. — Ehrenberg has the reputation of being the first 
to use dyes in microscopic work. He is reported to have used them 
for this purpose as early as 1838. He did not stain his specimens 
according to modern methods but fed ground indigo and carmine to 
the microorganisms under investigation. The assumption was that 
the organisms would take up the dye and that their digestive systems 
could be traced by observing what portions of the body became 
colored. These organisms showed certain zones or bands of color and 
it was assumed that each color region was a stomach, hence the name 
"polygastrica" for this group. 

Pioneer work in microscopy must have been extremely difficult. 
It is almost incredible that so much important work could have been 
accomplished without stains when to-day microscopists find them 
almost indispensable. 

Staining is generally conceded to be either a physical or a chemical 
phenomenon; the chemical theory is probably more widely accepted 
than the physical. The chemical theory has its basis in the fact that 
certain parts of animal or plant cells, such as the nuclei, are acid, 
with an affinity for basic dyes. The cytoplasm is assumed to be 
basic, as it has an affinity for acid dyes. 

In the past the use of dyes in biological work was difficult because 
of the varying and inexact chemical processes used in d3^e manufac- 
ture. The purity of the dye could not be depended upon, nor could 
an exact duplicate of a color invariably be obtained from the same 
manufacturmg plant. Before the war the Griibler Co. of Germany 
specialized in biological stains, and it is to them that a large part of 
the modern success in that field is due. 

After the war a cooperative movement was started to standardize 
stains on a scientific basis. The outcome of this movement was the 
Commission on Standardization of "^ Biological Stains, organized 
in 1922 under the auspices of the National Research Council. Al- 
though still affiliated with the council, it is no longer a part of that 
body. The commission sought the cooperation of chemists, dye 
manufacturers, and stain dealers to the end of insuring to biologists, 
a supply of reliable stains. An executive committee of five manages 
the affairs of the commission. Its personnel consists of a bacteri- 
ologist, a botanist, a dye chemist, a pathologist, and a zoologist. 

A list of the most important stains ^ in use at the present time 
is given below: 

ANIMAL HISTOLOGY 

Nuclear stains (basic) : 

Thionin. Gentian violet (including crystal and 

Methylene blue. methyl violet). 

Fuchsin. Cochineal and cannin. 

Haematoxylin. 
Cytoplasm stains (acid) : 

Picric acid. Light green SF yellowish. 

Orange G. Acid fuchsin. 

Congo Red. Anilin blue WS. 

Neutral Red. Eosin Y. 
Fat stains: 

Sudan IIL Sudan IV. 

8 Biological Stains, by H. J. Conn. 



SYNTHETIC MEDICINALS 



83 



PLANT HISTOLOGY 



Por lignified cell walls: 

Safranin. 

Gentian violet (including crj'stal and 
methyl violet). 
For cellulose walls: 

Light green SF yellowish. 

Acid fuchsin. 

Eosin Y. 



Methyl green. 



Erythrosin. 
Haematoxylin. 



CYTOLOGY 

General nuclear stains (basic) : 

Methylene blue. Methyl green. 

Gentian violet (including crystal and Carmin. 

methyl violet). Haematoxylin. 

Special chromatin stains: 

Safranin. Haematoxylin. 

Gentian violet (including crystal and 
methyl violet). 
Cytoplasm stains (acid) : 

Picric acid. Eosin Y. 

Orange G. 
Stains for mitochondria, etc.: 

Janus green B. Crystal violet. 

Acid fuchsin. 

PATHOLOGY AND BACTERIOLOGY 



Nuclear stains (basic) : 

Thionin. 

Methylene blue. 

Gentian violet (including crystal and 
methyl violet). 
Cytoplasm stains (acid) : 

Picric acid. 

Orange G. 

Acid fuchsin. 
Blood stain constituents: 

Methylene blue (basic). 
Fat stains: 

Sudan IV. 
Bacterial stains: 

Methylene blue. 

Fuchsin. 



Fuchsin. 

Cochineal and carmin. 

Haematoxylin. 



Anilin blue WS. 
Eosin Y. 



Eosin Y (acid). 



Gentian violet (including crystal and 
methyl violet). 



Medicinal dyes. — Practically all dyes used in medicine are organic 
synthetics. The group may be divided into the following classes: 

4. Phenolphthalein. 



1. Azo. 

2. Acridine. 

3. Fluorescein. 



5. Triphenylmethane. 

6. Miscellaneous. 



The azo dyes have been used in medicine for many years. In 
New and Nonofficial Remedies, 1927, a publication of the American 
Medical Association, a distinction is made between two scarlet R 
compounds: Scarlet R medicinal Biebrich is toluylazotoluylazo- 
betanaphthol ; scarlet red sulfonate is the sodium salt of azobenzene- 
disulfonic acid azobetanaphthol. The two compounds are used 
to promote the growth of epithelium in the treatment of burns, 
wounds, and chronic ulcers. 

Representative acridine dyes used in medicine are: Acriflavine, 
neutral acriflavine, and proflavine. They appear to possess marked 
antiseptic and germicidal properties. In the treatment of wounds 
acriflavine and proflavine are said to be free from toxic or irritant 



84 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

action on living tissues and not to inhibit appreciably the phaocytic" 
action of the leukocytes on the healing process. 

Fluorescein, used mainly as a diagnostic agent in opthalmologic 
work, is formed by combining resorcinol with phthalic anhydride. 
Fluorescein is easily brominated — the tetrabrom compound being 
eosin — the former combines with one molecule of mercury; the 
sodium salt of this mercury compound is known as flumerin. Mer- 
curochrome is used extensivelj^ as a bactericide. It is the compound 
formed when two hydrogen atoms of flumerin are replaced by bromine 
atoms. 

Phenolphthalein is a condensation product of phthalic anhydride 
and phenol. All compounds of the phenophthalein type, except 
phenolphthalein itself, are used in medicine as diagnostic agents. 
I us the laxative action of phenolphthalein and not its property of 
forming color that leads to its general use in medicine. The sodi\im 
salts of tetrebromophenolphthalein and tetraiodophenolphthalein are 
used in X-ray practice. These compounds when present in the gall 
bladder cast a shadow because of the heavy halogen molecules. 

Of the triphenylmethane dyes, gentian violet is said to possess 
properties of great penetration. Its chief application is in the treat- 
ment of maladies of the pleural cavity and of the joints, particularly 
empyema and arthritis. 

CONCLUSION 

The prevention and cure of disease involve complex problems 
that no one branch of science is capable of solving. Fundamentally 
chemical in their nature, their solution nevertheless depends upon 
cooperation between chemists and other scientists. In reducing 
the ravages of disease the role of the chemist is an important one. 
Advances of chemistry in the field of medicine in the past are indeed 
noteworthy; those in the future may be beyond the horizon of our 
present imagination. 



PART IV 

DYES IMPORTED FOR CONSUMPTION 
IN THE UNITED STATES, 1927 



So 



^ Part IV 

DYES IMPORTED FOR CONSUMPTION IN THE UNITED 

STATES, 1927 



Introduction 



Beginning with 1919 the United States Tariff Commission has 
annually compiled a detailed census of dye imports similar to that 
published by the Department of Commerce under the title "Artificial 
Dyestuffs Used in the United States (fiscal year 1913-14)," commonly 
known as the "Norton Import Census." 

The commission first compiled such statistics for use in the admin- 
istration of section 501, Title 5, of the tariff act of September 8, 1916, 
which made the continuance of specific duties on coal-tar products, 
after September 8, 1921, dependent upon the production in the United 
States of as much as 60 per cent in value of the consumption of these 
products. As the information was found to be of direct value to 
manufactiirers, consumers, and importers, as well as to the commission 
itself, in considering tariff aspects of the coal-tar chemical industry, 
the annual census of imports has been continued. 

Imports for consumption for the year 1927, including warehouse 
withdrawals for dyes and other products within paragraphs 27 and 28, 
have been compiled and published each month under a cooperative 
arrangement between the chemical divisions of the Department of 
Commerce and the Tarifi' Commission. Certain discrepancies will be 
found to exist between the final figures published under this arrange- 
ment for the year 1927 and the preliminary figures published in the 
monthly reports for the reason that in checking the preliminary 
figures, minor errors were corrected and a few additions made. 

In tabulating the dye statistics the commission has followed in the 
main the "Colour Index," issued by the British Society of Dyers and 
Colourists, and other sources of information in the files. 

Such dyes as could not be identified by Colour Index numbers are 
classified by the ordinary method of application, as follows: Acid, 
basic, direct, lake and spirit soluble, mordant and chrome, sulfur, 
and vat. The classification of a dye by its method of application is 
often purely arbitrary, as certain colors may be applied by either of 
two methods. 

The rate of exchange used in converting foreign invoice values to 
United States currency is either the rate given on the invoice, or in 
comparatively few cases, the exchange value published by the 
Treasury Department for the month in which consular certification 
occurred. 

7709—28 7 87 



88 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

SUMMAEY OF IMPORTS OF DyES 

The total import of coal-tar dyes in 1927 was 4,233,046 pounds, 
valued at S3,413,SS6, as compared with 4,673,196 pounds in 1926, 
with an invoice value of 84,103,301. (For ^mparison of imports 
with domestic production and effect of chang^ of duty on imports, 
see pp. 42-44.) 

Table 30. — Dyes: Imports into the United Stales, by country of shipment, 1925-1927 





Country of shipment 


Percentage of total quantity 




1925 


1926 


1927 




53 j 
32 

4 

4 

2 

2 

2 

1 - 


50 
33 
2 
4 
3 
4 
4 


58 




26 


Italv 


2 




4 









4 




4 













IMPORT STATISTICS 

Table 34, page 92, shows the quantity and value (when publishable) 
of individual dyes imported in 1927. Table 31 is a summary of dyes 
imported from 1922 to 1927, inclusive, classified according to method 
of appHcation. Table 32 compares the volume of the 1927 imports 
of the leading dyes in each class by application with corresponding 
imports in the period 1924 to 1926 and in the fiscal year 1914. 

Table 31. — Dyes imported into the United States, classified by method oj application. 

1922-1927 



1922 1923 


1924 


Class of dye 


Per cent 
of total 


Pounds 


Per cent 
of total 


Acid 601,395 15.10 544,048 


17.56 


324,538 


10.74 


Vat: 

(a) Indigo 505 .01 




5.471 
1, 493. 851 


.18 


(6) Vat (other than indigo) 1,548,519 38.89 1,207,554 


38.98 


49.43 


Total... ] 1,549,024 ; 38.90 1.207,554 


38.98 


1,499,322 


49.61 


Mordant and chrome: i 1 

(a) \lizarin 27.086 .68 27,716 


.89 
13.74 


42,695 
371, 207 




(6) Mordant and chrome ■ 689.704 17.32 | 425,699 






Total 716,790 ! 18.00 453.415 


14.63 ! 413,902 


13.69 








Direct ' 671,621 1 16.86 527,014 

Sulfur ! 194.883' 4.89 114,023 

Basic 1 155,084 3.89 210.896 

Spirit-soluble and c"lor-lake 76,853 1.93 23,213 


17.01 

3.68 

6.81 

. 75 


421,538 
87,764 

249,068 
17.334 
9.073 


13. 95 

2.90 

8.24 

.57 


Unidentified, unclassified special.... 16,981 .43 18,030 


.58 


.30 


Total 3,982,631 100.00 3,098,193! 100.00 | 3,022,539 


100.00 



DYES IMPORTED FOR CONSUMPTION 



89 



Table 31. — Di/es imported into the United States, classified by method of application, 

1922-1927— Continued 





1925 


1926 


1927 


Class of dye 


Pounds 


Per cent 
of total 


Pounds 


Per cent 
of total 


1 

Pounds ^^^ *'*"* 
Pounds 1 of total 




589, 959 


11.32 


793. 855 


16.99 


654,729 ' 15.47 










Vat: 

(n) Indigo 


1.952 i .04 
2,416,890 46.39 


2.806 
1, 845, 208 


.06 
39.49 


6,057 .14 


(6) Vat (other than indigo) 


1, 724, 910 40. 75 


Total - - 


2,418,842 1 46.43 


1, 848, 014 


39.55 


1, 730, 967 40. 89 








Mordant and chrome: 


75, 174 1. 45 
566, 924 10. 88 


86,606 


1.85 


89,210 2.11 


(b) Mordant and chrome 


413, 398 


8.85 


399.395 9.43 


Total 


642,098 i 12.33 


500,004 


10.70 


488, 605 11. 54 






Direct 


759,024 1 14.57 
122.230 i 2.35 
607,637 11.66 
57, 540 1. 10 
12.271 1 .24 


805. 848 


17.24 


721,342 17.04 


Sulfur 


• 149. 723 1 3. 20 

406. 732 8. 70 

86. 106 1. 84 

82, 914 1. 78 


334, 526 7. 90 


Basic -- 


137. 864 3. 26 


Spirit-soluble and color-lake 


134, 778 3. 18 


Unidentified, unclassified special 


30,235 .72 


Total 


5, 209, 601 


100.00 


4, 673, 196 100. 00 


4,233,046 100.00 








1 



Table 32. — Dyes of each class, according to method of application, imported in 
largest quantity in the calendar year 1927, compared with corresponding imports 
in 1926, 1925, 1924, and in the fiscal year 1914 



Erioglaucine 
Patent blue A 
Alizarin light blue B 
Brilliant wool blue FFR 
Wool fast blue 
Brilliant milhng blue 
Acid milling black B 
Polar red 
Fast green extra bluish 
Patent blue V 
Naphthalene green V 
Neptune green SGX 
Cvanol 

Acid black 2R 
Indocyanine 
Polar orange 
Novazol blue 
Neolan blue 
Brilliant sulfon red 
Xylene fast blue FF 



307 
430 
691 
712 
735 
667 
715 




1184 
1113 
1151 
1095 

1212 
1150 
1229 
1190 
1118 



1228 
1152 
1217 



Helindone printing black RD paste 
Brilliant indigo 4B 
Indanthrene blue GCD 
Indanthrene brown R 
Anthraflavone GC... 
Vat golden yellow GK 
Indanthrene red violet RH 

Indanthrene olive R 

Cibared R 

Brilliant indigo B 

Indanthrene yellow G 

Indanthrene golden orange RRT 

Hydron pink FF 

Indanthrene green 

Ciba scarlet 

Indanthrene brown G 

Helindone orange R _. 



22, 265 
14,489 



1 The type name represents in most cases the principal color imported in 1927* 
- Included in Schultz No. 562. 
3 Included in Indamine 6R. 
* Single strength. 



90 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Table 32. — Dyes of each class, according to method of application, imported in 
largest quantity in the'calendar year 1927, compared with corresponding imports 
in 1926, 1925, 1924, and in the fiscal year 1914 — Continued 



Colour I 
Index I 
No. I 



Class and type name of dye 



VAT DYES— continued 

Vat printing brown R. 

1099 Indanthrene dark blue BO 

1162 Indanthrene red RK 

MORDANT AND CHROME DYES 

Alizarin, synthetic _.. 

Alizarin viridine FF 

Gallamine blue 

Eriochrome black A. 

Alizarin cyclamine R 

Eriochrome azurol BC 

Alizarin orange A. 

Alizarin red S... 

Alizarin pure blue B ■_ 

Alizarin blue black 

Purpurine 

Alizarin red SX. 

Alizarin blue S.. 

Metachrome blue black 

Eriochrome flavine A 

Erichrome red G i 

Acid alizarin gray G 

Chromazurol S 

Alizarin black S 

Modern violet 

DIRECT DYES 

Rapid fast red GL 

Chloramine red 

Chlorantine fast blue.. 

Diaminogene blue 

Chlorantine fast violet 

Benzo fast brown- _ 

Trisulfon brown B 

Diazo sky blue 

Rapid fast orange 

Rapid fast red. 

Diamine fast orange 

Trisulfon brown GO 

Chlorantine fast brown 

Brilliant sky blue 

Chloramine brilliant red 8B 

Pyrazol orange 

Chlorantine fast green B 

Diazol light red N8B 

Benzo fast yellow RL.. 

Diphenyl brown BBNC 

BASIC DYES 

Rhodamine B... 

Rhodamine 6GDN, 6GH 

Euchrysine 

Victoria blue B 

Phosphine 

New methylene blue 

Pararosaniiine base 

Methyl violet 

Magenta. 

Methyl Lyons blue 

Ethyl" violet.... 

Thioflavine T 

Diphene blue 

Setoghiucine. 

Crystal violet 

SULFUR DYES 

T hionol green 

Indocarbon 

Thionol yellow 

Thionol brown 

Katigene chrome blue 50.. 




' Does not include Alizarin light gray BS. 
* Includes Eriochrome red R. 
^ Separate figures not obtainable. 



' Single strength basis. 

« Included in Schultz No. 571. 

19 Included in Schultz No. 74S. 



DYES IMPORTED FOR CONSUMPTION 



91 



The following table gives the stocks of coal-tar dyes and interme- 
diates remammg in bonded warehouse each month since January 31, 
1927, as published in the Monthly Summary of Foreign Commerce 
by the Department of Commerce: 

Table 33. — Dyes and intermediates remaining in bonded customs warehouse 
January 31, 1927, to April 80, 1928 



Date 


Coal-tar 

dyes and 

colors 


Coal-tar 
interme- 
diates 


Date 


Coal-tar 

dyes and 

colors 


Coal-tar 
interme- 
diates 


Jan. 31, 1927 


Pounds 

615, 542 

896, 059 

869, 963 

1, 125, 983 

1, 065, 143 

1, 003, 847 

925, 569 

887, 447 


Pounds 
647, 692 
719, 055 
712, 617 
827, 260 
813, 137 
866, 105 
844, 058 
876, 786 


Sept. 30, 1927 


Pounds 
705, 885 
654, 691 
716, 790 
742, 512 
609, 573 
636, 566 
716, 032 
740, 239 


Pounds 
808, 560 


Feb 28, 1927 


Oct. 31, 1927 .-. 


773, 472 


Mar. 31, 1927 


Nov. 30, 1927... 


655, 091 


Apr. 30, 1927 


Dec. 31, 1927 


862, 773 


May 31, 1927 


Jan. 31, 1928 


818, 695 


June 30, 1927 


Feb. 29, 1928 


1,291,636 


July 31 1927 


Mar. 31, 1928 


1,264,965 


Aug. 31, 1927 


Apr. 30, 1928 


506, 337 







Key to Abbreviations Used in Table 

1 . german companies 

IG Inteiessen Gemeinschaft Teerfarbeu Industrie A. G. 

A Actien-Gesellschaft fiir Anilin-Fabrikation, Berlin. Founded 1873. 

B Badische Anilin-und-Soda-Fabrik, Ludwigshafen-on-the-Rhine. Founded 1865. 

By Farbenfabrikpn, vormals Friedr. Bayer & Co., Leverkusen-on-the-Rhine. Founded 1862. 

C Leopold Cassella A Co., Frankfort-on-thc-Main. Founded 1870. 

OrE Chemische Fabrik Grieshoim-Electron. Oflenbach-on-the-Main. Founded 1842. 

K Kalle & Co., A. G., Biebrich-on-the-Rhine. Founded 1870. 

M.. Farbwerke, vormals Meister Lucius & Bruning, Ilochst-on-the Main. Founded 1862. 

AG Actien-Gesellschaft fiir Anilin-Fabrikation, Berlin and Chemische Fabrik Griesheim-Electron, 

Offenbach -on-the-Main. 

2. FRENCH COMPANIES 

CN Compagnie Nationale de Matieres Colorantes et Produits Chimiques. Founded 1917. 

StD Societe Anonyme des Matieres Colorantes et Produits Chimiques St. Denis (formerly A. Poir- 

rier), St. Denis, near Paris, France. Founded 1830. 

3. SWISS COMPANIES, ALL AT BASEL 

DH Farbwerke, vormals L. Durand, Huguenin & Co. Founded 1871. 

G Anilinfarben-und-Extract-Fabriken, vormals Joh. Rud. Geigy. Founded 1764. 

I Gesellschaft fiir chemische Industrie. Founded 1885. 

Roh Chemical Works Rohner, Ltd. 

S Chemische Fabrik, vormals Sandoz & Co. Founded 1887. 

4. ENGUSH COMPANIES 

BAC British Alizarine Co. (Ltd.), London and TrafTord Park. 

BDC British Dyestuffs Corporation, (Ltd.), Huddersfleld and Manchester. 

Bro Brotherton & Co. (Ltd.). Port Rainbow, Bromborough Port, near Birkenhead. 

CAC Clavton Aniline Co. (Ltd.) Clayton, Manchester. 

LBH L. B. Holliday & Co. (Ltd.), Huddersfleld. 

Lo Charles Lowe & Co., Manchester.' 

NBC North British Chemical Co., Fairfield Road Works, Droylsden, Manchester. 

SD ._ Scottish Dyes (Ltd.), Grangemouth. 

Q Importations of unknown source, through dealers in colors. 



92 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

Table 34. — Imports of dyes, calendar year 1927 



Col- 


Name of dye 


Manu- 
facturer 


Imports 


our 
Index 

No. 


Quantity 


Invoice 
value 




Total -. 




Pounds 
4, 233, 046 


$3, 413, 886 




Naphthol yellow SXX - 


IG 




10 


180 


11 




260 -- 




Amido vellow E 


IG 






Erio fast yellow AE . 


G 




16 




IG 

IG 

IG... 

IG 


10 




21 


Chrysoidine RL base. 

Moti orange R 

Crystal orange 


25 

75 

50 

10.100 




24 




27 




32 


8,244 




Brilliant sulfon red B 

Brilliant sulfon red 5B 

Brilliant sulfon red lOB 

Fast sulfon violet 5BS 


S 






S 








s 








s 




.. .. 


40 




210 






Chrome orange R... 

Metachrome orange R 

Nitrosamine red paste 

Sorrel red X 

Azo wool blue SE 

Rapid fast red GL paste 

Red ponceau R.. 

Ponceau 3R 


DH .. . 






IG 






44 


IG 

IG 

IG 

IG 

Q- - 


2,500 

1,650 

200 

41, 525 

441 

102 

2,300 




54 





58 




70 




79 




80 


Q - 




104 








Metachrome olive brown G 

Metachrome olive brown G 

Acid anthracene brown R 

Guinea fast red 2R.. 

Erika2GN..... 


Bro 






IG 






105 


IG 

IG 

IG 


1,000 

950 

25 

879 




114 




126 




127 


1,098 




Brilliant geranine B 

Brilliant geranine 3B 

Geranine G 

Diamine rose BD 

Erika B extra 

Cotton pink GN 


Bv 






By 








Bv 






128 


IG 

IG 

IG 

o 


100 
50 

300 
3,306 

445 
1,433 
2,240 

551 
5,500 




130 




131 




145 




150 oVdnfTP S ° 


IG 

G 




157 


Eriochrome phosphine RR. 

Lake red C 

Chrome brown RVV 




165 


Q — - 

G 




171 




172 








Acid alizarin black R 

Acid alizarin black R 

Metachrome violet B. 


IG 






s 






173 


IG 


1,300 
2,502 




195 


1,357 




Alizarin yellow DD 

Chrome yellow DF. 

Mordant yellow GS 

Acid ponceau E 

Eriochrome black A 

Eriochrome flavine A cone 


s 






IG . 








IG.. 






196 


G 


770 

26, 455 

7,714 

535 




204 


G 




219 


G 




224 








Silk red ST 1 

Stanley red 

Thiazine red RXX 


IG 






CAC 






225 


IG 


1,200 
425 




236 






Yellow JG_.. 

Yellow JR... 

Alaska black lOBX 

Pr.ftnn cpnrlpt ovtra 


IG. 






IG 






246 


IG 

IG 

IG 


75 
500 
525 
100 




252 




256 Ploth vpH "sfi BYtra 




266 

267 
276 

278 






Red JB 


IG 






IG.. 

G 


50 

110 

3,845 








Chlorantine fast red 7BL . . 




5,137 


■Rpnyn fnst nihiiiA RT. 


IG 




1 nrilnrantinp ftn;t rfifl .'iRf, 


I 






286 

288 




I 






Chlorazol fast red KX 


BDC 






Erythriue 7BX 


IG 

IG 

IG 

G 


20 

3,700 

550 

2,204 

19. 844 




SnlfnnfvnninP cl 




281 Cloth fast blue B 








307 i Acid milling black B.. 


G 





DYES IMPORTED FOR CONSUMPTION 93 

Table 34. — Imports of dyes, calendar year 1927 — Continued 



Name of dye 



Imports 



Manu- 
facturer 



Quantity 



Invoice 
value 



Brilliant black BX 

Diaminogen blue 

BlueNA 

Diamineral blue B 

Diaminogen blue NA 

Diazamine blue BR cone 

Diaminogen 

Black extra 

Diaminogen extra pdr 

Benzo fast heliotrope... 

Benzo fast heliotrope 2RL pdr 

Chlorazol fast heliotrope BK 

Chlorazol fast heliotrope 2RK 

Direct fast heliotrope BL pdr 

Diamine fast scarlet 2G 

Diazo brilliant orange OR 

Developed brilliant orange GR 

Diazo brilliant orange GR 

Diazo brilliant scarlet BQ 

Diazo brilliant scarlet ROA 

Brilliant benz) violet B 

Brilliant benzo violet B 

Diamine brilliant violet 2R 

Diamine fast violet FFBN 

Benzo fast scarlet 8BS_ 

Benzo fast orange S 

Benzo fast orange WS.. 

Benzo fast scarlet 8BS 

Benzo fast scarlet 4BS 

Azo alizarin Bordeaux W 

Cotton yellow G 

Cotton yellow G extra 

Cotton yellow GX extra 

Chlorantine fast yellow 4GL... 

Fast cotton rubine B 

Brilliant carmine L cone 

Pyramine orange 3G 

Ignamine orange 3G. . 

Pyramine orange 2R 

Ignamine orange 2R . 

Developing black OT 

Congo rubine BG 

Congo orange G... 

Chloramine red 

Chloramine red B 

Chloramine red 3B 

Diamine scarlet SB 

Chlorantine fast gray B 

Chlorantine fast gray B 

Diphenyl fast gray BC 

Diamine orange B 

Universal dark brown C 

Oxamine red 3BX 

Minaxo red 3BX 

Polar red. 

Polar red G cone 

Polar red R cone 

Polar red RS cone 

Chloramine brilliant red 8B cone 

Acetopurpurine 8B pdr 

Chloramine brilliant red 8B cone. 

Chloramine red 8BS 

Toluylene red pdr. _ 

Pyramine orange R 

Ignamine orange R 

Chromocitronine R- 

Chrome fast yellow RD. 

C hromodtronine R 

Cotton red 4B 

Cotton red 4BX 

Cotton red 4BXA.... 

Universal scarlet C 

Diazo brilliant black B 

Deltapurpurine 5B 

Congo orange R 

Congo orange R.. 

Diamine orange F 



lO. 



lO. 
C. 

c: 

s... 



IG. 



By.... 
BDC. 
BDC. 
By..-. 
IG.... 



By. 
IG. 
IG. 
IG. 



By. 
C. 
IG. 



IG.. 
IG.. 
IG.. 
By.- 
DH. 



IG. 
IG. 
I... 
IG. 
IG. 



IG. 



lO. 
IG. 
IG. 
IG. 



S.. 
S.. 
IG. 



I... 
G.. 
IG. 
IG. 



IQ- 



A... 

S... 
By.. 
AG. 



IG. 



IG-- 
DH. 



IG. 
IG- 
IG- 
IG. 
Q-- 



IG. 
IG- 



Pounds 
77 
24, 626 



1,740 



2,992 



200 
4,913 



5,002 



2,450 



954 

55 

600 



8,233 
600 

1,600 
900 



200 



100 

100 

25 

29, 523 



7,826 



5,761 

50 

300 



19, 843 



1,800 
"3,'386 



1,722 



3, 441 

545 

6,260 



94 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

Table 34. — Imports of dyes, calendar year 1927 — Continued 



Col- 

our 

Index 

No. 


Name of dye 


Manu- 
facturer 


Imports 


Quantity 


Invoice 
value 


487 


Acid milling red R 




Pounds 

7,558 


$4, 822 




Acid anthracene red 3B. 


IG 




Acid iiiilling red R cone 


G 








Brilliant milling red R-- 


IG . 








Wool fast red 3B 


IG- . 






488 


Diamine vellow N pdr 


IG 


300 
800 




508 


Oxamine blue4BX 






Minaxo blue 4BX. 


IG 




516 


Chicago blue B 




3,828 






BlueNBB 


IG.. 






Chicago blue B 


IG 






518 


Diamine skv blue FF 


IG... 

I 


300 

270 

600 

500 

21,022 

16,002 

150 

4,102 

1,500 

50 

100 

300 

300 

930 




532 


Diazo fast green BL 




638 


Oxydiamine black N 


IG 

IG 

S 




544 


Diamine jet black SS 




561 


Trisulfon brown B cone 




577 


Trisulfon brown GG cone 


S 




578 


Universal dark blue C. 


IG 

G - 




590 


Pol yphenyl blue GC 




591 


Chloramine blue HW 


S_ 

IG 

IG. 

Bv 

IG 




593 


Universal dark green C 




594 


Diamine dark green N 




595 


Diazo olive G 




696 


Benzo chrome brown O ... 




597 


Benzo chrome brown R 






Benzo chrome brown R 


IG 






Cupranil brown R 


I 






598 


Diphenvl brown GS . 


G 


1,102 

200 

175 

2,205 

2,204 

165 




621 


Chloramine orange G ... 


IG 

IG... 

G 




622 


Stilbene vellow 3GX 




628 


Diphenvl catechine G supra 




629 


Diphenvl fast brown GF 


G 




632 


Diphenyl fast vellow 








Diphenvl fast vellow GL supra ._ 


G.__ 






Diphenvl fast vellow RL supra 


G 






636 


Fast light vellow 




5,453 






Fast light vellow 2G 


IG. 






Fast light vellow 3G .. 


IG. 






639 


Xylene light vellow 2G 


S 


8,090 
1,102 
6,061 
1,000 
2,220 




642 


Polar yellow 5G. • 


G. . . 




646 


Kiton fast vellow 3G 


I 




649 


Triazogene orange R pdr 


IG 




652 


Eriochrome red B 






Eriochrome red B 


O. 






Omega chrome red B cone 


S 






653 


Pyrazol orange 




11,200 






-Pj'razol orange G cone. 


s 






Pyrazol orange R cone 


s 






654 


Diazo fast yellow 2G.. 


By 


500 
6,978 




658 


Setoglaucine 


11,042 




Basic blue OG 


By 






Rhoduline blue 6G 


IG 








Setoglaucine cone .. . . .. 


G .. 






661 


Turquoise blue G 


IG 


286 
2,420 




663 


Setocyanine 


3,640 




Brilliant silk blue B 


I 






Setocyanine .. . . . 


G. 








Setopaline cone 


Q 






664 


Aeronol brilliant blue. 


BDC 


180 
16,111 




667 


Neptune green SGX 


15, 742 




Benzyl green B 


I. 






Brilliant milling green B cone _ 


C 








Erio\ iridine B supra . .... 


o 








Neptune green SOX pdr 


B. 








Poseidon green SGX 


IG... 






670 


Light green SF yellowish. . 




2,294 








M 






Light green SF yellowish XX 


IG. 






671 


Erioglaucine . 




57,084 


62, 831 




Erioglducine AP__. 


O 






Erioglaucine EP 


G 








Erioglaucine supra cone 


G.. 








Erioglaucine X high cone 


G 








Kiton blue L 


I 






672 


Xylene blue VS cone 


S 


2,998 
6,199 
11,500 




673 


Xylene blue AS cone 


s 

IG 




676 


Para rosaniline base 





DYES IMPORTED FOR CONSUMPTION 95 

Table 34. — Imports of dyes, calendar year 1927 — Continued 



Col- 


Name of dye 


Manu- 
facturer 


Imports 


Index 
No. 


Quantity 


Invoice 
value 


677 


Magenta .... 




Pounds 
11,190 








IG 






Magenta A B pdr. .-_ 


IG 




680 


Methyl violet -. 




11,251 


$9, 193 




Methyl violet NFB -.- 


IG.... . 






Methyl violet 300 XE extra cone 


St D 






Violet for ink pencils -- 


IG. 




681 


Crystal violet 




6,650 








IG 






Crystal violet P . . - 


By 

IG 

IG 


8,165" 
1,700 
19, 769 




682 


Ethyl violet .- - 




690 


Victoria blue 4R high cone .- 




691 


Fast green 


30,655 




Fast green extra bluish . . 


By . . .. 








IG . 








IG 


""m 

---- 

220 
4,408 

320 

50 

6,120 




692 








Acid magenta II - . 


BDC 

IG 

I 

I 

G 

IG 

IG 






Magenta S __ -. 




696 


Kiton fast violet lOB- 




698 


Benzyl violet 5BN 




699 


Eriocyanine AC 




700 


Alkali violet A extra cone - 




702 






704 


Alkali blue 


8,089 




Alkali blue 2B cone 


IG 

IG 

I-. 






Alkali blue No. 4 - 






Alkali blue R... 






Alkah blue 3R 


IG 




706 


AI ethyl Lyons blue 


G 


9,259 
6,400 




707 


Soluble blue 


11,255 




Ink blue BITN. 


IG ... 






Ink blue BITBN 


IG 

IG 

IG 

By 

IG 

IG 

IG.._ 

IG 


:::::::::::: 

13," 765" 












Silk blue BS/IC 






Soluble blue, green shade I . . 






Soluble blue, I old 






Soluble blue 5R cone 

Soluble blue T. 






Water blue .. - ... i . 




710 


Brilliant skv blue 5G 


22,003 




Brilliant sky blue 5G 


IG 

IG 






Brilliant sky blue 8G extra 






Direct brilliant blue 8B.. ... 


I :"":::::::: 




712 


Patent blue V 




17, 210 


10, 823 




Acid blue V 









Patent blue V 


w. !--::::;:: 








IG. . ! 






Poseidon blue BGX eonc 


IG 




713 


Cvanine B 


IG 


200 
33, 037 




714 


Patent blue A 


23, 583 






Q - - 






Brilliant acid blue A 


IG !. 






Carmine blue A 


M .! 








I .i 






Patent blue A .. 


IG t 






Poseidon blue B \ cone 


IG 1 . 






Poseidon blue BR cone 


IG . 






Poseidon blue BR extra ... . . 


IG 






Poseidon blue BXX 


IG 1 




715 


Cyanol 




14, 782 


17,852 






IG 






Blue FF 


IG 








Cyanol extra 


c 








Cyanol FF.. 


IG.- 








Xylene cyanol FF extra pdr 


s 






717 


Acid violet 6BNOO . 


IG 

DH 


1,410 

660 

19, 898 




718 






720 


Eriochrome azurol BC 


22, 879 




Brilliant blue G 


By 








IG 








Eriochrome azurol BC 


G 






721 


Chromal blue GC 


G 


662 
4,409 
6,061 

392 




722 


Eriochrome cvanine RC 


Q 




723 


Chrome azurol S cone 


G 




724 


Aurine 


Lo 





96 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

Table 34. — Imports of dyes, calendar year 1927 — Continued 



Col- 


Name of dye 


Manu- 
facturer 


Imports 


Index 
No. 


Quantity 


Invoice 
value 


727 


Chrome violet 




Pounds 

825 






Chrome violet 


G. . 






Chrome violet CG 


DH. 




728 


New Victoria blue B. 


IG 


100 
19,858 




729 


Victoria bkie B 


$42, 255 




Basic pure blue BO pdr 

Victoria blue B high cone. 


B 




IG 








Victoria pure blue BO pdr 


IG 




731 


Night blue 




160 






Night blue 


I. 






Night bUie 


IG 






733 


Intensive blue B 




1,217 






Fast acid blue B 


By 






Intensive blue B 


IQ 






735 


Naphthalene green . . .. 




17, 137 


14,783 




Alkali fast green 3G 


IG 




Erio green B supra 


G 








Kiton fast green V. 


I 

CN 

M. 

IG 

S... 

IG 






206" 

1,152 






Naphthalene green NV... 






Naphthalene green V. 






Poseidon green VQGX 










736 


Wool blue G extra 





737 








Wool green S 


I 






Wool green S cone - .... 


I. 




743 


Rhodamine S 


IG 

IG 


450 

900 

102, 945 




748 


Sulfo rhodamine B extra 




749 


Rhodamine B (single strength) 


37,279 






G 




Rhodamine B extra 


I. 


] 




Rhodamine B extra 


IG. 


1 




Rhodamine B extra.. 


Q 


1 


7.50 


Rhodamine G (single strength) 




3,300 






Basic pinli G_. 


Q 







Rhodamine G 


I 


:: 


752 


Rhodamine 6G (single strength) 




1,655 









G.. 






Rhodamine 6G extra 


IG 




753 




IG 

G 


50 

45 

55 

801 




756 


Fast acid eosine G . 




757 




G 




758 


Erio fast fuchsine BL.. 




849 






G 






Fast acid violet R 


IG 






Guinea rubine 4R_ 


IG 





762 


Chromorhodine B 




2,422 






Chromorhodine BN 


DH 






Chromorhodine BR 


DH 1 L- 


768 




IG 


120 
292 




773 


Erythrosine 






Erythrosine .. 


Q 






Ervthrosine extra 


IG 




786 


Auracine G 




405 






Auracine G 


G 






Auracine G .. .. 


IG... 




787 


Coriphosphine OX extra . .. .. 


By 


900 
2,932 




788 


Rhoduline orange NO 


4,783 




Brilliant acridine orange A 


DH. 






Euchrysine 3RX pdr 


B 

G 








Phosphine orange .. .. .. . 






Rhoduline orange NO 

Patent I'hosphine. 


IG 






789 




4,498 


6,421 




Brilliant phosphine 5G 

Patent phosphine G 

Patent phosphine R... 

Phosphine 


I 






I 








I 








I. 








S 






793 




17, 625 


20, 187 




Leather yellow GC. 

Phosphine O 

Phosphine 3R 


IG 






G 








IG 








IG 






795 




5,300 






Runic, AL cone 

Euchrvsine 


IQ 




797 




20, 100 






Patent phosphine GRNTN 

Patent phosphine RRDX 


IG 






IG 1 







DYES IMPORTED FOR CONSUMPTION 97 

Table 34. — Imports of dyes, calendar year 1927 — Continued 



Col- 


Xame of dye 


I 

Manu- 
facturer 


Imports 


Index 
No. 


Quantity 


Invoice 
value 


800 


Quinoline yellow (spirit soluble) 

Quinoline vellow extra 


S._. 


Pounds 
310 
3,710 




801 


$2, 913 




Quinoline yellow 

Quinoline yellow cone 

Quinoline yellow extra 

Quinoline yellow KT extra cone. 

Mimosa Z cone 

Chloramine yellow .. .. 


J 






g 








.... IG 






802 


.... IG 

.... G 


200 
551 
400 




813 




814 






Chloramine fast yellow B 

Chloramine yellow FF. 

Thioflavine T 


.... IQ 






.... IG 






815 




7,485 


12,480 




Basic vellow T 

Basic yellow TCN 

Rhoduline yellow 6G... 

Tannoflavine T 

Azocarmine GX 

Eosinduline 2B bluish 

Wool fast blue . 


.... IG 




IG 








....! IG 








....i S 






828 


.... IG 

.... K 


2,500 

726 

22,041 




829 




833 


32,633 




-\cid blue AM pdr 

.\cid blue BL pdr 

Acid fast blue GL pdr 

Benzyl fast blue GL 

Wool fast blue BL , 

Wool fast blue GL 

Wool fast violet B 

Xylene milling blue .^E 

Xylene milling blue BL cone 

Xylene milling blue GL cone 

Xylene milling violet B cone. 

Methj-lene violet 3RA extra.. 

Methvlene heliotrope. 


.... By 




.... By 








By 








, I 








.... IG... 








....1 IG 








....; IG 








S 








, s 








J s 








1 s. . 






842 


--! i« 


1,250 
520 




845 






Methylene heliotrope extra strong 

Rosolane extra strong 

Iris violet extra. 

Diphene blue 


....! IQ 






....; IG... 






847 


-...1 IG 

1 


25 
7,100 




851 






Diphene blue B 

Diphene blue R 

Acid cyanine BF 


....i IG 






....! IG 






853 
861 


...., IG........ 


500 
200 

2,"46o" 




865 


Induline NX.. 

Solid blue S 

Nigrosine (water soluble) ... 


....1 IG 

.-..j IG. 






Nigrosine T 

Silver gray P 

Direct grav R 


... IG 






IG 






873 






2,112 




Direct gray R paste 

Malta gray J 

Methylene gray 

Methylene gray.. 

New fast gray 

Ursol. 


.... O 

StD 

....: G 

.... IG 

--i I« 


7,407 
1,873 

422 

9,675 












875 


8,920 




Fur black DF, DG 

Fur blue black A, SB 

Fur brown, P, XZ, XZD. 4R, 2R, SK, SO, SP 

Fur grav G, ALA, B, AL 

Fur ohve DA, 3G._ 

Fur dye SC 

Fur gray brown SL.\... 

Furred brown 6R 

Fur yellow brown 2GA, .\... 

Furrol gray G 

Fuscamine G. 

Fouramine A 

Nako 3GA, B, D, DFN, DG, DR, DMG, PS 

Nako ER, 3GN, 4G, P, R, RHG, 3R, 3RSC. 

Nako black C, DD 

Nako red 

Brilliant delphine blue B 

Chromazurine 


IG 






IG 








IG 








IG 








IG 








.... IG 

.... IG 

IG 

.-.| IG 

..... IG 

.... IG 

.... StD 

IG.. 

IG 

IG.. 






V.V.-'.'.'. 




IG 






878 


S... _. 


3,000 
3,744 




879 


8, .554 




Chromazurine E 

Chromazurine G 

Chromazurine G 

Chromacetine blue S . . 


DH 






DH 








I 






884 




5,711 


13, 228 




.\nthracyanine S_. 

Chromacetine blue S... 

Gallo navy blue S pdr 

Modem cyanine N 

Modern cVanine V.. 


DH 






DH 








IG 


_. 






DH 








DH 







98 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

Table 34. — Imports of dyes, calendar year 1927 — Continued 



Col- 


Name of dye 


Manu- 
facturer 


Imports 


Index 

No. 


Quantity 


^Invoice 
value 


888 


Chromoeyanine 




Pounds 
547 


i 

$366 




Chromocyanine B paste 


DH 






Chromocvanine BC paste 


DH 






Chromocyanine V paste . . . 


DH 


1 


892 


Modern violet -- 




5,618 


|. 




Blue 1000 TCD 


DH 


1 , 




Modern violet _ ■... 


DH 


1 


894 


Gallamine blue extra paste. 

Fast green G.. _ _ 

Modern azurine 50 

Phenocvanine 


G 


29, 132 
200 
110 
435 




898 
899 


IG 

DH 




902 






Phenocyanine R 

Phenocyanine VS 

Phenocvanine TV ._ 

Gallazine No. SO. 

riourescent blue .. 


DH 






DH 


• 




904 


DH 

DH 

S - .. 


11 
1,874 

21 
1,220 




905 




908 




909 


Meidola's blue__. 








Meldola's blue 3R cone 

New blue RS 


S 






I 






913 


Nile blue 




3,250 






Danubia blue BX .. .. 


IG 




922 


Methylene blue 




626 


1,082 




Meth vlenc blue «. 


Q 






Methvlene blue B cone 


IG 








Methvlene blue BGF high, cone 


IG 








Methvlene blue NS cone.-. - 


S 






924 


Methvlene green Q extra 


I 


1,440 
20 

2, 508 




925 


Toluidine blue 


IG-,. 




926 


Thionine blue,,- ,, 


2,982 


927 
931 


Basic blue GO 


M. 




Thionine blue G _ 


I 






Thionine blue GC 


IG 






Thionine blue GO _ 


IG 






New methylene blue 




13, 249 




New methvlene blue N 


IG. 




.\ew methylene blue NS cone 


S 






Indochromine RR cone 


S 


500 
8,335 




969 


Hvdron blue R (single strength) . .. 








Hydrou blue R paste . . . 


IG . 






Hvdron blue R pdr,. 


IG. 






971 


Hydron blue Ci (single strength), 




666 






Hvdron blue G pdr... 


IG 




1006 


Pvrogene green 3G 




4,011 






Pyrogene green 3G 


I . . . 






Thional brilliant green GG cone 


S 






1019 


Alizarin black S paste 




6,041 






Alizarin black S paste 


IG 






Aliz:.rin black SP paste 


IG 






1027 






89, 210 


13. 524 




Alizarin paste bluish 


I 






Aliztirin reil i)aste 

Alizarin red IB extra paste 


G 








By 






1032 
1033 

1034 


Alizarin red VI extra pure paste 


IG . 






Alizarin red VI old paste. 


IG 






Alizarin claret R paste 


IG 


1,000 
16, 662 




.Mizarin orange 


8,828 


Alizarin orange A 


IG 




Alizarin orange AO 


BDC... 






.\lizarin orange SW 


lO 






Alizarin red S 




14,463 


11, .548 




Alizarin carmine 


BAC 






Alizarin red IWS. 


M 








.\lizariu red S 


Q 








Alizarin red SW 


I 








Alizarin red SWB 


IG 








Alizarin red SZ 


S 






1035 


Anthracene brown, 






1,456 




Alizarin brown II D paste 


IG 

IG 

IG 

IG 

IG. 


700 

1 1,200 

10,000 
2,210 
8,363 






Anthracene briiw n R pdr 






Anthracene brown SW pdr 








1037 


Purpurine 




1039 
1040 


.\lizarin red XOD paste 

Alizarin red SX 






Alizarin red SX nflste, , _ _ 


IG. 




Alizarin red \VR paste 


IG 






1045 Alizarin Bordeaux BP paste . . 


By . 


798 




1051 ' Alizarin eyanine GO pdr 


By 


507 





DYES IMPORTED FOR CONSUMPTION 99 

Table 34. — Imports of dycii, calendar year 1927 — Continued 



Col- 
our 
Index 

No. 



Name of dye 



Manu- 
facturer 



1053 Alizarin light blue SE 

Alizarin light blue SE 

Alizarin sapphire blue SE 

1054 Alizarin light blue B 

Alizarin light blue B 

Alizarin saphirol B 

1056 .\lizarin emeraldole G 

1058 Alizarin uranol BB pdr 

1060 Anthracene blue SWCxG 

Anthracene blue SWG pdr 

I Anthracene blue SWGG pdr 

1063 I Anthracene blue SWR pdr 

1064 Alizarin ovclamine R paste - 

1067 Alizarin blue S. 

Alizarin blue S 

Ahzarin blue SW 

1071 Alizarin green S 

Alizarin green S paste.. -.- 

Alizarin green S paste... 

1073 Alizarin irisol R 

Alizarin blue JR pdr 

Alizarin direct violet ER pdr. 

.Alizarin irisol R pdr 

Alizarin light violet RS cone 

1075 Alizarin astrol B 

Alizarin astrol B pdr 

Alizarin blue AS pdr. 

1076 Alizarin light blue R 

Alizarin direct blue RXO pdr 

Alizarin light blue LR cone 

Alizarin light blue R cone _. 

Lauasol blue R 

1077 AUzarin direct blue BGAOO 

1078 Alizarin cyanine green 

Alizarin cyanme green G extra pdr. 

Alizarin cyanine green 3G extra pdr 

Anthraquinone violet 

Anthraquinone violet pdr ._ 

Special \iolet B 

1081 .\nthraquinone green GXNO 

1082 Anthraquinone blue green BXO 

1083 Brilliant alizarin viridine F paste 

1084 1 Alizarin viridine (single strength) 

! Alizarin viridine FF paste 

.\lizarin vii'idine FF paste- 

I Alizarin viridine FF pdr 

1085 Alizarin blue black 

Alizarin blue black B pdr .■ 

Alizarin light gray BS conc- _ 

Chrome blue black B_ 

1087 : Alizarin direct blue B 

1088 .\lizarin pure blue B 

Alizarin blue SKY pdr 

Alizarin skv blue B pdr... 

Wool fast blue BR.. 

;0H9 Anthraquinone blue SR extra pdr 

loyi Alizarin rubinol 

Alizarin direct red 3G 

Alizarin rubiue R. 

Alizarin rubinol GW.._ 

i .\lizarin rubinol 5G 

Authra rubine B 

1092 Alizarin ge ran ol B pdr 

1095 Anthraflavone GC (single strength) 

Anthra yellow GC paste 

Anthra yellow GC paste fine 

Anthra yellow GC dbl. paste 

Anthra yellow GC pdr 

Vat yellow OC paste 

Vat yellow GC dbi. paste 

Anthra yellow GCN pdr.i 

1096 Indanthrene golden orange G (single strength). 

"^'at golden orange G dbl. paste 

\at golden orange G pdr 



S... 
IG. 
IG. 
By. 



IG. 
IG. 
IG. 
IG. 



IG. 
Q-- 



BDC. 
IG... 



By. 
IG. 
IG. 



By. 
By. 



IG. 

S.. 
S.. 
I... 
IG. 



By 
IG. 



B._. 
IC... 
IG._ 
IG._ 
DH. 



DH. 
IG.. 
IG.. 



IG. 
S.. 
I... 
IG. 



By. 
IG. 
I... 
IG. 



M.. 
By. 
By. 
IG- 
K.. 
IG. 



IG. 
IG. 
B.. 
IG. 
B.. 
B-. 
IG- 



IG. 
IG. 



Imports 



Quantity 



Pounds 
1,720 



31, 056 



10 

420 

4,493 



4,500 
20,399 
8, 359 



5,277 



4,470 



5,525 
1,589 



2,440 



931 
126 

55 
31,188 



11,078 



620 
13,198 



600 
2,844 



3,963 
73, 773 



400 
13,402 



Invoice 
value 



3,140 { 

1,"882 $i4,'i68 



14,679 



14,561 



9,637 



36, 556 



6,974 



73, 536 



Xot reduced. 



100 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 
Table 34. — Imports of dyes, calendar year 1927 — Continued 



Col- 
our 
Index 

No. 



1099 



1103 
1104 



1106 



1108 



1115 



1116 



1120 



1123 
1128 



1129 
1132 



1133 



Name of dye 



Indanthrene dark blue BO (single strength) 

Vat dark blue BO paste 

Vat dark blue BOA paste - 

Vat dark blue BOA paste fine - 

Vat dark blue BOA pdr 

Indanthrene black (single strength). 

Caledon black BB dbl. paste --- 

Cibanone black BB pdr 

Vat black BB dbl. paste 

Vat black BB dbl. paste fine 

Vat black BB pdr... 

Vat black BOA paste 

Vat black BOA dbl. paste 

Indanthrene violet R (single strength) 

Vat violet R e.\tra pdr 

Indanthrene brilliant violet RR (single strength). 

Vat brilliant violet RR paste fine 

Vat brilliant violet RR pdr 

Vat brilliant violet RRP dbl. pdr. 

Vat violet RR extra dbl. paste... 

Indanthrene violet B 

Vat violet B paste fine.. 

Indanthrene blue RS (single strength) 

Vat blue RS quintuple pdr 

Vat blue RSP dbl. paste fine 

Vat blue RSP triple pdr 

Vat blue RSN pdr 

Indanthrene blue RK 

Vat blue RK paste 

Indanthrene blue 3G (single strength)... 

Vat blue SO paste... 

Vat blue 3G dbl. paste 

Vat blue 3G pdr 

Indanthrene blue GGSZ (single strength) 

Vat blue GGSZ dbl. paste 

Indanthrene blue SG (single strength) 

Vat blue 50 pdr 

Indanthrene blue GCD (single strength) 

Cibanone blue GCD dbl. paste 

Indanthrene blue GCD dbl. paste 

Vat blue GCD dbl. paste fine 

Vat blue GCDN pdr 

Indanthrene blue BCD (single strength) 

Vat blue BCD paste fine 

Vat blue BCS pdr 

Vat blue BCSO pdr 

Cibanone blue G (single strength) 

Cibanone blue G paste 

Cibanone blue G pdr 

Indanthrene green BB (single strength) 

Vat green BB pdr 

Indanthrene yellow Ci (single strength) 

Sandothrene yellow NG dbl. paste 

Vat yellow G dbl. paste 

Vat yellow G dbl. paste fine 

Vat yellow G pdr.. 

Indanthrene brown B _ 

Anthra brown B paste 

Anthra gray B pdr. (single strength) 

Algol pink R (single strength) 

Algol pink R paste 

Algol pink R pdr 

Algol scarlet G pdr. (single strength) 

Indanthrene yellow GK (single strength) 

Vat yellow GK pdr 

Algol red KF, R (single strength) 

Algol brilliant red 2B pdr 

Algol red FK extra paste 

Algol red FF extra pdr 

.'Vlgol red R extra pdr 

Vat red FF paste 

Vat red R extra pdr. 



Manu- 
facturer 



IG. 
B.. 
IG. 

lO. 



SD. 
I... 
IG. 
IG. 
IG- 
IG. 
IG- 



IG. 



IG. 
IG. 
IG. 
B.. 



IG. 



IG. 
IG. 
IG. 
IG. 



IG. 



IG. 
B.. 
IG. 



IG. 



IG. 



I... 
B.. 
IG. 
IG. 



IG. 



S 

IG. 
IG. 
IG. 



IG. 
IG. 
IG. 



IG. 



By. 
By. 
IG. 
IG. 
By. 
By. 



Imports 



Quantity ' I^Zf 



value 



Pounds 
2 24,138 



.$13,774 



3 23, 887 



8,653 



80 



10, 701 



100 
"9,"350' 



5,340 



3,800 
800 



6,671 



2,562 



3,200 
""i,"206" 

"82,"268" 



28,254 



13, 070 



15, 978 



14, 797 
"45,142' 



5.663 



2,769 



400 
4,200 



30, 677 



80 
6,560 



19, 194 



7,601 



' Includes 15,873 pounds 15 per cent paste, 420 pounds 20 per cent paste, and 7,845 pounds 25 per cent paste. 
3 Includes 14,875 pounds 10 per cent paste, 5,556 pounds 14 per cent paste, and 3,456 pounds of ll-z per 
cent paste. 
< Includes 9,947 pounds 10% paste and 3,i20 pounds 12J'2% paste. 



DYES IMPORTED FOR CONSUMPTION 
Table 34. — Imports of dyes, calendar year 1927 — Continued 



101 




1134 
1135 



1136 



1137 
1138 



1139 
1142 



1143 



1144 
1145 



1146 
1149 



1150 



1151 



1152 



1155 



1161 



1162 



1163 



1169 



1171 
1172 



1173 



1174 
1175 



Vat violet SB pdr. (single strength) 

Indanthrene brilliant violet RK (single strength) 

Vat brilliant violet RK paste 

Vat brilliant violet RE pdr-.. .- - 

Indanthrene orange RRK (single strength) 

Vat orange RRK paste 

Vat orange RRK pdr 

Grelanone orange R paste 

Helindone yellow 3GN (single strength) 

Helindone yellow 3GN pdr.. 

Algol yellow 3G (single strength) 

Algol yellow 3G pdr 

Indanthrene red R (single strength) 

Anthra red RT pdr 

Anthra Bordeaux R (single strength) 

Anthra Bordeaux R paste - 

Anthra claret R pdr 

Indanthrene corinth RK(single strength) 

Vat corinth RK pdr 

Indanthrene gray K - 

Vat gray GK paste - -. 

Vat gray K paste 

Indanthrene Bordeaux B (single strength) 

Anthra Bordeaux B pdr 

Indanthrene brown GR (single strength) 

Vat brown GR pdr 

Vat brown IGR paste -. 

Indanthrene olive R (single strength) 

Grelanone olive B paste 

Grelanone olive B pdr 

Vat olive B paste.. 

Vat olive B pdr 

Vat olive R paste 

Vat olive R pdr. 

Indanthrene brown R (single strength) 

Grelanone brown RR paste , 

Grelanone brown RR pdr.. 

Vat brown BR paste 

Vat brown BR pdr 

Vat brown R paste 

Vat brown R pdr 

Indanthrene brown G (single strength) 

I Vat brown B paste 

Vat brown G paste 

Vat brown G pdr_ 

Algol red B (single strength) 

Algol red B paste 

Algol red B pdr 

Indanthrene red violet (single strength) 

Vat red violet RRK paste fine 

Vat red violet RRN new paste 

Vat red violet RRN new pdr 

Indanthrene red RK (single strength) 

Vat red RK paste 

Vat red RK paste fine 

Vat red RK pdr 

Vat red RKP pdr 

Indanthrene violet BN (single strength) 

Vat violet BN paste 

Vat violet BN paste fine 

Vat violet BN pdr 

Cibanone orange R (single strength) 

Cibanone orange R paste 

Cibanone orange R pdr 

Cibanone brown B (single strength) 

Cibanone brown B pdr 

Cibanone black B (single strength) 

Cibanone black B paste new 

Cibanone black B pdr 

Cibanone black 2G paste. 

Indanthrene blue green (single strength) 

Cibanone blue 3G paste 

Vat blue green B dbl paste 

Vat bluish green B dbl paste 

Cibanone green B (single strength) 

Cibanone green B pdr 

Cibanone olive B (single strength) 

Cibanone olive B pdr 

« Includes 12,078 pounds 12>^ per cent paste and 6,604 pounds 10 per 



IG.. 
IG... 
GrE. 



IG. 
By". 
B-V. 



B.. 

IG. 



IG. 



IG. 
IG. 



IG. 



GrE. 
GrE. 
GrE. 
GrE. 
IG... 
IG... 



GrE. 
GrE. 
IG.. 
IG-. 
IG._ 
IG.. 



GrE. 
IG.. 
By-. 



IG. 
IG. 



IG. 
IG. 
IG. 



B.. 
B.. 
IG. 
IG. 



IG. 
IG. 
IG. 



I... 
IG. 
IG. 



3,988 



798 
750 



880 
"i,"848' 
"4,'636 



40O 
"966' 



400 
"305' 



61, 463 



I 

cent paste. 



81,096 



34,094 



1,769 



23, 452 



13, 678 



15,206 



500 
"5,"944' 



18,682 



2,200 
'2.266" 



$36, 733 



71,916 



23, 060 



1,493 



17, 013 



25, 129 



2,427 
"i7,'970 



102 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Table 34. — Imports of dyes, calendar year 1927 — Continued 



Name of dye 



Indigosol 

Indigo white paste _ -- 

Indigosol O 

Indigosol O 

Indigosol O -_ - - 

Indigo pure RB paste 

Brilliant indigo BASF/4B (single strength). 

Brilliant indigo 4B paste fine— 

Brilliant indigo 4B pdr 

Brilliant indigo 4BC paste. 

Brilliant indigo blue 3BW cone 

Brilliant indigo blue 3BW cone. G 

Indigo MLB/6B (single strength) 

Indigo MLB/6B pdr 

Ciba brown R (single strength) 

Ciba brown R pdr 

Brilliant indigo BASF/2B paste 

Brilliant indigo BASF/4G paste fine 

Brilliant indigo BASF/B (single strength).. 

Brilliant indigo BASF/B paste 

Brilliant indigo BASF/B paste fine 

Brilliant indigo BASF/B pdr 

Ciba yellow G paste 

Helindone green G (single strength) 

Helindone green G pdr 

Alizarin indigo 3R paste .-- 

Alizarin indigo G pastc_ 

Anthra red B._ 

Anthra red B paste fine 

Ciba pink B paste - 

Helindone red B (single strength) 

Helindone red B pdr 

Helindone pink (single strength) 

Helindone pink AN paste 

Helindone pink AN pdr 

Helindone pink BN paste 

Helindone pink BN pdr 

Vat red violet RH (single strength) 

Ciba red 3B paste 

Ciba red 3B pdr 

Thioindigo red 3B paste 

Thioindigo red 3B pdr 

Vat red violet RH paste 

Vat red violet RH pdr 

Indanthrene gray OB (single strength) 

Vat gray nB pdr.. 

Helindone orange R (single strength) 

Anthra orange R pdr 

Anthra orange RH paste fine 

Anthra orange RH dbl. paste fine 

Helindone orange R paste 

Hydron orange RF paste 

Thioindigo orange R pdr.. 

Helindone fast scarlet R (single strength) «. 

Vat scarlet R paste 

Vat scarlet R pdr 

Vat violet 2B 

Helindone violet R paste 

Vat violet 2B paste 

Ciba violet B (single strength) 

Ciba violet B pdr... 

Ciba red O (single strength) 

Ciba red G pdr 

Helindone brown G (single strength) 

Helindone brown G paste 

Helindone brown G pdr 

Vat brown G pdr 

Anthra scarlet 2c} (single strength).. 

Anthra scarlet 2G paste... 

Anthra scarlet 2G paste fine 

Anthra scarlet 2G pdr 

Ciba scarlet G extra paste 

Ciba scarlet G extra pdr 

Helindone fast scarlet C paste 

Thioindigo scarlet 2G paste 

Ciba red R paste 

Ciba orange G paste 

Indigo, natural _ 



Manu- 
facturer 



B... 
DH. 
By„ 
IG-. 
IG.. 



IG. 
lO. 
IG. 
IG. 
IG. 



IG. 



I... 
IG. 
IG. 



IG. 
IG. 
IG. 
I... 



IG. 
IG. 
IG. 



IG. 
I... 



IG.. 



IG. 
lO. 
IG. 
IG. 



I... 
I... 
K.. 
K.. 
IG- 
IG. 



IG. 



IG. 
IG. 
IG. 
IG. 
IG. 
K.. 



IG. 
IG. 



lO. 
IG. 

M. 



B.. 
IG. 
B.. 
I... 
I... 
IG. 
IG. 
I... 
I... 



Imports 



Quantity 



Pounds 

847 



100 
6,271 



10,000 



6,629 

6,027 

46,863 



1,762 
500 



399 
3,577 
10, 626 



250 
'is," 130' 



62,988 



510 
'32,"740' 



5,425 



1,079 



16, 530 



4,410 



6,390 



20,315 

6,942 

4,300 

4,000 

50,262 

551 

6,057 



Invoice 
value 



25, 472 



'' 18 per cent paste. 



DYES IMPORTED FOR CONSUMPTION 

UNIDENTIFIED ACID DYES 



103 



Name of dye 



Acid black 2R 

Acid brown RN 

Acid leather brown 

Acid leather brown EGB.. 

Acid leather brown ER 

Acid milling yellow G cone 

Acid pure blue R supra 

Acid rhodauiine BG 

Acid violet -- 

Acid violet 6B cone .-. 

Acid violet 8B 

Acid violet C lOB 

Acid violet R extra 

Acid violet 3R 

Alizarin brilliant sky blue R... 

Alizarin direct blue 

Alizarin direct blue A 2G._ 
Alizarin direct blue RBX.. 

Alizarin direct violet E 2F 

Alizarin supra blue 

Alizarin supra blue R 

Alizarin supra blue SES... 

Alkali fast green 

Alkali fast green 2BF 

Alkali fast green lOG 

Alkali violet lOB 

Alphanol brown B 

Amido black green B 

Amido fast red 2G 

Azo fast Mue BD 

Azo fast blue BD 

Azo fast blue BD cone 

Benzyl fast blue 3GL 

Brilliant acid blue FF__ 

Brilliant benzyl violet 3B 

Brilliant indocyanine 6B 

Brilliant milling blue 

Brilliant milling blue B 

Brilliant milling blue B 

Brilliant milling blue FO.. 

Brilliant wool blue..- -. 

Brilliant wool blue B 

Brilliant wool blue FFB.., 
Brilliant wool blue FFR.. 

Cashmire black TN 

Chestnut brown. _ 

Cloth fast brown 5R 

Cloth fast orange. 

Cloth fast orange G 

Cloth fast orange R -. 

Cloth fast red 3B.. 

Cloth fast violet R. 

Cloth fast yellow G 

Discharge blue B 

Erio fast brown R 

Fast acid green BB extra.. 

Fast acid marine blue HBBX. 

Fast acid pink B 

Fast jasmine G cone 

Fast light red 

Fast light red G 

Fast light red R 

Fluorescent violet B cone 

Gloria black B 

Guinea brown R 

Guinea fast green B 

Guinea fast red 

Guinea fast red BL 

Guinea fast red 2BL 

Guinea light blue A 

Indigo carmine blue FF 

Indocyanine 

Indocyanine B 

Indocyanine FF 

Ink fast black A extra 



Imports 



Manufac- 
turer 



IG. 
G.. 



IG. 
IG. 

S... 
G.. 
IG. 



DH. 
IG.. 
IG.. 
IG.. 
IG.. 
IG.. 



IG, 
lO' 
IG. 



IG. 

IG. 



By. 
IG. 
By. 
IG. 
IG. 
IG. 



IG. 
IG. 
I... 
IG. 
I... 
IG. 



C. 
IG. 
IG. 



IG... 
IG... 
IG... 
IG... 
BDC. 
I 



I... 
I... 
I... 
I... 
I... 
IG. 
G.. 
IG. 
IG. 
IG. 
G.. 



By. 
By. 
IG. 
IG. 
IG. 
IG. 



IG.. 
AG. 
AG. 
IG.. 



IG. 
IG. 
IG. 



Quantity 



Pounds 
13, 923 
770 
100 



4,000 

7, 825 

2,000 

648 



100 
350 



50 
2,067 



2,492 



55 
100 
100 
400 
350 



330 

2,567 

110 

100 

20, 506 



29, 073 



1,000 

120 

2,093 

1,982 



4,408 
110 

3,800 
100 
110 
300 
212 
125 

1,377 
52 



15 

250 

25 

2,300 

1,000 



500 

100 

13, 574 



100 



Invoice 
value 



$942 



15, 495 
"26,'443 



7709—28- 



104 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

UNIDENTIFIED ACID DYES— Continued 





Manufac- 
turer 


Imports 


Name of dye 


Quantity 


Invoice 
value 


Kiton fast red .. .. .... 




Pounds 
3,306 




Kiton fast red 4BL 


I.. 




Kiton fast red R 


I 






Lanasol orange 2R 


I 


993 

220 

1,400 

200 

2,600 

2,228 




Lanasol violet R 


I.. 




Metanil red 3B extra 


IG. 

IG 

IG. 




Milling brown R 




Milling orange G.. 




Milling red 


$2, 020 


Milling red 4BA 


IG.. . 




Milling red 6BA 


IG. 






Milling red NJ 


CN 






Milling red T 


Q 






Milling violet B, R 


Q 


52 

4,275 




Milling vellow 




3,288 


Milling yellow QA 


A.. 




Milling yellow 3Q 


IQ 






Milling yellow H30 


IG 






Milling yellow 


IG 






Minaxo (Oxamine) acid brown G... 


IG 


400 

1,200 

330 




Naphthol black BGN cone 




Neolan black 2Q 






Neolan blue_ 




10, 139 




Neolan blue 2G 








Neolan blue 2R. 


I 






Neolan Bordeaux R 


I 


429 

2,755 

991 




Neolan green LBN cone 






Neolan orange 






Neolan orange G. 






Neolan orange R 








Neolan pink B 




551 
110 
440 




Neolan red R 












Neolan violet R I I 


220 




Neolan violet brown B | I 


881 


Neolan yellow R I 


771 


Novazol acid blue 


385 


Novazol acid blue BL 


G 




Novazol acid blue GL 


G 




Novazol blue B 


G 


10, 470 
3,306 
2,250 




Novazol violet B . . 


G 




Onis (.\nthosine) 




3,740 


OnisB 


IG 




Onis3B 


IG 






Onis 5B 


IG 






Patent black N . . 


IG 

IG 


100 

500 

2,050 




Pilatus (Palatine) black SF 




Pilatus fast blue 


2,077 




IG 


Pilatus fast blue BR 


IG. 






Pilatus fast blue OG 


IG. 






Pilatus fast brown BRRNO ... 


IG 

IQ... 

IQ 


50 

100 

2,400 

125 




Pilatus fast claret RNX... 




Pilatus fast green BLconc- .. .. 




Pilatus fast orange.. 




Pilatus fast orange GN 


IG 






IG. 






Pilatus fast pink . . . 




450 




Pilatus fast pink B 


IG 




Pilatus fast pink G 


IG 








IQ 


325 
350 




Pilatus fast yellow. 






IQ 




Pilatus fast vellow GR 


IG 






Polar brilliant red B cone 


Q 


1,047 

1,543 

12,236 

1,543 




Polar gray 


G 




Polar orange R cone 


Q 




Polarred. ... . ... 






Polar red B cone. 


G 




Polar red 3B cone 


Q 






Polar vellow 




4,463 




Polar yellow 2G cone... 


G 




Polar yellow R cone 


G 




Pure wool blue J extra .... 


DH 

IG 

IG 

IG 

M 


110 

100 

900 

2,950 

358 








Selan printing brown3R 




Silk yellow R 




Sulfo rhodamine u 





DYES IMPORTED FOR CONSUMPTION 

UNIDENTIFIED ACID DYES— Continued 



105 



Name of dye 



Manufac- 
turer 



Imports 



Quantity 



IG. 
lO. 



IG. 
IG. 
IG. 
IG. 



?ulfon orange G IG. 

Sulfon yellow.. 

Sulfon yellow 5G 

Sulfon yeUow R. 
Supramine black BR 
Supramine blue 

Supramine blue FB ..I IG 

Supramine blue R IG 

Supramine Bordeaux B IG. 

Supramine brown 

Supramine brown G 

Supramine brown R 

Supramine red. 

Supramine red B 

Supramine red 3B 

Supramine red R.. 

Supramine violet B 

Supramine yellow 

Supramine yellow G 

Supramine yellow 3G 

Supramine yellow R 

Wool black 

Wool black GRF..._ 

AVool black N 

Wool blue 

Wool blue 5B 

Wool blue R extra 

Wool fast brown 3R paste 

Wool fast orange G 

Wool fast yellow 

Wool fast yellow 5G 

Wool fast yellow R 

Xylene brilliant blue FFRX cone. 

Xylene fast blue FF cone 

Xylene milling orange R cone 

Xylene milling red B cone 

.\11 other acid dyes 



IG. 
IG. 
IG. 



IG. 
IG. 



IG. 
IG. 
By. 
lO- 



By. 
By. 

S... 
S... 

s... 

S... 

Q-- 



Pounds 
3,550 
2,700 



2,300 
2,100 



1,600 
3,200 



7,480 



50 
2,489 



5,050 



1,100 



100 

956 

1,630 



4,795 
9,118 
3,000 
1,500 
10 



UNIDENTIFIED V.\T DYES 



.\lgol blue 3RP pdr . . ... 


IG 

IG 


788 

6,000 

27, 860 












Vat printing brown R paste 


IG 




Anthra pink B extra paste 


IG 


20,500 
8,700 




.\ntlira scarlet B (single strength) .. . .. ... 






IG 




Anthra scarlet B pdr 


IG 




Ciba brown . . 




4,103 




Ciba brown G paste. 








Ciba brown 2R paste 








Ciba pink BG (single strength) 




17, 082 










Ciba pink BG pdr... 








Ciba violet 




198 




Ciba violet BL . 






Ciba violet RL 








Cibanone Bordeaux B (single strength) _.. 




991 




Cibanone Bordeaux B paste 














Cibanone brown ^single strength) 




1,210 




Cibanone brown B2R paste 














Cibanone deep blue BO Ddr 




110 




Cibanone golden orange O 










110 

660 

110 

3,960 










Cibanone green GC pdr 




Cibanone orange OR (single strength) 












Cibanone orange 6R pdr. 








Cibanone red (single strength). 




6,825 


$7, 202 








Cibanone red 4B paste... 








Cibanone red 4B pdr 








Cibanone red O pdr.. 









106 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

UNIDENTIFIED VAT DYES— Continued 



Name of dye 



Manufac- 
turer 



Imports 



Quantity 



GrE. 
GrE. 
IG., 



Eridan brilliant scarlet B (single strength) 

Eridan brilliant scarlet B paste 

Eridan brilliant scarlet B pdr_-. 

Grelanone red 2B (single strength -- 

Grelanone red 2B paste 

Grelanone red 2B pdr 

Grelanone red 3BR (single strength) 

Grelanone red 3BR paste... 

Grelanone red 3BR pdr 

Helindone blue B paste 

Helindone blue 3R (single strength) 

Helindone blue 3R pdr 

Helindone fast scarlet G paste 

Helindone printing black RD paste.. 

Helindone yellow RN, 3RN (single strength). 

Vat vellow RK pdr 

Vat vellow 3RT dbl. paste 

Vat yellow 3RT pdr 

Hydron brown (single strength) 

Hydron brown G paste 

Hydron brown G pdr 

Hydron brown R paste 1 IG. 

Hvdron brown R pdr i IG. 

Bv. 
IG. 
IG. 
IG. 



GrE. 
IG... 



IG- 



Vat brown RT paste 

Hydron green G paste 

Hydron navy blue C paste 

Hydron olive GN paste. _ .- 

Hydron pink FF (single strength) 

Anthra pink R extra paste fine. ! IG 

Hydron pink FF paste _ I IG 

Hydron pink FF pdr IG 

Thioindigo rose RN pdr IG. 

Hydron scarlet (single strength) 

Vat scarlet 3B paste 

Vat scarlet 3B pdr 

Hydron violet (single strength) 

Hydron violet B i)dr 

Hydron violet BF paste 

Hydron violet BBF paste 

Hydron violet R pdr 

Hydron violet RF paste 

Vat printing violet RF paste 

Hydron yellow (single strength) 

Hydron yellow GG pdr 

Hydron yellow NF paste 

Vat vellow (IF paste. 

Vat vellow GF pdr _ 

Vat yellow 3GF pdr 

Hydron yellow brown G paste 

Indanthrene blue RZ (single strength) 

Grelanone blue RZ paste _- 

Vat blue RZ dbl. paste 

Indanthrene brilliant blue (single strength) 

Vat brilliant blue 3G paste fine j IG 

Vat brilliant blue R paste B. 

Vat brilliant blue R paste fine ! IG 

Vat brilliant blue R dbl. paste... IG 

Vat brilliant blue R pdr__ _. 

Indanthrene brilliant orange RK (single strength) 

Vat brilliant orange RK paste 

Vat brilliant orange RK [laste fine.. 

Vat brilliant orange RK pdr.__ 

Indanthrene brilliant violet 3B pdr 

Indanthrene lirilliant violet 4R (single strength) . . 

Vat brilliant violet 4R paste 

Vat brilliant violet 4R pdr 

Indanthrene brown GG 

Vat brown GG paste 

Vat brown GG paste 

Vat brown GG pdr 

Vat brown GG pdr 

Indanthrene golden orange 3G (single strength) 1 

\'at golden orange 3G paste ! B. 

Vat golden orange 3G pdr ...: IG 

Indanthrene golden orange RRT (single strength)... ' 

Vat orange RRT paste. ._ I IG 

Vat orange RRT paste fine IG 

Vat orange RRT.S pdr .1 IG-_ i. 

■ Includes 11,250 pounds 10 per cent paste and 4,594 pounis 12J^ per cent paste. 



Pounds 
6,178 



2,600 



3,844 



100 
250 



13,300 

123, 000 

3,000 



18, 681 



200 

300 

3,588 

39, 650 



14, 767 



500 
19, 472 



10, 213 



4,212 



100 
1,300 



' 15, 844 



14,298 



45, 562 



DYES IMPORTED FOR CONSUMPTION 

UNIDENTIFIED VAT DYES— Continued 



107 



Imports 



Name of dye 




Indfiuthrene golden orange 3R (single strength) 

Vat orange 3R paste line 

Vat orange 3R pdr 

Indanthrene gray (single strength) 

Vat gray 3B paste 

Vat gray KRH paste 

Vat gray RRII dhl. paste 

Vat gray RRIi pdr 

Indanthrene green (single strength) 

Vat green G dbl. paste 

Vat green dbl. paste fine 

Vat green G pdr 

Vat green GG dbl. paste 

Vat green GG pdr 

Indanthrene Ichaki 

Vat l<:haki GG paste 
Indanthrene orange 4R 

Vat orange 4R pdr 
Indanthrene pink B (single strength) 

Vat pink B dbl. paste 

Vat pink B dbl. paste fine 

Vat pink B pdr 

Indanthrene printing black BR 

Vat printing black BR paste 
Indanthrene red (single strength) 

Vat red BK paste fine 

Vat red BK pdr 

Vat red GG paste 

Vat red GG pdr 
Indanthrene red brown R (single strength) 

Vat red brown R paste 

^'at red brown R paste fine 

^'at red brown R pdr 

Vat red brown 5RF paste fine 

Vat red brown oRF pdr 
Indanthrene yellow (single strength) 

Helindone yellow IFFRK pdr 

Vat yellow FFRK pdr 

Vat yellow GPO 
IndigosoL 



Indigosol AZG 

Indigosol AZG 

Indigosol II B 

Indigosol 04B 

Indigosol 04B 

Indigosol OR 
Indigosol blacks 

Indigosol IB 

Indigosol IB 

Indigosol TB 

Indigosol TB 
Indigosol orange 

Indigosol orange HR 

Indigosol orange HR 
Indigosol pink 

Indigosol pink HR extra 

Indigosol pink HR extra 

Indigosol pink IR extra | DH 

Indigosol pink IR extra "" 

Indi gosol red 

Indigosol red HR 

Indigosol red HR 
Indigosol scarlet 

Indigosol scarlet HB 

Indigosol scarlet HB 
Indigosol violet 

Indigosol violet AZB 

Indigosol violet AZB 
Indigosol yellow 

Indigosol yellow HCG 

Indigosol yellow HCG 
Paradone direct black 

Paradone direct black BG 

Paradone direct black RBP 
Paradone gray B paste 
Thioindigo black B for printing 

Vat black B paste 
Thioindigo violet R paste 



108 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

UNIDENTIFIED VAT DYES— Continued 



Name of dye 



Thioindone scarlet BB paste 

Vat brilliant pink R paste.- - 

Vat brown WM pdr 

Vat golden yellow (single strength) 

Vat golden yellow GK dbl. paste fine. 

Vat printing brown GN paste --. 

Vat printing deep black BD paste 

Vat yellow GGK paste 

Vat yellow brown 3G paste.- 

Vatamine scarlet 2B pdr 

Wool vat blue B paste 

Wool vat brown 3R paste - 

All other vat dyes- 



Imports 



Manufac- 
turer 



K-- 

IG. 
IG- 



IG. 
IG- 
I..- 
IG- 
IG. 



IG 

IG 



Quantity 



Pounds 

55 

3,500 

200 

65, 880 



200 
220 
300 
1, 153 
38 
100 
200 
110 



Invoice 
value 



UNIDENTIFIED MORDANT AND CHROME DYES 



Acid alizarin gray G ! IG. 

.\cid alizarin red G 1 IG. 

Acid anthracene brown PG 1 IG. 

Acid anthracene red .; 

Acid anthracene red 5BD, _.. I IG. 

Acid anthracene red 5BL | IG. 

Acid chrome blue FFR -.1 IG. 

Acid chrome red B j IG. 

.\cid chrome yellow --' 

Acid chrome yellow 3GL - .' IG. 

Acid chrome yellow RL IG. 

Alizarin chrome green V paste --, S. 



IG.. 
IG.. 
I_.-. 
By- 
I.... 
DH. 
IG.. 
IG.. 
M.. 
DH. 
DH. 



By- 
IG. 



DH. 



.\lizarin cyanine green 5G 

.■Vlizarin fast gray 2BL 

Alizarin fast green 2B 

.\lizarin fast light brown GL 

.\lizarin fast violet R.._ 

Alizarin yellow RFS 

Anthracene chromate brown EB 

.\nthracene chrome blue F 

.^utochrome gray G 

Azo alizarin carmoisine 

Azo alizarin yellow RFS 

Azol printing red 

Azol printing red 2B extra... 

Azol printing red R extra 

Brilliant chrome blue 

Brilliant chrome blue 2B 

Brilliant chrome blue S ..! DH 

Brilliant chrome printing red B I G.. 

Brilliant chrome violet ' 

Brilliant chrome violet 3R \ DH 

Brilliant chrome violet 3RA -.i DH 

Brilliant chrome violet 3RN .1 DH 

Chromanol black RVI... ! DH 

Chromazurine DN : DH 

Chrome corinth L paste ' DH 

Chrome deep brown RRN I DH 

Chrome fast brown EB._. -. I-.- 

Chrome fast orange RD pdr ..-| By 

Chrome fast phosphine 

Chrome fast phosphine B. . . 

Chrome fast phosphine 2RD 
Chrome fast xantliine 

Chrome fast xanthine RD... 

Chrome fast xanthine 2R 

Chrome green OR 

Chrome orange I 

Chrome printing orange 2R 

Chrome printing red 

Chrome printing red B 

Chrome printing red Y 

Chrome violet CBD. I DH 

Chromochloriiie O. DH 

Chromocitronine 3R DH 

Chromocyanoline D DH 

Chromogene red BD IG_ 

Chromophenine FKN.. - ...1 DH 



DH. 
DH- 



DH- 
DH. 
DH. 
DH. 
I-... 



DH. 
DH. 



6,288 
100 

6,073 
800 



120 

550 

1,399 



4,495 

200 

1,547 

110 

200 

110 

55 

4,500 

100 

1,784 

77 

55 

350 



220 
1,322 



275 
881 
110 
110 
110 
100 
660 



1,981 



275 

11 

165 

3,635 



275 
220 
2,752 
55 
200 
110 



DYES IMPORTED FOR CONSUMPTION 109 

UNIDENTIFIED MORDANT AND CHROME DYES— Continued 



Name of dye 



Chroraorhodine 

Chromorhodine 60N 

Chromorhodine 6GS 

Chromovesuvine RA 

Chromoxane brilliant violet 

Chromoxane brilliant violet BD. 

Chromoxane brilliant violet SB. 

Chromoxane brown 5R 

Chromoxane pure blue BLD 

Colonial blue R 

Ergan yellow 3GS pdr 

Eric anthracene brown R 

Eriochromal brown 

Eriochromal brown AEB 

Eriochromal brown G.._ 

Eriochrome blue S,. 

Eriochrome blue S. 

Eriochrome blue SE supra 

Eriochrome brilliant violet B supra.. 

Eriochrome brown SWN supra 

Eriochrome geranol R cone 

Eriochrome red G 

Eriochrome violet 3B supra 

Fast chrome green BN 

Foulard discharge blue B 

Foulard discharge green BL 

Gallo fast black pdr 

Oallo navy blue 2GD pdr 

Gallophenine P 

Metachrome blue black 2BX pdr 

Metachrome brilliant blue 

Metachrome brilliant blue BL.. 

Metachrome brilliant blue 8RL. 

Metachrome brown 6G_ 

Metachrome olive 2G 

Metachrome red G 

Metachrome violet 2R 

Modern black N 

Modern blue CVI... 

Modern brown 

Modern green N 

Modern olive JN 

Omega chrome brown 

Omega chrome brown EB 

Omega chrome brown G 

Oxychrome brown V 

Radio chrome blue B 

Salicine orange 2R 

Ultra corinth B 

Ultra cyanol B cone 

Ultra orange R 

Xantho phosphine GR — 

All other mordant and chrome dyes. 



Manufac- 
turer 



DH. 
DH_ 
DH_ 



IG.. 
IG-- 
IG.. 
IG.. 
DH. 
IG.. 
G.-. 



G... 
G... 
G... 
G.-- 
G... 
G--- 
G... 
DH. 
IG-. 
IG.- 
IG.. 
IG.- 
IG.. 
IG-. 



IG.. 
IG_. 
IG.. 
IG.. 
IG.. 
IG.. 
DH. 
DH. 
DH- 
DH. 
DH. 



S.... 
S.... 
GrE. 
IG... 
IG... 
S.... 
S-... 

s.... 

DH. 



Imports 



Quantity 



Pounds 
1,733 



330 
630 



25 

350 

220 

25 

1,540 

660 



2,997 



3,114 

1,100 

1,102 

6,612 

110 

110 

200 

100 

15 

35 

331 

8,354 

300 



500 

2.500 

1,700 

100 

660 

771 

22 

330 

110 

5,022 



330 
1,000 

200 

500 
2. 500 
3,500 

220 
19 



Invoice 
value 



UNIDENTIFIED DIRECT DYES 



Benzo Bordeaux 6B 

Benzo bronze E 

Benzo chrome black blue B.. 

Benzo chrome brown 

Benzo chrome brown B.. 
Benzo chrome brown 5G. 

Benzo dark brown extra 

Benzo fast black L... 

Benzo fast blue 

Benzo fast blue 4GL 

Benzo fast blue 8GL 

Benzo fast blue 5R 

Direct fast blue 8GL 

Benzo fast Bordeaux 6BL 

Benzo fast brown 

Benzo fast brown GL 

Benzo fast brown 3GL... 

Benzo fast brown RL 

Direct fast brown 3GL. 



Direct fast brown RL I By 




110 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

UNIDENTIFIED DIRECT DYES— Continued 





Manufac- 
turer 


Imports 


Name of dye 


Quantity 


Invoice 
value 


Benzo fast copper blue B 


IG 

IG 

IG.. 


Pounds 

100 

100 

100 

2,821 




Benzo fast copper violet B.. 




Benzo fast eosine BL. 




Benzo fast gray BL.. . 




Benzo fast grav BL . . 


IG 




Direct fast gray BL 


By 






Benzo fast heliotrope 




3,305 


$4, 599 


Benzo fast heliotrope oRH 


IG 




Benzo fast heliotrope 4BL 


IG 






Direct fast heliotrope 4BL 


By 






Benzo fast light scarlet 4BL 


IG 


500 
2,300 




Benzo fast orange... 




Benzo fast orange P 


IG 




Benzo fast orange 2RL 


IG 






Benzo fast red 6BL . 


IG 

By 


500 

560 

8,985 




Benzo fast violet BL 




Benzo fast yellow RL . 


8,912 


Benzo fast veilow RL 


IG 




Direct fast yellow RL 


By 






Fast cotton veilow RL... . . . . 


Bv 










1,432 




Benzo red 12B 


By 






By 






Benzo rhodiiline red. _ . 




5,698 






IG 




Benzo rhoduline red 3B . . 


IG 








IG 


200 
2,030 




Brilliant benzo fast veilow GL 




Brilliant benzo fast veilow GL.. 


IG 




Direct fast veilow GL 


By 






Brilliant benzo green B 


IG... 

By 

IG 

IG 

IG 

IG 


3,943 
1,556 

626 
1,500 

106 
2,330 
5,384 




Brilliant benzo violet 2R . 








Brilliant conso violet R 




Brilliant copper blue OW ... 




Brilliant fast blueSBX 




Brilliant pure yellow GO extra 




Brilliant pure yellow 6G extra . 


By . . 




Brilliant pure yellow 6G extra . . . . 


IG 






Brilliant sky blue 




9,455 


11,116 


Brilliant sky blue G 


IG 




Brilliant sky blue R 


IG 








By 






Brilliant sky blue 2RM 


IG 









G 


6,615 
3,200 




Chloramine fast orange-.. 




3,231 




S 




Chloramine fast orange 2Q cone . . ... 


S 




• 




s 






Ohloraniine light grav B cone 


s.... 


716 

500 

75 

1,322 

26,783 






s 




Ohloramine violet R 


s 






I 




Chlorantine fast blue.. 


21, 811 








Chlorantine fast blue 4GL . . . .. 
















Ohlorantine fast Bordeaux 2BL... 




2,976 
14,700 










Chlorantine fast brown BRL 














Chlorantine fast green B 




10, 912 

1,984 

23, 199 










Chlorantine fast violet . . 












Chlorantine fast violet 2RL jt. 












2,644 
1,240 
5,500 
120 
3,400 
1,600 




Chlorazol drab Rll . 


BDG 

BDG 

BDG 

BDG 












Chlorazol fast orange AG... 

Columbia catechine . . 








IG 






IG 








IG 

Q 


300 

991 

2,200 




Developed blue 

Developing bbie 








Developing blue B 


IG 




IG 







DYES IMPORTED FOR CONSUMPTION 

UNIDENTIFIED DIRECT DYES— Continued 



HI 



Name of dye 



Manufac- 
turer 



Imports 



Diamine azo brown 3G - 

Diamine azo fast violet R 

Diamine azo green 3Q 

Diamine azo yellow 2G 

Diamine brilliant scarlet S 

Diamine brilliant scarlet S. 

Diamine brilliant scarlet S 

Diamine catechine 

Diamine catechine B 

Diamine catechine O 

Diamine catechine 30 

Diamine fast Bordeaux 6BS 

Diamine fast brown __ 

Diamine fast brown CF 

Diamine fast brown GBB 

Diamine fast brown 30 

Diamine fast brown R 

Diamine fast orange 

Diamine fast orange EG 

Diamine fast orange ER 

Diamine fast scarlet 8BS 

Diamine jet black OO 

Diaminogen blue GO _. 

Dianil fast violet BL... 

Diazanil scarlet 3BA cone 

DiazG black VG 

Diazo brilliant blue 2BL 

Diazo brilliant grwn 3G 

Developed brilliant green 3Q pdr.... 

Diazo briliant green 3G pdr. '.... 

Diazo brilliant orange 5G 

Developed brilliant orange 5G extrn. 

Diazo brilliant orange 5G extra 

Diazo brilliant scarlet.. 

Diazo brilliant scarlet 2BL extra 

Diazo brilliant scarlet 6B extra.. 

Diazo brilliant scarlet G extra 

Diazo brilliant scarlet S8B. 

Diazo brown 

Developed brown 3G 

Developed brown SO. 

Diazo brown BW 

Diazo brown G... _.. 

Diazo brown 6G 

Diazo brown 3R 

Diazo brown 3RB 

Diazo fast black 

Diazo fast black SD 

Diazo fast black VB 

Diazo fast blue 

Diazo fast blue 2BW 

Diazo fast blue 6GW 

Diazo fast blue 4RW 

Diazo fast Bordeaux BL.. 

Diazo fast red 7BL _ 

Diazo fast violet 

Developed violet BL 

Diazo fast violet BL 

Diazo fast violet 3RL 

Diazo fast yellow 3RL 

Diazo green 3G 

Diazo indigo blue 

Diazo indigo blue 4GL extra 

Diazo indigo blue R 

Diazo indigo blue 2RL extra 

Diazo rubine B_.. 

Diazo sky blue 

Developed sky blue B _.. 

Developed sky blue 3GL 

Diazo skv blue B 

Diazo sky blue 3G 

Diazol brilliant orange NJN 

Diazol light red N8B 

Diazophenyl black V 

Diphenyl brown BBNC. 

Diphenyl dark green BC 

Diphenyl fast blue 

Diphenyl fast blue 2GLN 

Diphenyl fast blue 4GL 



C. 
IG. 



IG. 
IG. 

IG. 
IG. 



IG. 
IG- 
IG. 
IG. 



IG. 
IG. 
IG. 
IG. 
C 
IG. 
IG- 
I... 
IG. 



By. 
IG- 



By. 
IG. 



By. 
By. 
By. 

IG 



By. 
By. 
I... 
By. 
IG. 
IG. 
IG. 



IG. 
IG. 



I... 
I... 
I... 
IG. 
IG. 



By. 
IG. 
By. 
I... 
IG_ 



IG. 
IG. 
IG. 
By. 



By.. 
By.. 
IG.. 
IG.. 
CN. 
CN. 
O... 
G... 
O... 



I Quantity 



Pounds 

550 

551 

4,389 

772 

5,927 



Invoice 
value 



4,100 



700 
6,300 



17, 957 



300 
500 

6,165 
200 
250 

1,102 
226 

7.660 



8,231 



2,200 



1,873 



1,000 
1,050 
1,911 



110 

125 

4,588 



2,151 
19, 996 



1,653 
9,469 
2,205 
8,820 
3,638 
110 



$2, 865 



6,141 



3.682 



10,546 



4, 077 



6,392 



15,789 



112 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

UNIDENTIFIED DIRECT DYES— Continued 





Manufac- 
turer 


Imports 


Name of dye 


Quantity 


Invoice 
value 


Diphenyl fast Bordeaux BC , 


G 

G . .. 


Pounds 

880 

4,408 

2,205 

330 

110 

220 

110 

2,314 




Diphenyl fast bronze B 




Diphenvl fast brown GNC . 


G 




Diphenvl pure vellow 5G cone 


G 




Direct brilliant blue 6BR _ 


I . 




Direct brilliant vellow KG 


I _... 

I 




Direct catechine 3G 




Direct cutch brown,. 






Direct euteh brown GR __ 


I. 




Direct cutch brown N 


I 






Direct safranine RW . . 


I 


991 
26 
100 
300 
100 
7,350 




Direct sky blue H_ 







Fast cotton blue FFG_ 


iG.::::::: 

IG 

IG 




Fast cotton brown 4RL 




Fast cotton eorinth B. 




Fast cotton gray 


$5, 288 


Fast cotton gray BL 


IG . . 


Fast cotton grav GL 


IG 






Fast cotton gray VL 


IG 






Fast cotton rubine 5B 


IG 

IG 

IG 

IG... 

G 


200 
300 
100 
100 
661 
1,000 
516 
200 
100 
950 




Fast cotton violet 4R __ 




Fastusol red violet BBL ... 




Fastusol violet BL 




Formal fast black G cone 




Half-wool bhieSR 


IG 

A 




Naphthogene blue B 




Neutral grav NY 


IG 

IG 




Now claret RX ... 




Oxamine black. 




Minaxo black BBNX ' 


IG -. .- 




Oxamine light pink 




600 




Minaxo fast pink BX 


IG 




Alinaxo light pink BBX 


IG 






Oxvdiaraine black . 




500 




Oxydiamine black SOOO 


IG 




Oxvdianiine black US extra cone 


IG 






Oxydiamine brown KBBS 


IG 

IG .- 

IG 

IG. 

IG 

IG 

IG 

IG 

S 


50 

4,400 

5 

86 

12 

25 

5 

10 

1,000 

1,000 

1,100 

1,763 




Paper red A extra 




Para green BBL . ^ .. 




Para orange G 




Para vellow R 




Paranil Bordeaux B. 




Paranil brown R .... 




Paranil green B, G 




Parasulfon brown V 




Pluto black O extra. 


IG 

IG 




Pluto brown GG 




Rosanthrene ... . 




Rosanthrene 3BN 


I 




Rosanthrene R 


I 






Rosanthrene Bordeaux B 


I 


661 
110 
220 

4,959 
324 
135 
300 
50 
100 
5 
660 
556 
500 
100 
100 

4,600 




Rosanthrene brilliant red BR . 


I 




Rosanthrene fast red 7BL . 


I 






I 






I 

IG 

IG 

IG 

IG 

IG 

GrE 

QrE 

s 




Silk blue BT5B extra cone 




Sky blue N . . 




Solamine grav VL 




Toluylene fast orange LX 

Toluvlene vellow G 






Triazol fast brown 3QL pdr. 

Triazol light orange 2RL 






Trisulphon bronze BO cone 

Universal green 




IG.. 

IG 

IG 

IG 




L niversal jet black C 

Zambesi black 















IG . 




. 




IG. 

A 


350 

421 

200 

5 




Zambesi pink B extra 




AG 

IG 











DYES IMPORTED FOR CONSUMPTION 
DYES FOR ARTIFICIAL SILK 



113 



Name of dye 



Artificial silk black G 

Azonine direct violet R conc_ 

Blue extra paste 

Celatene black paste -- 

Cellit blue R 

CelHt brown G 

Cellit fast brown G pdr 

Cellit fast red 

Cellit fast red B 

Cellit fast red 2B .-. 

Cellit fast yellow 

Cellit fast vellow 2GN 

Cellit fast yellow R 

CellitazolSR 

Celliton blue B pdr.. 

Celliton blue extra paste 

Celliton fast blue 

Celliton fast blue B paste 

Celliton fast blue 2B paste ..- 

Celliton fast pink FSB paste 

Celliton fast red violet R paste 

Celliton fast violet B paste 

Celliton fast yellow 

Celliton fast yellow R 

Celliton fast yellow 2R 

Celliton orange R paste 

Celliton pink R paste 

Celliton red R paste... 

Celliton yellow 3G paste 

Cibacete diazo black B paste 

Cibacete navy blue 3R paste 

C ibacete orange _ 

Cibacete orange 3G paste 

Cibacete orange 2R paste 

Cibacete red 

Cibacete red 3B paste. 

Cibacete red GR paste 

Cibacete sapphire blue G paste 

Cibacete scarlet G paste 

Cibacete turquoise blue paste 

Cibacete violet 2R paste 

Cibacete yellow 

Cibacete yellow 3G paste 

Cibacete yellow R paste... 

Cibacete yellow 2R paste 

Dispersol yellow 3G paste 

Duranol black paste 

Duranol blue G paste 

Duranol brilliant blue G paste 

Duranol orange G paste 

Duranol red 

Duranol red 2B paste 

Duranol red G paste 

Duranol violet 2R paste 

Duranol vellow paste 

Icvl blue G 

Icyl blue black 6B 

Icyl brown G 

Icyl orange G 

Icyl violet B_ 

lonamine A 

lonamine L paste 

lonamine red KA 

Orange extra paste 

Pink R extra paste 

Red violet extra paste 

Setacyl direct blue 

Setacyl direct blue G 

Setacyl direct blue 2GS 

Setacyl direct blue R 

Setacyl direct orange 

Setacyl direct orange G cone. pdr. 

Setacyl direct orange 2R pdr 

Setacyl direct pink 3B cone 

Setacyl direct red B pdr 

Setacyl direct violet R. pdr... 

Violet B extra 

Yellow R 




IG. 
IG. 



IG. 
IG. 
IG. 
IG. 
IG. 



IG. 
IG. 
IG. 
IG. 
IG. 



IG. 
IG. 
IG. 
IG. 
IG. 
IG. 
I... 
I... 



I 

I 

I 

BDC. 
BDC. 
BDC. 
BDC. 
BDC. 



BDC. 
BDC. 
BDC. 
BDC. 
BDC. 
BDC. 
BDC. 
BDC. 
BDC. 
BDC. 
BDC. 
BDC. 
IG.... 
IG.... 
IG-... 



G.. 
G.. 
G.. 
G.. 
G.- 
IG. 
IG. 



Imports 



Quantity 



Pounds 
100 

25 
100 

50 
450 

50 

47 
250 



Invoice 
value 



375 



100 

50 

1,350 

225 



70 
850 

575 
650 



350 
100 

1,000 
320 
110 
551 

2,092 



110 
661 
881 
220 
1,981 



106 
3.291 
5,858 
60 
1,042 
4,092 



60 

60 
454 
114 
454 
128 
214 
700 

56 
100 
100 

50 

100 

5,399 



1,887 



242 
1,269 
1,212 

100 
50 



$1, 238 



3,375 



114 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

RAPID FAST DYES 



Name of dye 



Rapid fast blue B paste 

Rapid fast orange 

Rapid fast orange RG paste- 
Rapid fast orange RH paste - 

Rapid fast pink LB paste 

Rapid fast red 

Rapid fast red B paste 

Rapid fast red OZ paste 

Rapid fast red LB paste 



Manufac- 
turer 



IG- 



IG- 
IG. 
IG. 



IG. 
IG. 



Imports 



Quantity 



Pounds 
25 
19,350 



200 
19, 050 



UNIDENTIFIED BASIC DYES 







1,211 






DH. 






DH 








IG 

IG 

ON 

IG 


490 

100 

165 

50 

2,047 




Astra violet FFD extra .... 




Basic black , . 




Blue BSJ 




Brilliant acridine orange - 


$3, 377 




Roh.. 






DH 






Brilliant acridine orange 5R . .... . 


DH 






Brilliant rhoduline blue R .. . 


IG 

IG 

IG 


800 

200 

25 

36, 500 
















Rliodamine OGDN 


io. . .. 




Rhodamine OQH . . 


S 








IG - 

IG 

Q.. 


1,903 
70 
25 
100 
110 












Straw blue O 


By 

DH 




Thio violet 5R 









UNIDENTIFIED SULFUR DYES 



Immedial brown W cone 

Immedial yellow olive 5G _.- 

Indo carbon 

Indocarbon GL.. 

Indocarbon SN.. 

Katigene chrome blue 5G 

Katigene indigo CLGG extra... 

Kryogene violet 3RX 

Pyrogene blue green B 

Pyrogene brown G 

Pyrogene cutch 2R extra 

Pyrogene green GK 

P y rogene pure blue- 

Pyrogene pure blue 3GL 

Pyogene puie blue 2RL 

Sulfide new blue 

Sulfide new blue BL 

Sulfide new lilue GL ^ 

Sulfide violet , 

Sulfide violet RR cone _ 

Sulfide violet V 

Sulfur blue 

Sulfur brown CL/4R - 

Thonal brilliant blue 6B cone 1 S 

Thional brilliant green 6G cone 

Thionol brown 

Thionol lirown O _ 

Thionol brown CL4R - 

Thionol i)rown R 

Thionol green. 

Th ionol green B_ 

Thionol green 2G cone 

Thionol yellow GR_ 

Utopia brilliant green 

Utopia brilliant green B cone 

Utopia brilliant green 6G cone 

All other sulfur dyes 



BDC. 
BDC. 
BDC. 



BDC. 
BDC. 
BDC. 



NBC. 
NBC. 
C 



2,000 

200 

33, 901 



4,809 
2,400 
100 
55 
1,212 
1,321 
1,103 
4,629 



3,841 



350 



527 
1,600 
1,265 

400 
11, 289 



47, 109 



14, 733 
1,008 



DYES IMPORTED FOR CONSUMPTION 



115 



UNIDENTIFIED COLOR-LAKE AND SPIRIT-SOLUBLE DYES 



Name of dye 



Alizarin astrol pdr.(oil soluble) 

Alizarin cyanine green G extra pdr. (oil soluble). 

Auramine stearate - 

Brilliant helio green GO extra 

Brillianton orange R pdr 

Bromofliiorescein A extra... 

Ceres blue I 

Ceres yellow VI 

Grasol blue : 

Grasol blue G. 

Grasol blue R 

Grasol orange. 

Grasol orange G 

Grasol orange 2R... 

Grasol red 

Grasol red B 

Grasol red G... 

Grasol scarlet 

Grasol scarlet G 

Grasol scarlet 2G 

Grasol yellow 

Grasol yellow R 

Grasol yellow 2R 

Hansa yellow (single strength) 

Hansa yellow G paste 

Hansa yellow G pdr 

Hansa yellow 5G pdr 

Hansa yellow 2GR 

Hansa yellow 3R pdr 

Lake yellow G pdr 

Hansa yellow GSA pdr 

Hansa yellow GA pdr 

Hansa yellow GSA pdr 

Hansa yellow lOG paste 

Hansa yellow lOG pdr 

Helio Bordeaux BL (single strength) 

Helio Bordeaux BL paste 

Helio Bordeaux BL pdr 

Helio fast blue BL cone, pdr 

Helio fast pink RL paste . 

Helio fast rubine 

Helio fast rubine 2BL 

Helio fast rubine 4BL 

Helio fast scarlet AR pdr 

Helio fast yellow H 10 G pdr 

Helio marine 2GL paste 

Helio red RMT pdr 

Lake green FE 

Oil green .\LB lumps 

Oil red . 



Manufac- 
turer 



lO... 
IG... 
StD. 
By... 
IG... 
M.... 
IG... 
IG... 



G. 



IG. 
IG. 
IG. 
IG. 
IG. 
M. 

mV 

IG. 
IG. 
IG. 



IG. 
IG. 
By. 
IG. 



Oil Vermillion 

Paper fast Bordeaux B 

Pigment green B paste 

Rhodr.mine stearate 

Safranine stearate 

Spirit blue 

Stone (Lithol) fast orange RN pdr. 

Stone fast scarlet G pdr 

Stone rubine 

Stone rubine BN 

Stone rubine G 

Tero (Typophor) black FB 

Tero brown 

Tero brown FR 

Tero brown FRR 

Tero brown F 3R 

Tero brown F 4R__. 

Tero carmine FB 

Tero red FO 

Zapon blue G pdr 

.\11 other oil colors 



IG... 
IG... 
By... 
By... 
By._. 
IG... 
IG._. 
IG... 
Q.... 
Q.... 
IG... 
IG... 
St D_ 
St D. 
Q-._. 
IG... 
IG._. 



IG. 
IG- 
lO. 



IG. 
IG- 
IG. 
IG. 
IG. 
IG. 
IG. 



Imports 



Quantity 



Invoice 
value 



Pounds 
2,850 I. 
125 i. 

22 I. 
100 i. 
250 |. 
645 I. 

50 |. 

20 I- 

83 1. 



143 



49, 550 



23,676 



1,000 

300 

34, 737 



55 

1,500 

850 



100 

700 

100 

3,750 

25 

300 

60 

60 

2,600 

200 

22 

22 

60 

50 

100 

2,000 



900 

175 



100 

175 

5 

148 



6,497 





UNIDENTIFIED UNCLASSIFIED DYES 






Cedar brown G... . 


IG 

§ - - 


500 
10 
25 
55 
19, 856 
114 




Gray black . . 




Very superior pink AA 




Violet red HR 


St D. 

EMCs..._ 




Whitex washing blue 




All other dves 











« Eze Manufacturing Co. 



116 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

Index to table of dye imports 



Name of dye 



Colour 
1 Index 

No. 



196 



Aceto purpurine 8B I 436 

Acid alizarin black R .' 172 

Acid alizarin gray G ; 

Acid alizarin red O-.. 

Acid anthracene brown PG.. 

Acid anthracene brown R ! 105 

Acid anthracene red 3B I 487 

Acid anthracene red 5BD ' 

Acid anthracene red 5BL.._ 

Acid black 2R I 

Acid blue A j 714 

Acid blue AM 833 

Acid blue BL I 833 

Acid blue V ! 712 

Acid brown RN 

Acid chrome blue FFR 

Acid chrome red B 

Acid chrome yellow 3GL 

Acid chrome vellow RL 

Acid cyanine BF ; 853 

Acid fast blue GL 

Acid green cone, pdr 

Acid leather brown EQB 

Acid leather brown ER 

Acid magenta 

Acid magenta II 

Acid milling black B 

Acid milling red R 

Acid milling yellow G 

Acid ponceau E 

Acid pure blue R supra- _. 

Acid rhodamine BG 

Acid violet 6B cone. (DH) 

Acid violet 6BN00 

Acid violet 7B cone 

Acid violet 8B 

Acid violet ClOB 

Acid violet R 

Acid violet SR. 

Acridine flavine R 

Acridine flavine RD 

Acronol brilliant blue 

Alaska black lOBX 

Algol blue 3RP---- .--- 

Algol brilliant red 2B 

Algol pink R 

Algol red B 

Algol red FF 

Algol red R 

Algol scarlet G 

Algol yellow 3G 

Alizarin SX pa.ste 

Alizarin VI extra pure 

Alizarin astrol B 

Alizarin astro! (oil soluble) | 

Alizarin black S paste j 1019 

Alizarin black SP paste. ! 1019 

Alizarin blue AS I 1075 

Alizarin blue JR i [ 1073 

Alizarin blue S i 1067 

Alizarin blue SKY 1088 

Alizarin blue SW 1067 

Alizarin blue black B ' 1085 

Alizarin Bordeaux BP ..i 1045 

Alizarin brillaint sky blue R i 

Alizarin brown HD I 1035 

Alizarin carmine 1034 

Alizarin chrome green V 

Alizarin claret R_ 

Alizarin cyanine GG 

Alizarin cyanine green G.. 

Alizarin cyanine green G (oil solu- 
ble) - 

Alizarin cyanine green 3G 

Alizarin cyanine green 5G 

Alizarin cyclamine R 

Alizarin direct blue A20 

Alizarin direct blue B... j I 1087 

Alizarin direct blue BGAOO ...1 1077 

Alizarin direct blue RBX ' 



Page 



1133 
1128 
1155 
1133 
1133 
1129 
1139 
1040 
1027 
1075 



1032 
1051 
1078 



1078 



1064 



93 

92 

108 

108 

108 

92 

94 

108 

108 

103 

95 

97 

97 

95 

103 

108 

108 

108 

108 

97 

97 

94 

103 

103 

95 

93 

92 

94 

103 

92 

103 

103 

103 

95 

95 

103 

103 

103 

103 

114 

114 

94 

92 

105 

100 

100 

101 

100 

100 

100 

101 



99 



103 
98 



108 



115 
99 

108 
99 

103 
99 



Name of dye 



Alizarin direct blue RXO 

Alizarin direct red 3G 

Alizarin direct violet E2F 

Alizarin direct violet ER 

Alizarin emeraldole G 

Alizarin fast gray 2BL 

Alizarin fast green 2B 

Alizarin fast light brown GL. 

-Mizarin fast violet R 

Alizarin geranol B 

Alizarin green S 

Alizarin indigo G 

Alizarin indigo 3R 

Alizarin indigo 5R 

Alizarin indigo brown R 

Alizarin irisol R 

Alizarin light blue B 

Alizarin light blue LR 

Alizarin light blue R 

Alizarin light blue SE 

Alizarin light gray BS 

Alizarin light violet RS 

Alizarin orange A 

Alizarin orange AO.. 

Alizarin orange SW 

.\lizarin paste bluish 

Alizarin pure blue B 

Alizarin red paste (G) 

Alizarin red IB 

Alizarin red IWS 

.\lizarin red S 

Alizarin red SW 

Alizarin red SWB 

Alizarin red SX extra paste... 

Alizarin red SZ 

Alizarin red VI 

Alizarin red WR 

.\lizarin red XGD 

Alizarin rubine R 

Alizarin rubinol GW 

Alizarin rubinol 5G 

Alizarin sapphire blue SE 

Alizarin saphirol B 

Alizarin sky blue B 

.\lizarin supra blue R 

Alizarin supra blue SES 

Alizarin uranol BB 

Alizarin viridine FF 

Alizarin yellow DD 

Alizarin yellow RFS 

Alkali blue 2B cone 

Alkali blue No. 4 

Alkali blue R... 

Alkali blue 3R__ 

Alkali fast green 2BF 

Alkali fast green 3G 

Alkali fast green lOG 

Alkali violet A extra 

Alkah violet JOB 

Alphanol brown B 

Amido black green B 

Amido fast red GG_ 

Amido yellow E 

Anthosine B 

Anthra Bordeaux B 

Anthra Bordeaux R 

Anthra brown B 

Anthra claret R 

Anthra gray B 

Anthra orange RH 

.\nthra pink B 

Anthra pink R 

Anthra red B 

Anthra red RT. 

.\nthra rubine B 

Anthra scarlet B 

-Vnthra scarlet GG 

.\nthra yellow GO 

Anthra yellow GGN 

.\nthracene blue SWG 

.\nthracene blue SWGG 

Anthracene blue SWR.. 



Colour 
Index 
No. 



1076 
1091 



1073 
1056 



1092 
1071 
1202 
1200 



1073 
1054 
1076 
1076 
1053 
1085 
1073 
1033 
1033 
1033 
1027 
1088 
•1027 
1027 
1034 
1034 
1034 
1034 
1040 
1034 
1027 
1040 
1039 
1091 
1091 
1091 
1053 
1054 
1088 



1058 

1084 

195 



704 
704 
704 
704 



700 



11 



1146 
1143 
1120 
1143 
1123 
1217 



1207 
1142 
1091 



1228 
1095 
1095 
1060 
1060 
1063 



INDEX TO TABLE OF DYE IMPORTS 

Index to table of dye imports — Continued 



117 



Name of dye 



Colour 
Index 

No. 



884 
1095 
1089 
1082 
1081 
1080 



Anthracene brown R 1035 

Anthracene brown SW 1035 

Anthracene chromate brown EB. 

Anthracene chrome blue F.. 

Anthracyanine S 

Anthraflavone GC 

Anthraquinone blue SR 

Anthraquinone blue green BXO.. 

Anthraquinone green GXNO 

Anthraquinone violet 

Artificial silk black G 

Astra phloxine FF 

Astra violet FFD._ 

Auracine G 

Auramine stearate 

Aurine 

Autochrome gray G 

Azo alizarin Bordeaux W 

Azo alizarin carmoisine 

Azo alizarin yellow RFS 

Azo carmine GX 

Azo fast blue BD.. 

Azo wool blue SE 

Azol printing red 2B 

Azol printing red R.__ _.- 

Azonine direct violet R 



24 



341 



B 

Basic black -- 

Basic blue GO 

Basic blue 6G --. 

Basic pink G 

Basic pure blue BO 

Basic yellow T 

Basic yellow TCN.. 

Benzo Bordeaux 6B 

Benzo bronze E _.- 

Benzo chrome black blue B 

Benzo chrome brown B 

Benzo chrome brown G 

Benzo chionie brown 5G 

Benzo chrome brown R 

Benzo dark brown extra 

Benzo fast black L 

Benzo fast blue 4GL 

Benzo fast blue 8GL 

Benzo fast blue 5R 

Benzo fast Bordeaux 6BL 

Benzo fast brown GL 

Benzo fast brown 3GL 

Benzo fast brown RL,_ 

Benzo fast copper blue B 

Benzo fast copper brown 3GL. 

Benzo fast copper violet B 

Benzo fast eosine BL 

Benzo fast gray BL 

Benzo fast heliotrope BL 

Benzo fast heliotrope 4BL 

Ben^o fast heliotrope 2RL 

Benzo fast heliotrope 5RH 

Benzo fast light scarlet 4BL_.. 

Benzo fast orange P 

Benzo fast orange 2RL 

Benzo fast orange S 

Benzo fast orange WS 

Benzo fast red 6BL 

Benzo fast rubine BL 

Benzo fast scarlet 4BS 

Benzo fast scarlet 8BS 

Benzo fast violet BL 

Benzo fast'vellow RL 

Benzo red 12B 

Benzo rhoduline red B 

Benzo rhoduline red 3B 

Benzoform scarlet B 

Benzyl fast blue GL 

Benzyl fast blue3GL 

Benzyl green B 

Benzyl violet 5BN 

Black extra 

Blue BSJ 



58 



926 
658 
750 
729 
815 
815 



596 



319 



326 
326 



278 
327 
326 



667 
698 
317 



108 

108 

97 

99 

99 

99 

99 

99 

113 

114 

114 

96 

115 

95 

108 

93 

108 

108 

97 

103 

92 

108 

108 

113 



114 
98 
94 
96 
96 



109 

109 

109 

109 

94 

109 

94 

109 

109 

109 

109 

109 

109 

109 

109 

109 

110 

110 

110 

110 

110 

93 

110 

93 

110 

110 

110 

110 

93 

93 

110 

92 

93 

93 

110 

110 

110 

110 

110 

110 

97 

103 

94 

95 

93 

114 



Name of dye 



Colour 

Index 

No. 



715 



715 
316 
516 
892 
714 



1083 



325 



315 
720 
357 



Blue extra 

Blue extra paste. 

BlueFF 

Blue NA. 

Blue NBB. 

Blue 1900 TCD 

Brilliant acid blue A 

Brilliant acid blue FF 

Brilliant acridine orange A 

Brilliant acridine orange R.. 

Brilliant acridine orange 3R 

Brilliant acridine orange 5R 

Brilliant alizarin viridine F paste. 

Brilliant benzo fast yellow GL 

Brilliant benzo green B 

Brilliant benzo violet B 

Brilliant benzo violet 2R 

Brilliant benzyl violet 3B 

Brilliant black BX 

Brilliant blue G 

Brilliant carmine L cone. 

Brilliant chrome blue 2B 

Brilliant chrome blue S 

Brilliant chrome printing red B... 

Brilliant chrome violet 4B 

Brilliant chrome violet 3R 

Brilliant chrome violet 3R.^ 

Brilliant chrome violet 3RN 

Brilliant Congo blue 5R 

Brilliant Congo violet R 

Brilliant copper blue GW 

Brilliant delphine blue B 

Brilliant fast blue 3BX. 

Brilliant geranine B 

Brilliant geranine 3B 

Brilliant helio green GG 

Brilliant indigo B _ 1 1190 

Brilliant indigo BB 1188 

Brilliant indigo 4B_.. 

Brilliant indigo 4BC 

Brilliant indigo blue 3BW 

Brilliant indigo blue 3BW cone. G 



718 



878 



Brilliant indigo 4G. 
Brilliant indocyanine 6B.. 

Brilliant milling blue B 

Brilliant milling blue FG.. 
Brilliant milling green B.. 

Brilliant milling red K 

Brilliant phosphine 5G 

Brilliant pure yellow 6G... 
Brilliant rhoduline blue R_ 

Brilliant silk blue B 

Brilliant sky blue G 

Brilliant skv blue 5G 

BriUiant sky blue 8G 

Brilliant sky blue R. 

Brilliant sky b!ue2RIM_.. 

Brilliant sulfon red B 

Brilliant sulfon red oB 

Brilliant sulfon red lOB 

Brilliant wool blue B 

Brilliant wool blue FFB_.. 
Brilliant wool blue FFR... 

Brillianton orange R 

Bromotluorescein A extra. . 



Caledon black BB 

Cannelle AL 

Carmine blue A.. 

Cashmire black TN... 

Cedar brown G 

Celatene black 

Cellit blueR 

Cellit brown G 

Cellit fast brown G 

Cellit fast red B 

Cellit fast red 2B 

Cellit fast yellow 2GN. 
Cellit fast yell owR.... 



667 

487 



1184 
1184 
1184 
1184 



1189 



663 



710 
710 



1102 
793 
714 



95 
113 
95 
93 



95 

103 

96 

114 

114 

114 

99 

110 

110 

93 

110 

103 

93 

95 

93 

108 

108 

108 

95 

108 

108 

108 

110 

110 

110 

97 

110 

92 

92 

115 

102 

102 

102 

102 

102 

102 

102 

103 

103 

103 

94 

94 

96 

110 

114 

94 

110 

95 

95 

110 

110 

92 

92 

92 

103 

103 

103 

115 

115 



100 
96 
95 
110 
115 
113 
113 
113 
113 
113 
113 
113 
113 



118 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

Index to table of dye imports — Continued 



Name of dye 


Coloui 
Index 

No. 


Page 


Name of dye 


Colour 
Index I Page 
No. 1 

1 


CellitazolSR 




113 
113 
113 
113 
113 
113 
113 
113 
113 
113 

. 113 
113 
113 
115 
115 
103 

1 94 

no 

94 
93 

no 
no 
no 

97 

no 
no 

94 
93 
93 
93 

no 
no 

97 

no 
no 
no 
no 
no 
no 
no 

93 

no 
no 

92 
92 

no 
no 

93 

no 
no 
no 
no 

93 
93 

no 

92 
97 1 
95 
108 
108 
97 
97 
95 
99 
92 
108 
108 
108 
108 
108 
108 
108 
108 
93 
108 
108 
92 
108 
•108 
108 
96 


Chrome violet CBD 




108 


Celliton blue B 




Chrome violet CG 


727 
195 


96 


Celliton fast blue B 






92 


Celliton fast blue 2B 




Chromochlorine G 


1 108 


Celliton fast pink F3B.. 






441 


93 


Celliton fast red violet R 


Chromocitronine 3R 


108 


Celliton fast violet B.. 


Chromocvanine B 


888 
888 
888 


98 


Celliton fast yellow R 






98 


Celliton fast yellow 2R 






98 


Celliton orange R 






108 


Celliton pink R 








108 


Celliton red R 




rhroiiioi)henino FKN 




108 


Celliton yellow 3G 






762 
762 


96 


Ceres blue I '.. 






96 


Ceres yellow VI 






\ 109 


Chestnut brown 








t 109 


Chicago blue B 


oie 






109 


Chicago red III. 






109 


Chloramine blue HW 


591 
436 


Chromoxane brilliant violet SB 




109 


Chloramine brilliant red 8B cone 


Chromoxane brown 5R 




109 


Chloramine fast orange G 


Chromoxane pure blue B 


720 


95 


Chloramine fast orange 2G 






109 


Chloramine fast orange R 






21 


92 


Chloramine fast yellow B 


814 




105 


Chloramine light grav B 


Ciba brown R 

Ciba brown 2R 

Cilta orange G 

ril)ii ])iiik B 


1187 

"1236" 
1207 


102 


Chloramine light violet R 




105 


Chloramine orange G_ 


621 
382 
382 
436 


102 


Chloramine red B.. _ 


102 


Chloramine red 3B 


Ciba pink BG 


105 


Chloramine red 8BS 


Ciba red 3B 


1212 
1226 
1229 
1228 
1222 


102 


Chloramine light violet R 


Ciba red G 


102 


Chloramine violet R . 




Ciba red R 


102 


Chloramine yellow FF 


814 




102 


Chlorantine brown Y .. 


Ciba violet B 


102 


Chlorantine fast blue 2GL..- 




Ciba violet BL ......._ 


105 


Chlorantine fast blue 40L 




Ciba violet RL . 




105 


Chlorantine fast blue 8GL... _.. 




Ciba yellow G.._ 

Cibacete diazo black B 


1196 


102 


Chlorantine fast Bordeaux 2BL _ 




113 


Chlorantine fast brown BRL . . 




Cibacete navv blue 3R 




113 


Chlorantine fast brown 3RL 




Cibacete orange 3G 

Cibacete orange 2R_ 

Cibacete red 3B .-. 




113 


Chlorantine fast grav B _. 


403 


113 


Chlorantine fast green B 


113 


Chlorantine fast orange 2RL 




Cibacete red OR 




113 


Chlorantine fast red 5BL .. . 


278 
278 


Cibacete sapphire blue G_. 




113 


Chlorantine fast red 7BL 


113 


Chlorantine fast violet 5BL . 






113 


Chlorantine fast violet 2RL ... 




Cibacete violet 2R 

Cibacete vellow 3G 




113 


Chlorantine fast vellow 4GL 


349 


113 


Chlorantine fast yellow RL 


Citiacete vellow R 

Cit)acete yellow 2R 

Cibanone black B ' 

Cibanone black BB 




""1172" 
1102 
1172 
1115 
1173 
1113 


113 


Chlorazol drab RH 




113 


Chlorazol fast brown RK _ 




101 


Chlorazol fast eosine B 




100 


Chlorazol fast heliotrope BK 


319 
319 


Cibanone black 2G . . . 


101 


Chlorazol fast helio 2RK 




100 




Cibanone blue 3G _! 


101 


Chlorazol fast red KX- 


278 
884 
721 


Cibanone blue GCD._ 


100 


Chromacetine blue S . 




105 


Chromal blue (iC 


Cibanone brown B _. 

Cibanone brown B2R,.. ' 


1171 


101 


Chromanol black RVI 


105 










105 




879 
879 
723 
1085 
171 


Cibanone deep blue BO . ...' 




105 


Chromazurine G 


Cibanone golden orange G _ '. 


105 


Chrome azurol S_ 


Cibanone green B ' 


1174 


101 




105 


Chrome brown RV^V 


Ciballciiie olive B 


1175 


101 


Chrome corinth L 


105 


Chrome deep brown RRN ... 




Cilianone (irange R__ 


1169 


101 






105 








105 


Chrome fast pbosphirie B 




Cibanone red 4 B . 


105 








105 






Cloth fast blue B... 


289 


92 






Cloth fast brown 5 R _ _ 


103 




441 




103 






103 






Cloth fast red 3B 


103 




40 


Cloth fast violet R 


103 




Cloth fast yellow G._ 


103 






Cloth red 30 


256 


92 






Colonial blue R . 


109 


Chrome violet. 


727 


Columbia catechine 3B 1 


110 



INDEX TO TABLE OF DYE IMPORTS 

Index to table of dye imports — Continued 



119 



Name of dye 



Columbia catechine G 

Congo orange O 

Congo orange R 

Congo rubine BQ 

Coriphosphine OX extra. 

Cotonerol A 

Cotton pink ON 

Cotton red 4BX 

Cotton red 4BXA 

Cotton scarlet extra 

Cotton yellow G extra 

Cotton yellow GX extra.. 

Crystal orange 

Crystal violet extra pdr.. 

Crystal violet P 

Cupranil brown R 

Cyanine B 

Cyanol extra , 

Cyanol FF 



D 



Danubia blue BX 

Deltapurpurine 5B 

Developed blue 

Developed brilliant green 3G... 
Developed brilliant orange GR. 
Developed brilliant orange 5G.. 

Developed brown 3G 

Developed brown 6G 

Developed fast violet BL 

Developed sky blue B_. 

Developed sky blue 3GL 

Developed violet BL 

Developing black OT 

Developing blue B.. 

Developing blue 4R 

Diamine azo brown SO 

Diamine azo fast violet R 

Diamine azo green 3G 

Diamine azo yellow 2G 

Diamine brilliant scarlet S 

Diamine brilliant violet 2R 

Diamine catechine B 

Diamine catechine G.. 

Diamine catechine SG... 

Diamine dark green N 

Diamine fast Bordeaux 6BS 

Diamine fast brown CF 

Diamine fast brown 3G 

Diamine fast brown GBB 

Diamine fast brown R 

Diamine fast orange EG 

D iamine fast orange E R 

Diamine fast scarlet 4BS 

Diamine fast scarlet 8BS 

Diamine fast scarlet GG 

Diamine fast violet FFBN 

Diamine jet black 00. 

Diamine jet black SS 

Diamine orange B 

Diamine orange F 

Diamine rose BD 

Diamine scarlet SB 

Diamine sky blue FF 

Diamine yellow N 

Diamineral blue B 

Diaminogen extra 

Diaminogen blue GG 

Diaminogen blue NA 

Diamond magenta I 

Dianil fast violet BL 

Diazamine blue BR.. 

Diazanil scarlet 3BA 

Diazo black VG 

Diazo brUliant black V. 

Diazo brilliant blue 2BL 

Diazo brilliant green 3G 

Diazo brilliant orange 5G 

Diazo brilliant orange GR 



Colour 
Index 
No. 



377 
459 
376 

787 



131 

448 
448 
252 
346 
346 
27 
681 
681 
597 
713 
715 
715 



913 
451 



325 



594 



327 



321 
325 



544 
409 
459 
128 
382 
518 
488 
316 
317 



316 
677 



449 



Name of dye 



324 



110 
93 
93 
93 
96 

110 
92 
93 
93 
92 
93 
93 
92 
95 
95 
94 
95 
95 
95 



93 
110 
HI 

93 
111 
111 
111 
111 
111 
HI 
111 

93 
110 
110 
111 
111 
111 
111 
111 

93 
111 
HI 
111 

94 
111 
111 
111 
111 
111 
HI 
111 

93 
111 

93 

93 
111 

94 

93 

93 

92 

93 

94 

94 

93 

93 
111 

93 

95 
111 

93 

HI I 
HI 

93 
HI 
111 
111 

93 



Diazo brilliant scarlet 6B.. 

Diazo brOliant scarlet BG 

Diazo brOliant scarlet 2BL 

Diazo brilliant scarlet G. 

Diazo brilliant scarlet S8B 

Diazo brilliant scarlet ROA 

Diazo brown BW 

Diazo brown G 

Diazo brown 6G 

Diazo brown 3K 

Diazo brown 3HB 

Diazo fast black SD 

Diazo fast black VB 

Diazo fast blue 2BW 

Diazo fast blue 6GW... 

Diazo fast blue4RW 

Diazo fast Bordeaux BL 

Diazo fast green BL. 

Diazo fast red 7BL 

Diazo fast violet BL 

Diazo fast violet 3RL 

Diazo fast yellow 2G 

Diazo fast yellow 3RI> 

Diazo green 3G 

Diazo indigo blue 4GL 

Diazo indigo blue R 

J)iazo indigo blue 2RL 

Diazo olive G 

Diazo rubine B... 

Diazo sky blue B 

Diazo sky blue 3G... 

Diazo sky blue 3GL... 

Diazol brilliant orange NJN 

Diazol light red N8B 

Diazophenyl black V 

Diphene blue B 

Diphine blue R 

Diphenyl brown BBNC 

Diphenyl brown GS... 

Diphenyl catechine G 

Diphenyl dark green BC 

Diphenyl fast blue 2GLN 

Diphenyl fast blue 4GL 

Diphenyl fast Bordeaux BC 

Diphenyl fast bronze B 

Diphenyl fast brown GF 

Diphenyl fast brown GNC 

Diphenyl fast gray BC...^ 

Diphenyl fast yellow GL supra. 
Diphenyl fast yellow RL supra. 

Diphenvl pure yellow 5G.. 

Direct brilliant blue 6BR 

Direct brilliant blue 8B 

Direct brilliant yellow KG 

Direct catechine 3G 

Direct cutch brown GR. 

Direct cutch brown N. 

Direct fast blue 8GL 

Direct fast brown 3GL- 

Direct fast brown RL.. 

Direct fast gray BL 

Direct fast heliotrope BL 

Direct fast heliotrope 4BL 

Direct fast yellow GL 

Direct fast yellow RL 

Direct gray R 

Direct red 12B 

Direct safranine RW 

Direct sky blue 8G 

Direct sky blue H 

Discharge blue B. 

Dispersol yellow 3G 

Duranol black 

Duranol blue O. 

Duranol brilliant blue G 

Duranol orange G 

Duranol red 2B 

Duranol red G 

Duranol violet 2R 

Duranol yellow 



Colour 

Index 

No. 



324 



324 



532 



654 



595 



851 
851 



598 
628 



629 



403 
632 
632 



710 



319 



873 



7709—28- 



-9 



120 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHEK SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

Index to table of dye imports — ^Continued 



Name of dye 



E 



Eosine extra - 

Ergan yellow aOS 

Eridan brilliant scarlet B 

Erika B extra 

Erika2GN 

Erio anthracene brown R 

Erio fast brilliant violet BR 

Erio fast brown R 

Erio fast fuciisine BL 

Erio fast yellow AE - 

Erio green B supra -- 

Eriochromal brown AEB 

Eriochromal brown G 

Eriochrome azurol BC 

Eriochrome black A 

Eriochrome blue S 

Eriochrome blue SE 

Eriochrome brilliant violet B supra. 

Eriochrome brown SWN 

Eriochrome cyanine RC 

Eriochrome flavine A 

Eriochrome geranol R -- 

Eriochrome phosphine RR 

Eriochrome red B 

Eriochrome red G 

Eriochrome verdone S. 

Eriochrome violet 3B-- 

Eriocyanine AC 

Erioglaucine AP 

Erioglaucine EP --- 

Erioglaucine supra 

Erioglaucine X high cone 

Erioviridine B supra 

Erythrine 7BX 

Ery throsine 

Ethyl violet- 

Euchrysine 3RX 



Colour 
Index 

No. 



768 



130 
126 



757 



758 

11 

735 



720 
204 



722 
219 



157 
652 



Fast acid blue B 733 

Fast acid eosine G 756 

Fast acid green extra bluish 691 

Fast acid green BB 

Fast acid marine blue HBBX 

Fast acid pink B 

Fast acid violet R. 758 

Fast chrome green BN. 
Fast cotton blue FFG.. 
Fast cotton brown 4RL 
Fast cotton corinth B_. 
Fast cotton gray BL... 
Fast cotton gray GL... 
Fast cotton gray VL . . . 
Fast cotton rubine 5B.. 
Fast cotton violet 4R... 
Fast cotton yellow RL. 

Fast green extra blue shade 691 

Fast green extra bluish 691 

Fast green G 

Fast jasmine G 

Fast lake yellow G 

Fast light red G 

Fast light red R 

Fast light vellow 2G 636 

Fast light vellow 3G 636 

Fast sulfon violet 5BS 32 

Fast yellow extra 16 

Fastusol red violet BBL 

Fastusol violet BL 

Fluorescent blue I 908 

Fluorescent violet B 

Formal fast black O 

Foulard discharge blue B_ 

Foulard discharge green BL... 

Fouramine A 875 

Fur black DF.. 875 

Fur black DG. 875 

Fur blue black A... 875 

Fur blue black SB .1 875 

Fur brown NZ ! 875 



699 
671 
671 
671 
671 
667 
286 
773 
682 
788 



96 

169 

106 

92 

92 

109 

96 

103 

96 

92 

96 

109 

109 

95 

92 

109 

109 

109 

109 

95 

92 

109 

92 

94 

109 

92 

109 

95 

94 

94 

94 

94 

94 

92 

96 

95 



96 

96 

95 

103 

103 

103 

96 

109 

112 

112 

112 

112 

112 

112 

112 

112 

110 

95 

95 

98 

103 

115 

103 

103 

94 

94 

92 

92 

112 

112 

98 

103 

112 

109 

109 



Name of dye 



Fur brown NZD 

Fur brown P 

Fur brown 2R 

Fur brown 4R 

Fur brown SK 

Fur brown SO 

Fur brown SP 

Fur dye SC 

Fur gray AL 

Fur gray ALA 

Fur gray B 

Fur gray G 

Fur gray brown SLA... 

Fur olive DA 

Fur olive 3G 

Fur red brown 6R 

Fur yellow brown A 

Fur yellow brown 2GA. 

Furrol gray G 

Fuscamine G 



G 

Oallamine blue extra.. 

Oallazine No. 90 

G alio fast black 

Gallo navy blue 2GD. 

Gallo navy blue S 

Gallophenine P 

Geranine G 

Gloria black B 

Grasol blue G 

Grasol blue R 

Grasol orange G 

Grasol orange 2R 

Grasol red B 

Grasol red G 

Grasol scarlet G 

Grasol scarlet 2G 

Grasol yellow R 

Grasol yellow 2R 

Gray black 

Grelanone blue RZ... 
Grelanone brown B... 
Grelanone brown RR. 

Grelanone olive B 

Grelanone orange R.. 

Grelanone red 2B 

Grelanone red SBR... 

Guinea brown R 

Guinea fast green B . . 
Guinea fast red BL... 
Guinea fast red 2BL.. 
Guinea fast red 2R... 
Guinea light blue A.. 
Guinea rubine 4R 



H 



97 



I Half-wool blue 3R 

Hansa yellow G -- - 

II ansa yellow 5G..- - 

Hansa yellow lOG 

Hansa yellow 3R 

Hansa yellow 2GR 

Hansa yellow GA .- 

Hansa yellow GSA.. 

Helindone blue B 

Helindone blue 3R. 

Helindone brown G 

Helindone fast scarlet C. 

Helindone fast scarlet G 

Hilindone fast scarlet R .-. 

Helindone green G 

Helindone orange R 

Helindone pink AN 

Helindone pink BN 

Helindone printing black RD 

Helindone red B -I 1209 

Helindone violet R 1219 

Helindone yellow IFFRK 

Helindone vellow 3GN --I 1138 



INDEX TO TABLE OF DYE IMPORTS 

Index to table of dye imports — Continued 



121 



Name of dye 



Ilelindone yellow RN.._ 
Helindone yellow 3RN.. 

Helio Bordeaux BL 

Helio fast blue BL 

Helio fast pink RL 

Helio fast rubine 2BL 

Helio fast rubine 4BL 

Helio fast scarlet AR 

Helio fast yellow H lOO. 

Helio marine 2QL 

Helio red RMT 

Hydron blue G 

Hydron blue R 

Hydron brown G 

Hydron brown R 

Hydron green O 

Hydron navy blue C 

Hydron olive GN 

Hydron orange RF 

Hydron pink FF 

Hydron scarlet 3B 

Hydron violet B 

Hvdron violet BF 

Hydron violet BBF 

Hydron violet R -_- 

Hydron violet RF 

Hydron yellow GG 

Hydron yellow NF 

Hydron yellow brown G. 



Colour 

Index 

No. 



971 



U02 
1114 
1113 
1110 
1109 
1111 
llOS 
1106 



1146 



I 

Icvl blue G 

Icyl blue black 6B 

Icyl brown G 

Icyl orange G 

Icyl violet B 

Ignamine orange 3G 

Ignamine orange R 

Ignamine orange RR., 

Immedial brown W 

Immedial yellow olive 5G 

Indant hrene black 

Indanthnue blue BCD 

Indanthrene hhic GCD.._ 

Iniianfhrene blue GGSZ 

Indanthrene blue 3G 

Indanthrene blue 5G 

Indanthiene blue RK 

Indanthrene blue RS 

Indanthrene blue RZ 

Indanthrene Bordeaux B 

Indanthrene brilliant blue. ---' 

Indanthrene brilliant orange RK ' 

Indanthrene brilliant violet 3B j 

Indanthrene briliant violet RK 1135 

Indanthrene feriliant violet RR 1104 

Indanthrene briliant violet 4R ! 

Indanthrene brown B I 1120 

Indanthreiu' brown G j 1152 

Indanthrene brown 20 ' 

Indanthiene brown GR j 1149 

Indanthrene brown R j 1151 

Indanthrene corinth RK i 1144 

Indanthrene dark blue BO [ 1099 

Indanthrene golden orange Q-- _' 1096 

Indantlirene golden orange 3G I 

Indanthrene golden orange RRT 

Indanthrene golden orange 3R i 

Indant hrene gray !_ 

Indanthrene gray 6B j 1213 

Indanthrene gray K j 1145 

Indanthrene green i 

Indanthrene green BB 1116 

Indant hrene kha ki i 

Indanthrene olive R I 1150 

Indanthrene orange RRK 1136 

Indanthrene orange 4R 

Indanthrene pink B 

Indanthrene printing black BR. . 

Indanthrene red 

Indanthrene red R 



106 
106 
115 
115 
115 
115 
115 
115 
115 
115 
115 
98 
98 
106 
106 
106 
106 
106 
102 
106 
106 
106 
106 
106 
106 
106 
106 
106 
106 



113 
113 
113 
113 
113 

93 

93 

93 
114 
114 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
106 
101 
106 
106 
106 
101 
100 
106 
100 
101 i 
106 
101 
101 
101 
100 

99 
106 
106 
107 
107 
102 
101 
107 
100 
107 
101 
101 
107 
107 
107 
107 
101 



Name of dye 



Indanthrene red RK 

Indanthrene red brown R 

Indanthrene red violet RRK. 

Indanthrene violet B 

Indanthrene violet BN 

Indanthrene violet R 

Indanthrene violet RR 

Indanthrene yellow FFRK... 

Indanthrene yellow O 

Indanthrene yellow GK 

Indigo carmine blue FF 

Indigo MLB/fiB 

Indigo (natural) - - . 

Indigo pure RB paste 

Indigo white paste 

Indigosol AZG 

Indigosol HB. 

Indigosol O.. 

Indigosol 04B 

Indigosol OR 

Indigosol black IB„ 

Indigosol black TB 

Indigosol orange H R 

Indigosol pink HR 

Indigosol pink IR 

Indigosol red HR 

Indigosol scarlet HB _.. 

Indigosol violet AZB 

Indigosol yellow HCG... 

Indocarbon CL 

Indocarbon SN.. 

Indochromine RR... 

Indocyanine B 

Indocyanine FF 

Induline NN.-_ 

Ink blue BITN 

Ink blue BITBN _ 

Ink fast black A extra 

Intensive blue B 

lonamine A,. 

lonamine L 

lonamine red KA 

Iris violet extra 

Irisamine G 



J 

Janus red B 

Janus yellow 

Japan black MBG.. 
Jasmine, high. cone.. 



Katigene chrome blue 5G. 
Katigene indigo CLGG... 

Kiton blue A 

Kiton blue L 

Kiton fast green V... 

Kiton fast red 4BL 

Kiton fast red R.. 

Kiton fast violet lOB 

Kiton fast yellow 3G 

Kryogene violet 3RX 



Lake green FE 

Lake red C _ _ 

Lake yellow G 

Lanasol blue R 

Lanasol orange 2R 

Lanasol violet R___ 

Leather brown 5RTX 

Leather yellow GC 

Light green SF yellowish XX. 

Lithol fast orange 

Lithol fast rubine 

Lithol fast scarlet.. 



M 



Colour 
Index 

No. 



1162 



1161 
1105 
1163 
1103 
1104 



1118 
1132 



1186 
124" 
1183 

1178 



931 



861 
707 
707 



733 



Magenta AB. 
Magenta S 



847 
753 



266 
236 



714 
671 
735 



696 
645 



165 

"me 



793 
670 



677 
692 



122 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 
Index to table of dye imports — Continued 



Name of dye 



Malta gray J 

Meldola's blue 3R 

Metachrome blue black 2BX 

Metaehrome brilliant blue BL 

Metachrome brilliant blue 8RL 

Metachrome brown 6G 

Metachrome olive 2G 

Metachrome olive brown G 

Metachrome orange R 

Metaehrome red G.._ 

Metachrome violet B 

Metachrome violet 2R 

MetanilrcdSB 

Methyl Lyons blue 

Methyl violet 

Methyl violet NFB. 

Methyl violet 300 XE 

Methylene blue 

Methylene blue B... 

Methylene blue BGF 

Methylene blue NS 

Methylene gray 

Methylene green G 

Methylene heliotrope extra strong. . 

Methylene violet 3RA extra ._ _ 

Milling brown R 

Milling orange G 

Milling red 4B-\ 

Milling red 6BA 

Milling red NJ 

Milling red T._ 

Milling violet B._ 

Milling violet R 

Milling yellow GA 

Milling yellow 30 

Milling yellow H3G 

Milling yellow O 

Mimosa Z cone 

Minaxo black BBNX 

Minaxo blue 4BX 

Minaxo light pink BX 

Minaxo light pink BBX 

Minaxo red 3BX 

Modern az-urine 5G 

Modern black N 

Modern blue CVI 

Modern brown (DH) 

Modern cyanine N... 

Modern cyanine V 

Modern green N 

Modern olive JN 

Modern violet 

Mordant yellow GS 

Moti orange R.. 



N 

NakoB-._. 

Nako black D 

NakoDFN... _. 

NakoDG 

NakoDMG 

NakoDR 

NakoER 

Nako3GA 

Nako3GN 

lSrako4G 

NakoP 

KakoPS 

NakoR 

NakoRHG 

Nako3R 

NakoSRSC 

Nako black C. 

Nako black DD... 

Nako red O 

Naphthalene green V._. 
Naphthalene green NV. 

Naphthogene blue B 

Naphthol black BGN.. 
Naphthol yellow SXX. 



Colour 
Index 
No. 



873 
909 



104 
40 



173 



706 
680 
680 
680 
922 
922 
922 
922 
873 
924 
845 
842 



813 



508 



884 



875 
875 
875 
875 
875 
875 
875. 
875 
875 
875 
875 
875 
875 
875 
875 
875 
875 
875 
875 
735 
735 



97 

98 

109 

109 

109 

109 

109 

92 

92 

109 

92 

109 

104 

95 

95 

95 

95 



97 
98 
97 
97 
104 
104 
104 
104 
104 
104 
104 
104 
104 
104 
104 
104 
97 
112 
94 
112 
112 
93 
98 
109 
109 
109 
97 
97 
109 
109 
98 
92 
92 



97 
97 
97 
97 
97 
97 
97 
97 
97 
97 
97 
97 
97 
97 
97 
97 
97 
97 
97 
96 
96 
112 
104 
92 



Name of dye 



Neolan black GG 

Neolan blue 2G 

Neolan blue RR 

Neolan Bordeaux R 

Neolan green LBN 

Neolan oninge G 

Neolan orange R 

Neolan pink B 

Neolan red R 

Neolan verdon B 

Neolan violet R 

Neolan violet brown B . . 

Neolan yellow R 

Nejitune green SGX 

Neutral gray G. 

Neutral gray NY 

New blue RS 

New claret RX 

New fast gray 

New methylene blue N.. 
New methylene blue NS. 

New victoria blue B 

Night blue ._. 

Nigrosine T 

Nile blue BX 

Nitrosamine red paste 

Novazol acid blue BL 

Novazol acid blue GL 

Novazol blue B.. 

Novazol violet B 



Colour 

Index 

No. 



Page 



667 
267 



873 
927 
927 
728 
731 
865 
913 
44 



:o 

Oil green ALB 

Oil red 

Oil Vermillion 

Omega chrome brown EB. 
Omega chrome brown G... 
Omega chrome red B cone. 

Onis B 

Onis3B 

Onis 5B 

Opal blue, bluish 

Orange extra paste 

Orange S 

Oxamine acid brown O 

Oxamine black 

Oxamine blue 4BX 

Oxamine light pink 

Oxamine red 3I5X 

Oxychrome brown V 

Oxydiamine black N 

Oxydiamine black SOOO.., 

Oxydiamine black ITS 

Oxydiamine brown KBBS. 



707 

"iso' 



508 
"425" 
"538" 



Palatine black SF 

Palatine fast blue B 

Palatine fast blue BR 

Palatine fast blue GO 

Palatine fast brown BRRNO. 

Palatine fast claret RNX 

Palatine fast green BL 

Palatine fast orange GN 

Palatine fast orange R 

Palatine fast pink — 

Palatine fast yellow 

Paper fast Bordeaux B 

Paper red A — 

Para green BBL 

Para orange G 

Para rosaniline base 

Para yellow R 

Paradone direct black BG 

Paradone direct black RBP... 

Paradone gray B 

Paranil Bordeaux B 

Paranil brown R 

Paranil green B 



676 



INDEX TO TABLE OF DYE IMPORTS 

Index to table of dye imports— Continued 



123 



Name of dye 



797 
789 
797 
902 
902 
904 
778 
793 
793 
788 



Paranil green G.. ---- 

Parasulfon brown v --- 

Patent black N 

Patent blue A 

Patent blue V .-- 

Patent phosphine O- 

Patent phosphine 20------- 

Patent phosphine GKN IJN 

Patent phosphine R---- 

Patent phosphine RKJJJt 

Phenocyanine h 

Phenocyanine VS 

Phenocyanine TV 

Phloxine --- 

Phosphine O — --- 

Phosphine 3R 

Phosphine orange 

Pigment green B 

Pilatus fast blue B 

Pilatus fast blue BR — -- 

Pilatus fast blue GO---- 

Pilatus fast claret RNX-- 

Pilatus fast green BL -.- 

Pilatus fast orange ON 

Pilatus fast orange R 

Pilatus fast pink B -- 

Pilatus fast pink G 1 

Pilatus fast red R - , 

Pilatus fast yellow G - ' 

Pilatus fast yellow GK ] 

Pink R extra - 

Pluto black G - ,- 

Pluto brown GG i 

Polar brilliant red B 

Polar gray- - 1 

Polar orange R - 

Polar red B - - 

Polar red 3B - -.^^ 

Polar red G - | *^" 

Polar red R--- 1%^ 

Polar red RS - , *"*" 

Polar yellow 2G - -"Hh' 

Polar yellow 5G - — i ^^^ 

Polar yellow R------ f'^Qn' 

Polyphenyl blue GG -- } »»" 

Ponceau 3R - 1 °" 

Poseidon blue BA-- | ' j^ 

Poseidon blue BOX — ! 712 

Poseidon blue BR extra-- — -l "4 

Poseidon blue BXX ---^ {{* 

Poseidon green SGX. - -j oo/ 

Poseidon green \ GGX '<>a 

Pure wool blue J "in^7 

Purpurine ' ^""^^ 

Pyramine orange 3G 

Pyramine orange R 

Pyramine orange RR 

Pyrazol orange G -- 

Pyrazol orange R 

Pyrogene blue green B 

Pyrogene brown G 

Pyrogene cutch 2R^- 

Pyrogene green GK 

Pyrogene green 3G-. 

PjTogene pure blue csuij 

Pyrogene pure blue 2RL 



1006 



Quinoline yellow (spirit soluble) 800 

Quinoline yellow 1 °"{ 

Quinoline yellow cone ] »^i 



Quinoline yellow extra 
Quinoline yellow KT extra cone 

R 



802 



Radio chrome blue B-- 

Radio navy blue B 

Rapid fast blue B 

Rapid fast orange RQ- 



Name of dye 



Colour 1 

Index 1 

No. 



70 



796 
749 



Rapid fast orange RH 

Rapid fast pink LB 

Rapid fast red B 

Rapid fast red GL paste 

Rapid fast red GZ 

Rapid fast red LB 1""266 

Red JB 7Q 

Red ponceau R ' 

Red violet extra paste- 

Rheonine AL ■ 

Rhodamine B cone I ''^ 

Rhodamine B extra-- '*^ 

Rhodamine G extra -— '^" 

Rhodamine 6G conc- --- 'Jl^ 

Rhodamine 6G extra i '^^ 

Rhodamine 6GDN 

Rhodamine 6GH - ""'743 

Rhodamine S ' 

Rhodamine blue 6B- 

Rhodamine scarlet G 

Rhodamine stearate - 

Rhoduline blue 5B 

Rhoduline blue6G------ 

Rhoduline orange NO - 

Rhoduline yellow 6G. --- 

Rosanthrene 3BN 

Rosanthrene R 

Rosanthrene Bordeaux B-------- 

Rosanthrene brilliant red BK--- 

Rosanthrene fast red 7BL 

Rosanthrene orange R — 

Rosanthrene violet 5R • 

Rosinduline 2B bluish. — • 

Rosolane extra strong 

Runic AL cone 



789 



1118 



93 
93 
93 
94 
94 
114 
114 
114 
114 
98 
114 
114 



109 
104 
114 
114 



Saba phosphine S conc- 

Safranine stearate 

Safranine Y 

Salicine orange 2R. ------- 

Sandothrene yellow NG 

Selan printing brown 3R 

Setacyl direct blue G -- -- 

Setacyl direct blue 2Gb 

Setacvl direct blue R--- 

Setacvl direct orange G-- j 

Setacyl direct orange 2R.- -] 

Setacyl direct pink 3B i 

Setacvl direct red B-. ] 

Setacyl direct violet R i"""663' 

Setocyanine 1 g^g 

Setoglaucine - i gg, 

Setopaline ^r,^ 

Silk blue BSIC - 1 ™' 

Silk blue BT5B -fVoi 

Silk red ST ''^^ 

Silk yellow R 

Silver gray P 

Sky blue N 

Solamine gray VL- , 

Solid blue S------ °?1 

I Soluble blue I old- ']>' 

Soluble blue 5R '"' 

Soluble blue T ---i-V """" 707 

1 Soluble blue, green shade 1 1 '"/ 

1 Sorrel red X 

i Special violet B 

i Spirit blue 

Stanley red ---^ 

i Stilbeae yellow 3GX 

Stone fast orange RN 

I Stone fast scarlet G • 

Stone rubine BN..- — 

Stone rubine G 

Straw blue G.-- - 

I Sulfide new blue BL 

II Sulfide new blue GL 

1 Sulfide violet RR 

1 Sulfide violet V 



865 



54 
1080 



224 
622 



114 

114 

114 
92 

114 

114 
92 
92 

113 
96 
96 
96 
96 
96 
96 

114 

114 

96 

114 

114 

115 

114 

94 

96 

97 

112 

112 

112 

112 

112 

112 

112 

97 

97 

% 



96 

115 

114 

109 

100 

104 

113 

113 

113 

113 

113 

113 

113 

113 
94 
94 
94 
95 

112 
92 

104 
97 
112 
112 
97 
95 
95 
95 
95 
92 
99 
115 
92 
94 
115 
115 
115 
115 
114 
114 
114 
114 
114 



124 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

Index to table of dye imports — Continued 



Name of dye 



Sulfo rhodamine B extra. 

Sulfo rhodamine G 

Sulf on orange G _ - . 

Sulfon yellow 50 

Sulfou yellow R_ 

Sulfoncyanine G 

Sulfur blue 

Sulfur brown CI./4R 

Supramine black BR 

Supraiaine blue FB 

Supramine blue R 

Supramine Bordeaux B.. 

Supramine brown G 

Supramine brown R 

Supramine red B 

Supramine red 3B ., 

Supramine red R.. 

Supramine violet B 

Supramine yellow G 

Supramine yellow 3G 

Supramine yellow R 



Tannoflavine T 

Tartrazine 

Tero brown FR 

Tero brown FRR 

Tero brown F3R. 

Tero brown F4R 

Tero carmine FB 

Tero red FG 

Thiazine red RXX 

Thio violet 5R 

ThioflavineT 

Thioindigo black B... 

Thioindigo orange R 

Thioindigo red 3B_ 

Thioindigo rose RN 

Thioindigo scarlet 2G 

Thioindigo violet 2B 

Thioindigo violet R _. 

Thioindone scarlet BB 

Thional brilliant blue 6B.. 
Thional brilliant green 2G. 
Thional brilliant green 6G. 

Thionine blue G 

Thionine blue GC 

Thionine blue GO 

Thionol brown O ._ 

Thionol brown C L4R 

Thionol brown R 

Thionol green B 

Thionol green 20... 

Thionol yellow GR 

Toluidine blue 

Toluylene fast orange LX. 

Tolu yleue yellow G 

Toluylene red _ 

Triazogene orange R 

Triazoi fast brown 3GL 

Triazol light orange 2RL.. 

Trisulfon bronze BG_ 

Trisulfon brown B 

Trisulfon brown 2G 

Turquoise blue O 

Typophor black FB._ 

Typophor brown 



Ultra Corinth B 

Ultra cyanol B 

Ultra orange R 

Universal dark blue C 

Universal dark brown C. 
Universal dark green C... 

Universal green C 

Universal jet black C 

Universal scarlet C 

Ursol 

Utopia brilliant green B.. 
Utopia brilliant green 6G. 



Colour 
Index 
No. 



748 



815 
640 



225 



815 



1217 
1212 



1228 
1219 



1006 



926 
926 



925 



436 
649 



561 
577 
661 



578 
420 
593 



448 
875 



Page 



104 I 
105 
105 
105 

92 
114 
114 
105 
105 
105 
105 
105 

105 ; 

105 
105 
105 
105 
105 
105 
105 



97 
94 

115 
115 
115 
115 
115 I 
115 I 
92 
114 j 

97 I 
107 I 
102 ! 
102 j 
107 
102 
102 

107 j 

108 I 
114 I 

98 i 
114 I 



114 
114 
114 
114 
114 
114 
98 
112 
112 
93 
94 
112 
112 
112 
94 
94 
94 
115 
115 



109 
109 
109 
94 
93 
94 
112 
112 
93 
97 
114 
114 



Name of dye 



V 

Vat black BB 

Vat black BGA 

Vat blue BCD 

Vat blue BCS 

Vat blue BCSO 

Vat blue BO 

Vat blue BOA. 

Vat blue GCD 

Vat blue GCDN 

Vat blue GGSZ__ 

Vat blueSG 

Vat blueSG 

Vat blue RK 

Vat blue RS 

Vat blue RSN 

Vat blue RSP 

Vat blue I?Z__.. 

Vat blue green B 

Vat brilliant blue 3G 

Vat brilliant blue R 

Vat brilliant orange RK 

Vat brilliant pink R 

Vat brilliant violet RK 

Vat brilliant violet RR 

Vat brilliant violet RRP 

Vat brilliant violet 4R 

Vat brown B (GrE) 

Vat brown G (M) 

Vat brown BR 

Vat brown G ._ 

Vat brown 2G 

Vat brown GR 

Vat brown IGR.. 

Vat brown R 

Vat brown RT 

Vat brown WM 

Vat corinth RK 

Vat dark blue BO 

Vat dark blue BOA 

Vat golden orange G 

Vat golden orange 3G 

Vat golden vellow GK 

Vat gray 3B 

Vat gray 6B 

Vat gray GK 

Vat gray K 

Vat gray RRH 

Vat green BB 

Vat green G. 

Vat green 2G 

Vat khaki GG 

Vat olive B 

Vat olive R 

Vat orange RRK_- 

Vat orange RRT 

Vat orange RRTS 

Vat orange 3R 

Vat orange 4R _ 

Vat pink B 

Vat printing black BR 

Vat printing brown GN 

Vat printing brown R 

Vat printing deep black BD. 

Vat printing violet RF 

Vat red BK 

Vat red BN_ _.. 

Vat red FF.... 

Vat red GG.... 

Vat red R 

Vat red RK 

Vat red RKP _ 

Vat red brown R 

Vat red brown 5RF 

Vat red violet RH 

Vat red violet RRK 

Vat red violet RRN 

Vat (Hydron) scarlet 3B 

Vat (Helindune) scarlet R... 

Vat violet B paste 

Vat violet 2B 



Colour 




Index 


Page 


No. 




1102 


100 


1102 


100 


1114 


100 


1114 


100 


1114 


100 


1099 


100 


1099 


100 


1113 


100 


1113 


100 


1110 


100 


1109 


100 


1111 


100 


1108 


100 


1106 


100 


1106 


100 


1106 


100 



1135 
1104 
1104 



1152 
1227 
1151 
1152 



1149 
1149 
1151 



1144 
lOl'O 
1099 
1096 



1213 
1145 
1145 



1116 



1150 
1150 
1136 



1162 
1133 



1133 
1162 
1162 



1212 
1161 
1161 



1218 
1105 
1219 



INDEX TO TABLE OF DYE IMPORTS 

Index to table of dye imports — Continued 



125 



Name of dye 



Vat (Qrelanone) violet 3B.. 

Vat violet BN... 

Vat violet R_ 

Vat violet RR 

Vat violet RRP 

Vat yellow FFRK 

Vat yellow G 

Vat yellow GC 

Vat yellow GF 

Vat yellow 3GF 

Vat yellow GGK 

Vat yellow GK_ 

Vat vellow 3GN 

Vat yellow GP. 

Vat yellow GPO 

Vat yellow RK (Helindone yellow 

RN). _.._ 

Vat yellow 3RT 

Vat yellow brown 3G 

Vatamine scarlet 2B 

Very superior pink AA 

Victoria blue B 

Victoria blue R 

Victoria blue 4R 

Victoria pure blue BO 

Violet (for ink pencil) BB 

Violet B extra 

Violet red HR 



W 

Water blue 

Whitex washing blue. 

Wool black GRF 

Wool black N 

Wool blue 5B 

Wool blue G extra 

Wool blue R 

Wool fast blue BL 

Wool fast blue GL.... 
Wool fast blue BR.... 
Wool fast brown 3R . . 



Colour 
Index 
No. 



1134 
1163 
1103 
1104 
1104 



1118 
1095 



1132 
1138 



729 
728 
690 
729 
680 



707 



736 



833 
833 
1088 



101 
101 
100 
100 
100 
107 
100 
99 
106 
106 
108 
100 
101 
107 
107 

106 
106 
108 
108 
115 
96 
96 
95 
96 
95 
113 
115 



95 
115 
105 
105 
105 
96 
106 
97 
97 
99 
105 



Name of dye 



Wool 
Wool 
Wool 
Wool 
Wool 
Wool 
Wool 
Wool 
Wool 



fast orange O . . 

fast red 3B 

fast scarlet R . _ 
fast violet B... 
fast yellow 5G. 
fast yellow R.. 

green S 

vat blue B 

vat brown 3R. 



Xantho 

I Xylene 

! Xylene 

Xylene 

Xylene 

I Xylene 

i Xylene 

Xylene 

Xylene 

Xylene 

Xylene 

Xylene 

Xylene 

Xylene 



phosphine OR 

blue AS cone 

blue VS cone 

brilliant blue FFRX. 

cyanol FF cone 

fast blue FF 

fast green B cone 

light yellow 2Q 

milling blue AE 

milling blue BL 

milling blue QL 

milling orange R 

milling red B... 

milling violet B 



Yellow JG. 
YeUow JR. 
Yellow R. 



Zambesi black D 

Zambesi black F 

Zambesi brown 4R 

Zambesi pink B... 

Zambesi pure blue 4BO. 

Zambesi rubine B 

Zapon blue G 



Colour 

Index 

No. 



487 
276 
833 



737 



789 
673 
672 



715 



735 
639 
833 
833 
833 



833 



236 
236 



Page 



105 
94 
92 
97 
105 
105 
96 
108 
108 



96 
94 
94 

105 
95 

105 
96 
94 
97 
97 
97 

105 

105 
97 



92 
92 
113 



112 
112 
112 
ll2 
112 
112 
115 



PART V 

CENSUS OF SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS 
OTHER THAN THOSE OF COAL-TAR ORIGIN 



127 



Part V 

CENSUS OF SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS OTHER 
THAN THOSE OF COAL-TAR ORIGIN, 1927 



Introduction 



Beginning with 1921 the Tariff Commission has compiled an annual 
census of synthetic organic chemicals other than those of coal-tar 
origin. This census has shown, wherever the figures could be pub- 
lished without disclosing operations of the individual producer, the 
quantity of production and the quantity and value of sales. 

As the Bureau of the Census collects data for the more important 
noncoal-tar organic compounds, the commission has not attempted 
to gather statistics on such, except on a few compounds where the 
importance of the chemical or conditions in the industry warranted a 
departure from this practice. This report follows the precedent 
established in 1921 of omitting certain types of compounds classifi- 
able in three groups: (1) Aliphatic compounds derived from natural 
sources by isolation, distillation, extraction, hydrolysis, or purifica- 
tion. Examples of these are alkaloids, constituents of essential oils, 
sugars, and acids such as stearic and tartaric. (2) Cyanides, cyanam- 
ides, or carbides of metals or of inorganic radicals. (3) Products 
obtainable from other sources. 

LARGE INCREASE IN PRODUCTION 

Expansion in the domestic production of aliphatic organic com- 
pounds in the last few years has been unparalleled. Continued 
progress in this field of chemistry will probably raise the United States 
to a position comparable to that held by Germany before the war in 
the manufacture of coal-tar chemicals. Raw materials used in the 
manufacture of aliphatic chemicals are available in large quantities 
in the United States; they include petroleum, natural gas, turpentme, 
pine oil, corn, sulphur, wood cellulose, carbide, coke, chlorine, and 
glycerin. 

The production in 1927 of synthetic organic chemicals other than 
those derived from coal tar was 280,992,825 pounds, an increase of 
31 per cent over the output of 214,842,513 pounds in 1926. Sales 
in 1927 amounted to 201,548,089 pounds, valued at $36,600,628. 

The increase in the production of aliphatic compounds, from 
21,500,000 poimds in 1921 to more than 13 times that quantity in 
1927, is in sharp contrast to the increase in finished coal-tar chemicals 
from 51,500,000 pounds to less than 3 times that quantity. The 
value of the production of synthetic organic chemicals of noncoal-tar 
origin in 1927 was approximately $51,000,000, as compared with a 

129 



130 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

value of S61, 000,000 for the finished coal-tar chemicals in the same 
year. 

Aliphatic chemicals are used as solvents, medicinals, perfumes, 
flavors, rubber accelerators, flotation agents, photographic develop- 
ers, and explosives. 

Important chemicals of this group showing increased production 
in 1927 are: 

(1) Ethylene glycol, used in making low-freezing dynamites and 
derivatives for lacquer solvents. 

(2) Acetaldehyde and derivatives, used in the manufacture of 
rubber accelerators. 

(3) Amyl and butyl alcohol, used in the preparation of esters for 
lacquer solvents. 

(4) Ethyl chloride — a refrigerant. 

(5) Furfural, used in the manufacture of synthetic resms. 

(6) Synthetic methanol. 

(7) Tetraethyl lead. 

SOLVENTS 

Progress in the manufacture of solvents is largely due to their 
increased consumption by the lacquer and pyroxylin plastic indus- 
tries. The production of nitrocellulose varnishes and thinners in 
1927 was 29,000,000 gallons, or 6,000,000 more than in 1926. 

The domestic production of nitrocellulose varnishes or lacquers in 
1927 is shown in Table 35. 



Table 35.- 



-Pyroxylin {nitrocellulose) varnishes or lacquers: Production and sales, 
1927^ 



Production 



Sales 



Clear lacquers 

Lacquer enamels 

Thinners for nitrocellulose lacquers 
Other 

Total nitrocellulose products. 



Gallons 
6, 601, 600 
10, 503, 300 
9, 637, 400 
2, 545, 900 



Gallons 
6, 268, 100 
10, 313, 400 
9, 524, 100 
2, 543, 800 



29, 288, 200 28, 649, 400 



' U. S. Department of Commerce. 

Considering the solvents individually, the trend m production was 
variable. Butyl acetate, butyl butyrate, amyl acetate, eth>l lactate, 
but^d propionate, carbon tetrachloride, and isopropyl alcohol declined 
in production in 1927; ether USP. showed virtually no change; 
ethyl acetate (85 per cent), amyl and butyl alcohol, chloroform, 
dibutyl phthalate, ethyl butj^rate, isopropyl acetate, and trichloro- 
ethylene increased. 

Several new solvents reported for the first time in 1927 were made 
in large quantities. Among these were synthetic methanol and the 
ethers of ethylene glycol. 

Table 36 shows the domestic production of organic solvents of 
noncoal-tar origin from 1924 to 1927, inclusive. Many solvents are 
omitted from this table for the reason that their publication would 
disclose the production of individual firms. 



NONCOAL-TAR SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS 



131 



Table 36. — Organic solvents of noncoal-tar origin: Production in the United States, 

1924-1927 



Solvent 



1924 



1926 



1927 



Denatured alcohol '. proof gallons.. 

Methanol, refined 2 gallons.. 

Chloroform pounds.. 

Ether USP do-... 

Ethyl acetate... do 

Amyl acetate do 

Butyl acetate.. .do 

Butyl alcohol do 

Amyl alcohol ..do 

Carbon tetrachloride ' do 



134, 736, 222 



301, 492 
314, 928 
222, 761 
514, 123 
095, 662 
250, 062 
149, 654 
275, 057 



163, 603, 131 
5, 870, 658 
1, 305, 868 
5, 355, 050 

26, 678, 737 
1, 338, 456 

16, 472, 914 



154, 990 
16, 163, 104 



199, 905, 750 

7, 402, 715 

1, 909, 660 

5, 896, 016 

43, 661, 465 

2, 702, 015 

27,240,117 

< 43, 800, 000 

565, 010 

18, 998, 848 



950,500 
414, 154 



855, 462 
613, 532 
388, 928 
211,697 



703, 844 
550, 026 



' Annual reports of Commissioner of Internal Revenue and of the Prohibition Commissioner. 

2 Bureau of the Census. (Does not include synthetic methanol.) 

3 Production as reported in the Boston News Bureau, Feb. 14, 1925. 

< Estimated production. Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, vol. 19, No. 1. 

Amyl alcohol. — The production in 1927 of 2,703,844 pounds of amyl 
alcohol was a large increase over the production of the previous 
year. The sales price shows a decHne from 34.2 cents in 1926 to 
26.3 cents in 1927. 

Butfyl alcohol. — The output of butanol was much larger in 1927 
than in 1926. 

Butanol and acetone find wide appUcation in the nitrocellulose 
and acetate cellulose industries, in the manufacture of celluloids, 
lacquers, photographic and moving- picture films, patent and arti- 
ficial leather, automobile finishes, airplane dope, and other products. 
Brass and bronze works, furniture and varnish factories, oil refineries, 
and the dye, drug, rayon, and textile industries all find ready use for 
these important solvents. 

In 1919 the Commercial Solvents Corporation purchased the 
plant at Terre Haute, Ind., owned and operated jointly during the 
war by the United States and British Governments primarily^or the 
manufacture of acetone. With the sole license in the Uni tea States 
and patent rights throughout the world to manufacture solvents 
(chiefly butanol) by the Weizmann process. Commercial Solvents 
operates plants at Terre Haute, Ind., and Peoria, 111., using corn 
and coal as the principal raw materials for the products of the corpo- 
ration. 

Imports of butanol into the United States dropped from 2,152,000 
pounds in 1925 to 205,000 in 1926 and to 31,751 pounds in 1927, 
valued at S5,569. 

Butyl acetate. —ThQ. 1927 output of butyl acetate was 26,304,243 
pounds, a dechne of about one million pounds from 1926. Sales 
were 13,565,527 pounds, valued at $2,796,9191. Imports of butyl 
acetate from March, 1927, to May, 1928, inclusive, were 6,108,890 
pounds, valued at $835,103. 

Carbon tetrachloride. — This chemical is used as a dry cleaning 
agent, as a solvent, and for extinguishing fires. The 1927 production 
of 16,550,026 pounds is a decline of about two and one-half million 
pounds from 1926. Sales were 16,969,652 pounds, valued at $1,049,- 
759, or a unit value of 6.2 cents per pound as compared with 6 cents 
in 1926. 

Ether.— The output of ether USP. in 1927 was 5,855,462 pounds, of 
which 4,695,699 pounds were sold for $1,432,321. The production of 
ether for technical purposes decHned in 1927. 



132 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

Synthetic 7n6fAa7ioZ.— Methanol is used as a solvent in the pyroxyHn 
plastics industry, in the preparation of dime thy laniHne, and in for- 
maldehyde (one of the raw materials of sythetic resin, indigo, and 
other products). 

Except in special formulas 3a and 30, the use of synthetic methanol 
as a denaturant is prohibited by regulations of the Prohibition 
Bureau. Methanol obtained by wood distillation is generally used 
for all denaturing purposes. 

Synthetic methanol was produced in the United States in 1927 by 
the Commercial Solvents Corporation and the Lazote Co., the former 
using a by-product gas from the fermentation of corn. This gas, 
containing 60 per cent carbon dioxide and 40 per cent hydrogen, is 
treated to remove a certain percentage of the carbon dioxide and 
the remaining mixture is converted into methanol in the presence of 
a suitable catalyst under definite conditions of temperature and pres- 
sure. The Lazote Co. uses hydrogen and carbon monoxide as raw 
materials. 

The manufacture of synthetic methanol, in common v/ith other 
high-pressure gas processes, requires a large capital investment. 
Imports of methanol since 1923 have been almost exclusively the 
synthetic product originating in Germany. The duty on methanol 
was increased by presidential proclamation, after an investigation 
by the Tariff Commission, from 12 to 18 cents per gallon, effective 
December 27, 1926. In 1927 imports of 1,714,692 gallons (valued 
at $718,537) more than doubled the quantity imported in the pre- 
ceding year. 

ACETALDEHYDE AND DERIVATIVES 

An important development during the war by the Canadian Electro 
Products Co., of Shawinigan Falls, Canada, was the production of 
acetaldehyde from acetylene. The commercial success of this proc- 
ess depends partly upon cheap electric power for the production of 
calcium carbide. 

Acetylene gas generated from calcium carbide is passed rapidly 
and with vigorous agitation through a solution of mercuric sulfate 
in dilute sulfuric acid. The excess acetylene removes the acetalde- 
hyde from contact with the acid solution to the condensing and scrub- 
bing systems, where the acetylene is deprived of its acetaldehyde. 
The acetaldehyde is rectified in column stills to yield a pure product. 

Announcement was made in 1925 that the Union Carbide and 
Carbon Corporation, the Shawinigan Water & Power Co., and the 
Roessler & Hasslacher Chemical Co. had organized the Nicecet 
Chemicals Corporation to engage in the manufacture of synthetic 
chemicals from acetylene at Niagara Falls, N. Y. The location of a 
plant at this point is advantageous because of the low-priced electric 
power available and nearness to the source of raw material — acety- 
lene — made by another plant. 

Acetaldehyde and its polymer paraldehyde showed a large increase 
in production in 1927 over 1926. Large quantities of acetaldehyde 
and its derivatives are consumed in the manufacture of rubber 
accelerators. Another use of acetaldehyde is as a raw material in the 
manufacture of glacial acetic acid. Synthetic acetic acid will probably 
offer increased competition to acetic acid distilled from wood. 



NONCOAL-TAR SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS 133 

Crotonaldehyde is produced in small quantities as a by-product of 
the catalytic conversion of acetylene to acetaldehyde. Crotonalde- 
hyde is used in the manufacture of synthetic chemicals including 
butyraldehyde, and also as an ethyl alcohol denaturant. The produc- 
tion of crotonaldehyde increased in 1927. 

Butyraldehyde is made at the present time by the oxidation of 
butyl alcohol. It can also be made by the synthesis of crotonalde- 
hyde. The production of butyraldehyde increased in 1927. It is 
used for the manufacture of butyric acid, which, in turn, is used in 
making fruit esters. 

Aldol showed an increased production in 1927 over 1926. It is 
used to some extent as a flotation agent, and as an intermediate prod- 
uct in the manufacture of crotonaldehyde. Aldol is a solvent for 
cellulose acetate and a source of butadiene. 

FURFURAL AND DERIVATIVES ^ 

Furfural was discovered more than a hundred years ago but only 
during the past few years has it been made in commercial quantities. 
It is an aldehyde and was first used commercially in the manufacture 
of resins of the phenol-formaldeyhde type, to which it imparts valuable 
properties. Furfural slowly darkens and resinifies, and penetrates 
wood so deeply that it can not be held in wooden barrels. Both of 
these properties, as well as its germicidal and fungicidal properties, 
are of value in dressing wounds in trees. Furfural is also used as a 
flavor in tobacco, and because of its solvent action, low toxicity, 
and high power of penetration, is used in replacing aniline and nitro- 
benzene as a solvent in shoe dyes and leather dressings. It is an excel- 
lent solvent for nitrocellulose and would be used more extensively in 
the lacquer industry if it did not darken in color when exposed to 
light and air. Another use of interest is that of a fly repellant. 

Furfural is made on a commercial scale from oat hulls available in 
large quantities as a by-product in the manufacture of rolled oats. 
The process of manufacture consists in hydrolyzing the oat hulls, 
moistened with about 5 per cent sulfuric acid solution, by steam at 
about sLxty pounds pressure, and distilling off the furfural. 

Production shows a large increase in 1927 over 1926. Several 
derivatives were reported in 1927, including furoic acid and furyl 
alcohol. 

ETHYLENE GLYCOL AND ITS DERIVATIVES 

Ethylene glycol has been on the market for several years. New 
uses are making it an important member of the group of synthetic 
aliphatic chemicals. Its largest use is as a raw ingredient of low freez- 
ing dynamites. Dinitrogl^^col not onl}^ lowers the freezing point of 
trinitro-glycerin, but has other properties which make it especially 
desirable for use in djniamite. In a recent publication^ nine million 
pounds were given as an estimate of glycol used in dynamite in 1927. 
Ethylene glycol is used as an antifreeze in automobile radiators. It 
does not evaporate like alcohol. A number of ethers of ethjdene 
glycol are used in the lacquer industry. They are excellent solvents 
for nitrocellulose and are practically odorless, with no unpleasant 
physiological effect when used indoors. 

' Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, December, 1926, p. 1217. 
' Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, April, 1928, p. 235. 



134 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

TETRAETHYL LEAD 

The production of tetraethyl lead increased considerably in 1927 
over 1926. A small quantity of this lead compound mixed with gas- 
oline in an automobile engine will decrease the reaction velocity of 
combustion and so reduce the "knock" that it is possible to use an 
engine of a higher compression ratio and obtain a greater mileage per 
gallon of gasoline. Gasoline containing tetraethyl lead is widely used 
throughout the United States and in foreign countries and its con- 
sumption promises to increase. 

FLAVORS AND PERFUMES 

Vanillin production in 1927 was 301,251 pounds, a decUnefrom 
1926 of 56,000 pounds. Sales were 316,038 pounds, valued at $2,070,- 
775 or $6.55 a pound. Heliotropin also showed a decHne in production 
from 22,764 pounds produced in 1926, although statistics for this 
chemical can not be pubhshed for 1927. lonone, an important base 
for violet odors, showed an increase in production from 20,517 pounds 
in 1926 to 32,044 pounds in 1927. Sales in 1927 were 28,517 pounds, 
valued at $132,989. Acetin (mono) and triacetin used as fixatives 
for perfumes both showed a decrease in production. Citronellol 
showed a large increase. The production was 7,826 pounds and the 
sales 7,303 pounds, valued at $41,557. Rhodinol, with a production 
of 2,237 pounds and sales of 1,934 pounds valued at $22,548 showed a 
decrease. Other flavors and perfumes showing a decrease in produc- 
tion were isoeugenol, isomenthol, terpineol, and terpinyl acetate. 

XANTHATES ^ 

A total of 3,983,118 pounds of xanthates was used in 1926 for 
treating the following ores: 

Pounds 

381,887 

197,533 

9, 185 

166,839 



Lead-zinc-iron 

Zinz and lead-zinc . 
Lead-copper-silver. 
Miscellaneous 



Pounds 

Copper 3, 049, 625 

Gold-silver 31,157 

Silver-lead 11, 712 

Lead 135,180 

The total quantity of oils and reagents used for flotation in 1926 
was 201,711,795 pounds, as compared with 81,666,967 pounds in 
1925, The large quantity of all reagents used in 1926 is due to the 
amount of lime (162,240,359 pounds) added in the alkahne circuits, 
particularly in the mills treating copper ores; this accounts for the 
larger tonnages. 

In 1926 the total quantity of ore reported as being treated by 
flotation was 50,889,254 tons, from which 3,353,120 tons of concen- 
trates were obtained. 

NEW PRODUCTS 

Among the synthetic organic chemicals reported in 1927 but not 
in 1926 were butyl stearate, butyl tartrate, diethylene glycol, di- 
ethylene glycol monoethyl ether, ethylchloro carbonate, ethylene 
glycol monoethyl ether acetate, glycol diacetate, methyl acetate, 
propylene glycol, paraldehyde USP. 



' Consumption of Reagents u.sed in Flotation, 1926, Bureau of Mines, U. S. Dept. of Commerce. 



NONCOAL-TAR SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS 



135 



STATISTICS OF IMPORTS, PRODUCTION, AND SALES 

Table 37. — Certain synthetic organic chemicals of noncoal-tar origin: Imports 
and production, 1926-27 



Acetaldehyde 

Paracetaldehyde 

Aldehyde ammonia 

Chloral hydrate, - 

Formaldehyde solution (not more 

than 40 per cent) 

Hexamethy lenetetramine 

Acetic or pyroligneous acid, con- 
taining by weight not more than 

65 per cent acetic acid 

More than 65 per cent acetic acid. 

Formic acid 

Gallic acid _ 

Lactic acid, containing by weight 55 

per cent or more of lactic acid 

Oxalic acid 

Pyrogallic acid 

Butyl alcohol 

Methanol 

Carbon tetrachloride 

Chloroform 

Glycerophosphoric acid, and salts 

and compounds 

Ethers and esters: 

Containing not more than 10 
per cent alcohol- 
Ethyl ether USP 

Ethyl chloride 

Amyl acetate -_ -- 

Ethyl acetate 

Other, n. s. p. f 

Containing more than 20, not 
more than 50 per cent alcohol. 

Tetrachloroethane ..- 

Trichloroethylene 

Urea 

Thymol 

Vanillin 



1926 



Imports J 



Quantity Value 



Pounds 
94, 724 
60,645 
363 



396 

23, 481 



6, 026, 859 
1, 995, 982 
2, 315, 308 



$12, 950 

10, 859 

125 



194, 504 
1,583,011 



205,317 

3 754,917 

100 

6 



431 
10, 237 



289, 282 
232, 855 
164, 045 



58, 587 
71,685 



33, 237 

345, 530 

36 

11 



61, 506 I 49, 604 



5,412 

855 

283, 965 

1 

33,444 

22 

377, 729 

18, 765 

221 



2,564 

89 

77, 832 

1 

1,772 

3 

30, 346 

46, 740 

1,021 



Produc- 
tion 2 



Pounds 



31, 953, 204 
1, 495, 220 



573, 842 



1927 



Imports ' 



Quantity 



Pounds 

50 

21. 258 

200 

330 

1,347 

3,417 



6, 766, 512 
3, 784, 504 
3, 214, 642 



189, 847 



18, 998, 848 
1, 909, 660 



5, 896, 016 



2, 702, 015 
43, 661, 465 



357, 300 



202, 352 
1, 843, 732 



31, 751 
1, 714, 442 



11 
50, 279 



22 

774 

300 

3,748 

, 789, 042 

50 

72, 977 

2,567 

814. 309 

18, 420 

« 3, 178 



Value 



$20 

4,017 

65 

IIG 



Produc- 
tion 2 



Pounds 



89 29, 920, 072 
1,715 1,315,213 



350, 421 
454, 382 
230, 565 



63, 650 
98, 657 



5,569 
718,412 



42 
56, 205 



12 

921 

150 

391, 

846, 334 

38 

3,735 

184 

51,880 

40, 269 

20, 961 



515, 876 



16, 550, 026 



5, 855, 462 



2,421,301 
49, 203, 156 



301, 251 



1 Foreign Commerce and Navigation of the United States. 

2 Census of Dyes and Other Synthetic Organic Chemicals. 
' Gallons. 

<Data from invoices indicate a total of 3,795 pounds. 



7709—28- 



-10 



136 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Table 38. — Synthetic organic chemicals of noncoal-tar origin: Production and 

sales, 1927 

[The numbers in the second column refer to the numbered alphabetical list of manufacturers printed on 
p. 188. An X indicates that the manufacturer did not consent to the pubhcation of his name in connection 
with the particular product. A blank in the third and fourth columns indicates that these sales can not 
be published without revealing information in regard to the sales of individual firms. A blank in the sixth 
column indicates that the production can not be published without revealing information in regard to 
the output of individual firms. The details thus withheld are, however, included in the totals] 





Manufacturers' identi- 
fication numbers (accord- 
ing to list on p. 188) 


Sales 




Name of chemical 


Quantity 


Value 


Aver- 
age 

price 
per 

pound 


Produc- 
tion 

(quan- 
tity) 


Total 




Pounds 
201,548,089 


$36,600,628 


$0.18 


Pounds 
280,992,825 




57, 93, 113, 134 
















51 










Acetin (mono).. 

Acetylbromodiethylacetyl carbamide 

Aldehvde ammonia 

Aldol (acetaldol) 


84, X 










13 










132 










113, 134 










134 












105, 134 










Amyl acetate and sec amyl acetate.. - 
Amyl alcohol and sec amyl alcohol... 


8, 46, 57, 60, 62, 80, 84, 92, 
101, 116, 137, 153, 155, 
XXX 

8, 60', 84,' 120, 133, 137, 153, 
X. 

20 


1, 677, 523 


459, 150 




2, 421, 301 
2, 703, 844 












57 












93 












57 . . . . 










Amytal (isoamylethylbarbituric 
acid). 


90 








57, X 










57, 61, 08, 80 








Brometone (tribromotertiarybutyl 
alcohol). 


X 








45, 93 .- 










Bromodiethylacetylcarbamide 


13 


::::._: 






8, 46, 56, 60, 62, 84, 92, 101, 

153, 155, X. 
X, X 


13,565,527 


2, 796, 919 


.21 


26, 304, 243 


Butyl alcohol (butanol) (n and see).. 




62, 162 - 












129 












55, 60, 62,84, 162 


1,720,036 


535, 278 


.31 


1, 731, 895 




84 






84 












X 










108 










57, 80, 116, 162 










93 










93, 116 










19, 45, 51, 114, X, X 

13 


16,969,652 1.049.759 


.06 


16, 550, 026 












100, 103 . . 










Chloretone (trichlorotertiarybutyl al- 
cohol). 


X 










45 












13 












19,45 -.- 












57 












57 










Cinnamyl valerate. 

Citral 


57 










57 68 












57, 131, 149, X, X 












55,57 












113 134 












13 .. . 












57 












57 80 












62 










Dibromiu (dibromomalonylureide) . . 


X 










13 












155 












1 












25 . 










Diet hy lacet ii- acid 


13 











NONCOAL-TAR SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS 



137 



Table 38. 



Syyithetic organic chemicals of noncoal-tar origin: Production and 
sales, 1927 — Continued 



[The numbers in the second column refer to the numbered alphabetical list of manufacturers printed on 
p. 188. An X indicates that the manufacturer did not consent to the publication of his name in connection 
with the particular product. A blank in the third and fourth columns indicates that these sales can not 
be published without revealing information in regard to the sales of individual firms. A blank in the sixth 
column indicates that the production can not be published without revealing information in regard to 
the output of individual firms. The details thus withheld are, however, included in the totals) 





Manufacturers' identi- 
fication numbers (accord- 
ing to list on p. 188) 


Sales 




Name of chemical 


Quantity 


Value 


Aver- 
age 

price 
per 

pound 


Produc- 
tion 
(quan- 
tity) 




1, 13 


Pounds 






Pounds 


Diethylbromoacetyl bromide (bromo 


13 








acid). 


1, 13 -.- 








Diethvl sulfate 


25 










25 










25 








Diethvlene glycol monobutyl ether 


25 




- 1 


Dihvdrovanillone 


57 










57--- -- 










125 










13 








Dimethyl sulfate 


131 - 




1 






13 




1 1 


tate. 


57 




1 




57 




1 




13 




! . 




13 




--- 1 1 


Ethyl acetate (85 per cent) 


8, 40, 46. 57, 58, 60, 80, 92, 

101, 153, 155, X, X, X. 

153 


36,505,506 


$3,909,804 j $0.11 


49, 203, 156 








13, 45 




1 






20, 57, 60, 62, 116, X 




1 




Ethvl n-caproate 


116 










153 - -. 










153 




-t 






45, 46, 60, 61, 93, 132 




1 




Ethvl chloride, USP 


65 




1 




Ethvl ether, tech 


8, X 








Ethvl ether, USP 


8.93, 100, 144, 153, X.-.. 
57, 62,93, 116, X 


4, 695, 699 


1,432,321 i .31 


5, 855, 462 








129 










13 




I 




Ethyl iodide 


93, 100 - . . 






Ethyl isovalerate 


57, 62, 116, X 




1 




Ethyl lactate 


57, 153 










57 




1 






1, 57 




1 




Ethyl nitrite 


8, 60, 93, 100 


33, 317 


25,342 
7,773 


.76 
1.76 


34,099 


Ethyl cenanthate.-- 


57, 62, 116, X 


4.416 


5,413 




57 ' 




Ethyl oxalate 


153 








Ethvl pelargonate 


20, 57, X -. 










57, 60, X . . -i 










57,60 ' 








Ethylene 


153 








Ethvlene chlorohydrin 


25 J 








Ethylene dibroniide 


45 - . 










25 - --- --. 


::::::::::: 






Ethylene glycol 


25 








Ethvlene glycol monobutyl ether 


25 










25 - 








25 ! 








tate. 


1 

25 . i 








Ethylene oxide 


25 








Formaldehyde 


40, 75, 132, X 24,597,367 

X --. 


2, 266, 534 


. 09 29, 920, 072 








129 ' 




1 


Furac III (lead dithiofuroate) 


129 




I 


Furfural 


129 '- -.- 








129 ! 









129 






Furil 


129 




1 


Furoic acid 


129 




i 


Furoyl chloride 


129 


1 ! 



138 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

Table 38. — Synthetic organic chemicals of noncoal-tar origin: Production and 

sales, 1927 — Continued 

[The numbers in the second column refer to the numbered alphabetical hst of manufacturers printed on 
p. 188. An X indicates that tlie manufacturer did not consent to the publication of his name in connection 
with the particular product. A blank in the third and fourth columns indicates that these sales can not 
be published without revealing information in regard to the sales of individual firms. A blank in the sixth 
column indicates that the production can not be published without revealing information in regard to 
the output of individual firms. The details thus withheld are, however, included in the totals] 





Manufacturers' identi- 
fication numbers (accord- 
ing to list on p. 188) 


Sales 




Name of chemical 


Quantity 


Value 


Aver- 
age 

price 
per 

pound 


Produc- 
tion 

(quan- 
tity) 


Furyl alcohol (furan carbinol) _ 


129 


Pounds 






Pounds 


Gallic acid 


51, 93, 165 . . 








515, 876 


Geranyl acetate . . . 


55, 57, 62, 68, X 








1,204 




57 












55, 57, 80 












57 












61 










Glycerophosphoric acid and salts of.. 


75, 103 










62, 153 












13 












61, 68, 80 












57 












57, 108. 












45 










He.xadecyl aldehyde 


57 










Hexamethylenetetramine 


75, 132, X 








1,315,213 


Hexamethylenetetraminea n hydro- 
methylene citrate. 

Hydrofuraniide _ 

lodobehenate of calcium 

lodobehenate of iron, basic 

lodobehenic acid 

Iodoform 

lonone -.. 

Isoamyl butyrate 

Isoa.myl format e. 

Isoamyl iso valerate. 

Isoamyl propionate 


13 










129 






1 


13 


1 




13 








13 








93,100, 111 








15, 577 
32.044 


68, 80, 98, 131, X 


28, 517 
9,237 


$132, 989 
11,187 


$4.66 


55, 57,60,62, 110, X,X 

55,57,60,62, 116 


1.21 10,035 


55, 57, 62, 116, X 








5,784 


62 








55.57,62, 116 


37 


94 


2. 54 1 64 




153 






57, 62 










57,62 










57, 62 










57 _ 










55,57,68,80, 156 


2,637 


10, 398 


3.94 


Isoment hoi 

Isopropyl acetate.- - 

Isopropyl alcohol (isopropanol) 

Isopropyl formate 

Isovaleric acid 

Jasmin aldehyde 

Jasmone 


111 




62 84 






1 


X 








62 








62, 116 








57 






1 


57 






X,X 






1 


Linalvl acetate 


55, 57, 80, X, X 


435 


2,894 


6.65 1 487 




57 


1 




55 57, X 








40 




57 








Methaform (trichlorotertiary butyl 
alcohoH. 


X 








88, X 






! 


Meth yl acetate 

Methyl n-butyrate 

Methyl chloride 

Methy! eugenoL 

Methyl formate 


62 84 153 






1 


62 116 








132 






1 


55 






1 


62 








129 










13 






1 


Methylnonylacetic aldehyde 

Neoual (butyl ethyl barbituric acid). 


57 






1 


1 








57,80 






1 




57,X 




i 




57 




t 




57 






1 


n-Octyl alcohol (capryl alcohol) 


57 






1 


57,80 . 






! 




57 


1 ' 


Oxalic acid 


119,157 


! 1 1 



NONCOAL-TAR SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS 



139 



Table 38. 



-Synthetic organic chemicals of noncoal-tar origin: Production and 
sales, 1927 — Continued 



(The numbers in the second column refer to the numbered alphabetical list of manufactures printed on 
p. 188. An X indicates that the manufacturer did not consent to the publication of his name in connection 
with the particular product. A blank in the third and fourth columns indicates that these sales can not 
be published without revealing information in regard to the sale of individual firms. A blank in the sixth 
column indicates that the production can not be published without revealing information in regard to 
the output of individual firms. The details thus witheld are, however, included in the totals] 





Manufacturers' identi* 
fication numbers (accord- 
ing to list on p. 188) 


Sales 




Name of chemical 


Quantity 


Value 


Aver- 
age 

price 
per 

pound 


Produc- 
tion 
(quan- 
tity) 




113 


Pounds 






Pounds 


Paraldehvde, US? 


134 . ... 










Paraformaldehyde 


75, 132 . 












31, 134a 












134 \ 








Piperonone (piperinic ketone) 


57 












57 












162 












57 












153 












62 












57 










Propvlene chlorohydrin . 


25 












25 










Propylene glvcol . . . 


25 












25 












51, 93, 165 


166, 472 


.$203, 878 


$1.22 






51, X 






X 












55, 57, 68, 80, 131 1,934 

57 


22,548 


11.66 


2,237 








93 











X 












13 










Terpineol . - . 


68, 80, X 












100, 156 












68, 80, X, X 


11, 221 


11,943 


1.06 


11,287 




132 




Tetradecyl aldehyde 

Tetraethyl lead 


57 . . ... 










46 










46, 108 












108 












84 










Trichloroethvlene 


45, 132 . . . ... 












25 -- 












108 












1 












57 












57 . 












61, 68, 96, 98, 103, 156 


316, 038 


2, 070, 775 


6.55 


301, 251 


Vanillyl vanillate 

Vinyl chloride 

Xanthates 

Zinc dimethyldithiocarbamate 


57 




25 










69, 108, 134, X 


4, 567, 492 


489, 226 


.11 


4, 700, 610 


108 













PART VI 
INTERNATIONAL DYE TRADE 



141 



Part VI 
INTERNATIONAL DYE TRADE 

Introduction 

Earlier issues of the Census of Dyes, published annually by the 
commission, discussed in detail the international trade in dyes in 
pre-war years, the changes that took place while the war was in 
progress (1914-1918), and the post-war developments through 1926. 
With this issue the census will be up to date. 

DEVELOPMENTS IN 1927 

The principal developments in the international dye trade in 1927 
were: (1) An increase in the activities of the I. G.; (2) a trend 
toward and the completion of international dye agreements; (3) 
expansion and increased activity of Imperial Chemical Industries 
(Ltd.); (4) the world-wide trend toward the use of fast dyes; (5) 
increase in quantity of exports from the principal producing nations; 

(6) increased competition in and lower prices of the bulk colors; 

(7) manufacture of new types of fast dyes and specialties. 



WORLD PRODUCTION OF DYES 

The world capacity to produce dyes has been estimated at more 
than 600,000,000 pounds, which is nearly double the pre-war capacity. 
Production figures for 1927 indicate that, as a whole, the producing 
nations were operating at not more than 60 per cent of their capacity." 
Competition resulting from this excess capacity has led to a con- 
tinued drop in prices and to the elimination of some producers. 

Table 39 shows the production of coal-tar dyes by the chief pro- 
ducing countries in recent years. 

Table 39. — Dyes: Production by chief producing countries, 1923-1927 



Country 



Germany ' 

United States 2. 
Great Britain s. 
Switzerland *... 

France ' 

Italy «.... 

Japan '.. 



Pounds 
165, 000, 000 
95, 200, 000 
39, 551, 756 
22, 500, 000 
35, 000, 000 



1926 



Pounds 
165, 000, 000 
87, 976, 000 
30, 297, 000 
19, 200, 000 
34, 419, 868 



1925 



1924 



1923 



Pounds 
165, 000, 000 
86, 343, 348 
32, 693, 402 
18, 000, 000 
32, 065, 996 
13, 860, 000 



Pounds 
159, 549, 986 
68, 689, 000 
33, 242, 704 
21, 000, 000 
33,011,512 
11, 880, 000 
18, 631, 000 



Pounds 
144, 859, 572 
93, 667, 524 

""20,'000,"000 
24, 173, 472 

"i3,"457,"735 



1 The monthly reports containing the one-quarter monthly German production of dyes made to the 
Reparation Commission. These reports covered the period, February, 1920 to December, 1924, inclusive. 
The figures for 1925-1927 are estimates from German Chemical Developments, U. S. Department of 
Commerce. 

2 Annual Census of Dyes and Other Synthetic Organic Chemicals, U. S. Tariff Commission. 

s Estimate for 1922 is from Trade Information Bulletin, No. 231, U. S. Department of Commerce. Esti- 
mates for 1924-1926 were prepared by DyestutTs Industry Development Committee from voluntary returns 
of British dye firms; 1927 figures prepared by British Board of Trade. 

* Calculated on the basis that the home market consumes 10 per cent of the output of Swiss dyes; exports 
consequently equal 90 per cent of production. 

' Ofl3cial figures from French-owned plants in France compiled by the Union des Producteurs des Con- 
sommateurs pour le developpement de I'industrie des Matieres Colorantes en France (1927 production is 
estimated) . 

« Compiled by Hon. Ernesto Belloni for International Economic Conference, Geneva, Switzerland, 
May, 1927. 

' Estimate for 1923 is from Chemical Trade Bulletin No. 24B, Department of Commerce. Estimate for 
1924 is for the fiscal year (August, 1923, to September, 1924) and is from Japan Advertiser, issue of March 
26, 1925. 

• See Census of Dyes, 1923, Table 20, p. 124. 

143 



144 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 
EXPORTS FROM PRODUCING COUNTRIES 

Table 40 gives comparative figures for dye exports from the chief 
producing countries in the pre-war year 1913 and in the post-war 
period 1923 to 1927. 

Exports from German}'^ in 1927 show an increase of 17.6 per cent 
by vahie and 31.4 per cent by quantity over 1926. Exports in 1927 
were less than one-half of those in 1913, although they showed an 
increase of 7.2 per cent in value. This decrease m volume and in- 
crease in value are due to heavy shipments of high-priced dyes and 
to a loss in exports of low-priced bulk colors. 

The United States increased its foreign sales of dyes in 1927 over 
1926 by approximately one million pounds. The decrease of 8 per 
cent in value is attributable to the fact that the 1927 exports consisted 
largely of indigo and certain other low-priced bulk colors which have 
decreased in price from 1926. 

In 1927 expoits of dyes from Great Britain increased both in 
quantity and in value over the preceding year. In the same year, 
Swiss exports of aniline and other coal-tar dyes, which are high- 
priced types with an average value of about 83 cents per pound, 
showed a large increase in both quantity and value. Exports of 
indigo in 1927 from Switzerland continued to decline, both in quantity 
and value, and exports of alizarin, which were negligible in 1926, 
increased to 247,001 pounds, valued at $47,051. 

With the exception of sulfur black, which was exported in larger 
quantities, exports of dyes in 1927 from Italy were smaller than in 
1926. 

Table 40. — Coal-tar dyes: Exports from chief producing countries, 1913 and 

1923-1927 



Exported from- 



Germany 

United States. 
Great Britain. 
Switzerland... 

France 

Italy 

Japan 



Pounds 



239,598,133 $51,689,400 



Value 



5, 451, 376 

19, 458, 902 

1, 152, 134 

117, 725 



862, 566 

5, 549, 752 

275, 716 

22, 458 



Pounds 



73, 974, 473 
17, 924, 200 

9, 247, 504 
18, 282, 967 

4, 650, 382 
647, 712 

2, 296, 327 



Value 



$41, 580, 742 
5, 565, 267 
3, 635, 058 
12,253,711 
3, 749, 442 
548, 481 
396, 397 



Pounds 



61,033,911 
15, 713, 428 

6, 622, 896 

19, 015, 998 

10, 604, 126 

541, 009 

1, 899, 495 



Value 



$30, 936, 462 
5, 636, 244 
3, 052, 911 
12, 138, 346 
7, 508, 787 
276, 793 
283, 179 



Exported from — 



Germany 

United States 
Great Britain 
Switzerland-. 

France 

Italy 

Japan. 



Pounds 



75, 879, 025 
25, 799, 889 

7, 314, 608 

16,161,041 

10, 784, 463 

426, 810 

1, 685, 606 



Value 



$44,311,155 
6, 694, 360 
3, 122, 149 
11,979,718 
7, 469, 903 
295, 702 
214, 209 



1926 



Pounds 



81, 883, 253 
25,811,941 

6, 014, 288 

17,287,793 

10, 335, 827 

681, 221 

1, 046, 520 



Value 



$47, 134, 156 
5,950,159 
2, 428, 287 
11,971,452 
5, 902, 946 
453, 235 
152, 657 



1927 



Pounds 



107, 593, 519 
26, 766, 168 
' 8, 705. 984 
20,291,498 
11,133,671 
620, 595 



Value 



$55,413,142 

5, 491, 466 

1 3, 201, 349 

14,571,841 

3, 055, 030 

334, 575 



• Dyes and dyestuffs (except dyewoods and raw dyeing substances) and extracts for dyeing and tanning- 
products of coal tar. 



INTERNATIONAL DYE TRADE 



145 



IMPORTS INTO CONSUMING COUNTRIES 

Table 41 shows that the new dye-producing nations imported only 
a fraction of the dyes they consumed in 1926 and 1927, as compared 
with pre-war years when they were largely dependent upon Gemiany 
and Switzerland. The United States, Italy, and France each imported 
a smaller quantity in 1927 than in 1926. Great Britain, Belgium, and 
Italy apparently bought higher-priced dyes, as their imports increased 
in value. 

British India, Great Britain, Germany, Canada, and Switzerland 
each imported more dyes, measured by either quantity or value, in 
1927 than in 1926. China greatly decreased her purchases in 1926 as 
compared with 1925. 

Table 41. — Coal-tar dyes: Imports into chief consuming countries, 1913, 1926, and 

1927 



1913 



Imported into- 



Pounds 



Value 



755, 260 
950, 895 
542,429 



2, 100, 255 
7, 537, 870 
3,611,705 



9, 207, 684 



China..- 160,696,533 $11,673,779 

British India'.. 16,923,607 j 3,741,031 

Czechoslovakia 

Japan 

United States 

Italy |5i5, 

Beligium.. j _. 

Great Britain ! 41,203,008 

Netherlands 

Dutch East Indies '2,073,434 890,366 

Germany 7,138,495 1,682,422 

France 4,706,601 1,416,316 

Canada 3 2,633,516 1 594,414 

Austria 17,168,764 3,616,199 

Switzerland 2,201,292 431,19; 

Brazil 

Sweden ..j 2,376,166 

Spain 82,303,709 



1926 



Pounds 



699, 737 
1, 021, 368 



50, 370, 874 
10, 048, 499 
fi, 486, 019 
6, 986, 501 
4, 673, 196 
3, 374, 140 
6, 189, 545 
4,214,112 
4, 055, 681 
5, 847, 981 
7,937,221 
3,204,165 
2, 656, 264 
2, 089, 960 
1, 801, 297 
1, 492, 102 
2, 099, 549 
895. 969 



Value 



2 $10, 643, 544 
5, 028, 848 
3, 574, 891 
4, 324, 805 
4, 103, 301 
s 2, 010, 003 
1,571,249 
4, 242, 468 
2, 278, 198 
2, 045, 054 
4, 132, .'562 
2, 546, 881 
1, 563, 496 
1,209,801 
1,273,916 

739, 874 
1,316,939 

659, 357 



Pounds 



14, 797, 450 



4, 233, 046 
3,221,141 
5, 466, 747 
4, 660, 432 



Value 



$6, 018, 780 



10,214,132 
3, 065, 276 
3,011,901 



2, 652, 979 



3,413,886 
2, 695, 409 
1, 846, 031 
4, 967, 767 



5, 223, 283 
2, 357, 068 
1, 845, 308 



1,701,498 



' Exports to China, 1913, from France, Germany, and Switzerland amounted to 69,181.230 pounds, 
valued at $11,516,567. Chinese statistics show value but not quantity of aniline dyes, and include "unclas- 
sified dyes" which may contain other than coal-tar dyes. 

2 p;\clusive of "aniline dyes" and "dyes and colors unclassified" amounting in value to $3, .351, 393. 

5 Years ended Mar. 31. Imports into British India for calendar year 1926 were 13,072,172 pounds, valued 
at $5,779,712; calendar year 1927, 17,675,749 pounds, valued at $7,256,651. 

^ Fiscal year 1914; quantity from Special Agents Series No. 121, value from Commerce and Navigation 
Reports. 

5 Aniline dyes only in 1913. 

6 Does not include 987,980 pounds of reparation dyes. 
' Quantity of synthetic indigo not shown for 1913. 

s 1914. 

COMPETITIVE CONDITIONS 

As a result of the war-time stimulus to dye making, the dye-pro- 
ducing countries of the world are equipped to produce a far greater 
quantity of dyes than they are able to consume. This excess capacity 
to produce has precipitated a struggle for foreign markets and has 
led each producing nation to adopt special measures for the protection 
of its home market. 

The struggle for export markets is most severe in the nonproducing 
nations, China and British India. 'The United States, Great Britain, 
and France have established a trade in the bulk dyes in these countries 
and are combating the efforts of Germany and Switzerland to regain 
their former control of the entire trade. 



146 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



German}^ and Switzerland continue to dominate the international 
dye trade. In Germany centralization and coordination of dye 
manufacture by the I. G. has resulted in low manufacturing 
cost. Long experience, the establishment of sales agencies, and 
branch plants throughout the world, and the negotiation of inter- 
national agreements are also factors of German supremacy. Recent 
activities of the I. G. in extending its manufacturing interests to in- 
clude a wide diversity of chemicals and allied products other than 
dyes are also enhancing the prestige of Germany. In high-priced 
dyes Germany still dominates the world markets, but in bulk dyes 
she has lost a part of her trade to the new producing nations. The 
I. G., by steadily increasing its influence, is seeking to recover this 
lost trade. 

Table 42 shows the exports of dyes from Germany in 1913, and the 
trend of the export trade since 1920. 

Table 42. — Coal-tar dyes: Exports from Germany, 1913 and 1920-1927 



Year 


Pounds 


Value 


Year 


Pounds 


Value 


1913 


239, 598, 133 
61, 140, 171 
48, 304, 991 

115, 974, 900 
73, 974, 473 


$51,606,168 
.53,002,407 
15,935,585 
80,781,892 
41,580,742 ! 
1 


1924 


61,033,911 
75, 879, 025 
81,883,253 
107, 593, 519 


$30, 933, 368 


1920 


1925 

1926 


44,311,155 


1921 " - 


47, 134, 156 


1922 


1927 


55, 413, 142 


1923 









' May to December. 

As previously pointed out, exports from Germany in 1927 showed 
an increase of about 17.6 per cent in value and 31.4 per cent in quan- 
tity over 1926. As compared with pre-war years, the volume of 
Germany's export trade has greatly declined. In value, however, 
the 1927 export showed an increase of 7.2 per cent over the 1913 
figure. Further details of exports for this country are given in 
Table 44. 

Export figures, taken alone, do not disclose the actual participa- 
tion of Germany in the international trade, for the reason that the 
I. G. controls or has an interest in dye plants in Japan, Spain, the 
United States, and Russia, and handles through its extensive sub- 
agencies products not of their own manufacture. 

Switzerland has now, as prior to the war, a larger share of the 
world's trade than the relative size of her industry indicates. The 
Swiss specialize in high-priced dyes, in the manufacture and market- 
ing of which they have advantages which come from long experience, 
a well-organized selling force throughout the world, and the diversity 
of their products. They operate, or have an interest in, plants 
in the United States, France, Great Britain, Germany, and Italy. 
The disadvantage of a lack of raw materials is not serious, as crudes 
and intermediates are available from several nations. 

The world-wide trend toward the use of fast dyes and higher- 
priced specialty colors will favor the nations that are doing pioneer 
work in the manufacture of new products; nations restricting their 
output to the old types will bo at a marked disadvantage in com- 
petitive markets. 

In the United States competition has been so keen in the home 
market that many of the weaker producers have been eliminated. 



INTERNATIONAL DYE TRADE 147 

Six firms in 1927 discontinued dye manufacture, and it is probable 
that the number will continue to dwindle until the productive capac- 
ity of the country more nearly conforms to its requirements. The 
trade of the United States has been fully discussed elsewhere in this 
report. 

The status of other countries in dye manufacture and trade will 
be set forth in pages 148 to 175. 

INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS 

Outside of the United States a large part of the output of the pro- 
ducing nations of the world is under the control of dye cartels or 
consolidations. 

The recent Franco-German agreement relating to dyes is being 
extended to cover nitrogenous products and mixed fertilizers. The 
Kuhlmann Company has a financial interest in the Norsk Hydro, 
which has an agreement with the I. G. of Germany. 

By the term.s of the agreement competition between France and 
Germany is eliminated. In announcements concerning the agree- 
ment emphasis was placed on the fact that it was not directed against 
other countries, but that in time it would be extended to them. 
Reports are current that France will take up the manufacture of a 
number of new dyes, in which she will receive technical aid from 
Germany, and that she will obtain from Germany a part of her dye 
requirements. 

The Franco-German agreement is the first tangible result of the 
efforts of a number of years of leading producing countries to wOrk 
out a basis for mutual understanding concerning the apportionment 
of foreign markets. It assigns an export quota to France exceeding 
the actual exports during the last year by approximately 1,500 tons. 
French exports will probably consist largely of indigo, sulfur, and 
direct dyes. The chief center of competition for these colors is the 
Far East, especially China, where Germany, the United States, Great 
Britain, France, and Switzerland now compete. Without a more 
comprehensive agreement France will have difficulty in holding her 
own in this keenly contested market. 

Swiss dye manufacturers have one plant in France and have been 
successful in placing on the French market low-priced dyes which the 
French could not duplicate, because of economic disturbances con- 
nected with the stabilization of the franc. An agreement between 
Swiss and French d3^e manufacturers antedates somewhat that 
between the German and the French, but it may be regarded as a 
part of the larger scheme. 

There are important obstacles to overcomie in the further extension 
of international agreements. Not all of the producing nations have 
organized their chemical industries so that they may be dealt with 
as a unit. In Switzerland the dyestuffs industry efi'ected, at the end 
of the war, a concentration patterned after the German I. G. In 
1924, a German-Swiss price agreement was concluded aftecting a 
small group of dyes. In regard to the German-Swiss agreement, 
the difficulty is that both countries produce large quantities of high- 
priced fast dyes whose manufacture in other countries is less'developed. 



148 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

The Dye Industry of Germany 

There are about 620 chemical stock companies in Germany with 
a total capital of about 1,853 billion marks. Eighty-one of these 
companies are associated with the I. G. Sixty-two per cent of the 
total capital is held by the I. G.; this is an understatement of the 
importance of the I. G. to the German chemical industry, as a large 
number of its subsidiary companies have more capital than their 
published figures show. 

AGREEMENTS 

An agreement between the Standard Oil Co. of New Jersey and the 
I. G. is reported to provide for the acquisition by the Standard Oil 
Co. of the North American rights to the I. G.'s process of producing 
oil from coal, and for an exchange between the companies of knowl- 
edge gained from manufacturing experience in oil technology. Dur- 
ing 1927 the I. G. concluded agreements with the French dye industry 
and with the Norsk Hydro, the Norwegian nitrate and hydro elec- 
tric power company. A license was obtained from an American 
company to manufacture titanium white in Germany. 

Apropos of reported plans of the I. G. to complete negotiations for 
the purchase of American chemical companies, is the annoimcement 
of its amalgamation, through the Agfa Co., with the Ansco Co. of 
America, and the amalgamation of the Sterling Products Co. and 
subsidiaries with the United Drug Co. The subsidiaries of the Ster- 
ling Co., in which the I. G. has recently acquired additional holdings, 
are the Bayer Co., H. A. Metz & Co., Winthrop Chemical Co., and 
the Wyeth Chemical Co. 

THE NEW CAPITAL OF THE I. G. 

At a general meeting of the I. G. on January 13, 1928, 249 stock- 
holders, with 712,672,500 marks capital, were represented. This 
meeting authorized an issue of bonds to the value of 250,000,000 
marks. The new bond issue, representing an increase of nearly 25 
per cent in capital, is intended for the development of synthetic oil 
and fixed nitrogen plants. By issuing bonds instead of stock, the I. G. 
will avoid a burdensome capital tax and the bondholders will later be 
permitted to exchange their bonds for stock. The I. G. has at its 
disposal for this purpose nearl}^ 100,000,000 marks in unissued shares. 
As the company does not appear to be in immediate need of new 
capital, payments for the bonds are to be spread over 1928. The 
first payment of 10 per cent will fall due on March 15, 1928, and the 
others of 30 per cent each on the 15th of June, September, and Decem- 
ber. This arrangement will facilitate absorption in Germany and 
perhaps allow for a possible placement in the United States. By 
granting priority rights to common-stock holders, who will have the 
right to take up one bond for each four shares held, the new capital 
will be kept largely in German hands. 

Interest on the new bonds will be at half the rate of dividends on 
the common stock but will be at least 6 per cent. Bonds can be 
exchanged at any time for common shares for 50 per cent of the 
nominal value. A period of 14 years is available for the exchange 
according to the option of the owner at a rate falling from 200 per 
cent in 1928 to 100 per cent in 1941. 



INTERNATIONAL DYE TRADE 149 

Resume of Proceedings at Meeting of Directors of I. G. 

At a meeting of the directors of the I. G., business was reported 
good and the payment of a 12 per cent dividend was forecast for 1927. 

A brief resmne of particular matters reported on follows: 

The output of synthetic gasohne and other products obtained by 
the hquefaction of coal increased during 1927, and it was expected that 
by the end of the next year manufacturers would be equipped to pro- 
duce the quantity that it was planned to make. Should the increas- 
ing output of synthetic gasoline become too heavy for the Deutche 
Gasohn Aktien Gesellschaft to handle, the Standard Oil and the 
Royal Shell would aid in selhng the surplus. The low-priced gasoline 
with which the products of the I. G. must compete is said to be the 
result of world-wide overproduction. 

In the manufacture of synthetic rubber considerable progress was 
made during the year, but it was stated that there are still problems 
to be solved in the synthesis of rubber and that production on a com- 
mercial basis was not anticipated in the near future. 

A report on the nitrogen plants in Merseburg predicted that they 
will reach capacity output in 1929. The expansion of nitrogen pro- 
duction is an outstanding development in the German chemical 
industry. 

In regard to international agreements, it was stated that the Franco- 
German dye agreement had been concluded but that negotiations with 
the British dye industry had not resulted in any definite arrangement. 
That no agreement made in the future would be directed against the 
industries of other countries was reiterated. 

REPARATION DYES 

Under the terms of the treaty of Versailles provision was made for 
dehveries in kind by Germany. A detailed account of the agreements 
and of the dehveries of dyes and pharmaceuticals to the aUied and 
associated powers under these agreements is given in the Census of 
Dyes and Other Synthetic Organic Chemicals, 1923, pages 156 to 
167. The one-ciuarter production of the German dye plants reserved 
for purchase of the allied and associated Governments, 1920 to 1924, 
was pubhshed in the Dye Census of 1924, page 146. 

Germany's receipts and her payments of the third annuity under 
the Dawes plan for the year ended August 31, 1927, and the cumu- 
lative total for the fourth year up to June 30, 1928, follow. 

PAYMENTS IN KIND 

In the first year deliveries of dyestuffs and pharmaceutical prod- 
ucts amounted to 26.2 million marks, distributed as follows: Italy, 9; 
France, 5.2; England, 4.5; Japan, 3.8; and Belgium, 3.7. France 
received chemical fertilizers valued at 19.7 milhon marks, and Belgium 
obtained similar material to the value of 0.3 milhon marks. 

In the second year dehveries of dyes and pharmaceutical products 
declined to 11.2 milhon marks, of which Belgium obtained 4.8, Italy 
3.9, France 2.4, and the Serb-Croat-Slovene State 0.14. Chemical 
fertilizers and nitrogenous products delivered during this period, 
valued at 50.8 million marks, were charged to France (47.9) and 



150 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

Belgium (2.9). France obtained an additional 3 million marks worth 
of coal by-products; Belgium, 2.5. 

In the third year dehvery of dyes and pharmaceutical products 
amounted to 12.53 milUon marks, distributed as follows: 

Million marks 

Belgium 6. 06 

France 3. 29 

Italy 3.05 

Serb-Croat-Slovene State 0. 13 

France received chemical fertilizers valued at 47.25 milhon marks, 
Belgium, 10.8, and Japan, 2.74 million marks. By-products of coal 
to the amount of 10.2 milUon marks were distributed as follows: 
France, 5.8; Italy, 4.1; and Belgium, 0.3 milhon marks. 

RECEIPTS AND PAYMENTS OF GERMANY UNDER THE DAWES PLAN 

The third year, September 1, 1926, to August 31, 1927 

A. Receipts in third annuity year: 

1. In completion of second annuity — ■ Gold marks 

(a) Transport tax _" 8,095,425.61 

{h) Interest on railway reparation bonds 45,000,000.00 

2. On account of third annuity — 

(a) Normal budgetary contribution 110, 000, 000. 00 

(6) Supplementary budgetary' contribution 300, 000, 000. 00 

(c) Transport tax 270,000,000.00 

(d) Interest on railway reparation bonds 495,000,000.00 

(e) Interest, industrial debentures 250, 000, 000. 00 

3. Interest received 2,760,879.82 

Total receipts 1, 480, 856, 305. 43 

B. Balance of cash at hand Aug. 31, 1926 93, 626, 074. 81 

Total cash available 1,574,482,380. 24 

C. Payments in third annuity year: 

1. Payments to or for the account of — 

France 638,304,121.06 

British Empire 302, 512, 709. 72 

Italy 92, 774, 606. 12 

Belgium 68,644,412. 45 

Serb-Croat-Slovene State 46,318, 178. 08 

United States of America 98,777,266. 58 

Rumania 10, 645, 707. 83 

Japan 10, 131, 526. 92 

Portugal 8, 110, 562. 59 

Greece 4,237,861. 94 

Poland 242, 531. 97 

Total payments to powers 1, 280, 699, 485. 86 

2. For service of German external loan, 1924 91, 318, 198. 22 

3. For expenses of — 

Reparation commission 2, 269, 399. 2S 

Office for reparation payments 3, 555, 482. 79 

Interallied Rhineland High Commission 2, 939, 876. 38 

Military interallied Commission of Control 1, 233, 279. 66 

4. Costs of arbitral bodies 72,657.16 

5. Discount on amounts received from Deutsche 

Reichsbahm Gesellschaft in advance of due date.. 6, 480, 641. 26 

6. Exchange differences 426, 166. 79 

Total payments 1, 388, 995, 187. 40 

D. Balance of cash at Aug. 31, 1927 185,487,192.84 



INTERNATIONAL DYE TRADE 151 

The fourth year, cumulative total to June 30, 1928 

A. Receipts in fourth annuity year: 

1. In completion of third annuity — Gold marks 

(a) Transport tax 20,000,000.00 

(6) Interest on railway reparation bonds 55, 000, 000. 00 

2. On account of fourth annuity — 

(a) Budgetary contribution 416,666,666.67 

(fe) Transport tax 217,494,000.00 

(c) Interest and amortization on railway repara- 
tion bonds . -- 495, 000, 000. 00 

{d) Interest and amortization on industrial 

debentures 150, 000, 000. 00 

3. Interest and exchange differences 3, 376, 093. 62 

1, 543, 023, 953. 13 

B. Less discount on advance payments for service of railway 

bonds and industrial debentures 6, 182, 829. 30 

Total 1, 536, 841, 123. 83 

C. Transfers: 

In foreign currencies — 

1 . Service of the German external loan 1924.._ 73, 604, 816. 42 

2. Reparation Recovery Acts 288, 970, 681. 94 

3. Deliveries under agreement 23,202,561.59 

4. Settlement of balances owing for deliveries 

made or services rendered bv Germany 

prior to Sept. 1, 1924 \ 7, 511, 586. 93 

5. Transferred in cash 335,118,821.19 

6. Costs of Interallied Commissions 3, 473, 862. 26 

7. Costs of arbitral bodies 53,933.37 

731, 936, 263. 70 

D. By reichsmark payments for — • 

1. DeUveries in kind 590, 779, 043. 56 

2. Armies of Occupation 55, 416, 988. 63 

3. Costs of Interallied Commissions 4, 715, 037. 04 

4. Miscellaneous objects 1,035,992.00 

651,947. 061. 23 

Total transfers 1,383,883,324. 93 

E. Balance of cash at June 30, 1928 152,957,798.90 

F. Distribution of amounts transferred: 

1. To the Powers — 

France 685, 083, 175. 45 

British Empire 288,085,572. 70 

Italv 98,685,236.47 

Belgium 91,377,001.61 

Serb-Croat-Slovene State 49,025, 741. 13 

United States of America 63, 026, 374. 02 

Rumania 12,280,237.35 

Japan 5,300,249. 28 

Portugal 7, 745, 938. 59 

Greece 1, 196, 430. 19 

Polund - 229,719.05 

Total transfers to Powers 1, 302, 035, 675. 84 

2. For prior charges — 

(a) Service of the German external loan 1924.. 73, 604, 816. 42 

(6) Costs of Interallied Commissions 8, 188, 89p. 30 

(c) Costs of arbitral bodies 53, 933. 37 

Total transfers 1,383,883, 32t. 93 

7709—28 11 



152 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 
IMPORTS AND EXPORTS 

In 1927 Germany imported 10,214,132 pounds of dyes, valued at 
$5,223,283, as compared with an import in 1926 of 7,937,221 pounds, 
valued at $4,132,562. Switzerland furnished 4,673,091 pounds of the 
1927 import. 

Exports of dyes from Germany in 1927 showed a general increase. 
Indigo headed the list of mdividual dyes, with an increase in quantity 
from 27,408,249 pounds in 1926 to 31,528,646 pounds in 1927, but a 
decrease in value from $9,487,711 to $7,871,996. Exports of indigo 
to China in 1927 exceeded those of 1926 by more than 314 rnillion 
pounds, and to the Dutch East Indies by about 600,000 pounds. 

Germany's exports of alizarin m 1927 totaled 2,149,485 pounds, 
valued at $523,041; m 1926, they were 1,100,095 pounds, valued at 
$302,255. Exports of the alizarin colors amounted to 6,808,687 pounds 
and were valued at $8,353,007, a substantial increase over 1926. 
British India received 2,486,789 pounds in 1927, and 2,796,977 pounds 
in the previous year; Great Britain, with 612,658 poimds, practically 
doubled her receipts. 

In 1926 Germany exported 46,666,311 pounds of aniline and other 
coal-tar dyes, valued at $31,502,103. Of this group, the exports in 
1927 totaled 65,553,560 pounds with a value of $37,950,551, and the 
destinations of shipments include: China, 15,014,208 pounds; British 
India, 8,586,697 poimds; Czechoslovakia, 5,602,550 poimds; the Neth- 
erlands, 3,074,315 poimds. 

Table 43. — Germany: Imports of coal-tar dyes, 1927 * 



Class of dye and country of origin 



Aniline and other coal-tar dyes not elsewhere mentioned; sulfur dyes: 

Belgium 

France.. 

Italy.. 

Yugoslavia 

Netherlands 

Austria.. 

East Poland 

Rumania — 

Russia 

Switzerland... 

Spain 

Czechoslovakia 

Hungary 

British India 

China .- ..- 

United States 

other countires 

Total 

Alizarin (alizarin red); alizarin colors, variegated, from anthracene, total 

Indigo, natural and synthetic, total 

Indigo carmine, color lakes, and new blue from indigo and indigo carmine, total 

Grand total 



Quantity 



Pounds 

429, 456 

72, 531 

82, 231 

79, 3G6 

1, 296, 525 

264, 993 

146, 606 

59, 524 

159, 172 

4, 673, 091 

65, 036 

749, 123 

221, 783 

282, 409 

495, 594 

617, 288 

376, 987 



10,071,715 
27, 558 
91, 270 
23, 589 



10, 214, 132 



Value 



$5, 156, 745 
13,545 
42, 775 
10,218 



5, 223, 283 



• Monatliche Nachweise iiber den Auswartigen Handel Deutschlands, December, 1927. Values con- 
verted on basis of 1,000 reichsmarks= $237,638. 



INTERNATIONAL DYE TRADE 
Table 44. — Germany: Exports of coal-tar dyes, 1927 ' 



153 



Class of (lye and country 
of desti lation 



Anllino an i othor "oal-tar 
•^yy s :iot olspwliere men- 
t.onod (f'-alur dyes): 

Belg'am 

Bn'Karia..- 

Denmark 

Estonia 

Finland 

France 

Greece 

Great Britain 

Italy 

Yugoslavia 

T/atvia 

Lithuania- 

Netherlands 

Norway 

Austria -. 

East Poland.-- -. 

Portugal 

Rumania 

Russia 

S"yedcn 

Switzerland 

Spain 

Czechoslovakia 

Runcary 

Egypt 

British India-- 

Malacca , 

China 

Japan 

Dutch East Indies— 

Slam 

Turkey.-- 

Other Asiatic coun- 
tries 

Argentina 

Bolivia 

Brazil 

Canada- - 

Chile 

Colombia 

Mexico 

Peru 

Venezuela 

United States 

Union of -Australia... 

New Zealand - 

Other countries 



Quantity 



Total- 



Alizarin (red): 

British India 

Dutch East Indies- 
Other countries 



Total. 



Alizarin colors, variegat- 
ed, from anthracene: 

Belgium 

France 

Great Britain 

Italy 



Value 



Pounds 
3, 058, 442 
617, 288 

338. 186 
110,230 
400, 576 
408, 512 
284, 393 

2, 169, 767 

1, 545, 425 

735, 896 

173, 943 

117,725 

3,074,315 

327, 824 

1, 710, 770 

1, 692, 692 

585, 321 

1, 573, 643 
1,376,111 
1,434,313 
2, 065, 490 

598. 769 
5, 602, 550 
1, 138, 235 

279, 102 
8, 586, 697 

134,481 
15,014,208 

2, 397, 943 
1, 561, 518 

366. 845 
351, 854 

226, 633 
401, 899 
59, 524 
797. 624 

741. 187 
86, 861 

228, 617 
940. 923 
145, 724 

62, 390 

1, 412, 708 

194, 225 

63, 052 
359, 129 



Class of dye and country 
of destination 



65, 553, 560 


$37, 950, 551 


1, 494, 719 
260, 143 
394, 623 








2, 149, 485 


523, 041 



20.5,469 1. 
242,506 I- 
612,658 L 
228, 176 '- 

I 



Alizarin colors, variegat- 
ed, from anthracene^ 
Continued. 

Netherlands 

Austria 

East Poland 

Rumania..- 

Russia 

Sweden 

Switzerland -. 

Spain 

Czechoslovakia 

Hungary 

British India 

Japan 

Dutch East Indies—.. 

Brazil 

Canada 

United States 

Other countries 



Quantity 



Pnund^ 

358, 689 

88, 405 

39. 462 

32, 408 

82, 893 

182, 982 

158, 070 

89, 727 

1,59, 172 

43,210 

2, 486, 789 

138, 669 

500, 003 

75, 397 

120, 371 

781, 531 

182, 100 



Total- 



Indigo, natural and syn- 
thetic: 

Belgium 

Great Britain 

Italy 

Yugoslavia 

Netherlands 

Austria--- 

Portugal 

Russia 

Spain 

Czechoslovakia 

Hungary 

Egypt --- 

British India 

China - 

Japan 

Dutch East Indies. — 

Persia 

Siam 

Turkey 

Other Asiatic coun- 
tries 

Mexico 

United States 

Other countries 



6, 808, 687 



Total- 



Indigo carmine, color 
lakes and new blue from 
indigo and indigo car- 
mine: 

Eygpt 

China 

Other Asiatic coun- 
tries - 

Other countries 



347, 225 

91, 270 
238, 317 

52,910 
757, 060 
246, 474 

88, 184 

218, 696 

156, 747 

313, 935 

399, 253 

293, 873 

958, 340 

22,661,965 

1, 475, 980 

1, 688, 283 

192, 903 

215,610 

51,147 

283, 732 
66, 358 
169, 754 
560, 630 



Value 



31, 528, 646 



112,875 
977, 07& 



195, 989 
267, 198 



Total 1,553,141 



Grand total --!l07, 593, 519 



8, 535, 007 



7, 871, 996; 



532, 547 



55,413,142 



1 Monatliche Nachweise iiber den AuswSrtigen Handel Deutschlands, December, 1927. Values^ con*- 
verted on basis of 1,000 reiehsmarks = $237,638. 

The Dye Industry of Great Britain 

Progress in the British dye industry during 1927 was reported by 
Imperial Chemical Industries (Ltd.). This corporation, formed late 
in 1926, is a merger of the British Dyestuffs Corporation (Ltd.), 
Brunner, Mond and Company (Ltd.), Nobel Industries (Ltd.), and 



154 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

United Alkali Company (Ltd.) with their subsidiary companies. Its 
authorized capital is £65,000,000, of which £57,358,332 has been 
issued. The company is the largest chemical group in the United 
Kingdom. 

The financial results of the year's operations of this firm are not 
available, but an interim dividend of 3 per cent actual, less tax, was 
declared, payable December 1, for the year ended December 31, 
1927. For the purpose of providing funds for the taking over of the 
Cassel Cyanide Co. (Ltd.), Union Acid Co. (Ltd.), Manchester, 
Oliver Wilkins & Co. (Ltd.), Derby, and Caselbourne & Co. (1926) 
(Ltd.), Middleborough, as well as others, which may be acquired 
from time to time, the preference shareholclers of the Imperial Chem- 
ical Industries (Ltd.) at a meeting on December 29, 1927, authorized 
the board to issue, at their discretion and without reference to the 
shareholders, £6,580,000 preference shares of £1 each, out of the 
existing authorized but heretofore unissued capital. If the entire 
amount authorized were issued, the total capital would be brought 
up to £63,938,332. It was stated, however, at the December meeting, 
that only £270,000 would be issued at once, to complete the financial 
details mvolved in taking over the four companies. Another com- 
pany that the Imperial Chemical Industries contemplates acquiring 
is the British Alizarine Co. (Ltd.). 

CRUDES 

Great Britain is one of the important sources of the world's supply 
of coal-tar crudes. Exports of crudes from Great Britain amount 
to nearly 10 per cent of the total chemical exports from that country. 
During 1927 exports of crudes were valued at over £2,000,000, an 
increase of nearly 30 per cent, as compared with 1926. The produc- 
tion of the various items composing this group, as well as the trade 
in them, is highly centralized. The distribution of the greater part 
of the European output of one or two of the leading commodities is 
controlled by British combinations. 

Exports consist largely of tar oil and creosote oil. The United 
States takes from 85 to 90 per cent of the total British exports of 
creosote and other heavy tar oils. 

DYES 

No official announcement has been made of the entry of British 
dye producers into international agreements and it is not likely that 
any such agreements will be concluded. Under an agreement con- 
cluded in August, 1927, the British Dyestufi"s Corporation will manu- 
facture in the United Kingdom certain calico-printing specialties 
made by a leading manufacturer in Basel, Switzerland. This arrange- 
ment indicates a closer working program between British and Swiss 
dye manufacturers. 

During 1927 a number of new dyes were produced in Great Britain, 
including dyes for the even dyeing of rayon and for the coloring of 
leather. The Icyl colors, developed by the British Dyestufts Corpo- 
ration for the uniform dyeing of viscose, represent an important 
advance. Scottish Dyes (Ltd.), also included in the Imperial Chem- 
ical Industries (Ltd.), made a number of new Caledon colors, in- 



INTERNATIONAL DYE TRADE 



155 



eluding jade green and Soledon black B. Caledon Dyecretes have 
been developed as special types for coloring concrete. 

Naphthalene fast black N and 4B, Thionine blue GO, Durindone 
blue 4BX, Duranol blue R, and Duranol brilliant blue G are among 
the new colors put on the market by the British Dyestuffs Corpo- 
ration. Other dye-making firms have also announced the making of 
new dyes and colors. 

On September 1, 1927, the price ratio determining whether an 
application for dye import license should be granted was reduced 
from two and one-half to two times the pre-war price. This reduc- 
tion is taken as an indication of the ability of British dye companies 
to compete on a price basis. It will be advantageous to consumers 
of dyes. 

The British Board of Trade in an official statement announced 
that in 1926, 5,778 licenses had been issued under the dyestuffs 
act for the importation of 1,889 tons of material, valued at £945,007, 
and that, in 1927, 6,753 licenses had been issued for the importation 
of 2,228 tons, valued at £1,034,103. 

The Dyestuffs Industry Development Committee issues annually 
a summary of British dye production. The 1926 production was 
30,297,000 pounds, as compared with 32,693,402 pounds in 1925. 
Production in 1927 has probably been somewhat above the 1926 
production. The 1926 figures indicate a reduction of 23 per cent in 
production of vat blues, reflecting the lower output of synthetic in- 
digo; a 25 per cent decline in the production of sulfur black; and a 
general increase in the range and quantity of the vat colors other 
than blues and browns. 

British dye output in 1925 and 1926 



1925 



Pounds 

Direct cotton colors 4,940,838 

Acid wool colors I 4,498,653 

Chrome and mordant colors | 

(including alizarin) ' 6, 256, 276 

Basic colors .J 1, 710. 556 

Sulfur colors 6,225,791 



1926 



Pounds 
4, 180, 508 
5, 217, 259 

6,972.112 
1, 308, 813 
4, 636, 930 



Vat colors (including indigo). 
Dyestuffs for lace making — 
Oil, spirit, and wax miscel- 
laneous colors. - 



Total. 



1925 



Pounds 
7, 295, 769 
1, 014, 334 

751, 185 



1926 



Pounds 
6, 237, 703 
947, 933 

795, 742 



32,693,402 30,297,000 



Productive capacity is much greater than home and export require- 
ments. Although British exports of dyes during 1926 and 1927 were 
about three-fourths of the 1924 and 1925 exports, the home demand 
has increased. Imports, particularly of the higher-priced colors, 
have increased. Progressive reductions in the import price ratio 
are expected during the remaining three years that the dye import 
regulation act will be in force. 

BRITISH-AMERICAN MERGER ^ 

In April, 1928, announcement was made of the formation of the 
Finance Company of Great Britain and America, Ltd. The prin- 
cipal parties to this agreement were the Imperial Chemical Industries, 
Ltd., of Great Britain, and the Chase Securities Corporation of New 
York. This company was registered with a nominal capital of 



2 The Chemical Age, Apr. 21, 1928. 



156 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

£2,040,000 divided into 2,000,000 ordinary shares of £1 sterling each, 
and 800,000 deferred shares of Is. This is a private limited corpora- 
tion, the ordinary share capital of which will be held in equal 
proportions by the Imperial Chemical Industries, Ltd., and the 
Chase Securities Corporation; the deferred shares will be similarly 
distributed. 

This company was organized for the purpose of carrying on the 
business of bankers, capitalists, financiers, concessionaires, mer- 
chants, company promoters, brokers' agents, prospectors, miners, 
owners and workers of all properties, shipowners, and others. It has 
power also to carry on insurance, reinsurance, guarantee, indemnity, 
«,nd bond investment business, other than assurance or reinsurance 
l)usiness within the meaning of section 1 of the Assurance Company's 
act, 1909, as outlined by the Industrial Assurance act, 1923. The 
first directors are to number not less than 2 nor more than 16. The 
Imperial Chemical Industries, Ltd., may nominate not more than 6 
directors and the Chase Securities Corporation may also nominate 
not more than 6. The directors are to appoint an "American com- 
mittee" of not less than 6 nor more than 14 persons who need not be 
directors or members of the company. The committee is to be 
nominated and approved by the Chase Securities Corporation, and 
to be subject to removal by it. A director is not required to hold any 
share qualification. Remuneration of directors is to be £1,000 each 
per annum, and each member of the American committee who is 
not a director of the company is also to receive £1,000 per annum. 

The board of the company will consist of Sir Alfred Mond, Sir 
Harry McGowan, Mr. Albert Henry Wiggin, chairman of the Chase 
National Bank and Chase Securities Corporation, the Marquis 
of Reading, Lord Colwyn, Mr. Harold John Mitchell, Mr. Henry 
Mond, Mr. Clarerce Graff, and Mr. James Hemy Gannon, vice 
president of the Chase National Bank. 

Sir Alfred Mond will be the chairman and Sir Harry McGowan the 
deputy chairman of the new corporation, and Mr. Graff and Mr. 
Gannon will be its joint managing directors. 

The American committee under the chairmanship of Mr. A. H. Wig- 
gin is as follows: Mr. A. H. Wiggin, chairman of the Chase National 
Bank of New York; Sir Alfred Mond, chairman of the Imperial 
Chemical Industries (Ltd); Sir Harry McGowan, president and deputy 
chairman of Imperial Chemical Industries (Ltd.); Mr. Robert L. 
Clarkson, president of the Chase National Bank of New York; Mr. 
Halstead G. Freeman, president of the Chase Securities Corporation; 
Mr. Alfred P. Sloan, jr., president of the General Motors Corpora- 
tion; Mr. John Raskob, chairman of the finance committee and vice 
president of the General Motors Corporation; Mr. Matthew C. Brush, 
president of the American International Corporation; Mr. W. H. 
Woodin, president of the American Car & Foundry Co. and chairman 
of the board and president of the American Locomotive Co.; Mr. 
A. R. Graustein, president of the International Paper Co.; Mr. J, 
Horace Harding, chairman of the board of the American Railway 
Express Co.; Mr. Frederick H. Ecker, vice president of the Metropoli- 
tan Life Insurance Co.; and Mr. Charles M. Schwab, president of 
the Bethlehem Steel Co. 



INTEKNATIONAL DYE TRADE 157 

Sir Alfred Mond in a statement said: 

''The inception of this corporation has been a necessity felt for 
some, time by the leading men of business in both countries for closer 
and more intimate cooperation in the world of industry and commerce 
between America and Great Britain. The increasing volume of cap- 
ital investments of American interests outside the borders of the 
United States and on the Continent of Europe has often been com- 
mented upon, and is a new feature in financial centers since the war. 
This feature is likely to continue and large smns will be available in 
the future. The desire to direct these into the most profitable chan- 
nels has led to the idea of systematic and continuous cooperation of 
leading financial and industrial brains of both countries for the devel- 
opment of industries either aready established or of new ideas which 
are daily brought forward." 

The new company will have an active interest in institutions 
already established and in the initiation of new processes or new enter- 
prises on the Continent as well as throughout the British Empire, the 
United States, and elsewhere. 

Sir Alfred Mond continues: "Those of us engaged in big industrial 
undertakings are continually having brought to our notice, enterprise's, 
both industrial and commercial, in all parts of the world which, in 
their technical supervision and organization, are capable of great and 
considerable development." 

German banking houses, contrary to the custom in either Great 
Britain or in the United States, have long made it a practice to have 
large staffs of technical experts employed in an advisory capacity. 
In Great Britain and in the United States a large nmnber of firms 
cooperate in the financing of big enterprises, but their operations are 
restricted as they do not have the necessary technical advisers. 

The new corporation will provide facilities for commercial and 
industrial financing in the British Empire, Europe, and the United 
States; will promote cooperation between English and American 
interests, and will seek contracts for the purpose of international 
industrial development. The Chase Securities Corporation, an inte- 
gral branch of the Chase National Bank, opens up an avenue of ap- 
proach to a large volume of American capital. A large amount also 
of British money is ready to be placed in American investments. Sir 
Alfred Mond estbnates that £300,000,000 are available yearly in 
Great Britain for investment in industrial enterprises. Any statement 
as to the exact nature of the early operations by the company is not 
possible; the intention is not to enter the field of govermnent or munici- 
pal loan financing. The company will probably take its share of under- 
writing, consider new projects, and, when proved and demonstrated, 
find capital with which to develop them. The temporary offices of 
the corporation are at 14 Cornhill, London, E. C. 3. 

IMPORTS AND EXPORTS 

In 1926 Great Britain imported 4,214,112 pounds of coal-tar dyes, 
valued at $4,242,468; in 1927 imports were larger both in quantity 
(4,660,432 pounds) and value ($4,967,767). Exports of coal-tar dyes 
in 1926 amounted to 6,014,288 pounds, valued at $2,428,287, and in 



158 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

1927 to 8,705,984 pounds, valued at $3,201,349. The following tables 
show the British foreign trade in dyes and dyestuffs for 1925-1927: 

Table 45. — United Kingdom: Imports of coal-tar dyes, 1926 i 



Class of dye and country of origin 


Quantity 


Value 


Alizarin: 

Germany _ . 


Pounds 

143, 920 

2,240 

32, 032 

1,232 


$216, 536 


France.- _. ... 


1,448 


Switzerland 


102, 518 


Other foreign countries 


2,172 






Total 


179, 424 


322, 674 






other coal-tar dyes: 

Germany 


2, 549, 120 
63, 728 
103, 712 
56, 672 

1, 203, 664 
28,000 
19,600 


2, 141, 748 


Netherlands 


57, 896 


Belgium. . . 


102, 397 


France 


45, 191 


Sv/itzerland 


1, 495, 205 


United States . 


23, 086 


Other foreign countries 


33, 245 






Total from foreign countries 


4, 024, 496 


3, 898, 768 






Canada 


9,408 

784 


20, 769 


other British countries 


257 






Total from British countries 


10, 192 
4, 034, 688 


21, 026 


Total imported 


3, 919, 794 






Grand total 


4, 214, 112 


4, 242, 468 







• Annual Statement of the Trade of the United Kingdom With Foreign Countries and British Coun- 
tries, 1926. Values converted at annual exchange rate, 1926, 1,£ =$4.858235. 

Table 46. — United Kingdom: Imports and exports of dyeing and tanning materials, 

1925-1927 1 



1925 



1926 



1927 



IMPORTS 

Coal-tar products: 

Intermediates 

Finished coal-tar dyestuffs— 

Alizarin 

Other 

Extracts for dyeing, natural: 

Cutch 

Other 

Natural indigo 



Extracts for tanning. 



Coal-tar products. 
Other 



Extracts for dyeing: 

Cutch 

Other 

Natural indigo 

Extracts for tanning. 



REEXPORTS 



Pounds 

147, 728 

1,243,312 
3, 194, 912 

7, 829, 136 

5, 950, 448 

25, 536 

138, 511, 072 



11,666,032 
5, 787, 264 



2, 430, 176 

495, 600 

14, 784 

11,511,920 



Pounds 
38,640 

179, 424 
4, 057, 872 

6,711,712 

3, 788, 064 

51, 968 

125, 706, 224 



8, 481, 424 
7, 579, 824 



1, 977, 920 

311,808 

7,392 

6, 361, 488 



Pounds 
76, 384 

115, 696 
4, 544, 736 

5, 451, 488 

4, 969, 776 

28,784 

143, 416, 000 



8, 705, 984 

9, 873, 808 



1, 668, 800 

287, 056 

15, 456 

2, 096, 192 



1 Accounts Relating to Trade and Navigation of the United Kingdom, December, 1927. 
verted at average annual exchange rate, 1927, 1£ = $4 .861024. 



Values con- 



INTERNATIONAL DYE TRADE 159 

Table 47. — United Kingdom: Imports and exports of coal-tar dyes, 1927 ^ 



Quantity : Value 



Imports for consumption: 
Alizarin 

Indigo, synthetic 

Other coal-tar dyes— . 



Pounds 
115, 696 
8,064 
4, 536, 672 



$166, 179 

2,343 

4, 799, 245 



Total. 



4,660,432 ' 4,967,767 



Natural indigo - 

Exports: 

Dyes and dyestuffs (except dyewoods and raw dyeing substances) and ex- 
tracts for dyeing and tanning products of coal tar 



28, 784 



31,713 



3, 201, 349 



Accounts Relating to Trade and Navigation of the United Kingdom, December, 1927. 

Table 48. — United Kingdom: Exports of coal-tar dyes, 1926 ^ 



Class of dye and country of 
destination 


Quantity 


i 
Value 


Class of dye and country of 
destination 


Quantity 


Value 


Alizarin: 


Pounds 
470, 288 


1 

$95, 731 
12, 044 


Other coal-tar dyes— Contd. 
Spain 


Pounds 
22, 736 
38,416 

232, 624 
66, 752 

146, 720 
16, 128 

103, 040 


$33, 259 


Other British countries. . 


37, 968 


Italy 


41,256 


China 


117,764 
32, 157 




508, 256 
169, 008 


107, 775 
51, 609 




United States 


96, 193 


Total to foreign coun- 


Brazil. 

Other foreign countries. . 

Total to foreign coun- 


13, 010 
57, 104 






Total exported 


677, 264 


159, 384 


1,440,208 738,437 


Indigo, synthetic: 
China 






Irish Free State 


1,638,000 1 327,227 
268, 464 55, 068 


180, 656 
92, 624 

300. 048 

28, 224 

30, 570 

13, 552 
934, 080 

91,616 
162, 288 

53, 200 


112,789 


Other foreign countries.. 


Union of South Africa... 
British Indis— 


76, 755 


Total to foreign coun- 


1, 906, 464 382, 295 
103, 488 33, 784 


166,948 


Madras.- 


13, 399 


Total to British coun- 


Bengal, Assam, Bi- 
har, and Orissa 


16, 159 




8 303 


Total exported 


2, 009, 952 416, 079 




535, 028 




64 .522 


Other coal-tar dyes: 

Sweden . . - 


103, 936 
40, 992 
19, 488 
210,000 
181,888 
231, 392 
26, 096 


53,713 
27, 024 
10,090 
52, 197 
49, 355 
137, 439 
17, 276 




83, 095 


Other British countries.. 

Total to British coun- 
tries 


37, 389 








1,886,864 
3, 327, 072 










1,114,387 


Belgium 


Total exported 

Grand total. 


1, 852, 824 


France .. . 




6, 014, 288 






2, 428, 287 









1 Annual Statement of the Trade of the United Kingdom, 1926. Values converted at annual exchange 
rate, 1926, 1£ = $4.858235. 

The Dye Industry of France 

Official figures of dye production in French-owned plants in France, 
compiled by the Association of Dye Producers and Consumers for 
the years 1920-1926 are as follov/s: 

Year Pounds 

1920 16,233,000 

1921 12,876,000 

1922 17,775,000 

1923 24,173,000 

1924 . 33,012,000 

1925. _ 32,066,000 

1926 34,420,000 



160 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

Preliminary estimates of the 1927 production are about 35,000,000 
pounds. Approximately 65 per cent of the total output of France, 
exclusive of 2,645,000 pounds produced by the Swiss-owned plant at 
St. Fons and small quantities produced by individual textile manu- 
facturers for their own needs, is produced by the Kuhlmann Co. 
This company participates in 12 different French concerns, producing 
a wide variety of raw materials, heavy chemicals, dyes, synthetic 
products, paper, and rayon. It controls or has large holdings in six 
companies outside of France, which produce fertilizers, synthetic prod- 
ucts, and dyes. Through association with the St. Clair du Rhone Dye 
Co, and with the Swiss plant at St. Fons, the Kuhlmann Co. controls 
approximately 70 per cent of French dye production. By the exchange 
of shares between the Kuhlmann Co. and the St. Denis Co. (which 
produces about 30 per cent of the French output), the dye industry 
of France has been further consolidated. This exchange was neces- 
sary in order to have a united industry for negotiations recently com- 
pleted in the Franco-German dye agreement. In these negotiations 
both governments conferred constantly with the two groups. Tariff 
schedules, established as a corollary to the commercial treaty, greatly 
facilitated the signing of the private protocol. 

Some of the aims of the dyestuffs agreement are (1) price agree- 
ments, (2) protection of the home markets, and (3) a division of for- 
eign markets. Average exports from 1924 through 1926 were used as 
the basis of foreign quotas with Germany to obtain approximately 
80 per cent and France 20 per cent of their joint sales. These percent- 
ages are based upon the gold value of the exports. The accord auto- 
matically expires at the end of the third year if the nitrogen agreement 
between the two countries has not been reached. 

The Swiss are reported to have been negotiating entrance into this 
entente, and it is estimated that the total exports to be allotted to the 
countries concerned will probably be at the following rate: 70 for 
Germany, 19 for Switzerland, and 11 for France. Swiss participa- 
tion will be greatly facilitated by the large holdings of the Kuhlmann 
Co. and the I. G. in several of the Swiss dye companies. The entrance 
of the British producers depends upon the attitude of their Gov- 
ernment toward the terms offered, particularly upon the disposition 
made of the British colonies; that is to say, whether all or part of 
them would be reserved to Great Britain as part of her home market. 
If Great Britain had entered originally, the tentative percentages 
were to have been 75 for Germany, 13 for Great Britain, and 12 for 
France. 

The French interests, it is said, will act as sales agents for German 
dye companies in Spain, and German agents will handle French dj^es 
m the Far East. 

A common policy as to prices will be adopted as a result of the 
economies expected from this entente, such as reduction in warehouse 
stocks. Capital savings may be effected through the reduction of 
equipment required, in warehouse facilities, labor, and overhead. A 
savings may be effected in the number of colors carried, Kuhlmann 
totaling about 1,500 different types as compared with 184 in 1921. 
The major saving will probably result from the common sales policy 
adopted. 

A recent press statement gave the information that French pro- 
ducers have been expending 33 per cent of the sales price of dyes for 



INTERNATIONAL DYE TRADE 



161 



distribution costs, and that a common sales policy has made it possible 
to reduce this to 15 per cent. This saving may result in reduced prices^ 
the effect of which will be of the utmost importance to producers in 
other comitries in meeting French competition in world markets. 

FRENCH TARIFF RATES ON COAL-TAR DYES (MARCH 1, 1928) 

Table 49 gives the maximum and minimum rates of the French 
import tariff on coal-tar dyes and shows the rates applicable to such 
products coming from the United States. Coal-tar dyes from the 
United States are accorded the minimum rates on a majority of the 
items, but there still remain a few intermediate duties higher than 
the minimum. 

All the rates set forth in the table should be multiplied by the coeffi- 
cient 5 to obtain the effective duty. 

The duties on dyes in paste form containing at least 50 per cent 
of water are 50 per cent of the duties on dyes "dry, or classed as dry." 
If in the form of "tablets or compressed," the duties are 33 percent 
greater than on dyes "dry or classed as dry." 

Table 49. — France: Tariff rates on coal-tar dyes, March 1, 1928 



Coeffi- 
cient 



Dry, or classed as dry- 



Maxi- 
mum 



Mini- 
mum 



United 
States 



Nitroso coloring matters 

Nitro coloring matters except picric acid -. 

Coloring matters derived from pyrazolone 

Coloring matters derived from stilbene 

Monoazo coloring matters, except those designated in the following para- 
graph 

Reds for lakes and monoazo derivatives of safranine - 

Polyazo coloring matters, secondary and tertiary: 

Blacks - 

Other colors 

Reds, diazotisable and fast to light 

Thiobenzenyl coloring matters, with the exception of thioflavine 

Thioflavine 

Sulfur colors: 

Blacks 

Other colors 

Carbazol derivatives 

Indophcnols, oxazines, thiazines, except new methylene blue... 

New methylene blue 

Indulines, nigrosines 

Other azines, safranines, eurhodines, and roslndulines 

Pyronines.. 

Pthaleines 

Eosines, erythrosines, phloxines, cyanosines, galleines, coeruleines 

Derivatives of di- and tri- phenylmethane and their homologues 

Coloring matters derived from acridine and quinoline 

Oxyquinone coloring matters or alizarine colors other than alizarine and 

anthraquinone direct colors 

Sulfonic derivatives of indigolin^' 

Insoluble coloring matters for vat dyeing: 

Derivatives of anthraquinone 

Derivatives of anthraquinone with sulfur 

Thio-indigos and derivatives - 

Chlorinated, brominated and iodinated derivatives of indigo 

others 

Synthetic indigo 

Alizarin 



Ft. per 
kgr. 
7.20 
10.00 
12.00 
12.00 

12.00 
16.00 

12.00 
12.00 
16.00 
12.00 
16.00 

11.20 

12.00 

12.00 

12.00 

16.00 

12.00 

16.00 

16.00 

16.00 I 

16.00 

12.00 

16.00 

12.00 
16.00 

16.00 
16.00 
16.00 
16.00 
16.00 
12.00 
12.00 



Fr. per 
kgr. 
1.80 
2.50 
3.00 
3.00 

3.00 
4.00 

3.00 
3.00 
4.00 
3.00 
4.00 

2.80 
3.00 
3.00 
3.00 
4.00 
3,00 
4.00 
4.00 
4.00 
4.00 
3.00 
4.00 

4.00 
3.00 

4.00 
4.00 
4.00 
4.00 
4.00 
3.00 
3.00 



Fr. per 
kgr. 
2.04 
2.50 
3.00 
3.00 

3.00 
4.00 

3.00 
3.00 
4.00 
3.00 
4.00 

3.06 
3.06 
3.06 
3.06 
4,00 
3,06 
4.00 
4.00 
4.00 
4.08 
3.06 
4.00 

4.00 
3.06 

4.08 
4.08 
4.08 
4.08 
4.08 
3.06 
3.00 



162 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 
Table 50. — France: Imports of coal-tar dyes, 1927 ^ 



Class of dye 



Dry 



Quantity Value 



Paste 



Quantity Value 



JSIitroso 

jNitro -. 

Pyrazolone. >. 

Stilbene 

Monoazo 

Polyazo 

Thiobenzenyl 

;Sulfur 

Jndophcnol 

Azine 

Pyronine and phthalein 

Eosine 

Diphenylmethane 

Acridine 

Hydroquinone 

Indigotine 

Insoluble vat dyes other than indigo . 

Cibanone 

Alizarin 

Indigo ■ 



Pounds 

1,323 

9,480 

139, 561 

20, 282 

311,289 

349, fjSO 

19, 841 

32,849 

1, 243, 615 

50,044 

44, 753 

6,393 

255, 293 

18,519 

115,301 

4,409 

98, 105 

5,291 

1,102 

1,764 



$824 

5,062 

143, 069 

20, 758 

272, 836 

344, 606 

24, 917 

26, 369 

552, 931 

49, 128 

73, 026 

9,535 

301, 795 

32, 569 

201, 929 

5,101 

134, 829 

9,888 

1,923 

1,256 



Pounds 



$824 



1, 102 
3,748 


353 

3,100 

39 


12, 566 
9,480 


6,004 
4,552 


661 
15, 432 
4,850 

882 


118 
9,143 
1,766 

392 
39 


441 


589 



112, 876 
82, 672 
51, 147 
33, 069 
6,614 



50, 423 
44, 591 
40,849 
20, 248 
1,687 



Total.. 2,728,854 I 2,212,351 330,422 



144,717 



Statistique Mensuelle du Commerce Exterieur de la France, December, 1927. Values converted at aver- 
age exchange rate for 1927, 1,000 francs = $39.24. 
^ Dr> or paste not specified. 

Table 51. — France: Exports of coal-tar dyes, 1927 ^ 



Class of dye 



Nitroso 

Kitro 

Pyrazolone 

Stilbene 

JVlonoazo 

Polyazo. 

Thiobenzenyl 

Sulfur _ 

Indophenol '. 

Azine 

Pyronine.. 

Eosine 

Diphenylmethane 

Acridine 

Hydroquinone. 

Indigotine 

Insoluble vat dyes other than indigo _ 

Cibanone 

Indigo 2 



Total 7,489,908 2,642,971 



Dry 



Quantity Value 



Pounds 

33, 290 

6,393 

7,055 

2,646 

411,158 

1, 609, 138 

13, 448 

939, 160 

8,818 

63, 933 

165, 125 

12, 125 

1, 678, 582 

10, 582 

77, 822 

1, 954, 157 

491,626 

220 

4,630 



$12, 

3, 

2, 

2, 

125, 

579, 

6, 

172, 

6, 

26, 

65, 

18, 

729, 

10, 

35, 

512, 

329, 



Paste 



Quantity Value 



Pounds 
5,071 



17,416 

169, 754 

661 

661 



43, 872 



12,566 

2,425 

33, 510 

3, 326, 962 

30, 865 



3, 643, 763 



2,197 



5,219 

66, 159 

157 

118 



16, 559 



5,101 



4,670 

300, 068 

11,811 



412, 059 



' Statistique Mensuelle du Commerce Exterieur de la France, December, 1927. Values converted at aver- 
age exchange rate for 1927, 1,000 francs = $39.24. 
2 Dry or paste not specified. 

The Dye Industry of Italy 



The dye industry of Italy now supplies the domestic needs of ton- 
nage dyes and has an exportable surplus. A number of dye manu- 
facturers in Italy make their own intermediates. Among the more 
important manufacturers are: A. E. Bianchi & Co.; Societa Italica 
Colori Artificiale; Materie Coloranti Bonelli. 



INTERNATIONAL DYE TRADE 163 

The Bonelli Co. has an indigo plant at Cesarano Maderno, with a 
reported capacity of 3,000,000 pounds annually. It not only manu- 
factures dyes and intermediates but also operates a plant for the 
production of electrolytic caustic soda, from which 300,000 cubic 
meters of hydrogen are obtained in 24 hours as a by-product. Hy- 
drogen is used in recently developed processes for the manufacture- 
of benzidine, para amino phenol, alpha nephthylamine ; para and 
meta phenylene and toluene diamine, Cleve's, H, Laurent and peri- 
and amino-salicylic acid. Production also of hydro-azo benzene froirt 
nitro benzene by the use of sodium amalgam is reported. 

The Industria Chimica, a comparatively new concern, produces 
high quality chrome dyes, Italian manufacturers have been suc- 
cessful with a number of acid dyes, among which are a fast light 
yellow, acid red, and black, and tartrazine. Excellent basic and 
direct dyes are made and progress is reported in the production of 
yellow, brown, and black chrome dyes. Diamine black P V of the 
Industria Chimica is an example of the direct dyes. 

The Societa Italiana Prodotti Esplodenti of Cengio controls sl 
number of gas plants, distilling about 600,000 tons of coal annually. 
This company manufactures numerous intermediates and chemicals: 
used in the production of finished coal-tar products. The S. I. P. E. 
of Cengio; the Bonelli, the Italica, and the wSchiapparelli are more or 
less controlled by the Societa Italiana del Gas di Torrino. 

A fusion of dye concerns in Italy is a step toward mternational 
agreements. In negotiations between German and Italian manu- 
facturers Italy will probably obtain a percentage quota for the- 
home mai'ket and a quota for export principally of tonnage dyes,, 
such as indigo and the sulfur colors. A recent report indicates that 
a prelimuiary agreement was reached between the French-German- 
Swiss Dye Cartel and the Italian Dye-Explosives Cartel, the latter- 
including Italgas and Montecatini. This agreement will establish 
quotas on dye imports mto Italy based on 1927 totals as follows r: 
Germany, 70 per cent; France, 20 per cent; and Switzerland 10' 
per cent. 

Table 52. — Italy: Imports of synthetic organic dyes by countries, 1927 ^ 



Imported from— 


i Quantity..' 

1 




P minds 
110,7101 




1,766.54© 




514, 55« 




733, aiT. 




86,4201 








Total 


3, 22i; 141 







Statistica del Commereio Specials di Importazione e di Esportazione, January-December, 1927,'. 



164 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 
Table 53. — Italy: Imports and exports of synthetic organic dyes, 1927 



Class of dye 



Sulfur black-- 

Account of German reparations-- - 

Other sulfur dyes 

Account of German reparations 

Other synthetic organic dyes, dry, or containing less than 

50 per cent of water 

Account of German reparations. .- -.. 

In paste, or containing 50 per cent or more of water 

Account of German reparations 

Total '... - 

Natural indigo 



Imports 



Quantity value 



Pounds 

26, 235 

220 

111,553 

4,409 

2, 222. 898 
396, 608 
345, 902 
113,316 



$10, 133 
""94,"900" 



2, 432, 987 
"""i57,"389' 



3,221,141 2,695,409 
7,496 I 6,998 

I 



Exports 



Quantity Value 



Pounds 
256, 395 



335, 761 



23,148 



620, 595 
441 



$43,589 



1,775 



279, 927 



9,284 



334, 575 



1 Statistica del Commercio Speciale di Importazione e di Esportazione, January-December, 1927. Values 
converted at average exchange rate 1927, 1 lire=$0.05156. 

The Dye Industry of Japan 

The industrial policy of the Japanese Government is directed 
toward making the nation, as far as possible, self-supporting in all 
necessary commodities. In 1927 the industrial enterprises that 
received grants in aid from the Government, by special legislative 
enactment, were those engaged m the manufacture of (1) dyes and 
(2) iron and steel. 

In 1915 a law was enacted for the encouragement of the manufac- 
ture of dyes and drugs. This provided for a subsidy for 10 years to 
a joint-stock company engaged in the production of coal-tar dyes 
and drugs. This subsidy was to be sufficient in amount to guarantee 
the company dividends equal to 8 per cent of the paid-in capital. 
The Nippon Senryo Kaisha (Japan Dyestuffs Co.) was established 
and continued in operation only as long as the subsidy was in opera- 
tion. The period of the subsidy was not extended, so that although 
the law has not been repealed, it is ineffective. 

In 1925 a new law was enacted which provided for a subsidy for a 
period of six years not to exceed 4,000,000 yen, of which not more 
than 1,000,000 yen was to be expended in any one year. This was 
to be paid to three joint-stock companies for the production of certain 
specified dyes. Japanese manufacturers have been successful in pro- 
ducing only 8 out of the 20 dyes designated to be aided by the subsidy, 
and as a result only 680,000 yen of the total subsidy has been expended. 

On August 1, 1927, seven new dyes were added to the list of those 
entitled to receive grants. The complete list of the dyes now entitled 
to the subsidy is as follows : 



Victoria blue. 
Magenta. 
Rhodamine G. 
Safranine. 
Auramine. 
Direct fast black. 
Direct black B H. 
Direct copper blue. 
Direct blue 6B. 
Acid fast black. 
Wool green S. 
Chrome black F. 
Anthraquinone vat blue. 
Stilbene yellow. 



Direct claret. 

Direct fast scarlet. 

Acid fast blue. 

Acid violet. 

Carbazol vat blue. 

Beta hydroxy naphthoic-acid-anilide. 

Carbonil orange. 

Direct brown M. 

Direct violet. 

Quinoline yellow. 

Rhodamine 6G. 

Crystal violet. 

Ponceau 3X. 



INTERNATIONAL DYE TRADE 



165 



In the last general revision of the tariff in March, 1926, import 
duties on dyes were changed from ad valorem to specific rates and 
were made high enough to affect imports from the United States. 
When a general treaty of commerce and navigation was concluded 
with Germany, the import restrictions which had been enforced in 
respect to German goods were withdrawn, but it is understood 
that an agreement was reached whereby Germany was to restrict 
exports of certain dyes to Japan. The scope of this restriction is 
somewhat narrow and does not include any of the new dyes produced 
since August, 1927, with the aid of the subsidy. It is now proposed 
to raise the import duties on dyes in order to assist further the Japan- 
ese dye manufacturers and to enable them to compete more success- 
fully with the German imports. 

The total imports of coal-tar dyes into Japan in 1926 were 6,986,501 
pounds, valued at $4,324,805, as compared with 6,740,306 pounds, 
valued at S3,400,670 in 1925. Of the imports in 1926, a total of 
2,554,001 pounds of indigo were imported, of which 1,892,387 pounds 
were from Germany. A total of 4,432,500 pounds of dyes other than 
indigo were imported m 1926, of which 2,913,379 pounds were from 
Germany. Imports from Germany in 1926 show an increase over 
1925 of more than 1,000,000 pounds. 

The exports of dyes in 1926 (largely to China) were 1,046,520 
pounds, valued at $152,657, as compared with 1,685,606 pounds, 
valued at $214,209 in 1925. 



Table 54. 


— Japan: 


Imports 


/ coal-tar 


dyes, 1924-1926 i 




Class of dye and country of 


1924 


1925 


1926 


origin 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Indigo, artificial: 


Pounds 

123, 679 

1, 716, 030 

40,344 

258, 337 

15, 741 

1, 140, 228 

661 


$81, 548 

1, 009, 050 

22, 240 

154,858 

8, 237 

319, 601 

1,236 


Pounds 

234, 792 
1,111,920 


$121,057 
591, 332 


Pounds 

208, 987 
1, 892, 387 


$104, 127 


Germanv 


910, 287 








228, 442 


113, 260 


130, 815 


65, 492 


Netherlands 




United States - 


572, 892 
132 


248, 269 
410 


321, 548 

264 


153, 599 


other countries 


471 






Total 


3, 295, 020 


1, 596, 770 


2, 148, 178 


1, 074, 328 


2, 554, 001 


1, 233, 976 


Aniline dyes: 


13, 095 

111,510 

11,832,310 

11,243 

19,048 

759, 535 

1, 349, 490 

132 


7,825 


46. 694 


14, 773 
90,690 


21, 295 
178. 565 


14, 606 


France 


42, 009 198. 019 


86, 694 


Germany . 


4, 096, 330 

5,766 

10, 296 

358, 316 

402, 384 

1,648 


2, 459, 823 


1, 473, 610 2. 886. 925 


2, 350, 632 






2,910 


1,885 


Italy 


2,116 

440, 086 

1, 347, 770 

529 


821 

239, 651 

392, 716 

1,642 




Switzerland 


594, 157 
700, 237 


330, 285 


United States 


275. 630 




397 1 r.414 








Total 


14, 096, 363 


4, 924, 574 


4, 495, 037 


2,213,903 ; 4,384,486 


3, 061, 146 


other coal-tar dyes: 
Great Britain 






529 




8,333 

1,587 

26, 454 

132 

11,111 

397 


3,298 










471 


Germanv 


171, 960 


167, 214 


91, 139 
5,159 


109, 567 

2,052 

410 

410 


19, 789 


Switzerland 










5, 654 


other countries ... 


661 


824 


264 


471 






Total... 


172, 621 


168, 038 


97, 091 


112,439 [ 48,014 


29, 683 


Grand total 


17, 564, 004 


6, 689, 382 


6, 740, 306 


3,400,670 1 6,986,501 


4. 324, 805 






Dry indigo, natural: 

China 






4,233 
10, 714 
10, 714 
46, 165 


2,873 
10, 259 
12,311 
31.598 






British India.. 


99, 869 
6,085 


86, 490 
5,766 


1,323 
4,100 
4.233 


942 


Dutch East Indies... 

United States 


3,298 

2,827 


other countries 


132 




265 820 ; 132 
















Total 


106,086 1 92.256 


72, 091 


57,861 1 9.788 


7,067 










' 





1 Annual Return of the Foreign Trade of the Empire of Japan, Part 1, 1926. Values converted at exchange 
rates of 1 yen = $0.411857 in 1924, $0.410362 in 1925, and $0.471163 in 1926. 



166 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 
Table 55. — Japan: Exports of coal-tar dyes, 1924-1926 > 



Country of destination 


1924 


1925 


1926 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 




Pounds 

1, 756, 374 

93, 784 

30, 821 

16, 270 


$251, 233 
13, 179 
6,178 
11,532 


Poimds 

1, 550, 816 

32, 143 

71,430 

19, 974 

8,333 

2,046 

264 


$189, 177 

4,514 

8,618 

9,849 

821 

410 

820 


Pounds 

1, 002, 871 

20, 370 

7,672 

8,994 

4,100 

2,116 

397 


$141, M9 


Kwantung Province 


3,298 


Hong Kong . 


943 




5,654 


Straits Settlements 


471 


Dutch East Indies.. 








Other countries 


2,249 


824 


942 






Total 


1,899,498 


282, 946 


1, 685, 606 


214, 209 


1, 046, 520 


152, 657 











> Annual Return of the Foreign Trade o Ithe Empire of Japan, Part 1, 1926. Values converted at exchange 
rates of 1 yen = $0.41 1857 in 1924, $0.410362 in 1925, and $0.471163 in 1923. 

The Dye Industry of Switzerland 

The net earnings of the four important dye factories of Switzerland 
in 1927 ranged from 25 to 42 per cent and the dividends to stock- 
holders ranged from 12 to 25 per cent. The stock of the J. R. Geigy 
S. A. is owned by the Geigy family and no published balance sheet 
is available. The net earnings of the Geigy company in 1927 are 
estimated to be not less than 35 per cent. 

A statement of the capital, net earnings, and dividends in 1927 of 
the three other important dye firms follows:^ 



Capital 



Net 
earnings 



Divi- 
dends 



Durand and Huguenin S. A.. 
Society of Chemical Industry. 
Sandoz Chemical Works 



Francs 
2, 000, 000 
20, 000, 000 
7, 500, 000 



Per cent 
34 
25 
42 



Per cent 
12 
15 
25 



The prosperous condition of the industry is indicated by the in- 
creased value per share of the Sandoz Works and the Society of Chem- 
ical Industry. The par value of the shares of each of these com- 
panies is 1,000 francs. On December 31, 1927, the shares of the 
Society of Chemical Industiy were quoted on the Basel Exchange at 
2,825 francs, compared with 2,568 francs at the close of 1926; those 
of the Sandoz Chemical Works were quoted at 4,400 francs per share 
at the close of 1927, as compared with 4,000 francs in 1926. An 
agreement for the pooling of profits and losses has existed for several 
years between Geigy, Sandoz, and Society of Chemical Industry. 

During the past 10 years the three companies established plants in 
Grenzach, Germany; St. Fons, France; Clayton, England; Seriate, 
Italy; Pabianice, Poland; and Cincinnati, Ohio. These plants — 
owned and operated jointly^ — supply large quantities of dyes direct 
to consumers in their respective localities, and reduce the exports 
from Switzerland. 

EXPORTS IN 1927 

Switzerland exports about 90 per cent of her production of dyes. 
Despite serious competition, occasioned by an increase in production 
in the United States, in Great Britain, in France, in Italy, and in 
Japan, exports of dyes from Switzerland in 1927 were greater than 
in 1926. In the latter year they were valued at approximately 
$12,000,000 and in 1927, exceeded $14,000,000. 

Since 1924 exports of indigo have declined steadily. This decline 
is attributed, in large part, to competition from Germany and from 
the United States. Indigo shipped to China in 1927 was a million 



2 Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Department of Commerce. 



INTERNATIONAL DYE TRADE 



167 



pounds below the 1926 tonnage. Dyes other than indigo exported 
to Germany and to France have increased in quantity and value, 
and those exported to the United States show decreases both in 
quantity and in value. The exports to France increased both in 
quantity and in value in 1927; the exports to the United States de- 
creased in both quantity and in value. The dyes exported to France 
and to the United States are high-cost products with an average value 
of over $1 a pound. 

Of the dyes other than indigo, Swiss exports increased both in 
quantity and in value. Germany was again the best customer of 
Switzerland and in 1927 received 4,394,932 pounds of anihne and other 
coal-tar dyes valued at $2,739,094, and 54,648 pounds of indigo 
valued at $10,681. 

Switzerland's trade with Russia, discontinued some years ago, was 
resumed after the embargo on dyes was lifted in the spring of 1927. 
Although deliveries could not be made until late in that year, the 
value of exports of dyes to Russia reached S69,499. 



Table 56. — Switzerland: I 


mports and exports 


of coal-tar dyes, 1927 '^ 




Aniline and other coal- 
tar dyes 


Indigo, indigo solution 


Alizarin 




Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Imports from— 

Germany . . 


Pounds 

2, 060, 948 

164, 375 

25, 349 

6,975 

5,002 

44,780 

2,756 

14, 043 

53 


$1, 494, 669 

88, 266 

9,438 

2,984 

6,139 

33, 403 

1,830 

2,165 

77 


Pounds 
108, 857 
31, 283 
27 


$29, 005 

3,335 

14 


Pounds 
186, 168 


$29. 912 


France 


218 57 


Italy 
















Great Britain. . 


4 


2 


22 15 






United States 


2,059 


187 


] 


other countries 





Total. 


2, 324, 341 


1, 638, 971 


142, 230 


32, 543 


186, 408 29, 984 


Exports to— 


4, 394, 932 
261,818 
1, 736, 032 
559, 514 
707, 538 
402, 796 
1,118,491 
181,842 
148, 709 
123, 489 

67, 137 
524, 948 

91,617 

68, 669 

422, 157 

1,313,316 

114, 646 

120, 614 

31, 940 
134, 747 
307. 806 

50, 130 

27, 555 

6,607 

896, 935 

26, 781 

29, 376 
113,321 
206, 860 
544, 668 
332, 476 
1, 040, 157 

88,221 
233,410 
158, 061 

73, 770 


2, 739, 094 

181, 164 

2, 083, 407 

612, 810 

409, 674 

282, 856 

1, 227, 136 

331, 740 

85, 058 

106, 596 

58, 640 

417, 100 

94, 988 

63, 518 

528, 958 

859, 535 

69, 542 

56, 519 

26, 570 

91,081 

191. 635 
69, 499 
18, 505 

5,026 

633, 810 

17, 774 

21, 229 

96, 752 

134. 636 
459, 062 
231, 907 

1, 069, 894 

75, 680 

263, 761 

109, 683 

54,431 


54,648 1 10.681 








1,100 
11,314 
63, 431 


487 
6,640 
9,581 












Italy 














168 1 186 
688 380 






Great Britain 






Spain 

Portugal 


17, 804 
4,520 
2,425 


8,866 
3,159 
2,677 


















































Poland 












628 

256 

2,987 

331 

17, 220 

1,232 


411 

215 
1,625 

231 
6,803 

785 






Hungary. 


































Egypt 


54, 555 
25, 236 
90, 933 


13, 786 
10,540 
41, 392 














216, 247 


41, 600 
















Dutch East Indies 

China 

Japan 

Cai|^da .- 


37, 615 

2, 713, 719 

265, 480 


11,637 
453, 685 
153, 803 


30, 754 


5,451 










882 
10, 582 


1,147 
4,315 






Mexico 

Brazil 


















Other countries 


5,657 


2,488 






Total .- 


! 16,661,086 


13, 779, 270 


3, 383, 411 


745, 520 


247, 001 


47. 051 



' Statistik des Warenverkehrs der Schweiz mit dem Auslande, 1927. 
change rate, 1927, 1 franc=$0.192618. 

7709—28 12 



Values converted at average ex- 



168 census of dyes and other synthetic chemicals 
The Dye Trade of Other Countries 

Table 57. — Argentina: Imports of coal-tar dyes, 1926 * 



Imported from — 



Germany 

Bolivia 

Chile 

United States 

France 

Italy 

Japan 

Netherlands 

United Kingdom. 

Sweden 

Switzerland 

Uruguay 

Other countries... 



Aniline dyes 



Quantity Value 



Total. 



Pounds 

353, 706 

379 

2,123 

330, 375 

10, 401 

55, 183 I 

845 

18, 433 

3,587 

1,477 

116, 244 

2,628 

77 



$211, 210 

253 

1,196 

189, 977 

6,490 

33, 451 

565 

11,498 

1,885 

894 

67, 963 

1,708 

53 



895, 458 



527, 143 



Indigo 



Quantity Value 



Pounds 

48 

472 



$49 
473 



245 



163 



164 



940 



1 Anuario del Comereio Exterior de la Eepublica Argentina 1926. Values converted at average ex- 
change rate, 1926, 1 oro= $0.921497. 

Table 58. — Belgium: Imports and exports of coal-tar dyes, dry and paste, 1927 ^ 



Imports 


Exports 


Class of dye and country 
of origin 


Quantity 


Value 


Class of dye and country 
of destination 


Quantity 


Value 


Alizarin: 

Germany 


Pounds 
441 
1,102 


$584 
390 


Alizarin 


Pounds 
3,748 


$417 


ther countries 


Total 








Total 


1,543 


974 


3,748 


417 










15, 212 
14. 771 


10, 687 
4,203 


1,323 


167 


Germany 


Total 




Other countiies .. 








Total 


29, 983 


14, 890 


1,323 


167 




Aniline dyes: 

Germany 




Aniline dyes: 

Germany . . 


3, 072, 771 
549, 607 
664, 246 
408, 733 
412, 922 
125, 662 


1, 190, 554 
120, 731 
191, 227 

77, 593 
196, 515 

29, 835 


495, 153 

9,921 

20, 723 

40,124 

69, 886 

3,968 

3,307 

274, 032 


99, 468 


United States 


United States 


4,870 


France 


Great Britain 


7,765 


Netherlands 


British India.. 


12, 468 


Switzerland 


Netherlands 


26, 245 


Other countries .. 


Poland 


2,699 




Rumania 


668 




Other countries 

Total 


67, 908 


Total 


5, 233, 941 


1, 806, 455 


917, 114 


222, 091 




Indigo, synthetic. . 




Indigo, synthetic: 


156, 747 
22, 707 


14, 444 
2,088 


18, 739 


2,087 


Germany . _ 


1 Total 




Other countries.. 








Total . . 


179, 454 


16, 532 


18, 739 


2,087 




Other coal-tar dyes: 
France 




Other coal-tar dyes: 
Germany.. 


4,189 
4,189 
7,716 
5,732 


1,447 

557 

2,226 

2,950 


3,748 
8,157 
51, 367 


1,976 




1 Netherlands 


613 


Great Britain 


Other countries 

Total 


2,588 


Other countries . . 


9 






Total 


21, 826 


7,180 


63, 272 


5,177 




Grand total 




Grand total 


5,466,747 


1, 846, 031 


1, 004, 196 


229, 939 









' Bulletin Mensuel du Commerce Special, December, 1927. Values converted at average exchange rate, 
1927, 1,000 francs=^$27.831. 



INTERNATIONAL DYE TRADE 
Table 59, — Brazil: Imports of coal-tar dyes, 1926 ^ 



169 



Class of dye 


Quantity 


Value 




Pounds 
742. 668 
749, 434 


$640,444 




99, 430 








Total 


1, 492, 102 


739, 874 







> Comercio Exterior do Brasil January-December, 1926. Values converted at average exchange rate, 
1926, 1 milreis, paper=$0.144357. 

Table 60. — Canada: Imports of coal-tar dyes, year ended March SI, 1927 ^ 



Class of dye and country of 


origin 


Quantity 


Value 


Aniline and coal-tar dyes, soluble in water, in bulk or packages of not less than 
one pound weight, including alizarin and artificial alizarin: 


Pounds 
134, 628 

1,466,366 

162, 371 

813, 968 

313, 700 

3,285 


$84, 407 


United States --- 


877, 168 




38, 629 




589, 074 




232, 027 


Other countries - 


2,462 


Total 


2, 894, 318 


1, 823, 767 


Aniline and coal-tar dyes, n. o. p.: 


3,734 

16, 538 

180 


2,674 


United States 


8,270 


Other countries. 


30 


Total 


20, 452 


10, 974 


Indigo: United States 


102 


123 


Indigo paste and extract of: 

United Kingdom . 


360 
96, 669 


242 


United States .... .. . 


10, 202 












Total 


97, 029 


10, 444 


Grand total 


3,011,901 


1, 845, 308 







» Monthly Report of the Trade of Canada, March 31, 1927. Values converted at average exchange rate, 
year ended Mar. 31, 1927, 1 Canadian dollar=$1.000284. 



Table 61.- 


-China: 


Imports of dyes, colors, and paints, 1926 ' 




Class of dye and coun- 


Value 


Class of dye and coun- 
try of origin 


Liquid or paste 


Dried 


try of origin 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity Value 


Aniline: 


$772,435 

643 

4,170 

2,556 

4,807 

2,761 

103, 047 

1,982 

812, 852 

854, 935 

1,259 

87, 173 

67, 535 

3,092 

8,865 

96,433 
1,912 

380, 840 
350 


Indigo, artificial: 

Hong Kong 


Pounds 
2, 391, 674 
1, 670, 225 
12, 994, 342 


$827, 273 

284, 251 

3, 039, 028 

1, 099, 752 

344, 039 

736, 822 

5,652 

18,623 

3,977 
19,109 

2, 120, 587 
1,162 


Pounds 

265, 993 

6,667 


$224, 459 




Great Britain 

Germanv - 


6. 525 


Siam 


1,608,226 ' 764,715 


Singapore Strs. etc 


Netherlands .... 


4, 268, 693 


1, 229, 703 650. 430 


Dutch Indies 


France 


2, 157, 279 

3, 848, 704 

28, 399 

63, 198 


66, 932 


32, 827 


British India 


Switzerland 






Russia, Pacific Ports. 
Korea . 






Denmark 






Germany. 


Japan (including 
Formosa) 


28, 533 
61.. 598 


1 


Netherlands 


133 386 


BplEpiim 






France 


United States (in- 
cluding Hawaii) ... 15, 045, 624 
Other countries. . i 4. 667 


j 


Switzerland 


533 241 


Italy. . 


267 179 




Total. 






Japan (including 


42, 562, 936 
233, 194 


8, 500, 275 
43,454 


3,178,454 ! 1.679.762 


Formosa) .. 


Reexports 


113, 864 


56, 721 




Total net imports. 




United States (in- 
cluding Hawaii)... 
Other countries 


42, 329, 742 


8,456,821 


3, 064, 590 


1, 623, 041 


Total 

Reexports 


3, 207, 647 
410, 868 










Total net imports 


2, 796, 779 





' Foreign Trade of China, 1926. Values converted at average exchange rate, 1926, haikwan tael = $0.8041. 



170 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

Table 61. — China: Imports of dyes, colors, and paints, 1926 — Continued 



Class of dye and country of origin 



Dyes and colors, unclassed: 

Hong Kong -.- 

Macao 

French Indo-China 

Siam 

Singapore Strs., etc 

Dutch Indies 

British India 

Great Britain 

Sweden 

Germany 

Netherlands 

Belgium 

France — — 

Russia and Siberia by land 

frontier.-- 

Russia, Pacifie ports 

Korea 

Japan (including Formosa) 

United States (including Ha- 
waii) - 

Total.- 

Reexports 

Total net imports 



Value 



$145, 777 

572 

12, 242 

1,478 

52, 394 

15, 920 

6,189 

24, 150 

287 

143, 524 

3,423 

1,788 

3,080 

3,463 

437 

10, 403 

134, 171 

4,638 



563, 938 
9,322 



554, 614 



Class of dye and country of origin 



Sulfur black: 

Hong Kong 

Germany 

Netherlands 

Italy 

Korea 

Japan (including Formosa) 
United States 

Total 

Reexports 

Total net imports 

Grand total 

Indigo, natural, liquid or dried 

Hong Kong _. 

Macao 

French Indo-China 

Total 



Quantity 



Pounds 

31, 466 

445, 855 

458, 655 

20, 533 

21, 466 

2,224,211 

1, 879, 820 



5, 082, 006 
105, 464 



4, 976, 542 



50, 370, 874 



1,733 
400 
267 



Value 



$3,898 

47,087 

59, 052 

3,572 

3,502 

247, 595 

210, 792 



675, 498 
11, 816 



563, 682 



2 10, 643, 544 



332 
24 
30 



2,400 



386 



2 Exclusive of "Aniline dyes" and "Dyes and colors, unclassed" amounting to a value of $3,351,393. 
Table 62. — China: Exports of indigo, 1926 ' 



Country of destination 



Hong Kong 

Macao 

French Indo-China 

Singapore Straits, and others 
British India 

Japan (including Formosa).. 

Total 



Quantity 



Pounds 

36,666 

8, 1.33 

25, 466 

337. 858 

1,733 

7,600 



417, 456 



Value 



$2,456 

425 

1,055 

9,780 

105 

634 



14, 455 



•Foreign Trade of China, 1926. Values converted at average exchange rate, 1926, 1 haikwantael =$0.8041 

Table 63. — Czechoslovakia: Imports and exports of coal-tar dyes, calendar year 

1926^ 



Class of dye and country 


Imports 


Class of dye and country 
of destination 


Exports 


of origin 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Anthraquinone dyes: 


Pounds 

132. 497 

29,542 

1.984 

2,425 

1,102 

882 

661 

220 


$66, 166 

22,717 

2,221 

800 

118 

563 

178 

59 

30 


Anthraquinone dyes: 

Netherlands 


Pounds 
7,496 
662 
220 
220 
220 


$1,303 




Hamburg 


208 




Poland 


296 




Germany 






Hungary 


§9 




Total- 




Hungary ... 




Belgium .. 














Total 


169.313 1 92,852 


8,818 1 1,955 


Sulfur black: 

Germany 


787, 263 

72, 090 

24, 250 

16,314 

5,732 

2,205 


114, 503 

12, 439 

1,185 

3,288 

355 

237 












United States 




Switzerland. 




Belgium . _ 




ther countries 




Total 


907, 854 132. 007 














' Commerce Exterieur De La Republique Tchecoslovaque, 1920, Part 1. Values converted at average 
exchange rate, 1926, 1,000 crowns = $29,618. 



INTERNATIONAL DYE TRADE 



171 



Table 63. — Czechoslovakia: Imports and exports of coal-tar dyes, calendar year 

i 9^6— Continued 



Class of dye and country 


Imports 


Class of dye and country 
of destination 


Exports 


of origin 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Sulfur and azo dyes: 

Germany ..... 


Pounds 

43, 431 

25, 573 

20, 723 

2,866 


$24, 997 

12,617 

7,849 

1,007 

30 


Sulfur and azo dyes: 

Germany . . 


Pounds 
47. 178 
882 
441 


$10, 929 


Switzerland . . .. 


Austria.. . 


148 


Netherlands 




59 


United States 


Poland 


30 


Austria.. 


Total 












Total 


92, 593 


46, 500 


48, 501 


11, 166 




All other coal-tar dyes: 
Germany 




All other coal-tar dyes: 
Germany 


3, 995, 617 

896,611 

203, 925 

111,773 

54, 013 

24. 251 

11,905 

8,377 

7,937 

2.866 

1,323 

441 

220 


2, 684, 131 

448, 505 

83. 464 

48, 455 

12. 825 

14, 305 

2,340 

5, 005 

2,814 

1,066 

296 

296 

30 


1, 250, 890 
111,332 
90, 829 
56, 879 

46. 297 
24, 912 

21, 826 

16,314 
14, 330 
6,614 
5,511 
4,409 
2,866 
882 
882 
2,866 


479, 812 


Switzerland 


Austria . . . 


36, 874 


France. 


Hungary . 


31, 633 


Netherlands 


Netherlands 


13, 950 


United States 


Union of Socialistic 

Soviet Republics 

Belgium 




Austria 

Belgium 


29, 559 
10,811 


Great Britain . ... 


Bulgaria 


5,361 




Kingdom of the Serbs, 
Croats, and Slovenes. 




Hungary 

Italy 


6.249 
5,479 


Poland 


Switzerland 


4,324 


Other countries 


Sweden 


2,310 




Poland 

Italy 

Turkey.. 


3,317 

2,192 

918 




France 


563 




Other countries 

Total 


2,606 


Total 


5, 319, 259 


3, 303, 532 


1, 657, 639 


635, 958 




Grand total... 




Grand total 


6, 489, 019 


3. 574, 891 


1, 714, 958 


649, 079 




Indigo, natural: 

Hungary 




Indigo, natural: 

Germany 


647, 050 

106, 041 

71, 208 

3,748 

1,323 

441 


133, 518 

10,810 

6,812 

1,570 

1,392 

89 


43, 651 

30, 424 

5,952 

3,086 


4,709 


France 


Austria 


3,081 


United States 


Rumania 


681 


Switzerland 


Poland 


296 


Austria 


Total 




Hungary .. 








Total 


829,811 


154, 191 


83, 113 


8,767 









Table 64. — Egypt: Imports and exports of coal-tar dyes, 1927 ^ 



Imports 


Reexports 


Class of dye and country of 
origin 


Quantity 


Value 


Class of dye and country 
of destination 


Quantity 


Value 


Synthetic indigo: 
France 


Pounds 

164,543 

382, 264 

68, 298 

29 


$36, 159 

80, 587 

13,376 

10 


Sythetic indigo 


Pounds 
36, 021 
62, 337 


$11,438 




ther coal-tar dyes 


37, 523 




Total 






98, 358 


48, 961 








Total 


615, 134 


130, 132 








Other coal-tar dyes: 

Germany... 


244, 210 
29, 495 
42, 968 


97, 572 
13, 677 
16, 678 




Switzerland.. .... 




Other countries 




Total 


316,673 127.927 












Natural indigo: 

British India 


9,616 


6,179 








Other dyes: 

United Kingdom 


5, 611 
7,928 
9,215 


4,360 
6,040 
4,820 




Germany 




Other countreis 








Total 


22,754 


15, 220 




Grand total 


964, 177 


279,458 









' Monthly Summary of the Foreign Trade of Egypt, December, 1927. Exchange rates for the Egyptian 
pound for the year 1927 are not available, therefore the values for 1927 have been converted at par at the 
rate of $4.9431. 



172 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Table 65. — India: Imports of coal-tar dyes and exports of natural indigo, year 

ended March 31, 1927 i 



Imports of coal-tar dyes 



Class of dye and country of 
origin 



Alizarin: 

United Kingdom. 

Ceylon 

Sweden 

Germany 

Netlierlands 

Belgium 

France... 

Switzerland 

Italy 



Total. 



Aniline: 

United Kingdom 

Aden and dependencies 

Georgia 

Norway 

Germany 

Netherlands 

Belgium 

France. 

Switzerland 

Italy 

Austria 

Hungary 

China (exclusive of Hong 

Kong and Macao) 

Japan 

United States 



Quantity 



Pounds 

741, 872 

2,240 

2,800 

2,991,139 

999, 816 

153, 887 

9,520 

82, 652 

60, 737 



Value 



$142, 836 

779 

517 

701, 223 

253, 453 

38, 036 

1,646 

15, 546 

13, 459 



5, 044, 663 1, 167, 495 



443, 291 

4,319 

3,370 

2,390 

,011,810 

410,714 

359, 007 

83, 440 

403, 943 

267, 727 

8,980 

448 

2,228 

13, 638 

, 951, 513 



248, 403 

3,349 

2,481 

424 

3, 045, 593 

272, 920 

258, 279 

52, 959 

257, 501 

148, 392 

1,752 

585 

1,617 

10, 394 

698, 257 



Total 9,956,818 ^5, 002, 906 



Other coal-tar dyes: 
United Kingdom. 

Germany , 

Belgium. 

United States 



Total. 



724 



6,707 



305 
958 



585 



2,337 



Imports of coal-tar dyes 



Class of dye and country of 
origin 



Indigo, synthetic: 
United Kingdom. 
Germany 



Quantity 



Pounds 

898 

5,376 



Total. 



Reexports: 
Alizarin. 
Aniline.. 



Total 

Total net imports. 



6,272 



4,069 
211,941 



Value 



$522 
3,024 



3,546 



8S1 
156,623 



216,010 157,504 



14,797,450 6,018,780 



Exports of natural indigo 



Country of destination Quantity Value 



United Kingdom 

Cyprus 

Mesopotamia 

Georgia 

Greece 

Turkey in Europe 

Turkey in Asia 

Syria 

Armenia 

Other native States in Ara- 
bia 

Persia 

Japan 

Egypt 

Other countries 

Total 



Pounds 

41, 104 

3,472 

46, 032 

784 

34, 944 

1,904 

560 

7,392 

560 

1,232 
10, 304 

3,360 
25, 200 

1,008 



177, 856 



$27, 304 

3,007 

44,040 

1,015 

35, 931 

1,924 

812 

8,525 

648 

1,466 

7,617 

1,363 

19,309 

713 



153,674 



1 Annual Statement of the Sea-borne Trade of British India, year ended March 31, 1927, Vol. I. Values 
converted at average exchange rate for year ending March 31, 1927, 1 rupee=$0. 36246. 



Table 66. 


— India: 


Imports 


of coal-tar dyes, 


calendar 


year 1927 ^ 






Class of dy 


e and count 


ry of origin 




Quantity 


Value 


Alizarin: 

United Kingdom . . 


Pounds 
1, 276, 987 
3, 134, 024 
52S, 584 
114,610 
92,186 
191,433 


$278, 164 




746, 794 




124,269 




22,940 




19,013 


Other countries . 


60,070 


Total 


5, 337, 824 


1,251,250 


Aniline: 

United Kingdom . . 


438, 892 
8, 304, 941 

229, 214 

230, 281 
510, 328 
561, 623 

1,359,419 
616, 078 


277,877 


Germanv 


3, 905, 270 




138, 592 


Belgium . 


140,992 




340,234 


Italy . . 


271,849 


United States 


467,363 


Other countries 


378,607 


Total 


12, 250, 776 


5, 920, 784 


Other coal-tar dyes: Total 


81,773 


81,429 


Total of dyes obt 


ained from 


coal tar .. 






17, 670, 373 
5,376 


7,253,463 


Ssmthetic indigo 








3,188 















' Accounts Relating to the Sea-borne Trade and Navigation of British India for the calendar year 1927. 
Values converted at average exchange rate, 1927, 1 rupee=$0.363117. 



INTERNATIONAL DYE TRADE 

Table 67. — India: Exports of indigo, calendar year 1927 ' 



173 



Country of destination 


Quantity 


Value 




Pounds 
43,008 
64,064 
8,512 
13, 216 
76, 720 


$30, 998 




61,892 




6,578 




9,525 




66, 613 








Total . 


205, 520 


175 606 







'Accounts Relating to the Sea-borne Trade and Navigation of British India, for the calendar year 1927. 
Values converted at average exchange rate, 1927, 1 rupee=$0.363117. 

Table 68. — Netherlands: Imports and exports of coal-tar dyes, 1926 ' 





Imports 


Exports 


Country of origin or destination 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 




Pounds 

3, 079, 414 

177, 219 

30, 827 

226, 915 

63, 799 


$1, 836, 895 
60, 734 
16, 532 
92, 440 
10, 307 


Pounds 

653, 141 

484, 655 

7,337 

16, 548 

4,588 

58, 122 

3,695 

28, 210 

88,834 

833 

2,804 

29,515 

3,552 

18, 325 

36, 457 

48, 391 

12, 487 

2,463 

1,512 

10, 176 

1,559 

15,216 

39, 035 

194, 973 

10, 930 

8,433 

6,025 

1, 653 

860 

9,773 

1,720 

12,088 

55, 730 

13, 655 

730 

2,273 

2,363 

908 

6,938 

6,345 


$241, 046 




82, 274 


Great Britain 


4,410 




10, 086 


United States 


4,424 




18, 912 








2,237 








12, 206 




4,217 
1,537 


1,186 
1,033 


27, 084 




581 




1,018 




725 

3,651 

33, 677 


191 
3,307 
9,985 


■9, 448 




1,886 




9,399 




10, 060 




6,892 


1,847 


13, 241 




3,987 








1,043 




7,224 
402, 503 


2,077 
236, 746 


889 




6,012 




401 








7,856 








10, 682 




16, 587 


4,794 



62, 971 




1,386 








4,746 








3,035 








416 








1,203 








5,560 








902 








3,068 


Brazil --- . 






39, 577 


Chile -- 






3,239 








950 








545 








968 








606 




494 


124 


4,914 




3,094 










Total -- 


4,055,681 


2, 278, 198 


1, 902, 852 


616, 362 







1 Jaarstatistiek van den in-, uit- en doorvoer, 1926. 
1 gulden = $0.400984. 



Values converted at average exchange rate, 1926, 



174 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 
Table 69. — Poland: Imports and exports of synthetic dyes, calendar year 1926 * 



Class of dye and country of origin or destination 


Imports 


Exports 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Alizarin dyes, in paste: Germany 


Pounds 
66 
44 


$112 
112 


Pounds 




Sulfur dyes: Germany. . 














Indigo carmine: 

Czechoslovakia 


3,968 
2,205 








Germany . ... 








Latvia- .. ..... .. .. . 




22 
44 




Other countries 


1,543 












Total -. 


7,716 


2,683 


66 


$45 






Other dyes: 
Germany 


143, 961 
23, 810 




35,494 




Switzerland . .. . .. . . 










148, 149 
3,968 




Other covmtries 


42,328 












Total 


210, 099 


177, 532 


187.611 


124, 988 








Grand total 


217, 925 


180,439 


187, 677 


125, 033 







1 Commerce Extfrieur de la Repuhlique Polonaise, 1926. Values converted at average exchange rate, 
1926, 1 zloty=$0.111796. 



Table 70. — Sweden: Imports and exports of coal-tar dyes 


, 1926 1 




Imports 


Exports 


Class of dye and country of 
origin 


Quantity 


Value 


Class of dye and country of 
destination 


Quantity 


Value 


Alizarin dyes: 
Norway 


Pounds 

441 

2, 533 

142, 318 

1, 073 

1,365 

496 

2,317 

245 


$428 

2,460 

138, 223 

1,043 

1,326 

481 

2,250 

238 


Alizarin dyes: 

Denmark 


Pounds 

55 

1,107 

99 


$375 


Denmark 


Mexico 

Other countries 


1,344 


Germany 


384 


Belgium 


Total 




Great Britain 




France 




Switzerland 












Total 


150, 788 


146, 449 


1,261 


2,103 




Aniline and other coal-tar 
dyes: 




Aniline and other coal-tar 
dyes: 


10, 044 

18, 794 

7, 383 

1,312,291 

74, 317 

24, 705 

76, 308 

17,943 

337, 683 

1, 230 

26, 740 

73 


6,097 

11,408 

4,482 

796, 583 

45, 112 

14, 996 

46, 320 

10, 892 

204, 979 

747 

16,231 

44 


17, 143 
6,305 
9,070 

683 
4, 630 

655 
2,315 
7,068 


14,130 




Denmark 


4,136 


Finland 


Finland . . 


6,475 


Germany 


Germany 


511 




Belgium 


1,881 




Great Britain 


258 




Mexico .. . 


930 


France 


Chile 


4,550 


Switzerland 


Total 




Czechoslovakia 








Other countries . . . 








Total 


1, 907, 511 


1, 157, 891 


47, 869 


32, 871 




Indigo, synthetic: 

Finland 




Indigo, synthetic: 


1,175 
38, 982 

542 


856 

11,542 

117 


220 


345 


Germany.. 


Total 




Other countries . 








Total 


40, 699 


12, 515 


220 


345 




Grand total 






551 


84 










2,099,549 


1,316,939 


49, 350 


35,319 









' Handel Bcrattelse for Ar 1926 Av KommerskoUegium. Values converted at average exchange rate, 
1926, 1 kroner=$0.267646. 



INTERNATIONAL DYE TRADE 175 

Table 71. — Dutch East Indies: ^ Imports of coal-tar dyes, 1926 ^ 



Class of dye and country 


Dry 


Class of dye and country 
of origin 


Paste 


of origin 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Alizarin: 


Pounds 
8,256 
98, 912 
3,992 


$1,614 

31,551 

1,033 


Alizarin: 

Netherlands 


Pounds 
37, 233 
131, 632 
916, 060 
49, 092 
29,200 
24, 317 


$6, 872 




Great Britain 


21, 128 






183, 532 




France.- 


6,980 




Italy.. 


3,548 




Switzerland 


3,224 




Total 




Total -.. 


111, 160 


34, 198 


1, 187, 534 


225, 284 




Indigo, synthetic: 

Netherlands 




Aniline: 


204, 499 
2, 333, 933 

8,812 

54, 709 

2,504 

86, 630 

17, 864 

6,607 


108, 875 

1, 182, 308 

3,151 

15, 592 
1,680 
65, 379 
17, 935 
2,908 


21, 127 

1, 350, 167 

316, 170 

60, 790 

35, 351 

4,740 


6,604 




Germany 


300, 194 




France 


55. 301 


Belgium and Luxem- 


Switzerland 


13, 119 


United States 


3,774 


Italv 


ther countries 

Total 


726 


Switzerland. -_ 




Singapore -. 




ther countries 




Total 


2, 715, 558 


1, 397, 828 


1, 788, 345 


379. 718 




Grand total 




Indigo, synthetic: Total . - 


45,384 


8,026 


5, 847, 981 


2, 045, 054 







1 Including Java and Madura. 

> From Jaaroverzicht van den in en uitvoer van Nederlandsch-Indie Gedurende 1926, Part 1, 11. Values 
converted at average exchange rate, 1926, 1 gulden=$0. 400984. 



PART VII 
APPENDIX 



STATISTICS OF DOMESTIC IMPORTS AND EXPORTS 



DIRECTORY OF MANUFACTURERS OF DYES AND OTHER 
SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1927 



177 



STATISTICS OF IMPORTS AND EXPORTS 

Statistical Tables 



Table 72. — Coal-tar products: Imports entered for consumption, calendar years 

1925-1927 

GROUP I. CRUDE (FREE) 



Year 



1925 



Quantity 



Value 



1926 



1927 



Quantity 



Value 



Quantity 



Value 



Benzene, pounds. _. 

Dead or creosote oil, gallons 

Naphthalene, solidifying at less than 79° 
C, pounds - 

Coal tar, crude, barrels. - 

Pitch, coal tar, barrels 

Toluene, pounds - 

Acenaphthene, fluorene, methylanthra- 
cene, and methylnaphthalene, pounds.. 

Anthracene, purity less than 30 per cent, 
pounds 

Anthracene oil, gallons 

Cresylic acid, pounds .-. 

Cumene, cyniene, pounds 

Pyridine, pounds i 

Xylene, pounds 

All other distillates n. s. p. f., which on 
being subjected to distillation yield in 
the portion distilling below 190° C. a 
quantity of tar acids less than 5 per cent 
of the original distillate, pounds 

All other products found naturally in coal 
tar, whether produced or obtained from 
coal tar or other sources, n. s. p. f., 
pounds 



1,573,250 $44,313 8,315,966 
84, 868, 568|10, 973, 491 87, 518, 544 



1, 979, 612| 

13, 452j 

1, 948! 

73,400 



26,5931 6,962,719 
49, 8771 18, 663 



470, 571 

13, 156 

2, 163, 557 

499 

788, 9791 

110,177; 



8,361 
2, 642! 



7,582 
1,888 

122, 742 
135 

394, 337 
5,697 



5, 994, 803 367, 672 



1, 480, 792 



21, 029 



5,141 
29,064 

27, 782 

444, 170 

16, 213 

5, 702, 740 



$215,314' 2,991,729 

11, 720, 397 95, 915, 221 

i 

126,088 6,576,500 

57, 603 12, 951 



18, 508 
1, 797 



3,741 
154 



4, 175 66, 559 

8, 165 23, 241 

2, 4831 10, 279 

331,550 9,136,516 



$63, 962 
15, 436, 574 

131, 436 

44,836 

8,584 

55 

17, 658 

589 

2,412 

567, 802 



743, 283 
298, 113 



3, 136, 838 



194, 172 



366, 161 
15, 201 



197, 009 



4,374 



135, 692, 
361, 200 



68, 748 



37, 564 



42, 021 
15,649 



7,405 



4,771 



GROUP II (DUTIABLE AT 40 PER CENT AD VALOREM PLUS 7 CENTS PER POUND 
AFTER SEPTEMBER 21, 1924) 



Article and year 


Pounds 


Value 


Duty 


Actual 
and com- 
puted ad 
valorem 
rate 


Not colors, dyes, or stains, photographic chemicals, 
medicinals, flavors, or explosives, etc., n. s. p. f.: 
Acetanilide, not medicinal— 

1926 


2,267 
1,001 

256, 126 

218, 437 

500 

98, 67-2 
25, 932 
611, 810 

4,921 
38, 078 
62, 155 

400 


$817 
531 

58,958 

47, 351 

100 

23,618 
4,748 
38,874 

5,707 
49, 405 
58, 673 

497 


$485 
282 

41,512 
34, 231 

75 

16, 354 
3,714 
29,505 

2,627 
22, 427 
27, 820 

227 


Per cent 

59.42 


1927 


53.20 


Acids- 
Carbolic— 

Crystal (phenol)— 

1925 


70.41 


1926 


72.29 


1927 


75.00 


Liquid (cresylic acid or cresal) — 

1925 


69.24 


1926 


78.23 


1927 1 


75.71 


Coal-tar acids, n. s. p. f.— 

1925 . 


46.03 


1926 - 


45.40 


1927 


47.42 


Aminonaphthol, amtnophenol, and aminophen- 
etol— 

1926 


45.63 


1927 





1 T. D. 40519, 



179 



180 CENSUS OP DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

Table 72. — Coal-tar products: Imports entered for consumption, calendar years 

1925-1927— Continued 

GROUP II (DUTIABLE AT 40 PER CENT AD VALOREM PLUS 7 CENTS PER POUND 
AFTER SEPTEMBER 21, 1924)-Continued 



Article and year 



Not colors, dyes, etc. — Continued. 
Aniline oil and salts — 

1925 

1926 

1927 

Anthracene, purity of 30 per cent or more — 

1925 

1926 _ 

Anthraquinone, aminoanthraquinone, and nitro- 
anthraquinone — 

1926 

1927 

Benzaldehyde, not medicinal and nitrobenzalde- 
hyde — 

1925 

1926 

1927 

Benzanthrone, benzoquinone, benzidine, benzidine 
sulfate, and benzyl, benzal, and benzoyl 
chloride — 

1926 

1927 

Carbazole, purity of 65 per cent or more— 

1925 

1926 

Dihydroxy naphthalene and dianisidine— 

1926 

1927 

Dimethylaniline and benzylethylaniline — 

1927"_ _._. , 

Dinitrobenzene, dinitrochlorobenzene, dinitro- 
naphthalene, dinitrophenol, nitrophenol, and 
dinitrotoluene 

1927... 

Diphenylamine — 

1925 : 

1926 

1927 

Metacresol, orthocresol, and paracresol, purity of 90 
per cent or more— 

1925-... 

1926 

1927 

Methvlanthraquinone — 

1926 _ 

Naphthalene solidifying at 79° C. or above— 

1926. -- 

1927.. 

Naphthol, alpha and beta, not medicinal— 

1925 

1926 

1927 

Naphthylamine and naphthylenediamine — 

1927 

Nitroanihne, para and meta, nitrobenzene, nitro- 
naphthalene, nitrophenylenediamine, nitroso- 
dimethylauiline, nitrotoluene, and nitrotolylene- 
diamine — 

1926 

1927 _ , 

Phenylenediainine, phenylglycine, phenylhydra- 
zine, and phenvlnaphthylamine — 

1925 2 ; 

1926 

1927 _ 

Resorcinol, not medicinal — 

1925 

1926 

1927 

Tolidine, toluene sulfochloride, toluene solfona- 
niide, toluidine, and tolylenediamine— 

1925 3 

1926 

1927 

2 Phenylhydrazine only. 



Pounds 




55 

700 

13, 740 

10 
313 



6,686 
16, 308 



2,204 
3,852 
1,587 



137, 684 
321,751 

2,073 
2,157 

1,000 
8,855 

2,383 



150 

33 

10 

4,500 



34, 874 
105, 238 
174, 094 



424 
18, 668 

4,310 
23, 765 
41,746 

853 



29, 300 

112,012 



50 
10, 237 

7,746 

16, 590 
15, 484 
33, 114 



11, 223 
23, 041 
79, 650 



$11 

350 

9,962 

4 

122 



8,116 
13, 731 



1,212 
4,151 
1,027 



83, 841 
199, 112 



324 



540 
5,652 



2,219 



182 

106 

12 

5,728 



5,741 
15,040 
35, 054 

1,147 

125 
3,077 

1,435 
33, 284 
65,739 

1,016 



9,617 
40, 027 



475 
11,875 
9,401 

22,392 
20, 907 

38, 046 



2,071 
8,414 
32,526 



$10 

189 

4,947 

2 
71 



3,714 
6,634 



639 

1,930 

522 



43, 174 
102, 167 

476 
281 

286 
2,881 

1,054 



4, 7.38 
13,383 
26, 208 



80 

2,538 

876 
14,977 
29, 218 



5,898 
23,852 



194 
5,467 
4,303 

10,118 
9,447 
17, 536 



1,614 

4,978 
18,586 



• Tolidine only. 



STATISTICAL TABLES 



181 



Table 72. — Coal-tar products: Imports entered for consumption, calendar years 

1925-1927— Continued 

GROUP II (DUTIABLE AT 40 PER CENT AD VALOREM PLUS 7 CENTS PER POUND 
AFTER SEPTEMBER 21, 1924)— Continued 



Article and year 


Pounds 


Value 


Duty 


Actual 
and com- 
puted ad 

valorem 
rate 


Not colors, dyes, etc. — Continued. 

All distillates n. s. p. f., which on distillation yield 
in the portion distilling below 190° C. a quantity 
of tar acids equal to or more than 5 per cent of the 
original distillate— 

1925 -- - - 


252, 382 

5,784 
2 

135, 833 
7,042 
1,663 

1, 901, 203 
582, 859 
540, 237 


$15, 441 

10, 662 

16 

29,014 
3,379 
1,569 

963, 925 
436, 074 
363,914 


$23, 843 
4,670 

7 

21, 114 

1,845 
744 

518, 654 
215,230 
183,382 


Per cent 
154. 41 


1926 -- 


43.80 


1927 . 


40.88 


All distillates of coal, blast-furnace, oil-gas, and 
water-gas tar which on being subject to distilla- 
tion below 215° C. yield a quantity of tar acids 
equal to or more than 75 per cent of the original 
distillate— 
1925 


72.77 


1926 .- 


54.59 


1927 


47.42 


All similar products, obtained, derived, or manu- 
factured in whole or in part from the products 
provided for in Group I (free)— 
1925 


53.81 


1926 


49.36 


1927 - 


50.39 







GROUP III (DUTIABLE AT 45 PER CENT AD VALOREM PLUS 7 CENTS PER POUND 
AFTER SEPTEMBER 21, 1924) 



Article and year 


Pounds 


Value 


Duty 


Actual 
and com- 
puted ad 

valorem 
rate 


When obtained, derived, or manufactured in whole or in 
part from any of the products provided for in Group I 
(free) or II, including natural indigo, and their deriva- 
tives: 
Alizarin, natural— 

1925 


5,137 

1,755 

374 

1,496 
25 

27, 391 
18, 796 
42, 779 

275 
6,843 

1,040 

1,589 

590 

4,641 
14, 834 
5,960 

2, 077, 712 
677, 849 
3, 059, 361 
1, 905, 219 
1, 357, 133 
5, 606, 827 
5, 101, 759 
4, 853, 745 


$13, 243 
1,521 
1,017 

711 

48 

52, 769 
31, 944 
40, 470 

270 
2,957 

466 
280 
610 

5,079 

23, 667 

6,112 

2, 941, 773 
894, 844 
4,154,091 
2, 320, 712 
1, 865, 036 
6, 762, 764 
5, 613, 847 
5, 368, 368 


$6, 319 
807 
484 

425 
23 

25, 663 
15, 691 
21, 206 

141 
1,810 

282 
237 
316 

2,610 
11,689 
3,168 

965, 640 

584, 356 

2, 706, 610 

1, 525, 793 
934, 266 

3,435,722 
2, 883, 354 

2, 755, 528 


Per cent 

47.72 


1926 - 


53.08 


1927 --. 


47.57 


Alizarin, synthetic— 

1926 .-- 


59.73 


1927 


48.65 


Colors, dyes, stains, etc., obtained, derived, or 
manufactured from alizarin— 
1925 


48.63 


1926 - -- 


49.12 


1927 


52.40 


Indigo, natural— 

1926 - 


52.13 


1927 


61.20 


Indigo, synthetic— 

1925 


60.62 


1926 


84.73 


1927 . . 


51.77 


Colors, dyes, stains, etc., derived from indigo— 

1925 


51.40 


1926 


49.39 


1927 


51.83 


All other colors, dyes, or stains, whether soluble or 
not in water, color acids, color bases, or color 
lakes— 
1922< 


32.83 


19225 


65.30 


1923 -- 


65.16 


1924 6 .. 


65.75 


1924? 


50.09 


1925 


50.80 


1926 


51.36 


1927 -- 


51.33 



* Act of 1916. 
5 Act of 1922. 



6 From Jan. 1 to Sept. 21, 1924. 
' From Sept. 22 to Dec. 31, 1924. 



182 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

Table 72. — Coal-tar products: Imports entered for consumption, calendar years 

1925-1927— Continued 

GROUP III (DUTIABLE AT 45 PER CENT AD VALOREM PLUS 7 CENTS PER POUND 
AFTER SEPTEMBER 21, 1924)— Continued 



Article and year 


Pounds 


Value 


Duty 


Actual 
and com- 
puted ad 
valorem 
rate 


When obtained, etc.— Continued. 
Color lakes — 

1925 


900 
500 

1,537 

1,649 

11,359 

9,889 
23, 846 
25, 923 

150 

721 
1,279 

12, 540 
15.710 
52, 111 

77 
165 
127 

2,193 

1, 4,50 

667 

551 
235 
236 

5 
6 

1,146 

1.488 

630 

6,701 
12, 136 
5,202 

237 
131 
209 

47, 238 
51, 513 
28, 642 

2 
682 

100 
30 

1,010 
99 


$881 
835 

889 
1,298 
4,266 

31,623 
61, 586 
65, 803 

412 
1,524 
2, 455 

12. 107 
14, 929 
47, 257 

6,790 

20, 992 

4,904 

2,778 
2,243 

798 

364 
190 

142 

610 
1,652 

1,763 

1,935 

810 

9,124 
19, 758 
8,245 

1,620 
2, 039 
1,397 

169, 365 
207, 577 
165, 528 

33 

767 

172 

8 

2,079 
336 


$459 
411 

508 
700 

2,715 

14, 923 
29, 383 
31, 426 

196 

736 

1,336 

6,326 
7,818 
24, 913 

3,061 
9,458 
2,216 

1,403 

1,111 

406 

202 
102 
80 

275 

744 

874 
975 
545 

4,575 
9,741 
4,074 

746 
927 
643 

79, 521 
97, 016 
76, 493 

15 
393 

84 
6 

1,006 

158 


Per cent 
52.15 


1926 


49.19 


Eesinlike products prepared from articles provided 
for in pars. 27 or 1549— 
1925 


57.10 


1926 


53.89 


1927 8 . 


63.64 


Photographic chemicals— 

1925 


47.19 


1926 


47.71 


1927 


47.76 


Coal-tar medicinals— 

Acetanilide, acetphenetidin (phenacetin), and 
acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) : 
1925 9 


47.57 


1926"! 


48.31 


1927 


54.40 


Antipvrine— 

1925 


52. 25 


1926 - 


52.37 


1927 


52.72 


Arsphenamine (salversan), neo-arsphenamine 

and similar arsenical medicinal compounds— 

1925 1' --- - 


45.08 


1926 - . 


45.06 


1927 - 


45.18 


Bctanaphthol and benzaldehyde— 

1925 .. 


50.50 


1926 '2 


49.53 


1927 . 


50.85 


Benzoic acid— 

1925 


55.60 


1926 


53.66 


1927 


56.63 


Novocain or procaine— 

1925 


45.03 


1927..- 


45.03 


Phenolphthalein— 

1925 . 


49. 55 


1926 


50. 38 


1927 


67.28 


Resorninol— 

1925 . 


50.14 


1926 


49.30 


1927 


49.42 


Salicylic acid and its salts— 

1925 


46. 02 


1926 


45. 45 


1927 


46.05 


Coal-tar medicinals, n. s. p. f.— 

1925 - 


46. 95 


1926 - 


46.74 


1927 


46.21 


Flavors- 

1925 . 


45.42 


1927. 


51.22 


Ink powder— 

1925 


49.07 


1927 


71.25 


Synthetic tanning materials — 

1925 


48.40 


1927 


47.06 







8 Bakelite prohibited, T. D. 41512. 
' Acetanilide and acetphenetidin. 
10 Acetanilide. 



» Arsphenamine and neo-arsphenamine. 
'2 Benzaldehyde. 



STATISTICAL TABLES 



183 



Table 73. — Coal-tar products: General imports, 1925-1927 
DEAD OR CREOSOTE OIL (FREE) 



Imported from— 


1925 


1926 


1927 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


United Kingdom 


Oallons 

36, 549, 854 

30, 325, 455 

4, 200, 382 

10, 017, 631 

2, 505, 192 

355, 557 

914, 497 


$4, 692, 650 

3, 973, 994 

512, 835 

1, 317, 161 

303, 843 

55, 794 

117, 214 


Gallons 

38, 982, 648 

23, 454, 374 

2,550 

21, 724, 079 


$5, 053, 401 

3, 158, 693 

890 

3, 007, 472 


Gallons 

38, 279, 105 

27, 975, 616 

4, 243, 931 

19, 034, 169 

1, 233, 933 

553, 249 

4, 169, 917 

425, 301 


$6, 230, 695 


Netherlands 


4, 467, 225 


Germany 


628, 452 


Belgium 


3, 203, 425 


France 


193, 801 


Mexico 


990, 926 

2, 363, 905 

62 


139, 309 

360,607 

25 


85, 028 


Canada 


558, 309 


All other countries 


69, 739 










Total 


84,868,568 


10,973,491 


87, 518, 544 


11, 720, 397 


95, 915, 221 


15. 436, 574 







BENZENE AND TOLUENE, NAPHTHALENE AND TAR AND PITCH OF COAL i 





1925 


Imported from— 


Benzene and toluene 


Naphthalene 


Tar and pitch of 
coal 




Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Germany . . 


Pounis 
44 
911,123 


$13 
23. 298 ■ 


Pounds 

1, 848, 668 


$25,360 


Barrels 
217 


.«Q.17 


Mexico 


4,453 93 167 


Canada . . . 


735,403 ! 23.636 


102,840 
28,104 


755 

478 


9,875 
770 
85 


29, 739 

3,654 

741 


United Kingdom 






All other countries 


80 


8 










Total - - -- 


1,646,650 


46, 955 


1, 979, 612 


26,593 


15,400 


58,238 





1 Included in "All other crudes" after 1925. 

PYRIDINE (FREE) 



Imported from— 


1925 


1926 


1927 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Belgium 


Pounds 
24, 551 
25,077 
90,347 
19,009 


$11,216 
11,435 
47, 571 
11, 484 


Pounds 
4,734 


$2, 227 


Pounds 




France 






Germany - 


194, 666 
34, 359 


90, 169 
25, 031 


78, 978 

3,946 

40, 552 

12, 216 


$23, 331 


Netherlands 


1,915 


Poland and Danzig . ..... 


9,173 


United Kingdom 


626, 313 
3,780 


310, 290 
2,341 


509, 524 


248, 734 


7,602 


All other countries . 














Total 


789, 077 


394,337 


743, 283 


366, 161 


135, 692 


42, 021 







ALL OTHER CRUDES 



Imported from— 


1925 


1926 


1927 


Belgium . . 




$17, 839 


$54, 657 


France 


$2, 160 

472, 537 

16, 362 

23, 595 


13, 707 


United Kingdom . . 


445, 909 

227, 929 

210, 122 

3,749 

74,067 

5,415 


378, 912 


Canada . . 


83, 430 


Germany 


275,215 


Netherlands 


2,502 


Me.xico - ... 


11,482 
5 


45, 431 


All other countries 


18, 590 






Total 


526, 141 


985, 030 


872, 444 







7709—28- 



-13 



184 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Table 73. — Coal-tar products: General imports, 1926-1927 — Continued 

COAL-TAR ACIDS 



Imported from— 


1925 


1926 


1927 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Belgium . . 


Pounds 




Pounds 




Pounds 
217, 454 
522, 361 


$14, 364 


United Kingdom 


199, 743 
40, 098 

1,533 
93, 678 

1,757 


$46, 708 

8,709 

11,520 

25, 622 

521 


231, 551 
122, 990 


$31, 204 
27, 446 


32. ."STl 


Netherlands 




France 


40 143 


Germanv 


156, 773 


74,294 


75, 937 ! 71, 184 


All other countries 


2,866 1,487 










Total 


336,809 


93,080 


611,314 


132,944 


818, 658 


119, 749 







OTHER COAL-TAR INTERMEDIATES 



Imported from— 


1925 


1926 


1927 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


France 


Pounds 

48, 976 

480, 600 

1, 165, 293 

523, 335 

21, 494 

141 

725 


$45, 382 

465, 690 

414,259 

40,447 

37,391 

54 

1,569 


Pounds 
23, 544 
687, 872 
125, 672 
99, 035 
36, 777 
22, 604 
2,786 


$29,445 
492,751 
48,048 
13, 422 
43, 720 
13,445 
1,381 


Pounds 

40, 402 
1, 371, 766 
95, 225 
192, 875 
46, 323 
15. 185 
6,234 


$44, 473 


Germany . . 


891,831 


Netherlands .. 


7,095 


United Kingdom 


33, 671 


Switzerland.. . 


37, 360 


Canada.. 


9,213 


All other countries 


3,183 






Total 


2, 240, 564 


1, 004, 792 


998, 290 


642,212 


1, 768, 010 


1, 026, 826 







ALIZARIN AND DERIVATIVES 



Imported from— 


1925 


1926 


1927 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Belgium ... . 


Pounds 

9,246 

220 

11,304 

864 

13,069 

11,996 

880 

4 


$19, 437 

233 

852 

2,133 

40, 620 

9,101 

2,250 

209 


Pounds 
4,031 


$8,886 


Pounds 


France . . .. 


81 
2,105 


$177 


Germany 


7,545 

55 

9,018 

805 


5,494 

96 

22,916 

594 


690 


Italy 




Switzerland 




United Kingdom . . . . 


1,939 
40 


1,571 




145 
















Total 


47, 583 


74, 635 


21, 454 


37, 986 


4,165 


2,583 







INDIGO AND DERIVATIVES' 


[DUTIABLE) 








1925 


1926 « 


1927 2 


Imported from— 


Indigo 
and deriv- 
atives 


Indigo 
and deriv- 
atives 


Indigo 
and deriv- 
atives 




Quan- 
tity 


Value 


Quan- 
tity 


Value 


Quan- 
tity 


Value 




Pounds 

1,465 

439 

1,232 


$1, 657 

391 

1,610 


Pounds 




Pounds 








1 




Italy 




1 








1 




3,136 


3,658 






\ 








i 



2 Included in "Colors, dyes, stains, color acids, and color bases, n. e. s." 



STATISTICAL TABLES 



185 



Table 73. — Coal-tar products: General imports, 1925-1927 — Continued 

COLORS, DYES, STAINS, COLOR ACIDS, AND COLOR BASES, N. E. S. 



Imported from- 



Belgium 

France - 

Germany 

Switzerland- 

United Kingdom.. 

Italy 

Netherlands 

Canada... 

All other countries 

Total 



1925 



Quantity 



Value 



Pounds 
109, 640 
118,321 
2, 932, 216 
1,970,951 
170,443 
202, 752 
166, 065 
111,845 



5, 782, 329 



$180, 416 

166, 275 

3, 757, 846 

2, 260, 165 

144, 621 

245, 859 

241, 552 

165, 659 

284 



7, 162, 677 



1926 



Quantity 



Pounds 
236, 340 

178, 181 

2, 179, 374 

1, 864, 891 

200, 912 

92, 446 

9,152 

206, 298 

5,355 



4, 972, 949 



Value 



$366, 594 

240, 731 

2, 323, 272 

2,171,317 

202, 642 

111, 183 

16, 835 

158, 310 

9,771 



5, 600, 655 



1927 



Quantity 



Pounds 

180, 124 

234, 996 

3, 238, 040 

1, 493, 466 

146, 270 

112,475 

17,237 

71,578 

2,647 



5, 496, 833 



Value 



$242, 419 

274, 154 

3, 426, 848 

1, 869, 124 

147, 640 

130, 503 

25, 936 

63, 101 

2,070 



6, 181, 795 



COAL-TAR MEDICINALS 



Imported from— 



France 

Germany 

Italy.... 

Netherlands 

Switzerland-. 

United Kingdom.. 
All other countries 

Total 



1925 



Quantity 



Pounds 

67,545 

26, 867 

84 

1,310 

8,095 

3,681 

307 



107, 889 



Value 



$106, 786 

58, 618 

1,406 

67, 674 

9,779 

8,532 

554 



253,349 



1926 



Quantity 



Pounds 
20,229 
24, 190 
2,721 
3,679 
14, 320 
2,379 
2,576 



Value 



1927 



Quantity 



70, 094 



$48,350 
77, 965 

6,125 
91,473 
15, 131 
14, 422 

3,883 



Pounds 

25, 659 

78, 787 

693 

264 

15,419 

7,780 

1,035 



257, 349 



129,637 



Value 



$61, 031 

121,604 

4,397 

23,280 

44,142 

19, 275 

3,118 



276, 847 



ALL OTHER FINISHED COAL-TAR PRODUCTS 



Imported from— 


1925 


1926 


1927 


Quantity! Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


France 


Pounds 

619 $1, 993 
11, 145 34, 786 


Pounds 

1,507 

18, 358 

441 

2,671 

49 


$5,162 
47, 512 

959 
9,470 

388 


Pounds 
15, 358 
26, 127 


$14, 658 


Germany 


66,604 


Switzerland .. . 




United Kingdom 


1, 815 2, 130 
20 13 


822 
52 


1,867 


All other ponTitriPS . . .. 


90 






Total 


13, 599 


38, 922 


23, 026 


63,491 


42, 359 


83, 219 







Table 74. — Coal-tar products: Domestic exports, 1925-1927 

CRUDE COAL TAR AND COAL-TAR PITCH 



Exported to — 


1925 


1926 


1927 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Europe 


Barrels 

697 

105, 908 

1,961 

48 

169 

12 


$7, 480 

299, 893 

16, 249 

543 

2,650 

110 


Barrels 

131,342 

82, 408 

1,672 

50 

103 

8 


$591, 724 

275, 926 

13, 881 

382 

1,184 

72 


Barrels 

585, 119 

86, 826 

1,281 

37 

127 

29 


$2, 927, 929 


North America . .. 


315, 791 


South America 


10, 365 


Asia 


363 


Oceania ... 


1, 105 


Africa 


413 






Total 


108, 795 


326, 925 


215, 583 


883, 169 


673,419 


3, 255, 966 







186 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Table 74. — Coal-tar products: Domestic exports, 1925-1927 — Continued 

COAL-TAR DISTILLATES— BENZOL 



Exported to— 


1925 


1926 


1927 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Germany 


Pounds 




Pounds 
60, 179, 632 
25, 647, 969 


$2, 041, 839 
1, 041, 891 


Gallons 

11, 918, 240 

555,544 

4, 620, 862 

8, 396, 932 

18, 125 

2,458 

106, 860 

7,433 

3,100 

164,012 


$3, 010, 816 

149, 997 

1,062,798 


Fraxice . . 


24, 982, 548 


$834, 180 


Netherlands 


United Kingdom 


32, 887, 985 
120, 817 

22, 379 
475, 212 
179, 875 

13, 424 
207, 922 


852, 628 

6,734 

1,574 

29, 616 

9,605 

788 

12, 909 


56, 153, 321 
125, 469 
5,622 
902, 448 
138, 960 
13, 785 
360, 620 


2,340,211 

6,412 

603 

49, 269 

7,465 

1,254 

24,229 


2, 342, 299 
7 190 


Canada 


Mexico -. 


1 297 


Argentina 


43,311 


Chile 


2 764 


Australia 


2 234 


All other coun tries 


42 399 






Total 


58, 890, 162 


1, 748, 034 


143, 527, 826 


5, 513, 173 


25, 793, 566 


6, 665, 105 





OTHER CRUDE DISTILLATES 



Exported to— 


1925 


1926. 


1927 


France . ... . ... .. 


Value 
$5, 183 


Value 
$9, 750 


Value 
$144 


Belgium 


1,562 


Canada 


233, 040 

948 

58,045 

619 

60, 082 

9,638 

77, 996 

75, 938 

47, 848 

71, 260 


281, 785 
262 

42, 303 
1,198 

18, 168 

6,168 

106, 792 

135, 427 

17, 702 

43, 796 


192 934 


Honduras. 


114 


Mexico 


49, 422 


Brazil 


4,377 


Cuba 


9,861 


Japan 


10, 806 


United Kingdom 

Chile 


68, 918 
37, 708 


Nicaragua .. .. 


15, 507 


All other countries. 


1 46, 706 






Total 


640, 597 


663, 351 


438, 049 







« Includes $15,802 from Netherlands. 



ANILINE OIL AND SALTS 



Exported to— 



Canada 

Mexico 

Japan 

Philippines.. 

Australia 

France 

All other countries 

Total.. 



1926 



Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Pounds 
229, 230 
114,747 
312, 609 
18, 449 
99, 587 
22, 000 
7,109 


$46, 836 
21, 236 
49, 591 
3,761 
19, 195 
9,900 
3, 103 


Pounds 

124, 453 

15 

220,486 

12, 635 

6,251 


$25, 664 

36 

33, 761 

1,895 

1,073 


15, 302 


3,497 


803, 731 


153, 622 


379, 142 


65, 926 



' 1927 included in ' ' Other intermediates. 



STATISTICAL TABLES 



187 



Table 74. — Coal-tar products: Domestic exports, 1925-1927 — Continued 

OTHER INTERMEDIATES 



Exported to— 


1925 


1926 


1927 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


France 


Pounds 
43, HI 


$30, 000 


Pounds 
188, 462 


$82, 716 


Pounds 
69, 908 
78, 400 
263, 234 


$29,902 




9,040 


Netherlands 


157, 840 
1,100 
125, 385 
271,871 
46, 886 
340, 667 
380 


24, 356 

990 

44, 035 

33, 383 

5,407 

45,708 

22 


43, 895 
10, 921 

155, 787 
16, 642 
36, 876 
74, 149 
32, 507 
67, 052 

645,248 
68,939 
30, 214 


6,028 
2,762 

40, 605 
3,805 
3,743 
8,862 

10, 792 
7,599 

85, 039 

13, 771 
7,931 


47, 175 






Canada - . 


366, 110 

39, 709 

109,487 

461, 521 

4,758 

94, 751 

613, 161 

113,281 

203,419 


49, 120 


Mexico . 


3,225 


Cuba 


11,959 




58, 874 


China.- - .- 


832 


Kwantung 


15, 087 


Japan 


594, 061 
38,467 
107, 699 


97,934 
6,102 
29, 585 


84,404 


Australia 


24, 052 


All other countries 


14, 806 






Total 


1, 727, 467 


317, 522 


1, 370, 692 


273, 653 


2,417,739 


348,476 







OTHER COLORS, DYES, AND STAINS 



Exported to — 



1925 



Quantity 



Value 



1926 



Quantity 



Value 



1927 



Quantity 



Value 



Belgium 

Czechoslovakia.. 

France 

Germany 

Netherlands. 

Russia in Europe 

United Kingdom 

Canada. 

Mexico 

Cuba. 

South America 

British India 

China 

Hongkong 

Japan.. 

Kwantung. 

Philippine Islands 

Australia 

New Zealand 

British South Africa. 
All other countries... 



Total. 



Pounds 
680, 670 



1,909 

125 

32, 646 

72, 861 

6,943 

1, 475, 856 

304, 850 

65, 321 

434, 122 

1, 886, 165 

18, 303, 513 

431 

2, 127, 116 



101,003 
33, 356 
18, 582 
24, 255 

230, 165 



25, 799, 889 



$200, 116 



3,057 

200 

4,795 

57, 895 

10,087 

726, 935 

150, 104 

57, 943 

266, 265 

667, 483 

3, 299, 798 

389 

1, 062, 768 



35, 681 
30, 112 
11,117 
15, 945 
93, 670 



6, 694, 360 



Pounds 




1, 905, 611 


$399, 446 


156, 667 


38, 772 


2,953 


2,729 


146, 452 


25,942 


8,240 


8,057 


41, 051 


27,400 


14. 785 


8,039 


2,113,587 


956, 565 


321,635 


148, 547 


61, 390 


52, 219 


483, 447 


250, 888 


2, 136, 998 


628, 369 


14, 922, 287 


1, 877, 030 


434 


618 


2,984,074 


1, 350, 523 


251, 600 


35,224 


49,441 


23,923 


49, 093 


34, 191 


15, 869 


13,090 


13, 922 


7,093 


132, 405 


61, 494 



Pounds 

709, 807 

120, 792 

8,354 

116, 362 

26, 835 

2,628 

12, 605 

1,978,705 

285, 302 

54, 377 

395, 189 

1,612,816 

17, 798, 509 

931, 348 

2, 266, 103 

67, 453 

135, 627 

6,659 

11,619 

12,864 

216, 606 



25,811,941 



5, 950, 159 



26, 770, 560 



$166, 723 

37,664 

3,286 

31,247 

62, 197 

1,275 

10, 672 

850, 257 

95, 383 

42, 380 

192, 076 

536, 525 

1,884,288 

145, 925 

1, 302, 526 

10, 342 

24, 737 

5,028 

8,984 

8,014 

75, 793 



5, 495, 322 



MEDICINALS 



Exported to— 



Germany. , 

United Kingdom.. 

Canada 

Mexico 

Cuba.- 

Argentina 

British India 

Japan... 

Australia 

All other countries 

Total-- 



1925 



Quantity 



Pounds 

1,023 

409, 492 

22,512 

78, 195 

13, 258 

1,380 

13, 617 

6,058 

80,948 

101, 607 



728, 090 



Value 



$947 

139, 162 

26, 127 

105, 478 

12, 480 

1,194 

7,835 

6,051 

29, 421 

118, 448 



447, 143 



1926 



Quantity 



Pounds 

9,700 

221, 669 

27, 397 

44,606 

21, 427 

67, 320 

895 

95, 259 

110, 348 

134, 787 



733, 408 



Value 



$5,280 
68, 314 
14,816 
66,600 
17, 375 
22,526 
541 
29,585 
47, 553 
113, 947 



386, 537 



1927 



Quantity 



Pounds 
59, 451 

122,315 
70, 187 
45,833 
16,363 
27, 482 
2,110 
20,223 
58, 170 

233, 175 



655, 309 



Value 



$27, 899 
27, 308 
17, 299 
59, 677 
U,683 
11,289 
1,664 
10, 374 
32, 219 

129, 349 



328, 761 



188 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 
Table 74. — Coal-tar products: Domestic exports, 1926-1927 — Continued 

PHOTOGRAPHIC CHEMICALS i 



Exported to — 



1925 



Quantity Value 



1926 



Quantity Value 



United Kingdom.. 

Canada 

Mexico. 

Cuba. 

Argentina 

Japan 

Philippines 

Austrailia.- 

New Zealand 

China 

All other countries 

Total.. 



Pounds 

1,351 

34, 019 

40, 948 

35, 626 

41, 773 

7,694 

26, 136 

5,067 

18, 906 

29, 626 

73,345 



$1,700 
6,787 

13, 599 
8,258 

11,363 
3,339 
8,005 
2,478 
4,183 
8,879 

26,858 



Pounds 
2,892 
38, 921 
46, 177 
30, 527 
33, 651 
60, 677 
42, 991 
10,067 
21, 735 
38, 021 
111,722 



314, 491 



95, 449 



437, 381 



$1,305 
11, 882 
14, 501 
7,213 
13, 413 
12, 661 
9,490 
5,602 
3,442 
16,904 
34,853 



131, 266 



• 1927 included in "Other finished products." 

OTHER FINISHED COAL-TAR PRODUCTS 



Exported to— 



Belgium 

France 

Germany.. 

Italy 

Poland and Danzig. 
United Kingdom..., 

Canada 

Mexico 

Cuba 

Argentina 

Brazil 

Colombia 

Peru , 

China 

Japan 

Australia.. 

Philippine Islands.. 
All other countries. . 



Total.. 3,102,637 



1925 



Quantity Value 



Pounds 



2,178 
706 



2,774 

570, 456 

171,904 

194, 460 

1, 342, 935 

28,332 

36, 502 

128, 777 

127, 484 

7,695 

95, 697 

7,430 

143,300 

242, 007 



$1, 150 
110 



1,480 
101, 279 
31, 380 
25, 620 
38, 131 

5,234 

5,625 

23, 721 

20,542 

619 

26,124 

2,513 
10,280 
43, 442 



337, 250 



1926 



Quantity 



Pounds 
572 
24, 192 



1,257 



486, 655 
83, 759 
60, 345 

137, 575 
22, 053 
345 
44, 772 
56, 197 

205, 638 

18, 051 

19, 369 
2,528 

145, 572 



1, 308, 880 



Value 



$190 
10, 440 



307 



1927 



Quantity 



102, 684 

25, 080 
6,362 
5,567 
1,250 
80 
6,736 
6,672 

24,423 
6,066 

13, 593 
3,403 

12, 918 



225, 771 



Pounds 

328,032 

372,163 

52, 020 

385, 771 

95, 950 

974, 931 

409, 420 

56, 159 

578, 496 

83, 418 

44,216 

154, 674 

70, 302 

36,040 

37, 918 

116,884 

37, 439 

300, 282 



4, 134, 115 



Value 



$23, 413 
27, 747 
5,848 
84, 899 
23,740 

104, 466 
52, 922 
9,720 
19, 813 
17,919 
10,062 
22, 965 
13, 772 
18,545 
13, 713 
47, 112 
13, 422 
55, 136 



565, 214 



Directory of manufacturers of dyes and other synthetic organic chemicals, 1927 



No. 



Name of company 



Office address (location of plants given in parentheses 
if not in same city as office) 



Abbott Laboratories, The 

Algon Color & Chemical Corporation 

Alston Lufas Paint Co 

Althouse CJhemioal Co., The _. 

Alyco Manufacturing Co. (Inc.) 

Amalgamated Dvestuflf & Chemical Works 

(Inc.). 
American Aniline Products (Inc.) 

American Solvents & Chemical Corporation 

American Tar Products Co 

Ansbacher & Co., A. B. (Inc.) 

Baird & McQuire (Inc.). 

Barrett Co., The.. 



4753 East Ravenswood Avenue, Chicago, 111. (North 

Chicago, 111.). 
132 Front Street, New York , N. Y. (Eli^.abeth, N. J.) 
lO.'^l Currier Street, Chicago, 111. 
540 Pear Street, Reading, Pa. 
86 Orange Street, Bloomfleld, N. J. 
75 Hudson Street, New York, N. Y. (Newark, N. J.) 

45 East Seventeenth Street, New York, N. Y. (Lock 

Haven, Pa.) 
285 Madison Avenue, New York, N. Y. (Albany, 

N. Y.). 
Union Trust Building, Pittsburgh, Pa. (Cicero, 111., 

Youngstown, Ohio, St. Louis, Mo., CarroUville, 

Wis., Follansbee, W. Va., Woodward, Ala., Utica, 

N. Y.) 
.'527 Fifth Avenue, New York, N. Y. (Brooklyn, N. Y.) 
Holbrook, Mass. 
40 Rector Street, New York, N. Y. (Plants distributed 

throughout the United States.) 



DIRECTORY OF MANUFACTURERS 



189 



Directory of manufacturers of dyes and other synthetic organic chemicals, 1927 — 

Continued 



Name of company 



Office address (location of plants given in parentheses 
if not in same city as office) 



Bayer Co., The (Inc.) 

Beaver Chemical Corporation. 
Benzol Products Co 



Berghausen Chemical Co., The E 

Berkheimer Manufacturing Co., J. E, 

Brooklyn Color Works (Inc.) 

Brown Co 

Bush & Co., W. J. (Inc.) 

Cable Chemical Works 

Cabot, Samuel (Inc.) 

Calco Chemical Co., The 

California Ink Co., The (Inc.) 



25 Carbide & Carbon Chemicals Corporation. 



Carus Chemical Co _ 

Celluloid Corporation 

Certain-teed Products Corporation. 



Chemical Co. of America (Inc.), The. 
Childs Pulp Colors (Inc.) 

Cincinnati Chemical Works (Inc.) 



Colasta Company, The (Inc.)... 

Coleman & Bell Co., The 

Commonwealth Color & Chemical Co 

Coopers Creek Chemical Co 

Crown Chemical Corporation 

Crown Tar Works 

Crystal Color & Chemical Works 

Debrook Company (Inc.) 

Delta Chemical & Iron Co 

Devoe & Raynolds (Inc.) 

Diamond State Fibre Co. (The Celoron 
Co.) 

Diarsenol Co. (Inc.) 

Dovan Chemical Corporation 

Dow Chemical Co., The. 

Du Pont de Nemours & Co., E. I 



Dye Products & Chemical Co. (Inc). 

Dyes & Chemicals (Inc.).- 

Dyestuffs & Chemicals (Inc.) 

Eakins, J. S. & W. R. (Inc.). 

Eastman Kodak Co. 

Elko Chemical Co., The 

Empire Biochemical Co 



Federal Color Laboratories (Inc.) 

Felton Chemical Co. (Inc.) 

Fine Colors Co. (Inc.) 

Florasynth Laboratories (Inc.). 

Ford Motor Co 

Foster-Heaton Co 

Franco-American Chemical Works 

Fries Bros 

Fries & Fries Co., The 

Garfield Aniline Works 

Gaskill Chemical Corporation 

Gebauer Chemical Manufacturing C^o.- 
The. 

General Electric Co 

General Plastics (Inc.)... 

Givaudan-De la wanna (Inc.) 

Goodrich Co., The B. F.... 

Grasselli Dyestuff Corporation 



Hampden Paint & Chemical Co. 

Harmon Color Works (Inc.) 

Heller & Merz Co., The 

Herrmann & Co., Morris (Inc.).. 
Heyden Chemical Corporation... 



Holland Aniline Dye Co 

Hooker Electrochemical Co 

Hyoson, Westcott & Dunning. 
Imperial Color Works (Inc.)... 
Ising Corporation, The C. E... 
Johnson & Co., Charles Eneu.. 
Kent Color Corporation 



117 Hudson Street, New York, N. Y. (Rensselaer, 
N. Y.) 

Damascus, Va. 

243 South Street, Isewark, N. J. (Piscataway, Mid- 
dlesex Co., N. J.) 

915 Carr Street, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

2928 South M Street, Tacoma, Wash. 

129 Cherry Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

404 Commercial Street, Portland, Me. (Berlin, N. H.) 

370 Seventh Avenue, New York, N. Y. (Linden, N. J.) 

185 N. Wabash Avenue, Chicago, 111. (Cable, Wis.) 

229 Marginal Street, Chelsea, Mass. 

Bound Brook, N. J. 

426 Batterv Street, San Francisco, Calif. (West Berke- 
ley, Calif.) 

30 East Forty-second Street, New York, N. Y. (South 
Charleston, W. Va.) 

Eighth Street, LaSalle, 111. 

290 Ferrv Street, Newark, N J. 

100 East Fortv-second Street, New York, N. Y. (East 
St. Louis, 111.) 

Springfield, N. J. 

43 Summit Street, Brookl\-n, N. Y. 

Evanston Station, Box 20, Cincinnati, Ohio. (Norwood 
and St. Bernard, Ohio.) 

Water Street, Hoosick Falls, N. Y. 

Main and Waverly .A. venues, Norwood, Ohio. 

Nevins, Butler and Baltic Streets, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

West Conshohocken, Pa. 

128 Front Street, New York, N. Y. (Keyport, N. J.) 

900 Fifteenth Street, Denver, Colo. 

Saugus, Mass. 

1105 Metropolitan Avenue, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Wells, Delta County, Mich. 

1 West Forty-seventh St.,New York, N. Y. (Chicago, 111.) 

Bridgeport, Pa. 

771 EUicott Square, Buffalo, N. Y. 
30 Church Street, New York, N. Y. (Newark, N. J.) 
Midland, Mich. 

Wilmington, Del. (Deep Water Point, N. J., and Phil- 
adelphia, Pa.) 
200 Fifth Avenue, New York, N. Y. (Newark, N. J.) 
702 Court Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Eleventh and Monroe Streets, St. Louis, Mo. 

24 Wallabout Street, Brooklyn, N . Y. 
343 State Street, Rochester, N. Y. 
Nitro, W. Va. 

502 East One-hundred and eighty-seventh Street, New 

York, N. Y. 
4633 Forest Avenue, Norwood, Ohio. 
61 Taalfe Place, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
21 McBride Avenue, Paterson, N. J. 
1513 Olmstcad Avenue, New York, N. Y. 
Iron Mountain, Mich. (Kjngsford, Mich.) 
833 Magnolia Avenue, Elizabeth, N. J. 
Carlstadt, N. J. 

92 Reade Street, New York, N. Y. (Bloomfield, N. J.) 
1501 West Sixth Street, Cincinnati, Ohio. 
P. O. Box 37, Garfield, N. J. (Wallington, N. J.) 
355 'Van Buren Street, Newark, N. J. 
669 Erie Building, Cleveland Ohio. 

1 River Road, Schenectady, N. Y. 
North Tonawanda, N. Y. 
Delawanna Avenue, Delawanna, N. J. 
Akron, Ohio. 

1150 Broadway, New York, N. Y. (Rensselaer, N. Y., 

Grasselli, N. J.) 
161 Armory Street, Springfield, Mass. 
361 Harmon Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
505 Hudson Street, New York, N. Y. (Newark, N. J.) 
200 Fifth Avenue, New York, N. Y. (Newark, N. J.) 
45 East Seventeenth Street, New York, N. Y. (Fords 

and Garfield, N. J.) 
Holland, Mich. 

25 Pine Street, New York, N. Y. (Niagara Falls, N. Y. 
1030 North Charles Street, Baltimore, Md. 

Glens Falls, N. Y. 

Flushing, N. Y. 

509 South Tenth Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 

2 South Ninth Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 



190 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

Directory of manufacturers of dyes and other sytithetic organic chemicals, 1927 — 

Continued 



Name of company 



Office address (location of plants given in parentheses 
if not in same city as office) 



Kentucky Color & Chemical Co 

Kessler Chemical Co., The 

Klipstein & Sons Co., E. C , 

Kohnstamm & Co., H. (Inc.). 

LaMotte Chemical Products Co 

Lazote (Inc.) 

Lewis Mfg. Co., F. J... 

Lilly & Co., Eli 

Lucas Co., Spencer (Inc.) ., 

Maas & Waldstein Co 

Mallinckrodt Chemical Works 

Max Marx Color & Chemical Co 

Massachusetts Department of Public 
Health. 

Mathieson Alkali Works, The (Inc.) 

May Chemical Works (Inc.) 

Maywood Chemical Works. .1 

Mepham & Co., George S 

Merck & Co. (Inc.)... 

Merrimac Chemical Co 

Metz Laboratories, H. A. (Inc.) 

Monsanto Chemical Works.. 

Morana (Inc.) 

Musterole Co., The.. 

National Ammonia Co., of Pennsylvania., 

The 

National Aniline & Chemical Co. (Inc.) 

Naugatuck Chemical Co., The 

New England Aniline Works (Inc.) 

New Haven Gas Light Co , 

New York Quinine & Chemical Works 

(Inc.) 
Newport Company, The 

Niacet Chemicals Corporation 

Niagara Smelting Corporation 

Noil Chemical & Color Works (Inc.) 

Northwestern Chemical Co 

Novadel Process Corporation 

Novocol Chemical Manufacturing Co. (Inc.) 

Oldbury Electro Chemical Co 

Orange Grove Refining Co 

Palatine Anihne & Chemical Corporation. 

Passaic Color Corporation 

Pennsylvania Coal Products Co. 

Pfizer & Co., Charles (Inc.) 

Pharma-Chemical Corporation 

Pittsburgh Plate Glass Co. 

Portland Gas & Coke Co 

Providence Chemical Laboratories 

Quaker Oats Co., The 

Radiant Dye & Color Works (Inc.) 

Rhodia Chemical Co 

Roessler & Hasslacher Chemical Co., The.. 

Rossville Co., The 

Rubber Service Laboratories Co., The 

Savell, Sayre & Co. (Inc.). 

Selden Co., The... 

Seydel Chemical Co 

Sharpies Solvents Corporation 

Sherwin-Williams Co., The 

Siegle Corporation of America, G 

Siemon & Elting (Inc.) 

Simons, Harold L. (Inc.) 

Sinclair & Valentine Co. 

Solvay Process Co., The 

Squibb & Sons, E. R... 

Stearns & Co., Frederick 

Sun Chemical & Color Co 



Thirty-fourth and Bank Streets, Louisville, Ky. 

575 Nassau Street, Orange, N. J. 

644 Greenwich Street, New York, N. Y. (South 

Charleston. W. Va.) 
87 Park Place, New York, N. Y. (Brooklyn, N. Y.) 
McCormick Building, Baltimore, Md. 
Wilmington, Del. (Belle, W. Va.) 
2500 South Robey Street, Chicago, El. 
Indianapolis, Ind. 
1126 Pine Street, Camden, N. J. 
45 John Street, New York, N. Y. (Newark, N. J.) 
3600 North Second Street, St. Louis, Mo. 
192 Coit Street, Irvington, N. J. 
Room 540 State House, Boston, Mass. (Brookline 

Mass.) 
250 Park Avenue, New York, N. Y. (Newark, N. Y.) 
198 Niagara Street, Newark, N. J. 
100 West Hunter jV venue, Maywood, N. J. 
Twentieth Street and Lynch Avenue, East St. Louis, 

111. 
Rahway, N. J. (Philadelphia, Pa.) 
148 State Street, Boston, Mass. (Woburn and Everett, 

Mass.) 
122 Hudson Street, New York, N. Y. (Newark, N. J.; 

Brooklyn, N. Y.) 
1724 South Second Street, St. Louis, Mo. 
61 Vandam Street, New York, N. Y. (Elizabeth, N. J.) 
1748 East Twenty-seventh Street, Cleveland Ohio. 
Frankford, Philadelphia, Pa. 

40 Rector Street, New York, N. Y. (Buffalo, N. Y.) 
Naugatuck, Conn. 
Ashland, Mass. 

80 Crown Street, New Haven, Conn. 

99 North Eleventh Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

P. O. Box M, South Milwaukee, Wis. ( Carroll ville. 

Wis., and Passaic, N. J.) 
709 Sixth Avenue, New York, N. Y. (Niagara Falls, 

N. Y.) 
Niagara Falls, N. Y. 
152 West One hundred and eighth Street, New York, 

N. Y. 
Wauwatosa, Wis. 

442 Marine Trust Building, Buffalo, N. Y. 
2923 Atlantic Avenue, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Niagara Falls, N. Y. 
Lawrenceburg, Ind. (Braithwaite, La.) 
77 North Water Street, Poughkeepsie, N. Y. 

50 Eighth Street, Passaic, N. J. 

Reiber Building, Butler, Pa. (Petrolia, Pa.) 

81 Maiden Lane, New York, N.Y. (Brooklyn, N. Y.) 
233 Broadway, New York, N. Y. (Bayonne, N. J.) 
205 Pittsburgh Avenue, Milwaukee, Wis. 

Public Service Building, Portland, Oreg. 

51 Empire Street, Providence, R. I. 

1600 Railway Exchange, Chicago, 111. (Cedar Rapids, 
Iowa.) 

Neptune Avenue and West Twenty-first Street, Brook- 
lyn, N. Y. 

21 Spruce Street, New York, N. Y. (New Brunswick, 
N.J.) 

709 Sixth Avenue, New York, N. Y. (Perth Amboy, 
N. J.; Niagara Falls, N. Y.) 

Lawrenceburg, Ind. 

Nitro, W. Va. 

Niagara Falls, N. Y. 

339 Second Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

86 Forest Street, Jersey City, N. J. (Nitro, W. Va.) 

Twenty-third and Westmoreland Streets, Philadel- 
phia, Pa. (BeUe, W. Va.) 

601 Canal Road, Cleveland, Ohio. (Chicago, 111.) 

Rosebank, Staten Island, N. Y. 

Irvington, N. J. 

11 Forty-fourth Road, Long Island City, N. Y. 

11 St. Clair Place, New York, N. Y. 

Syracuse, N. Y. 

80 Beekman Street, New York, N. Y. (New Bruns- 
wick, N. J.; Brooklyn, N. Y.) 

Jefferson and Bellevue Avenues, Detroit, Mich. 

309 Sussex Street, Harrison, N. J. 



DIRECTORY OF MANUFACTURERS 



191 



Directory of manufacturers of dyes and other synthetic organic chemicals, 1927 — 

Continued 



No. 



Name of company 



OfBce address (location of plants given in parentheses 
if not in same city as office) 



147 

148 
149 
150 
151 
152 

153 

154 
155 
156 
157 
158 
159 
160 
161 

162 
163 
164 
165 



Tar Products Corporation. 



Textile Chemical Co 

Todd Co., A. M 

Trico Chemical Co. (Inc). 
Uhlich & Co., Paul (Inc.)- 
Ullman Co., Sigmund 



United States Industrial Chemical Co. 
(Inc.) 

Van Dyk & Co. (Inc.) 

Van Schaack Bros. Chemical Works (Inc.) 

Verona Chemical Co... 

Victor Chemical Works 

Warner-Jenkinson Manufacturing Co 

Watson, Co., H. F 

Western Dry Color Co 

White Tar Co. of New Jersey, The (Inc.) 



Wilbur White Chemical Co., The... 

Wilhelm Co., The A... 

Wolff-Alport Chemical Corporation. 
Zinsser* Co. (Inc.) 



Union Trust Building, Pittsburgh, Pa. (East Prov- 
idence, R. I.; Hartford, Conn.) 

90 Smithfleld Avenue, Providence, R. I. 

Rose and Kalamazoo .\venues, Kalamazoo, Mich. 

602 Iroquois Building, Buffalo, N. Y. 

11 Cliff Street, New York, N. Y. (Brooklyn, N. Y.) 

Park Avenue and One hundred and forty-sixth Street, 
New York, N. Y. 

110 East Forty-second Street, New York, N. Y. (Bal- 
timore, Md.) 

4 Piatt Street, New York, N. Y. (Jersey City, N. J.) 

3358 Avondale .\ venue, Chicago, 111. 

26 Verona Avenue, Newark, N. J. 

343 South Dearborn Street, Chicago, 111. 

2526 Baldwin Street, St. Louis, Mo. 

Erie, Pa. 

Fifty-second and Wallace Streets, Chicago, 111. 

Belleville Turnpike, Kearney, N. J. (Cincinnati, 
Ohio.) 

McMaster Street, Owego, N. Y. 

Third and Bern Streets, Reading, Pa. 

593 Irving Avenue, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Hastings-on-IIudson, N. Y. 



o