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Full text of "Synthetic organic chemicals : United States production and sales"

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Given By 
U. S. SUPT. OF DOCUJVlENT-b 



^ 



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UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 
WASHINGTON 



Tariff Information Series — No. 38 



CENSUS OF DYES 

AND OF 

OTHER SYNTHETIC ORGANIC 
CHEMICALS 



35 



1928 




BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY 



3 9999 06317 184 5 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 
WASHINGTON 



Tariff Information Series — No. 38 



CENSUS OF DYES 

AND OF 

OTHER SYNTHETIC ORGANIC 
CHEMICALS 

f ■ 
1928 




UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 1930 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D. C. - - - - Price 30 cents 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 

Office: Eighth and E Streets NW., Washington, D. C 
COMMISSIONERS 

Thomas O. Marvin, Chairman. 
Alfred P. Dennis, Vice Chairman. 
Edgar B. Brossard. 
Sherman J. Lowell. 
Lincoln Dixon. 
Frank Clark. 



John F. Bethune, Secretary. 

IJ, S, 8UPERINTENDEMT OF DOCUWENTS 

FcLi iO^i 1930 



CONTENTS 



Page 

Introduction vii. 

Part I 

Summary of census of dyes and of other synthetic organic chemicals, 1928: 

Introduction y 

Summary of domestic production, 1928 — 

Crudes 4 

Intermediates 4 

Dyes 5 

Statistics of production 6 

International dye trade in 1928 8 

Synthetic organic chemicals not derived from coal tar 9' 

Part II 

Production of dyes and coal-tar chemicals, 1928: 
Coal-tar crudes — 

Output of by-product coke increases — of beehive coke decreases _ I'S 

Production of tars U 

Uses of tar 15, 

Distillates of tar 15, 

Production of crudes in by-product coke ovens 18- 

Production by firms not primarily engaged in operation of coke- 
oven plants 20^ 

Coal-tar creosote 20 

Pitch and other products 20 

Imports of crudes 21 

Exports of crudes 21 

Low-temperature carbonization of coal 22." 

Coal-tar intermediates — 

Description 22 

Production 23 

Rubber accelerators 23 

Synthetic phenol 23- 

p-Aminophenol 24 

Dinitrophenol 24r 

Organic-metallic fungicides 25' 

Diphenyl 25 

Cresylic acid 25^ 

Tricresyl phosphate 26- 

Benzoic acid 26- 

Halogenated products 26 

Aniline and derivatives 26 

Benzovl peroxide , 26 

Naphthalene 26 

Pht halic anhydride 26 

Anthraquinone 27" 

New intermediates 27 

Other intermediates TT 

Statistics of production and sales TT 

Dyes and other finished coal-tar products — 

Introduction 3§ 

Summary of production of dyes — 

Increase in production 3S 

Stocks on hand 39^ 

Prices 40 

Unit value of dyes produced, 1924r-1928 42 

Progress in dye manufacture 42 

Relation of production to consumption 42: 

Number of manufacturers 441 

m 



IV • CONTENTS 

Production of dyes and coal-tar chemicals, 1928 — Continued. 
Dyes and other finished coal-tar products — Continued. 

Summary of production of dyes — Continued. Page 

Tariff considerations -_ 44 

Court and Treasury decisions 44 

Reduction in duty on dye imports 45 

Production of dyes by classes 45 

Acid dyes--_ 47 

Basic dyes 48 

Direct dyes 49 

Mordant and chrome dyes 60 

Sulfur dyes , 51 

Vat dyes 52 

Color-lake and spirit-soluble dyes 54 

Food dyes 55 

Export trade in dyes 55 

Other finished coal-tar products — 

Color lakes 56 

Medicinals 56 

Production 56 

Flavors and perfume materials — 

Production 57 

Synthetic resins 58 

Photographic chemicals 59 

Synthetic tanning materials 59 

Statistics of imports, production and sales 60 

Dyes not classified by Colour Index number 74 

Employees and rates of pay 76 

Research work 78 

Part III 

Dyes imported for consumption in the United States, 1928: 

Introduction 81 

Summary of imports of dyes — 

Statistics of imports 82 

Part IV 

Census of synthetic organic chemicals other than those of coal-tar origin, 
1928: 

Introduction 125 

Large increase in production 125 

Derivatives of ethylene, propylene, butylene 126 

Acetaldehyde and derivatives 126 

Solvents for lacquers 127 

Ethyl acetate 127 

Butyl alcohol or butanol 128 

Amyl alcohol 128 

Other 128 

Synthetic methyl alcohol 128 

Ethyl and methyl chlorides 129 

Furfural and derivatives 129 

Tetraethyl lead 129 

Formaldehyde and hexamethylenetetramine 129 

Xanthates 130 

Other products showing increases 130 

New products made in 1928 — 

Acetic acid 130 

Citric acid 131 

Formic acid 132 

Other 132 

Synthetic ethyl alcohol made in 1929 132 

Statistics of imports, production, and sales 133 

Part V 
International dye trade: 

Introduction 141 

Developments in 1928 141 



CONTENTS V 

International dye trade — Continued. > Page 

V/orld production of dyes , 141 

Competitive conditions 142 

Exports from producing countries 143 

Imports into producing and consuming countries 144 

International agreements 145 

The dye industry of Germany — 

Activities of the I.G 148 

Formation of American I.G 149 

Hj'drogenatiou of petroleum 150 

Reparation dyes 150 

Payments in kind 151 

Receipts and payments under the Dawes plan 151 

Imports and exports 153 

The dye industry of Great Britain 155 

The Imperial Chemical Industries (Ltd.) 155 

New capital of the I. C. I 156 

Production 156 

Regulation of importation of dyestuflfs 15S 

Imports and exports 159 

The dj'e industry of France 161 

Statistics of imports and exports 162, 163 

The dve industry of Italy 163 

The Montecatini Co 164 

Imports and exports 163 

The dye industry of Japan 164 

Imports and exports 166 

The dye industry of Switzerland 167 

Imports and exports 168 

The dye trade of other countries 170-179 

Part VI 

Appendix 

Statistics of domestic imports and exports 183 

Directorv of manufacturers of dyes and other synthetic organic chemicals, 

1928 J 192 

Statistical Tables 

1. Dyes and coal-tar chemicals: Summary of production 1918-1928 & 

2. Synthetic organic chemicals of noncoal-tar origin: Production and 

sales, 1921-1928 10 

3. Bv-product and beehive coke: Production in the United States, 

'1913-1928 14 

4. Coke-oven, coal-gas, water-gas, and oil-gas tar: Production and sales 

in the United States, 1918-1928 14 

5. Coke-oven tar: Production in the United States and the percentage 

sold and used, 1918-1928 15 

6. Total commercial production of benzene, toluene, solvent naphtha, 

naphthalene, and creosote oil from all sources in the United States, 

1918-1928 16 

7. Coal-tar by-products obtained from coke-oven operations, 1926-1928.- 19 

8. Coal-tar crudes: Production, 1928, by firms not primarily engaged in 

the operation of coke-oven plants and gas houses 21 

9. Phenol, natural and svnthetic: Production and sales in the United 

States, 1917-1928-.: 24 

10. Coal-tar intermediates: Domestic sales price per pound 1922-1928, 

and invoice price of same intermediates imported, 1914 28 

11. Coal-tar intermediates: Production and sales, 1928 29 

12. Intermediates: Production, by groups, according to unit values, 

1924-1928 38 

13. Coal-tar dyes : Domestic production and sales, 1914, 1917-1928 39 

14. Domestic dyes: Stocks on hand. January 1, 1928, and January 1, 1929_ 39 

15. Domestic dves: Weighted average sales price per pound, 1917, 1920- 

1928 1 40 

16. Domestic sales prices of certain dyes, 1924-1928, compared with in- 

voice values of dyes of the same kind imported in 1914 41 



TI COXTEISTTS 

Page 

17. Dyes: Production, by groups, according to unit value, 1924-1928 42 

18. Coal-tar dyes: Imports into the United States, 1920-1929 (11 months) . 45 

19. Comparison of imports of dyes, by classes, with domestic production, 

1926-1928 46 

20. Vat dyes other than indigo: Domestic sales, imports and apparent 

consumption in the United States, 1914 and 1923-1928 54 

21. Coal-tar dyes : Exports from the United States, 1920-1928 55 

22. Colors, dyes, "and stains: Domestic exports, by months, 1926 to 1928, 

and 1929 (9 months) 55 

23. Coal-tar medicinals: Production of a selected list, 1922-1928 57 

24. Medicinals and pharmaceuticals: Imports into the United States, 

1928 60 

25. Synthetic aromatic chemicals of coal-tar origin: Imports into the 

United States, 1928 60 

26. Photographic chemicals, intermediates, and other coal-tar products: 

Imports into the United States, 1928 61 

27. Dyes and other finished coal-tar products: Production and sales, 1928- 63 

28. Employees and rates of pay in coal-tar dve and chemical industry', 

1928 .' 77 

29. Employees and rates of pay in coal-tar dye and chemical industry, 1928 

as compared with 1927 77 

30. Dves: Imports into the United States, by country of shipment, 1926- 

'1928 ' 82 

31. Dyes imported into the United States, classified bv method of appli- 

cation, 1923-1928 -' 82 

•32. Dyes of each class, according to method of application, imported in 
largest quantity in the calendar vear 1928, compared with corre- 
sponding imports in 1927, 1926, 1925, and in the fiscal year, 1914. _. 83 

33. Dves and intermediates remaining in bonded custonas warehouse, 

January 31, 1928, to March 31, 1929 85 

34. Imports of dyes, calendar year, 1928 86 

35. Production of principal lacquer solvents, 1923-1928 127 

36. Certain synthetic organic chemicals of noncoal-tar origin: Imports 

and production 1926-1928 133 

37. Synthetic organic chemicals of noncoal-tar origin: Production and 

sales, 1928 134 

38. Dyes: Production bj^ chief producing countries, 1924-1928 142 

39. Coal-tar dyes: Exports from chief producing countries, 1913, and 

1924-1928 144 

40. Coal-tar dyes: Imports into chief consuming countries, 1913, 1927, 

1928 145 

41. Payments in kind, years ended August 31, 1927 and 1929 * 151 

42. Coal-tar dyes: Exports from Germany, 1913 and 1920-1928 154 

43. Germany : Imports of coal-tar dyes, 1928 154 

44. Germany : Exports of coal-tar dyes, 1928 154 

45. United Kingdom: Production of dyes, 1927, 1928 157 

46. Statistics of imports of dves into Great Britain under the dyestuffs act 

of 1 920 .^ 158 

47. United Kingdom: Imports of coal-tar dyes, 1927 159 

48. United Kingdom: Exports of coal-tar dyes, 1927 160 

49. United Kingdom: Imports and exports of coal-tar dyes, 1928 160 

50. United Kingdom : Imports and exports of dveing and tanning materials, 

1928 1 160 

51. France: Production of dyes by groups, 1927 and 1928 161 

52. France : Imports of coal-tar dyes, 1928 i62 

53. France: Exports of coal-tar dj'es, 1928 163 

54. Italy: Imports of synthetic organic dyes by countries, 1928 164 

55. Italy: Imports and exports of synthetic organic dyes, 1928 165 

56. Japan: Imports of coal-tar dyes, 1927 166 

57. Japan: Exports of coal-tar dyes, 1927 166 

58. Japan: Imports and exports of coal-tar dyes, 1928 166 

59. Switzerland: Imports and exports of coal-tar dyes, 1928 169 

60-78. Other countries: Imports and exports of coal-tar dyes 170-179 

79. Coal-tar products: Imports entered for consumption, 1926-1928 183 

80. Coal-tar products: General imports, 1926-1928 187 

81. Coal-tar products: Domestic exports, 1926-1928 189 



INTRODUCTION 



This report is a survey of the domestic dye and of the synthetic 
organic chemical industry in 1928. It presents the results of a special 
investigation made by the United States Tariff Commission with 
respect to the production in the United States of coal-tar dyes and of 
synthetic organic chemicals of coal-tar and of noncoal-tar origin. It 
includes a detailed tabulation of coal-tar dyes imported into the 
United States and official statistics of imports and exports of coal- 
tar dyes by the large consuming and producing nations of the world. 

The survey is divided into six parts, as shown in the Table of 
Contents (pp. Ill to V). 



In the preparation of this report the Tariff Commission had the 
services of Warren N. Watson and Frank ' Talbot, of the chemical 
division of the commission's staff, and of others. 



VII 



PART I 

SUMMARY OF THE CENSUS OF DYES AND OF 
OTHER SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1928 



Part I 

SUMMARY OF THE CENSUS OF DYES AND OF OTHER 
SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1928 



Introduction 



The United States Tariff Commission has reported annually, 
beginning with 1917, the progress of the American dye and coal-tar 
chemical industry. In 1921 this annual census was extended to 
include synthetic organic chemicals other than those derived from 
coal-tar.^ 

The report for 1928 contains production and sales figures for the 
domestic industry, a detailed tabulation of imports into the United 
States, a discussion of the international dj^e trade and of recent 
developments in the foreign dye-producing countries, as well as 
official statistics of exports and imports of the more important dye 
consuming and producing countries of the world. 

The general grouping of coal-tar chemicals in this report follows 
that of the tariff act of 1922; it conforms, in general although not 
in every detail, to common practice. Crudes, free under paragraph 
1549, are contained in and separated from crude coal tar; inter- 
mediates, dutiable under paragraph 27 at 40 per cent and 7 cents 
per pound, are produced from the crudes by chemical processes; 
with certain exceptions, they are used only for the manufacture of 
dyes and other finished products by further chemical treatment; 
dyes and other finished products are dutiable under paragraph 28 
at 45 per cent and 7 cents per pound. "Other finished products" 
include color lakes, photographic chemicals, medicinals, flavors, 
perfume materials, synthetic resins, and synthetic tanning materials. 
Explosives derived from coal-tar materials, although dutiable under 
paragraph 28, are not included in this census. 

The domestic production of coal-tar products from 1918 to 1928, 
according to the classes given above, is summarized in Table 1, 
page 6. The figures for 1928 were compiled from the returns of 
169 companies ^ and are believed to form a complete record of the 
manufacture of such products. The quantity and value of each 
product are given in as great detail as is possible without revealing 
the operations of individual manufacturers. The policy of the 
commission is not to publish either production or sales figures unless 
tsael ta three firms report a given product, and then only when 
production (or sales) is well distributed among the difterent firms. 

1 other reports prepared by the Tariff Commission relating to conditions in the dye industry include: 
(1) Costs of production in the dye industry, 191S and 1919, and (2) Dves and other coal-tar chemicals, 
Dec. 12, 1918. 

2 This census includes production returns of 193 firms, of which 24 make synthetic organic chemicals 
of noncoal-tar origin only and 1G9 made synthetic organic chemicals of coal-tar origin or of both coal-tar 
and noncoal-tar origin. Of the 193 firms, 163 granted permission for the publication of their names. The 
names of the 163 firms are listed in the directory of manufacturers of dyes and other synthetic organic 
chemicals, p. 192. 



4 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

In many instances neither production nor sales figures are published, 
even where there are more than three producers, because of the fact 
that one firm either produced or sold a large part of the total output. 

Summary of Domestic Production, 1928 

CRUDES 

In 1928 domestic ovens produced 48,313,000 tons of by-product 
coke, the highest production on record and an increase of 10 per 
cent over 1927. The output of beehive coke in 1928 was 4,376,000 
tons, a decrease of 39 per cent from the 1927 output. The trend of 
the industry since 1913 has been steadily toward the use of the by- 
product oven, which permits the recovery of ammonia, gas, tar, creo- 
sote oil, and valuable phenol products heretofore lost in the beehive 
oven. In 1913 only 27.5 per cent of the total production of coke was 
from by-product ovens; by 1928, the proportion had risen to 91.7 per 
cent. By-product ovens are supplying increasing quantities of gas 
for urban consumption and of coke for domestic fuel. 

The output of coal-tar in 1928 was 688,345,000 gallons, an increase 
of 14.7 per cent over 1927. This production was greatly in excess 
of the requirements of the tar-distillation and chemical industries. 
Approximately 52 per cent (352,025,000 gallons) of it was used for 
fuel and 48 per cent (336,321,000 gallons) was distilled. The 336,- 
321,000 gallons distilled was converted into partly refined products, 
such as motor fuel, solvents, and pitches, and into refined products, 
such as benzene, toluene, and naphthalene. 

Among the crudes of great commercial value is creosote, or dead 
oil, an effective wood preservative. The 1928 production of 134,- 
460,126 gallons, although an increase of 76 per cent over 1927, was 
insufficient to supply the demand and was supplemented by an 
import of 88,385,074 gallons. Of the coal-tar products imported 
in 1928, creosote oil is the largest single item both in quantity and 
value. 

Early in 1929 operation of the world's largest plant for low-temper- 
ature carbonization of coal was commenced at New Brunswick, N. J. 
A second plant is under construction at Coatesville, Pa. This 
process gives high yields of cresote oil and of light oil. Its commei- 
cial success depends in large part upon finding a market for the coal 
gas and semicoke produced. 

INTERMEDIATES 

Intermediates, prepared from coal-tar crudes by chemical treat- 
ment, are used in the production of dyes, medicinals, flavors, perfumes, 
resins, and tanning materials. Other uses for intermediates are as 
accelerators in the vulcanization of rubber, as camphor substitutes, 
insecticides, germicides, and in the flotation process of concentrating 
ores. 

The total production of intermediates in 1928 by 77 firms was 
279,274,807 pounds, as compared with 240,073,184 pounds in 1927 
by 72 firms. Sales in 1928 amounted to 115,837,340 pounds, valued 
at $24,126,473. 

Intermediates used in the production of fast and specialty dyes 
showed an increased production, and a number of new intermediates 



SUMMARY OF DOMESTIC PRODUCTION, 1928 O' 

of this type were reported in 1928. Phthalic anhydride, used in anthra- 
quinone, had the highest output on record. Developments in 1929 
indicate the commercial production of anthraquinone from anthracene 
by catalytic oxidation. 

Phenol, au intermediate used in synthetic resins, dyes, medicines, 
and explosives, also showed increased production in 1928. A new 
synthetic process of making phenol from monochlorobenzene and 
caustic soda is now in successful operation. Prices have steadily 
decreased, dropping from 30 cents a pound in 1924 to 12 cent& 
in 1928. 

The manufacture of organic chemicals for tires and rubber goods 
has made marked progress in recent years. It is estimated that- 
rubber accelerators decrease the time of vulcanization by about 
three-fourths and increase the life of tires about one year. Many 
of the intermediates already on the market were used in increased 
quantity as rubber accelerators in 1928, and production of several 
new ones reported for the first time. 

COAL-TAR DYES 

Production. — The output of dyes by 53 firms in 1928 was 96,62^5,4'5r 
pounds, an increase of l]^ per cent over 1927. Sales amounted to' 
93,302,708 pounds, valued at $39,792,039 as compared with 98,339,204 
pounds, valued at S38,532,795 in 1927, a decrease of 5 per cent ini 
quantity and an increase of 3 per cent in value. The increase in: 
production is due to a larger output of acid, basic, direct, vat (other' 
than indigo), and mordant and chrome dyes, which more than offset, 
the decrease of 7,000,000 pounds in the combined output of indigo 
and sulfur black, two important bulk colors, made on a large scale' 
in the United States. 

There has been continuous development in the manufacture of 
dyes and finished coal-tar chemicals since the war. Investment in the 
industrj' in 1928 was about $100,000,000 and employment was fur- 
nished to about 10,000 persons. Dyes made in domestic factories sup- 
plied about 92 per cent by quantity and about 80 per cent by value of 
home consumption. The commercial production of new dyes and 
the general price recessions of dyes previously made are further- 
evidence of progress in the domestic industry. More than 125 dyes 
were reported in 1928 for which no production was shown the year 
before, and most of them were made for the first time in the United 
States. 

The new dyes may be grouped as follows: (1) vat dyes (including^ 
anthraquinone and the thioindigoid derivatives), (2) fast types of 
the direct azo dyes, (3) mordant and acid dyes. 

Expenditure for research on dyes and coal-tar chemicals amounted 
to nearly $2,500,000, or 3.8 per cent of the total sales. This unusual 
expenditure gives some idea of the amount of investigation considered 
necessary for progress and to meet competitive conditions in the- 
industry. 

Prices. — Domestic dyes steadily declined in price from 1917 to 1928, 
The decline was general in 1928, extending to low-priced as well as 
high-priced dyes. The weighted average selling price of all dyes 
sold, however, advanced to 42.6 cents, as compared with 39 
cents in 1927. The increase in 1928 was largely due to the- 
following factors: (1) An advance of 1 cent per pound in the- 



b CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

price of sulfur black and of 2 cents in that of indigo; (2) increased 
production of the higher priced dyes. A comparison of 1928 prices 
with 1914 prices indicates that a large part of the sales in 1928 were 
at or below the pre-war, (1914) price. In making this comparison no 
account is taken of the difference in price index in 1928 and 1914. 
The present price levels in the United States are the direct result of 
competition among the 53 domestic manufacturers. 

Imports. — Imports of coal-tar dyes in 1928 were 5,351,951 pounds 
with an invoice value of $4,321,867. This represents an increase of 
26 per cent in both quantity and value over 1927. Imports for 11 
months, 1929, were 5,866,722 pounds, valued at S4,902,273. 
t Germany and Switzerland supply nearly all of our dye imports. 
Classified by method of application, 43 per cent of our imports in 
1928 were vat dyes, 18.6 per cent acid dyes, 17 per cent direct dyes, 
8.9 per cent mordant and chrome dyes, and the remainder basic, 
sulfur, and spirit-soluble dyes. 

1- Exports. — Exports in 1928 were 27,824,264 pounds, valued at 
$6,531,619. These figures represent an increase of 3.9 per cent in 
quantity and of 18.8 per cent in value over 1927. The principal 
markets for United States dyes in 1928 were China, Canada, Japan, 
British India, and Belgium. Sales to China, Canada, and Belgium 
increased in 1928 over 1927; sales to Japan and British India de- 
creased. Low-priced bulk dyes, such as indigo and sulfur black, 
together with direct black and blue, and acid black, are the principal 
colors exported by the United States. 

STATISTICS OF PRODUCTION OF INTERMEDIATES AND FINISHED 

PRODUCTS 



Table 1. — Dyes and coal-tar chemicals 


; S 


inimary 


of production, 1918-1928 




1918 


1919 




Number 
of manu- 
facturers 


Production 


Number 
of manu- 
facturers 


Production 




Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 




128 


Pounds 

357, 662, 251 

76, 802, 959 

58, 464, 446 

9, 590, 537 

316, 749 

3, 623, 352 

458, 256 

116,203 

} 4, 233, 356 


$124, 382, 892 

83, 815, 746 

62, 026, 390 

5, 020, 023 

823, 915 

7, 792, 984 

4, 925, 627 

584, 695 

2, 642, 120 


116 

155 

90 

34 

10 

31 

9 

6 

{ \ 


1 

}_ 


Pounds 
77,362,426 1 


$63, 210, 079 


Finished products (tota 


]) 


82, 532, 390 | 84, 585, 544 




78 
29 
6 
31 
7 
6 
1 
5 


63, 402, 194 I 67, 598, 855 




7,569,921 1 4,179,964 


Photographic chemicals... 


335, 509 ' 1, 059, 340 
6,777,988 i 7,883,071 


Flavors 


610,825 ! 1,318,654 




41,419 
3, 794, 534 


164, 302 




2, 381, 358 


Synthetic phenolic resins.. 




1920 


1921 




Number 
of manu- 
facturers 


Production 


Number 
of manu- 
facturers 


Produc- 
tion, 
quantity 


Sales 




Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Intermediates (total)— 

Finished products 

(total) 


119 

161 
82 
43 

8 
35 
15 
12 


Pounds 
257,720,911 

112, 942, 227 
88, 263, 776 
10, 983, 538 

440, 759 

5,184,989 

166, 884 

99. 740 


$95, 291, 686 

112,731,547 

95, 613, 749 

5, 871, 820 

1,015,848 

5,726,776 

527. 493 

332, 008 


108 

147 
74 
43 

5 
34 

17 
15 

4 

3 


Pounds 
\ 70,899,912 

51,457,565 

39,008,690 

6, 152, 187 

1 183, 798 

i 1,545,917 

1 901, 245 

119, 335 


Pounds 
33, 637, 326 

60, 434, 009 

47, 513, 762 

6, 424, 612 

170, 221 

1,876,246 

933, 6fi2 

119,691 

1, 721, 359 

1, 674, 456 


$8, 483, 463 
47, 990, 514 


Dyes 


39, 283, 956 




2, 863, 189 


Photographic chem- 
icals 


248, 041 


Medicinals 


2,930,324 


Flavors... 

Perfumes . 


1, 002, 018 
175,815 


Tanning materials... 

Synthetic phenolic 

resins 




4 
4 


3,1 
4,6 


42, 861 
59,680 


233 
3,410 


674 
179 


1, 902, 5 
1,643,7 


ri 

36 


141, 005 
I, 352, 166 



SUMMARY OF DOMESTIC PRODUCTION, 1928 7 

Table 1. — Dyes and coal-tar chemicals: Summary of production, 1918-1928 — 

Continued 





1922 


1923 




Num- 
ber of 
manu- 
fac- 
turers 


Produc- 
tion, 
quantity 


Sales 


Num- 
ber of 
manu- 
fac- 
turers 


Produc- 
tion, 
quantity 


Sales 




Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Intermediates (total). 
Finished products 

(total) 

Dyes -- 


106 

164 
87 
43 

7 
35 
20 
17 

4 

5 
4 


Pounds 
165, 048, 155 

88, 368, 131 
64, 632, 187 


Pounds 
58, 004, 435 

93, 370, 065 
69. 107. 105 


$12, 910, 486 

57, 067, 326 

41, 463, 790 

4, 551, 572 

483, 269 

4, 233, 443 

1, 260, 588 

643, 436 

103, 598 

4, 315, 196 
12,434 


103 

164 
88 
43 

5 
32 

16 

20 

3 

2 


Pounds 
231, 393, 871 

122, 950, 171 
93, 667, 524 
13,079,115 

343, 289 
3, 273, 085 
1, 458, 024 
1, 365, 449 

i 9, 763, 685 


Pounds 
83, 582, 808 

115, 297, 586 
86, 567, 446 
12, 627, 359 

321, 083 
2, 995, 448 
1, 442, 387 
1, 275. 432 

10, 068, 431 


$18, 916, 058 

65, 898, 177 
47, 223, 161 


Color lakes 


10,578,6641 10.366.676 


5,124,732 


Photographic 

chemicals 

Medicinals 


345, 798 
2, 946, 347 
1, 215, 668 

793, 148 
1,910,519 

5,944,133 
1,667 


347, 647 
3, 092, 915 
1, 278, 857 

778, 696 
1, 981, 588 

6, 415, 931 
650 


443, 697 
4, 720, 253 


Flavors 


1, 780, 313 




789,431 


Tanning materials. 

Synthetic phenolic 

resins 


5,816,590 


















1924 


1925 




Num- 
ber of 
manu- 
fac- 
turers 


Produc- 
tion, 
quantity 


Sales 


Num- 
ber of 
manu- 
fac- 
turers 


Produc- 
tion, 
quantity 


Sales 




Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Intermediates (total) . 

Finished products 

(total) 


94 

153 
78 
46 

5 

29 
16 
19 

3 


Pounds 
186, 596, 562 

97, 730, 211 
68, 679, 000 
9, 343, 147 

316, 183 
2,967,944 
1, 750. 555 
1, 895, 267 

il2, 778, 115 


Pounds 
76, 897, 521 

93,636,109 

64, 961. 433 

9. 281, 673 

321, 865 
2, 688, 329 
1, 691, 863 
1, 94 j, 488 

12, 745, 458 


$18, 164, 334 

55, 932. 580 

35, 012, 400 

4, 045, 799 

461, 379 
5, 178, 099 
1,471,089 

945, 773 

8,818,041 


92 

151 
75 
44 

5 
30 
15 
19 

1 : 


Pounds 
210, 699, 779 

120, 554, 228 
86, 345, 438 
11, 414, 753 

327, 041 
3,237,796 
2. 207. 102 
2, 335, 024 

il4, 687, 074 


Pounds 
86, 066, 651 

112,671,779 
79, 303, 451 
11,308,444 

348, 842 
3. 294, 827 
2, 148, 904 
2, 370, 728 

13,896,583 


$19,756,200 
60, 811, 400 




37, 468, 332 


Color lakes 


5, 544, 371 


Photographic 

chemicals. 

Medicinals 


475, 095 
6,331,918 


Flavors 


1, 409, 311 


Perfumes 

Tanning materials. 

Synthetic phenolic 

resins 


883, 617 
8. 698, 756 











1926 



Number 
of manu- 
facturers 



Production, 
quantity 



Sales 



Quantity 



Value 



Intermediates (total) 

Finished products (total) 

Dyes 

Color lakes 

Photographic chemicals.. 

Medicinals 

Flavors 

Perfumes 

Tanning materials 

Synthetic phenolic resins 



78 

134 

61 

43 

5 

26 

15 

17 

2 

2 



Pounds 

i2% 653, 802 

122, 752, 021 

87, 978, 624 

11, 796, 203 

393, 426 

3, 696, 196 

2, 857, 913 

1, 9i2, 666 

14, 106, 993 



Pounds 

8fl, 916, 836 

120, 348, 636 

86, 255, 836 

11,4Z5, 139 

387, 698 

3, 593, 2'.i6 

2, 629, 126 

1, 731, 887 

14, 325, 724 



$18, 990, 042 

59, 533. 445 

36, 312, 648 

6, 023, Oil 

504, 941 

0, 742, 128 

1, 482, 697 

820, 264 

7, 647, 756 



O CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

Table 1. — Dyes and coal-tar chemicals: Summary oj production, 1918-1928 — 

Continued 



Number 
of manu- 
facturers 



Production, 
quantity 



Sales 



Quantity 



Value 



Intermediates (total).. 

Finished products (total) 

Dyes 

Color lakes 

Medicinals 

Flavors 

Perfumes 

Photographic chemicals.. 

Tanning materials 

Synthetic phenolic resins 



11 

130 

65 

40 

24 

16 

18 

6 

2 

7 



Pounds 

240, 073, 184 

133, 357, 423 

95, 167, 905 

11, 601, 507 

3, 698, 839 

2, 205, 472 

1, 998, 987 

6, 332, 483 

13, 452, 230 



Pounds 

92, 917, 439 

136, 206, 835 

98, 339, 204 

11,629,740 

3, 548, 556 

2, 235, 791 

2, 026, 614 

5, 362, 617 

13, 084, 313 



$20, 127, 459 

61, 272, 645 

38, 532, 795 

6, 446, 508 

6, 819, 487 

1, 435, 446 

991, 922 

951, 832 

6, 094, 656 



Intermediates (total) .- 

Finished products (total) 

Dyes... — 

Color lakes 

Medicinals 

Flavors 

Perfumes 

Photographic chemicals. 

Synthetic phenolic resins 

Tanning materials and miscellaneous 



1928 



Number 
of manu- 
facturers 



77 
125 
53 
38 
23 
14 
18 
5 



Production, 
quantity 



Pounds 

279, 274, 807 

143, 663, 099 

96, 625, 461 

12, 127, 242 

4, 088. 393 

1, 746, 350 

1,577,718 

478, 979 

20,411,465 

6, 587, 501 



Sales 



Quantity 



Pounds 

115, 837, 340 

140. 796, 814 

93, 302, 708 

12, 045. 435 

4, 004, 557 

1. 966, 467 

1,619.476 

493, 825 

20, 778, 856 

6, 685, 490 



Value 



$24. 126, 473 

65, 762, 945 

39, 792, 039 

6,689.166 

8. 660. 838 

1, 296, 034 

1. 000. 001 

696. 101 

7. 211, 958 

526, 808 



International Dye Trade 

Earlier issues of the Census of Dyes have discussed pre-war con- 
ditions in the international dye trade and have reviewed the changes 
that took place from 1922 to 1927. 

Competition among the dye-producing nations of the world con- 
tinues to be severe, but will in time doubtless be checked between 
the European nations by the cartel arrangements now made to divide 
the world's markets, limit production, and stabihze prices. With 
these objects in view, Germany, France, and Switzerland have 
negotiated an international agreement regulating the trade in dyes. 
Great Britain and the United States are two important dye-produc- 
ing countries outside this cartel movement. Negotiations between 
the British and the German dye industries have failed- The United 
States has entered into no international dye agreements. 

The United States, Great Britain, and Switzerland extended 
their export trade in 1928, but Germany and France had a smaller 
export trade than in 1927. The world-production of dyes in 1928 
was at about the rate of 60 per cent of the estimated capacity of 
600,000,000 pounds. The overcapacity for production has led to 
severe competition and resulted in the elimination of many manu- 
facturers. The trend in 1928 was toward increased sales of fast 
dyes, especially the vat dyes and other high-priced specialties. 



CHEMICALS NOT DERIVED FROM COAL TAR 9 

The position of Germany in the world's dye trade was strengthened 
by the consummation of agreements with the dye producers of 
France and Switzerland. In addition, the Interessen Gemeinschaft 
Acktien Gesellschaft (hereinafter referred to as the I. G.) has been 
active in expanding the German chemical industry, particularly 
the production of fixed nitrogen, fertilizers, solvents, and allied 
chemicals. Although the German export trade in dyes in 1928 was 
less than half the 1913 figure in quantity, it was greater in value. 

In Great Britain the production of dyes was nearly 51,000,000 
pounds, an increase of about 11,000,000 pounds in 1928. The 
Imperial Chemical Industries (Ltd.), a corporation formed in 1926 
by the merger of four leading firms and their subsidiaries, was largely 
instrumental in effecting the advance made by the industry. 

The Swiss dye industry, in spite of severe competition, prospered 
in 1928 and increased its foreign trade. The reported net earnings 
of the principal dye manufacturers show substantial profits for 
1928. 

Italy produced over 15,000,000 pounds of dyes in 1928, or 1,600,- 
000 pounds more than in 1927. In the tonnage dyes, this production 
was sufficient to suppty the home market, but in specialties it had 
to be supplemented by imports. Synthetic indigo reached its peak 
in 1927 at an estimated production of 3,960,000 pounds. The most 
important event in the Italian dye industry in 1928 was the merger 
of four firms into the Azienda Chemiche Nazionale Associate. The 
Montecatini Co., the largest chemical concern in Italy, is active in 
promoting the manufacture of heavj^ chemicals, explosives, fertifizers, 
aluminum, and rayon. 

The Japanese Government has since 1925 granted a subsidy to 
dje manufacturers for the production of specified dyes. At the 
conclusion of a treaty between Germany and Japan restrictions were 
withdrawn on dye imports from German}", with the understanding 
that Germany would limit her export of certain dyes. Strenuous 
efforts are being made to increase the production of indigo to the 
extent that Japan will within a few years be self-sufficient in this 
dye. 

Synthetic Organic Chemicals Not Derived from Coal Tar 

The production of chemicals of this group exceeded 384,500,000 
pounds in 1928, an increase of 37 per cent over the output in 1927, and 
more than seventeen times the quantity produced in 1921. Actual 
sales of these chemicals in 1928 were 257,077,856 pounds, valued at 
$45,928,945. For the first time the value of sales of the noncoal- 
tar exceeded that of finished coal-tar products, evidencing the tremen- 
dous expansion which has occurred in recent years in the aliphatic 
chemicals. 

Solvents such as amyl and butyl alcohols and acetates, used in the 
manufacture of lacquers, are by far the most important of the noncoal- 
tar chemicals. Their production shows a conspicuous gain each year 
since 1921; in 1928 the output was about 40 per cent of the total 
production of the synthetic organic group. 

Another branch of the noncoal-tar chemicals that is rapidly expand- 
ing is the group derived from ethylene. Not only was there an in- 

85526—30 2 



10 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



crease in the quantity produced in 1928, but in the number of 
compounds made. Increased production was also reported for 
acetaldehyde and its derivatives, synthetic methanol, ethyl and 
methyl chlorides, furfural and derivatives, tetraethyl lead, formalde- 
hyde, hexamethylenetetramine, and xanthates. 

Important new products reported in 1928 include synthetic acetic 
acid, citric acid made by the fermentation of sugar, and formic acid. 
The year 1929 was marked by the production of synthetic ethyl 
alcohol, and synthetic acetone. 

Table 2 shows the remarkable expansion of the synthetic organic 
chemicals not derived from coal tar. 

Table 2. — Synthetic organic chemicals of noncoal-tar origin: Production and sales, 

1921-1928 



Year 


Production 


Sales 


Year 


Production 


Sales 


1921 

1922 

1923 

1924 


Pounds 
21, 545, 186 
79, 202, 155 
90, 597, 712 
115, 817, 865 


Pounds 

16, 761, 096 
60, 494, 494 
67, 727, 067 
85, 933, 461 


Value 
$7, 226, 068 
11,964,074 
13, 875, 521 
20, 604, 717 


1925 

1926 -. 

1927 

1928 


Pounds 
156, 878, 013 
214, 842, 513 
280, 992, 825 
381,564,836 


Pounds 
114,026,209 
168,712,158 
201, 548, 089 
257, 077, 856 


Value 

$23, 632, 779 

29, 719, 270 

36, 600, 628 

49, 928, 945 



PART II 



PRODUCTION OF DYES AND OF COAL-TAR 
CHEMICALS, 1928 



11 



Part II 

PRODUCTION OF DYES AND OF COAL-TAR CHEMICALS, 

1928 



Coal-Tar Crudes 

Output of by-product coke increases and of beehive coke declines. — The 
total domestic production of coke in 1928 was 52,689,025 ' net tons, 
of which 48,31 3,025 tons were obtained from by-product ovens. Since 
1913 the trend has been steadily toward an increased output of by- 
product coke; in 1928 the ratio was 91 .7 per cent by-product as against 
8.3 per cent beehive. The output of by-product coke in 1 928 increased 
4,500,000 tons over that of 1927, and beehive decreased about 
3,000,000 tons. 

It is estimated ^ that 80 per cent of the total production of all coke 
is used in blast furnaces; 11 per cent in domestic and industrial 
heating; 6 per cent in foundries; and 3 per cent in heating retorts. 
As a household fuel, coke is likely to have greater and more wide- 
spread use since it is one of the best available substitutes for anthracite 
€oal. 

In addition to their output of 48,313,000 tons of coke in 
1928, by-product coke plants produced 631,845,000 gallons of 
tar; 188,598,000 gallons of crude light oil; 798,886 short tons of 
ammonium sulfate, a nitrogenous fertilizer exported in large quan- 
tites to the Orient; and 775,513,000,000 cubic feet of gas, used 
extensively in towns and cities throughout the country for illumi- 
nating and heating. 

Prior to 1918 blast furnaces used more beehive coke than any other 
fuel in manufacturing pig iron, but gradually they have turned to 
by-product coke until in 1928, they consumed far more by-product 
coke than beehive coke. The beehive coke industry now serves 
merely as an auxiliary source of coke for the steel industry. 

Table 3, page 14, shov.s the production of by-product and of 
beehive coke from 1913 to 1928, inclusive. The figures for 1928 are 
not final. Those for by-product coke are taken from preliminary 
reports of the Bureau of Mines; those for beehive coke are estimates 
based upon statements of producers as to the number of cars loaded 
for shipment by the railroads. 

Total production of tars. — The combined output of coke-oven and 
coal-gas tar in 1928 was 688,344,767 ^ gallons, an increase of 14.5 
per cent over 1927. Sales of tar from these two sources amounted 
in 1928 to 383,150,270 gallons, or to more than 55 per cent of 
production. 

Table 4 shows the production of coal tar from all sources and the 
quantity and value of sales in the United States from 1918 to 1928, 
inclusive. 



1 U. S. Bureau of Mines, preliminary figures. 

2 Coke and By-Products in 1924, Bureau of Mines. 
' Preliminary figures. 



13 



14 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

Table 3. — By-product and beehive coke: Production in the United States, 1913-1928 



Year 



1913- 
1914- 
1915. 
1916.. 
1917. 
1918.. 
1919.. 
1920- . 
1921.. 
1922.. 
1923.. 
1924- 
1925.. 
1926.. 

1927 1 

1928 2 



Net tons produced 



By-product Beehive 



12, 714, 
11, 219, 
14, 072, 
19, 069, 
22, 439, 
25, 997, 
25, 137, 
30, 833, 
19, 749, 
28, 550, 
37, 597, 
33, 983, 
39, 912, 
44, 376, 
43, 884, 
48, 313, 



700 

943 

895 
361 
280 
580 
621 
951 
580 
545 
664 
568 
159 
586 
726 
025 I 



Total 



Per cent of total 
output 



584, 830 
335, 971 
508. 255 
464, 224 
167. 548 
480, 792 
042, 936 
511, 092 
538, 042 
573, 467 
379, 870 
286, 037 
354, 784 
488, 951 
207, 417 
376, 000 



299, 530 
555, 914 
581, 150 
533, 585 
606. 828 
478, 372 
180, 557 
345, 043 
287, 622 
124, 012 
977, 534 
269, 605 
266, 943 
865, 537 
092. 143 
689, 025 



By- 
product 



27.5 
32.5 
33, 8 
3.5.0 
40.4 
46.0 
.56.9 
60.0 
78.1 
76.9 
66.0 



78.0 
85.9 
91.7 



Beehive 



72.5 
67.5 
66.2 
65.0 
59.6 
54.0 
43.1 
40.0 
21.9 
23.1 
34.0 
23.2 
22.1 
22.0 
14.1 
8.3 



Revised since last report. 



Preliminary figures. 



Table 4. 



-Coke-oven, coal-gas, water-gas, and oil-gas tar: Production and sales 
in the United States, 1918-1928 



[Compiled by the Bureau of Mines from reports of producers. The difference between production and 
sales is accounted for by tar used by the producer and by changes in stock] 



Production (gallons): 

1918 

1919 

1920 

1921 

1922 

1923 

1924 

1925 

1926 

19277 

1928 8 

Sales (gallons): 

1918 

1919. 

1920 

1921 

1922..- 

1923 

1924. 

1925 

1926 

1927 7 

19288... 

Value of sales: 

1918 

1919 

1920 

1921 

1922 

1923... 

1924 

1925 

1926.. 

1927'.... 

1928 8. , 



Coke-oven 
tar 1 



263. 
288, 
360, 
253, 
327, 
440, 
422, 
480, 
529, 
546, 
631, 

200, 
217, 
174, 
135, 
162, 
211, 
209, 
240. 
277 
305! 
332, 



Coal-gas 
tar 2 



52. 694, 826 
53, 146, 421 
51, 264, 956 

(}) 
48, 082, 228 

W 

(«) 

(') 

(«) 
W 

47. 727, 839 
49, 307, 852 
46, 604, 133 
51,976,307 
41, 266, 074 
47, 840, 512 

(«) 
49.175,979 

(«) 
51, 266, 279 

(«) 

$1,863,580 
2, 156, 471 
2, 010, 186 
2,811,728 
1,955.950 
2, 461, 691 

(«) 
2, 750, 719 

(«) 
2, 923, 819 

(«) 



Total coal 
tar 



315, 994, 296 
342, 048, 160 
411,929,080 
309, 051. 649 
375. 861, 962 
493, 407, 109 
475, 074. 326 
534, 848, 814 
583, 486, 374 
600, 859, 205 
688, 344, 767 

247, 960, 841 
267, 015, 009 
220, 967, 829 
187, 269, 3.54 
203, 470, 491 
259, 579, 981 
258, 479, 999 
289, 336, 965 
326, 248, 522 
357, 164, 455 
383,150,270 

$8, 228, 552 
9, 075, 020 
8, 388, 226 
8, 457, 037 
8, 375. 693 
11,712,243 
12. 293, 520 
14, 6.53, 915 
16, 803, 760 
19, 019, 297 
20, 454, 797 



Water and oil 
gas tar 



100. 985, 156 

3 105, 318, 339 

116,073,907 

(«) 
104, 555. 028 

(«) 

(») 

(») 

(«) 

(») 

(») 

55, 283, 484 
3 58, 557, 947 

59, 238, 7.30 
s 53. 432, 945 

47, 338, 489 
3 49. 990, 820 

(«) 
3 61,471,124 

(5) 

3 83, 479, 339 
(*) 

$1, 805. 866 
3 2, 012, 723 
2, 109, 388 
3 2,192.015 
1. 879, 490 
3 2, 001, 363 

(») 
3 2, 594, 025 

(») 
8 3, 768, 464 

(»).! 



1 Includes tar produced in by-product coke ovens operated by city gas companies. 

2 The figures here given for coal-gas tar include only the operations of coal-gas retorts. For 1918, 1920, 
and 1922 they are taken from special studies by the U. S. Geological Survey. For 1919, 1921, 1923, 1925, 
and 1927 revised census figures are used, obtained by subtracting from the totals for the manufactured 
gas industry, as published by the Census Bureau, the tar produced at by-product coke ovens operated by 
city gas companies. 

3 As reported by the Bureau of the Census. 

* Estimate included in total, based upon reported sales. 

« No data. 

8 Estimate included in total, based upon reported sales. 

' Revised since last report. 

8 Preliminary figures. 



COAL-TAR CRUDES 



15 



Table 5 shows for coke-oven tar, which constitutes 90 per cent 
of the 688,344,767 gallons produced in 1928, the ratio of sales to 
production during 1918 to 1928. 

Table 5. — Coke-oven tar: Production in the United States and percentage sold 

and used, 1918-1928 

[Compiled by United States Geological Survey and Bureau of Mines from reports of operators] 





Coke-oven tar 


Year 


Coke-oven tar 


Year 


Gallons pro- Per cent 
duced sold 


Per cent 
used 1 


Gallons pro- 
duced 


Per cent 
sold 1 


Per cent 
used I 


1918- 


263,299,470 76.0 
288,901,739 75.4 
360, 664. 124 48. 3 
253, 051, 649 ' 53. 5 
327, 779, 734 ; 49. 5 
440, 907, 109 ' 48. 


24.0 
24.6 
51.7 
46.5 
50.5 
52.0 


1924 

1925 

1926 

1927 2 

1928 3 


422, 074, 326 
480, 848, 814 
529, 486, 374 
546, 859, 205 
631, 844, 767 


49.6 
49.9 
52.4 
55.9 
52.6 


50 4 


1919 - . 


£0 1 


1920 


47 6 


1921 


44 1 


1922 


47 4 


1923 . 









1 The percentage "used by producer" consists largely of tar consumed in steel furnaces; this percentage 
would be still larger if deliveries by the coke-oven company to a separate but affiliated corporation were 
included. Such deliveries are usually reported as "sales" and can not be accurately separated, but from 
general information it appears that in 1928 they amounted to about 6 per cent of the total production. 
Were they counted as "used" the percentage would therefore be 53.4 and the percentage sold would be 
46.6. In computing these percentages no account is taken of changes in stocks. 

2 Revised since last report. 
' Preliminary figures. 

Uses of tar. — Tar is used in the raw state or is distilled into a number 
of products having wide commercial uses. 

Raw or dehydrated tar is used chiefly for fuel. Approximately 53 
per cent of the total output of coal tar in 1928 was so used. Open- 
hearth steel manufacture accounts for a large percentage of the tar 
burned. The use of tar as a fuel tends to increase as the price of crude 
oil advances. 

Minor uses of raw tar are : In mixtures with creosote oil as a wood 
preservative, in stone work and road construction material; for water- 
proofing brick, for settling dust, and as a paint. For the last named 
use the specially prepared pitch paints are better, as they have more 
resistance to the weather. 

Modified and refined tars are used in roofing felts and in tar paper. 

Distillates of tar. — Tar upon being distilled yields two groups of 
products : (1) Complex mixtures made by fractional distillation appear- 
ing in commerce under the names of solvent naphtha, light oil, dead 
oil, creosote oil, and anthracene oil ; (2) coal-tar crudes such as benzene, 
toluene, naphthalene, anthracene, and the less important cumene, 
carbazol, the cresols, and pj'ridine. These crudes, after purification, 
are used in the preparation of coal-tar intermediates, which, in turn, 
are used in the manufacture of dyes and other products. 

The domestic production of crudes distilled from tar at by-product 
coke-oven plants is reported to the Bureau of Mines; production by 
firms engaged primarily in distilling tar is reported to the Tariff Com- 
mission. Where tar distillation operations were limited to the recovery 
of the simpler materials and were conducted in conjunction with the 
coke-oven plant, under the same corporate name, the Bureau of Mines 
collected and compiled the statistics for 1928. Where distillation was 
carried on by a separate corporation, reports were made to the Tariff 
Commission. For certain plants equipped to produce a complete run 
of refined tar products in their coke-oven operations, the Bureau of 
Mines reported the production of creosote oil and pitch, together with 
the standard light oil products — benzene, motor benzol, toluene, sol- 



16 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



vent naphtha, xylene, and naphthalene, and the Tariff Commission 
reported the production of phenol and cresylic acid. 

Table 6 shows the domestic production of certain coal-tar crudes 
from all sources, 1918-1928. 



Table 6. — Total commercial production of benzene, toluene, solvent naphtha, naph- 
thalene, and creosote oil from all sources in the United States, 1918-1928 

[Data for coke ovens and gas works from reports to United States Geological Survey and Bureau of Mines; 
for tar refineries and others to United States Tarifi Commission) 





By-product 

coke plants 

(sales) 1 


Gas works 

not elsewhere 

included 

(sales) 1 2 


Tar refiner- 
ies and all 
other estab- 
lishments ' 
(produc- 
tion) 


Total com- 
mercial pro- 
duction * 


Benzene (all, grades except motor benzol): 
Gallons— 

1918 


43,441,980 

8 63, 077, 463 

17, 230, 776 

6, 839, 021 

12, 256, 348 

16, 724, 182 

17, 740, 608 
21,816.386 
21, 9S7, 790 
21, 193, 807 
21, 452, 973 

$11, 966, 367 

5 11, 643, 645 

4, 497, 823 

1, 611, 721 

3, 435, 381 

3, 839, 237 
3, 736, 656 

4, 888, 240 

5, 067, 693 
4, 371, 519 
4, 215, 752 


2, 177. 168 
(«) 
(«) 
(«) 
(») 
(«) 
(«) 
(«) 
(«) 
(«) 
(«) 

$572, 950 
(8) 
(«) 
(«) 
(«) 
(«) 
(«) 
(«) 
« 
(«) 
(«) 


3. 015. 848 
1, 826, 373 
875, 561 
2,171,031 
774. 940 
394. 906 
629, 934 
741, .576 
377, 048 
370, 782 
474, 457 

.$994, 161 
560, .547 
287, 586 
463, 205 
21,'J. 136 
118, ,505 
155, 973 
171, 005 
105, 513 
100, 453 
111,805 


48. 634, 996 


1919 


6.5, 403, 836 


1920 


IS. 141,337 


1921 -.. .- 


9, 045, 642 


1922 


13,071,288 


1923 


17, 154, 088 


1924 


18,417,542 


1925 


22, 607, 962 
22, 374, 838 


1926 - - 


1927 7 


21, 579, 589 


1928* 


21.942.430 


Value— 

1918 - . . - 


$13, 533, 478 


1919_. 


12, 296, 192 


1920 


4, 794, 409 


1921 


2, 082, 926 


1922 -.- 


3, 664, 517 


1923 


3, 968, 742 


1924 


3, 901, 629 


1925 


5, 070, 245 


1926 


5, 175, 206 


1927 J 


4. 474, 972 


1928 8 . . 


4, 330, 557 


Motor benzol: 
Gallons— 
1918 




1919 (included under benzene above) . 






(•) 
« 

(12) 
(12) 
(12) 
(13) 
(12) 
(12) 
(12) 


. 

(«) 


1920 


i« 55, 764, 265 
50, 022, 573 
54, 930, 203 
80, 480, 326 
72, 921, 244 
80, 957, 983 
89, 501, 212 
86, 802, 745 
102, 935, 995 


467, 126 
11 350, 000 

(12) 

(«) 
(°) 

(8) 
(«) 
(«) 


(») 


1921 


C) 


1922 


55, 622, 482 


1923 

1924 

1925_ 

1926 


83, 664, 846 
76, 072, 771 
84, 789, 206 
92, 891, 995 


1927 7 

1928 8 

Value— 
1918 


90, 160, 367 
106, 574, 289 


1919 (included under benzene above) - 






(») 

(») 

(») 
(12) 

(12) 
(12) 


(») 


1920 - 


10 $12, 644, 931 
8, 966, 686 
10, 491, 309 
13, 145, 833 
11, 066, 652 


$112, 849 
11 70, 000 

(12) 
(«) 
(«) 


(») 


1921 

1922 


(«) 
$10, 657, 074 


1923 


13, 851, 704 


1924 


11, 678, 665 



1 Sales instead of production are here given to avoid double coimting between production of crude and 
pure grades and because such of the product as is used in the coke plant or gas works is not available for 
commercial use. 

2 In order to eliminate duplication, the figures for gas works are exclusive of by-product coke ovens oper- 
ated by city gas companies, which are included in the preceding column, and exclusive of recoveries from 
such tar-refining operations conducted by the city gas companies as are included in the column headed 
"tar refineries," From time to time plants formerly included in t lie column headed "gasworks" have been 
transferred to the column "tar refineries," hence the figures in the "gas works" column are not strictly 
comparable from year to year. The total comnjercial production shown in the last column contains no 
duplication and is comparable from year to year. 

3 See note 2. 

< Totals include estimates for firms not reporting, and actual figures for items that can not be shown sep- 
arately without disclosing individual returns. 
« Includes motor benzol and 13,000 gallons of gasoline used in blending. 
« Reports incomplete. Estimate included in total. 
' Final figures, revised since last report. 
8 8ut].iect to revision, 

• Data not collected from tar refiners prior to 1922. 
10 Includes 1,333,000 gallons of gasoline used in blending, 
u Estimate. 
« Included in total, but can not be shown separately without disclosing individual returns. 



COAL-TAR CRUDES 



17 



Table 6. — Total commercial production of benzene, toluene, solvent naphtha, naph- 
thalene, and creosote oil from all sources in the United States, 1918-1928 — Con. 

[Data for coke ovens and gas works from reports to United States Geological Survey and Bur eau of Mines; 
for tar reflneries and others to United States TarifE Commission! 



By-product 

coke plants 

(sales) 



I I Tar reflner- 

, Gas works [ ies and all 
not elsewhere other estab- 



included 
(sales) 



lishments 
(produc- 
tion) 



Total com- 
mercial pro- 
duction 



Motor benzol— Continued. 
Value — Continued. 

1925 

1926 

1927 ■ 

1928 8 

Toluene, all grades: 

Gallons — 

1918 

1919.. 

1920 

1921 

1922 

1923 

1924 

1925 

1926 

1927 7 

1928 8 

Value — 

1918 

1919 

1920 

1921 

1922 

1923 

1924 

1925 

1926 

1927 ^ 

1928 8 

Solvent naphtha, crude and refined, including 

xylene: 

Gallons — 

1918-- 

1919 

1920 

1921 

1922 

1923 

1924 

1925 

1926 

1927'... 

1928 8 

Value — 

1918 

1919 

1920 

1921 

1922 

1923 

1924 

1925 

1926 

1927 ^ 

1928 8 

Naphthalene: 

Pounds— 

1918 

1919 

1920 

1921 

1922- 



$13, 441, 422 
16, 863, 109 
14, 629, 999 
16, 832, 646 



8,541,366 I 
1,353,827 
2,470,364 ' 
835,493 i 
1,910,060 i 
2,634,783 
3, 231, 502 
5, 038, 147 
8, 650, 605 
11,784,984 
16, 181,650 

$12, 249, 702 

355, 990 

740, 722 

233, 378 

557, 015 

766, 030 

769, 682 

1,310,786 

2, 914, 752 

3, 999, 820 

5, 513, 624 



14 3, 284, 037 
16 3, 649, 066 
4, 695, 464 
2, 881, 656 
2,861,482 
3, 399, 904 
3, 884, 585 
3, 993, 735 
3,546,117 
3, 661, 970 
4.471,141 

i< $458, 689 

i« 557, 416 

851, 048 

510, 509 

538, 512 

608, 084 

724, 874 

805, 251 

1, 035, 870 

926, 787 

1, 047, 095 



15, 890, 447 
6, 702, 040 

14, 448, 762 
1, 983, 523 
4, 887, 935 



3, 965, 518 
C) 

11 2, 000 
11 1,000 

(13) 

II 2, 000 
11 2, 000 
11 2,000 
"200 
11 1, 000 
11 1, 000 

$5, 597, 353 

"300 
11270 

(13) 

11570 
11 500 
"500 
11 170 
"300 
"300 



1, 442, 267 
(^ 
(«) 
(«) 

(12) 
(«) 
(«) 
« 
(«) 
(«) 
(«) 

$191, 475 
(«) 
(6) 
(«) 

(12) 

(«) 
(«) 

(6) 

(«) 
(«) 



(•) 

1, 760. 293 

(«) 
(«) 



(12) 

(12) 
(12) 
(12) 



1, 596, 353 
510, 957 

(13) 
(13) 
(13) 
(13) 
(13) 
(13) 
(13) 
(13) 
(13) 

$8, 044, 890 
235, 321 

(13) 
(13) 
(13) 
(13) 
(13) 
(13) 
(13) 
(13) 
(13) 



n 965, 458 

(12) 
(IS) 
(12) 
(12) 
(12) 

812, 378 
530, 833 

(12) 
(12) 
(12) 

15 $232, 003 

(12) 
(12) 
(12) 
(12) 
(12) 

153, 941 
148, 801 

(12) 
(12) 
(12) 



40, 138, 092 
12,612,203 
26, 393, 411 
16.949,464 
19,323,393 



$14, 270, 746 
17, 578, 255 
15, 201, 144 
17, 388, 166 



14,103,237 
1, 884, 784 

(13) 
(13) 
(13) 
(13) 
(13) 
(13) 
(13) 
(13) 
(13) 

$20, 891, 945 
596,511 

(13) 
(13) 
(13) 
(13) 
(13) 
(13) 
(13) 
(13) 
(13) 



5, 691, 762 
4,128,747 
5. 384, 560 
A, 627, 488 

3, 680, 811 
4,041,497 
4,781,963 

4, 609, 568 
4, 588, 844 

4, 536. 967 

5, 615, 192 

$882, 167 

672, 685 

994, 205 

644, 548 

773, 336 

800, 698 

896, 815 

972, 052 

1,174,297 

1, 072, 198 

1,201,882 



56, 924, 619 
20,114,243 
42, 602, 466 
19, 432, 987 
25,411,328 



6 Reports incomplete. Estimate included in total. 
' Final figures, revised since last report. 
• Subject to revision. 

11 Estimate. 

12 Included in total, but can not be shown separately without disclosing individual returns. 

13 A certain quantity of toluene was produced at gas works and at tar refinerias, but the figures can not 
be given without disclosing individual returns. 

'* Includes 52,847 gallons of xylene, valued at $9,937, and 107,375 gallons of crude heavy solvent, valued 
at $8,769. 
15 Includes 192,969 gallons of xylene, valued at $67,935. 
i» Includes 23,088 gallons of xylene, valued at $4,563. 



18 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Table 6. — Total commercial production of benzene, toluene, solvent naphtha, naph- 
thalene, and creosote oil from all sources in the United States, 1918-1928 — Con. 

IData for coke ovens and gas works from reports to United States Geological Survey and Bureau of Mines; 
for tar refineries and others to United States Tariff Commission] 





By-product 

coke plants 

(sales) 


Gas works 

not elsewhere 

included 

(sales) 


Tar refiner- 
ies and all 
other estab- 
lishments 
(produc- 
tion) 


Total com- 
mercial pro- 
duction 


Naphthalene— Continued. 
Pounds— Continued. 

1923 


11, 245, 633 
8, 219, 073 
9,900,517 
7, 723, 223 
7, 848, 224 

10, 937, 429 

$650, 229 

191, 364 

487, 974 

59, 335 

131,252 

239.709 

128, 208 

97, 493 

97, 310 

86, 078 

135, 693 

18 12, 386, 000 
(«) 


1, 115, 563 

(6) 
1, 266, 037 

(«) 

« 

« 

$14, 282 
(») 

63, 449 
(6) 
(«) 

42, 247 
(«) 

34, 751 
(«) 
(«) 
(«) 


41, 453, 002 
34, 683, 803 
34, 135, 175 
45, 165, 957 
45, 298, 441 
35, 179. 996 

$1,281,440 
327, 201 
791,403 
380, 167 
352, 957 
652, 148 
441, 333 
519, 773 
494, 986 
470, 806 
395, 059 

122,074,126 
$15, 894, 588 


53, 814, 195 


1924 


44, 102, 878 


1925 


45, 301, 726 


1926 - 


53, 059, 189 


1927' 


53, 176, 660 


1928 8 


46, 157, 425 


Value— 

1918 - 


$1, 945, 951 


1919 


542, 565 


1920 


1, 342, 826 


1921 - 


462, 502 


1922 


536, 209 


1923 . - -. 


934, 104 


1924 


602, 541 


1925 


652, 017 


1926 


594, 296 


1927 7 


557, 884 


1928 8. . 

Creosote oil:'' 

Gallons— 1928 * 


531, 752 
134, 460, 126 


Value— 1928 8 




$17, 507, 588 









6 Reports incomplete. Estimate included in total. 
' Final figures, revised since last report. 
8 Subject to revision. 

17 Prior to 1928, all the creosote oil reported produced came from the "Tar refineries, etc." Beginning 
with 1928 considerable quantities were recovered at by-product coke plants. 

18 Figures represent production. 

Production oj crudes in by-product coke ovens. — The output of the 
leadino- coal-tar crudes in by-product coke ovens was as follows in 
1928: Crude light oil, 188,597,956 gallons, an increase of 24,100,000 
gallons over 1927; motor benzol, 103,051,900 gallons, as compared 
with 86,995,343 gallons in 1927; crude and refined toluene, 16,097,856 
gallons, or 4,004,266 gallons more than was produced in 1927. 

Motor benzol is a partly refined light oil, usually blended with 
gasoline or with gasoline and alcohol for motor fuels. Of 103,051,900 
gallons produced in 1928, 102,935,995 were sold for $16,832,646. 

Crude phenol is being recovered at three domestic plants from 
crude ammonia liquors obtained in by-product coke-oven operations. 
Recovery is by extraction with benzene and by subsequent treatment 
with caustic soda. More than 57,000 gallons were so recovered in 
1928. 

Certain coke-oven plants have adopted a new method for partially 
refining tar which has resulted in an increased output of creosote oil. 
In 1929, additional plants will be placed in operation. An average 
yield of coal tar per ton of coal coked is 8 gallons, from which about 
bji to 6 gallons of creosote oil may be obtained. The quantity of 
creosote oil available from coal tar produced in the United States 
exceeds by a wide margin the present domestic consumption. Devel- 
opments were under way for an increase in the production of tar acids. 

By a new process of purifjang coke-oven gas, a finely divided, 
almost colloidal sulfur, valuable as an insecticide, is obtained. 

Table 7 shows the production of coal-tar crudes in coke-oven 
operations, 1926-1928. 



COAL-TAR CRUDES 



19 



Table 7. — Coal-tar by-products obtained from coke-oven operations, 1926-1928 
[United States Geological Survey and Bureau of Mines] 



Product 



Production 



Sales 



Quantity 



Value 



Total Average 



1926 
Tar... gallons.. 

Light oil and derivatives: 

Crude light oil do 

Benzol- 
Crude do 

Refined ._do 

Motor benzol do 

Toluol- 
Crude -do 

Refined .do 

Solvent naphtha do 

Other light oil products do 



529, 486, 374 



277, 248, 522 



$14, 103, 760 



1 164, 059, 552 



744, 713 
713, 904 
029, 972 

432, 317 
359, 135 
704, 555 
127, 710 



10, 783, 568 

4, 660, 621 
17, 327, 169 
89, 501, 212 

400,308 
8, 250, 297 
3, 546, 117 
1, 324, 303 



1, 330, 208 

1, 109, 974 
3, 957, 719 
16, 863, 109 

127, 298 

2, 787, 454 
1, 035, 870 

93, 344 



Naphthalene: 

Crude 

Refined... 



.pounds. 
....do... 



1927 3 
Tar gallons.. 

Light oil and derivatives: 

Crude light oil do 

Benzol., crude and refined do 

Motor tDsnzol ...do 

Toluol, crude and refined ..do 

Solvent naphtha (including xylol) do 

Other light oil products do 



Naphthalene, crude .'.pounds.. 

1928 4 
Tar gallons.. 

i,ight oil and derivatives: 

Crude light oil do 

Benzol, crude and refined ..do 

Motor benzol do 

Toluol, crude and refined do 

Solvent naphtha (including xylol) do 

Other light oil products do 



2 130, 112, 306 



135, 793, 595 



27, 304, 976 



7, 746, 821 
139, 701 



, 556, 372 
166, 851 



96, 210 
1,100 



7. 886, 522 



723, 223 



97, 310 



546, 859, 205 



305, 898, 176 



16, 095, 478 



1 164. 488, 233 

22, 007, 760 

86, 995, 343 

12, 093. 590 

4, 979, 736 

3, 155, 031 



9, 265, 948 
21, 193, 807 
86, 802, 745 
11,784,984 
3, 661, 970 
1, 393. 876 



1, 077, 957 

4,371,519 

14, 629. 999 

3, 999, 820 

926, 787 

147, 017 



2 129, 231, 460 134, 103, 330 25, 153. 099 



8, 302, 845 



631. 844, 767 



' 188, 597, 956 

21, 451, 748 

103. 051, yoo 

16, 097, 856 

5. 587, 370 

3, 114, 531 



j 2 149, 303, 405 



Naphthalene, crude and refined... pounds.. ' 

Creosote oil _ gallons.. 

Phenol do I 

Pitch oftar net tons . . j 

Other products » _ I 



12, 182, 143 

12, 386, 000 

57, 794 

54,131 



7, 848, 224 



86, 078 



332. 150, 270 



10, 334, 813 
21, 452, 973 
102, 935, 995 
16, 181. 650 
4,471,141 
1. 388, 106 



17, 544, 797 



1, 158, 846 

4, 215, 752 
16, 832, 646 

5, 513, 624 
1, 047, 095 

111,844 



156,764,678 28,879,! 



10, 937, 429 

7, 377, 816 

66, 607 

1,725 



135, 693 



910, 318 



$0. 051 



.123 

.238 
.228 
,188 

.318 
.338 
,292 
.070 



.201 



.013 
.007 



.013 



.053 



.116 
.206 
.169 
.339 
.253 
.105 



.188 
.011 



.053 



.112 
.197 
.164 
.341 
.234 
.081 



.184 



.012 



1 Refined on the premises to make the derived products shown: 1926, 159,589,756 gallons of crude oil; 1927, 
161,072,729 gallons: 1928, 182,998,384 gallons. 

2 Total gallons of derived products. 
' Revised since last report. 

< Preliminary figures. Includes products oftar distillation conducted by coke-oven operators under same 
corporate name, excepting, however, phenol and other tar acids produced at Clairton, Pa. which are 
covered elsewhere by report of the U. S. Tariff Commission. 

• Sodium prussiate, carbolate, sulfur, smoke compound, and textile covering. 



20 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

Production oj crudes hij firms not 'primarily engaged in the operation of 
coke-oven plants. — Returns to the Tariff Commission by firms en2:aged 
primarily in distilling coal tar show that 336,321,326 gallons of tar, 
amounting to approximately 50 per cent of the total production of 
coal tar, were distilled in 1928. This is an increase of 37.5 per cent 
over the quantity reported distilled in 1927. 

Dead or creosote oil and crude naphthalene were the chief dis- 
tillates produced in 1928. 

Coal-tar creosote. — The output of creosote oil by tar refineries and 
by-product coke plants was 134,460,126 gallons, valued at $17,507,588, 
or 13 cents per gallon. In 1927, 17 manufacturers reported a pro- 
duction of 76,395,325 gallons, valued at $9,847,932, or 13 cents per 
gallon. Imports of creosote oil in 1928 amounted to 88,385,074 
gallons, valued at $13,928,136, or 15.7 cents per gallon. The large 
increase in production of creosote oil is due in part to increased pro- 
duction by the older manufacturers and in part to large-scale opera- 
tions by several new producers. A new process for producing creosote 
oil at the coke-oven plants has been previously referred to. 

Coal-tar creosote is the most widely used wood preservative. It is 
consumed in increasing quantities for railway ties, telegraph poles, 
and for mine and construction timber. 

Some of the advantages of coal-tar creosote are (1) high toxicity, 
which makes it poisonous to wood-destroying fungi; (2) relative 
insolubility in water and low volatility, which cause it to remain in the 
wood almost indefinitely; (3) ease of application; (4) ease with which 
its depth of penetration can be determined; (5) general availability 
and relatively low cost. 

In 1927, the last year for which statistics are available, more 
wood-preserving plants were in active operation and a greater quan- 
tity of wood was treated than ever before in the history of the industry. 
Plants operating in 1927 numbered 187, as compared with 180 in 1926. 
The quantity of wood treated was 345,685,804 cubic feet, or 56,363,- 
725 cubic feet more than was treated in 1926. For this quantity of 
wood a total of 219,778,430 gallons'* of creosote was used. This is 
the largest quantity ever used. It was made up of 46,232,702 gallons 
of distillate coal-tar creosote, 78,876,279 gallons of creosote coal-tar 
solution, 1,922,576 gallons of refined water-gas tar, 1,685,364 gallons 
of water-gas tar solution, and 91,061,509 gallons of imported coal-tar 
creosote. 

Other materials used in wood preservatives were as follows: 
Petroleum, 22,911,134 gallons; solid zmc chloride, 22,162,718 pounds; 
paving oil, 1,389,465 gallons; and miscellaneous preservatives, 631,234 
gallons. 

Pitch and other i^roducts. — The residue from the distillation of crude 
tar is known as pitch. In 1928 the output of pitch was 514,902 tons, 
valued at $8,425,461. Because of its resistance to atmospheric 
conditions, particularly to moisture, coal-tar pitch is widely used as 
a waterproofing material, e. g., in roof construction, building founda- 
tions, railways, etc., and as a protective coating for underground pipe 
lines. Soft pitch is used in large quantities for road making. Metal 
paints are made by dissolving pitch in the light oils obtained in the 
distillation of tar. 

< Quantity of Wood Treated and Preservatives Used in the United States in 1927. Forest Service, 
U.S. Department of Agriculture. 



COAL-TAR CRUDES 



21 



Refined tar is the residue from tlie distillation of a varying propor- 
tion of the lower boiling products. Production in 1928 was 1,640,282 
barrels, valued at $7,543,457, as compared with 1,377,703 barrels in 
1927, valued at $6,172,825. 

Other distillates showing increased production in 1928 are crude 
anthracene, anthracene oil, extracted crude tar acids, light oil, and 
toluene. Those showing decreased production are pyridine and 
xylene. 

Table 8 shows the quantity and value of coal-tar crudes distilled 
by firms not primarilv engaged in the operation of coke-oven plants 
in 1928. 

Table 8. — Coal-tar crudes: Production, 1928, by firms not primarihj engaged in 
the operation of coke-oven plants and gas houses 

[The numbers in the second column refer to the numbered alphabetical list of manufacturers given on p. 192. 
An X indicates that the corresponding product was made by a manufacturer who did not consent to the 
publication of his name in connection therewith. A blank in the third and fourth columns indicates 
that there was actual production of the corresponding article but that figures can not be published without 
revealing the output of individual firms] 



Name 



Manufacturers ' identification 
numbers (according to list 
on p. 192) 



1928 



Quantity 



Value 



Unit 
value 



Total crudes 

Anthracene (crude, less than 

30 per cent) pounds.. 

Anthracene oil. gallons.. 

Benzene do 

Carbolic oil or middle oil do — 

Cresol or cresylic acid do 

Dead or creosote oil do — 



Extracted crude tar acids do... 

Light oil do... 

Motor fuel do... 

Naphthalene (crude) pounds. 

other distillates gallons. 

Pitch of tar tons. 

Psuedo cumene gallons. 

Pyridine do... 

Kefined tars barrels. 



Solvent naphtha .gallons . 

Toluene.. do... 

Xylene do... 



$36, 026, 948 



134 

126, 134 

15, 20, 123, 126.. 

41,86, X 

15. 



474, 457 
200, 899 



111. 805 
26, 455 



.236 
.132 



11, 14, 15, 20, 39, 41, 83, 86, 126, 
134, 146, 156, 159, X, X, X, X, 
X, X, X, X. 

15. 



122, 074, 126 



15, 894, 588 



.130 



39, 41, 86, 126, 156, X, X, X 

39 123 

3, 'll, 15,'4ir86Vi23ri347i46," X", 

X X. 
3, 15, 20, 39, 86, 123, 126, 156, X, 

X. 
3, 11, 14, 15, 20, 39, 41, S3, 86, 126, 

134, 146, X, X, X, X, X, X, X. 

15 

15 



35,179,996 

6, 709, 519 

514, 902 



395, 059 
1,005,972 
8, 425, 461 



.011 

.150 

16. 360 



3, 11, 15, 20, 41, 83, 86, 123, 134, 
146, 156, X, X, X, X, X, X, 
X, X. 

3, 15, 20, 126, 134, X, X, X 

15, 123.... 

15 



1, 640, 282 
1, 089, 286 



7, 543, 457 
130,074 



4.599 
.134 



The instructions sent to manufacturers were as follows: Include under dead or creosote oil only products 
which may be used for creosoting. Include under "other distillates" shingle stain oil, disinfectant oils, 
and flotation oils which do not contain over 5 per cent of phenol. Include under refined tars those tars 
which are used for road treatment, saturating felt, and for protective coatings. Phenol and all distillates 
which, on being subjected to distillation, yield in the portion distilling below 190° C. a quantity of tar acids 
equal to or more than 5 per cent of the original distillate, or which, on being subjected to distillation, yield 
in the portion distOling below 2) 5° C . a quantity of tar acids equal to or more than 75 per cent of the original 
distillate are not to be included here but are to be placed under intermediates. 



Imports of crudes. — Imports are given in Table 79, page 183. 

Exports of crudes. — A decrease in 1928 was noted in the exports of 
benzene which totaled 21,338,429 gallons valued at $4,962,719, as 
compared with 25,793,566 gallons in 1927 valued at $6,665,105. 
Exports to Germany in 1928 were 10,824,000 gallons, as compared 
with 11,918,000 gallons in 1927; to the United Kingdom, 6,559,000 
and 8,397,000 gallons, in the two years. There were no shipments of 



22 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

benzene to the Netherlands in 1928, but approximately 4,500,000 
gallons were exported to that country in 1927. Exports to France 
increased from 556,000 gallons in 1927 to 1,380,000 in 1928. 

Exports of crude coal tar and pitch in 1927 were 673,000 barrels 
valued at $3,256,000, and of crude coal tar in 1928, 138,153 barrels 
valued at $580,629; exports of coal-tar pitch and coal-tar pitch coke 
in 1928 were 38,354 tons valued at $608,118. 

Low-temperature carbonization of coal. — An important development 
early in the present year was the commencement of operation of low- 
temperature carbonization of bituminous coal at New Brunswick, 
N. J., by a subsidiary of the International Combustion Engineering 
Corporation. This process, known as the K. G. S. process (Kohlen- 
scheidungs Gesellschaft) has been operated commercially for five years 
in Germany. The New Brunswick plant is the largest low-tem- 
perature installation in the world, and is an adaption to Ameri- 
can conditions. A second plant is under construction at Coates- 
ville. Pa. The advantages of low temperature distillation are 
high yields of creosote oil in the tar, with consequent greater recov- 
ery of tar acids, and a valuable light oil content with promising 
antiknock constituents. 

Sales of the rich coal gas to the public utilities corporation, and of 
the semicoke for household use, are important factors upon which de- 
pend the commercial success of the process. 

The operations at New Brunswick will be watched with interest 
because of the bearing of future expansions upon the coal-tar crudes 
and intermediates. 

Coal-Tar Intermediates 
description 

Intermediates do not occur as such in coal tar, but are manufactured 
from the crudes (benzene, toluene, naphthalene, and anthracene) by 
treatment with sulfuric acid, nitric acid, alkalies, chlorine, or other 
chemicals. From fewer than 10 coal-tar crudes, some 300 interme- 
diates are prepared for use in the production of hundreds of dyes, 
medicinals, flavors, perfumes, resins, and other finished coal-tar 
products. The various chemical stages in the conversion of crudes to 
intermediates are (1) nitration, (2) reduction, (3) sulfonation, (4) 
caustic fusion, (5) chlorination, (6) aikylation, (7) liming, (8) con- 
densation, (9) carboxylation, (10) oxidation, and (11) diazotization. 

Certain intermediates are used as accelerators in the vulcanization 
of rubber, as camphor substitutes, insecticides, germicides, fungicides, 
in the flotation process for concentrating ores, and for other purposes. 
Others are used in the direct production of dyes on the fiber and also 
for increasing the fastness of dyes on the fiber. When used for the 
latter purpose they are known as developers. After purification 
many intermediates are used directly as drugs, perfumes, and flavors. 

The relation between the heavy chemical industry and the interme- 
diate and dye industry is an intimate one, as the dye industry is an 
important consumer of heavy chemicals and other products. The 
manufacture of intern;ediates and dyes requires large quantities of 
acids, alkalies, and other heavy chemicals, such as sodium nitrite and 
sulfide, salt, chlorine, bromine, sulfur, and in addition noncoal-tar 
organic compounds, such as methanol, formaldehyde, and acetic 



COAL-TAR INTERMEDIATES 23 

anhydride. It is estimated that for each pound of coal-tar finished 
products manufactured there are consumed from 12 to 15 pounds of 
heavy chemicals. Some of the anthraquinone vat dyes require over 
80 pounds of inorganic chemicals per pound of dye. 

PRODUCTION 

Statistics of the production of intermediates are given in Table 11 
(p. 29) in as great detail as is possible without disclosing the output of 
individual manufacturers. The total production in 1928 was 279,- 
274,807 pounds, as compared with 240,073,184 pounds in 1927. 
Sales in 1928 amounted to 115,837,340 pounds, valued at $24,126,473 
or at 20.8 cents per pound as compared with 21.7 cents in the previous 
year. 

In general, the intermediates normally consumed in large quantity 
in the manufacture of dyes show increases in production in 1928 as 
compared with 1927. There was also a marked increase in the output 
of those intermediates used in the preparation of fast and specialty 
dyes. 

Rubber accelerators.— Frogress was made in 1928 in the manufacture 
of intermediates for accelerators in the vulcanization of rubber. The 
total consumption of these intermediates in the manufacture of rubber 
products can not be measured accurately as some of the ouptut 
reported was used in dyes and other products. 

Accelerators reduce the time of vulcanization and lengthen the 
resistance of modern rubber compounds to ageing. They constitute 
an important division of the coal-tar chemical industry in the United 
States. Each year brings new accelerators with improved properties 
to replace certain of the older products. 

Among the accelerators showing increased production in 1928 over 
1927 are diphenylguanidine, crotilidine aniline, dimethylaniline, 
anhydroformaldehyde-p-toluidine, acetaldehyde aniline and deriva- 
tives, ethylidine aniline and derivatives, nitrosodimethylaniline, mer- 
capto-benzo-thiazol, and p-toluidine. The following chemicals of 
this group show^ a decreased production in 1928: o-ditolylguanidine, 
dimethylamine, dimethyldiphenylurea, formanilide, heptylidine ani- 
line, triphenylguanidine, thiocarbanilide, and tritolyguanidine. 

Accelerators reported in 1928, but not in 1927, include aldol aniline 
derivatives, butylaldehyde aniline condensation products, crotilidine 
a-naphthylamine, dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine, p-dimethylamino 
butylidine aniline, s-di (b-naphthyl)-p-phen3denediamine, phenyl-b- 
naphthylamine, and polybutylidine aniline. 

Two important decisions of the courts affecting accelerators were 
rendered early in 1928. On April 2, 1928, the Court of Appeals of the 
District of Columbia handed down a decision establishing the patent 
rights of both di- and tri-o-tolylguanidine. On April 8 of the same 
year, the United States Supreme Court declared invalid United States 
Patent 1411231, covering the use of diphenylguanidine as a rubber 
accelerator. 

Statistics of the production of organic rubber accelerators of non- 
coal-tar origin are given in Table 37, page 134. 

Synthetic phenol.— The combined production of natural and syn- 
thetic phenol by six firms in 1928 was 10,227,489 pounds, an increase of 
27 per cent over 1927. More than 80 per cent of this production was 
synthetic phenol. Sales in 1928 totaled 7,745,650 pounds, valued at 



24 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



$912,304. The unit value of phenol has steadily declined since 1924, 
when it was 30 cents; by 1927 it had dropped to 15 cents, and by 1928 
to 12 cents. 

Table 9 shows production and sales figures from 1917 to 1928, 
inclusive. 

Table 9. — Phenol, natural and synthetic: Production and sales in the United States, 

1917-1928 



Year 


Production 


Sales 
Quantity Value 


Unit 
value 


1917 


Pounds 
64, 146, 499 
106, 794, 277 
1, 543. 659 


Pounds 


1 $23, 715, 805 

1 37, 270, 284 

1 155, 624 


$0.37 


1918 




.36 


1919 . 




.10 


1920 






1921 




292, 645 
1, 266, 552 
2, 180, 244 
8, 273, 598 
8, 524, 178 
5, 479, 727 
4, 595, 162 
7, 745, 650 


41, 617 
268, 311 
589, 822 
2, 505, 533 
1, 771, 332 
987, 631 
684, 160 
912, 304 


.14 


1922 .^-. - 


1, 285, 978 
3,310,911 
10, 521, 944 
14, 734, 065 
8, 691, 181 
8, 041, 082 
10, 227, 489 


.21 


1923 


.27 


1924 - 


.30 


1925 


.21 


1926 


.18 


1927 


.15 


1928 2 


.12 







» Value of production. 

' Does not include production or sales of phenol reported to the Bureau of Mines by certain coke-oven 
operators. 

The chief use of phenol is in the manufacture of synthetic resin, one 
of the raw materials of molded plastics and varnishes. Other impor- 
tant uses are as an antiseptic and as a disinfectant; in the manufacture 
of picric acid; in intermediates required in making coal-tar dyes; and 
in pharmaceuticals. 

There are two methods of making phenol : (1 ) Either (a) from one 
of the fractions in the distillation of coal tar, a by-product resulting 
from the manufacture of coke in by-product ovens; or (b) from the 
manufacture of coal gas; (2) by a synthetic process from benzene, a 
coal-tar derivative. The synthetic process was developed on a large 
scale during the war, and since 1923 has again become increasingly 
important. 

A new process of making synthetic phenol from monochlorobenzene, 
developed by a domestic manufacturer, will probably still further 
reduce the cost of manufacture. 

Imports of phenol in 1928 were only 1,653 pounds, valued at $298, 
and for the first six months of 1929, 432,266 pounds, valued at $44,103. 

The duty on phenol was changed by presidential proclamation, 
effective November 30, 1927, from 7 cents per pound and 40 per 
centum ad valorem (based on American selling price) to 3% cents per 
pound and 20 per centum ad valorem (based on American selling 
price). 

p-Aminophenol. — The production of p-aminophenol and hydro- 
chloride showed a decrease in 1928 from 1927. These products are 
used directly in dyeing furs, in making dyes, and as photographic 
chemicals. 

Dinitrophenol. — Dinitrophenol and sodium salt, used in the dye 
industry, were made in much larger quantities in 1928 than in 1927. 



COAL-TAR INTERMEDIATES 25 

Organic-metallic fungicides. — Much research work has been done in 
recent years in developing organic-metalhc compounds for treating 
fungus plant diseases, especially the grain smuts. It is estimated that 
the "stinking smut" alone causes a loss of 15,000,000 to 20,000,000 
bushels of wheat annually. 

Formerly the seed was treated with formaldehyde or with a copper- 
sulfate solution. While effective, these solutions impaired germina- 
tion of the seed and produced many deformed plants. Resort was 
therefore had to the application of solutions of organic mercury and 
other metallic compounds. These were found to be effective and 
caused little or no seed injury. Representative domestic fungicides 
of this class are ''Uspulum," or hydroxymercuricchlorophenol sulfate 
'Corona 620," a mercuriated-o-nitrophenol ; ''Semesan," a chlorophe- 
nol mercury compound; and two important German products, Ger- 
misan, a mercury cresol sodium cyanide, and Tillantin "C," a 
colloidal copper and organic-arsenic compound. One application of 
these metallic compounds of popular interest is for the "brown patch" 
on lawns. 

An objection to the use of the solutions mentioned is that the seed 
or grain must be dried before planting in order to prevent premature 
germination and fermentation. The trend of research is now toward 
the development of dry compounds or "dusts." It has been found 
that basic copper carbonate is an effective powder against the stink- 
ing smut, and that certain organic-mercuric and organic-copper com- 
pounds are generall}^ effective in the treatment of fungi. Ethyl 
mercury chloride or "Ceresan," developed by an American producer, 
is another compound reported to have promising general fungicidal 
properties. 

Research will be directed toward the production of organic-metallic 
fungicides with general fungicidal properties that can be sold at prices 
low enough to encourage their extensive use. Production of the 
mercury-organic compounds showed a decided increase in 1928 over 
1927. 

Diphenyl. — Production of diphenyl was first reported in 1928. Its 
stability at high temperature and other desirable properties render 
it an important agent in heat transfer. The development of diphenyl 
derivatives is under way. 

Cresylic acid. — Cresylic acid and phenol are joint products of one of 
the crude tar acid fractions obtained in the distillation of coal tar. 
The two are separated by extraction with caustic soda solution and 
fractional distillation. One of the largest uses of refined cresylic acid 
is in the manufacture of synthetic resins. Another use is in the making 
of tricresylphosphate, a substitute for camphor in the manufacture 
of celluloid and other pyroxylin plastics. Minor uses are in disin- 
fectants, antiseptics, germicides, and similar products. 

The production of cresylic acid in 1928 increased materially over 
the previous year. There were four manufacturers in 1928 as com- 
pared with two in 1927; other firms entered the field in 1929. 

Imports of duty-free cresylic acid increased from 9,136,516 pounds 
in 1927 to 10,687,109 pounds in 1928. Dutiable imports in 1928 
amounted to 976,180 pounds, valued at $70,513. 

85526—30 3 



26 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

Tricresyl phosphate. — Tricresyl phosphate, used in the manufacture 
of pyroxyhn plastics, showed an increased production but a dechne 
in unit sales value. 

Benzoic acid. — -The production of benzoic acid, U. S. P., in 1928 
was 277,202 pounds, as compared with 209,733 pounds in 1927. 
Benzoate of soda, used chiefly as a food preservative, showed a slight 
increase in production, advancing from 1,025,835 pounds in 1927 to 
1,027,370 pounds in 1928. 

Halogenated products. — Conspicuous gains occurred in the output 
of the chlorinated intermediates, the foremost of which are mono- 
chlorobenzene, dichloroaniline, p-dichlorobenzene, o-dichlorobenzene, 
benzyl chloride, o-chlorobenzaldehyde, and o- and p-nitrochloro- 
benzene. 

The production of dinitrochlorobenzene, chlorophenol (ortho and 
para), benzotrichloride, and chlorometanilic acid was a decrease from 
the output reported in 1927. 

Aniline and derivatives. — The 1928 production of aniline was 
29,770,194 pounds, an increase of 2,685,967 pounds over 1927; the 
value of sales was 13.5 cents per pound, as compared with 14 cents 
in 1927. Aniline hydrochloride showed an increased production in 
1928 over 1927. 

Dimethylaniline showed an increase in production in 1928, but the 
sales price per pound declined from 26 cents in 1927 to 23.1 cents in 
1928. 

p-Nitroaniline, used in color lakes, Direct green B and G, Chrome 
yellow R, certain sulfur dyes, and in producing Para red directly 
on the fiber, is another intermediate of this group showing increased 
production in 1928, and lower unit value of sales. 

Other aniline derivatives produced in larger quantit}'' in 1928 
than in 1927 were: Diethylaniline, diethylaniline-m-sulfonic acid, 
aniline disulfonic acid, dichloroaniline, 2: 4-dinitroaniline, ethylani- 
line (mono), and sulfanilic acid. 

Aniline derivatives showing decreased production in 1928 were: 
Acetanilide (technical), aniline sulfate, aniline sulfonic acid, methylene 
dianilide, and m-nitroaniline. 

Benzoyl peroxide. — A smaller output of benzoyl peroxide, used 
in bleaching flour, was reported in 1928 than in 1927, but a larger 
output of benzoyl chloride, one of the intermediates used in making 
benzoyl peroxide. 

Naphthalene. — The output of refined naphthalene in 1928 was 
24,992,092 pounds, as compared with 21,233,131 pounds in 1927. 
Derivatives of naphthalene for which a larger production was reported 
in 1928 than in 1927 are a-naphthylamine, phthalic anhydride, and 
certain anthraquinone derivatives. 

Phthalic anhydride. — This intermediate is made by the catalytic 
oxidation of naphthalene. Production in 1928 was the highest 
on record — 6,030,854 pounds. In unit value of sales, however, there 
has been a steady decline, the price per pound dropping from $4.23 
in 1917 to 20 cents in 1925 and to 16.3 cents in 1928. In 1914, when 
our entire consumption was imported, the invoice value was 24 cents 
per pound. 

Phthalic anhydride is the raw material for anthraquinone required 
in the manufacture of many vat dyes and in alizarin and alizarin 
derivatives. It is used directly in making the fluorescein, cosine,. 



COAL-TAR INTERMEDIATES 27 

and rhodamine dyes. Diethylphthalate, dibutylphthalate, and other 
esters of phthalic acid are made from the anhydride. A new use of 
phthalic anhjT^dride is as a raw material for synthetic resins. For 
this purpose it is combined with glycerin. These synthetic resins 
promise to have increased commercial application. 

Anthiaquinone.- — Anthraquinone is the basic raw material for cer- 
tain vat dyes. In recent years the supply has been derived synthetic- 
ally from phthalic anhydride and benzene. Anthraquinone from 
this source is of high purity and gives dyes of purer shades than 
anthraquinone made by the oxidation of anthracene. Two processes 
now under development for the purification of low-grade anthracene 
may put cheaper anthraquinone on the market. One is by the 
catalytic oxidation of the heterocyclic impurities and aliphatic 
compounds; the other involves the use of furfural as a solvent. 

New intermediates.— Oi the 347 intermediates made in 1928, 66 
were not made in 1927. Many of the 66 were made for the first 
time in 1928. These new intermediates are used in the preparation 
of new dyes, rubber accelerators, medicinals, and other finished 
coal-tar products. 

Other intermediates. — Among the man}^ intermediates used in th& 
production of the specialty dyes, the following showed increased 
production in 1928: l-amino-2-naphthol-4-sulfonic acid; chromo tropic 
acid; methylanthraquinone; l-naphthylamine-5-sulfonic acid; tetra- 
methyldiaminodiphenylmethane; J acid urea; dichlorosulfophenyl- 
pyrazolone; xylidine; aminonaphthylamine trisulfonic acid (T acid); 
ethjdbenzyianiline ; 2-amino-S-naphthol-6-sulfonic acid (gamma acid);: 
Michler's ketone; p-aminophenyl-p-tolylamine sulfonic acid; anthra- 
quinone-! : 5-dih3^droxy ; anthraquinone-1 : 5-disulfonic acid; diami- 
nostilbene disulfonic acid; dibenzanthrone; dinitroanthraquinone. 

Among the intermediates showing a decreased production were 
2-chloro-5-toluidine-4-sulf onic acid ; 1 -amino-8-naphthol-4-sulfonic 
acid; anthranilic acid; 1 : 5-dihydroxy naphthalene; ethyl-o-toluidine; 
quinizarin; and certain pyrazolone derivatives. 

Intermediates reported in 1928 but not in 1927 include: 2-amino- 
3 : 6 : 8-trisulfonic acid; chloroanthraquinone; diazo rocellinic acid; 
p-nitro-o-anisidine; phenyl iso gamma acid; tetramethyldiamino- 
phenylacridine; di-benzoyldiaminoanthraquinonylanthrimide. 

STATISTICS OF PRODUCTION AND SALES 

Table 10 gives the weighted average sales price of a list of domestic 
coal-tar intermediates for the period 1922 to 1928, together with the 
invoice price of imports of the same intermediates in 1914. The 
invoice price is below the cost to the consumer, as it does not include 
the profit to the importer and certain other charges. 

Table 1 1 is a detailed record of the production and sales of coal-tar 
intermediates in 1928. 

Table 12, an arrangement of intermediates in 10 groups of unit 
values, shows the quantity and percentage of total production falling 
within each group, for the years 1924 to 1928, inclusive. 



28 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Table 10. — Coal-tar intermediates: Domestic sales price per pound, 1922-1928,^ 
and invoice price of same intermediates imported, 1914^ 



Intermediate 



Invoice 
price, 
1914 



Acetanilide, technical -._ 

l-Amino-8-naptithol-3:6-disulfonic acid (H acid).. 
2-Amino-8-naphthol-6-sulfonic acid (gamma acid) 

p- Aminophenol and hydrochiloride 

Aniline oil 

Anthraquinone 

Benzidine 

Chlorobenzene (mono) 

Dianisidine 

p-Dichlorobenzene 

Diethylaniline 

Dimethylaniline 

Naphtlialene, solidifying 79° or above (refined, 

flake) 

p-Naphthol, technical 

l-Naphthol-4-sulfonic acid (Nevile & Winther's) -. 
l-Naphthylamine-4-sulfonic acid (naphthionic 

acid) 

p-Nitroaniline 

Phenol - 

p-Phenylenediamine 

Phthalic acid and anhydride 

Sulfanilic acid 

Thiocarbanilide- -. 

o-Toluidine 

m-Tolylenediamine 

Xylidine and salt 



SO. 15 
2.23 



2.16 

2.08 

2.19 

. 31 3. 55 
2.09 
2.40 
3.09 



3.15 



3.018 
. 07 3. 1 



.13 3.14 
.06 

. 31 3. 44 
2.25 

. 06 3. 16 



13.10 
2.19 
3.12 



Domestic sales price 



1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 



50.21 
.73 
1.72 
1.10 
.15 
1.34 
.83 
.07 



,16 



.06 
.24 



.39 
.68 
.21 
1.39 
.35 
.19 
.27 
.18 
.94 
.33 



$0.26 
.68 
1.51 
1.13 
.16 
.95 
.80 
.07 
3.69 
.15 
.48 
.38 

.06 
.22 



.40 
.69 
.27 
1.32 
.29 
.17 
.25 
.13 
.93 
.43 



$0.23 
.65 
1.18 
1.11 
.16 
.95 
.74 
.06 
3.34 
.16 
.40 
.34 

.05 
.22 
1.00 

.43 
.64 
.30 
1.27 
.24 
.17 
.23 
.13 
.86 
.39 



•$0. 22 



1.30 
1.12 
.16 



$1.02 
1.05 
.15 



.$0. 21 
.41 

.75 
i 1.02 

: .14 



.73 
.06 
2.19 
.16 
.49 
.28 

.05 



.65 

.06 

2.17 

.15 



.21 
1.16 
.20 
.16 
.23 
.17 
.81 



.40 
.45 
.18 
1.06 
.18 
.15 
.22 
.23 
.73 
.36 



.26 

.05 
.19 
.83 

.36 
.47 
.15 



0.23 
.42 

.77 
.97 
.14 



.63 
.05 



.05 
.19 
.70 

.34 
.47 
.12 
1.12 
.16 
.14 
.22 
.25 
.69 
.36 



1 Weighted average. For 1917 to 1921 see Census of Dyes and Other Synthetic Organic Chemicals, 1924. 
' Artificial Dyestuffs Used in the United States, Special Agents Series 121, Department of Commerce. 
> Chemicals and Allied Products Used in the United States, Miscellaneous Series No. 82, Department 
of Commerce. 



COAL-TAR INTERMEDIATES 



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30 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



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32 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



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33 



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34 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



S3. 



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COAL-TAE INTERMEDIATES 



35 



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36 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



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COAL-TAR INTERMEDIATES 



37 



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38 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Table 12.—/ 


nter mediates: Production, by 


groups, accordi 


ng to 


unit values, 






19S4-1928 










1924 


1925 


1926 


1927 


1928 




Group 


Per 




Per 




Per 




Per 




Per 


Pounds '^f,' 


Pounds 


cent 
of 


Pounds 


cent 
of 


Pounds 


cent 
of 


Pounds 


cent 
of 




total 




total 




total 




total 




total 


0-15 cts_... 


88,160,641 47.247 


89. 686, 885 


42. 566 


135,324,911 


58.93 


150,641,892 


62.75 


172, 187, 886 


61.66 


16-25 cts... 


37, 359, 904 1 20.022 


62, 801, 070 


29. 806 


47, 228, 385 


20. 57 


34, 353, 105 


14,31 


39, 099, 559 


14.00 


26-50 cts... 


37,179,993' 19.925 


32.081,452 15.226 


24, 130, 013 


10.51 


29, 973, 693 


12.49 


40, 702, 440 


14.56 


51-75 cts... 


10,588,270 5,674 


13, 442, 218 


6.380 


10, 571, 635 


4.60 


14, 498, 391 


6.04 


IS, 419, 660 


6.60 


$0.76-$!.. . 


6,246,565 3,348 


5, 787, 165 


2.747 


7, 097. 246 


3.09 


4, 797, 843 


2.00 


3, 049, 726 


1.09 


$1.01-$1.50. 


4,112,585 2.204 


3, 632, 570 


1.724 


2,621,011 


1.14 


2, 604, 940 


1.08 


2.591,619 


.93 


$1.51-$2... 


968,676' .519 


1,614,041 


.766 


1, 434, 404 


.62 


2, 022, 746 


.84 


1, 252, 592 


.45 


$2.01-$3..- 


1, 407, 047 


.754 


994,224 


.472 


916, 665 


.40 


763, 153 


.31 


1, 079, 646 


.39 


$3.01-$4... 


303, 938 


.163 


111, 432 


.053 


144, 587 


.06 


281, 366 


.12 


699, 843 


.25 


Over $4... 


268, 943 


.144 


548, 722 


.260 


184, 945 


.08 


136, 055 


.06 


191,836 


.07 


Total... 


186, 596, 562| 100. 000 


210, 699, 779 


100.000 


229, 653, 802 


100.00 


240, 073, 184 


100.00]279,274,807 


100.00 



Dyes and Other Finished Coal-Tar Products 
introduction 

Finished coal-tar products may be divided into eight classes: (1) 
Dyes, (2) color lakes, (3) photographic chemicals (developers), (4) 
medicinals, (5) flavors, (6) perfume materials, (7) synthetic phenolic 
resins, (8) synthetic tanning materials. In previous reports the Tariff 
Commission has emphasized the close relationship existing between 
the manufacture of dyes and that of explosives and poisonous gases. 
The dye industry is now considered a key industry by the industrial 
nations of the world. Closely connected also with dyes is the manu- 
facture of flavors, perfume materials, synthetic resins, photographic 
chemicals, medicinals, and other coal-tar products, which, although 
produced in smaller quantities, use as raw materials many of the by- 
products obtained in the manufacture of coal-tar dyes. 

The total production of dyes and other finished coal-tar products in 
1928 bv 125 firms was 143,563,099 pounds; in 1927, 130 firms produced 
133,357,423 pounds. Sales in 1928 amounted to 140,796,814 pounds, 
valued at $65,762,945. In the quantity of both production and of 
sales, 1928 was a record year in the history of the domestic industry. 

Table 27, page 63, shows the 1928 production of dyes and other 
finished coal-tar products in as great detail as is possible without dis- 
closing the output of individual manufacturers. 

Summary of Production of Dyes 
increase in production 

The output of dyes in 1928 by 53 firms was 96,625,451 pounds, an 
increase of 1.5 per cent over 1927. Sales totaled 93,302,708 pounds, 
valued at $39,792,039, as compared with 98,339,204 pounds, valued at 
$38,532,795, in 1927. 

Notwithstanding a decrease of 7,200,000 pounds in the output of 
indigo and sulfur black in 1928, there was an increase in the total 
production of dyes. The increase may be explained by the larger 
quantities produced of acid, basic, direct, vat (other than indigo), 
mordant and chrome, and lake and spirit soluble classes of dyes. The 
decline in the total sales of dyes in 1928, as compared with 1927 is 
largely due to a drop of 5,000,000 pounds in the sales of indigo and 
of 3,000,000 pounds in the sales of sulfur black. 



SUMMARY OF PRODUCTION OF DYES 



39 



The outstanding features of dye production in 1928 were: (1) A 
record production of vat and other fast dyes; (2) the production of 
many new fast and specialty dyes; (3) an increase in the weighted 
average selHng price of all dyes produced; (4) an increase in imports; 
(5) an increase in exports. 

Table 13 shows the production and sales of dyes in the United States 
in recent years as compared with the pre-war year 1914. 

Table 13. — Coal-tar dyes: Domestic production and sales, 1914 and 1917-1928 



Year 


Production 


Sales 


Year 


Production 


Sales 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


1914 


Pounds 
6, 619, 729 
46, 977, 246 
58, 464, 446 
63, 402, 194 
88,263,7(6 
39, 008. 690 
64, 632, 187 


Pounds 


1 $2, 470, 096 
1 57, 796, 228 
162,026,390 
1 67, o98, 855 
1 95, 613, 749 
39, 283, 956 
41, 463, 790 


J923- 

1924. 

1925 

1926 

1927- 

1928— 


Pounds 
93, 667, 524 
68, 679, 000 
86, 345, 438 
87,978,624 
95, 167, 905 
96, 625, 451 


Pounds 
86, 567, 446 
64, 961, 433 
79, 303, 451 
86, 255, 836 
98, 339, 204 
93, 302, 708 


$47, 223, 161 


1917 




35, 012, 400 


1918 




37, 468, 332 
36, 312, 648 


1919- 




1920 




38, 532, 795 


1921 

1922 


47, 513, 762 
69, 107, 105 


39, 792, 039 



1 Value of production. 



STOCKS ON HAND 



Commencing with 1924, the commission has published annually 
figures as to the quantity of certain dyes on hand at the beginning of 
the year. Table 14 gives stocks on hand January 1, 192S, and 
Januarj'^ 1, 1929, for a selected list of dyes. 

Table 14. — Domestic dyes: Stocks on hand January 1, 1928, and January 1, 1929 




20 
31 
79 
138 
151 
179 
189 
202 
208 
234 
246 
289 
326 
332 
^65 
370 
401 
406 
448 
518 
520 
581 
582 
593 
596 
620 
640 
655 
680 
812 
814 
864 
865 



Chrysoidine Y 

Amidonaphthol red G 

Ponceau 2R 

Metanil yellow 

Orange II 

Azo rubine 

Lake red R 

Chrome blue black U 

Fast acid blue R 

Resorcin brown B 

-\cid black lOB -- 

Fast cyanine 5R 

Direct fast scarlet 

Bismarck brown 2R 

Chrysophenine G 

Congo red 

Developed black BUX --. 

Direct blue 2B.-_ - 

Benzopurpurine 4B 

Direct pure blue 6B 

Direct pure blue 

Direct black EW- 

Direct black RX 

Direct green B 

Direct brown 3G0 

Direct yellow R 

Tartrazine 

Auramine --- 

:\Iethyl violet 

Primuline - 

Direct fast yellow 

Nigrosine (spirit-soluble) -- - - 

Nigrosine (water-soluble) 

Sulfur blacks 

Sulfur blue 

Sulfur brown 

Sulfur yellow 

Indigo, 20 per cent paste 

Anthraquinone vat dyes (single strength) 
Zambesi black 

Total 



Pounds 


197 


917 


39 


592 


145 


029 


133 


115 


231 


445 


81 


774 


103 


992 


189 


252 


68 


465 


106 


233 


401 


365 


149 


881 


162 


524 


121 


562 


234, 


902 


642 


462 


228 


474 


379, 


782 


174 


164 


192 


579 


129 


472 


1,503 


979 


255, 


392 


157, 


447 


228 


895 


164, 


669 


91, 


697 


137, 


706 


189, 


685 


85, 


027 


42, 


200 


122, 


091 


246 


062 


6, 691, 


251 


365, 


608 


524 


772 


278, 


256 


10, 205 


042 


1, 200, 


816 


147, 


458 


26, 752, 


033 



Pounds 

168, 300 

50, 074 

176, 014 

158, 907 

250, 587 

92, 030 

132, 449 

299, 492 

52, 775 

95, 686 

561, 988 

237, 441 

112,398 

147, 195 

312,834 

602, 066 

345, 014 

570, 066 

153, 594 

189, 724 

126, 066 

2, 384, 776 

285, 492 

147, 542 

256, 557 

189, 462 

65, 520 

185, 909 

205, 624 

151, 680 

88, 964 

90, 129 

356, 937 

5, 289, 388 

541, 000 

575, 221 

268, 673 

10, 509, 873 

1, 733, 266 

109, 764 

26, 737, C67 



40 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



PRICES 

Domestic dyes steadily declined in price during the period 1917 to 
1927. In 1928 there was a general decline in both the low-priced and 
the high-priced dyes. The weighted average selling price, however, 
of all dyes sold advanced to 42.6 cents, as compared with 39 cents in 
1927. The increase in 1928 was largely due to the following factors: 
(1) An advance of 1 cent per pound in the price of sulfur black and 
of 2 cents in that of indigo; (2) increased production of the higher 
priced dyes. A comparison of 1928 prices with 1914 prices indicates 
that a large part of the sales in 1928 were at or below the pre-war 
(1914) price. In making this comparison no account is taken of the 
difference in price index in 1928 and 1914. The present price levels 
in the United States are the direct result of competition among the 
53 domestic manufacturers. 

Table 15 shows the weighted average sales price per pound of 
domestic dyes in 1917 and from 1920 to 1928. 



Table 15. — Domestic dyes: Weighted average sales price per poiind,^ 1917 and 

1920-1928 



Year 


Weighted 
average 
sales price 
of domes- 
tic dyes 


Year 


Weighted 
average 
sales price 
of domes- 
tic dyes 


1917 


2 $1 26 
1.08 
.83 
.60 

.55 


1924 


$0.54 


1920 . 


1925 


47 


1921 


1926 

1927 

1928 


.42 


1922 


.39 


1923 . 


43 







' The total value of all dyes divided by the total quantity. 



2 Unit value of production. 



Table 16 shows the sales prices of nearly 100 domestic dyes from 
1924 to 1928, inclusive, with the invoice prices of the same types of 
dyes imported in 1914. The dyes for which statistics are given 
in this table constitute about 90 per cent of domestic production. 
Strictly speaking, domestic sales prices can not, of course, be com- 
pared with invoice prices, for the reason that the latter do not represent 
the cost to the consumer, since they do not include the importer's 
profit and the usual charges for containers, packing, freight, insur- 
ance to seaport, consular certification, and minor shipping charges 
at a point of departure and at seaport. 

The Colour Index number in Table 16 is indicated in the first 
column. The second column gives the type name of the dye adopted 
by the Tariff Commission for designating all dyes reported under a 
given Colour Index number. The invoice price (1914) shown in 
column 3 represents the weighted average of all dyes classified under 
a given number in "Artificial dyestuffs used in the United States," 
published by the Department of Commerce, as Special Agents' Series 
No. 121. The figures in column 4, the domestic sales price as reported 
to the Tariff Commission, represent the- weighted average selling 
price of all dyes reported under a given Colour Index number. 



SUMMARY OF PEODUCTION OF DYES 



41 



Table 16. — Domestic sales prices of certain dyes, 1924-1928, compared loith invoice 
values of dyes of the same kind imported in 1914 



Common name 



1914 
invoice 

value 
imported 

dyes 
(weight- 
ed aver- 
age of all 
types) 



Average price per pound 



1924 



Chrysoidine Y 

Chrysoidine R 

Orange G 

Amidonaphthol red G 

Chrome yellow 2G 

Chrome yellow R 

Amido naphthol red 6B.. 

Ponceau 2R 

Bordeaux B 

Metauil yellow 

Azo yellow 

Orange II 

Acid chrome brown B 

Fast red A 

Azo rubine 

Fast red VR 

Amaranth 

Lake red R 

Mordant yellow 

Chrome blue black U 

Fast acid blue R 

Acid black lOB 

Brilliant croceine 

Cloth red 2B 

Fast cj'anine 5R.. 

Chrome black F 

Fast cyanine black B 

Naphthylamine black D. 

Bismarck brown 

Bismarck brown 2R 

Chrysophenine G 

Direct violet N 

Developed black BHN.. 

Direct blue 2B 

Chrysamine G 

Direct orange R 

Direct fast red F 

Direct brown M 

Benzopiu'purine 4B 

Direct blue 3B 

Benzopurpurine lOB 

Direct blue RW 

Direct pure blue 6B 

Direct pure blue 

Direct black EW 

Direct black RX 

Direct green B. 

Direct green G 

Direct brown 3G0 

Congo brown G 

Direct brown G 

Direct yellow R 

Chloramine orange G 

Tartrazine 

Auramine 

Malachite green 

Acid green B 

Magenta 

Methyl violet 

Acid violet 

Alkali blue 

Wool green S 

Eosine ._ ._ 

Phosphine 

Primuline 

Direct fast yellow 

Induline (spirit-soluble).. 
Induline ( water-soluble). . 
Nigrosine (spirit-soluble) . 
Nigrosine (water-soluble) . 

75526—30 4 



$0. 136 
.165 
.148 
.150 
.077 
.154 
.604 
.095 
.159 
.164 
.249 
.081 
.256 
.118 
.198 
.188 
.138 
.083 
.149 
.156 
.252 
.134 
.165 
.143 
.166 
.172 
.110 
.144 
.186 
.183 
.270 
.255 
.133 
.041 
.189 
.231 
.362 
.194 
.133 
.209 
.234 
.222 
.275 
.440 
.144 
.139 
.174 
.230 



.194 
.170 
.178 
.239 
.200 
.240 
.241 
.255 
.294 
.248 
.281 
.409 
.353 
.418 
.352 
.144 
.136 
.198 
.258 
.126 
.149 



$0.49 
.50 
.55 
.57 
.49 
.54 
.70 
.55 
.62 
.72 
.96 
.33 

1.11 
.71 
.79 

1.17 
.49 
.91 
.54 
.48 
.76 
.46 



1.06 

.89 
.86 
.91 
.67 
.53 
.51 
.84 
1.28 
.65 
.37 
.81 
.72 
1.06 
.83 
.73 
.51 
1.42 
1.19 
1.26 
.79 
.38 
.49 
.68 
.79 
.49 



.72 
.66 
1.07 
.76 
1.52 
1.70 
1.61 
1.72 
1.13 
1.72 
2.56 
.75 
1.85 
1.86 
.79 
1.09 
.78 
.74 
.48 
.48 



$0.43 
.45 
.52 
.63 
.42 
.45 
.55 
.51 
.56 



.69 
.76 
.87 
.63 
.86 
.57 
.44 
.65 
.55 
.95 
.96 
.83 
.81 
.84 
.72 
.47 
.45 
.78 
1.22 
.58 
.34 
.83 
.69 
.95 
.77 
.66 
.46 
1.32 
.97 
.97 
.67 
.34 
.45 
.61 
.70 
.44 
.80 
.72 
.61 
.94 
.67 
2.00 
1.54 
1.30 
1.81 
.99 
1.49 
2.24 
.57 



1.56 
.64 
1.06 



.69 

.45 
.42 



$0.34 
.36 
.44 
.46 
.50 
.58 
.54 
.48 
.56 
.64 
.78 
.27 
.92 
.62 
.71 
.66 



$0.33 
.35 
.49 
.43 
.49 
.61 
.54 
.41 
.53 
.58 
.75 
.26 



.60 
.65 



.58 


.64 


.54 


.85 


.80 


.79 


.55 


.58 




.37 


.36 


.36 


.63 


.55 


.66 


.46 


.39 


.37 


.84 


.82 


.81 


.98 


.82 


.80 


.74 


.69 


.67 


.73 


.68 


.64 


.80 


.80 


.72 


.61 


.70 


.70 


.44 


.41 


.39 


.42 


.40 


.40 


.55 


.53 


.50 


1.21 


1.05 


. 99 


.50 


.42 


.39 


.31 


.26 


.25 


.55 


.85 


.72 


.62 


.57 


.56 


.82 


.76 


.72 


.70 


.64 


.61 


.58 


.49 


.48 


.39 


.40 


.39 


1.27 


1.06 


.94 


.87 


.82 


.77 


.77 


.68 


.62 


.59 


.45 


.54 


.31 


.28 


.28 


.35 




.32 


.51 


.43 


.38 


.66 


.53 


.60 


.39 


.37 


.36 


.68 


.64 


.61 


.74 






.49 


.40 


.35 


.81 


.78 


.77 


.58 


.54 


.68 


.90 


.81 


.81 


1.31 


1.11 


1.20 


1.13 


1.04 


.99 


1.81 


1.89 


1.82 


.93 


.88 


.84 


1.36 


1.20 


1.08 


2.59 


2.89 


2.26 


.59 


.69 


.75 


1.80 






1.52 


1.32 


1.12 


.54 


.48 


.43 


1.05 


.93 


.93 


.,')6 


.75 




.68 


.72 


.69 


.47 


.45 


.43 


.39 


.40 


.36 



42 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Table 16. — Domestic sales prices of certain dyes, 1924-1928, corn-pared with invoice 
values of dyes of the same kind imported in 1914 — Continued 



Col- 
our 
Index 

No. 



Common name 



1914 

invoice 

value 

imported 

dyes 
(weight- 
ed aver- 
age of all 
types) 



Average price per pound 



1926 



1928 



883 
922 



1035 
1099 
1113 
1177 



Gallocyanine 

Methylene blue 

Sulfur black... 

Sulfur blue 

Sulfur brown 

Sulfur tan 

Sulfur maroon 

Sulfur yellow 

Alizarin brown 

Anthraquinone vat dark blue BO. 

Anthraquinone vat blue OCD 

Indigo, s jTithetic 



.347 
.390 
.100 



,107 



$1.86 
1.26 
.19 
.55 
.38 
.37 



.290 
.227 
.35 
.128 



.53 
2.08 
2.23 
1.41 

.22 



$1.79 
1.11 
.17 
.55 
.35 
.35 
.56 
.46 
2.16 



1.20 
.16 



$1.85 
.94 
.15 
.54 
.35 
.30 
.53 
.40 
2.18 
1.68 
1.08 
.13 



$1.87 



.13 

.55 
.32 
.39 
.53 
.41 



$1.81 
.93 
.14 
.51 
.32 
.31 
.52 
.41 
1.74 



1.64 
.92 
.12 



.78 
.14 



UNIT VALUE OF DYES PRODUCED, 1924-1928 

Table 17 shows the domestic production of dyes from 1924 to 
1928, inclusive, arranged according to eight value groups. The 
actual quantity is given for each group and the relation of each group 
to the total production. 

Table 17. — Dyes: Production, by groups, according to unit value, 1924-1928 





1924 


1925 


1926 


1927 


1928 


Group 


Pounds 


Per 
cent of 
total 


Pounds 


Per 
cent of 
total 


Pounds 


Per 

cent of 
total 


Pounds 


Per 
cent of 
total 


Pounds 


Per 
cent of 
total 


1-25 cents 

26-50 cents 

51-75 cents 

$0.76-$l - 

$1.01-$1.50 

$1.51-$2 

$2.01-$3 

Over $3 


31,725,493 
13, 853, 508 
9, 105, 018 
4, 259, 988 
6, 283, 687 
1, 774, 660 
1,118,953 
557, 693 


46. 194 
20. 172 
13. 257 
6.203 
9.149 
2.584 
1.629 
.812 


45,815,114 
16, 134, 929 
9, 598, 483 
4, 851, 750 
5,027,117 
2, 578, 233 
1,568,458 
771, 354 


53. 060 
18. 687 
11.116 
5.619 
5.822 
2.986 
1.817 
.893 


43, 747, 262 
20, 666, 640 
8, 794, 368 
8, 045, 922 
2, 808, 457 
2, 241, 741 
1, 402, 063 
272, 170 


49.72 
23.49 
10.00 
9.15 
3.19 
2.55 
1.59 
.31 


49, 314, 987 

23, 450, 835 
7, 470, 547 
7, 570, 480 
3, 714, 761 
2, 375, 625 
1, 086, 666 
184, 004 


51.82 
24.64 
7.85 
7.96 
3.90 
2.50 
L14 
.19 


43, 321, 274 
26, 624, 686 
9, 432, 458 
9, 550, 635 
3, 536, 731 
2, 707, 054 
1, 298, 824 
153, 789 


44.84 
27.55 
9.76 
9.88 
3.66 
2.80 
1.35 
.16 


Total 


68, 679, OOOjlOO. 000 86, 345, 438 


100. 000 


87, 978, 624 


100. 00 95, 167, 905 

! 


100. 00 96, 625, 451 


100.00 



PROGRESS IN DYE MANUFACTURE 

The commercial production of new dyes and the general price 
recessions of dyes previously made are evidence of progress in the 
domestic industry. In 1928 research was especially directed toward 
the development of new dyes not heretofore produced. More than 
125 dyes were reported in 1928 for which no output was shown in 
the previous year, and most of them were made for the first time in 
the United States. 

The new dyes manufactured may be grouped as follows: (1) Vat 
dyes, including anthraquinone and the thioindigoid derivatives; 
(2) fast types of the direct azo dyes; (3) mordant and acid dyes. 

Relation qf production to consumption. — Assuming consumption to 
equal total sales plus imports minus exports, the apparent consump- 
tion of coal-tar dyes in 1928 was 70,830,395 pounds. Of this quan- 



SUMMARY OF PRODUCTIOX OF DYES 



43 



tity,'' 92.5 per cent was supplied by domestic producers; the remain- 
ing 7.5 per cent was imported. 

In terms of value, the imported coal-tar dyes consumed in 1928 
represent 10 per cent of the apparant consumption, but, strictly speak- 
ing, such a comparison is hardly valid for the reason that the for- 
eign invoice price is used for imported dyes, whereas the actual price 
realized is used for the domestic. Taking the duty-paid value of 
imports, $7,772,622 (the foreign invoice value $4,321,867 plus the 
duty paid, $3,450,755) plus the value of domestic sales less value of 




1917 1918 1919 1920 1921 |92Z 1923 1924 1925 1926 |92r I9Z8 



Uls 



exports, the value of domestic apparent consumption is $41,033,042; 
using $7,772,622 as value of the dyes imported, the ratio of imports 
to apparent consumption is 18.94 per cent. If 15 per cent allowance 
is made for profit and expenses on the duty-paid value of the im- 
ported dyes, the imported dyes supplied about 22 per cent of the 
domestic consumption. 

» Imports of coal-tar dyes in 1928 were 5.351,951 pounds with a foreign invoice value of $4,321,867. This 
poundage is in excess of the net quantity imported. It is, however, comparable with both domestic pro- 
duction and domestic sales as nearly all the vat dyes, as well as the rhodamines have been reduced to a 
single strength basis in order to facilitate comparison. The Department of Commerce reports the total 
dye Imports as 6,092,702 pounds, valued at -$6,720,590. The quantity as compiled in Commerce and Navi- 
gation represents the number of pounds on which specific duty of 7 cents was assessed. The value repre- 
sents the dutiable value. 



44 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

Number qf manufacturers. — Since 1919 there has been a trend toward 
the concentration of dye manufacture in fewer hands. Producers in 
1928 (exclusive of those making only stains and indicators) numbered 
50, a decrease of 2 since 1927, of 19 since 1925, and of 40 since 1919, 
the peak war-time period of operation. Severe competition has re- 
sulted in the elimination of many small-scale producers of low-cost 
dyes and in the forming of many others into mergers. The trend 
toward fewer producers will probably continue until duplication of 
products is avoided and until production capacity more nearlj'- 
conforms to the demands of the home and export markets. 

TARIFF CONSIDERATIONS 

The act of 1922 provides that the ad valorem rate of duty on any 
imported coal-tar product coining within paragraph 27 or 28 shall be 
based upon the American selling price (as defined in subdivision (f) 
of sec. 402, Title IV) of any similar competitive article manufac- 
tured in the United States. A product is defined by the act as similar 
or competitive with any imported coal-tar product when it accom- 
plishes results substantially equal to those accomplished by the 
domestic product when used in substantially the same manner. 

If a similar competitive article is not manufactured in the United 
States, the ad valorem rate is based upon the United States value (as 
defined in subdivision (d) of sec. 402, Title IV), which is the selling 
price in the United States of the imported article less certain statutory 
deductions, including profit, general expense, cost of insurance, 
transportation, and duty. 

The Census of Dyes, 1924 (pp. 41-45), discussed the American 
selling price as applied to coal-tar products, reviewed the principal 
features of the administration of these provisions by the Treasury 
Department, summarized the major regulations issued by that 
department, and gave important Treasury Decisions up to G. A. 
9004, T. D. 40926, of 1925. Continuing this feature of the report, 
subsequent issues gave abstracts of decisions up to May, 1928. 
Decisions up to November, 1929, follow: 

COURT AND TREASURY DECISIONS, 1929 

So-called Yavan glue, found to contain resinlike products, pre- 
pared from phenol and similar to Bakelite varnish in its uses, was 
held to be more specifically provided for in the provision for synthetic 
phenolic resin and all resinlike products prepared from phenol in 
paragraph 28 than as a chemical mixture containing alcohol 
in paragraph 24. T. D. 42311 of 1927; affirmed in 16 Ct. Cust. 
Appls. 461. 

A mixtiu'e of coal-tar pitch and cresylic acid, the cresylic acid 
content when subjected to distillation below 190° C. distilling less 
than 5 per cent of coal-tar acid, and when subjected to distillation 
below 215° C. distilling more than 75 per cent of coal-tar acid, was 
held properly dutiable under paragraph 27 rather than free under 
paragraph 1549, because consisting in part of cresylic acid, which 
the Court of Customs Appeals held in T. D. 41458 not to be covered 
by paragraph 1549. T. D. 42450 of 1927; affirmed in 16 Ct. Cust. 
Appls. 378. 



SUMMARY OF PRODUCTIOX OF DYES 



45 



The provision in paragraph 28 that "the Secretary of the Treasury 
shall adopt a standard of strength for each dye or other article 
which shall conform as nearly as practicable to the commercial 
strength in ordinary use in the United States prior to Jul}'' 1, 1914," 
was construed to mean that if the imported article is the same dye 
or article which had already been named as a standard by the Secre- 
tary, even though it bears a different name, it shall pay duty accord- 
ing to that standard. 16 Ct. Oust. Appls. 392 (reversing T. D. 
42558). 

^ Phenyl acetic aldehyde, classified as a coal-tar product, used 
for medicinal preparations, at 60 per cent ad valorem and 7 cents 
per pound under paragraph 28, was claimed dutiable at 45 per cent 
ad valorem under para2:raph 61. On the record presented the protest 
was overruled. Ab. (N) 9116 of 1929. 

Coal-tar synthetic phenolic resin, similar in composition to Yavan 
glue, was held dutiable at 7 cents per pound and 45 per cent ad 
valorem under paragraph 28. Ab. (N) 9623 of 1929. 



REDUCTION' IN DUTY OX DYE IMPORTS 



In conformity with the provisions of paragraph 28 of the tariff 
actTof 1922, the ad valorem rate on dyes and other finished coal-tar 
products was reduced on September 22, 1924, from 60 per cent to 
45 per cent, but the specific duty remained at 7 cents per pound. 
As*^ pointed out by the commission in the Census of Dyes, 1923, a 
specific duty is more eft'ective on the low-priced dyes and an ad 
valorem rate on the higher priced dyes. It was therefore anticipated 
that the reduction of 15 per cent in the ad valorem rate would favor 
increased imports of the higher priced dyes. The following table 
shows the imports of dyes before and after the change in the rate of 
duty. 

Table 18. — Coal-tar dyes: Imports into the United States, 1920-1929 {11 months) 



Period 


Quantity 


Invoice 
value 


Monthly average 


Quantity 


Value 


1920 - -.. 


Pounds 
3, 402, 582 
4, 252, 911 
3, 982, 631 
3, 098, 193 


$5,763,437 
5, 156, 779 
5, 243, 257 
3, 151, 363 


Pounds 
283, 548 
354, 409 
338, 850 
258, 153 


$480, 286 


1921 


429, 732 


1922 


436, 838 


1923 - 


262, 614 






1924 (first 9 months)... . 


1,611,931 
1, 410, 608 


1, 642, 632 
1, 266, 146 


179, 103 
470, 203 


182, 515 


1924 (last 3 months).. 


422, 049 






Total 


3, 022, 539 
5, 315, 158 
4. 673, 196 
4, 233, 046 
5, 351, 951 
5, 866, 722 


2, 908, 778 
4,791,908 
4, 103, 301 
3, 413, 886 
4,321,867 
4, 902, 273 


251, 878 
442, 930 
389, 433 
352, 754 
445, 996 
533, 338 


242, 398 


1925 


399, 326 


1926 . 


341,941 


1927 


284, 490 


1928 


360, 156 


1929 (11 months). . 


445, 661 







PRODUCTION OF DYES BY CLASSES 



Dyes produced in the United States in 1928, classified according 
to method of application, are: (1) Acid dyes, (2) basic dyes, (3) 
direct dyes, (4) mordant and chrome dyes (5) sulfur dyes, (6) vat 
dyes, subdivided into indigo and other vats, and (7) color lake and 



46 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



spirit soluble dyes. Although the classification of a dye in any one 
of these groups must in certain instances necessarily be arbitrary, 
because a dye may have properties which permit of its application 
by more than one method, such classification facilitates a comparison 
of production and import figures. Overlapping some of these seven 
classes, specifically the acid, basic, and spirit-soluble dyes, are the 
food dyes, discussed on page 55. 

Comparative data for dyes produced in the United States from 
1926 to 1928, inclusive, and those imported in the same years, are 
given according to classes in Table 19. 

Table 19. — Comparison of imports of dyes, by classes, with domestic production^ 

calendar years 1926-1928 



Class of dye 



Acid 

Basic. 

Direct... 

Lake and spirit-soluble. 
Mordant and chrome. . 
Sulfur 

Vats (including indigo). 

(rt) Indigo 

(6) Other vats 

Unclassifled and special 

Total , 



Domestic 



?ales 



Quantity 



Pounds 
10, 045, 601 

4. 180, 231 
15. 493, 144 

1, 380. 567 
3, 276, 969 

19, 979, 140 
31, 253, 627 
2S, 438, 3S6 

2, 815, 241 
646, 557 



Value 



.$7, 992, 701 
3, 755, 244 
S. 603, 291 
1, 115, 867 

2, 716, 407 
4, 054, 027 
7. 336, 959 
3, 652, 786 

3, 684, 173 
738, 152 



86, 255, 836 36, 312, 648 



Production 



Quantity 



Pounds 
10, 441, 443 

4. 406, 073 
18, 039, 705 

1, 428, 100 

3, 134, 934 
20, 023, 242 
29,731.951 
25, 701, 530 

4, 030, 421 
773. 176 



Per cent 
of total 



87, 978, 624 



11.87 

5.01 

20.51 

1.62 

3.56 

22.76 

33.79 

29.21 

4.58 



100.00 



Imports 



Quantity 



Pounds 

793, 855 

406, 732 

805, 848 

86, 106 

500, 004 

149, 723 

1, 848, 014 

2,806 

1, 845, 208 

82, 914 



4, 673, 196 



Per cent 
of total 



16. 99 

8.70 
17.24- 

1.84 
10.70 

3.20 

39.55 

.06 

39. 49 

1. 7S 



100. 00 



Class of dye 



1927 



Domestic 



?ales 



Juantity i Value 



Production 



Quantity 



Per cent 
of total 



Imports 



Q-°tity ! ^- eent 



Acid 

Basic 

Direct _.. 

Lake and spirit-soluble. 

Mordant and chrome.. 

Sulfur..-. 

Vats (including indigo). 

(n) Indigo 

(6) Other vats 

Unclassified and special 

Total - 



Pounds 
11,805,905 

4,783,313 
17, 682, 399 

1, 559, 4')1 

3, 494, 16U 
23, 183. 794 
35, 534, 646 
30, 609, 134 

4,925,512 
295, 517 



$9, 137, 790 
3.917,711 
8, 681, 024 
1. 380, 746 
2, 100, 324 
4, 392, 641 
8, 421, 616 
3, 700, 192 
4, 721, 424 
500, 943 



Pounds 
11.104,533 

4, 548, 515 
16, 265, 497 

1,540,711 

3, 604, 095 
23, 404, 273 
34, 399, 854 
28, 438. 166 

5, 961, 688 
300, 427 



11.67 

4.78 

17,09 

1.02 

3.79 

24. .59 

36. 14 

29.88 

6.26 

.32 



Pounds 
6.54, 729 
334, 526 
721, 342 
134, 778 
488, 605 
137, 864 

1, 730, 967 
6,057 

1, 724, 910 
30,i235 



98, 339. 204 1 38, 532, 795 



95, 167, 905 



100. 00 



4, 233, 046 



1.5. 47 
7.90 

17.04 
3.18 

11.54 
3.26 

40.89 
.14 

40.75 
.72 



100. 00 



SUMMARY OF PRODUCTION OF DYES 



47 



Table 19. — Comparison of imports of dyes, by classes, with domestic production, 
calendar years 1926-1928 — Continued 





1928 




Domestic 


Imports 


Class of dye 


Sales 


Production 




Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Per cent 
of total 


Quantity 


Per cent 

of total 


Acid - - 


Pounds 
12, 632, 917 

5, 085, 165 
18, 073, 537 

1, 797, 665 

3,958,973 
19, 969, 173 
31, 310, 768 
25, 556, 849 

5, 753, 919 
474, 510 


$8, 861, 206 

4, 218, 213 
8. 947, 838 
1, 495. 331 
2, 399, 961 
4, 107, 743 
9, 156, 995 
3, 585, 700 

5, 571, 295 
604, 712 


Pounds 
13, 469, 597 

5, 374, 099 
19, 633, 095 

1,821,492 

4, 403, 934 

19, 001, 910 

32, 375, 812 

25, 861, 680 

6, 514, 132 
545, 512 


13.94 

5.56 

20.31 

1.89 

4.56 

19.67 

33. 51 

26. 77 

6.74 

.56 


Pounds 

994, 201 

424, 968 

917, 728 

98, 550 

476, 872 

125, 350 

2, 304, 104 

2,343 

2, 301, 761 

10, 178 


IS. 58 


Basic - - 


7.94 




17.15 




1.84 


Mordant and chrome 


8.91 


Sulfur - - 


2.34 


Vats (including indigo) 


43.05 




.04 


(6) Other vats 


43.01 


Unclassified and soecial . 


.19 






Total - 


93, 302, 708 


39, 792, 039 


96, 625, 451 


100. 00 


5, 351, 951 


100,00 







(1) ACID DYES 

Description. — The acid dyes, usually the sodium salts of a color 
acid, are commonly applied in an acid bath. They constitute the 
most important group used in wool dyeing, especially for hosiery and 
carpet yarns, suitings, dress goods, and hat materials. Lacking an 
affinity for vegetable fibers, they are little used on cotton or linen; 
they are, however, of value in dyeing jute. Appreciable quantities 
are also used on silk. In general they are used on goods not requiring 
repeated washings. 

Acid dyes yield clear, bright shades. In purity of shade they are 
superior to the direct and mordant dyes, but are not equal to basic 
dyes. They have a wide color range, and in fastness show great indi- 
vidual variation; as a rule they are fairly fast to light and acids, but 
have a tendency to bleed in washing. They yield faster shades on 
wool than on silk. Some of the more complex acid dyes, several of 
which are of recent origin, produce shades of good general fastness. 

The method of applying dyes in an acid bath is simple and one of 
low labor cost. Dyes of this group are for the most part the lowest 
priced dyes produced. 

The line of demarcation between acid dyes and certain colors of the 
direct and mordant groups is arbitrary. Certain acid dyes when 
" af tertreated " with sodium or potassium dichromate yield shades of 
good fastness to milling, light, washing, and other agents. Those 
known as acid chrome colors are used chiefly on wool, especially on 
loose wool 3^arns, and on piece goods such as men's suitings. 

Most of the acid dyes are chemically included in one of the follow- 
ing groups: (1) Nitro compounds, (2) azo compounds, (3) sulfonated 
basic dyes (mostly triphenylmethane derivatives), and (4) alizarin 
derivatives. 

Production and imports.- — The 13,469,597 pounds of acid dyes pro- 
duced m 1928 constituted 13.94 per cent of all dyes manufactured. 
This quantity represents an increase of 21 per cent over 1927. Sales 



48 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



in 1928 amounted to 12,632,917 pounds, valued at $8,861,206, an 
increase of 7 per cent in quantity but a decrease of 3 per cent in value 
as compared with 1927. 

Acid black lOB, the ranking dye of the acid group, was made 
in greatly increased quantity, the 1928 production amounting to 
1,917,132 pounds. Nigrosine (water-soluble), with a production of 
1,625,173 pounds, was the second largest in output among the acid 
dyes. Other acid dyes showing a large increase in production include: 
Fast acid fuchsine B, Orange R, Amaranth, Fast acid black N2B, 
Fast cyanine black B, Milling red 2G, Tartrazine, Acid glaucine blue. 
Patent blue, and Acid alizarin blue B. Acid dyes showing decreased 
production include: Cloth red 2B, Wool green S, Acid alizarin blue SE, 
and Alizarin astrol B. 

Imports of the acid dyes, the total of which was 994,201 pounds, 
comprised 18.58 per cent by quantity of all dyes imported. The 15 
imported in largest quantities were as follows: 



Pounds 

Erioglaucine 85, 989 

Patent blue A 58, 010 

Indocyanine B 49, 128 

Brilliant wool blue FFB, FFR. 45, 361 

Polar red GR, RS 34, 176 

Acid black 2R 31, 764 

Acid milling black B 24, 251 

Polar orange 23, 812 



Pounds 

Erio green B supra 23, 431 

Xylene fast blue FF 23,000 

Wool fast blue BL, GL 22, 868 

Fast green extra bluish 22, 378 

Novazol blue B 22, 269 

Patent blue V 22, 060 

Neptune green SG 16, 908 



(2) BASIC DYES 

Description. — The basic dyes surpass all others in depth, brilliancy 
of shade, and purity of tone. They possess high tinctorial power, but 
as a class lack fastness, especially to light and washing. 

Basic colors are used on cotton in dyeing and in printing, where 
bright shades or color tints are desired without special requirements 
for fastness. They are also used in the dyeing of paper and jute, 
and for lithographic inks, typewriter ribbons, copy paper, and pencils. 
With the exception of Rhodamine B and a few others, they have 
little application on wool. They are chemically basic and are fixed 
on vegetable fibers with an acid mordant — namely, tannic acid- — or 
more recently with a synthetic substitute. 

Dyes of this class are historically the oldest of the coal-tar dyes. 
Mauve or Perkin violet, discovered by W. H. Perkin in 1856, was 
the first aniline dyestuff produced on a commercial scale.' Basic dyes 
are not so important as they were formerly; for dyeing cotton they 
have been superseded by direct and sulfur dyes, costing less to apply 
and, many of them, excelling in fastness. The vat dyes are now 
being used on cotton for many applications where only basic dyes 
were formerly used. For dyeing wool acid dyes have almost entirely 
displaced basic colors. Chemically, basic dyes include a large 
number of the triphenylmethane derivatives, and, in addition, mem- 
bers of the following classes: (1) Azines, (2) azos, (3) thioazines, 
(4) thioazols, and (5) acridines. 

Production and imports. — The production of basic dyes in 1928 
was 5,374,099 pounds, or 5.50 per cent of all dyes produced. Sales 
amounted to 5,085,165 pounds, valued at $4,218,213. In value, 
basic dyes made up more than 10 per cent of all dyes sold. Auramine, 



SUMMARY OP PRODUCTION OF DYES 



49 



with a production of 920,821 pounds, and Chrysoidine Y, with 736,492 
pounds, were the leading dyes of this group. Bismarck brown, 
Rhodamine B, Phosphine, and Methylene blue showed an increase 
over 1927; Chrysoidine R, Rhodamine 6G, and Safranine showed a 
decline. Thionine blue and New methylene blue were reported in 
1928 but not in 1927. 

Imports of basic dyes in 1928 were 424,968 pounds, or 7.94 per 
cent of total imports. 

The 10 basic dyes imported in largest quantity were as follows: 



Pounds 
Rhodamine B extra (single 

strength) 109,980 

Rhodamine 6GDN extra, 6GH 

extra (single strength) 89, 020 

Victoria blue B 34, 655 

Euchrysine (Patent phosphine) 20, 825 



Pounds 

Crj'stal violet 19, 925 

Phosphine O, 3R 18,700 

Magenta 17, 167 

New methylene blue 12, 425 

Thioflavine T 12, 200 

Diphene blue B, R 11, 200 



(3) DIRECT DYES 

Description.— The direct or substantive dyes were introduced 
within the last 25 years. Their method of application is simple, as 
they dye vegetables fibers full shades in a neutral or alkaline bath 
"directly," without the use of mordants. Although their principal 
application is on cotton, they are of special value in dyeing fabrics 
containing both cotton and wool, or silk and cotton (union goods). 
They are also used on silk, linen, and paper, and to some extent on 
wool, especially for knitting yarns, worsted and shoddy yarns, and 
loose wool. 

On account of their high solubility, dyes of this group when washed 
have a tendenc}^ to run. Many of them, particularly those first 
introduced, are sensitive to acids and fade on exposure to sunlight; 
others, especially the newer ones, have good fastness to both acids 
and fight, as well as to other agents. Certain direct colors are of 
good fastness, particularly to washing, after a treatment of the dyed 
fiber by ''coupling" wdth certain intermediates. The developed 
direct dyes are now manufactured in the United States on a large 
scale and in a variety of types. They are becoming of greater im- 
portance each year for cotton and silk dyeing, in response to the 
growing demand of the public for wash goods. Probably the direct 
dyes whose fastness can not be developed or increased by an after- 
treatment with metallic salts or formaldehyde will in future show" a 
distinct trend toward a reduced consumption, and the use of the 
so-called developed direct dyes will increase. 

With a few exceptions, the direct dyes are chemically "azo" com- 
pounds and are nearly all derivatives of benzidine, tofidine, diamino, 
stilbene, or a group closely similar to one of these. A small but 
valuable group of direct colors belongs in the thiazol class. 

Production and imports.- — The direct or substantive dyes, ranking 
second in quantity of the seven classes here considered, constituted 
20.31 per cent of all dyes produced in 1928. The total output of this 
group in 1928 was 19,633,095 pounds, which is an increase of 20.7 per 
cent over the 1927 figure. In value of sales this group ranked second. 

Direct black EW, the ranking direct dye, with an output of 7,252,626 
pounds, comprised 7.5 per cent of all dyes produced. Sales were 
6,371,829 pounds, valued at $1,813,439. Direct blue 2B, with a 



50 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

production of 1,268,150 pounds, ranked second, and Developed black 
BHN, with a production of 1,204,098 pounds, was third. Other dyes 
of this group made in large quantities were Chrysophenine G, the 
production of which was 797,964 pounds, and Congo red, 711,891 
pounds. Direct dyes showing increased production were Neutral 
gray G, Developed blue NA, Developed blue B, Congo corinth G, 
Direct blue B, Direct brown BT, Direct green ET; those showing 
decreases were Direct fast scarlet. Direct fast pink 2BL, Direct rubine, 
Direct violet B, Direct orange R, Direct orange RT, Direct blue BX, 
Diazo black RS, and Direct green G. 

Imports of direct dyes in 1928 amounted to 917,728 pounds, or 
17.15 per cent of all dyes imported. The 12 leading direct dj^es im- 
ported in 1928 were: 



Pounds 

Rapid fast red GL 67, 450 

Chloramine red 48, 343 

Rapid fast orange 46, 450 

Diazo sky blue 31, 216 

Benzo fast brown 30,920 

Rapid fast red 30, 800 



Pounds 

Trisulf on brown B 30, 006 

Chlorantine fast violet 21, 379 

Diamine fast orange EG, ER 20, 600 

Brilliant sky blue R, 2RM-. 16,657 

Benzo fast yellow RL 1 6, 340 

Chlorantine fast brown 15, 648 



S R A dyes. — These dyes were developed after intensive research 
work by the British Celanese Co. (Ltd.), manufacturers of celanese 
silk, especially for the dyeing of acetate cellulose, known as "acetate 
silk." They are sold in the form of a 10 per cent paste, consisting of 
a dispersion of the dye with a highly sulfonated castor oil, that is, 
sulforicinoleic acid. When mixed with water the dispersed colloidal 
solution is capable of dyeing cellulose acetate. In mixed fabrics 
colored with these dyes, the cotton, as well as any artificial silk other 
than acetate, is left unstained. 

S R A dyes offer a good range of colors, are easy to apply, and possess 
good general fastness. Twenty-five of these special dyes were manu- 
factured in the United States in 1928. Their production on a large 
scale is a development of great interest in view of the remarkable 
expansion of the domestic rayon industry, and the rapid increase in 
the use of celanese or acetate silk. A large increase in production 
was reported for 1928. 

(4) MORDANT AND CHROME DYES 

Description. — These colors are used in conjunction with metallic 
mordants, such as salts of chromium, aluminum, iron, and tin, to dye 
both vegetable and animal fibers. The resulting shades are, in gen- 
eral, of exceptional fastness to color-destroying agents. On wool the 
mordant dyes yield shades fast to light, washing, and other agents. 
They are also important in printing on cotton piece goods, but are 
little used on silk. 

The mordant dyes are frequently designated as chrome colors. 
Because of the derivation of many of them from alizarin, they were 
formerly called alizarin dyes. Certain dyes may be acid, acid chrome 
or chrome, according to the method of application. The true ali- 
zarins are generally used with a mordant. The new acid alizarins 
can be used either with or without a mordant; they constitute a 
valuable group in the dyeing of wool. When used on wool, the mor- 
dant may be applied before, during, or after the dyeing operation. 



SUMMARY OF PRODUCTION" OF DYES 51 

The labor cost of dyeing with mordant and chrome dyes is higher 
than for many other groups. 

Formerly the most important dye of this class was alizarin, used 
on cotton to produce the well-known Turkey red, one of the shades 
made in ancient times from madder root. For 50 years, alizarin has 
been prepared synthetically from anthracene. In the United States 
it has been replaced, to a large extent, for use on cotton by certain of 
the so-called ice dyes, such as Para red, and more recently by Naphthol 
AS red. 

Chemically, the mordant dyes are members of the following classes : 
(1) Anthraquinone, (2) azo, (3) oxazine, (4) triphenylmethane, (5) 
nitroso, (6) oxyquinone, and (7) xanthone. 

Production and imports. — The output of mordant and chrome colors 
in 1928 was 4,403,934 pounds, or 4.56 per cent of all dyes manufac- 
tured. This production is an increase of 22 per cent over 1927. Sales 
in 1928 were 3,958,973 pounds, valued at $2,399,961. 

Chrome blue black U ranked first in this class in 1928, with a pro- 
duction of 1,275,149 pounds, or an increase of 12 per cent over 1927. 
Sales were 1,150,140 pounds, valued at $410,822. Other important 
dyes in this group include Alizarin, Anthraquinone blue black B, 
Alizarin sky blue B, Chrome black T, Chrome blue black B, and 
Chromate brown B. 

Mordant dyes showing increased production in 1928 include Chromo- 
trope 6B, Chrome violet B, Chrome black PV, Milling orange G, 
Chrome black F, Chrome blue green B, Chrome red B, Alizarin red S, 
Alizarin GI, Anthracene blue WR, Anthraquinone blue black B; 
those showing decreased production include Chromotrope lOB, Chrome 
flavine G, Acid chrome brown B, Acid chrome black F, Chrome fast 
yellow C, arid Alizarin. 

Imports of mordant and chrome dyes totaled 476,872 pounds, which 
was 8.91 per cent of all dyes brought into the country in 1928, and 
10.8 per cent of the domestic production of mordant and chrome dyes. 
The 10 leading mordant and chrome dyes imported were: 

Pounds 

Omega chrome brown 16, 000 

Gallamine blue 13, 944 

Eriochrome azurol BC 12, 311 

Modern violet 11, 751 



Pounds 

Alizarin, synthetic 102,826 

Alizarin viVidine FF 25, 331 

Alizarin red S 23, 969 

Alizarin cyclamine R 20, 470 

Alizarin orange A, AO 17, 379 



Chromacetine blue S 10, 471 

(5) SULFUR DYES 

Description. — Sulfur dyes are used largely on cotton, especially for 
dyeing uniform cloths, hosiery, gingham yarns, and cotton warps to be 
woven with wool and later dyed with acid dyes. They produce heavy 
shades of blue, green, brown, and black. Their greatly extended use 
during the war served to increase permanently their application on 
cotton. Minor uses are in the dyeing of linen and artificial silk. 

In cross dyeing, the sulfur dyes possess excellent fastness to wash- 
ing, fulling, alkalies, and acids. With some exceptions their fastness 
to light is good. As they are not fast to chlorine, they do not with- 
stand the repeated bleaching action of the hypochlorites used in mod- 
ern laundries. They are applied in a sodium sulfide solution and some- 
times an after treatment is given with metallic salts or with other 
agents to improve their fastness. Cachou de Laval, the first of this 



52 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

group to be discovered, was made in 1867 by the fusion of sawdust 
with sodium sulfide and sulfur. Sulfur dyes are now prepared by the 
fusion of various intermediates (containing the nitro, amino, or imino 
groups) with, sodium sulfide and sulfur. These dyes are not pure, 
distinct compounds, and the presence of foreign substances renders 
them of comparatively low color value. Recent developments, how- 
ever, have greatly increased the tinctorial value and shade range of 
many of them. 

Production and imports. — With an output of 19,001,910 pounds in 
1928, the sulfur dyes ranked third among the seven classes of dyes, 
constituting 19.67 per cent of all dyes manufactured. The 1928 
production was a decrease of nearly 19 per cent from 1927. Sales 
in 1928 were 19,969,173 pounds, valued at $4,107,743. Sulfur dj^es 
ranked fifth in value of sales. 

Sulfur black, an important item in our export trade, ranking second 
only to indigo, is the leading sulfur dye produced. In 1928, as in 
the four years preceding, it was second among all dyes in quantitj'' 
produced. The output of 14,354,755 pounds vras a decrease of 24.4 
per cent from 1927. Sales were 15,756,618 pounds, valued at $2,206,- 
699. The average sales price per pound of 14 cents was an increase 
of 1 cent over 1927. 

Sulfur brown, with a production of 1,729,647 pounds, ranked 
second among the sulfur dyes. Sulfur blue with 1,002,228 pounds 
and Sulfur maroon with 617,729 pounds, were produced in the next 
largest quantities. Sulfur green and Sulfur maroon show an increase 
in production in 1928 and Sulfur black. Sulfur orange and Sulfur 
yellow a decrease in production. 

Imports of sulfur dyes were relatively small, amounting to 125,350 
pounds, or 2.34 per cent of all dyes imported. Indo carbon CL, 
SN, with 41,794 pounds, led this class. Sulfide new blue, with 
18,284 pounds, and Thionol green B, 2G, with 15,566 pounds, were 
second and third respectively. 

(6) VAT DYES 

Description. — -Vat dyes as a class are exceptionally fast to light, 
washing, acids, alkalies, and chlorine. Some of them are not fast 
to all of these agents. The consumption of vat dyes is increasing 
with the growing demand by the ultiuiate consumer of textiles for 
fast-dyed fabrics. Since cotton goods dyed with these colors with- 
stand the severe treatment of the modern laundry, the increased cost 
of dye per yard is a minor factor, as compared with the increased 
life of the fabric. A European colorist, referring to the vat dyes, 
has said that Europe is too poor to afford anything but fast dyes — 
that the loose or fugitive colors are an extravagance. Their superior 
fastness and the variety and beauty of shades which they yield are 
largely responsible for a steady increase in their use. They are applied 
on dyed and printed shirtings, dress goods, ginghams, muslin curtains, 
and other cotton wash goods, and have a limited application on silk 
and a still smaller one on wool. Because of their higher cost they 
are used chiefiy for color stripes and small printed patterns on a white 
background rather than for solid or heavy shades. They possess 
technical advantages in application over the alizarin mordant dyes. 

With the exception of indigo, one of the oldest dyes known, vat 
dyes are of recent origin, having been developed since 1904. The 



SUMMARY OF PRODUCTION OF DYES 53 

Badische Co., of Germany, manufactured the first members of this 
class, known in the trade as the Indanthrenes. This group was 
followed by the Ciba dyes of the Society of Chemical Industry at 
Basle, Switzerland, and later by the Algols, Helindones, Thioindigoes, 
and Hydrous, and other series produced by different German con- 
cerns. Prior to the war vat dyes other than indigo were made 
exclusively in Germany and Switzerland. 

Vat dyes are among the most complex of dyes, difficult to manu- 
facture, and relatively high in cost. Chemically they consist of indi- 
goids (including thioindigoids), anthraquinone derivatives, and the 
carbazole derivatives. 

Following the outbreak of the war, the United States and Great 
Britain, two of the leading consumers of these dyes, began their 
manufacture on an extensive scale. 

In 1924 a water-soluble leuco derivative of indigo, under the name 
of Indigosol, was placed on the market by Swiss and German firms. 
Since then other Indigosol types, including Indigosol red, orange, 
yellow, scarlet, pink, violet, and black have been made in commer- 
cial quantity. A similar derivative of Caledon jade green, known 
as Soledon jade green, was manufactured by the Scottish D5^es (Ltd.). 
The commercial production of water-soluble leuco derivatives marks 
an advance not only in this group but in the whole realm of dye 
manufacture. These can be used on animal as well as vegetable 
fibers, and their application by the ''direct method," with subsequent 
oxidation, is less complex than by the alkali hydrosulfite process 
generally used for the vat dyes. Extended use of these new deriva- 
tives will depend in large part on their selling prices. 

The leucosol dyes — special types for calico printing — are vat dyes 
of the anthraquinone group. They were recently placed on the mar- 
ket by a domestic manufacturer and are now being produced on a 
commercial scale. Members of this group include a black, a light 
blue, and a navy blue. 

Production and imports. — The total production in 1928 of vat dyes 
was 32,375,812 pounds, or 33.51 per cent of all dyes produced. Sales 
m 1928 were 31,310,768 pounds, valued at $9,156,995. 

Indigo (20 per cent paste) is the leading vat dye. Production in 
1928 was 25,861,680 pounds, or 26.77 per cent of all dyes produced. 
This output was a decrease of 9 per cent from the 1927 production. 
Sales in 1928 were 25,556,849 pounds, valued at S3, 585, 700, or 14 
cents per pound. The unit sales value in earlier years was as follows: 
12.1 cents in 1927, 12.8 cents in 1926, and 15.6 cents in 1925. 

Of the vat dyes other than indigo, Anthraquinone vat blue GCD 
again led in quantity of production, with 851,159 pounds. Sales 
were 695,892 pounds, valued at $546,411 or 78.5 cents per pound. 
Dyes of this group had a sales value per pound of 92 cents in 1927, 
$1.08 in 1926, and $1.63 in 1923. 

Vat dyes showing increased production in 1928 include Anthra- 
quinone vat brown B, Anthraquinone vat yellow GK, Anthraquinone 
vat brown R, Thianthrene orange R. Those showing decreased 
production include Anthraquinone vat blue 3G, Anthraquinone vat 
blue GCD, Tribromindigo RB, Vat red 3B. 

Vat dyes reported in 1928 but not in 1927 include: Anthraquinone 
vat violet R, Anthraquinone vat olive R, Cibanone orange R, Anthra- 
quinone vat yellow 3G, Ciba yellow G, and Ciba red R. 



54 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Of vat dyes other than indigo, such as the anthraqiiinones and 
alhed derivatives, the thioindigo derivatives, halogenated indigoids, 
and indigo white, the increase in production in 1928 was not as large 
as in 1927, 1926, or 1925, but their steady growth in relation to the 
total production of dyes of all classes is an outstanding feature of 
the domestic industry. The total output of this group of dyes was 
6,514,132 pounds in 1928, an increase of 9 per cent over 1927, which 
in turn was a gain of 48 per cent over 1926. The increasing use of 
these dyes for dyeing and printing fast-dyed fabrics is indicated by 
the figures shown in Table 20. 

Imports of vat dyes other than indigo totaled 3,301,761 pounds, or 
43.01 per cent of all dyes imported in 1928. This was an increase 
from 1927, when 1,724,910 pounds were imported. 

The following tabulation shows the leading vat dyes imported and 
the quantity (single strength) brought in during 1928: 



Pounds 

Vat golden yellow GK 208, 765 

Anthra yellow GC (Anthra- 

flavone GC) 157,742 

Brilliant indigo 4B 130, 812 

Indanthrene brown G 127, 293 

Indanthrene blue GCD 91, 376 

Indanthrene red violet RH_. 82, 220 

Algol scarlet 73, 700 

Algol orange RF 72, 653 

Brilliant indigo B 69, 760 

Vat (Thioindigo) printing 

black B 68,800 



Poundft 

Hydron pink FF 1 68,500 

Indanthrene olive R 63, 528 

Indanthrene black 56, 649 

Indanthrene golden orange 

RRT 43,449 

Indanthrene green G, 2G 36, 068 

Indanthrene yellow G 34, 110 

Helindone printing black RD_ 33, 673 

Brilliant indigo 4G 29, 622 

Anthra scarlet 2G 29, 535 

Indanthrene brown 2G 28, 362 



Table 20. — Vat dyes other than indigo: Domestic sales, imports, and apparent 
consumption in the United States, 1914 and 1923-1928 



Year 


Sales of 
domestic 
manufac- 
ture 


Imports 


Apparent 
consump- 
tion 


1914 .-. 


Pounds 


Poundft 
1, 945, 304 
1, 207, 554 
1, 493, 851 
2, 418, 842 
1, 845, 208 
1, 724. 910 
2, 301, 761 


Pounds 
1, 945, 304 


1923 - 


1,608,217 

1, 558, 080 

2, 252, 803 
2,815,241 
4.925,512 
5, 753, 919 


2,815,771 


1924 . --. , 


3, 051, 931 


1925 


4, 671, 645 


1926 --- - 


4, 660, 449 


1927 . - --- 


6, 650, 422 


1928 - - - -- 


8, 055, 680 







(7) COLOR-LAKE AND SPIRIT-SGLtTBLE DYES 

These dyes, constituting one of the smaller groups, are used in 
making a class of pigments known as color lakes, discussed in detail on 
page 56. The spirit-soluble dyes are insoluble in water, but dissolve 
in oils, fats, and various organic solvents; consequently they find 
application for coloring varnishes, fats, oils, waxes, and similar 
products. As many of them are converted by sulfonation and other 
chemical treatments into water-soluble dyes for textile dyeing, they 
may be considered as partly completed dyes. 

The output of color-lake and spirit-soluble dyes in 1928 was 1,821,- 
492 pounds, or 1.89 per cent of the total output of all dyes produced. 
Imports of this group were 98,550 pounds, or 1.84 per cent of all dyes 
imported. 



1 Includes Indanthrene brilliant pink R. 



SUMMAltY OF PRODUCTION OF DYES 



55 



(8) FOOD DYES 

Food dyes include a limited number of selected dyes which meet 
the specifications of the Bureau of Chemistry, Department of Agricul- 
ture. The total production in 1928 was 171,943 pounds, with sales 
of 204,828 pounds, valued at S653,176. Production in 1927 was 
209,991 pounds; in 1921, the first year that figures for this group 
were separately compiled, production was 50,709 pounds. The aver- 
age value of the sales was $3.19 per pound in 1928, $3.54 in 1927, $3.95 
in 1926, and $5.80 in 1921. 



EXPORT TRADE IN DYES 

Exports of coal-tar dyes in 1928 amounted to 27,824,264 pounds, 
valued at $6,531,619, an increase of 3.9 per cent in quantity and of 
18.8 per cent in value over 1927. The average value per pound in 
1925 was 25.9 cents; in 1926, 23 cents; in 1927, 20.5 cents; and in 1928, 
23.5 cents. 

China, Japan, Canada, British India, and Belgium were the principal 
markets for United States dyes in 1928. Central and South American 
countries were less important markets. 

Table 21 shows the total exports of dyes from the United States 
from 1920 to 1928, inclusive. 

Table 21. — Coal-tar dyes: Exports from the United States, 1920-1928 



Year 


Quantity 


Value 


Year 


Quantity 


Value 


1920 


Pounds 


$29, 823, 591 
6, 270, 139 
3, 996, 443 
5. 565, 267 
5, 636, 244 


1925... 


Pounds 

25, 799, 889 
25,811,941 

26, 770, 560 
27, 824, 264 


$6, 694, 360 


1921 




1926 

1927 


5, 950, 159 


1922 


8, 344, 187 
17, 924, 200 
15, 713. 428 


5,495,322 


1923 

1924 


1928' 


6,531,619 







' Includes 264,986 pounds put up in packages for household use and valued at $195,441. 

Details as to the quantity and value of exports to the various 
countries are shown in Part VI, page 190. In previous issues of the 
Dye Census, monthly exports are shown back to 1909. Table 22 
shows, by months, the total exports of dyes from the United States 
from January, 1926, to September, 1929, inclusive. 

Table 22. — Colors, dyes, and stains: Domestic exports, by months, 1926 to 1928, 

and 1929 (9 months) 



Month 



Pounds 
1,552,335 
1, 610, 625 
2, 924, 695 
1, 666, 344 
2, 325, 763 
1, 660, 995 
2, 742, 622 
2, 448, 664 
1, 882, 936 
2, 220, 377 
2, 672, 216 
December I 2, 104, 369 



January 

February.. 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September. 

October 

November. 



1926 



Quantity Value 



$416, 975 
403, 949 
696, 538 
425, 792 
496, 251 
417, 693 
579, 664 
472, 378 
461, 233 
521, 069 
611,539 
447, 078 



Quantity Value 



Pounds 
1, 865, 021 
2,951,057 
3, 595, 342 
1, 226, 538 
1, 928, 170 
967, 908 

1, 525, 751 

2, 257, 139 
4, 469, 227 
1, 837, 742 

1, 920, 382 

2, 226, 283 



Total 25,811,941 5, 950, 159 1 26, 770, 560 5,495,322 



$404, 655 
586, 167 
701, 20i 

375, 720 

376, 521 
292, 187 
331, 387 
527, 784 
614, 925 
399, 594 
456, 734 
428, 447 



19281 



Quantity Value 



Pounds 
1,715,365 
2, 847, 846 
1, 734, 665 
1, 787, 715 
1, 897, 901 
1, 719, 979 
3,841,016 
1, 350, 732 
1, 329, 834 
5, 194, 209 
2, 456, 927 
1, 948, 075 



192912 



Quantity 



27, 824, 264 



$447, 984 
641, 697 
507, 723 
448, 441 
460, 306 
415, 103 
790, 662 
378, 858 
413, 179 
823, 693 
628, 879 
574, 844 



Pounds 
2, 923, 382 
2, 956, 403 

2, 331, 603 
2, 180, 821 

3, 765, 147 

4, 090, 145 
3, 200, 531 
3, 356, 022 
3, 578, 085 



6,531,619 



Value 



$651, 757 
725, 021 
571, 225 
526, 654 
685, 424 
679, 062 
642, 724 
597, 873 
676, 150 



' Includes dyes put up in packages for household use. 



2 Preliminary figures. 



56 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

OTUER FINISHED COAL-TAR PRODUCTS 
COLOR LAKES 

Description. — A color lake is an insoluble color pigment, commonly 
made by precipitating a coloring matter (a coal-tar dye) on a carrier 
(tbe base). The desirable properties of a color lake are good coloring 
power; easy workability; brightness; and fastness to weather, light, 
alkali, and acids. The precipitating agents used for coal-tar colors 
are barium chloride, lead salts, aluminum hydroxide, and tannin 
or tannin tartar emetic. Among the more important carriers are 
aluminum hydroxide, zinc white, lithopone, barytes, whiting, china 
clay and certain native clays, and ocher. The principal require- 
ments of a carrier are (1) ready reduction to a finely divided state 
and (2) absence of any deleterious effect on the shade of the finished 
lake. The coloring matter includes groups of coal-tar dyes known 
as acid dyes, basic dyes, and mordant dyes, as well as certain azo 
dyes produced directly on the carrier. An example of the last- 
named is Para red, produced from the intermediate p-nitroaniline 
and b-naphthol. Another group of color lakes is made by the pre- 
cipitation of a water-soluble acid dye, with the aid of a mineral 
salt to form an insoluble product. 

After precipitation the insoluble lake is filtered, dried, and ground 
with or without oil; it is then ready for use as a pigment in paints, 
lithographic inks, artists' colors, wall paper, rubber products, and 
for other coloring purposes. 

Production. — The production of color lakes in 1928 was 12,127,242 
pounds. Sales amounted to 12,045,435 pounds, valued at $6,589,166. 
Production in 1927 was 11,601,507 pounds. 

MEDICINALS 

Prior to 1914 Germany was the leading producer of synthetic 
medicinals and the chief source of our imports. During the past 15 
years American chemists have built up an industry which to-day 
supplies a large part of our domestic requirements. Synthetic medic- 
inals are necessary to national welfare, both in the prevention and cure 
of disease. A partial list of the medicinals developed in the last 10 
years follows: 

General anesthetics. — Ethylene, propylene, butylene. 

Local anesthetics. — Apothesine, butyn, butysin, butesin picrate, tutocaine. 

Benzyl esters. — Benzoate, stearate, fumarate, succinate. 

Chloramines. — Chloramine, dichloramine, halazone. 

Antiseptics. — Dibroniin, hexyl resorcinol. 

Hypnotics. — Neonal, amytal, ipral, dial, allonal. 

Arsenic compounds. — Sulfoarsphenamine, tryparsamide. 

Mercury cotnpounds. — Mercurochrome, mercurosal, metaphen. 

Bismuth compounds. — Tartrate, salicylate, and others. 

Dyes. — Tetraiodoplienolphthalein, phenolsulfonphthalein, acriflavine. 

Production. — The total production of coal-tar medicinals in 1928 
was 4,008,393 pounds, of which 4,004,557 pounds were sold for 
$8,650,838. 

Table 23 gives the production of certain coal-tar medicinals, and the 
total production of all medicinals from 1922 to 1928, inclusive. For 



SUMMAEY OP PRODUCTION OF DYES 



57 



many individual medicinals, production and sales figures can not be 
published without disclosing confidential information. 

Table 23. — Coal-tar medicinals: Production of a selected list, 1922-1928 



Name 



1922 



1923 



1924 



1925 



1926 



1927 



1928 



Acetanilide- 

Arsphenamine 

Aspirin 

Benzocaine 

Cincophen 

Neoarsphenamiae- . 

Phcnolsulfonates 

Procaine 

Salol... 

Sodium salicylate... 
Sulfoarsphenamine . 



Pounds 

222, 517 

865 

1, 482, 998 

1,658 



2,904 
300, 993 



Pounds 

564. 498 

616 

1, 525, 795 

2,243 

32, 710 

3,365 

208, 902 



467, 264 



98, 597 

416, 382 

164 



Pounds 

425, 950 

555 

1, 366, 530 

2,080 

56, 003 

3,220 

197, 644 

3,790 



412, 707 
743 



Pounds 

158, 756 

278 

1,499,166 

2,446 

60, 722 

3,289 

163, 723 



118,869 

415, 465 

734 



Pounds 

458, 927 

444 

1, 823, 748 

2,768 

79, 632 

4,113 



Pounds 

366, 842 

265 

1, 715, 686 

3,974 

84, 212 

3,889 



6.702 

84,182 

469, 345 

847 



51, 504 

492, 558 

800 



Pounds 
480, 273 



1,816,015 
6,300 
94, 330 
4,814 



7,952 



456, 195 
862 



Total coal-tar medicinals. 



2, 946, 347 



3, 273, 085 



2, 967, 944 



3, 237, 796 



3, 696, 196 



3, 598, 839 



4, 008, 393 



Aspirin, produced in larger quantity than any other medicinal dur- 
ing the 7-year period covered by the table, showed a slight increase' 
in output in 1928 over 1927. Sales in 1928 were 1,847,073 pounds, 
valued at $1,469,779 and in 1927, 1,720,597 pounds, valued at 
$1,079,346. 

[;;~ Arsphenamine, used in the treatment of venereal diseases, is gradu- 
ally being displaced by neoarsphenamine and other derivatives of 
arsphenamine. The sales of arsphenamine in 1928 were 305 pounds, 
valued at $84,914. The pre-war price, when this country was de- 
pendent upon Germany for its entire supply, was $3.50 per ampoule. 
The contract price to the Government in 1929 is 18 cents per ampoule. 
Of neoarsphenamine, the production was 4,814 pounds, and sales 
were 4,654 pounds, valued at $1,539,718; of sulfoarsphenamine, 
862 pounds, with sales of 857 pounds, valued at $270,910. 

Cincophen, prescribed for acute gout and articular rheumatism, 
has increased in production each year since 1923. The 1928 pro- 
duction was 94,330 pounds, and sales were 93,610 pounds, valued at 
$450,938, or $4.82 per poimd. 

Medicinals showing increased production in 1928 over 1927 include 
acetphenetidin, ampydin, benzocaine, calcium cresol sulfonate, 
chloramine T, luminal, procaine, zinc sulfophenolate. Those show- 
ing decreased production are sodium salicylate and salol. 



FLAVORS AND PERFUME MATERIALS 

There is no sharp line of demarcation between these two classes of 
coal-tar chemicals, many of them being used both as flavors for 
food products and as perfumes for soaps and other toilet articles. 
Separate classification is therefore in certain cases purely arbitrary. 

Production oi' flavors. — The production of flavors in 1928 was 1,746,- 
350 pounds, a decrease of 21 per cent from 1927. Sales in 1928 were 
1,966,467 pounds, valued at $1,296,034. 

Vanillin, one of the leading synthetic flavors, is made from guaiacol 
and also from oil of cloves. The process using oil of cloves commonly 
requires a coal-tar chemical. The production in 1928 was 281,694 

85526—30 5 



58 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

pounds, as compared with 301,251 pounds in 1927. Sales in 1928 
amounted to 325,139 pounds, valued at $1,991,758, or a unit price of 
$6.13. The weighted average selling price of domestic vanillin has 
steadily declined since 1921 when it was $7.94 per pound. The 
selling price in 1928 was only slightly above the price in 1913. 

Methyl salicylate, an artificial wintergreen, showed a decrease of 
27 per cent in production as compared with the previous year. The 
output in 1928 was 1,338,851 pounds, and sales were 1,581,699 
pounds, valued at $533,150. 

Coumarin was reported by five firms in 1928. Production was 
121,344 pounds, an increase of 8 per cent over 1927. Sales in 1928 
were 108,798 pounds, valued at $351,723. The selling price increased 
from $2.83 per pound in 1927 to $3.23 in 1928. 

Saccharin, used for sweetening chewing tobacco and soft drinks, 
in the preparation of pharmaceuticals, and as a substitute for sugar 
by diabetics, showed increased production over 1927. 

Production of perfumes. — The output of perfume materials of coal- 
tar origin in 1928 was 1,577,718 pounds. Sales in 1928 were 1,619,476 
►pounds, valued at $1,000,001 and in 1927, 2,025,614 pounds, valued 
at $991,922. 

Diethylphthalate, one of the perfume materials made in large 
quantity, reached its peak in production in 1925, when 2,099,181 
pounds were produced. In 1926 there was a decline to 1,044,218 
pounds, and in 1927 a further drop to 983,894 pounds. In 1928 the 
output increased to 1,152,662 pounds. Sales in 1928 were 1,194,191 
pounds, valued at $344,936; the unit value in 1928 was 28.9 cents, 
as compared with 28 cents in 1927. 

Other perfume materials made in appreciable quantities in 1928 
include benzyl alcohol and its derivatives, benzyl acetate and benzyl 
benzoate. The production of the acetate increased but that of ben- 
zoate declined. The sales price of benzyl alcohol, and of its deriva- 
tives, declined in 1928, as compared with 1927. 

Synthetic musks — ambrette, ketone, and xylene — were made for the 
first time in 1926. Their production marks an advance in the manu- 
facture of coal-tar perfume materials in the United States. Greater 
quantities of musk ambrette and musk ketone were produced in 1928 
than in 1927, but a smaller quantity of musk xylene. 

Perfume materials other than those mentioned showing increased 
production in 1928 include acetophenone, benzophenone, buxine, 
phenyl acetic acid, phenyl acetic aldehyde, methylphenyl acetate, 
phenylethyl alcohol, cinnamic aldehyde, and diphenyl oxide. Prod- 
ucts in this group showing decreased output in 1928, as compared 
with 1927, include isobutyl benzoate, methyl anthranilate, and 
in f llyl phthalate. 

Imports of synthetic aromatic chemicals of coal-tar origin provided 
for in paragraph 28 of the tariff act of 1922 are shown in Table 25, 
page 60. 

SYNTHETIC RESINS 

New industrial uses are constantly being discovered for synthetic 
resins and consequently increasing the demand for them. Expansion 
in the industry has been especially marked in recent years. From 



SUMMARY OF PRODUCTION OF DYES 59 

a total of 6,000,000 pounds in 1922, production advanced to 13,452,230 
pounds in 1927, and to 20,411,465 pounds in 1928. Sales in 1928 
(20,778,856 pounds) were even larger than production, stocks on 
hand serving to eke out the quantity in demand. Production in 
1929 promises to be much larger than the 1928 output, and with mass 
production and cheaper raw materials, it is likely that there will 
be a reduction in manufacturing costs. Among the raw materials 
that will probably be available to the consumer at lower cost are: 
Phenol and cresylic acid; formaldehyde, made synthetically from 
methanol; and glycerin, obtained as a by-product of alcohol made 
by the fermentation of molasses. 

The largest use of synthetic resins is as a binder in molded plastics 
for automobile and radio parts. For the modern motor car, molded 
parts are used in increasing quantities, and with the operation of radio 
receivers by the alternating current molded tube bases and insulating 
attachments for the transmission of the current are in great demand. 

Other uses which promise further expansion in the synthetic resin 
industry are in the manufacture of varnishes and lacquers, in making 
handles for tools and other hardware, in molded fixtures for electric 
lighting, and in the construction of apparatus and equipment for the 
chemical industries. The utilization of resins in the chemical industry 
is confined to the phenol-aldehyde resins, high-grade products 
thoroughly developed in recent years. 

PHOTOGRAPHIC CHEMICALS 

Because of their strong reducing properties, coal-tar chemicals are 
used for developing photographic fihns, plates, and prints. They are 
popularly known as developers, but are sold under a variety of trade 
names. 

Photographic chemicals were made in greater quantity in 1928 than 
in 1927. Production in 1928 was 478,979 pounds; sales were 493,825 
pounds, valued at $696,101. Hydroquinol, the leading chemical in 
this group, metol, and p-hydroxy phenylglycine showed increased 
output, as compared with 1927. 

SYNTHETIC TANNING MATERIALS 

The synthetic tanning materials known as syntans have come into 
commercial use in Germany and England since 1912. They have not 
yet been used extensively in this country, but they probably will be 
used in the tanning of leather, together with natural tanning extracts. 
The output in 1928 was a large increase over 1927. As neither 
production nor sales figures can be published without disclosing 
confidential information, they are given in combination with produc- 
tion and sales figures for miscellaneous chemicals on page 73. 

Synthetic tans are especially satisfactory for producing light colors 
on leathers. They are made by the condensation of certain coal-tar 
derivatives, such as the sulfonated phenols, cresols, and naphthols, 
with formaldehyde in the presence of an acid, and are commonly used 
in conjunction with natural tanning extracts. Less time is required to 
tan with the synthetic than with the natural tanning materials. 



60 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



STATISTICS OF IMPORTS, PRODUCTION, AND SALES 
Table 24. — Medicinals and 'pharmaceuticals: Imports into the United States, 1928 



Name 



Aceto-p-aminosalol 

Acriflavine powder... 

Acriflavine tablets 

Aminobenzeneazocresol ether 

p-Aminobenzoyldiethylaminoethanol 

hydrochloride 

Aminobenzoethylium 

Aminophenyl salicylate 

Aminopyrine 

Antipyrine 

Benzoic acid 

Bornyl salicylate 

Cardiazol powder 

Chinosol powder 

Chinosol tablets 

Chlorobutanol 

Colchicine salicylate 

Creosote carbonate U. S. P. X 

Cyclohexenylethylcyanacetic acid ethyl 

ester 

Diniethylaminophenazonbicamphoric 

acid 

Epinine hydrocholoride 

Ethylaminobenzoate 

Ethylbenzene sulfonate 

Eupinina 

Eupthalmine hydrochloride 

Fliiin tablets 

Gernianin 

Quaiacol carbonate 

Guaiacol crystals 

Hexamethylenetetraminesulfosalicylate 

Homatropin hydrobromide 

Homatropine hydrochloride 

p-IIydroxydiphenylmethane acid ester.. 

lodoseptine ampoules 

Isobutyl-o-cresoliodide 

Iso-neoarsphenamine 

Lucidol 

Mercuric succinimide — 

Mercurychlorophenolbarbituric acid 

Methylphenylquinollnecarboxylic acid 

ethyl ester 



Quantity 



Pounds 

100 

1725 

15 

110 

104.5 

50 

1,653 

6,296 

83, 865 

30 

44 

44 

210 

550 

55 

2 13 

110 

661 

187 

11.5 

23 

457 

30 

4.2 

269 

I 100 

2,722 

222 

749 

4.7 

1 

32 

4 

29 

> 135 

220 

2 



Name 



Methylene blue 

Monomethylaminoacetopyrocatechol 

hydrochloride 

N-dimethoxyphenacetyl-b-methoxy-b- 

dimethoxy-phenylethylamine 

b-Naphthol aluminum disulfonate 

b-Naphthol compound 

Keoarsphenamine 

Neocaine 

Neosilverarsphenamine 

Keumol... 

Phenol 

Phenolphthalein 

Phenylglycol 

Phenylhydrazine 

Phenylhydrazine hydrochloride 

Physostigmine salicylate 

Plasmochin tablets 

Pyoktanin blue 

Pyoktanin yellow 

Pyridine, pure.. 

Pyrocatechine 

Eesorcinol, med -. 

Rivanol tablets 

Salicylic acid methylhydroxymethyl 

ester 

Sandalwood oil and salol 

Sodium acetylaminophenylstibiate 

Sodium-p-aminophenylarsenate... 

Sodium salicylate 

Stovaine 

Sulfarsenol 

Tolamine 

Tonophosphan solution 

Vioform powder 

Zinc sulfanilate 

All other. 

Total. 



Quantity 



Pounds 
6.5 



15.5 
33 
80 
1 16, 760 
(') 

1956 

100 

22 

1,025 

220 

239 

44 

185 

1150 

25 

25 

27 

386 

8,316 

4.6 

110 

10 

1.2 

50 

1, 326. 5 

3 

5.3 

11.6 

7 

55 

350 

62 



111,986 
$144, 051 



1 Grams. 



2 Ounces. 



' Value of imports of neocaine, amounted to $1,449. 



Table 25. — Synthetic aromatic chemicals of coal-tar origin: Imports into the 

United States, 1928 



Name 



Acetophenone 

Acetyltoluene 

Ambrogene. 

Amyl cinnamic aldehyde... 

Amyl salicylate 

Aubepine (anisic aldehyde) . 

Aurautine 

Aurantiol 

Benzaldehyde f. f. c 

Benzoic acid 

Benzophenone 

Benzyl acetate 

Benzyl alcohol 

Benzyl benzoate 

Benzyl butyrate 

Benzyl cinnamate 

Benzyl foi Jiate 

Benzyl isoeiigenol 

Benzyl propionate.. 

Benzyl salicylate 

Benzyl valerianate 

Benzylidene acetone 



Quantity 



Pounds 

452 

18 

15,664 

82.5 

1,895 

1,762 

10 

27 

558 

100 

50 

14, 628 

1,832 

6,784 

37 

45 

106 

15 

396 

449 

12 

232 



Name 



Bromstyrol 

Butj'l ketone 

Butyl xylene 

Buxine 

Cinnamic alcohol.. 

Cinnamic aldehyde 

Coumarin 

p-Cresol methyl ether 

p-Cresol phenylacetate 

' Diethyl phthalate 

Dimethylbenzyl carbinol. 

Dimethylhydroquinone.. 

Diplienyl methane 

Diphenyl oxide.- - 

Ethyl cinnamate 

Ethyl vanillin 

■ Ethylphenyl acetate 

Flosal 

Floxine. 

Geranyl benzoate 

; Heliotropine 

I Hyacinth compound 



Quantity 



Poundt 
300 

3,527 
3,331 

162.6 

2,500 

6,161 

6, 036. 6 

159 

121 

47 

16 

34 

250 

2,869 

224 

1,068 

48 

1,422 

15 

12 

4,828 

50 



SUMMAEY OF PEODUCTION OF DYES 



61 



Table 25. — Synthetic aromatic chemicals of coal-tar origin: Imports into the 
United States, 1928 — Continued 



Hydrocinnamic aldehyde — 
Indol- 

Isobutyl benzoate 

Isobutyl salicylate.- 

Jacinths 

Jasmine aldehyde 

Linalyl benzoate 

Methyl acetophenone 

Methyl anthranilate 

Methyl benzoate.- 

Methyl cinnamate 

Methyl-p-cresol 

Methyl heliotropine N 

Methyl methyl anthranilate 

Methyl naphthyl ketone 

Methyl phenyl acetate 

Musk ambrette.. 

Musk ambrette residue 

Musk ketone 

Musk powder 

Musk xylene.. 

Musk xylene residue 

Narcissus crystals 

Nerolin 

Oleo musk 



Pounds 
42 

269.5 
151 
24 
67 
112 
45 

606.5 
6,735 
281 
3,001 
84 
11 
167.5 
482.5 
132 
2, 538. 5 

180 

2,220 

66 

8,026 

225 

55 

1,460 

100 



Phenacetone. 

Phenyl benzoate 

Phenylacetic acid 

Phenylacetic acid ethyl ether. 

Phenylacetic aldehyde.. 

Phenylethyl acetate. 



Pounds 

220 

12 

1,051 

150 

2,735 

76 

Phenylethyl alcohol i 27, 930. 5 

Phenylethyl propionate i 10 

Phenylethyl salicylate. 13 

Phenylglycolmethyleneacetal 29 

Phenylmethyl acetate ; 6 

Phenylpropyl acetate [ 5 

Phenylpropyl alcohol ! 33 

Phenylpropyl aldehyde i 34 

Protarom | 50 

Skatol j 3.5 

Styralic alcohol ' 10 

Vanillin 15,332 

Vertena D \ 66 

Vara yara 530 

All other. 196.5 



Total- I 153,80&5 

i$223, 377 



Table 26. — Photographic chemicals, intermediates, and other coal-tar products: 
Imports into the United States, 1928 



Name 



Acti\ ol 

b-Aminoanthraquinone 

Aminoazobenzene 

p-Aminobenzoic acid 

Aminobenzoic acid ethyl ester 

Aminopyrazolon 

Anthracene, refined 

Anthrapyridon, pure... 

Auxanine B 

Benzaldohyde, tech 

Benzanthrone sulfide 

Benzenazonaphthalene 

Benzoyl chloride 

p-Bromo-a-monomethylaminoanthra- 

quinone 

Calcium-m-toluidine sulfonic acid 

Carbonal solution 

Centralit I, II 

Chemicals for diazo type 

b-Chloroanthraquinone. 

p-Chloro-m-cresol 

o-Chloro-p-nitraniline 

o-Chlorophenol 

Chlorotoluidine 

m-Chlorotoluenethioglycolic acid 

Chromalin powder 

Cinnamic acid, tech 

Cresidine 

Cresol 

m-Cresol 

o-Cresol 

p-Cresol 

Cresylic acid. 

Cyclohexylamine 

C yclohexanone 

Developer for color plates.. 

Diamino-a-a-dianthrimid 

m-Diaminoanisol sulfate 

Diaminophenol hydrochloride 

Diazodiphenyl ether... 

Dibromo-a-aminoanthraquinone 



Quantity 



Pounds 

175 

10, 541 

4,008 

3,0U0 

20 

2,240 

1,052 

4,044 

20 

9,919 

6,500 

110 

205, 761 

4,403 

2,894 

142 

60 

1,323 

69. 848 

6,312 

1,300 

5,487 

600 

342 

1,322 

110 

996 

4,885 

13, 737 

162, 106 

5,916 

408, 663 

50 

1,093 

498 

4,290 

50 

937 

110 

4,630 



Name 



Quantity 



Dichlorohydroxythionaphthene 

Dichloroisatin 

Dicresylic sodium phosphate... 

Diphcnyl black base I 

Dissolving salt B 

Dissolving salt B new 

Divulsion D 

Edinol 

Elastol 

Enodrin P 

Ethyl-b-naphthylamine 

EthvlphotocatGchine aldehyde. 

Fanalsalt WM__ 

Fast black LB base. 

Fast black salt B 

Fast black salt K 

Fast blue salt B 

Fast Bordeaux salt GP 

Fast garnet GBC base 

Fast orange G base.. 

Fast orange GC base 

Fast orange salt GC... 

Fast orange salt GR 

Fast orange salt R.. 

Fast red B base 

Fast red KB base 

Fast red RB base 

Fast red RBE base 

Fast red RC base 

Fast red RL base 

Fast red TR base 

Fast red salt AL 

Fast red salt B 

Fast red salt GG 

Fast red salt GL.. 

Fast red salt GL new , 

Fast red salt GLA 

Fast red salt 3GL 

Fast red salt RC 

Fast red salt TR 

Fast scarlet Q base 



Pounds 

314 

384 

451 

9,500 

14, 263 

13, 300 

441 

112 

1,925 

500 

500 

25 

400 

2,300 

17, 397 

2,300 

6,420 

11,800 

300 

100 

300 

13,310 

600 

220 

20O 

12, 656 

331 

1,500 

50 

1,850 

300 

2,100 

31, 320 

300 

881 

94, 750 

680 

60, 000 

200 

1,600 

600 



62 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Table 26. — Photographic chemicals, intermediates , and other coal-tar products: 
Imports into the United States, 1928 — Continued 



Name 



Fast scarlet RC base 

Fast scarlet salt GG 

Fast scarlet salt R -- 

Fast yellow salt GO 

Feltron C 

Fur developer EG -.- - 

Glycin - --- 

Hydroquinone developer 

p-Hydroxybenzoic acid methyl ether, 

tech 

J acid 

Katanol O 

Katanol W 

Kollamin 

Laventin BL - 

Leonil S --- 

Ludigol 

Mercerol --- - 

Methyl-p-aminophenol -- 

Methylcyclohexanon.. 

Methyldiphenylamine 

a-Methylnaphthalene 

b-Methylnaph thalene 

Methylphenyl pyrazolon. . - 

Mianin, tech 

Monomethyl-p-aminophenol sulfate.-. 

Naphthanilate R 

Naphthol AS --- 

Naphthol AS-BG - --- 

Naphthol AS-BO. 

Naphthol AS-BS 

Naphthol AS-D 

Naphthol AS-G 

Naphthol AS-M 

Naphthol AS-OL 

Naphthol AS-RL.._ 

Naphthol AS-SW 

Naphthol AS-TR 

a-Naphthol 

b-Naphthol monosulfonic acid F 

Naphthvlamine sulfonic acid 

Nekal AEM 

o-Nitranillne 



Quantity 



Pounds 

600 

15, 270 

66, 326 

600 

22, 000 

25 

1,974 

8 

110 

4, 255 

21, 106 

47,871 

201 

600 

13,000 

2. 500 

15, 004 

7,900 

1,338 

400 

330 

330 

4,150 

1,000 

5, 524 

220 

1,352 

1,150 

1,992 

200 

14, 838 

7,924 

22 

100 

930 

2, 756 

242 

5,743 

10,500 

3,402 

1,810 

150 




m-Nitro-p-toluidine.. 

p-Nitro-o-toluidine 

Nonox 

p-Phenylenediamine base 

Paratol, refined 

Paratol FF 

Paratol SL 

0- Phenet idine 

Phenol 

Phenylketonehydroxynaphthalene 

Phloroglucin 

Photographic chemicals 

Pynacryptol 

Pynacryptol green 

Piperidine piperidyl dithiocarbamate. 

Plastic powder material.. 

Plastol M.. 

Plastol VA 

Plastomoll P... 

Quinizarin 

Rapidogene O paste 

Rapidogene G paste, double cone 

Resoflavine powder 

Resorcinol, tech 

Rodinal 

Rubinic acid. 

Setamol WS 

Solvent salt NB... 

o-Sulfanilic acid 

Synthetic phenolic resin 

Tetrachloroph thalic acid 

Tetralix, special 

p-Toluene sulfanilide... 

Triphenyl phosphate 

Trichlorobenzene extra... 

Tricresol 

Vulkacit P 

Wool resist CB powder. 

All other 

Total. 



Quantity 



Pounds 

220 

200 

25 

360 

17, 500 

11,416 

895 

2,110 

1,172 

331 

15.5 

48 

2 

15 

2,156 

353 

1,250 

1,250 

620 

5,064 

4,000 

14,500 

25 

39, 199 

1,594 

11,023 

125 

551 

7,984 

59, 974 

2,888 

5,500 

1,000 

23,700 

161 

50 

300 

100 

624 



1, 760, 018 
$630, 000 



1 Ounces. 



SUMMAEY OF PKODUCTION OF DYES 



63 



Table 27. — Dyes and other finished coal-tar products: Production and sales, 1928 

[The number in the first column identifies the dyes according to the Colour Index number. The second col- 
umn gives the common name of the product. The numbers in the third column refer to the numbered 
alphabetical list of manufacturers printed on p. 192. An X signifies that a manufacturer did not consent 
to the publication of his identification number in connection therewith. A blank in the fourth and fifth 
columns indicates that the sales figures can not be published without revealing information in regard to 
the output of individual firms. A blank in the seventh column indicates that the production of the cor- 
responding dye in the United States can not be published without revealing information in regard to the 
output of individual firms. The figures thus concealed are, however, included in the total] 



Name of dye 



Total 
products 



finished coal-tar 



NITROSO COLORING MATTERS 



Naphthol green. 



Manufacturers' iden- 
tification numbers 
(according to list 
on p. 192) 



7, 49. 



NITRO COLORING MATTERS 

Naphthol yellow S 35, 76, 147 . 



AZO COLORING MATTERS 



Monoazo coloring matters 



Acid yellow G 

Spirit yellow R 

Butter yellow 

Chrysoidine Y 

Chrvsoidine R 

Oil yellow AB 

Sudan G 

Sudan I 

Croceine orange 

Orange G 

Ponceau G 

Chromotrope 2R 

Fast acid fuchsine B 

Amido naphthol red G. 



Brilliant acid red B. 
Brilliant lake red R. 
Chrome yellow 2G.. 

Chrome yellow R.._ 



8, 49, 76, 107 

8, 38, 107, X 

8, 38, 67, 76, 140, X. 
26, 48, 67, 76, 107.... 

7, 38, 48, 67, 76, 107. 

76 

38 

8, 38^ 67", 76',To"77ii6,"X. 

8, 35, 107, 134 

26, 48, 67, 87, 107, 134. 



107, 110 

8, 107, 110, 113 

7, 8, 35, 48, 67, 107, 117 

118. 
113 



8, 26, 35, 42, 67, 107, 

113, 117. 
7, 8, 26, 33, 35, 38, 48, 

67, 110, 117, 134. 



35, 67, 107, 110, 118. 



Azo yellow 4G 

Victoria violet 

Lanafuchsine | 110 

j\.zo coralline ..J 64, 67 

Chromotrope 6B j 7, 107, 110 

Amido naphthol red 6B. ! 7, 8, 35, 48, 67, 107, 110, 

! 117, 118. 

Oil yellow OB. 1 76 

Brilliant orange O 134 — 

Toluidinered RL i X 

Sudan II 8, 38, 67, 76, 107, X..., 

Ponceau 2R 8, 26, 35, 48, 67, 107, 

[ 110, 134. 

Oil brown , 8, 67 

Double ponceau R... _.; 48 

Bordeaux B --.. 7, 8, 26, 35, 38, 48, 76, 

I 107, 110, 134. 

Chromotrope lOB 8, 110 

Chromate brown B ! 26, 117 

Acid chrome brown R ! 7, 48, 67 

Chrome flavine G ..J 67, 117 

Oil red S .: 110 

Azo eosine G .j 8, 110 

Eosamine G 

Chrome yellow 5Q 

Direct pink E2GN 

Direct pink 

Direct pink EBN. 

Metanil yellow 



Quantity 



Pounds 
140,796,814 



$65,762,945 



115, 342 



38, 438 
23, 123 
766, 109 



48, 740 
22, 562 
98, 576 



19, 661 
193, 805 



96, 518 
79, 024 



43, 097 



140, 152 



Value 



Aver- 
age 

price 
per 

pound 



97, 105 



33, 757 

18, 777 

239, 501 



35, 944 
11, 346 
52, 936 



7,879 
76, 494 



47,328 
42, 267 



30, 692 



09, 153 



27, 951 
471, 734 



109, 973 



26, 594 



110. 

7, 49. 
110.. 
107.. 
110.. 

8, 35, 48, 67, 76, 107 i 630, 590 



26, 172 
199, 688 



56, 047 



22,008 



349, 948 



.$0. 47 



Produc- 
tion 
(quan- 
tity) 



Pounds 
143, 563, 099 



130, 672 



35,828 
22, 789 
736, 492 



45, 236 



204, 287 



98, 341 
78, 641 



71 51,568 



49 164, 418 



25, 993 
502, 822 



.51 I 108,379 
.'83 '24,"679 



56 656, 362 



64 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Table 27. — Dyes and other finished coal-tar products: Production and sales, 

1928 — Continued 



Col- 
our 
In- 
dex 
No. 


Name of dye 


Manufacturers' iden- 
tification numbers 
(according to list 
on p. 192) 


Sales 




Quantity 


Value 


Aver- 
age 

price 
per 

pound 


Produc- 
tion 
(quan- 
tity) 


145 


AZO COLOEING MATTEKS— COD. 

Monoazo coloring matters— Con. 


67 


Pounds 






Pounds 


146 


Azo yellow. .. . 


8, 48,67, 107, 147 

38, 76 


91, 546 


$66, 432 


$0.73 


100, 155 


148 






151 


Orange II 


26, 35, 67, 76, 107 

67 


1, 400, 274 


364, 518 


.26 


1,419,416 


160 






161 




48, 76, 107 


191, 291 


58,599 


.31 




163 




8, 35, 48, 134 




165 
167 


Lake red C (100 per cent) 


7, 8, 48, 67, 98, 134 

107_- 


279, 506 


338, 736 


1.21 


260, 551 


168 




7,67,107 










169 




48, 67, 107, 117 


12, 053 
38, 712 


10, 866 
23,741 


.90 
.61 


16, 143 


170 


Chrome black PV 


48, 67, 107 


73, 649 


175 




67... 




176 


Fast red A 


8, 26, 35, 48, 67, 76, 107, 

110, 113, 117, X. 
38 


137, 551 


81,721 


.69 


106, 104 


177 


Brilliant fast red O 




179 




8, 35, 48, 67, 107, 110.... 
7, 8, 35, 67, 107, 110, 

113, 163. 
7 


147, 643 
203,053 


92, 812 
109, 618 


.63 

.54 


153, 695 


180 


Fast red VR... 


221, 183 


182 


Fast red E 




183 




35 










184 


Amaranth 


8, 35, 67, 76, 107 

35,67, 107, 113, 134 

35, 48, 67, 134, 138, X.. 
7, 8, 35, 107 


27,718 
105, 294 
502, 933 


14, 997 

61,385 

396, 710 


.54 
.58 
.79 


28, 423 


185 


Cochineal red 


108, 758 


189 


Lake red R 


544, 101 


195 






197 




107 










201 




33, 35,48, 67, 107 










202 


Chrome blue black U . 


8, 33, 35, 38, 48, 67, 107, 

117, 134. 
35, 48, 67, 107, 117 


1, 150, 140 


410, 822 


.36 


1, 275, 149 


203 


Chrome black T 




204 


Chrome black A. 


8,35,48, 67, 107, 117... 

7,48,67, 107, 110 

7, 107, 110 


257, 286 

175, 143 

18, 628 


98, 517 
98, 135 
15, 686 


.38 
.56 
.84 


311,288 


208 


Fast acid blue R 


161, 503 


209 






214 




67 




216 


Chrome red B . 


7, 8, 35, 38, 48, 67, 107, 

163. 
33, 64, 110, X 


63, 979 


36, 590 


.68 


74, 470 


225 






227 




X.. 










228 




64 










234 


Disazo coloring matters 
Resorcin brown B 


7, 8, 35, 38, 48, 67, 76, 

107, 113, 117, 118. 
7,8,38,76, 107, 113.... 
48 


182, 133 
21, 142 


113,880 
16, 688 


.62 
.74 


182, 068 


235 


Resorcin dark brown 


25, 783 


238 






241 


AVool black 4B 

Chrome ftreen SW 

Acid black lOB 

Acid dark green A 

Sudan O 


35 










245 


42 










246 
247 


7, 8, 35, 38, 48, 67, 107, 

110,113,117,118,134. 

38, 110 


1,746,973 


646, 719 


.37 


1,917,132 


248 


67 










252 


Brilliant croceine 


8, 35, 48, 67, 76, 107, 134. 
67 


284, 931 


230, 710 


.81 


343,961 


254 






256 


Cloth red 3Q 


48 .- 










258 


Sudan IV 


8, 35, 38, 48, 76, 107, X. 
8,33,35,67,107,117.... 
64, 110 


42, 465 
28, 035 


44,416 
22,495 


1.05 
.80 


38, 830 


262 


Cloth red 2B 


25, 958 


267 






274 


Milling orange G . . 


7, 8, 64 


3,650 


3,443 


.97 


8,904 


275 


Cloth scarlet G 


49, 76 




278 


Direct fast red 8BL 


33, 64, 110, 113, 118, X. 
8, 49, 107.. 


24,158 
25,342 


53, 748 
22,919 


2.22 
.90 


27, 520 


280 


Scarlet EC 


31,821 


288 




7 




289 


Fast cvanine 5R - 


7, 33, 48, 67, 107, 110... 
7, 107, 113 


721, 296 


484, 271 


.67 


807, 671 


294 


Acid black B 




299 


Chrome black F 


7, 8, 35, 48, 67, 107, 110. 
7, 48, 67 


244, 374 
20,830 


166, 805 
15,996 


.64 
.77 


268,381 


302 




36, 667 


304 


Fast acid black N2B 


35, 110 




306 


Fast acid black F 


67 










307 


Fast cyanine black B 


7,48,67, 107 


240, 714 


172, 683 


.72 


291,310 



SUMMARY OF PRODUCTION OF DYES 



65 



Table 27. — Dyes and other finished coal-tar products: Production and sales, 

1928 — Continued 



Col- 
our 
In- 
dex 

No. 


Name of dye 


Manufacturers' iden- 
tification numbers 
(according to list 
on p. 192) 


Sales 




Quantity 


Value 


Aver- 
age 
price 
per 

pound 


Produc- 
tion 
(quan- 
tity) 


308 


AZO COLORING MATTERS— COn. 

Disazo coloring matters — Con. 
Naphthylamine black D 


48, 67, 110 


Pounds 
5,666 


$3,986 


$0.70 


Pounds 


315 


Naphthol black 2B 

Developed blue NA 


38 




316 


110 










317 


Developed blue B 

Direct fast heliotrope 2B 


48, 67, 107.. 










319 


110 










326 


Direct fast scarlet . 


7,35,48, 107, 110 

35,48,67, 76, 107 

7, 8, 35, 48, 67, 76, 107.. 

8, 67, X 


297, 582 
123, 875 
466,217 


348, 351 
48, 537 
184, 073 


1.17 
.39 
.40 


247, 956 
156, 128 
491, 850 


331 


Bismarck brown . 


332 


Bismarck brown 2R. 


336 


Acid chrome black F 




343 


Chrome fast vellow C .. . 


7,67 










346 


Direct fast vellow 5GL 


48, lie 










353 


Direct fast pink 2BL. 


7,48,64, 107, 113 

8,26,48, 107, 110 

26,48, 107, 110 


18, 778 
128, 220 
720, 032 
752,287 


36,954 
110,957 
358, 530 
259,631 


1.97 
.86 
.50 
.33 




364 


Paper yellow,.. 


138,536 
797,964 
711,891 


365 


Chrysophenine G 


370 


Congo red 


48, 107, 110 


374 


Direct orange TA 


107 


375 


Congo corinth Q 


8, 67, 107, 110, 113, X.. 
35, X 


106, 739 


83,151 


.78 


114,290 


376 


Direct rubine 


382 


Direct scarlet B. 


7, 49, 67, 107, 113, 118, 

X. 
35 


140,321 


185, 075 


1.32 


161, 925 


385 


Bordeaux 




387 


Direct violet B ... 


7,33,35, 107, 110 

113 


32, 460 


26, 657 


.82 


13,254 


390 


Direct brilliant blue R. ... 


393 


Direct violet O 


110... 










394 

400 
401 

405 
406 

410 
411 
415 
419 

420 

423 
431 
436 
443 


Direct violet N 


8, 35, 48, 67, 107, 110, 

113, 118. 
48 


44, 281 


43,987 


.99 


52, 762 


Direct fast red 9BL 


Developed black BHN 

Direct cvanine R .. . . 


7, 8, 35, 42, 48, 67, 107, 

110, 113. 
38, 107 


1, 087, 558 


426, 482 


.39 


1,204,098 


Direct blue 2B 


7, 8, 35, 42, 48, 67, 107, 
110,113, 117, 118, X. 

8,35,48, 107, X.. 

107 


1, 077, 866 
2,864 


264, 714 
2,066 


.25 
.72 


1, 268, 150 


Chrysamine G 


Cresotine yellow G 




Direct orange R 


35,48, 67, 110 


50,354 
150, 110 

147, 399 


28, 026 
108, 782 

89, 581 


.56 
.72 

.6) 




Direct fast red F . 


7, 8, 35, 48, 67, 107, 110, 

113, 118. 
7, 8, 35, 38, 48, 67, 107, 

110, 113, 118. 
7, 113 


179,812 

171,881 


Direct brown M 

Direct fast brown B 


Acid chrome red.. 


110. 










Direct brilliant red R . 


7... 










Milling red 2G 


8,64 










446 


Direct orange RT... 


8,48, 107 








448 


Benzopurpurine 4B 


35, 48, 107, 110 


476, 433 


229, 638 


.48 


455, 863 


450 


Benzopurpurine B.. 


7 


464 


Direct blue R 


110 










468 


Direct mauve B 


107 










471 


Direct blueSR .... 


107 










472 


Direct blue BX 


35, 107, 110 


20, 291 


9,436 


.47 




473 


Direct blue G 


48 




477 


Direct blue 3B 


7,8,35,38,107,110,140. 
8, 67, 107, 110 


105, 128 


40, 723 


.39 


135, 443 


478 


Direct orange O 


487 


Acid milling red B 


8, 33, 64 


13, 295 


18, 624 


1.40 




493 


Amanil black BOL 


8 




495 
502 
508 


Benzopurpurine lOB 

Direct azurine G 

Direct brilliant blue G 


8,35,48, 107, 110 

8,35,48, 107, 110 

110 


35, 841 
67,064 


33,624 
44, 704 


.94 
.67 


25,914 
43,832 


512 


Direct blue RW... 


8,35,48, 107, 110 

107 


171, 693 


132, 253 


.77 


167,425 


515 


Direct blue B 


518 


Direct pure blue 6B 


8,35,48, 107, 110 

7,8,35,48,107,110,118. 

67, 110... 


494, 034 
209, 889 


305, 457 
114,042 


.62 
.54 


491,179 


520 


Direct pure blue 


206, 483 


533 


Trisazo coloring matters 
Direct fast blue PR... 


539 


Direct fast black FF 


7,8,35,48,67, 107 

107, 110 


183, 882 


98, 218 


.53 


247,902 


552 


Diazo black RS. ... 


561 


Direct brown BT.. 


7, 110 










576 


Direct fast blue B 


48, 107 










577 


Direct brown T2G 


7... 











66 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Table 27. — Dyes and other finished coal-tar products: Production and sales, 

i 5^5— Continued 



Col- 
our 
In- 
dex 
No. 


Name of dye 


Manufacturers' iden- 
tification numbers 
(according to list 
on p. 192) 


Sales 




Quantity 


Value 


Aver- 
age 
price 
per 

pound 


Produc- 
tion 
(quan- 
tity) 


581 


AZO COLORING MATTERS— COn. 

Trisazo coloring matters— Con. 
Direct black EW 


7, 8, 35, 48, 67, 107, 110, 
113. 

8, 35, 48, 67, 107, 110, 
113. 

7,8,35,67, 107, 113.... 
7, 8, 110, 113 


Pounds 
6, 371, 829 

444, 398 

111, 852 
54,984 


$1, 813, 439 

140,332 

55, 508 
24, 852 


$0.28 
.32 

.50 

.45 


Pounds 
7, 252, 626 


682 


Direct black RX 


483,365 


583 


Direct ^reen ET 


132,009 


589 


Chloramine green B 


73, 848 


590 




8, 110 




692 


Direct fast black HW 


8, 113 










593 


Direct green B 


7, 8, 35, 48, 67, 107, 110, 

113, 117, 140. 
7,35,48, 113, X 

7, 8, 35, 38, 48, 67, 107, 
110, 113, 140, X. 

8, 113 


521, 636 

67, 213 
583, 600 


199, 822 

33, 607 
209, 907 


.38 

.50 
.36 


519, 373 


694 


Direct green O 


59, 883 


596 


Direct brown 3G0 


599,982 


597 






698 


Congo brown O 


8, 35, 48, 67, 107, 110, 

X, X. 
7,48 


109, 374 


66, 825 


.61 


103,094 


601 


Congo brown R 




606 


Tetrakisazo coloring matters 


67 113 










608 


Direct brown BT 


110 












All other azo coloring matters. . 




2, 491, 487 


2,303,434 


.92 


2, 685, 831 




Total azo coloring matters. 

STILBENE COLORING MATTERS 

Direct yellow R 








31, 334, 042 


15, 729, 675 


.50 


33, 810, 144 




7, 26, 35, 38, 107, 110, 118. 
26 107 110 118 




620 


364, 509 


127, 417 


.35 


387,041 


621 






622 




26 35 48 64 110 












All other stilbene coloring 
matters. 

Total stilbene coloring 
matters. 

PYRAZOLONE COLORING MATTERS 




38, 666 


64, 703 


1.42 


24,376 










631, 339 


353, 333 


.66 


631, 115 




35 




631 










636 


Fast light yellow 20 


8,48,67,107,121,147.... 
8,35,110,121 


55,054 
181, 869 
687, 678 


69, 406 
222, 086 
339, 664 


1.26 
1.22 
.58 


62, 129 


639 


Fast light yellow. 


178, 690 


640 




26, 67, 107, 121 


561,601 


652 




35 48 64 67 




663 




8 121 . 







, 


654 


Direct fast yellow 2QL 


48 






1 




Total pyrazolone coloring 
matters. 

KETONIMINE COLORING MATTERS 

Auramine and base .. 












861, 664 


690,902 


.80 


856,832 




26 48,107 




665 


872, 588 


710, 386 


.81 


920,821 




TRIPHENYLMETHANE AND DI- 
PHENYLNAPHTHYLMETHANE 
COLORING MATTERS 

Malachite green . 


26,48,107 




667 


206,637 


248,354 


1.20 


219, 882 


662 




26 107 




666 


Acid green B 


35', 48, Wl, lis 


68,306 


67, 299 


.99 


74,718 


667 




107 




670 




48 










671 




107 










677 




35 76 134,142 


37,090 


67,626 


1.82 




678 




107 




680 


Methyl violet and base 


48,76,78,84,85,107 

48 


656, 930 


661,524 


.84 


672,878 


681 






680 


Spirit blue 


107 











SUMMARY OF PEODUCTION OF DYES 



67 



Table 27. — Dyes and other finished coal-tar products: Production and sales, 

1928 — Continued 



Col- 
our 
In- 
dex 
No. 


Name of dye 




Sales 




Manufacturers' iden- 
tification numbers 
(according to list 
on p. 192) 


Quantity 


Value 


Aver- 
age 
price 
per 

pound 


Produc- 
tion 

(quan- 
tity) 


696 


TEIPHENYLMETHANE AND Dl- 
PHENYLNAPHTHYLMET H ANE 
COLORING MATTERS— con. 

Fast acid violet lOB 


48 


Pounds 






Pounds 


698 




33,35,48,67,107,118.... 
107 


190, 223 


$206, 213 


$1.08 1 227.245 


699 








704 


Alkali blue .- 


67,76,84,107,134,142, 

163. 
76 . 


136, 145 


307, 435 


2.26 


156, 427 


706 


Methyl cotton blue 

Soluble blue 

Patent blue 




707 


76 107,142 










712 


107 






:::::::-:::::: 


714 


107 










724 




48 










729 


Victoria blue B and base 

Fast acid blue B 


48 107 










733 


48 










735 




48,107 










737 




48,67,107,118 


89, 130 
220, 338 


66, 618 
280, 762 


.75 
1.27 






All other triphenylmethane 
and diphenylnaphthylme- 
thane coloring matters. 

Total triphenylmethane 
and diphenylnaphthylme- 
thane coloring matters. 

XANTHENE COLORING MATTERS 

Rhodamine B and base 




212, 536 










2, 102, 575 


2,759,409 


1.31 


2, 268, 017 




48,110 


749 










752 


48 










758 


Fast acid violet A2R 


48 










766 




76,84 










768 




43 76 84 










773 




8,43,48,76,84 


1,974 


7,335 


3.72 


1,200 


778 




76 




779 




48,76 












Total xanthene coloring 
matters. 

ACRIDINE COLORING MATTERS 

Acridine yellow R.. 

Coriphosphine 

Acridine orange A... - 

Brilliant phosphine G 

Phosphine 














724, 571 


879, 758 


1.21 


822, 096 




121 


785 










787 


121 










788 


121 










789 


121 










793 


35,48,76,107,121 

121 


184, 056 


206,222 


1.12 


193, 688 


794 


Phosphine 2G 


801 


QUINOLINE COLORING MATTERS 


24 107 










812 


THIAZOLE COLORING MATTERS 

Primuline 


35,107,110 


162, 057 


69, 473 


.43 


228,924 


813 




110 


814 
815 


Direct fast yellow 

Thioflavine T .. 


35,64,107, 110, X 

110 


201, 815 


188,050 


.93 


248,825 


816 


Direct brilliant flavine S 












821 


INBOPHENOL COLORING MATTERS 

IndophenoL.- 

AZINE COLORING MATTERS 

Safranine. 


76 












26,48,107 




"": 




841 










842 


Methylene violet . 


78 










843 




107 










860 


Induline (spirit-soluble) 

Induline (water-soluble). -. 

Nigrosine (spirit-soluble) 

Nigrosine (water-soluble)- 

All other azine coloring matters. 

Total azine coloring mat- 
ters. 


67,76,107 










861 


67,76 107 


222, 267 

495, 053 

1, 514, 298 

113, 833 


152, 686 

212, 322 

529, 554 

98,441 


.69 
.43 
.35 

.87 


240,426 

463, 091 

1, 625, 173 

127, 456 


864 


26,67,76,107 


865 


26,67,76,107 












2, 676, 995 


1, 276, 519 


.60 


2, 650, 277 









68 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Table 27. — Dyes and other finished coal-tar products: Production and sales, 

1928 — Continued 



Name of dye 



Manufacturers' iden- 
tification numbers 
(according to list 
on p. 192) 



Sales 



Quantity 



Value 



Aver- 
age 

price 

per 

pound 



Produc- 
tion 

(quan- 
tity) 



ANILINE BLACK AND ALLIED COL- 
ORING MATTERS 

New fast gray 

Fur black 



OXAZINE COLORING MATTERS 

Delphine blue B 

Qallocyanine 

Prune pure 

Cotton blue -. 



THIAZINE COLORING MATTERS 

Methylene blue 

Methylene green B 

Thionine blue 

New methylene blue 

Brilliant chrome blue 



SULFIDE COLORING MATTERS 

Carbazole vat blue R 

Carbazole vat blue G 

Sulfur black 

Sulfur blue 

Sulfur brown..- 



Sulfur green 

Sulfur maroon. 

Sulfur olive 

Sulfur orange. - 

Sulfur red 

Sulfur tan 

Sulfur yellow.. 



Total sulfide coloring mat- 
ters. 

ANTHRAQUINONE COLORING 
MATTERS 

A lizarin 

Alizarin orange 

Alizarin red S (powder) 

Alizarin brown 

Alizarin GI 

Alizarin SX 

Acid alizarin blue SE 

Acid alizarin blue B__ 

Acid alizarin green Q 

Anthracene blue WR 

Alizarin astrol B 

Alizarin cyanine green E. 

Anthraquinone violet B 

Anlliratiuinone blue black B.. 

Alizarin sky i)lue B 

Acid alizarin rubine 



Total anthraquinone col- 
oring matters. 

ANTHRAQUINONE VAT COLORING 
MATTERS (SINGLE STRENGTH) 

Anthraquinone vat golden 

orange G. 
Anthraqainone vat golden 

orange R. 
Antliraquinone vat dark blue 

BO. 
Anthraquinone vat green B 

and black. 

Anthraquinone vat violet R 

Anthraquinone vat violet RR.. 
Anthraquinone vat blue R 



Pounds 



Pounds 



26, 110, 140. 
65,67 



107 

8,26,107,163. 



51,009 



$92, 354 



$1. 81 



45, 058 



8,88,107. 



26, 76, 107. 
26,107.... 

26 

26 

64,67 



483, 432 



449, 855 



60,690 



675, 181 



48 

48 

48,67,88,107 

7,17,3.3,35,48,67,107.-- 
2, 8, 17, 33, 35, 48, 67, 78, 

88, 107, 149, X. 
7, 17, 33, 48, 67, 78, 107, 

149, X. 

7,17.33,48,67,107 

33, 48, 67, 149, X 

35,67 

67 

33, 35, 67, 149, X 

2, 17,35,48,67, 107, X,X. 



0) 

(') 

15, 756, 618 

837, 367 

1, 670, 568 

397, 919 

524, 635 
117, 801 



2, 206, 699 
429, 128 
535, 099 

371, 710 

275, 585 
35, 037 



.14 
.51 
.32 



479, 360 



198, 158 



.41 



19, 969, 173 4, 107, 743 



14, 354, 755 
1, 002, 228 
1, 729, 647 

433, 767 

617, 729 
179, 531 



469, 777 



21 19, 001, 910 



17, 107. 
107.... 
17 



8, 107, 117, 163- 

110 

107 

67,110 

67,107,110-... 
67 



31,257 54,282 



318, 760 672, 534 



33,107.. -.- 

67 

7, 8, 33, 67, 107, 110, 163. 

110 

33,67,107,110,163 

67,110 

67... 



34,417 



92, 611 



812,487 



110 

48 

8,48,67, 107, 110, X. 
48, 107, 110, X 



110 

48, 67, 107 
110 



151, 636 



2.11 



101, 016 



2.94 



146, 025 



1.58 



1,465,513 



1.80 



89, 790 



.59 



28, 932 



413,827 



54,827 



111,992 



936, 252 



210, 371 



> Totals not included under sulfide coloring matters, 
these 2 dyes are included in the vat dyes. 



In the dyes classified by method of application, 



SUMMAEY OF PEODUCTION OF DYES 



69 



Table 27. — Dyes and other finished coal-tar products: Production and sales, 

1928 — Continued 



Col- 
our 
In- 
dex 

No. 


Name of dye 


Manufacturers' iden- 
tification numbers 
(according to list 
on p. 192) 


Sales 




Quantity Value 


Aver- 
age 

price 

per 

pound 


Produc- 
tion 
(quan- 
tity) 


1107 


ANTHRAQUINONE VAT COLORING 
MATTERS (SINGLE STRENGTH)— 

continued 

Anthraquinone vat blue RS 

Anthraquinone vat blue 3G 1 

Anthraquinone vat blue fiCD . 
Anthraquinone vat blue BCS.. 
Anthraquinone vat blue GC 

A nthrnnninnnft vat vellow O _ 


48,67 


Pounds 






Pounds 


1109 


48,110 --- 


I"::::::::::::: : ::::i 






1113 


48 6( 107 110 


695,892 


$546, 411 


$0.78 


851, 159 


1114 


48,107 




1115 


110 










ill8 


48,107,110 


504, 194 


600, 276 


1.19 


494, 673 


1120 Anthraquinone vat brown B... 

1132 "^ nthrnnninnriA vnt. vfillnw OK 


110 - 




48 110 










1133 


Anthraquinone vat red FF 

Anthraquinone vat olive R 

Anthraquinone vat brown R... 
Anthraquinone vat red violet 
RRN. 

Anthraquinone vat red BN 

Anthraquinone vat violet BNX 
Anthraquinone vat oranjze R... 
Anthraquinone vat yellow 3G.. 

Total anthraquinone vat 
coloring matters. 

INDIGOID COLORING MATTERS 

Indigo, synthetic 20 per cent 

paste. 


48,110 










1150 


48,67,110 


13,598 
78, 389 


17, 975 
131, 251 


1.32 

1.67 


44, ssr 


1151 


48,67,110 


156, 551' 


1161 


48.110 - 




1162 


48,110 










1163 


110 










1169 


110 










1170 


X 
























3,119,852 


4, 266, 603 


1.37 


3,587,766 




47,48,107 


1177 


25, 556, 849 


3, 585, 700 


.14 


25, 861, 680 


1178 


107. -.. 




1180 


Indiffo extract - 


48,107 










1183 


Tribromindigo RB - 


47 










1184 


Bromindigo blue 2B, 2BD, 20 

per cent paste. 
Bromindigo 5B and 6B, 20 per 

cent paste. 


8,47 -. 


1 






1186 


47 










1196 


47 - 










1207 


Vat red B - 


48- 










1208 


Vat Bordeaux B 


8 










1212 


Vat red 3B 


47,48 










1217 




48,110 










1222 


Ciba violet BR 


47,48 










1228 


Ciba scarlet Q 


47 










1229 


Ciba red R .-- 


47 












PHOTOCHEMICAL COLORING 
MATTERS 


52 - 














52 - - 












Naphthocyanole -- 


52 














52 














52 














52 












FOOD COLORING MATTERS 

Naphthol vellow S 












10 


X 










22 


Yellow AB 


8,50.76,107 ' 








61 


Yellow OB 


8, 50, 76, 107, X 


9,898 


16.838 


1.70 




80 




8, 107, X 






150 


Orange I -.---. 


8, 107, 157, X 






32. 490- 


184 




8. 107, 1.57, X- -.. 


6i, o27 

48, 748 


141, 249 
118,567 


2.30 
2.43 


51, 477 


640 




8, 26, 107. 157, X 

107, 1.57, X 


45, 66r 


666 


Guinea green B - . 




670 


Light green SF (yellowish) 

Methyl violet (for marking 
meats, etc.). 


107,157 




":::::::::!::::::: 




680 


78,107 








773 


8, 107, X-- 








1180 


Indigo disulfonic acid 


8, 107, X 












Fast green FCF 


157 












Total food coloring mat- 
ters. 

Bacteriological stains and indi- 
cators. 














204, 828 


653, 176 


3.19 


171,943 




9, 37, 52, 53, 80, 90, 107, 

124. 
48,113 








1 
















Total dyes 












93, 302, 708 


39, 792, 039 


.43 1 96.62.5.451 

















70 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Table 27. — Dyes and other finished coal-tar 'products: Production and sales, 

1928 — Continued 



Name of product 



COLOR LAKES 



Black lakes. 
Blue lakes.. 



Brown lakes. 
Eosine lakes. 



Green lakes. 



Litbol red lakes. 



Maroon lakes. 
Orange lakes.. 



Para red lakes. 



Red lakes. 



Scarlet lakes. 



Violet lakes. 



Yellow lakes. 



All other color lakes... 
Total color lakes. 



Manufacturers' iden- 
tification numbers 
(according to list 
on p. 192) 



Sales 



Quantity 



21, 135, X 

12, 21, 27, 34, 48, 51, 57 
74, 75, 78, 84, 89, 96 
135, 136, 138, 145, 163 
X, X, X, X, X, X 
X X 

34, 57, 89, 96, 134, 135 
136, 138, 163, X, X 
X, X. 

12, 21, 27, 34, 51, 57, 74 
75, 84, 89, 96, 134, 135 
136, 138, 145, 163, X 
X, X, X, X, X, X 
X X 

12, 21, 27, 34, 48, ol, 57 
74, 75, 76, 78, 89, 96 
135, 136, 138, 145,161 
X, X, X, X, X, X. 

4, 12, 21, 48, 57, 74, 75 
84, 86, 89, 96, 134, 135 
138, 161, 163, X, X 
X, X, X, X, X, X 
X, X. 

4, 12, 21, 27, 34, 48, 51 
74, 75, 86, 89, 100, 122, 
134, 135, 136, 138, 161 
163, X, X, X, X. X 
X X X. 

12, 21, 34,*5i, 57, 74. 75 
84, 89, 96, 134, 135 
136, 138, 145, 161, 163 
X, X, X, X, X, X 
X. 

4, 12, 21, 27, 48, 51, 75 
78, 84, 86, 89, 96, 122 
135, 138, 161, X, X 
X, X, X, X, X, X 
X,X, X, X. 

12, 21, 27, 34, 48, 51, 57 

74, 75, 78, 86, 89, 96 
100, 122, 134, 135, 136 
138, 145, 161, 163, X 
X, X, X, X, X, X 
X, X, X, X. 

4, 12, 21, 27, 51, 57, 74 
75, 78, 89, 96, 122, 134 
135, 136, 138, 145, 161 
X, X, X, X, X, X 
X X X. 

12, 21, 2^, 34, 51, 57, 74 

75, 76, 78, 84, 85, 89 
96, 134, 135, 136, 138 
145, 161, 163, X, X 
X, X, X, X, X. 

12, 27, 48, 57, 74, 75, 78, 
84, 89, 96, 135, 136 
138, 145, 161, 163, X 
X, X, X, X, X. 

48 



Pounds 



PHOTOGRAPHIC CHEMICALS 

Diaminophenol hydrochloride (ami- 
dol) 

Hydroquinol 

p-Hydroxy phenylglycine 

Methyl p-aminophenol sulfate (me- 
tol). 

Total photographic chemicals... 



160 

163, X.... 
52, X, X. 
52, X 



975, 944 

104, 922 
818, 841 

416, 332 
1, 123, 974 

963, 906 

486. 980 

2, 212, 159 

1, 800, 578 

636,303 
401, 303 
635,931 



Value 



Average 

|price per 

pound 



12, 045, 435 



493, 825 



$650, 106 

29,396 
895, 517 

179, 600 
818, 444 

463, 504 

144, 782 

767, 983 

1,093,376 

182, 297 
355, 158 
322,007 



6, 589, 166 



696, 101 



$0.67 



.43 



.73 



.48 



.30 



.35 



.61 



Produc- 
tion 
(quan- 
tity) 



Poundt 



.51 



998, 272 

105, 463 
809, 034 

402, 51f 
1,150,416 

975, 894 

485, 055 

2, 2ol, 393 

1,812,523 

641,751 
402, 699 
647,815 



12, 127, 242 



478, 979 



SUMMARY OF PRODUCTION OF DYES 



71 



Table 27. — Dyes and other finished coal-tar products: Production and sales, 

1928 — Continued 





Manufacturers' iden- 
tification numbers 
(according to list 
on p. 192) 


Sales 


Produc- 


Name of product 


Quantity 


Value 


Average 

price per 

pound 


tion 
(quan- 
tity) 


MEDICINALS 

Acetanilide, USP -- 


99, 104, 109 


Pounds 
416,707 


$115,357 


$0.28 


Pounds 
480, 273 


Acetphenetidin 


47, 104 


Acriflavine and neutral acriflavine 


1,107 










(3: fi-diamino-iO-methyl a cr i d i n e 
chloride) 


133 










Amidoxyl benzoate.- -- 


1 










p-Amino'benzovldimetliylaminomethyl 


16 










butanol hydrochloride. 
Ammonium salicvlate-. 


77,95... 










Ampydin (4-dimethylamino anti- 


107,103 










pyrine). . 
Anesthesino. (See Benzocame.) 
Apothesine (hydrochloride of diethyl- 


X. 










aminopropyl-cinnamate) . 


1,4.5,95,101,103,141-... 
16 47 77 104 


305' 

1.847,073 

3,713 


84, 914 

1,469,779 

35, 650 


278. 41 

.80 

9.60 






1, 816, 015 
6,300 


Benzocaine (anesthesine) (ethyl p- 


1,103,115,133. 


amino-benzoate). 
Benzocaine ben zoate 


133 




133 










Bismuth betanaphthol. 


101,109 










Bismuth salicylate and subsalicylate... 


95 










Bismuth tribromophenol 


101,109 










Brilliant green 


107 ... 










Bromeikon (tetrabromophenolphthal- 


95 










ein, sodium salt). 
Butesin (n-butyl-p-aminobenzoate) 


1 










Butesin picrate (dinormalbutyl-p- 


1 










aminobenzoate-trinitrophenol) . 
Butyn (p-amino benzoyl gamma di- 


1 










normal butyl amino propanol sul- 
fate). 
Caffeine sodium benzoate 


95 










CalTeine sodium salicylate 


95 










Calcium-cresol sulfonate 


16. 










Calcium-guaiacol sulfonate 


16 










Calcium sulfophenolate 


95 










Chloramine T (sodium p-toluene sul- 


104 










fochloramide). 
Cinchophen (phenylcinchoninic acid). 


1,6,26, X,X. 


93. 610 


450, 938 


4.82 


94,330 




95 




133. 












77 










Cyclohexenylothylbarbituric acid 


16. 










Dichloramine T (p-toluene sulfodi- 


104 - 










chloramide) . 
Formidine (methylene disalicylic 


X 










acid derivative). 


77.104 










lodeikon antinosin (tetraiodophenol- 


52,95 










phthalein sodium salt). 
Lithium benzoate. 


99 










Luminal (phenylethylbarbituric acid). 


16 










Luminal sodium (phenylethylbarbi- 


16 










turic sodium salt). 
Magnesium salicylate 


77,95 










Mercurochrome (dibromohydroxy 


80.. 










mercury fluorescein sodium salt). 
Mercurosal (disodiumhydroxymercur- 


X 










isalicyloxy acetate). 
Mercury salicylate, USP 


95 










Methyl hydroxy-p-amino benzoate 


103 












107 










Methvlene-citrylsalicylic acid 


16 










Methylhydroxymethyl ester of sali- 


16 










cylic acid. 
M iscellaneous salicylates 


101 










Monoglycol ester of salicylic acid 


16 










Neoarsphenamine .- 


1,45,95,101,103,141.... 
1,26 


4,654 


1, 539, 718 


330.84 


4,814 


Neocinchoplien (p-methylp'.ienyl cin- 




choninic ethyl ester). 
Parafuchsine. _ 


107 











72 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Table 27. — Dyes and other finished coal-tar products: Production and sales, 

i 5^5— Continued 





Manufacturers' iden- 
tification numbers 
(according to list 
on p. 192) 


Sales 


Produc- 


Name of product 


Quantity 


Value 


Average 

price per 

pound 


tion 
(quan- 
tity) 


MEDicxNALS— continued 
Feralga (l-diethylbarbituric acid-2- 


6 


Pounds 






Pounds 


aminopyrine) . 
Phenacaine (ethenyl-p-diethoxydi- 


103 










phenylamidipe hydrochloride). 


104, 130, X 








372, 785 


Phenoisulfonates (calcium, sodium, 


101 








zinc, etc.) 


95 












95 












95 










Procaine (p-amino benzoyl diethyl 

aminoethanol). 
Proflavine (3:0-diamino acridine sul- 


1, 103, 115 


8,259 


$224, 282 


$27. 16 


7,952 


1,107 


fate). 
Proposote (creosote phenylpropion- 
ate). 


X 










52. 












47,101 










Salophen (acetylparaminophenyl sali- 
cylate). 


16 










107 












103 ..- 












47,77,101,104 


484, 466 


207, 596 


.43 


456, 195 




101. 






77,95. 












1,95,101,103,141 

95 


857 


270, 910 


316. 11 


862 








107 












101 












133 












95 
























4, 004, 557 


8, 650, 838 


2.16 


4, 008 393 




47,58,82,97,99,104 




FLAVORS 


.. 108,798 


351, 723 


3.23 


121.344 




56 








58, 62, 114, X, X 


.::::::;:::-—:-- 








58,62,63 












58, 62, 63, X... 












58.62,63 










Methyl salicylate . 


47, 77. 101, 104, X 

56 


1, 581, 699 


533, 150 


.34 


1, 338, 851 








104 










Vanillin (see Part II) 


























1, 966, 467 


1,296,034 


.66 


1,746,350 




58, 63, X. 




PERFUME MATERIALS 












56 












56,63 












56 












151 










Amyl salicvlate . . 


56, 62. 70, 82. X, X 

58,62. 70, X . 


22, 052 


18, 422 


.84 


21. 487 


Aubepine "(anisic aldehyde) (see Part 
II.) 




58, 63, 70. 82 










Benzyl acetate 


58,63.82.99. 137, X, X. . 

63,79,82,99, 137, X 

58 


95, 424 
30, 881 


89, 361 
21, 640 


.94 
.70 


95, 394 




32, 702 






Benzyl benzoate _. 


58, 82, 137, X, X 

56, 63 . 


27.796 


27, 635 


. 99 26, 282 








58, X 










.V, 










Benzvl propionate 56,58,70 






















56 












X 












56 












99. X 










Bromstyrol 


62.70.x 


110 


386 


3.51 





SUMMABY OF PEODUCTION OF DYES 



73 



Table 27.- 



-Dyes and other finished coal-tar products: Production and sales, 
1928— Continued 



Name of product 


Manufacturers' iden- 
tification numbers 
(according to list 
on p. 192) 


Quantity 


Sales 
Value 


Average 

price per 

pound 


Produc- 
tion 
(quan- 
tity) 


PERFUME MATERIALS— continued 


56 


Pounds 






Pounds 




70 












62,63,70 


1,782 


$6, 522 


$3.66 


854 




62,70 






56 -- 












56,58 












63 












56 












19, 58, e3, 70, 151, X 

58 


1, 194, 191 


344,936 


.29 


1, 152, 662 








58, X 












X 












X 












47 70 












56 












56 












58 1 








Indol 


58 1 --- 










58 ! 


i 








56 63 












58 












56,58, 63,70, X... 


234 


1,233 


5.27 


474 




56 . . 






63, 82, X 












47,58, X 












58, 63, 114, X 










ether). 


X 










56 58 












58 












58 63, 70, X 


::: "::::::i:: :: 








58 












70 












70 . 












70 - 












58 












63, 82 












58 












63 












70 82 












58 












56, 58 63, 70, 82 


265 


1,811 


6.83 






58, 70, 82, X 






56 












56 












56 












56 












X 












56 












58 












56 












56 












58 . ... 












58 










Tetrahydroparamethyl quinoli ne 

Yara Yara (b-naphthol methyl ether) . 


58 










63 




















Total perfume materials. 


1, 619, 476 


1. 000, 001 


.62 


1,577,718 




15, 31. 36, 48, 68, X, X, 

X,X. 
15, X... 




Synthetic resins 


20, 778, 856 
Je, 585, 490 


7,211,958 
526, 808 


.35 
.08 


20,411,465 


Synthetic tanning materials 


6,587,501 


Miscellaneous products 


1,52, 124, X 









85526—30- 



74 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



DYES NOT CLASSIFIED BY COLOUR INDEX NUMBER 

Manufacturers were requested to report separately, in terms of 
their familiar pre-war designations, the production of dyes not classi- 
fied by Colour Index number. The following table is a list of such 
dyes, together with some new dyes of American development for 
which there are no foreign equivalents. 



Common name 



A 

Acid anthracene brown B. — 

Acid anttiracene red B 

Acid anthracene yellow OR 

Acid black DB, special 

Acid black J cone, 640, 773 

Acid fast black 753 

Acid naphthol blue black 

Acid navy blue 

Acid red OTH.. 

Acid red 1002, 1003 

Alizarin black - 

Alizarin brown 5R 

Alizarol black 3G-- - 

Alizarol brown B, EB, Q, RH conc... 

Alizarol gray DG — 

Ailzarol orange 3R 

Alizarol yellow 3Q - 

Alkali blue for ink.. 

Alphazurine B, B cone 

Amacid blue black 2GN cone 

Amacid brilliant red 5B 

Amacid fast orange LW, P 

Amacid fast red BW.. 

Amacid lake scarlet G 

Amacid milling brown R supra 

Amacid milling scarlet RW 

Amacid milling yellow extra 

Amacid navy blue B.. 

Amanil black FTC 

Amanil chrome brown GR 

Amanil chrome dark brown 

Amanil fast black L 

Amanil fast orange ER 

Anthracene chromate brown EB 

Anthracene chromate brown EBS 

Anthracene chrome brown RL 

Anthraquinone chrome blue G 

Anthraquinone vat blue RCX 

Anthraquinone vat Bordeaux B 

Anthraquinone vat brilliant blue R... 
Anthraquinone vat golden orange 4R, 

RRT.. 

Anthraquinone vat jade green 

Artificial silk black G 

Azanol brown N 

Azo eosine 2B. 

Azo fast blue B, Q, 2R (high conc.)--- 

Azo fast violet 

Azo violet 2B, BS 

B 

Benzauol art black 

Benzanol brown FW 

Benzo Bordeaux 6B 

Benzo chrome brown 5G 

Benzo fast black L ' 

Benzo fast heliotrope BL 

Benzo rhoduline red B 

Brilliant milling blue B.. 

Brilliant wool blue N 

Bromolluorescein 

• Sales of Benzo fast black L were 149, 



Manufac- 
turers' 
identifica- 
tion num- 
bers ac- 
cording to 
list on p. 192 



76 

8 

64 

140 

38 

38 

35 

76, 113 

110 

7 

163 

163 

7,107 

107 

107 

107 

107 

134 

107 



,110 
33 
163 
110 
110 
110 
110 

110 

110 

35 

X 

110 
107 
107 

7 



X 
X 

76 

7 

7, 48, 76 

107, 140 

48 

48 

33 

107 

43 



Common name 



Buffalo black AR,8B,3G,GRF cone, 

NBJ, RB.. -.- 

Buffalo black green B 

Buffalo chrome black NS — 

Bulletin red... 



Celanthrene vat blue R 

Celanthrene vat orange -- 

Chloramine fast orange, EG, E3G, ER. 

Chloramine green G 

Chlorantine fast blue 2GL, 4GL 

Chlorantine violet BB 

Chlorazol fast brown RK 

Chromate brown EB 

Chromate brown R, 2R 

Chromaven brilliant orange 2R 

Chromaven brown, BG, EB 

Chrome black DNW 

Chrome blue ATX 

Chrome brown B, O 

Chrome green. 

Chrome green B, G 

Chrome green CB 

Chrome orange GR extra.. 

Chrome red ECB extra 

Chrome red SW 

Chrome yellow 

Chrome yellow G 

Chrome yellow 3G, 5G, DS 

Chrome yellow SS 

Chrome yellow YYFP cone 

Cindiazo black G. 

Cindiazo blue B 

Cindiazo red 2B 

Cloth red R, 2R... 

Cotton black G, 3G. 

Croceine scarlet FP cone 



D 



Developed black 2BN 

Developed blue R 

Diamine Bordeaux B 

Diamine catechine 

Diamine fast orange EG 

Diamine fast scarlet 4BFS 

Dianol dark blue B 

Diazamine blue BR... 

Diazine black DM, DR, OB, V, V 

extra, VJ cone, VN extra, VZ 

Diazine beta Black N. 

Diazine Bordeaux 7B cone 

Diazo Bordeaux 7B 

Diazo fast blue 6RN 

Diazo fast blue 2RW 

Diazo fast red 7BL 

Diazo indigo blue 

Diazo seal brown 

Direct black 3Q, 3GR 

Direct blue 3RX 

Direct brown CN. 

Direct brown Q2R, G3R.. 

Direct diazo blue BL 



Manufac- 
turers' 
identifica- 
tion num- 
bers ac- 
cording to 
list on p. 192 



475 pounds, valued at $138,560, with a production of 140,495 pounds. 



SUMMARY OF PRODUCTION OF DYES 75 

DYES NOT CLASSIFIED BY COLOUR INDEX NUMBER — COntd. 



Common name 



Direct 
Direct 
Direct 
Direct 
Direct 
Direct 
Direct 
Direct 
Direct 
Direct 
Direct 
Direct 
Direct 
Direct 
Direct 
Direct 



fast black B 

fast black LR 

fast blue B,R 

fast blue2B 

fast light blue FF 

fast orange OL 

fast orange RCL, R2R. 

fast pink FB.. 

fast scarlet 4BA 

fast violet F 

garnet R 

gray G cone 

green special 

navy R- 

scarlet 3B 

scarlet BS, S_ 



E 



Empire coralline 

Empire fast violet AA... 

Erie Bordeaux B.. 

Erie brown GB 

Erie catechine B, O, 3G- 

Erie fast gray M, R 

Erie fast rubine B cone 
Erio chrome brown R... 
Erio violet RL 



Fast acid green 6B 

Fast acid light red B 

Fast acid red BL, GL 

Fast acid violet ERR extra- 
Fast acid violet RM extra- 
Fast brilliant blue EA 

Fast chrome brown PG, R.. 

Fast crimson R 

Fast light red B... 

Fas,t milling yellow GN 

Fas"t wool red BL, GL 

Fast wool violet B, 2R 

Fastusol gray R 

Fuchsine azo b-naphthol 

Fur brown 



Q 



Guinea fast red BL. 



Hansa yellow _ 

Hansa yellow G 

Ilelio fast blue BL. 
Helio maroon BL.. 

Heliored RMT 

Hydron pink FF... 



Indamine blue 2BM- 
Indanthrene pink B., 



Jet black APX. 



Lake scarlet G. i... 

Leather yellow 

Leucosol colors 

Light fast brown R, 3YL... 

Light fast wool red BL 

Lithol fast orange 

Litholred RR 

m M 

Monochrome blue black B. 

Monochrome brown BC 

Mordant green SN 



Manufac- 
turers' 
identifica- 
tion num- 
bers ac- 
cording to 
list on p. 192 



35 

110 
35 

110 
35 
33 
35 
76 
35 
7 
35 
38 
7 

113 
7 

113 



117 
117 
107 
107 
107 
107 
107 
35 
35 



33 

35 
113 
48 
110 
7 
110 
107 
76 
110 
107 
107 
67 
76 
67 



48,64 



107 
107 



110 
110 



134 



Common name 



N 



Naphthol green black B 

Niagara blue NR 

Niagara fast blue RL 

Nigrosine base B, N, NB, R, 2R. 



Manufac- 
turers' 
identifica- 
tion num- 
bers ac- 
cording to 
list on p. 192 



O 

Oil brown... 

Oil brown D, M, Y 

Oil brown H, I 

Oil fast blue B 

Oil orange 30 

Oil orange RR.. 

Oil orange Y... 

Oil pink B... 

Oil red C 

Oil red G 

Oil red I, N, 1700 

Oil red GRO, RO... 

Oil red O 

Oil red 322 

Oil yellow F, 2625 

Oxamine copper blue RRX. 
Oxydiaminogen OB 



Palaside brown B cone. _. 

Palaside green 

Palizarin blue black B 

Paper red AP 

Paranol fast orange EG, ER 

Penetrating benzene brown R 

Permanent Bordeaux 2BL 

Permanent orange R 

Permanent red R extra 

Permanent yellow 5Q 

Pluto black JC 

Ponsol brilliant yellow 4G 

Pontachrome brown R, SW 

Pontachrome yellow SW 

Pontacyl light red 4BL 

Pontacyl red 4R 

Pontacyl rubine BR 

Pontamine blue GH cone 

Pontamine brilliant violet B 

Pontamine diazo black H 

Pontamine dizao blue 3G 

Pontamine dizao brown R 

Pontamine dizao fast red 5BL 

Pontamine dizao green 2GL 

Pontamine diazo orange G, 3G, RR. 

Pontamine diazo scarlet 2BL 

Pontamine diazo violet BL 

Pontamine fast blue 6BL, 8GL 

Pontamine fast orange ER 

Pontamine light brown 4G 

Pontamine light gray BN, GG 

Pontamine light orange, GQ 



R 

Resorcin brown YX cone. 

Rosanthrane A, R 

Roanthrene orange 



S 

Safranine base 8B 

Scarlet 3B.... 

Scarlet for ink 

Serichrome black WSE. 
Serichrome green B, G.. 

Silk black 4BF, G 

Silk brown G 

Silk red brown R 

Solamine blue FF 

Solantine black L. 

Solantine blue FF, GL., 
Solantine brown R 



76 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

DYES NOT CliASSIFIED BY COLOUR INDEX NUMBER COntd. 



Common name 


Manufac- 
turers' 
identifica- 
tion num- 
bers ac- 
cording to 
list on p. 192 


Common name 


Manufac- 
turers' 
identifica- 
tion num- 
bers ac- 
cording to 
list on p. 192 




107 

107 

107 

107 

107 

38 

38 

38 

8 

8 

8 

8 

8 

8 

8 

8 

8 

8 

64 

110 


Superchrome yellow 2G 


107 




Supramine red 3B . 


76 


Solantiiie red 8BLN 


T 
Thianthrene pink FB, FF 








Solantine ^ellow 4GL 






110 




Tropeoline 00. 


107 




W 
Wool black B, GRF 




S R A blaclv IV, IV Hy. spl 




S R A blue III, IV, V 


110 






Wool blue BN, CB, CG 








S R A golden yellow VIII, IX, XI, XIL 


Wool green B.. 


107 


S R A heliotrope I 










S R A orange I, II, III 


Z 
Zambesi black BG ^ 




S R A pink II 








S R A red I, III, V, VI, VII 


35 


S R A violet II 


Zambesi black D 2 


35, 76, 107 




Zambesi black V 2 - 


35, 48, 107, 


Sulf oncy anine 3BM 




110 







2 Sales of Zambesi blacks were 389,949 pounds, valued at $220,954, with a production of 378,736 pounds. 

Employees and Rates of Pay 

The number of employees receiving specified rates of pay on Decem- 
ber 18, 1928, or on the nearest representative date for which this infor- 
mation could be obtained, as reported by 131 firms manufacturing 
coal-tar products in 1928, is show^n in Table 28. The 38 firms for 
which data arc omitted either conducted a business in which coal-tar 
products were not the primary' articles of manufacture or did not have 
separately organized departments dealing with them. 

In 1914, only seven firms in the United States manufactured coal- 
tar colors and other products.^ These gave employment to 528 per- 
sons. The 131 firms reporting in 1928 gave employment to 10,271 
persons. In recent years, with the exception of 1928, there has been 
a steady integration of plants and a decrease in employees. Compara- 
tive figures are as follows: 



Year 


Number of 
firms 


Number of 
employees 


Year 


Number of 
firms 


Number of 
employees 


1928 


131 
133 
139 


10, 271 
9,893 
10, 142 


1925 -. 


154 
158 
181 


10,971 


1927 


1924 


12, 569 


1926 


1923 


14, 841 









Chemists and technically trained men in 1928 constituted 15.3 per 
cent of all employees, as compared with 14.2 per cent of all employees 
in 1927 and 13.4 per cent in 1926. Of the 1,575 men in this group in 
1928, 33.33 per cent received $75 and over per week; 25.90 per cent 
received between $50 and $75; 9.71 per cent between $40 and $45; 
8.06 per cent between $45 and $50; and 7.43 per cent between $35 
and $40. For men wdthout technical training the scale of compensa- 
tion was as follows: 23.14 per cent received between $30 and $35 per 

• Bureau of Census, Department of Commerce. 



EMPLOYEES AND RATES OF PAY 



77 



week; 21.16 per cent between $25 and $30 per week; 16.85 per cent 
between $20 and $25 per week; and 14.16 per cent between $35 and 
$40. In general, rates of pay were slightly higher in 1928 than in 1927. 
Table 29 compares specified rates of pay of technically trained men 
with the rates paid to men not having such training. 

Among the technically trained men, the increase (in percentages) 
in the pay of each group was as follows: 3.19 per cent in the group 
receiving $40 to $45 per week; 2.63 per cent in the group receiving 
$35 to $40 per week; and 2.28 per cent in the group receiving $30 to $35 
per week. Of men without technical training, the increase was 0.84 
per cent in the group receiving $45 to 50 per week, and 0.69 per cent 
in the group receiving $50 go $75 per week. Increases in rates of pay 
were general for men without technical training who received $30 or 
more per week, while higher salaried chemists and technically trained 
men suffered a small decrease. 

As stated in previous reports, the dye and coal-tar chemical industry 
has probably a larger proportion of technically trained men than any 
other manufacturing industry in the United States. 

Table 28. — Employees and rates of pay in the coal-tar dye and chemical industry, 

1928 





Number of employees at each Percentage receiving 
specified wage engaged in < each specified 
manufacturing operations wage 


Percentage receiving 
each specified wage 
or more 


Wage per week 


Chemists 
and tech- 
nically 
trained 
men 


Men 
without 
technical 
training 


i Chemists 
A 11 „,>, : and tech- 
, ^™' nicallv 
ployees ^^^ 

men 


Men 
without 
technical 
training 


Chemists 
and tech- 
nically 
trained 
men 


Men 
without 
technical 
training 


Under $10 


49 

228 

519 

1,465 

1,840 

2,012 

1,231 

625 

388 

296 

43 


! 
49 


0.56 




100.00 


$10 but under $15 i --- - 


• 229 


2.62 


100. 00 


99.44 


$15 but under $20 


15 


533 0.95 5.97 

1,506 2.61 1 16.85 

1,912 4.57 21.16 

2, 129 7. 43 1 23. 14 

1,348 7.43 ! 14.16 

778 9.71 1 7.19 

515 8.06 j 4.46 

704 25.90 ! 3.40 

568 ; 33.33 .49 


99. 94 96. 82 


$20 but under $25 


41 
72 
117 
117 
153 
127 
408 
525 


99.05 
96.44 
91.87 
84.44 
77.01 
67. 30 
59. 24 
33.33 


90.85 


$25 but under $30 


74.00 


$30 but under $35 


52.84 


$35 but under $40 


29.70 


$40 but under $45 

$45 but under $50 

$50 but under $75 . 


15.54 
8.35 
3.89 


$75 and over 


.49 






Total 


1,575 


8,696 


10,271 1 100.00 


100.00 















Table 29. 



-Employees and rates of pay in the coal-tar dye and chemical industry, 
1928 as compared with 1927 





Percentage receiving each specified wage or more 


Wage per week 


Chemists and technically 
trained men 


Men without technical 
training 




1928 


1927 


Increase 


1928 1927 


Increase 


Under $10 








100. 00 100 00 
99.44 99.74 
96. 82 97. 16 
90.85 1 91.53 
74. 00 76. 15 
52. 84 52. 28 
29. 70 29. 03 
15. 54 15. 07 
8.35 . 7.51 
3. 89 3. 20 
.49 .39 




$10 but under $15. . 


100.00 
99.94 
99.05 
96.44 
91.87 
84.44 
77.01 
67.30 


100.00 
99.93 
98.50 
95.22 
89.59 
81.81 
73.82 
67.05 




10.30 


$15 but under $20 


o.oi 

.55 

1.22 

2.28 

2.63 

3.19 

.25 

1 2.31 

11.19 


1 .34 


$20 but under $25 


1 .68 


$25 but under $30 


12.15 


$30 but under $35 


.56 


$35 but under >$40 


.67 


$40 but under $45 


.47 


$45 but under $.50 


.84 


$50 but under $75 . 


59.24 1 61.55 


.69 


$75 and over 


33.33 


34.52 


.10 



' Decrease. 



78 census of dyes and other synthetic chemicals 

Research Work 

Of the 169 firms manufacturing dyes and other coal-tar chemicals 
in 1928, 43 had separately organized research laboratories. The 
total cost of the research work carried on in these laboratories, together 
with that done in laboratories not separately organized for research, 
was $2,676,882. This figure is an increase of $91,974 over expendi- 
tures in 1927. The data obtained by the Tariff Commission include 
in 1928, as in 1927, not only the total cost of the research work carried 
on by the companies reporting, but the net cost of such work charge- 
able to coal-tar products alone. The $2,466,148 reported as the net 
cost in 1928 is doubtless an understatement of the real cost of experi- 
mental work, since the figures do not include in all cases the cost of 
research forming a part of the manufacturing operations but not 
charged against research on the books of the companies. 

The total sales of the finished coal-tar products in 1928 exceeded 
$65,000,000. The high research expenditure, amounting to 3.8 per 
cent of the total sales, gives some indication of the large amount 
considered necessary for such work in this industry. 



PART III 

DYES IMPORTED FOR CONSUMPTION 
IN THE UNITED STATES, 1928 



79 



Part III 

DYES IMPORTED FOR CONSUMPTION IN THE UNITED 

STATES, 1928 



Introduction 

Beginning with 1919 the United States Tariff Commission has 
annually compiled a detailed census of dye imports. 

The commission first compiled such statistics for use in the admin- 
istration of section 501, Title V, of the tariff act of September 8, 1916, 
which made the continuance of specific duties on coal-tar products, 
after September 8, 1921, dependent upon the production in the United 
States of as much as 60 per cent in value of the consumption of these 
products. As the information was found to be of direct value_ to 
manufacturers, consumers, and importers, as well as to the commission 
itself, in considering tariff aspects of the coal-tar chemical industry, 
the annual census of imports has been continued. 

Imports for consumption for the year 1928, including warehouse 
withdrawals for dyes and other products wnthin paragraphs 27 and 28, 
have been compiled and published each month under a cooperative 
arrangement between the chemical divisions of the Department of 
Commerce and the Tariff Commission. Certain discrepancies will be 
found to exist between the final figures published under this arrange- 
ment for the year 1928 and the preliminary figures published in the 
monthly reports for the reason that in checking the preliminary 
figures, minor errors were corrected and a few additions made. 

In tabulating the dye statistics the commission has followed in the 
main the "Colour Index," issued by the British Society of Dyers and 
Colourists, and other sources of information in the files. 

Such dyes as could not be identified by Colour Index numbers are 
classified by the ordinary method of application, as follows: Acid, 
basic, direct, lake and spirit soluble, mordant and chrome, sulfur, 
and vat. The classification of a dye by its method of application is 
often purely arbitrary, as certain colors may be applied by either of 
two methods. 

The rate of exchange used in converting foreign invoice values to 
United States currency is either the rate given on the invoice, or in 
comparatively few cases, the exchange value published by the 
Treasury Department for the month in which consular certification 
occurred. 

Summary of Imports of Dyes 

The total import of coal-tar dyes in 1928 was 5,351,951 pounds, 
valued at $4,321,867, as compared with 4,233,046 pounds in 1927, 

81 



82 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



with an invoice value of $3,413,886. The dutiable value in 1928 of 
coal-tar dyes imported for consumption, as reported by Foreign 
Commerce and Navigation of the United States, was $6,720,590. 
(For comparison of imports with domestic production and effect of 
change of duty on imports, see pp. 45-47.) 



Table 30. — Dyes- 



-Imports into the United States, by country of shipment, 
1926-1928 



Country of shipment 


Percentage of total quantity 


1926 


1927 


1928 


Germany , 


50 
33 
2 
4 
3 
4 
4 


58 
26 
2 
4 
2 
4 
4 


65 


Switzerland 


25 


Italy 


2 


England... 


2 


Canada 


2 


France 


1 


Belgium 


2 


Netherlands 


1 











IMPORT STATISTICS 

Table 34, page 86, show? the quantity and value (when publish- 
able) of individual dyes imported in 1928. Table 31 is a summary 
of dyes imported from 1923 to 1928, inclusive, classified according 
to method of application. Table 32 compares the volume of the 
1928 imports of the leading dyes in each class by application with 
corresponding imports in the period 1925 to 1927 and in the fiscal 
year 1914. 

Table 31. — Dyes imported into the United States, classified by method of application, 

1928-1928 





1923 


1924 


1925 


Class of dye 


Pounds 


Per cent 
of total 


Pounds 


Per cent 
of total 


Pounds 


Per pent 
of total 


Acid 


544,048 


17.56 


324, 538 


10.74 


589, 959 


11.32 






Vat: 

(a) Indigo 




.. ...„ , 


5,471 
1, 493, 851 


.18 
49.43 


1,952 
2,416,890 


.04 


(6) Vat (other than indigo) 


1, 207, 554 


38.98 


46.39 


Total 


1, 207, 554 


38.98 


1, 499, 322 


49.61 


2, 418. 842 


46.43 






Mordant and chrome: 

(a) Alizarin 


27, 716 
425, 699 


.89 
13.74 


42, 695 
371, 207 




75. 174 
566. 924 


1.45 


(6) Mordant and chrome 




10.88 








Total 


453,415 [ 14.63 


413, 902 


13.69 642,098 


12,33 






Direct 


527,014 i 17.01 

114,023 3.68 

210,896 1 6.81 

23,213 .75 

18,030 .58 


421, 538 
87,764 

249, 068 
17, 334 
9,073 


13.95 ! 759,024 

2. 90 122, 230 

8. 24 607, 637 

. 57 57. 540 

.30 ! 12,271 


14.57 


Sulfur 


2.35 


Basic 


1L66 


Spirit-soluble and color-lake. 


LIO 


Unidentified, unclassified special 


.24 


Total 


3,098,193 


100.00 


3, 022, 539 


100. 00 1 5. 209. 601 


loaoo 











DYES IMPORTED FOR CONSUMPTION 



83 



Table 31. — Dyes imported into the United States, classified by method of appli- 
cation, 1923-1928 — Continued 





1926 


1927 


1928 


Class of dye 


Pounds • ^^'^ ^^^^ 
Founds j of total 


Pounds 


Per cent 
of total 


Pounds 


Per cent 
of total 


Acid- 


793,855 16.99 


654,729 


15.47 


994, 201 


18.58 






Vat: 

(a) Indigo 


2,806 i .06 
1,845,208 \ 39.49 


6,057 
1, 724, 910 


.14 
40.75 


2,343 
2, 301, 761 


.04 


(&) Vat (other than indigo) 


43.01 


Total-- 


1, 848, 014 t 39. 55 


1.730,967 ! 40.89 


2, 304, 104 


43.05 






Mordant and chrome: 

(a) Alizarin 


86,606 1.85 
413, 398 8. 85 


89,210 t 2.11 
399,395 9.43 


102, 826 
374, 046 


1.92 


(6) Mordant and chrome- 


6.99 


Total- 


500, 004 10. 70 


488, 605 11. 54 


476, 872 


8.91 






Direct 


805,848 ! 17.24 

149,723 3.20 

406, 732 i 8. 70 

86,106 1 1.84 

82, 914 1. 78 


721, 342 17. 04 
137,864 . 3.26 
334,526 1 7.90 
134, 778 1 3. 18 
30,235 1 .72 


917, 728 

125, 350 

424, 968 

98. 550 

10, 178 


17.15 


Sulfur - 


2.34 


Basic. - . .. 


7.94 


Spirit-soluble and color-lake.. 


1.84 


Unidentified, unclassified special 


.19 


Total 


4, 673, 196 100. 00 


4, 233, 046 100. 00 


5, 351, 951 


100.00 











Table 32. — Dyes of each class, according to method of application, imported in 
largest quantity in the calendar year 1928, compared with corresponding imports 
in 1927, 1926, 1925, and in the fiscal year 1914 



Col- 
our 
Index 
No. 



Class and type name of dye ' 



1928 



1927 



1914 



671 
714 



430 
307 

735 ! 

833 
691 

712 

667 



715 
487 



1095 
1184 
1152 
1113 
1212 

1217 
1190 



1150 
1102 



1189 
1228 



^^^^ ^^^^ Pounds 

Erioglaucine ; 85,989 



Patent blue A. 

Indocyanine B 

Brilliant wool blue, FFB, FFR. 

Polar red G, R, RS 

Acid black 2R 

Acid milling black B-.i 

Polar orange 

Erio green B supra_. 

Xylene fast blue FF 

Wool fast blue BL, QL 

Fast green extra bluish... 

Novazol blue B 

Patent blue V 

Neptune green SG_ 

Neolan blue_ 

Brilliant milling blue B 

Polar yellow 

Cyanol 

Acid milling red R 



VAT DYES ' 



Vat golden yellow GK 

.\nthraflavone GC 

Brilliant indigo 4B. 

[ndanthrene brown G... 

Indanthrene blue GCD 

Indanthrene red violet RH 

Algol scarlet 

Altrol orange RF 

Brilliant indigo B 

Vat (Thioindigo) printing black B. 

Hydron pink FF 

Indanthrene olive R 

Indanthrene black 

Indanthrene golden orange RRT 

Indanthrene green G, 2G 

Indanthrene yellow G. 

Helindone printing black RD 

Brilliant indigo 4G.. 

Anthra scarlet 20.. 

Indanthrene brown 2G.. 



58, 010 
49,128 
45, 361 
34, 176 
31, 764 
24,251 
23, 812 
23, 431 
23,000 
22, 8(58 
22, 378 
22, 269 
22, OfiO 
16, 908 
15, 813 
14, 450 
13, 999 
12, 874 
12, 720 



208, 
157, 
130, 
127, 
91, 
82, 
73, 
72, 
69, 
68, 
<68, 
63, 
56, 
43, 
36, 
34, 
33, 
29, 
29, 
28, 



765 

742 

812 

293 

376 

220 

700 

653 

760 

800 

500 

528 

649 

449 

068 I 

110 

673 

622 

535 

362 I 



Pounds 
57, 084 
33, 037 
13, 574 
29,073 

19. 843 
13,923 

19. 844 
12, 236 
17, 137 

9,118 
22, 041 
19, 769 
10, 470 
17, 210 
16,111 
10, 139 
20, 506 

4,463 
14, 782 

7,588 



65, 880 
74, 173 
96, 271 
34,094 

82, 268 
62, 988 



32, 740 
46, 863 

2,416 
39, 650 
61, 463 
23,887 
45, 562 
35, 930 
45, 442 
123, 000 

6,027 
35, 557 
15, 844 



Pounds 
71,502 
29,899 
51,295 

8,681 
2G, 145 

4,210 
11,022 
11,021 
18, 539 

6, 001 
29, 468 
23, 993 

2,425 
16, 857 
14, 977 
16,090 
19, 308 

6,614 
13, 614 
10,911 



1,000 
41,002 
65,711 
54, 420 
134, 832 
111,779 



Pounds 
35, 295 
31,097 
16, 521 
6,376 
28, 584 



17,f3' 
13, 3M. 
15, 299 



30, 248 
18, 967 
661 
24, 892 
13, 946 
8,813 
8,400 
6,614 
8,995 
7,800 



73, 816 
92,300 
51,813 
139, 876 
69, 107 



22, 740 
32, 920 
7,679 
21, 041 
56, 114 
14,546 
53,826 
14, 148 
63, 326 
75,000 



142, 785 
16,298 



63, 608 
12, 455 
500 
63, 052 
22, 772 
32,706 
90, 730 
36, 186 

111,713 

68.000 

7,500 

123, 473 
21, 872 



' The tvpe name renrftsents in most cases the principal color imported in 1928. 

2 Included in Schultz No. 562. 

' Single strength basis. 

* Includes Indanthrene brilliant pink R. 



Pounds 
66, 526 
63, 744 
23, 138 

2,821 



69,590 

805 

22, 144 



19, 238 
14, 347 



196, 228 
40, 868 



9,966 

782 

40, 015 

14, 120 



7,143 
16,880 



478, 980 
27,874 



14, 489 
8,175 



13, 334 
122, 261 
50, 496 



12, 683 
"22,'265 



84 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Table 32. — Dyes of each class, according to method of application, imported in 
largest quantity in the calendar year 1928, compared with corresponding imports 
in 1927, 1926, 1925, and in the fiscal year 1914 — Continued 



Class and type name of dye 



UORDANT AND CHROME DTE3 

Alizarin, synthetic 

Alizarin viridine FF 

Alizarin red S 

Alizarin cyclamine R 

Alizarin orange A, AO 

Omega chrome brown. 

Gallamine blue 

Eriochrome azurol BC 

Modern violet—- 

Chromacetine blue S.. 

Alizarin red SX 

Alizarin blue black 

Qallazine 

Chromazurol S 

Eriochrome flavine A 

Modern black X - 

Eriochrome red Q 

Anthracene chromate brown EB 

Purpurine 

Alizarin blue S .. 

DIRECT DYES 

Rapid fast red QL 

Chloraraine red 

Rapid fast orange - 

Diazo sky blue 

Benzo fast brown 

Rapid fast red 

Trisulphon brown B cone 

Chlorantine fast violet 

Diamine fast orange EG, ER 

Brilliant sky blue R, 2R, M 

Benzo fast yellow RL 

Chlorantine fast brown 

Chlorantine fast green 

Diazo brown 

Diaminogen blue 

Chlorantine brilliant red SB 

Chlorantine fast bhie... 

Diazo brilliant scarlet. -.. 

Brilliant sky blue 8G, extra 

Diaminogen. 

BARIC DYE3 

Rhodamine B extra' .- 

Rhodamine 6 GDN, 6GH extra" 

Victoria blue B 

Euchrysino (patent phosphine) 

Crystal violet.. 

Phosphine O, 3R 

Magenta 

New methylene blue 

Thioflavine T. 

Diphene blue 

Rhoduline blue OG 

Methyl Lyons blue. 

Nile blue 

Runic AL cone. (Rheonine AL) 

Methylene green G. 

SULFUR DYES 

Indocarbon CL, SN 

Sulfide iww blue. 

Thionol green B, 2G 

Pyrogene pure blue. 

Katigen chrome blue 5G 

Thionol brown 



1928 



Pounds 

102, 826 

2r), 331 

23, 961 

20, 470 

17, 379 

16, 000 

13, 944 

12,311 

11, 7.')1 

10. 471 

10, 128 

10,054 

9,151 

8,265 

7, SI 6 

7,275 

6,612 

6, 500 

0,413 

6,400 



67, 450 
i'*. 343 
46, 450 
31,216 
30, 920 
30, 800 
30, 006 
21, 379 
20, 600 
16, 657 
16. 340 
1.5, 648 
14,323 
13, 615 
13, 599 
12, 263 
11,572 
11,328 
10, 997 
10, 720 



109, 980 
89, 020 
34, 655 
20, 825 
19.925 
18,700 I 
17,367 ' 
12,425 
12, 200 
11,200 
8,709 
8,377 
5,501 
5, 000 
4,441 



41, 794 
IS. 284 
15, 566 
13. 445 
6,74G 
6,720 



1927 



Pounds 

89, 210 

31,188 

14, 463 

20, 399 

16, 662 

5,022 

29, 132 

19, 898 

5, 618 

.5, 711 

8,363 

11,078 

1,874 

6,061 

7,714 

660 

6,612 

4,500 

10.000 

8. 3.59 



41, 525 
29. 523 
19, 350 
19, 990 
21, 308 
19,050 
21, 022 
23, 199 
17,957 

9, 455 

8,985 
14, 700 
10, 912 

8,231 
24,626 
12, 431 
26, 783 

2. 215 
13; 765 

6,165 



102, 945 

36, 500 

19, 858 

20, 100 

6,550 

17, 625 

11,190 

1,3,249 

7,485 

7,100 

6. 978- 

9,259 

3,250 

5,300 

1,440 



33, 901 
.3, 841 

47, 109 
4.629 
4,809 

11,289 



1926 



Pounds 
86, 606 
17, 634 
11, 119 
8,372 
7,098 
500 
18, 197 
19, 886 
8.315 
4, 545 
8,580 
5 7. 147 
2,646 
4.408 
4.408 



4,9.59 
5,000 
19.948 
7,180 



14, 500 

34, 599 

700 

22, 599 

17, 496 
2, 850 

18, 509 
37, 576 
11,938 

8 20, 939 

6.667 

15, 431 

6,061 

4,815 

28, 395 

21, 930 

40, 446 

9,136 

O 

21, 602 



1925 



Pounds 
75, 174 

21. 798 

14, 402 

15 

24, 450 



36, 021 
28. 093 
7,983 
4,096 
12,506 
•51,066 
2,204 
2,204 
3,306 



4, 949 
3,740 

28, 281 
16,359 



(') 

Ifi, 899 
2,980 
2,776 
9,004 
8, 593 

25. 815 

33, 941 
12,000 

' 22, 961 
6. 862 

34, 2HS 
5, 400 
9,797 

31,943 
28, 631 
28, 435 
13, 453 

V) 

11,933 




» Does not include alizarin light gray BS. 
• Includes Eriochrome red R. 
' Separate figures not obtainable. 
> Includes brilliant sky blue 8G. 



' Single strength basis except 1914. 
i« Included in Schultz No .571. 
»i Included in Schultz No 748. 



DYES IMPORTED FOR CONSUMPTION 



85 



The following table gives the stocks of coal-tar dyes and interme- 
diates remaining in bonded warehouse each month since January 31, 
1928, as published in the Montlily Summary of Foreign Commerce 
by the Department of Commerce: 

Table 33. — Dyes and intermediates remaining in bonded customs warehouse 
January SI, 1928, to March 31, 1929 



Date 


Coal-tar 

dye« and 

colors 


Coal-tar 
interme- 
diates 


Date 


Coal-tar 

dyes and 

colors 


Coal-tar 
interme- 
diates 


Jan. 31, 1928 


Pounds 
609, 573 
636, 566 


Pounds 

818,695 
1.291.636 1 


Sept. 30, 1928 


Pounds 
707, 609 
622, 489 
410, 501 
716,811 
513, 231 
541, 002 


Pounds 
2, 508, 755 


Feb. 29, 1928 


Oct. 31, 1928 


2, 722, 532 


Mar. 31, 1928 


716, 032 1 l! 264. 965 ! 


Nov. 30, 1928 


2, 497, 336 


Apr. 30, 1928 


740, 239 
778, 670 
837, 955 
749, 744 
707, 820 


1, 356, 850 ! 
1, 873, 016 
2, 122, 049 
2, 368, 616 
2,584,244 ' 


Dec. 31, 1928... 


2, 561, 336 


May 31, 1928... 


Jan. 31, 1929 


2, 598, 317 


June 30, 1928 


Feb. 28, 1929 


2, 276, 018 


July 31, 1928 


Mar. 31, 1929 


705. 392 


2, 301, 100 


Aug. 31, 1928 















Key to Abbreviations Used in Table 34 

1. german companies 

IG Interessen Gemeinschaft Teerfarben Industrie A. G. 

A Actien-Gesellschaft fiir Anilin-Fabrikation, Berlin. Founded 1873. 

B Badische Anilin-und-Soda-Fabrik, Ludwigshafen-on-the-Rhine. Founded 1865. 

By Farbenfabriken, vormals Friedr. Bayer & Co., leverkusen-on-the-Rhine. Founded 1862. 

C Leopold Cassella & Co., Frankfort-on-the-Main. Founded 1870. 

GrE Chemische Fabrik Griesheim-Electron, Offenbach-on-the-Main. Founded 1842. 

K Kalle & Co., A. G., Biebrich-on-the-Rhine. Founded 1870. 

M Farbwerke, vormals Meister Lucius & Briining, U6chst-on-the Main. Founded 1862. 

AG Actien-Gesellschaft fiir Anilin-Fabrikation, Berlin and Chemische Fabrick Griesheim-Electron, 

Oflenbach-on-the-Main. 

2. FRENCH COMPANIES 

CN Compagnie Nationale de Matieres Colorantes et Produits Chimiques. Founded 1917. 

StD Society Anoyme des Matieres Colorantes et Produits Chimiques St. Denis (formerly A. Poir 

rier), St. Denis, near Paris, France. Founded 1830. 

3. SWISS COMPANIES, ALL AT BASEL 

DH Farbwerke, vormals L. Durand, Huguenin & Co. Founded 1871. 

G Anilinfarben-und-Extract-Fabriken, vormals Joh. Rud. Geigy. Founded 1764. 

I Gesellschaft fiir chemische Industrie. Founded 1885. 

Roh. Chemical Works Rohner, Ltd. 

S... Chemische Fabrik, vormals Sandoz & Co. Founded 1887. 

4. ENGLISH COMPANIES 

BDC- . .- British DyestufTs Corporation (Ltd.), Huddersfield and Manchester. 

Bro Brotherton & Co. (Ltd.), Port Rainbow, Bromborough Port, near Birkenhead. 

CAC Clayton Aniline Co. (Ltd.), Clayton, Manchester. 

Lo Charles Lowe & Co., Manchester. 

SD Scottish Dyes (Ltd.), Grangemouth. 

5. SOURCE UNKNOWN 

Q Importations of, through dealers in colors. 



I 



86 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Table 34. — Imports of dyes, calendar year, 1928 



Col- 


Name of dye 


Manu- 
facturer 


Imports 


Index 

No. 


Quantity 


Invoice 
value 




Total ... 




Pounds 
5,351,951 


$4, 321, 867 




Ferro green 


G 
IG 
IG 
IG 
IG 


2 


33 
4,200 
150 
25 
150 
3,153 




10 


Naphthol vellow SXX 




11 


Ainido yellow E 




21 


Chrvsoidlne RL base ■ .1 




24 


Moti orange R . . . . '. 




32 


Brilliant sulphon red 


3,466 




Brilliant sulphon red 5B... 


S 
S 
Q 




Fast sulphon violet 5BS cone 








Polar brilliant red 3B .'. 






44 


Nitrosamine red.. 


4,200 






Nitrosamine red paste 1 


IG 
IG 
IG 
IG 






Pigment red B paste 






54 


Sorrel red X . '. 


2,948 

1,800 

450 




68 


Azo wool blue SE 




59 


Azo acid blue 






Azo acid blue B 


I 

S 






Azo acid blue B cone . 






69 


Lithol fast scarlet 


50 






Stone fast scarlet RN pdr .'... 


IQ 
IG 




70 




67, 450 
50 




77 


Palatine scarlet 






Pilatus scarlet A 


IQ 
IG 




80 


Ponceau SR... 


100 
600 




104 


Metachrome olive brown G 






Metachrome olive brown G pdr 


Bro 
IG 
IQ 






Do. 







105 


Acid anthracene brown R 


1,800 
2,905 




114 


Kiton fast red 2R.. 






Guinea fast red 2R 


IG 

I 
G 
IG 
IG 
IG 






Kiton fast red R 






124 


Chromazone red new cone __ 


882 
150 
250 
100 
550 




126 


Erik:a2 GN 




127 


Geranine G 




128 


Diamine rose QD 




130 


Erika B 






Erika B extra 


IG 

S 






Erika B cone 






131 


Erika G . 


1,200 






Cotton pink GN 


""""ig""" 

IG 






Erika GN 






133 


Janus green 


36 






Green JB 


IQ 
IQ 






Janus green B . 






134 


Janus black 


1,800 






Black JL. 


IQ 




135 


Janus blue G 


250 






BlueJG 


IG 
IG 
Q 
IG 
Q 






Indoine blue BB 






145 


Jasmine high cone 


i,io2 

1,100 

2,979 

200 




150 


Orange S 




157 


Eriochrome phosphine RR.. 




163 


Lithol rubine 






Stone rubine BN pdr 


l6 
IG 
G 




167 


Palatine (Pilatus) chrome brown RX. 


300 
1,102 
2,500 




171 


Chrome brown RVV 




172 


.\cid alizarin black R 






.\cid alizarin black R . 


S 

IG 
IG 
G 
G 






Do 






173 


Metachrome violet B 


1,350 
1,102 

7,816 
870 




196 


Acid ponceau E 




219 


Eriochrome flavine A cone .. .. 




224 


Silk red ST.. 






Silk red ST 


IG 

CAC 

IG 






Stanlev red 






225 


Thiazinered RXX 


2,250 
500 




236 


Janus vellow 






Yellow JG 




IG 
IG 
IG 






Yellow JR 






246 


Alaska black lOBX... 


50 
350 




252 


Cotton scarlet 


168 




Brilliant croceine MOO.. 


IQ 
IG 

IG 






Brilliant croceine MO OL . 








Cotton scarlet extra 







DYES IMPORTED FOR CONSUMPTION 87 

Table 34. — Imports of dyes, calendar year, 1928 — Continued 



Col- 
our 
Index 

No. 


Name of dye 


Manu- 
facturer 


Imports 


Quantity 


Invoice 
value 


256 


Cloth red 3G ■..' 




Pounds 
1,053 






Cloth red 3G extra. 


IG 
By 






Do 






266 


Janus red 


100 






Bed JB ^ 


IG 
IG 
G 




267 


Neutral gray G 1 /..l 


25 

551 

9,819 




273 


Diphenvl brown GS... 




278 


Chlorantine fast red ■ ...^ 


$11,047 




Benzo fast rubine BL 


IG 

I^ 

I 
BDC 

Q 

IG 

BDC 

G 

G 
IG 




Chlorantine fast red 5BL...' J 








Chlorantine fast red 7BL 








Chlorazol fast red KX ,.. 








Direct hght red 8B. 






288 


Sulphoncyanine G . 


1,500 
660 

2,756 
24, 251 

1,400 
13, 599 




289 


Coomassie navy blue GNX 

Eriochronie verdone S 




292 




307 


Acid milling black B .'.. 




315 


Brilliant black BX 




316 


Diaminogen blue NA 






Diaminogen blue NA... 


C 
IG 


. 




Do 






317 


Diaminogen 


5,672 


3,130 




Black extra 


IG 
C 
IG 






Diaminogen extra 








Diazo black MG 






319 


Benzo fast heliotrope 


7,228 


9,822 




Benzo fast heliotrope BL 


IG 
IG 
IG 

By 

BDC 

IG 




Benzo fast heliotrope 2RL. 








Brilliant benzo fast violet BL 








Do. 








Brilliant benzo fast violet 2RL. 








Chlorazol fast helio 2RK 






321 


Diamine fast scarlet 2G 


200 
225 




324 


Diazo brilliant orange GR 






Diazo brilliant orange GR extra 


IG 
IG 












325 


Brilliant benzo violet B 


4,031 


4,519 




Brilliant benzo violet B 


IG 
By 
IG 




Do 








Diamine brilliant violet B 






326 


Benzo fast scarlet 


9,485 


6,158 




Benzo fast orange P 


IG 
IG 
IG 
IG 
IG 
IG 






Benzo fast orange S 








Benzo fast orange WS 








Benzo fast scarlet 5BL 








Benzo fast scarlet 5BS 








Benzo fast scarlet 8BS 






327 


Benzo fast scarlet 4BS 


690 






Benzo fast scarlet 4 BS. 


?5 

IG 






Diamine fast scarlet 4BS 






332 


Vesuvine BLX 


ioo 

9,337 




349 


Chlorantine fast yellow 4GL... 


9,640 




Benzo fast yellow 4GL extra. 


IG 

I 
C 






Chlorantine fast yellow 4GL... 








Diamine fast yellow 4G 






353 




610 






Direct light rose 2BL 


StD 
IG 
IG 






Fast cotton rubine B 






357 


Brilliant carmine L cone. 


500 

1,568 




368 


Ignamine orange 3G 






Ignamine orange 3G 


IG 
IG 












369 


Pyramine orange 2 R... 


100 








IG 
IG 
IG 




371 


Developing black OB 


2,324 

55 

48, 343 




377 






382 


Chloramine red 


25,354 




Chloraminc rod B 


S 

S 

IG 
IG 






• Chloramine red 3B 








Diamine scarlet 3B 






394 


Columbia violet R 


100 
6,061 




403 


Chlorantine fast gray B 






Chlorantine fast gray B 


I 
G 






Diphenyl fast gray BC 






409 


Diamine orange B 


9,690 






Diamine orange B.. 


C 
IG 






Do 







88 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

Table 34. — Imports of dyes, calendar year, 1928 — Continued 



Col 

our 

Index 

No 



423 
425 



430 



436 



439 
440 

441 
443 
448 
449 
451 
459 



487 



488 
608 

516 
518 
632 
536 

543 
661 
577 
678 
690 



696 



597 
621 
622 
628 
629 
632 
636 



639 
642 
645 



649 
652 
653 



BM 



656 
658 



Name of dye 



Diamine brown B 

Oxamine red 

Minaxo red 3BX 

Minaxo red X.. 

Polar red.. 

Polar red O cone 

Polar red R cone 

Polar red RS cone. 

Chloramine brilliant red.. 

Chloramine brilliant red 8B.. 

Chloramine red 8BS 

Do.... 

Sulphon azurine D 

Pyramine orange R 

Ignaminp orange R 

Chromncitronine R 

Acid anthracene red G 

Cotton red 4BXA 

Diazo brilliant black B 

Deltapurpurine 5B cone 

Diamine orange F 

Congo orange R 

Diamine orange F 

Do.... 

Acid milling red R 

Acid anthracene red 3B 

Acid milling red R cone 

Brilliant milling red R 

Wool fast red 3B 

Diamine yellow N pdr 

Oxamine blue 4BX 

Minaxo blue4BX 

Blue NBB.... 

Diamine sky-blue FF 

Diazo fast green BL 

Janus brown R 

Brown JR.. 

Diamine brilliant Bordeaux R.. 

Trisulphon brown B cone.. 

Trisulphon brown GG cone 

Universal dark blue C 

Chloramine blue 3 G 

Chloramine blue 3G cone 

Polyphenyl blue GC 

Benzo chrome brown O 

Benzo chrome browu Q 

Cupranil brown Q 

Benzo chrome brown R 

Chloramine orange Q 

Stilbene yellow 3GX 

Diphenyl catechine Q supra 

Diphenyl fast brown GF 

Diphenyl fast yellow RL supra- 
Fast light yellow... 

Fast light yellow E2G 

Fast light yellow 2G 

Fast light yellow 30._ 

Supra light yellow 2GL 

Polar yellow 5G cone 

Kiton fast yellow 

Kiton fast yellow 3G 

Kiton fast yellow 3GN 

Triazogene orange R 

Omega chrome red B cone 

Pyrazol orange G 

Pyraiol orange G cone 

Pyrazol orange R cone 

Diazo fast yellow 2G 

Diamine azo fast yellow 20 . 

Diazo fast yellow 20 

Do 

Auramine G 

Rhoduhne blue 6G 

Basic blue 6G 

Rhoduline blue 6G 

Do 

Setoglaucine 



Manu- 
facturer 



IG 



IG 
IG 



IG 
By 
IG 



IG 
DH 
IG 

IG 
IG 

S 



IG 
IG 
C 



IG 
G 
IG 
IG 
IG 



IG 

IG 

IG 

I 



IG 
IG 

S 
S 
IG 



IG 
I 

IG 
IG 
IG 
G 
G 
G 



IG 
IG 
IG 
IG 
G 



I 
I 

la 

s 



c 

IG 

"if 



By 
By 
IG 
G 



Import ; 



Quantity 



Pounds 
25 
850 



34, 176 



12, 263 



25 
3,500 



2,425 
1,100 

994 
2,240 

500 
6,110 



12, 720 



486 
200 



3,000 
300 

1,323 
100 



100 

30, 006 

3,675 

350 
5,205 



1,641 



2,298 
250 
225 

8,819 

551 

55 

3,008 



797 
1,653 
10, 910 



1,500 

1,000 

10, 577 



2,515 



1,432 
8,709 



DYES IMPORTED FOR CONSUMPTION 89 

Tablb 34. — Imports of dyes, calendar year, 1928 — Continued 



Col- 
our 
Index 
No. 



Name of dye 



Manu- 
facturer 



Imi)orts 



Quantity 



Invoice 
value 



661 
663 



664 
667 



67( 



67: 



672 



673 

677 



6S0 



682 
690 



691 



698 
699 
700 
704 



706 
707 



710 



Turquoise blue Q - 

Setopaline - — 

Brilliant silk blue B 

Setocyapine 

Setopaline, cone 

Acronol brilliant blue.- 

Neptune green SG -. 

Benzyl green B... 

Brilliant milling green B high cone 

Erioviridine B supra 

Poseidon green SGX 

Light green SF yellowish XX 

Acid green cone - 

Acid naphthalene green J extra cone. 

Light green SF yellowish XX 

Erioglaucine -. 

Erioglaucine AP 

Erioglaucine EP 

Erioglaucine X high eonc 

Kiton blue L. 

Xylene blue VS _ 

Kiton pure blue V 

Xylene blue VS cone 

Xylene blue AS cone 

Magenta ..- 

Diamond magenta I small needles... 

Fuchsine crystals 

Magenta 

Magenta A pdr 

Magenta AB pdr 

Methyl violet 

Methvl violet 

Methyl violet NFB 

Methyl violet 300XE extra cone 

Methyl violet base.. 

Crystal violet 

Ethyl violet -.. 

Victoria blue 4R. 

Victoria blue 4R 

Victoria blue 4R high eonc 

Fast green. 

Fast green blue shade cone 

Fast green extra bluish 

Do 

Magenta S 

Acid fuchsine 

Acid magenta II 

Magenta S.. 

Kiton fast violet lOB 

Benzyl violet 5BN - 

Eriocyaniue AC 

Alkah violet 4BN00 

Alkali blue 

I Alkah blue No. 4. 

Alkali blue 2B 

Alkali blue 3R cone. 

Alkali blue 6R extra 

Brilliant milling blue FG 

Methyl Lyons blue 

Soluble blue 

Ink blue BITBN 

Opal blue, blue shade 

Silk blue BSIC 

Soluble blue I old 

Soluble blue T 

Water blue 

Brilliant sky-blue . 

Brilliant sky-blue 5B.. 

Brilliant sky-blue 50 

Brilliant sky-blue 8G extra 

Do.._. 

Direct brilliant blue 8B 

Patent blue V , 

Acid blue V cone 

Patent blue V 

Poseidon blue BGX cone 



IG 



I 

G 

G 

BDC 



I 
C 
G 
IG 



M 
gtD 
IG 



IG 
IG 
Q 
IG 
IG 



Q 
IG 
StD 
IG 
IG 
IG 



I 

IG 



IG 
IG 
By 



Q 

BDC 
IG 

I 

I 

G 
IG 



IG 
IG 
IG 
IG 
IG 
G 



IG 
IG 
IG 
IG 
IG 
IG 



IG 
IG 
IG 
By 
I 



By 
IG 
IG 



Pounds 
100 
1,651 



60 
16, 908 



4,201 

'85,"989" 



6,416 



2,000 
17, 167 



3,645 



19, 925 
3,500 
2,130 



22,378 



1,752 



882 
992 

5,510 
200 

6,750 



8,377 
9,579 



10,997 



22,060 



85526—30- 



90 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

Table 34. — Imports of dyes, calendar year, 1928 — Continued 



Col- 


Name of dye 


Manu- 
facturer 


Imports 


Index 
No. 


Quantity 


Invoice 
value 


714 






Pounds 
58, 010 


$39, 873^ 






By 

I 

IG 
IG 
IG 






Kiton blue A 








Kiton fast blue A 








Patent blue A . 








Poseidon blue BA cone 








Poseidon blue BR cone 






715 




12,874 


14,464. 




Blue extra -. 


C 
C 
IG 
C 
C 
S 






Blue FF 








Do 
















Cyanol FF.. 








Xylene cyanol FF cone 






717 


Acid violet 6BN.- 


3,532 


6,979 




Acid violet 6BN 


I 

G 

G 

B 
IG 
DH 






Acid violet 6BNG 








Acid violet 6BN0 








Acid violet 6BN00 








Do 






718 


Brilliant chrome violet 4B „ . ... 


331 
12, 311 




720 


Eriochrome azurol . . 






Chromoxane pure blue B. 


IG 
G 
G 






Eriochrome azurol BC ......... 






721 




1,102 
4,540 




722 


Eriochrome cyanine RC .. 


5, 103 




Eriochrome cyanine RC . 


G 
G 

DH 
G 
Lo 
G 
IG 






Eriochrome cyanine RCD. ... . 














723 


Chrome azurol S cone 


8,265 

224 

771 

50 

34, 655 




724 


Aurine 




727 


Chrome violet 




728 


New Victoria blue B 




729 


Victoria pure blue B . . . 


69,180 




Basic pure blue BO 


B 

S 

Q 

I 

IG 
IG 
IQ 

B 






Brilhant Victoria blue RS cone 
















Victoria blue B... 
















Victoria blue B base 
















Do 






731 




410 






Night blue .. 


IG 

I 






Do 






733 


Intensive blue B 


1,860 






Intensive blue B 


IG 
By 






Do 






735 




23,431 


19,789 




Acid greeu V 


M 
IG 

G 

I 
StD 
IG 
CN 
M 
IG 

S 

IG 
IG 












Erio green B supra 








Kiton fast green V 








Naphthalene acid green J extra cone 








Naphthalene green high cone 








Naphthalene green NV 








Naphthalene green V 








Poseidon green VGGX 














736 


Wool blue G extra 


200 

700 

4,619 




743 


Rhodamine S 




748 


Xylene red B 


19, 691 






B 
IG 
IG 

S 




Sulpho rhodamine B extra 








Sulpho rosazeine B extra 








Xylene red B cone 






749 


Rhodamine B extra (single strength) 


109,980 


37,511 




Rhodamine B base 


IG 

IQ 

S 

I 

Q 














Rhodamine B extra . . 








Do 








Do 






750 


Rhodamine G (single strength) 


1,100 






Basic pink G 


Q 
IG 
IG 
IG 




751 


Rhodamine 3B extra 


25 

1,250 

50 




752 


Rhodamine 6Q extra (single strength) 




753 


Irisamine G 





DYES IMPORTED FOR CONSUMPTION 
Table 34. — Imports of dyes, calendar year, 1928 — Continued 



91 



Co.- 


Name of dye 


Manu- 
facturer 


Imports 


Index 
No. 


Quantity 


Invoice 
value 


758 




Pounds 
2,019 


$2, 623 




Erio fast fuchsine BBL 


G 

I 

IG 
IG 






Fast acid violet ARR 








Fast acid violet R 














(62 




2,865 








DH 
DH 
IG 












767 


Chrysoline A pdr . . 


125 
770 




768 










IG 
IG 
IG 






Eosine GFF - 






773 




250 
149 




774 










IG 
IG 






Phloxine B - 






786 




622 








G 
IG 
IG 






Do 






787 




2,300 
1,110 




788 










B 
IG 












789 




1,617 


1,995 




Patent phosphine GGNX 


IG 

I 
S 


















793 




18, 700 








IG 
IG 
IG 













795 




5,000 
20, 825 





797 








Patent phospiiine QRNTN 


IG 
IG 
I 






Patent phosphine RRDX 






800 


Quinoline vellow base (spirit soluble) _ 


310 
4,790 




801 




3,933 






I 
IG 

S 
IG 

G 
IG 














Quinoline vellow SS cone 






802 




475 

1,102 

251 

12,200 




813 






814 






815 


Thioflavine . . 


21,128 






IG 
IG 
IG 

S 

c 

IG 






Basic yellow TON 
















Tannoflavine T 






825 




55 
3,220 
1,520 




828 


Azocarmine GX 




829 




1,900 




Azocarmine B extra 


B 
IG 
IG 














Azo orseille BB 






833 


Wool fast blue 


22,868 


29,617 




Benzyl fast blue BL. 


{ 

IG 
IG 
IG 

S 
S 

s 
Q 
IG 




Benzvl fast blue GL 








Wool fast blue BL 








Woo! fast blue GL 








Wool fast violet B.. 








Xylene milling blue AE cone 








Xylene milling blue BL cone 








Xylene milling violet B cone 






841 


Safranine 


10 
750 
270 




842 


Methvlene violet 3RA extra 




845 


Methvlene heliotrope 






Methylene heliotrope extra strong. 


IG 
IG 






Rosolane extra strong... 






851 


Diphene blue 


11,200 






Diphene blue B. 


IG 
IG 
IG 






Diphene blue R 






853 


Acid cvanine BF 


2,998 
650 




861 


Induline NN 






Induline NN 


IG 
IQ 






Solid blue water soluble S 






865 


Nigrosine 


5,225 


2,317 






IQ 
IG 
IQ 




Nigrosine WLA cone 








Silver gray P 







92 CENSrS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

Table 34. — Imports of dyes, calendar year, 1928 — Continued 



Col- 
our 
Index 
No. 



Name of dye 



Manu- 
facturer 



Imports 



Quantity 



Malta gray 

Malta gray J.. 

New fast gray. 

Ursol 

Fur blue black A, SA, SB 

Fur brown PR, FY, 2R, SO 

Fur dark brown 

Fur gray, B, DMG, G. K... 

Fur pray brown SLA 

Fur olive 3G 

Fur yellow 4G. 

Fur yellow brown 2GA 

Fur dye samples 

Fuscainine G 

NakoSGN 

Ursol A _ 

XTrsol brown 2GA, SO 

Brilliant cresyl blue BB 

Brilliant delphine blue B 

Chrome az urine. 

Chrome azurine E pdr 

Chrome azurine G pdr.. 

Do 

Modern violet N 

Modern heliotrope DH 

Chromaeetine blue S 

Anthracy aniue S 

Chromaeetine blue S extra 

Modern royal blue 

Chromocyanine BC paste 

Modern violet 

Blue 1900 TCD 

Modern violet. 

Ultra violet MO 

Gallamine blue extra paste _ 

Gallazine No. 90 

Meldola's blue 3R 

Meldola's blue 3R cone. 

New fast blue RS 

Nile blue 

Danubia blue AX. 

Danubia blue BX... 

Methylene blue - 

Methylene blue B cone 

Methylene blue BGF high cone 

Methylene blue BGX 

Methylene green G 

Methylene green Q extra cone. 

Methylene green W 

Tannastrol TO cone 

Thionine blue 

Rhoduline blue GO 

Thionine blue G 

Thionine blue GO.. 

New methylene blue N 

New methylene blue N 

New methylene blue NS cone 

Indochromine 2R cone 

Hydron blue R: 

Cibablue2RH pdr 

Hydron blue R pdr. (single strength). 

Hydron blue G (single strength) 

Pyrogene green 3G 

Alizarin black: 

Alizarin black S paste 

Alizarin black WR pdr 

Alizarin synthetic- 

Alizarin VI old paste 

Alizarin paste bluish.. 

Alizarin red VI extra pure 

Alizarin claret red R 

.\lizarin claret red R paste.. 

Alizarin claret red RL paste 

Ali/.arin orange (single .strength) 

Alizarin orange A paste 

.\lizarin orange AO paste. 

i^lizarin orange SW pdr 



StD 
IQ 



IG 
IG 
Q 
IQ 

IG 
IG 

IG 
IG 

Q 
IQ 
IG 
IG 
IG 

Q 

s 



DH 
DH 

I 
DH 
DH 



DH 
DH 
DH 
DH 



DH 
DH 



Q 
DH 



IG 
IQ 



IQ 
IQ 
B 



IG 

I 

IG 



IQ 

S 
S 

I 
IQ 
IQ 

I 

IQ 
IG 



IG 

I 

IQ 



IQ 
IG 



IG 

BDG 

IQ 



Pounds 
2,707 



6,640 



11 
1,000 
3,381 



662 
110 

10, 471 



520 
11,751 



13,944 
9, 151 
2,220 



5,501 



350 



4,441 



720 
3,576 



12, 425 



1,000 

550 
8, 500 
1, 833 

551 

4,446 

650 

102, 826 



600 
"i7,'379" 



DYES IMPORTED FOR CONSUMPTION 03 

Table 34. — Imports of dyes, calendar year, 192S — Continued 



Xame of dye 



Manu- 
facturer 



Imports 



Quantity 



Invoice 
value 



Alizarin red S -. 

Alizarin red S pdr.. 

Do.- .-. 

Do.. 

Do 

Alizarin red SW 

Alizarin red SWB pdr 

Alizarin red SZ pdr 

Anthracene brown 

Alizarin brown R pdr... 

Anthracene brown SW pdr. 

Anthracene brown RD paste 

Purpurine 

Alizarin red XGP -. 

Alizarin YCA paste 

Alizarin red XGP paste 

Alizarin red SX 

Alizarin red SX paste 

Alizarin red WR paste 

Alizarin Bordeaux 

Alizarin Bordeaux BD paste 

Alizarin Bordeaux GG paste. 

Alizarin cyanine 2R pdr.. 

Alizarin cyanine GG pdr. 

Alizarin light blue SE 

Alizarin blue WS 

Alizarin light blue ESE cone 

Alizarin light blue SE cone... 

Alizarin sapphire blue SE 

I>anasol blue SE cone 

Alizarin light blue B 

Alizarin emeraldol G. 

Anthracene blue WB paste. 

Anthracene blue 

Anthracene blue SWGQ pdr 

Anthracene blue SWGGH pdr 

Anthracene blue SWR pdr 

Alizarin cyclamine R paste 

Alizarin blue S pdr 

Alizarin green S 

Alizarin green S paste 

Do. 

Alizarin irisol 

Alizarin blue JR pdr 

Alizarin direct violet ER pdr 

Alizarin irisol B pdr 

Alizarin irosol R pdr 

Alizarin light violet RS cone 

Alizarin aptrol B 

Alizarin astrol B pdr 

Alizarin blue AS pdr 

Alizarin light blue R 

Alizarin direct blue RXO 

Alizarin light blue R cone 

Alizarin light blue BGAOO.... 

Alizarin direct blue BGAOO 

Alizarin light blue BGAOO 

Alizarin cyanine green 

Alizarin cyanine green 3G pdr 

Alizarin light green GS cone 

Anthraquinone violet 

Anthraquinone violet pdr 

Special violet B 

Anthraquinone blue green BXO 

Alizarin viridine FF (single strength). 

Alizarin viridine FF paste 

Alizarin viridine FF pdr... 

Alizarin blue black 

Alizarin blue-black B pdr 

Alizarin blue-black 3B pdr 

Alizarin light gray BS cone 

Chrome blue-black B 

Alizarin direct blue B. 

Wool fast blue BR 

Anthraquinone blue SR extra pdr 



Pounds 
23, 969 



IG 

Bv 

BDC 

Q 

I 

IG 
S 



IG 
IG 
G 
IG 



BDC 
IG 



IG 
IG 



IG 
Bv 
IG 
By 



Bv 
S 
S 
I 
I 

s 

IG 
IG 



IG 
IG 
IG 
IG 
IG 



IG 
BDC 



By 
IG 
IG 
IG 

S 



IG 
By 



IG 

S 



IG 

S 



IG 

S 



B 
IG 
IG 



IG 
By 



IG 
M 

S 

I 
IG 

I 

I 



500 

1,003 
6,413 
2,736 



1,397 



200 

485 

2.605 



9,000 

20 

440 

700 



1,150 

20,470 

6,400 

3,484 



"■ "" 1 


7,067 I 19,943 










3,407 








" 




l,i300 












3 226 












1.485 












4. 951 












700 




25, 331 












10, 054 9, 268 






1" 



220 
2,500 



94 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

Table 34.^ — Imports of dyes, calendar year, 1928 — Continued 



Name of dye 



Alizarin rubinol 

Alizarin rubine R pdr. 

Alizarin rubinol 5G.. 

Alizarin rubinol GW 

Alizarin geranol B pdr 

Indanthrene blue WB pdr 

Antliraflavone GC (single strength) 

Algol yellow GC. 

Anthra yellow GC- 

Do 

Anthra yellow GCN 

Vat yellow GC 

Vat yellow GCN 

Indanthrene golden orange G: 

Cibanone golden orange OK paste.- 

Cibanone golden orange GK pdr.. 

Vat golden orange G (single strength). 

Anthra scarlet O paste 

Indanthrene dark blue BO -.. 

Cibanone deep blue BO pdr. 

Vat dark blue BO (single strength).. 

Vat dark blue BOA (single strength) 

Indanthrene black (single strength) 

Anthra green B pdr 

Cibanone black 2B paste 

Vat black BB 

Vat black BB double paste 

Vat black BGA pdr 

Cibanone violet R paste 

Indanthrene brilliant violet RR (single strength). 

Vat brilliant violet RR 

Vat brilliant violet RRP pdr.. 

Vat violet RR 

Indanthrene violet B (single strength) 

Vat violet B paste 

Vat violet B pdr 

Indanthrene blue RS (single strength) 

Vat blue RS.,. 

Vat blue RSN pdr 

Vat blue RSP triple pdr 

Indanthrene blue RK paste 

Indanthrene blue 3G (single strength) 

Indanthrene blue GGS (single strength) 

Vat blue GGSL.. 

Vat blue GGSZ double paste.. 

Indanthrene blue 5G (single strength) 

Vat blue 5G paste 

Vat blue 5G pdr 

Indanthrene blue OCD (single strength).. 

Cibanone blue GCD double paste 

Vat blue GCD.. 

Vat blue GCDN pdr 

Indanthrene blue BCSO pdr. (single strength) .. . 
C ibanone blue G (single stren gth) 

Cibanone blue Q... 

Cibanone blue GL pdr _ 

Indanthrene green BB: 

Vat green BB paste 

Vat green BB pdr 

Indanthrene yellow G (single strength) 

Vat yellow G 

Do... 

Indanthrene gray B pdr. (single strength) 

Algol gray R pdr. 

Anthra gray B pdr 

Algol pink R pdr. (single strength).. 

Algol scarlet Q pdr. (single strength) 

Indanthrene reel .'iGK pdr. (single strength) 

Vat red ."GK pdr 

Indanthrene yellow GK (single strength) 

Vat yellow OK pdr 

Vat yellow OK paste 

Vat yellow RQ paste 



Manu- 
facturer 



By 
IG 
By 
lO 
B 



IG 
IG 
B 
IG 
B 
B 

I 
I 

IG 
B 



I 

IG 
IG 



IG 

I 
IG 

B 
IG 

I 



IG 
B 
B 



B 
IG 



IG 
IG 
IG 
IG 
IG 



IG 
IG 



By 
IG 



I 

IG 
IG 
IG 



IG 
IG 



IG 
B 



IG 
IG 
IG 
IG 



IG 



IG 
By 
GrK 



Imports 



Quantity 



Pounds 
1,226 



110 
110 

15, 954 
564 



110 
19, 136 
56, 649 



220 
26, 666 



1,160 



11, 626 



424 
2,420 
3,925 



3,996 
"9i,'376' 



25,300 
22, 869 



500 

1,700 

34,110 



3,200 



2,400 

160 

1,600 



13, 896 



Invoice 
value 



$2, 415 



3,119 
474 I 

157, 742 138, 162 



10, 564 
19, 714 



18,226 



3,857 



26, 814 



4,440 



DYES IMPORTED FOR CONSUMPTION 95 

Table 34. — Imports of dyes, calendar year, 192S — Continued 



Name of dye 



Manu- 
facturer 



Imports 



Quantity 



Invoice 
value 



Algol red FF, R (single strength) 

Algol brilliant red 2B paste 

Algol red FF - 

Algol red R extra pdr - .-- 

Vat red 2B pdr 

Vat red FF paste 

Vat red R extra pdr 

Indanthrene brilliant violet BBK (single strength). 

Vat brilliant violet BBK pdr 

Do 

Indanthrene brilliant violet RK (single strength).. 

Grelanone violet BR paste 

Do._ - 

Vat brilliant violet RK pdr.. 

Indanthrene orange RRK (single strength) 

Grelanone orange R paste. 

Vat orange R paste. 

Vat orange RRK 

Indanthrene orange 6RTK (single strength) 

Vat orange 6RTK 

Helindone yellow 30N pdr. (single strength) 

Algol yellow 4GK pdr 

Helindone yellow 3GN pdr 

Indanthrene red R (single strength) 

Anthra red RT pdr 

Anthra Bordeaux R (single strength) 

Algol Bordeaux RT paste 

Anthra Bordeaux R paste. 

Anthra claret R pdr 

Vat Bordeaux B extra 

Vat claret B pdr.. 

Vat claret R pdr 

Indanthrene corinth RK (single strength). 

Vat corinth RK pdr.. 

Indanthrene gray GK... 

Vat gray GK paste 

Indanthrene Bordeaux B (single strength) 

Anthra Bordeaux B pdr 

Indanthrene brown GR (single strength).. 

Vat brown GR paste... 

Vat brown GR pdr.. 

Indanthrene olive R (single strength) 

(Srelanone olive B pdr 

Vat olive B paste. 

Vat olive R.. 

Indanthrene brown R (single strength) 

Grelanone brown RR paste 

Grelanone brown RR pdr 

Vat brown R 

Vat brown R pdr.. 

Indanthrene brown G (single strength) 

Grelanone brown B pdr 

Vat brown Q.. 

Do 

Indanthrene red BT 

Vat red BT paste 

Indanthrene red violet (single strength). 

Vat red violet RRK. 

Do 

Vat red violet RRN pdr 

Indanthrene red RK (single strength) 

Vat red RK pdr... 

Vat red RK paste 

Vat red RKP pdr.'.. 

Indanthrene violet BN (single strength) 

Vat violet BN.. 

Cibanone olive 2G pdr — 

Cibanone orange R (single strength) 

Cibanone brown B 

Cibanone brown B pdr 

Cibanone black B (single strength) 

Cibanone black B paste new 

Cibanone black 2G pdr.. 

Indanthrene blue green (single strength) 

Cibanone blue 3G paste - 

Vat blue green B 



By 
By 
IG 
By 
By 
By 



By 
IQ 



AG 
GrE 
IG 



GrE 
GrE 
IG 



IG 



IQ 
IG 



IQ 
B 
IQ 
B 
B 
B 



IQ 

Yg' 



IQ 



IQ 
IQ 



GrE 
GrE 
IQ 



IQ 
GrE 
By 
IQ 



GrE 
By 
IQ 



QrE 



IG 
B 
IQ 



IQ 
B 
IQ 



IG 
I 
I 



I 
IQ 



Pounds 
16, 551 



6,371 



2,400 
" 10,' 892' 



5,( 



7,306 
'4,'369 



350 
'500' 



5,280 

l.'ooe' 



3,291 



2,400 

"\,m 



400 

'4,'o66" 



63,528 



18, 370 



38, 940 
' 14," 336 



127, 293 



1,254 
"6,'352' 



14, 515 



4,579 
'§,'674 



9,387 



220 

17, 402 

220 



3,193 
'25,'084' 



' 500 pounds not reduced. 



9i6 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

Table 34.- — Imports of dyes, calendar year, 192S — Continued 



Name of dye 



Cibanone olive G paste 

Indigosol yellow 

Indigosol yellow HCG 

Do 

Indigo synthetic 

Indigosol 

Indigo vat BASF 

Indigosol O 

Do 

Indigosol OR- 

Indigo BASF pure RB paste 

Brilliant indigo 4B (single strength) 

Brilliant indigo 4B... 

Do 

Bromindigo 4B paste ..- 

Ciba blue BBD pdr.. 

Indigo MLB/4B pdr 

Indigosol 04B..- 

Do 

Ciba brown R pdr... 

Brilliant indigo BB (single strength) 

Brilliant indigo 4G paste 

Brilliant indigo B paste 

Ciba yellow G paste.. 

Helindone green G paste 

Alizarin indigo 

Algol blue 5R paste 

Alizarin indigo 3R paste 

Alizairn indigo 5R paste 

Indigosol.- - 

Indigosol AZG , 

Do 

Ciba heliotrope B paste , 

Anthra red B 

Algol red 5B paste 

Anthra red B paste fine 

Ciba pink B paste... 

Helindone red B (single strength) 

Algol rubine B pdr 

Helindone red B pdr , 

Helindone pink (single strength) 

Algol pink B paste 

Algol pink BG paste 

Helindone pink AN 

Helindone pink BN paste 

Vat pink AN paste 

Indanthrene red violet RH (single strength). 

Ciba red 3B paste 

Vat red violet RH 

Helindone orange R (single strength) 

Algol orange RF paste 

Algol orange RF pdr 

Helindone orange R 

Hydron orange RF paste 

Vat orange RF paste 

Vat orange RF pdr 

Indigosol orange HR' 

Do.2 

Indigosol orange RH^ 

Helindone fast scarlet R (single strength) 

Vat scarlet R 

Algol violet RR (single strength) 

Algol violet RR 

Thioindigo violet 2R paste 

Helindone brown G (single strength) 

Anthra scarlet 2G (single strength) 

Anthra scarlet 20 paste 

Do 

Helindone fast scarlet C paste 

Thioindigo scarlet 2G 

Vat scarlet G extra pdr 

Ciba red R (single strength) 

Ciba red R paste 

Ciba red R pdr 

Ciba orange G paste 

Indigo, natural 



Manu- 
facturer 



DH 
IG 
IG 



IG 
DH 
IG 
DH 
IG 



B 
IG 
IG 
IG 
IG 
IG 
DH 

I 
IG 
IG 
IG 

I 
IG 



IG 
By 
IG 



DH 

IG 

I 



IG 

IG 

I 



IG 
IG 



IG 
IQ 
IG 

M 
M 



I 

IG 



IG 
IG 
IG 
IG 
B 
IG 
DH 
IG 
DH 



IG 



IQ 
K 
IG 



B 

IG 
IG 
IG 

S 



I 

IG 
I 



Imports 



Quantity 



Pounds 
220 
2,854 



55 
596 



330 

100 

130, 812 



lie 

16, 464 

29, 622 

C9, 760 

661 

600 

6,899 



1,923 



662 
15, 175 



750 
"22," 725' 



70,240 



2,413 
8,355 



821 



6,400 
29,535 



14, 346 



551 
2,343 



Invoice 
value 



' Not reduced 



DYES IMPORTED FOR CONSUMPTION 



97 



Table 34. — Imports of dyes, calendar year, 19SS — Continued 

UNIDENTIFIED ACID DYES 



Name of dye 



Manu- 
facturer 



Imports 



Quantity 



Acid black . 

Acid black 2R.. 

Acid black RK.. 

Acid blue RBF.... 

Acid brown 

Acid brown O 

Acid brown RN 

Acid leather brown. 

Acid leather brown EGB 

Acid leather brown ER 

Acid lifiht green 

Acid light green AEG 

Acid light green AEJ 

Acid milling yellow Q conc- 

Acid pure blue 

Acid pure blue BR supra 

Acid pure blue R supra 

Acid rhodamine R 

Acid violet - 

Acid violet ACS conc 

Acid violet 6B conc. 

Acid violet 8B extra 

Acid violet CBB._ 

Acid violet ClOB 

Acid violet R extra 

Alizarin astrol violet B 

Alizarin cyanine green 5G 

Alizarin direct blue 

Alizarin direct blue A2G 

Alizarin direct blue AR 

Alizarin direct blue RBX 

Alizarin fast blue BBG.. 

Alizarin fast violet R 

Alizarin light blue 3G conc 

Alizarin night blue AG conc 

Alizarin sapphire blue 3Q 

Alizarin supra blue.-. 

Alizarin supra blue A.. 

Alizarin supra blue SES.. 

Alizarin supra sky-blue R 

Alkali fast green. 

Alkali fast green 2BF 

Alkali fast green lOQ.. 

Amaranth B 

Amido fast red^. 

Acid red 20 

Amido fast red 2G 

Amido fast yellow R 

Amido naphthol brown 3Q 

Azo fast blue BD conc. 

Af.o flavine FFNX 

Azo rhodine 2GN conc 

Benzyl fast blue 3GL 

Brilliant acid blue 

Brilliant acid blue FF. 

Do.. 

Brilliant indocyanine 

Brilliant indocyanine 6B. 

Brilliant indocyanine G 

Brilliant milling blue B.. 

Brilliant wool blue.. 

Brilliant wool blue B extra 

Brilliant wool blue FFB extra. 

Brilliant wool blue FFR extra. 
Do 

Brilliant wool blue Q extra 

Cashmire black TN 

Chestnut brown 

vMoth fast green 

Cloth fast green B 

Cloth fast green G 

Cloth fast orange 

Cloth fast orange G. 

Cloth fast orange R 



IQ 
IQ 
I 



lO 
IQ 



DH 
DH 

S 



s 

DH 
IG 
IG 
IG 
IG 
IG 
IG 



IG 
IG 
IG 

I 

I 

S 

S 

I 



IG 
IG 
IG 



By 
IQ 
IG 



M 
IG 
IQ 
IG 
IG 
IG 

S 

I 



By 

IG 



IQ 
IQ 
IG 



IQ 
IQ 
IQ 
By 
IQ 
IQ 
BDC 



Pounds 
31,764 



11,128 
550 



1,900 



2,777 



11,002 
6,678 



550 
2,945 



450 
200 
550 



110 
110 
100 

4,000 
220 

5,301 



1,250 
7,375 



200 
379 



115 
125 

1,000 
100 
500 
440 

2,694 



3,724 



14, 450 
45, 361 



2,700 
180 
660 



2,203 



98 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Table 34. — Imports of dyes, calendar year, 192S — Continued 
UNIDENTIFIED ACID DYES— Continued 





Manu- 
facturer 


Imports 


Name of dye 


Quantity 


Invoice 
value 


Cloth fast red 




Pounds 
2,314 




Cloth fast red 3B.. 


I 

I 
I 
I 
G 
G 
Q 
I 
G 
IG 




Cloth fast red R 






Cloth fast violet R 


220 

11,296 

551 

2,425 

660 

330 

2,755 

25 

75 




Cloth fast yellow G 




Erio carmine 2BC 




Erio fast brilliant fuchsine BBL 




Erio fast brown R 




Fast cyanine blue B. 




Fast jasmine O cone... 




Gloria yellow G 




Guinea brown 




Guinea brown GRL.. 


IQ 
IG 
IG 
IQ 




Guinea brown 2R 






Guinea fast green B - . 


2,900 

1.500 

49, 128 




Guinea fast red BL 




Indocyanine _ . 


$32, 558 


Indocyanine B .... . . 


IG 
IG 
IG 

G 

I 

I 




Indocyanine FF 






Indocyanine 2RF 






Ink blue E .... . . 


22 

330 

220 

2,204 




Kiton brown R ... 




Kiton fast green A . 




Kiton fast red . - 




Kiton fast red 4BL 


I 
I 




Lanasol orange 2 R . 


440 
3,139 






1,567 


Lanasol violet B .. 


I 

I 

I 
DH 
IG 
IG 
IG 










Lanasol violet R 








110 
2,800 

200 
2,500 
2,046 




Metanil red 3B extra 




Milling brown R.. 




Milling orange G ... . 




Milling red . 


1,765 


Milling red 4BA 


IG 
IG 
IG 




Milling red 6B A.. . 






Millingred GA 






Milling yellow 


6,550 


5,174 


Milling yellow 3G ... . 


IG 
IG 
IG 
IG 
IG 
IQ 




Milling yellow HG ... . 






Milling yellow H3G 






Milling yellow H5G . ... 






Milling yellow 






Minaxo (Oxamine) acid brown G 


1,400 
1,850 




Naphthol black . 




Naphthol black BD 


IG 
IG 
IQ 




Naphthol black BGN cone . .. 






Naphthol blue black FG 


1,600 
4,959 




Neolan black 




Neolan black GG 


I 

I 




Neolan black 2R 






Neolan blue 


15,813 


15,603 


Neolan blue B. . . .. 


I 
I 
I 
I 
I 
I 




Neolan blue G... . . 












Neolan blue RR . . 






Neolan Bordeaux R. 


771 
1,322 
3,083 




Neolan green LBN cone 




Neolan orange . . ... . 




Neolan orange Q- 


I 

I 
I 




Neolan orange R .. 








7,880 
990 




Neolan red 






I 
I 




Neolan red R 






Neolan violet .. 


550 






I 
I 

I 




Neolan violet 3 R 






Neolan violet brown B... . ..... 


1,102 
9,366 




Neolan yellow 


6,681 


Neolan yellow G . . 


I 

I 

I 
IG 
G 




Neolan yellow GR 






Neolan yellow R 






Neotolyl black TL extra 


1,300 
441 




Neutral red BX 





DYES IMPORTED FOR CONSUMPTION 



99 



Table 34. — Imports of dyes, calendar near, 1928 — Continued 
UNIDENTIFIED ACID DYES— Continued 



Name of dye 



Manu- 
facturer 



Imports 



Quantity 



Novazol acid blue 

Novazol acid blue BL supra _ 
Novazol acid blue GL supra. 

Novazol blue B 

Novazol violet B 

Onis ( Anthosine) 

Onis B 

Onis3B 

Pilatus (Palatine) black SF 

Pilatus fast blue 

Pilatus fast blue GG 

Pilatus fast blue X 

Pilatus fast claret RNX 

Pilatus fast green BL cone 

Pilatus fast orange 

Pilatus fast orange GN 

Pilatus fast orange R 

Pilatus fast pink 

Pilatus fast pink B 

Pilatus fast pink G 

Pilatus fast yellow 

Pilatus fast vellow G 

Pilatus fast yellow 3GN 

Pilatus fast yellow GR 

Polar brilliant red B cone 

Polar gray 

Polar gray 

Polar gray greenish 

Polar maroon \'C 

Polar orange 

Polar orange GS cone 

Polar orange R cone 

Polar red B cone 

Polar yellow 

Polar yellow 2G cone 

Polar yellow R cone 

Polytrop blue 

Polytrop blue 2B.. 

Polytrop blue R 

Pure wool blue J 

Radio brown 

Radio brown B.. 

Radio brown S 

Selan printing brown 3R 

Seto light blue 2B cone 

Silk black 

Silk yellow 

Silk yellow GF. 

Silk yellow R 

Sulpho rhodamine (rosazeine) 

Sulpho rhodamine BG 

Sulpho rhodamine G 

Sulpho rhodamine G extra... 

Sulphon orange G 

Sulphon yellow 

Sulphon yellow 5G 

Sulphon yellow R 

Supramine black BR 

Supramine blue 

Supramine blue FB 

Supramine blue R 

Supramine Bordeaux B... 

Supramine brown 

Supramine brown G... 

Supramine brown R 

Supramine green G... 

Supramine red 

Supramine red B 

Supramine red 2G 

Supramine yellow... 

Supramine yellow G. 

Supramine yellow 3G. 

Supramine yellow R 

Wool black GRF 



IG 
IG 
IG 



IG 
IG 
IG 
IG 



IG 
IG 



IG 
IG 



IG 
IG 
IG 

G 



DH 
DH 
DH 



IG 
IG 
IG 
G 
IG 



IG 
IG 



IG 
M 
IG 
IG 



IG 
IG 
IG 



IG 
IG 
IG 



IG 
IG 
IG 



IG 
IQ 



IG 
IQ 
IQ 
IQ 



Pounds 
5,580 



22, 269 
1,653 
4,525 



1,750 
1.975 



100 

4,550 

300 



750 
"1,050 



5,511 
6,667 



3,637 
23,812 



4,959 
13, 999 



220 
300 



1,800 

55 

700 

4,825 



2,655 



6, 450 
3,500 



7,090 
4,450 



2,050 
3,050 



300 
5,550 



5,625 



8,300 



100 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Table 34.— Imports of dyes, calendar year, 1928 — Continued 
UNIDENTIFIED ACID DYES— Continued 





Manu- 
facturer 


Imports 


Name of dye 


Quantity 


Invoice 
value 


Wool blue 




Pounds 
1,643 


$1,875 


Wool blue 5B... 


lO 
lO 
IQ 

By 

S 

s 
s 
s 
s 


f Wool blue N extra 


1 


' Wool blue R extra 





Woolfast yellow 5Q 


550 


Xylene brilliant blue FFRX cone. 


9, 139 I 


Xylene fast blue FF cone 


23, 000 
4,001 
2,001 
1,500 




Xylene milling blue QL cone. 




Xylene milling orange R cone 




Xylene milling red B cone 







UNIDENTIFIED VAT DYES 



Algol blue 3RP pdr 

Algol Bordeaux B (single strength) 

Algol Bordeaux B paste. 

Algol Bordeaux B pdr 

Algol brilliant green BK paste... 

Algol brilliant pink FB (single strength). 

Algol brown BT paste 

Algol brown ON paste 

Algol brown 3R pdr 

Algol red 

Algol red BK pdr_ 

Algol red BTK pdr 

Algol scarlet (single strength) 

Algol scarlet B pdr 

Algol scarlet 3B paste 

Algol scarlet 3B pdr 

Algol scarlet GCIN paste 

Algol scarlet RP- paste 

Algol violet (sini,'le strength) 

Algol violet BBX double paste 

Algol violet BF NT paste double cone. 
Algol violet l^FN paste double cone. 

Algol violet R pdr 

Algol yellow GR pdr 

Alizarin indigo violet B paste... 

Antlira pink 

Anthra pink B paste fine 

--Vnthra pink R extra pdr 

Anthra scarlet (single strength) 

Anthra scarlet K paste 

Anthra scarlet B pdr 

Anthra yellow 8(> past« 

Ciba black O pdr 

Ciba brown 

Ciba bi'own G i)dr 

Ciba brown G paste. 

Ciba brown 2R paste 

Ciba pink (single strength).. 

Ciha pink B<"i paste 

Ciba pink BG pdr 

Cii)anone black 3G paste 

Cibanone blue RSNIj 

Cibanone Bordeaux B pdr 

Cibanone brown Gil pdr 

Cibanone dark blue MBA pdr 

Cibanone golden orange: 

Cibanone golilen orange G paste 

Cibanone golden orange G pdr 

Cibanone green GC pdr _ 

Cibanone olive 2R pdr 

Cibanone orange 

Cibanone oranga 2R paste 

Cibanone orang.i 2R pdr 

Cibanone orange 3R pdr 

Cibanone orange 6R pdr 

Cibiinoue orange 6H paste 

Cibanone red: 

Cibanone red 415 paste 

Cibanone red B pdr 

Cibanone yellow 3G paste.. 



IQ 



IQ 
IQ 
IQ 
IQ 
IQ 
IQ 
IQ 



IQ 
IQ 



IQ 
IQ 
IQ 
IQ 
IQ 



IQ 

IQ 
IQ 
IQ 
IQ 
By 



IQ 
IQ 



IQ 

IQ 

IQ 

I 



424 
900 



75 

594 

856 

2,000 

25 
700 



73. 700 



1,100 



150 
200 
200 



1,000 

600 

3,300 



500 
220 



275 
18,517 
9,541 



95 
440 
440 
110 
110 

220 
771 
110 
110 



110 

1,211 

2,531 

1,322 
110 



$46, 870 



586 



5,596 



DYES IMPORTED FOR CONSUMPTION 



101 



Table 34. — Imports of dyes, calendar year, 1928 — Continued 
UWPENTIFIEP VAT DYES-^Continued 



Name of dye 



Eridan brilliant scarlet (single strength) 

Eridan brilliant scarlet B paste 

Eridan brilliant scarlet B pdr 

Grelanone red 2B (single strength) 

Grelanone red 2B paste 

Grelanone red 2B pdr 

Helindone brown CV vat pdr.. 

Helindone fast scarlet G paste 

Helindone khaki C vat pdr 

Helindone printing black 

Helindone printing black RD paste 

Vat printing black RD paste 

Helindone yellow 

Helindone yellow RN pdr 

Vat yellow RK pdr 

Hydron brown (single strength) 

Hydron brown G paste _ 

Hydron brown R paste.. 

Hydron brown R pdr 

Hydron green G paste 

Hydron olive GN paste 

Hydron pink FB (single strength)... , 

Vat brilliant pink B paste. 

Vat brilliant pink B pdr 

Hydron pink FF (single strength).. 

Hydron pink FF pdr 

Vat brilliant pink R paste. 

Vat brilliant pink R pdr.. 

Hydron scarlet (single strength) 

Hydron scarlet 3B pdr 

Vat scarlet 3B pdr_ 

Hydron violet (single strength) 

Hydron violet BBF paste 

Hydron violet R pdr 

Hydron violet RF paste. 

Hydron yellow (single strength) 

Hydron yellow 2G pdr 

Vat yellow NF paste... 

Hydron yellow brown G paste 

Indanthrene blue (single strength).. 

Vat blue RZ double paste 

Indanthrene brilliant blue (single strength)... 

Vat brilliant blue 3G paste 

Vat brilliant blue R paste 

Vat brilliant blue R pdr 

Indanthrene brilliant orange (single strength). 

Vat brUliant orange GK paste 

Vat brilliant orange RK paste fine 

Vat brilliant orange RK pdr 

Indanthrene brilliant violet (single strength).. 

Vat brilliant violet 3B pdr 

Vat brilliant violet 4R paste 

Vat brilliant violet 4R pdr 

Indanthrene brown 2G (single strength) 

Vat brown 2G paste 

Do 

Vat brown 2G pdr 

Do 

Indanthrene golden orange (single strength) . . 

Vat golden orange 30 paste 

Vat golden orange 3G pdr. 

Indanthrene gray 3B (single strength) 

Indanthrene gray (single strength). 

Vat gray RRH paste fine 

Vat gray RRH double paste 

Vat gray RRH pdr 

Indanthrene green (single strength) 

Vat green G double paste 

Vat green G pdr 

Vat green 2Q double paste 

Vat green 2Q pdr 

Indanthrene khaki (single strength) 

Vat khaki GG paste 

Vat khaki GO pdr.... 

Indanthrene orange 3R (single strength) 

Vat orange 3R paste. 

Vat orange 3R pdr 



Manu- 
facturer 



IG 
IG 



IG 
IG 
IG 
IG 
IG 



IG 
M 



IG 
IG 



IG 

IG 
IG 
IG 
IG 



IG 
IG 



IG 
IG 
IG 



IG 
IG 
IQ 



IG 
C 
IG 



IQ 



IG 
IG 
IG 



IG 
IG 
IQ 



IG 
IQ 
IQ 



B 

IG 
B 
IG 



IG 
IG 
IG 



IQ 
B 
IQ 



IQ 
IQ 
IQ 
IG 



IQ 
IQ 



Imports 



Quantity 



Pounds 
4,039 



IQ 
IQ 







4,850 










100 
15,000 

150 
33, 673 
















150 










6,703 


$5,464 










200 
1,500 
10, 400 












68, 500 


35,064 










3,966 










3,440 


3,432 










1,610 










500 
20,000 








7,556 


6,958 










19, 303 


16,445 










20, 447 


31, 891 










28, 362 


20,327 














21, 848 










6,666 

8,468 




6,419 




1 






36, 068 


17,820 














10,860 










11, 978 











102 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Table 34.^-Imports of dyes, calendar year, 1928 — Continued 
UNIDENTIFIED VAT DYES— Continued 



Name of dye 



Manu- 
facturer 



Imports 



Quantity 



Invoice 
value 



Indanthrene orange (single strength) 

Vat orange RKT paste.. 

Vat orange RRT pdr 

Vat orange RRTS pdr 

Indanthrene pink (single strength) 

Vat pink B double paste 

Vat pink B pdr 

Indanthrene red (single strength) 

Vat red BK paste fine 

Vat red BK pdr 

Indanthrene red 2G (single strength) 

Vat red 2G paste 

Vat red 2G pdr 

Do 

Indanthrene red brown (single sUength)... 

Vat red brown R paste ■... 

Vat red brown R pdr... 

Indanthrene yellow (single stiength) 

Indanthrene yellow FFRK pdr 

Indanthrene yellow 3RT double paste. 

Indanthrene yellow 3RT cone, pdr 

Indigosol. 



Indigosol HB 

Do 

Indigosol 06B 

Indigosol black. 

Indigosol black IB 

Do 

Indigosol golden yellow IGK 

Indigosol green AB 

Indigosol pink IR extra 

Indigosol red HR 

Indigosol red violet IRH 

Indigosol scarlet HB 

Indigosol violet. 

Indigosol violet AZB 

Do 

Thioindigo black 

Thioindigo black B paste 

Vat black B paste 

Vat Bordeaux paste 

Vat brilliant green (single strength) 

Vat brilliant green GO double paste. 

Vat brilliant green GG double paste- 
Vat brown (single strength) 

Vat brown 3R pdr 

Vat brown RT paste 

Vat brown RRD: 

Vat brown RRD paste 

Vat brown RRD pdr 

Vat golden yellow: 

Vat golden yellow GK paste flue 

Vat golden yellow GK pdr 

Vat navy blue (single strength) 

Vat navy blue R paste 

Vat navy blue R pdr 

Vat orange (single strength) 

Vat orange 4R paste 

Vat orange 4R pdr 

Vat printing black B paste 

Vat printing brown GN paste 

Vat printing brown 

Vat printing brown R paste 

Do 

Vat printing deep black BD paste 

Vat printing red Q paste 

Vat printing violet.. 

Vat printing violet BBF paste 

Vat printing violet BF paste.. 

Vat printing violet RF paste 

Vat rubine R pdr 

Vat scarlet B paste 

Vat yellow (single strength) 

Vat yellow GF paste 

Vat yellow GF pdr- 

Vat yellow 3GF paste — 

Vat yellow 3GF pdr 

Vat yellow 5GK paste 



IG 
IG 
IG 



IG 
IG 



IG 

IG 



B 
IG 
B 



B 

IG 



IG 
IG 
IG 



IG 
DH 
DH 



DH 
IG 
DH 
DH 
DH 
DH 
DH 
DH 



DH 
IG 



K 
K 

IG 



IG 
IG 



IQ 
IQ 



IG 
IG 



IG 
IG 



IG 
IG 



IG 
IG 
IG 
IG 



IG 
By 
I 
IG 



IG 
IG 
IG 
IG 
IG 



IG 
IG 
IG 
IG 
IQ 



Pounds 
43, 449 



12, 348 



3,257 



13, 454 



3,671 



13, 200 



102 

1,873 

165 

114 

1,212 

1,532 



11 
11, 734 



13, 280 



100 
25 

208, 710 

55 

2,175 



3,204 



68,800 

5,500 

27, 859 



1,543 

200 

2,700 



100 
4,000 
18, 136 



DYES IMPORTED FOR CONSUMPTION 



103 



Table 34. — Imports of dyes, calendar year, 1928 — Continued 
UNIDENTIFIED VAT DYES— Continued 



Name of dye 



Manu- 
facturer 



Imports 



Quantity 



Invoice 
value 



Vat yellow 6G pdr 

Vat yellow OPO pdr 

Vat yellow brown 3G paste 
All other vat dyes... 



IG 
IG 
IG 



Pounds 

100 

1,000 

1,812 

26 



UNIDENTIFIED MORDANT AND CHROME DYES 



Acid alizarin gray G 

Acid anthracene brown PG 

Acid anthracene red 

Acid anthracene red 3BL 

Acid anthracene red 5BL 

Acid chrome red B. 

Acid chrome yellow 

Acid chrome yellow SQL — 

Acid chrome yellow RL extra 

Alizarin chrome green V pdr 

Alizarin fast blue BUG... 

Alizarin fast gi-ay 2BL 

Alizarin fast green 23 

Alizarin light green 2QS cone 

Anthracene blue SWG extra pdr 

Anthracene brown PG 

Anthracene chromate brown EB 

Azo alizarin carmoisine 

Azol printing Bordeaux B extra 

Azol printing orange R pdr. 

Azol printing red 

Azol printing red 2B extra 

Azol printing red R extra 

Brilliant chrome blue 2B 

Brilliant chrome violet 3RN 

Chromanol black RVI 

Chromazurine DM 

Chrome deep brown AG 

Chrome fast garnet R _.- 

Chrome fast orange RD pdr 

Chrome fast phosphine 

Chrome fast phosphine B 

Chrome fast phosphine R 

Jhrome fast vesuvine 

Chrome fast vesuvine BB 

Chrome fast vesuvine RR 

Chrome fast xanthine 2R 

Chrome green 

Chrome green DC 

Chrome green GP 

Chrome green GR 

Chrome olive JCS 

Chrome printing orange 2R 

Chrome printing red 

Chrome printing red B pdr 

Do 

Chrome printing red 3B... 

Chrome printing red R 

Chrome printing red Y 

Chrome violet CBD 

Chromocitronine 

Chromocitronine 3R.. 

Chromocitronine V 

Chromophenine FKN. 

Chromorhodine 60N extra.. 

Chromovesuvine RA 

Chroraoxane brilliant violet 

Chromoxane brilliant violet BD. 
Chromoxane brilliant violet SB.. 

Chromoxane brown 5R 

Chromoxane pure blue BLD 

Diamond green BW 

Diamond red 3B 

Discharge chrome black 

Erio anthracene brown R 

Eriochromal brown AEB 



IQ 
By 



IQ 
IG 
IG 



IG 
IQ 

S 
By 
IG 

I 

S 

IQ 
DH 
IG 
DH 
IG 
IG 



IG 
IQ 
DH 
DH 
DH 
DH 
DH 
I 
IG 



DH 
DH 



DH 
DH 
DH 



DH 

I 
DH 
DH 

I 



I 
DH 

I 

I 
DH 
DH 



DH 
DH 
DH 
DH 
DH 



IG 
IQ 
IG 
IQ 
IQ 
IQ 
Q 
Q 
Q 



6,150 
4,017 
2,800 



700 
1,700 



100 

100 
1,300 

440 

500 
1,400 

882 
6,500 

275 
75 
25 

250 



220 
1,103 
220 
220 
U 
110 
500 
330 



661 
231 



605 
385 



3,084 



110 
3,416 



110 
1, 323 

220 
4,650 



25 

1,050 

25 

250 

no 

1,324 
220 



$5,468 



104 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Table S4:.— Imports of dyes, calendar year, 1928 — Continued 
UNIDENTIFIED MORDANT AND CHROME DYES— Continued 



Name of dye 



Manu- 
facturer 



Imports 



Quantity 



Eriochromal brown G pdr 

Eriochrome azurol G 

Eriochrome blue S 

Eriochrome brilliant violet B supra. 

Eriochrome flavine 2GL supra 

Eriochrome geranol R cone 

Eriochrome green L 

Eriochrome red Q 

Eriochrome violet 

Eriochrome violet B... 

Eriochrome violet 3B.. , 

Gallophenine P... 

Metachrome blue black 2BX 

Metachrome brilliant blue 

Metachrome brilliant blue BL... 

Metachrome brilliant blue 8RL. 

Metachrome brown 6Q 

Metachrome olive 2G 

Metachrome red G 

Metachrome violet 2R 

Modern black N 

Modern blue CVI , 

Modern gray 

Modern gray PS.. 

Modern gray RCN 

Modern green N 

Modern violet O 

Monochrome black blue G 

Naphthochrome violet R 

Omega chrome brown 

Omega chrome brown EB 

Omega chrome brown G cone 

Omega chrome brown PB cone. 

Omega chrome fast blue B cone 

Omega chrome violet B cone 

Radio chrome blue B 

Supranol Bordeaux B 

Supranol red BB 

Ultra corinth B 

Ultra cyanol B cone 

Ultra orange R 



G 
G 
IG 
IG 



lO 
IG 
IG 
IG 
IG 
IG 
DH 
DH 



DH 
DH 
DH 
DH 
IG 
I 



S 
S 

s 
s 

s 

IG 
IG 
IG 

S 

s 
s 



Pounds 
1,102 

220 
4,408 
3,857 

165 
2,204 

220 
6,612 
5,611 



931 

5,700 

600 



1,000 
1.800 
1,840 

720 
7,275 

440 
1,652 



1,211 

220 

60 

2,535 

16,000 



500 
200 
3,400 
25 
100 
500 
500 
700 



UNIDENTIFIED DIRECT DYES 



Benzo bronze E 


IG 
IG 
IG 
IG 
IG 


1,000 
761 

5,050 
600 

6,950 

4,261 




Benzo chrome black blue B 




Benzo chrome brown B 




Benzo dark brown extra 




Benzo fast black L 




Benzo fast blue 


$5,247 


Benzo fast blue 2GL 


IG 
IG 
IG 


Benzo fast blue 4GL 






Benzo fast blue 8GL 






Direct light blue 8G 






Benzo fast Bordeaux 6BL 


4,650 
30, 920 




Benzo fast brown 


30, 674 


Benzo fast brown OL . . 


IG 
IG 
IG 
Bv 

fs 

IG 


Benzo fast brown 3GL 






Benzo fast brown RL 






Do 






Direct fast brown RL- 






Benzo fast copper blue GL 


52 

150 

4,722 




Benzo fast eosine BL 




Benzo fast gray 




Benzo fast gray 


By 
IG 




Benzo fast gray BL. 






Bfinzo fast heliotrope 


1,847 




Benzo fast heliotrope 4BL 


IG 
IG 
lO 
IG 




Benzo fast heliotrope 5RH 






Benzo fast light scarlet 4BL . 


2,950 

5,450 

550 




Benzo fast orange 2KL. 




Benzo fast red 




Benzo fast red 6BL 


IG 
IG 




Benzo fast red GL 







DYES IMPORTED FOR CONSUMPTION 



105 



Table 34. — Imports of dyes, calendar year, 1928 — Continued 
UNIDENTIFIED DIRECT DYES— Continued 



Name of dye 



Benzo fast scarlet 

Benzo fast scarlet 8BSN-. 

Benzo fast scarlet 2GL 

Benzo fast yellow 

Benzo fast yellow RL 

Fast cotton yellow RL 

Benzo red 12B 

Benzo red 12B 

Direct red 12B.... 

Benzo rhoduline red 

Benzo rhoduline red B 

Benzo rhoduline red 3B 

Do ^- 

Direct fast red 3B 

Benzo rubine SO.. 

Benzoform blue - 

Benzoform blue B 

Benzoform blue 2BL-- 

Benzoform blue G extra. 

Benzoform brown 

Benzoform brown R.. 

Benzoform brown 4R 

Benzoform green FFL 

Benzoform orange G 

Benzoform scarlet B_ 

Benzoform yellow DL 

Brilliant benzo fast violet 4BL 

Brilliant benzo fast yellow 

Brilhant benzo fast yellow GL... 

Direct fast yellow QL 

Brilliant benzo green 

Brilliant benzo green B 

Do 

Direct brilliant green B 

Brilliant benzo violet -.- 

Brilliant benzo violet 2BH 

Brilliant benzo violet 2R 

Brilliant congo violet R 

Brilliant direct pink 

Brilliant direct pink B 

Brilliant direct pink 3B. 

Brilliant fast blue 3BX_-. 

Brilliant fast blue 3BX 

Do 

Brilliant pure yellow 6G 

Brilliant pure yellow 6G extra... 

Do 

Brilliant sky-blue _ 

Brilliant sky-blue R 

Brilliant sky-blue 2RM. 

Direct sky-blue 2RM 

Brilliant triazol fast violet 4BL 

Chicago red III 

Chloramine brown 

Chloramine brown G 

Chloramine brown 2R cone 

Chloramine fast brown.. 

Chloramine fast brown R cone 

Chloramine fast brown 2R cone. 
Chloramine fast organge 

Chloramine fast orange G cone. 

Chloramine fast orange R cone. 

Chloramine light brown R cone 

Chloramine light gray 

Chloramine light gray B 

Chloramine light gray R 

Chloramine light violet R cone 

Chloramine violet FFB 

Chlorantine brown Y 

Chlorantine fast blue 

Chlorantine fast blue 2GL 

Chlorantine fast blue 4GL 

Chlorantine fast Bordeaux 2BL 



85526—30- 



-8 



Manu- 
facturer 



IQ 
IG 



IG 
By 



IG 
By 



IG 
IG 
By 
By 
IG 



IQ 
IG 
IG 



IG 
IG 
IG 
IG 
IG 
IG 
By 



IG 
By 



By 
IQ 
By 



IG 
IQ 
IG 



By 
IG 



By 
IG 



IG 
IG 
IG 
GrE 
G 



IG 

S 



s 
s 
s 

IG 
I 



Imports 



Quantity 



Pounds 
510 



16, 340 



633 

"6," 148 



100 
160 



305 
105 
400 
250 
475 
3,158 



6,147 



400 



1,592 
220 



1,821 



6,924 
' 16,' 657 



165 
4,410 
1,025 



1,000 



6,603 



500 
1,284 



500 

930 

1,102 

11, 572 



6,612 



Invoice 
value 



106 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Table Z4:.— Imports of dyes, calendar year, 1928 — Continued 
UNIDENTIFIED DIRECT DYES— Continued 





Manu- 
facturer 


Imports 


Name of dye 


Quantity 


Invoice 
value 


Chlorantine fast brown 




Pounds 
15, 648 


$15,811 


Chlorantine fast brown BRL . . ■ 






Chlorantine fast brown 5GL . . 






Chlorantine fast brown RL 






Chlorantine fast brown 3RL 






Chlorantine fast brown 4RL 






Chlorantine fast green B 


14. 323 
1.432 
1,430 




Chlorantine fast orange 2RL _ 




Chlorantine fast red _ 




Chlorantine fast red 6BL . 






Chlorantine fast red 5GL 






Chlorantine fast violet.. ._ 


21, 379 


18, 871 


Chlorantine fast violet 4BL 


BDC 
BDC 
BDC 




Chlorantine fast violet 5BL 






Chlorantine fast violet RL 






Chlorantine fast violet 2RL 






Chlorantine fast vellow RL . . . 




1,653 
2.160 
4,000 
120 
8,860 




Chlorazol drab RH - 




Chlorazol fast brown RK . 




Chlorazol fast eosine B 




Chlorazol fast orange 




Chlorazol fast orange AG 


BDC 

BDC 

IG 










Cotonerol A extra.. 


3.700 
1,225 




Cotton black 




Cotton black AC 


IQ 
IG 




Cotton black A4G 








991 






I 
I 




Cupranil brown 3G . 






Developing black . . . . . 


300 






IG 
IG 
IG 
C 




Developing black OT _.. 






Developing blue B.. - 


3.300 

224 

5.561 








Diamine azo green . .. . . . 






§ 




Direct azo green 3G 








4,393 






C 
C 
IG 




Direct brilliant scarlet S.. 






Diamine bronze brown PE. 


350 
8,200 










IG 
IG 










Diamine fast Bordeaux. 


2,117 




Diamine fast Bordeaux 6BS 


C 
C 




Direct fast Bordeaux 6BS 






Diamine fast brown 


8,350 


8,304 




IG 
IG 
IG 
IG 
IG 




Diamine fast brown GB 






Diamine fast brown GBB.. . 






Diamine fast brown GF . 














20,600 




Diamine fast orange EG 


IQ 
IG 
IG 

C 
IG 
IG 
IG 
IG 

S 

IG 
IG 
IQ 
IG 

I 

By 
IQ 
IG 










Diamine fast rose B 


50 

10, 720 

50 

100 

50 

25 

2,000 

100 

25 

600 

500 

331 

4,961 

2,000 

4,225 

1,265 




Diaminogen GG 




Dianil fast grav BBL 




Dianil f ast violet BL . 




Dianil light red 12BL 




Dianil vellow 5G - 




Diazamiue blue 4R cone 




Diazanil black AV . . 








Diazanil pink B 




Diazanil scarlet 3BA cone . . . . . 




Diazo black VG 




Diazo blue 




Diazo brilliant blue 2BL extra 




Diazo brilliant green 3G 




Diazo brilliant orange -.-... . .. 




Developed brilliant orange 5G extra 


By 
IQ 




Diazo brdliant orange 50 extra 







DYES IMPORTED FOR CONSUMPTION 



107 



Table 34. — Imports of dyes, calendar year, 1928 — Continued 
UNIDENTIFIED DIRECT DYES— Continued 



Name of dye 



Diazo brilliant scarlet 

Diazo brilliant scarlet 6B cone, extra. _ 

Diazo brilliant scarlet 3BA extra 

Diazo brilliant scarlet 2BL cone, extra. 

Do -. 

Diazo brilliant scarlet G e.xtra 

Diazo brilliant scarlet ROA extra 

Diazo brilliant scarlet S4B 

Diazo brown. _ 

Diazo brown BW 

Diazo brown G 

Do 

Diazo brown 6G 

Do_ 

Diazo brown 2GW 

Diazo brown NR .-- 

Diazo brown 3R 

Diazo brown 3RB.- 

Diazo brown RW 

Diazo brown 3RW-- 

Diazo brown S\V 

Diazo fast black SD 

Diazo fast blue 

Diazo fast blue 2BW 

Diazo fast blue 6GW 

Diazo fast blue 4RW 

Diazo fast Bordeaux BL 

Diazo fast green 

Diazo fast green GF 

Drazo fast green GL 

Diazo fast red.. 

Developed fast red 

Diazo fast red 7BL 

Diazo fast violet 

Diazo fast violet BL 

Diazo fast violet 3RL 

Diazo fast yellow 

Diazo fast yellow Q 

Do 

Diazo light yellow 3QL 

Diazo green 3G... 

Diazo indigo blue 

Diazo indigo blue 4GL extra 

Diazo indigo blue 2RL extra 

Diazo rubine B 

Diazo sky-blue , 

Developed pure blue B 

Developed sky-blue B 

Diazo sky-blue B 

Do 

Diazo sky-blue 3G 

Diazo sky-blue 3GL 

Diazo yellow R... 

Diazol brilliant orange NJN 

Diazol light red N8B 

Diazophenvl black V 

Diphenyl brown BBNC... , 

Diphenyl catechine R supra 

Diphenyl dark green BC 

Diphenyl fast Bordeaux.... 

Diphenyl fast Bordeaux BC 

Dipiienyl fast Bordeaux G eonc 

Diphenyl fast bronze B 

Diphenyl fast brown 

Diphenyl fast brown B. 

Diphenyl fast brown GNC 

Diphenvl pure yellow 5G cone 

Direct brilliant blue 6BR 

Direct catechine 3G 

Direct light Bordeaux 6B 

Direct light gray B... 

Direct light orange R 

Direct light violet 2R 

Direct pink EG supra.. 

Direct safranine RW 

Discharge yellow 



Manu- 
facturer 



IG 
IG 
lO 
By 
By 
IG 
IG 



I 

By 
IG 
By 
IG 

I 

IG 
IG 
IG 

I 

I 

I 
IG 



1 
I 
I 

IG 



IG 
I 



By 
IG 



IG 
IG 



IG 

By 

I 

IG 



IG 
IG 
By 



By 
By 
By 
IG 
IG 
IG 
By 
CN 
CN 

G 

G 

G 

G 



Imports 



200 
1,102 
2,865 
1,653 
8,819 
1,102 
2,204 
1,103 



2,755 
6,615 



440 

220 

55 

440 

55 

55 

165 

440 

200 



Quantity 


Invoice 
value 


Pounds 
11,328 


$15,733 


























13, 615 


16,873 














































1,500 
8,483 




18, 663 










2,550 
420 












3,474 










4,601 










1,426 


1.984 










550 
4,250 












991 
31,216 




23, 976 


















1 :::::::: 





108 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Table 34. — Imports of dyes, calendar year, 1928 — Continued 
UNIDENTIFIED DIRECT DYES— Continued 





Manu- 
facturer 


Imports 


Name of dye 


Quantity 


Invoice 
value 


Fast cotton blue FFG 


IG 
IG 


Pounds 

50 

100 

3,050 




Fast cotton corinth B. 




Fast cotton graj^ 


$2, 235 


Fast cotton gray BL 


IG 
IG 
IG 
IG 
IG 
Q 
IG 
IG 
IG 
IG 
IG 
IG 


Fast cotton gray GL 






Fast cotton gray VL 






Fast cotton violet 4R 


200 

500 

440 

500 

1,450 

150 

150 

2,100 

1,000 

500 




Fastusol violet BL.. 




Formal fast black G cone ... . 




Minaxo (Oxamine) black BBNX.. 




Minaxo (Oxamine) light pink BBX 




Neutral gray NY 




New claret RX 




Paper red A extra 




Pluto black O extra.. 




Pluto brown 




Pluto brown 2G 


IG 
IG 




Pluto brown R 






Rosanthrene... 


4, 518 ! fi 0*1 


Rosanthrene B 


I 

I 
I 
I 
I 
I 
I 
I 






Rosanthrene R 






Rosanthrene RN 








550 
771 
1,542 
1,212 
331 
370 




Rosanthrene fast Bordeaux 2BL 








Rosanthrene orange R 








Silk blue... 






IG 

IG 
IG 






Silk blue BT5B extra cone 




Sky-blue N 


200 


Toluylene fast orange 


319 






IG 
IG 






Toluylene fast orange LX 








1,158 




Triazol brilliant fast violet BL 


GrE 

GrE 

GrE 

S 

IG 
IG 










Triazol fast orange 2RL 


1,120 

1,500 

100 

50 

3,491 








Universal blue-black C 




Universal brown C... 




Zambesi black 




Zambesi black D. 


IG 
IG 
IG 




Zambesi black F 








250 
1,500 




Zambesi pure blue 






IG 
A 




Zambesi pure blue R 













DYES FOR RAYON AND OTHER SYNTHETIC TEXTILES 



Artificial silk black 

Artificial silk black ON 

Artificial silk black R 

Artisil direct blue 

Artisil direct blue 2R 

Artisil direct blue SA 

Artisil direct orange 3R 

Artisil direct red 3B 

Artisil direct violet 2R.. 

Artisil direct yellow 2G 

Celatene black 

Cellit blue R 

Cellit brown G. 

Cellit fast red B 

Cellit fast violet 4R. 

Cellit fast yellow , 

Cellit fast yellow 2GN 

Cellit fast yellow R 

Cellitazol ST... 

Celliton blue extra paste 

Celliton fast blue 

Celliton fast blue B paste.. 

Celliton fast blue 2B paste. 



IG 
IG 



S 

s 

S 
S 

s 
s 

SD 
IG 
IG 
IG 
IG 



IG 
lO 
IG 
IG 



IG 
IG 



720 



100 



SO 
50 
50 
50 
56 
100 
100 
150 
75 
325 



75 
2,100 
3,600 



DYES IMPORTED FOR CONSUMPTION 



109 



Table 34. — Imports of dyes, calendar year, 1928 — Continued 
DYES FOR RAYON AND OTHER SYNTHETIC TEXTILES— Continued 



Name of dye 



Manu- 
facturer 



Imports 



r>„ i.;i„ Invoice 

Quantity ^^^^^ 



reiliinn fast blue gieen B paste 

Celliton fast pink 

Celliton fast pink B paste 

Telliton fast pink F3B paste 

Celliton fast red violet R paste. 

Celliton fast violet B paste.. 

Celliton fast yellow 

Celliton fast yellow G paste 

Celliton fast yellow R paste 

Celliton fast yellow 2R paste 

Celliton orange 

Celliton orange GR paste 

Celliton orange R paste... 

Celliton pink R paste 

Celliton printing yellow 3R paste 

Celliton red R paste 

Celliton yellow 3G paste 

Cibacete diazo black B pdr.. 

Cibacete navy blue 3R paste. 

Cibacete orange 

Cibacete orange 3G paste 

Cibacete orange 2R paste 

Cibacete red 

Cibacete red 3B paste. 

Cibacete red GR paste,. 

Cibacete sapphire blue G paste 

Cibacete scarlet G pdr... 

Cibacete turquoise blue paste 

Cibacete violet , 

Cibacete violet B pdr 

Cibacete violet 2R paste 

Cibacete yellow.. 

Cibacete yellow 30 paste 

Cibacete yellow R paste 

Cibacete yellow 2R paste , 

Dispersol yellow 3G paste 

Duranol blue G paste 

Duranol orange G paste 

Duranol red 

Duranol red 2B paste 

Duranol red Q paste 

Icyl blue G.. 

Icyl brown G 

Icyl orange... 

Icyl orange G 

Icyl orange R 

Icyl violet B 

lonamine 

lonamine A 

lonamine B.. __ 

lonamine L 

lonamine MA 

lonamine blue B.. 

lonamine red KA 

Pink B extra paste 

Setacyl direct blue 

Setacyl direct blue G new 

Setacyl direct blue G pdr 

Setacyl direct blue 2GS supra 

Setacyl direct blue 2GS pdr 

Setacyl direct blue RS cone 

Setacyl direct orange, 

Setacyl direct orange G cone. pdr. 
Setacyl direct orange 2R pdr 

Setacyl direct pink 3B cone 

Setacyl direct violet.. 

Setacyl direct violet B cone 

Setacyl direct violet R cone 

Setacyl direct yellow R pdr 

Viscolan black B cone 



IG 



IG 
IG 
IG 
IG 



IG 
IG 
IG 



IG 
IG 
IG 
IG 
IG 
IG 

I 

I 



I 

I 

I 
BDC 
BDC 
BDC 



BDC 
BDC 
BDC 
BDC 



BDC 
BDC 
BDC 



BDC 
BDC 
BDC 
BDC 
BDC 
BDC 
IG 



Pound* 
1,050 
2,130 




1,000 
1,475 
3,499 



650 



300 |. 

150 i. 

2,000 L 

25 '. 

110 - 

496 . 
1,431 - 



1,761 



1,983 
220 
220 
991 



3,910 



160 
1.171 
1,290 
5,325 



780 
180 
350 



300 
1,050 



2,317 



1,213 
772 



1,655 
500 



$1,560 



2.383 



1,401 



420 

30 

100 I 

5,535 i 4,707 



110 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Table 34. — Imports of dyes, calendar year, 1928 — Continued 
RAPID FAST DYES 



Name of dye 



Manu- 
facturer 



Imports 



Quantity 



Rapid fast blue B paste 

Rapid fast Bordeaux B paste. 
Rapid fast orange RH paste.. 
Rapid fast red... 

Rapid fast red B paste 

Rapid fast red BB paste.. 

Rapid fast red GZ paste.. 

Rapid fast red LB paste.. 

Rapid fast yellow 2GH pdr... 



IG 
IG 
IG 



IG 
IG 
IG 
IG 
IG 



Pounds 

400 

700 

46, 450 

30,800 



50 



UNIDENTIFIED BASIC DYES 



Acridine brown ON cone 

Acridine flavine RD 

Astra phloxine FF extra.. 

Brilliant acridine orange. 

Brilliant acridine orange R.. 

Brilliant acridine orange 3R. 

Brilliant acridine orange 5R. 

Brilliant rhoduline blue R 

Euchrysine G 

Irgalite red 

Irgalite red PB 

Irgalite red PG-._ 

Japan black MBG 

Leather brown 5RTX 

Methylene gray B new 

Rhodainine (single strength) 

Rhodamine 6GDN extra 

Rhodamine fiGH extra 

Rhoduline sky-blue 3G cone 

Special blue G 

Thio violet 5R 

Xantho acridine 2RD 



Roh 
DH 
IG 



Roh 
DH 
DH 
IG 
By 



G 
G 
IG 
IG 
IG 



IG 
S 

IG 
IG 
DH 
DH 



55 

9S0 

2,010 

3,457 



1,100 
200 
22 



2,200 

1,075 

250 

89, 020 



UNIDENTIFIED SULFUR DYES 



Immedial brown W cone 

Immedial direct blue RL high cone. 

Immedial yellow olive 5Q 

Indocarbon 

Indocarbon CL cone 

Indocarbon CL fine 

Indocarbon SN... 

Katigene brilliant green 5G... 

Katigene chrome blue 5G 

Katigene indigo CLGG extra 

Kryogene (Kurgan) violet 3RX 

Pyrogene blue green B ; 

Pyrogene brown G. 

Pyrogene cutch 2R extra 

Pyrogene indigo GK 

Pyrogene pure blue 

Pyrogene pure blue 3GL 

Pyrogene pure blue 2RL 

Sulfide new blue 

Sulfide new blue BL 

Sulfide new blue BL cone 

Sulfide viole.-t. 

Sulfur blue 

Sulfur brown CL4R 

Thional brilliant blue 6BS cone 

Thional brilliant green 2B cone 

Thionol black XXN cone 

Thioiiol brown 

Thionol brown O 

Thionol brown R 

Thionol green 

Thionol green B 

Thionol green 2Q cone 

Thiouol yellow GR 



IG 
IG 
IG 



IG 
IG 
IG 
IG 
IG 
IG 
IG 

I 

I 

I 

I 



IG 
M 
IG 

Q 
IG 

S 

S 
BDC 



BDC 
BDC 



BDC 
BDC 
BDC 



1,600 

300 

200 

41, 794 



50 

6,746 

3,500 

100 

110 

1,102 

2,095 

110 

13, 445 



18,284 



200 
1,620 
1.700 

735 
2,500 
3.322 
6,720 



15, 566 

"3," 656' 



DYES IMPORTED FOR CONSUMPTION 



111 



Table 34. — Imports of dyes, calendar year, 1928 — Continued 

UNIDENTIFIED COLOR-LAKE AND SPIRIT-SOLUBLE DYES 



Name of dye 



Alizarin astro! pdr. (oil-soluble) 

Alizarin irisol (oil-soluble) 

Aliz.&rin light blue 3G (oil-soluble)... 
Alizarin light violet RS (oil-soluble) . 

Brilliant helio blue FFR extra 

Brilliant helio green GO extra 

Brilliant lake blue R extra.. 

Cero blue TA.. 

Coralline (spirit-soluble) in lumps... 
Grasol blue 

Grasol blue G 

Grasol blue R 

Grasol red B 

Grasol yellow 2G 

Hansa green OS 

Hansa orange GG pdr 

Hansa red B pdr 

Hansa yellow 

Hr.nsa yellow G paste 

Uansa yellow 5G paste 

Hansa yellow GR paste.. 

Hansa yellow G pdr. 

Hansa yellow 5G pdr. 

Uansa yellow lOG pdr 

Lake yellow G pdr. 

Hansa yellow GSA. 

Hansa yellow GSA pdr 

Lake yellow QA pdr 

Helio Bordeaux BL: 

Helio Bordeaux BL paste 

Helio Bordeaux BL pdr 

Helio fast pink RL paste 

Helio fast rubine 

Helio fast rubine 2BL.. 

Helio fast rubine 4BL.. 

Helio fast violet AL 

Helio fast yellow RL lumps.. 

Helio red RMT extra pdr 

Lake red 6B 

Oil green ALB lumps 

Oil lake black LSO. 

Paper fast Bordeaux B.. 

Permanent orange 2R lumps.. 

Permanent red F4R extra pdr 

Pigment deep black R 

Pigment green B: 

Pigment green B paste.. 

Pigment green B pdr 

Pigment lake red LC. 

Rotor black 2B 

Rotor blue B 

Rotor chocolate 

Rotor green Y 

Rotor red 

Rotor red Y.. 

Rotor red 2Y 

Rotor violet B 

Rotor yellow G... 

Spirit fast red 

Spirit fast red B 

Spirit fast red 5B 

Stone (Lithol) fast orange RN pdr... 
Stone (Lithol) fast yellow 

Stone fast yellow G paste... 

Stone fast yellow G pdr 

Stone fast yellow GA pdr... 

Stone fast yellow GGR pdr 

Stone fast yellow GSA pdr 

Stone (Lithol) red RCKX 

Stone (Lithol) rubine G pdr 

Tero (Typophor) black 

Tero black FB.. 

Tero black FF.. 

Tero (Typophor) brown FR 



Manu- 
facturer 



IG 
IG 

S 

s 

IG 
By 
IG 
IG 
IG 



G 
G 
G 
G 
IG 
IG 
IG 



IG 
IG 
IG 
IG 
IG 
IG 
M 



IG 
Q 

IG 
IG 
IG 



IG 
IG 
IG 
By 
IG 
IG 
IG 
IG 
IG 
IG 
IG 
IG 

IG 
IG 
IG 
BDC 
BDC 
BDC 
BDC 



BDC 
BDC 
BDC 
BDC 



IG 
IG 
IG 



IG 
IG 
IG 
IG 
IG 
IG 
IG 



IG 
IG 
IG 



Imports 



Quantity 



Pounds 

3,250 

145 

20 

20 

100 

100 

200 

25 

50 

1,149 



22 
603 
600 

50 
250 



3,050 

13, 965 
7,265 



10, 570 
5,885 
6,500 
8,100 



200 
100 
1,850 
50 
50 
50 
3,300 
25 
150 
100 

6,772 

25 

50 

410 

480 

25 

55 

360 



300 
55 
100 



200 



25 

12, 725 

50 

50 

1,525 



150 



112 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



TabIjB 34. — Imports of dyes, calendar year, 1928 — Continued 
UNIDENTIFIED COLOR-LAKE AND SPIRIT-SOLUBLE DYES •Oontinued 



Name of dye 



Manu- 
facturer 



Imports 



Quantity 



Invoice 
value 



Tero (Typophor) carmine 

Tero carmine FB 

Tero carmine FP 

Tero (Typophor) red FG 

Tero (Typophor) yellow FR. 

Wax red 5 pdr 

Zapon fast black M 

Zapon fast blue Q 

Zapon fast orange 

Zapon fast orange G 

Zapon fast orange R 

Zapon fast red RN-. 

Zapon fast violet R 

Zapon fast yellow GR 

Zapon green Gpdr.. 



IG 
IQ 
IG 
IQ 



IG 
IG 



IG 
IG 
IG 
IG 
IG 
IG 



Pounds 
350 



75 
50 

600 
75 
50 

125 



125 
75 
150 
100 



UNIDENTIFIED UNCLASSIFIED DYES 



Alliance blue paste 

Artsilk black A.. 

Brilliant violet B supra.. 
Copying black 

Copying black SK_.. 

Copyiag black STK. 

Eukesol blue 

Frobeno brown R 

Tylammon dyes 

All other dyes... 




> Adler Farbenwercke. 



Index to table of dye imports 



Name of dye 



Acid 
Acid 
Acid 
Acid 
Acid 
Acid 
Acid 
Acid 
Acid 
Acid 
Acid 
Acid 
Acid 
Acid 
Acid 
Acid 
Acid 
Acid 
Acid 
Acid 
Acid 
Acid 
Acid 
Acid 
Acid 
Acid 
Acid 
Acid 
Acid 
Acid 
Acid 



alizarin black R.. 

alizarin gray G 

anthracene brown PG. 
anthracene brown R.. 

anthracene red 3B 

anthracene red 3BL... 
anthracene red 5BL... 

anthracene red Q 

black _ 

black 2R 

black RK. 

blue A 

blue RBF 

blue V 

brown O 

brown RN 

chrome red B 

chrome yellow 3GL 

chrome yellow RL 

cyanine BF 

fuchsine. - 

green cone 

green V.. 

leather brown EOB... 

leather brown ER 

light green AEG 

light green AEJ_ 

magenta II 

milling black B 

milling red R 

milling yellow O 



Colour 

Index 

No. 



172 



105 

487 



443 



714 
'712' 



853 
692 
670 
735 



30Y 

487 



Page 



103 
103 
86 
88 
103 
103 
88 
97 
97 
97 
90 
97 
89 
97 
97 
103 
103 
103 
91 



Name of dye 



Acid naphthalene green J extra cone. 

Acid ponceau E. 

Acid pure blue BR supra 

Acid pure blue R supra 

Acid red 2G 

Acid rhodamine B 

Acid rhodamine R 

Acid violet ACS 

Acid violet 6B._ .._ 

Acid violet 6BN 

Acid violet 6BNG 

Acid violet eBNO 

Acid violet 6BN00 

Acid violet 8B extra 

Acid violet CBB 

Acid violet ClOB 

Acid violet R extra 

Acridine brown ON cone 

Acridine flavine RD 

Acronol brilliant blue... 

Alaska black lOBX 

Algol blue 3RP 

Algol blue 5R _ 

Algol Bordeaux B 

Algol Bordeaux RT.... 

Algol brilliant green BK 

Algol brilliant pink FB 

Algol brilliant red 2B... 

Algol brown BT 

Algol brown ON 

Algol brown 3R 

Algol gray R 

Algol orange RF. 



Colour' 

Index Page 
No. 



670 
196 



748 



717 
717 
717 
717 



664 
246 



1133 



1123 
1217 



97 

97 

97 

SO 

97 

97 

97 

90 

90 

90 

90 

97 

97 

97 

97 

110 

110 

89 

86 

100 

96 

100 

96 

100 

100 

95 

100 

100 

100 

94 

96 



INDEX TO TABLE OF DYE IMPORTS 



113 



Index to table of dye imports — Continued 



Name of dye 



Colour 
Index I 
No. 



Algol pink B 

Algol pink BG 

Algol pink R 

Algol red 5B 

Algol red BK 

Algol red BTK 

Algol red FF 

Algol red R- 

Algol rubine B 

Algol scarlet B. 

Algol scarlet 3B 

Algol scarlet G - 

Algol scarlet GGN 

Algol scarlet RB.. 

Algol violet BBN 

Algol violet BFN 

Algol violet R 

Algol violet RFN 

Algol violet RR 

Algol yellow GO. 

Algol yellow GCN 

Algol yellow 4GK 

Algol yellow GR 

Alizarin astrol B 

Alizarin astrol (oil soluble) 

Alizarin astrol violet B 

Alizarin black S paste 

Alizarin black WR 

Alizarin blue AS 

Alizarin blue JR 

Alizarin blue S 

Alizarin blue WS 

Alizarin blue black B 

Alizarin blue black 3B 

Alizarin Bordeaux BD 

Alizarin Bordeaux GG 

Alizarin brown R. 

Alizarin chrome green V... 

Alizarin claret red R 

Alizarin claret red RL 

Alizarin cyanine GG 

Alizarin cyanine 2R - 

Alizarin cyanine green 3G 

Alizarin cyanine green 5G 

Alizarin cyclamine R... 

Alizarin direct blue A2G 

Alizarin direct blue AR 

Alizarin direct blue B. 

Alizarin direct blue BGAOO 

Alizarin direct blue RBX 

Alizarin direct blue RXO 

Alizarin direct violet ER 

Alizarin emeraldol G 

Alizarin fast blue BBG 

Aliziirin fast blue BHG 

Alizarin fast gray 2BL 

Alizarin fast green 2B 

Alizarin fast violet R 

Alizarin geranol B 

Alizarin green S 

Alizarin indigo 3R 

Alizarin indigo 5R 

Alizarin indigo violet B... 

Alizarin irisol B 

Alizarin irisol (oil soluble) 

Alizarin irisol R 

Alizariu light blue B 

Alizarin light blue BGAOO 

Alizarin light blue ESE 

Alizarin light blue 3G 

Alizarin light blue 3G (oil soluble)... 

Alizarin light blue R cone 

Alizarin light blue SE cone 

Alizarin light gray BS 

Alizarin light green GS cone. 

Alizarin light green 20S cone 

Alizarin light violet RS cone 

Alizarin light violet RS (oil soluble). 

Alizarin night blue AG cone 

^zarin orange A 

Alizarin orange AG 



1211 
1211 
1128 
1207 



1133 
1133 
1209 



1129 



1219 
1095 
1095 
1138 



1075 



1019 
1019 
1075 
1073 
1067 
1053 
1085 
1085 
1045 
1045 
1035 



1032 
1032 
1051 
1050 
1078 



1064 ! 



1087 
1077 



1076 
1073 
1056 



1092 
1071 
1200 
1200 



1073 



1073 
1054 
1077 
1053 



1076 
1053 
1085 
1078 



1073 



1033 
1033 



94 
96 
100 
100 
95 
95 
96 
100 
100 
94 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
96 
94 
94 
95 
100 
93 
111 
97 
92 
92 
93 
93 
93 
93 
93 
93 
93 
93 
93 
103 
92 
92 
93 
93 
93 
97 
93 
97 
97 
93 
93 
97 
93 
93 
93 
97 
97 
103 
103 
97 
94 
93 
96 
96 
100 
93 
111 
93 
93 
93 
93 
97 
111 
93 
93 
93 
93 
103 
93 
111 
97 
92 
92 



Name of dye 



Alizariu orange SW 

Alizarin paste bluish , 

Alizarin red S 

Alizarin red SW. 

Alizarin red SVVB 

Alizarin red SX extra paste 

Alizarin red SZ 

Alizarin red VI 

Alizarin red WR 

Alizarin red XGP 

Alizarin rubine R , 

Alizarin rubinol GW 

Alizarin rubinol 5G 

Alizarin sapphire blue 3G ., 

Alizarin sapphire blue SE 

Alizarin supra blue A... 

Alizarin supra blue SES. 

Alizarin supra sky-blue R 

Alizarin, synthetic 

Alizarin viridine FF 

Alizarin VI, old 

Alizarin YCA 

Alkali blue No. 4 

Alkali blue 2B , 

Alkali blue 3R.... 

Alkali blue 6R...- 

Alkali fast green 2BF , 

Alkali fast green 3G 

Alkali fast green lOG 

Alkali violet 4BN00 

Alliance blue 

Amaranth B 

Amido fast red 2G.. 

Amido fast yellow R 

Amido naphthol brown 3G 

Amido yellow E 

Anthosine B 

Anthosine 3B 

Anthra Bordeaux B 

Anthra Bordeaux R 

Anthra claret R.. 

Anthra gray B. 

-Anthra green B 

Anthra pink B 

Anthra pink R... 

Anthra red B 

Anthra red RT 

Anthra scarlet B 

Anthra scarlet G 

Anthra scarlet GO 

Anthra yellow GC. 

Anthra yellow GCN 

Anthra yellow 80 

Anthracene blue SWQ 

Anthracene blue SWGG. 

Anthracene blue SWGGH 

Anthracene blue SWR 

Anthracene blue WB 

Anthracene brown PG 

Anthracene brown RD.. 

Anthracene brown SW 

Anthracene chromate brown EB, 

Anthracyanine S 

Anthraflavone GC... 

Anthraquinone blue SR 

Anthraquinone blue green BXO.. 

Anthraquinone violet 

Artificial silk black GN 

Artificial silk black R 

Artisil direct blue 2R 

Artisil direct blue SA 

Artisil direct orange 3R 

Artisil direct red 3B 

Artisil direct violet 2R_ 

Artisil direct yellow 2G 

Artsilk black A. 

Astra phloxine FF extra. 

Auracine G 

Auramine G 

Aurine 

Azo acid blue B 



Colour 
Index 
No. 



1033 
1027 
1034 
1034 
1034 
1040 
1034 
1027 
1040 
1039 
1091 
1091 
1091 



1053 



1027 
1084 
1027 
1039 
704 
704 
704 
704 



735 



700 



1146 
1143 
1143 
1123 
1102 



1207 
1142 



1098 
1228 
1095 
1095 



1060 
1060 
1063 
1059 



1035 
1035 



1095 
1089 
1082 
1080 



786 

656 

724 

59 



114 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEiMICALS 

Index to table of dye imports — Continued 



Name of dye 


Colour 
Index 
No. 


Page 


Name of dye 


Colour 
Index 
No. 


Page 


Azo alizarin carmoisine 




103 
91 
91 
91 
97 
97 
91 
97 
86 
103 
103 
103 
103 

88 

90 

90 

91 

91 

104 

104 

104 

88 

88 

104 

104 

104 

104 

104 

104 

104 

104 

104 

104 

104 

104 

104 

87 

87 

104 

87 

104 

104 

87 

104 

87 

87 

104 

104 

87 

87 

87 

87 

87 

105 

105 

87 

105 

105 

105 

105 

105 

105 

105 

105 

105 

105 

105 

105 

105 

105 

91 

91 

97 

89 

89 

87 

86 

90 


Blue JO 


135 
516 
892 


86 


Azocarmine B 


829 
829 
828 


Blue NBB 


88 


Azocarmine BX 


Blue 1000 TOD 


92 


Azocarmine GX. _ 


Brilliant acid blue FF 


97 


Azo fast blue BD cone 






110 


Azoflavine FFNX. 








110 


Azo orseille BB 


829 






110 


Azo rhodine 20N cone 


Brilliant benzo fast violet BL,. 

Brilliant benzo fast violet 2RL 


319 
319 


87 


Azo wool blue SE 


o8 


87 


Azol printing Bordeaux B 


105 


Azol printing orange R 




Brilliant benzo fast vellow GL 




105 


Azol printing red 2B.. _ 




Brilliant benzo green B 




105 


Azol printing red R 






325 


87 




658 
750 
729 
815 
815 


Brilliant benzo violet 2BH 


105 


B 


Brilliant ben7o violet 2R_ '. 


105 




Brilliant black BX... 


315 
357 


87 


Basic blue 6G 




87 


Basic pink G 


Brilliant chrome blue 2B 


103 


Basic pure blue BO 




718 


90 


Basic vellow T 




103 


Basic yellow TCN 






105 


Benzo bronze E 


Brilliant cresvl blue BB 


877 
252 
252 
878 


92 


Benzo chrome black blue B 




Brilliant croceine MOO 


86 


Benzo chrome brown B 






86 


Benzo chrome brown G 


596 
597 




92 


Benzo chrome brown R 


Brilliant direct pink B 


105 


Benzo dark brown extra 


Brilliant direct jiink 3B . 




105 


Benzo fast black L 




Brilliant fast blue 3BX 




105 


Benzo fast blue 2GL 




Brilliant helio blue FFR extra . 




111 


Benzo fast blue iQh 




Brilliant helio ereen GO extra.. 




111 


Benzo fast blue 8GL 




Brilliant indigo B 


1190 
1188 
1184 
1189 


96 


Benzo fast Bordeaux 6BL 




Brilliant indigo BB.. 


96 


Benzo fast brown GL.. 




Brilliant indigo 4B. 


96 


Benzo fast brown 30L.. 




Brilliant indigo 4G 


96 


Benzo fast lirown RL 




Brilliant indocvanine 6B. .. . 


97 


Benzo fast co»per blue GL 




Brilliant indocvanine G . 




97 


Benzo fast eosine BL 




Brilliant lake blue R extra. 




HI 


Benzo fast grav. 




Brilliant milling tilue B 




97 


Benzo fast grav BL 




Brilliant milling blue FG 


704 
667 

487 


89 


Benzo fast heliotrope 


319 
319 


Brilliant milling green B 


89 


Benzo fast heliotrope BI^. 


Brilliant milling red R 


88 


Benzo fast heliotrope 4BI> 


Brilliant pure yellow 6G extra 


105 


Benzo fast heliotrope 2RL 


319 


Brilliant rhoduline blue R 




110 


Benzo fast heliotrope 5RH 


Brilliant silk-blue B 


603 
710 
710 
710 


89 


Benzo fast light scarlet 4BL 




Brilliant sk v-blue 5B 


89 


Benzo fast orange P 


326 


Brilliant sky-blue 5G . 


89 


Benzo fast orange 2RL 


Brilliant skv-blue 8G. 


89 


Benzo fast orange S.. 


326 
326 


Brilliant skv-blue R 


105 


Benzo fast orange WS 


Brilliant sky-blue 2R1V1 




105 


Benzo fast red 6BL 


Brilliant sulphon red 


32 
32 


86 


Benzo fast red GL 




Brilliant sulphon red 5B 


86 


Benzo fast rubine BIj 


278 
326 
327 
326 
326 


Brilliant triazol fast violet 4BL 


105 


Benzo fast scarlet 5BL 


Brilliant Victoria blue RS ... 


729 


90 


Benzo fast scarlet 4ns 




112 


Benzo fast scarlet 5BS 


Brilliant wool blue B extra 




97 


Benzo fast scarlet 8BS 


Brilliant wool blue FFB 




97 


Benzo fast scarlet 8BSN 


Brilliant wool blue FFR 




97 


Benzo fast scarlet 2GIy 




Brilliant wool blue G 




97 




349 




1184 
536 


96 


Benzo fast vellow RL 




88 


Benzo red i2B 




C 
Caslimire black TN 




Benzo rhoduline red B 






Benzo rhoduline red 3B 






Benzo rubine SC 




97 


Benzoform lilue B 




Celatene black . . . 




108 


Benzoform blue 2BL 




Cellit blue R 




108 


Benzoform blue G extra 




Cellit brown G 




108 


Benzoform iirown R 




Cellit fast red B 




108 


Benzoform brown 4R .... 




Cellit fast violet 4R. 




108 


Benzoform green FFL 




Cellit fast vellow 2GN 




108 


Benzoform orange O. 




Cellit fast yellow R... 




108 






Cellitazol ST 




108 


Benzoform vellow DL 




Celliton blue extra . 




109 


Benzyl fast blue BL . 


833 
833 


(^elliton fast blue B 




108 


Benzvl fa'^t blue GL 


Celliton fast tilue 2B .. . 




108 


Benzvl fast blue 3GL. 


Celliton fast blue green B 




109 




667 
698 
317 
134 
715 






109 


Benzvl violet 5BN 


Celliton fast pink F3B 




109 


Black extra. . 


Celliton fast red violet R.. 




109 


Black JI 


Celliton fast violet B 




109 


Blue FF... 


Celliton fast yellow G 




100 



INDEX TO TABLE OF DYE IMPORTS 

Index to table of dye imports — Continued 



115 



Name of dye 



Celliton fast yellow R 

Celliton fast yellow 2R 

Celliton orange GR 

Celliton orange R 

Celliton pink R 

Celliton printing yellow 3R 

Celliton red R 

Celliton vellow 3G_., _ 

CerohlueTA^. 

Chestnut brown 

Chicago red III 

Chloramine blue 3G 

Chloramine brilliant red 

Chloraniine brilliant red 8B 

Chloramine brown O 

Chloramine brown 2R 

Chloramine fast brown R cone... 
Chloramine fast brown 2R conc. 
Chloramine fast orauge G conc-- 
Chloramine fast orange R eonc-. 
Chloramine light brown R cone. 

Chloramine light gray B 

Chloramine light gray R 

Chloramine light violet R cone 

Chloramine orange G 

Chloramine red 

Chloramine red B 

f^hloramine red 3B 

Chloramine red 8BS 

Chloramine violet FFB 

Chloramine yellow GG 

Chlorantine brown Y 

Chlorantine fast blue 2GL. 

Chlorantine fast blue 4GL 

Chlorantine fast Bordeaux 2BL. 

Chlorantine fast brown BRL 

Chlorantine fast brown 5GL 

Chlorantine fast brown RL 

Chlorantine fast brown 3RL 

Chlorantine fast brown 4RL 

Chlorantine fast gray B 

Chlorantine fast green B 

Chlorantine fast orange 2RL 

Chlorantine fast red 

Chlorantine fast red 5BL 

Chlorantine fast red 6BL 

Chlorantine fast red 7BL 

Chlorantine fast red 5GL 

Chlorantine fast violet 4BL 

Chlorantine fast violet 5BL 

Chlorantine fast violet RL 

Chlorantine fast violet 2RL 

Chlorantine fast yellow 4GL 

•Chlorantine fast yellow RL 

Chlorazol drab Rn_ 

Chlorazol fast brown RK 

Chlorazol fast eosine B 

Chlorazol fast helio 2RK 

Chlorazol fast orange AG 

Chlorazol fast orange G 

Chlorazol fast red KX ._ 

Chromacetine blue S_ 

Chromalblue GC 

Chromanol black RVI 

Chromazone red new cone 

Chroniazurine DN 

Chrornazurine E 

Chroniazurine G 

Chrome azurol S 

Chrome blue black B 

Chrome brown RVV 

■Chrome deep brown AG__- 

Chronie fast garnet R 

Chrome fast orange RD 

Chrome fast phosphine B 

•Chrome fast phosphine R 

Chrome fast vesuvine BB 

■Chrome fast vesuvine RR 

Chrome fast xanthine 2R-- 

Chrome green DC 

Chrome green GP 



Colour 
Index 
No. 



590 
436 
436 



621 

382 
382 
382 
436 



814 



278 
278 



278 



349 



319 



278 
884 
721 



124 



879 
879 
723 
1085 
171 



Page 



109 
109 
109 
109 
109 
109 
109 
109 
111 
97 
105 



105 

105 

105 

105 I 

105 I 

105 j 

105 I 

105 ! 

105 

105 
88 
87 
87 
87 
88 

105 
91 

105 

105 

105 

105 

106 

106 

106 

106 

106 
87 

106 

106 
87 
87 

106 
87 

106 

106 

106 

106 

106 
87 

106 

106 

106 

106 
87 

106 

106 
87 
92 
90 

103 
86 

103 
92 
92 
90 
93 
86 

103 

103 

103 
103 
103 
103 
103 
103 
103 
103 



Name of dye 



Chrome green GR .-. 

Chrome olive JCS 

Chrome printing orange 2R 

Chrome printing red B 

Chrome printing red 3B--_ 

Chrome printing red R 

Chrome printing red Y 

Chrome violet _ _ _ 

Chrome violet CBD 

Chromocitronine R 

Chromocitronine 3R. 

Chromocitronine V 

Chromocyanine BC 

Chromophenine FKN 

Chromorhodine B 

C hromorhodine B N 

Chromorhodine BR 

Chromorhodine 6GN - 

Chromovesuvine RA 

Chromoxane brilliant violet BD. 
(^hromoxane brilliant violet SB.. 

Chromoxane brown 5R__. 

Chromoxane pure blue B 

Chromoxane pure blue BLD 

Chrysoidine RL base 

C hr vsoline A 

Ciba black G 

Cibablue BBD 

Ciba blue 2RH 

Ciba brown G 

Ciba brown R 

Ciba brown 2R 

Ciba heliotrope B 

Ciba orange G 

Ciba pink B 

Ciba pink BG 

Ciba red 3B 

Ciba red R-_ ,- 

Ciba yellow G... 

Cibacete diazo black B 

Cibacete navy blue 3R 

Cibacete orange 3G 

Cibacete orange 2R 

Cibacete red 3B 

Cibacete red GR 

Cibacete sapphire blue O 

Cibacete scarlet G 

Cibacete turquoise blue 

Cibacete violet B 

Cibacete violet 2R 

Cibacete yellow 3G 

Cibacete yellow R 

Cibacete yellow 2R 

Cibanone black B 

Cibanone black BB 

Cibanone black 2G 

Cibanone l)lack 3G 

Cibanone blue G 

Cibanone blue 3G 

Cibanone blue GCD 

(^ibanone blue GL 

Cibanone blue RSNL 

Cibanone Bordeaux B 

Cibanone brown B 

Cibanone brown GR 

Cibanone dark blue MBA 

Cibanone deej) blue BO 

Cibanone golden orange G 

Cibanone golden orange GK 

Cibanone green GC — 

Cibanone olive G.. 

Cibanone olive 2G--- 

Cibanone olive 2R... 

Cibanone orange R. 

Cibanone orange 2R.. 

Cibanone orange 3R 

Cibanone orange 6R 

Cibanone red B 

Cibanone red 4B- 

Cibanone violet R - 

Cibanone yellow 3G 



Colour 

Index 

No. 



762 
762 
762 



21 

767 



1184 
969 



1205 
1230 
1207 



1212 
1229 
1196 



1172 
1102 

1172 



1115 
1173 
1113 
1115 



1099 



1096 



1175 
1167 



1169 



116 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

Index to table of dye imports — Continued 



Name of dye 


Colour 
Index 
No. 


Page 


Name of dye 


Colour 

Index 

No. 


Page 


Cloth fast green B 




97 
97 
97 

97 : 

98 ' 
98 
98 
98 • 
87 ; 
87 

87 i 

88 ! 
87 I 

112 i 

112 

111 

91 
106 
106 
106 

86 

88 

86 

89 
106 

88 
106 

90 

90 

90 

90 

92 

92 

88 
106 
106 
106 
106 
106 

87 
106 
106 
106 

88 
106 

88 
106 

87 
106 

88 
106 
106 
106 
106 
106 
106 
106 
106 
106 
106 
106 

87 

87 

87 

87 

88 

86 

87 

88 

88 

87 
106 

87 
103 

89 
103 
106 
106 


Dianil light red 12BL 




106 


Cloth fast green G.. 


. 


Dianil yellow 5G 




103 


Cloth fast orange G. 




Diazamine blue 4R cone 




106 


Cloth fast orange R 




Diazanii black AV 




106 


Cloth fast red 3B 




Diazauil orange RR 




105 


Cloth fast red R 








105 


Cloth fast violet R 




Diazanii scarlet 3BA cone 




106 


Cloth fast yellow G 




Diazo black MG 


317 


87 


Cloth fast red 3G. 


256 
394 
377 
459 
289 


Diazo black VG 


106 


Columbia violet R.. 


Diazo blue . . 




lOii 


Congo orange G 


Diazo brilliant black B 


449 


88 


Congo orange R.- 


Diazo brilliant blue 2BL extra 


105 


Coomassie navy blue GNX 


Diazo brilliant green 3G 




lOi 


Copying blaclc SK 


Diazo brilliant orange 5G extra 




106 


Copying blaclc STK 






324 


87 


Coralline (spirit soluble) 




Diazo brilliant scarlet 6B extra cone. 
Diazo brilliant scarlet 3BA 


107 


Coriphosphine OX extra 


787 


107 


Cotonerol A extra 


Diazo brilliant scarlet BG 


324 


87 


Cotton black AC 




Diazo brilliant scarlet 2BL extra 
conc- 




Cotton black A4G 




107 


Cotton pink GN. 


131 
448 
252 
681 


Diazo brilliant scarlet G extra 




107 


Cotton red 4BXA. 


Diazo brilliant scarlet ROA 




107 


Cotton scarlet.. 






107 


Crystal violet 


Diazo brown BW 




107 


Cupranil brown BV.. 






107 


Cupranil brown G 


596 


Diazo brown 6G 




107 


Cupranil brown 3G 


Diazo brown 2GW 




107 


Cyanol extra 


715 
715 
715 

715 

913 
913 
451 


Diazo brown NR 




107 


CyanolFF 






107 


Cyanol blue extra _ 


Diazo brown 3RB. 




107 


Cyanol blue FF 


Diazo brown RW 




107 




Diazo brown 3RW 




107 


D 


Diazo brown SW 




107 




Diazo fast black SD.. 




107 


Danubia blue AX 


Diazo fast blue 2BW 




107 


Danubia blue BX 


Diazo fast blue 6GW 




107 


Deltapurpurine 5B cone 


Diazo fast blue 4RW 




107 


Developed brilliant orange 5G extra. 


Diazo fast Bordeaux BL. 




107 


Developed fast red. 




532 


88 


Developed pure blue B 




Diazo fast green GF 


107 


Developed sky-blue B 




Diazo fast green GL 




107 


Developing black ED 




Diazo fast red 7BL 




107 


Developing black OB 


371 


Diazo fast violet BL 




107 


Developing black OT 






107 


Developing blue B 




Diazo fast vellow G 




107 


Diamine azo brown 3G. 




Diazo fast vellow 2G 


654 


88 


Diamine azo fast yellow 2G 


654 


Diazo green 3G 


107 


Diamine azo green 30 






107 


Diamine brilliant Bordeaux R 


543 


Diazo indigo blue 2RL 




107 


Diamine brilliant scarlet S 


Diazo light vellow 3GL 




107 


Diamine brilliant violet B 


325 


Diazo rubine B 




107 


Diamine bronze brown PE... 


Diazo skv-blue B 




107 


Diamine brown B 


423 


Diazo skv-blue 3G . 




107 
107 
107 


Diamine catechine B 


Diazo sky-blue 3GL 




Diamine catechine G. 




Diazo yellow R . 




Diamine fast Bordeaux 6BS 




Diazol brilliant orange NJN 




107 


Diamine fast brown 30 


Diazol light red N8B.. 




107 


Diamine fast brown GB. 




Diazophenyl black V 




107 


Diamine fast brown GBB 




Diphene blue B . 


851 
851 


91 


Diamine fast brown GF 




Diphene blue R 


91 


Diamine fast brown R 




Diphenvl brown BBNC 


107 


Diamine fast orange EG 




Diphenvl brown GS 


273 

628 


87 


Diamine fast orange ER 






88 


Diamine fast rose B . - 




Diphenyl catechine R supra 


107 


Diamine fast scarlet 2G 


321 
327 
349 
409 
459 
128 
382 
518 
488 
317 


Diphenvl dark green BC 




107 


Diamine fast scarlet 4BS 


Diphenyl fast Bordeaux BC 




107 


Diamine fast vellow 4G 


Diphenyl fast Bordeaux G cone 




107 


Diamine orange B 


Diphenvl fast bronze B 




107 


Diamine orange F 






107 


Diamine rose QD 


Diphenvl fast brown GF 


629 


88 


Diamine scarlet 3B. 


Diphenyl fast brown ONC 


107 


Diamine sky-blue FF 


Diphenyl fast gray BC 


403 
632 


87 


Diamine yellow N pdr 


Diphenyl fast yellow RL supra 

Diphenyl pure yellow 5Q cone. - 


88 


Diaminogen 


107 


Diaminogen GO 






107 


Diaminogen blue NA 


316 


Direct brilliant blue 6BR 




107 


Diamond green BW. 


Direct brilliant blue 8B 


710 


89 


Diamond magenta I 


677 




107 


Diamond red 3B 


Direct brilliant scarlet S 




107 


Dianil fast gray BBL 




Direct catechine 3 Q 




107 


Dianil faet violet BL 




Direct fast Bordeaux 6BS 




107 



INDEX TO TABLE OF DYE IMPORTS 

Index to table of dye imports — Continued 



117 



Name of dye 


Colour 
Index 
No. 


Page 


Name of dye 


Colour 
Index 
No. 


Page 


Direct fast brown RL 




107 
107 
107 
107 
107 
107 
107 
87 
87 
107 
107 
107 
107 
107 
107 
107 
109 
109 
109 
109 
109 

91 

91 

91 

101 

86 

86 

86 

86 

103 

98 

98 

98 

91 

90 

103 

104 

90 

104 

104 

104 

90 

90 

86 

104 

104 

104 

86 

104 

87 

104 

104 

89 

89 

89 

89 

89 

91 

89 

91 

110 

91 

112 

91 
91 
103 
108 
108 
108 
108 
87 
108 
108 
98 
89 


Fast green extra bluish 


691 


89 


Direct fast red 3B 




Fast jasmine G cone 


98 


Direct fast vellow GL. .. 






636 
636 
636 
636 
32 


88 


Direct light blue 8G 




Fast light yellow E2G. . 


88 


Direct light Bordeaux 6B 




Fast light yellow 2G 


88 


Direct light gray B _ .. .. 




Fast light vellow 30 


88 


Direct light orange R. .. 




Fast sulphon violet 5BS cone 

Fastusol violet BL. .. 


86 


Direct light red 8B... 


278 
353 


108 


Direct light rose 2BL 


Ferro green . ... 


2 


86 


Direct light violet 2R 


Formal fast black G 


108 


Direct pink EG supra 




Frobeno brown R 




112 


Direct red 12B .. 




Fuchsine 


677 
875 
875 
875 
875 
875 
875 
875 
875 
875 
875 
875 
875 
875 
875 
875 
875 
875 

894 
905 


89 


Direct safrauinie RW .. .. 




Fur blue black A 


92 


Direct sky-blue 2RM 




Fur blue black SA 


92 


Discharge chrome black 




Fur blue black SB 


92 


Discharge yellow 




FurbrownPR 


92 


Dispersol yellow 3Q .- 




Fur brown PY 


92 


Duranol blue G 




Fur brown 2R 


92 


Duranol orange G .. 




Fur brown SO . 


92 


Duranol red 2B 




Fur dark brown 


92 


Duranol red G 




Fur gray B 


92 




768 
768 
768 


Fur gray DMG 


92 


E 


Fur gray G . 


92 




Fur grav R 


92 


Eosine 


Fur gray brown SLA 


92 


Eosine A 


Fur olive 3G 


92 


Eosine GFF 


Fur vellow 40 


92 


Eridan brilliant scarlet B 


Fur yellow brown 2GA 


92 


Erika B.. 


130 
131 
131 
126 


Fuscamine G . 


92 


Erika G 


G 
Gallamine blue extra . 




Erika GN 




Erika 2GN-- 




Erio anthracene brown R 


92 


Erio carmine 2BC .. 




Gallazine No. 90 


92 


Erio fast brilliant fuchsine BBL 




Gallophenine P . 


104 


Erio fast brown R _ 




Geranine G 


127 


86 


Erio fast fuchsine BBL 


758 
735 


Gloria yellow G . 


98 


Erio green B 


Qrasol blue G 




111 


Eriochromal brown AEB 


Grasol blue R . 




111 


Erioehromal brown G 




Grasol red B 




111 


Eriochrome azurol BC... . 


720 


Grasol vellow 2G 




111 


Eriochrome azu''ol G 


Green JB 


133 
1152 
1151 
1150 
1136 


86 


Eriochrome lilue S ^.- .-. 




95 


Eriochrome brilliant violet B supra.. 




Orelanone brown RR 


95 


Eriochrome cyanine RC. 


722 
722 
219 


Grelanone olive B 


95 


Eriochrome cyanine ROD 


Grelanone orange R 


95 


Eriochrome llaviue A cone . . 


Grelanone red 2B 


101 


Eriochrome flavine 2GL supra 


Grelanone violet BR 


1135 


95 


Eriochrome geranol R cone 




Guinea brown GRL.. . 


98 


Eriochrome green L . 




Guinea brown 2R- 




98 


Eriochrome phosphine RR 


157 


Guinea fast green B 




98 


Eriochrome red G._. 


Guinea fast red BL 




98 


Eriochrome verdone S 


292 


Guinea fast red 2R . 


114 

758 


86 


Eriochrome violet B . 


Guinea rubine 4R 


91 


Eriochrome violet 3B . . 




B 
Hansa green GS 




Eriocvanine AC 


699 
671 
671 
671 
667 
773 
682 
797 




Erioglnucine AP 




Erioglaucine EP 


111 


P^rioglaucine X 


Hansa orange QG 




HI 


Erioviridine B supra 


Hansa red B. . . 




HI 


Erythrosine 


Hansa yellow G 




111 


Ethyl violet 


Hansa yellow 5G 




HI 


Euchrvsine 


Hansa vellow lOG 




111 


Euchrysine G 


Hansa yellow GR 




111 


Euchrvsine 3R 


788 


Hansa vellow GSA 




111 


Eukesol blue 


llelindone brown CV vat pdr. 




101 




758 
758 


Helindone brown G 


1227 
1228 


96 


F 


Helindone fast scarlet C . 


96 




Helindone f;ist scarlet G 


101 


Past acid violet ARR 


Helindone fast scarlet R 


1218 
1199 


96 


Fast acid violet R . 


Helindone green G 


96 


Fast cotton blue FFG 


Helindone khaki C vat pdr 


101 


Fast cotton corinth B . 




Helindone orange R 


1217 
1211 
1211 


96 






Helindone pink AN 


96 


Fast cotton gray GL 




Helindone pink BN... 


96 


Fast cotton gray VL 




Helindone printing black RD 


101 


Fast cotton rubine B 


353 


Helindone red B 


1209 
1138 


96 


Fast cotton violet 4 R 


Helindone yellow 3GN 


95 


Fast cotton yellow RL 




Helindone yellow RN 


101 


Fast cyanine blue B ^ 




Helindone yellow 3RN (Indanthrene 
1 yellow 3RT) 






Fast green blue shade cone 


691 


101 



118 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 
Index to table of dye imports — Continued 



Name of dye 



Helio Bordeaux BL 

Helio fast pink RL 

Helio fast rubine 2BL 

Helio fast rubine 4BL 

Helio fast violet AL 

Helio fast yellow RL 

Helio red RMT extra 

Hydron blue O.. 

Hydron blue R 

Hydron brown G 

Hydron brown R 

Hydron green G 

Hydron olive GN 

Hydron orange RF 

Hydron pink FB 

Hydron pink FF 

Hydron scarlet 3B 

Hydron violet BBF 

Hydron violet R , 

Hydron violet RF , 

Hydron yellow GG 

Hydron yellow brown G. 



Colour 

Index 
No, 



Icyl blue G 

Tcyl brown Q 

Icyl orange G... 

Icyl orange R 

icyl violet B 

Ignaniine orange 3G 

Ignamiue orange 3GX 

Ignamine orange R.. 

Ignaniine orange RR 

Immedial brown W cone 

Immedial direct blue RL high cone. 

Immedial yellow olive 5G 

Indanthrene black 

Indanthrene blue BCSO 

Indanthrene blue GCD 

Indanthrene blue GGS.. 

Indanthrene blue 3G 

Indanthrene blue 5G 

Indanthrene blue RK 

Indanthrene blue RS 

Indanthrene blue RZ.. 

Indanthrene blue WB 

Indanthrene blue green 

Indanthrene Bordeaux B 

Indanthrene brilliant blue 3G 

Indanthrene brilliant blue R 

Indanthrene brilliant orange GK 

Indanthrene brilliant orange R K 

Indanthrene brilliant violet 3B 

Indanthrene brilliant violet BBK. ., 

Indanthrene brilliant violet RK 

Indanthrene brilliant violet RR 

Indanthrene brilliant violet 4R 

Indanthrene brown G 

Indanthrene brown 2G 

Indantlirene brown GR 

Indanthrene brown R 

Indanthrene corinth RK 

Indanthrene dark blue BO 

Indanthrene golden orange Q 

Indanthrene golden orange 3G 

Indanthrene gray B 

Indanthrene gray 3B 

Indanthrene gray GK 

Indanthrene gray RHH 

Indanthrene green RB 

Indanthrene grptn Q 

Indanthrene green 2G 

Indanthrene khaki GG 

Indanthrene olive R 

Indanthrene orange 3R 

Indanthrene orange RRK 

Indanthrene orange RRT... 

Indanthrene orange RRTS 

Indanthrene orange 6RTK 

Indanthrene pink B 

Indanthrene red BK 



368 
368 
440 



1102 
1114 

1113 
1110 
1109 
1111 
1108 
1106 



1093 
1173 
1146 



1134 
1135 
1104 



1152 



1149 
1151 
1144 
1099 
1096 



1123 



1116 



1150 

"im 



1137 



Page 



111 
111 
111 
HI 
111 
111 
111 
92 
92 
101 
101 
101 
101 
9f) 
101 
101 
101 
101 
101 
101 
101 
101 



109 
109 
109 
109 
109 

87 

87 

88 

87 
110 
110 
110 

94 

94 

94 

94 

94 

94 

94 

94 
101 

94 

95 

95 
101 
101 
101 
101 I 
101 

95 i 

95 ! 

94 ! 
101 

95 
101 

95 

95 

95 

94 

94 
101 

94 
101 

95 
101 

94 
101 
101 
101 

95 
101 

95 
102 
102 

95 
102 
102 



Name of dye 



Indanthrene red BT 

Indanthrene red 2G 

Indanthrene red 5G K 

Indanthrene red R 

Indanthrene red RK 

Indanthrene red brown R 

Indanthrene red violet RH... 
Indanthrene red violet RRK. 

Indanthrene violet B 

Indanthrene violet BN 

Indanthrene yellow FFRK... 

Indanthrene yellow G 

Indanthrene yellow GK 

Indanthrene yellow 3RT 

Indigo, synthetic 

Indigo BASF pure RB 

Indigo MLB/4B BASF 

Indigo (natural).. 

Indigo pure RB paste 

Indigo vat BASF 

Indigosol AZG 

Indigosol HB 

Indigosol O 

Indigosol 04B 

Indigosol 06B 

Indigosol OR 

Indigosol black IB... 

Indigosol golden yellow IGK. 

Indigosol green AB 

Indigosol orange 11 R 

Indigosol orange RU 

Indigosol pink IR 

Indigosol red HR_ 

Indigosol red violet IRH 

Indigosol scarlet HB 

Indigosol violet AZB 

Indigosol yellow HCG 

Indocarbon CL 

Indocarbon SN 

Indochroniine RR cone 

Indocyanine B.. 

Indocyanine FF 

Indocyanine 2RF 

Indoine blue BB 

Induline NN 

Ink blue BITBN 

Ink blue E 

Intensive blue B 

lonamine A 

lonamine B 

lonamine L 

lonamine M.\ 

lonamine blue B 

lonamine red KA 

Irgalite red PB 

Irgalite red PG 

Irisamine G 



Colour 

Index 

No. 



1155 



Janus black JI 

Janus blue G 

Janus brown R 

Janus green B 

Janus red 

Janus vellow 

Japan black MBG.. 
Jasmine, high cone... 

K 



Katigene brilliant green 5G... 

Katigeue chrome blue 5G 

Katigene indigo CLGG extra. 

Kiton blue A 

Kiton blue L 

Kiton brown R... 

Kiton fixst blue A 

Kiton fast green A.. 

Kiton fsist green V 

Kiton fast red 4BL 

Kiton fast red R 



1131 
1142 
1162 



1212 
1161 
1105 
1163 



1118 
1132 



1177 
1183 
1184 
1247 
1183 
1178 
1202 



1178 
1184 



1217 
1217 



931 



135 

861 
707 

"733" 



134 
135 
636 
133 
266 
236 



714 
671 



714 
'735' 
'114" 



INDEX TO TABLE OF DYE IMPORTS 
Index io table of dye imports — Continued 



119 



Name of dye 



Kiton fast red 2R 

Kiton fast violet lOB... 

Kiton fast yellow 

Kiton fiisi yellow 3G--. 
Kiton fast yellow 3GN. 

Kiton pure blue V 

Kryogene violet 3RX... 
Kurgan violet 3RX 



Lake red 6B 

Lake yellow G 

Lake yellow OA 

Laniisol blue SE 

Laniisol orange 211 

Lanasol violet B 

Lunasol violet 2B 

Lanasol violet K 

Leather brown 5RTX. 

Light green SF yellowish XX . 

Lithol fast orange RN 

Lithol fast scarlet 

Lithol fast yellow G 

Lithol fast yellow GA 

Lithol fast yellow GGR 

Lithol fast yellow GSA 

Lithol red RCKX 

Lithol rubine 

Lithol rubine G 

Luxine orange R 



M 

Magenta.. 

Magenta A 

Magenta AB 

Magenta S 

Malta gray J 

Meldola's blue 3R 

Metachrome blue black 2BX 

Metachrome brilliant blue BL... 
Metachrome brilliant blue 8RL.. 

Metachrome brown 6G- 

Metachrome olive 2G 

Metachrome olive brown G 

Metachrome red G 

Metachrome violet B.. 

Metachrome violet 2R 

Metanil red 3B. 

Methyl Lyons blue 

Methyl violet 

Methyl violet NFB 

Methyl violet 300 XE 

Methyl violet base 

Methylene blue B cone 

Methylene blue BGF high cone. 

Metliylene blue BGX 

Methylene gray B new 

Methylene green G 

Methylene green W 

Methylene heliotrope 

Methylene violet 3RA extra 

Milling brown R... 

Milling orange G... 

Milling red 4BA 

MUling red 6BA 

Milling red GA 

Milling yellow 3G 

Milling yellow KG 

Milling yellow 1I3G. 

Milling yellow IIoG 

Milling yellow O 

Mimosa Z cone 

Minaxo acid brown G 

Minaxo black BBNX 

Minaxo blue 4BX 

Minaxo light pink BBX... 

Minaxo red X... 

Minaxo red 3BX 

Modern black N 

Modem blue C VI 



Colour 
Index 
No. 



645 
645 
645 
672 



670 



163 



677 
677 
677 
692 
873 
909 



706 
680 
680 
680 
680 
922 
922 
922 



924 
924 
845 
842 



813 



508 



425 
426 



no 
no 



111 
111 
111 

93 



92 

92 
104 
104 
104 
104 
104 

86 
104 

86 
104 



92 
92 
92 
110 
92 
92 
91 
91 



91 
98 

108 
88 

108 



104 
104 



Name of dye 



Modern gray PS.. 

Modern gray RON 

Modern green N 

Modern heliotrope DH '. 

Modern royal blue. 

Modern violet.. 

Modern violet N 

Modern violet O 

Monochrome black blue G. 
Moti orange R.. 



N 



Nako3GN 

Naphthalene acid green J extra. 
Naphthalene green high cone. 

Naphthalene green NV 

Naphthalene green V 

Naphthochrome violet R.. 

Naphthol black BD 

Naphthol black BGN 

Naphthol blue black EG 

Naphthol yellow SXX 

Neolau black GG 

Neolan black 2R 

Neolan blue B 

Neolan blue G.. 

Neolan blue 2G 

Neolan blue RR 

Neolan Bordeaux R 

Neolan green LBN cone 

Neolan orange G 

Neolan orange R. 

Neolan pink B.. 

Neolan red B... 

Neolan red R 

Neolan violet R 

Neolan violet 3R. 

Neolan violet brown B 

Neolan yellow G 

Neolan yellow GR 

Neolan yellow R 

Neotolyl black TL extra 

Neptune green SG 

Neutral gray G.. 

Neutral gray NY. 

Neutral red BX 

Neutral red extra. 

New claret RX 

New fast blue RS 

New fast gray 

New methylene blue N_ 

New methylene blue NS cone. 

New Victoria blue B.. 

Night blue 

Nigrosine T 

Nigrosine WLA cone 

NUe blue. 

Nitrosamine red... 

Novazol acid blue BL 

Novazol acid blue GL 

Novazol blue B 

Novazol violet B 



O 



Oil green ALB 

Oil lake black LSO , 

Omega chrome brown EB 

Omega chrome brown G cone 

Omega chrome brown PB cone.. 
Omega chrome fast blue B cone. 

Omega chrome red B cone 

Omega chrome violet B cone 

Onis B 

Onis3B 

Opal blue, blue shade.. 

Orange S... 

Oxamine acid brown G 

Oxamine black BBNX 

Oxamine blue 4BX 



Colour 

Index 

No. 



875 
735 
735 
735 
735 



667 
267 



909 
873 
927 
927 
728 
731 
865 
865 
913 
44 



707 
150 



120 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

Index to table of dye imports — Continued 



Name of dye 


Colour 
Index Page 
No. 


Name of dye 


Colour! 
Index Page 

No. 


Oxamine light pink BBX 




108 

88 
88 

99 

86 

99 

99 

99 

99 

99 

99 

99 

j 99 

' 99 

99 

99 

86 

HI 

108 

90 

89 

91 

91 

91 

91 

111 

111 

91 

91 

91 

91 

HI 

HI 

111 

86 

99 

86 

99 

99 

99 

99 

99 

99 

99 

99 

99 

99 

99 

86 

109 

108 

108 

108 

99 

86 

99 

99 

99 

99 

99 

88 

99 

88 

88 

88 

99 

88 

99 

88 

99 

99 

90 

86 

90 

89 

90 

89 

90 


Pure wool blue J 




99 


Oxamine red 


425 
425 


Purpurine . 


1037 
440 
369 
653 
653 


93 


Oxamine red 3BX 


Pyramine orange R 


88 




Pvramine orange RR 


i 87 


P 


Pyrazol orange G 


1 88 




Pyrazol orange R cone . 


88 


Palatine hlaek RF 


Pyrogene blue green B 


! 110 


Palatine chrome brown RX 


167 


Pyrogene brown G . 




1 110 


Palatine fast blue GO 






110 


Palatine f-ist blue X_ 




Pyrogene green 3G-. 


1006 


92 


Palatine fast claret RNX 




Pyrogene indigo GK 


110 


Palatine fast green BL ... 




Pyrogene pure blue 3GL 




110 


Palatine fast orange ON 




Pyrogene pure blue 2RL 




110 


Palatine fast orange R.. . .. 




Q 

Quinoline yellow (spirit soluble) 

Quinoline yellow 


800 
801 
801 
802 
801 




Palatine fivst pink B... 






Palatine fast pink G. 




1 


Palatine fast yellow G 




91 


Palatine fast yellow 3QN . 




91 


Palatine f.vst vellovv GR 




Quinoline yellow extra 


91 


Palatine scarlet A 


77 


Quinoline yellow KT extra cone 


91 


Paper fast Bordeaux B 


91 


Paper red A extra ... 




R 
Radio brown B 




Patent blue A ... 


714 
712 
789 
797 
789 
797 




Patent blue V 




Patent phosphine 2GNX „ _ 


99 


Patent phosphine GRNTN 


Radio brown S 




99 


Patent phosphine M. 


Radio chrome blue B . 




104 


Patent phosphine RRDX 


Rapid fast blue B . . 




HO 


Permanent orange 2R . 


Rapid fast Bordeaux B.. . . 




110 


Permanent red F4R extra 




Rapid fast orange RH 




110 


Phloxine. 


774 
774 
793 
793 


Rapid fast red B 




110 


Phloxine B 


Rapid fast red BB 




110 


Phosphine O 




70 


86 


Phosphine 3R 


Rapid fast red GZ 


110 


Pigment deep black R 


Rapid fast red LB 




110 


Pigment green B 




Rapid fast yellow 2GH 




110 


Pigment lake red LC 




Red JB 


266 
749 
749 
749 
751 
750 
752 


87 


Pigment red B p;^ste 


44 


Rhodamine B 


90 


Pilatus black SF. 


Rhodamine B base 


90 


Pilatus cln-ome brown RX 


107 


Rhodamine B specialty pure 

Rhodamine 3B extra . . 


90 


Pilatus fast blue GG 


90 


Pilatus fast blue X 




Rhodamine G 


90 


Pilatus fast claret RMX 




Rhodamine 6G extra 


90 


Pilatus fast green BL cone 




Rhodamine 6QDN extra. . 


110 


Pilatus fast orange GN 




Rliodamine HGH extra. .. 




HO 


Pilatus fast orange R 






743 
658 
926 

788 


90 


Pilatus fast pink B 




Rhoduline blue 6G..^ 

Rhoduline blue GO .. 


88 


Pilatus fasr pink G 




92 


Pilatus fast yellow G 






91 


Pilatus fast yellow GR 




Rhoduline skv blue 3G cone 


110 


Pilatus fast yellow 3GN 




Rhoduline yellow 6G 


815 


91 


Pilatus scarlet A 


77 


Rosanthrene B.. . . . . 


10b 


Pink B extra _. 






108 


Pluto black G extra 




Rosanthrene RN 




108 


Pluto brown GO... 




Rosanthrene Bordeaux B 




108 


Pluto brown R 




Rosanthrene fast Bordeaux 2BL 




108 


Polar brilliant red B 




108 


Polar brilliant red 3B 


32 


Rosantlu'eue orange R. . 




108 


Polar gray 


Rosanthrene violet 5R 




108 


Polar gray greenish . 






845 


91 


Polar maroon VC 




Rotor black 2B 


HI 


Polar orange GS 




Rotor blue B.. 




111 


Polar orange R 








111 


Polar red 


430 






111 


Polar red B 


Rotor red Y 




111 


Polar red Q cone 


430 
430 
430 


Rotor red 2Y 




111 


Polar red R cone 






111 


Polar red RS cone 


Rotor yellow G 




111 


Polar yellow 20 cone 




795 

789 
841 


91 


Polar yellow 5G cone 


642 


S 
Saba phosphine S cone. 




Polar yellow R 




Polyphcnvl blue GO 


590 




Polytrop blue 2B... 


91 


Polytrop blue R 




Safraninc . .. . 


91 


Polvtrop blue 3R 


722 
80 
714 
712 
714 
667 
735 




99 


Ponceau 3R 


Setacvl direct blue G.. 




109 


Poseidon blue BA 


Setacvl liirect blue 2GS 




109 


Poseidon blue BGX 


Setacvl direct blue RS cone 




109 


Poseidon blue BR 


Setacyl direct orange G cone . 




109 


Poseidon green SOX 






109 


Poseidon green VGQX 


Setacyl direct pink 3B cone 




109 



INDEX TO TABLE OF DYE IMPORTS 

Index to table of dye imports — Continued 



121 



Name of dye 


Colour 
Index 
No. 


Page 


Name of dye 


Colour 

Index 

No. 


Page 


Setacyl direct violet B cone 




109 
109 
109 

99 

89 

88 

89 

99 

89 

99 

86 

99 

99 

91 
108 

91 

89 

89 

89 

86 
110 

93 
111 
111 

86 

88 
HI 
HI 
111 
111 
111 

86 
111 

86 
111 
110 
110 

90 

99 

90 

99 

88 

99 

99 

99 

87 
110 
110 

88 

99 

99 

99 

99 

99 

99 

99 

99 

99 

99 

99 

99 
104 
104 

92 

91 
111- 
111 
111 
112 
112 '■ 
112 1 
112 

86 
110 

91 
102 


Thioindigo scarlet 2G. . 


1228 
1219 


96 


Setacyl direct violet R cone 




Thioindigo violet 2R 


96 


Setacyl direct yellow R 




Thional brilliant blue 6BS cone 


110 


Seto light blue 2B cone.-- 




Thional brilliant green 2B cone 




110 


Setocvanine 


C63 
658 
663 


Thionine blue G. ... 


926 
926 


92 


Setoglaueine 


Thionine blue GO 


92 


Setopaline.. 


Thionol black XXN cone 


110 


Silk black 


Thionol brown 




110 


Silk blue BSIC 


707 


Thionol brown R 




110 


Silk blue BT5B 


Thionol green B 




110 


Silk red ST 


224 


Thionol green 2G cone 




110 


Silk yellow GF... 


Thionol vellow GR. . 




110 


■Silk yellow R 




Toluylene fast orange GL. 




108 


Silver gray P 


865 


Toluvlene fast orange LX.. 




108 


■Skv-blue N. 


Triazogene orange R 


649 


88 


Solid blue water-soluble S 


861 
707 
707 
707 

54 


Triazol brilliant fast violet BL 


108 


Soluble blue 


Triazol brilliant fast violet 2RL 




108 


Soluble blue 1 old... 


Triazol fast orange 2RL 




108 


Soluble blue T 


Trisulphon bronze BG cone . 




108 


Sorrel red X 


Trisulphon brown B cone 


561 
577 
661 


88 


Special blue G 


Trisulphon brown 2G cone 


88 


Special violet B 


1080 


Turquoise blue G 


89 


Spirit fast red B 


Tylammon dyes 


112 


Spirit fast red 5B 




Typophor (Tero) black FB 




111 


Stanley red 


224 
622 


Typophor (Tero) black FF . . 




111 


Stilbene yellow 3GX 


Typophor (Tero) brown FR . . .. 




111 


Stone (Lithol) fast orange RN 


Typophor (Tero) carmine FB 




112 


Stone fast yellow O 




Typophor (Tero) carmine FP 




112 


Stone fast yellow 0.4 




Typophor (Tero) red FG 




112 






Typophor (Tero) yellow FR 

U 
Ultra corinth B 




112 


Stone fast yellow GSA 






Stone fast scarlet RN 


69 




5tone red RCKX. 




Stone rubine BN pdr 


163 


104 


Stone rubine G 


Ultra cyanol B 




104 


Sulphide new blue BL _ 




Ultra orange R 




104 


Sulphide violet 




Ultra violet MO 


892 


92 


Sulpho rhodamine B extra 


748 


Universal blue black C 


108 


Sulpho rhodamine G 


Universal brown C. 




108 


Sulpho rosazeine B extra 


748 


Universal dark blue C 


578 
875 
875 
875 


88 


Sulpho rhodamine (rosazeine) BG... 


Ursol A _ 


92 


Sulphon azurine D 


439 


Ursol brown 2GA 


92 


Sulphon orange G . 


Ursol brown SO.. . . 


92 


Sulphon yellow 5G 




V 
Vat black B 




Sulphon yellow R 






Sulphoncyanine G 


288 


102 


Sulphur blue 


Vat black BB .. 


1102 
1102 
1113 
1113 
1110 
1110 
1111 
1106 
1106 
1106 


94 


Sulphur brown CL/4R_ 




Vat black BGA 


94 


Supra light yellow 2GL 


639 


Vat blue GCD 


94 


Supramine black BR 


Vat blue GCDN 


94 


Supramine blue FB . 




Vat blue OGSL... 


94 


Supramine blue R 




Vat blue GGSZ. 


94 


Supramine Bordeaux B 




Vat blue 5G 


94 


Supramine brown G 




Vat blue RS . . 


94 


Supramine brown R 




Vat blue RSN 


94 


Supramine green G 




Vat blue RSP 


94 


Supramine red B 




Vat blue RZ .. . ... .. 


102 


Supramine red 2G 




Vat blue green B . 


1173 
1143 


95 


Supramine vellow G 




Vat Bordeaux B extra 


95 


Supramine yellow 3G... 




Vat Bordeaux paste 


102 


Supramine yellow R 




Vat brilliant blue 3G... 




101 


Supranol Bordeaux B 




Vat brilliant blue R. 




101 


Supranol red BB 




Vat brilliant green GC. 




102 




925 
15 


Vat brilliant green GG 




102 


T 


Vat brilliant orange GK.. 




101 




Vat brilliant orange RK . 




101 


Tannastrol TO cone 


Vat brilliant pink B. . '. . 




101 


Tannoflavine T 


Vat brilliant pixik R 




101 


Tero black FB__ 

Tero black FF 




Vat brilliant violet 3B... 




101 


Tero brown FR 




Vat brilliant violet RK... 


1135 
1104 
1104 


95 






Vat brilliant violet RR 


94 


Tero carmine FP 




Vat brilliant violet RRP 


94 


Tero red FG 




Vat brilliant violet 4R 


101 


Tero yellow FR 




Vat brown G_ 


1152 


95 


Thiazine red RXX 


225 


Vat brown 2G 


101 


Thio violet 5R 


Vat brown GR.. 


1149 
1151 


95 


Thioflavine 


815 


Vat brown R.. 


95 


Thioindigo black B 


Vat brown 3R. 


102 



85526—30- 



122 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

Index to table of dye imports — Continued 



Name of dye 



Vat brown RRD 

Vat brown RT 

Vat claret B 

Vat claret R 

Vat Corinth RK 

Vat dark blue BO 

Vat dark blue BOA 

Vat golden orange O _.. 

Vat golden orange 3G- 

Vat golden yellow GK 

Vat gray GK 

Vat gray RRH 

Vat green BB 

Vat green G 

Vat green 2G-._ 

Vat khaki GG 

Vat navy blue R 

Vat olive B 

Vat olive R 

Vat orangeR — 

Vat orange 3R 

Vat orange 4R 

Vat orange RF. 

Vat orange RRK 

Vat orange RRT 

Vat orange RRTS 

Vat orange (jRTK 

Vat pink AN 

Vat pink B 

Vat printing black B 

Vat printing black RD 

Vat printing brown GN 

Vat printing brown R 

Vat printing deep black BD. 

Vat printing red G 

Vat printing violet BBF 

Vat printing violet BF 

Vat printing violet RF 

Vat red 2B 

Vat red BK 

Vat red BT 

Vat red FF 

Vat red 2G 

Vatred5GK... 

Vat red R 

Vat red RK 

Varred RKP 

Vat red brown R 

Vat red violet RH.... 

Vat red violet RRK 

Vat red violet RRN.. 

Vat rubine R. 

Vat scarlet B 

Vat (Ilydron) scarlet 3B 

Vat scarlet G _ _ _ _ 

Vat (ilelindone) scarlet R... 

Vat violet B 

Vat violet BN 

Vat violet RR.. 

Vat yellow G 

Vat yellow 6G.. 

Vat yellow GO... 

Vat yellow GCN 

Vat yellow GF. 

Vat yellow 3GF 

Vat yellow GK 

Vat yellow 5GK... 



Colour 
Index 
No. 



1143 
1143 
1144 
1099 
1099 
1096 



1145 



1150 
1150 
1136 



1217 
1136 



1137 
1211 



1133 



1155 
1133 



1131 
1133 
1162 
1162 



1212 
1161 
1161 



1228 
1218 
1105 
1163 
1104 
1118 



1095 
1095 



1132 



Page 



102 
102 
95 
95 
95 
94 



102 
102 
95 
101 
94 
101 
101 
101 
102 
95 
95 
95 
101 
102 
96 
95 
102 
102 
95 
96 
102 
102 
102 
102 
102 
102 
102 
102 
102 
102 
95 
102 
95 
95 
102 
94 
95 
95 
95 
102 
96 
95 
95 
102 
102 
102 
96 



95 
94 
94 

103 
94 
94 

103 

103 
94 

103 



Name of dye 



Vat yellow GPO 

Vat yellow NF... 

Vat yellow RG. 

Vat yellow RK (Helindone yellow 

RN) 

Vat yellow brown 3G 

Vesuvine BLX 

Victoria blue 

Victoria blue B 

Victoria blue B base 

Victoria blue 4R 

Victoria pure blue BO 

Viscolan black B cone. 



W 

Water blue 

Wax red 5 

Wool black GRF.... 

Wool blue5B 

Wool blue G extra... 
Wool blue N extra... 

Wool blue R 

Wool fast blue BL... 

! Wool fast blue BR... 

Wool fast blue GL... 

Wool fast red 3B 

Wool fast violet B... 
Wool fast yellow 5G. 



Xantho acridine 2RD 

Xylene blue AS cone 

Xylene blue VS cone 

Xylene brilliant blue FFRX cone. 

Xylene cyanol FF cone 

Xylene fast blue FF cone 

Xylene fast green B cone 

Xylene milling blue AE cone 

Xylene milling blue BL 

Xylene milling blue GL cone 

Xylene milling orange R cone 

Xylene milling red B cone 

Xylene milling violet B 

Xylene red B 



Yellow JG. 
Yellow JR. 



Zambesi black D 

Zambesi black F.. 

Zambesi brown 4R 

Zambesi pure blue 4BQ. 

Zambesi pure blue R 

Zapon fast black M 

Zapon fast blue G 

Zapon fast orange G 

Zapon fast orange R 

Zapon fast red RN 

Zapon fast violet R 

Zapon fast yellow GR... 
Zapon green G 



Colour 
Index 
No. 



332 
729 
729 
729 
690 
729 



707 



736 



833 
1088 
833 
487 
833 



673 
672 



715 



735 
833 
833 



833 

748 



236 
236 



PART IV 

CENSUS OF SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS 
OTHER THAN THOSE OF COAL-TAR ORIGIN 



123 



Part IV 

CENSUS OF SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS OTHER 
THAN THOSE OF COAL-TAR ORIGIN, 1928 



Introduction 



Beginning with 1921 the Tariff Commission has compiled an annual 
census of synthetic organic chemicals other than those of coal-tar 
origin. This census has shown, wherever the figures could be pub- 
lished without disclosing operations of the individual producer, the 
quantity of production and the quantity and value of sales. 

As the Bureau of the Census collects data for the more important 
noncoal-tar organic compounds, the commission has not attempted 
to gather statistics on such, except for a few compounds where the 
importance of the chemical or conditions in the industry warranted a 
departure from this practice. This report follows the precedent 
established in 1921 of omitting certain types of compounds classifi- 
able in three groups: (1) Aliphatic compounds derived from natural 
sources by isolation, distillation, extraction, hydrolysis, or purifica- 
tion. Examples of these are alkaloids, constituents of essential oils, 
sugars, and acids such as stearic and tartaric. (2) Cyanides, cyana- 
mides, or carbides of metals or of inorganic radicals. (3) Products 
obtainable from other sources. 

LARGE INCREASE IN PRODUCTION 

Expansion in the manufacture of the aliphatic, or noncoal-tar 
organic chemicals, is a signal postwar achievement of the domestic 
chemical industry. From 1921 to 1928, inclusive, production in- 
creased from 21,500,000 pounds to 384,564,836 pounds, and the sales 
value of production estimated on the basis of actual sales, from 
$9,264,000 to $69,222,000. For the first time in the history of the 
industry, the sales value of the production of noncoal-tar chemicals 
exceeds that of coal-tar finished products. Actual sales of noncoal-tar 
organic chemicals in 1928 were 257,077,856 pounds, valued at 
$45,928,945. 

Aliphatic chemicals have a wide range of application. They are 
used as lacquer solvents, medicinals, perfumes, flavors, rubber acceler- 
ators, flotation agents, photographic developers, and explosives. 

Important chemicals of this group showing increased production in 
1928 are: 

(1) Derivatives of ethylene, propylene, and butylene. 

(2) Acetaldehyde and derivatives. 

(3) Solvents for lacquers. 

(4) Synthetic methyl alcohol. 

(5) Ethyl and methyl chlorides. 

(6) Furfural and derivatives. 

(7) Tetraethyl lead. 

(8) Formaldehyde and hexamethylenetetramine. 

(9) Xanthates. 

125 



126 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

(1) DERIVATIVES OF ETHYLENE, PROPYLENE, AND BUTYLENE 

In the past few years there has been a remarkable expansion in 
the domestic production of ethylene, propylene, and butylene deriva- 
tives. The most significant progress has been with the ethylene 
derivatives, especially ethylene glycol, used as a substitute for glyc- 
erin in antifreeze dynamite, and as an antifreeze in automobile and 
airplane radiators. The glycol ethers have found a large market as 
lacquer solvents. Less important uses of the derivatives of the 
unsaturated hydrocarbons are in medicinals, as mine flotation agents, 
for sand molding, in textile printing, as emulsifying, penetrating, and 
softening agents, in fumigants and in insecticides, and for forcing the 
early sprouting of potatoes. 

These derivatives are made from natural gas. The gas is subjected 
to a cracking process which gives the unsaturated hydrocarbons, 
ethylene, propylene, and butylene. These are separated by fractional 
distillation, and then chlorinated to produce the chlorohydrins which 
are hydrolized or synthesized into the various derivatives. 

Since 1922 the yearly production of ethylene glycol, ethylene 
dichloride, and glycol ethers has been as follows : ^ 

Ethylene glvcol: Pounds 

1922 ' 10,000 

1923 50,000 

1924 144,562 

1925 2,189,689 

1926 5, 714, 823 

1927 11, 722, 798 

Ethvlene dichloride: 

'1923 5,000 

1924 9,464 

1925 28, 184 

1926 74,439 

1927 886, 533 

Glvcol ethers: 

' 1923 10,000 

1924 38,890 

1925 23,401 

1926 1,341,381 

1927 1,078, 783 

The laboratory and semicommercial plant work has been completed 
on a large number of propylene and butylene derivatives, and some 
are already made on a commercial scale. Propylene and butylene 
derivatives possess characteristics similar to those of the derivatives of 
ethylene and therefore find like uses. There is every indication that 
these ethylene products will assume a large commercial importance in 
the near future. 

(2) ACETALDEHYDE AND DERIVATIVES 

Acetaldehyde and paracetaldehyde, its solid form, were produced 
synthetically from acetylene for the first time in the United States in 
1927. The process was developed during the war by the Canadian 
Electro Products Co., of Shawinigan Falls, Canada. Acetylene gas, 
the raw material, is generated from calcium carbide. 

Acetaldehyde and its derivatives are consumed in large quantities 
in the manufacture of rubber accelerators. Another use of acetalde- 

1 Source: Hearings before the Committee on Ways and Means, House of Representatives, Seventieth 
Congress, Second session, Vol. I, p. 214. 



NONCOAL-TAR SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS 



127 



hyde is as an intermediate raw material in the manufacture of glacial 
acetic acid, and a possible use is for making synthetic resins. As 
compared with 1927, there was an increase of 47 per cent in the pro- 
duction of acetaldehyde in 1928, and a decrease of 62 per cent in 
that of paracetaldehyde. 

Crotonaldehyde, obtained as a by-product of the catalytic conversion 
of acetylene to acetaldehyde, is used in the manufacture of synthetic 
organic chemicals and as a denaturant of ethyl alcohol. Production 
in 1928 was 100 per cent greater than in 1927. 

Butylaldehyde, made by tBe oxidation of butyl alcohol and by 
synthesis from crotonaldehyde, is used in making butyric acid, a 
constituent of fruit esters. The production of this derivative in 1928 
also increased 100 per cent as compared with 1927. 

Aldol, another derivative, is used in the manufacture of perfumes 
and pharmaceutical chemicals. Production in 1928 was smaller than 
in 1927. 

(3) SOLVENTS FOR LACQUERS 

The great increase in the production of solvents is due to their 
increased consumption in pyroxylin (nitrocellulose) lacquers for 
automobiles, furniture, and interior painting. In order to supply 
the growing lacquer industrv, the output of which increased from 
3,000,000 gallons in 1923 to 30,000,000 gahons in 1927, manufacturers 
of solvents increased their production from 35,000,000 pounds in 1923 
to 129,000,000 pounds in 1927 and to 147,000,000 pounds in 1928. 

The following table shows the production of the principal lacquer 
solvents in recent years: 

Table 35. — Production of principal lacquer solvents, 1923, 192^, and 1926-1928 





1923 


1924 


1926 


1927 


1928 


Amvl alcohol _ 


Pounds 
(•) 

3, 207, 022 
2 4, 613, 396 

1,816,086 
25, 887, 720 


Pounds 

149. 654 

1,514,123 

2 14, 250, 062 

7, 095, 662 

27, 222, 761 


Pounds 

565, 010 

2. 702, 015 

3 41,517,961 

27,240,117 

43, 661, 465 


Pounds 
2, 703, 844 
2,421,301 
3 48, 922, 561 
26, 304, 243 
49, 203, 156 


Pounds 
4. 801, 263 


Amyl acetate 


4,290,117 


Butyl alcohol 


3 49, 860, 798 


Butyl acetate-- 


30, 029, 505 


Ethvl acetate 


58, 578, 026 






Total 


35, 524, 224 


50, 232, 262 


115, 686, 568 


129, 555, 105 


147, 559, 709 







1 Production figures can not be published without disclosing individual operations. 
- Boston News Record, Feb. 14, 1925; production of Commercial Solvents Corporation. 
^ Wall Street Journal, Apr. 8, 1929; production of Commercial Solvents Corporation. 

The figures in the preceding table overlap each other to some extent, 
since most of the amyl and butyl alcohols are converted into acetates, 
but even so there is a substantial consumption of butyl alcohol as 
such in the manufacture of lacquers. 

Although all of these solvents showed a substantial increase in 1928 
as compared with 1927, and some of them a marked increase, the 
rate of increase in butyl acetate and butyl alcohol was not sustained 
in 1927 and 1928 when the lower price of German solvents led to 
increased imports, particularly of butyl acetate, the imports of which 
amounted to 4,958,560 pounds in the last 10 months of 1927 and 
to 5,347,902 pounds in 1928. 

Ethyl acetate. — The production of ethyl acetate in 1928 — namely, 
58,578,026 pounds — shows a large increase over that of 1927 when 



128 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

it amounted to 49,203,156 pounds. Of the synthetic organic solvents 
ethyl acetate leads in both production and sales. 

Butyl alcohol, or hutanol. — The Weizmann process of manufacturing 
butanol from corn, a comparatively new method, has revolutionized 
this branch of the organic solvents industry. Increased facilities for 
making butanol are reported by the Commercial Solvents Corporation,, 
the holder of the Weizmann patent rights. The corporation's plant 
at Peoria, 111., reported for 1929 a corn-grinding capacity of more 
than 9,000,000 bushels a year, and its plant at Terre Haute, Ind., a 
capacity of 2,000,000 bushels a year. In 1 929 a second firm announced 
that it would manufacture butanol from corn. A bushel of corn 
yields approximately 10 pounds of solvents, of which 6 pounds are 
butanol, 3 pounds are acetone, and 1 pound is ethyl alcohol. A gallon 
of butyl acetate is the equivalent of a bushel of corn. 

Amyl alcohol. — Early in 1927 the production of synthetic amyl 
alcohol from the pentane fraction of natural gas was begun on a large 
scale by the Sharpies Solvent Corporation at Belle, W. Va. Prior 
to 1927 amyl alcohol was commercially obtained only by refining 
fusel oil, a by-product of the ethyl-alcohol industry. Since the 
domestic production of fusel oil was insufficient to supply the demand,, 
large quantities were imported. 

The production of amyl alcohol, in terms of amyl acetate, by the 
Sharpies Solvents Corporation, has been as follows: ' 

Pounds 

1927 2, 356,622 

1928 4,482,935 

1929 (5 months) 3, 004, 513 

Amyl alcohol is made in Germany by what is known as the methanol 
process (high pressure synthesis). From carbon monoxide and 
hydrogen, either methanol exclusively or butyl and amyl alcohols may 
be produced. By another method, amyl alcohol is produced from 
the olefines obtained in cracking petroleum. 

Other lacquer solvents. — Butyl propionate and the glycol deriva- 
tives showed the largest rate of increase from 1926 to 1928 of any of 
the lacquer solvents. Production statistics can not be published, but 
the output of these derivatives represents a substantial proportion of 
the total production of lacquer solvents. In addition to the aliphatic 
solvents, a large part of the total output of toluene is used in the lacquer 
solvents. 

(4) SYNTHETIC METHYL ALCOHOL 

Synthetic methanol. — The domestic production of methanol by the 
synthesis of hydrogen and carbon monoxide under high pressure was 
commenced by two firms in 1927; a third firm began in 1929. If 
production continues to increase at the rate shown in 1928, the output 
of the synthetic alcohol will in a few years equal that of the natural. 
It is estimated =^ that 3,000,000 gallons will be produced in 1929. 
Imports of synthetic methanol in 1928 were 379,291 gallons, valued 
at $129,339, or 34 cents a gallon. In quantity this w^as about 20 per 
cent of the imports in the peak year 1927, when the value per gallon 
was 42 cents. 

2 Hearings before a subcommittee of the Committee on Finance of the United States Senate, Seventy- 
first Congress, first session, on H. R. 2667, Vol. I., p. 188. 

3 Hearings before the Committee on Ways and Means, House of Representatives, Seventieth Congress,, 
second session. Tariff Readjustment, Vol. I, p. 224. 



NONCOAL-TAR SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS 129 

Except in special formulas 3a and 30, the use of synthetic methanol 
as a denaturant is prohibited by regulations of the Prohibition Bureau. 
Natural methanol, obtained by wood distillation is generally used for 
denaturing. The production of natural refined methanol from wood 
■distillation was 5,982,579 gallons in 1928. 

(5) ETHYL AND METHYL CHLORIDES 

Ethyl chloride is used chiefly as a raw material of tetraethyl lead, 
an antiknock compound for gasoline motors. Production was much 
larger in 1928 than in 1927. Methyl chloride is used as the refrig- 
erant in several makes of electric refrigerators. The growing demand 
for these refrigerators has resulted in a large increase in production 
of methyl chloride since 1927. 

(6) FURFURAL AND DERIVATIVES 

The production of furfural showed a large increase in 1928. Fur- 
fural is an aldeh3^de used in the preparation of resins of the phenol- 
formaldehyde type. It is made by hydrolyzing, under a 60-pound 
steam pressure, oat hulls moistened with a 5 per cent solution of sul- 
phuric acid, and distilling off the resulting aldehyde. 

As a solvent, furfural is used in shoe dyes, in leather dressings, and 
in lacquers. But for its property of darkening in color when exposed 
to air, it would be used more extensively than at present in the lacquer 
industry. 

A possible use not yet fully developed is for purifying crude anthra- 
cene. Using furfural, from 94 to 98 per cent of the anthracene 
content may be recovered from the crude, as compared with 31 to 86 
per cent without furfural. 

(7) TETRAETHYL LEAD 

Tetraethyl lead is a compound, which, mixed in small propor- 
tions with gasoline, will greatly reduce the knock in automobile 
engines. It is used in the following combination:* 40 parts tetra- 
ethyl lead, 18 parts ethylene dibromide, 7 parts monochloronaphtha- 
lene, and 5 parts propylene dibromide. 

Four cubic centimeters of the above mixture added to 1 gallon of 
gasoline will not only reduce the knock in gasoline, but will permit 
the use of an engine of higher compression ratio and give a greater 
mileage per gallon of gasoline. 

The consumption of tetraethyl lead is steadily increasing. Pro- 
duction in 1928 was about double that of 1927. 

(8) FORMALDEHYDE AND HEXAMETHYLENETETRAMINE 

Formaldehyde, made from methanol, is a raw material or inter- 
mediate used in making synthetic resins, indigo, hexamethylenetetra- 
mine, and other products. Domestic production increased from 
29,920,072 pounds in 1927 to 38,717,732 pounds in 1928, or 29}4 per 
cent. The 1927 output includes production from 236,801 gallons of 
imported methanol. The formaldehyde thus produced was exported 
with benefit of drawback. The amount remitted as drawback was 

< U. S. patent No. 1688022. 



130 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



$30,087. Nearly a third of the methanol imported in 1927 was 
consumed in formaldehyde. In 1928 drawback of $59,323 was paid 
on 342,876 gallons of imported methanol (90 per cent of the total 
imports) used in the manufacture of formaldehyde. 

The consumption of hexamethylenetetramine has become of greater 
importance in recent years as a rubber accelerator and in the manu- 
facture of synthetic resins. Domestic production increased from 
1,315, 213 pounds in 1927 to 1,661,645 pounds in 1928, a gain of 26 
per cent. 

(9) XANTHATES 

Xanthates are used as ore flotation agents. The total production 
by four manufacturers in 1928, as reported to the Tariff Commission, 
was 5,458,306 pounds, or 757,696 pounds more than production in 
1927. Sales in 1928 were 5,516,432 pounds, valued at $627,957. 

The following data show quantities of ethyl xanthates and of the 
higher xanthates (butyl and amyl) used in treating the various kinds 
of ores in 1927. 



Ore treated 



Ethyl xan- 
thates 



Copper 

Copper-iron 

Sulfide lead 

Sulfide lead-zinc--. 
Sulfide lead-eopper 
Oxidized lead 



Pounds 

2, 107, 505 

50, 550 



Butyl and 
amyl xan- 
thates 



Pounds 
304, 604 



Ore treated 



Sulfide zinc... 

Lead-zinc 

Lead-zinc-iron 
Miscellaneous 

Total... 



Ethyl xan- 
thates 



Butyl 
and amyl 
xanthates 



Pounds 
189, 113 

715, 385 

34, 234 



Pounds 



3,319,639 ; 304,604 



Other organic compounds used in 1927 in ore flotation include tar 
acids, alcohols, coal-tar creosote and coal tar, petroleum products, 
blast-furnace oils, water-gas oils and tars, thiocarbanilide, a-naphthyl- 
amine, thioureas, and oleic acid. 

OTHER PRODUCTS SHOW INCREASES 

Other products for which increased production was reported in 
1928 as compared with 1927 are ethyl formate, ethyl lactate, methyl 
acetate, carbon tetrachloride, tetrachlorethane, and trichloroethylene. 



NEW PRODUCTS 

Important products reported for the first time in 1928 include: 

(1) Acetic acid (synthetic). 

(2) Citric acid (fermentation). 

(3) Formic acid (for the first time since 1923). 

Early in 1929 the successful production of synthetic acetone and 
of synthetic eth}^ alcohol was reported. 

(1) ACETIC ACID 

Acetic acid is produced by three methods: (1) From products of 
wood distillation, namely, acetate of lime, and pyroligneous acid 
(by ether extraction); (2) by oxidation of ethyl alcohol; (3) by syn- 
thesis from acetylene gas. 



NONCOAL-TAR SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS 131 

Production by the synthetic process was begun by the Niacet 
Chemical Corporation, at Niagara Falls, in 1928, but figures can not 
be published for a single firm. 

Acetic acid is used in the manufacture of solvents, particularly of 
ethyl and butyl acetates, for pyroxylin plastics and lacquers. In 1928 
about 51,000,000 pounds of acetic acid (basis 100 per cent strength) 
were consumed in the manufacture of these solvents. A growing use 
is in the manufacture of cellulose acetate for acetate silk and cellulose 
acetate plastics. For this purpose, both the acid and acetic anhydride 
made from the acid are used. Expansion in the acetate silk industry 
will probably place acetic acid among the leading noncoal-tar organic 
chemicals. 

(2) CITRIC ACID 

Prior to the war the domestic supply of citric acid was either from 
the imported as such, or was produced from the imported citrate of 
lime. During and since the war a large part of our consumption has 
been made from cull lemons, as a by-product of the California citrus 
industr^^ In 1928 manufacture of citric acid on a large scale by the 
fermentation of cane sugar was first reported. To the research work 
done by J. N. Currie. formerly of the Department of Agriculture, 
in developing the fermentation process is due the credit for the suc- 
cessful production in this country of citric acid from cane sugar. The 
following excerpt from Industrial and Engineering Chemistry. July, 
1929, describes the process: 

The method consists essentially in the inoculation with spores of a s]->ecial 
strain of Aspergillus Niger, of the contents of large shallow pans filled \\ith sterile 
sucrose solution containing the necessary nutrient salt. la from two to four days 
a continuous felt of mycelium forms over the entire surface of the solution and 
citric acid formation begins, and the fermentation has usually run its course by 
the end of the tenth day after inoculation. The solution is then drained off, 
the mycelium pressed to remove any acid present in the tissues, and the acid is 
recovered in yields of approximately 50 per cent by weight of the sugar taken. 

With its output of citric acid made by the fermentation process to 
supplement that made as a by-product of the California citrus indus- 
try, the United States is now independent of Italy for the raw mate- 
rials of citric acid. Because of a short crop of lemons in Italy in 
1927 and 1928, the price of citric acid has been less in the United 
States than in England, France, or Germany, where the Italian 
monopoly continues to control both the raw materials and the 
finished product. 

That the fermentation process of making citric acid has aroused 
interest in England also is shown by comment of The Chemical 
Trade Journal, London, August, 30, 1929: 

Investigations on the subject have been carried out by the Distillers' Co.,- 
(Ltd.), by the well-known York confectionery firm of Rowntree & Co (Ltd.), 
and by tlie Government laboratory. Hitherto, so far as is known, no attempts 
have been made to work these processes on the plant scale, but the development 
recorded in our company news this week affords strong indications that a definite 
move in this direction is to be made. This development is the registration as 
a private company of John & E. Sturge (Citric) (Ltd.). Although it is not stated 
definitely that fermentation citric acid is to be made, the fact that the new com- 
pany has entered into agreements with Rowntree & Co. is decidedly significant. 

The commercial production of citric acid by a sugar refinery in 
Belgium has been reported, and other European countries are also 
said to be interested in the development of the fermentation process. 



132 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

(3) FORMIC ACID 

From 1923 to 1927 there was no domestic production of formic acid, 
consumption being supplied entirely by imports. One company, 
starting in 1928, had by June, 1929, attained a monthly output of 
over 90,000 pounds.^ A second company commenced production 
early in 1929. Imports in 1928 amounted to 2,250,090 pounds, 
valued at $174,246. 

Heating caustic soda with carbon monoxide under pressure yields 
sodium formate, from which either formic acid or oxalic acid may be 
made by subsequent treatment. Formic acid is produced by adding 
sulphuric acid to the sodium formate and distilling off the formic 
acid, which is then purified. Oxalic acid is produced by heating 
the sodium formate, causticizing the sodium oxalate with hme, and 
liberating oxalic acid by the addition of sulphuric acid. 

Formic acid resembles acetic acid in certain properties, but is more 
active chemically. At the same price it is preferred to acetic acid for 
certain purposes. The principal uses of formic acid are in the dye- 
ing of textiles, in the dyeing and tanning of furs and skins, in the 
treatment of cotton fibers prior to acetylation, in the production of 
cellulose acetate raj^on, in the manufacture of alkyl esters, in the 
coagulation of rubber latex, and in the production of diphosgene, an 
important chemical in gas warfare. 

OTHER NEW PRODUCTS 

Other synthetic organic chemicals reported in 1928 but not in 
1927 were: Butylaldehyde ammonia derivatives, butylaldehyde 
butylamine condensation products, dibutyl tartrate, ethylhydroxy 
butyrate, methyl sulfate, protethyl, pyruvic acid, and sebacic acid. 

SYNTHETIC ETHYL ALCOHOL 

The domestic production of synthetic ethyl alcohol on a commer- 
cial scale was reported in 1929. There are three possible sources of 
synthetic alcohol: (1) Natural gas; (2) acetylene obtained by the 
reaction of water on calcium carbide; (3) ethylene from blast furnace 
gas. In May 1929, the Commissioner of Prohibition granted a per- 
mit to the Carbide & Carbon Chemicals Corporation, Charleston, W. 
Va., to conduct a 1 -month commercial test on synthetic alcohol 
at their plant. Commenting on this experimental run Commissioner 
Doran of the Prohibition Bureau said : 

The Carbide & Carbon Chemicals Corporation of South Charleston, W. Va., 
which is a subsidiary of the Union Carbide Co., was given a temporary permit 
for the experimental production of synthetic alcohol on a commercial scale. 
■ The basis of the production is the conversion of ethylene gas to ethyl alcohol 
and the subsequent purification of the ethyl alcohol. There are a number of 
sources of ethylene, of which petroleum and gases from coke ovens are the most 
important. 

Under this temporary permit the company produced approximately 48,000 
proof gallons of ethyl alcohol, synthetical, which was denatured and used in the 
regular chemical processes of the company. 



» Hearings before a subcommittee of the Committee on Finance, United States Senate, Seventy-first 
Congress, first session, on H. R. 2667, Vol. I, p. 357. 



NONCOAL-TAR SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS 



133 



There is no reason why the alcohol thus produced could not be used for any 
nonbeverage purpose, as it is the identical chemical compound produced by 
ordinary fermentation methods from grains and molasses. It is my under- 
standing that the results of the run were satisfactory. 

The manufacture of alcohol in this manner is only limited by the supply of 
petroleum and coal, as it is apparent that the manufacturing problem has been 
solved. 

In an article on the Union Carbide & Carbon Corporation the 
Wall Street Journal of September 6, 1929, said : "It is understood that 
Carbide's production will be at the rate of 5,000,000 to 6,000,000 
gallons per year, of which 20 per cent will be used in the company's 
own operations." 

From July, 1927, to July, 1928, the production of denatured alcohol 
by fermentation increased from 180,950,000 to 196,140,017 proof 
gallons. 

STATISTICS OF IMPORTS, PRODUCTION, AND SALES 

Table 36. — Certain synthetic organic chemicals of noncoal-tar origin: Imports 
and production, 1926 to 1928 



Acetaldehyde... 

Paracetaldehy de 

Formaldehyde, solution 

Hexamethy lenetetramine 

Acetic or pyroligneous acid, con- 
taining by weight — 
Not more than 65 per cent 

acetic acid 

More than 65 per cent acetic acid" 

Formic acid. 

Gallic acid 

Lactic acid, containing by weight 55 

per cent or more of lactic acid 

Oxalic acid 

Pyrogallic acid 

Butyl alcohol 

Methanol 

Carbon tetrachloride 

Chloroform _ 

Glycerophosphoric acid, and salts 

and compounds.. 

Ethers and esters: 

Containing not more than 10 
per cent alcohol- 
Ethyl ether USP 

Butyl acetate 

Amyl acetate 

Ethyl acetate 

Other, n. s. p. f 

Tetrachloroethane 

Trichloroethylene 

Urea 

Thymol 

■Vanillin 



1926 



Imports 1 



Quantity Value 



Pounds 

94, 724 

60, 645 

396 

23,481 



6, 026, 859 
1, 995, 982 
2, 315, 308 



194, 504 
1,583,011 



205,317 

- 754, 917 

100 

6 

61, 506 



5,412 

855 

5 283, 965 

33, 444 

22 

377, 729 

18, 765 

221 



$12, 950 

10, 859 

431 

10,237 



289,282 
232, 855 
164, 045 



58, 587 
71, 685 



33,237 

345, 530 

36 

11 

49,604 



2, 564 

89 

77, 832 

1,772 

3 

30, 346 

46, 740 

1,021 



Produc- 
tion 2 



Pounds 



31, 953. 204 
1, 495, 220 



573, 842 



189, 847 
3 41,517,961 



18, 998, 848 
1, 909, 660 



5, 896, 016 
27. 240, 117 

2, 702, 015 
43, 661, 465 



357, 300 



1927 



Imports 1 



Quantity Value 



Pounds 

50 

21, 258 

1,347 

3,417 



6, 766, 512 
3, 784. 504 
3, 214, 642 



202, 352 
1, 843, 732 



31,751 
* 1, 714, 442 



11 

50, 279 



22 



300 

3,748 

5 5, 789, 042 

72, 977 

2,567 

814, 309 

18, 420 

6 3, 178 



.$20 

4,017 

89 

1,715 



350, 421 

454, 382 
230, 565 



Produc- 
tion' 



Pounds 



29, 920, 072 
1, 315, 213 



63, 650 

98, 657 



5,569 
718, 412 



42 
56, 205 



12 



150 

391 

846, 334 

3,735 

184 

51, 880 

40, 269 

20,961 



515. 876 



348, 922, 561 
16,556," 026 



5. 855, 462 
26, 304, 243 

2, 421, 301 
49, 203, 156 



301, 251 



' Foreign Commerce and Navigation of the United States. 

2 Census of Dyes and Other Synthetic Organic Chemicals. 

3 Wall Street Journal, Apr. 8, 1929. 
< Gallons. 

» Includes butyl acetate, imports of which in the last 9 months of 1927 were 4,958,560 pounds, valued 
at $679,499. 
* Data from invoices indicate a total of 3,795 pounds. 



I 



134 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Table 36. — Certain synthetic organic chemicals of noncoal-tar origin: Imports and 
production, 1926 to 1928 — Continued 



1928 



Imports ■ 



Quantity Value 



Production' 



Acetaldehy de. ._ 

Paracetaldehyde 

Formaldehyde, solution 

Hexameth y lenetetramine 

Acetic or pyroligneous acid, containing by weight — 

Not more than tW per cent acetic acid 

More than 65 per cent acetic acid _, _.. 

Formic acid _. 

Gallic acid 

Lactic acid, containing by weight 55 per cent or more of lactic acid... 

Oxalic acid' 

Pyrogallic acid 

Butyl alcohol ».._ 

Methanol 

Carbon tetrachkride . 

C hloroform 

Glycerophosphoric acid, and-salts and compounds ^ __ 

Ethers and esters: 

Containing not more than 10 per cent alcohol- 
Ethyl ether USP 

Butyl acetate 

A m y 1 acetate 

Ethyl acetate 

Other n. s. p. f 

Tetrachloroethane 

Trichloroethylene 

Urea 

Thymol .._ 

Vanillin 



Pounds 
4,472 
19, 587 
4,188 

5,898 



12, 163, 
6, 058, 
2,250, 



3,216 

194 

1,643 

644, 816 
728, 739 
174, 246 



282, 
890, 



203 



88, 438 
46, 447 



39, 
'0 379, 



7,957 
129, 339 



51 
,550 



72 
43,726 



5,347,902 
539 



701, 827 
211 



678, 911 
46, 862 

154, 358 

1, 788, 927 

17,636 

18,759 



113,935 
2,544 
9,382 

101, 900 
29,928 

129, 917 



Pounds 

(■) 
(■) 
38,717, :■• 
1, 661, ';4.- 

V) 

(•) 
(') 
432, .■■;• 

(•) 

(0 

142, 33.' 
3 49, 860, 798 

(0 

19,764,908 
(") 
(•) 



5, 933, 297 
30, 029, 505 

4,290,117 
58, 578, 026 



' Foreign Commerce and Navigation of the United States. 
* Census of Dyes and Other Synthetic Organic Chemicals. 
s T. D. 40(i04. « T. D. 37577. 



3 Wall Street Journal, Apr. 8, 1929. 
" Not puhlishable. 
>o Gallons, T. D. 41892. 



Table 37. — Synthetic organic chemicals of noncoal-tar origin: Production and sales, 

1928 

[The numbers in the second column refer to the numbered alphabetical list of manufacturers printed on 
p. 192. An X indicates that the manufacturer did not consent to the publication of his name inconnection 
with the particular product. A blank in the third and fourth columns indicates that these sales can not 
be published without revealing information in regard to the sales of individual firms. A blank in the 
sixch.column indicates that the production can not be published without revealing information in regard 

'to the output of individual firms. The details thus withheld are, however, included" in the totals] 





Manufacturers' iden- 
tification numbers 
(according to list on 
p. 192) 


Sales 


Produc- 
tion 
(quantity) 


Name of chemical 


Quantity 


Value 


Average 

price per 

pound 


Total . 




Pounds 

257,077,856 


$45,928,945 


$0.18 


Pounds 
384,564,836 




58, 95, 130, X 
















9 












151, X. 












63 ... 












129 










Aldol (acetaldol) 


X 










Amyl acetate and sec amyl acetate 

'AinyJ alcohol and sec amyl alcohol 


48, 56. 58, 61, 82, 87, 
114, 151, 153, X, 
X, X, X, X. 
61, 87, 151. 153, XX, X. 
23 


4, 458, 098 
2, 704, 821 


1, 092, 297 
646, 399 


.25 
.24 


4,290,117 
4,801,263 




58 










95 












58 












92 










Anethol 


56, 58 










Aubepine (anisic aldehyde) 


58, 62, 70, 82, X 

X 


5,658 


17,885 


3.16 


5,883 






alcohol). 


47, 95 










Bromodiethylacetylcarbamide 


16 1 









NONCOAL-TAR SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS 



135 



Table 37. — Synthetic organic chemicals of noncoal-tar origin: Production and sales, 

1928~Contmued 





Manufacturers' iden- 
tification numbers 
(according to list on 
p. 192) 


Sales 


Produc- 
tion 
(quantity) 


Name of chemical 


Quantity 


Value 


Average 

price per 
pound 


Butyl acetate (n and sec) 


48, 56, 61, 87, 151, 153, 

X, X, X. 
X, X 


Pounds 
20, 775, 891 


$3, 785, 220 


$0.18 


Pounds 
30, 029, 505 


Butyl alcohol (butanol) (n and sec).,. 




Butyl aldehyde 


28. X 










Butylaldehydeammoniaderivatives. 


130... 










Butyl aldehyde butylamine conden- 


X 










sation products. 
Butyl iso valerate 


56 












61, 87, 160. 


3,111,844 


710, 992 


.23 


3, 039, 899 


Butylxanthic disulfide 


108 




n-Butyric acid 


58, 114 










d- C a mphoric acid 


95 










n-Caproic acid 


95, 114 -- 










Carbon tetrachloride 


22, 47, X, X 


19, 699, 368 


1,275,711 


.06 


19, 764, 908 


C haul moogric ester 


16 




Chloral hydrate 


101, 104 










Chloretone (trichlorotertiarybutyl 


X 










alcohol) . 
Chioroacetic acid (mono) 


47 










Chloroarsenobehenolate of strontium. 


16 










Chloroform _ .- 


22, 47. 










Cinnamyl acetate 


56 










Cinnamyl alcohol 


58, 70 










Cinnamyl butyrate 


56 










Cinnamyl formate 


56... 










■Cinnamvl ketone 


58 










Cinnamyl propionate -- .. 


56 










Cinnamyl valerate 


56, 58 










Citral . 


58, 70 










Citric acid 


X 










Citronellal 


148... 






... 




ditronellol . 


58, 63, 82, 148, X, X, X. 
56, 58, 70 


1,770 


4,320 


2.44 


2 i62 


Citronellyl acetate - 


38 


Citronellyl butyrate.- -- 


56 










Citronellvl formate 


56 










Crotonaldehyde ... 


130, X 










Cyanacetic acid, sodium salt 


16 










Decyl alcohol and aldehyde. 


58 










Diacetin. (See glycerol diacetate.) 
Dibromin (dibromomalonvlureide) . . 


X 










Q-Tiibut vlamine 


1 










Dibutvl tartrate - - - 


87 










Dichloro ethyl ether ... 


28 










Diethylacet ic acid 


16 










Diethvlbarbituric acid (veronal) 


1,16 










(barbital). 
Diethylbroraoacetyl bromide (bromo 


16 -. 










acid). 
Diethyl malonate (malonic ester) 


16 










Diethyl sulfate 


28 










Diethylene glycol 


28 - 










Diethvlene glvcol monobutyl ether 


28 - . - 










Diethylene glycol monoethyl ether .. 


28 










Diethvlene oxide 


28 










Dihydro vanillone . 


58 










Dihydroxy citronellic ketone 


58 










Dihydroxvtartaric acid 


121 












16 










Dimethylglvoxime 


9 . . 












16 












58 










Duodecvl aldehyde 


58 












16 -. 












16 










Ethyl acetate (85 per cent) 


10, 44, 48, 58, 59, 61, 82, 
151, 153, X, X, X, X. 
151 


43, 910, 773 


4, 745, 108 


.11 


58, 578, 026 


Ethyl acetoacetate 




Ethyl bromide 


16,47 










Ethyl butyrate . 


23,56, 58,61, 114, X,X.. 
114 


64,706 


57, 672 


.89 


69, 514 








47,48,61,62,66,95,129.. 












63 - 










Ethyl chlorocarbonate 


151 .... 










Ethyl ether, tech . . 


10,X - 










Ethyl ether, USP 


10,95, 101, 141, 151, X._. 
56, 58, 61,63,95, 114, X - 


4, 622, 696 


1,481,647 


.32 


5, 933, 297 


Ethyl formate 






16 












X 


:: ::::::!::; :::::: 






Ethyl iodide 


95,101 


:::::::::::!;:::. :.:::: 







136 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Table 37. — Synthetic organic chemicals of noncoal-tar origin: Production and sales: 

^9^5— Continued 





Manufacturers' iden- 
tification numbers 
(according to list on 
p. 192) 


Sales 


Produc- 
tion 
(quantity) 


Nai'me of chemical 


Quantity 


1 Average 

Value price per 

pound 


Ethyl isovalerate -- 


56, 58, 114, X.. 


Pounds 
681 


$2,054 $3.02 


Pounds 
838 


Ethyl lactate - 


58,151,X.. 






58.... 








Ethyl nialonate (mono) .. 


1,16,58 








Ethyl nitrite - . 


9,10,61,95,101 


32, 406 
2,401 


20,038 .62 
3,778 \ 1.57 


33, 793 


Ethyl oenanthate 


56, 58, 63, 114, X 

58 ... - 


3,478 








58, 151 








Ethvl pelargonate . 


23,58, X 










58, X. 




1 






9 . 










58,61 








Ethylene 


151 










28 










47 










28 








Ethylene glycol - 


28 










28 












28 










Ethylene glycol monoethyl ether 


28 . 










acetate. 
Ethylene glycol monoraethyl ether. - - 
Ethylene glycol monomethyl ether 

acetate. 


28 










28 










28 












44, 77, 129, X 


27,934,178 


2, 491, 615 


.09 


38, 717, 732 




155 - . 






125 












125 












125 










Furfuryl alcohol (furan carbinol) 


125 










125 












52,95,163 








432, 571 




56, 58, 63, 70, X 


1,417 1 4.213 


2.97 


1,415 




56 58, X 










56, 58, X 












56,58 












62,63 










Glycerophosphoric acid and salts oL-. 


77 104 










151 .... 












16 












62,70,82 












58 












47 ...... 












58 












77,129,X 








1,661,645 


He.xaraethylenetetramineanhydrome 
thylene citrate. 


16 




■ 






125 












9 












16 












16 - 












16 












95,101,109 












70,99,X,X 


32, 692 

11,973 

399 


124, 725 

13,195 

414- 


3.82 
1.10 
1.04 


33, 579 


Isoamyl butvrate --. -. 


56,58,61,63, 114, X 

56,58,61,114.. 


12,677 




424 




56,58,114,X 






56,63 












56,58,114 


90 


230 


2.56 


115 




151 






58 












56,58 












56,58 












56,58 












56,58,70,82,154 :... 

109 


3,095 


15, 060 


4.87 










87 , 










Isopropyl alcohol (isopropanol) 


X .... - 










63 












58 . 












58 












13,72 . . . 












56, 58, 82, X, X 


671 


4,457 


6.64 


721 




58 






56 - 










Linalyl propionate 


58 











NONCOAL-TAR SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS 



137 



Table 37. — Synthetic organic chemicals of noncoal-tar origin: Production and sales, 

19£8— Continued 





Manufacturers' iden- 
tification numbers 
(according to list on 
p. 192) 


Sales 


Produc- 


Name of chemical 


Quantity 


Value 


Average 

price per 

pound 


tion 
(quantity) 


Menthyl valerate 


115. 


Pounds 






Pounds 


Methanol 


91, X- 










Methvl acetate.-- 


59,87 -.. 










Methvl cinnamate 


70 








Methyl chloride 


129 - -. 








Methyl eu^enol 


56 










Methyl formate - 


63 










Methvl isoeugenol 


56 










Methvl sulfate - 


X 










Methvlene citric acid 


16 










Methylnonvlacetic acid- 


58 










Neonal (butvl ethyl barbituric acid). 


1 




: ::: :" 1 




Nonvl alcohol 


58 - - 










Nonyl aldehyde 


58 -- 










Octodecyl aldehvde-- 


58 - . 










Octodecyl ketone 


58 










sec-Octyl acetate -.- 


58 










n-Octyl alcohol (capryl alcohol) 


58 










sec-Octyl alcohol - . . .- 


9, 58, X 












58 -- 










Octyl butyrate 


58 










Oxalic acid -.. 


116,155,X 










Paracetaldehvde ... 


130, X . - - 










Paraformaldehyde . . . . . . 


77,129 - 












131 . -.- 










Piperidine 


130 










Piperonone 


58 










Propionaldehyde 


58 










Propionic acid . . . 


160 












160 - -- 












58 










n-Propyl alcohol 


151 












58 












28 












28 










Protethvl 


58 










PjTOgallol (pyrogallic acid) 


52,95,163 --. 








142, 335 




X 












52 










Rhodinal 


X, X 










Rhodinol 


56, 58, 63, 70, 82, 148, X.. 
56,58 


2,689 


$34, 372 


$12. 78 


2,537 








56 












56 










Rhodinyl propionate 


56 










9 -. 












95 












X 












16 












56, 70,82, X 












101 










Terpinyl acetate 


56,70,X,X. 


9,197 


11,083 


1.21 


9,470 




129 . . 




Tetradecyl aldehvde 


58 










Tetraethyl lead 


48 












125 












48,108 . 










Tetramethylthiouramdisulfide 

Thiobismol (sodium bismuth thio- 
glycoUate). 


108 X 










X 










87 












X 












47,129 












28 










Triethyltrimethylenetriamine 


108 










1 . .-_ 












58 












58 










Vanillin . - . 


58, 62, 70, 82, 97, 99, 104, 

154. 
58 


325, 139 


1, 991, 758 


6.13 


281, 694 








28 












28 












71,73,108,130 


5, 516, 432 


627, 957 


.11 


5, 458, 306 


Zinc dimethyldithiocarbamate - 

\1I other 






151 















85526—30- 



-10 



► 



PART V 
INTERNATIONAL DYE TRADE 



139 






Co! 



Part V 
INTERNATIONAL DYE TRADE 

Introduction 

Earlier issues of the Census of Dyes, published annually by the 
commission, discussed in detail the international trade in dyes in 
pre-war years, the changes that took place while the war was in prog- 
ress (1914-1918), and the post-war developments through 1927. 
With this issue the census will be up to date. 

DEVELOPMENTS IN 1928 

The principal developments in the international dye trade in 1928 
were: (1) Formal ratification of a sales agreement by dye represent- 
atives of Germany, Switzerland, and France; (2) formation of the 
American I. G.; (3) expansion and increased activity of the Imperial 
Chemical Industries (Ltd.); (4) merger of dye producers in Italy; 
(5) increase in quantity and value of exports from the United States, 
Great Britain, Switzerland, and Italy; decrease in quantity and value 
of exports from Germany and France; (6) increase in imports into 
the United States, France, Italy, Germany, India, and China. 

WORLD PRODUCTION OF DYES 

Germany, Switzerland, Great Britain, France, and the United 
States are the leading dye producing nations of the world. Italy 
and Japan are manufacturers on a smaller scale. Other nations that 
make coal-tar dyes are Russia, Czechoslovakia, Holland, Poland, 
Spain, and Sweden. The world capacity to produce dyes is esti- 
mated to be 600,000,000 pounds. Production figures for 1928 indicate 
that the producing nations were operating at not more than 60 per 
cent of their capacity. (See Census of Dyes, 1923, Table 20, p. 124.) 
Severe competition has resulted from this excess capacity and has 
caused the elimination of many manufacturers. The struggle for 
markets in recent years among foreign dye producers has led to 
organized control, and there is evidence of a movement toward the 
fixing of world prices. 

Table 38 shows the production of coal-tar dyes by the chief pro- 
ducing countries, 1924 to 1928, inclusive. 

141 



142 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 
Table 38. — Dyes: Production by chief producing countries, 192Jf-1928 



Country 


1928 


1927 


1926 


1925 1 


1924 




Pounds 
165, 000, 000 
96, 625. 000 
50, 907, 000 
23, 867, 000 
30, 736, 000 
15, 211, 000 


Pounds 
165,000,000 
95, 200, 000 
39. 551. 756 
22, 500, 000 
27, 590, 000 
13, 621, 000 


Pounds 
165, 000, 000 
87, 979, 000 
30, 297, 000 
19, 200. 000 
34, 419, 868 
15, 428, 000 


Pounds 
105, 000, 000 ; 
86.343,348 
32. 693, 402 
18,000.000 
32. 065, 996 
13, 860, 000 


Pounds 
159, 549, 986 


United States 2 - - 


68, 689. 000 


Great Britain ' 


33. 242, 704 


Switzerland * ■-. 


21,000,000 




33,011.512 


Italy 6 


11.880,000 




18,631,000 




1 









1 The monthly leports containing the one-quarter monthly German production of dyes made to the 
Reparation Commission. These reports covered the period, February, 1920, to December, 1924, inclusive. 
The figures for 1925-1928 are estimates from U. S. Department of Commerce. 

2 Annual Census of Dyes and other Synthetic Organic Chemicals, U. S. Tariff Commission. 

3 Estimates for 1924-1926 were prepared by Dyestuffs Industry Development Committee from voluntary 
returns of British dve firms; 1927 and 1928 figures prepared by British Board of Trade. 

* Calculated on tfie basis that the home market consumes 10 per ceni of the output of Swiss dyes; exports 
consequently equal 90 per cent of production. 

5 Official figures from French-owned plants in France compiled by the Union des Produeteurs des Con- 
sommateurs pour le developpement de I'industrie des Matieres Colorantes en France. 1927 and 1928 
figures from the U. S. Department of Commerce. 

6 Production figures for 1924 and 1925 compiled by Hon. Ernesto Belloni for International Economic 
Conference, Geneva. Switzerland, May 1927, and those for 1926, 1927, and 1928 from the U. S. Department 
of Commerce, World Trade Notes. 

7 Estimate for 1924 is for the fiscal year (August, 1923, to September. 1924) and is from Japan Advertiser, 
issue of Mar. 26, 1925. 



COMPETITIVE CONDITIONS 

The dye-producing nations are equipped to produce a far greater 
quantity of dyes than their home markets require. As a result they 
are competing keenly for foreign markets and are adopting special 
measures to protect their domestic business. The struggle for mar- 
kets is most severe in China and British India, both nonproducers and 
large consumers of indigo, sulfur black, and other cheap dyes. In 
these two countries, the United States, Great Britain, and France are 
active in their efforts to defeat the plans of Germany and Switzerland 
to wrest back their control of the entire dye trade. 

That Germany and Switzerland still dominate the international 
dye trade is shown by the fact that dye exports from these two 
countries in 1928 were approximately 85 per cent of the exports of 
dyes from all producing countries. The export trade of Germany 
declined slightly, however, in 1928 as compared with 1927, but export 
figures taken alone do not disclose the actual participation of Ger- 
many in the international trade for the reason that the Interessen 
Gemeinschaft controls or has an interest in dye plants in Japan, 
Spain, the United States, and Russia, and handles through its sub- 
agencies products not of their own manufacture. The I. G. is 
steadily increasing its influence with the intent of recovering its lost 
trade. By coordinating and centralizing dye production, it has 
reduced manufacturing costs to a minimum; by signing a sales 
agreement with France and Switzerland, it has reduced selling ex- 
penses; and by extending its manufacturing interests to cover a 
complete range of chemical products, it has increased its sales 
throughout the world. 



INTERNATIONAL DYE TRADE 143 

Switzerland has now, as prior to the war, a larger share of the 
world's trade than the relative size of her industry indicates. The 
Swiss specialize in high-priced dyes, in the manufacture and marketing 
of which they have advantages which come from long experience, a 
well-organized selling force throughout the world, and diversified 
products. They operate or have an interest in plants in the United 
States, France, Great Britain, Germany, and Italy. Their lack of 
raw materials is not a serious handicap, as crudes and intermediates 
are available from several nations. 

The world-wide trend toward the use of fast dyes and higher- 
priced specialty colors will favor the nations that are doing pioneer 
work in the manufacture of new products; nations restricting their 
output to the old types will be at a marked disadvantage in competi- 
tive markets. 

In the United States competition has been so keen in the home 
market that many of the weaker producers have been eliminated. 
Two firms discontinued dye manufacture in 1928 and several mergers 
are reported to have been formed in 1929. The number of producers 
will probably continue to dwindle until the productive capacity of 
the country more nearly conforms to its requirements. 

The status of the United States in dye manufacture and trade is 
fully discussed in this report in Parts I-IV, inclusive, and that of other 
countries is set forth in Part V. 

EXPORTS FROM PRODUCING COUNTRIES 

Table 39 gives comparative figures for dye exports from the chief 
producing countries in the pre-war year 1913 and in the post-war 
period 1924-1928. 

The German export trade in dyes declined by 50 per cent in quantity 
between 1913 and 1928, but increased by 6 per cent in value. The 
advance in the average value of exports from 21 cents per pound 
in 1913 to 52.5 cents in 1928 shows the world-wide trend toward 
high-priced fast dyes and dyes of greater concentration. Compar- 
ing exports in 1927 and 1928, there was a slight falling off in both 
quantity and value. 

Switzerland continues to hold second rank as an exporter of dyes 
and to increase both the quantity and value of her sales to foreign 
countries. Exports in 1928 were about three times in value those of 
1913 and had the high average value of 70 cents a pound, indicating 
that the expensive colors exported largely to France, Great Britain, 
and the United States formed an important part of the total. No 
consideration of the Swiss export trade in dyes is complete without 
special mention of indigo, 4,500,000 pounds of which were exported 
in 1928 — a million pounds more than were exported in 1927. 

The United States increased its foreign sales of dyes last year 
over 1927 by approximately $840,000. The average price per pound 
in 1928 was 25 cents as compared with 20.5 cents in 1927. Exports 
consisted largely of indigo and sulfur black — two of the cheaper bulk 
colors. 



144 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Great Britain increased both the volume and the value of her sales 
over the preceding year. The sales value per pound of British 
exports was about 34 cents in 1928, or 2 cents less than in 1927. 

France had a smaller foreign trade in 1928 than in 1927, exports 
declining in quantity by 3,000,000 pounds and in value by more than 
$600,000. 

Italy's small trade increased slightly in both quantity and value. 



Table 39.- 



-Coal-tar dyes: Exports from chief producing countries, 1913 and 1924- 
1928 





1913 


1924 


1925 




Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Germany 


Pounds 
239, 598, 133 


$51, 689, 400 


Pounds 
61, 033, 911 
15,713,428 

6, 622, 896 

19, 015, 998 

10, 604, 126 

541, 009 

1, 899, 495 


$30,936,462 
5, 636, 244 
3, 052, 911 
12, 138, 346 
7, 508, 787 
276, 793 
283, 179 


Pounds 
75, 879, 025 
25, 799, 889 

7, 314, 608 

16,161,041 

10, 784, 463 

426, 810 

1, 685, 606 


$44,311,155 




6, 694, 360 


Great Britain -. .. . 


5, 451, 376 

19, 458, 902 

1, 152, 134 

117, 725 


862, 566 

5, 549, 752 

275, 716 

22, 458 


3, 122, 149 


Switzerland .- 


11, 979, 718 




7, 469, 903 


Italy 


295, 702 




214, 209 













1926 


1927 


1928 


Exported from — 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Germany 


Pounds 
81, 883, 253 
25,811,941 

6, 014. 288 

17, 287, 793 

10, 335, 827 

681, 221 

1, 046, 520 


$47, 134, 156 
5, 950, 159 
2, 428, 287 
11,971,452 
5, 902, 946 
453, 235 
152, 657 


Pounds 

107, 593, 519 

26, 770, 560 

7, 600, 208 

20, 291, 498 

11,133,671 

020, 595 

1, 080, 968 


$55, 413, 142 
5, 495, 322 
2, 970, 266 
14, 571, 841 
3, 055, 030 
334, 575 
136, 545 


Pounds 

104, 302, 492 

27, 824, 264 

11,645,404 

21, 471, 739 

8, 013, 280 

796, 963 

2, 570, 892 


$54, 830, 872 


United States 


6, 531, 619 


Great Britain .. 


3,924,769 


Switzerland 


15, 108, 761 




2, 356, 717 


Italy 


464, 659 




269, 602 







IMPORTS INTO PRODUCING AND CONSUMING COUNTRIES 

The older producing countries, Germany and Switzerland, taken 
together increased their imports in 1928 by about 3,000,000 pounds 
and by more than $4,000,000, as compared with 1913. A considerable 
portion of the German dye unports came from nonproducing coun- 
tries, and it is probable that they are in part returned German dyes. 
During the same period, the new producing countries— the United 
States, Great Britain, France, Italy, and Japan — which before the 
war were dependent upon Germany and Switzerland for the bulk of the 
dyes they consumed, were attaining self-sufficiency, importing in 1928 
only a fraction of their requirements. 

Of the nonproducing countries, China, British India, Belgium, and 
Egypt each imported more dyes, measured by either quantity or 
value, in 1928 than in 1927. 

Table 40 shows imports of coal-tar dyes into the chief consuming 
countries in post-war as compared with pre-war years. 



INTERNATIONAL DYE TRADE 



145 



Table 40. — Coal-tar dyes: Imports into chief consuming countries, 1913, 1927, 

and 1928 



Imported into- 



China 

British India ' 

Czechoslovakia 

Japan 

United States 

Italy 

Belgium 

Great Britain 

Netherlands 

Dutch East Indies. 

Germany 

France 

Canada ' 

Egypt — 

Austria 

Switzerland 

Sweden 

Spain 

Poland 



1913 



Quantity Value 



Pounds 
60, 696, 533 
16, 923. 607 



9, 755, 260 
45, 950, 895 
15, 5i2, 429 



41, 203, 008 



6 2, 073, 434 
7, 138, 495 
4, 706, 601 
2, 633, 516 



17, 168, 764 
2, 201, 292 
2, 376, 166 

1 2, 303, 709 



$11,673,779 
3, 741, 031 



2, 100, 255 
7, 537, 870 
3, 611, 705 



9, 207, 684 



890, 366 
1, 682, 422 
1,416,316 

594, 414 



3, 616, 199 
431, 197 
699, 737 

1, 021, 368 



1927 



Quantity Value 



Pounds 

49, 904, 398 

14, 797, 450 

7, 926, 198 

5. 273, 488 

4, 233, 046 

3, 221, 141 

5, 466, 747 

4, 600, 432 

5, 799, 787 

6, 090, 518 
10, 214, 132 

3, 065, 276 

3,011,901 

865, 819 



2, 652, 979 

2, 418, 153 

991, 636 

2, 351, 384 



2 $8, 036, 947 
6, 018, 780 

4, 402, 747 
3, 664, 893 
3, 413, 886 
2, 695, 409 

1, 846, 031 
4. 967, 767 
3, 018. 430 
1, 926, 777 

5, 223, 283 

2, 357, 068 
1, 845, 308 

230, 497 



1, 701, 498 
1, 523, 752 
1, 965, 690 
2, 044, 613 



1928 



Quantity Value 



Pounds 
64,116,911 
17, 198, 385 



5, 949, 007 
5,351,951 
4, 207, 920 
5,911,635 

4, 693, 696 
6, 479, 300 

5, 723, 448 
10, 371, 982 

3, 443, 365 
3, 111, 728 
1, 097, 597 



2, 252, 491 



771, 169 



2 $10, 985, 069 
6, 937, 139 



4, 605, 831 
4, 321, 867 
3, 560, 278 
1, 962, 246 
4, 866, 291 
3, 294, 501 
1, 745, 590 
5, 142, 370 
3, 693, 660 
1, 679, 633 
344, 284 



1, 586, 641 



797, 682 



• Exports to China, 1913, from France, Germany, and Switzerland amounted to 69,181,230 pounds, 
valued at $11,516,567. Chinese statistics show value but not quantity of aniline dyes, and include "un- 
classified dyes" which may contain other than coal-tar dyes. 

2 Exclusive of" aniline dyes" and "dyes and colors unclassified" amounting in value to $3,761,981 in 1927 
and $5,876,182 in 1928. 

3 Years ending Mar. 31. Imports into British India for calendar year 1927 were 17,675, 749 pounds, valued 
at $7,256,651; calendar year 1928, 20,138,441 pounds, valued at $8,966,385. 

* Fiscal year 1914; quantity from Special Agents Series No. 121, value from Commerce and Navigation 
Reports. 

5 Aniline dyes only in 1913. 

6 Quantity of synthetic indigo not shown for 1913. 
? 1914. 

INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS 

The outstanding recent development in the affairs of the inter- 
national dye cartel was the formal signing of a sales agreement by the 
dye manufacturers of Germany, France, and Switzerland, which makes 
permanent the plan worked out and adhered to by the participating 
companies in the last four years. 

Commenting on the agreement, the Department of Commerce in 
its report of Jidy 22, 1929, says: 

The formal signing of the sales agreement by representatives of dye manu- 
facturers of Germany, Switzerland, and France was one of the outstanding 
events of recent international activities. This agreement was signed by the 
three European countries whose export trade in coal-tar dyes in 1927 accounted 
for more than three-quarters of the quantity of the world's exports and four- 
fifths of the value. The significance lies, however, in the fact that the signatures 
gave permanency to an oral agreement which had been in effect for the past 
three or four years by enlarging and reducing to writing. In other words, it 
was the conclusion of negotiations lasting the past five years. 

The participants were the German I. G. Farbenindustrie, the French dye 
firms — Etablissements Kuhlmann and the Society des Matieres Colorantes de 
Saint Denis — and the Swiss Easier I. G. The Swiss Easier I. G. comprises the 
Societv of Chemical Industrv (Ciba), Sandoz Chemical Works (Sandoz) and 
J. R. Geigy, A. G. 

It is understood that the Clayton Aniline Co., the English subsidiary of Ciba, 
which has consistently increased its sales in spite of competition from other 



146 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

English chemical companies, will oparate under the farms affecting its parent 
company. Other subsidiaries of Ciba which are said Ukewise to be affected are 
the French subsidiary at Saint-Fons, tlie Polish subsidiary, S. A. Pabianicoise 
pour rindustries Chiraiques, and the Italian subsidiary, the Sta. Bergamasca 
per rindustriea Chimica, Seriate. 

The agreement, which was brought about by present market conditions, refers 
exclusively to cooperation in the sale of aniline and other sA'-nthetic dyes^ 
especially synthetic indigo. Each country retains its independence as to capi- 
talization, profits, and commercial development. Much emphasis is laid upon 
the preservation of independence in technical and commercial details. Though 
the agreement is referred to as a sales agreement, it is in reality an agreement 
for regulating and staiiilizing the prices of the standard dye products. 

BASIS OF THE ACCORD 

Although the details have not been made public, it is learned from autlioritative 
sources that the basis of the accord is as follows: 

The fixation of prices in the various markets in such a v.'ay as to obtain an 
average return for the adherents, after taking into consideration the factors of 
quantity and quality, transpoi'tation charges, services, etc. 

The establishment of export quotas for the three participants. 

The continuation of Franco-German collaboration as regards sales and the 
continued use of common sales bureaus, particularly in the east, with the Swiss 
maintaining their independent sales organizations. 

The periodical readjustment of the participation of the adherents in the major 
market regions. 

The exchange of information on methods of production and utilization of dyes 
in various industries. 

There is no indication of a pooling of profits. 

PRICE CONTROL EXPORT QUOTAS 

No details have been made available regarding the plan to regulate prices, 
other than the statement that it is believed that consumers throughout the 
world will benefit by economies to be derived by a common effort to improve 
packing and to rationalize distribution by effecting more direct deliveries. 

The French and Gei'man export quotas have been altered to take account 
of the Swiss sales. The 1927 agreement allotted 80 per cent to Germany and 
20 per cent to France. At that time, when the participation of England was under 
consideration, the quotas drafted were 75 per cent for Germany, 12 per cent for 
France, and 13 per cent for England. During the negotiations in the fall of 1928 
the tentative quotas for Germany, France, and Switzerland w"ere understood 
to be 70, 20, and 10 per cent, respectively. It is doubtful, however, whether 
France was able to maintain its demand for this ratio, and it is believed that the 
sales made since September, 1928, have been more nearly on the basis of 75 per 
cent for Germany, 17 per cent for France, and 8 per cent for Switzerland. No 
official statement has confirmed these percentages, but it is believed that they 
approximate the present division of export sales under the agreement just signed. 

The establishment of export quotas and the allotment of markets among the 
participants will have some repercussion upon the production of the individual 
members. In the official statement on the subject, however, the members express 
the belief that this control of exports through the economies effected will increase 
their sales, and therefore enable them to increase production. Aside from this, 
the members reserve complete freedom as regards their production schedules 
and sales to their respective domestic markets. If this is the case, this policy 
involves a distinct change from that under which the French and German pre- 
viously operated. 

The original and renewed agreement between these two groups provided for 
the maintenance of a ratio of production between the French and the German 
dye interests. Some authorities maintain, however, that this latter provision 
has been retained but has not been extended to include a restriction of the Swiss 
output. 

SALES ORGANIZATION 

The sales structure as regards the French and German members established 
by the original agreement in 1927 will continue. This involved the maintenance 
of combined sales offices in most foreign markets, with the Germans operating 
these sales bureaus particularly in the Far East, and with the French-operated 



INTERNATIONAL DYE TRADE 147 

offices ill a few of the European countries — particularly Spain and Portiigal. 
Contrary to this combination of sales effort, the Swiss will maintain independent 
sales bureaus in the European countries where they have already been firmly 
established. These countries include Italy, Spain, Czechoslovakia, and Poland, 
but in several of the European countries there is an elastic agreement whereby 
the Swiss will accept orders for tlie account of the French and German producers. 

DISTRIBUTION OF MARKETS 

In the present agreement the distribution of markets has been more clearly 
defined than in those signed previously between only the French and the Ger- 
mans. Briefly, Germany maintains a predominance in the oriental markets, 
France in the South American and Latin-speaking countries, and Switzerland 
obtaining a privileged position in the south European countries. These allot- 
ments are not final, and the Franco-German marketing collal)oration may be 
extended even to those countries in which at the moment Switzerland holds a 
privileged position. 

Of the three members of the entente, Germany is perhaps in the most favored 
position in the Asiatic countries, because of the strong position which it has 
already acquired there — particularly in Persia and Asiatic Russia — and because 
of the right which Germany has for the free transit of German goods through 
Russia. (German exports of dves to Persia amounted to a value of $150,000 and 
to Russia of $2,166,000 in 1927.) 

This privilege was granted recently by the Soviet Government to countries 
which have concluded a commercial treaty with Soviet Russia. Of the three 
participants in this dye cartel, Germany is the onl}- country to have such a treaty 
with Soviet Russia. 

Some uncertainty still prevails with regard to the Japanese markets, and the 
increase in production of indigo dyes in that country under the renewed subven- 
tion of the Japanese Government to the indigo industry is causing some concern 
to the German producers, who feel that tliis support weakens the effect of the 
German-Japanese commercial treaty. Furthermore, European producers have 
been feeling the effect of stronger competition from American and English 
producers. 

It is believed now that the inclusion of the Swiss in the common sales offices 
in the Far East materially strengthens Germany's position because the compe- 
tition of Swiss synthetic indigo in the Far East, as in several of the European 
countries, has cut into the sales of the German product. 

According to the communiques which have been issued, this agreement does not 
deal with business carried on in the the United States. The elimination of the 
United States from the market subdivision, according to the continental press, 
was intentional because of the American trust legislation, because the United 
States now produces a sufficient quantity of most dyestuffs — particularly syn- 
thetic indigo — to permit an export surplus, and because the three members 
wish to maintain liberty of action there. 

EXCHANGE OF TECHNICAL INFORMATION 

In view of the fact that Germany through this agreement has been able to 
gain a stronger position in the allotment of the export trade (75 per cent of the 
combined trade of Germany, France, and Switzerland, as compared with only 
80 per cent of the trade of France and Germany), the German press has laid 
great emphasis upon what it considers a counterbalancing section of the accord — 
namely, the exchange of technical information. This is said to include not 
only the agreement for the reciprocal exchange of data on improved technical 
methods of production, but also the interchange of experience in the better 
utilization of dyes, by which it is expected to improve the relationship with the 
consuming industries and to effect an expansion of sales. The German press 
maintains that the I. G. has a much wider fund of information, both as regards 
production and use, than have the other members, and that this concession should 
offset the apparent advantage which the I. G. has gained in the export field, 
for the reason that the French and Swiss members will now be able to emplo\' 
this information to advantage in their home markets. 

FAILURE OF BRITISH NEGOTIATIONS 

As in previous negotiations between the French and the Germans, representa- 
tives of the British industry were also brought into the discussion but, again, 
without results. Before the first Franco-German dye agreement was signed in 



148 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

1927, certain British producers initialed the tentative accord, but failed to 
sign the final agreement in November, 1927. Subsequent discussions were 
fruitless. 

It would appear that the same two factors which operated in the previous 
negotiations continued to result in the withdrawal of the British in this — a lack 
of adequate centralization in the British industry, despite advances made in that 
direction during recent years, and the insistence of the British that they be per- 
mitted to retain a privileged position in the sales to their colonies and dominions. 

The Dye Industry of Germany 
activities of the i. g. 

According to the annual report of the I. G. Farbenindustrie, the 
German chemical industry as a whole developed favorably in 1928, 
notwithstanding difficulties in the economic situation. With the adop- 
tion of measures to promote plant and office efficiency (rationaliza- 
tion) and an augmented working force a larger output was produced 
and sales greatly increased. From January 1 to December 31, 1928, 
the number of employees increased from 108,034 to 114,185. If mines 
and other enterprises controlled by the I. G. are included, the total 
number of persons on its pay rolls at the close of 1928 was 154,596. 

The balance sheet of the I. G. shows that its gross profits increased 
from 224,300,000 marks in 1927 to 257,140,000 marks in 1928. Its 
general expenses were 51,900,000 marks as compared with 48,750,000 
marks in 1927; depreciation amounted to 71,700,000 marks, or about 
3,000,000 marks less than in 1927. Deducting 15,000,000 marks for 
interest on outstanding bonds, the net profits were 122,890,000 marks, 
of which 4,430,000 marks were brought forward from 1927. The net 
profits in 1927 were 103,210,000 marks, including 2,400,000 marks 
brought forward from 1926. (One mark equals $0,238.) 

Real estate in 1928 was valued at 73,280,000 marks as compared 
with 71,740,000 a year ago; buildings and railways at 254,260,000 
marks as against 150,440,000 in 1927; and apparatus and utensils at 
224,370,000 marks as against 160,280,000 in 1927. During the year 
investments rose from 296,140,000 marks to 306,260,000 marks, the 
increase being caused by the returns on several small investments. 
The value of stocks increased from 245,910,000 marks in 1927 to 
342,170,000 marks, including 24,070,000 marks as the value of raw 
material in 1928 as against 24,680,000 marks in 1927; 57,280,000 
marks, the value of fuel and technical articles in 1928 as against 
47,790,000 marks in 1927; and 260,770,000 marks the value of finished 
products in 1928 as against 175,550,000 marks in 1927. The large 
increase shown for these finished goods is due to the heavy sales of 
the various nitrogenous products and the quantities held in storage. 
Claims rose from" 4 11,800,000 marks to 500,470,000 marks, of which 
75,960,000 marks were against I. G. concerns, to offset which the I. G. 
held claims of 484,510,000 marks against other firms. The bank 
account of the I. G. in 1928 was 227,770,000 marks as compared with 
165,830,000 marks in 1927; cash and bills of exchange amounted to 
23,310,000 marks in 1928 and to 25,440,000 in 1927. On the debit 
side bank debts increased from 62,770,000 marks to 82,100,000 marks. 
Other fiabilities amounted to 345,480,000 marks as compared with 
320,770,000 marks in the previous year. Of these 345,480,000 marks, 
82,320,000 marks are the liabilities of the subsidiary concerns to the 



INTERNATIONAL DYE TRADE 



149 



I. G. Notes and other kinds of obligations (Teilschuldverschreibun- 
gen) were in circulation to the amount of 250,000,000 marks. The 
reserves increased form 176,250,000 marks to 188,290,000 marks. The 
increase was caused by premiums (agio) through realization of common 
stock and obligations due in 1928. The welfare fund was 49,340,000 
marks. 

These figures, together with comparative figures for 1925 and 1926, 
are given in tabular form below. 

Profits and losses of the I. G. Farbenindustrie, 1925-1928 
[Expressed in millions of marks] 



Gross profits 

General expenses. 
Interest 



Actual profits - 
Depreciation 



Yearly net profits. 
Brought forward... 



Dividend on 3H per cent preferred shares. 

Dividend on common shares 

Dividends in percentage. 



1925 



168. 56 
45.19 



123. 37 
55.77 



67.60 
.44 



.15 

64.31 

10 



1926 



186. 07 
42.12 



143. 95 
75.23 



58.72 
1.80 



.15 

66.15 

10 



1927 



224.30 
48.75 



175. 55 
74.74 



100. 81 
2.40 



95.59 
12 



1928 



257. 14 
51.90 
15.00 



190.24 
71.78 



118.46 
4.43 



95.92 
12 



Balance sheet of the I. G. Farbenindustrie, 1925-1928 
[Expressed in millions of marks] 







Dec 


.31— 






1925 


1926 


1927 


1928 


Assets: 

Plants 


319. 19 
237. 11 
5.43 
208. 63 
299. 79 

j 115.70 

641.60 

4.40 

104. 03 

48.82 

10.38 

.72 


346. 90 

} 261. 13 

226. 03 

384. 93 

f 14. 63 

\ 200.73 

726. 89 

13.39 

173. 15 

48.82 

7.73 

.20 

83.41 

310. 25 


382. 46 

296. 14 

245. 91 

411.80 

25.44 

165. 83 

796. 63 

13.39 

176. 25 

49.24 

.96 

.37 

66.77 

320. 77 


451. 92 


Outside holdings 




Securities 


306. 26 


Stocks 


342. 13 


Bills receivable 


500. 47 


Cash, drafts 


23.31 


Bank credits 


227. 77 


Liabilities: 

Common shares A' 


799.30 


Preferred shares B i 


13.39 


Reserves .. 


188. 29 


Welfare fund 


49.34 


Loans 


250. 47 


Uncollected dividends . . .. . 


.61 


Bank debts. 


82.10 


other liabilities 


307. 86 


345. 48 







1 Amounts paid in; preferred shares A are 100.000,000 marks par. 

American I. G. — The formation of the American I. G. Chemical 
Corporation, a manufacturing and selling subsidiary company of the 
German I. G. was announced April 25, 1929. The National City Co. 
offered $30,000,000 of 5}2 per cent debenture bonds of the new com- 
pany, principal and interest guaranteed by the parent German 
company. 

On the board of the American subsidiary are representatives of the 
German company and of the banking and industrial leaders of the 
United States. The directorate includes Walter Teagle, president of 
the Standard Oil Co. (N. J.); Charles E. Mitchell, chairman of the 



150 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

National City Bank; Edsel B. Ford, president of the Ford Motor Co. ;. 
Paul M. Warburg, chairman of the International Acceptance Bank 
(Inc.); Dr. Carl Bosch, chairman of the executive committee, I. G. 
Farbenindustrie; Adolf Kuttroff; H. A. Metz, president. General 
Aniline Works (Inc.); W. E. Weiss, vice president, Drug (Inc.); 
Dr. Herman Schmitz, executive committee, I. G.; Dr. Wilfred 
Greif, executive committee, I. G. 

Operations of the new company will include the exploitation of 
patents and inventions owned by the parent company. It will own 
substantial interests in the Agfa-Ansco Corporation and General 
Aniline Works (Inc.) (formerly Grasselli Dyestuff Corporation), each 
of which already holds exclusive contracts to exploit the German 
company's patents and inventions in the United States. 

It is reported that the new company will develop the American 
market for products conceived in Germany, and wiU manufacture and 
distribute dyes, pharmaceutical products, organic and inorganic 
chemicals, solvents and lacquers, light metals, photographic articles, 
rayon, synthetic nitrogen fertilizers, and other nitrogen products and 
synthetic gasoline. 

Hydrogenation of petroleum. — A process developed by the I. G. for 
the production of oil by the hydrogenation of coal has been applied in 
the petroleum industry by the Standard Oil Co. of New Jersey. In 
1927 this company reached an agreement with the I. G. for joint 
research on the catalytic hydrogenation process. At that time the 
presumption was that the Standard Oil Co. was anticipating the pro- 
duction of oil in the United States by the liquefaction of coal. It 
now appears that its main object was to test the application of the 
German process to oil refining under conditions obtaining in the 
United States. 

A report is now current that the German I. G. will shortly enter 
into an agreement to transfer to the Standard Oil Co. (N. J.) all of its 
interest in hydrogenation, in the liquefaction of coal, and in oil and 
allied products. This agreement will cover all countries except 
Germany where the I. G. will retain its hydrogenation rights. 

The commercial development of the new hydrogenation process, 
for which plants are now under construction in the United States, is 
carried on by the Standard Oil Co. (N. J.) entirely independent of the 
American I. G. Chemical Corporation. Neither the Standard Oil 
Co. nor its subsidiary or affiliated companies have any interest in the 
American I. G. 

Fuel crudes and heavy residues of the ordinary refining process 
may be converted almost quantitatively into gasoline or other more 
valuable petroleum products. By the introduction of hydrogen 
under pressure upward of 100 to 300 atmospheres and in the presence 
of a catalyst, it is possible to synthesize the desired hydrocarbons 
and thus to convert approximately 100 per cent of the original oil 
into gasoline. 

REPARATION DYES 

Under the terms of the treaty of Versailles provision was made for 
deliveries in kind by Germany. A detailed account of the agreements 
and of the deliveries of dyes and pharmaceuticals to the allied and 
associated powers under these agreements is given in the Census of 
Dyes and Other Synthetic Organic Chemicals, 1923, pages 156-167. 



INTERNATIONAL DYE TRADE 



151 



The one-quarter production of the German dye plants reserved for 
purchase of the alHed and associated governments, 1920 to 1924, was 
pubhshed in the Dye Census of 1924, page 146. 

Table 41 shows payments in kind, 1927 to 1929, inclusive. 

Table 4:1.— Payments in kind, years ended August SI, 1927 and 1929 ^ 



Product and country to which 
delivered 



Dyestuffs and pharmaceutical 
products: 

Belgium 

France 

Italy 

Serb-Croat-Slovene State 



Total. 



Chemical fertilizers and nitrogen- 
ous products: 

France 

Belgium 



Million marks 


1927 


1929 


6.06 

3.29 

3.05 

.13 


8.89 

12.89 

1.11 

.20 


12.53 


23.09 


47. 23 
10.80 


43.94 
10.20 



Product and country to which 
delivered 



Chemical fertilizers and nitrogen- 
ous products— Continued. 

Japan 

Serb-Croat-Slovene State 



Total. 



Coal by-products: 

France 

Italy 

Belgium 



Total. 



Million marks 



1927 1929 



60.79 



5.80 

4.11 

.32 



3.60 
.20 



57.94 



10.42 
1.28 
1.85 



1 Figures in detail for 1928 not available. 

RECEIPTS AND PAYMENTS OF GERMANY UNDER THE DAWES PLAN 

Germany 's receipts and payments of the fourth and fifth annuities 
under the Dawes plan for the years ended August 31, 1927 and 1929, 
follow. 

The fourth year, September 1, 1927, to August 31, 1928 

Gold marks 

Balance as at Aug. 31, 1927 185, 487, 192. 84 

Receipts in fourth annuity year: 

In completion of third annuitv — 

Transport tax 1 20, 000, 000. 00 

Interest on railway reparation bonds 55, 000, 000. 00 

On account of fourth annuity — 

Budgetary contribution 500, 000, 000. 00 

Transport tax.___ -.. 265,826,000. 00 

Interest and amortization on railway reparation 

bonds 605, 000. 000. 00 

Interest and amortization on industrial debentures. _ 300, 000, 000. 00 

Interest and exchange differences 4, 565, 885. 84 

Total 1, 935, 879, 078. 68 

Less discount on advance payments for service of railway 

bonds and industrial debentures 7, 092, 938. 41 



Total cash available 1, 928, 786, 140. 27 



Transfers : 

In foreign currencies — 

Service of the German external loan, 1924 

Reparation recovery acts 

Deliveries under agreement 

Settlement of balances owing for deliveries made 
or services rendered bv Germany prior to Sept. 1, 

1924 _■ 

Transferred in cash 

Costs of interallied commissions 

Costs of arbitral bodies 



90, 491, 098. 29 

350, 986, 602. 26 

30, 163, 566. 83 



7, 511, 586. 93 

460, 405, 257. 55 

3, 624, 095. 31 

53, 933. 37 

943, 236, 140. 54 



152 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

Transfers — Continued. 

By reichsmark payments for — Gold marks 

Deliveries in kind 724, 536, 051. 10 

Armies of occupation 65, 678, 554. 21 

Costs of interallied commissions 4, 607, 725. 14 

Miscellaneous objects 1, 238, 724. 42 

Total transfers 1, 739, 297, 195. 41 

Balance of cash as at Aug. 31, 1928 189, 488, 944. 86 

Distribution of amounts transferred: 
To the Powers — 

France 862, 497, 715. 66 

British Empire 367, 049, 483. 27 

Italy 119, 502, 918. 85 

Belgium 108, 560, 329. 97 

Serb-Croat-Slovene State 58, 539, 981. 83 

United States of America 85, 163, 566. 83 

Rumania 15, 390, 384. 41 

Japan 9, 095, 154. 88 

Portugal 10, 060, 275. 90 

Greece 4, 356, 412. 80 

Poland 304, 118. 90 

Total transfers to Powers 1, 640, 520, 343. 30 

For prior charges — 

Service of the German external loan, 1924 90, 491, 098. 29 

Costs of interallied commissions 8, 231, 820. 45 

Costs of arbitral bodies 53, 933. 37 

Total transfers 1, 739, 297, 195. 41 

The fifth year, September 1, 1928, to August SI, 1929 

Gold marks 

Balance as at Aug. 31, 1928 189, 488, 944. 86 

Receipts in fifth annuity year: 

In completion of fourth annuity — 

Transport tax 24, 174, 000. 00 

Interest and amortization on railway reparation 

bonds 55, 000, 000. 00 

On account of fifth annuity — 

Budgetary contribution 1, 250, 000, 000. 00 

Transport tax 265, 833, 333. 26 

Interest and amortization on railway reparation 

bonds 605,000,000. 00 

Interest and amortization on industrial debentures. _ 300, 000, 000. 00 

Interest and exchange differences 8, 496, 150. 50 

Total - 2, 697, 992, 428. 62 

Less discount on advance payments for service of railway 

bonds and industrial debentures 8, 091, 242. 67 

Total cash available 2, 689, 901, 185. 95 

Transfers : 

In foreign currencies — 

Service of the German external loan, 1924 89, 315, 388. 27 

Reparation recovery acts 401, 693, 991. 76 

Deliveries under agreement 45, 150, 573. 84 

Settlement of balances owing for deliveries made or 
services rendered by Germany prior to Sept. 1, 

1924 600,072. 72 

Transferred in cash 876, 311, 209. 15 

Costs of interallied commissions 5, 446, 766. 49 

1, 418, 518, 002. 23 



INTERNATIONAL DYE TRADE 153 

Transfers — Continued. 

By reichsmark payments for — Qol<i marks 

Deliveries in kind 985, 116, 316. 54 

Armies of occupation 41, 836, 060. 39 

Costs of interallied commissions 6, 071, 792. 70 

Miscellaneous objects 1, 300, 041. 51 

Total transfers 2, 452, 842, 213. 37 

Balance of cash as at Aug. 31, 1929 237,058,972. 58 

Distribution of amounts transferred: 
To the Powers — 

France 1, 270, 605, 418. 37 

British Empire 530, 546,289.07 

Italy 175, 785, 741. 00 

Belgium 126, 099, 054. 78 

Serb-Croat-Slovene State 90, 337, 527. 06 

United States of America 100, 150, 573. 84 

Rumania 23, 832, 951. 73 

Japan 12, 812, 040. 18 

Portugal 14, 385, 173. 11 

Greece 6, 893, 443. 22 

Poland 560,053. 55 

Total transfers to Powers 2, 352, 008, 265. 91 

For prior charges — 

Service of the German external loan, 1924 89, 315, 388. 27 

Costs of interallied commissions 11, 518, 559. 19 



Total transfers 2, 452, 842, 213. 37 

IMPORTS AND EXPORTS 

Germany's foreign trade in dyes showed only a slight net change 
from 1927 to 1928. Imports increased by about 158,000 pounds, but 
decreased in value by some $80,000. Exports decreased by more 
than 3,000,000 pounds, but by only $580,000 in value. The decrease 
in the export trade was due chiefly to the partial loss of far eastern 
markets for indigo. China took 6,500,000 pounds less of indigo from 
Germany in 1928 than in 1927. British India reduced her orders for 
alizarin colors (other than red) from 6,808,687 pounds in 1927 to 
4,806,469 pounds in 1928, but offset this reduction by increasing her 
purchases of alizarin red by 2,632,954 pounds. Exports of alizarin 
red to all countries amounted to 5,197,124 pounds in 1928, as compared 
with 2,149,485 pounds in 1927; exports of indigo to all countries 
amounted to 26,388,621 pounds in 1928, as compared with 31,528,646 
pounds in 1927. Although exports of indigo thus declined by more 
than 5,000,000 pounds, they showed a slight gain in total value and an 
advance from 25 to 30 cents in value per pound. For aniline and other 
coal-tar dyes, Germany found foreign markets for 2,019,414 pounds 
more in 1928 than in 1927, Czechoslovakia increasing her purchases by 
almost exactly this quantity. 

Table 42 shows the exports of dyes from Germany in 1913 and the 
trend of the export trade since 1920. 
85526—30 11 



154 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

Table 42. — Coal-tar dyes: Exports from Germany, 1913 and 1920-1928 



Year 



Quantity 



Value 



PouTids 

1913 - 239,598,133 $51,666,168 

1920 : 61.140,171 53,002,407 

19211 48,304,991 15,935,585 

1922 I 115,974,900 80,781,892 

1923 i 73,974,473 41,580,742 




Quantity 



Value 



Pounds 

1924 61,033,911 I $30,933,368 

1925 75,879,025 44,311,155 

1926 I 81,883,253 47,134,156 

1927 1 107,593,519 I 55,413,142 

1928- 1 104,302,492 54,830,872 



1 May to December. 

Tables 43 and 44 show German imports and exports of coal-tar 
dyes in 1928. 

Table 43. — Germany: Imports of coal-tar dyes, 1928 * 



Class of dye and country of origin 



Quantity 



Value 



Aniline and other coal-tar dyes not elsewhere mentioned (sulfur dyes): 

Belgium - - 

France. 

Great Britain --- 

Netherlands.- - 

Austria 

East Poland - -- 

Switzerland - - 

Hungary - - — - 

Czechoslovakia 

British India ..- - 

China - — 

Japan.. 

Dutch East Indies 

United States. 

Other countries 

Total.. 

Alizarin, (alizarin red;; alizarin colors, variegated, from anthracene, total 

Indigo, natural and synthetic, total 

Indigo carmine, color lakes, and new blue from indigo and indigo carmine, 
total. 

Grand total. - 



Pounds 

1, 007, 061 

665, 128 

208,555 

1, 279, 991 

127, 867 

62,170 

3, 875, 025 

70,547 

322, 974 

314, 156 

325,840 

165, 345 

103,837 

696, 874 

293, 432 



, 518, 802 
163, 140 
662,923 

27,117 



$4, 861, 044 
77,788 
192, 323 

11,215 



10, 371, 982 



5, 142, 370 



1 Monatliche Xachweise uber den .\ustwartigen Handel, Deutschlands, December, 1928. Values con- 
verted on basis of 1,000 reichmarks =$238,614. 

Table 44. — Germany: Exports of coal-tar dyes, 1928 ' 



Class and country of des- 
tination 


Quantity 


Value 


Class and country of des- 
tination 


Quantity 


Value 


Aniline and other coal-tar 
dyes not elsewhere men- 
tioned (sulfur dyes) : 

Belgium. 

Bulgaria 

Denmark 

Estonia 

Finland 


Pounds 
2,853,855 
524,033 

375,002 
148, 590 
384,482 
8S5, 649 
281.086 
2, 361, 788 
2,114,652 
741,407 




Aniline and other coal-tar 
dyes not elsewhere men- 
tioned fsulfur dyes)— 
Continued. 

Czechoslovakia 

Hungary 

Egypt... 

British India 


Pounds 

7, 670, 906 

821, 434 

278, 661 

8,341,766 

129, 630 

15. 157, 507 

1, 746, 264 

1,264,118 

61,288 






















Malacca. 

China 

Japan 

Dutch East Indies 

Persia 

Siam.. 

Turkey 

-Argentina 

Bolivia 




Greece 








Italv 














215, 169 1 


367, 066 

289,464 






&6, 561 

54,674 

3, 456. 813 

308,644 
1,518.088 
1,342,160 

393. 962 
1,440,927 
2, 060, 199 
1,455,256 
2, 020, 957 

461,864 






Luxemburg 




534. 175 

51, 367 

835,984 

671, 302 

157, 408 

172. 179 

69,665 

688, 056 

168,431 

50,706 

l,9a3,011 












Brazil 

Canada 

Chile 

Colombia 

Ecuador 

Mexico 

Peru 

Venezuela. 

United States 
















Portugal 








Russia 










Switzerland 

Spain 












> Monatliche Nachweise iiber den Auswartigen Handel Deutschlands, December, 1928. 
▼erted on basis of 1,000 reichmarks=$238.614. 



Values con- 



INTERNATIONAL DYE TRADE 155 

Table 44. — Germany: Exports of coal-tar dyes, 1928 — Continued 



Class and country of des- 
tination 


Quantity 


Value 


Class and country of des- 
tination 


Quantity 


Value 


Aniline and other coal-tar 
dyes not elsewhere men- 
tioned (sulfur dves) — 


Pounds 
S3, 775 
552, 693 




Indigo, natural and syn- 
thetic: 
Belgium 


Pounds 

518, 522 

46, 076 

91, 712 

113,316 

57, 761 

1, 152, 124 

541,670 

166. 227 

334, 658 

333, 776 

1, 477, 743 

16, 175, 591 

1,577,612 

1,416,2.36 

431,881 

325, 399 

360, 893 
129, 190 
228,397 
909, 838 




Continued. 


France 






Great Britain 




Other countries 




Italy 












Total 


67, 572, 974 


$39, 139, 138 


Ne therlands 










Alizarin (red): 


38, 800 
4, 127, 673 




Czechosloyakia -. 

Hungary 










Egypt 




Dutch East Indies 

All others 


681, 883 




British India 




348, 768 




China 














Total 


5. 197, 124 


1,123,395 


Dutch East Indies 










117,285 


Siam --. 




gated, from anthracene: 


Other Asiatic coun- 
tries. 




France 


339, 067 
632, 941 
232, 144 




Me.xico 








United States. 

All others 




Italy 








268, 520 

74, 736 

31,967 

170, 636 

234, 569 

174. 163 

102, 734 

55, 335 

46, 076 

405, 426 

56, 438 

154, 102 

167. 992 

95, 239 

73, 193 

1,207,900 




Total 




Austria 




26, 388, 621 


$7, 933, 20« 






Indigo carmine, color 
lakes, and new blue from 
indigo and indigo car- 
mine: 
China 




Russia 




246, 915 
90,389 




Sweden . . 












Spain 






Czechoslovakia 


: : 




Hungary 




Other countries -. 

Total 










China 




337, 304 


104,990 






Grand total 




Dutch East Indies 




104,302,4S2 


54, 830, 872 


Brazil 














United States 






All others 


166, 006 














Total 


4,806,469 


6, 530, 149 









The Dye Industry of Great Britain 

The British dye industry showed striking progress in 1928. Pro- 
duction increased from 39,500,000 pounds m 1927 to 50,900,000 
in 1928. Exports were about 4,000,000 pounds greater in 1928 
than in 1927 and in value, about $1,000,000 more. Imports were 
approximately the same as in 1927. 

There are 18 dye producing concerns in Great Britain. The 
largest of these, the British Dyestuffs Corporation, capitalized 
at £4,775,580, is a subsidiary of the Imperial Chemical Industries 
(Ltd.). It has its principal plants at Blackley (Manchester), Hud- 
dersfield, Yorkshire, and Ellesmere Port, Lancashire, and controls 
the Scottish Dyes (Ltd.) with a large plant at Grangemouth^ 
Scotland. 

THE IMPERIAL CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES (LTD.) 

The Imperial Chemical Industries (Ltd.), formed late in 1926., 
is a merger of the British Dyestuffs Corporation (Ltd.), Brunner, 
Mond & Co. (Ltd.), Nobel Industries (Ltd.), the United Alkali 
Co. (Ltd.), the subsidiarv companies of these concerns. Its author- 
ized capital of £65,000,000 in 1928 was raised in 1929 first to £75,- 
000,000 and later to £95,000,000. A new central office building on 
the Thames at Millbank, London, houses the company. 

The Imperial Chemical Industries (Ltd.) has strengthened the 
position of the British dye industry by effecting economies through 



156 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

centralized control of sales and purchases, by actively promoting 
research work, and by improving the relations between labor and 
capital. Progress was made in 1928 in putting into effect the 
employees' stock ownership plan, staff pensions, and other schemes 
for bringing about a closer relation between the company and its 
employees. 

The foreign business of the company has been advanced by the 
formation of a number of subsidiaries bearing the same name as 
the parent company, particularly in South America and in the Far 
East, as well as by a number under other titles. 

There is no indication at the present time that the Imperial 
Chemical Industries (Ltd.) will become a part of a general European 
chemical cartel. The trend now seems to be toward cooperation 
between British and American interests rather than between British 
and continental. The formation early in 1928 of the Finance Co. 
of Great Britain and America (Ltd.) by Imperial Chemical Indus- 
tries (Ltd.) and of the Chase Securities Corporation of New York 
is an evidence of Anglo-American cooperation. 

The new capital of the I. C. I. — At the annual meeting of the Imperial 
Chemical Industries (Ltd.), on April 18, 1929, the company approved 
an increase in capital to £95,000,000, and the immediate issue of 
£4,410,595, 7 per cent cumulative preference shares, par value £1, 
at a premium of 3s. Shareholders were given the right to subscribe 
at the rate of one new share for every four shares held. The com- 
pany also approved the issue of £6,016,857 of £1 common shares 
at a premium of 13s. 6d. Shareholders were allowed to subscribe 
to 1 new share for every 8 shares of common stock held, plus 1 new 
share for every 16 shares of deferred stock held. 

The entire issue was underwritten by the Finance Co. of Great 
Britain and America, in which the Imperial Chemical Industries 
(Ltd.) and the Chase Securities Corporation of New York are equal 
partners. The Chase National Bank of New York received applica- 
tions and payments and handled the rights of the American share- 
holders. The Canadian Industries (Ltd.) performed similar services 
for Canadian shareholders. 

The profits of the Imperial Chemical Industries (Ltd.) for the 
year ended December 31, 1928, were £5,488,243, as against £4,567,224 
in 1927. After providmg £275,540 for income tax and £1,000,000 
for reserve, the net profit was £4,212,703, as against £4,032,918 in 
the preceding year. The payment of preference dividends amounting 
to £1,194,549 and of an interim dividend on common shares of 
£1,054,442, left a balance of £1,963,712 available for 37,252,178 
shares of £1 par common stock and 10,860,145 shares of 10s. par. 

PRODUCTION 

British manufacturers supplied about 86 per cent of the home 
consumption of dyes in 1928 and in addition had an exportable 
surplus of 11,645,404 pounds. Table 45 gives production figures 
for 1927 and 1928 as prepared by the Dyestuffs Industry Develop- 
ment Committee and issued by the British Board of Trade. Although 
the output of a few small firms is not included, the totals represent 
substantially the British output. 



INTERNATIONAL DYE TRADE 



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158 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Some 80 new products were made for the first time in 1928 by 
British dye makers, among which were Caledon green RC, and Ali- 
zanthrene blue violet, both vat dyes; the Icyl colors for cellulose silks; 
and a series of acetyl silk colors including Celatene navy blue, and 
another series sold under the name of Solvacyls. 

REGULATION OF IMPORTATION OF DYESTUFFS 

Great Britain permits the import of synthetic dyes only under 
license. In the House of Commons on May 9, 1929, Mr. Crawfurd 
asked the president of the British Board of Trade (Sir Philip Cunlifi'e- 
Lister) the number of applications received by his department for 
licenses to import dyestuffs under the dyestuffs (importation regula- 
tion) act of 1920, for the years ending December 31, 1921, to 1928, 
respectively; the number of such licenses granted and the amounts 
involved; the cost of such licenses to the applicants and the average 
time required for the consideration and granting of the same; and the 
reasons for refusing applications for the import of ink and other 
manufactured articles. 

The president of the British Board of Trade answered: 

As the reply to the first part of the question involves a large table of figures, 
perhaps the honorable member will permit me to circulate it in the Official 
Report. With regard to the last part of the question, the Dyestuffs Advisory 
Licensing Committee does not recommend the issue of a license for the importa- 
tion of any product, including inks, that are synthetic organic dyestuffs, colours or 
colouring matters, when adequate supplies of satisfactory products are available 
from British makers. 

The discussion then continued as follows: 

Mr. Crawfurd. May I ask whether supplies are available at the same price or 
approximatel}' the same price, as foreign? 

Sir P. CuNLiFFE-LiSTER. The Committee take all relevant matters into con- 
sideration. 

Mr. A. V. Alexander. Can we be told now if it is intended to bring this 
licensing system to a close in 1931? 

Sir P. Cdnliffe-Lister. It is a little premature to ask or answer questions 
about 1931. 

The table of figures in the Official Report referred to is shown below : 



Table 46.- 



-Statistics of imports of dyes into Great Britain under the dyestuffs act of 
1920 



Year 


Number 
of appli- 
cations 
received 


Number 

of licenses 

granted 


Quantities and values 
licensed 


Total amount 

of license fees 

charged 


Percentages 
of licenses 
in column 
2 granted 
within 7 
days of 
receipt of 

application » 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


1921 


3,126 
6,447 
6,079 
5,647 
6,376 
6,595 
7,467 
7,511 


(') 

4, 975 

4,341 

4,332 

4,879 

5,778 

6,753 

7,051 


Pounds 

2, 677, 505 

3, 234, 893 
3, 691, 440 
3, 036, 234 

3, 339, 054 

4, 231, 476 
4, 990, 356 
5,030,511 


£1,042,821 

1, 103, 819 

989, 537 

770, 943 

651, 584 

945, 007 

1, 034, 103 

1,074,113 


£ s. d. 
3,231 7 
3, 341 15 
3,248 
2,868 2 5 
2,270 7 6 
3,004 10 
3,440 12 6 
3,561 15 


(') 


1922 - 


(') 


1923 


92 


1924 


91 


1925 


92 


1926 


95 


1927 


94 


1928 


97 







> Not available. 



INTERNATIONAL DYE TRADE 



159 



Under the dyestuffs act the price factor was at first fixed at 3. 
In March, 1925, it was reduced to 2)'i\ in September, 1927, to 2; and in 
May, 1929, to 1%, at which figure it now stands. A foreign manu- 
facturer applying for a license to import into Great Britain a dyestuff 
made there will be granted the license provided the British dye is 
quoted at 1% or more times the pre-war price, and provided that the 
foreign dye is quoted at less than the British. If the British dye sells 
at less than 1% the pre-war price in the home market, no import 
license will be granted regardless of how much lower the quotation 
may be on the foreign than on the British. 

The dyestuffs act was originally intended to be effective 10 years 
only. It is not known whether the industry will seek a renewal of the 
act at its expiration in January, 1931, or will regulate imports in some 
other way. 

IMPORTS AND EXPORTS 

Imports of coal-tar dyes into Great Britain in 1927 amounted to 
4,660,432 pounds, valued at $4,967,768; and in 1928 to 4,693,696 
pounds valued at $4,866,291 . Exports in 1927 amounted to 7,600,208 
pounds, valued at $2,970,266, and in 1928 to 11,645,404 pounds, 
valued at $3,924,769. 

The following tables show the British foreign trade in dyes and 
dyestuffs, 1927 and 1928. 

Table 47. — United Kingdom: imports of coal-tar dyes, 1927^ 



Class of dye and country of 
origin 


Quantity 


Value 


Class of dye and country of 
origin 


Quantity 


Value 


Alizarin: 


Pounds 

101, 136 

9,632 

4,256 

672 


$152, 505 
7,647 
3,485 
2,542 


Other coal tar dyes— Contd. 
France 


Pounds 
69, 888 

1, 313, 424 

6,608 

40,544 


$51, 799 




Switzerland 


1,550,740 




United States. 


7,763 


other foreign countries . . 


Other foreign countries.. 
Total from foreign 


47,035 


Total.. 


115,696. 


166, 179 






4, 512, 928 


4, 777, 546 


Indigo, synthetic: 

Foreign countries... 

British countries 


7,952 
112 


2,324 
19 


Canada 


23, 408 
336 


21, 452 


Other British countries. . 
Total from British 


248 


Total 


8,064 


2,343 


23, 744 






21,700 


other coal-tar dyes: 

Germany 


2, 933, 840 
60, 144 
88,480 


2, 967, 349 
54,021 
98, 839 


Total imported 

Grand total 




4, 536, 672 


4, 799, 246 


Netherlands 


4, 660, 432 

t 


4, 967, 768 









1 Annual Statement of the Trade of the United Kingdom with Foreign Countries and British Countries 
1927. Values converted at annual exchange rate, 1927, £1 = $4,861024. 



160 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 
Table 48. — United Kingdom: Exports of coal-tar dyes, 1927 ^ 



Class of dye and country of 
destination 


Quantity 


Value 


Class of dye and country of 
destination 


Quantity 


V^alue 


Alizarin: 

British India 


Pounds 
1,146,320 

28, 896 


$243,280 
11,000 


Other coal-tar dyes— Contd. 
Italy 


Pounds 
43, 120 

752, 528 
84, 560 

137,088 
24, 192 

164, 752 


$47, 337 


Other British countries. . 


China. 


291, 064 






33, 622 
96, 924 


Total to British coun- 


1, 175, 216 
113, 232 


254, 280 
61, 177 


United States 


tries - 


Brazil . 


11,632 


Total to foreign coun- 


Other foreign countries.. 

Total to foreign coun- 
tries 


89, 807 




1,919.680 




Total exported 


1,288,448 


305. 457 


956, 358 




Irish Free State 




Indigo, synthetic: 


2,059,456 
384, 496 


492, 709 
84, 144 


166, 432 
74, 704 

305,536 
27,440 

29, 232 

14, 896 
933, 184 

78,736 
156, 128 

59, 248 


112,465 


China 


Union of South Africa... 
British India — 


58. 376 


Other foreign countries.. 


232, 571 
12,946 


Total to foreign coun- 


2, 443, 952 
102,592 


576, 853 
22, 332 


Madras 


tries 


Bengal, Assam, Bi- 
har, and Orissa 

Burmah 




Total to British coun- 
tries .. 


13, 271 
8,346 






487, 677 
46, 996 


Total exported 


2, 546, 544 


599, 185 








96, 900 
39, 501 


Other coal-tar dyes: 


99, 232 
29,456 
94, 192 
15, 456 
155, 680 
217, 840 
73, 920 
27,440 


51, 823 
19,425 
30, 085 
10, 923 
58, 473 
133, 722 
39. 724 
41, 897 


Other British countries.. 
Total to British coun- 


Norway 


1,845,536 




Netherlands 


1,109,048 








Belgium 


3, 765, 216 


2, 065, 406 




Grand total 




Switzerland 


7, 600, 208 


2, 970, 048 


Spain 











'Annual Statement oft he Trade of the United Kingdom, 1927. Values converted at annual exchange 
rate, 1927, £1=$4.861024. 

Table 49. — United Kingdom: Imports and exports of coal-tar dyes, 1928 i 





Quantity 


Value 


Imports for consumption: 

Alizarin.- 


Pounds 

98, 448 
4, 595, 248 


$166, 342 


Other coal-tar dyes 


4, 699, 949 






Total 


4, 693, 696 


4, 866, 291 






Natural indigo . 


35, 840 


41, 047 






Exports: 

Dyes and dyestuffs (except dyewoods and raw dyeing substances) and 
extracts for dyeing and tanning products of coal tar 


11,645,404 
11,218,480 


3, 924, 769 


Other sorts 


482, 963 


Total 


22, 863, 884 


4, 407, 732 







• Accounts Relating to Trade and Navigation of the United Kingdom, December, 1928. Value converted 
at average annual exchange rate, 1928, £1=$4.866223. 

Table 60. — United Kingdom,: Imports and exports of dyeing and tanning materials, 

1928^ 



Coal-tar products: 

Intermediates 

Finished coal-tar dye- 
stufls — 

.\lizarin 

Other.- 

Extracts for dyeing, natural: 

Cutch 

Other 

Natural indigo 

Extracts for tanning 



Quantity Value 



Pounds 



98,448 
4, 595, 248 

5,258,176 

5, 385, 968 

35. 840 

151, 029, 872 



$39, 256 



166, 342 
4, 699, 949 

365, 113 

738, 722 

41,046 

7, 280, 755 



Coal-tar products. 
Other 



REEXPORTS 

Extracts for dyeing: 

Cutch 

Other 

Natural indigo 

Extracts for tanning. 



Quantity Value 



Pounds 
11, 645, 424 
11,218,480 



1, 758, 176 

289, 296 

19, 264 

1, 023, 792 



$3, 924, 769 
482, 963 



123,086 
83,996 
22, 141 
54, 852 



' Accounts Relating to Trade and Navigation of the United Kingdom, December, 1928. Values converted 
at average annual exchange rate, 1928, £1 =$4.866223. 



INTERNATIONAL DYE TRADE 



161 



The Dye Industry of France 

Official figures of dye production in French-owned plants in France, 
compiled by the Association of Dye Producers and Consumers for the 
years 1920-1928 are as follows: 



Year Pounds 

1920 16, 233, 000 

1921 12, 876, 000 

1922 17, 775, 000 

1923 24, 173, 000 

1924 33, 012, 000 



Year Pounds 

1925 32, 066, 000 

1926 34, 420, 000 

1927 1 27, 590, 000 

1928 1 30, 736, 000 



The following table shows the production in 1927 and 1928 of the 
different groups of dyes. Increases occurred in every group and were 
especially marked in the azos, sulfurs, and alizarins. 

Table 51. — France: Production of dyes by groups, 1927 and 1928 



Group 



1927 



1928 



Azo 

Vat and indigo 

Sulfur 

Di- and tri-phenylmethane 

Alizarin.- 

Indophenol, azines, oxazines, thiazines 
others 



Pounds 

11, 728, 472 

8, 708, 170 

3, 181, 238 

1, 545, 425 

959, 001 

187, 391 

1, 280, 873 



Pounds 
13, 183, 508 
8, 862, 492 
4, 080, 715 
1, 598, 335 
1, 106, 709 
194, 005 
1, 710, 770 



Imports indicate that the dye industry of France is supplying prac- 
tically all of its home requirements of the azo, vat, indigo, and sulfur 
groups. Production is deficient in the phenylmethane, indophenol, 
alizarin, and the azine groups. 

The Kuhlmann Co. (together with its associated company, the St. 
Clair du Rhone Dye Co.), with a production of 68 per cent of the dyes 
consumed in France, practically dominates the French dye industry. 
It is also interested in the St. Denis Co., which produces about 25 per 
cent of the French production, and in the plants at St. Fons, St. 
Etienne, and Nancy, which produce about 7 per cent. 

Reparation deliveries to France from Germany ceased with the 
expiration of the London accord in August, 1928. Local producers 
are now able to supply sufficient dj^es to meet domestic needs except 
in a few specialties. The Franco-German dye agreement made in 
November, 1927, protects the French industry as to quantities and 
kinds of imports brought into France from Germany. In September, 
1928, this accord was renewed for five years dating from the expira- 
tion of the original agreement. The basic terms of the original agree- 
ment are maintained with modifications in two respects as to the 
control of imports of dyes from Germany into France. The I. G. 
agrees not to sell in France (1) dyes produced commercially at the 
time of the signing of the accord, or those for which the necessary 
formula had been worked out and for the manufacture of which the 
equipment had been installed or ordered, and (2) dyes which France 
may subsequently produce, provided they are improvements over 
similar German products. 



' From the French Chemical Industry and Trade, 1928, Commerce Department Bulletin No. 652. 



162 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Prices in the French market are controlled almost entirely by the 
two largest producers. For the dyes tabulated below the prices 
quoted, established in January, 1928, were maintained without change 
until December, when small increases were effected in all groups. 



Price per pound 

Citronine $0. 56 

Acid black .33 

Methylene blue 1. 16 

Direct violet .60 



Chrome yellow 

Sulfur black 

Indigo, 20 per cent.. 
Alizarin, 20 per cent. 



Price per pound 

$0. 54 

.27 

.22 

.41 



Tables 52 and 53 show the foreign trade of France in the several 
groups of dyes in 1928. 

Table 52. — France: Imports of coal-tar dyes, 1928 ^ 



.Class of dye 



Nitroso 

Pyrazolone 

Stilbenes.- 

Monoazos 

Polyazos.- 

Thiobenzenyls 

Sulfurs.- 

Carbazol derivatives... 

Indophenols 

Indulines, nigrosines... 

Azines 

Pyronines..- 

Phthaleines.-- 

Eosines 

Diphenylmethanes 

Acridine and quinoline 

Hydroquinones 

Indigotines 

Synthetic indigo 

Insoluble vat dyes 

Alizarin 

Nitro.. 

Total 



Dry 



Quantity 



Pounds 

6,834 

112, 876 

37, 258 

391, 537 

495, 374 

20, 944 

56, 438 

11,905 

979, 063 

192, 682 

38, 801 

29,321 

64, 595 

220 

271, 166 

39, 903 

148, 810 

661 

1,102 

182, 541 

23, 810 

8,157 



3,113,998 



Value 



$1, 

128, 
36, 

298, 

469, 

34, 

47, 

10, 

1, 048, 

186, 
53, 
27, 

128, 
8, 

309, 
57, 

219, 



387, 

23, 

4, 



Paste 



3, 483, 730 



Quantity Value 



329, 367 



Pounds 
661 
1,764 


$1,843 
1,725 


24, 471 
36, 596 


15,998 
14, 508 




39 




39 


18, 078 

1,323 

661 


14, 586 
706 
784 










1,102 

882 
124, 560 

882 


745 

353 

67, 716 

941 


81, 791 
36, 596 


81,243 
8,704 



209,930 



• Statistique Mensuelle du Commerce Extfirleur de la France, December, 1928. Values converted at 
average exchange rate for 1928, 1,000 francs=$39.210. 



INTERNATIONAL DYE TRADE 163 

Table 53. — France: Exports of coal-tar dyes, 1928 * 



Class of dye 



Dry 



Quantity Value 



Paste 



Quantity Value 



Nitroso 

Nitro 

Pyrozoline 

Stilbenes 

Monoazos 

Polyazos 

Thiobenzenyls 

Sulfurs 

Carbazol derivatives... 

Indophenols 

Indulines, nigrosines 

Azines, other 

Pyronines 

Phthaleines 

Eosines 

Diphenylmethanes 

Acridines 

Hydroquinones 

Indigotines 

Insoluble vat dyes (other than indigo). 

Synthetic indigo 

Alizarin 



Total. 



Pounds 

106, 482 

16, 975 

5,071 

5,511 

440, 920 

1,617,515 

24, 030 

336, 202 

1,984 

10. 141 

12, 346 

75, 177 

118,828 

9,921 

34, 392 

1, 337, 310 

7,496 

35, 053 

536, 379 

186, 730 

502, 869 

661 



29, 015 

8,705 

2,157 

3,411 

161, 075 

623, 086 

10, 273 

85, 478 

1,921 

6,195 

6,823 

31,172 

73, 244 

9,802 

47, 523 

511,651 

5,882 

32, 152 

115,003 

100, 809 

164,211 

196 



Pounds 
20, 723 



1,102 

1,323 

29, 321 

24, 692 



$5,842 

""'sio 

588 
15, 174 
13, 881 



2,i 



1,882 



220 

1,764 

33, 069 

9,700 



39 

980 

12, 979 

2,274 



5, 421, 993 



2, 029, 784 



81, 129 
9,259 
9,039 
1,361,341 
7,937 
996, 700 
1,102 



39 

19, 488 

3,098 

4,548 

107, 239 

4,666 

133, 314 

392 



2, 591, 287 



326, 933 



! Statistique Mensuelle du Commerce Exterieur de la France, December, 1928. Values converted at 
average exchange rate for 1928, 1,000 francs =$39,210. 

The Dye Industry of Italy 

There are about 15 plants in Italy making coal-tar dyes. Eight 
are located in the vicinity of Milan and others are near Turin, Cuneo, 
and Bergamo. The home industry produces about 90 per cent of the 
intermediates used by its dye makers. The remaining 10 per cent is 
made from imported crudes. 

The production of intermediates increased from 1,750,000 pounds 
in 1918 to 11,660,000 pounds in 1926, but declined to 10,000,000 
pounds in 1927. Aniline is the principal intermediate produced, the 
output being over 2,000,000 pounds annually. Other intermediates 
made in large quantities are H acid (770,000 pounds); betanaphthol 
(550,000 pounds); benzidine (550,000 pounds); and paranitro aniline 
(330,000 pounds). Intermediates produced in smaller quantities 
include tolidine, a-naphthylamine, gamma acid, naphthionic acid, and 
sulfanilic acid. 

The outstanding event in the Italian dye industry in 1928 was the 
merging of the Societa Italiana Prodotti Esplodenti (S. I. E. P.), the 
Societa Italica Colori Artificiali, the Societa Fabbriche Italiane 
Materie Coloranti Bonelli, and Belloni and Colli, into one con- 
cern under the name of Aziende Chimiche Nazionali Associate 
(A. C. N. A.). 

About 70 per cent of Italian production of dyes consists of sulfur 
colors. A beginning has been made in the production of certain vat 
dyes, particularly of indigo, the production of which in 1927 was esti- 
mated at 3,960,000 pounds (20 per cent). The Cesano Maderno 
plant alone has a capacity of over 13,000 pounds of synthetic indigo 
daily. Indanthrene black and Indanthrene dark blue are now made 
at the Cesano Maderno and Conca Fallata plants of the A. C. N. A. 
group. 



164 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



The Montecatini Co. — The largest chemical concern and user of 
electric energy for light and power in Italy is the "Montecatini 
Societa Generale per I'Industria Mineraria e Agricola. " This com- 
pany, originally incorporated in 1888, has become as much a holding 
as an operating company. Its activities include the production of 
sulfuric acid, copper sulfate, nitric acid, nitrocellulose, dynamite 
and gun powder, chemical fertilizers, synthetic nitrogen, aluminum, 
and rayon. 

A conservatively appraised value of the properties of the company 
and its subsidiaries is $28,700,000, excluding less than 75 per cent 
owned subsidiaries and mining properties valued at $9,900,000. The 
balance sheet of the company as of December 31, 1928, carries these 
fixed assets at a total value of approximately $13,000,000. 

The company's authorized capitalization consists of 6,000,000 
ordinary shares of 100 lire par value, of which 5,000,000 shares are 
outstanding. The only funded debt is an issue of $10,000,000 external 
7 per cent sinking fund gold debentures (maturing 1937) on which the 
interest and sinking fund requirements were earned 8.7 times for the 
year 1928. Regular dividend disbursements on the common stock 
were from 1922 to 1924 at the rate of 15 per cent annually and have 
since been at 18 per cent. 

The financial status^ of the Montecatini Co., from 1926 to 1928, 
inclusive, is indicated by the figures given below. 



Gross profits including dividends from participations. 

Deductions and appropriations: 

General expenses -- 

Interest on funded debt 

Tax account 

Depreciation and depletion 

General reserve and special funds 

Surplus for year 

Paid in dividends and bonuses 



1926 



$7, 157, 200 
375, 400 



1. 147, 900 

263, 000 

52, 600 

751, 500 

4, 566, 800 



1927 



$8, 074, 800 



390, 100 

582, 800 
, 370, 800 

263, 000 
52, 600 

573, 100 
, 836, 400 



1928 



$8, 563, 000 

514, 800 

665, 100 
1, 643, 500 

565, 500 
52, 600 

292, 400 
4, 829, 200 



IMPORTS AND EXPORTS 



The import trade of Italy in coal-tar dyes is shown in Tables 54 
and 55, and the export trade in Table 55. 

Table 54. — Italy: Imports of synthetic organic dyes by countries, 1928 " 



Imported from— 


Quantity 




Pounds 
160, 936 




2, 249, 353 




723, 550 




985, 456 


Other countries 


88, 625 








Total - - 


4,207,920 







• statistics del Commercio Speciale di Importazione e di Esportazione January-December, 1928. Values 
converted at average exchange rate 1928, 1 lira =$0.052571. 

2 The Financial World, Nov. 27, 1929. 



INTERNATIONAL DYE TRADE 165 

Table 55. — Italy: Imports and exports of synthetic organic dyes, 1928 ^ 



Class of dye 



Sulfur black 

Other sulfur dyes 

Account of German reparations 

Other synthetic organic dyes, dry, or containing less than 

50 per cent of water 

Account of German reparations 

Other synthetic organic dyes, in paste, or containing 50 per 

cent or more of water 

Account of German reparations 



Imports 



Quantity Value 



Pounds 
17, 857 
109, 789 
5,952 

3, 167, 569 
518, 743 

189, 155 
198, 855 



$7, 816 
98, 343 



3, 358, 520 



95, 699 



Total-- 4,207,920 

Natural indigo 9,480 



3, 560, 278 
9,648 



Exports 



Quantity 1 Value 



Pounds 

157,849 1 $28,649 
9, 480 4, 278 



627, 870 



796, 963 
7,937 



430, 372 



1,360 



464, 659 
3,276 



1 Statistica del Commercio Speciale di Importazione e di Esportazione, January-December, 1928. Values 
converted at average exchange rate 1D28, 1 lira =$0.052571. 

The Dye Industry of Japan 

The industrial policy of Japan is directed toward making the nation 
self-supporting in all necessary commodities. In 1915 and again in 
1927 the Government granted subsidies to joint stock companies to 
encourage the manufacture of dyes. In May, 1929, the Japanese 
Ministry of Commerce and Industry made a further move to secure 
governmental aid by asking the Diet to grant a subsidy to the artifi- 
cial indigo industry. It is planned to increase the annual production 
of 1,000 tons to 3,000 tons, with a view to exporting the surplus to 
China. The recommendation of the Industrial Chemical Society of 
Japan to the Government in favor of the subsidy is as follows: 

Artificial indigo constitutes one-third of the imported dyestuffs, and its ton- 
nage leads the list of all dj'es. Six manufacturers in this country have expended 
man}' j'ears of strenuous effort and an enormous amount of money in stud3'ing the 
methods of its manufacture. Thej" are, however, in a position where Government 
subsidies are required to enable them to stand against imported articles. There 
is no doubt that the establishment of independent artificial indigo manufacturing 
will greatly improve the nation's dyestuffs industry in general. We wish the 
Government to give its due consideration to the protection of this important 
center of the chemical industry of Japan. 

Synthetic indigo is at present [1929] produced by the Miike Mining 
Co., a subsidiary of Mitsui & Co., and the Nippon Senryo K. K. The 
output of the latter firm is estimated at 800,000 pounds. The Miike 
Mining Co. is enlarging its dye works and is building an indigo plant 
which will start production in 1932 with a reported capacity of about 
1,000 tons per year. A part of this plan is the purchase by Mitsui & 
Co. of a large number of shares in the Hakkai Soda Factory, which 
manufactures intermediates for artificial indigo. This factory will be 
under the control of Mitsui, beginning in 1930. 

The Mitsubishi Dye Co., is reported to be enlarging its plant to» 
increase its output of Malachite green by a process under develop- 
ment at the Government laboratories at Fukuyama. The use of a 
cheap raw material for Malachite green is expected to reduce the 
present manufacturing cost by 20 per cent. The company plans to 
make sufficient Malachite green to fulfill domestic requirements. 

Further details of legislation affecting the dye industry of Japan 
up to and including the year 1927, may be found in the Census of 
Dyes, 1927, page 164. 



166 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



IMPORTS AND EXPORTS 

The total imports of coal-tar dyes into Japan in 1927 were 5,273,488 
pounds, valued at $3,664,893, as compared with 6,986,501 pounds, 
valued at $4,324,805 in 1926. Of the 1927 import,. 2,229,397 pounds 
were synthetic indigo, of which 1,342,876 pounds came from Germany. 
Imports of dyes other than indigo imported in 1927 amounted to 
3,028,218 pounds, of which 1,543,805 pounds were from Germany. 
Germany supplied a smaller quantity of dyes in 1927 than in 1926. 

Exports of dyes in 1927 were 1,080,968 pounds, valued at $136,545, 
as compared with 1,046,520 pounds, valued at $152,657 in 1926. 
More than 90 per cent of the dyes exported went to China. 

Tables 56, 57, and 58 show the import and export trade of Japan 
in 1927 and 1928. 



Table 


56. — Japan: Imports of coal-tar dyes, 1927 ' 




Class of dye and country 
of origin 


Quantity 


Value 


Glass of dye and country 
of origin 


Quantity 


Value 


Dry indigo, natural: 

British India 


Pounds 

7,804 
8, 069 


$5, 215 
6,638 


other synthetic colors: 

Great Britain 


Pounds 

25, 794 

137,039 

1, 543, 805 

8,863 

468, 922 

843. 795 


$33, 662 


Dutch India 


France . 


117, 580 






1, 785, 035 
6,164 


Total 


15, 873 


11,853 


Belgium 






294, 424 
362, 222 


Synthetic indigo: 


299, 078 

1, 312, 876 

226, 591 

350, 852 


142, 708 
610, 658 
114,735 
185, 852 


United States 




Total 






3,02B, 2H 


2, 599, 087 




Grand total 




United States. 


5, 273, 488 


3, 664, 893 








Total.— 


2, 229, 397 


1, 053, 953 





• Annual Return of the Foreign Trade of the Empire of Japan, Pt. I, 1927. Values converted at annual 
exchange rate of 1 yen =$0.474113; 1,000 yen=$474.113. 



Table 57. — Japan: Ex-ports of coal-tar dyes, 1927 ' 



Country of destination 


Quantity 


Value 


Country of destination 


Quantity 


Value 


China 


Pounds 

998, 427 

46, 165 

2,910 

11, 508 

15,476 


$123, 744 
7,112 


Dutch East Indies. 


Pounds 
1,191 
5,?91 






Siam 


$474 




Total 




British India 


4,267 
948 


1. 080, 968 


136, 545 


Straits Settlements 











I Annual Return of the Foreign Trade of the Empire of Japan, Pt. I, 1927. Values converted at annual 
exchange rate of 1 yen =$0.474113. 

Table 58. — Japan: Imports and exports of coal-tar dyes, 1928 ^ 



Class of dye 



Quantity 



Value 



Synthetic colors: 

Indigo, artificial 

Basic colors 

Direct cotton colors. 

Acid colors 

Mordant colors 

Sulfide colors 

Vat colors 

other colors... 



Pounds 
1,714,838 
524, 035 
1, 525, 836 
807, 922 
639, 752 
211,254 
373, 374 
151,996 



$777, 285 
826,414 
984, 290 
642, 106 
597, 121 
120, 275 
529, 707 
128, 632 



Total. 



Coal-tar dyes, total. 



5, 949, 007 
2,570,892 



4,605,831 
269, 602 



1 Monthly return of the Foreign Trade of Japan, December, 1928. 
1 yen calendar year 1928 =$0.464096 



Values converted at exchange rate of 



INTERNATIONAL DYE TRADE 



167 



The Dye Industry of Switzerland 

As stated on page 142, Swiss dye manufacturers have concluded an 
agreement with German and French producers for the purpose of 
regulating and stabilizing the prices of dyes. The Society of Chem- 
ical Industry, Sandoz Chemical Works, and J. R. Geigy (Inc.), are 
signatories to the agreement, according to the terms of which the 
Swiss industry will retain its independence as to capitalization, prof- 
its, and commercial development, but \vill cooperate with the German 
and French industries in the sale of dyes. 

The agreement enlarges and reduces to writing the verbal agree- 
ment heretofore existing between Swiss and German dye manufac- 
turers regarding the prices of a limited number of standard dyes. 

The balance sheets of the Society of Chemical Industry for the year 
ended December 31, 1928, indicate a prosperous year. Increases are 
noted in sales, net profits, and reserves, and larger dividends were paid 
in some cases. 

The following excerpt from the report of the society for 1928 shows 
the financial condition of the Swiss chemical industry. 

The plants at Basel have been relatively well occupied with work during the 
past year, and the total sales in dyes showed a new increase. Our pharmaceuti- 
cal department is developing in a very satisfactory manner, especially as regards 
pharmaceutical specialties. On the other hand, the situation has been less satis- 
factory in commercial chemical products, for which the market is still unfavorable 
and leaves no hope for improvement in the near future. 

The new installations mentioned in our report for the year 1927 have been 
effected with results equalling our expectations. The constantly increasing 
demand for the products made in our Basel plants, especially for our series of 
special dyes, as well as the tendency to modernize old equipment and to ration- 
alize the whole enterprise on the basis of economic principles, have led us to 
make further additions and improvements to equipment. 

In addition to enlarging our plants at Basel, we have also been obliged to en- 
large our foreign plants in Germany, France, England, Italy, Poland, and the 
United States. In so far as we can judge the situation, this development of our 
foreign plants will continue in the future and will necessitate the use of additional 
capital. 

The capital reserves, net profits and assets of the five largest chem- 
ical firms in Basel on December 31, 1928, were as foUows: 



Society of Chemical Industry 

Sandoz Chemical Works 

J. R. Geigy S. A 

Durand & Huguenin 

Hoflmann-La Roche & C. .. 

Total 



Capital 



Swiss francs 
20, 000, 000 
7, 500, 000 
7, 500, 000 
2, 000, 000 
4,000,000 



41, 000, 000 



Reserves 



Swiss francs 

5, 003, 029 

3, 732, 609 

1 3, 500, 000 

350, 000 

1,620,000 



14, 205, 638 



Net profits 



Swiss francs 
5, 958, 385 
3, 414, 235 
I 3, 250, 000 
1, 302, 148 
3, 029, 101 



16, 953, 869 



Assets 



Swiss francs 

80, 126, 833 

29, 232, 424 

» 27, 500, 000 

7, 006, 833 

17, 564, 080 



161, 430, 170 



1 Estimated. 

It will be noted from the foregoing statement that the firms listed 
have an aggregate capital of 41,000,000 Swiss francs ($7,915,057) 
and resources of 161,430,170 francs ($31,164,125). Since December 
31 last, however, the Sandoz Chemical Works and J. R. Geigy 
S. A. have each increased their capital from 7,500,000 to 10,000,000 
francs, which will add 5,000,000 francs to the total capital stated 
above. 



168 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

The three firms Hsted first, known as the Basel Dye Consortium, 
own jointly chemical works at Grenzach, Germany; St. Fons, France; 
Clayton, England; Seriate, Italy; Pabianice, Poland; and Cincinnati, 
United States. The assets of these concerns are independent of the 
figures heretofore given. 

It is a policy of all the large industrial concerns in Switzerland 
to put aside a certain amount of their earnings each year as a pension 
fund for aged and disabled employees. The aggregate pension fund 
of Basel's chemical firms on December 31 last amounted to 8,808,103 
Swiss francs ($1,700,000). 

The percentages of net profits in 1928 on the amount of capital 
invested by the five firms mentioned were as follows: 

Per cent 

Society of Chemical Industry 29. 79 

Sandoz Chemical Works 45. 50 

J. R. Geigy S. A. ^ 42.33 

Durand & Huguenin 65. 10 

F. Hoffmann-La Roche & Co 75. 72 

F. Hoffmann-La Roche & Co. is the only one of the above firms 
engaged exclusively in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals. This 
branch of the trade is being rapidly developed by the Society of 
Chemical Industry and the Sandoz Chemical Works, both of which 
are large dye manufacturers. The other two concerns are engaged 
exclusively in the manufacture of aniline dyes. 

IMPORTS AND EXPORTS 

Imports are about one-tenth of domestic production by quantity or 
by value. They consist almost entirely of German dyes imported 
for the textile industry. 

Switzerland exports about 90 per cent of her production of dyes. 
Despite serious competition, exports in 1928 were greater in value by 
about a half million dollars than in 1927. Exports of indigo declined 
steadily from 1924 through 1927, but increased from 3,383,411 pounds 
in 1927 to 4,525,870 pounds in 1928. Shipments to China m 1928 
were 1,000,000 pounds above 1927. 

Of dyes other than indigo those exported to Germany and to France 
decreased in quantity and value and those exported to the United 
States increased. The dyes exported to these two countries, as well 
as to the United States, are high-cost products with an average value 
of over $1 per pound. Germany was the best customer of Switzer- 
land, taking, in 1928, 3,801,262 pounds of aniline and other coal-tar 
dyes, valued at $2,582,846, and 45,311 pounds of indigo, valued at 
$10,720. 

' Estimated. 



INTERNATIONAL DYE TRADE 



169 



T.4,BLE 59.- — Switzerland: Imports and exports of coal-tar dyes, 1928 ' 

IMPORTS 



Class of dye and country 
of origin 


Quantity 


Value 


Class of dye and country of 
origin 


Quantity Value 


Alizarin: 


Pounds 

49, 800 

379 

44 


$10, 876 
121 

7 


Aniline and other coal-tar 
dyes— Continued. 

Czechoslovakia 


Pounds 

295 
706 






$255 




United States 


815 




Total 




Total -- 


50, 223 


11,004 


2, 128, 888 

65, 309 

8,060 

11 


1, 551, 190 




Indigo, indigo solution: 

Germany . 




Aniline and other coal-tar 


1, 936, 349 

13 

90,872 

25, 049 

3,953 

2,471 

69, 180 


1, 428, 784 

12 

61, 096 

9,059 

3, 535 

2,563 

45, 071 


23,461 




France. 


982 




Bulgaria 


4 




Total 




Italy . --- 


73, 380 


24,447 


Belgium. -. 

Netherlands 


Grand total imports... 




2,252,491 


1, 586, 641 















EXPORTS 



Class of dye and country 
of destination 



Alizarin: British India 

Aniline and other coal-tar 
dyes: 

Germany.. 

Austria 

France 

Italy.. 

Belgium 

Netherlands.. 

Great Britain 

Spain 

Portugal - 

Denmark... 

Norway 

Sweden 

Finland 

Lettland 

Poland. 

Czechoslovakia 

Hungary 

Yugoslavia 

Greece 

Bulgaria 

Rumania 

Russia 

Turkey... 

Egypt 

Mesopotamia... 

Syria 

British India 

Siam 

Indo-China.. 

Dutch East Indies 

China. 

Japan 

Canada 

United States 

Mexico.. 

Brazil 

Uruguay. 



Quantity 



Pounds 
75, 031 



3, 801, 262 

265, 033 

1, 229, 464 

925, 222 

899, 860 

430, 408 

1, 196, 846 

229, 400 

177,219 

150, 731 

89, 859 

527, 508 

101,451 

68, 960 

391, 689 

1, 227, 398 

147, 805 

147, 186 

45, 750 

165, 519 

238, 430 

19, 760 

19, 590 

58, 909 

13, 360 

74, 784 

762, 527 

21, 552 

34, 143 

156, 688 

387, 183 

795, 188 

338, 999 

1, 191, 275 

102, 139 

223, 738 

2,469 



Value 



$13, 291 



2, 582, 846 
181, 929 

1, 582, 055 
890, 161 
481, 600 
304, 799 

1,273,480 
492, 506 
102, 616 
124, 134 
73, 868 
424, 687 

96, 676 
60, 031 

489, 361 
757, 636 

97, 015 
83, 891 
37, 305 

107, 767 

152, 330 
47, 643 
14, 483 
38, 407 
10, 428 
29, 464 

565,496 
13, 385 
25, 217 

132, 209 

241, 529 
707, 241 
239, 676 

1,282,091 
70, 455 

242, 794 
1,828 



Class of dye and country 
of destination 



Aniline and other coal-tar 
dyes— Continued. 

Argentina 

Chile. 

Peru 

Ecuador 

Australian Federation... 
All others... 



Total. 



Indigo, indigo solution: 

Germany 

France 

Italy 

Belgium 

Great Britain 

Spain 

Portugal 

Denmark 

Yugoslavia 

Bulgaria 

Rumania 

Turkey 

Egypt 

Mesopotamia 

Syria 

British India 

Indo-China 

Dutch East Indies. 
Philippine Islands.. 

China 

Japan 

Canada 

United States 

Mexico 

Others 



Quantity 



Pounds 

143, 819 

21, 140 

6,832 

6,091 

14, 286 

19, 366 



Value 



16, 870, 838 



45,311 
5,326 

27, 306 
5,302 
2,815 

18, 653 
7,463 
3,009 
4,101 

15, 243 
9, 250 
2,650 

78, 325 

21, 532 

8,926 

193, 072 

6,261 

35, 274 

3, 593 

, 884, 942 

117, 596 

13, 117 
346 

11,795 
4,662 



$98, 256 
12,016 
4,315 
3,708 
10, 905 
16, 188 



14, 204, 433 



Total 4, 525, 870 



10, 720 

1,473 

3,454 

779 

1,621 

11,568 
4,923 
3,193 
2,292 
6,485 
4,174 
1,148 

23, 132 
8,568 
3,459 

75,887 
2,307 

11,334 

1,319 

644, 589 

55, 513 

5,157 

459 

4,638 

2,846 



891, 037 



Grand total exports.... 21, 471, 739 15, 108, 761 



Statistik des Warenverkehrs der Schweiz mit dem Auslande, 1928. 
exchange rate, 1928, 1 franc =$0.1 92596. 



Values converted at average 



85526—30- 



-12 



170 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



The Dye Trade of Other Countries 

Table 60. — Argentina: Imports of coal-tar dyes, 1927 



Class of dye 


Quantity 


Value 




Pounds 
864, 020 
353 


$536, 955 




253 








Total 


864, 373 


537, 208 







1 Aniiario del Comercio Exterior de la Repriblica Argentina, 1927. Values converted at average exchange 
rate, 1927, gold peso = $0.96295. 

Table 61. — Belgium: Imports and exports of coal-tar dyes, 1928 * 



Class of dye and country of 
origin 


Quantity 


Value 


Class of dye and country of 
destination 


Quantity 


Value 


IMPORTS 


Pounds 

1,102 

2,425 

16, 535 


$473 

641 

4,067 


E. SPORTS 

Alizarin 


Pounds 
20, 944 


$1, 003 




Aniline dyes: 

Germany... 






1, 008, 825 

5,071 

91, 050 

64, 595 

55, 335 

480, 823 




Other countries 


300, 931 


Total - 


20, 062 


5,181 


Great Britain 


2,340 


Alizarin - 


76,058 


29, 751 


Netherlands 


50, 113 


Aniline dyes: 


2, 964, 967 
459, 659 

1, 094, 363 
449, 518 
536. 600 


1, 157, 007 

90, 393 

299, 789 

84, 683 

254, 745 

1, 886, 617 


Sweden . 


12,285 


All other 


109, 698 




Total. 




United States 


1, 705, 699 




France 


502, 610 


Netherlands - 

Switzerland 


Other coal-tar dyes: 

Brazil . 


2,645 






5, 505, 107 


501 




France 








Indigo, synthetic: 


287. 480 

3,748 

291, 228 


34, 792 
1,003 

35, 795 


Netherlands... 


13,228 
42, 108 


473 


Germany 


All other 


2,591 




Total..-.- 




Total 


57, 981 


3,621 


Indigo, natural 


1,102 


306 


Grand total exports 


1, 784, 624 


507, 234 




Other coal-tar dyes: 

Germany 


6,393 

221 

661 

10, 803 


2,033 
167 
223 

2,173 




United States.. 




Netherlands .. 




All other. 




Total 


18, 078 


4,596 




Grand total imports 


5,911,635 


1,962,246 





1 Bulletin Mensuel du Commerce Special, Decembre, 1928. Values converted at average exchange rate, 
1928, 1,000 francs= $27.8562. 

Table 62. — Canada: Imports of coal-tar dyes, year ended March SI, 1928 * 



Class and country of origin 


Quantity 


Value 


Aniline and coal-tar dyes, soluble in water, in bulk or package of not less than 1 
pound weight, including alizarin and artificial alizarin: 
United Kingdom 


Pounds 

100, 187 

1, 632, 598 

33, 320 

799, 153 

379, 447 

3,536 


$73, 461 


United States . . 


854, 474 




14, 500 


Germany 


508, 079 


Switzerland 


204, 927 


All other 


2,006 






Total ... 


2, 948. 241 


1, 657, 447 






Aniline and coal-tar dyes, n.o.p: 

United Kingdom . 


4,722 
8,362 
2,725 


2,422 


United States 


3, 583 


All other 


332 






Total 


15, 809 


6,337 






Indigo: United States 


232 


235 






Indigo paste and extract of: United States 


147, 446 


15, 614 






Grand total. .. . .. 


3, 111, 728 


1, 679, 633 







' Monthlv Report of the Trade of Canada, Mar. 31, 1928. Values converted at average exchange rate, 
year ended Mar. 31, 1928, 1 Canadian dollar= $0.99976. 



INTERNATIONAL DYE TRADE 



171 



Table 63. — China: Imports of dyes, colors, and paints, 1927 ' 



Class of dye and country of 

origin 



Aniline: 

Hong Kong 

Macao 

French Indo-China 

Siam , 

Singapore, Straits, etc... 

Dutch East Indies 

British India.. 

Great Britain. 

Denmarlj 

Germany. 

Netherlands 

Belgium 

France 

Switzerland. 

Italy... 

Russia (Pacific ports) 

Korea 

Japan (including For- 
mosa). 

Philippine Islands 

Canada 

United States (including 
Hawaii) 

Total.. 

Reexports 



Total net imports 

Indigo, synthetic, liquid or 
paste: 

Hong Kong... 

Macao 

Singapore, Straits, etc... 

British India 

Great Britain.. 

Germany 

Netherlands.. 

Belgium 

France. 

Switzerland-- 

Italy 

Russia (Pacific ports) 

Korea 

Japan (including For- 
mosa) - -. 

Philippines 

United States 



Total- 

Reexports 

Total net imports 

Indigo, synthetic, dried: 

Hong Kong - -- 

British India 

Great Britain 

Germany 

Netherlands.- 

Belgium 

France 

Japan (including For- 
mosa) 



Quantity 



Pounds 



2, 726, 800 

7,600 

45, 733 

1,333 

2, 312, 533 

12, 346, 933 

4,916,267 

67, 067 

1, 131, 200 

2, 252, 933 

1,333 

667 

45, 067 

55, 200 

60,000 

11, 919, 600 



37, 890, 266 
183, 067 



37, 707, 199 



632, 800 

3,200 

68, 667 

1, 755, 467 

563, 333 

8,000 

20,667 

133 



Value 



$561,747 

560 

306 

557 

796 

27 

3,809 

159, 522 

383 

1, 765, 218 

708, 643 

12, 092 

93, 776 

81,246 

1,515 

2,009 

11, 358 

88,811 

67 

440 

273, 451 



3, 766, 333 
437, 895 



3, 328, 438 



669, 748 

1,337 

13, 173 

1,101 

316, 527 

2, 156, 745 

828, 107 

10, 705 

161, 150 

343, 596 

201 

136 

11,012 

7,809 

8,593 

1, 398, 533 



5, 928, 473 
37, 172 



5, 891, 301 



303, 889 
2,897 
24,017 
705, 933 
221, 281 
2,970 
7,674 

213 



Class of dye and country of 
origin 



Indigo, synthetic, dried— Con. 

United States 

All other 



Total... 

Reexports 

Total net imports. 



Indigo, natural, liquid or 
dried: 

Hong Kong 

Netherlands 

Japan (including For- 
mosa) , 

Total 



Sulfur black: 

Hong Kong. 

Singapore, Straits 

Germany 

Netherlands.. 

Italy 

Korea 

Japan (including For- 
mosa) 

United States (including 
Hawaii) 

Total 

Reexports 

Total net imports 

Dyes and colors, unclassi- 
fied: 

Hong Kong 

Macao . 

French Indo-China 

Siam 

Singapore, Straits 

Dutcli East Indies 

British India 

Great Britain 

Sweden.. 

Germany 

Netherlands 

Belgium 

France.. 

Switzerland.. 

Italy 

Russia (Pacific ports) 

Korea 

United States (including 

Hawaii)... 

South Africa (including 

Mauritius) 

Another 



Total. 

Reexports 

Total net imports. 



Grand total 49,904,398 



Quantity 



Pounds 

2,267 

28,133 



3, 082, 667 
28, 534 



3, 054, 133 



54, 667 
33, 333 



14, 133 



102, 133 



966, 400 

1,333 

917, 734 

889, 733 

26, 000 

28,133 

3, 006, 667 

3, 380, 933 



9, 216, 933 
176, 000 



9, 040, 933 



Value 



$1, 027 
10, 767 



1, 280, 668 
11,346 



1, 269, 322 



5,078 
15, 978 



601 



21, 657 



110, 001 

156 

82, 180 

83,864 

4,340 

3,862 

264, 582 

322, 953 



871, 938 
17, 271 



854, 667 



148, 192 

11 

847 

977 

26, 205 

7,052 

3,446 

11,654 

61 

44, 816 

18, 738 

1,508 

11,966 

211 

2,926 

3,935 

12, 099 

124, 627 

35, 665 
599 



455, 535 
21, 992 



433, 543 



, 036. 947 



' Foreign Trade of China, 1927. Values converted at average exchange rate, 1927, 1 Haikwan tael= 
$0.6806. 
2 Exclusive of "aniline dyes" and "dyes and colors, unclassified" amounting to a value of $3,761,981. 

Table 64. — China: Exports of indigo, 1927 * 



Country of destination 


Quantity 


Value 


Hong Kong 


Pounds 
109, 200 
16, 400 
1,200 
142, 533 
13,200 


$3,960 


Macao.. 


925 


French Indo-China 


30 


Singapore, Straits 


3,711 


British India.. - 


1,078 








Total 


282, 533 


9,710 







1 Foreign Trade of China, 1927. 
$0.6806. 



Values converted at average exchange rate, 1927, 1 Haikwan tael = 



172 CENSUS OF DYES AXD OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 
Table 65. — China: Imports of dyes, colors, and paints, 1928 i 



Class of dye and country 
of origin 



Qnantity 



Value 



Aniline dye: 

Hong Kong 

Macao 

French Indo-China 

Siam 

British India 

Great Britain 

Denmark... 

Germsny 

Xeti:crlands. 

Belgium. 

France 

Switzerland.. 

Italy 

Austria 

Russia and Siberia 

Korea 

Japan (including For- 
mosa) 

Philippine Islands 

United States (includ- 
ing Hawaii) 



Pounds 



.5578. 



3, 

341, 

1, 

2.509, 

1,381, 

6, 

89, 

161, 

3, 
30. 

6, 



OSO 
598 
184 
200 
168 
Sol 
530 
528 
057 
939 
441 
280 
350 
931 
875 
877 



91.469 

laoio 



404.509 



Total direct gross 

imports 

Beexports 



5. 621. 877 
2C4.421 



Total net imports 
from abroad 

Indigo, arttficial, liquid or 
paste: 

Hong Kong - 

Macao 

French Indo-China 

Singapore, Straits, etc. 

Great Britain 

Germany 

Netherlands 

Belgium... 

France.. 

Switzerland-- 

Italy-- 

Austria 

Eussia (Pacific ports)— 

Korea 

Japan (including For- 
mosa) 

United Stat-es (includ- 
ing Hawaii) 



5, 357, 456 



2,072,384 

1.323 

36,244 

264 

4,486.836 

16, 171. .525 

2. 516, 438 

84,525 

870, 515 

2, 757. 446 

320,639 

27, 910 

304,237 

67,329 

189,950 

12, 329, 010 



610. 415 

473 

8,379 

109 

3.3k6,034 

759.463 

10,907 

122.385 

476. 140 

59,754 

3.581 

51,947 

17,963 

21,889 

1,500,236 



Total direct gross 

imports 

Eeexports 



42,236,575 I 
110,451 i 



7, 574, 133 
19,995 



Total net imports 
from abroad 



Indigo, arttficial, grains 
and dried: 

Hong Kong 

French Indo-China 

British India 

Great Britain 

Germany -.. 

Netherlands.. 

France.- 

Switzerland 

Italy - 

Japan (including For- 
mosa). 



42, 126, 124 •■ 7, 554, 138 



415, 747 

6,614 

11, 376 

112,568 

2, 583, 105 

955, 701 

11,905 : 

48,678 

12,037 

529 i 



230,546 

3.882 

10,913 

33,616 

1, 014, 462 

382,433 

4,904 

20,047 

4,565 

397 



Class of dye and cotmtry 
of origin 



Quantity Value 



Indigo, artificial, grains 
and dried — Contd. 
United States (includ- 
ing Hawaii) 



Pounds 
1,984 



$692 



Total direct gross 

imports- ...q 4,160,244 , 1,706,457 

Reexports \ 30,291 i 7,919 

Total net imports i 

from abroad ' 4,129,953; 1,698,538 



Indigo, natural, liquid or 
dried: 

Hong Kong 

Macao 

Korea 



Total direct imports. 



68,784 
397 
529 



4,208 

9 

113 



69,710 



4,330 



Sulfur black: i 

Hong Kong 1, 

Great Britain 

Germany 6, 

Netherlands 3, 

Italy 

Russia (Pacific ports).., 

Korea ...I 

Japan (including For- 
mosa) 

United States (includ- 
ing Hawaii) 



087,846 

75,001 

360,275 

457,588 

7,672 

13,095 

17,461 

2, 716, 575 



4,146,884 



124,740 

7,936 

654,301 

279, 726 

890 

1,305 

2,481 

234,036 

432, 015 



Total direct gross ' 

imports.. 17,882,395 

Reexports 91,271 



Total net imports 
from abroad 



Dves and colors, unclassi- 
fied: 

Hong Kong 

Macao 

French Indo-China 

Singapore, Straits 

Dutch East Indies 

British India 

Great Britain 

Norway 

Germany 

Netherlands 

Belgium 

F'rance 

Italy-- 

Russia (Pacific ports)-. 

Korea 

Japan (including For- 
mosa) 

United States (includ- 
ing Hawaii) 



17, 791, 124 



1, 737, 430 
9,367 



1, 728, 063 



Total direct gross 

imports 

Reexport 



Total net imports 
from abroad 



134,315 

449 

195 

56,423 

18,551 

4,283 

19,134 

255 

95, 712 

17,234 

3,975 

10,348 

121 

22,564 

18,136 

118,013 

14,897 



534,605 
15, 879 



518, 726 



Total imports all 
dyes ;«10,985, 



'Forei?n trade of Chiaa, 192S. Valas convened at average exchange rate, ViZ^, Haikwan tael=$0.7058 
•Exclusive of ".Ajiiline dyes" and ' Dyes and colors, onclassified" amounting in value to $5,876,182. 



* INTERNATIONAL DYE TRADE 173 

Table 66. — Czechoslovakia: Imports and exports of coal-tar dyes, 1927 * 



Class of dye and country of 
origin 



IMPORTS 

Anthraquinone dyes: 

Germany 

Switzerland 

United States 

Hamburg 

Great Britain 

Belgium 

France 

Netherlands 

Austria 

Total 

Sulfur black: 

Germany.- --. 

Belgium 

Netherlands 

United States 

Switzerland 

France 

Hamburg 

Austria 

Total 

Other sulfur and azo dyes 

Netherlands 

Germany... 

Switzerland 

France 

Total 

All other coal-tar dyes: 

Germany 

Switzerland 

France 

Netherlands. 

United States 

Hamburg 

Belgium 

Great Britain 

Austria 

Hungary 

Italy 

Sweden 

British India 

Total.. 

Grand total 



Quantity I Value 



Pounds 

216, 492 

57, 761 

17, 416 

8,157 

2,205 

1,984 

1,543 

1,102 

220 



306, 880 



831, 796 

76, 720 

42,328 

33, 069 

26, 896 

8,818 

1,102 

221 



$106, 669 

50, 624 

918 

1,007 

415 

1,066 

504 

385 

415 



162, 003 



101, 604 
3,347 

7,879 
1,748 

717 
1,244 

148 
59 



1, 020, 950 121, 746 



31, 746 

10, 803 

4,850 

220 



12, 589 

2,785 

1,985 

207 



47, 619 



17, 566 



4, 490, 770 

1, 512, 576 

233, 908 

136, 906 

64, 154 

37, 478 

29, 101 

21, 164 

17, 196 

2,866 

2,425 

1,984 

221 



3,091,915 

786, 997 

81, 164 

71, 093 

18, 899 

18, 691 

10, 190 

11,138 

8,176 

1,274 

977 

889 

29 



6, 550, 749 4, 101, 432 



7, 926, 198 I 4, 402, 747 



Class of dye and country of 
origin or destination 



IMPORTS — continued 

Indigo, natural: 

Germany 

France 

United States 

Switzerland 

Netherlands... 

Total 

EXPORTS 

Sulfur and other azo dyes: 

Germany 

Poland 



Total. 



All other coal-tar dyes: 

Germany 

Russia 

Hungary 

Austria 

Bulgaria 

Rumania. 

Netherlands 

Yugoslavia 

Belgium 

Switzerland 

Poland 

Sweden 

Spain 

Finland 

Italy 

Turkey... 

All other 



Total , 

Grand total. 

Indigo, natural: 

Austria 

Germany , 

Poland 

Hungary 



Total. 



Quantity | Value 



Pounds 

593, 340 

259, 380 

27,500 

1,980 

660 



882, 860 



441 



707, 677 

231, 042 

128, 969 

84, 436 

67,240 

48,060 

23,589 

22,928 

20, 503 

17, 196 

15, 432 

3,96S 

2,646 

1,543 

1,323 

1,323 

3,307 



25, 520 

2,200 

1,320 

440 



29,480 



$97, 160 

19, 314 

2,103 

1,333 

30 



119,939 



207 

237 



444 



296, 812 

162, 773 

37, 324 

30,925 

13,537 

9,835 

8,146 

7,702 

12,323 

6,783 

10,990 

1,629 

1,185 

533 

1,037 

1,037 

1,985 



1,381,182 604,556 



1,381,623 605,000 



2,607 

89 

207 

59 



2,962 



1 Commerce Estfirieur de la Republique Tchecoslovaque, 1927, Part I. 
exchange rate, 1927, 1,000 crowns=$29.622. 



Values converted at average 



174 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC* CHEMICALS 

Table 67. — Dutch East Indies: Imports of coal-tar dyes, 1927 ^ 



Class of dye and country of 
origin 



DRY 

Dyes and dyestuffs in small 
packages: 
Alizarin — 

Netherlands 

Germany 



Total. 



Aniline- 
Netherlands 

Great Britain 

Germany 

France 

Belgium and Luxem- 
burg 

Italy 

Switzerland 

All others 



Total. 



Other dyes and dyestuHs: 
Alizarin- 
Netherlands 

Germany 

Other countries 



Total. 



Aniline- 
Netherlands. 

Germany 

France 



Total. 



Indigo, synthetic — 

Germany 

Other countries. 



Total. 

Total dry dyestuffs. 



Quantity 



Pounds 

4,268 

108, 601 



Value 



$1,389 
36, 036 



112,869 j 37,425 



118,733 : 47,183 

2,304 743 

1,891,708 I 991,984 

79,006 : 29,390 

52, 417 11, 390 

9,669 : 7,626 

164,823 i 125,630 

617 : 253 



2,319,277 1 1,214, 199 



3,869 

21, 523 

1,874 



27, 266 


8,473 


3,441 

141, 117 

9,916 


913 
44, 391 
2,488 


154, 474 


47, 792 


1,779 
884 


542 
247 


2,663 


789 



2, 616, 549 



1,239 

6,984 

250 



1, 308, 678 



Class of dye^a^d country of Q^^ntityl Value 



Dyes, prepared or wet: 
Alizarin, 20 per cent- 
Great Britain 

Germany 

France - 

Italy 

Switzerland. 

All other 



Total.... 741,751 93,644 



Pounds 

87, 573 

605, 357 

6,929 

5,953 

34, 610 

1,329 



Alizarin, 40 per cent — 

Germany 270,811 

France.... ] 24,958 

Switzerland ! 10,505 



Total. 



306, 274 



Indigo, synthetic — 

Netherlands 29,189 

Germany 1,992,756 

France I 308,472 

Switzerland 

United States 

All other 



Total.. -. 

Total paste dyes. 
Grand total 



$15, 687 

72, 402 

810 

483 

4,136 

126 



65, 897 
5,252 
2,628 



73, 777 




1 From Jaaroverzicht van den in en uitvoer van Nederlandsch-Indie Gedurende, 1927, Part I, II. 
Values converted at average of exchange rate, 1927, 1 gulden=$0. 401065. 



INTERNTAIONAL DYE TRADE 175 

Table 68. — Dutch East Indies: Imports of coal-tar dyes, 1928^ 



Class of dye and country of 
origin 



Dyes and dyestuffs in small 
packages: 
Alizarin — 

Germany 

Other countries.— 



Total. 



Quantity 



Pounds 

98, 468 

781 



Value 



$33, 578 
257 



99, 249 33, 835 



Aniline — j 

Netherlands. ..I 97,640 < 31,644 

1,827,878 I 947,519 

43,290 I 19,673 



Germany. 

France 

Belgium and Luxem- 
burg 

Switzerland 

Other countries 



Total. 



All others — 

Netherlands 

Great Britain... 

Germany 

France 

Italy 

Switzerland 

United States... 

Hong Kong 

China 

Other countries. 

Total 



49, 692 
221, 125 

625 



11, 123 

128, 559 
205 



2,240,250 1,138,723 



55, 886 

74, 932 

128, 685 

2,928 

1,755 

1,797 

37, 079 

5,353 

9,363 

2,229 



5,770 

7,623 

27, 554 

1,918 

918 

931 
3,511 

916 
1.629 

355 



320,007 51,125 



Class of dye and country of 
origin 



Dyes and dyestuffs in small 
packages — Continued 
Indigo, synthetic — 

Germany 

Switzerland 

Other countries 



Total- 



Paste dyes, prepared or wet: 
Alizarin, 20 per cent — 

Netherlands 

Great Britain 

Germany 

Japan 



Total.. 793,103 90,238 



Quantity 



Pounds 
22, 037 
3,832 
5,917 



31, 786 



33, 658 

75, 000 

674, 524 

9,921 



Alizarin, 40 per cent — 

Netherlands 

Germany 



Total. 



Indigo, synthetic- 
Netherlands... 

Germany 

France. 

Switzerland... 
United States. 



Total. 

Grand total. 



4,623 
283,046 



15, 688 

1, 667, 185 

143, 328 

39, 731 

85, 452 



Value 



$3,468 

1,147 

460 



5,075 



3,498 

9,321 

76, 614 

805 



1,118 
65,826 



287,669 66,944 



2,365 

319, 148 

19, 251 

11, 472 

7,414 



1,951,384 359,650 



5,723,448 11,745,590 



1 From Jaaroverzicht van den in en uitvoer van Nederlandsch-Indie Gedurende, 1928, Part I, II. 
Values converted at average exchange rate, 1928, 1 gulden=$0. 402238. 

Table 69.^ — Egypt: Imports of coal-tar dyes, 1928^ 



Class of dye and country of 
origin 


Quantity 


Value 


Class of dye and country of 
origin 


Quantity 


Value 


Synthetic indigo: 


Pounds 
133, 394 


$30. 044 


Other dyes: 

United Kingdom 


Pounds 
6,135 
14, 288 
4,967 


$5, 096 


Germany 


387,326 j 91,584 
67, 212 l.S. 194 


Germany 


12, 748 




Other countries 


3,279 




8,988 


2,631 


Total 






25, 390 


21, 123 




596, 920 


139,453 


Natural indigo: British India.. 
Grand total - 






16, 605 


10,802 


Other coal-tar dyes: 
Germany 


326, 230 
57, 238 
85, 966 


129, 949 
23,844 
25, 352 


1, 108, 349 


350, 623 




Reexports: 






5,604 
5,148 






2,116 


Total 


469, 434 


179, 145 


Other coal-tar dyes 

Total 


4,123 








10, 752 


6,239 




Total net imports 






1, 097, 597 


344, 284 



1 Monthly Summary of the Foreign Trade of Egypt, December, 1928. Values converted at average 
exchange rate, 1928, £E1=$4.9915. 



176 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Table 70.— India: Imports of coal-tar dyes and exports of natural indigo, year ended 

March SI, 1928 ' 



Class of dye and country of 
origin 



Alizarin: 

United Kingdom -.. 

Germany 

Netherlands 

Belgium 

France 

Switzerland 

Italy - 

United States 

Total - 

Aniline: 

United Kingdom 

Aden and dependencies. 

Ceylon 

Straits Settlements 

Hong Kong 

Georgia 

Germany 

Netherlands.. 

Belgium 

France 

Switzerland 

Italy 

Austria 

Persia 

Japan 

United States 

Other countries 

Total.. 

Other coal-tar dyes: 

United Kingdom 

Ceylon _., 

Hong Kong 

Germany 

Netherlands 

Bel.ium 

France 

Italy 

Total 

Indigo, synthetic: 

United Kingdom 

Italy 

China 

Other countries 

Total 

Total imports 



Quantity 



Pounds 

1, 284, 005 

3, 000, 738 

514, 379 

62, 286 
8,373 i 

84, 546 
154, 900 

63, 504 



Value 



5, 172, 731 



357, 063 

3,760 

691, 805 

960 

6,352 

15, 596 

9, 005, 045 

227, 730 

187, 207 

158, 247 

520, 442 

730, 577 

2,346 

5,756 

16, 196 

1, 326, 946 

95 



13, 156, 123 



5,218 
22, 906 
1,680 
95, 071 
4,782 
2,352 
1,120 
2, 825 



135, 954 



13,216 



18, 478, 024 



$280, 847 

704, 809 

115,155 

12, 807 

2,128 

17, 662 

34, 125 

29, 852 



1, 197, 385 



269, 886 

1, 759 

350, 759 

873 

4,238 

7,929 

4, 219, 515 

150, 487 

103, 317 

97, 021 

364, 924 

424, 723 

488 

3,958 

9,234 

504, 555 

29 



6, 513, 593 



1,436 

43, 078 

1,251 

105, 037 

2,360 

2,161 

475 

1,694 



157, 492 



112 


171 


9,184 


5,081 


3,808 


1,928 


112 


14 



7,194 



7, 875, 664 



Class of dye and country of 
origin or destination 



Quantity 



REEXPOETS 

Alizarin: 

United Kingdom 

Ceylon 

Germany 

Other countries 

Total 

Aniline: 

United Kingdom 

Aden and dependencies 

Ceylon 

Straits Settlements 

Zanzibar and Pemba... 

Kenya Colony 

Tanganyka 

Germany 

Netherlands.. 

Belgium 

Italy 

Maskatt Territory 

Persia. 

Siam 

Japan 

Portuguese East Africa- 
United States 

Other countries 

Total 

Other dyes: 

Siam 

Other countries 

Total 

Total reexports.. 

Grand total net im- 
ports... 

EXPORTS 

Natural indigo: 

United Kingdom 

Cypress 

Georgia. 

Germany 

Italy 

Greece 

Turkey 

Syria 

Iraq 

Persia 

Japan 

Eg\-pt 

All other 

Total.. 



Pounds 
230 
93, 633 

646 
1,136 



95, 645 



11,508 

.5,964 

509, 140 

1,686 

3,832 

2,624 

1,500 

430, 010 

3,239 

81,816 

55, 436 

2,152 

46, 708 

17, 993 

1,904 

1,112 

1,120 

3,300 



1, 181, 044 


911,177 


2,500 
4.50 


1,819 
216 


2,950 


2,035 


1, 279, 639 


938, 625 


17, 198, 385 


6, 937, 139 



50, 624 
2,464 
1,456 
1,120 
5,376 

34, 832 
5,376 

16, 576 

54, 544 
8,400 
6,832 

19,264 
2,016 



Value 



$55 

24, 430 

522 

306 



25, 313 



8,216 

4,191 

334, 836 

1,180 

2,989 

2,021 

1,257 

386,330 

1,681 

67,504 

45, 091 

1,581 

32, 950 

13, 089 

1,670 

1,109 

3,323 

2,259 



45, 841 

2,154 

1,775 

609 

2,736 

32, 892 
4,793 

14, 833 

63, 583 
6,503 
4,668 

14, 560 
1,744 



186, 671 



1 Annual Statement of the Sea-borne Trade of British India, year ended Mar. 31, 1928, vol. 1. Values 
converted at average exchange rate for year ended Mar. 31, 1928, i rupee =$0.3638. 

Table 71. — India: Imports of coal-tar dyes, calendar year, 1928^ 



Class of dye and country of 
origin 


Quantity 


Value 


Class of dye and country of 
origin 


Quantity 


Value 


Alizarin: Pounds 
United Kingdom 1,164,963 


$235, 394 

702, 058 

139, 171 

4,333 

1,038 

19, 651 


Aniline— continued 

Belgium .. 


Pounds 

165, 153 
360, 676 


$79, 947 


Germany 3,413,695 




255, 904 


Netherlands . . 1 705,412 


Italy 


865, 418 


554, 296 


Belgium ...' 22.935 


United States . 


1, 402, 772 
393, 097 


608, 209 




5,600 
100, 878 


Other countries 


280, 275 




Total 






14, 373, 193 


-^- 




1, 101, 545 




Total ...1 0,415.4/3 


Other coal-tar dyes 




.\^niline: 


317, 467 

5, 109, 216 

314, 651 


309, 439 

20,096,106 
42, 336 


322, 605 


United Kingdom 

Germany ...... 


489, 435 

10, 163, 574 

643, 068 


Total of dyes obtained 
from coal tar . 


8,944,115 


Netherlands 




22, 270 









^Accounts Relating to the Sea-borne Trade and Navigation of British India, for the calendar year 1928. 
Values converted at average exchange rate, 1928, 1 rupee=$0.364663. 



INTERNATIONAL DYE TRADE 

Table 72. — India: Exports of indigo, calendar year 19B8 * 



177 



Country of destination 


Quantity 


Value 


United Kingdom .. 


Pounds 
32, 816 
16, 352 
3,684 
16, 688 
48,496 


$29, 465 


Iraq 


16, 192 


Persia ... 


2,776 


Egypt 


12,723 


Ottier countries -- -- - -- - - - 


42,534 








Total 


117,936 


103, 690 







« Accounts Relating to the Sea-borne Trade and Navigation of British India, for the calendar year 1928. 
Values converted at average exchange rate, 1928, 1 rupee =$0.364663. 

Table 73. — Netherlands: Imports and exports of coal-tar dyes, 1927 * 



Class of dye and country of 
origin 


Quantity 


Value 


Class of dye and country of 
origin or destination 


Quantity 


Value 


IMPORTS 

Coal-tar dyes (aniline, syn- 
thetic indigo, etc.), drv or 


Pounds 
4, 576, 046 


$2. 489. .'504 


IMPOHTS— continued 

Coal-tar dyes— Continued. 
Switzerland 


Pounds 

505, 427 

15, 221 

410 

1,166 


$304, 283 


paste: 
Germany 




6,313 


Panama. 


624 


Belgium 


123,835 37,299 

427,293 21,862 

72, 752 l.'^4. 690 


All other . . . 


465 




Total - 




Great Britain 


5, 799, 787 


3, 018, 430 




44, 332 
2, 233 
7,372 
2,009 
4,127 

16, 753 
811 


7,639 
590 1 

2,446 
962 

3,137 

8,058 
558 


EXPORTS 

Coal-tar dyes (aniline, syn- 
thetic indigo, etc.), dry or 
paste 




Norway 


2, 744, 540 




Sweden _ 

Denmark . 




Greece 

Italy and Flume 


984, 846 


Austria 











» Jaarstatistiek van den in-, uit-, en doorvoer, 1927. Values converted at average exchange rate, 1927, 
1 gulden =$0.401065. 

Table 74. — Netherlands: Imports and exports of coal-tar dyes, 1928 • 



Class of dye and country of 
origin 



IMPORTS 

Coal-tar dyes (aniline, syn- 
thetic indigo, etc.), dry or 
paste: 

Germany 

Belgium 

Great Britain 

France 

United States 

Norway 

Sweden. 

Denmark 

Italy and Fiume 

Austria 



Oiiantitv Value ^^^^^ °^ ^^^ ^^^ country of Quantitv 
yuaniiij value ^^j^j^ ^^ destination i '^"^niiiy 



Pounds 

5, 349, 885 

71, 056 

44, 626 

400, 078 

53, 268 

1,446 

3,291 

2,310 

21,290 

2,765 



$2, 798, 651 

37,015 

18, 367 

101, 582 

13, 045 

418 

1,185 

644 

8,593 

2,046 



IMPORTS— con tinned 

Coal-tar dyes— Continued. 

Switzerland 

Finland 

Czechoslovakia 

India 

Total 

EXPORTS 

Coal-tar dyes (aniline, syn- 
thetic indigo, etc.), dry or 
paste 



Pounds 

489, 684 

13, 677 

23, 155 

2,769 



6, 479, 300 



2, 891, 209 



Value 



$301,717 
4,183 
5,433 
1,622 



3, 294, 501 



1, 027, 138 



> Jaarstatistiek van den in- 
l gulden =$0.402238. 



uit-, en doorvoer, 1928. Values converted at average exchange rate, 1928 , 



178 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHEE SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 

Table 75.— Poland: Imports and exports of synthetic dyes, 1927 ' 



Class of dye and country of 
origin 


Quantity Value 


Class of dye and country of 
origin or destination 


Quantity 


Value 


IMPORTS 

Alizarin dyes, powder: 

Germany .. . . . 


Pounds 

882 


$1,468 


IMPORTS— continued 

j Indigo carmine: 

Czechoslovakia 

France 


Pounds 
7,480 
7.040 
5,720 


$1, 128 


All other 


661 '564 


1,242 






3,161 


Total 


1,543 1 2,032 






20, 240 


5, 531 


Vat dyes, powder: Germany. 


4« 


112 


1 


2, 351, 384 


2, 044, 613 


Other aniline dyes: 

Great Britain 


8,819 

13, 448 

661 

267, 639 

62, 390 

12, 125 


7,563 

11,740 

339 

221,811 
71, 792 
8,805 


EXPORTS 

Other aniline dyes: 


7,716 

221 

1,102 

1,984 




Belgium 




France. 




Germany. 


5,531 
226 


Switzerland . _ . 


Germany 

Russia 


All other 


1,355 






1,693 


Total 


365, 082 


322, 050 




11, 023 


8,805 


All other synthetic dyeing 
compounds: 
Belgium 


23, 589 
82, 673 
1, 413, 369 
387, 789 
40, 785 
15, 873 


18, 738 
89, 063 
1, 082, 416 
471, 504 
42, 105 
11,062 


All other synthetic dyeing 
compounds: 
Latvia 


882 

118, 166 

1,764 

441 




France . 


790 


Germany 


Germany 


76,420 
3,048 


Switzerland.. 


Russia 

.\11 other . ... 


Italy 


339 


All other 








121, 253 


80, 597 




1, 964, 078 


1, 714, 888 


Grand total. .. . . .. 




132, 276 


89, 402 









I Commerce Ext^rieur de la Republique Polonaise, 1927. Values converted at average exchange rate, 
1927, 1 zloty=$0.112881. 

Table 76. — Poland: Imports and exports of synthetic dyes, calendar year 1928 ^ 



Class of dye and country of origin or destination 


Imports 


Exports 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Alizarin dyes, in powder: 

Germany 


Pounds 
3,086 
6,173 
221 


$2, 130 
6,501 


Pounds 




Italy. 






Another 














Total 


9,480 


8,631 












Alizarin dyes, in paste: 

Switzerland 


3,086 
441 


2,915 
112 






Another 












Total 


3,527 


3,027 












Sulfur dyes: Germany 


882 


112 












Other anUine dyes: 

United Kingdom 


8,377 

11,023 

12, 346 

451, 723 

37,478 

192, 903 

30, 423 

9,259 


10, 201 
10, 873 
17,711 

395, 927 
19, 505 

286, 184 
35, 871 
8,743 






Czechoslovakia 






France 






Germany.. 


55, 115 


$52, 125 


United States 




Switzerland 






Italy.. 




. 


All other 


10, 362 


2,690 






Total 


753, 532 


785, 015 


65, 477 


54, 815 






Indigo carmine: 

Belgium. 


3,307 
441 


673 
224 






Germany 


1,102 


673 






Total 


3,748 


897 


1,102 


673 






Total imports, all dyes .. 


771, 169 


797, 682 






Total exports, all dyes 


66,579 


56,488 









J Commerce Extfirieur de la Republique Polonaise, 1928. Values converted at average exchange rate, 
1928, 1 zloty=$0.112097. 



INTERNATIONAL DYE TRADE 179 

Table 77. — Spain: Imports and exports of coal-tar dyes, 1927 ' 



Class of dye and country of origin or destination 



Synthetic organic colors in powder or crystal form: 
Imports from — 

Germany 

Austria 

Belgium 

United States 

France 

• Great Britain.. 

Holland 

Italy... ._.. 

Norway 

Switzerland.. 



Total. 



Exports to- 
Argent in a _ 
Holland... 



Total. 



Synthetic organic colors in paste or solid, containing water 50 per cent or over: 
Imports from^ 

Germany 

France.. - 

Great Britain 

Switzerland. 



Total. 



Exports to — 
Argentina. 
Portugal.. 

Total... 



Synthetic aniline: 
Imports from — 

Germany 

France 

Great Britain . 
Switzerland... 



Total 

Total imports all dyes. 
Total exports all dyes. 



Quantity 



Pounds 

549, 426 

26 

930 

2,149 

150, 215 

13, 512 

137 

1,019 

2,646 

63, 349 



783, 409 



2,659 
1,373 



4,032 



20, 091 
17,921 
4,411 
10, 364 



52, 787 



14, 980 
461 



15, 441 



115,065 

24, 015 

145 

16, 215 



155, 440 



991, 636 
19, 473 



Value 



$1,317,953 

63 

2,232 

5,156 

360, 332 

32, 412 

328 

2,443 

6,346 

151,961 



1, 879, 226 



2,057 
1,063 



3,120 



5,441 
4,854 
1,194 
2,807 



14, 296 



I 4, 057 
125 



4,182 



53, 422 

11,150 

68 

7,528 



72, 168 



1, 965. 690 
7,302 



1 Estadistica del comercio exterior de Espana. Value converted at average exchange rate, 1927, 1 peseta= 
$0.170592. 

Table 78. — Sweden: Imports and exports of coal-tar dyes, 1927 * 



Class of dye and country of 
origin 


Quantity 


Value 


Class of dye and country of 
origin or destination 


Quantity 


Value 


IMPOKTS 

Alizarin dyes: 


Pounds 

331 

1,942 

166, 555 

298 

1,678 

3,984 

220 


$322 

1,890 

162, 066 

290 

1,632 

3,876 

215 


Indigo, synthetic: 
Germany 


Pounds 

27, 987 

11 

3,351 


$7,270 


Great Britain 


15 


Denmark 


United States 


1,110 




Total 






31,349 8,395 




Other indigo dyes 




Switzerland 


110 


17 




Grand total 






2, 418, 153 

9,594 
6,257 
3,115 
2,075 
9,140 
225 


1, 523, 752 




175,008 


170, 291 


Total . 


EXPORTS 

Alizarin dyes and other coal- 
tar dyes not mentioned 
elsewhere: 
Norway 








Aniline and other coal-tar 
dyes: 
Norway 


7,284 

8,508 

1,821 

1, 586, 756 

66. 305 

52, 754 

73, 687 

23,067 

364, 641 

1,208 

25, 595 

60 


4, 430 

5,174 

1,107 

964, 995 

40, 324 

32, 083 

44, 813 

14, 028 

221, 758 

735 

15,566 

36 




Denmarli 




Finland-. 






8,764 




Denmark 


4,045 


Belgium 


Finland 


1,787 




Mexico 


1,587 




Chile 


e,666 




Other countries 


170 




Total 






30, 406 


23,019 


Other countries... 










Total 


2, 211, 686 


1, 345, 049 









« Handel Berattelse for Ar 1927 Av Kommerskollegiumj 
1927. 1 kroner = $0.268148. 



Values converted at average exchange rate, 



PART VI 
APPENDIX 



STATISTICS OF DOMESTIC IMPORTS AND EXPORTS 



DIRECTORY OF MANUFACTURERS OF DYES AND OTHER 
SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS. 1928 



181 



STATISTICS OF IMPORTS AND EXPORTS 

Statistical Tables 

Table 79. — Coal-tar products: Imports entered for consumption, calendar years 

1926-1928 

GROUP I— CRUDE (FREE) 



Year 



1926 



Quantity 



1927 



Value Quantity 



Value 



Quantity 



Value 



Benzene, pounds 

Dead or creosote oil, gallons - 

Naphthalene, solidifying at less than 79° 

C, pounds 

Coal tar, crude, barrels 

Pitch, coal tar, barrels 

Toluene, pounds 

Acenaphthene, fluorene, methylanthra- 

cene, and methylnaphthalene, pounds. 

Anthracene, purity less than 30 per cent, 

pounds 

Anthracene oil, gallons 

Cresylic acid, pounds 

Pyridine, pounds 

Xylene, pounds 

All other distillates n. s. p. f., which on 
being subjected to distillation yield in 
the portion distilling below 190° C. a 
quantity of tar acids less than 5 per cent 

of the original distillate, pounds ' 3, 

All other products found naturally in coal I 
tar, whether produce^ or obtained from | 
coal tar or other sources, n. s. p. f., i 
pounds 



315, 966 
518, 544 

962, 719 

18, 663 

5,141 

29, 064 

27, 782 

444, 170 
16, 213 
702, 740 
743, 283 
298, 113 



136, 838 



194, 172 



$215,3141 2, 
11, 720, 397:95, 



126, 088 
57,603 

18, 508 
1,797 

4,175 

8,165 

2,483 

331, 550 

366, 161 

15, 201 



197, 009 



4,374 



991, 729 
915,221 

, 576, 500 

12, 951 

3,741 

154 

66, 559 

23, 241 

10, 279 

,136,516 

135, 692 

361, 200 



8, 748 



37, 564 



$63, 962 
15, 436, 574 

131, 436 

44, 836 

8,584 

55 

17, 658 

589 

2,412 

567, 802 

42, 021 

15,649 



7,405 



7, 268, 258 
88, 385, 074 

19, 926, 289 
10, 25 
514 



$166,011 
13, 928, 136 

357, 679 
35, 434 
2,486 



4,771 



55, 205 

135, 224 

33, 665 

10, 687, 109 

54,616 

214,260 



539, 641 



340, 215 



15, 645 

3,788 
7,560 
678, 177 
9,008 
7,219 



26,001 



15, 882 



GROUP II (DUTIABLE AT 40 PER CENT AD VALOREM PLUS 7 CENTS PER POUND 
AFTER SEPTEMBER 21, 1924) 



Article and year 


Pounds 


Value 


Duty 


Actual 
and com- 
puted ad 
valorem 
rate 


Not colors, dyes, or stains, photographic chemicals, 
medicinals, flavors, or explosives, etc., n. s. p. f.: 
Acetanilide, not medicinal— 

1926 


2,267 
1,001 


$817 
531 


$485 
282 


Per cent 
59.42 


1927 


53.20 


1928 




Acids- 
Carbolic— 

Crystal (phenol)— 

1926.. 


218, 437 

500 

1,653 

25, 932 
611,810 
976, 180 

38, 078 
62, 155 
44, 263 

400 


47, 351 
100 
298 

4,748 
38, 874 
70, 513 

49, 405 
58, 673 
55, 569 

497 


34, 231 
75 
117 

3,714 
29, 505 
48, 269 

22, 427 
27, 820 
25, 326 

227 


72.29 


1927 - . 


75.00 


1928 1... . . 


39.42 


Liquid (cresylic acid or cresol)- 

1926 


78.23 


1927 2 -. 


75.71 


1928 3. . 


68.45 


Coal-tar acids, n. s. p. f.— 

1926 -- 


45.40 


1927 


47.42 


1928 


45.58 


Aminonaphthol, aminophenol, and aminophenetol— 
1926 .- 


45.63 


1927 




1928 --. 











1 T. D. 42423. 



2 T. D. 40519. 



• T. D. 42337. 



183 



184 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Table 79. — Coal-tar products: Imports entered for consumption, calendar years 

1926-1928— Continued 

GROUP II (DUTIABLE AT 40 PER CENT AD VALOREM PLUS 7 CENTS PER POUND 
AFTER SEPTEMBER 21, 1924)— Continued 



Article and year 


Pounds 


Value 


Duty 


Actual 
and com- 
puted ad 

valorem 
rate 


Not colors, dyes, or stains, photographic chemicals, 
medicinals, flavors, or explosives, etc.— Continued. 
Aniline oil and salts— 

1926 -.- 


700 
13, 740 
28,740 

313 


$350 
9,962 
19, 083 

122 


$189 
4,947 
9,645 

71 


Per cent 
54.00 


1927 --- - 


49.65 


1928 


60.54 


Anthracene, purity of 30 per cent or more— 

1926 


57.96 


1927 




1928 - 


1,052 

6,686 
16, 308 
28, 341 

3,852 
1,587 
3,845 

137, 684 
321, 751 
194, 310 

2,157 


405 

8,116 
13, 731 
20,211 

4,151 
1,027 
2,494 

83, 841 
199, 112 
108,980 

324 


236 

3,714 
6,634 
10, 068 

1,930 

622 

1,267 

43, 174 
102, 167 
57, 194 

281 


68.18 


Anthraquinone, aminoanthraquinone, and nitro- 
anthraquinone — 
1926 


45.77 


1927 


48.31 


1928 -- 


49.82 


Benzaldehyde, not medicinal and nitrobenzalde- 
hyde— 
1926 


46.50 


1927 


50.82 


1928 


50.79 


Benzanthrone, benzoquinone, benzidine, benzidine 

sulfate, and benzyl, benzal, and benzoyl chloride— 

1926 


61.50 


1927 - 


51.31 


1928 -- - 


62.48 


Carbazole, purity of 65 per cent or more— 

1926 --- --- - 


86.60 


1927 




1928 






1 


1926 


1,000 
8, 855 
3,900 

2,383 


540 
5,652 
2,353 

2,219 


286 
2,881 
1,214 

1,054 


52.96 




50.97 


1928 


51.60 


1927 


47.52 


1928 




Dinitrobenzene, dinitrochlorobenzene, dinitro- 
dinitrotoluene— 


150 


182 


83 


46.77 


1928 - — 




1926 


10 


12 


6 


45.83 


1927 




1928 


13, 050 

105. 238 
174, 094 
207, 897 

4,989 


14, 665 

15, 040 
35, 054 
33, 638 

1,147 


6,780 

13, 383 
26, 208 
28,008 

808 


46.23 


Metacresol, orthocresol, and paracresol, purity of 90 
per cent or more— 

1926 - 


88.98 


1927 


74.77 


1928 


83.26 


Methylanthraquinone— 

1926 -.- 


70.45 


1927 




1928 










Naphthalene solidifying at 79° C. or above— 

1926 


424 

18, 668 

27 

23,765 
41, 746 
40, 778 

853 
1,850 

29,300 
112,012 
129, 275 


125 

3,077 

6 

33.284 
65, 739 
102. 069 

1,016 
2,177 

9,617 
40, 027 
56, 789 


80 

2,538 

4 

14, 977 
29, 218 
43, 682 

466 
1,000 

5,898 
23, 852 
31,765 


63.74 


1927 


82.47 


1928 -- 


71.50 


Naphthol, alpha and beta, not medicinal— 

1926 


45.00 


1927 - 


44.46 


1928 - -- 


42.80 


Naphthylamine and naphthylenediamine— 

1927 -- 


45.88 


1928 -.- 


45.95 


Nitroaniline, para and meta, nitrobenzene, nitro- 

naphthalene, nitrophenylenediamine, nitroso- 

dimethylaniline, nitrotoluene, and nitrotolylene- 

diamine— 

1926 


61.33 


1927 

1928... 


59.59 
65.93 



STATISTICAL TABLES 



185 



Table 79. — Coal-tar products: Imports entered for consumption, calendar years 

1926-1928— Continued 

GROUP II (DUTIABLE AT 40 PER CENT AD VALOREM PLUS 7 CENTS PER POUND 
AFTER SEPTEMBER 21, 1924)— Continued 



Article and year 


Pounds 


Value 


Duty 


Actual 
and com- 
puted ad 
valorem 
rate 


Not colors, dyes, or stains, photographic chemicals, 
medicinals, flavors, or explosives, etc. — Continued. 
Phenylenediamine, phenylglycine, phenylhydrazine, 
and phenylnaphthylamine— 
1926 


10, 237 

7,746 

250 

15, 484 
33, 114 

47, 882 

23, 041 
79, 650 
83, 380 

5,784 
2 


$11,875 

9,401 

294 

20,907 
38,046 
60, 352 

8,414 
32, 526 
35, 283 

10, 662 
16 


$5, 467 

4,303 

135 

9.447 

17, 536 
27, 493 

4,978 

18, 586 
19, 950 

4,670 

7 


Per cent 
46.03 


1927 


45.77 


1928 -- 


45.95 


Resorcinol, not medicinal— 

1926 - - 


45.18 


1927 -.- 


46.09 


1928 


45.55 


Tolidine, toluene sulfochloride, toluene solfonamide, 
toluidine, and tolylenediamine— 

1920 - 


59.17 


1927 - 


57.14 


1928 -- 


56.54 


All distillates n. s. p. f., which on distillation yield 

in the portion distilling below 190° C. a quantity 

of tar acids equal to or more than 5 per cent of the 

original distillate— 

1926 


4T. SO 


1927 


40.88; 


1928 




All distillates of coal, blast-furnace, oil-gas, and 
water-gas tar which on being subject to distilla- 
tion below 215° C. yield a quantity of tar acids 
equal to or more than 75 per cent of the original 
distillate— 

1926 


7,042 
1,663 


3,379 
1,569 


1,845 
744 


54.59 


1927 


47.42 


1928 




factured in whole or in part from the products 
1926 - 


582. 859 
540, 237 


436, 074 
363, 914 


215, 230 
183, 382 


49. 36 




50. SS' 


1928 




All similar products manufactured from the products 
provided for in pars. 27 and 1549 — 


629, 687 


412, 948 


209, 257 


50.67 







GROUP III (DUTIABLE AT 45 PER CENT AD VALOREM PLUS 7 CENTS PER POUND 
AFTER SEPTEMBER 21, 1924) 



When obtained, derived, or manufactured in whole or 
in part from any of the products provided for in Group 
I (free) or II, . including natural indigo, and their 
derivatives: 
Alizarin, natural— 

1926 


1,755 
374 


$1, 521 
1,017 


$807 
484 


53. OS 


1927 


47.57 


1928 . . - 




Alizarin, synthetic— 

1926 


1,496 
25 


711 
48 


425 
23 


69. 7J 


1927 


48. 6& 


1928 




Colors, dyes, stains, etc., obtained, derived, or manu- 
factured from alizarin— 
1926 


18, 796 

42, 779 

3,333 

275 
6,843 
1,528 

1,589 
590 


31, 944 

40, 470 

3,796 

270 

2,957 

186 

280 
610 


15, 691 

21,206 

1,942 

141 

1,810 

190 

237 
316 


49.12- 


1927 -.- - 


52.40 


1928 . 


51.15 


Indigo, natural— 

1926 


62. IS 


1927 - 


61 2(S> 


1928 


102. 82 


Indigo, synthetic— 

1926 . -- 


84.75 


1927 -X- 

1928 


51.77 


Colors, dyes, stains, etc., derived from indigo— 

1926 


14, 834 

5,960 

66 


23,667 

6,112 

228 


11, 689 

3,168 

107 


49 39 


1927 


51.8$ 


1928 


47.03. 



85526—30- 



-13 



186 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Table 79. — Coal-tar products: Imports entered for consumption, calendar years 

1926-1928 — Continued 

GROUP III (DUTIABLE AT 45 PER CENT AD VALOREM PLUS 7 CENTS PER POUND 
AFTER SEPTEMBER 21, 1924)— Continued 



Article and year 


Pounds 


Value 


Duty 


Actual 
and com- 
puted ad 
valorem 
rate 


When obtained, derived, or manufactured in whole or 

in part from any of the products provided for in Group 

I (free) or II, including natural indigo, and their 

derivatives— Continued. 

All other colors, dyes, or stains, whether soluble or 

not in water, color acids, color bases, or color lakes— 

1922' 


2,077,712 

677, 849 
3,059,361 
1, 905, 219 
1, 357, 133 
6, 606, 827 
5, 101, 759 
4, 853, 745 
6,089,303 

500 


$2,941,773 
894, 844 
4,164,091 
2, 320, 712 
1, 865, 036 
6,762,764 
5, 613, 847 
5,368,368 
6, 716, 566 

835 


$965, 640 
584,356 
2, 706, 610 
1, 526, 793 
934, 266 
3,435,722 
2,883,354 
2, 755, 528 
3, 448, 706 

411 


Per cent 
32.83 


1922 » 


65.30 


1923 . 


65.16 


1924« 


65.75 


1924' 


50. 09 


1925 


50.80 


1926 


51.36 


1927 


51.33 


1928 


51.35 


Color lakes— 

1926 


49.19 


1927 




1928 


155 

1,649 
11, 359 
60,647 

23,846 
25, 923 
25, 313 

721 

1,279 

500 

15,710 
52, 111 

82, 294 

165 
127 
39 

1,450 

667 

13 

235 
236 
419 

6 
14 

1,488 
630 

4,409 

12, 136 
5,202 
7,713 

131 
209 
196 

16 

51,513 

28, 642 
19, 884 


169 

1,298 
4,266 
10,984 

61, 586 
65, 803 
77, 639 

1,524 

2,455 

700 

14,929 
47,257 
69, 720 

20, 992 
4,904 
16, 847 

2,243 
798 
132 

190 
142 
256 

1,652 
6,711 

1,935 
810 

4,731 

19, 758 
8,245 
12,974 

2,039 
1,397 
1,343 

100 

207, 577 
165, 528 
87, 614 


87 

700 
2,715 
9,181 

29, 383 
31, 426 
36, 664 

736 

1,336 

350 

7,818 
24,913 
37, 135 

9,458 
2,216 

7,584 

1,111 

406 

60 

102 
80 
145 

744 
3.021 

975 

545 

f "440 

1 2, 438 

9,741 
4,074 
6,378 

927 
643 

618 

46 

97, 016 
76, 493 
40, 818 


51.42 


Kesinlike products prepared from articles provided 
for in pars. 27 or 1549— 
1926 


53.89 


1927 8 


63.64 


19288 -. 


83.59 


Photographic chemicals— 

1926 -■ . 


47.71 


1927 


47.76 


1928 


47.29 


Coal-tar medicinals— 

Acetanilide, acetphenetidin (phenacetin), and 
acetylsalicylie acid (aspirin)— 
1926» 


48.31 


1927 - 


54.40 


1928 


50.00 


Antipyrine— 

1926 - 


52.37 




52.72 


1928 - 


53.26 


and similar arsenical medicinal compounds— 


45.06 


1927 


45.18 




45.02 


Betanaphthol and benzaldehyde— 


49.53 


1927 


50.&') 




45.69 


Benzoic acid — 


63.66 


1927 


56.63 




56.46 


Novocain or procaine — 


4.5.03 


1928 


45.01 


Phenolphthalein— 

1926 - 


50. 38 




67.28 




1 60 83 
49.30 


Resorcinol— 


1927 


49.42 


1928 


49.16 


Salicylic acid and its salts— 

1926 


45. 45 


1927 


46. 05 




46.02 


Salol— 


46.12 


Coal-tar medicinals, n. s. p. f.— 


46.74 


1927 


46.21 


1928-.- - 


46.59 



« Act of 1916. 

• Act of 1922. 

• From Jan. 1 to Sept. 21, 1924. 



^ From Sept. 22 to Dec. 31, 1924. 
8 Bakelite prohibited, T. D. 41512. 
• Acetanilide. 



'0 Benzaldehyde. 

'1 Antidumping duty. 



STATISTICAL TABLES 



187 



Table 79. — Coal-tar products: Imports entered for consumption, calendar years 

1936-1928— Continned 

GROUP III (DUTIABLE AT 45 PER CENT AD .VALOREM PLUS 7 CENTS PER POUND 
AFTER SEPTEMBER 21, 1924)— Continued 



Article and year 


Pounds 


Value 


Duty 


Actual 
and com- 
puted ad 
valorem 
rate 


"When obtained, derived, or manufactured in whole or 
in part from any of the products provided for in Group 
I (free) or II, including natural indigo, and their 
derivatives— Continued. 
Flavors— 

1927-- - 


682 
143 

30 


$767 
196 

8 


$393 
98 

6 


Per cent 
51.22 


1928 - 


50.11 


Ink powder— 

1927 


71.25 


1928 




Synthetic tanning materials — 

1927 


99 


336 


158 


47.06 


1928 . 




Vanillin — 

1928 


18, 759 


129,917 


69, 776 


46.01 







Table 80. — Coal-tar products: General imports, 1926-1928 
DEAD OR CREOSOTE OIL (FREE) 





1926 


1927 


1928 


Imported from — 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


United Kingdom . . . 


Gallons 

38, 982, 648 

23, 454, 374 

2,550 

21, 724, 079 


$5, 053, 401 

3, 158, 693 

890 

3, 007, 472 


Gallons 

38, 279, 105 

27,975,616 

4, 243, 931 

19, 034, 169 

1, 233, 933 

553, 249 

4, 169, 917 

425, 301 


$6, 230, 595 

4, 467, 225 

628. 452 

3, 203, 425 

193, 801 

85,028 

558, 309 

69, 739 


Gallons 
44, 009, 816 
18,312,329 

1, 158, 661 
21, 977, 802 


$6, 854, 025 




2. 916, 702 


Germany 


212. 711 




3, .537, 583 


France . . . . . 




Mexico 


990, 926 

2,363,905 

62 


139, 309 

360, 607 

25 








1, 475, 919 
1, 450, 547 


188,238 


All other countries . . 


218, 877 






Total - 


87,518,544 


11, 720, 397 


95, 915, 221 


15, 436, 574 


88, 385, 074 


13, 928, 136 







PYRIDINE (FREE) 





Pounds 
4,734 


$2. 227 


Pounds 




Pounds 




France 










Germany 


194, 666 
34, 359 


90, 169 
25, 031 


78, 978 

3,946 

40, 552 

12, 216 


$23, 331 
1,915 
9,173 
7,602 


49, 466 


$7,532 


Netherlands.. - 




Poland and Danzig.. 






United Kjngdom 


509. 524 


248, 734 


4,340 
810 


1,172 


AU other countries 


304 














Total 


743,283 


366, 161 


135. 692 


42, 021 


54,616 


9,008 







ALL OTHER CRUDES 



Imported from— 1926 


1927 1928 


Imported from— 


1926 


1927 


1928 


Belgium $17,839 


$54, 657 
13, 707 

378, 912 
83,430 

275, 215 


$78, 981 
30,023 
524, 542 
157, 816 
447, 995 


Netherlands. 


$3,749 
74,067 


$2, 502 
45, 431 
18, 590 




France L .. 


Mexico 


$62, 793 


United Kingdom ; 445,909 

Canada : 227,929 

Germany 210,122 


All other countries... 


5,415 


11, 462 


Total 


985, 030 


872, 444 


1,313,612 









188 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Table 80. — Coal-tar products: General imports, 1926-1928 — Continued 

COAL-TAR ACIDS 





1926 


1927 


1928 




Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 




Pounds 




Pounds 
217, 454 
522, 361 


$14. 364 
32, 571 


Pounds 




United Kingdom ------ 


231, 551 
122, 990 


$31,204 
27, 446 


2, 175, 876 


$162, 229 








40 

75, 937 
2.866 


143 

71, 184 

1,487 








156, 773 


74, 294 


770, 245 


165, 687 
















Total -- 


511,314 


132, 944 


818, 658 


119, 749 


2, 946, 121 


327, 916 







OTHER COALrTAR INTERMEDIATES 



France . 


23, 544 
687, 872 
125, 672 
99, 035 
36, 777 
22, 604 
2,786 


$29, 445 
492. 751 
48, 048 
13. 422 
43, 720 
13, 445 
1,381 


40, 402 

1, 371. 766 

95, 225 

192, 875 

46, 323 

15, 185 

6,234 


$44, 473 

891, 831 

7,095 

33, 671 

37, 360 

9,213 

3,183 


39, 496 
1, 129, 132 
31. 585 
194, 306 
48, 752 
1,484 


$42, 903 




877,333 




10, 496 


United Kingdom . . - . 


26, 499 


Switzerland - 


40, 627 


Canada 


778 












Total 


998, 290 


642, 212 


1, 768, 010 


1, 026, 826 


1, 444, 755 


998, 636 







ALIZARIN AND DERIVATIVES 





4,031 


$8, 886 












81 
2,105 


$177 
690 








7,545 

55 

9,018 

805 


5,494 

96 

22, 916 

594 






Italy 
















United Kingdom 


1,939 
40 


1,571 
145 


3,333 


$3, 796 
















Total -- 


21, 454 


37, 986 


4,165 


2,583 


3,333 


3,796 







COLORS, DYES, STAINS, COLOR ACIDS, AND COLOR BASES, N. E. 



Belgium 

France 

Germany 

Switzerland 

United Kingdom.. 
Italy 

Netherlands 

Canada 

All other countries 

Total 



236, 340 

178, 181 

2, 179, 374 

1, 864, 891 

200, 912 

92, 446 

9,152 

206, 298 

5,355 



4, 972, 949 



$366, 

240, 

2, 323, 

2, 171, 

202, 

111, 

16, 

158, 



180, 124 

234, 996 

3, 238, 040 

1, 493, 460 

146, 270 

112,475 

17, 237 

71, 578 

2,647 



5,600,655 5,496,833 



$242, 419 

274, 154 

3, 426, 848 

1, 869, 124 

147, 640 

130,503 

25, 936 

63, 101 

2,070 



6, 181, 795 



114,977 

74, 284 

4, 055, 619 

1, 638, 662 

98, 027 

64, 954 

74, 437 

131,131 

66 



6, 252, 157 



$136, 966 

89, 991 

4, 249, 849 

2, 004, 560 

95, 507 

60, 103 

85, 549 

154, 009 

72 



6, 876, 606 



COAL-TAR MEDICINALS 



France 


20, 229 
24, 190 
2,721 
3,679 
14, 320 
2,379 
2,576 


$48, 350 
77, 965 

6,125 
91, 473 
15, 131 
14,422 

3,883 


25, 659 

78, 787 

693 

264 

15,419 

7,780 

1,035 


$61, 031 
121, 604 
4,397 
23, 280 
44, 142 
19, 275 
3,118 


34, 496 
30, 136 

148 
5,070 
25, 059 
17, 500 

284 


$66, 351 


Germany 


70, 139 


Italy 


786 


Netherlands - 


5,193 


Switzerland 


38, 745 


United Kingdom.- -.- 

All other countries 


24, 371 
3,043 


Total 


70, 094 


257, 349 


129, 637 


276, 847 


112,693 


208, 628 







ALL OTHER FINISHED COAL-TAR PRODUCTS 



France 


1,507 

18, 358 

441 

2,671 

49 


$5, 162 
47,512 

959 
9,470 

388 


15,358 
26, 127 


$14, 658 
66, 604 


5,072 
88, 677 
6,776 
2,359 
1,033 


$28, 399 


Germany-- 


147, 305 




46, 054 


United Kingdom 


822 
52 


1,867 
90 


13,210 


All other countries-.- - 


5,575 


Total 


23, 026 


63, 491 


42, 359 


83, 219 


103, 917 


240, 543 







STATISTICAL TABLES 



189 



Table 81. — Coal-tar products: Domestic exports, 1926-192S 

CRUDE COAL TAR AND COAL-TAR PITCH 



Exported to— 


1926 


1927 


19281 


1928 2 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Europe 


Barrels 
131, 342 


$591,724 


Barrels 

585, 119 

86, 826 

1,281 

37 

127 

29 


$2, 927, 929 

315, 791 

10, 365 

363 

1,105 

413 


Barrels 

51, 882 

84, 472 

1,729 


$258, 023 

308, 267 

13, 230 


Tons 
27, 971 
10, 337 
44 


$449, 441 


North America 

South America 

Asia 


82, 408 275, 926 

1, 672 13, 881 

50 1 382 


156, 542 
1,882 


Oceania 


103 

8 


1,184 
72 


57 
13 


906 
203 


2 


253 


Africa 










Total-- 


215, 583 


883, 169 


673, 419 3, 255, 966 


138, 153 


580, 629 


38, 354 


608, 118 



' Crude coal tar. 2 Coal-tar pitch and coal-tar pitch coke. 

COAL-TAR DISTILLATES— BENZOL 



Exported to— 


1926 


1927 


1928 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Germany 


Pounds 
60, 179, 632 
25, 647, 969 


$2, 041, 839 
1, 041, 891 


Gallons 

11,918,240 

555, 544 

4, 620, 862 

8, 396, 932 

18, 125 

2,458 

106, 860 

7,433 

3, 100 

164,012 


$3,010,816 


Gallons 

10.824. 32fi 


$2, 615, 115 


France 


149, 997 i- .380. 235 


333, 230 


Netherlands 


1, 062, 798 

2, 342, 299 

7,190 

1,297 

43,311 

2,764 

2,234 

42, 399 






United Kingdom. 

Canada 


56, 153, 321 
125, 469 
5,622 
902, 448 
138, 960 
13, 785 
360, 620 


2,340,211 

6,412 

603 

49, 269 

7,465 

1,254 

24,229 


6, 559, 186 

14, 134 

650 

132, 090 

28, 830 

7,827 

2, 391, 151 


1,271,412 
4,871 


Mexico 


295 


Argentina 


54, 792 


Chile 


9,808 


Australia -.. 


3,557 


All other countries 


3 669, 630 


Total 


143, 527, 826 


5, 513, 173 


25, 793, 566 


6,665,105 ! 21.338.429 


4, 962, 710 











» Includes 2,277,075 pounds, valued at $637,580, exported to Belgium. 
OTHER CRUDE DISTILLATES 



Exported to — 



France 

Belgium- - 
Canada. -- 
Honduras- 

Mexico 

Brazil 

Cuba 



Value 
$9, 750 



281, 785 

262 

42, 303 

1,198 

18, 168 



Value 

$144 

1,552 

192, 934 

114 

49, 422 

4,377 

9,861 



1928 



Value 
$30 



268, 004 

1,930 

40, 572 

411 

6,216 



Exported to — 



Japan 

United Kingdom... 

Chile.- 

Nicaragua 

All other countries. 

Total 



1926 



Value 
$6, 168 
106, 792 
135, 427 
17, 702 
43,796 



663, 351 



Value 
$10, 806 
68, 918 
37, 708 
15, 507 
* 46, 706 



438, 049 



1928 



Value 

$20 
65, 072 
26, 114 
15, 610 
34, 127 



458, 106 



* Includes $15,802 from Netherlands. 

ANILINE OIL AND SALTS ' 





1926 


Exported to— 


1926 




Quantity 


Value 


Quantity Value 




Pounds 

124, 453 

15 

220, 486 

12, 635 


$25, 664 

36 

33, 761 

1,895 


Australia 


Potmds 
6,251 
15, 302 


$1, 073 




All other countries 


3,497 




Total--- - 






379, 142 


65, 926 









» 1927 and 1928 included in "Other intermediates." 



190 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Table 81. — Coal-tar products: Domestic exports, 1926-1928 — Continued 

OTHER INTERMEDIATES 



Exported to— 



1926 



Quantity Value 



1927 



Quantity 



Value 



1928 



Quantity 



Value 



France 

Germany... 

Netherlands 

Switzerland 

Canada 

Mexico 

Cuba 

Brazil 

China 

Kwantung 

Japan 

Australia.. 

All other countries. 

Total 



Pounds 
188, 462 



$82, 716 



43, 895 
10, 921 

155, 787 
16, 642 
36, 876 
74, 149 
32, 507 
67, 052 

645, 248 
68, 939 
30, 214 



6,028 
2,762 

40, 605 
3,805 
3,743 
8,862 

10, 792 
7,599 

85, 039 

13,771 
7,931 



Pounds 



78,400 
263, 234 



$29, 902 

9,040 

47, 175 



366, 110 

39, 709 

109, 487 

461, 521 

4,758 

94, 751 

613, 161 

113, 281 

203, 419 



49, 120 
3,225 
11, 959 
58,874 
832 
15, 087 
84, 404 
24, 052 
1-4,806 



Pounds 

9,232 

48, 174 

221, 553 

11, 760 

1,247,063 

103, 912 

76, 449 

124, 581 

6,666 



652, 283 
90, 227 
198, 538 



1, 370, 692 



273, 653 



2, 417, 739 



348, 476 



2, 790, 438 



$3,869 

4,926 
26, 799 

2,242 

116, 513 

12, 534 

2,377 
17, 301 

1,450 



93,449 

5,565 

28,852 



315,877 



OTHER COLORS, DYES, AND STAINS 



Belgium _ 

Czechoslovakia 

France 

Germany. 

Netherlands 

Russia in Europe 

United Kingdom 

Canada. 

Mexico 

Cuba 

South America 

British India 

China 

Hong Kong 

Japan 

Kwantung 

Philippine Islands... 

Australia 

New Zealand 

British South Africa 
All other countries.. 

Total 



905,611 

156, 667 

2,953 

146, 452 

8,240 

41, 051 

14, 785 

113, 587 

321, 635 

61, 390 

483, 447 

136, 998 

922, 287 

434 

984, 074 

251, 600 

49, 441 

49, 093 

15, 869 

13, 922 

132, 405 



25, 811, 941 



$399, 446 

38, 772 

2,729 

25, 942 

8,057 

27, 400 

8,039 

956, 565 

148, 547 

52, 219 

250, 888 

628, 369 

1, 877, 030 

618 

1, 350, 523 

35, 224 

23,923 

34, 191 

13, 090 

7,093 

61, 494 



709, 807 

120, 792 

8,354 

116, 362 

26, 835 

2,628 

12, 605 

1, 978, 705 

285, 302 

54, 377 

395, 189 

1, 612, 816 

17, 798, 509 

931, 348 

2, 266, 103 

67, 453 

135, 627 

6,659 

11,619 

12. 864 

216, 606 



5, 950, 159 \ 26, 770, 560 



$166, 723 

37, 664 

3,286 

31, 247 

62, 197 

1,275 

10, 672 

850, 257 

95, 383 

42, 380 

192, 076 

536, 525 

1, 884, 288 

145, 925 

1,302,526 

10, 342 

24, 737 

5,028 

8,984 

8,014 

75, 793 



5, 495, 322 



, 000, 592 

40, 102 

23, 714 

274, 215 

13, 344 



50, 012 

2, 670, 079 

248,298 

77, 049 

441, 152 

1, 307, 898 

18, 970, 388 

30, 721 

1, 650, 021 



229, 596 
2,900 
3,169 
4,349 

245, 196 



27, 559, 278 



$240, 519 

9,657 

9,885 

109, 600 

1,078 



7,699 

1, 022, 583 

95, 739 

59,929 

213, 314 

569, 219 

2, 499, 400 

93, 304 

1, 245, 224 



46, 650 

2,438 

2,840 

2,305 

104, 795 



6, 336, 178 



COLORS, DYES AND STAINS (PACKAGES FOR HOUSEHOLD USE)* 



Exported to — 



United Kingdom 

Canada 

Mexico 

Cuba 

South America... 

Japan. 

Philippines 



1928 



Quantity Value 



Pounds 
1,503 
94, 357 
25, 516 
12, 993 
29,160 
37, 122 
6,662 



$1, 140 
35, 827 
18, 211 
13, 768 
25, 820 
54, 170 
5,721 



Exported to- 



Australia , 

New Zealand 

British South Africa 
All other countries.. 

Total 



1928 



Quantity 



Pounds 
5,298 

11,382 
8,403 

32, 590 



264, 986 



Value 



$4, 360 
6,646 
4.849 

24,929 



19,5, 441 



• Not previously reported. 



STATISTICAL TABLES 



191 



Table 81. — Coal-tar products: Domestic exports, 1926-1928 — Continued 

MEDICINALS 



Exported to— 



Germany 

United Kingdom.. 

Canada 

Mexico 

Cuba 

Argentina 

British India 

Japan 

Australia 

All other countries 

Total 



1926 



Quantity 



Pounds 

9,700 

221, 669 

27, 397 

44,606 

21, 427 

67, 320 

895 

95, 259 

110,348 

134, 787 



733, 408 



Value 



$5, 280 
68, 314 
14, 816 
66,600 
17, 375 
22, 526 
541 
29, 585 
47, 553 
113, 947 



386, 537 



1927 



Quantity 



Pounds 
59, 451 

122, 315 
70, 187 
45. 833 
16, 363 
27, 482 
2,110 
20, 223 
58, 170 

233, 175 



Value 



$27, 899 
27, 308 
17, 299 
59, 677 
11, 683 
11, 289 
1,664 
10, 374 
32, 219 

129, 349 



655, 309 



328, 761 



1928 



Quantity 



Pounds 

21, 000 

137, 665 

353. 224 

44, 948 

5,053 

42, 939 

10, 424 

8,220 

73, 359 

94, 783 



791, 615 



Value 



$11,000 

36, 967 

41, 180 

63, 916 

5,189 

18,288 

6,654 

6,997 

42, 478 

88, 444 



321, 113 



PHOTOGRAPHIC CHEMICALS ' 



Exported to- 



United Kingdom 

Canada 

Mexico 

Cuba 

Argentina 

Japan 

Philippines 



1926 



Quantity Value 



Pounds 
2,892 
38, 921 
46, 177 
30,527 
33, 651 
60, 677 
42, 991 



$1, 305 
11, 882 
14, 501 

7,213 
13, 413 
12, 661 

9,490 



Exported to- 



Australia 

New Zealand 

China 

-All other countries 

Total 



1926 



Quantity Value 



Pounds 
10, 067 
21, 735 
38, 021 

111,722 



437, 381 



$5, 602 

3,442 

16, 904 

34, 853 



131, 266 



' 1927 and 1928 included in "Other finished products." 

OTHER FINISHED COAL-TAR PRODUCTS 



Exported to- 



1926 



Quantity 



Value 



Quantity 



1928 



Value Quantity 



Value 



Belgium , 

France 

Germany 

Italy 

Poland and Danzig. 

United Kingdom 

Canada 

Mexico 

Cuba 

Argentina 

Brazil 

Colombia 

Peru 

China.. 

Japan 

Australia 

Philippine Islands.. 
All other countries.. 



Total. 



Pounds 
572 
24, 192 



1,257 



486, 655 
83, 759 
60, 345 

137, 575 
22, 053 
345 
44,772 
56, 197 

205, 638 
18, 051 
19, 369 
2,528 

145, 572 



1, 308, 880 



$190 
10, 440 



307 



102, 684 

25, 080 
6,362 
5, 567 
1,250 
80 
6,736 
6,672 

24,423 
6,036 

^, 593 
3,403 

12, 918 



Pounds 

328, 032 

372, 163 

52, 020 

385, 771 

95, 950 

974, 931 

409, 420 

56, 159 

578, 496 

83, 418 

44, 216 

154, 674 

70, 302 

36, 040 

37, 918 

116, 884 

37, 439 

300,282 



225, 771 



4, 134, 115 



Pounds 

6,184 

31, 106 

3,842 

3,431 

2,400 

213, 924 

949, 698 

80, 818 

118,355 

28, 382 

7,097 

105, 875 

120, 557 

50, 502 

159, 784 

57, 258 

44, 896 

221, 933 



565, 214 j 2, 103, 042 



$23,413 I 

27,747 I 

5,848 

84,899 

23,740 

104,466 
.52,922 
9,720 
19,813 
17,919 
10,062 ! 
22,965 , 
13,772 
18,545 I 
13,713 
47,112 
13,422 
55,136 



$423 

3.521 

1,552 

863 

228 

24, 399 

Q(\ 722 

9, 181 

13,099 

9, 271 

1,691 

20, 172 

20,062 

38, 679 

20. 277 

9,621 

15, 771 

49. 376 



334, 908 



192 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 
Directory of manufacturers of dyes and other synthetic organic chemicals, 1928 




Office address (location of plant given in parentheses if not 
in same city as office) 



Abbott Laboratories, The 

Algon Color & Chemical Corporation.. 
Allied Tar & Chemical Corporation 



Alston-Lucas Paint Co -.. 

Althouse Chemical Co., The 

Alyco Manufacturing Co. (Inc.).- 

Amalgamated Dyestufl & Chemical 

Works (Inc.). 
American Aniline Products (Inc.) 



(North 



American Chemical Products Co 

American Solvents & Chemical Cor- 
poration. 
American Tar Products Co. (Inc.) 



Ansbacher Color Corporation. 
Ape.K Chemical Co. (Inc.) 



Atlantic Creosoting Co. 
Barrett Co., The 



Bayer Co. (Inc.), The. 

Beaver Chemical Corporation 

Benzol Products Co 

Berghausen Chemical Co., The E 

Berkheimer Manufacturing Co., J. E. 

Brooklyn Color Works (Inc.) 

Brown Co 

Bush Co. (Inc.), W. J 

Cable Chemical Works. 

Cabot, (Inc.), Samuel 

Calco Chemical Co., The 

California Ink Co. (Inc.), The 



Carbide & Carbon Chemical Corpora- 
tion. 

Carus Chemical Co. 

Celluloid Corporation 

Celeron Co., The 

Certain-teed Products Corporation 



Chemical & Dye Corporation 

Childs Pulp Colors, (Inc.)-.. 

Cincinnati Chemical Works (Inc.) . 



Colasta Co. (Inc.) The 

Coleman & Bell Co., The... 

Commonwealth Color & Chemical Co. 

Coopers Creek Chemical Co 

Crown Chemical Corporation 

Crown Tar Works.-- 

Crystal Color & Chemical Works 

Debrook Co. (Inc.) 

Delta Chemical & Iron Co 

Diarsenol Co. (Inc.) 

Dovan Chemical Corporation 

Dow Chemical Co., The 

du Pont de Nemours & Co., E. I 

Dye Products & Chemical Co. (Inc.).. 

Dyestuffs & Chemicals (Inc.) 

Eakins (Inc.), J. S. & W. R 

Eastman Kodak Co... 

Empire Biochemical Co 



Federal Color Laboratories (Inc.)... 

Federal Phosphorus Co 

Felton Chemical Co. (Inc.). 

Fine Colors Co. (Inc.) 

Florasynth Laboratories (Inc.). 

Ford Motor Co 

Foster-Heaton Co 

Franco-American Chemical Works.. 

Fries Bros. 

Fries & Fries Co., The 

Garfield Aniline Works 

Qaskill Chemical Corporation, The. 
Qebauer Chemical Co., The 



(Elizabeth, N. J.) 
(Bayway, Elizabeth, 



4753 East Ravenswood Avenue, Chicago, 111 

Chicago, 111.) 
132 Front Street, New York, N. Y. 
535 Fifth Avenue, New York, N. Y. 

N.J.) 

1031 Currier Street, Chicago, 111. 
540 Pear Street, Reading. Pa. 
86 Orange Street, Bloomfleld, N. J. 
75 Hudson Street, New York, N. Y. (Newark, N. J.) 

45 East Seventeenth Street, New York. N. Y. (Lock 

Haven, Pa.) 
7 Litchfield Street, Rochester, N. Y. 
122 East Forty-second Street, New York, N. Y. (.Albany, 

N. Y.) 
Union Trust Building, Pittsburgh, Pa. (Cicero, 111., 

Youngstown, Ohio, St. Louis, Mo., Carrollville, Wis., 

Follansbee, W. Va., Woodward, Ala., Utica, N. Y., 

Kearnv, N. J.) 
527 Fifth Avenue, New York, N. Y. (Brooklyn, N. Y.) 
461 Eighth Avenue, New York, N. Y. (Elizabethport, 

N.J.) 
Norfolk, Va. 
40 Rector Street, New York, N. Y. (Plants distributed 

throughout the United States.) 
117 Hudson Street, New York, N. Y. (Rensselaer, N. Y.) 
Damascus, Va. 

237 South Street, Newark, N. J. (Piscataway, N. J.) 
915 Carr Street, Cincinnati, Ohio. 
2928 South M Street, Tacoma, Wash. 
129 Cherry Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
404 Commercial Street, Portland, Me. (Berlin, N. H.) 
370 Seventh Avenue, New York, N. Y. (Linden, N. J.) 
185 North Wabash Avenue, Chicago, 111. (Cable, Wis.) 
141 Milk Street, Boston, Mass. (Chelsea, Mass.) 
Bound Brook, N. J. 
426 Battery Street, San Francisco, Calif. (West Berkeley, 

Calif.) 
30 East Forty-second Street, New York, N. Y. (South 

Charleston. W. Va.) 
1377 Eighth Street, La Salle, 111. 
290 Ferry Street, Newark, N. J. 
Bridgeport, Pa. 
100 East Forty-second Street, New York, N. Y. (East 

St. Louis, 111.) 
Springfield, N. J. (Springfield, N. J., and Ashland, Mass.) 
43 Summit Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Evanston Station, Box 20, Cincinnati, Ohio. (Norwood 

and St. Bernard, Ohio.) 
Hoosick Falls, N. Y. 

Main and Waverly Avenues, Norwood, Ohio. 
Nevins, Butler and Baltic Streets, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
River Road, AVest Conshohocken, Pa. 
128 Front Street, New York, N. Y. 
900 Fifteenth Street, Denver, Colo. 
Saugus, Mass. 

411 Third -Avenue, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Wells. Delta County, Mich. 
771 Ellicott Square. Buffalo. N. Y. 
3(1 Church Street, New York, N. Y. (Midland, Mich.). 
Midland, Mich. 
Wilmington, Del. 

200 Fifth Avenue, New York, N. Y. 
Eleventh and Monroe Streets, St. Louis, Mo. 
55 Berry Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
343 State Street, Rochester, N. Y. 
502 East One hundred and eighty-seventh Street, New 

York, N. Y. 
4633 Forest Avenue, Norwood, Ohio. 
Birmingham, Ala. (Anniston, Ala.) 
599 Johnson Avenue, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
21 McBride Avenue, Paterson, N. J. 
1513 Olmstead Avenue, New York, N. Y. 
Iron Mountain, Mich. 
833 Magnolia Avenue, Elizabeth, N. J. 
Carlstadt, N. J. 

92 Reade Street, New York, N. Y. (Bloomfleld, N. J.) 
1501 West Sixth Street, Cincinnati, Ohio. 
P. O. Box 37, Garfield, N. J. (Wallington, N. J.). 
355 Van Buren Street, Newark, N. J. 
669 Erie Building, Cleveland, Ohio. 



DIRECTORY OF MANUFACTURERS 



193 



Directory of manufacturers of dyes and other synthetic organic chemicals, 1928- 

Continued 



Name of company 



Office address (location of plant given in parentheses if not 
in same city as office) 



General Aniline Works (Inc.) 

General Electric Co 

General Plastics (Inc.) 

Givaudan-Delawanna (Inc.) 

Goodrich Co., The B. F 

Orasselli Chemical Co., The 

Great Western Electro Chemical Co... 

Hampden Paint & Chemical Co 

Harmon Color Works (Inc.) 

Heller & Merz Co., The 

Heyden Chemical Corporation 

Holland Aniline Dye Co 

Hooker Electrochemical Co 

Hynson, Westcott & Dunning 

Imperial Color Works (Inc.) 

Ising Corporation, The C. E 

Jennison-Wright Co., The 

Johnson & Co., Charles Eneu 

Kent Color Corporation 

Kentucky Color & Chemical Co 

Kessler Chemical Co., The 

Klipstein & Sons Co. (Inc.), E. C 

Kohnstamm & Co. (Inc.), H 

LaMotte Chemical Products Co 

Lazote (Inc.) 

Lilly & Co., Eli 

Lucidol Corporation 

IVlaas & Waldstein Co.. 

Mallinckrodt Chemical Works 

Marx Color & Chemical Co., Max 

Mathiesnn Alkali Works (Inc.), The... 

May Chemical Works (Inc.) 

Maywood Chemical Works 

Mepham & Co., George S 

Merck & Co. (Inc.) 

Merrimac Chemical Co 

Metz Laboratories (Inc.), H. A 

Monsanto Chemical Works 

Morana (Inc.) 

Mutual Chemical Co. of America 

National Aniline & Chemical Co. (Inc.). 

Naugatuck Chemical Co., The 

New York Quinine & Chemical Works 

(Inc.). 
Newport Co., The. 

Niacet Chemicals Corporation 

Niagara Smelting Corporation 

Noil Chemical & Color Works (Inc.).. 

Northwestern Chemical Co 

Novocol Chemical Manufacturing Co. 
(Inc.). 

Oldbury Electro Chemical Co 

Palatine Aniline & Chemical Corpora- 
tion. 

Passaic Color Corporation 

Peerless Color Co 

Pennsylvania Coal Products Co 

Pharma-Chemical Corporation _ . . 

Pittsburgh Plate Glass Co 

Portland Gas & Coke Co 

Providence Chemical Laboratories 

(Inc.). 
Quaker Oats Co., The 

Republic Creosoting Co 

Reynolds Chemical Corporation 

Rhodia Chemical Co 

Roessler & Hasslacher Chemical Co., 

The. 
Rubber Service Laboratories Co., The, 



1150 Broadway, NewYork, N. Y. (Grasselli, N. J., Rens- 
selaer, N. Y.). 

1 River Road, Schenectady, N. Y. 
Walek Road, North Tonawanda, N. Y. 
Delawanna, N. J. 

Akron, Ohio. 

Guardian Building, Cleveland, Ohio. 

9 Main Street, San Francisco, Calif. (Pittsburg, Calif.) 

161 Armory Street, Springfield, Mass. 

361 Harmon Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

505 Hudson Street, New York, N. Y. (Newark, N. J.) 

45 East Seventeenth Street, New York, N. Y. (Garfield 

and Perth Amboy, N. J.) 
Holland, Mich. 

25 Pine Street, New York, N. Y. (Niagara Falls, N. Y.) 
10.30 North Charles Street, Baltimore, Md. 

Glens Falls. N. Y. 

Flushing, N. Y. 

2403 Broadway, Toledo, Ohio. 

509 South Tenth Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 

2 South Ninth Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Thirty-fourth and Bank Streets, Louisville, Ky. 
575 Nassau Street, Orange, N. J. 

60 Park Place, Newark, N. J. (South Charleston, W. Va.) 
87 Park Place, New York, N. Y. (Brooklyn, N. Y.) 
McCormick Building, Baltimore, Md. 

Wilmington, Del. (Belle, W. Va.) 

Indianapolis, Ind. 

293 Larkin Street, Buffalo, N. Y. 

438 Riverside Avenue, Newark, N. J. 

3600 North Second Street, St. Louis, Mo. 

192 Coit Street, Irvington, N. J. 

250 Park Avenue, New York, N. Y. (Newark, N. J.) 

198 Niagara Street, Newark, N. J. 

Maywood, N. J. 

Twentieth Street and Lynch Avenue, East St. Louis, Mo. 

Rahway, N. J. (Rahway, N. J., Philadelphia, Pa.) 

148 State Street, Boston, Mass. (Everett and Woburn, 

122 Hudson Street, New York, N. Y. (Brooklyn, N. Y., 

Newark, N. J.) 
1724 South Second Street, St. Louis, Mo. (St. Louis, Mo., 

Monsanto, 111.) 

61 Vandam Street, New York, N. Y. (Elizabeth, N. J.) 
270 Madison Avenue, New York, N. Y. (Jersey City, 

N.J.) 
40 Rector Street. New York, N. Y. (Buffalo, N. Y.) 
Naugatuck, Conn. 
99 North Eleventh Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

P. O. Box M, South Milwaukee, Wis. (Carrollville, Wis., 

Passaic, N. J.) 
Niagara Falls, N. Y. 
Niagara Falls, N. Y. (Lewiston, N. Y.) 
152 West One hundred and eighth Street, New York, N. Y. 
Wauwatosa, Wis. 
2923 Atlantic Avenue, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Niagara Falls, N. Y. 

77 North Water Street, Poughkeepsie, N. Y. 

50 Eighth Street, Passaic, N. J. 

521 North Avenue, Plainfield, N. J. 

Reiber Building, Butler, Pa. (Petrolia, Pa.) 

233 Broadway, New York, N. Y. (Bayonne, N. J.) 

205 Pittsburgh Avenue, Milwaukee, Wis. 

Public Service Building, Portland, Oreg. 

26 Custom House Street, Providence, R. I. 

1600 Railway Exchange, Chicago, 111. (Cedar Rapids, 

Iowa.) 
1615 Merchants Bank Building, Indianapolis, Ind. (St. 

Louis Park, Minn., Mobile, Ala., Norfolk, Va., Ironton, 

Utah, Seattle, Wash.) 
Washington Street, Utica, N. Y. 
21 Spruce Street, New York, N. Y. (New Brunswick, 

N. J.) 
709 Sixth Avenue, New York, N. Y. (Perth Amboy, N. J., 

Niagara Falls, N. Y.) 
Nitro, W. Va. 



194 



CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS 



Directory of manufacturers of dyes and other synthetic organic chemicals, 1928 — 

Continued 



No. 



Name of company 



OfSce address (location of plant given in parentheses if not 
in same city as office) 



131 
132 
133 
134 
135 
136 
137 
138 
139 
140 
141 

142 
143 
144 
145 
146 



Savell, Sayre & Co. (Inc.) 

Selden Co., The. 

Seydel Chemical Co 

Sherwin-Williams Co., The , 

Siegle Corporation of America, G. 

Siemon & Elting (Inc.) 

Simons (Inc.), Harold L 

Sinclair & Valentine Co.. 

Solvay Process Co., The 

Somerset Aniline Works 

Squibb & Sons, E. R 



Standard Ultramarine Co., The. 

Stearns & Co., Frederick 

Stokes & Smith Co 

Sun Chemical & Color Co 

Tar Products Corporation 



147 Textile Chemical Co. 

148 ! Todd Co., A. M 

149 Trico Chemical Co (Inc.). 
150 
151 



152 
153 



154 

155 



Uhlich & Co. (Inc.), Paul 

United States Industrial Chemical Co. 

(Inc.). 

Van Dyk & Co. (Inc.) 

Van Schaack Bros. Chemical Works 

(Inc.). 

Verona Chemical Co. 

Victor Chemical Works 



156 Wailes-Dove-Hermiston Corporation.. 

157 ! Warner -Jenkinson Manufacturing Co. 

158 Western Dry Color Co... 

159 White Tar Co. of New Jersey (Inc.)... 



160 
161 
162 
163 



Wilbur-White Chemical Co., The... 

Wilhelm Co., The A.. 

Wolfl-Alport Chemical Corporation. 
Zinsser & Co. (Inc.) 



Niagara Falls, N. Y. 

McCartney Street, W. E., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

86 Forrest Street, Jersey City, N. J. (Nitro, W. Va.) 

601 Canal Road, Cleveland, Ohio. (Chicago, 111.) 

Rosebank, Staten Island, N. Y. 

Irvington, N. J. 

11 Fortv-fourth Road, Long Island City, N. Y. 

11 St. Clair Place, New York, N. Y. 

Syracuse, N. Y. (Geddes, N. Y.) 

Pluckemin, N. J. 

80 Beekman Street, New York, N. Y. (Brooklyn, N. Y., 
New Brunswick, N. J.) 

Huntington, W. Va. 

Jefferson and Bellevue Avenues, Detroit, Mich. 

Summerdale Avenue, Philadelphia, Pa. 

309 Sussex Street, Harrison, N. J. 

Union Trust Building, Pittsburgh, Pa. (Providence, R. 
I., Hartford, Conn., New Haven, Conn.) 

90 Smithfield Avenue, Providence, R. I. 

Rose and Kalamazoo Avenues, Kalamazoo, Mich. 

502 Iroquois Building, Buffalo, N. Y. 

11 Cliff Street, New York, N. Y. (Brooklyn, N. Y.) 

110 East Forty-second Street, New York, N. Y. (Balti- 
more, Md., Peoria, 111.) 

4 Piatt Street, New York, N. Y. (Jersey City, N. J.) 

3358 Avondale Avenue, Chicago, 111. 

26 Verona Avenue, Newark, N. J. 

343 South Dearborn Street, Chicago, 111. (Chicago 
Heights, 111.) 

17 Battery Place, New York, N. Y. (Garwood, N. J.) 

2526 Baldwin Street, St. Louis, Mo. 

Fifty-second and Wallace Streets, Chicago, 111. 

Belleville Turnpike, Kearny, N. J. (Kearny, N. J., Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio.) 

Owego, N. Y. 

Third and Bern Streets, Reading, Pa. 

593 Irving Avenue, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Railroad Avenue, Hastings-on-Hudson, N. Y. 



o