(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Synthetic organic chemicals : United States production and sales"

Si' 



i:\ W fi *-3 1^ , X/^ ■ J 



^3i; 



:(<': 



/m 



Given By 



^ 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 



CENSUS OF DYES 

AND OF 

OTHER SYNTHETIC ORGANIC 
CHEMICALS 

1930 



REPORT No. 19 
Second Series 




BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY 

Illlllllllllll „ 

3 9999 06317 187 8 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 

\ 1 



CENSUS OF DYES 

AND OF 

OTHER SYNTHETIC ORGANIC 
CHEMICALS 



1930 



REPORT No. 19 

Second Series 




UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 1931 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, WasMngton, D. C. Price 20 cents 



UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 

Henry P. Fletcher, Chairman 
Thomas Walker Page, Vice Chairman 
John Lee Coulter 
Alfred P. Dennis 
Edgar B. Brossard 
Lincoln Dixon 

Sidney Morgan, Secretary 



Address all Coimnunications 

UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION 

WASHINGTON, D. C. 

n 




CONTENTS 

Page 

Introduction vii 

Part I 

Summary of the census of dyes and of other synthetic organic chemicals, 
1930: 

Introduction 3 

Summary of domestic production, 1930 — 

Crudes 4 

Intermediates 4 

Coal-tar dyes 5 

Statistics of production and sales 6 

Synthetic organic chemicals not derived from coal tar 7 

International dye trade in 1930 7 

Part II 

Production of dyes and coal-tar chemicals, 1930: 
Coal-tar crudes — 

Coke and coal-tar — 

Coke 11 

Tar 11 

Distillates of tar — - 

Agencies collecting statistics 13 

Production in by-product coke ovens 13 

Production by firms not primarily engaged in the operation 

of coke ovens 14 

Production of certain crudes from all sources 15 

Exports and imports 18 

Coal-tar intermediates — 

Production 18 

Aniline and derivatives 19 

Benzene derivatives 19 

Benzidine, dianisidine and tolidine 19 

Naphthalene and derivatives 20 

Anthraquinone 20 

Condensation products 20 

Phenol, cresylic acid, and resorcinol 20 

Benzoates and salicylates 21 

Phthalic anhydride and derivatives 21 

Diphenyl and derivatives 21 

Tricresyl and triphenyl phosphates 21 

Organic metallic fungicides 21 

New intermediates 22 

Statistics of production and sales 22 

Organic chemicals for mothproofing 30 

Dyes and other finished coal-tar products — 

Introduction 32 

Summary of production of dyes 32 

Stocks on hand 33 

Prices 34 

Unit value of dyes produced, 1926-1930 36 

Progress in dye manufacture — 

Relation of production to consumption 36 

Court and Treasurv decisions 37 

Imports of dyes, 1926-1931 (6 months) 38 

Production and sales of dyes by chemical classes ^ 40 

ni 



IV CONTENTS 

Production of dj^es and coal-tar chemicals, 1930 — Continued. 
Dyes and other finished coal-tar products — Continued. 

Summary of production of dyes — Continued. ^age 

Production of dyes by classes of application 40 

Acid dyes 42 

Basic dyes 42 

Direct dyes 42 

Mordant and chrome dyes 43 

Sulfur dyes 43 

Vat dyes 43 

Color-lake and spirit-soluble dyes 45 

Food dyes 45 

Export trade in dyes 45 

Other finished coal-tar products — 

Color lakes 46 

Medicinals 46 

Flavors and perfume materials 48 

Synthetic resins 49 

Photographic chemicals 50 

Synthetic tanning materials 50 

Statistics of production and sales 51 

Dyes not classified by Colour Index number 64 

Employees and rates of pay 66 

Research work 68 

Part III 

Dyes and other finished coal-tar chemicals imported for consumption in 
the United States, 1930: 

Introduction 71 

Summary of imports of dyes 71 

Part IV 

Census of synthetic organic chemicals not derived from coal tar: 

Introduction 79 

Principal compounds produced in 1930 — 

Derivatives of ethylene, propylene, and butylene 79 

Derivatives of acetylene 80 

Solvents for lacquers 80 

Methanol - 80 

Formaldeh j'de and hexamethylenetetramine 80 

Synthetic ethyl alcohol 80 

Higher alcohols by high-pressure synthesis 80 

Acetone 81 

Ethyl ether 81 

Ethyl chloride and tetraethyl lead 81 

Methyl chloride and new refrigerants 81 

Citric acid and citrate of lime 81 

Diethyl barbituric acid and derivatives 82 

Synthetic resins 82 

Xanthates 82 

Increases in production 83 

Decreases in production 83 

New products 83 

Statistics of production, sales, and imports 83 

Part V 
International dye trade: 

Introduction 91 

World production of dyes 91 

Competitive conditions 92 

Exports from producing countries 92 

International imports 93 

Notes on the dye trade of foreign countries — 

Great Britain 94 

Germany 96 

Switzerland 96 

France 96 



CONTENTS V 

International dye trade — Continued. 

Notes on the dye trade of foreign countries — Continued. Page 



Italy 



96 



Japan '_'_" qq 

Spain 97 

roland 97 

Part VI 

Statistics of imports and exports 101 

Directory of manufacturers of dyes and other synthetic organic chemicals, 

1930 : : .' 109 

Statistical Tables 

1. Dyes and coal-tar chemicals: Summary of production and sales, 1928- 

1930 : . 6 

2. Synthetic organic chemicals not of coal-tar origin: Production and 

sales, 1921-1930 7 

3. By-product and beehiye coke: Production in the United States, 1913 

and 1925-1930 U 

4. Coke-oyen, coal-gas, water-gas, and oil-gas tar: Production and sales in 

the United States, 1925-1930 12 

5. Coke-oven tar: Production in the United States and percentage sold 

and used, 1919-1930 12 

6. Coal-tar crudes obtained as by-products in coke-oven operations, 

1928-1930 1 13 

7. Coal-tar crudes: Production, 1930, by firms not primarily engaged in 

the operation of coke-oven plants and gas houses 14 

8. Total commercial production of benzene, toluene, solvent naphtha, 

naphtlialene, and creosote oil from all sources in the United States, 
1925-1930 17 

9. Coal-tar intermediates: Domestic sales price, 1924^1930; invoice price 

of same intermediates imported, 1914 23 

10. Coal-tar intermediates: Production and sales, 1930 23 

11. Coal-tar intermediates: Production, bv groups, according to unit 

values, 1926-1930 1 32 

12. Coal-tar dyes: Production and sales, 1914 and 1920-1930 33 

13. Coal-tar dyes: Stocks on hand January 1, 1930 and Januarj? 1, 1931. 33 

14. Domestic sales price of certain coal-tar dyes, 1928-1930, compared 

with invoice value of dyes of the same kind imported in 1914 35 

15. Coal-tar dves: Production, by groups, according to unit value, 1926- 

1930_._1 36 

16. Coal-tar dyes: Imports into the United States, 1926-1931 (6 months). 38 

17. Coal-tar dyes: Production and sales, by chemical classification, with 

index numbers of production and sales, using the year 1928 as a base. 39 

18. Comparison of imports of dyes with production and sales, bv classes of 

application, 1928-1930 ." 41 

19. Vat dyes, other than Indigo: Domestic sales, imports, and apparent 

consumption in the United States, 1914 and 1925-1930 44 

20. Coal-tar dyes: Exports from the United States, 1925-1930 45 

21. Colors, dyes, and stains: Domestic exijorts by months, 1928-1931 (6 

months) 46 

22. Coal-tar medicinals: Production of selected list, 1923-1930 47 

23. Synthetic resins: Production and sales, 1927-1930 49 

24. Dyes and other finished coal-tar products: Production and sales, 1930_ 51 

25. Employees and rates of pay in the coal-tar dye and chemical industry, 

1930 67 

26. Coal-tar dyes: Imports into the United States, by country of shipment, 

1928-1930 72 

27. Coal-tar dyes imported into the United States, classified by methods of 

application, 1929, 1930 72 

28. Coal-tar dyes of each class, according to method of application, im- 

ported in largest quantity during the calendar year 1930, compared 

with corresponding imports in 1929 72 

29. Coal-tar medicinals and pharmaceuticals: Imports into the United 

States, 1930 74 



VI CONTENTS 

Page 

30. Synthetic aromatic chemicals of coal-tar origin: Imports into the 

United States, 1930 75 

31. Photographic chemicals, intermediates, and other coal-tar products: 

Imports into the United States, 1930 75 

32. Certain synthetic organic chemicals of noncoal-tar origin: Imports and 

production, 1928-1930 83 

33. Synthetic organic chemicals of noncoal-tar origin: Production and 

sales, 1930 84 

34. Coal-tar dyes: Production by chief producing countries, 1926-1930__ 91 

35. Coal-tar dyes : Exports from chief producing countries, 1913 and 1929, 

1930 93 

36. Coal-tar dyes: Imports into the chief consuming countries, 1913 and 

1929, 1930 94 

37. United Kingdom: Production of dyes, 1928-1930 95 

38. Coal-tar products: Imports entered for consumption, 1929,1930 101 

39. Coal-tar products: General imports, 1929, 1930 104 

40. Coal-tar products: Domestic exports, 1929, 1930 106 



INTRODUCTION 



This report is a survey of the domestic dye and of the synthetic 
organic chemical industry in 1930. It presents the results of a special 
investigation made by the United States Tariff Commission with 
respect to the production in the United States of coal-tar dyes and of 
other synthetic organic chemicals of coal-tar and of noncoal-tar origin. 
It includes summary tabulations of coal-tar dyes and of other finished 
coal-tar chemicals imported into the United States and summaries 
of official statistics of imports and exports of coal-tar dyes by the 
large consuming and producing nations of the world. 

The survey is divided into six parts, as shown in the Table of 
Contents (pp. iii to v). 

In the preparation of tiiis report the Tariff Commission had the 
services of Dexter North, Wilbur F. Sterling, Paul K. Lavvrence, 
Bertha M. Robertson, and Rachel D. Shindel, of the chemical division 
of the commission's staff, and of others. 

vu 



PART I 

SUMMARY OF THE CENSUS OF DYES AND OF 
OTHER SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1930 



Part I 

SUMMARY OF THE CENSUS OF DYES AND OF OTHER 
SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1930 



Introduction 



Beginning with 1917, the United States Tariff Commission has 
prepared annually a statistical survey of the American coal-tar chemi- 
cal industry.^ In 1921 the scope of this work was extended to include 
synthetic organic chemicals not of coal-tar origin. This branch of 
the chemical industry has been covered in each succeeding census, 
including this issue. 

The compilation of these statistical data was commenced primarily 
to supply adequate information for tariff consideration of coal-tar 
chemicals. The usefulness to governmental agencies and to the trade 
of comprehensive statistics of a complex and rapidly expanding 
branch of the chemical industry has warranted a continuation of 
this work. 

This issue of the census has been abridged in order to expedite 
publication and to effect economies in printing. Detailed tabulation 
of imports of dyes into the United States has been omitted to avoid 
duplication of the monthly list of dye imports, published jointly by 
the Department of Commerce and the Tariff Commission. Statistics 
of production for prior years, omitted from this issue, may be obtained 
from previous editions. 

The grouping of coal-tar chemicals in this report follows that of 
the tariff act of 1930, and conforms in general, although not in every 
detail, to common practice. Crudes, duty free under paragraph 1651, 
are prepared from crude coal tar; intermediates, dutiable at 40 per 
cent and 7 cents per pound and at 20 per cent and 3K cents per pound 
under paragraph 27, are chemically manufactured from crudes; and 
dyes and other finished coal-tar products, dutiable at 45 per cent and 
7 cents per pound ^ under paragraph 28, are prepared by chemical 
treatment from intermediates. "Other finished coal-tar products" 
include color lakes, photographic chemicals, medicinals, flavors, 
perfume materials, synthetic resins, synthetic tanning materials, and 
miscellaneous products. Explosives of coal-tar origin, although duti- 
able under paragraph 28, are not included in this census. 

A summary of domestic production and sales of coal-tar products, 
1928-1930, inclusive, appears in Table 1, page 6. Data for the years 
omitted are contained in the 1928 and 1929 issues of the census. The 
figures for 1930 were compiled from returns of 202 companies ^ and 

1 other reports prepared by the Tariff Commission relating to conditions in the dye industry include: 
(1) Costs of Production in the Dve Industry, 1918 and 1919, and (2) Dyes and Other Coal-Tar Chemicals, 
Dec. 12, 1918. 

2 Except Indigo and Sulfur black, which are dutiable at 20 per cent and 3 cents per pound. 

3 This census includes the production returns of 202 firms, 36 of which made synthetic organic che.nicals 
of noncoal-tar origin only, and 166 made synthetic organic chemicals of coal-tar origin or of both coal-tar and 
noncoal-tar origin. The 150 firms who granted permission to publish their names are listed in the direc- 
tory of manufacturers of dyes and other synthetic organic chemicals, p. 109. 

3 



4 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS 

are thought to form a complete record of the manufacture of such 
products. Data for separate items are given in as great detail as is 
possible without disclosing the operations of individual manufacturers. 
The policy of the commission is to omit production and sales figures 
for a product unless at least three firms report a substantial production. 
If the total is not well distributed among the three or more manufac- 
turers, or if one or two producers report the bulk of the total, 
production or sales figures are not published. 

Summary of Domestic Production, 1930 

CRUDES 

The total domestic production of coke in 1930 was 47,972,021 net 
tons, consisting of 45,195,705 tons, or 94.2 percent, from by-product 
ovens, and 2,776,316 tons, or 5.8 per cent, from beehive ovens. The 
total output in 1930 was 20 per cent less than that in 1929. 

Of the 647,485,929 gallons of coke-oven and coal-gas tar produced 
in 1930, 362,183,422 gallons were distilled by firms not primarily 
engaged in the operation of coke ovens or gas houses, and about 
46,000,000 gallons were distilled by coke-oven operators in the man- 
ufacture of certain crudes, notably creosote oil. Most of the tar not 
distilled, about 37 per cent, was used as fuel and as road-paving 
material. 

The total output of creosote oil in 1930 was 122,571,822 gallons, 
valued at $13,299,093, of which firms not primarily engaged in the 
operation of coke ovens or gas houses produced 96,891,940 gallons, 
valued at $11,052,104, and coke-oven operators, 25,679,882 gallons, 
valued at $2,246,989. The Tariff Commission, on March 4, 1931, 
instituted an investigation of the cost of production of creosote oil 
under the provisions of section 332 of the tariff act of 1930, in com- 
pliance with Senate Resolution 470. 

The output of benzol decreased from 25,119,013 gallons in 1929 to 
19,918,059 gallons in 1930. Over a million gallons more motor benzol 
were manufactured in 1930 than in 1929. The unit value of motor 
benzol decreased from 16 cents in 1929 to 14 cents in 1930. 

The output of crude anthracene increased materially in 1930. 

INTERMEDIATES 

The total output of intermediates by 71 firms in 1930 was 290,760,- 
532 pounds; 18 per cent less than the 354,487,718 pounds reported by 
77 manufacturers in 1929. Part of this decrease is accounted for by 
changes in classification made to obtain more logical grouping of 
products and to conform more closely with tarift" classification. 

Benzoic acid USP, resorcinol USP, salicylic acid USP, benzoate of 
soda, benzoyl peroxide, and naphthol AS products classified as inter- 
mediates in 1929 are classified as finished coal-tar products in 1930. 
Including these items with intermediates, as in former years, the 
decrease in 1930 was 16.5 per cent. 

The output of aniline decreased from 33,743,270 pounds in 1929 to 
26,388,177 pounds in 1930, and the production of aniline salts declined 
about 10 per cent in the same period. 



SUMMARY OF DOMESTIC PRODUCTION, 1930 5 

Refined naphthalene increased in production about 3 per cent in 
1930. Many of the naphthalene derivatives were made in larger 
quantities in 1930 than in the preceding year. 

The output of anthraquinone decreased about 30 per cent by quan- 
tity in 1930. The unit value of sales in 1930 was about 10 per cent 
less than in 1929. 

Phenol (natural and synthetic) declined about 13 per cent in pro- 
duction in 1930 whereas cresylic acid increased in production about 19 
per cent. 

The output of phthalic anhydride was 6,693,000 pounds m 1930 as 
against 9,168,946 pounds in 1929. 

The production of diphenjd increased about 55 per cent in quantity 
in 1930, and the unit value of sales decreased about 25 per cent. 

COAL-TAR DYES 

The output of dyes in 1930 by 50 firms was 86,480,000 pounds, a 
decrease of 22 per cent from the production of 111,421,505 pounds in 

1929. The decrease was greatest in the cheaper dyes, produced in 
large amounts. Total sales were 89,971,599 pounds, valued at 
$38,621,610, as compared with 106,070,887 pounds, valued at 
$45,842,130, in 1929. 

More than $100,000,000 are now invested in buildings and equip- 
ment and a total of 11,391 employees were reported to be engaged in 
the coal-tar chemical industry in 1930. Most of this development has 
occurred since 1914, only 528 persons then being engaged in the 
manufacture of coal-tar chemicals in the United States. 

Of the apparent consumption of dyes in 1930, 93.8 per cent by 
weight and 82 per cent by value were supplied by domestic manu- 
facturers. 

About $3,432,000, or an amount equivalent to 5.3 per cent of total 
sales, was expended in research by the coal-tar chemical industry in 

1930. It is significant that in an adverse business j^ear, the number of 
dye research laboratories and the amount of money spent increased. 

The weighted average value per pound oi dyes sold in 1930 was 43 
cents, the same as in 1929. The unit value of sales in 1930 does not 
reflect the general downward trend in dye prices, because of the pro- 
duction of relatively greater quantities of the higher priced dyes and a 
slight increase in the price of some of the bulk dyes, manufactured in 
large quantities. 

Imports of dyes in 1930 were 4,114,882 pounds, with a foreign in- 
voice value of $3,500,154 as against 6,437,147 pounds, valued at 
$5,374,085, in 1929. Germany and Switzerland supplied nearly all of 
the imported dyes. By classes of application our imports in 1930 were 
by weight: 41.70 per cent vat dyes; 21.99 per cent acid dyes; 19.69 per 
cent direct dyes; 6.08 per cent mordant and chrome dyes; and the 
remainder, basic, spirit-soluble, and sulfur dyes. 

Exports of dyes in 1930 were 28,267,340 pounds, valued at $6,245,- 
830 as against'^34, 130,325 pounds, valued at $7,279,086, in the pre- 
ceding year. As in former years, the bulk of our exports consisted of 
the cheaper dyes, sold to far eastern countries. 



6 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS 

STATISTICS OF PRODUCTION AND SALES OF INTERMEDIATES AND 
FINISHED PRODUCTS 

Table 1. — Dyes and coal-tar chemicals: Summary of production and sales 



Intermediates (total).. 

Finished products (total) 

Dyes 

Color lakes 

Medicinals 

Flavors 

Perfumes 

Photographic chemicals 

Synthetic phenolic resins 

Synthetic tanning materials and miscellaneous 



1928 



Number 
of manu- 
facturers 



77 

125 

53 

38 

23 

14 

18 

5 

9 

4 



Production, 
quantity 



Pounds 

279, 274, 807 

143, 563, 099 

96, 625, 451 

12, 127, 242 

4, 008, 393 

1, 746, 350 

1, 577, 718 

478, 979 

20,411,465 

6, 587, 501 



Sales 



Quantity 



Pounds 

115,837,340 

140, 796, 814 

93, 302, 708 

12, 045, 435 

4, 004, 557 

1, 966, 467 

1, 619, 476 

493, 825 

20, 778, 856 

6, 585, 490 



Value 



$24, 126, 473 

65, 762, 945 

39, 792, 039 

6, 589, 166 

8, 650, 838 

1, 296, 034 

1, 000, 001 

696, 101 

7, 211, 958 

526, 808 



1929 



Number 
of manu- 
facturers 



Production, 
quantity 



Sales 



Quantity 



Value 



Intermediates (total) 

Finished products (total)' 

Dyes 

Color lakes 

Medicinals 

Flavors 

Perfumes 

Photographic chemicals 

Synthetic resins 

Synthetic tanning materials 

Research chemicals 

Miscellaneous products 



77 

120 

54 

37 

24 

10 

16 

6 

11 

2 

3 

1 



Pounds 

354, 487, 718 

167, 175, 703 

111, 421, 505 

13, 244, 676 

5, 000, 205 

2, 292, 450 

1, 599, 430 

580, 947 

33, 036, 490 



Pounds 

148, 711, 591 

158, 698, 300 

106. 070, 887 

12, 907, 914 

4, 745, 054 

2, 253, 414 

1, 480, 368 

580, 150 

30, 660, 513 



$28, 871, 572 
77, 247, 361 
45, 842, 130 

7, 262, 543 

8, 358, 526 
3, 517, 182 
1, 082, 602 

790, 981 
10, 393, 397 





1930 




Number 
of manu- 
facturers 


Production, 
quantity 


Sales 




Quantity 


Value 


Intermediates (total) 


71 

129 

50 

36 

31 

14 

18 

6 

14 

2 

3 

15 


Pounds 

290, 760, 532 

141,064,546 

86, 480, 000 

9, 563, 318 

7, 508, 182 

2,010,012 

1,042,232 

624, 828 

30, 867, 752 


Pounds 

124, 349, 333 

135, 058, 742 

89, 971, 599 

9, 589, 719 

5, 449, 954 

2, 030, 601 

1, 018, 867 

605, 635 

24, 014, 093 


$22, 574, 061 


Finished products (total) 2 _ 


65, 534, 688 


Dyes 


38, 621, 610 


Color lakes 


5, 692, 351 


Medicinals .... 


7, 879, 860 


Flavors.. _ ... ... . 


2, 738, 704 


Perfumes 


745, 208 


Photographic chemicals... 


761, 572 


Synthetic resins 


7, 323, 656 


Synthetic tanning materials 




Research chemicals . . 


} 2, 968, 222 


2, 378, 274 




Miscellaneous 


1, 771, 727 







' Total for synthetic tanning materials, research chemicals, and miscellaneous products not included. 
2 Total for synthetic tanning materials not included. 



INTERNATIONAL DYE TRADE IN 1930 7 

SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS NOT DERIVED FROM COAL TAR 

The output of s^mthetic organic cheinicals not derived from coal 
tar was 609,363,028 pounds in 1930, a decrease of 3.8 per cent from the 
production in 1929. Sales in 1930 of 436,888,399 pounds, valued at 
$65,991,951, however, represented an increase of 7.8 per cent by weight 
and of 1.3 per cent b}'" value over the preceding 5^ear. 

Although the production of derivatives of ethylene, propylene, 
and butylene decreased about 30 per cent in 1930, sales increased 
about 28 per cent by weight and 30 per cent by value. 

The output of lacquer solvents as a group declined about 15 per 
cent in 1930. The principal aliphatic compounds comprising this 
classification are butyl and amyl acetates, butyl and amyl alcohols, 
and ethyl acetate. 

The production of 48,930,545 pounds of synthetic methanol in 
1930 was more than 50 per cent in excess of the output in 1929 and 
exceeded for the first time the quantity made by wood distillation. 

Among other compounds and groups of compounds showing in- 
creased output in 1930 were ethyl ether, ethyl and methyl chlorides, 
tetraethyl lead, diethyl barbituric acid and derivatives, and noncoal- 
tar synthetic resins. 

Some of the compounds showing decreased output in 1930 were 
acetaldehyde, acetone, formaldehyde, and hexamethylenetetramine. 

Features of primary interest were the commercial production for the 
first time of synthetic ethyl alcoliol, higher alcohols, and certain new 
refrigerants. 

Table 2 shows the production and sales of synthetic organic chem- 
icals not derived from coal tar, 1921 to 1930, inclusive. 

Table 2. — Synthetic organic chemicals not of coal-tar origin: Production and sales 



Year 


Production 


Sales 


Year 


Production 


Sales 














Quantity 


Value 






Quantity 


Value 




Pounds 


Pounds 






Pounds 


Pounds 




1921 


21, 545, 186 


16, 761. 096 


$7, 226, 068 


1926 


214, 842, 513 


168, 712, 158 


$29, 719, 270 


1922 


79, 202, 155 


50, 494, 494 


11,964,074 


1927 


280, 992, 825 


201, 548, 089 


36, 600, 628 


1923 


90, 597, 712 


67, 727, 067 


13. 875, 521 


1928 


384, 564, 836 


257, 077, 856 


45, 928, 945 


1924 


115, 817, 865 


85, 933, 461 


20, 604, 717 


1929 


633, 192, 215 


405, 185, 980 


65, 117, 651 


1925 


156,878,013 


114, 626, 209 


23, 632, 779 


1930 


609, 363, 028 


436, 888, 399 


65, 991, 951 



International Dye Trade in 1930 

Consideration of the international dye trade in this issue of the 
census is confined to a brief discussion of trade and important events 
in major producing and consuming nations and to a summary table 
of dye production and foreign trade. 

The output of dyes by the principal producing nations in 1930 as 
compared with 1929 decreased by weight as follows: Germany, 6.6 
per cent; the United States, 22 per cent; Great Britain, 24 per cent; 
Switzerland, 18 per cent; and France, 3 per cent. 



8 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS 

Exports of dyes in 1930 from the following nations decreased by 
weight as follows: Germany, 3.4 per cent; the United States, 18 
per cent; Great Britain, 32 per cent; Switzerland, 18 per cent; and 
France, 28 per cent. Exports from Italy in 1930 increased 27 per 
cent and those from Japan over 150 per cent. 

The most important event in international dye trade in 1930 was 
the continuation for another year (until January 1, 1932) of the 
dye import regulation act by Great Britain. 



PART II 

PRODUCTION OF DYES AND OF GOAL -TAR 
CHEMICALS, 1930 



64996—31 2 



Part II 

PRODUCTION OF DYES AND OF COAL-TAR CHEMICALS, 1930 

Coal-Tar Crudes 
coke and coal tar 

Coke. — The total domestic production of coke in 1930 was 47,972- 
021 net tons, a decrease of 20 per cent from the peak output of 
59,883,845 tons in 1929. As about 80 per cent^ of all coke is used in 
blast furnaces, decreased activity in the steel mdustry accounts for 
most of the decline in coke production in 1930. The aggregate out- 
put in 1930 consisted of 45,195,705 tons of bj-product coke or 94.2 
per cent of the total, and 2,776,316 tons of beehive coke, or 5.8 per 
cent of the total. The ratio of beehive to by-product coke in 1930 is 
the lowest on record. Since 1913, when 72.5 per cent of the total 
production of coke was manufactured in beehive ovens, the trend has 
been toward the increased use of by-product coke in blast furnaces, with 
the resulting recovery of valuable bj^-products, formerly wasted in 
the beehive process. In addition to their output of coke in 1930, 
by-product coke ovens produced 602,485,929 gallons of tar, 178, 325,- 
952 gallons of crude light oil, 670,960 short tons of ammonium sulfate, 
and 724,103,000,000 cubic feet of gas. 

Table 3 shows the production of by-product and of beehive coke 
in 1913 and 1925-1930, inclusive. The figures for 1930 for by-product 
coke are taken from reports of the Bureau of Mines; and those for 
beehive coke are estimates based on the number of cars loaded for 
shipment. 



Table 3. — By-product and beehive coke: Production 


in the United States 




Net tons produced 


Per cent of total 
output 


Year 


By-product 


Beehive 

i 


Total 


By- 
product 


Beehive 


1913 


12, 714, 700 
39, 912, 159 
44, 376, 586 
43, 884, 726 
48, 313, 025 
53,411,826 
45, 195, 705 


33, 584, 830 
11,354,784 1 
12,488,951 ; 
7,207,417 
4,492,803 
6,472,019 
2,776,316 1 
1 


46, 299, 530 
51, 266, 943 
56, 865, 537 
51,092,143 
52,805,828 
59, 883, 845 
47, 972, 021 


27.5 
77.9 
78.0 
85.9 
91.5 
89.2 
94.2 


72.5 


1925- 


22.1 


1926 - 


22.0 


1927 


14.1 


1928 


8.5 


1929 - .'- 


10.8 


930 - - 


5.8 







Tar. — The total production of coke-oven and coal-gas tar in 1930 
was 647,485,929 gallons, or 11 per cent less than was produced in the 
preceding year. Sales of tar from both sources in 1930 were 357,865,294 
gallons, or about 55 per cent of the amount produced. 



1 Estimated by Bureau of Mines, Dept. of Commerce, in "Coke and By-products in 1928. 



11 



12 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS 

Firms primarily engaged in the distillation of tar consumed 362,183,- 
422 (gallons of tar in 1930; firms primarily engaged in the operation of 
coke"^ ovens distilled about 46,000,000 ^ gallons, making a total of 
about 408,000,000 gallons, or 63 per cent of the quantity of tar pro- 
duced in 1930. Most of the tar not distilled is consumed as fuel and 
as road-paving material. 

Table 4 shows the production of coal tar from all sources and the 
quantity and value of sales from 1925 to 1930, inclusive. Table 5 
shows the ratio of sales to production of coke-oven tar from 1919 to 
1930, inclusive. 

Table 4. — Coke-oven, coal-gas, water-gas, and oil-gas tar: Production and sales 

in the United States 

[Compiled by the Bureau of Mines from reports of producers. The difference between production and 
sales is accounted for by tar used by the producer and by changes in stock] 



Coke-oven 
tari 



Coal-gas 
tar 2 



Total coal 
tar 



Water and oil 
gas tar 



Production (gallons) 

1925 

1926 

1927 

1928 

1929 

1930.. 

Sales (gallons): 

1925 

1926 

1927 

1928 

1929 

1930 

Value of sales: 

1925_.-_ 

1926... 

1927 

1928-. .-_. 

1929 

1930 



480, 
529, 
546, 
631, 
680, 
602, 

240, 
277, 
305, 
332, 
333, 
314, 

$11, 
14, 
16, 
17, 
16, 
15, 



848, 814 
486, 374 
859, 205 
844, 767 

864, 366 
485, 929 

160, 986 
248, 522 
898, 176 
150. 270 
557, 501 

865, 294 

903, 196 
103, 760 
095, 478 
544, 797 
982, 406 
562. 903 



(3) 
(3) 
« 
(3) 

, 329, 311 
(3) 

175, 979 
(3) 

266, 279 
(3) 

495, 026 
(') 

750, 719 
(3) 

923, 819 
(') 

486, 434 
(3) 



534, 848, 814 
583, 486, 374 
600, 859, 205 
688, 344, 767 
728, 193, 677 
647, 485, 929 

289, 336, 965 
326, 248, 522 
357, 164, 455 
383. 150, 270 
379, 052, 527 
357, 865, 294 

$14,653,915 
16, 803, 760 
19, 019, 297 
20, 454, 797 
19, 467, 840 
17, 927, 963 



m 

5 117,601,208 
(«) 

5 61,471,124 
{*) 

5 83, 479, 339 

(0 

6 75, 545, 630 

(*) 

8 $2, 594, 026 
(*) 
5 3, 768, 464 

« 3, 353, 799 

(0 



1 Includes tar produced in by-product coke ovens operated by city gas companies. 

3 The figures here given for coal-gas tar include only the operations of coal-gas retorts. For 1927 and 
1929 revised census figures are used, obtained by subtracting from the totals for the manufactured gas 
industry, as published by the Bureau of the Census, the tar produced at by-product coke ovens operated 
by city gas companies. 

3 Estimate included in total. 

< No data. 

5 As reported by the Bureau of the Census. 



Table 5. — Coke-oven tar: Production in the United States and percentage sold 

and used 

[Compiled by United States Geological Survey and Bureau of Mines from reports of operators] 





Coke-oven tar 


Year 


Coke-oven tar 


Year 


Gallons pro- 
duced 


Per cent 
sold 


Per cent 
used " 


Gallons pro- 
duced 


Per cent 
sold 


Per cent 
used " 


1919 


288, 901, 739 
360, 664, 124 
253,051,649 
327, 779, 734 
440, 907, 109 
422, 074, 320 


75.4 
48.3 
53.5 
49.5 
48.0 
49.6 


24.6 
51.7 
46.5 
50.5 
52.0 
50.4 ' 


1925 

1926- 

1927 

1928 

1929 

1930 


480', 848, 814 
529, 486, 374 
546, 859, 205 
631, 844, 767 
680, 804, 366 
602, 485, 929 


49.9 
52.4 
55.9 
52.6 
49.0 
52.3 


50 1 


1920. 


47 6 


1921 


44 1 


1922.... 


47 4 


1923 


51 


1924 


47 7 







" Not all the tar sold is taken by tar distillers. Of the 52.3 per cent sold in 1930, about 48.2 per cent went 
for refining into tar products and 4.1 per cent for use as fuel. Although no division of sales is available prior 
to 1929, it is clear that for some years a considerable proportion of the sales have gone for use as fuel. 

2 Estimate, based on the amount of tar distilled in 1929, and on the related output of creosote oil in 1929 
and in 1930. 



COAL-TAR CRUDES 



13 



DISTILLATES OF TAR 

Agencies collecting statistics. — Statistics of tlie domestic production 
of coal-tar crudes are collected jointly by the Tariff Commission, the 
United States Geological Survey, and the Bureau of Mines. Produc- 
tion by firms engaged primarily in the distillation of tar is reported 
to the Tariff Commission; that by firms primarily engaged in the 
operation of coke ovens, to the Bureau of Mines. Where tar-distilling 
operations were limited to recovery of simpler materials and conducted 
in conjunction with coke-oven plants, under the same corporate name, 
the Bureau of Mines collected and compiled the statistics for 1930. 
Where distillation was carried on by a separate corporation, reports 
were made to the Tariff Commission. For certain plants equipped 
to produce a complete run of refined tar products in coke-oven opera- 
tions, the Bureau of Mines gathered the data on the production of 
creosote oil, pitch, and the standard light oil products; and the Tariff 
Commission, on the production of phenol and cresylic acid. 

Production in by-product coke ovens. — Table 6 shows the production 
of coal-tar crudes obtained as by-products in coke-oven operations, 
1928 to 1930, inclusive. 

Table 6. — Coal-tar crudes obtained as by-products in coke-oven operations 

[Bureau of Mines] 







Production 


Sales 


Product 


Quantity 


Value 




Total 


Average 


1928 1 
Tar 


..gallons.. 

....do.... 
....do..- 
....do--.. 
....do.... 
..-.do...- 
....do.... 

.pounds.. 
1-tar solu- 
.. gallons.. 
..-do-., 
.net tons.. 


631, 844, 767 


332, 150, 270 


$17, 544, 797 


$0. 053 


Light oil and derivatives: 

Crude light oil 

Benzol, crude and refined 

Motor benzol 

Toluol, crude and refined 

Solvent naphtha (including xylol), 
other light oil products 


2 188, 597, 956 

21, 461, 748 

103, 051, 900 

16, 097, 856 

5, 587, 370 

3, 114, 531 


10, 334, 813 

21,452,973 

102, 935, 995 

16, 181, 650 

4,471,141 

1, 388, 106 


1, 158, 846 
4,215,752 
16, 832, 646 
5, 513, 624 
1, 047, 095 
111,844 


.112 
.197 
.164 
.341 
.234 
.081 




3 149, 303, 405 


156, 764, 678 


28, 879, 807 


.184 


Naphthalene, crude and refined 

Creosote oil (including distillate in coa 

tion) 

Phenol 


12, 182, 143 

12, 386, 000 
57, 794 
54, 131 


10,937,429 

7, 377, 816 

66, 607 

1,725 


135, 693 
i 910, 318 


.012 


Pitch of tar 




other products * 






..gallons.. 

.--do--.. 
....do.... 
....do..-. 
....do-.. 

do.... 

....do-... 








1929 1 » 
Tar 


680, 864, 366 


333, 557, 501 


16,982,406 


0.051 


Light oil and derivatives: 

Crude light oil 

Benzol, crude and refined 

Motor benzol 

Toluol, crude and refined. 

Solvent naphtha (including xylol), 
other light oil products.. 


2 200, 594, 027 

24, 944, 531 

105, 923, 762 

18, 343, 295 

7,131,111 

6, 675, 386 


11,090,709 

24, 558, 745 

100, 807, 852 

17, 064, 206 

6, 581, 047 

1, 877, 176 


1, 374, 527 
5, 169, 743 
16, 063, 285 
6, 580, 176 
1,591,333 
124, 948 


.124 
.211 
.159 
..386 
.242 
.067 




3 163, 018, 085 


161, 979, 735 


30, 904, 012 


.191 



1 Revised since last report. 

2 Refined on the premises to make the products shown: 1928, 182,998,384 gallons; 1929, 194,882,679 
gallons. 

3 Total gallons of derived products. 

* Sodium prussiate, carbolate, sulfur, smoke compound, textile covering, and tar paint. 

' Includes products of tar distillation conducted by coke-oven operators under same corporate name, 
excepting, however, phenol and other tar acids produced at Clairton, Pa., which are covered by report 
of the U. S. Tariff Commission. 



14 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS 

Table 6. — Coal-tar crudes obtmned as by-products in coke-oven operations — 

Continued 

[Bureau of Mines] 



Product 



1929 

Naphthalene, crude and refined.. .pounds. 

Creosote oil (including distillate in coal-tar solu- 
tion) ._ ..gallons. 

Phenol (crude) do... 

Pitch of tar net tons. 

Other products * 



1930 5 
Tar gallons. 

Light oil and derivatives: 

Crude light oil _ do... 

Benzol, crude and refined ...do... 

Motor benzol. do... 

Toluol, crude and refined do... 

Solvent naphtha do... 

Xylol do... 

Other light oil products do... 



Naphthalene, crude and refined pounds.. 

Tar derivatives; 

Creosote oil (including distillate in coal-tar 
solution) gallons.. 

Phenol (crude) do 

Pitch of tar net tons.. 

Other tar derivatives ' 

Other products'... 



19,761,382 

24, 520, 839 
84, 683 
88, 158 



602, 485, 929 



178, 325, 952 
19, 142, 910 
101, 862, 692 
11,833,202 
4, 078, 274 
2, 040, 024 
6, 475, 725 



3 145, 432, 827 



12, 640, 102 



25, 679, 882 
136, 971 
106, 334 



Sales 



Quantity 



19, 659, 367 

23, 938, 431 

78, 869 

5,599 



314, 865, 294 



9, 941, 904 

19, 187, 627 

102, 572, 989 

12, 083, 423 

3, 647, 773 

1, 891, 764 

1, 983, 034 



28, 570, 764 

104, 546 

7,465 



Value 



Total 



$320, 272 

2, 296, 862 
28, 347 
27, 273 
129, 848 



15, 562, 963 



983, 540 

3, 377, 026 

14, 427, 422 

3,613,778 

651, 146 

481,863 

120, 115 



23, 654, 742 



161, 264 



2, 500, 076 
38, 241 
46,914 
55, 376 
95, 164 



Average 



$0,016 



.359 

4.871 



0.054 



.176 
.141 
.299 
.179 
.255 
.061 



.012 



.366 
.285 



8 Total gallons of derived products. 

* Sodium prussiate, carbolate, sulfur, smoke compound, textile covering, and tar paint. 

5 Includes products of tar distillation conducted by coke-oven operators under same corporate name, 
excepting, however, iihenol and other tar acids produced at Clairton, Pa., v^hich are covered by report of 
the U. S. Tariff Commission. 

8 Refined on the premises to make the products shown: 173,328,254 gallons. 

' Tar acids and liquid nail coating. 

• Crude products, tar paint, carbolate, sodium prussiate, sulfur, smoke compound, textile covering, and 
cyanogen. 

Production by firms not primarily engaged in the operation oj coke 
ovens. — Table 7 shows the production of crudes in 1930 by firms not 
primarily engaged in the operation of coke ovens or gas houses. 



Table 7. — Coal-tar crudes: Production by firms not primarily engaged in the 
operation of coke-oven plants and gas houses 

[The numbers in the second column refer to the numbered alphabetical list of manufacturers given on p. 109. 
An X indicates that the corresponding product was made by a manufacturer who did not consent to the 
publication of his name in connection therewith. A blank in the third and fourth columns indicates 
that there was actual production of the corresponding article but that figures can not be published 
without revealing the output of individual firms] 





Manufacturers' identi- 
fication numbers (ac- 
cording to list on p. 
109) 


1930 


Name 


Quantity 


Value 


Unit 
value 


Total crudes . 






$36, 956, 481 






12, 130 






Anthracene (crude, less than 30 per cent). 








pounds. 
Anthracene oil . - gallons. . 


17, 83, 130, X.. 








Benzene (benzol) do 


17, 24, 123 








Carbolic oil or middle oil ...do.. . 


79, 83, 95, X, X, X 









COAL-TAR CRUDES 



15 



Table 7. — Coal-tar crudes: Production by firms not primarily engaged in the 
operation of coke-oven plants and gas houses — Continued 



Name 



Cresol or cresylic acid (crude) gallons. 

Dead or creosote oil: 

Distillate as such _.- do.-. 

Distillate in coal-tar solution' do... 

Light oil do. - - 

Motor fuel do... 

Naphthalene (crude) pounds. 

Other distillates gallons. 

Pitch of tar tons. 

Pyridine gallons. 

Reflined tars barrels. 

Solvent naphtha gallons. 

Toluene (toluol) do... 

Xylene (xylol) do.-. 



Manufacturers' identi- 
fication numbers (ac- 
cording to list on p. 
109) 



17, X 

12, 15, 17, 24, 43, 77, 79, 
95, 130, 141, 149, X, X, 

x,x,x,x,x,x,x. 

17, 77, 83, X, X 

43, 83, 95, 149, X, X, X, 

X, X, X. 

17, 123 

12, 16, 17, 95, 123, 130, 

141, X, X, X. 
17, 24, 43, 149, 153, X, 

X, X, X, X. 
12, 15, 17, 24, 43, 77, 83, 

95, 130, 141, 149, X, 

X, X, X, X, X, X, 

X, X. 
17 



12, 17, 24, 43, 95, 123, 130, 
141, X, X, X, X, X, 
X, X, X. 

17, 130, X, X... 

17, 123 

17 



Quantity 



96, 891, 940 



29, 772, 663 
8, 892, 108 



18, 616, 792 

4, 663, 052 

501, 392 



2, 565, 292 



Value 



$11, 052, 104 



3, 274, 993 
750, 375 



304, 574 

638, 142 

6, 927, 400 



11,293,996 



Unit 
value 



0.11 
.11 



.02 

.14 

13.82 



4.40 



The instructions sent to manufacturers were as follows: Include under dead or creosote oil only products 
which may be used for creosoting. Include under "other distillates" shingle stain oil, disinfectant oils, 
and flotation oils which do not contain over 5 per cent of phenol. Include under refined tars those tars 
which are used for road treatment, saturating felt, and for protective coatings. Phenol and all distillates 
which, on being subjected to distillation, yield in the portion distilling below 190° C. a quantity of tar 
acids equal to or more than 5 per cent of the original distillate, or which, on being subjected to distillation, 
yield in the portion distilling below 215° C. a quantity of tar acids equal to or more than 75 per cent of the 
original distillate are not to be included here but are to be placed under intermediates. 

' Distillate used to produce coal-tar solution included in distillate as such. 

Production of certain crudes from all sources .— The following discus- 
sion of the more important coal-tar crudes refers to total production, 
regardless of the agency collecting data. 

(1) Creosote: The total production of coal-tar creosote in 1930 
was 122,571,822 gallons, valued at $13,299,093, or 10.85 cents a 
gallon, as compared with 127,749,844 gallons, valued at $15,278,881, 
or 11.96 cents a gallon, in 1,929, and 126,779,487 gallons, valued at 
$16,506,689, or 13.02 cents a gallon, in 1928. Of the total output, 
firms not primarily engaged in the operation of coke ovens or gas 
houses produced 96,891,940 gallons in 1930 as compared with 103,- 
229,005 gallons in 1929 and 114,393,487 gallons in 1928. This pro- 
duction includes 23,009,508 gallons of distillate contained in 29,772,633 
gallons of creosote coal-tar solution in 1930 and 25,945,752 gallons of 
distillate contained in 32,937,976 gallons of creosote coal-tar solution 
in 1929. Of the total output, firms reporting to the Bureau of Mines, 
principally coke oven operators, produced 25,679,882 gallons in 1930 
as against 24,520,839 gallons in 1929 and 12,386,000 gallons in 1928. 

These figures have been revised by the Tariff Commission and the 
Bureau of Mines on the basis of information obtained in the investi- 
gation of the cost of production of creosote oil. 

The principal use of creosote oil is as a wood preservative. In 1929 
there were 203 plants treating wood — 10 more than in 1928. The 
total quantity of wood treated in 1929 was 362,009,047 cubic feet, as 



16 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS 

compared with 335,920,379 cubic feet in 1928. The wood treated in 
1929 consisted of the following products: 

Cubic feet 

Crossties 213, 069, 309 

Switch ties it'f?J?n? 

Piles: 17, 26, 794 

Poles 77, 154, 317 

Wood blocks 6, 852, 130 

Cross arms 1, 9^7^ 431 

Construction timbers 20, 203, 811 

Miscellaneous material (lumber, mine ties, shingles, fence posts, 
etc.) 11,219,613 

For the above products treated in 1929 a total of 226,374,227 gallons 
of creosote oil were used, consisting of 57,914,236 gallons of distillate 
coal-tar creosote, 74,828,267 galkms of creosote coal-tar solution, 
569,491 gallons of refined water-gas tar, 751,670 gallons of water-gas 
tar solution, and 92,310,563 gallons of imported creosote oil. Other 
wood preservatives used in 1929 were 29,656,181 gallons of petroleum, 
19,848,813 pounds of zinc chloride, 1,188,148 pounds of miscellaneous 
salts, and 38,410 gallons of miscellaneous liquids.^ 

The Tariff Commission on March 4, 1931, instituted an investiga- 
tion of creosote oil in response to Senate Resolution 470, which reads 
as follows: 

Resolved, That the United States Tariff Commission is hereby directed to 
investigate, under section 332 of the tariff act of 1930, the difference in the costs 
of production and delivery to the principal market or markets of the United 
States during the calendar years 1928, 1929, and 1930 of dead or creosote oil 
provided for in paragraph 1651 of the tariff act of 1930, when produced in the 
principal competing country and a like or similar article produced in the United 
States, and to report thereon to the Senate as soon as practicable; and be it 
further 

Resolved, That if this investigation discloses that the domestic cost of produc- 
tion exceeds the costs of production abroad in the principal competing country, 
the commission shall include in its report a statement as to the rate or rates of 
duty necessary to equalize said cost difference based on the American selling price 
as defined in section 402 (g) of the tariff act of 1930. 

At the time of the preparation of this census, domestic costs of 
production were being obtained and arrangements for collecting 
foreign costs were being made. 

2. "Benzol: The output of benzol in J930 was 19,918,059 gallons, 
valued at $3,544,929, as compared with 25,119,013 gallons, valued at 
$5,310,107, in 1929. 

3. Motor benzol: The output of motor benzol in 1930 was 104,- 
036,569 gallons, valued at $14,674,441, or 14 cents per gallon, as 
compared with 102,820,061 galbns, valued at $16,408,442, o^r 16 cents 
per gallon, in 1929. 

4. Anthracene: To provide the necessary raw material for the 
increased output of anthraquinone dyes, there was a material increase 
in the output of crude anthracene in 1930. 

5. Refined tars: The production of refined tars used largely in the 
manufacture of tar paper and roofing felts increased from 2,440,748 
barrels in 1929 to 2,565,292 barrels in"l930. The unit value, however, 
declined from $4.73 in 1929 to $4.40 in 1930. 

6. Pitch: The output of pitch, the residue from tar distillation, was 
607,726 tons in 1930, as against 646,536 tons in 1929. 

' Data are taken from "Quantities of Wood Treated and Preservatives Used in the United States in 
1929," Forest Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture. 



COAL-TAR CRUDES 



17 



Table 8 shows the domestic production of certain crudes from all 
sources, 1925-1930, inclusive. 



Table 8. — Total commercial production of benzene, toluene, solvent naphtha, naph- 
thalene, and creosote oil from all sources in the United States 

[Data for coke ovens and gas works from reports to United States Geological Survey and Bureau of Mines; 
for tar refineries and others to United States Tariff Commission] 



By-product 

coke plants 

(sales) ' 



Gas works 

not elsewhere 

included 

(sales) 1 2 



Tar refiner- 
ies and all 
other estab- 
lishments 3 
(produc- 
tion) 



Total com- 
mercial pro- 
duction ■• 



Benzene (all grades except motor benzol): 

Gallons— 

1925 

1926 

1927 

1928 

1929 » 

1930?.. 

Value— 

1926 

1926 

1927.... 

1928 

1929 s 

1930' 

Motor benzol: 

Gallons— 

1925 

1926 

1927 

1928 

1929 6 

1930' 

Value - 

1925 

1926 

1927 

1928 

1929 6 

1930? 

Toluene, all grades: 

Gallons — 

1925--. 

1926 

1927 

1928 

1929 6 

1930' 

Value — 

1925 

1926 

1927 

1928 

1929 6 

1930' . 

Solvent naphtha, crude and refined, including 
xylene: 

Gallons— 

1925.... 

1926 

1927 

1928 

1929 6 

1930' 

Value — 

1925 

1926 

1927 

1928 

1929 6 

1930'.. 

See footnotes at end of table. 



21, 816, 386 
21, 987, 790 
21, 193, 807 
21, 452, 973 
24, 558, 745 
19, 187, 627 

$4, 888, 240 
5, 067, 693 
4, 371, 519 
4, 215, 752 
5, 169, 743 
3, 377, 026 



80, 957, 983 
89, 501, 212 
86, 802, 745 
102, 935, 995 
100, 807, 852 
102, 572, 989 

$13, 441, 422 
16, 863, 109 
14, 629, 999 
16, 832, 646 
16, 063, 285 
14, 427, 422 



5, 038, 147 
8, 650, 605 
11,784,984 
16, 181, 650 
17, 064, 206 
12, 083, 423 

$1, 310, 786 

2, 914, 752 

3, 999, 820 

5, 513, 624 

6, 580, 176 
3, 613, 778 



3, 993, 735 
3,646,117 

3, 661, 970 

4, 471, 141 
6, 581, 047 

5, 539, 537 

$805, 261 
1, 035, 870 
926, 787 
1, 047, 095 
1, 591, 333 
1, 133, 009 



> 2, 000 
9 200 
« 1, 000 
« 1, 000 
» 1, 000 
9 1, 000 

«600 
9 170 
9 300 
9 300 
9 300 
9 300 



741, 676 
377, 048 
370, 782 
474, 457 
546, 268 
(S) 

$171, 005 
105, 513 
100, 453 
111,805 
137, 364 



(10) 
(10) 
(10) 
(10) 
(10) 
(10) 

(10) 
(10) 
(10) 
(10) 
(10) 
(10) 



530, 833 



48, 801 



22, 607, 962 
22, 374, 838 
21, 579, 589 
21, 942, 430 
25,119,013 
19, 918, 069 

$5, 070, 245 
5, 175, 206 
4, 474, 972 
4, 330, 557 
5, 310, 107 
3, 544, 929 



84, 789, 206 
92, 891, 995 
90, 160, 367 
106, 574, 289 
102, 820, 061 
104, 036, 569 

$14, 270, 746 
17, 578, 255 

16, 201. 144 

17, 388, 166 
16, 408, 442 
14, 674, 441 



(10) 
(10) 
(10) 
(10) 
(10) 
(10) 

(10) 
(10) 
(10) 
(10; 
(10) 
(10) 



4, 609, 568 
4, 588, 844 

4, 536, 967 

5, 615, 192 
7, 886, 802 

6, 698, 623 

$972, 052 
1, 174, 297 
1, 072, 198 
1, 201, 882 
1,771,119 
1, 288, 150 



IS CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS 

Table 8. — Total commercial production of benzene, toluene, solvent naphtha, naph- 
thalene, and creosote oil from all sources in the United States — Con. 





By-product 

coke plants 

(sales) 


Gas works 

not elsewhere 

included 

(sales) 


Tar refiner- 
ies and all 

other estab- 
lishments 
(produc- 
tion) 


Total com- 
mercial pro- 
duction 


Naphthalene: 
Pounds— 

1925 - 


9, 900, 517 
7, 723, 223 
7, 848, 224 
10, 937, 429 
19, 659, 367 
13, 028, 904 

$97. 493 
97,310 
86, 078 
135, 693 
320, 272 
161,264 

>2 12, 386, 000 

12 24, 520, 839 

25, 679, 882 

(5) 
$2, 354, 001 
2, 246, 989 


1,266,037 
(«) 

(5) 

(5) 

(5) 
(5) 

$34, 751 
(5) 

(5) 

(») 

(5) 

(') 


34,13,5.175 
45,165,957 
45, 298, 441 
35,179,996 
19, 501, 679 
18, 616, 792 

$519,773 
494, 9S6 
470. SOfi 
395, 059 
366, 491 
304, 574 

114,393,487 
103, 229, 005 
96, 891, 940 

$14, 893, 6S9 
12,924,880 
11,052,104 


45,301,726 


1926 


53, 059, 189 


1927 -•- 


,53.176.660 


1928 


46. 1 57, 425 


1929 6 


39,201,046 


1930' 


31, 675, 696 


Value— 

1925. 


$652. 017 


1926 


594, 296 


1927 _ . 


557, 884 


1928 - 


531, 752 


1929 « - 


687, 763 


1930' _ 


466, 838 
126 779.487 


Creosote oil, including distillate in coal-tar 
solution: " 
Qallons— 

1928-. 


1929 6 „ 




127 749 844 


1930' 




122,571,822 
$16 506 689 


Value— 

1928. 




1929 6 




15, 278, 881 
13, 299, 093 


1930' 









' Sales instead of production are here given to avoid double counting between production of crude and 
pure grades and because such of the product as is used in the coke plant or gas works is not available for 
commercial use. 

2 In order to eliminate duplication, the figures for gas works arc exclusive of by-product coke ovens oper- 
ated by city gas companies, which are included in the preceding column, and exclusive of recoveries from 
such tar-refining operations conducted by the city gas companies as are included in the column headed 
"tar refineries," From time to time plants formerly included in the column headed "gas works" have been 
transferred to the column "tar refineries," hence the figures in tlie "gas works" column are not stnctly 
comparable from year to year. The total commercial production shown in the last column contains no 
duplication and is comparable from year to year. 

' See note 2, 

* Totals include estimates for firms not reporting, and actual figures for items that can not be shown sep- 
arately without disclosing individual returns. 

5 Reports incomplete. Estimate included in total. 

6 Final figures. 

' Revised and final figures. 

' Included in total, but can not be shown separately without disclosing individual returns. 

9 Estimate. 

1" A certain quantity of toluene was produced, but the figures can not be given without disclosing indi- 
vidual returns. 

" Includes distillate as such and in coal-tar solution. Prior to 192S all the creosote oil reported produced 
came from the "tar refineries," etc. Beginning with 1928 considerable quantities were recovered at 
by-product coke plants. 

'2 Figures represent production. 

EXPORTS AND IMPORTS 

Available statistics of the exportation and importation of coal-tar 
crudes are published in Part VI, page 101, infra. 

Coal-Tar Intermediates 



PRODUCTION 

Statistics of production and of sales of intermediates are given in 
Table 10, page 23, in as great detail as possible without disclosing the 
operations of individual manufacturers. The total production in 1930 
was 290,760,532 pounds, as compared with 354,487,718 pounds in 
1929 and 279,274,807 pounds in 1928— a decrease of 18 per cent from 
1929 and an increase of 4 per cent over 1928. Certain items listed 



COAL-TAR INTERMEDIATES 19 

under intermediates in 1929 are shown under medicinals and miscella- 
neous finished coal-tar products in 1930, accounting in part for the 
decrease. These items are benzoic acid, USP; resorcinol, USP; 
salicylic acid, USP; benzoate of soda, benzoyl peroxide, and the 
naphthol AS products. Their inclusion with intermediates, for a 
more favorable comparison with former years, brings production in 
1930 to 296,023,691 pounds — a decrease of 16.5 per cent from 1929 
and an increase of 6 per cent over 1928. Total sales in 1930 amounted 
to 124,349,333 pounds, valued at $22,574,061, or 18.1 cents per pound, 
as compared with 148,711,591 pounds, valued at $28,871,572, or 19.4 
cents per pound in 1929. Including the items transferred to other 
classifications, the volume of sales in 1930 totaled 127,091,046 pounds, 
which is a decrease of 15 per cent from 1929, and the sales value 
amounted to $24,144,768 — a decrease of 17 per cent. 

Some intermediates, normally consumed in large quantities in dye 
production, showed decreases in 1930 from 1929, those used to produce 
direct, mordant and chrome and sulfur colors accounting for most 
of the reduction. 

Aniline and derivatives. — The production of aniline declined from 
33,743,270 pounds in 1929 to 26,388,177 pounds in 1930; the value of 
sales per pound dropped from 13 to 12 cents, and the production of 
aniline salts was reduced about 10 per cent. 

Dimethyl aniline was made in much smaller quantity in 1930 than 
in 1929, chiefly because of a reduced output of Auramine, Malachite 
green. Methyl violet, and Methylene blue; the appreciable increase in 
diethylaniline production was due partly to increased production of 
Brilliant green. Acid violet, and Patent blue A. The increase of 97 
per cent in the production of dichloro aniline was the result of an 
increase in the production of certain specialty and unclassified dyes. 

Other outstanding increases in 1930 in the production of aniline 
derivatives were: Dichloroaniline sulfonic acid, diethylaniline m-sul- 
fonic acid, monoethylaniline, ethylbenzyl aniline, ethylbenzyl 
aniline sulfonic acid, and p-nitro aniline sulfonic acid. Aniline 
derivatives showing decreased production were nitrosodimethylaniline, 
aniline disulfonic acid, and thio aniline. 

Benzene derivatives. — Decreases in production of certain benzene 
derivatives in 1930 were: Dinitrobenzene, 27 per cent; dinitrochloro- 
benzene, 31 per cent; nitrobenzene, 18 percent; and aminoazobenzene. 
Derivatives showing increases included o-nitrochlorobenzene, used in 
increasing quantities in the production of o-nitroanisole for medici- 
nals and the manufacture of dianisidine; nitrobenzene sulfonic acid, 
nitrobenzene-2:5-disulfonic acid, and pdichlorobenzene. 

Benzidine, dianisidine, and tolidine. — The production of benzidine 
base decreased from 1,303,728 pounds in 1929 to 499,949 pounds in 
1930, or about 62 per cent. The decreased production of mordant 
and chrome and direct dyes is partially responsible for this decline. 
Benzidine sulfate and hydrochloride also declined in production, 
while benzidine disulfonic acid and nitrobenzidine showed increased 
production. 

During the same period, the production of dianisidine increased 
from 127,753 pounds to 136,467 pounds, or 7 percent; and o-anisidine, 
about 30 percent. The production of tolidine and salts in 1930 was 



20 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS 

145,944 pounds, as compared with 129,311 pounds in 1929, or an 
increase of 13 per cent. 

Naphthalene and derivatives. — The production of refined naphtha- 
lene was 31,955,635 pounds in 1930 as against 31,143,716 pounds in 
1929, an increase of 3 per cent. Outstanding increases in production 
of naphthalene derivatives were l-amino-8-naphthol-2:4 disulfonic 
acid (Chicago acid), 30 per cent; 2-amino-8-naphthol-6-sulfonic acid 
(gamma acid), 9 per cent; and phenyl-2-amino-8-naphthol-6-sulfonic 
acid (phenyl gamma acid) about 100 per cent; b-hydroxy naphthoic 
acid, more than 100 per cent, and a-naphthol nearly 100 per cent, 
both attributable to the increased production of the naphthol AS series 
of coupling components ; phenyl-a-naphthylamine, phenyl-b-naphthyl- 
amine, isopropj'l naphthalene sulfonic acid, l-naphthylamine-6- 
sulfonic acid, l-naphthylamine-3:8-disulfonic acid, 1 naphthylaraine- 
4 : 6 and 4 : 7-disulfonic acid. Other naphthalene derivatives showing 
increased production in 1930 are b-naphthol, aminonaphthylamine 
trisulfonic acid (T acid) and 2-naphthol-6-sulfonic acid (SchaefFer's 
acid). 

Some of the naphthalene derivatives showing decreased production 
are l-amino-2-naphthol-4-sulfonic acid, 39 per cent, the falling oflp 
being due to decreased production of wool blacks; l-amino-8-naphthol- 
3 : 6-disulfonic acid (H acid), 21 per cent, accounted for by the decreased 
production of azo dyes; 2-amino-5-naphthol-7-sulfonic acid (J acid), 
18 percent; chloronaphthalene, crotonylidine-a-naphthylamine, b-naph- 
thalene sulfonic acid, l-naphthol-4-sulfonic acid (Nevile and Winther's 
acid), l-naphtliol-5-sulfomc acid, a-naphthylamine, 1-naphthylamine- 
4-sulfonic acid (naphthionic acid), and l-naphthylamine-3:6:8-trisul- 
fonic acid. 

Anthraquinone. — The production of anthraquinone (100 per cent) 
decreased about 30 per cent in volume and 10 per cent in unit sales 
value. The production of b-aminoanthraquinone decreased from 
557,386 pounds in 1929 to 464,581 pounds in 1930, or 16.5 per cent; 
decreased production is also reported for 1 :4-dihydroxy anthraquinone 
(quinizarin) ; anthraquinone-1 :5-disulfonic acid, about 25 per cent; 
cMorobenzan throne, 6 per cent; dibenzan throne, 14 per cent; 
b-methylanthraquinone, 33 per cent; and for anthraquinone-2-sodium 
sulfonate (silver salt). Increases in production are shown for anthra- 
quinone-1 :5-dihydroxy (anthrarufin) about 30 per cent and b-chloro- 
anthraquinone, 77 per cent. Production of 2-chloro-l :4-dihydroxy 
anthraquinone (chloroquinizarin) is reported in 1930 but not in 1929. 

Condensation products. — The production of aldehyde-amine con- 
densation products was 1,834,700 pounds in 1930, as against 3,375,095 
pounds in 1929, or a decrease of 46 per cent. Increased production is 
reported for the condensation products of diphenylamine-acetone, 
polyethylencdiamine-b-naphthol, and butylidine-aniline. 

Phenol, cresylic acid, and resorcinol. — These are important raw mate- 
rials for synthetic resins. The production of natural and S5mthetic 
phenol in 1930 was 21,147,436 pounds, as compared with 24,177,618 
pounds in 1929 — a decrease of 13 per cent. Sales in 1930 were 
17,714,678 pounds, valued at $1,976,310, as against 19,938,503 pounds, 
valued at $2,248,288 — a decrease of 11 per cent in volume of sales and 
12 per cent in value. Synthetic phenol accounts for about 10 per cent 
less of the total phenol production in 1930 than in 1929. 



COAL-TAR INTERMEDIATES 21 

Production of refined cresylic acid in 1930 was 17,305,308 pounds, 
as compared -with 14,601,534 pounds in 1929 — an increase of 19 per 
cent. 

In 1930 production of resorcinol, technical, increased nearly 100 
per cent over 1929, the increase being due to increased demand from 
synthetic resin and medicinal manufacturers. Unit value of sales 
decreased 16 per cent. 

Benzoates and salicylates. — The production of benzoic acid, tech- 
nical, in 1930 increased about 10 per cent over 1929, and increased 
production is reported for p-aminobenzoic acid, and p-nitrobenzoic 
acid. Benzoates produced in 1930, for which no production was 
reported in 1929, were benzoyl benzoic acid, chlorobenzoyl benzoic 
acid, hydroxy chlorobenzoyl benzoic acid, and p-nitrobenzoate 
(sodium salt). 

The production in 1930 of salicylic acid, technical, was 2,909,259 
pounds, a decrease from 1929. For the same period, the unit value 
of sales increased 15 per cent. Aminosalicylic acid and diazo salicylic 
acid also showed decreased production. 

Phthalic anhydride and derivatives. — The production of phthalic 
anhydride decreased from 9,168,946 pounds in 1929 to 6,693,001 
pounds in 1930, or 27 per cent. The volume of sales decreased from 
7,450,037 pounds, valued at $1,147,953, in 1929 to 5,614,012 pounds, 
valued at $724,909, in 1930, or a decrease of 25 per cent in volume, 
37 per cent in value, and 13 per cent in unit value of sales. 

Dibutyl phthalate decreased in production from 4,749,776 pounds 
in 1929 to 1,960,351 pounds in 1930, or 59 per cent, while sales 
decreased from 4,251,171 pounds to 2,668,431 pounds, or 37 per cent. 
Diethylphthalate decreased in production about 50 per cent and 
volume of sales about 40 per cent. Maleic acid was made in increased 
quantity in 1930. 

Diphenyl and derivatives. — The production of diphenyl increased 
about 55 per cent in quantity in 1930 over 1929, and the unit value of 
sales decreased 25 per cent. Diphenyl and diphenyl oxide are valu- 
able heat transfer mediums which give promise of increased use. 
Improved production processes and at least one new manufacturer in 
1931 should result in appreciably lower costs. Eutectic mixtures of 
diphenyl and diphenyloxide are said to be more suitable for heat 
transfer than either component alone. According to estimates of 
several large companies, the use of this system of heat transfer will 
show substantial savings in costs of installation and operation. Pro- 
duction of chlorinated diphenyls in 1930 increased 19 per cent. 

Tricresyl and triphenyl phosphates. — Tricresyl phosphate production 
increased about 4 per cent, wlnle triphenyl phosphate decreased nearly 
47 per cent in 1930 from 1929. These products are used principally 
in the manufacture of pyroxylin plastics. 

Organic metallic fungicides. — Comparable statistics of production 
for most of these organic metallic fungicidal compounds are not avail- 
able. Appreciable decreases in production in 1930 as against 1929 
are reported for hydroxymercurichlorophenol and hydroxychloro- 
cresol. 



22 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS 

New intermediates. — Among the intermediates for dyestuffs re- 
ported in 1930 but not in 1929 were the following: 

Acetyl p-phenylenediamine sulfonic acid. 

2- Amino naphihylamine-3: 6-disulfonic acid. 

Benzaldehyde disulfonic acid. 

2-Chloro-r. 4-dihydroxy anthraquinone. 

Chlorophenylhydrazine sulfonic acid. 

Chlorophenylmethylpyrazolone sulfonic acid. 

o-Chloro-p-toluene sodium sulfonate. 

o-Chlorotoluidine sulfonic acid. 

Diaminoacridine base. 

Dibenzoyldiamino-a-anthrimide. 

Dibuty] naphthalene sulfonic acid. 

Dichlorobenzidine. 

Di-isopropyl naphtlialene sulfonic acid. 

Ethylacetanilide. 

Hydroxychlorobenzoyl benzoic acid. 

Leuco quinizarin. 

o-Nitrochlorobenzene-p-sulfonic acid. 

Primuline sulfonic acid. 

Tolazine base. 

The rubber chemicals reported in 1930 but not in 1929 were: 

2 : 4-Diaminodiph8nylamiae. 
b-Di-p-hydroxyphenylpropane. 
Dimethyldithiocarbamic acid. 
Dinitrophenylbenzothiazyl sulfide. 
Diphenyldiamine dinaphthjd sulfide. 
o-Di-tolylthiourea formaldehyde. 
Phenyl ammonium naphtholate. 

Intermediates for medicinals reported in 1930 but not in 1929 were: 

Phenyl aoetic acid and derivatives. 
Phenyl malonic acid and derivatives. 
Sodium p-nitrobenzoate. 

STATISTICS OF PRODUCTION AND SALES 

Table 9 gives the weighted average sales price of a list of domestic 
coal-tar intermediates for the period 1924-1930, together with invoice 
prices of imports of the same intermediates in 1914. The invoice is 
below cost to the consumer, as it does not include profit to the im- 
porter, duty, and certain other charges. 



COAL-TAR INTERMEDIATES 



2a 



Table 9. — Coal-tar intermediates: Domestic sales price per pound, 1924-1930,^ 
and invoice price of same intermediates imported, 1914 



Intermediates 



Acetanilide, technical 

l-Amino-8-naphthol-3:6-disulfonic acid (H acid) .. 
2-Amino-8-naplithoI-6-sulfonic acid (gamma acid) . 

p-AminophenoI and liydroctiloride 

Aniline oil 

Anthraquinone 

Benzidine base 

Chlorobenzene (mono) 

Dianisidine 

p-Dichlorobenzene 

Dietliy laniline 

Dimethjlaniline 

Naphthalene, solidifying 79° or above (refined, 

flake) 

b-Naphthol, technical 

l-Naphthol-4-sulfonic acid (Nevile & Winther's) _ 
l-Naphthylamine-4-sulphonic acid (naphthionie 

acid) 

p-Nitroaniline 

Phenol 

p-Phenylenediamine 

Phthalic acid and anhydride 

Sulfanilic acid 

Thiocarbanilide 

o-Toluidine.- 

m-Tolylenediamine 

Xylidine and salt 



Invoice 
price, 
1914 



2 $0. 15 
3.23 

k'w 

2.08 

2.19 

. 31-3 . 55 
2.09 
2.40 
3.09 



3.15 



3.02 
. 07-3. 09 



. 13-3. 14 

.06 

. 31-3. 44 

2.25 

. 06-3. 16 



. 09-3. 10 

2.19 

3.12 



W.23 
.65 
1.18 
1.11 
.16 
.95 
.74 
.06 
3.34 
.16 
.40 
.34 

.05 
.22 
1.00 

.43 
.64 
.30 
1.27 
.24 
.17 
.23 
.13 
.86 
.39 



Domestic sales price 



1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 



1.30 
1.12 
.16 



$1.02 
1.05 
.15 



.72 
.06 



.16 
M6" 



.05 
.20 



.21 

1.16 
.20 
.16 
.23 
.17 
.81 



.73 
.06 
2.19 
.16 
.49 
.28 

.05 



.40 
.45 
.18 
1.06 
.18 
.15 
.22 
.23 
.73 
.36 



$0.21 
.41 
.75 
1.02 
.14 



.65 
.06 
2.17 
.15 



0.23 
.42 
.77 
.97 
.14 



.23 

.05 
.19 
.70 

.34 
.47 
.12 
1.12 
.16 
.14 
.22 
.25 
.69 
.36 



0.43 
.78 
.95 
.13 



.64 
.05 
1.59 
.14 



.21 



.05 
.19 



.35 



.11 
1.08 
.15 
.14 
.22 
.23 
.67 
.34 



$0.40 
.74 
.89 
.12 



.63 
.05 



.05 



1 Weighted average. For 1917 to 1923, see "Census of Dyes and Other Synthetic Organic Chemicals," 1924 

2 "Artiiicial Dyestuffs Used in the United States," Special Agents Series 121, Department of Commerce 

3 "Chemicals and Allied Products Used in the United States," Miscellaneous Series No. 82, Department 
of Commerce. 



Table 10. — Coal-tar intermediates, production and sales, 1930 

[The numbers in the second column refer to the numbered alphabetical list of manufacturers printed on 
page 109. An X signifies that the manufacturer did not consent to the publication of his identification 
number with the designated product. A blank in the third and fourth columns indicates that the sales 
figure can not be published without revealing information in regard to the oatput of individual firms. A 
blank in the sixth column indicates that the production of the corresponding product in the United 
States can not be published without revealing information in regard to the output of individual firms. 
The figures thus concealed are, however, included in the total] 





Manufacturers' 
identification 
numbers (ac- 
cording to list 
on p. 109) 


Sales 




Intermediates 


Quantity 


Value 


Average 

price per 

pound 


Production! 
(quantity) 


Total 




Pounds 
124, 349, 333 


$22, 574, 061 


$0.18 


Pounds 
290, 760, 532 




48, 127, X . .. 


Acetaldehyde and aniline condensa- 


1, 621, 914 


901, 872 


.56 


1, 615, 381 


tion products. 


7,29,48,130 


Acetoacetanilide - _ - 


156, X - . 










Acetyl - p - phenylenediamine (p- 


7, 48, 63, 102, 121, 130 
63 








135, 999 


amino acetanilide). 
Acetyl - p - phenylenediamine sul- 
fonic acid. 










102 










Acetvl-p-toluidine 


36,48, 119,130 - - . 








291, 630 




102 








p-Amino acetanilide. (.See acetyl-p- 

phenylenediamine.) 
l-Amino-4-acetylamino-6 and 7-naph- 

thylamine sulfonic acid (acetyla- 

mino Cleve's acid). 


102 










48,63,102,105 








464, 581 




7, 8, 29, 36, 102, 121 










Aminoazobenzene sulfonic acid 

Aminoazobenzene disulfonic acid 


8, 29, 36, 48, 63, 102, 

105. 
102_.. 








36, 727- 



24 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS 
Table 10. — Coal-tar intermediates, production and sales, 1930 — Continued 



Intermediates 



Amino azo compound (benzene, 

toluene and xylene) . 
Aminoazotoluene 

Aminoazoxylene and hydrochloride.. 
o-Aminobenzoic acid (anthranilic 

acid). 

p-Aminobenzoic acid -. 

Aminobenzoyl J acid 

m-Aminocresol methyl ether 

p-Aminodiphenylamine 

Aminodiphenylamine sulfonic acid 

(nerol acid) . 
1 - Amino - 2 - naphthol - 4 - sulfonic 

acid. 
1 - Amino - 8 - naphthol - 4 - sulfonic 

acid. 
1 - Amino - 8 - naphthol - 2:4 - disul- 

fonic acid (Chicago acid). 

1 - Amino - 8 - naphthol - 3:6 - disul- 
fonic acid (H acid). 

2 - Amino - 5 - naphthol - 7 - sulfonic 
acid (J acid). 

2 - Amino - 8 - naphthol - 6 - sulfonic 

acid (gamma acid). 
2 .Amino - 8 - naphthol - 3:6 - disul- 

fonic acid. 
2 -Aminonaphthylamine -3:6- disul- 

fonie acid. 
Aminonaphthylamine trisulfonic 

acid (T acid). 

o-Aminophenol 

p - Aminophenol and hydrochloride.. 

o-Aminophenol-p-sulfonic acid 

o - Aminophenyl - p - tolylamine sul- 
fonic acid. 

Aminosalicylic acid — 

Anhydroformaldehyde aniline (form- 

anilide) . 
Anhydroformaldehyde - p- toluidine. 
Aniline oil 



Aniline salts (hydrochloride and 
sulphate). 

Aniline sulfonic acid 

Aniline disulfonic acid 

o-Anisidine 

o-Anisidine sulfonic acid. 

Anthracene, refined 

Anthranilic acid. (See o - aminoben- 
zoic acid.) 

Anthraquinone (100 per cent) 

Anthraquinone salts 

Anthraquinone - 1:5 - dihydroxy 

(anthrarufln) . 
Anthraquinone - 1:5 - disulfonic 

acid. 
Anthraquinone - 2:7 - disulfonic 

acid. 
Anthraquinone - 2 - sodium sul- 
fonate (silver salt). 

Antimol (modified benzoate) 

Arodor. (See diphenyl, chlori- 
nated.) 

Benzaldehyde, tech 

Benzaldehyde disulfonic acid 

Benzanthrone 

Benzidine, base 

Benzidine disulfonic acid 

Benzidine sulfate and hydrochloride. 

Benzoic acid, tech 

Benzothiazy 1 disulfide. 

Benzoyl benzoic acid 

Benzoyl chloride 

Benzyl chloride 

Benzyl mercaptan 



Manufacturers' 
Identfication 
numbers (ac- 
cording to list 
on p. 109) 



29, 48, 58, 102. 

8,102 

46,48 



48, 129_ 



36.. 

48.. 
152. 



8,36,48,63,102,117 

36,102,105 

36,48,102,105 

48,63, 102, 105, X... 
7,36,48,102,105-.-. 
7, 36, 48, 63, 102, 105. 

7,102,105 

105 

63 



29,48,147,152 

29, 48, 52, 147, 155, 
156. 

102,152 

36 



8, 36, 48, 105. 
48,126 



29, 46, 48, 96, 101, 

102, 105, X. 
29,48 



102 

7,36,48,102... 
36, 48, 101, 105. 

102 

17,128 



20, 102, 105, X. 



63,102 

63,105- 

102 

8, 48, 102, 105. 
129 



60,72 

63 

48, 63, 102, 105, X. 

36,48,63,102 

29,63,121 

48,102 

48,72,101 

X... 

102 

46,74 

72,74 

102 



Sales 



Quantity 



Pounds 



9,032 
155, 467 



9, 647, 370 



Value 



138, 453 



1, 184, 339 



Average 

price per 

pound 



$2.08 



Production 
(quantity) 



Pounds 



121, 541 



616, 766 



168, 314 

2, 337, 311 

236, 064 

527, 212 



331, 953 



17, 195 
"26,"388,'i77 



692, 414 



202, 648 
499, 949 



COAL-TAR INTERMEDIATES 25 

Table 10. — Coal-tar intermediates, -production and sales, 1930 — Continued 



Intermediates 



Broenner's acid. (See 2 - naphthyla- 

mine-6-sulfonic acid.) 
Butylaldehyde and aniline conden- 
sation products. 
Butylidine and aniline condensation 

products (polybutylidine aniline). 

Calcium malate _ 

Chicago acid. (See l-amino-8-naph- 

thol-2:4-disulfonic acid). 

p-Chloroaniline sulfonic acid 

Chloroanthraquinone. 

o-Chlorobenzaldehyde 

Chlorobenzanthrone 

Chlorohonzene (mono) 

Chlorobenzoyl benzoic acid 

2-Chloro-l:4-dihydroxy anthraqui- 

none (Chloroquinizarin). 
1 Chloro-2:6-dinitro-4-sulfonic acid... 

Chlorometanilic acid 

6-Chloro-4-methoxy-3-hydroxy thio- 

naphthalene. 

Chloromethylanthraquinone 

Chloronaphthalene 

o-Chlorn-p-nitroaniline 

p-Chloro-o-nitrophenol 

o-Chlorophenol 

p-ChlorophenoL 

Chlorophenylhydrazine sulfonic acid. 
Chlorophenylmethylpyrazolone sul- 
fonic acid. 
Chlorosulfophenylmethyl pyrazolone 

o-Chlorotoluene 

o-Chlorotoluene-p-sulfonic acid 

o-Chloro-p-toluene sodium sulfonate 

o-ChlorotoIuidine sulfonic acid 

2-Chloro-5-toluidine-4-sulfonic acid— 

Chlorotolylthioglycollic acid 

Chromotropic acid. (See l:8-dihy- 

droxynaphthalene -3:6- disulfonic 

acid). 
Cleve's acid. (See l-naphthylamine-6 

and 7-sulfonic acid) . 

Cresidine 

Cresylic acid, refined (distillates 

yielding below 215° C. tar acids 

equal to more than 75 per cent of 

the original distillate). 

Crotilidine aniline 

Crotonylidine-a-naphthylamine 

Cumidine 

Dehydrothio-p-toluidine base 

Dehydrothio-p-toluidine sulfonic acid. 
Dehydrothio-p-toluidine sulfonic acid 

and primuline. 

Dehydrothio-m-xylidine.. 

Diaminoacridine base 

Diaminodimethyldihydroacridine 

2:4-Diaminodiphenylamine 

Diaminostilbene disulfonic acid 

Dianisidine 

l-Diazo-2-naphthol-4-sulfonic acid 

Diazosalicylic acid.. 

Dibenzanthrone 

1:5 - Dibenzoyldiamino anthraqul- 

none. 

Dibenzoyldiamino-a-anthrimide 

Dibenzoyldiaminodianthraquinonyl 

imide. 

Dibenzylamine 

Dibenzylaniline 

Dibutyl naphthalene sulfonic acid... 

Dibutyl phthalate 

Dichloroaniline 

Dichloroaniline sulfonic acid 

o-Dichlorobenzene 

p-Dichlorobenzene 1 

64996—31 3 



Manufacturers' 
identification 
numbers (ac- 
cording to list 
on p. 109) 



X.. 

66- _ 
102. 



36 

63, 102, X 

102 

48, 102 

46, 48, 74, 101, 133 

40, 102 

102 



152.... 
48, 102. 



102... 
X 

13, 29. 
152... 
127... 
127... 

63 

63-.-. 



48-. 
102. 
48.. 



29, 48, 130, 152. 
48.... 



48 

12, 17, 92, 95, X, X 



X.... 

66 

8, 18, 102, X. 

105 

36, 102, 105.. 
X 



105 

102 

121 

127 

48, 102, 105 

36, 48, 102, 105. 
36, 48, 102, 117. 

63, 102 

105 



63 

84, 143, 146, X 

36, 63, 105, 147, 152. 

121 

46, 101 

46, 74, 101, 133 



Sales 



Quantity 



Pounds 



2, 902, 421 



16, 026, 407 



2, 668, 431 



Value 



$153, 656 



1, 267, 155 



650, 436 



5, 507, 030 791, 094 



Average 

price per 

pound 



$0.05 



.24 



.14 



Production 
(quantity) 



Pounds 



192, 317 



17, 305, 308 



149, 869 
136, 467 



1, 960, 351 
165, 244 



5, 947, 617 



26 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS 
Table 10. — Coal-tar intermediates, production and sales, 1930 — Continued 





Manufacturers' 
identfication 
numbers (ac- 
cording to list 
on p. 109) 


Sales 




Intermediates 


Quantity 


Value 


Average 

price per 

pound 


Productioa 
(quantity) 




36 


Pounds 






Pounds 


Dichlorosulfophenylpyrazolone 

Dichlorosulfophenylmethylpyrazo- 
lone. 


36 










121 










155 












48 93 












46, 48, 102 










Diethy laniline-m-sulfonic acid 

l:4-Diliydroxy anthraquinone (qui- 

nizariii). 
5'5-Dihvdroxv-7'7-disulfonic-2:2-di- 


48 










7, 8, 102, 156 








53, 641 


48 










naphthylarnine (Rhoduline acid). 
5:5-Dihydroxy-7:7-disulfonic-2:2-di- 

naplitiivlurea (J acid urea) . 
5:5-Dihydroxy-di-b-naphthylamine- 

7:7-disulfonic acid (I acid imide). 
1 : 8-Diliydroxynaphthalene-.3 : 6-disuI- 

fonic acid (chromot ropic acid) . 

b-Di-p-hydroxyphenylpropane 

Di-isopropyl naplithalene sulfonic 

acid. 


36, 48, 102, 105 .. 








83, 054 


102 










48, 102 










X 










63 










48, 155 










p-Dimethylamino butylidine aniline. 


66 . 










29, 46, 48, 102 










2-2-Dinietbyl-l" 1-diantbraquLnonvL. 


48, 102 










Dimethyldithiocarbamic acid (ben- 


X 










zal ester). 
Dimethylphenylbenzylammonium 


X 










disulfonic acid, calcium salt (leuko- 

trope W). 

Dimethvl-p-phenylenediamine 

Dimethyltetraaminodiphenylme- 

thane. 


66 










121 . 










X 












8, 29 












29 48, 102 


227, 465 


$29, 678 


$0.13 


1, 338, 580 


Dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid 


36, 63 




Dinitrochlorobenzene 


48, 63, 102 


525, 475 


66, 604 


.13 


5, 074, 504 




36, 63 




Dinitrophenol and sodium salt 

Dinitrophenvlbenzothiazyl sulfide. 


8,48,63,85 

127 


26, 520 


7,689 


.29 








X 










thiocarbamic acid. 


29 












48, 102 












29, 48, 102... _ 










Dinitrotoluene sulfonic acid 


36 












139 










Diphenyl, chlorinated (aroclor) _ 


139 












48 










Diphenylamine and acetone conden- 


X 










sation product. 
Diphenyldiamine dinaphthyl sulfide 


127 












66 










mine. 
Diphenvlethvlenediamine 


X 










Diphenylsuanidine . . 


46, 48, 127, X 

102 


1, 499, 297 


409, 750 


.27 


1, 634, 837 


Diphenylmethane sulfonic acid 




Distilbenediphenol 


102 













X 










Ditolylmethane.. . _ 


102 . 










Ditolylguanidine. - 


48, X 












48, 66, 102, 127 








o-Di-tolylthiourea formaldehyde 


127 










6-Ethoxy-3-hydroxy thionaphthalene 


48 










E thylacetanilide 


48, 102 










Ethyl-p-aminoacetanilide 


102 










Ethyl-p-aminobenzoate 


100 










E thyl-o-amino-p-cresol ... 


48 










Ethylaniline (mono) ... 


48, 102 










Ethylbenzene 


32. - 










Ethylbenzylaniline . 


48, 102 










Ethylbenzylaniline sulfonic acid 


36, 48, 102... 










Ethyl carhazole . 


48 










Ethyl-o-toluidine. . _ _ 


48 










Ethyl-o-toluidine-p-sulfonicacid 


48 











COAL-TAR INTERMEDIATES 27 

Table 10. — Coal-tar intermediates, -production and sales, 1930 — Continued 





Manufacturers' 
identification 
numbers (ac- 
cording to list 
on p. 109) 


Sales 




Intermediates 


Quantity 


Value 


Average 

price per 

pound 


Production 
(quantity) 


Ethylidine aniline and derivatives... 


126 


Pounds 






Poundf 


Fluroescein 


8, 29, 102 










Formanilide. {See anhydroformal- 

dehyde aniline.) 
Gamma acid. (See 2-amino-8-naph- 

thol-6-sulfonic acid.) 
II acid. {See l-amino-S-naplithol-3: 

6-disulfonic acid.) 
Heptaldehvde and aniline condensa- 


X 










tion products. 
Hvdroxvchilorobenzoyl benzoic acid. 


102 










Hvdroxychlorocresol 


48 










Hydroxvmercurichlorophenol 


48 










b-Hvdroxv naphthoic acid .. . 


48, 63 










lacidimide. {See 5:5-dihydroxy-di- 
b - naphthylamine -7:7 - disulfonic 
acid.) 

Indamine . 


7 










Indigo disulfonic acid ... 


8 










Indophenols (blue and green). _. 


7 










Iso violanthrone ... _ ___ _. . ... 


48 










Isopropyl naphthalene sulfonic acid. 


102 










J acid. {See 2-amino-5-naphthol-7- 

sulfonic acid.) 
J acid urea. {See 5:5-dihydroxy-7:7- 

disulfonic-2:2-dinaphthylurea.) 
Laurent's acid. {See 1-naphthyla- 

mine-5-sulfonic acid.) 
Lead dithiobenzoate . . . . 


X 










Leucanol-. _._ . 


102 










Leuco quinizarin . . 


8 










Maleic acid . ... . 


102 










Maleic anhydride 


102 










dl-Malic acid. __ . . ... 


102 










Mercapto-benzo-thiazole.. 


48, 127, X... 










Metanilic acid . 


7, 8, 29, 36, 48, 102, 
105. 

7 








472, 441 


Methvlamine . ... 








Methvl aniline 


48 










b-M eth vlanthraquinone 


X 










Methylhvdroxvnitrobenzoate 


100 










Methvlphenvlpvrazolone and hy- 


40,63 - . 










drochloride. 
Methvl pvridine 


X 










2-Methvl quinoline (quinaldine) .. _ 


102 . - 










Methylene dianilide . . 


48 










Methylene di-b-naphthol . .. 


X 










Michler's hydrol. (See tetramethyl- 

diaminobenzhydrol.) 
Michler's ketone. (See tetramethyl- 

diaminobenzophenone.) 
Naphthalene, solidifying 79° C. or 

above (refined, flake). 
b-Naphthalene sulfonic acid 


17, 29, 95, 105, 153, 

X. 
130 


20, 171, 158 


$948, 774 


$0.05 


31, 955, 635 


1:5-Naphthalene disulfonic acid 


48 










2:7-Naphthalene disulfonic acid 


48, 102, 130 










Naphthalidoanthraquinone - 2 - car- 


48 










boxylic acid. 
Naphthionic acid. (See 1-naphthyl- 

amine-4-sulfonic acid.) 
Naphtho -1:8- sultam -2:4- disulfonic 


48 










(sultam acid) . 
a-Naphthol 


29, 36, 48, 63, 102, 

105, X. 
29, 102, 130 


390, 281 


172, 277 


.44 


801, 800 


b Naphthol, tech 




l-Naphthol-4-sulfonic acid (Nevile 

& Winther'sacid). 
l-Naphthol-5-sulfonic acid . 


7, 36, 48, 102, 105... 

7, 36, 48, 63, 102, 

105. 
102 


12, 171 


7,751 


.64 


92,800 
76,994 


1-Naphthol -8- chloro-3: 6-disulfonic 








acid (chloro H acid). 
l-Xaphthol-8-sulfonic-3-sultone- . 


36 










l-Naphthol-3:S-disulfonic acid 

l-Xaphthol-3:6:8-trisu!fonic acid 


105 










29, 105 - 










2-Xaphthol-l-sulfonic acid . _ 


48 










2-Naphthol-6-sulfonic acid (Schaef- 
fer's acid). 


7, 3fi, 4S, 03. 102.... 








168, 989 













28 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS 
Table 10. — Coal-tar intermediates, production and sales, 1930 — Continued 



Ijntermediates 



Manufacturers' 
identfication 
numbers (ac- 
cording to list 
on p. 109) 



Sales 



Quantity 



Value 



Average 

price per 

pound 



Production 
(quantity) 



2-Naphthol-7-sulfonic acid 

2-Naphthol-8-sulf onic acid 

2-Naphthol-3:6-disulfonic acid. 

2-Naphthol-6:8-disulfonic acid. 



a-Naphthylamine 

b-Naphthylamine 

l-Naphthylamine-4-amino-6 and 

7-sulfonic acid. 
l-Naphthylainine-4-s ulfonic acid 

(naphthionic acid). 
1-Naphthy lamine-5-s ulfonic acid 

(Laurent's acid). 

1-Naphthylamine-O-sulfonie acid 

l-Naphthylamine-6 and 7-sulfonic 

acid (Cleve's acid). 

l-Naphthylamine-7-sulfonic acid 

l-Naphthylamint'-S-sulfonic acid 

l-Naphthylamine-3:8-disulfonicacid. 
l-Naphthylamine-4:6 and 4:7-disul- 

fonic acid. 
1-Naphthy lamine-4:8-disulfonic acid. 
l-Naphthylaraine-3:6:8-trisulfonic 

acid. 

2-Naphthylamine-l-sulfonic acid 

2-Naphthylamine-f)-sulfonic " acid 

(Broenner's acid). 
2-Naphthvlamine disulfonic acids 

(l:5and 1:7). 
2-Naphthylamine-4:S disulfonic acid 
2-Naphthylamine-5:7-disulfonic acid, 
2-Naphthylamine-6:8-disulfonic acid 
Nerol acid. {See aminodiphenyl- 

amine sulfonic acid.) 
Nevile & Winther's acid. {See 1- 

naphthol-4-su!fonic acid.) 

p-Nitroacetanilide 

N itroam inod ipheny 1 sulfide 

N itroaminophenol 

p-Nitro-o-aminophenol 

m-Nitroaniline 

p-N itroaniline 

p-Nitroaniline sulfonic acid 

p-Nitro-o-anisidine 

o-Nitroanisole 

m-Nitrobenzaldehyde 

Nitrobenzene 



Pounds 



Pounds 



36, 130. 
36. 



7, 36, 48, 63, 102, 

130. 
7, 36, 48, 63, 102, 

105, 130. 

63,102, 105 

36, 48, 102, 130 

105... 



172, 824 



$75, 295 



$0.44 



527, 076 
639, 997 



Nitrobenzene sulfonic acid 

Nitrobenzcne-m-sulfonic acid 

Nitrobenzene-2:5-disulfonic acid.. 

N itrobenzidine 

p-Nitrobenzoate (sodium salt) 

p-Nitrobenzoic acid. . _ 

m-Nitrobenzoyl chloride 

p-Nitrobenzoy 1 chloride 

o-Ni trochlorobenzene 

p-Nitrochlorobenzene 

o-Nitrochlorobenzene sulfonic acid... 
o-Nitrochlorobenzene-p-sulfonic acid 
p-Nitrochlorobenzene-o-sulfonic acid 



Nitrocresol 

m-Nitro-p-cresol 

Nitrocresol methyl ether 

8 - Nitro - 1 - diazo - 2 - naphthol - 4 - sul- 
fonic acid. 

Nitro-p-dichlorobenzene 

3 - Nitro - 4 - hydroxy phenyl arsonic 
acid. 

Nitronaphthalcnc 

2 - Nitronaphthalcnc - 4:8 - disulfonic 
acid. 

o-Nitropheuol 

p-Nitrojilicnol 

Nitrosodiuiethylaniline 



7, 36, 102, 105, X. 
7, 48, 63, 102, 105. 



36, 48, 102 

7, 36, 48, 102, 105. 



36 

7, 48, 63, 102, 105. 

48, 105 

105 



36, 48, 102, 105. 
48, 102, 105 



36, 48, 102, 130. 
36,48, 102 



36, 48, 102, 105- __ 
36, 48, 102, 105... 
7, 36, 48, 102, 105. 



7,36. 
102.. 



29, 63, 102, 152. 



29, 48, 147. 
29, 101 



7, 29, 36, 48, 63, 152 



36,48, 101, 105 

7, 102 

29, 48, 101, 102, 

105, X. 
29, 63 



36 

105 

129 

1, 48, 129.. 

121 

48, 121 

48, 101 

29, 48, 101. 



853, 232 
120, 259 



152, 529 
'295,"382 



325, 862 



545, 318 
30, 381 



62, 818 
450, 228 
742, 644 



2, 338, 398 



102 

29, 36, 48, 63, 105, 
152. 

48 

36 

48 

63, 102 



36, 63, 147- 
100 



03, 102, 105. 
36 



48, 147, 152. 
48, 101, 147. 
29, 85, 102. . 



20, 217 



8,712 



197, 021 



657, 271 
"39,'"2i0,"7i8 



139, 644 



184, 223 



51, 655 



COAL-TAR INTERMEDIATES 29 

Table 10. — Coal-tar intermediates, production and sales, 1930 — Continued 





Manufacturers' 
identification 
numbers (ac- 
cording to list 
on p. 109) 


Sales 




Intermediates 


Quantity 


Value 


Average 

price per 

pound 


Production 
(quantity) 


Nitrosophenol- 


7, 20, 36, 48, 52, G3, 

102. 
29,48, 102, 105 


Pounds 






Pounds 


Nitrotoluene. . 








5, 552, 462 


o-Nitrotoluone ___ 


48, 102, 105 








o-Nitrotoluone sulfonic acid 


8, 29,36 










m-Nitrotoluene -- 


106 












48, 102, 105 








1, 420, 261 


p-Nitrotolucne sulfonic acid 


29 








p-Nitrotoluene-o-sulfonic acid .- 


48, 102, 105. 








471, 910 


m-Nitro-p-toluidiue 


29, 36, 48, 119, 130._ 
48 


347, 954 


$495, 597 


.$1. 42 


299, 378 




Nitro.xylene 


48,102,105 








289, 702 


Omega acid. {See sulfanilide.) 


100 










Oxalyl-p-nitroaniline _. 


48,102 










Oxalyl-m-ptien vlenediamine 


48,102 










Oxal yl-p-phenylenediamine 


48,102 












7 










Phenol 


12, 17, 46, 95, 101, 

127, X, X. 
19 


17,714,678 


1,976,310 


0.11 


21, 147, 436 


Phenyl acetic acid and derivatives _. 


Phenyl - 2 - amino - 5 - naphthol - 7 - 


7, 36, 4§, 102, 105- . 








21, 660 


sulfonic acid (phenyl J acid). 
Phenyl - 2 - amino - 8 - naphthol - 6 - 


7, 48, 105, 121 . . 








19, 481 


sulfonic acid (phenyl gamma acid) . 


29 










Pheuvldimethylaminopyrazolone 


100 












7, 8, 29, 36, 48, 63, 

102, 105, 117. 
36,48,63,102 








670, 521 










31, 075 




29, 147 










p-Phenylenediamine sulfonic acid 


29,36 










46,48, 102 












29,46,48.63, 121 








55, 172 




48, 63, 121, 136 








15, 875 




63 










Phenyl malonic acid and derivatives. 


19 










46,121 











Phenylmethylpyrazolone-p-sulfonic 
acid. 


63 










48 - 












48 66 










Phenyl-1-naphthylamine - 8 - sulfonic 
acid. 

Pheny 1-b-naphthylnitrosamine 

Phenylphenol (ortho and para) 


7, 48, 63, 102, 105 








202, 000 


X 










46 










48,101,102,128 

29,48,102 


5, 614, 012 


724, 909 


.13 


6, 693, 001 




39, 051 


Poly ethylenediamine and b-naph- 
thol condensation products. 


X 










36,102,105 








93, 974 




29 












8 










Quinaldine. '{See "2-methyl quino- 

Quinphthalone (quinoline yellow 
base). 


102 










119 










Rhoduline acid. {See 5:5-dihydroxy- 
7 : 7-disulfonic-2 : 2 - d i n a p h t h y 1 - 
amine.) 


46,48,72,101 








2, 909, 259 


Silver salt . ' {See ant'hra(iuinone-2- 
sodium sulfonate.) 


29,36,92,102 








1, 180, 758 


Schaeffer's acid. {See 2-naphthol-6- 
sulfonic acid.) 


29 






















Sulfophenylmethylpyrazolone 

Sultam acid. {See naphtho-l:8-sul- 
tam-2;4-disulfonic acid.) 


121 




















T acid. {See aminonaphthylamine 

trisulfonic acid.) 
Tetraaminoditolylmethane 


48,121 











30 CEXSL'S OF DYES AXD OTHER SYXTHETIC ORGAXIC CHEMICALS 
Table 10. — Coal-tar intermediates, production and sales, 1930 — Continued 





Manufacturers' 
identfication 
numbers (ac- 
cording to list 
on p. 109) 




Sales 




Production 
(quantity) 


Intermediates 


Quantity 


' Average 
Value price per 
pound 


Tetrachlorofluorescein 

Tetrachloropbthalic anhydride . 


29 . 


Pounds 


Pounds 


102 




1 


48 








chler's hydrol) . 
Tetramethyldiaminobeiizoplienone-- 
(Michler's ketone). 


48,63 




i 




121 




1 






121 








Tetramethvldiaminodiphenvlmeth- 

ane. 
Tetramethyldiaminophenylacridine . 
Tetramethyldiaminophenyldihydro- 

acridine. 
Tetramethyltetraaminotriphenylme- 

thane. 


29,48,93,102 




1 


688,057 


121 




1 




121 




1 




121 ' - --- 






'. 1 




Thiofarhanilidp 


48,66,102,127 

103 


188, 557 1 $40, 775 1 $0. 22 


65S, 46i 








36,48,102,105 




1 


145. 944 




29 




1 






121 




. __, !____._. ...__ 


O-TnliiPTip siilfamifip 


101 












101 












101 











p-Toluene sulfonic acid ethvl ester 


147 










p-Toluene sulfonyl ethyl ester 


102 _ 












29,36.48 










o-Tn1nidinp 


29,48,102,105 

29, 48, 102 


463,203 


106, Oil 


.23 


1, 260, 980 


o-Tnlnidinp snlfonif fioif\ 




m-Toluidine 


48,105 




i 




m-Toluidine sulfonic acid 


48 1 








p-Tnlniriinp 


48,102,105 1 






710, 374 


p-Tnlnidinp siilfnnif' acid 


8, 36. 48, 152 L - 


,_ 




36. 578 


m-Tnlylpnediaminp 


7, 29, 36, 48, 63, 102, 221, 860 

105. 
36, 102 


156,788 1 .71 


561. 130 


m-Tolylenediamine sulfonic acid 




Tolvl - 1 - naphthvlamine - 8- sulfonic 


7,48,63,102,105 




22,729 


acid (tolyl-peri acid). 
Tricresvlphosphate 


1 
81, X \ 


1 


Trinitrophenol 


48. 102 




TTiphenvlguanidine .- 


48,102 


1 1 


Triphenvlphosphate.- 


22,46,81,127 .. _ 




Xvlidine and salt . . 


29.48,102,105 

102 


1 183,575 


Xvlidine base.- ._ 




^vhdine, ortho and para_ ... 


29,105 




p-Xvlidine hYdroehloride— - 


102 


:::::::::: ::i::..::::.: 


m-Xvlidine --- 


48,105 


1 ! 


m-Xylidine-o-sulfonic acid _ 


48, 102 


[ ! 


m-Xylidine-6-sulfonic acid 


102 . - 


I j 


Zalba (antioxidant) 


48 











ORGAXIC CHEMICALS FOR MOTHPROOFIXG 

Certain well-known intermediates of coal-tar origin and many other 
organic chemicals of coal-tar and noncoal-tar origin, are proposed for 
use in combating insects that attack wool, mohair, silk, furs, feathers, 
and other animal fibers. Gro\\TJig reahzation of the economic im- 
portance of the problem of control of fabric pests has greatly in- 
creased the number of products for this purpose. The average yearly 
loss caused by clothes moths, carpet beetles, and furniture beetles, in 
the United States alone, is estimated conservatively at 8100,000,000. 

The most effective mothproofing chemicals are stomach poisons 
which kdl larvae when ingested; many of the so-called clothes-moth 
repellents, such as naphthalene and p-dichlorobenzene, are ineffective 



COAL-TAR IXTERMEDIATES 31 

^s repellents for larvse, although vapors from these products will 
Mil insects in a gas-tight space. 

For effective mothproofing, chemicals should be: 

1. Repellent to moths. 

2. Nontoxic to human beings. 

3. Inodorous. 

4. Invisible. 

5. Uniform in adherence to fiber — as a dyestuff. 

6. Noninjurious to fiber. 

7. Soluble in ordinary solvents and in water. 

8. Reasonable in price. 

The follow-ing list shows some of the organic products closely aUied 
to the dye industry, and which are mentioned in the United States, 
British, French, and German patents as having good mothproofing 
properties. 

Acetaldehyde and i>chlorophenol condensation products. 

Trichloroethyl acetanilide. 

Phenyl acetic acid. 

Benzoic acid, hydroxy and methylhydroxy derivatives. 

Salicylic acid, chloro and methyl derivatives. 

Aniline fluosulfonate, ortho, meta, and para isomers. 

Anthracene, sulfonic and carboxylic derivatives. 

Benzacetyl al-phenylhydrazone. 

Benzaldeiiyde, sulfonic acid derivatives. 

Benzaldehyde and p-chlorophenol condensation products. 

Monochlorobenzene. 

Dichlorobenzene, ortho, meta, and para isomers. 

Hexachloronaphthalene. 

Dinitrobenzene. 

Trichlorobenzene. 

Tetrachlorobenzene. 

Benzene sulfonic acid, nitro and chloro derivatives. 

Benzidine. 

Benzilic acid (diphenylglycolic acid) 

Diphenyl, sulfonic and carboxylic acid derivatives. 

Carbazole, acetyl and chloro derivatives. 

Hexachloroethane. 

Chlorocresotinic acid anilide sulfonic acid. 

Triciiloronaphthalene. 

Copper salts of the halogen substituted phenols and cresols. 

Cyclohcxanone. 

Acetyl diphenylamine. 

Quinoidine. 

Formaldehyde and p-chlorophenol condensation products. 

Hexamethylenetetramine. 

Diphenylmethane, sulfonic, chloro, and carboxylic acid derivatives. 

Nitroacetphenetidine. 

Phenol, chloro, bromo, and sulfonic acid derivatives. 

Aletaphenylenediamine and the phenyl sulfonyl derivatives. 

Parapheuylenediamine and the phenyl sulfonyl derivatives. 

Phthalic anhydride derivatives. 

Urea, phenyl and thio derivatives. 

Naphthalene derivatives. 

Many other compounds, both organic and inorganic, have been 
found to be effective moth repellents. A more complete list, together 
with the source of information, is given in "An Index of Patented 
Mothproofing Materials," by R. C. Roark, of the Division of Insec- 
ticides, Bureau of Chemistry and Soils, United States Department 
■of Agriculture. 



32 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS 
Table 11. — Intermediates: Production, by groups, according to unit value 





1926 


1927 


1928 


1929 


1930 


Group 




Per 




Per 




Per 




Per 




Per 




Pounds 


cent 
of 


Pounds 


cent 
of 


Pounds 


cent 
of 


Pounds 


cent 
of 


Pounds 


cent 
of 






total 




total 




total 




total 




total 


0-15 cts..- 


135,324,911 


58.93 


150, 641, 892 


62.75 


172, 187, 886 


61.66 


229, 029, 120 


64.61 


199, 355, 488 


68. 5S 


16-25 cts._- 


47, 228, 385 


20.57 


34, 353, 105 


14.31 


39, 099, 559 


14.00 


14, 865, 731 


12.66 


40, 560, 763 


13. 95 


26-50 cts... 


24, 130, 013 


10.51 


29, 973, 693 


12.49 


40, 702, 440 


14. 56 


50, 835, 573 


14.34 


27, 406, 659 


9.42 


51-75 cts... 


10, 571, 635 


4.60 


14, 498, 391 


6.04 


18, 419, 660 


6.60 


19, 910, 895 


5.62 


14, 604, 284 


5.02 


$0. 76-$l--. 


7, 097, 246 


3.09 


4, 797, 843 


2.00 


3, 049, 726 


1.09 


3, 279, 172 


.93 


3, 388, 601 


1.17 


$1.01-$1. SC- 


2,621,011 


1.14 


2, 604, 940 


1.08 


2, 591, 619 


.93 


4, 057, 157 


1.14 


2, 907, 383 


1.00 


SI. 51-$2._. 


1, 434, 404 


.62 


2, 022, 746 


.84 


1, 252, 592 


.45 


1, 286, 595 


.36 


892, 945 


.31 


$2.01-$3..- 


916, 665 


.40 


763, 153 


.31 


1, 079, 646 


.39 


850, 330 


.24 


1,114,310 


.38 


$3.01-$4_.. 


144, 587 


.06 


281, 366 


.12 


699, 843 


.25 


145, 953 


.04 


369, 355 


.13 


Over$4--. 


184, 945 


.08 


136, 055 


.06 


191, 836 


.07 


227, 192 


.06 


160, 744 


.06 


Total. -- 


229, 653, 802 


100. 00 


240, 073, 184 


100. 00 


279, 274, 807 


100. 00 


354, 487, 718 


100. 00 


290, 760, 532 


100. 00 



Dyes and Other Finished Coal-Tar Products 
introduction 

Finished coal-tar products may be divided into the following 
classes: (1) Dyes, (2) color lakes, (3) photographic chemicals, (4) 
medicinals, (5) flavors, (6) perfume materials, (7) synthetic resins, 
(8) synthetic tanning materials, and (9) miscellaneous materials. Al- 
though products other than dyes are manufactured in relatively 
smaller quantities, they constitute a vital part of the coal-tar chemi- 
cal industry and are closely allied to dye production. 

SUMMARY OF PRODUCTION OF DYES 

The output of dyes in 1930 by 50 firms was 86,480,000 pounds, a 
decrease of 22 per cent from the 111,421,505 pounds produced in 
1929. Sales in 1930 were 89,971,599 pounds, valued at $38,621,610 
as against 106,070,887 pounds, valued at $45,842,130, in 1929. The 
decrease in production and sales was less in 1930 than in the depression 
years 1921 and 1924, as compared with their respective preceding 
years. 

Outstanding features of dye production in 1930 were: (1) An 
increase of 24 per cent in the sales of special and unclassified dyes; 
(2) a decrease of 15 per cent in the sales of dyes of all classes, of 12 
per cent in acid dyes, 16 per cent in basic dyes, 30 per cent in mordant 
and chrome dyes, 24 per cent in sulfur dyes, 4 per cent in lake and 
spirit-soluble dyes, 8 per cent in direct dyes, 18 per cent in Indigo, 
and only 1 per cent in vat dyes other than Indigo; (3) a decrease of 
17 per cent in exports; (4) a decrease of 36 per cent in imports; and 
(5) a smaller decrease in the output of foreign-owned plants in the 
United States than in the total United States production. 

Table 12 shows the production and sales of dyes in the United 
States in recent years as compared with the pre-war year 1914. 



DYES AXD OTHER FIN^ISHED COAL-TAE PBODUCTS 33 

Table 12. — Coal-tar dyes: Production and sales 



Year 


Production 


Sales 


Year 


Production 


Sales 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


1914 


Pounds 
6, 619, 729 
88, 263, 776 
39, 008, 690 
64, 632, 187 
93, 667, 524 
68, 079, 000 


Pounds 


1 $2, 470, 096 
I 95, 613, 749 
39, 283, 956 
41, 463, 790 
47, 223, 161 
35, 012, 400 


1925 

1926 

1927 

1928 

1929 

1930 


Pounds 
86, 345, 438 
87, 978, 624 

95, 167, 905 

96, 62.5, 451 
111. 421, 505 

86, 480, 000 


Pounds 
79, 303, 451 
86, 255, 836 
98, 339, 204 
93, 302, 708 
106, 070, 887 
89, 971, 599 


$37, 468, 332 


1920 .. 




36, 312, 648 


1921 

1922 

1923 

1924 


47, 513, 762 
69, 107, 105 
86, 567, 446 
64, 961, 433 


38, 532, 795 

39, 792, 039 
45,842,130 
38, 621, 610 



1 Value of production. 



Stocks on Hand 



Commencing with 1924, the commission has pubhshed annually data 
as to the quantity of certain dyes on hand at the beginning of the year. 
Table 13 shows stocks on hand January 1, 1930, and January 1, 1931, 
for a selected list of dyes. 

Table 13. — Domestic coal-tar dyes: Stocks on hand 



Col- 
our 
Index 
No. 



20 
31 

79 
138 
151 
179 
189 
202 
208 
234 
246 
289 
326 
332 
365 
401 
406 
448 
518 
520 
.581 
582 
593 
596 
620 
655 
680 
812 
814 
864 
865 



Name of dye 



Chrysoidine Y 

Amido naphthol red G 

Ponceau 2 R 

Metanil yellow 

Orange II 

Azo rubine 

Lake red R 

Chrome blue black U 

Fast aciil blue R 

Resorcin brown B 

Acid black 10 B 

Fast cyanine 5R 

Direct fast scarlet 

Bismarck brown 2R 

Chrvsophcnine G 

Developed black BHN... 

Direct blue 2B 

Benzopurpurine 4B 

Direct pure blue 6B 

Direct pure blue 

Direct black EW 

Direct black RX 

Direct green B 

Direct brown 3G0 

Direct yellow R 

Auramine 

Methyl violet 

Primuline 

Direct fast yellow 

Nigrosine (spirit-soluble) . 
Nigrosine (water-soluble) . 

Sulfur black 

Sulfur blue 

Sulfur brown 

Sulfur yellow 

Indigo, 29 per cent paste.. 
Anthraquinone vat dyes.. 
Developed blacks 



Total 31,427,683 



January 1 — 



Pounds 
228, 317 
726 
874 
891 
091 
730 
876 
274 
665 
278 
655 
799 
734 
976 
446 



186, 
18.5, 
400, 

90, 
125 
346, 

71 
129, 
430, 
318 
189, 
205, 
332, 
353 
773: 
205, 
218, 
173, 
2, 357, 
456, 
183 
310, 
185, 
348, 
261, 
209, 

87 

138, 

444, 

6, 313, 

491 

613, 

271 

10, 448, 

2, 414: 

92, 



Pounds 
171, 882 
82, 284 
212, 906 
204, 651 
137, 401 

78, 305 
116,402 
221, 186 

70, 074 
108, 829 
417, 598 
168, 004 
168, 616 
143, 802 
342, 839 
374, 883 
458, 020 
184,428 

231, 781 
94, 988 

1,923,516 
233, 874 
170, 509 
228, 398 
147, 442 
321, 183 
258, 075 
244, 297 

79, 596 
191, 546 
464, 841 

4, 796, 903 
337, 600 
679, 555 

232, 521 
10, 541, 406 

2, 448, 564 
143, 495 



27, 867, 893 



34 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS 



Prices 

Domestic dyes declined steadily in price from 1917 to 1927. In. 
1928, largely because of an increase of 1 cent per pound in sulfur black 
and increased production of the higher priced dyes, the weighted 
average selling price of all dyes increased. Although since 1928 the 
weighted average selling price has been practically stationary at 43 
cents per pound, there was a general decrease in 1930 in the unit values 
of most of the dyes. A slight increase in the price of bulk colors pro- 
duced in large quantities, and the production of relativelv larger quan- 
tities of the higher-priced dyes have offset the general price decline. 

Price data for dyes and intermediates for the period 1917-1930 are 
shown in the following graph: 



Cerrfs per 
pound 



WEIGHTED AVERAGE PRICES, DYES AND INTERMEDIATES, 1917-1930 

IE 




1917 I9!8 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 I9Z5 f92fe 1927 1926 1929 I930 



/Vb/e: The prices indicated prior h> i92i represen-h fhe 
soles value of production. 

Table 14 shows the sales price of about 75 domestic dyes from 1928 
to 1930, inclusive, with the invoice price of the same types of dyes 
imported in 1914. The dyes for which statistics are here given con- 
stitute about 75 per cent of domestic production. Strictly speaking, 
domestic sales prices can not, of course, be compared with invoice 
prices, for the reason that the latter do not represent the cost to the 
consumer, as they do not include the importer's profit and the usual 
charges for containers, packing, freight, insurance to seaport, consular 
certification, duty, and minor shipping charges at point of departure 
and at seaport. 



DYES AND OTHER FINISHED COAL-TAR PRODUCTS 



35 



In Table 14 the Colour Index number appears in the first column, 
and the type name of the dye adopted by the Tariff Commission for 
designating all dyes reported under a given Colour Index number, in 
the second column. The invoice price (1914) shown in column 3 
represents the weighted average of all dyes classified under a given 
number in Artificial Dyestuffs Used in the United States, published 
by the Department of Commerce, as Special Agents Series No. 121. 
The figures in column 4, the domestic sales price as reported to the 
Tariff Commission, represent the weighted average selling price of 
all djes reported under a given Colour Index number. 

Table 14. — Domestic sales price of certain dyes, 1928-1930, compared with invoice 
value of dyes of the same kind imported in 1914 



Name of dye 



1914 in- 
voice 
value im- 
ported 
dyes 
(weighted 
average 
of all 
types) 



Average price per pound 



1928 



1929 



Ciirysoidine Y 

Amidonaphthol red Q... 

Chrome yellow 20 

Chrome yellow R 

Amidonaphthol red 6B-- 

Ponceau 2R 

Bordeaux B 

Metanil yellow 

Azo yellow 

Orange II 

Fast red A 

Azo rubine 

Fast red VR 

Amaranth 

Lake red R 

Chrome blue black U 

Fast acid blue R 

Acid black lOB 

Brilliant croceine 

Cloth red 2B 

Fast cyanine 5R 

Chrome black F 

Fast cyanine black B 

Naphthalamine black D_ 

Bismarck brown 

Bismarck brown 2R 

Chrysophenine G 

Direct violet N 

Developed black BHN.. 

Direct blue 2B 

Chrysamine G 

Direct orange R 

Direct fast red F 

Direct brown M 

Benzopurpurine 4B 

Direct blue 3B 

Benzopurpurine lOB 

Direct blue RW 

Direct pure blue 6B 

Direct pure blue 

Direct black EW 

Direct black RX 

Direct green B 

Direct green G 

Direct brown 3G0 

Congo brown G 

Direct yellow R 

Chloraraine orange G 

Tartrazine 

Auramine _ 

Malachite green 

Acid green B 

Magenta 

Methyl violet 

Acid violet 

Alkali blue 



.136 
.150 
.077 
.154 
.604 
.095 
.159 
.164 
.249 
.081 
.118 
.198 
.188 
.138 
.083 
.156 
.252 
.134 
.165 
.143 
.166 
.172 
.110 
.144 
.186 
. 183 
.270 
.255 
.133 
.041 
.189 
.231 
.362 
.194 
.133 
.209 
.234 
.222 
.275 
.440 
.144 
.139 
.174 
.230 



.194 
.178 
.239 
.200 
.240 
.241 
.255 
.294 
.248 
.281 
.409 



$0.31 
.40 
.49 
.54 
.49 
.42 
.51 
.56 
.73 
.26 
.59 
.63 
..54 
.54 
.79 
.36 
.56 
.37 
.81 
.80 
.67 
.64 
.72 
.70 
.39 
.40 
.50 
.99 
.39 
.25 
.72 
.56 
.72 
.61 
.48 
.39 
.94 
.77 
.62 
.54 
.28 
.32 
.38 
.50 
.36 
.61 
.35 
. 77 
.58 
.81 
1.20 



1.08 
2.26 



$0.31 
..34 
.47 
.57 
.48 
.43 
.49 
.54 
.70 
.26 
.57 
.61 
.59 
.64 
.80 
.30 
.52 
.40 
.76 
.69 
.53 
.61 
.66 
.76 
.39 
.38 
.49 
.96 
.35 
.26 
.61 
.67 
.66 
.58 
.46 
.39 
1.07 
.73 
.59 
.52 
.28 
.30 
.37 



.78 
1.24 



1.87 
.76 



$0.30 
.33 
.44 
.58 
.47 
.50 
.48 
.53 
.68 
.24 
.56 
.60 
.45 
.66 
.83 
.22 
.53 
.38 
.65 
.73 
.50 
.59 
.63 



.39 
.39 
.47 
.90 
.32 
.24 



.55 
.66 
.60 
.44 
.39 
.84 
.72 
.62 
.49 
.27 
.29 
.40 



.35 
.68 


..36 


.35 
.74 


.36 

.78 



.84 
1.17 
1.03 
1.80 
.72 
.92 
1.00 



36 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHEK SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS 



Table li.—Doynestic sales price of certain dyes, 1938-1930, compared with invoice 
value of dyes of the same kind imported in 1914 — Continued 



Col- 
our 
Index 
No 



737 
768 
793 
812 

S14 
864 
865 



1113 

1177 



Name of dye 



Wool green S 

Eosine 

Phosphine 

Primuline 

Direct fast yellow 

Nigrosine (spirit-soluble; 

Nigrosine (water-soluble) 

Galloc-yanine 

Methylene blue 

Sulfur black 

Sulfur blue 

Sulfur brown... 

Sulfur tan 

Sulfur maroon 

Sulfur yellow 

.\nthraquinone vat blue GCD. 
Indigo, synthetic 



1914 

invoice 

value 

imported 

dyes 

(weighted 

average 

of all 

types) 



. 353 
.418 
.352 
.144 
. 136 
.126 
.149 
.347 
.390 
.100 



107 

"ms 



.350 
.128 



Average price per pound 



1.12 
.43 
.93 
.43 
.3,5 

1.81 
.93 
.14 
.51 
.32 
.31 
.52 
.41 
.78 
.14 



$0.73 
1.77 
1.07 
.39 
.91 
.37 
.34 
1.56 
.84 
.14 
.51 
.31 
.28 
.45 
.39 
.69 
.15 



1930 



1.64 
1.25 
.40 
.92 
.33 
.32 



. 12 
.48 
.29 
.31 
.48 
.37 
.61 
.14 



Unit Value of Dyes Produced, 1926-1930 

Table 15 shows the domestic production of dyes from 1926 to 1930, 
inclusive, arranged according to eight value groups. The actual 
quantity is given for each group and the relation of each group to the 
total production. 



Table 15. — Coal-tar dyes: Production, by groups, according to unit value 





1926 


1927 


1928 


1929 


1930 


Group 


Pounds 


Per 
cent 

of 
total 


Pounds 


Per 
cent 

of 
total 


Pounds 


Per 

cent 

of 

total 


Pounds 


Per 

cent 

of 

total 


Pounds 


Per 

cent 

of 

total 


1-25 cents 

26-50 cents 

51-75 cents 

$0.76-$l 

$1.01-.$1,50 

$1.51-$2 

$2.01-$3 

Over $3 


43, 747, 262 
20, 666, 640 
8, 794, 368 
8, 045. 922 
2, 808, 457 
2, 241, 741 
1, 402, 063 
272, 170 


49.72 
23.43 
10.00 
9.15 
3.19 
2.55 
1.59 
.31 


49,314,987 
23, 450, 835 
7, 470, 547 
7, 570, 480 
3, 714, 761 
2,375,625 
1, 086, 666 
184, 004 


51.82 
24.64 
7.85 
7.96 
3.90 
2.50 
1. 14 
.19 


43, 321, 274 
26, 624. 686 
9, 432, 458 
9, 550, 635 
3, 536, 731 
2, 707, 054 
1, 298, 824 
153, 789 


44.84 
27. 55 
9.76 
9.88 
3.66 
2.80 
1.35 
.16 


49, 919, 561 
30, 251, 786 
10, 121. 960 
10, 072. 975 
5, 683, 807 
3, 799, 793 
1, 366, 792 
204, 831 


44.80 
27.15 
9.09 
9.04 
5.10 
3.41 
1.23 
.18 


40, 771, 465 
21, 854, 206 

7, 026, 303 

8, 299, 971 
4, 855, 601 
2, 942, 983 

587, 930 
141, 541 


47.15 

25.27 

8.12 

9.60 

5.62 

3.40 

.68 

.16 


Total... 


87. 978, 624 


100.00 


95, 167, 905 


100.00 


96, 625, 451 


100.00 


111,421,505 


100. 00 


86, 480, 000 


100. 00 



Progress in Dye Manufacture 

Although trade in dyes was less in 1930 than in 1929, progress was 
made by the coal-tar chemical industry. Increased research de- 
veloped a number of new dyes, many of which were produced for the 
first time in the United States. Imports decreased much more than 
did exports. 

Relation of production to consumption. — Assuming consumption to 
equal total sales plus imports minus exports, the apparent consump- 
tion of coal-tar dyes in 1930 was 65,819,141 pounds. Of this quantity 



DYES AND OTHER FINISHED COAL-TAK PRODUCTS 37 

93.8 per cent was supplied by domestic production; the remaining 
6.2 ^ per cent was supplied by imports. 

The ratio of imports to consumption, in terms of value, depends 
on the method used in evaluating imported dyes. When the foreign 
invoice value is used the ratio is 9.8 per cent. This comparison is 
hardly valid because foreign value is used for imported dyes whereas 
realization price is used for domestic d3^es. Taking the duty-paid 
value of imports, $6,207,034 (the foreign invoice value, $3,500,154 
plus the duty paid, $2,706,880), plus the value of domestic sales, less 
the value of exports, the apparent domestic consumption by value is 
$38,582,814, of wliich imports (duty-paid value) supplied 16.1 per 
cent. If 15 per cent allowance is made for profit and expenses on the 
duty-paid value of the imported dyes, imports supplied over 18 per 
cent of domestic consumption. 

Court and Treasury Decisions 

In the Census of Dyes of 1924 (pp. 41-45), the American selling 
price as applied to coal-tar products is discussed, the principal 
features of the administration of these provisions by the Treasury 
Department are reviewed, the major regulations issued by that 
department are sammarized, and important Treasury decisions up 
to G. A. 9004, T. D. 40926, of 1925 are given. In subsequent issues 
of the Census important decisions up to April 1, 1930 are abstracted. 
Decisions up to May 15, 1931, follow. 

Customs regulations, including dye standards, adopted for the act 
of 1922 were extended as far as applicable to the act of 1930. T. D. 
44090. Additional standards of strength were prescribed in T. D. 
44231. 

Erioglaucine A. P. was held dutiable as coal-tar color under para- 
graph 28 of the tariff act of 1922. Ab. 14225. 

Adipic acid produced from coal tar and also from other sources, 
but the source of which can not be determined by chemical analysis, 
was held by the Treasury Department to be dutiable as a coal-tar 
product, paragraph 27 of the tariff act of 1930. T. D. 44237. 

Articles containing a mixture or solution which in turn contains 
one ingredient of coal tar mentioned in paragraph 28 are dutiable 
under that paragraph. Ab. 13901. 

Where dyes "A" and "B" are offered for sale in the United States, 
and the same dyes mixed together to form a new dye are imported, 
the ad valorem can not be derived from the American selling price 
of a comparable American article by taking the price at which dj^es 
''A" and "B" are offered for sale in America and calculating from 
them in in the proportions by weight of the imported mixture what 
price a mixture accomplishing the same results as the imported 
mixture would be sold for when no such comparable mixture has 
been offered for sale, or sold, in the United States market. T. D. 
43775. On appeal from this decision the principle herein announced 

4 Imports of coal-tar dyes in 1930 were 4,114,882 pounds with a foreign invoice value of $3,500,154. This 
pounvlage is in e vjess of tiis an 'laiiuity i'.n )or!;e 1. It is, howavar, comparable with both domestic pro- 
duction and domestic sales as nearly all the vat dyes as well as the rhodamines have been reduced to a 
single-strength basis in order to facilitate comparison. The Department of Commerce reports the total dye 
imports (excluding natural Indigo, natural alizarin, and color lakesj as 4,939,075 pounds, valued at $5,246,847. 
The quantity as compiled in Foreign Commerce and Navigation of the United States, represents the 
number of pounds on which specific duty of 7 cents (3}^ cents in case of Indigo and sulfur black since the 
tariff act of 1930j was assessed. The value represents the dutiable value. 



38 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS 



was affirmed by the Court of Customs and Patent Appeals, but the 
decision was reversed because of the exclusion by the Customs Court 
of evidence bearing on the question of the existence of a similar 
domestic product produced by a formula other than that under which 
the imported product was produced. T. D. 44343. 

Where merchandise is sold to certain dealers at special prices con- 
tingent on purchase in quantities larger than the usual wholesale 
quantities, such prices do not constitute the American selling price, 
T. D. 43973. 

In determining the American selling price of a comparable domestic 
article under paragraphs 27 and 28 of the tariff act of 1922, manufac- 
turer's price to jobbers, and not jobber's price to consumers, must be 
used as the base. T. D. 44084. 

Where goods were entered for warehouse under the act of 1913 and 
withdrawn under the act of 1922, which provided for a mode of 
valuation different from that in force under the act of 1913, the goods 
were not dutiable on the basis of their entered value where such value 
exceeded the appraised value. Ab. 13651. Rehearing granted. 
Ab. 14527. 

Royalty fees for subsequent use of the goods in the United States, 
collected under a process patent by the seller of the goods as agent 
for the owner of the patent and included in the purchase price, are 
part of the United States value. T. D. 44729. 

Royalty fees on product patent, which presumably covers manu- 
facture and sale of the product in the United States, are a part of the 
United States value. T. D. 44730. 

Containers of coal-tar dyes and colors of American manufacture, 
which are exported and later returned to the United States without 
having been advanced in value or improved by any process of manu- 
facture or other means while abroad, whether or not imported by or 
for the account of the person who exported them from the United 
States, are not required to be marked in the manner specified in 
paragraph 28 of the tariff act of 1930. T. D. 44370-7. 

Imports of Dyes, 1926-1931 

Table 16 summarizes the quantity and invoice value of dye imports 
from 1926 up to and including June, 1931. 

Table 16. — Coal-tar dyes: Imports into the United States 



Period 


Quantity 


Invoice 
value 


Monthly average 


Quantity 


Value 


1926 


Pounds 
4, 673, 196 
4, 233, 046 
5,351,951 
6, 437, 147 
4,114,882 
2, 429, 615 


$4, 103, 301 

3, 413, 886 

4, 321, 867 

5, 374, 085 
3, 500, 154 
2,113,623 


Pounds 
389, 433 
352, 754 
445, 996 
536, 429 
342, 907 
404, 936 


$341,941 
284, 490 
360, 156 


1927 


1928 


1929 


447 840 


1930 


291 680 


1931 (6 months) 


352 271 







DYES AND OTHER FliSTISHED COAL-TAR PRODUCTS 



39 







t-^ ■* 5C 00 


CO 


05 05 C^ CO O 00 O 


CO '^ 


CI 


O OS 


1 S' 










Ol 


lO ^ -^ r^ -^ (M t^ 


00 OS 




•O 00 






« 


o 


Tji iC coo 


■«r 


»C 00 00 o o ■* ^ 


COO) 


CO 


>oo) 


^ 




o ' *^ 










oi 




1 


" 


€^ 


































o 




r- CO oi o 


o 


"TO CO CO « COM< 


r-H r- 




OS CO 


O) 




(1/ 
3 




OiiOC^-c 




(M "O 00 r- 00 t- o: 


OS -n 




OS 00 


CO 




2 


■^ lO CO OS 


•o 


»0 00 t- ^ O tP r-H 


coco 


"<?' 


t^CM 


-* 




o * ' ■ 




rt —1 


-H 7—t 


r-i 


oi 


























00 Oi -tf CO 


c^ 


O C^ 'J" M -cfH >OCO 


TJ^OO 


00 


C7S -"^ 


CO 




c 


GO 


OO •* CO c^ 


o 


coo w ^ ^ OiO 


OCD 




00 CO 






hJ 


2 


■<** "OCOOJ 


■n 


■OOOOO COC^ ^ <N 


00 CO 


TJ^ 




■cf 




o * * * 


















^ 




















2 CO 00 O 1^ 


00 


CO »c to 00 r- to o 


^o> 


00 


00 CO 


CO 


i 




1 


H ^00 OiO -< 


o: 


00 oooi ^ oi as 00 


OJCM 


CM 


■* OS 


OS 


3 


o 




■^ 


-H-H 


'^ 


*"* 




"3 
o 


















1 




? "O 00 ^ -H 


c^ 


COCO^ COOO CO II TO TT 


CM 


00 CO 


^ 


5J) 
o 


c 


S 


H S -HO — « 






CM CO 






^ 


[3 


o 


<M 


||„„-H-. 


















O: 














"C 


■r^ 


— ' 


►s; s 














OJ 


« 




B 














C3 


5 




t^ o o o o 


o 


ooo o oo o 


O.-N 


o 


oo 


o 


Xi 


o 


GO 




o 


ooo o o o o 


OO 


o 


oo 


r-H 




U 


Ci 


11^^^^ 






























T3 

a 

C3 






O ^ CO o 


lO 


CRCOCM rt lO C-J -. rt CO 


,., 


CO -H 


CJS 








ft-, ^^ CO CO CO 




^.^00 -J^oocor-^ t--'^ 




00 -H 




"2 
'S 




o 


-o^cn-t- 


C-) 


■^COO t-OOCOI- COOi 


CO 


>o <n 


>o 




Sofrtco't-' 


c^ 


cDOioT o'oTt^c^ -H .— 1 




of-^* 






Oi 


SOO 30-HCO 


c^ 


C^ C-I ^4 00 05 -^ CD 


^ CO 


'i" 


O 00 










O t- 00 O CR 


CO 

o" 


lO t- CO TJH CD ^ O 

of csco" 


O o 


o 
to" 


>o" 


OS 
Os" 


■3 


















00 


T3 






Oi CO --^ -f 


o 


-HOD 00 CO CDCOO 


Tf ^ 


u- 


r- ^ 


t^ 


o 

03 






»3 00 o o »o 




c^ CD r- CO "O -^ 00 


lO o 


■6 


OS o 


00 


'S 


S 


-^QOC^ ^t^ 


03 


OOOOO coo -H CO 


CO lO 


00 


^00 


00 

o" 


oT 


^ 0"tO ^rtTtC 


00 


Tj-oo'co" o"^co'^ 


.-ToT 


o" 


"•3*" 00 


a 


cC 


Oi 


S ttor-Oi 


■^ 


-hOOOO t^ COCO — 1 


ooo 


OS 


OJ •* 


t^ 




:/j 




^ o csoseo 


CI 


I^OOO CO t^OO O) 


O — ' 


•"< 


COO) 


o 


.2 






lo" 


rt" m" «-•" 


-<"■* 


>o- 


o' 


co" 








CO 


^ 








o 


'^ 






















CO CO 00 »o 


(>» 


05 -^ X lO -- lO CO 


r-oi 


OS 


00 lO 


00 


oT 






CO CO CO '^ CO 




CO CO 00 1^ t^ Ci t- 


ooo 


CO 




o 


fl 




CO 


-^ O: CC O CO 


o 


CO CO lO lO O CJi t-i 


■^ 00 




OOO) 


t- 

of 


s 


S ir-'r-T -ToT 




— T-h'cs" (N'^^cdoi" 


ofoT 




tTO"" 


a 




OS 


;S CO •c c^i — • 


CO 


CO CO t- o c^^ I- CO 






OCD 


o 


X 






"< Oi — 1 »c^ 




CO 00 00 ^ t^ »o Ol 


OO-H 


OS 


O) — . 


CO 


o 






_J" 


(M' cs a:* 


CO 


co^ 


CD^ 


co" 


.M 
d 
2 








CO 


•"• 






^ 


OS 




o 


^1- 


o 


OJ h- t^ ^ ^ ,JH lO 


CM t- 


CO 


r-- Tti 


o 




cc 


00 


t^OO 00 -H O OS t^ 






r^ OS 1 


OS 




o 


a> 
















§.i 




_J 








1 




a 




S e « >o lo CO lo 

-^ ft S. — lO OCO 






1 










Oi 


o 1 


c^ CM CO oosioosi r^ t-- 




t^iO 


■o 


a 


^ 3 


oi 




CM ^ CO ^OO-H— • OCO 


CO 


S '^ 




03 


Oi 








CM rH 






o c 










1 




o 


00 


^ e oo o o o o 
^ fc J^ ooo o 


o 


ooo oooo loo 


Q 


oo 


o 


a 




§ 


o 


ooo oooo oo 


o 


oo 


o 


.s 


sl^ 






^ ....l 


o 










11 








•o 






C^ -5* O CO 


Oi 


— ilMiO CMCOr-collTTOO 


CM 


0)CR 


o 


a 








t^ 


CO ^ CO 00 hh o t^ 


asco 


CO 


^H IC 








o 


•§000 1^0 




(NOO "O CS O "OO 




«o 


OS CO 


° 


- 




B cTctTco t^ 


cT 


oot^r^*" oo'cocooT 


co'r-" 


o" 


■aTos" 


o" 






Ci 


S O O 00 CO 




Ol -*0 —ICO 00 CO 


lO OS 


lO 


o ^ 


00 


o 






O CS) ^ ^ o< 


r^ 


rr r- 00 lo 00 -'f CM 


O -H 




CO 00 


Tl* 








n ...... 

^ t^O X CO 


oo" 


of IN^' 


-H-a"- 


IC 


TjJ" 


CO 


CJ3 

3 








<M 






1 




00 


c 






















Cl t^ t^ lO 


00 


»0 CD 00 CO Oi CO 05 


OSCD 


lO 


OS "O 


■o 


<s 


_o 




05 ^ Oi *-^ O 




lo -. -ra (N 00 o j^ 


00C3S 


00 


lOCn 


o 


a 


o 


OS 


■§ MCOOIM 


00 




CM CM 


■o 


o t^ 


^ 


"3 
a 


S co'afo".oo" 




— Toi*^ of^-H»c 


lO-t-" 


cm' 


cc't-." 


3 


05 


sSiooS. 


en 


t^ >0 CM O CO ^ o 


o — ■ 




■O 00 


?) 


•a 




O C-- OD 00 to 


o 


t— as CM lo r- o CO 


OOS 


OS 


CO CM 


"<J* 


'3 


o 




tc 


rt" of co' of 


rM -^ 


lO" 


2" 


^ 


c? 


£ 






CO 


Oi 






CO| 


;^ 


oT 




^ 00 CO CO 


^ 


lO CM -H t- CO t- O 


CM CO 


00 


coo 1 


s 


a 






»0 O — 1 CD 


'^ 


^ CO c^ .-< as r- ^ 


lO CD 




S! i? 


to 


T3 




00 


.^ Ci O) 00 ^ 




^ 00 00 O O Ol OS 


oir- 


o 


OS iM 


■* 
« 


t.. 


S co'-ffrtio" 


o" 


-Tcd'o" oo'ofo'-f 


corC 


"<J^ 








Ol 


S r^ o ^^^ t>j 




CO lO CM CO CM >C' O 


CO 00 




t^ rJH 




< 






p ^CTi cot- 

"h cr-.h^oTcm" 


00 


cDooas ojoocoo 


OS o 


lO 


rH^ 


CO 






co" 


of of of 


co" 


■«<■ 


s" 


CO 


m 








«l 


'~' 






w 


OS 


M 






: ; : 1 




; 1 1.^ 1 1 1 1 11 


1 






s 

m 






i i i i 




1 1 l-S 1 1 1 1 11 

, , 1 <C 1 I i 1 < 


1 






o 


c 
o 




1111 




, , , C . 1 . 

1 1 1 a-^ 111 1 1 


a 
o 
_a 






.g 


CS 








1 . 1 C3 -g . 1 1 1 ■ 






o 










' ' ' E ' i 1 iJ 

IMlliii i> 


3 

1" 






]o 


[? 
















c 








X3 


1 ^ -^ 




J3 


"^ 




ill 


d 


1 1 ; £ S 1 1 1 R a 


a 


Ig 






"5 




till 


a 


■ r , O D. ' 1 ' O O 


C3 


IJ 




CJ 








■ S--> '^ cc , 3 3 






■a 


■J 




— ' 1 o 


C8 


C3 


I o 


C3 


3 








o 




o 


' s 

o — 


o 


a 






SQHo 




MPhM^-i K<tJ!» 


<5<i 




f^< 







40 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS 

Production and Sales of D^^es by Chemical Classes 

Table 17, page 39, shows the trend of production, sales, and unit 
value of sales for the more important chemical classes of dyes made 
in 1928, 1929, and 1930. Production of each class for each of the 
three years is shown, followed by a percentage comparison of produc- 
tion for 1929 and 1930 as against 1928 taken as 100 per cent, 1928 
being considered a normal business year. Volume of sales is given 
for each of the three years followed by a comparison of sales with 
1928. Unit value of sales is shown for each of the three years from 
which the trend may easily be determined. As production and sales 
of the individual members of each class vary from year to year, this 
method of comparison is of value only for the group and not for 
individual dyes. An exception is the ketonimine dyes. Again 
many dyes listed in "other azo" and "all other" may have been 
identified for the succeeding year and so classified. 

The increased production of triphenylmethane and diphenyl- 
naphthylmethane dyes is due principally to larger output of Alkali 
blue and Acid violet, and the increase in xanthene dyes to greater 
production of Eosine and Rhodamine B. 

Decreased production in 1930 of monoazo dyes was due to reduced 
output of Chrysoidine Y, Amido naphthol red G, Chrome yellow 2G, 
Amido naphthol red 6B, Ponceau 2R, Metanil yellow. Orange II, 
Lake red C, Fast red VR, Cochineal red, Chrome blue black U, Fast 
acid blue R, Azo rubine, etc. 

The decrease in production of disazo dyes was due to lessened out- 
put of the following: Resorcin brown B, Brilliant croceine. Cloth red 
2B, Fast cyanine 5R, Fast cyanine black B, Direct fast scarlet, Bis- 
marck brown and Bismarck brown 2R, Congo corinth G, Direct blue 
2B, Direct brown M, Benzopurpurine 4B, Direct blue RW, Direct 
pure blue 6B, etc. Smaller output of trisazo dyes is accounted for 
by decreases in: Direct fast black FF, Direct brown BT, Direct black 
EW, Direct black RX, Direct green ET, Direct brown 3G0, etc. 
In 1930 the unclassified azo dyes included a number containing di- 
butyl and isopropyl radicals, the attempt being made to improve the 
properties of the dyes so that they would compare more favorably 
with the vat dyes. 

Production of all sulfur colors, with the exception of Sulfur orange, 
decreased. Direct yellow R and Stilbene yellow were responsible for 
the decreased output of stilbene dyes. 

An outstanding feature of increased production for 1930 is in 
bacteriological stains and indicators, the output of which has nearly 
doubled each year since 1928. Sales although relatively small in 
volume, increased 90 per cent in quantity as against 1929, and value 
per pound of sales decreased from $3.30 to $2.25, or 32 per cent. 

Production of Dyes by Classes of Application 

Dyes produced in the United States in 1930, classified according to 
method of apphcation, were: (1) Acid dyes, (2) basic dyes, (3) direct 
dyes, (4) mordant and chrome dyes, (5) sulfur dyes, (6) vat dyes, sub- 
divided into Indigo and other vats, and (7) color-lake and spirit- 
soluble dyes. Although the classification of a dye in any one of these 
groups must in certain instances necessarily be arbitrary, because a 
dye may have properties which permit of its application by more than 



DYES AND OTHER FINISHED COAL-TAE PEODUCTS 



4i 



one method, such classification facilitates a comparison of production 
and import figures. Overlapping the acid dyes are the food dyes, 
discussed on page 45. 

Comparative data for dyes produced in the United States from 
1928 to 1930, inclusive, and those imported in the same years are 
given according to classes in Table 18. 

Table 18. — Comparison of imports of dyes with production and sales, by class of 

application 



Classes of application 



Acid 

Basic. 

Direct 

Lake and spirit-soluble. 
Mordant and chrome. . 
Sulfur 

Vats (including Indigo) . 

(a) Indigo 

(6) other vats 

Unclassified and special 

Total 



Production 



Quantity 



Pounds 
13, 469, 597 

5, 374, 099 
19. 633, 095 

1, 821, 492 

4. 403, 934 
19,001,910 
32, 375, 812 
25, 861, 680 

6, 514, 132 
545, 512 



96. 625, 451 



Pounds 
14, 196, 815 

5, 899, 970 
21, 622, 907 

2, 724, 712 

4, 846, 228 
22, 605, 799 
38, 784, 337 
29, 320, 270 

9, 464, 067 
740, 737 



111, 421, 505 



Pounds 
11,457,235 

4, 649, 898 
17, 553, 462 

2, 560, 936 

3, 137, 164 
14, 232, 076 
32, 304, 300 
24, 326, 403 

7, 977, 897 
584, 929 



86, 480, 000 



Per cent of total 



13.94 

5.56 

20.31 

1.89 

4.56 

19.67 

33.51 

26.77 

6.74 

.56 



100. 00 



1929 



12.74 

5.30 

19.41 

2.44 

4.35 

20.29 

34.81 

26.31 

8.50 

.66 



100. 00 



1930 



13.25 
5.38 
20.28 
2.96 
3.63 
16.46 
37.36 
28.13 
9.22 



100. 00 





Sales 


Classes of application 


Quantity 


Value 




1928 


1929 


1930 


1928 


1929 


1930 




Pou7ids 
12, 632, 917 

5, 085, 165 
18, 073. 537 

1, 797, 665 

3, 958. 973 
19, 969, 173 
31,310.768 
25, 556, 849 

5, 753, 919 
474, 510 


Pounds 
13, 510, 356 

5, 565. 651 
20, 486, 890 

2, 606. 685 

4, 656, 901 
21, 214, 680 
37, 501, 167 
29. 382, 120 

8, 119, 047 
528, 557 


Pounds 
11,846,500 

4, 671, 667 
18, 691, 522 

2, 503, 754 

3, 270, 504 
16, 062, 771 
32. 271, 157 
24, 233, 020 

8, 038, 137 
653, 724 


$8, 861, 206 

4, 218, 213 
8, 947, 838 
1, 495, 331 
2, 399, 961 
4, 107, 743 
9, 156, 995 
3, 585, 700 

5, 571. 295 
604, 712 


$9, 381, 432 
4, 485, 160 

10, 170, 774 
2,190,511 
2, 597, 742 
4,113,233 

12, 223, 010 

4, 384, 189 

7, 838, 821 

680, 268 


$8,160,004 


Basic. 


3, 766, 639 


Direct 


8, 748, 427 


Lake and spirit-soluble. . . . . 


2, 438, 986 


Mordant and chrome . 


1, 469, 439 


Sulfur 


2. 734, 656 


Vats (including Indigo) 

(a) Indigo . 


10, 445, 411 
3, 319, 502 


(6) Other vats 


7, 125, 909 


Unclassified and special 


858, 048 


Total.. 


93, 302, 708 


106, 070, 887 


89, 971, 599 


39,792,039 


45, 842, 130 


38, 621, 610 









Imports 


Classes of application 


Quantity 


Per cent of total 




1928 


1929 


1930 


1928 


1929 


1930 


Acid 


Pounds 

994, 201 

424, 968 

917, 728 

98, 550 

476, 872 

125, 350 

2, 304, 104 

2,343 

2, 301, 761 

10, 178 


Pounds 
1,491,313 
367, 568 
977, 792 
204,248 
545, 508 
142, 919 
2, 694, 901 


Pounds 
904, 859 
215, 197 
810, 545 
155, 051 
249, 982 
56, 643 

1, 715, 960 


18.58 
7.94 

17.15 
1.84 
8.91 
2.34 

43.05 
.04 

43.01 
.19 


23.17 
5.71 

15.19 
3.17 
8.47 
2.22 

41.87 


21.99 




5.23 


Direct 


19.69 




3.77 




6.08 


Sulfur 


1.38 




41.70 






(6) Otlier vats 


2, 694, 901 
12, 898 


1, 715, 960 
6,645 


41.87 
.20 


41.70 




.16 






Total 


5, 351, 951 


6, 437, 147 


4, 114, 882 


100. 00 


100. 00 


100. 00 







64996—31- 



42 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS 

(1) Acid Dyes 

Description. — The acid dyes, usually the sodium salts of a color 
acid, are commonly applied in an acid bath. They are principally 
applied to wool and silk. Most of the acid dyes are chemically 
included in one of the followmg groups: (1) Nitro compounds, (2) azo 
compounds, (3) sulfonated basic dyes, and (4) alizarin derivatives. 

Production and sales. — Acid dyes constituted 13.25 per cent of the 
total production of dyes in 1930 as compared with 12.74 per cent in 
1929. The production of 11,457,235 pounds in 1930 as against 
14,196,815 pounds in 1929 is a decrease of 19 per cent. Sales m 1930 
were 11,846,500 pounds, valued at $8,160,004, as compared with 
13,510,356 pounds, valued at $9,381,432, in 1929. The weighted 
average sales price in 1930 was 68.88 cents a pound, as compared 
with 69.44 cents in 1929, and 70.14 cents in 1928. 

The five leadmg acid dyes in production are Acid black lOB, 
Nigrosine (water-soluble), Orange II, Metanil yellow, and Fast 
cyanine 5R. The combined output of these five dyes was 40 per cent 
of the total production of acid dyes. 

(2) Basic Dyes 

Description.— The basic dyes surpass all others in depth, brilliancy 
of shade, and purity of tone. They possess high tinctorial power, but 
as a class lack fastness, especially to light and washing. They the 
fixed on vegetable fibers with an acid mordant, such as tannic acid. 
Chemically, basic dyes include a large number of the triphenyl- 
methane derivatives, and in addition, members of the following classes: 
(1) Azines, (2) azos, (3) thiazines, (4) thiazoles, and (5) acridines. 

Production and sales.— B&sic dyes constituted 5.38 per cent of the 
total production of dyes m 1930 as compared with 5.30 per cent in 
1929. The production of 4,649,898 pounds in 1930 as against 5,899,- 
970 pounds in 1929 is a decrease of 21 per cent. Sales in 1930 were 
4,671,667 pounds, valued at $3,766,639, as compared with 5,565,651 
pounds, valued at $4,485,160, in 1929. The weighted average sales 
price in 1930 was 80.63 cents a pound as compared with 80.59 cents in 
1929, and 82.95 cents m 1928. 

In production, the three leading dyes of this group are Auramine, 
Methyl violet, and Chrysoidine Y. They constituted 43 per cent 
of the total production of basic dyes in 1930. 

(3) Direct Dyes 

Description. — The direct or substantive dyes are applied directly 
to vegetable fibers in a neutral or alkaline bath, without the use of 
mordants. Their principal application is on cotton and union goods. 
They are also used on silk, linen, paper, and to a limited extent on 
wool. Chemically, the direct d3^es are principally azo compounds 
and nearly all of them derivatives of benzidme, tolidine, dianisidine, 
or diamino stilbene. A small but valuable group of direct dyes 
belongs to the thiazole class. 

Production and sales. — Direct dyes constituted 20.28 per cent of the 
total output of dyes in 1930 as compared with 19.41 per cent in 1929, 
and 20.31 per cent in 1928. The production of 17,553,462 pounds in 
1930 as against 21,622,907 pounds in 1929 is a decrease of 19 per cent. 
Sales in 1930 were 18,691,522 pounds, valued at $8,748,427, as 
compared with 20,486,890 pounds, valued at $10,170,774, m 1929. 



DYES AND OTHER FINISHED COAL-TAR PRODUCTS 43 

The weighted average sales price in 1930 was 46.80 cents a pound as 
compared with 49.65 cents in 1929, and 49.51 cents in 1928. 

The five direct dyes showing the largest production are Direct 
black EW, Developed black BHN, Chrysophenine G, Direct blue 
2B, and Direct green B. The combined production of these five 
was 54 per cent of the total production of direct dyes. 

(4) Mordant and Chrome Dyes 

Description. — ^Mordant and chrome dyes are applied to both vege- 
table and animal fibers and are usually used in conjunction with 
metallic mordants. Shades of exceptional fastness are obtained from 
this group. Chemically, the mordant and chrome dyes are members 
of the following classes: (1) Anthraquinone, (2) azo, (3) oxazine, (4) 
triphenylmethane, (5) nitroso, (6) oxyquinone, and (7) xanthone. 

Production and sales. — Mordant and chrome dyes constituted 3.63 
per cent of the total production of dyes in 1930, as compared with 
4.35 per cent in 1929, and 4.56 per cent in 1928. The production in 
1930 was 3,137,164 pounds, as compared with 4,846,228 pounds in 
1929, and 4,403,934 pounds in 1928, a decrease of 35 per cent from 

1929 and of 29 per cent from 1928. Sales in 1930 were 3,270,504 
pounds, valued at $1,469,439, as compared with 4,656,901 pounds, 
valued at $2,597,742, in 1929. The weighted average sales price in 

1930 was 44.91 cents a pound, as compared with 55.78 cents in 1929, 
and 60.62 cents in 1928. 

The leading dye of this group is Chrome blue black U, with a pro- 
duction of 952,157 pounds in 1930. The alizarin dyes also belong to 
this group. 

(5) Sulfur Dyes 

Description. — Sulfur dyes are used largely on cotton hosiery, uni- 
form cloths, and cotton warps to be woven with wool and later dyed 
with acid dyes. Sulfur dyes are now prepared by the fusion of various 
intermediates (containing nitro, amino, or imino groups) with sodium 
sulfide and sulfur. These dyes are not pure, distinct compounds, 
and the presence of foreign substances renders them of comparatively 
low color value. Recent developments, however, have greatly 
increased the tinctorial value and shade range of many of them. 

Production and sales. — Sulfur dyes constituted 16.46 per cent of 
the total production of dyes in 1930, as compared with 20.29 per cent 
in 1929, and 19.67 per cent in 1928. Production in 1930 amounted 
to 14,232,076 pounds, as compared with 22,605,799 pounds in 1929, 
and 19,001,910 pounds in 1928, a decrease of 37 per cent over 1929 
and of 25 per cent over 1928. Sales in 1930 were 16,062,771 pounds, 
valued at $2,734,656, as compared with 21,214,680 pounds, valued at 
$4,113,233, in 1929. The weighted average sales price per pound in 
1930 was 17.02 cents, as compared with 19.39 cents in 1929, and 
20.57 cents m 1928. 

The production of Sulfur black and Sulfur brown constituted about 
90 per cent of the sulfur color production in 1930. 

(6) Vat Dyes 

Description. — With the growing demand for fast-dyed fabrics, the 
consumption of vat dyes is increasing. As a class they are excep- 
tionally fast to light, washing, acids, alkalies, and chlorine. They 



44 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS 

find wide application on dyed and printed shirtings, dress goods, 
ginghams, and other cotton wash goods. 

Vat dyes are the most complex of coal-tar dyes, and they are 
difficult 'to manufacture and relatively high in cost. Chemically 
they consist of indigoids (mcluding thioindigoids), anthraquinone 
derivatives, and the carbazole derivatives. The commercial produc- 
tion of water-soluble leuco derivatives marks an advance not only in 
this group but in the whole realm of dye manufacture. These may 
be applied directly to the fiber, and the method of application is less 
complex than the alkali-hydrosulfite method generally used for vat 
dyes. 

^Production and sales. — Vat dyes again rank first in order of produc- 
tion, constituting 37.36 per cent of our total production of dyes in 
1930 as compared with 34.81 per cent in 1929 and 33.51 per cent in 
1928. Production in 1930 amounted to 32,304,300 pounds, as com- 
pared with 38,784,337 pounds in 1929, and 32,375,812 pounds in 
1928, a decrease of 17 per cent from 1929 and only 0.2 per cent from 
1928. Sales in 1930 v/ere 32,271,157 pounds, valued at $10,445,411, 
as compared with 37,501,167 pounds, valued at $12,223,010 in 1929, 
and 31,310,768 pounds, valued at $9,156,995 in 1928. The weighted 
average sales price per pound was 32.37 cents in 1930 as compared 
with 32.59 cents in 1929, and 29.25 cents in 1928. 

Synthetic Indigo (20 per cent paste) is the ranking dye of this 
group. Production in 1930 amounted to 24,326,403 pounds, as 
compared with 29,320,270 pounds in 1929, a decrease of 17 per cent. 
Sales in 1930 were 24,233,020 pounds valued at $3,319,502, as com- 
pared with 29,382,120 pounds, valued at $4,384,189, in 1929. The 
average unit selling price was 13.7 cents as compared with 14.9 cents 
in 1929. 

Vat dyes, other than Indigo, showing increased production in 1930 
were Anthraquinone vat golden orange G, Anthraquinone vat dark 
blue BO, Anthraquinone vat blue GCD, Antliraquinone vat olive R, 
Anthraquinone vat red violet RUN and Anthraquinone vat yellow 
3G. Decreased production is reported for Anthraquinone vat green 
B and black, Anthraquinone vat violet RR, Anthraquinone vat 
yellow G, and Anthraquinone vat brown R. 

Table 19 shows the apparent consumption of vat dyes other than 
Indigo. Exports of the higher priced vat dyes are not separately 
shown, but are believed to be small. Consequently apparent con- 
sumption is assumed to be domestic sales plus imports. 

Table 19. — Vat dyes, other than Indigo: Domestic sales, imports, and apparent 
consumption in the United States 



Year 


Domestic 

sales 


Imports 


Apparent 
consump- 
tion 


1914 1 


Pounds 


Pounds 
1. 945, 304 
2, 418. 842 

1, 845, 208 
1,724,910 

2, 301, 761 
2, 694, 901 
1, 715, 960 


Pounds 
1,945,304 


1925 


2, 252, S03 
2,815,241 
4, 925, 512 
5, 753, 919 
8,119,047 
8, 038, 137 


4,671,645 


1926 


4, 660, 449 


1927 


6. 650, 422 


1928 . 


8, 055, 680 


1929 


10, 813, 948 
9, 754, 097 


1930 . 





DYES AND OTHER FINISHED COAL-TAR PRODUCTS 



45 



(7) Color-Lake and Spirit-Soluble Dj^es 

Description. — The dj^es of this class are used principaliy for the 
maaufacture of color kikes. The spirit-soluble dyes find wide appli- 
cation in lacquers, varnishes, fats, oils, and waxes. Many of them 
are converted to water-soluble dyes by sulfonation, and as such are 
used on textiles. 

Production and sales. — -Color-lake and spirit-soluble dyes consti- 
tuted 2.96 per cent of our total production of dyes in 1930, as com- 
pared with 2.44 per cent in 1929, and 1.89 per cent in 1928. The 
production of 2,560,936 pounds in 1930, as against 2,724,712 pounds 
in 1929, is a decrease of 6 per cent. Sales in 1930 were 2,503,754 
pounds, valued at $2,438,986, as compared with 2,606,685 pounds, 
valued at $2,190,511 in 1929, a decrease of 4 per cent in volume 
and an increase of 11 per cent in value. The weighted average sales 
price per pound in 1930 was 97.41 cents, as compared with 84.04 
cents in 1929 and 83.15 cents in 1928. 



(8) Food Dyes 

Food dyes include a limited number of selected dyes whicn meet 
the specifications of the Food and Drug Administration, Department 
of Agriculture. 

The total production in 1930 was 304,912 pounds, as compared 
with 356,059 pounds in 1929, and 171,943 pounds in 1928, a decrease 
of 14 per cent, as against 1929 and an increase of 77 per cent over 
1928. Sales in 1930 were 302,586 pounds, valued at $771,516, as 
compared with 324,497 pounds, valued at $908,132 in 1929. The 
weighted average sales price per pound in 1930 was $2.55, as compared 
with $2.80 in 1929. 

Export Trade in Dyes 

Exports of coal-tar dyes in 1930 amounted to 28,267,340 pounds, 
valued at $6,245,830, as compared with 34,130,325 pounds, valued 
at $7,279,086 in 1929, a decrease of 17 per cent in quantity and 14 
per cent in value. The weighted average value per pound in 1930 
was 22.1 cents, as compared with 21.3 cents in 1929, and 23.5 cents 
in 1928. The principal foreign markets for dyes produced in the 
United States in 1930 were China and India. 

Table 20 gives the total exports of dyes from the United States 
from 1925 to 1930, inclusive. 

Table 20. — Coal-tar dyes: Exports from the United States 



Year 


Quantity 


Value 


Year 


Quantity 


Value 


1925 


Pounds 

25, 799, 889 

25, 811, 941 

26, 770, 560 


$6, 694, 360 
5, 950, 159 
5, 495, 322 


1928 1 


Pounds 

27, 824, 264 
34, 130, 325 

28, 267, 340 


$6, 531, 619 


1926 


1929 2.. 


7, 279, 086 


1927 - - 


1930 3 


6, 245, 830 







1 Includes 264,986 pounds put up in packages for household use and valued at $195,441. 

2 Includes 298,242 pounds put up in packages for household use and valued at $223,295. 

3 Includes 271,090 pounds put up in packages for household use and valued at $193,097. 

Details as to the quantity and value of exports to the various 
countries are shown in Part VI, page 106. In previous issues of the 



46 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS 

Census of Dyes, monthly exports are shown back to 1909. Table 21 
shows, by months, the total exports of dyes from the United States 
from January, 1928, to June, 1931, inclusive. 

Table 21. — Colors, dyes, and stains: Domestic exports, by months 





1928 


1929 1 


1930 1 


19312 


Month 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


January 


Pounds 
1, 715, 365 
2, 847, 846 
1, 73^, 665 
1,787,715 
1, 897, 901 
1, 719, 979 
3, 841, 016 
1, 350, 732 

1, 329, 834 
5, 194, 209 

2, 456, 927 
1, 948, 075 


$447, 984 
641, 697 
507, 723 
448,441 
460, 306 
415, 103 
790, 662 
378, 858 
413, 179 
823, 693 
628, 879 
574, 844 


Pounds 
2, 923, 382 
2, 959, 703 

2, 331, 603 
2, 199, 079 

3, 765, 147 

4, 090, 145 
3. 197, 870 
3, 356, 022 
3. 562. 453 
3, 342, 311 
1, 475, 723 

926, 887 


$651, 757 
730, 631 
571, 225 
527, 690 
685, 424 
679, 062 
642, 724 
597, 873 
674, 366 
662, 293 
464, 680 
391, 361 


Pounds 
2, 057, 297 

2, 444, 865 

3, 338, 392 
3, 348, 162 
2, 333, 828 
2, 869, 881 
1, 152, 734 

1, 756, 807 
866, 118 

2, 480, 621 
3, 136, 473 

2, 482, 162 


$509, 532 
515, 909 
729, 665 
714, 024 
575, 745 
557, 521 
355, 120 
404, 099 
283, 009 
486, 620 
567, 212 
547, 374 


Pounds 
2, 066, 035 
2, 537, 587 
2, 641, 367 
2, 231, 134 
1, 781. 508 
559, 913 


$464, 494 


February 

March 

April 


523, 707 
543, 962 
490, 241 




462, 071 


June . . - 


192, 488 


July 








September 




























Total 


27, 824, 264 


6, 631, 619 


34, 130, 325 


7, 279, 086 


28, 267, 340 


6, 245, 830 













1 Includes dyes put up in packages for household use. 

2 Preliminary figures. Include color lalces. 



OTHER FINISHED COAL-TAR PRODUCTS 

Color Lakes 

The production of color lakes in 1930 was 9,563,318 pounds, as 
compared to 13,244,676 pounds in 1929, a decrease of 28 per cent. 
Sales were 9,589,719 pounds, valued at $5,692,351, as compared with 
12,907,914 pounds, valued at $7,262,543 in 1929, a decrease of 26 per 
cent in volume and 22 per cent in value. The unit sales value of all 
color lakes increased from 56 cents in 1929 to 59 cents in 1930. 

Increased production in 1930 was reported as follows: Black lakes, 
81 per cent; green lakes, 2 per cent; violet lakes, 6 per cent; and yellow 
lakes, 22 per cent. Substantial decreases in production were reported 
for lithol red lakes, 56 per cent; maroon lakes, 34 per cent; para red 
lakes, 49 per cent; and red lakes, 15 per cent. 

Medicinals 

In this edition of the census, benzaldehyde USP, benzoic acid USP, 
resorcinol USP, and salicylic acid USP, classified as intermediates in 
1929 are classified as medicinals in 1930, in order to obtain more log- 
ical grouping of the various coal-tar products. Including these items 
in 1930 only, production of medicinals was 7,508,182 pounds as com- 
pared with 9,538,610 pounds in 1929, or a decrease of 21 per cent. 

Sales in 1930 were 5,449,954 pounds, valued at $7,879,860. The 
average sales value per pound, excluding the items mentioned above, 
was $1.81 as compared with $1.76 in 1929 and $2.16 in 1928. 

Table 22 gives the production of certain coal-tar medicinals and the 
total production of all medicinals from 1923 to 1930 inclusive. For 
many individual medicinals, production and sales figures can not be 
published without disclosing confidential information. 



DYES AND OTHER FINISHED COAL-TAR PRODUCTS 47 

Table 22. — Coal-tar medicinals: Production of selected list 



Name 


1923 


1924 


1925 


1926 


1927 


1928 


1929 


1930 


Acetanilide --. 


Pounds 

564, 498 

616 

1, 525, 795 

2,243 

32, 710 

3.365 

98, 597 

416, 382 

164 


Pounds 

425, 950 

555 

1, 366, 530 

2,080 

56, 003 

3,220 


Pounds 

158,756 

278 

1, 499, 166 

2,446 

60, 722 

3,289 

118,869 

415, 465 

734 


Pounds 

458, 927 

444 

1, 823, 748 

2,768 

79, 632 

4,113 

84, 182 

469, 345 

847 


Pounds 

366, 842 

265 

1, 715. 686 

3,974 

84, 212 

3,889 

51, 504 

492, 558 

800 


Pounds 
480, 273 


Pounds 
355, 019 


Pounds 
297, 778 


Arsphenamine 

Aspirin. 


280 


1,816,015 

6,300 

94, 330 

4,814 


2, 710, 374 


2, 061, 226 


Benzocaine 


4.948 


Cincophon 


99, 538 
5,525 


93, 765 


Neoarsphenamine 

Salol 


4,561 


Sodium salicylate 

Sulfoarsphenamine. . . 


412, 707 
743 


456, 195 
862 


455, 462 
792 


412,806 




Total coal-tar 
medicinals- -- 


3, 273, 085 


2, 967, 944 


3, 237, 796 


3, 696, 196 


3, 598, 839 


4, 008, 393 


5, 000, 205 


1 7,508, 182 



1 Includes benzaldehyde USP, benzoic acid USP, resorcinol USP, and salicylic acid USP, not included 
in previous years. 

Salicylic acid and the salicylates. — This group of medicinals accounts 
for 5,364,593 pounds, or 71 per cent of the production of all coal-tar 
medicinals in 1930, as compared with 7,494,500 pounds in 1929, or 
79 per cent. Sales in 1930 were 3,725,960 pounds, valued at $2,194,239, 
or 68 per cent of the total volume and 28 per cent of the total sales 
value for all coal-tar medicinals. 

In 1930 the production of salicylic acid USP decreased 34 per 
cent; and the decrease in sales was 25 per cent in volume and 27 per 
cent in value. The production of aspirin decreased 24 per cent. 
During the same period sales decreased 18 per cent in volume and 
20 per cent in value. The average sales value per pound decreased 
from 79 cents to 77 cents. Other salicylates showing decreased pro- 
duction were magnesium salicylate about 75 per cent, although sales 
decreased only 19 per cent; mercury salicylate about 10 per cent, 
although sales increased about 12 per cent; and sodium salicylate 
about 10 per cent. Decreased production and sales are reported for 
strontium and zinc salicylates. Increased productioii in 1930 is 
reported for salol, bismuth salicylate and subsalicylate, methylene 
citryl salicylate, and caffeine sodium salicylate. 

Benzoic acid and derivatives. — The production of benzoic acid USP 
was 593,442 pounds, which was a substantial increase over 1929. 
Sales were 145,081 pounds, valued at $68,969, or 48 cents a pound, 
as against 128,093 pounds valued at $64,921, or 51 cents a pound in 
1929. Most of the medicinal benzoates show increased production 
and sales in 1930 over 1929. 

Other medicinal products. — Production and sales of medicinal dyes 
decreased appreciably in 1930. 

The production of arsphenamine and its derivatives, neoars- 
phenamine, silver arsphenamine, and sulfoarsphenamine in 1930 
decreased about 18 per cent, whereas sales decreased 4 per cent. 
The production of neoarsphenamine, the most important of this 
group, decreased 17 per cent in 1930 from 1929. Sales were 4,824 
pounds valued at $1,078,586, as compared with 4,831 pounds valued 
at $1,120,633 in 1929. Production of sulfoarsphenamine, next in 
importance, decreased 40 per cent. Sales were 501 pounds valued 
at $130,939, as compared with 730 pounds valued at $191,003 in 1929. 
Neocinchophen production substantially decreased in 1930, as also 
did the volume and value of sales. 



48 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS 

Production and sales of the barlntiiric acid derivatives increased 
substantially in 1930. 

Other medicinals showing increased production in 1930 over 1929 
include: Apothesine, benzocaine, benzyl succinate, formidine, tetraio- 
dophenolphthalein sodium salt, lithium benzoate, mercurochrome, 
procaine, resorcinol, and phenylethyl malonic meth}^ ethjl ester. 

Decreased production is reported for acetanilide, acetphenetidin, 
aminopyrene, chloramine T and dichloramine T creosote carbonate, 
guaiacol liquid, mercurosal, and phenolphthalein. 

Medicinals reported in 1930, but not in 1929, were: Antipyrine, 
borocaine, dibenzyl succinate, n-diethylaminoisopentyl-8-amino-6- 
methoxyquinoline, dihydronol, hexylresorcinol, phenylethyl malonic 
diethylate, phenylmethyl malonate, pyramidon and trichlorethyl al- 
cohol urethane compounds. 

Flavors and Perfume Materials 

There is no sharp line of demarcation between these two classes of 
coal-tar chemicals, many of them being used both as flavors for food 
products and as perfumes for soaps and other toilet articles. Sepa- 
rate classification of some of them is therefore purely arbitrary. 

Production of flavors. — The production of flavors in 1930 was 
2,010,012 pounds, as compared with 2,292,450 pounds in 1929, a 
decrease of 12 per cent. Sales in 1930 were 2,030,601 pounds, valued 
at $2,738,704, as against 2,253,414 pounds, valued at $3,517,182 in 
1929, a decrease of 10 per cent in volume and of 22 per cent in value. 
The weighted average selling price per pound decreased from $1.56 
in 1929 to $1.35 in 1930. 

The production of methyl salicylate, or artificial oil of mntergreen, 
in 1930 decreased 10 per cent, while the sales decreased 7 per cent in 
volume and 12 per cent in value. The unit value decreased from 35 
cents to 33 cents. 

Vanillin, another important synthetic aromatic chemical, is made 
from guaiacol and also from eugenol (extracted from cloves). One 
part of vanillin equals 400 parts of vanilla pods. Production in 1930 
decreased 17 per cent whereas sales decreased 14 per cent in volume 
and 27 per cent in value. The value per pound decreased from $6.23 
in 1929 to $5.34 in 1930. 

Synthetic coumarin is produced from salicylic aldehyde, and is 
said to possess 65 times the strength of prime Angostura tonka beans. 
Its principal use is as a flavor in tobacco, butter, and soft drinks; it 
is also used in perfumery and in medicine to mask the odor of iodo- 
form. Production increased in 1930, but sales decreased 13 per cent 
in volume. 

Increased production is reported for ethyl, methyl, and propyl 
cinnamates. Ethyl benzoate, ethyl salicylate, and saccharin pro- 
duction decreased in 1930 from 1929. 

Production of perfumes. — The production of synthetic perfume 
materials of coal-tar origin in 1930 was 1,042,232 pounds, a decrease 
of 557,198 pounds from 1929, or 35 per cent. Sales were 1,018,867 
pounds, valued at $745,208, as compared with 1,480,368 pounds, 
valued at $1,082,602 in 1929, a decrease of 31 per cent in volume and 
30 per cent in value. The average weighted value per pound was 
the same for both years — 73 cents. 



DYES AND OTHER FINISHED COAL-TAR PRODUCTS 



49 



Increased production in 1930 over 1929 is reported for acetophe- 
none, amyl cinnamic aldehyde, benzoplienone, benzyl butyrate, benzyl 
cinnamate, benzyl propionate, isobutylphenyl acetate, methyl 
acetophenone, methyl anthranilate, methyl benzoate, and phenylethyl 
alcohol. 

Products showing decreased production include: Amyl salicylate, 
benzyl acetate, cinnamic alcohol, cinnamic aldehyde, diethyl phthal- 
ate, dimethyl hydroquinone, dimethy] phthalate and methylphenyl 
acetate. Production of perfume materials reported in 1930 but not 
in 1929 include: Diamyl phthalate, ethyl anthranilate, ethylmethyl 
anthranilate, isobutyl benzoate, and methyi b-naphthyl ether. 

Synthetic Resins 

The total production of synthetic resins of coal-tar origin in 1930 
was 30,867,752 pounds, as compared with 33,036,490 pounds in 1929, 
a decrease of 7 per cent. Sales in 1930 were 24,014,093 pounds, 
valued at $7,323,656 as compared with 30,660,513 pounds, valued at 
$10,393,397 in 1929, or a decrease of 22 per cent in volume and 30 per 
cent in value. The production of resins derived from phenol and 
cresol in 1930 was 18,338,389 pounds, and sales were 17,428,687 
pounds, valued at $6,576,023, or a decrease of 30 per cent in produc- 
tion, 31 per cent in volume, and 33 per cent in value of sales, as com- 
pared with 1929. The production of other types, including those 
derived from coumarone and indene, from phthalic anhydride, and 
the new resins from resorcinol, totaled 12,529,363 pounds, with sales 
of 6,585,406 pounds, or an increase of 84 per cent in production and 
of 19 per cent in sales over 1929. 

Table 23. — Synthetic resins: Production and sales 



"iear 


Production 


Sales 


Value 


Unit value 


Number of 
producers 


1927 


Pounds 
13, 452, 230 
20,411,465 
33, 036, 490 
30, 867, 752 


Pounds 
13, 084, 313 
20, 778, 856 
30, 660, 513 
24, 014, 093 


$6, 094, 656 
7, 211, 958 

10, 393, 397 
7, 323, 656 


$0.47 
.35 
.33 
.30 


7 


1928 


9 


1929- - 


12 


1930- 


15 







The production and sales of synthetic resins of coal-tar origin have 
increased steadily each year, except in 1930. Although the decrease 
in 1930 from 1929 was appreciable, it did not exceed the average for 
other commodities and, as shown in the preceding table, the increases 
over 1927 and 1928 are very substantial. A gradual decrease in 
value per pound has occurred during the past four years to a level in 
1930, 35 per cent below that of 1927. The number of producers has 
increased each year. 

Outstanding features of this industry in 1930 were: (a) The use 
of resorcinol in the manufacture of resins, used almost exclusively 
for phonograph records; (6) increased demand for resins derived from 
coumarone and indene; (c) a series of patent agreements, announced 
in April, 1931, by the General Electric Co. and its controlled com- 
panies; E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co. and its controlled companies; 
American Cyanamid Co. and its controlled companies (including the 



50 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS 

Rezyl Corporation); and the Ellis-Foster Co., which, together with 
the Rezyl Corporation, controls the patents of Carleton Ellis in this 
field. 

These agreements are expected to remove the restraint upon the 
development of synthetic resins; each manufacturer will be free to 
proceed v\^ith development and commercial production, with the 
assurance of immunity from prosecution under patents owned or 
apphed for by other producers. Greatly increased activity in syn- 
thetic resins is expected to result. 

Paint from synthetic resins. — A paint radically different from paints 
heretofore used as protective and decorative coatings was introduced 
during the last year by an American manufacturer. The vehicle 
used in the preparation of this paint is essentially a composition of 
glyceryl phthalate instead of the drying oils employed in the manu- 
facture of ordinary interior and exterior finishes. 

After exhaustive laboratory and field tests the producer claims the 
following advantages over ordinary paint: (1) Greatly increased 
durabihty; (2) resistance to checking or cracking; (3) longer retention 
of gloss, color, and original appearance; (4) extreme resistance to 
moisture, molds, and fungi; (5) increased protection against corro- 
sion; and (6) quick drying even under adverse weather conditions. 

Photographic Chemicals 

Because of their strong reducing properties, some coal-tar chemicals 
are used for developing photographic films, plates, and prints. Al- 
though popularly known as developers, they are sold under a variety 
of trade names. 

The production of photographic chemicals mcreased in 1930 over 
1929, approximately 8 per cent. Production was 624,828 pounds, as 
compared with 580',947 pounds in 1929. Sales in 1930 were 605,635 
pounds, valued at $761,572 as against 580,150 pounds, valued at 
$790,981 in 1929, an increase of 4 per cent in volume and a decrease 
of 4 per cent in value. 

Synthetic Tannmg Materials 

The synthetic tanning materials known as syntans have come into 
commercial use in Germany and England since 1912. In this country, 
their use in the tanning of leather, together with natural tanning 
extracts, is increasing. The output in 1930 represents a slight increase 
over 1929. Neither production nor sales figures can be published 
without disclosing confidential information. 

Synthetic tans are especially satisfactory for producing light colors 
on leathers. They are made by the condensation of certain coal-tar 
derivatives, such as the sulfonated phenols, cresols, and naphthols, 
with formaldehyde in the presence of an acid, and are commonly used 
in conjunction with natural tanning extracts. Less time is required 
10 tan with the synthetic than with the natural tanning materials. 



DYES AND OTHER EIXISHED COAL-TAE PKODUCTS 



51 



STATISTICS OF PRODUCTION AND SALES 

Table 24. — Dyes and other finished coal-tar products: Production and sales, 1930 

[The number in the first column identifies the dyes according to the Colour Index number. The second 
column gives the common name of the product. The numbers in the third column refer to the numbered 
alphabetical list of manufacturers printed on p. 109. An X signifies that a manufacturer did not consent 
to the publication of his identification number in connection therewith. A blank in the fourth and 
fifth colunms indicates that the sales figures can not be published without revealing information in regard 
to the output of individual firms. A blank in the seventh column indicates that the production of the 
corresponding dye in the United States can not be published without revealing information in regard to 
the output of individual firms. The figures thus concealed are, however, included in the total] 



Col- 


Name 


Manufacturers' 
identification num- 
bers (according to 
list on p. 109) 


Sales 




our 

Index 

No. 


Quantity 


Value 


Average 

price per 

pound 


Production 
(quantity) 




Total finished coal-tar prod- 
ucts.' 

NITROSO COLORING MATTERS 

Naphthol green 

NITRO COLORING MATTERS 

Xaphthol yellow S 

A70 COLORING MATTERS 

Monoazo coloring matters 
Acid vellow Q 




Pounds 
135, 058, 742 


$65, 534, 688 


$0.49 


Pounds 
141,064,546 


5 


7,21,29.. 




10 


29,36 










16 


8,29,102 










17 


Spirit vellow R 


8, 21, 39, 102, X 








18,394 


19 
20 
21 


Butter yellow 

Chrysoidine Y 

Chrysoidine R 

Oil vellow AB 


8,21,29,39,63, X... 

29,48,63,102 

29, 39, 48, 63, 102 


13, 582 
633, 186 


11,622 
189, 101 


.86 
.30 


9,954 

576, 751 


22 


29 










23 


Oil orange 

Sudan I , 

Croceine orange 


39 










24 
26 


8, 29, 39, 48, 63, 102, 
10.5, X. 

8,36,102,130 

48,63,102 


50, 148 

18, 251 


35, 054 
9,085 


.70 
.50 


55, 701 
13, 822 


27 






28 


Ponceau G 

Chromotrope 2R. 

Fast acid fuchsine B 

Amido naphthol red G 


63 










29 


102.105 










30 
31 

32 


8,29,102,105,112... 
7, 8, 29, 36, 39, 48, 63, 

102. 
112 


34, 925 
177, 929 


29, 734 
59,410 


.85 
.33 


55,930 
173, 487 


35 




29 










36 


Chrome vellow 2G 


8,29,36,63,102,112. 
7, 8, 29, 36, 39, 63, 

117, 130. 
X 


52, 385 
36, 003 


22, 852 
20, 899 


.44 

.58 


45, 081 


40 

44 


Chrome yellow R 

Para red 


40, 792 


52 




8 










53 


Victoria violet .. 


7. 29, 36, 63, 102, 105. 
48,112,130 


45, 097 


31,311 


.69 


46, 420 


54 






55 


Azo coralline 


29,63 










56 


102,105 










57 
61 


Amido naphthol red 6B 

Oil vellow OB 


7, 8, 29, 36, 48, 63, 

102,105,117. 
8,29 


113,343 


53, 773 


.47 


91, 398 


69 


Toluidine red RL. 


X,X 










73 

79 

81 


Sudan II 

Ponceau 2R 

Oil brown 


8,29,39,63,102 

8, 29, 36, 48, 63, 102, 

105, 130. 
8,63 


19, 925 
315, 858 


15, 937 
158, 221 


.80 
.50 


27, 731 
341, 932 


82 




X . 










84 




48 










88 




7, 29, 36. 39, 48, 102, 

130. 
105 


63, 872 


30, 598 


.!§" 


63, 322 


90 


Chromotrope 10B._ 




101 


Chromate brown B 


29, 117 










105 


Acid chrome brown R_ _. 


7,48,63 










110 


63,117 










113 


Oil red S 


105 - 










114 


Azo eosine G 

Eosainine Q-- 


8, 29, 105 










119 


105 










122 


Chrome vellow 5G 


7.... 











1 Except synthetic tanning materials. 



52 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS 

Table 24. — Dyes and other finished coal-tar products: Production and sales, 

1930 — Continued 



Col- 
our 
Index 
No. 


Name 


Manufacturers' 
identification num- 
bers (according to 
list on p. 109) 


Sales 




Quantity 


Value 


Average 

price per 

pound 


Production 
(quantity) 


126 
128 


AZO COLORING MATTERS— COD. 

Monoazo coloring matters — 
Continued. 


105 


Pounds 






Pounds 




29,102.. 










130 




105 










138 




7,29,36,48,63,102.. 
63 


573, 231 


$302, 547 


$0.53 


592, Oil 


145 






146 




8,29,63,102 

29,39 


49, 216 


33, 706 


.68 


54, 411 


148 






151 




29,36,63,102 

8 


1,107,989 


269, 133 


.24 


845, 299 




Permanent orange R paste... 




160 


63 










161 




29,48,102 










162 




39 










163 




8,36,48,130 










165 
167 


Lake red C (100 per cent) 

Acid chrome brown B 

Acid clirome garnet R 


8,29,48,63,130 

63 \(P 


298, 970 


350, 744 


1.17 


293, 606 


168 


63, 102 










169 


48,63,102,117 

48,63,102 


6,354 


5,237 


.82 




170 


Chrome black PV 




175 


Acid chrome brown N 

Fast red A . 


63 










176 


29, 36, 63, 102, 105, 

112,130. 
7, 8, 36, 48, 03, 102, 

105. 
7, 8, 30, 63, 102, 105, 

112, 156. 
36 


93, 808 
137, 310 
120, 841 


52, 185 
81, 784 
54, 518 


.56 
.60 
.45 


94, 769 


179 




124, 885 


180 


Fast red VR 


68, 553 


183 






184 




8, 29, 36, 63, 102, 130. 

36,63,102,112 

36, 63, 102, 130, 132, 

X. 
7,8,36,102 


17,415 
84, 780 
607, 889 


11, 449 
40, 154 
507, 212 


.66 
.47 
.83 


16, 481 


185 


Cochineal red 


62, 264 


189 
195 


Lake red R (100 per cent) 


598, 415 


197 




102 










201 


Chrome blue black B 

Chrome blue black U. 

Chrome black T 


21, 36, 48, 63, 102 










202 
203 


21, 36. 39, 48, 63, 

102, 117. 
36 48 63, 102 


1, 077, 245 


239, 494 


.22 


952, 157 


204 




29, 36, 48, 63, 102, 

117. 
7, 29, 48, 63, 102, 105. 
7, 102, 105 










208 


Fast acid blue R 


134, 512 


70, 839 


.53 


132,923 


209 






214 




63 










216 


Chrome red B 


29, 36, 39, 48, 63, 

102, 117, 156. 
29 105 


70, 832 


41, 388 


.58 


81, 380 


225 








Other monoazo coloring mat- 
ters. 

Total monoazo coloring 
matters. 

Disazo coloring matters 

Resorcin brown B _ . .. _ 


102 
























7, 789, 490 


3, 792, 736 


.49 


7, 209, 622 




7, 8, 29, 36, 39, 48, 63, 

102, 112. 
7, 8, 29, 39, 102, 112. 

48 




234 


158, 278 


90, 030 


.57 


137, 829 


235 


Resorcin dark brown 


14, 199 


238 


Acid chrome brown G 

Acid black lOB 










246 


7, 8, 36, 48, 63, 102, 
105, 112, 117, 130. 
39, 105 


1, 545, 292 


589, 978 


.38 


1, 532, 18 


247 


Acid dark green A.- 




248 


Sudan red - . 


8, 63 










252 


Brilliant croceine 


8, 29, 36, 48, 63, 102, 

130. 
63 


294, 910 


191, 236 


.65 


279, 796 


254 


Ponceau 5R 




256 


Cloth red 3G 


48 










258 


Sudan IV 


36, 39, 48, 102, X 










262 


Cloth red 2B 


8, 29, 36, 63, 102, 

117. 
29, 105 


23,886 


17, 539 


.73 


24, 102 


267 


Neutral gray O 




271 


Fast acid black R 


63. 










274 


Milling orange G 


7, 8, 29 








9,361 


275 


Cloth scarlet O 


29, 48 










277 


Croceine scarlet 


7 











DYES AND OTHER FINISHED COAL-TAR PRODUCTS 



53 



Table 24. — Dyes and other finished coal-tar products: Production and sales, 

1930 — Continued 



Name 



Manufacturers' 
identification num- 
bers (according to 
list on p. 109) 



Sales 



Quantity 



Value 



Average 

price per 

pound 



Production 
(quantity) 



AZO COLORING MATTERS— COD. 

Disazo coloring matters — Con. 
Direct fast red 8BL 



Scarlet EC 

Fast cyanine G_. 
FastcyanineSR.. 

Acid black B 

Chrome black F. 



Chrome blue green B 

Fast acid black N2B 

Fast acid black F 

Fast cyanine black B 

Naphthylamine black D 

Naphthol black 2B 

Developed blue NA 

Developed blue B 

Direct fast heliotrope 2B 

Developed brilliant orange 
OR. 

Direct fast scarlet 

Bismarck brown 

Bismarck brown 2R 

Acid chrome black F 

Chrome fast yellow C 

Milling red G 

Direct fast yellow 5 GL 

Direct fast yellow 4 GL 

Direct fast pink 2BL 

Paper yellow 

Chrysophenine G 

Congo red 

Direct orange TA.-- 

Congo corinth G 



Direct rubine... 
Direct scarlet B. 



Bordeaux 

Direct violet B 

Direct brilliant blue R- 

Direct violet O 

Direct violet N 



Developed black RO,.- 

Direct fast red 9BL 

Developed black BHN. 



Direct cyanine R. 
Direct blue2B... 



Direct orange DB._ 

Chrysamine G 

Cresotine yellow G. 

Direct orange R 

Direct fast red F... 



420 Direct brown M. 



Direct brown B 

Polar red G 

Acid chrome red 

Direct brilliant red i 

Milling red 2G 

Direct orange RT_-. 
Benzopuipurine 4B. 
Benzopurpurine B.. 

Congo orange R 

Direct blue R 

Direct blue 3R 

Direct blue BX 

Direct blue G 



7, 8, 21, 29, 63, 102, 
105, 112. 

8, 102 

7 



Pounds 
29, 625 



$57, 098 



$1.93 



7, 29, 48, 63, 102, 

105. 

102-_. --.- 

7, 36, 48, 63, 102, 

105. 

7, 48,63 

36, 105 

63 

7,8, 48, 63, 102 

48,63 

39 



545, 623 
'260,699' 



270, 480 



117, 735 



250, 949 



159, 063 



102, 105.— 
48, 63, 102. 

48, 105 

48,121 



7,36,48.102,105.... 

29,48,63,102.. 

7, 29, 36, 48, 63, 102. 

8,63 — . 

7,63 

29 



268, 283 
101, 016 
379, 983 



283, 495 
39, 033 
149, 767 



48, 105 

105 

29,48,102,112 

8,29,48,102,105-.-- 

29,48,102,105- 

48,102,105 

102 

7, 8, 48, 63, 102, 105, 

112. 
36, X 

7, 8, 29, 36, 63, 102, 
105, 112, X. 

36 

7,36, 102, 105 

112 

105 

8, 29, 36, 48, 63, 102, 
105, 112. 



168, 533 
747, 131 



113, 766 
349, 091 



88, 837 

'mm 



61, 153 
'233,"233 



38,886 



35,011 



7, 8, 36, 48, 63, 102, 

105, 112. 
102. 



1, 335, 646 



7, 8, 29, 36, 48, 63, 

102, 105, 112, X. 

105.... 



970, 170 



421, 947 
'23i,'627 



8, 48, 102, X. 
102 



7,36.48,63,105-... 
7, 8, 29, 36, 48, 63, 

102, 105, 112. 
7, 8, 29, 36, 39, 48, 

63,102,105,112. 

7, 112 

36. 105, X 

105 



7, 36 

8, 29 

8, 48, 102 

36, 48, 102, 105. 
7 



105 

105. 

102 

36, 102, 105. 



37, 000 
119,897 



125, 709 



20, 261 
79, 237 

74, 961 



21,011 
441, 329 



14, s08 
192, 589 



17,506 



6,002 



,50 



.63 



1.06 
.39 
.39 



1.02 



.90 



Pounds 
41, 170 



394, 828 



226, 109 



189, 571 



247, 165 



317, 809 



18, 353 
167, 185 
757, 524 



63, 180 
"266,891 



40, 725 



1,356,833 
'"654,'236 



35, 079 
109, 431 



122,377 



18, 496 
420, 318 



54 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS 

Table 24. — Dyes and other finished coal-tar products: Production and sales, 

1930 — Continued 



Col- 


Name 


Manufacturers' 
identification num- 
bers (according to 
list on p. 109) 


Sales 




our 
Index 

No. 


Quantity 


Value 


Average 

price per 

pound 


Production 
(quantity) 


477 


AZO COLORING MATTERS— COn. 

Disazo coloring matters— Con. 


7, 8, 36, 39, 102, 105. 

8, 63, 102 - 


Pounds 
64, 021 


$24,808 


.$0.39 


Pounds 


478 




64, 677 


487 




8,29,63, 121 

36,48,102,105 

36, 48, 102. 105 

105 


19, 296 
23, 952 
52, 690 


28,898 
20, 190 
34, 918 


1.50 
.84 
.66 




495 






502 




66, 161 


508 

512 


Direct brilliant blue G 

Direct blue RW 




36, 48, 102, 105 

102 


ISO, 021 


129,087 


.72 


141,912 


515 






518 




8, 36, 48, 102, 105._. 
7, 29, 36, 48, 102, 

105. 
102 


399, 404 
123, 841 


247, 288 
60, 285 


.62 
.49 


412, 503 


520 




52, 252 




Other disazo coloring matters- 
Total disazo coloring 


















10, 881, 936 


5, 588, 227 


.51 


10, 109, 814 




Trisazo coloring matters 
Direct fast blue FR 


48, 63 




533 










539 


Direct fast black FF 


7,8,36,48,63, 102. 
102 105 


232, 751 


114,906 


.49 


220, 167 


552 






561 


Direct brown BT 


7, 29 102, 105 








41,107 


576 


Direct fast blue B 


48, 102 










577 


Direct brown T2G 

Direct black EW 


7 










581 


7, 36, 48, 63, 102, 

105, 112. 
7, 8, 30, 48, 63, 102, 

105, 112. 

7, 8, 36, 63, 102, 105, 
112. 

7,8, 105, 112 

8, 105 


6, 637, 129 
553, 151 
104, 495 
80, 971 


1, 774, 307 
159, 296 
50, 436 
42, 049 


.27 
.29 

.48 
.52 


6, 203, 135 


582 


Direct black RX __ 


335, 003 


583 


Direct green ET . . 


71, 382 


589 




46, 626 


590 






592 


Direct black HW 


112 










593 




7,8,29,36,48,63,102, 

105, 112, 117. 
7, 36, 48, 112 


533, 137 


210, 889 


.40 


520, 467 


594 






596 




7, 8, 36, 39, 48, 63, 
102, 105, X. 

8, 112 


485, 202 


174, 276 


.36 


402, 825 


597 






598 




8, 36, 48, 63, 102, 

105, 112, X. 
7, 48 










601 


Congo brown R 

Other trisazo coloring matters. 

Total trisazo coloring 
matters. 

Tetrakisazo coloring matters 

Direct brown G 

Direct brown B 

Other tetrakisazo coloring 

matters. 
All other azo coloring matters.. 

Total azo coloring mat- 
ters. 

STILBENE COLORING MATTERS 

Direct yellow R. . 












102 
























9, 013, 133 


2, 849, 514 


.31 


8, 183, 730 




29, 63, 112 




606 










608 


105 












102 












7, 8, 21, 29, 36, 39, 
48,63,71,80,102, 
105,112,117,121, 
130, 154, 156, .X, 
X, X. 


2, 937, 736 


2, 961, 828 


1.00 


3, 237, 013 




30, 622, 295 


15, 192, 305 


.50 


28, 740, 179 




7, 29, 36, 39, 102, 
105. 

7, 29, 102, 105 

21, 29, 36, 48, 105- - 




620 


268, 100 
74, 336 


96, 731 

57, 721 


.36 

.78 


230, 002 


621 
622 


Chloraminc orange Q 

Stilbene yellow 


88, 306 




All other stilbene coloring 


29, 102 - 






















Total stilbene coloring 


526, 419 


294,417 


.56 


498, 261 


matters. 





DYES AND OTHER FINISHED COAL-TAR PRODUCTS 



55 



Table 24. — Dyes and other finished coal-tar products: Production and sales, 

1 930— Continued 



Col- 


Name 


Manufacturers' 
identification num- 
bers (according to 
list on p. 109) 


Sales 




our 
Index 
No. 


Quantity 


Value 


Average 

price per 

pound 


Production 
(quantity) 


631 


PYRAZOLONE COLORING 
MATTERS 


36 - 


Pounds 






Pounds 


636 


Fast light yellow 2G 


8, 48, 63, 102, 105, 

121. 
8,36, 105, 121 


70, 812 


$77, 887 


$1.10 


83, 129 


639 


Fast light yellow 




640 




29, 63, 102, 121 










652 




8, 29, 36, 48, 63 










653 




8, 121 










654 


Developed fast yellow 2G 

Other pyrazolone coloring 
matters. 

Total pyrazolone color- 
ing matters. 

KETONIMINE COLORING 
MATTERS 


48 












63 
























729, 313 


597, 172 


.82 


747, 812 




29,48,93, 102 

29, 48, 102 . . 




655 


829, 082 


697, 859 


.84 


801, 535 




TRIPHENYLMETHANE AND DI- 
PHENYLNAPHTHVLMETHANE 
COLORING MATTERS 




657 


220, 509 


257, 376 


1.17 




662 


Brilliant green 


29 




666 


Acid green B 


29, 36, 48, 63, 102__. 
29, 63, 102 


52, 929 


54, 478 


1.03 


48, 700 


667 






670 




48 










671 




48, 102 










676 




135 










677 


Magenta 


2,29,36,108, 130--- 
29,48,73,82, 102.. 
48 


20, 655 
608, 476 


37, 234 
437, 034 


1.80 

.72 


28, 527 


680 
681 


Methyl violet and base 


605, 425 


689 




2, 29, 102 










696 


Fast acid violet lOB 


48 










698 


Acid violet 


29,36,48,63, 102... 
102 


256, 813 


237, 252 


.92 


297, 859 


699 






704 


Alkali blue.. . --- 


2, 29, 80, 102, 108, 
130, 135, 156. 

2, 29, 108, 135 

29, 63. 102 


498, 456 
36, 583 


499, 089 
76, 257 


1.00 
2.08 


449, 993 


707 


Soluble blue 


39, 710 


712 






714 




63 102 










724 




48 










729 


Victoria blue B and base 


29, 48 










733 


48 










735 


Naphthalene green V 


48, 102 










736 


29 










737 


Wool green S ... 


29, 48, 63, 102 

29, 63, 102 


76, 725 


68, 619 


.89 


85, 452 




All other triphenylmethane 
and dipnenylnaphthylme- 
thane coloring matters. 

Total triphenylme- 
thane and diphenyl- 
naphthylmethane col- 
oring matters. 

XANTHENE COLORING MATTERS 

Rhodamine B and base 


















2, 480, 741 


2, 669, 570 


1.07 


2, 518, 282 




48, 93, 105 . 




749 










752 


48 










766 




29, 80 










768 


Eosine .. . . . 


8,29,80, 108. 

8, 29, 80, 108 


186, 476 


304, 956 


1.64 


217, 053 


773 






778 




29 










779 




29, 108 












Total xanthene coloring 
matters. 














699, 8S5 


728, 236 


1.04 


833, 013 









56 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS 

Table 24. — Dyes and other finished coal-tar products: Production and sales, 

1930 — Continued 



Col- 
our 
Index 
No. 


Name 


Manufacturers' 
identification num- 
bers (according to 
list on p. 109) 


Sales 




Quantity 


Value 


Average 

price per 

pound 


Production 
(quantity) 


787 


ACRIDINE COLORING MATTERS 


121 


Pounds 






Pounds 


788 
789 
793 




29, 121 . 










Brilliant phosphine G 

Phosphine . 


36 121 










29, 48, 102, 121 

121 


149, 458 


$186, 961 


,$1. 25 


150, 454 


794 








OUINOLINE COLORING MATTERS 


28, 48, 102 










801 












THIAZOLE COLORING MATTERS 

Primuline 


21, 29, 36, 102, 105.. 
21, 105 










812 


130, 160 


51, 749 


.40 


164, 650 


813 
814 


Direct pure yellow M 




21, 29, 3'6, 102, 105, X 
105 


172, 535 


157, 964 


.92 


164, 239 








816 


Direct brilliant flavine S 

INDOPHENOL COLORING 
MATTERS 


X 












29 - 










821 












AZINE COLORING MATTERS 

Wool fast blue OL 


105 










833 










841 




29, 48, 102 








177, 428 


842 




73 










843 




102 










860 


Induline (spirit-soluble) 

Induline (water-soluble) 


29 63 102 










861 


21, 29, 63, 102 










862 


117 










864 
865 


Nigrosine (spirit-soluble) 

Nigrosine (water-soluble) 

All other azine coloring mat- 
ters. 

Total azine coloring 
matters. 

ANILINE BLACK AND ALLIED 
COLORING MATTERS 

New fast gray. 


21, 29, 63, 102 

29, 63, 102 


642, 670 
1, 252, 491 


210, 527 
403, 532 


.33 
.32 


696, 116 
1, 272, 357 




29, 48, 102 .. . 


















2, 447, 362 


1,046,620 


.43 


2, 483, 507 




29, 105 .. . 




873 










875 


Fur black 


29, 63. 












Other aniline black and allied 
coloring matters. 

OXAZINE COLORING MATTERS 

Delphine blue B 


63 












102 










878 










883 


Gallocyanine. 


29, 102, 156 










909 


Cotton blue 


8, 85, 102. 


42,019 


52, 208 


1.24 


40, 875 




THIAZINE COLORING MATTERS 

Methylene blue 


29, 48, 102 . . 




922 










924 


Methylene green B . 


29, 102 










926 


Thionine blue 


29 










927 


New methylene blue 


29 










931 


Brilliant chrome blue. 

SULFIDE COLORING MATTERS 

Carbazole vat blue R 2.. 

Carbazole vat blue G 2. 

Sulfur black .. 


29, 63 












48 










969 










971 


48 












48,63,85,102 

7, 20, 36, 48, 63, 102_ 
3, 7, 8, 20, 29, 36, 

42, 48, 63, 73, 

102, 105. 


13, 303, 681 

667, 801 

1, 051, 571 


1, 620, 557 
319, 943 
308, 401 


.12 

.48 
.29 


11, 787, 138 
513 795 




Sulfur blue.. 




Sulfur brown 


1, 073, 388 







' Totals not included under sulfide coloring matters. In the dyes classified by method of application, 
these two dyes are included in the vat dyes. 



DYES AND OTHER FINISHED COAL-TAR PRODUCTS 



57 



Table 24. — Dyes and other finished coal-tar products: Production and sales, 

1930 — Continued 



Col- 


Name 


Manufacturers' 
identification num- 
bers (according to 
list on p. 109) 


Sales 




our 
Index 
No. 


Quantity 


Value 


Average 

price per 

pound 


Production 
(quantity) 




SULFIDE COLORING MATTERS— 

continued 
Sulfur green 


7, 20, 42, 48, 63, 

73, 102. 
7, 20, 48, 63, 102_... 
20, 21, 29, 42, 48, 

63, 102. 
20, 29, 36, 63, 102... 

7, 29, 36, 42, 63 

3, 7, 20, 29, 36, 42, 

48, 63, 102. 


Pounds 
145, 488 

426, 800 
90, 625 

31,347 
80, 906 
264, 552 


$113, 539 

205, 597 
30, 696 

11,082 
26, 559 
98, 282 


$0.78 

.48 
.34 

.35 
.31 
.37 


Pounds 
104, 486 

308, 701 
64,504 

64.292 

90, 432 

225, 340 




Sulfur maroon 




Sulfur olive .- -- 




Sulfur orange. 




Sulfur tan . 




Sulfur yellow .. 




Total sulfide coloring 
matters. 

ANTHRAQUINONE COLORING 
MATTERS 

Alizarin 




16, 082, 771 


2, 734, 656 


.17 


14, 232, 076 




8, 20, 102, 128 


1027 










1033 


Alizarin orange 


20, 102 










1034 


Alizarin red S 


8, 20, 102 










1035 


Alizarin brown 


102, 117, 156 










1039 


Alizarin GI.. 


105 










1040 


Alizarin SX 


102 










1053 


Acid alizarin blue SE 

Acid alizarin blue B 


63, 105 










1054 


63, 102,105 

63.. 


377,026 


674, 253 


1.52 


359, 691 


1056 


Acid alizarin green Q 


1062 


Anthracene blue WR 

Alizarin irisol R 


102 










1073 


105 










1075 


Alizarin astrol B 


63.. 










1076 


Cyananthrol R 


105 










1078 
1080 


Alizarin cyanine green E 

Acid anthraquinone violet B. 
Anthraquinone blue black B . 
Acid anthraquinone blue B-. 
Acid alizarin rubine 


7, 63, 102, 105, 156.. 
105. 


53,234 


121, 591 


2.28 


55, 272 


1085 
1088 


63, 102, 105, 156.... 
63, 105 


90, 579 


130,015 


1.44 


82, 437 


1091 


63.... 












All other anthraquinone 
coloring matters. 

Total anthraquinone 
coloring matters. 

ANTHRAQUINONE VAT COLOR- 
ING MATTERS (SINGLE 
STRENGTH) 

Anthraquinone vat yellow 

GO. 
Anthraquinone vat golden 

orange G. 
Anthraquinone vat golden 

orange R. 
Anthraquinone vat scarlet G. 
Anthraquinone vat dark 

blue BO. 
Anthraquinone vat jade 

green. 
Anthraquinone vat green B 

and black. 
Anthraquinone vat violet RR 
Anthraquinone vat blue R... 
Anthraquinone vat blue RS.. 
Anthraquinone vat blue 3G.. 
Anthraquinone vat blue 5Q-. 
Anthraquinone vat blue 

OCD. 
Anthraquinone vat blue 

BCS. 

Anthraquine vat yellow G 

Anthraquinone vat brown B. 
Anthraquinone vat scarlet R_ 
Anthraquinone vat red 5GK. 
Anthraquinone vat yellow 

GK. 

64996—31 5 


63, 105, 117, 156 
























1,011,371 


1, 402, 136 


1.39 


1 053 194 




105... 




1095 




' 






1096 
1097 


29, 48, 63, 105_ 

102 


195, 465 


336,445 


1.72 


245, 957 


1098 


63,105 










1099 


48, 63, 102, 105, X.. 










1101 


105 










1102 
1104 


48,63, 102, 105, X.. 
48, 63, 102 


184, 540 
137, 008 


101, 774 
264, 581 


.55 
1.93 


182, 194 
112,851 


1106 


105 


1107 


48,63 










1109 


48, 105 










nil 


105 










1113 
1114 


48, 63, 102, 105 

48, 63, 102 


639, 929 
217, 904 
460, 835 


392, 155 
139, 177 
458,835 


.61 
.64 
1.00 


736, 526 
172, 321 
448,897 


1118 
1120 


48, 102, 105 

105 


1129 


63 










1131 


105 










1132 


48,105 





















58 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS 

Table 24. — Dyes and other finished coal-tar ^products: Production and sales, 

1930 — Continued 



Col- 


Name 


Manufacturers' 
identification num- 
bers (according to 
list on p. 109) 


Sales 




our 
Index 

No. 


Quantity 


Value 


Average 

price per 

pound 


Production 
(quantity) 


1133 
1134 

1135 

1146 

1150 
1151 
1152 
1161 

1162 


ANTHRAQUINONE VAT COLOR- 
ING MATTERS (SINGLE 

STRENGTH)— continued 

Anthraquinone vat red FF.__ 
Anthraquinone vat brilliant 

violet B. 
Anthraquinone vat brilliant 

violet R. 
Anthraquinone vat Bordeau.x 

B. 
Anthraquinone vat olive R-- 
Anthraquinone vat brown R_ 
Anthraquinone vat brown 0_ 
Anthraquinone vat red violet 

RRN. 
Anthraquinone vat red BN.. 
Anthraquinone vat violet 

BNX. 
Anthraquinone vat orange R. 
Anthraquinone vat yellow 3G 
All other anthraquinone vat 

coloring matters. 

Total anthraquinone 
vat coloring matters. 

INDIGOID AND THIOINDIGOID 
COLORING MATTERS 

Indigo, synthetic, 20 per cent 

paste. 
Indigo white 


48, 105 


Pounds 






Pounds 


105 










48, 105 










105 










48, 63, 105 


113, 635 
126, 184 


$147, 032 
209, 916 


$1.29 
1.66 


134, 795 


48, 63, 105 

03, 105 . 


95, 265 


48, 63, 105 


32, 470 


47, 628 


1.47 


54,096 


48, 105 




1163 


105 










1169 


105 










1170 


48, 105, X 








17, 208 


29,48,63,102,105.. 


484, 782 


655, 894 


1.15 


516, 627 




4, 031, 946 


5, 216, 402 


1.29 


4, 197, 338 




46,48,-102 

102 




1177 
1178 


24, 233, 020 


$3, 319, 502 


- 
$0.14 


24, 326 403 


1180 


48, 102 

46 ... 












1183 






1184 


Bromindigo blue 2B, 2BD_.. 
Vat red B 


8, 46, 63, 102 










1207 


8,48 

2%,'ii^ iQb.V.'.Z".'. 
29, 46, 48, 63, 105_.. 

29,48, 63, 105 

46,48 

46 

46 

105 


278^952" 
198, 046 
404, 965 


404,' 088" 
223, 259 
575, 864 


i. 45' 

1.13 
1.42 




1208 
1211 
1212 


Vat Bordeau-x B 

Indigo vat pink FF 

Vat red 3B . _. 


3"l8^ 126 
200, 592 


1217 
1222 
1228 


Vat orange R 

Vat violet BR 

Vat scarlet G . . 


423, 291 


1229 


Vat red R - - . „ . 






All other indigoid and thio- 
indigoid coloring matters. 

FOOD COLORING MATTERS 

Yellow A B 

Yellow OB 






8, 29, 50, 102 . 










22 










61 


8,29,50, 102 

8, 18, 102, 136, X._. 
8, 18, 29, 102, 136, 

150, X. 
8, 18, 102, 136, 150, 

X. 
8, 18, 29, 102, 136, 

X. 

102, 150, X 

18, 102, 150... _. 


2^228' 
90,706 

75, 889 


1017390" 
154, 965 

146, 743 


4" 02" 
1.71 

1.93 
12.40 




80 
150 

184 

640 


Ponceau 3R 

Orange I 

Amaranth 

Tartrazine 

Guinea green B 

Light green SF (yellowish).. 

Ery throsine 

Indigo disulfonic acid 

Brilliant blue FCF 

Buttercup vellow 

Fast green FCF 

Ponceau SX. 

Sunset yellow FCF 


26, 048 
91,940 

68, 596 


666 
670 


1,000 


12, 402 





773 


8, 18, 102, 136, XL. 








6,957 


1180 


8, 18, 102, 136, X._ 
18, 102, 150 

136, 150 ~ 


2,000 


26, 338 


13.17 


1,629 





102, 150 












102, 136, 150. 

10, 38, 75, 88, 102, 

124. 
48 


10, 665 


19, 318 


1.81 






Total food coloring 
matters. 
Bacteriological stains and in- 
dicators. 
All other dyes 

Total dyes 






302, 586 


771,516 


2.55 


304, 912 

















89, 971, 599 


38, 621, 610 


.43 


86, 480, 000 



DYES AND OTHER FINISHED COAL-TAR PRODUCTS 



59 



Table 24. — Dyes and other finished coal-tar products: Production and sales, 

1930— Continued 



Name 



COLOR LAKES 

Black lakes 

Blue lakes 



Brown lakes, 
Eosine lakes. 



Green lakes. 



Lithol red lakes. 



Maroon lakes. 



Orange lakes. 



Para red lakes. 



Red lakes. 



Scarlet lakes . 



Violet lakes. 



Yellow lakes. 



Total color lakes 

PHOTOGRAPHIC CHEMICALS 

Diaminophenol hydrochlo- 
ride (amidol). 
Hydroquinol 

p-Hydroxy phenylglycine 

Methyl p-aminophenol sul- 
fate (metol) (rhodol). 

Total photographic 
chemicals. 



Manufacturers' 
identification num- 
bers (according to 
list on p. 109) 



13, 25, 70, 71, 86, 
156, X, X. 

1.3, 25, 31, 35, 51, 
55, 70, 71, 80, 86, 
94, 132, 138, 154, 
1.56, X, X,X, X, 
X, X, X, X. 

13, 25, 35, 86, 94, 
130, 132, 156, X. 

13, 25, 31, 35, 51, 
55, 70, 80, 86, 94, 
132, 138, 156, X, 
X, X, X, X, X, 
X. 

4, 13, 25, 29, 31, 35, 
51. 55, 70, 73, 86, 
94, 130, 132, 138, 
154, X, X, X, 
X, X, X, X, X. 

4, 13, 25, 55, 70, 71, 
73, SO, 83, 86, 94, 
130, 132, 138, 154, 
156, X, X, X, 
X, X, X, X. 

4, 13, 25, 31, 35, 51, 
70, 71, 73, 83, 86, 
97, 122, 130, 132, 
154, 156, X, X, 
X, X, X, X, X. 

4, 13, 25, 35, 51, 55, 
70, 71, 80, 86, 94, 
130, 132, 1,38, 154, 
156, X,X,X, X, 
X, X, X. 

4, 13, 25, 31, 51, 71, 
73, 80, 83, 86, 94, 
122, 132, 154, X, 
X, X, X, X, X, 
X, X, X, X. 

4, 13, 25, 31, 35, 51, 
55, 70, 71, 73, 83, 
86, 94, 97, 122, 
130, 132, 138, 154, 
156, X, X, X, X, 
X, X, X, X, X. 

4, 13, 25, 31, 51, 55, 
73. 83, 86, 94, 122, 
130, 132, 138, 154, 
156, X, X, X, X, 
X, X, X, X, X. 

2, 13, 25, 29, 31, 35, 
51, 55, 70, 71, 73, 
80, 82, 86, 94, 132, 
138, 154, 156, X, 
X, X, X, X, X, 
X, X, X. 

13, 31, 55, 70, 71, 
73, 80, 86, 94, 132, 
138, 154, 156, X, 
X, X, X, X, X. 



Sales 



Quantity 



156, X.... 
52, X, X. 

52, X 



Pounds 
101,421 

860, 196 



35, 189 
578, 592 



502, 103 



602, 509 



991, 108 



474, 426 



1, 128, 575 



2, 707, 558 



626, 540 



477, 887 



Value 



9, 589, 719 



$65, 756 
714, 336 

7,524 
579, 359 

270, 664 

379, 884 

588, 076 



Average 

price per 

pound 



$0.65 



.21 
1.00 



.63 



Production 
(quantity) 



Pounds 
106, 358 



837, 659 



38, 678 
566, 884 



496, 364 



626, 126 



59 990, 497 



126, 331 . 27 



1, 539, 413 



241,425 



379, 196 



327, 095 



5, 692, 351 



605, 635 



761, 572 



.39 



457, 487 



1, 059, 241 



2, 727, 782 



630, 775 



482, 694 



542, 773 



9, 563, 318 



624,828 



60 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS 

Table 24. — Dyes and other finished coal-tar products: Production and sales, 

1930 — Continued 



Name 



Manufacturers' 
identification num- 
bers (according to 
list on p. 109) 



Sales 



Quantity 



Value 



Average 

price per 

pound 



Production 
(quantity) 



MEDICINALS 



Acetanilide,-- 

Acetphenetidin 

Acriflavine and neutral aeri- 
flavine (3:6-diamino-10- 
methyl acridine chloride). 

Aluminum benzoate 

Amiaopyrene (4-dimetliyl- 
amine antipyrene) (ampy- 
din). 

p-Aminobenzoyldimethyl- 
aminomethyl-butanol hy- 
drochloride. 

Ammonium o-idoxybenzoate 
(amidoxyl). 

Ammonium salicylate 

Antipyrene 

Apothesine (hydrochloride 
of diethylaminopropyl- 
cinnamate) . 

Arsphenamine 



Aspirin (acetyl salicylic acid). 

Benzaldehyde, USP 

Benzocaine (anesthesine) 
(ethyl-p-amino benzoate) . 

Benzocaine benzoate 

Benzoic acid, USP 



Benzyl succinate and sodium 

Bismuth botanaphthol 

Bismuth salicylate and sub- 
salicylate. 

Bismuth tribromophenol 

Borocaine (ethocaine borate) . 

Brilliant green 

Bromeikon (tetrabromophe- 

nolphthalein, sodium salt). 
Butesin (n-butyl-p-amino- 

benzoate). 
Butesin picrate (di-n-butyl- 

p-aminobenzoate-trinitro- 

phenol). 
Butyn (di-n-butylaminopro- 

pyl-p-aminobenzoate) . 

Cafifeine, sodium benzoate 

Caffeine, sodium salicylate... 

Calcium-cresol sulfonate 

Calcium-guaiacol sulfonate... 
Chloramine T (sodium p- 

toluene sulfochloramide). 
Cinchophen (2-phenylquino- 

line-4-carboxylic acid) 

(phenyl cinchoninic acid). 

Creosote carbonate. 

Cyclohexenylethylbarbituric 

acid. 

Dibenzyl succinate.. 

Dichloramine T (p-toluene 

sulfodichloramide) . 
n-Diethylaminoisopentyl-8- 

amino-6-methoxyquinoline. 
Dihydranol (2;4-dihydro\y- 

phenyl-n-heptane) . " 
Formidine (methylene disaU- 

cylic acid derivative). 

Guaiacol liquid 

Hexylresorcinol 

Hydroxyquinohne sulfate 

lodeikon (antinosin) (tetraio- 

dophenolphthalein sodium 

salt). 
Lithium benzoate 



37, 46, 96, 101, 109.. 

46, 101 

1, 102 



Pounds 
342, 191 



$100,295 



$0.29 



Pounds 
297, 778 



129 

100, 102. 



1, 45, 92, 98, 100, 
134. 

19, 46, 101 

X 



228 
2, 076, 764 



45,958 
1, 598, 793 



201. 57 

.77 



280 
2, 061, 226 



1, 100, 114, 129. 



129 

33, 46, 48, 72, 74, 
101, 129. 

98, 129 

98, 109 

92 



4,023 
"145,081 



31, 058 
'68,'969 



7.72 
'"."48 



4,948 
"593," 442 



98, 109- 
X 

102 

92 



92.. 
92.. 
19-. 
19.. 
101. 



1, 29, X, X, X. 



94, 187 



411, 706 



4.37 



93, 765 



129. 
101. 

19.- 

X.. 

X.. 



72, 101. 
X 



52, 92. 



96. 



DYES AND OTHER FINISHED COAL-TAR PRODUCTS 



61 



Table 24. — Dyes and other finished coal-tar products: Production and sales, 

1930 — Continued 



Name 



Manufacturers' 
identification num- 
bers (according to 
list on p. 109) 



Sales 



Quantity 



Value 



Average 

price per 

pound 



Production 
(quantity) 



MEDiciNALs — Continued 

Luminal sodium (phenyl- 
ethylmalonylurea sodium 
salt) (phenylethylbarbitur- 
ic acid sodium salt). 

Magnesium salicylate 

Mercurochrome (dibromohy- 
droxy mercury fluorescein 
sodium salt). 
Mercurosal (disodiumhydro- 
xymercurisalicyloxy ace- 
tate). 

Mercury salicylate 

Methyl-p-hydroxyaminoben- 
zoate. 

Methyl violet ._- 

Methylene-citrylsalicylic acid 
Monoglycol ester of salicylic 
acid. 

Neoarsphenamine 

Neocinchophen (p-methyl- 
phenyl cinchoninic ethyl 
ester) . 

Parafuchsine 

Feralga (1-diethylbarbiturie 

acid 2-aminopyrene). 
Phenacaine (ethenyl-p-die- 
thoxydiphenylamidine hy- 
drochloride). 

Phenobarbital - 

Phenolphthalein 

Phenolsulfonates (calcium, 
copper, potassium, sodium, 
zinc, etc.). 
Phenylethyl malonic diethy- 

late. 
Phenylethyl malonic methyl- 
ethyl ester. 
Phenyl malonic diethylate . . . 

Phenylmethyl malonate 

Piperidine. --- 

Potassium acid phthalate 

Potassium salicylate 

Procaine (p-aminobenzoyl 

diethyl aminoethanol). 
Proflavine (3:6-diamino acri- 

dine sulfate). 
Proposote (creosote phenyl- 
propionate). 
Pyramidon and trichloro- 
ethyl alcohol urethane com- 
pounds. 

Resorcinol, USP 

Resorcinol monoacetate 

Salol 

Salicylic acid, USP 

Salophen (acetylparamino- 
phenyl salicylate). 

Scarlet red extra 

Silver arsphenamine 

Sodium salicylate 

Strontium salicylate 

Sulfoarsphenamine 

Tetramethyldiaminoethyl- 
isopropanol (monohydro- 
chloride of benzoyl). 

Trypan blue _ 

Zinc salicylate- 



Total medicinals. 



Pounds 



Pounds 



19. 



46, 72, 92. 
75 



92.. 
100. 

102. 
19.. 
19.. 



1, 45, 92, 98, 100, 134. 
1, 29, X 



102. 
X.. 



1, 19, 92, 98, X... 
81, 101, 127,X,X. 
92, 98 



1 

1 

127 

92 

92 

1, 1007114," 129'. 



1, 102. 

X 

19 



119, X 

52 

46 

46, 72, 101 . 
19. _ 



102 

100 

46, 72, 101.. 

72,92 

1, 92, 98, 100, 134. 
19 



102. 
92.. 



$1, 078, 586 



$223. 59 



4,561 
8,354 



24, 069 
384, 931 



1, 324, 769 
361,414 



55.04 



29, 626 
386, 681 



1, 188, 443 



.32 



2, 781, 106 



381, 258 



144,284 



.38 



412,806 



501 



130, 939 



5, 449, 954 



7, 879, 860 



1.45 



7, 508, 182 



62 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS 

Table 24. — Dijes and other finished coal-tar -products: Production and sales, 

1930 — Continued 





Name 


Manufacturers' 
identification num- 
bers (according to 
list on p. 109) 


Sales 






Quantity 


Value 


Average 

price per 

pound 


Production 

(quantity) 




FLAVORS 


46,56,96,101,140... 
56,60,61, 113, X..-. 
,56,60,61,140 


Pounds 
104, 303 
453 


$341, 086 
5«0 


$3.27 
1.28 


Pounds 
117,936 












339 






56,60,61 














56,60,61,144 














46,72, 101, 140, X... 
54 


1, 406, 466 


461, 689 


.33 


1,413,118 












101 














56, 60, 64, 96, 101, 
147. 


296, 161 


1, 581, 331 


5.34 


278, 946 










2, 030, 601 


2, 738, 704 


1.35 


2,010,012 




PERFUME MATERIALS 


56,61,64 


















.54 












Aniyl cynnamic aldehyde 
(buxine). 


.56, 60, 61, 64, 140, 

144. 
54 






















Amyl salicylate 

Aubepine (anisic aldehyde) 
(See Part 11). 


64, 131, 140, X 


21, .585 


15, 583 


. 72 


17, 489 




56 61, 64, 144, X... 














,56, 61, 131, X 














61, 74, 131-. 












pBenzyl anthranilate 


56 












56 01, 131 














,54 














56, 61, 144, X 












Benzyl formate 


54 














54 












Benzylphenyl acetate 


54 












54,56, 144, X 

56 -- 


4.53 


1,118 


2.47 






p-Benzyl propionate 






Benzyl valerate, _ 


54 












X 














54 














60 61 












Cinnamic alcohol .. 


64 --- - 














60, 64 














56 














,56 












Cinnamvl valerate 


56 - . . - 












p-Cresyl acetate 


54 .-- 












p-Cresylphenyl acetate 

Diamyl phthalate .- .. 


56 












143 












Diethyl anthranilate 


54 












56 64, 143, X, X 












Diniethylbenzyl carbinol 

Dimethylhydroquinone 

i:)iiTiethylhydroriuinone ether 
Dimethvl phthalate 


56 












56 












X 












X 














140 












Diphenvl oxide. . 


46,64 












Ethyl anthranilate 


54 












Rthylniethyl anthranilate 

Guaiacol phenyl acetate 

Hydratropic aldehyde 

Indol 


54 












.56 












140 












.56 












Isobutyl anthranilate.- 

Isobutyl benzoate 


56 












54 












Isobutyl indol 


56 












Isobutylphenyl acetate 

Isobutvl salicylate 


54, .56, 64 










.54 












Methyl acetophenone 

Methyl anthranilate 

Methyl benzoate 


61, 64, X 












46, 56, 140, 144 












61, 113, 140, X 












Methyl iriethyl anthranilate. _ 

Methyl-b-naphthyl ether 

Methyl[)henyl acetate 

Methylphenyl glycidate 


,54, ,56 .. 












61 












1,56,64, 140, 144, X. 
56... 





















DYES AND OTHER FINISHED COAL-TAR PRODUCTS 



63 



Table 24. — Dyes and other finished coal-tar products: Production and sales, 

1930 — Continued 





Name 


Manufacturers' 
identification num- 
bers (according to 
list on p. 109) 


Sales 






Quantity 


Value 


Average 

price per 

pound 


Production 
(quantity) 




PERFUME MATERIALS— con. 

Methyl-p-toyl ketone 

b-Naphthyl anthranilate - 

Nonyl anthranilate. 


56... 


Pounds 






Pounds 




56 












56 . . .. 












Phenvlacetic acid 


61 .. 














56 












Phenvlethyl acetate 


1, 54, 140 












Phenvlethvl alcohol 


56,64 












Pheny leth y 1 butyrate 

Phenylethyl cinnamate 

Phenvlethvl formate- 


54 












54 












54 












Phenylethylphenyl acetate... 

Phenylethyl propionate 

Phenylethvl valerate - 


54 












54 - 












54 












Phenylglycol acetate 


56 












p-Quinoline 


56 












Skatol (methyl indol) 

Tetrahydroparamethyl quin- 
oline, 

Total perfume mate- 
rials. 

SYNTHETIC PHENOLIC RESINS 

Derived from phenol and 

cresol. 
Derived from other sources ... 

Total synthetic phe- 
nolic resins. 

MISCELLANEOUS COAL-TAR 
PRODUCTS 


66 












56 
























1, 018, 867 


$745, 208 


$0.73 


1, 042, 232 




9,41,91, X,X, X, 
X, X, X. 

17, 48, 49, 104, X, 
X. 






17, 428, 687 
6, 585, 406 


6, 576, 023 
747, 633 


.38 
.11 


18, 338, 389 
12, 529, 363 




24, 014, 093 


7, 323, 656 


.30 


30, 867, 752 




33, 46, 48, 72, 74, 

101, 129. 
90 .... 






1, 089, 168 


430, 502 


.40 


1, 234, 668 




Benzoyl peroxide 








107. 

40 












Diazo salts. . . .- 






Fast blue salt B. 
Fast Bordeaux salt GP. 
Fast red salt B. 
Fast red salt OL. 
Fast red salt 3 QL. 
Fast scarlet salt GG. 
Fast scarlet salt R. 
Hexalin 


107 














8, 40, 48, 102 












b-Hydroxy naphthoic 
anilide. 

Napthhol AS, BO. 
Naphthol AS, BR. 
Naphthol AS, D. 
Naphthol AS, OL. 
Naphthol AS, PH. 
Naphthol AS, RL. 
Naphthol AS, SW. 


107 












Rapid fast colors 


40 












Rapid fast orange RH. 
Rapid fast red GL. 
Rapid fast red GZH. 
Rapid fast red RH 














Rapidogene G dbl. 


10, 52, 124 












Synthetic tanning materials.. 


17, X 












1 . . 












Tetralin 


107 












Total miscellaneous' 
coal-tar products 














2, 378, 274 


1, 771, 727 


.75 


2, 968, 222 











1 Except synthetic tanning materials. 



64 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHEK SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS 
DYES NOT CLASSIFIED BY COLOUR INDEX NUMBER 

Manufacturers were requested to report separately, in terms of 
their familiar pre-war designations, the production of dyes not classi- 
fied by Colour Index number. The following table is a Hst of such 
dyes, together with some new dyes of American development for 
which there are no foreign equivalents. 



Common name 



Acetate black IV, IV Hy. spl 

Acetate blue III, IV, V, VII, XII 

icetate discharge base III 

Acetate golden orange I, III 

Acetate golden yellow VIII, IX, XI, 

XII 

Acetate heliotrope I 

Acetate orange I, II, III. 

Acetate pink II 

Acetate pure yellow I, II, III 

Acetate red I, III, V, VII 

Acetate silk black W. - -.- 

Acetate silk blue R 

Acetate silk brilliant yellow 

Acetate silk cerise 

Acetate silk golden yellow 

Acetate silk green 

Acetate silk heliotrope 

Acetate silk orange 

Acetate silk pink 

Acetate silk red 

Acetate silk sky blue G 

Acetate silk turquoise 

Acetate violet II 

Acid alizarin brown 5R 

Acid alizarin green 

Acid anthracene brown PO 

Acid anthracene red B 

Acid anthraquinone sky blue 

Acid black AR, RB, 8B, 3G, GRF 

cone 

Acid black lOB 

Acid black DB cone 

Acid black J cone, 396, 640, 773 _. 

Acid blue black R 

Acid brilhant blue 3B 

Acid brilliant croceine FL 

Acid brilliant red 5B 

Acid brown N 

Acid chrome black O cone 

Acid chrome brown B 

Acid chrome brown R 

Acid chrome green ex. cone 

Acid coralline 

Acid fast orange LW 

Acid fast red BL. 

Acid green black B 

Acid lake Bordeaux BL 

Acid light red 4BL 

Acid milling brown R 

Acid milling scarlet G 

Acid milling scarlet RW 

Acid milling yellow ex 

Acid naphthol blue black 

Acid navy blue 

Acid navy blue B.. 

Acid red 0A_ . 

Acid red OTH 

Acid red brown R 

Acid rubine BR 

Acid scarlet Q 

Acid violet RL 

Acid violet 2RX 

Acid yellow RS 



Manufac- 
turers' 
identifica- 
tion num- 
bers (ac- 
cording 
to list on 
p. 109) 



117 
15fi 
fi3 
8 
105 

102 
29 
X 

39 

8,29 



X 

117 

117 

3'; 

117 

117 

8 

29 

3(i 

8 

48 

8 

X 

8 

8 

36 

112 

8 

36 

105 

X 

48 

121 

36 

29 



Common name 



Alizarin acid anthraquinone blue 
SAWSA 

Alizarin black 

Alizarin hematite brown 5R 

Anthracene acid orange GR 

Anthracene acid red 5BL 

Anthracene brown ABX 

Anthraquinone chrome blue G 

Anthraquinone vat black RP 

Anthraquinone vat blue BCL, 3BCSA 
Anthraquinone vat blue RCX, RSP_. 
Anthraquinone vat brilliant green 40 
Anthraquinone vat brilliant orange 

RK 

Anthraquinone vat brilliant pink B, R. 
Anthraquinone vat brilliant yellow 

4G 

Anthraquinone vat brown RT, 2QA.. 
Anthraquinone vat direct black 3G... 
Anthraquinone vat golden orange 

RRT 

Anthraquinone vat green RC, 2G 

Anthraquinone vat navy blue 

Anthraquinone vat orange RRFA 

Anthraquinone vat printing red B 

Anthraquinone vat red G2B 

Anthraquinone vat red violet 4KA 

Anthraquinone vat scarlet 3BA- 

Anthraquinone vat yellow 8G 

Anthraquinone vat violet RFNA 

Azo eosine 2B 

Azo fast violet O 

Azo violet BS, 2B 

Azoxylene azo b-naphthol 

B 

Barium toner 

Basic black APX 

Benzene azo o-cresol _. 

Bis benzene disazo a-naphthol 

Bis xylene disazo a-naphthol 

Brilliant acid black 

Brilliant acid red G 

Brilliant benzo blue 6B 

Brilliant milling blue BA 

Bulletin red 

C 

Carmine toner 

Celanthrene black 

Celaiithrene brilliant blue 

Celanthrene brilliant red 

Celanthrene brilliant violet B 

Celanthrene brown BR 

Celanthrene brown Y 

Celanthrene fast light yellow 

Celanthrene orange 

Celanthrene red Y 

Celanthrene sky blue B 

Chromate blue black 

Chromate brown 

Chromate brown EB 

Chromate brown R 

Chrome black 3Q 



Manufac- 
turers' 
identifica- 
tion num- 
bers (ac- 
cording 
to list on 
p. 109) 



105 
156 
156 
29 
29 
29 
105 
105 
63 
105 
105 

63 
63 

48 
63 
105 

29, 63, 105 
105 
105 
63 
63 
105 
63 
63 
48 
63 
105 
102 
7 
29 



29 
48 
29 
29 
29 
29 

105 
63 
63 

130 



X 

105 

105 

105 

105 

105 

105 

105 

105 

105 

105 

36 

7, 29, 63 

7,48 

156 

7,102 



DYES AND OTHER FINISHED COAL-TAR PRODUCTS 



65 



Common name 



Chrome black SW 

Chrome black SWR 

Chrome blue ATX ._ 

Chrome brilliant orange 2R.. 

Chrome brown B 

Chrome brown G 

Chrome brown O 

Chrome brown BO, EB 

Chrome brown RO 

Chrome brown EBR, RH..- 

Chrome garnet 

Chrome green 

Chrome green, B, G, CB 

Chrome green SN 

Chrome maroon 

Chrome orange 3R 

Chrome yellow 

Chrome yellow 2G, 3G 

Crome yellow DS, 5G 

Chrome yellow SW 

Chrome yellow SS 

Chrome yellow YYFP cone 

Chrvsaniine K 

Cloth red R, 2R 

Copper blue 2RX 

Croceine scarlet DYP, FP cone 

D 

Developed beta black N 

Developed black Q 

Developed black BG 

Developed black 2BN 

Developed black OB 

Developed black D 

Developed black V 

Developed blue B, BR 

Developed Bordeaux 7B_ 

Developed Bordeaux 7B cone 

Developed brilliant scarlet 2BL, 5BL 

Developed brown R_ 

Developed fast blue 2RW 

Developed fast red 7BL 

Developed fast violet BL 

Developed green 2GL 

Developed indigo blue 4GL 

Developed orange RR 

Developed seal brown 

Diaminogen blue NBB 

Diaminogen blue NA 

Direct art black 

Direct black G 

Direct black 30 

Direct black 3GR 

Direct black LM 

Direct blue FF 

Direct blue NR, R 

Direct blue 3RX 

Direct blue 4GL 

Direct Bordeaux B 

Direct Bordeaux 6B 

Direct brilliant violet B 

Direct brown GB._ 

Direct brown K 

Direct brown CN, TS 

Direct brown G2R, GSR 

Direct catechine 

Direct catechine FF 

Direct catechine G 

Direct chrome brown OR 

Direct chrome brown 5G 

Direct chrome dark brown 

Direct copper blue RRX 

Direct dark blue B.. 

Direct fast black B 

Direct fast black FA 

Direct fast black LR 

Direct fast black L 



Manufac- 
turers' 
identifica- 
tion num- 
bers (ac- 
cording 
to list on 
p. 109) 



7 

48 

8 

36, 102 

36, 102 

36 

8 

156 

102 

117 

29 

102 

7 

117 

102 

29 

102 

36 

48 

63 

7 

36 

102 

7 

102 



102 

36, 105 

36 

105 

102 

36, 63, 102 

36, 63, 102 

36 

48 

102 
48 
48 
36 
48 
48 
48 
48 
48 
X 

105 
48 
X 

112 

36, 112 

36 

29 

48, 102 

102 

63 

7 

102 
63 
48 

102 
7 

112 
36 
48 

102 

102 



48 
48 
36 
63 
105 
7, 8, 48, 102 



Common name 



Direct fast blue B, R, 2GL, 4GL 

Direct fast blue GA 

Direct fast blue 8GL 

Direct fast blue RL 

Direct fast brown RK 

Direct fast brown 4R 

Direct fast brown FW 

Direct fast gray M 

Direct fast gray BL 

Direct fast gray RA 

Direct fast light blue FF 

Direct fast orange, B, EG 

Direct fast orange R, 2R, RCL... 

Direct fast orange ER 

Direct fast orange WS 

Direct fast pink FB 

Direct fast red A, R 

Direct fast rubine B cone. 

Direct fast scarlet 4BA 

Direct fast scarlet 3GM 

Direct fast violet F 

Direct fast-violet R 

Direct fast yellow RL, 5GL 

Direct gray GL 

Direct gray G cone, 512 cone 

Direct green special 

Direct light brown 4G 

Direct light gray GG 

Direct light orange GG 

Direct navy R 

Direct navy blue R 

Direct orange 4G.. 

Direct red 8BLN 

Direct rhoduline red B 

Direct scarlet 3B 

Direct violet BB 

Direct yellow 4GL 

Duol reds 

Duraval colors 

F 

Fast acid blue CM 

Fast acid light red B 

Fast acid red 3B, 2GA... 

Fast acid red BL 

Fast acid red GL 

Fast acid violet ERR ex 

Fast acid yellow RA. 

Fast black V 

Fast brilliant blue EA 

Fast chrome brown EB, PG 

Fast crimson R 

Fast light red BA 

Fast light yellow E2G 

Fast milling orange RN 

Fast mining yellow GN 

Fast orange FSW 

Fast red BL 

Fast scarlet GBA 

Fast silk Bordeaux 

Fast silk red RT... 

Fast wool red BL, GL 

Fast wool violet B 

Fire red 

Fuchsine trisazo b-naphthol 

Fur brown 

G 
Guinea green 

H 

Hansa yellow 

Hansa yellow G. 

Helio Bordeaux BL 

Helio fast blue BL 



66 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS 



Common name 



Heliored RMT ex 

Hydroform claret F 

I 

Indigo vat scarlet G 

Indocyanine B.. 

Induline (fat-soluble) 

L 

Lacquer maroon.- ..- 

Lake scarlet G 

Leather vellow ^.. 

Light fast blue SFF, SFR, 4GL- 

Light fast brown R, 3YL. 

Light fast wool red BL 

M 

Maroon toner BS, BON 

Milling green 

Milling yellow 

Milling yellow R... 

N 

Naphthylamine black V 

Neptune blue BRA cone 

Nigrosine base B, N, NB, R, 2R 
Nigrosine (fat-soluble) 

O 

Oil brown 

Oil brown, D., M., Y 

Oil brown R 

Oil orange RR 

Oil orange 30 

Oil pink B 

Oil red 

Oil red, C, G 

Oil red F 

Oil red N, 1700 

Oil red 322 

Oil red O, RO, GRO 



Manufac- 
turers' 
identifica- 
tion num- 
bers (ac- 
cording 
to list on 
p. 109) 



105 
48 
29 



130 
8 
102 
105 
105 
105 



105 
63 

102 
29 



X 

102 
39 
39 
X 

102 

154 
39 
21 
29 
X 

102 



Common name 



P 

Paper red AD ex 

Paper scarlet. _ 

Patent blue B cone 

Permanent yellow L 

Pharmacine golden yellow R... 

Pharmacine orange 2R 

Pharmacine red 3B 

Pharmacine scarlet G cone 

Pharmacine violet B 

Pharmacine yellow R, 2G 

Phenoform blue BR 

Pigment Bordeaux 2BL 

Pigment fast orange L.. 

Pigment green B 

Pigment orange LK paste 

Pigment red RR 

Pigment red R ex 

S 

Safranine 8B 

Scarlet ink 

Silk black 4BF 

Silk brilliant blue lOG 

Silk brown G 

Silk navy blue D 

Silk red brown R 

Silk scarlet G.. 

Silk yellow N 

Special fast dark mahogany 

Stilbene direct fast brown 3GL 

Sudan blue GA 

Sudan red 2BA 

Sudan yellow 2GA 

Sulfon yellow RA 

T 

Toluene azo b-naphthol 

W 

Wool black B, GRF 

Wool blue CB, CG 

Wool fast orange G 

Wool red 



Manufac- 
turers' 
identifica- 
tion num- 
bers (ac- 
cording 
to list on 
p. 109) 



63 

29 
102 

29 
121 
121 
121 
121 
121 
121 

63 
8 

29 

63 

8 

130 

29 



102 

130 
36 

105 
X 

105 
X 
X 

112 
39 
29 
63 
63 
63 
63 



29 



105 
102 
63 
121 



EMPLOYEES AND RATES OF PAY 

The number of employees receiving specified rates of pay on Decem- 
ber 18, 1930, or on the nearest representative date for w^hich this infor- 
mation could be obtained, as reported by 130 firms manufacturing 
coal-tar products, is show^n in Table 25. The 36 firms for which data 
are omitted either conducted operations in which coal-tar products 
were not the primary articles of manufacture or did not have separate 
departments dealing with them. 

In 1914 only 7 firms in the United States manufactured coal-tar 
products, giving employment to only 528 persons. The 130 firms re- 
porting in 1930 employed 11,391 persons. Comparative figures for 
number of firms reporting and number of employees are as follows : 



DYES AND OTHER FINISHED COAL-TAR PRODUCTS 



67 



Year 


Number 
of firms 


Number of 
employees 


Year 


Number 
of firms 


Number of 
employees 


1930 


130 
131 
131 
133 


11,391 
11,270 
10,271 
9,893 


1926 


139 

154 
158 
181 


10 142 


1929 


1925 


10, 971 


1928 


1924 


1927 


1923 


14,841 







Chemists and other technically trained employees in 1930 con- 
stituted 15.3 per cent of all employees, as compared with 15.1 per cent 
in 1929 and 15.3 per cent in 1928. Of the 1,746 employees in this 
group in 1930, 35.82 per cent received $75 or more per week; 24.74 
per cent between $50 and $75; 7.84 per cent between $45 and $50; 
10.19 per cent between $40 and $45; and 8.70 per cent between $35 and 
$40. For employees without technical training the scale of compen- 
sation was as follows: 22.25 per cent received between $30 and $35 per 
week; 23.90 per cent between $25 and $30; and 19.53 per cent between 
$20 and $25 per week. 



Table 25. 



-Employees and rates of pay in the coal-tar dye arid chemical industry 
1930 





Number of employees at 
each specified wage en- 
gaged in manufactur- 
ing operations 


Percentage re- 
ceiving each 
specified wage 


Percentage receiving each speci- 
fied wage or more 


Wage per week 


Chem- 
ists and 
techni- 
cally 
trained 

em- 
ployees 


Em- 
ployees 
without 
techni- 
cal 
train- 
ing 


All 
em- 
ployees 


Chem- 
ists and 
techni- 
cally 
trained 

em- 
ployees 


Em- 
ployees 
without 
techni- 
cal 
train- 
ing 


Chem- 
ists and 
techni- 
cally 
trained 

em- 
ployees 


In- 
crease 
over 

1929 ' 


Em- 
ployees 
without 
techni- 
cal 
train- 
ing 


In- 
crease 
over 
1929 » 


Under $10- 


2 
3 

15 
29 
56 
117 
152 
178 
137 
432 
625 


32 

262 

741 

1,884 

2,305 

2,146 

950 

610 

279 

357 

79 


34 

265 

756 

1,913 

2,361 

2,263 

1,102 

788 

416 

789 

704 


0.11 

0.17 

0.86 

1.66 

3.21 

6.70 

8.70 

10.19 

7.84 

24.74 

35.82 


0.33 
2.72 
7.68 
19.53 
23.90 
22.25 
9.85 
6.33 
2.89 
3.70 
0.82 


100.00 
99.89 
99.72 

98.86 


'-o.'os' 

.01 

-0 02 


100.00 
99.67 
96.95 
89.27 
69.74 
45.84 
23.59 
13.74 
7.41 
4.52 
.82 




$10 but under $15 


05 


$15 but under $20 


—0 91 


$20 but under $25 


—3.61 


$25 but under $30 


97. 20 - ns 


-5.96 


$30 but under $35 


93.99 
87.29 
78.59 
68.40 
60.56 
35 82 


.87 
1.52 

.10 
2.67 
3.53 

SI 


—7 72 


$35 but under .$40 

$40 but under $45 


-4.45 
— 1 35 


$45 but under $50 


.27 


$50 but under $75 


.75 


$75 and over . 


42 








Total 


1,746 


9,645 


11,391 


100.00 


100.00 










i 







1 Minus sign (— ) denotes decrease. 

In general rates of pay were somewhat lower in 1930 than in 1929. 
Table 25 compares specific rates of pay of technically trained 
emploj^ees with rates paid to employees not having such training. 

Among the technically trained employees, increases in pay (in 
percentages) of each group were: 0.87 per cent in the group receiving 
$30 to $35 per week; 1.52 per cent in the group receiving $35 to $40 
per week ; and 0.10 per cent in the group receiving $40 to $45 per week. 
In the pay of the employees without technical training and receiving 
$40 to $45 per week, there was a decrease of 1.35 per cent. All groups 
receiving over $45 per week increased slightly, whereas groups receiv- 
ing less than $45 per week decreased from 0.05 per cent to 7.72 per 



68 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS 

cent. Increases in pay were general for all technically trained em- 
ployees receiving more than $25 per week, and decreases were made in 
the pay of all nontechnical employees receiving less than $45 per week. 

RESEARCH WORK 

Of the 166 firms manufacturing dyes and other coal-tar chemicals 
in 1930, 46 had separately organized research laboratories. In 1929 
a total of 168 companies had only 42 research units. 

The gross cost of research in these laboratories in 1930, together 
with that done in laboratories not separately organized for research, 
was $3,786,294. The net cost of research chargeable to coal-tar 
products only was $3,432,116, an increase of $443,347 over that so 
spent in 1929. This cost of research, as reported, is no doubt an 
Tinderstatement of the full cost of experimental work, because the 
figures do not include in all cases the cost of research in conjunction 
with manufacturing operations, but not charged against research on 
bookkeeping records. 

Total sales of finished coal-tar products in 1930 were about 
$66,000,000. Thus the research expenditures of $3,432,116 were equiv- 
alent to 5.2 per cent of total sales in 1930, as compared with 3.8 
per cent in 1929. 

It is highly significant that in a year of acute business depression 
manufacturers of coal-tar chemicals increased the relative number of 
research organizations and spent more in experimental activities 
despite decreased sales. Those in control apparently realize the vital 
necessity of research in the continued development and expansion of 
the American coal-tar chemical industry. 



PART III 

DYES AND OTHER FINISHED COAL-TAR CHEMI- 
CALS IMPORTED FOR CONSUMPTION IN THE 
UNITED STATES, 1930 



69 



Part III 

DYES AND OTHER FINISHED COAL-TAR CHEMICALS IM- 
PORTED FOR CONSUMPTION IN THE UNITED STATES, 
1930 



Introduction 



Beginning with 1919 the United States Tariff Commission has 
annually compiled a detailed census of dye imports. These statistics 
were at first for use in the administration of section 501, Title V, of 
the tariff act of September 8, 1916, which made the continuance of 
specific duties on coal-tar products after September 8, 1921, de- 
pendent upon the production in the United States of as much as 60 
per cent in value of their consumption. As the information was 
found to be of direct value to manufacturers, consumers, and im- 
porters, as well as to the commission itself in considering tariff 
aspects of the coal-tar chemical industry, the annual census of im- 
ports has been continued. 

Imports for consumption for the year 1930, including warehouse 
withdrawals for dyes and other products within paragraphs 27 and 
28, have been compiled and published each month under a coopera- 
tive arrangement between the chemical divisions of the Department 
of Commerce and the Tariff' Commission. To avoid duplicating 
this joint compilation the detailed table showing dyes imported in 
1930 is not printed in this census. Those desiring information con- 
cerning the importation of specific dyes are referred to the monthly 
list of dye imports (Bulletin 1-8000 of the Bureau of Foreign and 
Domestic Commerce, Department of Commerce). 

In tabulating the dye statistics used herein, the commission has 
followed in the main the Colour Index, issued by the British Society 
of Dyers and Colourists, and other sources of information in the files. 

Dyes which could not be identified by numbers in the Colour 
Index are classified by the ordinary method of application; as, 
acid, vat, mordant and chrome, direct, sulfur, basic, and spirit- 
soluble and color-lake. The classification of a dye by its method of 
application is often purely arbitrary, as certain colors may be applied 
by either of two methods. 

The rate of exchange used in converting foreign invoice values to 
United States currency is either the rate given on the invoice, or, in 
comparatively few cases, the exchange value published by the 
Treasury Department for the month in which consular certification 
occurred. 

Summary of Imports of Dyes 

A total of 4,114,882 pounds of dyes, valued at $3,500,154, was im- 
ported in 1930, as against 6,437,147 pounds, valued at $5,374,085 in 
1929. The dutiable value in 1930 of dyes imported for consump- 

71 



72 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS 

tion, as reported by Foreign Commerce and Navigation of the 
United States was $5,246,847. 

The following summary tables of imports of dyes and other finished 
coal-tar products are self-explanatory. 



Table 26. — Coal-tar dyes: Imports into the United States by country of shipment 





Country of shipment. 


Percentage of total quantity 




19301 


1929 


1928 




71.2 

26.5 

2.1 

.2 


67.0 

28.8 
1.4 

2.8 


65 




25 




2 




8 







1 Country of origin, 
Table 27 



Coal-tar dyes imported into the United States, classified by method of 
application 





1930 


1929 


Class 


Pounds 


Per 

cent 

of 

total 


Invoice 
value 


Per 

cent 

of 

total 


Pounds 


Per 

cent 

of 

total 


Invoice 
value 


Per 

cent 

of 

total 


Acid 


904, 859 
1, 715, 960 


21.99 
41.70 


$892, 696 
1, 219, 729 


25.50 
34.85 


1, 491, 313 

2, 694, 901 


23.17 
41.87 


$1,521,898 
1, 825, 547 


28.32 


Vat (including Indigo)- 


33.97 


Mordant and chrome: 


20, 203 
229, 779 


.50 
5.58 


3,077 
211,041 


.09 
6.03 


69, 673 
475, 835 


LOS 
7.39 


10, 574 
444, 710 


.20 


(6) Mordant and chrome- 


8.27 


Total 


249, 982 


6.08 


214, 118 


6.12 


545, 508 


8.47 


455, 284 


8.47 




■ 




810, 545 

56, 643 

215, 197 

155, 051 

6,645 


19.69 
1.38 
5.23 
3.77 

.16 


798, 246 

25, 169 

227, 500 

116.428 

6,268 


22.81 

.72 

6.50 

3.32 

.18 


977, 792 
142, 919 
367, 568 
204, 248 

12, 898 


15.19 
2.22 
5.71 
3.17 

.20 


942, 261 

72, 250 

386, 851 

156, 522 

13, 472 


17.53 


Sulfur 


1.35 




7.20 


Spirit-soluble and color-lake .- 

Unidentified, unclassified, 

special 


2.91 
.25 


Total 


4,114,882 


100. 00 


3, 500, 154 


100. 00 


6, 437, 147 


100. 00 


5, 374, 085 


100.00 







Table 2S.— Coal-tar dyes of each class, according to method of application, imported 
in largest quantity during ike calendar year 1930, compared with corresponding 
imports in 1929 



Col- 
our 
Index 
No. 



735 
715 



Class and type name of 
dye 1 



ACID DYES 

Brilliant wool blue FFB, 

FFR 

Erioglaucine — 

Indocyanine B 

Alkali fast green lOG 

Acid black RR- 

Novazol blue B 

Alkali fast green 3G 

Cyanol - -. 

Neolan blue 

Brilliant indocyanine 







Col- 


1930 


1929 


our 
Index 
No. 


Pounds 


Pounds 


667 


72, 130 


88, 858 




67, 067 


63, 769 




48, 500 


85, 373 


833 


44, 375 


23, 550 


714 


35, 476 


25, 265 


1054 


29, 983 


46, 296 




27, 154 


27, 031 


712 


25, 418 


18, 693 


22, 919 


52, 675 




22, 115 


23, 371 





Class and type name of 
dye ' 



ACID DYES — continued 



Poseidon green 

Cloth fast yellow 

Neotolyl black TL extra 
Wool fast blue BL, GL-. 

Patent blue A - 

Alizarin light blue B 

Xylene fast blue FF 

Patent blue V 

Neolan pink- — 

Acid milling yellow 



Pounds 
21, 038 
17, 303 
15, 650 
14, 136 
13, 979 
13, 951 
13, 129 
12, 808 
12, 782 
12, 295 



1929 



Pounds 
39, 666 
21,049 
9,250 
44, 377 
54, 636 
19, 466 
33, 273 
16, 489 
33, 666 
15, 955 



1 The type name usually represents the principal color imported in 1930. 



CO\L-TAR CHEMICALS IMPORTED FOR CONSUMPTION 



73 



Table 28.- — Coal-tar dyes of each class, according to method of application, imported 
in largest quantity during the calendar year 1930, compared with corresponding 
imports in 1929 — Continued 



Col- 
our 
Index 
No, 



1095 

1184 



1189 



1190 

1173 



1188 



1207 
1118 



1151 
1199 



1027 
720 

1084 
1034 
219 

1033 
905 
892 



1040 



1032 
1085 



722 



Class and type name of 
dye 



VAT DYES 2 

Vat golden yellow GK.. 

Algol yellow GC 

Brilliant indigo 4B 

Vat printing black B 

Brilliant indigo 4G 

Ciba brown G 

Vat yellow 3 

Brilliant indigo B 

Cibanone blue 3Q 

Vat brown 

Vat printing brown 

Vat blue green FFB 

Brilliant indigo 2B 

Alizanthrene navy blue. 

Algol red 5B_ 

Vat yellow G 

Vat golden orange 3G... 

Vat brown R 

Vat green G 

Vat khaki GO 



MORDANT AND CHROME 
DYES 

Alizarin, synthetic 

Eriochrome azurol BC 

Alizarin viridine FF 2 

Alizarin red S 

Eriochrome flavine A 

cone 

Alizarin orange 

Gallazine 

Blue 1900 TCD... _ 

Modern black 

Alizarin cyclamine R 

Eriochrome red G 

Gallamine blue 

Alizarin red SX__ 

Omega chrome brown 

Alizarin claret red RL.. 

Alizarin blue black B 

Naphthochrome violet R 
Eriochrome cyanine RC . 

Eriochromal brown 

Acid alizarin gray G 

DIRECT DYES 

Rapid fast red 

Benzo fast brown 

Diamine (Direct) azo 
green 3G 



1930 



Pounds 

311,494 
275, 130 
113, 509 
108, 200 
62, 583 
53, 767 
40, 688 
40, 596 
35, 949 
35, 749 
35, 135 
33,816 
31, 246 
29, 389 
28, 816 
26, 162 
21, 152 
16, 380 
15, 838 
15, 550 



20, 203 

14, 655 
13,409 
11,716 

10, 141 
8,926 
8, 599 
8,470 
7,274 
7,000 
6,615 
6,548 
5,735 
5,210 
5,000 
4,884 
4,848 
4,410 
3,637 
3,550 



38, 000 
33, 611 



27,918 



Pounds 
441, 238 
2S0, 240 
202, 375 
162, 800 
67, 448 
53, 562 
41,510 
70, 488 
52, 999 
46, 945 
30, 977 
1,010 
33, 289 
5,200 
21, 688 
49, 658 
32, 990 
18, 141 
11,594 
15, 600 



69, 073 
41, 599 
15, 922 
26,413 

14,331 
9,584 
16,092 

11, 796 
7,605 

30, 599 
12, 127 

12, 346 
6,165 
5,941 

500 
10, 477 
6,612 
11,024 
6,174 
5, 150 



37, 520 
42, 832 



9,990 



Col- 
our 
Index 
No. 



326 
710 



681 



729 
749 
797 
924 
793 
134 
.677 
815 
706 

658 
913 
682 



Class and type name of 
dye 



DIRECT DYES — COntd. 

Diazo brilliant green 3G.. 

Diazo sky blue 

Chlorantine fast violet-. 

Setacyl direct blue 

Benzo fast gray 

Trisulphon brown B cone 

Diazo brown 

Viscolan black B cone 

Chlorantine fast brown_.. 
Chlorantine fast green B. 

Benzo fast yellow RL 

Brilliant sky blue 

Diamine fast orange 

Rapid fast scarlet LH 

Benzo fast orange 

Brilliant sky blue 

Diazo fast blue 



BASIC DYES 



Crystal violet 

Rhodamine 6 G D N, 

6QH-' 

Victoria pure blue BO. 

Rhodamine B 2 

Patent phosphine 

Methylene green \V 

Phosphine 

Black JI (Janus black). 

Magenta 

Thioflavine T 

Methyl Lyons blue 

Leather brown 

Rhoduline blue 6G 

Danubia blue BX 

Ethyl violet 



SULFUR DYES 



Indocarbon.- 

Pyrogene pure blue . . . . . . 

Thionol brown... 

Katigen chrome blue 5G. 



1930 



COLOR-LAKE AND SPIRIT- 
SOLUBLE DYES 

Helio fast pink 

Helio fast rubine 

Helio Bordeaux BL 

Hansa yellow 

Sudan black. 



Pounds 
27, 646 
24, 890 
24, 354 
19, 514 
17, 840 
17, 646 
16, 426 
16, 302 
15, 978 
15, 648 
15, 150 
14, 051 
13, 579 
11,400 
11,300 
10,913 
10, 796 



30, 060 

25, 865 
19, 965 
14, 970 
12, 125 
10, 714 
9,370 
8,150 
8,150 
7,860 
7,665 
7,125 
6,253 
4,380 
3,600 



28, 975 
11,021 
4,678 
3,500 



62, 250 
35, 100 
12, 483 
11,300 
7,750 



1929 



Pounds 
10, 550 
22, 480 
29, 865 
19, 166 

9,750 
54, 967 
12,218 
21,252 
20, 937 
26, 449 
18, 013 
16, 280 
21,837 
100 

8,945 
10, 962 

5,621 



29, 975 

59, 010 

40, 299 

41, 760 
15,415 
12,337 
27, 764 

3,200 
14, 775 
18, 080 
10, 070 
3,525 
8,666 
5,520 
6,000 



54, 639 

25, 787 

4,479 

4,000 



66, 500 
32, 495 
19, 955 
23, 129 
7,050 



2 Single strength basis. 

3 Includes vat yellow 5 GK (13,800 lbs. Imported in 1930). 

64996—31 -6 



74 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS 

Table 29. -^Coal-tar medicinals and pharmaceuticals: Im-ports into the United 

States, 1930 



Name 



Amarine 

Amino hydroxy arsinic acid 

p-Aminobenzoyldiethylaminoethanol 

hydrochloride 

Aminophenyl salicylate... 

Aminopyrine crystals 

Antifebrin 

Antipyrine 

Arsphenamine 

Benzoic acid USPX 

Bismuth salicylate 

Bismuth subsalicylate 

Bismuth tribromphenate 

Butylhydroxycinchoninic acid diethyl- 

ethylenediamide 

Butylhydroxycinchoninic acid diethyl- 

ethylenediamide hydrochloride 

Camphro salyl 

Chinoplasmin 

Chinosol tablets 

Cyclohexenylethylcyanacetic acid ethyl 

ester 

Diethylaminoethylester - 2 - methoxy - 6 - 

allyl-phenol 

Diethylaminoethylester - 2 - methoxy - 6 - 

allyl-phenol-hydrochloride 

Diethylaminoisopentyl-8-amiDO-6-meth- 

oxyquinoline 

Elbon tablets 

2-Ethoxy-6-9-diaminoacridine 

2-E t ho\y-6-9-diaminoacridine hydro- 
chloride 

2-Ethoxy-6-9-diaminoacridine lactate 

Euphtalmine hydrochloride 

Fluorescein 

Formaldehyde compound 

Guaiacol cacodylate 

Hexamethylenetetraminesulfosalicylate 

Homatropine hydrobromide 

Homatropine hydrochloride 

4-Hydroxy-3-nitro phenyl arsenic acid.. 



Quantity 



Pounds 
7.5 



1,150 

1,102 

4,186 

1 

52, 589 

1 150 

100 

500 

33 

150 

13 



8.5 
220 



1,323 
0.5 



44 
11 
55 

55 

2 

2 

5 
157' 

1 
13 

2 

0.5 
22 



Name 



o-Hydroxyrjuinoline 

lodohydroxyquinoline sodium sulfonate, 
lodohydroxyquinoline sulphonic acid 

(Quinoxyl).. 

Isobutyl-o-cresoliodide 

Leucot ropine. - 

Mercury chlorophenolbarbituric acid... 
Mercury-salicyl-allyl-amino-o-acetate so- 
dium salt 

6-Methyl-2-phenyl-qulnollne-4-carbox- 

ylic acid ethyl ester 

Monomethylaminoacetopyrocatechol 

hydrochloride 

b-N'aphthol benzoate 

b-Naphthol compound 

Neoarsphenamine 

Neocaine 

Neosil verarsphenamine 

Neovertin.. 

Neumol 

Phenylcinchoninic ester 

Plasmochin compound 

Potassium sulphoguaiacolate 

Protocatechuic acid 

Pyrocatechine crystals 

Resorcinol, medicinal 

Rhodine 

Rhofeine 

Salicylic acid methylhydroxymethyl 

ester 

Sodium salicylate 

Sodium stovarsol 

Sulfarsenol 

Tetraiodopyrrol 

Triket ohydrindene hydrate 

Vioform powder 

Zinc sulfanilate 

Total: 

Quantity 

Value... 



Quantity 



Pounds 

149 
1G9 

18 

19 

2 .^00 

22 



220 

13 
64 
33.5 
16 

51 • 
2 
4 
60 
144 
2 
2,425 
1.5 
111 
1,200 
2.5 
2.5 

55 

734 

0.5 

2 100 

6 

0.5 
66 
140 



68, 549 
$119,044 



1 Grams. 
' Ampoules. 



COAL-TAR CHEMICALS IMPORTED FOR CONSUMPTION 



75 



Table 30. — Synthetic aromatic chemicals of coal-tar origin: Imports into the United 

States, 1930 



Name 



Acetophenone 

Aldehydine 

Ambrene 

Ambrogene 

Amyl benzoate 

Amyl cinnamic aldehyde 

Amyl salicylate 

Anisic aldehyde 

Benzaldehyde, f. f. c 

Benzoic acid 

Benzophenone 

Benzyl acetate 

Benzyl alcohol 

Benzyl benzoate 

Benzyl butyrate 

Benzyl cinnamate 

Benzyl formate 

Benzyl isoeugenol 

Benzyl propionate 

Benzyl salicylate 

Benzylidine acetone 

Bromstyrol 

Butyl alcohol 

Butyl xylene 

Centaurea crystals 

Cinnamic acid methyl ester... 

Cinnamic alcohol 

Cinnamic aldehyde 

Coumarin 

p-Cresol methyl ester 

p-Cresol phenylacetate 

p-Cresotinic acid methylester. 

Cyclamal 

Diethyl phthalate 

Dimethylbenzylcarbinol. 

Dimethylhydroquinone 

Dimethylresorcine 

Diphenyl methane 

Diphenyl oxide 

Ethyl anthranilate 

Ethyl benzyl acetyl acetate. . 

Ethyl cinnamate 

Ethyl-p-cresol 

Ethyl phenylacetate 

Ethyl vanillin 

Flosal 

Floxine 

Heliotropine 

Hydrocinnamic aldehyde 

Indol 

Isobutyl phenyl acetate 

Isobutyl phenyl propionate. _ 

Isobutyl salicylate 

Jacinthe 

Jasmenol 

Jasmine aldehyde 



Quantity 



Pounds 

122 

4.5 

1 

9,950 

8 

828 

973 

2,011 

3,968 

200 

376 

6, 228. 5 

2,256 

2,845 

15 

16 

92 

112.5 

65 

268 

33 

1,065 

212 

19, 136 

10 

300 

377 

1,545 

6,327 

50 

5 

4.5 

115 

1,500 

13 

102 

10 

122 

333 

19 

5 

126 

25 

55 

2,087 

320 

35 

1,553 

5 

343.5 

14 

7 

5 

15 

7 

132 



Name 



Methyl acetophenone 

p-Methyl acetophenone 

Methyl anthranilate 

Methyl benzoate 

Methyl cinnamate 

Methyl-p-cresol 

Methyl methyl anthranilate 

p-Methyl methyl salicylate 

Methyl naphthyl ketone 

Methylpheuyl acetate 

Methylphenyl alcohol 

Methylphenyl carbinol and salts... 

Moskene 

Muguet I 

Musk 

Musk ambrette 

Musk ambrette residue 

Musk ketone 

Musk omega 

Nerolin 

Neronia 

Phenyl acetate 

Phenyl benzoate 

Phenyl oxide 

Phenylacet ic acid 

Phenylacetic acid ethyl ether 

Phenylacetic acid methyl ester 

Phenylacetic aldehyde 

Phenylethyl alcohol 

Phenylethyl butjTate 

Phenylethyl dimethyl carbinol 

Phenylethyl formate 

Phenylethyl methylethyl carbinol. 

Phenylethyl phenyl acetate 

Phenylethyl salicylate 

Phenyleth yl valerianate 

Phenylglycol methylene acetal 

Phenylglycol valerianate 

Phenylpropyl acetate 

Phen y Ipropyl alcohol 

Phenylpropyl aldehyde 

Rhodinol I 

Rhodinol acetate 

Rosacetol 

Rosefolia 

Skatol 

Styrallyl acetate 

Vanillin 

Vertena D 

Ylang ylang 

Another 



Quantity 



Total: 

Quantity. 
Value 



Pounds 

215 

28 

6,949 

10 

1,946 

126 

138 

7 

457 

93 

6 

15 

101 

15 

78 

17.5 

132 

19.5 

150 

1,981 

100 

5.5 

10 

95 

638 

50 

200 

1,628 

13,494 

10 

0.6 

8 

2 

15 

17.5 
15 
10 
2 
25 
75 
35 
220 
55 
25 
10 
1 
4 
27, 674 
99 
55 
61 



123, 476 
$183, 564 



Table 31. — Photographic chemicals, intermediates, and other coal-tar products: 
Imports into the United States, 1930 



Name 


Quantity 


Name 


Quantity 




Pounds 
55 

12, 500 

19,210 

17 

5,072 

2,500 

1,102 

1,658 

18, 770 

2, 249 

200 


Antinonnin 


Pounds 

50 


Acetic acid compound (sulfureted- 


Aurantine .. . 


10 


Benzaldehyde, tech. ... 


14, 220 


Acetic acid compound (sulfureted 
phenetole carbonic acid amide) 


Benzanthrone sulphide 


4,873 


Benzoquincne 


5,807 




114 




Benzoylamino-5-chloroanthraquinone. 

p-Bromo-a-monomethylaminoanthra- 

quinone.- 


5,461 


0- \minoazotoluene . . 






17,265 




Carbazol _ ... 


99 




Carbonal . . 


134 




Chloroaminophenolsulphonic acid 

4-Chloro-2-anisidine.._ 


8,489 


Anthranilic acid 


2,948 



76 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS 

Table 31. — Photographic chemicals, intermediates, and other coal-tar products: 
Imports into the United States, 1930 — Continued 



Name 



b-Chloroanthraquinone 

o-Chlorobenzaldehyde... 

p-Chloro-m-cresol 

4-Chloro-2-nitroaniline 

o-C hloro-p-nitroaniline. 

o-ChlorotoIuene 

Chloroxylil-thioglycolic acid 

Coal-tar products, similar to naphtha- 
lene, diluted with ethylene oxide 

Cresidine 

Cresol 

m-Cresol 

o-Cresol 

p-Cresol 

p-Cresol acetate 

m-Cresotinic acid 

Cresylic acid 

Cyclohexane 

Cycloran AI 

Diamino-1-l-dianthrimid 

Diaminophenol hydrochloride 

Diazo compound 

Dibenzoylamino-l-l-dianthrimid 

Dichlorobenzaldehy de 

Diiodo fluorescein-sodium 

Dinaphthyl-dicarbonic acid 

Diphenyl black base I --_ 

Diphenylamine crystals 

Dissolving salt B new 

E thyl-b-naph thylamine 

Fast black LB base .-- 

Fast black salt B. 

Fast black salt K 

Fast black salt I> 

Fast blue BB base 

Fast blue salt BB 

Fast blue salt RR 

Fast Bordeaux salt GP 

Fast corinth salt V 

Fast garnet GBC base 

Fast garnet GO base 

Fast orange OC base 

Fast orange salt GC 

J'ast orange salt GR 

Fast red KB base 

Fast red RBE base 

Fast red RL base 

Fast red TR base 

Fast red salt AL 

Fast red salt B 

Fast red salt GG 

Fast red salt RC 

Fast red salt RL 

Fast red salt TR_ 

Fast scarlet TR base 

Fast scarlet salt GG 

Fast scarlet salt R 

Fast violet B base 

Fast violet salt B 

Fast yellow salt GC 

Feltron C 

Fixing agent- 

Fur developer EG 

Glycin 

Hertolan 

Hydroquinone 

Hydroxybenzoic acid ester and chlor- 
inated phenols 

p-Hydroxybenzoic acid methylester, 

tech 

Hygrolit 

Indaphor A 

Ink powder 

Irgatan__ 

Katanol O , 



Quantity 



Pounds 
24, 888 
450 
9,154 
8,158 
1,212 
2,881 
4,644 

4,961 

2,526 

16, 788 

20, 561 

79, 598 

51 

29 

100 

863, 652 

121 

1,190 

4,765 

585 

993 

4,242 

55 

1.5 

5,448 

20, 800 

10 

30, 521 

400 

2,900 

27, 200 

6,500 

2,300 

75 

8,100 

250 

19, 350 

225 

475 

600 

475 

18, 720 

3,900 

10, 371 

400 

3,200 

2,300 

3, 900 

22, 675 

275 

1, 050 

700 

4,050 

100 

8,400 

3, f.30 

325 

2, 250 

3, 450 
1, 450 

55 

150 

400 

231 

5 

331 

331 
261 
500 
228 

80, 060 
5,050 



Name 



Katanol ON 

Katanol W 

Katanol WL_ 

Kollamin 

Laventine KB 

Leather finishes, misc 

Leonil S 

Ludigol 

Mercerol 

Methyl-p-aminophenol 

Methylcyclohexanon.. 

Methy Idiphenylamine 

Methyl-p-hydroxybenzoate 

Methylphenyl-a-naphthylamine 

Monomethyi-p-aminophenol sulfate 

Mononitronaphthalene crystals 

Naphthol AS 

Naphthol AS-BG 

Naphthol AS-BO 

Naphthol AS-BS.. _... 

Naphthol AS-D 

Naphthol AS-E-... 

Naphthol AS-G ___. 

Naphthol AS-OL 

Naphthol AS-RL_... 

Naphthol AS-SW... 

Naphthol AS-TR.. 

a-Naphthol 

b-Naphthol monosulfonic acid F 

l:5-Naphthol sulfonic acid 

a-Naphthylamine sulfaminic acid. _ . 

Naphthylamine-sulfonic acid 

o-Nitroaniline 

p-Nitroaniline 

p-Nitro-o-anisidine. 

4-Nitro-2-anisidine hydrochloride 

Nitrophenol 

m-Ni tro-p-toluidine. 

Paratol, refined 

o-Phenetidine 

Phenol 

Phenyl gamma acid 

p-Pheny lenediamine 

Phenylhydrazine 

Phenylmethyl pyrazolon 

Phloroglucinol 

Photograghic developers, misc 

Phthalic acid_ 

Pinakryptol green 

Piperidine, tech 

Resins, synthetic 

Resorcinol, tech 

Rodinal 

Scleroveine 

Sensitizers, misc 

Sericosol A 

Setamol WS 

Soap base and acid soap 

o-Sulfanilic acid 

Tanesco 

Tar acids, high boiling 

Tet rachloroph thalic acid 

Tolidine disulfonic acid 

Toluidine sulfanilid 

p-Toluylenediamine solution 

Tricresol 

Tricresylphosphate 

Triphenylphosphate 

Variamine blue salt B 

Another 

Total: 

Quantity 

Value 



PART IV 

CENSUS OF SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS 
NOT DERIVED FROM COAL TAR, 1930 



77 



Part IV 

CENSUS OF SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS NOT 
DERIVED FROM COAL TAR 



Introduction 



This section is a continuation of the annual survey of synthetic 
organic chemicals not of coal-tar origin, commenced by the Tariff 
Commission in 1921. The Bureau of the Census publishes biennially 
production data on the more important aliphatic chemicals; the 
Tariff Commission compiles statistics on such products only when 
the importance of the commodity or conditions in the industry war- 
rants a survey of this branch of the industry. 

The following compounds are excluded from this compilation: 
(1) Aliphatic compounds derived from natural sources by isolation, 
distillation, extraction, hydrolysis, or purification, such as alkaloids, 
essential oils from natural sources, sugars, and stearic acid; (2) 
cyanides, cyanamids, or carbides of metals or of inorganic radicals; 
(3) products obtained from other sources. 

The production in 1930 of 609,363,028 pounds of synthetic organic 
chemicals other than those of coal-tar origin is a decrease of 3.8 per 
cent from the output in 1929. Sales w^re 436,888,399 pounds, valued 
at $65,991,951, an increase over 1929 of 7.8 per cent by weight and 
of 1.3 per cent by value, with a unit value decline from $0,161 in 1929 
to $0,151 in 1930. 

These general data are of little significance because the classifica- 
tion "synthetic organic chemicals other than those of coal-tar origin" 
includes many dissimilar and unrelated compounds and groups of 
compounds, production and sales of which did not increase or decrease 
uniformly in 1930. A more accurate picture of the industry may 
therefore be obtained by considering separately some of the more 
important compounds and groups of compounds. 

Principal Compounds Produced in 1930 
derivatives of ethylene, propylene, and butylene 

Derivatives of ethylene, propylene, and butylene from constituents 
of natural gas and from gases formed in the cracking of petroleum 
comprise a distinct group of synthetic organic compounds. Produc- 
tion of this group decreased about 30 per cent in 1930 as compared 
with 1929, and sales increased approximately 28 per cent by quantity 
and 30 per cent by value. This decrease was apparently due to liqui- 
dation of excess stocks produced in 1929, and to restricted manufac- 
ture of compounds used as raw materials for other products but not 
sold as such. 

Of these compounds, those produced from ethylene are of the 
greatest commercial importance, although commercial production for 

79 



80 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS 

the first time in 1930 of propylene dichloride, propylene glycol, and 
propylene oxide, indicates a growing consumption of the propylene 
derivatives. 

DERIVATIVES OF ACETYLENE 

Acetylene, generated from calcium carbide, is the basic raw material 
for another distinct group of organic chemicals. Notable among 
these is acetaldehyde, consumed in large quantities in the manufac- 
ture of acetic acid and rubber accelerators. Its output in 1930 de- 
clined about 20 per cent as compared with the previous year. 

The bulk of synthetic acetic acid is made from acetaldehyde. Pro- 
duction in 1930 was about the same as in 1929, but the unit value 
of sales decreased about 17 per cent. In 1930 less acetic acid was 
used in the manufacture of lacquer solvents than in 1929 and more 
was consumed in the cellulose acetate industry. 

SOLVENTS FOR LACQUERS 

Because of a decreased consumption of lacquers by the automobile 
industry the output of lacquer solvents declined more than 15 per 
cent in 1930 as compared with 1929. Sales showed a corresponding 
decrease by quantity and a decrease of almost 25 per cent by value. 
The principal solvents in this group are butyl and amyl acetates, 
butyl and amjd alcohols, and ethyl acetate. Publishable figures of 
production and sales appear in Table 33, page 84. 

METHANOL 

In 1930, the output of 48,930,545 pounds of synthetic methanol 
exceeded for the first time the amount made by the distillation of 
wood, and was more than 50 per cent in excess of production in 1929. 
The unit value of sales declined about 20 per cent. 

FORMALDEHYDE AND HEXAMETHYLENETETRAMINE 

Production of each of these compounds decreased about 20 per 
cent in 1930. Formaldehyde, made by the oxidation of methyl 
alcohol, is used in the manufacture of synthetic resins, as a disin- 
fectant, and in the manufacture of dyes. Hexamethylenetetramine, 
manufactured from formaldehyde and ammonia, is used as a raw 
material for synthetic resins, in medicine, and as a dye intermediate. 

SYNTHETIC ETHYL ALCOHOL 

A development of primary importance in 1930 was the commercial 
production of ethyl alcohol by synthesis from ethylene. It is believed 
that improvements in manufacturing technique with resulting de- 
creases in production costs will make this product a factor to be 
reckoned with in the alcohol industry. 

HIGHER ALCOHOLS BY HIGH-PRESSURE SYNTHESIS 

Commercial production of higher alcohols by high-pressure syn- 
thesis was also reported for the first time in 1930. A mixture of 
butyl and amyl alcohols, small amounts of normal propyl alcohol, 



CHEMICALS NOT DERIVED FROM COAL TAR 81 

and of alcohols containing: more than five carbon atoms, is made from 
water gas, as is methanol. This development is a distinct advance 
in technique of high-pressure synthesis. Such alcohols will prob- 
ably compete with those made by fermentation and from natural 
gas, as raw materials for solvent production and also directly as lacquer 
solvents. 

ACETONE 

Acetone is produced jointly with butyl alcohol by the controlled 
fermentation of corn. Its production by synthesis from propylene 
derived from natural gas was reported for the first time in 1930, and 
the total output from all sources was about 20 per cent below that 
in 1929. Sales also declined, but to a less extent, and the unit value 
of sales dropped about 23 per cent. 

ETHYL ETHER 

The combined output of the USP and technical grades of ethyl 
ether increased approximately 30 per cent in 1930 as compared with 
1929. Initial production by synthesis from ethylene was reported in 
1930. 

ETHYL CHLORIDE AND TETRAETHYL LEAD 

Ethyl chloride, the raw material for tetraethyl lead, increased in 
production about 85 per cent in 1930 as compared with 1929, and 
the production of tetraethyl lead, used as an antiknock agent in 
motor fuels, more than doubled in the same year. Marked increases 
in 1930 were reported for both imports and production of ethylene 
dibromide, another raw material for tetraethyl lead. 

METHYL CHLORIDE AND NEW REFRIGERANTS 

Methyl chloride, an important organic refrigerant, again showed 
an increase in production of about 35 per cent. New refrigerants, 
produced for the first time in 1930, are: Dichloro-difluoro-methane 
and dichloro-monofluoro-methane. It is reported that dichloro- 
tetrafluoro-ethane will be made for refrigerating use in 1931. 

CITRIC ACID AND CITRATE OF LIME 

Citric acid, produced by controlled fermentation of sugar, supplies 
a substantial part of domestic consumption, and with that made from 
cull lemons in California, renders the United States independent of 
the Italian monopoly in both raw material and the finished product. 
The output of citric acid by the fermentation method in this and in 
certain European countries is reported to have been a contributing 
factor to the severe depression experienced by the Italian industry 
in 1930. 

Although the output of synthetic citrate of lime, an intermediate 
product in the manufacture of citric acid, decreased slightly in 1930, 
production of the synthetic acid showed a substantial increase. 
This, however, was in part due to the inclusion for the first time of 
the output of several producers who buy fermentation citrate of lime. 



82 CENSUS OP DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS 
DIETHYL BARBITURIC ACID AND DERIVATIVES 

Derivatives of barbituric acid are used extensively in medicine as 
nonnarcotic nerve sedatives and soporifics. In 1930, sales amounted 
to 18,932 pounds valued at $248,893, and showed a material increase, 
as did production. 

SYNTHETIC RESINS 

Production of synthetic resins not of coal-tar origin, consisting 
mostly of the vinyl, urea, and thiourea types, increased more than 10 
per cent in 1930 as compared with 1929. The growing importance 
of the noncoal-tar group of resins is emphasized when contrasted 
with the decrease in coal-tar synthetic resins discussed on page 49 
of Part II, infra. 

XANTHATES 

Used primarily as flotation agents in ore refining, the production of 
xanthates in 1930 declined about 25 per cent as compared with 1929. 

Increases in Production 

Among the products not already mentioned showing increased 
production in 1930, as compared with 1929, are: Aldehyde ammonia, 
bromodiethylacetylcarbamide, synthetic caffeine, chloral hydrate, 
citronellol, diethylene glycol, ethylene dibromide, formic acid, heptal- 
dehyde, isopropyl alcohol, pyrogallic acid, and triethanolamine. 

Decreases in Production 

Among the compounds not previously mentioned showing decreased 
production in 1930, as compared with 1929, are: Amyl propionate, 
butyl propionate, carbon tetracliloride, chloroacetic acid, chloroform, 
dimethyl sulfate, ethylene oxide, ethyl lactate, ethyl mercury chlo- 
ride, ethyl oxalate, furfural, gallic acid, glycerophosphoric acid and 
salts, lactic acid, oxalic acid, propionic acid, s-tetrachloroethane, and 
trichloroethylene. 

New Products 

Compounds, other than those mentioned above, reported in 1930 but 
not in 1929, are: Amyl valerate, butyl butyrate, butyl ethyl malonic 
acid, camphor, diethanolamine, furfural acetone, isoamyl acetate, 
tetrachloroethylene, trihydroxyethylamine stearate and trihydroxy- 
ethylamine linoleate. 

Statistics of Production, Sales, and Imports 

Table 32, page 83, shows production and imports of certain 
synthetic organic chemicals not of coal-tar origin, 1929 and 1930. 
Table 33, page 84, shows production and sales of these chemicals in 
1930. 



CHEMICALS NOT DERIVED FROM COAL TAR 



83 









oo ,i-,»< ooi>ctoCT) mciooi 1 










i^oa 1 1 CO o 1 Tj* CO CO coinTro 1 t 










*D ^eO 11 O '^iiOOOl »Ot^05CI5< 








5 a 


E ^ co^ I 1 cT co" icTodoT ooio^cooT > 1 

^i^^'^'^ ' '^^OO'^'T^.^ iCOOSCOST^^ Ci u^ ^ CO 'C^C^ ' 














c o 








£*^ 


ft. §-" i i ;?"^"« "S?''"^ i i 










CO Tf» . 1 CO ^ 00 . -^ ^ '<*< ICO o "^ ai CO (Nc<i cooo^ ^co ^ 


CO CM 


— 1 cou:) oo 10 






« 


-.Ht- . 1 t-Tj.o: .r^cooooo -i-HC^c^ 0"00 X t^cocD-*coooa>Out r^'j" 


o 




3 


rtco ■ 1 oo-oic . lor- rt t^iMoiOJt^ t~ r» >o -H r-i o — 1 1^ t^ c-» wj< o T}> O) CO 


o; 




"3 


co' ! 1 CO'-.' CO- :-ro' i-'co' w'r-'o tC o'<^fo'o'o'o^^'Qo'ao'V 




> 


. 1 CO— ICO iC^CO ■«< ■* ^ — IINOJ-H 


'^ 




" 


, 1 lOCTi . — . —1 


— b- 


CO 




o 




; ; : = 








O — 1 1 1 t^t^cD i C^ Tf OIM C0t~0 ^ ^ O Oi CO — ■ CI CO CO 0> O O CO Tl< •»< 00 "O 




Qi 


>i 


„l^00 . 1 OO^CO iOOOO— ■— '-.COCO^ COCOOJOCOJOCOCr. -i'-l-CD— IQOCO-O 




1 




«— 100 ■ 1 cococn .00— 1— •t^t^iMoocso •♦oic-i'O— .rococo 


— CO CM CO .,}< CO r^ 


K en ; ; oTr-rcT 1^'^' oo'co'co'-Toi'tC ^"^' -.'-.'>c ^'t^'oi'S 








a 


i ^ ; ; g^g i^fe 00^-^^ r. coog.. 


^a 


lOTfCM CO 






K 








3 


a, ; ; 2j'o' : 


cm'*^ 


- " j^- 






C<l O 05 "^ O ..?•-. CO CO lO O 1 I ' 










„ C^<N 00 0>0 coo 31 -O ^ tT i i i 








C) „ 


.g -vo n 050 cnco co co — co . i . 








5o 
c.o 


S^^v^-vco'oo' ,^,~,,^oo',-^,~,T)<'o'^^Ci'f-',.,,.^ i-.'o'c-i'ira' 1^.^ 1 ! 








.^Mt^.XCO «(-s«ioe.>"COO--^— *CO<^" .<^00CO-35 1=^ 1 1 








a, -of r-r -foi co'oo"u^-co' 1 ; 1 




1 . ^ . . 




£" 








lO CO CO CO t^ 1 1 . 

! 1 . 










(N03 It^ cst-t- liccocoi-^f^t^ioccc^ ococ-ic<ocoi^co>o 


^ 


1 Ir^ 1 1 








C-l — . . >0 O ^ 35 1 —1 35 CO CM CO CO '» CO C-1 u-j 00 t^ t~ C» 'X CO 







Oi 




a> 


coco .00 ooct^ .-.-1 —CO Olio coo coco — o 


■^ 


1 .0 . . 


g 




d 


-t-' 1- o't-'oo' :o'-' --*r oo'co' - crT^'-'co' 


00 


si 




Is 


«^ 1 ocMO .oot^ — ^ -a" 00 n — co 






^ 


> 


CM W — . CM CM O 


CM 






M 


1—1 a 








o 
a 
S 












>, 


OCO i CM CO— 00 loco CM lO I^OO -rO CM Tl- O M" T». 00 CO — 


CO 


1 1^ 1 1 




»t^iO .to >/;CMO . — >n — Tl-CMCMCOI^t- COCOOt^ — 0>0"3> 


00 






a 


■gt-00 'lO CMiOCO . — O OtJ. OOt^ CMCMCO CO t^ CO "O 


»o 


; ;o . . 






|2§ :- 2^'g ilf?" '-•^- gS -S S§?5gf 


00' 








00 


1 . .«^ . . 






O 1 •«■ 00 CO iCOCO >0 00 CM 











3 


°, 1 --.'-'1 -' . 


■*' 








CMiO — "OOOOO 1 t^»Ot^cOi 1 










CO ^ t^ coo O . OC — CM 1 








it.. 


« t~CO lO COt^O . CMiC- Oi 

e^^,-^t^— ^^^..^cm'^-^^cm'o',— .tp',.^ 1^^ co'o'o'oo 1^^^.^ 1 








■§§ 




1 1,-, 1 1 




l^^f^g ^s^^^t^t^-gc^gc. ;^ gggSE; :^^ ; 








p. 2 




. 1^"^ . . 






a, 00'- o- a 1 .o'o'-roo- 1 1 








CO Tf — . CO >o . . 










CO CD Tj> CO CO O CO 1 00 t^ it^O 1 C^ .CO 1 f^ — . lO -^J. CM 00 


Q 


1 . CO . . 


00 






o — oti< -co-* .co-w .lOco ir~ .cm .cm— . co ■<»■ oo cm 




. .CO . . 




3 

"S 


OOCM — CO OOt^CM .Tf-O- lOCO . i t^ i 00 CM . O -O CO O 

"^co' -- ^'oo'^- loo' CO' l>-'o' 1 Ico' 1- Ico'^'o'oT 


-- 


1 .0 . . 

1 IcD 1 1 






TfCMt- .00^ .„CM 1 . Tf" .O .— CM 





. . 00 . ' 




1 


K* 


COt^— .,.— . 1 .t^ .— 






>. 


CM t^ 00 00 Ot^O loOCO Ico— 1— lo IcMO 1 — CM 00 CO 


t^ 


1 lira 1 1 




1 


aot^ooooo a-jt^a:' .oo .00 . o .0 .oco . — covoco 


CM 








•§^•0—00 -VOO .-OCM .OCM 1 .>0 .0>0 .OOOCOCO 









a 


S .^'o'^^io cooc'o' . CM CO 'C^O^ . .00 .1^ >cccd-^t^ 


00- 


. . CO . 1 






S — COioSo.OOO.COt-. .CM .^ .t~T).iO — 


00 


> .00 . . 








— OCM .CMOO .„CO 1 . . CO . CO — 


t^ 


. 'CM . . 






a 


•^ (m'co'cm' 1 - 1 " 1 1 1.0-1 


'^ 








NN iNyNNNNMNNNI 










" — 










1111 1 1 1 1 C3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 










■ ■ . .X3 










i i i i i i ; ii i ; : i i ; i :i i : i i : : i i 










,, 1 03 •'••'•>> c3 '••>''• ' 










1 1 1 J 1 1 1 (—• 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 










1111 1 1 1 l-O 1 1 1 1 1 1 I lo 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 










i i i i 1 i i i i£ i i i i i i i i" i i i i i i i i 










tn 'I 










1 1 1 !•» 1 1 1 IS 1 1 1 1 1 1 i§2 1 1 ; 1 ; 1 1 ; 




1 05 ; ; I 








1*111 






ing by w( 

c acid 

d 

per cent 

Qd compc 
ore than 




.■3 . . . 

' X ' ' ' 








10111 

la 1 1 1 








1.3 1 1 1 
I'O 1 1^ 






1 1 1 le^-G 1 IS 1 1 1 ;; 1 lag 1 1 1 1 : 1 ; 1 




,'0 ; ;•— 






d, conta 
cent ace 
acetic a 

weight 

nd salts 
ing not 




10 ; :^ 








1^ 1 10 
10 1 ' co" 






1 ; ;d-Sfc.^ 1 !>> 1 1 1 1 1 1 :=«.e 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 




l* 1 lo 






etaldehyde 

racetaldehyde 

rmaldehyde, solution 
ixamethylenetetramin 
etic or pyroligneous a 

Not more than 65 pe 

More than 65 per cei 

rmicacid 

Jlicacid 

ctic acid, containing b 

alic acid 

rogallicacid 

ityl alcohol 

3thanol_ 

rbon tetrachloride... 

iloroform 

ethylbarbituric acid . 
ycerophosphoric acid, 
hers and esters, conta 

Ethyl ether USP... 

Butyl acetate.. 

Amyl acetate 

Ethyl acetate _. 

Other, n. s. p. f 

trachloroethane 

ichloroethylene 

lymol 


C3 


Tetrachloroethylene 

Iron ammonium oxalate 

Ethylene dibromide 

Sodium oxalate 

Synthetic gums and resi 






» 








l~, 








p 



33 03 

■ ^ rt 

■a jj_a5 a 

O CUS OT 

cm" i2 H 03 05 « 

O M t,-5 05 O 

00 I— I 05 |3,J3 

^ O a X) __^-^. 

• bD<t hCco CO 

►^ H— UJ aj 05 

^. .ao§o« 

'3'3£Sga9 



«.s 




at 


s a 




^ 


— . 05 




0" 


♦^O 



















Pc 




IM 


S^ 




e- 












O'S 




^ 


+2-0 







OS'S 


S^ 


> 


•- >. 






>ra 




r/J 


Zs 


tH 


"3 



IvJ 00 



s a 

t. 03 . 
* m * 
a 052 

a ^ o3 

_ °£lO 
O en 3 "* 

So«Q 

O 05 O . 

frozen 



--a 
sa 

2° 

30 



K'S o 

!o £.2 

Q — "O 
"^ 2 



84 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS 



Table 33. — Synthetic organic chemicals of noncoal-tar origin: Production and 

sales, 1930 

[The numbers in the second column refer to the numbered alphabetical list of manufacturers printed on 
p. 109. An X Indicates that the manufacturer did not consent to the publication of his name in connec- 
tion with the particular product. A blank in the third and fourth columns indicates that these sales 
can not be published without revealing Information in regard to the sales of individual firms. A blaak 
in the sixth column indicates that the production can not be published without revealing information 
in regard to the output of individual firms. The details thus withheld are, however, included in the 
totals] 





Manufacturers' 
identification 
numbers (accord- 
ing to list on p. 109) 


Sales 




Name of chemical 


Quantity 


Value 


Average 

price per 

pound 


Production 
(quantity) 


Total 




Pounds 
436, 888, 399 


$65, 991, 951 


$0.15 


Pounds 
609, 363, 028 




110, 126, 127, X 














Acetaldol (aldol) 


110 . .. 










Acetamide 


10 












19 












110, 143, X 










Acetone.. 


32, X, X 












19 ... 










Alcohols containing more than 5 car- 


47 










bon atoms. 


126 










Amyl acetate and sec amyl acetate.. 


48, 56, 59, 84, 113, 
140, 143, 146, X, 
XXX 

59 84, 143, 146, X, 
X, X. 

27, 59 


3, 520, 616 


726, 615 


.21 


4, 416, 940 


Amyl butyrate . 










Amyl nitrite 


92 










Amyl oenanthate 


56 










Amyl propionate 


X 










Amyl valerate 


59 










Anethol .... ... 


54, 56 










Anisic aldehyde (aubepine) 


56, 60, X . 










Barbituric acid derivatives. 




18, 932 


248, 893 


13.17 




Butylethylbarbituric acid (neo- 

nal). 
Diethylbarbituric acid (veronal) 


1 




1, 19, 98 










Ethylisoamylbarbituric acid 


89 










(amytal). 
Ethylisopropylbarbituric acid 


X 










Ethylisopropylbarbituric acid. 


X 










calcium salt. 
E th y ] isomethylbutylbarbituric 


1 










acid. 
Bromocamphor 


46, 92 










acetyl bromide). 
Bromodiethvlacetylcarbamide 


19 










Butyl acetate (n and sec) 


48, 59, 84, 116, 143, 
146, 152, X, X, 
X. X, X. 

X, X, X, X, X 


28, 629, 580 


4, 917, 287 


.17 


35, 45.5, 752 


Butyl alcohol (n, sec, and tertiary) 




(butanol). 
Butyl aldehyde 


X ... 










Butyl aldehyde amines... 


48 










Butyl butyrate 


59, 152.. 










Butyl ethyl malonic acid 


1 










Butyl furoate 


125 










Butyl propionate 


59, 84, 152 










Butyl -xanthic disulfide 


X . 










n-Butyric acid... 


56, 61, 113, 152 










Caffeine 


96, 101 










Camphor 


22 -. 










d-Camphoric acid 


92 










n-Caproic acid 


61, 92, 113, 119 










Capryl alcohol. (See sec octyl al- 
cohol). 
Carbon bisulfide on methylene di 


127 . 










piperidine. 
Carbon tetrachloride 


46, 111, X . 


29, 692, Oil 


1, 653, 974 


.06 


34, 298, 036 


Chaulmoogric ester 


19 


Chloral hydrate 


98, 101.. 










Chloroacetic acid (mono) 


46 










Chloroarsenobehenolate of strontium. 


19 










Chloroform, USP and tech 


26, 46, 126, X 

27, 54, 56, 64, 140, 
144, X, X. 


1, 799, 735 
6,569 


321, 528 
12, 543 


.18 
1.91 


2, 469, 969 
9,284 


Citral 





CHEMICALS NOT DERIVED FROM COAL TAR 



85 



Table 33. — Synthetic organic chemicals of noncoal-tar origin: Production and 

sales, 1930 — Continued 





Manufacturers' 
identification 
numbers (accord- 
ing to list on p. 109) 


Sales 




Name of chemical 


Quantity 


Value 


Average 

price per 

pound 


Production 
(quantity) 


Citrate of lime 


X 


Pounds 






Pounds 


Citric acid (fermentation) 


37, 98, 144, X 










Citronellol 


56, 61, X, X 










Citronellyl acetate 


64,56 










Crotonaldehyde 


110, 127 










Cyanaeetic acid sodium salt 


19 .- 










Decvl alcohol 


56.- 










Decyl aldehyde 


56 










Dibromobehenate of calcium 


19 










Dibromomalonylurea (dibromin) 


X 










n-Dibutylamine 


48.. 










Dichloroethyl ether... 


32 










Dichloromonofluromethane 


X 










Dichlorodifluoromethane. 


X 










Diethanolamine.. . 


32 










Diethylacetic acid 


19 










Diethylbromoacetyl bromide (bro- 


19 










mo acid). 
Diethylene glycol . 


32 












32 












32... 












32 










Diethyl malonate (malonic ester) 

Diethyl sulfate 


1, 19 










32 










Dihydroxy citronellic ketone 


56 












56 










Dimethylglyoxime 


10 










Dimethyl sulfate 


X 










1 : 3-Dimethylxanthin sodium acetate 
Duodecyl alcohol and aldehyde 


19 










56 










19 












19 












X 










Ethyl acetate (85 per cent) 


48, 56, 57, 59, 116, 
143, 146, X, X, X. 
32 . 


48, 672, 079 


$4,828,111 


$0.10 


69, 669, 995 


Ethyl alcohol 






1, 19, 46 












27, 54, 56, 59, 61, 

113, X. 
X 






















46, 48, 59, 60, 62, 

92, 126. 
X - 






















32 












30, 46 












32, 46 . - 












32 










Ethylene glycol monobutyl ether 

Ethylene glycol monoethyl ether 

Ethylene glycol monoethyl ether 

acetate. 
Ethylene glycol monomethyl ether . . 


32 










32 










32, 59 . . . 










32 










32 ... 










Ethyl ether, USP and tech... 


11, 32, 48, 92, 98, 134, 

143, X. 
54, 56, 59, 61, 92, 

113, X. 
125 


5, 636, 127 


1, 516, 220 


.27 


8, 698, 583 
















Ethyl glycolic acid ester of menthol.. 


19 










X 












92, 98 . 










Ethyl isomethyl butyl malonate 


1 










54, 56, 61, 113, X... 
56, X 


397 


773 


1.95 


285 








56 












1, 56, 140 - 












48, 59 












92, 98 . 












54, 56, 61, 113, X... 












56 












X 












27, 56, 140 -. 












56, X, X -. 












56,59 












44,72, 126, X 








40, 763, 470 


Formic acid (90 per cent) 


148, X.... 











86 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS 



Table 33. — Synthetic organic chemicals of noncoal-tar origin: Production and 

sales, 1930 — Continued 





Manufacturers' 
identification 
numbers (accord- 
ing to list on p. 109; 


Sales 




Name of chemical 


Quantity 


Value 


Average 

price per 

pound 


Production 

(quantity) 




125 


Pounds 






Pounds 


Furac III (lead dithiofuroate) 


125 










125 












125 












125 












125 












125 












125 












125 












125 












125 










Gallic acid USP and tech 


52, 92, 156 








380,034 




54, 56, 61, 140, 144. 












54, 56, 61 












54, 56, 61 












56 










Glycerol diacetate (diacetin) 


60, 143 










Glycerophosphoric acid and salts of 


72, 101 












X 












60, 64 










Heptadecyl aldehyde 


56 












61, X 










n-Heptvlic acid . . 


92 










Hexachloroethane 


46 












56 










Hexamethvlenetetramine - . 


72, 126, 127, X . 








1, 871, 690 


Hexameth ylenetetramineanhydro- 


19 










methylene citrate. 


125 










Hydroxylamine hydrochloride. . - _ 


10 












19 










lodobehenate of iron, basic -. _ 


19 










lodobehenic acid 


19 










Iodoform.. 


92, 98, 109 












64, 96, 140, 144, X._ 
54,X 


33, 598 


$119, 127 


$3.55 


31, 729 


Isoamyl acetate 




Isoamyl butyrate 


54, 113, X 










Isoamyl formate^.- 


54, 113 










Isoamyl iso valerate 


54, 113, X 










Isobutyl acetate. . . .. .. .. 


54, 113 












47 










Isobutvl aldehyde 


56 










Isobutyl butyrate 


56, 113 










Isobutyl formate 


56 










Isobutvl propionate 


113 










Iso-caproic acid. ._ 


119 










Isoeugenol _. -. 


54, 56, 64, 144 










Isomenthol (synthetic menthol) 


109 










Isomethylbutyl bromide 


1 










Isopropvl acetate 


32, X 










Isopropvl alcohol (isopropanol) 


32, X, X 










Isopropyl bromide. 


X 










Isopropyl ether 


32 . 










Isopropyl ethyl malonate 


X 










Isovaleric acid 


113,152 










Jasmaldehyde... 


56 










Jasmone ketone. 


56 










Lactic acid (100 per cent) 


14, X, X, X 










Linalyl acetate 


54,56,140 










Linalyl butvrate 


56 










Linalyl formate.. 


54, 56, 140- . . 










Linalyl propionate 


56.. 










Malonic ester. (See diethylmalo- 

nate) . 
Methanol, synthetic (methyl alco- 


32,47,X,X 








48, 930, 545 


hol). 
Methyl acetate 


143. . 










Methyl chloride.. 


126 










Methylene citric acid.. 


19 










Meth y 1 eugenol . 


140 










Methyl furoate 


125 










Methyl ionone.. 


X. 










Methyl isoeugenol. . 


54 










Methylnonylaceticacid.- 


56 










Monoethanolamine 


32 










Nonyl alcohol 


56. 











CHEMICALS NOT DERIVED FROM COAL TAR 



87 



Table 33. — Synthetic organic chemicals of noncoal-tar origin: Production and 

sales, 19S0 — Continued 





Manufacturers' 
identification 
numbers (accord- 
ing to list on p. 109) 


Sales 




Name of chemical 


Quantity 


Value 


Average 

price per 

pound 


Production 
(quantity) 




56 


Pounds 






Pounds 




56 












56 












56 . - 












56 










sec-Octyl alcohol (capryl alcohol) 


10, 56 










56 












56 . - 












X 












115, 148, X 












110 












72, 126 - - 












59 - 












56 












152 












56 












56 












47,56 - 












32 












32 












32 












32 










Protethyl 


56 - 












52,92,156 -- - 








143, 408 




1 . 












10,52 












54, 56, 61, 64, 144, 
X, X,X. 

54,56, 140 - 


4,473 


$46, 615 


$10. 42 


5,130 








10 










Sodium bismuth thioglycollate (thio- 
bismol) . 


X 










47,148 












129 












92 - 












X 










Synthetic resins (noncoal-tar) 


32, 65, X X - -- 










64, 140, X 












22 












54, 64, 140, X 












126-.- 












46 












56 












48 












125 












48, X 










Tetramethylthiouramdisulfide 


155, X X 










61,84 










Tribromotertiarybutyl alcohol 

(brometone) . 
Trichlorotertiarybutyl alcohol 

(chloretone) . 
Trichlorobutyl alcohol (methaform) . 


X 










X 










X 










126 












32 












32 










Triethy Itrimethylenetriamine 

Trihydroxyethy lamine linoleate 

Trihydroxyethylamine stearate 


X 










65 










65 










1 












56, 152 --- 












56 












56 












32 












32 










Xanthates: 

Potassium amyl xanthate 


68 127 










68 










Potassium butyl xanthate 


127 










66 68 127 










Potassium pentasol xanthate 


68 










68,127 












X,X 












X 























PART V 
INTERNATIONAL DYE TRADE 



64996—31 7 89 



Part V 
INTERNATIONAL DYE TRADE 



Introduction 

In previous issues of the Census of Dyes, trends in international 
dye trade during the pre-war years, through the war period, and 
through the post-war period were considered in detail. A discussion 
of the subject in somewhat condensed form is continued in this issue, 
but the text is abridged, and detailed statistical tables for individual 
nations are omitted. 

No developments of outstanding importance occurred in inter- 
national dye trade in 1930. During the world-wide economic depres- 
sion trade in coal-tar chemicals declined, but to a less extent than did 
the trade in commodities in general. 

World Production of Dyes 

Germany, Switzerland, Great Britain, France, and the United 
States are the leading dye-producing nations. Italy and Japan are 
manufacturers on a smaller scale. Other nations making coal-tar 
dyes in limited quantities are Russia, Czechoslovakia, Holland, 
Poland, Spain, and Sweden. Germany and Switzerland had well- 
established dye industries before the World War. The industries in 
other countries are largely war and postwar developments. Pro- 
duction by quantity in 1930 as compared with 1929 decreased in the 
principal countries as follows: Germany, 6.6 per cent; the United 
States, 22 per cent; Great Britain, 24 per cent; Switzerland, 18 per 
cent; and France, 2.6 per cent. 

Table 34 shows the production of dyes by the chief producing 
nations, 1926-1930, inclusive. 

Table 34. — Coal-tar dyes: Production by chief producing nations 



Country 



1926 



1927 



1929 



1930 



Germany ' 

United States ■- 
Great Britain 3. 
Switzerland^,-. 

France ' 

Italy' 

Japan ' 



Pounds 
165, 000, 000 
87, 979, 000 
30, 297, 000 
19, 200, 000 
34, 420, 000 
15, 428, 000 



Pounds 
165, 000, 000 
95, 200. 000 
39, 552, 000 
22, 500, 000 
30, 897, 000 
13, 621, 000 
16, 856, 000 



Pounds 
165, 000, 000 
96, 625, 000 
50, 907, 000 
23, 857, 000 
34, 398, 000 
15, 211, 000 
18, 457, 000 



Pounds 
165, 300. 000 
111,422,000 
55, 785, 000 
24, 347, 000 
36, 224, 000 
16, 314, 000 
17, 188, 000 



Pounds 
154, 300, 000 
86, 480, 000 
42, 590, 000 
20, 039, 000 
35, 163, 000 



1 The figures are estimated by U. S. Department of Commerce. 

2 Annual Census of Dyes and Other Synthetic Organic Chemicals, U. S. Tariff Commission. 

' Estimates for 1926 were prepared by Dyestuffs Industry Development Committee from voluntary 
returns of British dye firms; 1927-1930 figures prepared by British Board of Trade. 

< Calculated on basis that the home market consumes 10 per cent of the output of Swiss dyes; exports 
consequently equal 90 per cent of production. 

« Official figures for 1926 from French-owned plants in France compiled by L' Union des producteurs 
et consommateurs pour le developpement de I'industrie des matieres colorantes en France; 1927-1930 
figures from U. S. Department of Commerce. 

« U. S. DepartiTient of Commerce. World Trade Notes. 

' Figures for 1927 from "Chemical Trade Journal," London, Mar. 28, 1930; as reported by the Japanese 
Ministry for Industry and Trade. Figures for 1928 and 1929 from H. B. Titus, Asst. U . S. Trade Com- 
missioner, Tokio. 

91 



92 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS 

Competitive Conditions 

The dye-producing nations enumerated are equipped to produce 
dyes far in excess of their home requirements, in conseciuence of 
which severe competition exists for foreign markets. Many of the 
producing nations have adopted special measures, such as subsidies, 
concessions, special privileges, and tariffs to protect their dye indus- 
tries. The ease with which a dye plant may be converted to a 
munitions factory has been a factor in the development of a self- 
contained dye industry in several countries. 

The struggle for markets is most noticeable in the nonproducing 
countries of the Far East, principally China and India. These nations 
consume vast quantities of the cheaper colors, such as Indigo and 
Sulfur black. 

The intensity of international competition has been checked some- 
what by the cartel formed by German, Swiss, and French producers. 
This international agreement was discussed fully in the 1928 and 1929 
issues of the Census. The dye industry of the United States is not a 
party to any international combination. 

Germany and Switzerland continued in 1930 to dominate inter- 
national trade to the extent of supplying about 80 per cent by value 
of all dyes exported. This is about the same share of world exports 
held by these two countries in 1929, but a decrease of about 5 per 
cent from the share held in 1928. The dowiiM-ard trend of exports 
signifies that the United States, Great Britain, France, Italy, and 
Japan are more than retaining markets gained during the World 
War, prior to which they were largely controlled b}^ Germany and 
Switzerland. 

Official statistics of the dye trade of Germany and Switzerland do 
not present a complete picture of their international activities. The 
German I. G. either controls or has an interest in plants in the United 
States, Japan, Spain, Russia, and Italy. Swiss interests either own 
or have an interest in firms in the United States, France, Germany, 
Great Britain, Poland, and Ital3^ In addition to a substantial pro- 
duction these agencies handle products not of their own manufacture. 

A significant feature of international dye trade in 1930 was the 
increase of more than 150 per cent in quantity of dyes exported from 
Japan. Geographical location gives the highly subsidized Japanese 
dye industry a distinct advantage in the markets of the Far East. 

Exports From Producing Countries 

Table 35 gives comparative statistics of exports of dyes from the 
chief producing nations for the pre-war year 1913 and for 1929 and 
1930. 

Exports from Germany, the principal shipper of dyes, were 3.4 
per cent by quantity and 6.3 per cent by value less in 1930 than in 
the preceding year. Dyes exported in 1930 were only 38 per cent 
by quantity of exports in 1913, but, by value, constituted 88 per cent 
of the exports in 1913, indicating the universal trend towards the more 
expensive fast dyes and towards colors of greater concentration. 

Switzerland exported 18 per cent less by quantitv and 15 per cent 
less by value of dyes in 1930 than in 1929.^ The increase in the value 
per pound of exports, from 74 cents in 1929 to 76 cents in 1930 



INTERNATIONAL DYE TRADE 



93 



indicates a continuation of the trend towards specialization in the 
higher priced dyes. In 1913 the unit value of dyes exported by 
Switzerland was only 28 cents. 

The export trade of the United States decreased 18 per cent by 
quantity and 15 per cent by value in 1930 as compared with 1929. 
The value per pound of exports increased from 21 cents in 1929 to 
22 cents in 1930. 

Exports from Great Britain in 1930 decreased 32 per cent by 
quantity and only 10 per cent by value, as compared with 1929. 

France exported 28 per cent by quantity and 15 per cent by weight 
less in 1930 than in 1929. 

Exports of dyes from Italy increased from 1,324,083 pounds, 
valued at $610,047 in 1929 to 1,690,928 pounds, valued at $703,630, 
in 1930. 

Despite generally adverse trade conditions in 1930, Japan increased 
her exports of coal-tar dves from 1,788,927 pounds, valued at $170,411 
in 1929 to 4,598,733 pounds, valued at $406,664 in 1930. Most of 
the exports were to far eastern markets. 

Table 35. — Coal-tar dyes: Exports from chief producing countries ' 



Exported from — 



Germany 

United States. 
Great Britain. 
Switzerland. .- 

France 

Italy 

Japan 



Quantity Value 



Pounds 
239, 598, 133 



5, 451, 376 

19, 458, 902 

1, 152, 134 

117,725 



$51, 689, 400 



862, 566 

5, 549, 752 

275, 716 

22, 458 



1929 



Quantity Value 



Pounds 

94, 695, 507 

34, 130, 325 

17, 570, 112 

21, 912, 538 

6, 662, 081 

1, 324, 083 

1, 788, 927 



$48, 518, 005 
7, 279, 086 
4, 789, 716 
16, 123, 693 
2, 194, 455 
610, 047 
170,411 



1930 



Quantity Value 



Pounds 

91, 458, 051 

28, 267, 340 

11,941,328 

18. 035, 048 

4, 818, 374 

1, 690, 928 

4, 598, 733 



$45, 441, 414 
6, 245, 830 
4, 306, 726 
13, 735, 288 
1, 856, 355 
703, 630 
406, 664 



' From ofBeia! statistics of each country. 

International Imports 

Table 36 shows imports of dyes by principal consuming countries in 
1913, 1929, and 1930. Official data for China for 1930 were not avail- 
able at the time of the preparation of this report. However, repre- 
sentatives of the Department of Commerce estimate that imports 
of dyes into China in 1930 were about 85 per cent of normal. The 
United States is reported to have been successful in retaining its 
markets in China. 



94 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS 
Table 36. — Coal-tar dyes: Imports into the chief consuming countries 





1913 


1929 


1930 


Imported into— 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 




Pounds 
1 60, 696, 533 
3 16, 923, 607 


$11,673,779 
3, 741, 031 


Pounds 

77, 554, 133 
18,175,592 
9, 814, 879 

5, 778, 132 

6, 437, 147 
3, 728, 640 

6, 394, 222 
5, 677, 840 
,5, 812, 655 

7, 721, 391 

8, 903, 718 
3, 335, 560 
3, 179, 172 

950, 769 

2, 619, 065 

2, 373, 186 

2, 633, 077 

445, 197 

335, 320 


2 $13, 527, 757 
6, 583, 444 
5, 112, 556 
4, 122, 245 
5, 374, 085 
3, 946, 230 
2, 092, 008 
5, 341, 879 
2, 988, 084 

2, 255, 153 
5, 072, 469 

3, 813, 572 
1, 826, 464 

301, 771 

1, 387, 443 

1, 626, 677 

1, 637, 863 

781, 076 

360, 447 


Pounds 






18, 043, 222 
8, 115, 133 
3, 405, 370 
4,114,882 
3, 522, 069 
6, 437, 212 
5, 237, 456 
5, 548, 978 


$7, 900, 479 




3, 518, 238 




9, 755, 260 
< 45, 950, 895 
« 15, 542, 429 


2, 100, 255 
7. 537, 870 
3,611,705 


2, 869, 17a 


United States 


3, 500, 154 


Italy 


3, 517, 506 




2,301,811 




41, 203, 008 


9, 207, 684 


5, 300, 407 




2, 802, 820 




6 2, 073, 434 
7, 138, 495 
4, 706, 601 

3 2, 633, 516 


890, 366 
1, 682, 422 
1,416,316 

594, 414 






6, 843, 740 

2, 997, 154 

3, 345, 635 
802, 364 

1, 990, 754 
2, 036, 274 
2, 880, 827 
2, 181, 926 
133, 378 


3, 942, 210 




3, 258, 265 


Canada 


1, 953, 253 


Egypt 


303, 645 


Austria 


17. 168, 764 
2, 201, 292 
2, 376, 166 

'2,303,709 


3, 616, 199 
431, 197 
699, 737 

1, 021, 368 


1, 112, 937 




1, 470, 089 








2, 719, 739 


Poland 


144, 210 











1 Exports to Ciiina, 1913, from France, Germany, and Switzerland amounted to 69,181,230 pounds, valued 
at $11,516,567. Chinese statistics show value but not quantity of aniline dyes and include "unclassified 
dyes" which may contain other than coal-tar dyes. 

2 Exclusive of aniline dyes and dyes and colors unclassified amounting in value to $5,861,264 in 1929. 

3 Year ending Mar. 31. 

< Fiscal year 1914; ([uantity from Special Agents Series Nfo. 121, value from Foreign Commerce and Navi - 
gatiou of the United States. 

5 Aniline dyes only in 1913. 

6 Quantity of synthetic Indigo not shown for 1913. 
' 1914. 

Notes on the Dye Trade of Foreign Countries 

Events of international interest occurring in the dye trade in 1930 
were few. The information given in the following pages is taken from 
various trade publications and from reports of official representatives 
of the United States abroad. 

Great Britain. — An event of primary importance in international 
dye trade was the continuation for another year of the British dye- 
stuffs import regulation act of 1920. The statutory term of this 
act was to expire in January, 1931. After a period of uncertainty 
and in the face of strong opposition the Government included the 
dyestuffs act in the continuance bill of routine expiring laws, to avoid 
jeopardizing the continuation of other vitally necessary laws. 

The application of the act has been modified by Parliarnent. 
Licenses will now be granted to foreign producers unless British 
manufacturers sell at prices as low as those of foreign producers, 
provided they are not "dumping" prices, and import licenses will 
now be granted on the basis of current prices instead of on the former 
basis of a multiple of pre-war prices. 

It is not known whether the import regulation act applying to 
dyes will be extended beyond January, 1932. 

Imperial Chemical Industries (Ltd.), the principal producer of 
dyes in Great Britain, strengthened its position by the acquisition in 
1930 of the British Alizarine Co. (Ltd.), which had operated inde- 
pendently for 50 years. 

Table 37 gives figures for the production of dyes in 1928, 1929, and 
1930 as prepared by the dyestuffs industry development committee 
and issued by the British Board of Trade. Although the output 
of a few small firms is not included, the totals represent substantially 
the British production. 



INTERNATIONAL DYE TRADE 



95 









tct^oc^i;©— I'-iTj* 






tC tC cTcN o Tp 1-H lo 



WiOOOiOOlCSoOCCO'^ 



OJt^OlOoOOOOlM 

00 t^or<N t^co CD w 

O500 CO CO CS ^ 



cctcC'-HM-«j'cct^as 



00-— lOih-OSC^COOO 

t^r^r-c^00'-<O05 

Oi OS CO TJH C^ r-< 



COQOO-^-^OiOr-CDO 

■^'' QO CO (n" oT iC -H* N of 

--lOO'-HOSOOC^Oit^CO 



Oi CC t^ ■^ 
OJ CO CO CD 



cDcot>.t^ro-«!t*»ct^ 

'^QOOStOr-iOOOCD 



iOfOt^iOOC^iOO 

Oi!DO»0>-(CSC^w 



ioascjicoc^t--oocc 



O00O'^^'<fcDO'-<.-( 
OiCO^t^CDI^OOCOOS 

rc^coai<Moso*ooo 



OidOoOrOt-^cDTf 



CO'^iOCDC7:>r-'— 'CDCO-* 

TfCD-^OOOC^'-Hi— I,— (l-H 

00 CO (N '^ !M -H W 



ooroO'-'as— 'T-Hoo 

TPCC'-H'-HOlTjIOOX) 

CO »o o r-'o '-H TjJ 

-^ ■^ O CD CS C^ 00 



C^u0t--C0»00'-HCD 

oior^ooc'itoior^ 

CDOCD-— (CDCDOO-*^ 



) XI CO --H 00 



iO C^ C^ O C^ CO 

CO t^ CO -^ —I w 



rt< N 1-1 CO "M O 

»OOOCD<N OC^ 



CO CO CD lO »0 CO 



gCO C^ Oi CO OS 0> O 
lO i-« C^J CSJ tP 00 CO 

1— lOOiOTfT-Ht--r-t 



>o r^ 00 -^ lO O i-H 



oococ^coooi-^ico 
r^cDco»JO(M-<*'CDco 



OOCOU^SCDOOOOCOOOCD 

»-tco^'-'tooo»ocor^ 

OOt-— "OsCsJOO-^tPC^ 



Oi O C^ O -H OCO 
-ft* "^ 00 CO O Tf* CO 



^ 



'-H OO^ ^ ' 



CD CO t^ OOO lO 

05 CD Tji CO --*< OO 

'tji'orcDariood 

rH t^ »0 COOO t^ 



c<)r*i— IIOCD05COCO 
cio^h-ooiot^i-H 

iOCO^t^--^t^CO00 



■«*<i-<C^C000Oi'^cDOS00 
t^C-^-— 'OiOO^OC^OOTPiO 

c^ M OS CO a> c^ OS 00 lO 



IOtP^OC^CO cococo 
i-( CO 00 00 <M CD CO 

CO c^ 00 '— < r^ 1— I 



— <OOO-^r000C0 
Oco>oc^t--iccocD 

C^fNOOCOOOcOi^cD 

CD CS lO O t^ I^ O 

CD CO <-< CO "^ CD O 



t^ O cOCS 00 »c 
lO C^ O CDCO (N 

C^ OOO 00 00 00 

•^ <d (jS Oi -^ t^ 

00 xi 1— 1 00 o t^ 



lOi— iiococDr-r-^h-oot* 
u^■«*^co^*ooooOQ■<*^<^^ 
t^(Mi^iOTrt^cD55r-ioo 



00 Oi Oi <— ' t-- Oi 00 CO CO 
•^ »-i CO ■^ 00 lO OS O I-* 
Tj* CO CO '^ CO lO to "«** 



COCSOC^t^iOCSOS 

CDcO*O^COCOCOrt< 

or^oO'^i^-cO'—f'-i 

CD C^* C^r ^"w' CO —h" 
t-- .— I C^ C^ C: O ^ 
CO CD I' Ol i-H -^ 



OO 1^ c^ 



^ F-i --4 00 CO CD 

■( lO ?i S ^ CD 



eoi0icoot--co'«*'coos 



CO "«*< CD 



'o J5 o 

9 Ot3 ' 



'o" « 
be tie " 

OS'S 

■sag 






^ s! ^ 



5 5^ 



o 6 0=^ 
o o « c 



•S ^ a) . 



oB , 

o a) o S o — 



oS 



53 



1^ 



•a a '■- 



' 5 O w 3 
! 'S X3 « "3 CIS >> ® 



>a 



W IH QJ 

rr o tie w-r — 

o g Vta3 w5 
— ' --^ m ^ _ Q 



.ts-Bja Sgts >>©= a 



96 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS 

Germany. — Except for the entry of German interests into the Italian 
dye industry, the foreign trade of Germany in dyes during 1930 was 
uneventful. This development is discussed under Italy. 

The I. G. continued its policy of concentration and rationahzation. 
T)espite its adherence to this policy, there were employed on January 
1, 1930, 74,603 laborers and 22,915 other emploj^ees, a total of 97,518, 
against a total of 81,601 on January 1, 1926, and 46,116 on January 
1, 1914.1 

The dye trust is generally credited with producing one-third of the 
total output of chemicals in German j^; employing one-fourth of all 
chemical labor, and controlling 65 per cent of the total nitrogen 
capacitj^ 100 per cent of dye capacity, 40 per cent of pharmaceutical, 
30 per cent of rayon, and with producing many minor products. 

Smtzerland. — ^Exports of Swiss dyes decreased only slightly until 
the end of September, 1930. During the last quarter, however, the 
decline was appreciable. Proportionate!}^ more of the higher priced 
dyes were shipped out than in previous years; sales of the cheaper 
colors were made largely from branch plants in foreign countries. 
The sales agreement between German, Swiss, and French producers, 
consummated in 1929, and said to be still in force, is reported to have 
been beneficial to the export trade of Switzerland in 1930. 

Exports of pharmaceuticals were reported normal in 1930. New 
medicinals of the Sandoz Chemical Works are said to have been well 
received by foreign customers. 

France. — Production, imports, and exports of dyes in France de- 
creased in 1930 as compared with 1929. 

The following are preliminary figures showing the production by 
chemical classes in 1930^: 

Pounds 

Aniline dyes 14, 572, 406 

Vat and Indigo dyes, etc 9, 369, 550 

Sulfur dyes 5, 313, 086 

Diphenyl and triphenyl methane dyes 2, 391, 991 

Alizarin dyes 1, 344. 806 

Indophenol, azines, oxazines, and thiazines 253, 529 

Other dyes 1, 918, 002 

Total 35, 163, 370 

Italy.- — The principal development of interest in Italy was the 
reorganization ^ of the Aziende Chimiche Nazional Associate (A. C 
N. A.), Italy's largest dye company. The divisions of the A. C N. A. 
producing dyes, intermediates, and inorganic chemicals have been 
acquired jointlv by the I. G. of Germany and the Montecatini Com- 
pany. Of the new capital of 60,000,000 lire, the I. G. will take 29,000,- 
000 lire, and Montecatini 31,000,000 lire. 

Japan. — At the close of 1929 there were 19 factories in Japan 
producing dyes; 3 producing intermediates; and 14, producing both 
dyes and intermediates. Invested capital was 20,311,136 yen, and 
2,376 workmen were employed. 

Domestic manufacturers have installed capacity to produce about 
85 per cent of the country's consumption. Basic color production 

' "German Chemical Developments in 1930," Trade Information Bulletin No. 753, U. S. Dept. of Com- 
merce. 

2 E. C. Taylor, Assistant Trade Commissioner, Paris. 

3 Chemical Trade Journal, Mar. 13, 1931, p. 254. 



INTERNATIONAL DYE TRADE 



97 



has increased 70 per cent in the last five years and includes practi- 
cally all of the basic group except Rhodamine 6G. Direct dye pro- 
duction has increased 24 per cent and acid dye production 50 per 
cent. Most of the mordant dyes are imported, as are the vat dyes, 
including Indigo. Since 70 per cent of the dye consumption is con- 
fined to sidfur dyes, development in this group has been greatest 
and some quantities are exported to China. In 1928 about 73 per 
cent and in 1929 about 68 per cent of the consumption of all coal-tar 
dyes was of domestic manufacture. Exports in 1930 were principally 
to China. 

Japanese manufacturers who can produce commercially 23 specified 
dyes are offered a subsidy by the Govermnent. 

Spain. — Since the abolition of import restrictions on dyes in Spain 
(see Census of Dyes, 1929, p. 170) imports of dyes and tanning materials 
into Spain in 1930 increased about 25,000,000 pesetas.^ 

Poland. — According to the Polish Statistical Central Bureau * the 
production of dyes in Poland in 1929 and 1928 was as follows: 



Class 



Direct dyes 
Acid dyes.. 
Sulfur dyes. 



1928 



Pounds 
1, 044, 980 
456, 352 
855, 385 



Pounds 
650, 357 
346, 122 
645, 948 



Class 



Basic dyes 

Chrome dyes. 
Nigrosine 



1928 



Pounds 
11,023 

77, 161 



1929 



Pounds 
35, 274 
88, 184 
57, 320 



3 Chemical Trade Journal, Mar. 27, 1931, p. 306* 
* Chemical Trade Journal, Mar. 6, 1931, p. 232. 



PART VI 
APPENDIX 



STATISTICS OF DOMESTIC IMPORTS AND EXPORTS 



DIRECTORY OF MANUFACTURERS OF DYES AND OTHER 
SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1930 



99 



Part VI 
STATISTICS OF IMPORTS AND EXPORTS 

Table 38. — Coal-tar products: Imports entered for consumption 
GROUP I— CRUDE (FREE) 



Year 



1929 



Quantity 



Value 



Quantity 



Value 



Benzene, pounds... 

Dead or creosote oil, gallons 

Naphthalene, solidifying at less than 79° C ., pounds 

Coal tar, crude, barrels 

Pitch, coal-tar, barrels - 

Acenaphthene, fluorene, methylanthraeene, and methyl- 
naphthalene, pounds 

Anthracene, purity less than 30 per cent, pounds 

Anthracene oil, gallons 

Cresylic acid, pounds.. 

Carbazole, less than 65 per cent pure, pounds 

Cumene, cymene, pounds 

Pyridine, pounds _. 

Xylene, pounds 

All other distillates n. s. p. f., which on being subjected to 
distillation yield in the portion distilling below 190° C . a 
quantity of tar acids less than 5 per cent of the original 

distillate, pounds... 

All other products found naturally in coal tar, whether 
produced or obtained from coal tar or other sources, n. s. 
p. f., pounds 



18, 164, 952 

79, 300, 575 

35, 007, 419 

14, 473 

1,081 

44,360 

91, 766 

33,283 

17, 856, 765 



$405, 029 

10, 119, 379 

598, 718 

34, 214 

3,320 

11,351 

1,890 

6,785 

952, 110 



40,114 



5,991 



298, 619 
160, 514 



18, 845 
12, 705 



17, 803, 165 

66, 921, 827 

27, 666, 834 

14, 569 

1,266 

62,958 

189, 451 

11, 799 

9, 009. 674 

3,308 

2,116 

5,794 

800 



347, 923 
398, 366 



$397, 621 

7, 806, 175 

397, 292 

35, 080 

4,398 

14,438 

3,444 

1,835 

501,418 

25 

233 

2,833 

81 



11, 953 
10, 065 



GROUP. II— DUTIABLE AT 40 PER CENT AD VALOREM PLUS 7 CENTS PER POUND 



Article and year 


Pounds 


Value 


Duty 


Actual 

and com 

puted ad 

valorem 

rate 


Not colors, dyes, or stains, photographic chemicals, 
medicinals, flavors, or explosives, etc., n. s. p. f.: 
Acids- 
Carbolic 1— 

Crystal (phenol)— 

1929 (T. D. 42423) ..- 


433, 385 
500 

2, 343, 529 
1, 275, 872 

11, 100 
10, 612 


$44, 226 
115 

183, 324 
96, 047 

10, 671 
5,186 


$24,014 

f 25 
I 40 

118, 688 
63, 865 

5,045 

2,817 


54.30 


1930 


} 39. 37 
64.74 


Liquid (cresylic acid or cresol)— 

1929 (T. D. 42337)... 


1930 


66.50 


Coal-tar acids, n. s. p. f.— 

1929 


47.28 


1930 .— 


54.32 


Aniline oil and salts— 
1929 




1930 


2,054 
100 


1,374 
39 


693 
23 


50.46 


Anthraquinone, aminoanthraquinone, and nitro- 
anthraquinone— 
1929 


57.95 


1930 . 




Benzaldehyde, not medicinal, and nitrobenzalde- 
hyde— 
1929 










1930 


17,646 


13, 134 


6,489 


49.41 



1 Dutiable at 20 per cent plus 3I/2 cents per pound. 
' Antidumping duty. 



101 



102 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS 
Table 38. — Coal-tar products: Imports entered for consumption — Continued 

GROUP II.— DUTIABLE AT 40 PER CENT AD VALOREM PLUS 7 CENTS PER 

POUND— Continued 



Article and year 


Povmds 


Value 


Duty 


Actual 
and com- 
puted ad 
valorem 
rate 


Not colors, dyes, or stains, etc.— Continued. 

Benzanthrone, benzoquinone, benzidine, benzidine 
sulfate, and benzyl, benzal, and benzoyl chloride— 
1929-.. 


4,667 
3,853 


$4, 051 
4,894 


$1,940 
2,227 


47.89 


1930 


45.50 


Dimethylaminophenol, dimethylphenylbenzylam 
monium hydroxide, and dimethylphenylenedia- 
mine— 
1929 




1930 


880 

227,974 
1 » 131, 134 

1 * 71, 183 

3,628 


396 

32,098 
14,973 
11, 762 

3,344 


220 

28,797 

f »3,135 

1 16, 169 

4,844 

1,692 


55.56 


Metacresol, orthocresol, and paracresol, 90 per cent or 
more pure— 
1929 


89.72 


1930 


} 122. 25 


Methyl anthraquinone— 

1929 


41.18 
47.61 


1930 




Naphthol, alpha and beta, not medicinal— 

1929. 


34,486 
86,077 

65 
150 

31, 497 

57, 518 

4,863 


78, 108 
66,070 

563 
54 

39, 361 
67, 418 

2,721 


33,657 
32,453 

229 
32 

17, 945 
30,993 

1,429 


43.09 


1930 


49.12 


Phenylenediamine, phenylglycine, phenylhydrazine- 
and phenylnaphthylamine— 
1929 


40.67 


1930... 


69.44 


Resorcinol, not medicinal— 

1929 


15.60 


1930 

Tolidine, toluene sulfochloride, toluene sulfonamide, 
toluidine, and tolylenediamine — 
1929 .- 


45.97 
52.52 


1930 




All distillates of coal, blast-furnace, oil-gas, and 
water-gas tar which on being subject to distilla- 
tion below 215° C. yield a quantity of tar acids 
equal to or more than 75 per cent of the original 
distillate — 
1929 


227 


23 


25 


109. 09 


1930 




All similar products manufactured from the products 
provided for in pars. 27 and 1549 *— 
1929 


1, 138, 898 
851, 791 


977, 255 
704, 917 


470, 625 
f 25,444 
I 341, 592 


48.16 


1930 


} 49. 23 





GROUP III.— DUTIABLE AT 45 PER CENT AD VALOREM PLUS 7 CENTS PER POUND 



When obtained, derived, or manufactured in whole or 
In part from any of the products provided for in Group 
I (free) or II, including natural Indigo, and natural 
alizarin, and their derivatives: 
Alizarin, natural— 

1929.. 


17,618 


21, 817 


11, 044 


50.62 


1930 . 




Colors, dyes, stains, etc., obtained, derived, or manu- 
factured from alizarin— 
1929 _ 


102 
299 


163 
231 


80 
125 


49.38 


1930 


54.06 


Indigo, natural— 

1929 




1930 


11,507 
550 


13, 261 
381 


6,768 
210 


51.08 


Colors, dyes, stains, etc., derived from Indigo— 

1929 _ 

1930 


55.10 


Colors, dyes, stains, color acids, and color bases, 
n. s. p. f.— 

1929 

1930 


7,316,605 
4, 939, 676 


8,154,435 
5, 246, 616 


4, 181, 658 
2, 706, 755 


61.28 
51.59 



'Antidumping duty. 

« Act of 1922— Jan. 1 to June 17. 

* Act of 1930— June 18 to Dec. 31, dutiable at 20 per cent plus 3J>j cents per pound» 

' Par. 1651 beginning June 18, 1930. 



STATISTICS OF DOMESTIC IMPORTS AND EXPORTS 



103 



Table 38. — Coal-tar products: Imports entered for consumption — Continued 

GROUP III— DUTIABLE AT 45 PER CENT AD VALOREM PLUS 7 CENTS PER POUND— 

Continued 











Actual 










and com- 


Article and year 


Pounds 


Value 


Duty 


puted ad 

valorem 

rate 


When obtained, derived, etc.— Continued. 










Coal-tar medicinals— 










Acetanilide, acetphenetidin (phenacetin), and 










acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin)- 










1929.. 


229 


$201 


$106 


52.98 


1930 










Antipyrine— 










1929 - - 


103, 277 
41,202 


108, 075 
57,849 


65,863 
28,916 


51.69 


1930 .- 


49.99 


Arsphenamine (salvarsan), neoarsphenamine 




and similar arsenical medicinal compounds — 










1929 


14 


5,973 


2,689 


45.02 


1930 


21 


10, 354 


4,661 


45.02 


Peta-naphthol and benzaldehyde— 




1929 




— 1 






1930 .. - 


3,053 


\ 4,039 


2,031 


50.28 


Benzoic acid— 




1929.. - 


225 

518 


135 

315 


76 
178 


56.67 


1930 


56.51 


Guaiacol and derivatives— 




1929 - 


7,666 
221 


9,451 
364 


4,790 
179 


50.68 


1930 - 


49.25 


Novocain or procaine— 




1929 - -.- - 


25 
37 


9,781 
21,036 


4,403 
9,469 


45.02 


1930 .- -- 


45.01 


Phenolphthalein— 




1929 - 


992 


1,091 


560 


51.36 


1930 




Resorcinol — 












24, 565 
900 


35,009 
1,515 


17, 474 

745 


49.91 


1930 ... --- 


49.16 












1929 


2,535 


1,518 


861 


56.69 


1930 










Salol- 










1929 


5 


5 


3 


52.00 


1930 














1929 


74, 376 
24, 230 


224.227 
177, 792 


106, 108 
81, 702 


47.32 


1930 . . 


45.95 


Resinlike products prepared from articles provided 




for in par. 27 or 1549 » •— 










1929 - 


67, 529 
46, 463 


17, 503 
10, 417 


12, 603 
7,940 


72.00 


- ■ 1930 - 


76.22 


Photographic chemicals— 




1929 


18, 709 
30, 116 


56, 785 
110, 003 


26, 863 
51, 609 


47.31 


1930 


46.92 


Flavors and perfumes- 




Musk, artificial, benzyl acetate, benzyl benzoate. 










coumarin, natural coumarin, diphenyloxide. 










heliotropine (from coal tar, T. D. 40998) , methyl 










anthranilate, methyl salicylate, natural methyl 










salicylate, or oil of wintergreen or oil of sweet 










birch, phenvlacetaldehyde, phenylethyl alco- 










hol, and other synthetic odoriferous or aromatic 










chemicals not containing alcohol— 










1929 . . 


128, 965 
88,430 


447, 082 
302, 840 


210, 215 
142, 468 


47.02 


1930 -.- 


47.04 


Vanillin— 




1929 


20, 703 
32, 817 


137, 579 
202, 761 


63, 360 
93, 540 


46.05 


1930 


46.13 


Other flavors— 




1929 


165 
315 


413 
1,642 


197 
761 


47.80 


1930 - 


46.34 







« Par. 1651 beginning June 18, 1930» 
« Bakelite prohibited, T. D. 41512, 



104 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS 

Table 39. — Coal-tar products: General imports 
DEAD OR CREOSOTE OIL (FREE) 





1929 


1930 




Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


United Kingdom . 


Gallons 

39, 383, 991 

20, 157, 187 

275 

17, 944, 092 

414, 781 

1, 400, 249 


$5, 067, 042 

2, 553, 870 

36 

2, 282, 456 

48, 944 

167, 031 


Gallonft 

27, 484, 886 

20, 736, 875 

891, 490 

13, 794, 365 

2, 671. 096 

1, 331, 898 

11.217 


$3, 207, 307 




2, 433, 778 




99, 924 




1. 585, 699 




307, 159 




170, 904 




1,404 










Total 


79, 300, 575 


10, 119, 379 


66, 921, 827 


7, 806, 175 







PYRIDINE (FREE) 





Pounds 
31, 167 
8,947 


$4, 158 
1,833 


Pounds 




United Kingdom 


5,794 


$2, 833 






Total - . 


40, 114 


5,991 


5, 794 


2,833 







ALL OTHER CRUDES (FREE) 



Imported from— 


1929 


1930 


Belgium _ 


$49, 149 

19, 747 

902, 838 

411,285 

612. 953 

687 

48, 308 


$13, 320 






United Kingdom 


547, 858 


Canada... _ ... .. 


409, 163 


Germany .. . . 


355, 176 


Netherlands . - . . . 


12, 797 


Mexico . - - .... 


21,073 


All other countries - 


14, 097 










Total 


2, 044, 967 


1,373 484 







COAL-TAR ACIDS 



Imported from— 


1929 


1930 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


United Kingdom 


Pounds 
1, 594, 973 
1,102 
377, 078 


$126. 051 

117 

34,120 


Pounds 

784, 947 


$50, 121 


Netherlands. 




Germany 


38, 987 
815 


2,505 


Canada 


132 










Total. 


1, 973, 153 


160, 288 


824, 749 


52,758 







OTHER COAL-TAR INTERMEDIATES 



France 

Germany 

Netherlands 

United Kingdom 

Switzerland _ 

C anad a _ 

Soviet Russia in Europe- 
All other countries 



Total. 



48, 238 

1, 707, 238 

9,737 

144, 426 

70, 030 

5,021 



4,100 
1, 988, 790 



$60, 541 

, 340, 630 

14, 618 

23, 097 

42, 181 

1,315 



3,465 
1,485,847 



70, 648 

1. 031, 454 

1,669 

184. 239 

99, 020 

788 

33, 069 

1,781 

1, 422, 668 



STATISTICS OF DOMESTIC IMPORTS AND EXPORTS 



105 



Table 39. — Coal-tar products: General imports — Continued 
ALIZARIN AND DERIVATIVES 





1920 


1930 1 




Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


France 


Pounds 




Pounds 




Germany .. 










Switzerland 


17, G20 


$21, 980 






United Kingdom 






Canada. 




















Total. 


17, 620 


21, 980 













1 No imports. 

COLORS, DYES, STAINS, COLOR ACIDS, AND COLOR BASES, N. E. S. 



Belgium 

France 

Germany 

Switzerland 

United Kingdom... 

Italy 

Netherlands 

Canada 

Czechoslovakia 

All other coun tries . 

Total. 



76, 259 

108, 312 

4, 085, 326 

2, 563, 4C9 

91,957 

13, 854 

18, 920 

33, 594 



1,428 



7,593,119 



$95, 819 

160,012 

5,019,070 

3, 000, 159 

100, 779 

11,626 

21,446 

38, 276 



850 



63, 010 

43, 686 

3, 102, 836 

1, 556, 607 

114, 174 

21,298 

12, 732 

14, 249 

23, 084 

288 



4, 951, 964 



$80, 686 

57, 239 

3,318,115 

1, 637, 126 

118, 766 

24, 564 

18, 860 

16, 798 

11,657 

355 



5, 284, 166 



COAL-TAR MEDICINALS 



France 

Germany 

Italy.. 

Netherlands 

Switzerland 

United Kingdom.. 

Canada 

All other countries 

Total. 



40, 558 


$77,414 


56, 008 


117, 429 


283 


2,168 


1,036 


3,791 


36, 714 


89, 060 


16, 628 


30, 533 


103 


4,240 


1,167 


7,827 



332, 462 



71,616 



13, 636 


$43, 386 


38, 635 


142, 450 


30 


206 


22 


1,350 


16, 657 


62, 732 


1,197 


2,927 


1,425 


19, 651 


14 


179 



272, 881 



OTHER FINISHED COAL-TAR PRODUCTS 



France 

Germany 

Switzerland 

United Kingdom... 

Netherlands 

All other countries. 



Total. 



344 

101,339 

5,349 

359 



706 
108, 097 



64996—31- 



$2, 176 

169, 239 

31, 774 

727 



204, 806 



15, 801 
73, 958 
12, 449 
39, 677 
4,780 
3,204 

149, 869 



$52, 330 
339, 665 
36, 944 
6,252 
17,412 
5,773 

458, 376 



106 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS 



Table 40. — Coal-tar products: Domestic exports 

COAL-TAR PITCH 



Exported to— 


1929 


1930 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Europe .. _ . 


Tons 
1,481 
8,311 
13 


$44,211 

159,168 

668 


Tons 
22, 323 
4,809 
2 

86 

1 


$184, 452 

102, 848 

65 








2. 259 








31 










Total -- 


9,805 


204, 047 


27, 221 


289, 655 







CRUDE COAL TAR 



Exported to- 



Europe -_. 

North America 
Soutli America. 

Asia 

Oceania 

Africa. 

Total 



1929 



Quantity 



Barrels • 

2, 647 

104, 028 

1,818 

1 

33 

10 



108, 537 



Value 



$23, 743 

351, 872 

13, 122 

20 

356 

103 



389, 216 



1930 



Quantity 



Barrels ' 

649 

85, 492 

655 

6 

12 
9 



6,823 



Value 



$4, 939 

263, 295 

5,320 

57 

155 



273. SOO 



1 Barrels of 500 pounds. 



COAL-TAR-PITCH COKE 



Exported to— 


1929 


1930 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Netherlands - 


Tons 
3,717 
4,700 
2,096 


$38, 983 
23, 232 
10, 902 


Tons 
1,001 
8,473 


$10,216 




51, 740 


Cuba - .-- 




Italy 


1,330 
1,074 


16, 768 


All other countries. .. . .. 


1,081 


11,299 


10,419 






Total 


11,594 


84,416 


11,878 


89, 143 



COAL-TAR DISTILLATES— BENZOL 



Exported to— 


1929 


1930 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 




Gallons 

17,828,355 

1, 326, 496 

1, 194, 059 

1, 921. 733 

9, 251, 276 

1, 030, 387 

34, 433 

733 

168,915 

45, 433 

17, 212 


$4, 459, 506 

344, 332 

333, 771 

422, 782 

2, 506, 768 

214, 739 

13, 597 

407 

59, 642 

16,119 

7,543 


Ga linns 
21,440,166 
717, 529 
216,444 

3, 576, 971 
11,780,960 

1, 228, 891 

19, 739 

83 

40, 749 

22, 229 

S, 266 

510. 888 

4, 753, 185 
284, 229 


$4,655,513 




181,810 




55, 490 




751, 165 




2, 529, 943 


Italy 


209, 313 




5,834 




83 




15, 419 


Chile 


8,690 




3, 083 




86, 851 




215 
527, 134 


96 
157,576 


996, 223 




66, 117 






Total . . 


33, 346, 381 


8, 536, 878 


44, 600, 329 


9, 565, 534 







STATISTICS OF DOMESTIC IMPORTS AND EXPORTS 



107 



Table 40. — Coal-tar products: Domestic exports — Continued 

OTHER CRUDE DISTILLATES 



Exported to— 


1929 


1930 


France 


Value 


Value 
$1,019 


Australia - -. 


$26, 944 

394, 680 

988 

40, 010 

6,318 

12, 787 

1,179 

90, 703 

6,840 

1,583 

43, 274 


15, 105 


Canada . ....... . .. .. 


303, 271 


Peru - 


9,889 




19, 937 


.Argentina 


11,965 


Cuba 


5,301 




5,941 


United Kingdom 


50, 700 


Chile 


4,429 


Nicaragua . ......... 


12, 067 


All other countries.. - ----- 


39, 675 








Total 


625, 306 


479, 299 







INTERMEDIATE COAL-TAR PRODUCTS 



Exported to— 


1929 


1930 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


France 


Pounds 




Pounds 

145,510 

263, 995 

215, 0S9 

3,000 

823, 104 

15, 750 

112, 898 

26, 245 

12, 389 

127, 550 

374, 151 

6,669 

186, 353 


$28, 927 


Germany . . .. .. 


17, 422 

179, 522 

6.725 

863, 158 

107, 575 

101, 780 

17, 423 

89, 788 

204, 491 

979, 489 

109, 643 

131, 494 


$2, 152 

26, 213 
1,220 

107, 825 

13, 367 

8,294 

2,893 

17, 948 

33, 730 

168, 808 

7,954 

27, 594 


9,629 




31, 137 




413 




S3, 988 


Mexico .... 


3,221 


Cuba --- - 


10, 001 




3.468 


China ... 


2,544 




13, 656 




86, 238 




543 


All otiier countries . 


32, 468 






Total 


2, 808, 510 


417, 998 


2, 312, 703 


306, 233 







FINISHED COAL-TAR PRODUCTS 

PACKAGE DYES FOR HOUSEHOLD USE 





1929 


1930 


Exported to — 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 




Pou7ids 
920 

41, 469 
603 

19. 749 

32, 085 

33, 586 
1,915 
6,455 

23, 338 
3,313 
38, 342 
11,803 
84, 664 


$1,117 

36,017 

683 

15, 005 

24, 800 

32, 259 

1,916 

5,436 

7,911 

1,810 

16,216 

4,647 

75, 478 


Pounds 
3,494 
28, 257 
2,083 

22, 893 

23, 934 
41,948 

1,272 
7,680 
41,881 
852 
26, 219 
14, 220 
66, 357 


$6, 243 




21, 783 




3,720 




20, 354 


Cuba 


21, 182 




33, 259 




1,192 




5,825 




16, 271 




614 




13, 065 




7,017 




42, 572 






Total -. 


298, 242 


223, 295 


271, 090 


193, 097 







108 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS 
Table AO.— Coal-tar products: Domestic exports — Continued 

OTHER COLORS, DYES, AND STAINS 





1929 


1930 


Exported to— 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Belgium - . - - 


Poitnds 

1, 593, 928 

122, 135 

9,822 

455, 713 

13, 172 

67, 247 

21, 668 

1, 870, 498 

177, 366 

42, 005 

578, 426 

1, 467, 512 

24, 514, 990 

645, 949 

1, 805, 016 

4,399 

201, 292 

893 

1,879 

4,584 

233, 589 


$340, 276 

28,295 

10, 437 

197, 578 

3,369 

55, 236 

14,854 

935, 995 

66, 819 

24, 295 

229, 966 

628, 723 

3, 215, 200 

150, 798 

1, 053, 516 

2,272 

28, 798 

1,075 

1,095 

2,574 

64, 620 


Pounds 

1, 197, 456 

207, 963 

133, 464 

538, 220 

37, 659 

91, 796 

20, 028 

1, 841, 708 

228, 076 

33, 365 

322, 310 

1,404,167 

19, 409, 044 

438,418 

1,313,484 

247,010 

106, 293 

1, 328 

7,310 

5,767 

411, 384 


$318,870 




63, 720 




80, 340 




103, 898 


Netherlands - - 


10, 527 




79, 590 




11, 190 




881, 425 




97, 644 


Cuba 


19, 360 




134,910 




616, 307 


China 


2, 467, 645 




95, 161 




775, 745 


Italy - 


109, 355 




14,428 




1,045 




1,995 




2,379 




161, 199 








33, 832, 083 


7, 055, 791 


27, 996, 250 


6, 052, 733 







MEDICINALS 



Exported to— 



1929 



Quantity 



Value 



1930 



Quantity 



Value 



China 

United Kingdom.. 

Canada 

Mexico 

Cuba 

Argentina 

British India 

Japan 

Australia 

All other countries 

Total 



Pounds 
9,610 
5,712 

65, 566 

23, 140 

6,269 

126 

8,436 

23, 758 
3,425 

36, 981 



183, 023 



$7,031 

4,448 
17, 967 
62, 207 

2,293 
510 

6,969 
20, 130 

3,131 
60, 168 



Pounds 

41.273 

70 

775, 451 

11, 101 

263 

162 

9,693 

79, 565 

1,284 

14, 776 



184, 854 



933, 638 



$23,613 

234 

69, 726 

15, 976 

200 

267 

14, 654 

44, 565 

1,118 

19, 029 



189, 381 



LAMINATED SYNTHETIC RESIN SHEETS AND PLATES ' 





Exported to— 


1929 


1930 




Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


United Kingdom 






Pounds 

950 

8,970 

1,040 

1,565 

501 


$884 


Canada. 






6,454 


Cuba 






1,061 


Japan 






1,029 


All other countries , 






506 












Total 






13,026 


9,934 











» Not reported separately previous to 1930. 



STATISTICS OF DOMESTIC IMPORTS AND EXPORTS 



109 



Table 40. — Coal-tar products: Domestic exports — Continued 
OTHER SYNTHETIC RESIN PRODUCTS AND MANUFACTURES 





Exported to— 


1929 


1930 




Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


France 








$23, 424 
13 532 


Italy.-. 








United Kingdom 








27, 212 


Canada 








81 899 


All other countries.. 








17 643 














Total 








163, 710 











1 Not reported separately previous to 1930. 

OTHER FINISHED COAL-TAR PRODUCTS 



Exported to— 



1929 



Quantity Value 



Quantity Value 



Belgium 

France 

Germany 

Italy 

United Kingdom... 

Canada 

Mexico 

Cuba 

Argentina 

Brazil.. 

Colombia 

Peru 

China 

Japan 

Australia 

Philippine Islands. 
All other countries. 



Pounds 



6,299 

3,075 

1,698 

681, 468 

325, 124 

79, 329 

51, 022 

25, 625 

9,894 

13, 495 

25, 754 

53, 489 

29, 665 

49, 642 

38, 789 

116,054 



Total 1,510,322 



$2, 624 

952 

98 

69, 959 

83, 662 

11,315 

11,114 

13, 041 

6,216 

4,384 

5,165 

48,323 

10, 052 

7,945 

28, 205 

36, 140 



Pounds 

4,974 

2,175 

98, 995 

2,525 

117,479 

266, 168 

31,046 

92, 283 

31,300 

3,741 

112, 895 

69, 788 

11,858 

57, 612 

37, 528 

54, 320 

207, 903 



339, 195 



1, 202, 590 



$2, 157 
1,512 

12, 656 
300 

17,566 
56, 014 

6,885 
20, 429 
20, 583 

3.228 
17,956 

13, 200 
8,938 

27, 456 
6,965 
29, 886 
61,027 



306, 768 



Directory of manufacturers of dyes and other synthetic organic chemicals, 1930 



No. 



Name of company 



Abbott Laboratories, The 

Ad-Co Color Corporation 

Algon Color & Chemical Corporation 

Alston-Lucas Paint Co... 

Althouse Chemical Co., The 

Alyco Manufacturing Co. (Inc.) 

Amalgamated Dyestufl & Chemical Works 

(Inc.). 
.\merican Aniline Products (Inc.) 

American Catalin Corporation 

American Chemical Products Co 

American Solvents & Chemical Corpora- 
tion. 
American Tar Products Co. (Inc.) 

Ansbacher-Siegle Corporation. . _ 

Apex Chemical Corporation (Inc.) 

Atlantic Creosoting Co. (Inc.) 

Baird & McGuire (Inc.) 

Barrett Co., The 



Office address (location of plant given in parentheses 
if not in same city as office) 



4753 East Ravenswood Avenue, Chicago, 111. (North 

Chicago, 111.). 
24 Avenue B, Newark, N. J. 

132 Front Street, New York, N. Y. (Elizabeth, N. J.). 
1031 Currier Street, Chicago, 111. 
.540 Pear Street, Reading, Pa. 
86 Orange Street, Bloomfield, N. J. 
75 Hudson Street, New York, N. Y. (Newark, N. J.) 

45 East Seventeenth Street, New York, N. Y. (Lock 

230 Park Avenue, New York, N. Y. (Fords, N. J.). 

7 Litchfield Street, Rochester, N. Y. 

122 East Fortv-second Street, New York, N. Y. 

(Albany, N. Y.) 
Koppers Building, Pittsburgh, Pa. (Cicero, 111. 

Youngstown, Ohio; St. Louis, Mo.; Woodward, Ala. 

Carrollville, Wis.; Follansbee, W. Va.; Utica, N. Y. 

Kearny, N. J.; St. Paul, Minn.; Hamilton, Ohio). 
50 LTnion Square, New York, N. Y. 

(Rosebank, Staten Island, N. Y.). 
225 West Thirtv-fourth Street, New York, N. Y. 

(Elizabethport, N.J.) 
P.O. Box 902, Norfolk, Va. 
Holbrook, Mass. 
40 Rector Street, New York, N. Y. (Plants distributed 

throughout the United States.) 



110 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS 

Directory of manufacturers of dyes and other synthetic organic chemicals, 1930 — Con. 



Name of company 



Office address Gocation of plant given in parentheses 
if not in same city as office) 



Bates Chemical Co-. _ 

Bayer Co. (Inc.), The 

Beaver Chemical Works (Inc.) 

Beaver Manufacturing Co --. 

Belle Chemical Co 

Benzol Products Co --- 

Berkheimer Manufacturing Co., J. E 

Brooklyn Color Works (Inc.) 

Brown Co-- - - 

Bush & Co. (Inc.), W. J 

Cable Chemical Works _ 

Calco Chemical Co. (Inc.), The 

California Chemical Corporation 

California Ink Co. (Inc.), The.. 

Carbide & Carbon Chemicals Corporation 

Carus Chemical Co. (Inc.) 

Celluloid Corporation 

Childs Pulp Colors (Inc.) 

Cincinnati Chemical Works (Inc.) 

Citro Chemical Co 

Coleman & Bell Co., The. 

Commonwealth Color & Chemical Co 

Consolidated Color & Chemical Co 

Continental-Diamond Fibre Co 

Cooks Falls Dye Works (Inc.). 

Coopers Creek Chemical Co 

Delta Chemical & Iron Co 

Diarsenol Co. (Inc.) 

Dow Chemical Co., The 

DuPont Ammonia Corporation 

DuPont de Nemours & Co., E. I 

Durium Products Corporation 

Dvestuffs & Chemicals (Inc.) 

Eakins, Inc., J. S. & W. R.. 

Eastman Kodak Co 

Federal Color Laboratories, (Inc.) 

Felton Chemical Co. (Inc.) _.. 

Fine Colors Co. (Inc.) 

Florasynth Laboratories (Inc.) 

Ford Motor Co 

Foster-Heaton Co 

Franco-American Chemical Works 

Fries Bros 

Fries & Co. (Inc.), George Q 

Gebauer Chemical Co., The.. 

General -\niline Works (Inc.) 

Oivaudan-Delawanna (Inc.) 

Qlyco Products Co. (Inc.).. . 

Goodrich Co., The B. F 

Grasselli Chemical Co. (Inc.), The 

Great Western Electro-Chemical Co.. ... 

Hall Co., The C. P 

Hampden Paint & Chemical Co.. 

Harmon Color Works (Inc.)... 

Heyden Chemical Corporation.. 

Holland Aniline Dye Co 

Hooker Electrochemical Co 

Hynson, Westcott & Dunning 

Imperial Color Works (Inc.) 

Inland Tar Co.... 

International Combustion Tar & Chemical 
Corporation. 

Jennison- Wright Co., The 

Johnson & Co., Charles Eneu 

Kavalco Products (Inc.) 

Kent Color Corporation 



Lansdowne, Pa. 

170 Varick Street, New York, N. Y. (Rensselaer, 

N. Y.) 
Damascus, Va. 
Ballardvale, Mass. 
495 Portland Street, Belleville, N. J. 
237 South Street, Newark, N. J. (Piscataway, N. J.) 
2928 South M Street, Tacoma, Wash. 
129 Cherry Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
404 Commercial Street, Portland, Me. (Berlin, N. H.) 
370 Seventh Avenue, New York, N. Y. (Linden, 

N.J.) 
18.5 North Wabash Avenue, Chicago, HI. (Cable, 

Wis.) 
Bound Brook, N. J. 
Ill Sutter Street, San Francisco, Calif. (Newark, San 

Mateo, and Chula Vista, Calif.) 
545 Sansome Street, San Francisco, Calif. (West 

Berkeley, Cahf.) 
30 East Forty-second Street, New York, N. Y. (South 

Charleston, W. Va.; Niagara Falls, N. Y.) 
1377 Eighth Street, LaSalle, 111. 
290 Ferrv Street, Newark, N. J. 
43 Summit Street, Brooklj-n, N. Y. 
Evanston Station, Bo.\ 20, Cincinnati, Ohio. (Nor- 
wood and St. Bernard, Ohio.) 

199 Maywood Avenue, Maywood, N. J. 
4101 Main Avenue, Norwood, Ohio. 

Nevins, Butler and Baltic Streets, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
230 Fifth Avenue, New York, N. Y. (Rensselaer, 

N. Y.) 
Newark, Del. (Bridgeport, Pa.) 
99 John Street, New York, N. Y. (Cooks Falls, N. Y.) 
River Road, West Conshohocken, Pa. 
Wells, Mich. 

771 EUicott Square, Buflalo, N. Y. 
Midland, Mich. 

DuPont Building, Wilmington, Del. (Belle, W. Va.) 
Wilmington, Del. (Deep Water Point, N. J.) 
460 West Thirty-fourth Street, New York, N. Y. 
Eleventh ahd Monroe Streets, St. Louis, Mo. 
55 Berry Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
343 State Street, Rochester, N. Y. 
4033 Forest Avenue, Norwood, Ohio. 
599 Johnson Avenue, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
21 McBride Avenue, Paterson, N.J. 
1513 Olmstead Avenue, New York, N. Y. (Bronx, 

N. Y.). 
Iron Mountain, Mich. (Kingsford, Mich.). 
833 M.agnolia Avenue, Elizabeth, N. J. 
Carlstadt, N. J. 
92 Reade Street, New York, N. Y. (Bloomfield, N. J.) 

160 Fifth Avenue, New York, N. Y. (Long Island, 
N. Y.). 

826 Hanna Building, Cleveland, Ohio. 

1150 Broadway, New York, N. Y. (Grasselli, N. J.; 

Rensselaer, N. Y.). 
Delawanna Avenue, Delawanna, N. J. 
33 Thirty-fifth Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Akron, Ohio. 

Guardian Building, Cleveland, Ohio (Newark, N. J.). 
9 Main Street, San Francisco, Calif. (Pittsburg, Calif.). 
.504 Akron Savings & Loan Building, Akron, Ohio. 

161 Armory Street, Springfield, Mass. 
361 Harmon Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

50 Union Square, New York, N. Y. (Garfield and 
Perth Amboy, N. J.). 

R. F. D. 4, Holland, Mich. 

60 East Fortv-second Street, New York, N. Y. (Niag- 
ara Falls, N. Y.). 

1030 North Charles Street, Baltimore, Md. 

Glens Falls, N. Y. 

38 South Dearborn Street, Chicago, 111. (East Chicago, 
Ind.). 

200 Madison Avenue, New York, N. Y. (Chicago, 111.; 
Newark. N. J.; Fairmont, W. Va.; Chattanooga,, 
Tenn.; Granite City, 111.; Dover, Ohio). 

Kreolite Building, Toledo, Ohio. 

509 Soutli Tenth Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Nitro, W. Va. 

2 South Ninth Street, Brooklvn, N. Y. 



DIRECTORY OF MANUFACTURERS 111 

Directory of manufacturers of dyes and other synthetic organic chemicals, 19S0 — Con. 



Name of company 



OflSce address (location of plant given in parentheses 
if not in same city as office) 



Kentucky Color & Chemical Co 

Kessler Chemical Corporation, The 

Klipstein & Sons Co. (Inc.), E. C 

Kohnstaram & Co. (Inc.), H 

Lactein Co., The 

LaMotte Chemical Products Co 

Lilly & Co., Eli... 

Lncidol Corporation 

Makalot Corporation 

Mallinckrodt Chemical Works.. 

Marietta Dyestulls Co 

Marx Color & Chemical Co., Mas 

Matawan Coal Tar Products Corporation. 

Maywocd Chemical Works... 

Mepham & Co., Geo. S 

Merck & Co. (Inc.) 

Merriniac Chemical Co. (Inc.) 

Metz Laboratories (Inc.), H. A 

Monsanto Chemical Works.. 

National Aniline & Chemical Co. (Inc.)^. 

Naugatuck Chemical Co., The 

Neville Co., The 

Newport Chemical Corporation 

Newport Chemical Works (Inc.) 

Newport Manufacturing Co.. 

New York Color & Chemical Co. (Inc.)... 
New York Quinine & Chemical Works 

(Inc.). 
Niacet Chemicals Corporation 

Niagara Smelting Corporation.. 

NoU Chemical & Color Works (Inc.) 

Northwestern Chemical Co 

Novocol Chemical Manufacturing Co. 
(Inc.). 

Oldbury Electro Chemical Co 

Pacific By-Products Co 

Palatine Aniline & Chemical Corporation. 

Peerless Color Co 

Pennyslvania Coal Products Co 

Petroleum Chemical Corporation 

Pharma-Chemical Corporation. 

Pittsburgh Plate Glass Co 

Portland Gas & Coke Co 

Providence Laboratories (Inc.) 

Quaker Oats Co., The... 

Roessler & Hasslacher Chemical Co., The. 

Rubber Service Laboratories Co., The 

Selden Co., The 

Seydel Chemical Co 

Sherwin-Williams Co., The... 

Simons (Inc.), Harold L 

Sinclair & Valentine Co 

Solvay Process Co., The 

Squibb & Sons, E. R 

Standard Ultramarine Co., The. 

Stange Co., WUliam J 

Stokes & Smith Co. (Durite Plastics Co.). 

Sun Chemical & Color Co 

Swann Chemical Co 

Synfleur Scientific Laboratories, Inc 

Tar Products Corporation 



Thirty-fourth Street, south of Bank Street, Louisville, 

Ky. 
575 Nassau Street, Orange, N.J. 
Empire State Building, New York, N. Y. (South 

Charleston, W. Va.). 
87 Park Place, New York, N. Y. (Brooklyn, N. Y.). 
640 Sixth Street, San Francisco, Calif. 
McCormick Building, Baltimore, Md. 
Indianapolis, Ind. 
293 Larkin Street, Buffalo, N. Y. 
262 Washington Street, Boston Mass. (Waltham, 

Mass.) 
3600 North Second Street, St. Louis, Mo. 
•110 Peoples Bank Building, Marietta, Ohio. 
192 Coit Street, Irvington, N.J. 
123 Liberty Street, New York, N. Y. (Matawan, 

N.J.) 
May wood, N.J. 

Twentieth Street and Lynch Avenue, East St. Louis, 111. 
Rahway, N. J. (Rahway, N. J.; Philadelphia, Pa.) 
148 State Street, Boston, Mass. (Everett, Mass.) 
170 Varick Street, New York, N. Y. (Brooklyn, N. 

Y.; Newark, N. J.) 
1724 South Second Street, St. Louis, Mo. (St. Louis, 

Mo.; Monsanto, 111.) 
40 Rector Street, New York, N. Y. (Buffalo, N. Y.) 
Naugatuck, Conn. 

1004 Diamond Bank Building, Pittsburgh, Pa. (Ne- 
ville Island, Pa.) 
P. O. Box "M" South Milwaukee, Wis. (Carroll- 

ville. Wis.; Passaic, N. J.) 
P. O. Box "M", South Milwaukee, Wis. (New 

Brunswick, N. J.) 
P. O. Box "M" South Milwaukee, Wis. (Carroll- 

ville. Wis., Passaic, N. J.) 
Belleville, N. J. 
99 North Eleventh Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Pine Avenue and Forty-seventh Street, Niagara Falls, 

N. Y. 
420 Lexington Avenue, New York, N. Y. (Niagara 

Falls, N. Y.). 
152 West One hundred and eighth Street, New York, 

N. Y. 
Wauwatosa, Wis. 
2923 Atlantic Avenue, Brooklyn, N. Y, 

Niagara Falls, N. Y. 

San Jose, Calif. 

77 North Water Street, Poughkeepsie, N. Y. 

521 North Avenue, Plainfleld, N. J. 

Petrolia, Pa. 

52 William Street, New York, N. Y. (Barnsdall, 

Okla.). 
233 Broadway, New York, N. Y. (Bayonne, N. J.) 
P. O. Box 1575, Milwaukee, Wis. 
206 Sixth Street, Portland, Oreg. 
233 Charles Street, Providence, R. I. 
141 West Jackson Boulevard, Chicago, 111. (Cedar 

Rapids, Iowa.) 

10 East Fortieth Street, New York, N. Y. (Perth 
Ambov, N. J.; Niagara Falls, N. Y.) 

Nitro, W. Va. 

McCartnev Street, West End, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

86 Forest Street, Jersey City, N. J. (Nitro, W. Va.) 

101 Prospect Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio. (Chicago, 

111.) 
11-23 Forty-fourth Road, Long Island City, N. Y. 

11 St. Clair Place, New York, N. Y. 

Syracuse, N. Y. (Geddes, Onondago County, N. Y.) 
745 Fifth Avenue, New York, N. Y. (New Brunswick, 

N. J.; Brooklyn, N. Y.) 
Huntington, W. Va. 
2549 Madison Street, Chicago, 111. 
Summerdale Avenue, near Roosevelt Boulevard, 

Philadelphia, Pa. 
309 Sussex Street, Harrison, N. J. 
Birmingham, Ala. (Anniston, Ala.) 
33 Oakley Avenue, Monticello, N. Y. 
Koppers BuOding, Pittsburgh, Pa. (Providence, 

R. I.; Hartford and New Haven, Conn.) 



112 CENSUS OF DYES AND OTHER SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS 

Directory of manufacturers of dyes and other synthetic organic chemicals, 1930 — Con. 



No. 



Name of company 



Office address Gocation of plant given in parentheses 
if not in same city as office) . 



142 
143 

144 

145 

146 
147 
148 

149 
150 
151 

152 
153 

154 
155 

156 



Uhlich & Co. (Inc.) Paul 

United States Industrial Chemical Co 

Van Amerigen-Haebler (Inc.) -.- 

Van Dyk and Co. (Inc.) - 

Van Schaack Bros. Chemical Works (Inc.) 

Verona Chemical Co -. 

Victor Chemical Works 

Wailes Dove-Hermiston Corporation 

Warner-Jenkinson Manufacturing Co 

Western Industries Co 

White Chemical Co., The Wilbur 

White Tar Co. of New Jersey (Inc.), The.. 

Wilhelm Co., The A.. .._ 

WolS-Alport Chemical Corporation 

Zinsser & Co. (Inc.) 



11 Cliflf Street, New York, N. Y. (Brooklyn, N. Y.) 
60 East Forty-second Street, New York, N. Y. (South 

Baltimore, Md.) 
315 Fourth Avenue, New York, N. Y. (Elizabeth, 

N.J.) 
50 West Seventeenth Street, New York, N. Y. (Jersey 

City, N. J.) 
3358 Avondale Avenue, Chicago, 111. 
26 Verona Avenue, Newark, N. J. 
343 South Dearborn Street, Chicago, 111. (Chicago 

Heights, 111.) 
17 Battery Place, New York, N. Y. (Westfleld, N. J.) 
2526 Baldwin Street, St. Louis, Mo. 
110 Sutter Street, San Francisco, Calif. (Stege, 

Calif.) 
Owego, N. Y. 
1201 Koppers Building, Pittsburgh, Pa. (Kearny, 

N. J.; Cincinnati, Ohio.) 
Third and Bern Streets, Reading, Pa. 
593 Irving Avenue, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Railroad Avenue, Hastings-upon-Hudson, N. Y. 



o