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Full text of "Synthetic organic chemicals"

BOSTON 

PUBLIC 
LIBRARY 




/ 33: 

7?G 

UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION 



SYNTHETIC 
ORGANIC CHEMICALS 

United States Production 
and Sales, 1976 



USITC Publication 833 




RECENT REPORTS OF THE UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION ON 

SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS 

♦Synthetic Organic Chemicals, United States Production and Sales, 1971 (TC Publication 614 
1973), $2.70 

Synthetic Organic Chemicals, United States Production and Sales, 1972 (TC Publication 681 
1974), $2.70 

♦Synthetic Organic Chemicals, United States Production and Sales, 1973 (ITC Publication 728 
1975), $3.25 

Synthetic Organic Chemicals, United States Production and Sales, 1974 (USITC Publication 
776, 1976), $3.20 

Synthetic Organic Chemicals, United States Production and Sales, 1975 (USITC Publication 
804, 1977), $3.10 



NO I E. — The reports preceded by an asterisk (*) are out of print. Theotlier reports listed above may be purchase 
from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. All IS. bate 
national Trade Commission reports reproduced by the Government Printing Office may be consulted in the officii 
depository libraries throughout the I'nitcd States. 



UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION 



SYNTHETIC 
ORGANIC CHEMICALS 

United States Production 
and Sales, 1976 



l I.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
WASHINGTON : 1977 



USITC Publication 833 



UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION 



COMMISSIONERS 

Daniel Minchew 
Chairman 

Joseph O. Parker 
Vice Chairman 

George M. Moore 

Catherine Bedell 

Italo H. Ablondi 



Kenneth R. Mason 
Secretary to the Commission 



OFFICE OF INDUSTRIES 

This report was prepared principally by Roger Adams, David B. Beck, 
Tedford C. Briggs, Edmund Cappuccilli, Louis N. DeToro, John J. 
Gersic, Anne Klein, J. Ross Lewis, Thomas O'Connell, and K. James 
O'Connor, Jr. 

Assistance in the preparation of this report was provided by Mildred 
Higgs, Frances Battle, Sharon Greenfield, Linda Hoover, Ralph Gray, 
Kenneth Kozel, and Charlotte Alderman. Automatic Data Processing 
input was provided by Patricia Augustine, James Gill, and Dean Stout 

Please address all communications to 

UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION 

Washington, D.C. 20436 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402 
Stock Number 049-000-00046- 1 



^ 



CONTENTS 

Page 

Introduction 1 

Summary 3 

General 4 

Tar 7 

Tar crudes 7 

Primary products from petroleum and natural gas for 

chemical conversion 19 

Cyclic intermediates 25 

Dyes 73 

Organic pigments 112 

Medicinal chemicals 123 

Flavor and perfume materials 154 

Plastics and resin materials 181 

Rubber-processing chemicals 191 

Elastomers 201 

Plasticizers 215 

Surface-active agents 225 

Pesticides and related products 263 

Miscellaneous End-Use Chemicals and Chemical Products 282 

Miscellaneous Cyclic and Acyclic Chemicals 298 

APPENDIX 

Directory of manufacturers 341 

U.S. imports of benzenoid chemicals and products 354 

Cyclic intermediates: Glossary of synonymous names-- 356 



INTRODUCTION 



This is Che sixtieth annual report of the U.S. International Trade Commission on domestic production and sales 
of synthetic organic chemicals and the raw materials from which they are made. The report consists of 15 sec- 
tions, each covering a specified group (based principally on use) of organic chemicals as follows: Tar and tar 
crudes; primary products from petroleum and natural gas; intermediates; dyes; pigments; medicinal chemicals; flavor 
and perfume materials; plastics and resin materials; rubber-processing chemicals; elastomers; plasticizers; surface- 
active agents; pesticides and related products; miscellaneous end-use chemicals and chemical products; and miscel- 
laneous cyclic and acyclic chemicals. Data have been supplied by approximately 800 producers. 



The first table in each section gives statistics on produ 
possible without revealing the operations of individual produc 
of chemicals are given only when there are three or more produ 
over, even when there are three or more producers, statistics 
publication would violate the statutory provisions relating to 
fidence by the Commission. 1 



:ts and groups of products in as great detail as is 
:rs. Statistics for an individual chemical or group 
:ers, no one or two of which may be predominant. More- 
ire not given if there is any possibility that their 
unlawful disclosure of information accepted in con- 



Data are reported by producers f 
exceeds certain minimums. Those mini 
value of sales with the following exc 
medicinal chemicals, flavor and perfu 
$1,000. They are usually given in te 
idered to be 100 percent pure 



and 



TIk' 



Dlvents; such 



only those items where the volume of production or sales or value of sale 
ms for all sections are 5,000 pounds of production or sales and $5,000 of 
tions: Plastics and resin materials— 50,000 pounds or $50,000; pigments, 

materials, rubber-processing chemicals, and elastomers — 1,000 pounds or 
s of undiluted materials; however, products of 95 percent or more purity 

Commercial concentrations are applied to dyes, certain plastics and resin 



tions are specifically noted. 

11 known d 



statistics given in this report include data f 
elude the total output of each company's plants, i.e., the quantit 
plant, as well as the quantities produced for domestic and foreign 
therefore, generally exceed the quantities reported as sold. Some 
to changes in inventory. 



: producers of the item covered and in 
produced for consumption within the producin 
le. The quantities reported as produced, 
these differences, however, are attributable 



The second table in each section lists all ite 
ary manufacturers, identified by manufacturers' 
which is assigned on a permanent basis. 



which data 
Each code 



Dr sales have been reported, by 
ot more than three capital let- 



alphabetized by the codes of the manufactu 



Table 
and include 



of the Appendix is 
their office addre 



alphabetized by the 



of the manufacturers reporting in all 



Table 2 of the Appendix summariz 
Intermediates and finished benzenoid 
the United States. 



of U.S. general imports 
parts IB and 1C, of the 



in 1976 of benzenoid 
Tariff Schedules of 



Table 3 of the Appendix lists synonymous names for cyclic intermediates. Infor 
of the organic chemicals included in this report may be found in the SOCMA Handbook: 
Names, published by the Chemical Abstracts Service of the American Chemical Society, 
Third Edition), published jointly by the Society of Dyes and Colourists and the Amer 
Chemists and Colourists. 



lation on all synonymous naaes 
Commercial Organic Chemical 
or the Colour Index (Revised 
can Association of Textile 



cified in the reporting instr 
are defined as follows: 



production and 



PRODUCTION is the total quantity of a commodity made available 
by ORIGINAL MANUFACTURERS ONLY within the customs territory 
of the United States (includes the 50 states, the District 
of Columbia, and Puerto Rico). It covers synthetic organic 
chemicals, specified crudes from petroleum and coal tar, and 
certain chemically described natural products, such as, 
alkaloids, enzymes, and perfume isolates. It is the sum — 
expressed in terms of 100% active ingredient unless other- 
wise specified in the reporting instructions — of the quan- 
tities: 
Produced, separated, and consumed in the same plant or 
establishment. A commodity is considered separated 
either when it is isolated from the reaction system 
or when it is not isolated, but weighed, analyzed, 
or otherwise measured. This includes byproducts 
and co-products that are not classifiable as waste 
materia Is; 



Title 18, U.S.C. 1905 and Title 44, U.S.C. 3508. 



INTRODUCTION 



Produced and not isolated, but directly ■ converted to 
a finished or semifinished item not included in 
this report (e.g., polyester film, polyurethane 
tires, nylon fiber, bar soap, etc.). (See specific 
instructions in individual sections) ; 

Produced and transferred to other plants or establish- 
ments of the same firm or 100%-owned subsidiaries 
or affiliates; 

Produced and sold to, or bartered with, other firms 
(including less than 100% owned subsidiaries); 

Produced for others under toll agreements (see gen- 
eral instructions) ; 

Produced and held in stock. 

PRODUCTION EXCLUDES : 

Purification of a commodity, which is purchased by, or ^ 
transferred from within, your company, unless inclusion 
of such processing is specifically requested in the 
reporting instructions for individual sections; 

Intermediate products which are formed in the manufact- 
uring process, but are not isolated from the reaction 
system — that is, not weighed, analyzed, or otherwise 
measured; except such products as described above as 
being produced and not isolated, but directly converted 
to a finished or semifinished item. 

Materials that are used in the process but which are 
recovered for re-use or sale; 

Waste products having no economic significance. 

SALES are actual quantities of commodities sold 



MANUFACTURERS ONLY . Sales include the quantity and value of: 
Shipments of a commodity for domestic use or for 
export, or segregation in a warehouse when title 
has passed to the purchaser in a bona fide sale; 
Shipments of a commodity produced for you by others 

under toll agreements; 
Shipments to subsidiary or affiliated companies, pro- 
vided the ownership is less than 200%. 

SALES EXCLUDES : 

All intra-company transfers within a corporate entity; 
All shipments to 100% owned subsidiary or affiliated 

companies; 
All resales of imported or purchased material, including 

materials obtained by barter; 
All shipments of a commodity produced for others under 

toll agreements. 

VALUE OF SALES is the net selling price f.o.b. plant or ware- 
house, or delivered price. F.o.b. prices are preferred, 
but if they are not readily available from your records, 
delivered prices are acceptable. 



SUMMARY 



Combined produ 



af all synthetic organic chemi 



i u,],' 



nd primary produ 



petr 



and natural gas in 1976 was 289,292 million pounds — an increase of 17.3 percent over the output in 1975 (see table 
1). Sales of these materials in 1976, which totaled 151,760 million pounds valued at $33,657 million, were 11.3 
percent larger than in 1975 in terms of quantity and 19.0 percent larger in terms of value. These figures include 
data on proudction and sales of chemicals measured at several successive steps in the manufacturing process, and 
therefore, they necessarily reflect some duplication. 



howevt 
petrol 



In 19 76 prodi 
totaled 162,873 m: 
decrease in production of 37.0 per 
to the section on primary products 
high apparent increase in production. Pesti 
percent from 1975, was the only other sectio 
million pounds) lead the increase with a gai 
greater than in 1975; flavor and perfume mat 
pounds) increased 24.4 percent; plastics and 
(synthetic rubber) (5,386 million pounds) in 



of all synthetic organic chemicals, including cyclic intermed 
pounds, or 4.9 percent more than the output in 1975. Cyclic 



eluded 



ates and finished products, 
ntermediates showed an apparent 
this section were transferred 
n, therefore, shows 'an inordinately 
pounds), with a decline of 14.9 
n production. Rubber-processing chemicals (384 
ic pigments (68 million pounds) were 36.4 percent 
ds) increased 27.1 percent; dyes (256 million 
n materials (29,680 million pounds) increased 19.4 percent; elastomers 
ed 17.6 percent; plasticizers (1,587 million pounds) increased 17.4 



des and 
to exhibit 
of 37.6 percen 
ials (129 mill 



items previously 
tural gas. This latte 
lated products (1,364 



decli 



orga 



percent; medicinal chemicals (236 milli 
pounds) increased 5.4 percent. The sec 
cyclic and acyclic chemicals were previ 
these two new sections show an increase 



>n pounds) increased 13.2 percent; a 
lions on miscellaneous end-use chemi 
msly included in the section listed 
of 15.3 percent over the output of 



sllaneous chemicals 



(4,582 million 
ts and miscellaneous 
als. Together 
in 1975. 



TALLE 1. —Synthetic organic chemicals and their raw materials; 

U.S. PRODUCTION AND SALES, 1975 AND 1975 







PRODUCTION 






SALES 








QUANTITY 


VALUE 




1975 


1976 


Increase, 

decrease 
(-), 1976 

1975 1 


1975 


1976 


Increase, 

decrease 
(-), 1976 
over 
1975' 


1975 


1976 


Increase, 

decrease 
(-), 1976 

1975 1 


Grand Total 2 


Mil ' ■■ 
pounds 

246,587 


Million 

pounds 

289,292 


Percent 
17.3 


Million 
pounds 

135,773 


Mi I lion 
pounds 

151,760 


Percent 
11.8 


pounds 
28,293 


.'■.':','. 1; ■! 
pounds 

33,657 


Percent 
19.0 




6,455 
6,797 

73,089 


6,364 

7,182 

112,873 


-1.4 
5.7 

44.5 


2,848 
4,378 

44,562 


2,905 

4,519 

59,083 


2.0 
3.2 

32.6 


99 
268 

2,908 


96 
285 

5,490 


-3.0 
6.3 

83.7 


Primary products from Petroleum 



Synthetic organi 
total 2 



Cyclic intermedia 
Dyes 

Organic pigments- 
Medicinal chemica 
Flavor and perfum 



Plastics and resin 

materials 

Rubber-processing chemicals 

Elastomers (synthetic 

rubber) 

Plas t ic i zers 

Surface-active agents 

Pesticides and related 

produc ts 

Miscellaneous end-use chem- 
icals and chemical products 5 - 

Miscellaneous cyclic and 

acyclic chemicals 5 



31,412 
206 



24,868 
279 

4,579 
1,352 
4,349 



19,796 
256 
68 
236 

129 

29,680 
334 

5,386 
1,587 
4,582 

1,364 

15,851 

83,553 



4.9 

-37.0 
24.4 
36.4 
13.2 

27.1 

19.4 
37.6 

17.6 
17.4 
5.4 



14,780 
209 



20,9 iS 
204 

3,948 
1,338 
2,182 



7,664 
250 
54 
161 

111 

24,337 
224 

3,710 
1,466 
2,512 

1,193 

9,160 

33,912 



-48.2 
19.7 
27.9 



19.5 
9.8 

-6.0 
9.6 

15.1 



3,169 
476 
186 



7,003 
207 

1,458 

470 
717 

2,366 
( 7,971) 



27,786 

2,387 
620 
261 
742 

195 



1,529 
566 
821 

2,410 

2,251 

7,137 



11.4 

-24.7 
30.4 
40.4 
-4.0 

36.2 

23.1 
19.3 

4.9 
-21.1 
14.5 



Percentages calculated from figures rounded to thousands. 

2 Because of rounding, figures may not add to the totals shown. 

J Estimated in part to avoid disclosing individual company operations. 

" The large increases in 1976 over 1975 for primary products from petroleum and natural gas, and decreases for 
intermediates were caused, in part, by the transfer, in 1976, of echylbenzene, cyclohexane, styrene, m-xylene, 
o-xylene, p-xylene, and cumene, from the intermediates section to the primary products from petroleum and natural 
gas section. 

5 Items in these two sections were previously Included in the section named miscellaneous chemicals 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1976 



GENERAL 



repor 
>, dye 



svntht- 



c organi 
pigment 



chemi 






of thei 



al chemi 



elude 



essing materials, elastomers, plasticizers, surf a 
us end-use chemicals and chemical products, and mi 
further subdivided either by use or by chemical c 
of finished products, aggregate figures that co\ 
siderable duplication. 



flavor and perfu 



pri 



:ipal 
plast 



folio 



cycli 



;ents, pesticides and related products, 
cyclic and acyclic chemicals. Most of these 

As intermediate chemicals are used in the 
irmediates and finished products necessarily 



Total production of synthetic organic chemicals (intermediates and finished products combined) in 1976 was 162,873 
million pounds or 4.9 percent more than the output of 155,246 million pounds reported for 1975 and 55.5 percent more 
than the output of 104,711 million pounds reported for 1967 (see table 2). Sales of synthetic organic chemicals in 1976 
amounted to 85,253 million pounds, valued at $27,786 million, compared with 33,990 million pounds, valued at $24,939 
million in 1975 and 55,177 million pounds, valued at $10,438 million in 1967. Production of all cyclic products (inter- 
mediates and finished products combined) in 1976 totaled 44,192 million pounds or 11.5 percent less than the 49,963 mil- 
lion pounds reported for 1975 and 32.0 percent more than the 33,479 million pounds reported for 1967, however, the 
transfer of several items, in 1976, from the cyclic intermediates section to the section on primary production from 
petroleum and natural gas has caused the output of cyclic products to appear much lower in relation to 1967 and 1975 
than would otherwise have resulted. Production of all acyclic products in 1976 totaled 118,681 million pounds, or 
12.7 percent more than the 105,283 million pounds reported for 1975 and 66.6 percent more than the 71,232 million 
pounds reported for 1967. 

TABLE 2, --SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS: Summary of U.S. production and sales 

OF INTERMEDIATES AND FINISHED PRODUCTS, 19G7, 1975, AND 1976 
[Production and sales in thousands of pounds; sales value in thousands of dollars] 



1967 1 



1975 



19 76 



1976 ove 
1967 



1976 ove 
1975 



Organic chemicals, cyclic and acycli 
Grand total: 
Production 

Sales 

Sales value 

Cyclic, total: 

Production 

Sales 

Sales value 

Acyclic, total: 

Production 

Sales 

Sales value 

i. Cyclic Intermediates 2 

Production 

Sales 

Sales value 

2. Dyes 

Production 

Sales 

Sales value 

3, Organic Pigments 

Production 

Sales 

Sales value 



104,711,357 
55,176,823 
10,438,453 



33,479,469 
19,328,628 
4,610,293 



71,231,888 
35,848,195 
5,828,160 



20,793,132 
9,461,180 
1,000,359 



206,240 
198,592 
332,049 



53,322 
42,867 
108,354 



155,245,961: 
83,990,306: 
24,938,928: 



49,962,996: 
28,562,903: 
11,316,374: 



105,232,965: 
55,427,403: 
13,622,554: 



31,412,575: 

14,779,570: 

3,169,243: 



206,034: 
203,763: 
475,609: 



49,653: 
42,372: 
185,990: 



162,873,300 
85,252,538 
27,785,930 



44,192,345 
23,993,824 
11,547,071 



118,680,955 
61,258,714 
16,238,859 



19,795,832 
7,663,691 
2,386,993 



256,250 
249,887 
620,294 



70.9 
178.6 



-19.0 
138.6 



24.2 
25.8 



-11.6 

-16.0 
2.0 



12.7 
10.5 
18.8 



-37.0 
-48.2 
-24.7 



24.4 
19.7 
30.4 



67,727 
54,211 
261,089 



4. Medicinal Chemicals 



Cyclic: 
Produc 
Sales- 
Sales 

Acyclic: 
Produc 
Sales- 
Sales 

See foot 



110,129 
70,120 
348,373 

69,941 
56,804 
36,402 



123,624: 
77,847: 
676,431: 

34,765: 
70,966: 
95,674: 



136,374 
79,581 
642,829 

99,431 
81,253 
93,692 



23.8 
13.5 
84.2 

42.2 
43.0 
171.1 



17.3 
14.5 



end of table. 



GENERAL 



IhbLc 2.— Synthetic organic chemicals: Summary of U.S. production and sales 
of intermediates and finished products, 1%7, 1375, and D76— Continued 



[Produ 



°f p° 



thousands of dollars] 



1967' 



19 76 ove 
1967 



5. Flavor and Perfume Materials 

Cyclic: 

Production 

Sales 

Sales value 

Acyclic: 

Production 

Sales 

Sales value 

6. Plasties and Resin Materials 

Cyclic: 

Produc t ion 

Sales 

Sales value 

Acyclic: 

Production 

Sales 

Sales value 



7. 



Rubber-Processing Chemicals 



Cyclic: 

Production 

Sales 

Sales value 

Acyclic: 

Production 

Sales 

Sales value 

8. Elastomers (Synthetic Rubber) 

Cyclic: 

Produc t ion 

Sales 

Sales value ' 

Acyclic: 

Production 

Sales 

Sales value 

9. Plasticizers 

Cyclic: 

Production 

Sales 

Sales value 

Acyclic: 

Production 

Sales 

Sales value 

10. Surface-Active Agents 

Cyclic: 5 

Produc t ion 

Sales 

Sales value 

Acyclic: 

Production 

Sales 

Sales value 



57,973 
47,285 
52,866 

53,550 
49,311 
40,495 



5,033,497 
4,224,121 
1,036,940 

8,759,452 
7,753,242 
1,635,690 



220,139 
169,970 
116,318 

43,994 
30,873 
15,477 



2,297,637 

1,940,099 

439,530 

1,524,908 

1,321,945 

434,657 



929,871 
865,084 
167,327 

332,908 
296,767 
93,142 



,418,444 
852,233 
95,810 

,060,851 
897,786 
220,877 



44,751 
33,044 
91,851 

56,589 
49,639 
51,580 



7,306,999 
6,696,592 
2,763,341 

17,060,723 
14,258,062 
4,219,701 



224,997 
172,637 
186,853 

53,995 
31,198 
20,040 



2,773,384 

2,302,339 

639,357 

1,799,841 

1,645,726 

818,335 



1,033,204 

1,042,138 

307,923 

313,498 
296,129 
162,467 



1,921,353 

1,084,899 

211,449 

2,423,039 

1,096,630 

505,972 



55,090 
48,503 
125,479 

73,756 
62,445 
69,84 3 



8,943,083 
7,684,865 
3,113,430 

20,737,169 
17,151,982 
5,505,923 



334,735 
186,393 
218,263 

49,688 
37,879 
28,594 



3,146,083 

1,970,636 

560,386 

2,239,717 

1,739,501 

968,676 



1,185,909 

1,110,869 

360,453 

401,525 
354,842 
205,812 



2,312,728 

1,393,489 

319,422 

2,269,670 

1,118,596 

501,818 



-5.0 : 

2.6 
137.4 



77.7 
81.9 
200.2 

136.7 
121.2 
236.6 



22.7 
84.8 



28.4 
114.8 

20.6 
19.6 
121.0 



63.0 
63.5 
233.4 



See fc 



at end of table 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1976 



TABLE 2.— Synthetic organic chemicals: Summary of U.S. production and sales 

OF INTERMEDIATES A:*ID FINISHED PRODUCTS 1967, 1975, AND 1975— CONTINUED 



thousands of 



Pesticides and Related Products 



Cyclic: 

Production 

Sales 

Sales value 

Acyclic: 

Production 

Sales 

Sales value 

12. Miscellaneous End-Use Chemicals and 
Chemical Products ** 

Cyclic: 

Production 

Sales 

Sales value 

Acyclic: 

Production 

Sales 

Sales value 

13. Miscellaneous Cyclic and Acyclic 
Chemicals ** 

Cyclic : 

Production 

Sales 

Sales value 

Acyclic: 

Production 

Sales 

Sales value 

1 Standard reference base period for Federal G< 

The large decrease for cyclic intermediates i 

cyclohexane, styrene, m- xylene, o-xylene t p-xyient 

products from petroleum and natural gas section. 

Includes ligninsulfonates. 

* Items in these two sections were previously : 



823,158 
681,532 
627,742 

226,505 
215,831 
159,301 



( 1,535,922) 
( 775,540) 
( 283,575) 

(58,159,771) 
(25,225,631) 
( 3,192,119) 



1,196,310 

964,739 

1,891,064 

406,706 
363,297 
475,319 



( 3,159,607) 
( 1,157,853) 
( 717,263) 

(83,078,809) 
(37,615,706) 
( 7,253,466) 



940,263 

838,814 

1,843,896 

424,128 
353,790 
566,238 



3,137,093 
909,875 
412,387 

12,713,987 
8,249,695 
1,838,740 



3,881,178 

1,803,010 

682,150 

79,671,884 
32,108,731 
6,454,523 



1976 ov 
1967 



63.9 
255.4 



1976 ove 
1975 



nt general-purpose index numbers. 

jsed, in part, by the transfer, in 1976, of ethylbenzene, 

cumene, from the intermediates section to the primary 



ellaneous chemicals. 



The following tabulation shows, by chemical groups, the number of compa 
ore of the chemicals included in the groups listed in table 2: 



Chemical group 

Cyclic intermediates 

Dyes 

Organic pigments 

Medicinal chemicals 

Flavor and perfume materials 

Plastics and resin materials 



Number 
of 

companies 



Chemical group 

Rubber-processing chemicals 

Elastomers (synthetic rubber) — 
Plastic izers 

Surface-active agents 

Pesticides and related products 

Miscellaneous end-use chemicals 
chemical products 

Miscellaneous cyclic and acycli 
icals 



Number 1 

of _ 

companies 



TAR AND TAR CRUDES ] 

TAR 
John J. Gersic 

Coal tar is produced chiefly by the steel industry as a byproduct 
of the manufacture of coke; water-gas tar and oil-gas tar are produced 
by the fuel-gas industry. Production of coal tar, therefore, depends 
on the demand for steel; production of water-gas tar and oil-gas tar re- 
flects the consumption of manufactured gas for industrial and household 
use. Water-gas and oil-gas tars have properties intermediate between 
those of petroleum asphalts and coal tar. Petroleum asphalts are not 
usually considered to be raw materials for chemicals. 

The quantity of tar produced in the United States in 1976 was al- 
most entirely coal tar, which amounted to 636 million gallons (see table 1) . 
Production in 1976 was 1.4 percent less than the 646 million gallons of 
coal tar produced in 1975. Sales of coal tar in 1976 amounted to 291 
million gallons compared with 285 million gallons in 1975. U.S. production 
of water-gas and oil-gas tars was not reported to the Commission for 19 75 
or 1976; production of these tars in 1968 amounted to 21 million gallons, 
according to trade publications. 

Consumption of tar in 1976 amounted to an estimated 604 million 
gallons, of which 72 percent was consumed in distillation. Tar used by 
the producers as fuel amounted to 165 million gallons; a lesser amount, 5.5 
million gallons, was consumed by coke-oven operators in miscellaneous uses 
(see table 1A) . 

TAR CRUDES 

Tar crudes are obtained from coke-oven gas and by distilling coal 
tar, water-gas tar, and oil-gas tar. The most important tar crudes are 
benzene, toluene, xylene, creosote oil, and pitch of tar. Some of 
these products are identical with those obtained from petroleum. Data 
for materials obtained from petroleum are included, for the most part, 
with the statistics for like materials obtained from coke-oven gas and 
tars, and are shown in table 1 and IB. 

Domestic production of industrial and specification grades of benzene 
reported by coke-oven operators and petroleum refinery operators in 1976 
amounted to 1,425 million gallons — 39.2 percent more than the 1,024 million 
gallons reported for 1975. These statistics include data for benzene 
produced from light oil and petroleum. Sales of benzene by coke-oven 
operators and petroleum refiners in 1976 amounted to 637 million gallons 
compared with 548 million gallons in 1975. In 1976 the output of toluene 
(including material produced for use in blending in aviation fuel) amounted 
to 999 million gallons — 42 percent more than the 705 million gallons 
reported for 1975. Sales of toluene in 1976 were 618 million gallons 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1976 



compared with 441 million gallons in 1975. The output of xylene in 1976 
(including that produced for blending in motor fuels) was 722 million 
gallons, compared with 639 million gallons in 1975. Over 99 percent of 
the 722 million gallons of xylene produced in 1976 was obtained from 
petroleum sources. 

Production (or sales) figures on crude naphthalene from coal-tar oils 
in 1976 could not be published without disclosing the operations of 
individual companies. Production of petroleum-derived naphthalene in 1976 
amounted to 107 million pounds, compared with 110 million pounds in 1975. 
Production figures on road tar for 1976 cannot be published; in 1972 
production amounted to 30 million gallons. 

Some of the products obtained from tar and included in the statistics 
in table 1 are obtained from other products for which data are also in- 
cluded in the table. The statistics, therefore, involve considerable 
duplication, and for this reason no group totals or grand totals are given, 

Data for 1976 tar crudes were supplied by 9 companies and company 
divisions . 



TAR AND TAR CRUDES 



SECTION I 



Tar and Tar Crudes 



Extensive revisions were made to the 1976 SOC questionnaire. These 
revisions were made after consultation with an industry task force, 
government agencies, and considerable reflection on what the finished 
report's objectives should be. 

A new subsection B (Inventory and Capacity of Selected Items for 
Fuel, Chemical and Other Uses) was added to the questionnaire for Section 
I; its purpose was to obtain inventory and capacity data on benzene, 
toluene, xylenes and benzene-toluene-xylenes concentrate. These data will 
increase the value of the report to its users. However, so few of the 
respondents have yet completed subsection B that it is not possible to 
publish a meaningful compilation of these data at this time. 



10 SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS/ 1976 



Organic Chemicals From Coal 



Although coal-tar chemicals have been around a long time, the 
manufacture of coal-tar dyestuffs, medicinals, and photographic chemicals 
was relatively unimportant in the United States until after World War I. 
Prior to that time Germany dominated the world's production and trade, 
accounting for three-fourths of world production of coal-tar dyes and 
even more of that of coal-tar medicinals. U.S. shortages caused by the 
war, coupled with increases in U.S. import duties on dyestuffs and related 
products, encouraged U.S. capital investment in a domestic dye industry. 1/ 

Coal remained the basis of the world's synthetic organic chemicals 
industry through the 1930's, until the development of petrochemical 
proce-sses, which was due at least in part to the abundance of relatively 
cheap petroleum. The U.S. petrochemical industry was developed during 
World War II to supply synthetic materials to replace natural products 
which were unavailable. The industry expanded considerably after the 
war with the discovery of large Middle East oilfields. 

Because of the availability of petroleum and its easy transport, 
it rapidly displaced coal as the primary fossil fuel, and at the same 
time petrochemicals largely displaced coal-tar chemicals. 

Prospects for the "chemicals fr om coal" industry 

Traditionally, the major source of "chemicals from coal" has been 
the light oils produced as coke-oven byproducts during the carbonization 
of coal. These oils contain benzene, toluene, and xylene along with 
lesser amounts of other chemicals. Few coke ovens are built today for 
any purpose other than the production of metallurgical coke, most of 
which has been used in blast furnaces for steel production. But today, 
owing to the use of supplemental fuels in blast furnaces, the consumption 
of coke per ton of metal produced is decreasing and will probably continue 
to decrease, at least in the near future, although metal production will 
probably continue to increase. 

If there is to be a renaissance of production of chemicals from coal, 
new technology must play a leading part. Of particular concern are high 
manufacturing costs, sulfur content problems, and the increasing tendency 
of producers of light oils to sell these oils to petroleum refineries, 
which process them along with their petroleum fractions. This, however, 
does not mean that customary processes will be replaced entirely. For 
example, in the United Kingdom there are presently three producers of 
coal liquids producing some 19,000 barrels of chemical feedstock a day, 
with projected production of 22,000 barrels a day by 1980. 2/ 



\j United States Tariff Commission, Dyes and Other Coal-Tar Chemicals , 
1918, p. 11. 

2/ Oil and Gas Journal , Dec. 5, 1975, p. 82. 



TAR AND TAR CRUDES 1 1 



About a 10-percent increase in the price of naphtha or gas oil adds about 
2 cents a pound to the ethylene transfer price, 1/ which would make 
ethylene from coal economically competitive. 

Currently, aromatics from coal are roughly competitive with those from 
petroleum. The following tabulation contains cost data from aromatics 
arrived at in the Chem Systems study: 2/ 

Aromatic cost 
Process ( cents per gallon ) 

Hydropyrolysis 52 

Crude oil processing 60 

H-coal 64 

COED 3/ 78 

Overall, it therefure appears that chemicals from coal will probably 
increase in importance in the future. With our large coal deposits, raw 
materials should be readily available. In addition, expected domestic 
shortages of crude petroleum could be partially alleviated by the diversion 
of feedstocks intended for petrochemical manufacture to fuel uses, thus 
decreasing import dependence. Further, depending upon the relative prices 
of coal and crude petroleum, chemicals from coal could help the United 
States increase its healthy trade surplus in chemicals. 

Trade 

Though imports of benzene, toluene, and xylene doubled from 1971 to 
1976 (from $48 million to $96 million), exports increased more than 
elevenfold (from $13 million to $156 million). The largest growth was in 
toluene exports, which rose from $2.6 million in 1971 to $75.2 million in 1976. 

Benzene has had a negative trade balance (in both volume and value) 
since 1971. This has been due to the availability of cheap benzene from 
overseas sources. Imports decreased in 1976, and exports increased to the 
point that the trade balance was less unfavorable than in the preceding 
5 years. In 1977, as the world continues to emerge from recession, benzene 
exports could exceed imports again, as last happened in 1970. 

Toluene had a negative trade balance from 1969 through 1973. In each 
year since 1974 the trade balance has become increasingly favorable. Most 
of the toluene exports are used for octane improvement of gasoline and as 
solvents. As decreasing quantities of additives are permitted to improve 
octane, the demand for certain aromatics, including toluene, should continue 
to rise. However, while this means an increasing export market for toluene, 
it is possible that increasing demand in the United States could prevent 
our export trade from increasing as rapidly as otherwise might be expected. 

1/ Chem Systems, Inc., op. cit., p. 224. 

2/ Ibid., p. 58. 

3/ Pyrolysis Process. 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 197 6 



New technology 

New developments in coal technology are centered, essentially, in 
the areas of combined fuels/chemicals operations, synthetic natural gas, 
coal-chemical complexes, and flash hydrogenation. The last is the newest 
and perhaps the most promising route to a more attractive chemical product 
mix from coal. The principal products are benzene, toluene, xylene, char, 
and smaller quantities of methane and ethane. The aromatics would be used 
to make other chemicals or in gasoline. The methane would be the feedstock 
for synthetic natural gas, while the ethane would be the feedstock for 
producing ethylene. The development of flash hydrogenation is principally 
funded by the Government, although some private funds have also been 
invested in research and development. The Energy Research and Develop- 
ment Administration is deeply involved and has at least four outside 
principal contractors. 1/ 

The coal-chemical complexes could include synthetic natural gas 
plants, flash hydrogenation facilities, and acetylene-processing hardware. 
Such complexes could lead to a quadrupling of coal's share of markets for 
a dozen key chemicals from 1.6 percent in 1975 to 6.6 percent in 1985. 2/ 

A plan linking together 11 major process steps into a "comprehensive 
combined energy and petrochemicals production complex" has been presented 
by a prominent engineering firm at a national technical society meeting. _3/ 
The complex is designed to consume 66,000 tons of coal a day and produce 
17 major products, including 1 billion pounds of ethylene and 434 million 
pounds of propylene a year, 34 million gallons of benzene, 16 million 
gallons of toluene and 71.5 million gallons of mixed xylenes a year and 
2,395 tons of sulfur and 214 tons of ammonia a day. 4/ Assuming extensive 
development of such complexes, in 1980 and 1990 coal-derived chemicals 
could supply the following shares of U.S. demand for the following basic 
organic chemicals (in percent): 5/ 

1980 1990 

Ethylene 10.0 10.0 

Propylene 8.2 8.2 

Benzene 6.4 7.5 

Toluene 3 . 8 4.6 

Xylene 19.2 23.0 

The yield pattern of chemicals from coal depends upon both the 
process and the type of coal used. A recent patent on flash hydrogenation 
indicates a yield of 46 percent benzene, plus minor amounts of toluene and 

1/ Chemical Week , Sept. 1, 1976, p. 33. 

2/ Oil and Gas Journal , Feb. 2, 1976, p. 90. 

2_l Chemical and Engineering News , Sept. 6, 1976, p. 7. 

47 Ibid., p. 8. 

5/ Ibid., p. 33. 



TAR AND TAR CRUDES 13 

xylene. 1/ Another patent claims a 90-percent conversion of coal to liquids 
and gases, 2/ while an entrained-flow reactor using North Dakota lignite for 
feedstock yielded 15 percent benzene, 10 percent oils, 31 percent methane, 
4 percent propane, and char and unreacted carbon. 3/ In general the major 
task for coal conversion technology is to increase the yields of gases and 
liquids at the expense of char and unreacted material. 

Economics of coal chemicals vis-a-vis petrochemicals 

To be commercially viable, any chemical-from-coal process must be 
able to compete with processes based on natural gas or petroleum. As 
most of the coal processes generate synthetic natural gas, the "wellhead" 
price of natural gas is obviously very important. It has been stated 
that coal-based projects are likely to be started as soon as the "wellhead" 
price reaches around $3.00 per million Btu's. 47 Currently, interstate 
natural gas is sold for a maximum of $1.42 per thousand cubic feet (roughly 
1 million Btu's), while intrastate natural gas, not being regulated, has 
been sold at times for as much as about $2.50 per thousand cubic feet. 
The National Energy Plan proposes that "all new gas sold anywhere in the 
country from new reservoirs would be subject to a price limitation at the 
Btu equivalent of the average refiner acquisition price (without tax) of 
all domestic crude oil." Under this proposal the price would be approximately 
$1.75 per thousand cubic feet at the beginning of 1978, 5/ and the refiner 
acquisition price of all domestic crude oil would have to reach approximately 
$18.00 a barrel for natural gas to be priced at $3.00 per thousand cubic 
feet. It appears that under the proposed oil pricing scheme outlined in 
The National Energy Plan such a price could only occur in the 1980 's, 
assuming an inflation rate in the United States of 5 percent a year. 

Ethylene-f rom-coal economics based on the two most promising coal-based 
routes (methanol homologation and dimethyl ether cracking) are compared 
with the petroleum-based routes in the following tabulation, which contain 
the transfer prices for ethylene which were arrived at in the Chem 
Systems study: 6/ 

Ethylene transfer price 
Process (cents per pound) 

Natural gas liquids cracking 16.61 

Gas oil 17.24 

Naphtha cracking 1 7.66 

Dimethyl ether cracking 18.22 

Methanol homologation 19 . 89 

Coal syncrude 22 . 70 

1/ Chemical Week , Sept. 1, 1976, p. 33. 

2/ Ibid., p. 36. 

3/ Ibid. 

47 Hydrocarbon Processing , Mar. 11, 1977, p. 15. 

5/ Executive Office of the President, Energy and Policy Planning, The 
National Energy Plan , Apr. 29, 1977, p. 53. 

6/ Chem Systems, Inc., Chemicals from Coal and Shale: An R&D Analysis 
for the National Science Foundation , June 1975, p. 224. 



245-856 0-77-2 



14 SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1976 



The xylene trade balance became positive in 1974 and has increased 
each year since. It had been negative in the previous 5 years. As with 
toluene, major end-uses include those as a gasoline octane improver and 
as a solvent. Exports have increased during each of the last 6 years 
and could continue, depending primarily on domestic xylene demand for use 
in nonleaded gasoline. 

A renaissance in the chemicals-f rom-coal industry could greatly expand 
our trade surplus in benzene, toluene, and xylene. Lowered manufacturing 
costs resulting from technological breakthroughs in the production of 
aromatics from coal could enable the United States to maintain and possibly 
increase export markets even in the face of large-scale manufacture of 
aromatics in the Middle East. 



TAR AND TAR CRUDES 



TABLE 1.— Tar and tar crudes: U.S. production and sales, 1976 

Listed below are all tar crudes for which any reported data on production or sales may be published. (Leaders 
(...) are used where the reported data are accepted in confidence and may not be published or where no data 
were reported.) Table 2 lists separately all products for which data on production and/or sales were reported 
and identifies the manufacturers of each] 



PRODUCTION 



Tar: Coke-oven operator 
Crude light oil: 3 Coke-o 

operators 

Intermediate light oil: 

operators 

Light-oil distillates: 
Benzene, specification 

grades, total 1 * 

Coke-oven operators — 

Petroleum refiners 

Toluene, all grades, to 
Coke-oven operators — 



Pet 



11 grades, 
en operate 



Xylene 

Coke 

Petroleum refi 

Solvent naphtha: 

operators 



:id 



operato 



Creosote oil (Dead Oil) (tar 
distillers and coke-oven 
operators) (100% creosote 
basis) , total 

Distillate as such (100% creosote 
basis) 

Creosote content of coal tar 

solution (100% creosote basis) — 



All other distilla 

Coke-oven operat 

From light oil 

Other 

Tar distillers 6 - 



total- 
total- 



han 



Tar, refined, for uses ( 

road tar 

Pitch of tar (tar distillers and 

coke-oven operators), total 
Soft (water softening point le 

than 100° F) : Coke-oven 

Other 7 



1,000 gal- 
1,000 gal- 
1,000 gal- 



1,000 gal- 
1,000 gal- 
1,000 gal- 
1,000 gal- 
1,000 gal- 
1,000 gal- 
1,000 gal- 
1,000 gal- 
1,000 gal- 

1,000 gal- 



1,000 gal— 

1,000 gal— 
1,000 gal— 
1,000 gal— 
1,000 gal— 
1,000 gal— 



1,000 gal— 
1,000 tons- 



1,000 tons- 
1,000 tons- 



636,382 

198,056 

5,419 



1,425,222 

60,411 

1,364,311 

998,976 

8,824 

990,152 

722,014 

1,496 

720,518 

1,968 



113,967 



77,126 
36,841 



6,475 
3,993 
2,482 



16,668 
1,314 



516 

7MS 







', 






dollars 


290 


536 


96,417 


104 


645 


52,532 


1 


923 


543 


637 


284 


489,485 


59 


822 


47,526 


577 


462 


441,959 


618 


291 


334,376 


8 


446 


4,642 


609 


.345 


329,734 


714 


546 


352,583 


1 


251 


732 


713 


295 


351,851 



73,284 



51,913 
26,371 
35,321 



3,750 
1,398 
2,352 
31,571 



5,712 
984 



17,526 
12,740 



856 

505 

351 

11,384 



3,038 
100.440 



25,347 
75,093 



$0,332 
.502 
.282 



.768 
.794 
.765 
.541 

.550 
.541 
.493 
.585 
.493 



.474 

( 5 ) 

.361 



.228 
.361 

.149 
.376 



.532 
102.073 



92.507 
105.765 



Unit value per gallon, pound, or ton as specified. 

2 Includes only data for coal tar reported to the Division of Fuels Data, U.S. Bureau of Mines, ( Mineral 
Industry Surveys, Coke and Coal Chemicals . Feb. 11, 1977). Data on U.S. Production of water-gas tar and oil-gas 
tar are not collected by the U.S. International Trade Commission, but according to trade publications, production 
of these tars amounted to 21 million gallons in 1963. 

3 Data reported by tar distillers are not included because publication would disclose the operations of individu 
companies. 

Includes data for material produced for use in blending motor fuels. The annual production statistics for 
petroleum refiners on benzene, toluene, and xylene are not comparable with the combined monthly production figures 
of fiscal year revisions. 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1976 



Footnotes for table 1 — Continued 



3 In 1976, product io 
thousand gallons; sales 
$0,486 per gallon. 

s Includes data for crude light 
cresylic acid, methylnaphthalene, 
anthracene* crude tetralin, crude 

7 Includes pitch emulsion, medi 



f coal-tar solution containing creosote (100% solution basis) 
re 36.076 thousand gallons valued at 17,526 thousand dollars, 



il, solvent naphtha, pyridine crude bases, crude t 
ude tar for other uses, unspecified tar distillate 
al tar solvent, carbon black, and primary and refi 
and hard pitch, and small amounts of soft pitch. 



r-acid oils, crude 
, road tar and refi 
^tory oil. 



Note. — Statistics for materials produced in 
Data, U.S. Bureau of Mines, Department of the 
refineries are compiled by the U.S. Internati 



compiled by the 
rials produced 



al Trade Commis 



n of Fuels 
nd petrole 



TABLE 1A.— Tar: U.S. production and consumption, 1975 and 1976 

(In thousands of gallons) 



Product 


1975 


1976 


PRODUCTION 






Coal tar from coke-oven byproduct plants, total 1 


645,537 


636,382 


CONSUMPTION 






Total 


617,235 


604,376 


Tar. consumed by distillation, total 


450,159 


433,747 


Coal tar distilled or topped by coke-oven operators 1 


173,147 


163,051 


Coal tar and water-gas tar distilled by tar distillers 2 


272,012 


270,696 


Tar consumed by the producers chiefly as fuel 1 


162,112 


165,169 


Coal tar consumed at coke-oven plants in miscellaneous 






uses 


4,964 


5,460 



Reported to the Division of Fuels Data, U.S. Bureau of Mines. 

Reported to the U.S. International Trade Commission. Represents tar purchased from compani 
coke-ovens and gas-retort plants and distilled by companies operating tar-distillation plants, 
include tar consumed other than by distillation by tar distillers. 



TAR AND TAR CRUDES 

TABLE IB.— Tar and tar crudes: Summary of U.S. production of specified products, 
19G7, 1975- and 1976 

Leaders (...) are used where Che reported data are accepted in confidence and may not be published or where 
data were reported.] 



INCREASED, OR 
DECREASED (-) 



1976 OVER 
1967 



1976 OVER 
1975 



Tar' 

lienzene: J 

Coke-ove 

Petroleu 

Total- 



1,000 gal- 
1,000 gal- 
1,000 gal- 



90,642 
878,704 



65,050 
958,863 



60,411 
1,364,811 



Percent 
-18.4 



-33.4 
55.3 



Toluene: 

Coke-oven oper 

Petroleum refi 

Total 



1,000 gal- 
1,000 gal- 
1,000 gal- 



19,357 
624.454 



9,841 
695.226 



8,824 
990.152 



-54.4 
58.6 



Xylene: 3 

Coke-oven oper 
Petroleum refi 



Petroleum 
grades — 
Total — 



aphthalene, all 



1,000 gal- 
1,000 gal- 
1,000 gal- 



1,000 lb 
1,000 lb 



5,488 
449,349 



1,884 
637.215 



1,496 
720,518 



520,991 
376,679 



( 6 ) 
107,191 



(') 
-71.5 



Creosote oil (Dead oil): 7 
Distillate as such (100Z 

creosote basis) 

Creosote content of coal 
solution (1002 creosote 

basis) 

Total 



1,000 gal- 
1,000 gal- 



Peraent 
-1.4 



-7.1 
42.3 



-10.4 
42.4 



-20.6 
13.1 



Standard reference base period for Federal Government general-purpose index numbers. 
2 Includes only data for coal tar reported to the Division of Fuels Data, U.S. Bureau of Mines. 

Data reported by tar distillers are not included because publication would disclose the operations of individual 
companies. 

Includes data for material produced for use in blending motor fuels. Statistics are not comparable with monthly 
figures which include some o-xylene. 

Naphthalene solidifying at less than 79°C. Figures include production by tar distillers and coke-oven operators 
and represent combined data for the commercial grades of naphthalene. Because of conversion between grades, the 
figures may include some duplication. Statistics on naphthalene refined from domestic crudes are reported in the 
section on cyclic intermediates. 

6 Statistics for 1975 and 1976 cannot be published; to do so would disclose the operations of individual 
companies. 

Includes data for creosote oil produced by tar distillers and coke-oven operators and used only in wood 
preserving. 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1976 



TABLE 2. 



-Tar crudes for which U.S. production or sales were reported, 

IDENTIFIED BY MANUFACTURERS, 1976 



[Tar crudes for which separate statistics are given in table 1 are marked with an asterisk (*); products not so 
marked do not appear in table 1 because the reported data are accepted in confidence and may not be published. 
Manufacturers' identification codes shown below are taken from table 3. Table 3 identifies all U.S. producers 
of tar crudes (except producers that report to the Division of Fuels Data, U.S. Bureau of Mines)] 



Manufacturers' identification codes 
(according to list in table 3) 



•Crude light oil 1 

♦Light-oil distillates: Solvent naphtha 1 

Pyridine, crude bases 1 

Naphthalene, crude, solidifying at: 1 

Less than 74° C 

74° C. to less than 79° C. : 

74° C. to less than 76° C 

76° C. to less than 79° C 

Methyl naphthalene 

*Crude tar-acid oils: 1 

Tar-acid content S-o to less than 24° 

Tar-acid content 24% to 50% 

Cresylic acid, crude 

♦Creosote oil (Dead oil): 1 

♦Distillate as such 

♦Creosote in coal tar solution 

♦All other distillate products 1 

Tar , road 

Tar for other uses: 

Crude 

♦Refined 1 

♦Pitch of tar: 1 

♦Soft (water softening point less than 110° F.) 

Medium (water softening point 110° F. to 160° F.)- 

Hard (water softening point above 160° F.) 

Pitch emulsion 



CBT. 








NEV. 








KPT. 








ASC, 


COP. 






KPT. 








ASC, 


KPT. 






KPT. 








KPT. 








ASC. 








KPT, 


PRD. 






ASC, 


CBT, 


COP, 


HUS, KPT 


ASC, 


KPT, 


RIL, 


WTC. 


ASC, 


KPT, 


WTC. 




ASC, 


KPT, 


RIL. 




KPT, 


RIL. 






ASC, 


KPT, 


RIL. 





ASC, KPT. 

ASC, CBT, COP, KPT, RIL. 

ASC, HYS, KPT, RIL, WTC. 

JEN. 



Does not include manufacturers' identification codes for producers who report to the Division of Fuels Data, U.S. 
Bureau of Mines. Those producers are listed in the U.S. Bureau of Mines Mineral Industry Survey, November 6, 1976, 
entitled "Coke Producers in the U.S. in 1976." 



TABLE 3.— Tar and tar crudes: Directory of manufacturers, 1976 

ALPHABETICAL DIRECTORY BY CODE 

[Names of manufacturers that reported production or sales of tar and tar crudes to the U.S. International Trade 
Commission for 1976 are listed below in the order of their identification codes as used in table 2] 



Code 


Name of company 


Code 


Name of company 


ASC 


Allied Chemical Corp. 


KPT 


Koppers Co., Inc., Organic Materials 


Div. 


CBT 


Samuel Cabot, Inc. 


KPT 


Koppers Co., Inc., Roads Materials D 




COP 


Coopers Creek Chemical Corp. 


NEV 


Neville Chemical Co. 




HUS 


Husky Industries, Inc. 


RIL 


Reilly Tar 8. Chemical Corp. 




JEN 


Jennison-Wright Corp. 









-Complete names and addresses of the above reporting companies are listed in table 1 of the appendi 



PRIMARY PRODUCTS FROM PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS 19 

FOR CHEMICAL CONVERSION 

PRIMARY PRODUCTS FROM PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS 
John J. Gersic and J. Ross Lewis, Jr. 

Primary products that are derived from petroleum and natural gas 1 are 
related to the intermediates and finished products made from such primary 
materials in mJch the same way that crude products derived from the 
distillation of coal tar are related to their intermediates and finished 
products. Many of the primary products derived from petroleum are identical 
with those derived from coal tar (e.g., benzene, toluene, and xylene). Con- 
siderable duplication exists in the statistics on the production and sales 
of primary petroleum products because some of these primary chemicals are 
converted to other primary products derived from petroleum and because data 
on some production and sales are reported at successive stages in the 
conversion process. The statistics are sufficiently accurate, however, to 
indicate trends in the industry. Many of the primary products for which 
data are included in the statistics may be used either as fuel or as basic 
materials from which to derive other chemicals. In this report every 
effort has been made to exclude data on materials that are used as fuel; 
however, data are included on toluene and xylene which are used in blending 
aviation and motor fuel. 

The output of primary products derived from petroleum and natural gas 
as a group amounted to 112,873 million pounds in 1976. Production in 1975 
was 78,089 million pounds. However, these totals can not be compared owing 
to transfer of items from the cyclic intermediates section to this section. 

The output of aromatic and naphthenic products from petroleum amounted 
to 48,167 million pounds in 1976, compared with 20,605 million pounds in 
1975. Sales amounted to $2,757 million in 1976 and $897 million in 1975. 
The output of 1° and 2° benzene from petroleum in 1976 (9,827 million pounds) 
was 40.0 percent more than the 7,019 million pounds produced in 1975. 

Production of all aliphatic hydrocarbons and derivatives from petroleum 
and natural gas was 64,706 million pounds in 1976, compared with 57,484 
million pounds in 1975. Sales of these products were valued at $2,732 mil- 
lion in 1976 compared with $2,091 million in 1975. Production of ethylene 
was 22,475 million pounds in 1976 — 9.6 percent more than the 20,499 million 
pounds produced in 1975. The output of 1,3-butadiene in 1976 (3,507 
million pounds) increased from the production in 1975 (2,597 million 
pounds). Production of 1,3-butadiene (3,682 million pounds) in 1974 was a 
record production. 

Data for 1976 crude products from petroleum and natural gas for chemical 
conversion were supplied by 77 companies and company divisions. 

Statistics on aromatic chemicals from coal tar are given in the report 
on "Tar and Tar Crudes." 

Items transferred from cyclic intermediates are ethylbenzene, cyclohexane, 
styrene, m-xylene, o-xylene, p-xylene . 



20 SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1976 



SECTION II 



Primary Products from Petroleum and Natural Gas 
For Chemical Conversion 

Three new subsections (i.e., A, B and D) were added to the 1976 SOC 
questionnaire for Section II. These sections were added after consultation 
with Government agencies, an industry task force, and extensive discussion 
with users of the report. 

Each of the added subsections were designed to fulfill a particular 
need. Subsection A (Production and Sales of Selected Items for Fuel, 
Chemical and Other Uses) was designed to capture all of the basic aromatics 
and olefins that are produced regardless of use. Subsection B (Inventory 
and Capacity of Selected Items for Fuel, Chemical and Other Uses) was 
added to obtain inventory and capacity data for the basic aromatics and 
olefins. Subsection D's (Captive Uses of Cj to C 4 Aliphatic Hydrocarbons 
for Use as Petrochemical Feedstock for Your Own Use) purpose was to 
capture all (nine) of the lower aliphatic hydrocarbons used as chemical 
feedstocks. Few respondents have yet supplied data; in many cases those 
sections completed must be corrected. Therefore, it is not possible to 
publish summaries of these sections at this time. 



PRIMARY PRODUCTS FROM PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS 21 
FOR CHEMICAL CONVERSION 

Olefins and Aroinatics 

Though the terms "olefins" and "aromatics" cover many products, most 
of the comments here will be directed toward ethylene, propylene, benzene, 
toluene, and xylene. These are the most important "building block" raw 
materials for all synthetic organic chemicals and are principally derived 
from petroleum and natural gas. They are used to make products such as 
chemical intermediates, plastics, synthetic fibers, synthetic rubber, 
pesticides, and detergents. 

Primary products from petroleum and natural gas 

Of the top 50 chemicals ranked by production in 1976, as compiled 
by a reputable trade publication, 11 were organic chemicals classifiable 
in section II of this report. These organic chemicals are listed in the 
following table by rank in the top 50 chemicals in 1975 and 1976; also 
included are average annual U.S. production growth rates for the periods 
1966-71 and 1971-76. Of those chemicals listed, the first four are the 
organic chemicals with the largest production volume. 

Future growth for these building-block chemicals is expected to 
continue to be strong. An industry forecast indicates that ethylene 
demand is expected to increase at an average annual rate of 8 percent 
a year through the end of this decade and 6 percent a year in the early 
1980' s. 1_/ The fastest growing ethylene derivatives and their growth 
rates are expected to be high-density polyethylene (12 percent a year) 
and vinyl acetate (10 percent a year) . 2] Propylene demand is predicted 
to grow at a faster rate (8.5 to 9 percent a year) than ethylene through 
1985 by at least one industry observer. 3/ The fastest growing derivatives 
will be polypropylene (12 percent a year) and propylene oxide (10 percent 
per year). Benzene demand growth is forecast to average about 5.6 percent 
a year from 1976 to 1985; however, it could be lower owing to at least a 
partial change from benzene to other feedstocks for the manufacture of 
maleic anhydride and nylon intermediates. Furthermore, benzene exposure 
levels as set by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration could 
limit its use in certain applications and increase its cost. 4/ 

The toluene growth rate is forecast to decrease considerably to about 
4.5 percent a year from 1976 to 1980; even lower growth rates are possible 
from' 1980 to 1985. Styrene is an important derivative of ethylene and 
benzene, and in 1976 its production accounted for some 44 percent of the benzene 
demand and about 6 percent of the ethylene demand. For the past 16 years 
styrene demand has grown at an average annual rate of 8.2 percent; this rate is 
predicted to decrease to about 6 percent through 1980 and to 5 percent from 

\j Chemical and Engineering News , Apr. 4, 19 77, p. 9. 

2/ Oil and Gas Journal , Mar. 28, 1977, p. 32. 

3/ Chemical and Engineering News , Apr. 4, 1977, p. 10. 
4/ Ibid., May 23, 1977, p. 10. 



22 SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS/ 1976 



1980 to 1985. The fastest growing derivative from 1976 to 1980 is expected 

to be expanded polystyrene (12 percent a year. ) Butadiene demand is expected 

to increase slowly through 1980 and then average 3.6 percent a year from 1980 
to 1985. 1/ 

Changes in technology, production methods, and production centers 

Among the major changes expected is the increasing use of heavier 
feedstock for ethylene production in the United States, with the result 
that increasing quantities of byproduct aromatics and butadiene will become 
available. It is also possible that increasing quantities of olefins and 
aromatics destined as such or in derivative form for world trade will be 
made in crude-petroleum- and natural-gas-producing countries, principally 
those in the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). Unlike 
the feedstock picture in the United States, ethane is expected to be the 
principal steam cracker feedstock for OPEC. Also, European plants using 
natural gas liquids from the North Sea are expected to be built. 

The following tabulation indicates the feedstocks used to make ethylene 
in the United States in 1976 and the forecasts for 1980 (in percent): gj 

Feedstock 1976 1980 

Ethane 46 40 

Heavy liquids 1/ 27 48 

Propane 25 10 

Butane — 2 2 

Total 100 100 

1/ Naphtha and gas oil. 

As this switch to heavier feedstocks progresses, increasing quantities 
of byproducts such as propylene, butadiene, benzene, toluene, and xylene 
will become available, and the steam cracker will increase in importance as 
a source of these chemicals. In addition, fuels and other similar refinery 
products will also be made. Since the economic viability of a heavy liquids 
steam cracker will depend to a considerable extent upon obtaining good 
prices for these byproducts, it is expected that petroleum companies, rather 
than chemical companies, will build most of the future heavy-liquids steam 
cracker capacity. 

Currently, most petrochemical plants are located in the consuming 
nations; that is, production and consumption centers are essentially 
the same, whether the feedstocks are produced domestically or imported. 
This situation is similar to that of petroleum refineries being situated 
in the consuming countries. However, the likelihood is that in the future 

1/ Chemical and Engineering News , Sept. 13, 1976, p. 11. 
2/ Ibid. , Apr. 18, 1977, p. 12. 



PRIMARY PRODUCTS FROM PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS 23 
FOR CHEMICAL CONVERSION 

a significant number of both petrochemical and refining facilities will be 
built in areas rich in feedstock rather than in the consuming areas. These 
facilities would be economically viable because of exports rather than local 
market sales. The result would be a separation of production and consumption 
centers with an increase in trade. To maintain security of supply in such 
a situation there could be a trend toward protectionism by some of the con- 
suming centers and an increase in the use of trade as a political weapon by 
others. 

World trade and patterns 

The United States has been a leading chemical-exporting nation at least 
partially because of lower feedstock costs compared with those in Europe and 
Japan. The U.S. advantage is traceable to price-controlled domestic crude 
petroleum, while most of the other current petrochemical-producing nations 
are much more reliant on petroleum imports at world price. As the U.S. 
price approaches the world price under The National Energy Plan most of this 
advantage should disappear. 1/ U.S. exports to Europe and to third-world 
markets may decrease. 2/ Those U.S. products particularly involved include 
benzene, cyclohexane, and p-xylene. 

Also working to reverse the position of U.S. exports in the future will 
be the expected buildup of petrochemical facilities in OPEC, countries and 
Mexico designed primarily to supply export markets. In addition, the 
availability of ethane from the North Sea could decrease costs in Europe 
and make European production more competitive in world markets. 

A comprehensive petrochemical investment plan recently unveiled by 
Petroleos Mexicanos if completely implemented could result in Mexico 
"becoming a major exporter by the early 1980 's. 3/ At the same time a 
massive buildup of Middle East petrochemical capacity is expected; the 
questions appear to be how massive and when it will be. Those chemicals 
that will probably be favored in this buildup are ethylene, ammonia , poly- 
ethylene, aromatics, polyvinyl chloride, and methanol. 4/ The following 
tabulation from a leading industry periodical indicates the share of forecasted 
1990 demand in the United States, Western Europe and Japan that the announced 
1990 Arab capacity would account for, as follows (in percent): 5/ 

Product United States Western Europe Japan 

Ethylene 18 

Propylene 5 

Butadiene 7. 5 

Benzene 6 . 5 

o-Xylene 15 

p-Xylene 8 

Vinyl chloride 21. 5 

Styrene 16. 5 

Polyethylene, low density 27.8 

Polyethylene, high density 14 

Polypropylene 8 



16.6 


52 


4 


11.5 


10 


21.5 


9 


16.5 


10 


44 


19 


19 


12.5 


31.5 


12.5 


31.5 


12.5 


89 


17.5 


58 


7.5 


19 



1/ Chemical and Engineering News , May 23, 1977, p. 7. 

27 See "Organic Chemicals From Coal," p. 10, for comments on the possibility 
of coal helping the United States remain a major organic exporter in the future. 
3/ Oil and Gas Journal , Feb. 7, 1977, p. 36. 
47 Chemical Week . Mar. 23, 1977, p. 31. 
5/ Hydrocarbon Processing , Dec, 1976, p. 116. 



24 SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS/ 1976 



There is no unanimity among industry observers as to the competitive 
problems olefins (and derivatives) facilities using natural gas liquids 
from the North Sea and and OPEC countries could cause U.S. industry. This 
lack of unanimity is to a large extent due to differing assumptions as to 
the degree of host-country financial and subsidizing incentives that will 
be forthcoming to encourage such investment. It is generally accepted that 
under certain conditions such facilities could become competitive, particularly 
with new heavy-liquids steam cracker facilities in the United States. 1_/ It 
has been indicated that the major advantages for the Middle East lie with those 
products that are energy intensive and have the lowest capital requirements. 2/ 
On the other hand, a leading foreign transporter of liquefied gases has fore- 
cast that olefins will be transported by refrigerated tankers from producing 
sites to countries around the world, where they would be made into the 
various derivatives. 3/ 

Aromatics manufacture in future export centers around the world is 
also possible, especially at those centers with refining capacity. The 
Middle East might be at a disadvantage because much of its crude petroleum 
lacks the large quantities of aromatics precursors found in crude petroleum 
from other geographic areas. In addition, gas-liquids steam crackers do 
not produce as byproducts the quantities of aromatics produced by heavy- 
liquids steam crackers. However, aromatics, being liquids, are more easily 
handled and transported than are the olefins. While ethylene and propylene 
would be among the most expensive chemicals to ship, benzene, toluene, and 
xylene would be relatively inexpensive. Accordingly, most of the Middle 
East, countries do have active aromatics projects. 

Probably the most attractive markets for exports from the Middle East 
and North Africa would be via the Suez Canal to — 

(1) Europe via Mediterranean and North Sea ports, 

(2) The U.S. east coast, and 

(3) The U.S. gulf coast. 

Movements to the east via the Strait of Malacca would most likely go to — 

(1) Japan 

(2) The U.S. west coast, 

(3) South America via Capetown, and 

(4) India. 4/ 

From the above it is obvious that the United States is a prime future export 
market for Middle East production. It /rould also be looked to as the prime 
market by producers in both Canada and Mexico. All of this is not surprising. 

1/ Oil and Gas Journal , Mar. 21, 1977, p. 101. 
2/ European Chemical News , Sept. 24, 1976, p. 30. 
3/ Chemical Week , Dec. 8, 1976, p. 45. 

47 C. Van Den Brink, Middle East Petrochemical Logistics , Chemical Marketing 
Research Association Meeting, Houston, Tex., Feb. 11-14, 1975. 



PRIMARY PRODUCTS FROM PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS 25 
FOR CHEMICAL CONVERSION 

The United States is a favorably located, sophisticated market which will 
probably be beset by increasing domestic production costs, and as such would 
be expected to be attractive to those nations and companies seeking to 
increase exports. The outlook may seem unfavorable for the domestic petro- 
chemical industry as a whole, although individual petrochemical companies 
may invest and produce in nations with favorable feedstock positions. The 
domestic organic chemical industry may also be aided by the large coal 
reserves and increasing production if economically favorable chemicals-from- 
coal processes can be implemented. 1/ 



1/ See "Organic Chemicals From Coal," p. 10, of this report. 



26 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1976 



Selected organic chemicals: Rank in 1975 and 1976 and average annual 
growth rate, 1971-76 and 1966-71. 





Rank in list 
of all chemicals Average annual growth rate 




1975 


1976 


1966-71 


1971-76 




5 


5 


Percent 
10.4 


Percent 
4.0 






16 


13 


3.5 


5.8 






13 


14 


8.1 


7.8 




Toluene, 

all grades 


18 


15 


9.0 


2.6 


Xylene, 

all grades 


21 


18 


13.6 


4.5 




20 


19 


8.0 


6.1 




Ethylbenzene 


19 


21 


9.0 


3.0 


Butadiene (1,3), 
rubber grade 


31 


30 


2.7 


1.0 


i 


32 


31 


26.0 


13.4 






37 


33 


19.1 


4 8 






Cyclohexane 


39 


37 


(neg.) 


4,6 


Source: Ranks, from Chemical and Enginee 
growth rates, based on data published annua 
Trade Commission, Synthetic Organic Chemica 


ring News, May 2, 1977, p. 37; 
lly in U.S. International 
Is: United States Production 


and Sales. 











PRIMARY PRODUCTS FROM PETROLEUM AID NATURAL GAS FOR CH01ICAL CONVERSIOH ■ 

TABLE 1.— Primary products from petroleum and natural gas for chemical 
conversion: J.S. production and sales, 1975 

[Listed below are the primary products from petroleum and natural gas for chemical conversion for which any reported 
data on production or sales may be published. (Leaders (...) are used where the reported data are accepted in 
confidence and may not be published or where no data were reported.) Table 2 lists separately all primary products 
from petroleum and natural gas for chemical conversion for which data on production and/or sales were reported and 
identifies the manufacturers of each] 



CRUDE PRODUCTS FROM PETROLEUM AND NATURAL 
GAS FOR CHEMICAL CONVERSION 



PRODUCTION 



SALES 



UNIT 
VALUE 1 



Grand total 

AROMATICS AND NAPHTHENES 2 

Total 

Benzene (1° and 2°) 

Ethylbenzene 

Cyclohexane 

Cumene 

Naphthalene, all grades 

Naphthenic acid 

Styrene ► 

Toluene, all grades, total 

Nitration grade, 1° 

Pure commercial grade, 2° 

All Other s ' H 

Xylenes, mixed, total 

3° grade 

5° grade 

All other 1 * 

o- Xylene 

p-Xylene 

All other aromatics and naphthenes 

ALIPHATIC HYDROCARBONS 

Total • 

C2 hydrocarbons, total 

Acetylene 6 

Ethane 

Ethylene 

C 3 hydrocarbons, total 

Propane 

Propylene 7 

Ci* hydrocarbons, total 

Butadiene and butylene fractions 

1,3-Butadiene, grade for rubber (elastomers)- 

n-Butane 

1-Butene 

1-Butene and 2-butene, mixed 8 

Isobutane 

Isobutylene, 2-butene and mixed butylenes 

All other' 

C5 hydrocarbons, total 

Amylenes and pentenes 

Isoprene (2-Methyl-l, 3-butadiene) 

All other 1 ° 



1,000 
pounds 



112,873,340 



48,167,093 



9,826,636 
5,769,602 
2,186,581 
2,715,832 
562,645 
44,433 
6,301,397 

7.138.997 



,154,715 
581,285 
402,997 



2,235,028 

2,619,776 

621,128 

853,813 
2,911,451 
4,379,774 



304,181 
8,063,126 
22,474,570 

16,900.503 



6,870,042 
10,030,461 



1,000 
pounds 



1,000 
dollars 



Per 

pound 



26,928,545 



4,157,724 
555,233 

2,017,387 

1,397,184 
448,844 
13,507 

2,753,814 

4.396.984 



441,959 
31,968 

265,082 

169,572 
94,376 
1,949 

541,843 

329.734 



291,122 
38,612 
351.851 



2,525,802 

2,238,675 

656,564 

660,989 

1,779,422 
3,326,416 



I2J .4.84 • 



140,854 
165,160 
45,837 

70,907 
278,967 
179,127 



6,486,104 
7,076,367 



229,107 
792,729 



5,992,081 
4,445,968 



10.447.313 i 4.789.154 



,398,731 

3,507,295 

1,948,426 

61,424 

1,157,915 

1,127,584 

564,932 

681,006 

1.137 , 758 
215,926 
341,261 
580,571 



406,743 
,188,720 
982,844 
47,175 
109,069 
268,827 
202,177 
583,599 

600.320 

122,146 
478,174 



436,784 
330,948 

576.332 
35,670 

387,018 
65,403 
7,249 
10,770 
17,822 
26,200 
26,200 

47.689 

14,339 
33,350 



.106 
.058 
.131 
.121 
.210 
.144 
.197 



.055 
.073 
.069 

.107 
.157 
.054 



.035 
.112 



.073 
.074 



.087 
.176 
.066 
.153 
.098 
.066 
.129 
.044 



.117 
.070 



See footnot 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1976 



TABLE 1.— Primary products from petroleum and natural gas for chemical 
conversion.: U.S. production and sales, 1975— Continued 



CRUDE PRODUCTS FROM PETROLEUM AND NATURAL 
GAS FOR CHEMICAL CONVERSION 



PRODUCTION 



UNIT 
VALUE 1 



ALIPHATIC HYDROCARBONS— Conti 

All other aliphatic hydrocarbons, deriv 
mixtures, total 

Alpha olefins" 

Dodecene (Tetrapropylene) 

Polybutene 

Hexane 

Hydrocarbon derivatives 12 

Nonene (Tripropylene) 

n-Paraff ins, total 1 3 

All other" 



1,000 
pounds 



313,736 
302,110 
283,256 
275,572 
264,797 
260,247 
,489,312 
,189,766 



1,000 
pounds 



288,141 
115,058 
215,678 
255,299 
247,741 
128,303 
988,721 
525,910 



1,000 
dollars 



318,561 
55,650 
14,781 
30,155 
19,026 
33,646 
10,107 
69,993 
85,203 



Per 
pound 



.193 
.128 
.140 
.074 
.136 
.078 
.071 
.162 



rounded figures, 
materials designated a 
tar; however, the stati 



Calculated fr 

b in some cases identical with those obtained fro 

the table above relate only to such materials as 

derived from petroleum and natural gas. Statistics on production or sales of benzene, toluene, and xylene 

all sources are given in tables 1 and IB of the report "Tar and Tar Crudes." 

3 Includes toluene, solvent grade, 90 percent. 

* Includes toluene and xylene used as solvents, as well as that which is blended in aviation and motor g 

5 Includes data for alkyl aromatics, crude cresylic acid, distillates, solvents, and miscellaneous cycli 
hydrocarbons. 

6 Production figures on acetylene from calcium carbide for chemical synthesis are collected by the U.S. 
of the Census. 

7 Includes data for refinery propylene. 

8 The statistics represent principally the butene content of crude refinery gases from which butadiene i 
manufactured. 

9 Includes data for butanes, 1-butene, and mixed d, streams. 

10 Includes data for C5 hydrocarbon mixtures, pentanes, and piperylenes. 

11 Includes data for the following molecular weight ranges: C 6 -C 7 ; C 6 -Cio; C 8 -Ci ; C 10 -C 16 ; Ci,-Cis; C12- 
Cm-Ci65 C15-C20; Ci 6 -C 18 ; and Ci 6 -C 30 . 

12 Includes data for methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl, octyl, nonyl, decyl , hexadecyl, and miscellaneous mere 
and other hydrocarbon derivatives. 

13 Includes data for following chain lengths: C 6 -C e ; C 6 -C 9 ; C,,-Cn; Ci -Ci 6 ; C15-C17; and others. 

ll * Includes data for di-isobutylene, methane, octanes, mixtures of C2 and C 3 hydrocarbons, triisobutylene 
other hydrocarbons, and sales of acetylene, heptene* C9-C1 5 hydrocarbons, mixed heptenes and others. 



PRiriARY PRODUCTS FROM PFJROLEIF1 AT NATURAL GAS FOR CUBUCAL OOfJVEPSIOfl 



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SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1976 



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SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1976 



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PRIMARY PRODUCTS FROM PETROLEUM ATJD flATURAL GAS FOR CHB1ICAL COTJ^ERSinrj 



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SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1976 



TABLE 1. — Primary products from petroleum and natural gas for chemical 
conversion: Jirector of manufacturers, 1976 

ALPHABETICAL DIRECTORY BY CODE 



[Names of manufa 
chemical conve 
identification 



that reported production or sales of primary produ 
3 the U.S. International Trade Commission for 1976 
as used in table 2] 



from petroleum and 
listed below in the 



atural gas for 
Drder of their 



Code 


Name of company 


Code 


Name of company 


ACC 


Amoco Chemicals Corp. 


KPP 


Arco /Polymers , Inc. 


ACU 


Allied Chemical Corp., Union Texas 
Petroleum Div. 


KPT 




AIP 


Air Products & Chemicals, Inc. 


MCB 


Borg-Warner Corp., Borg-Warner Chemicals 


AMO 


Amoco Oil Co. 


MNO 


Monochem, Inc. 


AMO 


Amoco Texas Refining Co. 


MOC 


Marathon Oil Co., Texas Refining Div. 


APF 


American Petrofina Co. of Texas 


MON 


Monsanto Co. 


APR 


Atlas Processing Co. 






ASH 


Ashland Oil, Inc. 


NWP 


Northern Petrochemical Co. 


ATR 


Atlantic Richfield Co. 










OCC 


Oxirane Chemical Co. 


BFG 


B. F. Goodrich Co., B. F. Goodrich Chemical 
Co. Div. 


OMC 


Olin Corp. 


BRP 


BP Oil, Inc. 


PAN 


Amoco Production Co. 






PAS 


Pennwalt Corp. 


CBN 


Cities Service Co., Petrochemical Div. 


PLC 


Phillips Petroleum Co. 


CCP 


Crown Central Petroleum Corp. 


PPR 


Phillips Puerto Rico Core, Inc. 


CLK 


Clark Chemical Co. 


PRD 


Ferro Corp., Productol Chemical Div. 


CO 


Continental Oil Co. 


PTT 


Petro-Tex Chemical Corp. 


COL 


Collier Carbon & Chemical Corp. 


PUE 


Puerto Rico Olefins Co. 


COR 


Commonwealth Oil & Refining Co., Inc. 






CPI 


Commonwealth Petrochemicals, Inc. 


RH 


Rohm & Haas Co . 


CPX 


Chemplex Co. 






CPY 


Copolymer Rubber & Chemical Corp. 


SHC 


Shell Oil Co., Shell Chemical Co. Div. 


CSD 


Cosden Oil & Chemical Corp. 


SHO 


Shell Oil Co. 


CSO 


Cities Service Co. 


SIO 


Standard Oil Co. (Ohio). 


CSP 


Coastal States Petrochemical Co. 


SKO 


Getty Refining & Marketing Co. 






SM 


Mobil Oil Corp. & Mobil Chemical Co. 


DOW 


Dow Chemical Co. 


SNO 


SunOlin Chemical Co. 


DUP 


E. I. duPont de Nemours & Co., Inc. 


SNT 


Suntide Refining Co. 






SOC 


Standard Oil Co. of California, Chevron 


EKX 


Eastman Kodak Co., Texas Eastman Co. Div. 




Chemical Co. 


ELP 


El Paso Products Co. 


SOG 


Charter International Oil Co. 


ENJ 


Exxon Chemical Co. U.S.A. 


STY 


Styrochem Corp. 






SUN 


Sun Oil Co. 


FG 


Foster Grant Co., Inc. 


SWC 


Corco Cyclohexane, Inc. 


FRS 


Firestone Tire & Rubber Co., Firestone 








Synthetic Rubber & Latex Co. Div. 


TBO 


Tauber Oil Co. 






TID 


Getty Refining & Marketing Co. 


GOC 


Gulf Oil Corp., Gulf Oil Chemicals 


TNA 


Ethyl Corp. 




Co. -U.S. 


TOC 


Tenneco Oil Co. 


GRS 


Champlin Petroleum Co. 


TUS 


Texas-U.S. Chemical Co. 






TX 


Texaco, Inc. 


HCR 


Hercor Chemical Corp. 






HES 


Amerada Hess Corp. (Hess Oil Virgin Islands 


UCC 


Union Carbide Corp. 




Corp.) 


UOC 


Union Oil Co. of California 


HMY 


Humphrey Chemical Co. 


US I 


National Distillers & Chemicals Corp., 
U.S. Industrial Chemicals Co. 


JCC 


Jefferson Chemical Co., Inc. 










VEL 


Velsicol Chemical Corp. 



Note. — Complete 



reporting compani 



are listed in table 1 of the appendix. 



CYCLIC INTERMEDIATES 35 

CYCLIC INTERMEDIATES 
Roger Adams 

Cyclic intermediates are synthetic organic chemicals derived princi- 
pally from petroleum and natural gas and from coal-tar crudes produced 
by destructive distillation (pyrolysis) of coal. Most cyclic intermedi- 
ates are used in the manufacture of more advanced synthetic organic chem- 
icals and finished products, such as dyes, medicinal chemicals, elastomers 
(synthetic rubber), pesticides, and plastics and resin materials. Some 
intermediates, however, are sold as end products without further processing. 
For example, refined naphthalene may be used as a raw material in the 
manufacture of 2-naphthol or of other more advanced intermediates, or may 
be packaged and sold as a moth repellant or as a deodorant. In 1976 
about 39 percent of the total output of cyclic intermediates was sold; 
the rest was consumed chiefly by the producing plants in the manufacture 
of more advanced intermediates and finished products. 

Total product of cyclic intermediates in 1976 amounted to 19,796 
million pounds. Sales of cyclic intermediates in 1976 were 7,664 mil- 
lion pounds, valued at $2,387 million. These totals cannot be compared 
with 1975 figures because several items were transferred to the primary 
products from petroleum and natural gas section. 

Intermediates whose production exceeded 1 billion pounds in 1976 were 
dimethyl terephthalate (7,211 million pounds), and phenol (2,121 million 
pounds) . Other large-volume intermediates produced in 1976 were isocyanates 
(948 million pounds) , phthalic anhydride (902 million pounds) , cyclohexanone 
(641 million pounds), aniline (544 million pounds), dodecylbenzene (529 mil- 
lion pounds) , bisphenol A (449 million pounds) , nitrobenzene (409 million 
pounds), 2,4 (and 2,6)-dinitrotoluene (396 million pounds), monochlorobenzene 
(329 million pounds), and 2,4-dinitrotoluene (328 million pounds). The 12 
chemicals noted above accounted for 75 percent ci the total output of 
intermediates in 1976. 



Items transferred from cyclic intermediates to primary products from 
petroleum and natural gas are ethylbenzene, cyclohexane, styrene, m-xylene , 
o-xylene, p-xylene, and cumene. 



CYCLIC INTERMEDIATES 



TABLE 1, --Cyclic intermediates: U.S. production and sales, 1976 



[Listed below are all cyclic intermediates for which any reported data on production and/or 
(Leaders (...) are used where the reported data are accepted in confidence and may not be 
data were reported.) Table 2 lists alphabetically all cyclic intermediates on which data 
sales were reported and identifies the manufacturers of each] 



sales may be published, 
published or where no 
on production and/or 



CYCLIC INTERMEDIATES 



PRODUCTION 



Grand total 

Acetoacetanilide 

o-Acetoacetanisidide 

o-Acetoacetotoluidide 

A'-Aminoacetanilide (Acetyl-p-phenylenediamine) 

4-Amino-4 ' -nltro-2 , 2 '-stilbendisulf onic acid 

p- [ (p-Aminophenyl)azo] ben zenesulf onic acid 

Aniline (Aniline oil) 

Anilinomethanesulfonic acid and salt 

Benzaldehyde, tech 

Benzoic acid, tech 

2-Benzothiazolethiol, sodium salt 

Biphenyl 

Chlorobenzene, mono- 

4-Chloro-3-nitrobenzenesulfonamide 

4-Chloro-3-nitrobenzenesulfonyl chloride 

Cresols , total 2 

o-Cresol 

All other 3 

Cresylic acid, refined 2 

Cyclohexanone 

Cyclohexylamine 

1 , 4-Diamino-2 , 3-dihydroan thraquinone 

o-Dichlorobenzene 

p-Dichlorobenzene 

2,4-Dichlorophenol 

Dicyclohexylamine 

N,N-Diethylaniline 

9,10-Dihydro-9,10-dioxo-l-'anthracenesulfonic acid and 

salt (Cold salt) 

1,4-Dihydroxyan thraquinone (Quinizarin) 

2,4-Dihydroxybenzophenone ; 

l,8-Dihydroxy-4,5-dinitroanthraquinone 

N,N-Dimethylaniline 

N,N-Dimethylbenzylamine 

N,N-Dimethyl cyclohexylamine 

4,4'-Dinltrostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid 

2,4-Dinitrotoluene 

2,4 (and 2 ,6)-Dinitrotoluene 

Dodecylbenzene 

N-Ethylaniline, refined 

2-(N-Ethylanilino)ethanol 

Hydroquinone, tech, grade 

Isocyanic acid derivatives, total 

Polymethylene polypheny lisocyanate 

Toluene-2,4- and 2, 6-diisocyanate (80/20 mixture) — 

Other Isocyanic acid derivatives 

4,4'-Isopropylldenediphenol (Bisphenol A) 

Melamine 

DL-p-Mentha-l,8-diene 

Metanilic acid (m-Aminobenzenesulfonic acid) 

4,4'-Methylenedianiline 

3-Methyl-l-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one (Developer Z) 

a-Methylstyrene 

3'-Nitroacetanllide 



1,000 
pounds 



19,795,832 



366 

134 

411 

543,779 

466 

8,285 

79,654 

56,894 

329,072 

697 

524 

100,211 
22,187 
78,024 

57,107 
640,794 

531 
48,594 
36,699 



1,991 

1,073 

1,717 

304 

251 

13,560 

184 

4,028 

11,089 

327,983 

396,359 

528,681 

1,049 

291 



948,277 

312,548 

563,752 

71,977 



448,832 

126,246 

11,173 

1,594 



1,000 
pounds 



1,000 
dollars 



3,867 

1,077 

723 



156,696 

8,772 
32,956 

3,012 
14,438 
67,895 



20,731 
74,455 



6,045 

24,116 
37,460 

4,389 
686 

1,336 



8,124 

109 

3,889 



418,109 
910 

10,287 

848.840 
259.273 
532,582 
56,985 

113,192 
80,119 
6,078 



2,759 

1,785 

738 



42,895 

5,124 
7,561 
1,912 
4,073 
16,786 



44,876 
8,785 
36,091 



11,814 

4,327 

6,999 
8,545 

2,444 

570 

1,350 



4,601 

198 

4,283 



105,523 
830 

17,299 

362,280 
115,037 
201,431 
45,812 

41,470 

26,781 

798 



See footnotes at end of table. 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1976 



TABLE 1.— Cyclic intermediates: U.S. production and sales, 1976--Continued 



CYCLIC INTERMEDIATES 



PRODUCTION 



UNIT 
VALUE 1 



Nitrobenzene 

5-Nitro-o-toluenesulfonic acid [SO H-l] 

Nonylphenol 

l-[ (7-Oxo-7H-benz[de] anthracene- 3-yl) amino] anthra- 
quinone 

Phenol, total 2 

From cumene 

Other 

2 , 2 ' - [ (Phenyl) imino]diethanol (N-phenyldiethanol- 

amine) 

Phthalic anhydride 

2-Picoline (a-Picoline) 3 

Piperidine 

Salicylaldehyde 

Salicylic* acid, tech. grade 

Terephthalic acid, dimethyl ester* 

Toluene-2,4-diamine (4-m-Tolylenediamine) 

7,7'-Ureylenebis[4-hydroxy-2-naphthalenesulfonic 

acid] (J Acid urea) 

All other cyclic intermediates 

Calculated from rounded figures. 

2 Does not include data for coke ovens and gas-ret< 
of Mines. 

3 Figures include (o,m,p)-cresol from coal tar and 
11 The figures for terephthalic acid, dimethyl estei 



409,023 

7,400 

77,974 



1,926,403 
195,031 



497 

902,382 

416 

509 

4,414 

31,265 

7,210,613 

233,103 

338 
4,005,927 



1,000 

pounds 



1,000 
dollars 



19,544 
35,751 



4,521 
10,729 



302 

528,789 

425 



195,560 
19,020 



200 

118,136 

401 



$0.23 
.30 



reported to the Div 



jome m-cresol and p-cresol. 
(DMT) include both the acid 



,173 
,298 



3f Fuels Data, U.S. Bu 



tself and the dimethyl 



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U 05 EH 



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z w « 



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CYCLIC INTERMEDIATES 



-»— > O 



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M Z 03 

z «a h 



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1 

a a 



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H (4 Q 

Z =C Z 



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X 3 => : 
&H H M I 

« z z I 

as o o 1 



x >« 

04 z 

Q H 

J Q 

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N 03 

Z H 



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i-t o 



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t U X = < 

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n r r k 



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SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1976 



m EH X 

m h » 

» U X 
ifi » EH «S 



fc. EH 
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U U EH U X 

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33=)0^-lMHt5U«a:MW 



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Q X Q 

X I EH O 

33 X (/] 



OQ Q X U 

X ~3 O H 
M<4«Z 

o n a o 



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H B3 
U M 
rt H 



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x a -a t -1 »H 

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\o •-! cm cn x -— U 



CYCLIC INTERMEDIATES 



TABLE 3. --Cyclic intermediates: Directory of manufacturers, 1976 

ALPHABETICAL DIRECTORY BY CODE 

[Names of manufacturers that reported production or sales of cyclic intermediates to the U.S. Internati 
Commission for 1976 are listed below in the order of their identification codes as used in table 2] 



Code 




Name of company 




Code 


Name of company 


ABB 


Abbott Laboratories 


GIV 


Givaudan Corp. 


AC 


American Color § Chemical Corp. 


GLY 


Glyco Chemicals, Inc. 


ACC 


Amoco Chemical Corp. 


GNT 


General Tire 6 Rubber Co., Chemical/Plastics 


ACS 


Allied Chemical Corp. , Specialty Chemicals 




Div. 




Div. 


GOC 


Gulf Oil Corp., Gulf Oil Co., Chemical 


ACY 


American Cyanamid Co. 




Co. -U.S. 


ADC 


Anderson Development Co. 


GP 


Georgia-Pacific Corp., Rebecca Chemical 


AIP 


Air Products & Chemicals, Inc. 




Div. 


ALD 


Aldrich Chemical Co., Inc. 


GYR 


Goodyear Tire 6 Rubber Co. 


ALF 


Allied Chemical Corp., Fibers Div. 






ALL 


Alliance Chemicals, Inc. 


HEX 


Hexagon Laboratories, Inc. 


AMB 


American Bio-Synthetics Corp. 


HK 


Hooker Chemicals 6 Plastics Corp. 


ARA 


Araphahoe Chemical, Inc. Sub/Syntex 


HN 


Tenneco Chemicals, Inc. 




Corp. (U.S.A.) 


HPC 


Hercules, Inc. 


ARK 


Armstrong Cork Co. 


HSC 


Chemetron Corp., Pigments Div. 


ARS 


Arsynco, Inc. 


HSH 


Harshaw Chemical Co. Div. of Kewanee Oil Co 


ARZ 


Arizona Chemical Co. 


HST 


American Hoechst Corp.: 


ASH 


Ashland Oil, Inc., Ashland Chemical Co. 




Hoechst Fibers Industries 


ASL 


Ansul Chemical Co. 




Rhode Island Works 


ATR 


Atlantic Richfield Co. 










ICC 


Inmont Corp. 


BAS 


BASF Wyandotte Corp. 


ICI 


ICI United States, Inc., Specialty 


BJL 


Burdick § Jackson Laboratories, Inc. 




Chemicals Group 


BUC 


Synalloy Corp., Blackman-Uhler 
Chemical Div. 


IMC 


IMC Chemical Group, Inc. 






JCC 


Jefferson Chemical Co., Inc. 


CCW 


Cincinnati Milacron Chemicals, Inc. 






CEL 


Celanese Corp., Celanese Chemical Co. 


KF 


Kay-Fries Chemicals, Inc. 


CGY 


Ciba-Geigy Corp. 


KLM 


Kalama Chemical, Inc. 


CHL 


Chemol, Inc. 


KPT 


Koppers Co., Inc., Organic Materials 


CLK 


Clark Chemical Corp. 




Div. 


CMG 


Nyanza, Inc. 






CNP 


Nipro, Inc. 


LAK 


Lakeway Chemicals, Inc. 


CO 


Continental Oil Co. 


LEM 


Napp Chemicals, Inc. 


CRS 


Carus Chemical Co. 


LIL 


Eli Lilly 6 Co. and Puerto Rico 


CSD 


Cosden Oil 5 Chemical Co. 






CWN 


Upjohn Co., Fine Chemicals Div. 


MAL 


Mallinckrodt Chemical Works 






MAY 


Otto B. May, Inc. 


DBC 


Dow Badische Co. 


MCB 


Borg-Warner Corp.: 


DCC 


Dow Corning Corp. 




Marbon Chemical Div. 


DOW 


Dow Chemical Co. 




Weston Chemical Co. 


DUP 


E.I. duPont de Nemours 6 Co. , Inc. 


MER 


Merichem Co. 


DVC 


Dover Chemical Corp. Sub of ICC Industries, 


MIL 


Milliken Co., Milliken Chemical 




Inc. 




Div. 






MLC 


Melamine Chemicals, Inc. 


EGR 


Eagle River Chemical Corp. 


MNR 


Monroe Chemical Co. 


EK 


Eastman Kodak Co.: 


MOB 


Mobay Chemical Co. 


EKT 


Tennessee Eastman Co. Div. 


MON 


Monsanto Co. 


ELP 


El Paso Products Co. 


MRA 


Bostik South, Inc. 


ENJ 


Exxon Chemical Co. U.S.A. 


MRK 


Merck 6 Co . , Inc. 






MRT 


Morton Chemical Co. Div. of Morton Norwich 


FER 


Ferro Corp., Ottawa Chemical Div. 




Products , Inc . 


FG 


Foster Grant Co., Inc. 


MTO 


Montrose Chemical Corp. of California 


FIN 


Hexcel Corp., Fine Organics Div. 






FMP 


FMC Corp., Industrial Chemical Div. 


NCI 


Union Camp Corp. 


FMT 


Fail-mount Chemical Co. , Inc. 


NEP 


Nepera Chemical Co., Inc. 


FST 


First Chemical Corp. 


NES 


Nease Chemical Co., Inc. 






NIL 


Nilok Chemicals, Inc. 


GAF 


GAF Corp., Chemical Div. 


NOR 


Norwich Parmacal Co. 


GE 


General Electric Co. 


NPC 


Northwest Petrochemical Corp. 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, J976 
TABLE 3, --Cyclic intermediates: Directory of manufacturers, 1976— Continued 



Code 


Name of company 


Code 


Name of company 


OMC 


01 in Corp. 


SOC 


Standard Oil Co. of California, Chevron 


OPC 


Orbis Products Corp. 




Chemical Co. 


ORO 


Chevron Chemical Co. 


STC 


American Hoechst Corp. , Sou-Tex Works 


ORT 


Roehr Chemicals, Inc. 


STG 


Stange Co . 


otc 


Story Chemical Corp., Ott Div. 


STP 


Stepan Chemical Co. 






STY 


Styrochem Corp . 


PAS 


Pennwalt Corp. 


SW 


Sherwin-Williams Co. 


PCW 


Pfister Chemical, Inc. 






PD 


Parke, Davis & Co. Sub. of Warner-Lambert 


TCC 


Tanatex Chemical Corp. 




Co. 


TCH 


Emery Industries, Inc., Trylon Chemical 


PFZ 


Pfizer, Inc. & Pfizer Pharmaceutical, Inc. 




Div. 


PIT 


Pitt-Consol Chemical Co. 


TEN 


Cities Service Co., Copperhill Operations 


PLC 


Phillips Petroleum Co. 


TKL 


Thiokol Corp. 


PPG 


PPG Industries, Inc. 


TNA 


Ethyl Corp. 


PRD 


Ferro Corp., Productol Chemical Div. 


TOC 


Tenneco Oil Co. 


PTO 


Puerto Rico Chemical Co., Inc. 


TRC 


Toms River Chemical Corp. 


ptt 


Petro-Tex Chemical Corp. 


TRD 


Manufacturing Enterprises, Inc., Squibb 
Manufacturing, Inc., Trade Enterprise, 


QKO 


Quaker Oats Co. 




Inc., Ersana, Inc. 






TX 


Texaco, Inc. 


RBC 


Fike Chemicals, Inc. 






RCI 


Reichhold Chemicals, Inc. 


UCC 


Union Carbide Corp. 


RDA 


Rhodia, Inc. 


UOP 


UOP, Inc., UOP Chemical Div. 


RH 


Rohm $ Haas Co. 


UPF 


Jim Walter Resources, Inc. 


RIL 


Reilly Tar § Chemical Corp. 


UPJ 


Upjohn Co. 


RPC 


Millmaster Onyx Corp., Refined-Onyx Div. 


USR 


Uniroyal, Inc. , Chemical Div. 


RSA 


R.S.A. Corp. 


USS 


USS Chemicals Div. of U.S. Steel Corp. 


RUC 


Rubicon Chemicals, Inc. 










VAL 


Valchem Corp. 


SAL 


Salsbury Laboratories 


VGC 


Virginia Chemicals, Inc. 


SAR 


Sartomer Industries, Inc. 


VPC 


Mobay Chemical Corp., Verona Div. 


sec 


Standard Chlorine of Delaware, Inc. 


VTC 


Vicksburg Chemical Co. Div. of Vertac 


SCN 


Schenectady Chemicals, Inc. 




Consolidated 


SDC 


Martin-Marietta Corp. , Sodyeco Div. 








Sterling Drug, Inc. : 


WAY 


Philip A. Hunt Chemical Corp., Organic 


SDH 


Hilton-Davis Chemical Co. Div. 




Chemical Div. 


SDW 


Winthrop Laboratories Div. 


WIL 


Inolex Corp. , Inolex Pharmaceutical Div. 




Stauffer Chemical Co.: 


WTC 


Witco Chemical Co., Inc. 


SFA 


Agricultural Div. 


WTH 


Union Camp Corp. , Chemical Div. , Dover 


SFC 


Calhio Chemicals, Inc. 




Plant 


SFS 


Specialty Chemical Div. 


WTL 


Pennwalt Corp., Lucidol Div. 


SHC 


Shell Oil Co., Shell Chemical Co. Div. 


WYT 


Wyeth Laboratories, Inc., Wyeth Labora- 


SK 


Smith, Klein § French Laboratories 




tories Div. of American Home Products 


SKO 


Getty Refining § Marketing Co. 




Corp. 


SNT 


Suntide Refining Co. 







Note. --Complete na 



and addresses of the above reporting companies 



listed in table 1 of the appendi 



DYES 

DYES 

Edmund Cappuccilli 

Synthetic dyes are derived in whole or in part from cyclic inter- 
mediates. Approximately two-thirds of the dyes consumed in the United 
States are used by the textile industry to dye natural and synthetic 
fibers or fabrics; about one-sixth is used for coloring paper; and the 
rest is used chiefly in the production of organic pigments and in the 
dyeing of leather and plastics. Of the several thousand different 
synthetic dyes that are known, more than one thousand are manufactured 
by one or more domestic producers. The large number of dyes results 
from the many different types of materials to which dyes are applied, 
the different conditions of service for which dyes are required, and 
the costs that a particular use can bear. Dyes are sold as pastes, 
powders, lumps, and solutions; concentrations vary from 6 percent to 
100 percent. The concentration, form, and purity of a dye are deter- 
mined largely by the use for which it is intended. 

Total domestic production of dyes in 1976 amounted to 256 million 
pounds, or 24.4 percent greater than the 206 million pounds produced in 
1975 (table 1). Sales of dyes in 1976 amounted to 250 million pounds, 
valued at $620 million, compared with 209 million pounds, valued at $476 
million, in 1975. In terms of quantity, sales of dyes in 1976 were 19.7 
percent greater than in 1975 and in terms of value, 30.4 percent greater. 
The average unit value of sales of all dyes in 1976 was $2.48 per pound 
compared with $2.28 per pound in 1975. 

In general, the production of the six classes of dyes increased 
substantially in 1976. Acid dyes increased by 50.5 percent from 18.7 
million pounds in 1975 to 28.2 million in 1976. The other five classes 
of dyes increased by the following percentages: basic dyes (24.5), 
direct dyes (32.3), disperse dyes (13.7), fluorescent brightening 
agents (13.0), and vat dyes (25.4). 



73 



DYES 



TABLE 1,— Dyes: U.S. production and sales, 1976 

[Listed below are all dyes for which any reported data on production or sales may be published. (Leaders 
are used where the reported data are accepted in confidence and may not be published or where no data v. 
reported.) Table 2 lists all dyes for which data on production and/or sales were reported and identifi 
manufacturers of each] 



Grand total ■ 

Total 

Acid yellow dyes, total 

Acid Yellow 17 

Acid Yellow 23 

Acid Yellow 34 

Acid Yellow 36 

Acid Yellow 40 

Acid Yellow 151 

Acid Yellow 159 

Acid Yellow 174 

All other 

Acid orange dyes, total 

Acid Orange 7 

Acid Orange 8 

Acid Orange 10 

Acid Orange 24 

Acid Orange 60 

Acid Orange 116 

All other 

Acid red dyes, total 

Acid Red 1 

Acid Red 4 

Acid Red 37 

Acid Red 73 

Acid Red 85 

Acid Red 114 

Ac'id Red 137 

Acid Red 151 

Acid Red 182 

Acid Red 186 

Acid Red 266 

Acid Red 337 

All other 

Acid violet dyes, total 

Acid violet 7 

All other 

Acid blue dyes, total 

Acid Blue 9 

Acid Blue 25 

Acid Blue 27 

Acid Blue 40 

Acid Blue 113 

All other 

Acid green dyes 

Acid brown dyes, total 

Acid Brown 14 

All other 

Acid black dyes, total 

Acid Black 1 

Acid Black 52 

See footnotes at end of table. 



256,250 
28,248 



113 
6,634 

4,113 
326 
257 
232 
709 
404 
551 

1,634 

4,932 



314 
129 
821 



188 

864 



4,575 



468 

2,724 

485 

1,385 
407 
978 



556 

756 



2,245 
394 



3,935 
370 
228 
235 
749 
388 
455 

1,510 

4,853 



194 

798 

1,971 



,420 
630 
42 
676 
419 

,214 



1,275 
490 
785 



WO 
620 



1,000 
dollars 



UNIT 
VALUE 1 

Per 
pound 



460 

685 
99 

410 
409 

4,117 
1,142 

18,023 



801 
497 
556 
,708 
.214 
,489 
,369 



215 
60 
584 
229 

1,014 
594 

1,809 
286 
152 
767 
347 

9,152 

659 



18,038 
2,461 
3,725 
226 
3,207 
1,443 
6,976 

1,907 



1,627 
3,020 



,191 
,844 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1976 



TABLE 1,--Dyes: U.S. production and sales, 1976--Continued 



PRODUCTION 



UNIT 
VALUE 1 



Acid black dyes- 
Acid Black 107 
All other 



ACID DYES— CONTINUED 
-Continued 



Azoic Di 
total- 



AZOIC DYES AND COMPOS 



Azoic Diazo Components, Bases 
(Fast Color Bases) 



nts, Bases (Fast Color Bases), 



Azoic Diazo Components, Salts 
(Fast Color Salts) 

Total 

Azoic Diazo Component 5, salt 

Azoic Diazo Component 6, salt 

Azoic Diazo Component 9, salt 

Azoic Diazo Component 13, salt 

All other azoic diazo components, salts 

BASIC DYES 

Total 

Basic yellow dyes, total 

Basic Yellow 11 

Basic Yellow 13 

All other 

Basic orange dyes, total 

Basic Orange 2 

Basic Orange 21 

All other 

Basic red dyes, total 

Basic Red 14 

Basic Red 18 

Basic Red 49 

All other 

Basic violet dyes, total 

Basic Violet 1 

Basic Violet 16 

All other 

Basic blue dyes, total 

Basic Blue 7 

All other 

Basic green dyes 

All other basic dyes 

DIRECT DYES 

Total 

Direct yellow dyes, total 

Direct Yellow 4 

Direct Yellow 6 

Direct Yellow 11 

Direct Yellow 12 



1,000 
pounds 



1,615 



1,000 



1,000 
dollars 



236 
3,683 



1,256 

316 

1,785 

2,187 



280 
1,534 



737 

212 

3,591 



1,072 

370 

1,790 



101 
2,227 



31,606 



1,175 
4,551 



201 

275 

1,000 



49,770 



1,810 

500 

10,984 



1,177 
1,414 
1,433 

8,555 
1,156 
1,229 
309 
5,861 

10,696 
3,194 
1,129 
6,373 



710 
,650 



1,545 
1,296 



28.258 

1,086 

647 

3,015 

320 



Per 
pound 



See fo 



3tes at end of table 



DYES 



TABLE 1.— Dyes: U.S. production and sales- 1976— Continued 



DIRECT DYES 

Direct yellow dyes — continued 

Direct Yellow 28 

Direct Yellow 44 

Direct Yellow 50 

Direct Yellow 84 

Direct Yellow 105 

Direct Yellow 106 

All other 

Direct orange dyes, total 

Direct Orange 8 

Direct Orange 15 

Direct Orange 34 

Direct Orange 39 

Direct Orange 72 

Direct Orange 73 

Direct Orange 102 

All other 

Direct red dyes, total 

Direct Red 1 

Direct Red 2 

Direct Red 23 

Direct Red 24 

Direct Red 26 

Direct Red 39 

Direct Red 72 

Direct Red 80 

Direct Red 81 

Direct Red 83 

All other 

Direct violet dyes 

Direct blue dyes, total 

Direct Blue 1 

Direct Blue 2 

Direct Blue 76 

Direct Blue 80 

Direct Blue 86 

Direct Blue 98 

Direct Blue 218 

All other 

Direct green dyes, total 

Direct Green 1 

All other 

Direct brown dyes, total 

Direct Brown 2 

Direct Brown 31 2 

Direct Brown 95 2 

All other 

Direct black dyes, total 

Direct Black 22 

Direct Black 38 

All other 

DISPERSE DYES 

Total 

Disperse yellow dyes, total 

Disperse Yellow 3 



1,000 
pounds 



82 
620 
536 
236 
164 
803 
6,029 

1,620 



7,266 

236 

771 

58 

491 

1,039 
139 

1,359 

3,173 



(95 
718 



1,499 

3,759 

819 



1,000 
pounds 



585 

546 
255 

714 
5,763 



37 
50 
281 
404 
644 
135 
2,085 



172 



230 
771 
41 
471 
862 
164 
1,253 
2,919 

455 
216 
239 



532 
U9 



5,842 

1,186 

3,923 

733 



1,000 
dollars 



394 
1,710 
1,850 

629 

1,852 
16,755 



155 
694 
195 
367 
681 
343 



12,514 

251 

219 

641 

773 

115 

215 

972 

1,323 

2,094 

367 

5,544 

601 

19,069 

915 

1,476 

120 

1,423 

2,550 

489 

3,973 

8,123 

1,511 

457 

1,054 

3,068 

471 

183 

1,102 

1,312 

9,393 
1,351 
6,249 
1,793 



UNIT 
VALUE 1 



Per 
pound 



See fooCnoce 



end of table 



245-856 O - 71 - 6 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1976 



TABLE 1,— Dyes: U.S. production and sales, 1976--Continued 



PRODUCTION 



UNIT 
VALUE 1 



DISPERSE DYES— CONTINUED 

Disperse yellow dyes — Continued 

Disperse Yellow 23 

Disperse Yellow 33 

Disperse Yellow 34 

Disperse Yellow 42 

Disperse Yellow 54 

All other 

Disperse orange dyes, total 

Disperse Orange 3 

Disperse Orange 17 

Disperse Orange 25 

All other 

Disperse red dyes, total 

Disperse Red 1 

Disperse Red 5 

Disperse Red 15 

Disperse Red 17 

Disperse Red 60- 

Disperse Red 65 

Disperse Red 86 

Disperse Red 177 

All other 

Disperse violet dyes, total 

Disperse Violet 1 

Disperse Violet 27 

All other 

Disperse blue dyes, total 

Disperse Blue 3 

Disperse Blue 64 

Disperse Blue 79 

All other 

Disperse black dyes 

Disperse brown and green dyes 

FIBER-REACTIVE DYES 

Fiber-reactive dyes, total 

Reactive yellow dyes 

All other reactive dyes 

FLUORESCENT BRIGHTENING AGENTS 

Fluorescent brightening Agent , total 

Fluorescent Brightening Agent 28 

Fluorescent Brightening Agent 61 

All other fluorescent brightening agent 

FOOD, DRUG, AND COSMETIC COLORS 
Total 

Pood j Drug, and Cosmetic Dyes 
Total 

FD&C Blue No. 1 

FD&C Blue No. 2 

FD&C Red No. 2 

FD&C Red No. 3 

FD&C Yellow No. 5 

FDSC Yellow No. 6 

All other food, drug, and cosmetic dyes — 



1,000 
pounds 



753 
194 
126 
605 
893 
3,380 

4,993 



399 

106 

358 
,263 

121 



14,081 
1,155 
516 
2,622 
9,788 

1,612 
1,598 



844 
2,662 



2,371 

85 

40,973 



64 

54 

506 

1,673 

1,188 

1,794 



1,000 
pounds 



782 
163 
166 
666 
1,059 
3,135 

4,526 



607 
3,776 



294 
,047 

155 
27 

183 
,155 



13,069 

877 

468 

2,082 

9,642 

1,422 
1,421 



804 
,178 



2,220 

607 

35,121 



1,000 
dollars 



1,499 

353 

365 

1,487 

3,422 

10,323 

11,854 

217 

106 

1,555 

9,976 

36,501 
735 
180 
199 
741 
.7,651 
495 
189 
652 

25,659 

2,270 
179 
247 

1,844 



2,556 
1,230 



447 
,403 

991 
,636 



,969 
,613 



4,647 
17,229 



4,391 

616 

50,457 



28,457 

1,448 
912 
458 
4,410 
6,573 
4,226 
10,430 



pound 



2.56 

2.64 



4.41 
2.50 
2.17 
4.74 
2.52 
3.74 
3.20 
6.93 
3.57 
4.98 



5.06 
2.56 
4.94 

4.58 
2.91 
2.63 
2.83 
5.21 

2.09 



1.98 

10.16 
1.44 



8.48 
11.93 
5.02 
9.87 
4.68 
4.26 



See footnote 



end of table. 



DYES 



TABLE 1.— Dyes: U.S. production and sales, 1976— Continued 



PRODUCTION 



Drug and Cosmetic and External Drug 
and Cosmetic Dyes 

Total 

D&C green dyes 

D&C red dyes, total 

D&C Red No. 6 

D&C Red No. 7 

DiC Red No. 19 

All other 

All other drug & cosmetic and external drug & 
cosmetic dyes 

MORDANT DYES 

Total 

Mordant orange dyes, total 

Mordant orange 1 

All other 

Mordant brown dyes 

Mordant black dyes, total 

Mordant Black 11 

All other 

All other mordant dyes 

SOLVENT DYES 

Total 

Solvent yellow dyes 

Solvent orange dyes 

Solvent red dyes, total 

Solvent Red 49 

All other 

Solvent blue dyes 

All other solvent dyes 

VAT DYES 

Total 

Vat yellow dyes, total 

Vat Yellow 2, 8-1/2% 

All other 

Vat orange dyes, total 

Vat Orange 2, 123: 

Vat Orange 15, lOZ 

All other 

Vat red dyes 

Vat violet dyes 

Vat green dyes, total 

Vat Green 1, b% . 

Vat Green 3, 10Z 

All other 

Vat brown dyes 

See footnotes on following page. 



1,000 
pounds 



2,413 
4,492 



656 
598 



787 

1,974 



393 
307 



5,399 



1,748 
3,651 



1,000 
pounds 



1,396 
931 



1,628 
4,561 



)94 

375 



741 

220 

1,632 

378 
328 



1,073 
1,843 
2,548 



1,000 
dollars 



549 

1.451 
217 
180 
116 
938 



628 

910 
705 
205 



2,852 

8,466 

747 

7,719 

11,132 
8,011 



686 
2,971 



3,237 

947 

7,906 



1,312 

10.275 
2,034 
3,477 
4,764 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1976 



TABLE 1.— Dyes: U.S. production and sales, 1976— Continued 



PRODUCTION 



UNIT 
VALUE 1 



VAT DYES— Continued 

Vat black dyes, total 

Vat Black 25, 12-1/2% 

Vat Black 27, 12-1/27. 

All other 

All other vat dyes 

All other dyes 3 



1,000 
pounds 



1,000 
pounds 



1,000 
dollars 



1,840 

360 

1,319 

35,396 

20,355 



1,996 

239 

1,299 

41,770 

19,998 



3,329 

731 

2,140 

38,460 

30,605 



Per 
pound 



1.67 

3.05 
1.65 



Calculated from rounded figur 

2 The data Include dyes which a 

3 The data include azoic compos 
and miscellaneous dyes. Statistic 

TABLE IA.-Dyes: 



to, but not chemically 
ic coupling components, 
groups of dyes may not 



ntical with, the indicated Colour I 
idation bases, ingrain dyes, sulfur 
published separately because publi 



I in confidence. 

U.S. PRODUCTION AND SALES, BY CLASS OF APPLICATION, 



1976 



CLASS OF APPLICATION 



PRODUCTION 



UNIT 
VALUE 1 



Total 

Acid 

Azoic dyes and components: 

Azoic diazo components, bases (Fast color bases)- 
Azoic diazo components, salts (Fast color salts)- 

Basic 

Direct 

Disperse 

Fiber-reactive 

Fluorescent brightening agents 

Food, drug, and cosmetic colors 

Mordant 

Solvent 

Vat 

All Other 2 



1,000 
pounds 



28,248 

532 
1,370 
14,595 
33,527 
39,100 
3,506 
43,429 
5,757 
660 
11,940 
53,231 
20,355 



1,000 
dollars 



467 

1,350 

14,889 

31,606 

36,289 

3,982 

37,948 

5,110 

656 

11,509 

59,077 

19,998 



1,572 
49,770 
78,772 
138,019 
21,876 
55,464 
31,754 
2,149 
35,341 
86,876 
30,604 



Per 
pound 



1 Calculated from rou 


nded figures. 


2 The data include az 


oic composition, azoic coupling components, oxidation bas 


and miscellaneous dyes. 


Statistics for these groups of dyes may not be published 


would disclose infonnati 


on received in confidence. 



sulfur dye 
se publica 



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SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1976 



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DYES 
TABLE 3.— Dyes; Directory of Manufacturers- 1976 



ALPHABETICAL DIRECTORY BY CODE 



[Names of dye manufacturers that reported production or sales to the U.S. International Trade Commission for 1976 
are listed below in order of their identification codes as used in table 2] 



Code 


Name of company 


Code 


Name of company 


AC 


American Color 5 Chemical Corp. 


ICC 


Inmont Corp. 




ACS 


Allied Chemical Corp., Specialty 
Chemicals Div. 


ICI 


ICI United States, Inc., Specialty Chemica 
Group 


s 


ACY 


American Cyanamid Co. 








ALL 


Alliance Chemical, Inc. 








ALT 


Crompton & Knowles Corp. 


KON 


H. Kohnstamm 5 Co., Inc. 




ATL 


Atlantic Chemical Corp. 


MAY 


Otto B. May, Inc. 




BAS 


BASF Wyandotte Corp. 


MRT 


Morton Norwich Products, Morton Chemical 




BDO 


Benzenoid Organics, Inc. 




Co. Div. 




BUC 


Synalloy Corp., Blackman-Uhler Chemical 
Div. 


MRX 
PCW 


Max Marx Color 6 Chemical Co. 
Pfister Chemical Works 




CCW 


Cincinnati Milacron Chemicals, Inc. 


PDC 


Bemcolors-Poughkeepsie, Inc. 




CGY 


Ciba-Geigy Corp. 


PSC 


Passaic Color 5 Chemical Co. 




CMG 


Nyanza, Inc. 


s 


Sandoz, Inc. 




DGO 


Day-Glo Color Corp. 


SDC 


Martin-Marietta Corp., Sodyeco Div. 




DSC 


Dye Specialties, Inc. 


SDH 


Sterling Drug, Inc., Hilton-Davis 




DUP 


E. I. duPont de Nemours & Co., Inc. 


SNA 
STC 


Chemical Co. Div. 
Sun Chemical Corp. 
American Hoechst Corp., Sou-Tex Works 




EKT 


Eastman Kodak Co., Tennessee Eastman 


STG 


Stange Co. 






Co. Div. 


SW 


Sherwin-Williams Co. 




FAB 


Fabricolor Manufacturing Corp. 


TMS 
TRC 


Sterling Drug, Inc. , Thomasset Colors Div. 
Toms River Chemical Corp. 




GAF 


GAF Corp. , Chemical Div. 


VPC 


Mobay Chemical Corp, Verona Div. 




HSC 


Chemetron Corp., Pigments Div. 








HSH 


Harshaw Chemical Co. Div. of Kewanee 
Oil Co. 


WAY 


Philip A. Hunt Chemical Corp., Organic 
Chemical Div. 




HST 


American Hoechst Corp., Rhode Island 
Works 


WJ 


Warner-Jenkinson Manufacturing Co. 





Note. --Complete names and addresses of the above reporting companies are listed in table 1 of the appendi 



112 SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMI CALS , 1976 

ORGANIC PIGMENTS 
David B. Beck and Edmund Cappuccilli 

Organic pigments are toners and lakes derived in whole or in part from 
benzenoid chemicals and colors. 

Statistics on production and sales of all organic pigments in 1976 are 
given in table l. 1 For a few important pigments already reported in table 1, 
supplemental data on sales by commercial forms are reported in table 1A. 
Individual toners and lakes are identified in this report by the names used 
in the third edition of the C olour Index . 

Total production of organic pigments in 1976 was 67.7 million pounds — 36. 
percent more than the 49.9 million pounds produced in 1975 and 3.0 percent 
less than the 69.8 million pounds produced in 1974. Total sales of organic 
pigments in 1976 amounted to 54.2 million pounds, valued at $261.1 million, 
compared with 42.4 million pounds, valued at $186.0 million, in 1975 and 

58.5 million pounds, valued at $227.8 million, in 1974. In terms of 
quantity, sales of organic pigments in 1976 were 27.9 percent greater than 
in 1975 and 7.3 percent smaller than in 1974; in terms of value, sales 

in 1976 were 40.3 percent greater than in 1975 and 14.6 percent greater than 
in 1974. 

Production of toners in 1976 amounted to 66.0 million pounds — 38.3 per- 
cent more than the 47.7 million pounds reported in 1975. Sales in 1976 were 
52.8 million pounds, valued at $256.7 million, compared with 40.8 million 
pounds, valued at $182.1 million, in 1975. Sales in 1976 were 29.5 per- 
cent greater than those in 1975 in terms of quantity, and 40.9 percent 
greater in terms of value. The individual toners listed in the report 
which were produced in the largest quantities in 1976 were Pigment Yellow 
12, 7.8 million pounds; Pigment Blue 15, beta form, 6.5 million pounds; 
Pigment Red 49, barium toner, 4.6 million pounds, and Pigment Red 53, 
barium toner, 3.3 million pounds. 

Production of lakes totaled 1.7 million pounds in 1976-11.6 percent less 
than the 1.9 million pounds reported for 1975. Sales of lakes in 1976 
amounted to 1.4 million pounds, valued at $4.4 million, compared with sales 
in 1975 of 1.6 million pounds, valued at $3.9 million. Sales in 1976 were 

12.6 percent less than those in 1975 in terms of quantity, and 11.7 percent 
greater in terms of value. 

For each of 8 selected pigments, or groups of pigments, table 1A gives 
data on sales by commercial forms. Pigment Yellow 12, Pigment Red 53, 
barium toner, and Pigment Blue 15, beta form, where sold principally in the 
flushed form. The remaining 5 pigments, or groups of pigments, for which 
statistics are published were sold principally in the dry full-strength 
form. Statistics on sales by commercial forms could riot be published for 
Pigment Blue 15, beta form, Pigment 49, barium toner, Pigment Red 49, calcium 
toner and Pigment Red 52, without revealing the operations of individual com- 
panies. 

See also table 2 which lists these products and identifies the manu- 
facturers by codes. These codes are listed in table 3. 



ORGANIC PIGMENTS 



TABLE 1.— Organic Pigments: 



[Listed below are all organic pigments fo 

(Leaders (...) are used where the reported data a 
lists separately all organic pigments for which d 
manufacturers of each] 



U.S. PRODUCTION AND SALES 
h any reported data on productio: 



1976 



accepted 
a on produ 



ion or sales may be published, 
and may not be published.) Table 
were reported and identifies the 



ORGANIC PIGMENTS 



PRODUCTION 



Grand total 

TONERS 
Total 

Yellow toners, total 

Acetoacetarylide yellows: 

Pigment Yellow 1, C.I. 11 680 

Pigment Yellow 3, C.I. 11 710 

Pigment Yellow 73, C.I. 11 738 

Pigment Yellow 74, C.I. 11 741 

Benzidine yellow: 

Pigment Yellow 12, C.I. 21 090 

Pigment Yellow 13, C.I. 21 100 

Pigment Yellow 14, C.I. 21 095 

Pigment Yellow 17, C.I. 21 105 

All other 

Orange toners, total 

Pigment Orange 5, C.I. 12 075 

Pigment Orange 13, C.I. 21 110 

Pigment Orange 16, C.I. 21 160 

Pigment Orange 34, C.I. 21 115 

All other 

Red toners, total 

Naphthol reds, total 

Pigment Red 2, C.I. 12 310 

Pigment Red 5, C.I. 12 490 

Pigment Red 9, C.I. 12 460 

Pigment Red 17, C.I. 12 390 

Pigment Red 22, C.I. 12 315 

Pigment Red 23, C.I. 12 355 

All other naphthol reds 

Pigment Red 3 C.I. 12 120 

Pigment Red 4, C.I. 12 085 

Pigment Red 38, C.I. 21 120 

Pigment Red 48, C.I. 15 865 

Pigment Red 48, C.I. 15 865, barium toner 

Pigment Red 48, C.I. 15 865, calcium toner — 
Pigment Red 48, C.I. 15 865, strontium toner 
Pigment Red 48, C.I. 15 865, manganese toner 

Pigment Red 49, C.I. 15 630, barium toner 

Pigment Red 49, C.I. 15 630, calcium toner- 
Pigment Red 52, C.I. 15 860, calcium toner — 
Pigment Red 52, C.I. 15 860, manganese toner 

Pigment Red 53, C.I. 15 585, barium toner 

Pigment Red 57, C.I. 15 850, calcium toner- 
Pigment Red 63, C.I. 15 880 

Pigment Red 81, C.I. 45 160, PHA 

Pigment Red 81, C.I. 45 160, PTA 

All other 

Violet toners, total 

Pigment Violet 1, C.I. 45 170, PMA 

Pigment Violet 1, C.I. 45 170, PTA 

Pigment Violet 3, C.I. 42 535, fugituve 

Pigment Violet 3, C.I. 42 535, PMA 



1,000 

pounds 

dry 



17,025 



506 

239 

701 

1,735 

7,830 
380 

3,000 
767 

1,867 



fog 

267 
475 



268 
654 

2,168 

188 

141 

91 

539 

1,928 

315 
4,648 
1,460 
1,514 

699 

3,319 

2,513 

37 

521 



3.050 
62 
242 
352 
514 



dry 
basis 3 



1,000 
dollars 



261,089 



450 
1,405 

5,223 

203 

1,992 

416 
1,754 

1,340 
516 

171 
367 



34 
79 
240 
471 
1,635 
195 



474 
1,647 



181 

4,406 



554 

2,633 

1,938 

37 

502 

58 

6,420 

2.416 



1 


796 


6 


B82 


17 


917 




828 


7 


216 


1 


723 


12 


372 


8 


477 


1 


.St., 




872 


1 


,768 



90,272 
6,43] 

310 
280 



232 

530 

1,769 

3,310 

5,672 

610 



792 
10,230 



1,709 
7,228 
8,230 

149 
4,347 

663 
35,159 

28.642 

638 

783 

1,043 

2,023 



per 
pound 



See footnotes at end of table 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1976 



TABLE 1,— Organic pigments: U.S. production and sales, 1976--Continued 



ORGANIC PIGMENTS 



PRODUCTION 



QUANTITY 



SALES 
VALUE 1 



UNIT 
VALUE 2 



TONERS — Cont inued 



Violet toners, 
Pigment Viole 
Pigment Viole 
All other 



Dtal — continued 

3, C.I. 42 535, PTA- 
23, C.I. 51 319 



Bl 



toners , total 

Pigment Blue 1, C.I. 42 595, PMA 

Pigment Blue 15, C.I. 74 160 alpha form 
Pigment Blue 15:3, C.I. 74 160, beta fo 
Pigment Blue 15:4, C.I. 74 160, beta fo 
All other 



Pigment Green 2, C.I. 42 040 and 49 005, PMA- 
Pigment Green 2, C.I. 42 040 and 49 005, PTA- 

Pigment Green 7, C.I. 74 260 

Pigment Green 36, C.I. 74 265 

All other 



Brown and black toners, total- 
Pigment Brown 5, C.I. 15 800 
All other 



Red lakes : 

Pigment Red 60, C.I. 16 105- 
Pigment Red 83, C.I. 58 000- 



Violet lake: Pigment Violet 5, C.I. 58 055 

Blue lakes 

All other lakes 



1,000 
pounds 

dry 

basis 



292 
1,545 



14,219 



84 

3,967 

6,479 

163 

3,526 

3,801 



3,260 
226 
286 



545 



1,000 
pounds 
dry 
basis 3 



1,000 
dollars 



232 
1,311 



312 
4,504 
19,339 



3,323 
5,191 



810 
18,159 
24,984 



21,732 



2,783 
250 
238 



208 

117 

17,712 

1,788 

1,907 

834 



127 
707 



1,188 
298 

437 

2,058 

401 



per 

pound 



$ 9.25 
19.45 
14.75 



8.33 
5.46 
4.81 



9.12 
12.52 
6.36 



3.81 
6.05 

4.82 

2.75 

2.10 



of sales for lakes 
ng or packaging in 



1 The value of sales from toners are reported on a dry full-strength basis and the 
reported on a dry form basis. All sales value data exclude the additional costs of pr 
mercial forms other than the dry full-strength or dry form. 

2 Totals and "all other" unit values calculated from rounded figures. 

3 Quantities for toners are reported as dry full-strength toner content, excluding the weigth of any dispersin 
agent, vehicle, or extender. Quantities for lakes are reported as dry lake content, excluding the weight of any 
dispersing agent or vehicle. 



repor 



the identifying numbers gi 



the third 



Note. — The C.I. (Colour Index) numbers shown Iri 
dition of the Colour Index. 

The abbreviations PMA and PTA stand for phosphomolybdic and phosphotungstic (including phosphotungstomolybdic) 
cids, respectively. 



ORGANIC PIGMENTS 



TABLE 1A. — U.S. sales of selected dry full-strength colors, dry extended colors, dry dispersions, 

AQUEOUS DISPERSIONS, AND FLUSHED COLORS, 1976 



[Listed below are supple 
table I] 



ted pigments that have be 



SELECTED PIGMENTS BY COMMERCIAL FORMS 



QUANTITY 



UNIT 

VALUE 2 



Dtal- 



Pigment Yellow 12, C.I. 21 090, 

Dry full-strength toner 

Flushed color 

Aqueous dispersion'' and dry dispersions 5 



Pigment Yellow 13, C.I. 21 100; Pigment Yellow 14, C.I. 21 
095; Pigment Yellow 17, C.I. 21 105; and other benzidir 

yellows , total 

Dry full-strength toner 

Aqueous dispersions 

Flushed color 

Dry extended toner and dry dispersions 



Pigment Red 3, C.I. 12 120, total- 
Dry full-strength toner 

Dry extended toner, aqueous disp 



r, and flused colo 
C.I. 15 865, total 



Pigment Red 48:2 calcium toner 

Dry full-strength toner 

Dry extended toner, dry dispersion aqueous dispersions and 
and flused color 



Pigment Red 53:1, C.I. 15 585, barium toner, 

Aqueous dispersions'* 

Flushed color 

Dry dispersion and dry full-strength toner- 



total- 



Pigment Red 57;1, calcium toner, C.I. 15 850, total 

Flushed color 

Dry full-strength toner, dry extended toner, and aqueou 
dispersions ' 



alpha 



Pigment Blue 15, C.I. 74 160, 

Dry full-strength toner 

Aqueous dispersions 

Dry dispersions, dry extended toner 



and flushed color 



3tal- 



Pigment Green 7, C.I. 74 260, 

Dry full-strength toner 

Flushed color 

Aqueous dispersions'* 

Dry extended toner and dry dispersions 5 



1,000 

pounds 

dry basis 1 

5,223 



1,938 



1,507 

431 

3,323 



1,385 

842 

1,096 



1,458 
445 



1,000 

loll ;■■.' 



per 

pound 



5,398 

12,311 

207 



5,657 
2,698 
1,336 



3,497 
2,175 



,'<1 I 
,267 



6,423 
1,807 



8,032 

4,121 
6,006 

17,712 



9,052 
3,157 
4,079 
1,424 



3.31 

3.49 



4.23 

4.67 



2.80 
2.75 

2.73 

4.25 



4.26 
4.19 
5.46 



5.85 
4.89 
5.48 

6.36 



6.21 
7.09 
5.97 
7.23 



! identical in tables 1 and 1A; the sales value data in 1A ge 
table 1A Includes the additional processing and packaging cos 



ally exceed the 

o( the various com- 



of dry full-strength toner 



Sales quantities 
value in table 1 be 
mercial forms. 

2 Calculated from whole figures. 

3 Quantity of the various commercial forms is given in 
** Includes presscake. 

5 Separate data on these commercial forms may not be published without revealing the operation of individual 
companies. 

Note. — The C.I. (Colour Index) numbers shown in this report are the identifying numbers given in the third 
edition of the Colour Index. 

The abbreviations PMA and PTA stand for phosphomolybdic and phosphotungstic (including phosphotungstomolybdic) 
acids respectively. 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1976 



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ORGANIC PIGMENTS 



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SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1976 



TABLE 3. --Organic pigments: Directory of manufacturers, 1976 

ALPHABETICAL DIRECTORY BY CODE 

[Names of organic pigment manufacturers that reported production or sales to the U.S. International Trade Commission 
for 1976 are listed below in the order of their identification codes as used in table 21 



Code 


Name of company 


: 

Code 


Name of company 


ACS 


Allied Chemical Corp. , Specialty Chemicals 


KCW 


Keystone Color Works, Inc. 




Div. 


KON 


H.' Kohnstamm § Co. , Inc. 


ACY 


American Cyanamid Co. 






AMS 


Ridgway Color S Chemical 






APO 


Apollo Colors, Inc. 


LVR 


C. Lever Co., Inc. 


BAS 


BASF Wyandotte Corp. 


MGR 


Magruder Color Co. , Inc. 


BNS 


Binney and Smith, Inc. 


MRA 


Bostik South, Inc. 


BOR 


Borden, Inc., Printing Ink Div, 


MRX 


Max Marx Color § Chemical Co. 


BUC 


Synalloy Corp., Blackman-Uhler 
Chemical Div. 










POP 


Pope Chemical Corp. 


CIK 


Flint Ink Corp., Cal/Ink Div. 










ROM 


United Merchants S Manufacturers, Inc., 
Roma Chemical Div. 


DUP 


E. I. duPont de Nemours & Co., Inc. 










S 


Sandoz, Inc., Colors § Chemicals Div. 


GAP 


GAF Corp., Chemical Div. 


SDC 


Martin-Marietta Corp., Sodyeco Div. 






SDH 


Sterling Drug, Inc., Hilton-Davis Chemical 
Co. Div. 


HPC 


Hercules, Inc. 


SNA 


Sun Chemical Corp. 


HSC 


Chemetron Corp., Pigments Div. 


SW 


Sherwin-Williams Co. 


HSH 


Harshaw Chemical Co. Div. of Kewanee 
Oil Co. 






HST 


American Hoechst Corp., Rhode Island 


TMS 


Sterling Drug, Inc., Thomasset Colors 




Works 




Div. 






TNI 


Gillette Co., Chemical Div. 


ICC 


Inmont Corp. 


UHL 


Paul Uhlich 6. Co. , Inc. 



Note. --Complete names and addresses of the above reporting companies are listed in table 1 of the appendix. 



MEDICINAL CHEMICALS 123 



MEDICINAL CHEMICALS 
Tedford C. Briggs 

Medicinal chemicals include the medicinal and feed grades of all 
organic chemicals having therapeutic value, whether obtained by chemical 
synthesis, by fermentation, by extraction from naturally occurring plant 
or animal substances, or by refining a technical grade product. They 
include antibiotics and other anti- infective agents, antihistamines, 
autonomic drugs, cardiovascular agents, central nervous system depressants 
and stimulants, hormones and synthetic substitutes, vitamins, and other 
therapeutic agents for human or veterinary use and for animal feed supple- 
ments. 

The table shows statistics for production and sales of medicinal chem- 
icals grouped by pharmacological class. The statistics shown are for bulk 
chemicals only; finished pharmaceutical preparations and products put up 
in pills, capsules, tablets, or other measured doses are excluded. The 
difference between production and sales reflects inventory changes, pro- 
cessing losses, and captive consumption of medicinal chemicals processed 
into ethical and proprietary pharmaceutical products by the primary manu- 
facturer. In some instances, the difference may also include quantities 
of medicinal grade products used as intermediates, e.g., penicillin G 
salts used as intermediates in the manufacture of semi-synthetic peni- 
cillins. All quantities are given in terms of 100-percent content of the 
pure bulk drug. 

Total U.S. production of bulk medicinal chemicals in 1976 amounted 
to 235.8 million pounds, or 13.2 percent more than the 208.4 million pounds 
produced in 1975 and 4.0 percent less than the 246.5 million pounds pro- 
duced in 1974. Total sales of bulk medicinal chemicals in 1976 amounted to 
160.8 million pounds, valued at $741.5 million, compared with sales in 1975 
of 148.8 million pounds, valued at $772.1 million, and sales in 1974 of 
177.5 million pounds, valued at $814.8 million. 2 In terms of quantity, sales 
in 1976 were thus 8.1 percent more than in 1975 and 9.0 percent less than 
in 1974. In terms of value, sales in 1976 were 4.0 percent less than in 
1975 and 9.0 percent less than in 1974. 2 

Production of the more important groups of medicinal chemicals in 1976 

1 Complementary statistics on the dollar value of manufacturers' shipments 
of finished pharmaceutical preparations, except biologicals, are published 
annually by the U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, in Current 
Industrial Reports, Series MA-28G. Many pharmaceutical manufacturers who re- 
port to the Bureau of the Census are excluded from the U.S. International 
Trade Commission report because they are not primary producers of medicinal 
chemicals, that is, they do not themselves produce the bulk drugs which go in- 
to their pharmaceutical products but purchase their drug requirements from 
domestic or foreign producers. 

Sales value and, to a lesser extent, sales quantity were overstated in 
1974 and 1975 because a company erroneously reported sales of an antiobiotic 
in dosage form. 



124 SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1976 



was as follows: Antibiotics, 20.5 million pounds (12.0 percent more than in 
1975), of which 10.4 million pounds was for medicinal use and 10.0 million 
pounds was for other uses; anti-infective agents other than antibiotics, 
27.6 million pounds (3.0 percent less than in 1975); central nervous 
system depressants and stimulants, 52.7 million pounds (10.5 percent 
more); and vitamins, 33.3 million pounds (11.2 percent more). 

Production of some of the more important individual products listed 
in the table was as follows: Choline chloride, 47.0 million pounds (21.5 
percent larger than in 1975); aspirin, 28.3 million pounds (11.2 percent 
more); penicillins (except semi-synthetic), 7.1 million pounds (21.0 
percent more); tetracyclines, 5.7 million pounds (22.0 percent more); 
and vitamin E, 4.6 million pounds (111.5 percent more). 



MEDICINAL CHEMICALS 125 



Medicinal Chemicals 



According to a recent report the drug industry suffered continued 
declines in profit margins in 1976. 1/ The study surveyed the performance 
of 10 major drug firms which account for more than 50 percent of the 
industry's profits and sales. In 1976, before-tax profits for the 10 
companies were 15.2 percent of sales, down from 18.1 percent in 1975, 
19.6 percent in 1974, and 21.0 percent in 1973. After-tax profits of 
the 10 firms climbed 9.1 percent in 1976 from 1975, whereas sales went 
up 10.8 percent. After-tax profits as a percentage of sales sank, 
therefore, even lower than 1975, which had the lowest value in more than 
a decade. 

One factor in the profit decline is that patents have been running 
out on whole families of drugs developed during the 1950' s, resulting 
in increased competition, especially foreign, and lower prices and profits 
for those products. Another factor lowering profits is pressure by the 
Department of* Health, Education, and Welfare, for the prescribing of drugs 
by generic name rather than by the usually more costly brand-name products. 

The drug industry benefits from heavy investment in offshore tax 
havens, chiefly Puerto Rico and Ireland. The tax rate for the 10 companies 
was 36.4 percent in 1976, up slightly from the 36.0-percent rate in 
1975. Until 1976 the tax rate for drug companies had been dropping 
steadily since 1969, when it was 49 percent — the high point for the 
past decade. 

One factor which would affect future growth in drug sales volume 
would be the passage of some form of national health insurance. With 
passage of such a program, the prescribing of drugs would be expected 
to increase. 

The best hope for growth in drug profitability may be in the new 
generations of drugs. Here, the chief complaint from industry is Govern- 
ment regulations. Reportedly, before 1962, about 2 years usually elapsed 
between the discovery of a new drug and final approval by the Food and 
Drug Administation (FDA) for marketing. Now 7 to 10 years may be required 
because of increased time for tests to meet newer FDA regulations. 

Future trends in the drug industry 

Whole new generations of drugs, products of major breakthroughs in 
molecular biology and biochemistry, are building up in drug-company 
laboratories. Some have already been introduced abroad while others 
are awaiting FDA approval. Many of the newer' drugs are hoped to be more 
specific in their actions so that they will attack only disease-causing 
agents or infected cells while having little or no toxic effect on the 
patient. 



1/ "Drug Industry Performance Continues to Slip," Chemical and Engineer- 
ing News , May 2, 1977, pp. 11-12. 



245-858 O - 77 - 9 



126 SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1976 

The empirical approach to drug development, in which thousands of 
organic chemicals are tested for therapeutic effects, is now giving way 
to specific drug design in which medicinal chemicals are modified in ways 
that are likely to produce desired results. Computer programs are some- 
times used in the com-plex strategy involved in deciding which changes to 
make in a drug molecule so that it will precisely fit its intended target 
in the human body. 

Among the new drug developments is a custom-designed drug with highly 
promising results in the treatment of peptic ulcers; another development 
is an antiviral drug believed to be present in the human body in minute 
amounts. This drug may have broad-spectrum antiviral activity and may 
eventually be used to destroy cold and flu virus. Another discovery 
is a possibly nonaddictive analgesic more effective than morphine. Drug 
companies have developed new antihypertensive agents and at least one 
drug that may be useful in the treatment of chronic heart failure. Some 
scientists feel that drugs that control the levels of cyclic nucleotides 
in the body will be useful in treating asthma and other diseases. 

Another new approach in medicinal chemistry is the development of 
new drugs resembling hormones that either produce a metabolic response or 
block or reduce such a response. Antihistamines are an example of older 
drugs of this type in that these antagonists prevent the hormone histamine 
from binding to cell receptor sites. Not since the days of the discovery 
and development of cortisone has a natural hormone attracted so much 
attention in endocrinology, chemistry, and pharmacology as have the 
prostaglandins. Most major drug companies have active drug development 
programs focused around the chemistry of these potent and multiaction 
natural hormones. In addition, receptor research recently led to the 
discovery of a new class of brain hormones which appear to mediate a 
large number of brain functions. 

So, while the introduction of new drugs has slowed in the last 10 
years, most drug companies remain optimistic about the future of the 
industry. In view of Government and industry spending, medicinal chemistry 
is one of the more active areas in the chemistry of the organic compounds. 1/ 

Production of drugs in Puerto Rico and in Ireland 

Puerto Rico will strengthen its position as one of the principal 
producing areas for medicinal chemicals when a new $70 million plant 
built by Hoffman-LaRoche reaches full production in 1978. 2/ Hoffman- 
LaRoche joins a host of other pharmaceutical companies with plants in 
Puerto Rico, including Eli Lilly, Upjohn, Squibb, Bristol Myers, Merck, 
Sharp and Dohme, Searle, Smith Kline & French, Warner-Lambert, Abbott, 
Johnson & Johnson, Parke Davis, Richardson Merrell, Baxter Travenol, 
Lenderele, Seifel, Pfizer, Schering Plough, Sterling Drug, and Endo Labs. 

1/ Donald A. Buyske, "Drugs from Nature," Chemtech . June 1975, pp. 361- 
369. "Future Drugs That Will Be Lifesavers," Fortune , December 1976, 
pp. 152-162. 

2/ "Roche Opening of Pharmaceutical Unit Seen as Spur to Puerto Rico 
Drug Trade," Chemical Marketing Reporter, Dec. 12, 1976. 



MEDICINAL CHEMICALS 12 

In 10 years the value of exports of drugs from Puerto Rico has 
increased from $31.4 million in 1966 to $352.6 million in 1976. Employ- 
ment in the industry was up to 6,300 in 1976. The principal incentive 
for locating plants in Puerto Rico is the 10 to 30 years of tax exemption. 
Other factors are, reportedly, good worker productivity and a favorable 
climate. 

Another area noted for its concentration of pharmaceutical plants is 
the Republic of Ireland. Production plants owned by 11 of the world's 
top 16 drug companies are located in Ireland. Ireland's attraction to 
drug producers, like that of Puerto Rico, is the tax exemption given for 
plants located in Ireland. Ireland gives complete tax exemption on 
export-derived profits until 1990, and Ireland reportedly exports over 
95 percent of its drug production. There have been reports that changes 
will be imposed by the European Economic Community Commission in Brussels 
to reduce Ireland's tax holiday, presumably as part of its long-promised 
harmonization of European Community investment incentives. The Industrial 
Development Authority of Ireland declares, however, that there will be no 
changes in any existing agreements. Another incentive offered to industry 
by Ireland are grants ranging from $6,000 to $10,000 for each job created. \J 

Production, foreign trade, consumption, and market trends of aspirin 

Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) has been used to relieve pain, inflam- 
mation, and fever since 1899. Consumption of aspirin is probably more 
than that of any other drug with about 27 million pounds consumed during 
1976 in the United States alone. The following figure shows a general 
declining trend in domestic aspirin production and consumption during 
1968-76. The principal factor believed to be responsible for the decline 
in aspirin consumption is the substitution of acetaminophen by many 
individuals who formerly used aspirin. Imports are not yet a major factor 
in the aspirin market, accounting for less than 3 percent of domestic 
consumption in 1976. This does not mean, however, that imports of aspirin 
will not become important. And, in fact, there are reasons to expect that 
imports will capture an increasing share of the domestic market. Imports 
jumped from none in 1971 to 164,000 pounds in 1972 and 702,000 pounds in 
1976. In 1975 almost all of the imports came from Poland, while in 1976 
most of the imports of aspirin came from Poland and Romania. Exports of 
aspirin peaked in 1974 and declined in the 2 subsequent years. 

The decline in aspirin consumption will probably not continue as 
aspirin remains one of the most effective drugs for the treatment of con- 
nective-tissue diseases such as arthritis. These diseases affect, to a 
varying degree, a large segment of the population with the incidence 
generally increasing with age. Demographers predict a steady increase in 
median age of the domestic population, and it is reasonable to predict 
increased use of the drugs effective in geriatrics. Domestic production 
may continue to decline as aspirin is a low-cost drug widely made through- 
out the world. 



1/ "Another U.S. Pharmaceutical Project for Ireland," European Chemical 
News , Sept. 10, 1976. 



128 



MEDICINAL CHEMICALS 



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SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1976 129 



Production may shift to those countries that have the lowest production 
cost. 

Studies are now underway to determine if aspirin is useful in pre- 
venting heart attacks. Aspirin is known to block prostaglandin synthesis 
and is being tested in a clinical study sponsored by the National Heart, 
Lung and Blood Institute to see whether aspirin can protect against heart 
attacks. It is known that some of the prostaglandins promote blood 
clotting and some scientists feel prostaglandins may be important in the 
processes causing heart attacks or stroke. However, the discovery in 
late 1976 that some of the prostaglandins inhibit blood clotting and 
arterial contraction has led some investigators to question whether 
taking aspirin would, in fact, prevent heart attacks. Perhaps the trial 
called the aspirin myocardial infarction study (AMIS) will answer these 
questions. The test group includes over 4,000 patients who have suffered 
at least one heart attack. The experimental phase of AMIS will be com- 
pleted by August 1979, and the results will be closely watched by the 
medical profession. 

In late 1976 a review panel studying nonprescription drugs for the 
FDA recommended that labeling of over-the-counter pain relievers, such as 
aspirin and acetaminophen, be restricted to indicate use for headaches, 
minor aches and pain, and fever. The panel also recommended warnings 
on the labels about the dangers of overdosage. Drug industry reaction 
to the recommendations was fear that the $715 million market for the 
mild pain relievers would be severely hurt if patients are forced to 
rely on more expensive and powerful, and possibly more toxic, prescription 
drug products for relief of specific pain symptoms. The panel's recom- 
mendations were based upon its desire to curb what it feels is an overuse 
of nonprescription pain relievers. The FDA is studying the panel's 
proposals before taking action. 



MEDICINAL CHEMICALS 



TABLE 1,— Medicinal Chemicals: 



[Listed below are all synthetic organic medicinal < 
may be published. (Leaders (...) are used where 
published or where no data were reported.) Tabl< 
and/or sales were reported and identifies the mai 



hemicals 
the repo 



U.S. PRODUCTION AND SALES, 1976 
lich any 



ed data ai 
ists all medicir 
turers of each] 



reported data on production or 
ccepted in confidence and may 
chemicals for which data on pr 



MEDICINAL CHEMICALS 



PRODUCTION' 



Grand total 

Acyclic 

Benzenoid 3 

Cyclic nonbenzenoid** 

Antibiotics, total 5 

Penicillins (except semisynthetic), total 

Penicillin G, potassium for medicinal use 

All other, for all uses 

Semisynthetic penicillins, for medicinal use, 

total 

Amp ic ill in 

All other 

Tetracyclines, for all uses 

Other antibiotics, total 

For medicinal use 6 

For nonmedicinal uses 7 

Antihistamines, total 

Chlorpheniramine maleate 

All other 

Anti-infective agents (except antibiotics), total — 

Anthelmint ics , total 

Piperazine dihydrochloride 

All other 

Antifungal agents 

Antiprotozoan agents 

Sulfonamides 

Urinary antiseptics 

Other anti-infective agents 9 

Autonomic drugs, total 

Parasympatholytic (anticholinergic) tertiary 

amines (except tropane derivatives) 

Sympathomimetic (adrenergic) agents, total 

Phenylpropanolamine hydrochloride 

All other 

Other autonomic drugs 

Cardiovascular and hematological agents, total 

Sodium heparin 

All other 

Central depressants and stimulants, total 

Analgesics and antipyretics, total 

Aspirin 

Meperidine hydrochloride 

Methadone hydrochloride 

All other 

Antidepressants 

Antitussives 

Hypnotics and sedatives (including barbi turates)- 

Skeletal muscle relaxants 

Tranquilizers 

Other central depressants and stimulants 9 

Dennatological agents (except salicylic acid) and 
local anesthetics 



1,000 
pounds 



99,431 
114,905 
21,469 



7,132 
2,182 
4,950 

1.433 
900 
533 
5,695 
6,212 
2,680 
3,532 



27,640 



11,133 
1,649 
9,484 

820 
7,079 
4,015 

399 
4,194 

987 



426 

4 5 1 



46 


185 


28 


:h: 




29 




2 


17 


872 




147 




L76 


1 


J 31 




493 




609 


3 


B35 



1,000 
pounds 



1,000 
dollars 



81,253 
63,140 
16,441 



485 

378 

2,769 



15,693 



6,116 
1,517 
4.599 
870 
4,760 
1,361 

2,586 

695 



649 
649 



134 
,66 
500 



741,521 



98,692 
402,117 
240,712 



43.121 

43,121 
16,763 
117,280 
92,166 
25,114 

6.459 



6,459 
72,412 



36,363 
2,021 

34,342 
1,310 

17,871 
7,708 

9,160 

12,325 



9,795 
2,530 



9,635 
2,391 



34,576 
4,308 
4,518 



See footnotes at end of table. 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1976 



TABLE I,-- Medicinal chemicals: U.S. production and sales, 1976— Continued 



MEDICINAL CHEMICALS 



PRODUCTION' 



SALES ' 



UNIT 

VALUE 2 



1,000 
pounds 



1,000 
pounds 



1,000 
dollars 



Expectorants and mucolytic age 
Ethylenediamine dihydriodide 
All other 



Gastrointestinal agents (except methionine, hydroxy 
analog) , total 

Choline chloride (all grades) 

All other 



1,307 
617 



,186 
490 



4,334 
3,017 



47,009 
2,476 



38,656 
3,884 



16,774 
4,550 



Ho 



and synthetic substitutes, tot 

Synthetic hypoglycemic agents 

Thyroid hormone and antithyroid agent 
All other 



Renal-acting 
Benzothiadi 
Theophyllin 
All other- 
Therapeutic n 



educing agents, 



114 
1.954 



74,422 
5.391 



206 
1,748 



121 

178 

1,117 

22.746 



142.527 



Vitamin B 
Vitamin D 
Vitamin 
All otlv 

iscellan 



E, 



4,595 
20,690 



8,705 



3,406 
10,626 



38,783 

2,754 

48,573 

52,417 

37,034 



Per 

pound 



3.65 
6.16 



492.86 
18.03 



31.55 
8.84 



6.27 



4.46 

306.00 

14.26 

4.93 

1.25 



re for bulk medicinal chemicals only; they exclude finished prepar 
jfactured from bulk chemicals. All quantities are given in terms 



The data on production and s 
and dosage-form products, which a 
100% active ingredients. 

2 Calculated from rounded figures. 

3 The term "benzenoid " as used in this report, describes any cyclic medicinal chemical whose molecule contains 
either a six-membered carbocyclic ring with conjugated double bonds (e.g., the benzene ring or the quinone ring) or 
a six-membered heterocyclic ring with 1 or 2 hetero atoms and conjugated double bonds, except the pyrimidine ring 
(e.g., the pyridine ring or the pyrazine ring.) 

14 Includes antibiotics of unknown structure. 

5 With the exception of bacitracin, the penicillins (except semisynthetic) , and a few other antibiotics which 
were reported in terms of U.S. P. units, all quantities for antibiotics were reported as kilograms (kg) of antibiotic 
base. (Thus production of 481 kg of tetracycline hydrochloride, for example, would have been reported as 444 kg 

of tetracycline base.) For inclusion in the statistical table, all quantities were converted from kg of antibiotic 
base to pounds of antibiotic base (1 kg = 2.2046 pounds), or from U.S. P. units to pounds (22.7 million units of 
bacitracin, 458 million units of procaine pencillin G, 723 million units of potassium penicillin G, etc. = 1 pound). 
Sales quantity and value are lower than in previous years because in previous years a significant quantity of an 
antibiotic in dosage form was reported incorrectly as sales. 

6 Production of all antibiotics for medicinal use amounted to 10,438,000 pounds, sales amounted to 2,741,000 
pounds, valued at $162,299,000. Includes antifungal and antitubercular antibiotics. 

7 Production of all antibiotics for animal feeds and other nonmedicinal uses amounted to 10,034,000 pounds, 
sales amounted to 3,779,000 pounds, valued at $49,230,000. 

8 Includes sales of urinary antiseptics. 

9 Includes production and sales of amphetamines, general anesthetics, and stimulants; also includes sales of 
antidepressants and tranquilizers. 

10 All quantities for vitamins A, Bi^ , D, and E were reported in terms of kg or units, but were converted to 
pounds for inclusion in the statistical table (1.317 billion units of vitamin A acetate, 0.824 billion units of 

vitamin A palmitate, 0.4536 kg of vitamins B, 2 , 18.14 billion units of vitamin D, 617,000 units of d-alpha 
tocopheryl acetate, 454,000 units of dl-alpha tocopheryl acetate, etc. = 1 pound.) 

11 Includes production and sales of antineoplastic agents, diagnostic agents, methionine (hydroxy analog, calcium 
salt), salicylic acid, smooth muscle relaxants, and unclassified medicinal chemicals. 



MEDICINAL CHEMICALS 



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MEDICINAL CHEMICALS 



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TABLE 3.— Medicinal chemicals: Directory of manufacturers, 1976 

ALPHABETICAL DIRECTORY BY CODE 



[Names of manufacturers that reported production or sales of medicinal chemicals to the U.S. International Trade 
Commission for 1976 are listed below in the order of their identification codes as used in table 2] 



Name of compa 



ABB 
ACY 
ADC 

ALD 
ARA 

ARN 
ARP 
ARS 
ASH 

AST 
ATP 

BAX 

BEE 
BJL 
BKC 
BKL 

BOC 
BRS 
BUR 

CDY 
CGY 
CHT 

CPR 
CWN 



DLI 
DOW 
DUP 



FIN 
FLM 

GAF 
CAN 
GIV 

GNF 
GNM 

HPC 

HET 

HEX 

HFT 

UN 

HOF 

HYN 

IMC 

JCC 

KPT 

KVP 



Abbott Laboratories 

American Cyanamid Co. 

Anderson Development Co. 

Aldrich Chemical Co. 

Arapahoe Chemicals, Inc. Sub/Syntex Corp., 

(U.S.A.) 
Arenol Chemical Corp. 
Armour Pharmaceutical Co. 
Arsynco, Inc. 
Ashland Oil, Inc., Ashland Chemical 

Co. 
Astra Pharmaceutical Products, Inc. 
Northern Fine Chemicals, Inc. 

Baxter Laboratories, Inc. 

Beecham, Inc. 
'' Burdick 5 Jackson Laboratories, Inc. 

J.T. Baker Chemical Co. 
I Kewanee Industries, Inc., Millmaster Chemical 

Co. Div. 
| Biocraft Laboratories, Inc. 

Bristol-Myers Co., Bristol Laboratories Div. 

Burroughs -We 11 come Co. 

j Chemical Dynamics Corp. 

I Ciba-Geigy Corp. and Ciba Pharmaceutical Co. 
} Chattem Drug $ Chemical Co., Chattem Chem- 
icals Div. 

Certified Processing Corp. 

Upjohn Co., Fine Chemical Div. 

Diamond Shamrock Corp. 

Dawe's Laboratories, Inc. 

Dow Chemical Co. 

E.I. duPont de Nemours S Co., Inc. 

Eastman Kodak Co.: 

Tennessee Eastman Co. Div. 
Endo Laboratories, Inc. 

Hexcel Corp., Fine Organics Div. 
Fleming Laboratories, Inc. 

GAF Corp., Chemical Div. 

Gane's Chemical Inc. 

Givaudan Corp. 

General Foods Corp., Maxwell House Div. 

General Mills Chemicals, Inc. 

Hercules, Inc. 

Heterochemical Corp. 

Hexagon Laboratories, Inc. 

Syntex Agribusiness, Inc. 

Tenneco Chemicals, Inc. 

Hoffmann- LaRoche, Inc. 

Hynson, Westcott & Dunning, Inc. 

IMC Chemical Group, Inc. 

Jefferson Chemical Co., Inc. 

Koppers Co., Inc., Organic Material 

Div. 
KV Products 



LEM 
LIL 
LKL 



MAL 
MDJ 
MON 
MRK 

NEP 
NES 
NOR 
NTL 

OMS 
OPC 
ORG 

ORT 



PEN 
PFN 
PFZ 



RDA 
RIK 
RIL 
RLS 
RSA 

SAL 
SCH 

SDG 

SDH 

SDW 

SFS 

SHC 

SK 

SKG 

SRL 

STA 

TMH 
TRD 



WAG 
WHL 
WIL 
WTL 
WYT 



Napp Chemicals, Inc. 
Eli Lilly 5 Co. and Puerto Rico 
Richardson-Merrell, Inc., Merrell- 
National Laboratories Div. 

Mallinckrodt Chemical Works 
Mead Johnson 6 Co . 
Monsanto Co . 
Merck 5 Co. , Inc. 

Nepera Chemical Co., Inc. 
Nease Chemical Co., Inc. 
Norwich Pharmacal Co. 
NL Industries, Inc. 

E.R. Squibb 6 Sons, Inc. 
Orbis Products Corp. 
Organics, Inc. 
Roehr Chemicals, Inc. 

Parke, Davis 6 Co, Sub. of Warner-Lambert 

Co. 
CPC International, Inc., S.B. Penick Co. 
Pfanstiehl Laboratories, Inc. 
Pfizer, Inc, and Pfizer Pharmaceuticals, 

Inc. 
Pharmachem Corp. 

Rhodia, Inc. 

Riker Laboratories, Inc, Sub. of 3M Co. 

Reilly Tar 6 Chemical Corp. 

Rachel le Laboratories, Inc. 

R.S.A. Corp. 

Salsbury Laboratories 
Schering Corp. 
Sterling Drug Corp.: 

Glenbrook Laboratories Div. 

Hilton-Davis Chemical Co. Div. 

Winthrop Laboratories Div. 
Stauffer Chemical Co., Specialty Div. 
Shell Oil Co., Shell Chemical Co. Div. 
Smith 6 Klein Chemicals 
Sunkist Growers, Inc. 
G.D. Searle 6 Co. 
A.E. Staley Manufacturing Co. 

Thompson-Hayward Chemical Co. 
Manufacturing Enterprises, Inc., Squibb 

Manufacturing Inc., Trade Enterprises, Inc. 

Ersana, Inc. 

Upjohn Co. 

Vitamins, Inc. 

West Agro-Chemicals, Inc. 
Whitmoyer Laboratories, Inc. 
Inolex Corp., Inolex Pharmaceutical Div. 
Pennwalt Corp., Luc idol Div. 
Wycth Laboratories, Inc., Wyeth Laboratories 
Div. of American Home Products Corp. 



Note. --Complete names and addresses of the above reporting companies are listed in table 1 of the appendix. 



154 SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 197 6 

FLAVOR AND PERFUME MATERIALS 
Anne Klein 

Flavor and perfume materials are organic chemicals used to impart 
flavors and odors to foods, beverages, cosmetics, and soaps. These 
aromatic chemicals are also utilized to neutralize or mask unpleasant 
odors in industrial processes and products as well as in consumer 
products. 

Total domestic production of flavor and perfume materials in 1976 
amounted to 128.8 million pounds (table 1). Sales of these materials 
in 1976 amounted to 110.9 million pounds, valued at $195.3 million, com- 
pared with 82.7 million pounds, valued at $143.4 million, in 1975. These 
totals do not include benzyl alcohol, which, before 1973, was included 
in flavor and perfume materials but is now shown in the miscellaneous 
cyclic section of this series. U.S. production of flavor and perfume 
materials in 1976 increased 27.1 percent from the level in 1975 and the 
quantity of sales increased by 25.5 percent. 

Production of cyclic flavor and perfume materials in 1976 amounted 
to 55.1 million pounds; sales amounted to 48.5 million pounds, valued at 
$125.5 million. Individual publishable chemicals in the .cyclic group pro- 
duced in the greatest volume in 1976 were terpineols, anethole, benzyl acetate 
and benzyl salicylate. 

U.S. output of acylic flavor and perfume materials in 1976 amounted 
to 73.8 million pounds; sales of these materials amounted to 62.4 million 
pounds, valued at $69.8 million. Monosodium glutamate was by far the 
most important of the acyclic chemicals in 1976, although the data are not 
publishable. Other important acyclic compounds included linalyl alcohol, 
geraniol, citronellol and hydroxycitronellal. 



FLAVOR AND PERFUME MATERIALS 155 



Flavor and Perfume Materials 



U.S. production, sales, and consumption 

Production in the United States of flavor and perfume chemicals in 
1976 amounted to 128.8 million pounds, 27.1 percent higher than the 1975 
level but not high enough to completely recoup the 1974-to-1975 decline. 
Sales by domestic producers increased to 110.9 million pounds in 1976 
and thus recovered by more than the 1974-to-1975 decline. The value of 
sales in 1976 reached $195.3 million. 

The benzenoid, other cyclic, and acyclic breakdown of the flavor and 
aroma chemicals section accommodates tariff classification requirements 
rather than industry practice. In 1976, acyclic compounds constituted 
57 percent of total output, benzenoid cyclic, 31 percent, and other cyclic, 
12 percent. Ranked in order of value of sales, the top-ranking single 
chemicals were monosodium glutamate (MSG) , vanillin, saccharin, anethole, 
coumarin, methyl salicylate, geranial, linalyl alcohol, geraniol, and 
hydroxycitronella, whose aggregate value of sales amounted to $98.8 
million, or 53 percent of the total. The top-ranking single chemicals 
were monosodium glutamate (sales value not publishable) , anethole ($8.1 
million), linalyl alcohol ($5.1 million), geraniol ($4.9 million), and 
hydroxycitronellal ($4.3 million). MSG was the leader in both 1975 and 
1976. The value of sales of MSG as well as those of all other top-ranking 
chemicals increased in 1976 over their 1975 levels. 

U.S. apparent consumption of flavor and aroma chemicals as a whole 
rose by about 19 percent during 1970-76, to a 1976 level of 110 million 
pounds, valued at $226 million. This rise, however, was interrupted by 
depressed levels in 1971 and in 1975. MSG consumption in 1976 accounted 
for a significant share of the total consumption of all flavor and perfume 
chemicals rose by 32 percent. The following factors suggest that this 
rise in demand will continue and perhaps accelerate: 

(1) There is believed to be increasing public acceptance of 
substitution of flavor and perfume chemicals for natural oils which are 
subject to high prices and/or supply problems. 

(2) Aroma chemicals are raw materials in products whose sales 
are expected to grow at accelerating rates. Retail sales of cosmetics 

and toiletries, according to industry statistics and estimates, grew from $4.7 
billion to $7.6 billion between 1970 and 1977 at an annual rate of increase 
ranging between 5.4 percent and 8.2 percent (the latter in 1977). The 
industry expects that growth in sales of perfumes, colognes, aftershave, 
and other fragrance products will be at the rate of 10 percent a year 
until 1980; sales of cosmetics designed for blacks will grow by 20 percent 



156 SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1976 



annually; and sales of men's fragrances, aftershave lotions, and colognes 
will increase 10 percent annually. The value of industry shipments of 
aftershave preparations grew by 62 percent between 1967 and 1972, 
from $93 million to $150.4 million. The value of industry shipments of 
all toilet preparations rose steadily from $2.8 billion in 1967 to $5 
billion in 1975. It is estimated that shipments of toilet preparations 
will reach $6.2 billion in 1977. 

(3) U.S. disposable personal incomes increased by 81.6 percent 
during the 1970-77 period. Median incomes of all families and of black 
families grew by 40 percent and 35 percent, respectively, between 1970 
and 1975, according to Commerce Department statistics. From 1974 to 1975, 
median family incomes increased for all families by 6.3 percent and for 
black families (a recent growing market for cosmetics) by 9.6 percent. 
This pattern will probably continue through the 1977-80 period. Increased 
disposable income tends to increase consumption of luxury products such as 
prepared foods, cosmetics, and toilet preparations — end-use products in 
which flavor and aroma chemicals are raw materials. 

The industry 

Although the flavor and aroma chemical industry still largely consists 
of privately owned companies, it is traditionally international in 
orientation, and will probably continue to be so, particularly the aroma 
chemical segment. Of all companies reporting sales of flavor and perfume 
chemicals to the International Trade Commission for 1976, those companies 
having affiliates in one to four foreign countries accounted for about 29 
percent of total sales value and were represented among the top nine 
companies ranked by sales values. For aroma chemicals alone, aggregate 
sales value of companies having foreign affiliates accounted for 36 per- 
cent of the total. The foreign affiliates are located in the United 
Kingdom, France, Switzerland, the Netherlands, Italy, Mexico, and Brazil. 
During 1976, ninth-ranking Universal Oil Products Fragrances division of 
UOP, Inc., became a part of Naarden International N.V. of the Netherlands. 

The concentration profile of producers of flavor and perfume chemicals 
has changed, but not dramatically, during the 1970's. In 1971, 4 companies 
together accounted for 42 percent of total sales value and 19 companies 
for 72 percent of this total. In 1976, 4 companies together accounted 
for 49 percent, but only 9 companies accounted for almost 75 percent of 
total sales value. 

In discussing the products and sales of this industry, it must be 
noted that important products not included here are flavor and perfume 
oil blends, and synthetic essential oils (worth probably over $100 
million). For reporting companies, the mean total sales of included 
flavor and aroma chemicals for 1976 was $4.4 million, the median, $1.8 
million. The number of companies which reported production and/or sales 



FLAVOR AND PERFUME MATERIALS 157 



of flavor and perfume chemicals trended downward slightly during 1970-76, 
from 50 in 1970 to 47 in 1976, having fluctuated in the interim. The 
increasing use by this industry of sophisticated technology and instrumen- 
tation in research and development and production will probably continue 
to slow entry of smaller scale producers. 

Continuation is foreseen in the use of crude sulfate turpentine, 
a byproduct of kraft paper mills, as a raw material in the production of 
about half, in terms of sales value, of all flavor and aroma chemicals. 
Petroleum-based raw materials (e.g., acetylene) are used in the production 
of the remainder. 

Regulation 

The flavor and perfume chemicals considered here are widely used in 
food products or in cosmetics and toiletries. The scope and extent of 
regulation of these chemicals varies, more when used in foods than in 
cosmetics, the latter probably being the least regulated of all consumer 
products. Consumer advocate groups have, however, in recent years 
catalyzed the trend toward increasing controls and regulation for 
cosmetics ingredients. Managerial, technical, and legal personnel in 
the industry are thus focusing increasingly on problems of compliance 
with Government directives deriving from authority under the Food, 
Drug, and Cosmetic Act. 

Tn 1970 the Food and Drug Administation (FDA) removed the flavor 
enhancer monosodium glutamate from baby foods but not from its Generally 
Regarded As Safe (GRAS) list. Consumption of MSG, which was the largest 
volume chemical produced and sold in 1976 of any in the flavor and 
perfume materials group, has, nonetheless, grown during the period 
1970-76, and is estimated to reach 56 million pounds for 1977. 
The sweeteners cyclamates and saccharin fared less well. The 
FDA, under the Delaney clause, a 1958 admendment to the Food, 
Drug, and Cosmetic Act which bans food additives found carcinogenic 
for man or animals, banned cyclamates for use in the United States in 
1969 and this past March issued a proposal, albeit postponed, to ban 
saccharin. Debate on the Delaney clause is current, stimulated largely 
by the diet food industry, which says that 50 million people in the United 
States demand its products to control overweight, itself a health hazard. 
There remain ongoing searches by industry and universities for alternative 
artificial sweeteners. 

Regulations governing perfume and cosmetic ingredients are relatively 
new. FDA regulations begun in 1976 affecting aroma chemicals as raw 
materials are involved in the following two labeling requirements for 
cosmetic products: (1) the listing of ingredients in descending order of 
prominence, effective for all labels ordered after May 31, 1976, and 
for all products filled and shipped after November 30, 1976; and (2) the 



245-856 O - 77 - 11 



158 SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1976 



obligation of the producer to substantiate the safety of the product 
inherent in the requirement to designate ingredients on the label whose 
safety has not been substantiated. 

Several years ago the cosmetics industry initiated self-regulation, 
still ongoing, by asking its member producers, on a voluntary basis, to 
supply to FDA (1) a register of all manufacturing plants, (2) formula 
information, and (3) semiannual product experience reports including 
reported injuries from cosmetic use. During 1976, industry increased 
self-regulation by sponsoring and financing research panels to carry out 
a review of the safety of some 2,700 cosmetic and fragrance ingredients. 
In view of the cosmetic industry's initiatives in these areas, Government 
regulation will probably not be a retarding factor in research, develop- 
ment, and shipments of perfume and cosmetic ingredients during 1977-80. 
The labeling requirements for cosmetic products may, however, impede 
the growth of imports of the ingredients. 



International trade 

The level of imports of all flavor and aroma chemicals in 1976 reached 
28 million pounds, valued at $86 million — 35 percent in terms of quantity 
and 25 percent in terms of value over the 1975 levels. Imports of mono- 
sodium glutamate, principally from Korea and Japan, alone amounted to 13.5 
million pounds or 48 percent of the total quantity, but their value of 
$7.2 million constituted only 8 percent of total value. Other important 
sources of imports were France, Switzerland, and Canada. Important items 
imported in 1976 other than MSG were saccharin, vanillin, ethyl vanillin, 
and various artificial musks. 

Exports fluctuated during 1970-76, but rose (46 percent) in 1976 in 
terms of quantity and 25 percent in terms of value from 1975 levels. France 
and Spain were the principal markets for U.S. exports in 1976, which 
amounted to 25.3 million pounds valued at $45.6 million. 

Imports exceeded exports during 1970-76 except for the period 1971-73. 
This unfavorable balance of trade in flavor and perfume chemicals broadened 
in 1976. The ratio of exports to imports was 93.6 percent in 1970 and 
98.2 percent in 1974, then it dropped to 95.9 percent in 1975 and to 90.9 
percent in 1976. For monosodium glutamate, imports consistently exceeded 
exports by a large margin during the 1970's. The ratio of exports to 
imports was 54.6Vpercent in 1970 but it declined to 30.2 percent in 1976. 
The multinational orientation of the principal producers of perfume or 
aroma chemicals will likely lead to a continuation of this unfavorable 
balance of trade, or trade deficit, during the 1977-80 period. 



FLAVOR AND PERFUME MATERIALS 159 



Monosodium glutamate produced in the United States became less 
competitive with imports, particularly those from Korea in 1976. The 
unit values of producers' sales of MSG in 1975 and 1976 were 69 cents 
and 65 cents per pound, respectively, while those of imports were 59 
cents and 53 cents per pound, respectively. Imports, even with duty 
added, have a price advantage. 

Brazil, the principal U.S. export market for monosodium glutamate, 
is the site of a new MSG-producing plant which was constructed by a 
major Japanese producer and became operational in late 1976. U.S. exports 
of MSG will likely diminish during the 1977-80 period. 



160 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1976 



Flavor and perfume materials: U.S. shipments, foreign trade, 
and apparent consumption, 1970-76 
(Semilogarithmic scale) 



Million 

POUNDS 
200 



Shipments — 
Consumption 
Imports 
Exports 



100 
90 
80 
70 

60 
50 

40 -- 
30 -- 

20 




10 _- 



1970 




1971 



1972 



1973 



1974 



1975 



1976 



1977 



Source: U.S. International Trade Commission, Synthetic Organic Chemicals, U.S. produc- 
tion and Sales and official statistics of the U.S. Department of Commerce. 



FLAVOR AND PERFUME MATERIALS 



161 



[lONOSODIUM GLUTAMATE: U.S. SHIPMENTS, FOREIGN TRADE, APPARENT 
CONSUMPTION AND RATIO OF IMPORTS TO CONSUMPTION, 1970-76 




Ratio 
(percent) 

~'60 



Consumption 
Shipments 



Ratio - - 
(imports/ 
consumption) 

Imports 1/ 



50 



40 



30 



IT 

5 1 



• • 



• • 



1/ Quantity of imports of MSG preparations estimated from unit value of 
imports of MSG, and added to the quantity of imports of MSG to obtain a 
total for both. 

Source: Shipments: U.S. International Trade Commission, Synthetic organic 
Chemicals, U.S. Production and Sales, except for the year 1970 which is estimated, 
Exports and imports: official statistics of the U.S. Department of Commerce ex- 



10 



cept whore noted 

a 7i 



i — 

73 



75 



76 



162 SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1976 

Flavor and perfume materials: Value of U.S. shipments of flavor and perfume 

MATERIALS AND TOILET PREPARATIONS; MEDIAN DISPOSABLE INCOME OF ALL U.S. 
FAMILIES AND OF U.S. BLACK FAMILIES; PER CAPITA DISPOSABLE INCOME, 1970"76 



Index 
1970=100 




20.. 
10 ■ 



Median disposable family income (all families) 1/ X — — X- 

Median disposable family income (black families) !_/ 

Per capita disposable income 2/ — -0 

Value of shipments of all flavor and perfume materials •• 
Value of industry shipments of toilet preparations 2/ — 



"77 



71 



73 



76 



1/ Data for 1976 was not available. 

2/ Seasonally adjusted at annual rates. 

3/ 1976 figures were partly estimated. 

Source: Based on official statistics of the 
Department of Commerce. 



FLAVOR AND PERFUME MATERIALS 



163 



Flavor m.d perfume chemicals and monosodium glutamate: U.S. balance of trade 

AS A RATIO OF EXPORTS TO IMPORTS, 1970-76 
Exports/ imports 
(Percent) 



All flavor and aroma chemicals 

Monosodium glutamate X X X X X- 




1970 

Source: 



1975 



1976 



1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 
Based on official statistics of the U.S. Department of Commerce. 



1977 



FLAVOR AND PERFUME MATERIALS 



TABLE 1. --Flavor and perfume materials: U.S. production and sales, 1976 



[Listed below 



not be published 
for which data on 



all synthetic organic flavor and perfume materials for which any reported data on production 
published. (Leaders (...) are used where the reported data are accepted in confidence and may 
re no data were reported.) Table 2 lists separately all flavor and perfume materials 
:tion and/or sales were reported and identifies the manufacturers of each] 



PRODUCTION 



1,000 
pound 



Grand total 

FLAVOR AND PERFUME MATERIALS, CYCLIC 
Total 

Benzenoid and Naphthalenoid 

Total 

4-Allyl-l,2-dimethoxybenzene (4-Allylveratrole)- 

4-Allyl-2-methoxyphenol (Eugenol) 

Anisyl acetate 

Benzophenone 

Benzyl acetate 

Benzyl cinnamate 

Benzyl propionate 

Benzyl salicylate 

Cinnamaldehyde 

Cinnamyl acetate 

Cinnamyl anthranilate 

Hydrocoumarin 

Isobutyl phenylacetate 

Isobutyl salicylate 

Isopentyl salicylate 

2-Methoxy-4-propenylphenol (Isoeugenol) 

p-Methylanisole 

Methyl anthranilate 

a-Methylcinnamaldehyde 

Methyl phenylacetate 

Phenethyl acetate 

Phenethyl isobutyrate 

2-Phenethyl phenylacetate 

2-Phenoxyethyl isobutyrate 

Phenylacetaldehyde, dimethyl acetal 

4-Phenyl-3-buten-2-one 

3-Phenyl-l-propanol (Hydrocinnamic alcohol) 

p-Propenylanisole (Ane thole) 

All other benzenoid and naphthalenoid materials- 

Terpenoid, Heterocyclic, and Alicyclic 

Total 

Cedrol 

Cedryl acetate 

Dihydronordicyclopentadienyl propionate 

(cyclaprop) 

Guaiac wood acetate 

4-Hydroxynonanoic acid, gamma-lac tone (y-nonal- 

actone) 

Ionone (a- and B-) 

Methyl ionones 

Terplneols 

a-Terpinylacetate 

Vetivenyl acetate 

All other terpenoid, heterocyclic, and alicyclL 
materials 



758 
1,825 



941 

1 58 



637 

2,490 

982 



1,000 
pound 



1,000 
dollars 



Per 
pound 



453 

,174 



2,370 
27,360 



402 

2,704 

927 



,350 
,455 



100 
120 
345 
74 
124 
8,145 
71,162 



225 

97) 



167 

126 
228 
2,463 
1,587 
921 
569 

26,929 



See footnote 



nd of table. 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1976 



TABLE 1, --Flavor and perfume materials: U.S. production and sales, 1976— Continued 



PRODUCTION 



UNIT 
VALUE 1 



FLAVOR AND PERFUME MATERIALS, ACYCLIC 

Total 

Allyl hexanoate 

Butyl bytyryl lactate 

Citronellyl acetate 

Citronellyl formate 

Citronellyl isobutyrate 

Citronellyl propionate 

3, 7-Dimethyl-cis-2 , 6-octadien-l-ol (Nerol) 

3, 7-Dimethyl-trans-2, 6-octadien-l-ol (Geraniol) 

3, 7-Dimethyl-cis-2, 6-octadien-l-ol acetate 

(neryl acetate) 

3,7-Dimethyl-l,6-octadien-3-ol (Linalool; Linalyl 

alcohol ) 

3,7-Dimethyl-6-octen-l-al (Citronellal) 

3,7-Dimethyl-6-octen-l-ol (Citronellol) 

Ethyl butyrate 

Ethyl heptanoate 

Ethyl hexanoate (Ethyl caproate) 

Ethyl myristate 

Ethyl nonanoate 

Ethyl octanoate 

Ethyl propionate 

Geranyl acetate 

Geranyl formate 

Geranyl propionate 

2-Hexanal 

7-Hydroxy-3 , 7-dimethyl-l-octanal (Hydroxy- 

citronellal) 

Isopentyl butyrate 

Isopentyl formate 

Isopentyl isovalerate 

Rhodinol 

All other acyclic materials 

1 Calculated from the unrounded figures. 

2 Includes significant quantities having other end 



1,000 
pounds 



,050 
723 

,330 
557 



149 
120 



1,000 
pounds 



1,000 
dollars 



1,125 
379 



228 

105 



210 
4,854 



3,255 
362 



Per 

pound 



5.07 
1.82 



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SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1975 



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180 SY.IThETIC ORGANIC CHEHICALS, 1976 

TABLE 3. --Flavor and perfume materials: Directory of manufacturers, 1976 

^ ALPHABETICAL DIRECTORY BY CODE 

[Names of manufacturers that reported production or sales of flavor and perfume materials to the U.S. International 
Trade Commission for 1976 are listed below in the order of their identification codes as used in table 2] 



Code 


Name of Company 


Code 


Name of Company 


ABB 


Abbott Laboratories 


NCI 


Union Camp Corp. 


AIP 


Air Products S Chemicals, Inc. 


NEO 


Norda Inc. 


AMB 


American Bio-Synthetics Corp. 


NTL 


NL Industries, Inc. 


ARS 


Arsynco, Inc. 


NW 


Northwestern Chemical Co. 


ARZ 


Arizona Chemical Co. 










OPC 


Orbis Products Corp. 


BJL 


Burdick § Jackson Labs., Inc. 


OTC 


Story Chemical Corp. 


CI 


Chem-Fleur, Inc. 


PD 


Parke, Davis § Co. Sub of Warner-Lambert 


CWN 


Upjohn Co., Fine Chemical Div. 




Co. 






PEN 


CPC International, Inc., Penick Div. 


DOW 


Dow Chemical Co. 


PFW 


Polak's Frutal Works, Inc. 






PFZ 


Pfizer, Inc. 


ELN 


Elan Chemical Co. 










RDA 


Rhodia, Inc. 


FB 


Fritzsche, Dodge & Olcott, Inc. 


RSA 


R.S.A. Corp. 


FEL 


Felton International, Inc. 


RT 


Ritter International 


FLO 


Florasynth, Inc. 






FMT 


Fairmount Chemical Co., Inc. 


SDH 


Sterling Drug, Inc., Hilton-Davis Chemical 
Co. Div. 


GAF 


GAF Corp., Chemical Div. 




Stauffer Chemical Co.: 


GIV 


Givaudan Corp. 


SFF 


Food Ingredients Div. 


GLD 


SCM Corp., Glidden-Durkee Div. 


SFS 


Specialty Div. 


GRW 


Great Western Sugar Co. 


SKG 


Sunkist Growers, Inc. 






SLV 


Sterwin Chemicals, Inc. 


HN 


Tenneco Chemicals, Inc. 


STP 


Stepan Chemical Co. 


HOF 


Hof fmann-LaRoche , Inc. 


sw 


Sherwin-Williams Co. 


HPC 


Hercules, Inc. 










ucc 


Union Carbide Corp. 


IFF 


International Flavors § Fragrances, Inc. 


UNG 


Lingerer f* Co. 


IMC 


IMC Chemical Group, Inc. 


UOP 


UOP, Inc., UOP Chemical Div. 


MON 


Monsanto Co. 


VEL 


Velsicol Chemical Corp. 



-Complete names and addresses of the above reporting companies are listed in table 1 of the appendix 



PLASTICS AND RESIN MATERIALS 18 

PLASTICS AND RESIN MATERIALS 

Anne Klein 

Plastics and resin materials are high molecular weight polymers 
which, at some stage in their manufacture, exist in such physical con- 
dition that they can be shaped or otherwise processed by the application 
of heat and pressure. Depending on the chemical composition, manufac- 
turing process or intended use, the commercial products may contain 
plasticizers, fillers, extenders, stabilizers, coloring agents, or other 
additives. Plastics materials may be molded, cast, or extruded into 
semi-finished or finished solid forms. Resin materials may be in the 
form of solutions, pastes, or emulsions for applications such as 
protective coatings, adhesives, or paper and textile treatment. 

Statistics on U.S. production and sales of synthetic plastics and 
resin materials for 1976 are given in table 1. U.S. production of plastics 
and resin materials in 1976 totaled 29,680 million pounds, or 21 percent 
more than the 24,509 million pounds produced in 1975. Sales in 1976 
totaled 24,837 million pounds, valued at $8,619 million compared with 
20,955 million pounds, valued at $7,003 million in 1975. 

Thermosetting materials are those which harden with a change in 
composition in the final treatment so that they cannot again be softened 
by heat or solvents. U.S. production of thermosetting materials totaled 
5,970 million pounds in 1976 compared with 5,140 million pounds in 1975. 
Production of the most important products in 1976 included polyether and 
polyester polyols for urethanes (1,346 million pounds), phenolic resins 
(1,305 million pounds), amino (or urea and melamine) resins (1,230 million 
pounds), polyester resins, (unsaturated) (865 million pounds) and alkyd 
resins (705 million pounds) . 

Thermoplastic materials are those which can be repeatedly softened 
by heat and shaped. U.S. production of thermoplastic materials totaled 
23,710 million pounds in 1976 compared with 19,728 million pounds in 1975. 
Production of the most important products in 1976 included polyethylene 
(8,775 million pounds), vinyl resins (5,553 million pounds), and styrene 
type materials (4,743 million pounds). 



SYi.THETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1976 



TABLE 1.— Plastics and resin materials: U.S, 



Quantities and values are given in terms of the total weight of the ma 
all plastics and resin materials, urethane type elastomers, and certain pr 
data on production or sales may be published. (Leaders (...) are used whe 
in confidence and may not be published and/or where no data were report 
which data on production and/or sales were reported and identifies the 



PRODUCTION AND SALES, 1976 
terials (dry ba 



) . Listed below are 
for which any reported 
re the reported data are accepted 
) Table 2 lists all products for 
ufacturers of each] 



PRODUCTION 



UNIT 
VALUE 1 



Grand total 

'lastics and resin materials, benzenoid 

'lastics and resin materials, nonbenzenoid 

THERMOSETTING RESINS 

Total 

Alkyd resins, total' 

Phthalic anhydride type 

Polybasic acid type *■ 

Styrenated-alkyds or copolymer alkyds 

Other copolymer alkyds 

Dicyandiamide resins 

Epoxy resins: 5 ' 6 

Unmodified 

Advanced 

Furfuryl type resins 

Melamine-formaldehyde resins (an amino resin) 

Phenolic and other tar acid resins 

Polyester resins, unsaturated 7 

Polyether and polyester polyols for urethanes 8 - 

Polyurethane elastomer and plastic products, to 

Elastomers 9 

Plastics ' ° 

Silicone resins 

Urea-formaldehyde resins (an amino resi^) 

Other thermosetting resins 

THERMOPLASTIC RESINS 

Total 

Acrylic resins 1 l * 1 2 

Engineering plastics 1 3 

Petroleum hydrocarbon resins 

Polyamide resins, nylon type 11 ' 1 ** 

Polyamide resins, non-nylon type 

Polyester resins, saturated M ' 15 

Polyethylene resins, total 

Density 0.940 and below 

Density over 0.940 

Polyimides and amide-imide polymers 

Polypropylene resins 

Polyterpene resins 

Polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) 

Rosin esters, unmodified (ester gums) 

Rosin esters, modified 

Styrene plastics materials, total 

Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) resins- 
Straight polystyrene 

Rubber modified polystyrene 

Other styrene copolymers 

Styrene-butadiene latexes 

All other styrene latexes 

All other styrene type plastics materials 



1,000 

pounds 

dry basis 



8,943,083 
20,737,170 



626,575 

40,696 

34,502 

2,874 

1,950 

202,576 
57,669 
7,510 
188,374 
,305,294 
865,198 
,346,337 

207,524 
81,182 
126,342 

15,223 

,041,360 

26,182 



888,469 
92,723 

306,143 

124,313 
30,967 

107,910 

8,774,658 

5,661,328 

3,113,330 

2,153 

2,550,950 

13,055 

15,567 

20,950 

43,421 

4,742,895 
1,003,074 
2,207,887 
778,208 
251,053 
303,205 
29,851 
169,617 



1,000 

pounds 

dry basis 2 



7,684,865 
17,151,982 



470,715 
433,249 
23,681 
12,108 
1,677 
1,815 

187,391 
50,182 

146,923 
999,930 

707,443 
988,729 

170,023 
65,404 
104,619 

13,084 
920,866 
23,519 



20,156,227 



98,879 
293,480 
77,131 
27,951 
62,663 



4,720,630 
2,862,594 

2,063,442 
12,778 
13,015 
22,248 
41,254 

4,390,297 
938,861 

1,988,801 
773,426 
221,019 
298,751 
24,387 
145,052 



1,000 
dollars 



3,113,430 
5,505,923 



201,637 
181,207 
13,519 
5,876 
1,035 
1,699 

135,413 
49,025 

79,681 
382,986 
303,927 
344,282 

159,722 
84,307 
75,415 

31,348 
168,453 
20,289 



96,800 
69,649 
86,303 
31,413 
68,021 



1,385,531 
808,155 

582,339 

5,850 

45,453 

9,161 

17,799 

1,530,761 
430,878 
582,399 
218,764 
131,136 
103,589 
9,551 
54,444 



.24 
1.12 

1.12 
1.09 

.29 



.28 

.59 
.35 



PLASTICS AND RESINS MATERIALS 



TABLE 1, --Plastics and resin materials: U.S. production and sales, 1976— Continued 



PLASTICS AND RESIN MATERIALS 



PRODUCTION 



UNIT 
VALUE 1 



THERMOPLASTIC RESINS— Continued 



1,000 

pounds 

dry basis 



total ' 6 

hloride and copolymers- 



Vinyl resin 
Polyvinyl 
Polyvinyl 

Polyvinyl alcohol 18 

Polyvinyl butyral resins 

Polyvinylidene chloride late 
Other vinyl and vinylidene r 

All other thermoplastic resirfs 



1,000 

pounds 

dry basis 2 

4,427,173 



1,000 
dollars 



Per 
pound 



,544,811 
617,152 
126,465 

16,640 
248,137 
443,030 



3,579,067 
548,276 
105,628 
42,913 
16,053 
135,236 
1,042,692 



925,609 
216,743 
67,091 
64,336 
9,483 
59,857 
660,537 



$0.26 
.40 



eluding water 



the total weight of the 
and other additives, but 
rials. 

1 of schedule 4 of the Tariff Schedules 
not defined in part 1 of schedule 4 of 



Excludes the weight of hardeners sold 
; which is further pro- 



Calculated from rounded figures. 

2 Dry weight basis unless otherwise specified. Dry weight basi 
including resin and coloring agents, extenders, fillers, plasticiz 
and other liquid diluents unless they are an integral part of the 

3 Includes benzenoid plastics and resin materials as defined in 
of the United States; also includes urethane type elastomers which 
the TSUS. 

" The total now includes data for styrene alkyd polyesters. 

5 Includes reactive diluents which are an Integral part of the 
in association with the resin as part of a two-component system. 

6 Data shown for advanced epoxy resins are that part of the unmodified epoxy 
cessed. 

7 Polyester resins are unsaturated alkyd resins, later to be copolyraerized with a monomer (such as styrene 
or methyl methacrylate) , and polyallyl resins (such as diallyl phthalate and diglycol carbonate). Data are on 
an "as sold" basis, including monomer if part of the resin system. 

8 In addition to the polyols, the other principal starting materials used in the production of urethane pro- 
ducts are the isocyanic acid derivatives, mainly the 80/20 mixture of toluene-2,4- and 2 ,6-diisocyanate . 
Statistics for the isocyanic acid derivatives are reported in the cyclic intermediates section of the Synthetic 
Organic Chemicals report. 

' Data for urethane type elastomers are now included in this section of the Synthetic Organic Chemicals 
report; these statistics previously were reported under the elastomers (synthetic rubber) section. The data 
on urethane elastomers are believed to be not fully representative of the total urethane market in view of the 
very large number of urethane elastomer producers. 

10 The term plastic encompasses compounds containing additives such as plasticizers ( Whittington's Dictionary 
o f Plastics , First Edition, published by Technomic Publishing Co., Inc.). 

fi Does not include production or sales for fiber use. 

12 Includes data for acrylic resins reported to the U.S. International Trade Commission as thermosetting resins. 

13 Engineering plastics; Includes acetal, polycarbonate, polyimide (sales only; production separately shown), 
polysulfone, and polyphenylene oxide. Engineering plastics are defined in Whittington's Dictionary of Plastics , 
as "Those [plastics] which have mechanical, chemical and thermal properties suitable for use in construction, 
machine components and chemical processing equipment". The above list of plastics (all of which are thermoplastic) 
was selected from a larger group in this source. The other plastics named in Whittington's Dictionary as engineerir 
plastics, ABS resins and nylon resins, are not included in the above list as they are published separately. 

Statistics for nylon 6 and nylon 6/6 which are used in plastic applications (e.g. 



sed in plastics applicatio 



olding etc.) 
(e.g., molding, etc.) 
, extenders, fillers, 



included here. 

15 Statistics for polyethylene terephthalate which 
included here. 

16 Data are on the basis of dry resin content, excluding the weight of plasticiz 
coloring agents, stabilizers, or impact modifiers, unless otherwise noted. 

17 Data for polyvinyl acetate produced and sold in latex form includes the weight of any protective colloids 
which are used as emulsion stabilizers and form an integral part of the resin system. Production and sales do 
not include polyvinyl acetate used as a reactive intermediate for polyvinyl alcohol or other vinyl resins. 

18 Production and sales do not include polyvinyl alcohol used as a reactive intermediate for polyvinyl 
butyral or other vinyl resins. 

" Includes acrylic resins (sales only), cellulose plastics and resins, coumarone-indene resins, polybutylene ty 
resins, fluorocarbon resins except PTFE, and other thermoplastics materials. 

Note. — Data reported to the U.S. International Trade Commission do not necessarily coincide with that reported 
to the Society of the Plastics Industry (SPI) because of differences in both the reporting instructions and in 
the coverage of certain resins. 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1976 



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SY.TTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1976 
TABLE 3.— Plastics and resin materials: Directory of manufacturers- 1976 



ALPHABETICAL DIRECTORY BY CODE 

[Names of manufacturers that reported production or sales of plastics and resin materials to the U.S. International 
Trade Commission for 1976 are listed below in the order of their identification codes as used in table 2] 



Code 


Name of company 


Code 


Name of company 


ABS 


Abex Corp., Friction Products Group 


DSO 


DeSoto, Inc. 




ACC 


Amoco Chemical Corp. 


DUP 


E.I. duPont de Nemours 5 Co., Inc. 




ACR 


CPC International, Inc., Acme Resin Co. Div. 


ECC 


Eastern Color 5 Chemical Co. 




ACS 


Allied Chemical Corp., Specialty Chemical Div. 


EFH 


E.F. Houghton § Co. 




ACY 


American Cyanamid Co. 




Eastman Kodak Co. : 




AEP 


A 5 E Plastics Pak Co., Inc. 


EKT 


Tennessee Eastman Co. Div. 




AIP 


Air Products 5 Chemicals, Inc. 


EKX 


Texas Eastman Co. Div. 




ALF 


Allied Chemical Corp., Fibers Div. 


EMR 


Emery Industries, Inc. 




AME 


Stauffer Chemical Co. 


ENJ 


Exxon Chemical Co. U.S.A. 




AMR 


Pacific Resins 6 Chemical Co. 


EPI 


Eagel Pitcher Industries, Inc., 




APT 


Whittaker Corp., Whittaker Coatings 6 




Ohio Rubber Co. 






Chemical, Mol Rez Resins 


EW 


Westinghouse Electric Corp., Industrial 




APX 


Apex Chemical Co., Inc. 




Plastics Div., Chemical Products Plant 




ARK 


Armstrong Cork Co. 








ASH 


Ashland Oil, Inc., Ashland Chemical Co. Div. 


FAR 


Syncon, Inc., Farnow Div. 




ASY 


American Synthetic Rubber Corp. 


FCD 


Synres Chemical Corp. 




ATR 


Atlantic Richfield Co. 


FG 


Foster Grant Co., Inc. 




AZS 


AZS Corp., AZ Products Co. Div. 


FIR 


Firestone Tire § Rubber Co., Firestone 
Plastics Co. Div. 




BAL 


Baltimore Paint £ Chemical Corp. 


FLH 


H.B. Fuller Co. 




BAS 


BASF Wyandotte Corp. 


FLN 


Franklin Chemical Corp. 




BCM 


Belding Chemical Industries 


FLW 


Fuller-O'Brien Corp. 




BEN 


Bennett *s 


FMP 


FMC Corp., Industrial Chemical Div. 




BFG 


B.F. Goodrich Co., B.F. Goodrich Chemical 


FMS 


First Mississippi Corp. 






Co. Div. 


FOC 


Handschy Chemical Co., Farac Oil 5 Chemi 


cal 


BLS 


Life Savers, Inc. 




Co. Div. 




BME 


Bendix Corp., FMD Div. 


FOM 


Formica Corp. 




BOR 


Borden Co., Borden Chemical Co. Div. 


FRE 


Freeman Chemical Corp. 




BRU 


M.A. Bruder 6 Sons, Inc. 


FRF 


Firestone Tire 6 Rubber Co., Firestone 
Synthetic Fibers Co. 




CBD 


Chembond Corp. 


FRP 


FRP Company 




CBM 


Carborundum Co . 


FRS 


Firestone Tire 5 Rubber Co., Firestone 




CBN 


Cities Service Co., Petrochemicals Div. 




Synthetic Rubber § Latex Co. Div. 




CBY 


Crosby Chemicals, Inc. 








CEL 


Celanese Corp. : 


GAF 


GAF Corp., and Chemical Div. 






Celanese Plastics Co. 


GE 


General Electric Co.: 






Celanese Polymer Specialties Co. 


GEI 


Insulating Materials Products Sec. 




CGL 


Cargill, Inc. 


GIL 


Gilman Paint 6 Varnish Co. 




CGY 


Ciba-Geigy Corp., Resins Dept. 


GLC 


General Latex 5 Chemical Corp. 




CHC 


Choate Chemical Co. 


GLD 


SCM Corp., Coatings and Resins Div. 




CHP 


C.H. Patrick 6 Co . , Inc. 


GNM 


General Mills Chemicals, Inc. 




CLK 


Clark Chemical Corp. 


GNT 


General Tire 6 Rubber Co., Chemical 




CMP 


Commercial Products Co., Inc. 




Plastics Div. 




CNE 


Conchemco, Inc. 


GOC 


Gulf Oil Corp., Gulf Oil Chemicals 




CNI 


Conap, Inc. 




Co. -U.S. 




CNT 


CertainTeed Corp. 


GOR 


Carl Gordon Industries, Inc. 




CO 


Continental Oil Co. 


GP 


Georgia-Pacific Corp.: 




COO 


The Terrell Corp. 




Rebecca Chemical Div. 




CPV 


Cook Paint 5 Varnish Co. 




Resins Operations 




CPX 


Chemplex Co. 


GPM 


General Plastics Manufacturing Co. 




CSD 


Cosden Oil 6 Chemical Co. 


GRA 


Great American Chemical Corp. 




CTR 


Customs Resins, Inc. 


GRD 


W.R. Grace 5 Co., Polymers Chemicals 




CWN 


Upjohn Co., Fine Chemical Div. 


GRG 


Div. 
P.D. George Co. 




DA 


Diamond Shamrock Corp. 


GRV 


Guardsman Chemical Coatings, Inc. 




DAN 


Dan River, Inc. 


GYR 


Goodyear Tire 5 Rubber Co. 




DCC 


Dow Corning Corp. 








DEG 


Degan Oil 6 Chemical Co. 


HAN 


Hanna Chemical Coating Corp. 




DGO 


Day-Glo Color Corp. 


HER 


Heresite 6 Chemical Co. 




DNS 


Dennis Chemical Co. 


HKD 


Hooker Chemical Corp., Durez Div. 




DOW 


Dow Chemical Co. 


HLM 


U.S. Industries, Inc., E. Helman Co. 




DPP 


Dixie Pine Products Co., Inc. 




Div. 





PLASTICS AND KESI.J MATERIALS 189 

TABLE 3. --Plastics and resin materials: Directory of manufacturers, 1976— Continued 



Code 


Name of company 


Code 


Name of company 


HN 


Tenneco Chemicals, Inc. 


PER 


Perry S Derrick Co. 




HNC 


H 6 N Chemical Co. 


PFP 


Midwest Manufacturing Corp. 




HPC 


Hercules, Inc. 


PLC 


Phillips Petroleum Co. 




HRT 


Hart Products Corp. 


PLN 


Disogrin Industries Corp. 




HVG 


Haveg Industries, Inc. Sub. of Hercules, Inc. 


PLS 


Plastics Engineering Co. 




HYC 


Dexter Corp., Hysol Co. Div. 


PMC 
PNT 


Plastics Manufacturing Co. 
Pantasote Co. 




ICF 


Inmont Corp. 


POL 


Polymer Corp. 




ICI 


ICI United States, Inc. : 


PPG 


PPG Industries, Inc. 






Plastics Div. 


PPL 


Pioneer Plastics Div. of LOF Plastics, ] 


nc 




Specialty Chemicals Div. 


PRC 


Products Research 6 Chemical Co. 




IMC 


IMC Chemical Group, Inc., McWorter Resins 


PRT 


Pratt 6 Lambert, Inc. 




INL 


Inland Steel Co., Inland Steel Container 


PVI 


Polyvinyl Chemical Ind. 






Co. Div. 


PYZ 


Polyrez Co. , Inc. 




INP 


Indipol, Inc. 








IOC 


Ionac Chemical Co. Div. of Sybron Corp. 


QCP 


Quaker Chemical Corp. 




IPC 


Interplastic Corp. 


QUN 


K.J. Quinn 6 Co., Inc. 




IRI 


Ironsides Resins, Inc. 


RAB 


Raybestos-Manhattan, Inc., R.M. Friction 




JCC 


Jefferson Chemical Co. 




Materials Co. Div. 




JNS 


S.C. Johnson S Son, Inc. 


RBT 


Robintech, Inc. 




JOB 


Jones-Blair Paint Co. 


RCC 


Rexene Polyolefins Co. 




JSC 


Jersey State Chemical Co. 


RCC 


Rexene Styrenics Co. 




JWC 


J.W. Carroll 6 Sons Div. of U.S. Industries 


RCD 


Richardson Co., Polymeric Septems Div. 






Inc. 


RCI 


Reichhold Chemicals Inc. 




KMC 


Kohler-McLister Paint Co. 


RED 


Red Spot Paint and Varnish Co., Inc. 




KMP 


Kelly -Moore Paint Co. 


REL 


Reliance Universal, Inc., Louisville Resi 


ns 


KPP 


Arco/Polymers, Inc. 




Operations 




KPT 


Koppers Co., Organic Materials Div. 


REZ 


Hexcel Corp., Rezolin Div. 




KYS 


Keysor Corp. 


RGC 
RH 


Rogers Corp. 
Rohm 6 Haas Co . 




MCA 


Masonite Corp., Alpine Div. 


RPC 


Millmaster Onyx Corp., Refined-Onyx Div. 




MCB 


Borg-Warner Corp. , Borg-Warner Chemicals 


RSC 


Resinous Chemicals Corp. 




MCC 


McCloskey Varnish Co. 


RSN 


Rilsan Corp. 




MFG 


Rockwell International Corp., Plastics Div. 


RSY 


Resyn Corp. 




MID 


Dexter Corp., Midland Div. 


RUB 


Hooker Chemical Corp., Ruco Div. 




MMM 


Minnesota Mining 5 Manufacturing Co. 








MNP 


The Valspar Corp. 


S 


Sandoz, Inc. 




MOB 


Mobay Chemical Co. 


SAC 


Southeastern Adhesives Co. 




MON 


Monsanto Corp. 


SAR 


Sartomer Industries, Inc. 




MRA 


Bostik South, Inc. 


SCN 


Schenectady Chemicals, Inc. 




MRB 


Marblette Co. 


sco 


Scholler Bros., Inc. 




MRO 


W.R. Grace 6 Co., Hatco Polyester Div. 


SED 


Conchemco, Inc., Colony Paint 




MRT 


Morton Chemical Co. Div. of Morton Norwich 


SFP 


Stauffer Chemical Co., Plastics Div. 






Products, Inc. 


SHA 
SHC 


Shanco Plastics 6 Chemicals, Inc. 
Shell Oil Co., Shell Chemical Co. Div. 




NCI 


Union Camp Corp. 


SIC 


Vistron Corp., Silmar Div. 




NEV 


Neville Chemical Co. 


SIM 


Simpson Timber Co. 




NPV 


Norris Paint 6 Varnish Co., Inc. 


SKP 


Shakespeare Co., Monofilament Div. 




NSC 


National Starch 6 Chemical Corp. 


SKT 


Textron Inc., Spencer Kellogg Div. 




NTC 


National Casein Co. 


SLC 


Soluol Chemical Co., Inc. 




NTL 


NL Industries, Inc. 


SLT 


Soltex Polymer Corp. 




NVT 


Novamont Corp. , Neal Works 


SM 


Mobil Oil Corp., Mobil Chemical Co., 




NWP 


Northern Petrochemical Co. 


SNW 


Chemical Coatings Div. 
Sun Chemical Corp. , Chemicals Div. 




OBC 


O'Brien Corp. 


SOL 


Polysar Resins, Inc. 




OCF 


Owens-Corning Fiberglas Corp. 


SOR 


Thomason Industries, Inc., Southern Resir 




OMC 


Olin Corp. 




Div. 




ORO 


Chevron Chemical Co. 


SPC 
SPD 


Insilco Corp., Sinclair Paint Co. Div. 
General Electric Co., Silicone Products 




PAS 


Pennwalt Corp. , 




Dept . 




PC 


Proctor Chemical Co., Inc. 


SPL 


Spaulding Fibre Co., Inc. 





245-856 O - 77 - 13 



190 SYNTHETIC ORGAfJIC CHEMICALS. 1976 

TABLE 3, --Plastics and resin materials: Directory of manufacturers, 1976— Continued 



Code 


Name of company 


Code 


Name of company 


STC 


American Hoechst Corp. , Sou-Tex Works 


USI 


National Petro Chemical Corp. 




STT 


Standard T Chemical Co. 


USM 


USM Corp. , Bostik Div. 




SW 


Sherwin-Williams Co. 


USO 


U.S. Oil Co. 




SWS 


Stauffer Chemical Co., SWS Silicones 


USR 


Uniroyal, Inc., Chemical Div. 






Div. 


USS 
VAL 


USS Chemicals Div. of U.S. Steel 
Valchem 


Corp. 


TKL 


Thiokol Corp. 


VEL 


Veliscol Chemical Corp. 




TNA 


Ethyl Corp. 


VPC 


Mobay Chemical Corp., Verona Div 




TX 


Texaco, Inc. 


VSV 


Valentine Sugars, Inc. 




UBS 


A.E. Staley Manufacturing Co., Chemicals 


WCA 


West Coast Adhesives Co. 






Specialties Div. 


WLN 


Wilmington Chemical Corp. 




ucc 


Union Carbide Corp. 


WRD 


Weyerhaeuser Co. 




UNO 


United-Erie, Inc. 


WTC 


Witco Chemical Co., Inc. 




uoc 


Union Oil Co. of California 








UPJ 


Upjohn Co. 


ZGL 


Carolina Processing Corp. 




USI 


National Distillers S Chemical Corp., U.S. 
Industrial Chemicals Co. Div. 









Note. --Complete names and addresses of the above reporting companies are listed in table 1 of the appendix. 



RUBBER-PROCESSING CHEMICALS 

191 



RUBBER-PROCESSING CHEMICALS 

David B. Beck 

Rubber-processing chemicals are organic compounds that are added to 
natural and synthetic rubber to give them qualities necessary for their 
conversion into finished rubber goods. In this report, statistics are 
given for cyclic and acyclic compounds by use — such as accelerators, 
antioxidants, blowing agents, and peptizers. Data on production and sales 
of rubber-processing chemicals in 1976 are given in table l 1 . 

Production of rubber-processing chemicals as a group in 1976 amounted 
to 384 million pounds, or 37.8 percent more than the 279 million pounds in 
1975. Sales of rubber-processing chemicals in 1976 amounted to 224 million 
pounds, valued at $247 million, compared with 204 million pounds, valued at 
$207 million, in 1975. 

The production of cyclic rubber-processing chemicals in 1976 amounted 
to 304 million pounds, or 35.1 percent more than the 225 million pounds in 
1975. Sales in 1976 were 186 million pounds, valued at $218 million, com- 
pared with 173 million pounds, valued at $187 million, in 1975. Of the 
total production of cyclic rubber-processing chemicals in 1976, accelerators, 
activators, and vulcanizing agents accounted for 42.3 percent and antioxi- 
dants, antiozonants, and stabilizers for 52.8 percent. Production of anti- 
oxidants, antiozonants, and stabilizers, which amounted to 160.3 million 
pounds in 1976, included 121.2 million pounds of amino compounds and 39.1 
million pounds of phenolic and phosphite compounds. Sales of amino anti- 
oxidants, antiozonants, and stabilizers in 1976 amounted to 80.1 million 
pounds, valued at $94.4 million, sales of phenolic and phosphite antioxi- 
dants, antiozonants, and stabilizers, were 26.0 million pounds, valued at 
$30.4 million. 

Production of acyclic rubber-processing chemicals in 1976 amounted to 
49.7 million pounds, or 8.0 percent less than the 54.0 million pounds re- 
ported for 1975. Sales in 1976 totaled 37.9 million pounds, valued at $28.6 
million, compared with 31.2 million pounds, valued at $20.0 million, in 
1975. Dithiocarbamic acid derivatives accounted for 15.0 percent of sales 
(based on quantity) of acyclic rubber-processing chemicals in 1976 and bis- 
(dimethylthiocarbamoyl) disulfide accounted for 12.9 percent. 



1/ See also table 2 which lists these producers and identifies the manu- 
facturers by codes. These codes are given in table 3. 



RUBBER-PROCESSING CHEMICALS 



TABLE 1.— Rubber-processing chemicals: U.S. production and sales, 1976 

Listed below are all rubber-processing chemicals for which any reported data on production or sales may be pub- 
lished. (Leaders (...) are used where the reported data are accepted in confidence and may not be published 
or where no data were reported.) Table 2 lists separately all rubber-processing chemicals for which data on 
production and/or sales were reported and identifies the manufacturers of each] 



RUBBER-PROCESSING CHEMICALS 



PRODUCTION 



UNIT 
VALUE 1 



Grand total 

RUBBER-PROCESSING CHEMICALS, CYCLIC 

Total 

Accelerators, activators, and vulcanizing agents, 

total 

Aldehyde-amine reaction products 

Dithiocarbamic acid derivatives 

Thiazole derivatives, total 

N-Cyclohexyl-2-benzothiazolesulfenamide 

2,2'-Dithiobis(benzothiazole) 

2-Me reap tobenzo thiazole 

All other thiazole derivatives 

All other accelerators, activators, and vulcanizing 
agents 2 

Antioxidants, antiozonants, and stabilizers, total 

Amino compounds, total 

Aldehyde- and acetone-amine reaction products 

Substituted p-phenylenediamines 

N-Phenyl-2-naphthylamine 

All other amino compounds 

Phenolic and phosphite compounds, total 

Phenolic compounds, total 

Polyphenolics (including bisphenols) 

Phenol , alkylated 

Other 

Phosphite compounds 

Peptizers 

Retarder : N-Nitrosodiphenylamine 

All other cyclic rubber-processing chemicals'* 

RUBBER-PROCESSING CHEMICALS, ACYCLIC 

Total 

Dithiocarbamic acid derivatives, total 5 

Dibutyldithiocarbamic acid, sodium salt 

Dibutyldithiocarbamic acid, zinc salt 

Dimethyldithiocarbamic acid, zinc salt 

All other dithiocarbamic acid derivatives 

Bis(dimethylthiocarbamoyl) disulfide 

Bis(dimethylthiocarbamoyl) sulfide 

Shortstops: Dimethyldithiocarbamic acid, sodium salt 
All other acyclic rubber-processing chemicals 6 



159,614 



722 

209 

118, 048 

4,097 

18,538 

95,413 



160,307 



71,780 

746 

48,647 

39,134 

22,496 

13,662 

5,543 

3,291 

16,638 

1,856 
1,307 
11,651 



8,094 



2,919 
1,893 
3,282 

5,358 
2,266 
3,080 
30,890 



1,000 
pounds 



1,000 
dollars 



186,393 



66,194 



649 
172 
58,010 
2,937 
8,331 
5,351 
41,391 

7,363 



80,111 
4,363 
41,776 

33,972 
26,035 
15,060 
10,977 
1,567 
2,516 
10,975 

1,850 

843 

11,360 



2.367 
1,377 
1,963 

4,895 
2,034 

25,173 



68,678 



1,078 
624 

55,860 
3,488 
7,134 
3,217 

42,021 

11,116 
124.791 



94,404 
4,133 
58,311 

31,960 
30,387 
24,259 
20,015 
1,167 
3,077 
6,128 

2,145 

817 

21,832 



28,594 



2,645 
1,251 
3,853 

3,832 
3,069 

13,883 



Per 

pound 



1.66 
3.62 



1.19 
.86 



1.51 
1.18 



1.18 
.95 
1.40 



.94 
1.17 
1.61 
1.82 

.74 
1.22 

.56 



.97 
1.92 



1.54 

.91 

1.96 



1.51 
.55 



1/ Calculated from rounded figures. 

2/ Includes guanidlnes and other uses not separately shown. 

3/ Includes aldehyde- and acetone-amine reaction products (production only) and N-phenyl-2-naphthylamine (sales 
only). 

4/ Includes blowing agents and other uses not separately shown. 

5/ Data on dithlocarbamates included in this table are for materials used chiefly in the processing of natural and 
synthetic rubber. Data on dithlocarbamates which are used chiefly as fungicides are included in the report "Pest- 
icides and Related Products". 

6/ Includes "other" thiurams, xanthates, sulfides, conditioning and lubricating agents, polymerization regulators, 
shortstops, and other uses not separately shown. 



194 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1976 







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TABLE 3. --Rubber-processing chemicals: Directory of Manufacturers, 1976 

ALPHABETICAL DIRECTORY BY CODE 



[Names of manufacturers that reported production or sales of rubber-process 
Trade Commission for 1976 are listed below in the order of their identifi 



ng chemicals to the U.S. International 
iation codes as used in table 2] 



Code 


Name of company 


Code 


Name of company 


ACY 


American Cyanamid Co. 


LAK 


Lakeway Chemicals, Inc. 


ALC 


Alco Chemical Corp. 






ARA 


Arapahoe Chemicals, Inc. Sub/Syntex Corp. 


MCB 


Borg-Warner Corp., Weston Chemical Div. 




(U.S.A.) 


MON 


Monsanto Co. 


ASH 


Ashland Oil, Inc., Ashland Chemical Co. 










NEV 


Neville Chemical Co. 


BFG 


B. F. Goodrich Co., B. F. Goodrich Chemical 
Co. Div. 


NPI 


Stepan Chemical Co. , Polychem Dept. 






PAS 


Pennwalt Chemicals Corp. 


DA 


Diamond Shamrock Corp. 


PIT 


Pitt-Consol Chemical Co. 


DUP 


E. I. duPont de Nemours 6. Co., Inc. 


PLC 


Phillips Petroleum Co. 


FER 


Ferro Corp. , Ferro Chemical Div. 


RBC 


Fike Chemicals, Inc. 


FMN 


FMC Corp., Agricultural Chemical Div. 


RCD 


Richardson Co., Organic Chemical Div. 






RCI 


Reichhold Chemicals, Inc. 


GYR 


Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co. 










SDC 


Martin-Marietta Corp., Sodeyco Div. 


HK 


Hooker Chemicals & Plastics Corp. 










VNC 


Vanderbilt Chemical Copr. 


ICI 


ICI United States, Inc., Specialty Chemicals 







Note. — Complete 



reporting compa 



table 1 of the append! 



ELASTOMERS 

201 



ELASTOMERS 
David B. Beck 

Elastomers (synthetic rubber) are high polymeric materials with pro- 
perties similar to those of natural rubber. The term "elastomers" as 
used in this report, means a substance, whether in bale, crumb, powder, 
latex, and other crude form, which can be vulcanized or similarly processed 
into a material that can be stretched to at least twice its original length 
and, after having been so stretched and the stress removed, will return with 
force to approximately its original length. U.S. production and sales of 
elastomers in 1976 are shown in table 1 . 

Total U.S. production 2 of synthetic rubber in 1976 amounted to 5,386 
million pounds, an increase of 18 percent from that produced in 1975. Total 
sales 2 of elastomers in 1976 amounted to 3,710 million pounds, a decrease of 
6 percent from that produced in 1975. 

Styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR, or S-type rubber) in 1976 continued to 
be the elastomer produced in the greatest quantity as it has been for more 
than a quarter of a century. U.S. production of S-type rubber, including 
30 million pounds of its vinylpyridine sub-type, amounted to 3,010 million 
pounds in 1976, an increase of 14 percent from that reported for 1975. Solu- 
tion polymerized butadiene rubber, a stereo type elastomer, was produced 
domestically in 1976 in the next largest amount — 752 million pounds; pro- 
duction of isoprene and ethylene-propylene rubbers, the other stereo types, 
amounted to 164 million 3 and 303 million pounds, respectively. Total U.S. 
production of these stereo type elastomers amounted to 1,219 million pounds 
in 1976 — an increase of 25 percent from 1975. Other principal types of 
synthetic elastomers for which U.S. production data are reported separately 
are isobutylene-isoprene (butyl) rubber, production of which was 277 million 
pounds 3 in 1976, acrylonitrile-butadiene (N-type) rubber, production of which 
was 166 million pounds, and polychloroprene (Neoprene) rubber, production of 
which was 383 million pounds . 

Sales of S-type rubber by U.S. producers in 1976 (including its vinyl- 
pyridine sub-type) amounted to 1,786 million pounds, a decrease of 18 percent 
from sales reported for 1975. Sales of solution polymerized butadiene rubber 
amounted to 413 million pounds, and those of ethylene-propylene rubber to 245 
million pounds. Sales of N-type rubber in 1976 amounted to 130 million pounds. 
Sales of solution polymerized butadiene rubber in 1976 decreased from sales 
in 1975 by 12 percent, and sales of ethylene-propylene rubber increased 27 per- 
cent. Sales of N-type rubber in 1976 were 23 percent above those in 1975. 

1 See also Table 2 which lists these products and indicates the manufacturers 
of each by code. The codes are identified by company name in table 3. 

2 Does not include urethane type elastomers. 

3 Reported by the Rubber Manufacturers' Association. 



202 SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1976 

Synthetic Elastomers 



During 1976 the U.S. synthetic elastomers industry was hampered by 
1) the United Rubber Workers (URW) strike against the Big Four tire 
producers, and 2) a cancer scare which set the National Institute of 
Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and certain producers to the task 
of researching potential occupational hazards germane to the rubber 
industry. Despite these and other developments, overall production of 
synthetic elastomers was up from 1975, and the outlook for 1977 and beyond 
is favorable. 

Styrene-butadiene rubber workers and leukemia 

B.F. Goodrich reported in March 1976 that three employees of its 
Port Neches, Texas, styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) plant had died of 
leukemia since 1971. A quick check by other SBR producers revealed 
that several other leukemia-related deaths and illnesses had similarly 
occurred. 

NIOSH began an investigation having the same urgency as its vinyl 
chloride monomer study. Pinpointing the potential carcinogen in SBR 
is complicated, however, by the fact that SBR production involves over 
200 monomers and rubber-processing chemicals. Two university studies 
funded by the rubber industry to research occupational diseases have 
been in progress since 1970, but some producers now have initiated 
inquiries of their own. The International Institute of Synthetic Rubber 
Producers (IISRP) is also concentrating a massive factfinding effort 
on butadiene monomers. 

United Rubber Workers strike 

Contract negotiations between the URW and the Big Four tire producers 
broke down in 1976, as they had in 1967, 1970, and 1973. But the 1976 URW 
strike was to last longer (140 days) than any previous one. The key issues 
were a cost-of-living escalator clause and wage differentials between tire 
workers and other rubber-product workers. 

The effects of the strike were not immediately felt because tire 
inventories were initially high (55 million units compared with a normal 
inventory of 40 to 50 million units), and stocks of the monomers butadiene 
and styrene were low. Production of the monomers, SBR elastomers, and 
rubber-processing chemicals continued at a normal pace through April to 
build supply in anticipation of heavy tire production once the strike was 
settled. 

The strike was not settled as soon as most hoped. As stocks rose, 
throughout May and August , SBR production dropped 12 to 26 percent (see 
the following figure). This triggered declines in the demand for, and in 
the price of, styrene and butadiene monomers. 



ELASTOMERS 



203 



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204 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS/ 1976 



The strike curbed what could have been a very good year for tire 
producers. When the strike ended in Angust, tire inventories had dropped 
to 20 million units, and at yearend they were about 10 million units short 
of normal reserves. Sales for the year generally increased 5 to 6 percent 
over 1975, but after-tax profits fell almost 30 percent for some companies. 

While hose and belting generally rebounded from the 1975 recession, 
flat belt sales (serving high capital expenditure markets such as coal 
mining) were dampened by the length of the strike. Producers of fibers, 
tire yarn, and other products related to tire manufacture also reported 
feeling the impact of the strike. 

Production and sales 

Production of synthetic elastomers in 1976 amounted to 5.3 billion 
pounds, up almost 15 percent from 4.6 billion pounds in 1975. The following 
tabulation shows that all major types of elastomers made a good recovery 
from 1975: 

Production 



Type of rubber 



1975 
(1,000 pounds) 



1976 
(1,000 pounds) 



Percentage 
increase 



SBR 2 , 607, 907 

Butyl 182 , 039 

N-type 118, 767 

Polybutadiene 655 , 778 

Polyisoprene 135 , 154 

EPDM 187, 392 

Silicone 31 , 221 

Styrene-butadiene- 

vinylpyridine 29,500 

Total synthetic 

rubber 4,578, 725 



2,980,253 


14 


277,685 


53 


165,924 


40 


780,756 1/ 


19 


164,115 


21 


303,056 


62 


38,974 


25 


29,832 


1 


5,220,956 1/ 


14 



However, in the overaj.0. perspective, only polybutadiene and EPDM managed to 
exceed the 1974 levels of production. 

Sales of SBR in 1976 amounted to 1,775,333 thousand pounds compared with 
2,607,907 thousand pounds in 1975, or a decrease of 32 percent. Sales value 
of SBR declined 17 percent from $572 million in 1975 to $473 million in 1976. 
Similarly, production and sales of solution-polymerized polybutadiene declined 
12 percent and 9 percent, respectively. Changes in sales quantities and values 
for other synthetic elastomers were as follows: 



1/ Census data. 



ELASTOMERS 205 



Percentage change in Percentage change in 
sales quantity: sales value: 

Type of rubber 1976 from 1975 1976 from 1975 

Butyl 1/ 1/ 

N-type 23 32 

Polyisoprene 1/ 1/ 

EPDM 27 39 

Silicone 39 32 

Styrene-butadiene- 

vinylpyridine -35 -34 

1/ Withheld to avoid disclosure of company confidential data. 

Foreign trade 

In synthetic elastomers, the United States maintained a favorable export/ 
import ratio of about 2.3 in 1976 (see figure on p. 206). That ratio has varied 
no more than 0.3 from the average during 1972-76. However, if the quantity 
of natural rubber imports is included (the United States does not produce 
natural rubber, yet it consumes about one-fifth of the world's total, annually), 
the export/import ratio drops to a less favorable 0.36 for 1976 (see figure 
on p. 207). 

The ratio of imports to consumption of synthetic rubber alone was steady 
at 4.7 to 5.7 percent during 1972-76. If natural rubber data are considered, 
the ratio of imports to consumption shows a steady (but gradual) increase 
from 24.8 percent in 1972 to 30.3 percent in 19 76. 

As the U.S. economy was depressed in 1975, so too were U.S. exports of 
rubber. Export problems included currency devaluations, inflation, raw 
materials costs, tariff barriers, and transportation costs. These factors, 
coupled with increased foreign competition and the prospects of little growth 
in U.S. tire demand, provided strong incentive for U.S. producers to expand 
their facilities overseas, especially in the developing countries. 

World demand and foreign competition 

Latin America's automobile consumption in 1980 will be more than double 
that in 1970. Similarly, Southeast Asia's demand for original-equipment tires 
will increase at least 50 percent in the same period. Both these 
regions, along with the Middle East and Africa, are ripe for industrial 
development, which means that nontire rubber demand (especially for hose and 
belting) will be strong in the coming decade. 

U.S. multinational rubber companies face a number of problems in meeting 
increasing demand overseas. The biggest question is whether expansion can 



245-856 O - 77 ■ 



206 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS/ 1976 



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ELASTOMERS 



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208 SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS/ 1976 



occur fast enough to meet growing demand for U.S. rubber technology. Many 
countries which are potential sites for new plants or for the expansion 
of existing facilities are demanding a bigger share of the multinationals' 
gross receipts. Cheap labor is becoming a scarcity and raw materials costs 
are increasing. Foreign government red tape also tends to retard expansion 
of U.S. industry abroad. Meanwhile, Japan and Western Europe are constantly 
developing newer and better rubber know-how of their own and promise to be 
strong competition for U.S. -owned companies in foreign markets. 

Natural rubber 

U.S. consumption of natural rubber (NR) in 1976 was about 1.5 billion 
pounds, or 25 percent of total U.S. rubber consumption — second only to SBR. 
Tire production accounted for 65 percent of SBR consumption and 73 percent 
of NR consumption, and together the two accounted for 77 percent of total 
rubber consumption by the tire industry. 

In years to come the fraction of tire rubber accounted for by NR will 
probably increase at the expense of SBR. There are two reasons: (1) New 
radial tread designs for passenger tires are already consuming up to twice 
the NR per tire used in older designs. Furthermore, the radial designs are 
being tested for nonpassenger tires as well. (2) Consumption of NR since 
World War II has been limited by supply, but higher yield agricultural 
techniques, commercial redevelopment of guayule as a source of NR, and a 
breakthrough in the battle against South American leaf blight (which wiped 
out the Brazilian rubber industry at the turn of the century) will con- 
tribute to increased future NR availability. World NR production is 
projected to rise from 3.5 million metric tons, or 32 percent of world 
rubber consumption, in 1976 to an estimated 10 to 12 million metric tons, 
or 35 to 40 percent of projected world consumption, by the end of the 
century. 

A significant step was taken in August by the Association of Natural 
Rubber Producing Countries (ANRPC) toward stabilizing the erratic NR prices 
prevalent in recent years. Through an international buffer stock and 
strategic open market purchases, the ANRPC (which accounts for over 90 percent 
of world NR production) hopes to maintain NR supply in relative balance 
with demand and thereby make prices more stable and NR more competitive. 

Industry outlook: 1977 and beyond 

The biggest factor in rubber industry growth in 1977 will be tires. 
Production and sales of tires have been predicted to break all previous 
years' records because of increasing demand and the efforts to replenish 
inventories depleted by the 1976 strike. 

Radial tires for automobiles (and for trucks and buses) will gain a 
larger percentage of the domestic market in 1977. Some producers fear that 
in the long run the greater mileage life of radials could put a damper on 



ELASTOMERS 209 



annual growth; but others agree that most Americans tend to underinflate 
their tires and usually realize less than half of the 50-percent extra 
tread life that radials allegedly offer. In any case, foreign tire 
sources made further inroads into the U.S. market during the 1976 strike, 
and U.S. producers will have an uphill battle to regain those lost sales. 

Nontire synthetic elastomers will see strong growth at least through 
1980. Industrial hose markets are projected to grow 5 percent per year 
with the upswing in production of hydraulic, offshore drilling, and mining 
equipment and with the recovery of the automobile industry. Rubber hose 
will also be used as a less expensive alternative to rigid metal piping in 
more and more applications. 

Rubber and reinforced rubber belting have enjoyed tremendous growth 
since 1974. The coal industry is the major contributing factor — conveyor 
belting is the most efficient and economical way to handle bulk materials 
such as coal and other mined products. Sales of belting are expected to 
climb 8 to 9 percent annually through 1980. 

A conservative estimate for growth of U.S. synthetic rubber consumption 
through 1980 would be about 3 percent annually, barring unusual economic 
conditions. At that rate U.S. consumption will reach 2.4 billion pounds 
by 1980. Total U.S. consumption of all rubber could reach over 
7 billion pounds by the year 2000. This estimate allows for longrun growth 
of less than 3 percent, taking into account recessionary periods and other 
possible (temporary) negative economic influences. 



ELASTOMERS 



TABLE L— Elastomers (synthetic rubber): 1 U.S. production and sales, 1976 

[Listed below are all elastomers (synthetic rubber) for which reported data on production or sales may be published. 
(Leaders (...) are used where the reported data are accepted, in confidence and may not be published or where no 
data were reported.) Table 2 lists all elastomers for which data on production and/or sales were reported and 
identifies the manufacturers of each] 



ELASTOMERS 



PRODUCTION^ 



SALES 



UNIT 
VALUE 3 



Cyclic 

Acylcic 



1,000 
pounds 



5,385,800 



1,000 
pounds 



1,000 
dollars 



Pep 

pound 



Acrylonitrile-butadiene type (N-type) 

Butadiene (emulsion polymerized) type 

Chloroprene type (Neoprene) 1 * 

Isobutylene-isoprene type (Butyl) 5 

Silicone type 

Stereo elastomers: 

Butadiene (solution polymerized) type- 

Ethylene-propylene type 

Isoprene type 6 

Styrene-butadlene type (S-type) 

Styrene-butadiene-vinylpyridine type 

Ure thane type 

All other elastomers 8 



3,146,083 
2,239,717 



165,924 
16,312 



751,535 
303,056 

,980,253 
29,832 
( 7 ) 

,099,914 



1,970,636 
1,739,501 



129,560 
14,101 



413,133 
245,448 

1,775,332 

10,567 
( 7 ) 
1,088,530 



560,386 
968,676 



79,663 
4,858 



122,435 
111,231 

473,446 
7,308 

( 7 ) 
615,085 



( 7 ) 
.57 



The te 



is defined as substa 



in bale, crumb, powder, latex, and other crude forms which 



st twice their original 
oximately their original 



eported by the Rubbe 



be vulcanized or similarly processed into materials that can be stretched at 68° F. to at lea 
length and, after having been stretched and the stress removed, will return with force to appr 
length. 

2 Includes oil content of oil-extended elastomers. 

3 Calculated from rounded figures. 
11 Included in "All other elastomers". The production of polychloroprene rubber in 1976 wa 

Manufacturers' Association to be 164,581 metric tons (362,839,000 pounds). 

5 Included in "All other elastomers". The production of butyl rubber in 1976 was reported by the Rubber Manufact- 
urers' Association to be 125,493 metric tons (276,662,000 pounds). 

6 Included in "All other elastomers". The production of polyisoprene rubber in 1976 was reported by the Rubber 
Manufacturers' Association to be 74,428 metric tons (164,084,000 pounds). 

7 The data on production and sales of urethane elastomers are reported in the section "Plastics and Resin Mat- 
erials" with urethane plastics and polyols. 

8 Includes production and sales data for acrylic ester, butyl, chloroprene, epichlorohydrin, fluorinated, isobutyl- 
ene, isoprenes, and polysulfide elastomers, certain solution elastomers, carboxylated SBR latex, chlorinated rubber, 
chlorosulfonated polyethylene, thermoplastic rubber, miscellaneous elastomers. 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1976 



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ELASTOMERS 



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SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1976 



TABLE 3,— Elastomers (synthetic rubber): Directory of manufacturers. 1976 

ALPHABETICAL DIRECTORY BY CODE * 

[Names of elastomers manufacturers that reported production or sales to the U.S. International Trade Commission for 
1976 are listed below in the order of their identification codes as used in table 2] 



Code 


Name of company 


Code 


Name of company 


ACY 


American Cyanamid Co. 


ICI 


ICI United States, Inc., Specialty 


ASH 


Ashland Oil, Inc. 




Chemicals Group 


ASY 


American Synthetic Rubber Corp. 






ATR 


Atlantic Richfield Co. 










MIL 


Milliken 6 Co., Milliken Chemical Div. 






MMM 


Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Co. 


BFG 


B. F. Goodrich Co., B. F. Goodrich Chemical 
Co. Div. 










PLC 


Phillips Petroleum Co. 






PRC 


Products Research S Chemical Corp., 


CBN 


Cities Service Co. , Columbian Group 




Chemical and Sealant Div. 


CPY 


Copolymer Rubber 6 Chemical Corp. 


PTT 


Petro-Tex Chemical Corp. 


DCC 


Dow Corning Corp. 


RCI 


Reichhold Chemicals, Inc., Reichhold 


DUP 


E. I. duPont de Nemours £ Co., Inc. 




Polymers, Inc. 


ENJ 


Exxon Chemical Co. , U.S.A. 


SHC 


Shell Oil Co., Shell Chemical Co. Div. 






SPD 


General Electric Co. , Silicone Products 
Dept. 




Firestone Tire § Rubber Co. : 


SWS 


Stauffer Chemical Co., SWS Silicones Div. 


FIR 


Firestone Plastics Co. Div. 






FRS 


Firestone Synthetic Rubber 5 Latex 








Co. Div. 


TKL 


Thiokol Chemical Corp. 






TUS 


Texas -U.S. Chemical Co. 


GNT 


General Tire 6 Rubber Co., Chemical Div. 






GRD 


W. R. Grace 5 Co., Polymers 5 Chemicals 


UCC 


Union Carbide Corp. 




Div. 


USR 


Uniroyal, Inc., Chemical Div. 


GYR 


Goodyear Tire 6 Rubber Co. 










WAY 


Philip A. Hunt Chemical Corp., Wayland 


HDM 


Hardman, Inc. 




Chemical Div. 


HPC 


Hercules, Inc. 







Note. --Complete names and addresses of the above reporting companies are listed in table 1 of the append 



PLASTICIZERS 215 



PLASTICIZERS 
Edmund Cappuccilli and Louis N. DeToro 

Plasticizers are organic chemicals that are added to synthetic 
plastics and resin materials to (1) improve workability during fabri- 
cation, (2) extend or modify the natural properties of these materials, 
or (3) develop new improved properties not present in the original 
material. Table 1 presents statistics on U.S. production and sales of 
plasticizers in as great a detail as is possible without revealing the 
operations of individual producers. 

U.S. production of plasticizers totaled 1,587 million pounds in 
1976, an increase of 17.4 percent from the 1,352 million pounds reported 
for 1975. Sales of plasticizers totaled 1,466 million pounds, valued at 
$566 million, in 1976, compared with 1,338 million pounds, valued at 
$470 million, in 1975. 

Production of cyclic plasticizers in 1976, which consisted chiefly 
of the esters of phthalic anhydride, phosphoric acid, and trimellitic 
acid, amounted to 1,186 million pounds, an increase of 14.2 percent from 
the 1,038 million pounds reported for 1975. Sales of cyclic plasticizers 
in 1976 totaled 1,111 million pounds, valued at $360 million, compared with 
1,042 million pounds, valued at $308 million, in 1975. The most important 
cyclic plasticizer was di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, with production of 297 
million pounds, in 1976. 

Production of acyclic plasticizers in 1976 totaled 402 million 
pounds, an increase of 28.1 percent from the 313 million pounds reported 
for 1975. Sales of acyclic plasticizers totaled 355 million pounds, 
valued at $206 million, in 1976, compared with 296 million pounds, valued 
at $162 million, in 1975. Epoxidized soya oils were the most important 
acyclic plasticizer in 1976 with production of 91 million pounds. 



PLAST1CIZERS 



TABLE l.~ Plasticizer: 



U.S. PRODUCTION AND SALES, 1976 



[Listed below are plasticizers for wnich any re 
(...) are used where the reported data are ac 
reported.) Table 2 lists separately all plas 
reported and identifies the manufacturers of 



sales may be published. (Leaders 
be published or where no data wer 
on production and/or sales were 



PLASTICIZERS 



Grand total 

Benzenoid 

Nonbenzenoid 

PLASTICIZERS, CYCLIC 

Total 

Phosphoric acid esters, total 

Cresyl diphenyl phosphate 

All other phosphoric acid esters 

Phthalic anhydride esters, total 

Dibutyl phthalate 

Diethyl phthalate 

Diisodecyl phthalate 

Dimethyl phthalate 

Dioctyl phthalates, total 

Di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate 

Other dioctyl phthalates 

Di-tridecyl phthalate 

n-Hexyl n-decyl phthalate 

All other phthalic anhydride esters 

Trimellitic acid esters, total 

friiso-octyl trimellitate 

Tri-n-octyl n-decyl trimellitate 

Tri-n-octyl trimellitate 

All other trimellitic acid esters 

All other cyclic plasticizers 5 

PLASTICIZERS, ACYCLIC 

Total 

Adipic acid esters, total 

Di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate 

Diisodecyl ad ipate 

n-Octyl n-decyl adipate 

All other adipic acid esters 

Complex linear polyesters and polymeric pi 

t Lcizers, total 

Adipic acid type 

All other 

Epoxidized esters, total 

Epoxidized linseed oils 

Epoxidized soya oils 

All other epoxidized esters 

Isopropyl myristate 



PRODUCTION 



1,000 
pounds 



1,303,772 
233,662 



1,185,909 



4,513 
70,343 



13,702 
16,135 

143,129 
8,836 

313,952 

296,739 
17,213 
10,472 
19,840 

516,367 

23,030 



9,279 
11,302 



59,535 



39,292 
2,045 
3,366 
9,332 



33,320 
19,557 



6,361 
91,437 
19,594 



1,000 
pounds 



1,207,225 
253,486 



1,110,369 



3,574 
53,585 



936,560 



14,679 
11,797 

103,755 
8,295 

393,454 

330,293 
13,161 
14 , 312 
3,730 

426,538 

17,104 



943 

445 

7,480 

3,236 

45,046 



37,698 
1,337 



41,805 
25,009 
16,796 



5,750 
83,857 
19,470 



1,000 
dollars 



566,265 



416,383 
149,882 



2,326 
38,176 



293,018 



5,491 
4,928 
30,071 
3,053 

102,989 

99,266 

3,723 

5,075 

2,412 

138,999 

3,293 



463 

276 

3,558 

3,996 

18,640 



16,373 
904 



17,270 

12,203 



4.117 
36,604 
9,232 



Per 
pound 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1976 



TABLE 1.— Plasticizers: ' U.S. production and sales, 1976—Continued 



PLASTICIZERS 



PRODUCTION 



PLASTICIZERS, ACYCLIC — Continued 

leic acid esters, total 

Butyl oleate 

Methyl oleate 

Propyl oleates (including n-propyl oleate and 

isopropyl oleate) 

All other oleic acid esters 



pounds 



Phospho 
Sebacic 



•id 



n-Butyl steara 
Isobutyl stear 
All other stea 



1,772 
3,064 

570 
4,523 

25,708 

1,705 

12,103 
6,703 
1,530 
3,370 



1,000 
pounds 



1,751 
2,389 

449 
4,370 

20,740 

745 

11,715 
6 , 700 

5,015 

100,300 



1,000 
dollars 



Per 

pound 



165 
2,203 

14,650 

378 

4,632 
2,278 

2,354 

73,450 



.37 
.50 

.71 

1.18 

.40 
.34 

.47 



1 Includes data for compounds used principally (but not exclusively) as primary plasticizers. Does not include 
clearly defined extenders of secondary plasticizers. 

2 Calculated from rounded figures. 

3 Includes benzenoid products as defined in part 1 of schedule 4 of the Tariff Schedules of the United States 
Annotated. 

" Includes data for dibutyl phenyl phosphate, diphenyl octyl phosphate, tricresyl phosphate and other phosphate 
esters. 

5 Includes data for alkylated naphthalene, glycol dibenzoates, isopropylidenediphenoxypropanol, toluenesulf on- 
amides, tetrahydrof urf uryl oleate, and other cyclic plasticizers. 

6 Includes data for azelaic, citric and acetylcitric, myristic, palmitic, pelargonic, ricinoleic, acetylricinoleic, 
glyceryl, and glycol esters, and other acyclic plasticizers. 



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SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1976 



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TABLE 3,— Plastic i zers: Directory of manufacturers. 1976 

ALPHABETICAL DIRECTORY BY CODE 

ars to the U.S. Interr 



reported production or sal 
2 listed below in the order 



s of plasticizers 
jf their identifi 



rial Trade Commis 
table 2] 



Name of Company 



ACC 
ARC 

ASH 

BAS 
BFG 



EKT 
EKX 
EMR 
ENJ 

FMP 
GLY 
GRH 
GRO 



HPC 
HUM 



ICI 
IMC 



Amoco Chemicals Corp. 

Armak Co . 

Ashland Oil, Inc., Ashland Che 



F. Goodrich Cheir 



BASF Wyandotte Corp. 
B. F. Goodrich Co. , B. 
Co. Div. 

Inters tab Chemical, Inc 
Chemol, Inc. 
Continental Oil Co. 
CPS Chemical Co. 

Diamond Shamrock Corp. 
Dow Chemical Co. 



E. F. Houghton & Co. 
Eastman Kodak Co.: 

Tennessee Eastman Co. Div. 

Texas Eastman Co. Div. 
Emery Industries, Inc. 
Exxon Chemical Co. U.S.A. 

FMC Corp., Industrial Chemical Div. 
Glyco Chemicals, Inc. 

W. R. Grace S Co., Hatco Chemical Div. 
A. Gross 6, Co., Millmaster Onyx Group, 
a Kewanee Industry 

C. P. Hall Co. 

Tenneco Chemicals, Inc. 

Hercules, Inc. 

Kraftco Corp., Humko Plastics Div. 

ICI United States, Inc., Specialty Che 

Group 
IMC Chemical Group, Inc. 



NEV 
NTL 



SBC 
SCP 

SFS 



TCC 
TCH 

TEK 
TKL 



VEL 
VIK 
VND 



Neville Chemical Co. 
NL Industries, Inc. 



PFZ 


Pfizer, 


PPL 


Pioneer 




Inc. 


PVO 


PVO Inte 



3 Div. of LOF Pla 
al, Inc. 



Reichhold Chemicals, Inc. 

Rohm & Haas Co. 

Hooker Chemical Corp., Ruco Div. 

Scher Brothers, Inc. 

Henkel, Inc. 

Stauffer Chemical Co., Specialty Chemical 

Div. 
Mobil Oil Corp., Mobil Chemical Co. Div., 

Chemical Coatings Div. 
Sherwin-Williams Co. 
Unitech Chemical, Inc. 



Tanatex Chemical Corp. 
Emory Industries, Inc., 
Teknor Apex Co. 
Thiokol Chemical Corp. 



Uni 



Carbide Corp. 



Df U.S. Steel Corp. 



Velsicol Chemical Corp. 
Viking Chemical Co. 
Van Dyk S Co., Inc . 

Inolex Corp. 
Witco Chemical Co., Inc 
Union Camp Corp . , Chemi 
Dover Plant 



Note. — Complete 



Df the cbove reporting companie 



listed in table 1 of the appendix. 



SURFACE-ACTIVE AGENTS 

SURFACE-ACTIVE AGENTS 225 

Edmund Cappuccilli 

The surface-active agents included in this report are organic 
chemicals that reduce the surface tension of water or other solvents 
and are used chiefly as detergents, dispersing agents, emulsifiers, 
foaming agents, or wetting agents in either aqueous or nonaqueous 
systems. Waxes and products used chiefly as plasticizers are excluded. 
Surface-active agents are produced from natural fats and oils, from 
silvichemicals such as lignin, rosin, and tall oil, and from chemical 
intermediates derived from coal tar and petroleum. A major part of 
the output of the bulk chemicals shown in this report is consumed in 
the form of packaged soaps and detergents for household and industrial 
use. The remainder is used in the processing of textiles and leather, 
in ore flotation and oil-drilling operations, and in the manufacture of 
agricultural sprays, cosmetics, elastomers, foods, lubricants, paint, 
pharmaceuticals, and many other products. 

The statistics for production and sales of surface-active agents 
are grouped by ionic class and by chemical class and subclass. All 
quantities are reported in terms of 100-percent organic surface- 
active ingredient and thus exclude all inorganic salts, water, and 
other diluents. Sales statistics reflect sales of bulk surface-active 
agents only; sales of formulated products are excluded. 

Total U.S. production of surface-active agents in 1976 amounted to 
4,582 million pounds, or 5.4 percent greater than the 4,349 million pounds 
reported for 1975. Sales of bulk surface-active agents in 1976 amounted 
to 2,512 million pounds, valued at $821 million, compared with sales in 
1975 of 2,182 million pounds, valued at $717 million. In terms of quanti- 
ty, sales in 1976 were 15.2 percent greater than in 1975; in terms of value, 
sales in 1976 were 14.5 percent greater than in 1975. 

Production of anionic surface-active agents in 1976 amounted to 
3,356 million pounds, or 73.2 percent of the total output reported for 
1976. Sales of anionics in 1976 amounted to 1,440 million pounds valued 
at $317 million. 

Production of cationic surface-active agents in 1976 amounted to 
252 million pounds, 11.9 percent greater than the 226 million pounds 
reported in 1975. Nonionic surface-active agents, however, continued to 
decline in production as only 957 million pounds were reported in 1976; 
8.6 percent less than the 1,047 million pounds reported in 1975. Sales 
in both classes, however, showed increases over 1975. In terms of value, 
sales increased 12.0 percent for cationic surface-active agents and 17.2 
percent for nonionic surface-active agents. 



226 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS/ 1976 



The difference between production and sales reflects inventory 
changes and captive consumption of soaps and surface-active agents 
by synthetic rubber producers, and by manufacturers of cosmetics, 
packaged detergents, bar soaps, and other formulated consumer prod- 
ucts. In some instances the difference may also reflect quantities 
of surface-active agents used as chemical intermediates, e.g., non- 
ionic alcohol and alkylphenol ethoxylates which may be converted to 
anionic surface-active agents by phosphation or sulfation. 



SURFACE-ACTIVE AGENTS 227 

Surfactants 



Although many analysts expected the surfactant industry to improve 
significantly in 1976, production increased by only 5 percent to 4.6 
billion pounds. Sales of surface-active agents, however, increased by 
15 percent over the 1975 figures to 2.5 billion pounds. The value of 
sales for 1976 also increased by 15 percent while, the average unit value 
remained at $0.33. 

The somewhat disappointing production figures are probably the result 
of a decrease in consumer demand in 1975 and the buildup of excess invento- 
ries which were liquidated in 1976. Some companies also reported a decrease 
in production in the fourth quarter of 1976 due to severe weather which cur- 
tailed production at some plants. This combination of factors, which made 
1976 unique in the surfactant industry, are not expected to recur. 

Several factors will affect the surfactant industry, and in particular 
the synthetic detergent industry, for the next several years. Some of the 
more important ones are the establishment of new markets, environmental or 
governmental controls, and the introduction of new surfactants into the 
market. 

New markets may occur in the petroleum industry where the high price of 
crude oil justifies employment of new methods to increase production from old 
oil fields. Large amounts of sulfonated surfactants and cosurfactants such 
as ethoxylated alcohols will be employed for a promising process known as 
micellar flooding of old wells. Approximately 5 to 8 pounds of sulfonates 
and 1 pound of cosurfactant will be needed to recover one barrel of oil using 
this method. It has been estimated that between 30 and 40 billion barrels 
of oil can be recovered by micellar flooding. 

Governmental controls on surfactant-containing products will probably 
increase over the next few years as consumers and Government officials 
become more aware of the potential hazard of certain products either to 
the consumer of the environment. The surfactant industry will thus be re- 
quired to spend more time and research on the potential hazards of new 
products long before they reach the consumer market. The increased amount 
of time and research required for new products may cause some existing for- 
mulations, which have yet to be marketed, to be modified or terminated because 
of the increased cost. As a result, the surfactant producers will probably 
emphasize more research on the development of cheaper processes for existing 
major surfactants which have been proven to be consumer and environmentally 
safe. This decrease in basic research on surfactants should lead to fewer 
new products being introduced in the next several years. 

Synthetic detergents 

One of the main factors affecting the future of synthetic detergent 
formulations is the degree of restrictions placed by the U.S. Government 



228 SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS/ 1976 



on phosphate content. Recent pressure by environmentalists and consumer 
groups has resulted in legislation being drafted to effectively ban phosphate- 
containing detergents in eight States bordering the Great Lakes. If this 
legislation becomes law, the detergent producers must either reformulate 
their products to conform with the new restrictions or introduce entirely 
new products for these States. 

Because of the trend away from phosphates in detergents, the heavy- 
duty liquid detergents, which contain no phosphates, have come into 
prominence in the past few years. The following is a typical heavy-duty 
nonphosphate liquid detergent formulation (in percent): 

Anionic surfactant (linear alkylbenzenesulfonate 10 

Nonionic surfactant (alcohol ethoxylate) 35 

Ethanol 10 

Triethanolamine 5 

Water 35 

Miscellaneous 5 

As can be seen by this information, approximately 45 percent of the detergent 
is composed of surface-active agents, chiefly alcohol ethoxylates. This 
development began about 1965 and has been responsible for the fast growth 
in the production of alcohol ethoxylates, as follows (in millions of 
pounds) : 1/ 

Linear alcohol Dodecylbenzene 
e thoxylates sulfonates 

1965— — 190 565 

1970 328 561 

1975 506 520 

1976 540 538 

The growth in the use of the alcohol ethoxylates should continue as phosphates 
are phased out of heavy-duty powder detergents. 

Another boost for the (higher-priced) alcohol ethoxylates came after 
the Arab oil embargo when the prices of raw materials for the benzene sulfonates 
increased at a faster rate than those for the alcohol- ethoxylates. This 
advantage has now run its course; future price increases may actually favor 
the benzene sulfonates. 

Foreign trade and industry 

Imports of surfactants and, in particular, synthetic detergent formulations 
have generally not been increasing substantially during the past few years. 

1/ From U.S. International Trade Commission publications. 



SURFACE-ACTIVE AGENTS 22 9 



In 1975, imports of synthetic detergents (TSUS items 405.35 and 466.30) 
reached their highest level with 5.7 million pounds. However, in the 
following year, 1976, imports dropped to 5.0 million pounds. This trend 
seems likely to continue well into 1977. 

One of the main reasons for this decline is that the U.S. industry 
supplies virtually all the U.S. market demand at strongly competitive 
prices. Even in the peak import year, 1975, the import-to-consumption 
ratio was only 1 percent. 

The level of imports is expected to remain in the range of 4 to 7 
million pounds for the next several years. Any increase in imports would 
probably be due to an increased demand for specialty products and not to 
an increase in overall domestic demand. 

Exports, on the other hand, have been increasing over the past few 
years at approximately 25 percent per year. The following chart projects 
exports to 1980. The projection is based on the expected increased costs 
of raw materials, fuel, transportation, wages, and the increasing produc- 
tion of detergents by foreign industries. 

Japan is one country that has recovered quite rapidly from the recent 
economic recession. Their total production and exports of synthetic 
detergents for 1977 are expected to exceed their previous alltime high 
production level. Similar situations exist in other major exporting 
countries, possibly causing increasing competition for the world markets 
in synthetic detergents in the coming years. These factors are responsible 
for the expectation that export growth through 1980 will be in the range 
of 7 to 10 percent per year rather than the 25 percent-per-year level of 
the recent past. 



230 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1976 

Synthetic detergents: 1/ U.S. exports, I970-SC 



Million 
pounds 

260 



240 



220 



200 



180 



160 



140 



120 



100 



80 



60 



40 



20 



Million pounds • 
Million dollars 



• • 




Million 
dollars 

120 



100 



60 



40 



20 



70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 

1/ Schedule B numbers 555.2020, 554.2022, 554.2024, and 554.2026 (data are 
partially estimated). 



Source: Official statistics of the U.S. Department of Commerce. 



SURFACE-ACTIVE AGENTS 



TABLE l.~ Surface-active agents: U.S. production and sales, 1976 

(Listed below are all surface-active agents for which reported data on production or sales may be published. 
(Leaders (...) are used where the reported data are accepted in confidence and may not be published or where 
no data were reported.) Table 2 lists all surface-active agents for which data on production and/or sales 
were reported and identifies the manufacturers of each] 



SURFACE-ACTIVE AGENTS 



Grand total 

Benzenoid 1 * 

Nonbenzenoid 

AMPHOTERIC SURFACE-ACTIVE AGENTS 

Total 

Anionic Surface-Active Agents 

Total 

Carboxylic acids (and salts thereof), total 

Amine salts of fatty, rosin, and tall acids 

Carboxylic acids having amide, ester, or ether 

linkages 

Potassium and sodium salts of fatty, rosin, and 

tall acids, total 

Coconut oil acids, potassium salt 

Coconut oil acids, sodium salt 

Corn oil acids, potassium salt 

Mixed vegetable oil acids, potassium salt 

Oleic acid, potassium salt 

Oleic acid, sodium salt 

Tall oil acids, potassium and sodium salts 

Tallow acids, sodium salt 

All other 

Phosphoric and polyphosphoric acid esters (and salts 

thereof) , total 

Alcohols and phenols, ethoxylated and phosphated, 
total 

Mixed linear alcohols, ethoxylated and 

phosphated 

Nonylphenol, ethoxylated and phosphated 

Tridecyl alcohol, ethoxylated and phosphated 

All other 

Alcohols, phosphated or polyphosphated 

Sulfonic acids (and salts thereof), total 

Alkylbenzenesulf onates , total 

Dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid 

Dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid, calcium salt 

Dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid, isopropylamine 

salt 

Dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid, sodium salt 

Dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid, triethanolamine 

salt 

All other 

Benzene-, cumene-, toluene-, and xylenesulf onates, 

total - 

Toluenesulfonlc acid, potassium and sodium 

salts 

Xylenesulfonic acid, ammonium salt 

Xylenesulfonic acid, sodium salt 

All other 

Ligninsulf onates, total 

Ligninsulfonic acid, calcium salt 

See footnotes at end of table. 



PRODUCTION' 



1,000 
pounds 



4,582,398 



1,018,889 
3,563,509 



3,355,799 



1,035 
5,429 

814,477 
8,861 

151,853 

186 

3,999 

2,140 

675 

8,838 

353,397 

284,528 



3,597 

10,660 



9,536 
7,666 



1,942,049 



647,951 

147,789 

7,490 

3,676 

327,451 

3,358 
158,187 

65,822 

20,473 

5,347 

34,602 

5,400 

1,109,760 

532,299 



SALES' 



QUANTITY 1 



1,000 
pounds 



2,512,085 



475,386 
2,036,699 



1,440,867 



146,108 



439 

4,579 

141,090 

1,272 

1,619 

203 

3,704 

187 

275 

5,323 

20,296 

108,211 



13,128 

3,149 
4,451 
365 
5,163 
5,996 



173,854 
75,765 
10,229 

3,851 
46,288 

3,666 
34,055 



5,130 
23,725 
21,183 
754,807 
515,319 



1,000 
dollars 



201,571 
619,669 



53,78 



404 

4,270 

49,115 

722 

646 

132 

4,364 

80 

152 

2,605 

5,392 

35,022 



9,345 

2,408 
2,922 
284 
3,731 
4,629 



63,079 

22,069 

7,477 

2,217 
15,363 

1,505 

14,448 



1,404 
6,055 
5,068 
36,965 
15,757 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1976 



TABLE 1. --Surface-active agents: U.S. production and sales, 1976--continued 



SURFACE-ACTIVE AGENTS 



PRODUCTION 



UNIT 
VALUE 3 



Anionic Surface-Active Agents — Continued 

Sulfonic acids (and salts thereof )— Continued 
Ligninsulfonates — Continued 

Ligninsulfonic acid, sodium salt 

All other 

Naphthalenesulfonates 

Sulfonic acids having amide linkages, total 

Sulfosuccinic acid derivatives 

Taurine derivatives 

Sulfonic acids having eseec. or- 'ether linkages, 

total 

Sulfosuccinic acid esters, total 

Sulfosuccinic acid, bis (2-ethylhexyl) ester , 

sodium salt 

All other 

Other sulfonic acids having ester or ether 

linkages 

All other sulfonic acids 

Sulfuric acid esters (and salts thereof), total 

Acids, amides, and esters, sulfated, total 

Esters of sulfated oleic acid, total 

Butyl oleate, sulfated, sodium salt 

Propyl oleate, sulfated, sodium salt 

All other 

Oleic acid, sulfated, disodium salt 

Other acids, amides, and esters, sulfated 

Alcohols, sulfated, total 

Dodecyl sulfate salts, total 

Dodecyl sulfate, ammonium salt 

Dodecyl sulfate, magnesium salt 

Dodecyl sulfate, sodium salt 

Dodecyl sulfate, triethanolamine salt 

All other 

Mixed Linear alcohols, sulfated, ammonium salt- 
Other alcohols, sulfated 

Ethers, sulfated, total 

Dodecyl alcohol, ethoxylated and sulfated, 

sodium salt 

Mixed linear alcohols, ethoxylated and sul- 
fated, ammonium salt 

Mixed linear alcohols, ethoxylated and sul- 
fated, sodium salt 

All other 

Natural fats and oils, sulfated, total 

Castor oil, sulfated, sodium salt 

Cod oil, sulfated, sodium salt 

Neat's-foot oil, sulfated, sodium salt 

Soybean oil, sulfated, sodium salt 

Sperm oil, sulfated, sodium salt 

Tallow, sulfated, sodium salt 

All other 

Other anionic surface-active agents 6, 

Cationic surface-Active Agents 

Total 

Amine Oxides and oxygen-containing amines (except 

those having amide linkages), total 

Acyclic , total 

(Tallow alkyDamine, ethoxylated 

All other 

Cyclic (including imidazoline and oxazoline 

derivatives) , total 

See footnotes at end of table. 



1,000 
pounds 

88,494 
488,967 
8,051 
4,607 
1,697 
2,910 

77,163 
14,394 

11,855 
2,539 

62,769 
28,695 



17,352 

4,970 

1,713 

515 

2,742 



55 


948 


14 


234 




322 


17 


593 


5 


555 


18 


244 


94 


307 



144,167 

120,371 

17,807 

23,595 

4,986 

1,910 

2,120 

656 

187 

5,641 

8,095 

169,632 



252,326 



63,989 

2,410 
61,579 



1,000 
dollars 



89,285 
150,203 
6,782 
2,241 
1,339 
902 

26,292 
12,180 

10,269 
1,911 

14,112 
14,338 

234,938 



13,269 
5,013 
1,706 
510 
2,797 
5,405 
2,851 

38,504 

29,803 

6,032 

310 

16,471 
4,862 
2,128 
1,163 
7,538 
161,646 

11,657 



24,312 

125,677 

21,519 

4,255 

1,849 

1,581 

638 

188 

5,430 

7,578 



13,111 
2,490 
10,621 



11,477 
9,731 
3,972 
2,855 
1,434 
1,421 

28,919 
12,167 

10,491 
1,676 



90,962 



3,035 

701 

289 

2,045 

1,838 

1,016 

29,939 

23,574 

4,190 

339 

12,444 

3,638 

2,963 

746 

5,619 

48,486 

8,404 



7,504 

32,578 

6,648 

2,008 

402 

535 

207 

75 

1,162 

2,259 



10,019 
1,661 
8,358 



per 

pound 



$0.13 

.06 

.59 

1.27 

1.07 

1.58 



1.10 

1.00 



.61 
.41 
.57 
.73 
.34 
.36 
.78 



SURFACE-ACTIVE AGENTS 



TABLE 1.— Surface-active agents: U.S. production and sales, 1976— Continued 



SURFACE-ACTIVE AGENTS 



QUANTITY 1 



UNIT 
VALUE 3 



Cati.on.ic surface-Active Agents — Continued 

Amine oxides and oxygen-containing amines (except 
those having amide linkages) — Continued 
Cyclic (including imidazoline and oxazoline 
derivat ives) — Cont inued 
l-(2-Hydroxyethyl)-2-nor(tall oil alkyl)-2- 

imidazoline 

All other 

Amines and amine oxides having amide linkages, 

total 

Carho:<ylic acid - diamine and polyamine conden- 
sates , total 

Tall oil acids - diethylenetriamine and poly- 
alky lenepolyamine condensates 

All other 

Other amines and amine oxides having amide 

linkages 

Amines, not containing oxygen (and salts thereof), 
total 

Diamines and polyamines, total 

Imidazoline derivatives 

N-(9-0ctadecenyl)trimethylenediamine 

All other 

Primary monoamines, total 

(Hydrogenated tallow alkyl)amine 

(Tallow alkyl)amine 

All other 

Secondary and tertiary monoamines, total 

N, N-Dime thy 1 (mixed alky 1) amine 

All other 

Oxygen-containing quaternary ammonium salts 

Quaternary ammonium salts, not containing oxygen, 

total 

Acyclic , total 

Bis(hydrogenated tallow alkyDdimethyl 

ammonium chloride 

Trimethyl (tallow alkyl)ammonium chloride 

All other 

Benzenoid , total 

Benzyl (coconut oil alkyDdimethylammonium 

chloride 

Benzyldimethyl (mixed alkyDammonium chloride 

Benzyldimethyloctadecylammonium chloride 

All other 

Ttonionic Surface-Active Agents 

Total 

Carboxyllc acid amides, total 

Dlethanolamine condensates (amlne/acid ratio=2/l) 
total 

Coconut oil acids 

Coconut oil and tallow acids 

Linoleic acid 

Laurie acid ■ 

Oleic acid 

Stearic acid 

Tall oil acids 

All other 

Dlethanolamine condensates (other amine/acid 

ratios) , total 

Coconut oil acids (amine/acid ratlo-1/1) 

See footnotes at end of table. 



844 
3,919 



11,273 
7,894 



20,079 
1,927 
2,787 

15,365 

19,230 
2,177 
3,616 
13,437 
25,880 
3,939 
21,941 
15,088 



43 


087 


1 


467 


19 


912 


17 


A78 




272 


8 




1 


..ii 


6 


828 



1,000 
pounds 



420 
2,592 



1,000 
dollars 



11,276 
7,589 



,1 , HII'I 



16,961 

351 

2,630 

13,980 

19,172 
2,366 

16,806 
15,676 
4,120 
11,556 
12,156 



62,041 
41,805 



20,236 
15,156 



184 
7,909 



876,721 



312 
2,259 



6,618 
7,498 



32,473 



9,706 

430 

1,587 

7,689 

11,945 
1,303 

10,642 
10,822 
2,873 
7,949 
8,918 



30,213 
16,996 



13,217 
22,622 



191 
11,023 



Per 

pound 



21,259 


: 16,197 


: 8,478 


11,133 


: 9,305 


: 4,814 


2,432 


: 2,027 


: 899 


190 


: 188 


: 192 


335 


206 


: 140 


1,114 


: 934 


: 468 


266 


: 227 


161 


243 






5,546 


: 3,310 


: 1,804 


33,434 


: 28,569 


14,872 


19,163 


18,443 


: 9,294 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1976 



TABLE 1.— Surface-active agents; U.S. production and sales, 1976--Continued 



SURFACE-ACTIVE AGENTS 



Nonionic Surface-Active Agents — Continued 

Carboxylic acid amides — Continued 

Diethanolamine condensates (other amino/acid 

ratios) — Continued 

Laurie acid (amine/acid ratio-1/I) 

Stearic acid (amine/acid ratio=l/l) 

All other 

All other carboxylic acid amides 

Carboxylic acid esters, total 

Anhydrosorbitol esters 

Diethylene glycol esters, total 

Diethylene glycol distearate 

Diethylene glycol monostearate 

All other 

Ethoxylated anhydrosorbitol esters, total 

Ethoxylated anhydrosorbitol monostearate 

Ethoxylated anhydrosorbitol monoleate 

All o ther 

Ethylene glycol esters 

Glycerol esters, total 

Complex glycerol esters 

Glycerol esters of chemically defined acids, 

total 

Glycerol monolaurate 

Gl -cerol mono-oleate 

Glycerol monostearate 

All other 

Glycerol esters of mixed acids, total 

Glycerol monoester of hydrogenated cottonseed 

oil acids 

Glycerol monoester of coconut oil acida 

Glycerol monoester of hydrogenated soybean 

oil acids 

Glycerol monoester of lard acids 

All other 

Natural fats and oils, alkoxylated, total 

Castor oil, ethoxylated 

Lanolin, ethoxylated 

All other 

Polyethylene glycol esters, total 

Polyethylene glycol esters of chemically defined 

acids, total 

Polyethylene glycol dilaurate 

Polyethylene glycol dioleate 

Polyethylene glycol distearate 

Polyethylene glycol monolaurate 

Polyethylene glycol mono-oleate 

Polyethylene glycol monostearate 

All other 

Polyethylene glycol esters of mixed acids 

Propanediol esters, total 

1 , 2-Propanediol monolaurate 

1 , 2-Propanediol monostearate 

All other 

Other carboxylic acid esters 7 

Ethers, total 

Benzenoid ethers, total 

Dodecylphenol , ethoxylated 

Nonylphenol , ethoxylated 

Phenol , ethoxylated 

All other 

Nonbenzenoid ethers, total 

Linear alcohols, alkoxylated, total 

Decyl Alcohol, ethoxylated 

Dodecyl alcohol, ethoxylated 

See footnotes at end of table. 



1,000 
pounds 

8,493 

546 

5,232 

23,475 

222,480 

26,413 

1,377 

474 

258 

645 

26,917 

8,436 

5,029 

13,452 

3,064 

85,583 

2,362 

26,000 

60 

3,767 

21,427 

746 

57,221 

2,842 
195 

8,470 

3,016 

42,698 

13,863 

8,132 

1,375 

4,356 

42,421 

23,478 
994 
3,216 
3,571 
3,579 
2,525 
8,176 
1,417 

18,943 
4,053 
24 
2,850 
1,179 

18,789 

652,833 

232,796 

13,072 

134,126 

2,735 

82,863 

420,037 

354,046 

1,831 

3,571 



1,000 
pounds 

5,467 

505 

4,154 

7,187 

182,136 

15,559 

1,298 

407 

245 

646 

25,661 

8,265 

4,955 

12,441 

2,961 

74,939 

2,578 

25,562 

61 

3,822 

20,903 

776 

46,799 



195 

6,712 
2,010 
37,882 
12,011 
6,710 
1,105 
4,196 
32,954 

18,676 
969 
1,301 
3,430 
3,480 
2,022 
6,232 
1,242 

14,278 

3,362 

25 

3,001 

336 

13,391 

639,712 

201,525 

13,914 

125,356 

1,975 

60,280 

438,187 

386,263 

1,047 

2,957 



1,000 
dollars 

3,127 

344 

2,107 

3,724 

105,397 

10,715 

755 

254 

141 

360 

15,970 

4,821 

3,365 

7,784 

1,409 

38,783 

1,824 

12,011 

53 

2,489 

8,662 



146 

3,956 
1,037 

19,809 
6,124 
3,729 
570 
1,825 

16,729 

12,047 

684 

811 

2,117 

2,288 

1,116 

4,212 

819 

4,682 

2,365 

30 

1,940 

395 

12,547 

226,083 

80,893 

4,425 

44,831 

962 

30,675 

145,190 

118,127 

517 

1,983 



per 

pound 



.66 

.33 

.70 
1.19 

.65 
1.18 

.94 



.40 
.32 



SURFACE-ACTIVE AGENTS 



TABLE 1,— Surface-active agents: U,S, production and sales, 1976--Continued 



SURFACE-ACTIVE AGENTS 



PRODUCTION' 



QUANTITY 1 ; VALUE 



Nonionic Surface-Active Agents — Continued 

Ethers — Continued 

Nonbenzenoid ethers — Continued 

Linear alcohols, alkoxylated — Continued 

Hexadecyl alcohol, ethoxylated 

Mixed linear alcohols, ethoxylated 

Mixed linear alcohols, ethoxylated and pro- 

poxylated 

9-0ctadecenyl alcohol, ethoxylated 

Octadecyl alcohol, ethoxylated 

All other 

Other ethers and thioethers, total 

Tridecyl alcohol, ethoxylated 

All other 

Other nonionic surface-active agents 



1,000 
pound 

651 
228,282 

17,411 
944 

1,759 
99,567 
65,991 

8,188 
57,803 

3,286 



1,000 
pound 

761 
363,235 

14,281 

763 

894 

2,325 

51,924 

7,111 

44,813 

2,920 



1,000 
dollars 

666 
105,674 

6,080 

607 

953 

1,647 

27,063 

3,871 

23,192 

3,538 



Per 
pound 



$0.87 
.29 

.43 
.79 

1.07 
.64 
.52 
.54 
.52 

1.21 



All quantities are given in terms of 100 percent organic surface-active ingredient. 
Sales include products sold as bulk surface-active agents only. 
3 Calculated from rounded figures. 

* The term "benzenoid," used in this report, describes any surface-active agent, except lignin derivatives, 
whose molecular structure includes 1 or more 6-membered carbocyclic or heterocyclic rings with conjugated double 
bonds (e.g., the benzene ring or the pyridine ring). 

5 Includes ligninsulfonates . 

6 Includes production of "all other" sulfated alcohols and other acids, amides, and esters, sulfated. 
Includes ethoxylated sorbitol esters, polyglycerol esters, and miscellaneous esters. 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1976 



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SURFACE-ACTIVE AGENTS 



TABLE 3.— Surface-active agents: Directory of manufacturers, 1976 



ALPHABETICAL DIRECTORY BY CODE 



[Names of manufacturers that reported production or sales of surface-active agents to the U.S. International Trade 
Commission for 1976 are listed below in the order of their identification codes as used in table 2] 



Code 


Name of company 


Code 


Name of company 


AAC 


Alcolac Chemical Corp. 


EKT 


Eastman Kodak Co., Tennessee Eastman Co 


Div 


ACT 


Arthur C. Trask Co. 


EMK 


Emkay Chemical Co. 




ACY 


American Cyanamid Co. 


EMR 


Emery Industries, Inc. 




AES 


Penetone Corp. 


ENO 


Enenco, Inc. 




AGP 


Armour-Dial, Inc. 


ESS 


Essential Chemicals Corp. 




AIP 


Air Products 6 Chemicals, Inc. 








AKS 


Arkansas Co . , Inc. 


FER 


Ferro Corp., Keil Chemical Div. 




APX 


Apex Chemical Co., Inc. 


FIN 


Hexcel Corp., Fine Organics Div. 




ARC 


Armak Co . 








ARD 


Ardmore Chemical Co. 


GAF 


GAF Corp., Chemical Div. 




ARL 


Arol Chemical Products Co. 


GLD 


SCM Corp., Durkee Div. 




ASH 


Ashland Oil, Inc., Ashland Chemical Co. 


GLY 


Glyco Chemicals, Inc. 




ASY 


American Synthetic Rubber Corp. 


GNM 


General Mills Chemicals, Inc. 




ATR 


Atlantic Richfield Co., ARCO Chemical 


GRC 


Chemed Corp., Dubois Chemicals Div. 






Co. 


GRD 


W.R. Grace S Co., Polymer 5 Chemicals D 


v. 


AZS 


AZS Corp., AZ Products Co. Div. 


GRL 
GRO 


Chemed Co ., Vestal Laboratories, Inc. 
A. Gross 6 Co., Millmaster Onyx Group, 




BAO 


Bayoil Co. , Inc. 




Kewanee Industries, Inc. 




BAS 


BASF Wyandotte Corp. 








BFP 


Breddo Food Products Co., Inc. 


HAL 


CP. Hall Co. 




BLA 


Astor Products, Inc., Blue Arrow Div. 


HDG 


Hodag Chemical Corp. 




BLS 


Life Savers, Inc. 


HEW 


Hewitt Soap Co., Inc. 




BRD 


Lonza, Inc. 


HK 


Hooker Chemicals S Plastics Corp. 




BSW 


Original Bradford Soap Works, Inc. 


HLI 
HMP 


Haag Laboratories, Inc. 

W.R. Grace 5 Co., Organic Chemicals 




CCA 


Interstab Chemical, Inc. 




Div. 




CCL 


Catawba-Charlab, Inc. 


HNT 


Huntington Laboratories, Inc. 




CCW 


Cincinnati Milacron Chemicals, Inc. 


HPC 


Hercules, Inc. 




CEL 


Celanese Corp. , Celanese Coatings 6 Specialties 


HRT 


Hart Products Corp. 






Co. , Wica Plant 


HUM 


Kraft, Inc., Humko Products Div. 




CGY 


Ciba-Geigy Corp. 








CHL 


Chemol , Inc. 


ICI 


ICI United States, Inc., Specialty 




CHP 


C.H. Patrick 5 Co. , Inc. 




Chemicals Group 




CIN 


Cindet Chemicals, Inc. 


IMC 


IMC Chemical Group, Inc. 




CLD 


Colloids, Inc. 








CLI 


Clintwood Chemical Co. 


JCC 


Jefferson Chemical Co., Inc. 




CO 


Continental Oil Co. 


JOR 


Jordan Chemical Co. 




CON 


Concord Chemical Co., Inc. 


JRG 


Andrew Jergens Co. 




CP 


Colgate-Palmolive Co. 








CRD 


Croda, Inc. 


KAL 


Pathan Chemical Co. 




CRN 


CPC International, Inc., Amerchol 


KNP 


Knapp Products, Inc. 




CRT 


Crest Chemical Corp. 








CRZ 


Crown Zellerbach Corp., Chemical Products Div. 


LAK 


Lakeway Chemicals, Inc. 




CST 


Charles S. Tanner Co. 


LEA 


Leatex Chemical Co. 




CTL 


Continental Chemical Co. 


LEV 


Lever Brothers Co. 




CWP 


Consolidated Papers, Inc. 


LIL 
LKY 


1.1 i Lilly 6 Co. 

Lake States Div. of St. Regis Paper Co. 




DA 


Diamond Shamrock Corp. 


LMI 


North American Chemical Co. 




DAN 


Dan River, Inc. 


LUR 


Laurel Products Corp. 




DEP 


DePaul Chemical Co., Inc. 








DEX 


Dexter Chemical Corp. 


MAR 


American Can Co., Wood Chemicals Div. 




DOW 


Dow Chemical Co. 


MCP 


Moretex Chemical Products, Inc. 




DUP 


E.I. duPont de Nemours ft Co., Inc. 


MIL 


Vil liken 6 Co., Milliken Chemical Div. 




DYS 


Davies- Young Co. 


MIR 
MOA 


Miranol Chemical Co., Inc. 
Mona Industries, Inc. 




ECC 


Eastern Color 6 Chemical Co. 


MON 


Monsanto Co. 




EFH 


E.F. Houghton 6 Co. 









SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICAL 1976 



TABLE 3, --Surface-active agents: Directory of manufacturers, 1976— Continued 



Code 


Name of company 


Code 


Name of company 


MRA 


Bostik South, Inc. 


SEA 


Seaboard Chemicals, Inc. 


MRD 


Marden-Wild Corp. 


SFS 


Stauffer Chemical Co., Specialty Div. 


MRT 


Morton Chemical Co. Div. of Morton Norwich 


SHC 


Shell Oil Co., Shell Chemical Co. Div. 




Products, Inc. 


SID 


George F. Siddall Co., Inc. 


MRV 


Marlowe-Van Loan Corp. 


SLC 


Soluol Chemical Co., Inc. 






SLM 


Salem Oil § Grease Co. 


NCW 


Nostrip Chemical Works, Inc. 


SM 


Mobil Oil Corp., Mobil Chemical Co., 


NES 


Nease Chemical Co., Inc. 




Chemical Coatings Div. 


NLC 


Nalco Chemical Co. 


SNW 


Sun Chemical Corp., Chemicals Div. 


NMC 


National Milling 6 Chemical Co., Inc. 


SOC 


Standard Oil Co. of California, Chevron 


NPR 


Safeway Stores, Inc. 




Chemical Co. 


NTL 


NL Industries, Inc. 


SOP 


Southern Chemical Products Co., Inc. 


NW 


Northwestern Chemical Co. 


SOS 


Southern Sizing Co. 






SPA 


Scott Paper Co . 


OMC 


Olin Corp. 


STC 


American Hoechst Corp., Sou-Tex Works 


ONX 


Millmaster Onyx Corp., Onyx Chemical 

Co. 
Chevron Chemical Co. 


stp 


Stepan Chemical Co. 


ORO 


tcc 


Tanatex Chemical Corp. 






TCH 


Emery Industries, Inc., Trylon 


PC 


Proctor Chemical Co., Inc. 




Div. 


PCH 


Peerless Chemical Co. 


TCI 


Texize Chemical Co. 


PEK 


Peck's Products Co. 


TEN 


Cities Service Co., Copperhill Operations 


PFZ 


Pfizer, Inc. 


TMH 


Thompson-Hayward Chemical Co. 


PG 


Procter S Gamble Co. and Procter 6 Gamble 


TNA 


Ethyl Corp. 




Paper Products Co. 


TNI 


The Gillette Co., Chemical Div. 


PIL 


Pilot Chemical Co. 


TXC 


Tex Chem. Co . 


PLX 


Plex Chemical Corp. 






PNX 


Murphy-Phoenix Co. 


UCC 


Union Carbide Corp. 


PRX 


Purex Corp. 


UDI 


Petrochemicals Co., Inc. 


PSP 


Georgia-Pacific Corp., Bellingham Div. 


UNN 


United Chemical Corp. of Norwood 


PVO 


PVO International, Inc. 


UNP 


United Chemical Products Corp. 






USR 


Uniroyal, Inc., Chemical Div. 


QCP 


Quaker Chemical Corp. 










VAL 


Valchem 


RAY 


ITT Rayonier, Inc. 


VND 


Van Dyk 5 Co., Inc. 


RBC 


Fike Chemicals, Inc. 


VPC 


Mobay Chemical Corp., Verona Div. 


RCD 


Richardson Co., Organic Chemical Div. 






RH 


Rohm 6 Haas Co. 


WAW 


W.A. Wood Co. 


ROB 


Robeco Chemicals, Inc. 


WAY 


Philip A. Hunt Chemical Corp., Organic 


RPC 


Millmaster Onyx Corp., Refined-Onyx Div. 




Chemical Div. 






WBG 


White § Bagley Co. 


S 


Sandoz, Inc., Sandoz Colors 5 Chemical Div. 


WHI 


White 5 Hodges, Inc. 


SBC 


Scher Bros. Inc. 


WHW 


Whittemore-Wright Co., Inc. 


SB? 


Sugar Beet Products Co. 


WM 


Inolex Corp. 


SCO 


Scholler Bros. , Inc. 


WTC 


Witco Chemical Co., Inc. 


SCP 


Henkel, Inc. 


WVA 


Westvaco Corp., Chemicals Div., Poly- 


SDC 


Martin-Marietta Corp., Sodyeco Div. 
Sterling Drug, Inc. : 




chemicals Dept. 


SDH 


Hilton-Davis Chemical. Div. 






SDW 


Winthrop Laboratories Div. 







Note. --Complete 



and addresses of the above reporting companies are listed in table 1 of the appendi 



263 
PESTICIDES AND RELATED PRODUCTS 

PESTICIDES AND RELATED PRODUCTS 
Edmund Cappuccilli 

Pesticides and related products include fungicides, herbicides, insec- 
ticides, rodenticides, and related products such as plant growth regulators, 
seed disinfectants, soil conditioners, soil f umigants , and synergists. The 
data are given in terms of 100 percent active materials; they thus exclude 
such materials as diluents, emulsif iers , and wetting agents. 

U.S. production of pesticides and related products in 1976 amounted to 
1,364 million pounds — 14.9 percent less than the 1,603 million pounds re- 
ported for 1975 (table 1) . l Sales in 1976 were 1,193 million pounds, a de- 
crease of 10.2 percent, as compared with 1,328 million pounds reported in 
1975; the value of sales was $2,410 million in 1976, compared with $2,366 
million in 1975 — a small increase of 1.8 percent. 

The output of cyclic pesticides and related products amounted to 940 
million pounds in 1976 — 21.4 percent less than the 1,196 million pounds 
produced in 1975. Sales in 1976 were 839 million pounds, valued at $1,844 
million, compared with 965 million pounds, valued at $1,891 million in 1975. 
Production of acyclic pesticides and related products in 1976 amounted to 424 
million pounds, compared with 407 million pounds reported for 1975, an in- 
crease of 4.3 percent. Sales in 1976 were 354 million pounds, a decrease of 
about 2.6 percent, as compared with 363 million pounds reported in 1975; the 
value of sales was $566 million in 1976, compared with $475 million in 1975- 
-an increase of 19.1 percent. 



See also table 2 which lists these products and identifies the manufacturers 
by codes. These codes are given in table 3. 



264 SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1976 



Pesticides 

In 1976, while other sectors of the chemical industry were rebounding 
from the recession of 1975, the production of synthetic organic pesticides 
decreased by approximately 15 percent. The quantity of sales also declined 
from the 1975 figures by 10 percent. The value of sales, however, remained 
at its 1975 level as the average unit value for pesticides increased from 
$1.78 in 1975 to $2.02 in 1976. 

Weather conditions in various parts of the country and surplus inven- 
tories in the hands of both distributors and consumers are the causal 
factors behind the declines in production and in the quantity of sales. 
These factors, which depressed the industry in 1976, were temporary, and 
the statistics for 1977 should show improvement. The value of sales in 
1976 (and 1977) has shown signs of slowing down as compared with previous 
years' increases. In 1974 and 1975, increases were approximately 32 percent 
per year while the unit values went from $1.33 to $1.78. These earlier 
increases were attributed principally to higher costs for fuel, labor, 
transportation, and raw materials which were often in short supply. 

Herbicides 

Herbicides were again the leading class of pesticides produced in 
the United States in 1976, accounting for approximately 50 percent of 
the total pesticides production as compared with 49 percent of the total 
in 1975. Herbicides' share of the total pesticide market in 1976 had 
earlier been estimated by industry to be much larger than 50 percent 
because of increased planting of certain crops in 1976. However, drought 
conditions in the Midwest and the West coupled with the price resistance 
of farmers all but eliminated the predicated larger increase. Production 
of most types of herbicides has been increasing over the past few years; 
however, for one class, the phenoxyacetic acids and their derivatives, 
production has been slowly declining. The main products in the group 
are 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic 
acid (2,4,5-T), and their derivatives. In 1970, 10 companies were actively 
producing approximately 60 million pounds of these herbicides for con- 
sumption both here and abroad. By 1976, only seven companies were producing 
approximately the same amount of these herbicides while the total production 
of herbicides had increased from 404 million pounds in 1970 to over 800 
million pounds in 1976. The two major reasons for the lack of growth of 
the phenoxyacetic acid herbicides are the increased use in the recent 
years of newer herbicides (e.g., triazine and urea-derivative herbicides), 
increased environmental controls, and greater competition by foreign 
pesticide producers. 

Insecticides 



The most significant trend in the production of insecticides in 
recent years has been the decrease of the organochlorine insecticides 



PESTICIDES AND RELATED PRODUCTS 26 5 



(e.g., DDT) and the rise in the production of the organophosphorous 
insecticides (e.g., methyl parathion) . This trend is illustrated in the 
following graph. The decline in the output of the organochlorine-type 
of insecticides can be attributed to two major factors: (1) a decrease 
in product effectiveness, and (2) an increase in regulations by the 
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). With regard to product effective- 
ness, it has become apparent that insects exposed to a certain insecticide 
over .a long period of time begin to develop immunity to that insecticide. 
The use of alternate products, such as organophosphorus insecticides, 
every other year decreases the degree of immunity. 

In 1972, the EPA banned the use of DDT in the United States except 
in cases of extreme infestation. Since then, that agency has banned 
or severely limited the use of several other chlorinated insecticides, 
among them aldrin, chlordane, dieldrin, heptachlor , and mirex. Additional 
organochlorine insecticides are under investigation by the EPA for possible 
restriction in the near future. Further restrictions and controls will 
decrease the production of organochlorine insecticides still further in 
the next few years. 

The production or organophosphorous insecticides surpassed the 
production of organochlorine insecticides for the first time in 1975 
as pesticides producers began to increase production of alternative 
insecticides for farm use to replace aldrin and dieldrin, which were 
banned in 1974. The production of other insecticides, mainly the 
organophosphorous compounds, should increase rapidly over the next 
several years . 

Imports and foreign industry 

During the past few years, imports of benzenoid pesticides (TSUS item 
405.15) have increased at a dramatic rate. In 1975, 50.4 million pounds 
of pesticides were imported into the United States. This was a 78-percent 
increase over 1974 when only 28.3 million pounds were imported. In 1976, 
benzenoid pesticide imports amounted to 62.1 million pounds, an increase 
of 23 percent over 1975, and they accounted for 7 percent of domestic 
consumption. 

A sharp decline in the level of domestic inventories of pesticides in 
1974 was a major reason for the large increase in imports of pesticides 
in 1975 over 1974. This drop in inventories was attributed to the oil 
embargo which led to raw material shortages and a resultant slowdown in 
the production of pesticides. Inventories were more than restored in 
1975. The unit values and prices of imports have also increased, owing to 
an increase in demand as well as increases in the costs of transportation 
and fuel. The following table shows the increase in the value of imported 
benzenoid pesticides which occurred between 1974 and 1975. The 1975 value 



266 SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS. 19715 



of $97.1 million was 127 percent over the 1974 value. The value of imports 
in 1976 amounted to $128.8 million, an increase of 33 percent over that in 
1975. It is expected that future increases in the value of pesticides will 
average about 10 to 15 percent per year. 

For the past few years, imports of pesticides into the United States 
have come principally from four countries: Japan, Switzerland, the United 
Kingdom, and West Germany. As shown in the following table, these four 
countries have annually accounted for well over half of the imports under TSUS 
item 405.15 during the period 1973-76. From 1973 to 1975, United Kingdom 
producers annually allocated a large share of their expenditures to 
pesticide research and development. These producers have two distinct 
advantages over their U.S. counterparts in the area of research and 
development of new pesticides. First, it costs considerably less in the 
United Kingdom to develop a new pesticide than in the United States; 
approximately 50 percent less in some cases. Second, the United Kingdom 
has a more favorable working relationship between government and industry 
concerning the registration of new pesticides for public use. In addition, 
their firms aggresively market their new pesticide products in all the 
world markets, especially in the United States. 

It does not seem likely that the growth of production and sale of 
pesticides in the future will match the gains of the past. Increasing 
pesticide prices caused by rising costs of raw materials, research, and 
Government registration will probably keep sales from rising at their 
previous rate. However, increased food production for both domestic 
and foreign markets and increased exports of pesticides to foreign 
markets should provide the industry with moderate growth in the near 
future. 



PESTICIDES AND RELATED PRODUCTS 
U.S. Imports of pesticides, 1/ 1973-76 
Principal sources of imports 



267 





Source 


1973 


1974 


1975 


1976 


Quantity 


United Kingdom 


15,381 


16,759 


17,587 


12,988 


(in 1,000 lb 


s) West Germany 


2,962 


3,125 


7,362 


15,732 




Japan 


3,634 


2,293 


3,922 


5,613 




Switzerland 


1,337 


1,131 


6,388 


10,885 




Canada 


987 


1,793 


4,842 


2,289 




All other countries 


4,550 


3,241 


10,315 


14,607 




Total imports 


28,851 


28,342 


50,416 


62,114 


Value 


United Kingdom 


17,121 


22,197 


29,493 


19,904 


(in $1,000) 


West Germany 


5,138 


7,327 


20,035 


48,643 




Japan 


3,936 


3,210 


6,323 


10,599 




Switzerland 


3,136 


2,244 


14,618 


26,060 




Canada 


1,011 


1,728 


5,043 


3,383 




All other countries 


4,526 


6,032 


21,615 


20,244 




Total imports 


34,868 


42,738 


97,127 


128,833 


Avg. unit va 


lue United Kingdom 


1.11 


1.33 


1.68 


1.53 




West Germany 


1.73 


2.35 


2.72 


3.09 




Japan 


1.08 


1.40 


1.61 


1.89 




Switzerland 


2.35 


1.98 


2.29 


2.39 




Canada 


1.02 


.96 


1.04 


1.48 




All other countries 


1.00 


1.86 


2.10 


1.39 



Total imports 



1.21 



1.51 



1.93 



2.07 



1/ TSUS item 405.15 only. 

Source: Official statistics of the U.S. Department of Commerce. 



268 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1976 



Organochlorine insecticides and organophosphorous insecticides: 
U.S. production, 1970-76 




160. 



130., 



£ 



Organochlorine insecticides 1_/ X X X X 

Organophosphorous insecticides 2/ . . 



in in in in 



in 



1/ Includes aldrin, chlordan, DDT, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor, and 
others. 

2/ Includes acephate, diazinon, fonofos, methyl parathion, parathion, 
phorate,-and others. 

Source: Compiled from data contained in various U.S. International 
Trade Commission publications. 



Note: Data are partially estimated. 



PESTICIDES AND RELATED PRODUCTS 



TABLE 1.— Pesticides and related products: U.S. production and sales, 1976 

[Listed below are all pesticides and related products for which any reported data on production or sales may be pub- 
lished. (Leaders (...) are used where the reported data are accepted In confidence and may not be published or 
where no data were reported.) Table 2 lists all pesticides and related products for which data on production 
and/or sales were reported and Identifies the manufacturers of each] 



PESTICIDES AND RELATED PRODUCTS 



Grand total 

Benzenoid 

Nonbenzenold 

PESTICIDES AND RELATED PRODUCTS, CYCLIC 

Total 

Fungicides, total 

Naphthenic acid, copper salt 

Pentachlorophenol (PCP) 

Phenylmercuric acetate (PMA) 

All other cyclic fungicides 2 

Herbicides and plant growth regulators, total 

2,4-Dlchlorophenoxyacetlc acid, dimethylamine salt — 

2,4-Dlchlorophenoxyacetic acid, iso-octyl ester 

Plant growth regulators, total 

l,2-Dihydro-3,6-pyridazinedione (Maleic hydrazide) 

All other plant growth regulators 

All other cyclic herbicides 7 

Insecticides and rodenticides, total 

Organophosphorus insecticides 

Toxaphene (chlorinated camphene) 

All other cyclic insecticides and rodenticides 5 

PESTICIDES AND RELATED PRODUCTS, ACYCLIC 

Total 

Fungicides, total 

Dlthlocarbamic acid salts 6 

All other acyclic fungicides' 

Herbicides and plant growth regulators 9 

Insecticides, rodenticides, soil conditioners and 

fumlgants, total 

Methyl bromide (Bromomethane) 

S-Methyl-N-[(methylcarbamoyl)oxy] thioacetimldate 

(Me thorny 1) 

Organophosphorus insecticides' 

Trlchloronitromethane (Chloropicr In) 

All other acyclic insecticides, rodenticides, soil 
conditioners and fumlgants 

See footnotes on following page. 



1,000 
pounds 



1,364,391 



750,170 
614,221 



109,635 



906 

43,868 

172 

64,689 

511,560 



15,699 
8,361 
7,522 
3,822 
3,700 
479,978 

319,068 



114,325 
42,164 
162,579 



424,128 



32,627 



30,975 
1,652 



247,016 



14,328 
75,554 
6,423 



SALES 



1.192.604 



642,592 
550,012 



99,442 



895 
43,796 

141 
54,610 

445.348 



14,203 
3,022 
7,759 

7,759 
420,364 

294,024 



98,162 
47,919 
147,943 



31,888 
1,459 



61,253 
5.773 



1,000 
dollars 



2.410,134 



1,401,613 
1,008,521 



1,843.896 



120,021 



585 

16,128 

1,022 

102,286 



16,273 
2,763 
19,070 

19,070 
1,195,835 



210,561 
20,745 
258,628 



566,238 



32.934 



28,719 

4,215 



170,750 
2,865 



Per 

pound 



2.18 

1.83 



.37 
7.26 

1.87 



1.15 

.91 

2.46 

2.46 
2.85 



2.15 

.43 

1.75 



245-856 O - 77 ■ 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1976 



Footnotes for Table 1 

1 Calculated from rounded figures. 

2 Includes benomyl, captafol, captan, chlorothalonll, dinocap, DMTT, folpet, pentachloronitrobenzene, sodium 
pentachlorophenate, 2,4,5-trichlorophenol salts, all other phenylmercury compounds, and others. 

3 Includes alachlor, atrazine, barban, benefin, bensulide, 2,4-D acid (esters and salts), 2,4-DB, dicamba, 
dimethylurea compounds, dinitrophenol compounds, isopropyl phenylcarbamates (IPC and CIPC), MCPA, molinate, NPA, 
picloram, propanil, silvex and its esters, 2,4,5-T acid (esters and salts), triazines, trifluralin, uracils, and 
others. 

** Includes carbophenothion, diazinon, dioxathion, fensulfothion, methyl parathion, parathion, ronnel, and other 
phosphorothioates and phosphorodithioates, and others. 

5 Includes carbaryl, carbofuran, chlorinated insecticides (BHC + lindane, chlordan, chlorobenzilate, DDT, di- 
cofol, endosulfan, endrin, heptachlor, methoxyclor, and others), insect attractants, DEET and other insect re- 
pellents, small amounts of rodenticides, piperonyl butoxide and other synergists, and others. 

6 Includes ferbam, maneb, nabam, PETD, and zineb, plus the remaining dithiocarbamates which are used chiefly as 
fungicides. 

7 Includes dodine, and others. 

8 Includes cacodylic acid, CDAA, dalapon, methanearsonic acid salts, sodium TCA, thiocarbamates, thiolcarbamates, 
and organophosphorus herbicides, and others. 

9 Includes dichlorvos, disulfoton, ethion, malathion, monocrotophos, naled, phorate, and other organophosphorus 
insecticides. 

10 Includes DBCP, soil conditioners and fumigants, aldicarb, small quantities of rodenticides, and others. 



Note. — Does not include 
data are included in the s 
dithiocarbamic acid, sodiu 
in the section on "Rubber- 



"Miscell. 



ta for the insect fumigant, p-dichlorobenzene nor the fungicide, o-phenylphenol. These 
tion on cyclic intermediates. It also does not include data for the fungicides, dimethyl- 
salt and dimethyldithiocarbamic acid, zinc salt (i.e., ziram) . These data are included 
Dcessing Chemicals." The data for ethylene dibromide, a fumigant, are included in the 



End-Use Chemicals and Chemical Products" section. 



PESTICIDES AND RELATED PRODUCTS 



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TABLE 3. --Pesticides and related products: Directory of manufacturers. 1976 

ALPHABETICAL DIRECTORY BY CODE 

[Names of manufacturers of pesticides and related products that reported production or sales to the U.S. International 
Trade Commission for 1976 are listed below in the order of their identification codes as used in table 2] 



Code 


Name of company 


Code 


Name of company 


ABB 


Abbott Laboratories 


MGK 


McLaughlin, Gormley 6 King Co. 


ACN 


Allied Chemical Corp., Agricultural 


SIMM 


Minnesota Mining 5 Manufacturing Co. 




Dept. 


MON 


Monsanto Co. 


ACY 


American Cyanamid Co. 


MOT 


Motomco, Inc. 


ALC 


Alco Chemical Corp. 


MRK 


Merck 6 Co. , Inc. 


ALP 


Alpha Laboratories, Inc. 


MRT 


Morton Chemical Co., Div. of Morton Norwich 


AMC 


Amchem Products, Inc. 




Products, Inc. 




Div. of Rorer-Amchem, Inc. 


MTO 


Montrose Chemical Corp. of California 


AMP 


Kerr-McGee Chemical Corp. 






ARA 


Arapahoe Chemical, Inc. Sub. of 


NES 


Nease Chemical Co., Inc 




Syntex Corp. (U.S.A.) 


NLC 


Nalco Chemical Co. 


ASH 


Ashland Oil, Inc., Ashland 
Chemical Co. 


NLO 


Niklor Chemical Co. 


ASL 


Ansul Chemical Co. 


OMC 


Olin Corp. 






0R0 


Chevron Chemical Co. 


BKL 


Kewanee Industries, Inc., Millmaster 
Chemical Co. Div. 


OTC 


Story Chemical Corp. 


BKM 


Buckman Labs., Inc. 


PAS 


Pennwalt Corp. 






PCW 


Pfister Chemical, Inc. 


CCA 


Interstab Chemical, Inc. 


PD 


Parke, Davis 6 Co. Sub of Warner-Lambert 


CGY 


Ciba-Geigy Corp., Agricultural Div. 




Co. 


CHF 


Chemical Formulators, Inc. 


PEN 


CPC International, Inc., Penick Div. 


CHG 


Mobay Chemical Corp., Chemagro Agricultural 


PFZ 


Pfizer, Inc. 




Div. 


PIC 


Pierce Organics, Inc. 


CLY 


W. A. Cleary Corp. 


PLC 


Phillips Petroleum Co. 


CWN 


Upjohn Co., Fine Chemical Div. 


PPG 


PPG Industries, Inc. 


DA 


Diamond Shamrock Corp. 


RBC 


Fike Chemicals, Inc. 


DOW 


Dow Chemical Co. 


RCI 


Reichhold Chemicals, Inc. 


DUP 


E. I. duPont de Nemours 6 Co., Inc. 


RDA 


Rhodia, Inc. 






RH 


Rohm & Haas Co . 


EFH 


E. F. Houghton 5 Co. 


RIV 


Riverdale Chemical Co. 


EGR 


Eagle River Chemical Corp. 










S 


Sandoz Inc., Crop Protection Dept. 


FER 


Ferro Corp., Ferro Chemical Div. 


SDC 


Martin-Marietta Corp., Sodyeco Div. 


FMN 


FMC Corp., Agricultural Chemical Div. 




Stauffer Chemical Co.: 


FMT 


Fairmount Chemical Co. 


SFA 


Agricultural Div. 


FRO 


Vulcan Materials Co., Chemical Div. 


SFC 


Calhio Chemicals, Inc. Div. 






SHC 


Shell Oil Co., Shell Chemical Co. Div. 


GAF 


GAF Corp., Chemical Div. 


SM 


Mobil Oil Corp., Mobil Chemical Co., 


GNW 


Greenwood Chemical Co. 




Phosphorus Div. 


GOC 


Gulf Oil Corp. , Gulf Oil 








Chemical Co. - U.S. 


TMH 


Thompson-Hayward Chemical Co. 


GTH 


Guth Chemical Co. 


TRO 


Troy Chemical Corp. 


GTL 


Great Lakes Chemical Corp. 










UCC 


Union Carbide Corp. 


UK 


Hooker Chemicals 6 Plastics Corp. 


UOP 


UOP, Inc., UOP Chemical Div. 


HN 


Tenneco Chemicals, Inc. 


USR 


Uniroyal, Inc., Chemical Div. 


HPC 


Hercules, Inc. 










VCC 


Vinings Chemical Co. 


IMC 


IMC Chemical Group, Inc. 


VEL 


Velsicol Chemical Corp. 






VIN 


Vineland Chemical Co. 


KF 


Kay-Fries Chemicals, Inc. 


VNC 


Vanderbilt Chemical Corp. 






VTC 


Vicksburg Chemical Co. Div. of 


LAK 


Lakeway Chemicals, Inc. 




Vertac Consolidated 


LIL 


Eli Lilly 6 Co. 










WTC 


Witco Chemical Co., Inc. 


MAL 


Mallinckrodt Chemical Works 






MCI 


Mooney Chemical Corp. 






Note. --Comp 


ete names and addresses of the above reporting 


companies a 


re listed in table 1 of the appendix. 



282 SNYTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 197G 

MISCELLANEOUS END-USE CHEMICALS AND CHEMICAL PRODUCTS 
K. James O'Connor, Jr. and Thomas O'Connell 

The Miscellaneous Chemicals section was extensively revised in 1976 
to incorporate the proposed suggestions of an industry task force. Because 
there is a radical shift in the composition of this section as well as in 
many of the subgroups within this section, the 1976 data are not strictly 
comparable with previous reports. Production of the end-use groups 
contained within other sections generally increased over 1975 levels 
paralleling the organic sector as a whole. This section incorporates those 
end-use groups which are not readily classifiable within the prior sections 
of this report. Both cyclic and acyclic chemicals now fall with this 
section. 

In 1976, the production of miscellaneous end-use chemicals exceeded 
15.8 billion pounds. Sales in 1976 reached 9.2 billion pounds, valued 
at $2.3 billion. Polymers for fibers and urea collectively accounted for 
84 percent of the 1976 production of these miscellaneous end-use chemicals. 
Urea, alone, accounted for 71 percent of the 1976 sales quantity of these 
chemicals although in terms of value it accounted for only 17 percent of 
the total value of merchant sales. 

Production of gasoline additives for 1976 totalled 1.1 billion pounds. 
Sales exceeded 931 million pounds, valued at $736 million. The future 
growth of the lead additive portion of this market is seriously threatened 
by pending environmental legislation governing its use. 



MISCELLANEOUS END"USE CHEMICALS AND CHEMICAL PRODUCTS 283 
Methanol 

Methanol production reboun ds in 1976 

In 1976, methanol ranked 20th among the 50 most important U.S. 
industrial chemicals with production in excess of 6.2 billion pounds. 
This volume represented a significant increase of 21.6 percent over 
the 1975 level of 5.2 billion pounds, a figure which reflected the 
doldrums that industrial chemical producers faced in the recession of 
1975. Despite this encouraging increase in the 1976 production of 
methanol, it, nonetheless, lagged 1973 and 1974 output figures and re- 
mained slightly below the recent trend line shown in figure 1. On a 
more optimistic note, methanol fared better in 1976 than the organic 
chemicals sector as a whole, which registered an overall increase of 
18 percent in production over the 1975 level. 

Moderate growth of 5 to 6 percent projected for methanol 

Industry sources are projecting, amid considerable speculation, 
that methanol production for nonfuel use will expand at a moderate rate 
of 5 to 6 percent a year for the remainder of this decade and into the 
early 1980's. These projections are predicated to some extent on the 
level of new housing starts reaching 1.5 to 2.0 million a year for the 
remainder of the decade. The correlation between methanol and the number 
of housing starts stems from methanol's major end use as an adhesive in 
the production of plywood and particle board, products which are sensitive 
to changes in the rate of new housing construction. On this score, 
methanol producers have reason to be encouraged with the renewed activity 
in the housing sector in recent months. In 1976, total new housing 
starts numbered 1.55 million, 32 percent more than in 1975. Through the 
first quarter of 1977, the 370,000 recorded new housing starts are well 
ahead of the 283,000 recorded in the first quarter of 1976 and dramatically 
ahead of the 194,000 recorded in the first quarter of 1975. 1/ Despite 
this upward trend, producers remain guarded in their projections, in 
that a sustained surge in housing construction will be largely dependent 
upon the Nation's ability to contain its inflation rate and to maintain a 
prime rate low enough to encourage new housing. 

The 5 to 6 percent projected growth rate is also dependent upon the 
producers' ability to achieve moderate growth in methanol's other multiple 
commercial markets, such as the polyester fiber and solvent markets. 

Domestic capacity expected to keep pace with projected 
demand through 1980 

There is a general consensus among industry experts that new capacity 
additions scheduled for completion by 1980 will keep pace with projected 

1/ U.S. Department of Commerce, Survey of Current Business , November 1976 
(vol. 56, No. 11) and May 1977 (vol. 57, No. 5). 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS/ 1976 



demand requirements. By 1980, U.S. capacity for methanol production is 
projected to reach 11 billion to 12 billion pounds a year, representing 
a 20-percent increase over current capacity levels. DuPont, alone, is 
scheduled to place a new plant with a capacity of 1.3 billion pounds a 
year on stream by 1980. 

Domestic demand estimates, excluding methanol produced for fuel use, 
border on 8 billion pounds a year for 1980, representing an increase of 
5 to 6 percent a year in the domestic demand for methanol. 

Methanol may make inroads into new markets 

There is continued speculation as to whether methanol will make new 
inroads into two potentially significant markets; one for clean-burning 
automotive fuel and the other for an intermediate in the production of a 
synthetic food source — single-cell protein. 

In recent years methanol has undergone considerable testing for use 
in automotive fuel applications, the results of which have not to date 
been encouraging. However, testing continues, and industry sources fore- 
cast that if a breakthrough occurs, there will be a dramatic shift in 
the composition of the industry away from traditional chemical producers 
and toward the oil producers and refiners. The reason for this possible 
shift is that methanol (a primary chemical feedstock) is derived directly 
from natural gas, and is very close in the vertical chain to traditional 
oil producers' and refiners' markets. It must be pointed out, however, 
that such a breakthrough and consequential shift in production is certainly 
not expected over the short term and is questionable on a cost/performance 
basis over the long term. 

The outlook is unclear for methanol's use as an intermediate in 
the production of single-cell protein, a product which is still very much 
in its experimental stages. The benefits of single-cell protein in 
alleviating some of the world's nutritional needs are potentially great, 
and one would expect significant markets to open for this product if 
technical and commercial difficulties can be overcome. Although incon- 
clusive, current research indicates a leaning away from methanol as an 
intermediate in the production of single-cell protein in favor of ethanol. 

M ethanol imports on the rise 

Imports of methanol for nonfuel use reached a record high of 277 
million pounds valued at $8.5 million, in 1976, representing nearly a 
150-percent increase by volume over the 1975 level. These imports 
supplied approximately 4 to 5 percent of domestic demand in 1976, or 
more than twice as much as in any other year in this decade; more than 
70 percent come from Canada. Imperial Chemical Industries and Alberta 
Gas Chemicals are believed to be the major exporting companies to the 
United States. 



MISCELLANEOUS END-USE CHEMICALS AND CHEMICAL PRODUCTS 285 



According to Public Law 93-482, enacted October 26, 1974, methanol 
can be imported into the United States under TSUS item 427.96 free of 
duty (col. 1 rate) for fuel use or for use in producing synthetic natural 
gas. In 1976, 6.9 million pounds of methanol valued at $289,000 entered 
the United States under this category, a significant increase over the 
3,700 pounds of methanol imported under this category in 1975. 

Imports of methanol under the nonfuel use category in the first 
quarter of 1977 were substantially higher than those in the first 
quarter of 1976, indicating that imports are continuing their rising 
trend. Imports through the first quarter of 1977 reached 79 million 
pounds, compared with 53 million pounds imported through the first 
quarter of 1976. There were no imports of methanol for fuel use 
recorded in the first quarter of 1977. 

Exports increase 22 percent over the 1975 level 

Exports of methanol, both natural and synthetic, increased from 
458 million pounds, valued at $16.8 million, in 1975 to 561 million 
pounds, valued at $23.2 million in 1976. There is no indication of 
fundamental changes in the composition of U.S. export markets for methanol. 

The international outlook, for methanol through 1980 's is unclear 

There is little question that the chief determinant in the future com- 
petitiveness of world methanol producers will be raw material costs. The 
most economic technology, the Imperial Chemical Industries process, is 
readily licensable, and as such is no longer a crucial variable in 
establishing a nation's comparative advantage vis-a-vis other producing 
nations. Labor cost differences are not likely to be major determinants 
in the competitiveness of methanol producers, given the facts that the 
labor input in methanol production is low and that these differences in 
labor costs have equilibrated in recent years. Thus, it would seem that 
the future competitiveness of world methanol producers will greatly depend 
upon their ability to secure an adequate long-term raw material supply at 
a competitive price. 

Given this determinant, all eyes are directed toward the announced 
plant construction in the Middle East, which, if it materializes could 
substantially alter established trading patterns not only in methanol but 
in many other commodity chemicals as well. There are, however, a number 
of indeterminate factors which may well mitigate the raw material cost 
advantages that these oil-rich nations currently enjoy. Their construction 
and distribution costs are presently much higher than those in the developed 
nations. In addition, these oil-rich nations may well decide to upgrade 
the commodity chemicals with low unit costs into intermediate and end-use 
products with higher unit values; the trade impact would then be felt in 
those sectors. 



245-656 O - 77 - 19 



286 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS/ 1976 



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TABLE 1. --Miscellaneous end-use chemicals and chemical products: U.S. production and sales, 1976 



Listed below are all miscellaneous end-use chemical 
and/or sales may be published. (Leaders (...) art 
not be published or where no data were reported.) 
and chemical products on which data on production 
each] 



s and chemical products for which any reported data on production 
used where the reported data are accepted in confidence and may 
Table 2 lists alphabetically all miscellaneous end-use chemicals 

and/or sales were reported and identifies the manufacturers of 



MISCELLANEOUS END-USE CHEMICALS AND CHEMICAL PRODUCTS 



Grand total 

Chelating agents, nitriloacid and salts, total 

(Diethylenetrinitrilo)pentaacetic acid, penta- 

sodium salt 

(Ethylenedinitrilo)tetraacetic acid, tetrasodium 

salt 

(N-Hydroxyethylethylenedinitrllo)triacetic acid, 

trisodium salt 

All other 

Enzymes 

Flotation reagents 

Gasoline additives, total 3 

N,N'-Di-sec-butyl-p-phenyldiamine 

N.N'-Diisopropyl-p-phenylenediamine 

Ethylenedibromide 

Tetraethyl lead 

All other gasoline additives 

Lubricating oil and grease additives, total 

Oil soluble petroleum sulfonate, calcium salt 

Oil soluble petroleum sulfonate, sodium salt 

All other lubricating oil and grease additives 

Paint driers, naphthenic acid salts, total"' 5 

Calcium naphthenate 

Cobalt naphthenate 

Lead naphthenate 

Manganese naphthenate 

Zinc naphthenate 

All other 

Polymers for fibers, total 

Nylon 6 and 6/6 

Polyacrylonitr lie and acrylonitrile copolymers 

Polyethylene terephthalate 

All other polymers for fiber 

Polymers, water soluble, total 

Cellulose ethers and esters, total 

Polyacrylamlde 

Polyacryllc acid salts, total 

Sodium poly aery late 

All other polyacryllc acid salts 

All other water soluble polymers 

Tanning materials, synthetic 

Urea, total 

In feed compounds 

In liquid fertilizer 

In solid fertilizer 

In plastics 

All other 

All other miscellaneous end-use chemicals and chem- 
ical products 7 



1,000 
pounds 



15.851,080 



151,043 



4,791 
96,615 



( 2 ) 
5,568 



1,050,995 



2,715 

1,178 

201,080 

363,775 

482,247 



234,316 
104,119 
761,820 

11,336 



842 

2,901 

4,629 

1,003 

980 

981 

5.082.003 



1.634,132 

' 551,961 

1,988,132 

907,778 

6 185.312 



115,294 
41,507 
17,302 
6,783 
10,519 
11,209 

59,468 

8,161,726 



490,378 

2,268,234 

4.176,474 

392,636 

834,004 



1,000 
pounds 



9,159,570 



1,000 
dollars 



2,251.127 



125.11 4 



59,223 



2,821 
32,701 



3,349 
86,243 



931,211 



2,146 
20,598 



2,868 
33,611 



735,589 



2,259 

1,067 

148,516 

409,641 

369,728 

557.430 



3,247 

2.139 

41,942 

364,056 

324,203 

182.847 



138,805 
101,623 
317,002 

11,151 



37,657 
21,802 
123,388 

8,322 



802 
2,938 
4,629 
985 
885 
912 

766.809 



419 

3,497 

2,217 

599 

435 

1,155 



205.852 
560,957 



99,256 
36,829 
16.265 

16,265 
8,668 



6.524,000 



86.179 
488,051 



164,766 



101,250 
41,479 
9,596 

9,596 
12,441 

22,365 

376.363 



421,679 

2.175,599 

3,500,481 

298,360 

127,881 



26,585 
99,973 
217,588 
24,526 
7,691 



See footnotes on following page. 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1976 



Footnotes for Table 1 



1 Calculated from rounded figures. 

2 Not available. 

3 Statistics exclude production and sales of tricresyl phosphate. Statistics on tricresyl phosphate are given 
with the section on "Plasticizers ." 

** Quantities are given on the basis of solid naphthenate. 

5 Statistics exclude production and sales of copper naphthenate. Statistics for copper naphthenate are given 
in the section on "Pesticides and Related Products." 

6 Greater than 10 percent of this total is data which were estimated. It was necessary to estimate these data 
because one or more manufacturers of the compounds failed to supply the U.S. International Trade Commission with 
their data in sufficient time for its inclusion in this report. Such manufacturers are presumed to have continued 
production of the compound in question in 1976, therefore the volume of production and sales has been estimated 

by the USITC staff members. 

7 Includes all other items listed in table 2 which are not individually publishable or publishable as groups. 



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SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1975 



TABLE 3. --Miscellaneous end-use chemical and chemical products: Directory of 

MANUFACTURERS, 1976 
ALPHABETICAL DIRECTORY BY CODE 



Chat reported production or sales 
Dnal Trade Commission for 1976 are 



iscellaneous end-ust 
ed below in the ordt 



chemicals and chemical products 
r of their identification code 




Name of company 



Name of company 



Allied Chemical Corp.: 

Agricultural Div. 

Specialty Chemicals Div. 
American Cyanamid Co. 
Agway, Inc., Olean Nitrogen Complex 
Air Products & Chemicals, Inc. 
Gardinier Big River, Inc. 
Allied Chemical Corp., Fibers Div. 
Alliance Chemical, Inc. 
Alox Corp. 

American Bio-Synthetic Corp. 
Atlas Powder Co. Subsidiary of Tyler 

Corp. 
Ashland Oil, Inc., Ashland Chemical Co. 

BASF Wyandotte Corp. 

Baxter Laboratories, Inc. 

B. F. Goodrich Co., B. F. Goodrich Chemical 

Co. Div. 
Beker Industries, Inc. 
Borden Co., Borden Chemical Div. 
Buckeye Cellulose Corp. 

Interstab Chemical, Inc. 
Cincinnati Milacron Chemicals, Inc. 
Celanese Corp. : 
Celanese Fibe 
Cooperative Fan 
Ciba-Geigy Corp 



Co. 
Chemicals Association 
and Pharmaceutical Div. 



CHR. Hansen's Laboratory, Inc. 
N-Ren Corp., Cherokee Nitrogen Div. 
Columbia Nitrogen Corp. 
CPC International, Inc., Amerchol 
Crest Chemical Corp. 

Diamond Shamrock Corp. 

Dan River, Inc. 

Dow Corning Corp. 

Dawe's Laboratories, Inc. 

Castle & Cooke, Inc., Castle 4 Cook 

Foods, Hawaii Region 
Dow Chemical Co. 
E. I. DuPont de Nemours £. Co., Inc. 



Eastman Kodak Co. : 

Tennessee Eastman Co. Div. 
Exxon Chemical Co. U.S.A. 
East Shore Chemical Co., Inc 

Ferro Corp. : 

Ferro Chemical Div. 

Keil Chemical Div. 
Hexcel Corp., Fine Organics 
FMC Corp. : 

Industrial Chemical Div. 
First Mississippi Corp. 
Fairmount Chemical Co., Inc. 
Fiber Industries, Inc. 



MCI 
MIL 
MLS 
MON 
MOR 
MRK 
MSC 

NEP 
NLC 
NTL 

OMC 
OMS 
ORO 
OXC 

PAR 
PAS 



one Tire S, Rubber Co., Firestone 
Synthetic Fibers Co. 

GAF Corp., Chemical Div. 

W. R. Grace & Co., Agricultural Chem. Group 

G. Frederick Smith Chemical Co. 

Glyco Chemicals, Inc. 

Goodpasture, Inc. 

W. R. Grace 6. Co., Polymers & Chemicals Div. 

Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co. 



Hodag Chemical Corp. 
Hooker Chemicals & Plastic 

Durez Div. 
Hawkeye Chemical Co. 
W. R. Grace 6, Co., Organic 
Tenneco Chemicals, Inc. 
Hercules, Inc. 



Chemicals Div. 



Nipak, Inc. 

George A. Jeffrey's & Co., Inc. 

Jordan Chemical Co. 

Kennecott Copper Corp., Utah Copper Div. 

Mooney Chemicals, Inc. 

Milliken & Co., Milliken Chemical Div. 

Miles Laboratories, Inc., Marschall Div. 

Monsanto Co. 

Marathon Morco, Co. 

Merck & Co . , Inc. 

Mississippi Chemical Corp. 

Nepera Chemical Co. 
Nalco Chemical Co. 
NL Industries, Inc. 

Olin Corp. 

E. R. Squibb & Sons, Inc. 
Chevron Chemical Co. 
Oxochem Enterprises 



Pennzoil Co., Penneco Div 
Pennwalt Corp. 
Parke, Davis S. 



Sub of Warner-Lambert 



Co. 



CPC International, 
Pfanstiehl Laborat 
Pfizer, Inc. «, Pfi 
Pharmachem Corp. 
Pierce Chemical, Inc. 
P-L Biochemicals, Inc. 
Phillips Petroleum Co. 
Premier Malt Products, Inc 
Premier Petrochemical Co. 
Pittsburgh Plate Glass Co. 



. , S. B. Penick 
s, Inc. 
Pharmaceuticals 



Fike Chemicals, Inc. 
Rohm & Haas Co. 
Millmaster Onyx Corp. 



Refined-Onyx Div. 



ilISCELLANEOUS EJJ-USE CHEMICALS Ai!D CHEMICAL PRODUCTS 



TABLE 3.— Miscellaneous end-use chemical and chemical products: 

MANUFACTURERS, 1976— CONTI NUED 



Directory of 



Code 


Name of company 


Code 


Name of company 


RSA 


R.S.A. Corp. 


TRI 
TRO 


Triad Chemicals 
Troy Chemical Corp. 




SAG 


Swift Agricultural Chemicals 


TVA 


Tennessee Valley Authority 




SHC 


Shell Oil Co., Shell Chemical Co. Div. 


TX 


Texaco , Inc . 




SM 


Mobil Oil Corp., Chemical Co.: 










Chemical Coatings Div. 


UPM 


UOP, Inc. 




SMP 


J.R. Simplot Co., Minerals & Chemical 
Div. 


USR 


Uniroyal, Inc., Chemical Div. 




SNI 


Kaiser Aluminum & Chemical Corp. , Kaiser 


VLN 


Valley Nitrogen Producers, Inc. 






Agricultural Chemicals Div. 


VND 


Van Dyk & Co. , Inc. 




SOC 


Standard Oil Co. of California, Chevron 










Chemical Co. 


WAG 


West Agro Chemical, Inc. 




SOH 


Vistron Corp. 


WAY 


Phillip A. Hunt Chemical Corp., Orgar 


ic 


SPD 


General Electric Co., Silicone Products 




Chemical Div. 






Dept. 


WBC 


Worthington Biochemical Corp. 




SW 


Sherwin-Williams Co. 


WBG 


White & Bagley Co. 




SWS 


Stauffer Chemical Co., SWS Silicones 


WLC 


Agrlco Chemical Co. 






Div. 


WMP 

WTC 


Essex Group, Inc. 

Witco Chemical Co., Inc. 




TCC 


Tanatex Chemical Corp. 


WTH 


Union Camp Corp., Chemical Div., Dove 


r Plant 


TER 


Terra Chemicals International, Inc. 


WYC 


Wycon Chemical Co. 




TNA 


Ethyl Corp. 


ZGL 


Carolina Processing Corp. 





Note. — Complete 



and addresses of the above reporting companies are listed in Table 1 of the Appendix. 



298 SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS/ 1976 

MISCELLANEOUS CYCLIC AND ACYCLIC CHEMICALS 

K. James O'Connor, Jr. and Thomas O'Connell 

This section is extensively revised from that of previous years. 
Many of these changes reflect suggestions proposed by an industry task 
force. For this reason, the data contained within this section are not 
generally comparable with the data from previous years. Several large 
volume items such as urea and polymers for fiber were moved to the section 
entitled Miscellaneous End-Use Chemicals and Chemical Products . 

The term miscellaneous chemicals as it is used here comprises those 
synthetic organic products that are not included in the use groups 
covered by the other sections of this report. They include products 
that are employed in a great variety of uses. The number of chemicals 
used extensively for only one purpose is not large. Among the products 
covered are those used for refrigerants, aerosols, solvents, and a wide 
range of chemical intermediates. 

U.S. production of miscellaneous cyclic and acyclic chemicals in 
1976 amounted to 83.5 billion pounds. U.S. sales for 1976 totaled 33.9 
billion pounds valued at $7.1 billion. Production of miscellaneous 
cyclic chemicals comprised only 5 percent of this section's total produc- 
tion. 

The most important group among the miscellaneous acyclic chemicals 
was the halogenated hydrocarbons. U.S. production for this group in 1976 
reached 20.8 billion pounds or 25 percent of this section's total produc- 
tion. U.S. sales for this group amounted to 8.8 billion pounds valued 
at $1.4 billion. Other important groups were the monohydric unsubstituted 
alcohols with production of 14.3 billion pounds, the aldehydes with a 
total production of 8.3 billion pounds, and the nitrogenous compounds with 
production of 7.6 billion pounds. 



MISCELLANEOUS CYCLIC 



ACYCLIC CHEMICALS 



TABLE 1, --Miscellaneous cyclic and acyclic chemicals: U.S. production and sales, 1976 



listed below are all miscellaneous chemicals for which any reported data on product 
(Leaders (...) are used where the reported data are accepted In confidence and may 
no data were reported.) Table 2 lists all miscellaneous chemicals for which data 
were reported and identifies the manufacturers of each] 



Lon or sales may be published, 
not be published or where 
>n production and/or sales 



MISCELLANEOUS CYCLIC AND ACYCLIC CHEMICALS 



PRODUCTION 



Grand total 

MISCELLANEOUS CHEMICALS, CYCLIC 

Total 

Benzoic acid, sodium salt 

Benzoyl peroxide 

Benzyl alcohol 

tert-Butyl peroxybenzoate 

2,6-Di-tert-butyl-p-cresol (BHT) : 

Food grade 

Tech . grade 

Uloxane (1,4-Diethylene ox'.de) 

Hexamethylenetetramine, tech. grade 

p-Hydroxybenzoic acid, methyl ester 

p-Hydroxybenzoic acid, propyl ester 

2-Hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone 

Maleic anhydride 

ct-Pinene 

3-Pinene 

Tall oil salts, total 2 

Calcium tallate 

Lead tallate 

Tall oil salts, all other 

All other miscellaneous cyclic chemicals 

MISCELLANEOUS CHEMICALS, ACYCLIC 

Nitrogenous Compounds 
Total' 

Amides 

Amines , total 

Butylamines 

Ethylamines: 

Diethylamine 

Ethylamine, mono 

1,6-Hexanediamine (Hexamethylenedlamine) 

Isopropylamine, mono- 

Methylamlnes : Dimethylamlne 

All other 

2-(2-Aminoethylamlno)ethanol (Aminoethylethanol- 

Ethanolamines , total 

2-Aminoethanol (Monoethanolamine) 

2,2' -Aminod ie thanol (Die thanolamine) 

2, 2 ',2' '-Nitr Hot rle thanol (Trie thanolamine) — 

See footnotes at end of table. 



1,000 
pounds 



3,881,178 



14,197 

3,841 

8,636 

1,690 

779,659 

8,862 

10,947 

14,873 

47,102 

797 

192 

530 

263,968 

25,366 

1,992 



123 

317 
1,552 



79,671,884 



294,762 
1,777.299 



49,585 

13,897 

36,806 

855,965 

33,353 

787,693 



286.224 



92,992 
88,568 
104,664 



1,000 
pounds 



1,000 
dollars 



7,136,673 



1.303,010 



682,150 



12,727 
8,536 
7,394 
1,579 



8,046 
10,909 
5,654 

713 

231 

487 

201,775 

5,300 

2,757 

1.909 



6,444 
15,005 
4,884 
2,752 



6,711 
9,700 
4,070 

1,726 

620 

1,522 

64,454 

724 

828 

1.561 



124 
293 

1.492 



32.108.731 



142 
1,351 



102,854 
415,658 



62,361 
227.511 



43,202 
8,320 



37,417 
43,229 
283,490 



10,789 
260,175 



21,192 
4,865 



13,388 
13,233 
174.833 



7.862 
87,652 



82,314 
81,487 
95,874 



27,364 
27,433 
32,855 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1976 



TABLE 1,— Miscellaneous cyclic and acyclic chemicals: U.S. production 
and sales, 1976— Conintued 



MISCELLANEOUS CYCLIC AND ACYCLIC CHEMICALS 



PRODUCTION 



UNIT 
VALUE 1 



MISCELLANEOUS CHEMICALS, ACYCLIC — Cont 

Nitrogenous Compounds — Continued 

sthylenediammonium adipate 



itriles, total 

Acrylonitrile 

Nitriles, all other- 



All other nitrogenous compounds 

Acids, Acyl Halides, and Anhydrides 



Tot 



acid, synthetic, 100%- 
anhydride, 100% 



Acetic 
Acetic 
Acryli 

Adipic acid 

Fumaric acid 

Lauroyl chloride 

Polyacrylic acid 

Propionic acid 

All other acids, acyl halides, and anhydr 



Salts of Organic Acids 



Acetic 
Bari 



Total- 
acid salt 



Die acid (cx-Ethylcaproic acid) salts 



Calcium 2-ethylhe 
Cobalt 2-ethylhe 

Lead 2-ethylhexanoate 

Manganese 2-ethylhexanoate — 

Zinc 2-ethylhexanoate 

Zirconium 2-ethylhexanoate— 
All other 

Maleic acid salts 

Oleic acid salts 

Stearic acid salts, total'* 

Aluminum distearate 

Aluminum tristearate 

Barium stearate 

Calcium stearate 

Cobalt stearate 

Lead stearate 

Magnesium stearate 

Zinc stearate 

All other 

Tartaric acid salts 

All other salts of organic aci 

See footnotes at end of table. 



1,000 
pounds 



732,409 
3,171,053 



1,517,830 
1,653,223 



6,725,256 



2,463,342 

1,506,050 

256,331 

1,280,907 

33,765 

2,041 

2,452 

76,102 

1,104,266 



23,998 



16,420 



2,524 
4,413 
2,595 
990 
1,491 
2,606 



465 
496 

80,723 
2,419 

1,001 

45,545 

362 

1,254 

5,530 
22,254 

2,358 

388 
246,94 7 



1,000 
pounds 



1,000 
dollars 



600,987 
89,774 



1,360,648 



544,419 
178,021 

35,881 
101,703 

30,583 

1,656 

39,266 

429,119 



20,661 



208 
20,425 

14,873 



2,499 
959 
1,466 
2,417 
1,776 

1,473 
501 

81,016 

2,426 

290 

1,005 

45,873 

351 

1,133 

5,292 

22,484 
2,162 



147,144 
19,611 



394,388 



70,429 
36,145 
11,313 
52,166 

12,748 

1,405 

7,111 

203,071 



301 
10,249 

15,377 



,096 
5,333 

1,275 
569 
1,008 
2,811 
3,285 

1,474 
668 

47,642 
1,691 

201 

675 

23,420 

475 

712 

3,761 

15,117 

1,590 



Per 
pound 



1.48 
1.45 



1.16 
1.85 



1.00 
1.33 



1.35 

.63 

.71 



MISCELLANEOUS CYCLIC AND ACYCLIC CHEMICALS 

table l.--.'1lscellaneous cyclic and acyclic c.iem1cals: u.s. production 
aid sales, 1376— Continued 



MISCELLANEOUS CYCLIC AND ACYCLIC CHEMICALS 



PRODUCTION 



MISCELLANEOUS CHEMICALS, ACYCLIC— Continued 

Aldehydes 

Total 

llutyraldehyde 

Formaldehyde (37% bv weight) 

Isobutyraldehyde 

All other 

Ketones 

Total 

Acetone, total 

From cumene 

From isopropyl alcohol 

2-Butanone (Methyl ethyl ketone) 

4-rtydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone (Diacetone alcohol) — 

4-Methyl-2-pentanone (Methyl Isobutyl ketone) 

All other 

Alcohols, Monohydric, Unsubstituted 

Total 

Alcohols, Cn or lower, unmixed, total 

Butyl alcohols: 

n-Butyl alcohol (n-Propylcarbinol) 

Isobutyl alcohol (Isopropylcarbinol) 

Ethyl alcohol, synthetic 5 

2-Ethyl-l-hexanol 

Isopropyl alcohol 

Methanol, synthetic 

Propyl alcohol (Propanol) 

All other 

Alcohols, C12 and higher, unmixed, total 

Mixtures of alcohols, total 

Esters of Monohydric Alcohols 

Total 

n-Butyl acetate, unmixed 

Butyl aery late 

Dibutyl maleate 

Ui(2-ethyl-l-hexyl) maleate 

Dilauryl-3 , 3 ' -thiodipropionate 

Ethyl acetate (85Z) 

Ethyl aery late 

2-Ethyl-l-hexyl acrylate 

Phosphorus acid esters, not elsewhere specified 

Propyl acetate 

Vinyl acetate 

All other 

Polyhydria Alcohols 7 

Total 

Ethylene glycol 

Glycerol, synthetic only 

Footnotes at end of table. 



1,000 
pounds 



8,278,682 



749,116 
5,449,322 

372,071 
1,708,173 



2,907,416 



1,189,516 
679,463 



197,537 
412,754 



14,252,696 



13,305,619 



625,277 

174,789 
1,496,311 

450,206 
1,935,846 
6,242,241 

134,24 7 
2,246,702 

299,724 



3.659,498 



112,508 

205,284 

7,903 

363 

2,207 

215,552 

295,129 

44,027 

59,200 

42,811 

,480,647 

,193,367 



4,630,310 



3,334,587 
157,733 



1,000 
pounds 



1,000 
dollar 8 



1,471,772 

2,127 

432,676 



2,176,338 



76,095 

325 

84,060 



851,479 
540,006 

414,638 
44,990 
150,929 
174,296 



106,546 
74,904 

78,452 
10,761 
36,043 
36,693 



6,333,798 



707,727 



344,366 

139,403 

889,992 

338,411 

6 961,327 

2,132,994 

97,932 

1,431,373 

145.369 



64,729 

20,458 
152,631 

70,391 
131,669 
125,587 

21,772 
120,490 

41,296 



546,997 



98,409 

114,673 

6,900 

377 

1,950 

193,664 

135,464 

42,165 

52,853 

40,886 

711,518 

558,119 



22,375 

38,262 

2,627 

154 

2,198 

36,380 

37,927 

16,190 

42,155 

9,923 

129,054 

209,752 



. ., 19 ' 



2,525,135 
147,632 



495,332 
68,955 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1976 

TABLE 1. --Miscellaneous cyclic and acyclic chemicals: U.S. production 
and sales, 1976— Continued 



MISCELLANEOUS CYCLIC AND ACYCLIC CHEMICALS 



UNIT 
VALUE 1 



MISCELLANEOUS CHEMICALS, ACYCLIC— Continued 

Polykydrio Alcohols — Continued 

Pent aery thritol 

Propylene glycol 

Sorbitol (70% by weight) 

All other 

Polykydrio Alcohol Esters 

Total 

Ethylene glycol diacrylate 

Trimethylolpropane triacrylate 

All other 

Polyhydric Alcohol Ethers 

Total 

2-Butoxyethanol 

2-(2-Butoxyethoxy)ethanol (Diethylene glycol 

monobutyl ether ) 

Diethylene glycol 

Uipropylene glycol 

2-Ethoxyethanol 

2-(2-Ethoxyethoxy)ethanol (Diethylene glycol 

monoethyl ethers) 

2-[2-(2-Ethoxyethoxy)ethoxy]ethanol (Triethylene 

glycol monoethyl ether) 

2-Methoxyethanol (Ethylene glycol mononethyl 

ether) 

2-(2-Methoxyethoxy)ethanol (Diethylene glycol 

monomethyl ether) ' 

2-[2-(2-Methoxyethoxy)ethoxy]ethanol (Triethylene 

glycol monomethyl ether) 

Polyethylene glycol 

Polypropylene glycol 

Tetraethylene glycol 

All other 

Halogenated Hydrocarbons 

Total 

Carbon tetrachloride 

Chlorinated paraffins, total 

35%-64% chlorine 

Other 

Chloroethane (Ethyl chloride) 

Chloroform 

Chloromethane (Methyl chloride) 

1,2-Dichloroethane (Ethylene dichloride) 

Dichloromethane (Methylene chloride) 

1,2-Dichloropropane (Propylene dichloride) 

Fluorlnated hydrocarbons, total 

Chlorodifluoromethane (F-22) 

Dichlorodifluorome thane (F-12) 

Trichlorofluoromethane (F-ll) 

All other fluorlnated hydrocarbons 

See footnotes at end of table. 



1,000 
pounds 

105,167 
516,932 
195,474 
320,417 



349 

499 

102,776 



1,409,730 



100,128 

31,313 
276,076 

49,615 
193,169 

34,790 

16,031 

37,611 

10,110 

20,538 
91,741 
33,335 
13,663 
441,605 



20,790,916 



75,949 



15,739 

669,216 
291,855 
377,672 
8,041,846 
537,729 
71,040 

1,000,356 



169,753 
393,001 
256,111 
131,491 



1,000 
pounds 

6 104,256 
469,850 
135,405 
146,040 



1,000 
dollars 



b 43,698 
122,390 



42,735 



1,139,677 



133,531 

24,982 
186,600 

42,705 
108,636 

26,455 



91,267 
26,220 
12,457 
382,098 



37,987 

7,445 
32,488 
11,283 
27,417 

7,209 



33,773 

9,446 

5,022 

125,459 



63,536 



55,423 
13,108 

316,612 
265,400 
184,443 
,360,980 
500,295 
42,995 



20,040 



14,942 
5,098 

36,847 
42,240 
25,930 
109,993 
86,004 
2,470 



125,342 
371,036 
239,372 



88,775 
151,386 
81,635 



Per 
pound 



MISCELLANEOUS CYCLIC AND ACYCLIC CHEMICALS 

TABLE 1,— Miscellaneous cyclic and acyclic chemicals: U.S. production 
and sales, 197E-- Continued 



MISCELLANEOUS CYCLIC AND ACYCLIC CHEMICALS 



UNIT 

VALUE 1 



MISCELLANEOUS CHEMICALS, ACYCLIC— Continued 
Halogenated Hydrocarbons — Continued 



Tetrachloroethylene (Perchloroethylene) 

1,1,1-TrichIoroethane (Methyl chloroform)- 

Trichloroethylene 

Vinyl chloride, monomer (Chloroethylene)-- 
All other halogenated hydrocarbons 



1,000 
pounds 

668,930 

631,255 

315,496 

5,676,895 

1,575,873 



All Other Miscellaneous Acyclic Chemicals 
Total 



1,000 
pounds 

572,470 
614,863 
298,476 
3,110,464 
248,061 



.114.581 



1,000 
dollars 

83,347 
113,769 

46,042 
314,842 
138,044 



2-Butanone peroxide 

tert-Butyl peroxide (Dl- 
Carbon disulfide 



etals 



Dtal— 



Epoxides, ethers, and 

Ethylene oxide 

Propylene oxide 

All other epoxides, ethers, and acetals 



6,350 

2,669 

507,926 

6,600,816 



6,157 

2,526 

394,205 



6,515 
2,394 
26,529 

321,768 



4,184,258 

1,823,222 

593,336 



Orga 



lilii 



pompon 



total- 



Phosgene (Carbonyl chloride) 

Sodium methoxide (Sodium methylate)- 
Al 1 o ther 



439,443 
985,606 
107,722 



111,663 
210,105 
160,930 



814,302 

13,997 

853,805 



14,745 
164,177 



5,753 
116,523 



Per 
pound 



1 Calculated from rounded figures. 

2 Quantities are given on the basis of solid naphthenate, tallate, or linoleate content. 

J Statistics exclude production and sales of fatty amines. Statistics on fatty amines are given with "Surface- 
Active Agents." 

** Statistics exclude production and sales of potassium and sodium stearates. Statistics on these stearates are 
included with "Surface-Active Agents." 

5 Statistics on production of ethyl alcohol from natural sources by fermentation are Issued by the Department 
of the Treasury, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms. 

6 Greater than 10 percent of this total is data which were estimated. It was necessary to estimate these data 
because one or more manufacturers of the compounds failed to supply the U.S. International Trade Commission with 
their data in sufficient time for its Inclusion in this report. Such manufacturers are presumed to have continued 
production of the compound in question in 1977, therefore the volume of production and "sales has been estimated 

by the USITC staff members. 

7 Some polyols which are used as intermediates for urethanes have been included with "Plastics and Resin 
Materials." 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CIB'ICALS. 1976 



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SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1976 



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SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1976 



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fa = £3 

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fa fa I 

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fa OS 
B O 



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MISCELLANEOUS CYCLIC AND ACYCLIC CHEMICALS 



«3-a;«S<<XX<a:-J*-fl CO 10 

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SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1976 



&- EH 
H <S> 
H H 



W H 

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ft. I 



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m cc h h e> z tq 

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Q O EH EH O O Q I 



I J J 

H O X 

K) cu z 

Z O 

U H 03 .4 u 

H i-l O O 



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eh o a 



nHaHnu 



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xoumn 
O « Q « a 
•n 6] x >j o 
eh a* x < w 
w — s z 
i: iJ '^ tc < 

X H O J 

O M « W 
ia.HHHH(J«UU 
iOQQOQUEHZin 
I03OOOO3MHM 



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H O 

O z n 



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EH O I 

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3 .-I X 
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MISCELLANEOUS CYCLIC AND ACYCLIC CHEMICALS 



TABLE 3.— Miscellaneous cyclic and acyclic chemicals: 

MANUFACTURERS, 1976 



Directory of 



ALPHABETICAL DIRECTORY BY CODE 



Names of manufacturers that reported productio 
U.S. International Trade Commission for 1976 
used in table 2] 



llaneous cyclic and acyclic chemicals to the 
the order of their identification codes as 



Code 


Name of company 


Code 


Name of company 


AAC 


Alcolac Chemical Corp. 


CNP 


Nipro Inc. 


ABB 


Abbott Laboratories 


CO 


Continental Oil Co. 




Allied Chemical Corp.: 


COL 


Collier Carbon & Chemical Corp. 


ACS 


Specialty Chemicals Div. 


CP 


Colgate-Palmolive Co. 


ACY 


American Cyanamid Co. 


CPS 


CPS Chemical Co. 


ADC 


Anderson Development Co. 


CPV 


Cook Paint & Varnish Co., Inc. 


AIP 


Air Products 4 Chemicals, Inc. 


CRN 


CPC International, Inc., Amerchol 


AKS 


Arkansas Co., Inc. 


CRZ 


Crown Zellerbach Corp., Chemical Products 


ALB 


Ames Laboratories, Inc. 




Div. 


ALD 


Aldrich Chemical Co., Inc. 


CTN 


Chemetron Corp., Chemical Products Dlv. • 


ALF 


Allied Chemical Corp., Fibers Dlv. 


CWN 


Upjohn Co., Fine Chemical Div. 


ALX 


Alox Corp. 






AME 


Stauffer Chemical Co. 


DA 


Diamond Shamrock Corp. 


ARA 


Arapahoe Chemicals, Inc. Sub/Syntex 


DAN 


Dan River, Inc. 




Corp. (U.S. A) 


DBC 


Dow Badische Co. 


ARC 


Armak Co. 


DCC 


Dow Corning Corp. 


ARM 


USS Agri-Chemicals Div. of U. S. Steel Corp. 


DIX 


Dixie Chemical Co. 


ARS 


Arsynco, Inc. 


DOM 


Dominion Products, Inc. 


ARZ 


Arizona Chemical Co. 


DOW 


Dow Chemical Co. 


ASH 


Ashland Oil, Inc., Ashland Chemical Co. 


DUP 


E. I. DuPont de Nemours i Co., Inc. 


ASL 


Ansul Chemical Co. 


DVC 


Dover Chemical Corp. Sub. of ICC Industries 


AV 


Avtex Fibers, Inc. 




Inc. 


AZT 


Dart Industries, Inc., Aztec Chemicals Div. 










EFH 


E. F. Houghton & Co. 


BAS 


BASF Wyandotte Corp. 


EK 


Eastman Kodak Co.: 


BAX 


Baxter Laboratories, Inc. 


EKT 


Tennessee Eastman Co. Dlv. 


BFG 


B. F. Goodrich Co., B. F. Goodrich Chemical 


EKX 


Texas Eastman Co. Div. 




Co. Div. 


ELP 


El Paso Products Co. 


BKC 


J. T. Baker Chemical Co. 


EMR 


Emery Industries, Inc. 


BKL 


Kewanee Industries, Inc., Millmaster Chemical 


ENJ 


Exxon Chemical Co. U.S.A. 




Co. Div. 


EVN 


Evans Chemetics, Inc. 


BME 


Bendix Corp., FMD Div. 


EW 


Westinghouse Electric Corp. 


BOR 


Borden Co., Borden Chemical Div. 






BRD 


Lonza, Inc. 


FCA 


Farmers Chemical Association, Inc. 


BUK 


Buckeye Cellulose Corp. 


FER 


Ferro Corp. : 

Ferro Chemical Div. 


CAD 


Noury Chemical Corp. 




Grant Chemical Div. 


CAU 


Calcasieu Chemical Corp. 




Keil Chemical Dlv. 


CBD 


Chembond Corp. 


FIN 


Hexcel Corp., Fine Organlcs Div. 


CBY 


Crosby Chemicals, Inc. 




FMC Corp . : 


CCA 


Interstab Chemical, Inc. 


FMB 


Industrial Chemical Div. 


CCH 


Pearsall Chemical Corp. 


FMP 


Industrial Chemical Dlv. 


CCL 


Catawba-Charlab, Inc., Polymer Specialties 


FMT 


Fairmount Chemical Co., Inc. 




Co. 


FOC 


Handschy Chemical Co., Farac Oil & 


ccw 


Cincinnati Mllacron Chemicals, Inc. 




Chemical Div. 


CDY 


Chemical Dynamics Corp. 


FRO 


Vulcan Materials Co., Chemicals Dlv. 


CEL 


Celanese Corp. : 


FTE 


Foote Mineral Co. 




Celanese Chemical Co. 


FTX 


CF Industries, Inc. 




Celanese Fibers Co. 








Celanese Polymer Specialties Co. 


CAF 


GAF Corp., Chemical Dlv. 


CGY 


Ciba-Geigy Corp. and Pharmaceutical Dlv. 


GAN 


Gane's Chemical Works, Inc. 


CHL 


Chemol, Inc. 


CIV 


Givaudan Corp. 


CHN 


N-Ren Corp., Cherokee Nitrogen Div. 


GLD 


SCM Corp., Glidden-Durkee Div. 


CHP 


C. H. Patrick 4 Co. , Inc. 


GLY 


Glyco Chemicals, Inc. 


CHT 


Chattem Drug & Chemical Co., Chattem 


GNM 


General Mills Chemicals, Inc. 




Chemicals Div. 


GOC 


Gulf Oil Corp., Gulf Oil Chemicals Co.-U.S 


CLK 


Clark Chemical Corp. 


GP 


Georgia-Pacific Corp.: 


CLN 


Standard Brands, Inc., Clinton Corp. 




Rebecca Plant 
Resins Operations 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1976 



TABLE 3.- 



-MlSCELLANEOUS CYCLIC AND ACYCLIC CHEMICALS: 
MANUFACTURERS, 1976--CONT I NUED 



Directory of 



Code 


Name of company 


Code 


Name of company 


GPR 


Grain Processing Corp. 


OCC 


Oxirane Chemical Co. 


GRD 


W. R. Grace 6. Co., Polymers & Chemicals Div. 


OH 


Airco, Inc., Ohio Medical Products Div. 


GRH 


W. R. Grace & Co., Hatco Chemical Div. 


OMC 


Olin Corp. 


GTL 


Great Lakes Chemical Corp. 


OMS 


E. R. Squibb 6, Sons, Inc. 


GYR 


Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co. 


ONX 


Millmaster Onyx Corp., Onyx Chemical Co. 






0R0 


Chevron Chemical Co. 


HAL 


C.P. Hall Co. 


ORT 


Roehr Chemicals, Inc. 


HDG 


Hodag Chemical Corp. t 


OTC 


Story Chemical Corp. 


HEX 


Hexagon Laboratories, Inc. 






HFT 


Syntex Agribusiness, Inc. 


PAS 


Pennwalt Corp. 


HK 


Hooker Chemicals & Plastic Corp.: 


PCW 


Pfister Chemical Works 


HKD 


Durez Div. 


PD 


Parke, Davis & Co. Sub of Warner-Lambert 


HMP 


W. R. Grace & Co., Organic Chemicals Div. 




Co. 


HMY 


Humphrey Chemical Co . 


PEN 


CPC International, Inc., S. B. Penick Div. 


HN 


Tenneco Chemicals, Inc. 


PFN 


Pfanstiehl Laboratories, Inc. 


HPC 


Hercules, Inc. 


PFX 


Plastifax, Inc. 


HRT 


Hart Products Corp. 


PFZ 


Pfizer, Inc. & Pfizer Pharmaceuticals, Inc. 


HSH 


Harshaw Chemical Co. Div. of Kewanee Oil 


PG 


Procter & Gamble Co. 




Co. 


PIC 


Pierce Chemical, Inc. 


HUM 


Kraft, Inc., Humko Products Chemical Div. 


PLC 


Phillips Petroleum Co. 






PLS 


Plastics Engineering Co. 


ICI 


ICI United States, Inc., Specialty Chemical 


PMP 


Premier Malt Products, Inc. 




Group 
International Flavor & Fragrances, Inc. 


PNA 


Pan American Chemical Corp. 


IFF 


PPG 


Pittsburgh Plate Glass Co. 


IMC 


IMC Chemical Group, Inc., Nitroparaf f in Div. 


PRD 


Ferro Corp., Productol Chemical Div. 


IOC 


Ionac Chemical Co. Div. of Sybron Corp. 


PTT 


Petro-Tex Chemical 






PUB 


Publicker Industries, Inc. 


JCC 


Jefferson Chemical Co., Inc. 


PVO 


PVO International, Inc. 


KAI 


Kaiser Aluminum & Chemical Corp. , Kaiser 


QCP 


Quaker Chemical Corp . 




Chemicals Div. 


QKO 


Quaker Oats Co. 


KCC 


Kennecott Copper Corp., Chino Mines Div. 






KCH 


Joseph Ayers, Inc. 


RBC 


Fike Chemicals, Inc. 


KF 


Kay-Fries Chemicals, Inc. 


RCI 


Reichhold Chemicals, Inc. 


KPT 


Koppers Co., Inc., Organic Materials Div. 


RCN 


Racon, Inc. 






RDA 


Rhodia, Inc. 


LEM 


Napp Chemicals, Inc. 


REH 


Reheis Chemical Co. Div. of Armour 


LIL 


Eli Lilly 6, Co . , Inc. 




Pharmaceutical Co. 






REM 


Remington Arms Co., Inc. 


MAL 


Mallinckrodt Chemical Works 


RH 


Rohm & Haas Co. 


MCB 


Borg-Warner Corp., Weston Chemical Co. 


RSA 


R.S.A. Corp. 


MCI 


Mooney Chemicals, Inc. 


RUB 


Hooker Chemical Corp., Ruco Div. 


MHI 


Ventron Corp. 


RUC 


Rubicon Chemicals, Inc. 


MIL 


Milliken 6, Co., Milliken Chemical Div. 






MLS 


Miles Laboratories, Inc., Marschall Div. 


S 


Sandoz, Inc. 


MMM 


Minnesota Mining & Manufacturing Co. 


SAL 


Salsbury Laboratories 


MNO 


Monochem, Inc. 


SAR 


Sartomer Industries, Inc. 


MNR 


Monroe Chemical 


SBC 


Scher Bros . 


MOB 


Mobay Chemical Co. 


SCP 


Henkel, Inc. 


MON 


Monsanto Co. 


SDC 


Martin-Marietta Corp., Sodeyco Div. 


MRK 


Merck & Co . , Inc. 




Sterling Drug, Inc. : 


MRV 


Marlowe- Van Loan Corp. 


SDH 


Hilton-Davis Chemical Co. Div. 


MTO 


Montrose Chemical Corp. of California 


SDW 


Winthrop Laboratories Div. 
Stauffer Chemical Co. : 


NCI 


Union Camp Corp. 


SFA 


Agricultural Div. 


NEO 


Norda, Inc. 


SFC 


Calhio Chemicals, Inc. Div. 


NES 


Nease Chemical Co., Inc. 


SFI 


Industrial Div. 


NEV 


Neville Chemical Co. 


SFP 


Plastics Div. 


NLC 


Nalco Chemical Co. 


SFS 


Specialty Chemical Div. 


NOC 


Norac Co., Inc. and Mathe Chemical Co. Div. 


SHC 


Shell Oil Co., Shell Chemical Co. Div. 


NOR 


Norwich Pharmacal Co. 


SHP 


Shepherd Chemical Co. 


NPI 


Stephan Chemical Co., Polychem Dept. 


SK 


Smith 6, Kline Chemicals 


NSC 


National Starch & Chemical Corp. 


SKO 


Getty Refining & Marketing Co. 


NTB 


National Biochemical Co. 


SM 


Mobil Oil Corp., Chemical Co.: 


NTL 


NL Industries, Inc. 




Chemical Coatings Div. 


NWP 


Northern Petrochemicals Co. 




Phosphorus Div. 



MISCELLANEOUS CYCLIC 



ACYCLIC CHEMICALS 



TABLE 3.— Miscellaneous cyclic and acyclic chemicals: Directory of 

MANUFACTURERS, 1976 — CONTI NUED 



Code 


Name of company 


Code 


Name of company 


SNO 


SunOlin Chemical Co. 


UCC 


Union Carbide Corp. 


SNW 


Sun Chemical Corp., Chemical Div. 


UOP 


UOP, Inc., UOP Chemical Div. 


SOC 


Standard Oil Co. of California, Chevron 


UPJ 


Upjohn Co. 




Chemical Co. 


UPM 


UOP, Inc. 


SOH 


Vistron Corp. 


USB 


U.S. Borax Research Corp. 


SPD 


General Electric Co., Silicone Products 


US I 


National Distillers & Chemicals Corp., U.S 




Dept. 




Industrial Chemicals Co. 


STC 


American Hoechst Corp., Sou-Tex Works 


USO 


U.S. Oil Company 


STP 


Stepan Chemical Co. 


USR 


Uniroyal, Inc., Chemical Div. 


SW 


Sherwin-Williams Co. 


USS 


USS Chemicals Div. of U.S. Steel Corp. 


SWS 


Stauffer Chemical Co., SWS Silicones 








Div. 


VAL 


Valchem 


SYP 


Dart Industries, Inc., Synthetic Products 


VEL 


Velsicol Chemical Corp., Inc. 




Co. Div. 


VGC 


Virginia Chemicals, Inc. 






VND 


Van Dyk S Co. , Inc. 


TCH 


Emery Industries Inc., Trylon Div. 


VTC 


VIcksburg Chemical Co. Div. of Vertac 


TID 


Getty Refining & Marketing Co., 
Delaware Refinery 




Consolidated 


TKL 


Thiokol Chemical Corp. 


WAY 


Phillip A. Hunt Chemical Corp., Organic 


TNA 


Ethyl Corp. 




Chemical Div. 


TNI 


The Gillette Co., Chemical Div. 


WLN 


Wilmington Chemical Corp. 


TRO 


Troy Chemical Corp. 


WM 


Inolex Corp . 


TSA 


Texas Alky Is, Inc. 


WTC 


Wltco Chemical Co., Inc. 


TX 


Texaco, Inc. 


WTH 


Union Camp Corp., Chemical Div., Dover Pla 


TZC 


Magnesium Elektron, Inc. 


WTL 


Pennwalt Corp., Lucidal Div. 






WYC 


Wycon Chemical Co. 



of the above reporting companies are listed in table 1 of the Appendix. 



APPENDIX 



APPENDIX 



TABLE l.~ Synthetic organic chemicals: Alphabetical directory of manufacturers, 
by company, 197G 

[Names of synthetic organic chemical manufacturers that reported production or sales to the U.S. International Trade 
Commission for 1976 are listed below alphabetically, together with their identification codes as used in table 2 
of the 15 individual sections of this report] 



Identi- 
fication 
code 



Name of company 



Office addr 



AEP 
AZS 

ABB 
ABS 

WLC 
AGY 



ALC 
AAC 
ALD 

ALL 

ACN 
ALF 
ASC 
ACS 
ACU 
ALX 
APH 
ALP 
AMC 



AMB 
MAR 



HST 
HST 
STC 
APF 
ASY 

ALB 
ACC 
AMO 
PAN 
AMO 
ADC 
ASL 
APX 
APO 
ARA 

KPP 
ARD 
ARN 
ARZ 
AKS 
ARC 
AGP 
ARP 



A & E Plastik Pak Co., Inc 

AZS Corp . 

AZ Products Co. Div 

Abbott Laboratories 

Abex Corp., Friction Products Group 

Agrico Chemical Co 

Agway, Inc., Olean Nitrogen Div 

Airco, Inc., Ohio Medical Products Div 
Air Products & Chemicals, Inc., Chemica 
Group. 

Alco Chemical Corp 

Alcolac , Inc 

Aldrich Chemical Co., Inc 

Alliance Chemical Co., Inc 

Allied Chemical Corp. : 

Agricultural Div 

Fibers Div 

Semet-Solvay Div 

Specialty Chemicals Div 

Union Texas Petroleum Div 

Alox Corp 

Alpha Chemical Corp 

Alpha Laboratories, Inc 

Amchem Products, Inc. Div. of Rorer- 

Amchem, Inc. 
Amerada Hess Corp. (Hess Oil Virgin 
Islands Corp.) 

American Bio-Synthetics Corp 

American Can Co., Wood Chemical Div 

American Color & Chemical Corp 

American Cyanamid Co 

American Hoechst Corp. : 

Hoechst Fibers Industries Div 

Rhode Island Works 

Sou-Tex Works 

American Petrofina Co. of Texas 

American Synthetic Rubber Corp 

Ames Laboratories, Inc 

Amoco Chemicals Corp 

Amoco Oil Company 

Amoco Production Co 

Amoco Texas Refining Co 

Anderson Development Co 

Ansul Chemical Co 

Apex Chemical Co., Inc 

Apollo Colors, Inc 

Arapahoe Chemicals, Inc. Sub/Syntex 
Corp. (U.S.A.). 

ARCO/Polymers, Inc 

Ardmore Chemical Co., Inc 

Arenol Chemical Corp 

Arizona Chemical Co 

Arkansas Co., Inc 

Armak Co 

Armour-Dial Co 

Armour Pharmaceutical Co 



14505 E. Proctor Ave., Industry, CA 91749. 
762 Marietta Blvd., Atlanta, GA 30318. 
2525 So. Combee Rd., Eaton Park, FL 33840. 
14th St. and Sheridan Rd., N. Chicago, IL 60064. 
P. 0. Box 3207, Winchester, VA 22601. 



OK 74101. 
a, NY 14760. 
n, WI 53701. 

05 Executive Mall, 



P. 0. Box 3166, Tulsa, 
1446 Buffalo St., Olea 
3030 Airco Dr. , Madiso 
636 E. Swedes ford Rd. , 

Wayne, PA 19187. 
Trenton Ave. and William St., Philadelphia, PA 19134. 
3440 Fairfield Rd., Baltimore, MD 21236. 
940 W. St. Paul Ave., Milwaukee, WI 53233. 
33 Avenue P, Newark, NJ 07105'. 

P. 0. Box 2120, Houston, TX 77001. 

1411 Broadway - 38th Fl., New York, NY 10018. 

Columbia Rd . , Morrlstown, NJ 07960. 

P. 0. Box 1219 R, Morrlstown, NJ 07960. 

P. 0. Box 2120, Houston, TX 77001. 

3943 Buffalo Ave., Niagara Falls, NY 14303. 

Highway 57 East, Collierville, TN 38017. 

1685 S. Fairfax St., Denver, CO 80222. 

Brookside Ave. and Spring Garden St., Ambler, PA 19002 

1 Hess Plaza, Woodridge, NJ 07095. 

710 W. National Ave., Milwaukee, WI 53204. 
American Lane, Greenwich, CT 06830. 
P. 0. Box 51, Reading, PA 19603. 
Wayne, NJ 07470. 

Route 202-206 North, Somerville, NJ 08876. 

129 Quldnick St., Coventry, RI 02816. 

P. 0. Box 866, E. Catawba Ave., Mount Holly, NC 28120. 

P. 0. Box 849, Port Arthur, TX 77604. 

P. 0. Box 32960, 4500 Camp Ground Rd. , 

Louisville, KY 40232. 
200 Rock Lane, Milford, CT 06460. 
200 E. Randolph Dr., Chicago, IL 60680. 
200 E. Randolph Dr., Chicago, IL 60680- 
P. 0. Box 591, Tulsa, OK 74102. 
200 E. Randolph Dr., Chicago, IL 60680. 
1415 E. Michigan St., Adrian, MI 49221. 
1 Stanton St., Marinette, WI 54143. 
200 S. 1st St., Elizabethport, NJ 07206. 
899 Skokle Blvd., Northbrook, IL 60062. 
2075 Walnut St., Boulder, CO 80302. 

1500 Market St., Philadelphia, PA 19101. 
840 Valley Brook Ave., Lyndhurst, NJ 07071. 
40-33 23d St., Long Island City. NY 11101. 
Berdan Ave., Wayne, NJ 07470. 
185 Foundry St., Newark, NJ 07101. 
300 S. Wacker Dr., Chicago, IL 60606. 
2000 Aucutt Rd., Montgomery, IL 60538. 
Ill W. Clarendon Ave., Phoenix, AZ 85077. 



SY.JThtTIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1976 



TABLE 1.— Synthetic orga.mic chemicals: 

BY COMPANY, 



Alphabetical directory of manufacturers, 
1976— Continued 



Name of company 



Office addre 



Armstrong Cork Co 

Arol Chemical Products 

Arsynco, Inc 

Ashland Oil, Inc 



Ashland Chemical Co 

Astor Products, Inc., Blue Arrow DIv 

Astra Pharmaceutical Products, Inc 



Atlantic Chemical Corp 

Atlantic Richfield Co 

Atlas Powder Co. Sub. of Tyle 

Atlas Processing Co 

Avtex Fibers , Inc 



Joseph Aye 



Inc- 



Corp- 



BASF Wyando 
BP Oil, Inc 

J. T. Baker Chemical Co 

Baltimore Paint & Chemical Corp 

Baxter Laboratories, Inc 

Bayoil Co., Inc 

Beecham, Inc 

Beker Industries, Inc 

Belding Chemical Industries 

Bendix Corp., FMD Div 

Bennett 's 

Benzenoid Organics, Inc 

Berncolors-Poughkeepsie , Inc 

Binney and Smith, Inc 

Blocraft Laboratories, Inc 

Borden, Inc. : 

Borden Chemical Div 

Printing Ink Div 

Borg-Warner Corp.: 

Borg-Warner Chemicals 

Weston Chemical Div 

Bostik South, Inc. Sub of USM Corp 

Breddo Food Products Co., Inc 

Bristol-Meyers Co., Bristol Laboratories 
Div. 

M. A. Bruder & Sons, Inc 

Buckeye Cellulose Corp 

Buckman Laboratories, Inc 

Burdick & Jackson Laboratories , Inc 

Burroughs Wellcome Co 



CF Industries, Inc 

CPC International, Inc.: 

Acme Resin Co. Div 

Amerchol 

S. B. Penick Co 

CPS Chemical Co 

Samuel Cabot, Inc 

Calcasieu Chemical Corp 

Carborundum Co 

Cargill, Inc 

Carl Gordon Industries, Inc 

Carolina Processing Corp 

J.W. Carroll & Sons Div. of U.S. 

Industries, Inc. 
Carus Chemical Co 



Charlotte & Liberty Sts., Lancaster, PA 17604. 

649 Ferry St., Newark, NJ 07105. 

P. 0. Box 8, Carlstadt, NJ 07072. 

1401 Winchester Ave., Ashland, KY 41101 and 

P. 0. Box 2458, Columbus, OH 43216. 
P. 0. Box 2219, Columbus, OH 43216. 
P. 0. Box 2366, Jacksonville, FL 32203. 
P. 0. Box 1089, Pleasant St. Connector, 

Farmingham, MA 01701. 
10 Kingsland Rd., Nutley, NJ 07110. 
P. 0. Box 2679-T.A. , Los Angeles, CA 90071. 
P. 0. Box 87, Joplin, MO 64801. 

P. 0. Box 9389, 3546 Midway St., Shreveport, LA 71109. 
P. 0. Box 880, Executive Mall, Bldg. 9, 

Valley Forge, PA 19482. 
Route 112, Bethlehem, PA 18017. 

100 Cherry Hill Rd. , Parsippany, NJ 07054. 
270 Midland Bldg., Cleveland, OH 44115. 
222 Red School Lane, Phillipsburg NJ 08865. 



2325 Hollins Ferry Rd., Baltimore, 

6301 N. Lincoln Ave., Morton Grove, II 

2 Union St., Peabody, MA 01960. 

65 Industrial S. , Clifton, NJ 07012. 

Carlsvad, NM 88220. 

1430 Broadway, New York, NY 10018. 

P. 0. Box 238, Troy, NY 12180. 

65 W. 1st St., Salt Lake City, UT 84] 

P. 0. Box 157, Route 140, Bellingham, 

75 N. Water St., Poughkeepsie, NY 126 



21230. 
60053. 



P. 0. Box 431, 1100 Church Lane 
12 Industrial Way, Waldwick NJ 



, Easto 
07463. 



180 E. Broad St., Columbus, OH 43215. 

630 Glendale-Milford Rd. , Cincinnati, OH 45215. 

International Center, Parkersburg, WV 26101. 
103 Spring Valley Rd., Montvale, NJ 07645. 
P. 0. Box 5695, Greenville, SC 29606. 
18th and Kansas Avenue, Kansas City, KS 66105. 
P. 0. Box 657, Syracuse, NY 13201. 



52d St. and Grays Ave., Philadelphia, PA 19143. 

2899 Jackson Ave., Memphis, TN 38108. 

1256 N. McLean Blvd., Memphis, TN 38108. 

1953 S. Harvey St., Muskegon, MI 49442. 

3030 Cornwallis Rd., Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. 



Salem Lake Dr., Long Gr 



IL 60047 



1401 S. Circle Avenue, Forest Park, IL 60130. 

Talmadge Rd., Edison, NJ 08817. 

1050 Wall St. W., Lyndhurst, NJ 07071. 

P. 0. Box 162, Old Bridge, NJ 08857. 

One Union St., Boston, MA 02108. 

P. 0. Box 1522, Lake Charles, LA 70601. 

P. 0. Box 477, Niagara Falls, NY 14302. 

P. 0. Box 9300, Minneapolis, MN 55402. 

1001 Southbridge St ., Worcester, MA 01610. 

P.O. Box 161, Severn, NC 27877. 

22600 S. Bonlta St., Carson, CA 90745. 

1500 8th St., LaSalle, IL 61301. 



APPENDIX 



TABLE 1. --Synthetic organic chemicals: 

BY COflPANY. 



Alphabetical directory of manufacturers, 
197G--Continued 



Identi- 
fication 
code 



Name of company 



CCL 
CEL 



CNT 
CPR 
GRS 
SOG 
CHT 



GRC 
GRL 

CTN 

HSC 

CI 

CDY 

CHT 

CHL 

CPX 

ORO 

CHC 

CHH 

CGY 



ecu 

CIN 

CSO 

CBN 

TEN 

CBN 

CBN 

CLK 

CLY 

CLI 

CSP 

CP 

COL 

CLD 

CNC 

CMP 

COR 

CPI 

CNI 

CNE 

SED 

CON 

CWP 

CTL 



Castle & Cooke, Inc., Castle & Cooke 
Foods, Hawaii Pineapple Div. 

Catawba-Charlab , Inc 

Celanese Corp. : 

Celanese Chemical Co 

Celanese Coatings 4 Specialties Co. 



Hie 



Pla 



Celanese Fibers Co 

Celanese Plastics Co 

Celanese Polymer Specialties Co 

CertainTeed Corp 

Certified Processing Corp 

Champlin Petroleum Co 

Charter International Oil Co 

Chattem Drug & Chemical Co., Chattem 
Chemicals Div. 

Chembond Corp 

Chemed Corp. : 

Dubois Chemicals Div 

Vestal Laboratories Div 

Chemetron Corp. : 

Chemical Products Div 

Pigments Div 

Chem-Fleur, Inc 

Chemical Dynamics Corp 

Chemical Formulators, Inc 

Chemol, Inc 

Chemplex Co 

Chevron Chemical Co 

Choate Chemical Co 

CHR. Hansen's Laboratory, Inc 

Clba-Geigy Corp 

Agricultural Div 

Pharmaceutical Div 

Resins Dept 

Cincinnati Milacron Chemicals, Inc— 

Cindet Chemicals, Inc 

Cities Service Co 

Columbian Div 

Copperhill Operations 

Petrochemicals Div 

Petrochemical 

Clark Chemical Corp 

W. A. Cleary Corp 

Cllntwood Chemical Co 

Coastal States Petrochemical Co 

Colgate-Palmolive Co 

Collier Carbon & Chemical Corp 

Colloids , Inc 

Columbia Nitrogen Corp 

Commercial Products Co., Inc 

Commonwealth Oil Refining Co., Inc 

Commonwealth Petrochemicals, Inc 

Conap , Inc 

Conchemco , Inc 

Colony Paint Div 

Concord Chemical Co. , Inc 

Consolidated Papers, Inc 

Continental Chemical Co 

Continental Oil Co 

Cook Paint & Varnish Co 

Cooperative Farm Chemicals Associatlo 



650 Iwilei Rd., Honolulu, HI 96817. 

P. 0. Box 948, Charlotte, NC 28231. 

1211 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 100 
P. 0. Box 1863, Louisville, KY 40201. 

P. 0. Box 1414, Charlotte, NC 28201. 

26 Main St., Chatham, NJ 07928. 

One Riverfront Plaza, Louisville, KY 40202. 

P. 0. Box 860, Valley Forge, PA 19482. 

U.S. Highway 22, Hillside, NJ 07205. 

P. 0. Box 9176, Corpus Chrlsti, TX 78408. 

P. 0. Box 5008, Houston, TX 77012. 

1715 W. 38th St., Chattanooga, TN 37409. 

P. 0. Box 270, Springfield, OR 97404. 

Dubois Tower, Cincinnati, OH 45202. 

4963 Manchester Ave., St. Louis, MO 63110. 

P. 0. 66251-AMF O'Hare, Chicago, IL 60666. 

491 Columbia Ave., Holland, MI 49423. 

300 Pulaski St., Newark, NJ 07105. 

P. 0. Box 395, 3001 Hadley Rd., S. Plalnfleld, 

P. 0. Box 26, Nitro, WV 25143. 

P. 0. Box 20687, Greensboro, NC 27420. 

3100 Golf Rd., Rolling Meadows, IL 60008. 

575 Market St., San Francisco, CA 94105. 

P. 0. Box 27205, Richmond, VA 23261. 

9015 W. Maple St., West Allls, WI 53214. 

444 Saw Mill River Rd., Ardsley, NY 19502. 

P. 0. Box 11422, Greensboro, NC 27409. 

556 Morris Ave., Summit NJ 07901. 

444 Saw Mill River Rd., Ardsley, NY 10502. 

West St., Reading, OH 45215. 

2408 Doyle St., Greensboro, NC 27420. 

P. 0. Box 1562, Lake Charles, LA 70602. 

P. 0. Box 300, Tulsa, OK 74102. 

Copperhill, TN 37317. 

6th & Boston Sts., Tulsa, OK 74102. 

P. 0. Box 1522, Lake Charles, LA 70602. 

131st St. & Kedzie Ave., Blue Island, IL 6040 

P. 0. Box 10, Somerset, NJ 08873. 

4342 S. Wolcott Ave., Chicago, IL 60609. 

P. 0. Drawer 521, Corpus Christi, TX 78403. 

300 Park Ave., New York, NY 10022. 

P. 0. Box 60455, Los Angeles, CA 90060. 

394 Frellnghuysen Ave., Newark, NJ 07114. 

P. 0. Box 1483, Augusta, GA 30903. 

117 Ethel Ave., Hawthorne, NJ 07506. 

Petrochemical Complex, Ponce, PR 00731. 

Petrochemical Complex, Ponce, PR 00731. 

1405 Buffalo St., Olean, NY 14760. 

1000 Marshall Dr., Lenexa, KS 66215. 

18th 4 Garfield Sts., Kansas City, M0 64127. 

17th & Federal Sts., Camden, NJ 08105. 

231 1st Ave N., Wisconsin Rapids, WI 54494. 

270 Clifton Blvd., Clifton, NJ 07015. 

P. 0. Box 1267, 1000 South Pine, Ponce City, 

P. 0. Box 389, Kansas City, MO 64141. 

P. 0. Box 308, Lawrence, KS 66044. 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1975 

TABLE 1.— Synthetic organic chemicals: Alphabetical directory of manufacturers, 
by company, 1976— Continued 



Name of company 



Coopers Creek Chemical Corp 

Copolymer Rubber & Chemical Corp 

Corco Cyclohexane, Inc 

Cosden Oil 4 Chemical Co 

Crest Chemical Corp 

Croda , Inc 

Crompton & Knowles Corp 

Crosby Chemicals, Inc 

Crown Central Petroleum Corp 

Crown Zellerbach Corp., Chemical Prodi 

Dlv. 
Customs Resins, Inc 

Dan River, Inc ■ 

Dart Industries, Inc.: 

Aztec Chemicals Div 

Synthetic Products Co. Div 

Davies-Young Co 

Dawe's Laboratories, Inc 

Day-Glo Color Corp 

Degen Oil & Chemical Co 

Dennis Chemical Co 

DePaul Chemical Co., Inc 

DeSoto, Inc 

Dexter Chemical Corp 

Hysol Div 

Midland Div 

Diamond Shamrock Corp 

Disogrin Industries Corp 

Dixie Chemical Co 

Dixie Pine Products Co., Inc 

Dominion Products, Inc 

Dover Chemical Corp. Sub. of ICC 
Industries, Inc. 

Dow Badische Chemical Co 

Dow Chemical Co 

Dow Corning Corp 

E. I. duPont de Nemours & Co., Inc 

Dye Specialties, Inc 



Eagle Pitcher Industries, Inc., Ohio 

Rubber Co. Div. 

Eagle River Chemical Corp 

Eastern Color & Chemical Co 

Eastman Kodak Co 

Tennessee Eastman Co. Div 

Texas Eastman Co. Div 

East Shore Chemical Co., Inc 

Elan Chemical Co 

El Paso Products Co 

Emery Industries, Inc 

Try Ion Div 

Emkay Chemical Co 

Endo Laboratories, Inc 

Enenco , Inc 

Essential Chemicals Group 

Essex Group Inc 

Ethyl Corp 

Evans Chemetics, Inc 

Exxon Chemical Co. U.S. A 



11101. 

IL 60018. 



River Rd., W. Conshohocken, PA 19428. 

P. 0. Box 2591, Baton Rouge, LA 70821. 

Petrochemical Complex, Ponce, PR 00731. 

P. 0. Box 1311, Big Spring, TX 79720. 

225 Emmet St., Newark, NJ 07114. 

51 Madison Ave., Suite 2518, New York, NY 100 

500 Pear St., Reading, PA 19603. 

P. 0. Box 460, Picayune, MS 39466. 

1 N. Charles St., Baltimore, MD 21203. 

Camas, WA 98607. 

P. 0. Box 933, Henderson KY 42420. 

P. 0. Box 261, Danville, VA 24541. 

555 Garden St., Elyria, OH 44035. 
1636 Wayside Rd., Cleveland, OH 44112. 

2700 Wagner Place, Maryland Heights, MO 63043 
450 State St., Chicago Heights, IL 60411. 
4732 St. Clair Ave., Cleveland, OH 44103. 

200 Kellogg St., Jersey City, NJ 07 305. 

2701 Papin St., St. Louis, MO 63103. 
44-27 Purves St., Long Island City 
1700 S. Mt. Prospect Ave., Des Plaines, IL 
845 Edgewater Rd., Bronx, NY 10474. 
211 Franklin St., Olean, NY 14760. 
1-7 E. Water St., Waukegan, IL 60085. 
1100 Superior Ave., Cleveland, OH 44114. 
Grenier Field, Manchester, NH 03130. 
3635 W. Dallas Ave., Houston, TX 77019. 
P. 0. Box 470, Hattiesburg, MS 39401. 
882 3d Ave., Brooklyn, NY 11232. 
15th & Davis Sts., Dover, OH 44622. 

602 Copper Rd. , Freeport, TX 77541. 
2020 Dow Center, Midland, MI 48640. 
P. 0. Box 1592, Midland, MI 48640. 
DuPont Bldg., Wilmington, DE 19898. 
26 Journal Sq., Jersey City, NJ 07306. 

P. 0. 1398, Denton, TX 76201. 

P. 0. Box 2648, W. Helena, AR 72390. 

35 Livingston St., Providence, RI 02904. 

343 State St., Rochester, NY 14650. 

P. 0. Box 511, Kingsport, TN 37662. 

P. 0. Box 7444, Longview, TX 75602. 

1221 E. Barney Ave., Muskegon, MI 49443. 

268 Doremus Ave., Newark, NJ 07105. 

P. 0. Box 3986, Odessa, TX 79760. 

1300 Carew Tower, Cincinnati, OH 45202. 

P. 0. Box 628, Mauldln, SC 29662. 

319 2d St., Elizabeth, NJ 07206. 

1000 Stewart Ave., Garden City, NY 11530. 

P. 0. Box 398, Memphis, TN 38101. 

28391 Essential Rd., Merton, WI 53056. 

1601 Wall St., Fort Wayne, IN 46804. 

330 S. 4th St., Richmond, VA 23231. 

90 Tokeneke Rd., Darien, CT 06820. 

P. 0. Box 3272, Houston, TX 77001. 



APPENDIX 
TAbLE 1. --Synthetic organic chemicals: Alphabetical directory of manufacturers, 

BY COMPANY, 197G"-CONTINUED 



Office address 



FMP 
FRP 
FAB 

FMT 
FCA 
FEL 
FER 



PRD 
FND 
RBC 

FIR 
FRF 
FRS 

FST 
FMS 
FLM 
CIK 
FLO 
FTE 
FOM 
FG 
FLN 
FRE 



CAN 
AKL 



GEI 
SPD 
GNF 
GLC 
GNM 
GPM 
GNT 



SKO 
TID 
TNI 
GIL 
GIV 
GLY 
GPI 



FMC Corp. : 

Agricultural Chemical Div 

Industrial Chemical Div 

Industrial Chemical Div 

FRP Co 

Fabricolor Manufacturing Corp 

Falrmount Chemical Co., Inc 

Farmers Chemical Association, Inc 

Felton International, Inc 

Ferro Chemical Corp.: 

Ferro Chemical Div * 

Grant Chemical Div 

Kell Chemical Div 

Ottawa Chemical Div 

Productol Chemical Div 

Fiber Industries, Inc 

Fike Chemicals, Inc 

Firestone Tire & Rubber Co.: 

Firestone Plastics Co. Div 

Firestone Synthetic Fibers Co 

Firestone Synthetic Rubber & Latex Co. 
Div. 

First Chemical Corp 

First Mississippi Corp 

Fleming Laboratories, Inc 

Flint Ink Corp., Cal/Ink Div 

Florasynth , Inc 

Foote Mineral Co 

Formica Corp 

Foster Grant Co., Inc 

Franklin Chemical Corp 

Freeman Chemical Corp 

Fritzsche Dodge & Olcott, Inc 

H. B. Fuller Co 

GAF Corp 

Chemical Div 

Gane's Chemical, Inc 

Gardlnier Big River, Inc 

General Electric Co 

Insulating Materials Products Section- 

Silicone Products Dept 

General Foods Corp. , Maxwell House Div-- 

General Latex & Chemical Corp 

General Mills Chemicals, Inc 

General Plastics Manufacturing Co 

General Tire & Rubber Co., Chemical/ 
Plastics Div 

P. D. George Co 

Georgia-Pacific Corp.: 

Bellingham Div 

Rebecca Chemical Div 

Resins Operations 

Getty Refining & Marketing Co 

Delaware Refinery 

The Gillette Co., Chemical Div 

Gilman Paint 4 Varnish Co 

Glvaudan Corp 

Glyco Chemicals, Inc 

Goodpasture, Inc 



100 Niagara St., Middleport, NY 
2000 Market St., Philadelphia, PA 
& River Rd., Town of Tonawanda, 
2000 Market St., Philadelphia, PA 



14105 . 

19103 and Sawyer Ave. 
NY 14150. 
19103. 



31513. 

. Box 2398, Paterson, 



P. 0. Box 349, Baxley 
24-1/2 Van Houten St. 

NJ 07509. 
117 Blanchard St., Newark, NJ 07105. 
Salem Lake Dr., Long Grove, IL 60047. 
599 Johnson Ave., Brooklyn, NY 11235. 

P. 0. Box 46349, 7050 Krick Rd. , Bedford, OH 44146. 

P. 0. Box 26 3, Baton Rouge, LA 70821. 

3000 Sheffield Ave., Hammond, IN 46320. 

700 N. Wheeling St., Toledo, OH 43605. 

13215 E. Penn St., Whittler, CA 90602. 

P. 0. Box 10038, Charlotte, NC 28201. 

P. 0. Box 546, Nitro, WV 25143. 

P. 0. Box 699, Pottstown, PA 19464. 
P. 0. Box 450, Hopewell, VA 23869. 
381 W. Wilbeth Rd., Akron, OH 44301. 

P. 0. Box 1427, Pascagoula, MS 39567. 

P. 0. Box 1249, Jackson, MS 39205. 

P. 0. Box 10372, Charlotte, NC 28237. 

1404 4th St., Berkeley, CA 94710. 

1640 Bronxdale Ave., Bronx, NY 10462. 

Route 100, Exton, PA 19341. 

120 E. 4th St., Cincinnati, OH 45202. 

289 N. Main St., Leominster, MA 01453. 

2020 Bruck St., Columbus, OH 43207. 

222 E. Main St., Port Washington, WI 53074. 

76 9th Ave., New York, NY 10011. 

4450 Malsbary Rd., Blue Ash, OH 45242. 

P. 0. Box 6037, Chattanooga, TN 37401. 
33 Riverside Ave., Rensselaer, NY 12144. 
1144 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10036. 
P. O. Box 825, Helena, AK 72342. 
1 Plastics Ave., Pittsfield, MA 01201 and 
1350 S. Second St., Coshocton, OH 43812. 
1 Campbell Rd., Schenectady, NY 12306. 
Waterford-Halfmoon Rd., Waterford, NY 12188. 
1125 Hudson St., Hoboken, NJ 07030. 
666 Main St., Cambridge, MA 02139. 
4620 W. 77th St., Minneapolis, MN 55435 
3481 S. 35th St., Tacoma, WA 98409. 
1 General St., Akron, OH 44329. 

5200 N. 2d St., St. Louis, MO 63147. 

P. 0. Box 1235, Bellingham, WA 98225. 
P. 0. Box 629, Plaquemlne, LA 70764. 
900 S.W. 5th Ave., Portland, OR 97240. 
P. 0. Box 1650, Tulsa, OK 74102. 
Delaware City, DE 19706. 
3500 W. 16th St., N. Chicago, IL 60064. 
216 W. 8th St., Chattanooga, TN 37401. 
100 Delawanna Ave., Clifton, NJ 07014. 
51 Weaver St., Greenwich, CT 06830. 
P. 0. Drawer 921, Brownfield, TX 79316. 



245-851'. O -V> - M 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1975 

TABLE 1,— Synthetic organic chemicals: Alphabetical directory of manufacturers, 
by company, 1976— Continued 




Goodrich Co., B. F. Goodrich Chemic 
Div. 

Goodyear Tire 6. Rubber Co 

Grace & Co. : 
AG Chem. Group- 

Hatco Chemical Div 

Hatco Polyester Div- 
Organic Chemic 
Polymers 6. Chemicals Div- 
ssing Corp- 
aC American Chemical Corp- 
at Lakes Chemical Corp- 
Great Western Sugar Co- 
Greenwood Che 

Gulf Oil Corp., G 

U. S. 
Guth Corp- 

H & N Chemical Co 

Haag Laboratories, Inc 

C. P. Hall Co 

Handschy Chemical Co., Farac Oil and 

Chemical Div. 

Hanna Chemical Coatings Corp 

Hardman , Inc 

Harshaw Chemical Co. Sub. of Kewanee Oil 

Co. 

Hart Products Corp 

Haveg Industries, Inc. Sub. of 

Hercules, Inc. 

Hawkeye Chemical Co 

Henke 1 , Inc 

Hercor Chemical Corp 

Hercules , Inc 

Heresite & Chemical Co 

Heterochemical Corp 

Hewitt Soap Co., Inc 

Hexagon Laboratories, Inc 

Hexcel Corp. : 

Fine Organics Div 

Rezolin Div 

Hodag Chemical Corp 

Hof fmann-LaRoche , Inc 

Hooker Chemicals & Plastics Corp 

Ruco Div 

E. F. Houghton & Co — 

Humphrey Chemical Co 

Philip A. Hunt Chemical Corp., Organic 

Chemical Div. 

Huntington Laboratories, Inc 

Husky Industries, Inc 

Hynson, Westcott & Dunning, Inc 

ICI United States Inc.: 

Plas tics Div 

Specialty Chemicals Group 

IMC Chemical Group, Inc 

McWorter Resins 

Nitroparaffin Div 



6100 Oak Tree Blvd., Cleveland, OH 44131. 
1144 E. Market St., Akron, OH 44316. 



P. 0. Box 277, Memphis, TN 
King George Post Rd., Fords 



38101. 
NJ 08863. 



1711 Elizabeth Ave. West, Linden, NJ 0703 
Poisson Ave., Nashua, NH 03060. 
55 Hayden Ave., Lexington, MA 02173. 
1600 Oregon St., Muscatine, LA 52761. 
650 Water St., Fitchburg, MA 01420. 

West Lafayette, IN 47906. 

Terminal Annex, Denver, CC 
State Highway #690, 



P. 0. Box 2200 
P. 0. Box 5308 
P. 0. Box 26 - 

22943. 
P. 0. Box 3766 



80217. 
d, VA. 



Houston, TX 77001. 



322 S. Center St., Hillside, IL 60162. 

90 Maltese Dr., Totowa, NJ 07512. 
14010 S. Seeley Ave., Blue Island, IL 60406. 
7300 S. Central Ave., Chicago, IL 60638. 
13601 S. Ashland Ave., Riverdale, IL 60627. 

P. 0. Box 147, Columbus, OH 43216. 

600 Cortlandt St., Belleville, NJ 07109. 

1945 E. 97th St., Cleveland, OH 44106. 

173 Sussex St., Jersey City, NJ 07302. 
900 Greenback Rd., Wilmington, DE 19808. 

P. 0. Box 899, Clinton, IA 52733. 

400 Alfred Ave., Teaneck, NJ 07666. 

Petrochemical Complex, Ponce, PR 00731. 

910 Market St., Wilmington, DE 19899. 

822 S. 14th St., Manitowoc, WI 54220. 

Ill E. Hawthorne Ave., Valley Stream, NY 1158 

333 Linden Ave., Dayton, OH 45403. 

3536 Peartree Ave., Bronx, NY 10475. 

205 Main St., Lodi, NJ 07644. 
20701 Nordhoff St., Chatsworth , CA 91311. 
7247 N. Central Park Ave., Skokie, IL 60076. 
324-424 Kingsland St., Nutley, NJ 07110. 
MPO Box 8, Niagara Falls, NY 14302, and 

Walck Rd., N. Tonawanda, NY 14121. 
P. 0. Box 456, Burlington, NJ 08016. 
303 W. Lehigh Ave., Philadelphia, PA 19133. 
Devine St., North Haven, CT 06473. 
P. 0. Box 4249, E. Providence, RI 02914. 

P. 0. Box 710, Huntington, IN 46750. 

62 Perimeter Center E. , Atlanta, GA 30346. 

Charles and Chase Sts., Baltimore, MD 21201. 



Wilmington, DE 19897. 
Wilmington, DE 19897. 
P. 0. Box 207, Terre Haute, IN 47808; P. 0. Box 

149, Orrington, ME 04474 and 100 Lister Ave., 

Newark, NJ 07105. 
P. 0. Box 308, Cottage PI., Carpentersville, IL 60110. 
IMC Plaza, Libertyville, IL 60048. 



APPENDIX 
TABLE l.~ Synthetic organic chemicals: Alphabetical directory of manufacturers, 

BY COMPANY, 1976--CONTINUED 



Identi- 
fication 
code 



Name of company 



Office address 



RAY 
INP 
INL 



WIL 
SPC 
IFF 
IPC 
CCA 
IOC 
IRI 

JCC 

JFR 
JEN 
JRG 
JSC 
UPF 
JNS 
JOB 
JOR 



SNI 
KAI 
KLM 



KCC 
KCU 
AMP 
BKL 

KYS 

KCW 
KNP 
KMC 
KON 
KPT 



LKY 
LAK 
LUR 
LEA 
LEV 
LVR 
BLS 
LIL 



TZC 
MGR 
MAL 



Inc- 



ITT Rayonier 

Indpol, Inc 

Inland Steel Co., Inland St 

Co. 
Inmont Corp 



Inolex Corp 

Inolex Pharmaceutical Div 

Insilco Corp., Sinclair Paint Co. Div 

International Flavor and Fragrances, Inc- 

Interplastic Corp 

Inters tab Chemical, Inc 

Ionac Chemical Co. Div. of Sybron Corp 

Ironsides Resins, Inc 



Jeffers 
George 
Jennisc 
Andrew 



n Chemical Co., Inc 

. Jeffreys & Co., Inc- 

-Wright Corp 

ergens Co 



al Co- 



Jersey State Chemic 

Jim Walter Resources, Inc 

S. C. Johnson & Son, Inc 

Jones-Blair Co 

Jordan Chemical Co 



KV Products 

Kaiser Aluminum & Chemical Corp. : 
Kaiser Agricultural Chemicals Div-- 

Kalser Chemicals 

Kalama Chemical, Inc 

Kay-Fries Chemicals, Inc 

Kelly-Moore Paint Co 

Kennecott Copper Corp. : 

Chlno Mines Div- 

Utah Copper Div 

Kerr-McGee Chemical Corp 

Kewanee Industries, Inc., Millmaster 
Chemical Co. Div. 

Keysor Corp 

Keystone Color Works, In 

Knapp Products, Inc 

Kohler-McLister Paint Co 

H. Kohnstamm & Co., Inc 

Koppers Co. , Inc. : 

Organic Materials Div 

Roads Materials Div 

Kraft, Inc., Humko Products Div-- 



Lake States Div. of St. Regis Paper 

Lakeway Chemicals, Inc 

Laurel Products Corp 

Leatex Chemical Co 

Lever Brothers Oo 

C. Lever Co., Inc 

Life Savers, Inc 

Eli Lilly & Co 



Lonza , In 



Magnesium Elektron, Inc- 

Magruder Color Co., Inc 

Mallinckrodt Chemical Works 



605 3d Ave., New York, NY 10016. 
P. 0. Box 1087, Tustin, CA 92680. 
4300 W. 130th St., Chicago, IL 60658. 

1255 Broad St., Clifton, NJ 07015, and 
150 Wagaraw Rd., Hawthorne, NJ 07506. 
Jackson & Swanson Sts., Philadelphia, PA 19148. 
2600 Bond St., Park Forest South, IL 60466. 
3960 E. Washington Blvd., Los Angeles, CA 90023. 
521 W. 57th St., New York, NY 10019. 
2015 NE. Broadway St., Minneapolis, MN 55413. 
500 Jersey Ave., New Brunswick, NJ 08903. 
Birmingham Rd. , Birmingham, NJ 08011. 
270 W. Mound St., Columbus, OH 43216. 

P. 0. Box 52332, Houston, TX 77052. 

P. 0. Box 709, Salem, VA 24153. 

P. 0. Box 691, Toledo, OH 43694. 

2535 Spring Grove Ave., Cincinnati, OH 45214. 

59 Lee Ave., Haledon, NJ 07508. 

3300 1st Ave. N., Birmingham, AL 35222. 

1525 Howe St., Racine, WI 53403. 

2728 Empire Central, Dallas, TX 75235. 

1830 Columbia Ave., Folcraft, PA 19032. 

2503 S. Hanley Rd., St. Louis, MO 63144. 

P. 0. Box 246, Savannah, GA 31402. 

P. 0. Box 337, Gramercy, LA 70052. 

P. 0. Box 427, Kalama, WA 98625. 

200 Summit Ave., Montvale, NJ 07645. 

1015 Commercial St., San Carlos, CA 94070. 

Hurley, MN 88043. 

P. 0. Box 11299, Salt Lake City, UT 84147. 
1101 Kerr Tower, Oklahoma City, OK 73102. 
99 Park Ave., New York, NY 10016. 

26000 Springbrook Ave., Saugus, CA 91350. 

151 W. Gay Ave., York, PA 17403. 

187 Garibaldi Ave., Lodi, NJ 07644. 

P. 0. Box 546, Denver, CO 80201. 

161 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 100L3. 

Koppers Bldg., Pittsburgh, PA 15219. 
Koppers Bldg., Pittsburgh, PA 15219. 
P. 0. Box 398, Memphis, TN 38101. 

603 W. Davenport St., Rhinelander, WI 54501. 
5025 Evanston Ave., Muskegon, MI 49443. 
2600 E. Tioga St., Philadelphia, PA 19134. 
2722 N. Hancock St., Philadelphia, PA 19133. 
390 Park Ave., New York, NY 10022. 
736 Dunks Ferry Rd., Cornwells Hgts, 
Church St., Canajoharle, NY 13317. 
307 E. McCarty St., Indianapolis, IN 

Box 4388, San Juan, PR 00936. 
22-10 Route 208, Fair Lawn, NJ 07410 



19020. 



46206 and G.P.0. 



Star Route A, Box 202-1, Flemlngto 
1 Virginia St., Newark, NJ 07114. 
2nd & Mallinckrodt, St. Louis, M0 



NJ 08822. 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1976 
TABLE l.~ Synthetic organic chemicals: Alphabetical directory of manufactjrers, 

BY COMPANY. 1976~CONTINUED 



Name of company 



Marath 
Marath 
Marble 



Manufacturing Enterprises, Inc., Squibb 
Manufacturing, Inc. , Trade Enterprises 
Inc., Ersana, Inc. 

Morco Co 

Oil Co. , Texas Refining Div 

Co 

Marden-Wild Corp 

Marlowe-Van Loan Corp 

Martin-Marietta Corp., Sodyeco Div 

Max Marx Color & Chemical Co 

Masonite Corp. , Alpine Chemical Div 

Otto B. May, Inc 

McCloskey Varnish Co 

McLaughlin Gormley King Co 

Mead Johnson & Co 

Melamine Chemicals , Inc 

Merck & Co. , Inc 

Merichem Co 

Midwest Manufacturing Corp 

Miles Laboratories, Inc.: 

Marschall Div 



Milliken & Co. , Milliken Chemical Div 

Millmaster Onyx Corp.: 

Onyx Chemical Co. Div 

Refined-Onyx Div 

Minnesota Mining & Manufacturing Co 

Miranol Chemical Co., Inc 

Mississippi Chemical Corp 

Mobay Chemical Corp 

Chemagro Agricultural Div 

Verona Div 

Mobil Oil Corp 

Mobil Chemical Co 

Chemical Coatings Div 

Phorphorus Div 

Mona Industries, Inc 

Monochem, Inc 

Monroe Chemical Co 

Monsanto Co 



Bircham Bend Plant 

Chocolate Bayou Plant- 
Plastics Div 



Springfield Plant 

Textiles Div 

Montrose Chemical Corp. of Calif orn 

Mooney Chemicals, Inc 

Moretex Chemical Products, Inc 

Morton Chemical Co. Div. of Morton 
Products, Inc. 

Motomco , Inc 

Murphy-Phoenix Co 

NL Industries, Inc 

N-Ren Corp., Cherokee Nitrogen Div- 
Nalco Chemical Co 

Napp Chemicals, Inc 

National Biochemical Co 

National Casein Co 



P. 0. Box 609, Humacao, PR 00661. 



P. 0. Drawer C, 4401 Park Ave., Dickinson, TX 77539. 

P. 0. Box 1191, Texas City, TX 77590. 

37-31 30th St., Long Island City, NY 11101. 

500 Columbia St., Somerville, MA 02143. 

P. 0. Box 1851, High Point, NC 27261. 

P. 0. Box 10098, Charlotte, NC 28237. 

192 Coit St., Irvington, NJ 07111. 

P. 0. Box 2392, Gulfport, MS 39503. 

52 Amsterdam St., Newark, NJ 07105. 

7600 State Rd., Philadelphia, PA 19136. 

8810 10th Ave., N. , Minneapolis, MN 55427. 

2404 Penna. St., Evansville, IN 47721. 

P. 0. Box 748, Donaldsonville, LA 70346. 

126 E. Lincoln Ave., Rahway, NJ 07065. 

1914 Haden Rd., Houston, TX 77015. 

Oak St. at Bluff Rd., Burlington, IA 52601. 

1127 Myrtle St., Elkhart, IN 46514. 
1127 Myrtle St., Elkhart, IN 46514. 
P. 0. Box 817, Inman, SC 29349. 

190 Warren St., Jersey City, NJ 07302. 

624 Schuyler Ave., Lyndhurst, NJ 07071. 

3M Center, St. Paul, MN 55101. 

660 Stuyvesant Ave., Irvington, NJ 07111. 

P. 0. Box 388, Yazoo City, MS 39194. 

Penn Lincoln Parkway, W. Pittsburgh, PA 15205. 

P. 0. Box 4913, Kansas City, MO 64120. 

Iorio Ct., Union, NJ 07083. 

P. 0. Box 900, Dallas, TX 75221. 

P. 0. Box 3868, Beaumont, TX 77704. 

1024 South Ave., Plainfield, NJ 07062. 

P. 0. Box 26683, Richmond, VA 23261. 

65 E. 23d St., Paterson, NJ 07524. 

P. O. Box 488, Geismar, LA 70734. 

Saville Ave. at 4th St., Eddystone, PA 19013. 

2710 Lafayette St., Santa Clara, CA 95050 and 800 N. 

Lindbergh Blvd., St. Louis, MO 63166. 
190 Grochmal Ave., Indian Orchard, MA 01151. 
P. 0. Box 711, Alvin, TX 77511. 
5100 W. Jefferson Ave., Trenton, MI 48183; 

River Rd., Addyston, OH 45001 and P. 0. Box 1311, 

Texas City, TX 77590. 
730 Worcester St., Indian Orchard, MA 01151. 
800 N. Lindbergh Blvd., St. Louis, MO 63166. 
3250 Wilshlre Blvd, Suite 1800, Los Angeles, CA 90010. 
2301 Scranton Rd., Cleveland, OH 44113. 
P. 0. 1799, Spartanburg, SC 29304. 
110 N. Wacker Dr., Chicago, IL 60606. 

267 Vreeland Ave., Paterson, NJ 07513. 
9505 Casslus Ave., Cleveland, OH 44105. 

1221 Aveune of the Americas, New York, NY 10020. 

P. 0. Box 429, Pryor, OK 74361. 

2901 Butterfield Rd, Oak Brook, IL 60521. 

199 Main St., Lodi, NJ 07644. 

3127 W. Lake St., Chicago, IL 60612. 

601 W. 80th St., Chicago, IL 60620. 



APPENDIX 
TABLE 1.— Synthetic orga.mic chemicals: Alphabetical directory of manufacturers, 

BY COMPANY, 1976 — CONTI MUED 



Name of company 



Office address 



NMC 
US I 
NSC 
NES 
NEP 
NEV 
NLO 
NIL 
JDC 
CNP 
NOC 

NEO 

NPV 

LMI 

ATP 

NWP 

NW 

NPC 

NOR 

NCW 

CAD 

NVT 

CMG 

OBC 
FLW 
OMC 

OPC 
ORG 
BSW 
OCF 
OCC 
OXC 
PLB 
PPG 
PVO 

AMR 
PNA 

PNT 



PSC 
KAL 
CHP 
CCH 
PEK 
PCH 
AES 
PAS 
WTL 
PAR 
PER 
UDI 
PTT 
PFN 
PCW 
PFZ 



National Distillers 4 Chemicals Corp., U.S. 

Industrial Chemicals Co. 

National Milling & Chemical Co 

National Petro Chemical Corp 

National Starch & Chemical Corp 

Nease Chemical Co., Inc 

Nepera Chemical Co., Inc 

Neville Chemical Co 

Niklor Chemical Co 

Nilok Chemicals, Inc 

Nipak, Inc 

Nipro , Inc 

Norac Co., Inc 

Mathe Chemical Co. Div 



Norris Pa 
North Ame 
Northern 
Northern 
Northwest 
Northwest Pet 
Norwich Pharm 
Nostrip Chemi 

Noury Chemical Corp 

Novamont Corp. , Neal Works 

Nyanza, Inc 

O'Brien Corp 

Fuller-O'Brien Div 

Olin Corp 



& Varnish Co. , Inc 

n Chemical Co 

Chemicals, Inc 

ochemical Co 

Chemical Co 

rochemical Corp 

1 Works, Inc 



Orbis Products Corp 

Organics, Inc 

Original Bradford Soap Works, Inc- 

Owens-Corning Fiberglas Corp 

Oxirane Chemical Co 

Oxochem Enterprise 

P L Biochemical, Inc 

PPG Industries, Inc 

PVO International, Inc., Chemical 
Specialties Div. 

Pacific Resins & Chemicals, Inc 

Pan American Chemical Corp 

Pantasote Co. of New York, Inc 

Parke, Davis & Co. Sub. of Warner- 
Lambert Co. 

Passaic Color & Chemical Co 

Pathan Chemical Co 

C. H. Patrick & Co., Inc 

Pearsall Chemical Corp 

Peck's Products Co 

Peerless Chemical Co 

Penetone Corp 

Pennwalt Corp 

Lucidol Div 

Pennzoil Co., Penreco Div 

Perry & Derrick Co. 
Petrochemicals Co. , 
Petro-Tex Chemical 
Pfanstiehl Laborato 
Pfister Chemical, Inc 

Pfizer Pharmaceuticals, Inc 



Inc 



99 Park Ave., New York, NY 10016. 

4601 Flat Rock Rd., Philadelphia, PA 19127. 

99 Park Ave., New York, NY 10016. 

10 Finderne Ave., Bridgewater, NJ 08876. 

P. 0. Box 221, State College, PA 16801. 

Route 17, Harriman, NY 10926. 

Neville Island P. 0., Pittsburgh, PA 15225. 

2060 E. 220th St., Long Beach, CA 90810. 

2235 Langdon FarmRd., Cincinnati, OH 45230. 

P. 0. Box 2820, Dallas, TX 75221. 

P. 0. Box 1483, Augusta, GA 30903. 

405 S. Motor Ave., Azusa, CA 91703. 

169 Kennedy Dr., Lodi , NJ 07644. 

140 Route 10, E. Hanover, NJ 07936. 

P. 0. Box 2023, Salem, OR 97308. 

19 S. Canal St., Lawrence, MA 01843. 

93 Main St., Franklin, NJ 07416. 

2350 E. Devon Ave., Des Plaines, IL 60018. 

120 N. Aurora St., W. Chicago, IL 60185. 

P. 0. Box 99, Anacortes, WA 98221. 

17 Eaton Ave., Norwich, NY 13815. 

P. 0. Box 160, Pedricktown, NJ 08067. 

2153 Lockport-Olcott Rd., Burt, NY 14028. 

P. 0. Box 189, Kenova, WV 25530. 

Maguno Rd . , Ashland, MA 01721. 

2001 W. Washington Ave., South Bend, IN 46634. 
450 E. Grand Ave., S. San Francisco, CA 94080. 
120 Long Ridge Rd., Stamford, CT 06904 and 

P. 0. Box 991, Little Rock, AR 72203. 
140 Route 10, E. Hanover, NJ 07936. 
.7125 N. Clark St., Chicago, IL 60628. 
200 Providence St., W. Warwick, RI 02893. 
Fiberglas Tower, Toledo, OH 43659. 
10801 Choate Rd., Pasadina, TX 77507. 
King George Post Rd., Fords, NJ 08863. 
1037 W. McKlnley Ave., Milwaukee, WI 53201. 
1 Gateway Center, Pittsburgh, PA 15222. 
416 Division St., Boonton, NJ 07005. 

1754 Thome Rd., Tacoma, WA 93421. 

21 Stable Ct., Wilmington, DE 19803. 

26 Jefferson St., Passaic, NJ 07056. 

Jos. Campau at the River, Detroit, MI 48232. 

28-36 Paterson St., Paterson, NJ 07501. 
427 Mover St., Philadelphia, PA 19125. 
P. 0. Box 2526, Greensville, SC 29602. 
P. 0. Box 437, Houston, TX 77001. 
610 E. Clarence Ave., St. Louis, MO 63147. 
12416 Cloverdale Ave., Detroit, MI 48204. 
74 Hudson Ave., Tenafly, NJ 07670. 
3 Parkway, Philadelphia, PA 19102. 
1740 Military Rd . , Buffalo, NY 14240. 
Union Bank Bldg., Butler, PA 16001. 
2510 Highland Ave., Norwood, OH 45212. 
P. 0. Box 2199, Fort Worth, TX 76101. 
8600 Park Place Blvd., Houston, TX 77017. 
1219 Glen Rock Ave., Waukegan, IL 60085. 
Linden Ave., Ridgefield, NJ 07657. 
235 E. 42d St., New York, NY 10017. 
P. 0. Box 628, Barceloneta, PR 00617. 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEfllCALS, 1976 

TABLE 1,— Synthetic organic chemicals: Alphabetical directory of manufacturers, 
by company, 1976— Continued 



Name of company 



Pharmachem Corp 

Phillips Petroleum Co 

Phillips Puerto Rico Core, Inc 

Pierce Chemical Co 

Pilot Chemical Co 

Pioneer Plastics Div. of LOF Plastics, 
Inc. 

Pitt-Consol Chemical Co 

Plastics Engineering Co 

Plastics Manufacturing Co 

Plex Chemical Corp 

Polak's Frutal Works, Inc 

Polymer Corp 

Polyrez Co., Inc 

Polysar Resins, Inc 

Polyvinyl Chemical Ind 

Pope Chemical Corp 

Pratt & Lambert, Inc 

Premier Malt Products, Inc 

Premier Petrochemicals Co 

Procter 6. Gamble Co.: 

Procter & Gamble Mfg. Co 

Procter & Gamble Paper Products Co. 

Proctor Chemical Co., Inc 

Products Research & Chemical Corp 

Publicker Industries, Inc 

Puerto Rico Chemical Co., Inc 

Puerto Rico Olefins Co 

Purex Co rp 

Quaker Chemical Corp ■ 

Quaker Oats Co 

K. J. Quinn & Co., Inc 

R.S.A. Corp 

Rachelle Laboratories, Inc 

Racon , Inc 

Raybestos-Manhattan, Inc., R. M. Friction 

Materials Co. Div. 

Red Spot Paint & Varnish Co., Inc 

Reheis Chemical Co. Div. of Armour 

Pharmaceutical Co. 
Reichhold Chemicals, Inc 

Reichhold Polymers, Inc 

Reilly Tar 4 Chemical Corp 

Reliance Universal, Inc., Louisville 

Resins Operation 

Remington Arms Co., Inc 

Resinous Chemicals Corp 

Resyn Corp 

Rexene Polyoleflns Co 

Rexene Styrenics Co ; 

Richardson Co. : 

Organic Chemical Div 

Polymeric Systems Div 

Richardson-Merrell, Inc., Merrell-National 

Laboratories Div. 

Ridgway Color & Chemical 

Riker Laboratories, Inc. Sub. of 3M Co 

Rilsan Corp 

Rltter International 

Rlverdale Chemical Co 

Robeco Chemicals, Inc 

Robintech , Inc 



P. 0. Box 1035, Bethlehem, PA 18018. 

16D2 Phillips Bldg., Bartlesville, OK 74003. 

GP0 Box 4129, San Juan, PR 00936. 

P. 0. Box 117, Rockford, IL 61103. 

11756 Burke St., Santa Fe Springs, CA 90670. 

Plonite Rd., Auburn, ME 04210. 

P. 0. Box 1267, 1000 S. Pine, Ponca City, OK 74601. 

P. 0. Box 758, Sheboygan, WI 53081. 

2700 S. Westmoreland Ave., Dallas, TX 75224. 

1205 Atlantic St., Union City, CA 94487. 

33 Sprague Ave., Middletown, NY 10940. 

2120 Fairmont Ave., Reading, PA 19605. 

P. 0. Box 320, Woodbury, NJ 08096. 

29 Fuller St., Leominster, MA 01453. 

730 Main St., Wilmington, MA 01887. 

33 6th Ave., Paterson, NJ 07524. 

P. 0. Box 22, Buffalo, NY 14240. 

917 W. Juneau Ave., Milwaukee, WI 53201. 

Meadows Bldg., Dallas, TX 75206. 



45201. 
tl, OH 45224. 
28144. 

91505. 

PA 19102. 



P. 0. Box 599, Cincinnati, 01 
6100 Center Hill Rd. , Cincin; 
P. 0. Box 399, Salisbury, NC 
2919 Empire Ave., Burbank, C, 
1429 Walnut St., Philadelphia, PA 
P. 0. Box 496, Arecibo, PR 00613. 
Firm Delivery, Ponce, PR 00731. 
5101 Clark Ave., Lakewood, CA 90712. 

Lime & Elm Sts., Conshohocken, PA 19428. 
Merchandise Mart Plaza, Chicago, IL 60654. 
195 Canal St., Maiden, MA 02148. 

690 Saw Mill River Rd. , Ardsley, NY 10502. 
700 Henry Ford Ave., Long Beach, CA 90801. 
P. 0. Box 198, Wichita, KS 67201. 
75 E. Main St., Stratford, CT 06497. 

110 Main St., Evansvllle, IN 47703. 

111 W. Clarendon, Station 3206, Phoenix, AZ 

525 N. Broadway, White Plains, NY 10603. 
525 N. Broadway, White Plains, NY 10603. 
1615 Merchants Bank, Indianapolis, IN 46204. 
P. 0. Box 21423, Louisville, KY 40221. 

939 Barnum Ave., Bridgeport, CT 06602. 
1399 W. Blancke St., Linden, NJ 07036. 
1401 W. Blancke St., Linden, NJ 07036. 
P. 0. Box 37, Paramus, NJ 07652. 
W. 115 Century Rd . , Paramus, NJ 07652. 

2400 E. Devon Ave., Des Plaines, IL 60018. 

15 Meigs Ave., Madison, CT 06443. 

110 E. Amity Rd. , Cincinnati, OH 45215. 

75 Front St., Ridgway, PA 15853. 

19901 Nordhoff St., Northridge, CA 91324. 

139 Harristown Rd . , Glen Roc, NJ 07452. 

4001 Goodwin Ave., Los Angeles, CA 90039. 

220 E. 17th St., Chicago Heights, IL 60411. 

99 Park Ave., New York, NY 10016. 

1407 Texas St., Fort Worth, TX 76102. 



APPENDIX 

TABLE 1.— Synthetic organic chemicals: Alphabetical directory of manufacturers, 
by company, 197G— Continued 



Identi- 
fication 
code 



Name of company 



MFG 

ORT 

RGC 
RH 
RUC 

GLD 



NPR 
SLM 
SAL 



SCN 

SBC 

SCH 

SCO 

SPA 

SEA 

SRL 

SKP 

SHA 

SHO 

SHC 

SHP 

SW 

SID 

SMP 

SIM 

GFS 

SK 

SLT 

SLC 

SAC 

SOP 

SOS 

SPL 

OMS 

STA 

UBS 

CLN 



SIO 
STT 
STG 
AME 
SFA 
SFC 
SFF 
SFI 
SFP 
SFS 
SWS 
STP 



Rockwell International Corp. , 

Plastics Div. 
Roehr Chemicals Div. of Aceto Industrial 

Chemical Corp. 

Rogers Corp 

Rohm £■ Haas Co 

Rubicon Chemicals, Inc 

SCM Corp. : 

Coatings & Resins Div 

Durkee Div 

Glidden-Durkee Div 

Safeway Stores, Inc 

Salem Oil (, Grease Co 

Salsbury Laboratories 

Sandoz , Inc 

Colors & Chemicals Div 

Crop Protection Dept 

Sartomer Industries, Inc 

Schenectady Chemicals, Inc 

Scholler Bros., Inc 

Scott Paper Co 

Seaboard Chemicals, Inc 

G. D. Searle & Co 

Shakespeare Co., Monofilament Div 

Shanco Plastics & Chemicals Co 

Shell Oil Co 

Shell Chemical Co. Div 

Shepherd Chemical Co 

Sherwin-Williams Co 

George F. Siddall Co., Inc 

J. R. Simplot Co., Minerals 

Simpson Timber Co. 

G. Frederick Smith Chemical Co 

Smith, Kline Chemicals 

Soltex Polymer Corp 

Soluol Chemical Co., Inc 

Southeastern Adheslves Co 

Southern Chemical Products Co., Inc 

Southern Sizing Co 

Spaulding Fibre Co., Inc 

E. R. Squibb & Sons, Inc 

A. E. Staley Mfg. Co 

Chemical Specialties Div 

Standard Brands, Inc., Clinton Corn 

Processing Co. Div. 
Standard Oil Co. of California, Chevron 

Chemical Co. 

Standard Oil Co. (Ohio) 

Standard T Chemical Co 

Stange Co 

Stauffer Chemical Co 

Agricultural Div 

Calhio Chemicals, Inc 

Food Ingredients Div 

Plastics Div 

Specialty Div 

SWS Silicones Div 

Stepan Chemical Co 

Polychem Dept 



4501 Benefit Ave., Ashtabula, OH 44004. 

52-20 37th St., Long Island City, NY 11101. 

Rogers, CT 06263. 

Independence Mall West, Philadelphia, PA 19105. 

P. 0. Box 517, Geismar, LA 70734. 



299 Park Ave., New York, NY 10017. 

299 Park Ave., New York, NY 10017. 

299 Park Ave., New York, NY 10017. 

8390 Capwell Dr., Oakland, CA 94604. 

60 Grove St., Salem, MA 01970. 

2000 Rockford Rd., Charles City, IA 50616. 

P. 0. Box 357, Fair Lawn, NJ 07410. 

Route #10, E. Hanover, NJ 07936. 

P. 0. Box 207, Wasco, CA 93280. 

Cov. Printz Blvd. & Wanamaker Ave., Esslngton, PA 

19029. 
P. 0. Box 1046, Schenectady, NY 12301. 
P. 0. Box 538, Allwood Station, Clifton, NJ 07012. 
1011 Morris Ave., Union, NJ 07083. 

Collins and Westmoreland Sts., Philadelphia, PA 19134. 
106 E. Central Ave., Oconto Falls, WI 54154. 
30 Foster St., Salem, MA 01970. 
P. 0. Box 5110, Chicago, IL 60680. 
P. 0. Box 246, Columbia, SC 29202. 
2716 Kenmore Ave., Tonawanda, NY 14150. 
P. 0. Box 2463, Houston, TX 77001. 

One Shell Plaza, P. 0. Box 2463, Houston, TX 77001. 
4900 Beech St., Norwood, OH 45212. 
101 Prospect Ave., NW Cleveland, OH 44115. 
P. 0. Box 925, Spartanburg, SC 29304. 
P. 0. Box 912, Pocatello, ID 83210. 
2301 N. Columbia Blvd., Portland, OR 97217. 
867 McKinley Ave., Columbus, OH 43223. 
1500 Spring Garden St., Philadelphia, PA 19101. 
P. 0. Box 1000, Deer Park, TX 77536. 
Green Hill and Market Sts., W. Warwick, RI 02893. 
P. 0. Box 791, Lenoir, NC 28645. 
P. 0. Box 205, Macon, GA 31202. 
1550 E. Taylor Ave., East Point, GA 30344. 
310 Wheeler St., Tonawanda, NY 14150. 
Georges Rd., Brunswick, NJ 08903. 
2200 E. Eldorado St., Decatur, IL 62525. 
2200 E. Eldorado St., Decatur, IL 62525. 
1251 Beaver Channel Parkway, Clinton, IA 52733. 

575 Market St., San Francisco, CA 94105. 

270 Midland Bldg. , Cleveland, OH 44130. 
P. 0. Box A-3351, Chicago, IL 60690. 
342 N. Western Ave., Chicago, IL 60612. 
P. 0. Box 1110, Long Beach, CA 90801. 



San Francisco, CA 94108. 

San Francisco, CA 94108. 

San Francisco, CA 94108. 

San Francisco, CA 94108. 

San Francisco, CA 94108. 

San Franclsoc, CA 94108. 

San Francisco, CA 94108. 
RR #1, Elwood, IL 604217 and 

100 West Hunter Ave., Maywood, NJ 07607. 
51 Fames St ., Wilmington, MA 01887. 



636 California St 
636 California St 
636 California St 
636 California St 
636 California St 
636 California St 
636 California St 



SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1976 
TABLE 1.— Synthetic organic chemicals: Alphabetical directory of manufacturers, 

BY COMPANY, 1976— CONTI NUED 



Name of company 



Sterling Drug, Inc. : 

Glenbrook Laboratories Div 

Hilton-Davis Chemical Co. Div 

Thomasset Colors Div 

Winthrop Laboratories Div 

Sterwin Chemicals, Inc 

Story Chemical Corp 

Styrochem Corp 

Sugar Beet Products Co' 

Sun Chemical Corp.: -. 

Chemical Div 

Pigments Div 

Sunkist Growers, Inc 

Sun Oil Co 

SunOlin Chemical Co 

Suntide Refining Co 

Swift Agricultural Chemicals 

Synalloy Corp. , Blackman-Uhler Chemical 
Div. 

Syncon Resins, Inc 

Synres Chemical Corp 

Syntex Agribusiness , Inc 

Tanatex Chemical Corp 

Charles S. Tanner Co 

Tauber Oil Co 

Teknor Apex Co 

Tenneco Chemicals, Inc - 

Tenneco Oil Co 

Tennessee Valley Authority 

Terra Chemicals International, Inc 

Terrell Corp 

Texaco , Inc 

Texas Alky Is, Inc 

Texas-U.S. Chemical Co 

Tex Chem Co . , Inc 

Texize Chemicals, Co 

Textron, Inc., Spencer Kellogg Div 

Thiokol Corp 

Thoraason Industries, Inc., Southern Resin 

Div. 
Thompson-Hayward Chemical Co 

Toms River Chemical Corp 

Arthur C. Trask Co 

Triad Chemical 

Troy Chemical Co 

UOP , Inc 

UOP Chemical Div 

USS Agri-Chemicals Div of U.S. Steel Corp— 

USS Chemicals Div. of U.S. Steel Corp 

Paul Uhlich & Co. , Inc 

Ungerer & Co 

Union-Camp Corp 

Chemical Div. , Dover Plant 

Union Carbide Corp 

Union Oil Co. of California 

Uniroyal, Inc., Chemical Div 

Unitech Chemical, Inc 

United Chemical Corp. of Norwood 



Office address 



90 Park Ave., New York, NY 10016. 
2235 Langdon Farm Rd., Cincinnati, OH 45237. 
120 Lister Ave., Newark, NJ 07105. 
90 Park Ave., New York, NY 10016. 
Military Rd. , Rothschild, WT 54474. 
500 Agard Rd., Muskegon, MI 49445. 
Petrochemical Complex, Ponce, PR 00731. 
P. 0. Box 1387, Saginaw, MI 48605. 

P. 0. Box 70, Chester, SC 29706. 

441 Tompkins Ave., Staten Island, NY 10305. 

P. 0. Box 7888, Van Nuys , CA 91409. 

240 Radnor-Chester Rd., St. Davids, PA 19087. 

P. 0. Box F, Claymont, DE 19703. 

P. 0. Box 2608, Corpus Christi, TX 78403. 

P. 0. Box 2175, Beaumont, TX 77704. 

P. 0. Box 5627, Spartanburg, SC 29301. 

77 Jacobus Ave., S. Kearny, NJ 07032. 

209 N. Michigan Ave., Kenilworth, NJ 07033. 

P.O. Box 1246 SSS, Springfield, MO 65805. 

P. 0. Box 388, Lyndhurst, NJ 07071. 

1310 Barcelona Dr., Greensville, SC 29605. 

1610 Melrose Blvd., Houston, TX 77052. 

505 Central Ave., Pawtucket, RI 02662. 

Park Eighty Plaza West-One, Saddle Brook, NJ 07662 

P. 0. Box 2511, Houston, TX 77001. 

Muscle Shoals, AL 35660. 

P. 0. Box 1828, Sioux City, IA 51121. 

820 Woburn St., Wilmington, MA 01887. 

135 E. 42 St., New York, NY 10017. 

P. 0. Box 600, Deer Park, TX 77536. 

P. 0. Box 667, Port Neches, TX 77651. 

20-21 Wagaraw Rd., Fair Lawn, NJ 07410. 

P. 0. Box 368, Greenville, SC 29602. 

120 Delaware Ave., Buffalo, NY 14240. 

P. 0. Box 1000, Newtown, PA 18940. 

P. 0. Drawer 1600, Fayetteville, NC 29302. 

5200 Speaker Rd., Kansas City, MO 66110 and 

2 E. Madison St., Waukegan, IL 60085. 
P. 0. Box 71, Toms River, NJ 08753. 
7666 W. 63d St., Summit, IL 60501. 
P. 0. Box 310, Donaldsonvllle, LA 70346. 
One Avenue L, Newark, NJ 07105. 

10 UOP Plaza, Algonquin & Mt . Prospect Rd., 

Des Plaines, IL 60016. 
State Highway 17, E. Rutherway, NJ 07073. 
P. 0. Box 1685, Atlanta, GA 30301. 
600 Grant St., Rm. 2880, Pittsburgh, PA 15230. 
1 Railroad Ave., Hastings on the Hudson, NY 10706. 
161 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10013. 
P. 0. Box 6170, Jacksonville, FL 32205. 
P. 0. Box 220, Dover, OH 44622. 
270 Park Ave., New York, NY 10017. 
200 E. Golf Rd., Palatine, IL 60067. 
Ernie Bldg., Naugatuck, CT 06770. 
115 W. Jackson Blvd., Chicago, IL 60604. 
Endicott St., Norwood, MA 02062. 



APPENDIX 

TABLE 1. --Synthetic organic chemicals: Alphabetical directory of manufacturers, 
by company, 197G— Continued 



Identi- 
fication 
code 



Name of company 



UNP 
UNO 
ROM 

USB 
HLM 
USO 
UPJ 
CWN 



VSV 
VLN 
MNP 
VNC 

VND 
VEL 
MHI 
VTC 

VIK 
VIN 
VCC 
VGC 
SOH 
SIC 
VTM 
FRO 



WAG 
WCA 



WVA 
WRD 
WBG 
WHI 
WHL 
APT 

WHW 
WLN 
WTC 
WAW 
WBC 
WYC 
WYT 



United Chemical Products Corp 

United-Erie, Inc 

United Merchants & Manufacturers, Inc., 

Roma Chemical Div. 

U.S. Borax Research Corp 

U.S. Industries, Inc., E. Helman Co. Div 

U.S. Oil Co 

Up j ohn Co 

Fine Chemical Div 

Valchem Chemical Div. of Unite* Merchants ' 
& Manufacturers, Inc. 

Valentine Sugars, Inc 

Valley Nitrogen Producers, Inc 

The Valspar Corp 

Vanderbilt Chemical Corp 

Van Dyk & Co., Inc 

Velsicol Chemical Corp 

Ventron Corp 

Vicksburg Chemical Co. Div. of Vertac 

Consolidated. 

Viking Chemical Co 

Vineland Chemical Co. & Corp 

Vinings Chemical Co 

Virginia Chemicals, Inc 

Vistron Corp 

Si lmar Div 

Vitamins, Inc 

Vulcan Materials Co., Chemicals' Div 

Warner- Jenkinson Manufacturing Co 

West Agro-Chemical, Inc 

West Coast Adhesives Co 

Westinghouse Electric Corp. , Industrial 

Plastics Div., Chemical Products Plant. 

Westvaco Corp. , Polychemlcals Dept 

Weyerhaeuser Co 

White & Bagley Co 

White S Hodges, Inc 

Whitmoyer Laboratories, Inc 

Whittaker Corp., Whittaker Coatings & 

Chemicals, Mol Rez Resins. 

Whittemore-Wrlght Co., Inc 

Wilmington Chemical Corp 

Witco Chemical Co., Inc 

W. A. Wood Co 

Worthington Biochemical Corp 

Wycon Chemical Co 

Wyeth Laboratories, Inc., Wyeth Laboratories 

Div. of American Home Products Corp. 



472 York St., Jersey City, NJ 07302. 

438 Huron St., Erie, PA 16512. 

749 Quequechan St., Fall River, MA 02721. 

3075 Wilshire Blvd., Los Angeles, CA 90005. 

P. 0. Box 5129, Akron, OH 44313. 

P. 0. Box 4228, E. Providence, RI 02914. 

7000 Portage Rd., Kalamazoo, MI 49002. 

410 Sackett Point Rd., North Haven, CT 06473. 

1407 Broadway, New York, NY 10018. 



ns, LA 70130. 
CA 93717. 
MN 55415. 
06801 and Rt . 5 - Box 54, 



726 Whitney Bldg., New Orli 
1221 Van Ness Ave., Fresno 
1101 S. 3d St., Mlnneapoll: 
31 Taylor Ave., Bethel, CT 

Murray, KY 42071. 
Main & Williams Sts., Belleville, NJ 07109. 
341 E. Ohio St., Chicago, IL 60611. 
12-16 Congress St. Beverly, MA 01915. 
P. 0. Box 3, Vicksburg, MS 39180. 

838 Baker Bldg., Minneapolis, MN 55402. 

W. Wheat Rd., Vineland, NJ 08360. 

2555 Cumberland Pkwy . , Suite 200, Atlanta, GA 3 

3340 W. Norfolk Rd., Portsmouth, VA 23703. 

393 Midland Bldg., Cleveland, OH 44115. 

12333 S. Van Ness Ave., Hawthorne, CA 90250. 

200 E. Randolph Dr., Chicago, IL 60601. 

P. 0. Box 7689, Birmingham, AL 35223. 

2526 Baldwin St., St. Louis, M0 63106. 
501 Santa Fe, Kansas City, M0 64108. 
11104 NW. Front Ave., Portland, OR 97231. 
Manor, PA 15665. 

P. 0. Box 5207, N. Charleston, SC 29406. 

118 S. Palmetto Ave., Marshfield, WI 54449. 

P. 0. Box 706, Worcester, MA 01613. 

576 Lawrence St., Lowell, MA 01853. 

19 N. Railroad St., Myerstown, PA 17067. 

3134 California St., NE., Minneapolis, MN 55418. 

62 Alford St., Charlestown, MA 02129. 

P. O. Box 66, Wilmington, DE 19899. 

P. 0. Box 305, Paramus, NJ 07652. 

108 Spring St., Everett, MA. 02149. 

Halls Mill Rd., Freehold, NJ 07728. 

5 Greenway Plaza East, Houston, TX 77046. 

P. 0. Box 831, Paoli, PA 19301. 



354 SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS, 1976 



U.S. IMPORTS OF BENZENOID CHEMICALS AND PRODUCTS 



U.S. general imports of benzenoid chemicals and products entered under 
the Tariff Schedules of the United States (TSUS), schedule 4, part 1, sub- 
parts B and C are analyzed by the U.S. International Trade Commission an- 
nually and published in detail in a separate report. General imports of 
benzenoid items entered in parts IB and 1C totaled 362.4 million pounds 
with a foreign invoice value of $493.8 million in 1976 compared with 337.2 
million pounds with a foreign invoice value of $394.3 million in 1975. 

Benzenoid products that are "competitive" with similar domestic pro- 
ducts, because they accomplish results substantially equal to those accom- 
plished by the similar domestic product when used in substantially the same 
manner, are subject to a special basis of valuation for customs purposes 
known as the "American selling price". If "noncompetitive", the benzenoid 
products are valued for customs purposes on the basis of the "United States 
value." The essential difference between these two values is that "Amer- 
ican selling price" is based on the wholesale price in the United States 
of the "competitive" domestic product, whereas "United States value" is 
based on the wholesale price in the United States of the imported product 
less most of the expenses incurred in bringing the product to the United 
States and selling it. When neither of these two valuation bases applies, 
then the "export value," "foreign value," or "constructed value" is used 
as the valuation basis under section 402 or 402a Tariff Act of 1930, as 
amended. The competitive status of benzenoid imports in 1976 is shown in 
table 2. 

Industrial organic chemicals that are entered under part IB consist 
chiefly of benzenoid intermediates and small quantities of acyclic compounds 
which are derived in whole or in part from benzenoid compounds. Also in- 
cluded are mixtures and small quantities of finished products not specially 
provided for in part 1C (e.g., rubber-processing chemicals). In terms of 
value, 36.6 percent of all the benzenoid imports under part IB in 1976 came 
from West Germany; 21.0 percent, from Japan; 10.8 percent from Italy; and 
7.8 percent, from the United Kingdom. 

Finished organic chemical products entered under part 1C include dyes, 
pigments, medicinals, flavor and perfume materials, pesticides, plastics 
materials, and certain other specified products. In terms of value 36.0 per- 
cent of all finished benzenoid imports under part 1C in 1976 came from West 
Germany; 15.7 percent, from Switzerland; 13.4 percent, from the United King- 
dom; and 10.7 percent, from Japan. 

1 Imports of Benzenoid Chemicals and Products, 1976, TC Publication 828, 
1977. 



APPENDIX 



TABLE 2.— Benzenoid chemicals and products: 
Schedule H, Parts IB and 1C of the TSUS, 



Summary of U.S. general imports entered under 

AND ANALYSIS BY COMPETITIVE STATUS, 1976 



Part and competitive statu 



Percent 
of total 
quantit y 



Foreign 
invoice 
value 



Percent of: Unit 
foreign : foreign 
value : value 



Schedule 4, Part IB 

Total 1 

Competitive: 

Duty based on ASP 2 

Noncompetitive: 

Duty based on U.S. value 

Duty based on export value 

Competitive status not available 

Schedule 4, Part 1C 

Total 1 

Competitive: 

Duty Based on ASP 2 

Noncompetitive: 

Duty based on U.S. value 

Duty based on export value 

Competitive status not available 

Summary (Schedule 4, Parts IB and 1C) 

Total 1 

Competitive: 

Duty based on ASP 2 

Noncompetitive: 

Duty based on U.S. value 

Duty based on export value 

Competitive status not available 



244 
146 



1,038 
219 



1,282 
365 



IJ000 
peloids 



1,000 
dollar 8 



17,103 
9,554 



7.5 
4.2 



30,341 
27,371 



310.817 



16.6 
15.0 



27,708 
34,850 



20.5 
25.8 



90,882 
97,487 



493.843 



44,811 
44,404 



12.4 
12.2 



121,223 
124,858 



24.5 
25.3 



Per 

pound 



2.71 
2.81 



Detail may not add to total due 
American selling price. 



Source: Compiled by the U.S. International Trade Co 



records of the U.S. Bureau of Custo 



Note:— The totals shown in this table differ from those given In the official statistics of the U.S. 
Department of Commerce chiefly because of differences in coverage and in the methods used in compiling 
the data. In general, the statistical coverage in 1976 varies from a low of 51 percent for flavors and 
perfumes, to about 84 percent coverage of 84 percent dyes, 80 percent intermediates, and 78 percent 
pigments . 



SYNTHETIC dRSAillC ChE?1ICALS, 1976 



TABLE 3.— Cyclic intermediates: Glossary of synonymous names 



Common name 



Standard (Chemical Abstracts) name 



1,2, 4- Acid 

Acid yellow 9 

p-Aminobenzenesulfonic acid 

Amino G acid 

Amino I acid 

Amino R salt 

Aniline oil 

Anthraflavic aci£ 

Anthrarufin 

Benzal chloride 

Ben z an throne 

Benzotrichoride 

Bisphenol A 

B.O.N 

Bromobenzan throne 

Broenner's acid 

C acid 

Chlorobenzan throne 

Chronotropic acid 

Chrysazin 

2-Cyanopyridine 

3-Cyanopyridine 

Cyanuric chloride 

DADI 

DBB 

Decacyclene 

Developer Z 

o-Dianisidine 

l,l*-Dianthrimide 

Dibenzan throne 

4,4 ' -Dihydroxydi phenyl sulf one- 
Dimethyl POPOP 

4,5-Dinitrochrysazin 

Durene 

Fast Red G base 

Fast Scarlet R base 

G salt 

Gamma acid 

Gold salt 

H acid 

He 1 1 i me 1 1 i tene 

J acid 

J acid urea 

Koch's acid 

MEP 

Me s i t y 1 ene 

Methane base 

Michler's hydrol 

Michler's ketone 



4- Ami no- 3-hydroxv-l -naphthalene sulfonic acid. 

6- Amino- 3, 4 '-azodibenzenesulfonic acid. 

Sulfanilic acid and salt. 

7- Amino- 1,3-naph thai enedisulfonic acid. 

6- Amino- 1,3-naph thai ene disulfonic acid. 

3- Amino- 2, 7-naph thai enedisulfonic acid. 

Aniline. 

2,6-Dihydroxyanthraquinone . 

1 , 5-Dihydroxyanthraquinone . 

a,a-Dichlorotoluene. 
7H-Benz [de]anthracen-7-one . 
ot,a,ot,-Trichlorotoluene. 
4,4'-Isopropylidenediphenol . 
3-Hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid. 
3-Bromo-7H-benz[de]anthracene-7-one. 
6- Amino- 2 -naphthalene sulfonic acid. 

3- Amino- 1, 5 -naph thai enedisulfonic acid. 

Chloro-7H-benz[de]anthracen-7-one . 

4, 5 -Dihydroxy- 2, 7 -naph thai enedisulfonic acid. 

1 ,8-Dihydroxyanthraquinone . 

Picolinonitrile. 

Nicotinonitrile. 

2,4,6-Trichloro-s-triazine. 

Dianisidine diisocyanate. 

p-Dibutoxybenzene. 

Diacenaphtho[l,2-j : 1 ,2 '-£]f luoranthene. 

3-Methyl- l-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one . 

3,3' -Dime thoxybenzi dine . 

1 ,1 '-Iminodianthraquinone. 

Violan throne. 

4,4'-Sulfonyldiphenol . 

1 ,4-Bis [2- (4-methyl-5-phenyloxazolyl) ]benzene. 

l,8-Dihydroxy-4,5-dinitroanthraquinone. 

1,2,4,5-Tetramethylbenzene . 

2-Nitro-p-toluidine [NH 2 =1] . 
5-Nitro-o-anisidine [NH 2 =1]. 

7- Hydroxy- 1,3-naph thalenedisulfonic acid. 
6-Amino-4-hydroxy-2-naphthalenesulfonic acid, sodium 

salt. 
9,10-Dihydro-9,10-dioxo-l-anthracenesulfonic acid 

and salt. 
4 - Amino- 5 -hydroxy- 2, 7 -naphthal enedisulfonic acid. 
1 ,2 ,3-Trimethylbenzene. 

7-Amino-4-hydroxy-2-naphthalenesulfonic acid, sodium 

salt. 
7,7'-Ureylenebis [4-hydroxy- 2 -naphthalene sulfonic 

acid]. 

8- Amino- 1, 3, 6 -nap thai ene tri sulfonic acid, 

5- Ethyl -2 -pi col ine 
1,3,5-Trimethylbenzene. 
4,4'-Methylenebis[N,N-dimethylaniline]. 
4,4 '-Bis [dime thy 1 amino ]benzhydrol. 
4,4'-Bis[dimethylaniino]benzophenone. 



APPE.IDIX 



TABLE 3,— Cyclic intermediates: Glossary of synonymous names— Conti 



Naphthionic acid 

o-Naphthionic acid 

6-Naphthol 

Naphthol AS 

a-Naphthylamine 

Nevilles Winther's acid-- 

Pentaanthrimide 

Phenylbiphenyl 

N-Phenyldiethanol amine 

Phenyl J acid 

Phenyl peri acid 

POPOP 

Pseudocumene 

Pyrazoleanthrone 

Pyrazoleanthrone yellow--- 
Pyrazolone T 

Quinizarin 

2-Quinizarinsulfonic acid- 

Quinoline yellow base 

R salt 

Schaffer's acid 

Silver salt 

Solvent Yellow 1 --- 

Solvent Yellow 3 

o-Sulfobenzaldehyde 

Thiosalicylic acid 

Tobias acid 

TODI - 

o-Tolidine 

a-Toluic acid 

a-Tolunitrile 

4-m-Tolylenedi amine 

Trimellitic anhydride 

Trimethyl base 

Trinitrophenol -- 

Vinyl toluene 



Standard (Chemical Abstracts) 



4-Amino-l-naphthalenesulfonic acid. 
l-Amino-2-naphthalenesulfonic acid. 
2-Naphthol, tech. 
3-Hydroxy-2-naphthanilide. 
1-Naphthylamine. 
4-Hydroxy-l-naphthalenesulfonic acid. 

l,4,5,8-Tetraxis(l-anthraquinonylamino)anthraquinone. 
Terphenyl . 

2,2'- [(Phenyl)imino]diethanol . 
7-Anilino-4-hydroxy-2-naphthalenesulfonic acid. 
8-Anilino-l-naphthalenesulfonic acid. 
1 ,4-Bis [2- C5-phenyloxazolyl) ] benzene . 
1 , 2 ,4-Trinethylbenzene . 
Anthra[l,9 cd]pyrazol-6(2H)-one. 

[3,3 , -Bianthra[l,9-cd]pyrazole]-6,6'-(2H,2'H)dione. 
5-Oxo-l-(p-sulfophenyl)-2-pyrazoline-3-carboxylic 
acid. 

1 ,4-Dihydroxyanthraquinone . 

9 , ln-Dihydro- 1 ,4-dihydroxy-9 , in-dioxo-2-anthracene- 

sulfonic acid. 
Quinophthalone. 

3-Hydroxy-2,7-naphthalenedisulfonic acid, disodium 
salt. 

6-Hydroxy-2-naphthalenesulfonic acid. 
9,in-Dihydro-9,10-dioxo-2-anthracenesulfonic acid 

and salt. 
p-Phenylazoaniline and hydrochloride. 
4-(o-Tolylazo)-o-toluidine. 
o-Formylbenzenesulfonic acid. 

o-Mercaptobenzoic acid. 

2-Amino-l-naphthalenesulfonic acid. 

Bitolylene diisocyanate. 

3,3'-Dinethylbenzidine . 

Phenylacetic acid. 

Pheny lace ton i tri le . 

Toluene-2 ,4-diamine. 

1 ,2,4-Benzenetricarboxylic acid, 1 ,2-anhydride. 

l,3,3-Trimethyl-2-methyleneindoline. 

Picric acid. 

ar-Methy 1 s tyrene . 



D. S, GOVERNMEN1 PRINTING OFFIC1 : ItTi o - 245-856 



Library Cataloging Data 

U.S. I nternational Trade Commission . 

Synthetic organic chemicals, United 
States production and sales, 1976. 
Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 
1977. 

298 p. A-356. illus. 27 cm. 
(USITC Publication 833) 

1. Coal-tar products. 2. Petroleum 
industry and trade — U.S. 3. Intermediates. 
A. Dyes and dyeing. 5. Drugs. 6. Flavoring 
essences. 7. Plastics industry and trade — U.S. 
8. Rubber industry and trade. 9. Elastomers. 
10. Cleaning compounds. 11. Pesticides. 
12. Chemicals — Manufacture and industry — U.S.— 
Directories. I. Title.